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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, by 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Itewn District of 

The profits of this work, if any, will h devoted to Missions. 




ANTRIM parish, Halifax county Key. Mr. Dresser's letter about it to Dr. Hawks 
-Sketclj of its ministers Rev. Alexander Hay Evan Ragland, Esq. 
Testimony to the religious belief of Patrick Henry His answer to Payne's 
"Age of Reason" Mr. Grammar Rev. Mr. Clark minister in part of the 
county His labours among the poor and servants 9 


Parishes in Pittsylvania, Henry, Campbell, and Bedford Camden parish T?c 
vestry-book Records of court mortifying Rev. Mr. G-uilliam Church and 
glebe Vestrymen Colonel Isaac Coles -afid family Church built at the in- 
stance of Mr. Dresser Patrick parish Rev. Messrs. Webb and Wade Moore 
parish, Campbell county Succession of ministers Church in Lynchburg 
Russell parish Imperfect list of its old churches Church at Liberty 14 


Parishes in Amelia, Nottoway, and Prince Edward Raleigh and Nottoway 
parishes Rev. Mr. Brunskill His toryism Threats in church Churches 
in Amelia Families -Egglestons, Archers, Bookers, Tabbs, Banisters, &c. 
Old Grubhill Attachment to the name Vestrymen Rev Messrs. Lee and 
Berkeley Nottoway parish Its ministers Treatment of one of its old 
churches St. Patrick's parish, Prince Edward Its ministers The Rev. Mr 
McRoberts Contest about an old church Mr. William Berkeley Rise and 
progress of Presbyterianism in this part of Virginia View of it confirmed 
and enlarged by a friend Hampden-Sydney College The Smiths and others 
The Reads, Mayos, Carringtons, Venables, Watkins ^0 


Parishes in Cumberland, Buckingham, and Fluvanna St. James Southam 
Vestry-book List of its ministers List of its churches List of its vestry- 
men Rev. Mr. McClaurine Littleton parish Rev. Mr. McCrae Other 
ministers Assault on Mr. McCrae His defence by Patrick Henry The 
Carringtons Sermon by Mr. McCrae Tillotson parish Its ministers and 
churches Parish of Fluvanna Its ministers and church .,.... 88 


Fredericksville and Trinity parishes, in Louisa and Albemarle counties Vestry- 
book Test-oaths and oaths of allegiance List of vestrymen before the 
division of the parish List of vestrymen after the division List of ministers 
The Maurys The Walker family Old Walker's Church The church's 
petition for funds to repair it The new church.. 41 


St. Anne's parish, Albemarle First churches ordered in the time of the Rev. 
Robert Rose Other ministers The Rev. Charles Clay His patriotic ser- 
mon Vestrymen in St. Anne's parish Other churches Later ministers 
Old Ballinger Church General Cocke Church in Charlotteville Mr. Hatch 
Mr. Jefferson Rev. Zachariah Mead His mode of curing consumption 
University Its chaplains Pestilence among the students Extract from a 
funeral-sermon delivered by the author of these notices Offence given by it. 48 


Parishes in Amherst, Nelson, Botetourt, Rockbridge, Greenbrier, and Mont- 
gomery Ministers in Amherst and Lexington parishes Churches in Jie 



same Churches in Lexington parish after the division List of vestrymen, 
from the vestry-book Amherst parish, in Nelson county Ministers of it 
Churches Old one removed and repaired by Mr. Coles and Mr. Martin The 
family of Cabells Sermon of the Eev. Mr. O'Neale on the death of two daugh- 
ters of Nicholas Cabell The Massie family Mr. William Waller Botetourt 
parish Its ministers and churches Old Major Burwell and his descendants 
Church in Rockbridge Its ministers and church The prospect at Wythe- 
ville, Abington, &c,. 67 


St. George's parish, Spottsylvania county The Rev. Mr. Slaughter's history of 
it Governor Spottswood Germanna Colonel Byrd's account of Fredericks- 
burg List of its ministers Of its churches Of its vestrymen The two 
Maryes Rev. Mr. Thornton General Washington's visit to Fredericksburg 
Republican mode of choosing a minister Rev. Samuel Low Berkeley pa- 
rish Its ministers and churches..... . 68 


St. Mark's parish, Culpepper Its first vestrymen Church at Germanna Colo- 
nel Byrd's account of it and the place The German settlement there, and 
its removal Numerous churches in Culpepper List of vestrymen, from the 
old vestry-book The Rev. Mr. Thompson His letter to Mrs. Spottswood, 
audits effect Mr. Woodville and family ' ' 


Churches in St. Thomas parish, Orange county The Rev. Mr. Earnest's 
account of them Names and locations of the churches Major Burton 
Indian antiquities on the Rapidan River Benjamin Cave an early settler 
Plate, the gift of the grandmother of President Madison- The letter of 
James Madison, Sr. to Mr. Leland, the Baptist preacher, about -the use of 
our churches The Rev. Matthew Maury and the Rev. Mr. Waddell employed 
to preach in them The latter administered the Lord's Supper to our people 
Mr. Wirt's account of him exaggerated List of ministers Rev. Mr. Marye 
Old Mrs. Madison's Confirmation by Bishop Moore 84 


Genealogy of the Madison and Taylor families, from the papers and diary of 
President Madison and his father President Madison's religious character 
His mother's piety His wife's baptism late in life Attachment of the 
Taylors and Madisons to the Church Philip Williams's oration on the death 
of Mr. Madison and view of his course in relation to the Church Favourable 
opinion of his religious belief. 96 


Northern Neck of Virginia -Bounds of the Northern Neck Fairfax family 
Its history in England Four volumes of letters, &c. recently published 
Their Protestant character at an early period The Rev. Henry Fairfax 
Rev, Denny Martin and Rev. Bryan Fairfax History of Cromwell's great 
general, George William Fairfax, of Belvoir Address to the descendants 
The Carter family John and his wives Robert (alias King) Carter and Ms 
wives Councillor Carter, of Nomini His excellency but eccentricity Mr. 
Charles Carter, of Shirly His generosity to the widow of the Rev. Mr. 
Currie and to the poor King Carter's character 105 


Parishes in Lancaster county Old vestry-books The loss of one of them 
Discipline proved by them Account of my visit to Christ Church ir 1837 



The tombs of the Carters and their wives The Kellys The epitaphs The 
repairing of the church White Chapel Church, St. Mary's parish A. list of 
the ministers of both parishes A list of the vestrymen Tombs at White 
Chapel The family of Balls The Rev. Mr. Waddell Eecords of thft court 
Letter of Joseph Ball, from London, to his sister, the mother of General 
Washington, concerning the project of young Washington's entering th navy 
Also a letter to his nephew after Braddock's defeat 116 


Parishes in Northumberland county Wycomico and St. Stephen parishes 
Early history of the county Ministers of the county Old Wycomico Visits 
of Bishop Moore and myself Its downfall The sale of its bricks and non- 
payment Its Communion-vessels in the church at Millwood History of the 
Lee family Richard Henry Lee and children Old Stratford House built by 
Queen Caroline Old Northumberland House Mr. Presley, and Presley 
Thornton Postscript Further notice of the Lees The Corbin family Old 
vestry-book found (See Appendix) 131 


Cople parish, Westmoreland Ministers of it Churches of it Yeoconiico 
Visit to it in 1834 The McGuire family The Newton family Tombstones 
and epitaphs in Cople parish Contest about the church Judge McComas's 
letter Letter of Mr. Rogers, of Princeton, New Jersey 147 


Washington parish, Westmoreland county The ministers Rev. Mr. De Butts 
His letter to the Bishop of London Rev. Archibald Campbell History 
of himself and- family Old Round Hill and Pope's Creek Churches Other 
ministers Washington's birthplace A visit to it and the vault Proposition 
before the Legislature in relation to them Leeds or Bray's ChurcJa The 
town a cradle of Virginia patriotism Resolutions there adopted, (See Ap- 
pendix) Bishop Payne's letter about Old Round Hill Church, and his family 
The Washington family The wills of the two brothers John and Law- 
rence, the first settlers in Virginia The vault at Stratford Thomas Lee 
buried at Pope's Creek Church , 158 


Farnham and Lunenburg parishes, Richmond county Records of the court at 
Tappahannock Magistrates of old Rappahannock county and Sittenhurne 
parish Records of Richmond county Principal families Farnham parish 
and churches Ministers Vestrymen Address of the vestry to it letters 
to and from Bishop Madison My visit to Farnham Church in 1837 Inmen- 
burg parish and churches Ministers Controversy between the Rev. Mr. 
Kay and some of his vestry Rev, Mr. Giberne Letter of a friend (Colonel 
Carter) in Lunenburg parish, concerning the old churches and ministers 
The Tayloe family Micous and Fauntleroys intermarry 172 


Parishes in King George Changes in their boundaries Hanover parish. Its 
churches and ministers Its vestrymen, from the vestry-book and records of 
the court Rev. Mr. Boucher Letter of General Washington to him Recent 
history of the parish The Turner family Brunswick parish Its ministers, 
churches, and vestrymen St. Paul's parish Old vestry-book and register, 
begun by the Rev. David Stuart, and continued by his son, William Stuart 
Their long and excellent ministry Other ministers St. Paul's Church My 
visit to it in 1812 or 1813 The old African woman History of the Fitz- 
hugh family 183 


Overwharton parish, Stafford county Alexander Scott His tombstone K*r 
Mr. Moncure His history by Mrs. Wood Tomb of her mother Dea.ti. o* 


the Rev. Mr. Moncure Letter of George Mason, of Gunston, on me 
Ministers after Mr. Moncure Old Aquia Church Old Potomac Church 
Letter of Judge Daniel, giving an account of the old families around the } 
two churches 197 


Dettingen parish, Prince William county Vestry-book Ministers Rev. 
James ScottHis descendantsHis son and the duel Churches in the 
parish Old pieces of Communion-plate Dumfries Care of the vestry in 
having apprentices instructed Rev. John Scott buried in the old church at 
Winchester His history Ministers after him Names of vestrymen and 
lay readers 207 


Hamilton and Leeds parishes, Fauquier Fate of the vestry-book Rev. Mr. 
Keith Rev. Mr. Brunskill The churches Other ministers Rev, Mr. 
Thomson's patriotic sermon Oakhill The principal families Rev. Mr. 
Lemmon Judge Marshall Anecdotes of him Tenderness to Mrs. Marshall 
His religious opinions Letter of the Rev. Mr. Norwood 216 


Truro parish, Fairfax county Rev, Charles Green Rev. Lee Massey Ser- 
mons of Mr. Massey First vestry an unlawful one Pohick Church, when 
built Vestrymen of it Contest between Washington and Mason about the 
site My visit to it in 1837 Its repairs Sketch of the Mason family 
Mother of Temple Mason Her pious letters The Lewis family Martin 
Cockburn The Hendersons The Rev. Mason Weems Mount Vernon after 
the death of Mrs. Washington The Blackburns Judge Washington Two 
letters from Mr. Stoddert, of Maryland, concerning the Rev. Lee Massey, 
George Johnson, and Martin Cockburn, and Mrs. Cockburn Mistake in the 
same General Washington's English coach *. 22$ 


Keligious character of Washington The Rev. Mr. McGuire's book Washing- 
ton's early advantages under pious friends and ministers Early indication 
of pious feelings His public documents prove it The general voice ascribes 
it to him His private devotion His public acts when a young officer His 
correspondence with Governor Dinwiddie His private diary testifies to it- 
As General of the army, his orders are marked by it His respect for the 
Sabbath as private citizen and President of the United States His condem- 
nation of swearing, of gambling, of duelling His belief of a special Provi- 
dence How far he was addicted to hunting Was he a communicant? 
Bishop White's account of it His last moments 242 


Fairfax parish Christ Church Original names of Alexandria Churches* 
Ministers Rev. Bryan Fairfax Rev. Dr. Griffith Visit to the Falls Church 
Dr. McQuerr Griffith chosen first Bishop His zeal in the cause of the 
Church Correspondence with Dr. Buchanon Case of the glebe List of 
vestrymen George Taylor and Edmund I. Lee 266 


fit. Paul's Church, Alexandria, Cameron and Shelburne parishes, London 
countySeparation from Christ Church under Mr. Gibson Purchase of 
Old St. Paul's First vestry Other vestrymen New church Liberality of 
Mr. McLean. Bishop Claggett Bishop Madison List of ministers Came- 
ron parish Its ministers and churches Shelburne Its churches and minis- 
ters and vestrymen Rev. Dr. Griffith Rev. Mr. Dunn The glebe Lawsuit 
Its vestrymen 2/1 




Parishes in Frederick county The Valley of Virginia Mr. Jefferson's opinion 
of it correct Germans the first settlers The Sites Presbyterians tolerated 
First vestry condemned Log churches Lord Fairfax List of the vestry- 
man Lay readers Ministers Alexander Balmaine Mrs. Hannah Wash- 
ington Cunningham's Chapel 27C 


Continuation of ministers Old parish divided into four New churches Free 
a,ad common churches opposed Burwell graveyard List of vestrymen con- 
tinued -The Burwell family Governor Nicholson and Miss Burwell Ed- 
mund Randolph His account of the infidelity of the age at William and Mary 287 


Norbourne parish, Berkeley county The Shepherds Shepherdstown and its 
churches Charlestown and the old church The Washingtons The ministers 
of this parish The Rev. Benjamin Allen Martinsburg and the old church 
The Pendleton family Judge Pendleton's autobiography The value of re- 
spectable birth Colonel Edward Colston Other families 2G5 


Morgan's Chapel The character of Morgan Morgan The family Benjamin 
Allen Names of other ministers New churches General Charles Lee and 
his impious will Other Generals around.., 802 


Parishes in Hampshire and Shenandoah List of ministers in Hampshire- 
Rev. Norman Nash and Bishop Moore about the study of the dead languages 
The old Scotchman and his commentary The churches built by the Messrs. 
Nash Parish of Beckford, in Dunmore, afterwards Shenandoah, county 
Settled by Germans The Swedish congregation united with the Episcopal 
Church under Peter Mahlenburg, afterwards General Muhlenburg Sketch 
of his history Downfall of the Church Recent and fruitless efforts for its 
revival 809 


Parishes in Augusta and Rockingham First part of the valley seen by the 
white man Governor Spottswood's view of it from the Blue Ridge First 
vestry Its first ministers Rev. Mr. Balmaine His patriotism Address 
from the county on American affairs Vestrymen and Burgesses The Vir- 
ginia Assembly driven to Staunton Met in the old church Later ministers 
New church Present church Old churches in Rockingham G-abriel Jones 
Peachy Gttmer The Lewis family 817 


Churches in Brooke county Dr. Doddridge's account of the neglect of the Epis- 
copal Church in the West Objections to it Dr. Doddridge's history and 
character His labours in Brooke county The churches in it The minis- 
ters The case of Western Virginia Proposition to divide the Diocese The 
result Extract from my pamphlet on the subject , 827 


Churches in Wheeling, Clarksburg, Fairmont, Weston, and Buchanon Dr. 
Doddridge the first who preached in Wheeling Bishop Chase moved its 
organization Mr. John Armstrong the first rector Names of the first ves- 
trymen Succession of vestrymen Succession of ministers Churches 
Action of the vestry as to the division of the Diocese Mr. Simms Judge 
Caldwell Resignation of the Rev. William Armstrong Church in East 


Wheeling established with the approbation of Mr. Armstrong Its ministers 
Glebe-house and church Church in Clarksburg Its ministers and church 
Case of Mr. McMechin Mr. Despard Church in Weston Its ministers 
Church in Fairmont Its ministers Buchanon 886 


Churches in Kanawha, at Ravenswood, Parkersburg and its vicinity, New 
Martinsville, and Moundsville Rev. Mr. Page first minister in Kanawha 
Other ministers The church in Charleston Its history List of vestrymen 
Old Mrs. Quarrier and family The Salines Coalsmouth Its churches 
The Hudsons and Thompsons Vestrymen Stations on the Kanawha 
Point Pleasant Mercer's Bottom Brace Chapel Ravenswood Church Its 
builders Vestrymen Ladies' association Ministers Bellville Church 
Its builder Parkersburg Its church Ministers Vestrymen Cow Creek 
Church New Martinsville Moundsville , 344 


The General Church The Church in Maryland Dr. Chandler's testimony 
Bishop White's opinion of the old clergy Sir William Berkeley's wish as to 
schools and printing Church in South Carolina Her first missionaries 
The sermons of that day in England and America Dr. Coke's estimate of 
the clergy Tillotson's sermons the best in use Tracts of the Christian 
Knowledge Society Mr. Wilberforce The Rev. Mr. Bacon, of Maryland 
Instruction of servants Moralizing preaching My first acquaintances 
among the clergy Bishop White, Dr. Abercrombie, Bishop Hobart, &c. Dr. 
Percy, of South Carolina His tracts His history My tour in favour of the 
Colonization Society Acquaintances formed Results of it General Con- 
vention Hymns added to the Prayer-Book History of it Public baptism 
and pious sponsors recommended Francis Key Great deference for Bishops 
A change in that respect Proposed alteration in the thirty-fifth canon 
The general seminary Judge Cameron Bishop White's statement My own 
Proposed changes in the service Episcopal Sunday-School Union Evan- 
gelical Knowledge Society Missionary Society of the Church Memorial and 
commission of Bishops My letter to the commission Concluding remarks.. 851 


No. 1. Journal of the Convention of 1719 898 

No. 2. Celebration at Jamestown in 1807 420 

No. 3. Origin of the names of parishes 425 

No. 4. List of names of old families of Virginia, and of those from Wales...... 428 

No. 5. Rolph's letter concerning the early settlements in Virginia 430 

No. 6.- -Association in the Northern Neck, in 1766, against the Stamp Act.... 434 
No. 7. Sundry Acts of the Virginia Assembly, memorials, &c., from the year 

1/76 to 1802, concerning the Episcopal Church 436 

No. 8. Dr. Hawk's account of the last years of the Church, glebe question, &c. 446 

No. 9. Judge Story's opinion in the Supreme Court on the glebe question 452 

No. 10. John Randolph's recantation of Gibbon's principles 469 

No. 11. The Rev. David Mossom's epitaph 460 

No. 12. Genealogy of the Ellis family 460 

No. 13. Of the Baylor family 464 

No. 14. The Peyton family 466 

No. 15. Ministers, c. of St. Stephen's and Wycomico parishes, Northumberl'd 467 

No. 16. Extracts from Ralphe Hamor..., 469 

No. 17. The Brokenbrough and Fauntleroy families 474 

No. 18. The Beverley family 481 

No. 19. The Phillips and Fowke families ' 482 

No. 20. Further and more accurate information concerning Pohick Church... 484 
No 21. The inscription on Commissary Blair's tombstone in the old graveyard 

at Jamestown , , 486 

No 22. Episcopal High School ] 488 

No. 23. Further Statements concerning the Religious Character of Washing- 
ton and the Question whether he was a Communicant or not 490 

No. 24. Extract from the " Virginia Almanac ' for 1776 495 

No. 25. Blissland ^arish. New Kent County 4% 

, mtb Jfamilies 




Antrim Parish, Halifax County. 

WHEN Halifax county was divided from Lunenburg, in 1752, it 
comprehended all that is now Pittsylvania, Henry, Franklin, and 
Patrick. Antrim parish was coextensive with the county. At 
the time of its establishment it is probable, from certain entries in 
the vestry-book, that there were no churches or chapels in its wide 
extent, for the readers who had been appointed before the separa- 
tion four in number were reappointed, and several gentlemen 
were allowed to have services in their own houses, doubtless for the 
benefit of their neighbours as well as their own families. Besides 
this, when the first minister was settled among them he was required 
to officiate at six different places, at no one of which was there a 
church or chapel, though at some of them buildings were about to 
be erected. Four were ordered at some of the earliest meetings 
of the vestry, and others afterward. One of the places of reading 
is recognised as being on Pigg River, in Franklin county that now 
is. The buildings were small, either log or frame, and not very 
durable, generally. The first movement toward getting a minister 
was in the year 1752, when a title to the parish was given to a Mr. 
William Ohisholm, a candidate for Orders, who wished to be pre- 
pared with that indispensable qualification when he should present 
himself to the Bishop of London ; but, as usual, there was this 
condition: "Provided, on his return, the vestry approved of him 

for their minister, or should not have accepted any other in his 



absence." Nothing more is heard of Mr, Ohisholm ; nor can I find 
his name on any of the lists of clergy ordained by tbe Bishop of 
London for any part of America. 

What follows in regard to the parish of Antrim I take from a 
letter of the Rev. Mr. Dresser, in the year 1830, addressed to the 
Rev. Drs. Hawks and Rutledge, who were then engaged in writing 
a history of the different dioceses of the Church in this country. 


" The earliest mention of a clergyman in the minutes of the vestry is 
in 1753, when it was 'ordered that two thousand pounds of tobacco be 
paid to the Rev. Mr. Proctor, for services by him done and performed for 
this parish/ And at the same meeting, 'on motion of James Foulis, 
clerV and for reasons appearing to this vestry, he is received and taken 
& sinister of this parish/ The name of Mr. Foulis continues to appear 
on the minutes of the vestry until 1759, when tradition relates that he 
went away, nobody knew whither, and that he was not for a long time, if 
ever afterward, heard from. In 1762 the Rev. Thomas Thompson offi- 
ciated a few months, and then resigned his charge, in consequence of hirc 
age and the extent of the parish. The next spring the Rev. Alexander 
Gordon, from Scotland, became rector of the parish, and continued to 
officiate until the commencement of our Revolution, when, being disaffected 
toward the new order of things, he retired, and spent his remaining days 
near Petersburg. Some of his descendants are still remaining in the 
parish, among whom are some of the brightest ornaments and chief sup- 
porters of the Church. Of his own morals, however, and those of his 
predecessor, (Foulis,) tradition does not speak in unmeasured terms. 

" From the time of his departure until 1787, I find no parish records, 
and know but little of the Church during that interval. The Rev. James 
Craig, of Cumberland parish, Lunenburg, however, officiated a part of the 
time in this county during three or four of the last years, a gentleman 
highly esteemed both as a man and a preacher. 

" In May, 1787, a Convention of the deputies from the several parishes 
of the State was held at Richmond, and an ordinance passed, regulating 
the appointment of vestries, &c. The same year a new vestry was elected 
in this county, and, in 1790, Rev. Alexander Hay, likewise from Scotland, 
was inducted into the parish. He is represented as having been a man 
of superior talents and attainments, and, from some specimens of his ser- 
mons which I have met with, he seems to have been strictly orthodox and 
evangelical ; but, if report speak truly, he was not endowed by nature 
with a very mild temper, and he soon found himself in a situation not the 
most favourable for the cultivation of the passive virtues of our religion 
He was hardly inducted into the parish before petitions began to be pre- 
sented to the Legislature for the sale of the glebe, but without success. 
As serving to throw some light on the condition of the parish and Church 
at that time, I shall send you herewith two manuscripts from the pen of 
Mr. Hay, one an address to the vestry or parish generally, and the other 
a remonstrance to t* \ Legislature. The ill temper manifested by him in 
these and othr transactions, or some other cause, made several of the 
most influential gentlemen in the county his personal enemies, and they 
neglected no means to harass and thwart him. Some of them he prose- 


outed for slander, but obtained no damages. Under the operation of such 
causes, as you may well suppose, the Church continued to decline. To 
give you some idea of the rapidity of this decline, I will make a few ex- 
tracts from the parish register during the first twenty years of Mr. Hay 7 a 
ministry : 

"<1792. Baptisms, 89 whites, 35 blacks. Marriages, 11. Funerals, I.' 

"'1802. Baptisms, 31 whites, 6 blacks. Marriages, 3. Funerals, 6.' 

"'1810. Baptisms, 6 whites, 7 blacks. Marriages, none. Funerals, 

"During the same time the whole amount of subscriptions in the parish 
for his support, the glebe then being occupied by him, was three hundred 
and forty-five pounds six shillings and elevenpence, a little more than 
seventeen pounds per annum. 'For the last seven years of this time/ he 
says, ' during which my attendance was not constant, and my services partly 
discontinued, from an almost total want of encouragement of any kind, 
there was nothing subscribed/ 

" I neglected to say, in the proper place, that measures were early taken 
for the erection of churches in different parts of the parish. Of these, 
one was rebuilt by subscription in 1793-94, but, no title to the land having 
been secured, it was afterward converted into a dwelling-house. Another, 
having fallen into disuse and being out of repair, was taken down and the 
materials used in the erection of a Baptist meeting-house. A third, having 
been sometimes used for the double purpose of a tobacco-barn and stable, 
was demolished and some of the timbers used in building a store on the 
same site. The last, having been repaired in 1795-96, was burned to the 
ground a few years since, having been set on fire by some one, it is said, 
who wished to obtain the nails. It is proper to remark that it had been 
some time unused, and was probably in a dilapidated state. 

" In 1816 or 1817, after the Church had begun to revive in other parts 
of the State, and the late Bishop Eavenscroft was beginning to make her 
claims known in the adjoining county of Mecklenburg, a small edifice was 
erected about three miles from this place, in which Mr. Hay preached a 
few times before his death, which occurred in 1819. Here also Mr. Ea- 
venscroft occasionally preached before his elevation to the Episcopacy, and 
admitted three or four persons to the communion. The situation of this 
church not proving favourable for an Episcopal congregation, it has re- 
cently been sold to the Methodists and the proceeds appropriated toward 
the erection of another in this village. 

"In 1814, Evan Eagland, Esq., dying, left a large estate, consisting of 
land, negroes, &c., to the Church, with various provisions, but designed 
primarily and chiefly for the support of a minister or ministers in this 
parish. This will was contested by the heirs-at-law of said Eagland, and 
its execution opposed on several grounds. Accordingly a suit was com- 
menced by Mr. Hay on the part of the Church, he being particularly in- 
terested, and the case was decided in his favour in the Court of Chancery. 
From thence it was carried up to the Court of Appeals, where the decision 
was likely to be reversed. After the death of Mr. Hay, however, agents 
or commissioners were appointed by the Convention on the part of the 
Church, who were authorized to make a compromise with the heirs of Mr 
Eagland. This they effected, and the case was of course dismissed from 
court. By the terms of the compromise, the land, which in the mean time 
had considerably depreciated in value, was sold, and bonds to one-fourth 
of the amount were executed to the agents for the purposes specified in 


cite will. The last of the bonds is now due, and the Convention is ex 
pected to determine at its next meeting what shall be done with the 
money, amounting to one thousand seven hundred or one thousand eight 
hundred dollars. 

" In 1820 or 1821, the Rev. Mr. Wingfield now of Portsmouth parish, 
near Norfolk, but then residing with Mr. Ravenscroft officiated several 
months, perhaps a year, in the county, with the view of permanently esta- 
blishing himself; but he did not meet with sufficient encouragement to 
persevere. Four or five years since, Mr. Steel, the successor of Bishop 
Ravenscroft in Mecklenburg, was called to the county to perform some 
official duty. This led to an arrangement for him to preach once a month 
at Mount Laurel Church, which had been built a few years previous, 
3hiefly by Episcopalians, but with the condition that it should be free to 
others when not used by them. Subsequently he made an arrangement 
to preach one Sunday in a month also in the court-house, which he con 
tinued to do until the close of 1828. In the spring of the same year 1 
received ordination, and was directed by the Bishop to make this the field 
of my labours. These I commenced the first Sunday in June, and was 
well received by a few, though I found great ignorance of the Church 
prevailing, and, among many, the most bitter prejudices against her. 
These prejudices, I am happy to say, appear to be dying away, and the 
Prayer-Book is becoming more and more popular. During the last year 
I have admitted to the Communion eight persons, and baptized three adults 
and sis children. A commodious brick church is now nearly ready for 
consecration in this village, and a smaller place of worship has been erected 
for me during the past year in another part of the county. My Sunday 
labours are divided between these congregations, but I am often invited 
to preach in Baptist and Methodist meeting-houses ; and, did my stated 
duties permit, I might preach much oftener than I do, where twenty years 
ago a minister of our Church would have had little but the bare walls for 
an auditory. This I mention merely to show the decline of prejudice. 

" Thus I have given the annals of my parish as far as I have been able 
to collect them ; and, lest I should prove tediously prolix, I will touch 
upon but one point more. It is stated, in an article which I saw some 
time ago, from the ' Protestant Episcopalian/ and, I presume, from one 
of you, that Patrick Henry was once an infidel, &c. His widow and 
some of his descendants are residing in this county, and I am authorized 
by one of them to say that the anecdote related is not true. He ever had, 
I am informed, a very great abhorrence of infidelity, and actually wrote 
an answer to 'Paine's Age of Reason/ but destroyed it before his death. 
His widow has informed me that he received the Communion as often as 
an opportunity was offered, and on such occasions always fasted until after 
he had communicated, and spent the day in the greatest retirement. This 
he did both while Governor and afterward. Had he lived a few years 
longer, he would have probably done much to check the immoral influence 
of one of his compatriots, whose works are now diffusing the poison of 
infidelity throughout our land." 

Mr. Dresser became the minister of this parish in 1828, and 
continued in it until 1838, when he was succeeded by its present 
rector, the Rev. John Grammar. Under Ms ministry the congre- 
gation has become one of the largest in the diocese. A church at 


Meadville was built many years since, but has failed to effect what 
was hoped from it. A large and costly church has been built at 
the court-house, in place of the one mentioned by Mr. Dresser, in 
which one of our largest country-congregations assemble every 

List of the old Vestrymen of Antrim Parish, from 1752 to 

James Terry, Richard Echols, Thos. Dillard, Thos. Galloway, Richard 
Brown, William Irby, Merry Webb, Peter Wilson, William Wynne, John 
Guillingtine, John Owen, Nathaniel Terry, Geo. Currie, Samuel Harris, 
Andrew Wade, Jas. Dillard, Robert Wooding, Archibald Gordon, John 
Bates, Edward Booker, Hugh Junis, Geo. Watkins, Alexander Gordon, 
Thomas Tunstall, John Donaldson, Evan Ragland, Benjamin Dickson, 
William Thompson, George Boyd, Moses Terry, William Sims, Walter 
Coles, Edward Wade, Isaac Coles, John Coleman, William Terry, Michael 
Roberts, John Ragland, Armistead Washington, Joseph Hobson, George 
Carrington, Thomas Davenport, John Faulkner, Edmund King, Joseph 
Sandford, Thomas Thweat, John Ervine, Daniel Wilson, Thomas Clark, 
Evan Ragland, Jr., Joseph Haynes, Thomas Lipscomb, John B. Scott, 
Francis Petty, Daniel Parker, George Camp, William Thomas, Jno. Wat- 
tington, Achilles Colquett, Hansom Clark, John A. Fowlkes, Chas. Meri- 
wether, Adam Toot, Edward Boyd, Thomas Clark, Beverly Syndor, Jos 
Hewell, Samuel Williams, Littlebury Royster, Benjamin Rogers, Chilton 
Palmer, John Haynes, Sceevor Torian, Robt. Crute, Granville Craddock, 
Edward Carlton, William Fitzgerald, Isham Chasteen, Icare Torian, Isaao 
Medley, John R. Cocke, William Scott. 

To them we may add other names, cnougn not vestrymen, yet 
from the time of efforts for reviving the Church, taking an interest 
in it and contributing to it, such as the Bruces, Ligons, Greens, 
Wimbishses, Leighs, Banks, Logans, Borums, Edmundsons, Fon- 
taines, Carringtons, Baileys, &c. 

In another part of the county of Halifax the Rev. Mr. Clark 
has been for many years doing a good work, chiefly among the 
poor and servants, to whom he has devoted time and labour without 
compensation, being enabled by Providence so to do. Under his 
auspices, and not without considerable pecuniary aid on his part, 
three new churches have been erected in that part of the county. 



Parishes in Pittsylvania, Henry , Campbell, and Bedford. 
Camden Parish, Pittsylvania. 

THE names of this county and parish tell their own origin. Pitt 
and Camden are names familiar to the English and American ear. 
They were divided from Halifax and Antrim in the year 1767. At 
different times, subsequent to this, Henry, Patrick, and Franklin 
were taken from Pittsylvania, but no new parishes established, 
except in Henry, the Church and State having been separated, 
so that the two last of them were, according to Colonial law, in 
the parish of Camden, until the Episcopal Convention made other 
arrangements. There are no records of the vestry-meetings in this 
parish; yet the records of the court show that vestrymen were 
regularly elected, and had the same duties assigned them as in 
other places. To them were assigned the processioning of lands, 
the binding out poor and unfortunate children, and the punishment 
of offences against the moral law. Rude as was the state of so- 
ciety, it is a fact that these officers did sometimes punish certain 
violations of the law of God, as Sabbath-breaking, profane swearing, 
and incontinence, which now are never noticed. It is also a fact 
that the sins of the fathers being visited upon children to the third 
and fourth generation, and children's teeth being set on edge by 
the eating of sour grapes on the part of their parents, is remark- 
ably exemplified in the case of the descendants of those who nearly 
a century ago were bound out on account of the immorality of 
the parents. These descendants, bearing the same name, are 
objects of the same action by the overseers of the poor as their 
ancestors were by the churchwardens. 

As to the ministers of Camden parish before the revival of the 
Church in Virginia, we find but one on all our lists. In the year 
1774, seven years after the establishment of the parish, we find 
the name of the Rev. Lewis Guilliam. Would that we could find 
it nowhere else ! but, alas, on examining the records of the court, 
we there find his name, not connected with the registry of baptisms 
and marriages, as perhaps none would call on him for these offices, 
but with continual petty law-suits, in which he was almost always 
the loser. Shame and contempt covered his whole life. He was 


a, Scotchman, and never married. As to churches, I have heard 
of one about twenty miles from the court-house. In the year 1778, 
Mr. Richard Chamberlaine, of St. Peter's Church, New Kent, con- 
veyed to the vestry, for one hundred and sixty pounds, five hun- 
dred and eighty-eight acres of land. On this land the Rev. Mr. 
Guilliam lived. One of the vestrymen, to whom the land was 
conveyed, John Donelson, emigrated to Tennessee, and was 
the father of Mrs. General Jackson. The glebe lay on the road 
to Henry Court-House, a few miles from " Callands." It doubtless 
shared the fate of other glebes. The other vestrymen were John 
Pigg, Crispin Shelton, John Wilson, Peter Perkins, Thomas Billard,, 
Hugh Innes, Theodoric Lacy, Abram Shelton, George Rowland., 
Robert Chandler, and William Witcher. 

The descendants of the above, by the same and other names, 
are scattered over this and the surrounding counties. There is 
one family in the county which has contributed so much to keep 
alive the hope of the Church in this parish, in her darkest days, 
that I must give it a passing notice. Colonel Isaac Coles, ancestor 
of a number of that name in this region, and uncle of those in 
Albemarle, married first a Miss Lightfoot, of York, (a maid-servant 
of whom, one hundred and ten years old, is still alive and in the 
family,) and had one son by her, Mr. Isaac Coles, of Halifax. His 
second wife was a Miss Thompson, from New York, with whom he 
became acquainted while member of Congress, and whose sister mar- 
ried Blbridge Gerry.* By this marriage he had a numerous off- 
spring, who are dispersed through this county and other places. At 
a time when the venerable widow, and her daughter Mary, who 
married James M. Whittle, were almost the whole Church in that 
region, I always made the old mansion in which they lived a 
stopping-place and a house of prayer, for the mother had long 
been confined to it. The Lord's Supper was always administered 
to her. Many baptisms and confirmations of children, and chil- 
dren's children, have I performed, and happy religious seasons en- 
joyed in that " Church in the House." 

The mother and the daughter above mentioned were, in person 
and character, striking and impressive. Great was the parental 
anxiety of the" widow and the mother for all her children's welfare* 
and tender and faithful was the filial piety of the daughter, who 
devoted herself to the comfort of the aged mother. May the 
descendants of both of them follow their holy example, and not 

* They were married in the year 1790, by Bishop Prorost. 


only, like them, love and nourish the Church of their ancestors, 
but the holy standard of religion which it lifts up on high. 

By the exertions of this family, and a few others, the Smiths 
and Slaughters, Millers and Sheltons, and under the auspices of 
the Rev. Mr. Dresser, then minister in Halifax, now at Jubilee 
College, in Illinois, a church (St. Andrew's) was built in this part 
of the county, and, for a time, hopes were entertained that a per- 
manent congregation might be established there ; but deaths and 
removals have disappointed these hopes. In relation to Danville 
and the court-house, after a visit from the Rev. Mr. Towles, and 
numerous visits from the Rev. Mr. Clark, the services of the Rev. 
Mr, Dame were secured in 1840, for the joint purpose of teaching 
young females and building up the Church. At his first coming 
there were only eight communicants, and they all females, in the 
three counties of Pittsylvania, Franklin, and Henry. Since hia 
ministry, one hundred and twenty have been added, exclusive of 
those coming from other parishes. A new church has been built 
in Danville, and another at the court-house, since Dr, Dame's 
coming, in 1840. He is still the minister of the parish, and will, 
I hope, long continue to be so. 


The county of Henry was separated from Pittsylvania in the 
year 1776, and the parish of Patrick from Camden in 1778 ; but no 
steps, we believe, were ever taken to build churches and procure 
ministers. Our fathers were then in the midst of the war, and 
every thing was unfavourable for such an enterprise. Patrick Henry, 
after whom both the county and parish were probably called, was 
then, I believe, a delegate from this part of the State, having his 
abode and much land here. Some of his descendants are here to 
this day. Some readers were probably exercising their functions 
in private houses in this county, but we hear of no settled pastor. 
The first efforts at the establishment of the Church, in later days, 
were made by the Rev. Mr. "Webb, while a teacher of youth, can- 
didate for the ministry, and lay reader at Henry Court-House. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. Mr, Wade, a native of the 
county, and descendant of some whose names have hitherto 
appeared among the vestrymen of adjoining parishes. During 
his ministry a church has been erected at the court-house, arid 
the foundation of a promising congregation laid. He occasionally 
officiated in Franklin county. No parish was ever established by 


law, or otherwise, in either Franklin or Patrick, until of late years, 
when one was erected in the former, where there is a prospect of our 
having a respectable settlement, as we trust, before many years. 


Campbell was separated in 1781, just at the close of the war, 
when the civil Legislature was ceasing to act for the affairs of the 
Church. Nothing is said of a parish. That was reserved for our 
Convention at a later period. The first minister in Lynchburg 
the Rev. Amos Tredway is said to represent Lynchburg parish, 
and by that name does it still go. Subsequently, Moore parish is 
established in the county. In Lynchburg, the Rev. Franklin G. 
Smith succeeded Mr. Tredway, in 1825, and continued for about 
fourteen years. The Rev. Thomas Atkinson (now Bishop) suc- 
ceeded Mr. Smith, and the Rev. William H. Kinckle, the present 
rector, ^succeeded him in 1844. An excellent brick church was 
erected in the time of Mr. Smith, and a larger and much costlier 
one in the time of Mr. Kinckle. 

In Moore parish, the Rev. Mr. Osgood was the first who taught 
school and ministered. Under his care, St. John's Church was 
erected. In its loft was his vestry-room and chamber, and, near 
at hand, his school-house. The present location of St. John's is 
not the same with its original one, it having been found that a 
more convenient one might be had a mile off, to which it was moved 
on rollers. After the removal of Mr. Osgood to the West, 
where he died, the Rev. Mr. Tompkins took his place in both 
departments for many years, preaching at St. John's, and at 
another position some twelve miles off. Since his removal to 
Western Virginia, the Rev. Mr. Kinckle, of Lynchburg, has, by 
occasional services, kept alive the hopes of our few but zealous 
members in that part of the county, sometimes aided by the visits 
of the Rev. Mr. Clark, of Halifax, until, during the last year, the 
Rev. Mr. Locke, having settled himself at Campbell Court-House, 
took charge of both of the congregations, and added to it a new 
one at the place of his residence. A church has recently been pur- 
chased and consecrated at that place, and the friends of the Church 
in that part of the county are encouraged to hope for better times. 


The county of Bedford was separated from Lunenburg in 
The parish of Russell was established in it at the same 
VOL. IL 2 


time. Both were enlarged in the year 1754 by the addition of a 
part of Albemarle, then of large extent. The present county of 
Campbell was included in the original bounds of the parish of 
Russell and county of Bedford. 

On our list of clergy for 1754 and 1758, we find no minister 
from Bedford. In the years 1773-74-76, we find the Rev. John 
Brandon. Doubtless there were ministers there during the twenty 
years of which there are no records. Our Conventions under the 
independent system, after the Revolution, commenced in 1785 
and continued until 1805 ; but there is no representation, either 
clerical or lay, during that period. The first representation from 
that region was in the year 1823, when the Rev. Amos Tredway 
appears as a delegate from Lynchburg, then in Campbell county. 
But Mr. Tredway officiated also at New London, in Bedford, as 
had also the Rev. Mr. Dashiel, who had the academy at New 
London, though he was never in regular connection with the 

In the year 1825 the Rev. Nicholas H. Cobbs appears as the 
first regular representative from Russell parish. Its revival is to 
be ascribed under Grod to his zealous, and for a long time almost 
gratuitous, services, since his support was mainly derived from a 
school. Under his ministry St. Stephen's and Trinity Churches 
were built, and other positions, as Liberty, and Mr. Wharton's, 
occupied, where churches are now to be seen. Mr. Cobbs con- 
tinued his indefatigable labours until the year 1835, when he 
removed to the University of Virginia, and, after two years' 
service as chaplain, returned to Bedford, and continued until 1839, 
when he removed to Petersburg. Mr. Cobbs was succeeded, for a 
short time, by the Rev. Mr. Doughen, after which the Rev. Mr. 
Marbury took charge of the parish, and was succeeded by the 
Rev. Mr. Cofer. The Rev. Mr. Kinsolving followed, and, after 
some years, was succeeded by the Rev. R. H. Wilmer, the present 

The Rev. Mr. Sale has been for many years occupying other 
parts of the county of Bedford, as at St. Thomas's Church, built 
under his auspices, at Liberty, at Trinity Church, when separated 
from St. Stephen's, and at Pedlar's Church, in Amherst county. 
While labouring on a farm and raising a large family, he has 
performed the duties of minister for a very small pecuniary com- 

A new church was built at Liberty, in this county, during 
the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Caldwell, who spent some time at 


that place after the removal of Mr. Cobbs. After the removal of 
Mr. Oaldwell the Rev. Mr. Sale took charge of it, and still is its 
canonical rector, although the duty of preaching is performed by 
the Rev. John Wharton, who has for some years been acting as 
sub-deacon. There are now no less than four parishes in that parf 
of old Russell parish which lay in Bedford county, as now reduced 
in its dimensions. No parish register is found to supply a list of 
the old vestrymen of this parish.* 

* I have "been told of two other old churches in Bedford county, and as many 
other ministers, and had a promise of their names, but something has prevented 
its fulfilment. 


Parishes in Amelia, Nottoway, and Prince JSdward. 

AMELIA county was cut off from Prince George in the yeai 
1734. Raleigh parish was established in the following year. In 
the year 1T54 the Rev. Musgrave Dawson was minister of Raleigh 
parish, how long, if before, not known. He was not the minister 
in 1758. The Rev. John Brunskill was minister in 1773-74-76.* 

* The folio-wing is from an aged lady : 

The Egglestons are of Irish extract, but came over to this country from 
England, and settled first on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. After some time two 
brothers William and Joseph came to Amelia county, and located near the central 
position, where they lived to the time of their death. They, with Mr. Thos. Tabb, 
Colonel Archer, and Mr. Edward Booker, of Winterham, built Grubhill Church, 
which was supplied by a minister sent from England, Parson Brunskill, who, 
although not an acceptable preacher, always had large congregations, composed of 
the families immediately around, and many from a distance. Those who had 
galleries in the church were the Tabbs, Egglestons, and Bookers, one public 

On one occasion, when the house was full, just before the Revolutionary War, 
when the whole Colony was incensed against England, Parson Brunskill arose, and, 
seeing Colonel Archer and one or two other gentlemen dressed in regimentals, 
called them rebels, and expressed himself indignant to see such indications of a 
general rebellion, and said he should write immediately to the King and inform 
against them. Whereupon nearly every one in the church got up and left the 
house, not before warning him, however, never to repeat such language, or he 
would receive harsh treatment added to disrespect. He never attempted <i 
preach afterward, but lived a quiet secluded life at the glebe, about five miles 
iron Grubhill. Mr. McCreary was his successor, a most pious and worthy mar, 
whose sons fought in the Revolution. 

The following is from high authority : 

Joseph Eggleston, Sen. moved to Amelia county in 1758 or '59, as shown by the 
baptism of his third child by the Rev. John Fox, in Ware parish, Gloucester 
county, in 1758, and of his fourth child by the Rev. John Brunskill, in Raleigh 
parish, Amelia county, in 1759, as recorded in his Bible, now in the possession of 
Ms family. This proves that the Rev. John Brunskill was in this parish in 1769, 
where he continued till Ms death in 1803 or 1804. The Rev. John Brunskill was 
thought to be an amiable man and an indulgent master, but stood very low for 
piety, and the ruin of the Church here was attributed to him. He died at his 
glebe, near Amelia Court-House, in 180$ or 1804, in good circumstances, leaving 
hit 1 servants free, and every thing else to a Mr. Richard Booker. 


It does not appear to have been represented in any of the Conven- 
tions subsequent to the Revolution, until some years after the 
revival of the Church, except in the years 1790 and 1791, by a 
lay delegate, Mr. John Royall. It is believed that Mr. Brunskill 
lived for many years to be a dead weight upon the Church. He 
never married, and lived a solitary, uncomfortable life. It is 
stated of him, and on authority entirely to be relied on, that, upon 
the declaration of war, he proclaimed from the pulpit that to take 
part in it was rebellion ; upon which the gentlemen arose and 
carried their families out of the church, and, on consultation, 
determined to inflict punishment upon him, which was only pre- 
vented by the interference of two of the elder and most influential 
gentlemen present. But he was never permitted to officiate again, 
a lay reader being appointed to take his place. He continued 
until his death to hold the glebe and to live upon it. 

Of the churches in Amelia I have received accounts from two 
of the oldest persons now living in it. There was one called Hun- 
tington, (long since in ruins,) about five miles northwest of the 
court-house. There was another called Chinquapin Church, in 
the upper part of the county, built about the year 1749 or 1750, 
at a place since called Paineville, There were three other churches, 
called Rocky Run, Avery's, and Pride's, in different parts of the 
county, two of which have been claimed as private property, taken 
down, and used for farming-purposes, Of old Grubhill Church 
we have more particular accounts. A venerable lady, now living, 
and in her ninetieth year, remembers, when a child, to have 
accompanied her parents to this church, and knows that the 
timber for it was furnished from her father's and uncle's lands, 
(Messrs. William and Joseph Eggleston.) Another old lady, now 
deceased, is known to have said that in the year 1768 she saw 
the workmen laying the floor of the wing of the church, the main 
body having probably been built some years before. I have 
been visiting that old building since the year 1827 or 1828. 
It was even then in a somewhat tottering condition as to the 
galleries, which had been put up, with the permission of the 

The families who attended Grubhill Church were the Bookers, Tabbs, Eggles- 
tons, Archers, Royalls, and Meades. 

The plate was kept by Joseph Eggleston, Sen. and Jr., till the death of the 
latter, and was sold by order of the court a few years after, in 1815* 

The Archer family is one of early settlement in Virginia, and of high respect- 
ability. Some of them formed a part of that happy and interesting circle of which 
Judge Tucker speaks as dwelling in York before the Revolutionary War. 


vestries, by some of the old families of Egglestons, Banisters, 
Tabbs, Archers, &c., for their own use. Although cold in winter, 
hot in summer, at all times dark and uncomfortable, (being high 
up, and near the roof,) yet such was the old family feeling of at- 
tachment to them on the part of the descendants of those who 
built and first occupied them, that even after it became somewhat 
unsafe to sit in them, being propped up with lareje poles and in 
other ways, they could not be induced to abandon them. This 
presented an obstacle for some time to remodelling and im praying 
other parts of the church ; and the attachment to the whole 
building, such as it was, though decaying and very uncomely and 
uncomfortable, for a long time stood in the way of a new and 
better one, 

At length old feelings were so much subdued as to permit a new 
one to be erected and the old one to be removed. The attachment 
to the old name, Grubhill, though neither classical nor scriptural, 
was so great, that not even a compromise, by which it should be 
called St. Paul's, Grubhill, would be accepted by those whose 
antiquarian feelings were distressed by the change of the name 
given it by their ancestors and so long in use. The history of the 
transaction is on the pages of the vestry-book. 

As names are not always things, we trust that the divine 
blessing will be as abundantly poured out on the religious services 
performed in it tinder the old and homely name of Grubhill, as of 
any other. Of the two extremes, an undue attachment to old 
things, or an undue fondness for new, we prefer the former, as most 
conservative ; but u medio tutissimus ibis." 

Having had access to the vestry-book of Raleigh parish, com- 
mencing in 1790, we are enabled to furnish a list of the vestry- 
men from that date. At an election at that time we find the 
name of William Giles, John Pride, Richard Eggleston, John Wiley, 
John Archer, Joseph Eggleston, Rowland Ward, John Towns, Jr., 
Daniel Hardaway, John Archer and Richard Eggleston being 
made churchwardens. From that time until the year 1827 there 
does not appear to have been any election of vestrymen, or any 
thing done in the parish. In that year the Rev. William F. Lee 
was elected minister, and the following gentlemen vestrymen : 
Hodijah Meade, John R Robertson, Charles Eggleston, T. R. 
Banister, W. A. Mileston, Benjamin L. Meade, W. J. Barksdale, 
William Murray ; to whom were added, at different times, John 
Booker, James Allen, Jaqueline Berkeley, Dr. Thomas Meaux, 
Dr. Skelton, Daniel Worsham, William Barksdale, Jr., Dr. Skelton, 


Jr., B. M. Jones, Thomas G. Tabb, Egbert Leigh, J. W. Lane, 
Thomson Walthall. Here my list ends. 

I have already said that the Rev. Mr. Lee, of whom I have 
spoken more fully in another place, became the minister in 182T. 
In the year 1835 the Rev, Farley Berkeley, the present minister, 
took charge of it, connecting with it the pastorship of either the 
church in Chesterfield, or that at Genito Bridge, in Powhatan, or 
sometimes of both. I see from the vestry-book, that he has ever 
insisted on an annual election, though the vestry protest against it 
as unnecessary, and record the same. How different from former 
days, when, though Governors, Commissaries, and clergy ever 
protested against annual elections, the vestries insisted on them. 
The difference arises from the great difference in the character of 
the clergy generally. I know of but one parish in the dioceso 
which follows this ancient custom, and peculiar circumstances in 
its past history led to this. The clergy of our day are ready to 
relinquish their charges the moment they believe their services 
are unacceptable and unprofitable, while the people are anxious to 
retain as long as possible the labours of a worthy, pious, and 
zealous minister. 

I have only to add, in relation to Raleigh parish, that the Rev. 
Mr. Chevers, a few years since, devoted himself very diligently to 
the effort at establishing the congregation at Chinquapin Church, 
but, after two years' faithful services, relinquished it as a hopeless 
task at the present time. "Non si male nune et olim sic erit" 


Nottoway county was separated from Amelia in the year 1788. 
Nottoway parish was established in the county of Amelia, being 
separated from Raleigh parish before the year 1752 and after the 
year 1748. There being no account of the Acts of Assembly for 
1749-51, in Henning, I am unable to decide the precise year. 
In the year 1754, and again in 1758, the Rev. "Win. Proctor was 
the minister, the same, no doubt, of whom mention is made in 
the vestry-book of Halifax. In the years 1773-74-76, the Rev. 
Thomas Wilkinson is the minister. Of him I have found a good 
account. The Rev. Mr. Jarratt informs us that Dr. Cameron was 
its minister for about two years after leaving Petersburg in 1793, 
but was obliged to resign for want of support. This was, no 
doubt, the last of Episcopal services in this parish, except some 
occasional ones of late years. As to the churches in this parish, 


all that I have been able to learn is from the Act of Assembly m 
1755, by which the parish of St. Patrick is established in the county 
of Prince Edward. It seems that the county of Prince Edward had 
been separated from Amelia the previous year, and from that part 
of it in which the parish of Nottoway lay, but no new parish was 
then cut off from it and established in Prince Edward. But now, 
in 1775, the parish of St. Patrick is taken from Nottoway and 
made to correspond with the bounds of Prince Edward. At a later 
period (1788) Nottoway county is established, corresponding, I pre- 
sume, with the bounds of old Nottoway parish in Amelia. The Act 
speaks of two new churches being recently built in the lower part 
of Nottoway parish, and requires the parish to refund a portion of 
the money which had been raised from the whole parish for their 
erection, to be refunded to the new parish in Prince Edward. Where 
these churches are situated, and what were their names, and what 
others had been there before, I am unable to say.* 


We have seen that the county was established in 1754 and the 
parish in 1755. In the year 1758 the Rev. James Garden is its 
minister. We find him there also in 1773, fifteen years after. In 
the years 1774 and 1776 the parish has no minister. In the years 
1777 and 1778 the Rev. Archibald McRoberts was the minister. 
We have already spoken of his relinquishment of our ministry in 
she year 1779. With his ministry Episcopal services no doubt 

* I have an old leaf from a vestry-book, without the name of the parish on it, ir, 
which I find the Eev. John Brunskill minister in 1753, Major Thomas Tabb and 
Major Peter Jones churchwardens, William Craioby, Wood Jones, William Archer, 
Richard Jones, and Samuel Cobb, vestrymen. This must certainly be a part of the 
old vestry-book of Raleigh parish, and Mr. Brunskill must have been its minister 
in 1753. In the following year (1754) he was certainly in another parish, and Mr, 
Bauson in this. He must have returned to this before the year 1773, or else one 
of the same name, for there were three John Brunskills in Virginia at this time. 

" In the year 1829 or 1830," writes a friend, "while riding with a friend from 
Prince Edward Court-House to Nottoway Court-House, I noticed, near to a farm- 
house on the road, a barn of singular appearance. * Yonder barn,' I remarked, 
'looks much like some of the old Colonial churches I have seen,' * It was a church 
of the Old Establishment,' was his reply. < The present owner of the farm, (which 
I think had been the glebe,) finding it vacant and on. land which was once a part of 
the tract he purchased, and as it was near his house, had it put on rollers and re- 
moved to its present position for the use you see. There was no one to forbid the 
sacrilege, or, if so, it was without avail ; but the act, I believe, is condemned by the 
general sentiment of this community as that of a coarse-minded, unscrupulous votary 
&f mammon.' " 


ceased in Prince Edward, as we see no representativej either clerical 
or lay, in any Convention. 

There were in Mr. McRoberts's time three churches in Prince 
Edward, one of which, or the congregation thereof, separated with 
him. Their names were 1st. The Chapel or Watkins's Church, 
about eighteen miles from Prince Edward Court-House, on the 
Lynchburg Road, which was the one whose congregation followed 
Mr. McRoberts in his movement toward an Independent Church. 
It is now occupied by different denominations. 2d. French's 
Church, which was about a mile from the court-house and is now 
gone down. 3d. Sandy River Church, on Sandy River, about 
eight miles from the court-house on the Petersburg Road. This 
last church is now, I am told, occupied by the Baptist denomination. 
I have in my possession a pamphlet of some twenty-two pages, 
containing an account of a controversy concerning it between the 
Methodists and Baptists in the years 1832-34. When deserted 
by the Episcopalians it had been repaired by general subscription, 
and at several different times occupied as a free church. In the year 
1832 the Baptists obtained a title to it and claimed sole right to it, 
though not refusing to allow the Methodists the use of it at su,*h 
times as the owners might choose. The Me Jiodists were unwilling 
to accept these terms, and much unhappy disputation ensued. At one 
time two ministers of each denomination met on the same day and 
were in the pulpit together, and the vote of the congregation as to 
who should preach was taken. The matter was referred to two 
men eminent in the law, Judge Thomas Bouldin and Mr. Charles 
Smith. They determined that the deed recently given to the 
Baptists was not good, that the one given to the churchwardens at the 
first creation of the church was the legal title, and that it belonged 
now to the Commonwealth of Virginh, unless there was an older 
and better title than that of those who made one to the church- 
wardens, and to this they were inclined, and therefore advised that 
the line be run in order to decide the point. A line was run, and 
it passed through the church ; and so a part of it only was legally 
the property of the churchwardens and afterward of the Common- 
wealth. The result was that the Baptists retained possession, 
though the Methodists maintained that a wall might be raised 
through the church according to the line run ; but it was not done. 
If either Mr. Chapman Johnson's opinion that the churches were 
the property of Episcopalians was true, or that of Judge Bouldiu 
and Mr. Smith, then, in the first case, the Episcopalians in the 
county ought to have been applied to to decide the question, or 


else the public authorities, either of which would, I think, have 
settled it more amicably and more to the honour of religion. Other 
unhappy disputes have occurred concerning our old churches in 
other places. I knew of one where, after much strife between two 
denominations, the church was set up by them to the highest bidder. 
Who gave the title, or what was it worth? About another, two 

O ' 

parties preached in different pulpits, one in the old Episcopal 
pulpit and the other in a new one in a different part of the church. 
So far from their being always respected as equally common 
property, I have myself been refused admission into one, while on 
an Episcopal visitation, by those who claimed it by the right of 
use. In relation to the suggestion that the Episcopalians in Prince 
Edward were the most proper persons to decide the question as to 
the occupancy of Old Sandy River Church, if it be said that there 
were scarcely any left unto whom application might have been made, 
I reply that, from all the information I have been able to get, there 
have always been some few of high respectability there. One at 
least there was, -whose firm attachment to the Church, yet catholic 
spirit to all others, and great weight of character, were felt and 
acknowledged by all. I allude to Mr. William Berkeley, son of 
the old lady of Hanover who bade the overseers of t\e poor who 
sent a deputation to her for the Communion-plate to- come them- 
selves and take it. He inherited all his mother's devotion to the 
Church, and when at our Conventions, and on other occasions, 
opportunity was presented for displaying it, never failed to do so. 
He was not, however, a bigot to a particular Church, but loved the 
whole Catholic Church. In evidence of which, being in the provi- 
dence of God placed beyond the reach of an Episcopal place of 
worship, and near the Presbyterian College in Prince Edward, he 
not only attended the religious services held there, but was an 
active member of the board of trustees thereof. For a long period 
of time he presided over that board, fulfilling the duties of his 
station faithfully, and yet always having it distinctly understood 
that he was a true son of the Episcopal Church. So amiable, 
pious, and dignified a Christian gentleman as he was is not easily 

In the list of vestrymen in Brunswick, Lunenburg, Halifax, and 
elsewhere, we meet with certain persons some of whose descendants 
are enrolled on other registers than those of the Episcopal Church, 
such as Read, Venable, Watkins, Carrington, Cabell, Morton, &c., 
and we know not where in the progress of our work we can more 
properly introduce some notice of them than in connection with 


Prince Edward county and the College of Hampden-Sydney. We 
have seen how the Presbyterians from Ireland and Scotland, settling 
first in Pennsylvania, began to emigrate to the Valley of Virginia 
about the year 1738, how, under Mr. Samuel Davies, they were 
established in Hanover and some parts around between 1740 and 
1750. From thence, in a short time, they found their way into 
what is now Charlotte and Prince Edward, and made strong and 
permanent settlements there. This was in a great measure effected 
by the establishment of Hampden-Sydney College, a brief history 
of which, taken from the Sketches of the Presbyterian Church of 
Virginia, by the Rev. Mr. Foote, will best enable us to understand 
the subject. In the year 1774 the ministers and members of the 
Presbytery of Hanover determine to establish a public school in 
that part of the State, Prince Edward, understanding that they 
can procure the services of Mr. Samuel Stanhope Smith, then a 
candidate for the ministry in the New Castle Presbytery, and 
teacher of languages in Princeton College, afterward the dis- 
tinguished President of the same. Sufficient funds being 'raised 
and a place selected, in November, 1774, Mr. Smith, with his 
brother, J. B. Smith, a candidate for the ministry, and a third 
person, are regularly chosen to commence the work. The first, 
being now ordained, was called also to the congregation in that 
place. Under this most eminent scholar and eloquent preacher 
and his yet more zealous and laborious brother, Mr. J. B. Smith, 
the institution flourished, notwithstanding all the obstacles of the 
war. In the year 1779 the elder brother resigned and accepted a 
jail to a professorship in Princeton College. The Presidency of 
Hampden-Sydney devolved upon his most excellent and devoted 
brother, J. B. Smith, who continued to promote its welfare and the 
religious interests of the country around until the year 1788, when 
he accepted a call to a church in Philadelphia. During the Presi- 
dency of the younger Mr. Smith a charter was obtained for the 

On the list of trustees we find names to which our eyes have 
become familiar on the pages of the old vestry-books, as those of 
Carrington, Nash, Watkins, Morton, Read, Booker, Scott, Meade, 
Allen, Parker, Foster, Johnson. Now, though some of them were 
doubtless still attached to the Episcopal Church, since it was de- 
clared at the outset that the institution should be conducted " on 
the most catholic plan," and it was the best policy to enlist general 
favour by appointing some of the Episcopal Church, yet a con- 
siderable number of them had doubtless given in their adhesion to 


the Presbyterian Church. Whereupon, ever since that time, we have 
found most of the above-mentioned names in each denomination 

Let these remarks introduce the following genealogy of the 
Reads and Carringtons, who may be regarded as common to the 
Episcopal and Presbyterian Churches of Virginia, though more of 
the former belonged to the Presbyterian and more of the latter to 
the Episcopal. I take them chiefly from the Rev. Mr. Foote's 
Sketches of the Presbyterian Church. 

Colonel Clement Read (so often mentioned as the active vestry- 
man in Brunswick and Lunenburg) was born in the year 1707. He 
was a trustee of William and Mary College in 1729. Being Presi- 
dent of the Council at the departure of Governor Gooch for Eng- 
land, in 1749, he became Governor of the Colony, but died a few 
days after. He had been educated at William and Mary under 
Commissary Blair. He married the daughter of William Hill, an 
officer in the British navy and second son of the Marquis of Lana- 
downe. Mr. Read, having, with Colonel Richard Randolph, of 
Curls, purchased large tracts of land in what was then Lunenburg, 
moved to that county and was clerk of the same for many years. 
He frequently served in the House of Burgesses with the great 
leaders of the Revolution. He died in the year 1763 and Wius 
buried at Bushy Forest. His wife was laid by his side in 1780. 
She was (says Mr. Foote) a pious woman and an exemplary member 
of the Episcopal Church. Their eldest son, Colonel Isaac Read, 
married a daughter of Henry Embra, (another vestryman of the 
Lunenburg Church,) who represented the county with his father, 
Clement Read. He himself represented the county with Paul 
Carrington, who married one of his sisters. They were both asso- 
ciated with Washington, Jefferson, and Henry in their patriotic 
movements. Paul Carrington was a zealous friend of the Episcopal 
Church. What were the partialities of Mr. Isaac Read, whether 
he followed in the footsteps of his father or not, we are unable to 
say. He was made colonel in a Virginia regiment, and soon after 
died, being laid with military honours in a vault in Philadelphia. 
He left a son by the name of Clement, who became a distinguished 
minister of the Presbyterian Church, after having for a time offi- 
ciated among the Methodists. He married a descendant of Poca- 
hontas, a Miss Edmonds, of Brunswick, by whom he had thirteen 

I take from the same source (Foote's Sketches) the following no- 
tice of the Carrington family, whose members abound in this part 
of Virginia. Mr. Paul Carrington and his wife (who was of the 


Henninghim family) emigrated from Ireland to Barbadoes, where 
he died early in the eighteenth century, leaving a widow and a 
numerous family of children. The youngest child, George, came to 
Virginia about the year 1727 with the family of Joseph Mayo, a 
Barbadoes merchant. Mr. Mayo purchased and occupied the an- 
cient seat of Powhatan, near the Falls of Jamestown. Young Car- 
riiigton lived for some years with Mr. Mayo as his storekeeper. 
About 1732, when in his twenty-first year, he married Anne, the 
eldest daughter of William Mayo, brother of Joseph, who had 
settled in Goochland. They went to reside on Willis's Creek, now 
in Cumberland county. They had eleven children, viz.: Paul, 
William, (who died in infancy,) George, William again, Joseph, 
Nathaniel, Henningham, Edward, Hannah, (who married a Cabell 
and was mother of Judge Cabell,) Mayo, Mary, (who married a 
Watkins.) The parents, George Carrington and his wife, both died 
in 1785. From them sprung the numerous families of Carringtons 
in Virginia ; and in the female line the descendants have been 
numerous. Their eldest child, Paul Carrington, married, as we 
have already said, the daughter of Colonel Clement Read, of Lu- 
nenburg, now Charlotte, who left a memory of great virtues. 
Their children were Paul, Clement, George, Mary, and Anne. Her 
youngest child, Paul, became Judge of the General Court of Vir- 
ginia, and died in 1816. The elder Paul Carrington was married 
a second time, to Miss Priscilla Sims. Two of their children died 
in infancy. The rest were Henry, Robert, Letitia, and Martha. A 
very interesting account is given of this, the elder Carrington, in 
Mr. Grigsby's book, the Convention of 1776. He was a member 
of that body, and filled various departments of duty during the 
Revolutionary struggle, while furnishing three sons to the army, 
two of whom were eminently distinguished. He was an able lawyer 
in his day, and after the close of the war was promoted to the 
General Court, and then to the Court of Appeals, where he was 
associated with his old friend, Edmund Pendleton, from whom he 
seldom if ever differed on all the great questions which came before 
them during the scenes of the Revolution. Agreeing with Pendle- 
ton on the subject of religion and in attachment to the Episcopal 
Church, when the question of the constitutionality of the law for 
selling the glebes came before the Court of Appeals, we find them 
united in giving their voice against the law. Mr. Grigsby informs 
us that " in middle life, and until the war of the Revolution was 
past, he was of a grave turn. Before the troubles began he had 
lost the bride of his youth. During the war, and when the Southern 


States were almost the reconquered Colonies of Britain, lie was 
never seen to smile. Day succeeded day in his domestic life, and 
not only was no smile seen to play upon his face, but hardly a 
word fell from his lips. He was almost overwhelmed with the 
calamities which assailed his country. But his latter years were 
cheered by its prosperity and glory. He died in the eighty-sixth 
year of his age." 

That some of the descendants of such men as Paul Carrington 
and Clement Read, born and living in Prince Edward and the 
counties around, should have forsaken a Church many of whose 
ministers had forsaken them in times of trial, or else proved most 
unworthy, is not to be wondered at, when we remember the ministers 
of the Presbyterian Church who were sent into Virginia, and were 
reared in it just before, during, and after the Revolution. Samuel 
Davies led the way. The two Smiths were men of superior abilities. 
Old David Rice was himself a host. Dr. Graham, Dr. Alexander, 
and Dr. Hodge, following soon after, and having the powerful influ- 
ence of a college in their hands, could not but make a deep im- 
pression on the public mind in all that region. It is not to be 
wondered at that Episcopalians should wish well to the institution, 
and that we should find among the trustees the names of Paul Car- 
rington, William Cabell, Sr., James Madison, General Everard 
Meade. and others, who with their families were attached to the 
Episcopal Church, and so many of whose descendants have con- 
tinued so to be. It was, in opposition to some fears expressed at 
the time, most solemnly pledged that it should not be a sectarian 
proselyting institution, though the forms of the Presbyterian Church 
vyould be observed in it; and the fact that Episcopalians have 
often been in some measure concerned, as trustees or professors, in 
its management, proves that the pledge has been redeemed as far 
as perhaps is practicable in such institutions. The long and pros- 
perous Presidency over it by the late Mr. Gushing, whose memory 
is held in respect by all who knew him, and who, although a member 
of the Episcopal Church, enjoyed the confidence of the trustees of 
the College, and the fact that the Rev. Mr. Dame, of Danville, and 
Colonel Smith, of Lexington, with their well-known Episcopal 
attachments, were professors in the institution, are proofs that it 
was conducted in as catholic a spirit as circumstances would admit 
of. Whether in the lapse of time any change has taken place in its 
constitution or administration, I am unable to say. 

The articles in which the Presbyterian Church has been spoken 


of having been read by a gentleman well versed in its history, he 
has kindly sent me the following letter : 

" RIGHT KEV. AND DEAR SIR: I have lately read your articles on 
Lunenburg, Charlotte, Halifax, Prince Edward, &c. with special interest, 
as my early years were spent in the latter county, where my maternal rela- 
tives reside, and who were connected with many families in the other 


counties mentioned, by blood, or affinity, or religious sympathy. ^ 
papers embody much that I have often heard, with considerable additions. 
Knowing that, while traversing this region, "Incedis per ignes, suppo- 
sitos cineri doloso," I must needs be curious to see how you would bear 
yourself, and I cannot refrain from intimating my admiration of the spirit 
in which you have handled a somewhat difficult theme. I will even add 
something more in this connection, reflections occasioned by your notices, 
and which I must beg you to excuse, if at all trenching on propriety. 

"My mother, as you may have heard, though firmly attached to her 
own faith and Church, has a sincere, and, of late years, growing, respect 
for that over which you preside. I read your articles above mentioned to 
her, and while she was pleased with their spirit, she is ready to confirm most 
of the facts, saying of that concerning Prince Edward in particular, l It 
is all true; and he might have added more in the same strain.' 

"The decline of Episcopacy in that region was no doubt hastened by 
the causes to which you have adverted, such as the defection of one 
minister, the character of others, the rise of Hampden-Sydney College, 
&c. $ but the falling off of certain families, whose influence ultimately 
gave a caste to religious opinion, was prepared long before. Thus, Anne 
Michaux, daughter of one of the original refugees, and who, having fled 
from France on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, settled at Manakin, 
married Richard Woodson, Esq., of Poplar Hill, Prince Edward, some- 
times called Baron "Woodson on account of his iarge possessions. This 
lady, to whom I referred in my former letter, lived herself to a great age, 
but of a numerous offspring only two daughters survived, one of whom 
was married to Nathaniel Venable, son of that Alvan Venable whom you 
have mentioned as one of the vestrymen of a parish in Louisa, the other 
to Francis Hopkins, Esq., clerk of Prince Edward. The tradition of Mrs. 
Woodson's many virtues is preserved among her numerous descendants to 
this day. Her strong character and devoted piety appear to have made 
un indelible impression on such of them' as had the happiness to know her. 
And this it was, I believe, that gave them a respect not only for religion 
in general, but a bias toward that particular type of Protestantism of which 
she was so brilliant an ornament. 

"Joseph Morton, the ancestor of the most numerous branch of the 
Mortons, of Charlotte, married a sister of Richard Woodson. The pro- 
genitor of the Mortons of Prince Edward and Cumberland married a Mi- 
chaux. Other families of Scots or Scotch-Irish and Huguenot race were 
settled in both counties. But the families of Tenable and Watkins, and 
afterward the Reads, of Charlotte, did not become thoroughly Scotched 
until the tide of Presbytery, which had now set in from Hanover through 
Cumberland, was met in that county by a corresponding wave from the 
Valley through Bedford. The rise of the College, which was in part tfie 
effect of this movement, became the cause of its increase, and this institu- 
tion, together with the Theological Seminary, may be said to have com- 


pletcd it. That the spiritual children of Calvin and Knox should have 
formed an alliance under such circumstances was perhaps natural. But 
that a portion of the Garringtons should more recently have taken the same 
direction may be ascribed in some measure to the influence of family 

" I must say, however, that I have never regarded eitlier the Venables 
or Watkinses as ' bigots to Presbytery 1 as such. And in this connection it 
would be false delicacy in me to refrain from stating a fact which wan 
notorious in that county. The leading- mind in that whole region, whether 
among the clergy or laity, was that of Colonel Samuel W. Venable, (eldest 
son of Colonel Nathaniel Venable above mentioned,) and of whom you will 
find some notice in the memoir of Dr. Alexander, of Princeton. Two of 
his brothers, Abraham and Richard, were known as public characters, 
while he remained in private life; but they always veiled their pretensions 
in his presence, partly from affection, but more from deference to the 
ascendent intellect and acknowledged wisdom of their elder brother, which 
impressed all who approached him. His early life, it is believed, was 
unstained as to morality; but, although an alumnus of Princeton, ifc WUH 
not until after the Revolution that he gave in his adhesion to the religion 
of his mother and grandmother, which had now also become that of his 
wife. He had fought bravely in the war, and was a decided republican in 
his political sentiments. Would it be too much to suppose that his settled 
hostility to the spirit of the English Government had somewhat jaundiced 
his view of the Constitution of her Church ? Colonel V. was eminently a 
practical man, a stern patriot and friend of good order in society, public 
spirited, and a patron of all improvement. Now, the bitter waters of infi- 
delity, which had begun to appear in other parts of the State, were not 
unknown there, and on the outbreak of the French Revolution society in 
Virginia was menaced as it were with a deluge of false philosophy and its 
train of evils. It was to stem this tide that lie and those who co-operated 
with him set themselves. It was not for a party that he contended, but 
for the substance of Christianity itself, which he believed to be in peril. 
As this was essential to the very existence of free society, all other ques- 
tions were regarded as secondary. His numerous engagements did not 
permit him to enter deeply into any scriptural investigation of the relative 
claims of the different forms of Church Government * and, had ifc bean 
otherwise, there were few to aid or sympathize with him." 



Parishes in Cumberland, Buckingham, and Fluvanna. St. 

James Southam, Cumberland. 

Iisr 1745, Southam parish was cut off from St. James Northam, 
in Goochland county, which county then extended over James 
River and to the Appomattox. That on the south side of James 
River was called Southam parish. Southam parish is now in Pow^ 
hatan county, which was separated at a later date from Cumberland. 

A vestry-book of this parish, whose record began in 1745 and 
continued until 1791, furnishes the following particulars. On June 
30, 1746, the Rev. John Robertson enters upon his duties in this 
parish, being recommended by Governor Grooch and Commissary 
Dawson, having been ordained the previous year by the Bishop of 
London. He ceased to be minister in 1751. Mr. McClaurine is 
then received on probation for twelve months, and continues until 
his death in 1772. Mr. Jarratt, in his autobiography, speaks of 
him as a pious man.* The Rev. Jesse Carter, James Oglesby, and 
Hyde Saunders, at the death of Mr. McClaurine, became applicants 
for the parish, each preaching some time. Mr. Saunders is chosen 
in November, 1773, and continues so to be until the year 1791, 
when the record ends. In the year 1793 he also appears on the 
journal of the Convention for the first and only time. Nothing 
more is heard of the parish until the Rev. Mr. Lee took it under 
his care in connection with Goochland and Amelia, in the year 
1827, The Rev. Farley Berkeley, who succeeded Mr. Lee, has 
also connected a new church at Genito, in Powhatan, with the 
church in Amelia. For the last eleven years the Rev. Mr. Fisher 
has been the minister of Southam parish, preaching at Emanuel 
and St. Luke's Churches, each of which have been built since the 

* Of Mr. McClaurine, other favourable accounts of Ms piety and great benevo- 
lence have come to me. He preached at TarWallett, ManaMn, and Peterville 
Churches: beneath the chancel-floor of the latter he was buried. He was the first 
of his name in Virginia. He left three sons and three daughters, two of whom 
lived and died in Cumberland, and the third at Norfolk, during the last war. Of 
the daughters, one married a Hobson, another a Swann, and the third a Steger. 
Their mother was a Miss Blakely, from the Eastern Shore of Virginia. 

VOL. II. 3 


commencement of his ministry. He has recently relinquished the 
care of one of them, which has connected itself with a congregation 
in Littleton parish, Cumberland, St. Luke's being in Powhatan, 


The first church determined on was on Tear or Tar Wallett Hill 
The church has long oeen called Tar Wallett. It was built on the 
land of Daniel Coleman, in what is now Littleton parish, Cumber- 
land. The next was ordered to be on James Eiver, on Thomas 
Carter's land. The next to be at or near the reading-place called 
Worley's. At the same time Peterville Church is spoken of as 
having a reader, and another chapel, called Ham, is ordered to be 
examined. These last were doubtless built before the division of 
the parish. Additions are made at different times to some of these 
churches, as to those of Tear Wallett and South Chapel. Mr. 
Alexander Trent is allowed to build a gallery for his family. Ni- 
cholas Davies and Carter Henry Harrison are allowed to put addi- 
tions to Ham Chapel for their families. John Mayo and Benjamiu 
Moseby are allowed to build galleries in Peterville Church for their 

The vestry appears to have performed their duty in regard to a 
glebe and glebe-houses for the ministers, and to have complied witk 
a law forbidding a vestryman to be a lay reader, by displacing twc 
who were lay readers, or rather by accepting their resignation 
A lay reader of disorderly behaviour is also summoned to answer 
to the vestry. 

The following is a list of the vestrymen : William Randolph, 
probably the second of that name ; George Carrington, probably 
the first of that name who settled on Willis Creek ; (these were 
the first churchwardens ;) Alexander Trent, James Barnes, James 
Terry, Benjamin Harrison, Charles Anderson, Samuel Scott, Ste- 
phen Bedford, Thomas Turpin, John Baskerville, (in 1748, in room 
of William Randolph, removed,) Benjamin Harris, (in place of 
Benjamin Harrison, resigned,) Archibald Cary, Thomas Davenport, 
(in place of Archibald Cary, removed in 1750,) Abraham Sally, 
William Barnit, Creed Haskins, Wade Netherland, Alexander 
Trent, Jr., John Fleming, Thompson Swann, Littlebury Moseby, 
Henry Macon, Roderick Easly, John Netherland, Maurice Lang 
home, John Railey, George Carrington, Jr., Edward Haskins, 
John Mosely, John Hughes, Edmund Logwood, William Mayo, 
Richard Crump, George Williamson, William Ronald, Edmund 


Vaughan, Peter F. Archer, William Bentley, Edward Carrington, 
Brett Randolph. The clerks or lay readers were Messrs. Hubbard, 
Anderson, Terry, Turpin, &c. 


This was separated from Southam parish in the year 1771. Its 
early history is very brief, at least such of it as has corne down to 
us. The Rev. Christopher Macrae appears on our lists of clergy as 
minister of Littleton parish, Cumberland, in the years 1773-74-76, 
and 1785 ; after which he appears no more. In the next year Mr. 
Mnyo Carrington appears as the lay delegate, without any clerical 
representation. In the year 1790 lie appears again with the Rev. 
Elkanah Talley as the minister. He continues the minister for 
A hree years, and then removes to Ware parish, Gloucester. In 
1797 the parish is represented by two laymen, Alexander Brand 
and James Deane. In the year 1799 the Rev. James Dickenson 
and Mr. Alexander Trent are in the Convention. There being no 
journal, and perhaps no Convention, between 1799 and 1805, and 
none between 1805 and 1812, and having no other means of in- 
formation, we are unable to say how long Mr. Dickenson continued 
in the parish, or whether he had any successor until some time after 
the revival of the Church commenced. Still, there were laymen 
there who, at the first signs of reviving life, came forward to de- 
clare their readiness to help on the good cause. In the first of 
our renewed Conventions that of 1812 Mr. Codrington Carring- 
ton is the delegate, and, in 1813, Mr. Samuel Wilson. 

A long interval again appears where all seemed hopeless. At 
length, in 1843, the Rev. Mr. Kinckle takes charge of it in con- 
nection with some other of the waste places around. He is suc- 
ceeded in 1844 by the Rev, Mr. Bulkley, who, after some years, 
was succeeded in part by the present minister, the Rev. Mr. Mere- 
dith, :vho, in connection with the church in Buckingham, serves 
the congregation at Ca-Ira. Of the ministers yet alive it is net 
my purpose in these sketches to speak. Of those whom we have 
named as the ministers of this parish before 1800 we know nothing, 
either by report or otherwise, with the exception of Mr. Elkanah 
Talley and Mr. Macrae. Of the former we have spoken elsewhere 
in terms which it was our regret to use. Of the latter the testimony 
of those who ought to have known him best is most satisfactory. He 
was by birth and education a Scotchman, probably ordained about 
1765 by the Bishop of London. He was a man of prayer, retiring 
from his family three time? a day for purposes of private devotion 


and study. He was a Scotchman, and not a modern Virginian, 
in his notions and habits of governing his children and the boys 
committed to his care, and was therefore complained of as too 
strict. He did not enter with spirit into the American Revolution, 
and was suspected of favouring the other side, though he said and 
did nothing, so far as we can learn, to give just offence. He had 
a right to a conscientious opinion on the subject ; but the temper 
of the times did not allow this, and some violent young men either 
waylaid him at night or took him out of his bed, and severely 
chastised him, leaving him naked in the woods. Tradition says 
that he was prudent in the affair, and never opened his lips in the 
way of complaint or sought to find out his nocturnal and cowardly 
assailants, well knowing that it was too good a story to be kept 
secret, and that if he did not they would reveal it. Accordingly, 
in due time, they boasted of the deed and were witnesses against 
themselves. They were summoned before a tribunal of justice, 
which did not allow any patriotic feeling to prevent the punishment 
of such an outrage. A heavy fine was accordingly inflicted upon 
them. Patrick Henry, who was then in the Legislature, being 
well acquainted with Mr. Macrae, took some public occasion to 
animadvert upon the conduct of these young men, and spoke in 
the highest terms of Mr. Macrae. The sons of Mr. Macrae, I be- 
lieve, are all dead, but three daughters and grandchildren are yet 
alive, and love the Church and the religion of their fathers.* 

* The following is an extract from a letter received from one of the daughters 
of Mr. Macrae : 

"We were young at the time of our father's death, and regret not being able tc 
give a more satisfactory history of his life. He was educated in Edinburgh, I be- 
lieve, at the same college with Beattie, author of the celebrated Hermit. They 
were classmates, and corresponded in after-life. A professorship was offered him 
as soon as he graduated, and he was told all that would be required waa that ho 
should sign his belief in the Confession of Faith. He said he had never read it, but 
would do so immediately. On perusing the volume, there wore portions he could 
not conscientiously subscribe. He therefore came to America, and settled in Surrey 
county, Virginia, where his health failed, and during that attack he became io. 
terested on the subject of religion, returned to England, and was ordained by the 
Bishop of London ; came back to Surrey county, (where he married Miss Harris, in 
1778, the daughter of Mr. John Harris, one of his vestry,) where he laboured for 
several years. His own and family's ill health determined him to remove to Cum- 
berland county, where he preached for many years at Tar Wallott and Turkey 
Cock. During the Revolutionary War he was called out to visit (the messenger said) 
a dying neighbour who was anxious to see him. He had not proceeded a milo from 
home, when three men, armed with clubs, assailed and knocked him off his horsa, 
The servant that accompanied him rode with speed to friends, who came immediately 
to his rescue. They left, supposing he would not survive. One of the men waa 


I have no record from which to derive the names of vestrymen 
or their doings in this parish. I know nothing of its former 

killed, on that very spot, by a tobacco-hogshead, and another revealed the whole 
matter just before he was hung for some capital offence. A petition was sent to 
the Legislature, then in session at Williamsburg, praying that he, Mr. Macrae, 
might be banished. Patrick Henry instantly rose, and said that there were many 
fictitious names on that paper ; that he knew Mr. Macrae intimately, and that if he 
was banished they would lose one of their best citizens ; he hoped nothing would 
be done till he could send an express to Cumberland, who returned with a counter- 
petition, signed by the most respectable portion of the community, praying that he 
might remain with them ; which was granted. Letters were put in the pulpit 
threatening his life if he ever dared to preach there again, but he knew no fear 
when in the path of duty, and never in a single instance omitted going to church. 
The Bev. Christopher Macrae died at his residence in Powhatan county, on the 22d 
of December, 1808, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. Dr. Cameron preached his 
funeral sermon." 

Parson Buchanon has often lamented to us that his brother Macrae would not 
consent to be nominated as Bishop. He gave his advanced age as the reason for 

We have received an old manuscript sermon of Mr. Macrae, on the death of 
Colonel George Carrington and his lady, who died in the year 1785, within a few 
days of each other. We have already spoken of this, the first of Carringtons in 
Virginia, and of his wife Anna, daughter of Mr. William Mayo, one of the two 
brothers who first came to this country ; but it is due to departed worth, and piety 
to add the following testimony from the pulpit. The text is from the 35th Psalm, 
37th verse : " Mark the perfect man and behold the upright, for the end of that 
man is peace." The sermon itself, I am very sorry to say, is too much like those 
so common at that day, which, while containing no heretical doctrines, and some- 
times having passages recognising the true ones, yet are of the moralizing rather 
than of the evangelical cast. For instance, although in one place, and in one only, he 
speaks of "a firm affiance and unshaken confidence in the mercy of God through 
Christ," yet he often speaks in a manner well calculated to encourage the belief that 
virtue and integrity must be our reliance. He quotes from Pope, " The soul's calm 
sunshine and the heartfelt joy are virtue's prize ;" says that " Heaven is our reward for 
a well-spent life ;" that " peace is the result of integrity of life ;" that " peace and 
serenity of mind can only be secured by a virtuous life ;" of the "reward due to 
our actions." Now, I doubt not but that some had juster views of the plan of salva- 
tion than the language used by them would seem to indicate, and that they intended 
more by virtue, and goodness, and integrity, than is due to such words ; but, after 
all the allowance that charity can make, we must acknowledge that there was a 
dreadful deficiency of the Gospel in such preaching, and that sermons of that cast 
would never awaken sinners to a sense of their lost condition and conduct them to 
a Saviour. With these remarks, which truth and fidelity require of me, I proceed 
to the close and application of the sermon : 

" Having TIOW done with the text, give me leave to observe, that though I very 
rarely say any thing concerning the character of a departed friend [an honest ex- 
ample, worthy of imitation] on any occasion, I thought it not consistent with duty 
to pass over the character of persons so eminently distinguishable for the practice 
of piety and virtue, as our worthy departed friends, Colonel Carrington and his 
lady, without recommending their exemplary life as a pattern of imitation to those 


diurches, except that old Tar Wallett has long been in the service 
of other denominations. Two new ones, one at Ca-Ira and another 
near Cartersville, have been erected of late years, and are in con- 
stant use. 


These come next in geographical order, although not taken from 
Cumberland county and Littleton parish. 

At the time that Albemarle county and St. Anne's parish, in 
the same, were separated from Goochland, they comprehended all 
that is now Buckingham, Pluvanna, Nelson, and Amherst, as well 
as Albemarle. In the year 1757, Tillotson parish was separated 
from St. Anne's parish, and, in the year 1761, the county of Buck- 
ingham was taken from Albemarle. 

We have a list of ministers for 1758, the year after the parish 
was formed, but there is none belonging to it. Our next list is 
for 1778, when the Rev. Mr. Peasly is "minister, and continues to 
be in the years 1774 and 1776. How much longer, if at all, or 
who, if any, succeeded, is not known, as there are no records until 

who survive them. I have had the pleasure of being personally acquainted with them 
both for more than twelve years past, and can confidently affirm that they have always 
appeared to me to be as punctual and exact in the performance of the duties of their 
several stations, as it is possible for persons clothed with flesh and blood to be. 
And I have reason to believe, from general report and the relation of their ac- 
quaintances, that the same uniformity of conduct and regularity of life had always 
secured to them an unexceptionable good character in the opinion of all good men 
of their acquaintance ; of which they have left sufficient proof in the world in a 
numerous offspring, (eleven children,) who all behave themselves as children of 
such worthy parents. They were generous and charitable without ostentation, and 
religious without noise. The gentleman filled the chair of a legislator with the 
integrity of a Cato, and that of a magistrate with the justice of an Aristides. All 
the public offices which he undertook (and they were many) he filled with credit 
and discharged with honour. His benevolent disposition enabled him to serve the 
public with so much punctuality and exactness, when there was no prospect of any 
other reward but the pleasure of doing good, that it is rare to meet with an instance 
of the same kind in an age. I have reason to conclude that both our departed 
friends had many friends, and no foes if any but such as a good man would be 
ashamed to number among his friends. They had as many virtues and an few fail- 
ings as we can expect to meet with in any of Adam's fallen race ; and, in short, I 
know not whether I ever knew two characters more perfect that were heads of the 
same family. It is certain they were both an ornament to human nature, an 
honour to their country, and a blessing to their neighbourhood. Time would fail me 
to erumerate their good qualities : suffice it, therefore, to observe that their lives 
were truly exemplary, and that it is our duty to imitate their virtues, that we may 
after death partake of their felicity, which, I firmly hope, they do now, and ever 
will enjoy through the endless ages of eternity,'" 


1785, nine years after. JSTo delegation then appears, and the 
name of Tillotson disappears from the journal until the year 1830, 
when the Rev. Mr. Osgood, minister of Moore parish, Campbell 
county, reports some services in it. In the year 1833, the Rev. 
Mr. Swift was there. In the year 1838, the Rev. Mr. Gofer, how 
long before or after we have not the present means of ascertaining. 
In the year 1845, the Rev. Mr. Meredith appears as its minister, 
and has continued so to the present time. A new church has been 
erected in this parish, which now stands at Ourdsville, having been 
originally placed a few miles from its present site, but recently 
removed to its present more convenient position. 

No vestry-book remains to furnish the names of the old vestry- 
men and families of this parish. 

There were two old churches in Buckingham. At one of them, 
called Goodwin, near the court-house, we have officiated. The 
locality of the other we cannot specify, but think that it was 
somewhere near the Methodist Female College. 


These were separated at the same time by an Act of Assembly, 
in 1777, from Albemarle county and St. Anne's parish. Just 
entering on the war, during which little or nothing was done, even 
in the old parishes, it is doubtful whether a vestry was elected or 
any steps taken toward building a church. At any rate, there is 
no record of it. The following extract, from the letter of a friend 
to whom I applied for information, tells nearly all that is known 
of this parish : 

"Our annals do not go far back. From 1835 to 1849 we were con- 
nected with St. James parish, Goochland. At the Convention of 1849 
we were admitted into union with it, as Kivanna parish.* Our first minis- 
ter was the Rev. Mr. Pleasants in 1835, and, I think, the first who ever 
preached statedly in the county. He only remained about three months. 
The next was the Rev. Mr. Doughen, who remained less than two years. 
He was followed by the Rev. J. P. B. Wilmer in 1838 and 1839. He 
was succeeded by the Rev. R. H. Wilmer in April, 1839, who continued 
until the fall of 1S43. The Rev. J. P. B. Wilmer returned to the parish 
and continued until Easter, 1849. After our separation from Qooohland. 
the Rev. Lewis P. Clover was with us from October, 1850, to April, 1852. 
The Rev. Mr. Eulkley succeeded him, and was with us from July, 1852, 
to December, 1855. The only Episcopal Church which has ever been in 

* The name given it by Act of Assembly, in 1777, was Fluvanna parish. Per* 
hap? this fact was not known or taught of at the time of its new name 


the county is St. John's, Columbia, which was consecrated on the 80th 
of July, 1850. The only Episcopal families prior to 1885 were the Carys 
and General Cocke's. 

Since that time the two Mr. Gralts, Mr. Archy Harrison's, Mr. 
Bryant's, Mr. Brent's, and a goodly number of other families, 
been added. 



FrederictoviUe and Trinity Parishes., in Louisa and Albemark 


AFTER the separation of Louisa county from Hanover, in the 
year 1742, and of Fredericks ville parish, Louisa, from St. Martin's, 
Hanover, the parish of Fredericksville was enlarged by taking in 
a part of Albemarle lying north and west of the Kivanna. After 
some years Fredericksville parish was divided into Fredericksville 
and Trinity, the former being in Albemarle and the latter in Louisa, 
We first treat of it in its enlarged and undivided state. It was then 
without a place of worship, except an old mountain-chapel (age not 
known) where Walker's Church afterward stood. The first meeting 
of the vestry was in 1742, The vestry-book has some documents 
worthy of introduction as historical antiquities. They were the 
tests required of vestrymen at that period of England's history: 

" I. Oath of Allegiance. 

"I, A. B., do sincerely promise and swear that I will be faithfdl and 
bear true allegiance to his Majesty King George the Second, so help me 

" Oath of Abjuration. 

" I, A. B., do swear that I do from my heart abhor, detest, and abjure, 
as impious and heretical, that damnable doctrine and position that Princes 
excommunicate or deprived by the Pope, or any authority of the See of 
Home, may be deposed or murdered by their subjects or any other what- 
soever. And I do declare that no foreign Prince, Prelate, Person, State, 
or Potentate, hath, or ought to have, any jurisdiction, power, superiority, 
pre-eminence, or authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this realm. 
So help me God. 

"II. Oath of Allegiance. 

" I, A. B., do truly and sincerely acknowledge and promise, testify and 
declare, in my conscience, before God and the world, that our sovereign 
Lord, King George the Second, is lawful and rightful King of this realm 
and all other his Majesty's dominions and countries hereunto belonging; 
and I do solemnly and sincerely declare that I do believe in my conscience 
that the person pretended tc be Prince of Wales during the life of the late 
King James, and since his decease pretending to be, and taking upon 
himself the style and title of, the King of England, or by the name of 
7 ames the Third, or of Scotland by the name of James the Eighth, or the 


style and title of King of Great Britain, hath not any right whatsoever to 
the crown of this realm, or any other dominions hereto belonging. And 
I do renounce, refuse, and abjure any allegiance or obedience to him, and 
I do swear that I will bear faithful and true allegiance to his Majesty 
King George the Second, and him will defend to the utmost of my power 
against all traitorous conspiracies and attempts whatsoever which shall be 
made against his person, crown, or dignity; and I will do my utmost to 
endeavour to disclose and make known to his Majesty and his successors 
all treasonable and traitorous conspiracies which I shall know to be against 
him, or any of them; and I do faithfully promise to the utmost of my 
power to support, maintain, and defend the successor of the crown against 
him, the said James, and all other persons whatsoever, which succession, 
by an Act entitled ' An Act for the further limitation of the crown and 
better securing the rights and liberties of the subjects/ is, and stands 
limited to, the Princess Sophia, late Eleotress and Duchess-Dowager of 
Hanover, and the heirs of her body, being Protestants; and all other these 
things I do plainly and sincerely acknowledge and swear, according to 
these express words by me spoken, and according to the plain and common- 
sense understanding of the same words, without any equivocation, mental 
evasion, or secret reservation whatsoever; and I do make this recognition, 
acknowledgment, abjuration, renunciation, and promise, heartily, willingly, 
and truly, upon the true faith of a Christian, so help me God. 





" I do declare that I do believe that there is not any transubstantiation 
in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, or in the Elements of bread and 
wine at or after the consecration thereof by any person whatsoever." 

Prom the foregoing it is evident that the apprehension of Popery 
and the success of the Pretender was quite strong, and that the 
English. Okurch. and Government endeavoured, not only at home, 
but in the Colonies, through her officers, to guard most effectually 
against both. 

Those who signed the above tests were the first vestrymen after 
the organization of the parish in 1742. The following were added 
*v different times until the division of the parish in 1702 : Thomas 
Walker, John Meriwether, Nicholas Meriwether, David Mills, 
Robert Harris, Robert Anderson, Tyree or Tyrce Harris, William 
Johnson, John Harvie, Thomas Johnson, 

After the division, a new vestry was elected from Fredericks ville 
parish. Some of the old ones continued, and others were added, as 
Moriaa Jones, Isaac Davis, Thomas Caw, William Barksdale, John 
Foster, Hezekiah Rice, Robert Clark, Nicholas Lewis, and at differ- 


ent times afterward John Walker, Henry Fry, Thomas Jefferson,* 
William Tims, John Rodes, John Harvie, Mordecai Ford, Isaac 
Davis, James Quarles, William Dalton, Dr. George Gilmer, David 
Hooks, James Marks, Thomas Walker, Jr., Robert Michie, James 
Minor, Peter Clarkson, William Michie, Reuben Tinsley, Francis 
Walker, George Nicholas, Joseph Tunstall, William D. Meriwether. 
The last election of vestrymen was in 1787 ; and the last act r>i - 
corded in the vestry-books was the election of Mr. John Walker as 
lay delegate to the Convention of that year. 

Having thus drawn from our record all that relates to the vestry- 
men, we will return and gather up whatever else is worthy of notice. 

There being no churches in the parish, the services were held at 
Louisa Court- House and at various private houses at different points 
in the county. These were performed by lay readers on Sundays, 
and for some years by the Rev. Mr. Barrett, from Hanover, twenty- 
four times in the year during the days of labour, three hundred and 
twenty pounds of tobacco being paid for each sermon. In the year 
1745 it was determined to build three frame churches, one in some 
central place in Louisa county, called the Lower Church, and some- 
times Trinity Church ; another in Albemarle, called Middle Church, 
and which was doubtless the same with Walker's Church; and the 
third between the mountains on the Buckniountain Road, which is 
doubtless the same with that now called Buckmountain Church., 
Each of these was built at different times during the few following 
years. In the year 1763 another church was resolved on nearer 
to Orange, whether built or not I cannot say. In the year 1747 
the Rev. Mr. Arnold was chosen for one year, and continued until 
his death, in 1754, when his funeral was preached by Mr. Barrett. 

* Mr. Jefferson, then living at Shadwell Mills, on the west side of the Bivanna, 
was in Fredericksville parish, and appears to have been an active vestryman for 
some years. Himself and Nicholas Meriwether were ordered to lay off xwo acres 
of land including a space around Walker's Church, land given by Mr. Walker, 

Of the Walkers, four of whom appear repeatedly on the vestry-book, I have only 
been able to obtain the following notices. Dr. Thomas Walker is believed to have 
been the first discoverer of Kentucky in 1750. In 1755 he was with Washington 
at Braddock's defeat. In 1775 he was one of the committee of safety appointed 
by the Convention of 1775 on the breaking out of the troubles with England. He 
was also repeatedly a member of the General Assembly. 

Colonel John Walker, his eldest son, was for a short time aid to General Washing- 
ton during the war. He was also for a short time a member of the Senate of the 
United States. Colonel Francis Walker, the youngest son, was repeatedly member 
of the State Legislature, and represented the counties of Albemarle and Grange ID 
Congress from 1791 to 1795. 


A Kev. Mr. Beckett then performed some services in the parish, as 
also the Rer. James Maury, who became the minister in the same 
year, and who married a Miss Walker. Soon after he settled in 
the parish a good glebe of four hundred acres was purchased for 
him, near Captain Linsey's, and a parsonage built, which, with the 
outhouses and other improvements, seem during his life to have 
been well attended to by the vestry. In the year 1763 the parish 
was divided into Trinity, in Louisa, and Fredericksville, in Albe- 
marle. Of Trinity we now lose sight altogether, I fear, as I know 
of no source from which to obtain information. By an Act of the 
Legislature the vestry of Predericksville was ordered to pay two 
hundred pounds half the price of their glebe to the new vestry 
of Trinity for the purchase of a glebe. 

The Eev. James Maury continued until his death, in 1770, to 
officiate in this parish. Of him and his Huguenot ancestors I have 
written in my article on Manakintown, of him particularly in my 
notices of the Option Law, or Two-Penny Act, and in my remarks 
on toleration. He was a very deserving man. He was succeeded 
by his son, Matthew Maury, who was ordained the preceding year. 
Mr. Matthew Maury continued to be the minister of the parish 
until his death, in 1808, though his name does not appear on the 
vestry-book as receiving a salary after the year 1777. Prom that 
time forward he received little or nothing for his services as a 
minister. He retained the glebe for the benefit of his mother and 
family, who lived on it, while he taught school on an adjoining farm, 
and educated a large number of the citizens of Virginia. He lived 
very near to, and on the most intimate terms with, the old blind 
preacher, Mr. Waddell, who officiated at the death of his wife, there 
being no Episcopal minister at that time in any of the surrounding 
counties, and but few in the State.* 

* The Kev. James Maury, father of Matthew Maury, had twelve children, Mat- 
thew, James, Walker, Abraham, Benjamin, Richard, Fontaine, Ann, Mrs. Strahan, 
Mrs. Barrett, Mrs. Lewis, Mrs. Eggleston, His son James was the old consul at 
Liverpool, filling that station for forty-five years, and leaving five children. His eon 
Matthewraised ten children, Matthew, Thomas Walker, Francis, Fontaine, Reuben, 
John, Mrs. Miehie, Mrs. Fry, Mrs. Lightfoot, Elizabeth Walker. His son Walker 
was a teacher of youth in Williamsburg, Norfolk, and Albemarle, also a minister 
in Norfolk for a short time. His children were James, William, Leonard, Mrs. 
Kite, Mrs. Hay, and Mrs. Polk. Space, if not time, would fail us, even if we had 
the information, to mention the names of all the descendants of the old patriarch, 
the Rev. James Maury. They are scattered all over our land, and are to be found 
in various professions One of them is a worthy minister of our Church in Ken- 
tucky, while two are married to worthy clergymen, the Rev. Mr. Berkeley, cf 
Lexington, Kentucky, and Rev. Mr. Nash, of Ohio. Another descendant presides 


Before we make our brief mention of the ministers of this parish, 
since the revival of the Church during the present century, a few 
words are due to the two old churches at Walker's and Buckmoun- 
tain, which we have said were determined upon in the year 1745, 
and built within a year or two afterward. Old Walker's Church, 
built upon the site of a still older and ruder house, stood on the 
side of the road from Orange Court-House to Charlottesville, at the 
end of a noble avenue of oaks now no more leading down to Mr. 
Walker's old seat, Belvoir, itself no more, having been consumed 
by fire, but for a long time the seat of hospitality, especially 
to ministers and persons coming to church from a distance. The 
church being of wood a framed one of course must decay much 
sooner than one of more solid material. 

In the year 1827, when Judge Hugh Nelson, Mr. William 0. 
Rives, and Dr. Page, occupied their old seats, (having married into 
the families of the Walkers,) and the descendants of other old 
families were still around, the duty of repairing it was felt. But 
the vestry not being able, as of old, to order a levy of tobacco for 
building and repairing churches, it was not so easy to accomplish 
the work. One of the females of the parish on that occasion made 
the following very interesting appeal. It is believed to be from the 
pen of one who has since taken so active a part in procuring the 
new one which has recently been erected.* 


"Ye friends and kind neighbours, in pity draw near, 

And attend to my sorrrowful tale ; 
Should you grant me but misery's portion, a tear, 
To my grief-burden* d heart will that tribute be dear. 

While I my misfortunes bewail. 

"Stern winter is o'er, nor his sway will resume, 

Though sullen and scowling he flies ; 
Soft May greets us now, with her beauty and bloeni, 
And her whispering airs, breathing varied perfume, 

Bear her incense of flowers to the skies. 

" Ail nature is lovely and verdant around ; 

New charms to creation are given, 
From the modest wild violet that droopa on the gr^u>d, 
To the oak in the forest with majesty crown'rl 
And proudly arising to heaven. 

over a National Institute at Washington, and by his learning, zeal, and great dis- 
coveries, is conferring benefits on the whole human race, rendering the ocean almost 
as safe as the dry land. 
* Mrs. W. C Rives. 


**But. alas! not to me does the season return. 
With reviving and soul-breathing powers . 
Wnile all nature around me is smiling, 1 mourn 
My glory departed, my aspect forlorn, 
Contrasted with freshness and flowers. 

" Through my windows dismantled and dreary ab *upt t 

The wild birds in my court seek their rest ! 
The owl an 1 the bat wheel their ominous flight 
O'er my altar once hallo w'd by heaven's own light, 
And there is the swallow's rude nest. 

*' Then pity, kind friends, and your timely aid lend, 

Or soon I shall sink to decay ; 
* Build up the waste places,' your Zion befriend, 
And gently on you shall my blessing descend. 
Oh, let me not moulder away ! 

"Should this world e'er forsake you, your friends become foes, 
While a wreck, tempest-tost, you are driven, 

Then fly to my arms, on my bosom repose ; 

I can dry every tear, I can soften your woes, 
And lead you triumphant to heaven." 

The result of this poetic appeal, in co-operation with other meanj, 
was the raising a sufficient sum for the repairs of the church. Bur, 
time still going on with its ravages, it was felt that a new and more 
durable one should be had. A gentleman, some years since, theu 
in prosperous circumstances, promised several thousand dollais 
toward the erection of a new one, though by adversity he was dis- 
abled from the full performance of his promise. This stimulated 
the desire for a more expensive building than would otherwise have 
been attempted. It was commenced under the auspices of one 
family,* although the people around, during its progress, contri- 
buted about five thousand dollars to it. False calculations were made 
as to the expense of the style and manner of its execution, which 
caused great delay in the work, and led to various efforts and soli- 
citations in Virginia and elsewhere in order to raise the needful 
amount. Could all the disappointments and miscalculations and 
costs have been foreseen, it would have been improper to have 
attempted such a building, as a much cheaper one would have 
answered all the needs of the neighbourhood. But it was at length 
completed, and is in its exterior appearance a most beautiful build- 
ing, without any thing gaudy about it, while the materials and 
manner of its execution give the promise of its long continuance. 

