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H^ N. Y. Univ. 



Being an Historical and Descriptive Account 

of the Different Styles of Clocks and Watches 

of the past, in England and Abroad 








Printed in Great Britain by 
Mackays Ltd., Chatham 


The Watch and Clock Makers' Handbook, Dictionary and 
Guide. By F. J- Britten. Demy 8vo., 500 pp., 400 illus. Twelfth 
edition. (1920). 12s. 6d. net. 

Preface — -Hints on Mechanical Drawing — Acceleration — Adjusting for Tempera- 
ture — Assaying — Astronomical Clock — Balance — Balance Spring — Timing Box — 
Isochronism — -Adjustment — Balance Staff — Barometric Error — Barrel — Bench — 
Bhnd ^Nlan's Watch — Bow — Calendar Clock and Watch — Calhpers — Cannon 
Pinion — Capillarity — Case Springs — Case Stake — Cement — Centre Seconds — 
Centre Wheel — Centrifugal Tendency — Chain — Chimes — Chronograph — Chrono- 
meter — Clepsydra — Clocks, Westminster, etc. — Compensation Balance — Conical 
Pendulum — Conversion — Decimal Fractions — Depthing Tool — De Vick's Clock — 
Dial — Dipleidoscope — Douzieme Gauge — Drilling — Eccentric Arbour — Electric 
Clocks — Equatorial Clock — Escapements — Ferguson's Clock — Ferrule — File — 
Friction — Frosting — Fusee — Gilding — Glass — Graver — Gravity — Hall-Marks — 
Hands — Hardening — Hand Wheel — Hu^-gens' Clock — Ice Box — IncUned Plane 
Clock — ^Jacot Tool— Jewelled — Kew Trials — Ke^^less — Lacquering — Lathes — 
Magnetism — Mainspring — ^Mandril — ^larble Clock Cases — ^Meridian Dial — ]\Iicro- 
meter — ^Middle Temperature Error — jNIilhmeter — Moment of Elasticity — Move- 
ment — ^Musical Box — Non-]\Iagnetisable Watch — Oil- — Oven — Pendulum, Zinc 
Tubes, Mercurial, etc. — -Pinion — Pneumatic Clocks — Pohshing — Potential Energy 
— Precious Stones — Ratchet — Regulator — Repeating — Rounding-up Tool — 
Screws — Sector — Self -Winding — Shaping, Sinking — Silver — -Shde Gauge — SUde 
Rule — Snailing — Soldering — Spotting — Stop Work — Striking Work — Sundials — 
Tell-Tale Clock — Tempering — Tidal Clock — Time — Tourbillon — Train — Transit 
— Turret Clocks — Up and Down Indicator — Watch — -Wheel Cutting Engine — 
Wheels and Pinions — Table of Chronometer Trains — Circumference and Areas — 
Clock Trains— Conversion — Date Marks — Wheels and Pinions — Equation of 
Time — Properties of Metals, etc. — Fusees — Lever Trains — Local Time — ]\Iotion 
Work — Pendulums — Sines, Tangents, etc. — Square Roots — -Index. 

E. & F. N. SPON, Ltd. 



IN response to repeated requests for a complete edition of " Old 
Clocks and Watches and their Makers " this has been prepared. 
It comprises the whole of the last edition compiled, hy my father, 
revised and enlarged. 

Over 400 names have been added to the hst of makers, and some 
fifty fresh illustrations of interesting specimens included. 

I have to acknowledge the kindness of many owners of old time- 
keepers for valuable assistance. In particular I should mention 
Mr. D.A. F. Wetherfield and Mr. Hansard Watt, whose courtesy and 
willing help have considerably facilitated the revision of the work, 
and my thanks are due to them for providing fresh illustrative material 
from their fine collections of old English clocks. In addition I wish 
to take this opportunity of specially recording my thanks to Mr. 
Hansard Watt for his valuable aid in correcting the proofs and seeing 
the pubHcation through the press. 

Through the courteous assistance of Mr. F. T. Haschka I have 
been granted the privilege of reproducing several of the beautiful 
watches from the collection of Mr. H. J. Heinz, which is regarded 
as one of the most important in the United States and has been 
deposited in the Carnegie Museum. 

I am indebted to Mr. D. J. Parkes for giving me the benefit of his 
expert knowledge, and to Mr. Arthur Westwood (Assay Master of 
Birmingham) for enabling me to bring the hall-marks up to date. 

Acknowledgment must be made to Herbert Cescinsky and Malcolm 
R. Webster's book on " EngHsh Domestic Clocks " for several new 
makers' names w^hich have been added to the hst. 

Since the pubhcation of the last edition Mr. Evan Roberts has 
passed away. A number of his watches were sold to the Morgan 
collection in New York several years ago, others have been distributed 
to various museums throughout this country. 




SINCE the publication, in 1894, of " Former Clock and Watch- 
makers and their Work/'" so many suggestions have reached me 
from lovers of old clocks and watches that I have been induced 
to recast the volume. Much additional information of a general 
character has been embodied in the present book, and details relating 
to modern construction which appeared before are now omitted. 

Technical terms are, I am told, particularly exasperating to people 
unacquainted with horological phrases, and I have therefore avoided 
them as much as possible. "The W^atch and Clockmakers' Hand- 
book, Dictionary, and Guide " may be consulted by those especially 
interested in the mechanism of clocks and watches, and who desire 
more explicit details than I have given here. 

Few places can boast of a finer display of eighteenth-century clocks 
than Windsor Castle. The principal representative specimens I have 
been enabled to illustrate and describe by special permission of the 

x\dditions have been made to the list of old makers and some 
inaccuracies corrected. Several items of information in connection 
with this Hst I have obtained from the collection of tradesmen's 
cards owned by the Hon. Gerald Ponsonby, who allowed me free 
access to this most interesting record. A perusal of the Banks 
collection of tradesmen's cards at the British Museum has also 
elicited particulars not to be met with in ordinary channels. Mr. 
J. E. Hodgkin, F.S.A., furnished me with a hst of the clock and 
watchmakers in his collection, which proved a useful check in several 
instances. Mr. C. H. Read, of the British Museum, has given me 
every possible help in going over the unsurpassed display of time- 
keepers in his charge, for the purpose of revising the references 
thereto. A similar favour in respect of the collection at South 
Kensington Museum has been accorded by Mr. A. B. Skinner. 

I have to acknowledge the kindness of many owners of old time- 
keepers who permitted me to inspect their treasures. In particular t. 
should mention Mr. Albert Schloss, who has choice examples of 
every period ; he placed the whole of them in my hands for examina- 
tion, and of these between sixty and seventy have been selected 
for illustration. 

April, 1899. 




Solar Time — Cycle of the Sun — Sidereal Time — Duration of a Year — Golden 
Number — Epact — -Number of Direction — Roman Indiction — Julian 
Period — Meridian Dials — Horizontal Sun-Dial — Portable Dial — 
Clepsydrae — Wick and Lamp Timekeepers — King Alfred — Sand Glass . 



Early Clocks — Jacks — St. Paul 's — -Westminster — Rouen — Glastonbury — 
Wimborne — De Vick — ^Palais de Justice — ^Foliot or Verge — Exeter — 
Oxford — Strassburg — ^Liibeck — -Heavenly Calendar Dial — Hans of Jena 
— Fifteenth Century Clocks — Anne Boleyn — Hampton Court — Fine — ■ 
Habrecht — Lyons — Venice . . . . . . . .17 



Robert Bruce — ^Henlein — ^Early Examples — Zech — Mainspring and Fusee- 
Octagonal — Nef — Dresden — Pendulum — Balance-Spring — Alarm 
— Automata — Bacchus — Crucifix — Elizabeth — Mary of Scots — Death's- 
head — Tambourine Case — Spherical Watch — Astronomical Watch — 
Book — Padlock — Lion — Cruciform — Fancy Shapes — TuUp — Poppy — 
Floral — Olive — Ring extremely Diminutive — Horn^ — ^Butterfly — Oc- 
tagonal — Reputed Whiting — Square Steel — Oval — Holbein — Salt-cellar 62 



Cromwell — Watch Glasses — Chatelaines — Cases — Enamel — Pair Cases — 
Chasing — RepoiissS — Steel — Carnehan — ■ Tortoise-shell — Bull's-eye 
— ^Watch Papers — Engine-turning — Parti-coloured Gold — Dials — Early 
Minute Indicators — Hands — Changing Hour-Figures — Fencing Soldiers 
— Pendulum Watches — Musical Watches — Moving Figures — Pearl 
Decoration — Souvenir Watch — Travelhng Watches — Watch Keys . 168 

xii Contents 




Cratzer — News am — Bull — Nouwen — Garret — Grin kin — Henche — 
Flood — North — Crayle — Alcock — • Ramsay — Partridge — The 
Clockmakers' Company — East — Jones — Barlow — Betts — Tompion 
— Graham — Quare — Fromanteel — Hooke — Huygens — Barrow — 
Knibb — Harrj-s — Bradley — Elhcott — Sully — Harrison — Pinch- 
beck — Mudge — Arnold — Earnshaw — Ascertaining the Longitude at 
Sea by means of the Chronometer — Vulhamy — Cla^- — Ferguson — Jen- 
kins — Margetts — Breguet — Equation Clocks — Enderhn — Lichfield 
Clock — Bridges — Lovelace — Cox — Horstmann — Fan Clocks . . 249 



Early Records — Paris Guild — BouUe or Buhl Work — Clocks at Windsor 
Castle — Marot — ^]\Iartinot — Le Roy — Lepaute — ZMantel Clocks — Hang- 
ing or Cartel Clocks — Thuret — Courtois — Courvoisier — Gudin — Le Xoir 
^Robin — Leguesse — Dauthiau — Passement — Sohans — Berthoud 
— Lepine — Bailly I'Aine — Porcelain Cases — Orrery^ Clock — Glass Plate 
Calendar Clock — Symbohcal Clock Hands — Itahan Cartel Timepieces — 
Mystery Clocks — Falhng Ball — Grolher de Ser\nere — RoUing Ball — 
Atlas — -Globes — Urns — Vases — ]Marie Antoinette — Falconet — Three 
Graces — Negress Head — Rolling Clock — Schmidt's Mystery Clock — 
Fan-shaped Clock — Bird Cage — Magnetic Timekeepers- — Congreve 
Clock — Japanese Clocks . . . . . . . . . 404 



Lantern Clocks — Bob Pendulum — Bowyer — Knif ton — Dyde — Frets — 
Sheep's Head Clocks — Hood Clocks — Long-Case Clocks— Smith — 
Clement — Dials — Prime — Tompion — Clay — Cornerpieces of Various 
Periods — Further Examples of Dials and Hands — Cases — Examples — 
Marquetry — Oriental Lacquer — Chippendale — Sheraton- — Bracket or 
Pedestal Clocks — Basket Top — Bell Top — Engraved Back Plates — 
Musical Clocks — Broken Arch — Balloon — Lancet — Taxes on Clocks — 
Winged Mercury^ — Act of Pariiament Clocks — Hogarth . . • 476 



Pendulum — Striking Work — Watch Movements — Pendulum \\'atches — 
Balance-Springs — Hog's Bristle — Hooke — Huygens — Tompion — 
Barrow — Le Count — Enamelled Balance Covers — \A'atch Cocks — Pillars 
— Escapements — Watch Jewelhng— Compensation^ — ^ Winding Mechan- 
ism — Self-Winding — Pedometer-\^'inding — Repeating ^^'atches — 
^Musical Watches— Hall Marks 599 



INDEX 809 



AS denned by the title, onr subject maybe said to begin with the 
introduction of clocks ; and, although primitive methods of 
timekeeping should not, perhaps, be passed over without 
notice, it will be unnecessary to make more than a brief reference to 
them. It may be convenient and useful to begin with some 
explanation of the various time standards. 

Solar Time. — A solar day is the period wliich elapses between 
two successive returns of the sun to the meridian. The instant the 
sun is seen at its greatest height above the horizon it is true midday, 
which sometimes takes place 16 min. 18 sec. sooner, and at others 
14 min. 28 sec. later, than twelve o'clock mean time. The diurnal 
rotation of the earth on its axis might naturally be supposed to bring 
each place to the meridian at regular intervals ; this would be nearly 
the case if the earth had no other movement ; but it advances at the 
same time in its orbit, and as the meridians are not perpendicular to 
the ecHptic, the days are not of equal duration. Tliis may be easily 
perceived b}^ placing a mark at every 15° of the equator and echptic 
on a terrestrial globe, as, by turning it to the westward, the marks on 
the echptic, from Aries to Cancer, will come to the brazen meridian 
sooner than the corresponding ones on the equator, those from Cancer 
to Libra later, from Libra to Capricornus sooner, and from Capricornus 
to Aries later ; the marks on the echptic and equator only coming to 
the meridian together at Aries, Cancer, Libra, and Capricornus. True 
and mean time do not agree, though, on the days in which the sun enters 
these signs, in March, June, September, and .December, for the earth 
moves with greater rapidity in December, when it is nearer the sun, 
than it does in July, when it is farther from it. The regularity of the 
earth's motion is also further disturbed by the attraction of the moon, 
Venus, and Jupiter. True and mean agree about the 25th December, 
15th April, 14th June, and 31st August ; these coincidences vary 

2 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

slightly in different years, because the earth takes about a quarter of a 
day more than a year to complete a revolution in its orbit, and this 
error accumulates from leap year till the fourth year, when the extra 
day is taken in. 

Sun-dials mark apparent time, while clocks measure equal or mean 
time ; if, therefore, a timekeeper, perfectly regular in its motion, were 
set to apparent solar time, it would be found to agree with it only on 
four days in the year. 

Cycle of the Sun. — A cycle of the sun is a period of twenty-eight 
years, after which the days of the week again fall on the same days of 
the month as during the first year of the former cycle. The cycle of the 
sun has no relation to the sun's course, but was invented for the 
purpose of finding the Dominical Letter which points out the days of 
the month on which the Sundays fall during each year of the cycle. 

Sidereal Time. — Sidereal time, the standard used by astronomers, 
is measured by the diurnal rotation of the earth, which turns on its 
axis in 23 hours 56 min. 4T sec. The sidereal day is therefore 3 min. 
56 sec. less than the mean solar day, and a clock to show sidereal time 
must have its pendulum a trifle shorter than a mean-time clock with 
the same train. 

Mean-time clocks can be regulated by the stars with greater facility 
than by the sun, for the motion of the earth with regard to the fixed 
stars is uniform, and a star will always appear at the meridian 3 min. 
56 sec. sooner than it did on the preceding day. In the absence of 
a transit instrument and a table giving the right ascension of particular 
stars, choose a window having a southern aspect, from which the 
steeple of a church, a chimney, or any other fixed point may be seen. 
To the side of the window attach a thin plate of brass having a small 
hole in it, in such a manner that by looking through the hole towards 
the edge of the elevated object, some of the fixed stars may be seen ; the 
progress of one of these being watched, the instant it vanishes behind 
the fixed point a signal is made to a person observing the clock, who 
then notes the exact time at which the star disappeared, and on the 
following night the same star will vanish beliind the same object 3 min. 
56 sec. sooner. If a clock mark ten hours when the observation is 
made, when the star vanishes the following night is should indicate 

3 min. 56 sec. less than ten hours. If cloudy nights intervene and 
render it impossible to compare the clock with the star, it will be 
necessary to multiply 3 min. 56 sec. by the number of days that have 
elapsed since the previous observation. The same star can only be 
observed during a few weeks. Care must be taken that a planet is not 
observed instead of a star. The planets may, however, be 

Time and Early Time Recorders 3 

distinguished, for being conaparatively near the earth, they appear 
larger than the stars ; their Hght also is steady because reflected, while 
the fixed stars scintillate and have a twinkhng hght. 

Duration of a Year. — The sidereal year starts with the spring 
equinox, when the sun enters the sign Aries, that is, when the sun 
crosses from the south to the north of the equator. The earth in its 
revolution round the sun makes rather over 366 rotations or 366 
sidereal days, wliich are equal to 365 solar days. The sidereal year 
is equal to 365 days 6 hours 9 min. 11 sec, nearly, of mean solar time. 
The earth, on the completion of its revolution, returns to the same 
place among the stars, but not exactly at the spring equinox, owing 
to the precession of the equinoxes, so in order that the year may 
accord with the seasons the sidereal year is disregarded in favour of 
the equinoctial, tropical or solar year, taken as 365 days 5 hours 
48 min. 48 sec. Among the Romans no regular account was taken 
of the difference between the year and 365 days till B.C. 45. Then 
the surplus was reckoned as six hours, making one day in four years 
and one day was accordingly added to every fourth year. There still 
remained the apparently trifling difference of 11 min. 11 sec. between 
the civil and the tropical year ; this, however, produced an error of 
about seven days in 900 years. In 1582, Pope Gregory XII. struck 
out ten days, which represented the accumulated error, from the 
calendar, and it was decided that three leap years should be omitted 
every 400 years ; thus, as 1600 was leap year, the years 1700, 1800, 
and 1900 were not, but 2000 will be leap year. This rectification 
was not adopted in England till 1752, when eleven days were omitted 
from the calendar. As our year still exceeds the true year, although 
by an extremely small fraction, another leap year in addition to those 
should be omitted once in 4,000 years. 

There is a distinction to be noticed between the sign Aries and the 
constellation of that name. The first point of the sign Aries or the 
equinoctial point V is the zero from which the right ascension, or 
longitude, of celestial bodies is measured, just as Greenwich is an 
initial meridian for measuring the longitude ol terrestrial places. 
Ancient astronomers called it the first point of Aries because in their 
time the phrase correctly described its position, but the vernal equinox 
retrogrades SOJ seconds of a degree each year, and so the first point 
of Aries is now really in the constellation Pisces. The moment the 
point ^ passes the meridian it is sidereal noon, and sidereal time would 
then be hour min. sec. 

The civil year began on 25th March before 1752, when the present 
reckoning for the year to commence on 1st January was adopted. 

4 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The Golden Number.— -Meton, an Athenian astronomer, B.C. 
432, discovered that after a period of nineteen years the new and full 
moons returned on the same days of the month as they had done 
before ; this period is called the cycle of the moon. The Greeks 
thought so highly of this calculation, that they had it written in 
letters of gold, hence the name Golden Number ; and at the Council 
of Nice, A.D. 325, it w^as determined that Meton's cycle should be 
used to regulate the movable feasts of the Church. 

The Epact. — The Epact serves to find the moon's age by showing 
the number of days which must be added to each lunar year, in order 
to complete a solar year. A lunar month is composed of 29 days 
12 hours 44 min. 3 sec, or rather more than 29-5 days ; 12 lunar 
months are, therefore, nearly 11 days short of the solar year — thus, the 
new moons in one year will fall 11 days earlier than they did in the 
preceding year, so that were it new moon on 1st January, it would be 
nearly 11 days old on the 1st of January of the ensuing year, and 
22 days on the third year ; on the fourth year it would be 33 ; but 
30 days are taken off as an intercalary month (the moon having made 
a revolution in that time), and the remaining would be the Epact; 
the Epact thus continues to vary, until, at the expiration of 19 years, 
the new moons again return in the same order as before. 

The Number of Direction. — The Council of Nice decided that 
Easter Day is always the first Sunday after the full moon which 
happens upon or next after the 21st of March. In 463 it was decreed 
that instead of the actual full moon the fourteenth day of the moon 
should be considered the paschal moon. Easter Day cannot take place 
earHer than the ?2nd of March or later than the 25th of April. The 
Number of Direction is that day of the thirty-five on which Easter 
Sunday falls. 

The Roman Indiction. — The Roman Indiction was a period of 
fifteen years, appointed a.d. 312 by the Emperor Constantine for the 
payment of certain taxes. 

The Julian Period. — The Juhan Period of 7,980 years is the: 
product obtained by multiplying together 29, 19, and 15, wliich 
numbers represent the c\xles of the sun, the moon, and the Roman 
Indiction. The beginning of the Juhan Period is reckoned from 
709 before the creation of the world, so that its completion will occur 
A.D. 3267, until which time there cannot be two years having the same 
numbers for three cycles. 

Timekeepers are more immediately concerned with the sub- 
divisions of a day. The Persians divided the day into twenty-four 

Time and Early Time Recorders 

hours, starting from sunrise ; the Athenians began the day at sunset ; 
the present civil day begins at midnight, and is divided into two 
equal periods of twelve hours each, but astronomers reckon from noon 
and count the hours continuously from 1 to 24. 

Sun-Dials. — The simplest form of sun-dial, and a useful one for 
setting a timekeeper when no standard is available for comparison, is 
one for showing when the sun is on the meridian. With a timekeeper 
showing mean time and an equation table, a meridian line may, of 
course, be at once traced for future reference. In the absence of 
these, the following, which are practically Ferguson's instructions, 
may be followed : " Make four or five concentric circles, a quarter 
of an inch from one another, on a flat stone, and let the outmost 
circle be but little less than the stone will contain. Fix a pin 
perpendicularly in the centre, and of 
such a length that its whole shadow 
may fall within the innermost circle 
for at least four hours in the middle 
of the day. The stone being set 
exactly level, in a place where the 
sun shines, suppose from eight in the 
morning till four in the afternoon, 
about which hours the end of the 
shadow should fall without all the 
circles ; watch the times in the fore- 
noon when the extremity of the 
shortening shadow just touches the several circles, and there make 
marks. Then, in the afternoon of the same day, watch the lengthen- 
ing shadow, and where its end touches the several circles, in going 
over them, make marks also. With a pair of compasses, find exactly 
the middle points between the two marks on any circle, and draw 
a straight line from the centre to that point, which line will be 
covered at noon by the shadow of the pin." 

By observation the hours of the morning and afternoon may also 
be marked on the meridian dial, and it will be noticed that, although 
the position of the hour immediately preceding corresponds with the 
one immediately after noon, these divisions will not aswer for any of 
the remaining hours. 

Curious Meridian Dial. — The very ingeniously contrived meri- 
dian dial shown on the next page and reproduced from " L'Horlogerie " 
by Joseph Rambal, formed part of St. Peter's Cathedral, Geneva, from 
1760 till the renovation of the building in 1894, and has since been 
restored on the initiative of the Society of Arts. The white spot in 

Fig. I. — Meridian Dial. 

6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the centre of the disc's shadow not only indicates accurately solar noon 
when it is bisected by the central vertical line, but also approxi- 
mately mean solar noon when it is centrally over a hne of the 
figure-of-8 loop which allows for the equation of time on each 
particular day. The full line of the loop serves from June to 
December, and the dotted line during the complement of the year. 
As the year is not made up of a complete number of days, and a 

Fig. 2. — Curious INIeridian Dial. 

day is interpolated every fourth year, the exact equation in each year 
of the four is different ; still the approximate equation would be 
practically sufficient for all but scientific purposes. 

The art of dialhng is somewhat complex. A glance at the figure 
on the next page will show why, except for places on the equator, the 
hour spaces are not all equal. A slln-dial may be regarded as a circle 
round the earth, or as the edge of a disc which passes through the 

Time and Early Time Recorders 7 

centre of the earth from the spot wliere the dial is fixed, a, b, c, d, e, 
f, g, Szc, are longitudinal circles, representing the hours, b the spot 
where the dial is situated, d the corresponding latitude, p p the 
poles, and E the centre of the earth. 

A dial prepared for any particular place is useless for another place 
in a different latitude, with the exception that a horizontal dial for 
a certain latitude will be a vertical dial for a latitude which is the 
complement of the first, or what it wants of 90°. That is, a horizontal 
dial for our latitude of 51J° would have to be placed in a vertical 
position facing the south in latitude 38J°. 

Fig. 3. 

Horizontal Sun-Dial. — To set out a horizontal dial, first draw 
two hues parallel to each other, at a distance equal to the thickness of 
the gnomon which is to cast the shadow. Next, draw a hue at right 
angles to these, the extremities of which will indicate respectively the 
hours of six in the morning and six in the evening. Then, with A and 
B as centres (see Fig. 4), draw quadrants of circles, and divide each 
into 90°. Now assuming the dial to be for the latitude of London, 
lay a rule over b, and draw the first Hne through 1T|°, the second 
through 241°, third SSvV, fourth 531°, and fifth lljY. Proceed the 
same with the other side. Extend the afternoon hour hues of four and 
five across the dial, and these will form the morning hours, while eight 
and seven of the morning hours prolonged will give the same evening 
hours. To form the style or gnomon, draw a radial line through that 
degree of the quadrant which corresponds to the latitude = 51 J°. This 
will show the elevation of the style, wliich is here represented as if 
l3dng on the surface of the dial. The thickness of the style must be 

8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

equal to the distance between A and B. Place the style truly upright 
on the dial, and it is finished. 

A dial, or rather a series of dials of every conceivable description, 
forming a structure, as shown in Fig. 5, was erected at Whitehall in 
1669, by order of Charles II. It was the invention of Francis Hall, 
alias Line, a Jesuit and professor of mathematics at Liege. Vertical 
dials, incHning dials, and dials for showing time as computed by 
various nations at different periods were allincluded. 

Of these, the bowls or brackets appear to be the most attractive. 
One, on the first platform, to show the hour by fire, consisted of a httle 
glass bowl filled with clear water. This bowl was about 3 ins. 

Fig. 4. — Horizontal Sun-Dial. 

Fig 5. — ^Dials at Whitehall, 1669. 

diameter, placed in the middle of another sphere, about 6 ins. 
diameter, consisting of several iron rings or circles, representing the 
hour circles in the heavens. The hour was known by applying the 
hand to these circles when the sun shone, and that circle where you 
felt the hand burnt by the sunbeams passing through the bowl filled 
with water showed the true hour. 

This curious erection had no covering ; exposure to the elements 
and other destroying influences led to its speedy decay and subsequent 
demolition. The engraving is taken from the Mirror, vol. xiv. 

Portable Dials. — The commonest form of portable dial is shown in 
Fig. 6. When held to the sun, by means of the small ring at top, a ray 
of light passed through a tiny hole and impinged on the inner surface 
of the opposite side of the rim, which was engraved with numerals 

Time and Early Time Recorders 9 

corresponding to the hours of dayhght. The hole was formed in a 
sHde which covered a sht in the rim. The sHde could be moved higher 
or lower, and signs of the zodiac were engraved on the rim as a guide 
to its position in different months of the year. Dials of this sort 
were in general use during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
A small horizontal dial hke Fig. 4, but with a hinged style and a 
compass attached, formed a more costly pocket " horologium." 
Fig. 7 is a Bronze Octagonal Portable Sun-dial and Compass. 
Made by Butterfield, an Englishman, who settled in Paris in the year 
1720. It is from the collection of Mr. H. J. Heinz. 

Fig. 6. — Pocket Sun-dial. 







11* ''^ 






; 7*1 



"^K ■; " 

Fig. 7. — Portable Sun-dial and Compass. 

Clepsydrae, or Water Clocks. — These indicate intervals of time by the 
passage of water, and may be divided into two classes : the ancient 
recorders for hours of varying length, and the more simple instruments 
used during and after the seventeenth century, when equal hours were 

Clepsydrae are of remote antiquity. They were known by the 
Egyptians, in Judea, Babylon, Chaldea, and Phoenicia, but these 
contrivances for measuring time were of the simplest description. 
They appear to have consisted each of a basin filled with water 
and exposed in some niche or corner of a public place. At the 
extreme end of the vessel was a spout or tap, from wliich trickled the 
liquid, drop by drop, into a receiver having on its inside marks for 
indicating the hours of the day and night. 

10 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

In parts of Southern India was used a thin copper bowl about 
5 ins. in diameter, and rather deeper than a half sphere, ha\dng a very 
small hole in the bottom. The bowl, placed in a vessel containing 
water and floating thereon, gradually filled. At the expiration of an 
arranged interval it sank, and a boy or other watcher then struck 
a gong, and thus announced the time. The Brahmins divided the day 
into 60 hours of 24 minutes each, and, I am told, used a timekeeper of 
tliis sort which sank in twenty-four minutes. One of the bowls wliich 
is among the collection of the Horological Institute sinks after the 
lapse of forty-five minutes with tolerable accuracy, but the time 
is varied somewhat with the temperature of the water. 

A form of clepsydra, said to have 
been in use in Egypt about 300 B.C., 
is shown in Fig. 8, for which I am 
indebted to Dr. Pearson's article in 
Rees' " Cyclopaedia." A supply of 
water ran through the pipe h into 
the cone A, and from there dropped 
into the cyHnder E. A conical 
stopper B regulated the flow, and 
the superfluous water escaped by 
the waste-pipe i. The Egyptians 
divided the period between sunrise 
and sunset into twelve equal hours, 
so that the conical stopper had to be 
adjusted each day, and marks for 
every day in the year, and for the 
particular latitude of the place, 
were cut on the stalk d as a guide 
to the position of the stopper. A 
floating piston terminating in a 
rack served to actuate a pinion, to 
the arbor of which an hour liand was fixed. 

In Fig. 9 is sliown an improved clepsydra, constructed so that its 
aperture is adjusted as the year advances by the putting of an index to 
the sun's place in an ecliptic circle. It consists, first, of a reservoir a, 
to the top of which is attached a waste-pipe to carry off the superfluous 
water, and thus keep it at the same level. A pipe b projects from 
this vessel into the rim of a drum M N, on the front of which is a circle 
with the signs of the ecHptic engraved thereon. A smaller drum o f l 
passes within the large one, having attached to it an index. This 
drum has a groove or slot a h cut through it, tapering in breadth both 

A form oi Clepsydra, about 300 B.C. 

Time and Early Time Recorders 


ways to a point. When in its place, this tapering groove comes just 
under the orifice of the pipe leading from the reservoir. This inner 
drum turns on a pipe or tube F, which is continued within and has 
a funnel at the end (not seen) for receiving the water as it drops 
through the groove in the drum. The index is double, L for day 
and o for night, and it will be evident that, as it is turned, the 
capacity of the orifice is altered, and the water passes more or less 
rapidly through the pipe. The ecliptic being properly divided, 
the hand was set to the proper sign in which the sun then was, and 
was altered as he shifted round the ecliptic. The water, thus 
regulated, dropped into a cylindrical vessel h, within which was a 
float I, connected by a chain passing over a pulley on an arbor p, 

Fig. 9. — An Improved Clepsydra. 

and having a counterpoise K at its other end. This pulley carried 
an index which pointed out the hours on a circle. 

The next is ascribed to Ctesibius, about 200 B.C. It was a self- 
adjusting machine, and is shown in Fig. 10. The water dropped into 
a funnel a, from the eyes of a figure placed over it, and connected 
with a full reservoir, thus ensuring a constant pressure. The tube 
conveyed the water into an open cyhnder with a float and a hght 
pillar c attached. On the top of this pillar a human figure is placed, 
wliich points to the divisions on a large column. As the water rises 

12 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

in the cylinder, it also rises in the small tube or short leg of a syphon 
FEE, till it reaches the top, when it flows over the bent part, and 
quickly empties the cylinder, bringing down the float, and with it the 
index to the starting point. So far it would have measured hours 
of equal length ; but the Egyptian method required some further 
contrivance to accommodate it to hours of varying length. This w^as 
done by drawing the divisions around the large column out of a 
horizontal line, so as to vary in their distance on different sides. The 

Fig. 10. — 
Self-adjusting Clepsydra, about 200 B.C. 

Fig. II. — 

Clepsydra ol the Seventeenth Century. 

water as it came from the syphon fell into a chambered drum k, 
which turned with the weight as each compartment became filled. On 
the axis of this drum was placed a pinion-gearing with a contrate 
wheel I, which, by another pinion h, turned a wheel G, to the axis l 
of which the column was fixed. The fines were drawn slanting round 
the column to suit the hours of varying length throughout the year. 
The clepsydra was introduced into Greece by Plato. The introduction 
of the cleps^^dra into Rome took place about 157 B.C., by Scipio Nascia. 

Time and Early Time Recorders 


Pliny tells us that Pompey brought a valuable one among the spoils 
from the Eastern nations, which he made use of for Hmiting the 
speeches of the Roman orators. JuHus Caesar met with an instrument 
of the kind in England, by the help of which he observed that the 
summer nights of this country are shorter than they are in Italy. 

With the decadence of Rome, when orators had certain periods of 
time allotted to them in the law courts for accusation or defence, the 
clepsydra was often, it is said, tampered with in the interest of par- 
ticular suitors by adding to or subtracting from the wax used in the 
lawful regulation of the flow of water, or by using the fluid in an 
impure condition. 

In 807 a water clock of bronze inlaid with gold was presented by 
the King of Persia to Charlemagne. Gifford in his history of France 

Fig. 12. — Section of Drum. 

Fig. 13. — Front View. Fig. 14. — Side View 

says : "The dial was composed of twelve small doors, wliich repre- 
sented the hours ; each door opened at the hour it was intended to 
represent, and out of it came the same number of httle balls, which fell 
one by one, at equal intervals of time, on a brass drum. It might be 
told by the eye what hour it was by the number of doors that were 
open, and by the ear by the number of balls that fell. When it was 
twelve o'clock twelve horsemen in miniature issued forth at the same 
time and shut all the doors.'' 

Hamburger, in Beckmann's " History of Inventions," dates the 
re\dval of clepsydrae to some time between 1643 and 1646 ; and 
Dr. Hutton asserts that in 1693 the first water clock was brought to 
Paris from Burgundy. 

Fig. 11 represents a clepsydra of the seventeenth centur}^ consisting 

14 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

of an oblong frame of wood, A B c D, to the upper part of which two 
cords are fixed, their lower ends being wound round the axis of the 
druna E. The drum is shown in section at Fig. 12. It has seven 
water-tight metallic portions, F /, G ^, h h, i i, Yi k, 1.1, and m m. If 
the cord be wound around the axis until the drum rises to the top of 
the frame, and the drum be left to obey the force of gravity, it will 
tend to fall, and the cord resisting this tendency will cause it to rotate 
rapidly as it descends. But if water is introduced into the vessel, it 
will be retained in certain parts by these partitions, and, one side being 
heavier than the other, the tendency to rotate will be counteracted,and 
the drum will remain stationary. If now a small hole is pierced near 
the bottom of each cell, the water will slowly ooze from one cell into 
another, thus reducing the opposing weight of water, and causing the 
drum slowly to rotate. The rate of motion being properly regulated 
by altering the size of the apertures, the axis will point out the hours 
on the side of the frame ; or a cord c d, with a weight f, may be made 
to pass over a pulley attached to an arbor bearing an index or hand to 
point out the hours on an engraved or painted ring. A night clock, 
with transparent dial, on this principle, by Arnold Finchett of Cheap- 
side, is in the British Museum, the date assigned to it being 1735. 

The sealed water drum with partitions was utilised in another way 
which was described in "Engineering" some years ago, and will be 
understood on reference to the front and side views (Figs. 13 and 14). 
The drum A is suspended from two cords e e. An index placed loosely 
on the end of the arbor a is weighted at its lower end p. A grooved 
pulley b is fixed to the arbor, and on it hangs the hour ring r which is 
carried round by its adhesion to the pulley b. 

The construction of clepsydrae, sand glasses, and weight clocks went 
on contemporaneously for a long period. With the introduction of 
the pendulum, clocks were made in which water acted as the motor 
and a pendulum as the controller. Such a clock was invented by 
Perrault in 1699. At the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, I remember 
seeing, a few years ago, a water-driven clock with a revolving 
pendulum, which was used for driving the equatorial telescope. Water 
at a pressure escaping from holes in a pair of horizontal arms caused 
the arms to revolve. One of the earliest steam engines was made on 
this principle ; a similar contrivance, under the name of a sparger, has 
long been used by brewers to sprinkle water on their malt, and more 
recently a sprinkler of the same kind has been adopted for watering 

Wick and Lamp Timekeepers. — Among the primitive time- 

Time and Early Time Recorders 


keepers adopted by Chinese and Japanese was a kind of wick about 
two feet in length, made of material resembling flax or hemp, which 
underwent some process, so that when ignited it would smoulder 
without breaking into a flame. Knots were tied at particular dis- 
tances, and the effluxion of time estimated as the sections between 
the knots smouldered away. Mons. Plan- 
chon, of Paris, has one of these curiosities, 
which I am assured is a genuine relic. 

Asser narrates how King Alfred, who 
reigned from 871 to 901, contrived a time- 
keeper consisting of wax candles twelve 
inches long with marks an inch apart. 
Each candle burnt for four hours. The 
king, finding the time varied owing to the 
guttering of the candle, then devised a 
lantern of white horn scraped thin so as 
to be transparent. This is an unsatis- 

factory story. Having to provide and 
light a fresh candle every four hours was 
a clumsy device, costly to maintain and 
not so accurate in action as the clepsydra, 
which was certainly known in England at 
the time. 

In " Le Passe-Temps " of Jehan L'Hermite, 
who was born at Antwerp in 1560, and 
died at Madrid in 1622, having served as 
Gentleman of the Chamber to Philippe II, 
of Spain, mention is made of a lamp 
timekeeper to show the hours at night as 
among the contents of liis royal master's 
room. Fig. 15 is a drawing of what 
appears to be a similar instrument in the 
Schloss collection. On a stand of pewter 
is a glass reservoir, fastened with longitudinal 
shps of pewter, on one of which are cast 
the hour numerals from III at the top downwards to XII and 
tlien from I to VIII, thus covering the period of darkness during 
winter. From the base of the reservoir extends a nose to receive 
the wick, which, when alight, illuminates the hour hand and the 

Lamp timekeepers of this kind were, I am told, to be met with 

,FiG. 15. — 
Lamp Timekeeper. 

1 6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

occasionally in German and Dutch outlying country dwelling still a 
coniparatively recent date. 

Sand Glasses. — These, consisting of two glass bulbs joined by 
an intervening neck, measure a prearranged period by the falling of 
fine sand from the upper into the lower bulb. The invention of 
clepsammia, as they are called by several writers, is ascribed to 
Luitprand, a monk of Chartres, who at the end of the eighth century 

resuscitated the art of 
blowing glass. As al- 
ready related, Charle- 
magne in 807 received 
from Persia a magni- 
ficent clepsydra. He 
then ordered to be 
made an immense 
sablier, or sand glass, 
with the horal divi- 
sions marked on the 
outside and which re- 
quired to be turned 
once only in twelve 
hours. Sand glasses 
perform with a re- 
markable approach to 
accuracy and from 
this time became 
popular, especially in 
France. In Fig. 16 is 
shown a handsome set 
of sand glasses of the 
seventeenth century, for the photograph of which I am indebted to 
Mr. Hansard Watt. Great care seems to have been taken in the 
preparation of the sand. According to a prescription in " Le 
Menagier de Paris," " pour faire sablon a mettre es orloges," 
ground black marble dust was to be boiled in wine, and, after being 
thoroughly dried, to be ground again, the process to be repeated 
about nine times. 

To this day a sand glass is used in the House of Com,mons to 
measure certain intervals, and in comparatively recent times it was 
not uncommon to see a preacher, as he began his discourse, turn a 
sand glass attached to the pulpit. 

Fig. i6.— Set of Sand Glasses. 


SO many vague and contradictory records exist as to the inven- 
tion of clocks composed of an assemblage of wheels actuated 
by a weight, that any attempt to fix the exact date of their 
introduction would be mere guesswork. 

According to the " Anthologia " quoted by E. M. Antoniadi, the 
Byzantine Emperor, Justin 11., and his wife Sophia, in the sixth 
century offered to the building called the Basilica of Constantinople 
a horologium in which " the ingeniously devised brass was beating 
the hours from one to twelve." In the tenth century the Byzantine 
Emperor, Constantine VIL, mentions " a small silver horologium 
which must stand in the chamber, and another one of brass which 
must stand where the chamberlains are residing." 

It is claimed that Pacificus, Archdeacon of Verona, who died in 
the middle of the ninth century, devised a clock which Bailly, in his 
" History of Modern Astronomy," considers was furnished with an 
escapement ; but this is not substantiated, and other authorities 
decide that it was a water clock. Charlemagne's clepsydra which 
sounded the hours is also sometimes erroneously referred to as a 
weight clock. 

In Stow's " Chronicles," under date 606, it is stated : " This year 
dyed St. Gregory ; he commanded clocks and dials to be set up in 
churches to distinguish the houres of the day." These were probably 
sun-dials, and Stow's introduction of the word clocks is therefore 
unwarranted. The Latin " horologium " or the Italian " orologio " 
was used indiscriminately for sun-dials, clepsydrae, and other time- 
keepers. Clocks other than sun-dials were also designated nocturnal 
dials to distinguish them from those which showed the hour by the 
solar shadow only. 

Havard says there is hardly a word in the French language that 
underwent so many transformations as the word horloge. It assumed 
in turn reloge, oroloige, orloge, oreloge, ologe, and even auloge, before 
arriving at horloge. In an inventory of Charles V. made in 1380, 
a reference is found of " ung grand orloge de mer," consisting of 

1 8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

" deux grans fiolles (flasks) plains de sablon." In other words, an 
hour glass. 

The French equivalent for dial has been for several centuries 
cadran. But at one time, heurier, from heure, the hour, appears 
to have served. Richard, Archbishop of Reims, at the Chateau de 
Porte Mars, in 1389, refers to " ung petit orloge a ung heurier de 
cuivre peint en vert, prix IIII. livres p.," that is, a small clock 
with a dial of copper painted in green colour, price 4 livres parisis. 

Gerbert, a monk, afterwards Pope Sylvester II., placed a clock 
in Magdeburg Cathedral at the end of the tenth, century; .but 
Dithnaar declares it was only a kind of sun-dial ; other writers 
consider Gebert to be the originator of the escapement. What- 
ever may be inferred, there is no absolute proof that an escapement 
was constructed for inore than two centuries after Gerbert' s time, 
though it is pretty certain that clocks of some sort existed in 
cathedrals and monastries during the twelfth and thirteenth 

The word " clock," whether derived from the Saxon clugga, the 
Teutonic glocke, the Latin glocio, or the French cloche, signified " a 
bell," and there is reason to suppose that many of the early efforts 
consisted merely of a bell sounded at regular intervals by hand, the 
instant of ringing being determined by a sun-dial or sand-glass. 

In monasteries prayers were recited at certain fixed hours of the 
night as well as of the day, and as the monks were not alwaj^s un- 
fettered by sleep at the needful moment, this horloge or alarm 
was probably invented to rouse the drowsy religieux to a due sense 
of his duties. In the " Rule " of the monks of Citeaux, drawn up 
about 1120, and quoted by Calmet, the duty is prescribed to the 
sacristan of so adjusting the abbey clock that it may strike and 
awake the monks for matins. Durandus, in the thirteenth century, 
alludes to the clock as one of the essential features of a church. 
Dante, who was born in 1265 and died in 1321, mentions an 
" orologia " which struck the hours ; and Chaucer, who was born in 
1328 and died in 1400, speaks of the cock crowing as regularly as 
clock or abbey horologe. 

Berthoud considered it likely that a revolving fly was used as a 
controller prior to the invention of an escapement. 

Captain Smyth, R.N. (Archceologia, vol. xxxiii.), suggests tliat 
John Megestein of Cologne, who is spoken of as having improved 
clocks in the fourteenth century, was possibty the inventor of the 
escapement. Still it is only surmise. 

Weight Clocks 19 

An early clock often referred to is the one which was presented by 
Saladin of Egypt to the Emperor Frederick II. of Germany, in the 
year 1232. It is described as resembling internally a celestial globe, 
in which figures of the sun, moon, and other planets, formed with 
the greatest skill, moved, being impelled by weights and wheels. 
There were also the twelve signs of the zodaic, with appropriate 
characters, which moved with the firmament. 

In 1359 John II. of France, then a prisoner in London, desirous of 
measuring the time, addressed himself to " the King of the Minstrels," 
to whom was delegated the task of entertaining this royal personage, 
and in the " Journal de la depense du roy Jean " the following 
occurred : " Dymenche XII. jour de Janvier le roy des menestereulx, 
sur la fagon de I'auloge qu'il fait pour le roy, VII. nobles valent CXIII. 
sols X. deniers et a promis que parmi cette somme et XX sols, qui 
paravant li ont este baiUier le VI. de Janvier, il rendra I'auloge parfait," 
the translation of which is that on the 12th January, Sunday, the king 
of the minstrels was paid for making a clock for the King seven 
" nobles " worth 113 sous and 10 derniers, and promised, having 
already been lent on the 6th January the sum of 20 sous, to deliver the 
clock in perfect condition. 

Jacks. — Mechanical figures for striking the hour on bells seem to 
have been in use before the introduction of dials, and they proved to 
be a lasting attraction. There was, prior to 1298, a clock at St. 
Paul's Cathedral with such figures ; and Decker, in his " Gull's Horn- 
book," calls them " Paul's Jacks." In the accounts of the cathedral 
for the year 1286, allowances to Bartholomo Orologiario the clock- 
keeper are entered, namely, of bread at the rate of a loaf daily. In 
1344 the dean and chapter entered into a contract with Walter the 
Orgoner of Southwark to supply and fix a dial, from wliich it may be 
inferred that the clock previously had no dial. In Dugdale's history 
of the old cathedral the dial is referred to as follows : " Somewhat 
above the stonework of the steeple was a fine dial, for which there 
was order taken in the 18th of Edward III., that it should be made 
all splendour imaginable, which was accordingly done ; having the 
image of an angel pointing to the hours both of the day and night." 
The dial was placed below the " Jacks," which were not ousted from 
office, but continued to strike the hour with their accustomed 
regularity. Decker says "the time of St. Paul's goes truer by five 
notes than St. Sepulchre's chimes." 

Other writers confirm the supposition that dials were absent from 
most of the early clocks. M, Viollet-le-Duc (" Dictionnaire Raisonne 

20 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

de r Architecture Fran9aise ") observes that from the twelfth to the 
fourteenth century no space was arranged in the towers of churches 
for dials wliich could be seen at a distance. The earhest dials, he says 


Fig. 17. — Jacquemarts at Dijon. 

18. — " Jack the S miter, 
Southwold Church. 

were covered by smaU projecting roofs and made either of wood or lead 
and decorated in colours. 

Froissart, who had an affection for clocks, speaks of one which 
existed at Courtray prior to 1370 as the largest which had then been 
made. It was brought from thence with other spoils of war in 1382, 
by Phihp, Duke of Burgundy, who presented it to the people of Dijon. 

Weight Clocks 


The clock was surmounted with his crest, and set up at Dijon in a 
tower of the Church of Notre Dame. In a turret over it were a bell 
and the figures of a man and woman, one on each side, which struck 
the hours, as shown in Fig. 17. To the present day these automata 
are locally jacquemarts, and G. Peignot, author of a dissertation 
on them, contended that they received their name from Jacquemart, a 
clock and lock maker of Lille, who was employed by the Duke of 
Burgundy in the year 1442. The appellation, however, seems to be 
merely a corruption of J accomarchiadus, i.e., a man in a suit of armour. 














91 ' flJl 


^%JNK!^'- Ili^HB 







«» ^^m.^^^^^.^.^ 


Fig. ig. — Jacks at Rye. 

During the Middle Ages it was the custom tc place as sentries on the 
belfries on tops of towers mailed men to watch over the safety of castles 
and towers, and their office was to give alarm at the approach of an 
enemy,, a fire, or other disturbing event. And at many castles in 
Europe till quite late in the seventeenth century a trumpeter was 
posted on a tower to announce by a blast on his instrument the time 
of day for meals to be served. 

In Fig. 18 is shown a " Jack " which, though not on active service, 
is still in Southwold Church. It is an oak figure, 3 ft. 6 ins. in 
height, of a man clad in armour, and is said to date from early in 

22 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the fifteenth century. Locally it is known as " Jack the Smiter." The 
engraving is from a photograph by Mr. J. Martyn, Southwold. At 
the Parish Church, Rye, Sussex, is a clock said to have been the gift 
of Queen EHzabeth. This may be so, but the hands are certainly of 

much later date, and the move- 
ment has undergone reconstruc- 
tion, for it is now fitted with a 
pendulum which beats but once 
in two seconds and a half, and 
projects below the clock into 
the church. Fig. 19, from a 
photograph by Mr. W. L. F. 
Wastell, shows the dial sur- 
mounted by a canopy, under 
which stand two Jacks, which 
strike the quarters on small 
bells. Between these two 
figures, within an ornamental 
border, is a label thus inscribed : 
" For our time is a very shadow 
that passeih away. Wisdom i. 
5." An excellent representative 
of Striking Jacks exists at the 
Church of St. Mary Steps, 
Exeter ; there is a pair at York 
Cathedral, and a pair, from 
Glastonbury, at WelJs ; a pair, 
formerly on the eastern wall of 
St. Martin's Church, Oxford, 
has lately been restored and 
placed upon the tower of the 
church ; the quarters are struck 
by Jacks at All Saints' Church, 
Leicester, where the clock, 
which is said to date from the time of James I., was restored in 1899 ; 
in the tower of Holy Trinity Church, Bristol, which was demohshed in 
1787, was a pair ; and in a recess of the south aisle of Norwich 
Cathedral were two small Jacks which, actuated by wires from the 
clock, struck the quarters on adjacent bells. Of the Exeter Jacks, 
and two at the Church of St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, which were dear 
to Londoners of the last century, I shall be able to give engravings. 

Fig. 20. — Portable Clock, with 
striking Jack. 

Weight Clocks 23 

The peculiar clock shown in Fig. 20 appears to be a sixteenth- 
century production. There are three trains of wheels, all arranged to 
face the sides of the clock. The clock is 12 ins. wide, 11 ins. high, 
9 ins. from front to back, and 2ft. 2|-ins. from the bottom of the 
clock to the top of the figure. By means of wires at the back, which 
extend to levers actuated by the striking and quarter trains, the figure 
on top of the clock strikes the hours on the large bell with the large 
hammer in his hands, and at the quarters kicks the two small bells with 
his heels. 

In the early part of the fourteenth century, a large stone tower 
was built in Palace Yard, opposite to Westminster Hall, and a clock 
placed therein which struck every hour upon a great bell. There is 
a tradition that in the sixteenth year of the reign of Edward I. 
(1298) the Lord Chief Justice Randulphus de Hengham, having 
made an alteration in a record, was fined 800 marks by the king's 
order, and the money was applied to defray the cost of erecting a 
public clock opposite the entrance to Westminster Hall. The first 
official mention of Hengham's punishment extant appears to be in 
a Year Book of the time of Richard III., where it is stated that on 
an occasion when the king closeted the judges in the Inner Star 
Chamber to consider various points submitted to them, one of the 
judges cited the case of Hengham, and said the offence consisted of 
altering a record so that a poor defendant might have to pay but 
6s. 8d. instead of 13s. 4d., but nothing is said respecting the building 
of a clock. Stow, who was born in 1525 and died in 1605, in his 
" Account of Westminster " (vol. ii., p. 55) states 'that the clock was 
provided from Hengham's fine ; and the Hon. Daines Barrington, in 
an interesting letter to Mr. Justice Blackstone in 1778 [Archceologia, 
vol. v.), accepts the tradition, wliich is very possibly well founded, 
although it must be confessed that the evidence on the point is not 
conclusive. In an Issue Roll of the forty-fourth year of the reign 
of Edward III. is recorded the payment of two pounds to John 
Nicole, keeper of the great clock of the king within the Palace of 
Westminster, being his wages for eighty days at the rate of sixpence 
a da}/. In subsequent reigns further references are made to the 
keeper of this clock. In the first year of Henry V. was granted a 
patent to " Henricus Berton Valectus camerae Regis custos horologii 
Regis infra Palatium Westm. pro vita, cum feod. VI. dem per diem." 
Henry VI. entrusted its custody to William Warby, Dean of St. 
Stephen's, together with sixpence a day remuneration. The tower 
was standing in the time of Ehzabeth, for Judge Southcote mentions 

24 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the tradition, stating that the clock still remained which had been 
made out of the Chief Justice's fine. The engraving which I am 
enabled to give of this interesting erection is from the Mirror, vol. xi., 
which was published in 1825. The sketch is copied from an 
engraving by Hollar, who was born in 1607 and died in 1677. 
It doubtless represents the locality as it existed about the middle 
of the seventeenth century, shortly after which time the tower was 
pulled down, but the exact date of its destruction is unknown. 

Fig. 21. — Clock Tower in Palace Yard, Westminster. 

On the old Houses of Parhament, which were destroyed by fire 
in 1834, a dial on the second pediment of the buildings in Palace 
Yard marked the site, the remarkable motto on wliich, " Discite 
Justitiam Moniti," may be taken to relate to its origin. The clock 
tower of the present home of our Legislature is, it is conjectured, 
but a few paces from the situation of the original clock. The great 
bell, " Tom of Westminster," was broken up and recast for the 

Weight Clocks 25 

St. Paul's Cathedral clock, of which more particulars will be given 
later on. 

There was a large clock in Canterbury Cathedral at the end of 
the tliirteenth century, wliich, according to Dart's history of the 
sacred edifice, was put up at a cost of £30 in 1292, and one at 
Exeter at the beginning of the fourteenth century. 

An " orologium " of some kind was under construction at Norwich 
Cathedral in 1323. From that date numerous entries relating to it 
occur in the Sacrist's Rolls. There were twenty-four small images, 
which it may be conjectured represented the hours of the day and 
night ; thirty images, probably corresponding to the days of the 
month, and also painted and gilded plates portraying the sun and 

About 1326 Richard Wallingford, Abbot of Saint Albans, placed 
a " horloge " in his monastry, and the account wiiich he. gave of his 
machine is still preserved in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. From 
this, Walhngford's conception reall}^ appears to have been more of a 
planetarium for showing the course of the heavenly bodies than 
a timekeeper, for his description contains no mention of any escape- 
ment of regulator for ensuring equable motion. 

The earliest clock worthy of our modern definition, of which we 
have any authentic details, is the one which is said to have been made 
about the year 1335, by Peter Lightfoot, an ingenious monk of 
Glastonbury Abbey, for and at the expense of his superior, Adam de 
Lodbury, who was promoted to the Abbacy of Glastonbury in 1322 
and died in 1335. The fourteenth century was distinguished by the 
introduction of the peculiar class of clocks which, besides indicating 
the flight of time, were furnished with mechanism for other purposes. 
One of the earliest of this kind was described by Viollet-le-Duc as 
having been given about the year 1340 to the monastry of Cluny by 
the Abbot Pierre de Chastelux. In addition to its indication of the 
phases of the moon, the movements of the sun, &c., this clock had a 
quantity of httle figures which acted various scenes, as " The Mystery 
of the Resurrection," " Death," &c. The hours were announced by a 
cock, which fluttered its wings and crowed twice. At the same time 
an angel opened a door and saluted the Virgin Mary, the Holy Ghost 
descended on her head in the form of a dove, God the Father gave her 
His benediction, a musical carillon chimed, animals shook their wings 
and moved their eyes ; at last the clock struck, and all retreated 
within it. 

From a horological point of view such marionette -exhibitions may 

26 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

be puerile and contemptible ; still they caught and held the popular 
fancy, their producers being as a rule more honoured than those who 
merely strove after exactness of timekeeping. 

Horological construction of tliis kind was not confined to the 
western part of Europe. Anent the wonders in the Palace of Abu 
Hammou, Sultan of Tlemcen, the Abbe Barges, a French scholar and 
Orientalist, speaks of a clock in the king's palace, ornamented by 
figures wrought in solid silver. Above the case containing the works 
was a scene representing a thicket in wliich was a bird spreading its 
wings over its young. A serpent stealtliily crawled out of its hiding 
place towards the birds, endeavouring to surprise and devou r them. 
Ten doors introduced in the forepart of the clock represented the ten 
hours of the night. At the end of each hour one of these doors 
creaked and shook. Two wider and higher doors occupied the lateral 
extremity of the case. Above these doors and near the cornice, a 
sphere of the moon moved in the directon of the equatorial line and 
indicated the course of this heavenly body. At the commencement of 
each hour, when one of the smaller doors rattled, an eagle swooped out 
of each of the two bigger doors and settled on a copper vase or basin 
dropping into it a piece of metal — also copper — which he had carried 
in his beak. These weights, which glided into a cavity introduced 
at the bottom of the vase, dropped into the interior of the clock, 
subsequently rising again when required. Then the serpent, which by 
that time had wound itself up to the top of the thicket, emitted a 
sharp hiss, pounced upon and bit one of the young birds, its mother 
meanwhile squeaking and endeavouring to defend it. At tliis moment 
the door which marked the time opened by itself, a young female slave 
appeared, and in her right hand presented an open book whereon the 
name of the hour could be read in verses. She held her left hand up 
to her lips as if to salute a khalifa. This clock was named in Arabic 
" Menganah," and was first seen in 1358. 

The first of the celebrated Strassburg Cathedral clocks was begun 
about 1350, under the direction of John, Bishop of Lichtenberg. 
Henry Wieck, of Wurtemberg, constructed a clock for Charles V. 
of France, surnamed the Wise, and it was erected at Paris in the 
Royal Palace (now the Palais de Justice). Henry Wieck, or, as he 
was afterwards known, Henry De Vick, began his task in 1370 and 
completed it eight years after. He was lodged in the tower and 
received six sous parisis per day during the time he was employed. 
Somewhat similar clocks were, probably about the same time, erected 
at Caen and Montargis, though some French writers assert that the 

Weight Clocks 


Caen clock was made by one Beaumont in 1314. In Rymer's 
" Foedera " there is printed a protection given by King Edward III. 
of England to three Dutchmen named John Lietuyt, John Uneman, 
and William Uneman, who were " orologiers," invited from Delft to 
England in 1368. The title of this protection is " De Horlogiorum 
Artificio exercendo." There were probably also English artificers 
practising their craft at the same time as that of the issue of the 
decree which gave the Dutch 
men protection, for that docu- 
ment enacted that the English 
artificers should not be molested. 
The " horologium " of John 
Dondi, constructed at Padua in 
1344 by order of Hubert, Prince 
of Carrara, seems also to have 
been a true clock. It is de- 
scribed as being placed on the 
top of a turret on the steeple, 
and designating the twenty-four 
hours of the day and night. De 
Maizieres, a contemporary writer, 
says it was visited by all the 
scientific men of the day, and 
from thenceforward the family 
of Dondi took the name of 
" Dondi d'Orologia." He also 
speaks of Joseph Dondi, appar- 
ently a son of John, as one who 
excelled in clockmaking, and 
after sixteen years' labour con- 
structed a sphere or ' clock 
governed by a single balance, 
and which correctly showed the 
motion of the celestial bodies. 

John Visconti, Archbishop of Milan, set up a clock at Genoa in 1353 ; 
in 1356 one was fixed at Bologna. 

Froissart has left a descriptive eulogium of a clock, written in 1370 
in the form of a fragmentary poem, entitled " I'Horloge Amoureuse." 
In this the controlling medium is referred to as a " foliot," which was 
doubtless the straight-armed balance with weights such as appears in 
the drawing of De Vicks' clock presently to be described. In 1389 a 

Fig. 22. — Clock at Rouen. 
Dictionnaire de rAmeublement." 

28 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

splendid clock, made by Jehan de Fealins, was erected at Rouen, which 
with some modern alterations to the movements is still a reliable 
timekeeper, showing the hours and also the days of the week and the 
phases of the moon. The handsome dial shown in Fig. 22 is about 
6 ft. square. At Spires, in Bavaria, there was a clock in the year 
1395. Dr. Helein describes a comphcated clock which at the end of 
the fourteenth century was erected at Lund, in Sweden. When the 
hours were struck, two knights came forward, and gave each other as 
many blows as the number of the hour ; a door then opened and 
showed the Virgin Mary, seated on a throne with the infant Jesus in her 
arms. The Magi then presented their offerings, during which trumpets 
sounded, and the figures disappeared. From the beginning of the 
fifteenth century mathematicians, astronomers, and mechanicians 
throughout Europe vied with each other in contriving timekeepers 
with various supplementary actions. In 1401 a large clock with bells 
was placed in the Cathedral of Seville, and in 1404 a similar one for 
Moscow was constructed by Lazare, a Servian. The clock of Lubeck 
was made in 1405 and one at Pa\da by G. Visconti a httle later. In 
1442 Nuremberg had a clock with figures to represent soldiers which 
went through evolutions periodically. The Auxerre clock was finished 
in 1483, and shortly after an astronomical clock was erected at 
Prague ; the clock at Munich dates from the same period. The first 
monumental timekeeper in the Square of St. Mark's, Venice, was put 
up in 1495. Among clocks of the sixteenth century may be cited 
one at Brussels, one at Berne, the latter constructed in 1557 by 
Gaspard Brunner, ha\dng performing soldiers something in the style 
of the Nuremberg one ; " Hans of Jena," in which a pilgrim offered 
an apple to an immense open-mouthed grotesque head as the hours 
struck ; the clock at Coblentz, where, in the belfry of the Kaufhaus, 
was fixed a large helmeted head, the mouth of which opened and shut 
as the hours were sounded ; an astronomical clock at Beauvais 
Cathedral, of 36ft. in height and ha\dng fifty dials; the second 
great Strassburg clock, wliich was begun in 1570 ; a clock with numer- 
ous mechanical figures set up at Niort, in Poitou, the same year ; 
a clock at Calais, with two figures wliich attacked each other as in the 
Lund clock ; and the celebrated Lyons clock wliich dates from 1598. 
These are but some of the more notable clocks erected up to the close 
of the sixteenth century, by which time nearly every town in Europe 
had at least one pubhc timekeeper of some pretensions. Of several 
typical ones among those enumerated I am able to give fuller 

Weight Clocks 


The Glastonbury ancient and complicated piece of machinery was, 
according to William of Worcester, originally in the south transept 
of the abbey church ; but it was removed with all its appendages from 
thence to Wells Cathedral at the time of the dissolution of the 
monastry in the reign of Henry VIII., where, in an old chapel in the 
north transept, it still remains. The face of the clock as it now 
appears is shown in Fig. 23. The dial is 6 ft; 6 ins. in diameter, and 
contained in a square frame, the spandrels of which are filled with 

Fig. 23. — Dial of Glastonbury Clock. 

angels, holding in their hands each the head of a man. The outer 
band is painted blue, with gilt stars scattered over it, and is divided 
into twenty-four parts, corresponding with the twenty-four hours of 
the day and night, in two divisions of twelve hours eacli. The horary 
numbers are painted in old EngUsh characters, on circular tablets, and 
mark the hours from twelve at noon to midnight, and from thence to 
twelve at midday again. The hour-index, a large gilt star, is attached 
to the machinery behind a second circle, which conceals all except 
the index. On this second circle are marked the minutes, indicated 

30 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

by a smaller star. A third and lesser circle contains numbers for 
indicating the age of the moon, which is marked by a point attached 
to a small circular opening in the plate, through which the phases of 
the moon are shown. Around this aperture is an inscription, not 
very intelligible, wliich one author reads as " Ab hinc monstrat 
micro . . . ericus archery pung," meaning, probably, that in this 
microcosm were displayed all the wonders of the vast sidereal hemi- 
sphere. Corresponding to the moon aperture on the opposite side of 
the centre is a circle, in which is a female figure, with the motto 
" Semper peragrat Phoebe." An arched pediment surmounts the 
whole, with an octangular projection from its base Hne, forming a 
cornice to the face of the clock. A panelled turret is fixed in the 
centre, around which four equestrian knights, equipped for a tourna- 
ment and mounted on two pieces of carved wood, used to revolve in 
opposite directions, two on each side, as if running at the ring in a 
tilt, when set in motion by a connection with the clock. A " Jack " 
seated at one angle of the transept, within the church, is connected 
by rods with the clock, and he is made to strike the quarters with his 
feet on two little bells, and the hours on another bell before him with 
a battle-axe in his hands. If the date of the construction of the clock 
be correct, the figures at present moved by its machinery cannot, 
according to J. R. Planche, be the original ones, or they have under- 
gone strange alteration. Those that circulated in a sort of tilting 
match are very clumsily carved, and have suffered some injury from 
time ; but two of them appear to be intended for j ousters ; one wears 
a hood with ears to it ; the tliird is a nondescript ; the fourth is painted 
in the civil costume of the reign of James or Charles I., with falhng 
collar, striped doublet, and the peaked beard and moustache of that 
period. Outside the transept is another dial surmounted by two 
figures of knights clad in armour of the fifteenth century. They strike 
the quarters on bells with their battle-axes. 

The old interior works of this clock were of iron, not differing 
materially in principle from the mechanism of much later date clocks 
except that the apphances for the variety of the movements of the 
dial-plate were necessarily complicated. They exhibited a rare and 
interesting specimen of the art of clockmaking at. so early a period, in 
which the monks particularly excelled. After going for nearly five 
centuries, the works were found to be so completely worn out that, 
about the year 1835, they were replaced by a new train. The old 
movement, now controlled by a pendulum, may be seen in action at 
South Kensington Museum. Except for the quarter striking part and 

Weight Clocks 


the lunation work, the movement is identical with that of De Vick's 
clock, presently to be described. 

Another clock attributed to Lightfoot was erected at Wimborne in 
Dorsetshire. The dial as it at present appears is represented in Fig. 24, 
and an examination will show many features in common with these 
two fourteenth-century clocks. 

Figs. 25, 26 and 27 represent De Vick's clock in front and in 

Fig. 24. — Dial of Wimborne Clock. 

profile. There was but one hand, and that in its revolution round a 
dial-plate indicated the hours. A heavy weight tied to a rope, which 
was wound round a cylinder or barrel, served as the power to cause 
the hand to revolve ; but the hand, instead of being fixed to the axis of 
the barrel, had its motion communicated through a wheel and pinion, 
so that the weight did not need to be wound up so frequently as would 
otherwise be the case. If the weight were freely subjected to the 

32 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

influence of gravity, its motion would have been accelerated, and so an 
escapement and controller had to be devised in order that all the spaces 
traversed by the hand should be passed through in the same time as 

each other. The device adopted to check the progress of the weight 
was as follows : Connected with the arbor carrying the hand is a 
spindle carrying a wheel with ratchet-shaped teeth, as will be seen 

Weight Clocks 


from Fig. 25. This wheel, called the " escape wheel," has an odd 
number of teeth, and on a vertical rod or " verge " are two beds or 
" pallets," of a distance from each other equal to the diameter of the 
wheel. The acting faces of these pallets form nearly a right angle, 
and the verge is planted close to the teeth of the wheel, so that one of 
the projecting pallets is always intercepting the path of the wheel teeth. 
In this way an alternating rotary motion is imparted to the verge, the 
escape wheel shpping by a space equal to half the distance between 
two teeth at every alternation. The action of the teeth of the wheel 
on the pallets will perhaps be better understod by a reference to 

Fig. 28. — ^X-'erge Escapement with Cross-bar or 
" Foliot " Balance. 

Fig. 28, which is drawn to an enlarged scale. A tooth of the escape 
wheel is pressing on the upper pallet ; as it drops off the under tooth 
will reach the root of the lower pallet, but the motion of the verge will 
not be at once reversed. The escape wheel will recoil until the im- 
petus of the cross-bar and weights mounted on the verge is exhausted. 
The teeth of the wheel are undercut to free the face of the pallet during 
the recoil. The inertia of the cross-bar and weights, by opposing the 
rotary motion, forms the regulator, and as the centre of gyration may 
be altered by sliifting the weights along the bar, the time occupied by 
each \dbration can be increased or lessened, as may be required. The 
verge was usually suspended by a cord to lessen the friction and wear 
at the pivot or " toe " on which it rested. This controller, the foliot 

34 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

of Froissart, admirable as it was, did not give anything like the exact 
result now attained by means of a superior escapement and pendulum, 
for its constancy was seriously affected through variations in the 
motive force, such as would be caused by deterioration and thickening 
of the lubricant used to the pivots and bearing surfaces. It is, how- 
ever, curious to note that the balance of a modern chronometer or 
watch, which vibrates with such marvellous accuracy, is analogous in 
its action to that of the early cross-bar regulator. 

To understand the way the weight was raised after the rope was 
uncoiled from the barrel, it may be necessary to explain that, though 
the great wheel is tight on its arbor, the barrel on the same arbor 
is loosely fitted, the connection between the two being established by 
means of a ratchet-wheel and click. To lessen the labour of winding, 
a wheel is attached to the barrel, into which a pinion gears, and on 
the squared extremity of the pinion arbor the winding handle is 
placed. The different parts are shown and lettered in Fig. 25. 

The manner of striking the hours in regular order will be apparent 
from Figs. 26 and 27, with a little explanation. The striking part 
of the clock is distinct from the going part, and is actuated by a 
separate weight. It occupies the right in Fig. 26. The wheel to 
which the hand is attached turns once in twelve hours, and it will 
be observed that, projecting from its face, are twelve pins, equidistant 
from each other. Although continually solicited by the weight, the 
striking train of wheels cannot turn except once at each hour, because 
it is locked by a tooth at one extremity of a " bell-crank " lever t, 
engaging with one of a series of notches in the locking-plate N. At 
the completion of each hour this tooth is lifted out by one of the 
twelve pins depressing the other end of the lever, and the striking 
train then rotates till the tooth of the lever falls into the next notch 
of the locking-plate. The tail of the hammer which strikes the bell 
intersects the path of the lifting pins c, which are arranged around 
the great wheel of the striking train. The notches around the edge 
of the locking-plate are placed at such distances that at one o'clock the 
tooth enters a notch directly one blow has been struck on the bell. 
At the next hour there is a longer space before a notch is reached, 
and so two blows are struck before the train is again locked ; at the 
succeeding hour the space permits of three blows, and so on, till at 
twelve o'clock the plate has made a complete rotation, and the action 
of the preceding twelve hours recurs. The striking train would run 
down with increasing velocity but for the fan l, which keeps the 
periods between the strokes of the bell practically uniform. This is 

Weight Clocks 


the principle of the striking work still used in most turret clocks, and 
till recently in nearly all small clocks of French make. The chief 

Fig. 29.— Clock of the Palais de Justice, Paris. 

objection to it is that the hours are struck in regular progression with- 
out reference to the position of the hands ; so that if the striking part 
happens to run dowTi before the going part, the striking will be all 

36 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

wrong when it is started again, unless the precaution has been taken 
to set it going at the same hour as that at which it stopped. 

Fig. 29 shows the dial of De Vick's clock and its splendid surround- 
ings, adjoining the side of the Palais de Justice, which faces the 
Quai aux Fleurs. Though the clock appears to have been erected 
in the round tower of the palace in 1370, the present architectural 
environment was not completed till 1585. The engraving is from 
" Les Merveilles de THorlogerie." The figures of Piety and Justice 
flanking the dial, and the angels supporting the coat-of-arms 
which crowns the pediment, are by Germaine Pilon. On the upper 
tablet is the inscription, " Qui dedit ante duas triplicem dabit 
ille coronam." The panel below the dial perpetuates the quotation 
from Passerat : — 

" Machina quae bis sex tarn juste dividit horas, 
Justitiam servare monet legesque tueri." 

This celebrated clock has experienced several long intervals of 
neglect, and been many times repaired. In 1852, after thorough 
examination, its defects were made good, and it was in some measure 
reconstructed. The bell on which the hours are struck was cast 
by John Jouvance, and it is said that upon this bell was repeated 
the signal from St. Germain I'Auxerrois for the massacre of St. 
Bartholomew in 1572. The bell for the Montargis clock was also 
made by Jouvance. 

A turret clock which was erected at Dover Castle in the fourteenth 
century is still in action at South Kensington Museum. In con- 
struction it is somewhat similar to those of Lightfoot and De Vick. 
On the wrought-iron frame are the letters R.L. arranged as a 
monogram. The train, however, consists of only one wheel, which 
drives the escape-pinion so fast that there must have been either 
a very long driving-cord, or the clock must have been wound at 
frequent intervals. The winding is accompUshed by means of 
handles or spokes projecting radially from one end of the barrel, 
wliich runs freely on the arbor of the wheel. On the face of the 
barrel which is nearest the wheel is a spring chck, catching into 
the arms of the wheel, the arms thus serving the purpose of a 
ratchet. This cHck and ratchet arrangement was long favoured 
by some makers, and is often found in lantern clocks of the 
seventeenth century. The wheels of these early clocks were of 
wrought iron, the arms being riveted into the rim. A clock very 

Weight Clocks 


similar to the Dover one was erected at Peterborough about the 

same date. 

Exeter Clocks. — Few places probably can show more interesting 

relics of primitive horology than Exeter. " From the Patent Rolls 

of Edward II.," the late Mr. Britton observes, in his description of 

Exeter Cathedral, " it is evident there was a clock in this church in 

1317. Other entries relating to the clock appear in the Rolls. In 

1376-77, the sum of 1195. 

9d. is set down for expenses 

' circa caineram in horeali 

turre pro Horlogio quod 

vocalur de novo constru- 

endam.' The whole charge 

in the roll ' nova camera pro 

horlogio ' is £10 63. 5|d. 

In 1424-25, two men were 

sent off on horseback to 

fetch Roger, clockmaker, 

from Barnstaple." 

Whatever its construc- 
tion, no trace of the original 

horologe can be found, but 

Bishop Courtenay is 

credited with having pre- 
sented a clock in 1480. It 
is said that this clock was 
made by Peter Lightfoot, 
but if the date of its con- 
struction (1480) is correct, 
this cannot be true, for 
Lightfoot had then been 
dead some years. The 
dial which still does duty 
bears a resemblance to the 

one of Lightfoot's at Glastonbury, from which it was possibly copied, 
though Mr. J. J. Hall suggests that it formed part of the clock men- 
tioned as existing in 1317. It shows the hour of the day, and the age 
of the moon ; upon the face or dial, which is about 7 ft. in diameter, 
are two circles, one marked from one to thirty for the moon's age, the 
other figured from I. to XII. twice over, for the hours. In the centre 
is a semi-globe, representing the earth, round which a smaller ball, 

Fig. 30. — Exeter Cathedral Clock 

38 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the moon, painted half white and half black, revolves every month, 
and in turning upon its axis shows the varying phases of the luminary 
which it represents ; between the two circles is a third ball, represent- 
ing the sun, with 2i fleur-de-lis , which points to the hours as the sun, 
according to the ancient theory, daily revolved round the earth. 
Underneath it is the inscription, " Pereunt et imputantur " (they 

[the hours] pass and are 
placed to our account). In 
1760 the clock was thoroughly 
repaired by William Howard, 
when an additional dial to 
show the minutes was pro- 
vided and placed on the top 
of the case as shown in 
Fig. 30. (I am indebted to 
Messrs. Worth & Co., of 
Cathedral Yard, Exeter, for 
this illustration). The move- 
ment was replaced by a 
modern one in 1885. 

The hours are still struck 
on " Great Peter," a fine- 
toned bell in the north tower. 
This bell was the gift of 
Bishop Courtenay and was 
brought from Llandaff (1478- 
86). According to Worth's 
excellent Guide to Exeter 
Cathedral it was recast in 
1676 by Thomas Perdue. Its 
weight, 'as computed by the 
Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, is 
14,000 lbs., its diameter at 
the mouth 76 in., and its 
height 56 in. 

In the tower of the Church of St. Mary Steps, near by where once 
stood the old West Gate, is a most curious clock, which is probably a 
production of the sixteenth century. The corners of the dial are 
embellished with basso-relievos representing the four seasons, and in 
an alcove over the dial are thiee automatic figures, as shown in Fig. 31, 
(for this illustration I am indebted to Messrs. F. Frith and Co., Ltd.). 

Fig. 31. — St. Mary Steps, Exeter. 

Weight Clocks 39 

The centre one is a statue of Henry VIII in a sitting posture, which, 
on the clock striking the hour, inchnes the head at every stroke. On 
each side is a soldier in military attire, holding a javelin in one 
liand and a hammer with a long handle in the other. These 
soldiers strike the quarters by alternate blows on two bells beneath 
their feet. 

The three figures are termed by many Exonians " Matthew the 
Miller and his two sons," from the fact that " Matthew the Miller," 
who resided in a place known as Cricklepit Lane, was remarkable for 
his integrity and regular course of life. His punctuality of going at 
one hour for and returning with his grist led his neighbours to judge 
with tolerable exactness the time of day from his passing. By this the 
statue received its vulgar name. The following distich used to be 
current in Exeter : — 

Matthew the Miller's aHve, 

Matthew the Miller is dead, 
For every hour in Westgate Tower, 

Matthew nods his head. 

A clock placed in the tower of the Church of St. Mary Ottery 
about 1340, by John de Grandison, Bishop of Exeter, has been recently 
restored by Mr. J. J. Hall. In the tower of St. Petrock's Church, in 
the High Street, was till recently a clock believed to date from 1470. 
In the tower also is a peal of six bells, the oldest of which bears the 
arms of Henry V. or VI., not later than 1425. 

St. Mary's Church, Oxford. — There was a clock at St. Mary's 
Church, Oxford, in the fifteenth century, and one of the ancient Latin 
statutes of the University is devoted to the duties of its custodian. 
Other references are made to it in the proctor's accounts. Under 
date 1469 is " Pro custodia horilogij vjs. viijd.," and a somewhat 
similar entry occurs in 1473. In 1523 a new clock was erected from 
fines imposed on neghgent students. In the vice-chancellor's accounts 
from 1550 to 1554 is an item, " Paid to Thos. Masey for mendinge 
St. Maryes clocke, 25 Junii, travelHnge (travaihng) by the space of two 
weekes thereon, and was moreover paid the sum of tenpence for a 
clock for the said machine." On some parchment rolls in the tower of 
the schools, among the proctor's accounts, appears," 1469, Pro custodia 
horilogii, iijs.," and " 1472, Pro reparatione horilogij, vjs. viijd." 

Although details are in most instances wanting, there are sufficient 
references among the ecclesiastical records of the country to show that 
church clocks were pretty general throughout England in the fifteenth 

40 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

century. According to the churchwardens' accounts for Walberswick, 
in Suffolk, lid. was paid to the clockmaker in 1451, and 12s. 8d. in 
the following year. In 1495, John Payn, the smith, of Southwold, 
received 6s. 8d. for a new clock, and in 1499, Nicholas Schrebbys 
was paid four sums — £1 13s. 4d., 6i. 8d., £1 2s., and 13s. 4d. — for the 

John Baret, of Bury St. Edmunds, by his will dated 1463, 
bequeathed Ss. yearly to the sexton of St. Mary's Church, " To keep 
the clokke, take hede to the chymes, wynde vp the peys and the 
plummeys as ofte as nede is." 

The records of Dunstable mention a clock over the pulpit in 1483, 
and the churchwardens' accounts of Wigtoft, Lincolnshire, refer to 
several sums paid to Richard Angel for keeping the clock from 1484 

An old clock at York Cathedral, which was fixed to the wall near 
the south door and covered with a large Gothic case, was removed in 
1752, when the present clock, made by John Hindley, was erected. 

Strassburg Clocks. — The first clock set up in the interior of the 
cathedral at Strassburg was begun in 1352, and completed two years 
after, under John, Bishop of Lichtenberg. It consisted of a calendar, 
representing in a painting some indications relative to the principal 
movable feasts. In the middle part there was an astrolabe, whose 
pointers showed the movements of the sun and moon, the hours, and 
their subdivisions. There was placed at the same elevation the prime 
mover, and the other wheel- work which caused the clock to go. The 
upper compartment was adorned with a statuette of the Virgin, before 
which, at noon, the three Magi (wise men of the East) bowed them- 
selves. An automaton cock, placed upon the crown of the case, crowed 
at the same moment, moving its beak and flapping its wings. A small 
set of chimes, composed of several cymbals, formed a part of this work. 

The Second Clock, of which an exterior view is shown in Fig. 32 
was certainly a triumph of ingenuity. It was projected in 1547 ; but 
though the designs appear to have been then ready, the execution went 
no further than the building of the chamber and the preparation of 
some of the heavier ironwork, till 1570, when Conrad Dasypodius, 
a mathematician of Strassburg, and David Wolkstein, of Augsburg, 
undertook to supervise the completion of the horologium. The 
mechanical works were confided to Isaac and Josiah Habrecht, 
mechanicians of Schaffhausen, in Switzerland, while Tobias Stimmer 
(or Sturmer), of the same place, was employed to do the paintings and 
the sculpture which were to serve as decorations of the achievement. 

Weight Clocks 


Josiah Habreclit being summoned to Cologne for other work, the 
construction of the clock was left m the hands of Isaac alone. 

Fig. 32. — The Second Strassburg Clock 

Before, and at the foot of the clock, there was a celestial globe 
supported on four columns of wood richly carved. It performed a 

42 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

revolution on its axis, showing the stars known in the time of Ptolemy, 
about A.D. 140. These stars, to the number of 1,020 were grouped in 
forty-eight constellations, represented by as many figures. Two circles, 
one carrying the sun and the other the moon, turned round the globe, 
the first in twenty-four hours, the second in the space of about twenty- 
five hours. 

Immediately behind the celestial globe there was a large wooden disc 
in which was painted a calendar for the space of a century, the months, 
the days, the Dominical letter, the names of the saints, and the dates of 
the principal movable feasts. The calendar made an entire revolution 
every year. The statues of Apollo and Diana, placed on two sides of 
the disc, pointed out, with their sceptres, the one the day of the year, 
the other the corresponding day at the endof six months. The central 
part of the calendar was immovable ; on it were represented the 
countries of Germany situated along the Rhine, and the topographical 
plan of the city of Strassburg. 

The compartments on each side of the calendar were occupied by 
large panels upon which were painted the principal eclipses of the sun 
and moon visible in the northern hemishpere, and answering to the 
interval of thirty-two years from 1573 to 1605. 

Above the calendar there were seen in the clouds the seven pagan 
divinities that have given their names to planets, and afterwards 
to the days of the week. These allegorical figures, seated in cars, 
each one drawn by the animals, which mythology assigns to that 
particular divinity, showed themselves successively on the days which 
were sacred to them. On Sunday, Apollo was seen, this day being 
dedicated to the sun. The ancients named it Dies soils (the day of the 
sun), and the Christians the Lord's Day {Dies Dominica), whence is 
derived the French word, Dimanche, for Sunday. A representation 
of Diana was shown on the second day, which was called Dies hinae (day 
of the moon) — Lundi — Monday. Mars, the god of war, appeared on 
(Mardi) Tuesday, the Enghsli word being derived from Titesco, the 
Saxon name of the god of war. The fourth day was represented by 
Mercury, tlie messenger of Olympus ; French, Mercredi ; English 
Wednesday (the latter being derived from Wodin, the Saxon name 
of the same deity). The following day Dies Jovis, Jupiter's day; 
French, Jeudi ; EngHsh, Thursday (derived from Thor, the Saxon 
name for Jupiter). Venus succeeded on Friday (which in EngHsh is 
derived from Friga, the Saxon name of the goddess Venus). Saturn, 
the god of Time, came on Saturday, to close the Olympian procession. 

Immediately above the divinities of the week was erected a gallery. 

Weight Clocks 43 

in the middle of which a small dial plate indicated the quarter-hours 
and the minutes, the hours being represented upon the astrolabe ; at 
the sides of the dial plate were seated two genii, of which the one 
placed on the right raised a sceptre each time the hour was to strike, 
and of which the other at the same moment turned upside down an 
hour glass which he held in one hand, turning it always in the same 
direction. An astrolabe, constructed according to Ptolemy's system, 
occupied the greater part of the middle story, in the interior of which 
was contained the wheel-work of the clock. Six pointers, bearing the 
same number of planets, indicated, upon twenty-four divisions of the 
astronomical day, the movements of these heavenly bodies ; one 
pointer, larger than the others and terminated by a sun, finished in 
twenty-four hours an entire revolution round a small map of the world 
placed in the central part of a large dial plate, which was ornamented at 
the same time by the circles of a horoscope and by the twelve signs of 
the zodiac. The upper part of the astrolabe was crowned with the 
phases of the moon. There was visible a small dial plate cut in its 
lower part by two semicircles, behind which the moon, represented by 
a golden disc, disappeared at the time of the new moon, and came out 
from day to day to show successively a quarter part of its orb, till it 
presented to view its entire disc, at the time of full moon. 

At the third story of the clock there was a platform, upon which 
were fixed four small statues representing the four periods of life — 
infancy, youth, manhood, and old age ; these figures struck the 
quarter-hours upon cymbals. 

Above this platform was suspended the bell intended for sounding 
the hours. Two figures stood beside this bell ; the one was Death 
under the form of a skeleton, the other represented Christ, having in 
one hand the cross and the palm branch. At the instant the hour 
ought to strike, the Saviour came forward, and the skeleton drew 
back ; but hardly had this movement taken place when Christ 
retreated precipitately, and Death advanced in the same way, to strike 
on the bell the number of strokes required. This movement was 
repeated as many times as there were strokes in the hour. 

The turret, placed on the left of the principal edifice, contained 
the weights of the clock, as well as the machinery intended for the 
cock which was perched on the summit of this turret. This cock (the 
only piece which was preserved from the first clock, called the clock 
of the three kings) crowed at first daily, at noon, flapping its wings 
and opening its beak ; but having been struck with hghtning in 1640, 
it was made to crow only on Sundays and feast days. It ceased 

44 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

crowing entirely in 1789, at the time when overwhelraing attention 
bestowed upon the great events that were taking place caused it to 
be completely forgotten. 

Third Strassburg Clock. — At length it was evident that some 
reconstruction was necessary. After considerable debate, the necessary 
work was entrusted to Jean Baptiste Schwilgue, who entered on his 
task in 1838, and completed it about the middle of 1842. On the 
2nd of October of that year the Hfe of the resuscitated marvel was 
solemnly inaugurated. Some of the former actions were altered or 
omitted, and fresh ones added, the greater part of the movement being 
entirely new, for only in some few cases was a restoration of the 
former mechanism practicable. 

The structure of the second clock was retained to encase the 
mechanism with but shght alteration. It is over 20 ft. in height, 
and is surmounted by a remarkably handsome dome, as shown in 
Fig. 32. On the right is a spiral staircase, by means of which the 
various galleries are reached. 

The motions now are briefly as follows : — On the floor level is a 
celestial globe, indicating sidereal time. In its motion round its axis 
the globe carries with it the circles that surround it — namely, the 
equator, the ecliptic, the solstitial and equinoctial colures, while the 
meridian and horizon circles remain motionless, so that there are 
shown the rising and setting, as well as the passage over the meridian 
of Strassburg, of all stars which are visible to the naked eye, and which 
appear above the horizon. Behind the celestial globe is the calendar ; 
on a metallic band, 9 in. wide and 30 ft. in circumference, are the 
months, the days of the month. Dominical letters, fixed and movable 
feast days. The band is shifted at midnight, and a statue of Apollo 
points out the day of the month and the name of the saint corres- 
ponding to that day. The internal part of the annular band indicates 
true solar time ; the rising and setting of the sun ; the diurnal motion 
of the moon round the earth, and its passage over the meridian ; the 
phases of the moon, and the eclipses of the sun and moon. Adjacent 
compartments are devoted to a perpetual calendar, solar and lunar 
cycles, and other periodic recurrences, solar and lunar equations, &c. 
Above the calendar appear allegorical figures, seated in chariots, 
and representing the days of the week. These chariots, drawn by 
such animals as are assigned as attributes of the divinities, run on a 
circular iron railway and appear each in order. 

The dial for showing mean solar time is in the gallery above, 
called tlie Gallery of Lions. A genius stands on each side of the 

Weight Clocks 45 

dial. The one on the left strikes the first note of each quarter-hour 
with a sceptre he holds in his hand, the second note being struck 
by one of the four ages in a sti]l higher gallery, as will be described 
presently. At the completion of each sixty minutes the genius on 
the right of the dial reverses an hour-glass filled with red sand. 

The story above is occupied by a planetarium, in which the 
revolutions of the planets are represented upon a large dial plate. 

Above the planetarium, and upon a star-decked sky, is a globe 
devoted to showing the phases of the moon. 

Next come movable figures representing the four ages, one of 
which in turn appears and gives upon a bell the second stroke of 
each quarter of an hour. At the first quarter a child strikes the 
bell with a rattle ; a youth in the form of a hunter strikes it with 
an arrow at the half-hour ; at the third quarter the blows are given 
by a warrior with his sword ; at the fourth quarter an old man 
produces the notes with his crutch. When he has retired a figure 
of Death appears and strikes the hour with a bone. 

In the upper apartment is a figure of Christ ; and when Death 
strikes the hour of noon the twelve Apostles pass before the feet of 
their Master, bowing as they do so. Then Christ makes the sign 
of the cross. During the procession of the Apostles, the cock perched 
at the top of the weight-turret flaps his wings, ruffles his neck, and 
crows three times. 

In addition to the mean time dial in the gallery, there is one, 
17 ft. in diameter, above the principal entrance to the cathedral. 

A clock with performing automata and calendar register was in 
1405 erected in the church of St. Mary at Liibeck. Doubtless it has 
been much altered since that time ; but in 1820, from the description 
of Downes, it was in going order, as it is still, I am told. Downes 
also describes another extraordinary clock of much later date which is 
in the Dome Church at Liibeck. The full account just given of the 
Strassburg clocks will suffice as an example of ingenuity displayed in 
this direction. 

Ancient Oriental Calendar Clock. — Some time ago in the Jewelers' 
Circular-Weekly there appeared a masterly analysis of ancient 
Oriental methods of recording the progression of days and seasons, by 
Mr. Daniel Arthur, of New York. Under the title of " The Calendar 
Concept and its Evolution " this has been issued in book form, and by 
permission of Mr. Arthur I reproduce in Fig. 33 an engraving of a 
remarkably interesting example showing the early Oriental conception 
of using the heavenly motions as day counters, and how the sidereal 

46 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

month was formed. The moon's path is divided into twenty-eight 
mansions, or " halting places." The sun is regarded as a great clock 
hand making a daily sweep around the sky, its progress being marked 
off by " Kih " or double-hour discs, twelve in number, each having an 
animal name. The " Yin " discs or night hours are dark, the sunrise 
and sunset hours grey, while the sunlit hours of day are white. These 
" Yang Kih," or bright hours, average longer than the " Yin Kih, or 
black hours of night. The central dark hour is " rat " (midnight). 


TI&ER \l(lr/ 12 




FIRST mansion"THE HORN' 


Fig. 33. — Ancient Oriental Calendar Timepiece, or Heavenly Calendar Dial, 

while the central bright hour is " horse " (noon). " Dragon " and 
" snake " constitute the forenoon known as " before-horse," while 
" sheep " and " monkey " are afternoon hours (" after- horse "). Par- 
ticulars relating to the arrangement of these hour marks will be given 
in Chapter VL under the head of Japanese clocks. The moon hand 
is shown as going in the opposite direction to its apparent motion. 
The lower of the two arrows shows normal moon direction, the upper 
one how it moves in the mansions with a left-hand motion. Each 

Weight Clocks 47 

time the sun-hand gets to the evening hours, or near " dog," the 
moon-hand will be in a new mansion of heaven. Mr. Richard S. 
Geoghagen, formerly Chinese scholar of Oxford, has pointed out that 
the 4th, nth, 18th, and 25th mansions invariably correspond to . 
what are now our western Sundaj^s. At first in these calendar 
timepieces the days were distinguished by titles instead of numbers, 
their English equivalents being " the horn " which was the first 
mansion, representing the frontier gate of heaven ; then in order came 
the Neck, Bottom, the Room, Heart, the Tail, the Sieve, the Bushel, 
the Ox, Woman, the Void, Danger, the House, the Wall, Astride, 
Wound, Stomach, Pleiades, the End, Bristling Up, Mixture, the 
Well, the Ghost, the Willow, the Star, Drawn Bow, the Wing, 
Crossbar. Of the " Ssu Rung," or four great quadrants, the first is 
named Azure Dragon, the second Black Warrior, the third White 
Tiger, and the last Vermillion Bird. The third hand, or season indi- 
cator, is the group of stars which we call Ursa Major (Chinese name 
" Peh Tao "). In Dr. Cams' " Chinese Thought " we are told that 
when the handle of this " big dipper " points to the east at night- 
fall it is spring throughout the land ; when to south it is summer, 
to the west it is autumn, and when north it is winter. 

In the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, is an Oriental 
calendar clock on the dial of which are depicted the twenty-eight 
groups of stars, " Erhshih-pa Su " is the Chinese name for them (the 
twenty-eight mansions of heaven) . These constellations vary a great 
deal in degrees of width, and were selected in piehistoric times to 
guide the eye to single stars of about the proper distances apart. 

While the third edition of this book was in the hands of the printers 
I learnt of the accidental death of Mr. Daniel Arthur, an event which 
may be regarded as a world-wide loss. He advocated uniform months 
of twenty eight days, thirteen months, and one dies-non in the 3'ear. 
The days would then recur on the same date of each month. 

The Hans of Jena clock, already referred to, is shown in Fig. 
34, which is reproduced from Dubois' work. The legend is that Hans 
of Jena, represented by a monstrous head of bronze, is to be 
tantalised for three centuries by the pilgrim who presents to the 
open mouth a golden apple as the clock strikes, bat quickly with- 
draws it before the mouth can be closed. The figure of an angel on 
the right raises its eyes and shakes the bell as each blowof the hour 
is struck. 

Whatever variations were made in the form or ::ize of clocks during 
the fifteenth century, the principle of the mechanism remained 

48 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

unaltered, and such as were constructed appear to have been mostly 
for public buildings or persons of exalted position. 

The fact that small clocks and portable clocks are mentioned as 
existing in the fourteenth century, seems to have led to the supposition 
that the mainspring as a motor was then in use, but such a conclusion 
is unwarranted. Most of these descriptions, or rather references, 
though interesting, are of the vaguest character, for instance, among 

the ancient inventories 
quoted by M. de Laborde 
are " a.d. 1380, a clock 
of silver, entirely without 
iron ; " and " a clock oi 
white silver for placing 
on a column." In 1381, 
" Foreloge " of Charles 
VI. being out of order, a 
smith from Senlis, named 
Robert d'Origny, who 
repaired it, received six- 
teen sols parisis. The 
accounts of the Duke 
of Burgundy recite 
that in 1407 a smith 
(fevre) named " Jehan 
d'Alemaigne," supplied 
a movement for a small 
clock (petite orloge) to 
be placed in the chamber 
of " Madame." 

Sir John Paston, in 
the course of a letter 
written in the spring of 
1469, says : "I praye 
you speke wt Harcourt 
off the Abbeye ffor a 
lytell clokke whyche I sent him by James Gressham to amend and 
yt ye woll get it off him an it be redy, and send it me, and as ffor 
mony for his labour, he hath another clok of myn whiche St. Thoms 
Lyndes, God have hys sowle, gave me. He maye kepe that tyll I 
paye him. This klok is my Lordys Archebysshopis but late him not 
wote off it." 

Fig. 34. — Hans of Jena. 

Weight Clocks 


The appended Fig. 35, from the Bibliotheque Xationale at Paris, 
purports to represent the remains of a fifteenth century chamber clock. 
It is pretty evident there was originally a bell at the top of the case, 
and perhaps a hand to indicate the hour. It is not, however, certain 
there was a hand, for some of the early clocks had revolving dials. In 
the South Kensington Museum there is on a " tarsia," or inlaid wood 
panel of Italian late fifteenth-centur}^ production, a representation of 
a clock with a re^'olving ring, on which the twenty-four hours are 

Fig. 35.— Chamber Clock, Fiftetuth 
Centuty. Bib. Nat. Paris. 

Fig. 30. — Fifteenth Century Clock from 
Italian tarsia-work. 

marked, the current hour being indicated by a fixed pointer, as seen 
in Fig. 36. The whole panel represents an open cupboard, in which 
there are, besides the clock, a flagon, a chalice, a cross, etc. ; so one 
may infer that the clock was of comparatively small size, and of 
course of older date than the panel, which careful comparison by the 
experts of the Museum fixes at certainly not later than 1500. The 
action of the winding work is obscure, but with that exception the 
construction of the clock is tolerably clear. 

In the Bibliotheque de 1' Arsenal at Paris is a MS. prayer book 

50 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 37. — Anne Boleyn's Clock. 

containing two small 
pictures of chamber 
clocks called, from the 
family name of the 
person for whom the 
book was executed, the 
" Heures de Bossu." 
It dates from about 

Anne Boleyn's 
Clock.— In the corridor 
at Windsor Castle 
is a clock which is said 
to have been presented 
to Anne Boleyn on 
her wedding morning 
by Henry VIII. It 
is rather over 4 in., 
square and 10 in. high, 
exclusive of the brackel 
on which it is mounted, 
as shown in Fig. 37. 
It was purchased on 
behalf of Queen Victoria 
for £110 5s. when 
Horace Walpole's col- 
lection at Strawberry 
Hill was sold, and was 
then described as " a 
clock of silver, gilt, richly 
chased, engraved and 
ornamented with fieurs- 
de-lys, little heads, etc. 
On the top sits a lion 
holding the arms of 
England, which are also 
on the sides." This 
description is not quite 
correct, for the case is 
of copper gilt ; the 
weights are of lead 

Weight Clocks 51 

cased in copper, gilt and engraved ; on the one visible in the engraving 
are the initial letters of Henry and Anne with true lovers' knots 
above and below ; on the other H.A. alone ; at the top of each 
is " Dieu et mon droit ; " at the bottom " the most happye ! " 
The movement at present in the case has brass wheels, a crown wheel 
escapement and a short pendulum ; though not modern it is certainly 
later than the middle of the sixteenth century. A sight of the 
clock evoked from Harrison Ainsworth a reflection to which but few 
will take exception. " This love token of enduring affection remains 
the same after three centuries, but four years after it was given the 
object of Henry's eternal love was sacrificed on the scaffold. The 
clock still goes ! It should have stopped for ever when Anne Boleyn 
died." And whether by accident or design, though the weights are 
suspended below the supporting bracket, the mechanism, which 
appears to be in fairly good condition, is now silent, and the hand 
remains stationary. There is no record as to the maker of this 
interesting relic, but at this time most of the " orologes " were the 
production of foreign artists, judging from the names quoted in State 
Papers of the period. 

In the " Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII., from 1529 to 
1532," edited by Sir Harris Nicolas, it is recorded that in July 1530 
£15 was paid to the Frenchman who sold the king " ij clocks at 
Oking." In the following month was paid to " a Frenchman called 
Drulardy, for iij dyalls and a clokk for the King's Grace the sum of 
£15." In December of the same year £19 6d. 8s. was " paid to 
Vincent Keney clok maker for xj clokks and dialls." So many pay- 
ments within a brief period warrant the assumption that clocks were 
a form of present favoured by his Majesty. 

In the " Sixth Report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission " 
mention is made of an agreement dated 1599, between one Michael 
Neuwers, a clockmaker, and Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury, for the 
construction of a clock. " It is agreed that Michael should make a 
striking clock about the bigness of that which he made for the Earl 
six years past ; it is to be made by the last of December next. The 
cover or case of it to be of brass, very w^ell gilt, with open breaking 
through all over, with a small fine hand like an arrow, clenly and 
strongly made, the ... or white dial plate to be made of French 
crown gold, and the figures to show the hour and the rest to be 
enamelled the fynelyest and daintyest that can be, but no other 
colour than blew, white, and carnalian ; the letters to be somewhat 
larger than ordinary ; the price of the clock must be £15, which 

52 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

makes with the earnest ah-eady given £16, but the circle I must pay 
for, besides the gold which shall' make it ; the sides of the brass case 
must not be sharp, but round, and the case very curiously made." 

The Michael Neuwers here referred to was probably Michael Nouwen, 
a sixteenth century horologist, several specimens of whose work sur- 
vive. That the Earl of Shrewsbury was somewhat of a connoisseur of 
timekeepers, as well as an authority on horological matters, is borne 
out by the following letter, dated 1611, from him to Sir Michael Hickes, 
which is preserved in the Lansdowne MSS. at the British Museum : — 

" I perceived by you to-day that you understand My Lord 
Treasurer's design was to have a watch, but I conceaved he wysshed a 
stryknge clock, made lyke a Watch, to stande oppon a Cubbart, & 
suche a one (though no new one, & yet under a dozen j^ears ould) I 
havt found oute, & send you by this bearer, which I pray you dehver 
to his Lordsliip from me, & tell him that I am very well perswaded of 
the truth of it, or else I should be ashamed to send him so gross & 
rude a piece as this is, & if I hadd thought his Lordship could have 
well forborne it but for four or five days longer, I would have bestowed 
a new case for it, for this is a very bad one. If his Lordship would not 
have it str5^ke, either in the dayes or nyghts, the striker may be 
forborne to be wounde up, and so the Watch being w^ounde up it will 
go alone. It will goe twenty-six houres, but I wyshit may be wounde 
up every mornyng or nyght about eight or nine o'clock, which will be 
sufficient until the next day or nyght at the same tyme." 

Among the State Papers of the time of James I. there is an original 
letter, dated 4th August, 1609, addressed by Sir Julius Caesar to the 
clerks of the signet, requesting them to prepare a warrant to pay £300 
to Hans Niloe, a Dutchman, for a clock with music and motions. And 
on the 17th of the same month Sir Julius wrote from the Strand to 
Salisbury, stating that he was pressed by Hans Niloe for the £300 for 
his clock. 

In "A true certificat of the names of the Straungers residing and 
dwellinge w^itliin the City of London," &c., taken by direction of the 
Privy Council, by letters dated 7th September 1618, it is stated that 
in the ward of Farringdon Within was then living " Barnaby Martinot, 
clockmaker ; 6. in Paris ; a Roman Catolicque." In Portsoken ward 
was living " John Goddard, clockmaker ; lodger and servant with 
Isack Sunes in Houndsditch ; b. at Paris, in Fraunce ; heer three 
years ; a papist ; yet hee hath the oath of allegiance to the king's 
supremacy, & doth acknowledg the king for his soveraigne dureing his 
abode in England ; & is of the Romish church." 

Weight Clocks 


Clock at Hampton Court Palace. — Derham gives the numbers of 
the wheels and pinions of a large clock which appears to have been 
erected at Hampton Court Palace about 1540. This date is assumed 
from the marks N.O. or N.C. and the figures 1540 wliich were 
engraved on a bar of the original wrought -iron framework. If 
the letters were N.C, they may have referred to Nicholas Cratzer. 