As to Old Buckmountain Church, at the time that measures were 

* The family of the Hon. W. C. Rives, of Castle Hill 


commenced for the resuscitation of our Zion in Virginia, it Lad 
been so long in the use of some other denomination that it was 
claimed, not merely by right of possession, but on the ground of 
having been repaired. It will amuse the reader to learn the kind 
and the amount of repairs on which this claim was grounded. When 
I first saw it, more than thirty years ago, it was though said to 
be repaired a mere shell, with many an opening in the clapboard 
walls, through which the wind might freely pass. The inward re- 
pairs consisted in removing the old pews into the gallery, where 
they were piled up, and in their room putting benches made of the 
outside slabs from the sawmill, with legs as rude thrust through 
them, and of course no backs. The old pulpit was left standing, 
but by its side was a platform made by laying a few planks across 
the backs of two pews, which the preacher preferred to the old- 
fashioned pulpit. A few years after the revival of our Church 
began, the Episcopalians around, not thinking that either these 
repairs or the occasional occupancy of the building had deprived 
them of their right, put in their claim, which, though stoutly re- 
sisted by some, being as stoutly insisted on by others, was finally 
admitted, and the old church, being much better repaired than 
before, has ever since been in our possession and use, 

As to the ministers who have officiated in Fredericksville parish 
since the revival of the Church, we have but little to say. The 
Rev. Mr. Bausman took charge of it in 1818, and remained less 
than one year. The Rev. Mr. Hatch succeeded him in 1820 and 
continued until 1830. He was succeeded by the Rev. Zachariah 
Mead, who continued three or four years, and, as did Mr. Hatch, 
served the whole county. From 1833 to the fall of 1838, the Rev. 
W- Gr. Jones, from Orange, officiated at Walker's Church. In the 
year 1839 the present minister, the Rev. Mr. Boyden, took charge 
of the parish, and for some years ministered also to the congrega- 
tion on the Green Mountain. The church on Buckmountaiu has 
for many years been -served in conjunction with other congregations, 
which will be mentioned when we speak in our next article of St. 
Anne's parish. 



St. Anne's Parish, Albemarle County. 

IN the year 1761, Albemarle, besides its present territory, em- 
braced all of Fluvanna, Buckingham, Nelson, and Amherst. By 
various Acts between that time and 1777, it was reduced to its pre- 
sent dimensions. St. Anne's parish covered the whole of this region 
at its first organization in 1742, and by successive Acts was reduced 
to the same dimensions with the present county of Albemarle, with 
the exception of that part which forms Fredericksville parish. The 
dividing-line, after running some distance along the Rivanna, crosses 
the same and passes through Oharlottesville. Of late years some 
other parishes have been formed within St. Anne's parish, as that on 
Green Mountain, <fec. Our first knowledge of any churches in 
that part of St. Anne's parish now in Albemarle, as at present 
bounded, is of two which began about the year 1746 or 1747, under 
the direction of the Rev. Robert Rose, who moved from Essex to 
what is now Amherst, and extended his labours, during a short period, 
to that part of Albemarle called the Green Mountain, where were 
built Ballenger's Church, not very far from Warren, and the Forge 
Church, not far from Mr. John Cole's, the ancestor of those now 
bearing that name, and who appears from the vestry-book in my 
possession to have been the most active member of the vestry, until 
the year 1785, when the record closes. After Mr. Rose's death, in 
1751, the Rev. Mr. Camp probably succeeded to all his churches. 
He lived in the neighbourhood of New Glasgow. The old glebe- 
house is still to be seen on the land of Dr. Hite, near the road- 
side. He moved with his family to the West just before the Re- 
volution, and it is said was murdered by the Indians near the 
fort of Vincennes on the Wabash. Previously to this the Rev, 
Mr. Ramsay had settled in Albemarle and become the minister of 
St. Anne's parish with its reduced dimensions. He is represented 
as a very unacceptable minister. The Rev. Charles Clay fol- 
lowed him. He was near relative of our statesman, Mr. Henry 
Clay, probably first-cousin, and inherited no little of his talents 
and decision of character. He was ordained by the Bishop of Lon- 
ion in 1769, and on 22d October of the same year was received as 


minister of St. Anne's parish. The vestry-book opens in 1772 and 
closes in 1785, during all of which time, as well as the three preced- 
ing years, Mr. Clay was the minister, living at the glebe, somewhere 
in the Green Mountain neighbourhood, and preaching at the two 
churches, Ballenger and The Forge, and sometimes at the court- 
house, and at various private houses in Albemarle ; also, at the 
Barracks during the war, which was probably the place where the 
British prisoners under General Philips were kept, first by Colonel 
Bland, and afterward by General Wood. He also preached in 
Amherst and Chesterfield occasionally. The places of his preach- 
ing I ascertain from the notes on a number of his sermons, which 
have been submitted to my perusal. The sermons are sound, ener- 
getic, and evangelical beyond the character of the times. One of 
them, on the new birth, is mos*; impressive and experimental. Another 
on the atonement, for Christmas -day, is very excellent as to doc- 
trine, and concludes with a faithful warning against the profa- 
nation of that day by " fiddling, dancing, drinking, and such like 
things, 7 ' which he said were so common among them. 

In the year 1777, on the public fast-day, he preached a sermon 
to the minute-company at Charlottesville, in which his patriotic 
spirit was displayed. " Cursed be he (in the course of his sermon 
he said) who keepeth back his sword from blood in this war." He 
declared that the " cause of liberty was the cause of God," calls 
upon them to " plead the cause of their country before the Lord 
with their blood." And yet he said, " There might be some present 
who would rather bow their necks to the most abject slavery, than 
face a man in arms." It was at this time and under these circum- 
stances that he became acquainted with Mr. Jefferson, who, having 
removed into this parish from Fredericksville, was now elected to 
the vestry of St. Anne's, though it does not appear that he ever 
acted. This intimacy was kept up until his death in Bedford county, 
in the year 1824, where he and Mr. Jefferson each had farms, and 
where, during the visits of the latter, there was much friendly in- 
tercourse. During the latter years of his ministry in St. Anne's 
parish, the connection of Mr. Clay with his vestry was very un- 
happy. The salary of one year was the occasion of it. There ap- 
pears to have been some division in the vestry about it. The ma- 
jority, however, was against Mr. Clay, and a law-suit was the result. 
The decision was not satisfactory to Mr. Clay, and he refused taking 
the amount offered, and told the vestry if they would not pay 
him what he considered right, he would receive none. The vestry 
ordered Mr, Fry, the collector, to lay it out in a land-warrant, 
VOL. II. 4 


thinking that he might change his mind. Nothing more appeared 
on the vestry-book about it, and how it was ended I know not. 
Mr. Clay must have left St. Anne's in 1784, for we find him repre- 
senting the Church in Chesterfield in the Episcopal Convention at 
Richmond, in the year 1785, but never afterward. The Church 
was daily sinking, and, his mind being soured perhaps by his con- 
troversy with the vestry, and discouraged by the prospects before 
him as a minister, he moved to Bedford, and betook himself to a 
farmer's life, only officiating occasionally at marriages, funerals, 
&c. to the few Episcopalians of that region. He married a most 
estimable and pious lady of that neighbourhood, who survived him 
many years and contributed greatly to the revival of the Church 
under the Rev. Mr. Cobbs of that county. He left a numerous 
and most respectable family of sons and daughters, who have ad- 
hered to the Church of their parents. At his death the Rev. Mr. 
Ravenscroft performed the funeral services. There was something 
peculiar in the structure of Mr, Clay's mind, in proof of which it 
is mentioned that by his will he enjoined, what has been strictly 
observed, that on the spot where he was buried, and which he had 
marked out, there should be raised a huge pile of stones for his 
sepulchre. It is about twenty feet in diameter and twelve feet high, 
and being first covered with earth, and then with turf, presents the 
appearance of one of those Indian mounds to be seen in our Western 

In looking over the vestry-book, which extends from 1772 to 
1785, we find nothing requiring notice except the list of vestrymen 
and what is said of churches. 

The list of vestrymen is as follows : John Coles, Jacob Moore, 
John Ware, Patrick Napier, James Hopkins, James Garland, Michael 
Thomas, William Coxe, John Pry, Roger and George Thompson, 
William Burton, John Harris, John Scott, Thomas Jefferson, Or- 
lando Jones, William Oglesby, Richard Farrar, Philip Mazzei, 
William Hughes, Samuel Shelton, Wm. Ball, Charles Lewis, Na- 
thaniel Garland, Nicholas Hamner, Richard Davenport, John Old, 
Joshua Fry, Charles Irving, John Jordan. The vestry appears 
throughout to have been attentive to the glebe-house and its appur- 
tenances. As to churches, in 1774 it was ordered that a church 
be built at a place to be chosen by Henry Martin and Patrick 
Napier, and that Messrs. Roger and George Thompson might each 
build a pew, adjoining, at their own expense. In 1777 a church 
was contracted for with Mr. Edward Cobbs, at whose house services 
had been held. It was not finished for some years. It is also 


stated that in 1777 Mr. James Minor, Dabney Minor, and John 
Napier were appointed to examine a church built by a Mr. Ander- 
son. During the ministry of Mr. Clay there was also a Mr. Holmes 
acting as a teacher and preacher in Albemarle. He was also Ame- 
rican in his feelings, and rejoiced in the capture of Cornwallis. 

After the resignation of Mr. Clay the Rev. Mr. Darneile per- 
formed some services here and in Nelson. We learn that he became 
involved in debt, and studied law; but, not extricating himself, he 
left his family, and, going to the South, spent some years there. 
From the year 1795 to 1812 the Rev. William Crawford occasion- 
ally officiated at the churches in St. Anne's parish. 

After that period there were no services until the year 1818, 
when the Rev. Mr. Bausman divided his labours between the few 
remaining Episcopalians about Charlottesville in St. Anne's parish, 
and Walker's Church, in Fredericksville. The Episcopal Church, 
under new auspices, now began to revive a little. The Gospel was 
preached in a clearer and more forcible manner than had been com- 
mon in Virginia, and the ministers exhibited more zeal. In the year 
1820, the Rev. Frederick Hatch succeeded to Mr. Bausman, and 
extended his efforts to the Green Mountain, finding a considerable 
number of the old families still attached to the Church. Old Bal- 
lenger Church was in ruins, and that called The Forge was in little 
better condition. Still, service was held in it for some years. The 
first time I ever saw it was in company with Bishop Moore, not long 
after his coming to Virginia. It was a cold, cloudy, stormy day, 
and the wind whistled not only around but within its tattered walls. 
The Holy Communion was administered to a few of the old adhe- 
rents of the church. General Cocke, from Fluvanna, had come 
that morning from his home, between twenty and thirty miles, to 
partake of his first Communion, as he has continued to do ever since 
on Episcopal visitations. The resolve was taken that day, that a 
new and better house must be provided for the worship of God, 
which has been faithfully fulfilled. Some miles off, in a more cen- 
tral position and on a beautiful site, a neat and excellent brick 
church has been erected, and near it, more recently, a parsonage 
and small glebe have been added. A parish has been established in 
that part of the county. A succession of ministers either in whole 
or in part have ministered unto it. The Rev, Mr. Hatch stands 
first. Then follow the Rev. Zachariah Mead, the Rev, Joseph 
Wilmer, the Rev. Mr. Boyden, the Rev. Charles Ambler, and their 
present rector, the Rev. W. M. Nelson. But few of the old fami- 


lies are represented now. The Fryes, Cobbs, Nicholases, Harrises, 
Lewises, Garlands, Thomases, Thompsons, Joneses, Napiers, are 
gone, but the descendants of John Cole, in considerable number, 
the Tompkinses, Riveses, Carters, Gants, Randolphs, and others, have 
taken their places, and will, I trust, fulfil them well. In that part 
of the parish called North Garden, and near which an old church 
stood, a new brick church was also erected by the zeal and libe- 
rality of a few devoted friends, and the same was done also on the road 
leading from Charlottesville to Staunton, and the two, being brought 
into one parish, have generally been supplied with a minister. 
The Rev. Mr. Christian acted for some time as missionary in that 
part of the county. Then the Rev. William Jackson, who recently 
fell victim to the fever in Norfolk, was the settled pastor for some 
years. After him came the Rev. Mr. Slack, and at present the 
Rev. Mr. Davis, who, as well as most of his predecessors, connect 
with them the church on Buckmoimtain, in Fredericksville parish, 
and sometimes the church at Rockfish, in Nelson county. 

To the zeal and enterprise of the Rev. Mr. Hatch, is, under God, 
to be ascribed the building of the church in Charlottesville, which 
stands just within the bounds of Fredericksville parish. For a long 
time the court-house was the only place in Charlottesville or round 
about for public worship. The four leading denominations in the 
State equally divided the Sabbaths, and some thought that this 
was sufficient, and calculated to promote peace and love among them 
all. Mr. Jefferson used to bring his seat with him on horseback 
from Monticello, it being some light machinery which, folded up, 
was carried under his arm, and unfolded served for a chair on the 
floor of the court-house. But the great body of the people felt 
the need of a more convenient place of worship, where more per- 
sons could be accommodated and in a better manner. It was pro- 
posed that all denominations should unite in one; but that was 
found full of difficulties, and was soon abandoned. It was then 
proposed that two should unite, the Episcopalians and Presbyte- 
rians; which also came to nothing. Mr. Hatch, who was opposed 
to either scheme, then circulated a subscription for an Episcopal 
church, which immediately succeeded, and was soon followed with 
the same success by all the others ; and the village is now filled 
with well-built churches. The plan of the Episcopal church was 
furnished by Mr. Jefferson, and, though, far from being the best, is 
much better for the purposes of worship and preaching than most 
of those which now come from the hands of ecclesiological archi- 
tects, who, if hired to injure the voices and energies of ministers, and 


to frustrate the main purposes for which temples of religion are 
built, could not have succeeded much better than they have done by 
fcheir lofty ceilings, their pillars, recesses, and angles, besides the 
heavy debts into which they have led their employers. The church 
in Charlottesville has been recently enlarged and much improved. 

The Rev. Mr. Hatch was succeeded in this parish by the Rev. 
Zachariah Mead, an alumnus of our Seminary. For the encou- 
ragement of young men of weak constitutions to choose a country 
parish, let me give the experience of Mr. Mead. When he left the 
Seminary he was thought to be far gone in that disease of which 
he eventually died, consumption, so that he required assistance 
to get into the stage which was to convey him to the place where 
it was soon to be determined whether a speedy death or a prolonged 
life was to be his portion. The latter was his portion. By little 
and little he enlarged his sphere of labour, until on horseback he 
rode over the whole hilly and mountainous country of Albemarle, 
taking charge of all the congregations in both parishes, which now 
employ, and fully employ, the labours of four ministers, and in 
less than a year swam the Rivanna River, on horseback, on a 
bleak day, without taking cold. He became a hearty man, and 
continued so until he returned to the North, took charge of a con- 
gregation in Boston, lost his health, and was obliged to seek its 
restoration in the milder climate of Richmond and in the editorial 
chair. Had he returned again to the labours of a country ministry, 
his days and services might have been prolonged. Mr. Z. Mead 
was succeeded for two years in the church at Charlottesville by the 
Rev. Mr. Cobbs, (now Bishop,) while performing the duties of 
Chaplain to the University. He was followed by the present 
minister, the Rev. R. K. Meade, who has been in this position ever 
since his ordination, more than twenty years. Every fourth year 
at first, and, of late, every two years in eight, the Chaplaincy of 
the University is filled by an Episcopal minister, which deserves to 
be mentioned in the history of the Church in this parish. It was 
just before the Chaplaincy of Mr. Cobbs, that a circumstance 
occurred deserving some notice, as it occasioned much excitement 
at the time, and not a little misapprehension. A pestilential 
disease had visited the students of the Institution for two succes- 
sive years, or twice in the same year, sweeping a number of them 
into untimely graves. There was something most unaccountable, 
mysterious, and awful in all the circumstances of it. Though 
there was confessedly much of irreligion and even infidelity in the 
faculty of that day, yet such an awe rested upon them,- that at the 


instance of a pious member of it, Judge Lomax, the Law Professor, 
it was determined to celebrate the event in the most solemn man- 
ner. The Episcopal Convention was to meet in Oharlottesville the 
ensuing spring, and that was selected as the proper time for it. 
The author of these pages was requested to prepare and deliver a 
discourse at that time and on the occasion referred to. It was a 
most trying and responsible undertaking, but he dared not refuse, 
At the time appointed there was present, on Sabbath morning, in 
the great rotunda of the University, a large number of the clergy 
and laity then in attendance on the Convention, with the Professors, 
students, and people around. 

The sermon was preached from those words of the Prophet Amos, 
(3d chap. 6th verse,) "Shall a trumpet be blown in the city and 
the people not be afraid ? Shall there be evil in the city and the 
Lord hath not done it?" I need not say that the doctrine of an 
overruling special providence was drawn from these words, in op 
position to atheism, chance, or some general divine providence 
which attends only to great things, which governs and directs tho 
spheres, but lets the atoms fly at random, that a warning was 
given to take heed to this judgment, and carefully inquire what 
was the righteousness that God called on us to learn. The im- 
portance of literary institutions was dwelt upon, and especially the 
great duty of calling in the aid of Heaven in the conduct of them. 

I hope the reader will excuse the insertion of the following 

" The design of God, therefore, in these dispensations, and the use to 
be made of them by us, are as plain as they are important. When God 
visits us with the rod of affliction, it is that we may search our hearts 
and try our ways and turn to him. When his judgments are abroad in 
the earth, it is that the inhabitants may learn righteousness. Does it not, 
then, become all concerned in this Institution to ask, May not these 
judgments have been intended to stir us up to more zeal in rendering it 
holy and acceptable to God ? Should they not ask, With what views and 
hopes have we entered upon this work ? Did we acknowledge tho 
Almighty, and feel that without his blessing we could not prosper ? or 
was our hope from the talents and favour of man? Have we not only 
invoked the, aid and placed it under the guardian care of God, but sin- 
cerely dedicated it to him, wishing to make it an instrument of glory in 
our land, by training up youths, not merely in human literature, but in 
the sublimest of all sciences and the noblest of all virtues, the knowledge 
and love of God ? If such have not been the principles upon which this 
Institution was raised, or on which it is now conducted, is it superstition 
or weakness to ask whether these visitations have not been sent to show 
fclie rulers thereof their entire dependence upon God ? See how easily 
the Almighty can blast all their high, hopes and dash all their noble 


ch ernes to the earth. See how quickly he can send a plague or pestilence 
through these buildings, and scatter far and wide the young tenants 
thereof, and strike such a panic through the hearts of parents and friends 
that you can scarce recall them. Oh, it is a hazardous experiment to tin- 
dertake to conduct such an institution, in which the minds of young 
immortal and rational beings are to be instructed, and their passions 
restrained and their actions regulated, without constantly and earnestly 
imploring and seeking the aid of God in the way of his appointment. It 
cannot be done. I know the difficulties of this work; I am well aware of 
the peculiar difficulties of it in this place ; and am not upbraiding those 
who are sincerely desiring to do all that is right. But still, as the minister 
of God requested to speak on this occasion, I can take no other view of 
the subject than that which has been presented, and am firmly convinced, 
from the word of God and the past history of man, that any attempt to 
succeed in such a work without invoking and securing the blessing of 
God must fail of permanent success. 

"In every age of the world the instructors of youth have been deeply 
impressed with the importance of inculcating reverence to the gods, and 
making religion take its due part in their public exercises* The philoso- 
phers of Greece and Eome Socrates and Plato, Seneca and Epictetus 
failed not in this duty. The Rabbis in Judea made this a principal 
science in their schools. And has it pleased the Almighty to clear away 
all the shadows and clouds and reveal the true light to us? Has he visited 
jbe earth and brought life and immortality to light by the Gospel? Has 
Jbe set this in opposition to all the wisdom of man, philosophy, falsely so 
called, saying, * Where is the wise, where is the scribe, where is the 
disputer of this world ? Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this 
world r And shall this be neglected and left out of the wide range of 
scientific research ? Shall we be content to be wise for a few years only, 
and not for everlasting ages ? From the circle of sciences shall the most 
important and sublime and interesting be excluded ? In an institution 
bearing in its very name a determination to take the widest range of 
intellectual improvement, shall that be omitted in which all are equally 
because all are infinitely concerned ? Shall the roving and adventurous 
mind of youth be permitted to wander through all the labyrinths and 
mysteries of science without the sure light of heavenly truth to gjuide it? 
Oh, might I be permitted to speak to all the friends and patrons and 
directors of this College in the language of plain but affectionate entreaty, 
I would beseech them, as they would have it to find favour with God and 
man and be a mighty blessing to our State and country, that they solemnly 
dedicate it to Almighty God, and place it under his guardian care. In 
his name and by his laws let them rule over it. Let them see that the 
high motives and awful sanctions of religion be continually and eloquently 
presented to the minds of the youth committed to their care. Let the 
divine philosophy of the Bible be here studied. Let the morality here 
taught be the morality of the Bible. Let the Bible, which is the religion 
of Protestants, be the text-book of first esteem and most constant reference. 
Let the history of our religion be learnt; let the proofs of Christianity be 
investigated; let the prophecies of the most ancient and venerable books 
be read and compared with all other histories that attest their fulfilment. 
Let it, not be said that nothing is taught contrary to Christianity; that the 
mind is ,eft free to its own choice : rather let it be announced to the 
world that every thing which can be said is said in its behalf, and every 


thiuo- which can be done is done in order to lead those immortal souls, whu 
come hither for the high improvement of their faculties, to the saving 
knowledge of Him who is < the true God and eternal life.' Then indeed 
may we "be assured that this Institution enjoys the smiles of a gracious 
Providence, and will be as others in our land, the fruitful nursery of 
Christian patriots, of learned defenders of the faith, of able and eloquent 
ministers of the Gospel, as well as of those who shall adorn by their worth 
and talents all other professions of our land, and shed a mild lustre over 
he most private walks of life. Then will the most anxious ^ Christian 
parents, and the most fearfully jealous Christian ministers, cherish it with 
fondness, as the favoured of God, and with confidence commit, as to a 
fostering mother, the sons whom they have dedicated to Heaven, and 
would have to be trained up in its holy nurture and admonition ^ and 
then will those pious youths who have been here advancing in all divine 
as well as human wisdom ever look back to these seats of science with 
delight, and reckon among the happiest and best of their days those spent 
within these consecrated walls.' 7 

At this discourse much offence was taken by some, and many 
misrepresentations went forth through the State. It was charged 
against it that, besides undertaking to interpret and apply the 
judgments of God in a way which had been most carefully avoided, 
a personal attack had been made on the Professors and Visitors of 
the University, and especially on its chief founder, whose opinions, 
having been published to the world, were known to be contrary to 
those expressed in the sermon. So extensively were these charges, 
with many colourings and exaggerations, spread abroad, that after 
due, consideration the sermon was published, and the author had 
the happiness of learning that the effect of its publication was 
such as he desired. Many were astonished to find that any in a 
Christian land could object to its doctrine, or expect any other 
improvement of the occasion from a Christian minister. But it 
was long before the preacher could be forgiven by some within the 
walls of the University. Previous to that he had been freely in- 
vited to preach there, but for some years even some of his friends 
were afraid to propose it. We must, however, in justice say, that 
the opposition was not from Virginians, nor from Americans, but 
from foreigners, who were allowed to forbid a minister of Virginia 
to be heard in the University of Virginia. It was, however, the 
happiness of that minister to see, only a few years after, all the 
offensive features of his sermon adopted into the administration 
of the College, as far perhaps as is practicable under the circum- 
stances of its existence as the common property of all denomina' 
tions of Christians and all citizens of the State. 



Parishes in Amhe f st, Nelson, Botetourt, Roe'k'bridge^ 
and Montgomery. 

Ls~ 1761, Amherst county and Amherst parish were separated 
from Albemarle county and St. Anne's parish. In the year 1778, 
Amherst parish was divided and Lexington parish established. In 
the year 1780, the boundary-line was changed so as somewhat to 
reduce Lexington parish. The line, as settled in 1780, we presume 
is the same, or nearly the same, which now separates Nelson and 
Amherst. Amherst parish was left in that part which is now Nel- 
son county. We have seen in our notice of the Rev. Mr. Rose, 
that he became minister of this region about 1745 or 1746, by being 
minister of all St. Anne's parish and Albemarle county, then 
extending over Amherst and Nelson ; that he had four churches 
ordered by the vestry at one time, two in what is now Albe- 
marle, and two in what is now Amherst and Nelson. He was 
followed by the Rev. John Ramsey, who was minister in 1754 and 
also in 1758, how much longer not known. In 1773-74-76 we find 
the Rev. Ichabod Camp minister of Lexington parish, how long 
before 1773 not known. He lived at the glebe near New Glasgow, 
now in possession of Dr. Hite. The shell of the parsonage is still 
to be seen. 

About the commencement of the war, Mr. Camp moved to Illinois, 
to a fort on the Wabash, and tradition says that he and his family 
were destroyed by the Indians. The first minister of Lexington 
parish, after its division from Amherst, was the Rev. John Bu- 
chanon, in the year 1780. The following is the entry in the vestry- 
book: " The vestry, taking into consideration the distressed con- 
dition of the parish for want of an orthodox minister, elect Mr. J. 
Buchanon, a gentleman of fair character, &c." This is the same 
person who afterward ministered in Richmond. He was ordained 
in 1775, and had officiated acceptably elsewhere in Virginia. In 
the year 1788, the Rev. John W. Hole was elected. In the year 
1789, the Rev. Charles Crawford, a native of Amherst, was ordained 
by Bishop Madison, and received as minister of this parish, and 
continued its inimster until 1815, when, from great corpulency, 


age, and infirmities, he resigned. Those who have retained the 
recollection of Mr. Crawford, and have knowledge of him otherwise, 
bear testimony to his excellency as a preacher and a Christian, 
The Rev. Silas Freeman succeeded him in 1823, and continued a 
few years. The Rev, Charles Page followed him and laboured for 
many years in that and the adjoining parish of Amherst, in Nelson 
nounty. The Revs. Nelson Sale, Stewart, Black, Caldwell, Walker, 
Caldwell again, and Martin, have followed in too rapid succession. 
The Rev. Mr. ISTowlin is the present minister. 

The churches in Lexington parish were Pedlar's, near the moun- 
tains, where a new one was built some years since ; Rucker's or 
St. Matthew's, some miles from the court-house ; Maple Run 
Church, afterward moved to New Glasgow ; and another called 
Bent Chapel, which was near James River. This being burned 
down was never rebuilt. The brick church now at New Glasgow 
was built by a general subscription, but chiefly of Episcopalians, 
and regularly assigned to them, but afterward claimed by others 
and forcibly entered by the Campbellites. It was then bought, by 
the Episcopalians, of the executors of David Garland, to whom it 
legally belonged, being on his land, and was regularly consecrated 
as an Episcopal Church. Another church of brick has within the 
last few years been built at the court-house of Amherst county, 
The following is the list of vestrymen of this parish from 1779 : 

Eichard Ballanger, Hugh Rose, Ambrose Rucker, Joseph Goodwin, 
Josiah Ellis, Richard Shelton, Richard Ogilsby, Benjamin Rucker, Win. 
Ware, Henry Christian, John Christian, Charles Taliafero, Thomas 
Moore, Jos, Bums, W. S. Crawford, Nelson Crawford, Richard Powell, 
James Ware, James Franklin, Reuben Norvel, Thomas Crews, Richard 
Ellis, Thomas N, Eubank, William Shelton, John Coleman, Gabriel Penn, 
David Woodroof, James Dillard, Daniel Gaines, Samuel Higginbotharn, 
Robert Christian, Roderick McCulloeh, Samuel Meredith, John Wyatt, 
David Crawford, George Penn, Edward Carter, James Galloway, James 
Higginbotham, David Tinsley, Robert Walker, Henry Turner, John Eu- 
bank, James Ware, John McDaniel, Edward Winston, John Ellis, Arthur 
B. Davies, Cornelius Powell, Edmund Penn, David S, Garland, Dr. Paul 
Oabell, William H. McCulloch, Samuel M. Garland, Ralph C. Shelton, 
Zacliariah D. Tinsley, Dr. H. L. Davies, James Thornton, William 1. 
Oabell, William H. Johnson, John I. Ambler, Jr., Henry Loring, Vale- 
rius McGinnis, Whiting Davies, William R. Roane, Thomas Strange, 
James S. Pendleton, Captain J. Davies, Edward A. Cabell, Prosser Powell, 
William Waller, Wilkins Watson, A. B. Davies, Jr., B. B. Taliafero, 
Robert Warwick, Marshall Harris, D. H. Tapscott, George W. Christian, 
William Knight, Dr. William S. Claiborne, Lucas P. Thompson, Martin 
Tinsley, James Davies, William Shelton, James Rose, William Tucker, 
Edwin Shelton. 



We have seen that this was separated from Lexington in 1778. 
It is not known how many churches there were in it at that time, 
but certainly one at Rockfish Gap, near the mountain, and one 
near James River, in the neighbourhood of the Oabells. The Rev. 
Robert Rose, in his journal ending in the year 1751, often speaks 
of being at the houses of the Cabells and preaching in that neigh- 
bourhood, and doubtless a church must have been built there soon 
after, called Key's Church. About the year 1780, it is believed 
a Mr. Buchan was minister of that parish, probably the same who 
was afterward in Stafford. In the year 1790 the Rev. Isaac 
Darneile appears on the journal of the Convention as minister of 
this parish. Of him I have spoken on a former occasion, as one 
who was always in pecuniary difficulties, who exchanged the pulpit 
for the bar, and, failing in that also, left his family behind, and, 
going to the South, spent some years there. In 1795 the Rev. 
William Crawford, brother or near relative of Mr. Charles Crawford, 
succeeded Mr. Darneile, preaching at Rockfish Key's, the old 
court-house, and Hat Creek. Mr. Crawford was, I believe, the 
last regular minister of this parish, until the Rev. Charles Page 
undertook the charge of it, in connection with that of Lexington, 
some years after the revival of the Church commenced. The Rev. 
Mr. King and Dr. Stephens, of Staunton, had performed some 
duties at Rockfish Gap Church before Mr. Page's more regular 
assumption of the charge of the parish. The Rev. Frederick 
Goodwin succeeded Mr. Page in this parish, and has continued to 
be its minister until the last year. The Rev. Mr. Martin is its 
present minister.* 

As to the churches in the parish of Amherst and county of Nel- 
son of more recent erection, there was, until a few years since, one 
called Galloway's Church, of whose date, however, I am unable to 
speak positively, but think it must have been at a much later date 
than the old ones which have long since passed away. This has 
been deserted of late years for two new brick houses, the one 
called Trinity, near the residence (Oak Ridge) of old Mr. Rives, 
and built chiefly, if not entirely, by him, and the other at New 
Market, on the James River Canal, at the mouth of Tye River. 
The old church at Rockfish has also been removed to a more con- 
venient place, not far off, and entirely renovated. 

* The Rev. Cleland Nelson preceded Mr. Goodwin in this parish. 


Amidst no little opposition, Captain John B. Coles and Mr, 
Martin, two fast friends of the Church, determined upon the effort 
for its removal and renewal, and invited all the neighbours even 
the poorest to meet at certain appointed days for its prostration, 
its removal and re-erection, and completely triumphed over all 
opposition and falsified all unfavourable prophecies. In another 
place I have stated that it has been for many years supplied witV 
occasional services by ministers from Albemarle county. 


Among the numerous families of Amherst and Nelson who were 
the active supporters of the Episcopal Church, the Roses and Ca- 
bells were most conspicuous. Of the Roses, the descendants of 
the Rev. Robert Rose, who died in 1751, leaving large estates to 
his four sons, we have already written in our sketches of the father 
in a previous article. Of the Cabells we will now make some 
mention, abridging our notice from the various accounts we have 
of them. 

Dr. William Cabell, a surgeon of the British navy, emigrated 
to Virginia about the year 1720 or 1725, according to different ac- 
counts. It is said he owned twenty-five thousand acres of land on 
either side of Upper James River, in the counties of Nelson, Am- 
herst, and Buckingham. He was one of the earliest vestrymen and 
wardens in the Church, as established in that part of Virginia, and 
was the intimate friend of the Rev. Robert Rose. Between the 
years 1740 and 1750 he appears as chiefly concerned in the contracts 
for the building of churches, &c. He had four sons, William, 
Joseph, John, and Nicholas. William, the eldest, was the owner of 
the estate called Union Hill, in Nelson county, on James River. 
Mr. Grigsby has given a very glowing account of this mansion and 
the hospitality of its owner, and his great business-talents as a 
farmer, and in other respects comparing his house to Mount Vernon, 
except that it was larger, and himself to Washington, as to the 
management of his estate, and methodical accounts kept by him. 
He speaks of his association with Washington in all the great poli- 
tical bodies in Virginia previous to 1776, as well as in that year, and 
of his political career afterward, terminating in the adjournment of 
the Federal Convention. It remains for me to add, that before arid 
after the death of his father, Dr. Cabell, he was also the active 
vestryman and churchwarden in the parish, the intimate friend of 
the Rev. Mr. Rose, who was often at his house, I have before me 
subscription-papers and contracts in which he is leader in all Church 


matters in the parish, especially after the Establishment was put 
down and it became necessary to raise a salary for the minister by 
private contributions. His son also, Mr. William Oabell, who was 
a representative in Congress from this district before his father's 
death, and in connection with his father, took part in the vestry- 
proceedings. Of his other sons I have no account. Of his daugh- 
ters, one married Mr. Rives, the father of W. 0. Rives and of a 
number of other sons and daughters ; another married Judge Oa- 
bell ; another the Rev. Mr. Legrand. The present Mayo Cabell, 
of Nelson, and Mrs. Bruce, of Richmond, are also descendants of 
Colonel Wm. Cabell. The second son of Dr. Cabell, father of the 
family, was Joseph, of whom all the information I have is, that he 
was also at various times in the House of Burgesses, and took 
part in the Revolution, and was the ancestor of General Cabell, of 
Danville, and of the Breckenridges of Virginia and Kentucky, Of 
the third son, John, I learn that he was in the Convention of 1775 
and 1776, and was the father of the late Dr. George Cabell, of 
Lynchburg. Of the fourth son, Nicholas Cabell, of Liberty Hall, 
I find that he was both in the field and the Legislature, and was 
the father of the late Judge W. H. Cabell and Joseph C. Cabell. 
I have also papers showing that he was a vestryman of the church 
in this parish, and took a lively interest in its affairs. He was the 
collector of the subscriptions made to the ministers after the Revo- 
lution : to him Mr. Darneile applied in his difficulties, for relief, 
and both himself and his brother, Colonel Wm. Cabell, acted as 
friends to Mr. Darneile by advancing moneys for him. On a slip 
of paper before me I find that he also collected what was given to 
the Rev. Mr. Clay, while minister in Albemarle, for services 
rendered at Key's Church, in Nelson, but which Mr. Clay re- 
quested him to give to the poor of the parish.* 

* The following additions to my account of the Cabells have been sent me by one 
of the family, and mil, I am sure, prove interesting, not only to all of that wide- 
spread connection, but to many others. 

" Dr. William Cabell came to Virginia either in 1723 or 1724. Colonel William 
Cabell, Sen. it was who once held twenty-five thousand acres of land in this region. 
His father may at one period have owned half so much. His object seemed to be 
rather to acquire that of the best and most durable quality for the use of his pos- 
terity, than to embrace a surface which could not be brought into use for a genera- 
tion to come. He accordingly secured all the alluvial land in the Valley of Jamea 
River, for more than twenty miles continuously, above this place, where he resided. 
Was not he also the Wm. Cabell whom Mr. Rose visited ? I have some doubts whe- 
ther Colonel Wm. Cabell (who was born in March, 1730) was settled at Union Hill 


I have also a manuscript sermon preached by the Bev. Charles 
O'Neale, then probably a minister of some neighbouring parish, 

(or Coileton, as it was then called) before Mr. Rose's death. Two of the contracts 
tor building churches in Albemarle, which I sent you, were those spoken of by 
Mr. Rose near the close of his diary, and probably left with Dr. Cabell for safe- 

" 1. Of the sons of Dr. Cabell, the first and third William and John married re- 
spectively Margaret and Paulina, daughters of Colonel Samuel Jordan, who lived on 
James River, in Buckingham, and near the Seven Islands. The former was ac- 
counted an able man and true patriot in his day, and was much respected in all the 
relations of life. He had four sons, of whom three were somewhat distinguished 
in the family. Samuel Jordan, the eldest, who married Sarah, daughter of Colonel 
John Syme, of Hanover, was the member of Congress from this district from 1795 
to 1803. He had risen to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Southern War, and 
afterward served in the Legislature of the State, and in the Convention of 1789. 
William, generally known as Colonel Win. Cabell, Jr., also served in the latter scenes 
of the war in this State, and was occasionally in the Legislature afterward. He 
married Anne, daughter of Judge Paul Carrington, and was the father of Colonel 
Edward A. Cabell, sometime of Amherst, now of Washington, B.C., of Mayo Cabell, 
and of Mrs. Bruce, and others. Landon, the third son, a man of distinguished 
talents and acquirements, but never in public life, married a daughter of Colonel 
Hugh Rose, and was the father of Dr. R. Henry Cabell, now of Richmond. Colonel 
Cabell's daughter Paulina had married Major Edmund Read, of Charlotte, (son of 
Colonel Clement Read;) before she was married to Rev. Mr. Legrand. 

U 2. Colonel Joseph Cabell who married a Miss Hopkins, of Amherst, (now Nel- 
son,) had but one son and several daughters. The son, who bore his own name, 
married Pocahontas, daughter of Colonel Robert Boiling, of Chellowe, Buchanan, 
and their descendants (of whom you have mentioned Q-eneral Cabell) are numerous. 
Colonel Joseph Cabell was the ancestor of the Breckenridges of Kentucky, and not 
of Virginia. Thus, his daughter Mary married John Breckenridge, (elder son of 
General James Breckenridge.) This gentleman, after a successful career at the 
bar here, (he lived in Albemarle,) removed with George Nicholas to Kentucky, 
of which territory they immediately became the leading citizens. When it was 
erected into a State Mr. Breckenridge was sent to the Senate of the United States, 
and at Ms death was Mr. Jefferson's Attorney-General. The eldest son of Mr. 
Breckenridge (Joseph Cabell Breckenridge) was a rising statesman of Kentucky 
at the time of Ms death. He married a daughter* of President Smith, of Prince- 
ton, and their son is now Vice-President of the United States. The three 
younger sons of Mr. Breckenridge John, Robert, and "William became dis- 
tinguished Presbyterian clergymen. His daughter (Letitia) married first a son of 
Mr. Senator Grayson, and second, General P. B. Porter, of New York, Mr. Adams's 
Secretary of War. To return : Colonel Joseph Cabell had other daughters, of whom 
Anne married Robert Carter, son of Carter Harrison, of Clifton, in Cumber- 
land ; and Elizabeth married Colonel William J. Lewis, of Campbell, sometime mem- 
ber of Congress from that district. The major part of Colonel J. Cabell's descend- 
ants are now to be found in the West, particularly in Kentucky and Missouri, 

" 8. Colonel John Cabell had several sons, of whom Dr. George Cabell, of Lynch- 

* Miss Caroline Smith, who, when the author of this work was at Priweton College, was a favour? to 
vith the students by reason of her many interesting qualities. 


afterward in Prince William, in the year 1794, on the occasion of 
the death of two of Mr. Nicholas Cabell's daughters, Hannah and 
Henningham, who died on the 7th and 8th of September of that 
year, aged the one eight and the other six years. In this sermon 
also we see the deficiency of the pulpit in that day. Once only is 
there allusion to Christ, when he says that " to those who lead a 
virtuous life, and die in the faith of Christ, the whole aspect of 
death is changed," while in the sermon, which is on resignation and 
preparation for death, he speaks of certain duties u to be performed 
in order to us acceptable to God," and at the close of it says 
that "the best preparation for death is a virtuous temper and a good 
life. When once you are furnished with these qualifications, you 
may view it approaching toward you with a calm and constant mind, 
free from any timorous and unmanly solicitude." Nothing is said in 
the sermon about a new birth of the Spirit as a necessary qualifica- 
tion for heaven, of faith in Christ and repentance toward God as 
being the constant exercises of the true Christian, and from which 
any good works can flow. There are many very good things said 
about the vanity of earthly things and the duty of considering our 
latter end, but they are such things as are common to the Christian 
preacher and the pagan philosopher. 

I might also speak of the Sheltons, Taliaferos, Thompsons, 
Ellises, Davises, Tinsleys, Garlands, and others, as having been 
fast friends of the Church in Amherst and Nelson, but refer to the 
list of vestrymen for the purpose of showing who were her perse- 
vering advocates. 

There is one name on which I must dwell for a moment. Mr 
William Waller, lately deceased, was perhaps inferior to none of 
the laity of Virginia in personal piety and hearty zeal for the 

burg, was the eldest. His brother John, of the same place, was also a learned and 
successful physician. 

*' A third son Frederick succeeded to the family mansion on James River, op 
posite New Market, and his eldest son, of the same name, was several times a dele- 
gate from this county under the second Constitution, and the first Senator from this 
district under the present regime. A fourth son of Colonel John removed to Kentucky. 
One of his daughters married first her cousin Hector, and afterward Judge Daniel. 

"4. Colonel Nicholas Cabell embarked in the Revolutionary service so early 
as 1775, and several years afterward the Legislature appointed him to the com- 
mand of one of the State Regiments ; but it so happened, and much to his morti- 
fication, that he was never called into action. He served in the Senate for more 
than sixteen years from 1785. Of his four sons we have mentioned the first and 
third. The second was the father of Professor Cabell, of the University; the fonrtto 
of Francis Cabell, of Warminster/' 


Church, as well as for all that was amiable and excellent in private 
life. He was well known in our Conventions, which he delighted 
to attend, and acted as an efficient vestryman and lay reader for a 
long time. He has left a large family of children, who I trust will 
follow his good example. 

One word is added concerning the family of Massies, in Nelson, 
not very far from Rockfish Church. It came at an early period 
from England, and settled in New Kent, where several in succession 
were vestrymen. Major Massie, of Nelson, after having served in 
the Revolution, moved from New Kent about the close of the war, 
and was a vestryman of the Church in Frederick county, with 
Colonel Burwell, Meade, and others. From thence he moved to 
Nelson, and lived in great seclusion the remainder of his days. He 
had three sons, of whom Dr. Thomas Massie, of Nelson, was the eldest. 


When Frederick county was first divided from Augusta, the lattei 
was left with all of Western Virginia beyond the Alleghany Moun- 
tains, then extending to the Pacific Ocean, or, as it was sometimes 
said, to the "waters of the Mississippi." 

In the year 1769, Botetourt was taken from Augusta, and also 
extended westward indefinitely. At a subsequent period Mont- 
gomery was taken from Botetourt. But in the year 1777, Rock- 
ingham, till then part of Augusta, and Rockbridge and Greenbrier, 
were cut off from Augusta, Botetourt, and Montgomery. In all 
of these, parishes were also established by Act of Assembly. What 
was done in them after this is unknown. In Rockingham, probably 
before its separation from Augusta, there were, as may be seen in 
our article on Augusta, two churches* In Rockbridge, when com- 
posed of parts of Augusta and Botetourt, there may have been a 
church or churches, but I have obtained no information of such. 
Before this period the Presbyterians had made settlements in this 
region, especially about Lexington. On none of our lists of clergy 
or records do we find any minister belonging to Rockbridge after 
its separation from Augusta and Botetourt. In Montgomery and 
Greenbrier parishes and counties, we presume there were none. In 
Botetourt parish, (for all the new parishes were called by the same 
name with the counties,) we find that the Rev. Adam Smith was the 
minister in the years 1774 and 1776. He was the father of Mr. 
Alexander Smith, sometimes written Smythe, of Wythe county, 
member of Congress, and General in the last war with England. 


We know of no other but the Rev. Samuel Gray, who appears on 
the journal of 1796, and who died in the parish poor-house, the 
miserable victim of drink. In Fineastle there was an Episcopal 
church on the spot where the Presbyterian church now stands. 
A new church being built there, the Presbyterians worshipped in it, 
and were perhaps most active in its erection. By an Act of the 
Legislature, the lot of ground on which it stood was given to that 
denomination. It was not until the Rev. Mr. Cobbs commenced 
his labours in Bedford and extended his visits to Botetourt, that 
any hopes were raised, in the breasts of the Episcopalians in that 
county, of the establishment of the Church of their fathers and of 
their affection. 

During the ministry of Mr. Gray, some of the descendants of 
Major Burwell, an old vestryman of the church in King William, 
had removed to the neighbourhood of Fincastle. General Breck- 
enridge, and Watts, who had not forgotten the Church of their 
forefathers, were also there. Woodville, son of the old minister 
of Culpepper, one of the Taylors from Old Mount Airy, in the 
Northern Neck, Madison, son of Bishop Madison, and others who 
might be mentioned, were there to encourage the effort at esta- 
blishing a church. And yet, on my first visit to that county after 
my consecration, only one solitary voice was heard in the responses 
of our service. 

After some years the Rev. Dabney Wharton, from the neigh- 
bouring county, took Orders and entered on the work of resuscita- 
ting or rather establishing the Church there, and during his residence 
in the parish did much to effect it. The Rev. W. H. Pendleton 
succeeded him for some years, and, though removing for a time to 
another, has returned to a portion of his former field. He was 
succeeded by the Rev. Mr. McElroy, in 1847. The Rev. George 
Wilmer also spent some years there, first as minister to the whole 
parish, and then to a portion of it, which was formed into a distinct 
parish, now in the county of Roanoke. New churches have been 
erected in each portion, one at Big Lick, in Roanoke, another at 
Fincastle, a third at Buchanon. The Rev. Mr. Baker has for some 
years been the minister of the two congregations in Fincastle and 
Buchanon. The new church at Buchanon deserves a word of 
special notice. It is chiefly the result of female enterprise. A 
lady well known in Virginia, who occasionally visited it in the 
summer season, fleeing from the sultry heat of Richmond, deter- 
mined to effect it by collections, far and near, of only twelve and 
a half cents from each contributor, and by dint of perseverance, 

VOL. II. 5 


succeeded in the course of a few years, at least, so far as to secure 
the object. A neat, well-filled brick church is now to be seen at 

Although there was no church in Eockbridge county in former 
times, so far as I am informed, I must not omit to mention a most 
successful effort of later years. About the year 1889 or 1840, the 
Rev. William Bryant, a native of Virginia, and a graduate of West 
Point, who had left the army of his country to enter the army of 
the Lord and become one of the great company of preachers, was 
induced by his friend, and almost brother, as well as fellow-student 
at West Point, Colonel Smith, of the Military Institute at Lexing- 
ton, ta come and seek to establish an Episcopal church at that 
place. Difficult as the work seemed to be, and most doubtful the 
success of it, especially to one of so meek and quiet a spirit, and 
destitute of those popular talents in the pulpit so much called for 
in such positions, he nevertheless, in humble dependence on divine 
assistance, undertook the task and succeeded far beyond general 
expectation. With generous aids from other parts of the State, 
and active exertions on the part of the few friends in Lexington, 
a handsome brick church has been built and a respectable though 
still a small congregation been collected. The Rev. Mr. Bryant 
was succeeded by one of our present missionaries to China, the Rev. 
Robert Nelson, who, pursuing the same judicious course and putting 
forth the same efforts with his predecessor, carried on the work 
with the same success, until in the providence of God he was called 
to a distant field in which he had long desired to labour. The Rev. 
William N. Pendleton has now for some years been labouring as his 

Higher up the valley, in what was once Montgomery county and 
parish, but is now not only Montgomery, but Wythe, and Wash- 
ington, and others, we cannot read or hear of any effort being 
made in behalf of establishing the Episcopal Church until within 
the last twenty years, when the Rev. Mr. Gofer was sent as mis* 
sionary to Abingdon, in Washington county. Some years after his 
relinquishment of the station the Rev. James McCabe occupied it, 
and during his stay, I believe, a neat but very small brick church 
was put up. He was succeeded for two years by the Rev. Mr. Lee. 
It has now for some time been without a minister, though we hope 
for better times. 

As emigration and natural increase of population shall follow 
the railroad up this narrow though fertile valley, and whenever the 
mountains on either side shall be cleared of their forests, we may 

FAMILIES OF VlxvtfilNlA 67 

surely hope better things for our Church. Already are there many 
interesting families inheriting an attachment to the Church of their 
fathers to be found along the great highway leading through this 
part of Virginia and the West. At Wytheville the indefatigable 
efforts of a mother and daughter have raised a considerable sum of 
money for the erection of a church. The tongue hath spoken, the 
pen hath written, and hands have laboured, in the cause, a.nd none 
of them in vain. A most eligible sight, at great cost, has been 
obtained, and perhaps great progress made in the erection of a 
church. Other openings, I am told by those who have made recent 
missionary visits to this upper valley of Virginia, are likely to 
present themselves. The Rev. Frederick Goodwin has just settled 
at Wytheville. 


St. Creorge's Parish, Spottsylvania County. 

I AM saved all trouble in the examination of records and docu- 
ments, in order to the execution of this part of my work, by the full 
and interesting history of this parish from the pen of the Rev. Mr. 
Slaughter. His authorities are the old vestry-books and Henning's 

The county of Spottsylvania was established in 1720, being 
taken from the counties of Essex, King William, and King and 
Queen. It extended westward to the river beyond the high moun- 
tains^ the Shenandoah. The parish of St. George's was then 
commensurate with the county. In the year 1730, the parish was 
divided into St, George's and St. Mark's, St. Mark's lying in the 
upper portion, which, in the year 1734, was made the county of 
Orange, and contained all that is now Orange, Madison, Culpepper, 
and Rappahannock. At the first establishment of Spottsylvania, 
in 1720, fifteen hundred pounds were appropriated by the House 
of Burgesses to a church, court-house, prison, pillory, and stocks. 
Governor Spottswood, after whom the county was named, esta- 
blished the seat of justice at Germanna, and there built a church, 
&c. In the year 1732, the seat of justice was, by Act of Assembly, 
removed to Predericksburg, as a more convenient place ; but, seven- 
teen years after, the law was repealed as derogatory to his Majesty's 
prerogative to take from the Governor or Commander-in-Chief of 
this Colony his power and authority of removing or adjourning the 
courts because it might be inconvenient in a case of smallpox or 
other contagious disease. Predericksburg was founded, by law, in 
the year 1727. Colonel Byrd, in his visit in the year 1782, says 
jf it at this time, " Besides Colonel Willis, who is the top man 
of the place, there are only one merchant, a tailor, a smith, an 
ordinary-keeper, and a lady who acts both as a doctress and coffee- 
woman." A church was built in that year, (1732.) There had 
been a church near Fredericksburg in the year 1728, (as also one 
at Mattapony,) called the Mother-Church, besides that built at 
Germanna, by Governor Spottswood' s order, at the first establish- 
ment of the county. Its first minister of whom we have any know- 


ledge was the Rev. Theodosius Staige, whose name is found incor* 
porated with the Davis family, of Albemarle, and with some others, 
I think. He continued until November, 1728. The Rev. Mr. De 
Butts, of Westmoreland, became a candidate for the parish ; but 
the Rev. Rodham Kennor, having been recommended by the Go- 
vernor, was accepted. He continued the minister for eighteen 
months, and then preached there once a fortnight for more than 
two years, the Rev. Mr. Pearl occasionally officiating. The Rev. 
Mr. Kennor appears to have been a rolling stone, passing from 
parish to parish, and the vestry of St. George's were well pleased 
to part with him. In 1732, the Rev. Patrick Henry, uncle of the 
celebrated orator, and who was afterwards, and for a long time, 
minister of St. Paul's parish, Hanover, became the minister, and 
continued until April, 1734. Governor Gooch sent a Rev. Mr. 
Smith to the parish ; but his preaching was so unacceptable that 
the vestry sent a deputation to inform the Governor that they could 
not accept him. They also petitioned the Governor to allow the 
Rev. James Marye, who was the minister of the Huguenot settle- 
ment at Manakintown, in King William parish, then in Goochland, 
now in Powhatan, and who was willing to come, to leave his parish. 
He was accordingly inducted in October, 1735. During his ministry 
two chapels were built in the parish at places not now to be identi* 
fied. Roger Dixon was allowed to have any pew in the church, 
except two already granted to Benjamin Grymes, provided he did 
not raise the pew higher than the other pews. In the year 1767, 
after a ministry of thirty-two years in this parish, Mr. Marye died, 
and was succeeded by his son, James Marye, who was born in 
Goochland, in 1731, was educated at William and Mary, and had 
been minister in Orange county. His father was one of the Hu- 
guenots who fled from France at the time of the persecutions of the 
Protestants in that country. He married a Miss Letitia Staige, of 
London, daughter of an English clergyman, perhaps the one who 
was minister in Fredericksburg. Mr. Marye, Jr. continued the 
minister until 1780. He was the father of Mrs. Dunn, wife of the 
Rev. John Dunn, of Leesburg, and of Mrs. Yeamans Smith, of 
Fredericksburg. During his ministry a new church, near Bur- 
bridge's Bridge, was built, and was used as an Episcopal Church 
long after the Revolution, though now occupied by other denomi- 
nations. The parish also was divided during his time, and Berkeley 
parish cut off from it. The parish was now vacant for seven years, 
at the end of which the Rev. Thomas Thornton was chosen its 
minister. Under his ministry and the voluntary system, which was 


of necessity adopted after the Establishment was put down, the 
congregation increased so as to require an addition to the church. 
This addition made it a cruciform church. It was, however, getting 
to be like an old garment with new cloth put upon its rent. During 
Mr. Thornton's ministry, General Washington, coming to Frede- 
ricksburg to visit his mother, attended, as usual, the Episcopal 
Church, which drew such a crowd that something gave way in the 
gallery, which produced great consternation in the attendants, who 
rushed out of it through the doors and windows. It, however, still 
lasted for a number of years. I was in it in the year 1811, but a 
more dark and cheerless place I have seldom seen. The rite of 
confirmation was first administered in this parish by Bishop Madi- 
son, in the year 1791, during the ministry of Mr. Thornton. Soon 
after this Mr. Thornton left the parish, and died at Dumfries. The 
following obituary, taken from a paper of that day, shows not only 
that he was a minister of that parish, but also the high esteem ia 
which he was held : 

" Died, in Dumfries, on the 25th ultimo, in the 76th year of his age, 
the Rev. Thomas Thornton, late rector of this parish. He possessed steady 
faith, rational benevolence, and unaffected piety. With the dignity of 
the minister he associated the familiarity of the man, and was truly an 
ornament to human nature. In his sermons he was accurate and persua- 
sive, more attentive to sense than to sound, to elevation of sentiment than 
to loftiness of style, expatiating on the evidences of Christianity when 
infidelity prevailed, and strongly urging the practice of Christian morality 
where vice predominated. His amiable qualities secured him universal 
respect, and his death is now the theme of universal lamentation. " 

A successor to Mr. Thornton was chosen in 1792, in a way most 
unusual in an Episcopal congregation, and contrary to her laws, 
except in the case of Christ Church, Norfolk, which is provided for 
by a special act. A notice was given in the old " Virginia Herald" 
inviting the subscribers to the Episcopal church to meet in the 
town-hall to elect a clergyman. On that occasion ninety-six 
votes were given for the Rev. Mr. Woodville, and thirty-four for 
the Rev. Thomas Davis. Mr. Woodville resigned the parish in 
1793, the year after his election, and removed to St. Mark's, Oul- 
pepper, where he lived until his death, respected by all who knew 

On the 6th of January, 1794, the people assembled in the market- 
house, and again, by a popular vote, unanimously elected the Rev. 
James Stephenson their minister. Mr. Stephenson resigned in 
1805, on account of ill health, Mr. Stephenson married a Misa 


Littlepage, a lady of fine intellectual endowments. He was the 
father of the Hon. Andrew Stephenson and Mr, Carter Stephenson, 
also of Mrs. Woodville. 

In 1806, the Rev. Abner Waugh took charge of the parish, but 
was obliged to relinquish it by reason of ill health. Retiring to 
Hazlewood, where he soon died, he addressed the following letter 
to his friends in Fredericksburg : 

" Impressed with a high sense of their friendly regard and general at- 
tention to him during his residence and want of health among them, the 
iiev. Abner Waugh begs them to receive his acknowledgments. Loss 
of health, and consequently loss of power of being any longer useful, com- 
pelled him to relinquish his prospects in Fredericksburg. In bidding the 
citizens farewell, he wishes them, individually and generally, as much 
comfort, ease, and happiness in this life as may be consistent with a more 
exalted degree of happiness in the next." 

In the year 1808, the Rev. Samuel Low succeeded Mr. Waugh 
Mr. Low was a man of gigantic stature, stentorian lungs, and for* 
bidding countenance. His powers of oratory were great. He had 
been, before his coming to Fredericksburg, preaching to crowds in 
Norfolk, Richmond, and elsewhere, on duelling and gambling, and 
other special topics. Some of these sermons were published. He 
was at that time living with a woman who was not his lawful wife, 
having deserted her who was his true wife and the mother of his 
children. It was some time before the news of this reached Fre- 
dericksburg, and when it did, lie solemnly denied it in the pulpit. 
The fact being established beyond all doubt, lie acknowledged it in 
a letter to the vestry, which is on record, and going to the North, 
obtained a divorce from his wife and married the other. The effect 
of all this must have been most disastrous to tie Church. 

In the year 1811, the Rev. Mr. Strebeck was chosen to fill the 
vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Low, but the Church* 
was little benefited by the change. Such was the unhappy con- 
dition of the parish, that the people, In 1813, were glad to avail 
themselves of the services of their present minister, as lay reader, 
one year, I believe, before he was old enough to be admitted to 
Deacons' Orders. 

As it has been a rule observed by me in these notices to avoid all 
praises or censures of the living, and in the fewest possible words refer 
to the acts and successes even of my oldest friends, therefore to Mr, 
Slaughter's account of the revival of the Church in this parish 
during the thirty-throe years of Mr. McGruire's ministry, ending 
with his history of the parish, to which must now be added fourteen 


more, I refer my readers for a full view of the subject. Suffice it 
to say that, from that time, a succession of revivals, or rather a 
continued one, under faithful evangelical preaching, has added 
great numbers to the Church; that two new churches, each in- 
creasing in size and expense, have been called for ; that several 
young ministers have issued from the parish, among them the Eev. 
Launcelot Minor, whose remains are on the African shore, along- 
side of those of Mrs. Susan Savage, the devoted missionary, whose 
spiritual birthplace was St. George's Church, as Fredericksburg 
was that of her other nativity. Mr. McGuire and he who makes 
this allusion entered the ministry at a short interval apart, and 
cannot be long separated in leaving it behind, for another and we 
trust higher ministry, in the presence of our Redeemer. 

Having done with the ministers and churches of St. George's 
parish, nothing remains but to present a list of the vestrymen of 
the same. 

Vestrymen from 1725 to 1847. 

Augustus Smith, William Grayson, John Waller, Thomas Chew, Geo. 
Wheatle, William Hansford, H. Sharpe, John Taliafero, Francis Thorn- 
ton, Goodrich Lightfoot, Larkin Chew, Z. Lewis, Hon. John Robinson, 
Henry Beverley, Ambrose Grayson, Henry Beverley, Edward Hickman, 
John Chew, F. Taliafero, John Waller, Jr., Wm. Robinson, Rice Curtis, 
William Batfcaley, John Taliafero, Jr., Richard Tutt, John Thornton, 
Rice Curtis, Jr., William Waller, Edward Herndon, Robert Jackson, 
John Spottswood, Fielding Lewis, Joseph Brocl?, Roger Dixon, Richard 
Brook, Charles Lewis, Charles Carter, John Lewis, Charles Washington, 
William Dangerfield, Charles Dick, Joseph Jones, Edward Herndon, 
Thomas Fox, Lewis Willis, Thomas Colston, Thomas Minor, Michael 
Robinson, William Wood, James Tutt, Mann Page, George Thornton, 
Thomas Strachan, John Chew, John Steward, Thomas Crutcher, D. 
Branham, John Julian, J. W. Willis, James Lewis, G. Stubblefield, 
Benjamin Ballard, Thomas Sharpe, John Legg, Charles Mortimer, Chas. 
TJrquart, Benjamin Day, Francis Thornton, Jr., George Weedon, Edward 
Carter, R. B. Chew, George French, W. S. Stone, John Herndon, Thos. 
Strachan, Edward Herndon, Beverley Stubblefield, John Welch, Edward 
Herndon, Jr., John Wright, William Stanard, William Lovell, Charles 
Gates, David Blair, Samuel Greenhow, Fontaine Maury, Elisha Hall, 
James Brown, William Taylor, John Chew, Hugh Mercer, Godlove Heis- 
kell, Thomas Goodwin, William Smith, Robert Patton, David Henderson, 
David C. Ker, Jacob Kuhin, John Minor, Charles L. Carter, William I. 
Stone, Benjamin Botts, John Scott, John Lewis, Dabney Herndon, John 
Taliafero, Z. Lucas, Robert Wellford, James Sniock, John Smith, Jr., 
William Bernard, G. W. B Spooner, James Cannichael, Horace Marshall, 
Robert I. Chew, Francis Taliafero, Robert Lewis, Churchill Jones, Geo. 
Hamilton, John Mundell, Alexander F. Rose, R. Johnson, John Crump, 
Charles Austin, William A. Knox, John Gray, R. T. Thorn, John Hart, 
William F. Gray, William Storke, F. J. Wyatt, John Metcalfe, John T. 
Lomax, H. 0. Middleton, Larkin Johnson, George Rotchrock, Jr., Yea- 


mans Smith, Thomas H. Hanson, Archibald Hart, W. M. Blackford, G- 
W. Bassett, Murray Forbes, E. H. Carmichael, Thomas F. Knox, R. B. 
Manry, John Coakley, James Cooke, R. C. L. Moncure, William Pollock, 
J. B. Ficklin. 


This parish was taken from St. George's in March, 176970. 
The first minister was the Rev. James Stephenson, who was after- 
ward the minister of St. George's. As he was ordained in London 
in 1768, and appears on the lists of 17737476 as minister of 
Berkeley parish, it is more than probable that he was ordained 
expressly for this parish, and became its minister in 1769. He 
was, I believe, a citizen of Virginia, and an inhabitant of Frede- 
ricksburg, before his ordination. From the time that the Rev. Mr. 
Stephenson left it for Culpepper, previous to his removal to Wil- 
liamsburg in 1794, we are unable to state who, if any, was the 
minister of Berkeley parish, until the year 1789, when the Rev. 
Hugh Goran Boggs appears on the journal of Convention. He 
was either ordained by some other English Bishop than the Bishop 
of London, or else by Bishop White, or some other American 
Bishop, since Bishop Madison was not consecrated until 1790. 
Mr. Boggs continued to be the minister of Berkeley parish until his 
death. Rev. Mr. Ward succeeded him in 1837. The Rev. Dabney 
Wharton, the present minister, succeeded to Mr. Ward in 1843. 
Two new churches have been built in this parish within the last 
year: one of them is near the court-house, and the other near the 
Louisa line. 


St. Mark's Parish, Oulpepper Oounty, 

THIS parish was originally in Spottsylvania, when that was the 
frontier county, and was a part of St. George's parish. The 
vestry-book, from whence I derive my information concerning it, 
thus begins in 1730: "In pursuance to an Act of the General 
Assembly holden at Williamsburg the 21st day of May, 1730, 
entitled An Act for dividing the parish of St. George, in the county 
of Spottsylvania, and that all the other parts of the said parish 
be known by the name of St. Mark : according to the said Act, 
the freeholders and housekeepers of the said parish of St. Mark 
did meet at the church at Germanna, in the said parish, on the 1st 
day of January, and there did elect and choose twelve of the most 
able and discreet persons of their parish to be vestrymen, viz. : 
Goodrich Lightfoot, Henry Field, Francis Huntley, William Peyton, 
James Barber, (now Barbour,) Robert Slaughter, John Finlason, 
Francis Slaughter, Thomas Staunton, Benjamin Cave, Robert Green, 
Samuel Ball." Robert Slaughter and Francis Slaughter were the 
first churchwardens, William Peyton clerk, and William Peyton, 
William Philips, and John MacMath were continued lay readers 
at the several churches and chapels they formerly read at. 

At the meeting of the vestry in March, 1731, the church at 
Germanna is ordered to be repaired and the roof tarred ; the Fork 
Chapel and the Mountain Chapel ordered to be swept and kept 
clean. Three houses of worship are recognised as being in use 
before the division, that at Germanna being the church, the others 
the chapels. The church seems to have required repairs. This 
was doubtless the house built by Governor Spottswood for the 
German settlers, who, like the Huguenots on James River, had 
been patronized by Government and allowed certain immunities.* 
By this time, however, they had removed higher up the river, into 
what is now Madison county. Colonel Byrd, in his visit to General 
Spottswood in 1732, speaking of Germanna, says, " This famous 

* Germanna was so called after this settlement by the Germans, as Spottsyl* 
vania was so called after Governo^ Spottswood. 


town consists of Colonel Spottswood's enchanted castle DU one side 
of tlie street and a baker's dozen of ruinous tenements on the 
other, where so many German families had dwelt some years ago, 
but are now removed some ten miles higher up the Fork of Rappa- 
hannock, to land of their own. There had also been a chapel about 
a bow-shot from the Colonel's house, at the end of an avenue of 
cherry-trees, but some pious people had lately burnt it down, with 
intent to have one built nearer to their own homes/' Mr. Byrd's 
writings being full of such remarks, we may conclude that he does 
not always expect us to receive them as historical verities. NO 
doubt the locality of the church was inconvenient, and many did 
not lament its destruction, as another would be built nearer to the 
body of the congregation. 

Before we proceed further in the history of this parish, it may 
be well to state what information we have in relation to this German 
settlement which Governor Spottswood had cherished on his estate 
at Germanna, which estate, it is said, was only a part of a tract 
of forty-five thousand acres on which he worked a number of iron- 
ore furnaces. From the letter-book of the Venerable Society in 
England for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, we obtain 
the following document, headed 


" The case of thirty-two Protestant German families settled in Virginia 
humbly showeth : That twelve Protestant German families, consisting of 
about fifty persons, arrived April 17th, in Virginia, and were therein 
settled near the Rappahannock River. That in 1717 seventeen Protestant 
German families, consisting of about fourscore persons, came and set 
down near their countrymen. And many more, both German and Swiss 
families, are likely to come there and settle likewise. That for the enjoy- 
ment of the ministries of religion, there will be a necessity of building a 
small church in the place of their settlement, and of maintaining a minis- 
ter, who shall catechize, read, and perform divine offices among them in 
the German tongue, which is the only language they do yet understand. 
That there went indeed with the first twelve German families one minis- 
ter, named Henry Hoeger, a very sober, honest man, of about seventy-five 
years of age; but he being likely to be past service in a short time, they 
have empowered Mr. Jacob Christophe Zollicoffer, of St. Gall, in Switzer- 
land, to go into Europe and thereto obtain, if possible, some contributions 
from pious and charitable Christians toward the building of their church, 
and bringing over with him a young German minister to assist the said Mr. 
Hceger in the ministry of religion, and to succeed him when he shall 
die ; to get him ordained in England by the Right Rev. Lord-Bishop 
of London, and to bring over with him the Liturgy of the Church of 
England translated into High Dutch, which they are desirous to use 
in the public worship. But this new settlement consisting of but mean 


persons, being utterly unaJe of tu^ -jsewes both to build a church and 
to make up a salary sufficient to maintain such assisting minister, they 
humbly implore the countenance and encouragement of the Lord-Bishop 
of London and others, the Lords, the Bishops, as also the Venerable 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, that they 
would take their case under their pious consideration and grant their usual 
allowance for the support of a minister, and, if it may be, to contribute 
something toward the building of their church. 

"And they shall ever pray that God may reward their beneficence both 
here and hereafter.' 7 

Whether they did succeed in their effort, and how long after this 
they continued at Germanna, and what was their history after their 
removal, we are not able to state. One thing we have ascertained 
from one of the oldest men now living in Oulpepper, that within 
his recollection, their descendants, when without a Lutheran minis- 
ter, would come a long distance to receive the sacrament from an 
Episcopal minister at Buckrun Church, not many miles from Oulpep- 
per Court-House. It is very certain that at one time they had a large 
church, a flourishing congregation, a fine organ, and good music. 

In passing on to our notice of the churches and ministers of 
St. Mark's, we cannot but express some surprise at not finding the 
name of General Spottswood among those of the vestry, although 
it is mentioned in the vestry-book, as he always appeared while 
Governor to be much interested in Church affairs. It may be that, 
as he lived on the outskirts of the parish, and the new church 
was now removed so far from him, he declined an active part in 
its concerns. In a few years after this he died. His widow and 
children continued to live at Germanna, and were within the pas- 
toral charge of its ministers. We shall see hereafter that Mrs. 
Spottswood became the wife of one of them. 

Previous to the year 1728, we ascertain that a Rev. Mr. Staige 
had officiated at Germanna, and after him a Rev. Rodham Kennor. 
Between the years 1731 and 1733 we find a Rev. Mr. De Butts and 
a Rev. Mr. Pruit often preaching in St. Mark's, but neither of 
them was elected. In May, 1733, the Rev. Mr. Beckett was regu- 
larly elected and continued minister until the year 1739. 

In the year 1732, the vestry built a church at the Two Springs, 
on the Germanna Road, at the cost of thirty-six thousand- weight 
of tobacco. In the year 1633, the choice of a pew in the new 
church is offered to Colonel Spottswood. In the same year twenty- 
seven thousand pounds of tobacco are voted for building a new 
church in the Southwest Mountains; also, another, " twenty feet 
square, near Batley's Quarter, where David Cave be lay reader/ 


hi the year 1735, a chapel is ordered between Shaw's Mountain 
and the Devil's Run. Ordered the same year "that the ministers 
preach as the law directs at every church and chapel." 

In the year 1739 we find the following order : " That the church- 
wardens agree with the Rev. Mr. McDaniel, if he please to serve 
the parish, and if not, some other minister, except Mr. Beckett/' 
From something on the vestry-book a year or two before, there 
would seem to have been a serious cause of complaint against Mr. 
Beckett. In the year following 1740 the Rev. John Thompson 
comes, recommended by Governor Gooch, and is accepted. In this 
year also the parish of St. Mark, which was still in the county of 
Orange, was divided, and St. Thomas formed out of it. Mr. James 
Barber and William Cave being in the new parish of St. Thomas, 
Mr. William Triplett and William Russell were chosen in their room. 
Mr. John Catlett had been previously added to the vestry in place 
of one deceased. The estimate in which Mr. Thompson was held 
appears at once by the increased attention paid to the glebe-houses. 
In the year 1741, Mrs. Spottswood presents a velvet pulpit cloth 
and cushion to the church, and Goodrich Lightfoot is chosen vestry- 
man in place of Thomas Stanton, deceased. In 1742, a church 
was resolved on in Tenant's old field. In the year 1743, an addi- 
tion of twenty-four feet square is ordered to the Fork Church. In 
1746, Benjamin Roberts and Philip Clayton appear on the vestry. 
In the year 1747, 'Robert Slaughter, Jr. is appointed vestryman 
in place of W. Finlason, deceased, and William Green in place of 
Robert Green, deceased. In the year 1750, a chapel is ordered at 
the Little Fork, where an old chapel stood. In the year 1751, Abra- 
ham Field is on the vestry, also Thomas Slaughter in place of 
Robert Slaughter, Jr., who removed out of the parish, and James 
Pendleton in place of Samuel Ball, deceased. In 1744, large addi- 
tions are made to the glebe-houses. In 1752, Bloomfield parish 
cut off from St. Mark's, and services at the court-house instead 
of at Tenant's Church. In 1752, Thomas Stubblefield and John 
Hackley on the vestry. In 1752, the site of the new chapel, which 
was ordered on the Little Fork, is changed to one in Freeman's old 
field, and to be called a church. In the same year, 1752, a church 
ordered on Buckrun upon Colonel Spottswood's land, to cost fifty- 
four thousand pounds of tobacco. Some leaves being torn out, the 
next meeting of the vestry is in 1757, Mr. Thompson still the 
minister. Nathaniel Pendleton and James Pendleton are each clerk 
of one of its churches. In 1758, Thomas Slaughter and Anthony 
Garnet elected vestrymen. In 1760, an addition ordered to the 


Little Fork Church, thirty-two by twenty-two feet. Willianc 
Williams vestryman in 1761. In the year 1768, William Ball ves- 
tryman in place of James Pendleton, deceased. Henry Field, Jr., 
in place of Henry Field, Sen., resigned. In the year 1764, the 
Rev. Mr. Thompson obtained leave to build a gallery in the church 
(that nearest Germanna) for the use of his family and friends. In 
the year 1766, Samuel Clayton vestryman in place of Philip Clayton, 
resigned. In 1768, Buckrun Church enlarged. In the year 1770, 
the old glebe sold to Samuel Henning, and Mr. Henning allowed 
to build a pew in the gallery of Buckrun Church. Cadwallader 
Slaughter chosen vestryman, and John Green in place of William 
Green, deceased. In the same year new glebe of three hundred acres 
bought of Francis Slaughter for one hundred and ninety-nine pounds 
and ten thousand-weight of tobacco. In 1771, Philip Pendleton ap- 
pointed clerk of the vestry in place of William Peyton, deceased. He 
was also lay reader, as two others of the name had been, and others 
have been since elsewhere. In the same year French Strother and 
John Gray vestrymen, in place of Goodrich Lightfoot, resigned, and 
Henry Field, removed. Another addition to the Little Fork Church 
of the same dimensions with the last. In 1772, a glebe-house ordered, 
forty-eight feet long by thirty-two, eight rooms, for thirty-five 
thousand nine hundred weight of tobacco. In the midst of these 
preparations for the comfortable entertainment of the Rev. Mr. 
Thompson, his labours were ended by death, after a ministry of thirty- 
two years of uninterrupted harmony with his parishioners, and of la- 
borious duty in a most extensive parish. Judging from the number 
of churches and chapels, and their frequent enlargement, and the 
benches we read of as placed at the doors, he must have been a most 
acceptable minister. His is one case added to a number which might 
be adduced, from the vestry-books, in proof that where the minister 
is faithful to his duty the people do not wish to exchange him. 
Some few exceptions doubtless there were. Of so exemplary a 
man as Mr. Thompson the reader will desire to know as much as 
can be furnished. Mr. Thompson was from Scotland, and took the 
degree of Master of Arts in the University of Edinburgh. On 
the 28th of October, 1739, he received Deacons' Orders in Duke 
Street Chapel, in the parish of Westminster, from the hands of 
Nicholas, the Bishop of St, David's. On the 4th of November of 
the same year, he received Priests* Orders from the same Bishop 
in the Chapel of St. James, within the palace royal of St. James 
of Westminster. On the following year we find him settled as 
minister in St. Mark's parish, where he continued until his death, 


knowing, as a minister, one only love. On the 9th of November, 
1742, he married the widow of Governor Spottswood, who was one 
of his parishioners and living at Geraanna. By this marriage he 
had two children, Ann Thompson, who was born at Germanna, in 
1744, and married Mr. Francis Thornton, of Fall Hill* near 
Fredericksburg, at the early age of fifteen years, eight months. 
The other is Mr. William Thompson, of whom I have as yet received 
no certain information. In the year 1760, Mr. Thompson mar- 
ried a second wife, Miss Elizabeth Roots, by whom he had three 
children, Mildred Thompson, John Thompson, and Philip Roots 
Thompson. The last married the daughter of old Mr. R. Slaugh- 
ter, one of the vestrymen of that name in St. Mark's parish, and 
moved many years since to Kanawha, where his descendants for 
the last forty years have formed a little congregation of zealous 

But although Mr. Thompson was so good and amiable a man, 
and, as tradition informs us, one of the most imposing of men in his 
person, he did not easily succeed in securing his first wife, in con- 
sequence of the family pride of the children, which objected to the 
union of the widow of Governor Spottswood with a minister of the 
Gospel. Such was the opposition that, after an engagement, she 
begged to be released. This caused the following letter, which all 
must agree is a masterpiece of its kind. Its effect has already 
been told in the fact of their marriage in a few months. An entire 
reconciliation of all parties, however, was not effected until many 
years after, by the intervention of the Rev. Robert Rose, the friend 
and executor of Governor Spottswood, as I have said elsewhere. 

Copy of a Letter from the Rev. John Thompson to Lady Spottswood. 

" MAD AM: By diligently perusing your letter, I perceive there is a 
material argument, which I ought to have answered, upon which your 
Strongest objection against completing my happiness would seem to depend, 
viz. : That you would incur y e censures of y* world for marrying a pel-son of my 
station and character. By which I understand that you think it a diminution 
of your honour and y e dignity of your family to marry a person in y e station 
of a clergyman. Now, if I can make it appear that y* ministerial office is 
an employment in its nature y e most honourable, and in its effects y* most 
beneficial to mankind, I hope your objections will immediately vanish, y : 
you will keep me no longer in suspense and misery, but consummate my 

"I make no doubt, madam, but y fc you will readily grant f no^ man 
can be employed in any work more honourable than what .immediately 
relates to y c King of kings and Lord of lords, and to y* salvation of 
souls, immortal in their nature, and redeemed by y e blood of the Son of 
God, The powers committed to their care cannot be exercised by y 1 
greatest princes of earth; and it is y e same work in kind, and y e same ir 


f design of it, with y* of y e blessed Angels, who are ministering spirits 
for those who shall be heirs of salvation. It is j e same business y* y e Son 
of God discharged when he condescended to dwell amongst men. Which 
engages men In j e greatest acts of doing good, in turning sinners from y a 
errors of their ways, and, by all wise and prudent means, in gaining souls 
unto God. And the faithful and diligent discharge of this holy function 
gives a title to y e highest degree of glory in the next world; for they y l be 
wise shall shine as y e brightness of y e firmament, and they y* turn many 
to righteousness as y stars forever and ever. 

"All nations, whether learned or ignorant, whether civil or barbarous, 
have agreed in this as a dictate of natural reason, to express their reve- 
rence for the Deity, and their affection to religion, by bestowing extraor- 
dinary privileges of honour upon such as administer in holy things, and 
by providing liberally for their maintenance. And that the honour due 
to the holy function flows from y e law of nature appears from hence, y fc in 
y e earliest times y 45 civil and sacred authority were united in y e same person. 
Thus Melehisedeck was King and Priest of Salem ; and among y e Egyp- 
tians y e priesthood was joined with y e crown. Y e Greeks accounted y 8 
priesthood of equal dignity with kingship, which is taken notice of by 
Aristotle in several places of his Politicks. And among the Latins we 
have a testimony from Virgil y* at y e same time Anias was both priest and 
king. Nay, Moses himself, who was Prince of Israel, before Aaron was 
consecrated, officiated as priest in y* solemn sacrifice by which y e covenant 
with Israel was confirmed. And y e primitive Christians always expressed 
a mighty value and esteem for their clergy, as plainly appears from eccle- 
siastical history. And even in our days, as bad as y e world is, those of 
y e clergy who live up to y e dignity of their profession are generally reve- 
renced and esteemed by all religious and well-disposed men. 

" Prom all which it evidently appears y* in all ages and nations of y a 
world, whether Jews, Heathens, or Christians, great honour and dignity 
has been always conferred upon y e clergy. And, therefore, dear madam, 
from hence you may infer how absurd and ridiculous those gentlemen's 
notions are who would fain persuade you y* marrying with y e clergy you 
would derogate from y e honour and dignity of your family. Whereas in 
strict reasoning the contrary thereof would rather appear, and y fc it would 
Tery much tend to support y e honour and dignity of it. Of this I hope 
you will be better convinced when you consider the titles of honour and 
respect y 1 are given to those who are invested with y e ministerial function 
as amply displayed in y e Scriptures. Those invested with y* character are 
called y e ministers of Christ, stewards of y e mysteries of God, to whom 
they have committed y e word of reconciliation, y e glory of Christ, ambas- 
sadors for Christ in Christ's stead, co-workers with him 7 angels of y e 
Churches. And then it is moreover declared y* whosoever despiseth them 
despiseth not man but God. All which titles shew y* upon many accounts 
they stand called, appropriated, and devoted to God himself. And, there- 
fore, if a gentleman of this sacred and honourable character should be 
married to a lady, though of y* greatest extraction and most excellent 
personal qualities, (which I am sensible you are endowed with,) it can be 
no disgrace to her nor her family, nor draw y e censures of y e world upon 
them for such an action. And therefore, dear madam, your argument 
being refuted, you can no longer consistently refuse to consummate my 
happiness. JOHN THOMPSON 

< May, 1742.'' 


While we entirely agree with all that is written above as to the 
respectability of the ministry, we would caution against an ill use 
that is sometimes made of the principle advocated by Mr. Thomp- 
son. No matter how high the birth, how complete the education, 
of a lady, if she be truly pious, humble, and devoted to good works, 
she may be a suitable helpmate to a minister ; but it is not often 
that one very delicately brought up in the higher walks of life can 
accommodate herself to the circumstances of many of the clergy. 
As to those who are born to large fortune, let the ministers of re- 
ligion rather avoid than seek them as companions, taking warning 
from the many unhappy failures which have resulted from such 

We now proceed with the history of the parish. After employ- 
ing the Rev. Charles Woodmason for a short time, the vestry elected 
the Rev. Edward Jones, of Carolina, and had him inducted, a thing 
of rare occurrence. In this year Mr. John Waugh is chosen vestry- 
man. In the year 1773, it appearing that no convenient place, 
having water, could be found on the land purchased for a glebe, the 
vestry obtained one hundred more, at a cost of one hundred and 
fifty pounds, from Mr. Francis Slaughter. One of the churches 
being burned that year, the vestry determined to build one forty by 
sixty of wood, on Mr. Robert Freeman's or Peter Bowman's land. 
This order being reconsidered, it was resolved to build one eighty 
feet by thirty, of brick, on the land of Peter Bowman. In this year 
Captain Richard Yancey was vestryman in the place of Major John 
Green, who had entered the Continental service. In the year 1778, 
the vestry recommend subscriptions for paying the officers of the 
church. In the same year Biskett Davenport vestryman in place 
of William Williams, deceased. In February, 1780, Mr. Jones re- 
signed the parish, and the vestry advertised it.* Mr. John Gray 
resigned his seat, Robert Pollard chosen vestryman. In April, 
1780, the Rev. Mr. Stephenson was elected. The last meeting re- 
corded in the vestry-book is in 1784. On the journal of the Con- 
vention in 1796, Mr. Stephenson appears as the minister of St 
George's Church, Fredericksburg, and Mr. Woodville as from St. 
Mark's parish, they having changed places, as Mr. Woodville had 
been the minister of St. George's. Mr. Woodville had married the 
daughter of Mr. Stephenson, who was also the father of Mr. An- 
drew Stephenson, our late minister to England, and of Mr. Carter 

* The Rev. Mr. Iredell also officiated for a time in this parish, but was a disgrace 
to the ministry. 
VOL. IL 8 


Stephenson, who died some years since in Frederieksburg. With 
Mr. Woodville I became well acquainted soon after my entrance on 
the ministry, being often at his house (the glebe) in Culpepper, 
where he connected a school with the ministry, both of which he 
conducted in the most conscientious manner, being himself a man 
of unblemished character. His son James became a lawyer of dis- 
tinction in Botetourt county, and his son Walker has for many 
years been supplying some parts of his father's old parish. With 
his wife and two daughters, Fanny and Sarah, I became intimately 
acquainted, and with purer spirits I do not expect to be acquainted 
on this side of heaven. The former has long since gone to her rest. 
The two latter Fanny, who married Mr. Payne, and is the mother 
of a numerous offspring, and Sarah, who is unmarried, and lives 
with her are residing in Mississippi. I often hear from them, and 
rejoice to know that they still love Virginia and the old Church of 
Virginia. I cannot take leave of old St. Mark's parish and vestry 
without a brief reference to those who once composed them, the 
Spottswoods, Slaughters, Pendletons, Fields, Lightfoots, Barbers, 
Greens, Peytons, Caves, Balls, Williamses, Strothers, Knoxes, 
Stephenses, Watkinses, and others, who amidst all the adversities 
of the Church have been faithful to her. Others have followed in 
their path, the Thompsons, Carters, Randolphs, Winstons, Mor- 
tons, Stringfellows, Cunninghams, Thorns, and others ; but death, 
removals, and other circumstances, have sadly hindered her pro- 
gress. Perhaps no part of Virginia has suffered more in this way 
than the county of Culpepper. 

As I am writing of the past for the gratification and benefit of 
the present, and not of the present for the use of the future, I can 
despatch the remaining history of St. Marks in a few words. Soon 
after the resuscitation of the Church of Virginia commenced, a new 
church, called St. Stephen's, at Culpepper Court-House, was esta- 
blished within the bounds of St. Mark's parish, and the Eev. Wil- 
liam Hawley appears on the journal during the years 1814 and 
1815 as the minister. He laboured and preached zealously there 
and in Orange, and with much effect. He was followed by Mr. 
Herbert Marshall, who for some years laboured faithfully and 
successfully. In the /ear 1827, the Eev. George A. Smith com* 
menced service and continued it for several years. The Rev. 
Annesley* Stewart performed some duty there after Mr. Smith's 

The Eev. John Cole has now for a long term of years been 
minister in Culpepper. Previously to his coming a new church 


had been built a,t Culpepper Court-House, and since Ms settlement 
in the parish two new ones have been built on opposite sides of the 
county, near each branch of the Rappahannock, while the old brick 
church in Forke is still remaining. A comfortable parsonage hag 
also been provided for the minister. 


Orange County. St. Thomas Parish. 

[The Bishop is indebted for the following communication to the pen and 
labours of its present minister, the Rev. Mr. Earnest.] 

THE county of Orange (embracing St. Mark's parish) was sepa- 
rated from Spottsylvania in the year 1734. It was " bounden south- 
erly by the line of Hanover county, northerly by the grant of the* 
Lord Fairfax, and westerly by the utmost limits of Virginia." In 
1740, "for the convenience of the minister and the people," the 
parish of St. Mark's was divided. The southerly portion, including 
a part of what is now Madison county, was called St. Thomas parish, 
and its western limits were somewhat reduced. St. George's parish, 
Spottsylvania, of which St. Thomas was a part, had for its western 
boundary "the river beyond the high mountains:" the summit of 
the Blue Ridgebeingmadethewestern limit of St. Thomas parish. 

Before the days of the Revolution St. Thomas parish had within 
its limits three churches, viz. : The Pine Stake Church, the Middle 
or Brick Church, and the Orange Church. The two former have 
disappeared entirely, although both were standing and in tolerably 
good keeping within time of memory. The last named, and the 
oldest of the three, situated near Ruckersville, a small village about 
eighteen miles from Orange Court-House, in what is now the county 
of Green, is still standing, though it has long ceased to be used as 
a place of worship by an Episcopal congregation. It was for a long 
while in the occupancy of the Methodists. The old church, which 
is of wood, has undergone so many repairs since the time it was 
built, that it is thought, like the old frigate Constitution, little if 
any of the original timber is to be found in it. As I passed it 
some years since, for the first time, curiosity rather I may say 
veneration for the ancient house of God led me to stop and take 
& near view; but my heart was saddened to see this relic of former 
tunes so far gone into dilapidation as to be wholly unfit for the 
sacred purposes for which it was set apart. Here old Major Burton, 
a staunch patriot and as staunch a Churchman, who had served his 
country in the war of the Revolution, continued for a long while 
in the absence of the regular ministry to serve the church as a lav 


This church, though the oldest of these three Colonial churches, 
was not the first in point of time that was erected within this parish. 
The first church that was built in the parish was situated about ten 
miles northwest of Orange Court-House, on a portion of land now 
owned by Mr. Robert Brooking. The country adjacent was doubt- 
less sacred ground with the aborigines long anterior to the dis- 
covery of America; for but a short distance from this " church In 
the wilderness," upon the right bank of the Rapidan River, is 
yet to be seen an ancient mound, or burial-place of the Indians, 
Here, as the waters of this rapid stream lave its banks, there are 
often exposed to view the bones of the mighty dead, bones whose 
giant size indicate that a race of men hardy, athletic, and powerful 
once inhabited this fertile region. 

At what period of time this first " Orange Church" was built, we 
have it not in our power exactly to verify. We have been told that 
it was frequented as a place of worship by some of the old settlers 
as early as 1723. Certain it is, that it was used as such in 1740, 
the year in which St. Thomas was formed into a separate parish. 
The winter of this year wa,s noted in this region for its exceedingly 
great severity. The degree of cold was so intense that several of 
the early planters determined on seeking a more genial climate 
farther south, and accordingly purchased lands in North Carolina. 
At that time an old Scotch minister of the Episcopal Church, 
whose name I have not been able to ascertain, but who it seems was 
fond of good cheer and a game of cards, officiated regularly at 
this church. He resided with Mr. Benjamin Cave, Sen., a first 
settler, whose residence was but a short distance from where the 
old church stood. Subsequently, as the settlements advanced west- 
ward, the old church was removed about eight miles distant to the 
place where its remains are still standing. 

The Middle or Brick Church was situated about three miles south- 
east of Orange Court-House, on the old road leading to Fredericks- 
burg, upon land owned originally by Mr. James Taylor, Sen., a 
first settler, and subsequently in possession of his grandson, Mr. 
Zachary Taylor, who was the grandfather of the late General 
Zachary Taylor, and is now owned by Mr. Erasmus Taylor. We 
have not been able to ascertain the year in which the church was 
built; but from certain private records in our possession we can 
assign the date of its erection somewhere between 1750 and 1758. 
This church, like the old Colonial churches generally, was well built 
and of durable materials. As late as 1806, time had made but 
little impression upon it. But what time failed to accomplish was 


reached "by the unsparing hand of man. After the Church in 
Virginia was divested of her glebes, her houses of worship came to 
be regarded by the multitude as "common property. 7 ' While her 
hand was against no man, every man's hand seemed to be against 
her. During or shortly before the last war with Great Britain the 
work 01 the church's destruction was begun. Delenda est Carthago 
seemed to be the watchword of the ruthless foe. They first com- 
menced with the roof; this soon yielded to their onset ; the rafters 
next gave way : the naked, massive walls resisted for a time their 
further onslaught, but, nothing daunted, they redoubled their forces 
and renewed the attack. The walls fell, and the triumph of the 
invaders was complete, as they carried away as so many captives 
the vanquished, unresisting bricks. The altar-pieces, (the gift of 
Mr. Andrew Shepherd,) executed in gilt letters, and which long 
adorned the venerated chancel, were torn from their ancient rest- 
ing-places, rent into fragments, and were afterward, though with 
no sacrilegious intent, attached as ornamental appendages to some 
articles of household furniture. 

Amidst the general destruction of the property of the church, 
even the ancient Communion-plate, belonging to the parish, came 
to be regarded as common property. This plate, consisting of a 
massive silver cup and paten, with the name of the parish engraved 
thereupon, was, as we learn, the gift of a few pious communicants 
about a century since, among whom were Mrs. Frances Madison, 
grandmother of the President, and Mrs. James Taylor, mother of 
the late Mr. Robert Taylor, and Mrs. Balmaine. It has been only 
by the exercise of vigilance that this solitary remnant of the old 
church's property has been rescued and handed down in a state 
of perfect preservation, for the present use of St. Thomas's Church. 

The time of the erection of the Pine Stake Church is, like that 
of the other two, involved in obscurity. It is probable that it was 
built about the same time as the Middle or Brick Church. It 
was situated near Mountain Run, about fifteen miles northeast of 
Orange Court-House, on lands originally taken up by Mr. Francis 
Taliafero, Sen. It continued to be used as a place of worship by 
an Episcopal congregation in the early part of the present century, 
and was standing at least as late as the year 1813. During the 
war of the Revolution a Mr. Leland, a Baptist preacher, who was 
a man of considerable notoriety in these parts at that period, ap- 
plied to the vestry for the use of this church. The following letter 
from the father of President Madison, who was at the time a 
member of the vestry, written in a clear, bold hand, (the original of 


which we have in our possession,) answers his application, and at 
the same time throws no little light upon the rights and privileges 
of the Church as they stood at that time : 

" August 23, 1781 

" SIR : For want of opportunity and leisure, I have delayed till now 
answering your letter relative to your preaching in the Pine Stake Church. 
When the vestry met I forgot to mention your request to them, as I pro- 
mised you, till it broke up. I then informed the members present what 
you required of them j who, as the case was new and to them unprece- 
dented, thought it had better remain as it then stood, lest the members 
of the church should be alarmed that their rights and privileges were in 
danger of being unjustifiably disposed of. 

" I do not remember ever to have heard of your claiming a right to preach 
in the church till you mentioned in your letter of such a report. As to 
any right in Disesnters to the church, you may see by the Act of Assembly 
made in the October Session in 1776, they are excluded. The Act, pro- 
bably to satisfy the members, (as much as the nature of the case would 
admit of,) reserved to the use of the Church by law established the glebes, 
churches, books, plate, ornaments, donations, &c. Which, as hath been 
generally said, the Dissenters were well satisfied with, having in lieu 
thereof by the same authority gained a very important privilege, the 
exemption from contributing to the support of an established Church and 
ministry, which they had long groaned under and complained of. On 
considering the case I make no doubt, sir, but your candour will readily 
excuse the vestry in not granting your petition. 

"I am, sir, your humble servant, 

"Rev. Mr. LELAND." 

At a later period, ministers of other denominations had free 
access to these old Colonial churches, and used and occupied them not 
so much by courtesy as of common right. The Old Orange Church 
was for a long while in the exclusive use of another denomination 
of Christians, and the Middle Church was for some time, as was 
also Walker's Church in Albemarle, alternately occupied by the 
Rev. Matthew Maury and the blind Presbyterian preacher. The 
latter came to this part of Virginia at a period of great depression in 
the Episcopal Church, and a house of "worship was erected for him 
near Gordonsville, in this county, to which, however, he did not con- 
fine his ministrations. It was here, probably on his way from 
Albemarle to Orange Court, that Mr. Wirt -was furnished with a 
theme which has given as much notoriety to himself as to the 
preacher. Before this Mr. Waddell laboured among his people in 
comparative obscurity. His fame as a preacher was little known, 
even in his own immediate vicinity, until after the appearance of 
Mr. Wirt's celebrated letter in the British Spy. His congregations, 
which previously had been very small, now became large to over- 


flowing. ^ ersons from a distance far beyond the usual limit of 
attendance upon divine worship in those days some on foot, ,iome 
on horseback, some in " every kind of conveyance" flocked to hear 
the famous Hind preacher. Without meaning to detract aught 
from his fame as a preacher, we have no doubt, if we may form 
an opinion from the representation of persons who knew him well 
and heard Mm often, that his discourse on the occasion referred to 
owes not a little of its surpassing beauty and effectiveness to the 
brilliant imagination and fine descriptive powers of the author of 
the British Spy. 

Turning now from the old Colonial churches to the clergy who 
ministered in this parish in former times, we find ourselves, in the 
absence of vestry-books and other ancient records, somewhat at a 
loss to reproduce in exact chronological order their names and the 
period of their service. "The memory of man," and some private 
records in our possession, must furnish all the data upon which we 
can proceed in this regard. The old Scotch minister to whom we 
have already referred, who resided near and preached at the first 
Orange Church as early as 1740, is the first in the order of time 
of whom we can obtain any information; and even his name is 
passed into oblivion. In 1753, the name of the Rev, Mungo 
Marshall appears for the first time in connection with this parish, 
though it is probable he took charge of the same at an earlier 
period. He continued to reside here until the time of his death, 
which took place either in 1757 or 1758. We find it on record in 
the clerk's office of this county, that letters of administration upon 
his estate were taken out in the latter year. He was buried in 
the churchyard attached to the Old Brick Church, but for a long 
while no stone or other memento distinguished the place of his 
interment. At length, many years after his death, a connec- 
tion of his bequeathed a certain sum, upon condition that his 
legatee was not to receive it until he had first placed a tombstone 
over the remains of the Eev. Mungo Marshall. In due time 
thereafter this was done. But it was not long permitted to desig- 
nate the quiet resting-place of the dead. When the work of 
destruction commenced upon the church, the despoilers did not 
overlook the churchyard. The graves of the departed, and the 
monuments sacred to their memory, were not sacred in their eyes. 
The tombstones were borne off by their sacrilegious hands and ap- 
propriated to common and unhallowed uses. That which covered 
the remains of this man of God was used first to grind paints 


upon, and afterward served in a tannery for the purpose of dress- 
ing hides. 

In 1760, Tare find the Kev. William Giberne officiating in this 
parish. Whether he was removed by death or otherwise we cannot 
ascertain ; but his residence here was a brief one;* for at the close 
of the year 1761, the Rev. James Marye, Jr., having just entered 
into Orders, commenced his ministry in Orange. His first recorded 
official act tc which we are able to refer was his preaching the 
funeral sermon of the paternal grandmother of President Madison. 
We find in the family record of her son (James Madison, Sen.) the 
following entry: " Frances, wife of Ambrose Madison, departed 
this life October 25, 1761, and was interred the Sunday following, 
(at Montpelier in Orange.) Her funeral sermon was preached on 
Wednesday the 30th of December following, by the Rev. Mr. James 
Marye, Jr., on Revelations xiv. 13." Mr. Marye was a worthy 
exception to a class of clergy that obtained in Virginia in olden 
time. So far as we can learn, he was a man of evangelical views 
und sincere piety. We have seen a manuscript sermon of his on 
the religious training of children, which would do honour to the 
head and heart of any clergyman, and whose evangelical tone and 
spirit might well commend it to every pious parent and every en- 
lightened Christian. He remained in charge of this parish about 
aix years. Upon the death of his father, (the Rev. James Marye, 
Sen.,) who was the minister of St. George's parish, Spottsylvania, 
for thirty-one years, he was chosen to supply his place, an unmis- 
takable evidence of the high regard in which both father and son 
were held by the parishioners of St. George's. The Rev. Mr. Marye 
is the first minister in St. Thomas parish whose residence we can 
with any degree of certainty fix at the glebe. This farm, after 
passing through various hands since it ceased to be the property 
of the Church, is now by a singular coincidence in possession of 
one of his lineal descendants, Robert B, Marye, Esq. 

The Rev. Thomas Martin succeeded Mr. Marye in 1767-68. He 
was a young man of merit'. He came with his mother and sister 
to reside at the glebe ; but his residence was of short duration. 
Death removed him from the scene of his labours and his usefulness 
not long after he entered upon the duties of the parish. He was 
followed by the Rev. John Barnett. His name occurs officially ID 
1771. But his connection with the parish was also of brief dura- 

* He remoyed to Richmond county, Virginia. 


tion, for in 1774 the Rev. John Wingate was the minister, and is 
the last of the ante-Revolutionary clergy whose name occurs. 
Whether he continued in charge of the parish during the war we 
have no means to verify ; but circumstances justify the conclusion 
that, like some others of the old Colonial clergy, he surrendered 
his charge at the commencement of hostilities between the Colonies 
and the mother-country. 

A period of sad depression dates from this time. For the long 
interval between 1774 and 1797, (twenty-three years,) the parish 
seems to be without a minister. The occasional services that were 
rendered by the Rev. Matthew Maury, of Albeinarle, during the 
latter part of this interval, are, so far as we can see, the only ones 
performed by any clergyman. Mr. William Moore, a man of note 
in the parish at this time, a good old Churchman and an excellent 
reader, was generally called upon on funeral occasions to read the 
burial service. In the first Convention of the Church, in Virginia, 
held in 1785, we find St. Thomas parish, though without a minis- 
ter, not without a representative. Mr. Thomas Barb our (father 
of the late Governor and of the late Judge Barbour) appeared as 
the delegate. In the following year the parish is again represented 
by Mr. Barbour, in connection with Mr. William Moore. In 1790, 
Thomas Barbour and J. Daniel are the delegates. In 1793, the 
parish is again represented by Thomas Barbour. In 1797, we find 
the Eev. Charles O'Mel the clerical and William Moore the lay 
delegate. The Rev. Mr. O'Niel took charge of the parish in the 
latter year, and remained until 1800. He resided first near the 
Pine Stake Church, and preached at that church during his resi- 
dence in Orange. He afterward removed to the upper part of the 
county, where, as well as at his former residence, he taught school 
in connection with his parochial duties. The late Judge Barbour 
was one of his pupils. Mr. O'Niel was an Irishman, and a man 
of ardent temperament and of ardent temper. We have often 
heard him spoken of by elderly persons, but more as a teacher 
than as a preacher. He was of that class of teachers that adopted 
not only the theory, but the practice also, of the old regime, as the 
best for the government of boys. Flogging was a main ingredient 
in the practice of his system. He had a summary method of re- 
ducing and gentling a refractory youth. Mounting him upon the 
back of an athletic negro man, whom he seems to have kept for 
the purpose, the culprit was pinioned hand and foot as in a vice, 
and, with the unsparing application of the rod to his defenceless 
back, was taught the lesson, if not the doctrine, of passive obe 


dience. However his school may have flourished under his manage- 
ment, it seems his parish did not, for we look in vain for any fruits 
of his parochial labours. Another long interval now occurs in the 
history of the parish, without any one to take the regular oversight 
of its spiritual interests. The Rev. Matthew Maury again kindly 
extended his care to this neglected field, and performed occasional 
services in it at least as late as 1806. In 1809-11, we find the Rev- 
Hugh Goran Boggs, of Berkeley parish, Spottsylvania, devoting 
a portion of his time to Orange. He preached at the Pine Stake 
Church and also at the court-house. We have often heard it said, 
that when he preached at the latter place he was never known to 
use the Liturgy. This may have been owing to the difficulty he 
met with in procuring the responses. He may have rightly judged 
the lex necessitatis to be a " higher law" and of more stringent 
force than any canon or rubric to the contrary. From 1811 to 1815 
the parish was again without a minister. In the latter year, the 
Rev. William Hawley, coming to reside at Culpepper Court-House, 
took charge of St. Thomas parish in connection with St. Stephen's 
Church, Culpepper, At the time he commenced his labours in 
Orange, the Episcopal Church had wellnigh died out in the county. 
But three or four communicants remained in all this region of 
country, and some of these were far advanced in age. So entirely 
had our time-honoured service gone into desuetude, that when Mr. 
Hawley first commenced its use it was listened to as a striking 
novelty. Under his ministry there began to appear the* dawn of a 
brighter day for the Church. Several communicants were added ; 
some of whom, in the providence of God, still remain with us. In 
the autumn of 1816, Bishop Moore made his first visitation of the 
parish, preached and administered the Lord's Supper, and also the 
rite of Confirmation, in the court-house. This was now our usual 
nay, our only place of worship. Referring to this visitation, the 
Bishop, in his report to the following Convention, says, "My 
labours commenced in the county of Orange, at which place 1 
preached to a large and attentive auditory, celebrated the Lord's 
Supper, and administered the rite of Confirmation to a goodly 
number/' The visit of the good Bishop, as well from its novelty 
as its effectiveness, was calculated to make, and did make, a great 
impression at the time. It was an event of unusual solemnity, and 
is still remembered with lively interest by some who were present. 
!TMs was the first Episcopal visitation that had ever been made, 
and this the first time the rite of Confirmation had ever been ad- 
ministered, in the parish. Bishop Madison, it appears, was in the 


habit of visiting his relatives at Montpelier, socially, from time to 
time, but we learn from undoubted authority that he never visited 
the parish in his Episcopal capacity. Among the " goodly number" 
confirmed by Bishop Moore on this occasion was the aged mother 
of President Madison. She became a communicant at the age of 
twenty, and now at the age of fourscore and four she came forward 
to ratify her early baptismal vows. Until that day an opportunity 
had never presented itself for the reception of this solemn and 
sacred rite. The ministry of Mr. Hawley was evidently blessed 
during his connection with the parish ; but the growing interest in 
religion and the Church which now became manifest was checked 
at this auspicious period by his removal in 1817 to another field 
of labour. In 1820, the Rev. Herbert Marshall came to Culpepper 
and devoted some of his time to Orange. This worthy young mi 
nister married the sister of the present Bishop of Kentucky. The 
parish was very soon deprived of the benefit of his labours. Death 
ended his usefulness not long after he came to this part of the 
diocese. For about two years from 1823, the Rev. Frederick 
Hatch, of Albemarle, had the oversight of the congregation in 
Orange, officiating once a month at the court-house. In the winter 
of 1826-27, the Rev. George A. Smith came to reside in Culpepper, 
and took charge of St. Thomas parish in connection with St. 
Mark's. He continued in charge until 1830, and devoted two 
Sundays in the month to the congregation at Orange Court- 
House. While it appsars the attendance on divine service was good 
and the congregations attentive during the time he officiated here, 
yet at this period the interests of the parish were at a low ebb. 
In his report to Convention in 1828, Mr. Smith says, " There is no 
vestry in this parish, and the churches which existed there some 
years since have been destroyed." A decided improvement, how- 
ever, in the spiritual interests of the congregation took place under 
his ministry, and several communicants were added to the Church. 
In the early part of August, 1832, the Rev. William Gr. H. Jones, 
coming on a visit, was induced to take up his residence in Orange, 
and to undertake the pastoral care of the parish together with 
Walker's Church, in Albemarle. Here he met with the Assistant- 
Bishop of the diocese, who had an appointment at Orange Court- 
House at that time. This was a most auspicious period in the history 
of the parish. There was found at the time of his coming a deep 
awakening in the hearts of many on the subject of religion ; and 
this interest was kept alive for some time thereafter. The visit of 
Bishop Meade at -the time was also most opportune, and was at- 


tended with the happiest effects. In his report to the following 
Convention he stated, "From Albemarle I proceeded to Orange 
Court-House, where I spent two days in ministering the word and 
ordinances to large and deeply-impressed assemblies ; on the second 
day I administered the rite of Confirmation to seventeen persons, 
and the Holy Communion to more than twice that number. A spirit 
of earnest inquiry has been awakened among the people of that 
place, which will, I trust, lead to glorious results to themselves and 
their posterity." Of the communicants added on that occasion, 
Mr. Jones, in his first report from St. Thomas parish, says, "Five 
were added by Bishop Meade, and twelve by myself.' 7 An effort 
was now made to reorganize the parish. A vestry was elected a 
body which had not existed in the parish for many years and 
steps were shortly after taken for the building of a church. In 
1833, a spacious and eligible lot in the village was selected, and a 
neat church-edifice of brick was commenced and completed the fol* 
lowing year, at the cost of three thousand five hundred dollars. 
The Kev. Mr. Jones continued in Orange until the summer of 

In January, 1841, the present minister took charge of the parish. 
Since that time there have been alternate seasons of prosperity and 
adversity in the congregation. Yet, in the face of some discourage- 
ments, both the communion and the congregation have steadily 
increased. Mr. Jones, in his last report to Convention from St. 
Thomas's Church, gave thirty-four as the number of communicants: 
the number now reaches ninety. In 1853, to accommodate the 
increasing congregation, the church-edifice was enlarged, and at 
the same time both the exterior and interior were much improved. 

When we look back at the depressed state to which tne parish 
was reduced, and compare it with what it now is, we cannot but 
exclaim, "What hath Grod wrought!" and to add, "Not unto us, 
Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name, give glory." If we 
except the interval between 1797 and 1800, during which the Kev. 
Mr. O'Niel resided in Orange, the parish was without a resident 
minister from 1774 to 1832. Nowhere, during the long and dreary 
night through whicn the Church in Virginia was made to pass, was 
the darkness more distinctly visible than in Orange. With but 
three or four communicants left, and they far advanced in age, 
with her substantial church-edifices, erected in Colonial times, 
utterly destroyed, with the graves of her once honoured servants, 
who ministered at her altars, dismantled and insulted, with her 
time-hallowed Liturgy, so dear to every true-heartod Churchman., 


gone into disuse and become a novelty in public worship, with a 
parish without an organization and existing only in name, and with 
the place of litigation as the only place for the worship of Almighty 
God, the destruction of the Church in Orange seemed wellnigh 
complete. But light was made to dawn upon her darkness. By 
the mercy of God she has risen again, phoenix-like, from her former 
ashes, and is now, In point of numbers, as it respects both her 
communion and her congregation, one of the largest of the rural 
parishes in Virginia. 

During the darkest period of the parish, there were not wanting 
a few faithful witnesses. These were identified with the Church 
in the time of her prosperity and in the time of her adversity. They 
forsook her not because she was down-trodden and depressed ; on 
the contrary, they loved her more the more she was afflicted, and 
clung to her like loving children to a devoted mother. If among 
God's ancient people the children were blest for their fathers' sake, 
so we may believe the Church in Orange was ultimately blest for 
the sake of these devoted servants of the living God. Among 
these we deem it proper to notice specially the names of several 
individuals, and we can do so now with the more propriety as we 
speak of the dead and not of the living. The individuals to whom 
we allude were the mother of President Madison, the mother of 
Governor and Judge Barbour, Mrs. Frances Burnley, and Mrs. 
Jane Howard, the two last the sisters of Mrs. Lucy Balmaine, of 
Winchester. These were all bright ornaments of the religion which 
they professed, and the savour of their piety continues to the 
present day. 

In the absence of vestry-books and other records, I am unable 
to furnish the names of the vestry prior to the reorganization of 
the parish in 1832, Since that time we find among the vestry the 
following : 

Charles P. Howard, Mann A. Page, Jeremiah Morton, James Shep- 
herd, Peyton Chymes, Lewis B. Williams, Anthony Twyman, Robert T. 
Willis, Lawrence H. Taliafero, John Taliafero, Benjamin Franklin Talia- 
fero, Jaqueline P. Taliafero, Uriel Terrill, Thomas T, Slaughter, John J, 
Ambler, John H. Lee, James H. Minor, William Bankhead, Peter T. 
Johnson, Thomas A. Bobinson, and Horace D. Taliafero. 

The principal families connected with the Church in Orange in 
Colonial times were the Barbours, Bells, Burtons, Campbells, Caves, 
Chews, Conways, Daniels, Madisons, Moores, Euckers, Shepherds, 
Taylors, TaHaferos, and Whites. Mr. Richard White, who died 
some years since at the age of ninety, was the last communicant 


connected with the Old Orange Church. With comparatively few 
exceptions, the descendants of these respective families continued 
to retain their attachment to the Church of their fathers, and some 
of them are among its most worthy members. 

The following letter has also been received from the same : 

"ORANGE CouBT-EousE, March 7, 1857. 

"RiGHT REV. AND DEAR SIR: Since I wrote you some days since, a 
few items of interest in relation to this parish have come to my hands. A 
single leaf, and that somewhat mutilated, of the old vestry-book of St. 
Thomas parish, was found among the papers of one of my communicants 
who died last week, and has since been handed to me. From this I am 
able to ascertain who composed the vestry as far back as 1769. The 
record states : ' At a vestry held for St. Thomas parish, at the glebe, on 
Friday, the 1st day of September, 1769, present, Rev. Thomas Martin, 
Eras. Taylor, James Madison, Alexander Waugh, Francis Moore, William 
Bell, Rowland Thomas, Thomas Bell, Richard Barbour, William Moore,.' 
The object of their meeting was to take into consideration the repairs 
necessary to be made to the house and other buildings connected with the 

"From a private record kept at the time, I also learn that the congre- 
gation in Orange, in the year 1786, engaged the services of Mr. Waddell, 
the blind Presbyterian minister, to preach for them for two years. He 
officiated at the Brick Church. There was no Episcopal clergyman here 
at the time. It appears that forty pounds were subscribed for him, and 
it was expected the subscription would reach sixty pounds. The Rev. 
Mr. Balmaine was here occasionally at that period, addressing Miss Lucy 
Taylor, whom he married on the 31st day of October, 1786. He preached 
and administered the ordinances from time to time, both "before and after 
his marriage. On one occasion, when Mr. Waddell preached, we observe 
he gave notice that he would preach and administer the Lord's Supper on 
the following Sunday. 

"I have also ascertained that the Rev. Mr. O'Niel was in Orange in 
1796. I stated he came in 1797. You will make this correction, and also 
%dd to the list of the families the Thomases and the Waughs. 

" Yours very truly and affectionately, J. EARNEST." 



The G-enealogy of the Madisons and Taylors President Madison 9 $ 
religious character Churches in Madison and Rappahannock. 

THE following documents will give you the ancestry of President 
Madison. You may be aware that he married Mrs. Dolly Todd : 
her maiden name was Payne. She was, as I am informed, a Qua- 
keress, and was born in the county of Hanover, but at the time of 
her marriage resided in Philadelphia. It was, if I mistake not, 
while he was a member of Congress, sitting at the time in Phila- 
delphia, that he made her acquaintance. She was a lady of ex- 
ceedingly attractive manners. During the latter years of her life 
she resided in Washington, and in her old age was baptized and 
became a member of St. John's Church in that city. Mr. Madison 
died without children. Mrs. Madison had one child, a son, by her 
former marriage. 

I have thought it best to furnish you with a transcript from the 
record of James Madison, Sen., as it will give you some further in- 
formation respecting the family. It was transcribed in great haste, 
ttnd was intended only for my own eye. 

A. James Madison (the late President) is the eldest of twelve chil- 
dren eight sons and four daughters of whom but one brother and one 
sister are now living. He was born on the north bank of the Rappahannock, 
at Port Con way, opposite the town of Port Royal, on the 5th of March, 1751. 
His father's name was James, the son of Ambrose Madison and Frances 
Taylor. He lived to the age of seventy-eight years, and died in February, 
1801. The father of Ambrose was John, the son of John Madison, who 
it appears took out ; by a statement of a patent now in possession, certain 
lands on the shores of the Chesapeake, between North and York Rivers, 
in Grlocester county, near Colonel Taylor's creek, in the year 1653, 6th 
Charles II,, Richard Bennet, Governor and Captain-General cf Virginia. 
The ancestors of Frances Taylor are traced one remove further back, and 
were residents of the same district of country. The name of his mother 
was Nelly Oonway, descended from some of the early settlers. Her father, 
Francis, lived near Port Royal, in the county of Caroline, whose father, 
Edwin Conway, married Elizabeth Thompson. Her mother, Rebecca, was 
the daughter of E. Gaines and John Catlett, whose father, John, was born 
in Virginia and educated in England. He was killed by the Indians in 
defending the fort of Port Royal, being a first settler. A great-aunt of 
his was likewise killed by the .Indians lower down the river. It appears 
that all the ancestry just traced were natives of Virginia, and, it is be* 


lieved, for the most part at least, if not altogether, of English descent. 
In both the paternal and maternal line of ancestry they were planters, and 
among the respectable though not the most opulent class.* 

B. From the Record of James Madison, Sen., father of the President 

Ambrose Madison was married to Frances Taylor, August 24, 1721. 

Ambrose Madison was father of James Madison. Frances Taylor was 
sister of Erasmus Taylor and daughter of James Taylor. 

James Madison, Sen. was born March 27, 1723, and was baptized April 
21, and had for godfathers Thomas Madison and James Taylor, and for 
godmothers Martha Taylor and Elizabeth Penn. 

Frances, wife of Ambrose Madison, departed this life October 25, 1761, 
and was interred the Sunday following at Montpelier in Orange. Hei 
funeral sermon was preached on Wednesday, the 30th of December fol- 
lowing, by the Eev. Mr. James Marye, Jr., on Revelation eh. 14, v. 13. 

James Madison, Sen. was married to Nelly Conway, September 15, 1749. 

The following are their children: 

James Madison, Jr., the President, was born on Tuesday night at 12 
o'clock, being the last of the 5th and beginning of the 6th day of March, 
1751, and was baptized by the -Rev. Mr. Wm. Davis, March 31, and had 
for godfathers Mr. John Moore and Mr. Jonathan Gibson, and for god- 
mothers Mrs. Rebecca Moore, Miss Judith, and Miss Elizabeth Catlett. 

[James Madison, Jr. was born at Port Con way, in King G-eorge, and 
was baptized there, his mother being on a visit there to her mother at 
the time of his birth.] 

Frances Madison was born on Monday morning at 7 o'clock, June 18, 
1753, and was baptized by the Rev. Mr. Mungo Marshall, July 1, and 
had for godfathers Mr. Taverner Beale and Mr. Erasmus Taylor, and for 
godmothers Miss Milly Taylor and Mrs. Frances Beale. 

Ambrose Madison was born on Monday night between 9 and 10 o'clock, 
January 27, 1755, and was baptized by the Rev. Mungo Marshall, March 
2, and had for godfathers Mr. James Coleman and Colonel George Taylor, 
and for godmothers Mrs. Jane Taylor and Alice Chew. 

Catlett Madison was born on Friday morning at 3 o'clock, February 
10, 1758, and was baptized by the Rev. Mr. James Maury, February 22, 
and had for godfathers Colonel Wm. Taliafero and Mr. Richard Beale, and 
for godmothers Mrs. Elizabeth Beale and Miss Milly Chew. 

Nelly Madison (afterward Mrs. Hite) was born February 14, 1760, and 
was baptized March 6, by the Rev. Mr. Wm. Giberne, and had for god- 
fathers Mr. Larken Chew and Mr. Wm. Moore, and for godmothers Miss 
Elizabeth Catlett and Miss Catharine Bowie. The said Nelly was born on 
Thursday morning just after daybreak. 

William Madison was born May 1, 1762, baptized May 23j by the Rev. 
James Marie, Jr., and had for godfathers Mr. Wm. Moore and Mr. James 
Taylor, and for godmothers Miss Mary Willis and Miss Milly Chew. 
He was born on Saturday morning, about twenty-five minutes after 10 

* These papers arc copies from the originals loaned me by Mrs. L. H. Conway ; 
niece of the late Presilent Madison. They were found among his papers after the 
death of his wife. The original of this marked A. is believed to be in Mr. Madison's 
handwriting. The handwriting of the other is not known. 

VOL. II. 7 


Sarah Madison, (Mrs. Thomas Macon ; ) born August 17, 1764, and 
was baptized September 15, by the Rev. James Maiye, Jr., and had for 
godfathers Captain Richard Barbour and Mr. Andrew Shepherd, and for 
godmothers Mrs. Sarah Taylor and Miss Mary Conway, She was born 
forty-five minutes after 5 o'clock P.M., on Friday. 

Elizabeth Madison was born February 19, 1768, half an hour after 12 
o'clock, and was baptized February 22, by the Rev. Mr. Thomas Martin, 
and had for godfathers Major Zaehariah Burnley and Captain Ambrose 
Powell, and for godmothers Miss Alice and Miss Milly Chew. 

Reuben Madison was born September 19, 1771, between 5 and 6 o'clock 
in the evening, and was baptized November 10, by the Rev. Mr. John 
Barnett, and had for godfathers Mr. Thomas Barbour and Mr. James 
Chew, and for godmothers Miss Alice and Miss Milly Chew. 

Frances Taylor Madison (afterward Mrs. Dr. Robert H. Rose) was born 
October 4 7 1774 ? and was baptized October 30, by the Rev. Mr. John 
Wingate, and had for godfathers Mr. Thomas Bell and Mr. Richard 
Taylor, and for godmothers Miss Frances Taylor and Miss Elizabeth 


The Taylors of Orange trace their ancestry back to James Taylor, 
of Carlisle, England. The time of his emigration to Virginia is 
not known. It appears he settled on the Chesapeake between the 
North and York Rivers, (Doc. A.) He died in 1698. He had 
several children, one of whom (Mary) was the mother of Judge 
Edmund Pendleton. His son John (who married a Pendleton) is 
the ancestor of Colonel John Taylor, of Caroline. His son James 
took up lands in Orange, and was a first settler. He was the father 
of Frances, wife of Ambrose Madison and grandmother of the 
President. He had four sons, James, George, Zachary, and Eras- 
mus. From James are descended the Taylors of Kentucky. 
George had fourteen sons, seven of whom served in the Revolution- 
ary War, and thirteen of whom held offices under Government at 
the same time. Some of his descendants are now residing in 
Orange, and are members of the Episcopal Church. Zachary had 
seven sons and three daughters. He was grandfather of General 
Zachary Taylor. The latter was born at Hare Forest, about four 
miles from Orange Court-House. Erasmus had two sons and five 
daughters, viz-: John and Eobert, Mildred, (married Wm. Morton,) 

Frances, (married Burnley,) Elizabeth, (married Glassel,) 

Lucy, (married the Rev. A. Balmaine,) Jane, (married Charles P. 
Howard.) John was father of the late Judge John Taylor, of Mis- 
sissippi. Robert married Frances Pendleton, and from them are 
descended most of the Taylors now residing in Orange, all of 
wlnm retain their attachment to the Church of their fathers- 



In the neighbourhood of Orange Court-House, at Moutpelier, 
lived Mr. James Madison, once President of the United States, and 
relative of Bishop Madison. Having been often asked concerning 
his religious sentiments, I give the following, received from the Rev* 
Dr. Balmaine, who married his near relative, and by whom Mr, 
Madison himself was married. Mr. Madison was sent to Princeton 
College, perhaps through fear of the skeptical principles then so 
prevalent at William 'and Mary. During his stay at Princeton a 
great revival took place, and it was believed that he partook of its 
spirit. On his return home he conducted family worship in his 
father's house. He soon after offered for the Legislature, and it 
was objected to him. by his opponents, that he was better suited to 
the pulpit than to the legislative hall. His religious feeling, how- 
ever, seems to have been short-lived. His political associations 
with those of infidel principles, of whom there were many in his 
day, if they did not actually change his creed, yet subjected him 
to the general suspicion of it. This was confirmed in the minds of 
some by the active part he took in opposition to every thing like 
the support of churches by the Legislature, in opposition to Patrick 
Henry, Governor Page, Richard Henry Lee, and others. This, 
however, ought not to have been sufficient to fix the charge upon 
him, as George Mason and others, whose faith was not questioned, 
agreed with Mm in this policy. A reference to a memorial against 
any such act by Mr. Madison, at the request, it is affirmed, of some 
aon-Episcopalians, will show his character and views. It is by 
tar the ablest document which appears on that side of the question, 
and establishes his character for good temper as well as decision. 
[t is drawn up on the supposition of the truth of Christianity. It 
must indeed have done this in order to be acceptable to those by 
whom it was solicited. Whatever may have been the private senti- 
ments of Mr. Madison on the subject of religion, he was never 
known to declare any hostility to it. He always treated it with 
respect, attended public worship in his neighbourhood, invited minis- 
ters of religion to his house, had family prayers on such occasions, 
though he did not kneel himself at prayers. Episcopal ministers 
often went there to see his aged and pious mother and administer 
the Holy Communion to her. I was never at Mr. Madison's but 
once, and then our conversation took such a turn though not 
designed on my part as to call forth some expressions and argu- 


ments which left the impression on my mind that his creed was not 
strictly regulated by the Bible. At his death, some years after 
this, his minister the Rev. Mr. Jones and some of his neighbours 
openly expressed their conviction, that, from his conversation and 
bearing during the latter years of his life, he must be considered as 
receiving the Christian system to be divine. As to the purity of 
his moral character, the amiableness of his disposition toward ^all, 
his tender affection to his mother and wife, kindness to his neigh- 
bours, and good treatment of his servants, there was never any 

Among the many orations called forth by the death of Mr 
Madison, there was one now before me by Mr. Philip Williams, of 
"Winchester, Virginia. Prom this I select the following passages : 

" His parents were both pious, and instilled into his youthful mind the 
moral and religious principles which were the strong foundations of his 
future greatness. His father died before he was elevated to the Presidency, 
but his mother lived to see him advanced to that office, and^enjoying all 
of worldly honours that the fondest mother's heart could wish. He re- 
ceived his classical education from Mr. Robertson, a Scotchman, who 
resided in King and Queen, and the Rev. Mr. Martin, an Episcopal clergy 
man, who lived for many years in his father's family. Blinder their in- 
struction he prepared himself for college, and entered at Princeton iu 1769. 
When he arrived at Princeton, he found that in his literary acquirements 
he was behind many of his juniors, and, with praiseworthy emulation, 
determined to learn twice as much each day as was usually acquired in 
that time. He persevered in his determination until he graduated on the 
last Wednesday in September, 1771. He continued at Princeton until 
1772, from a desire to learn Hebrew and to extend his other studies under 
the superintendence of Dr.Witherspoon, then President of the College, to 
whom he was sincerely attached/' 

From his early training in pious principles, and from the testi- 
mony of his minister and others as to his later years, Mr. Williams 
expresses his conviction that Mr. Madison was an humble believer 
in Christianity. Mr. Williams, though a zealous Episcopalian, 
agrees with Madison in his opposition to the law advocated by Mr. 
Henry for the support of religion, and quotes the following passages 
with some others from his argument on the subject, introducing 
them with this statement : 

" The free exercise of religion was protected by the Bill of Rights;^ but 
there were many of our most distinguished men, who not only insisted 
upon the right of the Legislature, but urged the expediency of compelling 
every man to contribute to the support of some Church, but giving him 
the liberty to prescribe to which Church it should be paid. At the pre- 
ceding session a bill for a general assessment ' for the support of Christian 


teachers/ upon this principle, was reported to the House. Its opponents, 
with the double view of enlightening the public mind and ascertaining 
more accurately the public will, succeeded in passing a resolution that the 
bill should be printed and submitted to the people, that it might be exa- 
mined by them, and passed or rejected at the ensuing Legislature as they 
might dictate. 

u Mr. Madison drew a memorial and remonstrance against the passing 
this bill, characterized by his usual mildness, good sense, and close reason- 
ing, which was extensively circulated throughout the State, and doubtless 
contributed in a great degree to defeat the measure. 

" This memorial was by many attributed to the pen of George Mason. 
While it admitted the divine origin of the Christian religion, and paid a 
just tribute to the purity of its doctrines, it showed clearly the impolicy 
and danger of any interference by the civil power with the subject of 

" This able paper is so little known that I must trespass upon your 
patience by some extracts from it : 

" ' The bill implies either that the civil authority is a competent judge 
of religious truth, or that it may employ religion as an engine of civil 
policy. The first is an arrogant pretension, falsified by the extraordinary 
opinions of rulers, in all ages and throughout the world ; the second, an 
unhallowed perversion of the means of salvation. The establishment pro- 
posed by the bill is not requisite for the support of the Christian religion. 
To say that it is, is a contradiction to the Christian religion itself for 
every page of it disavows a dependence on the power of this world; it is 
a contradiction to fact, for it is known that this religion both existed and 
flourished, not only without the support of human laws, but in spite of 
every opposition from them, and not only during the period of miraculous 
aid, but long after it had been left to its own evidence and the ordinary 
care of Providence. 

'"Experience testifies that ecclesiastical establishments, instead of 
maintaining the purity and efficacy of religion, have had a contrary ope- 

" < The establishment in question is not necessary for the support of 
civil government. What influence,, in fact, have ecclesiastical establish- 
ments had on civil society? In some instances they have been seen^to 
erect a spiritual tyranny on the ruins of the civil authority; in more in- 
stances have they been seen upholding the throne of political tyranny; in 
DO instance have they been seen the guardians of the liberties of the 
people. Rulers who wished to subvert the public liberty may have found 
an established clergy convenient auxiliaries; a just government, instituted 
to secure and perpetuate it, needs them not. Such a government will be 
best supported by protecting every citizen in the enjoyment of his religion, 
with the same equal hand which protects his person and property, by 
neither invading the equal rights of any sect, nor suffering any sect to 
invade those of another. It will destroy that moderation and harmony 
which the forbearance of our law to intermeddle with religion has produced 
among its several sects. Torrents of blood have been spilt in the Old 
World by vain attempts of the secular arm to extinguish religious discord 
by proscribing all differences in religious opinion. Time ^ has at length 
revealed the true remedy. Every relaxation of narrow and vigorous policy, 
whenever it has been trii4, has been found to assuage the disease. The 


American theatre has exhibited proofs that equal and complete liberty, if 
It does not wholly eradicate it, sufficiently destroys its malignant influence 
in the health and prosperity of the State. If, with the salutary effect of 
this system under our eyes, we begin to contract the bounds of religiout 
freedom, we know no name that will too severely reproach our^ folly. ^ At 
least, let warning be taken at the first-fruits of the threatened innovation. 
The very appearance of the bill has transformed that Christian forbearance, 
love, and charity, which of late mutually prevailed, into animosities and 
jealousies which may not soon be appeased. What mischief may not be 
dreaded should this enemy to the public quiet be armed with the force of 

" 4 The policy of the law is adverse to the diffusion of the Alight of 
Christianity. The first wish of those who enjoy this precious gift ought 
to be that it may be imparted to the whole race of mankind. Compare 
the number of those who have as yet received it with the number still 
remaining; under the dominion of false religion, and how small is the 
former ! "Does the policy of the bill tend to lessen the disproportion ? No; 
it at once discourages those who are strangers to the light of truth from 
coming into the regions of it, and countenances, by example, the nations 
who continue in darkness, in shutting out those who might convey it to 
them. Instead of levelling as far as possible every obstacle to the victo- 
rious progress of truth, the" bill, with an ignoble and unchristian timidity, 
would circumscribe it with a wall of defence against the encroachment of 

u * Finally, the equal rights of every citizen to the^free exercise of his 
religion, according to the dictates of his conscience, is held by^the same 
tenure with all our other rights. If we recur to its origin, it is equally 
the gift of nature; if we weigh its importance, it cannot be less dear to us; 
if we consult the declaration of those rights which pertain to the good 
people of Virginia, as the basis and foundation of government, it is enu- 
merated with equal solemnity, or rather with studied emphasis. Either, 
then, we must say that the will of the Legislature is the only measure of 
their authority, and that, in the plenitude of this authority, they may 
sweep away all our fundamental rights, or that they are bound to leave 
this particular right untouched and sacred; either we must say that they 
may control the freedom of the press, may abolish the trial by jury, may 
swallow up the executive and judiciary powers of the State, nay, that they 
may annihilate our very right of suffrage and erect themselves into an in- 
dependent and hereditary assembly; or we must say that they have no 
authority to enact into a law the bill under consideration/ " 


The following letter from the Rev. Mr, Leavell, the present 
minister of these counties, contains all that I have been able to 
Collect concerning old Bloornfield parish : 

DEAR BISHOP: I have endeavoured to obtain all the information to 
fre had respecting the old parish of Bloomfield, embracing a section of 
tountry now known as Madison and Rappahannock. What I have 
gathered is from the recollections of the venerable Mrs. Sarah Lewis, now 


m her eighty-second year. Mrs. Lewis is descended from the Pendletons 
and Gaineses, of Culpepper, the Vauters, of Esses, and the Ruckers. 
From her I learn that there were two churches, the brick church, called 
F. T., which stood near what is now known as the Slate Mills. It took 
its name from being near the starting-point of a survey of land taken up 
by Mr. Frank Thornton, who carved the initials of his name F. T. on an 
oak-tree near a spring, where his lines commenced. The other church 
was called South Church, I presume from its relative situation, being 
almost due south, and about sixteen miles distant, and four miles below 
the present site of Madison Court-House. It was a frame building and 
stood on the land of Richard Vauters. Both buildings were old at the 
commencement of the Revolutionary War, and vsoon after, from causes 
common to the old churches and parishes in Virginia, went into slow decay. 
The first minister she recollects as officiating statedly in these churches 
was a Mr. lodell, (or Iredell,) who was the incumbent in 1790 or 1792. 
He remained in the parish only a few years, when he was forced to leave 
it in consequence of heavy charges of immorality. He was succeeded by 
the Rev. Mr. O'Niel, an Irishman, who had charge of the parish for some 
years, in connection with the Old Pine Stake and Orange Churches. He 
was unmarried, and kept school near the Pine Stake Church, which stood 
near to Raccoon Ford, in Orange county. Mr. John Conway, of Madison, 
was a pupil of his, and relates some things which I may here mention, if 
you are not already weary of the evil report of old ministers. He played 
whist, and on one occasion lost a small piece of money, which the winner 
put in his purse, and whenever he had occasion to make change (he was a 
sheriff) would exhibit it, and refuse to part with it, because he had won it 
from the parson. He also took his julep regularly, and, to the undoing of 
one of his pupils, invited him to join him in the social glass. Still, he was 
considered as a sober man. Mr. O'Niel left these churches ab.ut the year 
1800. After that the Rev. Mr. Woodville occasionally performed services 
'there. After the parish became vacant, and the churches nad gone to 
decay, the Lutheran minister, a Mr. Carpenter, officiated at the baptisms, 
marriages, and funerals of the Episcopal families. It was at the old 
Lutheran Church, near the court-house, that some of our lirst political 
men in Virginia, when candidates for Congress, held meetings and made 
speeches on Sundays, after the religious services. The same ^as also done 
in other places, under the sanction of Protestant ministers. 

"The Episcopal families around the churches above ment) _ned were the 
Ruckers, Barbours, Beales, Keastleys, Lewises, Blafords, Vauters, Strothers, 
Thorntons, Burtons, Conways, Gipsons, Pannells, Gaineses. 

" Since the resuscitation of the Church in Virginia, almough a long 
time after the commencement of the same, efforts have been made to re- 
vive .the Church in the old Bloomfield parish. A new brick church has 
been put up at Madison Court-House, and for a time there was a most 
encouraging prospect of a considerable congregation at tiiat place -, but 
emigration, the bane of so many other rising congregations in Virginia, 
has sadly reduced our numbers and disappointed our hopes. 

" Since the first efforts in behalf of the churches in Madison, the follow- 
ing clergymen, ministers of the adjoining counties of Orange, Culpepper, 
and Rappahannock, have given a portion of their time and labours to 
Madison: The Rev. Mr. Lamon, the Rev, Mr. Doughen, the Rev. Mr. 
Cole, the Rev. Mr. Brown, the Rev. Mr. Earnest, the Rev. Mr, LeavelL 


" Of late years tlie county of Rappahannock lias been formed, partly, I 
believe, from Madison, and a parish organized in the same. Through the 
zealous efforts of a few individuals, a neat brick church has been put up 
at Woodville, in that county. Previous to this the Rev. Mr. Brown spent 
some years in the parish, labouring there and in Madison. A few years 
since the Rev. W. H. Pendleton, of Leeds parish, Fauquier, rendered them 
regular though unfrequent services. For the last three years the Eev. 
Mr. Leavel! has been dividing his time and labours equally between the 
*wo counties of Madison and Rappahannock. 



Northern Neck of Virginia. Fairfax and, Carter Families, 

WE enter now on that most interesting portion of Virginia called 
the Northern Neck, which, beginning on the Chesapeake Bay, lies 
between the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers, and crossing the 
Blue Ridge, or passing through it, with the Potomac, at Harper's 
Ferry, extends with that river to the heads thereof in the Alleghany 
Mountains, and thence by a straight line crosses the North Moun- 
tain and Blue Ridge, at the head-waters of the Rappahannock, By 
common consent this is admitted to be the most fertile part of 
Virginia, and to abound in many advantages, whether we consider 
the rich supply of fish and oysters in the rivers and creeks of the 
tide-water portion of it and the rapid growth of its forests and 
improvable character of its soil, or the fertility of the lands of the 
valley, so much of which is evidently alluvial. 

There were settlements at an early period on the rich banks of 
the Potomac and Rappahannock by families of note, who took pos- 
session of those seats which originally belonged to warlike tribes 
of Indians, which latter were forced to give way to the superior 
prowess of the former. Of some of these families and their abodes 
we shall have occasion to make mention in our progress along the 
parishes lying upon the two rivers. It is not inconsistent with the 
religious character and design of our work to begin with some 
notice of that family to which the whole proprietorship of the 
Northern Neck originally belonged, by a grant from the Crown, 
especially as, both in England and in Virginia, so many of that 
name have been attached to the Episcopal Church, and some of 
whom have been bright ornaments of it. 

In the corrupt and venal reign of Charles II., the whole State 
of Virginia, except such parts as had been specially patented, was 
made over for a time to Lord Culpepper. There was, of course, a 
good pecuniary consideration given to the King for quitrents. 
Lord Culpepper was not only the proprietary of the Colony, but 
had the livings of all the parishes in his gift, could bestow or 
take away as he pleased. There was, however, too much of Ame- 
rican feeling, even at that early period, to submit to such a mea- 


sure. So heavy were the complaints, and so threatening the 
opposition, that the King withdrew the grant of proprietorship for 
the whole State, and restricted it with limitations to the Northern 
Neck, as above described. By intermarriage between the families 
of Culpepper and Fairfax, this part of the State came into possession 
of Thomas Fairfax, whose mother was daughter of Lord Culpepper, 
himself being the seventh Fairfax who had inherited the title of 
Lord Cameron, He it was who lived and died in the forests of 
old Frederick county, as we have stated in a former number, being 
one of the earliest vestrymen of the parish, an active magistrate, 
the patron of Washington, a friend of the poor, an eccentric but 
most upright man. 

The family of Fairfax is a very ancient and respectable one, 
according to English history and family records. Within the las' 
few years, four octavo volumes of the Fairfax history and corre- 
spondence have been published in England, a large portion of whose 
contents were accidentally discovered in an old box, supposed to 
contain tiles, in one of the old family seats. They had been se 
creted there during Cromwell's rebellion, or soon after, for safe- 
keeping, and lest they should fall into the hands of those who would 
make an ill use of them. Being in % box which, when opened, 
presented only tiles to the eye, they were supposed to be lost for 
the larger part of two centuries. Being furnished with a copy of 
these volumes, and having looked over them for the purpose of 
collecting any thing suitable to these pages, I present the following 
brief notices. 

The Fairfaxes were of true Saxon origin, going back to the times 
of William the Conqueror. The name Fair-Fax meant Fair Hair. 
In the early history of the family an interesting fact is stated in 
old English verse, viz.: that grandfather, son, and grandson, with 
their wives and children, lived in the same house at Bradford, a 
village in England. 

** Under one roof they dwelt with their three wives, 
And at one table eat what Grod gives : 
Our times a sweeter harmony have not known : 
There are six persons, yet their hearts but one. 
In these three pairs Bradford may justly glory : 
What other place can parallel this story ?" 

The above lines were written by the rector of Bradford, in lt>47. 

At the beginning of the Reformation, one of the Fairfaxes was 
sc staunch a Catholic that he disinherited his eldest son for taking 
part in the sacking of Borne by the Protestants. -The following 


extract from his will shows the character of his creed : " First, I 
will and bequeath my soul to our Lord Jesus Christ, and to Lady 
Mary, his blessed mother." He leaves money to the poor, and 
also to fourteen poor persons with which to buy black gowns and 
torches for attendance at his funeral. In a few generations, how- 
ever, after this, we find Komanism supplanted by as staunch a 
Protestantism. Thomas Fairfax, the first who had a peerage, and 
for which, besides many civil and military services, he had to pay 
fifteen hundred pounds to King James I. in his pecuniary diffi- 
culties, was a Protestant, and sympathized with Cromwell in his 
contest with Charles L His son Ferdinand distinguished himself 
in Cromwell's army ; and his grandson Thomas was the celebrated 
Lord Fairfax, one of the leaders in the rebel army. 

The first Thomas, who purchased the title, had a brother named 
Edward, who signalized himself by translating "Tasso's Jerusalem 
Delivered" into a smooth English, before unknown. In a work on 
Demonology, he thus declares his religious belief and ecclesiastical 
position: U I am, in religion, neither a fanatic Puritan nor super- 
stitious Papist, but so settled in conscience, that I have the sure 
ground of God's word for all I believe, and the commendable 
ordinances of our English Church to approve all I practise." 

The will of Ferdinando Fairfax, father of the great General in 
Cromwell's army, differs much from that of his Romish ancestor. 
Instead of commending his soul to Lady Mary, in conjunction with 
her son, his will runs thus : " First, I commend my soul to their 
infinite Majesties, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, the 
same God who hath with his manifold blessings been gracious to 
me in this world, and whose goodness, in his great mercy, I hope 
to enjoy in heaven. Next, I give my body to be buried, without 
much pomp or ceremony, in what place it shall please God to call 
me out of this sinful world ; but, if with convenience it may be, I 
desire to be interred in the parish of Bolton Percy, near the body 
of my dear wife." A sensible and pious will, worthy of imitation. 

This parish of Bolton Percy was one in which his brother^ the 
Rev, Henry Fairfax, ministered. He appears to have been a truly 
pious man, and his wife to have been an helpmeet to him. Some 
interesting letters, written before and after their marriage, show 
them to have been well formed by nature and grace for the position 
which they chose in preference to all others. While the country 
was full of confusion and bloodshed, and his father, brother, and 
nephew were so actively engaged in revolutionary scenes, lie 
quietly performed his duties as a parish minister, molesting none, 


and being unmolested "by any. He had two sons : one of them* 
Bryan, was a scholar and author ; another, Henry, was the fourth 
Lord Fairfax, inheriting the title from the great General, who had 
no son. His son, who was the grandson of the humble curate 
of Bolton Percy, was also inheritor of the title, and married the 
daughter of Lord Oulpepper. Their son Thomas was the emigrant 
to America. At his death, his brother Robert, in England, in- 
herited the title, who, dying without issue, bequeathed his estate 
to the Eev. Denny Martin, a relative of the family, who assumed 
the name of Fairfax. The title, however, descended to the Rev. 
Bryan Fairfax, minister of the Episcopal Church of Alexandria, 
who was the son of William Fairfax, of Belvoir, the friend of 
Washington, and manager of the estates of Lord Fairfax after the 
death of Robert Carter, alias King Carter, of Lancaster. 

Before proceeding further with our brief notice of the Fairfax 
family in Virginia, I must add a word as to the celebrated Genera* 
in Cromwell's army. Marrying into a Presbyterian family, anu 
espousing a cause much patronized by that denomination, he in- 
clined, for a time at least, to that persuasion. He appears to have 
been an upright and conscientious man. The language of his let- 
ters sometimes savours not a little of that which marked the com- 
munications of Cromwell ; but his sincerity was never questioned, 
which cannot be said of Cromwell, notwithstanding all the praises 
heaped upon him of late years. His great General (Fairfax) could 
not bring himself to pursue the ill-counselled, obstinate, and tyran- 
nical Charles to the scaffold, but retired into private life until the 
time came to put an end to the troubles of the Commonwealth by 
the restoration of monarchy, in which he took an active part. He 
had an only child, a daughter, who married the profligate Duke 
of Buckingham and led a suffering life. Her relative, Bryan 
Fairfax, the author, in writing of her, says, " She was an example 
of virtue and piety in a vicious age and debauched court;" adding, 
" David tells us, 6 Men of high degree are a lie, (they promise and 
never perform,) and men of low degree are vanity/ (that is, have 
nothing to give.)" 

Before leaving the English connections of this family, it may not 
be without interest to mention, that there appears to have been an 
intimate friendship between the Herberts and Fairfaxes in the 
mother-country, which may have laid the foundation of that which 
was established between some of them in this. The same may be 
said in relation to the many matrimonial connections between the 
Fairfaxes and Carys of Virginia. I meet with a notice of one 


occurring in England, which, may have led to those in America. 
Coming back to Virginia, with my notices of this family, I take 
pleasure in recording the proofs of genuine piety in the Rev. Bryan 
Fairfax. On going to England to receive the title, and perhaps 
some property with it, he met with much trouble, delay, and morti- 
fication. The Earl of Buchan, General Washington's friend, ad- 
dressed a letter of religious sympathy and condolence to him, to 
which he thus responds: "I have the happiness to say with the 
Psalmist, in respect of God's dealings toward me, ; I know that of 
very faithfulness thou hast caused me to be troubled.'" I have 
also seen and published a sermon of his, in which the evangelical 
plan of salvation is most distinctly and happily set forth. He also 
married into the Gary family, his marriage being one of five oc- 
curring between the families in the course of a few years. Mr. 
William Fairfax, of Belvoir, near Mount Vernon, the father of the 
Rev. Bryan Fairfax, had married one of the same. One of his 
daughters was married to General Washington's elder brother 
Lawrence, the owner of Mount Vernon, by which means it came to 
pass that there was such an intimacy between the General and the 
Fairfax family, and that matrimonial connections between the 
Washington and Fairfax families have been so multiplied. 

I have thus unavoidably been led, in tracing the history of this 
family, to speak of titles and great possessions, which are now all 
gone and were of little worth while had. 

Let me now address a few admonitory words to those who still 
bear the name, or in whose veins the blood of their ancestors con- 
tinues to flow, and many of whom are still to be found in our State 
and land. I have adduced some interesting proofs of the Protest- 
ant, evangelical piety in a number of your ancestors. Show your 
estimate of a respectable ancestry, by faithfully copying their 
excellencies. Say not that you have Abraham for your father, said 
our Lord, for God is able to raise up children unto Abraham out 
of the stones of the earth. He bids them to do the works of Abra- 
ham in order to receive his favour. Tour ancestry may, and will 
be, only a shame to you, except you copy what is worthy of imita- 
tion in their character and conduct. I especially ask your atten- 
tion to one fact in the preceding account. In a few generations, 
as I have stated, three of your ancestors have chosen the sacred 
ministry as their profession, in preference to the army, the navy, 
or any other pursuit. Doubtless many others of their wide-spread 
relations have done the same. I counsel you, as you would regain 
far more than lost titles and lands, that you covet from the Lord in 


behalf of your sons the highest of all honours, the privilege of 
seeking lost souls, and turning sinners to righteousness : then will 
they shine, not on the page of earthly history, but as "stars in the 
kingdom of God forever." 


This may with propriety follow that of the Fairfaxes, as Mr. 
Robert Carter called King Carter was for a long time the agent 
and representative of the Culpepper and Fairfax families, and as his 
representatives have been so numerous and respectable in the 
Northern Keck. 

The first of the family, so far as is known, settled in Upper 
Norfolk, now Nanseinond county, and was a member of the House 
of Burgesses in 1649. In the year 1654, we find him a Burgess 
from Lancaster county, and Commander-in-chief of the forces sent 
against the Bappahannock Indians. He continued to be a member 
of the House of Burgesses for some years. Both himself and his 
eldest son John appear on the vestry-book as members of the 
vestry in the year 1666, the father having been acting in that 
capacity before, how long not known. The father, who died in 
1669, had previously built, by contract, the first church standing 
on the spot where Christ Church now is, and the vestry received it 
at the hands of his son John, in six months after the father's death. 
The name of John Carter, 1702, is still to be seen on an old dial- 
post of cedar, which was taken out of the ground, near the church- 
door, some years since, and placed under the pulpit in the present 
Christ Church. The first John Carter had three wives, 1st, Jane, 
the daughter of Morgan Glyn, by whom he had George and Eleanor ; 
2d, Ann, the daughter of Cleave Carter, probably of England; 
3d, Sarah, the daughter of Grabriel Ludlowe, by whom he had 
Sarah. All these died before him, and he was buried with them, 
near the chancel, in the church which he built, and the tombstone 
from which we take the above covers them all, being still in the 
same position in the present church. He had also a son named 
Charles, of whom nothing is known. His son Robert was by his 
last wife, Sarah Ludlowe. The eldest son, John, married, 1st, 
Elizabeth Wormley, and 2d, a Miss Loyd, and had issue. Of this 
branch we have no account, and must confine ourselves to that of 
Robert, alias King Carter. He married twice : first, a Miss Ar- 
mistead ; next, a widow "Willis, daughter of Thomas Landon, of 
England He had ten children by the two wives. Those of whom 


we have information were John, Elizabeth, Judith, Ann, Robert of 
Nomini, Charles, Landon of Sabine Hall, Mary, Lucy, and George. 
The eldest son, John, married Miss Hill, and was Secretary of State 
to the Colony, having to pay one thousand five hundred pounds 
sterling for the office. His daughter Elizabeth married, first Mr. 
Nathaniel Burwell, of Gloucester, and then Dr. George Nicholas, 
of Williamsburg. His daughter Judith married the first Mann 
Page, of Gloucester, and lived with him at Rosewell. His daughter 
Ann married Benjamin Harrison, of Berkeley. His son Robert 
married a Miss Bladen. His son Charles married first a Miss 
Walker, then a Miss Byrd, sister of Mr. Byrd, of Westover, lastly 
a Miss Taliafero. His son Landon, of Sabine Hall, married first 
Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Wormley, of Rosegill, then Maria, a 
sister of Mr. Byrd, of Westover, then a Miss Beale. His youngest 
child, Lucy, married Henry Fitzhugh, of King George county. 
Thus we have disposed of the sons and daughters of Mr. Carter, 
of Corotoman, and their marriages. To attempt to do the same 
even with his grandchildren, much more with their descendants, 
would not merely exceed the bounds prescribed to such genealogies 
in these notices, but would require a small volume. Suffice it to 
say, that, besides intermarriages one with another, the family of 
Carter may be found intermingled, not only with those already 
mentioned, but with those of Moore, Lee, Berkeley, Champe, Skip- 
with, Braxton, Nelson, Waller, Randolph, Brown, Clayborne, 
Tasker, Churchill, Chiswell, Minor, Brooke, Thornton, Baylor, 
Grymes, Peck, Mitchell, Harris ; and should we attempt to bring 
down the list to present times, it would contain others almost with- 
out limit. Out of the number of descendants, of whom both 
Church and State might well be proud, it would be invidious to 
select. So far as we have been able to judge by observation and 
learn by report, we may be permitted to say that there has been 
much of the amiable and the pious in the family, sometimes mixed 
with a portion of eccentricity in individuals of it. In Councillor 
Carter, of Nomini, the grandson of King Carter, this peculiarity 
was found in a large measure. Early in life his disposition was 
marked by a tendency to wit and humour. Afterward he was the 
grave Councillor, and always the generous philanthropist. At a 
later day he became scrupulous as to the holding of slaves, and 
manumitted great numbers. The subject of religion then engrossed 
his thoughts. Abandoning the religion of his fathers, he adopted 
the creed of the Baptists, and patronized their young preachers, 
having a chapel in his own house at Nomini. After a time he em- 


braced the theory of Swedenborg, and at length died an unhappy 
death-dreading Papist. All the while he was a most benevolent 
and amiable man. I might mention many others, of both sexes, 
with whom I have had personal and intimate acquaintance, who 
have been beautiful specimens of piety, without the versatility and 
inconsistency of Mr. Carter, of NominL I was not acquainted 
with Mr. Charles Carter, of Shirley, though it has been my happi- 
ness to know many of his descendants and to love them for their 
work's sake. I 'find his name on the list of those few devoted 
friends of the Church who after the Revolution met together in 
Convention at Richmond, to rescue the things that remained 
and were ready to perish. I have, however, in the following letter, 
a better proof of his love to the Church and its ministers than any 
mere attendance on Conventions could furnish. It was addressed 
to his old friend and pastor, the Rev. Mr. Currie, of Lancaster, who 
was the faithful minister of Christ Church parish for fifty years. 
Anticipating his own death as well as that of Mr. Currie, as 
events which might occur before that of Mrs. Currie, he thus gene- 
rously provides for her support during her remaining days. She 
did survive her husband a number of years, and doubtless enjoyed 
the bounty of Mr. Carter. 

"Letter of Mr. Charles Carter, of Shirley, 10 the Rev. Mr. Currie, at the 
Glebe^ Lancaster county, Virginia. 

* SHIRLEY, May 12, 1790. 

" MY DEAR FRIEND : Tour letters, the one by Mrs. Carter, and the 
other enclosing your amiable daughter's to that good lady, are both come 
safe to hand, and you may rest assured that nothing could give my family 
a greater pleasure than to hear and know from yourselfthat is to say, 
tolhave it under your own signature that you still enjoy a tolerable share 
of health; and your friend, Mrs. Ann Butler, [Mr. Carter's second wife,] 
begs leave to join with me in congratulating both you and Mrs. Currie 
upon being blessed, not only with dutiful, healthy, and robust children, 
but clever and sensible. We rejoice to hear it, and pray God they may 
prosper and become useful members of society. 

u As you are of Caledonian race, you may yet outlive a Buckskin - 
should it so happen, my will has directed five hundred acres of my land 
at Nantypyron to be laid off for the use of Mrs. Currie for and during 
her natural life. In the mean time, no power that I know of can deprive 
you of your right to the glebe. Our best wishes attend you and yours, 
and believe me when I subscribe myself, dear sir, 

" Tour affectionate friend and servant, 


Although Mr. Currie was a man who, judging from a sermon of 
his in my possession, put his trust in Grod for his fatherless children 
and widow when taken from them, yet it must have been truly 


comforting to know that this provision was made for them by a 
generous friend. The sermon is on the text, (Matthew vi. 34,) 
" Take no thought for to-morrow, for the morrow shall take thought 
for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof/' 
It is a very sensible and pious discourse on the subject treated of, 
showing, among other things, the impropriety of all uneasy thoughts 
about our earthly condition, and is in some respects a "conseio ad 
clerum" one to poor clergymen. I find on the cover of it these 
words : 

" A sermon written by my father, which I have determined to read at 
least once a year. . GUERIE. 

'September 29, 1808." 

In relation to the above act of generosity, on the part of Mr. 
Carter, to the widow and children of a worthy clergyman, though 
there be few who can follow his example in affording them the use of 
a farm of five hundred acres, yet there are many who can contribute 
something to their comfort; and the thought that there are many 
who will do it must be a great solace to the heart of a dying minister 
when taking leave of his fatherless ones and widow. It is thus 
that God fulfils his promise when he bids them leave their father- 
less ones to him, and let their widows trust in him. And let me, 
in connection with this case, recommend to the pious charity of the 
living and dying members of our communion the two societies now 
established in our diocese, the Society of the Widows and Orphans 
of Deceased Clergymen, and that for Disabled, Superannuated 
Poor Clergymen. They are both of them worthy of patronage. 

Another instance of the charitable disposition of Mr. Carter is 
worthy of being mentioned and imitated. 

Solomon in one of his Proverbs says, " He that withholdeth corn, 
the people shall curse him ; but blessing shall be upon the head of 
him that selleth it." Here is an allusion to some covetous and 
hard-hearted persons, who, in a time of scarcity and suffering 
among the poor, hold up their corn for some high price and will 
not sell it. I have been told that, in a year of this kind, Mr. Carter 
sent a vessel full of corn down James River, disposing of it among 
the poor at a very reduced price, thus showing not only his charity, 
but his judgment in the disbursement of it. Let the rich through- 
out our land go and do likewise with all manner of goods which 
God hath given them in abundance, and of which others stand in 

A few remarks concerning him who was called King Carter 

VOL. II. 8 


seem to be called for, before we close our notice of this family. 
From the fact that such a title was bestowed on him, the idea has 
become prevalent in Virginia that he was not only of princely posses- 
sions, having numerous tenants and servants, and a splendid palace 
for his residence, but that, as a consequence of this, he was autho- 
ritative, lordly, and arbitrary in his bearing and conduct, moving 
as a king in the Colony. He ruled over the Colony for more than 
i year, until the arrival of Governor Gooch. I have in my pos- 
session copies of two of his letters during this period, concerning 
a suspected clergyman who was desirous of getting the parish of 
Wycomico, in Northumberland. They were addressed to Captain 
Charles Lee and Mr. Thomas Berry, churchwardens of the parish. 
They breathe a Christian spirit of moderation and yet of decision. 
There is nothing of a dictatorial temper about them, but only a 
desire to do his duty, in the absence of a Governor, and in refer- 
ence to one when he should arrive. It is very certain that Mr. 
Carter and his family were very popular throughout the State. 
His daughters were married to the first men in Virginia, and his 
sons to the first ladies in Virginia. At his dea/th a long Latin 
inscription, written by some ripe scholar, was placed on his tomb, 
in which the greatest virtues are assigned to him, and a sincere 
piety. The epitaph will be found in our next article, on Christ 
Church, Lancaster county. 



Parishes in Lancaster County. 

first mention which is made of Lancaster county in Heo- 
aing's "Statutes at Large" (volume i., page 374) is in 1652, -when 
it is represented in the House of Burgesses by Captain Henry 
Fleet and Mr. William Underwood. At that time, and for four 
years after, it included all that is now Lancaster, Middlesex, Essex, 
and Richmond counties. In 1656, the old county of Rappahannock 
was cut off from Lancaster, and contained what, in 1692, was di- 
vided into the two counties of Richmond and Essex, Rappahannock 
being abolished. The county of Middlesex was not cut off from 
Lancaster until about 1664 or 1665, and, indeed, it is not men- 
tioned in Henning until the year 1675, when a levy of twenty-five 
men from each of the counties of Lancaster and Middlesex is 
ordered for a garrison in Stafford county, to protect the frontiers 
against the Indians. We are enabled to approach very near to 
certainty, as to the time of the division, by reference to an old 
vestry-book of the church in Middlesex, beginning in 1664. In 
1668 the vestry pass an order that a petition should be distributed 
among the people, praying the Assembly to ratify a former Act 
dividing Lancaster into two counties ; from which it would seem 
that something was wanting to complete the division, though it must 
have been acted on, in some way, a year or two before. In the 
county of Lancaster, when including Middlesex, there were four 
parishes, two on each side of the river. Those on the south side 
of the river were called Lancaster parish and Piankatank until, at 
an early period, they were merged in one and called Christ Church. 
Those on the north side were St. Mary's and Christ Church until, 
at a much later period, they were united in what is now Christ 

The vestry-book of Christ Church, Lancaster, before the union 
of the two parishes, commenced, I think, about the year 1654. I 
saw it for the first time about twenty years ago, and again three 
years after, I believe, and took extracts from it, some of which 
were published. Soon after this it disappeared, and, though care- 
fully sought for since, can nowhere be found. For want of it we 


Lose the names of the first vestrymen, (except those of the firs 
John Carter and his sons John and Robert,) and some acts of the 
vestry, not remembered or written down by myself. I have re- 
cently been furnished with the vestry-book of St. Mary's parish, 
beginning in the year 1739, and continuing after its union with 
Christ Church, in 1752, until the war of the Revolution. But we 
still have to lament the loss of the proceedings of both parishes 
until 1739, and of Christ Church until 1752, except so far as I 
have retained in memory, and by print, the doings of the latter. 
Something more we have as to the names and acts of the vestry of 
Christ Church, by reason of the fact that, though the parishes were 
separate, they always employed the same minister, and met some- 
times in what was called a general vestry, that is, a meeting of 
both, when their names are recorded. 

We will first state such information as we have retained from the 
last records of Christ Church parish. About, as we believe, the 
year 1654, the name of John Carter, the father of that family, 
appears at the head of the vestry-lists, in a large, bold hand ; then 
followed the name of the minister, which I do not recollect. The 
same may be said of his eldest son John, and his youngest son 
Robert, alias King Carter. Their names always preceded the mi- 
nister's, and were written in a large, bold hand. This was one sign 
that they took the lead in the vestry, even going before the mi- 
nister. In all the other vestry-books I have seen, even in that of 
Middlesex, where, about the same time, baronets were in the ves- 
tries, as Chicheley and Skip with, the minister's name was always 
first. The action of the vestry, doubtless under the influence of 
the Carters, seems to have been good in relation to the exercise of 
discipline on offenders. One instance is recorded where a fine of 
fifteen hundred- weight of tobacco is imposed on a man for swearing ; 
but, upon his pleading poverty, it was afterward reduced to five 
hundred. Mr. Robert Carter had large possessions and numerous 
servants and tenants, as we have already said. Tradition has it 
that the congregation, which doubtless consisted chiefly of his de- 
pendants, did not enter the church, on Sunday, until the arrival of 
his coach, when all followed him and his family into it. Whether 
this be so or not, it is certain, from the agreement on the vestry- 
book when he built the church, that good provision was made for 
his tenants and servants, one-fourth of the building being secured 
for their use, besides a very large pew near the pulpit and chancel, 
which he prepared for his immediate family. 

The following extract from my report to the Convention in the 


year 1838, after a visit to the parishes in the Northern Neck, will 
show what were the impressions made upon me by that venerable 
building, impressions renewed and deepened by my subsequent 
visit : 

"My nest appointment was at Christ Church, Lancaster, on the 23d of 
June. This was the day appointed by the Convention to be observed as a 
day of humiliation, fasting, and prayer ; on account of the languor of the 
Church, and the sins and troubles of the nation. No temple of religion, 
and no spot in the diocese, could have been selected more in accordance 
with the solemn duty of that day, than the old and venerable church in 
which three of God's ministers were assembled. T preached a sermon 
adapted to the occasion, and then proposed that those who were minded to 
spend the day as the Church recommended should remain for some hours 
at that place, in suitable religious exercises. A goodly number complied 
with the invitation, and after the interval of perhaps an hour, which was 
spent in surveying the building and the tombs around this ancient house 
)f Grod, another service was performed, and a second appropriate discourse 
#as preached by the Kev. Mr. Nelson, the service having been performed 
oy Mr. Francis McGuire, the present minister of the parish. The past - 
history and present condition of this hallowed spot and temple deserve a 
more particular notice. This notice is derived from the memorials fur- 
nished by the house itself, the tombstones around' and within, and the 
7estry-book of the parish, kept from the year 1654 to 1770, to which I 
r iad access. 

" The present church was built on the site of an older one, which was 
Completed in the year 1670, under the direction of Mr. John Carter, the 
<irst of that nar^e, and the great ancestor of many bearing that name in 
Virginia. By the side of the chancel is a large marble slab, on which are 
,he names of John Carter and his three wives, and several children, who 
all died before him and were buried in that spot. 

u The church being too small for the increasing population, a larger one 
^as meditated, and some change in its location talked of, when Mr. Robert 
Carter (since known by the name of King Carter) offered to build^ one 
at his own expense, saying that in consequence of his large possessions, 
increasing family, and number of tenants, he had intended for some time 
to build a larger one for the parish. The offer was cheerfully accepted, 
and the present house was completed about the time of Mr. Carter's death, 

that is, about the year 1732, and exhibits to this day one of the most 

striking monuments of the fidelity of ancient architecture to be seen in 
our land. Very few, if any, repairs have been put upon it :^ the original 
roof and shingles now cover the house, and have preserved in a state of 
perfection the beautiful arched ceilings, except in two places which have 
within a few years been a little discoloured by the rain, which found it? 
way through the gutters where the shingles have decayed. The walls of 
the house are three feet thick, perfect and sound. The windows are large 
and strong, having probably two-thirds of the original glass in them. The 
pews are of the old fashion, high-backed, and very firm. A very large 
one near the altar, and opposite the pulpit, together with the whole north 
cross of the building, was especially reserved by Mr. Carter for the use of 
his family and dependants in all time to come. 

kt It deserves to be mentioned, that, in addition to the high backs which 


always concealed the family and prevented any of them from gazing 
around when sitting or kneeling, a railing of brass rods with damask 
curtains was put around the top of the pew, except the part opposite the 
pulpit, in order, it is supposed, to prevent the indulgence of curiosity 
when standing. These remained until a few years since, and parts of them 
may probahly yet be found in the possession of neighbours or relatives. In 
further evidence of the fidelity with which the house was built, I would 
mention that the pavement of its aisles, which is of large freestone, is 
yet solid and smooth as though it were the work of yesterday. The old 
walnut Communion-table also stands firm and unimpaired, and not a round 
from the railing of the chancel is gone or even loosened. The old marble 
font, the largest and most beautiful I ever saw, is ^ still there; and, what 
will scarce be credited, the old cedar dial-post, with the name of John 
Carter, 1702, and which was only removed a few years since from its 
station without the door, where it was planted in the ground, is still to be 
seen in its place of security under the pulpit. In such a house, surrounded 
by such memorials, it was delightful to read the word of God and the 
prayers of the Church from the old desk ; to pronounce the commandments 
from the altar near which the two tables of the law, the creed, and Lord's 
prayer are still to be seen ; in large and legible characters, and then to 
preach the words of eternal life from the high and lofty pulpit, which 
seemed, as it were, to be hung in the air. Peculiarly delightful it was to 
raise the voice in such utterances in a house whose sacred form and 
beautiful arches seemed to give force and music to the feeblest tongue 
beyond any other building in which I ever performed or heard the hal- 
lowed services of the sanctuary. The situation of this church, though 
low, and surrounded on two of its sides by woodland, with thick under- 
growth, is not without its peculiar interest. A few acres ^ of open land, 
with some very large trees, chiefly spreading walnuts, furnish ample room 
for the horses and vehicles of those who attend it. An old decayed brick 
wall, with a number of graves and tombstones around the house, adds no 
little solemnity to the scene. Among the latter, at the east end of the 
house, within a neat enclosure, recently put up, are to be seen the tombs 
of Eobert Carter, the builder of the house, and of his two wives. These 
are probably the largest and richest and heaviest tombstones in our land. 
A bag Latin inscription is to be seen on that of Mr. Carter. While the 
tomb of the husband is entire, those of the wives appear to have been 
riven by lightning, and are separating and falling to pieces. Such is the 
belief and testimony of the neighbours. It is pleasing to know that a 
considerable sum of money has been subscribed for repairing the roof 
which requires a new covering, and for improving the interior of this 
remarkable building, and that a generous portion of it is contributed by 
some of the descendants of the original builder, or those connected with 
them, who, though residing at a distance from the spot, possess the land 
around it, and have given the best assurance to the remaining families of 
the church, that it shall ever be continued for its original and sacred 

To the foregoing notices of Christ Church from my report to the 
Convention of 1888> I add the following from memory. Of tho 
two days spent in this hallowed spot, the one following the day of 
humiliation was a dark and, gloomy one, the sky being overcast 


with heavy cluuds, from which showers were descending upon the 
earth. To be in that old building, with only two-thirds of the glass 
in the windows, on such a day, had a peculiar interest in it to a soul 
at all inclined to the love of ancient things. The weather being 

O O 

mild, there was nothing to interrupt the indulgence of such a feel- 
ing. There was also something to encourage it, in the fact that an 
aged lady, (the descendant of Mr. Carter,) whose two nieces the 
eldest daughters of Mr. Tomliu, who lived near at hand had on 
the preceding day ratified their baptismal vows, desired on this 
occasion to do the same. I can never forget my feelings as I stood 
in the old chancel administering the rite, while only a few indi- 
viduals, and they chiefly the descendants of the builder of the 
house, were here and there to be seen in the large double pews 
adjoining the pulpit and chancel. There was a circumstance 
which occurred at that time not unworthy to be mentioned, as 
showing that we of this day of progressive improvement are not 
in all things in advance of our fathers, but in some rather the con- 
trary. I spent the night intervening between the wo above-men- 
tioned days at Mr. Tomlin's house, which was a new one scarcely 
finished, and, while lying in bed early in the morning and looking 
toward the ceiling, suddenly saw a large portion of the plastering 
giving way just above me, leaving only time to draw the covering 
over my head before it fell upon my body, and not without a slight 
bruise. I could not help then and often since instituting a com- 
parison between the fidelity and durability of ancient and modern 
architecture. Here was the ceiling of a private house, not a year 
old, tumbling over me, and there was the heavy plastering of an 
old church, built one hundred and twenty or thirty years before, 
perfectly sound and impervious to rain, except in one or two small 
spots where it was a little discoloured underneath the gutter, where 
the shingles had decayed. Where is the house, built in these 
degenerate days of slight modern architecture, which may com- 
pare with Old Christ Church, either within or without ? When a 
few years since it was repaired, as I in my report expressed the 
belief that it would be, the only repairs required were a new roof, 
(and but for the failure in the gutters that would have been un- 
necessary,) the renewal of the cornices, supplying the broken 
glass, and painting the pews, pulpit, &c. All the rest was in a most 
perfect state of soundness. The shingles, except in the decayed 
gutters, were so good that they were sold to the neighbours around, 
and will probably now last longer than many new ones just gotten 
from the woods, having become hardened by age on the steep and 


taunt roofs from which the rains of more than a century rushed 
downward, not stopping for a moment to settle in the joints. That 
is one reason why all of the old roofs were more durable than the 
modern, the fashionable taste for low or flat ones leading to their 
speedier decay. Another is the fact that in former days worms, so 
destructive now to timber, appear not to have abounded as at 
present, or else some method for drying and hardening all the ma- 
terials used was adopted, which is now neglected. In taking off 
the roof of Old Christ Church for the purpose of renewing it, one 
secret of the durability of the plastering was discovered. Besides 
having mortar of the most tenacious kind and of the purest white, 
and laths much thicker and stronger than those now in use, and 
old English wrought nails, our modern factories not then being- 
known, the mortar was not only pressed with a strong hand 
through the openings of the laths, but clinched on the other side 
by a trowel in the hand of one above, so as to be fast keyed and 
kept from falling. 

In all respects the house appears to have been built in the most 
durable manner, but without any of the mere trinkets of archi- 
tecture. The form and proportion of the house are also most excel- 
lent, and make a deep impression on the eye and mind of the 
beholder. Though the walls are three feet thick, yet such is their 
height and such the short distance between the windows and doors, 
and such the effect of the figure of the cioss, that there is no ap- 
pearance of heaviness about them. The roof or roofs are also very 
steep and high, and take the place of tower or steeple. A steeple 
or tower would indeed injure the whole aspect of the building. 

For the repairing of this house we are indebted mainly to the 
liberality of two brothers, Mr. Kelleys, descendants of old Epis- 
copalians of the Northern Neck. Not only did they furnish far 
the larger part of the fifteen hundred dollars required for it, but 
superintended most carefully the expenditure of the same. Their 
bodies lie side by side within a strong iron enclosure near the 
church* The eldest of the brothers lias died within the last two 
years, leaving, among other bequests, two thousand dollars to our 
Theological Seminary and High School. 

I am sure the reader will be pleased in having the following 
epitaphs added to the foregoing notices of Old Christ Church. 


This incription is to the north of the chancel, in the east end of 
the church : 


"Here lyeth buried y e body of John Carter, Esq., who died y e 10th of 
June, Anno Domini 1669 ] and also Jane, y e daughter of Mr. Morgan 
Glyn, and George her son, and Elenor Carter, and Ann, y e daughter of 
Mr. Cleave Carter, and Sarah, y e daughter of Mr. Gabriel Ludlow, and 
Sarah her daughter, which were all his wives successively, and died before 

" 'Blessed are y e dead which die in y e Lord ; even soe, saith y e Spirit, for 
they rest from their labours, and their works do follow them.'" 


This inscription is in the centre of the church, at the intersec- 
tion of the aisles : 

"Here lyeth the body of Mr. David Miles, who died the 29th of De- 
cember, 1674, and in y e 40th year of his age. 

" Hodie mihi, eras tibi. w 
(Mine to-day, years to-morrow.) 

This tombstone is at the east end of the church : 

"H. S. E. 

" Vir honorabilis Robertas Carter, Armiger, qui genus honestum dotibus 
eximiis et moribus antiquis illustravit. Collegium Gulielmi et Mariae 
temporibus difficillimis propugnavit, Gubernator. 

" Senatus Rogator et Quaestor sub serenissimis Principibus Gulielmo, 
Anna, Georgio Primo et Secundo 

"A publicis concilliis eoncillii per sexennium prases; plus anno Colonise 
Praefectus, cum regiam dignitatem et publicam libertatem sequali jure 

" Opibus amplissimis bene partis instructus, sedem hanc sacram ? in 
Deum pietatis grande monumentum propriis sumptibus extrait, Locu- 

" In omnes quos humaniter excepit nee prodigus nee parcus hospes. 
Liberalitatem in sign em testantur debita munifice remissa. 

"Primo Juditham, Johannis Armistead, Armigeri, nliam; deinde Betty, 
generosa Landonorum stirpe oriundam, sibi eonnubio junctas habuir : 
e quibus prolem numerosam suscepit, in qua erudienda pecuniae vim maxi- 
mam insumpsit. 

" Tandem honorum et dieruai satur ; cum omnia vitse munera egregise 
prsestitisset, obiit Pri. Non. Aug. An. Dom. 1732, aet. 69. 

" Miseri solamen, viduse prs&siduum, orbi patrem, ademptum lugent.'* 


" Here lyeth buried the body of Judith Garter, the wife of Eobert 
Carter, Esq., and eldest daughter of the Hon. John Armistead, Esq., and 
Judith his wife. She departed this life the 23d day of February, Anno 
1699, in the year of her age, and in the eleventh year of her mar- 
riage having borne to her husband five children fou~ daughters and a 


son, two whereof, Sarah and Judith Carter, died before, and are buried 
near her. Piously she lived, and comfortably died, in the joyful assurance 
of a happy eternitie, leaving to her friends the sweet perfume of a good 


"To the memory of Betty Carter, second wife of Eobert Carter, Esq., 
youngest daughter of Thomas Landon, Esq., and Mary his wife, of Grednal, 
in the county of Hereford, the ancient seat of the family and place of her 
nativity. She bore to her husband ten children, five sons and five daugh- 
ters, three of whom Sarah, Betty, and Ludlow died before her and are 
buried near her. She was a person of great and exemplary piety and 
chanty in every relation wherein she stood : whether considered as a 
Christian, a wife, a mother, a mistress, a neighbour, or a friend, her con- 
duct was equalled by few, excelled by none. She changed this life for a 
better on the 3d of July, 1710, in the 36th year of her age and 19th of 
her marriage. May her descendants make their mother's virtues and 
graces the pattern of their lives and actions !" 


" Under this stone are the remains of Mary Carter, the affectionate wife 
of Charles Carter, of Corotoman, who died on the 30th of January, 1770, 
after a painful illness of three months, during which time she discovered a 
truly Christian fortitude, aged 34 years/' 7 

Mr. Carter moved to Shirly, on James River, in 1776, and mar- 
ried Ann Butler Moore, his second wife. 

The following translation of Mr. Robert Carter's epitaph may be 
a help to some of our readers : 

" Here lies buried Robert Carter, Esq., an honourable man, who by 
noble endowments and pure morals gave lustre to his gentle birth. 

" Rector of William and Mary, he sustained fchat institution in its most 
trying times. He was Speaker of the House of Burgesses, and Treasurer 
under the most serene Princes "William, Anne, George I. and II. 

u Elected by the House its Speaker six years, and Governor of the Colony 
for more than a year, he upheld equally the regal dignity and the public 

" Possessed of ample wealth, blamelessly acquired, he built and endowed, 
at his own expense, this sacred edifice, a signal monument of his piety 
toward God. He furnished it richly. 

" Entertaining his friends kindly, he was neither a prodigal nor a par- 
simonious host. 

" His first wife was Judith, daughter of John Armistead, Esq.; his 
second Betty, a descendant of the noble family of Landons. By these 
wives he had many children, on whose education he expended large sumg 
of money. 

" At length, full of honours and of years, when he had well performed 
all the duties of an exemplary life, he departed from this world on the 
4th day of August, in the 69th year of his age. 


"The unhappy lament their lost comforter, the widows their lost pro- 
cectoij and the orphans their lost father." 


We have already stated that the same ministers served both 
parishes. Who the first minister or ministers were, we are unable 
to state ; but upon the vestry-book, whose loss we lament, there 
was one whose name and history were too striking to be forgotten. 
His name was Andrew Jackson, and, for what cause we know not, 
*ome one ^rote his name, and he made his mark, beneath the name 
jf one of the John Carters. He was not Episcopally ordained, and 
iiis led to a correspondence between the vestry and one of the 
Sovernors of Virginia, most probably Governor Nicholson, at a 
time when an order came from England that the law requiring all 
holding livings in the Church to be Episcopally ordained should 
be enforced in Virginia. The vestry remonstrated earnestly with 
the Governor against its execution in the case of their minister, 
Mr. Jackson. They plead that he had been serving the parish 
faithfully for twenty-five years, that he was much esteemed and 
beloved, had brought up a large family of children, and laid up 
something for them from his industrious culture of the glebe, (then 
and now a good farm near the church,) and the people were very 
unwilling to part with him. They urged one argument very em- 
phatically, viz. : that, by reason of the inferiority of the quality 
of tobacco raised in the Northern Neck of Virginia, by comparison 
with that in many other parts, it being worth less by twopence per 
pound, the parish was not on an equal footing with a large number 
elsewhere in procuring suitable ministers, and that, therefore, they 
ought to be allowed tQ retain the one whom they had. What was 
the issue of the controversy either did not appear or is not recol- 
lected. My impression is that it took place early in the last century, 
and that he was succeeded by the Rev. John Bell, who was cer- 
tainly the minister in 1713, and continued so until the year 1743, 
when, at his death, the Rev. David Currie succeeded, and continued 
until his death in 1792, nearly fifty years. If such be the case, 
then were the people of Lancaster served for more than one hundred 
years by three ministers, who were esteemed and loved by them. 
In my previous account of the Carter family I have spoken more 
particularly of Mr. Currie, whose descendants are numerous and 
respectable and have adhered to the Chiirch of their worthy an- 
cestor. At the death of Mr. Carrie, in 1791, the Rev. David Ball 
appears for one year on the list of our clerical delegates to the 


Convention, and for one only. Whether he was of the large family 
of Balls belonging to Lancaster, or whence he came, or whither he 
went, I know not. He was followed by a Rev. Mr. Leland and a 
Rev. Mr. Page, each for a short time. Of each of these I shall 
speak in another place. In 1794, no clerical delegate appears ; 
but there were two laymen, Mr. Raleigh Downman and Mr. 
William Eustace. From the year 1796 to the year 1805, the Rev. 
Daniel McNaughton is on our list as minister of this parish. 
James Ball, Martin Shearman, and William Montague appear as 
lay delegates. In 1812, Raleigh Downman and J. M. Smith are 
lay delegates. In 1813, the Rev. Samuel Low is minister. Be- 
tween him and his friends, and Mr. McNaughton, there was for 
some time a contest for the parish and the use of the churches. 
On one occasion Mr. Low had all the congregation in the church- 
yard, and preached from the seat behind a carriage, while Mr 
McNaughton had the pulpit and the empty pews within. They 
were both of them such unworthy characters, though in different 
ways, that we shall not waste time and words upon them. In the 
year 1824, the Rev. Ira Parker, an ignorant and incompetent 
minister, took charge of the parish, but soon left it for some other. 
After floating about for a few years, he adopted the system of 
Swedenborg, and was dismissed from the ministry. In the year 
1832, the Rev* Ephraim Adams took charge of the parish and 
Continued its minister for four years. He was a worthy man, but, 
oy reason of some peculiarities, unfitted for much usefulness. In 
1888, the Rev. Francis McGuire was its minister; and, in 1839, 
the Rev. Mr. Bryant, of whom we have spoken elsewhere, succeeded. 
In 1844 and 1845, the Rev. Mr. Richmond was its minister. IP 
1850 and 1851, the Rev. Mr. Nash. In 1853, its present minister, 
the Rev. Edmund Withers, took charge of it. Within the last few 
years a small church has been built at Kilmarnock, about four 
miles from Old Christ Church. It being more convenient to the 
majority of the people in that region than the old one, services are 
held there alternately. Although but few attend generally at the 
old and venerable one, by reason of its inconvenient location, yet 
at my recent visit to it, although there were other services near at 
hand, one hundred and seventy-five persons might be counted there 
on a Sabbath morning. It is somewhat remarkable that Kilmar- 
nock is the very spot on which the vestry determined to build a 
new church nearly one hundred and fifty years ago, deeming it 
the most central and convenient place, when Mr. Carter offered to 
build one at his own expense, if allowed to locate it nearer to his 


residence at Corotoman. Tradition says that the bricks of which 
the church is built were brought from England. It is far more 
probable that it is true in this case than in most of the other 
houses, public or private, of which the same report has come down 
to us ; for Mr. Carter, having so many vessels from England as- 
signed to him, may, at little cost, have had English bricks put in 
as ballast, and then conveyed in flatboats up the creek, within a 
short distance of the place where the church stands. Piles of 
stones thus coming from England may yet be seen near the river 
bank at Corotoman, there cast to prevent the waves from depre- 
dating on the bank near his house. 

List of Vestrymen in St. Mary's Parish, before the union of the parishes, 

from 1739 to 1756, and of both parishes after the union, 
William Bertrand, William Ball, Jr., Joseph Ball, Joseph Heale, Jos. 
Chinn, Martin Shearman, Ealeigh Chinn, Eichard Chichester, Jesse Ball, 
Robert Mitchell, Colonel Ball, Major Ball, (making five Balls in ono 
vestry,) Joseph Carter, Thomas Chinn. In the year 1743, the following 
vestrymen from Christ Church met with the vestry of St. Mary's White 
Chapel, -viz.: Henry Carter, Henry Lawson, Mr. Edwards, Mr. Steptoe, 
Mr. Martin, Captain Tayloe, Colonel Conway, Thomas Lawson, John 
Steptoe, Mr. Pinkard. At this time six of each vestry are appointed tc 
form a general vestry, and it is sometimes difficult to determine to which 
parish each one belongs. Hugh Bent, from Christ Church, James Ball, 
Jr., Dale Carter, Stephen Towles, George Payne, Merryman Payne, Bich- 
ard Selden, Thomas Chinn, Solomon Swell, John Fleet, William Dynter, 
Charles Carter, John Chinn, James Kiok, Thaddeus McCarty, Thomas 
Griffin, Thomas Lawson, Edwin Conway, William Montague, in place of 
Charles Carter, in 1776, Henry Towles, James Newby, William Sydnor, 
John Berryman, Colonel John Tayloe, James Brent, William Chewning, 
James Ball, Jr. 

In 1786, Cyrus Griffin is appointed to attend the Episcopal 
Convention in Eichmond, and James Ball to attend the examination 
of the Rev. Edward Jones at the court-house. For what purpose 
and of what character that examination was, is not certainly known, 
but it is believed to have been a kind of trial under a canon of 
Virginia. Thus ends the vestry-book. 


The first church was torn down. From the vestry-book it appears 
that the present was built in 1740. It was contracted for with Mr. 
James Jones. In that year Major James Ball and Mr. Joseph 
Ball are allowed to build a gallery in the church for their families, 
provided it be completed at the same time with the church, and finished 
in the same style with the west gallery. Leave is also granted to two 


of the Balls and two Mr. Burgesses to build an end-gallery on the 
same terms. The house was originally in the form of a cross. The 
two wings have been taken down, and it is now an oblong square. 

In the early part of the last century the parishes must have been 
in a flourishing condition, so far as numbers and attendants go. 
In the year 1724, Mr. Bell, who had then been their minister for 
twelve years, informs the Bishop of London that there were three 
hundred families in it ; that the churches were thronged ; that almost 
all the white persons in the parish attended; that there were a great 
many negroes who neither understood his language, nor he theirs ; that 
the old church was opened to them, and the word preached, and the 
sacraments administered with circumspection. He says at that time 
the two parishes were united in one, and called Trinity : but of this 
we read nothing, either in the Acts of Assembly or in the vestry-book. 

Around Old White Chapel Church, under the venerable pines 
which enclose it on two sides, and near an old county road, lie a 
number of those strong, heavy tombstones which betoken a deep 
regard of the living for the dead. Almost all of them are inscribed 
with the name of Ball, a name which so abounds in the vestry- 
book, the county, and the State. Through the attention of a friend 
I have a document of more ancient date than any tombstone in- 
scription there. It is a description of the coat of arms of the family 
of Ball, brought to this country about the year 1650, by the first 
of the name who came to Virginia. The coat of arms has much 
that is bold about it, as a lion rampant, with a globe in his paw, 
and there is helmet and shield and vizor, and coat of mail, and 
other things betokening strength and courage ; but none of these 
suit my work. There is, however, one thing which does. On the 
scroll which belongs to it are these words: " Qoalumque tueri." 
They were taken, of course, from these lines of Ovid: 

"Pronaque cum spectant animalia csetera terram 
Os homini sublime dedit, ccelumque tueri." 

May it be a memento to all his posterity to look upward, and 
"seek the things which are above." On the back of the original 
copy of this armorial document are the following words, in a bold 
hand, such as was common in those days: " The coat of arms 
of Colonel William Ball, who came from England with his family 
about the year 1650, and settled at the mouth of Corotoman River, 
in Lancaster county, Virginia, and died in 1669, leaving two sons, 
William and Joseph, and one daughter, Hannah, who married 
Daniel Fox. William left eight sons, (and one daughter,) five of 


whom have now (Anno Domini 1779) male issue. Joseph's male 
issue is extinct. General George "Washington is his grandson, by 
his youngest daughter, Mary. Colonel Burgess Ball is the only 
child of Jeduthun, who was the third and youngest son of James, 
the third son of said William/' On the tombstones around the 
church there is no inscription of the first William Ball or any of 
his children, but only of his grandchildren and other descendants. 
The first is over the grave of David Ball, seventh son of Captain 
William- Ball, who was born in 1686. The others are the tomb- 
stones of Mildred Ball, Jeduthun Ball, Mary Ann Ball, daughter 
of the Rev, John Bertrand, of Jesse Ball, of Mary Ball, daughter 
of Edwin Conway, of James Ball, her husband, of William Ball, 
"who died in a steadfast faith in Christ and full hope of a joyful 
resurrection," of James Ball and Fanny, his wife, daughter of Ra- 
leigh, and Frances Downman, of Lettuce, third wife of James Ball, 
and daughter of Richard Lee, of Ditchley, of Colonel James Ball, 
of James Ball, second son of James and Mary. 

p.g. Since the above was written I have received a communi- 
cation from a friend who has looked into the earliest records of 
Lancaster county, when Middlesex and Lancaster were one. They 
go back to 1650. A few years after this, in the absence of a vestry, 
the court appointed the Rev. Samuel Cole the minister of the whole 
county on both sides of the river. This is the same minister who 
appears on the vestry-book of Middlesex in the year 1664, The 
court also appointed churchwardens and sidesmen, as in the Eng- 
lish Church, on both sides of the river. They were John Taylor, 
William Clapham, John Merryman, Edmund Lurin, George Kibble, 
and William Leech. Other names also appear on the records, as 
Thomas Powell, Cuthbert Powell, Edward Digges, W. Berkeley, 
Robert Chewning, Henry Corbyn, David Fox, John Washington, 
of Westmoreland. In the year 1661, a general vestry is formed, 
and Mr. John Carter, Henry Corbyn, David Fox, and William 
Leech, are appointed to take up subscriptions for the support of 
the minister. They were chosen from each side of the river. An 
instance is recorded at this early period of a man being fined five 
thousand pounds of tobacco by the court for profane swearing, 

In the year 1685, we find John Chilton fined, and required to 
appear four times on his bended knees, and ask pardon each time, 
for a misdemeanour committed in their presence. 

In the year 1699, we find that none are allowed to be teachers 
of youth except such as are commissioned by the Bishop of London, 
and, in the same year, that inquiries were ordered as to any reli- 


gious meetings except those of the Established Church. These 
things were under the mild reign of the amiable Governor Nicholson. 
In the year 1727, we find presentments for being absent from 
church one month and two months, for swearing, for selling craw- 
fish and posting accounts on Sunday. 

In addition to the above, it may be stated that the county records, 
as well as vestry-books, show that the family of Balls was very 
active in promoting good things. At an early period of our history, 
it is stated that a measure was set on foot for educating a number of 
Virginia youths for the ministry, in order to a larger and better 
supply. It would appear from the county records that this mea- 
sure originated, in 1729, with Mr. Joseph Ball, of Lancaster. The 
following is the entry : 

" A proposition of Joseph Ball, gentleman, in behalf of himself and 
the rest of the inhabitants of Virginia, directed to the Honourable the 
General Assembly, concerning the instructing a certain number of young 
gentlemen, Virginians born, in the study of divinity, at the county's 
charge, was this day presented in court by the said Joseph Ball, and on 
his prayer ordered to be certified to the G-eneral Assembly." 

This Joseph Ball married a Miss Ravenscroft, of England, and 
settled in London as practitioner of law. He had only one 
daughter, Fanny, who married Raleigh Downman in 1750. Her 
children were Joseph Ball Downman, of Moratico, Fanny, who 
married Colonel James Ball, of Bewdley, and Mr, Raleigh W. 
Downman, of Belle-Isle. This Joseph Ball was the uncle of 
General Washington. I have before me two letters from him, the 
one addressed to his sister Mary, and the other to his nephew 
George Washington, from which I take the following passages. 
The first is to his sister, when her son was thinking of going to 
sea. It is dated Stratford-by-Bow, 19th of May, 1747 : 

a I understand that you are advised and have some thoughts of putting 
your son George to sea. I think he had better be put apprentice to a 
tinker, for a common sailor before the mast has by no means the common 
liberty of the subject ; for they will press him from a ship where he has 
fifty shillings a month and make him take twenty-three, and cut and 
slash and use him like a negro, or rather like a dog. And, as to any 
considerable preferment in the navy, it is not to be expected, as there 
are always so many gaping for it here who have interest, and he has none. 
And if he should get to be master of a Virginia ship, (which it is very 
difficult to do,) a planter that has three or four hundred acres of land and 
three or four slaves, if he be industrious, may live more comfortably, and 
leave his family in better bread, than such a master of a ship^can. . . . 
Ee must not be too hasty to be rich, but go on gently and with patience. 


as things will naturally go. This method, without aiming at being a finfc 
gentleman before his time, will carry a man more comfortably and surely 
through the world than going to sea, unless it be a great chance indeed. 
I pray God keep you and yours. 

" Your loving brother, JOSEPH BALL." 

To his nephew he writes thus after Braddock's defeat : 

" STEATFOED, 5th. of September, 1755. 

" GOOD COUSIN : It is a sensible pleasure to me to hear that you hare 
behaved yourself with such a martial spirit, in all your engagements 
with the French, nigh Ohio. Go on as you have begun, and God prosper 
you. We have heard of General Braddock's defeat. Everybody blames 
his rash conduct. Everybody commends the courage of the Virginians 
and Carolina men, which is very agreeable to me. I desire you, as you 
may have opportunity, to give me a short account how you proceed. I 
am your mother's brother. I hope you will not deny my request. [ 
heartily wish you good success, and am 

" Your loving uncle, 


" At the Falls of Rappahannock, or elsewhere, in Virginia. 

" Please direct for me at Stratford-by-Bow, nigh London. " 

A few words concerning a minister and church of another de 
nomination will close my notices of Lancaster. 

The county of Lancaster was the scene of the early labours of 
the Eev. Mr. Waddell, the blind Presbyterian preacher who is so 
feelingly described by Mr. Wirt, in the British Spy. At a time 
when disaffection toward the Established Church was spreading 
through Virginia, and great numbers were leaving it, Mr. Waddell, 
by his talents, zeal, and piety, gathered two congregations in this 
county. One of the churches was near the court-house. The 
graveyard, in its ruins, is the only relic of the establishment of 
that denomination in Lancaster county. About fifty years since, 
the church shared the same fate with those of the Establishment 
which have now passed away. The two acres of land on which it 
stood, and beneath which are the remains of numerous adherents 
to that denomination, has ever been regarded as sacred. A grove 
of oaks, sycamores, pines, and other trees shaded the hillocks and 
some tombstones which were spread over the surface of the earth, 
which was carpeted with a covering of green grass. It was, I am 
told, a favourite resort to the people of the village and country 
around, to the young as a play-ground, to the old as a scene of 
contemplation. I recently visited the spot, but found it no longer 
a scene for the young or old, the gay or the grave. Nearly every 
VOL. II. 9 


tree was gone, having been, within a year or two, cut down and 
converted into cord-wood and sold to the steamboats. Nothing is 
now to be seen but stumps and piles of dead branches, which hide 
not only the hillock-graves, but the few tombstones which were 
once to be seen. Young cedars are everywhere putting forth their 
shoots, and in a few years it will be with this spot as with many 
like it in Virginia, it must be so hidden from the view that it will 
be difficult for any ecclesiastical antiquary to discover the spot 
where Mr. Waddell once proclaimed the Gospel of Christ. Rumour 
says that, in the absence of any member of the Church near at 
hand, application was made to some Presbyterian ministers at a dis- 
tance, and leave granted to do something to this interesting spot 
which has resulted in such utter desolation. 



Parishes in Northumberland County. Wyeomico and St. 


NORTHUMBERLAND county, lying on the bay and the Great Po- 
tomac, was partially settled at an early period. In the year 1646, 
during the government of Sir William Berkeley, we find the follow- 
ing Act of Assembly: u Whereas, the inhabitants of Chicawane, 
alias Northumberland, being members of this Colony, have not 
hitherto contributed toward the charges of the war, [with the Indians,] 
it is now thought fit that the said inhabitants do make payment of 
the levy according to such rates as are by this present Assembly 
assessed. . . . And in case the said inhabitants shall refuse or deny 
payment of the said levy, as above expressed, that, upon report 
thereof to the next Assembly, speedy course shall then be adopted 
to call them off from the said Plantation.' 1 It had in the previous 
year been allowed a Burgess, in Mr. John Matram, In the fol- 
lowing year Mr. William Presley was the delegate. In the year 
1648, we find the following Act : " That the ninth Act of Assembly 
of 1647, for the reducing of the inhabitants of Chickcoun and 
other parts of the neck of land between Rappahannock and Poto- 
macke Rivers be repealed, and that the said tract of land be here- 
after called and known by the name of the county of Northumber- 
land/ 7 In the year 1649, it is declared "that the inhabitants on 
the south side of the Potomacke [Potomac] shall be included, and 
are hereafter to be accounted within the county of Northumber- 
land." In the year 1653, the bounds of Northumberland are 
reduced by the establishment of Westmoreland county, which was 
made to extend " from Match oactoke River, where Mr. Cole lives, 
and so upward to the falls of the great river Potomacke above 
the Necostins town;" that is, above what is now Georgetown, in the 
District of Columbia. In the year 1673, the boundary-line between 
Lancaster and Northumberland is settled, according to an order of 
the Assembly, by Colonel John Washington, (the first settler, and 
great-grandfather of General Washington,) Captain John Lee, 
William Traveson, William Moseley, and R. Beverley. While we 


have the above Acts of Assembly in relation to its civil divisions, 
we find nothing as to its religious concerns. The establishment of 
a parish or parishes within its bounds is nowhere given us, excep 
in two lists of the counties in the year 1754, when it is called St 
Stephen's parish, with Mr. Thomas Smith for its minister, and in 
1758, when it is called Wycomico, and has the Rev. John Leland 
as its minister. In the year 1776, it is said to have two parishes. 
Wycomico and St. Stephen's, Mr. John Leland the minister of the 
former, and the Rev. Benjamin Sebastion of the other. Mr. Leland 
was ordained by the Bishop of London in 1775, and Mr. Sebastion 
in 1766. It is, however, confidently affirmed to this day that there 
were two parishes, called Upper and Lower St. Stephen's, besides 
Wycomico, and that the glebes can be pointed out. 

In the year 1785, we find the two parishes represented in the 
Convention, Wycomico by the Rev. Mr. Leland, and as lay delegate 
T. Gaskins, St. Stephen's by the Rev. Thomas Davis, with Mr. 
Hudson Meuse as lay delegate. In the year 1786, Wycomico 
alone is represented by Mr. Leland and Mr. Gaskins. In 1787, 
Mr. Leland appears for the last time, with Mr. David Ball as lay 
delegate. In 1789, Mr. Oneriphorus Harvey is lay delegate from 
Wycomico, and in 1790, Mr. Isaac Besye. In that year the Rev. 
Thomas Davis represents St. Stephen's parish, and also in 1792. 
In 1795, the Rev. John Sererd, with Abraham Beacham as lay 
delegate, represents St. Stephen's, while three lay delegates, Messrs. 
Hopkins, Hardy, and Hurst, represent Wycomico. In the year 
1797, Thomas Gaskins and Thomas Hurst are lay delegates from 
Wycomico, a,nd Mr. William Olaughton from St. Stephen's. In 
1799, the Rev. Mr. Seward still represents St. Stephen's, while 
William Davenport and Thomas Harvey are lay delegates for 
Wycomico. There being no Convention, or, if one, no records of 
it, until 1805, we are unable to say who ministered in Northumber- 
land in the interim. In that year the Rev. Duncan McNaughton 
represented St. Stephen's, with John Hull as lay delegate. In the 
year 1812, the Rev. Samuel Low, with Thomas Gaskins as lay 
delegate, was in the Convention. Mr. Low was also there in 1813, 
accompanied by Mr. Joseph Ball. Erom that to the present time 
there has, I believe, been no regular minister belonging to either 
of the parishes of this county, though services have been rendered 
to them both by the ministers of Lancaster county. 

Concerning the church in Wycomico parish, and which was called 
Wycomico Church, we have something to say from personal know- 
ledge. Bishop Moore and myself both performed services in it, 


though to a small number of persons. The last time that Bishop 
Moore ivas in the desk, a piece of plastering from its high arched 
ceiling fell upon his head, which was protected by only a few gray 
hairs. Judging from the size of the house, there must, at the time 
of its erection, have been many attendants, for it was the largest 
of the old churches in Virginia of which I have any knowledge. 
It was built about the beginning of the Revolutionary War, when 
faithful architecture had already waned. After my last visit to it 
in 1837, I made the following communication to the ensuing Con- 
vention of 1838 : 

< k On Thursday, the 22d instant, 1 visited Northumberland Court-House 
in company with the Rev. Washington Nelson, and preached to a respect- 
able congregation in the Reformed Methodist Church. But few Episcopal 
families are now to be found in this county, There were formerly three 
large brick churches in it, two of which are entirely gone, and the third 
will soon share their fate unless speedy means of prevention be adopted. 
The one yet remaining, called Wycoiuico Church, was built in the year 
1771, not long before the Revolution, and the walls are still firm. The 
other part of the workmanship was so inferior to that of former times, 
that the vestry refused to receive it at the hands of the contractor. The 
roof is now falling in, and the ceiling has given way some years since. 
Each of the Bishops of Virginia have preached in this decaying house, 
though not without some apprehension. Its present condition is truly 
distressing. The doors and windows are gone. The fine bricks which 
case the windows and doors are gradually disappearing. Along the deserted 
aisles, and in the pews of this large cruciform church, measuring seventy- 
five feet in every direction, may now be seen the carriage, the wagon, the 
plow, the fishing-seine, barrels of tar and lime, lumber, and various im- 
plements of husbandry. The cattle have free admission to it, and the 
pavement of the aisles, and even the marble slab which covers the remains 
of one of the latest of its ministers, is covered with dirt and rubbish. The 
old bell which once summoned the neighbours to the house of God is lying 
in one of the pews near the falling pulpit. In the deserted chancel you 
look in vain for the Communion-table and the baptismal font, and there is 
too much reason to fear that these also are used for purposes far other than 
those to which they were originally consecrated and applied. Some steps 
have recently been taken toward the repair of this large and venerable 
building, but whether they will be continued and the work consummated 
is still doubtful/ 7 

At the end of twenty years it pains me to say that my faintest 
hopes have been more than disappointed, and my worst fears more 
than realized, since not only every vestige of the house is removed 
and its site enclosed and cultivated with an adjoining field, but I 
cannot learn that there is a single family or even individual in the 
parish still connected with or attached to the Church. The whole 
population is incorporated with other denominations. That worthy 
friend and member of our Church, Mr. Joseph Ball, of the old seat 


of Ditehley, was near enough to attend Wycomico, and in Romish 
days would have been regarded and called its patron saint. Some 
years after my last visit to this falling church, he placed in my 
hands a rich service of Comraunion-plate -which belonged to it, 
saying, that as he was the only surviving friend of the old church, 
and utterly despaired of its revival, he wished me to take charge 
of it and let it be used in some other parish. This I did, on the 
condition that if the parish ever revived it should receive back 
again the property of its ancestry. The vessels are now used in 
the congregation and church at Millwood, in Clarke county, and 
the condition of their loan is recorded in the vestry-book of the 
parish. The following inscription will also show that its date and 
use were far anterior to the establishment of old Frederick parish, 
out of which the parish about Millwood has been carved. 

They are as follows : on the tankard, "The gift of Bartholomew 
Shriver, who died in 1720, and of Bartholomew his son, who died 
in 1727, for the use of the parish of Great Wycomico, in the county 
of Northumberland, 1728." The inscription on the plate is, " The 
gift of Reynard Delafiae to Quantico Church." We know of no 
Quantico Church but that which stood near Dumfries, in Prince 
William county, and suppose that this plate must once have belonged 
to it. There is no date to the inscription. The cup, as will be 
seen hereafter, was the gift of Hancock Lee, in 1711. 

I sincerely wish that it were in my power to give as good an ac- 
count of the remnant of the old church itself. The following 
extract from my report to the Convention of 1841 will tell the 
history of the disposal of the walls of Wycomico Church : 

" Having thus briefly stated my Episcopal duties IEL the Northern Neck, 
I must beg^ leave to advert to a circumstance which was particularly pre- 
sented to my consideration while near the site of one of our old Churches 
in the county of Northumberland, and which has been not a little mis- 
understood and even misrepresented in the public prints and on the floor 
of oar Legislature. In the spring of 1840, I received a communication 
from Mr. Joseph Ball, an old and valued member of our Church in North- 
umberland, on the subject of the sale of the church in his neighbourhood. 
It was then just in that condition when, spoliation of the bricks having 
be<mn, it would become an object of plunder to all around and soon dis- 
appear. One of the neighbours, therefore, proposed to purchase it, and my 
consent was asked. I replied that I had no right whatever to dispose of 
it, "Visiting that part of the State soon after, Mr. Ball informed me that 
a gentleman living near the church, and professing an attachment to it, 
declared that it distressed him to see the church thus treated ; that in a 
short time not a brick would be left; that they would be used for hearths, 
ehimneyfe, and such like purposes, all the country around; that, if Mr. Ball 
consent lie would give five hundred dollars, either to rebuild it or 


fco take it down, the materials in the latter case being his own; tliat He 
had consulted a lawyer, who told him that the head of the Church could 
dispose of it. As Mr. Ball was an old warden of the parish and the only 
surviving member, the gentleman thought he might be regarded as the 
head; but, on being told that the Bishop was so regarded, it was referred 
to myself. In reply to the renewed proposal, I stated again that I had no 
right to sell it, and was unwilling to have any thing to do with it, as it 
might be misunderstood and misrepresented. On its being urged by Mr. 
Ball that a refusal to give such permission would only encourage great 
numbers to robbery, I at length said that, if he chose to sell it, I would 
receive the proceeds, and place them in the hands of the trustees of our 
Theological Seminary, to be returned should it ever be called for to build 
a church in its room. I was induced to do this partly by the consideration 
that our Convention had many years before passed a resolution calling 
upon persons having church-plate in vacant parishes to send it for safe- 
keeping to the Bishop of the Diocese, liable to be called for should the 
parishes ever be revived. Such property has been given into the hands 
of Bishop Moore and myself, and has been lent to other parishes on that 
condition. I accordingly, in writing, stated my assent to the sale of the 
walls of the church (nothing else remaining) for five hundred dollars, 
giving what right I might be thought to have. I looked upon the trans- 
action as an affair between the person, proposing it, Mr. Ball, and myself, 
as friends to religion and the Church, who were desirous to prevent a 
dishonourable use of the remains of a building not likely to be wanted 
again, and as an act which would be approved by all good and pious per- 
sons. After having paid one-half of the money, the purchaser refused the 
remainder, on the plea of its having been an improper sale. In order to 
prevent all future misunderstanding of this transaction^ I have thought it 
best thus to place it among our records. The two hundred and fifty dollars 
which were paid were expended, I believe, on the Chapel attached to our 
Theological Seminary, and I hold myself personally responsible for its 
return whenever any competent authority shall claim it." 

I am sorry to add that to this day the remaining two hundred 
and fifty dollars is unpaid. I trust that the descendants of the 
purchaser, even to the latest generation, will feel bound to Wyco 
mico, even as the trustees of the Theological Seminary, for the part 
which has been used. 


In the county of Northumberland and parish of Great Wycomieo, 
and within sight of the Chesapeake Bay, there is an estate and 
mansion called Ditchley, an English name of note, -which has 
probably from its first settlement, more than one hundred years 
ago, been the favourite resort of the ministers of the Episcopal 
Church. Its present owner is Mr. Flexmer Ball. His father, Mr, 
Joseph Ball, was one of the truest members of our Church. Of his 
ancestry we have just written in our last article. Many and plea- 
sant have been, the hours which, in company with some of the 


brethren, I have spent at Ditchley within the last thirty years 
Ditchley is one of the old residences of the Lees. The mansion 
called Cobbs, where Colonel Richard Lee, the first of the family, 
lived for some time, was near to Ditchley, and has only very re- 
cently been removed to make place for another, although it must 
have been built two hundred years ago or more. The first settler, 
of whom more will hereafter be said, had many sons, of whom the 
seventh, Hancock Lee, built and lived at Ditchley. He was twice 
married, first to a Miss Kendall, then to a Miss Allerton, by each 
of whom he had children, whose descendants are among us to this 
day. He died in 1729, as his tombstone in the family burying- 
ground at Ditchley shows to this day. Both of his wives are buried 
at the same place. That he was a patron of the church is shown 
by the fact that he presented a Coinmunion-cup to the parish in 
1711. In honour either of himself or father, or the whole family, 
the parish was then called Lee parish, as may be seen by the in- 
scription on the cup. It was afterward called Wycomico. After 
the downfall of the parish, Mr. Joseph Ball placed this and other 
pieces into iny hands for preservation, in hope that the day might 
come when the old Lee and more modern Wycomico parish might 
call for it again. It is now used in the church at Millwood, Clarke 
county, and the source whence it came and the pledge given are 
recorded in the vestry-book of the same, as has already been said. 
The following account of the Lee family is copied from a manu- 
script in the handwriting of William Lee, dated London, .September, 
177-, the last figure not known, but just before the war, as is evi- 
dent from the document itself. Its author was one of the six sons 
of Thomas Lee, so many of whom were active in the Revolution. 
It is somewhat doubtful whether in the early part of it Mr. Arthur 
Lee and William Lee, in London, were not as effective as Richard 
Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee in America. Mr. William 
Lee, author of the following sketch, was sheriff and alderman in the 
city of London, and subsequently commercial agent for Congress 
in Europe and their Commissioner at the Courts of Berlin and 
Vienna. He married a Miss Ludwell and left three children, 
William Ludwell, of Greenspring, who is buried in the old church- 
yard at Jamestown, Portia, who married Mr. William Hodgson, 
and Cornelia, who married Mr. John Hopkins. The high character 
of Mr. Lee stamps a value on the following statement : 

" Richard Lee, of good family in Shropshire, and whose picture, I am 
told, is now at Cotton, near Bridgenorth, the seat of Lancelot Lee, Esq., 
seme time in the reign of CHarles I. wont over to the Colony of Virginia 


as Secretary and one of the King's Privy Council, which last part will for 
shortness be called 'of the Council/ He was a man of good stature, 
comely visage, enterprising genius, a sound head, vigorous spirit, and 
generous nature. When he got to Virginia, which at that time was not 
much cultivated, he was so pleased with the country that he made large 
settlements there with the servants he carried over. After some years he 
returned to England, and gave all the lands he had taken up and settled 
at his expense to those servants he had fixed on them, some of whose de- 
scendants are now possessed of very considerable estates in that Colony. 
After staying some time in England, he returned to Virginia with a fresh 
band of adventurers. 

" During the civil war here, Sir William Berkeley was the Governor of 
Virginia : he and Lee, both being loyalists, kept the Colony to its allegiance, 
so that after the death of Charles I. Cromwell was obliged to send some 
ships-of-war and soldiers to reduce the Colony, which not being able to 
do, a treaty was made with the Commonwealth of England, wherein 
Virginia was styled an independent dominion. This treaty was ratified 
here as made with a foreign power, upon which Sir William Berkeley 
(who was of the same family as the present Earl of Berkeley) was re- 
moved, and another Governor appointed in his room. When Charles II. 
was at Breda, Eichard Lee came over from Virginia and went there to 
him to know if he could undertake to protect the Colony if they returned 
to their allegiance to him ; but, finding no support could be obtained, he 
returned to Virginia and remained quiet until the death of Cromwell, 
when he, with the assistance of Sir William Berkeley, contrived to get 
Charles II. proclaimed there King of England, Scotland, France, Ireland, 
arid Virginia two years before he was restored here, and Sir William 
Berkeley was reinstated as his Governor, in which station he continued 
until some time after the Eestoration, when he cauie over, and died pre- 
sently. It was in consequence of this step that the motto of the Virginia 
arms always till after the union was 'En dat Virginia quintain ;' but 
since the union it was changed to l En dat Virginia quartam;' that is, 
King of Great Britain, France, Ireland, and Virginia. Here, by-the- 
way, I cannot help remarking the extreme ingratitude of this Prince 
Charles II. Oliver Cromwell, to punish Virginia and some of the other 
parts of America for adhering to the royal cause, after he had got him- 
self quite fixed in his supreme authority, both here and there, contrived 
the famous Navigation Act, upon a model he borrowed from the Dutch, 
by which the American Colonies were deprived of many of their ancient 
and valuable privileges : upon the Restoration, instead of repealing this 
Act, it was confirmed by the whole Legislature here; and to add to 
the ingratitude, at two other periods in his reign, taxes were imposed 
on American commodities under the pretext of regulations of trade, from 
which wicked source have flowed all the bitter waters that are now likely 
to overwhelm America or this country, and most probably will in the end 
be the ruin of both. But to return. This Eichard Lee had several chil- 
dren. The two eldest John and Eichard were educated at Oxford. 
Joha took his degree as doctor of physic, and returned to Virginia, and 
died before his father Eichard. He was so clever and learned, that some 
great men offered to promote him to the highest dignities in the Church, 
if his father would let him stay in England ; but this offer was refused, 
because the old gentleman was determined to fix all his children in Vir- 
ginia. So firn was he in this purpose, that by his will he ordered an 


estate he had in England, (I think near Stratford-by-Bcm in Middlesex, ) 
at that time worth eight hundred or nine hundred pounds per annum, to 
be sold and the money to be divided among his children. He died and 
was buried in Virginia, leaving a numerous progeny, whose names I have 
chiefly forgot. His eldest son then living was Richard, who spent almost 
his whole life in study, and usually wrote his notes in Greek, Hebrew, 
or Latin, many of which are now in Virginia; so that he neither im- 
proved nor diminished his paternal estate, though at that time he might 
with ease have acquired what would at this day produce a princely reve- 
nue. He was of the Council in Virginia, and also in other offices of honour 
and profit, though they yielded little to him. He married a Corbin or 
Corbyne, I think of Staffordshire : from this marriage he had and left 
behind him when he died in Virginia which was some time after the 
Revolution [in England under William and Mary] five sons, Eichard, 
Philip, Francis, Thomas, and Henry, and one daughter.* Eichard settled 
in London as a Virginia merchant, in partnership with one Thomas Corbin, 
a brother of his mother : he married an heiress in England of the name 
of Silk, and by her left one son, George, and two daughters, Lettuce 
and Martha. All these three children went to Virginia and settled. 
George married a Wornily there, who died leaving one daughter ; then he 
married a Fairfax nearly related to Lord Fairfax, of Yorkshire and 
died, leaving by his last marriage three sons that are now minors and are 
at school in England under the care of Mr. James Eussul. Lettuce mar- 
ried a Corbin, and her sister married a Turberville : their eldest children 
intermarried, from which union George Lee Turberville, now at school at 
Winton College, is the eldest issue. Philip, the second son, went to 
Maryland, where he married and settled. He was of the Proprietor's 
Council, and died leaving a very numerous family, that are now branched 
out largely over the whole Province, and are in plentiful circumstances. 
The eldest son, Eichard, is now a member of the Proprietor's Council. 
Francis, the third son, died a bachelor. Thomas, the fourth son, though 
with none but a common Virginia education, yet, having strong natural 
parts, long after he was a man he learned the languages without any as- 
sistance but his own genius, and became a tolerable adept in the Greek 
and Latin. He married a Ludwell, of whose genealogy I must give a 
short account, being maternally interested therein. The Ludwells, though 
the name is now extinct, are an old and honourable family of Somerset- 
shire, England, the original of them many ages since coming from Ger- 
many. Philip Ludwell and John Ludwell, being brothers, and sons of a 
Miss Cottington, who was heiress of James Cottington, the next brother 
and heir to the famous Lord Francis Cottington, of whom a pretty full 
account may be seen in Lord Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, were 
in court favour after the restoration of Charles II. John was appointed 
Secretary, and was one of the Council in Virginia, where, I believe, he 
died without issue. Philip, the eldest brother, went to America Governor 
of Carolina, from whence he went to Virginia, and married the widow of 
Sir William Berkeley, by whom he had a daughter, (that married Colonel 
Parke, who was afterward the Governor of the Leeward Islands, in the 

* The daughter married Mr. William Fitzaugh, of Eagle's Nest, King George 
county, son of the first William Pitzhugh, and was the mother of the late William 
Fitzhugh, of Chatham. 