Fig. 38. — Dial of Hampton Court Palace Clock. 

In 1711 the clock was repaired by Langley Bradley. The original 
and curious dial of the clock is on the eastern side of the gate-tower 
in the second quadrangle. It is composed of three separate copper 
discs of different sizes, with a common centre, but revolving at varying 
rates. The smallest of these is 3 ft. 3J in. in diameter, and in the 
middle of this is a shghtly projected globe, painted to represent the 
earth. The quarters marked on the centre disc by thick lines are 

54 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

numbered with large figures, and round the edge this disc is divided 
into twenty-four parts, a red arrow painted on the second disc pointing 
to these figures and showing at once the quarter in which the moon is, 
and the time of southing. Next to the figure of the earth in this 
centre disc, a circular hole, 10 in. in diameter, allows a smaller disc 
travelling behind to show the phases of the moon. On the second disc, 
4 ft. 1 J in. in diameter, but of which only the outer rim is seen, are 
twenty- nine divisions, and a triangular pointer, projecting from 
behind the central disc, shows the moon's age in days. The largest of 
the three discs is 7 ft. 10 in. in diameter. There are many circles 
painted on so much of the rim of this as is seen, the inner, or, following 
the order above observed and proceeding from the centre, the first 
circle, giving the names of the months, the second the da^'s of the 
months (only twenty-eight for February), the third the signs of the 
zodiac, and on the rim, with 30° for each space filled by a sign, a circle 
divided into 360 parts. A long pointer with a gilded figure of the 
sun attached projecting from behind the second disc, shows on this 
third or outmost disc of the dial the day of the month and the position 
of the san in the ecliptic. This pointer performs another duty, acting 
like the hour hand of an ordinary clock, and showing the time of day 
or night as it passes the twenty-four figures — two sets of twelve — 
painted on the stonework within which the dial revolves. The 
diameter of this outer immovable circle on the stone is 9 ft. 8 in., and 
the characters for the hoars are Roman numerals, 9 in. in length. 

In 1575 a payment appears to have been made to George Gaver, 
Serjeant painter, for painting the great dial at Hampton Court Palace, 
containing hours of the day and night, the course of the sun and 
moon, and doubtless since that time the same necessary restoration 
has been often undertaken. In 1835 an extraordinary transposition 
was made, for the works of the old clock were removed, and have since 
disappeared. In their place was fixed a movement with the following 
inscription : " This clock, originally made for the Queen's Palace in 
St. James's Palace, and for many years in use there, was, a.d. 1835, by 
command of his Majesty King William IV., altered and adapted to suit 
Hampton Court Palace byB. L. Vulliam}^ clockmaker to the king ; " 
and on another plate on the clock — " Vulliamy, London, No. 352, a.d. 
1699." Worse than all, the precious dial was taken down and stowed 
away in a workshop at the palace, the gap left being filled by a painted 
board. In 1879, however, a new and sufficient clock movement was 
provided, the dial found, restored by Mr. James Thwaites, and re- 
placed. It now shows the hours, the motions of t he sun and moon, &c., 

Weight Clocks 


with certainly as much regularity as formerly, and as well as N.O. 
or N.C. could have desired. For the illustration of the dial I am 
mdebted to Mr. Thwaites. 

Fig. 39. — Planetary Clock of Oroncc Fine. 

Fig. 40. — Clock by Isaac 

Oronce Fine, mathematician to Francis I. and Henry II. of France, 
devised what is often spoken of as a planetary clock, which is shown 

56 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

ia Fig. 39. The construction of this machine was begun in 1553^ and 
after seven years, when it was completed, it was presented to the 
Cardinal de Lorraine. Afterwards it was placed in the library of 
St. Genevieve at Paris. It is in the form of a pentagonal column 
17 in. in diameter and 6 ft. high. The movement concealed in 
the pillar is composed of over one hundred wheels, and actuated by 
a weight which falls 1 ft. per day, and was calculated to keep the 
apparatus going for forty- eight hours. 

Clock by Isaac Habrecht. — At the top of the main staircase of the 
British Museum is a most curious clock, which was bequeathed to the 
nation by Mr. Octavius Morgan. It was constructed in 1589 by 
Isaac Habrecht, who made the second famous clock mechanism at 
Strassburg. It is about 4 ft. in height, and the general design is the 
same as that of the left tower of the Strassburg clock, and on the sides 
of both are figures of the three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, 
and each is surmounted by a figure of the cock of St. Peter, which at 
the stroke of the hour flaps its wings and crowds. It had originally a 
balance as a controller, for which a pendulum was subsequently 
substituted. The quarters are struck by four figures, representing the 
ages of man, and the hour by a figure of Death. On a lower balcony 
is a seated figure of the Virgin and Child, before whom passes a circle 
of angels, who, as they are set in movement by the striking of the 
clock, are caused to make an obeisance in front of the Virgin. 
Below this, the gods of the days of the week perform their circuit, 
each driving in a chariot, while the dials on the lower stages fulfil the 
more useful functions of indicating the hour, the phases of the moon, 
the feasts of the Church, &c. The case is of gilt copper, with well- 
engraved figures and ornamental designs, perhaps by Tobias Stimmer, 
who was employed to decorate the original clock at Strassburg. The 
history of this clever piece of mechanism is somewhat curious, though 
it rests upon slender foundations. It is stated that Pope Sixtus V. 
was so pleased with the Strassburg clock that he ordered Habrecht 
to make one of the same kind. The timekeeper of which a view is 
given on p. 55 was the result, and it remained at the Vatican for 
two hundred years. Its next appearance was in Holland, where it 
was in the possession of the king ; from Holland it was brought to 
London and exhibited about 1850. 

In the royal palace of Rosenborg, Copenhagen, is a similar clock by 
Isaac Habrecht, and at the Historical Museum, Dresden, is one, also 
very similar, which was made for the Elector Augustus between 1563 
and 1568 by the astronomer-horologist Baldwein, of Marburg, and 

Weight Clocks 


H.Bucher, under the direct superintendence of the learned Landgrai 
William IV. of Hesse-Cassel. 

Fig. 41. — Lyons Clock. 

Lyons Clock. — The cathedral of Lyons contains a remarkable 
specimen of complicated horological work, which is in the form of 

58 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

a tower 40 ft. high. The original clock was constructed by a 
mechanician named Nicholas Lippius, of Basle, who completed it in 
1598. Guillaume Nourisson in 1660 repaired the structure, and 
among other alterations introduced a large oval dial. Not only was 
the outline of the dial oval, but also the graduated and figured band, 
which was divided into sixty to represent the minutes, and with 

Fig. 42. 

distinct marks for the quarter-hours. From a description of this 
curious clock published in 1677 are taken the accompanying engrav- 
ings, which show how the hand dilated and contracted as it travelled 
around the dial in order that one tip might always indicate the 
minute and the other the quarter-hour. 

Fig. 42 is the exterior of the hand stretched to its maximum 
length. As the hand approaches the narrower part of the oval, the 

Fig. 43. 

inner socket-like ends of a and b pass over the extremities of the fixed 
central portion. 

Fig. 43 is a view of the central part with the ornamental covering 

Fixed to the centre part is a cannon pinion driven by a bevelled 
pinion which also drives another pinion, the stalk of which passes 
through the cannon to the upper part of the hand, and there engages 
with a double crank attached by means of connecting rods with the 
solid core of the parts a and b. 

Weight Clocks 


This dial is on one side of the tower. On the front are two dial 
plates as shown in the engraving on p. 57. The lower one is a 
calendar, and the other an astrolabe. The calendar is divided into 
365 divisions, on which are fixed crowns. Each crown represents 

Fig. 44. — The original Venice Clock. 

the day of the month in the calendar, and the name of the saint, 
when the anniversary of the latter is due. The names of the months 
are on the circumference. The circle forming the centre is divided 
into sixty-six years, and moves one division forward on the 31st of 
every December. The inscriptions about the religious festivals, &c., 
are in handwriting on parchment. The astrolabe is exceedingly 

6o Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

ingenious. Thereon all the zodiacal and other astronomical signs 
are displayed, the solar and lunar movements, &c. In the upper 
part of the tower are various automatic pieces. There is a gilt niche 

Fig. 45. — Venice Clock as now 

in which appear representations of the days of the week. For Sunday 
the symbol is the Resurrection ; Monday, Death ; Tuesday and 
Wednesday, Saints Stephen and John ; Thursday, the Sacrament ; 
Friday, the Passion ; Saturday, the Virgin. At midnight, the statue 

Weight Clocks 6i 

that has finished duty cedes the place to that for the coming day. On 
the left is an angel which turns a sand glass every hour ; on the 
right, another angel beats the measure with head, hand, and foot, 
as the clock strikes each hour. Above all is a large space, where the 
Almighty in the scene of the Annunciation bestows His benediction. 
The cupola terminates the monument and covers the bells, which 
play several religious chants and the Ave Maria. There is the figure 
of a beadle who appears, and marches round the gallery, to inspect, 
as it were, the bells. 

In 1895, Chateau, of Paris, thoroughly repaired the clock, by 
direction of the French Government. 

Venice Clock. — The first clock in the Square of St. Mark, at Venice, 
the work of Giovanni P. Rainaldi, of Reggio, and his son Carlo, was 
completed in 1495. Of its construction but little is known. Its 
successor, the monumental timekeeper shown on p. 59, was erected 
at the Grand Piazza early in the seventeenth century. There is a 
large dial showing the hours, and above is a balcony of gilt lattice 
surrounding an image of the Blessed Virgin, seated between two doors 
overlaid with gold. Evelyn, in his " Memoirs," under date 1645, 
speaks of this " admirable clock, celebrated next to that of Strasburgh 
for its many movements ; amongst which about twelve and six- — 
which are their houres of Ave Maria when all the towne are on 
their knees — come forth the 3 kings led by a starr. and passing by 
ye image of Christ in his Mother's armes do their reverence, and enter 
into ye clock by another doore." Another writer in 1841 remarked 
that at a certain period of every year, on the Feast of the Ascension, 
and fourteen days afterwards, as the hour struck, the door on the 
right hand opened and an angel with a trumpet issued forth, followed 
by three Eastern kings, each of whom, as he passed the Virgin, raised 
his crown, bowed, and then disappeared through the other door. 
The hours are struck by two bronze giants on a large bell which 
surmounts the structure. 

Alterations to the movements appear to have been made from time 
to time, the most recent in 1859. The clock as it now exists is shown 
in Fig. 45, reproduced from a photograph taken by Mr. Julien Tripp- 
lin. Above the balcony is seated a figure of the Virgin Mary, and the 
doors on each side are utilised to exhibit by means of jumping figures 
the hour and minute. On the left facing the structure appear Roman 
numerals representing the last completed hour, and on the right the 
number of minutes past, these figures changing automatically every 
five minutes. 



IT was not until driving weights depending from cords or chains 
were superseded by a more compact motor, which allowed small 
timekeepers to be readily transported from place to place, that 
tliey became objects of particular interest, the acquisition of which 
was sought in fashionable circles. 

The Hon. Daines Barrington, in vol. v. of the Archceologia, speaks 

Fig. 46. Fig. 47. 

Canister case ; covers pressed on, back and front (no hinged joints). 

of a watch as belonging to Robert Bruce, who died in 1328, This 
watch was of small size, with an enamelled case, a piece of transparent 
liorn over the dial, and had engraved on the plate " Robertus Bruce," 
in Roman characters. Though it passed current for some time at the 
end of the eighteenth century, and eventually became the property of 


Portable Timekeepers 


George III., carefnl examination revealed the fact that the inscription 
was undoubtedly a recent addition, and the watch a production of 
three centuries later than Bruce. Except that the quotation of 
Barrington's statement is perennial, it would be hardly worth while 
to refer to so clumsy an imposition. A watch in the Schloss 
collection was, I believe, the one referred to. It will be illustrated 
in Chapter IV. 

It is now generally conceded that the production of a portable 

Fig. 48. — Cover closed. 

timekeeper was accomphshed by Peter Henlein or Hele, a clockmaker 
of Nuremberg, who was born in 1480 and died in 1542. He, shortly 
after 1500, used a long ribbon of steel tightly coiled round a central 
spindle to maintain the motion of the mechanism. The invention has 
been ascribed to Habrecht and others, at a much later date, but 
Johannes Coccleus, who was born in 1470, in his commentary dated 
1511, accurately describes a striking watch and distinctly credits its 
introduction to Henlein. Although portable timekeepers were not in 

64 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

general use for a long period afterwards, a taste for table clocks and 
watches was at once apparent among wealthy people, who delighted in 
the possession of curious novelties. 

The earliest watches are scarcely to be distinguished from small 
table clocks. The case was a cylindrical box, generally of metal, 
chased and gilt, usually with a hinged lid on one side to enclose the 
dial, the lid being engraved, and, as a rule, pierced with an aperture 

Fig. 49. — Cover open. 

over each hour, through which the position of the hand might be 
seen. Most of the watches were provided with a bell, on which in 
some cases the hours were sounded in regular progression ; in other 
instances the bell was merely utihsed for an alarum. When furnished 
with a bell the case was, as a rule, worked a jour to emit the sound. 
Cases in which the covers over the dial and back are quite flat, and 
the edges of which project over the middle of the body, are often 

Portable Timekeepers 65 

spoken of as tambourine or drum cases. A canister case is understood 

to be one in which the covers are not hinged to the bod}^ of the case, 

but simply pressed on in the same way as is the cover of a canister. 

Illustrations of dissimilar examples are given on p. 66. All are 

Fig. 50. — Tambourine Case, Jointed Cover. 

worth examination. In Fig. 51, to form twelve apertures through 
which the position of the hand might be seen, and to connect the outer 
part of the cover with the centre, are six pairs of male and female 
figures joining hands, well carved with very pretty effect. A happier 
combination of ornament and utihty would be difficult to conceive. 
At the South Kensington Museum is a circular table clock, about 

66 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 51. 

Fig. 52. 

Fig. 53. 

3 in. in diameter, in an engraved brass case having a perforated dome 
surmounted by a small horizontal dial. On the inside of the bottom 
cover is inscribed, " P. H. Nor . . 1505." This led to the supposition 

Portable Timekeepers 


that " Nor " stood for Norimbergae, " at Nuremburg," and that the 
clock was the handiwork of Hele. The plates of the movement are 
of steel, and the piece appears to be evidently a production of the 
sixteenth centur}^, bat the balance and its accessories are compara- 

FiG. 54.— Circular Table Clock. 

Fig. 55. Fig. 5G. 

Two views of .square Table Clock. 

tively modern, and it would be unsafe to rel}' on the inscription as 
conclusive evidence of authenticity. 

A somewhat similar piece, of rather later date, is shown in Fig. 54, 
which is about two-thirds of the actual size of the clock. 

68 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The square table clock of which two views' Figs. 55 and 56, are 
given, is, judging from the engraving and general construction, 
a sixteenth-century production. It is furnished with the primitive 
cross-bar balance. There is no indication of the maker or his place 
of abode. 

On very early productions the maker's name is exceptional ; 

Fig. 57. — Sixteenth-Century production. 

initials were a more usual signature, and occasionally a work stamp 
is to be found, from which it may be possible to ascertain the 
locality of manufacture. Some towns had a distinctive trade or 
work mark, that for Nuremberg being the letter N in a circle, for 
Augsburg a pineapple, for Berne a bear, and for Mayence a wheel. 
Sebastian Lehr, clockmaker to the city of Nuremberg, who died in 

Portable Timekeepers 


1556, may be taken to have been an eminent craftsman. Among 
others of the period of whom mention is made is Hans Gruber, 

Fig. 58. P>ont with Cover closed. 

Fig. 59. — Front with Cover removed. 

Fig. 60.— Edge. Fig. 61.— Back. 

Four views of a fine mid-sixteenth-century Alarm Watch. 

clockmaker and master of the Locksmiths' Guild about the middle 
of the sixteenth century. 

There are several specimens in the British Museum of a date 

70 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

between 1535 and 1570. Of two by Jeremia Metzger (or Metzker), 
Augsburg, one is furnished with a bow, and one is without any 
provision for suspending the watch. The South Kensington collection 
includes a circular striking and alarum clock, supported by a figure 
of Atlas on a pedestal of gilt brass, inscribed thus : " Jeremias . 
Metzger . Vrmacher . 15.60 . in Avgspvrg." A clock with com- 
plicated movements by this maker in the Vienna Treasury is dated 

Fig. 62. — An early example from the Schloss collection. 

1564. In the same repository are two watches in cylindrical brass 
cases which match each other. The movements bear the letters A.S. 
arranged as a monogram, but there is no other indication of the 

Fig. 57, from the Soltykoff collection, is one of the earliest of the 
kind. It is unnamed, but doubtless of German make, in a brass 
gilt case with covers top and bottom. In the open top cover may 
be seen the twenty-four perforations, through which the position of 

Portable Timekeepers 


the hand could be discerned. For this engraving and other illustra- 
tions of sixteenth century horolog}^, formerly in the magnificent 
collection of Prince Pierre Solt3^koff, I am indebted to the sumptuous 
descriptive quarto prepared by Pierre Dubois. 


Fig. G3.— Dial of Fig. 60. 

Figs. 58, 59, 60, 61, are four views of a fine mid-sixteenth- 
century alarum watch, in a case of gilt metal, the front, back, and 
edge of which is perforated. On each of the covers is a bust as 

72 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Of an early example from the Schloss collection three views are 
given (Figs. 62, 63, 64). The movement is especially interesting. 
It is of the most primitive character, the balance for controlling the 

Fig. 64:. — Movements of Figs. 62 and 63. 

Fig. 65. — Earlv oval Watch. 

Fig. 66. — Earlv oval Watch. 

Portable Timekeepers 


motion of the wheels being of the cross-bar type, designated by 
Froissard " le foliot " and by German writers " waag." Another 
feature, the " stackfreed," for equaUsing the power, will be referred 
to a little further on. 

Fig. 67 

Fig. 68. 
Oval Striking and Alarm Watch (two views). 

A large oval case, with geometrical perforations in the lid, was 
almost contemporaneous with the circular box form, and an oval 
shape, either small and plain or larger with more or less of decora- 
tion, remained in favour for over a century. An early specimen is 
shown in Figs. 63 and 64. The oval striking and alarum watch 

74 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

reproduced in Figs. 67 and 68 is sixteenth-century work by Jacques 
Duduict, " maitre orologier en la bonne ville de Blots," and is from the 
Soltykoff collection. It has covers back and front, on each of which 
is a tableau reproducing a scene in the life of Esther. 

The luxury and extravagance in dress which characterised the 
Elizabethan period required more variety of form and colour than 
could be found in a plain regular form of gold or silver, so rock 

Fig. 69. Fig. 70. 

Two views of one of the richest productions of the kind which has survived. 

crystal and other stones were often converted into cases which were 
cut in the form of crosses, stars, shells, and other extraordinary^ 
fancies, while the dials and mounts were occasionally enriched with 
coloured enamels. The most elegant of these costly toys emanated 
from France, Blois being distinguished as an early seat of manufacture. 
Pigs. 69 and 70 represent what Dubois declared to be one of the 
richest productions of the kind which has survived. It is from the 
Soltykoff collection, oval in form, with square edges, in a case of 
crystal, with mountings engraved, splendidly enamelled, and further 

Portable Timekeepers 


embellished with diamonds and rubies. The ball depending from 
the bottom of the case is a fine pearl. The dial is of gold, the 
borders above and below being enriched with enamel of various 
colours. The back plate is engraved all over with arabesques, giving 

Fig. 71. — Front with Cover removed. 

FiG. 72.— View of Back. 

Fig. 73. — Front Cover. 

a delightful effect. In the midst of the engraving may be discerned 
the letter N, the Nuremberg work mark. It bears no indication of 
the maker's name, but from the primitive foliot balance and other 
features it may safely be classed as not later than mid-sixteenth- 
century work. 

76 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 74.— Table Watch datin 
about 1550. 


There is at the Horological Institute a print of a very old striking 

or clock-watch, the case of which is enriched with remarkably fine 

arabesque work, pierced to emit 
the sound. Three views of it 
are appended : Figs. 71, 72, 73. 
The dial has two hour circles, 
the divisions of the outer circle 
being marked with Roman, 
and those of the inner with 
Egyptian characters, while 
between the two is a circle of 
minute marks. I have had an 
opportunity of examining the 
watch, which is from the Schloss 
collection. It is If in. in thickness, 
and Sin. in diameter ; the wheels 
are of iron, but it has neither 
barrel nor fusee. There are two 

springs, one the motive power for timekeeping, and the other for 

striking which is effected 

upon a broad bell occu- 
pying the whole bottom 

of the watch. The outer 

end of the mainspring 

appears to be attached to 

a pillar between the plates 

■ — an arrangement re- 
introduced in quite 

modern times for cheap 


There is at the British 

Museum a table watch in a 

drum-shaped case, dating 

from about 1550. It is 

from the Zschille collection, 

and is shown in Fig. 74. 

The mechanism is very 

crude, without screws, and 

includes Si foliol balance and 

" stackfreed/' The movement bears, in a shield, the work mark M 

and a fleur-de-lis. 

Fig. 75. 

Interesting specimen of pierced 

Portable Timekeepers 


The watch case shown in Fig. 75 is interesting as a specimen of 
pierced chasing, probably German, dating from about 1560. 

A fine striking watch in a circular table case, from the Soltykoff 
collection, is shown in Fig. 76. It dates from about 1575, and is by 
Charles Cusin, " maitre horloger de la ville d' Autim." The hour band 
is .of silver and the hand of blue steel. It has covers top and bottom, 
the upper one pierced as shown ; 
the solid centre is the reverse of 
a mounted cavaher, of which 
the obverse is visible when the 
cover is closed ; this, it is averred, 
represents Henry IV., King of 
France and of Nav^arre. The 
under-cover, similarly pierced, 
contains in the centre a mounted 
figure, said to be a counterfeit of 
the son of Marie de Medici, after- 
wards King of France. 

The origin of the term 
" watch "is not very clear. It 
may have been taken from the 
Swedish vacht, or from the 
Saxon wcecca, " to wake ; " but 
whatever its derivation, it had 
not, when introduced, the signi- 
fication we now attach to it, 
because timekeepers were not 
then worn in the pocket. But 
" watch," or " clock," or " oro- 
loge," seems to have been used 
indifferently as a title for time- 
keepers, and so it is often 
difficult to decide whether a 

weight clock of large size or a very minute spring timepiece is 
meant. Derham, in all the editions of liis book, speaks of time- 
keepers driven by weights as watches, reserving tlie word clock 
for parts connected with the striking. 

The action of the mainspring, which still retains its place as a 
motor for portable timekeepers, will be understood witli the aid of 
Fig. 77. Here, as is usually the case, the spring is contained in a 
circular box or barrel c, its inner edge being hooked on to the enlarged 

Fig. 76. 

-Striking Watch about 

y% Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

part of the arbor a, and its outer end attached to the inside of the rim 
of the barrel. The arbor passes through and fits easily a hole in the 
bottom of the barrel, and a hole in the barrel cover e. The spring is 
wound by turning the arbor, and then, if the spring barrel is attached 
to the largest wheel of the clock, in place of the cylinder or drum from 
which the weight was suspended, the spring in its effort to unwind 
turns the barrel, and with it the wheels composing the clock train. 
Of course, some provision must be made to prevent the spring from at 
once uncoihng when the arbor is released after winding, and the 
simplest plan is to have a ratchet wheel fixed on one end of the arbor, 
with wliich a click pivoted to the framing of the timekeeper engages. 
When the barrel is used in conjunction with a fusee, as will be 

Fig. 77. — Mainspring 
and Barrel. 

Fig. 78. — Mainspring Barrel and Fusee. 

mainspring- barrel ; b, fusee ; c, great wheel ; 
d, winding- square ; e, snail-shaped flange 

described presently, the spring is wound by turning the barrel instead 
of the arbor. 

But it is evident that, just as the spring offered increased resist- 
ance to every successive turn of the arbor in winding, so the force 
transmitted by it when fully wound would be very much greater than 
the force exerted after the barrel had made a few turns and the 
spring had partially run down, and this variation of force was the 
cause of considerable perplexity for some time after the invention of 
the mainspring, for with the verge escapement variation of force means 
variation of timekeeping. The first contrivance appHed with a view 
of overcoming or abating the drawback was that known as the 
" stackfreed." I have tried in vain to trace the derivation of this 
curious word, but am told it is of Persian origin. The device did not 
prove to be an enduring one ; but it was apphed to most portable 
timekeepers up to about 1540, and occasionally afterwards to the 
end of the century. It is shown in Fig. 79, which is a watch in 
a canister case with the back cover removed. The front and edge 
of the case have already been illustrated. The action of the " stack- 

Portable Timekeepers 


freed " may be gathered from an examination of the engraving with 
the following explanation. 

Fixed to the mainspring arbor above the top plate is a pinion 
having eight leaves. This gears with a wheel having twenty-four 
teeth, wliich do not quite fill out the circumference of the wheel, but 
leave a block of two spaces in width which acts as a stop to the 
pinion when the mainspring is wound, and after it has run down three 
whole turns. Fastened to the wheelis a cam, nearly concentric for 
about seven-eigliths of its circumference and indented for the 

Fig. 79. Fig. 80. 

Watch movements with " Stackfreed." 

remainder. There is a groove in the concentric portion of the edge, 
into which is pressed a roller which is pivoted at the free end of a strong 
curved spring. When the mainspring is fully wound the roller rests 
in the curved depression of the cam, and the effort required to hft the 
roller up the incline till it is placed upon the concentric contour absorbs 
so much of the force of the mainspring as to prevent banking. When 
the mainspring has nearly run down, the roller, in entering the 
depression by pressing the cam in the direction that it is moving, 
really aids the mainspring in its effort. Besides the stackfreed and 
its appurtenances may be noticed in Fig. 79 the cross-bar balance,- 
the very small balance cock, and two hinged bolts which shut into 

8o Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

holes in the edge of the case, and so secure the movement in position. 
The plates, the train wheels, stackfreed, balance-cock, and balance are 
all of iron or steel, and the various fastenings are made by means of 
pins or rivets, there being no screws used throughout. This movement 
is, in fact, an excellent example of the very earliest kind of portable 

In Fig. 80, which shows a later stackfreed movement, is a point 
worthy of note. As a form of regulator are two banking pins of 
stiff bristle, which the straight arm of the balance knocks against. 
These are mounted on a lev^er which is pivoted at one end by means 
of a screw near the edge of the plate. The pins may be caused to 
approach or recede from the centre of the balance by moving the 
free end of the lever, and in this wa}^ the vibrations of the balance 
would be retarded or quickened. An engraved scale on the plate 
registers the movement of the free end of the lever. 

It is not a matter for surprise that a frictional brake like the 
stackfreed, which must have absorbed an appreciable proportion of 
the force, failed to give satisfaction for equalising the pull of the 
mainspring. The fusee invented for the same purpose by, it is said, 
Jacob Zech, of Prague, about 1525, is of a far different nature, and 
still survives. It consists of a spirally grooved pulley, which is 
interposed between the mainspring barrel and the great or driving 
wheel of a clock or^watch, the connection between the barrel and the 
fusee being made by a cord or chain, one end of which is attached 
to the barrel and the other to the fusee. When the spring is relaxed 
there must be at least as many coils of the cord around the outside 
of the barrel as the barrel is to make turns in winding the spring. 
To wind the spring, the fusee is rotated by means of a key fitting a 
square formed at one end of its arbor, whereby the cord is drawn 
from the barrel on to the fusee, the first coil being on the larger end 
of the fusee, as shown in Fig. 78. 

Then, as the mainspring runs down, the barrel rotates and coils 
the cord on to its periphery again. But while the mainspring when 
fully wound turns the fusee by uncoihng the cord from the smallest 
part of the fusee, it gets the advantage of a larger radius as its energy 
becomes lessened, and by proportioning the diameter of the fusee to 
the varying pull of each successive turn of the mainspring an excellent 
adjustment is obtained, so that the pressure exerted by the great 
wheel on the centre pinion is constant. The fusee is fixed to its arbor, 
on which, in the simplest arrangement, the great wheel rides easily, 
the connection between the fusee and great wheel being made by 

Portable Timekeepers 8i 

means of a ratchet wheel and click ; this allows of the fusee being 
rotated to wind the mainspring. To prevent undue strain on the cord 
when the winding is completed, the cord, as it is being coiled on to the 
smallest turn of the fusee, pushes an arm which is pivoted to the 
framing of the timekeeper in the path of a snail- shaped flange of the 
fusee, and this forms a stop. The barrel arbor is alwaj's stationary. 
In the early fusees the cord was of catgut, and this material is still 
sometimes 'used for clocks. Chains were introduced in the place of 
catgut for watches in 1664, by one Gruet, a Swiss, and they are still 
used for marine chronometers, for some clocks, and for the few fusee 
watches that are made. 

Table clocks or watches of the sixteenth century are exceedingly 
rare. Many specimens put forward as such are found on examination 
to be of a later date. There is no doubt that the manufacture of 
portable timepieces extended to Holland and France before the end 
of the century, but very few examples of that period survive. A 
genuine specimen would have no covering glass over the dial, and, if 
a fusee were present, the connection between it and the barrel would 
be by a piece of catgut, and not a chain. There would be, of course, 
no controlling spring to the balance at that period, while the balance- 
cock, instead of being spread over the whole extent of the balance, 
would be narrow. The workmanship of the movement would be 
comparatively rough, however lavishly the case might be ornamented. 

During the first quarter of the century the frames and wheels were 
of iron or steel ; productions of the second quarter having brass plates 
and pillars are occasionally to be met with. But brass wheels before 
the middle of the century were quite exceptional. Screws seem to 
have been introduced to join pieces of metal in German timekeepers 
about 1550, so that in the earl 5^ sixteenth-century timekeepers these 
convenient fasteners would be absent, and the various junctions made 
by riveting or the use of either pins or cotters. Screws are not met 
with in English work till quite late in the century, and are absent 
in some early seventeenth-century watches. There were rarely any 
winding holes in the cases of sixteenth-century watches ; to attach the 
key to the winding squares the case had to be opened and usually the 
movement to be turned out of the case, a cover at the back being the 

The Society of Antiquaries possess an undoubted example of the 
handiwork of Jacob Zech, the inventor of the fusee. It is a table 
timepiece with a circular brass gilt case 9f in. in diameter, and 5 in. 
in height, which was bequeathed to the Society by Mr. Henry Peckitt, 

82 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

an apothecary, of Compton Street, Soho, and handed over by his 
executrix in 1808, It was given to James Ferguson, the astronomer 
and mechanician, by Mudge, and at the sale of Ferguson's effects it 
was bought by Mr. Peckitt in 1777. Captain W. H. Smyth gives a 
minute description of this relic in ArcJmologia, vol. xxxiii., from which 
the engraving ot the dial (Fig. 81) is taken. 

Dial of Table Clock by Jacob Zech. 

From the decoration of the case and dial, it is inferred that the 
clock was made for Sigismund I., King of Poland, and that he pre- 
sented it to Bona Sforza, to whom he was married in 1518. There 
are three shields equidistant round the case, which is altogether nicely 
decorated. On one shield is an eagle displayed and crowned, repre- 
senting Poland ; the second contains a serpent entwined and wavy 
pale- crowned, a child issuant from its mouth and surmounted by a 

Portable Timekeepers 


ducal crown — the coat of the house of Visconti ; the third shield bears 
the arms of Lithuania, a knight armed cap-d-pie, and mounted on a 
horse proper, holding in his dexter hand a drawn sword, and having 
pendent from his neck a shield charged with the Hungarian cross. 
The frame is fastened by buttons on dogs. The verge pivots act on 
iron dovetails. The regulator is a cross-bar balance of the kind used 
in De Vick's clock, except that instead of loose weights of iron there 

Fig. 82. — Primitive Table Timepiece. 

are leaden weights screwed one on each end of the cross-bar, and the 
adjustment is made by screwing to or from the centre of motion. 
Originally these were doubtless fixed weights riveted on and without 
any provision for adjustment. There are two yielding brass arms to 
act as a banking and check excessive vibration of the cross-bar. There 
are eight turns to the fusee, which is of soft metal, and in a circle on 
the face of the barrel is engraved in Bohemian an inscription which 
Smyth translates thus : " When we counted 1525 years, then made 

84 Old Qocks and Watches and their Makers 

me Jacob Zech " (or rather Jacob the Bohemian) " at Prague ; it is 

There was originally some additional wheelwork to show the 
motion of the sun and moon on an engraved ecliptic, and also a 
contrivance to strike one at every hour. The wheels are of iron 
and show punch marks of division, proving that they had been cut 
with a file by hand. A catgut had been used to connect the barrel 
with the fusee, but the metallic chain was subsequently applied, which 

Fig. 83.— Square Table Clock. 

destroyed several of the threads. Before this was done it went for 
forty-eight hours with one winding, and gave about 3,600 beats in 
the hour. 

Fig. 82 shows a primitive table timepiece which formerly belonged 
to Baron Pichon and was after in the Schloss collection. The drum- 
shaped case of brass gilt is engraved in the Renaissance style, and 
measures 5 J in. across. On the bottom is stamped in a scroll " N. 
Plantart." A very similar piece is in the South Kensington Museum. 

In the British Museum is an excellent specimen of a German 

Portable Timekeepers 


early table clock of a square oblong shape. The works are of iron. 
It has no fusee. It fits into an engraved metal box, having a hinged 
cover. The date of production is stated to be 1530. 

Fig. 84. 

-A very choice example of Iron, damascened with 
Precious Metals. 

Among the collection of Prince Soltykoff was the square table 

clock shown in Fig. 83. The sides are of bronze gilt, very finely 

engraved with allegorical subjects. Representations ot St. Paul, 

Matthew, Mark, and Luke are engraved on silver medallions which 


86 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

occupy the centres. Inside the perforated dome, is a bell, and 
surmounting it a horizontal dial enriched with coloured enamels. 

Fig. 85. 

Venetian " Astronomical Clock. 

It was the work of Louis David, and dates from the middle of the 
sixteenth century. 

Nuremberg and Augsburg pursued the manufacture of portable 
timekeepers with considerable spirit. The plain square brass towers, 
round and octagonal boxes, gave place to cases of a much more 

Portable Timekeepers 


ornate design when expense was no object. A very choice example 
from Dubois' historical work is shown in Fig. 84 ; it is of iron, 
damascened with precious metals, a style of work for which Augsburg 
was particularly famous. 

Several good representative specimens belonging to the King 

Fig. 86 — Clock in the Historical Museum at Dresden, 

of Saxony are to be seen in Dresden, part of them in the treasury 
t)f the palace and part in the Historical Museum. In the green 
vaulted chambers or treasury of the palace is the so-called Venetian 
astronomical clock, which is, though, really of German workmanship. 
A front view of it is given in Fig. 85, but a photograph naturally 

88 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

fails adequately to convey the splendour of the case, which is of gold 
and silver covered with gorgeous work in enamel, or the extraordinary 
complexity of the mechanism. The movement bears no maker's 
name, but of two somewhat similar clocks of the same collection 


one is signed by Andreas Schelhorn, of Schneeburg, in Saxony, 1570, 
and the other by Christoph Ullmej/, of Augsburg. 

Of other specimens in the same repository may be mentioned 
a table clock of very rich appearance, which belonged to the queen 
of Augustus the Strong and was made, presumably about 1700, bj^ 

Portable Timekeepers 


Jakob Strc41er, of Nuremberg. Another very wonderful clock, the 
so-called Hunting clock, the movement of which was made about 
1700 by J. G. Graupner, is set in a magnificent case with figures of 
huntsmen at the corners and a group representing the legend of 

Clock Carious with Moving Figures. 

St. Hubert on the top, all enamelled in brilhant colours and blazing 
with diamonds and emeralds, the work of Johann Christoph Kohler. 
Then there is the famous " Tower of Babel Kugeluhr " (Ball clock), 
made in 1602 by Hans Schlotheim, of Augsburg. It is in the form 
of a tower of gilded metah about 4 ft. high, with a gallery in tlie 

go Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

manner of an inclined plane running round it spiralwise from top 
to bottom ; every minute a little crystal ball comes out of a door 












Fig. 89. — Early instance of a Sixteenth-Century Table Clock 
having provision for striking the quarter-hours. 

at the top of the tower and, running all the way down the spiral 
galley, enters a door at the bottom, when a bell rmgs. 

Of the horological treasures in the Historical Museum at Dresden 
I can give three illustrations, and will begin with the remarkable 
clock of whicli a ^dew appears in Fig. 86. It was bought in 1587 

Portable Timekeepers 


for 500 gulden of Sebald Schwerzer, who was alchemist to the 
Elector Augustus of Saxony (1526-1586) and afterwards ennobled 
by the Emperor Rudolph II., and he is supposed by some to have 

Fig. 90. — The Movement is controlled by a Pendulum 
which swings outside of the case at the back. 

been the maker of the clock, though the claim has been disputed. 
The silver work of the case bears the mark of Elias Lenker, of 
Nuremberg, who died in 1591. 

Fig. 87 is a very elaborate clock with eleven dials and automata. 

92 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The case is decorated with many beautiful plaques of basse taille enamel 
upon silver. It is considered to be the masterpiece of its maker, Paul 
Schuster, of Nuremberg ; it was bought in 1591, and so was presumably 
completed in that year. 

In Fig. 88 is another curious clock of the same type, with moving 

Fig. 91. — Sixteenth-Century Hexagonal Clock. 

figures representing an Indian king hunting with elephants. The 
maker's name is unknown, but the clock was already in the collection 
of the Elector of Saxony in 1587. 

There is as well a curious clock which has upon it the figure of a 
man leading a dancing bear ; when the hours strike, the bear beats 

Portable Timekeepers 93 

a drum, and the man blows a horn. This piece also bears no maker's 
name, but it has Augsburg marks, and probably dates from the end 
of the sixteenth century. 

The Comte de Lambilly has a clock somewhat resembling Fig. 88, 
in which, at the striking of the hour, figures of the twelve Apostles 
move round in the upper gallery. The main front dial shows the 
hours and the lower one quarters and half- quarters. 

The examples on pp. 90 and 91 are from the Schloss collection. 
Fig. 89, a sixteenth-century production, is notable as being an early 
instance of a table clock having provision for striking the quarter-hours. 
There are three bells : a large one, concealed by the base ; a smaller 
one, enclosed by the gallery above the tower ; and a third, still smaller, 
which serves as a canopy over the figure seated above the gallery 
on a ball. The quarter-hours are struck on the smallest bell, and 
the last hour then repeated on the bell behind the gallery. On com- 
pletion of the hour it is sounded on the largest bell. There are two 
dials, one on the front and one on the back. On the main dial in 
front are shown the hours, and outside the hour numerals are marked, 
the quarter-hours, which are indicated by a hand, travelling round in 
one hour, but moving independently of the hour hand. The move- 
ment bears the signature V.M. in a shield. It has a cross-bar balance 
with sliifting weights, and there are no fusees. The chasing of the 
case is exceedingly good, and the sides of the square part bear 
evidence of having been beautifully enamelled with birds and 

Fig. 90 is of later date. There are three dials on the front and 
one on the opposite face. The movement is controlled by a pendulum 
which swings outside of the case at the back. 

In the South Kensington Museum is an Augsburg astronomical 
striking table clock, in an engraved brass and damascened iron case. 
On the bottom is a sun dial and the inscription : — 

Jacob . Marqvart . von . Avgspvrg . bin . ih . genant . 

mein . Nam . ist . in . VVelslandt . gar . vvol . bekant . 

der . hat . das . VVerck . gemacht . Jirvarv . 

im . 1567 . Jar . 

ain . svnenvr . ist . das . genant . 

avf . Wels . vnd . Deisch . Landt . crkant . 

(I am called Jacob Marquart, of Augsburg ; 

My name is right well known in Foreign Lands, 

Who has indeed done the work 

In the year 1567 ; 

This is called a sundial, 

Available in Foreign Lands and Germany.) 

94 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The hexagonal clock in the form of a temple from the collection of 
Prince Soltykoff and sliown in Fig. 91 is also a sixteenth-century 
production. The movement is arranged in stories, the watch part 
being at the bottom and the striking work above. The six doors or 
panels between the fluted columns are of steel damascened with 
arabesques of elegant design. In the arched centre of one of the 
panels is the dial with a band of blue steel for indicating the hours 
of the day ; various planetary and astronomical motions were shown 
on the horizontal dial at the top of the structure. The upper part 
of the case in the style of Henri II. is very handsome ; the entablature 

Fig. 92. — Curious Table Clock, Early Sixteenth-Centur}^ 

is supported at the angles by six caryatides, and in the centre of each 
panel is a medallion with the head of a Roman emperor or warrior 
sculptured in high relief and surrounded by a gilt border. A clock 
similar to the engraving, but surmounted by a statuette, is in the 
British Museum. 

Curious Octagonal Table Clock. — Some time ago, by favour of 
Mr. Charles Shapland, I had through my hands a curious sixteenth- 
century striking clock of octagonal form, of which a view is subjoined 
(Fig. 92) . This clock, which is now in the British Museum, is probably 
of Nuremberg or Augsburg manufacture, and has a pecuHar method 
of indicating the rising and setting of the sun daily throughout the 
year, by means of two thin metal dials within the hour circle. One of 

Portable Timekeepers 95 

these dials is of silver and the other of steel for contrast ; each of them 
forms a segment nineteen twenty-fourths of a circle, divided by radial 
lines into nineteen parts, which are numbered at the circumference 
from one onward in Arabic figures, so that each division is one 
twenty-fourth of the whole circle. A brass disc, divided into twenty- 
four, is fixed to the steel dial by rivets at Nos. 1 and 3 ; No. 24, or 
zero point of the circle, coinciding with what may be called the initial 
edge of the steel dial. The steel and silver dials are interlaced — that 
is to say, the concealed portion of the steel dial is underneath the silver 
one, while the initial edge is above it. At the shortest day in the year 
the least portion of the silver dial would be visible, and the figure on 
the silver dial next to the initial edge of the steel dial would represent 
the number of hours the sun was above the horizon, while the figure 
on the central brass circle, which happened to be coincident with the 
initial edge of the silver dial, would represent the number of hours he 
was below the horizon, and the subdivisions of the hour could be well 
estimated to within a tenth. The dials are continually rotating in 
opposite directions, so that as the days lengthened more of the silver 
and less of the steel dial would be seen. At the close of the longest 
day the motion of the dials would be reversed, and the visible surface 
of the silver dial would be diminished each day in the same ratio that 
it was formerly increased, till the shortest day recurred. It is probable 
that these dials were arranged to show the beginning of the Hebrew 
day at sunset, as well as its duration and close at the succeeding sunset. 
On removing the dial plate, the way in which the dials are 
actuated is apparent. Fitting loosely on the centre wheel which 
carries the hour hand is a pinion of twentj^-four leaves. The pipe 
of tliis has a cruciform top fitting into the centre of the silver dial. 
On the pipe of this pinion is another, larger in diameter, but also of 
twenty-four leaves, and with a similar top to carry the steel dial. A 
double rack or segment of a wheel, having internal and external teeth, 
is pivoted close to the edge of the movement, and engages with both 
of the dial plate pinions, the internal teeth being farthest from the 
centre of motion, and of such a distance that they reach beyond the 
centre arbor and engage with the teeth of the larger pinion on the 
other side of it ; the external teeth are so placed that they engage with 
the teeth of the smaller pinion, but on the side of the centre arbor 
nearest to the centre of motion of the rack. There is on the plate 
of the movement, midway between its centre and its edge and driven 
from the fusee, a wheel which turns once a year. This carries a crank, 
from which is a connecting rod catcliing hold of the double rack ; 

96 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

so that, as the crank revolves, it gives a to-and-fro motion to the rack. 
To meet the varying length of the years from leap year to leap year, 

Fig. 93. — Ouaint Hexagonal Striking and Alarm Table Clock. 

there are four pins by which the position of the crank could be 
altered, but, so far as one could see, there is no provision for automatic 

Portable Timekeepers 


regulation, so that, if the reading of the scale is to be exact, the dial 
would have to be removed and the position of the crank altered once 
a year^ 

Recessed into the under-side of the clock case is an annual dial 
engraved with the signs of the zodiac, the titles of the months, and 

Fig. 94.— Striking Clock about 1560. 

the days. The index for this is fixed to the arbor of the annual 
wheel already mentioned, and the annual dial is therefore less than 
half the diameter of the movement. 

The case is of brass, engraved and gilt. The hour band is of 
silver, divided into two periods of twelve hours each, and marked 
with Roman numerals. Within the hour ring, and separating it 

98 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

from the sun rising and setting discs, is a brass gilt ring engraved 
with a cable pattern. 

All the dial work, the striking train and the going train wheels, 

Fig. 95.— " Nef,"orShip Clock, Sixteenth-Century. 
fHavard, " Dictionnaire de rAmeublement.") 

up to the fusee, are of iron or steel ; the connection between the fusee 
and barrel is by a catgut, and the balance is very light, of the old 
cross-bar pattern, but with weights riveted on with no provision for 

Portable Timekeepers 


after-adjustment. There is, of course, no balance-spring. The hours 
are struck on a cap-shaped or cylindrical bell. 

In the construction of this timekeeper there is not a single screw 
used. All fastenings are either pins or wedge-shaped keys or rivets. 

The quaint hexagonal striking and alarm table clock shown in 
Fig. 93 is a mid-sixteenth-century production from the Schloss 
collection. On the six faces of the case are engraved allegorical 
figures representing the sun, the moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and 
Venus, corresponding to the days of the week from Sunday to Friday, 

Fig. 96. — Octaoonal Clock. 

and, on the bottom of the case, Saturn for Saturday. A little door 
seen on the face immediately to the right of the dial permits the 
inspection of the fusee in order to estimate the period for winding. 
The movement is arranged in stories, the striking mechanism below 
and the going part above, the hemispherical bell being supported from 
the upper plate and covered by a perforated dome. On the upper 
surface of the plinth is the maker's punch mark, a square shield with 
" M.H.B." arranged as a monogram. 

The example engraved in Fig. 94 is from the Soltykoff collection. 
The case appears to be a reproduction in miniature of a mediaeval 

100 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

hexagonal fortress. It is a striking clock, probably German, dating 
from about 1560. In the Webb collection at the South Kensington 
Museum is a somewhat similar clock ; the bottom of the case is 
stamped " AIX * A * P " (perhaps for Aix in Provence). 

" Nef," or Ship clocks, were a peculiar fancy of the sixteenth 
century. There is one in the British Museum, by Hans Schlott, 
dating from about 1580, which is supposed to have belonged to 

Fig. 97.— Earlv Clock with Minute Hand, dated 1587. 

Rudolf II., and another in the Vienna Treasury. The clock 
mechanism included provision for showing various astronomical move- 
ments, and was quite subsidiary to the ship and its appurtenances, 
as will be gathered from the excellent example given in Fig. 95. 

In Fig. 96 is shown a German octagonal clock from the Soltykoff 

Early Clock with Minute Hand. — At the South Kensington 



Portable Timekeepers 


Museum is a clock, in an elegant case of metal gilt, in the form of a 
temple, as shown in Fig. 97. Its height is 13J in. and its width 8 in. 
It is most elaborately chased and engraved with figures and arabesques 

Fig. 98.— Portable Clock with Five Dials. 

The pierced dome covers two bells, and is surmounted by a figure 
standing on a globe. The base is chased with masks and cartouche 
ornaments, with winged horses at the angles, and a dial on each of the 
four sides showing, besides the hours and minutes, motions of various 
5 8 

102 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

heavenly bodies. This choice and interesting timekeeper, which 
formed part of the Bernal collection, was produced at Munich, and is 
dated 1587. Every minute is figured from 1 to 60, as was the custom 
on early timekeepers with minute hands. Though the presence of the 
concentric minute hand on sixteenth-century work is exceptional, 
there is nothing to lead one to suppose that it is in this case an 
addition to the original construction ; and providing the minute hand 
would certainly present no difficulty to the mind capable of devising 

such intricate mechanism as is con- 
tained in the astronomical motions 
of this clock. 

I recently saw another clock of 
very similar character, which was 
inscribed, " asmus birln b rynlr 

^'^'^M^l^l.. IN AVGVSTA VINDLLICORUM 1577," 

and the letters " A.B." formed into 
a monogram. 

A somewhat similar portable 
clock (Fig. 98) from the Soltykoff 
collection is about 15 in. high and 
10 in. across the base, which is 
supported by four heraldic lions. 
There are five dials, two on the 
front face and one on each of the 
others ; they mark the hours of 
the day, the day of the month, the 
phases of the moon, the signs of the 
zodiac, and the course of certain 

This clock bears no maker's 
name, but a very similar one, also 
in the Soltykoff collection, was inscribed, " Andreas Muller, Tristen." 
It is probably mid-sixteenth- century work. 

The next example, from the South Kensington Museum, is an 
elegant form of medallion clock in a rock-crystal case, on a stem 
as shown in Fig. 99. The plinth is of metal gilt, with crystal plaques, 
and contains the striking train. The remainder of the movement is in 
the upper case. The longer of the two hands, which at the first 
glance seems to be a minute hand, really points to the day of the month 
marked on a ring outside the hour ring. The age of the moon is shown 
by a revolving gilt plate behind the dial, which is cut away to make the 

Fig. 99.— MedalUon Clock, 
Rock-crystal Case. 

Portable Timekeepers 


moon plate visible. The total height is 7J in. It is signed " J. WoH, 
Wien," and dated 1609, but the name "J. Wolf " appears on examina- 
tion to be a recent addition. It was formerly in the Bernal collection. 

The table clock represented in Fig. 100 resembles one at vSouth 
Kensington Museum, which, as already mentioned, was probably 
made by Peter Hele, except that in the present example the body 
of the case is square. It is of brass gilt, with bold mouldings as 
shown, and very nicely engraved. Rising from this is a hemispherical 

Fig. 100. — -Table Clock, probably made by Peter Hele. 

dome ^pierced to emit the sound of the bell which it covers, and 
supporting above it a horizontal dial. The arrangement of placing 
the bell between the movement and the dial allows a handsome and 
appropriate design with which no fault can be found, except, perhaps, 
that in order to keep the dial from overshadowing the dome it is 
necessarily rather small. On the exterior of the bottom of the case 
is engraved the word Vallin. The Roman numerals I. to XII, are 
engraved on a silver band, and within are smaller Arabic figures, 
13'to 24. 

104 ^Id Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The chief plate of the movement is square and pinned to the 
upper part of the square box. Running vertically inside the box 
are two feathers ; these pass through notches in the lower plate of 
the movement ; two turn-buckles on the lower plate butt against 
the ends of the feathers, and so secure the box after it is placed 
over the movement. The hand is driven from a pinion on the great 
wheel by means of an arbor, which passes through the post to which 

the bell is secured. It is* 
probably a late sixteenth- 
century French production. 
An almost identical speci- 
men is in the library at 
Welbeck Abbey. 

In Fig. 101 is shown 
a table clock, apparently 
Englisli, dating from about 
1580, in a square brass 
case, gilded and beauti- 
fully engraved. It belongs 
to Mr. J. Hall, and very 
closely resembles one by 
Bartholomew Newsam, 

which is at the British 
Museum and illustrated 
in Chapter V. 

A good example cf early 
seventeenth century table 
clocks is shown in Fig. 102. 
It is in a brass case, with 
silver hour ring, divided 
into twelve, and a fleur- 
de-lis midway between each 
hour. The characteristic 
features which note the 
departure from the earliest specimens are the glass panels in the 
sides of the case and the bronze feet, which give a better effect 
than is obtained with the primitive flat hexagonal and octagonal 
clocks, besides allowing space for the bell to project below the 
bottom surface of the case. 

The cocks and hammer are very nicely engraved and pierced, and 
on the plate is the name Johan Scheirer. A balance-spring has been 

Fig. 101.— Table Clock about 1580. 

Portable Timekeepers 


applied subsequently to the manufacture of the piece, and as the 
original balance-cock is retained, the spring is much cramped. The 
balance appears to be the original one, and is weighted with pieces of 
metal to keep the vibration suificiently slow after the addition of the 
spring. A notable pecuharity is tliat the fly pinion has but four 

- The handsome striking and alarm clock shown in Fig. 103 is from 
the Soltykoff collection. It bears no indication of its origin, but the 
monogram " G.O." engraved on it leads to the conjecture that it 
belonged to Gaston of Orleans, son of Henry IV. 

Fig. 102. — -Seventeenth-Century Table Clock. 

Early Clock with Balance-Spring. — The interesting clock shown 
in Fig. 104 I saw at Messrs. Thwaites & Reed's. In the centre 
of the dial is a plate with the moon's age marked on it and carrying 
the hour hand ; concentric with this a disc with a round liole showing 
the phases of the moon and age. In front, and also concentric 
with these, is an alarm dial with hands. This turns once in twenty- 
four hours. The wheel carrying the hour hand and moon's age 
has sixty teeth, the one carrying the disc showing the phases and 
age of the moon sixt3^-one teeth, and the wheel carrying the alarm dial 
sixty teeth. The two wheels showing the moon's age and hours are 
driven by a pinion of twenty, and the alarm wheel by a pinion of ten, 
both fixed on the same arbor, which makes one revolution in four 

io6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The clock strikes one blow at the first quarter, two at the second, 
three at the third, and four at the hour, besides the ordinary hours 
from one to t\velve ; and then repeats the hours at any interval the 

Fig. 103. — Striking and Alarm Clock. 

clock is set for ; that is, one, two, three, or more minutes after the 
ordinary hours are struck. This part strikes the hours up to twenty- 
four, and, while striking, the figure on the top of the clock revolves. 

Portable Timekeepers 


There is a separate train for each part, and the chain on the fusee of the 
going part has the appearance of having been made at the same time as 
the clock. The other springs are in brass barrels screwed to the frame. 
The small dial indicates quarter-hours only, and the hand makes 
a revolution in one hour. There are two hands on this : the under 

Fig. 104. — Clock with earl}' Balance-Spring. 

io8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 105. 

Fig. 106. — Plan, showing Dial. 
Two views of an early Seventeenth-Century Alarm Table Clock. 

Portable Timekeepers 


one is to set the interval between the ordinary strii<:ing- and the 
twenty-four-hour striking. 

The escapement is, of course, a verge. It has a plain circular 

FiG; 107. — Astronomical Clock; 

balance rather large in diameter. Over the balance is a straight 
spring, one end of which is fixed to the plate, the free end being 
embraced by two pins standing up from the rim of the balance, and 
so acting as a controller. 

no Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 108.— Gilt Metal Astronomical Clock. 

Portable Timekeepers 


On the bottom of the clock is engraved : — 

A.D. 1634. Adam Klyzovicz Kiakovie Fecit Polonvs. 

Two views of an exceedingly pretty early seventeenth-century 
alarm table clock of small size from the Schloss collection are given 
in Figs. 105 and 106. The case is of brass gilt, the exterior of the 
bottom and the under-side of the movement plate are covered with 
beautiful engraving, and over the body of the case is a silver, ring 
or jacket with piercing so fine as to appear almost like filigree work. 

Fig. 109. Fig. 110. 

Horizontal Dial Timepiece, latter part of the Sixteenth Centiir}'. 
(Havard, " Dietionnaire de rAmeublement.") 

The dome, of silver, similarly pierced, covers a hemispherical bell, 
and supports the horizontal dial, on which are engraved the liorary 
numerals in Roman characters, the time being indicated by a 
projecting ornament at the edge of the centre, which rotates and 
is figured as a guide for setting the alarm hand. 

Seventeenth- Century Pendulum Clocks, — Fig. 107 represents the 
front of an astronomical clock by Marcus Bohm, Augsburg. It 
is 21 in. liigh and 10 in. wide, engraved, chased, and gilded. Under 
the dome, which is hammered out of one piece of metal, are two 
bells, the smaller being struck at the quarters, and the larger at 

112 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the hours and as an alarm. By adjustment at pleasure the clock 
can be made to sound the hours from one to twelve or from one to 
twenty-four. The large dial shows the time, the length of days, 
and a calendar of saints. In front hangs the pendulum, the bob 
being in the form of a cherub. The back is very similar to the 
front ; the main dial there indicates the annual course of the astral 

FiCx. 111. — Crowned Lion Clock of Gilt Copper. 

world. Some of the subsidiary dials on the front, back, and sides 
exliibit other motions, and the remainder are for adjustment and 
regulation of the mechanism. 

At the Ashmolean Museum is a fine German astronomical clock, 
22Hn. high, belonging to Mr. Henry J. Pfungst. The case is of 
gilt metal with dials on each of the four sides, of which the chief one 
is seen in Fig. 108. On the opposite side to that shown in the 

Portable Timekeepers 


engraving a pendulum is suspended. The dials are of silver, decorated 
with basse taille enamel red, white, blue, and green. 

During the latter part of the sixteenth, and tlie first half of the 
seventeenth century, timepieces with horizontal dials over wliich a 
dome containing an alarm could be placed at pleasure were in 
favour. There are several in the British Museum. An early example 
is shown in Fig. 109. Fig. 110, from the Schloss collection, is of a 

Fig. 112. — Dog guarding Dial. 

rather later date. Three springy legs fixed to the alarm were made 
to clasp the outside of the dial of the timepiece in such a position 
that a wire depending from the alarm case was moved by the hand 
at the hour it was desired the alarm should be discharged. 

These timepieces must have been exceedingly useful before the 
advent of Inciter matches, when recourse had to be made to the tinder 
box in order to obtain a light ; but, apart from these and machines 
with'complicated movements sucli as were designed by astronomers. 

114 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 113. — Splendid example of its kind, probably made by Conrad 
Freizer, earlv Seventeenth-Century. 

Portable Timekeepers 


regard seems to have been more generally paid to the effectiveness 
of the exterior as a whole rather than to its fitness and convenience 

Fig. 114. — Peculiar Early-Seventeenth-Century Striking 
Clock, similar one at the British Museum. 

for showing the hour. Some instances of the more or less grotesque 
conceptions then in favour are appended, most of them being from 
the Schloss collection. 

ii6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. HI shows a crowned lion of gilt copper holding an orb in its 
right paw and supporting the dial with its left. By means of two 
wires standing up from the balance the eyes, which have bright red 
pupils, move to and fro when the clock is going. As the hours are 

Fig. 115. — -Revolving Hollow Globe, dating from 
about 1650. 

struck the animal's lower jaw moves up and down. The movement 
is contained in an ebony box, which forms the plinth. 

A dog guarding the dial with its paw, as shown in Fig. 112 is of 
much the same character. 

Portable Timekeepers 


Fig. 113 shows a splendid example of its kind, in which a boldly 
modelled figure of Bacchus sitting astride a cask is utilised as an 
automaton. As the hours are struck it opens its mouth and raises 
to its lips the bottle held in the right hand. In its left hand is a 

Fig. 116. — Clock with horary numerals on a revolving 

staff entwined with grape leaves and fruit and surmounted by a 
pineapple, the Augsburg mark. On a silver dial attached to the 
front of the cask the hours are indicated, and at the back, between a 
pineapple in a shield, are the letters " C.K.", which very possibly stand 

ii8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

for Conrad Kreizer, a well-known early seventeenth-century maker. 
Just in front of the cask is a horizontal dial divided into quarter-hours 

Fig. 117. — Clock with th'-ee horizontal band dials showing the 
hour, the day of the week, and the day of the month. 

for setting the striking. The eyes of the figure move to and fro 
continuously while the clock is going ; but instead of being connected 
directly to the balance, as in the preceding examples, they are worked 

Portable Timekeepers 


by a separate escapement and ingenious mechanism actuated by the 
fusee wheel which drives the train. In this way the motion of the 
eyes is slower, and the timekeeping of the clock is not affected. The 

Fig. 118. — The flagellation of Jesus Christ forms the subject of 
this clock. 

plates of the movement are gilded, and the train wheels are of steel. 
The case is of ebony. 

A pecuhar early-seventeenth-century striking clock is shown in 
Fig. 114. As the hours are sounded the negro's head moves, and the 

120 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

dog at his feet jumps. He indicates the time on a revolving band 
which bears the hour numerals. Another of these quaint conceptions 
is in the British Muesum. 

On similar Hues are Pigs. 115 and 116. The one with a revolving 

Fig. 119. — Crucifix Clock. 

hollow globe, on which the hours are marked, dates from about 1650 ; 
the figure of the Virgin bearing the horary numerals on a revolving 
crown and holding a sceptre and the infant Christ with an orb is a little 
later. The movement of this is inscribed " Jereme Pfaff, Augsburg." 

Portable Timekeepers 121 

Fig. 117 shows a clock which belongs to Mr. Robert W. de Forest. 
It has three horizontal band dials showing respectively the hour, 
the day of the week, and the day of the month. Below are portrayed 
Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. As the hours are struck Eve 
turns and presents an apple to Adam, who appears to hesitate, and 
then retires, refusing the gift. Abundance of foliage and fruit is 
spread over the three trees or columns supporting the dials, while a 
huge serpent gazing menacingly at Adam is twined around the central 
trunk, and indicates the hour with its tail. For the photograph from 
which the engraving is produced I am indebted to M. Eugene Wehrle, 
of Brussels. 

The flagellation of Jesus Christ forms the subject of the clock 

Fig 120. — Style and decoration of the Late-Seventeenth- 
Century Clock. 

with moving figures wliich is shown in Fig. 118. An hour dial is at 
the feet ol the Captive, whose bound hands are tied to a post, 
surmounted by a rotating band, on which the quarter-hours are 
engraved. As the hour strikes the passive Prisoner is belaboured 
by the soldiers, their weapons rising and falhng with each sound of 
the bell. The movement contained in the ebony case is signed, 
" Nicolaus Schmidt der Junger." 

The crucifix clock represented in Fig. 119 is from the Schloss 
collection. The drawing is one-third of the actual size of the clock, 
which measures 12 in. in height and Gin. across the widest part. 
The base is made of wood and gilt metal, the top being covered with 
cloth or velvet, now very much worn. The cross is of gilt metal, 
the figures and mounts of silver. The figure on the cross is most 

122 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

beautifully modelled. St. John, standing at the left of the cross, 
holds in his hands a chaHce, wliich he raises when the clock strikes 
the hours. The ball surmounting the structure revolves once in 
twelve hours, and on it is a band containing the Roman hour 
numerals, the time being indicated by the pointer fixed to the cross. 
No minutes are shown, and subdivisions of an hour would have to 

Fig. 121. — Diminutive Table Clock dating from about 1090. 

be estimated. The escapement is, of course, a verge. The clock goes 
thirty hours between windings, and strikes on a bell below the plinth. 
Portions of the movement can be seen through apertures in chased 
metal gratings fixed in the front and back panels of the pHnth. 
There is no maker's name, but it is probabl}^ a French seventeenth- 
century production. 

The style and decoration of the late seventeenth-century clock. 

Portable Timekeepers 123 

shown in Fig. 120, may be studied with advantage by those who 
wish to be able to distinguish pieces of different periods. The 
ornament at the sides of the case is in bold relief ; the feet are of 
bronze, as was the usual practice, and form a contrast to the yellower 
metal of which the case is composed. The movement of this clock is 
regulated by a very short balance-spring, and bears the signature 
" Andreas Fehmel." 

Fig. 121 shows a diminutive table clock by Hans Buschman 
dating from about 1690. There are dials front and back, and a 
pendulum which swings at the rear outside of the case. 

Janvier speaks of the watches made between 1560 and 1590 as 
being beautifully ornamented and of all sizes, and there is no doubt 
that by the last-named date watchmaking had become in France 
a flourishing art of considerable magnitude, Blois and Rouen being 
two of the most important seats of manufacture. But I am unable 
to trace any reliable evidence of English watches having been made 
before quite the end of the sixteenth century, although German and 
French productions were doubtless imported earlier. 

Among the collection of Mr. T. Whitcombe Greene is an early 
box-shaped, metal gilt case and dial, probably of German make. 
Around the projecting bead at the bottom of the case is engraved 
the following : " Sr. Wm Cooper to Eleanor, daughter of Sr. Michael 
Stanhope, wife to Thomas Cooper, his son, of Thurgarton, Co. Nots, 
1539." A coat of arms is engraved on the cover. The dial is 
engraved with the figure of the Saviour and emblems of Death, 
with the mottoes, " Vigilate et orate quia nescitis horam," and 
" Quselibet hora ad mortem vestigium " (" Watch and pray, for ye 
know not the hour," and " Every hour is a step towards death "). 
If the dedicatory inscription is an authentic record, this relic 
certainl}^ represents one of the first table watches seen in England. 
The case has no bow. Derham, in his second and subsequent 
editions, mentions an eight-day watch which, he was told, belonged 
to Henry VIII., but the context clearly shows a weight timepiece 
is referred to. Among the possessions of Edward VI., as quoted 
by Wood from a Royal Household Book, is " oone larum or watch 
of iron, the case being likewise of iron gilt, with two plummettes of 
lead." The first words of this description may seem to indicate 
a watch with a mainspring, but such an assumption is at once 
dispelled by the mention of the " plummettes of lead." 

Queen Elizabeth. — That Elizabeth owned a large number of 
watches is certain, and the following relating to her liorological 

124 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

possessions will be of interest. In 1571 the Earl of Leicester gave 
to his royal mistress " one armlet or shakell of golde, all over fairely 
garnished with rubyes and dyamondes, haveing in the closing thearof 
a clocke." In the same year two other gifts are mentioned, a " juell, 
being a chrysolite garnished with rubyes and dyamondes, haveing in 
the closing thearof a clocke ; " and " a juell, being a chrysolite 
garnished with golde, flagon facyon, th'one side sett with two 
emeraldes, . . . th' other side having in it a clocke." In 1573 
Elizabeth received from Margaret, Countess of Derby, " a white 
beare of gold and mother of perle, holding a ragged staffe, standing 
upon a toune of golde, whearin is a clocke, the same toune staffe 
garnished with dyamondes and rubyes." The "clock and aU " 
weighed three ounces. In 1575 Mr. Hatton, captain of the guard, 
gave the queen " a riche juell, being a clocke of golde, garnished 
with dyamondes, rubyes in the bottome, and a fayre emeralde 
pendante sett in golde and two mene perles pendaunte, all ix oz. 
iii q^." In 1578 the Earl of Leicester presented EHzabeth with " a 
tablet of golde, being a clocke fully furnished with small diamondes 
and rubyes ; abowte the same are six bigger diamondes pointed, 
and a pendaunte of golde, diamondes, and rubyes very smale. And 
upon eche side losengye diamonde, and an apple of golde enamuled 
green and russet." In the same year the Earl of RusseU gave to 
the queen " a ring of golde, called a parmadas, sett with vj small 
diamonds and garnished round about with smaU rubies and two 
sparcks of ophalls, and in the same backeside a dyaU." In 1580 
the Earl of Leicester gave her a " cheyne of golde made Hke a 
payre of beades contayning viii long peeces fully garnished with 
smaU diamondes, and fower score and one smaller peeces fullie 
garnished with like diamondes ; and hanging thereat a rounde clocke 
fullie garnished with dyamonds, and an appendante of diamondes 
hanging thearat." In the same year was presented to the queen by 
Lord Russell, " item, a watche sett in mother of pearle with three 
pendaunts of goulde garnished with sparckes of rubyes, and an 
ophall in everie of them, and three small pearles pendaunte." In 
the same year Mr. Edward Stafford gave her "a little clocke of 
goulde with a cristall, garnished with sparckes of emeraldes, and 
furnished on the back syde with other dyamondes, rabies, and other 
stones of small value." There were also many humbler contributors 
to her store. In 1556 her clockmaker, Nicholas Urseau, presented 
" a faire clocke in a case cover with blake vellat ; " and her " clocke 
keeper, John Demolyn, a clocke with a lambe on it of copper guilt." 

Portable Timekeepers 125 

The following is from an inventory of the possessions of Queen 
Ehzabeth : — " A watche of golde sett with small rubies, small 
diamondes, and small emerodes, with a pearle in the toppe called a 
buckett, watinge two rubies ; a clocke of golde conteyning in the 
border four table diamonds and two very small rocke rubies, havinge 
on th'one side foure table rubies and sixe small diamondes ; and on 
th' other side eleven table diamondes, whereof the one is more bigger 
than the residue. On the one side a man sitting aslepe with a childe 
before him ; a clocke or tablett of golde garnished on th'one side with 
five faire diamondes and one faire rubie ; and on th'other side five faire 
rubies and one faire emerod garnished with lij Htle diamonds, and liij 
litle rubies, with a pearle pendent at it ; one clocke of golde curiously 
wrought and fulhe furnished with diamonds, rubies, emerodes, and 
opalls, havinge in middes thereof a beare and a ragged staffe of sparkes 
of diamondes and rubies ; one clocke of gold curiously wrought with 
flowers and beastes, with a queene on the toppe on th'one side ; and on 
the other side a beare and a ragged staff of sparkes of diamonds, fullie 
furnished with diamonds and rubies of sundry sortes and bignes ; one 
emerode under it, a faire table diamond with a ragged staff in the foyle 
thereof and a faire rubie under it squared, and a pearle pendaunt of 
either side of the clocke ; one clocke of golde wrought hke deyses and 
paunseyes, garnished with httle sparks of diamonds, rubies, and 
emerodes, and eight small pearles on the border, and a pendant acorn ; 
one clocke of gold curiously wrought with small sparkes of stones, 
having on th'one side a horse bearing a globe with a crowne over it ; 
one clocke of golde with a George on both sides garnished with sparkes 
of diamondes and a pendant of opalls ; a litle watch of christall slightly 
garnished with golde ; one litle clocke of golde th'one side being agate 
with a mouse on the toppe and heddes round about it ; one Htle watch 
of golde garnished on the border with very small sparkes of rubies and 
emerodes with christall on both sides, and a pearle pendand garnished 
with golde like a flesh flye ; one rounde clocke of golde enameled with 
a man on horseback, and divers colors aboute it ; a watch of golde 
garnished with three small diamondes and eight sparks of rubies, with 
a very little pearle ; one litle clocke of golde enameled of the History 
of Time ; a litle watche of golde, th'one side with a frogge on the 
topp, th'other side garnished with small garnets hke a pomegranite ; 
one litle clocke sett in ehotropie and garnished with golde ; ?, litle 
watche of golde enameled with sundry colors on both sides ahke ; 
a htle watche of christall slightlie garnished with golde, with her 
Ma' ties picture in it ; one faire flower of golde fully garnished with 

126 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

rubies and diamonds enameled on the backside with a man and 
a scripture about him having a watch in it and a pearl pendant ; 
one flower of gold fully garnished with emerodes of sondrie bignes 
and sparkes of emerodes and rubies, with thre antique women and 
five htle perles with a watch or clocke therein ; a watch of agatte 
made like an egg garnished with golde ; one clocke garnished with 
golde, being round and sett with 6 table diamondes and 6 rubies 

Fig. 122.— Clock-Watch about 1580. 

with xvij diamondes on th'one side, 
th'other side, lacking two pearles/' 
-watch from the Pierpont Morgan 
case, which measures nearly 4 in. 
movement is the mark B x N, and 
1580, is very possibly the production 

in the same border, and garnished 
and 8 diamonds and one ruble on 

In Fig. 122 is shown a clock- 
collection. It is in a polygonal 
across. On the top plate of the 
the piece, which dates from about 
of Bartholomew Newsam. 

The late Mr. Edward Parr had a watch or table clock dating from 

Portable Timekeepers 


1581, and probably of English make. It is in a circular case, about 
4| in. in diameter, as shown in Fig. 123. A large hemispherical 
bell rises from the space inside the dial ring, and the hand is curved 
down over the bell to read the hour numerals. The head of Queen 

Fig. 123. — Table Clock, about 1581. 

Ehzabeth in high relief, and other chasing, ornament the side of the 
case. In a ring on the bottom of the case is the inscription : — 


(/ have placed God as my Helper.) 

Against one of the winding holes is the letter W , and against the 
other the letter S ; these stand doubtless for Watch and Striking, 
and strengthen the conclusion that the clock is an early-Enghsh 

Skull Watches — Mary, Queen of Scots. — The skull watch (Fig. 124) 
is an excellent example of the fantastic forms in which some of the 
early makers delighted to encase their work. It is from the Soltykoff 
collection, and is said to have belonged to Henri III. The case is 

128 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

of crystal, the dial of silver bordered with chased brass gilt, the 
centre being adorned with what is called champ-leve engraving 
to a floral design. The movement is inscribed " Jacques Joly." 
Fig. 125 represents one of the ghastly productions of a larger size. 
The skull is of silver gilt, and on the forehead is the figure of Death 
with his scythe and sand glass ; he stands between a palace on the 
one hand and a cottage on the other, with his toes applied equally 
to the door of each ; around this is the legend, from Horace : — 

" Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas regumque turres." 
(Pale Death visits with impartial foot the cottages of the poor and the palaces of 
the" rich.) 

Fig. 124. — Excellent example of a Skull Watch. 

On the opposite or posterior part of the skull is a representation 
of Time, with another inscription from Horace : — 

" Tempus edax rerum tuque invidiosa vetustas." 
(Time, and thou too, envious Old Age, devour all things.) 

He has a scythe ; and near him is a serpent with his tail in his mouth, 
being an emblem of Eternity. 

The upper part of the skull is divided into two compartments. 
On one are represented our First Parents in the Garden of Eden, 
attended by some of the animals, with the motto : — 

" Peccando perdition em, miseriam aeternam posteris meruere." 
(By sin they brought eternal misery and destruction on their posterity.) 

The opposite compartment is filled with the subject of the salvation 
of lost man by the crucifixion of our Saviour, who is represented as 
suffering between two thieves, whilst the Marys are in adoration 
below ; the motto to this is : — 

Sic justitiae satisfecit, mortem superavit, salutem comparavit." 
was Justice satisfied, Death overcome, and salvation obtained.) 

(Thus was 

Portable Timekeepers 


Running below these compartments on both sides there is an open 
work, of about an inch in width, to permit the sound to come out 
freely when the watch strikes. This is formed of emblems belonging 
to the Crucifixion — scourges of various kinds, swords, the fiagon and 
cup of the Eucharist, the cross, pincers, lantern used in the garden, 
spears of different kinds, one with the sponge on its points, thongs, 
ladder, the coat without seam, and the dice that were thrown for it. 

Fig. 125. — Silver-Gilt Skull Watch of a large .size. 

the hammer and nails, and the crown of thorns. Under all these is 
the motto : — 

" Scala coeli ad gloriam via." 
(The way to glory is the " ladder " to heaven.) 

The watch is opened by reversing the skull and placing the upper 
part of it in the hollow of the hand, and then lifting the under-jaw, 
which rises on a hinge. Inside, on the palate, is an excellent engraving 
of apparently a later date than the rest of the work. It shows the 
Holy Family in the stable, with the infant Jesus laid in the manger, 
and angels ministering to Him ; in the upper part an angel is seen 
descending with a scroll, on which is written : — 

" Gloria [in] excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominibus bona voluntatis." 
(Glory to God in the highest ; on earth peace to men of goodwill.) 

130 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

In the distance are the shepherds with their flocks. A representation 
of this cover is given separately. 

The works of the watch occupy the position of the brain in the 
skull itself, the dial plate being on a flat where the roof of the mouth 
and parts behind it under the base of the brain are to be found in the 
human subject. The dial is of silver, and fixed with a golden circle 
richly carved in a scroll pattern ; the hours are marked in large 
Roman letters, and within them is the figure of Saturn devouring his 
children, with this legend : — 

" Sicut meis sic et omnibus idem." 
There is no date, but the maker's name and the place of manu- 
facture, " Moyse, Blois," are 
distinctly engraven on the plate. 
A silver bell fills the entire 
hollow of the skull, and receives 
the works within it when shut ; 
a small hammer, set in motion 
by a separate train, strikes the 
hours on it. 

The workmanship of the 
case is admirable, and the 
engraving really superb. The 
date of this relic may be taken 
to be between 1550 and 1600. 
It is stated that it belonged 
to Mary, Queen of Scots, by 
whom it was given to Mary 
Seaton, one of her maids of 
honour, and much circum- 
stantial evidence has been adduced in support thereof. I have recently 
had an opportunity of examining an almost similar Death's-head 
watch, which is also said to have been the property of the same 
royal lady and now belongs to Miss Mary Laura Browne, of Anerley. 
Except that beside the ring on the top of the skull is a screw for the 
reception of a cross, the case is an exact facsimile of the Mary Seaton 
one, with the additional inscription around the eyebrows, " £x DoNO 
FR^ R. Fr. ad. Marias de Scotorum Fr. Regina." The original 
movement has, however, unfortunately been replaced by a com- 
paratively modern one. 

These two skull watches were doubtless intended to occupy 
stationary positions : the cioss on one of them suggests a prie-dieu 

Fig. 126.— Interior of Skull Watch 
above the Dial. 

Portable Timekeepers 


or small altar in a private oratory. At all events, they are too large 
and heavy to be worn on the person. The engravings represent the 

Fig, 127. 

Fig. 128. 

Fig. 129. 

Fig. 130. Fig. 131. 

Skull or Death's-head Watches. 

natural size of the rehcs, each of which weighs over three-quarters 
of a pound. 

In the British Museum are two Death's-head watches, much 

132 Old Watches and Clocks and their Makers 

smaller and with plain cases. One of these was made by Johann 
Maurer, and the other by J. C. Vuolf. A similar watch, dating from 
about 1630, which was in the Dunn Gardner collection, and is now 
in the Pierpont Morgan collection, bears the signature of Isaac 
Penard. Another of these extraordinary conceptions, which belonged 
to Mr. Robert Roskell, of Liverpool, and formed part of the Schloss 
collection, is shown in Figs. 127 and 128. The skull or case of silver, 
much darkened by age, is a startiingly excellent counterfeit and 
a fine example of silver work. The plate bears the name of the 
maker thus, " Johann Leudl." On the dial of silver is an engraving 
evidently intended to portray the day of judgment. Inside the lower 
jaw, which closes on to the dial, is roughly cut the following inscription: 
" Lor logeur francoient duducq d'aremberque a mons." This speci- 
men dates from about 1625 ; but the inscription is later, as the first 
Duke of Aremberg obtained his title in 1644. 

A very diminutive Death's-head watch in the form of a seal is shown 
open in Fig. 129. The movement is furnished with the stackfreed, 
and dates apparently from the first half of the seventeenth century. 

Of about the same period is the example by David Habrecht, 
shown in Figs. 130 and 131. 

In the Vienna Treasury is a small skull watch of the time of the 
Emperor Rudolph II. in which the movable lower jaw strikes the 
number of hours against the upper one. 

The late Rev. H. L. Nelthropp, who presented his splendid col- 
lection of watches to the Clockmakers' Company for exhibition in the 
Guildhall, considered the statements as to the ownership of skull 
watches by Mary, Queen of Scots, to be apocryphal, and said that a 
careful investigation of the catalogues of the jewels, dresses, furniture, 
belonging to Queen Mary proved beyond doubt that watches were not 
among her valuables. I cannot say that Mr. Nelthropp's criticism is 
quite destructive of the original account, for if both of the watches were 
given away by the queen, they could hardly be expected to figure in 
any subsequent inventory of her property. It is certain that watches 
were made during her lifetime ; also that Blois was one of the earhest 
manufactories of watches, and that the family of Moyse flourished 
there during the sixteenth century. In the face of the fact that 
Ehzabeth had such a large number of watches, it seems almost in- 
credible that the Scottish queen should never have possessed any of 
the fashionable novelties. 

While the probabiHty is that Mary, Queen of Scots, had watches of 
some kind, it must be confessed that the statements made respecting 

Portable Timekeepers 133 

her ovvnersliip of specimens which have survived will not always bear 
examination. Among others which tradition has assigned to the 
Scottish Queen, Octavius Morgan examined two which he considered 
to be of the period claimed for them. One was a ghastly Memento 
Mori watch in a case of crystal formed like a coffin, and the other an 
octagonal watch. The latter, which is now in the British Museum, is 
said to have been given by Mar}/ to John Knox the reformer. The 
case of crystal had covers front and back, and the movement was 
inscribed " N. Forfaict a Paris." A large oval watch made by F. Le 
Grand, and said to have been found, immediately after the queen's 
escape from her imprisonment, in Lochleven Castle, was exhibited to 
the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh in 1850. A small circular 
watch by Estinne Hubert, of Rouen, presented, it is averred, by the 
queen the night before her execution to a French attendant named 
Massey, was a few years ago in the possession of Rev. Mr. Torrance, of 
Glencross. In the Massey-Mainwaring collection was a round rather 
thin watch by Moysant, of Blois, in a case whereon is splendidly 
painted, in enamel, a representation of the Adoration of the Magi. This 
watch was some time ago exhibited at the Bethnal Green Museum with 
a label stating that it was given by Mary Queen of Scots, to the Earl of 
Mar, from whom it passed into the possession of the family of Lord 
Forbes. But the style of the watch and the enamel painting did not 
seem to me to be entirely in accord with other productions of the 
sixteenth century. 

In 1575, Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, bequeathed to liis 
brother Richard, Bishop of Ely, his walking-stick of Indian cane 
ha\'ing a " horologium " in the top. This is generally quoted as a 
watch, but is quite likely to have been a portable sun-dial. 

The possession of many watches is ascribed to James I., but such 
as he did possess do not appear to have been utilised as timekeepers 
on every occasion, for in Savile's record of a state journey to Theobalds 
in 1603, it is stated that the king stopped at the Bell at Edmonton, 
and, wishing to count the number of vehicles passing in a certain time, 
he " called for an houreglass." 

An early striking watch in a nearly spherical case of brass, chased 
and gilded, having the dial at the bottom of the sphere and a ring for 
carrying at the top, is shown on p. 134. The form and arrangement 
of the mechanism are exceedingly rare. The movement is in stories, 
and the dial, which is seen in Fig. 133, is attached to the lowest plate 
of the movement and not to the case. Between the dial and the plate, 
besides the wheels for actuating the hand direct from the mainspring 

134 ^^^^^ ^''^^^^^1^- ^^^ Watches and their Makers 

Figs. 132-136.— Spherical Watch, about 1535. 

plan of top ; 2, dial and case partly opened ; 3, elevation ; 4, movement and dial removed 
Irom case ; 5, movement showing top plate. 

Portable Timekeepers 


and not through the intervention of the train, is the count wheel or 
locking-plate. Above this plate is the striking train ; tlien another 
plate, between which and the top plate are the going train and 
escapement. All wheels save the escape wheel are of iron or steel ; 
the pillars are of iron shaped as shown, the plates and balance-cock are 
also of iron : there are no screws nor barrels to contain the main- 
springs ; one of the mainsprings broken into many pieces is visible in 
the engraving (Fig. 135). The case is divided in the centre hori- 

FiG. 137. Fig. 138. 

Plain exterior Alarm Watch, end of the Sixteenth Century. 

zontally and fastened with a hooked catch ; it opens on a hinged joint 
exposing the movement, which occupies the whole of the lower half of 
the case and extends into the upper part of the sphere. Over the top 
plate, of which a view is given in Fig. 136, are the primitive stackfreed, 
the cross-bar balance or foliot and the hammer for sounding the hours 
on a silver bell fixed to the crown of the sphere, which is perforated as 
shown in Fig. 132. Through the case and the bell are holes for 
obtaining access to the winding squares, and near the bottom of the 
case is another aperture covered by a shutter ; this, apparently, was 
for the purpose of adjusting the striking of the hours in case it had 

136 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

been allowed to become incorrect. The movement is fitted to the case 
in a pecuHar way. Inside the lower half of the case are projections, 
and the movement together with the dial having been pressed into 
position, is twisted round till corresponding sHts catch the projections 
and make it fast. The fixing is, in fact, what is known as a bayonet 
joint. This watch, I should judge, dates from about 1535. M. Paul 
Garnier has a somewhat similar one, which was stolen from him 
some years ago, and which he recovered by journeying to America 
and repurchasing it. It is signed Jacques De la Garde, Bloys, 1551. 
Towards the end of the sixteenth century watches designed for use 
rather than to excite wonder or 
admiration were constructed with 
plain exteriors, as in Fig. 137 and 
138, which show an alarm watch 
formerly in the Dunn Gardner col- 
lection at South Kensington. The 
httle hand in the centre of the dial 
is for setting the alarm, and the 
hour indicator consists of an ornament 
attached to a disc around the edge 
of which are figures from 1 to 12 
marked backwards, reversely to the 
usual direction, as a guide for setting 
the alarm. The hour numerals are 

on a silvered band with an unusually prominent pin at each hour 
so that the time could be more readily estimated by feeling. The 
case is of brass with plain cover and back : the only attempt at 
enrichment being the fine perforated work around the edge. 

Fig. 139 shows a tambourine- or drum-shaped watch from the 
collection of M. Paul Garnier. The case, brass gilt, is furnished with 
a bow, and has hinged covers back and front. The front cover is 
finely engraved and is pierced over each of the hour numerals on the 
dial. Inside the back cover is a representation of Christ rising from 
the tomb, well engraved after the design by Albert Diirer. The dial 
is of silver, finely engraved with rays and flames in the centre, beyond 
which are the hour marks, with Roman numerals from I. to XII. on 
the outside of the circle, and smaller figures from 13 to 24 within. 
A striking watch in a curious octagonal case of gilded brass fixed 
to a stand is shown in Fig. 140. The plates of the movement are of 
iron ; it is fitted with the stackfreed, and its construction altogether 
shows it to be a mid-sixteenth-century production. An interesting 

139. — Tambourine- or Drum- 
shaped Watch. 

Portable Timekeepers 


Fig. 140. — -Watch in a curious Octagonal Case fixed to a Stand, 

138 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

feature of this watch is the pierced door at the back, which is shown 
open in the ilkistration. Amid the piercing are represented the Man 

Fig. 141. Fig. 142. 

Two views of a pretty Pedestal Watch. 

of Sorrows preparatory to the Crucifixion and around Him various 
items appertaining to His torture — a hammer, pincers, sponge, lamp, 

Portable Timekeepers 


ladder, sword, spear or javelin, staves, lanterns, torches, cup, bunch of 
hyssop, Sec. Two views of a pretty pedestal watch furnished with an 
alarm of about forty years later date are given on p. 138. Mr. J. C. 
Joicey has a somewhat similar piece. 

In the British Museum is a splendid watch made by Nicklaus 
Rugendas, of Augsburg. The case of metal, gilt, with open work very 
nicely pierced, is of an oval shape measuring 2| in. by 2J in. and 
If in. thick. It is mounted on a plain brass pillar 4 in. high. The 
hours are shown on a silver dial, and the minutes on a gilt bevelled 
outer rim which really * 

forms part of the case. 
This arrangement and 
the fact that each five 
minutes space is figured, 
as is the modern custom, 
may lead to the assump- 
tion that the concentric 
minute indicator was a 
later addition ; but 
Octavius Morgan, in 
whose collection the 
watch was, expressed 
his conviction {ArchcBO- 
logia, vol. xxxiii.) that 
it formed part of the 
original construction, 

and an examination of 
the hand-work which I 
have been allowed to 
make, quite removed a 
doubt I previously felt 
as to the correctness of 

his judgment. The internal arrangement shows considerable 
ingenuity, every atom of the space being utilised to the best 
advantage. There are four mainsprings, but no fusee. Between 
the dial and the movement is a small bell on which the quarter- 
hours are sounded. The hours are struck from one to six and 
then over again in conformity with what was formerly an Itahan 
method of computation, the hour bell being oval to suit the shape of 
the case ; at the back is a large bell on which an alarm may be rung. 
The train wheels are of brass, and the quarter part of steel. 

Fig. 143. 

Clock-Watch. Type of early German 

Fig. 145. — Dial with front 
cover raised. 

Fig. 146. — Back cover raised exhibit- 
ing movement. 


Portable Timekeepers 


Mr. Morgan considered this watch to be a production of the second 
quarter of the sixteenth century, but the general style of the work 
and the construction of the movement negative such an assumption ; 
1610 or a little later would be nearer the correct date. Messrs. 
Patek Phillipe & Co. have an octagonal calendar watch by the same 
maker, which, judging from a photograph of the movement, I 
should say was produced about 1630. 

In the Vienna Treasury is a clock marked " Nicklaus Rugendas 
junger," dating from the middle of the seventeenth century. 


Fig. 147.— Vi( 

of back. 

Fig. 143 is an exterior view of a large circular clock-watch from the 
collection of the late Mr. Evan Robeits. It is unnamed, and is most 
probably of German or Dutch origin ; the silver dial and brass open- 
work case are very fine, as may be judged from the drawing. The 
stackfreed and the wheels are of steel, and the plates of brass. This 
watch has been pronounced to be a production of the second quarter 
of the sixteenth century, and the construction in many respects 
agrees with that period. 

Three \dews of a splendid oval watch from the Schloss collection 

142 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

are on p. 140. Fig. 144 shows the back cover and edge of the case ; 
Fig. 145 shows the dial with the front cover raised, and Fig. 146 the 

Fig. 148. — Dial with Cover open. 

back cover raised, exhibiting the movement. The case is of brass, gilt 
and very finely chased. The front cover is pierced to receive a small 

Portable Timekeepers 


glass, allowing the centre of the dial to be viewed without opening the 
cover. This style of glass, and the method of fixing it by means of 
a loose ring, is perhaps the most primitive ; and taking the date on 
the inside of the back cover (1607) to represent the period the watch 
was made, it may be assumed to be an early instance of the application. 
The dial, also of brass gilt, is very handsome. On looking at the 
movement (Fig. 146) a lever carrying two pins at one end and pointed 
at the other may be observed. These two pins are of stiff bristle, and 

Fig. 149. 

-French Astronomical Watch. 
(Two views). 

Fig. 150. 

by shifting the lever they may be caused to approach or recede from 
the arm of the balance, whose path they intercept. In this way the 
vibration of the balance and the timekeeping of the watch were 
controlled. The pointed end of the lever traverses a divided arc, and 
serves to indicate the movement given to the lever. At the top and 
bottom of the plate are pivoted bolts, which pass into holes in the 
edge of the case to secure the movement in position. 

In the Pierpont Morgan collection is an oval brass watch of extreme 
beauty signed " Jan Jansen Bockelts van Aacken." dating from about 

144 ^^^ Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

1640. It is shown in Figs. 147 and 148. Round the sides of the 
pierced case are a greyhound chasing a hare and a hound chasing a 
stag amidst floral designs. The back is finely engraved, representing 
figures of a naked shepherd with his crook and horn, a squirrel, and 
a monkey. In the centre a river scene, beneath the figure of a warrior 
in armour with a prancing horse on each side, intermixed with scrolls 
and flowers. The outside of the fid is engraved with allegorical 
subjects, one represents Abraham offering up Isaac ; upon the right- 
hand top corner is a scroll on which is engraved, ian. iansen-bockeltz 
INV. ET scvLP. The inside of the lid, which together with the dial plate 
is brass gilt, contains a compass and a sun-dial with a movable 
gnomon. The dial plate is very fine. There is a small silver dial 
with alarm dial in the centre, and also a dial for the moon, one for 
the minutes, one for months — the seasons are engraved with lenten 


Adam Thomson mentions an interesting astronomical watch of 
French make which is shown in Figs. 149 and 150. It has a silver 
case highly ornamented, with mythological subjects elaborately 
chased, bearing the following inscription on the inside of the back 
cover : " From Alethea Covntess of Arvndel, for her deare sone, Sir 
Wilham Howard, K.B. 1629.'' It is of an oval form, the extreme 
size 2| in., and IJ in. in thickness. It struck the hours and has an 
alarm ; showed the days of the week, the age and phases of the moon, 
with the days and months of the year, and the signs of the zodiac. 
On the inside of the front cover there is a Roman Catholic calendar 
with the date 1613. The watch movement is inscribed " P. Combret, 
a Lyons." A watch by Combret with a shell-shaped silver case is in 
the South Kensington Museum. 

Toy Watches.— These were occasionaUy shaped to imitate books, 
animals, fruit, flowers, and insects. 

Of cases formed to resemble books several examples are known 
to exist. A very early watch of this kind dating from the first half 
of the sixteenth century is shown, rather smaller than the actual 
size, in Figs. 151, 152, and 153. On the back plate of the movement 
is the maker's punch mark, F.C., and another impression partly 
obliterated, which appears to be a pineapple. There is a stackfreed 
for regulating the force of the mainspring, and sticking up from the 
longer end of a bell-crank lever is a short stiff bristle, against which 
the cross-bar balance banks. By means of its shorter arm this 
lever may be moved and its position noted by an index on the 

Portable Timekeepers 


In the British Museum is a book-shaped watch dated 1550. The 
specimen shown in Fig. 154 was in the Bernal collection which was 
dispersed by auction in 1855, and belonged to Bogislaus XIV., Duke 
of Pomerania, in the time of Gustavus Adolphus. On the dial side 
there is an engraved inscription of the duke and his titles, with the 

Figs. 151-153.^ — Sixteenth-Century Book-Watch. Outside with Covers open, 
inside of front Cover and Dial. View of mechanism inside back Cover. 

date 1627, together with his armorial bearings ; on the back there 
are engraved two male portraits, buildings, &c. The covers are of 
brass gilt ; the clasps and other ornaments are of silver ; the dial 
is of silver, chased in relief ; the insides of the covers are chased with 

146 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

birds and foliage. There are apparently two separate movements, and 
a large bell at the back ; over the bell, the metal is ornamentally 

Fig. 154, — Interestmi 

Fig. 155. — Watch in the form 
of a Padlock. 

Fig. 156.— Lion-shaped Watch. 

Portable Timekeepers 


pierced in a circle with a dragon, &c. ; the sides are pierced and 
engraved in scrolls. The maker's name is " Dionistus Hessichti." 
Fig. 155, also from the Bernal Collection, is in the form of a 
padlock. It has a crystal front and ribbed crystal back, gilt metal 
engraved mounting, dial of gilt metal ; the days of the month are 
noted on a silver circle, with a steel plate, apparently for the moon's 

Fig. 157. 

Fig. 158. 

age. The maker's name is Gio. Batt. Mascaronc, and it is. probably 
sixteenth-century work. 

Three views of a pecuhar watch, dating probably from about 
1600, are given on p. 146. The case, of silver, is in the form 
of a Hon, the tail being looped, evidently for the attachment of a 
guard or other suspender. The movement is inscribed, " Jean Bap- 

148 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

tiste Duboule." A watch by the same maker in a nut-shaped case 
forms part of the Wallace collection at Hertford House. 

Of the other more quaint and grotesque designs for watch cases 
favoured by the early makers may be mentioned one in the form of 
an eagle, which was in the collection of Lady O. Fitzgerald. It 
illustrated the story of Jupiter and Ganymede, and could either be 
suspended from a ring in the back of the bird or rested by its claws 
on a fiat surface. In the British Museum is a watch shaped like an 

Fig. 159. 

Fig. 160. 

Pectoral Cross Watches. 

acorn, another resembling a dog, and one with silver cases made in 
imitation of cockle-shells. In the South Kensington Museum is a 
French watch resembling a pelican, and a diminutive timekeeper 
concealed in one of two enamelled cherries with stalks connected was 
in the Mainwaring collection 

" Memento Mori " watches in the form of a Latin cross, and usually 
with scenes from the life of the Saviour engraved on the dials, were 
for a long period a favourite pattern, especially with French artists, 
among whom they were known as montres d'abbesse. Dubois says 

Portable Timekeepers. 


cruciform watches were probably devised by Myrmecides, a watch- 
maker of Paris, who flourished between 1530 and 1550, and whose 
name appears on several early specimens. They appear to have been 

Fig. 161. 

-Clock-Watch in Crystal 

Fig. 162.— Watch in the form 
of a Cockle-shell. 

worn, generally, on the breast, and are often spoken of as pectoral 
cross watches. Of three in the British Museum, one, in a case of 
rock crystal, very similar to Fig. 157, was made by Jean Rousseau 
the elder about 1580 ; another, also 
a sixteenth-century production, is by 
Tinnelly, Aix ; the third dates from 
the latter part of the seventeenth 
century, and is cased in emerald glass. 

The watch, Fig. 158, which .is 
unnamed, seems to be late six- 
teenth-century work. 

In the ArchcBological Journal is 
mentioned a Latin cross watch by 
the celebrated Johannes van Ceulen, 
which has a cover of crystal 
and is enamelled in opaque colours ; 
on the front the Man of Sorrows and 
emblems of the Passion, and on the 
back the Crucifixion. 

Fig. 163. 

— Watch with verj^ primi- 
tive mechanism. 


150 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Of three cruciform watches in South Kensington Museum, one, 
dating from about 1590, is signed " Senebier " ; another, of slightly 
later date, bears the initials " N.R." ; and the third, which forms 
part of the Salting collection, has a silver and crystal case, and 
is by Charles Bobinet, a French seventeenth-century maker of 

The Maltese cross watch, Fig. 159, from Dubois' historical work 
is a sixteenth-century production of French origin, and a much rarer 
form than the Latin cross. 

A very early crystal case watch by Thomas Franck, from the 
Soltykoff collection, is shown in Fig. 160. 

Fig. 164. — ^Pear-shaped Watch. 

Fig. 165. — Circular Watch, dating 
from about 1605. 

In Fig. 161 is shown a clock-watch by Conrad Kreizer, from the 
Soltykoff collection. The case is of crystal, the dial of silver and 
the cover of brass gilt. A peculiar feature is the oval, raised, pierced 
work of brass, introduced evidently to allow the sound of the bell to 
be heard more distinctly. The movement is of a primitive character, 
and the maker is said to have been contemporary with the brothers 
Habrecht. An octagonal watch in the South Kensington Museum, 
signed " Conradt Kreizer," is certainly early-seventeenth- century 

The crystal case watch in the form of a cockle-sheU, shown in 
Fig. 162, also from the Soltykoff collection, is a late-sixteenth- century 
production. It has covers back and front ; the dial is gilt, with silver 
hour band and steel hand. 

Portable Timekeepers 


Another specimen Irom the Soltykoff collection is a crystal escallop 
case, shown in Fig. 163, has very primitive mechanism, by Phelisot, 
horloger de la ville de Dijon. The dial, finely engraved, is of silver, 
with gilt hour-band ; the hand is in the form of a lizard. 

The pear-shaped watch shown in Fig. 164 was made by Conrad 
Kreizer, of Strassburg, and is also gathered from the Soltykoff 
treasures. A similar watch is in the British Museum, 

The circular specimen shown in Fig. 165, selected from the same 
repository as the preceding, has covers back and front ; around the 
band are figures typical of sprmg, summer, autumn, and winter. The 

Fig. 166.— Crystal Case Watch, 
about 1640. 

Fig. 167.— Watch by Benjamin Hill. 

dial is of silver gilt, with a white band on which the hour numerals 
are engraved. In the centre of the dial is engraved a representation 
of Christ and the woman of Samaria ; on the upper cover is portrayed 
the spectacle of Mary Magdalene washing the feet of Jesus, and on 
the lower cover another BibHcal scene. The movement is inscribed 
" James Vanbroff,'' and it dates from about 1605. 

Fig. 166, with crystal case in the form of a bonbonniere, is from 
the Soltykoff collection. From the movement, which is inscribed 
" Denis Bordier," one may judge that it was made about 1640. 

Of a Httle later date is the beautiful specimen by Benjamin Hill, 
a well-known London maker, which is shown in Fig. 167. 

Of all the quaint fancies exhibited in the formation of early watch 

152 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

cases, none are, I think, more charming than the various floral designs 
popular during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

The Fleur-de-lis, the national flower of France was favoured by 
early French makers. The opening bud, from the Soltykoff collection, 
which is shown in Fig. 168 must be admitted to be a very pretty artistic 
conceit. The dial and the covers or leaves are of silver, and so is 
the twisted stalk that forms a ring for the attachment of a chain or 
cord. The movement bears the name of Rugend of Auch, and dates 
from the beginning of the seventeenth century. A very similar 
specimen by Bayr, who was, I think, a Dutch maker, is to be seen 

Fig. 168. 

Fig. 169. 

Fleur-de-lis Watches. 

m the British Museum. Another by J. Dracque of Nerac is in the 
Garnier collection. 

A larger floral counterfeit appears in Fig. 169. The body of the case 
is of gold, and there are three bezels or covers of silver, each comprising 
a piece of rock crystal formed in the shape of a tuHp petal. The hand 
is of gold, the dial of silver, with a landscape engraved thereon. 
Through one cover the dial is seen, and through the other two the 
movement is visible. It has a three-armed steel balance and a balance- 
spring. Jean Rousseau the younger, who is said to have died in 1684, 
was the maker of this watch. The presence of a balance-spring would 
therefore stamp it as one of his later productions. 

There is a s^lendad fleur-de-lis watch among the Nelthropp collection 
at the Guildhall Museum, without a balance-spring, by F. Sermand, 

Portable Timekeepers 


dating from about 1650 ; another at the South Kensington Museum, 
and one at the British Museum by Henry Ester. 

A very pretty floral watch of an early date, from the Soltykoff 

Fig. 170. Fig. 171. 

Two views of a pretty Floral Watch, 

about 1600. 

Fig. 172. 

Watch in the shape of a 


collection, is shown in Figs. 170 and 171. The case is gold, adorned 
with fine floral ornaments in green and Cassius purple enamel on 
a white ground. The dial is of gold, decorated also in green and 
purple enamel on a white ground. The plates and train wheels of 

Fig. 173. Fig. 174. 

Front and back views of a pretty EngUsh Watch, about 1610. 

the movement are of brass. It is provided with a fusee with catgut 
and a circular balance. The movement is signed " J. Jolly," and 
dates from about 1600. Fig. 170 shows the dial and edge fairly well, 
but does not give a good idea of the elegant form of the case, wliich 

154 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 


will be better gathered from Fig. 169, which is a back view with the 

cover open. 

Fig. 172, another diminutive watch 
of a later date from the same col- 
lection, is in the shape of a poppy 
bud. The case is of amber, with 
mountings of gold, finely engraved 
and maintained on the amber by 
means of close gold wire running 
down the angles to the knob which 
holds the ring on which the chain is 
to be fastened. The dial is of silver, 
with enamelled ornaments ; it is 
covered with a piece of rock crystal 
fitted in a bezel, 
-ery pretty English watch in the form 

Fig. 175.— Watch Case in the 

form of a basket of flowers. 

Front and back views of a 

Fig. 179. — Exact size of exceed- 
inoflv diminutive watch. 

Fig. 176.— Watch set 
in a finger-ring. 

Fig. 177. Fig. 178. Fig. 180. 

OUve-shaped Watch. Star-shaped Watch. 

of a flower bud, which formed part of the Dunn Gardner collection, 
and was purchased for the South Kensington Museum, where it may 

Portable Timekeepers 


be seen, are given in Figs. 173 and 174. It dates from about 1610, 
and is inscribed " Henry Grendon at ye Exchange Fecit." 

Fig. 182. Fig. 183. 

Beautifully Enamelled Watch in the form of a Butterfly, 

156 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

In the British Museum are three watches in the form of insects 
or fritillary flowers. One labelled as English work, by Edward Bysse, 
is in a nielloed silver case. Another, also English, in a silver case, 
is by Thos. Sande. 

The watch-case in the form of a basket of flowers 
(Fig. 175) is of gold, enamelled and studded with 

A watch set in a finger ring is shown in Fig. 176. 
Figs. 177 and 178 represent an oHve-shaped 
watch in the Schloss collection . The case of gold 
is beautifully enamelled in green and dark blue. 

Three views portray the exact size of an exceed- 
ingly diminutive watch. Its dial and tiny case of 
gold are beautifully decorated with champ leve 

Fig. 184.— Crystal 
case Watch. 

Fig. 185. — Late-Sixteenth-Century work. 

enamel, and the movement is fitted with the primitive stackfreed 
for regulating the force of the main-spring (Fig. 179). One might 
with tolerable confidence say that this is the smallest enamelled watch 
of the stackfreed period. 

Portable Timekeepers 


A pretty star-shaped watch, decorated with enamel and pearls, is 
shown to two-thirds the actual size in Fig. 180. 

The miniature watch surrounded by a horn or trumpet (Fig. 181) 
is engraved to the actual size. 

Front and back views of a superb specimen in the form of a butterHy 
are given in Figs. 182 and 183. It is impossible to give more than 
an idea of the choicely enamelled back by reproduction in black and 

Most of these " toy " watches are of French or Swiss origin. It 

Fig. 186.— Striking or Clock-Watch. 

is curious to note in eighteenth- century advertisements the references 
to the sellers of them as " toymen." 

Irregular-shaped octagonal watches are met with among the 
productions of the latter part of the sixteenth till quite the close 
of the seventeenth century. Many variations in the size and material 
of the cases were made by French and afterwards Enghsh artists 
to suit their own tastes or the desires of their patrons ; the cover 
was often of crystal, lapis lazuU, agate, or other semi-precious stone. 
The crystal case specimen (Fig. 184) is an early one, apparently of 
French origin. . Another, from the Soltykoff collection, is shown in 
Fig. 185. The covers are of silver, and by means of a second dial 

158 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

and two small apertures in the dial plate it indicated the sign of the 
zodiac corresponding to the month, the day of the month, the day 
of the week, and planetary motions. It also struck the hour and 
provided an alarm. It is unnamed, but probably late-sixteenth- 
century work. and front views of a striking or clock-watch 
of nearly the same period are given in Fig. 186. There is a cage- 
like covering over the dial, and the back is similarly perforated. 
Very nice engraving is to be seen on the head of the hammer as 
well as on the balance-cock and other fittings connected with the 
plate of the movement, which is signed " J. Boudon, a S. Flour'* 


187. — Early-Seventeenth- 
Century work. 

Fig. 188. — Watch by Jeremie 
East, about 1600. 

Fig. 187 is probably French early-seventeenth-century work. 
It has covers of crystal and side panels of brown topaz. The move- 
ment is signed " J. Dubie a Pans." 

Fig. 188 represents a watch in a case of crystal, which is in the 
possession of Messrs. Lambert, who allowed me to examine it. On 
the plate of the movement is inscribed " Jeremie East, fecit," and 
it is, I should say, a very early example of English work, dating 
from not later than 1600. 

In Fig. 189 is shown a superb watch of large size in an octagonal 
case of crystal, with a crystal cover and gilt brass mountings. The 
movement is ova], and bears the signature of " P. Cuper/' who was 

Portable Timekeepers 


Fig. 189. — Large-size Watch, 
Crystal case, dated 1634. 

Fig. 190.— Watch by Henry 
Grendon. about 1660. 

Fig. 191. — Outer case of grey fish skin studded with silver pins. 

i6o Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

a well-known maker of Blois. The dial plate is beautifully engraved, 
and near the joint is the date 1634. It indicates the phases of the 
moon and her age, the days of the week, and days of the month. 
An octagonal crystal case watch by Henry Grendon, "of ye 
Exchange," which dates from about 1660, is shown in Fig. 190. 

It was formerly an attractive 
item in the Dunn Gardner 
collection and subsequently be- 
longed to the late Mr. J. Pierpont 
Morgan. On the gilt dial plate 
are engravings of tulips ; the 
ring is of silver. There is an 
• outer case of grey fish skin 
studded with silver pins, rosettes, 
hinges and clasps, which is shown 
open in Fig. 191. 

Some time ago I saw a small 
octangular watch movement in- 
scribed " Nicasius, London," 
dating from about 1605. 

In the British Museum is a 
choice octangular watch, dated 
1620, by the celebrated Edward 
East. The body, as well as 
the cover of the case, is of 
crystal, faceted, and the exterior 
altogether closely resembles Fig. 
188. Another, somewhat similar, 
but dated 1609, is inscribed, 
" Michael Nouwen, London." 
A watch of this shape, said to 
have belonged to Abbot Whiting, 
is shown in Fig. 192, which is 
copied from Warner's " History 
of Glaston Abbey." On the 
inside of the cover will be 
noticed the inscription, "Richard 
Whytinge, 1536." Warner seems to have accepted the inscription, 
but beyond it there is really no evidence except a seal attached to 
the watch by a string ; this is certainly not conclusive, and I confess 
I do not believe such a watch was made so earlv as 1536. 

Fig. 1.» W j have 

belonged to Abbot Whiting. 

Portable Timekeepers 


enamelled blue 

Fig. 193 is from the collection of M. Paul Garnier. The square 
case has a ground of bluish steel, overlaid with chased gold ornament, 
the combination producing a very striking effect. The edges are 
decorated in the same way. The dial is square, 
in the centre and white all round, the corners 
being adorned with motifs in red enamel. The 
movement is signed " Balthazar Martinot," 
who was horologer to Louis XIII. in 1637. 
Steel cases with gold filigree work attached 
were rather popular at the middle of the 
seventeenth century. Among others in the 
British Museum is a choice specimen by 
Benjamin Hill. 

Two views of a clock-watch in a remarkably 
well pierced circular case are given in Figs. 
194, 195. The dial of brass gilt is finel}^ 
engraved, and altogether it is a good example 
of the style in vogue about 1640. The movement is signed 
Au gros Orloge, Rouen/' 

Oval Watches, — From the designation " Nuremberg eggs," which 

Fig. 193. — Square 
case watch. 


Fig. 194. Fig. 195. 

Two views of a Clock-Watch in pierced circular case. 

is often appHed to watches of a flattened oval form, it may be 
supposed that they originated in Nuremberg. They appear to have t 
been manufactured here as early as 1600. On p. 162 are two specimens 

1 62 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

from the Schloss collection. That reproduced in Fig 196 is a striking 
watch of a very early date. The movement, furnished with the 
primitive stackfreed, is fitted into a case of brass nicely pierced at the 




sides as shown. On the joint of the case is the signature " J. Burgis." 
The outer part of the dial is of brass, the centre, including the hour 
ring, of silver, and on the cover over it is fixed a circular crystal, an 
addition doubtless made subsequent to the manufacture of the watch. 

Portable Timekeepers 


Some of these early oval watches had covers back and front — the 

movement not being hinged to the case but simply pressed into it 

and supported by tenons which projected 

from the dial. Fig. 197, an example of this 

kind, represents a watch the movement of 

which is signed " R. Delander fecit." It is 

in a silver case having brass mouldings at 

the edges ; the outsides of the covers are 

finely engraved with groups typical of the 

beneficial use of fire and water respectively ; 

and on the inside of the back cover is a sun- 
dial with a stud for the reception of a mov- 
able gnomon. The dial is wholly of silver. 
In Fig. 198 is shown an oval watch from 

the Evan Roberts collection. The dial 

is of silver, and has mounted thereon a 

brass hour ring. At each hour, near the 

exterior edge of the ring, is a slight knob 

to allow of the time being ascertained by 

feehng the hand and estimating its position 

with relation to the knobs. Over the hour 

ring is the engraved inscription, " Our time 

doth passe a way." The case is of silver. 

On the movement plate is engraved, " Thomas Aspinwall fecit." 
The name of Aspinwall is not unknown among 
the celebrated early-English watchmakers ; 
it is recorded that in 1675 Josiah Aspinwall 
was admitted as a brother of the Clock- 
makers' Company. His admission as a 
" brother " probably signifies that he was free 
of one of the other City Guilds. In 1863 
Lord Torphichen exhibited, at the Archaeo- 
logical Institute, a clock-watch made by 
Samuel Aspinwall, of a date presumably 
about 1650 or 1660. But I should be inclined 
to place this watch as among the productions of 
a much earlier date. A few years ago I saw a 
watch very similar to the one here depicted, on 
which was engraved, " Samuel Aspinall fecit." 

Bearing in mind the vagaries of seventeenth- century orthography 

we maj^ assume that this referred to a member of the same family. 

Fig. 198.— Watch with 
brass hour ring. 

Fig. 199.— Oval Watch 
by Simon Bartram. 

164 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Oval or egg-shaped watches were usually worn on chatelaines. 
They were apparently more popular than any other form from 1610 
to 1625, and continued in fashion with the fair sex lor a long time. 
In Hollar's plates of the four seasons, dated 1641, summer is repre- 
sented by a lady having an egg-shaped watch on her left side 
depending from her girdle. The British Museum contains several 
similar specimens, most of which are assigned to the first quarter of 
the seventeenth century. One, by Nicholas Waller, is dated 1610. 
Another, almost a counterpart of the one illustrated in Fig. 199, is 

by John Limpard, and was made about 
1610. It is calculated for going sixteen 
hours between windings. The case is 
of silver, partially gilt and very ele- 
gantly chased ; on one side is a figure 
representing Hope, and on the other a 
corresponding figure of Faith. 

An exterior view of an oval watch by 
Simon Bartram is given in Fig. 199. 
The circular patch on the left is a " hit 
or miss " shutter, wliich covers the 
winding hole to prevent the ingress of 
dirt. This shutter is found on many 
really seventeenth- century watches. It 
had to be moved round when the watch 
was wound, and on completion of the 
operation was replaced. The dial is 
very similar to that shown in Fig. 198. 
A drawing of the movement, which 
is of particular interest, will be given 
later on. 

In the Pierpont Morgan collection is 
a watch of the same kind by the same maker, another oval one by 
Edward East, which has an outer capsule case, one by Samuel 
Linaker, and that shown in Fig. 200, which is by Denis Bordier, Paris. 
It has a brass gilt dial prettily engraved and a fluted silver case. 

The small oval watch in a case of crystal which belongs to 
Mr. Max Rosenheim and is shown in Fig. 201 bears the signature, 
" Jean Nuer, A Saintes." 

Fig. 202 represents an oval watch, apparently English, in a silver 
case and with a silver dial. There are no screws used in the move- 
ment, which is signed " Wilham Yate " The late Mr. Edward Parr 

Fig. 200.— Watch by Denis 
Bordier. Paris. 

Portable Timekeepers 


had a somewhat similar watch in a brass case, the movement of 
which is signed " Wm. Nash, London." 

There is a very small oval watch in the British Museum. It 
measures but half an inch across by three-quarters of an inch long, 
and has plain silver capsule-shaped outer cases. The South 
Kensington Museum contains a still smaller one. 

Early in the seventeenth century plain circular watch cases came 
into favour, but not to the entire exclusion of more fanciful shapes. 

On p. 166 are examples of some diminutive round watches of 
the period. Fig. 203, in a case of silver gilt, dates from about 

Fig. 201.— Small Oval 

Fig. 202. — ^Watch without 
screws in movement. 

1630, and the movement is signed " Jacob Wibrandt, Leuwarden." 
A plainer specimen of a slightly later date bearing the name " Chaunes 
le jeune " is shown in Fig. 204. 

Front and back views of a watch bearing the signature, " Arnolts, 
Hamburg," are given in Figs. 205, 206. The case is of silver 
handsomel}^ chased in repousse, with a remarkably well executed 
portrait on the back. It is a production of about 1635. 

Figs. 207 and 208 represent a watch by Jeremie Gregory, a well- 
known English maker. The outside of the case is covered with 
champ leve engraving, a style of decoration rather uncommon and 
very effective if well done, as it is in this instance. 

i66 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 203. — Watch dating 
from about 1630. 

Fig. 204. — Watch bearing the 
name " Chaunes le jeune." 

Fig. 205. Fig. 206. 

Front and back view of Watch, about 1635. 

Fig. 207. Fig. 208. 

Front and back view of Watch by Jeremie Gregory 

Portable Timekeepers 167 

Holbein.— Holbein the painter seems to have taken a remarkable 
interest in horology. In his famous picture of " The Family of 
Sir Thomas More," painted 1526-30, is to be seen hanging on the 
wall a clock much resembhng the one of Anne Boleyn which is 
illustrated on p. 50. The bracket on which Anne Boleyn's clock 
now stands was probably added by Horace Walpole. 

Holbein was on very intimate terms with Nicholas Cratzer (or 
Kratzer), horologer to Henry VIII., and painted a superb portrait 
of him, which is dated 1528, and is at the Louvre, Paris. Cratzer 
is there represented at work on a sun-dial, with other instruments of 
the kind near him. Holbein's last dated drawing (1543), now at the 
British Museum, is a design for the casing of a combination of clock 
and sun-dial, intended for presentation to Henry VIII. by Sir Anthony 
Denny. But Holbein's interest in the craft was quite exceptional in 
England at that period, and it must be confessed that up to nearly 
the end of the sixteenth century Enghsh horologists had but a very 
small share in the production of portable timekeepers. 

Salt Cellar Clocks.— In the early part of the seventeenth century 
it was apparently the custom to have clocks combined with salt 
cellars on the table at state banquets, to judge by the following 
curious items from an inventory of the plate in the lower and upper 
jewel rooms of the Tower, 1649 :— " A salt of state with a clocke in 
it, valued att £12 ; a clocke salt with a christall case, supported 
with 4 pillars, silver-gilt, valued at £4 10 ; an agatt salt and cover 
garnisht with gold, enamelled, supported by 3 men, and a ship on 
the top of the cover, p. oz. lOJ oz., valued att £33 ; two clocke 
salts standing upon 4 christaU balls and 4 christall pillars, each 
with "aggatt salts on the topp, and gold covers, p. oz. 3 lb. 2^ oz. 
valued att £3 6 8 per oz. = £77 ; a christall watch salt garnisht 
with gold, and supported with 3 faces with several fruiteages hanging 
about them, p. oz. 30 oz., valued att £30 0." 


POCKETS were used for the reception of timekeepers in Sliake- 
speare's time, for Jaques, in " As You Like It," remarks, " And 
then he drew a dial from his poke." Portable sun-dials, some- 
times with a compass attached, were then made, and the reference was 
probably to one of these. 

Watches were not usually carried in the pocket for more than a 
century after the mainspring was invented. The larger ones would 
be kept on a table or cabinet, and the smaller kinds, when worn on 
the person, were originally held by a chain around the neck, or 
attached to the dress in other w^a^^s, unless incorporated witli bracelets 
and such-like ornaments, as many of Queen Elizabeth's seem to 
have been. 

The grotesque and uneven cases applied to most of the early 
watches clearly rendered them unsuitable for the pocket. Decker 
in 1609 (Gull's Hornbook) apostrophising the fashionable young 
bloods idling in the cathedral says, " Here you may have fit occasion 
to discover your watch by taking it forth and setting it to the time 
of St. Paul's." This suggests a pocket, but long after this date oval 
and round watches were made with a pointed projection depending 
from the bottom of the case, and these were clearly never intended 
for the pocket nor fit for it. The fob, from the German fuppe, " a 
small pocket," was very possibly introduced by the Puritans, whose 
dislike of display may have induced them to conceal their time- 
keepers from the public gaze. This conjecture is strengthened by 
the fact that a short " fob " chain attached to a watch of Oliver 
Cromwell's, in the British Museum, is, in point of date, the first 
appendance of the kind to be found. The watch is a small oval one, 
in a silver case, and was made about 1625, by John Midnall, of 
Fleet Street, who was one of the first members of the court of the 
Clockmakers' Company, and warden in 1638. On one side of a 
silver plate at the seal end of the chain are the Cromwell arms, and 
on the other the crest of the Protector with the letters O.C. as shown 


Pocket Watches, Etc. 


in the appended engraving, Fig. 209. The Cromwell crest was a 
demi-lion holding a ring in its paw, but the Protector substituted 
for the ring the handle of a tilting spear as here represented. 

This watch and chain formed part of the Fellows collection. By 
the will of Dame Harriet Fellows (relict of Sir Charles Fellows), 
late of West Cowes, Isle of Wight, who died in 1874, the testatrix 
bequeathed to the trustees of 
the British Museum her collec- 
tion of watches, to be placed and 
held with Milton's watch, be- 
queathed to them by her late 

Fig. 210 is an illustration from 
the Illustrated London News, Feb- 
ruary 1850, of a clock watch 
which is said to have belonged to 
OHver Cromwell. It is, I believe, 
the property of Mr. J. H.Fawkes, 
of Farnle}^ Hall, and bears the 
name of Jaques Cartier. The 
outer case of leather is perforated 
and studded with silver. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine 
for December 1808 is shown a 
small oval watch, similar to the 
one by East, Fig. 410, which, it 
is stated, Cromwell at the siege 
of Clonmel took out of his fob and 
presented to Colonel Bagwell. 

In the South Kensington 
Museum is a circular clock- 
watch, by John Bayes, which 
probably belonged to Cromwell's 
secretary. The outer case of 

tortoise-shell bears the inscription, " Johne Pyme hes watch, 
A.D. 1628." 

A very handsome watch by Henry Harpur is shown in Fig 211. 
It has a silver dial with day of the month ring and beautifully 
pierced centre ; the inner case is of silver having on the back the 
arms of Cromwell, to whose daughter Bridget the ownership of the 
watch is assigned ; the outer case of fish skin is pique with silver pins. 

Fig. 209. — Oliver Cromwell's 
Watch and Fob Chain. 

170 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 210. — Clock-Watch of 
Oliver Cromwell. 

Watch Glasses. — Watch glasses seem to have been introduced 

about 1610. At first they were flat, rather thick, and fitted into split 

bezels, as the containing rings are called, 
the opening in the bezel being at the middle 
of the joint, so that the corresponding 
knuckles of the case would keep the slit 
tightly closed on to the glass. Glasses of 
this kind are found on oval watches, and 
also on circular ones with dials much smaller 
than the cases, which were a fashion at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
Then followed the high, rounded glasses, 
which were cut from spheres. Afterwards 
came the bull's eyes, with a circular flat 
centre ; these, which were of Germian' origin, 
gave place to the flatter " lunettes " from 

France, such as to-day divide popular favour with the thick '' crystal " 


Glasses were apparently used for table clocks some years before they 

were applied to watches. 

German and French table 

clocks, dating from the 

latter part of the sixteenth 

century, are occasionally to 

be met with, having glasses 

over the dials, and some 

octagonal ones with glass 

panels in the sides. But 

the innovation did not at 

once prevail, as table 

clocks, either without any 

covering over the dial, or 

with metal covers, were 

made long after the first 

examples with glasses, and 

watches with metal covers 

continued in fashion till 

the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. 

In the British Museum is an oval watch by Guy MeUin, Black- 
friars, the dial of which is covered with a glass in a split bezel ; also 

Fig. 211 — Handsome Watch having on 
the back the arms of Cromwell, 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


a circular watch by John Duke, Fleet Street, with a dial one-half 
the size of the case, and a glass of a corresponding size fitted into a 
split bezel. MelHn's watch is con- 
sidered by the -authorities to have 
.been made about 1600, but I 
should be inclined to put the date 
of its production a few years later. 
Several other watches, whose manu- 
facture is ascribed to the beginning 
of the seventeenth century, may 
be noticed with glasses ; but these 
adjuncts in some instances have 
been subsequent applications. The 
split bezel is perhaps a tolerable 
criterion of originaUty, but it does 
not absolutely follow that such a 
bezel was originally fitted with a 
glass, for the frames of early watches 
and clocks were occasionally fur- 
nished with crystal. 

Another method of fixing the 
glass prior to the introduction of the 
present practice of springing or 
snapping it into the bezel consisted 
of forming three or four thin metal 
ears on the bezel and bending them 
over the glass when it had been 
placed into a suitable rebate. I 
saw this in a watch by Benjamin 
Hill. It was, however, but a sur- 
vival of the mode in which crystal 
was held in octagonal and other 
fancy cases, and must be regarded 
as an inferior arrangement which 
does not seem to have been at all 
general, whereas the spht bezel was 
used preferentially by some makers 
long after the custom of snapping 

the glass in was introduced. The watch show^n in Fig. 478, 
and made about 1700 by the celebrated Langley Bradley, had 
a split bezel. 

Fig. 212. — Handsome Chatelaine. 

172 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Chatelaines. — The convenience of the " fob " to those who 
carried watches for use rather than for ornament was soon apparent, 
and its adoption speedily became general with men, though ladies 
continued to wear their watches suspended from chatelaines till the 
latter part of the eighteenth century. Some of the chatelaines 
were exceedingly handsome, as may be judged by an example from 
the Schloss collection which is shown in Fig. 212. The plaques are 
painted in enamel in the style of Huaud ; the mounting and painting 
are French. In 1749 Benjamin Cartwright patented a secret spring 
to secure a watch hanging by a lady's side. In the Winter Palace, 
St. Petersburg, is a splendid array of chatelaines. They are attached 
to English watches, and probabty of EngHsh make. Many of them 
are set with gems of the most costly description. 

Like many other fancies, the one wearing two watches is but a 
x^YiYdl pace the Universal Magazine for 1777, where the description of 
a " modern fop " includes — 

" A lofty cane, a sword with silver hilt, 
A ring, two watches and a snuff-box gilt." 

Watch Cases. — It will be observed from the preceding 
examples that a great number of dissimilar materials were used to 
enclose portable timekeepers : wood of various kinds, precious and 
semi-precious stones, amber, metal and leather were all utilised for 
this purpose. With few exceptions the earliest watches had but a 
single case. Metal was the predominating material, the plainest 
cases being usually of brass, or of polished steel ; silver also was 
favoured both for smooth and engraved cases ; for the more costly 
coverings gold was, of course, selected, either by itself or in combination 
with precious stones, and occasionally the two precious metals would 
be used together with pleasing effect. 

Sometimes the watch movement, instead of being fastened to the 
case, was simply placed in four tenons wliich projected from the 
edge of the dial fitting into corresponding mortises in the middle 
band of the case. The case then had two hinged covers, one over 
the dial and one over the back, the movement being rendered secure 
by the closing of the front cover ; the back cover had to be opened 
to wind the watch. The oval watch by R. Delander, which is 
illustrated on p. 162 ; the one by David Bouquet formerly in the 
Mainwaring collection, and another by David Ramsay in the South 
Kensington Museum, are examples of this method. But more often 
the movement was joined to the case by means of a liinge near the 

Pocket Watches, Etc, 


pendant and a spring bolt at the opposite point of the dial, four 
projecting tenons on the dial resting in notches cut from the middle 
of the case. Tliis mode of construction is clearly shown in the 
engraving of the oval watch by Thomas Aspinwall on p. 163. Till 
about 1720 the spring bolt generally projected through the dial ; after 
that the nib for unbolting was more often arranged outside the circle 
of the dial and below the surface of it. 

Enamel. — Decoration in enam.ei is sometimes to be found on 
watch dials and cases produced during the early part of the seven- 

FiG. 213.- 

-Front, with Cover 

Fig. 214. — Dial and inside of 

teenth century. An exceptionally good specimen is shown in Figs. 
213 and 214. The outside of the cover and the back are embelhshed 
with enamel, the ground being of turquoise blue with white arabesques 
moulded thereon in rehef and studded with fine garnets of large size. 
Though " jewelled watches " are referred to as belonging to Queen 
Ehzabeth, and in other records of the period, it is very rarely that so 
early a combination of enamel and gems is now to be met with. The 
inside of the case and of the cover are also painted in enamel, and so is 
the dial. There is no glass over the dial. The hand is well shaped. 
The plate of the watch is inscribed " Pierre Soret." 

174 ^Id Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Front and back views of a watch covered with the same kind of 
enamel, but of later date, are given in Figs. 215 and 216. The centre 
of the dial is blue, and a portrait on an enamelled plaque occupies the 
centre of the -back. A very thin name-plate is engraved " James 
Coupe, London," and underneath the name-plate appears the signature 
" Marc Grangier." 

Fig. 215. 

Fig. 216. 

Fig. 217. Fig. 218. 

Enamelled Watches of difEerent styles. 

In Fig. 217, by permission of Mr. Charles Shapland, 1 am enabled 
to give a representation of a specimen in a different style, dating from 
about 1630. On the top plate of the movement is the inscription 
" Georgius Merkell, Dantzig." The case is of gold, and is wholly 
incrusted with enamel both inside and outside ; flowers of various 
colours and kinds, as well as winged in- ects, are charmingly represented. 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Of other kinds of enamelling to be met with but rarely on early 
seventeenth-century watches may be mentioned champ leve. This 
somewhat resembles the well-known cloisonne, but, instead of the 
various sections being divided by the insertion of metal strips, the 
partitions are soUd with the base, and the intervening spaces cut out 
to receive the enamel. A watch, signed " Du Hamel a Paris," dating 
from about 1635, in a gold case very effectively decorated in this way 
with cream-coloured enamel, which is at South Kensington Museum, 
is shown in Fig. 218. Another example is given in Fig. 219, which 
is the back of a watch with a pecuHar notoriety, referred to in Chapter 
III. : the dial bears the inscription " Robertus Bruce Rex Scottorum," 
as shown in Fig. 220, while the watch is a production of about 
1645, the movement of it being signed " Johann Kreitt Mayr." 

Fig. 219. Fig. 220. 

Gold and Enamel decoration, about 1645. 

The diminutive watch on p. 154 is also decorated with champ leve 

Occasionally translucent enamel was employed, and effects of hght 
and shade obtained by varying the depth of a cavity which was cut to 
the required design in a metal base. 

Watches with enamel painting before about 1640 are exceedingly 
rare, and there is a marked difference in the character of such decorative 
work executed at the beginning, compared with that done during the 
later years of the seventeenth century. As examples of the earher 
style, which presented a comparatively lustreless surface and subdued 
tints, may be taken the watches shown on pp. 176-179. During the 
first quarter of the century the Holy Family appears to have afforded 
the theme for decoration in nearly every instance. Afterwards, though 

176 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Figs. 221-223. — Watch by Salomon Plairas, Blois, with Enamel Painting, 

about 1625. 

outside ot cover ; 2, back or case ; 3 inside ot cover and dial 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Fig. 224.— Watch from the South Kensington Museum, 

Fig. 225.— The movement of Watch signed " B. Foucher, Blois." 

178 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 226. 

Fig. 227. 

Front and back views of Watch. The movement signed 

" Barthelmv Mace a Blois." 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 179 

sacred subjects were not ignored, mythological incidents were some- 
times selected by artists for reproduction, and occasionally original 
conceptions and portraits of contemporary personages were applied to 
watches intended most probably for presentation. 

On p. 176 are three views of an early and very fine seventeenth 
century enamelled watch from the Schloss collection. The movement 
is signed " Salomon Plairas, horlogeur, A Blois." 

Fig. 224, from the collection at the South Kensington Museum, 
shows the front of a watch dating from about 1630, on which is a 
painting of the Holy Family, after Rubens. 

Fig. 225 represents the back of a watch of the same period at the 
British Museum, foi which the artist has apparently taken the romance 
of Theseus and Hippolyta as the subject of his painting. The move- 
ment is signed " B. Foucher, Blois." 

Front and back views of a watch, the movement ot which is signed 
" Barthelmy Mace a Blois," are given on page 178. Nearly all artists 
who painted watch cases up to the end of the eighteenth century seem 
to have included the " Roman Piety " in their selections ; the repre- 
sentation on the back of this watch could, I think, hardly be excelled. 

Fig. 228, from the British Museum, shows the back of a watch by 
Jean Hebrat, of Brussels, of a shghtly later date than Fig. 227 ; the 
painting is bordered with turquoises. 

Back and front views of a very beautiful watch, the enamel painting 
of which is probably Enghsh as well as the movement, are given in 
Figs. 229-230. On the back of the case, within a charming floral border, 
is a well-painted portrait, said to be that of Henrietta Maria, daughter 
of Henry IV. of France and wife of Charles I. of England. The dial 
is finely painted to a floral design and covered by a glass kept into 
a recess in a primitive way by six pins bent over from the bezel. The 
hand is of brass, pierced and chased. On the plate of the mo^^ement 
is engraved " Simon Hackett, Londini." He was elected a member 
of the Clockmakers' Company on its formation in 1632, and served as 
master in 1646. 

An improved method of painting in opaque enamel, which 
appears to have been discovered about 1635, is generally credited to 
Jean Petitot, who was born in Geneva in 1607, and attained much 
success as a miniature painter in France and in England. The new 
process consisted of applying to thin gold plates thick colours of 
different tints which would, after being subjected to fire, retain their 
brilliance and lustre. Petitot exercised his art on snuff-boxes, but 
I have never met with enamel decoration on a watch which bore his 

i8o Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

signature. The invention of this particular kind of enamel painting 

is also claimed for Jean Toutin, 

Fig. 228. 

-Watch by Jean Hebrat 
of 'Brussels. 

a goldsmith of Chateau Surr, 
who was pre\dously distin- 
guished for painting in 
enamels, and who certainly 
seems to have been one ot 
the first to apply it to 
watches. Other French 

and Swiss artists quickly 
devoted themselves to the 
new kind of enamel paint- 
ing. Among those who 
excelled in it may be 
mentioned Henry Toutin, 
brother of Jean, a gold 
smith and enameller at 
Blois ; Dvibie, a court gold- 
smith who worked at the 
Louvre ; Paul Viet, of 
Blois ; Morherc, a native 
of Orleans, who worked at 
Blois ; Robert Vauquer, of 
Blois, a pupil of Morhere, 

Fig. 229. Fig. 230. 

Watch signed " Simon Hackett, Londini," about 1635. 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Fig. 231. — Front of Case. 

Fig. 232.— Back of Case. 

Fig. 233. — Movement and inside 
of Case. 

Fig. 234.- — Dial and inside of 

Watch about 1640. Movement signed " Barbaret a Paris." 


1 82 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

of pre-eminent ability, whose enamel painting has never been excelled 
either for colour or design, though specimens of his art are rarely to 
be met with on watch cases ; Pierre Chartiere, of Blois, who was noted 
for his painting of flowers ; and the brothers Jean Pierre and Ami 
Huaud (or Huaut, also spelt Hualt), of whom " Huaud le puisne," as he 
usually signed himself, was particularly celebrated for figure-painting. 
Several examples are to be found in the British, vSouth Kensington, 
and Guildhall Museums. 

Four views of a splendid watch from the Schloss collection, dating 
from about 1640, appear in Fjgs. 231, 232, 233 and 234. The move- 
ment is signed " Jacque Barbaret a Paris." 

Front and back of a smaller watch from the same collection, 
signed " Romieu, Rouen, Fecit," are given in Figs. 235 and 236. 

The representation of the toilet of Venus on the back of a watch 
by Robert Lochard, which is shown in Fig. 237, is an extremely 
beautiful example. 

The admirable painting of figures and a landscape shown in 
Fig. 238 is signed by " Huaud le puisne," and is on the back of a 
watch by Steven Tracy, Rotterdam, which is at the British Museum. 
Among other examples there may be cited a representation of some 
nymphs bathing, excellently executed in enamel by Jean Toutin ; an 
enamelled case, very finely painted by Henry Toutin, illustrating the 
story of Tancred and Clorinda in " Orlando Furioso ; " another by 
the same artist which treats of the " Rape of the Sabines ; " a watch 
by David Bouquet, a well-known London maker, the case being 
ornamented with flowers, in rehef, and enriched with diamonds ; a 
very finely enamelled watch case, illustrating the early life of Christ ; 
a very thick rounded watch by Tompion, with case splendidly painted 
in enamel by Camille Andre. 

Fig. 239 shows the case of a watch by Jean de Choudens, dating 
from about 1680, which is painted in a really charming manner and 
bears the inscription " Les deux freres Huaut pintre de son A. E. 
Berlin." It is at the South Kensington Museum. 

Of shghtly later date is a watch by " F'^''* De Miere Amsterdam," 
with a painting on the back of the Roman Piety, as shown in 
Fig. 240. This is signed " Huaud le puisne fecit," and is also to be 
seen, at South Kensington. A similar painting covering a watch by 
" Pieter Paulus Amsterdam," which is from the Schloss collection, 
bears the signature " P. Huaud, P. Genius, F. Geneva." 

There were two examples in the Dunn Gardner collection which 
was dispersed by auction in 1902 : a choice piece of figure painting 

Fig. 236. 

r Fia. 286 

Front and back of Watch signed " Romieu, Rouen, Fecit." 
Fig. 237. 

Fig. 238. 

Watch by Robert Lochard. 

Fig. 239. 

Watch at the British Museum. 

Fig. 240. 

Two Watches at the South Kensington Museum. 

Fig. 241. 




Front and back views of a Watch by " Goullons a Marseille." 

Fig. 243.1 

Fig. 244. 

Watch by " Ofard a Gex. 

Fig. 245. 

Watch by " Johannes van Ceulin, 

Fig. 246. 


Watch by " Vanenhove, 

Watch by " Jan Bern Vr>^thoff. 


Pocket Watches, Etc. 185 

covering a watch by Lucas, Amsterdam, the enamelled case being 
signed " Huaud I'aisne pinxit a Geneue," and a watch by Julien Le 
Roy, with enamelled case, bearing the signature of G. Bouvier. 

All on p. 184 are signed specimens of the Huauds' work. The 
first consists of front and back views of a watch by " Goullons a 
Marseille," dating from about 1670, which is signed " Huaud le 
puisne." On the front are Mars and Venus with Cupid, and on the 
back " The Hours." 

The next two bear the same signature, and are a little later. A 
pair of lovers is painted on each ; the first Apollo and Diana, the 
second possibly Mars and Venus. The former covers a watch by 
" Ofard a Gex," and the latter one by " Johannes Van CeuHn, Hague." 

" Venus and Adonis " is signed " Le deux frere Huaut, p. d. V. A. 
Fct, a BerHn," and is on the back of a watch by " Vanenhove, 

The group " Susanna and the Elders," most beautifully painted, is 
signed ** Les deuxfreres Huaud lesjeunes," and is on a watch named 
" Jan Bern^ Vrythoff, Hague." 

Pigments of different composition yielding colours not so super- 
latively warm and rich as characterises the work of what I will 
venture to call the Huaud school seem to have been introduced 
towards the middle of the eighteenth century. Prevost (or Prevaux) 
who is described as " Peintre du cabinet de S. M." (Louis XV.), may 
be taken as one of the best exponents of the new method. He painted 
a portrait of Madame Pompadour, by command of the king, for which 
he was paid 1,000 livres. A really beautiful piece of his enamel 
painting, signed "I. Prevaux, pin. 1749," on the back of a watch 
by Pascal Hubert le Jeune, Rouen, from the Schloss collection, is 
shown at the top left-hand corner of p. 186, with others decorated 
in a somewhat similar style. The watch on the same level, with a 
pair of lovers and. a landscape on the back, is by Julien Le Roy. 
Vulcan, Venus, and Cupid are on a repeating watch by the same 
maker. The sylvan scene with a flute player and a lady holding 
the music adorns a watch signed " Raphard, London," and the 
remaining two are watches by Juhen Le Roy. Naomi and Ruth are 
represented in the bottom left-hand corner, and the tableau in the last 
example is founded, I believe, on ? tragic incident in the romance of 
Orestes and Hermione. 

Painted groups, bordered with translucent enamel over a wavy 
or engraved metal ground, were favoured during the last half of the 
eighteenth century, and in many instances the surface of the painting 

Fig. 248. 

Watch b}^ Pascal Hubert le Jeune, Rouen . Watch b}^ Julien le Roy. 

Fig. 249. 

Repeating Watch by Julien le Roy. 

Fig. 251. 

Fig. 250. 

Watch by Raphard, London. 

Fig. 252. 

Two Watches by Julien le Roy. 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


was covered with a transparent flux, which gave it a glassy appear- 

During the first half of the nineteenth century portraits and views 
in small panels attached to the backs of watch cases were popular 
and of very uneven merit. Most of them were, I think, of Swiss 

In the Vienna Treasury is a watch case finely enamelled inside and 
out by the brothers Huaud. 

Other representative examples of French, Swiss, and English 
enamel are appended. 

Fig. 253. — ^Watch by Henry Harper, 

Fig. 254. — ^Watch signed by 
' Honore Lieutand, Marseille." 

Fig. 253 shows the back of a watch by Henry Harper, London, 
of a style corresponding to 1670. The painting is probably Dutch, 
and of a later date. 

The beautiful painting set in an engraved gold border shown in 
Fig. 254 encloses a watch signed " Honore Lieutand, Marseille." 

Two views of a half-quarter repeater by Rd. Gregg, London, from 
the Pierpont Morgan collection, are given in Figs. 255-256. The centre 
of the outer case is enamelled with figures of cupids in a landscape, 
and small vignettes are painted around the edge ; the dial bears the 
arms of Herbert, second Viscount Windsor ; this title became extinct 
in 1758. The painting is signed with the initials " A.C," 

An excellent specimen of floral decoration in enamel bordered by 

1 88 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

engraving appears in Fig. 257, which represents the gold back of a 
watch signed " Jn. L^ Argand, Paris," and dating from about 1770 

Fig. 255. Fig. 256. 

Two views of a half -quarter Repeater by Rd. Gregg, London. 

Fig. 257. — Watch by J. L. Argand, 
Paris, about 1770. 

Fig. 258. — Watch by Romilhv 

A back view of a contemporary watch by Romilly, Paris, with pretty 
flower painting on a brown enamelled ground, is given in Fig. 258. 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


A choicer piece of flower painting on enamel than is shown in 
Fig. 259 it has never been my good fortune to see. This watch belongs 
to the Hon. Gerald Ponsonby, by whose permission it is illustrated. It 
is a sourdine repeater by JuHen Le Roy ; the hands, bow, push piece at 
pendant, thumb piece and sourdine toucher are all set with diamonds. 

Fig. 260.— Back of Watch by 
G. Archard et Fils, Geneva. 
F^namel painting studded with 

Fig. 261.— Back of French Watch. 
Enamel painting studded with 
diamonds ; surmounted by a 
bust of Louis XVI. 

As an example of Enghsh enamelling dating from about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, is shown, in Fig. 262, the exterior 
of a watch by Arl. Dobson, London, which is in the British Museum. 
I wish I could say the painting is better than contemporary specimens 
of foreign artists. 

Notwithstanding the taste tor Chinese art which was so apparent 
in France during the eighteenth century, it is very seldom a watch 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

is met with having a back of porcelain enamel with a Chinese 
subject moulded thereon. An example covering a watch by Julien 
Le Roy may, therefore, be of especial interest, though it makes but 
a poor picture. The figures are in bright colours, and the ground a 
dark brown. 

On p. 191 are some fine examples of varying periods. " The 
Nativity " is a beautiful piece of painting in the incomparable Huaud 
style on the back of a watch by Gribelin, Paris, dating from about 
1680. On the same horizontal line is a watch the movement of which 
is signed " Abraham Le Schegs, Amsterdam." The painting is doubt- 
less also by one of the Huauds. The first of the middle pair is the 

Fig. 262.— Watch in British Museum. Fig. 263.— Watch by JuUen le Roy. 

back of a watch by the younger Caron. Any appearance of vulgarity 
in the subject of the painting is quite atoned for by the adjoining 
view of the inside of the case, where are represented the young mother 
and her babe. The representation of the mother of Achilles dipping 
him in the Styx is on the back of a watch by JuHen Le Roy. Diana 
and her attendant nymph, which adorns the last watch on the page, 
dates from about 1780. 

Fig. 270 shows a watch by J. Leroux, Charing Cross, which is said 
to have belonged to Viscount Windsor, whose title became extinct 
in 1758. The case is enamelled blue and white on a gold ground. 

Fig. 264. 

Fio. 265. 

Fig. 267. 

Fig. 269. 

Fine examples ol varying periods 

192 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

In Fig. 271 is shown a repeating watch by Lepine ; on the gold 
case in an oval medallion are finely carved figures of gold and silver 

Fig. 270.— Watch by J. Leroux, 
Charing Cross. . 

Fig. 271 

-Repeating Watch by 

Fig. 272. — Late Eighteenth-Century. Fig. 273. — The back of what is called 

French painting. a " Mongolfier " Watch. 

on a ground of green enamel, outside of which is a wreath carved in 
silver. Tliis decoration is exceedingly effective. The push piece, 
thumb piece, and bow are studded with dianionds. 

Pocket Watches, Etc 


Fig. 272 is a late-eighteenth-centuiy French painting representing 
Cymon and Iphigenia. 

Fig. 274— Watch by J. B. Baillon 
a Paris, about 1765. 

Fig. 275.- — ^Watch by Gregson, Hor- 
loger du Roy, Paris, about 1785- 


Fig. 276.— Watch by Alexander 
Patry a Geneva, about 1790, 
miniature bordered with pearls 
and coloured stones. 

Fig. 277. — Watch by Lepaute, 
Paris, about 1790, enamelled 
portrait bordered with dia- 

In Fig. 273 is shown the back of what is called a " Mongolfier " 
watch, from the Pierpont Morgan collection, on which is painted a 
representation of a balloon undergoing inflation, intended, I suppose, 

194 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

to commemorate the success of Montgolfier's aerostatic machine in 
1782. The movement is signed " Vauchez, Paris." 

Fig. 278 shows the back of a thin watch by " Pierre Gregson, Paris, 
Horloger du Roy/' The case is enamelled on gold, the outer part 
rayed and covered with royal blue translucent enamel ; on a medalHon 
of opaque enamel in the centre is a well-painted group with Cupid and 
a dog, denoting love and faith. It is characteristic of the Louis XVI. 
period, when this style of enamelHng was in fashion. Fig. 279 is 
another watch by Gregson from the collection of Mr. H. J. Heinz. It 

Figs. 278-279. — ^Two Enamelled Watches by Gregson. 

is gold with the back of the case ornamented with an enamel picture 
of a woman and child with pet bird ; surrounded with a border of blue 
and white enamel. Fig. 280 shows an EngHsh watch, with the 
London hall-mark corresponding to 1787. The margin is of trans- 
lucent royal blue as in the preceding example. 

Two French watches of sHghtly later date, finely painted in enamel, 
are shown in Figs. 281 and 282. 

Battersea enamel dates from about 1750, when Sir Theodore 
Janssen, who was Lord Mayor of London in 1754, established a 
manufactory at York House, Battersea. Horace Walpole described 
his collection as " stamped with copper plates." Transfer printing 
may have been employed for flat surfaces, but certainly not for watch 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Cases, the painting on some of which was by artists of note. 
A very good example is shown in Fig. 285. Back and front views 

Fig. 280.— English Enamelled Watch. 

Fig. 281. Fig. 282. 

Two French Watches finely painted in Enamel. 

of a very choice httle watch by Hughes, London, of a sHghtly later 
period, are given in Figs. 286 and 287. 

Watch dials of enamel, with pictures painted in bright colours 

iq6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 283. — Enamel bordered 
with Pearls. 

Fig. 284. — Enamel Painting on 
back of Watch b\' Breguet. 

Fig. 285.— a good 

example of Enamel 


Fig. 286. Fig. 287. 

Back and front views of Watch by Hughes, London. 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


inside of the hour ring, and occasionally outside of it, proved very 
attractive between 1760 and 1800. They were inexpensive and, as a 
rule, of but little artistic merit, the most favoured designs being those 
in which shipping and seaports were introduced. Many thousands of 
these were produced for the Dutch market by English watchmakers. 

The miniature of Marat, " V ami du peuple," on the back of a watch 
from the Schloss collection, which is shown in Fig. 288, is an admirable 
piece of work. 

A fine miniature of Napoleon Buonaparte on the back of a musical 

Fig. 288.— Marat. Fig. 289.— Xapoleon. 

half-quarter repeater of French make, which is shown in Fig. 289, is 
from the Pierpont Morgan collection. This watch is said to have been 
given by Xapoleon to Marat on the fete day after the battle of 
Marengo, 1800. No cost seems to have been spared either with the 
mechanism or the embellishment. A tune is played at the completion 
of each hour ; the miniature and dial are bordered with pearls ; the 
bow also is studded with them. 

A pretty little w^atch, wliich in many respects is a credit to English 

mechanical and artistic work of the first quarter of the nineteenth 

century, is shown in Fig. 290. It bears the hall mark for 1813, and 

is engraved " Markwick Markham, Borrell, London," a form of 


igS Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

signature induced, doubtless, by the regulations applied to watches 
imported into Turkey, for the dial is marked with Turkish numerals. 
It may be assumed that Borrell was the manufacturer. The move- 
ment is of admirable finish, has a verge escapement and fancy pillars, 

Fig. 290. — A credit to English mechanical and artistic work of the period. 

but the particular attraction is the beautiful gold cases, of which there 
are three. The outer one, instead of having a fiat surface where the 
halves meet, is scalloped all round, but still forming a well-fitting 
junction by no means easy to attain. This case is enamelled, with a 

Fig. 291. — A Gold Enamelled Plaque, 
finely painted over the balance. 

glass in the back, through which a very choice bit of floral enamel 
painting is to be seen. The back of the two cases are so well fitted 
together that it requires minute scrutiny to detect that the enamelled 
centre is not part of the outer case. The innermost case is a plain one, 
but exceedingly well made. 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 



¥ *<^' f 

During the eighteenth century the cock 
or bridge covering the balance of the 
watch, and concealed until the movement 
was turned out of the case, was occasion- 
ally decorated with painting in enamel. 
Fig. 291, given as an illustration, is a watch 
signed " Flamant a Paris." It has a gilt 
metal case, and dates from about 1710 ; 
over the balance is a gold enamelled 
plaque with a finely painted representa- 
tion of Cleopatra. 

Fig. 292 is a gold repeating watch from 
the collection of Mr. H. J. Heinz, contained 
in an outer case of brown and white 
opaque enamel attached to a chatelaine 
of the same material. The movement 
was made by Peter Mackdonald in London 
in the years 1790-1794. This watch was 
formerly the property of Admiral, Lord 
Nelson, the hero of Trafalgar. On the 
back of the watch an "N" is engraved, 
surmounted by a coronet, and also the 
letter " B . " The " N " is for Nelson and the 
" B " for Bronte. The Neapolitan title of 
Duke of Bronte was granted to Nelson 
in 1799. This watch was made some years 
before being presented to Nelson, the date 
of manufacture antedating the confer- 
ment of the title " Duke of Bronte." 

Pair Cases. — To protect the surface of the decoration, watches 
with exterior ornament of enamel were generally provided with an 
additional cover, and from about 1640 the practice of adding a loose 
outer case to watches, forming what are called " pair cases," con- 
tinued to the early part of the nineteenth century. 

Loose cases of gold and silver, with designs chased in repousse, were 
at this period an important art in connection with watchmaldng. 
Chasing as distinguished from engraving and carving is the forma- 
tion of ornament in rehef by punching or pressing, rather than 
by cutting away the material. It is a very ancient art, and 
chased ornament is to be found on some of the earliest of watch cases. 
Much of the work on old clocks, which at first sight appears to be 

Fig. 292. — Gold Repea ting- 

200 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

engraving, proves on examination to be chasing. All the smal] 
numerals on Habrecht's clock at the British Museum are stamped. 

The silver chased work applies to the edges of English oval cases 
at the beginning of the seventeenth century is said to have been 
imported in strips from France. 

An excellent piece of flat chasing, including the head of Charles 11. , 
with the Royal Crown and supporters, on the case of a watch by 
Daniel Le Count, dating from about 1680, is shown in Fig. 293. The 
case is a single one, and on the right is a httle catch, by pressing 
which a disc on the left springs on one side, exposes a round hole in 

Fig. 293. — Flat Chasing on Single Case 
Watch bv Daniel Le Count, about 

Fig. 294. — Flat Chasing on Outer 
Case of ^A"atch by ^^'illiam 

the case, and thus allows access to the winding square. The dial of 
this watch is shown on p. 217 and the movement in Chapter Vlll. 

The same style ot decoration of a later date on the outer case of a 
watch, by WilHam Scafe, may be seen in Fig. 294. 

In repousse chasing the material is punched or pressed up from the 
back, whereby the design is obtained in higher rehef than is the case 
with the ordinary method of punching from the face. Some very 
choice specimens of repousse work, marked " H. Manle}^ " in very 
smaU characters, are in the British Museum. An outer case at the 
South Kensington Museum is signed " H. Manley fee," and a watch by 
Ellicott, bearing the hall mark for 1767, in a fine repousse case, wliich 

Pocket Watches. Etc, 


appears to be signed " Manby," is in the Guildhall Museum. Among 
the signatures on other good examples may be mentioned Parbury, 
Cocliin, and Moser, but as a rule decorative work of this kind bears 
no indication of the producer. 

Occasionally cases decorated in repousse a jour are to be met witli, 
some of the best of them being the work of Dutch artists, but this 
•"orm of ornament is hardly suitable for watch cases, as it affords 

Fig. 295. — Pair Case Repeating 
Watch by Paul Dupin, about 
1700, showing repousse outer 
cover. The chasing is of excep- 
tional fineness. 

Fig. 296. — Repeating Watch by 
Paul Dupin, showing pierced 
work of inner case. 

no protection against the ingress of dirt, unless a separate hning is 
employed. For striking watches, apertures of course serve a useful 

Sometimes, and particularly with a jour cases, the ornament is in 
high rehef , and to obtain the best possible effect the metal constituting 
the case is not only worked in repousse, but the figures, or parts of 
some of the figures standing up farthest from the ground, are soldered 
on, considerable sldll and judgment being displayed. Illustrations of 
repousse chasing are given on pp. 202-204, but bright gold cases 
embelKshed in this way do not, it must be confessed, lend themselves 
kindly to reproduction by photography. Incidents from EngHsh 

202 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

history were occasionally portrayed, but mythological and Biblical 
subjects appear to have been more favoured. Among the examples 
ma}^ be recognised " King John signing Magna Charta," " Alexander 

Fig. 297. — Silver repousse, signed 
"D. Cochin." 

Fig. 298. — Repousse Chasing on 
Gold Out-case. 

Fig. 299. — Gold repousse Chasing. 

Fig. 300. — Gold repousse Chasing 

and Roxana," " The Conversion of Saul," " The Judgment of Paris," 
" Rebecca at the Well," " iEneas and Dido," &c. 

Fig. 308 is an exceptionally late and fine specimen, covering a 
watch by James Murray, London. It has an oval pendant, and the 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Fig. 303. 

Fig 302. 

Fig. 305. . Fig. 306. 

Illustrations of repotiss^ Chasing. 

204 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

date mark corresponding to 1810. On the outside of the inner case 
is engraved " Francisco Joseph, 1811." 

A combination of chasing and engra\'ing was also effectively 
employed in the embeUishment of gold cases ; some of the choicest 
specimens of early eighteenth century work which survive being the 
work of George Michael Moser, R.A. 

What is called champ leve engraving, in wliich the ground is cut 
away, leaving the design in relief, was often adopted for decorating 

IG. 307. — Half-quarter English 
Repeater with Silver Out-case. 

Fig. 308.— Silver Out-case of Watch bv 
J. Murray, hall mark 1810. 

English dials and inner cases from about 1640 to 1680. The watch 
by Jeremie Gregory (Fig. 208) is an instance of this work. Many 
French watches and clocks of an earlier date were so treated. 

In the Nelthropp collection is a watch by Thomas Windmills, 
the cases of which are engraved in an exceptional stjde, corresponding 
to the Italian niello work, where the effect of light and shade is 
produced by rubbing in a preparation of lead and sulphur. On the 
outer case is a view representing the yard of an inn with the sign 
of a pitcher. In the yard is being played the game of Paille Maille, 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


popular in the time of Charles II., and from which the thoroughfare 
of Pall Mall takes its name. Under the title of Croquet a pastime 
bearing some resemblance to it was introduced in recent years. 

The watch shown in Fig. 354 has an outer case of steel, damascened, 
and Fig. 309 represents a steel out-case of a watch by " Flower, 
London," decorated with engraving ; such cases are, however, quite 
exceptional. The dial of this watch is also of steel, blued and having 
gilt figures. A watch by Vulliamy, having a steel pendant and steel 
out-case pierced, is shown in Fig. 310. The monogram (C. A. R., 

Fig. 309.— Watch by " Flower. 
London," with Out-case of Steel. 

Fig. 310. — Watch by VulHamy. 
with Steel Pendant and Steel 
Ont-case pierced. 

Charles Albert Rex) refers to the King of Sardinia, for whom the 
watch is said to have been made. He was father of Victor Emmanuel, 
first King of United Italy. 

Occasionally, during the latter part of the seventeenth century and 
early in the eighteenth century, out^ cases were made of gold fihgree 
work. An example is shown in Fig. 312. 

As a curiosity may be mentioned an outer case of carnehan wliich 
is to be seen in the British Museum. It belongs to a watch made 
by Stringer for James II., and by him given to his daughter, 
Catherine, Countess of Anglesey and Duchess of Buckingham, 
about 1687. In the Hawkins collection was a magnificently clothed 

2o6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

repeater by John Ferron, London, dating from about 1710. The 
watch now belongs to Mr. James W. Usher, of Lincoln. It has a 

Fig. 311.— Out-case of Fish Skin 
piqui with Gold Pins, about 1690. 

Fig. 312. — Gold Filigree Out-case. 

pierced and engraved inner case of gold ; the second case, also of 

gold, is chased with flowers and arabesques, inlaid with plaques of 

moss agate, and set with numerous brilliants and coloured stones. 

A view of this is given in Fig. 313. 

There is also a shark-skin outer 

case. Fig. 314 shows a watch by 

Cabrier which is furnished with 

an outer case of gold, carneHan, 

and mother-of pearl, and Fig. 315 

another, by the same maker, with 

an out-case of gold, studded with 

large garnets. Mr. George Carr 

Glyn, at the Guelph Exhibition, 

showed a watch by Jas. Hubert, 

which had an agate case studded 

with diamonds. 

In Fig. 320 appears a water 
scene and landscape very finely 
carved in ivory and appHed under 
a glass to the back of a watch 
case, which is coated with royal 
blue enamel. The carving is enclosed in an oval frame of pearls 
outside of which is a floral design also executed in pearls. Around 
the edge of the case at both back and front is a leaf border 

Fig. 313. — Magnificently clothed 
Repeater bv John Ferron, London, 
about 1710. 

Pocket Watches, Etc, 


enamelled green, and within it a ring composed of pearls and garnets 
alternately. This watch dates from about 1790, and though the 
case is Swiss, the movement bears the signature " Jaquet Droz, 
London." The mechanism is marked by one or two interesting 
features. The mainspring is wound by pushing in and withdrawing 
a shaft passing through the pendant, a device known as " pumping 
keyless," of which this is an early example. Jaquet Droz was a 
well-known Swiss mechanician, and he may possibly have at one 
time resided in London. The cap, balance-cock, and other pieces are 
quite in the English style. The dial is furnished with a centre 

Fig. 314.— Watch by Cabrier, with 
Outer Case of CarneHan and 
Mother-of-Pearl set in Gold. 

Fig. 315. — Watch by Cabrier about 
1750. Out-case repousse and 
studded with large Garnets. 

seconds hand, which is placed between the hour and minute 
indicators. At this period such an adjunct was not at all common. 
Outer cases of horn and of tortoise-shell, either plain or pique, 
were not uncommon, and the semi-transparency of these materials 
was sometimes utiHsed for a superior kind of decoration. A thin 
disc of tortoise-shell having been moulded to the metal foundation, 
a landscape or other design was either etched or painted on the 
under side and a row of pins inserted around the edge of the 
tortoise-shell to secure it to the metal. The picture could be clearly 
seen through the tortoise-shell and appeared to be covered with a 
kind of glaze. Strong and inexpensive outer cases ol metal, covered 
with some kind of skin, were also made. Among these coverings 

2o8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

shagreen was perhaps the most popular. The true shagreen is a 
remarkably tough kind of leather, made chiefly at Astrachan from 

Fig. 316. — Out-case of Watch by 
Tompion, about 1695. Tortoise- 
shell with Silver inlaid as shown. 

Fig. 317.- — Tortoise-shell Out-case, 
decorated with Silver in the 
Chinese stjde ; about 1730. 

Fig. 318. — Leather-covered Out- 
case studded with Silver Pins. 

Fig. 319. — Leather, pique with. Gold Pins, 
back of Watch by I. Mornand. Paris. 

the strong skin that covers the crupper of the ass or horse. In its 
preparation a pecuhar roughness is produced by treading into the 
skin hard round seeds, which are shaken out when the skin has been 

Pocket Watches. Etc. 


dried ; it is then stained green with copper fihngs and sal-ammoniac, 
and the grains or warts are then rubbed down to a level with the 
rest of the surface, which thus presents the appearance of white dots 
on a green ground. 

The skin of the shark and of various other fishes, when properly 
prepared, formed an excellent covering, being thin and durable. 
This, if dyed green, was also known as shagreen. It was left with 
a slightly matted face, whereas the true shagreen bore a high polish. 

The pique surface on outer cases of leather or shagreen obtained 

by pins, usually of silver, passing 

O through the covering and the 

inner metal case, had a good 
effect and afforded considerable 
scope for the skill of the pro- 
ducer, see Figs. 311, 318, 319. 
Besides an ornamental border 
there was usually a central 
design which in some instances 
embodied the crest or initials 
of the owner. These outer cases 
had of course to be removed 
when the watches were wound, 
and many of them left in coaches 
and other places, were advertised 
for in the London Gazette during 
the latter part of the seventeenth 
and beginning of the eighteenth 
centuries. Where considerable 
cost had been lavished on the 
decoration of the removable case, 
covering the box or watch case proper, a third case would be pro\'ided 
to protect the second one. 

In some instances two second cases would be fitted to the " box," 
or inner case. A leather or tortoise-shell one for everyday use, and 
a more elaborate and costly one to be worn on gala days or other 
special occasions, when the watch, hanging from a chatelaine, could 
be displayed on the person. 

As both the box and the loose case of striking watches and 
repeaters were pierced to emit the sound, sometliing further was 
required to prevent the ingress of dirt or other obstructive matter, 
and a thin metal cap to cover the movement was invented almost 

Fig. 320.— Watch by Jaquct Droz. 

210 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 321. — Tortoise-shell with Silver Fig. 322. — Tortoise-shell with Silver 
Overla3^ Overlay. 

Fig. 323.— Clock- Watcii by Abraham Fig. 324.— Pierced Case of Clock- 
Beckner, Pope's Head Alley, with Watch. " Louis Arthaud a 

finely pierced Inner Case, about 1670. Lyon," 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


contemporaneously with repeating watches. These caps were some- 
times of silver, but more generally of brass ; they performed their 
office of keeping dust and dirt from the movement very efficiently, 
and have remained a feature of the EngHsh full plate watch to this 

" Bull's eye," also known as " Ram's eye," cases, introduced about 
1780, were the last variety of pair cased watches ; they derived 
their titles from the form of the bezel of the outer metal case, which 
from the groove to the outer edge followed the curve of the glass. 

In many of the later " Bull's 
eyes " the usual round form of 
pendant was abandoned in favour 
of a broad fiattened-oval shape 
which was much stronger. A 
good example on a case decorated 
with Prince of Wales' plumes, 
etc., in gold of various colours, is 
given in Fig 325, which represents 
a watch made by James M'Cabe and 
bearing the hall mark of 1811. 

After the introduction of pair 
cases it gradually became the 
custom to insert in the outer case 
a thin pad consisting ol a circular 
piece of velvet, muslin, or other 
material, adorned with fancy 
needlework, a favourite form being 
a piece of white cam.bric having 
the initials of the owner as well as 
a fancy border worked in gold thread, or hair ; in the latter case hair 
from the head of the fair artist would presumably be used for the 
purpose. The following hues were very neatly executed in needlework 
on a silk pad in a watch dating from 1780 : — 

" Take this token which I give thee, 
It is one from friendship's shrine, 
Place it where thou'lt think upon me, 
"\^^en it meets those eyes of thine — 
Forget me not." 

" Watch papers " formed an alternative pad. Some of these were 
cut to geometrical designs, more or*less intricate, and covering the 
whole surface or leaving the central space either circular or oval on 

Fig. 325.— Back of W^atch by Jas. 
M'Cabe, decorated with Gold of 
various tints. 

212 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

which a miniature or sketch 
could be painted. Papers of 
tliis kind had a backing of 
bright coloured silk or satin 
to give the best effect to the 
perforations. Some time ago 
I saw in a watch bj^ Isaac 
Alexander, Nottingham, a 
paper, in the centre of which 
was an excellent coloured 
portrait of Charles Stuart and 
the following rhyme arranged 
in a circle around it : — 

" O'er this loved form 
Let every British breast, 
With conscious joy- 
Its gratitude attest. 
And hail ye Prince 
In whom ye nation's blest." 

In very tiny characters Avas 
the signature " J. June,'' and 
the date 1745. The paper had 
probably been transferred, for 
the watch dated from about 
1760. Papers having printed 
thereon a hkeness of the Duke 
of Cumberland were issued in 
1746, and in 1821 a superior 
pad of white and pink satin, 
bearing a portrait of Queen 
CaroHne, was produced and 
speedily became popular 
among admirers of the Royal 
Lady. Two examples from 
the Ponsonby collection giving 
really fair portraits of Queen 
Charlotte and Queen Victoria, 
the latter when she ascended 
the throne, are illustrated in 
Figs. 326 and 328. 

Papers printed on the 

Fig. 326.— Watch Paper. 

Fig. 327. — Watch Paper, 

Fig. 328. — Watch Paper. 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 213 

frozen Thames during the prolonged frost of 1814 were a cheap 
novelty which commanded a ready sale. Most commonly watch papers 
contained an advertisement of the watchmaker, and sometimes an 
equation of time table for comparing the watch with the sun-dial, as in 
Fig. 327 ; and occasionally admonitory or sentimental verses in 

" Memento Mori " formed the text of many rhymes ; the following, 
often met with, may be taken as examples : — 

" Onward perpetually moving, 
These faithful hands are ever proving 
How quick the hours fly by ; 
This monitory, pulse-hke beating. 
Is oftentimes, methinks, repeating, 
' Swift ! swift ! the moments fly.' 
Reader, be ready, for perhaps before 
These hands have made one revolution more 
Life's spring is snapped — you die ! " 

The next example was printed around the edge of a paper by 
John Herron, Cowpen Quay, Blyth : — 

" Behold, O mortal man. 
How swift thy moments fly, 
Thy Life is but a Span, 
Prepare, Prepare to die." 

Another from the Ponsonby collection is as follows :— 

" Time is, thou hast, employ the portion small. 
Time past is gone, thou can'st not it recall. 
Time future is not, and may never be. 
Time present is the only time for thee." 

Another admonitorj^ verse, equally popular, runs : — 

" Time is — the present moment well employ ; 
Time was — ^is past — ^thou canst not it enjoy ; 
Time future — is not and may never be ; 
Time present — ^is the only time for thee." 

The next I take from a watch paper by T. Humphreys, Barnard 
Castle : — 

" Could but our tempers move like this machine. 
Not urged by passion nor delayed by spleen. 
And true to Nature's regulating power. 
By virtuous acts distinguish every hour. 
Then health and joy would follow as they ought 
The laws of motion and the laws of thought. 
Sweet health to pass the present moments o'er. 
And everlasting joy when time shall be no more." 

These lines appear on papers of many other makers. They are 
from the pen of " Dr." J. Byrom, and appeared in the Scots Magazine 
for October. 1747. 

214 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

An apposite but more uncommon inscription for timekeepers is 
Tempus metitur omnia sed metior ipsum ; " Time measures all things, 
but I measure it." 

Loose outer cases are troublesome, and, after being endured for 
two centuries or so, they gave place gradually to the more compact 
modern styles, with ornament of a (iifferent character. 

A series of wavy curves cut into the material and known as 
" Engine turning," wliich is said to have been introduced as a decora- 
tion for watch cases about 1770 by Francis Guerint of Geneva, was 
long in fashion. It has a good effect, does not readily show scratches, 
and will doubtless again return to favour. The earliest specimens 

Fig. 329. — Early Engine- turned Case. Fig. 330. — Chased decoration, about 1760. 

were cut very deep into the metal, leaving coarse " barleys," as the 
projections are called, and could only be applied to a considerable 
thickness of metal. Finer divisions with shallower cutting, apphcable 
to lighter cases, speedily became the rule, and an early specimen of 
coarse-cut engine turning is now rarely to be met with. The example 
shown in Fig. 329 is on a repeating watch by Terroux I'Aine, Geneva, 
and is very little later than 1770. 

Shortly after the middle of the eighteenth century a very beautiful 
art was utilised to enhance the effect of chasing and engraving as 
applied to watch cases and dials. A subject having been selected and 
drawn upon the gold or other metal ground, pieces of gold of various 
colours were formed to represent the parts in rehef and soldered to the 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


ground. A good artist was then able to produce a fine effect with the 
chasing tool and graver. As a specimen is shown in Fig. 330 a watch 
signed Gudin a Paris, dating from about 1760. Here the chased 
decoration with gold of green, yellow, copper, and silvery tints is very 
effective, but its whole charm cannot, of course, be justly conveyed in 
a black and wliite engraving. Lepine seems to have been fond of this 
coloured gold decoration, for it appears on the cases of many of his 
watches. Whatever the number of tints employed, this style of 
decoration is generally spoken of as a quaire couleurs. 

Dials. — With few exceptions the earHest clocks and watches had 

Fig. 331.— Watch bv Nathaniel Barrow. 

Fig. 332. — Watch by V, Costontin. 

the hours marked with Roman numerals placed radially with the 
bottom of each numeral towards the centre of the dial, so that the 
v., VI., and VII. appear to be upside down. Another pecuHarity is 
that the fourth hour was denoted in a very primitive way, thus : IIIL, 
instead of by IV., which was then the more orthodox manner. And 
it is somewhat remarkable that these features have been continued to 
the present day almost unnoticed, as may be proved by asking anyone 
to sketch the figuring of his watch without looking at the timekeeper, 
for in most instances such a sketch would be incorrect. But the fact 
is, we do not read the figures when looking at a watch or clock, but 
judge the time from the position of the hands. Lord Grimthorpe was 

2i6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

instrumental in having the hours of the turret clock at the dining-hall 
of Lincoln's Inn marked each by a short thick radial stroke instead of 
figures, and it is rarely that passers-by notice anything unusual, except 
that the dial seems particularly clear. 

Some of the very earHest portable timekeepers had incised figures 
cut in the dial plate, but more often the numerals Vv^ere engraved on 
a separate belt, which was generally of silver, the inner ground of the 
dial being"of brass gilt (or gold) and matted or engraved. In addition 
to the numerals, many early watches were furnished with a knob at 
each hour, for the convenience of estimating the position of the hand 

Fig. 333. — Watch by Henry Harper. 

Fig. 334. 

-Watch by Richard Jarrett 
about 1665. 

by feeUng. The first noticeable departure from this construction took 
place about 1600, when watch dials wholly of one metal were introduced 
with landscapes and other views engraved on the centre. These dials 
were usually of silver and recessed into what is now called a " brass 
edge," that is, a ring independent of the plate of the movement, and to 
which the dial was attached. The dial was rather smaller than the 
movement, and a narrow margin of the brass edge, which appeared 
outside the dial, was engraved, the contrast of the silver and brass 
having a good effect. A fine example by Nathaniel Barrow, owned by 
Mr. Franklin Dennison is shown in Fig. 331. The watch by Edward 
East, said][to have been given by Charles I. to Mr. Herbert, and 
engraved on p. 265, had a very similar dial. Instead of a landscape 

Pocket Watches. Etc. 


a floral design sometimes occupied the centre, wliile occasionally it was 
engraved to a geometrical pattern and filled in with coloured enamel 
or wax, as in a watch by Vincent Costontin, Dieppe, which is shown 
in Fig. 332. 

Illustrations have already been given of the painted dials on the 
costly, enamelled watches in vogue during the seventeenth century 
The single hand of the earhest of these was usually of brass, and, 
except for watches with cases and dials painted in enamel, gold and 
silver dials with long figures in rehef came into general use in England 
shortly after the middle of the seventeenth century. On a watch by 

Fig. 335.— Daniel Le Count, about 1680. 

Fig. 336.— p. Dupin, about 1700. 

Henry Harper, shown in Fig. 333, the outer part of the dial is of 
metal, the centre being filled by an enamelled painting, which is, 
however, of a later date than the movement. A still more exceptional 
and somewhat grotesque treatment of the dial is shown in Fig. 334, 
representing a watch made about 1665, by Richard Jarrett, who was 
master ot the Clockmakers' Company in 1685. The centre of the dial 
is of brass matted, and the ring, on the inner edge of wliich are engraved 
quarter-hour spaces, of silver, finely matted, with polished plaques for 
the hour numerals. 

With the introduction of the minute hand, the minute circle and 

2i8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

figures to indicate each five minutes appeared outside tlie hour 
numerals. These additions, with the long hour numerals, allowed 
of but a very short hour indicator^ and this occupied a slightly 
recessed centre, as shown in Fig. 335, which represents a watch by 
Daniel Le Count, dating from about 1680. Shortly afterwards the 
hour numerals were shortened and the hour hand lifted out of the 
recess and lengthened, as -in the watch by P. Dupin, represented m 
Fig. 336. In this the outlines of the hour numerals are poHshed, 
and the bodies filled in with black wax, the small ornament between 
the numerals being polished 
and the minute figures en- 
graved on poHshed plaques. 
Except that the inner circle, 
marked with subdivisions of 
an hour, was discontinued, 
dials of this kind, with slight 
variations, remained in favour 
for many years. The central 
disc was a separate piece 
recessed into the brass edge, 
and was as a rule nicely 
chased and engraved. It 
usually bore two tablets for 
the name of the maker and 
the place of origin of the 
watch. An excellent example 
is the watch by Langley 
Bradley, shown in Fig. 478. 
Sometimes the lower label was 
omitted and a day-of-the-month aperture substituted therefor. Dials 
of this description had a very handsome appearance, and must have 
been costly, for cutting out the groundwork to leave the plaques for 
the minute figures, the outline for the hour numerals, and the orna- 
ment between the numerals in rehef involved considerable labour. 
In 1729, engravers petitioned the Clockmakers' Company to debar 
one Grihat from proceeding with a project he had for producing dial 
plates by stamping. Nevertheless, many later ones were embossed 
in this way. 

Painted enamel dials of the Huaud period had often an outer 
ring of white enamel for the reception of the numerals, and towards 
the end of the seventeenth century dials with a gold centre and 

Fig. 337.— Pink and White Enamel Dial 
on Tompion Watch, 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


outer ring of enamel were favoured by some French makers. Plain 
white enamel dials seem to have been introduced in France and 
Switzerland about 1690, but were not used in England for at least 
ten years afterwards. 

A pink and white enamel dial, with angels in the centre, on a 
watch by Tompion, from the Pierpont Morgan collection, and dating 
from about 1700, is shown in Fig. 337. 

Fig. 338.— Hands of the " beetle " pattern. Fig 339. — Pierced hands. 

Fig. 340. — Beautifully pierced 
gold hands. 

Fig. 341. — Dial with small and 
stumpy hour numerals, about 1750. 

Though Enghsh watches of the seventeenth century are occa- 
sionally to be met with^ having dials of white enamel, it will generally 
be found that they are subsequent apphcations, the original dials 
having probably been discarded owing to the superior legibihty of 
the white enamelled discs. 

So far as my observation goes, the earliest plain enamelled dials 
on English watches are those of a bluish tinge, the enamel of which 
is generally spoken of as Venetian. They date from about 1705, 
and have the nib for unlocking the movement projecting through a 

220 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

slit at the VI. numeral, as in some of the older and contemporary 
metal dials. The visible margin of the brass edge was usually 
either engraved or knurled, and the hands were of steel. An 
example, given in Fig. 338, has hands of the " beetle " pattern, a 
kind very popular then and onwards to the middle of the century. 
Dials with the minute band formed in a series of wavy curves were 
made here during the eighteenth century chiefly for the Dutch 
market. They usually had hands of gold or of brass, nicely pierced, 
as in Fig. 339. 
The bold minute figures which occupied so much room outside 

-French Watch, about 

P'iG. 343. — Hour numerals on 
Enamelled Plaque, about 1680. 

the hour circle were gradually discarded. On a watch by Cabrier, 
dating from about 1740, and shown in Fig. 340, there are small 
minute figures at the quarter-hours only, and a little later came into 
favour dials with small and stumpy hour numerals, as in Fig. 341, 
the minute figures being entirely omitted. The hands of the Cabrier 
watch are of gold. Owing to the character and arrangement of the 
hgures, the hour indicator, which is beautifully pierced, appears to 
be rather short. If it were a soHtary example one might suppose 
the hands or the dial to be not original, but I inchne to the behef 
that a certain proportionate length of hand was as a matter of course 
selected for a certain size of dial. The French and, 1 think, the 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Swiss, adhered longer to the large minute figures than did English 

Fig. 342 shows a French watch dating from about 1770, which is 
a good example of the period, with a hole for winding cut through 
the dial, a plan much favoured in France for fifty years or so from 
that date, but not so popular in England. Lepine, who reconstructed 
the movements of watches, was, I beheve, responsible for the 
systematic adoption of this feature, though winding at the dial was 
occasionally resorted to for watches having painted enamel cases 

Fig. 344. — Watch by I. Mornand, 
Paris, about 1690. 

Fig. 345. 

-Watch with Silver Dial, 
about 1700. 

a century before this time, and for the tliick French w^atches with 
porcelain enamel hour figures, in some of which the unsightly holes 
in the dial were avoided by planting the winding square at the centre. 
Many French and Swiss watches made towards the end of the 
seventeenth and at the beginning of the eighteenth centuries had 
the hour numerals on enamelled plaques, though they do not seem 
to have been favoured here. A dial of this sort is on the alarm 
watch shown in Fig. 343, made about 1680 by Dumont Freres, 
Besangon. The body of the dial is of brass gilt. Another specimen 
of about ten years later, by I. Mornand, Paris, is shown in Fig. 344. 

222 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Watches of this class were very thick, and had cases of brass gilt 
and engraved to a fine pattern. 

Watches made for the Dutch market were often fitted with silver 
dials having raised numerals filled with wax, and ornamental centres 
of various designs engraved and pierced. Occasionally a figure of 
Time was introduced, the Destroyer being represented with a flag 
in his hand, on which the name of the maker was engraved. A 
watch with a silver dial by John Van Ceulin, of the Hague, having 
the wavy minute circle already mentioned, and dating from about 
1700, is shown in Fig. 345. 

Dials of metal, with polished hour numerals of a different tint 
soldered on, introduced during the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, were for some time popular ; a specimen of this style, on 
a watch by James M'Cabe, is shown in Fig. 346. But though 
considerable skill has been expended in the enrichment of metal 
dials by chasing and engraving as well as by variations of colour, 
enamel has practically ousted all other materials, except for scientific 
purposes, where extreme accuracy of division is desired. 

In modern dials the hour numerals are too long, the position of 
the hands being more easily discerned with the stumpy figures used 
in the earliest timekeepers. The fact is, the dialmaker has been 
allowed to regard his work without relerence to the hands, and he 
has adopted a rule to make the " chapters " in length equal to two 
and a half minutes of the circle, because they are more obtrusive 
than the shorter ones previously used. The most effective hands 
v/ere those seen in clocks and watches of the eighteenth century. 
The chief fault of most varieties now used is that the spade or heart 
or other enlargement of the hour hand is too close to and overlaps 
the numerals. It should be of good size and nearer the root of the 
hand, the tip of which, though closely approaching, should in its 
sweep just clear the numerals. 

People who are used to reading a dial with but one indicator can 
estimate the time with astonishing closeness, and it is pretty certain 
the two hands did not meet with general favour for a long period. 
Although we are, from long practice, able instantly to note the 
minute and hour from the position of the two indicators, it is an 
acquirement. Children and other tyros seem to go through a slower 
process by separating the functions of the two and deciding upon 
the position of each singly. In fact, there can be no doubt that it is 
at first difficult to decipher the double indication together. Many 
devices were tried during the latter part of the seventeenth century 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


to give the accuracy of the separate minute circle without the 
confusion of two similar hands. Of these may be mentioned dials 
with revolving centres, having a finger to point to the hours. In 
another plan representations of the sun and moon were utiUsed 
for the purpose. Sometimes figures corresponding to the current 
hour were shown through an aperture in the dial, and warriors with 
swords as pointers are among the most familiar of other 

Fig. 347 represents a watch by Tompion, from the Schloss collec- 
tion. It is in an enamelled case, and dates from about 1705. Though 

Fig. 346.— Watch by Jas. M'Cabe. 

Fig. 347. — Curious Tompion Watch, 

the concentric minute hand was introduced certainly tliirty years 
before this date, the specimen here shown has only one hand ; but the 
chief pecuharity in connection with the dial is its division into six 
hours. Tliis may have been for use in Italy, where in some parts the 
day was divided into four periods of six hours each. Or the idea may 
have been to give with one hand a longer space than usual for more 
nearly estimating small fractions of an hour. Quare adopted the 
same method, as will be seen from the following advertisement, 
quoted from the London Gazette for March 25-29, 1686 : " Lost, on 
2nd inst., a Silver Pendulum Watch, the name Daniel Quare, 
London ; it had but six hours upon the dial-plate, with six small 

224 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

cipher figures within every hour, the hand going round every six 

hours, which shows also the minutes between every hour. Whoever 

gives notice of it to Daniel 

Quare, at the King's Arms, 

in Exchange Alle}^ London, 

shall have a guinea reward." 
Early Minute-hand 

Watches. — Fig. 348 shows 

the front and Fig. 349 the 

movement of a watch dating 

from about 1665, which is a 

particularly interesting speci- 
men, and affords evidence that 

the maker of it was far in 

advance of his time. It shows 

hours, minutes, and seconds 

and has a long train contain- 
ing the same number of 

wheels and pinions as modern 

watches, the minute hand 

being attached to the centre 

pinion. The dial is of silver, 

and the middle portion of it, driven by a pinion on the great wheel 

arbor, revolves once in twelve hours, a figure of Time engraved thereon 

pointing to the hour ; the seconds dial is a silver plate on the back 

of the movement, the seconds hand 
being carried by the contrate wheel, 
which rotates once in a minute. On 
the plate is engraved " John Fitter, 
Battersea." There is- no balance- 
spring. It lias a nicely-pierced and 
engraved silver balance-cock and 
arched top harp pillars. The potence 
is peculiar, being carried by a pivot 
into the top plate ; the side view of 
it is very wide, nicely pierced, and 
engraved to a floral design. On the 
back of the inner case is engraved 
a kind of calendar remembrance, 

shown overleaf. It appears to be a key for finding at a glance the 

days of the month upon which any particular day of the week will 

Fig. 348.— Watch by John Fitter, 
Battersea. about 1665. 

Fig. 349. — Watch with no 
balance spring. 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Mar 1 Nov 






A ugns 






May 1 Jan 

































fall. The outer case, covered 
with leather pique with silver 
pias, is snapped together without 
a bolt — a most unusual construc- 
tion . This watch was formerly in 
the Roskell collection. 

Mr. Charles Shapland has an 
early minute-hand watch by 
Robert Whitwell, which is shown 
in Fig. 350. It indicates also the 
day of themonthby arotatingring. 
On a watch by David Lestourgeon, shown in Fig. 351, there are 

two narrow rotating rings between the centre of the dial and the hour 

numerals ; one of these 

carries a very short and 

the other a longer pointer, 

the formei for indicating 

the hour and the latter 

for the minutes. 

The handsome key for 

this watch is shown in 

Fig. 352. For winding 

Fig. 350. — Early Minute-hand 

Fig. 351.— Watch by David 

Fig. 352. — Handsome 

226 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

or setting the hands it is used as a crank ; the squared extremity 
at the bottom is for altering the regulator, which may be done without 
opening the inner case, an aperture being made in the back of the case 
for the purpose. 

Perhaps the very best method of indicating the hour and minutes 
with one hand only is that shown in Fig. 353, which represents a 
watch by Peter Garon, illustrated by favour of the late Mr. Henry Levy 
to whom it belonged. The central disc on which the hour numerals 
are engraved rotates, but its speed of progression is one-twelfth less 

han that of the minute hand. 
Starting together on the com- 
pletion of any particular hour, 
the minute hand would stand 
exactly over the numeral cor- 
responding to that hour : by 
the time half an hour had 
elapsed the minute hand would 
stand midway between the 
aforesaid numeral and the next 
succeeding one, and at any 
other point the relation of the 
hand to the hour numerals 
would correspond to the frac- 
tion of the hour, while the tip 
of the hand would indicate the 
minutes. In the sketch the in- 
dication is twenty-five minutes 
past seven. Both parts of the 
dial are of silver, the annular space between the hours and minutes 
being engraved as shown. Though but httle is known of Peter Garon, 
he was elected to the freedom of the Clockmakers' Company in 1694, 
and appears to have been a maker of repute at the end of the seven- 
teenth century and until 1706, when his bankruptcy was noted in the 
London Gazette. 

Watches with Seconds Hands.— The watch by Fitter, dating from 
about 1665, which, as shown in Fig. 249, has a seconds dial on 
the back of the movement, seems to have been quite an exceptional 
appUcation of a seconds indicator for watches. Sir John Floyer, a 
physician, in 1707 speaks of the " Physicians' Pulse Watch," which 
he had invented to take the place of the " common sea minute glass " 
with w^hich and " common watches " he had been in the habit of trying 

Fig. 353. — Watch bv Peter Garon, 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


pulses. The pulse watch which he caused to be made ran, he said, 
for sixty seconds. Harrison's timekeeper with a centre seconds hand 
was tested in 1760, and seconds hands were not usually applied to 
watches till after that date. 

Sun and Moon Indicators. — Two examples of a pecuHar method 
of indicating the hour which obtained some popularity at the end 
of the seventeenth century are shown in Figs. 354 and 355. A semi- 
circular piece is removed from the upper part of the dial, and through 
it is seen one half of a disc which rotates underneath once in twenty- 
four hours. On one half of the disc is engraved the sun, which points 

Fig. 354. Fig. 355. 

Two examples of a peculiar method of indicating the hour. 

to the hour from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m., and on the other the moon, wliich 
performs the same office from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. The minutes are indi- 
cated in the usual way by a hand travehing round the dial in an hour. 

Fig. 354 is an early specimen. On the lower portion of the dial 
is an engraving, possibly representing Venus in a car drawn by Cupid. 
The movement is furnished with tuhp pillars, and on the plate is 
engraved " Jo Holoway, Newbery." The balance-cock is of floral 
design with a narrow waist and foot of irregular outhne following the 
curve of the plate. The outer case is of steel damascened with silver. 

Fig. 355, of a slightly later date, is inscribed " Harns vSmit, 

228 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Changing Hour Figures— In this ingenious arrangement, 
which was probably designed by Cratzer, and applied by Fromanteel, 
Knibb, and others to clocks, hands are dispensed with altogether 
and numerals corresponding to the last completed hour caused to 
appear through a hole in the dial, a principle favoured in recent 
years by several inventors, who have devised various means of 
accomplishing this end. As an example of the contrivance is shown 
a watch by M. Logg, of Vienna, which was in the Marfels collection. 
It has an upper silver dial on which is chased a group, represent- 
ing Saturn dragging the car of Helios. As may be seen by the 
illustration. Fig. 356, there is above the group on the silver dia] a 
semicircular slit, through which is visible a second dial lying under 


356. — Watch with changing 
hour figures. 

Fig. 357. 

it. This second dial is gilt, for contrast. Above the opening of 
the silver dial are engraved the minutes from 1 to 60, and underneath 
it the quarter-hours I. to IV. The lower dial is movable, revolving 
once in two hours, and has two circular openings exactly opposite each 
other, through which the hour chapters appear upon a silver disc. 
A pin is fixed upon and near the edge of the front plate, over which 
the dial revolves. The dial passes freely by it, while the projecting 
teeth of the two numeral wheels in turn meet the pin, and are each 
time advanced one hour (see Fig. 357). Suppose, in the opening under 
which is located the disc with the even figures, we see the number II., 
as in Fig. 356. Tliis number has entered from the left into the semi- 
circular sht of the silver dial, through which it slowly passes in one 

Pocket Watches. Etc. 


hour, while the other numeral wheel (which is during the same time 

under the Saturn group 
and therefore invisible), 
with the odd figures, passes 
by the stationary pin, and 
is by it turned one tooth, 
or from I. to III. When 
the number II. has passed 
its course through the 
semicircle it disappears to 
the right under the Saturn 
group, and the number III. 
enters from the left into 
the semicircle, in order to 
pass through its course in 
the same manner. The 
disc with the hour II. 
meanwhile keeps on its 
way invisibly, passes the 
stationary pin, and is also 
turned one tooth further 
on, so that at the next 
hour it enters again with 
the number IV. from the 
left into the semicircle of 
the silver dial. This pro- 
cedure is repeated with all 
the succeeding numerals. 
The number of minutes 
which have elapsed since 
the last completed hour is 
indicated by the position of 
the revolving hour chapter 
with relation to the figures 
which are engraved on the 
fixed dial plate. 

Fig. 358 shows another 
watch of this character, 
taken from the catalogue 
of the Geneva Exhibition, 

1896. It is by Paul LuUin, and most probably French. In the lower 

Fig. 358. — Watch with changing hour figures. 

Fig. 359. — Watch with changing hour figures. 

230 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

portion of the fixed dial is an enamelled medallion, with portrait, said 
to be that of Louis XIV. when a youth. 

The late Mr. Henry Levy had one of these curiosities by Fromanteel, 
which may be either English or Dutch. On the lower part of the fixed 
dial is a late-seventeenth-century design, with birds, &c. A peculi- 
arity of this watch is that the fusee may be turned either way to 
wind it, a device advertised by Thomas Moore, of Ipswich, in 1729, 
and illustrated by Thiout in 1741. 

In Fig. 359 the arrangement is varied, and the whole of the 

Fig. 360. Fig. 361. 

Watch of peculiar construction, about 1760. 

actuating mechanism is visible. On a carriage which revolves once 
in three hours are three crosses, each carrying four hour numerals 
on enamelled discs. These in turn pass over an enamelled arc on 
which every minute is marked. 

"Fencing Soldiers'' Watch.— Figs. 360 and 361 show a watch 
of very pecuhar construction, formerly in the Marfels collection, 
dating probably from about 1760. The metal dial plate has a blue 
enameUed ground, with thin white fines, and upon it are fastened 
two quadrants. The hours from I. to XII are marked upon one, 
and upon the other the minutes from 1 to 60. It also bears two 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 231 

chased figures of soldiers in a fencing attitude, one on each side of 
the quadrants. By pressing upon the pendant, the soldiers draw 
their swords, the one to the left pointing with his sword to the hour, 
while the one to the right points to the minute upon their respec- 
tive quadrants. The construction is shown in Fig. 361, which is the 
movement without the dial. Upon the arbor of the wheel, which is 
usually in the centre, is the cannon a, upon which is fixed the snail 
used for determining the minutes. The cannon drives in the 
ordinary manner a minute wheel, the pinion of which depths in a 
wheel located to one side, which it rotates once in twelve hours. 
Upon the latter wheel is fastened a snail for determining the hour. 
When the pendant is pressed down, the two levers h h are first 
unlocked, which unlocking actuates the four racks c c and e e, each 
two of which depth together into pinions //. Upon the arbors of 
the two pinions / / are placed the arms of the soldiers. By the 
unlocking of the levers b h, the racks e e (situated above the centre 
of the plate), freed from the arm d d, are then moved upward by 
springs operating on them. The pinions //, into which the racks 
depth, turn an appropriate distance, and with them the arms of the 
soldiers, which are located on the pinions, and thereby carry with 
them downward at the same time the lower stationary racks c c. 
These racks c c are provided with projections, which in their down- 
ward motion finally strike upon the snails, the one to the left lying 
upon the hour rack, and tliat to the right ' upon the minute rack. 
When the pressure upon the pendant is removed, all the parts of 
the motion work, and with them also the arms of the soldiers are 
by a spring brought back into a position of rest. The cannon pinion 
a, fitting with gentle friction upon the centre wheel arbor, is pro- 
vided with a setting square passing through the dial, for the purpose 
of setting the motion work mechanism. 

Pendulum Watches. — A curious fancy which obtained some 
popularity at the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the 
eighteenth centuries is shown in Fig. 362. The balance was placed 
under the dial and its arms weighted. A semicircular sht in the 
dial allowed one weight of the balance to be seen, and this, as it 
vibrated somewhat, resembled a pendulum in motion. It was, how- 
ever, an inconvenient arrangement, by reason of the difficulty of 
getting at the balance for regulation, and it appears to have been 
abandoned in favour of a pendulum balance at the back of the watch. 
The watch here illustrated is by " Mitzell, London," and dates from 
about 1700. 

232 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Musical Watches of large size, with moving figures, were a 
favourite conceit among Frencli and Swiss makers during tlie latter 
part of the eighteenth cen* 
tury. The appended example 
(Fig. 363) is from the col- 
lection of Mr. James W. 
Usher. It is mounted on 
both sides with fine pearls 
and chased gold. The back 
is enamelled with a land- 
scape in colours ; in the 
foreground is a paviHon 
(supposed to represent a 
place at Versailles) and 

Fig. 362. — Pendulum Watch. 

figures, in gold of dif- 
ferent colours ; inside 
are small figures (couples 
of lady and gentleman) 
in the dress of the Louis 
Seize period, which 
dance when the move- 
ment is wound. The 
lady seated outside the 
pavilion jjlays the harp, 
and the gentleman 
seated opposite beats 
time with his baton. 
Inside the pavilion are 
walls of burnished steel, 
which reflect and multi- 
ply the dancing figures in a remarkable manner. The escapement is 
a cylinder one with brass scape wheel. The going part is driven 
direct from the barrel. The musical box and figures are driven by 

Fig. 363. — Musical Watch with Moving Figures. 

Pocket Watches. Etc. 


one mainspring, tlie train passing beneath the pavilion and revolving 
the centre of the floor upon which the dancers stand ; smaller wheels 

being employed to revolve 
each pair of dancers three 
times for ever}^ one dance 
round the room ; the 
conductor and harpist being 
worked by pins and levers 
between the plate and the 

A musical watch with 
moving figures of a man 
playing a violoncello and 
a lady a dulcimer is shown 
in Fig. 364. 

Fig. 365 is a repeating 
watch of French make. 

Fig. 364. 

-Musical Watch with Moving 

The hours and quarters are 
really struck on gongs curled 
around the inside of the 
case in the usual way, but, 
when the pendant is pushed 
in to repeat, the hammer- 
men in the recess at the 
upper part of the dial 
appear to strike on the 
bells showm there, and the 
woman below works a 
spinning wheel. 

Figs. 366 and 367, from 
the collection of Mr. H. J. 

Heinz, illustrate a large silver-gilt double case watch, both cases 
pierced and engraved. In the outer case a large enamel " Mother 

Fig. 365. — Repeating Watch of French make. 

234 ^W Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

watching a sleeping 
child " is set. The 

watch is provided with 
hour, minute, second, 
and spht-second-hand. 
Two tunes may be 
played upon a con- 
cealed musical attach- 
ment. The watch was 
made by 

of Fleet 

1769, and 
from the 


Street, in 

was looted 

Chinese Imperial Palace 

in Pekin during the 

" Boxer Rebelhon." 

In Fig. 368 the 
arrangement is a little 
different. Here the 

Fig. 366. 

Large Watch with 
Musical Attach- 
ment, by Timothy 

upper rectangular space 
is vacant till the pen- 
dant is pushed in for 
repeating. Then the 
figure on the right 
bearing a huge gong 
advances, and the one 
on the left comes for- 
ward and appears to 
strike the hour on the 
gong. The quarters are 
repeated by the figures 
below, and during that 
operation the figures 
above slowly retire out 
of sight. 

Fig. 367. — Back of Watch, by Timothy Winiam.son. 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


The projected invasion of England by Napoleon Buonaparte is 
treated as an accomplished fact on the dial of a watch from the 
Schloss collection which is 
shown in Fig, 369. A large 
moving ship in full sail just 
appearing above the horizon 
occupies the centre, in the 
foreground many vessels are 
portrayed, and armed men 
are marching up the shore 
undeterred by the liring of 
some apparently very primi- 
tive cannon. Above is the 
inscription, " Descente en 
Angle terre." 

Another arrangement of 
moving figures is shown 

Fig. 369. — Watch inscribed " Descente en 

of a day well repay examination. 

Fig. 368.— Repeating Watch 
with Moving Figures. 

in Fig. 370. Here the 
sails of the windmill are 
constantly moWng while 
the w^atch is going, and 
seen through the round 
aperture is part of a 
rotating disc wdth figures 
of horses and men painted 

Many of the metal 
watch dials of the seven- 
teenth century which were 
devoted to other purposes 
than the indication of the 
hour or other subdivisions 
Here are some representa- 

tive specimens from the Schloss collection. Fig, 371 represents 

236 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

a silver single-cased watch which doubtless dates from about 
1640. On the back of the case is the characteristic circular 
shutter over the winding hole and the owner's name engraved thus, 
" Richard Bailie, at the Abbay." The maker's name is Henry 
Arlaud. There is a spring to control the balance, but there are 
unmistakable indications that this was an addition made subsequent 
to the manufacture of the watch. The dial is prettily arranged 
gives a calendar, the age and phases of the moon, the signs of the 
zodiac, etc. A similar watch by "Jean Rousseau " is to be seen at 
the South Kensington Museum. 

Fig. 370. — Watch with Moving 

Fig. 371.— Watch by Henry Arlaud, 
about 1640. 

A double-cased watch by N. Bouquet, of which a front view is 
given in Fig. 372, is of about half a century later date ; though 
attractive and of broadly the same character as the preceding example, 
the execution is comparatively coarse. 

In pendulum watches, such as the one shown in Fig. 373, where the 
balance was planted immediately under the dial, there was often at the 
back of the watch, in place of the balance, an enamelled plaque, 
occasionally exhibiting painting of artistic merit. This fashion seems 
to have been introduced by some of the Dutch makers, but it was 
decidedly an inconvenient arrangement, which necessitated an 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Fig. 372. — Double-cased Watch 
by N. Bouquet. 

Fig. 374. — Large Astronomical Watch, 
about 1G90. 

Fig. 373.— Pendulum Watch. 

inferior method of 
regulation from the 
front, besides crowding 
the hour division into 
a smaller circle. The 
name on this watch is 

x\t first sight the 
large astronomical 

watch, dating from 
about 1690, which is 
represented in Fig. 374, 
appears to be of Englisli 
make, for it bears the 
name-plate of " Willing, 
London ; " but on re- 
moving the name-plate 
the signature " Ferdi- 
nandus Zehng, Ham- 
burg," is revealed. The 
dial is really excellent ; 
the engraving shows it 

238 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

was prepared for use in Germany. Such a watch at that period 
would doubtless be made to order for presentation to some person 
of distinction. 

One of the finest calendar watches of late-eighteenth-century pro- 
duction it has been my privilege to examine is shown in Figs, 375, 
376, and 377. It is by Samuel Ruel, Rotterdam, and stamps him 
as a horologist of the first rank. Besides the age and phases of the 
moon and the title of the month, it shows through apertures over the 
XL and I. the day of the month according to the old style and the 
new style. The cases bear the EngHsh hall-mark of 1788 with the 

Fig. 375. Fig. 377. 

Fine Calendar Watch of late-eighteenth-century production. 

duty head ; on tlie back of the inner case is " A.S." arranged as a 
monogram. The outer case has a diamond thumb piece. There is a 
rim cap (as seen in Fig. 376) of silver, ha\dng perforations covered 
with horn. The cock, as seen in Fig. 377, is a fine piece of chased 

Pearl Ornament. — There appears to have been quite a rage for 
pearl ornament at the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
particularly among French and Swiss watchmakers. Mr. Willard 
H. Wheeler has a heart-shaped repeating and musical watch, 
ascribed to Froissard, of Geneva, with covers over the front and 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


back. The latter, 

shown in Fig. 378, con- 
ceals a landscape with 
moving figures of a 
windmill, and a boy 
and girl playing on 
musical instruments. 

Altogether there are 
1,700 pearls used in 
the decoration. The 
Napoleon watch on 
p. 197 and the musi- 
cal watch on p. 232 
afford other examples 
of pearl enrichment. 
In the Marfels collec- 
tion was a watch by 
i\lbery, London, with 
a very pretty design in 
pearls over the back. 

A souvenir watch, 
such as is shown in 
Fig. 379, was deserving 

Fig. 379. — Souvenir Watch, 
about 1780. 

Fig. 378. — Musical Watch with Pearl Decoration. 

of more popularity than it seemed to 
have attained. The surface enclosed by 
the large circle was reserved for inscrip- 
tions, monograms, or other personal refer- 
ences. Underneath is the mechanism 
of the watch, whose motion is conveyed 
to the hands by means of a small rod 
Concealed in the connecting neck. On 
the movement is engraved, " Inventio 
J0hannis Holtmann in Wienns No. 25." 
It dates from about 1780. 

Large Travelling Watches introduced 
at the end of the seventeenth centurj^ 
continued in favour till the advent 
of railways. They were tliick and 
heavy, with dials ranging from 3 in. 
to nearly 7 in. in diameter, and seem to 
have been manufactured more in France 

Figs. 380 and 381. — Large Travelling Watch, about 1680. 

240 — 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Fig. 382. — Smaller example. 

Fig. 383. — Side view of Inner Case. 

242 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

and Germany than in England. As a rule they struck the hour on a 
bell inside the case, many of the earlier ones being in addition furnished 
with an alarm. Afterwards, a repeating motion tooJ<: the place of an 
alarm, so that by pulling a string which passed through a pipe at the 
edge of the cover the number of blows last struck would be again 
sounded on the bell. They had generally two cases, an outer one 
covered with leather or fish skin and an inner one of silver, which 
latter material was also used for the dial. The pendant was sometimes 

Fig. 384.— Back of Outer Cover. 

n two pieces connected by a loose thimble, an arrangement wliich 
allowed of sufficient movement to enable the watch to adjust itself to 
an adjacent surface when it was hung from the bow. Front and edge 
views of an excellent example in a remarkably well pierced and carved 
silver case dating from about 1680 are given on p. 241. The central 
portion of the dial rotates, indicating the age of the moon and ex- 
hibiting her phases. Through slits near the outer edge are shown the 
day of the week, the day of the month, and the title of the month in 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


French. The movement is signed " Samuel Michelin a Langres." 
and is now in the Franklin Dennison collection. This or a very 
similar instrument was illustrated in Dubois' historical work. 

Fig. 385.— Fine specimen, about 1710. 

In Figs. 382, 383, and 384 are shown a rather smaller clock and alarm 
watch, which strikes the hours and half-hours. The inner and outer 
cases as well as the dial are of silver. On the movement is the inscrip- 

244 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

tion, " Philip Graet, Lintz." It is of slightly later date than the 
preceding one. 

Fig. 385 is a back view of another fine specimen by " Anthony 
Bradl, Augsburg " which dates from about 1710 : the inner case is of 

Fig. 386. — Beautifully pierced and engraved specimen, about 1680. 

silver splendidly pierced and chased, with representations of hunting 
scenes, flowers, and birds, as shown ; there is an outer case of fish skin. 
The number of blows last struck may be repeated at pleasure by pulling 
a string depending from the case as already described. 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Back and edge of a beautifully pierced and engraved specimen 
signed, " David Buschmann, Augusta," and dating from about 
1680, are given in Fig. 386. 

The splendid travelling clock-watch, of which two views are given 

Fig. 387. — Travelling striking and alarum watch by Tompion, actual size. 

in Figs. 387 and 388 is in the Pierpont Morgan collection, and dates 
from about 1695. The case and dial are of silvei. 

Sedan Chair Watches. — During the eighteenth century watch 
movements having plain silver dials from 3 in. to 4 in. in diameter were 

246 old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

fixed in circular frames of wood, polished and with a moulded edge. 
They were called " Sedan Chair Watches/' though I cannot aver that 
they were as a rule carried in those useful but obsolete conveyances. 

Fig. 388. — Travelling striking and alarum watch by Tompion, actual size. 

Occasionally one may yet be seen hung on the wall beside a chimney 
piece or at the head of a bedstead. I have heard timekeepers of tliis 
sort spoken of as " Post Chaise Watches." 

Pocket Watches, Etc. 