West Indies, and died in Antigua, the seat of his government,; and on* 
son named Philip. 

"After some time old Philip Ludwell returned to England, and died 
here. He was buried in Bow Church, near Stratford: his son Philip 
remained in Virginia, where his father had acquired a considerable estate, 
and married a Harrison, by whom he had two daughters, Lucy, the 
eldest, married a Colonel Gryrnes, who was of the Council in Virginia, and 
Hannah, who married the before-mentioned Thomas Lee, and one son, 
Philip. This Philip was, as his father had been, of the Council of Vir- 
ginia. He married a Grymes, by whom he had several children, most of 
whom died in their infancy,* and in the year 1753 his wife died ; in 1760 
he came over to England for his health, and in the year 1767 he died here, 
when the male line of Ludwell became extinct. He left heiresses three 
daughters, Hannah Philippa, Frances, and Lucy : the second is since 
dead unmarried. This Thomas Lee by his industry and parts acquired a 
considerable fortune ; for, being a younger brother, with many children, 
his paternal estate was very small. He was also appointed of the Council ; 
and, though he had very few acquaintances in England, he was so well 
known by his reputation, that upon his receiving a loss by fire, the late 
Queen Caroline sent him over a bountiful present out of her own privy 
purse. Upon the late Sir William Goocb's being recalled, who had been 
some time Governor of Virginia, he became President and Commander-in- 
chief in the Colony, in which station he continued for some time, until 
the King thought proper to appoint him Governor of the Colony ; but he 
died before his commission got to him. He left by his marriage with 
Miss Ludwell sis sons, Philip Ludwell, Thomas Ludwell, Richard Henry, 
Francis Lightfoot, William, and Arthur, and two daughters, all well pro 
vided for in point of fortune 

Here ends the manuscript of Mr. William Lee, of London ; but 
we are enabled by another document to proceed further, though 
not justified by the bounds prescribed to our notices to pursue it in 
its details. Of the six sons of Thonas Lee, of Stratford, some- 
thing must be said, or we should be justly condemned. 

Philip Ludwell, the eldest, succeeded his father at Stratford, in 
Westmoreland. He married a Miss Steptoe, and left two daugh 
ters. Matilda, the eldest, married General Henry Lee, of the Revo 
lution ; and Flora married Mr. Ludwell Lee, of Loudoun. Thomas 
Ludwell settled in Stafford, and married a Miss Aylett. Richard 
Henry was educated in England, and returned in the nineteenth year 
of his age, and married first a Miss Aylett, and next a Mrs. 
Pinkard, who was a Miss Gaskins or Gascoigne. He took an 
active part in the Revolution. His life has been written by 
his grandson, Richard Henry Lee. Francis Lightfoot Lee also 
participated largely in the events of the Revolution, and was 
regarded as one of the ablest orators and statesmen of that period* 
He married a Miss Rebecca Tayloe, daughter of Colonel John Tay- 
loe, of Richmond county. Of the fifth son, William, the sheriff and 
alderman of. London, we have already given some account. Arthur, 


the sixth and youngest, as a scholar, a writer, a philosopher, a poli- 
tician and diplomatist, was surpassed by none and equalled by few 
of his contemporaries. He studied physic in Edinburgh, where he 
took his degrees : but, disliking the profession, he studied law, and 
distinguished himself as a lawyer in England. The services ren- 
dered by him to his country as her minister at foreign courts were 
most valuable. 

In the English document immediately preceding, nothing is said 
of one branch of the family, viz. : Henry Lee, one of the bro- 
thers of Thomas Lee, of Stratford, and grandson of the first Lee. 
He married a Bland, and had several children. His son Richard 
was Squire Lee, of Lee Hall. Eis only daughter married a Fitz- 
hugh. Henry, the third son, married a Miss Grymes, and left five 
sons and three daughters, viz. : Henry, who was Colonel in the 
Revolution, Charles, Richard Bland, Theodoric, and Edmund; also, 
Mary, Lucy, and Anne. A numerous posterity has descended from 
these, among whom are some bright ornaments of the Church, the 
State, and the army. Mention is made in our English document 
of one of the family at an early period moving to Maryland and 
having numerous and influential descendants in that Province. I 
have reason to believe, from recent examinations into the records 
of different courts in the Northern Neck, that some of that branch 
returned to Virginia, and were for a long series of years clerks in 
the county of Essex. The following extract from a communication 
sent me by a competent person establishes the fact. "John Lee, 
clerk of Essex county, who succeeded Captain William Beverley, 
came from Maryland. His nephew, John Lee, who was a member 
of the House of Burgesses, succeeded him. At his death, his son 
Hancock Lee succeeded to the office. At the death of Hancock 
Lee, his son John Lee succeeded to it." Thus four of the name 
held the office of clerk in Essex in succession. 

The family of Lees, in all its branches, so far as I know and 
believe, have always been Episcopal. I know of scarce an excep- 
tion. I have been intimately acquainted with some most excellent 
specimens of true piety among them, too many to be specified and 
dwelt upon. If tradition and history and published documents are 
to be relied on, the patriotic, laborious, self-sacrificing, and eloquent 
Richard Henry Lee, of the Revolution, must have deeply sympa- 
thized with Washington, and Peyton Randolph, and Pendleton, and 
Nicholas, and Henry, in their religious character and sentiments. 

In looking over the two volumes containing the life and corre- 
spondence of Richard Henry Lee, of Chantilly, in Westmoreland, 


che reader cannot fail to ask himself the question, u Was there a 
man in the Union who did more in his own county and State and 
country, by action at home and correspondence abroad, to prepare 
the people of the United States for opposition to English usurpa- 
tion, and the assertion of American independence ? Was there a 
man in America who toiled and endured more than he, both in body 
and mind, in the American cause ? Was there a man in the Legisla- 
ture of Virginia, and in the Congress of the Union, who had the pen 
of a ready writer so continually in his hand, and to which so many 
public papers may be justly ascribed, and by whom so much hard 
work in committee-rooms was performed?" To him most justly was 
assigned the honourable but perilous duty of first moving in our 
American Congress "that these United Colonies are, and of right 
ought to be, free and independent States.' 7 Nor is it at all won- 
derful that one who was conversant with the plans and intentions 
of the English ministry should have declared that, in the event 
of the reduction of the Colonies, the delivery of General Wash- 
ington and Richard Henry Lee would be demanded, in order to 
their execution as rebels. Although the great principles of morality 
and religion rest on infinitely higher ground than the opinion of 
the greatest and best of men, yet it i& most gratifying to find them 
sustained in the writings and actions of such a man as Richard 
Henry Lee. Mr. Lee advocated private education as being better 
calculated for impressing the minds of the young "with a love of 
religion and virtue." His biographer says that he had early studied 
the evidences of the Christian religion, and had through life 
avowed his belief in its divine origin. He was a member of the 
Episcopal Church in full communion, and took a deep interest in 
its welfare. He proved the sincerity of what has been quoted from 
him, in favour of private education, by having a minister or can- 
didate for the ministry in his family as private tutor. Mr. Bal- 
maine was sent over to him by his brother Arthur, from London, 
as both a staunch friend of America and a pious man. I have 
often heard Mr. Balmaine speak in the highest terms of Mr. Lee 
as a Christian and a patriotic statesman. His aitacnment to the 
Church of his fathers was evinced by the interest he took in seek- 
ing to obtain consecration for our Bishops, immediately after the 
war, and when he was President of Congress. Twice were thanks 
returned to him by our General Convention for his services. Mr. 
Lee was a decided advocate of the appointment of public acts of 
supplication and thanksgiving to Almighty God in times of adver- 
sity and prosperity. When all was dark and lowering in our 


political horizon, and when it was proposed that, as one means of 
propitiating the favour of God, it should be recommended to the 
different States to take the most effectual means for the encou- 
raging of religion and good morals, and for suppressing "theatrical 
entertainments, horse-racing, gaming, and such other diversions as 
are productive of idleness, dissipation, and a general depravity of 
manners," while some voted against the measure, Mr. Lee was 
found in company with the most pious men of the land in favour 
of it, and it was carried by a large majority. Again, when by the 
capture of Burgoyne's army the hearts of Americans were cheered, 
we find Mr. Lee one of a committee drafting a preamble and reso- 
lution, which is believed to be from his own pen, in the following pious 
strain : " Forasmuch as it is the indispensable duty of all men to 
adore the superintending providence of Almighty God, to acknow- 
ledge with gratitude their obligation to him for benefits received, and 
to implore such further blessings as they stand in need of; and it 
having pleased him, in his abundant mercy, not only to continue to 
us the innumerable bounties of his common providence, but also to 
smile upon us in the prosecution of a just and necessary war for 
the independence and establishment of our unalienable rights and 
liberties ; particularly in that he hath been pleased in so great a 
measure to prosper the means used for the support of our arms, 
and crown them with the most signal success : it is therefore re- 
commended to the Legislature and executive powers of these States, 
to set apart Thursday, the eighteenth of December next, for solemn 
thanksgiving and praise ; that with one heart and one voice the 
people may express the feelings of their hearts, and consecrate 
themselves to the service of their Divine Benefactor ; and, together 
with their sincere acknowledgments and offerings, they may join 
the penitent confession of their manifold sins, whereby they have 
forfeited every favour, and their earnest and humble supplication 
that it may please God, through the merits of Jesus Christ, merci- 
fully to forgive and blot them out of remembrance ; that it may 
please God/' &c. 

Mr. Lee, though entirely opposed to any Church establishment, 
was, together with Henry, an advocate for a proposition to make 
every man contribute to the support of the Christian religion, as 
the only sure basis of private and public morality. In this, how- 
ever, they failed. When the question about paying debts* in depre- 
ciated currency came on, Mr. Lee evinced his high and honourable 
sense of morality in the earnest and eloquent opposition IT ado to 
it. He declared that nothing so deeply distressed him as a pro- 
position which he regarded as a violation cf honesty and ^ood faith 


among men, and said that it " would have been better to have re- 
mained the honest slaves of Britain, than dishonest freemen."* 

Of the descendants of so great and good a man, I cannot refrain 
from adding something. His oldest son was Thomas Lee, whose 
daughter Eleanor married Girard Alexander. His second son was 
Mr. Ludwell Lee, of Loudoun county, who- was a worthy member 
of our Church, and left children and grandchildren who have fol- 
lowed his example. His daughter Mary married Colonel William 
Augustin Washington, but died childless. His daughter Hannah 
married Mr. Corbin Washington, many of whose descendants have 
been or are zealous members of the Church. His daughter Harriet 
married twice, first Mr. George Turberville, and then the Rev. Mr. 
Maffit, of the Presbyterian Church. Many of their descendants, 
whether of the Episcopal or Presbyterian Church, are characterized 
by exemplary piety. Sally married Edmund I. Lee, of Alexandria, 
and has left a numerous posterity of children and grandchildren 
and great-grandchildren, who belong to and love the Church of 
their ancestors. The Rev. William F. Lee was one of her sons. 

Anne, the other daughter of R. H. Lee, married Charles Lee. 
Her daughter Ann married General Walter Jones, and was the 
mother of a numerous family of children, who love the religion and 
Church of their ancestors. Her daughter Catherine is one of our 
missionaries in China. 


On the Potomac, and within sight of the bay, are the remains 
of an old graveyard, belonging to what has always gone by the 
name of the "Northumberland House." The place was originally 
settled and a house built on it by a Mr. Presley, one of the earliest 
settlers, who was murdered in it by his own servants. It was 
afterward owned by Mr. Presley Thornton, who lies buried there. 
The following extract from the letter of a friend is worthy of in- 
sertion : 

" I have also, according to promise, visited the graveyard of old North- 
umberland House, and found the remains of but one tombstone. This, 
although erected of the heaviest materials, has been so much mutilated 
by lightning and the waste of time, that nothing more can be deciphered 
than that it was erected to the memory of Presley Thornton, who was 
elected in early life to the House of Burgesses from the county of North- 
umberland, which office he held until 1760, when he was appointed one 
of the Council of State for this Colony; and that he filled both offices 
with great credit to himself and to the public emolument. He departed 

* I have ascertained, beyond a doubt, that he was buried at Chantilly, in the 
vard or garden. 


tliis life on the 8th of December, 1769, in the forty-eighth year of his 
age, having enjoyed all the chief honours of his country/' 

To this I add that, in the absence of the vestry-books and court- 
records, I find that at an early period the Lees, Presleys, POT- 
thresses, Kenners, Thorntons, Newtons, &c. were the leading per- 
sons in Northumberland. 

The assertion by Mr. Lee that Charles II. was proclaimed King 
in Virginia before he was received as such in England is a matter 
of dispute among historians. Beverley, our earliest, who published 
his work in 1705, about forty-five years after the event is said to 
have occurred, affirms it as a fact, Robertson, the historian, and 
Chalmers, another writer of that day, repeat the same. Burke, 
who published in 1805, agrees with the foregoing so far as to think 
that something of the kind took place, though not in a regular way. 
Dr. Hawks agrees with Beverley and his followers. Mr. Henning, 
in his Statutes at Large, compiled by order of the Virginia Assem- 
bly, and commenced in 1809, is of opinion that there is no founda- 
tion for any such supposition, and appeals to the entire absence of 
all notice of such proceeding in the documents of that period. 
Mr. Bancroft and Mr. Charles Campbell adopt the opinion of Mr. 
Henning. Of course, if it was an irregular, partial, or tumultuous 
act of individuals, as Mr. Burke supposes, we could not expect to 
see it among the recorded Acts of Assembly, as we do see the later 
and more formal acknowledgment of Charles II. It is not, how- 
ever, a matter of sufficient importance to produce a Trojan war. 
It is scarcely probable that Mr. Lee is mistaken in the tradition 
that his ancestor was a zealous loyalist, and did, on his return to 
England, visit Charles at Breda and hold communion with him on 
the subject of his acknowledgment by Virginia, then having so 
many staunch Cavaliers in it, whatever uncertainty may rest upon 
the subsequent proceedings. 

Since the foregoing article was written, I have received some 
further information concerning the first of the Lee family and his 
children, which is worthy of insertion. The will of the first Richard 
Lee, dated 1663, may be seen in Mr. Charles Campbell's History 
of Virginia, p. 157. From it I extract the following : "I, Colonel 
Richard Lee, of Virginia, and lately of Stratford-Langton, in the 
county of Essex, Esquire, being bound out upon a voyage to Vir- 
ginia aforesaid, and not knowing how it may please Grod to dispose 
of me in so long a voyage," &c. " First, I give and bequeath my soul 
to that good and gracious God that gave it me, and to my blessed 
Redeemer Jesus Christ, assuredly trusting in and by his meritorious 


death and passion to receive salvation, and my body to be disposed 
of, whether by sea or land, according to the opportunity of the 
place, not doubting but at the last day both body and soul shall be 
united and glorified." Here again we see the faith and the divinity 
of that day. He then directs that his wife and children, who it 
seems had not yet been to Virginia, should be sent there, except 
Francis, to whose option it was left. To his wife Anna he left 
Stratford-on-the-Potowmacke (to which he had removed from Cobbs") 
and Mock Neeke, together with servants black and white, and other 
property during her life. To his son John he leaves his plantation 
called Matholic, with servants, &c. This is now the Mount Pleasant 
farm owned by Mr. Willowby Newton. To his son Richard he 
leaves his plantation called Paradise, and the servants there. To 
his son Francis he leaves his plantations called Paper-Maker's 
Neck and War Captain's Neck, with servants black and white. To 
his five younger children, William, Hancock, Betsy, Anne, and 
Charles, he leaves a plantation, including Bishop's Neck on the 
Potomac, four thousand acres on the Potomac, together with Strat- 
ford and Mock Neck at the death of their mother. To William he 
leaves his lands on the Maryland side ; to Francis an interest in 
his two ships. He also leaves a fund for the better education in 
England of his two oldest sons, John and Richard. 

Since writing the account of the marriages of Richard Henry, 
as given by his brother William Lee, I have received two commu- 
nications, stating that one of his wives was a Miss Gaskins, so that, 
unless he was married three times, there must have been a mistake 
as to the name of one of those before mentioned. 


The following account of the Corbin family may very properly 
be added to that of the Lees, on account of their early connection 
by marriage. 

The vestry-books of Middlesex and King and Queen counties 
doubtless speak of some of the same persons mentioned in this 

Henry Corbin settled in the parish of Stratton Major, King and 
Queen, about the year 1650. One Nicholas Jernew obtained a 
patent for Peekatone, in the county of Westmoreland, dated 18th 
October, 1650, which he transferred to Henry Corbin, who had 
another patent issued in his own name, dated 26th of March, 1664. 
Henry Corbin had three children, of whom mention is made in the 
sld papers in my possession. Thomas Corbin, one of his sons, 

VOL IL 10 


must have died without male Issue, as his brother Gawin Corbin, 
by his will, devises to his son Gawin Corbin "the land of my 
brother, the late Mr. Thomas Corbin." His eldest daughter, 
Letitia, married Richard Lee, second son of Colonel Richard Lee. 
Gawin Corbin, the other son of Henry Corbin, and once President 
of the Council, married a daughter of William Bassett, and left 
seven children, three sons and four daughters. Jenny, one of his 
daughters, married a Mr. Bushrod; Joanna married Major Robert 
Tucker; Alice married Benjamin Needier, and the other a Mr. 
Allerton. His sons were 1st, Richard Corbin of Laneville, who 
married Miss Betty Tayloe, daughter of Colonel John Tayloe, 
(Carter Braxton married their oldest daughter ;) 2d, John Corbin, 
of whose history I am ignorant, (the lands devised to him were 
chiefly in Maryland;) 3d, Gawin Corbin, once a member of the 
Council, and who married Hannah Lee, sister of Richard Henry 
Lee. Gawin Corbin, third grandson of Henry Corbin, left an 
only daughter, Martha, who married George Turberville. George 
Turberville left two sons, viz.: Gawin Corbin Turberville, and 
Richard Lee Turberville. Gawin Corbin Turberville married a 
daughter of Colonel John Dangerfield, and left an only daughter, 
Mary, who married William F. Taliafero. 

A friend has sent me the following record, which shows at how 
early a period that kind of dissipation which proved so destructive 
to Virginia made its appearance in the Northern Neck. " John 
Lee, Henry Corbin, Thomas Gerrard, and Isaac Allerton, en- 
tered into a compact, dated 80th of March, 1670, (recorded 27th 
March, 1774,) to build a banqueting-house at or near the corner 
of their respective lands." 



Cople Parish^ Westmoreland County. 

WESTMORELAND county was cut off from Northumberland county 
in 1653, and extended along the Potomac as high as the Palls above 
Georgetown. In the years 1661-62 the two counties were tempo- 
rarily reunited, because, by the removal of some leading persons, 
there was not a suitable number of civil and military gentlemen to 
constitute a proper commission in either of them alone. After some 
time Stafford was taken from Westmoreland, leaving it a small, 
narrow county lying on the Potomac, and only extending half-way 
across the neck toward the Rappahannock River. First Lancaster, 
then Rappahannock, and then Richmond counties, divided what 
is now Westmoreland. In time, all the land lying between the 
rivers was given to Westmoreland, and Cople parish occupied the 
lower part of the county and Washington the upper. We will begin 
with Cople parish. 

The first minister we have on any of our lists is the Rev. Charles 
Rose, brother to the Rev. Robert Rose, of Essex. He appears on 
the earliest list we have, that of 1754, but from the diary of his 
brother we know that he was its minister some years before this. 
He was also minister in 1758. In the year 1773, the Rev. Thomas 
Smith was its minister, as he was in 1776. Either before or after 
him, we are informed that the Rev. Augustine Smith was its 
minister. We presume that they were relatives of the many re- 
spectable persons of that name in this and other counties around, 
but we have received no particular account of them. In the year 
1799, the Rev. James Elliott was minister. Of him we hear nothing 
good from this or any other parish which he served. We hear of 
no other minister in Cople parish until the Rev. Washington Nelson 
took charge of it in connection with the parishes in Richmond 
county. He was succeeded in 1842 by the Rev, Mr. Ward. The 
Rev. Mr. Rumney succeeded him in 1849, and was succeeded by 
the Rev. Edward MeGhiire in 1850. He was followed by the Rev. 
William McGuire in 1852. The present minister, the Rev. Mr. 
Dashiel, took charge of it in 1854. 

There were two churches in this parish, one at Yeocomico River 


or Creek, from which it takes its name, Yeocomico ; and another 
about ten miles off, on Nominy River or Creek, from which it also 
took the name of Nominy. The latter was destroyed by fire soon 
after our last war with England, but a new brick one has taken its 
place within the last few years. The plate belonging to this church 
was carried off by Admiral Cockburn and his party, when they were 
on a pillaging-expedition on the Potomac and its tributaries. The 
plate was kept on a plantation upon the banks of 1ST ominy River, just 
opposite the church. The farm itself was called Nominy, and was 
then, and still is, owned by the Griffith family, relatives of the Bishop- 
elect of that name. The house was plundered and then burned. 
The other Yeocomico Church is still in good repair, but among 
the rudest and roughest of all the old brick churches. It was built 
in 1706. For the first time a new roof has, within a few years, 
been put upon it, and some internal changes been made in it. 
Although I think it might have been better done and made more 
complete, yet it would be difficult, and perhaps not desirable, to 
give a more modem aspect to it. The following extract from my 
report in 1838 may not be without interest to the reader : 

" On Monday I went, in company with Mr. Nelson, to Yeocomico 
Church, in Westmoreland, where 1 preached, and administered the rite of 
Confirmation to three persons. 

" Yeocomico Church, so called after the river of that name, is one of 
the old churches, being built in the year 1706. The architecture is rough, 
but very strong, and the materials must have been of the besfc kind. Its 
figure is that of a cross, and, situated as it is, in a little recess from the 
main road, in the midst of some aged trees, and surrounded by an old brick 
wall which is fast mouldering away, it cannot fail to be an object of interest 
to one whose soul has any sympathy for such scenes. It has undergone 
but little repair since its first erection, and indeed has needed little. It is 
not known or believed that a single new shingle has ever been put upon 
the roof, and the pews and whole interior are the same. During the late 
war it was shamefully abused by the soldiers who were quartered in it 
while watching the movements of the British on the Potomac. The Com- 
munion-table was removed into the yard, where it served as a butcher's 
block, and was entirely defaced. Being of substantial materials, however, 
it admitted of a new face and polish, and is now restored to its former 
place, where it will answer, we trust, for a long time to come, the holy 
purposes for which it was originally designed. Nor was the baptismal font 
exempt from profanation. It was taken some miles from the church, and 
used as a vessel in which to prepare the excitements to ungodly mirth. 
This, however was not long permitted, for in the absence of every member 
of our own communion, none being left to do it, a venerable old man of 
the Presbyterian connection,* mortified at the dishonour done to religion, 

* The name of this worthy old man is Murphy. He has now gone to Ms rest 


took pains to regain it and restore it to its former place. It is a large and 
beautiful marble font, and by its side I took my station while I heard the 
renewal of baptismal TOWS from the lips of those who were confirmed. 
The canvas on which the Ten Commandments, the Lord's Prayer, and the 
Creed were impressed was so torn by the soldiers that they could no 
longer be permitted to retain their place, and are now lying in fragments 
in one of the distant and unoccupied pews. 

" It deserves to be mentioned that whatever repairs have been put upon 
this house were at the expense of the good man mentioned above, and a 
worthy gentleman of New York, a member of our communion, and whose 
matrimonial connection in the family often brought him to that part of 
Virginia. A large and excellent stove, which completely warmed the 
whole church, was a present from the latter, and on the desk and pulpit 
the Bible and Prayer-Book bear the name of J. Rogers, of New York '' 

It deserves to be stated that I have in my possession a eon- 
tract with the vestry for the repairs of this church in 1773, at a 
cost of one hundred pounds, or five hundred dollars. In the agree- 
ment, various repairs within and without the house and in the walls 
around the yard are specified, but nothing is said about a new roof, 
which goes to establish the tradition that the present roof is the 
original one put upon the house in 1706. 


For twenty years or more, prior to the pastorate of the Rev. Wash- 
ington Nelson, this parish was without clerical services. In all that 
time there was nothing except the visitations of the Bishop to re- 
mind the people here that there was an Episcopal Church. And 
depressing as was such a state of things, and calculated as it was 
to break us down entirely, we were just as likely to have the same 
end brought about by the life and character of the man who had 
last been rector. I do not know whether this man resigned the 
parish, or died whilst in charge : be that as it may, his course was 
well calculated to disgust people and drive them from our services. 
Looking at the consequences which must naturally flow from such 
a connection, and from the long period in which there was entire 
absence of Episcopal ministrations, we cannot otherwise than won" 
ler, whilst we thank God, as we now see our Church upon the 
same spot enjoying every promise of prosperity. Whilst, during 
the period referred to, there was nothing done by us, other Chris- 
tian bodies were active ; and, under all the influences which operated 
against us, it is not surprising that all or nearly all who had any 
affection for our Church should have lost their feelings of attach- 
ment and have sought comfort elsewhere. In truth, when Mr. 
Nelson came here the Episcopal Church had nearly died out. The 


only comnrauicants lie found were three old ladies In the humblest 
walks of life. An account of these pious and excellent people was 
published by Mr. Nelson, but I believe it must be out of print. 
Even, however, if there should be any copies of it in existence, 
their history is so remarkable that it will very well bear the mention 
here made. The name of these sisters was McGruire, Miss Emily, 
Miss Mary, and a widow, Mrs. Davis. Two of them are still alive 
and still continue warmly attached to our Church, and are exerting 
a considerable influence in its favour among their acquaintances. 
The eldest of them Miss Emily died in August, 1855. I tried to 
obtain for myself a satisfactory account of how they became Epis- 
copalians, and how they retained their love for the Church when 
every one else in the surrounding country deserted it. They said, 
in substance, that they had been educated by their mother, who was 
an Episcopalian, and brought up to love all our services. They 
were baptized by our ministry, and attended its preaching whenever 
they could. When their mother died she left them a large Prayer- 
Book, with the request that they would abide by its teachings ; 
and, from affection for her as well as for the Church, they obeyed 
her word. They told how the Church had flourished in days gone 
by, how it had been ridiculed when its clergy behaved badly, 
and how the members had been shamed away from it, and how 
themselves still clung to it. I asked them how they got along 
during the many years there was no minister. "Why, sir/' said 
Miss Emily, " whenever there was preaching at Westmoreland or 
Richmond Court-House, we would walk to it ? once in a while we 
would have this chance, and when there was no preaching I would 
read the Lessons on Sunday to my sister and we would go through 
the morning service, and if any neighbours came in maybe I would 
read a sermon." Westmoreland Court-House is four miles from 
their residence and Richmond Court-House about twelve miles; 
and I have it certified by others that the statement of Miss Emily 
is true, they have been known to walk to and from these places 
to attend our Church services in the coldest and hottest weather. 
I asked them if in that time they never attended the services of 
other denominations. "Well, sir," they said, "we did sometimes; 
they would be holding church all around us, and sometimes we 
would go ; but it wasn't like home to us. We know they're good, 
but still we felt happier worshipping here in our own way." 

The piety of these worthy people is even more remarkable than 
their attachment to their Church. They are very poor, but their 
uniform contentment and happiness is rarely to be met with. Upon 


one occasion whilst Miss Emily was alive, her sister Mary remarked 
that now in their old age they sometimes got right cold while walk- 
ing to church in the winter. "But what of that, sister?" says 
Miss Emily ; " why should we care for that ?" " And I don't care 
for it," was the reply. 

We have mentioned that Miss Emily died in August, 1855. She 
was very aged, and for some weeks previous to her decease was 
imbecile. It pleased God, however, not to let her depart in this 
state. The day before she died her reason returned, and she talked 
solemnly and impressively to those around her. She remained thus 
conscious almost up to the very moment of her death. Miss Mary 
and Mrs. Davis still attend their church and see the parish which 
once could number only themselves as its friends, now containing 
more than twenty families, about thirty communicants now living, 
and many evidences that it is still to flourish. May God help us 
to remember and cherish the poor ! 

To this it well deserves to be added, that during the entire inter- 
mission of services in this parish, these sisters were in the habit 
of going once in a year in a sail-boat to Alexandria in order to 
receive the Communion. 


From a document of Mr. Willowby Newton, father of the present 
Willowby, and grandson of a Willowby Newton, I learn that at an 
early period four brothers emigrated to Virginia, one of whom 
settled in Norfolk, another in Alexandria, one in Westmoreland, 
and one in Stafford ; so that it is probable that all of the name in 
Virginia, and many out of it, are from the same stock. Richard 
Lee, of Lee Hall, in Westmoreland, not far from the ruins of the 
old burnt house, which was an ancient Lee establishment, married 
a Miss Poythress, of Prince George, who was a granddaughter of 
Richard Bland. After the death of Mr. Lee commonly called 
Squire Lee she married Mr. Willowby Newton, both of whom 
were vestrymen, as was John Newton, father of this Willowby, 
and son of the first Willowby. The name of Willowby was an 
ancient one about Norfolk, and intermarried mth the Newtons. 

At Bushfield, in this county, there is an inscription which gives 
us the origin of the name Bushrod, which is incorporated in many 
other names of Virginia: 

" Here lies the body of John Bushrod, Gentleman, son of Richard 
Bushrod, Gentleman, by Apphia his wife. He was born in Gloucester 


county, Virginia, the 30th of January, 1663. He took for his wife Han 
nah, the daughter of William Keene, of Northumberland , and Elizabeth 
his wife, and by her left two sons and four daughters, and died the 6th of 
February, 1719, in the 56th year of his age." 

At "Wilmington, the family seat of the Newtons, we have also the 
following inscription : 

" Beneath this stone are deposited the remains of Mrs. Sarah Newton, 
daughter of George Eskridge, and late wife of Captain Willowby Newton, 
of Westmoreland county, who, after having justly established the cha- 
racter of a dutiful child, a faithful friend, an affectionate mother, and 
sincere Christian, departed this life on the 2d of December, 1758, in the 
46th year of her age." 

In the same graveyard is the tomb of Mrs, Elizabeth Oldham, 
wife of Colonel Samuel Oldham, who died in 1759, in her 72d year. 


From a tombstone in the Burnt-House fields, at Mount Pleasant, 
Westmoreland county, where are yet to be seen the foundations 
of large buildings, are the following : 

"Hie conditur corpus Bichardi Lee, Annigeri, nati in Virginia, filii 
Eiehardi Lee, generosi, et antiqua familia, in Merton-Regis, in comitatu 
Salopiensi, oriundi. 

"In magistratum obeundo boni publici studiosissimi, in literis Grsecis 
et Latinis et aliis humanioris literature disciplinis versatissimi. 

"Deo, quern, summa observantia semper coluit, animam tranquillus 
reddidit xii. mo. die Martii, anno MDCCXIV. setat. LXYHL" * 

" Hie, juxta, sitam est corpus Lsetitise ejusdem uxoris fidse, filiae Henrici 
Corbyn, generosi, liberorum matris amantissimae, pietate erga Deum, 
charitate erga egenos, benignitate erga omnes insignia. Obiit Octob die 
vi. MDCCVL setatis XLIX." 

The first is thus translated : 

"Here lieth the body of Richard Lee, Esq., born in Virginia, son of 
Eichard Lee, Gentleman, descended of an ancient family of Merton-Regis, 
in Shropshire. 

" While he exercised the office of a magistrate he was a zealous pro- 
moter of the public good. He was very skilful in the Greek and Latin 
languages and other parts of polite learning. He quietly resigned his 
isoul to God, whom he always devoutly worshipped, on the 12th day of 
March, in the year 1714, in the 68th year of his age/ 7 

The second is thus translated: 

"Near by is interred the body of Lettuce, Ms faithful wife, daughter 
of Henry Corbyn, Gentleman. A most affectionate mother, she was also 


distinguished by piety toward God, charity to the poor, and kindness to all 
She died on the 6th day of October, 1706, in the 49th year of her age." 


Although no vestry-book of this parish has come down to us 
from which we might give a connected list of the vestrymen, yet 
we are glad to present to our readers the result of two elections 
which "were held in this parish, the one in 1755, and the other in 
1785. Those chosen in 1755 were John Bushrod, Daniel Tibbs, 
Richard Lee, Benedict Middleton, Will o why Newton, Robert Mid- 
dleton, George Lee, John Newton, Samuel Oldham, Robert Carter, 
Fleet Cox, James Steptoe. Those chosen in 1785 thirty years 
after were Vincent Marmaduke, Jeremiah Gr. Bailey, John A. 
Washington, Samuel Rust, John Crabb, Richard Lee, George Gar- 
ner, George Turberville, Patrick Sanford, John Rochester, Samuel 


During the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Ward in Cople parish, a 
difficulty arose as to this church, and the question was carried 
before the Legislature. The following letter from Judge MeComas 
shows his opinion on the subject. The action of the Legislature 
was in favour of the claim of the Episcopal Church : 

, January 20, 1844. 


" DEAE Sra : Ton will remember that 1 objected sitting as a member 
of the Committee for Courts of Justice, whilst it was acting upon the 
petition in relation to Yeocomico Church, because I was a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and understanding that it was the subject 
of dispute between that Church and the Episcopal Church ; but at youi 
instance I did sit, but, being chairman of the committee, its action made 
it unnecessary for me to vote. I take this mode, however, of saying that 
I perfectly agreed with the committee, and even desired to go further 
than the committee in this. I wished to pass a law giving to the Epis- 
copal Church all churches that it is now in possession of, to which it had a 
right before the Revolutionary War. I think the construction given by 
the committee to the Act of 1802, or at least my construction of it, is, that 
the General Assembly claimed for the Commonwealth the right to all the 
real property held by that Church, but that Act expressly forbids the sale 
of the churches, &c. It is true, the proviso to that Act does not confer 
upon the churches the right of property in the houses, &e. But it in- 
tended to leave the possession and occupancy as it then existed; and, that 
possession and occupancy being in the Episcopal Church, it had a right to 
retain it until the Legislature should otherwise direct. I believe that the 
Committee was of the opinion that the Episcopal Church Lad a right to 
the use and occupancy of the church now in question : it certainly is my 


opinion. I hope my Methodist brethren will see the justness of the de- 
termination of the Committee, and with cheerfulness acquiesce in its 

"Tours very respectfully, 


The following letter from Mr. W. L. Rogers, of Princeton, New 
Jersey, will form an interesting supplement to what has been said 
about Old Yeocomico : 


" HONOURED SIR: The Rev. Win. Hanson, rector of Trinity Church 
in this place, a few days since handed me a number of the l Southern 
Churchman' from Alexandria, dated the 27th of February, 1857. In it 
Is an historical sketch,, from your pen, of Cople parish, Westmoreland 
county, Virginia, and particularly of Yeocomico Church, a spot ever 
near and dear to my memory. From a long and intimate acquaintance 
with its locality and history, I beg leave very respectfully to present the 
following facts. It was built in the year 1706, as an unmistakable record 
will show, it being engraved in the solid wall over the front-door. It 
was called by that name after the adjacent river, the Indian name being 
preserved. The Rev. Mr. Elliot was the last settled minister up to the 
year 1800, when he removed to Kentucky. From that time it was wholly 
unused and neglected as a place of worship until the Methodists occasion- 
ally met under the shadow of its ruin about the year 1814, and continued 
so to do, keeping alive the spark of vital piety, until the Rev. Mr. Nelson 
in 1834 took charge of it as a settled minister. During his ministration 
it was jointly used by the Episcopalians and Methodists in Christian bar 
inony and good- will. He being succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Ward in 1842, 
the question of occupancy and right of possession was unhappily agitated, 
which led to a decision of the Legislature giving to the wardens and vestry 
of the Episcopal Church the exclusive right to its use and control. Thus 
it will be seen, for thirty-four years there had been no settled minister of 
our communion, or its sublime and beautiful service performed, except 
two or three times by occasional visits. 

"The Mr. Murphy you allude to was a Scotch gentleman from Ayrshire, 
living at Ayrfield, half a mile distant from Old Yeocomico, whose estate, 
consisting of some thousands of acres, surrounded the church and burial- 
ground on all sides. He was a gentleman of intellectual culture, an 
honoured magistrate, and a Presbyterian of the 'Covenant' school; whose 
residence was the seat of hospitality and the home of the clergy, with a 
welcome to all 'who proclaimed the glad tidings, that published salvation, 
ihat saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth/ The Mr. Rogers you kindly 
allude to is the unworthy writer of these lines and the following narrative. 
I am a citizen of New Jersey by birth and education, (not of New York, 
as you incidentally state.) In the spring of 1813, 1 joined the 36th 
Regiment of United States Infantry (Colonel Carberry) at Washington. 
In the fall of that year, I was detached by order of General Bloomfield to 
Sandy Point, Westmoreland county, Virginia, on the Potomac, with a 
company of men to watch the movements of the British fleet. In the 
spring of 1814, our quarters becoming uncomfortable, we sought out an 
encampment in what is called there the Forest or high ground. Among 


other places recommended to us by the late General Alexander Parker 
we visited the ruins of Yeocomico Church. As soon as I saw it, I ex- 
claimed, * There is Kirk-Alloway/ (alluding of course to Burns's 'Tarn 
O'Shanter.') Had it stood for the original picture as drawn by the 
humorous poet, it could not have more forcibly impressed me with awe 
and deep-abiding interest. Its form, that of a cross, its solitude, were 
strikingly impressive, for it stood in a dell where its silence was only dis- 
turbed by the passing breeze whispering through the pines and cedars and 
undergrowth which choked up the entrance. It was overshadowed also 
by ancient oaks stretching their gigantic arms, as it were, to guard the 
sacred relic from mouldering time and the desolating elements. Its doors 
were open, its windows broken, the roof partly decayed and fallen in, and, 
k> complete its apparent hopeless fate, a pine-tree thirty or forty feet 
nigh was blown up by the roots and lay across the main structure. Its 
burial-ground, which is spacious, was enclosed by a costly, high brick wall, 
with narrow gateways, symbolical perhaps of the { narrow path/ filled 
to its utmost capacity with broken tombstones and desolate graves over- 
grown with briers and shrubbery, showing that the i rich and the poor 
there rested together, and the servant was indeed free from his master/ 
alike unprotected and uncared-for. A ruin outside the wall, which was 
intended and once served as a vestry, had rotted down ; the chimney, a 
strong brick one, alone standing, a naked monument of better days. In an 
alcove of forest-trees a few yards distant flowed numerous springs of cool, 
delicious water. Indeed, it required no great stretch of imagination to 
fancy the midnight-scene so graphically described in Burns's Kirk- Alloway, 
and the race to cross the running stream (for one really flows across the 
main road, some hundred yards distant) where i mare Meggie lost her 
tail/ With some difficulty I entered the porch, which was built of brick 
and formed the upper part of the cross, spacious and on a level with the 
ground, its massive double doorway quite open, presenting within as 
hopeless a ruin as its exterior, the roof rotted away at its angles, one 
of the galleries partly down, the girders rotted off and fallen upon the 
pews, and the wall in two places mouldered away by years of satura- 
tion from snow and rain The remains of a large Bible still lay upon 
the desk. The font was gone, which I was told was of marble, and now 
used for convivial purposes. The chancel, in the eastern arm of the 
cross, to the right of the pulpit, surmounted by a large Gothic window 
much broken, was still in tolerable preservation. In it was the Communion- 
table, its frame antique, covered with a heavy walnut slab, sound, but 
rough and soiled from exposure. Large frames, once covered with canvas 
exhibiting in distinct characters the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Command- 
ments, and other texts of Scripture, hung upon the walls, now much 
defaced, mouldered, and torn. The aisles were paved with brick, and 
covered with abundant evidence of its being the resort of sheep and 
cattle running at large ; and, to complete the evidence of its abandonment, 
the ceiling which was of boards was tenanted by squirrels, snakes, and 
scorpions. Indeed, we may truly say, All its hedges were broken down 
by the wUd boar of the wilderness/ and there was no one to care for it 
Besides, I was told, it was the terror of the neighbourhood, from being 
the resort of runaway negroes and wandering vagrants, added to the awe 
inseparably connected with the lonely, silent depository of the dead. la 
contemplating the scene before me, I felt a mysterious attachment to this 
relic of piety and early faith of our fathers, not dreaming (being a 


stranger and a wanderer) at some future day I should be honoured and 
favoured by the commission to restore this temple, now in the dust, to the 
service of my Creator and Redeemer. We resolved at once to pitch our 
tents outside the wall : a fatigue-party was detailed to trim up the trees, 
cut down the undergrowth, and buro up the leaves and rubbish, to re- 
move the tree which lay across the roof, to cleanse the church and repair 
it as far as practicable, to make it a safe depository for our stores and 
camp-equipage. This being done, we were presented with a shady grove, 
dry ground, and a most inviting and lovely prospect, with an abundance 
of pure, delicious water at our feet, and a central position to make nightly 
detachments to guard the historic shores of old Potomac, for there rest 
the remains of the Washingtons, the Lees, the Parkers, and many other 
gallant spirits of patriotic memory* As illustrative of the actual condition 
of the spot I am now describing, permit me to relate an original anecdote, 
which occurred a short time before my visit. 

" Colonel Garner, an officer of the Revolution, lived three or four miles 
distant: passing the church late in the evening with a friend, they were 
overtaken by an angry cloud of wind and rain, accompanied by lightning 
and thunder. The colonel proposed taking shelter in the church, leading 
their horses in, which they could do without difficulty, as the porch and 
pavement of the aisles were on a level with the ground. To this his friend 
positively objected, declaring he would rather bear the pelting of the storm 
than pass an hour within its gloomy walls. He therefore put spurs to his 
horse for his home. Not so with the colonel : he was a brave man, not 
fearing hobgoblins or witches. He dismounted at the opening in the wall, 
where there had once been a gate. Taking the bridle-rein in his hand, he 
proceeded to thread his way through the bushes to the porch. He got 
inside, followed by his horse, and was just entering the church, when the 
unusual visit frightened a flock of sheep that had taken shelter there, who 
suddenly rushed to the door to make their escape. The charge took the 
colonel by surprise, knocked him down, routed his horse, and trampled 
him. in the dust, (for it was not paved as it now is.) . After the column 
had passed over him, he found in the tf rne1eV he had lost his hat, and was 
scratched and bruised about the face and hanas. Nothing daunted, how- 
ever, he groped his way into the church, and, being well acquainted with 
its internal arrangement, he took shelter in the pulpit, where he knew was 
a comfortable seat, and where he would be protected from the wet by the 
sounding-board, made of durable materials and still firmly attached to the 
wall. The storm was now raging without, lightning and thundering and 
raining, with a tempest of wind. After sitting for a time he fell asleep 
and did not awake until three or four in the morning. By this time the 
cloud had passed over, the stars were shining, and he was glad to extricate 
himself by a hasty retreat homeward. He found his discomfited horse 
taking his rest at the stable-door. 

" Our happiness at this encampment, after some months, was unexpectedly 
broken up by the arrival of a vessel with an order to embark for St. Mary's, 
Maryland. We finished our military service by assisting in the defence of 
Fort McHenry, Baltimore. We had the satisfaction, however, of carrying 
with us the united testimony of the whole neighbourhood that not a chicken, 
an egg, or a vegetable, had been wrongfully taken by any one of the soldiers, 
nor an injury or an insult offered to any one. The church and its environs 
had been sacredly guarded, and we left it in a much better condition than we 
found it. But it was not so (as I afterward learned) by our successors, a 


O)mpany of militk from the upper country, who proved themselves to be a 
scourge to those they professedly came to protect, by robbery, violence, and 
destruction of private property. It was they < who made a (shopping-block of 
the Communion-table' and otherwise defaced the church. In ascribing it to 
the soldiers, be assured, sir, you have been led into an unintentional error. 
They served under a discipline paternal but strict, both as regards order 
and cleanliness. In the year 1820, being on a visit to Ayrfield,"and seeing 
Old Yeocomico still a ruin, even more deplorable than when I left it, I 
proposed to Mr. Murphy to undertake its repair. To this he not only 
assented, but gave money, labour, and his personal service. The gentle- 
men of the neighbourhood subscribed cheerfully and liberally, and the 
work was pushed forward by employing suitable mechanics and importing 
from Alexandria lumber, shingles, paints, and seven or eight barrels of 
tar for the roof, which had not had a shingle put upon it since the year 
1788, at which time, I heard Mr. Murphy say, the gentlemen of the sur- 
rounding estates were assessed to meet the expense. It is true as you 
state, the font, ' a beautiful marble one/ as you describe it, had been 
taken away and used for unholy purposes, and by him restored; also, the 
plate, with a damask tablecloth and napkins marked l Yeocomico Church' 
in the centre, had been safely kept at Lee Hall, and were gladly restored 
by the pious and excellent lady, the late Mrs. Sarah Newton, who at that 
time owned and occupied the mansion and estate. The first thing we did 
was to open a double gateway in front, with a wide gravel-walk up to the 
porch or apex of the cross, the pavement of which I laid with my own 
hands, none there being familiar with such work. If the narrow opening 
in the wall was symbolical of the ' narrow path/ the one we now opened 
was illustrative of *free grace/ & truth to which I feel myself indebted 
for a knowledge of salvation through the interceding blood of a crucified 
Kedeemer. It is also true, as you state, I presented the church with a 
large stove and ample pipe to warm it thoroughly, it having stood for upward 
of a century without one. It is also true I had the great pleasure to place 
a Bible and Prayer-Book both on the desk and in the pulpit, and I rejoice 
to know the church is still protected and cared for, although I have not 
seen it for more than twenty years. Permit me now, sir, in conclusion, to 
say I have frequently reflected with sorrow on the mysterious desolation 
of the ancient churches of Virginia, and can only account for it by the 
demoniac influence of the infidel theories and sentiments of the French. 
Revolution, which at that time pervaded the public mind and had poisoned 
the very fountain of our better nature and sealed the best impulses of the 
human heart. These temples of the living Gtod, these sacred monuments 
of the faith of our fathers and the religious care of the Provincial Govern- 
ment, were generally of lofty and commanding structure, of costly finish, 
and of the most durable materials, such as in England have lasted for 
centuries. They stood in well-chosen positions, and tinder their shadow 
lay the remains of the kindred of large congregations, many of whom were 
the immediate descendants of holy men who had ministered at their altars; 
yet, most strange to say, not an arm was put forth to save, or an eye found 
to pity. * Behold, therefore, saith the Lord, your house is left unto you 

" Be pleased to accept, reverend sir, my most respectful regard, 


" PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY, March 20, 1857." 


Washington Parish^ Westmoreland. 

THIS name was doubtless given to it at an early period, and after 
the first of the Washingtons ; though we see nothing of its first 
establishment in the Acts of Assembly. The Bishop of London 
sends a circular to its minister in 1723. The Rev. Laurence De 
Butts was its minister in that year, and had been for the three pre- 
ceding years. The parish was thirty miles long and five wide, 
extending only half-way across the Neck at that time. There 
were two churches in it. He administered the Communion three 
times a year, and two quarts of wine had been used at one time. 
Mr. De Butts preached also, during the week, at St. Stephen's 
Church, Northumberland county, at Farnham Church, Richmond 
county, and in Cople parish, they all being vacant at that time. 
The glebe of four hundred and fifty acres was bequeathed to the 
parish for the better maintenance of a minister and schoolmaster, 
and the vestry gave it entirely to him on condition that he would 
provide one to teach reading, writing, and arithmetic, which he had 
done. What has become of this glebe we know not. We find in 
the old county records the name of another minister in Westmore- 
land, about this same time, the Rev. Walter Jones. He may have 
ministered in some other parish, or been a private teacher, and been 
merely summoned as a witness. We have no record of any minis- 
ter in Washington parish after this until the year 1754, when the 
Rev. Archibald Campbell appears on one of our lists. 

Of him and his family I have something special to say. Our 
lists of clergy show him to have been the minister of Washington 
parish from the year 1754 to 1774, a period of twenty years* 
During most of that time Round Hill Church (afterward in Hano- 
ver parish, King George county, by a change of the boundary-line 
in the two counties) was connected with Pope's Creek Church, in 
Washington parish, and Mr. Campbell was minister of those 
churches. I have something to say about the former of these 
churches which has a bearing on the date of Mr. Campbell's minis- 
try aad first coming to this country. 

In my report, in the year 1838, of a visit to this region in the 


preceding year, I thus speak : " In passing from Westmoreland to 
King George county, where my next appointment -was made, the 
traveller may see, immediately on the roadside, the last vestiges of 
an old church called 6 Round Hill Church.' A few broken bricks 
and a little elevation made by the mouldered ruins are all now left 
to say, Here once stood a church of the living God." 

Within the last few months I spent a night at the hospitable 
house of Colonel Baber, near whose outer gate the old church 
stood. On learning that there was an old tombstone still to be 
seen among the ruins, I determined to search for it. In the morn- 
ing, on our way to St. Paul's Church, Colonel Baber's son, Rev. Mr. 
Dashiel, and myself, dismounted and made our way to the spot 
through the thick pines and cedars with which it was overgrown. 
After considerable search we discovered the end of a large tomb- 
stone, the greater portion of which was covered over with the roots 
of trees, moss and leaves. After clearing away the two latter, we 
made out the inscription, as follows: "Here lies Rebecca, the wife 
of the Rev. Archibald Campbell, minister of Washington parish, 
who died the 21st of March, 1754." "Here also lies Alexander^ 
their child." Now, as it is well known that he had another son 
by the name of Alexander, an eminent lawyer of Virginia, the one 
buried beneath or near this stone may have been born and died 
some years before this, and so Mr. Campbell's ministry be carried 
back a number of years before 1754, his second son Alexander 
being born before that time. If this be so, and it be also true 
that the Rev. Mr. Campbell kept a school in Westmoreland, as tra- 
dition says, and of which there is no doubt, it may also be true, 
as tradition further reports, that General Washington and Thomas 
Marshall, father of the Chief-Justice, and perhaps Colonel Monroe 
and Mr. Madison, all of whom were born in this region, may at one 
time have been scholars of Mr. Campbell. General Washington 
was born in 1732, and until his sixteenth year was much in West- 
moreland. It is only necessary that Mr* Campbell's ministry and 
school should have commenced five or six years before the death 
of his wife, to render this a probable thing. I introduce the report 
in order to elicit either confirmation or rejection. Of the history 
of this branch of the Campbells of Virginia I have obtained the 
following statement. Two brothers, Archibald and Alexander, 
emigrated to Virginia some time before the war. Archibald settled 
as a clergyman in Westmoreland, and Alexander as a merchant in 
Falmouth. At the breaking out of the war, Archibald took part 
with the Americans, with the Washingtons and Lees, his parish- 


toners, while Alexander preferred the British side of the question, 
and returned to Scotland. The youngest son of Alexander was 
born in Glasgow, in 1777,* 

* This youngest son was none other than the celebrated poet Thomas Campbek 

In a letter from a friend who is much interested and deeply versed in such mat- 
ters, there is the following passage: "Of the Campbells I can say nothing more 
than you have related at this moment, except perhaps that lawyer Campbell was 
a most eloquent man, and that Campbell, a brother of the poet, married a daughter 
of Patrick Henry. This I will inquire into. As Patrick Henry himself was de- 
scended on the mother's side from the stock of Robertson the historian, and is in 
that way a relative of Lord Brougham, so his descendants are connected with the 
poet Campbell, thus showing a connection between our great orator and one of the 
greatest politicians and one of the sweetest poets of the age. 7 ' 

The following extract from a letter of one of Mr. Campbell's grandsons throws 
additional light on the history of the family: *I will now give you some facts 
that I have been able to gather in reference to him and his descendants. Parson 
Campbell came to Virginia previous to the year 1730. He resided at the glebe 
near Johnsville, in what was then Westmoreland but now King George county. 
He preached at Round Hill Church, and probably at Pope's Qreek Church. A road 
leading a part of the way from the glebe to Round Hill Church still goes by the 
name of the Parson's Road* It was said to have been cut through the forest for 
Parson Campbell's use. Parson CampbeE was twice married. His first wife died 
soon after her marriage. His second wife was a sister of the Rev. William Stuart, 
of King George County By this marriage there were three sons, Archibald, 
Alexander, and John : the two last-mentioned were distinguished lawyers. Archi- 
bald, my grandfather, left a daughter and two sons. Frederick, the elder son, was 
a lawyer. He inherited an entailed estate in Scotland, and died in Europe. Ferdi- 
nand, the second son, was formerly Professor of Mathematics in William and Mary 
College, and died near Philadelphia. Alexander was twice married, and left two 
daughters, one of whom died unmarried : the other is the wife of Judge Wayne, 
of the Supreme Court. John was also married twice, and left several children. 
Parson Campbell was from Scotland. He was related to the Stuart and Argyle 
families of that country, and was the uncle of Thomas Campbell the poet. In 
addition to the performance of Ms ministerial duties, he also taught a school. It is 
said that he had among his pupils Madison, Monroe, and Chief-Justice Marshall. 
The Rev. William Stuart studied theology under his direction. Parson Campbell 
died leaving a considerable estate." 

The following letter, having been received since the foregoing was published in 
the u Southern Churchman," corrects some inaccuracies and furnishes additional 

" BISHOP MEADE, "NEWSTEAD, March 20, 1857. 

" REV. AND DEAB. Sia: In perusing the brief sketch given by you of the Camp- 
*>ells of Virginia, my mother discovered some inaccuracies, which it gives us plea- 
sure to correct as far as we can do so. She says that her grandfather (Archibald 
Campbell) married twice. Of the history of Ms first wife, whose name you saw on 
the tombstone at the Round Hill Church in King George, she knows very little, as she 
survived but a very short time after marriage, leaving no descendants. The second 
wife, who was her grandmother, was a Miss McCoy, daughter of William McCoy, who 
was the pastor of North Farnham parish, Richmond county, in the year 1754, but 


The sons of Archibald were Archibald, Alexander, and John. 
Archibald inherited the property of his father in Westmoreland, 
consisting of two seats, the one called Pomona, the other Camp- 
bellton, at the last of which the father lived and kept his school. 
It is now the summer residence of Mr. Laurence Washington. The 
other sons, Alexander and John, were eminent lawyers. Alexander 
married a Miss Fitzhugh, of King Greorge, who at his death married 
the Rev. Dr. Kollock, minister of churches in Princeton, New York, 
Charleston, (South Carolina,) and lastly in Savannah. An only 
daughter, by her first husband, married Judge Wayne, of the Su- 
preme Court. The last son, John, was a lawyer in Westmoreland, 
and represented the county in the Legislature, and the parish in 
one of our Conventions. His daughters were Eliza, who married 
Mr. Leland ; Emily, who married Robert Mayo ; Sarah, who mar- 
ried Landon Berkeley;' Louisa, who married John Mayo; and 

After the disappearance of Mr. Campbell from any of our re- 

whose name you incorrectly spell, in your article on that parish, McKay. This William 
McCoy married a Miss Fitzhugh, of Marmion, King G-eorge, a woman distinguished 
for her eminent piety, and our grandmother -was a daughter by that marriage. The 
school which you speak of was established after his last marriage, for the benefit of 
his own sons, Archibald and Alexander. My grandfather, who was John, being an 
infant at the period of his death, was baptized by him on his death-bed. My mother 
thinks she has heard that Chief-Justice Marshall, Mr. Madison, and Mr. Monroe, 
were taught by him, with her uncles Archibald and Alexander. She does not think 
that the school was established early enough to admit the belief of Colonel Marshall 
or General Washington's having been pupils of his. To the property acquired by 
my mother's grandfather in Virginia, he gave the name of Kirnan, after a family 
seat in Argyllshire, Scotland. Campbellton was the residence of my grandfather. 
Alexander married his cousin, Miss Eitzhugh, of Marmion, and had only one daughter 
by that marriage, whose name was Lucy : she lived in my grandfather's family until 
the period of her death, which occurred within a few years past Mrs. Wayne 
was by a second marriage. The other brother, Archibald, married Miss Hughs, of 
Maryland, and had two sons and a daughter. The eldest son, Frederick, inherited 
a large entailed estate in the island of Bute, in Scotland, from the Stuarts, who 
intermarried with the Campbells, and he took the name of Frederick Campbell 
Stuart with the estate* The second son, Ferdinand, was Professor of Mathematics 
in William and Mary, under the administration of Drs. Smith and Wilmer. The 
daughter, Anna Campbell, married Dr. Tennant* an eminent physician of Port 
Eoyal: she died not many years since. Her children, were Washington, who was a 
physician ; Mercer, who married Miss Grymes, of K% George ; Susan, the first 
wife of Dr. John May, of Westmoreland; Maria, who married Thomas Hunter, of 
Fredericksburg ; and Lucy, who married his brother, Taliafero Hunter. Mrs. 
Tennant lived and died a very consistent member of the Episcopal Church, and 
her children are all members of it. We give this information in compliance with 
your request that mistakes might be corrected. 

"Tours very respectfully, EUZA C. LKLAKD." 

VOL. IL 11 


cords, we have no account of any minister in Washington parish 
until the year 1785, when the Rev. Francis Wilson serves it for 
one year. In the year 1796, the Eev. John O'Donnell appears 
once in a Convention. We have none after this until the year 
1822, when the Rev. Josiah Clapham appears in Convention, with 
Mr. John Campbell, son of the Rev. Mr. Campbell, as lay delegate. 
Mr. Clapham continued its minister for some years, performing 
his duties piously and faithfully, and with as much energy as his 
bodily infirmities would allow of. After a considerable interval, we 
find the parish again supplied by the services of the Rev. William 
McGuire, who served it in connection with Cople parish. Within a 
few years past, a new parish has been taken from Washington parish, 
by the name of Montross, in which a new church has been built, 
while another, by the name of St. Peter's, has been built at Oak 
Grove. We are much indebted to the labours of the Rev. William 
McG-uire for both these new churches. The Rev. Mr. Tuttle was 
the minister of Washington parish for one year, since which time 
the Rev. Mr. Chesley has been settled there. 


There were three of these, the Round Hill Church, Pope's 
Creek Church, and one at Leeds, on the Rappahannock. Pope's 
Creek Church lay immediately on the road from Westmoreland 
Court-House to King George. The following notice of it is taken 
from my report to the Convention of 1838 : 

" It was near to this church that General Washington was born. It 
was in this tbat he was baptized. Here it was that he received those 
sarly impressions of religion which, instead of being effaced by age, seemed 
to grow with his growth and strengthen with his strength. The proof? 
of this have been abundantly furnished in the i Religious Opinions and Cha* 
racter of Washington/ by the Rev. Mr. McGuire, a work recently published, 
and for which the writer deserves the thanks of every friend of Washing, 
ton, of religion, and of onr country. I have said that this church is now 
in ruins, and I would add, that about twenty-six years ago, [1812,] when 
I was in Deacon's Orders, I remember to have been in it, with the Rev 
Mr. Norris, an early and beloved associate in the ministry, at which time 
it was beginning to decay in the roof; but there was a large congregation, 
and twenty-eight children were brought forward for baptism. It was the 
first service which had been performed in it for a long time, and from that 
period it continued to decay, until a few years ago it was set on fire in 
order to prevent injury, from the falling of the roof, to the cattle which 
were accustomed to shelter there." 

It ought to be added that so attached were the citizens of the 


eounty to this old building, that the excuse for its destruction bj 
fire was not readily admitted. Indeed, so indignant were they, 
that it was brought before the grand jury and the court. The 
result, however, was the acquittal of the party. It has now bee? 
twenty years since the above-mentioned visit, and I have often 
within that time passed the same spot, at each time perceiving the 
disappearance of all that was old, and the rise and growth of what 
was new. Trees and shrubs have been growing up over and around 
the old site, rendering it more difficult each year to the passing 
traveller to find out where Old Pope's Creek Church once stood. 
I should not myself, in a recent visit, have been able to discover it, 
but for the aid of a friend who was with me. I could not but ask 
myself and that friend if it were not possible that a simple but durable 
monument say a pillar a few feet high could be placed on the 
roadside, with the name of Pope's Creek Church upon it, to inform 
posterity that on that spot stood the church of the Washingtons, the 
Lees, the Paynes, and others. It is said that the Legislature intends 
to have an enclosure around the birthplace of Washington and the 
burying-place of his ancestors, which are near at hand ; and surely 
some individual or individuals would take pleasure in marking the 
spot where God was worshipped by so many, and where the remains 
of not a few were interred, although no tombstones have preserved 
their names. Among those whose bodies were deposited around 
this church is to be numbered the Hon. Thomas Lee, (the father of 
Richard Henry Lee and a noble band of brothers and sisters,) the 
owner of Stratford, for whom it was rebuilt by the Queen, after 
being consumed by fire, who held the first offices in the Colony 
under several Governors, and whose commission as Governor reached 
Virginia in 1756, just after his death. I take the following inscrip- 
tion from his tombstone, which I saw some years since, lying 
against the wall of the family vault at Stratford : 

"In memory of the Hon. Thomas Lee, whose body was buried at 
Pope's Creek Church, five miles above his country-seat, Stratford Hall, 
in 1756." 

Of Mr. Lee some account has been given in the sketch of the 
Lee family in the article on Northumberland county. 


This church stood on the Bappahannock, at the outskirts of the 
place called Leeds. It was of brick. The ruins of it are jet to 
be seen, apparently hanging on the bank of the river. It has 


undergone many changes of late years since it was deserted as a 
house of worship, having been used as a tavern, stable or barn, and 
been altered so as to suit the different purposes to which it has been 
applied. Leeds was once a place of note in this part of Virginia. 
It was doubtless named, either by the Fairfaxes or Washingtons, 
after the town of Leeds, in Yorkshire, near which both of their 
ancestral families lived. This in Virginia was a place of much 
trade in tobacco and other things. Its shipping was very consider- 
able at one time, and it gave the promise of being a town of no 
small importance, but, like many other such places in Virginia, as 
Dumfries, Colchester, Warren, Warminster, it failed to fulfil the 
expectations excited. For one thing it deserves to retain a lasting 
place in the history of the American Revolution. As Boston was 
the Northern, so Leeds may be called the Southern cradle of Ame- 
rican Independence. This was the place where, with Richard 
Henry Lee as their leader, the patriots of Westmoreland mot, 
before any and all others, to enter their protest against the in- 
cipient steps of English usurpation. At this place did they resolve 
to oppose the Stamp Act, nor allow any citizen of Westmoreland 
to deal in stamps. This is a true part of the American history. 


Of this we have said something in our mention of the Kev. Mr, 
Campbell. In the following communication from my brother, 
Bishop Payne, of Africa, further notice of it will be found, together 
with interesting accounts of his own family. One of these at my 
first visit to Pope's Creek Church promised one hundred dollars 
for its repairs, a large sum for those times, 

"In the summer of 1883, after leaving Williamsburg, I visited a great- 
uncle, Captain William Payne, a venerable old gentleman, (grandfather 
of Eichard Payne, of Warrenton,) residing near Warrenton. He wa? 
dressed in short pants, had served in the Revolution, and was a fine speci- 
men* of the old Virginia gentleman. Finding me interested in the history 
of our family, he took down from his library a copy of Smith's History of 
Virginia, and in the index showed me the names of our ancestors to whom 
King James gave patents of land in Virginia. They were Sir William 
Payne, John Payne, and Eichard or Thomas, I forget which. Sir William, 
he said, never came to America, but the other two brothers did. One of 
these brothers, as I learned from him, and his daughter, my cousin, Mrs. 
Scott, of Fredericksburg, settled in the country about Lynchburg, and 
from him descended Mrs. Madin, (Polly Payne.) The other John Payne 
settled between the Potomac and Eappahannock, probably in or near that 
which was to be the great city Leedstown. My grandfather, John 
Payne, whom you saw, I think died when I was six or seven years old. 


but I recollect him distinctly as dressed in the old style, like Uncle Wil- 
liam. His residence was at the old family-stead called, when I knew it, 
the Eed House. It is immediately in the rear of Bunker's Hill, (Henry 
Taylor's place,) and three miles from Leedstown. His estates subse- 
quently divided between my father and his brothers, Daniel, George, and 
daughter Elizabeth were on the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers, and 
partly in Richmond county. My third great-uncle, Richard, whom I re- 
member well, settled in Culpepper, and his descendants, (except one son, 
"William , Episcopalian, who married old Parson Woodville's daughter, 
and removed to Columbus, Mississippi,) Methodists, are now to be found 
in Oulpepper county. 

" When in Alexandria, Mr. Dana showed me in the vestry-books of 
Christ Church the name of William Payne associated with Greorge Wash- 
ington; and one of the cross-streets in Alexandria, near the head of King, 
I noticed, still bears the name of * Payne Street/ Learning that this family 
emigrated to the West, when in Lexington I made inquiries about them, 
and soon found multitudes of most respectable people in and about Lexing- 
ton and Frankfort bearing this name. They are Presbyterians. Mr. 
Berkeley, the Episcopal minister, subsequently introduced me to Dr. 
Payne, of Lexington, who said at once, f We are doubtless the same family/ 
and he and all his relatives about there were descended from Washington's 
contemporary and associate, William Payne, of Alexandria. He told me 
with a spirit of too much self-complacency as I told him that this was 
the same William Payne who knocked down General Washington in Alex- 
andria for insulting him. But he replied quickly, "Oh, no! he was right. 
For General Washington the next day sent him an apology, instead of a 
challenge as his friends had anticipated/ 

" Of the ecclesiastical and theological views of my father and grand- 
father I know but little. I think you told me that the latter gave you proof 
that he clung to ' the old Church' and eschewed all others. I am inclined 
to think, from circumstances which I can remember, that my father was 
like-minded. I found among his books ' The Theological Repertory/ with 
whose history you are familiar; and one of the few things that I can re- 
member about him well was his holding long and late discussions with the 
Methodist ministers who in 1828-25 began to preach in the neighbourhood 
and occasionally to visit my father's house. My father was a teetotaller, 
very thoughtful, I will hope, a religious man, though of this I cannot be 
certain. My mother, however, from my earliest recollection I know was, 
but she did not make a profession of religion until after my father's death, 
nor until my eldest sister (now dead) made a profession among the Method- 
ists. This circumstance leads me to think my father's influence prevented 
my mother from uniting herself before with the Methodists, though the 
only representative of the Episcopal Church in the neighbourhood was our 
poor friend, Mr. Clapham. 

" The last baptism by a Church parson in our family was that of brother 
William. I infer it was one of the old sort, as his godfather was any thing 
but a pious man, and thought his duty to his godson quite performed after 
he had given him a yoke of oxen. 

" I have said I was born in the White Oak Swamps about one mile from 
the Potomac. This was my father's residence for two or three years after 
his marriage, being convenient to his estate on the Potomac. But it proved 
bo tmfe-ealthy that he purchased one of the old glebes in the Pine Forest, 
on t 7 * ridge between the Potomac and Rappahannock, seven miles from 


tbe former, and ihree from the nearest point of the latter. Here eight 
of us were reared in most remarkable health. From this glebe to the 
Old Round Hill Church, or rather its remains, for it was demolished 
before my earliest recollection, there was in my childhood one of the^most 
beautiful" roads 1 ever saw. It led for several miles in a direction perfectly 
straight, under an avenue of beautiful oaks. It was called 'the Parson's 
Eoad,' and was no doubt the road by which the parsons travelled to the 
Round Hill Church. By-the-way, have you ever ascertained or written 
the history of this said Bound Hill Church? It was situated on a beau- 
tiful and commanding knoll, near old Machodoc Meeting-House, which 
superseded it, and in which Mr. Clapham was wont to officiate before his 
removal from King George to London. But, as I have said, nothing of 
it but some fragments remained at the time of my earliest visits to the 

u I have given you all that occurs to me of my family history of inte- 
rest. Should you wish to make further inquiries, I would refer you to my 
cousin, Mrs. Scott, of Fredericksburg, and through Cousin Richard Payne, 
of Warrenton, to his father and Mrs. Scott's eldest brother, Daniel Payne, 
who resides in the neighbourhood of Warrenton. He is called the French- 
man of our family, and should you ever meet with him you will find 
him very agreeable and fond of talking, and on no subject more than that 
about which I have been writing/' 


It is agreed on all hands that, about the year 1655, two brothers, 
John and Laurence Washington, came over to Virginia and settled 
in Westmoreland county. In all the histories which I have seen 
of the Washington family there is not another word said of Lau- 
rence Washington, except that he and his brother came together 
and settled at the same place. While the descendants of John 
Washington, in all their branches, are minutely described in gene- 
alogies and histories and biographies, doubtless in a great measure 
because the great Washington was one of them, Laurence Wash- 
ington was forgotten and lost sight of as though he had never been. 
I have met with persons who could not trace their connection with 
General Washington or Ms first ancestors, yet were" certain of some 
connection with the family, but never thought of inquiring whether 
their descent is not from the other brother. In a recent visit to 
Tappahannock, the county seat of Essex county, (where are the 
records of the old county of Rappahannock, which from 165S to 
1692 embraced all that lay on each side of the Bappahannock 
River for some miles up to the Falls above Fredericksburg,) in 
searching in an old record of wills, I found that of this same Lau- 
rence Washington. Although he may have settled near the Poto- 
mac "with bis brother John, he must have removed into Bappa- 
hannock county, for his will is there recorded. He may h? /e done 


this without moving many miles from his brother, as Westmoreland 
county and Washington parish were only about five miles wide, and 
Rappahannock county and Littenburne parish were about the same 
width, the one lying on the Potomac, the other on the Rappahan 
nock River. I have also obtained, by the help of a friend, the 
will of Mr, John Washington, which was recorded at Westmoreland 
Court-House, and whose original is still there in an old book of 
wills, though in a somewhat mutilated form. That they were the 
two brothers is evident from the fact that they mention each other 
in their wills. Both of the wills are made in the same year, that 
of one on February 26, 16T5 ; that of the other on September 27, 
1675. The one is proved the 10th of January, 1677, and the other 
the 6th of January of the same year, at an interval of only four 
days, so that it is probable they died in a few days of each other. 
There is something so pious in the language of these wills, that I 
make no apology for introducing a portion of them. Without any 
means of ascertaining which was the elder of the two, we begin 
with the will of John Washington: 

"In the name of G-od, Amen. I, John Washington, of Washington 
parish, in the county of Westmoreland, in Virginia, gentleman, being^of 
good and perfect memory, thanks be unto Almighty Q-od for it, and calling 
to remembrance the uncertain state of this transitory life, that all flesh 
must yield unto death, do make, constitute, and ordain this my last will 
and testament and none other. And first, being heartily sorry, from the 
bottom of my heart, for my sins past, most humbly desiring forgiveness 
of the same from the Almighty God, my Saviour and Redeemer, in whom 
and by the merits of Jesus Christ I trust and belkve assuredly to be saved, 
and to have fall remission and forgiveness of all my sins, and that my soul 
with my body at the general resurrection shall rise again with joy." 

Again he repeats the same sentiment, hoping " through the 
merits of Jesus Christ's death and passion to possess and inherit 
the kingdom of heaven prepared for his elect and chosen/' He 
directs his body to be buried on the plantation upon which he 
lived, by the side of his wife and two children. He then proceeds 
to distribute his property, which he says it has pleased God to give 
him " far above his deserts/' After dividing a number of landed 
estates between his second and surviving wife and his children, - 
John, Laurence, and Anne, and also Ms property in England, he 
directs that a funeral sermon be preached and no other funeral 
kept, and that a tablet with the Ten Commandments be sent fhr to 
England and given to the church. I think, also, that he directs 
four thoosand-weight of tobacco to be given to the minister, though 


of this I am not certain, some words being lost. He leaves one 
thousand pounds to Ms brother-in-law, Thomas Pope, and one 
thousand pounds and four thousand-weight of tobacco to his sister, 
who had come or was coming over to this country. He makes his 
wife and brother Laurence his executors. From the above it would 
seem that, great as were his military talents, being commander-in- 
chief in the Northern Neck, high as he stood in the Government, 
BO that the parish was called after him, and large as was his property 
in England and America, he was also a sincerely pious man, and 
in his will emphatically testifies to those great Gospel principles 
which are so prominent in the Church of his fathers. 

In the will of his brother Laurence there is the same spirit of piety. 
After the usual preamble, he says, " Imprimis : I give and bequeath 
my soul unto the hands of Almighty God, hoping and trusting, 
through the mercy of Jesus OJirist, my one Saviour and Redeemer ', 
to receive full pardon and forgiveness of all my sins, and my body 
to the earth, to be buried in comely and decent manner by my exe- 
cutor hereafter named : and for my worldly goods, I thus dispose of 
them." To his daughter Mary Washington (by a former wife in 
England) he bequeathed his whole estate in England, both real 
and personal, to be delivered immediately after his death, together 
with a ring and other articles. To his loving son John he left all 
his books and part of his plate, the other part to his daughter Ann, 
when they should be of age or marry. His lands are divided be- 
tween his wife and the two children John and Ann by her. A 
farm called West Fales, which lay on the south side of the Rappa- 
hannock, which once belonged to Captain Alexander Fleming, and 
which came to him by his wife, was to be sold for his debts. It is 
probable that his second wife was a daughter of Captain Fleming. 
He leaves his wife executrix of the estate, but provides that in case 
of her death or neglect to be the guardian and overseer of his 
children, his loving brother John Washington and loving friend 
Thomas Hawkins should be. In a codicil written at the same time, 
he leaves that part of the land on which he then lived, and which 
came to him by marriage, to the sole disposal of his wife. It is 
probable, from the above, that he lived on the north side of the 
river, in what is now Westmoreland. From the foregoing particu- 
lars, some other than myself may be able to ascertain the maiden 
name of Ms wife, and who, if any, are the descendants of his three 
children, as it is more than probable they had descendants. 



I recently paid a visit to the old family seat of the Washingtons, 
which is sometimes said to be on Pope's Creek, and sometimes on 
Bridge's Creek, near the Potomac. The farm lay between the two, 
which are about a mile apart, near their junction with the Potomac. 
The family mansion lies near Pope's Creek, and the vault where 
the dead were deposited near Bridge's Creek. The latter appears 
to have been favourable to a rich growth of cedars, and may have 
been chosen for this reason. Or it may be that one of the two 
brothers first settled there. The estate is still in the family, or in 
the possession of one intermarried with the family. Some years 
since it was owned by Mr. John Gray, of Travellers' Rest, near 
Fredericksburg, who either repaired one of the outhouses or a wing 
of the old one, or built a small house for his overseer out of the old 
materials. The brick chimney is all that remains of the Washing- 
ton mansion, the birthplace of General Washington, except the 
broken bricks which are scattered about over the spot where it was 
built. The grandson of Mrs. General Washington, Mr. Cnstis, of 
Arlington, some years since placed a slab with a brief inscription 
on the spot, but it is now in fragments. I was happy to hear that 
a bill had passed one branch of our Legislature, appropriating a sum 
of money for enclosing this spot, as well as the vault in a neigh- 
bouring field nearly a mile off, I also visited that spot, which no 
one can look upon without distress and even disgust. The condition 
of all such vaults as were once common in some parts of Virginia, 
especially in the Northern Neck, must after the lapse of time be 
necessarily thus distressing and disgusting, like the sepulchres of 
old when filled "with rottenness and dead men's bones." The 
vault where so many of the Washington family are interred is in an 
open field and menclosed. A small space around it is covered with 
grass, briers, shrubs, and a few small trees. Itself can only be 
distinguished by the top of the brick arch which rises a little above 
the surface. The cavity underneath has been very properly filled 
up with earth by Mr. Laurence Washington, one of its late proprie- 
tors, to prevent the bones of the dead being taken away by visitors, 
who had begun thus to pillage it. Not far from the vault there was 
a large slab lying on the ground, with the name of one of the family 
and two of his children. There were also fragments of another. 
It is to be hoped that the Legislature will resolve on putting a 
permanent enclosure around this also, 



In the preceding sketch of the Lees, by Mr. William Lee, cf 
London, there is mention made of a loss bj fire sustained by his 
father, Thomas Lee, of Stratford, and of a present to him by Queen 
Caroline. This establishes the source from whence came the means 
of building the present most durable building at that place, which 
for the thickness of the walls and the excellency of its architecture 
is not surpassed, if equalled, by any in Virginia.* It has some- 
times been called the Governor's House, probably because its 
owner and builder, Thomas Lee, was commissioned as Governor, 
though he did not live to act in that capacity. The cemetery 
was not built by him, as he was buried at Pope's Creek Church. 
I have been assured by Mrs. Eliza Turner, who was there at 
the time, that it was built by General Harry Lee. The ceme- 
tery is much larger than any other in the Northern Neck, consist- 
ing of several apartments or alcoves for different branches of the 
family. Instead of an arch over them there is a brick house, per- 
haps twenty feet square, covered in. A floor covers the cemetery. 
In the centre is a large trapdoor, through which you descend by a 
ladder to the apartments below. I went down into it some years 
since, when nothing was to be seen but the bones of the deceased, 
which were scattered over the dirt floor. I was informed that it 
had sometimes been filled with water, and that then the bones and 
skulls of the deceased might be seen floating upon the surface, at 
any rate, if stirred up with a pole, a-s was sometimes done. The 
entrance to this house has of late years been almost prevented by 
a thick growth of young aspens and briers. I am happy to state 
that it is the purpose of the present proprietor to fill up the vault, 
take down the brick walls and convert them into a mound over the 
place, and on the top of the mound to have the tombstone of old 
Thomas Lee fixed in some immovable way. 

Some mournful thoughts will force themselves upon us when 
considering the ruins of churches, of mansions, and of cemeteries, 
in Westmoreland. By reason of the worth, talents, and patriotism 
which once adorned it, it was called the Athens of Yirginia, But 
how few of the descendants of those who once were its ornaments 

* An American writer says there were once a hundred rooms in this house. A 
view of the engraving 0f it will show how untrue this is. Even including the base- 
ment and the large hall, there are not more, I think, than seventeen, and never were 
more. Another says there were one hundred stadia for horses in the stable, almost 
equally untrue. 


ire now to be found in it ! Chantilly, Mount Pleasant, Wakefield, 
are now no more. Stratford alone remains. Where now are the 
venerable churches? Pope's Creek, Round Hill, Nomini, Leeds, 
where are they ? Yeocomico only survives the general wreck. Of 
the old men, mansions, churches, &c. we are tempted to say, 
"Fuit Hlium, et ingens gloria Dardanidum;" and yet we rejoice 
to think that new ones have taken their places, in some respects 
better suited to present times and circumstances. Those who, in 
the general defection, have remained to the Church, are exerting 
themselves to repair the waste places; and we trust there await* for 
Westmoreland a greater glory than the former. 



Famham and Lumnburg Parishes, Richmond County. 

To do justice to the Hstory of this county and these parishes, 
we must go back to the time "when they were a part of Rappahan- 
nock county and Littenburne parish, which they were from the 
year 1658 to 1692, when new counties and parishes were esta- 
blished* But where are the vestry-books or county records from 
whence to draw our facts ? Of the former there are none. Some 
few of the latter are to be seen in Tappahannock, the county seat 
of Essex, where the archives of old Rappahannock county are 

At my request, a worthy friend most competent to the task 
has searched these records, and though unable to specify who were 
the vestrymen of the parish, yet, in giving the following list of 
magistrates from 1680 to 1695, has doubtless furnished us with 
the names of far the greater part of the vestrymen, if not the whole 
of them, during that period. We cannot determine to which side of 
the river they belonged, as both the county and parish were on both 
sides. They are as follows : Henry Aubrey, Major Henry Smith, 
Captain George Taylor, Mr. Thomas Harrison, Colonel John Stone, 
Colonel Leroy Griffin, Major Robinson, Colonel William Loyd, Cap- 
tain Samuel Bloomfield, William launtleroy, Samuel Peachy, Wil- 
liam Slaughter, Cadwallader Jones, Henry Williamson. My friend 
adds that " the character and habits of the early settlers, so far as can 
be ascertained from their wills and the records, indicate intelligence 
and a high state of morals for the times." This section appears to 
have been settled chiefly by those coming from the lower counties, 
the names of the principal men being those of families in the lower 
country. There are some, however, whose names are rarely met 
with in other counties; and there is evidence that they originally 
settled here* They are such as Latane, Waring, Upshaw, Rowsee, 
Rennolds, Micou, Roy, Clements, Young. 

To the labours of another friend, on the other side of the river, 
we are indebted for information gotten from the records of Rich- 


mond county after the year 1692, which can nowhere else be found, 
as we have no vestry-book of that county, except that of North 
Farnham parish, from the year 1787 to 1804. The first justices of 
the peace were Captain George Taylor, William Underwood, Cap- 
tain William Barber, James Scott, Captain Alexander Swan. From 
that time to the Revolution, the principal families in the county 
were Stone, Glascock, Deane, Donaphun, Colston, Thornton, Travis, 
Peachy, Tayloe, Conway, Brockenbrough, Gwin, Tarplay, Down- 
man, Slaughter, Parker, Sherlock, Davis, Robinson, Beale Smith, 
Woodbridge, Heale, Barrow, Taverner, Barber, Griffin, Fitzhugh, 
Fauntleroy, Gibson, Taliafero, Ingo, Bellfield, Tomlin, Grymes, 
Metcalf, Newton, Barnes, Sydnor, Jordan, Hornby, Hamilton, Car- 
ter, Mountjoy, Flood, Plummer, Beckwith. Of all these, my in- 
formant says, a very few have descendants in the county at this 
time who are called by these names. 

According to the records of the court, he says, there were once 
three parishes in the county, North Farnham, Lunenburg, and St, 
Mary's, having separate ministers. 

Of the three ministers mentioned on the records, from the year 
1693 to 1742, the account is sad. The two first John Burnet and 
John Alexander were always in court, suing or being sued. The 
third the Rev. Thomas Blewer was presented by the grand jury 
as a common swearer. A particular account is drawn from the 
records of different families. From the votes on election-days, the 
Woodbridges and Fauntleroys appear to have been at one time the 
most popular. The Carters and Tayloes, of Sabine Hall and Mount 
Airy, were active and useful men. The Chinns first appear in 
1713. "From Raleigh Chinn," he says, "descended those model 
males and females of that name who have served to give character 
to our county in modern times." The McCartys were an ancient 
family, springing from Daniel and Dennis McCarty, who are first 
mentioned in 1710. 

Having furnished this general account of individuals and families 
from the court records, we proceed to give the information in our 
possession concerning each of the parishes separately. 

First, of North Farnham. This was established in 1693, when 
Rappahannoek county was stricken from the list of counties and 
Richmond and Essex erected in its stead, and South Farnham 
parish created in Essex. The first minister of this parish whom 
we have on our lists though there were doubtless many before is 
the Rev. William Mackay, who was there in 1754, and continued 


until 1774.* From his long continuance in the parish and the 
respectability of the people, we have grounds for believing that he 
was a worthy man, although in a few years after Ms death, or 
departure from the parish, it seems to haye been in the most de- 
plorable condition, as we shall soon see. The Rev* John Leland, a 
worthy minister from Northumberland, officiated statedly in Farn- 
ham for some time after Mr. Mackay disappears. Then the Rev. 
Thomas Davis, from one of the parishes of Northumberland, gives 
them a portion of his time for two years. After this a considerable 
interval occurred in which there was no vestry, several efforts at 
an election having failed. At length, a partial meeting having been 
had, the following address was prepared : 


u Permit us, surviving members of the late vestry of this parish, to ad- 
dress you and entreat you, for your own sakes as well as that of the rising 
generation, to come forward on this occasion. Although our church, from 
various causes, has been most woefully neglected for a season, we flatter 
ourselves that the time is at hand when the members thereof of whom 
there are not a few will throw off their lukewaroiness and exert themselves 
in the cause of that profession of Christianity handed down to us by our 
forefathers, who God rest their souls left us a goodly fabric to assemble 
in and pay our devotions to the Almighty Creator and Preserver of the 
universe, as they had done, although by our neglect it is mouldering into 
rains. The first step toward a reform is the appointment of trustees; 
for ? until that is done^ our church must remain in that miserable condition 
we see it. There is now a probability of procuring a minister to perform 
divine service once a fortnight ; but this cannot be done until there shall 
be persons authorized to meet and consult on the ways and means of afford- 
ing him an adequate compensation for his services. Awaken, then, from 
this fatal supineness. Elect your trustees, and they, we doubt not, will 
make the necessary arrangements, in the accomplishment of which, aided 
by your hearty exertions and concurrence, our church will be restored to 
its former decency and rank as the temple of the living God. 
** We are your Christian brethren and friends of true religion, 



Great pains were taken to circulate this ; and yet on the ap- 
pointed day less than thirty persons assembled, and half of these 
alter two o'clock, and so there was no election. f Five or six of those 
present agreed to appoint Whit-Monday for another meeting, and 

* It shotild probably be McKay, though it Is written Mackay in our printed lists. 
t TMs was urob&blv lees than the number hitherto recraired bv law. 


to get a neighbouring minister to preach on that day. This was 
successful, and they paid the minister four pounds ten shillings for 

The vestry direct Mr. William Peachy to write to Bishop Madi- 
son for a minister, to which the following answer was received : 

"WlLLIAMSBURG. August 1, 1794. 

" DEAR SIR : It would afford me great pleasure, could I give you an 
assurance of heing speedily supplied with a worthy minister. I sincerely 
regret the deserted situation of too many of our parishes, and lament the 
evils that must ensue. Finding that few persons, natives of this State, 
were desirous of qualifying themselves for the ministerial office, I have 
written to some of the Northern States, and have reason to expect several 
young clergymen who have been liberally educated, of unexceptionable 
moral character, and who, I flatter myself, will also be generally desirous 
of establishing an academy for the instruction of youth, wherever they 
may reside. Should they arrive, or should any other opportunity present 
itself of recommmending a worthy minister, I beg you to be assured, if 
your advertisement proves unsuccessful, that I shall pay due attention to 
the application of the worthy trustees of North Farnham. 
"With great respect, I am, dear sir, 
" Your most ob't servant, 


The Bishop, it seems, was as much troubled about getting a 
meeting of the Convention, as the friends of the Church in Farnham 
had been to get an election of vestrymen* The following circular 
will too surely establish that : 

G, December 13, 1795. 

"REVEREND SIR : It is, no doubt, well known to you that the failure 
last May in holding a Convention at the time and place agreed upon was 
matter of deep regret to every sincere friend of our Church, To prevent, 
if possible, a similar calamity at the next stated time for holding Con- 
ventions, the "deputies who met last May requested me to send circular 
letters to the different parishes, exhorting them to pay a stricter regard 
to one of the fundamental canons of the Church. I fulfil the duty with 
alacrity, because the necessity of regular Conventions is urged by conside- 
rations as obvious as they are weighty, I need not here enter into a detail 
of those considerations j but I wUl ask, at what time was the fostering care 
of the guardians nay, of every member of the Church more necessary 
than at this period? Who dofch not know that indifference to her interests 
must inevitably inflict a mortal wound, over which the wise and the good 
may in vain weep, when they behold that wound baffliag every effort to 
arrest its fatal progress f Who doth not know that irreligioa and im- 
piety sleep cot whilst we slumber? Who doth not know that there are 
other enemies who laugh at our negligent supineneas and deem it their 

u But, independent of these general considerations, there are matters 
of the first moment to our Church, which require the fullest represeatatioa 


at the ensuing Convention. Those parishes winch, faithful to their duty, 
have not failed on former occasioDS to send forward their deputies, as di- 
rected by the injunction of the Church, need no exhortation on this subject. 
The same laudable sentiments which have hitherto directed their conduct 
will doubtless continue to produce a similar effect. But to those which have 
been neglectful in making the necessary appointment of deputies, and in 
supplying the means for their attendance, I address myself with peculiar so- 
licitude. Let me then, sir, through your agency, and, where there is no 
minister, let me through the agency of the churchwardens or vestry, exhort 
and entreat such parishes to be no longer unmindful of the interests of 
their Church, no longer to be languid and indifferent in what concerns 
her essential welfare, no longer to treat her injunctions with disrespect, 
but, oo the contrary, animated by a wurin and laudable zeal, and satisfied 
how much the holy cause of religion must depend on wise and prudent 
exertions, let them evince, at the approaching Convention, that they will 
not abandon a Church which they cannot fail to love and to venerate so 
long as piety and virtue shall continue to maintain the least portion of 
influence in the hearts of men. Permit me only to add, that I feel a 
confidence that this exhortation will not be disregarded, and that the next 
Convention, which is to be holden on the first Tuesday in May next, will 
manifest to the Church and to the world that the zeal of both clergy and 
laity remains unabated. Such is the confidence and such the sincere 
prayer of Your brother in Christ, 

"Bishop of the ProL IJpis. Church in Virginia." 

In the year 1796, the vestry obtained the services of the Rev. 
George Young, for one Sunday in three, (the other two being 
engaged to the adjoining parish of Lunenburg,) agreeing to pay 
him the sum of two hundred and fifty dollars, besides the rent 
of the glebe. In the year 1799, the Rev. John Seward offers his 
services one Sunday in three, and receives two hundred dollars 
with the glebe. Here the vestry-book ends, except an entry of an 
election of vestrymen in 1802. 

The following is a list of the vestrymen from 1787 to 1802 : 

William Peachy, William Miskell, John Fauntleroy, John Sydnor, Leroy 
Peachy, Griffin Fauntleroy, Thaddeus Williams, J. Hammond, Benjamin 
Smith, Samuel Hipkins, Epaphroditus Sydnor, Jno. Smith, Walker Tomlin, 
Blehard Beale, Bartholomew McCarty, David Williams, Ezekiel Levy, 
Charles Smith, Abner Dobyns, William McGarty, William Palmer, John 
G. Chinn, Vincent Branhatn, W. T. Colston, George Miskell, Peter Tern 
ple ; J. JI. Yerby. 

If there were any other minister or ministers in this parish until 
the Rev, Washington Nelson, in 1835, took charge of it in con- 
nection with Lunenburg parish, of the same county, and Cople 
parish, Westmoreland, we have not been able to ascertain the 
fact Under Mr. Nelson's charge the Old Farnham Church was 


repaired at a cost of fourteen hundred dollars, and a new churcb 
built at the court-house, by the side of whose walls his body is 
interred, Mr. kelson was succeeded in all his congregations by 
the Rev. William Ward. The Rev. Mr. Coffin succeeded him in 
Farnham and at the court-house, and continued about two years, 
resigning them both in the summer of 1856. 


Besides the one now standing, there was another about half-way 
between it and the court-house, the foundation of which may yet 
be seen. It was probably deserted at the time that North Farnham 
Church was built ; but when that was, cannot be discovered. We 
have mentioned that among the families once prominent in this 
parish though now dispersed were those of the Fauntleroys and 
Colstons. To each of these, within a few miles of Farnham Church, 
there were those unhappy receptacles of the dead, called vaults, 
which were so common from an early period in the Northern 
Neck. What the precise condition of the former is, we have not 
heard, though we believe a bad one. As to the latter, the follow- 
ing note, which I find among my papers, gives what I doubt not is 
a true account : 

" The burying-place of the Colston faruily is on the Rappahannock River, 
about seven miles from North Farnham Church. The vault is in a dilapi- 
dated condition. It was originally arched over with brick. A number 
of bones are exposed, so much so, that with but little difficulty an entire 
human frame could be collected. 

The following account of Old Farnham Church in my report to 
the Convention of 1838 will complete my notices of this parish : 

" My appointment next in order was at Farnham Church, which had 
recently been so much refitted, that on this account because it is believed 
that none of the old churches were ever consecrated it was on Tuesday, 
the 20th of June, set apart to the worship of Grod, according to the pre- 
scribed form. A considerable congregation assembled on the occasion, 
when I preached, the service having been read by the Rev. Francis 
McG-uire, and the deed of consecration by Mr. Nelson, the pastor of the 
congregation. This church was first built more than a hundred years 
ago, after the form of the cross, and in the best style of ancient archi- 
tecture. Its situation is pleasant and interesting^ being immediately on 
the main county road leading from Biclnnond Court-House to Lancaster 

"What causes led to its early desertion, premature spoliation, and 
shameless profanation, I am unable to state j but it is said by the neigh- 
bours not to have been used for the last thirty or forty years. Thus 
deserted as a house of God, it became a prey to any and every spoiler 
IL 12 


An extensive brick wall which surrounded the church and guarded the 
graves of the dead was torn down and used for hearths, chimneys, and 
other purposes, all the county round. The interior of the house soon sunk 
into decay and was carried piecemeal away. For many years^It was the 
common receptacle of every beast of the field and fowl of the air. It was 
used as a granary, stable, a resort for hogs, and every thing that chose to 
shelter there. Would that I could stop here! but I am ^too credibly in- 
formed that for years it was also used as a distillery of poisonous liquors ; 
and that on the very spot where now the sacred pulpit stands, that vessel 
was placed in which the precious fruits of Heaven were concocted and 
evaporated into a fell poison, equally fatal to the souls and bodies of men j 
while the marble font was circulated from house to house, on every occa- 
sion of mirth and folly, being used to prepare materials for feasting 
and drunkenness, until at length it was found bruised, battered, and 
deeply sunk in the cellar of some deserted tavern. But even that sacred 
vessel has been redeemed, and, having been carefully repaired, has resumed 
its place within the sacred enclosure. Although the doors of the house 
had been enlarged, by tearing away the bricks, to make a passage for the 
wagons that conveyed the fruits that were to be distilled into the means 
of disease and death ; although the windows were gone and the roof sunk 
into decay, the walls only remaining, yet were they so faithfully exe- 
cuted by the workmen of other days as to bid defiance to storms and 
tempests, and to stand not merely as monuments of the fidelity of ancient 
architecture, but as signals from Providence, held out to the pious and 
liberal to come forward and repair the desolation. J^or have these signals 
been held out in vain to some fast friends of the Church of their fathers 
in the parish of North Farnham* At an expense of fourteen hundred 
dollars, they have made Old Farnham one of the most agreeable^ con- 
venient, and beautiful churches in Virginia. It should also be mentioned 
that the handsome desk, pulpit, and sounding-board now to be seen in 
Farnham Church were once in Christ Church, Baltimore, when the Rev. 
Mr. Johns officiated in the same. They were a present from the minister 
and vestry of that ehurch ; and few events could give more pleasure to 
the congregation at Farnham than to see them again occupied by the 
former tenant, and to hear from his lips, if only one or two of those im- 
pressive appeals which have so often been heard from the same/' 


The first information we have of this parish is from communi- 
cations made to the Bishop of London by the Bev. Mr. Kay, it? 
minister, between the years 1740 and 1T50, as well as my memory 
serves me, not having the documents before me at this time. A 
most painful and protracted controversy took place between him 
and a portion of his vestry, especially Colonel Landon Carter. 
Though the doors of the church were closed against Mr. Kay, such 
was the advocacy of Mm by a portion of the vestry and many of 
the people that he preached in the churchyard for some time. The 
dispute appears to have been about tlie right of Mr. Kay to the 
parish in preference to another who was desired by some of the 


vestry and people. The cause was carried before the Governor 
and Council, and from thence to the higher court in England. 
The sympathy of the Commissary and the clergy appears to have 
been with Mr. Kay. How it was finally settled in the English 
courts does not appear, but we find Mr. Kay in Cumberland parish, 
Lunenburg county, in the year 1754.* In that year the Rev. Mr 
Simpson becomes minister of Lunenburg parish, Richmond county. 
How long he continues, and whether any one intervenes between 
him and the Rev. William Giberne, who becomes the minister in 
1762, is not known. The name and memory of Mr. Giberne have 
come down to our times with considerable celebrity. The first 
notice I have of him is in a letter to the Bishop of London, in which, 
he inveighs with severity on some things in the Church of Virginia* 
On the Bishop of London's writing to Commissary Robinson con- 
cerning them, the Commissary denies the charge in its fulness, and 
says that it comes with ill grace from Mr. Giberne, who himself sets 
an ill example, being addicted to card-playing and other things 
unbecoming the clerical character. 

All the accounts I have received of him correspond with this. 
He was a man of talents, of great wit and humour, and his home a 
pleasant place to the like-minded, especially attractive to the 
young. He lived at the place now owned by the Brockenbrough 
family, near Richmond Court-House. He married a daughter of 
Moore Fauntleroy and Margaret Micou. Her father was Paul 
Micou, a Huguenot who fled from Nantes in 1711. f I n ^ e follow- 
ing communication from a friend in Richmond county there is more 
particular mention of Mr. Giberne, in connection with some inte 
resting particulars about the two churches in Lunenburg parish. 

" The church here, which I remember, was situated near the publie 
road, near our court-house, and was surrounded by large and beautiful 
trees, affording a fine shade in summer to those visiting the church. The 
ground was enclosed by a brick wall, which was finally overthrown by the 
growing roots of a magnificent oak. Like most of the old churches in Vir- 
ginia, it was built of brick, finished in the best manner, and cruciform in 
shape \ the pulpit was very elevated, and placed on the south side at an 

* In different vestry-books I find the name sometimes Kay and at others Key. 
There may have been ministers of both names. 

f At the old Port Micou estate on the lUppahannock may still be seen the large, 
heavy, iron-stone OP black marble tombstone of this Paul Micou, the first of the 
name who came into this country. By reason of its weight and the lightness of 
the soil, it fe every few years somewhat beneath the earth, but is raised up again. 
The inscription is as follows: " Here lies the body of Paul Micon, who departed this 
life the 2Sd of May, 1736, in the seventy-eighth year of his age." 


angle near the centre of the building. The aisles were floored with large 
stones, square and smoothly dressed, and the pews with planks. They 
were high at the sides and panelled, and better suited for devotion than our 
churches at the present day. The church was claimed by an individual, 
when in ruins, and the materials from time to time removed and used for 
various domestic purposes. 

" It was built, according to the recollection of an individual now living, 
in 1737, and he remembers to have seen the date marked in the mortar, 
i Built in 1737.' This building remained until about 1813, when its walls 
were thrown down by the outward pressure of the roof, which had fallen 
from decay. The Kev. Isaac Win. Giberne was the pastor of this church. 
He was an Englishman, and I think the nephew of the Bishop of Durham. 
1 ascertained the fact from an inscription in an old Prayer-Book, which 
was in the possession of Mr. Giberne, and which, after his death came into 
my hands. It had belonged to her Majesty Queen Anne, and was used 
by "her in her private chapel : on her demise it was retained by her chap- 
lain. The inscription further stated it was intended to be presented to the 
1 Bodleian Library/ in which the Prayer-Books of two of the crowned heads 
of England had been preserved. 

" Mr. Giberne commenced his services in this church in January, 1762, 
as we learn from the parish register, and continued to officiate in this and 
the 'Upper Church/ as it was called, until incapacitated by age. He was 
a man of great goodness of heart and Christian benevolence, highly educated, 
well read, and extensively acquainted with the ancient and English classic 

"After an interval of some eight or ten years or more, Mr. Giberne was 
followed in his pastoral duties by the Rev. W. George Young, an English- 
man, who, I believe, occupied the glebe in 1800 or 1802. I am unable to 
learn how long he continued, but he removed, and the glebe, like many 
others, was sold under an Act of Assembly. 

" The silver vessels consisted of a massive silver tankard, goblet, and 
plate. These remained in the keeping of our family until sold by a decree 
of the Court. They were purchased by the late Colonel John Tayloe, of 
Mount Airy, and by him presented to St. John's Church, Washington. 

"The principal families attached to the old church here were the Car- 
ters, Tayloes, Lees, (Colonel F. L. Lee, of Manakin,) Beckwiths, Neales, 
Garlands, Belfields, Broekenbroughs, Rusts, Balls, Tomlins, &c. 

" The ' Upper Church/ as it was commonly called, situated in the upper 
part of this county, has been long a ruin, the spot marked only by the 
mounds of crumbling bricks. Mr. Giberne was the last minister who 
regularly officiated in it. The families chiefly belonging to its congrega- 
tion were the Fauntleroys, Lees, Belfields, Beales, Mitchells, Jenningses, 
&c. It would be impossible to ascertain at this time, I presume, when 
this church was built. 

" There was but one other church in old times' in the county of Rich- 
mond : it was Farnham Church, which continued in tolerable repair until 
after 1800. I think in 1802 there was regular service in this church by 
a Mr. Broekenbrongh, a minister of the Church, a remarkably small man, 
afi I recollect him, so diminutive that he required a block in the pulpit to 
stand on. He did not live at the glebe, but at Cedar Grove, the property 
of a Miss McCall, and kept a grammar-school there. After this time the 
church became dilapidated, and no service was performed in it ; in truth, 
it was completely desecrated, and served as a shelter for cattle, hogs, and 


horses for many years. Its walls, however, were permitted to stand,, and 
its magnificent oaks allowed to grace the place and to give their friendly 
shade to the weary traveller who halted at the neighbouring tavern to re- 
fresh himself and horse. When we look back on this period of infidelity 
and heathenism in this county, when the old churches were pulled down 
or permitted to fall to decay, when no religious instruction was to be found, 
uo declaration of the Gospel but by an itinerant preacher, little calculated 
to awaken the slumbering people, we are led to wonder how the land 
escaped some signal mark of divine vengeance, that some calamity had 
not overshadowed it to call its thoughtless and wicked inhabitants back to 
the Christian fold. 

"I have never heard what became of the sacred vessels belonging to 
this church. The glebe was in the occupancy of Dr. Thomas Tarpley, a 
well-educated and highly-polished man; how it came into his possession I 
never knew, probably by purchase at public sale." 

After the Rev. Mr. Young, mentioned in the foregoing commu- 
nication, I know of no minister until the Rev. Washington Nelson, 
in 1834 or 1835, who took charge of this parish in connection with 
those of North Farnham and Cople. At his death the Rev. Mr. 
Ward succeeded to all three of the parishes, and at his resignation, 
a young man, whose name I forget, was minister of Lunenburg for 
part of a year. He was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Coffin for two 

The most remarkable of the old seats in this parish, known to 
the writer, are those of Sabine Hall, belonging to the Carters, and 
of Mount Airy, belonging to the Tayloes. Having in a preceding 
article given some account of the Carter family, which has so 
abounded in the Northern Neck, I subjoin a brief genealogy of the 
Tayloes, who have appeared on our vestry-books in tlie Northern 
Neck from their first settlement to the present time* 


"William Tayloe, (probably Taylor at that day,) of London, emigrated 
to Virginia about 1650. He married Anne, a daughter of Henry Gorbin, 
(who was settled in King and Queen county,) the ancestor of the Corbins. 
John Tayloe, son of William and Anne, married Mrs, Elizabeth Lyde, 
daughter of Major Gwyn, of Esses county. Their children were William, 
Joha, Betty, and Anne Corbin. The first died young. John was the 
founder of Mount Airy. Betty married Colonel Richard Corbin, grand- 
son of Henry Corbin. Anne Gorbin married Mann Page, of Mansfield, 
near Frederieksburg. 