Watch Keys. — Before the advent of the most common variety 
of watch key wliich had a circular ring to afford the necessary purchase 
in winding, and a smaller swivelled bow for attachment to the guard 
or chain, there must have been a considerable number of keys used by 
our grandmothers and grandfathers and by their progenitors, on the 
design and construction of wliich much consideration and labour had 
been bestowed. M. Paul Garnier, M. Planchon, and Mr. Arthur F. Hill 
are among the few collectors of such interesting adjuncts, of which 
a few examples are given on this page. Several of them, it will be 
noticed, are formed to give a crank action for winding the watch, and 
a separate straight pipe, at right angles to the first, for the purpose of 

Figs. 389-397.— Watch Keys. 

248 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

setting the hands. Keys of this kind appear to have been very 
generally used from the middle of the seventeenth to the end of the 
eighteenth century. The first of the lowest row seems to have been 
intended as a winder for a table clock, while the remaining two, with 
swivelled bows, recall the days of chatelaines and fob chains. Indica- 
tions are not wanting that hanging chains, as guards or accessories of 
timekeepers worn on the person, have in part returned to popular 
favour, even though watch keys may not be numbered among their 
appendages. Sir James M. Moody has a cranked watch key orna- 
mented with military emblems, and bearing the name " Jno. Cook, 
London." A watchmaker of this name carried on business at 
22 Cheapside in 1760, and afterwards in Wood Street. This is an 
early instance of impressing a name on the key, a practice adopted in 
later years by many watchmakers in a large way of business. 

In 1761 George Sanderson, of Exeter, patented a lunar and 
calendar watch key, which, when daily pressed on to the winding 
square of a watch, caused the mechanism in the key to advance one 
day. Etienne Tavernier, a Paris watchmaker who devoted particular 
attention to keys at the end of the eighteenth century, made some on 
this plan. Eardley Norton, a well-known London maker of musical 
clocks, obtained in 1771, a patent for a striking arrangement, which 
he said could be conveniently contained in a key, seal or trinket. 



NICHOLAS CRATZER (or Kratzer), " deviser of the King's 
horologies and astronomer" to Henry VIII. , was a 
Bavarian, born in 1487, who, it is said, resided for thirty 
years in this country without being able to speak EngHsh. In the 
second part of the facsimiles of the National Manuscripts, photo- 
graphed by Colonel Sir Henry James, there is a letter from Cuthbert 
Tunstal, Master of the Rolls (who was then in Germany) to Cardinal 
Wolsey. It is dated 12th October 1520, and contains the following : 
" Please it your Grace to understand that here, in these parts, I met 
with a servant of the King's, called Nicholas Craczer, a German, 
deviser of the King's horologes (who showed me how the King had 
licensed him to be absent for a season, and that he was ready to 
return into England), whom I desired to tarry until I might write 
to the King's Highness, to know his pleasure whether he would suffer 
him to be in company with me for a season, until the assembHng of 
the electors were past." In a Book of Payments by the Treasurer 
of the Household from Candlemas-day, 29 Henry VIII., to Midsummer 
33 Henry VIII., in the Arundel Manuscripts (No. 97), among the 
discharges of the former year (1538) is the entry, " Nicholas Cratzer, 
Astronomer, received five pounds as his quarter's wages." 

Cratzer's connection with Holbein was mentioned on p. 167, 
and there is no doubt that Holbein assisted Cratzer by designing 
cases and decoration for clocks and sun-dials. Horace Walpole 
purchased at Mons. Mariette's sale a complicated piece of horology 
.which embodied the conceptions of the two masters. On the summit 
was a clock driven by wheel work, below were fore and afternoon 
dials showing the time by shadows, and beneath these a clepsydra 
indicating the quarters of an hour on an exceedingly ingenious plan, 
the invention of which has been claimed for many subsequent 
horologists. It is mentioned by Bettinus, and in Plot's " Oxfordshire" 
1676, Christopher Wren is credited with having made for Sir Anthony 
Cope at Hanwell a Clepsydra on the same principle which is thus 


250 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

described : " moves by water and shows the hours by a new gilded 
sun for every hour, moving in a small hemisphere of wood, each 
carrying in their centres the number of some hour depicted black ; 
as suppose of one a clock, which ascending half way to the zenith 
of the arch, shows it a quarter past one, at the zenith half hour ; 
whence descending half way towards the horizon, three quarters past 
one ; and at the last absconding under it, then presently arises 

another gilded sun above the 
horizon at the other side of 
the arch, carrying in its centre the 
figure two ; and so of the rest." 
Fuller particulars of the action will 
be found in Chapter IV. The 
clepsydra for driving appears to 
have been in the form of a drum 
with divisions as shown on pp. 12 
and 13. 

Bartholomew Newsam. — 
Bartholomew Newsam was one 
of the earliest Enghsh makers of 
portable clocks whose work sur- 
vives. It is conjectured he was a 
Yorkshireman, but he must have 
attained some position in London 
before 1568, for in that year he 
secured a thirty years' crown lease 
of premises in the Strand, near 
Somerset House, where he resided 
till his death. In the British 
Museum is a very fine example of 
his skill, which proves Newsam 
to have been a master of the 
craft. This is a striking clock, in a 
case of brass, gilded and engraved, 
about 2Jin. square and 4 in. high, exclusive of an ornamental 
domed and perforated top, which brings the total height to 6Jin. 
The centre of tlie dial as far as the hour ring is below the surface 
of the case, so that on removing the base the movement, together 
with the centre of the dial and hand, may be drawn out. The 
hours are engraved on a broad bevelled ring, which extends from 
the sunk part of the dial to bej^ond the front of the case. An 
exterior view of Newsam's clock is appended (Fig. 398). The 

Fig. 398. 

-Clock by Bartholomew 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 251 

movement is arranged in stories, there being three plates held in 
position by four corner posts. Above the top plate is a semi- 
circular bell ; between the upper and middle plates is the going 
train, and between the middle and lower plates the striking train, 
the locking-plate occupying a position below the lowest plate. The 
arbors are placed vertically, and the winding holes are at the bottom 
of the case. The wheels are of steel or iron, the fusees very long, 
and with but httle curve in their contour ; they are connected with 
the barrels by means of catgut. The plates, posts, and barrels are 
of brass, the barrel covers of iron held in by a number of tenons 
around the edge. The hand is driven from the great wheel of the 
going part by a contrate wheel. The escapement is, of course, the 
verge. The workmanship, unusually fine for the period, is remarkably 
free from subsequent interference. There is a very small hinged 
door on each side of the case, giving, when open, a view of the 
fusees to estimate the period for winding. No screws are used in 
the construction of the movement, which is inscribed " Bartilmewe 
Newsum." An equally well-made table clock by Newsam in a case 
similar to Fig. 100 forms part of the Pierpont Morgan collection. It 
is in a leather case for travelUng with a small hinged cover which 
may be opened to disclose the dial. The bottom plate bears the 
signature " Bartholomew Newsam." 

A large clock-watch very possibly by him is illustrated in Chapter 
III. In vol. Iv. of ArchcEologia is illustrated a fine casket by Bar- 
tholomew Newsam. 

In the " Calendar of State Papers " of the time of Queen 
Elizabeth is a record of a grant in 1572 to B. N. (who no doubt 
was Bartholomew Newsam) of the office of clockmaker to the Queen 
in reversion after the death or surrender of N. U. (probably 
Nicholas Urseau). In the same Calendar is a letter dated 5th 
August 1583, from Bartilmew Newsham to Sir Francis Walsyngham. 
This letter probably refers to a renewal of Newsam's lease, and it 
desires Sir Francis to favour the writer's petition to Her Majesty 
for the augmenting a certain term of years, wherein he had 
moved Sir PhiHp Sidney to speak for him. He was clock-keeper 
to the Queen prior to 1582, and on 4th June 1583, under Privy 
Seal was paid 32s. 8d. for " mending of clocks during the past 
year." Under date 1590 is a grant to Bartholomew Newsham 
of the office of clockmaker to the Queen, in place of Nicholas 
Urseau, deceased. Newsam appears then to have combined the 
offices of clock-keeper and clockmaker, which had previously been 
kept distinct. 

252 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

His tenure of the double appointment was a brief one, for he died 
in 1593. By his will, dated in 1586, he bequeathed to his apprentice 
his " seconde clock;" to John Newsam, clockmaker of York, his 
" best vice save one, a beckhorne to stand upon borde, a great fore 
hammer, and to (two) hand hammers, a grete longe beckhorne in 
my backe shoppe ; and all the rest of my tools I give unto Edward 
Newsom, my sonne, with condicion that he become a clockmaker as 
I am, yf not I will the foresaid tooles to be sold by my executors." 
He gave to a friend " a sonne dyall of copper gylte ; " to another, 
" one cristall Jewell with a watche in it, garnished with goulde ; " to 
another " one watch clocke, in a silken purse, and a sonne dyall to 
stande upon a post in his garden ; " and to another, " a chamber 
clocke of fyve markes price." 

John Newsam continued at York for some years. In 1593 he 
repaired the clock on Ousebridge in that city. 

Bull. — Rainulph or Randulph Bull appears to have been an 
English horologist of some note. In the British Museum is a rather 
large oval watch by him, dated 1590. It has on a shield the arms 
of the owner and his name, " W. Rowley." Bull was also keeper of 
the Westminster great clock. In Devon's Issues of the Exchequer 
there is an entry under date 1617, 1st April : " By order, dated 
29th March 1617. To Ranulph Bull, keeper of his Majesty's great 
clock, in his Majesty's palace at Westminster, the sum of £56 13s. 4d., 
in full satisfaction and discharge of and for divers sums b}^ him 
disbursed for mending the said clock, in taking the same and other 
quarter clocks all in pieces, and repairing the same in the wheels, 
pulleys, hammers, weights, and in all other parts, and in new hanging, 
wiring, and cordings of the same clock, and other necesssary reparations 
thereunto belonging, the charge whereof, with his own workmanship 
and travail therein, doth amount to the sum aforesaid, appearing 
by a note of the particular demands, delivered upon his oath, taken 
before one of the Barons of his Majesty's Exchequer, without account 
or imprest to be made thereof. By writ dated 27th March 1617, 
£56 13s. 4d." 

In an account of the household expenses of Prince Henry, in 1610, 
" Emanuel " Bull, the " clocke-keeper," is mentioned. 

At the South Kensington Museum are two watches inscribed 
" Edmund Bull in Fleet Street fecit ; " one is in an oval case of brass 
and silver, and the other in an octagonal case ; both are early- 
seventeenth- century productions ; a watch, similarly inscribed, in 
a small oval pair of cases of silver, is in the Guildhall Museum, and 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


another watch by the same maker is in the FitzwiUiam Museum, 

Nouwen. — The watch shown in Fig. 399 is by Michael Nouwen, 
who was referred to on p. 51. It is from the Schloss collection, and 
dates from about 1590. The very handsome dial is ol brass, as is also 
the case, finely pierced as shown. The movement is furnished with 
the stackfreed and a straight bar balance. There are no screws used 
in the construction of the watch. Inside of the case is a bell on which 
the hours are sounded. 

Of perhaps shghtly later date is a watch by him in the British 
Museum, which has an irre- 
gular octagonal-shaped case 
of crystal ; the plates of the 
movement are enamelled. In 
the Ashmolean Museum at 
Oxford is an oval watch with 
a gilt metal case. The dial 
is engraved with a figure sub- 
ject, and at each of the hour 
numerals a pin projects. The 
movement is signed " Michael 
Nouwen fecit, 1613." 

Garret. — Among other 
watches which Octavius Mor- 
gan exhibited to the Archaeo- 
logical Society in 3 840 was 
an early- English one in the 
form of a Tudor rose. The 
dial he described as elegantly 
engraved and gilt, with an 

hour circle of silver. There was no ornament on the balance-cock 
and the movement was imperfect. The watch was made about 1600 
by Ferdinando Garret. In the British Museum is an oval watch by 
the same maker in a case of metal gilt, of the same period. Another 
watch by him is mentioned in the London Gazette for March 29 — 
April 1, 1680, as follows : "A small eight square Watch, the edges 
Brass, and the Cover and Bottom silver, made by Ferdinando Caret." 

Grinkin. — Fig. 400 is a view of an oval watch by Robert 
Grinkin, London, wliich dates from about 1605. The case is of 
silver. In the British Museum is a still smaller oval watch of the 
same period by him, with outer case of leather piquh. In the Pierpont 

Fig. 399. 

-Watch by Michael 
about 1590. 


254 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Morgan collection is an oval watch of his make dating from about 
1640. Grinkin was admitted to the freedom of the Clockmaker's 
Company in 1632 and served as master in 1648. Ke died in 1660. 
Henche. — In Devon's Issue of the Exchequer, 
under date 1605, 10th of October, occurs the entry, 
" By Order the last of September, 1605, to Uldrich 
Henche, clockmaker, or to his assignee, the sum of 
100/. for a clock in manner of a branch made by 
him and set up in his Highness's at Whitehall." 
And under date 1607, 5th of July, another entry 
runs :— 

Flood. — ■'' To Humphrey Flood, goldsmith, or 

his assigns, the sum of £120, in full satisfaction 

and payment for a clock covered with gold, and 

Fig 400^^ Watch ^*^^ ^^^^ diamonds and rubies, and by him delivered 

by Robert Grinkin, to his Majesty's use, at the price of £220, whereof 

London, about 1605. ^^^^^^,^^ ^ioq." 

North, — As an example of oval astronomical watches of English 
make, such as were popular in the early part of the seventeenth 
century, may be taken one in the British 
Museum, inscribed " William North, 
Londini," and of which an exterior view 
is given in the subjoined engraving. It 
shows the hours on the lower and day 
of the month on the upper circular band. 
There are, in addition, four apertures 
in the dial. Through the largest of 
these, on the left, are shown the 
days of the week, with the corre- 
sponding allegorical figures : Apollo for 
Sunday, Diana for Monday, Mars for 
Tuesday, Mercury for Wednesday, Jupiter 
for Thursday, Venus for Friday, and 
Saturn for Saturday. Through the three 
openings on the right are seen the 
phases of the moon, the quarters of the 
moon, and its age in days. These 
three subjects are all engraved on 
one circular plate below. Symbols re- 
presenting six planets appear in rotation below the small square on 
the right, just outside and lower than the centre of the hour ring. 

Fig. 401. —Watch by William 
North, London, about 1615. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


It may with tolerable certainty be affirmed that the movement of 
this watch was made about 1615, although the case is probably of a 
later date. William North was admitted as a brother of the Clock- 
makers' Company in 1639, and the fact of his being noted as a brother 
would indicate that he had then been established for some time, and 
was free of another Company. 

Crayle. — In the South Kensington Museum is a particularly 
diminutive watch in a plain oval case, which measures outside but 
I in. in length and f in. across, by Richard Crayle, London, and said 

Fig. 402. Fig. 403. 

Two views of large Ova] Alarum Watch signed " Richard Crayle, 

Londini, fecit." 

to have belonged to Lord Hussey, who was beheaded in 1537. I am 
not aware what evidence exists to warrant this statement, but 1537 
is rather an early date for a watch of this character to be in existence, 
and I should be incHned to think it was the production of the Richard 
Cra5de who was a member of the Blacksmiths' Company before the 
existence of the Clockmakers' Company, and who signed the petition 
for its incorporation. 

Two views of a large oval alarm watch signed " Richard Crayle, 
Londini, fecit," and not later than 1610, are given in Figs. 402 and 
403. The first shows the front cover closed, and the second exposes 

256 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the whole of the dial. On the back plate are two small rotating 
dials of silver, one engraved with the days of the week, with a 
mythological figure corresponding to each, while the other, divided 
into months contains also the signs of the zodiac. 

In the British Museum is a round watch movement inscribed 
" William Crayle, in Fleete Street, London," a production of about 
1620. WilHam Crayle, who in 1676 carried on business in Fleet 
Street, and afterwards at the Black Boy in the Strand, near the 
Savoy, was probably a descendant of Richard. 

Alcock. — In the Pierpont Morgan collection is a very fine circular 

calendar watch by Thomas 
Alcock, as shown in Fig. 404. 
The dial is really superb ; it 
indicates the age "and phases 
of the moon by means of the 
central rotating disc, and the 
day of the month by a rotat- 
ing ring outside the horn- 
circle. The movement is very 
well made and in goo^ order ; 
it dates from about 1635. 
The case is of brass, curiously 
engraved, and though old, of 
later date than the movement. 
Thomas Alcock was one of 
the petitioners for the incor- 
poration of the Clockmakers' 
Company in 1630. In King- 
dom's Intelligencer, 4th Feb- 
ruary 1661, was advertised 
as lost " a round high watch 
of a reasonable size showing the day of the month, age of the moon, 
and tides ; upon the upper plate ' Thomas Alcock fecit'." 

David Ramsay. — One of the earhest British watchmakers of 
particular renown was David Ramsay. 

Among the Salting collection at South Kensington Museum 
is a very early watch by him in a small irregular octagonal case 
of gold and silver. It has hinged covers over the front and the 
back, and is decorated with engravings of the Annunciation and 
the Nativity. 

In the British Museum is an oval watch of his make, with a gold 

Fig. 404. — Fine Circular Calendar Watch 
by Thomas Alcock, about 1635. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 257 

case in the French style. The period assigned to this watch is 1600 
to 1610. It is inscribed " David Ramsay, Scotus, me fecit." 

There is an entry in the accomit of money expended by Sir David 
Murray, Kt., keeper of the privy purse to Henry, Prince of 'Wales, who 
died in 1612. " Watches three bought of Mr. Ramsay the Clock- 
maker Ixj li " (£61). In the same account, among the list of " Guyftes 
and Rewards," is the item, " Mr. Ramsay the clockmaker xjs " (lis.). 

An oval calendar watch, showing the age of the moon, which 
is supposed to have belonged to James I., is described in the 
Archceological Journal, vol. vi., p. 415. It had a plain outer case of 
silver, the inner one being beautifully engraved ; on one side was 
represented Christ healing a cripple, also the motto used by James, 
"Beati pacifici," and on the other side the Good Samaritan with 
the inscription, " S. Lucas c. 10." Inside the cover was a well- 
executed engraving of James, with his style and titles. Under a 
small shield which concealed the hole for winding was the name of 
the engraver, " Gerhart de Heck." x\round the edge of the case were 
the Rose, Harp, and Thistle, and the initials "J. R." On the plate 01 
the watch was engraved, as before, " David Ramsay, Scotus, me fecit," 
and these inscriptions, together with the fact that he had a grant of 
denisation in 1619, prove that he was a native of Scotland. 

Mr. J. Sancroft Holmes had another watch by Ramsay, which was 
found seventy or eighty years ago behind the tapestry which then 
covered the wall of the dining-room of Gawdy Hall. With the watch 
were two apostle spoons and papers relating to the troublous times 
of Cromwell. The case of the watch is of silver and shaped like a 
star or heraldic mullet of six points. 

The engravings on page 258 show a splendid clock-watch with alarm 
by him, from the Evan Roberts collection, dating from about 
1615. It has the three-wheel train usual in early watches, and 
Mr. Crewe, in describing the movement, remarks that the fusee is 
cut for twelve turns, and the end of the great wheel arbor, which 
goes through the pillar plate, is fashioned into six pegs or leaves, 
identical with a lantern pinion in its action. These leaves work in 
a wheel pivoted into the centre of the pillar plate, having sixty teeth, 
and carrying the single hand of the watch. Thus ten turns of the 
fusee are equivalent to an entire circuit of the hand on the dial 
and so the watch would require to be wound twice a day. The 
ratchet wheel, which sets up the mainspring, is on the top plate, and 
the stop work is identical in principle with that in modern fusee 
watches. The stop for the alarm part is effected by a wheel and 

258 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

pinion, the wheel having a portion the size of two teeth left uncut, 
and which serves as a* block to the pinion after it has been wound 
three turns. The wheels and pinions have a wonderfully smooth 
action, though they appear to be cut by hand rather roughly. The 
count or locking wheel of the striking portion is made of silver, and 
the notches have been certainly made with a file. The alarm part 
has a verge escapement with counter and crown wheels. Attached 
to its verge is a V-shaped piece of brass with an arm, and this pressed 
by a spring drops into a notch made in the edge of a brass disc 
on the hand or hour wheel, and so liberates the verge and lets off the 
alarm. Between this disc and the hour wheel, and working con- 

FiG. 405. — Front View. Fig. 406. — View of Edge and Back. 

Clock-Watch and Alarm by David Ramsay. 

centrically with them, is a star wheel having twelve teeth, which, 
by lifting up a brass arm connected with the count wheel, causes it 
to strike. The potence is a rather slender piece of square brass, and 
is riveted to the top plate, and the banking is made by steps cut in 
it. These riveted potences are found in nearly all watches made 
before 1700. The balance-cock is a slender piece of work, and is 
pierced throughout, and the neck very narrow, so different from 
specimens of Tompion and other later masters. The case is very 
elegant in design, is pierced in the back and band, the bezel being 
engraved, and in every respect it will compare favourably with any 
work of the kind. Curiously enough, the band is silver, and bezel and 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 259 

back of bronze, and the whole case gilt. On the margin of the top 
plate, in tiny characters, as if almost to escape observation, is engraved 
" David Ramsay inv* Fecit," the et having been obUterated. 

In the Pierpont Morgan collection is an oval calendar watch by 
Ramsay in a Limoges enamel case. It dates from about 1610. 
Besides the hour of the day are given the days of the week in order 
thus — Sondai, Mondai, Tvesdai, Wensdai, Thordai, Fridai, Saturdai, 
with a symbol for each day. Days of the month and phases of the 
moon are also shown. The cock over the balance is of silver and 
pinned on. A balance-spring and the letters A. and R., for regulation, 
were doubtless added at a later date in France. 

R. B. P., in the " Dictionary of National Biography," says David 
Ramsay belonged to the Ramsays of Dalhousie, and quotes Ramsay's 
son Wilham to the effect that " when James I. succeeded- to the 
crown of England he sent into France for my father, who was there, 
and made him page of the bedchamber and keeper of his Majesty's 
clocks and watches." In 1613, James gave David Ramsay a pension 
of £200 per annum, and in the same year a further pension of jTSO 
per annum. In the grant he is styled " Clockmaker Extraordinary," 
In 1616 a warrant was signed to pay him £234 10s. for the purchase 
and repair of clocks and watches for the king. On 26th November 
1618 he was appointed to the office of " Chief Clockmaker" to his 
Majesty, with fees and allowances for workmanship. On 30th Sep- 
tember 1622 he received £232 15s. for repairing clocks at Theobalds, 
Oatlands, and Westminster, and for making a chime of bells adjoining 
the clock at Theobalds. 

In 1625 James I., his patron, died, but Ramsay appears to have 
retained his appointments, for on 25th January 1626 a warrant to 
pay to David Ramsay £150 for coins to be given by the king, 
Charles I., on the day of his coronation, was signed. Again, " 17th 
March 1627, is a warrant to David Ramsay, Page of the Bedchamber 
and Clockmaker, £441. 3s. 4d. for work done for his late Majesty, and 
£358. 16. 8d. in Heu of diet and bouche of Court." In 1628, 13th 
July,, a warrant was signed to pay him £415 for clocks and other 
necessaries dehvered for the king's service. 

Among the State Papers, Dom., 1653, are two receipts taken from 
the Jewel House at Whitehall soon after the death of Charles I. 
The first is as follows : " 18 die Feb. 1649. Reed, one clocke with 
divers mocons, two globes, one case for a clocke, and a glassee, one 
BuUet Clocke, one clocke with five bells, and one other clocke, all 
which were lying at Whitehall late in the charge of David Ramsay." 

26o Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The second is merely a subsidiary receipt of the same date for " one 
other clocke in a Bow received from Ramsay." 

Sir Walter Scott introduces Ramsay in " The Fortunes of Nigel," 
as the keeper of a shop a few yards to the eastward of Temple Bar, 
and in a note to that novel he is described as " Constructor of Horo- 
loges to His most Sacred Majesty James I." 

That Ramsay was the most celebrated watchmaker of the day 
may be inferred from the fact that, when the clockmakers obtained 
their charter of incorporation, he was therein appointed to the office 
of master. He does not appear to have taken a very active part in 
the management of the company. During his absence in the country, 
Mr. Henry Archer was appointed deputy master. William Ramsay- 
dedicated " Vox Stellarum " to his father in 1652, and in a postscript 
dated 1653 remarks, " from my study in my father's house in Holborn, 
within two doors of the ' Wounded Hart,' near the King's Gate," and 
there David Ramsay probably died. The exact date of his death is 
uncertain, but it occurred about 1654, and though his age is not 
stated, he was then certainly very much past the meridian. 

He is known to have been an inventor or schemer from the 
beginning of the century, and between 1618 and 1638 he took out 
no less than eight patents, none of which, however, seemed to be 
connected with horology ; they related to raising water, draining 
mines, making saltpetre, separating gold and silver from the base 
metals, smelting iron, constructing furnaces of various kinds, dyeing 
fabrics, &c. He was a friend of James Lilley the astrologer, who, in 
his autobiography, relates that he accompanied Ramsay to West- 
minster at night to make some experiments with a view to discover 
treasure by means of the divining rod. 

William Partridge. — In the " Calendar of State Papers " 
(Domestic Series), under date May 1660, there appears the 
following petition to the king from Captain William Partridge, 
setting out " that hee was sworne servant to yo"" Royall father of 
blessed memory, and to yo*" Ma*'^ in the yeare 1645, to attend ye 
in the qualitie of a Clockmaker, and did officiate in that place, 
all the time of his Ma*'^ being at Oxford, And did likewise serve 
his Ma*'^ a yeare and a halfe in his life Guard of foote ; And afterwards 
did raise a Company att his owne charge ; And hath bene a great 
sufferer by Plundering, Imprisonm''', and expulcons. Hee most 
humbly prayeth that yo*" Ma''^ will vouchsafe unto him the like 
grace and favo"" as to others of yo"" servants is extended. That hee 
may bee restored unto his said place of Clockmaker to yo*" Ma*'^ w'*^ 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 261 


all such priviledges and Impunities as belong unto it according to 
his warrant." 

On the same page there is also a petition from Sarah, his wife, 
begging that her husband's place may not be filled up until he has 
been heard for himself ; that he was bred under Mr. Este (? East), 
spent much time in improving himself in his trade in France and 
Flanders, and only discontinued it when in arms or in prison for His 
Majesty. At the foot of the petition is the note, " To succeede Da. 
Ramsay." But nothing further is known of Partridge, and he may 
be passed over. The king's clockmaker, after Ramsay, really seems 
to have been Edward East, of whom more will be said hereafter. 

The Clockiri'akers' Company.— —In 1627 a proposal to grant 
letters patent authorising French clockmakers to carry on their trade 
within the city appears to have occasioned an agitation among the 
London craftsmen in favour of incorporation as a trade guild. Prior 
to that date, individual freemen had been associated with one or other 
of the existing companies, that of the Blacksmiths having been most 
favoured. In 1630 a committee of clockmakers was formed, funds 
were raised to defray expenses, and petitions were addressed to the 
king, with the result that a charter was obtained from Charles I. on 
the 22nd of August 1631. 

In this document, " The Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the 
Arts or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of London " had very 
comprehensive powers for ruling and protecting the rights of the 
craft. They were entitled to make by-laws for the government of 
all persons using the trade in London, or within ten miles thereof, 
and for the regulation of the manner in which the trade should be 
carried on throughout the realm. And in order to prevent the 
public frora being injured by persons " making, buying, selhng, 
transporting, and importing any bad, deceitful, or insufficient clocks, 
watches, larums, sun-dials, boxes, or cases for the said trade," powers 
were given to the company " to enter with a constable or other 
officer any ships, vessels, warehouses, shops, or other places where 
they should suspect such bad and deceitful works to be made or 
kept, for the purpose of searching for them ; " and, if entrance 
should be denied, they might effect it by force. Any such works as 
were faulty or deceitfully wrought they had power to seize and 
destroy, or cause them to be amended. Every member of the 
fellowship paid fourpence a quarter to meet the necessary expense of 
these searches. In 1708 this quarterage produced over £2S. 

Bv the charter, David Ramsay was appointed to be the first 

262 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

master ; Henry Archer, John Willowe, and Sampson Shelton were the 
first wardens ; and James Vantrollier (or VautrolUer), John Smith, 
Francis Foreman, John Harris, Richard Morgan, Samuel Linnaker, 
John Charlton, John Midnall, Simon Bartram, and Edward East, 
assistants of the said fellowship of the said art or mystery. 

The charter also declared that future masters and wardens must 
be, or have been, professed clockmakers, an important regulation, 
which certainly appears to have been contravened in late years. 
The right of search was exercised regularly till 1735, when it was 

On the incorporation of the company, stringent by-laws were made 
regarding apprentices. No person was to take an apprentice without 
leave of the master, and then to have but one, until he shall be called 
to bear the office of master, warden, or assistant, and after that, not to 
exceed the number of two apprentices at any time whatsoever. But 
when his first apprentice had served five years, any member of the 
fellowship might take another, but not sooner, under a penalty of £10. 
And in the early history of the company several of its members were 
brought to an account and fined for disobeying this regulation. Among 
them were several eminent members of the craft, including Thomas 
Loomes and Ahasuerus Fromanteel. 

Then it was ordained that after an apprentice had served his time 
he should serve his master or some other member of the fellowship for 
two years as journeyman, and produce his " masterpiece " of work before 
he was allowed to be a workmaster. This period of probation might, 
if the company saw fit, be commuted to one year on payment of a fine. 

Those craftsmen who had joined the Blacksmiths' and other Com- 
panies prior to the incorporation of the Clockmakers' were from time 
to time admitted as " brothers " of the Clockmakers' Company. 

As provided by the charter, the " court " or directorate consists of 
the master, three wardens, and ten or more assistants. The assistants 
are chosen for life from among the freemen, and the usual, but not in- 
variable, course is that the assistants fill the higher offices in succession 
according to seniority ; each one being elected first as junior warden, 
the next year as renter, the next yeacv as senior warden, and the follow- 
ing year as master. After his retirement as master, he resumes his 
seat as an ordinary member of the court. 

Occasionally members were transferred from and to other companies. 
In 1636 Mr. Richard Masters was transferred from the Clothieis' at a 
cost to the Clockmakers' Company of £10. 9s. 6d. A lesser sum sufficed 
for the transference, in the same year, of Mr. Dawson and Mr. Durant 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 263 

from the Imbroderers'. In 1724 Mr. John Shirley gave a bond to pay 
the Clockmakers' Company £20 for being transferred to the Vintners'. 
On Mr. James Masters applying in 1811 to be transferred to the Gold- 
smiths', a little haggling appears to have ensued. The Clockmakers' 
Company at first demanded £60 for consenting ; Masters offered £30 
in 1812, and this amount was accepted. George Russell, in 1844, 
had to pay the Clockmakers' Company £30 for permission to be trans- 
ferred to the S alters', and an additional £5 for a special meeting of the 
court to attend the Court of Aldermen with the Salters' Company. 

In 1656 Ahasuerus Fromanteel and thirty-one other members com- 
plained to the court that, is spite of members having to pay xii'^ a 
quarter, the meetings were held in taverns. They also objected to the 
presence of Frenchmen among the ruling body, and recounted other 
grievances. A counter-petition traversed the allegations, and asserted 
the confidence of the signatories in the 
management of the company. 

In 1671 the company obtained the right 
to bear arms, and in that year letters patent 
were granted for this distinction. They 
recounted " that whereof at present Nich- 
olas Coxeter is Master, Samuel Home and 
Jeffery Bailey are Wardens, as also Edward 
East, the only persons now living of those 
mentioned in the said Letters Patents of 
Incorporation, John Nicasius, John Pen- ^''^^^^i^^^^^^^^^}^' 

nock, Edmond Gilpin, Jeremie Gregory, Fig. 407.— Arms of the 
r^t _ - ^, /-I , T 1 Clockmakers' Company. 

Ihomas iayior, ihomas Clayton, John 

Freeman, Evan Jones, Isaac Daniell, John Browne, Nicholas Payne , 

Richard Ames, and Benjamin Bell, are iVssistants, and to the rest of 

the Fellowship and Company thereof, and to their successors for 

ever : the Armes, Crest, Supporters and Motto hereafter mentioned, 

viz* Sable, A Clock y^ 4 Pillars therefore erected on four lyons, and on 

each capitall a globe with a Crosse, and in the middest an Imperial 

Crowne all Or, and for Their Crest upon an helmet Proper Mantled 

Gules Doubled Argent and Wreath of their Colours a Spheare Or, The 

Armes Supported by the Figures of a Naked Old man holding a Scithe 

and an Hour Glasse representing Time, and an Emporour in Roabes 

Crowned holding a Scepter, Their Motto — 


As in the margent they are all more lively Depicted." 

264 Old Clock and Watches and their Makers 

In 1677 Mr. George Deane, engraver, a member of the company, 
" having by the hands of Henry Jones presented to this court the 
company's coat of arms engraved on a copper-plate fit to be used for 
tickets and divers other occasions of the company which was very well 
liked, this court did kindly accept it, and returned him thanks." 

During the latter part of the seventeenth century the suitability 
of watchmaking as a profession for women was recognised, and in 1715 
the company sanctioned the taking of female apprentices. The names 
of several will be found in the list at the end of this book, where also 
is recorded the admission of a few female members of the company. 
The employment of female labour in watch work does not, however, 
seem to have made much progress in England till watch factories were 
established in quite recent years. 

In 1781 it was decided to elect leading members of the trade as 
honorary freemen. This coarse, politic as it probably was, seems to 
indicate that at this period the prestige of the company in the horo- 
logical world was insufficient to induce distinguished craftsmen to take 
up the freedom in the ordinary way. 

The company has never risen to the importance and comfort of 
possessing a hall of its own for meetings and other business. For brief 
periods during its histor}^ it had the use of a hall belonging to a more 
favoured guild, but most of its meetings w^ere held in taverns, more 
than forty of these establishments having been so favoured. Its last 
meeting before the Great Fire of London was held on 20th August, at 
the Castle Tavern in Fleet Street ; and the first meeting after, on 
8th October 1666, at the Crown Tavern, in Smithfield. Later still, 
the Devil Tavern, near Temple Bar, was patronised. 

Only a certain number of freemen from certain of the companies 
is permitted to take up the livery or freedom of the City, the whole 
matter being in the discretion of the Court of Aldermen. The claims 
of the Clockmakers' Company were not recognised in this respect till 
1766, when it was allowed to select sixty of its members for the 
privilege ; this number was upon petition increased to 120 in 1786, a 
still further increase to 200 was sanctioned in 1810, and in 1826 the 
present limit of 250 was reached. 

No. 2 of the bye-laws provided " that every person of the said 
Fellowship chosen in the said Livery shall accept and take upon him to 
be of the said Livery, and shall within fourteen days after notice of 
such election take such oaths as by these ordinances shall be appointed 
for him." 

The honour of election to the livery does not seem to have been 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 265 

always appreciated, for in 1813 " William Mansell, of Rosoman St., 
Clerkenwell, Watch casemaker, who was summoned to take the Livery 
on the 19th August 1812, again on 7th September 1812, and repeated 
on the 11th October last, was peremptorily summoned to be at this 
court, and being now in attendance for the first time, refused to take 
the Clothing, and the penalty of Fifteen Pounds being awarded against 
him for such refusal, he paid the sum in Court, and his Election to the 
Livery was thereupon discharged." 

" William Welborne, of Leather Lane, Holborn, has been sum- 
moned to take the Livery in November 1811, and also in January, 
February, and July 1812, but having failed so to do, was again 
summoned for that purpose to the last Quarter Court, when he 
attended and requested until, this da}^ promising either to take the 
clothing or pay the penalty for refusal. He being now present and 
declining to take the same, the penalty of £15 was ordered to be 
enforced, which being paid in Court, his election to the Livery was 
likewise thereupon discharged." 

The fine on taking up the liver}^ was then fixed at £21. 

In 1820 it was resolved to allow the quarterly payments or 
quarterage from members in support of the company to be commuted 
by an immediate payment ; the amount to be paid being dependent on 
the age of the member avaihng himself of the arrangement. The fee 
to be paid on taking up the freedom of the company by purchase 
was in 1876 increased to £20. 

As already stated, the company does not pos- 
sess a hall of its own. Its business is transacted 
at the Guildhall, where, by permission of the 
Corporation, its library is kept and its remarkably 
fine museum of timekeepers displayed for public 

Edward East. — Edward East, w^atchmaker 
to Charles 1., was a true horologist and a worthy 
successor to David Ramsay. He at one time 
resided in Pall Mall, near the tennis court, and 
attended the king when tennis and other games 

were being played in the Mall, his Majesty often yig. 408. Watch 

providing one of East's watches as a prize. t>y Edward East, 

^^ ^ t:^ ^ .1, ^^^71^ about 1620. 

Edward East seems to have removed to Fleet 

Street, for it is related that at a later period the king's attendant, 

Mr. Herbert, failing in the punctual discharge of his duties in the 

morning, his Majesty provided him with a gold alarm watch, which 

266 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 409. Fig. 41O. 

Two views of a very large Silver Alarm Watch, by Edward East. 

was fetched from the king's watchmaker, 

Mr. East, in Fleet Street. He was in Fleet 

Street in 1635, for a correspondent of Notes 

and Queries had in 1900 a MS. Return of 

Strangers within the ward of Farringdon 

Without wherein East is referred to as of 

Fleet Street, in the parish of St. Dunstan's 

in the West, and 

as the employer 

of one Elias Du- 

pree, a Dutch- 

m a n. Lady 

Fanshawe, i n 

her " Memoirs," 

stated that when 

she came from 

France in the 

autumn of 1646 

she lodged in 

Fleet Street at Mr. East's the watchmaker. The locality of a presum- 
ably still later residence is indicated by a reference to " Mr. East at the 
Sun, outside Temple Bar," in the London Gazette, January 22-26, 1690. 

Fig. 411. — Watch with Outer case, by Edward East. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


A very large silver alarm clock-watch by Edward East 
was kept at the bedside of Charles I., was presented by the 
his way to execution at Whitehall, 
on 30th January 1649, to his faith- 
ful and attached servant, Mr., afte r- 
wards Sir, Thomas Herbert. It 
was illustrated in " Sussex Archaeo- 
logical Collections," 1850, and in 
the ArchcBological J ournal, vol. vii., 
from which Figs. 409 and 410, two- 
thirds the size of the watch, are 
reproduced. I presume its history 
is well authenticated. The owner 
of it, Mr. Wilham Townley Mitford, 
was quoted as saying, " It came 
into possession of my family by 
intermarriage with the Herberts 
about a century ago, and since that 
time has remained with us," and 
the Society of Antiquaries seemed 

, which 
king on 

Fig. 412. — Clock-watch, by Edward 

to be quite satisfied with their ex- 
a;mination. Still, from the engrav- 
ings, it is rather a perplexing 
watch. The dial and pierced back 
are of Charles I. period and, though 
a minute hand at that date would 
be very unusual, it would not be 
an impossible adjunct ; presumably 
there was also an hour hand, but I 
can see no alarm disc or indicator ; 
the centre of the dial may, of 
course, have been turned to set the alarm, but there is no sign of its 
having been so utilised. Amongst the collection of autographs and 
manuscripts in the possession of Mr. Alfred Moriison, of Fonthill 

Fig. 413. — Finely pierced and 
engraved Case. 

268 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

House, Wilts., is a warrant, dated 23rd June 1649, from the Committee 
of Public Revenue to Thomas Fauconbridge, Esq., Receiver- General 

authorising him to pay " vnto Mr. Edward 
East, Watchmaker, the so'me of fortie 
pounds for a Watch and a Larum of 
gould by him made for the late King 
Charles by directions of the Earle of 
Pembrooke, by order of the Committee, 
and deliuered for the late King's use the 
xviith of January last.'' In the Fellows 
collection at the British Museum is a 
splendid octangular crystal-cased watch, 
a recumbent female figure holding an 
hour-glass being engraved on the dial ; 
1620 is mentioned as the probable date 
of this specimen of East's work. Of 

Fig. 414.— Watch h}' Edward 

about the same period i^ 
the small oval watch by 
him shown in Fig. 408. 
Another example of his 
work is the pretty little 
watch of slightly later 
date having an outer case 
and with a faceted crystal 
over the dial which is 
represented in Fig. 411. 
Two views of a clock- 
watch by East in a finely 
pierced and engraved 
case and also with a 
crystal covering for the 
dial are given in Figs. 
412 and 413. These 
three watches are from the Schloss collection. 

In the Pierpont Morgan collection is the little watch by East 
which is represented in Fig. 414. The dial of silver has a view 

Fig. 415.— Niffht Clock. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


engraved on it, and the case, of the same metal, is fluted ; the channels 
which broaden radially from the centre of the back extend over the 
edge and are finely engraved. 

Wood refers to another watch by him with a silver case in the 
form of a cross, the dial being engraved with the Crucifixion and 
angels. In the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford is a watch by East 
with gold case in the form of a melon, studded all over with turquoises, 
the pendant being enamelled blue to match. Two other undoubted 

Fig. 416.— Dial of Night Clock. 

specimens of this master's work are in the Guildhall Museum. One, 
a watch movement, inscribed, " Eduardus East, Londini," was thus 
described by E. J. Thompson : " The fusee of ten.turns is cut foi gut. 
There are great second and contrate wheels and a left-handed cut 
balance-wheel, the verge being of course left-handed. The end of the 
verge is driven into the balance which has one straight bar or arm. 
The cock is secured on a stud by a pin. There is no provision for 
a balance-spring, and the regulating must have depended upon the 
setting up or down of the mainspring by the endless screw. It had 

270 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

one hand only. The fiisee is hollow, having the cap and winding 
square solid ; it is fitted on to an arbor riveted on the great wheel. 
The great wheel has fift3^-five, the second forty-five, the contrate forty, 
and the balance-wheel fifteen teeth ; the second, contrate, and balance 
pinions being all of five leaves." 

The second example is a watch in a silver oval case with hunting 
cover, having a crystal centre, which E. J. Thompson described as 
finely worked in to suit its shape. The dial is of silver, and is tra- 
versed by an hour hand only. The movement is inscribed, as in the 
first instance, " Eduardus East, Londini." There is a twelve-tarn 
fusee cut for catgut. The mainspring is white and no doubt original. 

In the British Museum is a watch by East with a tortoise-shell 
case, dating from about 1640. At the South Kensington Museum are 
two or three watches by him ; one, a clock-watch in a pierced and 
engraved case of silver, has on the back dates of Church Festivals 
and Law Terms. 

In Fig. 415 is shown a night clock 17 in. high by East, belonging 
to Mr. T. W. Bourne. The case is of ebony on oak, and the top lifts 
off to allow the insertion of a lamp. Showing through a curved slit 
in the upper part of the dial is a disc with perforated hour numerals, 
so that the time can be seen at night. The light would also shine 
through a keyhole-shaped apertuie above which serves as a pointer. 
Fig. 416 shows the dial to an enlarged scale. This clock answers to 
the description of one belonging to Catherine of Braganza, Queen 
of Charles II., which Pepys refers to under date 24th June 1664 as 
follows : " After dinner to White Hall ; and there met with Mr. 
Pierce, and he showed me the Queen's bed-chamber and her closett, 
where she had nothing but some pretty pious pictures, and books of 
devotion ; and her holy water at her head as she sleeps, with her clock 
by her bedside, wherein a lamp burns that tells her the time of the 
night at any time." 

Fig. 417 in the collection of Mr. Hansard Watt is a large-sized lantern 
or birdcage clock, with two hands, the minute hand being original. 
The centre of the dial and subsidiary alarm dial are finely engraved 
with tulips. The frets are similarly engraved, and the one above the 
dial bears the maker's name " Eduardus East Londini fecit." The 
anchor pendulum bob in the centre of the movement oscillates 
between curious wings, glazed in front, and ornamented with 
engraved frets. The height to the top of the spire is 15|- in. ; 
the width from wing to wing, 12Mn. 

Among the Wetherfield collection are several long-case and 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


bracket clocks by East. Illustrations of some of these will be given 
in Chapter ^' II. 

The beautiful clock shown in Fig. 418, from the collection of 
Mr. Hansard Watt is, I believe, unique. Although East is known 
to have made night clocks of the bracket variet}^ this is, so far 
as I have been able to discover, the only one in a long case. 

Fig. 417. — Large-sized Lantern Clock, by Edward East. 

Its motion work is most ingenious and interesting and on a different 
principle to that of the bracket clocks. 

The case is of oak veneered with walnut oysterpieces and inlaid 
with coloured marquetry in panels of ebony. The dial (Fig. 419) 
which measures 10 J in. by 11 J in. is most beautifully engraved and 
is signed " Eduardus East, Londini." The movement is an eight- 

272 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

day— the escapement a recoil. Height, 6 ft. 10 in. ; width, lOJ in. 
depth, 7 in. 


Fig. 419.— Dial of Night Clock, by Edward 

Edward P2ast was one of the ten original 
assistants named in the charter of incorpora- 
tion of the Clockmakers' Company, and at 
cnce took a leading part in its proceedings, 
and after serving in the subordinate capacities 
was elected master in 1645, a post he again 
occupied in 1652. He was the only treasurer 
ever appointed, and the creation of the ofhce 
came about in a curious way. In 1647 the 
renter warden, Mr. Helden, refused to give the 
usual security for the stock of the company, 
and in this dilemma the ofhce of treasurer was 
created, Mr. East and Mr. Hacket being nomi- 
nated thereto, and the former chosen. On the 
death of Mr. East the office was allowed to lapse. 
Edward East lived to a good age. There 
is no record of his death, but it probably occurred 
not long after 1693. In 1692 his quondam 
apprentice and friend, Henry Jones, who was then Master of 
the Clockmakers' Company, acquainted the court that Mr. East 

Fig. 418.— Night Clock, 
by Edward East. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


desired during his lifetime to make a gift of £100 to the company 
for the benefit of the poor. Mr. Jones added that he would also 
contribute a like sum for a similar purpose. In the following year 
Mr. East gave the £100, and it was ordered " that the master and 
wardens do go to Mr. East and give him hearty thanks for his 

Taking into account that Edward East at the time of the incor- 
poration of the Clockmakers' Company in 1631 must have been a 
man of considerable standing in the trade, it seems probable that 
during the seventeenth century there were two of the name, one 
succeeding the other. In the " Calendar of State Papers (Domestic) " 
is an entry of a grant in 
1662 to Edward East of the 
ofiice of " chief-clockmaker 
and keeper of the Privy 
clocks, fee 12d. per day 
and £3. 6s. 8d. livery." 

Under date 4th April 
1662 is an entry of a war- 
rant for an order to swear 
in James East, the king's 
servant, as clockmaker to 
the queen. 

John Ebs worth. — A good 
clockmaker of some re- 
pute judging from what 
remains of his work. He 
was apprenticed in 1657 
to Richard Ames and 
was made free of the 
Clockmakers' Company in 
1665, served as master 

in 1697. On many full-sized lantern clocks with dolphin frets 
(originally with balances) is inscribed the address "at ye Cross 
Keys in Lothbury." He probably succeeded Thomas Knifton at 
the Cross Keys and afterwards removed, for on another clock is the 
address, " New Cheap Side." Lantern clock by him dated 1665, 
Agence de Commerce Etranger Ltd. 

Fig. 420 is a beautiful example of John Ebsworth's work. It is a 
square-topped long-case clock from the collection of Mr. Hansard Watt. 
The long door is inlaid with small panels of early marquetry of ivory 

Enlarged Dial of Fig. 420. 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

and coloured woods on black ground, and the square base inlaid in the 
same manner. The brass dial with matted centre is 10 J in. square and 

the Tudor rose is engraved round the centre 
of the finely pierced hands. Month striking 
movement with locking plate on main 
wheel and recoil escapement. The maker's 
name " John Ebs worth Londini Fecit " is 
engraved on the bottom of dial. Height, 
84 in., width, 12 in., depth, 6Jin. The follow- 
ing appeared in the " Post Boy," May 2nd, 
1699 : — " Lost a small silver watch made 
by J. Ebsworth in a tortoise-shell flowered 
case and notice being given so as it may be 
recovered to Mr. John Ebsworth watch- 
maker at the sign of the Cross Keys in 
Lothbury, two guineas reward." 

Henry Jones. — Henry Jones, already 
referred to, was apprenticed to Edward 
East on 22nd iVugust 1654. He was 
made free of the Clockmakers' Company 
in 1663, and served as master in 
1691-92. He resided near the Inner 
Temple Gate, and attained a consider- 
able reputation, which was quite justified 
judging from what remains of his work. 
Charles II., according to tradition, gave to 
Mrs. Jane Lane a clock, in memory of her 
services after the battle of Worcester. On 
the clock was engraved, " Henricus Jones, 
Londini." In Overall's " History of the 
Clockmakers' Company " is a record which 
just possibty refers to this clock. It states 
that, on 19th January 1673, " Mr. Henry 
Jones, clockmaker, acquainted the Court 
of the Company that he had made for 
the King (Charles II.) a clock of the 
value of £150, whereon was engraven 
' Henricus Jones, Londini,' and which stood 
in His Majesty's closet for about seven 
years, but being by His Majesty given unto a lady it came into the 
hands of Robert Seignor, clockmaker, of Exchange Alley, to be 

Fig. 420. — Long-case Clock 
by John Ebsworth. 

Records of Earlv Makers, Etc. 


repaired, and he caused Edward Staunton, clockmaker, or some 
other person, to take out the maker's name and insert his own." 

In North's " Life " it is stated that barometers were first mad^ 
and sold by one Jones, a noted clockmaker in the Inner Temple 
Gate, at the instance of Lord Keeper Guildford ; and very prob- 
ably Jones was the first Englishman who constructed a Torricellian 
tube, as the barorneter was originally called, after its inventor, 
Evangelista Torricelli, who propounded its theory about 1650.. 

In the London 
Gazette for October 21- 
24, 1689, was the 
following advertise 
ment : " Lost on the 
21st Instant, between 
the Hay Market near 
Charing Cross and the 
Rummer in Queen St. 
near Cheapside, a round 
Gold Pendulum Watch 
of an indifferent small 
size, showing the hours 
and minutes, the Pen- 
dulum went with a 
strait ^p"ing, it was 
made by Henry Jones, 
Watchmaker in the 
Temple, the Out-case 
had a Cypher pin'd on 
it, and the Shagreen 
much worn. If it comes 
to your hands, you are 
desired to bring it to 

the said Mr. Jones or Mr. Snag, a goldsmith in Lumbard Street, 
and you shall have two Guineas Reward." 

In the Guildhall Museum is one of Henry Jones's watches, which 
Mr. E. J. Thompson speaks of as having very fine pillais. Another 
watch by the same maker was in the Evan Roberts collection. 

Fig. 421 shows an early bracket clock by Jones, which belongs to 
Mr. A. Riley. The case of oak, veneered with fine pollard oak, 
is about 15 in. high and II in. broad, has the usual glass door in 
front and back, and glass panels at the sides. At the top is a narrow 

Fig. 421. — Early Bracket Clock by Henry Jones. 

276 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

band or frieze of rosewood fretwork. The signature, ' ' Henry Jones in 
the Temple," is engraved on the bottom of the dial just under the 
circle, but concealed when the door is closed. 

Mr. Holden, of Yeadon, has an eight-day long inlaid-case-clock 
with a brass dial, inscribed " Henry Jones in ye Temple,"' which is 
a later production than any of those already quoted. 

Mr. Hansard Watt has in his collection a clock by this maker in a 

superb walnut case, 
shown in Fig. 422. The 
back plate is signed 
"Henricus Jones 

Henry Jones, who was 
the son of William Jones, 
vicar of Boulder, South- 
ampton, died in Novem- 
ber 1695, aged sixty-three 
years, and was buried 
within the precincts of 
the old church of St. Dun- 
stan's in the West, Fleet 
Street, where a monu- 
ment was erected to his 
memory by his widow. 

Edward Barlow 
(Booth) .—This talented 
man was born near War- 
rington in 1636. He was 
ordained in the English 
church at Lisbon, and 
took the name of Barlow 
from his godfather, Am- 
brose Barlow, a Benedic- 
tine, who suffered at Lancaster for his religion. Edward Booth devoted 
considerable attention to horological instruments. He was undoubtedly 
the inventor of the rack repeating striking work for clocks, which was 
applied by Tompion about 1676. He also devised a repeating watch 
on the same principle, and made application to patent it in 1686. 
His claim was successfully opposed by Daniel Qaare, who was backed 
by the Clockmakers' Company. The king, James II. , tried both 
watches, and gave Ms preference to Quare's, which repeated the hours 

Fig. 422. — Bracket Clock by Henry Jones. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc, 


and quarters with one push from a pin near the pendant, whereas 
Barlow's watch was furnished with a pin on each side of the pendant 
and required two distinct operations to attain the same end. 

Booth invented the cyhnder escapement, and patented it in con- 
junction with Wilham Houghton and Thomas Tompion in 1695 
(No. 344). The invention is described as a " ballance wheele either 
flatt or hollow, to worke within and crosse the centre of the verge or 
axis of the balance with a new sort of teeth made like tinterhooks to 
move the balance and the pallets of the axis or verge, one to be 
circular, concave, and convex." He died in 1716. 

Betts. — Fig. 423 shows a watch by Samuel Betts remarkable for 
its particularly handsome dial of silver 
and brass. The central leaf orna- 
ment of silver polished is partly filled 
in with crimson enamel or hard wax, 
the pretty effect of which is enhanced 
by a dull matted surface between it 
and the hour hand, which is also of 
silver. On a nicely chased revol- 
ving ring outside the hours is a fleiir- 
de-lys to indicate the day of the month 
on a fixed silver band, divided into 
thirty-one and figured as shown. An 
outer chased margin of brass com- 
pletes the arrangement. At the end 
of the short months the day of the 
month ring has to be moved by hand. 
The boss of the hour indicator is 
oval, and although but one limb 

now exists, there was probably a trident tail, as may be seen on other 
specimens of the period. The case is of silver with a hit-and-miss 
shutter over the winding hole ; the glass is nearly one-third of a sphere 
and exceedingly thick. Betts carried on business at the back of the 
Royal Exchange, and appears to have died prior to 1673, when 
" Mr. Marquet " (Markwick ?) advertises himself in the London Gazette 
as the successor of " Mr. Samuel Betts, deceased." In 1656 Betts 
attested the genuineness of Jas. Lello's masterpiece to the Clock- 
makers' Company. The watch here shown dates from about 1645. 

Tompion and Graham. — Thomas Tompion, " the father of English 
watchmaking," was born at Northill, Bedfordshire, in 1638. It 
is said that his father was a farrier, and that he was brought up 


Fig. 423. — Watch by Samuel 
Betts, about 1640. 

278 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

to the same trade ; but the first rehable record shows him to have 
been in business as a clockmaker at Water Lane, Blackfriars, when 
quite a young man. 

Water Lane was a long, tortuous thoroughfare, the western portion 
of which is now Whitefriars Street, and Tompion's shop, known by 
the sign of the Dial and Three Crowns, was at the Fleet Street corner 

f "/////, 7/ » ////< V'A//. ' >< "iu 


Fig. 424. — Thomas Tompion, 1638-1713. 

where the offices of the Daily News are. His advent marks a distinct 
epoch in the history of the horological art. Throughout his career he 
was closely associated with some of the leading mathematicians and 
philosophers of his time. The theories of Dr. Hooke and the Rev. 
Edward Barlow would probably have remained in abeyance but for 
Tompion's skilful materialisation of them. He soon became the leading 
watchmaker at the court of Charles H., and was everywhere welcomed 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


a5 an artist of commanding ability. When he entered the arena the 
performance of timekeepers was very indifferent. The principles on 
which they were constructed were defective, and the mechanism was 
not well proportioned. The movements were as a rule regarded as 
quite subsidiar}'' to the exterior cases, and English specimens of the 
art had no distinctive individuality. By adopting the inventions of 
Hooke and Barlow, and by skilful proportion of parts, he left English 
watches and clocks the finest in 
the world and the admiration of 
his brother artists. Of course 
he did not reach finality ; im- 
provements continued under his 
immediate successors. Indeed 
some of the most remarkable 
and progressive horological con- 
ceptions emanated from the 
mind of his favourite pupil, 
Graham, whom he inspired, 
and who continued the work 
which Tompion began. Of the 
few horologists of Tompion's 
time who can be admitted as 
his peers, Daniel Quare was 
perhaps the most notable ex- 
ample. As a clockmaker Joseph 
Knibb may perhaps be admitted 
to rank with these. 

Among others above medio- 
crity who made watches before 
and after the introduction of 
the balance-spring, Nathaniel 
Barrow is worthy of mention. 

Tompion was primarily a 
clockmaker ; in the records of 

the Clockmakers' Company he is referred to as a " great clockmaket " 
when he was associated as a brother in 1671 ; and it is doubtful if 
he made watches in the early part of his career. I have never met 
with a specimen not furnished with a balance-spring, and those with 
but an hour hand are exceedingly rare. 

The portrait on p. 278 is from a mezzotint produced in 1697 after 
a painting by Sir Godfrey Kneller. 

Fig. 425. — One of Tompion 's 
earlier Clocks. 

28o Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

One of Tompion's earlier clocks, which belonged to the late Mr. 
Norman Shaw, is shown in Fig. 425. It has a light pendulum 6 in. in 
length fixed to the verge ; the escapement for the alarm is behind the 
going train, and when the alarm is let off the hammer strikes the bell 
which forms the domical top of the clock. In the British Museum is 
another chamber clock by Tompion, as well as a very thick watch by 
the master, in a case superbly/ painted in enamel by Camille Andre. 
In the same repository is a curious universal pocket sun-dial with 
compass, all of gold, also by Tompion. 

In 1675, he made for Charles 11. a watch with two balances and 
balance-springs as devised by Hooke. Derham says, " This vv^atch 

Fig. 426. — Watch by Tompion 
in Gold Case. 

Fig. 427.- 


-Tompion Watch in Silver Inner 
Out-case, Tortoise-shell. 

was wonderfully approved of by the King ; and so the invention grew 
into reputation and was much talked of at home and abroad. 
Particularly its fame flew into France, from whence the Dauphin sent 
for two, which that eminent artist Mr. Tompion made for him." 

The introduction of the balance-spring involved a reconstruction of 
the watch movement. The disc or dial for indicating the adjustment 
of the mainspring was discarded as no longer necessary, and a some- 
what similar one introduced for showing the movement of the curb 
pins round the balance-spring. This disc was placed upon a pinion 
with a squared extremity for the reception of a watch key to actuate 
the curb pins, which were carried by a toothed segment or circular rack 

Recorgls of Early Makers, Etc. 


gearing with the pinion. The tangent wheel and screw for mainspring 
adjustment were placed beneath the plates. The balance was con- 
siderably enlarged and covered with a circular cock. In Tompion's 
early watches there is a kind of bevelled fringe around the edge of the 
cock for the more effectual protection of the balance, as in Fig. 429, 
but after 1688 or 1690 he adopted the now well-known form with a 
broad base curved to suit the edge of the plate, a circular table the 
same size as the balance, and just where the table narrows to join the 
base a cherub's head or a grotesque mask engraved between projecting 
ears or streamers. 

His watch movements were deep, top plates exceedingly thin, and 
near the edge was usually engraved, " Tho. Tompion, London." 

He was, I believe, the first manufacturer to number his watch move- 
ments consecutively in plain figures for the purpose of identification. 
His early ones were not so marked, and I should judge he commenced 
the practice about 1685. 

Fig. 428. Fig. 429. 

An example of Tompion's versatility of genius. 

Fig. 426 shows a watch by him in plain gold cases, bearing the hall- 
mark corresponding to 1685 ; the dial is of gold with raised numerals. 
The hands are very fine, the hour indicator being of the tulip pattern. 
A watch with silver dial, about ten years later, from the Pierpont 
Morgan collection is shown in Fig. 427. 

As an example of the versatility of Tompion's genius two views of 
a watch from the collection of Mr. Willard H. Wheeler are given in 
Figs. 428 and 429. The distinctive feature of this watch is that, 
although a verge escapement is used, the fusee has been discarded ; the 
mainspring being surrounded by a handsomely pierced guard which is 
fixed to the plate ; and to this the outer end of the mainspring is 
attached. In order that the watch might have a coil of mainspring 
of the largest possible dimensions, what is usually the centre wheel 

282 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 


Fig. 430. 

is planted out of the centre ; the cannon pinion rides loose on a stud 
planted in the centre of the frame ; and to get the proper motion for 
the minute-hand without the introduction of an intermediate wheel in 
the motion work, the train rotates reversely to the usual direction. 
The movement is not numbered ; this fact, 
together with the style of the engraving and 
the form of the balance-cock, enables one to 
fix the date of its production at about 1680. 

Before September 1695, Tompion produced 
a watch in which the teeth of the horizontal 

escape wheel dropped on to the cyhndrical body of the verge, as shown 
in the appended drawing (Fig. 430), thus avoiding the recoil incidental 
to the usual verge construction ; and in September 1695 he, in con- 
junction with Booth and Houghton, 
patented the cylinder escapement. In 
the account of Barlow the wording of 
the description is given. 

One of the boldest of Tompion's con- 
ceptions was a small clock to strike the 
hours and quarters, driven by main- 
springs and yet requiring to be wound 
but once a year. The successful em- 
bodiment of this is shown in Fig. 431. 
The clock was made for Wilham HI. at 
a cost of £1,500, and was in his bedroom 
at Kensington Palace when he died. It 
was left by him to the Earl of Leicester, 
and now belongs to Lord Mostyn, in 
whcse family it has been for over 150 
years. It is still in going order, and 
Lord Mostyn has the name of nearly 
every one who has wound it during the 
last 100 years. 

The total height to the top of the 
spear is 30 in. ; the body or plinth below 
the dial is 10 in. in width, 7 in. in height, 
and 6 in. from front to back. 

The case, of ebony with silver 
mounts, is a fine piece of work in one 
piece, forming really a hood or cover, 
for it slides down over the movement and rests on the metal feet. 

Fig. 431. — One-Year Clock 
by Tompion. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


The movement is in three portions ; the lower part below the dial 
is attached to the heavy scroll feet, and contains the two mainspring 
barrels, the two fusees, and the larger driving wheels. The middle 
portion behind the dial contains the smaller wheels and pinions ; 
while the verge escapement above is held separately, so that it may 

Fig. 432.- 

-Unique Eight-day Clock by Tompion, in 
elaborate Buhl Case. 

be easily detached. The pendulum, 6 in. long, is in front of the move- 
ment just behind the dial, and its action may be seen through the 
glazed door below the dial, which is removed when winding or regula- 
tion is needed. Regulation is effected by raising or lowering the chops 
which embrace the pendulum spring, very much in the way adopted for 
modern clocks ; the shding chops are actuated by a tangent wheel and 

284 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

screw, and there is on the front plate a micrometer index for noting 
the amount of adjustment made. 

The hours are struck on a bell attached to the front plate, the 
ting-tang quarters being sounded on this and on a smaller bell, 

Fig. 433. — Back view of Fig. 432. Showing engraved movement 
plate and brass back door engraved both sides.. 

which surmounts the movement. On each side of the case is a 
pull-repeating arrangement. 

By the courtesy of Mr. D. A. F. Wetherfield it is possible to include 
photographs of a unique eight-day clock by Tompion (Figs. 432 and 
433) . The clock is enclosed in'an ornate Buhl case of red tortoise-shell 
with white metal inlay. This is' probably of French workmanship. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


although it was obviously made expressly for the clock. The height 
of this elegant timepiece is 10 in., and it dates from the latter part 
of the seventeenth century. 

A particularly interesting bracket clock by Tompion, in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Hansard Watt is illustrated in Figs. 434 and 435. The 
clock itself is very similar to one in the Wetherfield collection shown in 
Fig. 784, but is has the additional attraction of its original travelling 
case of oak witli iron decorative hinges and handles. The illustrations 

Fig. 434. — Bracket-clock by Tompion. 

show the clock in its case and the case closed. This is a rare if not 
unique specimen. 

During the building of St. Paul's, it was frequently reported that 
Tompion was to construct a wonderful clock for the cathedral ; and 
in " The Affairs of the World," published in October 1700, the follow- 
ing announcement appeared : " Mr. Tompion, the famous watch- 
maker in Fleet Street, is -making a clock for St. Paul's Cathedral, 
which it is said will go one hundred years without winding up ; will 
cost £3,000 or £4,000, and be far finer than the clock at Strasburg." 

286 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Though this statement seems to have been unwarranted, it is quite 
possible he would have been entrusted with the construction of a 
timekeeper of some kind, but, after unremitting application to his 
profession for more than thirty years, he was at this time, it may be 
assumed, just beginning to indulge in well-earned leisure ; during the 
last years of his life he allowed himself considerable relaxation, and 
was absent from London for extended periods. In the course of his 
migrations he visited Bath, possibly to derive benefit from the healing 
properties of the hot mineral water which wells up in the Queen of 

the West, as the chief 
Somersetshire city is called. 
In the Grand Pump-room 
there is a splendid example 
of Tompion's later work, 
which he presented to the 
city, as is thus recorded on 
a tablet adjacent to the 
timekeeper : " The Watch 
and Sun-dial was given by 
Mr. Thos, Tompion, of 
London, Clockmaker. Anno 
Dom. 1709." In Fig. 436, 
I am enabled to give an 
illustration of this stately 
timekeeper. Mr. Olds has 
kindly furnished some 
description of the move- 
ment. The dial is of 
brass, with ornamental 
corner pieces and silvered 
rings, the minute circle 
of the month is shown 
through an aperture. On a high arch above is an equation index 
and scale, being in the centre, and the variation to a maximum 
of fifteen minutes shown on each side ; on the right, "Sun faster," 
and to the left, "Sun slower." The months and days are engraved 
on a silvered lO-in. circle, of which an arc is shown through an 
opening. The number of minutes shown by the index gives the 
difference between sun time and mean time ; this 10-in. circle has 
over 2,000 finely cut teeth, and makes its annual circuit by means 
of an endless screw and pinion, worked from the dial wheel, which 

Fig. 435. 

-Original Travelling Case of Clock 
by Tompion. 

being 15 in. in diameter ; the day 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


makes one revolution per hour. The index is kept in position by a 
small counterpoise with a pulley fitted to its arbor ; the pulley is 
attached b}^ a fine chain to a cranked 
arm, which rises and falls with the in- 
dentations and protuberances of a pro- 
perly shaped plate or cam attached 
securel}^ to the 10-in. circle. 

The train and frame of the timepiece 
are in remarkably good order, considering 
its age. The driving power is a lead 
weight of 32 lbs. hung on a 3-in. pulley, 
having a fall of 6 ft. It is wound 
monthly on to a 2J-in. barrel ; the great 
wheel of 94 teeth, and 4f in. in diameter, 
drives a pinion of sixteen leaves ; there- 
on is a 3-in. wheel of 80 teeth, and this 
drives the , centre pinion of 10 teeth ; 
the centre wheel is 2| in. of 72 teeth, 
driving the third pinion of 9 teeth ; on 
this is a 2|-in. wheel of 60 teeth, driving 
the escape pinion of 8 teeth ; on this 
is a 2-in. escape wheel of 30 teeth, shaped 
as in a recoiling escapement. The pallet 
staff is 2f in. above the escape arbor, 
and carries pallets of the anchor pattern, 
having inclined planes to allow recoil. 
The one-second pendulum rod is of steel, 
of a flattened oval section, with 6-in. 
bob of lenticular form. The amount of 
oscillation; being only 2|°, causes the 
recoil of the escapement to be barely 
apparent . 

The day of the month circle is moved 
by an extra wheel from the hour wheel. 
Maintaining power while winding is given 
by a spring-propelled click through a steel 
arm on an arbor between the plates, acting on 
the teeth of the centre wheel, which is put 
into action by lifting the sliding cover of the winder hole m the dial. 

The case is of solid unpolished oak, 9 ft. high to the top of the 
arched head which is surmounted by brass ball ornaments. The 

Fig. 436. 

Clock by Tompion, at the 

Pump-room, Bath. 

288 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

body of the case is 17 in. wide and about 6 in. narrower than the head 
and base, with a semicircular door 8 in. across and 5 ft. in length. 
As will be seen from the drawing, the case has much the appearance 
of a pillar rising from a substantial base. 

The clock is in a recess at the eastern end of the room, and it 
occupied a similar position in the old Pump-room, the erection of 
which was finished in 1706. As the spot is particularly suited for 
the reception of a clock, it may be conjectured that Tompion was 
in Bath when the old Pump-room was being built, and that the 
ever- vigilant " Beau " Nash obtained from him a promise to present 
a timepiece when the building was completed. 

At first sight the phrase " watch and sun-dial " on the tablet 
recording the gift seems to include a gnomon of some sort for 
regulating the timekeeper from observations of the sun. There 
would be nothing far-fetched in this surmise, because sun-dials to 
check the going of public timekeepers were not at all an unusual 
adjunct. Bat I am inclined to think that in this instance sun-dial 
meant the equation dial over the ordinary one. 

Fig. 438 shows another example of Tompion's work, which is 
almost a facsimile of the Bath clock. It belongs to Mr, Philip T. 
Godsal, of Iscoyd Park, Whitchurch, Shropshire. 

The clock shown in Fig. 437 belongs to Mr. D. A. F. Wetherfield, 
and is one of the finest specimens of Tompion's work in existence. 
The movement is of great excellence, even for this master, and, as 
the clock has suffered little from injudicious repair, it is still in perfect 
going order. The dial-plate is thickly mercurial gilt and the four 
corner dials are all engraved exactly the same. The top dials indicate 
— on the left-hand side, the " rise and fall " of pendulum for regulating 
and on the right, the " strike silent." The two bottom dials have 
hands that are moved to secure the pendulum in case the clock is 
moved. The hands and dials are beautifully pierced and engraved — 
all are in their original condition, never having been damaged or 
repaired. The metal mounts of the cases are of unusual design, 
elaborately chased, and thickly mercurial gilt, while the plaque at the 
back of the case is even finer than the rest of the mountings. The 
basket top of this clock, unlike the majority of those of the period, 
is solid, cast and chased. The complicated mechanism is very typical 
of Tompion, and the clock strikes the " Grand Sonnerie " (hours 
and quarters at each quarter) . 

A long-case chiming clock by Tompion to go a month between 
windings which is at Windsor Castle is shown in Chapter VII., and at 

Records of Earl^/ Makers, Etc. 


Buckingham Palace is a very similar one. At the Guildhall Museum 
is a Tompion clock with a square dial, one hand, and in a long black 
case, which may be accepted as an indubitable example of his early 
work. In the same collection is a more modern specimen which goes 

i aa,;,^'.-:,--i-3S 


Fig. 437. — A very fine Bracket Clcck by Thomas Tompion. 

four months between windings, has an arch dial,' and maintaining 
work similar to that in the Bath Pump-room clock. It is inscribed 
" Thomas Tompion, London," a form of signature rather unusual. 
In the Wetherfield collection are no fewer than eighteen Tompion 
clocks. Some of these and others I propose to illustrate in 

290 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Chapter VII. Mr. T. W. Bourne owns a good example 
dating irom about 1670. It has a lOJ-in. dial, shown on 
p. 507, and is in a long case of burr walnut on oak. According 

Fig. 438. — Another example of Tompion's work. 

Records of Early Makers, P^tc. 


to Reid, the Earl 
of Moray has a 
clock by Tom- 
pion at the house 
of Donibristle in 
which the hours 
are struck on two 
bells in accor- 
dance with the 
plan explained 
on p. 328. 

Figs. 439 and 
440 show the 
famous Three- 
month Tompion 
clock now in the 
possession of 
Mr. D. A. F. 
(formerly in the 
collection of the 
late Duke of 
Cambridge, and 
sold at Christie's 
in 1904, and 
later in the col- 
lection of Mr. 
George Dunn, of 
WooJley Hall, 
sold in 1914). 

The clock, 
which is 10 ft. 
high, is made to 
go for three 
months between 
windings, and 
has a perpetual 
calendar with a 
provision for 
leap year. 

Fig 439. 

-The " Record " Tompion Clock, from the 
Wetherfield Collection . 

Fig. 440.— Enlarged Dial of Fig. 43U. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 293 

The following further particulars are taken from the description 
of the clock given in the catalogue of the George Dunn sale, viz. :— 
" The dial is brass chased with masks and scrolls showing month, 
day of month, and with seconds hand : the case is of walnut wood, 
mounted with brackets of metal-gilt pierced and chased with Amorini 
among scroll foliage, surmounted by four vases of fruit, and in the 
centre a statuette of Minerva, which is supported by a square walnut 
pedestal, to which is applied the monogram of William III., of chased 
metal gilt : on plinth of metal-gilt chased with cherubs and festoons 
of flowers with scroll feet at the ' corners '." 

The Royal Society possesses a paper in Hooke's handwriting, 
imperfect and undated, showing that Tompion and Hooke were in 
communication on the subject of the barometer, which is of interest 
as evidence of the estimation in which Tompion was held by Hooke. 
It occurs about the middle of a parchment-bound volume lettered 
" 20 Hooke's Papers," and is headed " Aerostatick Instruments." 
In it Hooke states that a form of his barometer, in which the height 
of the mercury was indicated by a column of water, " was tryed at 
Mr. Thomas Tompion's, a person deservedly famous for his excellent 
skill in making watches and clocks, and not less curious and 
dexterous in constructing and handworking of other nice mechanical 
instruments." A barometer by Tompion is at Hampton Court Palace. 

The extent of Tompion's business may be judged from the fact that 
in the advertisements for the recovery of lost watches during the period 
he was in business, timekeepers of his make largely preponderate. 
Trivial though some of them may be, I venture to submit a selection 
from these announcements, as the quaint descriptions in the words of 
the owners are interesting, and convey a very good idea of the various 
styles in favour at the time : — 

" Lost on Wednesday 20th of this Instant September at night in or about 
St. James's, a Gold Pendulum watch of Mr. Tompion's making, having three 
motions, a shagreen case, a cipher on the Back Side, and marked within the Box 277, 
with a Gold Chain and three seals, viz. one Figure and two Heads. Whoever 
give notice thereof to Mr. Nott, a Bookseller in Pall Mall, or to Mr. Loman at the 
Lord Cavendish's House in St. James's Square, shall have 15 Guineas Reward " 
{London Gazette, September 22, 1682). 

" Lost on Monday the 25th Instant in the Fields betwixt IsHngton Church 
and Newington Green, a gold watch with a Shagreen Case, with a cipher studded 
in gold on the Bottom. Made by Thos. Tompion, London. Whoever brings the 
said watch to Mr. Robert Halstead, Goldsmith at the Crown in Fleet St. shall 
have three Guineas Reward " {London Gazette, January 25, 1685-6). 

" Lost out of a gentleman's Pocket, the 19th past, betwixt Lyme St. end in 
Fenchurch St. and the end of the Minories, an indifferent small size gold pendulum 
watch, going without string or chain, showing the hours of the day, and day of 

294 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the month, the name Tompion, in a shagreen case, pinned with a Cypher in the 
bottom of the case, wound up on the dial plate, at the hour of 12, a straight key 
with a Steel Nose. Whoever brings it to Mr. Tompion, Clockmaker, at Water 
Lane, and in Fleet St., shall have one guinea reward, or, if bought, their money 
again with reasonable profit " [London Gazette, November 10-13, 1690). 

" Lost, the 3rd inst., between the Sun -Dial, in St. James Park, and Man's 
Coffee House, a silver Minute Pendulum watch, made by Tho. Tompion, in a 
Shagreen studded case, on the bottom of the inner case the number 458 ; with a 
gold Ring hanging upon the silver chain, with the Effigies of their Present 
Majesties " [London Gazette, March 3-7, 1691). 

" Lost on the 24th instant, about Kingston-on-Thames, a Gold Minute and 
Second Chain Pendulum watch, with a Stop, the hours seen through a hole in the 
Dial plate, and in a plain Shagreen Out-Case, the name Tho. Tompion, London, 
a number in the bottom of the Box, 0201. Whoever gives notice of it to Mr. Tho. 
Tompion, Clockmaker, at the corner of Water Lane, in Fleet St., shall have 
3 guineas reward ; or if bought already, your money again with reasonable profit " 
[London Gazette. June 25-29. 1691). 

" Lost on the 23rd instant a Gold Pendulum Watch made by Thos. Tompion, 
Fleet Street, in a Shagreen Studded Case with a Steel Seal set in gold tied to it, 
bearing a Coat quartered with the arms of the Crown battoned ; the Box numbered 
422 and the maker's mark [II] " [London Gazette, July 23-27, 1691). 

" Lost on the 21st instant from the Duke of Richmond's in St. James's Square, 
a gold striking watch with a Shagreen case studded round, with httle holes 
between, having 3 hnks of plain gold chain, made by Thos. Tompion, in Fleet St. 
Whoever brings it to Mr. Compton, Goldsmith, in Duke St., near Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, shaU have 6 Guineas " [London Gazette, February 21-23, 1694). 

" Lost, some time in November last, at Oxon, a Gold Minute Pendulum watch 
n a plain gold case ; the names on the upper peak, Tho. Tompion, Edwd. Banger, 
London ; and on the Dial Plate, Tompion, Banger, London, with this number, 
3428, on the bottom of the Box within side, and hkewise upon the upper plate. 
Whoever give notice of it (so as it may be had again) to the Reverend Dr. King, 
of Christ Church College, at Oxon, or to Tho. Tompion, Clockmaker, at the Dial 
and Three Crowns, at the Corner of Water Lane, Fleet St., London, shall have 
three guineas reward ; or if bought or pawned, your money again with reasonable 
profit " [London Gazette, December 4-7, 1704). 

Tompion was associated as a brother of the Clockmakers' Company 
in 1671 ; admitted as a freeman b}^ redemption in 1674 ; chosen as 
assistani in 1691, as warden in 1700, and master in 1704. He died 
on the 20th November 1713, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
In the same grave were interred the lemains of Graham, and 
particulars of their tomb had therefore better be left till after the 
brief notice of Graham which follows. 

Little is known of Tompion's domestic life, but he appears to have 
been unmarried. His will, executed on the 21st October 1713, was 
proved on the 27th November, in the same year, by George Graham, 
who was one of the executors. By this document he bequeathed to 
his nephew, Thomas Tompion, son of his brother James, his land and 
property at Northhill, Bedfordshire, and the interest on £100. To his 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 295 

niece, Margaret Banger, wife of Edward Banger, clockmaker, and 
daughter of his late sister, Margaret Kent, he gave a life interest 
in /500, which at her death was to revert to Ehzabeth Graham, wife of 
George Graham, daughter of his said brother James. Another daugh- 
ter of his sister, Ehzabeth Kent, is mentioned, and a cousin, Thomas 
Finch. George Graham and his wife were residuary legatees. Tho. 
Tompion, junr., was apprenticed to Charles Kemp in 1694 and 
admitted as a member to the Clockmakers' Company in 1702, pre- 
sumably when he had completed his apprenticeship. A ' ' Mr. Tompion, 
watchmaker," attended the funeral of Daniel Quare, in 1724. Watches 
by Tho. Tompion, junr., are to be met with occasionally, and I have 
examined two or three inscribed " Tho. Tompion, Edw. Banger, 
London." Edward Banger was apprenticed to the Tompion in 1695, 
and it may therefore be fairly assumed that he was in partnership with 
Tompion junr. At Buckingham Palace is a one-year clock inscribed 
" T. Tompion, Edwd. Banger, London." In the Wetherfield collection 
is a long-case clock, with an oval label just below the centre of the 
dial, on which is engraved "Tho. Tompion and Edw. Banger, London." 
I saw a watch for sale but a few months ago inscribed " Tompion, 
London," the hall-mark in the case of w^hich corresponded to the year 
1745. But Tompion bequeathed his business to Graham who, it is 
pretty certain, secured the best of the trade on the demise of his 
patron and friend. 

George Graham.- — George Graham, " Honest George Graham," 
who was born at Kirklinton, or Rigg, Cumberland, in 1673, tramped 
to London at an early age, and in 1688 became apprenticed for seven 
years to Henry Aske. He was admitted a freeman of the Clockmakers* 
Company on completing his indentures in 1695, and immediately 
entered the service of Thomas Tompion, thus beginning a life-long 
friendship, severed only by the death of Tompion in 1713. The 
following announcement appeared in the London Gazette for 28 th 
November to 1st December 1713 : " George Graham, Nephew of the 
late Mr. Thomas Tompion, who lived with him upwards of seventeen 
years, and managed his trade for several years past, whose name 
was joined with Mr. Tompion's for some time before his death, and 
to whom he left all his stock and work, finished and unfinished, 
continues to carry on the said trade at the late Dwelling House of 
the said Mr. Tompion, at the sign of the Dial and Three Crowns, at 
the corner of Water Lane, in Fleet Street, London, where all persons 
may be accommodated as formerly." In Uphill Castle is a long-case 
clock Vith the signature " Tompion Graham." 

296 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

In 1720 Graham relinquished Tompion's old premises, as will be 
seen by the appended official notification from the London Gazette of 
March 22-26, 1720 : " George Graham, watchmaker, is removed from 
the corner of Water Lane, in Fleet Street, to the Dial and One Crown 
on the other side of the way, a little nearer Fleet Bridge, a new house 
next door to the Globe and Duke of Marlborough's Head Tavern." 
Here in the rooms over the shop Graham resided till his decease. The 
quaint little shop had two plain bow windows, with the doorway 
between them, and, with but little alteration in appearance, remained 
as a watchmaker's for many years, being occupied first by Mudge, who 
succeeded Graham, then by Mudge & Dutton, and afterwards by the 
younger Duttons. It is No. 148, and now the offices of the Sporting 
Life. Graham was elected as a member of the Royal Society in 1720, 
and chosen as a member of the council of that body in 1722. He con- 
tributed twenty- one papers on various subjects to the " Philosophical 

After the expiration of Booth, Houghton, and Tompion's patent, 
Graham devoted some thought to the cylinder escapement, which in 
1725 he modified to practically its present form, and introdaced into 
some of his watches. Securing to himself the monopoly of any of his 
discoveries was .foreign to his disposition. The reputation which 
English horology acquired on the Continent during the eighteenth 
century was due in no small measure to Graham's candid treatment of 
his brethren in the art in other countries. In answer to inquiries, 
Julien Le Roy received from Graham one of his cylinder escapement 
watches in 1728, and the French horologist's generous avowal of its 
superiority is worthy of his acknowledged greatness. But it must be 
admitted, after examination of surviving specimens, that Graham's 
cylinder escapements were wanting in the necessary closeness of con- 
struction afterwards attained by Ellicott and others ; and as Graham 
continued to use the verge escapement till his death, it may be 
assumed that he was not oblivious of the constructional difficulties 
presented by the cylinder. In his younger days he would undoubtedly 
have pursued the matter with his usual acumen and patience, till 
nothing was left for later artists to improve ; but now his mind was 
taken up with astronomy and astronomical instruments, and the pro- 
duction of a perfect clock as an aid to the astronomer absorbed him, 
as I venture to suggest, almost to the exclusion of horological instru- 
ments for the pocket. 

In all Graham's work his first consideration was to make every 
part most suitable for its purpose. Judicious embellishment in its 

Records of Earlv Makers, Etc. 


proper place was not wanting, but it was quite subsidiary to useful- 
ness. This trait is apparent in many little details of a splendid 
repeating watch shown in Figs. 441 and 442 
made by him in 1714, when he was in the 
zenith of his power as a watchmaker, which 
belongs to Mr. Paul E. Schweder. Thus the 
pillars are of a plain cylindrical form, with 
turned bases and caps, whereas other horo- 
logists were lavish in shaping, decorating, and 
piercing these passive items, whose charac- 
teristic of strength and holding power was 
certainly not less apparent by Graham's more 
simple treatment. A little addition I have 
noticed in the watches of any other maker 
is a light spring jumper or click on the under 
side of the cap, for securely locking the cap 
spring. It has a fine enamelled dial and 
jewelled balance-cock. The piercing of both 
the gold cases and the repousse chasing of the 
outer one are perfect. On the movement and 
on both cases is the number 445. On the back 
of the inner case are the letters M.P. arranged 

as a monogram. The lock spring is beyond the edge of the dial. 
Attached to this repeater is also a useful little adjunct which 

apppears to have been invented 

by Graham, and, though not 

much seen in English work, 

became very popular with 

French makers. Projecting 

from the case is a small nib, or 

" pulse piece," called by the 

French sourdine, or " deaf piece," 

which upon being pressed keeps 

the hammer olf the bell and re- 
ceives each blow. It not only 

enables those who have defective 

hearing or sight to ascertain 

the time by touch, but persons 

whose organs are perfect, who 

may desire to know the hour at night without disturbing an adjacent 

sleeper, can do so by pressing the pulse piece and counting the beats. 

Fig. 441. — Repeatins 
Watch bv Graham. 

Fig. 442. — Back of Outer Cover. 

2g8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Graham used stout proportionate-looking bows for his watch cases 
in place of the thin wiry rings pre\dously in vogue, but by a curious 
obliquity EUicott seems to have reverted to the former style. The 
difference in the two " handles " is ver}'^ marked in specimens of the 
two makers I have before me. Another watch by Graham is in the 
possession of Mr. A. Ruskin Severn. 

With the introduction of the pendulum, and m^ore exact workman- 

FiG. 443. — George Graham, 1673-1751. 
ship and consequent improvem.ent in the performance of timekeepers, 
the errors arising from expansion and contraction of metals in var5dng 
temperatures became mianifest. Graham therefore turned his atten- 
tion to the best means of preventing irregularity in the going of clocks 
when exposed to thermal changes, and invented the mercurial pendu- 
lum. His paper, communicated to the Royal Society in 1726, on " A 
Contrivance to avoid Irregularities in a Clock's Motion by the Action 
of Heat and Cold upon the Pendulum/' demonstrated the suitability 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 





of mercury as a compensating medium after observations extending 

over a lengthened period. 

The form of Graham's mercurial pendulum is shown in the sketch, 

Fig. 444 ; a is the rod, h the stirrup containing the glass jar of 
mercury 0. For regulating the time, Graham employed a 
sliding weight, (i upon the rod. 

Another of Graham's inventions applicable to clocks of 
precision, and which is still unsurpassed in the opinion of 
many leading horologists, is the dead-beat escapement. 

In the Wetherfield collection are two of his bracket clocks 
dating from about 1715, and also a month regulator time- 
piece which has a dead-beat escapement with jewelled 
pallets, a gridiron pendulum, bolt and shutter maintaining 
power ; this is in a mahogany case and shows solar as well 
as mean solar time. 

An elegant bracket clock by him, dating from about 
1740, is in the possession of Mr. J. Rutherford, Jardington, 
Dumfries, to whom I am indebted for the representation of 
it which is given in Fig. 448. The case of oak measures 
15|in. in height, and the dial 8Jin. by 4| in. On the 
back plate is engraved a Cupid surrounded by scroll work. 
The regulator hand on the right of the dial raises or lowers 
the pendulum through the intervention of a snail-shaped 

'wN Fig. 445 is from a photograph of a small travelling alarm 

clock by George Graham. It is 5 in. high and 3 J in. broad, 
and is in the collection of Mr. Hansard Watt. 

A very handsome long-case clock by Graham, which is 
also in the collection of Mr. Hansard Watt is shown in Fig. 
446, and an enlargement of the dial in Fig. 447. This is a 
particularly fine example of the master's work. 

Graham's mode of living was distinguished by its sim- 
plicity. As already stated, his later years were chiefly 
occupied with astronomical work, which he carried on as the 
valued coadjutor of Halley and Bradley till his death, which occurred 
in November 1751. By his will, executed in 1747, he left to his wife 
one-half of his personal estate. He also bequeathed £20 to the 
Clockmakers' Company, of which he was elected an assistant in 1717, 
and after filHng the subordinate offices served as master in 1722-3. The 
grave of Tompion, in Westminster Abbey, was opened to receive his 
pupil, and the exceptional honour of their interment in that place is 

Fig 444. 

300 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the best testimony that can be adduced as to the estimation in which 
these eminent horologists were held. Fig. 449 is a reduced facsimile 

Fig. 446. — Long-case Clock 
Fig. 447.— Enlarged Dial of Fig. 446. by George Graham. 

of the stone placed to mark their resting-place by an appreciative 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


In 1838 this slab was removed, and small lozenge-shaped stones, 
with the name and date, as in the sketch on p. 303, were substituted. 
In a little work, " Time and Timekeepers," published in 1842, Adam 

Fig. 448. — Elegant Bracket Clock by Graham, about 1740. 

Thomson, a Bond Street watchmaker, wrote : " Who would suppose 
that a small lozenge-shaped bit of marble is all that is left to indicate 
where lie the bodies of the ' Father of Clockmakers,' Thomas Tompion, 
and honest George Graham, greater benefactors to mankind than 
thousands whose sculptured urns impudently emblazon merits that 

302 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

never existed?" To this outspoken, indignant protest, and the 
good feeUng of the late Dean vStanley, is due the reinstatement of 
the original memorial, for which English horologists will be ever 
grateful. " The passage was pointed out to me by a friend," said 

Here lies the Body 

OF M^ Tho Tompion 

Who departed this 

Life the 20^" of 

November 1713 in the 

75"^" year of his age 

ALSO the body of 

George Graham of London 

Watchmaker and F.R.S. 

whose curious inventions 


DO Honour to y British Genius 

WHOSE Accurate Performances 
ARE Y Standard of Mechanic Skill 


He died y XVI of November mdccli 


Fig. 449. — A reduced facsimile of the stone in Westminster 

Abbey placed to mark their resting place by an 

appreciative nation. 

the Dean, " in consequence of the strong irritation expressed on 
the subject by an obscure watchmaker in a provincial town. The 
gravestone had not been destroyed, and was restored in 1866." Let 
us hope future generations of clock and watchmakers will jealously 
guard this tribute to the work of their fellow-craftsmen against any 
further attempt at desecration. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


The position of the tomb is marked by the two parallel lines on 
the accompanying plan of the Abbey Church (Fig. 451) . E is the altar 
floor ; w the nave and western entrance ; N, north transept ; s, south 
transept and Poet's Corner. 

Fig. 450. 


Fig. 451. 

Two of Graham's clocks were sold by auction in 1765 at the 
dispersal of the library of the Earl of Macclesfield, " a month clock, 
that shows equal and sidereal time, with the day of the month per- 
petual, with a compound pendulum," realised £42. 10s., and was 
bought by Lord C. Cavendish ; "a month clock that shows equal 
and apparent time, with a quicksilver pendulum," fell to Lord Morton 
for £34 2s. 6d. ; "a wheel barometer by Graham " was not sold. 

Daniel Quare. — This worthy contemporary of Tompion was 
born in 1648. Mr. Robert Meldrum has a lantern clock, dating from 
about 1670, inscribed " Daniel Quare Londini fecit." 1 had a clock- 
watch by him, inscribed " Daniel Quare, St. Martin's le Grand, 
London." From its construction, one could with tolerable certainty 
decide that it was made about 1676, and I am therefore inclined to 
think St. Martin's le Grand was his first business address. It is said 
he afterwards cariied on business at the " Plow and Harrow," in 
Cornhill, but all the authentic records I have been able to consult 
refer to him from 1680 to the time of his death as of the " King's 
Arms," Exchange Alley. 

About 1680 he produced repeating watches of his own design, and 
when the Rev. Edward Barlow, in 1686, sought to patent a repeating 
device, Quare, backed by the Clockmakers' Company, opposed the 
monopoly. The case was considered by the Pi ivy Council on 2nd 

304 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

March 1687, and Barlow's application for a patent refused. In 
Quare's arrangement a single push on a pin projecting from the case 
near the pendant sufficed to sound the hour and the quarters, while 
Barlow s required a distinct action for each. The king, after a trial 
of both repeating watches, gave the preference to that of Quare, which 
fact was notified in the Gazette. This watch was, in 1823, in the 
possession of Mr. John Stanton, of Benwell, near Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

Fig. 452. — Fine Bracket Clock by Daniel Quare, 
chiming quarters on six bells. 

from whose description of it in the Morning Chronicle the following 
is taken : " The outer case, of 22-carat gold, is embossed with the 
king's head in a medallion. The dial is of gold, with black Roman 
numerals for the hours and figures for the minutes. In the centre 
is a piece of pierced work in gold upon blue steel, representing the 
letters J.R. R.J. combined so as to appear hke an ornamental scroll, 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


above which is the royal crown. The box is pierced with scroll-work 
intermixed with birds and flowers. x^boiit the joint is engraved a 
landscape. The watch is considerably thicker than, but otherwise 
not much above, the common size." 

Ouare afterwards made another and more highly finished repeating 
watch for William IIL ; it appears probable that in this, as in all 
subsequent repeaters b}^ Quare, the pendant was thrust in to set the 
mechanism in action, instead of having a separate pin in the edge of 
the case for the purpose. 
Repeating watches seem to 
have taken the public fancy 
at once. Some of the early 
records refer to them as 
" squeezing watches." 

Figs, 452 and 453 show 
front and back views of an 
ebony eight-day quarter 
clock, chiming on six bells, 
by Daniel Quare. This is 
a fine and rare example, 
about 15 in. high, and 
dating from about TTOO. 
The engraving on the back 
plate is of t?ie usual "tulip " 
design, but is both elabor- 
ate and finely executed. 
(From the Wetherfield col- 
lection) . 

There is in the British 
Museum a small lantern 
alarm clock of Ouare 's 
make, which has, above 
the bell, a perforated dome 

surmounted by a handle for carrying. In the wardens' room at 
Drapers' Hall stands a long-case clock by Quare. A fine bracket 
clock by him in Windsor Castle is shown in Fig. 454 ; and a little clock, 
6 in. in height, illustrated in Fig. 455, is said to have been the 
favourite timekeeper of William IIL, and was brought to England 
by him. This also is at Windsor Castle. A bracket clock similar"to 
454 is in the possession of the Rev. Walter Scott. There are seven of 
Quare's clocks in the Wetherfield collection. 

Fig. 453.— Engraved Back Plate of Fig. 452. 

3o6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 457 is a beautiful 
specimen of a long-case clock 
in burr walnut by Daniel 
Quare. The hands are very 
fine as will be seen by the 
enlarged dial on p. 308. The 
clock is in the collection of 
Mr. Hansard Watt, to whom 
I am indebted for the fine 
photographs illustrating it. 

As splendid specimens of 
horological work of this 
period may be mentioned 
one-year clocks, of which at 
least three or four bear 
Quare's name. One of ihe 
most celebrated of these is 
at Hampton Court Palace. 
The case is of oak veneered 
with burr walnut or some 
similar wood, and, including 
a stand of gilt brass work, is 
10 ft. high, the plinth being 
22 in., the waist 48 in., the 

Fig. 454. 

-Bracket Clock, by Quare, at 
Windsor Castle. 

Fig. 455. — Favourite Time- 
keeper of William III. 

hood 24 in. ; the dome, lOJ in. high, is 
surmounted by a gilt brass figure, 12 in. 
high. Four other well-modelled gilt 
figures occupy the corners of the hood, 
as shown in Fig. 456, which is from a 
photograph lent to me by Messrs. 
Gaydon, of Kingston. The dial plate is 
16 by 14 in., and along the bottom of it 
are. three subsidiary dials ; one shows 
the rising and setting of the sun, the 
middle one has an index and a scale for 
latitude ; the index for the third is 
removed, but it was evidently for the 
purpose of disconnecting certain equation 
work, the circle being engraved on one 
side " Temp us apparens " and on the 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


opposite" Tempus oequale." In 1836 Vulliamy substituted a dead 

beat escapement and 

a new pendulum for 

the original ones, but 

until 1898 the clock 

had not been going 

for some years. In 

the Philosophical 

Transactions for 

November and Decem- 
ber, 1719, is a paper 

by Joseph Williamson, 

claiming the invention 

of equation mechan- 
ism for clocks, and in 

it he mentions having 

made for Mr. Quare, 

among other twelve- 
month clocks, the one 

at Hampton Court, 

which, by means of a 

cam moving in a slit 

in a piece of brass at 

the top of the pendu- 
lum spring, raised or 

lowered the pendulum 

as required in order to 

show apparent time. 

As this claim appears 

to have remained un- 
challenged, it may be 

accepted. Doubtless 

the reputation of 

many manufacturers 

then, as in later j'^ears, 

\^•as acquired in great 

measure through the 

ingenuity and excel- 
lent workmanship 
displa3'ed by the chamber masters and other assistants whom they 
emplo^^ed. Still it would be idle to attempt, now, to apportion the 


Fig. 156.— Quare's twelve- 
month Clock at Hampton 

Fig. 457. — 

Clock, by Daniel 


3o8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 


merit ; the world-wide reputation of Quare remains as evidence of 
his individuaht}'. He is mentioned in a comedy by Carlo Goldoni as 
the foremost of English liorologists, then considered the first in the 
world . 

Some years ago one of Quare 's twelve-month clocks was in the 
possession of Mr. J. H. Arkwright, of Hampton Court, near 
Leominster, where it probably is still. Many stories have been told 
of the structure of this remarkable production, and in 1873 I obtained 
the following very precise details concerning it from Mr. Palmer, a 
clockmaker of Leominster. The hour hand, beautifully pierced, fits 
tight on to the hour socket with a square ; the minute hand is pinned 

on to a square with a 
collet as usual ; it has a 
counterpoise, and is not 
so elaborately pierced as 
the hour hand. The 
dial is 14 in. square, 
the centre being matted 
and gilt ; the spandrels 
are also gilt, but left 
plain to show up the 
silver fretwork corner 
pieces. The hour circle 
is of brass, silvered ; it 
is divided into minutes 
on the outside, and into 
quarters of hours on the 
inside. The name " Dan 
Quare " is engraved 
between the hour figures 
7 and 6, and " London " is engraved between the 6 and the 5. 
On the dial plate just below^ the figure 6 the name is again inscribed 
in full, " Daniel Quare, London.'' The numbers of the teeth of the 
wheels in the train are as follows : — 


Fig. 458. — Dial of Clock, bv Daniel Quare 
(see p. .306)." 

Great wheel 








The minute wheels have each thirt;y^ 





-six teeth, well shaped and 

very regular ; the minute pinion has six leaves ; the hour wheel has 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


seventy-two teeth, and it is keyed on to the hour socket. The 
centre, third; and swing wheels are very small and light, the diameter 
of the last-named is | in. ; the pivots also are very small. These 
three pinion arbors are an inch shorter than the other arbors of the 
train, and are pivoted into a small false plate which is pinned bv 
four small pillars on to the 
inside of the large pillar plate. 
The collets on which these 
three wheels are mounted are 
either brazed or driven on the 
pinion arbors. The third and 
swing wheel pinions are thickest 
at the collet, and taper off 
with a gentle curve to the 
head of the pinion. The frame 
plates are 7 in. by 5 in. There 
are six pillars ; they are riveted 
into the back plate, and the 
front plate is kept on by pins. 
The pallets are of the original 
anchor form. The seconds pen- 
dulum has a lenticular bob, and 
altogether weighs 2 lbs. Ih ozs. 
It is suspended from the same 
cock that carries the back pivot 
of the verge. The suspension 
spring is 2|- in. long, narrow, 
and very thin. There is no 
degree plate, but a brass finger 
projecting from the base of the 
case is filed to an edge just 
below the pendulum, and serves 
to estimate the vibration (which 
is about V on each side of 
zero), and also to set the clock 
in beat when fixing it. The 
case is of oak, handsomely 
veneered with walnut. 

The barrel has fourteen grooves 
weigh 81 lbs. ; the fall is 4 ft. 6 in, 

pulley is 1ft. 6 in., which, added to the fall, makes 6ft 

Fig. 459. — Bracket Clock, 


The clock weight and pulley 
the length of the weight and 
which is 

310 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the distance from the bottom of the clock case up to the seat board ; 

the weight is hung by a double line. The 
clock is still an excellent timekeeper. On 
casting up the numbers of the train it will 
be found to go 403 days, 4 hours, and 
24 minutes. 

Now, I cannot help thinking this is 
a very extraordinary achievement, for 
81 lbs. X 4 ft. 6 in. to drive the clock for 
more than thirteen months seems almost 
incredible ; still, I believe the facts are as 
I have stated them. There is no doubt 
that everything was done that was possible 
to economise the force. The very small and 
light swing wheel, the balanced minute 
hand, and the small shortened arbors with 
extra fine pivots, all conduce to the end 
in view. 

The twelve month timepiece by Daniel 
Quare shown in Fig. 460 forms one of the 
gems of the Wetherheld collection and is 
remarkable for the somewhat peculiar 
outline of the case and for its extremely 
beautiful marquetry surface. Of the 
subsidiary discs in the upper corners of 
the dial- plate the right hand one is a 
twelve-month calendar and that on the 
left is engraved " Tempus o^qtiale " and 
" Tempus apparens," and the main dial 
can be caused to show at pleasure either 
mean time or solar time according as the 
pointer is set. 

At Marston House is a month-clock by 
Quare belonging to the Earl of Cork. Mr. 
C. F. Bell has another, and in the Wether- 
field collection are several calculated for 
the same period. Quare 's dials were par- 
ticularly good, as may be judged from the 
specimen shown in Fig. 458, for which I 
am indebted to Mr. Hansard Watt. 
Fig. 459 shows a little bracket clock by Quare, which belongs 

Fig. 460.— One-year Time- 
piece, by Dan'^l Quare. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


Fig. 461. — Watch with Silver Dial, 
bv Ouare. 

Fig. 462.~Outer Case of Red 
Tortoise-shell pique. 

Fig. 463. —Barometer, 
by Quare. 

312 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

to Mr. J. W. Abbot. The extreme height of the clock is 12 in., 
and the depth of the bracket 5J in. The clock case is covered with 
tortoise-shell, and is 6Jin. wide. The handle, the feet, and the bezel 
of the dooi are of silver. 