" The last-named John Tayloe, of Mount Airy, was a member of the 
Council of Virginia, before the War of the Revolution, and was re-elected 
with his colleague by the House of Burgesses during the progress of the 
war. He died suddenly on the 18th April, 1779, leaving a large family. 
He had twelve children, of whom eight daughters and one son survived 
him. His wife was Rebecca Plater, sister of the Honourable Governor 


George Plater, of Maryland, whom he married in 1747. She died in 1787 
Their eight daughters married, 1st, Elizabeth, to Governor Edward Lloyd, 
in 1767, of Maryland ; 2d, Rebecca, to Francis Lightibot Lee, the signer 
of the Declaration of Independence in 1769 ; &d, Eleanor, to Balph 
"Warmly, of Middlesex, in 1772 j 4th, Anne Gorbin, to Thomas Lomax, 
of Caroline, in 1773 ; 5th, Mary, to Mann Page, of Spottsylvania, in 1776; 
6th, Catherine, to Landon Carter, of Richmond county, in 1780 ; 7th, 
Jane, to Robert Beverley, of Essex, in 1791; 8th, Sarah, to Colonel Wm 
Augustine Washington, of Westmoreland, in 1799. 

"John, son of the foregoing John and Rebecca, third of the name, was 
born in 1771, the only son in a family of twelve. In 1792 he married 
Anne, daughter of Governor Benjamin Ogle, of Maryland. He died in 
Washington in 1828. Their children were fifteen, of whom three died 
young, and eleven (six sons and five daughters) survived their father. 
Their mother died in 1855, at the unusual age of eighty-three. Five sons 
and three daughters have survived her. Their eldest son, John, entered 
the navy, and was distinguished in the battles of the Constitution with the 
Guerriere and with the Cyane and Levant. After the first action the State 
of Virginia presented him with a sword. He was captured in the Levant 
by a British squadron whilst lying at Port Praya, Cape de Yerde Islands. 
He died in 1824 at Mount Airy, having resigned, shortly before, his rank 
of lieutenant in the navy, to which he was promoted soon after his first 
action. Benjamin Ogle Tayloe, the second son, resides in Washington. 
Three other sons William, Edward, and George reside in Virginia, 
and one in Alabama, Henry Tayloe, an active member of the Church in 
that State. John Tayloe, a grandson, resides at Chatterton, in the county 
of King George/' 

From the earliest accounts of this family, they have been either 
warm friends of the Church, or in full communion with it. Many 
of the male members of the family have been active and liberal 


Parishes in King Greorge Qounty* 

GrEORGE county was taken out of Richmond county in tho 
year 1720, at T\hich time Richmond county extended as far on one 
side of the Rappahannock as Essex did on the other, which was, I 
believe, near the Falls of the Rappahannock or Fredericksburg, 
It did not extend from the Rappahannock to the Potomac, as West- 
moreland and King George now do, for Westmoreland and Stafford* 
extended along the Potomac, while Richmond and King George 
lay on the Rappahannock. Formerly there were two parishes in 
King George, Hanover and Brunswick, lying along the Rappa- 
hannock, the latter reaching up to the falls at Fredericksburg, for 
we find Mr. W. Fitzhugh, of Chatham, opposite Fredericksburg, 
representing Brunswick parish in the Conventions of 1785 and 1786. 
In 1776, the boundaries of Stafford and King George were changed, 
and each of them made to extend from river to river, instead of 
being divided by a longitudinal line running east and west. At 
this time St. Paul's parish, and part of Overwharton, formerly in 
Stafford, were thrown into King George county, and that of Bruns- 
wick parish into Stafford. There are, therefore, now in King 
George, St. Paul's parish, on the Potomac side, and Hanover, chiefly 
on the Rappahannock. In the parish of Brunswick there was 
formerly a church some miles below Fredericksburg, whose ruins, 
or the traces of whose foundation, may yet, I an} told, be seen. 

* Stafford is first mentioned among the counties in 1666, in the following manner. 
It seems that> besides the private looms of weavers, there was required by Act of 
Assembly a public one in, each county, with certain exceptions : " Provided that 
the executing hereof in the counties of Bappahannock, Stafford, Westmoreland, 
and Northumberland, who, by the newness of their ground, pretend themselves in- 
capable of TfnjtlriTig provision for the soon employment of a weaver, be respited for 
fowre years after the date hereof." Prom this Act we may see what was the state 
of the whole Northern Neck of Virginia in 1666, nearly six^r years after the first 
settlement of the Colony. It either was not, or pretended not to be, able to support 
one weaver at public expense. It is pleasing to think that there was a better state 
uf things as to religion, and that there were several ministers in the district at the 
above-mentioned period. 


There was also a church in Falmouth which belonged to this parish, 
and in which I have preached at an early day of my ministry. 

In Hanover parish there were, from 1779 to 1796, two churches, 
viz, : Strother's, between Port Conway and Oakenbrough, and 
Round Hill, under the charge of the ministers of the parish. 
Until the year 1777, Bound Hill Church was in Washington parish, 
Westmoreland, but certain changes in the boundaries of King 
George and Westmoreland in that year threw Round Hill Church 
into King George county and Hanover parish. As we have but 
little to say of Hanover parish, we will say it at once. We cannot 
ascertain the precise time of its establishment. It was in existence 
in 1720, and probably established in that year, as King George 
was then cut off from Richmond county. In 1753, we find on one 
of our lists the name of William Davis as its rector. In the years 
1773, 1774, and 1776, we find the Rev. William Davies. But in 
the mean time the Rev. Mr. Boucher was the minister of the parish 
for some yearb. 

We have nothing on any of our lists, or in the vestry-book of 
this parish, concerning this distinguished man, and for the plain 
reason that we have no list or vestry-book covering the period of 
his ministry in Hanover parish. He was ordained for this parish 
in 1762, having been resident in Virginia since he was sixteen 
years of age, and probably in that part of Virginia. He was an 
intimate friend of General Washington, and, as has been stated in 
the article on Caroline county, dedicated a volume of sermons to 
Washington. He was selected by the General as a travelling-com- 
panion and guide to young Custis, son of Mrs. Washington, when 
it was contemplated that he should make the tour of Europe. The 
following extract from a letter of General Washington on the 
subject will at the same time explain the causes of the relinquish- 
ment of this plan, and show the amiableness and sound judgment 
displayed by him on the occasion. Mr* Boucher was the tutor to 
young Custis at Annapolis, in the year 1771, when the letter was 
written of which the following is an extract : 

u Upon the whole, it is impossible for me at this time to give a more 
decisive answer, however strongly inclined I may be to put you upon a 
certainty in this affair, than I have done; and I should think myself want- 
ing in candour, if I concealed any circumstance from you which leads me 
to fear that there is a possibility, if not a probability, that the whole 
design may be totally defeated. Before I ever thought myself at liberty 
to encourage the plan, I judged it highly reasonable and necessary that 
Ms mother should be consulted. I laid your first letter and proposals 
before her, and desired that she would reflect well before she resolved, a* 


an unsteady behaviour might be a disadvantage to you. Her determina- 
tion was, that if it appeared to be his inclination to undertake this tour 
and it should be judged for his benefit, she would not oppose it, whatever 
pangs it might give her to part with him. To this declaration she still 
adheres, but in so taint a manner, that I think, with her fears and his in- 
difference, it would soon be declared that he had no inclination to go. I 
do not say that this will be the case. I cannot speak positively; but, as 
this is the result of my own reflections on the matter, I thought it but 
fair to communicate it to you. Several causes have, I believe^eoneurred 
to make her view his departure, as the time approaches, with more reluc- 
tance than she expected. The unhappy situation of her daughter has in 
some degree fixed her eyes upon him as her only hope. To what I have 
already said ? I can only add, that my warmest wishes are to see him pro- 
secute a plan, at a proper period, which I may be sure will redound to his 
advantage, and that nothing shall be wanting on my part to aid and assist 

It seems that Mr. Custis preferred an early marriage to a Euro- 
pean tour, and so the matter ended, 

We return from this digression to the other ministers of Hanover 
parish* We have a vestry-book beginning in 1779, which shows 
that in 1780 the Rev. Rodham Kennor (an old Virginia name) was 
chosen its minister. In 1785, he resigned and removed to his farm 
in Fauquier. The next year the Rev. John Low became its minister, 
and continued until 1796, when he was allowed to preside in the 
vestry till the end of the year, on condition that he would resign 
at that time, which he did in a letter recorded in the vestry-book. 
We know of no other minister being in this parish until its reor- 
ganization and the election of the Rev. Mr. Friend, who has recently 
left it. The following list of vestrymen from 1779 to 1796 will 
show who were the leading friends of the Church in that parish. 
Messrs. Piper, Woffendall, Kendall, Jett, Boon, Lovall, Marshall, 
Kirk, Conway, Washington, Bernard, Johnson, Dade, Stewart, 
Dishman, Flood, Oldham, Berry. Mr. Johnson was reader at 
Round Hill Church, and Mr. Thornby at Strother's. Two orders 
on the vestry-book serve to throw light on the manners of the 
parish. One directs Mr. Ashton to try to procure four locks for 
the glebe-house, evidently showing that there was difficulty and 
uncertainty about it. This speaks well for the honesty of the 
times, locks being so little used that they were hard to be gotten. 
The other is not so creditable to the temperance of the times and 
parish, as it directs that "forty pounds of tobacco be paid for two 
quarts of brandy for burying a poor woman," that is, for use at 
the funeral. 

A few words will suffice for the history of the parish since the 
year 1796. Some years since, a number of families in the upper 


part of it the Tayloes, Masons, Turners, &c. united in building 
a neat brick church near the court-house, for which they secured 
the partial services of the Rev. Mr. Friend, by which means a very 
respectable congregation has been formed. As stated above, Mr 
Friend has recently resigned his charge. 

Since writing the above, we have been indebted to the kindness 
and diligence of one or two friends for some further information 
concerning this parish, obtained from the old records of the court. 
In the years 1T25 ? 1727, and 1737, the names of the Rev. Mr, 
Skaife, Mr. Edyard, and Mr, Mackay, appear on the record, though 
it Is not known with what parishes they were connected. The fol- 
lowing were the names of vestrymen between the years 1723 and 
1779: John Grimsley, James Kay, William Strother, Rowland 
Thornton, Thomas Turner,* John Furguson, Jos. Strother, Maxi- 
milian Robinson, William Thornton, Joseph Murdock, Joseph Jones, 
George Tankersley, George Riding, Thomas Vivian, Isaac Arnold, 
Samuel Skinker, Harry Turner, Charles Carter, John Triplett, 
Thomas Jett, Thomas Hodges, Richard Payne, Thomas Berry, 
Horatio Bade, John Skinker, William Robinson, George Marshall, 
John Washington, Townsend Bade, Robert Stith, Henry Fitzhugh, 
Jr., Laurence Washington, Sen., John Pollard, William Fitzhugh, 
Laurence Ashton, Thomas Hood, William Newton, William Bruce, 
James Kenyon, John Taliafero, Joseph Jones, James Hunton, John 
Taliafero, Jr. Whether all these belonged to Hanover parish I 
think doubtful. In the year 1744, there is a suit^ln King George 
Court in the name of Henry Downs and Zachary Taylor, (doubt- 
less the ancestor of our late President,) the churchwardens of St. 
Thomas's Church, Orange county. 

* The families of Tayloes and Turners are the most ancient with which I am 
acquainted in the parish of Hanover. Of the former I have given some account in 
my article on Lunenburg parish, Kichmond county. The first of the Turners was 
a, physician who came to Virginia about 1650 or 1660, and settled in the very region 
now occupied by his descendants, on the banks of the Rappahannock, in Hanover 
parish. He left two sons, Harry and Thomas. The latter died young. Harry mar- 
ried the only surviving daughter of Mr. Nicholas Smith, of *' Smith's Mount/* in 
Westmoreland, by whom he became possessed of that estate, which he bequeathed 
to his posterity, and which has gone by the name of the seat of the Turner family. 
He and his wife Elizabeth are both buried there, as are also their parents. The 
tombstones still remain and testify of them. Mr. Harry Turner left only one son, 
Thomas, who married a daughter of Colonel William Fauntleroy, of Naylor's Hole, 
in Bichmond county, about the year 1767, and left a family of eight children, four 
sons and fonr daughters. The sons were Henry, Thomas, Richard, and George, 
the descendants of whom, as well as of the daughters, are dispersed throughout 
the State; a number of them living in King George, where, as we have said, the 
first ancestors settled. 



A short notice will suffice for Brunswick parish. This was also 
in existence in 1720. In 1754 and 1758, the Rev. Daniel McDo- 
nald was its minister. In the year 1786, we find the parish, or a 
portion of it, included in Stafford county. It was no doubt taken 
into it at the establishment of the new boundaries between it and 
King George, in the year 1776. I have already mentioned that 
there was a church a few miles from Frederieksburg, within the 
parish of Brunswick. It was called Muddy Creek Church, and 
About nine miles from Fredericksburg. Muddy Creek is now the 
ioundary-line between King George and Stafford. At a later 
period, Lamb's Creek Church was the church of Brunswick parish. 
The stepping-stone at the door bears the date of 1782, but the 
church may have been built before that. From the records of the 
eourt we find that a Mr. Anthony Hainy was churchwarden in this 
parish as far back as 1784, and Mr. Charles Carter and John 
Champe in 1739. Mr. Charles Carter was also vestryman in 1750. 


Our authority for the earlier part of the history of this parish is 
a vestry-book beginning in 1766, during the rectorship of the Bev. 
William Stuart, who, according to the Rev. Robert Rose, was a man 
of eloquence and popularity and high character. 

There is also a register of the marriages, and of the births, bap- 
tisms, and deaths of both white and black. Much of it is torn out. 
Its first entry is in 1722. At that time, and long before, the Rev. 
David Stuart was the minister. He continued to be so until his 
death, in 1749, when he was succeeded by his son, William Stuart, 
who was probably his father's assistant for some time before his 
death. The son died in 1796. The earlier part of my mother's 
life was spent under his ministry, and I have often heard her speak 
in high praise of him. Ho was in bad health for some years before 
his death. The following is his letter of resignation: 


u GENTLEMEN : I lave been curate of iMs parish upward of forty 
years. My own conscience "bears me witness, and I trust my parishioners 
(though many of them have fallen asleep) will also witness, that until age 
and infirmities disabled me I always, so far as my infirmities would allow, 
fafthfolly discharged my duties as a minister of the Gospel. It has given 
me many hours of anxious concern that the services of the Church should 
be so long discontinued on my account. The spirit indeed is willing, but 


the flesh Is weak. I therefore entreat the favour of you to provide me a 
successor as soon as you can, that divine service may be discontinued no. 
longer; and at the end of the year the glebe shall be given up to him by 
your affectionate servant, 


It is most probable that the father's term of service was equal 
to that of his son's ; and if so, we should go back to near the be- 
ginning of the century with the ministry of the two, and that 
would carry us to a period not far from that in which the first of 
the Fitzhughs Mr. William Fitzhugh of this region wrote to 
the Bishop of London urging him to send them a sober and pious 
minister. Mr. Fitzhugh lived at Bedford, in what is now King 
George but was then Westmoreland; and there was a church and 
graveyard near his residence (Bedford) on the Potomac. A second 
church was built near the present, and a few miles only from the 
first. Before closing our notice of Mr. William Stuart, I must ex- 
tract from the record an entry which shows that, though he lived 
some years after Ms resignation, his zeal for theOhurch did not abate : 
though unable to preach, he was able and willing to give. When 
a subscription was raised for his successor, Mr. Parsons, (the Esta- 
blishment being put down,) his name stands first on the list for ten 
pounds, no other exceeding three. The voluntary system was 
then in its infancy, and only fifty-seven pounds were raised ; but 
this was as much as the most of the parishes paid their ministers 
under the Establishment. Mr* Parsons was never admitted to 
Priests' Orders: for what reason I am unable to say. It is not 
wonderful that on this account the religious condition of the parish 
should have rapidly declined, and at his death, in 1808, was in so 
deplorable a state. The house of worship, which, at successive 
periods from the year 1T66, had been begun, completed, and re- 
paired, and become one of the best of the cruciform churches in 
Virginia, was permitted to fall into ruins, except its well-built 
walls. In the year 1838, I gave the following account of a visit 
paid to it many years before : 

* k On Thursday and Friday, services were performed in St. Paul's 
Church, King George county. I preached in the morning of each Gay, 
and Mr. Nelson and Mr* Friend in the afternoon. Here I baptized three 
children and confirmed two persons and administered the Communion. 
About twenty-six years ago, (in the year 1812 or 1813,) the Rev. Mr. 
Norris and myself visited this place together. St. Paul's was then in ruin?. 
The roof was ready to fail ; and not a window, door, pew, or timber remained 
below. Nevertheless, notice was given that we would preach there. A 
rude, temporary pulpit or stand was raised at one angle of the cross, and 


from that we performed service and aidressed the people. On the night 
before the meeting a heavy rain had fallen ? and the water was in small 
pools here and there where the floor once was, so that it was difficult to 
find a dry spot on which the attendants might stand. Such was its con- 
dition twenty-six years ago, and thus did it continue for some years after, 
until the Legislature granted leave to citizens of the county to convert it 
into an academy. This being done, it was used conjointly as a seminary 
of learning and place of worship. At length, the seminary being neglected, 
and the house useless for purposes of education, as well as inconvenient for 
public worship, the neighbours petitioned the Legislature to restore it to 
its rightful owners and original purposes ; which being done, it was con- 
verted back again into a temple of God, one part of it being diyided 
into three small rooms for the residence of a minister, and the other part 
three-fourths of the whole house being handsomely fitted up for public 
worship. It is now one of the most convenient and delightful churches in 

The following extract from the letters of a friend and relative 
in King George, (Dr. Abraham Hooe,) who has long faithfully 
served as vestryman of the parish, and who has carefully examined 
its records, will complete our notice of it : 

" At a meeting of the vestry on the 19th of January, 1797, the re- 
signation was accepted by the following order: 'That the Be v. William 
Stuart having resigned as rector of St. Paul's parish, and having petitioned 
the vestry, to appoint him a successor, we, the vestry of said parish, do 
receive the Eev. John Parsons to officiate as Beacon agreeably to the 
canons of the Protestant Episcopal Church/ 

" Mr. Parsons survived until some time in 1808, as I learned, I sup- 
pose it was subsequent to his death that the church went into ruins. Then 
the glebes were sold, and the very life of the Church here seems to have 
gone out. During the interval between the death of Mr. Parsons and 
1817, you and others would occasionally come and minister to our fathers 
and mothers, and afford them the opportunity of placing their dear chil- 
dren in covenant with their G-od; and I believe the late Dr. Keith, of the 
Seminary, at that time a private tutor in the parish, was in the habifc 
of lay-reading within the ruins. But these ruins were not only used for 
occasional religious services ,* they were a resort (for shelter they furnished 
none) for the beasts of the field as well as for the soldiers of the camp, and 
furnished material for plunder to all the ruthless of the land. In men- 
tioning the kindness of those who would come among us, I cannot omit 
to refer to that of the Rev. Johu McGuire, who had so often taken part in 

* An old African woman, who, in her youth, had been brought to Virginia and 
piously brought tip in some good family, near St. Paulas, and carried there every 
Sunday and tanght to join in the servioe, became so attached to the place and mode 
of worship, that after the church was deserted of minister and people, and her 
fellow-servants were all going to o&er meetings and joining in other ways of praying, 
used regularly to go to the old place and sit upon one of the naked sleepers by her- 
self, for some time every Sabbath. Upon being questioned and perhaps ridiculed 
for this, she said it did her more good to go to the old church and think over by 
herself the old prayers she was used to, than to go into any of the new ways. 


those c associations' which, though of course less frequent, at one time 
seemed to be looked for with almost the saine regularity as the stated 
services of the Church, and with no les^ interest. On the 18th of May, 
1810, a vestry was a<rain organized, and Bichard Stuart and Townshend 
S. Bade, M>n and grandson of the late rector, Mr. Stuart, were appointed 
delegates to the Convention to be held in Richmond, thus reorganizing 
the parish after an interval of so many years. The vestry elected con- 
sisted of Kiehard Stuart, Townshend S. Bade, Abraham B. Hooe, Lang- 
borne Dade, John J. Stuart, William F. Grymes, Cadwallader I. Bade, 
and Charles Massey, Sen. ; but not until the llth of December, 1817, 
were the services of a minister obtained. Then the Rev. Joseph R. An- 
drews, also a private tutor in the neighbourhood, was elected as rector. 
This gentle and godly man officiated in the Academy and, I believe, at 
King George Court-House, as well as at Port Royal, for several years, when, 
feeling himself called to the work of missions, (honoured of Heaven,) he 
left his native land to find an early martyr's grave on the unfriendly shore 
of Africa, and I have the pleasant recollection of having helped him to 
pack his little all in my father's house. 

u In 18-2, the Rev. Josias Clapham was called to the charge of this 
parish, and his last official signature on the vestry-book bears date May 3, 
1824. How long subsequently he may have continued in charge does not 
appear, and, being from home for several years about that time, I do not know 
myself. He, however, preached in Washington parish, Westmoreland 
county, and in a small meeting-house near Round Hill Church in this 
county, for some years afterward, when he removed to Halifax county, 
from which time his history is unknown to me further than to be able to 
say I am sure he has received the reward of the righteous, for he was a 
good man and a faithful and strict follower of his Lord and Master. Even 
the days just spoken of were days of destitution with us; but, as in the 
days of the rains, so in those of our destitution, one and another minister 
of our Church would once and again come to preach the word to us ; and 
none were more kind and true in so doing than the Rev. Charles Mann, 
now of this diocese, but then rector of William and Mary parish, just 
across the Potomac River, in Charles county, Maryland, the grateful re- 
collection of which kindness can only cease, with the lives of those of us 
who remember it. 

a It was also customary in those days for the Methodists to have stated 
appointments to preach at the Academy, as did occasionally the Baptists 
and Presbyterians, up to the time of the Repeal Act restoring to us our 
church, On the llth of January, 1828, the Rev. Edward W. Peet, now 
at Des Moines, Iowa, was chosen minister of the parish. He, I think, had 
been at first, in 1827, sent to us by the Diocesan Missionary Society, and, 
having been elected as above, he continued our minister until 1830, when 
he resigned, to take charge of St. John's Church, Richmond, and was 
succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Goldsmith, who was elected on the 20th of 
August of that year. It was mainly owing to the exertions of Mr. Peet 
that the restoration of the church to its former and rightful proprietors may 
be attributed, as was certainly the new roofing of Lamb's Creek, mentioned 
above. During his ministry there is reason to believe much interest in the 
cause of religion was awakened among us, and from that time on, the 
borders of the Church have been enlarged. The Rev, Mr. Goldsmith con- 
tinued in charge of our parish and of Lamb's Creek united, most of the 
time until his resignation of the former in April, 1837; and it was during 


his ministry that the consecration of the church took place. On the 22d 
of July following, the Bev. Charles Goodrich, Beacon, was chosen as rector 
of this and Lamb's Creek Churches, and entered on his duties on the 1st 
of October, 1887. Of his services among us I need only say his praise i? 
on all our lips, and the love of him fills all our hearts. He left us at the 
end of a year for New Orleans, where he has been faithfully labouring i* 
his Master's cause. From October, 1838 ? to the fall of 1840, we werfe 
without the regular services of the Church. Repeated unavailing attempts 
were made to secure them, and in the mean time our kind and good neigh- 
bour, the Eev. William Friend, as he always has done in our need, would 
come among us and minister to us, as his convenience would allow or cir- 
cumstances might require. On the 26th of June, 1840, the Rev. John 
Martin, now of Maryland, was elected, and continued as minister of this 
parish and Washington parish, in Westmoreland, until July, 1844, when 
he resigned, and was succeeded by the Rev. Lewis Walke, Deacon. Diffi- 
culty in maintaining a minister in conjunction with other parishes having 
become manifest, it was determined to endeavour to do so ourselves, and 
Mr. Walke's services were obtained for our parish exclusively, and he 
continued to officiate for us most faithfully until the summer of 1848, when 
the parish was again vacant until the fall of 1851, when the Rev. B. B. 
Leacock took charge of it, and we were favoured with his valuable services 
for one year, when he resigned, owing to ill health, as well as with a view 
to a mission to Africa, and was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph A. Russell, 
our present rector. Of the glebes I can only say they were sold after the 
death of the last incumbent, Mr. Parsons, and as much of the proceeds of 
the sales as was needful were appropriated as before referred to, the re- 
mainder being now a fund in the hands of a board of school-commissioners 
for the county, to aid in a system of education established under a late Act 
of the Legislature. The earliest notice of the plate of this parish is an 
entry on the vestry-book as follows : < On the 4th day of June, 1802, the 
following articles of church-plate belonging to this parish, viz. : one large 
silver can, a silver chalice and bread-plate, were deposited in the care of 
Mr. John Parsons, the then incumbent. 

" c Signed, TOWNSEND DADE, Warden.' " 

These same articles of plate are now in possession of the parish, 
and I am sure are familiar to you. They had been, at some period 
prior to the above date, the gift of Colonel Henry Fitzhugh, of 
Stafford, in this county, as appears from the following inscription 
on each piece: "Given by Henry Fitzhugh, of Stafford county, 
St. Paul's parish, Gent., for the use of your church." There are 
also a large Bible and Prayer-Book belonging to the parish. The 
first has the following inscription in gilt letters on the back: 
"Given for the use of the church in St. Paul's parish, by the Rev. 
Wm. Stuart, rector of the same, 1762." It is a Cambridge edition, 
appointed by his Majesty's special command 'to be read in churches, 
"Cum privilegm" and its dedication is, "To our most Ugh and 
mighty Prince James, by the grace of God King of Great Britain, 
France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, tie translators of the 


Bible wish grace, mercy, and peace, through our Lord Jesus 
Christ" The inscription on the Prayer-Book Is, "Presented to 
St. Paul's Church, King George county, by Miss Jane S. Parke, 
1831." Miss Parke was great grand-daughter to the Rev. William 
Stuart, the former rector. 

p. S. Since the foregoing was written, the Rev. Mr. Russell has 
left the parish, and the Rev. Mr. Stuart has taken his place. 

The following is the list of vestrymen of this parish from the year 
1720 to the present time: 

Richard Bernard, John Hooe, Richard Foote, Captain John Alex- 
ander, Captain Baldwin Dade, Colonel Henry Fitzhugh, Jerard Fowke, 
John Stith, Cadwallader Dade, John Stewart, John Alexander, Jr., 
Francis Thornton, John Washington, Thomas Pratt, Thomas Bunhury, 
(Thomas Stribling, reader,) Henry Fitzhugh, Jr., Wm. Fitzhugh, Wm. 
Fitzhugh, Jr., Samuel Washington, Laurence Washington, Townsend 
Bade, in the place of Samuel Washington, who removed in 1770; John 
Berryrnan, in 1771, in place of William Fitzhugh, removed out of the 
county; Robert Washington, Andrew Grant, Robert Stith, W. GK Stuart, 
William Hooe, Daniel Fitzhugh, Wm. Thornton, Wm. Stith, Henry Fitz- 
hugh, Robert Yates, Wm. Stork, Wm. Quarles, Thomas Short, Benjamin 
G-rymes, Thomas Washington, Rice W. Hooe, John B. Fitzhugh, John 
Waugh, Langhorne Dade, William Stone, Henry A. Asliton, Charles 
Stuart, J. K. Washington, Abraham B. Hooe ; J. J. Stuart, William F. 
Gryiues, Charles Massey, J. Queensbury, Robert Chesley, Needam Wash- 
ington, Alexander Keech, Francis C. Fitzhugh, B. 0. Tayloe, Thomas 
Smith, Dr. Robert Parsons, G. B. Alexander, Henry Mustin, Grustavus 
B. Alexander, Hezekiah Potts, T. L. Lomax, Jacob W. Stuart, Henry 
T. Washington, Drary B. Fitzhugh, Benjamin R. Grrymes, John T. Wash- 
ington, W. E. Stuart, M. Tenent. 


The Fitzhugh family is a very ancient and honourable one in 
England. Some of its members were high in office and favour 
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The name is a com- 
bination of the two names Fitz and Hugh. Sometimes one, some- 
times the other, would precede, until at length they were united in 
Fitzhugh. The first who settled in this country was William Fitz- 
hugh. His father was a lawyer in London, and himself of that 
profession. He settled in Westmoreland county, Virginia, when a 
young man, and married a Miss Tucker, of that county. He was 
born in the year 1650, and died in 1701. He left five sons, Wil- 
liam, Henry, Thomas, Greorge, and John^ between whom, at his 
death, he divided 54,054 acres of land in King George, Stafford, 
and perhaps Essex. His sons and their descendants owned the 


seats called Eagle-nest and Bedford in King George, and Bellaire 
and Boscobel in Stafford, He had one daughter named Rosamond, 
who married Colonel Oberton, of Westmoreland, but died without 
issue. His son William married Miss Lee, of Westmoreland. 
Henry married Miss Cooke, of Gloucester. Thomas and George 
married daughters of Colonel George Mason, of Stafford, and John, 
Miss McCarty, of Westmoreland. Prom these have sprung all the 
families of Fitzhughs in Virginia, Maryland, and Western New 
York. The Rev. Robert Rose married Ann, the daughter of Henry 
Fitzhugh, of Eagle-nest, in the year 1740. She lived to the year 
1789, surviving her husband thirty-five years. There are some 
things in the life and character of the father of this large family 
of Fitzhughs worthy to be mentioned for the benefit and satisfac- 
tion of his posterity. I draw them from his pious and carefully- 
written will, and from a large manuscript volume of his letters, a 
copy of which was some years since gotten from the library of Cain- 
bridge, Massachusetts, by one of his descendants, and which is now 
in the rooms of the Historical Society of Virginia. 

It appears that he was, during the period that he exercised his 
profession, an eminent and most successful lawyer, and published 
in England a work on the laws of Virginia. He was much engaged 
in the management of land-causes for the great landholders, whethei 
residing in England or America. He was counsellor for the cele- 
brated Robert Beverley, the first of the name, and who was perse 
cuted and imprisoned for too much independence. He transacted 
business for, and purchased lands from, Lord Culpepper, when he 
held a grant from King Charles for all Virginia. In all these 
transactions he appears to have acted with uprightness and without 
covetousness, for in his private letters to his friends he speaks of 
being neither in want nor abundance, but being content and 
happy ; though before he died he acquired large tracts of lands 
at a cheap rate. The true cause of this was his being a sincere 
Christian. This appears from his letters to his mother and sister, 
to whom he remitted pecuniary assistance according to his ability, 
increasing it as his ability increased. The following brief letter to 
his mother in the year 1694 will exhibit his filial and pious dispo- 
sition: 5 

" BEAK MOTHER: I heartily condole with you in your present sickness 
and indisposition, which your age now every day contracts. God's grace 
will make you bear it patiently, to your comfort, his glory, and your ever- 
lasting salvation. I eannot enough thank you for the present of yoTir 
choice Bible. The money that you say you had present occasion for 1 

VOL, IL 18 


have ordered Mr. Cooper to enlarge, and you will see by his letter that it 
is doubled. Before I was ten years old, as I am sure you will remember, 
I looked upon this life here as but going to an inn, and no permanent 
being. By God's grace I continue the same good thoughts and notions., 
therefore am always prepared for my dissolution, which I can't be per- 
suaded k prolong by a wish. $"ow, dear mother, if you should be neces- 
sitated for eight or ten pound extraordinary, please to apply to Mr. Cooper, 
and he upon sight of this letter will furnish it to you." 

He adds a postcrzpt to the letter, saying, "My sister died a true 
penitent of the Church of England.' 7 

His sister had come over to America at his instance some years 
before and married here, but died without children. Other letters 
to his mother, who it seems was much afflicted with some troubles, 
which are not mentioned, he writes in a very consoling manner, 
bidding her regard her sorrows as from Heaven, and thanks her for 
pious instruction of him. His habits were strictly temperate. In 
writing to a friend who was much afflicted with the gout, he tells 
him the secret of his freedom from it, viz. : that he never was ad- 
dicted to the orgies of Bacchus, or to the adoration of Ceres or 
Venus, never courted unlawful pleasures, avoided feasting and the 
surfeit thereof, and bids him tell the physician this. 

Mr. Fitzhugh was not merely a moral man, but a sincerely reli- 
gious man, beyond the measure of that day. He is not ashamed 
in one of his legal opinions to quote Scripture as the highest author- 
ity. He was a leading member of the Episcopal Church in his 
parish. Through him presents of Communion-plate and other things 
from English friends were made to the parish. Referring to the 
unworthiness of many of the ministers who came over from Eng- 
land, he communicated with Ms friends and with the Bishop of 
London^ asking that sober^ reputable^ and educated men might be 
sent over instead of such as did come. All this appears from pas- 
sages in his letters to England. But, were there none of these 
letters extant, the following extract from his will would testify to 
Ms sound and evangelical views of our blessed religion. 

Extract from the will of Colonel William Fitzhugh, of Stafford county, 
Virginia, who died in October, 1701* He was the parent of the Fitz- 
hugh family in Virginia, and the patentee of Ravensworth; 
"At a court held for Stafford county, December 10, 1701. Present 
her Majesty^ s Justices for said county. 

"In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Trinity in Unity ? 
Unity in Trinity, Three Persons and One God, blessed forever. Amen- 
I, William Fitzhugh, of Stafford county, in Virginia, being by God's grace 
bound for England, and knowing the frailty and uncertainty of men's lives, 
and being at present in perfect health and memory, do now ordain, consti- 


tnte, and appoint this my last will and testament, revoking all other and 
former, or other wills, this 5th day of April, 1701. 

"Imprimis: I recommend my soul into the hands of God, through the 
mediation and intercession of my blessed Saviour and Eedeemer, hoping 
by the merits of his death to have my sins washed away in his bloocl 
nailed to his cross, and buried in his grave, and by his merits and passioj 
to obtain everlasting life ; therefore, now do bequeath and dispose such 
estate as it hath pleased God to bestow in his mercy upon me, after this 
manner following, 

" After they have disposed of my body to decent interment, without 
noise, feasting and drink, or tumult, which I not only leave to, but enjoin, 
my executors, hereafter named, to see decently performed. 

"Item: I give and bequeath to niy eldest son, William Fitzhugh, all 
these tracts of land following/ 3 &c. &c. 

(Then follow the bequests tc the various members of the family.) 
It is evident that in the foregoing will there is much more than 
the usual formal recognition of a God and future state. Here is 
to be seen a true acknowledgment of the Holy Trinity, and an 
entire reliance on the merits of the Saviour's death and the cleansing 
of his blood, such as no orthodox divine could better express. 

JSTone can doubt but that the recorded sentiments and the con- 
sistent life of this father of a numerous family must have had it* 
effect upon many of his posterity. I have known many, and hearfj 
of others, who imbibed his excellent spirit, and not in Virginia only, 
but in other States, to which they have emigrated. One there was 
too well known to the writer of these lines, and to whom for Chris- 
tian nurture and example he was too much indebted, ever to b 
forgotten. A beloved mother was a lineal descendant of this good 
man, born and nurtured on the soil which Ms economy and dili- 
gence had bequeathed to a numerous posterity. To her example 
and tuition, under Grod, am I indebted for having escaped the snaref 
laid for the youth of our land and for having embraced the bles&ei 
religion of Christ* And if I may be permitted to single out one from 
the numerous families of the name, it must needs be that one which 
was nearest to me, and with which I have been most intimately 
acquainted from my childhood up. The name of Mr. William 
Fitzhugh, of Chatham, in tbe county of Stafford, as a perfect gen- 
tleman, as a most hospitable entertainer, and a true son of Virginia 
in her Councils, will not soon be forgotten. His name is not only 
an the journals of our civil Legislature, but may be seen on the 
ecclesiastical records of our Church, among those who were the last 
to give up ber regular assemblies and the hope of her prosperity 
m her darkened days. Nor is it unlawful to proceed to some brief 
notice of the two children who survived him. His son, William 


Henry Fitzhugh, my associate at college, entered life with as fail 
a prospect for honour and usefulness as any young man in Virginia. 
Twice only, I believe, did he appear In the legislative hall of our 
State, and once in a Convention of the same ; hut such a promise 
of political distinction was there given, that it could not but be 
felt that a few years would find him in the higher Councils of the 
land. It pleased Providence to interfere, and by a sudden and 
early death to remove him from this earthly scene. Before this 
decree of Heaven was executed, as if admonished of its coming, he 
had, after pleading by his pen and voice for the American Coloni- 
zation Society, directed that all his slaves amounting, I believe, to 
about two hundred should be prepared for, and allowed to choose, 
Africa as their home. 

But I must not lay down my pen, though the heart bleed at its 
further use, without the tribute of affection, of gratitude, and reve- 
rence to one who was to me as sister, mother, and faithful monitor. 
Mrs. Mary Custis, of Arlington, the wife of Mr. Washington Custis, 
grandson of Mrs, General Washington, was the daughter of Mr. 
William Fitzhugh, of Chatham. Scarcely is there a Christian lady 
in our land more honoured than she was, and none more loved and 
esteemed. For good sense, prudence, sincerity, benevolence, un- 
affected piety, disinterested zeal in every good work, deep humility 
and retiring modesty, for all the virtues which adorn the wife, the 
mother, and the friend, I never knew her superior. A husband yet 
lives to feel her loss. An only daughter, with a numerous family 
of children, also survive, to imitate, I trust, her blessed example. 


Overwharton Parish, Stafford County. 

I COME now to Overwharton parish in Stafford county. The 
county and parish take their names from the corresponding ones 
in England. Stafford county once extended up to the Blue Eidge 
Mountain. In the year 1730, Prince William county was formed 
from the "heads of King George and Stafford." Overwharton 
parish was also coextensive with Stafford before Prince William 
was taken off. In the same year, 1730, Overwharton parish 
was divided and Hamilton parish taken off. Overwharton covered 
the narrow county of Stafford, and Hamilton the large county of 
Prince William before Fauquier, Fairfax, and Loudoun were taken 
away. Stafford, in its original dimensions, first appears as a 
county in 1666. When it was erected into a parish is not known, 
but most probably about the same time. Its division in 1730 
is the first mention of it. The Rev. Robert Rose in his account- 
book mentions the Rev. Alexander Scott as a minister in it in 
1727; and it is well known that he was the minister of this parish 
for many years.* He came from Scotland ? being obliged to leave, 
it is supposed, after some unsuccessful rebellion. He never mar- 
ried. Having acquired considerable property, he invited his younger 
brother, the Rev. James Scott, to come over and inherit it. He 
had one estate in Stafford called Dipple, at which he lived. His 

* The Kev. Alexander Seott was minister in this parish in 1724, and for thirteen 
years before, as appears from Ms report to the Bishop of London. Being then a 
frontier-county, its limits were not known ; but it was inhabited about eighty miles 
along the Potomac and from three to twenty miles in the interior. There were six 
hundred and fifty families, eighty to one hundred communicants, in attendance, one 
church, and several chapels. Glebe so inconvenient that he rented it out and bought 
one more convenient for himself. His church and chapels as full as they could hold. 

Epitaph of Eev. Alexander Scott, who was buried afc Bipple, his seat on the Po- 
tomac : *' Here lies the body of Bev. Alexander Scott, A.M., and presbyter of the 
Church of England, who lived near twenty-eight years minister of Overwharton 
parish, and died in the fifty-third year of his age, he being born the 20th day of 
July, A.I>. 1686 ? and departed this life the 1st day of April, 1788. 
"Gaudia Nuncio Magna," 

This is written upon his coat of arms, which is engraved upon his tomb. 


brother came over, and after some time became the minister of the 
adjoining parish of Dettingen in Prince William, which was sepa- 
rated from Hamilton when Fauquier was taken from Prince 
William, and in which he ministered for thirty-seven years. Mr. 
Alexander Scott had as his assistant or curate, for a short time 
before his death, the Kev. Mr. Moncnre, a Scotchman, but descend- 
ant of a Huguenot refugee who fled from France at the revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes. Mr. Moncure was the successor of 
Mr. Scott In what year he entered on his duties I have been 
unable to ascertain, but his name is still to be seen painted on one 
of the panels of the gallery in Old Aquia Church, together with 
those of the vestry in 1757. The first church was burned in the 
year 1751. I here give the names of the minister and vestry as 
painted on the gallery in the year 1757, when it is supposed the 
second church was finished. John Moncure, minister. Peter 
Houseman, John Mercer, John Lee, Mott Donithan, Henry Tyler, 
William Mountjoy, Benjamin Strother, Thomas Fitzhugh, Peter 
Daniel, Traverse Cooke, John Fitzhugh, John Peyton, vestrymen. 
It is gratifying to know that the descendants of the above are, with 
probably but few exceptions, in some part of our State or land still 
attached to the Episcopal Church. Their names are a guarantee 
for their fidelity to the Church of their fathers. Of the minister, 
the Rev, J. Moncure, the following extract from a letter of one of 
his daughters, who married General afterward Governor Wood, 
of Virginia, will give a more interesting account than any which 
could possibly be collected from all other sources. It was written 
in the year 1820, to a female relative, the grand-daughter of the 
Rev. James Scott, who married a sister of the Rev* Mr. Moncure's 
wife, and daughter of Dr. Ghistavus Brown, of Port Tobacco, 
Maryland : 

" I was only ten years old when I lost my dear father. He was a Scotch- 
man descended from a French ancestor, who fled among the first Protest- 
ants who left France in consequence of the persecution that took place 
BOOH after the Reformation. He had an excellent education, and had made 
considerable progress in the study of medicine, when an invitation to seek 
an establishment in Virginia induced him to cross the Atlantic, and his 
first engagement was in Northumberland county, where he lived two years 
in a gentleman's family as private tutor. During that time, although teach- 
ing others, he was closely engaged in the study of divinity, and, at the com- 
mencement of the third year from his first arrival, returned to G-reat Britain 
and was ordained a minister of the then Established Church ; came back 
fco Virginia and engaged as curate to your great-uncle, Alexander Scott, 
who at that time was minister of" Overwharton parish, in Stafford county, 
and resided at his seat of Dipple. Tour uncle died a short time after, and 


;ny dear father succeeded him in his parish and resided at the glebe-1 ouse. 
Tour grandfather, the Rev. James Scott, who inherited Dipple, continued 
there until he settled at Westwood, in Prince William. He was my 
father's dearest, kindest friend, and one of the best of men. Their in- 
timacy brought my father and my mother acquainted, who was sister to 
your grandmother Scott. Old Dr. Gustavus Brown, of Maryland, my ma- 
ternal grandfather, objected to the marriage of my father and mother. 
Although he thought highly of my father, he did not think him an eligible 
match for his daughter. He was poor, and very delicate in his health. 
Dr. Brown did not, however, forbid their union, and it accordingly took 
place. The old gentleman received them as visitors and visited them 
again, but would not pay down my mother's intended dowry until he saw 
how they could get along, and ' to let them see that they could not live on 
love without other sauce/* I have often heard my dear mother relate the 
circumstauocs of her first housekeeping with tears of tender and delightful 
recollection. They went home from your grandpapa's, where they were 
married, wiih a slenderly-supplied purse and to an empty house, except 
a few absolute necessaries from their kind friends. When thus arrived, 
they found some of my good father's parishioners there : one had brought 
some wood, another some fowls, a third some meal, and so on. One good 
neighbour would insist on washing for them, another would milk, and 
another would tend the garden ; and they all delighted to serve their good 
minister and his wife. Notwithstanding these aids, my mother found much 
to initiate her into the habits of an industrious housewife, and my father 
into those of an active, practical farmer and gardener, which they never 
gave up. When the business of preparing their meal was over, a small 
writing-stand was their table, the stair-steps furnished one a seat, and a 
trunk the other. Often, when provisions were scarce, my father took his 
gun or his fishing-rod and with his dog sallied forth to provide their dinner,, 
which, when he returned, his happy wife dressed; and often would she 

* The opposition of Dr. Brown to the marriage of ids eldest daughter with a 
poor clergyman does not seem to have been attended with the evils which he doubt- 
less apprehended, for Mr. Moncure prospered both in temporal and spiritual things 
He has numerous descendants who have also prospered, and many of them arc 
living on the very lands bequeathed to them by their ancestor, who purchased them 
at a cheap rate during his ministry. They are also zealous friends of the Church 
wherever we near of them. Dr. Brown had many other daughters, four of whom 
followed the example of their eldest sister and married clergymen of the Episcopal 
Church. The Bev. James Scott, of Dettingen parish, Prince William, married one, 
who is the maternal ancestor of numerous families in Virginia of whom we shall 
soon speak. The Eev. Mr. Campbell and the Bey Mr. Hopkins and the Rev 
Samuel Glaggett, of Maryland, (doubtless a relative, perhaps a brother, of Bishop 
Claggett,) married the fifth, so that the family of Browas were thoroughly identified 
with the Episcopal Church and ministry. 

Epitaph of Mrs. Frances Brown, who was buried at Dipple, the seat of the Eev 
Alexander Scott, on the Potomac : *' Here lyetfc the body of Frances, the wife of 
Br. (jhistavus Brown, of Ckarfes county, Maryland. By feer he had twelve children, 
f whom one son and seven daughters survived her. She was a daughter of Mr. 
Gerard Fowke, late of Maryland, and descended from the Fowkesof Crunster Hatt, 
in Staffordshire, England. She was born February the 2d, 1691, and died, much 
nted, on tije 8th of November, 1744, in the fifty-fourth year of her age." 


accompany him a-fishing or fowling, for site said tliat they were too poor 
to have full employment in domestic business. Though destitute of every 
luxury, they had a small, well-chosen library which my father had collected 
while a student and tutor. This was their evening's regale. While 
my mother worked with her needle he read to her. This mode of 
enjoyment pleasantly brought round the close of the first year. When 
the minister's salary was paid they were now comparatively rich. My 
dearest father exchanged his shabby black coat for a new one, and the next 
year was affluent. By this time the neighbouring gentry found out the 
value of their minister and his wife, and contended for their society by 
soliciting visits and making them presents of many comforts. Frequently 
these grandees would come in their splendid equipages to spend a day at 
the glebe, and bring every thing requisite to prevent trouble or expense to 
its owners, merely for the enjoyment of the society of the humble in- 
habitants of this humble dwelling. In the lapse of a few years, by fru- 
gality and Industry in the management of a good salary, these dear parents 
became quite easy in their circumstances. My father purchased a large 
tract of land on the river Potomac. He settled this principally by tenants -, 
but on the most beautiful eminence that I ever beheld, he built a good 
house, and soon improved it into a very sweet establishment. Here I was 
born : my brother and two sisters, considerably my seniors, were boro at the 
glebe. My brother, who was intended for the Church, had a private tutor 
in the house. This man attended also to my two sisters, who previously 
to Ms residence in the family were under the care of an Englishman, who 
lived in the house, but also kept a public school under my father's direc- 
tion about a mile from his house. Unhappily for me, I was the youngest, 
and very sickly. My father and mother would not allow me to be com- 
pelled to attend to my books or my needle, and to both I had a decided 
aversion, unless voluntarily resorted to as an amusement. Tn this I was in- 
dulged. I would sometimes read a lesson to my sister or the housekeeper, or, 
if their authority was resisted, I was called to my mother's side. All this 
amounted to my being an ignorant child at my father's death, which was a 
death-stroke to my dearest mother. The incurable grief into which it plunged 
her could scarcely be a matter of surprise, when the uncommonly tender 
affection which united them is considered. They were rather more than 
middle-aged when I was first old enough to remember them ; yet I well recol- 
lect their inseparable and undeviating association. They were rarely seen 
asunder. My mother was an active walker and a good rider. Whenever she 
could do so, she accompanied him in his pastoral visits, a faithful white 
servant attending in her absence from home. They walked hand in hand, 
and often rode hand in hand. were both uncommonly fond of the cultiva- 
tion of flowers, fruits, and rare plants. They watched the opening buds 
together, together admired the beauty of the full-blown blossoms, and 
gathered the ripening fruit or seed. While he wrote or read, she worked 
near his table, which always occupied the pleasantest place in their cham- 
ber, where he chose to study, often laying down his pen to read and com- 
ment on an impressive passage. Frequently, when our evening repast was 
vWer, (if the family were together,) some book, amusing and instructive, 
was read aloud by my dear father, and those of the children or their 
young associates who could not be silent were sent to bed after evening 
worship, which always took place Immediately after supper. Under the 
void which this sad separation occasioned, my poor mother's spirits sunk 
and never rallied. The first six or eight months were spent in a dark. 


secluded chamber, distant from that formerly occupied. The manage 
ment of the family devolved on my brother and second sister. My eldest 
married two or three years previous to this period. I was left pretty much 
to my own management. The education of my brother and sister was 
so far finished that they not only held what they had acquired, but con- 
tinued to improve ; but alas, poor me ! I as usual refused every thing like 
study, but became, unfortunately, immoderately fond of books. The key 
of the library was now within my power, and the few romances it con* 
tained were devoured. Poetry and a botanical work with plates came 
nest. This gave me a useless, superficial knowledge of what might have 
been useful, but what in this indigested way was far otherwise. The 
Tattler, Guardian, and Spectator were the only works I read which con- 
tained beneficial instruction ; and of these I only read the amusing papers ; 
and, taking the beautiful and sublime allegories which abound with moral 
instruction in a literal sense, I read them as amusing tales. This kind 
of reading made up a pernicious mass of chaotic matter that darkened 
while it seemed to enlighten my mind, and I soon became romantic and 
exceedingly ridiculous, turned the branches of trees together and called 
them a bower, and fancied I could write poetry, and many other silly 
things. My dear mother suffered greatly toward the close of her life with a 
cancer : for this she visited the medicinal springs, and I was chosen to attend 
her. It was a crowded and gay scene for me, who had lived almost entirely 
in seclusion. I did not mis in its gayest circle } yet it was of service to 
me, as it gave me the first view of real life that ever I had. My beloved 
parent was not desirous of confining me; bat I rejoice at the recollection 
that I very seldom could be prevailed on to leave her. There I first 
became the favourite and devoted friend of your most excellent mother. 
Forgive the vanity of this boast, my dear cousin, but I cannot help 
observing that she afterward told me that it was the manner in which 
I discharged this duty that won her esteem and love. At this place I 
first met with General Wood, who visited me soon after my return home, 
and became my husband four years after." 

The time of Mr. Moneure's death is seen from the following letter 
from that true patriot and statesman, Mr. George Mason, of Gruns- 
ton, Fairfax county, Yirginia. As he signs himself the kinsman 
of Mrs. Moncure, the relationship must have come from connection 
between the Browns, of Maryland, and Masons. Dr. Brown came 
to this country from Scotland in 1708, and married in Maryland. 

, 12th March, 1764. 

" DEAB MABAM : I have your letter by Peter yesterday, and the day 
before I had one from Mr. Scott, who sent up Gustin Brown on purpose 
with it. I entirely agree with Mr, Scott in preferring a funeral sermon at 
Aquia Church, without any invitation to the house. Mr. Mon cure's cha- 
racter and general acquaintance will draw together much company, besides 
a great part of his parishioners, and I am sure you are not in a condition 
to bear such a scene; and it would be very inconvenient for a number of 
people to come so far from church in the afternoon after the sermon. As 
Mr. Honours did not desire to be buried in any particular pkce, and as it 
is usual to bury clergymen in their own churches, I think the oorpse being 


deposited In the church where he had so long preached Is both decent and 
proper, and It is probable, could he have chosen himself, he would have 
preferred it. Mr. Scott writes to me that It is intended Mr. Green shall 
preach the funeral sermon on the 20th of this month, if fair; if not, the 
next fair day; and I shall write to 3Ir. Grreen to-morrow to that purpose, 
and Inform him that you expect Mrs. Green and him at your house on the 
day before; and, if God grants me strength sufficient either to ride on 
horseback or In a chair, I will certainly attend to pay the last duty to the 
memory of my friend; but I am really so weak at present that I can't walk 
without crutches and very little with them, and have never been out of 
the house but once or twice, and then, though I stayed but two or three 
minutes at a time, it gave me such a cold as greatly to increase my dis- 
order. Mr. Green has lately been very sick, and was not able to attend 
his church yesterday, (which I did not know when I wrote to Mr. Scott :) 
if he should not recover soon, so as to be able to come down, I will inform 
you or Mr, Scott in time, that some other clergyman may be applied to. 

*'I beseech you, dear madam, not to give way to melancholy reflections, 
or to think that you are without friends. I know nobody that has reason 
to expect more, and those tbat will not be friends to you and your chil- 
dren now Mr. Moncure is gone were not friends to him when he was living, 
let their professions be what they would. If, therefore, you should find 
any such, you have no cause to lament the loss, for such friendship is not 
worth anybody's concern. 

a l am very glad to hear that Mr. Scott purposes to apply for Over- 
wharton parish. It will be a great comfort to you and your sister to be so 
near one another, and I know the goodness of Mr. Scott's heart so well, 
that I am sure he will take a pleasure in doing you every good office in 
bis power, and I had much rather he should succeed Mr. Moncure than 
any other person. I hope you will not impute my not visiting you to any 
coldness or disrespect. It gives me great concern that I am not able to 
see yop. You may depend upon my coining down as soon as my disorder 
will permit^ and I hope you know me too well to need any assurance that 
I shall gladly embrace all opportunities of testifying my regard to my de- 
ceased friend by doing every good office in my power to his'family. 

" I am, with my wife's kindest respects and my own, dear madam, your 
most affectionate kinsman, GEORGE MASON." 

As to the successor of Mr. Moncure In this parish, it Is probable 
that the Rev, Mr. Green, mentioned in the above letter, took his 
place in 1764. It is certain that Mr. Scott did not. In the years 
1774 and 1776 the Rev. Clement Brooke was minister. After the 
Revolution, in the Convention of 1785, called for organizing the 
diocese and considering the question of a general confederation of 
Episcopalians throughout the Union, we find the Rev. Robert 
Buchan the minister of Overwharton parish, and the Rev. Mr. 
Thornton of Brunswick parish, which had been taken from King 
George and given to Stafford when St. Paul's was taken from Staf- 
ford and given to King George. The lay delegates at that Con- 
vention were Mr. Charles Carter, representing Overwharton parish, 
and Mr. William Fitzhugh, of Chatham, representing Brunswick 


parish, which lay on the Rappahannock and reached to Hanorer 
parish in King George. In the year 1786 we find Mr. FItzhugh 
again representing Brunswick parish ; and this is the last notice we 
have of the Church in Stafford until some years after the revival 
of Conventions. In the year 1819, the Rev, Thomas Allen, the 
present devoted missionary to the poor in Philadelphia, took charge 
of this parish and laboured hard for its resuscitation, preaching 
alternately at Dumfries and Aquia Churches. At a subsequent 
period the Rev. Mr. Prestman, afterward of New Castle, Delaware, 
gave all his energies to the work of its revival. The labours of 
both were of some avail to preserve it from utter extinction, hut 
not to raise it to any thing like prosperity. The Rev. Mr. Johnson 
also made some ineffectual efforts in its behalf as a missionary. In 
the year 1838, I visited Old Aquia Church as Assistant-Bishop. It 
stands upon a high eminence, not very far from the main road from 
Alexandria to Fredericksburg. It was a melancholy sight to be- 
hold the vacant space around the house, which in other days had 
been filled with horses and carriages and footmen, now overgrown 
with trees and bushes, the limbs of the green cedars not only cast- 
ing their shadows but resting their arms on the dingy walls and 
thrusting them through the broken windows, thus giving an air of 
pensiveness and gloom to the whole scene. The very pathway up 
the commanding eminence on which it stood was filled with young 
trees, while the arms of the older ones so embraced each other over 
it that it was difficult to ascend. The church had a noble exterior, 
being a high two-story house, of the figure of the cross. On its top 
was an. observatory ? which you reached by a flight of stairs leading 
from the gallery, and from which the Potomac and Rappahannock 
Rivers, which are not far distant from each other, and mnch of the 
surrounding country, might be seen. Sot a great way off, on an- 
other eminence, there might be seen the high, tottering walls of the 
Old Potomac Church, one of the largest in Virginia, and long be- 
fore this time a deserted one. The soldiers during the last war 
with England, when English vessels were in the Potomac, had 
quartered in it ; and it was said to have been sometimes used as a 
nursery for caterpillars, a manufactory of silk having been set up 
almost at its doors. The worshippers in it had disappeared from the 
country long before it ceased to be a fit place for prayer. But there 
is hope even now for the once desolated region about which we have 
been speaking. At my visit to Old Aquia Church in the year 1837, 
to which I allude, I baptized five of the children of the present Judge 
Moneore, in the venerable old building in which his first ancestor 


had preached and so many of Ms other relatives had worshipped. 
He had been saving them for that house and that day. I visited 
once more, during the last spring, that interesting spot. Had I 
been suddenly dropped down upon it, I should not have recognised 
the place or building. The trees and brushwood and rubbish had 
been cleared away. The light of heaven had been let in upon the 
once gloomy sanctuary. At the expense of eighteen hundred 
dollars, (almost all of it contributed by the descendants of Mr. 
Moncure,) the house had been repaired within, without, and above. 
The dingy walls were painted white and looked new and fresh, and 
to me it appeared one of the best and most imposing temples in our 
land. The congregation was a good one. The descendants of Mr. 
Moncure, still bearing his name, formed a large portion. I was 
told that all those whom I had baptized eighteen years ago (some of 
whom, of course, were not babes at the time) were there and meant 
to make it their home. The country, which seemed some time 
since as if it were about to be deserted of its inhabitants by reason 
of sickness and worn-out fields, is putting on a new aspect. Agri- 
culture is improving. A better population is establishing itself in 
the county, and at the end of a century there is an encouraging 
prospect that a good society and an Episcopal congregation will be 
again seen around and within OH Aquia Church. The Rev. Mr. 
Wall is now their minister. 

The Hon. Judge Daniel, of the Supreme Court, has been kind 
enough to supply me with the following letter, which, with the 
accompanying extracts from the county records, will be an im- 
portant addition to my notices of this parish : 

''WASHINGTON, November 12, 1855. 

u DEAR SIB : In reply to your inquiries concerning the Old Potomac 
Church and its neighbourhood, I give you the following statement, founded 
in part upon tradition and partly upon my own recollection. My maternal 
grandfather, John Moncure, a native of Scotland, was the regular minister 
both of Aquia and Potomac Ohurches. He was succeeded in the ministry 
in, these churches by a clergyman named Brooke, who removed to the 
State of Maryland. The Eev. Mr. Bucnan succeeded him : he was tutor 
in my father's family, and educated John Thompson Mason, 6-eneral 
Mason, of Georgetown, Judge Nicholas Fitzhugh, ^ and many others. 
Going back to a period somewhat remote in enumerating those who lived 
In the vicinity of Potomac Church, I will mention my great-grandfather, 
Kowleigh Travers, one of the most extensive landed proprietors in that 
section of the country, and who married Hannah Ball, half-sister of Mary 
Ball, the mother of General George Washington. From Bowleigh Travers 
and Hannah Ball descended two daughters, Elizabeth and Sarah Travers : 
fche former married a man named Gooke, and the latter my grandfather, 








Peter Daniel. To Peter and Sarah Daniel was born an only son, Traverg 
Daniel, my father, who married Frances Moneure, my mother, the daugh- 
ter of the Bev. John Moncure and Frances Brown, daughter of Dr. Gus- 
tavus Brown, of Maryland. The nearest and the coterminous neighbour 
of my father was John Mercer, of Marlborough, a native of Ireland, a 
distinguished lawyer; the compiler of 'Mercer's Abridgment of the Tir- 
dniaLaws;' the father of Colonel George Mercer, an officer in the British 
service, and who died in England about the commencement of the Revo- 
lution ; the father also of Judge James Mercer, father of Charles F. Mercer, 
of John Francis Mercer, who in my boyhood resided at Marlborough, in 
Stafford, and was afterward Governor of Maryland; of Robert Mercer, who 
lived and died in Fredericksburg; of Ann Mercer, who married Samuel 
Selden, of Selvington, Stafford; of Maria Mercer, who married Kichard 
Brooke, of King "William, father of General George M. Brooke; and of 
another daughter, whose name is not recollected, the wife of Muscoe 
Garnett and mother of the late James M. Garnett. 

Proceeding according . to contiguity were Elijah Threlheld, John 
Hedgeman, who married a daughter of Parson Spencer Grayson, of 
Prince William; Thomas Mountjoy, William Mountjoy, and John Mount- 
joy, the last-mentioned of whom emigrated to Kentucky, having sold 
his farm to Mr. John T. Brooke^ the brother of the late Judge Francis 
T. Brooke, and who married Ann Gary Seldeu, daughter of Ann Mercei 
and grand-daughter of John Mercer. Next in the progression was the 
residence of John Brown, who married Hannah Cooke, daughter of Eliza- 
beth Travers and grand-daughter of Hannah Ball, wife of Eowleigh 
Travers. Next was the glebe, the residence of the Rev. Robert Buchan, 
Adjoining this was the residence, (in the immediate vicinity of the church,) 
called Berry Hill, of Colonel Thomas Ludwell Lee, who possessed anothei 
plantation, on the opposite side of Potomac Creek, called Belle vue. The 
son of the gentleman last named, and bearing the same name, removed to 
London. Of his daughters, one married Daniel Carroll Brent, of Richland, 
Stafford, and the other Dr. John Dalrymple Orr, of Prince William. Next 
to Berry Hill was the plantation of John Withers, on the stream forming 
the head of Potomac Creek. Crossing this stream were those of John 
James, Thomas Fitzhugh, of Boscobel,, Major Henry Fitzhugh, of Belte 
Air, Samuel Selden, of Selvington, the husband of Ann Mercer T and lastly, 
Belle Plaine, the estate of Gaury Waugh, and, after his death, of bis sons, 
George Lee Waugh and Robert Waugh, I have thus, sir, without much 
attention to system or style, attempted a compliance with your request, 
and shall be gratified if the attempt should prove either serviceable 01 
gratifying. I would remark that the enumeration given you, limited to a 
space of some eight or ten miles square, comprises none but substantial 
people, some of them deemed wealthy in their day, several of them per- 
sons of education, polish, and refinement. 

"With great respect, yours, P. V. DANIEL," 

The present clerk of Stafford county (Mr. Conway) has also beei 
kind enotigli to search through the old records, going back to tibw 
year 1664, for such things as may answer my purpose. Araonj 
the items famished is the presentment^ in the year 1698, by Rich 
ard (jipson, of George and Robert Brent as being Popish recusants 


He calls upon the court to insist upon their taking the test-oath in 
order to the practice of law. That oath is abjuration of tran- 
substantiation. The court sustains the presentment and requires 
them to take the oath ; but they refuse, and appeal to the General 
Court in Williamsburg. What was the issue we know not, but 
believe that they were leading men at the bar after that. One of 
them was associated in the practice with the first William Fitzhugh, 
and one of them joint sponsor with the first George Mason at the 
baptism of an Indian boy whom they had taken prisoner. 

We find also presentments for swearing, for pitching and playing 
on the Sabbath, for not attending church. The fines were five to 
ten shillings, to be paid to the churchwardens for the poor of the 
parish. To the great kindness and diligence of Mr. Conway I am 
indebted for a list of the justices from the year 1664 to 1857. Of 
course it is a long list. I shall only select the surnames of those 
most familiar to our ears : 

Williams, Alexander, Mason in great numbers, Osburn, Fitzhugh in 
great numbers, Buekner, Thompson, Withers, Maddoeks, Massey, Ander- 
son, Waugh, West, Hoe, Washington in great numbers, Sumner, Jameson, 
Bade, Harrison, Storkey, Broad water, Linton, Berryman, Farrow, Thorn- 
ton, McCarty, Triplett, G-rigsby, French, Aubrey, Hedgeman, Markam, 
Lee, Carter, Brent, Fowke, Bernard, Foote, Doniphan, Peyton in numbers, 
Grant, Daniel in numbers, Scott, Walker, Waller, Chapman, Mercer, 
Strother, Stewart, Stith, Seldon, Moncure, Bronaugh, Edrington, James, 
Adie, Brown, Banks, Mountjoy, Hewett, Yowles, Morson, Hood, Nicholas, 
Eustace, Ficklin, Richards, Botts, Wallace, Fox, Brooke, Bristoe, Lewis, 
Lane, Seddon, Tolson, Yoss, Crutcher, Forbes, Skinker, Eose, Beale, 
Grayson, Hill, Cooke, Norman, Briggs, Morton, Bowen, Kendall, Conway, 
Green, Benson, Chinn, Browne, Stone, Irvine, Slaughter, O'Bannon, 
Harding, Hickerson 7 Clift. 

We must not in our minds confine all these to Stafford as it now 
is, but think of its original dimensions. 


Dettingen Parish, Prince William County. 

THIS was taken out of Hamilton parish, which, in 1745, covered 
all of what is now Prince William and Fauquier. It is supposed 
to have been named after a town in Germany, called Dettingen, 
near which the English gained a victory in the year 1743, two 
years hefore. The parish register having been destroyed in the 
Clerk's office in Fauquier, as we shall hereafter see, we have no 
record of the parish of Dettingen previous to the year 1745. All 
that I can learn is that the Rev. Mr. Keith, the grandfather of 
Chief-Justice Marshall, was the minister of Hamilton parish pre- 
vious to the division, and continued to be the minister of that part 
called Hamilton after the division. My information concerning 
Dettingen parish is derived from a vestry-book in the Clerk's office 
of Prince William, commenced in the year 1745 and continued to 
the year 1785. It commences with the following test, signed by 
the vestry: "We do declare that we do believe there is not any 
transubstantiation in the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, or in 
the elements of bread and wine, at or after the consecration 
thereof by any person whatsoever." It would seem that the 
above was the only test subscribed in this parish, stowing that 
there was at this time some peculiar fear and detestation of Popery, 
it being about the time of the last efforts in England in behalf of 
the Pretender. Although a form of the subscription of vestrymen 
was prescribed by Act of the Assembly, which was generally 
used, the vestries did not always conform to it, but adopted several 
different ones, as we shall ' show hereafter. The first minister of 
this parish after its separation from Hamilton was the Bev. James 
Soott, of whom we have already spoken as coming over to this 
country by the invitation of his elder brother, Mr. Alexander Seott, 
minister of the adjoining parish of Overwharfcon, in Stafford. How 
long Mr. James Scott had been in America is not known. The 
following resolution of the vestry shows that he was living in Staf- 

rd at the time of Ms election, and also the probability that h* 


was married at that time.* " Ordered, that the Rev* James Scott 
be received into this parish on condition of his moving into it as 
soon as a glebe and house is prepared." The following letters 
from Governor Grooch and Commissary Dawson speak well in his 

" WILLIAMSBTTKG, April 26, 1745. 

* GENTLEMEN : As your parish is at present unfurnished with a mi- 
nister, I recommend to your approbation and choice the Rev. Mr. Scott, 
who, in my opinion, is a man of discretion, understanding, and integrity, 
and in every way qualified to discharge the sacred office to your satisfac- 
tion. I am your affectionate friend and humble servant, 


* fc GENTLEMEN : I hope and believe that your parish will be worthily 
supplied by the Rev. Mr. James Scott. His merit having been long known 
to you, I need not dwell upon it. That you may be greatly benefited by 
his good life and doctrine, and mutually happy with each other, and all 
the souls committed to his charge may be saved, is the daily prayer of, 
u Gentlemen, your most affectionate, humble servant, 

" WILLIAM AND MARY COLLEGE, April 26, 1745." 

In the above letter, Mr. Scott is said to have been long known 
to the vestry of Dettingen parish. It is supposed that he was for 
gome years assistant or curate to Ms brother Alexander Scott in 

* The Rev. James Scott, who married Sarah Brown, had several sons and daugh- 
ter^ viz. : James Scott, (the father of Alexander Scott, Mrs. Dr. Homer, and Mrs. 
Brown, of Fauqttier,) the Rev. John Scott, (father of the late Judge Scott, of 
Fauquier, and Mrs. Peyton, of Gordonsdale ; of a daughter, who first married Mr. 
r* Peyton, then Mr. Charles Lee, and lastly, Mr. Glassell,) Gustavus, (the father 
of Robert and John Scott, and Mrs. Rankin,) One of the daughters of Rev. James 
Scott married Judge Bullett, father of Judge Bullett, of Maryland, and of Mr, 
.Alexander Bullett, an eminent lawyer of Louisville, Kentucky, who has left a num- 
ber of descendants. Another married Colonel Blackhurn, of Rippon Lodge, not 
very far from Dumfries, father of Mr. Thomas Blackburn, who married Miss Sin- 
clair ; and of Richard Blackburn, father of Mrs. Jane and Polly Washington, of 
Jefferson county, Miss Christian Blackburn, and Miss Judy Blackburn, now Mrs. 
Alexander, of King Oeorge, Colonel Blackburn, of Rippon Lodge, was also the 
father of Mrs. Washington, of Mount Vernon, wife of Judge Washington, and of 
Mrs. Henry Turner, of Jefferson county, Virginia. Mrs. Blackburn,mentioned above, 
was long known, loved, and revered, as one of the most exemplary members of our 
Church in the parish of Wkkliff, in old Frederick county. Prom my first entrance 
on the ministry, the house of Mrs, Blackburn was my frequent resort. I have 
never known a family of children and servants more faithfully regulated by Christian 
principles than was hers, and by herself, for she was a widow at an early age. She 
left three children, who are members of the Episcopal Church, and who seek to 
follow her example in the regulation of their household. One of the daughters of 
the Rev. James Scott married Dr. Brown, of Alexandria, who was at one time 
General Washington's family physician. 


Stafford, and was succeeded in that station by the Rev. Mr. Moncure. 
A. glebe was purchased for Mr. Scott on Quantico Creek, which 
runs up the Potomac to Dumfries. It consisted of four hundred 
acres of land, and was bought of Mr. Thomas Harrison, for one 
hundred and thirty-five pounds sterling. So far as I have ascer- 
tained, but few of the glebes cost that much, and when rented out, 
as they often were, seldom brought more than twenty or thirty 
pounds. Mr. Scott continued the minister of that parish until his 
death in 1782, being minister of the parish for thirty-seven years. 
He lived most of the time at his own estate of Westwood, the gift, 
it is believed, of his brother. Before we proceed to make mention 
of his successors in office, there are some things worthy of notice, 
in relation to the parish, which had better be disposed of in this 
place. There were two churches in the parish, between which the 
services of the minister were equally divided. One of them was 
very near Dumfries, the other near the two streams Broad Run and 
Slater Run, and sometimes called by either name. At the time of 
the division of the parish, there was an old and indifferent one 
near Dumfries, which, in the year 1752, was sold for fifteen hundred- 
weight of tobacco, and a new one costing one hundred thousand- 
weight was ordered. The contractor for it was a Mr. Waite, an- 
cestor to the worthy member and lay reader of our Church in 
Winchester, Mr. Obed Waite. The church at Broad Run was also 
contracted for in 1752. Both were of brick, and very substantial 
ones. It has not been many years since the roof and walls of the 
latter fell to the ground. Some remnant of the ruins of the former 
may perhaps be seen near Dumfries at this time. I have often 
seen them, when more abundant, in my travels through that region. 
Dumfries itself, once the mart of that part of Virginia, the scene 
of gayety and fashion, the abode of wealthy merchants from Scot- 
land, who named it after a city of that name in the mother-country, 
is now in ruins, almost as complete as those of the old church. 
Quantico Creek, through which the trade from Europe came, is now 
filled up, while the pines have covered the spot where the church 
once stood near its banks. Desolation reigns around. The old 
court-house was fitted up some thirty-five or forty years ago for 
worship, but that has long since been abandoned for want of wor- 
shippers. A few years since I spent a night in the neighbourhood, 
in a worthy Baptist family, and, while conversing on the past, the 
lady of the family mentioned that she had in her possession some 
things belonging K> tie old church, which she would be glad to put 
into my hands, as she wished to be clear of them. After hunting for 
TOL, IL 14 


some time amid the rubbish of the top-shelf of an old cupboard 
standing in the room, she brought out two small, old, well-worn 
pieces of church-plate, supposed to be those once used in the Old 
Quantico Church. I still have them in my possession, to bestow on 
some poor parish which will not be too proud to use them. There 
were galleries in the church at Broad Run, one of which was allowed 
to be put up by Mr. Thomas Harrison, provided it was done so as not 
to incommode any of the pews below it. The other? were put up 
by the vestry and sold. The pews below were all common, though 
doubtless taken possession of by different families, as is usual in 
England. The old English custom (beginning with the Royal 
family in St. George's Church at Windsor) of appropriating the 
galleries to the rich and noble was soon followed in Virginia, and, 
as we shall see hereafter, the old aristocratic families could with 
difficulty be brought down from their high lofts in the old churches, 
even after they became uncomfortable and almost dangerous. I find 
an entry on this vestry-book concerning payment to the sextons 
of these churches for making fires, which is the first of the only 
two instances I have met with, and I am in doubt whether the pay- 
ment was for fire in the churches or vestry-rooms in the yard; for 
I have never seen where provision was made for fires in any of the 
old churches, either by open chimneys or stoves, if indeed stoves 
were then known in the land. It was the same case in the old 
churches in England, and still is in cathedrals to this day, and it 
is no wonder that the latter are so cold, damp, and comfortless. 
Very few, if any, of tlie country churches, even in New England, 
were warmed by stoves when I travelled through it in the year 1819. 
In this respect I think we have certainly improved on the customs 
of our fathers. I think that in some other respects we have 
advanced in liberality. Nothing was done gratuitously by any 
member of the church. The lay readers were always paid one 
thousand or twelve hundred weight of tobacco. Clerks received 
about the same. No liberal gentleman gave his wine for the Com* 
mtmion, as in latter days, but always charged for it. The annual 
cost at each of the churches in this parish was four pounds for 
twelve bottles of wine. One thing has struck me, in all the in- 
dentures required of those to whom orphan or illegitimate children 
were bound by the vestry, as speaking well for the times. The 
masters were required to teach those who were bound to them "the 
art and mystery of some trade, 1 * to " instruct them in the principles 
of the Christian religion/' Sometimes the catechism, Lord's 
prayer, creed, and Commandments are specified, as also the doc 


crises of the Episcopal Church. On the part of those bound, they 
must "obey their masters, keep his secrets, not leave his house 
night or day without leave, not embezzle his goods or suffer others 
to do it, not play at cards, dice, or any other unlawful game, or 
frequent taverns or tippling-houses." Whether these promises 
were faithfully complied with or not, we are unable to say. We 
shall see hereafter that, by the laws of the Assembly, the very same 
things were forbidden the clergy, viz. : cards, dice, and other un- 
lawful games ; also taverns and tippliug-houses and such places : but 
they were disregarded by many. It is, however, a matter of re- 
joicing to see such testimonies to good morals by those in authority, 
and by legislative acts, even though contradicted by the conduct 
of those who bear them. In the most corrupt ages of the Chris- 
tian Church the most wholesome laws are to be found and the best 
forms of religion have been used. That God who has kept the 
Bible pure through so many ages of darkness and corruption has 
also, by civil and ecclesiastical legislatures and rulers, preserved 
and handed down many most faithful expositions of its moral code- 
Some faithful ones there have been in every age who have obeyed 
these laws. I doubt not but there were some ministers in the 
darkest age of the Church in Virginia who obeyed her canons, and 
some masters and mistresses who fulfilled pledges to orphans and 
poor unfortunates. 

I now return to the history of the ministers of Dettingen parish. 
At the death of Mr. James Scott, his son, the Rev. John Scott, was 
chosen minister. His ministry was of short duration. He resigned 
the following year on account of ill health, and died soon after. 
There are some painful circumstances in the history of this minister ; 
and, as they have been misrepresented and made worse than they 
really were, it is due to himself and posterity to make a correct 
statement. Even in that there is much not only to be regretted, 
but utterly condemned, the spirit of the times affording no excuse 
which should for a moment be entertained. Prom a letter in my 
possession, I think it probable he was set apart for the ministry in 
early youth. At the age of eighteen, however, he was engaged in 
an affair which showed that he was ill qualified for it at that time, 
being destitute of all godliness, however changed he may have been 
afterward. He conceived that Ms father and himself had been in- 
sulted and injured by the misrepresentations of one who, according 
to report, was a most unworthy and dangerous man, and that it 
was his duty to seek reparation by a resort to arms. He accord- 
ingly determined to challenge, and appliei to Mr. Bullett, his 


brother-tn-law, to be with Mm In the contest. Mr, Bullett dissuaded 
him froia the challenge in a letter, which I have in my possession, 
and which contains some of the many unanswerable arguments 
against duelling. Failing in his effort, he attends him to the place 
of combat, the end of Old Quantico Church, where the father of 
young Scott had so often read the words of Jehovah from Mount 
Sinai, a Thou shalt do no murder." The result was, that the second, 
who had warned against the act, and who, it was supposed, had 
gone in the hope of preventing the contest, was so treated by the 
challenged man on the ground as to engage in a contest with him, 
in which the other was slain. He was tried and unanimously ac- 
quitted by the court upon the ground of self-defence. Mr. Scott 
was obliged to fly the country, and, with his younger brother, 
Gustavus, went to Scotland. I take the following account of him 
while in Scotland, and after his return, from a letter written by one 
of his descendants: 

" Immediately after the trial and acquittal of Mr. Bullett, my grand- 
father and his younger brother, Gustavus, left this country for Scotland. 
Soon after their arrival in Scotland they entered King's College, old 
Aberdeen, where they finished their education. My grandfather, who 
seems to have taken life by storm, married, while a student of King's 
College, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Gordon, one of the professors. He 
was afterward ordain*,*! by the Bishop of London. It was during his re- 
sidence in Scotland that my grandfather formed an acquaintance (which 
ripened into iv friendship) with Sir Eobert Eden, an English or Scotch 
baronet. When Sir Robert was appointed Governor of Maryland, he in- 
vited my grandfather to Annapolis, promising to appoint him his chaplain, 
and to use his influence to obtain for him the rich parish of Eversharn. 
My grandfather readily accepted so advantageous an offer, and soon after 
sailed for America, leaving his infant son, Robert Eden Scott, (who it was 
feared could not bear a three months' voyage,) with his maternal relatives. 
Upon his return to America, he proceeded to Annapolis, was appointed 
chaplain to the Governor, and pastor of the parish, of Eversham. He re- 
sided in Maryland until the war between the Colonies and the mother- 
country broke out. An Englishman in principle, he adhered to the royal 
cause, and, taking too active a part in polities, became obnoxious to the 
Revolutionary party, into whose hands the government had passed, 
and was banished one hundred miles from tide-water. Compelled to leave 
Maryland, he sold his property there for Continental money, and returned 
to Virginia, intending to return to Scotland as soon as he could make the 
necessary arrangements. While making those arrangements he resided 
on his plantation, which he called Gordonsdale, after the name of Ms wife. 
His health soon after failing, he was advised to try the waters of Bath, in 
Berkeley county, Virginia. On his return from Bath he stopped at the 
residence of General Wood, who had married his cousin, Miss Moncure, > 
died there, and was buried under the pulpit of the old Episcopal church 
in Winchester. Whether he was pastor of any parish in Fauquier, I am 
unable to say ; but, as he did not long survive his banishment from Mary- 


land, I am inclined to think he never received such an appointment* My 
grandfather, as the Bishop has no doubt heard, was a man of fine talents 
and remarkable eloquence, as well as the handsomest man of his day. His 
gayety and wit caused his society to be much sought after, and, frum all 
that I have heard, rather unfitted him for his sacred profession. After his 
death, my grandmother, who had been summoned to Winchester to receive 
his expiring adieu, returned to Gordonsdale. The distracted condition 
of the country (the Revolutionary War was then at its height) compelled 
her to relinquish all hope of a return to her native country. She continued 
to reside at Gordonsdale, devoting herself to the education of her chil- 
dren, a task for which she was eminently fitted, since she had received a 
college education. She lived to see her children grown and settled in life, 
and died lamented. Several years before her death she had the pleasure 
of welcoming to Virginia her eldest aon, Robert Eden Scott, and, although 
twenty-one years had elapsed since she had left him an infant in Scotland, 
she recognised him immediately. During his visit to Virginia he received 
the office of a professorship in King's College, old Aberdeen, where he had 
received his education and his maternal ancestors had held professorships 
for three hundred years. He returned to Scotland, was made professor 
of mathematics, married a daughter of Sir William Forbes, and died young 
and childless/' 

To the above notice of Mr. Scott I add a report, which is not 
improbable, that, at the time he was summoned before the Council 
at Annapolis to give an account of Ms anti- American principles, 
Robert Goodloe Harper, t&en a young lawyer, was called in to 
examine him, and ever afterward spoke of him as the most talented 
man with whom he had ever engaged in controversy. After the 
resignation of the Bev, John Scott in 1784, the Rev. Spence 
Grayson was chosen minister. How long he continued such we 
do not know ; nor can we say any thing concerning him or his 
ministry, though our impression is that he was a worthy man. 
The vestry-records end with the year 1785. At the last meeting 
vestrymen were elected under the new organization of the Church, 
a delegate appointed to the Convention, and an order made to raise 
funds for the support of the minister, as nothing now remained 
but the glebe, which was of little value. Although an order was 
passed that the records of the vestry should be handed over by the 
aid clerk to the clerk of the new vestry, it fell into the hands of 
the overseers of the poor ; and, some blank leaves being left in the 
vestry-book, the proceedings of the latter body were for a few years 
recorded on them. In this way it happened that the vestry-book 
came into the possession of the court* I have petitioned the court 
to have it sent for safe-keeping to our fireproof library at the 

* In this the writer is mistaken, as the vestry-book shows that he was minister 
in Dettingea parish nearly two years. 


Theological Seminary of the Episcopal Church near Alexandria, 
to ^hich, I hope, many such documents will be transmitted. We 
have no certain accounts of any successor to Mr. Grayson ; but it ia 
confidently believed that the Rev. Thomas Harrison was the minister 
for some years after Mr. Grayson's death, as his name appears in 
the list of the overseers of the poor from 1792 to 1802, when it 
disappears, and when he either probably died or resigned. I have 
been unable to obtain any reliable accounts of Mr. Harrison. His 
name is nowhere to be seen on any of the lists of the clergy which 
I have. My old friend, Mr. Samuel Slaughter, of Culpepper, (now 
eighty-eight years of age,) told me, during the last summer, that he 
went to school to him in Culpepper when he was minister of Bloom- 
field parish, and that he afterward moved over to Prince William. 
He was the father of a numerous offspring of sons and daughters, who 
became scattered over the land. The late Mr. Phil. Harrison, of 
Richmond, was one of his sons, who are said to have been nine in 
number. 1 became acquainted with one of the families many years 
"since near Dumfries. Its members were then preparing to move 
to the South. On the first page of the vestry-book of Dettingen 
parish, I find a leaf taken from the old Overwharton vestry-book 
and fastened to the latter, doubtless by Mr. Harrison, in which 
there is the following genealogy, taken from the parish record of 
St. Margaret's, Westminster, and certified by Richard Gibson, 
London : 

" Burr Harrison j of Chappawamsic, born in England, son of Cuthbert 
Harrison, baptized in the parish of St. Margaret's, Westminster, 28th 
December, 1637. His sou Thomas bora in 1665 ; grandson Burr bora 
May 21, 1699; great-grandson Thomas born 3d of March, 1723; hia 
sister Jane the 9th of December, 1726; his sister Seth the 30th of 
November, 1729." 

This last Thomas Harrison was, I suppose, the minister. There 
was doubtless an intermarriage between the Powells, of Loudon 
county, and the Harrisons, of Prince William, from which it comes 
that the names Guthbert and Burr are so often to be found in these 
families* Whether all of the above were born in England, or some 
of them in this country, I am unable to say. There was a Thomas 
Harrison belonging to Broad Bun Church, in Dettingen parish, 
long before the Rev, Mr. Harrison appears in the parish, and maj 
have been his father. After the death of the Rev. Mr. Harrison, 
the Rev. Mr* O'Neal officiated for a short time. He died after ] 
entered the ministry ; but I never met with him. No clerical dele 
gate, and only one lay delegate, Mr. Jesse Ewell, ever appears it 


the Conventions of Virginia from Dettingen parish. It only 
remains that I mention, for the satisfaction of their posterity, 
the lay readers and vestrymen of this old parish during the fifty 
years of which the records testify. At Broad Run we find the 
names of John Bryant, William Peyton, Joseph Sherman, James 
Gray, George Carter. At Quantico Church, Mr. Thomas Machem 
or Mitchem, John Peyton, Jeremiah Moore, lay readers. The 
following are the names of the vestrymen of this parish during the 
fifty years of its recorded proceedings : Peyton, Rearser, Butler, 
Deskin, Linton, Renno, Blackburn, Furguson, Ewell, Seale, Gray- 
son, Baxter, Whetlige, Fouchee, Rust, Roussan, Crump, Frogg, Har- 
rison, Wright, Bullett, Wickliffe, Bell, Copedge, Thornton, Elsey, 
Betty, Eustace, Blackwell, Waggener, Nisbett, Kennor, Tibbs, 
Triplett, Carr, Lee, Baylis, Buchanon, Bennett, Hoe, Alexander, 
Fitzhugh, Kincheloe, Washington, Guatkin, M'Millon. The names 
of Adie and Tompkins are mentioned as men of uprightness, to 
whom the vestry and minister referred some important matters of 
difference for decision. The Lees, Peytons, Blackburns, and Ewells 
appear to have been most numerous and prominent in the vestries. 
After a failure of all efforts for the resuscitation of the Church 
in Dumfries, our attention was directed to the other parts of the 
parish of Dettingen. The Rev. Mr. Steel, beginning in 1822, la- 
boured for some years with partial success, and built a small church 
in the centre of the parish. The Rev. Mr. Slaughter followed him 
in 1835, and preached with more success at Brentsville the new 
county seat and at Hay-Market. The Rev. Mr. Skull succeeded 
Mr. Slaughter at the same places. The Rev, Mr. Towles has now 
for many years been faithfully and acceptably serving the parish. 
A new and excellent stone church has been built at Brenfcs?ille ; 
and the old court-house at Hay-Market has been purchased and 
converted into a handsome and convenient temple of religion. A 
race-course once adjoined the eourt-house, and in preaching there 
in former days I have, on a Sabbath, seen from the court-house 
bench, on which I stood, the horses in training for the sport 
was at hand. Those times have, I trust, passed away forever. 



Hamilton and Leeds Parishes, Fauquier County. 

AFTER the division of the former parish of Hamilton into Det* 
tingen and Hamilton, in the year 1745, the Rev. Mr. Keith con- 
tinned to be minister in Hamilton, How long he had been minister 
of the whole parish is not known ; neither have I been able to as- 
certain how long he continued to be minister of Hamilton parish 
after the division, only that in 1758 the Rev. Joseph Brunskill was 
the minister. The vestry-book, which could have informed us, was 
placed in the Clerk's office, and there torn up, page after page, by 
the clerks or others, for the purpose of lighting cigars or pipes. 
Of the Rev. Mr. Keith and his descendants I have not been able 
to obtain all the information I desire and hope for. From all that 
I can learn, he was a worthy man. He was a native of Scotland. 
Being involved in the rebellion in favour of the Pretender, he was 
forced to fly his country, and came to Virginia. Returning to 
England for Orders, he was then settled in Hamilton parish, and 
performed the duties of Ms office there for a long time, probably 
until 1757 or 1758. A daughter of his married Colonel Thomas 
Marshall, of Oakhill, Fauquier, the seat of the Marshalls to this 
day. He was the father of the late Chief-Justice. Both father 
and son were in the Revolutionary Army, and fought together at 
the battle of Monmouth. Another of Mr. Keith's children was 
the Clerk of Frederick county, Virginia, who so long and faith- 
fully performed the duties of that office. The descendants of Mr." 
Keith are numerous. They are also devoted members of the Epis- 
copal Church. After the division of the parish of Hamilton, Mr. 
Keith served, until his death, all that region now embraced in 
Fauquier county, as it was not until 1769 that Leeds parish was 
cut off. I am unable to ascertain how many churches there were 
then in that part now making the parish of Leeds. I can only 
speak of the two in that which is now Hamilton, namely, Elk Run 
and Turkey Run Churches, both of which I have often seen, and 
in one of which I have preached. Elk Run Church was about 
fifteen miles, I think, below Fauquier Court-House, on the road to 
Fredericksburg, upon a small stream from which it took its name, 
It was a substantial brick church, cruciform, I believe. I am not 


certain that the roof was on it when I first saw it, in 1811. Its 
walls continued for many years after this, and I saw them gradu 
ally disappear during my annual visits to the Conventions. The 
other was called the Turkey Run Church, and was situated about 
a mile helow Fauquier Court-House. It was an old frame church, 
which, after the erection of one at the court-house, was carried 
away and converted into a barn, and is still used as such. It was 
here I first met with Bishop Moore, after his arrival in Virginia in 
1815. His preaching was very melting. I saw an old Episcopalian 
wiping the tears from his eyes during the sermon, but, on speaking 
to him afterward about the Bishop's preaching, was surprised to 
hear him say that the Bishop was nothing but a Methodist, so differ- 
ent was his style and manner from what had hitherto been common 
in Episcopal pulpits. The Bishop confirmed fifty persons at that 
time, the most of whom came forward in ignorance of the proper 
qualifications for this rite, or of the nature of true religion. Such 
was the case with many other congregations at the Bishop's earlier 
visits, some of which had no ministers, and others new ones, so that 
due precautions could not be easily taken to prevent unsuitable 
persons from coming forward. It injured the Church and the 
Bishop not a little for some time. He once told me that he really 
feared to hold a Confirmation in a new place, lest some unworthy 
candidates should come forward. Of the ministers who succeeded 
Mr. Keith, but little is known. In the year 1758, the Eev. Joseph 
Brunskill was the minister.* In the year 1774, the Rev, James 

* Since writing the article on Hamilton parish, I have learnt something concern- 
ing the Rev. Mr. Brunskill which deserves to be noticed, especially as it is connected 
with the question of discipline in the Colonial Church. He was a notorious evil- 
liver, being given to intemperance and other vices. His vestry complained of him 
to Governor Dinwiddie, who summoned him and Ms accusers, with their witnesses, 
to Williamsburg. They appeared before the Governor and Council, Commissary 
Dawson being one of the Council. Being found guilty, the Governor ordered the 
vestry to dismiss him and choose another minister. On his return to the parish, 
Mr. Brunskill posted the Governor and Council on the church-door, and perhaps 
elsewhere, declaring that they had no jurisdiction in the case, and adding in tho 
same notice a canon of the English Church, whereby none but a Bishop could pass 
sentence on a clergyman, f he justification of the Governor was, that, although 
none but a Bishop could absolutely deprive of Orders, yet the Governor, as supreme 
ruler in Virginia, and representing the Crown, which was chief in Church and 
State in England, had a right and was bound to exercise some discipline and prevent 
such dishonour to religion, and that, as ministers were tried before the civil courts 
in England, so Mr. Bmnskill had been tried before the Governor and Council, which 
was the supreme court in Virginia. Commissary Bawson entertained some doubt 
as to the canonical regularity of the proceeding but in a letter to the Bishop of 
London justified it on the ground of necessity 


Craig Is minister. After Mr. Craig, I hear of the Rev. Mr. Kennor 
from Hanover parish, King George, and the Key. Mr. Iredell, from 
Culpepper, as living in the parish and preaching, neither of whom 
was very creditable to the Church. In the year 1805, the Rev, 
Mr. O'Neale and Mr. Charles Marshall appear as delegates in the 
Convention, as minister and lay delegate. Mr. O'Neale taught 
school in Warrenton for some years, and then removed to Dumfries, 
and died since I entered the ministry. Most prostrate was the 
Condition of the parish in the year 1812 or 1813, when I first visited 
it. There was no house of worship at Warrenton belonging to any 
denomination, and the old Turkey Run' Church was inconvenient, 
so that the service was held in the court-house. Notice being given 
that I would preach at three or four o'clock on a certain day during 
the session of the court, a large crowd assembled from the country 
around to hear a young Virginia Episcopalian. It so happened 
that a very important case detained the court beyond the appointed 
hour of worship. The people, however, gradually filled the house 
and hemmed in the lawyers. The ladies ascended the bench on 
which judges and magistrates sat, and enclosed the judge, until at 
length the business of the court was obliged to stop, and neither 
judge nor lawyers could escape. The house being completely filled, 
I was sent for, and, being unable to pass through the crowd, was 
raised up through the window and put into the sheriff *s box, from 
which I preached. 

About this time, the Episcopalians and Presbyterians proposed 
to build a church in conjunction. It was commenced, and a waL 
was put up and a roof completed. Some difficulty arising between 
the partners, as is generally the case, the Episcopalians determined 
to build one for themselves, without relinquishing their claim on 
the unfinished one. Accordingly, a frame building was put up and 
consecrated as an Episcopal Church. This was used until within a 
few years. A still better one of brick now receives the increasing 
congregation, under its faithful and zealous minister, the Rev. Mr. 
Norton, whose father and myself became candidates for the ministry 
at the same time. His lot was cast in Western New York, though 
by birth a Virginian. He still lives, a venerable though disabled 


This parish, as we have seen already, was taken out of Hamilton 
m the year 1769, The first and only minister, before the Rev, 
Mr. Lemmon took charge of it in 1816, was the Rev. James Thorn- 


son, from Scotland, born near Glasgow, in the year 1739, and who 
died in February, 1812. He came to this country in 1767 or 1768. 
He lived at first in the family of Colonel Thomas Marshall, of 
Oakhill, and instructed his sons, John Marshall, afterward Chief- 
Justice, James Marshall, and others. In 1769, he went to Eng- 
land for Orders. On his return, he married Miss Mary Ann Far- 
row, sister of the late Nimrod Farrow, of Leeds Manor, and settled 
at the glebe, near Salem, where he had a school, to which some of 
the sons of Mr. Thomas Marshall were sent to him again. Mr. 
Thomson, at the coming on of the Revolution, partook largely of 
the spirit -which animated Colonel Marshall and his son, the Chief- 
Justice. In a sermon preached at the time of the first difficulties 
at Boston, he thus speaks : 

"You have all heard before now of the measures taken by the British 
Parliament to deprive his Majesty's subjects of these Colonies of their just 
and legal rights, by imposing several taxes upon them destructive of their 
liberties as British subjects. And to enforce those acts they have for 
some time blocked up the harbour of the city of Boston with ships-of- 
war, and overawed the inhabitants by British troops. By which illegal 
steps, the people in general have endured great hardships by being deprived 
of their trade, and the poor reduced to great want. It is therefore incum- 
bent upon every one of us, as men and Christians, cheerfully to contribute 
according to our ability toward their relief. And as we know not how 
soon their case may be our own, I would likewise recommend to you to 
contribute something toward supplying the country with arms and ammu- 
nition, that if we be attacked we may be in a posture of defence. And 
I make no doubt that what you bestow in this manner will be employed 
in the use you intend it for. If you want to be better informed with 
respect to the Acts which have been passed with a view to impose illegal 
tases upon us and deprive us of our liberties, I shall refer you to the 
gentlemen of the committee for this county, who will satisfy you on thai, 

Mr. Thomson, from the memoranda on a number of sermons 
or fragments of sermons I have seen, seemed to have been punctual 
in preaching in four churches, Taylor's Church, not very far from 
Warrenton, Goose Creek Church, near Salem, Old Bull Bun 
Church, whose location I cannot specify, and Piper's Church, in 
Leeds Manor, not one of which are BOW standing. They were, I 
suppose, all badly-built wooden churches, which soon came to ruin* 
I never saw Mr. Thomson, though he lived in a neighbouring parish 
and did not die until the year after I entered the ministry. From 
an examination of some of Ms sermons, or parts of sermons, I 
should say that they were marked by more taste and talent than 
most of those which have been submitted to my perusal. But the 
Episcopal Church from various causes failed, and almost disap- 


pearedj under his ministry. Other denominations took possession 
of the ground which was once entirely ours. 

My nearness to Leeds parish, and its position being such that 
I must pass through it on my numerous visits to other parts of 
Virginia, caused me to preach more frequently there than in any 
of the surrounding parishes. Mr. Thomas Marshall, eldest son of 
the Chief-Justice, lived at the old homestead of the Marshalls, 
Oakhill, on the road to TFarrington and Fredericksburg. He was 
one of my earliest and dearest Christian friends. He became a 
communicant at an early period. He often begged that, in any 
efforts I might make for the promotion of religion, which required 
pecuniary aid, I would consider him as ready to afford it. Mr, 
Thomas Ambler, a nephew of Judge Marshall, and an old school- 
mate of my early years, lived in the same neighbourhood. Cool 
Spring Meeting-house lay between them. At this I often preached, 
and it was the place where Mr. Lemmon officiated until perhaps the 
close of his labour** in that parish. The Marshalls and Amblers 
continued to settle in this neighbourhood, until they have become 
two small congregations, or rather important parts of two congre- 
gations. The children of my esteemed friend, Mr. Thomas Mar- 
shall, six in pumber, settled in sight of each other, on the estate 
of their father, and are all living.* The Peytons, Turners, Be- 
verleys, Hendersons, and others, descendants of Episcopal families, 
still adhere to the old Church, and are active in seeking its resus- 
citation. In the year 1816, the Rev. George Lemmon, of Balti- 
more, wko graduated at Princeton College a year or two before 
me, took charge of both Hamilton and Leeds parishes, and conti- 
nued to be the minister, with the exception of a few years spent 
in Hagerstown, Maryland, until his death. In my report to the 
Convention of 1847, I find the following notice of him: 

tl In the death of the Bev. Mr. Lemmon, the Church has parted with one 
who bad grown old and gray in her service, having devoted all his strength 
of body and mind to the promotion of her welfare. He who now addresses 
you has lost his earliest and oldest brother in the ministry. Our acquaint- 
ance, our friendship, our choice of the ministry, are all of the same date, 
and reach back to forty years save one. During all this period we have 
been living in the most intimate communion of soul. A sounder theo- 
logian, a more true-hearted minister, a more sincere Christian, I have never 

Never was there a minister more esteemed and beloved by Ms 

* Mr. Marshall was killed by the falling of a brick upon ills head in Baltimore, 
tn his way to Philadelphia to see his father, who died there a few days after. 


people of all ages and characters. His preaching-talents were not 
attractive, on account of the harshness of his voice, but he was faith- 
ful to the truth, and understood how to present it experimentally 
to the people. His forte was in private intercourse as a pastor 
and gentleman. Though strict in his views of fashionable amuse- 
ments, in which the young are apt to delight, yet so tender, cour- 
teous, and loving was he, that the young were ever pleased with 
his company and conversation. It is delightful to hear him spoken 
of to this day by his old parishioners. His health was very im- 
perfect for many years, and his ministrations very irregular ; yet 
such was the attachment of his people in both congregations, that 
they bore it almost without complaining. The active friends of the 
Church and Mr. Lemmon were Colonel Randolph, of Eastern view, 
(who was always sure to be at the minister's house on the first day 
of each year with his subscription of one hundred dollars,) the 
Homers, the Bells, the Withers, Smiths, Paines, Edmonds, Hen- 
dersons, Fitzhughs, Digges, and others, in Hamilton parish, and 
the Marshalls, Amblers, Scotts, Adamses, Carters, Chunns, and 
others, in Leeds parish. In Hamilton parish Mr. Lemmon was suc- 
ceeded by the present rector, the Rev. Mr. Norton, in the year 1847, 
under whose ministry the congregation has greatly increased, and 
by whose enterprise, aided by the zeal of some untiring ladies, a 
new church has been built at the cost of seven or eight thousand 
dollars. I have mentioned before that Judge Marshall had BO*' 
hope of the revival of the Church in Virginia, though contributing 
liberally to the efforts made for it. He lived to see himself mis- 
taken, and to unite with his children and grandchildren in the 
services of our resuscitated Church in the very place of his nativity 
and amid the scenes of his early life. In my frequent visits to 
Coolspring and Oakhill, I often met with him, as I had dofe at my 
father's house, and other places in Frederick, in more boyish days. 
Though not a communicant, he was the sincere friend to religion 
and the Episcopal Church. I can never forget how he would pros- 
trate his tall form before the rude low benches, without backs, at 
Coolspring Meeting-House, in the midst of his children and grand- 
children and his old neighbours. In Richmond he always set an 
example to the gentlemen of the same conformity, though many of 
them did not follow it. At the building of the Monumental Church 
he was much incommoded by the narrowness of the pews, which 
partook too much of the modern fashion. Not finding room enough 
for his whole body within the pew, he used to take his seat nearest 
the door of his pew, and, throwing it open, let his legs stretch a 


little Into the aisle. This I have seen with my own eyes. He was 
a most conscientious man in regard to some things which others 
might regard as too trivial to be observed, It was my privilege 
more than once to travel with him between Fauquier and Frede- 
ricksburg, when we were both going to the lower country. On one 
occasion, the roads being in their worst condition, when we came 
to that most miry part called the "Black Jack," we found that 
the travellers through it had taken a nearer and better road through 
a plantation. The fence being down, or very low, I was proceed- 
ing to pass over, but he said we had better go round, although each 
fitep was a plunge, adding that it was his duty, as one in office, to be 
very particular in regard to such things. As to some other matters, 
however, he was not so particular. Although myself never much 
given to dress or equipage, yet I was not at all ashamed to com- 
pare with him during these travels, whether as to clothing, horsr*, 
saddle, or bridle. Servant he had none. Federalist as he was in 
politics, in his manners and habits he was truly republican. Would 
that all republicans were like Mm in this respect ! He was fond of 
agriculture, and to gratify himself, and for the sake of exercise, he 
purchased a small farm a few miles from Richmond, to which he 
often went. On one of my visits to Richmond, being in a street 
near his house, between daybreak and sunrise one morning, I met 
him on horseback, with a bag of clover-seed lying before him, which 
he was carrying to his farm, it being the time of sowing such seed, 
But the most Interesting and striking feature in the domestic cha- 
racter of this truly great and good man was the tender and assidu- 
ous attentions paid to his afflicted companion. Mrs. Marshall was 
nervous in the extreme. The least noise was sometimes agony to 
her whole frame, and his perpetual endeavour was to keep the house 
and yard and outhouses as free as possible from the slightest cause 
of distressing her; walking himself at times about the house and 
yard without shoes. On one occasion, when she was in her most 
distressing state, the town authorities of Richmond manifested their 
great respect for him, and sympathy for her, by having either the 
town-clock or town-bell muffled. I am sure that every Virginian 
will excuse this digression.* 

* The strength as well as tenderness of Judge Marshall's attachment to Mrs. 
Marshall will appear from the following affecting tribute to her memory, written by 
himself, December 25, 1832: 

" This day of joy and festivity to the whole Christian world is, to my sad heart, 
fche anniversary of the keenest affliction which humanity can sustain. While all 


I have nothing more to say of Leeds parish, but that during the 
:ew years of Mr. Lemmon's stay at Hagerstown, the Rer. Mr. 

tround is gladness, my mind dwells on the silent tomb, and cherishes the remem- 
brance of the beloved object which it contains. 

"On the 25th of December, 1831, it was the will of Heaven to take to itself the 
companion who had sweetened the choicest part of my life, had rendered toil a 
pleasure, had partaken of all my feelings, and was enthroned in the inmost recess 
of my heart. Never can I cease to feel the loss and to deplore it. Grief for her ia 
too sacred ever to be profaned on this day, which shall be, during my existence, 
marked by a recollection of her virtues. 

'* On the 3d of January, 1783, I was united by the holiest bonds to the woman I 
adored. From the moment of our union to that of our separation, I never ceased 
to thank Heaven for this its best gift. Not a moment passed in which I did not 
consider her as a "blessing from which the chief happiness of my life was derived. 
This never-dying sentiment, originating in love, was cherished by a long and close 
observation of as amiable and estimable qualities as ever adorned the female bosom. 
To a person which in youth was very attractive, to manners uncommonly pleasing, 
she added a fine understanding, and the sweetest temper which can accompany a 
just and modest sense of what was due to herself. She was educated with a pro- 
found reverence for religion, which she preserved to her last moments. This senti- 
ment, among her earliest and deepest impressions, gave a colouring to her whole life. 
Hers was the religion taught by the Saviour of man. She was a firm believer in 
the faith inculcated by the Church (Episcopal) in which she was bred. 

*< I have lost her, and with her have lost the solace of my life ! Yet she remains 
still the companion of my retired hours, still occupies my inmost bosom. When 
alone and unemployed, my mind still recurs to her. More ihan a thousand times 
since the 25th of December, 1881, have I repeated to myself the beautiful lines 
written by General Burgoyne, tinder a, similar affliction, substituting * Mary* for 

" 4 Encompass J d in an angel's frame, 

An angel's virtues lay ; 
Too soon did Heaven assert its claim 

And take its own away I 
My Mary's worth, my Mary's charms. 

Can never more return ! 
What now shall fill these widowed anas ? 

Ah me! my Mary's urn ! 

Ah me I ah me ! my Mary's urn!* " 

As to the religious opinions of Judge Marshall, the following extract from a letter 
of the Bev, Mr. Norwood may be entirely relied on : 

"I have read some remarks of yours in regard to Cfcief-Jostlce Marshall, whieix 
have suggested to me to eommiraicale to you the following facts, which may be use- 
fol should yon again publish any thing in relation to his religions opinions. I often 
visited Mrs. General Harvey during her last illness. From her I received this state- 
ment. She was much with her father during the last months of tis life, and told 
me that the reason why be never communed was, that be was a Unitarian in opinion, 
though he never joined their society. He told her that he believed in the truth of 
the Christian revelation, but not in the divinity of Christ; therefore he could not 
commune m the Episcopal Church. But during the last months of Ms life he read 
Keith on Prophecy, where our Saviour's divinity is Incidentally treated, and was 


Barnes took his place both in Leeds and Hamilton, and that after 
Mr. Lemmon's death the Kev. Mr. Slaughter officiated in Leeds 
parish in conjunction with Upperville and Middleburg. At Mr. 
Slaughter's resignation of the charge, the Rev. "Wm. H. Pendleton 
became the minister, and so continued until the year 1854. The 
present minister is the Rev. Mr. Callaway. The parish has recently 
been subdivided. There are two new churches under the care of 
the Rev. Mr. Shields, in the part recently cut off, and one in the 
other under the care of Mr. Callaway. An excellent parsonage is 
now being built. 

convinced by Ms work, and the fuller investigation to which it led, of the supreme 
divinity of the Saviour. He determined to apply for admission to the Communion 
of our Church, objected to commune in private, because he thought it his duty to 
make a public confession of the Saviour, and, while waiting for improved health to 
enable him to go to the church for that purpose, he grew worse and died, without 
ever communing. Mrs. Harvey was a lady of the strictest probity, the most humble 
piety, and of a clear discriminating mind, and her statement, the substance of which 
I give you accurately, (having reduced it to writing,) may be entirely relied on. 

" I remember to have heard Bishop Moore repeatedly express his surprise (when 
speaking of Judge Marshall) that, though he was so punctual in his attendance at 

church, and reproved Mr. and Mr. , and Mr. , when they were absent, 

and knelt during the prayers and responded fervently, yet he never communed. The 
reason was that which he gave to his daughter, Mrs. Harvey. She said he died an 
humble, penitent believer in Christ, according to the orthodox creed of the Church. 

"Very truly, your friend and brother in Christ, WM. NOBWOOD. 

"F.S. Another fact, illustrating the lasting influence of maternal instruction, 
was mentioned by Mrs. Harvey. Her father told her that he never went to bed 
without concluding his prayer with those which his mother taught him when a 
child, viz. : the Lord's Prayer and the prayer beginning, l Now I lay me down to 


Truro Parish, Fairfax County. 

FAIRFAX county was separated from Prince William in tlte year 
1742, and at first embraced London county. The whole of this 
was covered with Truro parish.* In 1749, Cameron parish was 
cut off from it, and was afterward in London, when that county 
was separated from Fairfax in 1757. The parish of Truro was 
again divided in the year 1764. In the years 1754, 1758, and 
1764, I have evidence that the Rev. Chas. Green was the minister 
of Truro parish, and probably lived in the neighbourhood of Gun- 
ston, the seat of the Mason family, near which stood the old church 
which was superseded by Pohick or Mount Vernon Church. Mr. 
George Mason makes mention of him in a letter dated 1764. I 
think it probable General Washington also mentions the same person 
as visiting Mount Vernon in 1760, when Mrs. Washington was sick. 
How long he may have been the minister after 1764, I cannot 
ascertain. He was succeeded by the Rev. Lee Massey, either in 
or before the year 1767, as that is the date of one of his sermons 
preached at the Old Pohick Church. He was also in the parish as 
minister in the year 1785, as I find from the date of a sermon 
preached at the present Pohick Church, which was built during his 
ministry, of which I possess the proof. How long he ministered after 
this, I am unable to say. Mr. Massey was a lawyer previous to his 
engaging in the ministry, and was ordained by the Bishop of London 

* A curious circumstance in relation to the first movements of this parish is 
recorded in the fifth volume of Henning, pp. 274r-275. The Act of Assembly is as 
follows : " Whereas, it is represented to this Assembly, that divers of the inha- 
bitants of the parish of Truro, in the county of Fairfax, do now and for several years 
past have acted as vestrymen of the said parish, although many of them were never 
lawfully chosen or qualified ; that several pretending to act as vestrymen are not 
able to read or write, and, under a colour of being lawfully chosen, have taken 
upon themselves to hold vestries, and imposed many hardships on the inhabitants 
of the said parish : for remedy thereof be it enacted," &c. The Act proceeds to 
order a new election, though ratifying the levies of the pretended vestry. As Lau- 
rence Washington, the elder brother of the General, William Fairfax, Creorge Mason, 
and his father, of Gunston, and others of character and education, were then in the 
parish, and soon after were vestrymen, we presume that the condemned act was done 
in some other part of the county. 
IL 15 


for Virginia in 1766. His sermons evince talent and are sound in 
doctrine, but, like most of that day, want evangelical life and 
spirit, and would never rouse lost sinners to a sense of their con- 
dition. He was a man of great wit and humour, the indulgence 
of which was the fault of many of the clergy of that day. The 
following account of a dispute between himself and his vestry 
has been sent me, and illustrates his character. The clerk whom 
Mr. Massey had selected was unacceptable to the vestry, and in order 
to get rid of him they give him no salary or a very small one. Mr, 
Massey complaining, the vestry met and passed two resolutions : 
1st. That the minister had a right to choose his clerk ; 2d, That 
the vestry had a right to fix his salary. In a letter to the vestry 
Mr. Massey descanted on these resolutions with severity, and thus 
concluded: u And now, gentlemen, as to the knowing ones among 
you, and I admit there are such, I would say, * humanum est 
errare;' and, as to the rest of you, 'ne sutor ultra erepidamJ " 
Mr. Massey was a native of King George. His mother was an 
Alexander. He lived to his eighty-sixth year, and died in 1814. 
He had, however, ceased from the ministry for many years before his 
death. The old families had left the neighbourhood or the Church. 
General Washington, at the close of the war, had fully connected 
himself with Christ Church, Alexandria, and Pohick was deserted 
or only attended occasionally by some ministers of whom I shall 
presently speak. Before taking leave of Mr. Massey, I will adduce 
the proof that was mentioned that Mount Vernon or Pohick Church 
was built during his ministry, and not at the much earlier date as 
supposed by some. A friend has furnished me the following state- 
ment : 

" The date of its erection is inscribed on and near the head of one of tne 
columns forming part of the ornamental work of the chancel, in the fol- 
lowing manner : i 1773. W. B. ; sculptor.' " 

The date is also further established by a deed recorded in the 
county court, of which I have a copy. It is a deed from the vestry 
of a pew in the church to Mr. Massey and his successors. 

" A deed from the vestry of Truro parish, in the county of Fairfax, to 
wit: George Washington, Geo. Mason, Daniel McCarty, Alexander Hen- 
derson, Thomas Ellzey, Thomas Withers Coffer, Peter Waggener, Thomas 
Ford, Martin Cockburn, William Triplett ; William Payne, Jr., John Barry, 
John Ghirmell, and Thomas Triplett, to Lee Massey, dated 25th of Feb- 
ruary, 1774, recite that, whereas, in the new church lately built near 
Pohick, the vestry have set apart one of the pews, viz.: the one next 


the pulpit, on the east side thereof, and adjoining the north front wall of 
the church, for the use of the said Lee Massey, (now rector,) of the said 
parish, and his successors. 

"Teste, ALFRED Moss/ 7 

We have in this document not only a witness to the age of the 
present Pohick Church, but a list of the vestrymen of that day. We 
have seen a printed list of the vestry of Truro and Fairfax parishes 
in the year 1765, -just after the division, in which are some 
other names belonging to the neighbourhood of Pohick, as George 
Wm. Fairfax, Edward Blackburn, William Lynton, William Gar- 
diner, &c. It comes from a leaf, it is said, of the old Pohick vestry- 
book, which has by some means gotten into the Historical Society 
of New York. Of the vestry-book itself I can hear no tidings. 
In the year 1785, I find the name of George Washington, in his 
own handwriting, not as a vestryman, but as' a pew-bolder and 
subscriber, in the vestry-book of Christ Church, Alexandria. After 
this he seldom, if ever, attended at Pohick. 

It will be expected tbat I should say something concerning the 
tradition as to the part which Washington took in the location of 
Pohick Church. The following account is probably the correct one. 
The Old Pohick Church was a frame building, and occupied a site 
on the south side of Pohick Run, and about two miles from the 
present, which is on the north side of the run. When it was no 
longer fit for use, it is said the parishioners were called together 
to determine on the locality of the new church, when George 
Mason, the compatriot of Washington, and senior vestryman, 
advo-cated the old site, pleading that it was the house in which their 
fathers worshipped, and that the graves of many were around it, 
while Washington and others advocated a more central and con- 
venient one. The question was left unsettled and another meeting 
for its decision appointed. Meanwhile Washington surveyed the 
neighbourhood, and marked the houses and distances on a well- 
drawn map, and, when the day of decision arrived, met all the 
arguments of his opponent by presenting this paper, and thus 
carried his point. In place of any description of this house in its 
past or present condition, I offer the following report of u visit made 
to it in 1887 : 

" My next visit was to Pohick Church, in the vicinity of Mount Vemon, 
the seat of General Washington. I designed to perform service there on 
Saturday as well as Sunday, but through some mistake no notice was given 
for the former day. The weather indeed was such as to prevent the as- 
sembling* of any but those who prize such occasions so much as to he deterred 


only by very strong considerations. It was still raining when I a} proached 
the house, and found no one there. The wide-open doors invited me to 
enter, as they do invite, day and night, through the year, not only the 
passing traveller, but every beast of the field and fowl of the air. These 
latter, however, seem to have reverenced the house of God, since few 
marks of their pollution are to be seen throughout it. The interior of the 
house, having been well built, is still good. The chancel, Communion- 
table, and tables of the law, &c. are still there and in good order. The roof 
only is decaying ; and at the time I was there the rain was dropping on these 
sacred places and on other parts of the house. On the doors of the pews, 
in gilt letters, are still to be seen the names of the principal families which 
once occupied them. How could I, while for at least an hour traversing 
those long aisles, entering the sacred chancel, ascending the lofty pulpit, 
forbear to ask, And is this the hoase of God which was built by the Wash- 
ingtons, the Masons, the McCartys, the Grahams, the Lewises, the Fair- 
faxes ? the house in which they used to worship the God of our fathers 
according to the venerable forms of the Episcopal Church, and some of 
whose names are yet to be seen on the doors of those now deserted pews ? 
Is this also destined to moulder piecemeal away, or, when some signal is 
given, to become the prey of spoilers, and to be carried hither and thither 
and applied to every purpose under heaven ? 

" Surely patriotism, or reverence for the greatest of patriots, if not re- 
ligion, might be effectually appealed to in behalf of this one temple of 
God. The particular location of it is to be ascribed to Washington, who, 
being an active member of the vestry when it was under consideration and 
in dispute where it should be placed, carefully surveyed the whole parish, 
and, drawing an accurate and handsome map of it with his own hand, 
showed clearly where the claims of justice and the interests of religion 
required its erection/' 

"It was to this church that Washington for some years regularly 
repaired, at a distance of six or seven miles, never permitting any 
company to prevent the regular observance of the Lord's day. 
And shall it now be permitted to sink into ruin for want of a few 
hundred dollars to arrest the decay already begun ? The families 
which once worshipped there are indeed nearly all gone, and those 
who remain are not competent to its complete repair. But there 
are immortal beings around it, and not far distant from it, who 
might be forever blessed by the word faithfully preached therein. 

"The poor shall never fail out of any land, and to them the Gos- 
pel ought to be preached. 

"For some years past one of the students in our Theological Semi- 
nary has acted as lay reader in it, and occasionally a professor 
has added his services. Within the last year the Rev. Mr. Johnson, 
residing in the neighbourhood, has performed more frequent duties 

"On the day following the one which has given rise to the above, 
I preached to a very considerable congregation in this old church, 


jne-third of which was made up of coloured persons. The sacra- 
ment was then administered to twenty persons. If I should ever 
be permitted to visit this house again, it must be under circum- 
stances far more cheering, or far more gloomy, than those which 
attended my recent visit." 

I am happy to say that this report led the Rev. Mr. Johnson to 
its use, in a circular, by means of which he raised fifteen hundred 
dollars, with which a new roof and ceiling and other repairs were 
put on it, by which it has been preserved from decay and fitted for 
such occasional services as are performed there. A friend, who 
has recently visited it, informs me that many of the doors of the 
pews are gone. Those of George Washington and George Mason 
are not to be found, perhaps borne away as relics. Those of 
George William Fairfax, Martin Oockburn, Daniel McCarty, 
William Payne, and the rector's, are still standing and their 
names legible. Of Martin Cockburn and Mrs. Cockburn, intimate 
friends of George Mason, we have heard a high character for piety 
and benevolence. Mr. Oockburn was from the West Indies, and 
Mrs. Cockburn was a Miss Bronaugh, a relative of the Masons, of 
Guns ton. They left no children to inherit and perpetuate their 
virtues and graces. The family of Mason has long adhered to Old 
Gunston, near which was the Old Pohick. The following account, 
from one of the family, will be interesting to its members and 
friends. The first of the family who came to Virginia was Colonel 
George Mason, who was a member of the British Parliament in the 
reign of Charles the First. In Parliament he opposed with great 
eloquence the arbitrary measures of the King, but when the civil 
war commenced he drew his sword on the side of the King and was 
an officer in Charles the Second's army, and commanded a regi- 
ment of horse. When the King's army was defeated at Worcester 
by Oliver Cromwell in 1651, he disguised himself, and was con- 
cealed by some peasants until he got an opportunity to embark for 
America. He had considerable possessions in Staffordshire, (though 
the family was of old a Warwickshire one,) where he was born and 
generally lived; all of which were lost. A younger brother em- 
barked with him, and they arrived and landed in Norfolk, Virginia. 
The younger brother, William, married t*nd died at or near Norfolk. 
He left a son, who went to Boston and settled. His female de- 
scendants married among the Thoroughgoods, and that family was 
for a long time in Princess Anne, perhaps may be now. Colonel 
George Mason went up the Potomac and settled at Accotink, near 
Pasbytanzy, where be died and was buried. He called the county 


Stafford, after his native county in England, Such at least is the 
probable conjecture. This is the George Mason who, in another 
place, we have spoken of as being, with his wife and Colonel Brent, 
sponsor in baptism for a young Indian chief whom they took pri- 
soner in Maryland. Our notice was taken from one of the early 
Tracts, republished by Peter Force, and which is ascribed to Mr. 
Mason himself. The Mason family intermarried with the Brents, 
Fitzhughs, and Thompsons at an early period, and afterward with 
the McCartys, Bronaughs, Grahams, and many others. 

Of one branch of this family, in connection with another old 
family of Virginia, I have something to say. There was at Hamp- 
ton, in Elizabeth City county, an old Episcopal family by the name 
of Westwood. A daughter of one member of it, Elizabeth West- 
wood, married a Mr. Wallace. At his death she married John 
Thompson Mason, who settled at Chappawamsic, in Stafford county. 
She was the mother of Mr. Temple Mason, of Loudoun, and other 
children, among whom was a daughter named Euphan, who mar- 
ried Mr. Bailey Washington, of Stafford. At the death of her 
husband, Mr. Washington, she married Mr. Brent, and lived and 
died at Park Gate, in Prince William county. She had many chil- 
dren. Among them was a daughter, who married first Mr. McCrae, 
then Mr. Storke, of Fredericksburg. Her daughter Euphan mar- 
ried Mr. Roy, of Matthews. This is mentioned as introductory to 
some extracts from a few letters of old Mrs. Mason to her son, 
Temple Mason, of Leesburg, showing the earnest desire she had 
for the religious welfare of her children. From a letter of her 
grand-daughter, Mrs. Storke, I learn that she was living at the time 
of her death at Dumfries, in Prince William county. She was one 
of those old-fashioned Virginia ladies who, like Mrs. General 
Washington and Solomon's model of a lady, not only superintended 
the labours of her servants, but worked with her own hands. This 
she did until within a few days of her death. But her soul was 
much more actively engaged with God. While it was possible, she 
bent her knees daily before God, even when it was thought im- 
proper to attempt it. Among her last words were the following :- 
"Certainly, certainly, I can see no other way than that of Christ 
crucified/' " Christ is my all in all." 

Let the following sentences, from a letter to her son Temple in 
1816, sink deep into the hearts of all her descendants. After 
exhorting him earnestly to attend at once to personal religion, by 
reading the Scriptures, and prayer, and attendance on public wor* 
ship, she thus concludes : 


"Have no work done on the Sabbath more than is necessary to be done 
Have your victuals cooked on Saturday. Give your poor slaves who work 
in the field, Saturday to sell what they make, that they may have it in 
their power to go to worship on Sunday. Attend to your dear children. 
Bring them up in the fear of the Lord. He requires it of you to teach 
them their prayers. Set them an example, by having family worship foi 
them and your servants. Pray for faith : it is the gift of 6-od. He will 
hear our prayers, if we ask in faith. Oh that the Lord Almighty and 
my blessed Saviour may awaken you and open the eyes of your under- 
standing, while you are reading these lines, and bring you to consider 
what will make for your everlasting salvation. Oh, if you did but know 
what your aged mother feels for you and the rest of her children and 
grandchildren, how much she implores the mercy of God with daily fer- 
vent prayer, that he would of his great love and pity convert you all/' &c. 

In two other letters, one of them dated in 1818, she writes in 
the same earnest strain. One of them to her son Temple, whom 
she addresses, "My dear child/' thus concludes: "0 my blessed 
God, of thy great mercy, grant, while you are reading these lines, 
that you may consider and turn and seek him and find him. Oh, 
what a joy it would give your aged mother to hear or see that you 
were converted !" 

That the prayers of this aged woman were heard in behalf of 
one of her grandchildren, all who knew Mrs. Henry Magill, of 
Leesburg, will be ready to believe. 

Among the families which belonged to Pohick Church was that 
of Mr. Lawrence Lewis, the nephew of General Washington, the 
son of his sister Betty, who married Mr. Lewis. Mr. Lawrence 
Lewis married Miss Custis, the grand-daughter of Mrs. Washington. 
In many of the pictures of the Washington family she may be 
seen, as a girl, in a groupe with the General, Mrs. Washington, 
and her brother Washington Parke Oustis. There were two other 
full-sisters, who married Mr. Law and Mr. Peter. Mrs. Oustis, the 
widow of Mr. Washington's son, married again. Her second hus- 
band was Dr. David Steuart, first of Hope Park, and then of Ossian 
Hall, Fairfax county. He was the son and grandson of the two 
Mr. Steuarts who were ministers in King George for so long a 
period. They had a numerous offspring. The residence of Mr 
Lawrence Lewis was a few miles only from Mount Yernon, and was 
called Woodlawn. After the desertion of Pohick they also attended 
in Alexandria, and some time after the establishment of St. Paul's 
congregation, and the settlement of Dr. Wilmer in it, they united 
themselves to it, and were much esteemed by Dr. Wilmer, as he was 
by them. After some years they removed to an estate near Berry- 
ville, in what was then Frederick, now Clarke county. Mr. Lewis 


was one of the most amiable of men by nature, and became a sin 
cere Christian, and a communicant of our Church. His person 
was tall and commanding, and his face full of benignity, as was 
his whole character. I wish some of our friends at a distance 
could have seen him in the position I once beheld him in the church 
at Berryville, when I was administering the Holy Communion. 
Some of his servants were members of the church in that place, 
and on that day one of them came up after the white members had 
communed. It so happened that Mr. Lewis himself had not com- 
muned, but came up and knelt by the side of his servant, feeling no 
doubt that one God made them and one Saviour redeemed them. 
Mrs. Lewis was also a zealous member of the Church, a lady of 
fine mind and education, and very popular in her manners. Like 
her grandmother, she knew the use of her hands, and few ladies in 
the land did more with them for all Church and charitable purposes, 
even to the last days of a long life. They had three children. 
Their son, Lorenzo, married a Miss Coxe, of Philadelphia, and 
settled on the estate in Clarke, but died some years since. The 
two daughters married, the one Mr. Conrad, of New Orleans, and 
f he other Mr. Butler, of Mississippi or Louisiana. A numerous 
posterity is descending from them.* 

* The Lewis family of Eastern Virginia is of Welsh origin. Their ancestor, 
General Robert Lewis, (whose name is favourably mentioned in English history,) 
came from Wales to Gloucester county, Virginia, in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century, and -there lived and died. His son Robert, who also lived and died in 
Gloucester, had three sons, Fielding, John, and Charles. Of the two last I have 
received no account. Mr. Fielding Lewis, of Wyanoke, Charles City county, was 
doubtless a descendant of one of them. Colonel Fielding Lewis, son of the second 
Robert, removed to Fredericksburg early in life, was a merchant of high standing 
and wealth, a vestryman, magistrate, and burgess, and during the Revolution, 
being a genuine patriot, superintended the manufacture of arms in the neighbour- 
hood. He was twice married. His first wife was the cousin and his second the 
sister of General Washington. One child only, out of three by his first wife, lived 
to any considerable age. His name was John. He moved to Kentucky, and left a 
posterity there. The children of Colonel Lewis by Ms second wife, Betty Wash- 
ington, were six, Fielding, George, Elizabeth, Lawrence, Robert, and Howell. 
Fielding died in Fairfax county, leaving descendants. Elizabeth married Mr. 
Charles Carter, and was one of the most interesting and exemplary of Christians. 
George was captain in Baylor's regiment, and commander of General Washington's 
life-guard. In his arms General Mercer expired on the field of battle at Princeton. 
Toward the close of the war he married and settled near Berryville in Old Frede- 
rick, and took an interest in the affairs of the Church in that parish. After some 
years he removed to Fredericksburg, and from thence to King George, dying at his 
seat, Marmion, in 1821. He enjoyed the highest confidence of General Washington, 
being sent by him on a secret expedition of g*eat importance to Canada. Mr 


.There were other families who belonged to this parish and church, 
but I am not possessed of information to enable me to speak of 
them as I could wish. The Chichesters, the Footes and Tripletts, 
were, I am told, the last to leave it. The following letter from my 
friend, General Henderson, of Washington, gives some notice of 
his father, Alexander Henderson, who was one of the vestry of 
Pohick Church who signed the deed of a pew to Rev. Mr. Massey:- 

" WASHINGTON, 5th of February, 1857. 

" MY DEAR SIR : I received yours this morning. My father, Alex- 
ander Henderson, came to this country from Scotland in the year 1756, 
and settled first as a merchant in Colchester. During the Revolutionary 
War he retired to a farm in Fairfax county to avoid the possibility of fall- 
ing into the hands of the English, as he had taken a decided part on the 
side of freedom against the mother-country. About 1787 or 1788 he re- 
moved to Dumfries. He died in the latter part of 1815, leaving six sons 
and four daughters, all grown. John, Alexander, and James emigrated to 
Western Yirginia, and settled as farmers in Wood county. Richard and 
Thomas were known to you, the former living in Leesburg and the latter 
for the last twenty years being in the medical department of the army. 
James and myself are the only surviving sons. Two of my sisters Mrs. 
Anne Henderson and Mrs. Margaret Wallace are still alive. My sisters 
Jane and Mary died many years ago. The latter married Mr. Inman Her- 
ri er, of Warrenton. All the members of the family have been, with scarce 
an exception, steady Episcopalians.' 7 

Of Mr. Richard Henderson, of Leesburg, Dr. Thomas Hender- 
son, and the sisters, I need not speak to the inhabitants of Lees- 
burg and Warrenton. where they were so well known as the props 
of our Church. The author of the letter from which I have ex- 
tracted has long been a communicant and active vestryman of the 
Church in Washington. 

I have said that after the Revolution, when General Washington 
changed his attendance from Pohick to Alexandria, and others left 
the parish, regular services ceased in that part of the county. Mr. 
Massey either relinquished services because none attended, or from 
some other cause, although he lived many years after. The Rev. 

Lawrence Lewis, of whom we have spoken above, was aid to General Morgan, in 
his expedition to the West to quell the insurrection in Pennsylvania. Mr. Robert 
Lewis, the fourth son of Colonel Fielding Lewis, was the private secretary of Gene- 
ral Washington during a part of his Presidential term. In the year 179j., he took 
up his residence in Fredericksburg, where as private citizen, as mayor of the town, 
and as a communicant of the Episcopal Church, he was universally esteemed and 
beloved. His daughter Judith married the Bev. E. C. McGuire, who has so long 
been the minister of the Episcopal Church in Fredericksburg. Mr. Howell, the 
fifth and last son of Colonel Fielding Lewis, moved to Kanawha county, where 
some of his posterity still reside. 


Mr. We ems, in his books, announces himself as the rector of this 
parish after this period. If some may, by comparison, be called 
"nature's noblemen," he might surely have been pronounced one 
of " nature's oddities." Whether in private or public, in prayers 
or preaching, it was impossible that either the young or old, the 
grave or the gay, could keep their risible faculties from violent 
agitation. To suppose' him to have been a kind of private chaplain 
to such a man as Washington, as has been the impression of some, 
is the greatest of incongruities. But I wish to do him ample justice. 
Although his name never appears on the journals of any of our 
Conventions, and cannot be found on the lists of those ordained for 
Virginia or Maryland by the Bishop of London, so that a doubt 
has been entertained whether he ever was ordained a minister of 
our Church, yet I have ascertained that to be a fact. We pre- 
sume that he was from Maryland, as there are or were persons of 
that name there, who were said to be his relatives. We will give 
him credit for much benevolence, much of what Sterne called the 
milk of human kindness, and of which Mr. Weems delighted 
to speak in his sermons and writings. In proof of our disposition 
to do him ample justice, we present the following account of his 
boyhood in Maryland, which has been given us by one who knew 

" In his youth Mr. Weems was an inmate of the family of Mr. Jenifer, 
of Charles county, Maryland. They confided in him as a boy of principle, 
and had no doubt as to his uprightness and morality until about his four- 
teenth year. When at that age he was seen to leave the house every even- 
ing after tea and to be often away until late at night. The family began 
to be afraid that he was getting into corrupt habits, and, notwithstanding 
his assurance that he would do nothing that would render him unworthy of 
their esteem and friendship, they felt uneasy. He scorned the idea of 
abusing their confidence, but, as he persisted in the practice of going 
away, at length they determined to find out what was the cause of it. 
Accordingly one night a plan was laid by which he was tracked. After 
pursuing his trail for some distance into the pines, they came to an old 
hut, in which was young Weeins, surrounded by the bareheaded, bare- 
footed, and half-clad children of the neighbourhood, whom he had been in 
the habit of thus gathering around him at night, in order to give them 

I acknowledge that he was in the habit of having the servant, as- 
sembled in private houses, where he would spend the night, and would 
recite a portion of Scripture, for he never read it out of the book, 
and perhaps say something to them, or in the prayer about them, 
but then it was in such a way as only to produce merriment. This 
I have experienced in my own family a#d at my mother's, atxd have 


heard others* testify to the same, I do not think he could have long 
even pretended to be the rector of any parish. From my earliest 
knowledge of him he was a travelling bookseller for Mr. Matthew 
Carey, of Philadelphia, visiting all the States south of Pennsylvania, 
and perhaps some north of it, in a little wagon, with his fiddle as a 
constant companion to amuse himself and others. If he would pray 
with the servants at night in their owners' houses, he would play 
the fiddle for them on the roadside by day, One instance of his 
good-nature is well attested. At the old tavern in Caroline county, 
Virginia, called the White Chimneys, Mr. Weems and some stroll- 
ing players or puppet-showmen met together one night* A notice 
of some exhibition had been given, and the neighbours had assem- 
bled to witness it. A fiddle was necessary to the full performance, 
and that was wanting. Mr. Weems supplied the deficiency. 

He was of a very enlarged charity in all respects. Though calling 
himself an Episcopal minister, he knew no distinction of Churches. 
He preached in every pulpit to which he could gain access, and 
where he could recommend his books. His books were of all kinds. 
Mr. Carey, his employer, was a Roman Catholic, but dealt in all 
manner of books. On an election or court-day at Fairfax Court- 
House, I once, in passing to or from the upper country, found Mr. 
Weems, with a bookcaseful for sale, in the portico of the tavern. 
On looking at them I sawPaine's "Age of Reason,'* and, taking it 
into my hand, turned to him, and asked if it was possible that he 
could sell such a book. He immediately took out the Bishop of 
LlandafFs answer, and said, " Behold the antidote. The bane and 
antidote are both before you." He carried this spurious charity 
into his sermons. In my own pulpit at the old chapel, in my ab 
sence, it being my Sunday in Winchester, he extolled Tom Paine 
and one or more noted infidels in America, and said if their ghostrf 
could return to the earth they would be shocked to hear the false- 
hoods which were told of them. I was present the following day, 
when my mother charged him with what she had heard of his ser- 
mon, and well remember that even he was confused and speechless. 
Some of Mr. Weems's pamphlets on drunkenness and gambling would 
be most admirable in their effects, but for the fact that you know 
not what to believe of the narrative. There are passages of deep 
pathos and great eloquence in them. His histories of Washington 
and Marion are very popular, but the same must be said of them. 
You know not how much of fiction there is in them. That of Wash- 
ington has probably gone through more editions than all others, and 
has Veen read by more persons than those of Marshall, Ramsey, 


Bancroft, and Irving, put together. To conclude, all tlie while 
that Mr. Weems was thus travelling over the land, an object of 
amusement to so many, and of profit to Mr. Carey, he was trans- 
mitting support to his interesting and pious family, at or near 
Dumfries, who, if I am rightly informed, were attached to the Me- 
thodist Church. If in this, or any thing else which I have written, 
any mistake has been made, I should be glad to receive its cor- 

There were three other ministers who occasionally preached at 
Pohick, and visited Mount Vernon after the death of General and 
Mrs. Washington, of whom a few words must be said. But, before 
these few are said, it is proper to speak of the change which took 
place at Mount Vernon by the death of its illustrious owners. It 
is well known that Judge Bushrod Washington, the son of General 
Washington's brother John, inherited Mount Vernon. He was in 
full communion with the Church when I first became acquainted 
with him in 1812, having no doubt united himself with it in Phila- 
delphia under Bishop White, while attending the Supreme Court 
in that place. I know that he was intimate with Bishop White 
and highly esteemed him. Judge Washington attended one or more 
of our earliest Conventions in Richmond and was a punctual mem- 
ber of the Standing Committee from that time until his death. He 
married into the family of Blackburns, of Eipon Lodge, not many 
miles from Dumfries, and perhaps twelve from Mount Vernon. The 
first Richard Blackburn of whom our vestry-books speak married a 
daughter of the Rev. James Scott, of Dumfries. His son was, I 
believe, the father of Mrs. Bushrod Washington, Mrs. Henry 
Turner, of Jefferson, Mr. Richard and Thomas Blackburn. The 
family at Ripon Lodge had long been the main support of the 
church at Dumfries and Centreville, and their house the resort of 
the clergy. I have before me a paper drawn up in 1812 for the 
support of the Rev. Charles O'Neill. The first and highest sub- 
scriber is Mr. Thomas Blackburn, who was, I believe, the husband 
of our excellent friend Mrs. Blackburn, who lived near Berryville 
for many of the last years of her life. His subscription is fifty 
dollars. The next highest is that of a Mr. Edmund Denny, twenty- 
five dollars. The next Dr, Humphrey Peake, for twenty dollars. 
All the rest much less. Old Mrs. Blackburn, with her four grand- 
daughters, Jane, Polly, Christian, and Judy Blackburn, daugh 
ters of Mr. Richard Blackburn, were much at Mount Vernon. I Le 
came acquainted with them during the years 1812 and 1813, while 
I was ministering in Alexandria. They were the first-fruits of my 


ministry in that plaje, and very dear to me. Two of them Jane 
and Polly married nephews of Judge Washington, and settled in 
Jefferson. One of them Judy married Mr. Ghistavus Alexander, 
of King George, and the fourth Christian died unmarried. By 
my intimacy with these four most estimable ladies and with Mrs. 
Blackburn and her sister, Mrs. Taylor, I have from time to time 
become acquainted with the state of things at Ripon Lodge and 
Mount Vernon as to the clergy. The Rev. Mr. Kemp and the Eev. 
Mr. Moscrope occasionally officiated at Dumfries and Pohick, and 
perhaps at Centreville, for the want of those who were better. But 
in order to conceal the shame of the clergy from the younger ones, 
and to prevent their loss of attachment to religion and the Church, 
the elder ones had sometimes to hurry them away to bed or take 
them away from the presence of these ministers when indulging too 
freely in the intoxicating cup. The doctrine of total abstinence in 
families, of banishing wine and spirits from the cellar and the table, 
was not thought of then in the best of families. If the minister 
chose it, he must drink. The third and last minister, and who died, 
I think, in 1813, was the Rev. Charles 0'ISTeill, who was an im- 
provement on the two last. The families at Mount Vernon and 
Ripon Lodge were fond of him. He always spent his Christmas at 
Mount Vernon, and on those occasions was dressed in a full suit 
of velvet, which General Washington had left behind, and which 
had been given to Mr. O'Neill. But as General Washington was 
tall and well proportioned in all his parts, and Mr. O'Neill was 
peculiarly formed, being of uncommon length of body and brevity 
of legs, it was difficult to make the clothes of the one, even though 
altered, sit well upon the other.* 

* In speaking of Mount Vernon, it might be expected that I should say something 
of this venerable house and beautiful place, and the Washington vault, and that I 
should have an appropriate pictorial representation of the same; but, as they are to 
be read of and their similitudes seen in so many books, I shall refer my readers to 
those books. There was, however, one object of interest belonging to General 
Washington, concerning which I have a special right to speak, viz. : his old English 
coach, in which himself and Mrs. Washington not only rode in Fairfax county, but 
travelled through the length and breadth of our land. So faithfully was it executed 
that, at the conclusion of this long journey, its builder, who came over with it and 
settled in Alexandria, was proud to be told by the General that not a nail or screw 
had failed. It so happened, in a way I need not state, that this coach came into 
my hands about fifteen years after the death of General Washington. In the course 
of time, from disuse, it being too heavy for these latter days, it began to decay and 
give way. Becoming an object of desire to those who delight in relics, I caused it to 
be taken to pieces and distributed among the admiring friends of Washington who 
visited my house, and also among a number of female associations for benevolent 


I am happy to be able to add to this article the following extracts 
from two letters of my old college friend. Colonel Stoddert, of 
Wycomico House, Maryland, concerning his grandfather, the Rev. 
Lee Massey : 

" My grandfather I remember well. He died in 1814, at the age of 
eighty-six, a rare instance of physical and mental vigour for so advanced an 
age. He was the friend and companion of Washington from early youth, 
and the legal adviser and friend of George Mason. He commenced life 
u lawyer, having pursued his studies in the office of George Johnston, 
Esq., than whom an abler lawyer was not to be found in the Northern Neck 
of Virginia. He married the daughter of Mr. Johnston, and began his 
professional career with every prospect of success, but retired when a 
young man, because his ' conscience would not suffer him to make the 
worse appear the better reason/ and to uphold wrong against right. He 
tried to follow in the lead of Chancellor Wythe, to examine cases placed 
in his care and to accept the good and reject the bad. It proved a failure, 
and he withdrew from practice. He was afterward appointed a judge, but 
declined it as taking him too much from his family. He recommended to 
me to read law, but earnestly opposed my pursuing it as a vocation. He 
often said Mr. Wythe was the only < honest lawyer he ever knew/ 

" General Washington, Mr. Mason, Fairfax, McOarty, , Chichester, 

and others urged him to study divinity and become their pastor. He 
yielded to their counsels and was ordained in London, Beilby Porteus, 
Lord-Bishop of London, assisting in the ordination. I have heard him 
speak of the high oratorical powers of Dr. Bodd, who then preached in 
the Queen's Chapel, and describe the personal appearance of George III. 
and his Queen. He witnessed the performances of the famous Garrick, 
and thought he deserved the high fame he had won. All the clergy of 
the Church of England then attended the theatre. The loss of his fore- 
teeth impairing his speech was the cause of his ceasing to preach. He 
then studied medicine as a means of relieving the poor, and announced 
that he would practise without charge. He said he was soon sent for by 
all classes, and he had to withdraw altogether and confine his medical aid 
to giving advice and medicine at his office ; and, of course, with few ex- 
ceptions, his advice was given only in cases of children brought to him. 
His conversation was rich with anecdotes and reminiscences of the dis- 
tinguished men of Virginia, and of social customs and manners before the 
Revolution. He had read deeply the great volume of human nature, 
and was a good judge of character. He loved virtue, and hated vice 
intensely, and perhaps had too little compassion for the weaknesses and 
infirmities of our nature. His social intercourse was influenced greatly 
and visibly by the moral character of the men he was brought into contact 

and religious objects, which associations, at their fairs and on other occasions, made 
a large profit by converting the fragments into walking-sticks, picture-frames, and 
snuff-boxes. About two-thirds of one of the wheels thus produced one hundred and 
forty dollars. There can be no doubt but that at its dissolution it yielded more to 
the cause of charity than it did to its builder at its first erection. Besides other 
mementos of it, I have in my study, in the form of a sofa, the hind -seal, on which 
the Genera? and his lady were wont to sit. 


with. His manner was an index to his opinions of those he was with in this 
respect ; and often he would admonish persons of their vices. His integrity 
and honour were of the highest order, and he detested all meanness and 
double-dealing with his whole heart. No advantage of position, or fortune, 
or official distinction, saved the profligate or unjust and oppressive from his 
open and strong denunciation ; and no man had at his command a more 
ready wit and biting sarcasm. But goodness of life and character though 
clothed in rags and despised of men commanded not only his sympathy but 
open respect. From these traits, I have often heard my excellent mother 
express her fears that her father looked too much to good works; but my 
opinion is that the Christian's faith only could have produced and pre- 
served so high a standard of morality and so keen a sense of moral duty. 
My grandfather was possessed of high powers of mind, and they had been 
well developed and cultivated. He was a ripe Latin scholar, and familiar 
with all the best English writers. He was remarkable for conciseness of 
style and condensation of matter in composition. He admired a plain and 
nervous as much as he disliked a florid and diffuse style : the more of the 
old Saxon and the less of French or Latin and Greek derivatives the better. 
Addison and Swift pleased him as much as Dr. Johnson displeased in this 
particular. He met death without fear : his last words were, f The great 
mystery will soon be solved and all made plain/ 

" In person he was six feet high and finely proportioned : his eyes were 
a deep blue, and expressive to the last, and his nose and mouth well shaped. 
I have often fancied that in his youth he must have possessed much manly 
beauty- He made his mark on his age and generation, for many tradi- 
tions are preserved of him and his sayings. 

" With sincere esteem and regard, yours truly, 


"P.S. In the burial-ground of one of the Episcopal churches first 
erected in Maryland, near the site of St. Mary's City, is a beautiful monu- 
ment of Italian marble erected to the memory of the Kev. Lee Massey, by 
his parishioners, 'as a testimony of their grateful affection for the memory 
of their much-loved pastor/ It was placed there not many years after the 
settlement of the Colony, and is now- in excellent preservation. This 
divine, who died in his youth, but not before he had deeply stamped his 
image on the heart and minds of his charge, was the uncle of my grand- 

" The memory of the devoted zeal and piety of this young clergyman 
may have had its influence in determining my grandfather to enter the 
ministry. This, however, is mere speculation. J. T. S." 

The following extract is from a second letter in answer to further 
inquiries : 

" In answer to your note of the 14th instant, this day received, I state 
that my grandfather was married three times. His first wife (my grand- 
mother) was the daughter of G-eorge Johnston, Esq., a distinguished law- 
yer residing at Alexandria, with whom my grandfather read law, and who 
diew the resolutions against the Stamp Act,* which were moved, at his 

* In ascribing the authorship of the resolutions, offered by Mr. Henry, to Ms dis- 
tinguished ancestor, Mr. Johnston, I think it probable my friend, Mr. Stoddert, is 


instance, by Patrick Henry in the Virginia Legislature in 1765. Mr. 
Johnston always claimed the credit of being the first man who discovered 
the great but hidden powers of that unrivalled orator. He had great diffi- 
culty in persuading Mr. Henry that he was the only man who was fitted to 
make such a speech as suited the occasion, which would electrify the 
State and rouse the people to resistance. His own powers, being only 
argumentative, would fail to produce such an effect. Such is the history 
of this bold and effective movement, which, in the language of Mr. Jeffer- 
son, v gave the first blow to the hall of Revolution.' His son George was 
a member of General Washington's military family as aid and confidential 
secretary. When ill-health compelled him to retire, Washington looked 
to the same family to find his successor, and selected Colonel Robert Han- 
son Harrison son-in-law of Mr. Johnston, and then a practising lawyer 
in Alexandria, though a native of Maryland for this delicate trust. This 
gentleman would have declined the appointment but for the influence of 
my grandfather, whose whole heart was in the struggle, and who removed 
the only difficulty by agreeing to receive his two orphan-daughters in 
his family on the footing of his own children. Colonel Harrison, after 
the war, returned to Maryland and was made Chief-Justice of the General 
Court. On the organization of the Supreme Court, President Washing- 
ton selected him as one of the Associate Justices, an appointment at first 
declined, as it would separate him from his daughters, whose education he 
was conducting, but accepted on an appeal to his duty by his old military 
chief, who said { he must select by his own knowledge the officers to insure 
success to the new government/ He died at Bladensburg on his way to 
Philadelphia to take his seat on the bench. These things show the many 
links in the chain of friendship which bound together the hero and patriot 
of Mount Vernon and his pastor and early associate. 

" The second wife of my grandfather was a Miss Burwell, who died nine 
months after marriage. She was a lady of rare excellence, and my grand- 
father often dwelt on her memory with the tenderest affection. His last 
marriage was with Miss Bronaugh, of Prince William county, by whom 
he had two children, a son, who was an officer in the navy and was 
drowned at Norfolk, and Mrs. Triplett. I think it probable her mother 
was a sister of Colonel George Mason, though I cannot state it as a fact.* 

mistaken. Mr, WIrt, in his life of Mr. Henry, says that he left the original of these 
resolutions, drawn on the blank leaf of an old law-book, with his will, to be opened by 
his executors. A copy of that original is framed, and may be seen at Red Hill, one of Ma 
places of residence in Charlotte county, and now owned by his son, John Henry. Mr. 
Wirt says that Mr. Henry, after having prepared the resolutions, showed them to two 
members of the House only, Mr. John Fleming, of Cumberland, and George John- 
ston, of Fairfax. Mr. Wirt alludes to a report of the day, that they were drawn by 
Mi. Johnston, but says that it was unfounded. He speaks of Mr. Johnston, however, 
in the highest terms. The religious reflections of Mr. Henry, attached to the copy 
of the resolutions left behind him, are worthy of insertion in this place. As to the 
effects of our independence he says, "Whether it will prove a blessing or a curse 
will depend upon the use our people make of the blessings which a gracious God 
hath bestowed upon us. If they are wise, they will be great and happy. If they 
are of a contrary character, they will be miserable. Righteousness alone can 
exalt them as a nation. Reader, whoever thou art, remember this, and in thy 
iphere practise virtue thyself, and encourage it in others. P. HBNET " 

* She was a first-cousin of George Mason 


The Masons claimed Aunt Nancy as a cousin, and I do not know how else 
the relationship could originate. G-eorge Mason, the eldest son of Colonel 
George, married a first-cousin of my grandfather, as did Thomas Mason, a 
younger son. Martin Cockburn the uncle of Admiral Gockhurn, a native 
of Jamaica, whither his father had removed from Scotland married a 
sister of this last lady. He was a fine scholar and polished gentleman and 
good Christian. He, a youth of eighteen years, was travelling with Dr. 
Cockburn in this country, when he met with Miss Bronaugh. The father 
objected on the score of their youth, but said if his son wished it at the 
age of twenty-one years, he would cheerfully assent ; but the absence of 
three years was to intervene. Martin was faithful and constant to his first 
love and returned. A new difficulty then sprung up : the lady would not 
go to Jamaica, and the gentleman had to come to Virginia. He pur- 
chased a residence near Colonel Mason's, (an adjoining farm,) and a few 
miles from my grandfather, where both husband and wife lived to an ad- 
vanced age. I have often heard my grandfather say that they were the 
only couple, he believed, who had lived fifty years together without one 
word, look, or act to disturb their harmony for a moment, Such was said 
to be the fact in their case. The courteous and affectionate attentions 
which each paid to the other impressed my mind when a child, and are 
now present to my recollection with vivid distinctness. Nothing but the 
gentle teachings of Him who taught as man never taught could have 
wrought so beautiful a picture of conjugal love, forbearance, and peace/' 

It should be stated that the old church, called Payne's Church, 
near the railroad, and a few miles from Fairfax Court-House, as 
vrell as the new one at the court-house, are both, in Truro pariak, 

Vat. n 16 



The Religious Character of Washington. 

AN interesting question in relation to Washington will now be 
considered, viz. : What are the proofs of his personal piety ? This 
work is already done to my hands by the Rev. E. C. McGuire, of 
Fredericksburg, from whose careful and faithful volume on the 
" Religious Opinions and Character of Washington" I select the 
fo^wing particulars. He was the child of pious parents and 
ancestors, was baptized in his second month, Mr. Beverley Whiting 
and Captain Christopher Brooks godfathers, and Mrs. Mildred 
Gregory godmother, at a time when care was taken to instruct the 
children in our holy religion, according to the Scriptures as set 
forth in the standards of the Episcopal Church. Until he had 
passed his eleventh year he enjoyed the superintending care of 
both parents, and after that of his mother and uncle. It is also 
believed that, besides the instructions of the parish sexton and Mr. 
Williams, he also sat under the ministry of the Rev. Archibald 
Campbell, and perhaps was for a time at his school in Washington 
parish, Westmoreland county. While with his mother in Fredericks- 
burg, there can be no doubt of his receiving pious instruction from 
.her and her minister, the Rev. Mr. Marye. While at school, he 
was remarkable for his abhorrence of the practice of fighting among 
the boys, and, if unable to prevent a contest, would inform the 
teacher of the design. When about thirteen years of age he drew 
up a number of resolutions, taken from books, or the result of his 
own reflections. Among them is the following : "When you speak 
of God or his attributes, let it be seriously, in reverence." " Labour 
to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire called 
conscience." At the age of fifteen his filial piety was remarkably 
displayed in relinquishing an earnest desire to enter the navy, just 
when about to embark, out of a tender regard to his mother's wishes. 
The religious sentiments of his mother and of himself were drawn 
from the Bible and, Prayer-Book, and next to them, from the " Con- 
templations, Moral and Divine, of Sir Matthew Hale," judging from 
the great use which seems to have been made of this book by both 
of them; and in no uninspired book do we find a purer and more 


elevated Christianity.* Should it be said that, notwithstanding his 
early religious education and some indications of youthful piety, he 
may have fallen into the irreligion and skepticism of the age, and 
should proofs of his sincere belief of Christianity, as a divine reve- 
lation, be asked for, we will proceed to furnish them. At a time 
when so many of tae chief men in France and America, and even 
some in England, were renouncing the Christian faith, and when 
he was tempted to be silent at least on the subject, in his public 
addresses, he seems to have taken special pains to let his sentiments 
be known, and to impress them upon the nation, in opposition to 
the skepticism of the age, a skepticism which was sought by some 
leading men to be propagated with great zeal among the youth of 

In his address to the Governors of the States, dated at Head- 
Quarters, June, 1783, when about to surrender up his military com- 
mand, speaking of the many blessings of the land, he says, "And, 
above all, the pure and benign light of revelation." He also speaks 
of "that humility and pacific temper of mind which were the cha- 
racteristics of the divine Author of our blessed religion." 

In his farewell address to the people of the United States, on 
leaving the Presidential chair, he again introduces the same sub- 
ject: " Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political 
prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. A 
volume could not trace all their connections with private and public 
felicity." He warns against the attempt to separate them, and to 
think that "national morality can prevail to the exclusion of re- 
ligious principles" 

No candid man can read these and other expressions, in the pub- 
lic addresses of Washington, without acknowledging that, as though 
he were the great high-priest of the nation, availing himself of his 
position and of the confidence reposed in him, lie was raising his 
warning voice against that infidelity which was desolating France 
and threatening our own land. That Washington was regarded 
throughout America, both among our military and political men, as 
a sincere believer in Christianity, as then received among us, and 
a devout man, is as clear as any fact in our history. Judge Mar- 
shall, the personal friend, the military and political associate, of 
Washington, says, "He was a sincere believer in the Christian 
faith, and a truly devout man." Judge Boudinot, who knew him 

* The book appears to have been much used, and has many pencil-marks in it, 
noting choice passages* 


well during and after the Revolution, testifies to the same. Gene- 
ral Henry Lee, who served under him during the war, and after- 
ward in the civil department, and who was chosen by Congress to 
deliver his funeral oration, says, in that oration, " First in war, 
first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second 
to none in the endearing scenes of private life. Pious, just, humane, 
temperate, and sincere, uniform, dignified, and commanding, his 
example was edifying to all around him, as were the effects of that 
example lasting." Sermons and orations by divines and states- 
men were delivered all over the land at the death of Washington. 
A large volume of such was published. I have seen and read them, 
and the religious character of Washington was a most prominent 
feature in them; and for this there must have been some good 
cause. Let the following extracts suffice. Mr. Sewell, of New 
Hampshire, says: 

"To crown all these moral virtues, he had the deepest sense of religion 
impressed on his heart, the true foundation-stone of all the moral virtues. 
He constantly attended the public worship of God on the Lord's day, was 
a communicant at His table, and by his devout and solemn deportment 
inspired every beholder with some portion of that awe and reverence for 
the Supreme Being, of which he felt so large a portion. For my own part, 
I trust I shall never lose the impression made on my own mind in behold- 
ing in this house of prayer the venerable hero, the victorious leader of 
our hosts, bending in humble adoration to the G-od of armies and great 
Captain of our salvation. Hard and unfeeling, indeed, must that heart be 
that could sustain the sight unmoved, or its owner depart unsoftened and 
unedified. Let the deist reflect on this, and remember that Washington, 
the saviour of his country, did not disdain to acknowledge and adore a 
greater Saviour, whom deists and infidels affect to slight and despise." 

Thus spake New Hampshire. What says South Carolina? 
David Ramsay, the historian, says: 

"Washington was the friend of morality and religion; steadily attended 
on public worship; encouraged and strengthened the hands of the clergy. 
IE all his public acts he made the most respectful mention of Providence, 
and, in a word, carried the spirit of piety with him, both in his private life 
and public administration. He was far from being one of those minute 
philosophers who think that death is an eternal sleep, or of those who, 
trusting to the sufficiency of human reason, discard the light of divine 

Mr* J. Biglow, of Boston, says : 

"In Washington religion was a steady principle of action. After the 
surrender of Cornwallis he ascribes the glory to God, and orders, 'That 
divine service shall be performed to-morrow in the different brigades and 
divisions, and recommends that all the troops not on duty do assist at it 


with a serious deportment and that sensibility of heart which the recollec- 
tion of the surprising and particular interposition of Providence in our 
favour claims. 7 " 

To the foregoing I will only add, that Major William Jackson, 
aid-de-camp to Washington, in his address, speaks of the " milder 
radiance of religion and morality 'as shining in his character/ and 
of his being beloved and admired by the holy ministers of re- 
ligion ;" and that Captain Dunham of the Revolution, in his oration, 
says of him, u A friend to our holy religion, he was ever guided 
by its pious doctrines. He had embraced the tenets of the Epis- 
copal Church ; yet his charity, unbounded as his immortal mind, led 
him equally to respect every denomination of the followers of 
Jesus." The Rev. Mr. Kirkland, of Boston, says, "The virtues 
of our departed friend were crowned with piety. He is known to 
have been habitually devout." We conclude with the testimony of 
our own Devereux Jarratt, of Virginia, whom none will suspect of 
flattery or low views of religion : 

"Washington was a professor of Christianity and a member of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church. He always acknowledged the superintendence 
of Divine Providence, and from his inimitable writings we find him a 
warm advocate for a sound morality founded on the principles of religion, 
the only basis on which it can stand. Nor did I ever meet with the most 
distant insinuation that his private life was not a comment on his admired 

Nor was the belief of his piety confined to America. The Rev. 
Thomas Wilson, the pious son of the pious Bishop Wilson, of Sodor 
and Mann, thought he could make no more suitable present to 
General Washington than his father's family Bible in three volumes, 
with notes, and a folio volume of his father's works. The former 
was left by the will of General Washington to his friend the Rev. 
Bryan Fairfax, minister of Christ Church, Alexandria; the latter 
is, I presume, still in the Arlington library. Prom the latter I 
selected, forty-six years ago, a small volume of private and family 
prayers, as I have elsewhere stated 

If more certain proofs of personal piety in Washington be re- 
quired than these general impressions and declarations of his co- 
evals and compatriots, founded on their observation of his public 
conduct, and derived from his public addresses, we proceed to 
furnish them. They will be taken from the testimony of those 
whose intimacy with his domestic habits enable them to judge, and 
from his own diary. As to his private devotions, of course the 
same kind of testimony is not to be expected as that which attests 


his public observances. It may most positively be affirmed, that 
the impression on the minds of his family was, that when on each 
night he regularly took his candle and went to his study at nine 
o'clock and remained there until ten, it was for the purpose of 
reading the Scriptures and prayer* It is affirmed by more than 
one that he has been seen there on his knees and also been heard 
at his prayers. In like manner it is believed, that when at five 
o'clock each morning, winter and summer, he went to that same 
study, a portion of time was then spent in the same way. It is 
also well known that it was the impression in the army that Wash- 
ington, either in his tent or in his room, practised the same thing. 
One testifies to having seen him on more than one occasion thus 
engaged on his bended knees. It is firmly believed that when in 
crowded lodgings at Valley Forge, where every thing was unfa- 
vourable to private devotions, his frequent visits to a neighbouring 
wood were for this purpose. It is also a fact well known to the 
family that, when prevented from public worship, he used to 
read the Scriptures and other books with Mrs. Washington in her 

That there was a devotional spirit in Washington, a belief in the 
virtue of prayer, leading to private supplication, is also rendered 
most probable by his conduct as an officer in seeking to have public 
prayer for his soldiers, and even conducting them himself in the 
absence of a minister. 

At twenty-two years of age, when heading an expedition against 
the Indians, he was in the habit of having prayer in the camp at 
Fort Necessity, at the Great Meadows, in the Alleghany Mountains. 
His friend and neighbour, Mr. William Fairfax, of Belvoir, a few 
miles from Mount Vernon, and whose daughter, Lawrence, the elder 
brother of George Washington, married, thus writes to him while 
at the Great Meadows, and in the letter evinces not only his own 
pious disposition, but his confidence in that of the youthful Wash- 
ington: "I will not doubt your having public prayer in-the camp, 
especially when the Indian families are your guests, that they, see- 
ing your plain manner of worship, may have their curiosity to be 
informed why we do not use the ceremonies of the French, which, 
being well explained to their understandings, will more and more 
dispose them to receive our baptism and unite in strict bonds of 
cordial friendship/' 

In the year 1755, Washington was the volunteer aid-de-camp to 
General Braddock, and, though in danger of pursuit by the Indians, 
he did, on the night after the memorable defeat, in the absence of 


5, chaplain, himself perform the last funeral rites over the body of 
Braddock, a soldier holding the candle or lighted torch while the 
solemn words were read. For several successive years Washing- 
ton was engaged in a trying contest with the Indians, and during 
a considerable portion of that time according to the testimony 
of one of his aids, Colonel B. Temple, of King William county 
he frequently, on the Sabbath, performed divine service, reading 
tfie Scriptures and praying with them when no chaplain could be 
had. It was during this period that a sharp correspondence was 
carried on between Washington and' Dinwiddie, the latter being 
DfFended at the persevering importunity of the former that a chap- 
lain might be allowed his army. At the recall of Dinwiddie, Wash- 
ington addressed the following letter to the President of the Council, 
who was chief in the Colony until the arrival of Governor Fauquier, 
Baying, "The last Assembly, in their Supply Bill, provided for a 
chaplain to our regiment. On this subject I had often, without any 
success, applied to Governor Dinwiddie. I now flatter myself that 
your honour will be pleased to appoint a sober, serious man for this 
duty. Common decency, sir, in a camp, calls for the services of a 
divine, which ought not to be dispensed with, although the world 
may think us void of religion and incapable of good instructions." 

In the year 1759 Colonel Washington was married, and until the 
Revolution lived at Mount Vernon. That he was interested in the 
affairs of the Church at this time is evident from what we have said 
as to the part he acted in relation to the building of Pohick Church. 
The Kev. Lee Massey was the minister during part of this time. 
His testimony was, "I never knew so constant an attendant at 
church as Washington. His behaviour in the house of God was 
ever so reverential that it produced the happiest effects on my con- 
gregation and greatly assisted me in my pulpit labours. No com- 
pany ever kept him from church." 

In the year 1774 he was sent as a Burgess to Wflliamsburg. It 
was at that time that a day of fasting and prayer was appointed in 
view of the approaching difficulties with England. The following 
entry in his diary shows his conduct ou that occasion : " June 1st, 
Wednesday. Went to church and fasted all day/' In September 
of that year he was in Philadelphia, a member of the first Congress. 
In his diary he speaks of going, during the three" first Sabbaths, 
three times to Episcopal churches, once to the Quaker, once to the 
Presbyterian, and once to the Roman Catholic. He was a member 
of Congress again the next year, and then chosen commander-in- 
chief of our army. On the day after assuming its command he 


issued the following order: "The General requires and expects of 
all officers and soldiers, not engaged on actual duty, a punctual 
attendance on divine service, to implore the blessings of Heaven 
upon the means used for our safety and defence/' On the 15th of 
May, 1776, Congress having appointed a day of humiliation, the 
fallowing order is given: "The General commands all officers and 
soldiers to pay strict obedience to the order of the Continental 
Congress, that by their unfeigned and pious observant of their 
religious duties they may incline the Lord and giver jf victory to 
prosper our arms." The situation of the army not admitting the 
regular service every Sunday, he requires the chaplains to meet 
together and agree on some method of performing it at other times, 
and make it known to him. Such was Washington as head of the 

As President of the United States his conduct exhibited the same 
faith in and reverence for religion. Not only did he regularly 
attend divine service in the Church of his fathers and of his choice, 
but he let it be understood that he would receive no visits on the 
Sabbath. The only exception to this was an occasional visit, in 
the latter part of the day, from his old friend, the Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, Colonel Trumbull, who was confessedly 
one of the most pious men of the age, and who would not have 
sought the company of an irreligious man on the Sabbath, even 
though that man were President of the United States, On the 
subject of a strict observance of the Sabbath, we might have men- 
tioned other proofs of it, occurring before his being elevated to the 
chief command of the army or first Presidency in the Eepublic. 
His private diary shows it in various places. Let one suffice. On 
a certain occasion he was informed on Saturday evening that the 
smallpox was among his servants in the valley. He set out the 
next morning to visit them, but notes in his diary, " Took church 
on the way," thus combining duty to the poor and to his God. 

His condemnation of the prevailing vices of the day deserves also 
to be ^mentioned in proof that he understood Christianity as being 
that "grace of God which hath appeared unto all men, teaching 
us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live 
soberly, righteously, and godly in this present evil world." 

Not only was he addicted to no kind of intemperance, scarcely ever 
tasting ardent spirits or exceeding two glasses of wine, which was 
equal to total abstinence in our day, and not using tobacco in any 
shape, but he used his authority in the army to the utmost to put 
down swearing, games of chance, ani drinking, and irregularities 


of every other kind. Whilst at Fort Cumberland in 1757, we find 
the following order: "Colonel Washington has observed that the 
men of his regiment are very profane and reprobate. He takes this 
opportunity to inform them of his great displeasure at such practices, 
and assures them that if they do not leave them off they shall be 
severely punished. The officers are desired, if they hear any man 
swear, or make use of an oath or execration, to order the offender 
twenty-five lashes immediately, without a court-martial. For the 
second offence he shall be punished more severely." The day after 
General Washington took command of the American army he issued 
orders to the troops, from which we take the following : " The 
General most earnestly requires and expects a due observance of 
those articles of war which prohibit profane cursing, swearing, and 
drunkenness," and soon after issued the following order: 

" All officers, non-commissioned officers, and soldiers are posi- 
tively forbid playing at cards and other games of chance. At this 
time of public distress men may find enough to do in the service 
of their God and their country, without abandoning themselves to 
vice and immorality.'* Again, we find in August of that year an 
order in these remarkable words : " The General is sorry to be in- 
formed that the foolish and wicked practice of profane cursing and 
swearing a vice hitherto little known in the American army is 
growing into fashion. He hopes the officers will, by example as 
well as influence, endeavour to check it ; and that both they and 
the men will reflect that we can have little hope of the blessing of 
Heaven on our arms, if we insult it by our own folly and impiety : 
added to this, it is a vice so mean and low, without any temptation, 
that every man of sense and character detests and despises it." 
And is this the man of whom some have reported that he was 
addicted to this very disgusting vice, only saying that he did it 
most gracefully and swore like an angel ? Credat Judceus Apella. 
It has also been attempted by some to introduce greater variety into 
the character of Washington, and bring him down to the common 
level, by representing him as passionately fond not merely of the 
chase and much addicted to it, but also of the dance, the ballroom, 
and the theatre. On what ground does this rest ? His fondness 
for the chase is associated with that of Lord Fairfax, during the 
time that he lived at Mount Vernon and his lordship at Belvoir, 
the seat of his relation, William Fairfax, a few miles off. But how 
long did this sporting-intimacy continue? Washington came to 
Mount Vernon in his sixteenth year. Lord Fairfax came to 
Virginia at that time, und young Washington for a few months 


sometimes attended Mm in hunting, but not neglecting his mathe- 
matical studies and surveying, which recommended him to Lord 
Fairfax as a suitable agent in the valley. At the beginning of his 
seventeenth year, Washington came over the Blue Ridge on duty, 
laborious duty. Lord Fairfax, after visiting England, settled at 
Greenway Court. His house was only the occasional abode of 
Washington during the two years in which he was surveying and 
dividing the immense landed possessions of Lord Fairfax, and also 
acting as public surveyor in all Western Virginia. What time was 
Mt him to waste in the sports of the chase ? From the age of 
nineteen he was faithfully and painfully serving his country in the 
field of battle, except when on his voyage to the West Indies with 
a sick brother. During the period between his marriage and the 
Revolution, he was a most diligent farmer at Mount Vernon, 
sometimes visiting his plantations in Jefferson, and acting as Burgess 
in Virginia and Delegate to the earlier American Congresses. 
What time, I ask, for the sports of the field ? What do we find, in 
his diary, of dogs and kennels and the chase ? We do not say that 
he may never have thus exercised himself at a time and in a country 
where game and forests abounded and it was less a waste of time 
than at other periods and other places : but how different must have 
been the pursuit with Washington from that of the idlers of his 
day ?* And as to his admiration of the theatre and his delighting 
in its ludicrous and indelicate exhibitions, does it seem probable 

* In proof of how little dependence is to be placed on assertions of this kind, I 
quote a passage from the life of General Muhlenberg. While a minister at Wood- 
stock, in what is now in Shenandoah county, in the Valley, he was among the first 
to join Evolutionary movements in 1774. It is said that he " corresponded ex- 
tensively with the prominent Whigs of the Colony, and with two of whom Washing- 
ton and Henry he was on terms of personal intimacy. "With the former he had 
frequently hunted deer among the mountains of his district ; and it is said that, fond 
as Washington was of the rifle and skilled in its use, on trial he found himself in- 
ferior to the Pennsylvanian." Now, Mr. Kohlenberg did not come to the Valley 
until twenty years after Washington had left the service of Lord Fairfax, and four- 
teen years after he had been settled at Mount Vernon as a farmer. Mr. Muhlen- 
berg came to Virginia in the fall of 1772, and in the summer of 1774 he was 
though a clergyman in the House of Burgesses and Convention with Washington 
and Henry, and there, in all human probability, commenced their acquaintance 
and subsequent correspondence. As for Washington's frequently hunting deer with 
him in the mountains of Shenandoah, during the short time Mr. Muhlenberg was 
there, preceding their meeting in Williamsburg, it is a most improbable conjecture 
Washington was, during that time, busy with his farm at "Mount Vernon and as a 
Delegate to the House of Burgesses, He visited his estates in Jefferson occasion- 
ally, but I believe there was nothing to draw him to the mountains of Shenandoab 


that the graye and dignified Washington, with all the cares of the 
army and afterward of the state pressing upon him, should have 
found time for such entertainments ? In a letter to the President 
of Congress, dated New York, April, 1776, he thus writes : * I 
give in to no kind of amusements myself, and consequently those 
about me [alluding to his aids] can have none." On the 12th of 
October, 1778, the following preamble and resolutions were adopted 
by the American Congress: "Whereas, true religion and good 
morals are the only solid foundation of public liberty and happi- 
ness, Therefore, resolved, that it be, and is hereby, recommended to 
the several States to take the most effectual measures for the en- 
couragement thereof, and for suppressing theatrical entertainments , 
horse-racing, gaming, and such other diversions as are productive 
of idleness, dissipation, and a general depravity of manners." Is 
it probable that Washington, at the head of the army, then calling 
upon his officers and soldiers to abandon their oaths and drinking 
and games of chance, in obedience to military laws and lest they 
should offend God and lose his favour, would himself despise and 
disobey this solemn call of Congress, and that too when the names of 
Adams and (jerry, Sherman and Ellsworth, Morris and Dean, Lee 
and Smith, of Virginia, Laurence and Mathews, of South Carolina, 
were on the list of those who voted for it, and so few were against it ? 

As to Washington's passionate fondness for the dance, if Cicero 
thought it an unbecoming exercise for any Roman citizen, as be- 
neath the dignity of any who were admitted to the citizenship of 
that great republic, how unlikely that our great Washington even 
if feeling no religious objection to this childish amusement 
should be still a child and delight himself in such frivolous things ! 
May we not rather suppose him to have felt and said, with a great 
man in Israel when tempted to leave the work of the Lord the 
building of his house on Mount Zion and come down to some 
meeting in one of the villages of the plain, "J am doing a great 
work, so that I cannot come down"? Let not the sons and daughters 
of idleness, vanity, and pleasure seek to find a sanction for their 
favourite amusements in the example of Washington, even though 
in a dark age and under peculiar circumstances he may at times 
have lent himself to some of them. 

I come now to speak of that feature in Washington's religious 
character which must most forcibly strike every reader of his public 
and private communications, his firm reliance on a special Provi- 
dence, as distinguished from that philosophic belief in Providence 
which is little better than atheism. In a letter to his brother, John 


A. Washington, written a few days after Braddock's defeat, he says, 
u By the all-powerful dispensations of Providence, I have been pro- 
tected beyond all human probability or expectation ; for I had four 
bullets through my coat and two horses shot under me, yet escaped 
unhurt, although death was levelling my companions on every side 
of me." In his entrance on the contest with England, he thus 
writes to General Gage : <* May that God to whom you appeal 
judge between America and you ! Tinder his providence, tho&e who 
influenced the councils of America, and all the other inhabitants 
of the Colonies, at the hazard of their lives, are determined to hand 
down to posterity those just and invaluable privileges which they 
received from their ancestors." In a letter to his friend, Joseph 
Reed, in 1776, under some great trials in relation to his supplies, 
he writes, " How it will end, God in his great goodness will direct.- 
I am thankful for his protection to this time." In his address to 
the General Assembly of Massachusetts, after the evacuation of 
Boston without blood, he ascribes it " to the interposition of that 
Providence which has manifestly appeared in our behalf through 
the whole of this important struggle." Speaking of the expecta- 
tion of a bloody battle, he says, in a letter to his brother John, "It 
is to be hoped that, if our cause be just, as I do most religiously 
believe it to be, the same Providence which has in so many in- 
stances appeared for us will still go on to afford its aid." In view 
of an expected attack from the combined forces of the enemy he 
thus calls on his soldiers : " The fate of unborn millions will now 
depend, under Grod, on the courage and conduct of this army. Let 
us rely upon the goodness of the cause, and the aid of the Supreme 
einff y in whose hand victory w, to animate and encourage us to 
noble actions." After the surrender of Burgoyne's army, he writes 
to his brother John, "I most devoutly congratulate my country and 
every well-wisher to the cause on this signal stroke of Providence/' 
In the year 1778, just after the battle of Monmouth, he writes to 
his brother, that all would have been lost "had not that bountiful 
Providence, which has never failed us in the hour of distress, enabled 
me to form a regiment or two of those who were retreating in the 
face of the enemy and under their fire." To General Nelson, in 
that same year, in taking a retrospect of the vicissitudes of the 
war, he says, " The hand of Providence is so conspicuous in all this, 
that he must be worse than an infidel that lacks faith, and more 
than wicked that has not gratitude enough to acknowledge his obli- 
gations." In a letter to Benjamin Harrison, in 1778, he writes, 
"Providence has heretofore taken care of us when all other means 


seemed to be departing from us." To General Armstrong, in 1781, 
he writes, " Our affairs are brought to a perilous crisis, that the 
hand of Providence may be more conspicuous in our deliverance. 
The many remarkable interpositions of the Divine government in 
the hours of our deepest distress and darkness have been too lumi- 
nous to suffer me to doubt the issue of the present contest." The 
foregoing are only a few out of the many passages which pervade 
all the private letters and public communications of Washington 
touching a special Providence. Is it too much to say that the 
communications of no king, ruler, general, or statesman in Chris- 
tendom ever so abounded in expressions of pious dependence on 
God? There was an habitual reliance on God which must have 
been connected with habitual prayer to God. For can we forbear 
to institute a comparison between the language of trust in Provi- 
dence, as seen in the letters and orders of Washington, and those 
of Cromwell. Who for a moment questions the sincerity and deep 
feeling of Washington in all he writes ? Who does not sometimes 
suspect at least the hypocrisy of Cromwell and revolt at his cant ? 
Who does not see and feel that, while Washington was all for his 
country and his God, Cromwell was sometimes seeking his own ? 

On one other subject in connection with the religious character 
of Washington I must ask the attention of the reader. Washington 
in word and deed condemned duelling. Nearly all our great men 
have done it by word, but, if they have not recommended it by deed, 
have been afraid to'say that they might not so do, either by giving or 
receiving a challenge. When a young man in Alexandria and an 
officer in the army, a quarrel ensued on an election-day, in which 
he used strong and offensive language to one who, with a stick, 
prostrated him to the ground. On the following day he sought 
an interview with his antagonist, when it was fully expected that 
another rencounter or the preliminaries for one would take place. 
Instead of this, Captain Washington, conscious of being in fault, 
declared that the interview was sought in order to acknowledge it. 
Here was true greatness of soul. Here was the true courage of 
the Christian, breathed into the soul by the Spirit of God. God was 
training up the spirit of Washington for all the subsequent trials 
and duties of life. In the army he of course discouraged and 
prevented this most foolish and wicked practice. M. Lafayette, in 
a chivalrous spirit, wished to revenge some supposed insult to his 
country on an Englishman who offered it, and asked leave of Wash' 
ington to send a challenge. Washington conducted the matter 
with consummate skill, and, while fully resolved not to permit it 


chose rather by a grave irony to laugh him out of it. What an 
example was thus set to the gentlemen and officers and public 
functionaries of America ! How does Washington tower above those 
who, while acknowledging that the practice is indefensible by any 
laws of God or man, and utterly opposed to them, and condemned by 
common sense and true honour and humanity, yet, in a most incon- 
sistent and cowardly manner declare that, nevertheless, such is their 
apprehension of public opinion, they might be induced to engage 
in this murderous act ! To receive a blow, be felled to the earth 
before a crowd, and then ask pardon for having provoked the blow, 
must surely be considered in a young officer as an act of moral 
courage which is prompted by the Spirit of God. 

One question only remains to be settled : Was Washington a 
communicant of the Church? That he was, might be reasonably 
inferred from the indication of youthful piety, Ms religious, his 
ministerial offices at the head of his regiment, the active part taken 
in the concerns of the parish, his habits of devotion, his regular 
attendance at church, his conscientious observance of the Sabbath, 
his strict fasting on appointed days. It is also believed that he was 
a communicant, from the testimony of the Rev. Lee Massey, as 
handed down through his family, and also of others which have come 
down to us. The testimony which has often been adduced to prove 
that, during the war, he did commune on a certain Sabbath in a 
Presbyterian church at Morristown, New Jersey, ought to be enough 
to satisfy a reasonable man of the fact. Add to these the decla- 
ration of so many, in the sermons and orations at the time of his 
death. But still it has been made a question, and it may be well 
to consider on what ground. It is certainly a fact, that for a certain 
period of time during his Presidential term, while the Congress was 
held in Philadelphia, he did not commune. This fact rests on the 
authority of Bishop White, under whose ministry the President sat, 
and who was on the most intimate terms with himself and Mrs. 
Washington. I will relate what the Bishop told myself and others 
in relation to it. During the session or sessions of Congress held 
in Philadelphia, General Washington was, with his family, a regular 
attendant at one of the churches under the care of Bishop White 
and his assistants. On Communion-days, when the congregation was 
dismissed, (except the portion which communed,) the General left 
the church, until a certain Sabbath on which Dr. Abercrombie, 
in his sermon, spoke of the impropriety of turning our backs on the 
Lord's table, that is, neglecting to commune, from which time 
General Washington came no more on Communion-days. Bishop 


White supposes that the General understood the "words turning our 
backs on the Lord's table" in a somewhat different sense than was 
designed by the preacher ; that he supposed it was intended to censure 
those who left the church at the time of its administration, and, in 
order not to seem to be disrespectful to that ordinance, thought it 
better not to be present at all on such occasions. It is needless to 
attempt to conjecture what may have been the reason of this tempo- 
rary (as we hope it was) suspension of the act of communicating. 
A regard for historic truth has led to the mention of this subject. 
The question as to his ever having been a communicant has been 
raised on this fact, as stated by Bishop White, and we have thought 
it best to give the narrative as we heard it from the lips of the 
Bishop himself. It has been asked why he did not, in the dying 
hour, send for some minister and receive the emblems of a Saviour's 
death. The same might be asked of thousands of pious communi- 
cants who do not regard the sacrament as indispensable to a happy 
death and glorious eternity, as some Romanists do. Moreover, the 
short and painful illness of Washington would have forbidden it. 
But his death was not without proofs of a gracious state. He told 
to surrounding friends that it had no terrors for him, that all was 
well. The Bible was on his bed: he closed his own eyes, and, 
folding his arms over his breast, expired in peace. 



Fairfax Parish^ Fairfax County, 

THE town of Alexandria was at first called Hunting Creek 
Warehouse, sometimes Bell Haven, and consisted of a small esta- 
blishment at that place. Its growth was encouraged by successive 
Acts of the Legislature, establishing semi-annual fairs and granting 
certain privileges to those who attended them. In the year 1762, 
it was enlarged by the laying off of numerous lots on the higher 
ground, belonging to Bade, West, and the Alexanders, after which 
it improved rapidly, so that at the close of the last or beginning of 
the present century its population was ten thousand, and its com- 
merce greater than it now is. So promising was it at the close of 
the war, that its claims were weighed in the balance with those of 
Washington as the seat of the National Government. It is thought 
that, but for the unwillingness of Washington to seem partial to 
Virginia, Alexandria would have been the chosen spot, and that on 
the first range of hills overlooking the town the public buildings 
would have been erected. Whether there had been any public 
worship or church at Alexandria previous to this enlargement of 
it, and the great impulse thus given to it, does not appear from 
the vestry-book, though it is believed that there was. But soon after 
this, in the year 1764, Fairfax parish is established, and measures 
taken for the promotion of the Church in this place. The vestry- 
book commences in 1765. At that time there were two churches 
in the new parish of Fairfax, one at the Falls, called, as the pre- 
sent one is, Little Falls Church; the position of the other the 
Lower Church is not known. It may have been an old one at 

Among the first acts of the vestry was the repairing of the two 
old churches in the parish, at a cost of more than thirty-two thou- 
sand pounds of tobacco. In the year 1766, it is determined to 
build two new churches, one at the Little Falls, very near the old 
one, and one in Alexandria, to contain twenty-four hundred square 
feet, and to be high-pitched so as to admit of galleries. Mr. James 
Wrenn agrees to build the former, and Mr. James Parsons the other, 
for about six hundred pounds each. A most particular contract is 










made for them. The mortar is to have two-thirds of lime and one of 
sand, the very reverse of the proportion at this day, and wlncH ac- 
counts for the greater durability of ancient walls. The shingles were 
to be of the best cypress or juniper, and three-quarters of an inch thick, 
instead of our present half-inch ones. Mr. Parsons was allowed to add 
ten feet to the upper part of the church on his own account, and to pay 
himself by their sale, on certain conditions. He commenced his 
work, but was unable to finish it. It lingered for some years, until, 
in 1772, Mr. John Carlisle undertakes it, and completes it in 1773. 
The ten pews are now sold, and General Washington, though having 
just been engaged in the erection of Mount Vernon Church, which 
was finished the same year, and having a pew therein, gives the 
highest price for one in Christ Church, which was occupied by him 
and his family during his life, and has been by some of his name 
and family ever since. The gallery was not put up until the year 
1787, at which time the pews were balloted for. The steeple is of 
modern construction. A gallery never was erected in the Little 
Falls Church. The following notice of my visit to this church in 
1827 will tell something of its history: 

"The exercises of the Seminary being over, I next directed my steps 
to the Falls Church, so called from its vicinity to one of the falls on the 
Potomac River. It is about eight miles from Alexandria, and the same 
from Georgetown. It is a large oblong brick building, and, like that near 
Mount Vernon, has two rows of windows, being doubtless designed for 
galleries all around, though none were ever put there. It was deserted 
as a house of worship by Episcopalians about forty years ago. About that 
period, for the first, and it is believed for the last time, it was visited by 
Bishop Madison. Since then it has been used by any who were disposed 
to occupy it as a place of worship ; and, the doors and windows being open, 
itself standing on the common highway, it has been entered at pleasure 
by travellers on the road and animals of every kind. Some years since, 
the attention of the professors of our Seminary, and of some of the students, 
was drawn toward it, and occasional services performed there. This led 
to its partial repair. The most successful effort in its behalf was made by 
one of those devoted youths who has given himself to Africa. Young Mr. 
Minor, of Fredericksburg, (then a student at the Seminary,) undertook the 
task of lay reader in this place, and by his untiring zeal and most affection- 
ate manners soon collected a large Sunday-school, in the conduct of which 
he was aided by some of Ms fellow-students of kindred spirit. In losing 
Mr. Minor (when he went to Africa) the parents and children thought 
they had lost their all; but Providence raised up others, and doubtless will 
continue to raise up as many as are needed. Our Seminary will surely 
tarnish the supply that is called for. The house of which we are speak- 
ing has recently been more thoroughly repaired, and is now, as to outward 
appearance, strength, and comfort, one of our most desirable temples of 
religion, bidding fair to survive successive generations of those unworthy 
structures which are continually rising up and falling down throughout 

Vox,, ii. IT 


our land. On Saturday and Sunday, assisted by several of our ministers, 
I performed pastoral and episcopal duties in this church. On the latter 
day, in the midst of an overflowing congregation, I confirmed six persons 
and administered the Holy Communion. On the evening of this day, I 
visited an interesting school of young ladies at Mr. Henry Fairfax's, and 
sought to make some improvement of my visit by addressing a discourse 
especially to the young ones." 

Mr. Henry Fairfax was the grandson of the Rev. Bryan Fairfax, 
of whom we shall soon speak as the minister of this church. He 
inherited the generous and disinterested spirit of his grandfather. 
It was chiefly at his expense that the church was repaired, and by 
his liberality the minister supported, when another than the pro- 
fessors was employed. Being a graduate of West Point, he felt 
that he owed his country a debt, which could only be discharged by 
engaging in the late Mexican war, and, in opposition to the wishes 
and judgment of his friends and relatives, raised a company for that 
purpose ; but scarcely had he reached the scene of action before he 
fell a victim to the climate, leaving a devoted family and congre- 
gation to feel and mourn his loss. 

While on the subject of churches, it may be as well to mention 
that at a more recent date a neat frame church has been built at 
Fairfax Court-House, under the auspices of the Eev. Mr. Lock- 
wood, who for some years officiated there as well as at the Falls 
Church. The Eev. Templeman Brown had officiated at the Falls 
Church and at the court-house for some time before Mr. Lockwood's 
ministry, and has again been serving them for a number of years, 
since Mr. Lockwood's relinquishment. 

We proceed now to such notices as we possess of the ministers 
of Fairfax parish. For these we- are indebted to the vestry-records. 
The Eev. Townshend Dade was ordained for this parish by the Bishop 
of London in 1765, and entered upon his duties in the following 
year or perhaps sooner. It is more than probable that he was the 
son of Mr. Townshend Dade, who appears on the list of the first 
vestry, or of Mr. Baldwin Dade, who was a vestryman at a later 
date, and owner in part of the land on which Alexandria was built. 
We are sorry to be unable to make a favourable report of the Eev. 
Mr. Dade. In the year 1768, the vestry discuss the question of 
examining into some alleged misconduct of his, and decide against 
it, five members entering their dissent from the decision. In the 
year 1777, a committee is appointed to wait upon him to know why 
he neglects his congregation. Some months after, the committee is 
enlarged and directed to take further steps. The result was his 


resignation and relinquishment of the glebe and rectory. In the 
same year the Rev. Spence Grayson is a candidate for the parish, 
but the Rev. Mr. West, probably from Maryland, is preferred. He 
continues until February of 1779, and resigns. The Rev. David 
Griffith, then chaplain in the army, and formerly minister of Shel- 
burne parish, and well known to the people, is elected, though he 
does not appear on the vestry-book as minister until October, 1780. 
He continued to be its minister until his death in 1789. Of him 
we shall speak more fully after our brief notice of the succession 
of the ministers of this parish. The Rev. Bryan Fairfax suc- 
ceeded him in 1790. He was ordained deacon in 1786 by 
Bishop Seabury, Mr. Bryan Fairfax had been a vestryman of 
the parish and delegate to the Virginia Conventions for some 
time before this. Whether it was that his health was delicate 
from the first, or whatever was the cause, he wished an assistant 
in the parish, and the vestry passed an order allowing him to 
invite the Rev. Mason Locke Weems, or any one else whom 
he might choose, to act as such. Mr. Fairfax made a very 
different selection, and called the Rev. Bernard Page, giving 
to him all the emoluments of the parish. Mr. Page was very de- 
cidedly of the then rising evangelical school in the Church of Eng- 
land, and a very zealous preacher of its doctrines. I doubt not but 
that Mr. Fairfax sympathized with the principles of that school. In 
a sermon of his which I have published, he sets forth the doctrine 
of salvation by grace through faith in Christ in such a way as was 
not common in that day. In the year 1792, he resigns his charge 
in a letter stating his reasons, which is not entered on the record, 
though the most flattering letter of the vestry, regretting their loss 
of him, is. I am not aware how long he lived after this. His resi- 
dence during the latter years of his life was at a place called Mount 
Eagle, a short distance beyond the Hunting Creek Bridge. He 
was the father of the late Ferdinando Fairfax and Thomas Fairfax, 
the latter of whom inherited his empty title of Lord Fairfax, also 
of the late Mrs. Charles Catlett, by a second marriage. I am not 
aware of other children, though there may have been. I have, in 
another place, stated that he endeavoured to dissuade his friend 
and neighbour, General Washington, from the war with England 
The General, in his letter to him, deals most gently and respectfully 
with him. He was the son of his old friend and neighbour, George 
William Fairfax, of Belvoir, and the brother of the wife of Law- 
rence Washington, elder brother of the General. The Rev. Mr. 
Fairfax acted with such prudence, if he did not see cause to change 


his sentiments, as not to forfeit the friendship of Washington and 
of the patriots in Fairfax parish, hut was, as we have seen, chosen 
to be their ministei He has left behind him many worthy adhe- 
rents to our Church, though some few have varied from it. At the 
resignation of Mr. Fairfax the Rev. Thomas Davis was chosen. He 
continued its minister until 1806, when he removed to Hungar's 
parish, on the Eastern Shore, where he died. Mr. Davis had 
ministered in various places throughout Virginia, and, though a man 
of temperate habits and correct life by comparison with too many 
of our clergy, was not calculated by his preaching or conversation 
to promote the spiritual welfare of any people. He was succeeded 
by the Rev. Mr. Gibson, of Maryland. Previous to his removal to 
Alexandria, and while the church was vacant, the vestry invited 
the Rev. Mr. McQuerr a Scotch minister of the Presbyterian Church, 
who was then principal of the Washington Academy in Alexandria, 
to officiate for them. With the character and habits of Mr. McQuerr 
I became acquainted through my old teacher, Mr. Wiley, who was 
educated at that school. They were nothing better than those of 
many of the old Episcopal clergy. I am happy, however, to say 
that more than twenty years after this, on one of my journeys to 
the South, I heard of him as a most pious and exemplary minister 
of that communion in the State of Georgia, a zealous advocate of 
the Temperance and Colonization societies and of every good work, 
and highly esteemed by all. He lived to a great age, persevering 
to the last. There is something sad in the history of the Rev, Mr. 
Gibson, but it must be told for the benefit of others. He began 
well, pnMiched zealously, was praised and flattered to his undoing. 
He gave offence to some by a rather harsh way of saying true 
things. This was complained of, and perhaps harsh things said in 
return. These were communicated to him by a few of those false 
friends who think to ingratiate themselves with their minister by 
communicating to him what ought to be concealed. This exasperated 
a temper naturally excitable. Under the influence of this, he sud- 
denly and unexpectedly, from the pulpit, resigned his charge. 
The vestry were divided as to the acceptance of it, but the majority 
were in favour of it. When too late he apologized, and wished to 
retract* Parties were formed, and the result was another congre- 
gation under his auspices. But, as will be seen when I come to 
speak of that congregation, he did not continue long with it, but 
returned to Maryland, where, after a short time, he was dismissed 
for intemperance. There was reason to fear that the habit had 
commenced in Alexandria, under the too popular pretext of using 


ardent spirits privately as a medicine. He afterward united with 
the Methodist Church and ministered in it. Let the clergy learn 
from his fate to beware of false friends who inform them what their 
enemies say of them, and to eschew alcohol, even as a medicine, 
unless prescribed by a temperate physician and as a mere temporary 
expedient imperiously called for. 

In the following year, 1810, the Rev. Mr. Barclay, who came to 
this country from the West Indies, was chosen. Bishop Clagett, 
of Maryland, certified to his character for the last six years, during 
which he had been ministering in Maryland ; but in April of 1811 
a wife, whom he had deserted, followed him from the West Indies, 
and he resigned his charge in Alexandria and has been heard of no 
more since. 

Under these circumstances, the writer of these sad notices, having 
been ordained by Bishop Madison in the spring of that year, at the 
age of twenty-one, was induced to take the charge of Christ Church 
in October, 1811, in conjunction with his charge in Frederick, 
visiting the latter once a month. For some account of his ministry 
at that time and place he refers to the second article in this series. 

At the close of that brief term of service, extending only to 
eighteen months, the Rev. Oliver Norris took charge of Christ 
Church. Mr. Norris was of Quaker descent, but, occasionally at- 
tending the services of St. Peter's Church, Baltimore, during the 
ministry of Mr. Dashiel, first became convinced of sin, then of his 
need of a Saviour, and then of the excellency of our service to 
build up a convert in the true faith and practice of a Christian. 
He has often detailed to me the circumstances of his conversion* 
He first ministered at Elk Ridge and near Bladensburg, in Mary- 
land, and then came to Virginia. He was an affectionate pastor 
and faithful preacher of the Gospel, very dear to his people, and 
esteemed in the Church of Virginia. Being called upon to preach 
his funeral sermon, and the same being published by the vestry, I 
am able to present the following passage on one trait in his minis- 
terial character : 

" May I not, fearless of contradiction, ask this congregation if there be 
one among them who has not experienced many evidences of his pastoral 
fidelity and tenderness ? Who has ever complained of neglect there, where 
a people are so apt to complain ? What individual so poor or so obscure 
but has received a full share of his pastoral kindness? Which of you, rich 
or poor, did he ever meet, but affection beamed from his eye and spoke 
from his lips, and was felt in the warm pressure of his affectionate hand ? 
Which of you ever left (though but for a season) his pastoral care, but he 
was with you to bid a kind farewell and commend you to the care of Heaven, 


and when you returned was he not tie first to meet and welcome you back 
again ? Which of you was ever sick, "but he was soon at your side, ready 
to comfort you, pray with you, entreat you to take it in good part as the dis- 
pensation of God, and, if there was need, to be your tender nurse? Which 
of you was ever in any distress of soul, body, or estate, but he was the first 
to condole with you and endeavour to make some spiritual improvement 
of your affliction ? Which of his people departing this life, but he was 
with them, exhorting to due preparation, and strengthening them for the 
conflict with the last enemy and great adversary ? Once more, let me ask 
which of your dear little children, tut has received his kind attentions, 
heard from his lips some words of counsel suited to their age, and which 
should be remembered and treasured ap in their hearts ?" 

After the death of Mr. Norris, in the summer of 1825, efforts 
were made to obtain the services of the Rev. John Johns, then in 
Fredericktown, Maryland, and of the Rev. Mr. Cobbs, of Bedford 
county, Virginia, and on. the faikre of these applications the Rev. 
Mr. Keith was induced to add tie duties of a pastor and preacher 
to those of professor. He continued this, with some interruption, 
for the greater part of three years, when the Rev. Greo. Griswold, 
son of Bishop Grriswold, became pastor in 1828. On account of ill 
health he resigned the following year, to the deep regret of the 
congregation. The Rev. J. P, Mctruire followed for one year, and> 
unable through weakness of his eyes to make the necessary prepa- 
ration for the pulpit, resigned the charge. The Rev. Mr. Mann 
succeeded, and, after continuing for three years, accepted an 
agency for the Seminary. The BeT. Mr, Dana, its present minister, 
then took charge of the clurck. 


Concerning the Rev. David G-riffith we have something more 
particular to record. Se was loin in the city of New York, and 
educated, partly in that place and partly in England, for the me- 
dical profession. After taiiag kis degree in London, he returned 
to America and entered on his profession in the interior of New 
York about the year 1763. Determined to enter the ministry of 
the Episcopal Church, he went to London in the year 1770, and 
was ordained by Bishop Terrick, August the 19th of that year, and 
returned as missionary to Crloucester county, New Jersey. He 
could not have continued there long; for, in the close of the next 
year, he accepts the charge of Slelburne parish, Loudoun county, 
Virginia. Governor Jolmson, of New York, was very anxious to 
obtain his services in that State, where he was regarded as a " man 
of uncommon merit." The (Jovermor of Virginia, also, either from 
personal knowledge or report, recommends him very highly to 


Shelburne parish. He continued in it until May, 1776, when 
being an American not only by birth but in heart he entered the 
service as chaplain to the 3d Virginia Kegiment. In this service 
he continued until some time in the year 1780. He appears as the 
minister of Christ Church, Alexandria, during that year, though 
he was elected the previous year. He is represented as a man of 
good size and fine appearance and pleasing manners, and as 
enjoying the confidence of General Washington and the army. 
Tradition says that, on the night before the battle of Monmouth, 
he sought an interview with General Washington, and, in the pre- 
sence of his aids, bade him beware of General Charles Lee, though 
he was not at liberty to give his reasons or authority. When Lee 
unnecessarily and ingloriously retreated on the field of Monmouth, 
and almost lost America the battle, there were those who believed 
that he wished only to diminish the reputation of Washington and 
receive the supreme command to himself. We only give this as 
tradition. Prom the year 1780 to his death, in 1789, Mr. Griffith 
was the much-esteemed pastor of Christ Church, Alexandria, and 
that called Little Falls, higher up on the Potomac. During the 
greater part of this time General Washington was his parishioner 
having a pew in Christ Church and Mr. Griffith was a welcome 
visitor at Mount Vernon. Mr. Griffith was not merely attentive to 
his duty as a parish minister, but, in the dark and distressing days 
of the Episcopal Church in Virginia and in the other States, took 
a deep interest in the measures proposed for her welfare. When 
a number of the clergy from the Northern States met of their own 
motion, in New York, in October, 1784 to consult about those 
measures, Mr. Griffith appeared of his own accord from Virginia. 
But before that time, I have letters to and from him, showing that 
he was earnestly engaged in correspondence, both North and South, 
with a view to promoting both State and General Conventions, as 
the instruments of saving the Church from ruin. The following 
letters which passed between himself and Dr. Buchanon of Rich- 
mond will show how deplorable was the condition of things in Vir- 
ginia at this time, and also establish the fact that Dr. Griffith was 
the first mover of the proposition to have a Convention in Virginia 
after the war. I have also a letter in August, 1784, from the Kev. 
"Mr. West, dated from Baltimore, in which he delivers a message 
from Dr. Smith, of Philadelphia, to Mr. Griffith, showing his esti- 
mate of the latter in relation to this movement. It is probable that 
this Mr. West was the same who preceded Mr. Griffith in Alexau- 
dria, as he speaks of being there. 


The following letter of Dr. Griffith to Dr. Buchanon, of Rich 
mond, must have been written in the fall of 1783, before any meet 
ing of Episcopalians, in any part of the land, had occurred with a 
similar object. Dr. Buchanon's reply was not until the February 
following, except so far as a verbal message went : 

tc DEAR SIR : You may recollect the conversation we had when I had 
the pleasure of seeing you at Richmond; that we mutually lamented the 
declining state of the Church of England in this country, and the pitiable 
situation of her clergy, especially those whose circumstances are not 
sufficiently independent to place them beyond the reach of want. I am 
satisfied our Church has yet a very great number of powerful friends who 
are disposed to give it encouragement and support, and who wish to see 
some plan in agitation for effecting a business so important, and at this 
time so very necessary. It is (and very justly) matter of astonishment to 
many, that those whose more immediate duty it is to look to the concerns 
of their religious society should show so much indifference and indolence 
as the Church and clergy do, while the leaders of almost every other de 
nomination are labouring with the greatest assiduity to increase their in- 
fluence, and, by open attacks and subtle machinations, endeavouring to 
lessen that of every other society, particularly the Church to which you 
and I have the honour to belong, in whose destruction they all (Quakers 
and Methodists eseepted) seem to agree perfectly, however they may differ 
in other points. Against these it behooves us to be cautious But, unless 
the clergy act conjointly and agreeably to some well-regulated plan, the 
ruin of our Church is inevitable without the malevolence of her enemies. 
Considering her present situation and circumstances, without ordination, 
without government, without support, unprotected by the laws, and yet 
labouring under injurious restrictions from laws which yet exist, these 
things considered, her destruction is sure as fate, unless some mode is 
adopted for her preservation. Her friends, by suffering her to continue in 
her present state of embarrassment, as effectually work her destruction as 
her avowed enemies could do by their most successful contrivances. 

" In the late contest for a stake of the last importance to this country, it 
would have been imprudent to enter on a regulation of ecclesiastical affairs, 
or to attempt any thing that might interrupt that union which was so 
necessary for our mutual security and preservation. But that time, God 
be thanked, is happily over, and those reasons no longer exist. It seems 
to be high time for those whom it concerns to be engaged in the important 
business of regulating the affairs of the Church. I have been for some 
time in the hope that some of my brethren near the seat of government 
would have set on foot this necessary business ; and my reason for address- 
ing you at this time is to be informed whether any thing of the kind 
is begun or intended, the time when, the place where, and manner 
how. and, if nothing of the kind should be yet determined upon, to 
request of you, as your situation renders it noway inconvenient, to un- 
dertake to promote a Convention of the clergy for that purpose. I shall 
also presume to offer my advice. In order that the measures agreed on 
may be generally acceptable to the clergy and no objection remain to im- 
pede their future execution, it will be necessary to have as numerous a 
meeting as possible, I would recommend to have the clergy summoned to 
this Convention both by public notice and private information ; for, as 


the Virginia newspapers seldom come in j o this and several other quarters, 
perhaps the end would be best answered by sending printed circular letters 
co all quarters of the State : if circular letters were not sent, many of the 
clergy might not have timely notice. I would recommend this Convention 
to be called on the authority of the few clergy contiguous to the seat of 
government, the notices to be signed by the whole of them, or one as 
chairman. I would advise the notices to be couched in general terms, to 
avoid, as much as possible, assigning reasons for it, especially such as may 
alarm the Dissenters and rouse them into opposition. The time for send- 
ing and publishing these notices should be near three months before the 
intended Convention, that the clergy might with certainty be informed of it 
and be prepared to leave their homes. As Richmond is near the centre of 
the State, I think it is the properest place to hold the Convention at. The 
time for holding the Convention I would recommend to be about the 20th 
of April next. It will be impossible to have any thing like a full meeting 
in the winter season ; and, about the season I have mentioned, the weather 
is generally fine for travelling and the roads settled. Besides, our plans 
should be agreed upon previous to the session of Assembly, as we must 
necessarily have recourse to it for the repeal of those existing laws which 
made a part of the old Establishment, and which, while they do exist, must 
prove ruinous to the Church in spite of any regulations the clergy may 
adopt. I have not the pleasure of knowing Mr. Blagrove, chaplain to the 
House of Assembly, but I think his name, or yours, or both, would not 
appear improperly at the bottom of the notices, or any thing that will answer 
the purpose. If the above proposal should be adopted, I shall be much 
obliged to you for informing me of it as soon as it is determined on. 
Please direct to me at Alexandria, either by post or some private hand. 
If a meeting is likely to take place, it would not perhaps be amiss if your- 
self and our brethren in your neighbourhood were to digest some plan for 
the consideration of the Convention. If it was well considered by sensible 
men what regulations were wanting and what reform necessary, it would 
save abundance of time. If I have timely notice, I will cheerfully devote 
all the spare time I have to this service. And if the Convention is re- 
solved on, I will engage to send the notices to all the clergy in the Northern 
Neck above "Falmouth, if the copies or a form are sent me in time. You 
may remember that when I had the pleasure of seeing you I expressed a 
wish that a coalition might take place between us and the Dissenters : it 
is still my most earnest wish, but I am now satisfied it is a vain one : and 
I think our Church has no chance of preserving any of its ancient and ex- 
cellent forms of worship, but from the united zeal and efforts of her clergy. 
I think it is this alone that can preserve her very existence. I am, &c. 


The following is Dr. Buchanon's answer; 

"DEAR SIR: I received your letter, favoured by Mr. Fairfax, which 
reminded me of a conversation which passed between us respecting the 
low state of the Church whereof we are members, and in which you make 
inquiry whether any thing has been attempted by any of its clergy to raise 
it from its distressed situation, and inform me that reflections have been 
thrown out against them for their remissness and want of zeal in an affair 
of so much consequence. In order to remedy these evils, you propose 
a plan for convening the clergy in the montr. of April next, to the end 


that some form of ecclesiastical government might be established, par 
ticularly a mode of ordination ; and that an application might be made to 
the Assembly for redress of grievances and a legal support. 

" As I had nothing of consequence to write you by Mr. Fairfax, I desired 
him verbally to acquaint you that your brethren in this neighbourhood 
had done nothing to forward the re-establishment of our Church ; indeed, 
they. seemed to despair of any thing being done effectually without its 
originating in the Assembly. I showed them your letter : they approved 
highly of your zeal, but were by no means sanguine in the result of a 
convocation. It was agreed among us that we should meet on some day 
most convenient for Mr. Leigh, who lived the greatest distance from this 
city,* to take into further consideration the subject of your letter. Thus 
matters stood until the 29th of December, when Mr. Selden received a 
letter from the above gentleman, a copy whereof is herein enclosed that 
you may have a full view of the argument he offers against your plan of a 
convocation. For my own part, before I was favoured with your ideas I 
was firmly of opinion that the reformation should first take place in the 
Legislature; that, if they thought public religion essential not only to the 
good order but to the very existence of government, it behooved them to 
make a legal provision for its teachers, and to raise them from that state 
of indigence and dependence which, I will not scruple to say, they them- 
selves were the cause of; otherwise they cannot reasonably expect that 
religion will flourish in a country where its ministers are reduced to a 
state of beggary and contempt. I remember, in a conversation at Wilton,f 
on this very subject, a Mr. Douglass, lately from England, expressed his 
surprise that the clergy of our Church had never presented a memorial to 
the House respecting the state of religion; in which he was joined by the 
Speaker of the Senate. I gave my opinion as above, and further added, 
that such an application would give the alarm to the Sectaries, who would, 
no doubt, throw every obstruction in the way, if not render totally abor- 
tive every measure we should adopt. The present Governor thought my 
argument had weight, and said that it was a reproach on Government that 
they had done nothing in support of religion. I am apt to think that some 
who are no well-wishers to our persuasion had got intelligence of our de- 
sign; for, soon after Mr. Fairfax's appearance here, some scurrilous pub- 
lications appeared in the papers concerning the importation of clergy 
at forty or fifty pounds a head, according to certain qualifications specified, 
and other stuff to that purpose. I am told that a petition was last session 
preferred to the House, representing the fatal decline of religion, and of 
consequence the great depravity of morals resulting from it, and praying 
that the House would take into their most serious consideration a subject 
of so much importance. Some were for putting it off Ho a more convenient 
season/ but Mr. Henry thought it of too much moment to be deferred to 
another session. Notwithstanding this, the matter was dropped, and when 
it will be resumed I know not. At the beginning of the session, you 
would think that most of the House, from their speeches without-doors, 
were for doing something effectual; but they no sooner get involved in 
secular matters, than the idea of religion is obliterated from their minds. 

"You observe Mr. Leigh expresses a willingness to meet us at any a] 
pointed time, to put into execution the plan you propose, or, if we thi: 

* The Kev. William Leigh, of Chesterfield, 
f A se&t of tlm Randolphs, near Richmond. 


proper, he allows us to put his name down to any notification to our 

u As we have been so long undetermined, nothing, I think, can be done 
this winter. Should business, or your inclinations, lead you to this city in 
April, pray send me previous notice of it, that I may inform some of the 
gentlemen in this neighbourhood. Your presence may rouse us from otu 
lethargy; and for my own part, if you should think a memorial to the 
House expedient, I will give it my hearty concurrence, or any other plan 
you may adopt. 

"I am, dear sir, with real esteem 

" Your most obedient servant, 

"RICHMOND, February 2, 1784." 

Nothing could better exhibit the true condition of things in Vir- 
ginia than this correspondence. Dr. Buchanon acknowledges that 
the clergy had brought this ruin upon themselves by their own mis- 
conduct. Guilt-stricken, they were afraid and ashamed to come 
forward boldly and call upon the Legislature to do something for 
the cause of religion and morals, which were both declining. It never 
seemed to enter into the thoughts of some, as a possibility, to do 
any thing on the voluntary principle, independent of the State, so 
accustomed were they to the old English system. Whether any 
such meeting as that proposed by Dr. Griffith ever took place, I 
have not the means of ascertaining. In the winter of 1785, the 
Legislature incorporated the Episcopal Church, tendering the same 
privilege to others, and in the preamble states that it was done at 
the petition of the Episcopal clergy. How many united in it, and 
whether it was done at a general meeting called for the purpose, 
I know not. In May of that year, 1785, the first Convention of 
clerical and lay deputies met in Richmond, under the Act of incor 
poration. Mr. Griffith, being there, TOS appointed a delegate to 
the General Convention in Philadelphia that fall. The second Vir- 
ginia Convention was held in May, 1786, when the Rev. Dr. Griffith 
was chosen Bishop, by a vote of thirty-two members. Dr. Bracken 
received ten, and Mr. Samuel Shield seven. An assessment was 
made upon the parishes for funds to bear the expenses of his visit 
to England for consecration; but such was the depressed condition 
of the Church, that a sufficiency was Dot raised, either in that year 
or the two succeeding on^s. In May, 1789, Mr. Griffith resigned 
his claim upon the office, and in the summer of that year died at 
the house of Bishop White, while attending the General Convention. 
At the following Convention, the Rev. James Madison was chosen 
Bishop by a vote of forty-five, the Rev. Samuel Shield having 
nine. To the shame of the Church of Virginia, in that day he it 


said, sufficient funds were not raised for Bishop Madison's conse- 
cration. A part "was drawn from his private resources, and that 
worthy man, Graham Franks, of London, of whom we have before 
spoken as the warm friend of the Church of Virginia, and whose 
wife lies buried in old York graveyard, contributed five guineas 
toward it. 

List of the Vestrymen. 

John West, Wm. Payne, Jr., Win. Adams, John Dalton, Thomas Wren, 
Edward Duling, Daniel French, Thomas Shaw, Townshend Dade, Eichard 
Sanford, Charles Broadwater, Edward Blackburn, James Wren, Henry 
Gunnel, John West, Jr., Eichard Con way, Henry Darne, John Hunter, 
Charles Alexander, Presley Cox, ^ m. Chapman, Townshend Hooe, Wm. 
Herbert, Thomas Triplett, George Gilpin, Wm. Browne, Bryau Fairfax, 
Kobert Powell, Wm. Syles, David Stewart, John Courts, Wm, Hunter, 
Eoger West, John Jackson, Benjamin Harris, Lewis Hipkins, George 
Gilpin, Nicholas Fitzhugh, Eobert T. Hooe, Baldwin Dade, Philip E. 
Fendall, James P. Nicholls, Ludwell Lee, Wm. Fitzhugh, George Taylor, 
John Roberts, George Deneale, Daniel McClean, H. Smoot, John Tinker, 
Edmund I. Lee, Charles Simms, Charles Alexander, Jr., John Tucker, 
James Kieth, Wm. S. Moore, Cuthbert Powell, John Muncaster, Jonah 
Thompson, Thomas Swann, Tristam Dalton, Augustin J. Smith, William 
Hodgson, Anthony Crease, Eichard M. Scott, Francis Adams, Wm, H. 
Fitzhugh, James Kieth, Jr., James H. Hooe, Craven Thompson, Thomas 
Semmes, Horatio Clagget, Noblet Herbert, Newton Keene, John Eoberts, 
Bernard Hooe, Wm. Herbert, Peyton Thompson, John Lloyd, J. J. Fro- 
bell, Win. Fowle, J. A. Washington, James Atkinson, J. H. Crease, W. 
C. Page, Edward Latham, E. H. Claggett, W. F. Alexander, Daniel 
Minor, George Johnson, Guy Atkinson, Cassius F. Lee, Solomon Masters, 
Wm. Morgan, Eichard C. Mason, George Fletcher, James Irwin, J. Grubb, 
General John Mason. 