By several writers Quare is credited with the invention of the 
concentric minute hand, but such indicators were in use long before 
his time, the hour hand being driven from the great wheel, and the 
minute hand from the centre arbor. Quare 's improvement consisted 
in devising mechanism so that the hour and minute hands should be 
actuated together. The earUest form of this device is applied to the 
clock-watch, which has been already referred to. At first sight there 
appears to be motion work of the kind now in general use, but an 
important variation is apparent on examination. Both of the 
hands are driven direct from the great wheel. A wheel and pinion 
corresponding to the minute wheel and nut lit on to a squared arbor 
projecting from the great wheel. The canon pinion runs loose on a 
stud in the centre of the watch, and on it is placed the hour wheel 
in the usual way. The wheel and pinion attached to the great 
wheel are of brass, and to allow the hands to be set they fit friction 
tight on to a steel boss which has a square hole to correspond with 
the end of the great wheel arbor. Attached to the bottom face of 
the canon pinion is a snail for releasing the striking work every hour. 
Under the arrangement in vogue before Quare 's time, by which each 
hand was driven independently of the other, if the minute hand was 
set forward or backward, the hour hand would cease to correspond 
with it. As the canon pinion was mounted on a stud, there was 
no necessity of having the second wheel of the train in the centre 
of the movement, and so the going train was continued to one side of 
the centre, leaving the other side for the striking work. The one 
advantage of the present arrangement of motion work over Quare's 
is that the minute hand now follows the motion of the centre pinion 
without shake, but in Quare's plan the position of the minute hand 
was not so absolute on account of the backlash of the motion wheels. 

A watch by him with silver dial and outer case of red tortoise-shell 
■pique, dating from about 1690, which is in the Pierpont Morgan 
collection, is shown in Figs. 461 and 462. A quart ei -repeating watch 
of later date, with pierced and engraved silver cases, is in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

In 1695 Quare obtained a patent for a portable weather glass, 
and six or seven instruments made by him according to his speci- 
fication are known to exist. One of them is in the United Service 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 313 

Institution ; another, belonging to Mr. C. F. Bell, is by his favour 
shown in Fig. 463. The case is of walnut ; three urns surmount the 
head, and two of them w^hen rotated move the pointers on the scale, 
which is of gilt metal richly engraved. But the contrivance for which 
the patent was granted consists of a pad to cover the bottom of the 
tube. The cistern is of ivory, and attached to the bottom of it is a brass 
nut, through which a threaded rod passes ; on the lower extremity of 
the rod is a knob, and the upper carries the pad. If the barometer is 
turned upside dowai until the tube is full of quicksilver and the 
screwed rod turned for the pad to block the tube, the instrument 
may be carried about in an}^ position. 

Quare was admitted as a brother of the Clockmakers' Compau}/ in 
1671, and served as master in 1708. During the latter part of his 
career he took into partnership Edward Horseman, who had been 
apprenticed to him, and the business was carried on at the same 
address under the title of Qnare and Horseman. 

Reproduction of a selection from the inquiries respecting Ouare's 
timekeepers ma}- not be out of place. On p. 223 is one which refers 
to an attempt to indicate minutes with the hour hand b\^ dividing 
the circle into but six hours in order to obtain room for the minute 
marks :- ■ 

" Lost, between Fide and Shoram Ferry, in Sussex, a gold watch, made by 
D. Quare, in a black Shagreen Case with a Cypher J.C. Whoever brings it to 
Mr. Shelley, Goldsmith, in Panton Street, near the Haymarket, shall have 2 
guineas reward " {London Gazette, 16th May 1691). 

" Lost, April 25, a Gold Minute Pendulum CJock, the name on upper plate 
D. Quare, London, 726 engraven on it, and a Shagrine case. Whoever gives 
notice of it to Daniel Quare, Clockmaker, at the King's Arms in Exchange Alley, 
shall have 3 guineas reward ; or if already bought, their monev returned again 
with content " {London Gazette, 26th May" 1692). 

" Lost, on the road between Hungerford and Marlborough, a Gold Repeating 
Watch, made by Quare and Horseman, with an old Gold Chain, and several seals 
hanging to it. Whosoever will bring them to Mr. Horseman, at Mr. Quare's, in 
Exchange Alley, shall have 20 guineas reward and no questions asked " {London 
Gazette, 9th August 1718). 

" Lost, on the road between Newark and Tuxlord, about 22 of June last, 
a Gold Watch, made by Quare in London, No. 4448, double cased and winds up 
on the dyal Plate. Whoever shall secure the watch if offered for sale, or send 
it or notice c f it to Mr, Andrew Drummond, Goldsmith, by Charing Cross, shall 
receive 5 guineas reward " {London Gazette, 8th July 1732). 

The books of the Society of Friends show that Daniel Quare was 
a trusted man among the Quakers, and that he at first refused the 
office of Clockmaker to George 1. because he objected to take the 
oath of allegiance ; the difficulty respecting the taking of an oath 
was, however, overcome, and freedom to enter the palace by the 
back stairs accorded to him. " The Yeoman of the Guard," he said, 
" lets me frequently go up without caUing anybody for leave, as 

314 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

otherwise he would tho' persons of quality/' He had one son, 
Jeremiah, who does not seem to have followed the craft, and three 
daughters. At the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth with Silvanus 
Be van in 1715, among witnesses who signed the deed of settlement was 
the Duchess of Marlborough. Daniel Ouare died at Croydon in 1724, 
and was buried in the Quakers' ground at Bunhill Fields, Finsbury. 

Fromanteel. — Fromanteel, also spelt " Fromantel," " Fromantil," 
and " Fromenteele." Ahasuerus Fromanteel j5)nww5, of Dutch extrac- 
tion, was a maker of steeple clocks at East Smithfield. In 1630 "he 
was warned hy the Blacksmiths' Company to bring in his certificate 
of seven years' service as apprentice. With this he complied, and 
was forthwith elected free of the company. On the incorporation of 
the clockmakers, he joined them. In 1656 he became restive under 
the somewhat inquisitorial proceedings of the court relating to his 
apprentices and the antecedents of his workmen, and for a long 
period in the history of the guild his name appears in petitions and 
other documents, expressing disapproval of the management of the 
company, or as being called to account for infraction of its rules, some 
of which, it must be confessed, could not fail to be exasperating to a 
man with an extensive business, as Fromanteel appears to have had. 

A second Ahasuerus Fromanteel appears on the list as free of the 
Clockmakers' Company in 1655. 

A third Ahasuerus Fromanteel was, in 1663, on completion of his 
apprenticeship with Simon Bartram, admitted as a member of the 
Clockmakers' Company. 

In 1663 also, John Fromanteel, who had been apprenticed to 
Thomas Loomes, was admitted to the freedom. 

Then Abraham, son of Ahasuerus Fromanteel, was elected in 1680. 

In 1658 proceedings were taken against Ahasuerus Fromanteel 
and his son Louis for keeping more apprentices than the regulations 
of the company allowed, so that there was a fairly large family of the 
Fromanteels in the clock trade at that period, and most of them 
seem to have been connected in business. 

Beyond their squabbles with the Clockmakers' Company, there is 
a celebrity attaching to them as being the first to introduce the 
pendulum into England, the assumption being that one of the family 
had seen or heard of Huygens' clock in Holland, and brought par- 
ticulars of it over to his relatives. Their claim has been challenged 
on behalf of Richard Harris ; and it has also been asserted that Dr. 
Hooke investigated the properties of the pendulum as a controller for 
timekeepers before Huygens applied it. However, there is evidence 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


that the claims of the Fromanteels to its introduction from Holland, 
if not unanimously allowed, was accepted pretty generally at the time. 

Under date 1st November 1660, Evelyn, in his Diary, writes : 
"' I went with some of my 
relations to Court to show 
them his Maj*'^^ cabinet 
and closet of rarities . . . 
Here I saw . . . amongst 
the clocks one that showed 
the rising and setting of 
the sun in Y*^ Zodig, the 
sunn represented by a face 
and raies of gold upon an 
azure skie, observing Y^ di- 
urnal and annual motion 
rising and setting behind, 
and landscape of hills, the 
work of our famous Fro- 

Again, under date 1st 
April 1661, Evelyn records 
that he " dined with that 
great mathematician and 
virtuoso, Mr. Zulichem 
(Huygens) , inventor of 
the pendule clock ; " and 
on 8th May, " I returned 
by Fromantel's, the famous 
clockmaker, to see some 
pendules, Mr. Zuhchem 
being with us." 

The clock by John 
Fromanteel which is shown 
in Fig. 464 belongs to Mr. 
H. A. Bleichert and has a 
curious history. In the 
last edition of this book it 

appeared with a small dial and the signs of the zodiac showing in 
the curved recess above, but Messrs. A.. & H. Rowley found the 
movement had been turned hinder part before, probably for the 
convenience of winding in front, and that originally the hour was 

Fig. 464. — Clock, by John Fromanteel. 

3i6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

indicated by revolving discs on the plan described in detail on pp. 
228, 245 and 327. They restored it as nearly as possible to its pristine 
state, and to them I am indebted for a photograph of it. The hour 
numerals and divisions are perforated and so the clock answers the 
purpose of a night clock of the kind referred to on p. 270. 

Fig. 465 shows a hanging clock in an ebonised case, by " A. Froman- 

teel, London," of 
about the same date, 
and for which I am 
indebted to Mr. 
Thomas Wy at t. 
The dial is of brass 
with a silvered 
band to contain the 
hoar numerals, 
which are very 
small and formed each 
within a ring. The 
original hand is missing. 
There are three bells 
and five hammers, the 
hours and first, second, 
and third, quarters 
being sounded. The 
movement is well made, 
with three trains, the 
back plate in one piece, 
the front arbors carried 
in three separate strips 
so that any of the 
trains may be removed 
separately. The pillars 
are square, and on one 
is engraved the name 
of the maker as quoted ; 
the plates are fastened by hooks which fit into slots cut in the pillars. 
Below the moon are silvered rotating discs with figures on the edges 
to indicate the ages of the lunar and the calendar months. This was 
a long-case clock when I saw it, but examination showed that the 
lower part was a later addition. All that was original of the case is 
given in the engraving. 


o X 




Fig. 465. — Hanging Clock in Ebonised Case. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


At the Guildhall Museum is a very well made clock by Ahasuerus 
Fromanteel dating from about 1675. It has a bob pendulum ; dial 
8 in. square, with matted centre and cherub head corners. It is 
furnished with what is called the " bolt and shutter maintaining 
power." In this device a shutter which obstructs the winding hole 
has to be lifted before the key can be inserted, and this action causes 

Fig. 466. — Choice and Interesting Clock, by A. Fromanteel. 

a spring or a weighted lever to impel the wheels during the operation 
of winding, when the driving weight is inoperative. 

The clock shown in Fig. 466 is a magnificent and very choice 
specimen The case is ebony veneered on oak The door in front 
is opened by releasing a concealed spring and the case lifts off in the 
manner of an early long-case clock. The construction of the whole 

3i8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

movement is rare and extremely curious. It will be noted in Figs. 
467 and 468 that the winding squares are not within the hour circle 
and in order to place them where they are the maker has employed a 
most ingenious system of double cranks at the back of the movement 
to connect the winding squares with the barrels. The escapement is 
crown wheel with a direct bob pendulum, regulating from the dial. 




V «ii^~ . ^ ■ ■. ■. -a 

imfy ^ — 4 

fi. . . 


Fig. 467. — Showing curious construction of Fig. 466. 

The clock strikes ting-tang quarters and the hours on separate bells, 
and at 5, 9, and 12 o'clock plays one of two tunes on eleven bells. The 
maker's name is engraved along the bottom of the dial, " A. Froman- 
teel Londini fecit." Height, 14 in. ; width 12 in. ; depth, 9|in. ; 
dial, 7| in. by SJ in. This clock is in the collection of Mr. Hansard 
Watt to whom I am indebted for the very fine photographs 
illustrating it. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


Mercurius Politicus for 27th October 1658 contained the following 

advertisement which also appears in the Commonwealth Mercury of 

Thursday, 25th November 1658 :— 

' ' There is lately a way found out for making clocks that go exact and keep 
equaller time than any now made without this regulator, examined and proved 
before His Highness the Lord Proctor (Protector ?), by such doctors whose 
knowledge and learning is without exception, and are not subject to alter by 
change of weather, as others are, and may be made to go a week, a month, or 

Fig. 468. — Showing curious construction of Fig. 466, 

a year, with once winding up, as well as those that are wound up every day, 
and keep time as well, and is very excellent for all house clocks that go either 
with springs or weights ; and also steeple clocks that are most subject to change 
of weather. Made by Ahasuerus Fromanteel, who made the first that were in 
England. You may have them at his house on the Bankeide, in Mosses Alley, 
Southwark, and at the sign of the Mere Maid, in Loth bury, near Bartholomew 
Lane end, London." 

Mosses Alley, or Moses Alley, was a passage leading from the 

northern end of Bankside, Southwark, to Maid Lane. 

320 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The Mermaid in Lothbury was for over a century a noted shop 
for clocks. In 1650 Thomas Loomes, who was associated with the 
eldest Fromanteel in his attacks on the government of the Clock- 
makers' Company, and to whom John Fromanteel was apprenticed, 
resided there, and, after the time of Loomes, it was occupied by 
John Fromanteel. Mr. D. A. F. Wetherfield has a remarkably well- 
made long case clock by him dating from 1676-80. It is shown in 
Fig. 469. The dial is 10 in. square with cherub corners, and in 
one line along the bottom is the inscription, " Johannes Fromanteel, 
Londini fecit." Around the hour circle every minute from 1 to 60 
is numbered The case is of walnut with small raised panels. The 
frame is large, iiaving three trains, viz., going, striking, and ting-tang. 
The pendulum makes but forty-eight beats a minute and is therefore 
unusually long ; regulation is effected by means of a large milled 
nut fixed above the pendulum cock, the spring rising and falling 
between chops as in many modern clocks. It has the bolt and 
shutter maintaining power referred to on p. 317. The striking at 
the hour is peculiar, there being four bells of different notes, the shape 
of Chinese gongs, and four hammers which are on one arbor and strike 
a chord at each blow. The quarters are sounded on two bells. 

There are two long-case clocks by John Fromanteel at the Dutch 
Church, Austin Friars, and one at the Philadelphia Library. Daniel 
O'Connell had a long-case clock by A. Fromanteel which was very 
similar to Fig. 469. Mrs. Benwell has a long-case clock by " Froman- 
teel " dating from about 1720. 

Dr. Hooke. — Robert Hooke was born in 1635 at Freshwater, Isle of 
Wight. After his father's death in 1648 he resided with Dr. Busby, 
headmaster of Westminster School. He entered Christ Church 
College, Oxford, in 1653, and there his genius soon attracted the notice 
of Dr. Wallis, whom he frequently assisted in his chemical operations. 
Dr. Wallis introduced Hooke to the Hon. Robert Boyle, who engaged 
him as an assistant in his mechanical and philosophical works. 

Hooke took part in and wrote upon all the scientific questions of 
his time. Sir Isaac Newton styled him " The Considerer." On the 
institution of the Royal Society he became one of its fellows, was 
afterwards entrusted with the care of its Repository, and made 
Professor of Mechanics to that body. About the same period he was 
elected Professor of Geometry in Gresham College. 

I have been unable to obtain any portrait of Hooke, but will quote 
the following description of him from Aubrey's " Lives of Eminent 
Men : " " He is of middUng stature, somewhat crooked, pale faced, 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 321 

and his face but little belowe, but his head is lardge ; his eie is full and 
popping, and not quick ; a grey eie. He has a delicate head of haire, 
browne, and of an excellent moiste curie. He is and ever was very 
temperate and moderate in dyet, &c. As he is of prodigious inventive 
head, so he is a person of great vertue and goodness." 

He discovered that the resilience of a spring is proportional to 
the angle through which it has been wound, and propounded the 
whole theory in the sentence, " Ut tensio sic vis," meaning that the 
force is proportionate to the tension. He proposed to patent his 
discovery in 1660, and, to quote his words, " Sir Robert Moray drew 
me up the form of a patent, the principal part whereof, viz., the 
description of the watch, is his own handwriting, which I have 
yet by me ; the discouragement I met with in the progress of this 
affair made me desist for that time." 

Derham describes the earliest of Hooke's essays in this direction 
as a " tender straight spring, one end whereof played backward and 
forward with the ballance." It is stated that several watches were 
made under Hooke's supervision at this period, and one of the first 
to which the balance-spring was applied he is said to have presented 
to Dr. Wilkins, afterwards Bishop of Chester, about 1661. 

It appears that Hooke then conceived it to be an advantage to 
have two balances coupled together, and had two double balance 
watches constructed. In the first, which had no balance-spring, the 
escape wheel was placed in the centre of the movement with its 
teeth in a horizontal plane. There were two verges standing vertically 
on opposite sides of the wheel and connected with each other by 
means of toothed wheels of equal size ; each verge had one pallet 
and carried a balance at its upper end, one balance overlapping 
the other. 

In the second watch the verge escapement was arranged in the 
ordinary way, the balance being mounted on a verge with two pallets ; 
on the verge was also a toothed wheel which engaged with another 
of the same size mounted on a stud, and the pipe of this wheel carried 
the second balance ; the toothed wheels being of small size, one 
balance was placed a little higher than the other and overlapped it. 
Each balance was controlled by a balance-spring. 

However, Hooke turned his attention to other matters, and in 
January 1673 Huygens addressed a letter to Henry Oldenburg, 
secretary ol the Royal Society, in which he described as his invention 
the application of a spring to control the balance in watches. This 
aroused the wrath of Hooke, who accused Oldenburg of having 

322 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

divulged the discovery in his correspondence with Huygens. Hooke 

enhsted the interest of Charles II., and in a 
lecture, entitled " Potentia Restitutiva," 
&c., said, " His Majesty was pleased to see 
the experiment that made out this theory 
tried at Whitehall, as. also my spring 

In 1660, Hooke devised a pendulum time- 
keeper for ascertaining the longitude at sea. 
This was tried in 1662, and he subsequently 
proposed a compensation pendulum in the 
form of a rhomboid, the outline being of 
steel and the long horizontal diagonal of 
brass. This form, being wider than it was 
long, was considered to be impracticable. 
Troughton afterwards constructed a pen- 
dulum in which the rod was a series of 
small rhomboids arranged to compensate on 
Hooke's plan. 

Hooke devised the first wheel-cutting 
engine about 1670. Prior to that time the 
operation of forming the teeth was tedious 
and imperfect. Blanks for watch and 
clock wheels were placed in the centre 
of a circular brass platform, having 
thereon concentric circles and radial lines 
corresponding to the various numbers 
of teeth in general use. 
at the centre of the 
a hard point at its 
by which the positions 
marked on the blanks, 
then filed out. Hooke contrived a circular 
file and made the platform movable so that 
each part of the circumference of the 
wheel could be brought within the action of 
the file or cutter. 

Hooke also invented the anchor escape- 
ment for clocks about 1675. Among his 
conceptions for a marine timekeeper was 
one with two balances geared together, the idea being to avoid 

An arm pivoted 

platform carried 

other extremity, 

of the teeth were 

The spaces were 

-Long-case Clock, 

Fig. 469. 

by Fromanteel. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 323 

the effect of external motion. It is stated that this timekeeper 
had an escapement resembUng the duplex. 

His investigations covered a very wide field of science, but his 
restless disposition rarely allowed him to pursue steadily any 
subject to a conclusion. No sooner was he satisfied of the feasi- 
bility of any project, than he left it, thus allowing others to perfect 
his inventions. On the death of Oldenburg, in 1G77, he was 
appointed secretary to the Royal Society, and, by an order of the 
Society, he was requested to give a full description of all the 
instruments which he had contrived, but ill-health prevented him 
from performing it. During the last year of his life he was almost 
helpless. He died at Gresham College, 3rd March 1703, and was 
buried at St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. 

Christian Huygens. — This distinguished mathematician was born 
at The Hague in 1629. Early in life he devoted his attention to the 
principles on which timekeepers were constructed, and in 1657 pre- 
sented to the States of Holland a clock controlled by a pendulum. 
He seems to have acquired the additional cognomen of Zulichem from 
the place of his birth, and is so referred to by Evelyn during a short visit 
he paid to England in 1661, as quoted in the account of Fromanteel. 
In 1665 his reputation induced Louis XIV. to invite him to Paris, 
in order to found a Royal Academy of Sciences there, and in 1673 
was published his folio work, " Horologium Oscillatorium," &c., 
from which the appended drawings of his clock are taken. 

The upper part of the pendulum is a double cord hanging 
between two cycloidal cheeks, to give a cycloidal path to the bob. 
Fig. 471 gives a better idea of this device, which was no doubt of 
advantage with the long arcs required by the verge escapement. 
Another feature of Huygen's clock is the maintaining power. 
p (Fig. 472) is the driving weight, supported by an endless cord 
passing over the pulley d attached to the great wheel, and also over 
the pulley h, which is provided with ratchet teeth and pivoted to 
the inside of the clock case. The cord m is pulled down to wind 
the clock, and the ratchet wheel h then runs under its click. So 
that while winding, as in going, one-half of p minus one-half of p is 
driving the clock. The pulleys d and h are spiked to prevent slipping 
of the cord. 

This ingenious maintaining power is to be found in many eighteenth- 
century clocks. When applied to a clock with a striking train, the 
puUey with the ratchet is attached to the great wheel of the striking 
part, one weight thus serving to drive both trains. A chain is 

324 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

preferable to a cord, owing to the dast which accumulates in the clock 
through the wearing of the latter. The drawback to the arrangement 
is that it is not suitable for clocks going for more than thirty hours 
between windings. It is, however, worth knowing that a thirty-hour 
striking clock on this plan can be readily converted to an ei^t-day 
non-striker by simply disconnecting the striking work. 

Huygens devoted much attention to the production of a timekeeper 
for ascertaining the longitude ; and finding the pendulum too unstable 
at sea, he in 1674 constructed a marine timekeeper controlled by a 
balance and balance-spring. The balance, instead of being on the 

Fig. 470. Fig. 471. 

Christian Huygens' Clock. 

Fig. 472. 

verge, was on a separate staff, and driven by a wheel and pinion, so 
as to vibrate through very long arcs ; and this necessitated the use 
of a very long balance-spring. Huygens endeavoured to obtain a 
patent for the application of the balance-spring, but in this he was 
SQccessfully opposed by the Abbe Hauteville, who alleged a prior use 
of springs for the purpose. The marine timekeeper was not a complete 
success, for Huygens found himself baffled by the error in changes of 
temperature. He returned to Holland in 1681, and died there in 1695. 
An exceedingly well-made clock, exactly corresponding to Huygens' 
drawing, which I saw some years ago, bore the inscription, " Johanre 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 325 

Van CeuJiii fecit, Hagae," and had a very handsome gilt skeleton dial 
upheld by a figure of Time. This and many other watches and clocks 
of that period by ^'an Ceulin suggest the possibility of Huygens and 
Van Ceulin having been associated in Holland as were Barlow and 
Tompion in England. 

Nathaniel Barrow. — A watch by this maker, with a short train 
and without a balance-spring, is shown on p. 215. Fig. 473 represents 
the exterior of a clock-watch with doubled pierced cases. A view 
of the movement will be given further on. 

Probably to get room for the striking work a most peculiar arrange- 
ment of the going train is adopted ; the winding square of the fusee 
arbor projects within the rim of the balance, which has three arms 
clustered together in the form of di fleur-de-lis or trident head, so that 
a vibration of over half a turn is possible before the balance arms bank 
against the fusee arbor. 

Knibb.— Three or four 
members of this family 
are known among the 
clockmakers. Samuel 

Knibb was admitted to 
the freedom of the 
Clockmakers' Company 
in 1663 ; Joseph Knibb Fig. 473.— Clock-watch, by Nathaniel Barrow, 
in 1670 ; Peter Knibb in 

1677. In the Guildhall Museum is a verge watch with curiously 
wrought pillars, made about 1690, by " John Knibb at Oxon.,'' and 
among the Wetherfield collection are two long-case clocks, inscribed 
" John Knibb, London," one dating from about 1690, and the other 
a little later. Mr. J. Drummond Robertson has a small-sized lantern 
timepiece with verge escapement by this maker. 

Of these the most eminent maker was Joseph Knibb, mentioned 
as of Oxon., in the records of the Clockmakers' Compan}/. He made 
a turret clock which was fixed over the state entrance in the quad- 
rangle of Windsor Castle, which Captain Smyth {Archceologia, vol. 
xxxiii.) speaks of as one of the earliest movements constructed 
with brass wheels. This statement may be correct if it refers to 
turret clocks only, but it would not apply to smaller timekeepers. 
This clock was inscribed " Joseph Knibb, Londini, 1677," and 
did duty till 1829, whea a new one by B. L. Vulhamy 
replaced it. He issued a token, having on the obverse ; " Joseph 

326 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Knibb, Clockmaker in Oxon.," and on the reverse, " I.K.," with a 
clock face and hand. In the Camden Society's " Secret Services 
of Charles II. and James II." are various records of payments on 
behalf of King Charles. In the account up to 3rd July 1682 is an 
item, paid " To Mr. Knibb by his said Ma'tie's comand upon a bill 
for Clockwork, £141." Judging by the Windsor Castle clock, he 
was in London in 1677, and till nearly the end of the century he 
carried on business there. His work was of the highest class, 

judging from the speci- 
mens I have had the 
opportunity of examin- 
ing. An alarm watch 
with pierced and 
engraved case of silver, 
dating from about 1690, 
in the South Kensington 
Museum, is signed " Jose 
Knibb, London." A 
short time ago Mr. 
Thomas Peake had a 
square black case 
bracket clock b}^ him, 
fitted with a curious 
striking part, of the 
locking plate kind, but 
striking both hours and 
quarters from one pin- 
wheel, which had pins 
on both sides. The back 
plate was engraved to 
an ornamental design, 
and on it was the inscrip 
tion, " Joseph Knibb, 
Londini, fecit." 
A remarkable clock, formerly the property of the Duke of Sussex, 
but which now belongs to Mr. Ernest Swan wick, is shown in Fig. 474. 
The case is of ebony ^ and measures 22 in. in height to the top of the 
knob. The particular feature which commands attention is the way in 
which the time is indicated. The upper portion of the dial is fixed 
and divided into four quarter-hours, the divisions being marked by 
Roman numerals. Each minute is indicated by a tooth at the edge. 

Fig. 474. — Remarkable Clock, by Joseph 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


and five-minute intervals by round holes. The central part of the 
dial rotates, and carries at opposite points near its periphery two 
blue discs on which are gilded figures representing the hours. In the 
illustration the time shown is thirteen past two, and the two will move 
on till it disappears at the right hand behind a screen, when the figure 
three will appear at the left. The mechanism in connection With this 
device is illustrated on p. 228. In front of the centre part of the rotat- 
ing dial is a fixed screen, on which stags and a landscape aie painted. 
Below is the signature, " Joseph Knibb, Londini." The exposed 
annular space of the rotating dial is covered with a painting of cupids 
and clouds. On the pHnth is a 
label inscribed in gold lettering, 
" From a model designed by 
Prince Rupert." Above the 
entablature of the case is a 
double-headed bird with out- 
stretched wings and the motto. 
clock is probably referred to in 
White's " Natural History of 
Selborne," in a letter to 
T. Pennant, speaking of the 
Royal Forest of Wolmer and 
Ayles Holt, which says : " The 
grantees that the author 
remembers are Brigadier- 
General Emanuel Scroope 
Howe and his lady Ruperta 
(who was a natural daughter 
of Prince Rupert by Margaret 
Hughes)." ..." The lady of 
General Howe lived to an advanced age, long surviving her husband ; 
and, at her death, left behind her many curious pieces of mechanism of 
her father's constructing, who was a distinguished mechanic and 
artist as well as warrior, and among the rest a very complicated 
clock, lately in possession of Mr. Elmer, the celebrated game painter, 
at Farnham, in the county of Surrey." 

The miniature timepiece by Joseph Knibb shown in Fig. 475 
belongs to Mr. J. D. Robertson. It repeats the hour and quarters 
on two bells. The case is of black wood, and on the brass ornament 
at the left is represented the head of William III. This ornament is 

Fig. 475. — Miniature Timepiece, by 
Joseph Knibb. 

328 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

- pivoted near the top, and i? drawn aside to expose the keyhole. In 
the Wetherfield collection is a striking clock very similarly cased. 

Messrs. Desbois recently had a long-case clock made by Joseph 
Knibb when he was in London. It was formerly in the collec- 
tion of the Duke of Sussex, and therein described as having been 
the property of Charles II., when it was called a " drinking 
clock."* The dial was square, of brass well gilt, with a skeleton 
silvered ring to receive the Roman hour numerals and a subsidiary 
silvered ring for the seconds. The centre of the dial was coarsely 
matted, and every minute noted with Arabic figures. The corner 
pieces, boldly chased, were of the cherub-head pattern, and the hands 
finely carved. A herring-bone border was engraved at the edge of 
the square, and altogether the dial presented a handsome appearance. 
^^ But the distinctive feature of the clock was the peculiar striking 
work, which was on the locking- plate principle. There were two 
bells, a large and a small one, and two corresponding hammers ; also 
two sets of lifting pins, one on each side of the pin wheel, one set 
actuating the large and the other the small hammer. And the pins 
were arranged so that at I. o'clock one stroke was given on the 
small bell, at II. two strokes, at III. three strokes, at IV. one on the 
small followed by one on the large, at V. one on the large, at VI. 
one on the large followed by one on the small, at VII. one on the 
large followed by two on the small bell, and so on. It will be noticed 
that so far each stroke on the small bell stands for the Roman unit, 
and each stroke on the large bell for the Roman V. Perhaps the 
procedure through the twelve hours will be best shown by different- 
sized dots to represent the bells as follows : — 


.*** * * ••• • 

• • • • • • 

• • 

Among varieties of striking, this plan seems to have a distinct 
value, inasmuch as it materially economises the energy required for 
telling the round of hours, only thirty blows being required in place 
of the usual seventy-eight. This particular clock was arranged for 
a run of a month between successive windings. 

* I confess I cannot understand this application of " Drinking Clock." August 
Demmin speaks of Drinking Clocks constructed at Nurembsrg in the seventeenth 
century, which had extra outside wheels. At a banquet such a clock being put 
on the table commenced to move slowly along it, and the guest before whom the 
clock stopped was compelled to empty his flagon ; but, though interesting, this 
does not help us in connection with Knibb's timekeeper. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


When a few years ago it was proposed to alter the subdivision of 
the civil day by counting the hours continuously instead of duplicating 
them, whereby any possible confusion as to whether a particular hour 
meant a.m. or p.m. might be avoided, one of the difficulties presented 
to the minds of those who attached particular importance to a sound 
signal was the impracticability of counting so many strokes as would 
correspond, to the hour as the day neared its close. But by adopting 
what perhaps may be called the Roman notation, as here shown to be 
practicable, even that reform may yet be approved of by the majority. 

Fig. 476. — Miniature Timepiece, by Joseph Knibb. 

\'iscount Ridley has a three-months long-case clock by Joseph 
Knibb, which is inscribed " Joseph Knibb, Londini, fecit," along the 
bottom of the dial, and has the striking arranged in the same way. 
The case is of ebony. The Wetherfield collection includes two 
almost similar specimens. Mr T. W. Bourne owns a bracket clock, 
12 in. in height, by Knibb. 

Mr. Hansard Watt has a miniature timepiece by Joseph Knibb as 
shown in Fig. 476. It has unusual floral corner pieces. 

In the London Gazette, July 9-12, 1688, " a striking watch, two 

330 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

gold cases engraven, a brass case over them, Joseph Knibb, maker, 
day of the month, pins to feel the hours," was advertised for, 
" information to be given to Mr. Jos. Knibb, at the Dial, in Fleet 
Street." There are other references to him, of which the following 
may be of interest : — 

" Lest on the 26th inst., near the Ferry, Place, Putney, a gold Pendulum 
Chain Minute-watch, made by Joseph Knibb, of London, in a Shagreen case, 
studded, with a Gold Knob, and marked with 48 on the inside of the case. 
Whoever will give notice of it to Mr. Joseph Knibb, watchmaker, in Fleet Street, 
shall have 2 guineas and charges ; or, if pawned or sold, their money again and 
a good gratuity" {London Gazette, April 30, May 4, 1691). 

" Left in a coach or drop'd, the 12th inst., a Gold Out-Case of a striking 
watch, engraven. Whoever shall bring it to Joseph Knibb, clockmaker, at the 
Dyal, near Serjeants-Inn, in Fleet Street, shall receive 40s. reward " {London 
Gazette, January 11-14, 1691). 

" At the Clock Dyal, in Suffolk Street, near Charing Cross, on Friday, the 
23rd inst., will begin the sale of a great Parcel of very good Pendulum Clocks, 
some do go a year, some a quarter of a year, some a month, some a week, and 
some 30 hours ; some are Table Clocks, some repeat themselves, and some, by 
pulling, repeat the hours and quarters ; made and sold by Joseph Knibb, at his 
House at the Dyal, in Suffolk Street, aforementioned. There are also some 
watches to be then and there sold " {London Gazette, April 15-19, 1697). 

I may mention that some time ago I saw a long-case clock dial, 
dating from about 1705, which was inscribed, " Joseph Knibb, of 
Hanslope." Hanslope, is, I believe, a village near Stony Stratford, 
Bucks. In the Wetherfield collection is a long black case month clock 
signed " Joseph Knibb att Hanslop " which strikes the hours on two 
bells in accordance with the Roman numicrals as described on p. 328. 

After an examination of many clocks by Joseph Knibb, I should 
be inclined to class him as a clockmaker with Tompion and Quare. 
Further on I will give some illustrations of his long-case clocks. 

Thomas Harrys. — St. Dunstan's Clock. — Above the main entrance 
at the western end of the old church of St. Dunstan's-in-the-West, 
in Fleet Street, were erected in 1671 two gilt clock dials, placed 
back to back, and mounted in a handsome square case, with circular 
pediment, which projected well out over the footway, the tube 
containing the rod for actuating the hands being supported by a 
well-carved figure of Time. An alcove was built on the roof of the 
gateway, and within were large gaudily painted and gilt figures 
of Gop- and Magog, which struck " ting-tang " quarters with clubs on 
two bells suspended above them. The clock and figures were designed 
and erected by Thomas Harrys, a clockmaker, then living at Water 
Lane, Blackfriars. Harrys submitted a statement of what he proposed 
to do, and after describing the " two figures of men with pole-axes to 
strike the quarters," continues, " I will do one thing more, which 
London shall not show the like ; I will make two hands show the 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


hours and minutes without the church, upon a double dial, which will 
be worth your observation, and to my credit." The figures of Gog and 
Magog proved to be a great attraction ; they speedily became one of 
the sights of London, and their removal, in 1830, when the church 
was rebuilt, elicited many expressions of regret. Fig. 477, taken 
from an old print of the church in mj^ possession, represents the clock 
as it was in 1737. 

In 1830, when the old church was in course of demolition, the 
Marquis of Hertford bought for two hundred guineas the clock, the 
quarter figures, and three statues representing King Lud and his 

Fig. 477. — St. Dunstan's Clock as it was in 1737. 

sons taken from the old Ludgate. The Marquis of Hertford was at 
that time building a residence at the north-west corner of Regent's 
Park. This he called St. Dunstan's Lodge, and in the grounds thereof 
the clock and accessories are still to be seen from Regent's Park. The 
dials are now in a circular case ; but the movement, though it has, of 
course, undergone repair from time to time, is still, I believe, sub- 
stantially the one Harrys supplied over two centuries ago. 

Bradley. — St Paul's Clock. — Langley Bradley was apprenticed 
to Joseph Wise in 1687, and admitted to the freedom of the Clock- 
makers' Company in 1694. Dr. Derham, in acknowledging technical 

332 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

information obtained from Bradley, for the first edition of the " Artifi- 
cial Clockmaker/' published in 1696, speaks of him as an ingenious 
workman of Whitechapel ; but during the greater part of his career 
he resided at the " Minute Dyall " in Fenchurch Street. Watches 
by him with deep movements, very similar to Tompion's, will bear 
comparison with the works of that master. An exterior view of one 
is given in Fig. 478. In the Soane Museum is a calendar watch by 
him, which belonged to Sir Christopher Wren. It is a fine piece of 
work, and was probably made to the order of William III.. for presenta- 
tion to the architect of St. Paul's. The dial resembles Fig. 404, and 
the pillars are pierced to form the royal monogram W. M., surmounted 

Fig. 478. — Watch, by Langley Bradley, 1700. 

by a crown. Among other watches by him may be mentioned one in 
the British Museum and one in the Guildhall Museum. In the Wether- 
field collection are a long marquetry-case three-train chiming clock and 
a long walnut case clock. But Bradley seems to have devoted most 
attention to larger work, and is perhaps best known as the maker of 
the noted clock for St. Paul's Cathedral, which did good service from 
1708 till 1892, and was generally regarded as the standard timekeeper 
of the metropolis till the giant dials and Big Ben at Westminster took 
the popular favour. He made a clock for the Church of St. Clements 
Dane, Strand, in 1721, and one for Cripplegate Church in 1722. 
The following particulars of the St. Paul's clock, from notes I 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 333 

made shortly before it was taken down, will probably be of interest. 
The frame consisted of a cast-iron rectangular base plate, from which 
rose cast-iron columns supporting an entablature of the same metal. 
The going train occupied the centre of the space between the base' 
and entablature, the wheels being arranged vertically ; while the 
gun-metal bushes for the pivots were carried in wrought-iron straps 
bolted to the base plate and entablature. On one side of the going 
train was the quarter part, and on the other side the hour-striking 
part, similarly arranged. All the wheels were of gun-metal, the 
great wheels being 2 ft. 8 in. in diameter, 1 in. pitch, and 1} in. wide. 
For the original recoil escapement was substituted a half-dead one 
in 1805, but with this exception it may be said that the whole of 
Bradley's mechanism remained in good working order till the clock 
was taken down. The two-second pendulum had a wooden rod and 
a cast-iron bob weighing nearly 180 lbs. The striking work was on 
the rack principle. The mitre wheels for driving the dial works were 
commendably large, being 20 in. in diameter, and for supporting the 
dial end of the minute-hand arbor there were three friction wheels 
placed at equal distances apart round the outside of, and carried b}-, 
the hour-hand tube. Slits were cut in the tube to allow a portion of 
the circumference of the friction wheels to enter, and the wheels were 
of such a size that they projected into the tube just sufficient to meet 
the minute-hand arbor. This ingenious contrivance is also applied 
to the Westminster clock, and is generally supposed to have been 
invented for it. Two sides of the St. Paul's clock tower, one facing 
down Ludgate Hill, and the other looking towards the south side of 
the churchyard, were utilised for the dials of Bradley's timekeeper, 
black rings being painted on the stonework, on which the hour 
circles and the numerals were engraved and gilt. Each dial is a 
trifle over 17 ft. in diameter, and the central opening measures about 
10 ft. 6 in., the hour numerals being about 2 ft. deep. Though but 
two sets of dial-work were used, the stonework of the four faces of 
the tower is alike, and on the eastern side, just visible from Cannon 
Street, although the dial was not painted, the hour numerals were 
cut in the stone : this suggests the inference that it was at one time 
intended to show the time there ; it was probably found that the 
pediment over the southern entrance to the cathedral so obscured 
the view as to render the third dial comparatively useless. On the 
roof, just outside of this dial aperture, was a horizontal sun-dial, with 
a plate, over 2 ft. in diameter, for the purpose of regulating the clock 
by the sun. 



4 10 




9 10 

334 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Biadley's bill appears in the Cathedral Accounts, December 1708, 
as follows : — 

To Langley Bradley, Clockmaker, vizt- : — 

For a large Quarter clock, going 8 daj^s, as by agreement 

dated 15 Nov^ 1706 

For 2 large BeUmetal Braces for the great bell, w^- 107" , 

at 14<^i- per li. 
For a large strong canvas bed stuffe with oakam and 

sewed w^^ strong thread line to receive the clock 


A curious feature is the description of the clock as an eight-day 
one, whereas, for many years at least, it was but a thirty-hour one. 
Indeed, it seems doubtful if it ever went eight days between windings, 
for, by the arrangement of the train and barrel, the weight fell about 
40 ft. for twenty-four hours' going. 

From the clock room the upper part of the belfry is approached 
by a stone staircase formed in the wall of the tower itself, which is 
5 ft. thick, composed of two stone shells, with a space of 15 in. 
between them. Here, 40 ft. from the clock floor, was hung the 
celebrated hour bell which, in addition to its piimal duty of recording 
the hours, was tolled when the Sovereign, the Bishop of London, the 
Dean of St. Paul's, or the Lord Mayor of London passed away. 

The commissioners appear to have had just as much trouble with 
their hour bell as was afterwards experienced over the casting of Big 
Ben for the Houses of Parliament. In the year 1700, when the 
cathedral was approaching completion, they purchased, for lOd. a lb., 
from the churchwardens of St. Margaret's, Westminster, the cele- 
brated Great Tom, which formerly hung in a clock tower facing 
Westminster Hall, as related on p. 24, and which appears to have been 
given to the churchwardens by William III. They then entered into 
a contract with William W^hiteman to recast the bell, and when the 
work was done the bell was temporarily hoisted into the north-west 
tower of St. Paul's and exhibited to the public, Whiteman being paid 
£509. 19s. for his labour. But lo ! after sustaining many blows for 
the delectation of the eais of the citizens. Great Tom the Second 
exhibited a crack which rapidly developed, so that the bell was pro- 
nounced to be useless. The commissioners suggested that of course 
Whiteman would make good his work by recasting the bell. " Not 
so," rejoined Whiteman. "' I delivered to you a sound bell for which 
I was paid, and since it has been in your possession it has been 
cracked." So, to make the best of a bad job, a very stringent agree- 
ment was entered into with another founder— Richard Phelps, to wit. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 335 

The accident with the first hour bell accounts for the difference between 
the date of the finishing of the clock and the time when the Phelps 
hour bell was cast, around the waist of which is the inscription, 
" Richard Phelps made me, 1716." It is 6 ft. QJin. in diameter at 
the mouth, and according to Phelps' account, dated 31st December 
1716, weighs 99 cwt. 3 qrs. 7 lbs., of which 7 cwt. 2 qrs. 21 lbs. were 
new metal. For tolling it has a clapper weighing 180 lbs., and the 
total weight of the bell and fittings is, 1 believe, 5 tons 4 cwt. The 
hammer-head which struck the hours on the outside of the sound bow 
weighed 145 lbs. Just below the hour bell were two bells on which 
the " ting-tang " quarters were struck ; the larger of these weighed 
1 ton 4 cwt., and the smaller 12 cwt. 2 qrs. 9 lbs. 

Eilicott.— The first John Ellicott, watchmaker, whose parents 
came to London from Bodmin, in Cornwall, was apprenticed to 
John Waters in 1687, admitted to the freedom of the Clockmakers' 
Company in 1696, elected on the Court of Assistants in 1726, and 
served as warden from 1731 till his death in 1733. He resided in 
the parish of i\llhallows, London Wall. But the most eminent watch 
and clockmaker of the family w^as his son John Ellicott, born in 1706, 
who established himself in business about 1728 at Sweeting's Alley, 
which was situated just w^here the statue of Rowland Hill now s^tands, 
near the Royal Exchange. After the fire which destroyed the old 
Royal Exchange in 1838, Sweeting's Alley was not rebuilt. He was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1738, being recommended 
for that honour by Sir Hans Sloane, Bart., Martin Ffolkes, John 
Senex, the celebrated globe maker, and John Hadley, the astronomer. 
At the meetings of the Royal Society, he became acquainted with 
James Ferguson, who afterwards frequently visited Ellicott's private 
house at St. John's, Hackney, where an observatory was fitted up, and 
various scientific experiments were made. 

Ellicott was the inventor of a compensation pendulum in which 
the bob rests on the longer ends of two levers, of which the shorter 
ends are depressed by the superior expansion of a brass bar attached 
to the pendulum rod. In Fig. 479, a is the suspension spring ; s s s 
screws for uniting the steel rod to the brass bar, slotted holes in the 
latter allowing it to move freely in answer to changes of temperature ; 
// the two levers pivoted to the steel rod ; on the shorter ends rests 
the brass bar ; the screws g g pass through the pendulum bob c c, 
and rest on the longer ends of the levers. By turning the screws 
their bearing on the levers may be adjusted. This device has not 
proved to be of much practical value, although there is a clock to 

336 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

which it is attached still going at the London Institution, Finsbury 

A well-proportioned long-mahogany-case clock by him, with dead- 
beat escapement, and a bracket repeating clock in a green lacquer case, 
are among the Wetherfield collection. In the same collection also is 
the bracket repeating clock shown in Chapter VII., which is charming 
in its simplicity. The case is of mahogany. 
Ellicott's productions were distinguished by 
excellent workmanship. He paid great atten 
tion to the cylinder escapement, and did much 
to bring it into use. In some of his later 
examples the cylinders were of ruby. His 
more costly watches were lavishly decorated, 
the cases in repousse, and the dials enamelled 
on gold, some of these being really works of 
art. They are now rarely to be met with, for 
the iconoclastic dealer as a rule ruthlessly 
changes the dial for one of cheaper material. 
In reference to the prices Ellicott obtained, it 
may be mentioned that Horace Walpole, writ- 
ing to Sir. H. Mann at Florence, on 8th June 
1759, with regard to a commission to purchase 
a watch, states that for one of Ellicott's the 
price was 150 guineas. In the British Museum 
is a silver repeater by him which belonged to 
Jeremy Bentham. Mr. Talfourd Ely, M.A., in 
the Archaeological Journal for June 1895, gives 
an interesting description of a watch by John 
Ellicott. It is in gold cases, the outer one 
decorated in repousse, and appears to have been 
made in 1751. A small gold watch by him 
with gold dial is in the Pierpont Morgan col- 
lection. The collection of the Czar of Russia 
in theWinter Palace at St. Petersburg contained 
a good example of his manufacture. It is a 
large repeater in gold cases ; the inner one bears the hall mark for 
1760-61 and the outer one a repousse decoration. 

Ellicott was on the council of the Royal Society for three years, 
and read several papers before the Society. They included one on the 
" Influence which two Pendulum Clocks were observed to have on each 
other." The ball of each pendulum weighed above 23 lbs. ; the cases 

Fig. 479.— Ellicott's 
Compensation Pen- 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


set No. 

were placed sideways to each other, so near that the pendulums when 
at rest were little more than 2 ft. asunder. In less than two hours 
after they were set going, one of them, called No. 1, always stopped. 
As it had always kept going with great freedom before, the other 
regulator. No. 2, was placed near it, Ellicott conceived its stopping 
must be owing to some influence the motion of one of the pendulums 
had upon the other ; and upon watching them narrowly the motion of 
No. 2 was found to increase as No. 1 diminished. At the time No. 1 
stopped. No. 2 described an arc of 5°, being nearh^ 2° more than it 
would have done if the 
other had not been near 
it, and more than it 
moved in a short time 
after the other pendu- 
lum came to rest. On 
this he stopped the 
pendulum of No. 2, and 
1 going, the 
describing as 
large an arc as the case 
would admit, viz., about 
5° ; he presently found 
the pendulum of No. 2 
begin to move, and the 
motion to increase 
gradually, till in 17 
minutes 40 seconds it 
described an arc ol 
2° 10', at which, the 
wheel discharging itself 
off the pallets, the re- 
gulator went, the arcs 
of the vibrations con- 
tinued to increase till, as in the former experiment, the pendulum 
moved 5^ the motion of the pendulum of No. 1 gradually decreasing as 
the other increased, and in 45 minutes it stopped. He then left the 
pendulum of No. 1 at rest, and set No. 2 going, making it also describe 
an arc of 5° ; it continued to vibrate less and less till it described but 
about 3^, in which arc it continued to move ; the pendulum of No. 1 
seemed but little affected by the motion of No. 2. Elhcott's explana- 
tion was that, as the pendulums were very heavy, either of them set 

Fig. 480.— John Ellicott, 1706-1772. 

33^ Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

going communicated a 
slight motion to the case 
and in a lesser degree 
to whatever the case 
touched. Ellicott's ex- 
periment was useful as 
showing the necessity 
of fixing clocks with 
heavy pendulums to the 
wall of a building or 
other ponderous and un- 
3'ielding structure. 

In Fig. 481 is shown 
by favour of Mr. E. 
Beaven the upper part 
of an exceedingly choice 
long-case clock by Elli- 
cott. By means of two 
darkened annular seg- 
ments, arranged to pass 
one over ' the other, the 
hours of day and night 
are indicated in the 
centre of the dial. 
Below the hood a 
secondary dial gives the 
equation of time. I re- 
member seeing a sketch 
of a twelve - month 
timekeeper by Quare 
similarly equipped. 

E 1 1 i c o 1 1 designed 
several of our public 
clocks, amongst them 
that of the London 
Hospital, and was ap- 
pointed clockmaker to 
the king. He died 
suddenly in 1772, having 
dropped from his chair and instantly expired. The accompanying 
likeness (Fig. 480) is from a fine portrait of him. shortly before his 

Fig. 481. — Long-Case Clock by John Ellicott 
with Equation of Time Dial below the Hood. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 339 

decease, by Dance, afterwards Sir Nathaniel Dance Holland. John 
Ellicott was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward, who had been in 
partnership with him since 1769. Edward Ellicott died at his resi- 
dence in Great Queen Street, in 1791. The business was then carried 
on b}' his son Edward, who, after serving in the subordinate offices, 
was elected as master of the Clockmakers' Company in 1834. Though 
brought up as a watchmaker, he had but little liking for the business, 
and left the conduct of it in a great measure to others. From Edward 
Ellicott &Sons the title of the firm was altered to Ellicott & Taylor 
in 1811, and to Ellicott & Smith in 1830. After the destruction oi 
Sweeting's Alley, Ellicott & Smith removed to 27, Lombard Street, 
and remained there till 1842. 

There was a third John Ellicott admitted to the freedom of the 
Clockmakers' Company by patrimony in 1792. He was the second 
son of the first Edward, but appears to have taken no part in the 
watch or clock making business. His grandson. Dr. Ellicott, was the 
late Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. 

Henry Sulley. — This talented but unfortunate horologist was born in 
1680, and apprenticed to Charles Gretton, of Fleet Street, in 1697. On 
the completion of his apprenticeship he travelled over the Continent, 
visiting Holland and Austria. From Vienna he went to Paris with 
the Duke d'Aremberg, where he made the acquaintance of J alien 
Le Roy, Law, the noted Scottish speculator, and others. Le Roy 
at once recognised the genias of the young enthusiast who was 
imbued with ideas for perfecting timekeepers, and encouraged him to 
continue his researches. In 1717 Sully published " Regie Artificielle 
du Temps." The following 3^ear, commissioned by Law, he journeyed 
to London and engaged sixty watch and clockmakers, who, with their 
families, were located at Versailles, where a factory was started. 
After two years of unremitting toil Sully was displaced from the 
directorate, but a Jittle later, under the protection of the Dake de 
Noailles, another factory was established at St. Germain. This lasted 
but a year, when Sully returned to England, bringing his staff of 
workpeople with him. The same ill fortune dogged his steps here, and 
in his extremity he returned to Paris, where for a time he sustained 
existence by repairing watches. In 1721, when a little more prosper- 
ous, he turned his attention to the production of a marine timekeeper, 
and in 1724 presented it to the Academy of Sciences. This instrument 
has a modification of Debaafre's escapement, which Sully devised for 
the purpose, and a vertical balance which was really a pendulum. It 
carried cycloidal metal pieces, around which the upper end of a slender 

340 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

wire was wound, the lower end being attached to a lever with an 
adjustable weight, with the idea of keeping the vibrations of the 
balance isochronous. The pivots of the balance, instead of being in 
holes, were supported on the edges of large rollers, to diminish the 
friction, a device adopted afterwards by Mudge. In 1726 Sully 
published " Abregee d'une Horologe d'une Nouvelle Invention pour la 
Juste Mesure du Temps sur Mer." When subjected to the tossing of 
the ocean, his timekeeper failed to yield the results anticipated from its 
performance on land. Though mortified by his failure, he again set 
himself to the solution of the problem. He had already made a marine 
watch with two balances geared together, as designed by Dr. Hooke, 
and now proceeded with a new timekeeper of different construction ; 
but while engaged thereon he was seized with a serious illness, induced 
by over-application and worry, and succumbed to inflammation of the 
lungs in 1728. 

At the church of St. Sulpice, Paris, he had traced a meridian line 
on the pavement of the transept, and secured its permanence by 
inlaying a thin brass edge. He blocked up the south transept 
window except for a small hole in a metal plate at the upper part 
tlirough which the ra5^s of the sun cast a luminous disc about lOJ in. 
in diameter on the floor. The disc moves across the line which at 
noon bisects it. In this church he was buried, and a fine obelisk of 
white marble erected to his memory in the north transept, in a position 
that allowed the meridian line to be carried up the face of the 
monument. A laudatory inscription recounted his services to horo- 
logy, but the greater part of it was cut out by the revolutionists of 
1793, who possibly resented the suggestion that French watchmakers 
could be indebted to a foreigner. 

In the Guildhall Museum is a timekeeper with Sully's curious 
vertical balance. It is in the form of a bracket clock with a walnut 
bell-top case, has a seconds hand above the centre of the dial, and 
shows the days of the month through a slit below the centre. It is 
inscribed " Henricus Sully, invenit et fecit (1724), Horloger to the 
Duke of Orleans." 

John Harrison. — John Harrison was born at Foulby or Wragby 
near Pontefract, Yorkshire, m'1693. He was the son of a carpenter, 
which business he followed for several years. In 1700 the family 
removed to Barrow, in Lincolnshire. At a very early age John 
Harrison showed a great predilection for mechanical pursuits, and 
particularly directed his attention to the improvement of clocks. 

The offer, by Act of Parhament, of large sums for the production 

Records of Earty Makers, Etc. 


Fig. 482. — Harrison's 

of a timekeeper sufficiently accurate to ascertain the longitude at 
sea, induced him to turn his attention to the subject. He devised 
a pecuhar form of recoil escapement, 
and a pendulum in which the effects 
of heat and cold in lengthening and 
shortening the pendulum were neu- 
tralised by the use of two metals hav- 
ing different ratios of expansion. His 
escapement, generally called the " grass- 
hopper," is shown in Fig. 482. The 
pallets of ebony, or 
other hard wood, are 
jointed to a bell-crank 
lever carried by the 
crutch ; though free to 
move at the joints 
they are kept suffi- 
ciently near to position 
by springs which are 
not shown in the draw- 
ing. The teeth of the escape wheel alternately push 
the left-hand and pull the right-hand pallet, this action 
giving the necessary impulse to the pendulum. The 
chief merit appears to be that, as there ir no rubbing 
between the pallets and the wheel teeth, there would 
be no lubrication required at these contacts. How- 
ever, the invention was never adopted by others, and 
need not be further described. His pendulum, known 
as the gridiron form of compensation, shown in Fig. 
483, is still the form of compensation adopted in many 
foreign regulators. It is composed of nine parallel 
rods, five of steel and four of brass, the total length of 
each kind being nearly as 100 to 60, that being the 
ratio of expansion of the two metals . Depending from 
the cross frame A are two rods of steel a a. The frame b, 
to which they are fixed at their lower extremities b b, 
carries also two brass rods c c, which at their upper 
ends d d are carried in the frame c, together with 
two other steel rods e e. Those at the lower ex- 
tremities// are fastened in the frame d, which also carries the brass 
rods g g. The frame f carries the upper ends of this last pair of 

Fig. 483. 

342 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

brass rods at h h, and also the central steel rod to which the bob is 

One of his early efforts, with wheels and pinions of wood, which 
was in the possession of the late Mr. Evan Roberts, has John Harri- 
son's signature with the date 1713 on the face of the day of the month 
wheel. Another long-case clock by him is at the South Kensington 
Museum, and one made about 1730, fitted with the grasshopper 

Fig. 484.— John Harrison, 1698-1776. 

escapement, which was for some years in the possession of Mr. Thos. 
Nicholson, Barton-on-Humber, now belongs to his grandson, 
Mr. W. W. Nicholson. In the Guildhall Museum may be seen a very 
similar relic. 

In 1728 Harrison journeyed to London, taking with him his 
pendulum, his escapement, and drawings of his proposed timekeeper, 
hoping to obtain the approbation and aid of the Board of Longitude. 
Before being submitted to the notice of that body they were inspected 
by Graham, whose maturer judgment prompted him to advise 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 343 

Harrison to first make the timekeeper, and then ascertain, from its 
actual going, what claims it might have to further notice. 

Harrison continued plodding on in the country, repairing watches 
and clocks and making a variety of experiments till 1735 ; then, in 
his forty-second year, he came to London and took up his residence 
in Orange Street, Red Lion Square. He brought with him a time- 
piece he had invented and constructed. It was a cumbersome affair 
in a wooden frame, and had two balances. He obtained certificates 
of the excellence of this timekeeper from Halley, Graham, and 
others. On their recommendation he was allowed, in 1736, to 
proceed with it to Lisbon in a king's ship, and was enabled to correct 
the ship's reckoning by 1° 30', actually 1"^ 27', the difference of 
longitude between the start and the Lizard. In consequence, the 
error of the machine must have been almost negligible — say 5 miles 
at most. 

It is of interest and importance to note that this machine — Harri- 
son's No. 1 — had a gridiron compensation for heat and cold, the"^ first 
recorded instance of such a device being applied to a marine time- 
keeper — or, indeed, to an}^ time-keeper fitted with a balance (or 
balances) . 

In consideration of this result, the Board of Longitude 
gave him £500 "to proceed with his improvements." In 1739 
he finished another timekeeper, and afterwards a third, which was 
smaller and appeared to the members of the Royal Society 
to be more simple and less likely to be deranged than either of the 
preceding ones. In 1749 he received the gold medal which was 
annually awarded by the Royal Society to the most useful discovery, 
but he was still not satisfied with his productions. The experience 
gained by prolonged trial led him to abandon the heavy framing and 
wheels which characterised his earlier essays and to devise and con- 
struct his celebrated " watch " which eventually won for him the 
coveted reward. 

He spent some time in improving and correcting his fourth 
nautical timekeeper, and then applied to the Commissioners of the 
Board of Longitude for a trial according to the Act of Parliament. 
This, after much delay, was granted, and his son William was in his 
stead allowed to take a voyage to Jamaica. William Harrison 
embarked in the " Deptford," at Portsmouth, on 18th November 1761. 
After eighteen days' navigation the vessel was supposed to be 13° 50' 
west of Portsmouth by ordinary calculations, but by the watch was 
15° 19', and the timekeeper was at once condemned as useless. 
William Harrison, however, maintained that if Maderia were correctly 

344 C)ld Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

marked on the chart, it would be seen on the following day ; and 
in this he persisted so strongly that the Captain was induced to alter 
hi? course accordingly, and the island was discovered the next day. 
A contemporary points out that had the ship continued on her course 
she would not have sighted Madeira at all, and that her doing so " was 
a matter of relief to the ship's company, who were then in great 
scarcity of beer.'' In like manner William Harrison was enabled by 
the v/atch to announce all the islands in the order in which they 
would fall in with them. When he arrived at Port Royal, after 
a voyage of sixty-one days, the chronometer, as we may now call it,* 



>^"7|.^^'-riY'-'' .; ''"'^N. 









Fig. 485. — Harrison's celebrated Marine Timepiece. 

was found to be about nine seconds slow. On 28th January 1762 
he set sail from Jamaica on board the " Merlin," after an absence of 
five months the error on returning to Portsmouth was 1 m. 53-|-secs., 
or 28-|' of longitude at the Equator, equal to 18' in the latitude of 
Portsmouth. This was much within the limit of the 30 miles 
prescribed by the Act of 1713 ; yet, several objections being raised, 
William Harrison was obliged to undertake a second voyage, the 

* The late Mr. R. B. Prosser said the term chronometer appears to have been 
introduced by Loulie of Amsterdam in 1698 as descriptive of the instrument now- 
known as a metronome. John Arnold was the first to apply it to a precision 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 345 

proof from the first not being considered sufficiently decisive by 
the Board, although the}^ advanced ;{ 5,000 on account of the reward. 

Accompanied by Dr. Maskelyne, as the representative of the 
Board, William Harrison embarked in the man-of-war " Tartar," on 
28th March 1764, and arrived in Barbados on the 13th May, 
when it was found the chronometer had gained forty-three seconds ; 
he set out for the return journey on board the " New Elizabeth " on 
the 4th of June, and arrived at the Surrey Stairs on 18th July, when 
it was ascertained that, after allowing for the estimated rate of one 
second a day gaining, there was an excess of fifty-four seconds for 
the whole period of 156 days. The result of this second voyage was 
so satisfactory, that the Board unanimously declared Harrison had 
really exceeded all expectations and demands of the Act of Parliament, 
and he was paid a further advance of £5,000, with the condition that 
he explained the construction of his timekeeper. A sub-committee, 
consisting of Maskelyne, John Mitchell, Ludlam, Bird, Mudge, 
Mathews, and Kendall, were appointed, and instructed to make 
themselves acquainted with the mechanism of the instrument. They 
reported themselves satisfied in 1765, but even then considerable 
delay occurred. Kendall was commissioned to make a duplicate of 
the chronometer, which appears to have taken three years to execute, 
for the date of Kendall's instrument is 1769. The final payment of 
£8,750 was made to Harrison in 1773, after the personal intervention 
of H.M. King George III., who afforded a private trial at the Kew 
Observatory to Harrison's No. 5, now in the Guildhall Museum. 
Its total error in 10 weeks was 4|^ sees. only. 

Harrison's timekeeper is in the form of a large silver pair-case 
watch, with a centre seconds hand. The representation in Fig. 485 is 
from a photograph for which I am indebted to the Astronomer Royal. 
It has been stated that the piece hung in gymbals. This was not the 
case ; it reposed on a soft cushion, and on its trial voyages was care- 
fully tended by William Harrison, who avoided position errors as far 
as possible by shifting the timekeeper to suit the lie of the ship. 

The plates are 3*8 in. and the balance 2-2 in. in diameter; the 
fusee makes six and a quarter turns. The escapement beats five times 
in a second. The pivot holes are jewelled with rubies. 

One of the chief features is a bimetallic arm fixed at one end, and 
carrying at its free end two pins, to embrace the balance-spring near 
its outer point of attachment. " The thermometer kirb is composed 
of two thin plates of brass and steel riveted together in several places, 
which, by the greater expansion of brass than steel by heat, and 

346 'Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

contraction by cold, becomes convex on the brass side in hot weather, 
and convex on the steel side in cold weather ; whence, one end being 
fixed, the other end obtains a motion corresponding with the changes 
of heat and cold, and the two pins at this end, between which the 
balance-spring passes, and which it touches alternately as the 
spring bends and unbends itself, will shorten or lengthen the spiing." 

Lieut. Rupert T. Gould states that " Harrison provided a curved 
rack which carried the fixed end of his compensation curb, and which 
could be moved bodily by a pinion with a squared arbor and indicator 
dial — almost exactly like Tompion's regulator. It is figured in his 
" Description of Mr. Harrison's timekeeper and plates of the same," 
and can be seen in No. 4 now at Greenwich, It is not fitted in Ken- 
dall's duplicate of No. 4. He found that it did not answer, however, 
and abandoned it." 

It is, of course, easy to be wise after the event ; but, on examining 
the remontoir and escapement of Harrison's chronometer in the 
presence of the simple detent escapement introduced shortly after, it 
seems marvellous that he should have spent so many years over such 
complicated and by comparison inefficient contrivances. Harrison's 
drawings are most difficult to understand, and were left, it is believed 
intentionally, obscure, but I venture to reproduce some contributed 
to the Horological Journal by Mr. H. M. Frodsham, which were 
made from Kendall's duplicate of Harrison's timekeeper at the 
Greenwich Observatory. 

Fig. 1 is a section through the fourth wheel, Fig. 2 a plan of the 
remontoir and contrate wheel. Fig. 3 a plan of the remontoir and 
escapement. The pin" on at the top of Fig. 1 is driven by internal 
teeth on the third wheel of the train. The wheel immediately below 
the pinion in Fig. I is the fourth wheel, which drives a pinion x 
(Fig. 3). The dished wheel below the fourth wheel in Fig. 1 is the 
contrate wheel (c, Figs. 2 and 3). In the recess of the contrate wheel 
is contained the remontoir spring which is wound eight times in a 
minute. The wheel at the bottom of Fig. 1 is the seconds wheel. 
This and the contrate wheel move continuously, while the fourth wheel 
and the other part of the train are locked by the lever d catching the 
stop p on the wheel p x, except during the winding of the remontoir. 
On the collet of the contrate wheel are eight pins, shown in Fig. 1, 
and at q in Fig. 3. The eight pins in the contrate wheel in succession 
push the arm h (Fig. 3), and so unlock the train. The locking wheel 
p X drives a fly pinion and fly v to moderate the velocity with which 
the remontoir was wound. The seconds arbor is in the centre of the 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


watch, and is driven by the seconds wheel below the contrate wheel. 
The projections p p' on the barrel of the remontoir are to prevent 
the remontoir running down. 

Fig. 4 shows the pallets, which, instead ol forming an angle of 95° 
or so, as is usual, are set parallel to each other, and in this way there 
is very little recoil, but increased tendency, to set. These acting 
surfaces of the pallets are diamonds set in brass collets. 

Fig. 486. — Harrison's Remontoir Escapement. 

During William Harrison's voyages, the rate of the watch could 
not, of course, be checked daily for want of some means of comparison, 
and so in May 1766 the Board of Longitude placed the instrument at 
the Greenwich Observatory in the hands of Dr. Maskelyne, who had 
then been appointed Astronomer Royal, for the purpose of testing its 
daily rate. Dr. Maskelyne was supposed to favour lunar observations 
as a solution of the longitude problem and William Harrison considered 
he was prejudiced against the watch ; it was, therefore, put in a box 
having a glazed lid and two locks, the keys whereof were kept, one 

34^ Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

by Dr. Maskelyne and the other by Captain BailHe, Governor of 
Greenwich Hospital. The trial lasted 298 days, during which the 
watch gained 1 hour 10 minutes 27*5 seconds. Its greatest gain in 
one day was 30 seconds, the temperature being 60° and the pendant 
vertical ; its greatest loss in one day was 6*5 seconds, the thermometer 
being at freezing point, the piece lying dial up. 

Harrison's watch and the three bulky timepieces which preceded 
it are all preserved in the Greenwich Observatory. 

Besides the early clocks mentioned on p. 342, one of very superior 
workmanship and much later date, in the possession of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, has been described in the R. A. S. Notices by 
Mr. E. T. Cottingham. A view of the dial and movement appears in 
Fig. 487. The whole affair is a mass of ingenious complications 
departing, wherever possible, from the beaten track. Several of the 
contrivances embodied may be briefly summarised. The escapement 
is a variation of the " grasshopper.'' Cycloidal guides are provided 
for the pendulum, which vibrates through no less than 12° of arc. 
There is a double minute hand which goes round in two hours, being 
jumped forward at half -minute intervals by a remontoir which the 
escape wheel releases. The escape wheel has 120 teeth, and as it 
makes but one turn in four minutes a four-finger seconds indicator is 
provided. The seconds dial is sunk, and each of the fingers in 
succession comes into sight and points to the seconds figures. The 
bearings of the great wheel run on rollers pivoted into rings and the 
other bearings are supported on the edges of large friction rollers. 
Altogether the cost of this timekeeper must have been enormous. 

On Harrison's tomb in the south-west corner of Hampstead Church- 
yard is the following inscription : — 

" In memory of Mr. John Harrison, late of Red Lion Square, London, inventor 
of the timekeeper for ascertaining the longitude at sea. He was born at Foul by, 
in the county of York, and was the son of a builder at that place, who brought 
him up to the same profession. Before he attained the age of twenty-one, he, 
without any instruction, employed himself in cleaning and repairing clocks and 
watches, and made a few of the former, chiefly of wood. At the age of twenty- 
five he employed his whole time in chronometrical improvements. 

" He was the inventor of the gridiron pendulum and the method of preventing 
the effects of heat and cold upon timekeepers by two bars fixed together ; he 
introduced the secondary spring to keep them going while winding up ; and was 
the inventor of most (or all) the improvements in clocks and watches during his 
time. In the year 1735 his first timekeeper was sent to Lisbon, and in 1764 his 
then much-improved fourth timekeeper having been sent to Barbadoes the Com- 
missioners of Longitude certified that it had determined the longitude within 
one-third of half a degree of a great circle, having not erred more than forty 
seconds in time. After sixty years' close application to the above pursuits, he 
departed this hfe on the 24th day of March 1776, aged eighty-three. This 
tombstone was put up many years after his death." 

In 1878 the tomb had become very dilapidated, the inscription 

Records of Early Makers, Etc, 


being barely decipherable, and I then suggested to Mr. W. H. Prosser 
that he should obtain subscriptions, and have it restored. This he 
proceeded to do ; but on applying to the Clockmakers' Company, some 
members of the Court expressed A. wish that the matter should be 
placed in the hands of the Company, and the restoration was accord- 
ingly made under the direction of the Court forthwith. The engraving 

Fig. 487. — Late Clock by John Harrison, in possession of the 
Royal Astronomical Society. 

(Fig. 484) is from one by P. L. Tassaert, after a portrait by T. King, 
taken in 1768. The " earlier effort" behind Harrison is his No. 3 
timekeeper, now at Greenwich, but the artist has drawn it about three 
times as large as it really is. 

Pinchbeck. — Among the celebrated clock and watch makers of 
the eighteenth century must be reckoned Christopher Pinchbeck, 

350 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

known principally as the discoverer of an alloy of metals, called aftei 
him " Pinchbeck," and as an inventor of " Astronomico-Musical 
Clocks." In the " Dictionary of National Biography," R.B.P. sug- 
gests that he probably sprang • from the small town of Pinch- 
beck in Lincolnshire. He resided at Clerkenwell in a turning 
out of St. John's Lane called Albion Place, which, prior to 1822, 
when it was rebuilt, was known as St. George's Court. From 
there he removed to Fleet Street, as is shown by the follow- 
ing advertisement which 
appeared in Applebee's 
Weekly Journal of 8th July 
1721 :— 

' ' Notice is hereby given 
to Noblemen, Gentlemen, and 
Others, that Chr. Pinchbeck, 
Inventor and Maker of the 
famous Astronomico - Musical 
Clocks, is removed from St. 
George's Court, St. Jones's 
Lane, to the sign of the 
Astronomico-Musical Clock in 
Fleet Street near the Leg 
Tavern. He maketh and 
selleth Watches of all sorts 
and Clocks, as well for the 
exact Indication of Time only, 
as Astronomical, for showing 
the various Motions and 
Phenomena of planets and 
fixed stars, solving at sight 
several astronomical problems, 
besides all this a variety of 
Musical performances, and 
that to the greatest Nicety 
of Time and Tune with the 
usual graces ; together with 
a wonderful imitation of 
several songs and Voices 
of an Aviary of Birds 
so natural that any who saw 
not the Instrument would be persuaded that it were in Reahty what it only 
represents. He makes Musical Automata or Instruments of themselves to 
play exceeding well on the Flute, Flaggelet or Organ, Setts of Country dances. 
Minuets, Jiggs, and the Opera Tunes, or the most perfect imitation of the 
Aviary of Birds above mentioned, fit for the Diversion of those in places where 
a Musician is not at Hand. He makes also Organs performing of themselves 
Psahn Tunes with two, three, or more Voluntaries, very Convenient for Churches 
in remote Country Places where Organists cannot be had, or have sufficient 
Encouragement. And finally he mends Watches and Clocks in such sort that 
they will perform to an Exactness which possibly thro' a defect in finishing or 
other Accidents they formerly could not." 

His reputation was world-wide, to judge from the appended extract 
from a letter of the period, quoted by W. J. Pinks ; — - 

Fig. 488. — Christopher Pinchbeck, 1670-1732. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 351 

" Mr. P. has finished a fine musical clock, said to be a most exquisite piece 
of workmanship, and worth about ;^1,500, wch is to be sent over to ye King of 
France (Louis XIV.) and a fine organ to ye great Mogul, worth ;^300." 

Pinchbeck exhibited his " astronomico-musical clocks," together 
with a variety of curious automata, at Bartholomew Fair, and the 
Daily Journal of 27th August 1729 announces that the Prince and 
Princess of Wales went to Bartholomew Fair to see his exhibition. 
Pinchbeck also attended Southwark Fair, and with Fawkes, a cele- 
brated juggler and conjurer of that day, had a united " show." 
This may shock many who avail themselves of the fine arts of 
advertising in vogue to-day ; but, however undignified it may have 
been, it cannot detract from his ability as a horologist. 

Mr. J. E. Hodgkin has a trade card, " Pinchbeck, senr., at 
Pinchbeck's Head in Fleet Street," a change of sign possibly induced 
by the popularity of Pinchbeck's name. Mr. William Norman has 
a metal token ; on the obverse, a bust of George II. ; reverse, a bust 
in a frame, surrounded by representations of a walking-stick, snuff- 
box, signet ring, watch (or medal) attached to a double chain, and 
other articles, with the inscription, " Pinchbeck, senr., at Pinchbeck's 
Head in Fleet Street." 

Specimens of Christopher Pinchbeck's work are rarely met with. 
The clock illustrated in Fig. 489 is a very rare and unusual one, 
constructed in the manner of the German early 18th-century clocks. 
It strikes the hours and repeats the quarters by pulling a string. 
The case is in the Louis XV. taste. The dial is enamel, shewing 
hours and minutes and there is a subsidiary alarm dial. At the top 
of the case are two chased cherubs supporting an enamelled 
cartouche bearing the name C. Pinchbeck. 

This clock belonged to the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV., 
who had a house in Hammersmith Mall. It afterwards passed into 
the possession of Louis Welfe, maitre de cuisine at Carlton House, 
who lived subsequently at the Hammersmith establishment. It 
is now in the possession of Mr. Hansard Watt to whom I am 
indebted for the excellent photograph. 

Pinchbeck gold was much used for watch cases and the like. It 
is an alloy of three parts of zinc to four of copper ; but its composition 
was jealously guarded by the inventor, as may be gathered from the 
following extract from a letter quoted by W. J. Pinks : — 

" Mr. Xtopher Pinchbeck had a curious secret of new -invented metal wch so 
naturally resembles gold (as not to be distinguished by the most experienced 
eye), in colour, smell, and ductibility. Ye secret is communicated to his 

352 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

He died in 1732, at the age of sixty-two years, and was buried 
in St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet Street. The portrait (Fig. 488) is 
from an engraving by Faber after a painting by Isaac Whood. 

Edward Pinchbeck, second son of Christopher, who was born in 
1713, succeeded his father in the business, as is evident from a 
" Caution to the Pubhc " which he inserted in the Daily Post of 
9th July 1733. 

" To prevent for the future the gross imposition that is daily put upon 

the publick by a great 
number of shopkeepers, 
hawkers, and pedlars, 
in and about this 
town, Notice is hereby 
given, that the ingenious 
Mr. Edward Pinchbeck, at 
the Musical Cock, in Fleet 
Street, does not dispose of 
one grain of his curious 
metal, which so nearly 
resembles gold in colour, 
smell, and ductihty, to 
any person whatsoever ; 
nor are the toys made of 
the said metal sold by any 
one person in England 
except himself." After 
recounting the various 
articles he makes from the 
alloy, the notice con- 
tinues : "And in particular 
watches, plain and chased 
in so curious a manner as 
not to be distinguished by 
the nicest eye from real 
gold, and which are highly 
necessary for gentlemen 
and ladies when they 
travel, with several other 
fine pieces of workman- 
ship of any sort made by 
the best hands. The said 
Mr. Pinchbeck hkewise 
makes astronomical and 
musical clocks ; which 
new in vented machines are 
so artfully contrived as to 
perform on several instru- 
ments great variety of 
musick composed by the 
most celebrated masters, with that exactitude, and in so beautiful a manner 
that scarce any hand can equal them. They hkewise imitate the sweet harmony 
of birds to so great a perfection as not to be distinguished from nature itself. 
He also makes repeating and all other sorts of clocks and watches ; particularly 
watches of a new invention, the mechanism of which is so simple, and the 
proportion so just, that come nearer truth than any others yet made." 

Fig. 489. — Rare and Unusual Clock, by Christopher 

Christopher Pinchbeck, eldest son of the first named Christopher, 

* Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


carried on a successful business as a clock and watch maker in 
Cocks pur Street, being described as clockmaker to the king. In 
1766 he is said to have bought from Ferdinand Berthoud, for 
George III., the first pocket watch made with a compensation curb. 
In 1781 he was elected as an honorary freeman of the Clockmakers 

Fig. 490. — Square Four-Faced Clock, by Eardley Norton, at Buckingham Palace, 

Compan}'. He died at Cockspur Street in 1783, aged seventy-three, 
and was buried at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 

A Richard Pinchbeck, " toyman," who seems to have carried on 
business 1760-70, was probably a member of the same family. 

Pinchbeck-Norton. — In the Gentleman's Magazine of June 1765 
it is stated that Pinchbeck and Norton had " just set up at 

354 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the Queen's House a new complicated clock, having four dials, and 
amongst them it denoted clock and sun time, sunrise and setting for 
every day in the year in various places of the world, the Copernican 
motion of the planets, the ages and phases of the moon, highwater 
at thirty-two different seaports, and the days of the week and the 
months of the year." Notwithstanding this announcement, it is 
very doubtful if Pinchbeck and Norton were ever in partnership. 
The probability is that each of them provided a clock, for there are 
still two astronomical clocks at Buckingham Palace, one by Christo- 
pher Pinchbeck, the younger, and one by Eardley Norton. Each of 
these clocks chimes the quarters and has four enamel dials, one on each 
face of the square case. Pinchbeck's clock is the larger of the two, 
and has a handsome tortoise-shell case with silver spandrels at the 
corners of the dial. Norton's clock is shown in Fig. 490, for which 
I am indebted to Mr. A. E. Rutherford. The dial on the left, besides 
Greenwich mean time and solar time, shows sunrise and sunset. A 
disc rotates once a day behind a rising and falling shutter. During 
the shortest days the shutter is at its greatest height and hides the 
sun from 3.53 p.m. till 8.5 a.m. After remaining stationary three 
days it falls gradually as required by the lengthening of the days. 
The right-hand dial is an orrery, having hands to represent the 
movement of Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. 
The third dial is a calendar, and the fourth shows the age and phases 
of the moon, as well as the time of high and low tide at thirty-two 

Thomas Mudge. — Thomas Mudge, born at Exeter in 1715, was 
the son of a clergyman, who kept a school at Bidef ord. Young Mudge 
showed so great a taste for mechanics, with a particular inclination 
for horology, that his father placed him as an apprentice with Graham. 
Here- he made rapid progress in his art, and on the completion of 
his indentures took a leading position in the establishment. He was 
admitted to the freedom of the Clockmakers' Company in 1738, and 
called to the livery in 1766. At Graham's death, in 1751, Mudge 
succeeded to the business, as shown by the following from the Daily 
Advertiser of 18th November 1751 : — " Thomas Mudge, watchmaker, 
apprentice to the late Mr. Graham, carries on the business in the same 
manner Mr. Graham did, at the sign of the ' Dial and One Crown' 
opposite the ' Bolt and Tun ' in Fleet Street." Shortly after Mudge 
was established, Ferdinand the Sixth, of Spain, ordered an equation 
watch from John Ellicott, who, in consequence of the difficulties 
presented by this unusual construction, had recourse to Mudge. 

Records of Earlv Makers, Etc. 


Ferdinand was a lover of mechanical work, and hearing of this 
circumstance, sent an order direct to Mudge to construct for him 
any piece of horology which he thought the most carious, and to 
charge for it whatever he chose. In response Mudge constructed a 
watch which showed true and apparent time, struck the hours, and 
repeated not only the hours and quarters, but the minutes also ; the 
watch was set in the top of a walking cane, with sliding shutters over 
the dials. The king set great store by this piece of workmanship, for 
which Mudge charged him 480 guineas. About 1755 he entered into 
partnership with William Button, another apprentice of Graham. 

Mudge invented the 
lever escapement about 
1765, but it appears 
only constructed two 
watches on this prin- 
ciple : one for Queen 
Charlotte, which per- 
formed admirably, the 
other for his patron and 
friend Count Bruhl 
which, after several 
journeys, subjected to 
all the inconveniences 
of changes of position 
and quick travelling, 
kept time within a few- 
seconds during several 
weeks. Mudge showed 
this escapement to Ber- 
thoud, when he was in 
London in 1766, but he 
did not think so favour- 
ably of it as Margetts, 
Emery, and other 
English horologists did. 
In 1765 he published " Thoughts on the Means of Improving 
Watches, particularly those for Use at Sea." From this time his 
attention was mainly directed to marine timekeepers, and in 1771, 
leaving the conduct of the Fleet Street business to Button, he 
quitted London, and went to reside at Plymouth, where he devoted 
himself to the construction of chronometers. The first one was 

Fig. 491.— Thomas Mudge, 1715-1794. 

356 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

sent to Greenwich Observatory in 1774, and afterwards to Baron 
Zach (who was astronomer to the Duke of Gotha), and lastly to 
Admiral Campbell, who took it a voyage to Newfomidland, when 
its performance was pronounced to be satisfactor}^ The Board of 
Longitude sent him £500, requesting him to continue his researches. 
Two other chronometers were sent to the Greenwich Observatory 
for trial in 1779. 

Dr. Maskelyne and Mudge could not agree. Maskelyne, who 
was Astronomer Royal, carried the Board of Longitude with him. 
It was asserted that chronometers by Arnold performed better than 
those of Mudge. Arnold had not submitted his chronometers for 
the Government reward, and therefore Mudge objected to the 
comparison. On the petition of Mudge, the House of Commons, in 
1791, appointed as a committee to investigate the performance of 
his chronometers the Bishop of St. David's, Mr. Atwood, Mr. De 
Luc, Mr. Ramsden, Mr. Edward Troughton, Mr. Holmes, Mr. Haley, 
and Mr. Howells, the last three being watchmakers of repute. After 
much bickering, Mudge, in 1793, was paid £2,500, in addition to 
£500 he had already received as encouragement, although the Board 
of Longitude dissented from this course. 

Mudge was often employed by George III. on delicate pieces of 
work, and on the death of George Lindesey, in 1776, was appointed 
watchmaker to the king. He was made free of the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany in 1738, and admitted to the livery in 1766. The engraving on 
p. 355 is from a painting by Dance, executed for Count Bruhl in 1772. 
He died at his son's house in Walworth, on 14th November 1794. 

That an accomplished horologist and sound mechanic as Mudge 
seems to have been should, after his invention of the lever escape- 
ment, have persisted in the complication of a remontoir and 
vertical escapement for his marine timekeepers, must be ascribed 
to the perversity of genius. 

The salient features of his chronometer are shown in the accom- 
panying drawings. To obviate the difficulty of the compensating 
curb action interfering with the action of the regulating curb pins 
there are two balance-springs. The upper one for regulating has 
its stud c screwed to the balance-cock, the stud D of the lower 
spring, with which the pins of the compensation curb engage, being 
fixed to the upper plate of the chronometer. There are two 
remontoif springs, h and i, which are wound by the escape wheel 
G, and which alternately impel the balance through the pins a, h, 
connected with the upper, and e, f wdth the lower one. The wheel 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


and pallet actions will be understood from an examination of the 
lower figure, which is a plan. ■ After the wheel tooth has given 
impulse to the pallet, and thereby wound the remontoir, it is 
locked on the projecting nib of the pallet till the balance in its 
excursion unlocks it, and allows the tooth on the opposite side of 
the wheel to impel the other pallet. The balance staff is cranked, 
and the pallets mth the remontoirs are pivoted partly in the 
balance staff and partly in separate cocks, so that there are six 
pivots moving from the balance staff centre. 

Fig. 492. — Mudge's Remontoir. 

After Mudge's migration to Plymouth, the Fleet Street business 
seems to have reverted entirely to WilHam Dutton, although the 
title of Mudge & Dutton was retained till 1794. 

Thomas Mudge, junr., who was an attorney at 3 Old Square, 
Lincoln's Inn, engaged Messrs. Howells, Pennington, Pendleton, 
and Coleman to produce chronometers on his father's plan ; but 
they were too costly, and not successful. By 1799 the younger 
Mudge sold eleven at 150 guineas each, which did not pay him. Of 
others in course of manufacture some were finished by his coadjutors, 

358 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

and some by Messrs. Barraud & Jamison. One of these instru- 
ments is in the Soane Museum, one at South Kensington, lent by 
Mr. A. Mallock, another at the Horological Institute, and another 
at the Guildhall Museum. 

John Arnold. — This famous horologist was born in 1736, at 
Bodmin, in Cornwall, where he was apprenticed to his father, a 
watchmaker. While a youth he left home, and after a stay of some 
time in Holland he determined to try his fortune in London. Arnold, 
by his own account, was for some time a gunsmith. He afterwards 
worked as a journeyman, but soon found an opportunity of establish- 
ing himself at Devereux Court, Fleet Street. One of his earliest 
acts here was to make an exceedingly small half-quarter repeating 
watch, which he had set in a ring, and presented to George III. in 
June 1764. When it is stated that the whole movement measured 
but little more than |in. across, his ability as a fine workman and 
his marvellous sense of touch will be appreciated. The escapement 
selected was a cylinder one, the cylinder, made of ruby and measuring 
^\ in. in diameter, being the first made of that material. The king 
accepted the repeater, and presented its maker with 500 guineas 
as an acknowledgment of his surpassing skill. 

According to the AnnualRegister for 1764, the whole of this repeater, 
composed of 120 parts, weighed but 5 dwts. 7| gr., the following being 
the weight of the principal items : The movement, complete, is 
2 dwts. 2J gr. ; great wheel and fusee, 2f gr. ; second wheel and 
pinion, f gr. ; barrel and mainspring, 3| gr. ; third wheel and pinion, 
\ gr. ; fourth wheel and pinion, xo gr. \ cylinder, wheel, and pinion, 
tV gr. ; balance-spring, cylinder and collet, f gr. ; the balance-spring 
.j-g-o gr. ; the chain, | gr. ; barrel and mainspring. If gr. ; great wheel 
and ratchet, 1 gr. ; second wheel and pinion, y gr. ; third wheel and 
pinion, | gr. ; fourth wheel and pinion, \ gr. ; fly wheel and pinion, 
xV gr. ; fly pinion, 2V gr. ; hour hammer, J gr. ; quarter hammer, 
Jgr. ; rack, chain and pulley, IJgr. ; quarter and half-quarter 
rack, I gr. ; the quarter and half-quarter snail and cannon pinion, 
I gr. ; the all-or-nothing piece, J gr. ; two motion wheels, 1 gr. ; 
steel dial-patae with gold figures, 3J gr. ; the hour snail and star, 
i and tV gr. 

Arnold's achievement at once brought him into notice, and from 
that time his future success was assured. 

It is said that the Empress of Russia offered Arnold 1,000 guineas 
for a duplicate of the repeater made for George III., but the offer 
was declined, not that Arnold doubted his ability to produce 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 359 

it, but because he desired the miniature timekeeper to remain unique. 

Arnold now turned his attention seriously to the problem which 
was engaging the thoughts of leading horologists here and in France. 
John Harrison had already fulfilled the conditions laid down by the 
Board of Longitude, and thus practically secured the £20,000 offered 
b}^ Parliament in 1714 for a timekeeper sufficiently exact to ascertain 
the longitude within certain limits. A subsequent Act of Parliament, 
however, devoted a further £10,000 as a stimulus to continued research 
and improvement. Mudge was already in the field, and seemed bent 
on adhering to the remontoir principle somewhat on Harrison's 
plan. But it was clear to other minds that a nearer approach to 
perfection might be obtained by a chronometer of altogether a 
different character to the one invented by Harrison. 

The chronometer which Captain Cook took with him in the 
" Resolution " on his second voyage, in 1772, was Arnold's No. 3. 
Two other timekeepers of Arnold's were on board the " Adventure." 
The two in the " Adventure " were earlier, and presumably Arnold's 
No. 1 and 2. 

Lieut. Rupert T. Gould, who has examined No. 3, and either 1 or 
2 recently, which are the property of the Royal Society, states that 
they are pivoted-detent escapements of peculiar design, the unlocking 
taking place in a direction parallel with the escape-wheel arbor, and 
the impulse being given on the line of centres. Neither beats half 
seconds. No. 3by actual and repeated count, beats 112 to the minute, 
and, the other 94 only. There is probably | beat error in these 
figures, since the trains as far as could be observed, were identical, 
the only difference being that one escape wheel has 10 teeth, and the 
other 12. Hence — 


12 ' 

Lieut. Gould also states that the timekeeper by Kendal, aboard the 
" Resolution," was his cop}/ of Harrison's No. 4, and Cook expressed 
the very highest opinion of its performance. 

Arnold was not to be daunted. He profited by experience, and 
devised the helical form of balance-spring, and a form of com- 
pensation balance. Lieut. R. T. Gould states " Arnold first applied 
the helical spring in torsion, but Harrison had used it in tension 
forty years earlier, in his No. 1 and 2 machines, and curiously 
enough their springs have incurved ends just like Arnold's, although 
merely for the purpose of centralising the pull on the spring. Hence, 

360 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 493. 

the actual form of Harrison's and Arnold's helical springs is 
identical, although the application is different." The 
spring, as shown in the sketch, is ver\' similar to the one 
now in most general use for marine chronometers, but the 
balance was rather a complicated affair. These com- 
ponents he patented in 1775 (Patent No. 1,113), and his 
specification describes compensation to be effected by a 
brass and steel volute fixed at its inner end to the collet 
of the balance, and actuating weighted rods by means 
of a lever attached to its outer end. Some years later 
he adopted the simple circular bi-metallic-rim balance 
practically as now used, except that he soldered the brass 
and steel together and formed the circular rim with pliers, whereas 
Earnshaw first turned a steel disc and then melted the brass on to its 
periphery, a plan which, according to Rees, was introduced by 

In May 1782 Arnold patented his improved detent escapement 
(Patent No. 1,328). This is practically the chronometer escapement 
of to-day, which was almost simultaneously invented by Thomas 
Earnshaw, except that in Arnold's escapement the escape wheel teeth, 
instead of being liat where they gave impulse, were epicycloidal curves, 
as shown in Fig. 494 ; but they required oiling, and were consequently 
abandoned. While Earnshaw's wheel is locked on the points of the 
teeth and the detent moves away from the centre of the wheel to un- 
lock, Arnold's locked on 
the heel of the tooth and 
the detent moved towards 
the centre of the wheel to 
unlock, the sunk part of 
the body of the wheel 
allowing the locking stone 
to pass. 

Arnold was now ad- 
mitted to be a very 
successful chronometer 

maker, but he still continued his investigations, and made countless 
experiments with a view to improvements. 

Some time after 1764 Arnold quitted Devereux Court for Adelphi 
Buildings, which is the address given in his patent specifications, and 
in an account of the going of a pocket chronometer, in 1781, it is 
stated to have been compared with the regulator at his house in the 

Fig. 494. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 361 

Adelphi. About 1785 he removed to 112 Cornhill, where he carried 
on business until his death, his son being admitted into partnership 
during the latter part of the time. Arnold & Son also had a 
chronometer manufactory at Chigwell in Essex. 

In a book of " Certificates and Rates of Going," which he published 
in 1791, he gives the price of his large marine chronometers as from 
60 to 80 guineas ; pocket chronometers, in gold cases, 120 guineas, 
and in silver, 100 guineas ; repeaters from 150 guineas for the best 
kind in gold, down to 25 guineas for the commonest, in silver cases. 

The rival claims of Mudge, Arnold, and Earnshaw to the rewards 
offered for the best chronometer were submitted to a Select Committee 
of the House of Commons, assisted by a committee of experts, and 
eventually each was awarded £3,000 ; but a moiety of Arnold's portion 
was not paid till after his death, when it was received by his son. 
Arnold had not laid claim to the reward when depositing his chrono- 
meters at the Greenwich Observatory ; but their good performance 
was made use of by Maskelyne as a reason why Mudge's claim should 
not be recognised. 

Arnold told the committee he had then made upwards of 
900 timekeepers, but never two alike, so long as he saw room 
for any possible improvements ; adding, " I have twenty number 

According to Beillard, Arnold's son John Roger was apprenticed 
in Paris to Breguet. Some time ago, by favour of Mr. Hurcomb, I 
examined a Tourbillon chronometer in an engine-turned silver case, 
with square edges, which appears to have been the original model for 
the celebrated Tourbillon of Breguet on a chronometer by Arnold. 
The foot of the balance-cock was especially wide, and bore the 
following inscription : — " Premier regulateur a tourbillon de Breguet 
reuni a un des premiers ouvrages d' Arnold. Hommages de Breguet 
a la memoire reveree d'Arnold offerts a son fils. An 1808. ' The 
workm.anship throughout was splendid, and the graceful tribute to 
Arnold's genius of course enhanced the value of the piece. 

John Arnold was admitted as a member of the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany in 1783, and chosen on the livery 1796. He died at Well Hall, 
near Eltham, Kent, in 1799. The portrait (Fig. 495) is from an 
engraving by Susan Ester Reid, after a painting by R. Davy. 

At South Kensington is a painting showing John Arnold, his wife 
and son, together with a label stating that Arnold was assisted in his 
profession by his wife. A reproduction of this group is given in 
Fig. 496. 

362 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

John Roger Arnold seemed to have inherited neither the horo- 
logical abihty nor the commercial aptitude of his father whom he 
succeeded. He was admitted to the Clockmakers' Company in 
1796, and became master in 1817. In 1820 he removed from 
Cornhill to 27 Cecil Street, and from thence, in 1830, to 84 Strand, 
where he entered into a partnership agreement for ten years with 
E. J. Dent and during this period the business flourished; but, 
immediately the term expired. Dent set up for himself at 82 Strand, 


wB^^BMr"^%^^ ' 


l^mm^mm^mm};^ ; 

^^HH^^^hP^ ^ 







WLr-'^^ l|H 







Fig. 495.— John Arnold, 1736-1799. 

carrying with him the confidence of most of the customers of the late 
firm. John R. Arnold continued at 84 Strand till 1843, when he died. 

Thomas Earnshaw. — To Thomas Earnshaw, who was born at 
Ashton-under-Lyne in 1749, must be ascribed the merit of having 
devised the chronometer escapement and compensation balance 
precisely as they are now used. 

The comparison of Arnold's and Earnshaw 's escapement and balance 
just given in the sketch of the former's career may be referred to and 
need not be repeated. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


That Earnshaw was a true horologist by intuition is evident. He 
is said to have been honest and straightforward, but somewhat rugged 
in his manner. There are, however, but few details of his hfe to be 
obtained. He was apprenticed to a watchmaker when fourteen years 
of age, and seemr to have come to London immediately on completion 
of his indentures. After working for some time as a finisher of verge 
and cylinder watches, he taught himself watch jewelhng and then 
cylinder-escapement making, using ruby C37linders and steel wheels. 

Fig. 496.— John Arnold, his Wife and Son. 

He married early m life, and the necessity of providing for a family 
out of his earnings seems to have hampered him considerably in 
carrying out his projects. 

To improve the chronometer escapement he, in 1781, conceived the 
idea of substituting a spring detent for the pivoted form as applied by 
Le Roy and other French artists. After showing the new method to 
John Brockbank, for whom he worked, he took it to Thomas Wright 
of the Poultry, another of his customers, and agreed that when a watch 
with the device was finished, Wright should patent it. But the latter 

364 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

kept the watch for a year to observe its going, and did not obtain the 
patent till 1783. In the meantime John Arnold had lodged a patent 
specification, claiming the same thing as his invention. To the end of 
his life Earnshaw lost no opportunity of declaring in emphatic language 
his belief that John Brockbank had divulged his plan to Arnold. 
According to Earnshaw's account his own actions were always marked 
by trusting simplicity, though his confidence was continually betrayed. 

Fig. 497.— Thomas Earnshaw, 1749-1829. 

The patent cost Wright £100, and as all negotiations with Brockbank, 
Haley, Wm. Hughes, Best, and other leading watchmakers to purchase 
a share of it failed, watches with the new escapement were manufac- 
tured for various people on payment to Wright of a royalty of £1 each. 
The first dozen were not a success ; the impulse roller being too small 
with relation to the escape wheel, they were hable to stop. Earnshaw 
discovered the fault and with better proportions brought the new 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 365 

escapement into favour for pocket watches. The earher ones were 
stamped [^plSntT i^^ small characters, a form of marking which was 
dropped after a few years. 

Dr. Maskelyne, the Astronomer Royal, having tried one of his 
watches in 1789, advised Earnshaw to apply to the Board of Longitude 
for permission to submit timekeepers for official trial at Greenwich 
Observatory. Five of his watches were tested there in 1791, and 
then he obtained an order for two chronometers, and these were 
deposited at the Observatory on 1st January 1798. 

In 1794 or 1795 Earnshaw succeeded to the business which had 
been carried on for some years by Wm. Hughes at 119 High Holborn, 
one door east of the turning then known as King Street but now called 
Southampton Row. The shop referred to was pulled down when the 
thoroughfare was widened in 1901. 

The committee of investigation appointed to consider the claims 
of chronometer improvers awarded Earnshaw ;f 500 in 1801 on account 
of his inventions, and in 1803 a further £2,500, making his total 
reward £3,000. Rightly or wrongly, he was of opinion that he was 
not well treated, and in 1808 issued " An Appeal to the Public," 
declaring he was entitled to more pre-eminent recognition. The 
engraving on p. 364 is copied from one by S. Bellin after a portrait 
by Sir M. A. Shee. 

Earnshaw also made a number of clocks. For the first one, which 
was ordered by the Archbishop of Armagh, he was paid £150 and 
an additional £100 for going to Armagh to fix it. 

He died at Chenies Street in 1829, but the business was carried on 
for some years by his son, first at the Holborn premises and afterwards 
at Fenchurch Street. 

Ascertaining the Longitude at Sea. Development and use of 
the Marine Chronometer. — The discovery of America, in 1492 
caused considerable attention to be paid to the question of finding the 
longitude at sea, for it was evident that, if ocean navigation was to be 
carried on with anything like safety, some more certain means of 
ascertaining the position of a ship than was possible by dead reckoning 
would have to be provided. 

Columbus had not an azimuth compass, nor a sextant, nor a 
chronometer, nor a patent log, and he, and his immediate successors, 
were several months making the voj^age across the xA.tlantic, while 
the early voyagers took about three years to circumnavigate the globe. 
Even in the middle of the eigtheenth century Commodore Anson, in 
his celebrated voyage round the world, had no safe guide. When he 

366 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

rounded Cape Horn he unexpectedly made the land on the eastern 
side, and found himself in consequence three hundred miles more to 
the east than he expected, and so his voyage was delayed. Then, 
again, he wanted to make the island of Juan Fernandez to recruit 
the crew. He got into the latitude of the island and thought he was 
to the west of it, but he was really to the east ; he ran eastward and 
made the mainland of America, and turned round and had to sail 
westward again before he got to the island. 

With a sextant the latitude may be readily ascertained by 
measuring the altitude above the horizon of certain of the heavenly 
bodies and reducing the observations by references to tables. 

Finding the longitude is not so simple a matter, owing to the 
rotation of the earth on its axis, and the apparent change of places 
of the stars. As early as 1530 Gemma Frisius suggested solar 
observations and a timekeeper as a possible solution of the problem 
But the most important adjunct, an accurate timekeeper, was wanting. 

In 1598 the matter had risen to such importance that the King of 
Spain offered a reward of one hundred thousand crowns for any 
invention which should gain that object. The rulers of one or 
two other maritime States followed his example, but all without 

Early in the seventeenth century John Baptist Morin proposed the 
preparation of tables with a view of making lunar observations avail- 
able. Although Morin's suggestion was ridiculed at the time, it has 
become a perfectly practicable method. The moon is nearer the earth 
than the stars, and consequently appears to occupy a different position 
with regard to them when viewed from different points on the surface 
of the globe. And as the moon moves so swiftly from night to night 
through the sky, she shifts her position with respect to the stars very 
rapidly. If the sailor be provided with a book giving the distances of 
the moon from certain fixed stars for certain hours of, say, Greenwich 
time on every day of the year, he can,' in any position in which he may 
be, by observing the position of the moon, secure a datum from which 
the longitude may be deduced. But even after the position of the 
moon with relation to these fixed stars has been ascertained, and the 
voluminous tables provided, somewhat tedious calculations are 
necessary to reduce the elements afforded by the observations obtained ; 
besides which, if the lunar method alone is relied on, there is the 
disadvantage that the moon is not always visible. However, Morin's 
suggestion led to nothing at the time, and the greater simplicity of 
solar observations induced most investigators to consider the 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 367 

possibility of providing a correct timekeeper The first attempts to 
supply the want seem to have been made by Huygens and Hooke. 

Huygen's marine clock, constructed about 1660, suspended in 
gymbals and actuated by a spring, was controlled by a pendulum. 
A marine pendulum clock constructed by Huygens was taken to sea 
by a Scottish captain, named Holmes, and tried by Lord Kincardine 
in 1662 with but moderate success, only to demonstrate the futility 
of rel^dng on the pendulum as a regulator when tossed about in a 
ship on the ocean. 

In the course of a paper he read before the Royal Society in 1662, 
Dr. Hooke said : " The Lord Kincardine did resolve to make some 
trial what might be done by carrying a pendulum clock to sea, for 
which end he contrived to make the watch to be moved by a spring 
instead of a weight, and then, making the case of the clock very 
heavy with lead, he suspended it underneath the deck of the ship 
by a ball and socket of brass, making the pendulum but short, 
namely, to vibrate half seconds ; and that he might be the better 
enabled to judge of the effect of it, he caused two of the same kind 
of pendulum clocks to be made, and suspended them both pretty 
near the middle of the vessel underneath the decks. This done, 
having first adjusted them to go equal to one another, and pretty 
near to the true time, he caused them first to move parallel to one 
another, that is, in the plane of the length of the ship, and afterwards 
he turned one to move in a plane at right angles with the former ; 
and in both these cases it was found by trials made at sea (at which 
I was present) that they would vary from one another, though not 
very much." Dr. Hooke concludes by saying that " they might be 
of very good use to the sea if some further contrivances about them 
were thought upon and put into practice." 