The following names, not in the old vestry-book, have been fur- 
nished me: 

Louis A. Cazenove, William W. Hoxton, William L. Powell, Edgar 
Snowden, Edward C. Fletcher, William G. Cazenove, Henry C. Keale, 
John J. Lloyd, Eeuben Johnston, Charles H, Lee, William 0. Teaton, 
Eichard C. Smith, Thomas C. Atkinson, Lawrence B. Taylor, Henry W. 
Yaudegrift, John Crockford, Douglass E. Semmes. 

Concerning two of the above-mentioned vestrymen I may be 
permitted to say a few words. Mr. George Taylor and Edmund 
L Lee were churchwardens when I took charge of Christ Church 
in 1811, and so continued until the removal of one by a change of 
residence, and the other by death, after a long term of service. 
They were both of them members of the Standing Committee during 
the same period. I think I knew them well, and knew them to be 
sincere Christians, and useful, punctual business-men Mr. Tnylor, 


i think, nearly reached his century of years, his step still elastic 
and form erect and countenance fine and temper unruffled, walk- 
ing between Washington and Alexandria without weariness almost 
to the last, and lifting up a distinct voice in the utterance of those 
prayers in which he delighted, dying, as he had lived, in the faith 
of the Gospel. Mr. Lee generally attended on State Conventions, 
and sometimes the General Convention. He was a man of great 
decision and perseverance in what he deemed right, obstinate, some 
of us thought, even to a fault, when we differed from him. There 
was no compromise at all in him, with any thing which he thought 
wrong. He was as fearless as Julius Caesar. On a certain Sab- 
bath, while I was performing service in Christ Church, a certain 
person in the gallery disturbed myself and the congregation by 
undue vociferation in the responses, and also at the opening of the 
sermon. I paused, and requested him to desist, and was proceed- 
ing, but Mr. Lee, who was near him, arose and asked me to suspend 
the sermon. Walking toward the offender, he told him that he 
must leave the house. As he approached to enforce it, the person 
raised a loaded whip and struck at him. Mr. Lee, nothing moved, 
took him by the arms and led him out of the house, and deposited 
him in the town jail. When mayor of the town, he was a terror to 
evil-doers. Ascertaining that there was much gambling going on 
among the gentlemen of the place, and some of the principal ones, 
he took effective measures for their discovery, brought between 
thirty and forty before the court, and had them fined. The prose- 
cuting attorney was his particular friend, and was slightly impli- 
cated in the evil practice; but he did not spare him. Nor did he 
wish to be spared, but, coming forward and paying his fine, then 
did his duty with all the rest. Mr. Lee was of course not a popular 
man, nor did'he seek or care to be, but did his duty entirely re- 
gardless of all others. He kept our Conventions in good order, by 
always insisting upon the observance of rules of which the clergy 
are not always mindful. He was the great advocate of our Bishops' 
fund, and defended it from all invasions. I not only knew Mr. 
Lee from my youth up, but I saw him in his last moments, and 
heard him with the truest humility speak of himself as a poor sin- 
ner, whose only hope was in Christ. And can I speak of him 
without remembering that meek and holy woman to whom he was 
so long a most affectionate husband ? She was the daughter of that 
Christian patriot, Richard Henry Lee. For more than thirty 
years she was gradually dying of consumption, and yet in such a 
way as to admit of the exhibition of all her Christian graces in 



the various relations of life. By universal consent, she was one of 
the purest specimens of humanity sanctified by the grace of God. 

P.S. It was in this parish that the question of the right of the 
Dhurch to the glebes, which had been determined against the Church 
in the Virginia courts, was reconsidered. Being brought before 
the Supreme Court, the former decision was reversed, so far 
as the glebe in Fairfax parish was concerned. The opinion of the 
court, which was drawn up by Judge Story, of Massachusetts, may 
be seen in the Appendix. 

From Sparks's Life of Washington. 

< After the French War, while in retirement at Mount Vernon, Wash- 
ington took a lively interest in Church affairs, regularly attending public 
worship, and being at different times a vestryman in two parishes. 

. " The following list of votes for vestrymen in Fairfax parish and Truro 
parish is copied from a paper in Washington's handwriting, and shows 
that he was chosen a vestryman in each of those parishes. How long he 
continued in that station, I have no means of determining. The place 
of worship in Fairfax parish was at Alexandria 5 in Truro parish, at Pohick; 
the former ten, the latter seven, miles from Mount Yernon." 

Vestry chosen for Fairfax parish, 2Sth March, 1765, with the 
number of votes for each. 

John West 
Charles Alexander 
William Payne . 
John Dalton 
George Washington 
Charles Broadwater 


George Johnston 
Townshend Dade 
Richard Sandford 
William Adams . 
John Posey 
Daniel French 


Vestry chosen for Truro parish, 22 d July^ 1765, with the number 
of votes for each. 

George Mason . . .282 

Edward Payne . . .277 

George Washington . .259 

John Posey . . .259 

Daniel McCarty . . . 246 

George William Fairfax . 285 

Alexander HendersoD . ,231 

William Gardner . . 218 

Tomison Ellzey . . . 209 

Thomas W. Coffer . . 189 

William Lynton . . . 172 

Thomas Ford . . .170 



St. Paul's Okurch, Alexandria and Cameron and Shelbume 

Parishes, London County. 

WE have already said that St. Paul's Church grew out of a differ- 
ence between the Rev. Mr; Gibson and the congregation of Christ 
Church, in 1809. There were worthy persons in the vestry and 
congregation who thought that Mr. Gibson's apology for the manner 
in which he resigned his charge ought to have been accepted, and 
that he should have been allowed to withdraw his resignation and 
continue his ministry. The majority of the vestry thought other- 
wise, and that it would be better to let the connection be dissolved. 
Some of the vestry and of the congregation thought that the harsh- 
ness of manner and language sometimes apparent in his discourses 
proceeded from an honest zeal, which made him speak very differ- 
ently from the tame way and courteous strain of the old clergy, 
and therefore determined to form a new congregation. They accord- 
ingly purchased a small vacant church belonging to the Presbyterian 
denomination, and commenced services in it. On the 23d of Janu- 
ary, 1810, a vestry was organized, consisting of Daniel McLean, 
Lawrence Hooff, James B. Nicholls, Mark Butts, Nathaniel 0. 
Hunter, John Young, Joseph Thomas, Adam Lynn, Joseph Thorn* 
ton, John Hooff, Thomas West Peyton, to whom at different times, 
until the year 1832, have been added Charles Page, Thomas Moore^ 
Augustin Newton, Ferdinand Mastellar, John Gird, Lawrence 
Lewis, Humphrey Peake, W. C. Gardiner, James Entwisle, Isaa| 
Cannell, Christopher Neale, George Johnson, Norman Fitzhugh, 
Silas Reed, Lewis A. Cazenove, Benjamin L Fendall, Bernard 
Hooe, Charles Koones, William Fowle, Lewis Hooff, Anthony Mc- 
Lean, Geo, TJ. Smoot, William H. Fowle, James Green, Dr. Isaac 
Winston, Francis L, Smith, Stephen Shinn, David Funsten, Orlando 
Fairfax, Silas Reed, George Brent, Bernard Hooe, &c. 


The Rev. Mr. Gibson resigned in the month of September, 1811. 
In the following February the Rev. Wm. Wilmer entered upon the 
charge and continued in it until the 19th of October, 1826, when 


he accepted the Presidency of William and Mary College. During 
his ministry the old church was enlarged and the present church 
built, and the congregation increased manifold. Of Dr. Wilmer I 
have already spoken in one of the articles on Williamsburg. I will 
only add that the congregation could not have been supplied with 
one better calculated to build it up, whether we consider his zeal, 
prudence, or ability for the work, in private or public. During his 
residence in Virginia he was always sent to the General Convention, 
and when there chosen to preside over its deliberations. With his 
pen he defended Protestantism against Romanism, and moderate 
views of the Church and Sacraments against certain extravagant 
ones which were at that early period finding their way amcng us. 
At the resignation of Mr. Wilmer, the Rev. William Jackson was 
chosen, but did not enter upon his duties until February, 1827. 
Most acceptably and usefully did he labour in this congregation, 
until his resignation in June, 1832, when he accepted a call to St. 
Stephen's Church, New York. He left St. Paul's and the diocese 
of Virginia with the deep regrets of all who knew his amiable 
character, heard his excellent sermons, and had opportunity to 
appreciate his great worth. The Rev. James T. Johnson was then 
elected, and entered upon his duties in the fall of 1833, and con- 
tinues the minister until the present time, 1857. 

I find one or two things on the records of this parish which are 
worthy of insertion. Bishop Madison was applied to to consecrate 
the first St. Paul's Church, but declined on account of collegiate 
duties, and requested Bishop Claggett to perform the office, which was 
done promptly and much to the gratification of all. An instance 
of liberality deserves also to be inserted. The first St. Paul's 
Church was bought on credit for the sum of three thousand five 
hundred dollars. In the year 1813, Mr. Daniel McLean, one of 
the vestry, paid the amount and made a deed to the vestry for it. 
The second church so exceeded the first in size and expense as to 
cost twenty-six thousand dollars. 


Cameron parish was cut off from Truro parish in 1749, and until 
1769 included Shelburne parish. A few words will suffice for all 
the information I have to communicate concerning it. In the year 
1758 the Rev. John Andrews was its minister ; whether before or 
after this, or how long, is not known. Whether he was the minister 
who was subsequently the professor at Williamsburg, and after the 
war discontinued the ministry and moved to Philadelphia, is not 


known. He was ordained in 1749, and the Rev. Archibald Avens, 
who probably succeeded him in Cameron parish, in 1767. In the 
years 1773, 1774, and 1776, the Rev. Spence Grayson was the 
minister; whether before or after, or how long, not known. We hear 
nothing of this parish after the Revolution. There was a church 
in it near the Gumspring, the traces of which are yet to be seen. 
There was, I think, another not far from the junction of the roads 
from Georgetown and Alexandria to Leesburg. 

In addition to this brief notice of Cameron and Shelburne parishes, 
we are able to furnish the following facts concerning the latter, 
taken from an old vestry-book, or rather fragment of one, com- 
mencing in 1771 and ending in 1806. On the 10th of April, in the 
year 1771, the churchwardens John Lewis and Thomas Shore 
are directed to employ some minister to perform divine service once 
in every three months during pleasure, and that the preference be 
given to the Rev. Mr. Scott, and that the minister employed do 
preach at Leesburg and the other chapel (called the Mountain 
Chapel) in the parish, as also at some convenient place near the 
gap of the Short Hill, to be fixed on by the churchwardens. On 
the 27th of July of that year, at the meeting of the vestry, it ap- 
pears that the Rev. Archibald Avens, who was no doubt the minister 
in the parish of Cameron in the year 1769, two years before, when 
Shelburne was cut off from it, and who was living in the part which 
was assigned to Cameron, had moved into Shelburne and claimed 
to be its minister. This the vestry resisted, and advertised for a 
minister in the Virginia Gazette. In the month of August of the 
same year we find the following entry: 

" Mr. William Leigh, a student of William and Mary College, having 
been warmly recommended to this vestry by the president, masters, and 
professors or said college, as a young man of sound learning, unfeigned 
piety, and unexceptionable morals, we do hereby undertake and agree to 
receive him as minister of this parish, provided it should continue vacant 
till he returns from Great Britain in Holy Orders, unless he should by 
some misconduct forfeit the good opinion we entertain of him." 

At a meeting in November of the same year, five thousand three 
hundred and twelve pounds of tobacco were leviei for the Rev. 
James Scott, who had been officiating for them. He was doubtless 
the minister of Prince William parish, of whom we have formerly 
written, and who had been engaged to visit this parish during the 
last six months. 

In the next month we find the Rev. David Griffith elected and 
unanimously recommended to the Governor for induction, which 
Voi. II. 18 


was a striking proof of their confidence in Mm. Five thousand* 
weight of tobacco were added to his salary in place of a glebe, 
there being none at that time. Mr. Griffith continued their minister 
until May, 1776. During that year he engaged in the Revolu- 
tionary struggle as chaplain. There is no record of any meeting 
of the vestry after May the 22d, 1776, until April 27, 1779 In 
1780 the vestry advertise for a minister. From 1776 to 1792 the 
vestry was unable to obtain a minister. Indeed, it was impossible 
to collect any thing for that purpose. The glebe which had been 
purchased for Mr. Griffith was rented out during that time for a 
very small sum. In the year 1794 the Rev. Alexander Jones is 
minister for one year on a salary of fifty pounds. In 1796 the 
Rev. Alexander McFarlan becomes the minister, on the written 
condition that he may be removed at any time according to the 
canons of the Church of Virginia. He engaged to preach two 
Sundays at Leesburg, one at the Pot-House, and one at Middle- 
burg. In the year 1801, Mr. McFarlan, in a letter to the vestry, 
resigns the parish and gives up the glebe, on the express condition 
that they choose the Rev. John Dunn as his successor. The vestry 
accept his resignation, adding that they have no regard to his con- 
ditions, which he had no right to make. They, however, elect Mr. 
Dunn, who was their worthy minister until his death in 1827. He 
was ordained Priest by Bishop Madison. Mr. Dunn was suddenly 
seized with paralysis while performing service in Middleburg, and 
died in Leesburg shortly after. 

I was called to witness his happy, triumphant death, and after 
some time to make an improvement of both his life and death in a 
funeral discourse, which was published. Had I a copy of it, I 
would make use of some parts of it in order to convey to my read- 
ers the impressions then resting on my own mind and on that of the 
community concerning this excellent man. The text was, "Be- 
hold an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no guile." And seldom 
has it ever been so true of any of the frail children of men. He 
was in all things a most sincere and upright man, " speaking the 
truth from his heart." He was a man of a most humble and con- 
tented mind. He lived on his glebe, and, though not much of a 
farmer, and a very easy master to the few servants belonging to 
himself or Mrs. Dunn, lived on its proceeds, receiving little or 
nothing else, until perhaps the last few years of his life. I can 
never forget his words or looks when, walking about his premises, 
he told me that he had nothing to wish for more ; that he had corn 
enough in his granary to last until Christmas, and some hay, and 


was out of debt ; " and what do I want more ?" be emphatically asked. 
Mr* Dunn was a man of sound views of religion and an honest 
preacher of them. From the time of the first efforts for the revival 
of religion in Virginia until his death, he was a member of the 
Standing Committee of the diocese and punctual in his attendance, 
though living at some distance from the place where its meetings 
were held. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. Thomas Jackson, who continued 
for three years to fill the place with ability and great acceptable- 
ness. The Rev. Mr. Cutler then spent a year in the parish, and, 
at the end of that time, removed to his present charge in Brooklyn, 
New York. 

The Rev. George Adie took charge of it in 1832, and continued 
in it until his death, in 1856, being its faithful, laborious, and 
beloved minister for nearly twenty-four years, and has been suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Mr. Caldwell. Mr. Adie, for many years con- 
nected with his charge at Leesburg regular though infrequent services 
at Upperville, Middleburg, and Aldie. He also acted as chaplain to 
the female school at Belmont, a few miles from Leesburg, kept by 
Miss Margaret Mercer. For a faithful and deeply-interesting 
account of this remarkable woman we must refer our readers to the 
little volume by Dr. Caspar Morris, of Philadelphia, than which 
there are few biographies more just, more edifying, or more pleasing* 
Miss Mercer still lives in the memories and affections of her nume- 
rous pupils, who are scattered over the land. For some years the 
Sunday afternoon services of Mr. Adie were held in the large hall 
at Belmont ; but, as there were many poor in the neighbourhood, 
Miss Mercer, at her own expense, put up a neat little chapel a 
short distance from the house, for their benefit. I have spent some 
interesting seasons in this house of Grod, preaching and administer- 
ing Confirmation. Miss Mercer was then and there to be seen in 
her highest glory and happiness, in the midst of her pupils and the 
poor. At her death, a tomb was erected in the churchyard by a 
general contribution from her pupils, with the following inscrip- 
tion : 

" Sacred to the memory of Margaret Mercer, bora July 1, 1791 j died 
September 17, 1846. Her remains repose beneath the chancel of this 
church, built by her own self-denying labours. This monument is erected 
by her pupils, as a testimony of their admiration of her elevated Christian 
character, and of their gratitude for her invaluable instructions." 

The history of the churcies in Shelburne parish, as seen on 
the vestry-book, is amusing. For some years before the war, the 


record states that various places were determined upon and thei; 
abandoned, various plans agreed upon and then changed. Twice 
was it ordered that a church be built at a place belonging to George 
William Fairfax, once on the land of Colonel Tayloe, then at the 
fork of the road leading to Noland's Perry ; sometimes it was to 
be of wood, then of stone, sometimes of one size, then of another. 
I am unable to designate either of the places. The war came upon 
them while thus divided in sentiment, and settled the question in 
favour of none. It was not until the second war with England 
that an Episcopal church was begun in Leesburg, on its present 
site. Services were held by Mr. Dunn in the old Presbyterian 
church in Leesburg, and the free church in Middleburg. 

A few words concerning the old glebe in this parish will not be 
without interest to the present generation. About the year 1772, 
a tract of land containing four hundred and sixty-five acres, on the 
North Fork of Goose Creek, was purchased, and, soon after, a 
house put upon it. When Mr. Dunn became minister, in 1801, an 
effort was made by the overseers of the poor to sell it, but it was 
effectually resisted at law. At the death of Mr. Dunn, in 1827, 
the overseers of the poor again proceeded to sell it. The vestry 
was divided in opinion as to the course to be pursued. Four of 
them Dr. W. C. Selden, Dr. Henry Claggett, Mr. Fayette Ball, 
and George M. Chichester were in favour of resisting it; the 
other eight thought it best to let it share the fate of all the others. 
It was accordingly sold. The purchaser lived in Maryland ; and, 
of course, the matter might be brought before the Supreme Court 
as a last resort, should the courts of Virginia decide- against the 
Church's claim. The minority of four, encouraged by the decision 
of the Supreme Court in the case of the Fairfax glebe, determined 
to engage in a lawsuit for it. It was first brought in Winchester, 
and decided against the Church. It was then carried to the Court 
of Appeals, in Richmond, and, during its lingering progress there, 
three out of four of the vestrymen who engaged in it died, and the 
fourth was persuaded to withdraw it. 

List of the Vestrymen of Shelburne Parish from the year 1771 to 1806. 

William Smith, Thomas Lewis, James Hamilton, Francis Peyton, Josias 
Clapham, Levin Powell, John Lewis, Thomas Ousley, Thos. Shore, Thomp- 
son Mason, Stephen Donaldson, Craven Peyton, Colonel Wm, Bronaugh, 
Colonel John Alexander, Joshua Gore, Thos. Bespass, Jos. Combs, Colonel 
dymon Triplett, Thomas Kenner, J. Daniel, Benjamin G-rayson, Joseph 
Lane, Stephen Thompson Mason, Matthew Rust, Wilson C. Selden, Cha& 
Bennett, A. B. T. Mason, William Bronaugh, Jr., W H. Powell, Willian? 


Jones, Thomas Fouch, William Fouke, Dr. Thomas Simm, Burr Powell, 
Peter B. Whiting, Jas. Leith, William Chilton, Charles Fenton Mercer. 

The vestry-book from the year 1806 to this present time having 
been mislaid or lost, a friend has sent me from recollection the 
following list of vestrymen in addition to the above : 

W. C. Selden, Henry Claggett, Bichard H. Henderson, W T. T. Mason, 
Fayette Ball, G. M. Chichester, Jno. I. Harding, William Ellzey, Lewis 
Berkeley, B. Maulsby, C. Douglass, W. H. Gray, Dr. J. Gray, W. A. Powell, 
George Lee, J. P. Smart, H. Saunders, A. Belt, C. Powell, C. Hempstone, 
John Wildman, S. K, Jackson, B. W. Harrison, H.T. Harrison, I. Orr, 
Thomas H. Claggett. 


I have not been able to ascertain any thing very certain con- 
cerning the family of Powells which appears on the records of the 
Church in Loudon county. The name of Powell is a very ancient 
one on the civil records of Virginia. Outhbert Powell was contem- 
porary in Lancaster county with the first John Carter. Indeed, the 
name is found on one or more of the earliest lists of adventurers to 
Virginia. Colonel Powell, of Loudon, father of Messrs. Leven, 
Burr, Cuthbert, Alfred Powell, and their sisters, married a near 
relative of the Rev. Mr. Harrison, of Dumfries, of whose ancestors 
some account, taken from the record of Westminster parish, England, 
was given in our sketch of Dettingen parish. Colonel Powell was 
once a member of Congress from his district. With his widow I was 
acquainted in the earlier years of my ministry. She was one whose 
fidelity to the Church no adversity could shake. When all others 
were deserting it, she continued steadfast. A minister of another 
denomination was once conversing with her on the subject of his 
own and her Church, and said that there was but little difference 
between them, that they were like twin-sisters. Whether she 
suspected him of some design at proselyting or not, I cannot say, 
but she very decidedly replied, "It might be so, but that she 
greatly preferred one of the sisters to the other." She was old- 
fashioned in all her ways, in her dress, her home, her furniture, 
and domestic occupations. She lived in a plain house, a little back 
of the main and indeed only street in Middleburg. On one of my 
journeys to Alexandria, while stopping on a summer's afternoon at 
that place, I walked over to her abode, and found her busily en- 
gaged at her wheel, spinning tow or flax, on what was called the 
small wheel in those days, in contradistinction to that on which 
wool and cotton were spun, and which was called the large wheel. 


The march of improvement has left both sorts far behind, and with 
them much honest, domestic industry and substantial clothing. 

One word concerning my old friend, Mr. Lewis Berkeley, of Aldie. 
We were school-boys together. He was descended from the oW 
family of Berkeleys in Middlesex, which lived at Barnelms, on the 
Pyankatank, and which was the last to leave the county, after 
having been a main prop to the Church for more than one hundred 
and fifty years. Mr. Lewis Berkeley married a daughter of Mr. 
William Noland, an old member of the Legislature from Loudon, in 
days long since passed away. Mr. Noland signalized himself by his 
zealous advocacy of the law against duelling. So just and sensible 
was his speech on the subject, that it was soon introduced into the 
school-books or collection of pieces for school-boys, and still holds 
its place. Mr. Berkeley, his excellent wife, and Mr. and Mrs. 
Noland, were fo* a long term of years the pious, consistent, active, 
and liberal supporters of the Episcopal Church in Loudon, whether 
the services were at Aldie, Middleburg, or even twelve miles off, 
at Leesburg, at which latter place they often attended. 


Parishes in Frederick County. 

IN our last communication we had reached the Blue Ridge, the 
great dividing-line between Eastern and Western Virginia. We 
now ascend that beautiful range of mountains, and look down on 
the wide and extensive valley which lies between it and those nume- 
rous ones which hide the great Alleghany from our view. I believe 
it is generally admitted that this valley is not only the most fertile 
and desirable portion of the State, but also the most picturesque 
and beautiful. But it is not our province to descant on such themes. 
We may, however, be permitted to declare our assent to the hypo- 
thesis of Mr. Jefferson and others, that it was once a great lake or 
sea, which emptied itself through the channel formed by the force 
of the waters at Harper's Ferry, leaving immense prairies behind 
to be covered in due time with heavy forests, some of which our 
eyes now behold, while most of them have been felled by the hands 
of our forefathers.* 

Such a country could not but attract the attention of hardy and 
adventurous farmers. The first who entered it were from Pennsyl* 
vania. Crossing the Potomac at what is now called Shepherdstown, 
but at first and for a considerable time Mecklenburg, doubtless 
after some town or place in Germany, they there made a settle- 
ment. From thence emigration proceeded on toward Winchester, 
Stephensburg, or Newtown, Woodstock, &c. Joist Hite, the an- 
cestor of all the Hites, was the first to make a settlement north of 
Winchester, with sixteen families. This was in the year 1732. His 

* It is a true tradition, I believe, that one of the Carters, who at an early 
period took tip or purchased a large tract of land in old Frederick, including all 
that which now belongs to the Burwell family, and extending beyond and along the 
Opequon and its barren hills and stunted trees, offered to one of his sons the choice 
of an equal portion of that upon the Opequon and of that fertile prairie lying be- 
tween it and the Shenandoah Biver, and that the former was preferred because of 
the timber, which was visible, though of so indifferent a character. That the lower 
and richer lands of this part of the valley were once prairie in the days of our 
forefathers is generally admitted. Old Mr. Isaac Hite, of Bellgrove, now deceased, 
informed me that his father often spoke of the land about the White Post as being, 
in his day, covered with a thickei of saplings* 


descendants of that name became active members of, or friends of, 
the Episcopal Church. Soon after this, Presbyterians of Scotch 
and Irish descent began to settle in the valley. In the year 1738, 
a number from Pennsylvania, wishing to add themselves to those 
already settled, sent, through the synod of Pennsylvania, a deputa 
tion to Governor Gooch, of Virginia, " asking all liberty of con- 
science and of worshipping God agreeably to the principles of their 
education." They professed the utmost loyalty to the Eing, and 
promised " the most dutiful submission to the government which is 
placed over them." The Governor assured them of his favour, and 
that no interruption should be given to their ministers, if they should 
" conform themselves to the rules prescribed by the Act of Tolera- 
tion in England/' It was the same principle which had been acted 
on before this time in Virginia, and continued to be to the end of 
the Colonial Establishment. Under that law, any number of 
persons, of whatsoever name, might ask for and should receive a 
license for some place of meeting where they might worship after 
their own way. Even during the preceding century, the first of 
our settlements in Virginia, the Germans on the Rappahannock 
and the French Huguenots on James River had not only been tole- 
rated, but allowed special favours, such as grants of lands and 
freedom from taxes, until of their own accord they applied to be 
admitted into union with the Established Church under Episcopal 
ministers, finding it difficult to procure any of their own. Other 
denominations also were allowed licenses for places of worship, 
whether private or public houses, provided they sought and used 
them in compliance with the true intent of the law. In the case of 
President Davies, about the middle of the last century, which we 
have considered when speaking of the parish in Hanover, seven 
places of worship were licensed for him before the Governor de- 
clared that he was exceeding the bounds prescribed by the spirit 
and intent of the law. 

With these general observations we proceed to the history of the 
parish of Frederick. The materials are furnished by the Acts of 
Assembly dating back to the year 1738, to the records of the court 
beginning in 1744, and to the old vestry-book going back to the 
year 1764, and some papers of an earlier date. 

In the year 1738, the Assembly, in consideration of the increas- 
ing number of settlers in the valley, determined to cut off two 
new counties and parishes West Augusta and Frederick from 
Orange county and parish, which latter then took in all Western 
Wginia. The county and parish of Frederick embraced all that 


is now Shenandoah, with a part of Page, Warren, Clarke, Frederick, 
Jefferson, Berkeley, and Hampshire. Augusta had all the rest to 
the utmost limits of Virginia, wherever they were, the contest with 
France as to the boundaries not being then settled. The execu- 
tion of the Act, however, was postponed until it should be made to 
appear that there were inhabitants enough for the appointment of 
justices of the peace, &c. In the year 1744, the vestry and court 
of Frederick county were organized and in action. Of the vestry, 
nothing more is heard after its organization, except the appoint- 
ment of processioners in 1747, until the year 1752, when an Act 
of Assembly was passed dissolving it and ordering a new election, 
on the ground that it had raised more than fifteen hundred pounds 
for building a number of churches which were unfinished and in a 
ruinous condition. As the churches of that day and in this region 
were log-houses, costing only from thirty to forty or fifty pounds, 
there must have been much misspending of money. Who those 
vestrymen were does not appear. Those chosen in their place were 
the following: Thomas Lord Fairfax, Isaac Perkins, Gabriel Jones, 
John Hite, Thomas Swearingen, Charles Buck, Robert Lemmon, 
John Lindsey, John Ashby, James Cromley, Lewis Neil. Thomas 
Bryan Martin, the nephew and one of the heirs of Lord Fairfax, 
does not ever appear as vestryman, but seems to have been an 
active magistrate, and to have taken a considerable part in com- 
pleting McCoy's Chapel, on the road from Winchester to Front 
Royal, in the neighbourhood of the McCoys and Cunningham Chapel, 
which stood near the spot where what has been long called the Old 
Chapel near the Burwell burial-ground still stands. Mr. Edward 
McGuire also appears as a magistrate, but not as vestryman, he 
being of the Romish Church. He was the ancestor of many worthy 
ministers and members of the Protestant Episcopal Church of 

Having mentioned Lord Fairfax as the first on the list of that 
most respectable body of vestrymen given above, and who also gave 
the land on which the church in Winchester stood, and under which 
he was buried, it is but right that we should add a few words as to 
himself and his numerous and most estimable relatives now scattered 
through this and other States. 

The first of the Fairfaxes who came to this country, and who 
settled in Westmoreland, and then on an estate near Mount Vernon, 
called Belvoir, was Mr. William Fairfax, a scholar, a soldier and 
civilian. The latter character he exhibited as President of the 
Council of Virginia, the station next to that of Governor. By two 


marriages he had five children, George William, Thomas, William, 
Bryan, and Hannah. George William married a Miss Gary, of 
Virginia, but left the county before the Revolutionary War. 
Thomas and William died, the one in the English navy and the 
other in the army. Bryan took Orders in the Episcopal Church, and 
was for some years minister of Christ's Church, Alexandria. Hannah 
married Warner Washington, of Fairfield, a near relative of George 
Washington, and was a worthy member of our Church, leaving two 
sons and three daughters behind. Two of her daughters Mrs. 
Milton (who was previously Mrs. Nelson) and Mrs. Whiting were 
long and well known to me as among the best of women. Of their 
mother I have often heard Mr. Balmaine speak in the highest 
terms.* The elder William Fairfax was the manager of the estates 
of his kinsman. Lord Thomas Fairfax, the owner of all the lands in 
the Northern Neck of Virginia, which he inherited from his mother, 
the daughter of Lord Culpepper, and which were bounded by the 
Rappahannock and Potomac, extending to the head-waters of each, 
the one beginning in the Blue Ridge, the other in the Alleghany 
Mountains. Lord Fairfax was a man of the most perfect English 
education, Oxford being his Alma Mater. He was a member of 
that club of which Addison was the head, and to whose pens we are 
indebted for that immortal work, the Spectator. He was early and 
deeply disappointed in love, which gave a turn to his character and 
habits, and prepared him for seclusion in the wilds of America. 
In 1749, he visited his estates in Virginia, and was so much pleased 
with the country that he determined to settle here. During that 
visit he became acquainted with ? and attached to, young George 
Washington, then only sixteen years of age. The affection was 
returned on the part of Washington, and he readily accepted the 
proposition of Lord Fairfax to become surveyor of all his lands. 
Lord Fairfax returned for a short time to England, while Washing- 

* In proof of the zeal of Mrs. Hannah Washington, of Fairfield, in the cause of 
religion and the Church, I might adduce a brief correspondence between herself and 
Mr. George Lewis, who lived at the place afterward owned by Mr. Milton, on the 
subject of securing the services of Mr. Balmaine in the year 1787, when steps 
were taken to build what has always been called The Chapel. Mrs. Washington, 
whose example has been followed by many good ladies in Virginia since, took an 
active part in same Church matters, and wrote to Mr. Lewis, proposing that, 
inasmuch as at least a year must elapse before the chapel could be finished, the 
neighbours on both sides of Battletown should unite in renting a house of a Mr 
McMahon, at Traphill, for divine service, and promises to send her carpenters to fit 
it up for the purpose. To this Mr. Lewis readily assents, and the plan was adopted. 
*he house was pointed out to me between forty and fifty years ago. 


ton immediately repaired to his work in the valley, making his 
head-quarters at Greenway Court. Washington continued for two 
or three years in the service of Lord Fairfax, and as public sur- 
veyor for Western Virginia. At the death of Lord Fairfax, in 
1781, being ninety-two years of age, the title fell to his only sur- 
viving brother, Kobert, in England, and at his death, which occurred 
soon after, to the Rev. Bryan Fairfax, the nearest kinsman. It 
deserves to be mentioned of Lord Fairfax, that, titled as he was, and 
rich, he never failed to perform his duty as a citizen and neighbour, 
but, besides acting as Keeper of the Eolls for Frederick, was uniform 
jn his attendance at Winchester, twelve miles off, as one of the 
magistrates of the county. The poor around him cultivated some 
of his lands, and received all the benefits of the same.* 

To McCoy's and Cunningham's Chapel are to be added two on 
the north and south branches of Shenandoah, whose location cannot 
now be ascertained, one in Winchester, one at Bunker's Hill, called 
Morgan's Chapel, of which we shall speak more fully hereafter, 
perhaps one called Wood's Chapel, between Winchester and Charles- 
town, and one at Shepherdstown, then called Mecklenburg Chapel. 
All these were probably begun, and some of them sufficiently com- 
pleted for use, between the years 1740 and 1750. In 1768, Mr. 
Van Swearingen received one hundred and forty-eight pounds for 
completing a new church at Mecklenburg, now Shepherdstown. In 
the year 1768, Isaac Site was directed to contract for a church at 
Leith's place not known for forty-nine pounds. In the year 1774, 
a church was ordered to be built near Cedar Creek for one hundred 
pounds ; whether executed or not, I cannot tell. In the year 1772, 
it was resolved to build a church, costing two hundred and fifty-two 
pounds, at Carney's Spring, near Berryville, on land given by Mr. 
Charles Smith, which was afterward increased to four hundred and 
forty-nine pound^, and a contract made with Mr. John Neville, father 
of General Neville, and some of the materials collected on the spot. 
In the following year it was determined to build it at Cunningham's 

* In proof of the needlessness of great landed or other possessions, let me men- 
tion the end of all Lord Fairfax's earthly property* His nephew, Colonel Martin, 
was his heir. In the year 1794, his estate in lands was nine thousand seven hun- 
dred acres. My father's farm lay beside it. I hare a letter from my father in that 
year to Mr. Charles Carter, of Shirly, on James River, who, it seems, thought of 
moving to Frederick, urging him to purchase it, as Colonel Martin had determined 
to selL The price asked was forty shillings per acre, Virginia, currency, Tha 
whole Northern Neck of Virginia, computed at many millions of acres, is thus re- 
duced to less than ten thousand. 


Chapel, two acres of ground being given by Colonel Hugh Nelson, of 
York, the then owner of the Burwell tract, and the materials moved 
there. Again it was resolved to build at Carney's Spring, and the 
materials removed a second time. The result of the controversy was 
that no such church was ever built, though the money was in hand. 
The war soon came on, and at the end of it the funds were delivered 
into the hands of the overseers of the poor. In the year 1762, a 
new stone church was contracted for in Winchester, the same which 
was afterward sold in order to build the present church. 

Having thus brought down the history of the church-buildings to 
the time of the Revolution, we will now give a list of the lay readers 
and vestrymen from the year 1764, when the vestry-book com- 
mences, merely premising that the county and parish of Frederick 
were in 1769 divided into the counties of Dunmore, afterward 
changed to Shenandoah, Frederick, and Berkeley, and into the 
parishes of Beckford, Frederick, and Norbone. 

Names of the vestrymen from the year 1764 until the year 1780, 
when no more meetings of the vestry take place until 1785 : Isaac 
Hite, John Hite, John Greenleaf, Thomas Rutherford, James Keith, 
John Neville, Charles Smith, James Wood, Jacob Hite, Thomas 
Wadlington, Burr Harrison, Thomas Swearingen, Van Swearingen, 
Angus McDonald, Philip Bush, Frederick Conrad, George Rice, 
Alexander White, James Barnett, Marquis Calmes, John McDonald, 
Edward Snickers, Warner Washington, Joseph Holmes, Benjamin 
Sedwick, Edmund Taylor, John Smith, Samuel Dowdal. Of these, 
Philip Bush and some others, in consequence of some unknown diffi- 
culties, resigned in the year 1774, though all of them resumed their 
seats except Mr. Bush. Lord Fairfax in the year 1775 made a deed 
to Mr. Bush, Frederick Conrad, and others, for the lot on which the 
Lutheran church stood, though Mr. Conrad continued as vestry- 
man until the year 1780, when the vestries were all dissolved by 
Act of Assembly. James Wood, who was both clerk and vestry- 
man, resigned in 1777 and entered the army. He rose to the rank 
of General, and was afterward Governor of the State, and repre- 
sented the parish two years in Convention while Governor. James 
Barnett resigned in 1773 and joined the Baptists. 

The lay readers during all this period, at the different chapels, 
were John Ruddell, James Barnett, John Barns, Henry Nelson, 
James Graham, Henry Frencham, Morgan Morgan, John James, 
William Dobson, William Howard, John Lloyd. 



The Rev. Mr. Gordon was the first; when his ministry commenced 
and ended, not known. The Eev. Mr. Meldrum comes next, and 
continues until 1765. Between him and the vestry a long law-suit 
was carried on, which terminated in his favour. The vestry applied 
to the Legislature for relief, and obtained it. Mr. Sebastian was re- 
commended by the vestry to the Bishop of London for Orders in 1766, 
and became their minister, but after two years removed to North- 
umberland county. The Rev. Mr. Thruston became the minister in 
1768, binding himself to preach at seven places scattered over the 
large parish of Frederick, Shepherdstown being one of them. Mr. 
Thruston was a native of Gloucester, where the name still abounds, 
and was captain of the militia in that county. The vestry of Pets- 
worth parish, in Gloucester, recommended him for Orders, and he 
was their minister for some years before coming to Frederick. He 
laid down the ministry and entered the army in 1777. After the 
war he lived at Mount Zion, in Frederick. In his latter days he 
removed to the neighbourhood of New Orleans, and, it is said, was 
preparing to take some part in defending that place against the 
British when they were defeated by General Jackson. He was 
the father of the late Judge Thruston, of the District of Columbia, 
and the ancestor of many respectable families in Virginia and else- 
where. From the time of Colonel Thruston's resignation in 1777 
to the year 1785, there was no minister, so far as we can ascertain. 
In the year 1785, a vestry was elected, consisting of Colonel R. K. 
Meade, George F. Norton, churchwardens, John Thruston, Edward 
Smith, Raleigh Colston, Girard Briscoe, John Milton, Robert Wood, 
Major Thomas Massey. By this vestry the Rev. Alexander Bal- 
maine was chosen minister. He had been chaplain in the army 
of the Revolution, in which a number of the above-mentioned vestry- 
men had served. Mr. Balmaine was born in Scotland, in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh, in the year 1740, was educated at St. 
Andrews with a view to the Presbyterian ministry, but relinquished 
the design. Himself and his brother, who was a lawyer, were 
warm friends of the Colonists in the Stamp Act difficulties, and 
became so obnoxious on that account to the loyalists about Edin- 
burgh, that they thought it best to try their fortunes elsewhere, 
and moved to London, where they became acquainted with Mr. 
Arthur Lee, who recommended Mr. Balmaine to the family of 
Richard Henry Lee, as private tutor. While there, he prepared 


for the ministry of the Episcopal Church, and upon receiving Orders 
became rector of Augusta parish, then extending to the Ohio River, 
and including, it is believed, Pittsburg itself, for he paid several 
visits to the Episcopalians in that place. When our difficulties 
commenced with England, true to his principles adopted in Scot- 
land, he took an early and active part, was chairman of the Com- 
mittee of Safety in Augusta, and drafted the resolution adopted 
by that committee. Soon after this, he entered the Virginia line 
as chaplain, and continued so until the very close of the war. 
Mr. Balmaine was the rector of the parish of Frederick until his 
death. I was his assistant during a number of the last years of 
his life. 


Parishes in Frederick County. No. 2. 

AFTER the death of Mr. Bahnaine, the Rev. Mr. Bryan officiated 
for a time at Winchester, Bunker's Hill, and Wickliffe, in the ca- 
pacity of assistant to myself, for a few years. He was followed by 
the Rev. Mr. Robertson as assistant in Winchester alone. After a 
few years he resigned and went on a mission to Greece. In the 
year 1827, Christ Church, Winchester, was organized into a sepa- 
rate parish, to be called the parish of Frederick, Winchester, with 
the Rev. J. E. Jackson, minister. Mr. Jackson was one of three 
worthy brothers of most respectable parentage in Tutbury, England, 
all of whom ministered in the Church of Virginia and elsewhere in 
this country. The Rev. J. E. Jackson was the father of the Rev. 
William Jackson, who recently died so enviable a death in Norfolk. 
He was a most diligent and faithful pastor, preaching the true 
doctrines of the Gospel. Under his careful supervision the present 
excellent church and parsonage were built. In 1842, he resigned 
and moved to Kentucky. He was succeeded in 1842 by the Rev. 
Mr. Rooker, who resigned in 1847. Its present rector, the Rev. 
Cornelius Walker, succeeded Mr. Rooker. In May, 1834, another 
division of Frederick parish took place, when Wickliffe, including 
Berryville, was organized. The Rev. Mr. Jackson had been my 
assistant in that part of the parish for two years before this. The 
Rev. Mr. Rice had preceded him in that capacity. The Rev. Mr. 
Shiraz followed Mr. Jackson. Its next was the Rev. Richard Wil- 
mer, who was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Peterkin. Its present, the 
Rev. Mr. Whittle. This parish has recently been subdivided, and 
the Rev. Mr. Powell, who was disappointed during the last year in 
going to China, is the minister of that part which includes Wickliffe 
Church* Another offshoot was also made from Frederick parish many 
years since, in the neighbourhood of Middletown, where a parish 
was organized and a neat brick church built in the village, under 
the auspices of the late Strother Jones, th& families of Hites, and 
others. It has had mainly to depend on the occasional services of 
the ministers in Winchester. The Rev. Mr. Bryant and the Rev. 
Mr. Irish were each for some time settled among them, and in none 


of our congregations have more zeal and liberality been displayed, 
according to numbers and means. 

Having thus spoken of the five different divisions of Frederick 
parish, after itself had been reduced by Acts of Assembly, I pro- 
ceed to mention the new churches built since the Revolution, in 
addition to those at Winchester and Middletown, already alluded 
to. Among the first things done by the vestry of Frederick, after its 
reorganization in 1787, was the adoption of measures for the build- 
ing of a stone chapel where it was designed to erect that one which 
failed, through the disagreement of the people and vestry, just be- 
fore the Revolution, viz. : where that called Cunningham's Chapel 
stood. The land having now come into possession of Colonel 
Nathaniel Burwell, the same two acres for a church and burying- 
ground, which were offered by Colonel Hugh Nelson before the 
war, were now given by Colonel Burwell, and the present stone 
chapel ordered to be built in 1790. At what time it was completed 
does not appear, but probably in the same year. After the revival 
of our Church in Virginia commenced, a stone church was built 
at Wickliffe, Mr. Tredwell Smith and General Thomas Parker being 
the most active agents. A strenuous effort was made to have it a 
free church, which I earnestly opposed, and offered to insure from 
elsewhere as much as was pledged by other than Episcopalians. It 
was ascertained that not more than fifty dollars, out of the two or 
three thousand dollars which it cost, would be subscribed by other 
than Episcopalians, and the plan was dropped. This church was 
badly executed, and after a time the present excellent one of brick 
was built under the superintendence of Mr. Jaqueline Smith, and 
in a great measure at his expense. The ground on which it stood 
had been given by the family of Williams, who, with their ancestors 
in the Northern Neck of Virginia, had ever been staunch friends 
of the Church. After some years the church at Berryville was 
built on ground given by Mr. John Taylor, who owned the farm of 
which it was a part. The building of this church was delayed for 
some years by the attempt to have it placed on some basis which 
would make it common to all denominations. Effort after effort 
was made to effect it on this plan, without success. At length, when 
the friends of the scheme acknowledged its failure, I addressed the 
congregation in favour of an Episcopal church, and succeeded at 
once. In the year 1834, it was found that the old chapel was too 
small and inconvenient for the increasing congregation, and it was 
therefore determined to erect another and larger one, in a more 
central and convenient place, in the vicinity of Millwood, on ground 


given by Mr* George Burwell, of Carter Hall. Such, however, waa 
the attachment of many to the old chapel that funds for the latter 
could not be obtained, except on condition of alternate services at 
the chapel. From year to year these services became less frequent, 
until at length they are now reduced to an annual pilgrimage, on 
some summer Sabbath, to this old and much-loved spot, except 
when services are held for the servants, or death summons the 
neighbours to add one more to the tenants of the graveyard.* 

My remarks on the old parish of Frederick, and some of its 
branches, will be brought to a close by a brief reference to a spot 
of all others most sacred to many now living as the depository of 
all that was mortal of those most dear to us, the burying-ground 
which lies at the foot of the hill on which still stands the old stone 
chapel. Ever since its appropriation to this purpose, it has been 
the graveyard of rich and poor, bond and free, those who lived near 
it, and the stranger from afar who died near it. It is called the 
Burwell graveyard, not merely because the land was given by one 
of that name, but because it is the resting-place of a far greater 
number bearing that name than any other. It has recently been 
enlarged and a portion of it divided into lots and the whole enclosed 
with a strong stone wall. The vestry have also proposed the raising 
and vesting in stock the sum of one thousand dollars for the per- 
petual preservation of it and the old chapel which overlooks it. 
Both of them stand in the immediate angle of two public and 
much-frequented roads, and the passing traveller may see old and 
venerable trees overshadowing many tombs, ycmnger ones of per- 
petual verdure more recently planted, green hillocks, covered with 
grass and ivy, high headstones and large marble slabs, marking the 
place of interment and designating the names of those whose re- 
mains are beneath, and now and then a pillar, either for young or 
old, rising above the other memorials. To this place, for more 
than sixty years, have I been travelling, either borne in the arms 
of others, or as a mourner, or as officiating minister. To it, at no 

* The following are the names of the -vestrymen of Frederick parish before the 
division of it took place. It -would be too tedious to enumerate all those belonging 
to the subdivisions down to the present time. In addition to those already men- 
tioned as composing the first vesftry after the war, in 1787, are the following: 
John "Woodcock, John Peyton, Edward Smith, Thomas Byrd, Isaac Hite, Jr., Na- 
thaniel Burwell, Warner Washington, Jr., John Page, General Thomas Parker, 
Bobert Page, Matthew Page, Philip Nelson, Robert Carter Burwell, Fairfax Wash- 
ington, Henry St. George Tucker, Alfred Powell, George Norris, Philip Burwell, 
G. R. Thompson, Nathaniel Burwell, Jr., ObedWaite, Dabney Carr, Joseph Baldwin, 
Richard Briarly, Daniel Lee, William B. Page, John W. Page, Strother Jones. 

VOL. IL 19 


distant day, I expect to be carried, and from it I hope to see arise 
the bodies of some of the truest saints of the Lord, unto whom, in 
fche adjoining temple, I was privileged to preach the blessed Gospel 
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

A brief notice of the family of Burwells, so many of whom lie 
buried there, and of one other individual mentioned in the vestry* 
book as the friend and defender of the Church, and whose body 
was interred among his relatives, is all that I shall further say in 
connection with this spot. The early genealogy of this family I 
take from Henning's Statutes at Large, Campbell's History of Vir- 
ginia, and the tombstones at Carter's Creek, in the county of 
Gloucester. The first of the name in this country was Major Lewis 
Burwell, of Carter's Creek, in Gloucester county, Virginia, who 
died in 1658. His wife was a Miss Higginson, whose father sig- 
nalized himself in the wars with the Indians. He had two sons, 
Nathaniel and Lewis. Nathaniel married a daughter of Eobert 
Carter, commonly called King Carter, by whom he had three sons 
and one daughter. The daughter was named Elizabeth, and mar- 
ried President Nelson. His sons were Lewis, Carter, and Robert 
Carter. Lewis was either father or grandfather of that Lewis 
Burwell who was President of the Council in 1750. Carter married 
Lucy, the daughter of John Grymes, and settled at the Grove, near 
Williamsburg. He 'was the father of Colonel Nathaniel Burwell, 
who moved to Frederick and built Carter Hall. The third son, 
Eobert Carter, settled in Isle of Wight, and was the father of Na- 
thaniel Burwell, of that county, and of Fanny, the first wife of 
Governor Page. His son Nathaniel was the father of Robert Car- 
ter Burwell, who moved to Frederick, of Mrs. Philip Nelson, and of 
their three sisters, Jane, Fanny, and Ariana, who died unmarried, 
and lie with their brother in the Burwell graveyard. The second 
son of the first of the Burwells was, as we have stated, Major 
Lewis BurwelL His first wife was Abigail Smith, heiress of Na- 
thaniel Bacon, who was for many years President of the Council, 
and near relatives of Bacon the rebel. Hence the name of Bacon, 
in the Burwell family. By this marriage, he had four sons and 
six daughters. His second wife was the widow of the Hon. Wil- 
liam Cole, and came from Nansemond county, by whom he had 
two sons and three daughters. He died in the year 1710, leaving 
only three sons out of the six, and six daughters out of the nine. 
He lived at King's Mill, or somewhere near, either in York county 
or James City. His son Lewis built a large house at King's Mill 


and improved the place at great expense, also purchased other land& 
around, and a tract in the Isle of Wight; on account of which, in 
1736, he obtained leave of the Assembly to dock the entail of a 
tract of land in King William and dispose of it. Of his numerous 
descendants, and of those of the other branches, we can only say 
that we find them settled in King William, Lancaster, Nansemond, 
Isle of Wight, and then moving to Frederick, Berkeley, Botetourt, 
Richmond City, and other places. The father of those settled in 
Botetourt we read of as an active member of the vestry in King 
William. Wherever they have gone, they have retained their at- 
tachment to the Church of their fathers, and some have entered its 

I shall be excused for adding to the above a piece of family 
history connected with that of a high public functionary of Old 
Colonial Virginia, which may serve to cast some light on the state 
of society and of the Church at the close of the first century of our 
settlement. The second Lewis Burwel], as we have seen, had nine 
daughters, one of whom completely upset what little reason there 
was in Governor Nicholson of famous memory. He became most 
passionately attached to her, and demanded her of her parents in 
royal style. Neither she, her parents, or the other members of the 
family, were disposed to comply. He became furious, and fox 1 years 
persisted in his design and claim. All around him felt the effect? 
of his rage. The father, brothers, Commissary Blair, and tLe Rev. 
Mr. Powace, minister of some parish near Williamsburg, ivere the 
special objects of his threatened vengeance. To the yoong lady 
he threatened the life of her father and brothers if tilie did not 
yield to his suit. This caused a friend of his in England to write 
a letter of remonstrance, in which he says, " It is not here as in 
some barbarous countries, where the tender lady is dragged into the 
Sultan's arms, just reeking with the blood of her nearest relatives, 
and yet she must strangely dissemble her aversion/' To Commissary 
Blair he declared that "he would cut the throats of three men if 
the lady should marry any other but himself, viz. : the bridegroom, 
the officiating minister, and the justice who issued the license/' The 
Rev. Mr. Fowace, in a letter to the Lord-Commissioners in England, 
complains, among other things, of being assaulted by Governor 
Nicholson one evening on his return from a visit to the family, (the 
Major being sick,) and ordered never again to go to this house with- 
out leave from himself* It seemed that the Governor was jealous 
of him. Besides abusive language and other indignities, he pulled 


off the minister's hat, as being disrespectful to him even on horse- 
back. Such was the conduct of the Governor to him in this and 
other respects that the Council and some of the clergy united in a 
petition to the Crown for his removal, which was granted. All this 
and much more is on record in the archives of Lambeth Palace, 
copies of which are before me. What was the subsequent history 
of the young lady who, like another Helen, was the innocent cause 
of so much strife, is not told. Even her Christian name is not 
given. I need not say that if a Governor of Virginia under our free 
system should assume such royal airs, the case would be much more 
speedily and easily disposed of by the lady, the parents, and the 

I promised to conclude this article with some mention of a gen- 
tleman whose name was on the vestry-book and whose body was 
interred in the old graveyard. That person was Mr. Edmund 
Randolph, a distinguished lawyer of Virginia, who was often em- 
ployed by the vestries as their counsellor. Such was the case with 
the vestry of Frederick parish. Mr. Edmund Randolph was the 
son of Mr. John Randolph, once Attorney-General of the State, but 
who, at the breaking out of the war, preferred the royal to the re- 
publican cause, and went to England with his family. His office 
was given to his patriotic son Edmund Randolph, who figured so 
largely, as the defender of his country, in the councils of the 
State and of the nation, and the zealous supporter of the Church 
against all which he believed to be assaults upon her rights. Young 
Edmund Randolph was adopted by his uncle Peyton (who had 
no children,) and espoused the same side, both as to the Church 
and State, with the uncle, and was for a time the Secretary of State 
under General Washington. He was educated at Williamsburg, 
soon after Mr. Jefferson, Governor Page, and other distinguished 
men of Virginia. It was a period of growing infidelity at that 
college, and Mr. Randolph was for a time somewhat tinctured with 
it, as he himself told me toward the close of his life. I can never 
forget the manner in which he described the effect of a little flattery 
from one of the leaders of the new school, for some doubts expressed 
by him as to the truth of Christianity or of some of its doctrines. 
That leader patted him on the head, calling him a promising youth 
for the utterance of so independent a thought. The pressure of 
that hand, he said, was felt for a long time afterward. But he 
happily escaped the infidelity which soon deluged the State, and 
joined Mr. Peyton Randolph, Robert C. Nicholas, Judge Pendie- 


ton, Governor Page, and others, in defending the Church and 
religion. He was not only engaged by different vestries in special 
cases, as in the parish of Frederick, but was counsel for the whole 
Church in that great question of the constitutionality of the law 
which took away the Church property, and which was lost to the 
Church by the sudden death of Judge Pendleton. Mr. Randolph 
informed me that he had read that opinion and decision which was 
drawn by Judge Pendleton, the President of the court, and, as I 
think, that it was among his papers. Since his death I have re- 
peatedly inquired for it, but was informed that neither among hi3 
papers nor those of Judge Pendleton was it to be found. It has 
always been said that the document was in the pocket of Judge 
Pendleton when he was suddenly struck dead on the morning of 
the day on which it was to have been used. The latter days of 
Mr. Randolph's Kfe were spent chiefly at his son-in-law's, Mr. 
Bennett Taylor's, of Frederick county. I saw him during this 
period, and conversed with him on religious subjects, in which he 
seemed to take a deep interest. McKnight's Commentary on the 
Epistles came out about this time, and Mr. Randolph, who had pro- 
bably never been much conversant with such books, became passion- 
ately fond of it, and sometimes talked of preparing and publishing 
some selections from it, or an abridgment of it, that others might 
enjoy the pleasure he had experienced in some of its elucidations 
of Scripture, which seemed to him, to use his own language, like a 
new revelation on some dark points. Mr. Randolph died at Carter 
Hall, the seat of Colonel Nathaniel Burwell, of Frederick county, 
and lies buried in the old graveyard by the side of Mrs. Taylor 
and her husband. I close by referring in anticipation to a topic 
which at some later stage of this work I purpose to notice more 
fully. I have said above that the time of Mr. Randolph's residence 
at William and Mary was one of, growing infidelity. I was not 
aware until lately that infidelity was of so recent an origin in 
Virginia. In the year 1728 the Bishop of London addressed a 
circular to all the clergy of Virginia, with a view of ascertaining 
the state of religion in all the parishes. Among the questions 
was the following: Are there any infidels in your parish? In- 
variably the reply was, none but the Indians and negroes. An 
infidel among those who had been brought up in the Christian 
faith was an unhappy being not then known in Virginia. The 
great deep of the French Revolution had not then begun to be 
broken up. Even France was not then infidel. I could scarce 


believe those uniform responses of the clergy of Virginia, registered 
as they are in the archives of our Mother- Church, and copies of 
which are before me, until I came to another record of a somewhat 
later date, which tells of the introduction of the first infidel book 
which came over to Virginia. It was entitled, "A Plain Instruc- 
tion." The fact is communicated to the authorities in England, by 
a letter or letters from the authorities here, as a most dreadful one. 


Norbourne Parish, Berkeley County. No. 1. 

THIS parish and county were, by Act of Assembly, taken from 
Frederick in the year 1769, just after the completion of the 
church at Mecklenburg, or Shepherdstown, under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. Van Swearingen. A small church had previously 
stood probably on the same spot. By his will in 1776, the father 
of Mr. Abraham Shepherd Mr. Thomas Shepherd directed his 
executor to deed " a lot of two acres on which the English church 
stood." A third was erected on that lot many years since, and 
has been enlarged of late years to its present dimensions. A 
new, larger, and more excellent one in all respects is now far 
advanced. Without detracting from the praise due to many who 
have contributed funds and efforts to the last two churches, we 
must ascribe the first of them chiefly to the zeal, perseverance, and 
liberality of that true friend of the Church in her darkest days, Mr. 
Abraham Shepherd, and its enlargement to the generous dona- 
tion of eight hundred dollars by his pious widow ; and the erection 
of the fourth to the gift of three thousand dollars by one of his 
sons, while other members of the family, and the parishioners 
generally, have not been wanting in their contributions. To an 
excellent parsonage for the minister they also contributed ; but the 
holy woman, the aged mother, excelled them and all others, con- 
tributing not less than one thousand dollars to it. From the year 
1813 to the time of her death, in 1852, when she had reached her 
ninety-second year, I knew her well. It was good to hear her speak 
from the abundance of her heart on the subject which interested 
her most. Out of the Bible first, and then out of the writings of 
Hervey, Newton, and others of the evangelical school of the Church 
of England, she drew her views of doctrinal and practical piety. 
It so happened that several of those ministers tinder whose teach- 
ings she sat were of that class, having for a time been followers of 
Lady Huntingdon, Wesley, and Whitefield, but who drew back from 
their path when they were about to turn aside from the old way of 
the Church of England. She was most faithful in the use of all 
the means appointed of God in his Church for " the perfecting of 


his saints," in prayer private and public, in the participation 
of the Lord's Supper, in the strict observance of the Lord's Day, 
in fasting and alms, in simplicity and cheapness of apparel, in self- 
denial that she might have to give to the poor and good objects. 
She was conscientious even to scrupulousness. Her sons delighted 
in fine cattle, and, at great expense and with great care, became 
possessed of some of the finest in the land, and sold the young 
ones at high prices. She has often told me that she could not be 
reconciled to their asking and receiving such enormous prices for 
poor little lambs and calves ; and she took care to be in no way 
partakers with them. Much more might I say, but prefer directing 
my reader to the excellent and just picture of her character given 
in a funeral-sermon by the Rev. Mr. Andrews, her minister. 

Having thus referred to the first establishment of the Church at 
Shepherdstown, I proceed to notice its next settlement in the parish 
of Norbourne, at Charlestown, in what is now Jefferson county. It 
took its name from Mr. Charles Washington, one of the brothers 
of General Washington, who settled on some of the fine land 
taken up or purchased by the latter during the period when he was 
public surveyor. His house still stands in the suburbs of the village. 
Others of the family soon moved to this neighbourhood, and for the 
last forty years have formed a considerable portion of the flourish- 
ing congregation now surrounding the county-seat of Jefferson. 
The venerable walls of an Episcopal church, built of stone, in the 
form of a T, are still to be seen a short distance from Charlestown. 
Various conjectures have been ofiered as to the age of this house. 
I have recently made particular inquiry on the spot, of some of the 
oldest inhabitants, and hare no doubt that it was erected soon after 
the division of the parish from Frederick, in 1769, and not many 
years before the war. As Washington had large possessions in this 
neighbourhood, and was often there, none can doubt but that he was 
a contributor to its erection and had often worshipped within its 
walls. Under the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Allen, a new brick 
church was erected on the site of the present one. That becoming 
too small to hold the congregation, another, much larger and more 
expensive, was put up under the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Jones. 
Scarcely was it consecrated and begun to be used, before it was 
consumed by fire, owing to some negligence or defect about the fur- 
nace. To the praise of the congregation be it recorded, a third was 
immediately erected on the same spot, which now stands, and I 
hope will long stand, a monument of what may be done by zeal 
and enterprise. 


As to the ministers who officiated in Norbourne parish at an 
early date, we have but little information. From a list of ministers 
licensed for the Plantations by the Bishops of London in 1745 and 
onward, I find that the Rev. Daniel Sturges was licensed for 
Norbourne parish, in 1771, two years after its separation from 
Frederick, and tradition speaks well of him. In 1786, he was 
succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Veasy, of whom a venerable old lady 
in Charlestown Mrs. Brown speaks as a man who faithfully 
performed his duty in preaching and catechizing, as she was the 
subject of both. He was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Wilson, of 
whom I can learn nothing. In the year 1795, the Rev. Bernard 
Page was minister. Of him I have often heard old Mrs. Shepherd 
speak as one of the evangelical school, deeply pious, zealous, and 
far beyond the ministerial standard of that day. He had been 
previously an assistant minister to the Rev. Bryan Fairfax, in Christ 
Church, Alexandria. From Shepherdstown he went to the lower 
part of Virginia, but soon died from the effects of the climate. Mr. 
Page was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Heath, who was minister in 
1800, and died in the parish. Mr. Heath was a follower of Mr. 
Wesley, and came over to this country under his auspices, to preside 
over a female institution in Maryland, as appears by a letter to him 
from Mr. Wesley, which I have seen. He, I presume, like many 
others, refused to separate from the Episcopal Church when the 
secession took place. The Rev. Emanuel Wilmer succeeded him, 
and was in the parish about the years 1806 and 1807. The Rev. 
Mr. Price had been occasionally preaching in this parish, especially 
at Martinsburg and Shepherdstown, when I first visited them about 
the year 1812 or 1813. 

Having treated of the churches about Shepherdstown and Charles- 
town, and the ministrations in Norbourne parish generally, I shall 
now give an account of the churches in Martinsburg and the 
vicinity, with some notice of certain laymen whose names are 
worthy of a place in these sketches. The first church built at 
Martinsburg, and which stood in the suburbs of the town, was erected 
chiefly at the cost and under the superintendence of Mr. Philip 
Pendleton, father of the present Mr. P. Pendleton, of that place. 
He was a zealous Churchman, and, so far as we know and believe, a 
good Christian. He had a brother, Mr. William Pendleton, who 
lived some miles off, and who, for a number of years during the 
almost entire destitution of ministers, acted as a lay reader in 
Martinsburg and at the church in Hedgesville, the latter having 
been built chiefly by himself and Mr. Raleigh Colston. Of the 


latter we have already spoken as vestryman near the old chapel in 
Frederick. The families of Hedges, Coxes, and Robinsons also 
took part in it. As it is a part of our plan to introduce brief 
notices of some of the old families of the Church, and as there is 
mention of the name of Pendleton, a name belonging to so many 
true friends of the Episcopal Church of Virginia and elsewhere, we 
shall devote a short space to a notice of the family. That notice shall 
be chiefly taken from a brief autobiography of Judge Pendleton, 
President of the Court of Appeals, and from a genealogy by the same, 
both executed not long before his death. Prom these we learn that 
about the year 1674 there came from England to Virginia two 
brothers, Nathaniel, a minister, and Philip, a teacher. The former 
died without issue. The latter left three sons and four daughters. 
The two younger sons married and had children, but of them there 
is no certain account. The four daughters married Messrs. Clay- 
ton, VasSj Taylor, and Thomas, leaving numerous descendants. 
The eldest son married, at the age of eighteen, Mary Taylor, who 
was only thirteen. Their sons were James, Philip, Nathaniel, and 
Edmund, the latter being the President of the Court of Appeals. 
Their daughters were Isabella and Mary, who married William and 
James Gaines, from one of whom the late General Gaines was 
descended. The sons all married and left children, except Edmund, 
the Judge, who first married Miss Roy, having one child, who died, 
and next Miss Pollard, who had none, and who lived to the age of 
ninety. The descendants of the above-mentioned grandchildren of 
the first Pendleton have intermarried with the Taylors, Pollards, 
Roys,Gaineses, Lewises, Pages, Nelsons, Harts, Richards, Taliaferos, 
Turners, Shepherds, Carters, Kemps, Palmers, Dandridges, Cooks, 
and others unknown to me, and who now exist in thousands through- 
out Virginia and elsewhere. I shall only particularize the line of 
those above mentioned in the parish of Berkeley. Nathaniel Pendle- 
ton grandson of the first of the name and brother of Judge 
Pendleton lived in Culpepper and had four sons, Henry, Na- 
thaniel, William, and Philip. Henry was put in business in Fal- 
mouth or Fredericksburg, but, not liking it, and his father not 
consenting to its relinquishment, ran away and became a great man 
in South Carolina, having the Pendleton district of that State 
called by his name, Nathaniel studied law, went first to Georgia, 
then to New York, where he became the intimate friend of General 
Hamilton, and was the father of the late member of Congress from 
Cincinnati. William was the faithful lay reader in Berkeley, whose 
son followed his example, and whose grandson is the Rev. William 


H. Pendleton, of Virginia. Philip the last of the four sons was the 
father of the present Philip Pendleton, of Martinsburg, and the late 
Edmund Pendleton, of Maryland, and of Mrs. Cook and Dandridge. 
The Rev. William N. Pendleton, of Virginia, belongs to a different 
branch of the same family, his mother being the daughter of Colonel 
Hugh Nelson, of Yorktown. It would be inexcusable in me not to 
record something more particular of one member of this large and re- 
spectable family, viz.: Mr. Edmund Pendleton, President of the 
Court of Appeals. He was born in Caroline county, and brought up 
in the clerk's office of that county. At an early age he was clerk of 
the vestry, and the little which he received for that office was spent 
in books, which he diligently read. At twenty years of age he was 
licensed to practise law. In a few years we find him in the General 
Court. He was in the House of Burgesses in the beginning of the 
war, taking a leading part in all its incipient steps. He was also 
in the first Congress. After this, and until his death, he was Judge 
and President of the Court of Appeals. Thus he says, (in that 
brief autobiography from which I have taken the above,) "Without 
any classical education, without patrimony, without what is called 
the influence of family connection, and without solicitation, I have 
attained the highest offices of my country." His following words 
deserve to be written in letters of gold : " I have often contem- 
plated it as a rare and extraordinary instance, and pathetically ex- 
claimed, "Not unto me, not unto me, Lord, but unto thy name, 
be the praise !' " I cannot refrain from adding the following words, 
written by himself, in the year 1801, at the bottom of a genealogical 
tree of the family drawn by his own hand : " I have never 'had 
curiosity (or, more properly, pride) enough to search the Herald's 
Office or otherwise inquire into the antiquity of my family in England, 
though I have always supposed the two brothers who came here 
were what they call there of a good family, fallen to decay, since 
they were well educated, and came the one as a minister, the other as 
a schoolmaster : however, I have had pleasure in hearing uniformly 
that my grandfather and his immediate descendants were very re- 
spectable for their piety and moral virtue, a character preserved 
in the family to a degree scarcely to be expected in one so numerous. 
My mother was among the best of women, and her family highly 
respectable." The elevation to which Judge Pendleton attained by 
diligence and moral worth, the latter resulting from true piety, 
without the advantages of birth, education, and fortune^ affords great 
encouragement to the young men of our land to imitate his noble 
example. He did not despise such advantages, but he considered the 


blessing of God on honest industry and the having of moral and 
religious ancestors as infinitely better. He did not, in a proud 
spirit, boast of Ms own achievements, saying, 

"Nam genus et proavos, et quse non fecimus ipsi, 
Vix ea nostra TOCO," 

but humbly ascribed all merit and success to God. 

Of a renowned and wealthy ancestry we have no reason to be 
proud : for a pious one we ought to be thankful to God ; for he has 
promised his mercy to thousands descended from such. To be 
descended from a Lord Nelson or a George IV., a Cromwell or a 
Bonaparte, with all their honours and offices, while their characters 
were stained with crimes of deepest dye, is not to be coveted ; but 
to be descended from such virtuous and religious patriots as were 
some of those who achieved the independence of America, is a 
lawful gratification, though we have no reason to be proud of or to 
value ourselves on account of that. If at any time we are tempted 
to think highly of ourselves at the thought of worthy ancestors, it 
would be well to remember that, by going a little further back, we 
may find ourselves in company with some of the most ignoble and 
base of the human family. We should, indeed, ever bear in mind 
that all of us must trace our origin to two most notorious transgressors 
who were driven into evil from one of the richest and most beautiful 
lands on earth. Such exiles are we, their descendants, to this day, 
before that God with whom not only a thousand days, but a thou- 
sand generations, are but as one. 

Having said thus much of a family two of whose members Mr. 
William Pendleton and his son contributed so much as lay readers 
to the sustaining the Church at Hedgesville, I should be inex- 
cusable not to make some record of the character and services of 
one of the most honest and upright specimens of humanity, in the 
person of Colonel Edward Colston, in the same neighbourhood, 
who also was a most efficient lay reader, as well as promoter of 
every good work in the parish and in the diocese. Whether we view 
him as a member of the parish, of the diocese, or General Conven- 
tion, or the State Legislature, or Congress, as husband, father, 
master, neighbour, or friend, he was the same open, manly, con- 
sistent person. You always knew where to find him on every 
question. As was said by one of General Hamilton, u he carried 
his heart in his hand, and every one might see it." Though through 
life often pressed in his pecuniary affairs, but this no fault of his 
own, he made a conscience of setting apart a due portion to the 
cause of religion and charity. On one occasion, when lie had lost 


a most valuable mill by fire, before I could condole with him on the 
event, he enclosed to me a share of bank-stock worth seventy-five 
dollars, requesting me to apply it to some good object, and saying 
that perhaps he had withholden something which was due to other 
objects besides his family, and God had taken away from him a 
portion of what was put in his hands as a steward, considering him 
unworthy of the trust. I may also appeal to all his neighbours, if 
in his intercourse with them he did not display the same simplicity 
and friendliness which so remarkably characterized his uncle. Judge 
Marshall, and his venerable mother, who was a softened image of 
that uncle both in person and character. I might also speak of 
other worthy persons in that interesting parish among the Robinsons, 
Hedges, and Coxes, who contributed after a time to build the pre- 
sent larger church at Hedgesville, and one not far off on Back 
Creek ; but I must hasten to the more particular mention of one in 
whom they are all deeply interested, as having been even more than 
an ordinary minister to their fathers and mothers. 



Norbourne Parish, Berkeley County. No. 2. 

IN a previous article I spoke of Morgan's Chapel, in old 
Frederick county and parish, and of Morgan Morgan as lay reader 
there and elsewhere. The site of that chapel is near the dividing 
line between Frederick and Berkeley, and the family of Morgans 
has always been round about it. The foundation of the old chapel 
may still be seen in the graveyard, though two churches have since 
been built within a few paces of it. The following family sketch 
is taken from a pamphlet published many years since by the Rev. 
Benjamin Allen, and is -so much better than any thing from my 
pen, that I shall make no apology for borrowing it : 


"It is but justice to departed piety to hold up to the view of survivors 
its beauty and its value. Affection to the living also prompts us to depict 
the character of the Christian dead, in order that their holy examples may 
light others the way to happiness and peace. Actuated by these motives, 
we present our readers with an obituary of Morgan Morgan, a man by 
many of them respected and beloved already. Colonel Morgan Morgan, 
the father of him we propose to notice, was a native of Wales, whence 
he emigrated in early life to the then Province of Pennsylvania. There he 
married, and there his first son was born, in the year of our Lord 1715. 
Thence, about the year 1726, he removed to Virginia, to the place where 
his descendants now reside, in the county of Berkeley. He there erected 
the first cabin built on the Yirginia side of the Potomac, between the 
Blue Ridge and the North Mountains. Of course the country was a 
wilderness, the dwelling-place of bears, wolves, and Indians. But in this 
wilderness did he find the God of the Christians present, for here, in the 
spirit of the patriarchs, did he wait upon Him, and here did he experience 
His providential care. 

"In or about the year 1740, he associated, as we are informed, with 

Dr. John Briscoe and Mr. Hite erected the first Episcopal Church 

in the valley, at what is now called Mill Creek, or Bunker's Hill. In 
fchat building he had the satisfaction of seeing his son, Morgan Morgan, 
(who was born to him March 20, 1737,) perform the service of the Church 
as lay reader at the early age of sixteen. With the religious education of 
this son he appears to have taken peculiar care. He took him with him in 
his usual visits to the sick and dying. At seventeen, he induced him to 
act as clerk to the Rev. Mr. Meldram, then rector of the parish at Win- 
chester. He lived a pattern of piety and good citizenship until the ad- 
vanced age of seventy-eight, when, under the roof of his son Morgan, he 


breathed his spirit into, the hands of his Creator. The close of his life 
was spent in close communion with his God, in fitting himself for the 
ehange at hand, and in impressing the precious Gospel ou the minds of his 
descendants. When on the bed of death, so anxious was he for the pious 
walk of his children, that he thus expressed himself: ' I hoped I should 
have lived to see Morgan's children old enough to say their catechism and 
read the word of God; but I must depart/ One of his expressions, 
uttered with the greatest humility, was, < Lord Jesus, open the gates of 
heaven and let me in.' He fell asleep in that Jesus, leaving on the coun- 
tenance of death the smile of the triumphant soul. He died the 1st of 
November, 1766. 

" The mantle of the father was caught by the son. Morgan Morgan, the 
subject of our present notice, lived also a pattern of piety. He served his 
fellow-citizens in various public capacities. He officiated as clerk for the 
successive rectors of the parish, and as lay reader when there was no rector. 
He was the friend of the needy, and the comforter of the afflicted. Was 
any one sick with so contagious a disorder that their neighbours fled from 
them with alarm, Morgan Morgan was ready to attend their house of suffer- 
ing, and to watch over their bed. In public ministrations, he officiated 
chiefly in his immediate neighbourhood, until within a few years of the 
close of his life, when, in consequence of the destitute state of the country 
generally, he was often called far from home to perform the religious duties 
proper for a layman. At length, from the frequency of those calls, he 
gave himself entirely to the work of a labourer in the vineyard. While 
the Church to which he belonged exists in this land, his labours will be 
remembered with gratitude. In a dark day, when desolation and death 
seemed brooding over her interests, he commenced a career of active ex- 
ertion, which revived the attachment of her friends and kept her from 
descending to the dust. Though encumbered with the weight of years, 
and but a layman, he, by constant exhortation and incessant labours of 
love, through the blessing of God, impressed the minds of many of the 
young with the truths of the Gospel, and revived the spirit of piety gene- 
rally in the land. Through Jefferson and Berkeley, and part of Frederick, 
Hampshire, and Maryland, his labours extended. He visited alike the 
mansions of the rich and the cottages of the poor, everywhere acting in 
the spirit of a crucified Master. To the prosperous he was the messenger 
of warning, to the afflicted, of consolation. Many are there now living, 
who can testify to his faithfulness; many are there, we trust, in heaven, 
who have hailed him as their spiritual father. His course through thig 
country may be traced by the fruits of his labour, fruits that still arise to 
call him blessed. He died, as he had lived, in the faith of his Redeemer, 
He was buried at the Mill Greek Church, which was named, after him, 
Morgan's Chapel." 

Mr. Morgan died in the year 1797. An excellent sermon was 
preached on the occasion by Dr. Balmaine, of 'Winchester. He 
does ample justice to his personal piety, his active zeal, and his 
evangelical views, as displayed in the sermons which he read. To 
the latter I can testify. I have a large number of the sermons 
which he used as lay reader, and have read not a few of them* 
They are faithful, and deeply experimental. He has evidently 


compiled some of them from various authors, and adapted them to 
the occasions on which they were preached. By the notes on the 
outside leaf, they appear to have been preached at funerals, in 
private houses, on thanksgiving-days, on the first opening of Mor- 
gan's Chapel, and other special subjects. Had all the sermons 
preached in Virginia, from its first settlement, been like these, and 
all the ministers and readers been like Morgan Morgan, the history 
of the Church of Virginia would have been different from that which 
truth now requires it to be. So well calculated was he for the 
ministry, and so esteemed by the people whom he served, that they 
united in a letter of recommendation to some Bishop, (supposed to 
be Bishop Madison, not long before Mr. Morgan's death,) begging 
that he might be ordained as their pastor, notwithstanding his de- 
ficiency in human learning. The paper lies before me, and is very 
strong in his praise. His age, infirmities, and the distance to be 
travelled, prevented his application. The effect of his example and 
ministrations has been felt to this day, where his services were 
more frequent, and are to be seen especially among his own de- 
scendants* who have been among the chief supporters of the church 
at Mill Creek, or Bunker's Hill. At my last visit there, a few 
months since, the congregation was called to mourn the sudden 
death of one of his grandsons, William Gr. Morgan, who had fol- 
lowed the pious example of his father, grandfather, and great-grand- 
father. I mention, as one of the effects of Morgan Morgan's 
example aixd exhortations upon his descendants and neighbours, 
that when Mr, Allen first visited the neighbourhood he found no 
difficulty, though twenty years after the death of this good man, in 
raising a large catechetical class, among whom were full-grown 
young men and women, repeating the Church catechism and hear- 
ing it explained. This my eyes have seen, in a public tavern at 
Bunker's Hill, the old church being unfit for use. 

Having thus brought the history of the ministers and churches of 
Norbourne parish to the time when, by God's blessing, a new order 
of things commenced, I now proceed to make mention of the chief 
instrument by which the revival was effected. On Christmas eve, 
in the year 1814, a little after dark, there entered into my house a 
gentleman who introduced himself to me as Mr. Allen, from New 
York, with letters of introduction from Bishop Moore and Dr. Wil- 
mer, certifying that he was a candidate for Orders, and wished 
employment in the valley as a lay-reader. Although the roads 
were in their worst condition, much rain having fallen, he had in 
two short days walked from Alexandria to my house, about sixty 


miles. Carrying him with me to the Old Chapel the next day, 
we met with Mr. Beverley Whiting and his sister, Miss Betsy, 
from Jefferson county, who had, as they and others near them 
afterward did, come about fifteen miles to church through bad 
roads. Into their hands I consigned Mr. Allen, on a horse which 
I had lent him. In just two weeks he returned in high spirits. He 
had itinerated through the whole of Jefferson and Berkeley counties, 
found out all the principal families who were still attached to the 
Church, established at least twelve places for service, and received 
a kind invitation from Mr. Whiting and his sister to bring his little 
family to their house and make it a home for the present. To 
Alexandria he immediately returned, where his wife and infant 
were, and without delay, in a spell of bitter cold weather in the 
month of January, brought them up in a road-wagon of Mr. Whit- 
ing's, on its return from Alexandria, to which it had carried a load 
of flour. Mr. Whiting's was his home for a considerable time, for 
years indeed ; and even after a parsonage was provided his visits to 
that abode of hospitality were frequent and long. From this time 
until the year 1821, with feeble health, the pressure of debt upon 
him, a growing family, he perhaps rode as great a distance, preached 
as often, studied his Bible as much, and prepared as many things 
for the press, as any man of his day. No one had a better oppor- 
tunity than myself of knowing this, for I had often to go the rounds 
with him, doing more duty from necessity than I ever did before 
or have done since. Sleeping in the room with him, often I have 
seen him watch the morning light with his little Bible, and reading 
it when others were sleeping. I have travelled with him, and seen 
that Bible, or some other book, in his hand on horseback, and during 
any little spare time in private hours busy with his pen in preparing 
something for the press. While thus itinerating in these counties, 
and also in the adjoining county in Maryland, he was conducting a 
little paper called the "Layman's Magazine/' and actually abridged 
and published the History of the Reformation, by Burnet, in a small 
volume, and compiled a history of the whole Church in two octavo 
volumes. All this he did while, like an honest man, he was paying 
his debts out of a small salary and the scanty profits of these pub- 
lications, if indeed there were any. For nine years he thus laboured, 
contracting his sphere, though not his diligence, by the introduction 
of one or two ministers into some of the numerous places he had 
taken in charge, when he was called to St. Paul's Church, Phila- 
delphia, being the next choice to Bishop Mcllvaine. His labours 

in such a congregation and city were of course not diminished. He 
VOL. n, 20 


again issued a religious magazine, and engaged in every plan for 
promoting Sunday-schools, infant-schools, Bible-classes, missionary 
societies, and all such things, being especially interested in Bishop 
Chase's college in Ohio, His house was the Bishop's home. The 
increase of Episcopal churches in Philadelphia soon attracted his 
mind. At a time when a narrow and selfish policy kept ministers 
and vestries in a state of fear and trembling whenever a new church 
was talked of, lest its establishment might somewhat interfere with 
their monopoly, his large soul, disdaining all petty considerations, 
determined on at least one other church, under the patronage of 
St. Paul's. Mr. Bedell was about leaving North Carolina, and wished 
some situation in the North. Mr. Allen, learning this, immediately 
determined to secure him for Philadelphia, and proposed it to a 
few friends. Alarmed at the thought of such a great work, they 
shrunk back from it ; but Mr. Allen persevered and succeeded, and 
St. Andrew's Church was the result. While Mr. Bedell was col- 
lecting the congregation and the house was rising up, Mr. Allen 
insisted that he should use St. Paul's during a part of each Sabbath. 
Some of his people and friends were alarmed, and predicted that 
the popularity of Bedell would ruin Mr. Allen's prospects, and di- 
minish, if not destroy, St. Paul's congregation. But nothing of 
this kind moved such a man. His reply was, "Let me decrease, so 
the Church increases." By (rod's blessing on such a Christian 
course, both increased, though Mr. Allen's pulpit-talents were only 
of the moderate order. At length, under the pressure of mental 
and bodily labour, his health so failed that a voyage to Europe was 
resorted to. But it was only used by Mm on Ms way to England, 
in England, and on his return, as an occasion for greater efforts in 
his Master's cause and for the souls of men. Providence found 
work for him in a foreign land, and gave him favour with the most 
zealous of the Christian philanthropists in England. It may be 
eafely affirmed that, within the same short period, no minister from 
this country had ever attracted more attention, and had, and zeal- 
ously used, more opportunities of promoting the welfare of all reli- 
gious and benevolent societies, than Mr. Allen. Even the Society of 
Quakers felt the influence of his zeal in behalf of Sunday-schools, 
and to this day speak of him as "that wonderful man." After 
these dying labours, which were like the last notes of the swan, he 
returned toward America in a vessel which, by contrary winds, was 
detained nearly one hundred days on the deep, the crew suffering 
for provisions. Mr. Allen's grave was the great deep, as though no 
narrow sepulchre was fit for one of so large a soul. 


We now draw to a close these notices of what was once Berkeley 
county and Norbourne parish, but which in the year 1801 became 
Berkeley and Jefferson counties, and in time has been divided into 
BIX parishes, those around Charlestown, Harper's Ferry, Shep- 
herdstown, Martinsburg, Bunker's Hill, and Smithfield. The Rev. 
B. B. Smith, now Bishop of Kentucky, succeeded Mr. Allen in the 
congregations at Charlestown and Shepherdstown, and continued 
to serve them most acceptably for nearly two years. The Rev. 
Alexander Jones succeeded in 1823, and for fifteen years served 
the same congregations, at the end of which time he confined his 
services to the congregation at Charlestown. The Rev. Mr. Morri- 
son took his place at Shepherdstown and continued for two years, 
and was succeeded by the present rector, the Rev. Mr. Andrews. 
Dr. Jones continued in Charlestown until his removal to Richmond 
a few years since. During his long ministry in that parish the 
congregation steadily increased, until it became one of the largest 
of our country parishes, and two noble churches were erected, the 
first having been consumed by fire, as we have said before. Mr. 
Jones was followed in Charlestown by the Rev. Dudley Tyng, and 
he was succeeded by its present rector, the Rev. Charles Ambler. 

The small number of Episcopalians at Harper's Ferry had, from 
the time of Mr. Allen, been occasionally sometimes regularly 
visited by the ministers at Charlestown and Shepherdstown, until 
a few years since, when the church now standing on an imposing 
eminence was built. During its erection, and with much attention 
on his part, the Rev. Horace Stringfellow, Jr., was its minister. 
To him succeeded for a time the Rev. Mr. Wileoxon. The congre- 
gation at Martinsburg, after being organized and for a time sup- 
plied by Mr. Allen, was put in charge of the Rev. Mr. Horrell, 
who continued for several years, and was succeeded in 1819 by the 
Rev. Enoch Lowe. The Rev. Mr. Lippitt succeeded him. The 
Rev. Dr. Brooke, now of Ohio, the Rev. James Tyng, the Rev. Mr. 
Johnson, the Rev. Mr. Taliafero, the Rev. James Chisholm, the 
Rev. D. F. Sprigg, and the present minister, the Rev. Richard 
Davis, hare successively for the last tMrty years supplied the two 
congregations at Martinsburg and Hedgesville. The church at 
Bunker's Hill, or Morgan's Chapel, has been for the most part 
supplied by the ministers from Martinsburg and Winchester, but 
of late years has united with the congregations of Smithfield and 
Leetown, each about five miles off. The Rev. Mr. Brown was the 
first who had charge of these three in conjunction, who, after some 
years, was succeeded by tlie Rev. Mr. CaUaway. The Rev. Mr. 


Grammer has just taken charge of them. In Smithfield and Lee- 
town two excellent churches have recently been erected, the former 
by the zeal and liberality of a very few ladies and gentlemen, and 
the latter at the expense of the Rev. Lewis Balch, of Baltimore, 
with the aid of some of his people in the church of St. Bartholo- 
mew, of New York, while he ministered to them. It being the 
birthplace or early home of some of his ancestors, and the present 
residence of his parents, Mr. Balch has sought to confer upon it an 
honour far higher than the proudest and most expensive monument. 
There is a circumstance peculiar to this neighbourhood which de- 
serves a record. Not only was the property and the residence of 
General Charles Lee, of Revolutionary memory, from whom it took 
its name, in sight of the church, but not far distant were the 
estates of General Gates, General Stephens, and General Darke, 
all of them officers in the American army. It was meet that a 
Christian church should tower above the abode of such a wretched 
blasphemer as General Lee. The following extract from his will 
declares the character of him who once enviously sought to de- 
throne Washington from the confidence of the nation, and to have 
the chief command of the American army conferred on himself, 
who wellnigh lost us the victory on the field of Monmouth, and 
who ingloriously terminated his days, a selfish celibate, in the midst 
of dogs for his most familiar friends, and an enemy to God and 

"I desire most earnestly that I may not be buried in any church 01 
churchyard, or within a mile of any Presbyterian or Anabaptist meeting- 
house, for since I have resided in this country I have kept so much bad 
company when living, that I do not choose to continue it when dead. I 
recommend my soul to the Creator of all worlds and all creatures, who - 
must, from his visible attributes, be indifferent to their modes of worship 
or creeds, whether Christians, Mahometans, or Jews, whether instilled by 
education or taken up by reflection, whether more or less absurd, as a weak 
mortal can no more be answerable for his persuasions, notions, or even 
skepticism in religion, than for the colour of his skin." 

Extracted from his will, recorded in the court of Berkeley 



Parishes in Hampshire and ShenandoaJi Counties. 

HAVIKQ disposed of Berkeley county, I come to Hampshire, which 
was formed into a county and parish in the year 1753. I perceive 
how the parish of Hampshire was divided and one established in 
Hardy in 1785, but of the ministers and churches of the same 1 
have but little to say. In the year 1771 the Rev. Mr. Ogilvie, and 
in the year 1772 the Rev. Mr. Manning and the Rev. Mr. Kenner, 
were all ordained, in England, for Hampshire. Mr. Manning alone 
ever reached there, the others settling in parishes below the Ridge. 
About the year 1812, or 1813, 1 remember to have seen a Rev. Mr. 
Reynolds, who said that he was the minister in Hampshire and 
Hardy. No churches, I expect, were ever built in these counties 
until those I am about to mention. The Rev. Norman Nash, a 
friend of Mr. Allen, desired to become a candidate for Orders in 
Virginia, and be ordained without the knowledge of the languages. 
To this Bishop Moore objected. Mr. Nash strongly declared his 
conviction that he was called of God and moved by the Holy G-host 
to the work, but that he was advancing in years, and, having never 
studied the ancient languages, it must be a long time before he 
could be prepared for the ministry, if a knowledge of these were 
requisite ; that he might die before that period arrived, and that 
if God should inquire of him why he had not obeyed his orders, 
he could only say that Bishop Moore would not let him, until he 
had studied Latin and Greek. Without entering into the merits 
of the question between him and the Bishop, suffice it to say 
that the latter yielded. Mr. Nash was ordained for the county of 
Hampshire, where the ancient languages were but little known and 
not much required. Hampshire may be truly called the hill-coun- 
try of Virginia, not surpassed in high hills and deep valleys by 
that of Judea itself. In one of its deep narrow valleys, and on its 
hill-sides, a few families of plain people had settled, who retained a 
strong attachment to the Church while all around had forsaken 
her as the Babylon of prophecy. There was added to them one 
which had emigrated from Scotland, with all the Scottish prejudices 
against the Church ; but the father of the family, on his way to 


these Western hills, had met with some of Bishop Hobart's works, 
and become a thorough convert to his views of Episcopacy and the 
Church. The old man was also a great reader of Scripture, and 
spent many of his latter years in writing a full paraphrase of large 
portions of it, even of the prophetical books. At his death he 
bequeathed them to Dr. Balmaine and myself for publication, if 
we deemed them worthy. A box of considerable size was full of 
these manuscripts, in very close, small hand. We were, of course, 
afraid to venture on so great an undertaking. Into this hilly re- 
gion did the Rev. Mr. Nash enter, and never did man labour more 
faithfully than he did. It might have been said of him, if he could 
not say it of himself, 

" Si Pergama dextra defend! possent, 
Etiam hac defensa fuissent ;" 

for he was well suited to the work and place. Having spent his 
earlier days in mechanical pursuits, he diligently employed his skill 
in helping to erect and complete two log churches, working with 
his own hands in various ways. When completed, he used every 
proper effort to 11 them with Episcopal worshippers, and, for a 
time, did in a measure succeed. But there are some winds and 
tides against which even the power of steam proves ineffectual, and 
there are some places and societies where the excellencies of our 
Church system and service cannot avail against violent and long- 
established prejudices, even though the Gospel be faithfully preached 
in connection with it. Such was the case in relation to this part 
of Virginia, where not only Norman Nash laboured zealously and 
preached faithfully, but where his nephew, Mr. Sylvester Nash, 
who succeeded him, did the same, and where other ministers have 
lent their aid, and Bishops have not failed in their peculiar offices. 
Bishop Moore visited these churches several times. Mr. Sylvester 
Nash not only officiated for some years at these log churches, but, 
by much solicitation and perseverance, succeeded in building a neat 
brick church in Romney, the county seat of Hampshire, where ma- 
terials more abounded and the prospects for a time were more 
flourishing, but he was not encouraged to make a permanent abode 
there. The Eev. Mr. Hedges also made a few ineffectual efforts 
after the resignation of Mr. Nash, and, within a few years past, 
the Eev, Mr. Irish repeated the same, with the same result. Since 
this last effort, the church has been consumed by fire. In the 
many changes which are continually going on in society, we will 
not despair of seeing her old bare walls clothed again with garments 
of praise, and a crown once more on her head. 


I come now if not in the order of 'time, yet of geography to 
the county of Shenandoah, originally called after Lord Dunmore, 
but changed to its present title by reason of the conduct of Dun- 
more, which made his name so hateful to Virginia. The parish was 
named Beckford. All this region was settled fcy Germans and 
Swedes. Hence it was that a Swedish congregation was here col- 
lected, and that the Eev. Peter Muhlenburg son of the Eev. Mr. 
Muhlenburg, father of the Lutheran Church in America was sent 
to take charge of it. A brief sketch of his history is necessary to 
the proper understanding of his settlement at Woodstock, the county 
seat of Shenandoah. He was horn in the village of Trappe, in 
Pennsylvania, in the year 1747, and baptized John Peter Gabriel 
Muhlenburg. His father emigrated from Germany in 1742, and 
became the founder of the Lutheran Church in this country, living 
at first, and for some years, in Philadelphia, then moving to Mont- 
gomery county, Pennsylvania, and thence back again to Philadelphia. 
His son was early destined in his father's mind and purpose to the 
ministry, and educated with a view to the same. In the year 1763, 
Peter, then sixteen years of age, and his two brothers, Frederick 
and Henry, were sent to Halle, in Germany, for their education. 
Before this time, his father had begun to fear that Peter's disposi* 
tion and habits were not suited to the ministry. In writing to a 
friend, to whose care he consigned him, he says : 

" My son Peter has, alas, enjoyed but little of my care and control, on 
account of my extensive official duties ; but he has had no evil example 
from his parents, and many reproofs and counsels. His chief fault and 
bad inclination has been his fondness for hunting and fishing. But if our 
most reverend fathers at Halle observe any tendency to vice, I humbly 
beg that they will send him to a well-disciplined garrison-town under the 
name of Peter Weiser, before he causes much trouble or complaint. There 
he may obey the drum, if he will not follow the Spirit of God. My prayers 
will follow him, and if his soul only is saved, be he in what condition he 
may, I shall be content. I well know what Satan wishes for me and 

I take the following account of him, until his settlement in Vir- 
ginia, from his life, written by Mr. Henry Muhlenburg, who was 
either his brother or some near relative : 

" These anticipations were soon realized. Perhaps the young Americans 
were looked upon as demi-savages by their German fellow-students, and 
perhaps Peter's disposition was too fiery to submit to the strict discipline 
of a German school, at that time strict even to the verge of cruelty. Be 
that as it may, whether caused by one or the other reason, or by a combina- 
tion of both, Peter was continually in trouble. Things went on from bad 
to worse, until some time in the year 1764, upon the occasion of a public 


procession in the presence of the heads of the University, some insult was 
offered to him "by his tutor, which his hot temper would not brook, and it 
was revenged upon the spot by a blow. 

" This outrage rendered his expulsion inevitable. He did not, however, 
wait for its official notification, but, collecting his little property, fled from 
the University. A regiment of dragoons was passing through the town, 
in which, upon the spur of the moment, he enlisted, little thinking that his 
father had recommended that very remedy to cool his hot blood. Although 
not eighteen, he was tall and well proportioned, and so desirable a recruit 
was readily accepted. He thus left the University, little caring what be- 
came of him, so rejoiced was he in being freed from what he deemed the 
tyranny of rectors and proctors. 

" The precise length of time he remained with this regiment, the writer 
has no means of ascertaining. He must, however, have fully upheld the 
character he had gained at the University, as appears from the following 
anecdote connected with this regiment, related by himself, and still pre- 
served as a family tradition. Ten or eleven years after, the battle of 
Brandywine was fought. In that action General Muhlenburg commanded 
a brigade of Virginians, which, with Weedon's, was thrown forward, at the 
close of that hard-fought day, to repel the victorious advance of the enemy 
and give time to our shattered columns to retreat. The struggle was at 
the point of the bayonet, and it so happened that this very regiment dis- 
mounted was one of those opposed to Muhlenburg's command. The 
General, mounted on a white horse, tall and commanding in his figure, 
was very conspicuous at the head of his men leading on the long line of 
Continentals : when the contending parties came near enough to be recog- 
nised, many of the older soldiers (German enlistments being for life) 
remembered their former comrade, and the cry ran along their astonished 
ranks, ( J3ier kommt teufelPietF (Here comes devil Pete !) Finally he 
was freed from the obligations he had so rashly assumed, in the following 
manner. A colonel in the British army, whose name is unfortunately 
forgotten, was leaving Hanover, where he held some ofiicial appointment, 
for America. He had been, prior to this, long stationed in that country, 
was a frequent visitor at the house of Dr. Muhlenburg, and knew the 
family and Peter well. On his journey he happened to pass through the 
town in which this regiment was then quartered, and, to his utter surprise, 
recognised his young American acquaintance among its soldiers. He 
sought him out, and learned the cause of his present position, after which, 
by representing the matter in its true light, as a boyish student's freak, 
and certifying to the respectability of his family, he easily procured 
his discharge. Peter took leave of his comrades and accompanied his 
kind friend to America, where he arrived some time in the year 1766. 
This interposition was probably the most fortunate event of his life ; for, 
although his family would sooner or later have procured his discharge, yet, 
from the rarity of intercourse and length of time necessarily occupied, he 
might have remained there a year or two longer and become utterly dis- 
qualified for any other pursuits. As it was, the occurrence had a beneficial 
effect upon his character and disposition, rendering him more tractable, 
although most probably the taste for military life here acquired influenced 
his whole future career. 

" His father, who, as we may well conceive, had suffered much anxiety 
on account of his son, in his joy at the lost being found, received him with 
open arms, and granted him forgiveness for, and oHivion of r the past. 


For some time Peter remained at home, his father personally superintend 
ing the completion of his education. 

"It was now time for him to turn his thoughts to the selection of a 
profession, and, had his own wishes only been consulted, he would doubt- 
less have chosen the army; but his father very earnestly desired that the 
Church which he had founded in America should he supported and sus- 
tained by the efforts of his sons. The uniform kindness which his many 
youthful follies had met with at his father's hands inclined him to yield 
to his wishes; and accordingly he commenced the study of theology, 
tinder his father's directions. 

" Early in the year 1768, he was ordained a minister of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, according to the rules and discipline of that sect, and 
on the 12th of May was appointed assistant rector of Zion's and St. Paul's 
Churches, in New Jersey. These congregations, commonly known as the 
Valley Churches, were situated at New German town and Bedminster, in 
Hunterdon and Somerset counties. On the 5th of February in the 
ensuing year, he commenced officiating, and remained in that capacity for 
several years, 

"Retaining his strong partiality for hunting and fishing, (the bad in- 
clinations referred to earlier by his father,) he become thoroughly acquainted 
with that part of the country, a knowledge which, during the long stay of 
the army at Morristown and its subsequent operations in New Jersey, 
became of great value. While situated in New Jersey, his marriage with 
Anne Barbara Meyer took place, the ceremony being performed on the 
6th of November, 1770. 

" For some years prior to this, the German inhabitants of the Middle 
States commenced emigrating in considerable numbers to Virginia, set- 
tling principally in the Valley of the Blue Ridge. These German settle- 
ments gradually became large, particularly those in Dunmore; and, being 
Lutheran, a congregation was formed at Woodstock, the seat of justice for 
that county. This congregation desired a pastor, and accordingly appli- 
cation was made to Dr. Muhleaburg to appoint one^ with the request that 
his son might be assigned to that situation. Some difficulties, however, 
presented themselves. In order to meet the peculiar laws of the Colony 
of Virginia on the subject of Church establishment, these Germans had 
organized themselves as members of the Swedish branch of the Lutheran 
Church, there being no difference between that and the German, save in 
point of form only. Some congregations of the former existed at this very 
time in Pennsylvania, and were in close connection with the Lutheran 
Church proper. The Swedish Church, at the Reformation, differed from 
the German in retaining its Bishops, and their discipline required that 
pastors should be ordained and consecrated by a Bishop. This had not 
been done in Mr. Muhlenburg's case, who had been ordained by his father 
in accordance with the rules and discipline of the German Lutheran Church. 
Another obstacle arose from the union of Church and State in Virginia, 
where the Church of England was established by law, and, in order that 
the rector might enforce the payment of tithes, it was necessary that he 
should have been ordained by a Bishop of the English Church, in which 
case he came under the provisions of the law, although not a member of 
the Established Church. To meet these difficulties, it was deemed neces- 
sary that Mr. Muhlenburg should be ordained anew, according to the dis- 
cipline prescribed by the Swedish Lutheran Church. Accordingly, he 
resigned his charge in New Jersey, and made preparation for a voyage to 


England to receive Episcopal ordination, any properly-consecrated Pro- 
testant Bishop being competent for that purpose. He sailed from Phila- 
delphia for London on the 2d of March, 1772, and arrived at Dover on 
the 10th of the following month. During this journey, Mr. Muhlenburg 
kept a daily journal, now in the writer's possession, which is in many 
parts highly interesting ] but space forbids any extracts being here made. 
From this journal, however, we learn that, if any scruples did exist in his 
mind with respect to his profession at the time of his entering upon the 
study of it, they were now entirely removed, and he seems to have been 
fully impressed with the serious nature of the duties he had assumed, and to 
have brought to their discharge a spirit of pure and humble Christianity/' 

His biographer informs us that his stay ia London was brief, 
and that he was ordained at the same time with a Mr. Braidfoot 
and Mr. White, the latter being afterward Bishop of Pennsylvania, 
He further adds, that the disputes between the mother-country 
were just commencing to be of intense bitterness, when Mr* Muh- 
lefiburg removed with his family from Pennsylvania to take charge 
of his congregation in Virginia. Arriving among them in tbe fall 
of 1772, sufficient time was given him, before the breaking out of 
hostilities, to become extensively acquainted throughout the valley. 
With Washington and Henry he was soon on terms of personal 
intimacy, for in June, 1774, lie was with them in the House of 
Burgesses, being sent as representative by the people of his county. 
This friendship had afterward much weight in determining Mr. 
Muhlenburg to enter the army. Dunmore county, afterward She- 
nandoah, under the controlling influence of Mr. Muhlenburg, was 
one of the first to step forward in opposition to British usurpation. 
At the 'first meeting of its citizens he was chosen moderator, and 
one of fche committee of correspondence. Although still a minister, 
he was sent to the House of Burgesses and Convention again and 
again, and with all Ms zeal supported Mr. Henry in the boldest 
measures he proposed. His character became so well known that in 
1775 he was elected Colonel of the 8th regiment, without any other 
knowledge of military matters than he had acquired when a truant 
youth in Germany. Washington and Henry both urged his appoint- 
ment, for they had doubtless seen in which direction his talents moved. 
His was the first regiment completed on the field. His biographer 
endorses the tradition of his last sermon, which concluded with the 
words that there was " a time for all things; a time to fight, and 
that time had now come/' The sermon finished, he pronounced 
the benediction. A breathless silence brooded over the congrega- 
tion. Deliberately pulling off the gown which had thus far covered 
his martial figure, he stood before them a girded warrior, and, de- 


scending from the pulpit, ordered the drums at the church-door to 
beat for recruits, From all the foregoing, we must conclude that 
though he was doubtless conscientious and respectable, for that day 
at least, as a minister, yet he still loved his juvenile sports of hunt- 
ing and fishing too much to excel in the duties of the sacred office, 
and that he had never ceased to be more of the soldier than the 

"Quo semel est imbuta, recens, servabit odorem, 
Testa din." 

Of the subsequent history of that Swedish Episcopal congregation 
in Woodstock I have as yet been unable to obtain any accurate 
information. Some time after the revival of the Episcopal Church 
in Virginia, an effort was made by General Steenbergen, the 
Arthurs, Blackfords, and Aliens, to establish it in their neighbour- 
hood, and I paid them several visits ; but the effort failed. The 
same was done more than once by some friends of the Church at 
Woodstock, headed by Mr. Williams, the old and much-esteemed 
clerk of the county and staunch member of the Church; but with 
like success. 

I cannot take leave of this county and parish without a brief 
notice of one remarkable locality in it. In the very centre of 
Mr, Muhlenburg's parish, and only a few miles from his residence 
at Woodstock, commence the mountains, almost touching each 
other at first, and running parallel, so as to form a valley be- 
tween. After running some distance, they unite in one, which is 
called the Massamatti Mountain. The valley between is called 
Powell's Fort, and contains some thousands of acres. The moun- 
tains on either side are called the East and West Fort Mountains. 
The entrance to this valley is through a narrow defile, along which 
a small but bold stream runs out into the surrounding country, with 
high, steep mountains on each side, as if some convulsion of nature 
had opened a passage for the waters. If the whole Yalley of 
Virginia was once a lake, emptying itself at Harper's Ferry, this 
may be regarded as a lake within a lake, the smaller emptying 
itself into the larger through this narrow passway, and both of 
them sending their waters through Harper's Ferry and the Poto- 
mac into the great Atlantic. Washington and Muhlenburg had 
doubtless often been within and around this place, and the military 
eye of each may have been caught by it, as one of the strongest of 
nature's fructifications. In one of the darkest and gloomiest seasons 
of the Revolution, when even the soul of a Washington began to fear 
the stability of Ms fellow-citizens, they may have communed together 


about this, as the last retreat of their diminished and retreating 
forces. Certain it is that Washington once referred to it as the 
place to which he should conduct his wasted remnant, there to call 
the God of nature to its defence, and bid defiance to the British 
army ; thus hoping to arouse his countrymen to renewed and more 
vigorous efforts for liberty and independence. I can never look 
at, (for it is, on a clear day, in sight of my own residence,) pass 
by, or read of this spot, and recollect that proposal of Washington, 
without remembering the Edom of Scripture, the strong city, as it 
is called ; for, if travellers and historians be true, there is a strong 
resemblance between them, as to their entrance, their valley, and 
high surrounding mountains. The loose stones almost overhanging 
this narrow pass, and covering the nearly-perpendicular sides of 
other parts of the mountains, would have furnished weapons of de- 
fence to a few brave men sufficient to overwhelm thousands of 
assailing foes. 