In 1714 the British Parliament, on the recommendation of a com- 
mission, of which Sir Isaac Newton was a member, passed " an Act 
for providing public reward for such person or persons as shall 
discover the longitude at sea." This Act ordained " that any 
offered method or invention on this subject shall, in the first 
instance, be investigated by a speciall}^ selected body of practical 
men, who may then recommend it to the Royal Commissioners 
constituting the Board of Longitude." The award was fixed at 
£10,000 for a method or invention to define on a voyage from 
England to any of the West India Islands and back the longitude 
within one degree, ;£15,000 to define the longitude within two- 
thirds of a degree, and £20,000 to within half a degree. 

368 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The Paris Academy of Sciences in 1720 offered a prize for the 
best description of a suitable timekeeper. This was won by Massey, 
a Dutch clockmaker. In 1721 Sully produced a clock which he laid 
before the Academy in 1724. It had a vertical balance, which, from 
the description, seems to have been a pendulum with cj'cloidal 
guides. This timekeeper promised success till tested in the open 
sea, when its performance, like that of the preceding instruments, 
was found to be unsatisfactory. Sully, however, seemed to be on 
the high road to success, and he was engaged on another timekeeper 
just before his untimely decease. 

In 1675 Greenwich Observatory was founded. Flamstead was 
instructed to rectify the tables of the motions of the heavens and 
the places of the fixed stars. He made a large star catalogue, and 
many observations on the moon and other bodies, and the results 
of his lunar observations were taken in hand by the philosophers 
of the time, Newton and others. The construction of lunar tables, 
and to predict the place of the moon with sufficient accuracy for 
the adoption of the lunar method of longitude, was a very serious task. 

It was not until 1767 that Maskelyne, a succeeding Astronomer- 
Royal, founded the " Nautical Almanac," and gave therein, for the 
first time in any country, distances of the moon from certain fixed 
stars, that the lunar method came into use. In the early part of the 
nineteenth century the reliability of the chronometer was established, 
and since then the chronometer method has gradually superseded 
the " lunar." 

Stimulated by the prospect of obtaining the reward offered by 
the British Parliament, John Harrison, after thirty years of un- 
remitting labours and vicissitudes, recounted in the sketch of his 
life (see pp. 340-349), fulfilled, in 1761, the conditions laid down by 
the Board of Longitude. Thoroughly as Harrison deserved the 
reward he so laboriously earned, it is curious to note that of all his 
inventions embodied in his timekeeper, the maintaining spring in 
the fusee is the only one that has survived. 

Other Acts of Parliament relating to the subject were passed 
in 1741, 1753, and 1774. The last, repealing all former Acts, offered 
£5,000 for a timekeeper determining the longitude to or within one 
degree ; £7,500 for determining the same to within 48 geographical 
miles ; and £10,000 for a determination at or within half a degree. 
Further, to obtain the smallest portion of the reward, the error of 
the timekeeper was not to exceed more than four minutes in six months . 

Mudge, the inventor of the lever escapement and an experienced 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 369 

horologist, with almost incredible infatuation, proceeded on the 
lines adopted by Harrison. Though he produced a superior instru- 
ment to Harrison's (see p. 358), he allowed Arnold (p. 358) and 
Earnshaw (p. 362) to develop the marine chronometer of to-day. 

The investigations of Berthoud and Pierre Le Roy considerably 
antedate those of Mudge, Arnold, and Earnshaw. Each of the 
French masters designed a detached escapement, and while Berthoud 
used a gridiron arrangement of brass and steel to compensate for 
temperature errors, and fitted his timekeeper with two balances 
geared together, Le Roy experimented with a balance composed 
of two mercurial thermometers, the bulbs being furthest from the 
centre of motion and the ends turned inwards. No one could question 
the ability of Berthoud and P. Le Roy, but in executing their 
respective conceptions the Englishmen showed superior j udgment . The 
French marine timekeepers were by comparison very unwieldy, which 
may perhaps be traced to the influence of M.DanielBernoulli, an eminent 
mathematician, who, says P. Le Roy, "wishes marine watches to be as 
large as good clocks are commonly made, that the pieces may be worked 
with greater exactness, and that their defects, if there are any, may be 
more easily perceived. This is nearly what I have practised in the 
new marine watch." However, the simplicity of construction and 
the compactness of Arnold and Earnshaw's chronometers have 
ensured the general adoption of their models. 

Lieut. Rupert T. Gould states : " Berthoud, in his earlier machines, 
used a cylinder escapement, occasionally with pirouette, but he tried 
an extraordinary variety of escapements, compensations and driving 
mechanisms, and it is very hard to select any one machine as really 
typical of his earlier work. I have a chronometer of his. No. 37, 
made circa 1782, which is smaller than most modern chronometers, 
and has a pivoted detent escapement, compensation curb, and 
compensation balance. 

Le Roy's chronometer, made in 1766, is the true parent of the 
modern machine. It is not unwieldy, being very httle, if at all, 
larger than a present day one. It has a detached escapement, going 
barrel, and compensation balance. If one recollects that Le Roy 
was the first to enunciate the true theory of the isochronous spring 
and to invent the detached escapement and both a metallic and 
mercurial form of compensation balance, it must be conceded that he 
was the true pioneer of the chronometer of to-day. For its period, 
and indeed even to-day, his design is a masterpiece of simplicity 
combined with efficiency." 

370 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Vulliamy. — This noted family of clockmakers was of Swiss origin. 
Justin Vulliamy emigrated from Switzerland and settled in London 
early in the eighteenth century. He became connected with Benjamin 
Gray, of Pall Mall, whose daughter he married, and with whom- 
he subsequently entered partnership. Watches of very fine quahty, 
inscribed ''Benj. Gray, Just. Vulliamy," are occasionally to be 
met with. A choice example fetched £120 15s. when the HawKins 

Fig. 498. — Clock, by Justin Vulliamy, Windsor Castle. 

collection was dispersed by auction in 1895. The case of gold was 
enamelled in colours with figures in a garden, birds and flowers ; 
the outer case was of gold and crystal, and had a diamond thumb- 
piece to press back the locking spring. A fine watch by them, with 
the hall-mark for 1757, formerly the property of Lieut. James 
Stockham, who commanded the " Thunderer " at the battle of 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


Trafalgar, is in the Guildhall Museum. In the Wetherfield collection 
are two long-case clocks of their make, and two by Justin Vulliamy who 
carried on the business at Gray's death. Benjamin Gray was 
appointed as clockmaker to George II., and the family of Vuhiamy 
held the office of clockmaker to the reigning sovereign till the death 
of Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy in 1854. 

Fig. 499. — Clock, by Vulliamy, in an uncommon and well- 
executed case of White Marble. 

Benjamin Vulliamy, the son of Justin, was much favoured and 
consulted by George III. on mechanical subjects, especially in 
connection with Kew Observatory, which was a hobby of the king. 

Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy, born in 1 780, was noted for the exactness 
and excellent finish of his work, in both clocks and watches. The 
large clock at the old Post Office, St. Martin's-le-Grand, and one at 
Christ Church, Oxford, are among the public timekeepers by him. 

372 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

He took an active interest in the Clockmakers' Company, of which 
he was five times master between 1821 and 1848. In 1849 the Court 
presented him with a piece of plate in recognition of his services 
to the Company. He wrote several pamphlets on trade subjects. 
One of them, on the construction of the dead-beat escapement for 
clocks, advocated the turning of the pallets for ensuring greater 

Specimens of VuUiamy's handiwork abound at the royal palaces, 
and in many instances clocks originally by other makers now contain 
VuUiamy movements either wholly or in part. All those I have 
illustrated are at Windsor Castle. 

Fig. 500. — Clock in the Presence Chamber at Windsor Castle. 

On the mantelpiece ot Queen Victoria's dining-room was a chiming 
clock by Justin VuUiamy, in a plain blackwood broken arch case as 
shown in Fig. 498. It has a white enamel dial, and was chosen by 
Her Majesty for the situation by reason of its particular legibihty. 
The subsidiary dials in the upper corners are for guidance in actuating 
the rise and fall of the pendulum and strike-silent hands. 

A clock by VuUiamy in an uncommon and well-executed case of 
white marble, with two boys of biscuit china and particularly reaHstic 
building materials, is shown in Fig. 499. 

The Presence Chamber contains a sumptuous mantelpiece of 
white marble, a magnificent piece of sculpture by J. Bacon, R.A., 

Records of Early .Makers, Etc. 


executed in 1790, and incorporating the clock case as seen in 
Fig. 500. 
The clock is by Vulliamy, the fine enamelled dial, slightly convex 

Fig. 501. — Clock in the Grand Reception-room at Windsor 

in form, measures about 10 in. across. Under the clock is the 
inscription by Cowper : — 


which Hayley happily rendered : — 

" Slow comes the hour, its passing speed how great ! 
Waiting to seize it — Vigilantly wait." 

In the Grand Reception-room is a clock with a movement by 
Vulliamy and the peculiar case in the Chinese style shown in 

374 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

'-^.y' / 

Fig. 502. 

Chiming Clock, b}- Vulliamy 

Fig. 503. 

Standard Clock at Windsor 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


Fig. 501. This and the companion case, which contains an aneroid, 
barometer, were made to the order of George IV. for the PaviUon 
at Brighton, and removed to Windsor on the accession of Queen 

A fine chiming clock by VuUiamy, with case in the Louis XIV. 
style, and dating from about 1820, which is in the Zuccarelli room 
at Windsor Castle, is shown in Fig. 502. The outline of the case is 
excellent, the surface of black shell is inlaid with brass and decorated 
with bold but rather coarsely chased ormolu mounts. 




'■■Hi» mmmm'tKUKmmmimmmmmmm 

Fig. r>04. — Clock over the state entrance in the Quadrangle oi Windsor 
Castle, by VulUamy. 

On the landing by the Administration Offices of the Castle is the 
long-case clock by Vulliamy shown in Fig. 503. It is well made, 
with jewelled pallets, and is now used as a standard timekeeper. The 
dial is of enamel with gilt spandrels. The case though plain is of 
choice mahogany and has an effective appearance. A long-case clock 
by him with square silvered dial and case very similar to that in 
Fig. 503 is among the Wetherfield collection. 

Over the state entrance in the Quadrangle of Windsor Castle was 

376 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

formerly a clock by Joseph Knibb, which B. L. Vulliamy replaced in 

1829 by one, the dial and sur- 
roundings of which are shown in 
Fig. 504. Though plain, the dial 
and hands are certainly an example 
of the best style of that period. 

Mr. Hansard Watt has a regulator 
in a mahogany case by Vulliamy 
constructed on the Smeaton- 
Franklin plan. By the ingenious 
employment of a bullet running in 
a spiral groove the exact hour is 
indicated, and by favour of Mr. Watt 

I am able to reproduce the dial 
Fig. 505.-DM of^Regulator, by -^ p-^ ^^^ ^r^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

Fig. 506 Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy, 1780-1854, 
reaches the upper XII. it falls through a hole and emerges 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 377 

underneath the lower XII. to begin its ascent again. This is an 
uncommon and interesting clock. 

When the new Houses of Parliament were being built, the 
architect, Mr. Barry, applied to Mr. B. L. Vulliamy for information 
respecting the construction of the clock tower, and this circumstance, 
together with Vulliamy's influential position in the horological world, 
led people to think he would make the clock, as indeed it was 
intended by Barry and others that he should. But Vulliamy objected 
to the conditions laid down by Mr. Denison, who was commissioned 
by the Government to draw up a specification in conjunction with 
the Astronomer Royal, and, backed by the Clockmakers' Company, 
declared the stipulations to be too onerous and unnecessary. Vulliamy 
submitted drawings of what he considered the clock should 
be like, and this design Denison ridiculed as being merely suited for 
a village clock of the old style, and quite unworthy of the national 
timekeeper. Denison's masterful attitude prevailed, and Vulliamy 
had to succumb, feeling, there is no doubt, the keenest mortification 
at being ousted from the proud position of leading clockmaker. It 
must be admitted that his talent lay rather in the perfection of details 
than in comprehensive departures from the beaten track. He died 
in January 1854. The portrait (Fig. 506) is from a miniature at the 
Horological Institute. 

Justin Theodore Vulliamy, who was warden, of the Clockmakers' 
Company from 1820 to 1822, appears to have had no other 
connection with the horological trades. He was, I believe, a 
brother of B. L. Vulliamy. 

Charles Clay. — A remarkably handsome musical clock by Charles 
Clay, which stood for many years in a manor house in Suffolk, is 
shown in Fig. 507. It is 8 ft. 6in. in height, the case being divided 
into two portions, the upper part of which is of Amboyna wood, 
relieved with heavy brass mounts, well finished. In the arch of the 
dial are shown the age of the moon, the day of the month, and the 
following list of tunes played by the clock : — 

" (1) Mr. Arcangelo Corelli's Twelfth Concerto, 1st Adagio, 2nd Allegro, 
3rd Saraband, 4th Jigg. 

(2) The fugue in the overture of Ariadne." 

On the hour circle is engraved the maker's name, " Charles Clay, 
London. " The pedestal, which is of Spanish mahogany and Amboyna 
wood, contains Clay's chiming machine with twenty-one" bells. It 
is a fine piece of mechanism, driven by an ordinary chiming 
weight, though the barrel is fully 12 in. in diameter. Dampers 

378 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

are used to avoid vibration of the bells one with another, and 

by an ingenious contri- 
vance the music starts 
immediately the clock 
finishes striking. The 
fly is attached to an 
endless screw, which 
ensures smooth running. 
This clock is apparently 
referred to in the follow- 
ing extract from the 
Weekly Journal, 8th May 
1736 : — " On Monday 
Mr. Clay, the inventor 
of the machine watches 
in the Strand, had the 
honour of exhibiting to 
her Majesty at Kensing- 
ton his surprising musical 
clock, which gave un- 
common satisfaction to 
all the Ro^/al Family 
present, at which time 
her Majesty, to encourage 
so great an artist, w^as 
pleased to order fifty 
guineas to be expended 
for numbers in the 
intended raffle, by which 
we hear Mr. Clay intends 
to dispose of this said 
beautiful and most com- 
plete piece of machinery . " 
James Ferguson. — 
James Ferguson was 
born at Keith, Banff- 
shire, in 1710. He lived 
for some years at No. 4 
Bolt Court, Fleet Street, 
where he died in 1776, 
Fig. 507.— Musical Clock, by Charles Clay. ^^^<^ . was buried in 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


Marylebone churchyard. Among other conceptions of this cele- 
brated astronomer and mechanician is a clock contrived with only 
three wheels and two pinions. It is shown in Fig. 508. The hours 
are engraved on a plate fitting friction-tight on the great wheel 
arbor ; the minute hand is attached to the centre wheel arbor, and 
a thin plate divided into 240 equal parts is fitted on the escape wheel 
arbor, and shows the seconds through a slit in the dial. The clock 
has a seconds pendulum. The number of teeth in the escape wheel 
is higher than is desirable, and the weight of the thin plate or ring 
in the escape wheel arbor is objectionable, though it might now be 
made of aluminium, vulcanite, or other very light material. 


508. — Clock, with only three wheels and two pinions, by 
James Ferguson. 

Ferguson also designed a curious and useful clock for showing the 
time of high and low water, the state of the tides at any time of the 
day, and the phases of the moon. The outer circle of the dial in the 
left-hand corner of Fig. 509 is divided into twice twelve hours, with 
halves and quarters, and the inner circle into 29' 5 equal parts for 
showing the age of the moon, each day standing under .the time of 
the moon coming to the meridian on that day. There are two 
hands on the end of tlie arbor coming through this dial, which go 
round in 29 days 12 hours 45 minutes, and these hands are set as 
far apart as the time of high water at the place the clock is to serve 
differs from the time the moon comes to the meridian ; so that, by 

380 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

looking at this dial, one may see at what time the moon will be on the 
meridian and at what time it will be high water. On the dial in 
the right-hand corner all the different states of the tide are marked. 
The highest points on the shaded ellipse represent high, and the 
lowest, low water. The index travels round this dial in the time 
that the moon revolves from the meridian to the meridian again. In 
the arch above the dials a blue plate, to represent the sea, rises and 
falls as the tides do, and over this a ball, half black and half white, 
shows the phases of the moon. 

The mechanism as it would appear at the back of the dial is. 
shown in Fig. 510. A wheel of 30 fixed to the hour wheel on the 

Fig. 509. — Ferguson's Clock for show- 
ing the time of high and low water. 

Fig. 510. 

-Mechanism at back of 

centre arbor goes round once in twelve hours, and gears with a wheel 
of 60, on whose arbor a wheel of 57 drives a wheel of 59, the arbor of 
which carries the hand for the right-hand dial. On this arbor is 
an elliptical cam which carries and lets down the tide plate twice 
in 24 hours 50-5 minutes. On the arbor of the wheel of 57 is a 
pinion of 16 driving a wheel of 70, on whose arbor is a pinion of 
8 driving an idle wheel of 40. This idle wheel is merely to reverse 
the direction of the wheel of 54 with which it gears, and which carries 
the hands for the left-hand dial. The moon is driven from this last 
arbor by means of a pair of mitre wheels. 

Smeaton — Franklin. — Two clocks by John Smeaton, the eminent 
engineer, are preserved at Trinity House, and he is said to have 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


devised a clock having but three wheels and two pinions, the dial of 
which is shown in Fig. 511, though Rees attributed the design to 
Dr. Franldin. Possibly Ferguson, Frankhn, and Smeaton were all 






taken with the idea of a three-wheel movement, and each embodied it. 
The late R. J. Lecky had a clock on this plan made about 1820 
by Austen, of Dublin. It had a case of slate, the back, to which 
the pendulum was liung, being a single slab, IJin. thick, It was 

382 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

a thoroughly good clock and Mr. Lecky converted it from a thirty- 
hour to an eight-day by 
providing a weight and 
counterpoise fitted as 
double-sheaved blocks, 
the sheaves being con- 
tained in the body of the 
weights, and making the 
cord endless, on Hu^^gens' 
principle, illustrated on 
p. 324. Mr. R. J. Lecky's 
son, Mr. John Lecky, who 
now owns the clock, tells 
me it is still an excellent 

Dr. Herbert N. Evans 
has a bracket or table 
clock by Grant, with a 
similar dial. It is shown 
in Fig. 512. Vulliamy 
made a bracket clock on 
the Smeaton-Franklin plan 
in which the pendulum, in 
order to beat seconds, was 
weighted above its point 
of suspension on the prin- 
ciple of the metrononie. 

Jenkin's Astronomical 
Clock. — Henry Jenkins, 
who flourished from 1760 
to 1780, first at 46 Cheap- 
side, and afterwards at 
68 Aldersgate St., must be 
reckoned among the cele- 
brated clock-makers of his 
time. Fig. 513 shows one 
of several astronomical 
clocks he contrived and 
produced. There are con- 
centric second and minute hands, and among other motions are 
shown : equation of time, days of the month, age and phases of 

Fig. 513. — ^Astronomical Clock, by Henry 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 383 

the moon, time of high water at many seaports, the apparent 
motion of the fixed stars, motions of the planets, &c. 

The lunar and other motions, except the revolution of the planets, 
are nearly as in Enderlin's clock, and need not be recapitulated. 
From the earth's diurnal motion wheel, rotating once in twenty- 
four hours, is driven a worm which carries forward an annual wheel, 
and the representation of the fixed stars one tooth each day. From 
thence is a communication to the planetary system dial above, and 
the motions of the planets are obtained by six wheels fixed together 
on one stud and driving six other wheels whose sockets are circles, 
and represent their respective orbits. On the stud are wheels of 108, 
78, 84, 40, 8, 5, driving on sockets 26, 48, 84, 75, 95, 147. 

George Margetts. — By the originality of his conceptions embodied 
in exact and well-finished mechanism this chronometer and watch 
maker mmst be ranked with the masters. He was admitted as 
a member of the Clockmakers' Company in 1779 and carried on 
business at 21, King Street, Cheapside, till the end of the century, 
when he removed to No. 3, Cheapside. In Fig. 514 is shown a watch 
by him with a series of intricate superimposed dials and indicators. 
A small centre dial indicates mean time, and on this dial at the XII 
is the word Ports^ ; London at 7 minutes ; Hull at 15 minutes 
Yarmouth at 22 minutes ; Dover at 29 minutes ; Downs at 35 minutes ; 
Plym^^ at 45 minutes, and Dublin at 55 minutes. An enamel ring 
outside this dial gives tidal hours. Through a hole in this ring is 
shown the age of the moon, and a hand attached to the ring indicates 
the part of the heavens the moon is in. A gold band below this 
carries a pointer indicating the position of the sun. The signs of the 
zodiac are painted on the lower large dial. Beyond the tropic of 
Cancer is figured the Sun's declination in correspondence with the 
days of the year ; beyond that the degrees, 30°, of each sign of the 
zodiac, and nearer still to the edge of the dial the months and days 
of the year, so that, except that no provision is made for leap year, 
it is a correct calends. The large dial makes one turn in a sidereal 
day ; the sun hand, making one turn in a solar day, becomes the 
pointer indicating the date because it gets y^-th of the circle after 
the dial each day. A finger attached to a large gold band on the dial 
shows the declination of the sun throughout the year. The different 
pointers can be set independently of each other. Fitted round the 
smallest dial and extending to the large gold band is a curved frame 
of gold with arcs within it. It carries a pointer and may be moved 
round, but its purpose is not evident. An eccentric circle on the large 

384 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

dial represents the orbit of the earth, farthest from the sun in June, 
nearest in December. The watch is in pair cases, the inner one of 
brass, and the outer one of twenty-two carat gold bearing the London 
hall mark of 1783. I recently saw a watch of earlier date with a 
similar dial. Watches by him with complicated dial work are also 
in the British and Guildhall Museums. 

As the cost of these watches must have been very great, one is 
inclined to think they were probably ordered for presentation by 
some wealthy corporation such as the East India Compan}/. A ship's 

Fig. 514. — Complicated Watch, by George Margetts. 

captain for instance would particularly appreciate a piece ot 
complicated horolog}-. Some time ago I was shown a chronometer by 
him on the dial of which was inscribed " Margetts' eight-days time- 
piece, 202," and on the plate, " Geo. Margetts, London, Invt. et fecit, 
eight-day nautical chronometer." It was the size of a small two-day 
marine chronometer, the great wheel being planted near the top plate ; 
it had a spring detent ; an escape wheel of sixteen teeth, measuring 
■47 of an inch in diameter, and an impulse roller one quarter the 
size of wheel. He made a regulator for the Archbishop of Armagh 
in 1790, and can be traced at 3, Cheapside till about 1806. 

Records of Earh^ Makers, Etc. 


Fig. 515 is a large 
\vatch b}' George 
Margetts, dating from 
about 1779, in a 
pierced and engraved 
pinchbeck case ; a 
border of imitation 
pearls and rubies at 
both sides of the 
case ; with musical 
attachment. From 
the collection of Mr. 
H.J. Heinz. 

Abraham Louis 
Breguet. — The 
intense and abiding 
interest taken in the 
works of this, the 
predominant Con- 
tinental horologist 
of his period, may 
be traced to the 
great variety of his 
conceptions and the 
exactness with 

which they were carried out. He seems to have had the 
faculty of surrounding himself with assistants who were good 
mechanicians and able to embody his ideas to the best advantage. 
Clocks, chronometers, and watches of his make all bore the stamp of 
originality in some particular. A defect in construction had only 
to be pointed out or the whim of a customer revealed, when Breguet 
was ready with the requirement. Of his more daring contrivances 
may be mentioned a " synchronizer " or clock for setting a watch 
right, a tourbillon or revolving carriage in which the escapement 
of a watch was placed so as to nullify the effect of change of 
position, which was one of the most perplexing problems 
of the adjuster, and a device for allowing the bearing surfaces 
to the balance-staff pivots of a watch to yield, which he termed 
a " parachute/' the object being to prevent damage to the pivots 
through shocks. 

Beillard quotes a letter from Breguet to the " Citoyen " Minister 

Fig. 515. — Large Watch, by George Margetts. 

386 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

of the Interior, asking for a patent for his escapement a Tourbillon, 
dated Paris le 18 Brumaire An IX. 

Of Breguet's writing no extracts can be given for he pubUshed 

Fig. 516. — Breguet's Synchronizer. The mainspring barrels are in the base 
of the case, the winding being accomphshed by means of a rack and lever 
underneath. Above the base may be seen the compensation balance, 
and rising from it part of a tall balance-spring, which is of gold. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 387 

nothing ; his works form the best tribute to his memory. Of these 
a few are selected for illustration. 

Fig. 516 is a view of a clock and watcli forming the " Synchronizer " 
which is the property of His Majesty the King, and I am indebted 
for the illustration to Mr. A. E. Rutherford. As already stated, the 
object of the invention is to set the watch right. Projecting above 
the case of the clock are two crescent-shaped slips to hold the watch. 
The clock may be regarded as a standard, and when the watch is 
placed in position, as sliown, it is not only set to time at any desired 
hour, but, if necessary, the regulator of the watch is also shifted. 
Projecting from the top of the clock is a pin which enters a small 
hole in the case of the watch and so establishes connection between 
the special pieces added to the two. There is an extra train of 
wheels in the watch to set the minute hand to zero and this train 
is discharged by a snail-shaped cam in the clock. With this general 
statement I must be content ; the details are most complicated, and 
to attempt anything like a clear description within a reasonable space 
would be hopeless. In the Napier collection was a Synchronizer by 
Breguet similar in principle, but in which the clock was controlled 
by a pendulum instead of a balance. 

In Fig. 517 are front and back views of a gold watch, No. 92, 
which was sold to the Due de Praslin for 4,800 francs on the 
11 Thermidor, An 13 (13th July 1805). It repeats the preceding hour, 
each period of ten minutes which has elapsed, and then the number 
of minutes beyond. On an enamelled dial in front are a perpetual 
calendar and an equation of time register. It has an independent 
seconds hand. At the back of the watch is a gold engine-turned 
dial, showing the age of the moon, the amount the mainspring 
is wound, a regulator for time and one also for the repeating 

Front and back views of what is often spoken of as Breguet 's 
chef-d' ceuvre are given in Fig. 518. It is a watch measuring 2f in. 
across, which, as stated in Breguet's certificate, was ordered in 1783 
by an officer of the Marie Antoinette Gardes with the condition that 
it should contain all complications and improvements then known or 
possible, and that in its construction gold instead of brass should 
be used. No price was fixed, and its manufacture was begun in 
1789, stopped during the Revolution of 1789, again started in 1795, 
and completed in 1802, costing altogether 30,000 francs. It is 
furnished with a lever escapement, compensation balance, gold balance 
spring, and two parachutes. All the pivots, without exception, run 

Fig. 517. — Watch with Perpetual Calendar and Equation of Time Register. 

Fig. 518. — Breguet's " Chef-d'oeuvre," Perpetual or Self -Winding Watch with 

Gold Movement. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 389 

Fig. 519. — Watch with Synchronous Balances ; two ^Movements in one Case. 

Fig. 520. Fig. 521. 

Prince Murat's Repeating Watch. Watch with Chronometer Escape- 

ment mounted in Tourbillon Carriage. 


390 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

in ruby or sapphire holes. All parts usually of brass are of gold. It 
repeats the hours, quarters, and minutes, has an independent seconds 
hand, perpetual calendar, equation of time register, and a thermometer. 
But perhaps the most ingenious feature of the mechanism is that 
there is no provision for a watch key, nor is any periodical operation 
needed to keep the watch going. So long as it is worn, recharging 
of the energy is automatically accomplished by a heavily-weighted but 
lightly-balanced arm or lever, to which ordinary movements of the 
wearer give sufficient up and down motion to wind the mainspring 
with which it is connected. Breguet is generally credited with the 
invention of this device, but of this I am not sure, 
for a patent granted in 1780 to Recordon may 
have been a prior disclosure of it. Back and 
front the movement is covered with rock-crystal, 
and the dial also is of crystal, though another 
dial of white enamel with gold figures is pro- 
vided. This extraordinary watch is the property 
of Mr. Louis Desoutter, to whom I am indebted 
for the photographs of this and of the other 
Breguet watches here shown. 

Fig. 488 gives front and back views of a 
watch by "Breguet et fils. No. 2,794," which was 
sold to Louis XVIII. in September 1821 for 
7,000 francs. Here are really two movements 
side by side in one case, with separate numerals 
and hands for each. The object of its produc- 
tion was to demonstrate the effect on the time- 
keeping of a balance when another similar balance 
was set in motion near it. It was thought the errors of one would 
neutralise the errors of the other, and that they would vibrate in 
unison. There is a provision for lessening or increasing the distance 
the balances are apart. A counterpart of this watch was made for 
George III. 

The watch of which a front view is given in Fig. 520 has a gold 
case and dial, repeats the hours and quarters, and is furnished with 
a calendar and a thermometer. It is numbered 1,806, and was sold 
to Prince Murat in 1807 for 4,000 francs. 

In Fig. 521 is represented a silver watch having a chronometer 
escapement mounted in a tourbillon carriage. It is signed " Breguet 
et fils," and numbered 2,520. Its original cost was £96. 

An exceedingly diminutive and thin double-cased watch is shown 

Fig. 522. — Queen 
Victoria's Watch. 
Exact size. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


to its exact size, with the outer case detached, in Fig. 522. The 
cases and dial are of gold ; it needs no key, but is wound from the 
pendant, has a lever escapement, and is numbered 5,102. It carries 
an especially interesting association, for it was sold to Queen Victoria 
on 17th July 1838. The price was 4,250 francs. 

A clock by Breguet, held aloft by a kneeling figure of bronze gilt, 
is shown in Fig. 523. The clock has a chronometer escapernent and 
silver dials front and back. On the back is a calendar, the indicators 

for which turn to the left, so that, if 
viewed through a mirror, the actions 
appear to be right-handed. It is 19 in. 
in height. 

The majority of Breguet 's watches 
had very plain exteriors, the dials as 
a rule being either of silver or white 
enamel, while the cases were generally 
embellished with a delightful kind of 
fine engine turning which it was a 
pleasure to see and handle ; his less 

Fig. 523.— Clock, by Breguet. 

Fig. 624. — Breguet 's " Subscription Watch." 

392 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

costly productions seemed to be purposely devoid of all enrichment. 
As an example, one of his " souscription " watches is here shown. It 
was made in 1821, bears the inscription " Breguet et Fils," and cost 
5^26. The bezels and bow are of gold, and the body and back of the 
case are silver. It winds at the centre of the dial and has an hour 
hand only, though this is of peculiar construction, for beyond the part 
which indicates the hour is a fme prolongation to reach the sub- 
divisions, which are each a twelfth of an hour, equal to five minutes. 
With practice one could doubtless estimate the time very closely in 

this vv^ay. It is said that 
the subscription watches 
obtained their title from 
the combination of Breguet 
and certain of his work- 
people to produce a reliable 
watch at a moderate price. 
Many of his watches had 
the signature Breguet 
scratched on the dial in 
script, the characters being 
so very tiny as to be indis- 
tinguishable without a 
magnifier. His early 

watches, it may be sup- 
posed, were not so marked. 
I cannot ascertain when 
the practice began, but it 
doubtless continued during 
the " Reign of Terror." In 
some instances the number 
of the watch was on the pen- 
dant, but this again did not 
occur on ah his watches. 
Mr. Lionel Faudel Philhps has a watch by Breguet in which the 
balance pivots are carried between friction rollers, a plan tried by 
Mudge in his marine chronometers. 

Breguet was born at Neuchatel, Switzerland, in 1747, his parents 
being of French origin. He settled in Paris in early manhood and 
quickly achieved success in business. Beillard relates that Marat, 
who also came from Switzerland, and Breguet were intimately 
acquainted, and one night when they met at a friend's house in the 

^^' H^' 


P^^^pii>""° ' 

Fig. 525. 

-Abraham Louis Breguet, 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 393 

rue Greneta, the populace under the windows shouted, " Down with 
Marat." The situation becoming serious, Breguet dressed Marat up 
as an old woman and they left the house arm in arm. Some time 
after, when the guillotine was set up " en permanence," Marat, find- 
ing Breguet was in danger, gave him a pass to Switzerland. Breguet 
took a post-chaise forthwith and reached Locle in safety. He after- 
wards returned to Paris and died there in 1823, being succeeded in 
business by his son, Louis Antoine, who retired in 1833, and was 
followed b}^ his son Louis, a worthy grandson of Abraham L. Although 
as an horologist Louis was overshadowed by the greatness of his 
grandsire, he established a reputation among electricians, as well 
as among horologists, and timekeepers issued from the house of 
Breguet during his administration were of the highest possible 

Equation Clocks. — To meet the perplexity caused by the fact 
that sun-dials recorded true solar time and clocks mean solar time, 
as explained on p. 2, equation dials to indicate the difference each 
day were added in the latter part of the seventeenth century. Fore- 
most among the inventors of equation work must be mentioned 
Joseph Williamson, whose paper in the Philosophical Transactions 
is referred to on p. 307. As well as clocks to indicate the variation 
between solar and mean time, he appears to have arranged mechanism 
to raise or lower the pendulum of a clock as required, in order that 
the hands might indicate true solar time, as in the twelve-month time- 
piece at Hampton Court which bears Quare's name. Figs. 526 and 
527 are drawings of an equation clock by Enderlin, which gives, in 
addition to true and mean solar time, a perpetual day of the month, 
the sun's place in the zodiac, his rising and setting, and the moon's 
age and phases. 

Fig. 526 is the dial work, and Fig. 527 the dial itself. In Fig. 
526 the wheel Q, of 24 teeth, takes its motion from the striking 
part. It impels the wheel r, of 32 teeth, with a vertical arbor, which 
has a bend and compound joint t. This arbor has an endless 
screw s, in the middle of the inclined half, turning wheel a, of 487 
teeth, and also a pinion a, of 24 leaves, actuating a wheel v, of 32 
teeth. This last wheel revolves in 24 hours, ^ in 18 hours, and v/ith 
it the arbor r t s a. q revolves in 13 hours 30 minutes, and a in 
8,760 hours, or 365 days 6 hours, whence it is called the annual wheel. 
The wheel x, with 62 inclined teeth, and the wheel z, with 90 teeth, 
revolve separately round one common centre 5, z being in front. 
X is impelled by a tooth or pallet on the 24-hours arbor of the 

394 ^^^ Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

wheel V, and z by an endless screw y. This screw has a pinion 6, of 21 
leaves, upon its upper end, and, impelled by the pinion a, turns 
z in 59 daj^s 1 hour 30 minutes, being the sum of two lunations. 
The wheel x is impelled one tooth every 24 hours, therefore an 
entire revolution would be performed in 62 days ; but it does not in 
fact make more than one-half of a revolution when it jumps back. 
The Equation Movement. — On the point d, in Fig. 526, the rack e 

Fig. 526. 

Fig. 527. 

The Dial work and Dial itself of an Equation Clock, by Enderlin. 

moves, its tail c resting on the circumference of the equation curve. 
At is a box with a spring, which keeps the cord 15 always stretched. 
This cord surrounds a pulley on the place of a concealed wheel n, 
under K but not attached to it. This wheel acts into the rack 
which is always resting on the equation curve. The pinion i, of 
30 teeth, revolving in 60 minutes and carrying the minute hand, 
turns the wheel k, of 60, which drives a pinion l, of 30, also in 60 
minutes. To l is attached a wheel h, of 48 teeth, which turns a 
similar wheel f, and this again a third similar wheel g, the tube of 

Records of Earlv Makers, Etc. 


which surrounds the arbor of i, and carries the equation hand with 
a httle sun on it pointing to 30, in Fig. 527. The wheel n, below 
K, is pinned to a bar, which is not seen, but which carries the wheel 
H and pinion l ; and as the teeth of the rack are acting in the wheel 
N, the concealed bar moves alternately towards i and 15 as the radius 
of the equation cam varies. This motion makes the pinion l some- 
times advance and sometimes retrograde a few teeth, independently 
of the motion it receives from the rotation of k ; and this additional 
motion is also communicated to the wheel ii in consequence of its 

Fig. 528.— Lichfield Clock. 

connection with l, and hence to both f and g, the latter bearing 
the equation hand. 

Altogether this is an interesting example of the mechanism of 
early compHcated clocks. The perpetual calendar work is now done 
with more simpHcity, in cases where such devices are demanded, 
and the equation indicator of Tompion's Bath clock, of which a 
description is also given, is actuated in a more direct way, as may 
be seen from comparison. 

39^ Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Green's Lichfield Clock. — In the Universal Magazine for 1748 
is illustrated a singular clock with a peculiar outer case, about 4 ft. 
high, built in three tiers, and shown in Fig. 528. The early history 
of the clock does not appear to be known, but at the date quoted it 
belonged to Mr. Richard Green, of Lichfield. 

The upper part represents a pavilion, whereon stands a brazen 
statue of Fame. Within the pavilion, in the centre appears Pontius 
Pilate, having a basin of water before him, as washing his hands ; 
and round him move continually three images, representing our 
Saviour as going to His crucifixion, the Virgin Mary, and Simon the 
Cyrenian bearing the cross. These three last-mentioned figures make 
one entire revolution every minute. The musical part of this clock 
executed eight different tunes, any one of which it played several times 
over every three hours, with also provision to play it occasionally. 
The outward case of this horological machine occupies the left of 
the engraving. It represents a highly decorated church tower of 
Gothic architecture, with pinnacles, battlements, windows, mouldings, 
images, buttresses, &c., admirably painted and well carved. This 
perspective view of the outward case is so contrived that no part of the 
inner structure but the dial appears to view, except when the front of 
this case (which consists -of an upper and lower door) is thrown 
open. The clock may be then taken out, appearing then as is shown 
on the right of the engraving, and placed on the table or elsewhere. 
The height of the outside case is 5 ft. 2 in. 

Henry Bridges. — Henry Bridges, who lived at Waltham Abbey, and 
was brought up as an architect, seems to have obtained a greater 
reputation abroad than at home as the producer of clocks with motions 
representing the heavenly bodies. The specimen of his work delineated 
in the accompanying figure was publicly exhibited in 1741 at the Mitre, 
near Charing Cross, according to an advertisement in the Daily 
Advertiser for 23rd December of that year. It is a monumental clock 
10 ft. high and 6 ft. broad at the base. Within the pediment at the top 
of the structure is a scene representing the Muses on Parnassus ; this 
changes periodically to a forest with Orpheus and wild beasts, which 
in its turn gives place to a sylvan grove with birds. 

On the upper large dial and the four small ones are indicated the 
seconds, minutes, and hours ; the rising and setting of the sun ; 
equation of time, the age phases of the moon, and signs of the zodiac. 
On the lower of the large dials is exhibited the Copernican system of 
time, consisting of seventeen bodies, the sun being in the centre and 
the planets moving round it. On a panel below are a landscape 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 


and the sea with representations of moving persons and vessels and 
on a second panel men at work in a carpenters yard These 
automata were very popular, and quite suited to the taste of the 

Fig, 529.— Bridges' Clock. 

period Besides these, the edifice contained an organ, which was 
played at intervals. Altogether there were, it is stated, over a 
thousand wheels and pinions in the composition of the mechanism. 
It is remarkable how httle is to be gathered respecting Henry 

398 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Bridges among English horological records. Dubois says he was 
clockmaker in the court of Charles L, and that the identical clock 
illustrated on p. 397 was made for the Duke of Buckingham. But 
this account cannot be accepted, for seconds and minute hands were 
not usual in the time of Charles I. In the Ashmolean Museum is a 
copy of the print from which Fig. 529 is taken, and it is dated 1734. 
A portrait of Bridges appears on it, and the wig and dress are of the 
style in vogue at the beginning of the eighteenth century. In the 
Daily Advertiser announcement, already referred to, is the following 
note : " Mr. Bridges being engaged in much Business at home would 
be willing to dispose of this Machine, either wholly, or in Partner- 
ship." In 1770, the clock was again exhibited, this time by one 
Edward Davis, who wrote a descriptive pamphlet concerning it. 

Lovelace's Exeter Clock. — It is stated that Jacob Lovelace, a 
native of Exeter, spent thirty-four years constructing the monumental 
clock shown in the accompanying engraving. A printed description 
of it says : " The mechanism is enclosed in an elegant cabinet, 10 ft. 
high, 5 ft. wide, and weigliing half a ton, ornamented with Oriental 
figures and finely executed paintings bordered by richly carved fret- 
work. The movements are : I. A moving panorama descriptive of 
Day and Night. Day is represented by Apollo in his car drawn by 
four spirited coursers, accompanied by the twelve Hours ; and Diana 
in her car drawn by stags, attended by the twelve Hours, represents 
Night. 2. Two gilt figures in Roman costume, who turn their heads 
and salute with their swords as the panorama revolves, and also move 
in the same manner while the bells are ringing. 3. A perpetual 
almanack, showing the day of the month on a semi-circular plate, the 
index returning to the first day of every month on the close of each 
month, without alteration even in leap years, regulated only once in 
130 years. 4. A circle, the index of which show^s the day of the 
week, with its appropriate planet. 5. A perpetual almanack showing 
the days of the month and the equation of time. 6. A circle showing 
the leap year, the index revolving only once in four years. 7. A 
timepiece that strikes the hours and chimes the quarters, on the face 
of which the whole of the twenty-four hours (twelve day and twelve 
night) are shown and regulated ; within this circle the sun is seen in 
his course, with the time of rising and setting, by an horizon receding 
or advancing as the days lengthen or shorten, and under is seen the 
moon, showing her different quarters, phases, age, &c. 8. Two female 
figures on either side of the dial-pate, representing Fame and 
Terpsichore, who move in time when the organ plays. 9. A move- 

Records of Early Makers, Etc, 


ment regulating the clock as a repeater, to strike or to be silent. 
10. Saturn, the god of Time, who beats in movement when the organ 
plays. 11. A circle on the face shows the names of eight celebrated 
tunes played by the organ in the interior every four hours. 12. A 
belfry with six ringers, who ring a merry peal. The interior of this 
part of the cabinet is ornamented with beautiful paintings, repre- 

FiG. 530. — Lovelace's Clock. 

senting some of the principal ancient buildings in the city of Exeter. 
13. Connected with the organ is a bird organ, which pla3's when 
required. Beside the dial is the inscription, Temptis rernm 

According to an advertisement in the Exeter Flying Post, 5th July 
1821, this clock was about to be publicly exhibited ; and in the same 
publication for 8th September 1834, it was announced that " Lovelace's 

400 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

celebrated clock," which for several years was in the collection of 

Mr. James Burt, had 
the previous week been 
sold b}^ auction for 
680 guineas by the 
noted George Robins. 
At the Interna- 
tional Exhibition, 
1851, it was a promi- 
nent feature in the 
Western Gallery. It 
then belonged to Mr. 
Brutton, who had it 
put in order by Mr. 
Frost, of Exeter, after 
it had been deranged 
for some years. In 
1888 a suggestion in 
the Exeter Press that 
the clock should be 
purchased for the Im- 
perial Institute, re- 
sulted in nothing, and 
it was afterwards 
acquired for the Liver- 
pool Museum, where 
it remains. 

There seems to be 
no reasonable doubt 
that Lovelace died at 
the age of sixty, in 
1766. It has been sug- 
gested that his death 
occurred half a cen- 
tury earlier. There is 
nothing in the clock 
here shown to warrant 
such a conclusion, and 
Fig. 531.— Cox's Perpetual Motion. ^^ is known to have 

made long-case clocks 
of a style quite inconsistent with a period anterior to 1716. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 401 

James Cox and his Perpetual Motion Clock. — By favour of 
Mr. George Ellis I am enabled to reproduce an engraving of a self- 
winding or, as the inventor termed it, " a perpetual motion " clock, 
which belonged to the late W. F. B. Massey-Mainwaring. The 
energy for keeping the mechanism in motion was obtained by changes 
in the pressure of the atmosphere. What at first sight seems to be a 
huge pendulum is an ornamental glass jar of mercury, suspended from 
chains. Into this is dipped a tube of mercury, also hung from chains, 
open at its lower end, and with a large bulb at its upper extremity. 
With increased atmospheric pressure a little of the mercury in the jar 
would be forced into the tube. The jar and tubes were balanced by 
weights, so that the tube, being a little heavier by the addition of 
mercury, would fall a little, and in so doing would raise the weight ; 
and with a fall in the pressure of the atmosphere, the mercmy in the 
jar would be increased and the weight would be raised a little. There 
is no pendulum, but the escapement, which is at the back of the dial, 
is controlled by a straight bar balance. Wherever possible, the 
rubbing surfaces were jewehed with diamonds to reduce the friction. 
The clock which is over 7 ft. in height, was constructed by James 
Cox, who resided for some time in Shoe Lane, and really devoted his 
life to the production cf mechanical cariosities, very much in the style 
of those devised by Grollier de Serviere. Cox obtained an Act of 
Parliament in 1772, authorising him to dispose of his museum by 
means of a lottery, and for some months his conceptions formed an 
exhibition at Spring Gardens, where half a guinea admission for each 
person was charged. It was stated in an advertisement that the 
perpetual motion would occupy the centre of the room. The following 
certificate was appended to the advertisement :- - 

" Sir, — I have seen and examined the above described clock, which is kept 
constantly going by the rising and falhng of the quicksilver, in a most extra- 
ordinary barometer ; and there is no danger of its ever faihng to go, for there is 
always such a quantit}^ of moving power accumulated as would keep the clock 
going for a year, even if the barometer should be quite away from it. And, 
indeed, on examining the whole contrivance and construction, I must with truth 
say, that it is the most ingenious piece cf mechanism I ever saw in my Hfe. 

" James Ferguson." 
" Bolt Court, Fleet Street, 

" Jan. 28th, 1774." 

The awarding of the various prizes to subscribers of the lottery took 

place in June 1775. Mason, a rhymester of the time thus refers to 

one of his exhibits : — 

" Great Cox, at his mechanicall, 
Bids orient pearls from golden dragons fall ; 
Each little dragonet, with brazen grin. 

402 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Gapes for the precious prize, and gulps it in. 
Yet, when we peep behind the scene, 
One master wheel directs the whole machine ; 
The selfsame pearls, in nice gradation, all 
Around one common centre, rise and fall.." 

Another of his " perpetual motion " clocks, which was really to be 
kept going by the opening and shutting of the door of the room in 

which it was contained, was 
for some years on view at the 
Polytechnic in Regent Street. 

Apart from his mysterious 
mechanism, Cox was an accom- 
plished horologist. I saw a 
large travelling watch by him, 
belonging to Mr. William 
Johnson, in which everything 
was well proportioned and of 
the best execution. A chime 
clock of his make, in an 
ormolu case with allegorical 
figures surmounted by a lion 
holding the arms of England 
and a miniature of dancing 
bacchanals by Degault below 
the dial fetched £861 at the 
Hamilton sale in 1882. The 
handsomely cased bracket 
chiming clock shown in Fig. 
532 belongs to Colonel R. W. 
Peckitt. In the upper part 
of the dial is a semicircular 
band containing the list of 
tunes played, and below it the 
signature " James Cox, 1769." 
Horstmann's Self-winding Clock. — In a self-winding clock invented 
by the late Gustave Horstmann, of Bath, the expansion and 
contraction of a liquid are used to wind the clock. A strong metal 
vessel, A in the figure,' is filled with an easily expanding fluid, such 
as benzoline, mineral naphtha, &c. Connected to this vessel by a 
strong tube with a very small bore are a cylinder and piston b and c. 
Owing to the fact that most expanding fluids are incapable of driving 
a piston, being too volatile and thin, the cyHnder and tube are charged 

Fig. 532— Bracket Chiming Clock, by^ 
James Cox, 1769. 

Records of Early Makers, Etc. 



with a thicker and more lubricating fluid, such as glycerine. The 
vessel containing the expanding fluid is on a liigher elevation than 
the piston and cylinder. This is done to prevent them mixing, as 
benzoline is lighter than glycerine, and, therefore rises to the top. 
It is easy to see now how that when the temperature rises the 
expanding liquid will force the piston upward, and, by means of a 
slight counterforce, the piston will fall on the temperature lowering. 

The piston terminates in a cross-bar, to 
each end of which is attached a steel ribbon 
like a wide watch main-spring. These two 
bands are brought down over pulleys at d, fixed 
on each side of the cylinder, and then carried 
direct to the winding mechanism e of the 
clock, which is all fixed on the back of the 
case and independent of the movement. The 
two bands join into one a little before they 
reach the winding. A large pulley e is fitted 
on a stud at the back of the case, and is driven 
by means of a ratchet and click. The pulley e 
has a flat groove, and is studded with short 
pins at equal distances apart, over which works 
a long steel ribbon perforated with oblong holes . 
This chain passes down through the weight 
pulley F, which also has a flat groove, but no 
pins, and is carried over the main wheel pulley g 
which is supplied with pins, the same as the 
winding pulley. It then passes under the pulley 
of the counterweight h, and is then joined to 

its other end, thus forming an endless chain. As the piston falls, 
a coiled spring causes the smaller pulley at the top of the case to 
turn independently of e, and to coil the band J on to itself, ready 
for the next rise of temperature. 

Fan or Windmill Clocks. — Fans actuated by currents of air have 
been from time to time used as motors for actuating timekeepers. 
One, by Lepaute, is in the Louvre, Paris. Benjamin Hanks, of 
Litchfield County, Connecticut, patented one in 1783. In Dardenne's 
more recent patent the weight is wound up by the current of air in a 
chimney acting upon the blades of a fan, which is stopped by a se]f- 
achng brake as soon as the weight nears the top of its course. 

533.— Self-wind- 
ing Clock. 



BEYOND the examples which have already been given little need 
be said respecting French horology of the sixteenth and first 
half of the seventeenth century. Of the early French clock- 
makers, Julian Couldray (or Couldroy) is mentioned as having, in 1529, 
received from Francis I. xlix. livres iv. sols for two " monstres d'orloge " 
without weights. The same king, in 1531, caused to be paid to his 
" orlogeur " a sum of 50 ecus (ducats) for taking in hand a " monstre 
d'orloge." The term " monstre d'orloge " seems to have been generallv 
used to designate a chamber clock up to about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. Henry III. of France ordered Gilbert Martinot 
to make two " monstres," viz,, a large round one to place in the apart- 
ment of the said " Seigneur " (the king), and another vertical clock 
with columns, which latter " hys majestic " had promised to the 
Bastard of Orleans, of both of which " hys majestic " had agreed the 

After the introduction of the pendulum, the term horologe appears 
to have been dropped so far as clocks for domestic use were 
concerned, and the title of " pendule " substituted. 

Paris Guild. — According to Savary, a corporate body of clock- 
makers was established about 1453, but the first statute of in- 
corporation appears to have been granted by Francis I. in 1544, on 
the petition of Fleurant Valleran, Jean de Presles, Jean Pantin, 
Michel Potier, Anthoine Beaavais, Nicholas Moret, and Nicolas le 
Contandois . The enactment decreed that no one, of whatever station, 
if he has not been admitted as a master, should make, or cause to be 
made, clocks, alarms, watches, large or small, or any other machine 
for measuring time, within the said town, city, and precinct of 
Paris, on pain of forfeiture of the said works. There were pro- 
visions for the regulation of apprentices, and for the appointment 
of officers to enforce the powers conferred on the Corporation, very 
similar to the privileges accorded to the London Clockmakers in 
1630. Upon the entry into Paris of Henri II., ten " orlogeurs " 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 405 

formed part of the procession composing the crafts-. The Paris 
Clockmakers had their statute varied in 1554 under Henri II., in 
1572 under Charles IX., and in 1600 under Henri IV. In 1646, 
under Louis XIV., their laws were thoroughly revised, and it was 
ordained that apprenticeship should be for eight years, after which 
the apprentice could leave the employed, but subject only to the 
approval of his master, and that of the master of the Company. 
In 1691 was issued a regulation declaring that an apprentice was 
not qualified for membership, i.e., for submitting a master work, 
until he had attained the age of at least 29 years. The number 
of members was limited to 72, of which only six could be admitted 
without qualifying. Special privileges were accorded to sons of 
members, a fact which perhaps accounts for so many successive 
generations of a particular family following the craft. Widows 
could continue the business of their husbands, and enjoyed the same 
privileges. Artisans who practised their trade in districts administered 
by the king, the lord of the manor, the Church, or the princes of the 
blood, claimed exemption from control of the Guild. The districts 
where this immunity existed were : the Cloistre Parvis of Notre 
Dame, the Court of the Church of Saint Benoit, the enclosures of 
Saint Denis de Chartres, Saint Jean de Latran, Saint Martin des 
Champs, Saint Germain de Pres ; also the Rue de Lourcine (because 
subject to Saint Jacques de Latran), the Courts of the Temple and of 
the Trinity, and the Faubourg Saint- Ant oine. The work produced in 
these quarters was generally considered to be of an inferior order unless 
executed by a craftsman who had voluntarily joined the Corporation. 
To the privileged places enumerated have to be added those where 
work was carried out for the king or the State, such as the Galeries du 
Louvre. The Associated Clockmakers appear to have governed the 
trade till the Revolution of 1789, when all the guilds were abolished. 
Alfred Franklin, in " La Vie Privee D' Autrefois," says the 
Martinots and Bidaults for a century and a half occupied lodgings 
in the Louvre, reserved by the king for distinguished artists. In 
1712 Louis XIV. had for clockmakers Louis Henri Martinot, 
Augustus Francis Bidault, and Jerome Martinot. The}' were engaged 
by the quarter, received 395 livres for salary, dined in the Castle, at 
the table of the Gentlemen of the Chamber, and had the right of 
entry to the king's presence along with the distinguished members 
of liis household. Every morning, during the dressing of the king, 
the horologist on duty wound up and properly adjusted the watches 
which his Sovereign was about to wear. 

4o6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century decorative art in 
France underwent a remarkable change, and cases of " Pendules 
d'appartement/' or chamber clocks, were produced in harmony with 
the extravagant demand for more sumptuous furniture of all kinds. 
Eminent artists and designers vied with each other in ministering 
to the pronounced taste for novelty of form and style. J. Berain, 
Jacques Caffieri, Boulle, and Marot were among the most noted of 
those engaged in horological coverings. As will be seen, some of the 
earlier designs were rather heavy and formal. The ornamentation 
consisted of masks, escutcheons, shields, and other attributes of the 
style hitherto in vogue, the structure in man}/ instances being sur- 
mounted by a representation of Father Time with his scythe, or Minerva 
helmeted and holding a lance, or warriors, ancient or mediaeval, and 
occasionally a cupid or nude female figure. Flatterers of Louis XIV. 
likened him to the sun, and it will be noticed that pendulums and 
other parts of many clocks produced during the latter part of his reign 
were decorated with the face of Phoebus. But in the closing days 
of Louis XIV. the comparatively stiff and sedate outlines gave place 
to freer and more coquettish forms, and the traditional masks, &c., 
to Rocaille of " Rococo " decoration. 

Rocaille is, strictly speaking, a style of ornamentation which 
obtains its effects from the kingdom of shells, but the products of 
luxurious vegetation, such as palms and ether leaves were also put 
under contribution, blended and twisted to produce a fanciful con- 
fusion of curves and spirals. To make the eccentricity more marked, 
designers, borrowing an idea from the Chinese, perversely strove to 
obtain originality in their conceptions by the avoidance of symmetry, 
though it must be confessed that in some instances the judicious 
incorporation of well-posed figures and groups from the pictures of 
Watteau and other celebrated artists produced effects sufficiently 
beautiful quite to atone for the outre character of the surroundings. 
Like many other fashions, the Rocaille style degenerated. It lost 
favour, and was done to death by the grotesque forms and unmeaning 
contemptible decoration which characterises so many works executed 
during the latter part of the reign of Louis XV. Such mad travesty 
caused a reversion during the reign of Louis XVI. to simpler and 
more symmetrical designs. 

Boulle or Buhl Work. — Charles Andre Boulle, who was born 
at Paris in 1642, became celebrated there as a chaser and inlayer. 
In 1672, Louis XIV. allotted to him rooms at the Louvre, and his 
effective inlav work of metal, usually brass and tortoise-shell or turtle- 

French Clocks and Cases in the French St\']e 407 

Fig. 534. — ■Handsome Louis XIV. 
Clock and Slender Pedestal, 

Fig. 535. — Calendar Clock, supported 
by a very effective Pedestal. 

4o8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 536.— Clock in the Rubens 
Room at Windsor Castle. 

Fig. 537.— Splendid Pedestal 
Clock, was at the Palais du 
Louvre, Paris. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style. 409 

shell, speedily became the favoured decoration for furniture of all 
kinds. He died in 1732. Boulle work for clock cases and pedestals 
continued popular in France throughout the eighteenth centur}^ and 
in a lesser degree here, where the title became corrupted into " Buhl." 
In some instances the natural tint of the shell would appear. In 

Fig. 538. 

Fig. 539. 
Clocks, by Daniel Marot. 

Fig. 540. 

others the shell would be painted on the back, red or black, according 
to the effect desired by the designer. Then, by way of contrast, the 
arrangement of the materials used was varied in diiferent parts of 
the same object ; for instance, if on the front the outline was of shell, 
with a design inlaid with metal, the sides or perhaps panels elsewhere 
would be decorated with the counterpart or " counter," that is, the 

410 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

outline would be metal and the inlay shell. " Counter " or metal out- 
line, though often effective, is considered to be an inferior production. 
The particularh^ handsome Louis XIV. clock and slender pedestal 
shown in Fig. 534 are in tlie Council Chamber at Windsor Castle. 
Together they stand over 7 ft. in height, and are decorated with red 
shell and white metal Boulle work, relieved with ormolu mounts 

Fig. 541.^Clock, b}^ Daniel Marot. 

sharply chased. The pendulum of the clock is 17 in. long, descending 
below the clock case into the pedestal. The upper panel of the latter 
is hinged to afford access for regulation. This and several other 
engravings of the clocks at Windsor Castle are reproduced from photo- 
graphs taken for me by Mr. J. H. Agar-Baugh. 

A plainer but verj- effective pedestal, supporting a calendar clock as 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 411 

represented in Fig. 535, is in the corridor at Windsor Castle. The 
surface is Boulle work of black shell and brass. 

Another choice example, in the Rubens room, appears as in Fig. 536. 

Fig. 542.— Clock, by Daniel Marot. 
Havard, " Dictionnaire de rAmeublement. 

The front surface is brown shell inlaid with brass, the covering of the 
sides being in counterpart. The clock case has sphinx corner supports 
of ormolu and a domed top surmounted by a figure of Time. At the 

412 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

base of the case the three Fates are represented. The hour numerals 
are on plaques of enamel. Through the glazed part of the front 
below the dial may be seen the pendulum and the inside of the back of 
the case, which is covered with inlay in counterpart. The style of 

lllliiiiiiiiili iii> i iii|ii i[ i/i«ii i i | ii 'l Jli l ii l lil i i r inn I II I I I I ii»i iiii , 'i iiiiii i i iiii |ii i iiii i iiM nim iir ii i iii r iii r i i . i l I 

Fig. 543.— Clock, by Daniel Marot. 
Havard, " Dictionnaire de rAmeublement." 

this clock, apart from the pedestal, was long in favour with French 

In the Wallace collection is a clock by Mynuel, with case and 
pedestal by BouUe of nearly the same period, and bearing a general 
resemblance to Fig. 536. They were purchased in 1863 for /^6,000 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 413 


Fig. 54:4:. — Interesting Bracket Clock with Complicated Movement. 
Schloss Collection, 

414 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 545. 
Timepiece, b}^ Lepaute, 

Fig. 546. 
Clock, by Julien Le Roy 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 415 

Tlie clock is supported on figures of fantastically costumed warriors 
with their accoutrements, and on its summit is a statuette of Cupid 

Fig. 547. — Elegant Regulator at the 
Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, 

Fig. 548.— Good French 

shooting. On the upper part of the pedestal is a medallion repre- 
senting Hercules relieving Atlas of the burden of the Globe. 

41 6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

A clock and pedestal of the same dimensions, and nearly identical 
in design, is in the Bibliotheque de I'Arsenal at Paris. Another of the 

Fig. 549. 

(Figs. 549 to 558 arranged nearly in the order of date contain some 

feature of excellence.) 

same type is in the cohection at Waddesdon Manor. The splendid 

pedestal clock shown in Fig. 537 was at the Palais du Louvre, Paris. 

Many of the best designs of the Louis XIV. period were by PanieJ 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 417 

Marot, who was born in Paris in 1660. By the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes he was driven to England, but in 1702 took up his 
abode in the Netherlands. Appended are some example? from a collec- 
tion of his works published at Amsterdam in 1712. In this book he 

Fig. 550. 

was described as " Architecte de Guillaume III., Roy de la Grande 
Bretagne." Fig. 538, by him, does not show the minutes ; it has an 
hour hand and a hand for pointing to the day of the month on a circle 

41 8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

outside of the hours. Fig. 539, also by Marot, has a minute indicator, 
and may be of a shghtly later period. Fig. 540, though ver}- much 
in the st^^le of the Windsor Castle brass inlay clocks, is of more recent 

Figs. 541, 542 and 543 are bracket or table clocks, by Marot. 
The superbl}' designed specimen shown in Fig. 541 is really perfect. 


Fig. 551. 

An interesting bracket clock, with compUcated movements, in a case 
inlaid with white metal and brass Boulle work, dating from about 
1690-1710, is shown in Fig. 544. At the top of the dial plate is 
engraved the motto, " Xec pluribu? im par,'' the first two words pre- 

French Clocks mid Cases in the French Style 419 

ceding and the second two following a representation of the sun. At 
the foot of the dial plate is the inscription, " Henriciis Martinot,motum 
adjunxit. Pouilly Inventor Fecit Parisis." Henry Martinot was Chief 

Fig. 552. 

Clockmaker to Louis XIV., having lodgings in the Louvre, and on 
the pedestals of the two columns, which are prominent features of the 
dial plate, is the doubled initial of the King, L.L., interlaced and 
reversed, surmounted by a crown. This treatment, coupled with the 

420 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

fleur-de-lys ornament formed by theBoulle work of the case, led to the 
conclusion that the clock was made for Louis XIV., possibly for 

Fig. 553. 

presentation to some distinguished person. The dial circle, supported 
by a figure of Saturn, shows hours and minutes, besides which appear, 
through seven openings within the circle, sunrise, sunset, the length 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 421 

of the day, the length of the nig[ht, the month of the year, and certain 
events of the year as they occur. 

Above the centre of the dial are eight tablets, and below the centre 
four more. These contain 
each the title of a month, 
with a number arranged 
in a peculiar way, thus : 
April 2 ; July 5 ; Sep- 
tember 7 ; December 10 ; 
June 4 ; February 12 ; 
March 1 ; November 9. 
These are the eight upper 
ones, the four below, 
arranged in a cruciform 
frame, are August 6 ; May 
3 ; January 11 ; and 
October 8. Underneath 
a fleur-de-lys, engraved 
over the words " Premiers 
jours du mois," points 
direct to the figure 8 
of the month of October. 
On each side of the dial 
centre is engraved an oval 
border within which, show- 
ing through curved slits, 
are, on the left the age of 
the moon, and on the right 
the days of the month ; the 
title of each day is en- 
graved on the plate in each 
case, and on the right are 
also allegorical figures to 
represent the days. 

The shafts of the 
columns already referred 
to are slit, and each, has a 
pointer which travels from Fig. 554. 

top to bottom during the 

space of one year. On the plate, beside the left-hand column, at equal 
distances, are enumerated the months of the year, and on the corre- 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

spending space at the other side are the following twelve annual notes : 
" Nombre d'or, Cicle solaire, Epacte, Indication romaine, Lettre 

dominical, Jours de cen- 
dres, Pasques, Rogations, 
Ascencion, Pentecoste, 

Festes Dieu, Premier Di- 
manche des Adiients." Be- 
low the figure of Saturn 
are two apertures, and an 
inscription underneath de- 
notes the purpose to be to 
indicate the eclipse of the 
sun and moon. 

Pouilly seems to have 
been a man especially in- 
genious in devising calen- 
dars and the like. He is 
referred to in the Paris 
Directory for 1691 as " Le 
Sieur Pouilly, of Rue 
Dauphine, mathematical 
instrument m.aker and 
seller of a peculiar calen- 
dar." In 1692 is men- 
tioned in connection with 
him an invention relating 
to the compass and an 
extraordinary microscope. 
Another scientific in- 
strument maker (" in- 
genieur "), the Sieur Haye, 
collaborated with Martinot 
in the production of a 
movable sphere, which was 
presented to the king in 
1701. Henry Martinot 
died at Fontainebleau in 
1725 at the age of seventy- 
In the corridor at Windsor Castle is the fine long-case clock by. 
Julien Le Roy illustrated on p. 414. The dial has a brass centre 

Fig. 555. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 423 

Fig. 556. 


Fig. 557 

424 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 558. 

with silvered border, and shows solar and mean time and the day 
of the month. The escapement is a modification of the Graham, 

French Clocks and Cases in the Frencli Style 425 

426 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

each palJet being pivoted separately. On the dial is inscribed, 
" Invente en 1736 par Julien Le Roy, de la Societe des Arts." 

Fig. 562. — A Rccaille Cartel Clock in the Caffieri st\ le, 
about 1760. 

The case is of kingwood inlaid with some lighter veneer to an 
angulated design and carries heavy ormolu well-chased mountings. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 427 

A companion case in the corridor contained a clock by Ferdinand 
Berthond, but tlie movement has been reconstructed by VuUiamy 
'and the dial altered. 

On p. 414 is shown a superb twelve-month timepiece by Lepaute, 
which adorns the Zuccarelli 
room at Windsor Castle. 

The movement is exceed- 
ingly well made, and has a 
very light pin -wheel escape- 
ment furnished with pins on 
one side only. The pen- 
dulum beats seconds, and is 
compensated on Harrison's 
" gridiron " principle. The 
dial, of enamel, is very fine, 
and the lower edge of it 
bears in tiny characters 
the signature " G. Merler." 
Besides the hour and minute 
indicators, which still exist, 
there was originally a centre 
seconds hand and one for 
showing the equation of time. 
The month and day of the 
month appear through a slit 
in the lower part of the dial. 
Tliere are no winding holes, 
the weight being raised on 
Huygens' plan, by pulling 
down the rope. The case is 
of ebony, relieved with 
exceptionally fine crmolu 
mountings. The Baroness 
Burdett Coutts had a similar 
timepiece, also by Lepaute. 

Among French artists 
with wealthy patrons the 
formal square long-case, so 

characteristic of English clocks, was never liked. As examples of 
their best style may be quoted the elegant regulator shown in Fig. 547, 
which is at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, Paris, and the 

Fig. 563. — Clock of Bronze, Chased and 

428 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

(equally meritorious design on the same page, Fig. 548. Lepaute's 
clock shown on p. 414, and the more florid design which encloses 
Julien Le Roy's work, as shown beside it, are also w^orthy of reference. 
.In the series of bracket clocks, Fig. 549 to Fig. 558, arranged nearly 
in the order of date, every specimen contains, I think, some feature 
of excellence. 

Hanging or " Cartel " Clocks. — The word Cartel, probably 

Fig. 564. — Striking Clock. 

Fig. 565.— Cartel Clock of the 
Louis XVI. period. 

from the Italian Cartela, a bracket, seems, during the seventeenth 
century, to have been applied to any ornament, frame, or other 
object fixed against a wall or ceiling and having a shape more or 
less rotund or oval with elongated or pointed ends. The intense 
desire for fresh forms in articles of furniture which permeated French 
society during the latter part of the reign of Louis XIV. led to 
the production of the " Pendule a Cartel" or "en cartel," a title 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 429 

430 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Froncli Clocks and Cases in the French Style 431 

432 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

subsequently contracted to simph' " cartel." The cartel cases were 

made occasionally of wood, 
lead, or zinc, but more often 
of bronze, thickly gilt. As 
may be gathered from the 
examples 1 am able to 
illustrate, they were, as a 
rule, graceful in form and, 
when oxidation had toned 
down the somewhat obtru- 
sive garishness of the gild- 
ing, of ver}' pleasing 

Small clocks of the 
same shape and of a size 
to be easily fastened on the 
inside of the bed curtain, 
were designated Cartels 
de Chevet. They were 
generally furnished with 
watch mo\^ements, the 
cases being of brass or of 
wood with \'ernis Martin 
or other decoration, though 
large cartel clocks with 
pull strings for repeating 
were occasionally placed 
inside the bed against the 
hangings or wall, for the 
convenience of those 
French ladies who, in 
accordance with accepted 
custom during the earlier 
half of the eighteenth 
century, held' receptions 
while reclining 

In Fig. 560 
a mural clock 

XIV. period by J. Thuret, Paris, which belonged to the Marquis 
of Hertford. The panels are filled with Boulle work which sets off 

Fig. 572. — Astronomical Clock, by Passement 
at Versailles. 

Havard, " Dictionnaire de rAmeublement." 

on their 

is shown 
of I-ouis 

French Clocks and Cases in the French St^de 433 

and subdues the ormolu mountings. Side by side with it are two 
nearl}^ contemporary designs. 

Cartel time pieces were in especial favour throughout the time of 
Louis XV. A representation is given in Fig. 562 of a Rocaille cartel 
clock in the Caffieri 
style dating from about 
1760. It is of medium 
size, measuring 2 ft. in 
length and 14 in. across 
the widest part. The 
movement is b}^ Cour- 
tois, clockmaker to 
Louis XV., who had 
premises in the Rue 
Saint Jacques, facing 
the College du Plessis, 
and acquired a reputa- 
tion for the excellence 
of his movements, both 
silent and musical. 
There is a pull string 
for repeating on two 
bells ; it strikes the 
hours and - half hours, 
also an alarm. The 
case of bronze gilded 
is boldly chased, and 
the modelling of the 
figures is exceedingly 
good. Pierrot and 
Pierette appear to 
enjoy life among fan- 
tastical vegetation and 
scrolls, so popular dur- 
ing the epoch of Louis 
XV. The mandoline 
player at the top is 
well posed and of 

pleasing expression. Hardly so large and of perhaps ten years later 
date is another specimen, also of bronze, chased, and gilt, which is 
shown in Fig. 563. Below the dial is an aperture through which 

Fig. 573. — Curious timekeeper by Lepine. 

434 C)ld Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the vibrations of the pendulum may be seen, and the design includes 
a female figure and cupids, subjects brought into favour by Boucher 


Fig. 574. ^ Fig. 575. 

Front and back view of Mantel Clock, by Ferdinand Berthoud. 

and his school. The detail of the chasing is finer than was usual with 
an object to be exhibited on a wall at some distance from the eye. 
Dial and movement bear the signature of " Thiout Taine, Paris." 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 435 

There are two bells and a pull string for repeating on them the hours 
and quarters at pleasure. 

Fig. 564, a smaller striking clock of later date, indicates the decline 
of the more extravagant features observed in some of the Rocaille 

An excellent cartel clock of the Louis XVI. period, which belongs 
to the Hon. Gerald Ponsonby, is shown in Fig. 565. 

I may mention that the movements of old cartel clocks are inserted 
into the case from the front. Ignorance of this has, I know, sometimes 
led to damage by attempts to force the movements out at the back. 

Mantel Clocks before the time of Louis XV. are exceptional. 
When not supported by a long case or a pedestal or a bracket, 
chamber clocks were hung to a nail on the wall. An early mantel 
clock, which is in the Octagon room at Windsor Castle, is shown in 
Fig. 566. The case is decorated with Boulle w^ork and very fine 
ormolu mountings. A well-modelled Cupid surmounts the structure 
and below the dial is an equally effective reclining figure of Time 
holding a balance. Except the base, which is of later date, this 
splendid clock is of Louis XIV. period. Base and clock together 
are 3 ft. high. 

The choice Louis XV. clock on a stand with Vernis-Martin and 
chased ormolu decoration as shown in Fig. 567 belongs to the Comte 
de Lambilly. A characteristic example of design in the Louis XV. 
style is the ormolu clock by " Gudin a Paris " at Windsor Castle, and 
shown in Fig. 568. The chasing is bold, though somewhat coarse. 
The pierced diaper work below the dial is backed with crimson silk 
with good effect. 

Another excellent specimen of the Louis XV. style is the drawing- 
room clock represented in Fig. 569. The movement is by Etienne 
le Noir, a noted clockmaker of the time, while the chasing has been 
executed by Saint Germain, who also probably did the casting of 
the model. Saint Germain was one of the small number of founders 
and chasers of the period whose productions were characterised by 
remarkable excellence of finish and lightness. He was frequently 
employed by, or on behalf of, the king and the court. His productions 
bear his full name, punched in the metal. The crafts of founder 
and chaser were nearly always combined, forming an exception to the 
rule then prevailing as to regulation of trades by corporations or 

No better example of the Louis XVI. period could be selected 
than the chaste and elegant boudoir or ante-room clock shown in 

436 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 


Fig. 576. — Lyre Clock, Sevres. 

Fig. 570. It is of white polished marWe, which age has tinted to a 
dark cream, with gilt mountings, the contrast harmonising perfectly. 
It dates from about 1780 and is by Robin, " horloger du Roy." 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 437 



438 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 439 

o •> . 

-?. Q 

R r3 
o q 

o <u 

440 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The splendid mantel clock shown in Fig. 571 in the Louis XVI. 
style is perhaps of a little later date, and well represents decorative 
art during the last few years of the reign of that monarch. The 
beautifully modelled cupids representing sculpture (adjacent to a 
completed bast of Henri IV. of Navarre), music, dancing (or singing), 
and painting appear to be nestling in clouds around a celestial sphere 

Fig. 583. — Clock, by Engaz, of Paris. 

in which the dial is placed. The base of white marble with rounded 
ends contains a gilt frieze of trophies. It is ITJin. in length and 
18 in. high. The movement is inscribed " L. J. Leguesse." The gild- 
ing and chasing are excellent, the minutest details of the bronze work 
being brought out in the style of a master artist. Here, as in the last 
example, the association of white marble and bronze produces a most 
pleasing effect. These two clocks are from the Schloss collection. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 441 

Fig. 572 shows a celebrated clock invented by Passement and 
constructed under his direction by Dauthiau, clockmaker to Louis XV. 
Passement is said to have been engaged for twenty years in calculating 
the various movements, and the construction of the machine occupied 
Dauthiau for twelve years. It was completed in 1749, and in 
1750 presented to the king, who ordered a new case for it, after 

Fig. 584.— Clock, by La Crcix, Paris. 

his own choice. This was made by Messrs. Cafheri (father and son), 
and when fmished in 1753, the clock was deposited at \'ersailles. 
It has a dead-beat escapement and a seconds compensation pendulum ; 
indicates solar and mean time, has a seconds hand, strikes the hours 
and quarters, and has provision for repeating at pleasure the blows 
last sounded. The striking part is driven by a spring, and the 
remainder by a weight of 22 lbs., doubly suspended, which falls 8 in. 

442 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

in six weeks. Within a glass sphere over the clock are marked the 
age and phases of the moon, days of the week, month, and year 
correctly for a period of 10,000 years. Antide Janvier repaired the 
clock for the First Consul. 

As a curiosity in design, the timekeeper by Lepine, shown in 
Fig. 573, is worthy of record. Hours and minutes are indicated 
on two bands rotating horizontally, and there is a long pendulum 
which terminates very effectively in a representation of the face 
of Phoebus. 

Front and back views of a most effective mantel clock by Ferdinand 
Berthoud are given in Figs. 574 and 575. The design as a whole is. 
excellent ; the primary object of a clock is to indicate the time, and 
this point, which seems to have been too often ignored, has here been 
properly kept in view, and the elegant supporters in no way detract 
from the due prominence of the dial which measures 9 in. across, 
the whole structure being 3 ft. 8 in, in height. The plinth is of 
white marble, with bas-reliefs of cupids struggling for \dnes ; the 
Bacchantes are of dark-coloured bronze ; the vase with overhanging 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 443 

Fig. 586.— Clock, bj^ Bailty Tame, Paris, about 1769. 

444 01^ Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

leaves and grapes which surmounts the dial is gilded. Thus a 
charming combination of colour is obtained quite worth}^ of the 

Fig. 587. — Clock at South Kensington Museum. 

modelling and chasing, which are admirable. The design altogether 
is a good example of the return to simpler and more reposeful forms 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 445 

Fig. 588. — Porcelain Case with Mounts, by Gouthiere. 

suggested by Clodion and his school, in place of the overdone and 
discredited Rocaille. On the chased work is a punch mark 
corresponding to P. C, which may possibly be that of Pierre 

446 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Cauvet, a celebrated modeller under Louis XVI., several of whose 
productions are in the collection of Garde Meuble at the Louvre. 

Lyre-shaped exteriors 
were, it must be con- 
fessed, among the most 
elegant conceptions of 
the Louis XVL period. 
From the example illus- 
trated in Fig. 576, it will 
be seen that the upper 
part of the pendulum is 
formed to represent the 
strings of the instru- 
ment ; the lower end, 
shaped as a ring, passes 
and repasses behind the 
dial with very pleasing 
effect. This clock, which 
in among the Jones 
collection at South 

Kensington Museum, is 
said to have belonged 
to Marie Antoinette. 
The case of Sevres blue 
porcelain is 2 ft. in 

Fig. 589. 

-Carriage Clock of Marie 

height, has ormolu mountings, and 
the ring of the pendulum being 
studded with large pastes enhances 
its very handsome appearance. It 
bears the signature " Kinable." A 
somewhat similar clock realised 
£462 at the Hamilton sale in 

The lyre clock shown in Fig. 
577 is at Windsor Castle. The 
dial is quite modern and bears the inscription " Hanson, Windsor/ 

Fig. 590. — Medal issued by the 
French Government in 1789. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 447 

44S Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The blue Sevres vase clock shown in Fig. 578, in the Louis XVI. 
style, affords another example of the fancies characterising the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. 

The very prett}^ example of Louis XVL style which is shown in 
Fig. 579 is by Vulliamy, and graces one of the drawing rooms at 

Windsor Castle. On the ormolu slab 
above the dial is a drawing of the fusee 
and demonstration of its action. 

Fig. 580 is another specimen by the 

same maker, and is also at Windsor Castle. 

For the example shown in Fig. 581, 

dating from about 1790, I was indebted 

to the late Mr. Robert Rolfe. 

From about 1760 till well on in the 
nineteenth century, elegant mantel clocks 
of marble and bronze, in which the dial 
depended from a handsome entablature, 
were much favoured in France. 

The two examples on pp. 440, 441, for 
which I am indebted to Messrs. Jump & 
Sons, give a good idea of the best of them. 
Fig. 583 is a clock by Engaz, of Paris, 
which shows the day of the week and 
the day of the month, on a dial bearing 
the signature of Dubisson. 

Fig. 584 represents a somewhat similar 
design covering a clock by La Croix, Rue 
Denis, Paris. 

Berthoud was apparently partial to 
tliis form, judging from the number to be 
seen with his name thereon. 

The clock with white marble base and 
sphinx supporters for the dial, and shown 
in Fig. 585, by Solians, Paris, is at Wind- 
sor Castle. 

In Chapter III. were given illustra- 
tions of early German timekeepers, in 
which figures of animals formed a most important part of the struc- 
ture. A revival of this extraordinary conception seems to have found 
favour in France during the eighteenth centur}^ when huge beasts 
were introduced as carriers for timekeepers. 

Fig. 593.— Clock in Windsor 



Fig. 594.— Clock with White Marble Case. 

Fig. 595.— Portable Table Clock. 

Fig. 590.— Table Clock with 
Horizontal Dial. 

450 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The example illustrated in Fig. 686 is a clock by* a noted Paris 
maker, Bailly I'aine, dating from about 1769. It strikes the hour 
and half-hour in passing, and its dial, as in most French clocks 
of that period, stands out conspicuously. The occupants of the 
ponderous castle are evidently engaged in warfare. The elephant 
is of dark-coloured bronze, the remainder being chased and richly 
gilt, while the rajah, a coloured terra-cotta figure, seated inside 
the castle, complacently directs operations against the enemy. A 
small hole between his hps suggests the possibihty of his having 

Fig. 597. — Clock with gilt metal ornaments popular at the lattei 
part of the eighteenth century. 

at one time a pipe in his mouth. In the Jones collection at South 
Kensington is an elephant with a clock on its back. It is signed by 
Caffieri, and illustrated in Fig. 587. 

Clock cases of porcelain were made during the eighteenth century, 
chiefly at Dresden and Sevres, though Berlin, Worcester, Derby, and 
Chelsea contributed to the demand. Some of them were very beaati- 
ful, especially French productions of Louis XV. period, which were 
decorated with figure subjects and scenery taken from pictures b} 
Watteau, Lancret, and other artists. But comparatively few survive, 
for, apart from such accidents as lead to the destruction of china 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 451 

generally, the fixing of a clock movement to so brittle a material 
sufficiently tight to withstand the strain of winding is responsible 
for the fracture of a large proportion. 

Among the Jones collection at South Kensington is a splendid 
clock in a case of Sevres porcelain, formed like a vase, with mounts 
by Gouthiere, which is believed to have been made for Marie 
Antoinette, and is shown in Fig. 588.* Charming it certainly is, 
and beyond criticism ; still, if one might be permitted to complain, I 
would say it is too small, too condensed ; it measures but about 12 in. 
in height. 

The travelling or carriage clock belonging to the same royal lady, 
also in the Jones collection, of which a sketch appears in Fig. 589, has 
the dial, front, side, and back panels all of Sevres porcelain, jewelled ; 
it is between 10 and 11 in. high. The front panel bears the signature, 
" Robin H"" du Roy." Though undoubtedly of French make, the 
outline bears a singular resemblance to English productions of the 

The elegant lyre-shaped clock of Sevres, illustrated on p. 436, 
is another excellent example. A clock by " Godon, Paris," in a 
vase-shaped case of Sevres porcelain of Louis XVI. period, which 
was in Lord Strathallan's collection, realised two thousand guineas 
at Christie's in 1902. A quaint clock case of Chelsea china is to be 
seen at the British Museum. 

From the middle to the end of the eighteenth century, the shops 
of leading horologists in Paris were, it is said, a grea': attraction to 
visitors. The earlier ones included Thiout I'aine, at the sign of " La 
Pendule d'Equation," Quai Pelletier ; Julien Le Roy, at Rue de 
Harley, where also was Berthoud ; Pierre Regnault, pere. Rue 
Vielle-du-Temple ; Le Paute, aux galeries du Louvre, opposite the 
Rue Saint-Thomas ; Lepine, and also Romilly, Place Dauphine ; 
Leroux, Rue Guenegaud ; Gosselin, Rue St. Honore. Later on were 
Carcel, at Pont Saint- Michel ; Breguet, at Quai d'Horloge, 65 ; Caron, 
Rue Saint-Denis, 224 ; Lepaute jeune. Place du Palais-Royal ; Lepine, 
Place des Victoires ; Pierre Le Roy, Palais-Royal ; and Wagner, at 
the sign ot the Carillon, Bout-du-Monde, 2. 

Louis XVI. had from a youth a liking for the mechanical parts 
of timekeepers, and Marie Antoinette possessed a large number of 
choice specimens, notably those illustrated on pp. 445, 446, but there 

* The four illustrations of clocks in the Jones collection are from the official 
Handbook, and are inserted by permission of the Controller of His Majesty's 
Stationerv Office. 

452 Old Clocks and Watches and their IV^akers 

are in existence clocks and watches purporting to have belonged 
to her, and having thereon M. A. interlaced, which were really made 
between about 1818 and 1830, when enthusiasm at the restoration of 
the French monarchy induced people to pay high prices for anything 
connected with the Court of Louis XVI. Watches apparently of 
Swiss manufacture, the cases decorated with go]d of different tints 
{a quafre coulettrs), as illustrated in Chapter IV., or with small oval 
plaques containing enamelled portraits of ladies, bordered with paste, 
diamonds or pearls, and surrounded by engravings of bows and knots 
are often seen, with a pedigree of former ownership, which will not 
bear expert examination. 

Undeterred by the failure of Sully's enterprise at Versailles in 1718, 
and the collapse of Voltaire's venture at Ferney sixty years after- 
wards, the French Government in 1786, on the strong recommendation 
of Berthoud, Gregson, Romilly, and Lepaute, established a clock 
manufactory at Paris, which, however, had but an ephemeral existence 
for it succumbed to the stormy events of 1789. The episode is little 
known, and might escape record but for the splendid medal issued 
as a reward for meritorious pupils, the obverse of which is reproduced 
on p. 446. It was designed by Duvivier, engraver to the Paris Mint, 
and contains a representation of Father Time journeying round the 
periphery of a clock. The aphorism, " Le temps a pris un corps et 
marche sous nos yeux," is a quotation from Delille. In 1838 yet 
another attempt was made in the same direction, and a factory 
initiated at Versailles under the special protection of the king. This 
also proved to be an ill-starred venture, for it languished almost from 
its inception and collapsed in the course of three or four years. 

With the return of Napoleon from Italy came a nmrked change, 
in the French style of design. The soft harmonious conceits of 
Louis XVI. artists gave place to more severe and statuesque pro- 
ductions with heavy draperies, founded on ancient Roman models. 
Representative specimens at Windsor Castle are illustrated in Figs. 591 
and 592. A good example having a characteristically long and deep 
base, is shown in Fig. 582. The case, 27 in. high, is of bronze, with 
finely executed chased work, gilded. It belongs to Mr. A. House 
The movement is signed " Le Roy & Fils, Hors du Rois, a Paris." 

Fig. 593 shows a line clock in the First Empire style, which is at 
Windsor Castle. It is by Jefferson, London, and dates from about 1810. 

For a photograph of the little clock shown in Fig. 594, I am 
indebted to Messrs. Jump & Sons. 

Portable table or bedroom clocks, cased in the form of a drum, and 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Stvl' 



454 01^ Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

especially convenient to travellers, were in favour from the latter part 
of the eighteenth century till, debased and shorn of all enrichment, 
they degenerated both as ornaments and timekeepers. An example 
in the best style, with well-chased gilt fauns as supporters, and 
surmounted by an eagle holding a ring by which the clock could be 
lifted, is shown in Fig. 595. It strikes the hours and quarters, and 
the striking may be repeated at pleasure by pulling out the knob on 
the back of the eagle ; it is also provided with an alarm. 

Table clocks with horizontal dials were revived during the first 
Empire. A pretty specimen of gilt metal, in which the movement 

Fig. 600.— Dial of Glass Plate Clock. 

is enclosed by the base, is shown in Fig. 596. It dates from 1806-10 
and has but one hand, which may be set by turning one of the little 
ornaments standing up from the lower part of the case. The band 
around the dial is pierced to a pretty design. It strikes the hours 
and quarters. 

The handsome clock carrying an orrery actuated by the mechanism 
of the timekeeper which is shown in Fig. 598, belongs to Mr. S. H. Hole. 
For the photograph of it I am indebted to Mr. J. Bolton Smith. An 
orrery clock by Raingo, of a later date, in a plain case is at Windsor 
Castle, and in the Soane Museum is a similar piece by the same maker. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 455 

A fine example of French horological ingenuity, from the collection 
of Mr. James Arthur, is depicted in Fig. 599. All the parts are 
attached to a sheet of plate glass, giving the structure the appearance 
of a clock floating in the air. The mainspring barrel is seen in front 
of and just a little higher than the pendulum bob, and on its arbor 
runs the truly great wheel. It goes for a month between windings, 
and shows the day of the week and day of the month. 

Fig. 601. — Harlequin and Bird Clock. 

An enlarged view of the ring dial, together with mechanism for 
operating the calendar which is given in Fig. 600, will repay examina- 
tion. The hour and minute hands are easily distinguishable, and of 
excellent form. There is a double-ended pointer marked a b which 
goes rouQd in fourteen days. Each extremity of it alternately 
indicates the day of the week and the sign corresponding to that day. 
At present it is in the position for Sunday (Dimanche) and the Sun. 

456 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Next day the points will have shifted to c d, Monday [Limdi) and the 
Moon, the following day to e f, Tuesday (Mardi) and Mars, and so on 
throughout the two weeks, when the pointers will have returned to the 
position shown. The minute circle is utilised for the day-of-the-month 
hand g, every alternate minute mark being numbered for this purpose. 
The pointer a B is connected with the star wheel l of fourteen 
teeth, the da\^-of-the-month hand G with the star wheel m of thirty 

teeth. The usual twelve-hour 
wheel K drives the twenty- 
four-hour wheel J, carrying 
the crank h i and its two 
projecting pins, which in their 
course turn the star wheels 
one tooth per day. 

A m(3re ingenious plan for 
day-and-month calendar work 
with so few extra parts it 
would be difficult to devise. 
It is clever by its simplicity. 
For months other than those of 
thirty days the hand G would, 
of course, have to be adjusted 
at the end of the month. A 
timepiece, doubtless by the 
same maker, but without the 
calendar, is in the Conserva- 
toire National des Arts et 
Metiers, Paris. 

Clocks with cases of a 
nondescript character, but 
abounding in ormolu or gilt 
metal ornament so popular at 
the latter part of the eigh- 
teenth and beginning of the 
nineteenth centuries, seem to have entirely died out of favour. At 
Windsor Castle is an early example with a winged boy on each side 
of the dial, and a celestial globe and mathematical instruments above 
it, as shown in Fig. 597. 

Fig. 601 shows a remarkably well modelled figure of a harlequin, 
who is represented as drawing attention to the notes of the bird 
peeping from an alcove above the dial. 

Ftg. 602. — Clock Hands representing 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 457 

Clock hands do not as a rule lend themselves to decoration 
symbolical of a particular subject, but three pairs typical respectively 
of Sport, Agriculture, and Music, which appear to be worth reproduc- 
tion, are shown in Figs. 602-3-4. They are French, and were, I believe, 
designed for presentation timekeepers. 

It may be noted that up to the end of the eighteenth century 
movements of the French chamber clocks were rectangular even 
though the cases were circular, as in the example by Berthoud shown 
on p. 434 ; the bell always surmounted the movement instead of being 
at the back of it, as the modern custom is, and the pendulum was 
suspended by means of a silken cord. 

Fig. 603.— Clock Hands repre- 
senting Agriculture. 

Fig. 604. — Clock Hands repre- 
senting Music. 

Adjuncts to a clock in the way of candelabra, tazzas or figures 
en suite, were not in use till nearly the end of the reign of Louis XVI. 

Italian Cartel Timepieces.— By way of contrast to the French 
treatment the two cartel timepieces shown in Figs. 605 and 606 will 
be of interest. They are reproduced from designs by Giovanni Battista 
Piranesi, which were published in 1761. Fig. 606 is modelled upon 
the form of an ancient Roman rudder, a conceit particularly to the 
taste of that age. It will be noticed that each of the dials is divided 
into six hours, in conformity with the counting of the hours in many 
parts of Italy at that time. 

458 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Falling Ball Timekeepers. — This remarkably clever and elegant 
piece of seventeenth-century mysterious horology consists of a sphere 
of brass, to be suspended from a bracket, or the ceiUng of a room. 
The upper and lower portions of the ball are gilt, while around a 
silvered band in the middle are marked two serials of Roman numerals 
from I. to XII., and subdivisions for the quarter-hours. The extremity 

Fig. 605. 

Fig. 606. 

Italian Cartel Timepiece. 

of one of the wings of a cupid on the lower part of the ball points to 
the hour of the day or night. The construction may be gathered 
from the vertical and horizontal sections which are given in Fig. -607, 
borrowed from " Les Merveilles de I'Horlogerie." The suspending 
cord is coiled round a barrel, with which is connected a train of 
wheels terminating in an escapement and balance. While the top 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 459 

and bottom of the ball are rigidly connected, the middle is free to 
move, and is furnished with a ring of teeth projecting inside, through 
which the middle is rotated once in twenty-four hours, the weight 
of the ball acting as a driving force. The mechanism is wound by 
simply raising the ball with the hand, there being a weak spring 
in the barrel, which causes it to turn and coil the suspending cord 
on to itself. 

Fig. 607. — Vertical and horizontal sections of Falling Ball 

At the British Museum are two of these falling ball timekeepers 
of 4 in. in diameter. One of them is inscribed "JacobBehan, Vienna." 
In the National Museum, Cracow, is one signed " Davidt-Schroter-in 
Elbing." Schroter flourished about 1680-90. The Society of Anti- 
quaries possesses a very fine example, measuring 10 in. across, but 

460 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

of, I fancy, much later date. It was given to the Society by 
B. L. VuUiamy. 

Figs. 608 and 609 represent two of many timekeepers designed 
and made by a truly remarkable mechanical genius, Nicolas Grollier, 


^ 3^ 

afterwards M. Grollier de Serviere, who was born at Lyons in 1593, 
and passed his early manhood in the service of the French army. His 
later years he devoted to designing all sorts of mechanism, and, thus 
providing himself with ample occupation, he managed to reach the 
good old age of ninety-three years. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 461 

These two drawings are from a thick quarto book written by his 
grandson, and dedicated to Louis XIV. In the first example a small 
ball runs down incUned shoots, and by its momentum unlocks the 
train as it reaches the bottom. There are two balls, and as the first 
disappears from view the second one begins its descent . The balls are, 
in turn, carried up at the back by a kind of tape ladder with pockets, 
which passes over a pulley at the top, and anotlier at the lower part 
of the case. 

Globes, Urns, and Vases. — One of the most remarkable time- 
pieces embodying the 
form of the earth is 
in the Bibliotheque des 
Jagellons, Cracow, For 
illustration and par- 
ticulars of this I am 
indebted to Dr. Tad 
Estreicher, professor of 
the University, Fri- 
bourg, Switzerland. 
The result of his re- 
search places the date 
of its construction at 
about 1.510, the French 
astronomer, Louis 
Boulengier, being prob- 
ably the inventor of it. 
The photograph is 
rather dim, but the 
action will be under- 
stood with the follow- 
ing explanation. The 
outer part of the initial 

meridian is mounted on a stand and the inner is free for adjustment 
of the inclination of the earth. Fixed to it is a light cage giving 
the hours 1. to XII. twice over on hourly meridians. Within is 
another frame of meridians with the ecliptic which, actuated by 
mechanism within the globe, makes one turn in twentj^-four hours. A 
figure of the sun travels with the ecliptic, and denotes the time. The 
sun is carried by a curved wire emanating from a wheel near the south 
pole and, as it passes a fixed pin in the axis of the globe, it is, by the 
intervention of a pinion, each day put back on the ecliptic one 365th 







y iiif^B 

Fig. 610. — The Jagellons Timepiece. 

462 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

part of the circle. So that not only is mean solar time shown, but the 
sidereal day, the height of the sun, and, as the months are named 
around the ecliptic, it forms a calendar as well. An interesting feature 
of this timekeeper is the globular representation of the earth, which 
has been pronounced by leading cartologists to be the earliest post- 
columbian globe, and the earliest to give any part of the new world. 

America, though, is put in 
quite a wrong place. A con- 
tinent marked " America 
NoviTER Reperta " corre- 
sponds fairly well with Aus- 
tralia, and is believed to be 
the first cartographical recog- 
nition of that place. In the 
" Atlas " timekeeper by Grol- 
lier de Serviere (Fig. 609), the 
movement within the globe 
causes the central band, on 
which the hours are marked, 
to revolve, the arrow, of course 
indicating the time. The 
upper and lower portions of 
the globe are stationary. 

A taste for revolving band 
timekeepers, formed as globes, 
urns, and vases, revived in 
France during the eighteenth 
century. The exteriors of 
some of these were of very 
elegant design, as may be 
judged from the examples 

Fig. 611 shows a par- 
ticularly attractive one dating from about 1780, which is at the South 
Kensington Museum. The boys supporting the globe are of bronze. 
The moving band contains two sets of numerals painted blue on 
enamelled plaques ; the lower set represents the hours counted twice 
from I. to XII., and the upper set each fifteen minutes. The tongue 
of a snake forms a bar across each successive hour numeral, as an 
indicator, and reaching beyond it, points to the minutes also. By 
counting the hours I. to XII. twice over, the band as it travels in 

Fig. 611, 

-Revolving Band Timekeeper, 
about 1780. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 463 

its course round the earth becomes a universal time-teller. At 
Nether Swell Manor is a somewhat similar structure standing on an 
ornamental base and surmounted by a pair of love-birds. 

Mr. George H. Gabb owns a terrestial globe, dated 1620, constructed 
to serve as a timepiece ; supported by a gilt bronze figure of Atlas. 
This globe was made by the famous cartographer, Joannes Jans- 
sonius, successor to Mercator's house in Amsterdam, and is one of the 
earliest globes extant, and probably unique. The globe is formed of 

Fig. 612.— At Windsor Castle. 

two hemispheres of copper, on which is an engraved map of the world 
on paper, arranged in gores. The engraving is doubtless by the hand 
of Peter Kerius, perhaps the finest map engraver of the period. 
Inside the globe is a movement of the verge type, made by Johann 
Tomas Seyler, a contemporary clockmaker, so geared to the axial 
spindle that the globe revolves once in 24 hours, the time of which 
is regulated by the primitive method of altering the tension of the main 
spring by means of an endless screw and tangent wheel geared to it. 

464 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Attached to a point on the Equator is a small star, which indicates the 
hour on a dial band, as the globe revolves. 

In the Throne room at Windsor Castle is a globe clock which 
has double revolving bands, Roman hour numerals being marked on 
one band, and on the other Arabic figures to represent the minutes. 
It is by Maniere, of Paris, and adorned with a well-executed group, 
as in Fig. 612. The ball, enamelled in royal blue, forms a properly 
conspicuous centre, on each side of which the statuettes are arranged. 
The hour' is shown by the coincidence of a numeral with the brass 
vertical bar supporting the globe, while the Destroyer is posed to 

indicate the minute with his scythe. 

The Wallace collection also includes 
more than one fine globe clock with hour 
and minute revolving bands. 

Fig. 613 represents a vase clock, 
which is said to have belonged to Marie 
Antoinette. The movement was covered 
b}^ a handsome carved marble pedestal, 
the urn being of porcelain with bronze 
mountings. A serpent coiled round the 
foot of the vase had its head erect to 
point to the hour on the double polygonal 

Fig. 614 shows a larger urn or vase 
mounted on an elaborately carved square 
pUnth ; a somewhat similar clock by 
" Te Loutre, horloger du Roy, Paris." 
realised £903 at the Hamilton sale in 

In Fig. 615 is reproduced a magnificent 
design by Falconet, wherein the Three 
Graces are portrayed, one of whom 
indicates the hour with her finger. The vase is supported by a 
column standing on a handsome plinth ; the panels of the plinth 
show very choice carvings of groups of children at play. Etienne 
Maurice Falconet, whose production of this and some other clock- 
cases stamps him as an artist of the front rank, was born in 1716 and 
died in 1791, and seems to have been more appreciated after his death 
than before. The Three Graces clock was sold in the early part of 
the nineteenth century for 1,500 francs, and in 1855 was purchased 
for 7,000 francs by Baron Double, whose collection was sold in 1881 

Fig. 613.— Vase Clock of 
Marie Antoinette. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 465 

when Comte de Camondo vSecured the Three Graces for 101,000 francs. 
His son, who is the present owner, has, it is said, refused an offer of 
over a milhon francs for the treasure, which, in accordance with the 
wish of his father, he will bequeath to the French nation. 

Negress-Head Clock.- -Among the eccentricities of French horology 


Fig. 614. — Urn or Vase Clock. 

Fig. 615.— Three Graces Clock. 

is one at Buckingham Palace in the form of the head of a negress, 
as sliown in Fig. 616. Figures corresponding to the hours appear 
in proper order in one of the eyes of the negress, the minutes being 
denoted in the other eye in a similar way. By closing the eyelids 
the figures may be rendered invisible. 

Rolling Clock, — This ingenious device appears to have been 

466 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

patented by that universal genius, the Marquess of Worcester, in 1661 
(No. 131). It was also made by GroUier de Serviere, probably about 
the same date. Maurice Wheeler published a description of it as his 
invention in Lowthorp's " Abridgment of the Philosophical 

Fig. 616. — Xegress-head Clock at Buckingham Palace. 

Transactions in 1684.'' Its construction will be understood from the 
uncovered view of the front, Fig. 617. There is a train of wheels and 
an escapement as in a watch. The great wheel a carries the hand and 
also the weight h. The clock never requires mnding. It is every 
morning simply placed at the top of the inclined plane, down which 
it gradually rolls during the day, the hand pointing to the hour marked 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 467 

on the dial, which of course covers the mechanism. The length of the 
plane had better be more than twice the circumference of the clock 
case c. Its inclination may be regulated by the screw g. The hand 
may be in the form of a figure of Time, as in Fig. 617, a serpent's 
head, or other grotesque design. 

Schmidt's Mysterious Clock. — The weighted lever of the rolling 
clock, as shown in Fig. 617, has been utilised in another form of 
mysterious timekeeper, an exterior view of which is given on p. 468. 

Fig. 617.— Rolling Clock. 

In the Upper View the Dial is removed to exhibit the Actuating Mechanism 
described on page 460. 

It was patented in 1808 (No. 3,185) by John Schmidt, a watchmaker, 
hving in St. Mary Axe. He called it " The Mysterious Circulator, or 
Chronological Equilibrium." The ring is divided into hour and five- 
minute spaces. The watch movement, with the weighted lever, is 
contained in the box c, but it is now driven by a mainspring in the 
usual way. The hand is pivoted to the tail of the dolphin, d is a 
counterweight. The weighted lever revolves once in twelve hours ; 
it would be nearest to the centre of motion of the hand at twelve 

468 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

o'clock, and farthest from it at six o'clock ; it is easy, therefore,^ to see 
that by this displacement of the centre of gravity the weighted lever 
\yould cause the hand to revolve and point to the time. It appears 
that Schmidt was a Dane, who was taken prisoner at Copenhagen, and 
brought to England. The clocks were sold by Rundell & Bridge, 
whose shop was in Ludgate Hill. Several distinguished persons are 
stated to have become purchasers. Some years ago I saw one which 
bore the name of McNab, Perth. It was then in the possession of 



Fig 618 — Alysterious TimekcLpci 

Mr. Robert Napier, but afterwards belonged to the late Mr. Henry 

This device has been several times re-invented, but never, I think, 
in so elegant a form as the original. 

Fan-shaped Clocks. — The late M. Planchon owned an engraving of the 
tutor to Charles, son of Philip II. of Spain, on which is shown a time- 
keeper, the dial being composed of a double fan of white and black 
slats which expanded and contracted to suit hours of varying length 
in day and night throughout the year. This dates from about 1570. 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 469 

Other forms of fan timekeepers have been constructed and should be 
mentioned as among horological curiosities. The illustration, Fig. 619, 
was published some time ago in La Nature. The fan, composed 
of thirteen very light slats, is pivoted to a backing covered with velvet, 
and at six o'clock in the morning and in the evening would be wide 
open as shown, and a serpent, fixed by its tail to the velvet, would 
point to the hour with its tongue. Immediately after six o'clock the 
fan suddenly closes, the serpent still pointing to six, but it would then 
be the figure on the right-hand side of the fan. On a continuation 
of the joint of the fan is a pinion actuated by a rack in connection 
with a snail-shaped cam, which causes the fan gradually to open as 
the hours progress, and then suddenly close. 

Fig. 619. — Fan-shaped Clock. 

Suspended Bird-Cage. — This, from the Schloss collection, is 
probably a combined French and Swiss production of about 1780, 
An enamelled dial with centre seconds hand projects below the 
bottom of the case, the actuating mechanism being hidden in the 
plinth, which is adorned with oval enamels of scenerj/ in the Swiss 
style. In niches at the corners are fine statuettes of Sevres biscuit. 
At the completion of each hour the birds move, flutter, and trill a sort 
of duet, their actions and notes being remarkably natural. By 
means of rotating pieces of glass, a double-fall fountain appears to 
be playing in the centre. These motions can be caused to repeat at 
pleasure by pulling a string. The few somewhat similar clocks 
known to exist are highly prized by their owners. One not so 
decorative as the example here shown is in the King of Italy's 
summer palace at Monza. 

470 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Magnetic Timekeepers. — Gr oilier de Serviere devised a time- 
keeper resembling a shallow bowl with a wide rim, having marked 
thereon the twelve hour numerals, as in Fig. 621 ; the bowl being 
filled with water, the figure of a tortoisa was placed on it and at once 

Fig. 620.— Bird-cage Clock about 1780. 

floated round till it pointed to the time, and then gradually crept to 
the figures in succession as the hours advanced. Underneath the 
rim of the bowl was a magnet of the horseshoe type, which was 
caused to revolve once in twelve hours ; the tortoise was of cork and 
carried the " keeper " of the magnet. By the same agency he was 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 471 

enabled to cause a lizard to ascend a column and a mouse to creep 
along a cornice with the hours marked on the frieze below. 




Fig. 621. — Magnetic Timekeeper. 

Ftg. 622. — Congreve Clock. 

472 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Congreve Clock. — William Congreve, best known as an inventor 
of war rockets, was an ingenious mechanician, an officer in the 
Royal Artillery, and a member of Parliament. In succession to his 
father he became a baronet in 1814 and also Comptroller of the 
Royal Laboratory at Woolwich. In 1808 he patented a timekeeper 
in which a small metal ball rolled down grooves in an inclined plane, 
which was movable on its centre. The grooves were zigzag, form- 
ing a succession of V's, so that the ball, once started, traversed the 
whole surface of the plate by rolling down one groove and entering 
the next at the point of the V. On arriving at the lowest point of 
the inclined plane the ball with its acquired impetus unlocked the 
train, which thereupon reversed the inclination of the plane or table 
by the intervention of a crank and connecting rod, and the ball 
started on its journey in the other direction. The ball should be of 

platinum or other dense material to 
ensure sufficient impact in unlocking. 
Congreve clocks, as they are called, go 
fairly well if made with exactness and 
kept free from dust, but in spite of their 
really attractive appearance but few of 
them appear to have been made. At the 
Rotunda, Woolwich, is one of these 
curiosities bearing the following inscrip- 
tion : " This first experiment of a new 
principle for the measurement of time, 
invented by William Congreve, Esq., is 
humbly presented to His Royal Highness 
the Prince of Wales, 1808." Mr. R. Eden 
Dickson has one ; another belongs to 
Mr. W. W. Astor ; I saw a line specimen 
dating from about 1820, inscribed " John 
Bentley and James Beck, Royal Ex- 
change." For the example in Fig. 622, 
which is signed " Henry Bell, Mount St.," 
I am indebted to Messrs. Jump & Sons. 
The three dials indicate respectively 
hours, minutes, and seconds. This clock 
is now in the possession of Mr. Hansard 

Fig. 623 is a rack clock in the collection 
Fig. 623.— Rack Clock. of Mr. Hansard Watt. It is probably 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 473 

of foreign construction and of the late 18th century. The board 
to which the rack is fastened is of ebony and red tortoise-shell. 
The clock is wound by simply pushing it up to the top of the 
rack and is its own driving weight. It takes about 30 hours to 

Japanese Clocks are peculiar. P'^ormerly the Japs divided the 

daylight and darkness each into a period of six hours, which therefore, 

except twice a year, would be of unequal duration. Here 

iTq u '^^^ representations of the six hour numerals which were used 

twice over and counted backwards. Mr. James Arthur in 

i J " Time and its Measurement " tells us that animal equi- 

valents were used to distinguish the two sets of hours, 9 at 

-^ 6 noon being Horse, and 9 at midnight Rat ; the morning 8, 

Ox, the afternoon 8 Sheep ; the morning 7, Tiger, the after- 

"t noon 7, Monkey; the morning 6 (sunrise). Hare, the after- 

-| S noon 6 (sunset). Cock ; the morning 5, Dragon, the afternoon 

'* 5, Dog ; the morning 4, Snake, the afternoon 4, Boar. In 

X 9 the simplest forms of timekeepers the dial rotated, the hour 

being indicated by a fixed pointer. The hour numerals for 

noon and midnight remained stationary, the others were 

shifted on the dial at intervals as required by the season. 

Fig. 624 shows a simple Japanese timepiece. There is no dial, 
but the progress of time is indicated by the downward motion of the 
driving weight. A pointer attached to the weight projects through 
a longitudinal slit running the length of the body of the case, and 
clasped on to the front are metal hour marks which may be adjusted 
to different heights by the thumb and finger. There are thirteen of 
these marks, the last one being a repetition of the first. To the 
Rev. D. Holland Stubbs, who has several Japanese clocks, I am 
indebted for the illustration. 

In a form of striking clock presumably used by the more wealthy 
classes, dials v/ere provided and also two balances of the cross-bar 
kind, one of which controlled the motion by day and the other by 
night. At sunset, by means of a pin in the locking- plate of the 
striking train, one was automatically switched out of connection 
with the train, and the other substituted. Each arm of the balances 
had notches throughout its length, and the weights were shifted 
by hand at fortnightly periods, as in the more primitive time- 
keepers. Half-hours as well as hours were sounded, the strokes on 
the bell being given in the following order : 9, 1, 8, 2, 7, 1, 6, 2, 5, I, 
4, 2. The hours are 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, the halves, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2. In 

474 01^ Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

French Clocks and Cases in the French Style 475 

this way, when the half-hour was struck the hearer knew to which 
one of any two hours it referred. 

There is a cross-bar Japanese clock with dial at the Horo- 
logical Institute, and one with 
the automatic alternating ar- 
rangement at the South Ken- 
sington Museum. Fig. 625 
shows this very well. This and 
Fig. 626 are from L'Horloge, 
which contains an interesting 
chapter by Mons. Planchon on 
Japanese methods of timekeep- 
ing. No. 1 of Fig. 626 is of 
porcelain, and No. 2 is decorated 
with Japanese lacquer and con- 
tains the clock shewn in Fig. 
625. In the latter the small 
counterweights are masked with 
tassels. These clocks and the 
whole of M. Planchon's Japanese 
collection are now the property 
of Mr. J. Drummond Robertson, 
occurred on November 29th, 1921. 

For a view of the exact size of the dial of a table clock I am 
indebted to Mr. F. Lodder. The hand is stationary and the dial 
rotates. Attached to the shifting hour pieces are pins which let off 
the hour striking mechanism at the right moment whatever may be 
the position of the pieces. 

Fig. 627. — Japanese Table Clock. 

The death of Monsieur Planchon 



THE manufacture of chamber clocks for domestic use, as distin- 
guished from the costly and highly decorated timekeepers made 
for public buildings or to gratify the tastes of the wealthy, 
seems to have commenced about 1600. These chamber clocks were of 
the pattern known as " lantern/' " birdcage," or " bedpost." They 
were either hung against a wall or supported on a bracket, and wound 
by pulling down the opposite ends of the ropes to those from which the 
driving weights were hung. In some instances all the hoars were 
struck in regular progression on the bell surmounting the structure, 
and sometimes the bell was only utilised as an alarm. In all cases 
the second train, for actaating the hammer, was placed behind the 
train for the watch, or going part. The framing was composed of four 
corner posts connecting top and bottom plates, the pivots of the trains 
being supported in vertical bars. In none of them was the train 
calculated for going more than thirty hours. At first the escapement 
with vertical verge and a balance as in De Vick's clock was used as the 
controlling medium, the verge being usually suspended from a string. 

As soon as the pendulum was introduced, it quickly super- 
seded the balance. The escape wheel was then as a rule planted to 
work in a horizontal plane, the pendulum being attached to the 
verge, and swinging either between the two trains of wheels or 
behind, according to the fancy of the maker. The alternate appear- 
ance of the pendulum weight at each side of the case led to its being 
called a " bob " pendulum, and pendulums of this Idnd are still known 
as bob pendulums, in contradistinction to the longer variety wliich 
at a later period, and with the anchor escapement, vibrated in a 
much smaller arc. 

The movement was enclosed at the back with a brass plate ; at 

the front was the dial plate, also of brass, and superimposed thereon 

a silvered hour band with engraved numerals ; at the sides were brass 

doors, and when the pendulum was between the trains, a slit was cut 

in each door to allow the pendulum to " bob " in and out. 


The Piogiession of English Domestic Clocks 





47^ Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 630.—" Great Chamber Clock/' 1623. 

In the earliest of these clocks the dials were, as a rule, thickly gilt ; 
the hour circles narrow and the numerals stumpy, the front one of the 
frets surrounding the bell at top, in many instances, had a shield for 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 479 

Fig. 631.— Side door of Clock. 

the crest or initials of the owner. The doors were often made of sun- 
dial plates, as may be seen from the engraving on the insides of early 
specimens ; doubtless the introduction of 
clocks played havoc with the demand for 
the older time recorder, and induced 
many sun-dial makers to turn tlieir atten- 
tion to the production of clocks. The 
maker's name was engraved along the 
base of the fret ; or inscribed at the top 
or bottom of tlie centre of the dial, just 
within the hour ring ; or placed out of 
sight under the alarm plate, the latter 
practice leading to the assumption that 
the clock was to be sold by some one 
other than the maker. It may be as- 
sumed that each of the leading crafts- 
men introduced alterations in style from 
time to time and designed fretwork and 

other ornament for his exclusive use ; but it is pretty evident that 
such variations were speedily copied by the general run of makers, for 
most clocks of the same period bear a marked resemblance to each 
other ; possibly much of the material was supplied from the same 
foundry and cast from the same pattern. About 1640 the hour bands 
were made wider, with longer numerals, and the fret with the crossed 
dolphins came into use. 

Among those who subscribed to the fund for obtaining the Charter 
of Incorporation of the Clockmakers' Company in 1630 was William 
Bowyer, who then appears to have been a clockmaker of repute. It 
is stated in Overall's " History of the Clockmakers' Company," that 
in 1642 Bowyer presented to the Company a great chamber clock in 
consideration of his being thereafter exempted from all office and 
service as well as quarterage and other fees. 

Mr. J. Drummond Robertson possesses a lantern clock by Wm. 
Bowyer, which is shown in Figs. 628 and 629. It dates probably 
from about 1620. The hour circle is of a primitive character, there 
being no division strokes to mark the half-hours and quarters. The 
trains of wheels run in opposite directions, and the original balance of 
circular form, 4J in. in diameter, is retained. The extreme height of 
the clock is 16J in., and the width of the dial 5f in. 

Fig. 630 shows another specimen of Bowyer's work. It is a 
"large Chamber clock," which measures 8Jin. across the dial, its 

480 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

total height being 16| in. Around the centre of the dial is inscribed, 
" WilUam Bowyer of London fecit 1623/' This was doubtless formerly 
covered by an alarm disc. Along the bottom of the dial is engraved, 
" Samuel Lynaker of London." Now Samuel Linaker was named in 
the Charter of Incorporation of the Clockmakers' Company to be one 

of the assistants, as the members 
of the Committee of Manage- 
ment were termed, and it seems 
to be a fair inference that the 
clock was made by Bowyer for 

On the side door of the clock, 
which is visible in Fig. 630, a 
figure cf Time is engraved ; and 
on the other door a figure of 
Death, as shown to a reduced 
scale in the sketch. Fig. 63L 
In the right hand of the figure 
appears to be a torch, and de- 
pending therefrom is a streamer 
on which are the words, " The 
sting of death is sinne." The 
left hand holds a sand glass, and 
underneath are the following 
lines ; — 

"Man is a glase, Life 
Is as water weakly washed about, 
Sinns brought in death. 
Death breakes the glase, 
So runes this water out." 

In larger characters is the ad- 
monition, " Memento Mory." 

Very possibly the doors of 
such clocks were engraved to 
suit the tastes of purchasers. 
There are no particulars obtain- 
able as to the early history 
of this example. I remember seeing another large lantern clock 
by the same maker which was inscribed, " William Boyear, in 
Ledenhall Streete, fecit." The movement of this clock was arranged 
in the usual manner^ the striking train behind the going, and working 

Fig. 632. — Large Lantern Clock, by 
Thomas Knifton. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 481 

in three upright bars. It required a great fall of the driving weights 
to go thirty hours, as each of the main wheels made one rotation 
per hour. The original vertical escapement, as usual, had been 
removed ; but from parts remaining it could be seen that it was 

Fig. 634.— By Thomas 

Fig. 633. — By Nicholas Coxeter. 
A large and a small Lantern Clock to the same scale, showing contrast in size. 

identically the same as the drawings of De Vick's. The wheels and 
pinions, as one sometimes finds, were very little cut, and though 
evidently rounded by hand, seemed very nearly correct, and ran 

482 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

easily without chattering. The hour wheel was driven by a pinion 
of four, the end of the main wheel staff being filed up into four pins 
to serve the purpose. 

Mr. Hansard Watt possesses a fine lantern clock which is shown in 

Fig. 635. — Lantern Clock, 
by Thomas Knifton. 

Fig. 636.— Clock with Pendulum 
in Front of Dial. At the head 
of the pendulum is the figure of 
a Snipe which rocks to and fro. 

Fig. 635. The example measures 8} in. in height, 3J in. in width, 
and 4f in. in depth. It has a narrow hour circle of yg i^- 3-^d a finely 
pierced steel single hand. The centre of the dial is engraved with 
tulips and the maker's name " Thomas Knifton at ye Cross Keys in 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 483 

Lothbury Londini." The movement is 30-hour striking, with crown 
wheel escapement and bob pendulum. It is a fine timekeeper and in 
perfect state. 

Another interesting lantern clock of large size is shown in Fig. 

Fig. 637. 

Fig. 638. 

Lantern Clock, by Thomas Dyde. 

632, the dial measuring 7^ in. across. The gallery fret above the 
dial is particularly well designed, and bears the inscription 
" Thomas Kmfton at the Cross Keys in Lothebury, Londini Fecit '' 
Thomas Knifton was well known among the earlv makers ' On the 

484 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

upper part of the space within the hour ring is engraved, " Tliis 
was given by Wilham Adams, the founder of this Schoole, and is to 
be made use of for the benifit thereof, 1657." The reference is to 
a school in Newport, Shropshire, founded by William Adams, and by 
him placed under the superintendence of the Haberdashers' Company, 
of which he was a member. 

Clocks of this size were, I think, exceptional. Most that I have seen 
of the period varied from about 3 in. by 2Jin. to 5 in. square. Larger 
movements were more favoured at the end of the seventeenth century 
and beginning of the eighteenth century. After about 1660 the dial 
was, as a rule, increased in size, with relation to the body of the clock 
so that it projected more on each side of the frame. This departure 
may be observed on the lantern clock by Tompion, which dates from 
about 1665, and is shown on p. 279. 

In Figs. 633 and 634 are shown to the same scale a fine specimen 
dating from about 1650 by Nicholas Coxeter and a smaller piece by 
Thomas Parker. These are both from the collection of Mr. T. W. 

For the peculiar arrangement shown in Fig. 636 I am indebted 
to Mr. W. H. Kendall. The pendulum is in front of the dial, and 
on the top of it is perched a snipe which moves to and fro as the 
pendulum swings. The letters " W. S.," presumably the initials of 
the maker, are engraved on the clock, as is also the date, 1683. 

Front and side views of a good specimen by Thomas Dyde, dating 
from about 1670, engraved by favour of Mr. Shapland, are given in 
Figs. 637 and 638. A particular feature in this clock is the unusually 
elaborate pierced work attached to the hammer tail detent, which may 
be seen in Fig. 638. 

Fig. 639 represents a little clock fixed to the wall. It is by 
Thomas Wheeler and belongs to Miss Mary F. Bragg. Fig. 640, 
taken from a drawing by Mr. William Newton, shows well the usual 
arrangement on a bracket. The name, William Ruthven, on the door 
of the clock was probably that of the owner. 

Lantern clocks, as a rule, were furnished with an hour indicator 
only. Fig. 641, from the Wetherfield collection, is an exceptional 
piece by " Joseph Knibb Oxon " dating from about 1670. It is 8|- in. 
high and 3 J in. across the dial ; has an alarm and both hour and 
minute hands. Among the few examples fitted with two hands may 
be mentioned a much larger clock by Davis Mell, Londini, which 
dates from about 1675 and belongs to Mr. J. Drummond Robertson. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 485 

It is described in Chapter IX 
Fig. 417. 

Many clocks made during the 
latter part of the reign of William 
III. and in the time of Queen Anne 
had the dials projecting beyond the 
frames from 2 to 3 in. on each side. 
These are generally known as sheep's- 
head clocks. However much the use- 
fulness of the clock may have been 
increased by the superior legibility of 
its hour ring, it cannot be contended 
that the overhanging disc improved its 
general appearance. A good example 
by Robert Evens, Halstead, which 
belongs to Mr. T. W. Bourne, is 
shown in Fig. 642. 

With little variations in the style, 
these brass clocks seem to have been 
made from the time of Elizabeth until 
about the beginning of the reign of 
George III., the later specimens being 
principally of provincial manufacture, 
and with arched-top dials. They are 
still often to be met with in the 
country, enclosed in a wooden hood as 
a protection from dust,with penddlum 
and weights hanging below. Some- 
times they are without an}/ extra case, 
and, instead of being placed on a 
bracket, are simply attached to the 
wall by means of an iron loop and 
two prongs. 

The " fret " at the top of the 
case may in many instances be 
somewhat of a guide in estimating 
the period of a lantern clock. 
Appended are examples, for several 
of which I am indebted to Mr. Percy 

See also the clock by Edward East, 

Fig. 639. — Lantern Clock, by 
Thomas Wheeler, with Alarm 
as fixed to wall. 


486 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The heraldic fret (Fig. 643) was in use at the earhest period up to 
1630 or 1640. Frets of Wilham Bowyer may be seen on Figs. 628 
and 630. Another fret used by him, and also by Thomas Loomes, is 

Fig. 640. 

shown in Fig. 645. The fret of Bowyer in Fig. 644 was used as well 
by Peter Closon, another early maker. The Thomas Pace fret 
(Fig. 646) may be taken to represent the period between 1630 to 1660. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 487 

The crossed dolphins came into use about 1640, and were a favourite 
pattern from then as long as lantern clocks were made. An un- 
common and unusually fine fret may be observed on the clock by 
Thomas Knifton, shown in Fig. 632. The fret on the clock by 
Thomas Parker (Fig. 634) will also bear examination. J. Michell of 

Fig. 641.— Joseph Knibb, London. 
Alarm, Hour and Minute Hands. 

Fig. 642.— Sheep's-head Clock, by 
Robert Evens, Halstead. 

Chardstock, a village in Somersetshire, was an excellent maker of 
lantern clocks about 1700, and judging from the number of specimens 
still existing, he must have had a considerable connection. His frets 
were good and bore a distinctive character. The one shown in 
Fig. 648 is from a clock in the possession of Mr. S. Good, Seaton, 

Fig. 645. — William Bowyer; also Thomas Loomes. 

Fig. 646. — Thomas Pace at the Crown. 

I-'iG. 647. — Dolphin fret, from Clock by Nicholas Coxeter. 

Fig. 64S.— Fretof J. Michell, Chardstock. 

490 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Devonshire. Michell was succeeded by the family of Drayton, of 
which several generations successively carried on the business till past 

Fig. 649. — Fret similar to the supporters in the Royal Arms. 

the middle of the nineteenth century, the last mc mber being Thomas 
Drayton. A fret as in Fig. 649, embodying something similar to the 
supporters in the Royal arms, is occasionally to be met witli. The 

Fig. 650. — Late period Fret used in the Eastern Counties. 

initials preceding the date may be those of the owner or the maker. 
Frets similar to Fig. 650 are found upon later specimens, particularly 
those made in the Eastern counties. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 491 

Hood Clocks. — These have been referred to as a transition 
between the brass-cased lantern and the wooden long-case. Fig. 651 

Fig. 652.— Hindley, York, about 1710. 

shows a diminutive thirty-hour 
hanging clock by Joseph Knibb, 
London, from the Wetherfield 
collection, and made about 1680. 
The carved bracket on which the 
movement rests and the hood 
are of walnut. The dial is 5 in. 
wide. A later and larger example signed " Hindley, York," in an oak 
case is shown in Fig. 652, by favour of Mr. William Birchall. Captain 

Fig. 651. — Joseph Knibb, London, 
about 1680. 

492 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Edward Lethbridge owns a clock by Thristle, of Williton, a village in 
Somerset, with a carved top hood of mahogany. The dial measures 
about 7 in. across, and has an arched top with a figure of Time and 
the motto " Tempus fugit." A long pendulum swings below the 
bracket. The date of its production would be about 1730. Mr. W. T. 
Harkness has one by " Payne, Hadleigh," of the same period, also with 
a mahogany hood. 


Fig. 653. — Early Friesland Clock. 

Fig. 654.— Zaandam Clock. 

Hood clocks were popular in Holland for a long priod. The best 
of these were made in Zaandam, but a larger number in Friesland. 
The earliest had but one hand, as in Fig. 653, which represents a 
Friesland clock, presented to theBankfield Museum by Mr. J. Whiteley 
Ward. There were usually two bells of different sizes. The completion 
of each hour was marked by strokes on the large bell, while the same 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 493 

number of strokes on the small bell denoted the succeeding half-hour. 
In the later clocks the intermediate quarters also were sounded, one 
blow on the small bell being given at the first quarter, and one blow 
on the large bell at the third quarter. Sometimes the pendulum was 
in front, and sometimes at the 
back of the bracket. In the 
latter case the bob would be of 
a fancy shape, such as that of a 
man on horseback, and be visible 
through an oval hole in the 
bracket. For Fig. 654 I am 
indebted to Mr. Webster. Mr. 
J. Drummond Robertson has a 
similar Zaandam clock in a case 
of ebony with the four posts of 
the movement of rosewood. The 
dial plate is covered with black 
velvet forming an effective back- 
ground for the hour band and 
outer decorations which are all 
of brass. The front fret shows 
Faith, Hope, and Charity. 

A much rarer style of Dutch 
clock, which strikes the quarters, 
and appears to date from about 
1675, is shown in Fig. 655. The 
movement and case are entirely 
of iron, the sides and front being 
adorned with oil paintings, which 
are very effective. The main 
dial has an hour hand only and 
contains no minute marks, but 
fractions of an hour are indi- 
cated on a smaller dial below. 

In Dutch movements/ made 
at the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century, a long while 

after the adoption of the pendulum, the crown wheel and verge were 
retained in a vertical position, and the pendulum was suspended above 
the movement at the back of the case, quite detached, and connected 
with the escapement only by means of a hght wire crutch, working 

Fig. 655. — Unusual Dutch Clock, 
with painted case. 

494 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

horizontally over the frame. Owing to this peculiarity, clocks of such 
a construction are often supposed to be much older than they really 
are, especially if, as occasionally happens, the pendulum gets removed 
or lost ; for, when this occurs, the remaining part of the movement 
almost identically resembles the drawings of De Vick's clock. 

Another instance of the slow appreciation of improvement is the 
very gradual acknowledgment of the minute hand. Clocks with an 
hour hand only were produced by country makers till quite the end 
of the eighteenth century. 

Lantern clocks were made long after the long case was introduced. 
Indeed, one occasionally sees an adaption of the bedpost movement 
to the needs of the later construction, the two trains being placed 
side by side to allow of winding with a key from the frontj but with 
six pillars instead of the more simple and convenient back and 
front plates. 

Long-case Clocks. — It would be difficult to say exactly when 
the brass chamber clock with a wooden hood developed into the 
long-case variety, now familiarly termed " Grandfather," but it was 
probably between 1660 and 1670. In the earliest the escapement 
was governed by a balance, or by a short pendulum. John Smith, 
in " Horological Dialogues," published in 1675, says : "If your 
pendulum clock be of the ordinary sort the trouble and manner of 
hanging it up is the same with the balance clock, viz., to drive an 
hook for it to hang on." But he also speaks of " setting up long 
swing pendulums after you have taken it from the coffin " and adds 
" the same rule that is given for this serves for all other trunck-cases 

In his " Horological Disquisitions," issued in 1694, vSmith is much 
more precise and refers to the anchor escapement and improved 
pendulum " invented by that eminent and well-known artist, Mr. 
William Clement." He gives a list of " Crown Wheel Pendulums," 
from 1 in. to 12 in. long, and then a list of "royal" pendulums, 
as in his enthusiastic approval he terms those of CJement, from 
12 in. to 65 in. in length. 

The long or " royal " pendulum, introduced about 1676, was 
pretty generally adopted by the leading makers for their best work 
within a few years from that date. The cases of the balance and 
short pendulum clocks were exceedingly, narrow in the waist, only 
just sufficient width having originally been allowed for the rise and 
fall of the weights. In some instances a clock of this kind would be 
converted to the new style, and then a curious addition, in the form 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 495 

of a wing or projection was made on each side of the case to permit 
the swing of a " royal " pendulum. Sheraton seems to have suggested 
a revival of these wings in the case shown in Fig. 746. 

But for a few exceptions that mark the rule, long-case clocks 
have the movement contained between two brass plates held together 
by horizontal pillars. This change came with the rearrangement of 
the trains side by side, to allow of winding with a key from the 
front of the dial. 

It may be concluded that the earliest long-case clocks would go 
for but twenty-four 01 thirty hours between successive windings, 
and possibly at first they were wound by pulling down the driving 
cords. There is an early one b}f Tompion 
at the Guildhall Museum which has a 
lantern movement and is so arranged. 
Bat there is a very fine thirty- hour clock 
by the same maker in the Weiherfield 
collection which winds through holes in 
the dial. The introduction of the 
" royal " pendulum and wheel work for 
eight days' running seems to have been 
almost coincident. The evident success 
of eight-day movements induced clock- 
makers to calculate trains to go for 
a month, three months, and even a year, 
of wliich there are several examples by 
Tompion, Quare, and others. 

In the striking part of the earliest 
eight-day clocks the locking plate or 
count wheel was on the outside of the 
pillar-plate instead of being attached 
to the great wheel. When the rack 

was introduced it was placed between the plates and lifted by a pin 
in the arbor ; the superior method of an outside rack lifted by a 
gathering pallet seems to have come into use about 1700. 

Mr. D. A. F. Wetherfield has a month timepiece by William 
Clement, who is said to have been the first to apply the anchor 
escapement. It is in an oak veneered-walnut case, the case and dial 
being very similar to those of the Tompion clock shown in Fig. 710. 
There is no door to the hood, which has grooves to correspond with 
the back-board of the case ; the hood thus slides upwards when taken 
off, or when the clock is to be wound. Preparatory to winding, the 

Fig. 656. — Side view of Time- 
piece Movement, byWilliam 
Clement, about 1676. 

496 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

hood is raised until engaged by a spring, which holds it in the 
requisite position to admit of access to the winding-hole. A side 
view of the movement is given in Fig. 656. There are six pillars 
and catches pivoted on one of the plates shut into corresponding 
slots in the pillars, thus fastening the movement together. The 
escape wheel is solid, has twenty-four teeth, and is 1 in. in 
diameter ; the pallets are about | in. across. The pendulum is 5 ft. 
6 in. long, each vibration marking a second and a quarter, and the 
seconds circle has forty-eight divisions only instead of the usual sixty. 
Between the plates is a small brass dial with figures 1 to 12 engraved 
on it, and having a hand by turning which forwards or backwards 
the pendulum is lengthened or shortened. On the spindle to which 
the hand is attached is a worm which gears into a quadrant carrying 
an arm, and to this arm the pendulum is hung. 

Dials. — In estimating the age of a clock many distinguishing 
features of the dial may be noted. From the first the hour circles 
were, with few exceptions, engraved on a separate silvered ring as in 
lantern clocks ; the double circles within the numerals were retained, 
and in the space enclosed between them were radial strokes, dividing 
the hour into quarters, the half-hours being denoted by longer 
strokes terminating in a fleur-de-lis or other ornament. The form 
of the hour hand differed but little from the indicators on lantern 
clocks. Fig. 657 shows the dial of a thirty-hour long-case clock 
by Andrew Prime, London, dating from about 1670, belonging to 
Mr. C. J. Abbott, of Long Melford. Except for the difference in the 
name, the engraving on the thirty-hour Tompion clock at the Guildhall 
Museum is exactly similar. The dial of an early long-case alarm 
clock by Tompion which belongs to Mr. T. W. Bourne is shown in 
Fig. 658. 

It must not be assumed that of two long-case clocks, one with an 
hour hand only, and^ the other with a minute hand as well, the 
one with the single index is necessarily of the earlier date, for, though 
the minute hand was applied as early as 1670, clocks with an hour 
hand only were quite common throughout the eighteenth century. It 
is most probable that for some years the minute hand was only 
applied by the best makers and exclusively to clocks of a superior 
class ; this assumption is justified by the fact that, though many early 
one-hand clocks roughly made are met with, those with the minute 
hand are almost invariably well finished. The form of the hands is 
an excellent guide to the period. Fig. 659 shows the dial and hands 
of a very fine long-case clock by Tompion, belonging to Mr.Wetherfield, 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 497 

Fig. G57. — Andrew Prime, about 1670. 

Fig. 658. — Thomas Tompion, Clock with Alarm, about 1670. 

498 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 659. — Dial of Long-case Clock, by Thos. Tompion, 1676-1680 

Fig. 660 —J. Windmills, with name curved within minute marks. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 499 

Fig. 661. — Joseph Knibb about 1685 ; 10 in, dial ; month clock, 
striking on two bells. 

Fig. 662. — Edward East, about 1690 ; month clock ; 10-in, dial, 
very pretty hands, 

500 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers. 

Fig 663.— Christopher r,<.iri.l, about 1700; 12-in. dial. 

Fig. 664, — Thomas Tompion, about 1705 ; 10|-in. dial. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 5oi 

and which may be safely placed as dating from between 1676 and 
1680. The centre of the dial is matted, and this, though character- 
istic of the time, was not an invariable custom, for some makers 
adhered to the engraved centre as seen in lantern clocks of earlier 
times. The hands are good and well adapted to their office, the 
seconds indicator being a slender unbalanced finger. It was not till 
the time of Wilhamson about 1715 that double-ended seconds hands 
were appHed. On dials of the Wilham III. and Queen Anne periods, 
even when the centre was matted, there would be usually a " herring- 
bone " or laurel leaf border along the edges, and engraving something 
in the form of birds and fohage surrounded the aperture showing the 
day of the month, as in the Quare dial on p. 508. This had a very 
good effect when burnished 

bright in contrast to the matting. 
Further relief Vv^as given by turn- 
ing a number of bright rings 
around the winding holes. With 
the exception of those thirty-hour 
adaptions with lantern move- 
ments as in Fig. 657, the maker's 
name on the earliest of the seven- 
teenth-century clocks was, as a 
rule, inscribed in a straight line 
along the bottom of the dial, usu- 
ally in Latin, thus : " Eduardus 
East, Londini, Fecit,'' and visible 
only when the hood was raised or 
removed, or the door of it opened. 
Later it was engraved within the 
minute circles between the numerals VII. and V. and the Latin 
form of inscription died out so far as the signature is concerned, 
though it was occasionally indulged in for such popular mottoes as 
Tempus fpigit, Vigilate et Orate, Tempus edax rerum, &c. Fig. 660 
shows the dial of a clock by Joseph Windmills, with the name curving 
round inside the minute marks. This clock belongs to Mr. Wm. A. 
Jeffries, of Boston, Mass., U.S.A. A remarkably fine month clock 
by Tompion in a beautifully figured walnut case, dating from about 
1705, which belongs to Mr. J. Drummond Robertson, is shown in 
Fig. 718. To the top of the pinnacles it is 8 ft. 6 in. high. In this 
the name is inscribed in a straight line along the bottom of the dial, 
■ and the signature appears also on a label below the centre of the dial 

Fig. 665. — Fine Seventeenth-Century 
Engraved Dial, by William Clay. 

502 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

as in the Bath and Iscoyd Park clocks by Tompion, of a slightly later 
date, shown on pp. 287, 290. After about 1710 attached name-plates 
were occasionally used, but throughout the century most makers 
showed preference for the curved inscription between the numerals. 

Speaking generally, it seems that up to the end of the seventeenth- 
century long-case clocks were small in size ; all had square dials 
measuring either 9|-in., 10 in., 10|in., or 11 in. across. Square 
dials, 12 in. across, were later. 

Fig. 665 represents a very early square engraved metal dial which 
is of particular interest, not only from its handsome appearance but 
from the fact that it discloses a peculiar plan of denoting the 
minutes. The short hand in the centre of the dial is the alarm 
index, which need not be referred to further. The hours and sub- 
divisions representing quarter hours are engraved on the dial plate 
in the manner usual at the middle of the seventeenth century, and 
the hours and quarters are indicated by a pointer fixed to a plate of 
the form shown, and which revolves once in twelve hours. The 
revolving plate includes an outer ring connected with the centre by 
three arms, and projecting from the outer edge of this ring are 
twelve pointers placed equidistantly around the periphery. On the 
upper part of the fixed dial plate is a narrow band forming 30" or 
i\ of the circumference. This band is divided into sixty equal 
parts, representing the minutes in an hour ; and if at the beginning 
of an hour one of the pointers is just entering this arc, it is obvious 
it wiU in its course indicate the minutes which have elapsed since 
the completion of the previous hour. At the bottom of the dial 
is inscribed, " William Clay, King's Street, Westminster," and this 
William Clay was possibty the one recorded as the maker of a watch 
presented by Cromwell to Colonel Bagwell at the siege of Clonmel. 
This dial was sketched from a clock in the possession of Mr. Percy 

An arched top to the dial appears to have been first added early 
in the eighteenth century for the reception of an equation of time 
register, as shown in Tompion's clock on p. 290. It will be observed 
that the Hampton Court clock bearing Quare's name, and which was 
designed to show true solar time, has no arch to the dial, but a 
subsequent clock on the same plan by Joseph Williamson has an 
arch containing a calendar for the year, as shown in Fig. 681. On 
another dial by Williamson, the day of the week is indicated, as seen 
in Fig. 682. Apart from its utility in this connection, the addition of 
the arched top was certainly a great improvement to the appearance of 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 503 

the dial, and from this time was generally retained for the better class 
of work even when not required as a field for the exhibition of any 
of the clock movements. In such cases the space was devoted to 
decoration, a favoured device being a domed plate on which was 
inscribed either the owner's or the maker's name, occasionally with a 
crest or motto, and generally flanked on each side by a dolphin 
or rococo ornament of the kind apparently introduced by Joseph 
Williamson, and shown on his dials. Figs. 681 and 682. 

Calendar circles in the arch of the dial were very popular. 
The hands for these were generally worked as shown in Fig. 666. 
Gearing with the hour wheel is a wheel having twice its number of 
teeth, and turning therefore once in twenty-four hours. A three- 
armed lever is planted just above this wheel ; the lower arm is slotted, 
and the wheel carries a pin which works in this slot, so that the lever 
vibrates to and fro once ever\/ twentj^-four hours. The three upper 
circles in the drawing represent three star \\'heels. The one to the 
right has seven teeth corresponding to the days of the week ; the 
centre one has thirty-one teeth for the days of the month ; and the 
left-hand one has twelve teeth for the months of the year. Every 
time the upper arms of the lever vibrate to the left, they move 
forward the day of .the week and day of the month wheels each one 
tooth. The extremities of the levers are jointed, so as to yield on the 
return vibration, and are brought into position again by a weak 
spring, as shown. There is a pin in the day-of-the-month wheel 
which, by pressing on a lever once every revolution, actuates the 
month of the year wheel. This last lever is also jointed, and is 
pressed on by a spring, so as to return to its original position. Each 
of the star wheels has a click or j umper kept in contact by means of 
a spring. For months with less than thirty-one days the day of the 
month hand has to be shifted forward. 

The spandrels or corners outside the circle of the dial form a 
toleiably reliable sign of the times. In some of the very earliest long- 
case clocks flowers were engraved there, as in William Clay's dial on 
p. 501. In Fig. 704 the corners are filled each with a line of verse, 
but more usually these spaces were occupied by raised gilt ornaments, 
of which the earliest were the cherubs' or angels' heads. Fig. 667. 
This pattern will be seen on the clock represented in the coat-of-arms 
granted to the Clockmaker's Company in 1671, and was largely used 
until the end of the century. It was succeeded by larger and more 
elaborate corners hke Fig. 668. Then more ambitious designs came 
into use, notably two cupids or nude boys supporting a crown in the 

504 Old Clocks and Watches and their Make 


Fig. 666.— Simple Calendar Work. 



Fig. 667. 


Fig. 668. 

Comer pieces " of diflerent periods. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 505 

midst of ornamental scroll-work (Fig. 669) ; or a crown with crossed 
sceptres and foliage as in Fig. 670. This is an unusually fine 

Fig. 670. 

specimen taken from a clock of the Queen Anne period by W. 
Draper, a maker of whom I seem to have no precise particulars, 
though Mr. William Norman has a metal token issued by W. Draper, 

watchmaker, which has on the obverse " Success to the Borough of 
Maldon " with the arms of the town, and on the reverse the arms of 
the Clockmakers' Company. Later in the eighteenth century different 

Fig. 672 

figures representing the four seasons were popular with some of the 
provincial makers, but they are seldom to be seen on clocks by 

5o6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 673.— Edward East, about 1680. Eight-day clock; 10-in. dial 
bolt and shutter maintaining power. 

Fig. 674.— Joseph Knibb, about 1690. Month clock: 10-in. dial 
unique corner-piece. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 507 

Fig. 675. — Joseph Knibb, about 1695. Month clock ; 10-iii. dial 
Skeleton hour ring ; every minute numbered. 

Fig. 676. — Thos. Tompion, about 1700. Month clock; 11-in. dial 
bolt and shutter maintaining power. 

Fro. 677. — Daniel Quare, about 1705. Month clock; 11-in. dial. 

Fig. 678. — Jonathan Lowndes, about 1710. Eight-day clock; 12-in. dial. 


Fig. 679.— Richard Lyons, about 1690. 10-in. dial. 

Fig. 680. — John Crampern, Newark, about 1775. Eccentric 

subject for engraving in centre space. 


510 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

London men. The naked boys were followed by various combinations 
of a rococo character, such as Fig. 671. One of the best and most 
popular of the designs used daring the George III. period is shown 
in Fig. 672. Some of the corners and arch ornaments of tliis 

Fig. 681. — Joseph W'liiianison, about 1715. Month clock; square of dial, 
12 in. Inscription, " HorcB indicantur apparentes involutis csquationibus." 
Calendar in the arch. 

time were sadly degenerate in form and execution, being merely a mass 
of unmeaning curves reproduced in rough castings, not touched by 
the chasing tool or graver, but lacquered just as they left the sand. 
Many of the dials and corners were water gilt. Occasionally, 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 511 

on clocks of a high class, silver corner-pieces pierced and engraved 
were substituted for the set patterns. 

Among other useful purposes to which the arclied space was 
applied, the " strike-silent " hand and the " rise-and-fall " register majJ 

Fig. 682. — Joseph "S^'illiamson, about 1720. Eight-day clock ; square of dial, 
12 in. Lower hour numerals reversed. Day of the week indicated in the 
arch ; an ilhistration for each day appears through an aperture. 

be mentioned as two of the earliest. The titles of these are suggestive 
of their use. The strike-silent meclianism for stopping the striking of 
the clock at pleasure is older than the arch, and is to be seen on clocks 
having square dials. A particular form of strike-silent mechanism 

512 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

was incorporated in a patent granted to John Rowning, M.A., in 1732 
(No. 535). Some dials made just after the accession of George I. 
contained instead of the words "strike-silent" the letters "S.N." 

Fig. 683. — Jacob Lovelace, Exeter, about 1735. Day of the month through 
hole in dial. Figures in the arch show age of the moon and time of liigh 
water in hours and minutes. Subsidiary pointers in the upper corners 
are for respectively " strike-silent " and pendulum regulation. 

engraved as a guide to the movement of a lever. The meaning of 
these letters, which stand respectively for " Schlag," " Nicht," has 
occasionally perplexed subsequent owners of such a clock, especially if, 
as was not unusual, the lever had disappeared. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 513 

The rise-and-fall hand v/as connected with the pendulum and 
served to regulate the time of its vibration by altering its effective 
length. An earl}^ example with this contrivance is the long-case clock 

Fig. 684. — Dial of Clock, by Andrew Padbury, with rotating 
centre to indicate time all over the world. 

by Jonathan Puller in the Wetherheld collection which is shown 
on p. 557. 

For many years, but especially during the latter part of the 

514 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

eighteenth century, there was a great taste for moving figures placed 
in this part of the dial, such automata as see-saws, hea\dng ships, time 
on the wing, &c., being especially favoured. The Dutch seem to have 

Fig. 685. — Rotating Moon Dial of " Halifax Clock," by Thos. Ogden 
about 1750 (see p. 520). 

greatly excelled at this kind of work. Occasionally an effective but 
som.ewhat ghastly attraction was arranged by placing in the arched 
spa( e a painting of a human head ; behind the head, instead of the 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 515 

tossing ship, which was worked to and fro by a wire from the pendulum, 
would be the eyes continually going to and fro. 

- Sometimes the seconds indicator was transferred from inside the 
hour ring to the space above. 

The phases of tlie moon, usually accomphshed by a disc turning 

Fig. 686.— John Ellicott, about 1760. 

once in two lunations, as shown in Enderhn's clock on p. 394, was also 
a favourite device for the arch of the dial. 

In connection with the lunar record the time of high water at 
some particular place was popular in certain districts between 1730 
and 1780. For people residing near a tidal river, and who desired to 


Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

cross a ford, accessible only at low water, an indication of the tides 
would be especially useful. In many instances the figure of the moon 
had a slight pointed projection to show the age of the luminary. 

Fig. 687. — Simpson, Wigton, about 1775. Has centre seconds and day-of-the- 
month hands, and shows in the arch age and phases of the moon and time 
of high water, probably at Parton, near Whitehaven. 

Around the top of the arched space, besides the usual figures for the 
moon's age would be a row of Roman numerals for the hours of high 
water, and perhaps a further arc with a register of the number of 
minutes past. Mr. Charles J. Reynolds has a clock of this kind. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 517 

with the inscription," Charles \'aughan,Pontypool, "outside the figures. 
Or there might be a fixed pointer above the arch ; the numbers for the 

Fig. 688. — Thomas :Moss, Frodsham, 1776. Show.s days of the month, age 
and phases of the moon, and time of high water at Frodsham. Water 
scene and landscape painted in arch. 

moon's age and the tides would then occupy the edge of the mocn's 
disc and travel with it. Mr. George Liddell has a clock, by Jacob 
Lovelace of Exeter, dating from about 1735, so arranged. The dial is 


1 8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

shown in Fig. 683. Miss Mary F. Bragg owns a clock, by Simpson 
of Wigton, dating from about 1775, with half-hour marks instead of 
minute figures, as shown in Fig. 687. Another plan was to allow the 




Fig. 689. — Finely engraved Dial, about 1775. Figures at the corners 
to represent the four seasons. 

phases of the moon to be seen through a hole in the arched part of 
the dial. Three sets of figures would be arranged round a whole 
circle, and two pointers, resembling an hour-hand and a minute-hand, 
would indicate the age of the moon and the hours and minutes of 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 519 

high water. A clock hke this by Jno. Hunter, Bristol, is in the 
possession of Mr. H. G. Tovvnsend. Fig. 688 shows the dial of a 
clock, by Thomas Moss of Frodsham, in which this arrangement 

Fig. 690. — Dial with Moving Figures, about 1780 (see p. 564). 

occupies a space just above the centre of the dial. This clock belongs 
to Mr. Wm. R. Moss. On a clock in the Wetherfield collection, by 
Isaac Nickals, of Wells, illustrated in Fig. 762, a tidal record in the arch 
may be observed. 

520 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Clocks with a globular rotating moon over the dial, as used by 
Fromantil, were popular in Yorkshire during the eighteenth century? 
and were known locally as " Halifax clocks." Mr. J. Whiteley Ward 
liad a fine specimen, of ^^'hich an illustration is given in Fig. 685. 

Fig. 691.— Enamel centre, 1778 (see p. 525) 

This clock was made by Thomas Ogden and formerly stood at the top 
of the stairs of the Old Assembly Room behind the Talbot Inn, 

The hands on eight-day clocks of the William HL period are 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 521 

Fig. 692. — "Johannes Duchesne, Amsterdam," abuut 1<50. 

Inside the case is the following explanatory account of the remarkably effective 
painting : " Andromeda, chained to a rock by the order of the Goddess Juno 
because her friends had said she was as beautiful as Juno. Hydra, the 
three-headed Sea Monster, was sent to devour her, which, being known 
to Perseus, the King's Son, he mounted Pegasus, the flying horse, and 
rescued and married her, and after living very happily together, she was 
at length placed among the stars." 

522 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

most artistic, not only being elaborately pierced, but also carved and 
shaped on the surface. At my request Mr. Wetherfield has favoured me 
with a series of dials reproduced in Figs. 659, 61, 62, 63, 73, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
81 82, from which may be noted the hands, marks between the hour 
numerals, and other distinguishing features ranging over about forty 
3 ears from the Edward East specimen. Fig. 673, which is furnished 
with bolt and shutter maintaining power as described on p. 317. 
The Tompion dial, Fig. 664, is from the collection of Mr. T. W. Bourne, 
and the Richard Lyons, Fig. 679, is from a clock belonging to 



h HmTr - "^ 


Fig. 693.— Dial of Clock, by Eardley Norton (see pp. 543 544). 

Mr. Bernard Matthews. Later examples, down to the end of the 
eighteenth century, are shown on succeeding pages. Mr. H. Cook 
has given me a print of a square dial by John Crampern, of Newark, 
dating from about 1760, with quaintly engraved centre. It is shown 
in Fig. 680. 

Dials of brass, silvered all over, without a separate ring for the 
hour and minute circles, and in which the primitive practice of 
engraving instead of matting the central space was reverted to, 
were introduced about 1750. Many of these dials were characterised 
by really excellent engraving. Thomas Bewick, the celebrated 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 523 

Fig. 694. — Clock Hands (see p. 526). 

5^4 C)ld Clocks and Watches and their Makers 



Fig. 695.— Clock Hands (see p. 520). 

The Progression* of English Domestic Clocks 525 

engraver, who died in 1828 at the age of seventy-six, was apprenticed 
to Beilby, of Newcastle, and during his apprenticeship was frequently 
engaged in engraving clock dials. By favour of Mr. Thos. Foster, I 
am able in Fig. 689 to show an excellent specimen, dating from 
about 1775, by James Whitworth, of Lussley, a village near Newcastle. 
The figures at the corners to represent the seasons are engraved on 
the plate. The disc, which moves in the arch and contains two 
representations of the moon and rural scenes, is painted, and the 
moon in its course indicates its age by figures engraved on the fixed 
part of the arch. 

Dials with enamelled centres were occasionally used for superior 
long-case clocks at the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the 
nineteenth century, but earlier ones are rare. In Fig. 691 is shown, 
by favour of Mr. Wetherfield, the dial of a long-case clock dated 


Fig. 696. — Showing gradual development of the Plam Arrow-head Hand. 

1778, by Richard Comber, of Lewes, a maker of good repute in Sussex 
for the excellent character of his work, which this example quite 
justifies. The hands will bear examination, the corner pieces and 
arch ornaments are of good design, well chased and water gilt ; but 
the most remarkable feature is the position of the winding squares, 
which are below the enamelled disc, so that not only is the unsightli- 
ness of the holes got rid of, but one of the chief objections to 
enamel — the danger of chipping round the holes — is avoided. Wheels 
were added at the back of the movement to bring the winding squares 
down to the required position. 

About 1780 silvered dials shorn of all decorative engraving were 
sometimes used, and at the same period dials of iron, tin, or wood 
painted over made their appearance. Speaking generahy, the innova- 

526 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

tion must be regarded as a degradation, although painted dials 
ornamented with nicely coloured representations of fruit and flowers 
after Dutch designs have a pretty effect. Some of the earlier Dutch 
dials of brass were adorned with pictures of considerable merit of 
which an example is given on p. 521. 

On pp. 523 and 524 are shown some clock hands, nearly all from 
examples collected by Mr. G. H. Newton, of Watford. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 
and 4 belonged to lantern clocks made between 1630 and 1680 ; 
No. 5 from a clock by Henry Jones, about 1670. Nos. 6 to 23 are 
from long-case, and 24 to 29 from bracket, clocks. No. 6 by John 
Tirry, York, about 1680 ; No. 7, J. Windmills, 1690 ; No. 8, John 
Smith, 1695 ; No. 9, Simon Lamb, Rochester, 1700 ; No. 10, Saml. 
Harris, 1710; No. 11, George Hewitt, Marlboro', 1720; No. 12 
(hour, minute, and regulation hands ), George Graham, 1730 ; No. 13, 
Thos. Vernon, Ludlow, 1740 ; No. 14, Wm. Avenall, Alresford, 
1750 ; No. 15, Thos. Andrews, Ste3/ning, 1760 ; No. 16, Wm.Berridge, 
1770. Nos. 17 and 18 are typical single hands from early- eighteenth- 
century long-case clocks. No. 19, S. Hoole, 1770; No. 20, Wm. 
Skeggs, 1780 ; No. 21, J. Lorimer, 1790 ; No. 22, Hugh Stockell, 
Newcastle, 1800 ; No. 23, another variety of about the same date ; 
No. 24, J. Lowndes, 1690 ; No. 25, Asselin, 1720 ; No. 26, Wm. 
Kipling, 1710 ; No. 27, Joseph Emery, 1780 ; No. 28, Robert Newman 
1700 ; No. 29, Thos. Appleby, 1800. The best of these early hands 
were not only pierced but shaped or carved on the surface, if the file 
can be admitted as a carving tool. 

For the examples of hour hands in Fig. 696, I am indebted to 
Mr. T. W. Bourne, who traces progression from the plain arrow-head 
No. 1. No. 2 is similar, but with curved sides. No. 3, really an 
ornate form of No. 2, was commonly used by the old makers of lantern- 
clocks. If viewed from a distance, it gives the same effect as the wavy 
arrow-head. No. 4 marks the first real step in development ; above 
the arrow-head are two new limbs and a pointer. In No. 5 the 
curved limbs have grown and between the arrow-head and pointer 
appears a solid enlargement which in No. 6 had been hollowed and 
rendered more ornamental. This part of the hand has in Nos. 6 and 
8 been still further extended, the special features of each being 
combined in No. 9. No. 10 may be called the final form. The arrow- 
head has been retained throughout, the superstructure being the 
special object of extension and enrichment. 

Cases. — As material for the cases, oak has been used from first 
to last, but rarely for high-class work. Walnut cases, both plain and 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 527 

inlaid, were largely made during the latter part of the seventeenth 
and beginning of the eighteenth centuries. The marquetry work 
rarely extended to the sides of the case, which were plain as a rule, 
though occasionally panelled ; the panels being filled with parquetry, 
that is, set with angular pieces of thick veneer. Oyster-shell veneer 
or inlay was another handsome- style of ornament ; the inlay consisted 
of roundish pieces of veneer cut from cross sections of small branches 
so as to exhibit the natural formation or ringed structure of the 

Ebony, rosewood, and hardwood of reddish colour called, I believe, 
kingwood, were occasionally used for cases, while laburnum, olive, yew, 
holly, sycamore, apple and pear as well as tulip wood, Amboyna and 
other fancy kinds were employed with good effect for inlaying. 
In some districts chestnut seems to have been utiHsed to a considerable 
extent for cases during the eighteenth century. Mahogany was not 

Fig. 697. — Brass Fret from Head of Long-case Clock, about 1700. 

used till about 1716. The case of the Tompion one-year timepiece at 
the Admiralty, which is shown on p. 536, is distinctly later than 
Tompion's time, and it is related that the movement of a similar piece 
presented to the Royal Society in 1736 was discovered among lumber 
on the premises occupied by the Philosophical Societ}'. At Child's 
Bank is a long-case clock by Richard Street dating from about 1710. 
It is in an oak case veneered with mahogany, but the veneer was, I 
am satisfied, not applied when the case was made ; doubtless the rich 
appearance of mahogan}^ led to its subsequent application. 

The arched head to the long door of the case is not quite so old as 
the arched dial, but the introduction of curved door heads may be put, 
I think, at about 1725. 

Numbers of cases covered, with English copies of quaint-looking 
Japanese or Oriental lacquer-work were made between 1710 and 1750, 
and they have many admirers, but marquetry and lacquer- work 
rapidly declined as mahogany became more known, and it must be 

528 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

confessed that some cases of mahogany in the Chippendale and 
Sheraton styles, inlaid with satinwood, &c., quite justify the admira- 
tion with which they are regarded. An exceptionally early lacquer 
case in the Wetherfield collection is shown on p. 557. 

In a few of the early long- pendulum clocks a bull's-eye of greenish 
glass was let into the door of the case opposite the pendulum bob, 
magnifying and distorting the appearance of the bob as it swung to 
and fro, and for some years from about 1685 a round or oval hole 
with a flat glass was quite a usual feature. 

The upper part of the case, or hood, which surrounded the dial, was 
at first made without any door. Most makers fitted the hood with 
grooves to the back as described on p. 495. In other instances the 
hood had to be slid forward and entirely removed to obtain access to 
the dial. In the early cases the moulding under the hood was convex, 
as distinguished from the concave moulding almost invariably used 
afterwards. Corkscrew pillars at the angles of the hood were much 
favoured during the William III. and Queen Anne periods. The 
pillars supported an entablature which either terminated with 
a flat top or was surmounted by a pediment or some kind of 

A domed or canopied structure was common, but there is no 
particular pattern which can be quoted as absolutely distinguishing 
the time. Some early hoods terminated in a pediment, simple and 
appropriate. The styles most in vogue may be gathered from illustra- 
tions of examples which I shall be able to give. In nearly all cases a 
frieze or other band was pierced to emit the sound of the bell ; some- 
times the fretwork w^as of wood and sometimes of brass. The brass 
fret strips, which were rather pretty, were often removed when the 
case subsequently underwent repair. One of them taken from a clock 
dating from 1700 is shown in Fig. 697. 

The height of early cases seemed to be adapted in some measure to 
the places thej'^ were to occupy. The flat top of an entablature, as in 
Fig. 715, was suited for low rooms ; where greater height allowed, the 
dome or double dome would doubtless be selected. For lofty apart- 
ments with other furniture of large size there would be gilded figures 
surmounting a high-topped case, or finials of gilded wood. To increase 
the height still further, the case occasionally would be stood on a sub- 
base with carved panels. Now and then one may see an old clock in 
which, to suit the limited extent of low rooms, the top of the case has 
been shorn of all adornments. 

Fig. 708 represents an eight-day Tompion clock dating from 1676-80, 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 529 

the dial of which, 9J in. square, is shown separately on p. 498. The 
case is of oak veneered with walnut ; at the corners of the hood 
are pillars with helical or " corkscrew " shafts, brass bases, and 
Corinthian capitals. Well-executed brass festoons of fruit and 
flowers adorn the hood over the dial and over the side lights. Mr. 
Wetherfield, who owns this clock, has a timepiece by William Clement 
which is very similar in appearance. 

By favour of Messrs. Home & Son, of Leyburn, I am able to 
give an engraving of a quaint thirty-hour long-case clock of provincial 
make which now belongs to Mr. Thomas Bradley, Wensleydale. This 
case is of oak and panelled. The head is fixed on the trunk, and will 
not take off. Two slip doors at the sides of the head open to get to 
the works, and a sash door affords the same convenience for the dial. 
Both the case door and the sash door open from right to left. The 
initials E. F. M. with date, 1681, are carved on the case. The clock 
was made for Edward and Margaret Fawcett ; the former was a 
clergyman, who lived at Hardraw, close to the Hardraw Waterfall. 
The works are of the lantern type, with a large bell and hammer 
inside, and small dial as shown in Fig. 704. It was made by John 
Ogden, Bowbrigg(e). In Ogden's clocks of later date the name of 
the place w^as spelled Bowbridge, but the local name is Bowbrigge 
to-day. In each of the corner spaces outside of the hour circle is 
engraved one line of the following verse : — 

" Behold this hand. 

Observe ye motions trip ; * 

Man's pretious hours 

Away like these do sHp." 

John Ogden w^as a member of the Society of Friends, and a friend 
of George Fox, who often visited Wensleydale. 

Marquetry (or Marqueterie) . — The formation of designs by 
inlaying wood of different kinds is a very ancient art. The Italians 
particular^ excelled at it in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
Early inlaying was done by cutting out from the solid wood which 
formed the. groundwork such parts of a pre-arranged design as it was 
desired to have of a different colour and then inserting pieces of a 
suitable and different kind of wood. But in most of the marquetry 
we see on clock cases the design is cut out of a groundwork of veneer 
wliich is filled in with other veneer and attached to the surface of the 
wood which forms the body of the case. This method is, I think, of 
French origin and dates from the middle of the seventeenth century, 
but it was first applied to clock cases about 1685, and remained in 

530 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 698. — Three-train iMonth 
Clock, by Christopher Gould ; 
height 8 ft. 


Fig. 699.— Fine Month Clock 
with perpetual calendar, by 
Charles Clay ; height 9 it. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 531 

fashion, so far as clock cases are concerned, for about twenty-five years 
from that date. 

Two very fine specimens of long-case clocks in elaborate marquetry 
cases are shown in Figs. 698 and 699, both from the Wetherfield 
collection. One is a three-train month clock by Christopher Gould ; 
it is 8 ft. high, with a 12-in. dial, chiming quarters on eight bells — 
repeating hours — i.e., " The Grande Sonnerie." The date is about 
1705. The month clock by Charles Clay is 9 ft. high, and the trusses 
under the hood, though not a very usual feature, are an appropriate 
adjunct to the very handsome case. This clock has a 12-in. dial, and 
is furnished with a perpetual calendar. 

Dutch marquetry is effective, of a distinctly bolder or coarser 
character, and, as a rule, may be distinguished from what may be 
called English designs, which more favoured the Italian style. 
Arabesques, fine geometrical patterns, conventional flowers and foliage 
executed by inlaying wood, which, though of a different colour to the 
ground, was yet not in violent contrast to it, characterised the 
English, while Dutch artists, who accentuated more the difference 
between the groundwork and the inlay, indulged in quaint and 
fanciful designs in which grotesque masks and figures, as well as 
vases, birds, leaves, tulips and other flowers were portrayed by means 
of shading and the use of wood naturally of another colour or stained 
to the desired tint. It must not be assumed, though, that what is 
called Dutch marquetry was necessarily executed in the Netherlands ; 
there is no doubt that when William III. ascended the English throne 
his followers included Dutch inlayers who settled here and turned the 
public taste to their particular methods, which were followed by 
English workers. 

Two fine examples of the Dutch type of marquetry case are shown 
in Figs. 700 and 701. They both date from about 1700. One is 
a month striking clock by Quare, height about 8 ft. 6 in. The other 
is an eight-day striking clock, giving one blow on the bell at the 
half hour. This clock also is about 7 ft. high, with a 12-in. dial, 
and is signed " Isaac Papavoine, London." Both are from the Wether- 
field collection. 

At first the marquetry was arranged on the front of the case in 
panels with semicircular ends, sometimes with a line-border connecting 
the panels ; afterwards the whole of the front surface might be 
covered with marquetry, the door and base having set designs, 
enclosed in floral or other borders. In marquetry work of the very 
highest class, it will be noticed that the whole of the inlay on any one 

532 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 700. — Long-case Month 
Striking Clock, by Quare ; 
height 8 It. in., date about 

Fig. 701.— StrikingClock, signed 
" Isaac Papavoine, London'; 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 533 

Fig. 703.— Enlarged dial of Fig. 702. 

surface forms a complete design ; 
if birds or figures are introduced 
they are delineated as a whole and 
fall gracefully into the conception 
of the designer. More frequently 
a symmetrical pattern was taken 
and two pieces of veneer forming 
half of the pattern were laid one on 
the other and pierced together ; the 
halves were then placed side by side 
and of course matched exactly. But 
however close the jointing of the 
halves, the line of junction down 
the centre may be discerned by close 
examination. Masks or vases con- 
taining leaves and flowers on stalks 
were commonly selected for such 
treatment and were displayed very 
effectively in this way. Sometimes 

the halving would extend to a portion of the design only, and 

advantage would be taken of the outlines of leaves or scrolls to 

join in the halved pieces very neatly. 

Fig. 702, from the collection of Mr. Hansard Watt, illustrates a 

small square topped long-case clock in burr and oyster-shell walnut. 

Fig. 702.— Small Square- 
topped Long-case Clock, 
by John Bamett, 

534 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The long door inlaid with marquetry of various woods in panels. 
A rare feature is the hunting scene inlaid in marquetry at the base. 
Square brass dial 10 in. with matted centre and Tudor rose engraved 
round centre of hands. Eight-day striking movement ; bolt-and- 
shutter maintaining power. Locking plate on main wheel. Recoil 
escapement. The makers* name " John Barnett, Londini, fecit " 
engraved at bottom of dial. Height, 6 ft. 5 in., width 10 in., 
depth, 6i in. 

In the South Kensington Museum are a clock by Mansell Bennett 
enclosed in a case decorated with marquetry in panel, and an 
unusually fine example of English scroll marquetry covering the 
case of a clock by Henry Poisson ; on the staircase of the Soane 
Museum is a clock by WiUiam Threlkeld, the case of which is also 
adorned with marquetry in the EngUsh style. The Wetherfield 
collection contains many choice examples. 

Soho seems to have been a favoured district for marquetry 
workers, though Tonbridge in Kent and St. Ives and other smaller 
places in Cornwall are spoken of as being famous for marquetry 
work in the eighteenth century. 

After being neglected for fifty years or so marquetry was to 
some extent revived as a decoration for clock cases. A sparing and 
tasteful display on a clock by Alexander Gumming dating from about 
1790 is shown in Fig. 769. Chaste inlay in the Hepplewhite and 
Sheraton style, as in Fig. 771, is admirable. Sheraton's designs for 
clock cases are reproduced on p. 553. 

A fine specimen, with Enghsh marquetry in panels, which is 
in the Dean's Vestry, St. Paul's Cathedral, is given in Fig. 705. 
The date of this can be well authenticated by the following extract 
which I have been allowed to make from the Cathedral accounts for 
the period from October 1697 to September 1698, when the clock 
was paid for : — 

" £Eor a pendulum Clock for the South East Vestrey that goes 8 dayes in a 
WaUnut Tree inlade Case £14: 00 00." 

There is no maker's name on either the dial or movement, but 
the clock was doubtless the production of Langley ^radley, who 
was at that time the cathedral clockmaker. 

The clock shown in Fig. 706 is the property of Mr. Thomas 
Bo3mton, Bridlington Quay, and was made by George Ethrington, 
London, about 1695. The case is finely decorated with English 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 535 

A very fine chiming clock, by Tompion, with canopied head, which 
IS at Windsor Castle, is shown in Fig. 707. The upper part of the 

Fig. 704. — Primitive 
provincial style, 1681. 

Fig. 705.— Clock at St. 
Paul's Cathedral, 1698. 

5" Fig. 706. — " George 
m Ethrington, London," 
about 1695 

case is particularly good. The trusses supporting the hood, though 
somewhat unusual features, have an excellent effect. 

Fig. 709 represents a Tompion one-year timepiece which is now 
at the Admiralty. The hours are marked twice from I. to XII. and 

536 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 707. — Tompion 
Clock at Windsor 

Fig. 708. — Joshua 
Hutchin. about 1700. 

Fig. 709. — Tompion 
One-year Timepiece 
at the Admiralty. 

at the top of the hood is the inscription, " Presented by Queen Anne." 
Dividing the hour numerals into two periods of twelve hours each 
provides a time-teller for the civil, as distinguished from the 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 537 

Fig. 710.— Thos. Tom- 
pion, 1676-1680 (see 
p. 628. 

Fig. 711. — Ed. East, Fig. 712.— Jos. Knibb, 
1680:1685. 1685 1690. 

538 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 713. — Jonathan Fig. 714.— Dan. Quare, ^FiG. 715.— Eight-day 
Lowndes, about 1695. about 1705. Chiming Clock by 

Peter Garon, about 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 539 

Fig. 716.— Thos. Tom- 
pion ; Month Clock, 
about 1700. 

Fig. 717. — From anted 
«^ Clarke, about 1705. 

Fig. 718.— Thos Tom- 
pion, about 1705 (see 
p. 501). 

540 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 


Fig. 719. — Long-case 
month Striking Clock 
by Daniel Quare ; 
height 7 ft. 

Fig. 720.— Danl. De- 
lander ; Year Equa- 
tion Timepiece about 

astronomical, solar day, but unless desired for some particular purpose 
such crowding of the hour numerals is objectionable. The case is 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 541 

Fig. 721. — Carved dark 
oak case Clock, by 
Thomas Stripling, 

Fig. 722.— At Wind- 
sor Castle ; Richard 
Vick, about 1740. 

Fig. 723.— Phihp Abbott ; 
Red Lacquer Case, 
about 1760. 

542 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

certainly later than Queen Anne's time, as I have already said^ and 
the dial looks more Uke Graham's production than Tompion's. It is 
quite likely that the timekeeper was ordered of Tompion and intended 
for Greenwich Observatory and that Graham's well-known desire to 
make as reliable a regulator as possible caused considerable delay in 
its construction, or the movement may have been l3dng by uncased. 
A very similar twelve-month timepiece bearing Tompion's name, 
and inscribed " Sir Jonas Moore caused this movement to be made 
with great care. Anno Domini 1676," was presented to the Royal 
Society in 1736. 

An example of marquetry arranged in geometrical patterns is 
shown in Fig. 708, which represents a clock by Joshua Hutchin 
belonging to Mr. W. K. Bowen. The case, of walnut, is inlaid with 
stars, curved hexagons, &c., and a broad herring-bone border which 
runs around the door, up the sides, and across the top of the body ; a 
banding inside this border is interspersed with bits of red wood at 
intervals of 3 in. The stars and hexagons are picked out with holly 
and set in selected pieces of yew. 

The specimen shown in Fig. 711, by Edward East, is from the 
Wetherfield collection and dates from 1680-1685. It has a dial GJ in. 
square, goes eight days, and is in a walnut case with marquetry panels 
showing flowers, birds, and butterflies ; somewhat coarse but effective. 
The hood has a canopied top with brass side ornaments. 

From the same collection, and of slightly later date, is the fine 
eight-day clock with 10 in. square dial, by Joseph Knibb, shown in 
Fig, 712. The case of oak is covered with burr walnut oyster-shell 
veneer, the sides are panelled and inlaid down the front with large 
rosettes of dark and light wood mixed. There are gilt bases and 
capitals to the corkscrew pillars at the corners of the hood, and over 
the entablature is a finely carved ornament. There are two bells of 
Chinese gong shape and on the smaller of these the preceding hour 
is repeated at the half-hour. 

An example of bird and flower marquetry covering a clock by 
Jonathan Lowndes, shown in Fig. 713, is from the Wetherfield 
collection, as is also the splendid clock. Fig. 714, which is of later 
date. It has a dial 12 in. square ; the name " Dan : Quare " being 
engraved between the hour nmnerals VII. and VI. and " London " 
between VI. and V. The case is decorated with marquetry, birds 
and flowers arranged in panels with scroll borders around the door 
framing and. the base ; the pillars at the hood corners are also 
covered with marquetry. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 543 

An eight-day chiming clock, giving ten changes in the hour, by 
Peter Garon, in a very fine arabesque marquetry case, the property 
of Mr. J. Drummond Robertson, is shown in Fig. 715. 

The clock by Fromanteel & Clarke in a choice marquetry case 
which is shown in Fig. 717 belongs to Mr. William R. Moss. It 
strikes hours and half-hours, has an alarm, shows day of the week 
and day of the month. 

The Tompion clock, Fig. 716, is from the Wetherfield collection, 
as is also the long-case month striking clock by Daniel Quare 
shown in Fig. 714. 

A one-year equation timepiece by Daniel Delander, shown in 
Fig. 720, is also the property of Mr. Wetherfield. 

Dark oak cases carved in high relief do not seem to have 
been the fashion of any particular period, but the result 
rather of occasional efforts by enthusiastic artists in wood, and 
then in most instances they appear to have been made to enclose 
existing clocks in substitution for inferior or worn-out coverings. 
Mr. Harry Clark owns a thirty-hour clock by Thomas Striphng, 
dating from about 1710. It is in a dark oak case. The bottom 
panel contains a well-carved scene shomng the Lord Chancellor 
presenting the keys of office to Queen Elizabeth on her coronation. 
On the door panel is a carved representation of Oliver Cromwell. 
It is shown in Fig. 721. 

Oriental Lacquer. — Cases coated with black, red, or green lacquer, 
or with a coating of lacquer on black, red, or green ground, the surface 
being decorated in the Chinese or Japanese style more or less in 
relief and gilded, were much in favour from about 1710 to 1760. 
It is said that at first these cases were sent by ships engaged in the 
tea trade to China to be decorated, and that a delay of two years 
or so would occur before they reached England again. Then the 
Dutch engaged in the art, and afterwards the lacquering or japanning 
of cases was practised in England. While a few of the specimens now 
to be met with are worthy of admiration, the greater number attract 
merely by reason of the grotesque appearance of the ornament. 
Occasionally may be seen a clock, the door of which is ornamented 
with Oriental lacquer in relief, while the surface of the rest of the case 
is merely japanned with poor designs in stencil. 

An example of a very fine green lacquer case is shown in 
Fig. 725, which represents a clock by Eardley Norton, chiming 
the hours and quarters on eight bells, in the collection of Mr. 
Hansard Watt, 

544 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 



Fig. 724.— Wm. BaU, 
B i,c e s^te r ; centre 
seconds, moon and 
calendar (see p. 646). 

Fig. 725. — Clock by 
Eardley Norton, Green 
Lacquer Case. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 545 

Fig. 726. — Thomas 
Moss, Frodsham, 
1776 ; enlarged view 
of Dial, on p. 517. 

Fig. 727.— Higgs & 
Evans ; extreme 
height, 6 ft. 5 in. 
about 1780. 

Fig. 728.^Simpson, 
Southwell, about 

An unusually fine red lacquer case, covering a clock by Philip Abbott 
in the Wetherfield collection, and dating from about 1750, is shown 

546 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 723. Another clock with lacquer decoration is shown in Fig. 724. 
It belongs to Mr. George F. Glenny, and bears the inscription " Wm. 


Fig. 729. — Chippendale, 
with " Fiddle " or 
" Kettle " Base. 

Fig. 730.— Chippendale, 
with Enriched Front. 

Fig. 731. — Chippendale, 
with Tapered Trunk. 

Ball, Bisceter." It has a centre seconds hand, and just above the 
centre of the main dial is a subsidiary one showing the age and phases 
of the moon. The dials below give the day of the month, the title 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 547 

gF5? — — ^ ^ 

Figs. 732, 733.— Chippendale Bracket Cases. 

Figs. 734, 735. — Chippendale Bracket Cases. 

548 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 736. — Perfect Chippendale 
^Case Clock by John Holmes. 

of the day ; thus " St. Monday," " St. 
Tuesday," &c., and the month of the 
year. It dates from about 1770. 

Chippendale. — Examples of what is 
generally accepted as an orthodox Chip- 
pendale case are represented on p. 546. 
It is not easy to define exactly what con- 
stitutes a Chippendale case, nor why 
cases of this pattern should be ascribed 
to Chippendale. Thomas Cliippendale 
was a noted upholsterer and cabinet- 
maker in St. Martin's Lane. He pub- 
lished a splendid folio book of designs, of 
which three editions appeared between 
1755 and 1763. Figs. 729, 730, 731, and 
737 are copied from his work by favour 
of Messrs. B. T.Batsford, Ltd. It must 
be confessed none of them bears a very 
close resemblance to the reputed Chip- 
pendale patterns. There are also 
representations of two other long-case 
clocks, the bracket clock cases shown 
in Figs. 732, 733, 734, and 735, a cartel 
case, and two other small wall time- 
piece cases. The two long cases I have 
not reproduced are carved very much 
in the French style, as Figs. 538, 539, 
Chapter VI. 

English clocks in cases following 
Chippendale's published designs are ex- 
ceedingly rare. A bracket clock enclosed 
in a case similar to Fig. 732 bore the 
name of Jno. Archambo, who carried on 
business in Princes Street, Leicester 
Square, between 1720 and 1745. Among 
the Wetherfield collection is one superb 
example, which is shown in Fig. 736. 
It is a clock by John Holmes. The case 
is of mahogany, and the execution of 
every part scrupulously good. It dates 
from about 1770. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 549 

The characteristics of the cases now usually known as " Chippen- 
dale " are the pillars or pilasters rising at the front corners of the case, 
from the plinth to the entablature under the hood, and the corre- 
sponding pillars at the front corners of the hood. Generally the 
bases and caps are of metal, and the shafts fluted. The case is much 
higher than the dial, and the top of the pattern shown in Fig. 722, 
which is considered the more correct, or of the horn-top kind, in which 
the upper part terminates in two carved scrolls, curving inwards. It 
will be observed that the head above the dial in Fig. 722 is high, and 
most after the style of Chippendale's drawings. This clock was made 
by Richard Vick and is at Windsor Castle, and appears to be earlier 
than Chippendale's books. The horn-top style, which was very 
popular with provincial makers, is later. The horn or scroll-top case 
shown in Fig. 726 encloses a clock by Thomas Moss, of Frodsham, 
which belongs to Mr. William R. Moss ; the dial, to an enlarged scale, 
is shown in Fig. 688. This clock was made in 1776 or 1778. Fig. 
728 represents a clock by Simpson, of Southwell, dating from about 
1790, for which I am indebted to Mr. H. Cook, of Newark. There are 
no pillars between the base and the hood, but the front corners of the 
waist are boldly chamfered. 

It is a little curious that the handsome curved base of Figs. 729 and 
737, though favoured by Dutch and French makers, was very rarely 
adopted by English. A clock by Joseph Rose, London, owned by Mr. 
Charles Morson in America, affords an exceptional example of this 
" fiddle " or " kettle " shaped base, as it is indifferently called, applied 
to an English production. 

A remarkably small and pretty Chippendale case, quarter-chiming 
clock, which belongs to Mr. R. Lionel Foster, is shown in Fig. 727. Its 
total height is 5 ft. 5 in. The dial rings of enamel are good and clear, 
and above them is the signature " Higgs y Diego Evans," a form of 
signature used for the Spanish markets. For the photograph I am 
indebted to Mr. J. Bolton Smith. 

The clock by Andrew Padbury shown in Fig. 738 belongs to 
Mr. C. J. Bentall. It is remarkable by reason of its dial, which is 
shown to an enlarged scale on p. 513. 

Fig. 740 shows a clock by Nicholas Lambert, London, dating from 
about 1760. The case is of walnut with unusual arching at the 
bottom of the hood. For this and Fig. 742 I am indebted to Messrs. 
W. Home &Son. A clock by Henry Brownbill, Leeds, owned by 
Mr. Cecil B. Morgan and shown in Fig. 741, has a painted dial. It 
dates from about 1780. Fig. 742 represents a clock by John Smith, 



Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 737.— Chippendale, 
with " Fiddle " or 
" Kettle " Base. 

Fig. 738. — Andrew Pad- 
bury, about 1760. 

Fig. 739. — Timepiece by 
Ainsworth Thwaites 
at the India Office. 

Chester ; the handsome case is of mahogany with 
believe, a brickwork base. 

/hat is called, I 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 551 

Fig. 740. — Nicholas Lam- 
bert, Case arched under 

Fig. 741. — Henry Browi.- 
bill ; finely painted dial, 
about 1780. 

Fig. 742.— John Smith. 
Chester, " Brickwork " 

Examples of the best style of Dutch manufacture are reproduced on 
p. 552. Sir James M, Moody has a long-case clock by Wm. Gib, 

552 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 743. — William Fig. 744. — Johannes Du- Fig. 745. — T^ Thomasen, 
Gib, Rotterdam. chesne, Amsterdam. Amsterdam. 

Dutch Examples, 1725-1750 (see pp. 552-554). 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 553 

Rotterdam. It chimes the quarters on eight bells and strikes the 
previous hour on a small bell at half-past. Representations of the 

Fig. 746. — Sheraton 
design, with Side 

Fig. 747. — Sheraton 
design suggesting 
Effective Inlay. 


Fig. 748.— Clock by 
William Dutton, 
about 1780. 

moon are on cut crystal, gilt at the back. It is shown in Fig. 743. 
Fig. 745 shows a clock signed " T' Thomasen Amsterdam/' which 

554 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

belongs to Mr. Francis H. Bigelow, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Fig. 744, in a case of somewhat similar design, is a clock by Johannes 
Duchesne, Amsterdam,whichisthe property of Mr. Lawrence Bentall. 
An especially attractive feature of it is a well-painted picture on 
the dial plate, which may be viewed with better effect on p. 521, 
where it appears to an enlarged scale. 

Sheraton. — Thomas Sheraton was born at Stockton-on-Tees in 
1751 and died in London in 1806. In 1791 was issued " The 
Cabinet-Makers' and Upholsterers' Drawing Book " by him, and in 
1803 " The Cabinet Dictionary," of which another edition appeared in 
1808. Xo mention is made of clock cases in the first edition of this 
work. From the later edition are copied Figs. 746 and 747. Thougli 
rarely made in this form with square dials, the ornate style and 
beautiful inlaid work associated with Sheraton have been very 
successfully applied by clock-case makers, and the popularity of 
Sheraton cases has never declined. 

The handsome clock shown in Fig. 739 was made by Ainsworth 
Thwaites for the East India Companj' about 1770 ; the case is of 
figured wood, doubtless of Indian growth. A companion case, which 
originally held a dial to record the direction of the wind, seems to 
have mysteriously disappeared from the offices of the Company 
and to have been found on the Continent, where it was purchased 
by an official of the English Government, and the two now 
appropriately occupy positions in a room at the India Ofhce, being 
symmetrically placed one on each side of the fireplace. 

Fig. 748 represents a long-case clock of novel design by William 
Dutton, dating from about 1780, for which I am indebted to Mr. 
Thomas Wyatt. The case, just upon 10 ft. in height, is of pine 
and mahogany painted light blue and white. The dial is of brass 
with a convex enamelled centre. The movement has a dead-beat 
escapement and a gridiron compensated pendulum. The lunar ball 
in the arch of the dial is rotated from the hour wheel arbor, on 
which is cut a screw to drive the intermediate lunar train. Below 
the moon is an oblong slit through which appears the day of the 

On pp. 555 to 562 are further examples from the Wetherfield collec- 
tion showing some of the finest productions with variations in style and 
treatment, from the end of the seventeenth to the end of the eighteenth 
century. All will repay examination. Fig. 749, by Joseph Knibb, 
dates from about 1680 ; the dial is 8 in. square, with engraved corner 
decoration, the case of ebony being but 6 ft. 2 in. high, altogether a 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 555 



Fig. 749. — Joseph 
Knibb, Eight-day 
Quarter Clock, Ebony 
case, 6 ft. 2 in. high ; 
about 1680. 

Fig. 750. — Joseph 
Knibb. Three-train 
Month Quarter Clock, 
Clock, walnut case ; 
about 1685. 

Fig. 751. — Thomas 
Tompion, Eight-day, 
walnut case, with 
carved superstruc- 
ture ; about 1690. 

556 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 752. — Daniel 
Parker, London ; 
Month Clock, 1^ 
seconds pendulum ; 
door in base and 
glass therein ; height 
6 ft. 8 in., skeleton 
dial 10^ in. square ; 
about 1690. 

Fig. 753. — James 
Clowes ; about 1695 ; 
7 ft. 2 in. high, 10^ in. 

Fig. 754. — Christopher 
Gould, London ; Eight- 
day, carved pediment 
surmounted by figure of 
Cupid, bolt and shutter 
maintaining power; 
height 7 ft. 2 in., dial 
10 J- in. square ; about 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 557 

Fig. 755. — • Christopher 
Gould, London ; 

lacquer decoration, 
each minute on dial 
numbered ; height 
7 ft. 8 in., dial 12 in. 
square; about 1700. 

Fig. 756.- John Eagle, 
marquetry-, with gro- 
tesque pictures inlaid ; 
height 7 ft. 3in.; about 

Fig. 757. — Jonathan 
Puller, Month Clock, 
chiming on six bells ; 
12-in. dial, height 
8 ft. 1 in. ; about 

558 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 758.— Joseph Knibb, 
" at Hanslop " ; Month 
Clock, striking on two 
bells, as explained on 
p. 328 ; height 8 ft. ; 
about 1705, 

Fig. 759. — Cornelius 
Herbert, Eight-day 
marquetry ; 12-in. 
dial, height 8 ft. 
4 in. ; about 1700. 



Fig. 760. — Daniel 
Quare, Three-train 
Month Quarter 
Clock ; burr walnut 
case ; height 8 ft. ; 
about 1705. 

Fig. 761. — Benj, 
10 ft. 3 in. 
about 1730. 


Fig. 762. — Isaac Nickals, 
Chiming Clock, Tidal 
Register in arch, 
lacquer decoration, 
about 1740. 

Fig. 763.— Wm. Haw- 
kins, Eight - day, 
bufi-lacquer decora- 
tion ; 12-in. dial, 
height 9 ft. 9 in. ; 
about 1740. 

Fig. 764. 


Fig. 765. 


Lindsay, Eight-day 
Three-train, tune 

playing ; 14-in. dial, 
mahogany case ; 

height 8 ft. ; about 

Co Hey, " Graham's 

Successor," mahogany 
case ; dial 12 in. wide, 
height 8 ft. 10 in. ; 
about 1770. 

Fig. 766. — Thomas 
Clare, Warrington ; 
dial of Battersea 
enamel; 12 in. wide; 
height 7 ft. 7 in. ; 
about 1775. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 561 

Fig. 767. — Moore, 
Salisbury. Sheraton 
style of decoration ; 
dial 12 in. wide ; 
about 1780. 

Fig. 768. — James Gray, 
Edinburgh ; silvered 
dial, height 7 It. 6 in. ; 
about 1790. 

Fig. 769. — Alexander 
Gumming : height 
8 ft.; about 1790. 

562 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

chaste and pleasing design. To the right of it is a larger and more 
ornate specimen of rather later date by the same maker, in a burr 
walnut case. It is a month clock, striking the hours on a large bell, 
and the quarters on a smaller one, in a peculiar way. One stroke is 
given for the first, and an additional one for each succeeding hour up 
to the sixth ; then seven is given as one, and so on till the twelfth 
hour which is recorded by six strokes. The third on the page is a 
clock by Thomas Tompion dating from about 1690, and furnished with 
bolt and shutter maintaining power. The dial is 10 in. square, and the 
case, of burr walnut, is 7 ft. 3 in. high with a carved superstructure. 

Fig. 752, a month clock by Daniel Parker, dating from about 1690, in 
a prettily arranged marquetry case, has a skeleton dial 10 J in. square, 
and good hands. It is 6 ft. 8 in. high, with a long pendulum beating 
once in a second and a quarter ; the bob extending below the trunk 
may be viewed through an oval hole in the regulating door at the base. 

A remarkably fine surface of marquetry over the front and sides 
of the case is the feature of Fig. 753, which represents a month clock 
by James Clowes. It dates from about 1695, is 7 ft. in height with 
a dial 11 in. square. On the same page and of even date is an example 
by Christopher Gould. The case has a carved head with a finial in 
the form of Cupid. Altogether it stands 7 ft. 2 in. in height ; the dial 
is lOj in. square, and maintaining power during winding is arranged 
on the bolt and shutter plan. 

An unusually early specimen of Oriental lacquer decoration is 
shown in Fig. 755, another clock by Christopher Gould, dating from 
about 1700. It is 7 ft. Sin. high; the dial, 12 in. square, has each 
minute numbered, and the hands are very fine. The other clocks on 
that and the next page are of about the same date. On the front of 
the case of Fig. 756 are grotesque pictures in marquetry. This clock 
is by John Eagle ; the height is 7 ft. 3 in., and the dial 11 in. square. 
Quite a different style of marquetry adorns the case of Fig. 757, a 
clock by Jonathan Puller, chiming on six bells. The claw feet and 
finials are worthy of note. It stands 8 ft. 1 in. high, and the dial 
is 12 in. square, with subsidiary dials in the top corners for clume- 
silent and regulation. 

The dials and hands of three examples on p. 558 are all good, 
though dissimilar. The first in an ebonised case is a month clock by 
" Joseph Knibb att Hanslop," and striking on the bells according to 
the Roman numerals, as explained on p. 328. The centre clock, 
in a marquetry case is by Cornelius Herbert. It is 8 ft. 4 in. high, 
and has a 12-in. dial. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 563 

Fig. 760 represents a month clock by Daniel Quare in a burr 
walnut case 8 ft. high. It has three trains, striking hours on a large 
bell, and quarters on a small one. The escutcheon over the keyhole of 
the door is amusing. 

Now we come to the arched dial period, and begin with three 
examples dating from about 1730. The extra large clock in Fig. 761, 
which is by Benjamin Gray, stood for 180 years in Sheffield Place, 
Sussex, being the property successively of the first Earl de la Warr 
and the three Earls of Sheffield until the death of the last. The 
bevelled corners of the trunk and base of the walnut case are effective. 
The dial is 14 in. wide, and shows the day of the month, the month of 
the year, and phases of the moon. It has a dead-beat escapement and 
maintaining power. 

A quarter clock chiming on three bells, with a dial 13 in. wide, 
exhibiting the day of the week and month, and month of the year, 
phases of the moon and time of high water, is by Isaac Nickals, of 
Wells. It is shown in Fig. 762. The case, adorned with buff lacquer 
decoration is 8 ft. 3 in. high. 

Fig. 763, a clock by Wm. Hawkins, of Bury St. Edmunds, has a dial 
12 in. wide, giving the age and phases of the moon. This case stands 
9 ft. 9 in. high and is also decorated with buff lacquer. 

Fig. 764 shows a clock, by George Lindsay, in a mahogany case of 
unpretentious design, dating from about 1770. It stands 8 ft. high, 
and plays six tunes on twelve bells, has a dead-beat escapement with 
jewelled pallets, and a dial 14 in wide. 

Fig. 765 in a mahogany case of the conventional Chippendale style, 
standing 8 ft. 10 in. high, encloses an interesting clock signed " Thomas 
Colley, Graham's successor." It has a dead-beat escapement, and the 
dial is 12 in. wide. 

The well-carved mahogany case shown in Fig. 766 may also be 
regarded as a typical Chippendale. It encloses a clock by Thomas 
Clare, of Warrington, having a dial 12 in. wide of Battersea enamel, 
a material but rarely adopted. It dates from about 1775, and stands 
7 ft. 7 in. high. 

A quarter clock by Moore, of Salisbury, in a mahogany Sheraton 
style of case, is shown in Fig. 767. It has a painted dial 12 in. wide, 
and dates from about 1780. The height is 7 ft. 6 in. 

Another case of mahogany in the Sheraton style is shown in 
Fig. 768. This clock is by James Gray, of Edinburgh, dating from 
about 1790. It has a silvered dial 13 in. wide, and stands 7 ft. 6 in 

564 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Of about the same date is the clock by Alexander Cumming, 
the last of the series I have selected for illustration. The case of 
mahogany is 8 ft. high, with tasteful marquetry in panels. The dial 
is 12 in wide. 

In Fig. 771 is shown a remarkably fine musical clock, with moving 
figures, the property of Mr. E. E. Cook, of Walton-on-Thames. It 
was made by Pickett, of Marlboro', and dates from about 1780. The 
silvered dial is engraved with urns, and just inside the usual numeral 
circle and concentric therewith is a date circle to which an index 
from the centre points. 

At 12, 3, 6j and 9 o'clock one of the follomng tunes is played : — 

1. Marlbro' Jigg. 4. Batt's Hornpipe. 

2. Jack's Jigg. 6. Ben's Delight. 

3. Ned's Hornpipe. 6. Head's Whim. 

These tunes are enumerated in the right-hand spandrel ; the left- 
hand spandrel contains a chime-silent hand. In the arch of the 
dial is a curtain which rises when the clock chimes, and a male and 
female figure are discovered dancing. Below them is a river and a 
bridge ; over the bridge people, carts, &c., pass, including a man 
carrying his wife to avoid the toll which, tradition says, refers to 
a local bridge where a heavy toll was exacted. Below the bridge 
swans, boats, &c., pass to and fro on the water. In the lower part 
of the main dial is a moon calendar. On p. 519 the dial is shown 
to an enlarged scale. 

A musical clock of unusually large size, which is the property 
of Mr. R. Eden Dickson, is shown in Fig. 772. The case of 
mahogany is 8 ft. 5 in. high, and the dial measures 18 J in. by 
22 in. The quarters are chimed on eight bells, and at every three 
hours, after the quarters are chimed and the hours struck, a tune 
is played. There are sixteen bells and twenty-four hammers ; the 
music barrel is 14J in. long and 3 in. in diameter. The subsidiary 
dials are " strike-silent " and " chime-silent," the name " James 
Lorimer, London," being on the plate between, while in the arch 
above is the following list of tunes : — 

1. La Promenade. 7. I do as I will with my Swain. 

2. Gavot. 8. Lays of Paties MiU. 

3. Minuet. 9. Flowers of Edinburgh. 

4. Bagnigge Wells. 10, Cuckoo's Nest. 

5. Duke of Gloucester's March. 11. Tweed Side. 

6. Neu Alamand. 12. Portsmouth Psalm. 

The pendulam rod is of ebony, and above the bob on a small 
brass plate is engraved " John Marshall, London." 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 565 

Fig. 770. — At Windsor 
Castle, by Recordon, 
about 1800. 

Fig. 771. — clock with 
Moving Figures, about 

Fig. 772. — Jas. Lori- 
mer, Musical Clock, 
about 1780. 

As examples of the plain early nineteenth-century clocks of the 
best class with circular enamelled dials, and usually in cases of 

566 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

mahogany with finely figured surfaces, may be taken the one by 
Vulhamy illustrated on p. 374, and one by Recordon shown in 
Fig. 770. For a really perfect dial on this plan, one has to go to a 
comparatively obscure provincial maker (see Fig. 691). 

Fig. 774 is an eight-daj/ striking clock by Samuel Lee, London, 
in burr walnut case with black carved mouldings. Its height is 

Fig. 773. — Edward Staunton, London, Ebony Eight-day 
Bracket Quarter Clock ; three bells ; height 17 in. ; 
about 1680. 

7 ft. 8 in., the dial is 12 in. by 16 in., and it dates from about 1720. 
Fig. 775 is an unusual specimen, an eight-day striking clock, combining 
a fine marquetry case with an arched dial, two features rarely found 
together. It is signed "Andrew Davis, London." Height 7ft. 
5 in., dial 12 in. by 16 in., date about 1720. Both these clocks are 
in the Wetherfield collection. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 567 

Fig. 774.— Eight-day Striking Clock 
in burr walnut case, signed " Samuel 
Lee, London " ; height 7 ft. 8 in. ; 
dial 12 in. X 16 in.; date about 

Fig. 775. — Unusual Clock, by Andrew 
Davis, London, combining a fine 
marquetry case with an arched dial ; 
height 7 ft. 6 in. ; dial 12 in. X 16 in. ; 
date about 1720. 

568 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The introduction of cheap American clocks was disastrous to the 
old English ones, and between 1850 and 1860 thousands of good 
serviceable long-case timekeepers were sacrificed, the cases being 
chopped up for firewood and the substantial brass movements 
consigned to the melting-pot. 

Bracket or Pedestal Clocks. — Bracket or pedestal clocks, with 
enriched cases, as distinguished from the plain metal covering of the 
ordinary chamber clock, were in favour before the advent of the 
long-case variety. 

Fig. 776. 

— Humfrey Adamson, red tortoise- 
shell case, about 1680. 

Of the early types with metal cases, examples have already been 
given. Fig. 773 shows a large bracket clock by Edward Staunton 
which is in the Wetherfield collection, and dates from about 1680. 
Here, as in the long-case clock by John Fromanteel on p. 322, and the 
one by Joseph Knibb on p. 555, the case is surmounted by a pediment. 
During the latter part of the seventeenth and the beginning of the 
eighteenth century the square " squat " case of wood with a flat top 
and plain metal handle for lifting it by, as shown on p. 276, or with a 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 569 

perforated metal dome-shaped addition, chased and gilded, called 
basket-work, surmounted by an enriched handle, was very popular. 
The basket top is probably of Dutch origin. Engravings of this 
variety are given on pp. 568 and 570. Most of them had a curved 
slit in the dial through which the motion of a mock pendulum could 
be seen. 

Fig. 776, an early and choice example by Humfrey Adamson, 
London, is from the Wetherheid collection. For Fig. 777, a clock by 

Fig. 777. — Clock, by John Harris, London. 

John Harris, London, I am indebted to Mr. Wilham Xewton. Mr. 
J. Drummond Robertson owns the fine double basket top clock by 
Claudius^Du Chesne, London, which appears in Fig. 778. 

Sometimes, instead of the open-work metal basket, a basket-shaped 
curve of wood surmounted the case. The clock by Ben Collier, London, 
constructed in this way and shown in Fig. 779 belongs to Mr. G. H. 
Jocelyn, Writtle, Essex. Five, selected from the Wetherfield 
collection, are reproduced in Figs. 780 to 784. One is by Joseph 
Knibb, London ; one in a marquetry case, quite an unusual style of 

570 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 






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The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 571 

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572 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 








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The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 573 

decoration for such a piece, is by John Martin, London ; and one by 
Thomas Tompion. 

After the " basket came the " bell " shaped case, so called from 
the hollow curved character of the top, as seen in Fig. 785. 
This is a very early example of that style, in the collection of 
Mr. J. D. Robertson. It dates from about 1695, and is inscribed, 

Fig. 784. — Thos. Tompion ; repeats quarters by pulling the 
knob and string on the right ; about 1705. 

" Stephen Asselin, London." The George Graham in Fig. 786 
is from the Wetherfield collection. Mrs. Francis J. Kidson owns 
a clock very similar to Fig. 786, signed " Tho Tompion & Edw 
Banger, London." 

The two eight-day striking clocks shown in Figs. 782 and 783, from 
the Wetherfield collection, may be taken as typical of the " bell- 
topped " style. Both are in ebony, with handsome metal mounts. 

574 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The example by Samuel Watson is about 17 in. high, and dates from 
1700. The other is 15 in. high, is signed " George Allett, London," 
and dates from about 1705. 

The " bell " top case continued in favour long after the intro- 
duction of the arched dial. Two views (Figs. 787 and 788) are 
appended of an early arch dial bracket clock by Jeremiali Hartley, of 
Xorwich, from the Schloss collection. The case is of ebonised wood 

Fig. 785. — Earlv 

Bell " shaped Case Cluck, by Stephen 
Assehn, London. 

with brass mounts. In the spandrels of the arch and at the sides is 
pierced diaper work backed by silk, to permit the sound of the bell 
to escape and yet prevent the ingress of dust. The clock shows days 
of the month, strikes the hours and quarters, and the strokes corre- 
sponding to the previous striking may be repeated at pleasure by 
pulling a string terminating in the knob which is seen at the right 
of the front view. In the arch of the dial is a rise and fall regulator 
which adjusts the length of the pendulum. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 575 

A later bell-top case with fine claw feet, and surmounted by a 
plain brass handle instead of the side handles, is shown in Fig. 789. 

Of the more ornate styles in vogue during the second quarter of 
the eighteenth century, the clock by Graham on p. 301 affords a 
good idea. 

pyji^ii^lltJli i ^^ 


8(j.- Gcur^e Circduuu, ab -ut 1715; ebony cas 
with silver dial ornaments, height 13 in. 

What perhaps may be termed a sporadic case of \'ery elegant 
design is shown in Fig, 790, by favoar of Mr. William Home, 
Leyburn, Yorkshire. Tlie clock is undoubtedly the work of Edward 
East, and dates probably from about 1G85, but the case is in man}- 
respects characteristic of the Sheraton style. It is of iron with brass 
mountings, finely chased and gilt, and measures 2 ft. 2 in. high and 

576 Old Clocks and Watches and their Alakers 


The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 577 

12 in. broad. On the dial of brass is engraved a peacock in full 
plume. On the back plate of the movement is engraved a basket of 
flowers, and underneath the inscription, " Eduardus East, London." 
The handsome musical clock shown in Fig. 791 belongs to Mr. 
Herbert A. Evans. The case is of mahogany with heavy brass 
handles and ornamentation at the corners, sides, and other parts ; 
the face is a plain white dial, with a smaller dial at each corner, brass 
ornament fiUing the intervening spaces. It strikes the hours on a 

Fig. 789. — A later " Bell " top Case with fine claw feet. 

gong which can also be set to ring at any hour as an alarm, and has, 
besides, a chime of thirteen bells playing four tunes, any of which 
may be selected by moving a hand on one of the smaller dials. In 
the arch above the face is painted a landscape scene with three 
moving figures in the foreground ; at each hour these figures respec- 
tively beat a drum, play a fiddle, and dance more or less in time to 
the music. By pulling one of three small knobs at the side of the 
clock the hour chimes or alarm can be repeated at will. Of the 
remaining three small dials one has a strike-silent hand, the second 

57^ Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

shows the date of the month, and the third one the age of the moon. 
The face of the clock is engraved with the maker's name, " Diego 
Evans, Bolsa Real, Londres," and this is also engraved on the back 
plate, which is finely chased with arabesques and flowers. James 

Fig. 790. — Clock, undoubted^ by Edward East, with 
case of elegant design. 

Evans was a well-known maker of good timekeepers for the Spanish 
markets, by himself and also in conjunction with Higgs. This clock 
had been many years in the possession of a Bolivian gentleman 
resident in the city of Potosi. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 579 

Clocks for Eastern countries, usually with Turkish numerals, 
were often in cases of special design in which a domed top was a 
distinguishing feature. A fine example, dating from about 1730, 
is given on p. 580. It is a musical clock by " George Clarke, 

Fig. 791. — Musical Clock signed " Diego Evans, 
Bolsa Real, Londres." (James Evans. Roj^al 
Exchange, London.) See p. 577. 

Leaden Hall Street, London," from the Wetheriield collection. 
Tlie movement is furnished with fourteen bells. In the upper 
part of the arched dial is engraved the following list of tunes, 
the playing of any one selected being ensured by moving to it an 
indicator : — 

58o Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Princess Amelia. 

A Rigadoon. 

A Turkey Tune. 

A Minuet, 

A Gallen of Craden. 

Greeke Song 

A Greeke Song. 

A Minuet. 

A Rigadoon. 

A March. 

A March. 

Fig. 792. 

-Clock, by George Clarke, about 1730. 
Turkish hour-numerals. 

Subsidiary dials on the left and right are respectively " Strike, 
Not Strike," and " Chime, Not Chime." 

Another handsome domed clock, designed for the Eastern markets, 
having Turkish hour-numerals, and nearly a century later, is shown 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 581 

in Fig. 793. For this illustration I am indebted to Messrs. A. & H. 
Rowley. The dials are of enamel, and on the main one is the 
inscription, " Henry Borrell, Exchange, London." The upper central 

Fig. 793.— Clock, by Henry Borrell, about 1810. 
Turkish hour-numerals. 

disc contains the following list of tunes : "St. James' Minuet, 
Handel's Gavotte, A Hunting we will Go, Haymakers' Dance." 
George and John Prior were celebrated for clocks of this character, 
which are often taken to be older than they really are. 


582 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The charming diminutive clock by Josiah Emery, with bracket, 
shown in Fig. 794, is from the Wetherfield collection. 

Towards the end of- the eighteenth century the popularity of the 
" bell-top " case waned, and it was gradually supplanted by three set 
patterns, the " broken arch," the " balloon," and the " lancet." 