FAMILIES OF vinauriA. 317 


Parishes in Augusta and Hockingham Counties. 

WE come now to that part of the valley which was the first seen 
by the white man. In the year 1714, Governor Spottswood and 
his gallant band of Cavaliers, with their attendants, ascended the 
Blue Ridge, at Rockfish Gap, in Albemarle county, and became the 
delighted beholders of the rich and beautiful valley below.* Carv- 
ing the name of his King on one of the highest rocks of the moun- 
tain, while one of his followers did the same with the Governor's on 
another, they returned to Williamsburg, the young gentry being 
established into an order, and dubbed "Knights of the Horse 
Shoe," each having a small miniature golden horseshoe presented 
to him by their enterprising leader. They were followed, after some 
years, by hardy and daring adventurers, who settled in the valley, 
driving back the Indians still farther westward. It was not, how- 
ever, until the year 1738, that it, together with old Frederick, was 
separated from Orange, which was until then the frontier-county, 
extending to the Pacific Ocean, and one hundred miles into it, ac- 
cording to a charter given by King James to the London Company 
for Virginia, whose dimensions were four hundred miles wide on 
the Atlantic, and of the same width from sea to sea, with all the 
islands in both seas within one hundred miles from the shores 
thereof. Such was old Virginia when Illinois, embracing all beyond 
the Ohio River, was, in 1778, made one of her counties. Such was 
old Virginia until, by various acts and charters of the Crown and 
her own liberality, she was restricted to her -present boundaries. 
Augusta, in the year 1738, became the frontier-county, and was 
therefore called West Augusta. All that I could say about the 
parish of Augusta is so much better said in the following extracts, 
taken from a sermon at the opening of the new church in Staunton, 
a few weeks since, by the Rev. Mr. Castleman, its present minister, 
that no apology is needed for using it: 

" The county of Augusta was organized in 1738. Its boundaries ax- 
tended from the line of old Frederick on the north, along the summit of 

* Some think that he crossed at a gap lower down the ralley, near the head* 
Caters of the Rappahannock. 


the Blue Ridge Mountain indefinitely to- the south and west. Its^ parish 
was known as the parish of Augusta, and filled up the circuit of the illimit- 
ably-extended territory of the county. The first election that was ever 
held in the county was the election of the vestry. This was in the year 
1746, and resulted in the choice of James Patton, John Buchanon, John 
Madison, Patrick Hays, John Christian, Colonel John Buchanon, Robert 
Alexander, Thomas Gordon, James Lochart, John Archer, John Matthews, 
and John Smith. These were among the most prominent and influential 
men of the county. From the records which remain of their various meet- 
ings and deliberations for the general good, we cannot doubt that they 
were men of intelligence, good moral character, and fidelity in the trusts 
committed to them. 

" OB the 6th of April, 1747, they assembled, for the first time after their 
organization, to elect a minister to break to them the bread of life. Having 
received letters from Governor Gooch commending the Kev. John Hind- 
man as an able and worthy minister of the Gospel, they unanimously chose 
him as their spiritual instructor. He entered immediately into the duties 
of his pastoral office, the first minister of the Church of England who ever 
set foot on Augusta soil and preached the glad tidings of Christ among 
the mountains of this wild home of the Indian. Owing to the sparseness 
of the population and inability of the people to build a church, Mr. Hind- 
man was obliged to preach and administer the sacraments in the court- 
house and in private houses in different parts of the parish during the 
whole of his ministry here/ 7 

In the year 1747, the vestry determined to purchase a glebe near 
Leper's old plantation, and build a house ; also, a church on the 
plantation of Daniel Harris. Nothing of either now remains. The 
glebe was sold and the proceeds vested in the academy at Staunton. 
Mr. Hindman was minister for about three years. Nothing is 
known of his ministry or of his death. 

" On the 6th of August, 1750, the vestry met and empowered its wardens 
James Lochart and John Madison to employ any minister they might 
think fit to serve them in the Lord. And on the 16th of October, 1752, 
the following letter was presented to the vestry from Governor Dinwiddie : 

(i < GENTLEMEN: The Rev. John Jones has been recommended to me 
by many of good repute and undoubted credit as a worthy and learned 
divine. As such I recommend him to you, gentlemen, to be your pastor ; 
not doubting but his conduct will be such as will entitle him to your favour 
by promoting peace and cultivating morality in the parish. Your re- 
ceiving him to be your pastor will be very agreeable to 
" ' Your very humble servant, 


4 ' Just one month after the reading of this letter, Mr. Jones was unani- 
mously received into the parish and assigned a salary of fifty pounds per 
annum for his services and twenty pounds per annum for board, until the 
glebe-buildings were improved and put in order for his occupancy. 

"Between 1756 and 1759, John Matthews, Samson Archer, Robert 
Breckenridge, and Israel Christian, were added to the vestry. 

"On the 20th of May, 1760, it was unanimously resolved to erect a 


church-building in the town of Staunton, forty feet by twenty-five. It 
stood partly on the spot now occupied by the new church ; just completed 
the foundation of its southern wall being covered by the northern wall o* 
the present building. 

44 Either the infirmities of age, or enfeebled health, had so worn upon 
the constitution of Mr. Jones as to render him. unequal to the duties of 
his office. He therefore called a meeting of the vestry and advised the 
employment of a curate, and offered to relinquish one-half of his salary 
(which by this time had been increased to two hundred pounds) toward 
his support. In obedience to his wishes, the vestry procured the services 
of the Eev. Adam Smith, who entered upon his duties as curate in the 
spring of 1772. Of Mr. Smith's character and useiulness as a preacher, 
or in what way his connection with the parish was severed, we have no 
information. He did not, however, remain longer than one year. On the 
9th of November, 1773, the Kev. Alexander Balmaine was unanimously 
chosen to fill his place. From this time onward, we hear no more of Mr. 
Jones. Though the history which remains of his labours as a preacher 
and pastor is exceedingly meagre and unsatisfactory, confined almost 
entirely to his meetings with the vestry and to the records which he kept 
as its clerk, we cannot but revere his memory as a devout and faithful 
minister of God. The only substantial and valuable relic of him which 
remains to us is the old worn and defaced Bible which is constantly used 
in our pulpit. 

" How long, precisely, Mr. Balinaine remained in the parish, we are not 
informed. The time was drawing near which tried men's souls. The 
spirit of '76 began to swell and agitate the American breast. Of this 
Bpirit Mr. Balmaine seems to have partaken in no small degree. The 
following proceedings of a meeting of the freeholders of Augusta county, 
held at Staunton on the 22d of February, 1775, will throw no little light 
on his character as a patriot : 

" l After due notice given to the freeholders of Augusta county to meet 
in Staunton, for the purpose of electing delegates to represent them in 
Colony Convention, at the town of Richmond, on the 20th day of March, 
the freeholders of said county thought proper to refer the choice of their 
delegates to the judgment of the committee, who, thus authorized by 
the general voice of the people, met at the court-house, on the 22d of 
February, and unanimously chose Mr. Thomas Lewis and Captain Samuel 
McDowell to represent them in the ensuing Convention. 

" 'Instructions were then ordered to be drawn up by the Eev. Alex- 
ander Balmaine, Mr. Samson Matthews, Captain Alexander McClanahan, 
Mr. Michael Bowyer, Mr. William Lewis, and Captain G-eorge Matthews, 
or any three of them, and delivered to the delegates thus chosen, which 
are as follows : 

" * To Mr. Thomas Lewis and Captain Samuel McDowell. The com- 
mittee of Augusta county, pursuant to the trust reposed in them by the 
freeholders of the same, have chosen you to represent them in Colony 
Convention, proposed to be held in Richmond on the 2d of March instant. 
They desire that you may consider the people of Augusta county as im- 
pressed with just sentiments of loyalty and allegiance to his Majesty Bang 
G-eorge, whose title to the imperial crown of Great Britain rests on no other 
foundation than the liberty, and whose glory is inseparable from the hap- 
piness, of all his subjects. We have also respect for the parent State r 
which respect is founded on religion, on law. and on the genuine principles 


of the Constitution. On these principles do we earnestly desire to see 
harmony and a good understanding restored between Great Britain and 

" 'Many of us and our forefathers left our native land and explored this 
once-savage wilderness to enjoy the free exercise of the rights of conscience 
and of human nature. These rights we are fully resolved, with our lives 
and fortunes, inviolably to preserve; nor will we surrender such inestimable 
blessings, the purchase of toil and danger, to any Ministry, to any Parlia- 
ment, or any body of men upon earth, by whom we are not represented, 
and in whose decisions, therefore, we have no voice. 

" i We desire you to tender, in the most respectful terms, our grateful 
acknowledgments to the late worthy delegates of this Colony for their wise, 
spirited, and patriotic exertions in the General Congress, and to assure 
them that we will uniformly and religiously adhere to their resolutions 
providently and graciously formed for their country's good. 

" < Fully convinced that the safety and happiness of America depend, 
next to the blessing of Almighty God, on the unanimity and wisdom of 
her country, we doubt not you will on your parts comply with the recommen- 
dations of the late Continental Congress, by appointing delegates from this 
Colony to meet in Philadelphia on the 10th of May next, unless American 
grievances be redressed before that time. And so we are determined to 
maintain unimpaired that liberty which is the gift of Heaven to the sub- 
jects of Britain's empire, and will most cordially join our countrymen in 
such measures as may be deemed wise and necessary to secure and per- 
petuate the ancient, just, and legal rights of this Colony and all British 

" * Placing our ultimate trust in the Supreme Disposer of every event, 
without whose gracious interposition the wisest schemes may fail of success, 
we desire you to move the Convention that some day, which may appear to 
them most convenient, be set apart for imploring the blessing of Almighty 
God on such plans as human wisdom and integrity may think necessary to 
adopt for preserving America happy, virtuous, and free/ 

" In obedience to these instructions, the following letter was addressed : 

" 'To the Hon. Peyton Randolph, Esq., President, Richard Henry Lee, 
George Washington, Patrick Henry, Richard Bland, Benjamin Harrison, 
and Edmund Randolph, Esqrs., Delegates from this Colony to the General 

" i GENTLEMEN : We have it in command from the freeholders of Au- 
gusta county, by their committee, held on the 22d February, to present 
you with the grateful acknowledgments of thanks for the prudent, virtuous, 
and noble exertions of the faculties with which Heaven has endowed you 
in the cause of liberty and of every thing that man ought to hold sacred, at 
the late General Congress, a conduct so nobly interesting that it must 
command the applause not only from this but succeeding ages. May that 
sacred flame that has illuminated your minds and influenced your conduct 
in projecting and concurring in so many salutary determinations for the 
preservation of American liberty ever continue to direct your conduct to 
the latest period of your lives ! May the bright example be fairly tran- 
scribed on the hearts and reduced into practice by every Virginian, by 
every American 1 May our hearts be open to receive, and our arms strong 
to defend, that liberty and freedom, the gift of Heaven, now being banished 
from its latest retreat in Europe ! Here let it be hospitably entertained in 


every breast, here let it take deep root and flourish in everlasting bloom, 
that under its benign influence the virtuously free may enjoy secure repose 
and stand forth the scourge and terror of tyranny and tyrants of every 
order and denomination, till time shall be no more. 

" ' Be pleased, gentlemen, to accept of their grateful sense of your im- 
portant services and of their ardent prayers for the best interests of this 
once happy country. And vouchsafe, gentlemen, to accept of the same 
from your most humble servants, THOMAS LEWIS, 


Delegates. 9 

u <Q; O Thomas Lewis and Samuel McDowell, Esqrs. : 
" ' GENTLEMEN : Be pleased to transmit to the respectable freeholders of 
Augusta county our sincere thanks for their affectionate address approving 
our conduct in the late Continental Congress. It gives us the greatest 
pleasure to find that our honest endeavours to serve our country on this 
arduous and important occasion have met their approbation, a reward fully 
adequate to our warmest wishes; and the assurances from the brave and 
spirited people of Augusta that their hearts and hands shall be devoted to 
the support of the measures adopted, or hereafter to be taken, by the Con- 
gress for the preservation of American liberty, give us the highest satis- 
faction, and must afford pleasure to every friend of the just rights of man- 
kind. We cannot conclude without acknowledgments to you, gentlemen, 
for the polite manner in which you have communicated to us the senti- 
ments of your worthy constituents, and are their and your obedient, humble 


" The letter of instruction which called forth this correspondence be- 
tween the delegates from Augusta and these distinguished statesmen and 
patriots is drawn up in a style so free and easy that we cannot doubt it was 
written by one accustomed to the pen of composition. It breathes so much 
of the spirit of true piety, and of humble dependence on the God of na- 
tions, that we cannot doubt it was the production of a pious man and a 
minister of God. This man must have been Mr. Balinaine. In this we 
are still further sustained by the fact that Mr. Balmaine was the chairman 
of the committee appointed to draw it up, and that, while the other mem- 
bers were prominent and influential men in the county, they were yet plain 
farmers and by no means accustomed to that diplomatic style which cha- 
racterizes tke letter, 

" March 20, 1775, just one month after these letters were drawn up, the 
Convention met in the Old Church in Richmond. There it will be seen, 
by reference to Wirtf s life of Patrick Henry, pp. 132-136, that all the 
objects desired to be attained by them were adopted, and there the great 
speech of Patrick Henry, which seemed to set in motion the great ball of 
the Revolution, was made. 

" From this time Mr. Balmaine laid aside his peaceful vestments as a 
minister of God, and went into the army as chaplain in defence of his 

VOL. II. 21 


The foregoing documents, it is believed, Have never "been pub- 
lished in any history or newspaper, and are therefore, as well as on 
account of their intrinsic merits, here inserted. Nor are they in- 
consistent with the character of these notices, since a minister and 
laymen of the Episcopal Church are so prominent in them. 

" From the commencement of the Revolution onward, until the year 
1781, the doors of the venerable old church in Staunton remained closed, 
We have no information that its solemn silence was ever broken by the 
voice of any public speaker. In that year, however, a portion of the 
British army, under the command of Tarleton, drove the Legislature from 
its place of meeting in Richmond, first to Charlottesville, and thence to 
this place. And here they held their counsels in the old church, and here 
the proposition was made to create a " dictator." Here they remained in 
session undisturbed for about sixteen days, and adjourned to meet in Rich- 
mond in October following. 

"About the year 1788 the rectorship of the old church was in the hands 
of a Mr. Chambers. Who he was, or how long he remained in the parish, 
we are nowhere informed. Tradition says that, after a short residence in 
this place, lie removed to Kentucky. 

" Years rolled on, in which a long interval occurred in the rectorship 
of the parish. At length the few friends who had been left from the deso- 
lations of the Revolution, and from the withering odium which had fallen 
on the Church because of its connection with the British Crown, began to 
lift up their heads and to look round with a cautious and timid eye for 
some one to minister to them in holy things. At length a good old man, 
moving in the humbler spheres of life, remarkable for nothing but his con- 
sistent and inoffensive piety, presented himself as willing to serve them in 
the capacity of God's minister. He had long been a member of the 
Methodist Church, and had there imbibed that spirit of feeling and ardent 
religion which seemed so peculiarly to characterize that body of Christians 
in those dreary days of our Church. Notwithstanding Mr. King's (for that 
was his name) roughness of manners, Ms meagre education, his simplicity 
of intellect, and Ms humble profession as a steam-doctor, he was taken in 
hand by a few friends of the Church, and pushed forward in his laudable 
efforts. He was sent off, with letters of commendation from Judge Archi- 
bald Stuart and the Hon. John H. Peyton, to Bishop Madison, who or- 
dained him Deacon and sent Mm back to read the services and sermons to 
the little desolate flock in Staunton. His ministry began in the year 1811 
and closed with his death in 1819. That was a long and cheerless day for 
the Church here. No evidence can be found that she then had a single 
communicant besides the simple-hearted old Deacon to kneel at her altar. 
So unpopular was her cause that none but those whose principles were as 
true and unbending as steel would venture openly to avow themselves her 
friends. An eye-witness of the scene told me that on the occasion of the 
first service after Mr, King's return from Williamsburg, the small congre- 
gation, the feeble and disjointed response, the dampening dreariness of the 
church, with its old high-back pews, and the long, singsong, drawling 
tones in which the new deacon attempted to read the service and one of 
Blair's Sermons, presented a solemn ludicrousness he never before or since 
witnessed. The congregation, numbering not a dozen, left the church dis- 
spirited and ashamed, almost resolved never to repeat the experiment. Mr. 


King died here, esteemed by all who knew him for his humble zeal and 
simple-hearted piety. 

u On the 1st of January, 1820, the Rev. Daniel Stephens, D.D., visited 
the parish, and remained until the following Easter. On Easter Monday, 
the congregation assembled, and elected Yincent Tapp, Chapman John- 
son, John H. Peyton, Briscoe GK Baldwin, Dabney Cosby, William Young, 
Erasmus Stribling, Levi L. Stevenson, Jacob Fackler, Alexander McCaus* 
land, Armstead M. Mosby, and Nicholas C. Kinney, This vestry imme- 
diately assembled, and passed resolutions highly commendatory of the 
preaching and living of Dr. Stephens, unanimously electing him as 
their rector. These were the props and the pillars of the Church in its 
darkest and most trying day. Dr. Stephens laboured and preached with 
a zeal and devotion which secured for him the confidence and love of the 
great mass of his congregation. Under his ministry, the Church was 
somewhat revived, and the hearts of its friends cheered. At a Convention 
held in Staunton in May, 1824, the number of communicants reported was 

"In 1827, Dr. Stephens removed to the Far West, where he died but 
a few years since. His ministry was followed in 1831 by the Rev. 
Ebenezer Boyden. In the early part of Mr. Boy den's ministry, the vene- 
rable old church was torn down, and a new one erected near its site. The 
latter was ready for use on the 23d of July, 1831. Mr. Boyden continued 
in the parish, with high credit and universal acceptability to his congre- 
gation, until January, 1833, when he resigned for another field in the 

"Next came the Rev. Wm. G-. Jackson, who preached with success and 
acceptability in the parish for several years. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. Frederick D. Goodwin , who continued until 1843, and removed to 
Nelson county, leaving sixty-two communicants/' 

The present rector entered on his duties in August, 1843, For 
some years past, the desirableness of a new church had been felt, 
and various plans proposed and efforts made in its behalf, the 
minister being very anxious for it. 

14 At length, about three years ago, an interesting little boy, on whose 
head scarce five summer suns had shone, stood at the window of his 
mother's chamber, just as the sun was going down, holding something 
thoughtfully in his hand. Observing his seriousness, his mother said to 
him, What are you thinking about, my son? What are you looking at 
so earnestly?' It was a new gold dollar, which his father had given him. 
His answer was, < Mother, I am thinking of giving my gold dollar to Mr. 
Castleman, to build a new church I have heard him say he would like to 
have/ The mother encouraged the thought, and said, < Well, my son, do 
give it. God will bless you for it/ Accordingly, that dollar was wrapped 
in a small paper, with the written request that I would receive it for that 
object. This little event cheered my heart, and caused me to resolve at 
once to move forward with the enterprise. The result is a beautiful church, 
seventy-three feet six inches by forty-six feet six inches in the clear, thirty 
feet high, with a tower of eighty feet, and capable of accommodating com- 
fortably six hundred and fifty persons/' 


The following communication from General Samuel Lewis, of 
Port Republic, Rockingham county, is a suitable sequel to the 
foregoing : 

"Rockingham parish, Rockingham county, was formed from a part of 
Augusta in the year 1776. In that portion of Augusta now constituting 
the county and parish of Rockingham, there were two chapels of the Esta- 
blished Church. One was situated about four miles west of Harrisonburg, 
near the present village of Dayton. The families of Smith and Harrison, 
with others of the early settlers in that neighbourhood, were of the Church 
of England. The other chapel was situated about five miles north of Port 
Republic, on the road from that place to Harrisonburg. The early settlers 
on the Shenandoah River near Port Republic were generally of English 
descent, and belonged to the Established Church. John Madison, (Clerk 
of Augusta county, the father of Bishop Madison,) Gabriel Jones, (the 
most distinguished lawyer of his day in the valley,) and Thomas Lewis, 
(who for many years represented Augusta county in the House of Bur- 
gesses, and was one of the earliest advocates of American independence,) 
had married sisters, (Misses Strother, of Stafford county,) and were among 
the earliest settlers in that neighbourhood. Peachy R. Gilmer, John 
Mackall, of Maryland, and others, soon after settled among them. These 
families were all of the Church of England. The Rev. Alexander Bal- 
maine for several years officiated at these two chapels, and spent much of 
his time with his parishioners on the Shenandoah. 

" The old chapel near Dayton (a framed wooden building) remained 
standing until within the last twenty or thirty years. During and after 
the war of the Revolution, the services of the Church were discontinued; 
and, after the rise of Methodism in this county, most of the families who 
had formerly worshipped there became Methodists, and this chapel was 
used for many years as a Methodist meeting-house. The property on which 
it stood, after a lapse of years, fell into the hands of a Tunker* family : 
its use as a place of worship had been abandoned by the Methodists, 
and it was finally used as a barn by its Tunker proprietor. But few of 
the descendants of the original worshippers at this chapel now reside 
iu its neighbourhood, and but one of them, within the knowledge of the 
writer of this sketch, retains any attachment to the Church of their 

" The descendants of the Church-of-England settlers in the neighbour- 
hood of Port Republic are many of them now members of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, but very few of them remain in the neighbourhood. 
One of the sons of Thomas Lewis the late Charles Lewis, Esq. inherited, 
and lived, and died upon, the paternal estate. He ever retained his attach- 
ment to the Church, and several of his descendants are now communicants 
in the church at Port Republic/' 

Among those descendants is the author of the foregoing commu- 
nication. General Samuel Lewis, so often the delegate, not only 
to our Diocesan but to our General Conventions. I knew his ex- 

* A sect of German Christians. 


cellent father, Mr. Charles Lewis, well. A truer friend to the 
Church when friends were few, a more perfect gentleman, and a 
worthier citizen, could not be found. I also knew that venerable 
old lady, Mrs. Gabriel Jones. The first visit ever paid to that 
parish was in company with her grandson, Mr. Strother Jones, of 
Frederick, when we saw her in her old age, rejoicing in the prospect 
of the resuscitation of the Church of her love. Her large old Prayer- 
Book is still in the hands of one of her descendants. Her husband, 
Mr. Gabriel Jones, was for a long time so prominent at the bar in 
the valley, that he was called "The Lawyer.* * His name is on the 
vestry-book of Frederick parish as council for the Church in one 
of her suits. 


Augusta is undoubtedly the county in which something should 
be said of this name, as John Lewis, the father of the numerous 
families of Lewises in Western Virginia, was the great Augusta 
pioneer in 1720. Whether this family, and other families in Vir- 
ginia of the same name, are allied by reason of a common origin 
in a foreign land, cannot positively be affirmed; but the same- 
ness of family names, and oftentimes resemblance of personal ap- 
pearance and character, are such that many have inferred a common 
origin. Such was the expressed opinion of the late Benjamin 
Watkins Leigh, as of others. Mr. John Lewis, of Augusta, came 
from the county of Dublin, in Ireland, about the year 1720, his 
eldest son, Thomas, being born there in 1718 : some ascribe a Welsh 
origin, and others a Huguenot, to the family. His eldest son, 
Thomas, was a vestryman of the early Church in Augusta, and one 
of the first delegates to one of the first Conventions in Virginia 
after our troubles began. His library was well stored with old 
English theological books; and such was his attachment to the 
Episcopal Church, that in his will he requested that his friend and 
brother-in-law, old Peachy Gilmer, should read the burial-service 
of the Prayer-Book over his remains, there being no minister in the 
parish at that time. At one time he was in correspondence with 
the Rev. Mr, Boucher in reference to Augusta parish. He was the 
father of the Charles Lewis spoken of above, and grandfather of 
the present General Lewis, of Port Eepublic. There were three 
other sons of the first John Lewis. The second was Andrew Lewis, 
the hero of Point Pleasant. The third was William, who was also 
a vestryman in Augusta^ and afterward settled at the Sweet 


Springs. The fourth was Charles, who was killed by the Indians 
m the battle of Point Pleasant. Such is the information I received 
from one of the family, who speak of only four sons. Howe in 
his book on Virginia, and Charles Campbell after him, speak of 
two others. They say that all six of the brothers, under the com- 
mand of Samuel, the oldest, were with Washington at Braddock's 



(Jhurche* in Western Virginia. St. Paul's and St. John's, Brook; 


introduce onr notices of the churches in Western Virginia 
by the following passage from a sketch of Western Virginia, by the 
Rev. Dr. Doddridge, whose ministry will be duly noticed : 

" The Episcopal Church, which ought to have been foremost in gathei 
ing their scattered flocks, have been the last and done the least of any 
Christian community in the evangelical work. Taking the Western country 
in its whole extent, at least one-half of its population was originally of 
Episcopalian parentage; but, for want of 'a ministry of their own, they 
have associated with other communities. They had no alternative but that 
of changing their profession or living and dying without the ordinances 
of religion. It can be no subject of regret that those ordinances were 
placed within their reach by other hands, whilst they were withheld by 
those by whom, as a matter of right and duty, they ought to have teen 
given. One single chorepiscopus, or suffragan Bishop, of a faithful spirit, 
who, twenty years ago, should have t ordained them elders in every place 7 
where they were needed, would have been the instrument of forming 
Episcopal congregations over a great extent of country, and which, by 
this time, would have become large, numerous, and respectable ; but the 
opportunity was neglected, and the consequent loss to this Church is 

"So total a neglect of the spiritual interests of so many valuable people, 
for SQ great a length of time, by a ministry so near at hand, is a singular 
and unprecedented fact in ecclesiastical history, the like of which never 
occurred before. 

" It seems to me that if the twentieth part of their number of Christian 
people of any other community had been placed in Siberia, and dependent 
on any other ecclesiastical authority in this country, that that authority 
would have reached them many years ago with the ministration of the Gospel. 
With the earliest and most numerous Episcopacy in America, not one of 
the Eastern Bishops has yet crossed the Alleghany Mountains, although 
the dioceses of two of them comprehended large tracts of country on the 
western side of the mountains. It is hoped that the future diligence of 
this community will make up in some degree for the negligence of the 

"There is still an immense void in this country, which it is their duty to 
fill up. From their respectability, on the ground of antiquity, among the 
Reformed Churches, the science of their patriarchs, who have been the 
Ughts of the world, from their number and great resources even in 
America, she ought to hasten to fulfil the just expectations of her own 
people as well as those of other communities, in contributing herfbll share 
^ the science piety, and civilisation of our country. 


"From the whole of our ecclesiastical history, it appears that,, with the 
exception of the Episcopal Church, all our religious communities have 
done well for their country." 

Without questioning the perfect sincerity and honest zeal of Dr. 
Doddridge in this severe criticism, or desiring to apologize for what 
was blameworthy in the Episcopal Church in regard to the West, 
we think that truth and justice require some modification of the 
sentence. We cannot assent to the fact that one-half of the Western 
population was originally of Episcopal parentage. We must remem- 
ber that even Maryland had a large proportion of Eomanists, 
as well as other Protestant denominations besides the Episcopal. 
North of this there was scarce any Episcopalians from the first set- 
tlement of the country. A short time before the war, Bishop White 
was the only Episcopal minister in Pennsylvania. The emigrants 
from all the Northern States, beginning with Pennsylvania, were 
not of Episcopal parentage. Although Episcopalians abounded 
from the first in Virginia and the Oarolinas, yet it should be re- 
membered that, of the emigrants to the West, immense numbers- 
far the larger part had renounced the Episcopal Church before 
their removal, and only carried with them bitter hatred toward it. 
I am satisfied that not a tenth part of those who have left the 
Eastern for the Western States were Episcopalian at their removal : 
perhaps a much smaller proportion would be a correct estimate. 
Soon after the issue of Dr. Doddridge's book, perhaps forty years 
ago, I prepared something on this subject and offered it for pub- 

Owing to various circumstances in her history, the Episcopal 
Church may be regarded as the last of all the Churches in our 
land which began the work of evangelizing. Her race only com- 
menced after the Revolution. All that was done before proved but 
a hinderance to her. All other denominations were in active opera- 
tion long before, and were so prejudiced against her as not to be 
willing to have her as a co-worker with them. Instead, therefore, of 
the advantages possessed by the Episcopal Church for establishing 
herself in the West being greater than those of other Churches, they 
were less, whether we consider the Bishops and clergy at her com- 
mand, or the difficulty of the work to be done, by reason of existing 
prejudices. Justice to the memory of our fathers requires this 
statement. That of Dr. Doddridge has often been quoted without 
due consideration. 

We must, however, do the justice to Dr. Doddridge to say that, if 
we had had many such laborious ministers as himself, the West would 


have been far better supplied with Episcopal churches and ministra- 
tions than it has been. And yet truth requires us to admit, what 
will soon appear, that even his zealous labours have not been fol- 
lowed by all the results which we could desire, by reason of the 
numerous opposing influences with which he and the Church had 
to contend. Nothing that I could draw from any documents or 
record, or from living witnesses, could so interest the reader as the 
following sketch of Dr. Doddridge's life and labours, from the pen 
of a friend, and I therefore adopt it : 

"The following article, with some slight alterations, was sent to me as a 
friend of the late Rev. Dr. Doddridge, by the Hon. Thomas Scott, of Chil- 
licothe. The writer was among the early settlers of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, was Secretary to the Convention which framed the Constitution of 
the State of Ohio, and has since held important and responsible offices 
under its government. He is now far advanced in life, and employs a 
still vigorous intellect in throwing together for publication his reminis- 
cences of early associations and bygone days. D. 

"Reminiscences of the first Minister of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
who adventured into the Wilderness Regions of Western Virginia and 
Eastern Ohio, the late Rev. Dr. Joseph Doddridge, ofWellsburg^ Brooke 
County, Virginia. 

"Presuming that but few of the present members of the Episcopal 
Church in the now flourishing diocese in this State are aware that it was 
owing, in a great measure, to the early labours and indefatigable exertions 
of the individual above named that an Episcopate was obtained in Ohio, we 
feel persuaded that a few brief reminiscences connected with his self-deny- 
ing and persevering efforts for the establishment in the "West of the Church 
of his fathers will not be unacceptable at the present period : indeed, as 
the early and intimate friend of this pioneer-herald of the Cross in our 
Western borders, we deem it but a measure of justice to the memory of 
a man who, for a series of years, laboured in the good cause single-handed 
and almost without remuneration. We shall, however, only advert to his 
labours in general, not having at hand the data to enable us to do so in 

fc My first acquaintance with the subject of this notice commenced in 
1788, in Hampshire county, Tirginia. He was then about nineteen years 
of age, and a successful and highly-esteemed labourer among the Wesleyan 
Methodists, in connection with whom he continued several years. Being 
recalled from his field of labour to the paternal mansion, in Western Penn- 
sylvania, by the sudden decease of his father, in consequence of which 
event the younger members of the family of whom he was the eldest 
were placed in circumstances requiring for a time his personal supervision, 
the youthful itinerant felt it to be his duty to resign his charge, and, in 
conformity with the last wish of his deceased parent, who had appointed 
him the executor of his will, to apply himself to the settlement of his 

" This accomplished, he found himself in possession of sufficient means 
to enable him to prosecute his education, -which as yet was limited, 


owing to the few facilities for obtaining one afforded by their wildeiness 

tl Accompanied by Ms younger and only brother, Philip, who subse- 
quently became eminent in Virginia as a lawyer and legislator, dying, 
while a member of Congress, in Washington City, in 1833, he entered 
Jefferson Academy, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, they being among the first 
students at that pioneer literary institution, in what was at that period, in 
the transmontane States, denominated the 'Far West/ 

u The Wesleyans having now laid aside the Prayer-Book or ritual en- 
joined to be used on occasions of public worship by the founder of their 
society, the Kev. John Wesley, a formula which Dr. Doddridge's judg- 
ment sanctioned as being not only beautifully appropriate but highly edi- 
fying, he did not therefore resume his connection with them after his 
return from college, but diligently applied himself to an examination of 
the claims of the Protestant Episcopal Church, of which his parents had 
been members prior to their removal to the West. Suffice it to say, this 
examination resulted in a determination to offer himself a candidate for 
Orders in that Church. Early in the year 1792, he received ordination 
at the hands of the Eight Rev. William White, of Philadelphia, soon after 
which he located temporarily in Western Pennsylvania, but in the course 
of a few years settled permanently in Charlestown, now Wellsburg, in 
Brooke county, Yirginia. 

" At this early period of the settlement of the country, the greater portion 
of the population of Western Yirginia and Pennsylvania consisted of 
emigrants from Maryland and Virginia, where many of them had been 
attached to the Mother-Church ; hence the advent of a preacher of their 
own denomination was hailed by them as au auspicious event, filling their 
hearts with gladness. He was everywhere greeted with kindness, cheered 
and encouraged in his labours by the presence of large and attentive con- 
gregations j albeit in most places where they assembled for public worship 
their only canopy was the umbrageous trees of the unbroken forest, whose 
solemn silence was, for the time-being, rendered vocal by their devotions. 

^"During the year 1793, I occasionally attended the ministrations of 
this zealous advocate for the cause of Christ, at West Liberty, then the 
seat of justice for Ohio county, Virginia, and the residence of many re- 
spectable and influential families. At this place divine service was held 
in the court-house. Although still a young man, Dr. Doddridge was an 
able minister of the New Covenant. When preaching, there was nothing 
either in his language or manner that savoured of pedantry or awkward- 
ness; yet he did not possess that easy graceful action which is often met 
with in speakers in every other respect his inferiors; but this apparent 
defect was more than compensated by the arrangement of his subject, the 
purity of his style, the selection and appropriateness of his figures, and 
the substance of his discourses. He was always listened to with pleasure 
and edification, commanding the attention of his hearers not so much by 
brilliant flights of imagination and rhetorical flourishes, as by the solidity 
of his arguments and his lucid exhibition of the important truths which 
he presented for their deliberate consideration. 

" In person he was tall and well proportioned, walking very erect. He 
possessed fine colloquial powers, was social, an agreeable companion, and 
. highly esteemed by those who knew him on account of his plain, unosten- 
tatious manners, courteous demeanour, and rigid devotion to duty. 

"'The first Episcopal church ir Western Virginia, if I remember rightly. 


called St. John's, was erected in 1792-93, in a country parish, a few miles 
distant from the residence of Dr. Doddridge, whose pastoral connections 
with it, I haye been informed, continued for nearly thirty years, when 
declining health compelled him to dissolve it. At no great distance from 
St. John's, and occupied by the same pastor, another edifice, also in Vir- 
ginia, was erected at a very early period, the name of which I cannot now 

"In the course of a few years after he took up his abode in Virginia, 
many families reared in the Episcopal Church removed from the older 
States and settled west of the Ohio River, where they were as sheep in a 
wilderness without a shepherd. To those of them within a convenient dis- 
tance from his residence he made frequent visitations, holding service in 
temples not made with hands but by the Great Architect of nature. 

" We have been credibly informed that Dr. Doddridge was the first 
Christian minister who proclaimed the Gospel of salvation in the now 
flourishing town of Steuhenville, in this State, and that some years 
previous to the close of the last century he officiated there monthly, the 
place at that time containing but a few log cabins and a portion of 'Fort 

"The parish of St. James, on Cross Creek, in Jefferson county, was 
early formed by him, and was for many years under his pastoral charge. 
At St. Clairsville, Belmont county, he had a congregation and church, the 
pulpit of which he occupied from time to time until another pastor could 
be obtained. Occasionally his missionary excursions included Morristown, 
Cambridge, and Zanesville. 

"In the autumn of 1815, this untiring apostle of the Church, with a 
view of preparing the way for future missionaries, made a tour through 
part of Ohio, coming as far west as this city, Ohillicothe, preaching in 
the intermediate towns and ascertaining where Episcopal services would be 
acceptable. He was, I think, the first regularly-ordained clergyman of 
that Church who officiated in our place, which he did several times during 
his stay among us. 

" In Virginia at a very early period he held religious services at Charles- 
town, Grave Creek, and Wheeling. At the latter place was quite a num- 
ber of Episcopalians, whom he frequently visited, keeping them together 
until the arrival of that pious and devoted servant of God, the Rev, John 
Armstrong, their first resident pastor. 

"From the time of his ordination, he made it a practice to visit and 
preach wherever he could find a few who desired to be instructed in the 
faith of their fathers. These efforts to collect and keep within the fold 
of the Church the scattered sheep of the flock imposed upon him the ne- 
cessity of traversing a wide extent of country, which, being but sparsely 
settled, was poorly provided with roads j consequently, all his journeys had 
to be performed on horseback. 

" In labours this Christian minister was most abundant, sustained under 
their performance by the approbation of his own conscience and the long- 
deferred hope that the time w&s not far distant when Episcopalians in the 
Atlantic States to whom, through letters to several of their Bishops and 
otherwise, he made request and earnest appeals in behalf of a field already 
white for the harvest would awake from their apathy to a lively con- 
sciousness of the imperative duty of making the long-neglected West a 
iheatre for missionary exertion. 

"Some year? subsequent to his entrance into the ministry of the Pro 


testant Episcopal Church, lie found it necessary, in order to meet the wants 
of an increasing family, to combine with his clerical profession one that 
would be more lucrative in a new and sparsely-settled country ; he accord* 
ingly studied medicine, completing his course under Dr. Benjamin Rush, 
in the Medical Institute of Philadelphia. To the avails of the latter pro- 
fession he was mainly indebted for means to rear and educate a large family 
of children. 

"His life was one of close application and incessant toil; bufc his health 
eventually failed, and an asthmatic disease, with which in his later years 
he was sorely afflicted, in a great measure impaired his ability for useful- 
ness. In the fall of 18*24 he attended a Convention of his Church holden 
in this city, but he appeared greatly enfeebled. In the course of the 
succeeding summer, he spent some weeks here in the family of a beloved 
sister, Mrs. N. Beeves, hopingj though vainly, that a cessation from labour, 
change of air and scene, would in some measure renovate his exhausted 
energies. During this period the friendship of our youthful days and the 
remembrance of former years revived. He often visited me at my own 
domicile, where we held free converse and communion together, and I 
found him the same cheerful, agreeable companion as in days f lang syne/ 
Nothing ever occurred to mar our friendly intercourse or to diminish our 
kindly regards for each other. But he is" taken from our midst; his dis- 
encumbered spirit has been called to its reward by the Great Head of the 

"Finding that neither travelling nor rest availed to arrest the progress 
of disease, my friend returned to his home and family in Virginia, as he 
emphatically said, 'to die among his own people/ He lingered in much 
bodily affliction till November, 1826, when, strong in the faith which he had 
preached, in the fifty-eighth year of his age, his sufferings were terminated 
by death, to him a most welcome messenger. 

" Of the published writings of the Rev. Dr. Doddridge, his ' Notes on 
the Settlement and Indian Wars, together with a View of the State of 
Society, Manners, Customs, &c., of the Early Settlers of the Western 
Country/ is the principal. 

"This graphic picture of pioneer scenes, manners, customs, and events, 
is peculiarly interesting as well as valuable on account of its fidelity, it 
being the result of the writer's personal experience and observation. The 
work was undertaken by its author not only for the purpose of preserving 
the facts therein recorded, but also with a view of enabling those who 
come after him properly to estimate the advantages of position in a civil- 
ized and refined state of society, by contrasting them with those possessed 
by their forefathers in the Western regions. THOMAS SOOTT. 

"CHILLICOTHE, Ross COUNTY, OHIO, June 25, 1855." 

To the foregoing we add a few things which we received from 
those who knew him as the minister in Brooke county. He preached 
at four places in that county, two of which are now occupied by 
Presbyterians and Methodists. The other two were Wellsburg 
and the neighbourhood where St. John's Church now stands. 
Although he was followed by that most zealous and popular man, 
the Rev. Mr. Armstrong, still it was found impracticable to sustain 
congregations in all of them. Dr. Doddridge died in the year 


1826, in Ms fifty-eighth year. He was buried in a vault under his 
own house, near Wellsburg, but afterward removed to a publio 

The Rev. Mr. Armstrong, from Wheeling, preached much and 
zealously to the congregations after Dr. Doddridge's death, as did 
also his son at a subsequent period. The Rev. Mr. Wheat, of 
Wheeling, who was the immediate successor of the elder Armstrong, 
also laboured for them. After some time, the Rev. Mr. Skull was 
sent as a missionary t.o Brooke county. He was followed by the 
Rev. Mr. Harrison in the same capacity. The Revs. Mr. Goodwin, 
Hyland, and Tompkins followed in succession. The Rev. Mr. 
Christian is the present minister. During the intervals of minis- 
terial supply, which have been very considerable, the Rev, Dr. 
Morse, of Steubenville, Ohio, has most kindly and laboriously 
served the people of St. John's, for which he is most justly very 
dear to them. Three churches have been put up in St. John's 
parish on the same site, the first of log, the second of framework, 
and the last of brick, the last being consecrated in 1850. There 
has always been a considerable congregation at St. John's, and I 
have ever been delighted to find myself in the midst of that plain, 
unpretending, hospitable, and zealous congregation of people, 
devoted to the true principles of the Gospel and worship of our 

In Wellsburg, which is about seven miles from St. John's, on the 
Ohio River, the congregation is small. They have a neat brick 
church, which was built some years since, almost entirely at the 
expense of two brothers, John and Danford Brown. The former 
has gone to his rest. The latter still lives and hopes for better 
times to the church of his affections. 

To these notices of the Church in Brooke county, I subjoin an 
extract from a pamphlet which I had occasion to publish some years 
since, when the question of forming a separate diocese in Western 
Virginia was considered. In discussing it I was led to consider the 
real condition of that part of the State, which unfitted it for the 
support of a separate organization at that time. The following is, 
I believe, a true account of it : 

" Those wlo would see the main causes of the feeble condition of the 
Episcopal Church in Western Virginia, and of the difficulties in the way 
of its speedy progress, under any helps that can be brought to bear upon 
it, must consider the history of Western Virginia, and the peculiarity of 
her condition, by comparison with other portions of our land, similar as 
to soil and position. Take, for instance, Ohio and Western Pennsylvania, 


lying on two sides of Western Virginia. While the latter (Western Vir- 
ginia) is more hilly and mountainous, and less attractive on that account 
to the emigrant, she has also had other obstacles to settlement and im- 
provement, which have left her far behind the former two. In the first 
place, the unsettled condition of her land-titles continues to this day to 
present most serious difficulties in the way of sale to those who would form 
such materials as might be moulded into Episcopal congregations. An- 
other obstacle to the settlement of Western Virginia is the fact of its 
being part of a slave-holding State. This has prevented immense num- 
bers from the North from choosing this as their home, while, on the other 
hand, the fact of the contiguity of Western Virginia to the free States, fur- 
nishing a facility for the escape of slaves, has prevented Eastern Vir- 
ginians from settling there. Episcopal families for a long period of time 
have in great numbers been passing by or through Western Virginia, and 
have formed the basis of churches in the South or Southwest. Compara- 
tively few have settled in Western Virginia. The few are indeed the 
chief materials out of which our churches are composed. The causes 
above-mentioned have mainly produced the immense difference between 
the present condition of Ohio, Western Pennsylvania, and Western Vir- 
ginia. While the two former have their forests cleared, their lands well 
cultivated and covered with comfortable dwellings and farm-houses, while 
they abound in flourishing villages and even large towns, and churches and 
schools and colleges, it is quite otherwise with the latter. A large pro- 
portion of her high hills and mountains are still covered with dense forests. 
Her villages and towns are few and small, some not increasing at all, 
others but slowly. Immense bodies of her lands are owned by non-residents, 
being only inhabited by those who have no* inducements to improve them, 
and who only seek to gain, during their uncertain residence, just what is 
necessary for the sustenance of life. On my recent visit, I passed through 
four tracts of fifty thousand acres each, owned by four different individuals, 
who were non-residents. These, I am told, are only a few of many large 
unimproved tracts : hundreds of thousands of acres can be bought at the 
low price of from twenty-five cents (perhaps less) to one dollar per acre, 
and of good land too, which will one day, though a distant one, be covered 
with flocks and herds. Of course* as villages and towns in the interior 
are for the most part sustained by the surrounding country, if this be un- 
cultivated, or does not flourish, those cannot increase greatly. That 
Western Virginia has, on her surface and within her bosom, the materials 
of great wealth and improvement, none can doubt. I have ever believed 
and said that at some future day she would be one of the most interesting 
and desirable portions of our country. The improvements in the roads, 
already made from Winchester, Staunton, and other places, to the Ohio 
River, have done something- for the comfort of the traveller and the im- 
provement of the country ; but it is only necessary to travel these roads in 
order to see in how wild and uncultivated a condition large portions of 
Western Virginia still are; while those who traverse it on horseback, by 
the cross-routes, will see a far more rugged state of things. The Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad will do much for certain portions of Western Vir- 
ginia; and the Central Railroad, if pursued, as we trust it may be, will do 
much, for some other portions. There will also be a general, though it 
cannot be a rapid, improvement throughout the greater part of this region. 
Stillj however, the causes mentioned above will continue for a long time 
to operate. The slave-holder from Eastern Virginia and elsewhere will 


not cli' se this increasingly-unsafe position for his slave-property. The 
Nurthe-n man, who still cherishes strong opposition to slavery, will not 
come -witxere it exists, nor would he be welcomed there; for in no part of 
Virginia is the opposition stronger to any thing savouring of abolitionism 
Still, it is our duty, as I have often said privately, publicly, and officially, 
not only diligently to cultivate the places already opened to us ? tend the 
little flocks already gathered, search for wandering sheep among the hills 
and mountains, but be ever ready to occupy any new positions, such as 
Fairmont and Fellowsville, which shall from time to time present them- 
selves. If we cannot do all that we would, let us do all that we can. But 
it is best to think soberly, and not deceive ourselves with false calculations. 
Even Western Pennsylvania, though having more ministers and churches 
than Western Virginia, has but few by comparison with her agricultural 
and other improvements, and by comparison with Ohio and other parts of 
our country. The cause of this may be found chiefly in the character of 
the population which first took possession of it, and still holds possession, 
and which was and is averse to the Episcopal Church. The same 
said of the population of Western Virginia. Though for the most part of a 
different kind from that which first established itself in Western Pennsyl- 
vania- it was not and is not favourable material for the Episcopal Church, as 
past experience has shown. Western Virgini? was doubtless settled chiefly 
from Eastern Virginia. Those who moved from the valley were not Epis- 
copalians, for it is well known that the Germans and Scotch-Irish took 
possession of the valley at an early period, and that the Episcopal Church 
had scarcely an existence there until a very late period. Those who emi- 
grated from Eastern Virginia were chiefly of that class who had deserted 
the Episcopal Church and been engaged in a violent hostility to it, and 
carried with them and transmitted to their children nothing but prejudice 
against it, which prejudice has been cherished ever since by their re- 
ligious teachers. But, even if such prejudice has not been, so many 
generations have since grown up in utter ignorance of our Church, that in 
the great body of the people of Western Virginia there is no tendency to 
it, but the reverse. That the service of our Church is most admirably 
adapted to the edification of the poor and labouring man, I firmly believe 
and often delight to affirm ; but the difficulties in the way of getting such 
to make trial of it are so great, by reason of their partiality to other de- 
nominations, and various other circumstances, that hitherto all the efforts 
fco induce them so to do, whether in Virginia or elsewhere, have been of 
little avail/' 



Uhurches in Wheeling, Fairmont, Clarksburg, Weston, Buchanon. 

THE Rev. Joseph Doddridge was the first Episcopal minister, it is 
believed, who officiated in Wheeling. Residing in Wellsburg, he occa- 
sionally visited the few Episcopal families then in Wheeling ; but 
there was no organization until the llth of May, 1819. This is to 
be ascribed to a visit of Bishop Chase, at whose instance it doubtless 
took place. ,The organization was with the title of "St. Matthew's 
Church, Wheeling." The persons composing the first association 
were as follows: John Armstrong, Jr., W. T. Good, W. Gray, T, 
H* Armstrong, Joshua Morton, J. Good, W. Perrine, Richard Simms, 
P. Ray, J. C. Williams, Josiah Chapline, J. Wilson, Jr.,W. Chapline, 
Jr., P. Bier,S. Scovill, T. M. Cowles, C. D. Knox, J. M. Smith, R, 
C. Thompson, Moses Shepherd, Moses W. Chapline, H. Thornbury, 
John Eoff, Samuel Chamberlain. A vestry being appointed, we find 
that the Rev. John Armstrong, from Marylar.d, was chosen the first 
minister. In the year 1821, Mr. Noah Zane presented a lot for an 
Episcopal church. On the 9th of May, 1821, the- corner-stone of 
St. Matthew's Church was laid by the order of Masons, the Rev, 
Mr, Armstrong delivering a sermon and the Rev. Dr. Doddridge ac 
oration. In the fall of that year it was ready for divine service. 
Mr. Armstrong's labours continued for seven years, at the end of 
which time he died and was buried in the church. He was an 
honest^ zealous, laborious, and faithful minister. At the building 
of the new church his remains were removed to it and now resl 
beneath its chancel. His son the Rev. William Armstrong 
was elected to fill the vacancy, but declined, and recommended the 
Rev. Thomas Wheat, who was chosen. In 1832, the Rev. Mr- 
Wheat resigned, and the Rev. Wm. Armstrong, being again elected, 
became the minister of St. Matthew's Church. The congregation sc 
increased under his care that it became necessary to build a largei 
house. The present one was consecrated by myself on the 26th of 
October, 1837. In the year 1849, the question of dividing th< 
diocese of Virginia having been agitated in the western part of th< 
State, and being brought before the- vestry, it was decided by i 
unanimous vote to be inexpedient. In the year 1853, the Rev 


Mr. Perkins was appointed assistant to the Rev. Mr. Armstrong. 
In the following year Mr. Armstrong resigned. The vestry and 
congregation were so unwilling to part with one who had faithfully 
served them for nearly one-quarter of a century, that earnest efforts 
were made to prevent his removal from Wheeling or the vicinity; 
and, had he consented, provision would have been made for his sup- 
port without the performance of the usual ministerial services ; but 
he felt it his duty to return and spend his remaining days in a small 
parish in Maryland, which he had served during the first thirteen 
years of his ministry The Kev. Mr. Perkins was therefore chosen 
as his successor, and still continues to be the pastor of St. Mat- 
thew's Church, 

List of the Vestrymen of St. Matthew's Church. 

John Good, Richard Simms, Wm. Chapline, Jr., S. Scovill, J. 0. Wil- 
liams, Noah Zane, W. Chapline, Sea , Alexander Caldwell, Josiah Chap 
line, Eli B. Swearingen, Moses Shepherd, Richard Lane, Peter Garoall, 
Patrick Roy, Joseph Caldwell, Jas. Tanner, Edmund I. Lee, Jr., Dr. 
Morton, W. H. Heiskell, John P. Clark, Major Good, Z. B. Curtis, F. 
Bassett, John Robinson, W. T. Selby, H. D. Brown, W. B. Atterbury, 
C. T. Strong, Alexander T. Laidley, Morgan Nelson, Samuel Neil, Alfred 
Richardson, A. P. Woods, Alexander Caldwell, J. L. Newby, J. R. Greer, 
W. K. Linsay, George Armstrong, S. Brady, R. C. Bonham, G. C. Tingle, 
M. C. Good. 

Of the high respectability of the above body of vestrymen, under 
whose guardianship the Episcopal Church in Wheeling has so emi- 
nently flourished, the citizens of Wheeling, during the term of their 
service, would, I doubt not, bear a strong and willing testimony. 
Some of them were, and others still are, personally known to me. 
Of those who were known to me on earth, and whom I hope to 
know again in a higher sphere, and who are specially noticed and 
honoured on the records, I may be permitted to mention the names 
of Judge Caldwell and Richard Simms. The latter I knew from 
the year 1820 to the time of his death, a few years since, and 
knew him always as the same active, useful vestryman, and con- 
sistent Christian. He helped to build the first church in Wheeling, 
when it was in the midst of the woods. He loved, like David, to be 
a doorkeeper in the house of the Lord, though from first to last he 
was the chief churchwarden. Providence permitted him to expe- 
rience great reverses during his earthly pilgrimage, but, through 
grace, he knew how to abound and how to suffer need. One thing 
he did not know, and that was to be idle and dependent. When, in 
extreme old age, he was deprived of all earthly property, but when 
both the church and the town would have felt honoured in making 

VOL. II. 22 


provision for him, he could not endure the thought of being unem- 
ployed, but obtained the place of toll-keeper on the great turnpike- 
road from east to west, a few miles from Wheeling, and there, with 
his old and excellent companion, who yet survives him, spent the 
evening of his days, still turning the curse into a blessing, and by 
the sweat of his brow making an honest livelihood. Mr. Simms 
was a native of Maryland, moved to Wheeling in 1816, was married 
by Dr. Doddridge, died in Triadelphia in March, 1854. His re- 
mains were brought to Wheeling, and into the church, and from 
thence to the East Wheeling Cemetery. Judge Oaldwell was a 
man of high character and standing in every position in society, but 
above all was an humble Christian. Whenever the Holy Communion 
is administered, the pastor and the people partake of the emblems 
of the Saviour's body and blood from a rich service of plate, cost- 
ing, according to the vestry-book, the sum of three hundred dollars, 
a present from Mr. Joseph Caldwell, the brother of Judge Oaldwell. 


The following account of it has been furnished me by one who 
is fully acquainted with its history. St. John's parish, Wheeling, 
was organized in the year of our Lord 1849. Previous to that 
time St. Matthew's parish embraced the whole of the city of Wheel- 
ing, and was the only Episcopal church in Ohio county. 

The location of the church-building was at an inconvenient 
distance from the residences of a portion of the congregation. 
This, together with th6 rapid increase of the population and business 
of the city, demanded the formation of a new parish. Moved by 
these considerations, and an earnest desire to extend the influence 
and benefits of the Church, the Rev. William Armstrong, rector of 
St. Matthew's Church, on the 31st of July, 1849, called a meeting 
of his vestry for the purpose of considering the propriety and ex* 
pediency of erecting a church and forming another congregation 
in the southern part of the city. The vestry, in pursuance of said 
call, met on the second day of August, 1849. The following are 
the proceedings of the vestry at said meeting, so far as they relate 
to a division of the parish : 

"The petition of Eobert 0. Woods and others upon the subject of a new 
parish being the first business before the meeting, Mr. Brady offered the 
following paper : l A communication from Eobert 0. Woods, Beverley M. 
Eoff, and Henry Tallant, committee, was presented and read, signifying 
that the necessary means had been raised for the support of a minister of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in a new parish which it is proposed to 


organize within the city, and asking the assent of the rector, wardens, and 
vestry of this church to such organization/ Whereupon it was unanimously 
ordered, that the assent desired he and the same is hereby cordially given, 
and that the new parish embrace within its limits all south of Wheeling 

"Resolved, Moreover, that this vestry would humbly invoke God's bless- 
ing upon the organization contemplated in the communication this day 

Having obtained the consent of the vestry of St. Matthew's 
Church, and being favoured with the heaity support and sympathy 
of the respected and beloved rector, the committee promptly called 
a meeting of such of the citizens of South Wheeling as were favour- 
able to the formation of a parish of the Church in that part of the 
city. At the meeting so called, the rector of St. Matthew's Church 
was present, and, in remarks appropriate and impressive, explained 
the object of the meeting. After which, suitable measures were 
adopted for the complete organization of the new parish, and pro- 
vision made for the erection of a building for the services of the 

On the 6th of August, 1849, the Rev. Jas. D. McCabe was invited 
to take charge of the parish as rector thereof, which invitation was 
accepted on the 24th of the following month. The rector-elect did 
not, however, enter upon the duties of -his office until January, 1850. 

On the 8th of February, 1850, the building erected by the con- 
gregation was sufficiently near completion to be used, and the pulpit 
was, for the first time, occupied on that day by the Rev. Mr. Arm- 
strong. The services were conducted by the rector, assisted by 
the Rev. William L. Hyland, The organization of the parish was 
sanctioned and confirmed by the Convention of the Diocese of Vir- 
ginia, in May, 1850, as " St. John's Parish, Wheeling." The church- 
edifice which had been erected and completed by the congregation 
was consecrated to the service of Almighty God, by the Rt. Rev. John, 
Johns, Assistant Bishop of Virginia, on the 1st of November, 1850* 

The Rev. Dr. McCabe laboured profitably and acceptably to the 
congregation until the 8th of January, 1856, when he removed to 
Baltimore, as associate rector of St. Paul's Church, in that city. 

The following is part of the proceedings of the vestry of St. John's 
parish at the meeting called to act upon the resignation of the 
rectorship of the parish by the Rev. Dr. McCabe. This resolution 
was adopted unanimously, and heartily concurred in by every mem- 
ber of the congregation : 

" Resolved, That the Rev. James D. McGabe, D.IK, has by courtesy and 
kindness, by purity of life and doctrine, and by the faithful discharge of 


duties pertaining to Ids holy office, secured the lo"ve and confidence of his 

The Rev. George K. Warner was elected rector of the parish in 
January, 1856, and took charge of the congregation on the 16th 
of March following. St. John's parish was established upon the free- 
seat system, which has heen found to work satisfactorily. The 
rector's salary is provided for by the voluntary subscription of the 
members. The incidental expenses, &c. are met by weekly collec- 
tions at the Sunday morning services. The parish has a commodious 
and convenient dwelling-house, erected in 1855 expressly for the 
use of the rector. 

St. John's parish has at this time (February, 1857) eighty-six 
communicants. The Sunday-school connected with the parish is in 
a flourishing condition, and, under the judicious care and manage- 
ment of the rector, proves an important auxiliary to the Church. 

I must add to the above, for the encouragement of others to go 
and do likewise, that the rectory mentioned above, and which cost 
three or four thousand dollars, was at the sole expense of a very 
few zealous individuals. May they be rewarded for it by always 
having a faithful minister of God to occupy it ! 


The first missionary movement in our diocese was in behalf o* 
Western Virginia, by the association in the valley, composed of the 
ministers in Frederick, Jefferson, and Berkeley, in the early part 
of the ministry of the Rev. Benjamin Allen, Mr. Bryan, B. B. Smith, 
Enoch Lowe, and the author of these pages. The first missionary 
sent into Western Virginia was the Rev. Wm, F. Lee, and the first 
point to which he went was Clarksburg and the next Morgantown. 
In each of these places he preached repeatedly and acceptably and 
did his duty faithfully as a- pioneer and explorer. He was soon 
followed by Ms relative, the Eev. Charles Henry Page, who imi- 
tated his example in all things. The first effort of a more perma- 
nent character was made by the Eev. Mr. Ward. In a letter from 
a friend in Clarksburg, he thus speaks of this effort: " Mr. Ward 
came here in the fall of 1834 or 1835. At first he was the inmate 
of the family of Mr. Trapnall, a firm friend of the Church. Mr. 
Trapnall dying, Mr. Ward abode the remainder of his time with 
Mr, Kichard Despard, a devoted friend of the Church from the old 
country. I have been informed that Mr. Ward succeeded in awaken- 


ing considerable interest among the friends of the Church, that his 
Sabbath-school was flourishing, and his public services well sus- 
tained." The same friend continues : "Mr. Ward was succeeded 
by the Rev. Mr. McMechin, about the year 1840. He had pre- 
viously been in the Methodist ministry. You are well acquainted 
with the course pursued by him and with the unhappy termination 
of his ministry." The foregoing remark requires explanation. Other 
records of the Church have already made it, but, for the benefit of 
young ministers, it deserves a place here. Mr. McMechin, though 
of an ancient Episcopal family, had united himself with the Method- 
ist communion and ministry. During the few years of his con- 
tinuance in this Society he was much esteemed. He then entered 
the Episcopal Church and ministry. After a short stay in Parkers- 
burg, he commenced the duties of the latter under very favourable 
auspices in Clarksburg. At his own cost he provided a house which 
should answer the double purpose of school-room and place of wor- 
ship. In this place he preached on the Sabbath and instructed 
young females during the week, deriving his support chiefly if not 
entirely from the latter. His pulpit-addresses were very acceptable. 
Numbers attended his ministry. His sermons seemed about to be 
blessed in the conversion of many, and there was a reasonable pro- 
bability that most if not all of them would be united to our Church. 
In several successive letters he communicated to me the joyful in- 
telligence, and the confident expectation of a large class of candi- 
dates for Confirmation when I should next visit Clarksburg, which 
was to be after a few months. Before that time arrived, however, 
I perceived a change in the tone of his letters. He was less confi- 
dent that many would be ready for Confirmation, was afraid that 
he would be disappointed in a number who had promised well. At 
length my visit was made. On my arrival, he gave me the following 
honest account of the whole matter. After having for some time 
earnestly preached the Gospel of salvation to those who attended 
his ministry, and having reason to believe that a number were pre- 
pared to make an open profession of religion, and to do it after our 
manner and in connection with our Church, he determined to make 
the latter sure by a series of discourses on the ministry, the Sacra- 
ments, the Liturgy, and the rite of Confirmation. I do not know 
what particular position he took in regard to these, but the effect, 
he told me, was to reduce his congregation from Sabbath to Sabbath, 
BO that, by the time the series was over, a mere handful were left him. 
Meanwhile the pulpits of othei 'denominations were denouncing 


him and the Church, and tracts and books against Confirmation 
and our peculiarities were gotten up and put in circulation through 
the place, so that when I reached Clarksburg there was but one 
individual who would dare to appear for Confirmation, and sickness 
prevented the attendance of that one. Nor did the calamity end 
here ; for, not long after, Mr. McMechin himself returned, under 
the influence of excited feelings, to the Methodist communion as a 
lay member. It is, however, proper to state that when that excite- 
ment passed away he resumed his place in the bosom of the Episco 
pal Church, but, of course, only as a lay member, having been 
displaced from our ministry. Let young ministers in new parishes 
learn a lesson from the foregoing statement, and old ones even in 
old parishes not despise it. 

The letter of my correspondent continues by saying that " after 
Mr. McMechin abandoned the ministry, the Rev. Thomas Smith, 
of Parkersburg, gave the little flock such pastoral care as his 
distant residence allowed. He called the friends of the Church 
together, proposed and caused to be adopted articles of confedera- 
tion, and had a regular vestry elected. Until the services of a 
regular minister were secured, he paid them several visits, riding 
on horseback the distance of eighty-five miles to supply their spi- 
ritual necessities. The Rev. Mr. Kinsolving was the next settled 
minister. He officiated regularly at Clarksburg and Weston, and 
occasionally at Morgantown. He remained about a year, and was 
not only acceptable to his own people, but popular with all classes. 
The Rev, Mr. Tompkms succeeded him at Weston, and preached occa- 
sionally at Clarksburg, perhaps once a month, as well as at other 
places.'' To this communication I add that in the year 1852, the 
Rev. Robert A. Castleman went to Clarksburg, and was soon after 
joined by the Rev. James Page, who, between them, supplied Clarks- 
burg, Weston, Fairmont, Morgantown, and Buchanon, for one year, 
when the former confined his services to Clarksburg and Fairmont, 
and the latter to Weston and Buchanon. During the residence of 
the Rev. Mr. Tompkins in Weston, and chiefly by his exertions, an 
Episcopal church has been built in that place. During the ministry 
of Mr. Castleman, one has been built in Clarksburg and one pur- 
chased and repaired at Fairmont. To his efforts in Clarksburg and 
bis solicitation abroad, we are indebted for the excellent house now 
standing in Clarksburg. A few zealous friends in Fairmont are 
entitled to praise for what they have done. Although our efforts 
have thus far failed in Morgantown, I cannot pass it by w ; thiut 


mention of the pleasant visits made to that place, and the hospitable 
reception given me by those worthy members of our Church, Mr 
John Rogers and Mr. Guy Allen. Could the zeal and liberality of two 
individuals have sufficed for the establishment of the Episcopal Church 
in Morgantown, theirs would have done it. I have nothing more 
to add but that Mr. Castleman is about to leave Clarksburg, and 
the Rev, Mr. Smyth, a Deacon, is officiating in Westou. 



Churches in Kanawha, Mavenswood, Parkerslurg and the 
neighbourhood^ New Martinsville^ and Moundsville. 

STILL pursuing the order in which efforts have been made for 
the establishment of the Episcopal Church in Western Virginia, we 
proceed to speak of the churches in Kanawha. The Rev. Messrs. 
Lee and Page, our first missionaries, extended their visits to Ka- 
nawha, and by the way of Point Pleasant ascended the Ohio, stopping 
at Parkersburg. The visit of Mr. Page led to his settlement in 
Kanawha, and during the time of his residence there he officiated 
in Charleston, at Coalsmouth, and Point Pleasant. A good be- 
ginning was made by Mr. Page, and, if circumstances had not made 
him feel it his duty to seek another field of labour after a few 
years, it is thought that the Church in that county would have 
greatly benefited by his labours. He was succeeded, after a num- 
ber of years, by the Rev. Frederick D. Goodwin, who laboured 
amidst many difficulties for two years and then removed to another 
field. The Rev. Mr. Martin followed Mr. Goodwin, and laboured 
at Charleston and Coalsmouth. He was succeeded by the Rev. 
Mr. Craik, now of Louisville, who laboured among them for some 
years. Mr. Whittle and Mr. Ward were the next ministers. Mr. 
Ward was followed by the Rev. R. T. Brown, who, after a few years, 
was obliged, on account of his failing voice, to relinquish the charge. 
The Rev. Thompson L. Smith is the present minister. 

There is an excellent brick church in Charleston, whose history 
deserves a special notice. When I first visited Kanawha, there 
were only two communicants in our Church in Charleston, Mrs. 
Colonel Lovell and Mrs. Quarrier. There were some few other 
ladies, who by birth or education were attached to the Episcopal 
Church, and some few gentlemen who laughingly advocated it in 
preference to others. There was no Episcopal Church, and the 
idea of building one seemed preposterous. Some two or three ladies, 
however, determined upon a trial, their husbands, fathers, and 
brothers making sport of it. They used their tongues, their hands, 
their pens, and raised in one year about a hundred dollars, which 
afforded amusement to the gentlemen. The ladies, with charac- 


teristic good-humour, patience, and perseverance, endured it all, 
putting their earnings in the bank, and proceeded in their work* 
The next year doubled their collections, which were also put at 
interest. How many years were thus spent, and what was the 
increase of each year, I cannot say; but this I know, that after many 
years of patient perseverence, and the accumulation of a very con- 
siderable sum, the gentlemen found that the ladies could not be 
laughed out of their determination, and, some of them having also 
come to better thoughts on the subject of religion, it was resolved 
to accept the large amount now in hand, and add to it as much as 
was necessary to build a church costing four or five thousand 


I mentioned that at one time there were only two communicants 
in our Church at Charleston, Mrs. Lovell and Mrs. Quarrier. The 
latter died in the year 1852, full of years, and ready to depart 
and be with Christ. As Mrs. Quarrier, beyond any other in- 
dividual, may be considered the mother of the Church in Western 
Virginia, by reason of her age, her holy life, and numerous pos- 
terity, who in different places have zealously promoted it, I must 
give a brief genealogical sketch of the same. Mr. Alexander 
Quarrier was born in Scotland in the year 1746. He removed to 
America in his twenty-ninth year, and, settling in Philadelphia and 
marrying, lived there twelve years, when he removed to Richmond. 
His wife dying, he contracted a second marriage with Miss Sally 
Burns. He left Richmond in 1811, and removed to Kanawha, 
where he died at the advanced age of eighty-two. By his first 
marriage he had six children, Harriet, Eliza, , Margaret, Helen, 
Alexander, and Betsy. By his second wife he had seven children, 
William, James, Grustavus, Monroe, Archibald, Fanny, and Vir- 
ginia. Being unable to state the marriages and localities, &c. of 
all of them, I shall mention none. The members of the Church in 
different parts of Western Virginia know how much it has been 
indebted to them* 


About six miles above Charleston, in the midst of the celebrated 
Bait-works, there is a considerable population and several churches. 
One of them belongs to the Episcopalians, When I was last there, 
it had been deserted for a time on account of its bad construction, 
with a view either to its repair or the building of another. The 


minister at Charleston gives a portion of Ms time and labours to 
this place. 


About twelve miles from Charleston, and lower down, the river 
Coal enters into the Kanawha. At this place a number of Epis- 
copal families settled themselves from thirty to sixty years ago. 
They attracted the attention of our first ministers in Kanawha, 
and shared their labours. Among those families was that of Mr, 
Philip Thompson, of Culpepper, son of the Rev. Mr. Thompson, 
of St. Mark's parish, of whom we have given so good an account 
in our article on Culpepper. His family, now reduced in num- 
bers by death and dispersion, have contributed largely to the sup- 
port of this congregation. The venerable mother, daughter of old 
Mr. Robert Slaughter, of Culpepper, was loved and esteemed by 
all who knew her, as one of the humblest and most devoted mem- 
bers of the Church in Virginia. I have always felt my own sense 
of the divine power and excellency of religion strengthened by every 
visit made to her abode. She exchanged it some years since for a 
better one above. 

The following communication from Mr. Francis Thompson, who 
has long been a lay reader of the Church, contains every thing of 
importance in relation to the congregation at Coalsmouth: 

" COALS, February 24, 1857. 

" RIGHT REVEEBND AND DEAR SIR : I hasten to give you an imperfect 
account of the history of the Church in this neighbourhood; and, as there 
are no records to refer to, I shall have to rely on an imperfect memory. 
Morris Hudson, Elizabeth Ms wife, and their six children, nearly all mar- 
ried, removed to this neighbourhood from Botetourt county, Virginia, in 
1797, and were probably the first Episcopalians that settled in this neigh- 
bourhood. They were both communicants of the Church. They came to 
Virginia originally from Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and were mem- 
bers of Bangor Church, an old church erected before the Revolution. 
They removed to Botetourt county, in this State, during Bishop Madison's 
time. The old patriarch, then in his eightieth year, (being uncertain 
whether he had been confirmed in childhood,) received the rite of Con- 
firmation at your hands, on your first visit to this county, together with 
several of his children. Some of their descendants still continue true to 
the faith of their fathers, whilst others have wandered into other folds. 
The next Episcopalians who settled here were my father's family, with 
whose history you are well acquainted. They removed here in 1817. 
My father died in 1837, in the seventieth year of his age. My mother 
died the 8th of March, 1852, in the seventy-fifth year of her age. 

" The first clergyman who visited us was the Rev. Mr. Page, who came 
as a missionary, and was afterwards the pastor of the congregation in this 
neighbourhood, and officiated, generally throughout the county. He la- 
boured zealously for several years, and, I have no doubt, accomplished much 
good. Had he remained, I think the Church would have been established 


here on a firm foundation. I do not recollect the precise time of his coming 
or leaving. The little brick church on the hill was erected in 1825, 
fchiefly by old Mr Hudson.) I think the Rev. Mr. Page preached in it 
lor some years. This church was used until 1835, when it was burned. 

" The first vestry was P, R. Thompson, Davis Hudson, Jesse Hudson, 
and others whose names I have forgotten. After Mr. Page left, we were 
for some time without a minister, and the Methodists and Presbyterians 
came in and gathered up the sheaves already bound by him, as many bap- 
tized by him connected themselves with those Churches. The Rev. F. D. 
Goodwin succeeded Mr. Page, and continued about two years. I think he 
came in 1830 or 1831, and was followed by the Rev. Mr. Martin in 1833, 
who remained in the county about five years, and gave place to Mr. Craik, 
frho preached for .us occasionally for several years. Old Mr. West had 
Charge of this parish part of a year during Mr. Craik' s ministry in Charles- 
ton, After Mr. West left us, Mr. Craik still continued to preach for us, 
until the spring of 1845, when the Rev. F. B. Nash was called to this 
parish. He continued to labour zealously for several years. During his 
ministry St. Mark's Church was built on a part of the lot given by my 
father for a church and parsonage. The parsonage was built for Mr. 
Martin, but was never occupied by a minister until Mr. Nash came. St. 
Mark's Church was built in 1846, and shortly afterward St. John's in the 
Valley. The congregation in Quay's Yalley was first gathered by Mr. 
Craik, and an old still-house converted into a place of worship. I think 
he started a subscription-paper for St. John's before he left. There are 
several communicants still living near this church, though they have never 
had any services since Mr. Nash left, with the exception of one or two 
sermons from Mr. Henderson, who continued here a short time. I was 
licensed as a lay reader about thirty-two years ago, and Have continued to 
officiate in that capacity and as superintendent of the Sunday-school up to 
this time. Our school last summer, and as long as the weather permitted 
during the fall, was quite a flourishing one, numbering more than forty 
scholars. We shall resume it on next Sunday, if the weather continues 
good. I remain, dear sir, your attached friend, F. THOMPSON." 

List of Persons who have acted as Vestrymen, (from memory.') 

P. R. Thompson, Sen., Davis Hudson, Jesse Hudson, John Lewis, P. R. 
Thompson, Jr., John P. Turner, Alexander Bradford, Dr. John Thompson, 
Robert Simms, George Rogers, Alfred A. Thornton, Benjamin 8. Thomp- 
son, George W. Thornton, Francis Thompson. 

We have no other church besides these on the Kanawha River, 
though our ministers have had stations at the court-house in a 
neighbouring county and at Buffalo in Kanawha county. At Point 
Pleasant, besides the occasional visits of the Rev. Mr. Craik and 
Mr. Henderson, the Rev. James Goodwin laboured several years in 
the hope of building a church and raising Tip a congregation, but 
was disappointed. Various circumstances have prevented the es- 
tablishment of a flourishing village on that most beautiful of all the 
sites on the Ohio and Kanawha Rivers, which, by their junction 
there, concur to make it as convenient for trade as it is memorable 


for the bloody battle with the Indians in which the family of Lewis 
so signalized itself, some of whose descendants still live upon the 
spot and adhere to the Church of their ancestors. 


About twelve miles below Point Pleasant, on Mercer's Bottom, 
a large and fertile tract of land, once owned by Charles Fenton 
Mercer, we have a comfortable brick building called Bruce Chapel, 
erected during the ministry of the Rev. James Goodwin, and so 
named because of the large contribution made to it by Mrs. Eliza 
Bruce, now of Richmond, and whose liberality to so many other 
objects is well known throughout Virginia. The chapel is in the 
neighbourhood of the Moores, Beales, General Steenbergen, and 
others whose names I cannot now recall. 


Ravenswood is a, small village on the Ohio River, built on land 
taken up by General "Washington, (who never made a mistake as to 
the quality of soil,) and left to some of the Ashton family of King 
George, with whom the Washington family was connected. Mr. 
Henry Fitzhugh, formerly of Fauquier, marrying a descendant 
of the Ashtons, became possessed of a part of this estate, and 
settled on it with a large family of children. At his expense a 
neat little chapel has been put up at Ravenswood, and when minis- 
terial services were not to be had one of his sons has officiated as 
lay reader. The Rev. Mr. Tompkins has now for the last two 
years been residing there, discharging the duties of a teacher and 
minister at the same time. Services are also held at the court-house 
of that county. 

Since the above was penned, I have received a communication 
which states that the ladies, by their zeal and diligence, raised one 
hundred and fifty dollars for the furnishing of the chapel, and that 
some contributions were made by individuals other than the family 
above mentioned, in the neighbourhood, and in Wheeling and Cm- 
cinnati, though not to a large amount. Contributions of labour were 
also made by some of the neighbours. The Rev. Mr. Wheeler was 
the minister for two years from the year 1842. The Rev. Messrs. 
Martin and Craik and Brown, of Charleston, the Rev. Mr. Goodwin, 
of Point Pleasant, the Rev. Messrs. Smith and Perkins, of Parkers- 
burg, the Rev. Mr. Hyland, of Moundsville, and Drs. Armstrong 
and McCabe, of Wheeling, have all rendered acceptable services at 


Ravenswood. The vestrymen have been Mr. Henry Fitzhugh 
Dr. John Armstrong, Thomas Atkinson, W. S. Holmes, D. M. Barr, 
Burdett Fitzhugh, Henry Fitzhugh, Jr., E. H. Dickenson, James 
R.Mays, George H. Fitzhugh, T. D. Noussey, J.Beckwith, Thomas 
Kirk, D, Frost, I. J. C. Davenport, H. Harpold, James Beatty. 


Parkersburg was one of the places visited by our first mission- 
aries, the Rev. Messrs. Lee and Page. The Rev. Mr. Goodwin, 
also, either before or after his settlement in Kanawha, paid an ac- 
ceptable visit to the people of that place. The Rev. Mr. McMechin, 
soon after his ordination, spent a year or more in attempting to 
raise up a congregation there. In the year 1843, the Rev. Thomas 
Smith was elected its minister and the church was regularly organ- 
ized, and in the following year was admitted into union with the 
Convention of Virginia. Mr. Smith immediately commenced, with 
his accustomed enterprise, to raise funds for building a church, and 
was sufficiently successful in securing enough to provide a small 
and plain church ; but, as is too often the case in the progress of 
such a work, the views of those engaged in it were enlarged, both as 
,to the size of the building and the style of its execution, so that 
the completion of it was delayed for some years. It is a well-built 
and handsome brick church, and stands on ground presented to the 
vestry by J. F. Snodgrass, late member of Congress from that dis- 
trict. For a large portion of the funds for its erection, and for much 
of the superintendence of the work, the congregation is indebted 
to General J. J. Jackson, of Parkersburg. Mr. Smith died in 1847, 
and was buried beneath the vestibule of the church, at his own re* 
quest, the reason being assigned that, as he felt himself to be a 
poor sinner, he wished to be trampled under the feet of all who 
entered the house. In the same year the Rev. Mr. Perkins was 
chosen, who entered on his duties in the month of October. In 
the year 1853, Mr. Perkins resigned the charge, since which time 
it has been vacant. During Mr. Perkins's term of service two other 
churches have been built in connection with Parkersburg, one 
about fifteen or twenty miles above it, on Cow Creek, and another 
about ten or twelve miles below it, at Bellville. The latter was 
built almost entirely by Mr. Wells, on whose land and near whose 
house it stands. Mr. Perkins used occasionally to officiate at each 
of these places. 

The following is the list of the vestrymen of this parish: John 
Taylor, J G. Stringer, Dr. D. Creel, A. L. Kinnaird, J. M. Little- 


boy. Sen., J. F. Snodgvass, J. R. Murdock, W. S. Gardiner, David 
B. Spencer, J. J. Jackson, Beverlej Smith, W. P. Rathbone, Dr. 
Farmin, E. D. Safford, 0. J. Meale, Isaac Morris, W. H. Morehead, 
G. B. Neale, J. J. Dickenson, W. H. Laurence, W. H. Small, J. J. 
Neale, J. H. Adams, E. F. De Selding. 


A church at New Martinsville, in this county, was partly built 
some years since, under the auspices of the Rev. James McCabe 
and the Rev. Mr. Hyland, and supplied for some time with services 
by the same. I have no list of the vestrymen of this parish, which 
was called Wetzel parish after the name of the county. 


Within twelve miles of Wheeling, on the Ohio River, is to be 
seen one of the largest of those Indian mounds which are to be 
found in our Western world. It gives the name to the place. In 
the time of the elder Mr. Armstrong, there were some families be- 
longing to our Church in and around it, which were visited by him, 
and to whom with the other people of the place he preached. The 
passage of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad through it, and the 
establishment of a large dep6t at it, has increased the population 
so much that an Episcopal church was erected here some years 
since, and the Rev. Mr. Hyland has, in connection with a school, 
performed the duties of a minister in it. 

The following is a list of the vestrymen of the parish: Colonel 
John Thompson, Isaac Hoge, E. H. Caldwell, W. S. Lane, 0. S. 
Hock, G. W. Bruce, William Collins, General G. Jones. 

From the foregoing notices of the Church in Western Virginia, 
It will be perceived that our "beginning is small." May some 
future historian, when all its resources have been developed, have 
the pleasure of recording that "its latter end has greatly increased" ! 



Recollections of the Episcopal Church in this Country during th& 
last Fifty Tears. 

HAVING thus disposed of the Church of Virginia, I purpose in 
the present to record some things in relation to the General Church 
which have come under my observation, and in which I have taken 
some part. As I introduced the notices of the Virginia Church 
with some preliminary remarks on its previous history, so would I 
offer a few thoughts as to the earlier history and character of the 
American Church generally, before entering on the particular nar- 
rative to which this article is devoted. And, as I was forced by a 
regard to historic truth to acknowledge that at no time from its 
first establishment was the moral and religious condition of the 
Church in Virginia even tolerably good, so am I also, by the same 
consideration, obliged to admit much that was defective in relation 
to other parts of the American Episcopal Church. More especially 
was this the case in regard to Maryland, which bore a strong re- 
semblance to Virginia in more respects than one. The character 
of her early population resembled that of Virginia, in having more 
of the aristocracy than was to be found in some other parts of the 
English territory in this country. Slavery also was introduced at an 
early period, and served to strengthen that feature in her character* 
She, like Virginia, was also put under a regular establishment, 
though not at so early a period. She had her Governors and Com- 
missaries, who acted as substitutes for the Bishop in ecclesiastical 
matters. Neither Maryland nor Virginia were under the patronage 
of the Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, as 
other portions of America were. The history of those other portions, 
by comparison with those of Virginia and Maryland, establishes the 
fact beyond contradiction, that the selection of missionaries by that 
Society was generally better than the supply coming to Virginia 
and Maryland through the Bishop of London, or some other chan- 
nel. The reader is referred to Dr. Hawks's faithful and laborious 
History of the Church in Maryland for proof of this in relation to 
that diocese. I adduce only one testimony besides, and that from 
the well-known Dr. Chandler, of our American Church. After a 


visit to the Eastern Shore of Maryland, about the year 1753, he 
addressed a letter to the Bishop of London, in which, after speaking 
in high terms of the laity of that part of the State, he adds, "The 
general character of the clergy, I am sorry to say, is wretchedly 
bad. It is readily confessed, that there are some in the Province 
whose behaviour is unexceptionable and exemplary; but their 
number seems to be very small in comparison, they appearing 
here and there, like lights shining in a dark place. It would really, 
my lord, make the ears of a sober heathen tingle to hear the stories 
that were told me by many serious persons of several clergymen in 
the neighbourhood of the parish where I visited ; but I still hope that 
some abatement may be fairly made on account of the prejudices 
of those who related them." My own recollection of statements 
made by faithful witnesses forty-five years ago, as to a number of 
the old clergy of Maryland, accords with the above. I have but 
little knowledge from any source of the few Episcopal clergy north 
of Maryland. They were not more than eighty in number when 
the War of the Revolution began. As to foreign importation of 
clergymen, Bishop White (who was once the only Episcopal minister 
in Pennsylvania) justly remarks, "It could not be the channel 
of a respectable and permanent supply." Nevertheless, as they 
nearly all of them depended chiefly for their support on the aid of 
the above-mentioned Society, it is to be believed that pains were 
taken to select the best which could be obtained from the English 
Church at that time, and to require the best recommendations in 
behalf of those who were natives of America. That there were 
mistakes none can doubt.* 

The history of the missionaries of that Society in South Carolina, 
as given by one of her sons, (the Rev. Mr. Dalcho,) informs us of 
some who, on account of their evil character, were soon complained 

* That some of the followers of Laud came over to Virginia after his fall, is evident 
from what Sir William Berkeley says in his memorable protest against much preach- 
ing and the establishment of a printing-press and schools in the Colony. He speaks 
in praise of some ministers who came out soon after Laud's death, and very slight- 
ingly of the rest, saying that, "if they would only pray more and preach less, he 
would like to see them better paid." As for free schools and a printing-press, he 
thanked God there were none in the Colony, and trusted there would be none for a 
hundred years to come, as he considered them fruitful nurseries of heresy and 
rebellion. No doubt Sir William sympathized with Laud in many things. He was 
as much disposed to high-handed measures in the management of the Colony as 
Laud was in England. Cromwell's rebellion in England and Bacon's rebellion in 
Virginia may be, in a great measure, traced to the arbitrary spirit and conduct of 
the Archbishop and Governor. 


of, and either recalled or dismissed from the service. The con- 
gregations, indeed, became very cautious how they received the 
missionaries. They delayed institutions, as in Virginia, until satis- 
fied of their good character by sufficient trial. The Society some- 
times complained that too long a trial was required. Still, I doubt 
not that their general character for morals and piety was much 
superior to that of the imported clergy of Maryland and Virginia. 
But now a most important inquiry must be made, in order to form & 
correct estimate of the religion of the Colonial Churches. It is 
this : What was the type of the theology the substance and style 
of the preaching of the ministers of that day ? What doctrines 
were insisted on with emphasis from the pulpit? How did the 
preaching of that day accord with the doctrines of the apostles and 
the reformers on the subject of human depravity, and of Christ 
as the sinner's "all in all"? How did the sermons compare with 
our homilies on the misery or sinfulness of man, on justification, 
on the new birth, &c.? It will surely be admitted to be a fair way 
of deciding this question to ascertain what was the theology and 
preaching in England during the time when our supply was greatest 
from the Mother-Church. The clergy coming over to us must have 
borne a strong resemblance in their theology and style of sermon- 
izing, and in other respects, to the great body of those left behind; 
only that we are obliged to admit the probability of what was 
so generally declared in all the documents and histories of the 
times, namely, that, with some honourable exceptions, they were 
inferior in character. In making this inquiry, we shall not go back 
to the few who came out during the reign of James I. We will 
pass over those few who came to America in the days of Laud, who, 
intent on establishing high Episcopal and Sacramentarian views and 
on putting down all dissent, neglected (as some of his own admirers 
admit) most shamefully the religious condition of the Colonies. 14 

* Dr. Coke, the Methodist Bishop, who from Ms office and his extensive travels 
throughout England and America had a good opportunity to form a correct judgment, 
says, not only of those who absconded at the American Revolution, but of those who 
remained, that, " Fallen as the ministers of the Establishment in England generally 
3-re, they are incomparably to be preferred before the clergy of America." (See his 
Life of Samuel Drew, p. 145.) The Bishop of London wrote a letter to Dr. Dod- 
dridge, in the year 1751, concerning a communication from the Rev. Mr. Davies, in 
which, while he endeavours to defend the American clergy against the wholesale 
charges brought against them, he is forced to make the following acknowledgment : 
" Of those who are sent from hence, a great part are the Scotch or Irish, who can get 
uo employment at home, and enter on the service more out of necessity than choice ; 
some others are willing to go abroad to retrieve either lost fortunes or lost character J 

VOL. II. 23 


We pass over also the times of the Commonwealth and of the two 
succeeding reigns, and come down to that of William and Mary, 
the time of the greatest influx of ministers to America, the time 
of Tillotson and Burnet, and the formation of the two great societies 
for extending the Church, the Christian Knowledge Society and 
the Propagation Society, which began their work within two years 
of each other under the direction of kindred spirits, the one in 
1698, the other in 1700. The history of those times shows that 
Romanism and Calvinism were equally eschewed. Let the sermons 
and tracts of that day be compared with those of the Calvinistic 
preaching in the time of Elizabeth and the semi-Romanistic ones 
in the days of Laud, and a marked difference will be seen. But 
there may also be seen as marked a difference between the sermons 
of Tillotson and others of his stamp, and those of the earlier Re- 
formers, as well as those of a later period, which have been denomi- 
nated Evangelical. The age of Tillotson and Burnet may be called 
the age of reasoning, of liberalism, of comprehension. Tillotson 
and Burnet were great and good and pious men, practical and 
useful men. Their views of the Church, ministry, and Sacraments 
were conservative. Their charity was truly Christian. And yet it 
must be admitted that they stood at the beginning of a new school, 
differing from any going before, and destined soon to degenerate 
into something which they did not design. The sermons of Tillot- 
son are masterpieces of reasoning on all theological subjects, are a 
body of divinity to students ; but then they are not addressed to 
the hearts and consciences of sinners so as to awaken them to cry, 
"What must we do to be saved?" They do not present Christ in 
all his fulness to the soul with that earnest application which the 
true evangelical preacher does. Burnet also admitted that he 
wished to lower the doctrine of the article " On Justification by 
Faith" somewhat, though by no means to make it approach the 
Sacramental view, but rather the contrary. The followers of such 
men soon began to substitute reasoning, natural religion, and mo- 
rality for the Gospel. They did not deny the evangelical system, 
but they did not preach it as they ought to have done, and the pulpit, 
of course, lost its power. There were but few sermons published 

The Bishop on this and other accounts was anxious to hare Bishops sent to America, 
that they might exercise discipline over the clergy coming from England, and ordain 
natives for the Church. Had all the ministers of Dissenting Churches in America 
been as Uberal as Mr. Davies, Bishops -would probably have been sent at an early 
period, and much evil been prevented. Mr. Davies, in his letter to the Bishop of 
Ixmdon, expresses himself most favourably of the measure. 


m that day. At any rate, Tillotson's so far exceeded all others in 
many respects, that they were the sermons of the Church. In the 
Church of Virginia none appear to have been used by the lay readers 
but Tillotson's. In many old vestry-books I have met with, a suffi- 
cient number of his sermons were ordered to supply the lay readers ; 
and there were probably two lay readers to each clergyman in the 
diocese. They were indeed better and longer than the brief and 
most unimpressive sermons of the clergy, (judging from a number 
of the latter which I have read,) but still they are not calculated to 
rouse lost sinners to a sense of their condition and lead them to a 
Saviour, notwithstanding all that is so excellent in them. Tillot- 
son's sermons, abridged into moral essays and dry reasonings on 
the doctrines of religion, were, I fear, the general type of sermon- 
izing among the clergy who came over to America for the last 
seventy or eighty years before the War of the Revolution. 

I fear that many of the publications of the Christian Knowledge 
Society were somewhat wanting in that pressing of evangelical 
principles upon the hearts and consciences of men in the way that 
has been found so effective to their conversion since the days of 
Venn, Newton, Simeon, and others. Soon after entering the mi- 
nistry, I was desirous to publish a volume of sermons and tracts 
for servants, and, being unable to find any such in this country, I 
addressed a letter to Mr. Wilberforce, the warm friend of the negro 
race, and made known to him my wishes, not without acknowledg- 
ing my indebtedness to his book, under Grod, for much of that which 
I considered a true view of our holy religion. In reply, he sent 
me all the tracts of the Christian Knowledge Society, perhaps all 
that then had been published in England for the poor. I confess 
I was disappointed in them ; not that they had any of that false 
doctrine which, at a later period, was surreptitiously introduced into 
some of them by altering certain words, but that they did not press 
with sufficient force and earnestness certain truths upon the minds 
of the poor. 

About this time my attention was called to some sermons of the 
Rev. Mr. Bacon, a minister of our Church in Maryland, addressed 
expressly to masters and servants. They were preached and pub- 
lished in 1743. Their style is plain and forcible, and all that is 
said is well said ; but still there is the deficiency of the age in them. 
They do not present Christ to men as poor lost sinners, in the way 
they ought to do. They recognise the doctrine and declare it in 
few words, but do not emphasize and press it. They were the best 
I could get, however, and I published them. In an abridgment of 


two of them afterward, I sought to supply this deficiency. Let 
me add, that I think there may seem this same error in one of the 
directions for the conduct and preaching of the first missionaries 
of this Society when sent to South Carolina. The directions, with 
this one exception, are most wise and pious. Nothing could be 
better. The defective passage, as I think, is this: "That, in in- 
structing heathens and infidels, they begin with the principles of 
natural religion, appealing to their reason and conscience, and 
thence proceed to show the necessity of rey elation," &c. Now, 
this is precisely the method attempted at first by the Moravian 
missionaries in the North, and which they found so fruitless, and 
therefore abandoned, choosing the more evangelical one with suc- 
cess.* (See Dalcho's History of the Episcopal Church in South 
Carolina, p. 46.) Tbe fault of the Tillotson school was too much 
reasoning, too much appeal to natural religion, which, though, 
like Butler's Analogy, it might be very effective with some for a 
certain purpose, could not answer for the multitudes. Had our 
Lord preached thus, the common people would not have heard him 
gladly. Nor would the wise and mighty have been converted by 
the Apostles, if such had been their preaching. In what I have 
said of the successors of the Tillotson school, there has been of late 
a general agreement of our divines, whether called High or Low 
Churchmen, all admitting that the moralizing system will not avail, 
though differing much as to other things. I would not be mis* 
understood on this subject. I do not deny to Tillotson most ad- 
mirable method and valuable matter in his sermons ; for I have 
read many of them with great pleasure, and not, I hope, without 
profit. But I must regard him and his imitators as false models 
of preaching, as comparatively ignoring the deep corruption of 
human nature, so that God in his good providence saw fit to raise 
up not only the Whitefields and Wesleys, who took an erratic course, 
but the Venns, the Newtons, and the Simeons in the bosom of the 
Church, to preach a simpler and fuller Grospel to the millions of 
lost ones in our mother-country. This failing to set forth the 
desperate wickedness of the human heart, calling for a Saviour, 

* Bishop Horsley, in his charge of 1790, exposes the plan of beginning with 
natural religion, affirming that the difficulty of understanding the principles of 
natural religion is as great as that of understanding revealed ; that the true way is 
to preach the plain G-ospel of redemption to sinners, as that which Q-od has pro- 
Tided for them, and look up to him to open the hearts of the hearers to receive 
what he has sent them. Such has been the experience of all who preach to the 
benighted heathen, or to the poorest and most illiterate in Christian lands. 


a new birth, has, from my first entrance on the ministry, seemed to 
me the great defect of our old clergy. I remember to have preached 
before one of the oldest, most venerable and eminent of them, on 
the text, "The carnal mind is enmity toward God/' and in the 
sermon to have quoted many of those Scriptures which represent 
us as "hating God," ^'being ms enemies in our minds," "being 
children of the devil," and having quite grieved him by it. He 
said that he did not like such a mode of preaching. It was in vain 
that I adduced Scripture as my warrant and example. He did not 
like it. And yet I was not wont to speak the doctrine harshly, 
but tenderly and in pity. 

Having presented this general view of the American Church, 
let me proceed to mention some things which will show that I have, 
from an early period, had opportunity of forming a correct estimate 
of some things occurring within it during the last forty or fifty 
years. At the age of seventeen I went to Princeton College. In 
going from and returning to Virginia during my collegiate course, 
I became a temporary inmate in the hospitable house of Dr. Aber- 
crombie, the associate minister with Bishop White in the churches 
under his care. Several of the sisters of Mrs. Abercrombie, having 
lived for a long time in the family of one of my uncles of Virginia 
and received much kindness from him, became the means of my 
introduction to this very kind and agreeable household. The 
daughters were most interesting young women. On Good Friday, 
1807, I heard Dr. Abercrombie, who was regarded as one of the 
pulpit orators of the day, preach on the Passion of Christ. A 
strong impression was made on my mind and memory by his action 
in the pulpit, as well as by his language. After describing some 
of the sufferings of Christ, he came to the crucifixion, and, erect 
ing his tall form to the highest point, he stretched out his arms in 
a horizontal direction, and, standing motionless for a time, pre- 
sented the figure of a cross. I have never entered St. Peter's since, 
without having the scene renewed. Nor has the impression made 
by the kindness of himself and family ever been effaced. At the 
close of my collegiate course, I formed some acquaintance with the 
Rev. Dr. Beasley, associate minister with Dr. Hobart in Trinity 
Church, New York ; and with Dr. Montgomery, of Grace Church, 
New York. That acquaintance was increased into considerable 
intimacy afterward with Dr. Beasley, while he lived both in Balti- 
more and Philadelphia, and with Dr. Montgomery in the latter 
place 7 whom I often saw, for many years, at my home in the family 
of old Commodore Dale, that good man and true Christian, who 


married Dr. Montgomery's aunt. From these two ministers I 
necessarily learned many things about the Church of that day. In 
the year 1811, 1 was ordained, and soon after received from Bishop 
Hobart, by the hand of his old college friend, Charles Fenton 
Mercer, of Virginia, a large assortment of books, tracts, and pam- 
phlets, most of them written by himself, on points of controversy 
with other denominations, and on some matters of internal trouble 
in the diocese of New York, and also some Episcopal devotional 
works. I read them all, and remember to have sympathized with 
him in his personal difficulties. I admired the ability displayed by 
him in his contest with Dr. Mason, and entirely agreed with him 
in his argument for the Apostolic origin of Episcopacy, though 
unable to follow when he proceeded to claim exclusive divine right 
for it. By means of these publications, I became tolerably well 
acquainted with the politics of the Church, and under circumstances 
quite favourable to an impartial judgment. About six years after 
this, (and before I attended any General Convention, though twice 
elected, being prevented by unavoidable circumstances,) I went on 
a painful errand to the South, bearing to jits milder climate a sick 
and, as the result proved, a dying wife. During my stay in Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, myself and wife received every kind attention 
which brother ministers and Christian ladies could have shown us. 
it was during the last year of good Bishop Dehon's life, whose 
praise was on every tongue. Dr. Gradsden was then in the la- 
borious discharge of his duties to bond and free. I saw him in 
the place of his greatest honour, in the Sunday-school, teaching 
the coloured ones, both old and young. I preached in several of 
the churches in Charleston. In one of them either St. Philip's or 
St. Michael's I witnessed what surely would have gladdened the 
heart of the most prejudiced opponent of slavery. I saw what I 
was told were the last fruits of the labours of the old missionaries 
of the Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, old 
negro men and women with some of their children sitting on benches 
along the side-aisles, and around the chancel and near the pulpit, 
which was advanced some distance into the middle aisle.* Spec- 

* The structure of this building was nearly the same with that of most of the 
old large English churches, which is, I believe, the best that can be. The chancel 
Is against the wall, behind the pulpit, that being advanced some distance into the 
middle aisle, which is always large enough to admit of benches for the poor. The 
poor also sit around the chancel, on the place where the communicants kneel, and 
ot chain *tid stools between that and the pulpit, and on the stair-steps leading up 


tacles aided their aged vision, and, with Prayer-Books in their hands, 
they read the responses aloud in the midst of their owners. The 
missionaries were not prevented from teaching them to read, but 
rather encouraged so to do. Nor have masters and mistresses ever 
been prevented from doing it themselves, or having it done at 
home; though public schools are forbidden. On the contrary, 
there have, I believe, always been more well-instructed and in- 
telligent coloured persons, bond and free, in Charleston than in 
any other city in the Union. I had occasion, two years after this, 
to take the gauge and dimensions of the condition of the coloured 
people in all the Atlantic States, and think that I am qualified to 
judge on the subject. 

It was at this time that I became acquainted with Dr. Percy, and 
his excellent son-in-law, the Rev. Mr. Campbell, of South Carolina ; 
both of whom agreed in their views of experimental piety, and that 
mode of presenting the Gospel to men for which we are pleading. 
Dr. Percy was a bold, impressive, and faithful preacher of the doc- 
trines of grace. He was one of those who, under the auspices of 
Lady Huntington, felt called on to preach an almost-forgotten 
Gospel in England, though in a somewhat irregular way. He was 
a graduate of Oxford, and was ordained by an English Bishop in 
1767. He came over to America as one of Lady Huntington' s 
preachers. Here he took part with the Revolutionists, and preached 
to the American troops. At the fall of Charleston, he was ordered 
by Colonel Balfour to desist from preaching, on pain of confine- 
ment. When Lady Huntington in her old age proposed to secede 
from the Church of England, and wished Dr. Percy to ordain some 
preachers for her, he positively and indignantly refused, and then 
connected himself more closely with the Episcopal Church. In 
1805, he became assistant minister in St. Philip's and St. Michael's 
Churches, Charleston, South Carolina. A few years after this, St.' 
Paul's Church in that city was built for him. He died in the year 
1817. Dr. Gadsden preached his funeral-sermon in St. Philip's 
Church, at the request of the Bible Society, of which he had been 

to the pulpit A door at the upper part of the church allows an easy ingress 
and egress to the poor. The minister is thus more in the midst of his people, and 
has them all so near to him that he can see their countenances and be seen and 
heard by them much better than on the more modern plan, where the preacher is 
either thrown against the wall, perhaps in a recess, or else is on one side of the 
congregation, before some little quasi pulpit where, what with the high-pitched 
roof and grea distance of the congregation, the voice is almost lost 


President. Although Dr. Percy was honoured by the Church in 
Carolina, and was President of the Standing Committee, yet I 
could perceive there was a marked difference in his views on some 
points and those of the other clergy with whom I associated. His 
views are presented in two pamphlets which he published while 
officiating in St. Philip's and St. Michael's, and which he presented 
to me. One, on the Episcopal Church, sets forth her claims in 
such a manner that no sound Churchman could question his attach- 
ment to her, and yet no reasonable Non-Episcopalian complain. 
In the other we have a portrait at large of the true evangelical 
preacher in life and doctrine. One or two extracts from the latter 
of these will serve to confirm my views of the state of the Church 
at that time. He says, in his Introduction, "That real religion at 
the present period is at the lowest possible ebb, in most of our 
Churches, will hardly be denied by any serious and reflecting mind, 
who understands what the religion of Christ is, and what Chris- 
tianity was intended to do for mankind." He declares that all 
great and general declensions of religion, whether in principle or 
practice, begin at the Sanctuary or Church of Grod ; and therefore 
he calls upon all the clergy to examine themselves, both as to their 
lives and preaching, and see whether they are not much in fault. 
He quotes Bishop Horsley as condemning the preaching of that 
day, saying to his clergy "that too many have continued so long 
preaching in the smooth and fashionable strain of dry ethics and 
mere moral suasion, instead of preaching the pure doctrines of the 
Reformation, that they had wellnigh preached pure Christian 
morality out of the orld." Dr, Percy speaks very impressively 
of the duty of ministers " having their own hearts savingly con- 
verted unto God," as they hoped to be instruments of saving others. 
The whole pamphlet is worthy of perusal. I cannot, however, 
leave this topic without adverting to and correcting an error into 
which many have fallen in tracing the evangelical movement of 
the Church of England to the school of Whitefield and Wesley, 
with which Dr. Percy was for a time connected. Although God 
made much use for good of these zealous and fearless men, as all 
acknowledge, yet the great work of evangelical reformation in the 
English Church commenced in a different line, and at an earlier 
period, at Cambridge and London, and elsewhere, and has ever con- 
tinued distinct. We begin our line with the Venns, Newtons, Ro- 
maines, Legh Richmonds, and bring it down through the Simeons, 
Cecils, Pratts, Gisbornes, Wilberforces, the Thorntons, Hannah 
Mores, and others. These were never associated with the Hunt- 


mgton school, but ever continued most true and faithful members 
of the English Church. There have been those both in England 
and in America who have sought to disparage the evangelical cause 
by identifying it with those who left the English Church; and many 
have been deceived by the misrepresentation. I remember that 
Mr. John Randolph could hardly be convinced by me that Mr. 
Wilberforce, Mr. Perceval, and Miss Hannah More were not regular 
members of the Methodist Church in England. His prejudices were 
quite strong against them on this account. In my earlier days 
there were many such persons. We in this country also were 
esteemed or spoken of little otherwise. By many we were con- 
sidered as in no sense Churchmen, but rather intruders into the 
ministry of the Episcopal Church, having some sinister end in view. 
The wish has been often expressed that such would go to their place, 
that is, to some other denomination with which they sympathized, 
just as some of us have wished that Tractarians would go to their 
place, the Church of Rome. Which of us had the better right so 
to speak, let history declare. Hundreds of Tractarians have gone 
from the Church of England and America to Rome. Who of us 
have gone to Geneva? I doubt not but many were very sincere in 
their hard thoughts and hard speeches of us ; but so was Paul in his 
denunciation of Christians. Even Bishop White has been declared 
(and it has often and recently been in print) to have denounced us 
in very strong and offensive language ; which I shall believe when 
affirmed on sufficient authority. But if true, it only proves the 
justice of our complaint as to the manner in which we have been 
dealt with; for if the amiable Bishop White, with his moderate 
Church views, could thus speak, what might not others have said ? 
Bishop Hobart issued a Pastoral entitled " The High- Churchman 
Vindicated," in which he not only boasts of the name and principles 
of High-Churchmen, predicting that they will one day prevail and 
be honoured universally, but makes some comparisons between 
them and Low-Churchmen which are not only invidious, but such 
as only party feelings (of which we did not profess to be free) could 
have induced him to make. I should not have adverted to this, 
but that this Pastoral and another on the Principles of a Church- 
man have been republished by the Protestant Episcopal Society 
of New York, bound up in its volumes, and transmitted to posterity* 
In one of them, those who rank the distinctive principles of the 
Church, for which he pleads, among the non-essentials of religion, 
we declared to be guilty of treachery to their Church and to their 
Master. It is well known that Low- Churchmen do not consider 


those things in which the Episcopal Church differs from orthodox 
denominations as among the essentials of religion, though they do 
regard them as important, some of them very important. Of course 
they are among the non-essentials, nothing being essential in re- 
ligion but what is necessary to salvation. 

I now proceed to show how, in the providence of God, I was 
further led