The " broken arch " was not, as might be supposed, a circular 

Fig. 794. — Josiah Emery, Eight-day ; pull 
repeating quarters on six bells. 

pediment cut away in the middle, but an arched top not extending 
to the full width of the dial, the moulding surmounting the arch 
being continued from its springing along the front of the case in 
two short straight bands. This seems to have been taken from 
Chippendale's bracket cases, as in Figs. 732, 733, 734, 735, all of 
which have circular pediments of this kind, but the ornamental 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 583 

584 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Fig. 797. — James Cowan, Edinburgh, about 1770. Three-I'rain 
Bracket Clock, chiming on eight bells ; Chippendale Mahogany 
case, 2 ft. 3 in. high. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 585 

586 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 587 

Fig. 802.— John Harris. 

Fig. 803.— Thomas Tompion 

Fig. 804.— Peter Wise. 

FiQ. 805. — Thomas Parker. 

588 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

superstructure as suggested by Chippendale was not adopted. What 
is generally accepted as a " broken arch " case is shown in Fig. 795. 
It enclosed a clock dating from about 1790, by John Thwaites, an 
eminent maker who was several times master of the Clockmakers* 

A wide broken-arch mahogany case, containing a musical clock, by 
Stephen Rimbault, is shown .in Fig. 796. The clock plays six tunes 
on eleven bells. One air is " God Save the King " ; the others are 
now obsolete and not easily recognised, but no doubt they were most 
popular about 1780, when the clock was made. A fine musical clock 
by Rimbault, which was formerly the property of Sir William Drake, 
is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 

Stephen Rimbault carried on business in Great St. Andrew's Street, 
St. Giles, and was a maker of repute, particularly excelling in clocks 
with mechanical figures dancing or working on the dials, and other 
complicated timekeepers. The artist Zoffany was for some time 
Rimbault's decorative assistant, and in him his master had a man of 
great ability and taste, who no doubt helped to make his name. 
Zoffany painted a portrait of his master which pleased Rimbault so 
much that he introduced him to Wilson, the portrait painter. Zoffany 
was then emploj^ed by Wilson to fill in draperies, &c., at a salary of 
;£40 a year, and while with him his ability was recognised by David 
Garrick, who put him into the channel of theatrical portraiture, where 
he made his name, becoming R.A. in 1798. 

The following examples are from the Wetherfield collection : — 

Fig. 797, by James Cowan, Edinburgh. Fig. 798, a repeating clock 
by John Ellicott, in a mahogany case 1 ft. 5 in. high. Fig. 799, by 
Marriott, London, is a quarter clock with one bell and two hammers. 
The dials'are of enamel, the hours are marked 1 to 12 twice over, the 
case, of ebony with brass mounts, is 1 ft. 3 in. high. From the Wether- 
field collection. Fig. 800, by James Tregent, has enamel dials and an 
ebony case, 1 ft. 3 in. high. Fig. 801, by Cade &: Robinson,with enamel 
dial, is in a mahogany case, 1 ft. 4 in. high. 

Back Plates. — Till towards the end of the eighteenth century 
bracket clocks had, as a rule, a glazed door at the back through which 
could be seen the back plate with ornamental engraving thereon. Six 
examples are given. John Harris, about 1690, from the clock shown 
in Fig. 777 ; Thomas Tompion, 1705, from the clock shown in Fig. 784 ; 
Peter Wise, 1710, from a clock belonging to Mr. T. W. Bourne ; 
Thomas Parker, about 1710, from a clock belonging to Mr. J. D. 
Robertson, having an ornamental pendulum cock similar to that on 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 589 

Sir Isaac Newton's clock in the Guildhall Museum ; Joseph Knibb, 
about 1700 ; and John Ellicott, about 1770, which shows on the upper 
left-hand comer a repeating-barrel. When it was desired that the 
quarters should be repeated the mainspring in a barrel of this kind 
would be wound by pulling a cord outside the case ; in unwinding, 
the force of the spring would be utilised to actuate the hammers. 
Figs. 803, 806, and 807 are from the Wetherfield collection. 

Ornamental engraving is rarely seen on nineteenth-century produc- 
tions. With the engraved plate disappeared, of course, the glazed 
door at the back of the case. The utilitarian spirit, which abolished 


Fig. 806. — Joseph Knibb. 

Fig. 807.— John ElHcott. 

these features as redundant, has, however, caused fine specimens 
which survive to be more highly prized. What can look meaner 
than the bare and often common wood at the back of many 
pretentious modern clocks if one of them happens to be in front of 
a mirror? 

Fig. 810 represents the lower plate of a long-case clock by 
J. Jones, of Chalford, Gloucestersliire, dating from about 1770. It 
was originally part of a monumental brass and is most interesting. 
The clock is now in the possession of Mr. Hansard Watt, and 
was formerly in the collection of the late Mr. Norman Shaw. 

590 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 



The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 591 

Fig. 810. — Plate of 
Clock, originally 
part of a monu- 
mental brass. 

Balloon. — Fig. 808 gives an excellent 
representation of a balloon case, inlaid after 
the Sheraton style, from the Wetherfield col- 
lection. The clock is signed " Jos Thompson 
London," and dates from about 1790. Fig. 809 
shows a later and more ornate form of balloon 
clock at Windsor Castle. For the balloon 
clock and bracket shown in Fig. 811 I am 
indebted to Mr. Webster. The graceful har- 
mony of the curves constituting the case and 
bracket form a complete and pleasing design. 

The clock enclosed in 
this case was made 
by Robert Wood, of 
Moorfields. The 
round knob on top 
of the case served to 
regulate the time by 
shortening or 
lengthening the effec- 
tive part of the pen- 
dulum. The clock by 
John Johnson, on a 
bracket, as in Fig. 812, 
is from the Wether- 
field collection. 

Lancet. — The 
" lancet " case, in 
form the counterpart 
of a pointed Gothic 
arch, and named from 
its resemblance to the 
well - known cutting 
instrument used by 
surgeons, is shown in 
Fig. 813. This clock, 
dating from about 
1820, was made by 
George Orpwood. 

Of about^^the sanie 

Fig. 8U.— Sheraton Style, about 1790- 

592 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

date is a pretty little clock at Windsor Castle, which is shown in 
Fig. 814. It is English, with Boulle work decoration, after the 

French style. 

Soon after its introduc- 
tion, the pendulum was 
occasionally placed outside of 
the case in front of the dial, 
especially in small clocks like 
Fig. 636, but I saw a very 
fine bracket clock arranged 
in this way. It was by John 
Trubshaw, of London, and 
dated from about 1700. To 
put the pendulum outside is 
not a good plan, for it is 
clearly more liable to disturb- 
ance than when suspended 
inside the case. Captain 
Edward Lethbridge informed 
me that in the haU of Hinton 
Ampner House, near Aires- 
ford, is a timepiece, probably 
of German origin, in an oval 
case of embossedsilver, 
measuring about 20 in. by 
12 in., mounted on a velvet 
block. The pendulum reaches 
from the top to the bottom 
of the case, and swings in the 
front on the outside of the 
dial. This also would pro- 
bably be a very early- 
eighteenth - century produc- 

A curious little timepiece, 

supported by a winged 

Mercury, shown in Fig. 815, 

is fitted with a pendulum 

arranged to swing in front of the dial. Altogether it is 6 in. in 

height. Around the arch of the dial is engraved, " CiTO Perevnt 

ex Impvtantvr " (They pass quickly and ar^ reckoned). On the 

Fig. 812. — John Johnson, Ebony Brass- 
mounted Eight-day Balloon Clock, Pin 
Wheel Escapement ; height, including 
bracket, 27 in. ; about 1800. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 593 

dial are two labels bearing the words " Chasseur, London." The 
date of its production is uncertain. 

On p. 595 are front, side, and back views of an English travelling 
clock, dating from about 1710, which is interesting by its rarity, for 
it is a type, I think, but very seldom seen. From the bottom of the 
case to the top of the swivelled knob below the carrying ring measures 
Sin. The movement is signed " Paulet, London." The gilt metal 
work of the case is finely pierced and carved, arabesques and faces 
being executed in a style not usual at this period on clock cases of 

Fig. 813.—" Lancet " Case. 

Fig. 814.— SmaU Clock, at Windsor 

English manufacture. The dial and back plates are covered with 
open lace work of hammered silver. Besides repeating the hours and 
quarters, the clock is provided with an alarm, and in a semicircle 
occupying the arch of the dial the day of the month is indicated. It 
is from the Schloss collection. A very similar clock by Paulet is 
to be seen at the South Kensington Museum. 

Taxes Relating to Clocks and Watches. — Legislation has on more 
than one occasion affected the material used for watch cases. 
In 1719 a duty of sixpence an ounce was imposed on articles of silver, 

594 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

and this quickly led to an increased use of base metal cases. In 1758 
an annual payment of forty shillings by dealers was substituted for the 
duty, and in 1759 the amount to be paid for a licence was raised to 
£5. But in 1784 the diit}^ of sixpence per ounce was reimposed 
in addition to the dealer's licence. The effect was remarkable ; the 

use of silver immediately de- 
clined, and for the next fourteen 
years large numbers of base 
metal cases were made. In 1797 
a tax of eight shillings an ounce 
was levied on gold articles, 
which doubtless would have led 
to an increased use of silver-gilt 
and pinchbeck cases, but that 
Pitt, not content with taxing the 
cases, at the same time imposed 
a tax on all persons in respect of 
the possession and use of 
watches as well as clocks. The 
Act ordained that — 

" For and upon every Clock 
or Timekeeper, by whatever 
name the same shall be called, 
which shall be used for the 
purpose of a clock and placed in 
or upon any dwelling house, or 
any office or building thereunto 
belonging, or any other Building 
whatever, whether private or 
publick, belonging to any person 
or persons, or Company of Per- 
sons, or any Body Corporate, or 
Politick, or Collegiate, or which 
shall be kept and used, by any 
Person or Persons in Great 
Britain, there shall be charged an Annual Duty of Five Shillings. 
For and upon every Gold Watch, or Watch enamelled on Gold, or 
Gold Timekeeper used for the Purpose of a Watch by whatever 
Name the same shall be called, which shall be kept and worn, or 
used, by any Person or Persons in Great Britain, there shall be 
charged an Annual Duty of Ten Shillings. And for and upon every 

Fig. 815. — Curious little Timepiece, 
' with pendulum in front of dial. 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 595 

596 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Silver or Metal Watch, or Silver or Metal Timekeeper used for the pur- 
pose of a Watch, or any other watch, or Timekeeper used for the Hke 
purpose not before charged, of whatever materials the same shall be 
made, and by whatever name the same shall be called, which shall 
be kept and worn, or used, by any Person, there shall be charged 
an Annual Duty of Two Shillings and Sixpence." 

It requires an effort to 
reaHse that such an impost 
prevailed but little over a 
century ago. Among other 
provisions of the Act was 
one declaring that every 
watch or clock maker or 
dealer in the cities of 
London and Westminster,, 
the parishes of St. Maryle- 
bone and St. Pancras, the 
counties of Middlesex and 
Surrey shall pay an annual 
duty of two shillings and 
sixpence. In any other 
part of the country such 
a maker or dealer was let 
off by paying a shilUng 

The produce was far from 
reaching the estimated yield, 
while the operation of the 
tax was such as nearly to 
ruin manufacturers. The 
demand for clocks and 
watches decreased to such 
an extent that in less than 
a year the general manu- 
facture of these articles in 
the kingdom, and the various branches of trade connected therewith 
had diminished by one-half, and thousands of persons were deprived 
of employment. It is not, therefore, surprising that the Act was 
repealed in April 1798. 

A writer in Notes and Queries mentions that he met with a 
printed form of receipt for a half-year's taxes, due from a small 

Fig. 819. 

-Mural Timepiece, India 

The Progression of English Domestic Clocks 597 

farmer in Essex, in which occurred the item, " for clocks and 
watches, 5 , 7J." The receipt was dated 10th April 1798, the 
month in which the Act was repealed. 

Although the imposition of this obnoxious tax paralysed the 
horological trades, it had the effect of creating one new kind of 
timekeeper ; for tavern keepers, anticipating a scarcity of time- 
keepers among individuals, with one mind seem to have 
adopted a bold mural time- 
piece for the benefit of those 
who visited their public rooms. 
Mural timepieces with large dials 
were, of course, in use before 
1 797, and by favour of Sir George 
Birdwood I am enabled to repre- 
sent in Fig. 819 a handsome one, 
which is now at the India Office. 
It was formerly at the entrance 
to the Special Assistants' Room 
at the House of the East India 
Company in Leadenhall Street, 
and dates from about 1725. Mr. 
W. W. Hallam has a clock by 
Jasper Taylor in a similar case 
with lacquer decoration. 

An " Act of Parliament " 
clock was altogether a plainer 
affair. It had usually a large 
dial of wood, painted black, 
with gilt figures, not covered 
by a glass, and a trunk long 
enough to allow of a seconds 
pendulum. In country inns and 
other places Act of Parliament 
clocks may still occasionally be 

seen. The appended illustration (Fig. 820) of a specimen at 
Windsor Castle, with a white dial, is curious, inasmuch as the fourth 
hour is indicated by " IV." instead of the almost universal " IIII." 

Watchmakers obtained from Parliament in 1798 some little recom- 
pense for the dire extremity to which they had been reduced, for from 
that time watch cases have been exempt from the plate duty. But 
watch manufacturers had nevertheless to continue the annual plate 

Fig. 820. — " Act of Parliament " 

598 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

licence, [although watch-case-makers were absolved from the 
necessity of doing so. 

In 1803 the licence underwent further alteration ; for trading in gold 
over 2 dwts. and under 2 oz., or in silver over 5 dwts. and under 30 oz., 
an annual payment of ;f2. 6s. was then demanded, and for trading in 
gold or silver articles above those weights an annual payment of £5.l5s. 

Hogarth's Dial — I will append as a curiosity a strange dial 
published by William Hogarth in a paper called The Masquerade Ticket 
which appears to have been put forth as a satire on the position 
accorded to Heidegger, " Master of the Revels,'' whose head is drawn 
on the upper part of the dial. The date, 1727, is indicated by figures 
in the corners. The sketch is reproduced from John Ireland's 
" Hogarth Illustrated." 

Fig. 821. 


THE PENDULUM.' — It is not certain who first used the 
pendulum as a controller for clocks. Galileo, the famous 
astronomer, in 1582 remarked the synchronous vibrations of 
the lamps suspended by long chains from the roof of the cathedral 
at Pisa, and it is said that when blind he dictated to his son Vincent 
a method of using the pendulum as a timekeeper, which the latter 
carried out in 1649. From the drawing of this contrivance it seems 
to have been merely a train of wheels and a rude escapement to keep 
a pendulum in motion, in order to determine the time by counting 
its vibrations. It is shown in Fig. 822, and a working model of it is 
to be seen at South Kensington Museum. 

In the Vienna Treasury is a clock dating from the early part of the 
seventeenth century, and furnished with a pendulum which it is 
contended was invented by the maker of the clock, J. Burgi, of 
Prague, who was appointed as clockmaker to Rudolph II. in 1602. 

Then it is stated that Richard Harris constructed a turret clock 
with a pendulum for the church of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, which 
has since been burnt down. The authority for this statement rests 
chiefly on an engraved plate affixed in the vestry-room of the old 
church, with the following inscription on it : — 

" The turret clock and bells of this church were made a.d. 1797, 
by Thomas Grignon, of Great Russell Street, Covent Garden, the 
son and successor of Thomas Grignon, who (a.d. 1740) brought to 
perfection what the celebrated Tompion and Graham never effected, 
viz., the horizontal principle in watches and the dead beat in clocks, 
which dead beat is a part of the mechanism of the turret clock. 
Thomas Grignon, senior, made the timepiece in the pediment at 
the east end of this parish church, destroyed by fire a.d. 1795. The 
clock fixed in the turret of the said church was the first long 
pendulum clock in Europe, invented and made by Richard Harris, 
of London, a.d. 1641, although the honour of the invention was 
assumed by Vincenzio Galilei, a.d. 1649, and also by Huygens in 
1657. This plate is here affixed by Thomas Grignon, of this parish. 

6oo Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the son of the above Thomas Grignon, as a true memorial of praise 
to those two skilful mechanicians, his father and Richard Harris, 
who, to the honour of England,- embodied their ideas in substantial 
forms that are most useful to mankind." 

It would be idle to treat this as conclusive evidence in favour of 
Harris ; still it is entitled to consideration, for the elder Grignon 
alluded to was regarded as a man of integrity. He was a con- 
temporary and friend of 
James Ferguson, and one 
of the first members of the 
Society of Arts, to which 
society he in 1759 pre- 
sented a regulator, which 
is yet to be seen at the 
house of the Society in the 
Adelphi. Besides, that 
Galileo's observation would 
be followed by the appli- 
cation of a pendulum to 
a clock is only just what 
might have been expected. 
The weak part of the claim 
on behalf of Harris is that 
his application of a superior 
controller should have re- 
mained a solitary instance 
for twelve years or so, and 
have evoked no attention 
from scientists and others 
interested in the subject. 
Huygens, it is certain, 
studied the action of the 
pendulum between 1650 
and 1655, and demonstrated the fact that the path described 
as the centre of oscillation should be a cycloid for vibrations of 
varying extent to be passed through in the same time. 

Dr. Hooke also saw the advantage of the pendulum about the 
same time, and proceeded to apply it. 

• Fromanteel and others have also been named with confidence 
by their respective admirers as being entitled to the honour of 
introducing the pendulum ; but indisputable proof of anyone's claim 

Fig. 822. — Galileo's method of using a 
pendulum as a timekeeper. 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 60 1 

to originality in the matter there is none, and it is therefore useless 
to pursue this part of the subject further. 

Striking Work. — Recording the completion of each hour by 
strokes on a bell has always been regarded as an important function 
of public timekeepers. In some of the early clocks, notably the first 
one at St. Paul's Cathedral, the sound of the striking was the sole 
indicator of time provided, and in many later edifices, where the 
exhibition of dials was considered to be incongruous with the general 
design, timekeepers similarly restricted have been adopted and their 
convenience appreciated. The Church of St. Vedast, Foster Lane, 
may be mentioned as an instance of a public building with a tower 
clock which struck but had no dial. Clocks striking the quarters 
as well as the hours are common enough, but Westminster Abbey 
furnishes a solitary instance of striking-work for the quarters only. 
This is done, not by the turret clock with the well-known exterior 
dial, but by the timekeeper in the Poet's Corner, which is also 
peculiar in being probably the largest spring clock ever made, for the 
barrels and fusees are each over 7 in. in diameter. 

Some of the early Dutch and German clocks were furnished with 
two bells, one larger than the other, mounted on the top of the 
case. The hour was struck on the larger bell ; the first quarter 

noted bv one stroke on the smaller bell ; at the half-hour strokes 

■J ' 

corresponding in number to the previous hour were given on the 
smaller bell, and the third quarter was proclaimed by one stroke 
on the larger bell. This plan has the advantage of giving fuller 
information than modern methods. Where one stroke is given at 
the half-hour, as in most modern French clocks, half-past twelve, 
one, and half-past one convey the same inexplicit signal. 

Clocks by early English makers were occasionally made to indicate 
the half -hour by repeating on a smaller bell strokes corresponding to 
the hour last completed. Mr. J. Drummond Robertson has a time- 
keeper by Joseph Knibb so fitted. On p. 562 is mentioned a clock in 
the Wetherfield collection by the same maker in which the quarters 
are sounded on a smaller bell in an ingenious way. 

Another and most excellent arrangement for striking on two bells, 
as carried out by Joseph Knibb, is described on p. 328. 

Unless altered very recently, the clock at the Church of St. Clement 
Danes, in the Strand, strikes each hour twice. The strokes are given 
first on a large bell, weighing 24cwt., and then repeated on the 
Sanctus, a bell in the spire which is said to date back to the 
fifteenth century, and to have been one of the bells used before 

6o2 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

the Reformation. On account of the roar of traffic along the road, 
the striking cannot be heard except at night, and when it is heard 
the effect is curious, for the repetition appears to the uninitiated to 
be the tardy striking of another clock in some adjacent tower. 

Clocks are occasionally to be seen which strike the hours from 
one to six four times over during the twenty-four hours. In many 
parts of southern Italy the hours were regularly sounded in this 

The Japanese had a decidedly ingenious method of sounding the 
hour and half -hour, which is described on p. 473. 

Should the present method of splitting the day in two periods 
of twelve hours each be abandoned in favour of continuous counting 
of the hours from one to twenty-four, the striking would possibly be 
rearranged, and the plans just described give a choice for selection. 

The earliest device for causing the hours to be struck automatically^ 
appears to be the locking-plate construction, as shown in De Vick's 
clock. A modification of this principle, to ensure greater exactness 
by using quicker moving parts to unlock the striking train, is still 
the most favoured for turret clocks. For house clocks the rack 
principle invented by Barlow is generally preferred, because in this 
the striking corresponds with the position of the hands on the dial, 
whereas with the locking-plate the hours are sounded successively 
without regard to the hands. 

Watch Movements. — Most of the early watches of pocket size 
were arranged to run for from twelve to sixteen hours between 
successive windings, the fusee making from ten to twelve turns. The 
train usually consisted of the great wheel which drove a pinion carry- 
ing the second wheel ; the second wheel drove a pinion carrying 
the contrate wheel, and the last named drove the pinion carrying the 
escape wheel. The great wheel was fixed to its arbor, one end of 
which fitted loosely into a long hole in the larger end of the fusee ; 
the other end was carried in a hole in that plate of the movement 
which is nearest the dial, and on the very extremity of this end was 
a pinion, usualty of the lantern kind, gearing with a wheel whose 
pipe projected through the centre of the dial and carried the hand. 
Pinions having five leaves were, so far as my observation goes^ 
almost invariably used for the train, and for the wheel teeth the 
following numbers : great wheel, 55 : second, 45 ; contrate, 40 ; 
escape wheel, 15. A projection from the verge " banked " against 
the potence to prevent overrunning. There being a wheel and 
pinion less in the train than is usual now, the escape wheel ran 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 


the reverse way ; its teeth and the verge therefore appear to be 
left-handed to the modern watchmaker. 

John Fitter, about 1665, made a watch with the extra wheel and 
pinion, the contrate wheel of which turned once in a minute, but 
there is no doubt the longer train was not generally viewed with 
favour till the balance-spring was introduced in 1675 ; very soon 
after that date it became universal, together with wheel-work 
arranged for a run of thirty hours. 

Among earlier and exceptional departures from the three-wheel 
train may be mentioned an unnamed watch in the Guildhall 
Museum which has four low-numbered wheels. The hand work 
consists of a three-leaved lantern on the great wheel arbor, driving 
a wheel of twenty-seven attached to the hand ; the fusee being cut for 

Fig. 823. — English Watch without 
Screws, about 1600. 

Fig. 824. — English Watch, 
about 1650. 

twelve turns, the watch would run for fifteen hours only. This 
specimen dates apparently from about 1650. 

Fig. 823 is a view of a very early-English watch movement, 
certainly not later, I think, than 1600. There are no screws used 
in its construction, and the mainspring is adjusted by means of a 
ratchet and click. The train is of the numbers already given, the 
hand is driven by four pegs projecting from the great wheel arbor, 
acting with a hand-wheel of thirty-six teeth. The fusee makes barely 
eleven turns. Inscribed on the plate is the maker's name, "Simon 
Bartram." Either he or possibly his namesake and successor was 
appointed in the Charter of the Clockmakers* Company to be one 
of the Assistants," as the members of the Committee of Management 
were termed. 

The first noticeable departure from the primitive arrangement 

6o4 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

was the adoption of a tangent wheel and- screw for the regulation of 
the mainspring, which was introduced about 1610, and is shown in 
Fig. 824. On the barrel arbor above the tangent wheel is a disc 
of silver with divisions figured as a guide in setting the mainspring 
up or down ; this adjustment being evidently used to regulate in 
some measure the timekeeping of the watch. 

An alternative attempt at regulation before the advent of the 
balance-spring was to fix on a movable plate two pins to intercept 
the arms of the balance at longer or shorter arcs, as illustrated in 
Chapter III., pp. 79, 140 and 145. 

A pendulum watch with a slit in the dial was illustrated on 
p. 232. This proved to be an inconvenient arrangement, but in 
the early part of the eighteenth century many watches were made 

Fig. 825.— Watch with Cap over Fig. 826.— Watch with Royal 

the Balance. Arms and Motto. 

with a cap over the balance, as in Fig. 825. The arms of the 
balance were weighted, and a semicircular perforation in the cap 
allowed one weight to be visible, the motion of the weight as it 
vibrated resembling that of a pendulum. Pendulum watches having 
caps decorated with painting on enamel were very popular among 
Dutch makers. The watch illustrated is inscribed, " Flower, London,' 
and dates from about 1740. 

As a rule, movements of watches were completed without reference 
to the proximate owner, but an exceptional construction is shown in 
Fig. 826. The watch dates from about 1700, and is by " Massey, 
London." Around an heraldic shield bearing the royal arms is the 

motto, " HONI SOIT QUY MAL Y PENSE," and below, " SEMPER EADEM." 

It is of Queen Anne period. 

The movement of the watch by Mitzell, of which a front view 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 605 

appears in Fig. 361, is covered by a silver plate, on which the royal 
arms with supporters are chased ; underneath is the motto, " Je Main 

The demand for verge watches continued till late in the nineteenth 
century, and they were made, to my knowledge, in Clerkenwell till 
1882 ; the manufacture ceased then only because the verge finishers 
died out. The last specimens had lever cocks, because there was no 
one left to make the orthodox patterns. 

Balance Springs. — The introduction of the balance-spring, which 
marks such an important epoch in the manufacture of watches, 
appears to be due principally to the investigations of Dr. Robert 
Hooke, about 1660. There is no doubt that Huygens and others 
also experimented with various materials to find a satisfactory 
controller for a vibrating balance. 
Huygens' labours in this direction 
may, of course, have been spontaneous, 
but, as recounted on p. 321, Hooke 
asserted that a communication from 
him to the Secretary of the Royal 
Society" induced Huygens to turn 
his attention to the subject. 

The engraving (Fig. 827) repre- 
sents a watch of German origin from 
the collection of Mr. Willard H. 

Wheeler. It has a-day-of-the-month t^,^ qo-t xt . -d • ^, 

-^ Fig. 827. — Hog s Bristle as a 

ring, and is generally of the construe- Balance Controller, 

tion usual soon after the middle of the 

seventeenth century. But the peculiar feature of the movement lies 
in the application of a straight hog's bristle to regulate the balance. 
There is no sign of any other spring having been attached, and the 
accessories of the bristle are quite in character with the rest of the 
work. There are two arms which embrace the bristle and practically 
determine its acting length, and by means of a screw these may be 
shifted to act over a considerable range. 

Steel springs were, however, found to be the most suitable. The 
primitive straight ones would, of course, allow but a very small 
vibration of the balance, while the to-and-fro motion between pins 
where it made contact with the balance involved considerable 
friction. Of others, curved somewhat to the shape of a pothook, 
there are still examples, but eventually the more convenient and 
correct form was found to be a volute which had at first but one or 

6o6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

two coils. The coils were increased to four or five as the advantage 
of a longer spring was understood, but the very long springs with 
which we are now familiar were not applied till the advent of the 

Fig. 828. — Tompion's Regulator. 

Fig. 829. — Barrow's Regulator. 

lever and other detached escapements which allowed the balance 
to have a larger arc of vibration. 

To lengthen or shorten the acting length of the spring, Tompion 


Fig. 830. — An early applicati n cf the balance 

appears to have used the circular shde with an index from the first. 
This arrangement, which remained in favour for a long period, is 
shown in Fig. 828. Below, and attached to a silver disc, graduated 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 


Fig. 831. — Movemept with Regu- 
lator on Barrow's principle. 

and figured as a guide to regulation, is a pinion which gears with 
teeth on the outer edge of the circular slide ; from the inner edge 
projects an arm carrying two upright pins which embrace the 
spring. The projecting end of the pinion is square, so that it 
could be turned by means of a watch 

In the Schloss collection was a 
clock-watch by Nathaniel Barrow, 
dating from about 1675, in which the 
outer end of the spring is continued in 
a straight line to the stud at the edge 
ot the plate, and the regulation 
accomplished very much in the same 
way as the hog's bristle watch already 
delineated. Fig. 829 is a plan of this 
watch movement . The curved stud on 
the left is continued in a sort of zig- 
zag shape to hold one end of the regulating screw. The upper end 
ot the nut points to an index engraved on the plate, and the lower 
extremity is notched to receive the spring. 

An early appHcation of the balance-spring with quaintly worded 

instructions for regulating is shown in 
Fig. 830, which represents the move- 
ment of a large striking and alarm 
watch by Edward East. 

A fine movement by Daniel Le 
Count, dating from 1680, and having 
a regulator on Barrow's principle, is 
shown in Fig. 831. 

The chief drawback to Tompion's 
regulator is that, owing to the backlash 
or freedom between the teeth of the 
pinion and slide, a slight reversal of 
the index has no effect on the curb 
pins. The simple regulator now gene- 
rally employed consists of a lever, 
fitting friction-tight over a boss on 
the balance cock ; the shorter end of the lever carries the curb pins 
which embrace the balance-spring, while the longer end through which 
it is moved serves also as an indicator of alterations in the position 
ot the curb pins. This device was patented by Bosley in 1755. 

Fig. 832.— Watch, by Baltazar 
Martinet, showing early 
French arrangement of 
Balance-spring Regulator. 

6o8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

There is one point about the stud used in those of Tompion's 
watches I have seen which might well be revived. The hole in the 
stud for the reception of the spring was square. The modern system 
of pinning, by squeezing the flat side of a spring against the surface 
of a round hole, is altogether unmechanical and must distort the 

Fig. 832 represents the top plate of an alarm watch by the 
celebrated French maker, Baltazar Martinot. The balance is very 
large, planted nearly in the centre of the plate and covered by a 
handsomely engraved bridge. The pinion and teeth of the slide 
for regulation of the balance-spring are uncovered, and no index 
appears to have been provided. 

A very similar watch by one of the Habrechts of Strassburg has 

the bridge covered with the picture 
of a woman smoking a pipe, as 
shown in Fig. 833. The painting 
is finely executed in enamel. 

Watch Cocks. — The first of 
the cocks or brackets used to sup- 
port one end of the balance-staff 
were probably quite plain, but so 
prominent a feature of the move- 
ment speedily became an object of 
enrichment. Of the early pierced 
and engraved designs examples are 
given in Figs. 823, 824, 827, 829, 
831, 429. These range from the 
end of the sixteenth century to 1680, and it will be observed that 
from its primal ofhce of carrying the balance staff pivot the table 
of the cock was gradually spread to protect the balance from dis- 
turbance. In No. 1 of the subjoined Fig. 834, from a watch by 
" Jeremie Johnson, Royal Exchange," dating from about 1685, the 
edge of the table is of a plain circular form and coincident with the 
outside of the balance rim ; the foot is very wide, but its outer edge 
is carved, and would not correspond with the outline of the plate, to 
which it would be screwed. 

No. 2 is from a watch by Thomas Windmills, dating from about 
1700. Here the outside of the foot followed the curve of the plate. 
The narrow neck at the junction of the table and the foot seen in 
this and in the preceding example appears to have been originally 
provided as a space for pinning the cock to a stud and to have 

Fig. 833. — Watch, with painted 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 609 

survived the introduction of screw fastenings. The floral pierced 
work in No. 1 and No. 2 is very similar, but the basket or pot in the 
first is in the latter discarded for a mask, and from this period heads 
or masks seem to have been incorporated with most of the designs 
so long as the pierced cocks lasted. Curiously enough, the streamers 
at the sides of the basket, which look appropriate, are incongruously 
retained with the head ; still, the streamers and masks were associated 
for thirty or forty years. About 1720, cocks with solid feet were 
made, though the pierced variety is met with till about 1770. 

Fig. 834. — Examples of early pierced and engraved Watch Cocks. 

No. 3, with a jewelled centre and a representation of a lion in a 
cage, dates from about 1770, and No. 4, with the mihtary embJems, 
from 1780. 

With few exceptions, French and Dutch manufacturers used a 
bridge instead of a cock. No. 5, a pretty specimen, is from a 
pendulum watch made about 1740. Others are shown on pp. 198, 
238, and 607. On pp. 238 and 608 are two finely enamelled. 

The beautiful pierced work was unable to withstand the utilitarian 
spirit of the nineteenth century, though it died hard. No. 6 is from 
a watch by James Wild, London, with the hall-mark for 1788. The 

6io Old Clocks and Watches and their. Makers 

solid lever form of cock (No. 7) was taken from a verge watch with 
the hall-mark of 1826. A few years ago a taste for watch cock 
necklaces, brooches, and bracelets arose, and thousands of interesting 
movements were destroyed in mad haste to supply material for an 
evanescent fancy. 

Watch Pillars. — Though the pillars which connect the two 
plates of a watch movement are now universally made of a plain 
cylindrical form, they have been formerly the subjects of considerable 
enrichment. In most of the early movements of a small size the 
pillars were round ; the larger ones were usually square, and often 
engraved ; but one of the first obvious departures from the utilitarian 
form in older to please the eye is shown in No. 1 of the subjoined 
engraving. This is known as the tulip pillar, and seems to have 
been introduced in deference to what may be called the tulip mania, 
which followed the introduction of tulip bulbs into England and led 
artists to incorporate the flower with almost every kind of decoration. 
For about twenty-five years from 1676 many of the finest watches 

¥ V 

12 3 4 5 6 7 

Fig. 835. — Some examples of early Watch Pillars. 

were made with tulip pillars. In some instances the vertical division 
shown in the engraving was omitted. The square Egyptian pillar. 
No. 2, was introduced about 1640, and continued in use for many 
years, the central slit being often wider than the example, with a 
vertical division and decorations on the face ; silver was the material 
favoured for the decorations and divisions. Occasionally in an extra 
wide division a head or bust would be inserted. The plainer square 
pillar. No. 3, had also a long Hfe, for it is met with in watches nearly 
two hundred years old, and also in specimens produced in the early 
part of the nineteenth centm-y. No. 4 is a form favoured by Dutch 
and some English makers from about 1730 to 1770, and is occasionally 
seen applied to much later productions. Pillars like No. 5, dating 
from the first half of the eighteenth century, are more often seen m 
French and German watches than in EngHsh, and are often of silver. 
No. 6 is taken from a watch by EUicott, the case of which has the 
hall-mark of 1746, and the elegant outline is quite in accord with 
the popular taste at that time. No. 7 is a httle later, and is taken 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 6ii 

from a watch by John Markham, a well-known maker for the Dutch 
market. During the period devoted to fancy pillars, repeaters and 
clock- watches where room was an object did not usually conform to 
the popular taste in this particular, but were furnished with plain 
round pillars, having small bodies and collars formed at the top and 
bottom, to afford a more secure bearing on the plates. 

Escapements. — The verge, the earliest escapement, was explained 
on p. 33. About 1660 the Abbe Hauteville invented the " Virgule," 
illustrated in Fig. 836. Its action will be understood by those 
conversant with escapements. Dr. Hooke invented the anchor escape- 
ment, which was appHed to clocks by William Clement about 1676. 
Graham subsequently introduced the improvement known as " dead- 
beat." Tompion devised a form of watch escapement shown on p. 282 
and subsequently were introduced, 
among others, the cylinder and 
duplex. In accordance with my 
promise to avoid technicalities and 
modern construction, I do not pro- 
pose to descant on these ; they are 
dealt with fully in the " Watch and 
Clock Maker's Handbook." The 
best of all watch escapements, the 
lever, which Mudge invented and 
applied to a watch for Queen Char- 
lotte, was analogous in its action to 
the present form of double roller Fig. 836.— \^irgule Escapement, 
escapement, except that the locking 

faces of the pallets were circular as in the dead-beat clock escape- 
ment of Graham. The impulse pin was divided, for the purpose of 
ensuring the safety action after the finger enters the crescent, and 
before the impulse pin is fairly in the notch, a result now attained 
very simply by having horns to the lever. Curiously enough, the 
advantages of Mudge's invention seem to have remained unrecognised 
for many years, except by a few of his watchmaking friends. George 
Margetts and Josiah Emery seem to have been impressed with it, and 
the latter made for Count Bruhl a watch furnished with a lever 
escapement on Mudge's plan, which performed so satisfactorily that 
Emery was induced to continue its use. In 1793 he told a committee 
of the House of Commons appointed to inquire into Mudge's claim 
to the Government reward that he had made thirty-two or thirty-three 
such watches, and that his price for them was £150 each. 

6i2 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

By favour of Mr. George Burrell, I had the privilege a short time 
ago of inspecting a very fine watch which Emery made for the Duke 
of Portland. It had a lever escapement with straight locking faces 
to the pallets, angled so as to be drawn into the wheel by pressure, and 
a second roller for the safety action, practically similar to the arrange- 
ment in first-class timekeepers of to-day. The impulse pin was of steel 
and pivoted in jewel holes, so that it rolled in and out of the notch. 
The watch, Mr. Burrell said, was originally hung in gymbals in a 
wooden box. Mr. J.J. Hedgethorne has a similar watch by Emery. 
In the collection of the Clockmakers' Company at the Guildhall 
is an interesting watch by John Leroux, of Charing Cross, who was 
admitted an honorary freeman of the Company in I78I. This watch, 
by the hall-mark in the case, was made in 1785, and the peculiar 

feature of it is the escapement, which 
(i I is a lever, but the pallets are of un- 

'^ / ^ r-^, usual form and act with teeth resem- 

■ \ ^'Q <C r^'!^^^^^^ bling those of the cylinder escape- 

wheel, as shown in Fig. 837. 

Peter Litherland in 1791 patented 
the rack lever escapement, in which 
the lever terminates in a segmental 
rack which gears with a pinion on the 
balance axis. Although this was an 
undetached escapement, and therefore 
wanting in the chief excellence of 
Mudge's conception, it met with con- 
siderable success, a large number 
being made at Liverpool, in the early 
part of the nineteenth century, chiefiy for the American market. 

About 1800, Edward Massey, a Staffordshire watchmaker, invented 
the crank roller, in which the impulse pin is projected beyond the 
periphery of the roller, something like the finger in the going barrel 
stopwork. Contact of the extremities of the lever with the edge of 
the roller formed the safety action. The final perfecting of the table 
roller variety is ascribed to George Savage, a Clerkenwell watch 
finisher, some years afterwards. 

Watch Jewelling. — In the early part of the eighteenth century 
was introduced the practice of using highly polished surfaces of hard 
stone for the bearings of the smaller quickly moving watch pivots and 
other rubbing contacts. 

In 1704 a patent was granted to Nicholas Facio, Peter Debaufre, 

Fig. 837. 

. The wheel, b. The pallets, c. The 
le\er. d d. Banking- screws, e. The 
detaining roller, below which, on the 
same axis, is another roller or disc 
with a ruby pin, as usual, for receiving 
impulse from the lever fork. 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 613 

and Jacob Debaufre, for the application of jewels to the pivot holes 
of watches and clocks. Facio, the inventor, was a native of Basle, 
where he was born in 1664, coming to England in the early part of 
1687. Here he seems to have busied himself with scientific pursuits, 
and towards the end of the century he was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society. His co-patentees were watchmakers, living in Church 
Street, Soho, and an advertisement in the London Gazette of 11th May 
1704 announced that jewelled watches were to be seen at their shop, 
stating also that they made " free watches." A watch bearing the 
name of " Debauffre " is to be seen at the South Kensington Museum. 
Before the patent was many months old, the patentees applied to 
Parliament for a Bill to extend it ; but this was opposed by the 
Clockmakers' Company, and on evidence produced by them a 
committee of the House of Commons recommended that the Bill 
be rejected. In reporting the successful result of their opposition, the 
master of the Clockmakers' Company acquainted the court that in the 
proofs brought against the Bill, there was an old watch produced, 
the maker's name Ignatius Huggeford (or Huggerford), that had a 
stone fixed in the clock and balance work, which was of great use to 
satisfy the committee. 

But the best of the story has yet to be told. In recent years 
Huggeford's watch was taken down by Mr. E. J. Thompson, a member 
of the court of the Company, and he reported that " The movement is 
not in any sense jewelled, the verge holes being of brass. A piece of 
coloured glass or soft stone, fastened in a disc of silver and burnished 
into a sink in the steel cock, gives a fictitious appearance of jewelling.'* 

About 1720 Facio settled at Worcester, where he died at the age of 
ninety, and was buried at St. Nicholas' Church in that city in 1753. 

Compensation. — Variation in the elasticity of the balance-spring 
when subjected to changes of temperature proved a fruitful source of 
trouble to horologists after the application of that most useful 
adjunct. Harrison's account of his " Thermometer Kirb " is given 
on p. 345. Mudge strove to avoid the difficulty of regulation 
experienced by Harrison by using two balance-springs, as stated on 
p. 356. Breguet invented a compensation curb on Harrison's 
principle, but shaped like a quadrant in order to get a greater length 
of laminae, and therefore more action. One end of the quadrant 
was fixed to the index and the other carried one of the curb pins, 
which by the movement of the laminae in changes of temperature 
was caused to recede from or approach the fixed curb pin, and thus 
to give more or less liberty to the spring. Various compensation 

6i4 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

balances from the time of Arnold are illustrated in " Watch Springing 
and Adjusting," and need not be repeated here. 

Evolution of Winding Mechanism for Watches. — One of the first 
references to winding without opening the case of a watch is to be found 
m an advertisement which appeared in the London Gazette for lOth- 
13th January, 1686 where a watch by R. Bowen, London, is described 
as having one motion, and the spring being wound up without a 
key, and it opening contrary to all other watches. Then in Overall's 
" History of the Clockmaker's Company " it is stated that in 1712 
John Hutchinson desired to patent a watch which, among other 
improvements, " has likewise a contrivance to wind up this or any 
other movement without an aperture in the case through which 
anything can pass to foul the movement." The Clockmaker's 
Company opposed the application, and a committee of the House 
of Commons examined witnesses, among others George Graham and 
Charles Goode. Mr. Goode produced a movement made fourteen 
years before. Mr. Hutchinson confessed Goode's movement was 
like his, and eventually withdrew his application. 

The next in order is Pierre Augustin Caron, a clever watchmaker 
of Paris, who in 1752 made for Madame de Pompadour a very small 
watch, which gained for him a prize from the Academy of Sciences. 
This appears to have been wound either by turning the bezel or 
with a slide very similar to the winding slide now used for repeaters. 
A translation of his description is as follows : " It is in a ring, and is 
only four lignes across and two-thirds of a ligne in height between 
the plates. To render this ring more commodious, I have contrived, 
instead of a key, a circle round the dial carrying a little projecting 
hook. By drawing this hook with the nail two-thirds round the dial, 
the watch is re-wound and it goes for thirty hours." Caron was an 
accomplished musician as well as a playwriter, and is better known 
under the name of Beaumarchais, as the author of " Le Bar bier de 
Seville " and " Le Mariage de Figaro.'' 

In 1764 Frederick Kehlhoff, of London, patented a centre-seconds 
and going barrel watch with a stackfreed remontoir. A watch on 
this plan by him was wound by turning the bow, the arbor of which 
terminated in a contrate wheel gearing with an intermediate wheel 
which engaged with a wheel on the barrel arbor ; but nothing was 
said in his patent respecting the keyless work. 

Lepine, who was associated with Voltaire in the establishment of 
a watch factory at Ferney, in Switzerland, devised a method of 
winding in which the button at the pendant was turned partly round 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 


and then pushed in several times till the winding was completed. 
This was the first of a series of what is known as " pumping " keyless 

In 1792 Peter Litherland, who patented the rack lever, claimed 
(patent No. 1,889) " winding up watches, &c., by means of an external 
lever connected by mechanism by the barrel arbor." 

Robert Leslie, in 1793, patented (No. 1,970) another pumping key- 
less arrangement. His claim says: " On the square on which the 
key should go is a ratch ; the pendant, being alternately moved 
in and out, turns this ratch by means of two clocks on either end 
of a fork fastened to the pendant." 

A watch, dating from about 
1790, signed " Jacquet Droz, 
London," which is shown in Fig. 
320, is furnished with winding 
work of this kind. 

J. A. Berrollas, in 1827 (No. 
5,586), patented a somewhat 
similar contrivance, but used a 
chain coiled round the winding 
wheel. I wore for some years 
a duplex watch by Ganthony 
with this keyless work, and it 
answered well. 

Edward Massey in 1814 
(3,854), Francis J. Massey in 
1841 (8,947), and Edward Mas- 
sey again in 1841 (9,120), 
patented varieties of pumping 
keyless work. 
Charles Oudin exhibited at Paris in 1806, an arrangement shown 
in Fig. 838 : k is the barrel, j and g intermediate wheels gearing with 
the contrate pinion h ] « is a disc at one extremity of the rod n h. 
The rod is supported by the cock d, and has two grooves, into one 
of which the spring / presses, according to the position of the rod. 
One of these grooves is seen at c, the other is hidden, owing to 
the position in which the parts are shown. When out of use the 
disc a forms part of the ball of the pendant. In order to wind, 
the. rod n h is pulled up until the nib at the end of h comes in 
contact with the interior of the pinion h, where there is a catch ; the 
spring./;then fails into the groove c, and then the winding is accom- 


Fig. 838. 



6i6 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

plished by turning the ball at a. There was no provision for setting 

Thomas Prest, foreman to J. R.. Arnold, at his Chigwell chrono- 
meter factory, patented in 1820 (No. 4,501) a very similar arrangement 
to the foregoing as far as the winding is concerned, but no provision 
was made for disconnecting the wheels from the pendant knob. 

A. L. Breguet applied winding work to many of his watches, and 
an arrangement to connect with the motion work for setting hands by 
pulling out the bow. 

Isaac Brown, in 1829 (5,851), patented a winding-rack attached to 
the bezel, the bezel being moved round to wind. 

Adrien Phillipe, in 1843, invented the shifting sleeve keyless 
mechanism. Lecoultre and Audemars subsequently made alterations : 
the present construction of shifting sleeve mechanism is, however, 
similar in principle to the device of Phillipe. 

Adolope Nicole, in 1844, patented (10,348) a fusee keyless work in 
which a knob on the pendant was pushed in to make connection with 
the fusee wheel, and pulled out to connect with the minute wheel. 

The rocking bar mechanism for winding and setting hands was 
patented in 1855 (2,144) by Gustavus Hughenin. 

Self- Winding Watches. — Several methods have been devised 
for automatic winding, of which two examples are given. 

Fig. 839 shows an arrangement by Lebet for winding a watch by 
the action of closing the hunting cover. There is a short gold arm 
projecting beyond the joint. This arm is connected by means of a 
double link to a lever, one end of which is. pivoted to the plate. To 
the free end of this lever is jointed a scythe-shaped rack, which works 
into a wheel with ratchet-shaped teeth on the barrel arbor. A weak 
spring fastened to the lever serves to keep the rack in contact with 
the wheel teeth. Instead of the ordinary fly spring, there is a spring 
fixed to the plate and attached by means of a short chain to the 
lever. As this spring pulls the cover open, the teeth of the rack slip 
over the teeth of the wheel on the barrel arbor. Each time the 
wearer closes the cover, the watch is partly wound. By closing the 
case eight or nine times, the winding is completed. The ordinary 
method of hooking in the mainspring would be clearly unsuitable 
with this winding work, because after the watch was fully wound the 
case could not be closed. Inside the barrel is a piece of mainspring 
a little more than a complete coil with the ends overlapping, and to 
this piece the mainspring hook is riveted. The adhesion of the loose 
turn of the mainspring against the side of the barrel is sufficient 
to drive the watch, but when the hunting cover is closed after the 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 


watch is wound, the extra strain causes the mainspring to slip round 
in the barrel. 

The method of winding just described can be applied only to- a 
hunting watch. Fig. 840 represents a watch by Breguet with what 
is known as a pedometer winding. Louis Recordon, in 1780, 
patented it (No. 1,249), and it has been several times re-invented. 
The motion of the wearer's body is utilised for winding. There is 
a weighted lever, pivoted at one end and kept in its normal position, 

Fig. 839.— Self-winding Watch Mechan- 
ism to act on the closing of the 
Hunting Cover. 

Fig. 840. — Self-winding or " Pedo- 
meter " Watch, by Breguet. 

against the upper of two banking pins by a long curved spring so 
weak that the ordinary motion of the wearer's body causes the lever 
to oscillate continually between the banking pins. Pivoted to the 
same centre as the weighted lever is a ratchet wheel with very fine 
teeth, and fixed to the lever is a pawl, which engages with the 
ratchet wheel. This pawl is made elastic, so as to yield to undue 
strain by the endeavour of the lever to vibrate after the watch 
is wound. 

Repeating Watches. — While the striking mechanism of clock- 
watches such as were produced by many of the early makers was 
founded on that used in De Vick's clock, repeating watches were 
similar in principle to the rack striking work for house clocks invented 

6i8 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 


by either Barlow or Quare. The number of hours or quarteis struck 
depends on the position of the snails which revolve with the time- 
keeping mechanism. The hammers were actuated by a separate 
mainspring, which was wound every time it was desired that the watch 
should repeat. This was done by pushing the pendant in. Connected 
to the inner end of the pendant was a chain coiled round a pulley 
attached to the mainspring barrel, and also a lever, which, by coming 
in contact with the snail, stopped the pendant ; so that the main- 
spring was wound much or little according to the number of blows 
to be struck. 

The chain was found to be the most unsatisfactory part of 
the mechanism, and at the beginning of the eighteenth century 
Matthew Stogden substituted a rack for it. Other alterations have 
since been made in the arrangement, one of the chief being the 
winding of the mainspring by means of a slide projecting from the 
band of the case. Barlow and Quare used a bell shaped to the inside 
of the case, such as had been used before their time for clock- 
watches ; wire gongs, introduced by Julien Le Roy, are now used 

Graham introduced a " pulse piece," which, upon being pressed, 
kept the hammers off the bell, but allowed the time to be ascertained 
by counting the throbs or beats on the pulse piece. 

Dumb repeaters, said to have been invented by Julien Le Roy, 
had neither bells nor gongs, the' blows being struck on a solid block 
fixed in the band of the case. 

In 1804 John Moseley EUiott patented (No. 2,759) an ingenious 
device for dispensing with the repeating train, as well as striking the 
hours and quarters and other subdivisions with one hammer. By 
turning a rod running through the pendant to the right, a pallet on 
the inner end of it moved round a lever till it came in contact with 
the hour snail, and while this was being done, each of the teeth of 
a ratchet wheel also mounted on the inner part of the pendant rod, 
engaged with the hammer stalk and caused it to strike on the bell. 
The number of blows struck depended, of course, on the position of 
the hour snail. By turning the pendant to the left, another lever 
was carried to the quarter snail, and the required number of quarters 
struck in like manner. 

The time might in this arrangement be ascertained without a bell, 
by first turning the pendant rod as far as the snail allowed, and then 
reversing it and counting the number of clicks or obstructions caused 
by engagement with the ratchet. The elder Grant made some dumb 
repeaters on this plan. 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 619 

Musical Watches. — On pp. 232 and 239 are shown musical watches. 
They must be distinguished from repeaters or other watches which 
strike notes on gongs. They are provided with pins rising from 
a metal disc as shown in Fig. 841. The disc rotates and each pin in 
turn catches the free end of a steel spring of such a length and thick- 
ness as to yield the required note. The music may be let off by the 
striking-work at every hour or at pleasure by a pin which would 
project through the band of the case, or in both ways. A separate 

barrel is provided to drive the 
music disc and moving figures 
if any. The device is, I believe, 
of Swiss origin. 

Hall - Marks. — These marks 
are impressed on watch cases, 
jewellery, and plate after the 
quality of the metal has been 
ascertained by assay at certain 
official Assay Halls. The mark- 
ing of jewellery is, with few ex- 
ceptions, optional. The hall- 
marking of all watch cases of 

FiG^ 841. gold or silver made in Great 

Mechanism of Musical Watch. Britain and Ireland is com- 

pulsory. The cost is only the 
actual outlay incurred in assaying and stamping. The hall-mark con- 
sists of several impressions in separate shields : there are the standard 
or quality mark ; the mark of the particular office at which the 
article was assayed ; some character by which the date of marking 
may be traced, and, if duty is chargeable, the head of the reigning 

The oldest and most important of the Assay Halls is that presided 
over by the Goldsmiths' Company of London, which is situated in 
Foster Lane, just at the back of the old General Post Ofhce, 
St. Martin's le-Grand. The privilege of assaying and marking precious 
metals was conferred on the Company by statute in 1300. The 
Company received a charter of incorporation in 1327, and their 
powers have been confirmed subsequently by several Acts of 

Many early watch cases, especially silver ones of London make, 
are met with which have no hall-mark, the powers of the Company 
not being so strictly enforced then as now, or the value of the ofhcial 
assay not being so generally recognised. 





/ 1 


\ ^ 


620 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Repousse cases, with other artistic wares of a similar character, are 
specially exempted from assay. 

It was not till 1798 that a lower standard of gold than 22 carat 
was allowed; 18 carat was then recognised; in 1854 three further 
standards, 15, 12, and 9 carat were introduced. 

The standard mark of the London Hall is a lion 
passant for sterHng silver. A lion passant was also the 
standard mark on 22-carat gold up to 1845." 

For gold of 22 carats the standard mark is now a 
crown, and the figures 22. For 18-carat gold the standard 
mark is a crown and the figures 18. 

For 15-carat gold 15 and 0-6251 Pure gold being 24 carats, these decimals 
„12 „ 12„ 0"5 I represent the proportions of pure gold in 

„ 9 „ 9 „ 0-375/ the article so marked. 

The London Hall- Mark prior to 1823 was 
a crowned leopard's head ; from 1st January 
1823 it was uncrowned ; specimens of both styles 
are appended. 

Date-marks of the London Hall, given on pp. 622, 623, are, 
with one or two exceptions, actual reproductions which I have made 
from watch cases. Specimens of the earliest marks are not to be 

There was a duty on silver articles of sixpence an ounce from 
1719 till 1758, but no special duty-mark ; in 1784 a similar duty was 
imposed, and then the head of the reigning sovereign was impressed 
to denote the payment of duty. The Act came into operation on 
1st December 1784, and at first the head had a curious appearance, 
being incised, or incuse as it is called, instead of in relief as the other 
marks were. Cases with the London mark and the letter K, which 
corresponds to the period from May 1785 to May 1786, have the 
duty head incuse, after which the head appears in relief with London 
marks. The wardens of the Birmingham Assay Office have a pair 
of cases with the head incuse, and the Birmingham mark with the 
letter N, which would denote the period from July 1786 to July 
1787. In 1804 the duty on silver was increased to Is. 3d., and on 
gold to 16s. an ounce. In 1815 a further increase to Is. 6d. and 
17s. 6d. respectively was made, and the duty continued at these 
amounts till 1890, when it was finally abohshed. Watch cases were 
exempted from duty in 1798. 

The maker's mark before 1697 was some emblem selected by him ; 
in that year it was ordered to be the first two letters of his surname ; 

Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 


since 1739 it has been the initials of the maker's Christian and 

On 25th March 1697 the quahty of standard silver was raised 
from 11 oz. 2 dwts. to 11 oz. 10 dwts. of pure silver in 12 oz. of 
plate ; a lion's head erased was then used as the standard-mark, and 
a figure of Britannia as the hall-mark ; but on 1st June 1720 the 
old standard of 11 oz. 2 dwts., and the old marks of a lion passant 
and a leopard's head were reverted to, although the higher standard 
with the figure of Britannia is till occasionally used. 

Marks of other Assay Offices. 
— Chester. — Hall - mark, a sword 
between three wheatsheaves. Prior 
to 1779 it was three demi-lions and 
a wheats heaf on a shield. Standard mark for 18-carat gold, a crown 
and the figures 18. For silver, a lion passant. Before 1839 a leopard's 
head in addition. Chester date-marks are given on p. 625. 

Birmingham. — Hall-mark, an anchor in a square frame for gold, 
and an anchor in a pointed shield for silver. Standard-mark for 
18-carat gold, a crown and the figures 18 ; for silver, a Hon passant. 
Birmingham date-marks are given on p. 624. 
Sheffield. — A York rose and a crown. 
Exeter. — A castle with three towers. 
York. — Five lions on a cross. 
Newcastle — Three castles. 

. . * Norwich. — A castle and Hon passant. (The 

Norwich Assay Office is now closed.) 

Edinburgh.— A thistle for the standard 
mark, and a castle for the hall-mark. 

Glasgow. — A lion rampant for the stan- 
dard, and a tree, a fish, and a beU for the hall- 

A harp crowned as the standard- 

mark for sterling silver and for 22-carat gold, 

with the figures 22 added in the latter case ; for 

20-carat gold, a plume of three feathers and 20 ; 

tor 18-carat gold, a unicorn head and 18. The lower qualities of 15, 

12, and 9 are marked with the same standard-mark as is used at the 

London Hail. The hall-mark for Dublin is a figure of Hiberma. 


622 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 


The shields represented in the subjoined tables are those used for 
shield is invariably in the shape of a rectangle, with the 

XoTE. — The Date-Mark is altered on the 30th of May in 

the 30th of May in 

P jsrs 






§ '679 

15 1697 



(SI 1757 


|£) 1680 

Ifl 1698 

© I7t8 




5 1681 






^ 1682 



lei 1740 



1 1683 



III '741 


(J) 1781 

(^ 1684 






i 1685 






[f] 1686 


[J] 1754 

IB 1744 



i 1687 






Ij 1688 






[ml 1689 






tnl 1690 


^ 1728 




[^ 1691 






Igl 1692 






1^ 1693 












^ 1695 






51 1696 




(I) 1774 



Isj. 1715 



® «773 


* This letter appears to Lave been used only from March to May 1697. 

Britannia and a lion's head erased was used instead of the 

■]• Watch cases marked between December 1784 and May 1798 would 


Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 


silver and for 22-carat gold. For lower qualities of gold the 
corners taken off like the one surrounding the A in 1876. 

each year, lasting from the date indicated in the Table til] 
the following year. 

gj 179.6 








(£) 1810 
P 1811 
IM) 1813 
fD 1814 
S '815 

(a) 1816 

J) 1821 
(51 '823 
(g 1825 

(31 1831 










® 1859 

(J 1862 
(I) 1866 
















































1896 1^ 1916 

'S^TlJfr 1917 

'898 JC^ 1918 

1899 ^ 1919 

















From the 25th Maich 1697 to the 1st June 1720 the figure of 

crowned leopard's head and a hon passant, see page 620. 

bear an extra stamp representing the head of George III. ; see page 62< 

624 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 


Note. — The Date-Mark is altered on 

1st July of each year, 

lasting from the 

Date indicated in the Table till the June following. 

A .. .. 1773 

a .. .. 1798 

31 .. .. 1824 

B . 

. 1774 

b . 

. 1799 

^ . 

. 1825 

C . 

. 1775 


. 1800 

® . 

. 1826 

D . 

. 1776 

d . 

. 1801 

P . 

, 1827 

E . 

. 1777 


. 1802 

iB . 

. 1828 

F . 

. 1778 

f . 

. 1803 

€' . 

. 1829 

G . 

. 1779 

g . 

. 1804 

© . 

. 1830 

H . 

. 1780 

h . 

. 1805 

^ . 

. 1831 

I . 

. 1781 

i . 

. 1806 

^ . 

. 1832 

K . 

. 1782 

j . 

. 1807 

^ . 

. 1833 

L . 

. 1783 

k . 

. 1808 

S . 

. 1834 

M . 

. 1784 

1 . 

. 1809 

m . 

. 1835 

N . 

. 1785 

m . 

. 1810 

It . 

. 1836 


. 1786 

n . 

. 1811 

® . 

. 1837 

P . 

. 1787 

. 1812 

V . 

. 1838 

Q . 

. 1788 

P • 

. 1813 

QX . 

. 1839 

R . 

. 1789 

q • 

. 1814 

^ ■ 

. 1840 

S . 

. 1790 


. 1815 

^ • 

. 1841 

T . 

. 1791 


. 1816 

m . 

. 1842 

U . 

. 1792 

t . 

. 1817 

u . 

. 1843 

V . 

. 1793 


. 1818 


. 1844 

W . 

. 1794 

V . 

. 1819 

^ . 

. 1845 

X . 

. 1795 

w . 

. 1820 

^ • 


. 1846 

Y . 


. 1796 

X . 

. 1821 

V ■ 


. 1847 

Z . 


. 1797 

y . 

. 1822 

? . 


. 1848 


. 1823 

A .. 

. 1849 

a .. .. 1875 

a .. .. 1900 

B .. 

. 1850 

b . 

. . 1876 

b . 


. 1901 

C .. 

. 1851 


. 1877 

c . 


. 1902 

D .. 

. 1852 


. 1878 

d . 


. 1903 

E .. 

. 1853 


. 1879 



. 1904 

F .. 

. 1854 

f . 

. 1880 

f . 


. 1905 

G .. 

. 1855 


. . 1881 

g • 


. 1906 

H .. 

. 1856 

it . 

. 1882 

h . 


. 1907 

I .. 

. 1857 

i . 

. 1883 



. 1908 

J •• 


h . 

. . 1884 

k . 


. 1909 

K .. 

. 1859 


. 1885 

1 . 


. 1910 

L .. 



. 1886 



. 1911 

M .. 



. 1887 



. 1912 

N .. 


. 1888 


. 1913 




. 1889 

P • 


. 1914 

P .. 


*1 • 

. 1890 

q • 


. 1915 

Q .. 


V . 

. 1891 



. 1916 

R .. 



. 1892 



. 1917 

S .. 


t . 

. 1893 

t . 


. 1918 

T .. 



. 1894 



. 1919 

U .. 



. 1895 

V . 


. 1920 

V .. 


nj . 

. 1896 



. 1921 

w .. 



. 1897 

X .. 


U • 

. 1898 

Y .. 



. 1899 

Z .. 



Mechanism of Clocks and Watches 



Note. — The Date-Mark is altered on the 1st July of each year, lasting from 
the Date indicated in the Table till the June following. 

A 1701 









B 1702 









C 1703 









D 1704 









E 1705 









F 1706 









G 1707 









H 1708 









I 1709 









K 1710 









L 1711 









M 1712 









N 1713 
















P 1715 







Q 1716 









R 1717 









S 1718 









T 1719 









U 1720 









V 1721 









W 1722 





X 1723 





Y 1724 





Z 1725 



A 1818 









B 1819 









C 1820 









D 1821 









E 1822 









F 1823 









G 1824 









H 1825 









I 1826 









K 1827 









L 1828 









M 1829 









N 1830 















P 1832 









Q 1833 









R 1834 









S 1835 







T 1836 







U 1837 








V 1838 





* These are really Script capitals. 



THE dates following the names in this alphabetical list signify 
the period when the person referred to was connected with the 
Clockmakers' Company, or known to be in business, or when 
some example of his work was made. It does not necessarily follow 
that he then either began or relinquished the trade. The letter f. 
after a date means that the person then became a freeman. 
Irhroughout the list C.C. stands for Clockmakers' Company, G.M. 
jfor Guildhall Museum, where the collection of the Clockmakers' 
Company is located, B.M. for British Museum, S.K.M. for South 
■Kensington Museum, and h.m. for Hail-Mark. Following the names 
br addresses of some of the makers is a slight description of specimens 
bf their work which have been met with, or of some invention or 
distinguishing trait. Of the more important men, fuller descriptions 
are given in the body of the book, and reference is then made to 
the page where such particulars may be found. 

On estimating the age of a timekeeper by a maker the only 
reference to whom is that he was admitted to the Clockmakers' 
Company, it may in the majority of cases be assumed that he was' 
at the time of his admission a young man just out of his appren- 
ticeship ; but there are numerous exceptions. Many of those members 
who constituted the first roll of the Clockmakers' Company were of 
mature years at the time of their incorporation ; and afterwards men 
who had made some mark or whom circumstances had brought into 
notice were then induced to join. The introductory description, 
" Great Clockmaker," seems to have meant a maker of lai-ge clocks. 
Hon. freemen, elected after 1780, all had made their reputation 
before entry. 

It is easy to understand that the roll of membership of the Company 
at no time represented the whole of the clockmakers and watchmakers 
within its sphere of action. Many who did not care to join would 
escape observation, and those who were free of other guilds at the 
incorporation made their apprentice free of the particular company toi 
which they were attached. Horological craftsmen belonging to other 


Former Clock and Watch Makers 627 

guilds, if they became associated with the Clockmakers' Company, 
were designated " brothers." 

Although the addresses of the freemen at first are rarely given, 
it may be taken for granted that they were nearly all within a radius 
of ten miles, and among the later ones it will be found that very 
few of them resided at any great distance from the Metropolis. 

Tracing the residence or business location of manufacturers is 
often more difficult than many would imagine. William Clement is 
referred to in many books as an " eminent London Clockmaker 
who first applied the Anchor Escapement to clocks," and was 
doubtless a leading member of his trade. He was master of the 
Clockmakers' Company and presided when Graham took up the 
freedom on completion of his indentures, yet his name does not 
appear in any Directory of the period, and I am quite unable to dis- 
cover where he resided or practised his craft. To mention another 
instance of a century later, Earnshaw, after he had enlisted the 
interest of Dr. Maskelyne, Astronomer-Royal, who tried a watch of 
his at the Greenwich Observatory, w^as told by the doctor that he had 
lost an order for two watches because Maskelyne did not know where 
he lived ! 

On some of the early clocks and watches the name inscribed was 
that of the owner ; but in 1777 an Act of Parliament required the 
name and place of abode of the maker to be engraved. Still it must 
not be concluded that in every instance the name engraved on a 
timekeeper indicates its maker or even that the inscription repre- 
sents any corporeal existence. In 1682 the C.C. seized from work- 
men " using the art of clockmaking four unfinished movements two 
whereof have engraven thereon Ambrose Smith, Stamford and 
William B urges fecit, and another Jasper Harmer, all of which 
names are greatly suspected to be invented or fobbed." The 
practice of using apocryphal names has continued to the present day. 
Sometimes it was adopted by manufacturers of repute for watches 
of a lower quality than those of which they cared to own the 
paternity. Occasionally in such instances the letters composing the 
name of the manufacturers would be placed backwards. Many 
watches marked " Rentnow, London," are to be met with, and they 
doubtless emanated from the Wontners, well-known makers of a 
century ago. The mark " Yeriaf " on a watch in the Guildhall 
Museum is probably another example of this reversion. Some 
watches witli fictitious names would be the production of workmen 
who occasionally made a watch for a private customer, and preferred 

628 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

thus to conceal their identity rather than brave the displeasure of 
their employers. The late Mr. Evan Roberts had a watch marked 
" Notyap, London," which was possibly the production of Pay ton, a 
casemaker who in 1790 carried on business in Addle Street. But in 
most instances such pseudonyms appear to be really the trade-marks of 
wholesale dealers, who in ordering watches would supply particulars 
of the name to be engraved. Many hundreds of watches for the 
Dutch market were marked " Tarts, London," or " Jno. Tarts, 
London." Yet I do not think anyone has been able to trace a 
manufacturer named Tarts. Between 1775 and 1825 the custom of 
having the name of the owner and not of the maker was often re 
verted to, usually with a.d. preceding the date figures, and occasionally 
also " aged 21," or " married," or " born." Watches by provincial 
makers sometimes had " London " engraved as the place of origin. 

The more reprehensible act of adopting celebrated names appears 
also to have been of early origin. In Overall's " History of the 
Clockmakers' Company," it is stated that in 1704 the master of the 
C.C. reported " certain persons at Amsterdam were in the habit of 
putting the names of Tompion, Windmills, Quare, Cabrier, Lamb, 
and other well-known London makers on their works, and selling 
them as English." It is to be feared that some English makers were 
not free from suspicion of similar misdeeds both then and since. 

Numbers on watch movements are very little, if any, guide to the 
extent of a maker's business. Till quite recent years the custom was 
for a new manufacturer to begin with a high number, the date, or two 
or three figures of the date, being often selected as a starting point, 
letters following the name are seen on some nineteenth-century 
watches. They represent a cryptogram whereby the initiated can 
obtain the date of manufacture. 

Watches and clocks with Turkish numerals often bore more than 
one nam.e. It appears that only the timekeepers of certain favoured 
manufacturers or dealers whose names were registered were admitted 
into Turkey, and on watches for the Byzantine markets made by 
others a registered name would be engraved, followed by the name 
of the actual producer. This, I presume, was usually done by 
arrangement with the " maker " who had the right of entry. On 
watches for Turkey the word " Pessendede," signifying " warranted,' 
sometimes followed the name or names. Occasionally the first 
and perhaps the sole, name inscribed would be merely that of a 
registered agent. Persian and Turkish numerals are thfe same. 

The locality of the residences may not in aU cases be readily 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 62 q 

recognised. A place called Swithen's Alley in early eighteenth- 
century records, but more generally known as Sweeting's Alley, 
Cornhill or Royal Exchange, evidently a favourite spot with the 
craft, was where the statue of Rowland Hill now stands. It was 
not rebuilt after the destruction of the Exchange by fire, in 1838. 
Bethlem, or Bethlehem, was in Moorfields, facing London Wall. 
In the early part of the eighteenth century the three Moor Fields 
extended from there over the space now occupied by Finsbury 
Circus and Finsbury Square to Windmill Hill Row, a continuation 
of which, called Hogg Lane, led into Norton Folgate. The whole 
of this thoroughfare is now known as Worship Street. Windmill 
Hill is now Wilson Street. The portion of the City Road by 
Bunhill Fields was then Royal Row. Love Lane now forms part 
of Southwark Street, and Maid Lane of Southwark Bridge Road. 
Rosemary Lane is now Royal Mint Street, Coppice Row is merged 
into Farringdon Road. Pickaxe Street was so much of Aldersgate 
as lies between the Barbican and Fann Street. Butcher Row, now 
pulled down, occupied the wide part of the Strand between the 
Church of St. Clement Danes and Temple Bar. Brick Lane, St. 
Luke's, is now Central Street, and Swan Alley is Great Sutton 
Street. Swallow Street is now incorporated with Regent Street, 
and Princes Street, Leicester Square, is merged into Wardour Street. 
Cateaton Street is now Gresham Street. One side of Wilderness 
Row remains ; the Row was widened and transformed into the 
thoroughfare which cut through St. John's Square, and is called 
Clerkenwell Road. Union Street, Bishopsgate, or Spitalfields, is now 
Brushfield Street ; the Bishopsgate Street end, with the larger part 
of Sun Street, was absorbed in building the terminus of the Great 
Eastern Railway, and the Post Office on the western side of St. 
Martin's-le-Grand occupies the site of Bull and Mouth Street. Wel- 
lington Street, St. Luke's, is now Lever Street. King Street, Clerken- 
well, is now Cyrus Street ; King Street, Holborn, is Southampton 
Row, and Kingsgate Street, which was adjacent and parallel to it, has 
disappeared altogether. Grubb Street is now Milton Street. The Fleet 
Street end of what was Water Lane in Tompion's time is now White- 
friars Street. Orange Street, Red Lion Square, is now Purton Street. 
It is stated that Prescott Street, Goodman's Fields, was the first 
London street in which the houses were numbered consecutively, 
and that this thoroughfare was so treated in 1708. Swinging signs 
were interdicted in 1762, though symbols on stiff brackets and mural 
carvings as signs for particular buildings were preferentially employed 
for some years after. 

630 Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers 

Hick's Hall is mentioned. This was the title given to the Sessions 
House, which at that time stood in the middle of St. John Street, near 
Smithfield Market. It w^as afterwards rebuilt on Clerkenwell Green. 

Taking into consideration the difficulty of obtaining precise 
information respecting the early names, added to the vagaries of 
seventeenth-century orthography, I hope and believe the list is as 
nearly as possible correct, and tolerably complete, so far as London 
makers are concerned. Outside of the Metropolis I have not 
attempted to do more than record the facts which happened to be 
within my reach, and I venture to beg the favour of communications 
respecting corrections and additions. 

Octavius Morgan's " List of Freemen of the Clockmakers' Company" 
published some years ago, has been of assistance, and particulars of 
some French makers have been obtained from Havard's " Dictionriaire 
d'Ameublement " and the "Book of Collections" by Alph. Maze- 
Sencier. The term " garde-visiteur " attached to members of the 
Paris Guild appears to indicate a committee-man or inspector. Mr. 
J. Whiteley Ward kindly placed at my disposal his extensive list of 
old makers, but he rarely ventured to hazard an approximate date. 
For several Edinburgh makers I am indebted to Mr. John Smith's 
papers in the Weekly Scotsman. It will be noticed that in the seven- 
teenth-century records of the Edinburgh " Incorporation of 
Hammermen," the word " Knok " or " Knock " is used to designate 
a clock. For many of the American names I am indebted to Mr. John 
H. Buck, Curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Nevv^ York, 
who has compiled a list from various sources. 

Some of the old art metal workers of Augsburg and Nuremberg 
affixed their signatures to clock cases of their production, a custom 
often followed by French clock case designers of more recent times. 
It should be remembered that such names, as a rule, have no reference 
to the movements. During the Reign of Terror in France timekeepers 
by the leading makers were mostly unsigned. As stated on p. 392, 
Breguet watches are to be met with in which his name is scratched 
on the enamelled dial in well-formed script letters, but so tiny as not 
to be distinguished except with the aid of a very strong magnifying 
glass. The silent period, as it may be termed, extended more or less 
for nine or ten years from 1789. 

After 1842 the names are given only of those above mediocrity, or 
concerning whom some peculiarity is known, and ivho have ceased to 
carry on business. Many of those who are traced to 1842 probably con- 
tinued for years afterwards, but the list is not intended as a guide to 
clock and watch makers of to-day. 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


Aaron, Benjamin, 17 Bury St., St. Mary 
Axe. 1840-42. 

Abbis, J., 37 Bishopsgate St. Within, 

Abbott. Richard, apprenticed in 1668 to 
Helkiah Bedford ; CO. Philip, London ; 
C.C. 1703 (see p. 545). Peter, CO. 1719. 
Wm., long-case clock marked " Wm. 
Abbott Saroon, fecit," about 1720. Wm., 
Knaresboro', watch, three cases, about 
1760. Wm., Prescot, 1770. John, ad- 
mitted C.C. 1788 ; charged with making an 
agreement to go to St. Petersburg to work 
at clockmaking, and convicted at Hicks' 
Hall of the offence ; known as a maker of 
long-case clocks, 1787-1800. Thos., 41 
Allen St., 1820-22. Francis, Manchester ; 
3 Smithy Door, 1825 ; afterwards at 50 
Market St. ; watch paper, C.C, about 
1840 ; wrote a book on the management 
of pubhc clocks (n.d.), about 1838. 

Abdy, William, livery Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany. 5 Oat Lane, Noble St., 1768-1817. 
Jno., London ; watch, 1784. 

Abeling, William, 7 Wynyatt St., Cler ken- 
well, 1817 ; 36 Spencer St., 1835-42. 

Aberley, Joseph, apprenticed in 1664 to 
Isaac Sutton ; C.C. 

Abraham. Ebenezer, Olney ; watch, 
1773. John, 27 Steward St., Bishopsgate, 

Abrahams. H., 21 Bevis Marks, 1800-20. 
Godfrey, 51 Prescot St., Goodman's Fields, 
1835-42. Samuel, 23 Little Ahe St., 
1840-42. A., 9 Great Prescot St., 1840-42. 
Elijah, 27 Hanway St., Oxford St., 1840-47. 
Absolon, — , London ; long-case clock, 
strike-silent, sunk seconds, scroll and 
foliage corners, about 1770. 
Acey, Peter, York, f., 1656. 
Achard, George, et Fils, Geneva ; 
watch, about 1780. 

Achard, G., Geneva ; watch, about 1810. 
Achurch, Wm., apprenticed in 1691 to 
Wm. Jacques, C.C. 

Ackers, William, St. Andrew's, Holborn ; 
pair-case watch in S.K.M., early part of 
eighteenth century ; his bankruptcv noted 
Lond. Gaz., 28th Oct. 1706. 

Acklam. John PhiUp, 423 Strand, 1816 ; 
138 Strand, 1840. T., 14 Birchin Lane, 

Acton. Jno., Clerkenwell, C.C. 1677. 
Abraham, apprenticed in 1691 to Henry 
Montlow ; C.C. 1700. Chris., bracket 
clock, about 1725. 

Adam, Melchior (? Melchior Adam), 
Palis ; octagonal crystal-cased watch, 
Soltykoff collection, about 1585 ; A., 
watch, Pierpont Morgan collection, signed 
* Melchoir Adam," balance-cock pinned 
on, about 1610. 

Adams. Geo., apprenticed to Jos. 
Dudds. 1745; C.C. 1752; 60 Fleet St., 

1770 ; table timepiece. Guildhall Museum, 
about 1795. Jno., Halesowen, 176o'. 
John, 1 Dove Court, Moor fields, 1770-72. 
Stephen, 3 St. Anne's Lane, 1774 ; Stephen 
& Son, 1788. C. & J., 10 I^ng St.. 
Cheapside, 1788. John, 31 Maiden Lane 
Co vent Garden, 1790-94. Hy., Church 
St., Hackney ; fine long-case clock, about 
1800; watch, h.m., 1808; on a paper in 
the outer case the following : — 

" To-morrow ! yes, to-morrow ! you'll repent 
A train of years in vice and folly spent. 
To-morrow comes — no penitential ^orrow 
Appears therein, for still it is to-morrow. 
At leng^th to-morrow such a habit gains, 
That you'll forget the time that Heaven ordains. 
And j'ou 11 believe that day too socn will be 
When more to-morrows jou're denied to see." 

Adams. John, Dove Court, Moorfields ; 
surety for clerk of the Cutlers' Co. in 1769. 
Francis Bryant, succeeded Benj . Webb at 
21 St. John's Sq., Clerkenwell ; master C C, 
1848 ; 1810-48. F. B., & Son, 21 St. 
John's Sq., 1830-42 (see Moore, Geo.). 
Thos., partner with Widenham in Lombard 
St. ; afterwards at 84 Cannon St. ; died at 
Catford, 1870. Of U.S.A.; Nathan 
Boston, 1796-1825; Wm., 1838; John, 
Coventry, died 1916. 

Adamson. Humfry, maker of a clock for 
Whitehall Chapel, 1682 ; bracket clock, 
about 1690 ; Wetherfield collection, see p! 
568. John, admitted C.C. 1686 ; "A 
Gold Minute Watch, lately made by Mr. 
Adamson, over against the Blue Boar in 
Holborn " {Lond. Gaz., 3rd March 1686). 
— , Paris ; clockmaker to the Royal 
Family, 1790. 

Addis. WiUiam, Cannon St., afterwards 
at 3 Birchin Lane, son of Robert A., of 
Bristol ; apprenticed to George Sims, 1738; 
admitted C.C. 1745, master 1764. George 
Curson, 3 Birchin Lane, afterwards 47 
Lombard St. ; hvery C.C. 1787 ; 1780-98. 
George, 79 Cornhill, 1786-94. 

Addison. Edmond, apprenticed in 1678 
to Joseph Ashby, C.C. Josh., London ; 
watch, 1770. Jno., York, f., 1789. Josh., 
Lancaster, 1817 ; 1, son of James Addison, 

Adeane. Henry, apprenticed to Rich 
Scrivener in 1663; C.C. 1675. Henry 
C.C. 1705. 

Adkins, Thos., Shoe Lane, 1735. 

Adney, Richard, Bull and Mouth St. 

Agar. — , York. Several generations. 
Jno., f., 1707. Francis, 1708. Seth, f., 
1743. Jno., f., 1760; died 1808; Mr. 
Thos. Boynton has a fine regulator by him. 
Charles, f., 1779, settled at Pontefract. 
John, f., 1782, settled at Malton. Thos. 
London ; watch, 1804. Thos., Bury. 1814. 
Thos., Chorley, Lanes. 1814. 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

Agerou, a Paris ; watch, M. E. Gelis, 

Aicken, Geo., Cork; watch, 1780. 

Ainsworth, Geo., Warrington, 1818. 

Airey, Jno., Hexham, about 1770. 

Airy, George Biddell, Astronomer-Royal, 
1835-81 ; K.C.B., 1874 ; died 1892, aged 
90 ; devoted much attention to the 
perfecting of timekeepers. 

Aish, Simon, Sherborne ; long-case 
lantern-movement clock, 10-inch dial, 
about 1690. 

Aitken, John, 55 St. John's St., Cler ken- 
well ; received in 1824 a prize of twenty 
guineas from the Society of Arts for a 
clc^ck train remontoir ; 1800-26. 

Aitkins, Robt., London ; watch, 1780. 

Akced, Jno., London ; watch, 1795. 

Akers, Jas., Derby ; watch, 1802. 

Alais, M., Blois ; watch, about 1680. 

Alasti, — , signature on case of sixteenth- 
century watch, Pierpont Morgan collection. 

Albert, Isaac, C.C. 1731. 

Albrecht, Michael George, gold repeating 
watch in the S.K.M., bearing the royal 
arms, outer case repousse, about 1720. 

Alcock, Thomas, petitioner for in- 
corporation of C.C. 1630 ; warden 1646, 
(lid not become master (see p. 256). 

Alden & Eldridge, Bristol, Conn., 1820. 

Alder, J., London, bracket clock, crov/n 
wheel escapement, about 1700. 

Alderhead, Jno., 114 Bishopsgate With- 
in ; hvery Goldsmiths' Company 1775-94 ; 
card, Ponsonby collection, " at the Ring 
and Pearl, Bishopsgate St., near the 
Southsea House." 

Alderman, Edwin, 22 Barbican, 1818-34 ; 
I very C.C. 1822. 

Aldred. Leonard, C.C. 1671. Jno., ap- 
prenticed in 1686 to Hy. Reeve, C.C. Wm. 
54 Wood St., 1793 ; watch-spring 

Aldridge. Daniel, apprenticed in 1806 
to Hy. Young, C.C. Edward, striking and 
1 nil quarter repeating bracket clock, about 
1710. Chas., Aldersgate, 1714. John, 
C C. 1726. James, 11 Northumberland 
St, Strand, 1816-30. 

Aldwin, Thos., London ; watch, 1767. 

Aldworth, Samuel, brother C.C. 1697. Mr. 
C. E. Atkins has a lantern clock, inscribed 
' Saml. Aldworth, Oxon.," about 1700; 
n bracket clock had under name-plate 
' John Knibb, Oxon." ; " Saml. Aid- 
worth, Strand." 

Aldy, Edwd., Lincoln, 1760. 

Alexander. Robt., Edinburgh, 1709. 
Isaac, Nottingham ; watch, about 1760. 
Wm., 10 Parliament St., 1828-40. A., & 
Co., 25 Bedford St., Bedford Sq., 1840; 
Gray's Inn Passage, 1847. Richard, 
Chippenham, 1845. 

Alexandre, Jacques, Paris ; a priest who 

devoted much attention to timekeepers ; 
published m 1734, " Traite General des 

Aley, Thomas, 18 Park Side, Knights- 
bridge, 1840-42. 

Alibert, F., Paris ; watch, 1800. 

Alker, Jno., Wigan, 1818. 

Alkins (? Atkins), London, about 1730. 

Alsope, see Allsop. 

Allam. Andrew, Grubb St., apprenticed 
in 1656 to Nicholas Coxeter ; C.C. 1664 ; 
maker of lantern clocks. Michael, London, 
1723. Robt., next St. Dunstan's Church, 
Fleet St., 1736-65. William, Fleet St., 
1770-80. & Stacey, 175 Fleet St., 1783. 
Wm., New Bond St., 1780-1800. 

AUams, Gabriel ; repeating watch, silver 
cases, inner one pierced, outer one repousse 
with Minerva, &c., about 1760, Pierpont 
Morgan collection. 

Allan. George, 9 New Bond St., hon. 
freeman C.C. 1781 ; 1760-83 ; maker of a 
watch found in a chimney at Newton St., 
Holborn, in 1895, and said to have belonged 
to Lord Lovat, who was beheaded in 1747 ; 
unfortunately for the legend, the hall mark 
corresponded to 1768. & Clements, 119 
New Bond St., 1785-94. John, 119 New 
Bond St., 1798-1800. & Caithness, 119 
New Bond St., 1800-4. 

Allaway, John, apprenticed to Bernard 
Rainsford; C.C. 1695. 

Allcock. Jno., 30 St. Martin's Lane ; 
card, B.M., 1787. William, watch- 
hand maker, 36 Allen St., Clerkenwell 

Allen. Jas., brother C.C. 1635. Ehas, 
brother C.C, master 1636 ; died 1654. 
Nathaniel, apprenticed in 1650 to Wm. 
Bowyer, C.C. Thos., apprenticed in 1663 
to Robt. Whitwell, C.C. John, C.C. 1720. 
John, brother C.C. 1753. P., Macclesfield, 
1770. John, 42 Poultry, 1772-75. George, 
Fleet St. ; Hveryman C.C. 1776. Thos., 
Deptford, 1780. John, watch-case maker, 
Barbican ; convicted in the Mayor's Court 
for refusing to become a member of the 
C.C, although he was at the time free of 
the Goldsmiths' Company, 1785-89 ; 
Aldersgate St., 1794. James, 76 New 
Gravel Lane ; . an ingenious watchmaker to 
whom the Board of Longitude awarded 
;^105 for engine dividing, 1790-1800, 
George, 14 Red Lion Passage, Holborn ; 
watch paper, C.C. 1812-42. T., Preston, 
1814. Jno., London ; watch, 1820. Of 
Boston, U.S.A. : Jas., 1684. 

Allenbach, Jacob, Philadelphia, 1825-40. 

AUet, George, apprenticed in 1683 to 
Solomon Bouquet, but turned over to 
Thos Tompion ; CC 1691 ; bracket clock, 
ebony case, Wetherfield collection, about 
1705 (see plate facing p. 572) 

AUi6, M., Geneva ; centre seconds 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


repeating watch with calendar, about 1790, 
Horological School, Geneva. 

Alliez, Buchelard & T6rond Fils, 
Geneva; watch, about 1820, Dr. H. Goudet. 

Ailing. Richard, admitted C.C. 1722. 
James, 22 Red Lion St., Whitechapel ; 
" foreman to Mr. Hatton, London 
Bridge " ; watch paper, C.C. 1838-42. 

AUis, Jno. H., Bristol, 1845. 

Allison. Wm., Liverpool, about 1765. 
Gilbert, Sunderland, 1775. Thos., London ; 
watch, 1790. 

Allkins, — , Horncastle ; watch, 1785. 

AUman, W., Prince's St., Storey's Gate, 
Westminster ; card, B.M., 1798. 

AUory, — , Moorfields, 1774. 

AUport, — , Birmingham ; bracket 
clock, about 1770. 

Allsop, Joshua, Northamptonshire, 
brother C.C. 1689 ; handsome long 
Oriental lacquer-cased clock belonging to 
the Blecker family, New York ; long-case 
clock, richly inlaid, inscribed " Josh. 
Alsope, East Smithfield," about 1710. 

AUvey, Hy., 5 Old Sq., about 1795. 

Almond. William, Lothbury ; maker of 
a clock for Hall, Bishop of Exeter ; C.C. 
1633. Ralph, apprenticed to Oswald 
Durant in 1637 ; C.C. 1646, master 1678. 
John, C.C. 1671. 

Alric Fils, a Toulouse ; repeating 
watch, virgule escapement, about 1810, 
Mons. E. GeUs. 

Alrich or Ah:iehs). Jonas, Wilmington, 
Del., born 1759, died 1802. Jacob, b3rn 

Alston & Lewis, 30 Bishopsgate St., 
1820 ; Alston & Hallam, 1830-42. 

Alvey, Samuel, apprenticed to J as. 
Wood ; admitted C.C. 1757. 

Alyers, Jas., Southwark ; watch, 1779. 

Alysone, Jas., Dundee, 1663. 

Amabric. Abraham, Geneva, 1760-80 ; 
barrel-shaped gold watch with repousse 
ornament enamelled, Pierpont Morgan 
collection ; dial apparently later signed 
Amabric Freres. Freres, Geneva, 1793. 

Amant, " maitre horloger, Paris " ; 
spoken of by Thiout in 1741 ; he invented 
the pin wheel escapement about 1749. 
Peter, Philadelphia, 1793. 

Ambrose. Edward, apprentice of Eh as 
Voland, 1634. David, C.C. 1669. 

Ames, Richard, apprenticed in 1648 to 
Peter Closon ; C.C. 1653 ; died in 1682, 
after election as master ; clock by him 
with dolphin frets and bob pendulum 
working between going and striking, clock 
marked " Richard Ames Neere St. 
Andrews Church in Holburne fecit." In 
1684 Robert Browne was apprenticed to 
Katherine Ames. William, apprenticed 
to Richard in 1675 ; C.C. 1682. 

Aniey, Robt., London ; watch, 1780. 

Amourette, a Marseille ; watch, abou \: 
1650, Mons. E. G61is. 

Ampe, Abraham ; watch, Napier collec- 
tion, 1607. 

Amyot. Peter, Norwich ; lantern clocks, 
about 1660. & Bennet, Brigg's Lane, Nor- 
wich ; in 1793 they issued a httle book by 
J. Bennett on the management of a 

Amyott. Peter, Norwich ; watch, Nel- 
thropp collection, about 1720. Thos., 
London ; watches, h.m., 1751-71 ; one, 
Nelthropp collection, about 1770. 

Anderson. Wm., apprentxed in 1646 to 
Simon Bartram. Robt., apprent ced in 
1691 to Thos. Tompion, C.C. Richard, 
Lancaster, 1767, f. ; also at London and 
Preston. Alex., London ; watch, 1770. 
Wm., Lancaster, about 1770. J., London ; 
watch, 1775. Geo., sued in 1777 by Cabrier 
for putting his name on five watches, 
Richard, Preston ; watch, 1778. Wm., 
Lancaster, 1780. Alex., Liverpool; 
watch, 1786. Hugh, London ; watch. 
1792. R., London ; watch, 1812, 
Edward C., Newington Butts ; a successful 
watchmaker who carried out the not un- 
reasonable rule of making a charge for 
furnishing a repairing estimate if it in- 
volved taking a watch to pieces ; 1835-85. 
Wm., Bristol, 1845. 

Anderton. Jno., Little Wild St. ; 
repeating watch, about 1750. Wm., 
London ; watch, h.m., 1767. Jno., 
Huddersfield, 1833. 

Andrew, J., 14 Queen St., RatclifE Cros^, 

Andrews. Robert, apprenticed in 1661 
to Benj. Hill; C.C. 1709. Isaac, appren- 
ticed in 1674 to Edm. Fowell, C.C. Thos., 
apprenticed in 1686 to Joshua Hutchin; 
C.C. 1705. John, Leadenhall St. ; ad- 
mitted C.C. 1688. Richard, C.C. 1703; 
watch 1730. James, C.C. 1719. William, 
Bishopsgate St. ; C.C. 1719. Benj., Bar- 
tholomew Lane, 1725. Abraham, Bank 
Coffee House. Threadneedle St., 1759. 
Thos., Steyning, 1760 (see p. 526), Rich., 
124 Leadenhall St., 1775. Eliza, 85 Corn- 
hill, 1790-1800. Wm., Royston. 1825. 

Angel, Richard, repairer of clock at 
Wigtoft, Boston, Lincolnshire, 1484. 

Angus, Geo., Aberdeen ; long-case 
clock, about 1760. 

Annat, Nicholas, apprenticed m 1673 to 
Henry Jones, C.C. 

Anness, William, 102 Cheapside, 1798- 
1820 ; hvery, C.C. 1802. 

Annin, M., New York, 1786. 

Annis, Jno., 13 Sparrow Corner, 1810-18. 

Annott, Chas., apprenticed in 1673 to 
Jas. Ellis. C.C. 

Ansell (or Anselme), Richard, appren- 
ticed to Jeffery Baily ; C.C. 1680. & Son 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

watch-spring makers, 22 Whitecross Place, 
1798-1802. Hy., 17 Colchester Sq., Savage 
Gardens, 1830 ; 74 Lennan St., 1838. 

Anspach, — , Geneva; watch with 
virgule escapement, about 1810. 

Anstey, Jno., apprenticed to George Nau 
in 1683. 

Antes, Jno., London ; apprenticed to 
Wm. Addis ; pocket chronometer, G.M.. 
h.m., 1787. 

Anthony. — , clockmaker to Henry 
VIII., 1529. John, Maidenhead, 1790. 
William, 55 Red Lion St., St. John's Sq., 
Clerkenwell. There was in the Dunn 
Gardner collection a magnificent long oval 
watch by him, in a gold case, bearing the 
hall mark for 1796. It was rather a large 
size, back enamelled and decorated With 
diamonds and pearls ; but the peculiar 
feature was that the dial was also oval ; the 
hands were jointed, and automatically 
lengthened and shortened as they travelled 
around. This watch fetched £200 at 
Christie's in 1902. Another example is an 
8-day watch of similar shape, duplex 
escapement, movement beautifully en- 
graved, fromerly in the Bentinck-Hawkins 
collection. He is reputed to have been one 
of the most expert watchmakers of his day, 
and such specimens of his work as remain 
quite bear out this belief. He carried on a 
successful business in Red Lion St., St. 
John's Square, and most of his watches 
bore the inscription " Wm. Anthony, St. 
John's Square." At one time he was in 
good circumstances, and took an active 
part in founding the Watch and Clock- 
makers' Benevolent Institution in 1815, 
though he Hved to be a recipient of its 
bounty. Apart from his art he did not ex- 
hibit particular sagacity. He engaged in 
litigation with Grimaldi & Johnson, which 
ended disastrously, and expended a large 
amount in the purchase of ro^^al and other 
wardrobes of the time of Charles I. Of 
these he formed an exhibition at the Somer- 
set Gallery, next door to Somerset House, 
and now 151 Strand. This also turned out 
an expensive failure. He had a consider- 
able sum invested in good leasehold 
property on the Doughty estate. He died 
in Jerusalem Passage in 1844, and was then 
about eighty years of age. After his death 
the leases of this property were found in his 
safe. Curiously enough, the term for which 
he held had just about expired, but he had 
not troubled to collect any rents for at least 
twenty years previously, and it was con- 
cluded he had forgotten all about his 
possessions. David, 18 Union St., Bath, 

Antis, Jno., Fulneck, near Leeds ; 
received in 1805 ;^21 from the Society of 
Arts tor a clock escapement. 

Antoine, — , Rue Galande, Paris, 1770. 
Antram, Joseph, London ; apprenticed 
to Chas. Gretton ; C.C. 1706 ; long walnut- 
case clock, square dial, cherub corners, 
circles round winding holes, about 1700 ; 
watch, about 1720; "watch and clock 
maker to his Majesty." 

Antt, G., 158 Strand, 1769-88. 
Apiohn (Upjohn), Henry, apprenticed in 
1649 to Robert Whitwell, C.C. 

Appleby. Edward, London; v/atch, 
about 1700. Joshua, Bread St. ; appren- 
tice of Daniel Quare ; C.C. 1719, master 
1745. Thos., Charing Cross, 1800 (see 
p. 526). P., London ; watch, 1825. 

Applegarth, Thomas, apprenticed in 1664 
to Hugh Cooper ; C.C. 1674. 

Appleton. Jno., Liverpool, 1818. Henry, 
50 Myddelton Sq., 1840-42 ; afterwards in 
partnership with Birchall in Southampton 

Appley, Edmund, Charing Cross ; 
apprenticed to Jeffery Bailey 1670 ; C.C. 
1677 ; small repeating bracket clock, 
black case basket top about 1680. 

Appleyard, R., London ; watch about 

Archambo, Jno., Prince's St., Leicester 
Fields ; bracket clock in case, similar to 
Chippendale's design. Fig. 732, p. 547 ; 
marquetry case clock, arch dial ; repousse 
case watch, hall mark 1730, and another 
watch of a later date ; 1720-50. 

Archer. Henry, subscribed ;^10 for in- 
corporation of C.C. and was the first 
warden ; 1630-49. John, apprenticed in 
1650 to Jas. Starnill ; admitted C.C. 1660. 
Edward, C.C. 1711. Walter, long-case 
clock, about 1715, at the Van Courtland 
Mansion, New York. W., Stow, about 
1715. Samuel, 15 Leather Lane, 1794 ; 33 
Kirby St., Hatton Garden, 1810 ; a promi- 
nent man m the trade. In 1820 he was 
treasurer to the Watch and Clockmakers' 
Benevolent Institution. Sam. Wm., Hack- 
ney, 1805-12. Thomas, 6 Long Lane, 
Smithfield, 1814-20. Geo., Rochdale, 1818. 
Argand I'Aine, Geneva, about 1740. 
J. L., Place Dauphine, Paris, 1770 ; 
repeating watch " Argand, Paris," about 
1770, Pierpont Morgan collection. 

Ariel. James, watch-movement maker, 
10 Wilderness Row, 1815-20. John, 10 
Percival St., 1822-39. 

Aris. Samuel, Leicester Fields ; watch, 
1750, Mr. Evan Roberts ; long-case clock, 
about 1760. Jno., & Co., Old Jewry, 1794. 
Arlandi, John, chain-maker for watches. 
Red Rose St., Co vent Garden, 1680 ; C.C. 

Arlaud. Anthoine, cruciform watch, 
Pierpont Morgan collection, late sixteenth 
century Henry, fine calendar watch, 
Schloss collection, about 1630, silver case. 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


back inscribed " Richard Bailie, at the 
Abbay." This watch was probably 
English work. Another specimen of a 
rather later date was inscribed " Arlaud, 
London." Benjamin, maker of a large 
silver repeating watch in the B.M., about 

Arlott, Thos., Sunderland, 1770. 

Armand, J., Copenhagen ; born 1732, 
died 1809 ; a talented horologist. 

Armingand, — , Paris ; watch, 1790. 

Armitage. & Co., 88 Bishopsgate 
Within, 1798. Thos., Manchester, 1815. 

Armstrong. John, CC 1724 Thos., 
Manchester, 1818. 

Arnold. Thomas, apprenticed in 1687 to 
Nat. Chamberlaine, jun. ; admitted C.C. 
1703. John, Devereux Court, Fleet St., 
1760; 112 Cornhill, 1780. Hy., 46 
Lombard St., 1769-88. Wm., London ; 
watch, 1790. Edward, London ; watch, 
1790. & Son, 112 Cornhill, 1798. John 
Roger, Bank Buildings, 102 Cornhill, 1804 ; 
26 Cecil St., 1816-30. John R., & Dent, 84 
Strand, 1830-40. John R., 84 Strand, 
1842 (see Frodsham, Charles). 

Amolts, — , Hamburg, 1635 ; pair-case 
silver watch signed " Thomas Volffgang 
Arnolt, Hamburg," about 1680. 

Arnott, Richard, 18 Red Cross St., 
Barbican, 1810-25. 

Amould, — , French clock, about 1720, 
inscribed " Amould p^ye." 

Arter, — , Bristol, 1845. 

Arthanel, Aron Louis, table clock, about 

Arthaud, Louis a Lyon ; silver alarm 
watch, nicely pierced case, Schloss collec- 
tion, about 1650. 

Arthur, William, apprenticed in 1669 
to Nich. Coxeter ; C.C. 1676 ; watch, 
" Arthur a Paris," about 1720, Mrs. George 
A. Hearn. 

Arwen, Wm., Huddersfield, about 1770. 

Ascough, see Ayscough. 

Ash. — , subscribed £2, for incorpora- 
tion of C.C. 1630. Ralph, C.C. 1648. 
& Son, 64 St. James's St., 1822. Joseph, 
146, Aldersgate St., 1822. 

Ashbourne, Leonard, at the Sugar Loaf 
in Paternoster Row, next Cheapside ; in- 
ventor and maker of a clock lamp, 1731. 

Ashbrooke. Thos., apprenticed to Cuth- 
bert Lee in 1685 ; C.C. Jno., apprenticed 
to Zach. Mountford in 1686 ; C.C. 

Ashby. Joseph, apprenticed in 1663 to 
Matthew Crockford ; C.C. 1674 ; Edmond 
Addison was apprenticed to him in 1678. 
Ashdown, — , Green Terrace, 1851. 

Ashley. Jas., apprenticed in 1647 to 
Robert Smith, C.C. Chas., London ; 
watch, 1767. Jno., English watch, 1780. 
J. P., 99 Baches Row, City Rd., 1800. & 
Manser, 34 Rosoman St., Clerkenwell, 

1825-35, afterwards at 15 Garnault Place ; 
watch by them, h.m., 1823, cylinder 
escapement, brass escape wheel ; the teeth, 
instead of being in one horizontal plane, 
were on three different levels, touching on 
different parts of the cylinder, and so 
spreading the wear over a larger surface ; 
they were succeeded by E. F. Ashley ; he 
retired from business in 1898, and died in 
1908. Edward,9John St., Pentonville,1842. 
Ashman & Son, 462 Strand, 1822. 
Ashton. Miles, apprenticed in 1663 to 
Benj . Wolverstone, C.C. Jno., apprenticed 
in 1672 to Jno. Savile, C.C. Thos., appren- 
ticed 1687 to Thos. Bradford, C.C. J. 
Tideswell, long-case clock, about 1710, 
Mr. J. F. Hall Tempe, Arizona, U.S. 
Thos., Macclesfield, 1760. Saml., Bred- 
bury, 1765. ThoS., Leek, 1790. JnO., 
Leek, 1830. Francis, Bristol, 1845. — , 
Philadelphia, 1797. 

Ashurst. WilUam, C.C. 1699. James, 
Chorley ; watch, 1777. 

Ash well, Nicholas, apprenticed in 1640 
to Robt. Grinkin ; C.C. 1649. 

Ashwin & Co. ; long-case clock, about 
1760, Mr. H. C. Campion. 

Aske, Henry, apprenticed in 1669 to 
Edward Norris ; C.C. 1676 ; George 
Graham was apprenticed to him in 1688 ; 

Askell, Elizabeth, apprenticed in 1734 
to Elinor Mosel3^ 

Askwith, Jno., York, f. 1740. 
Aspinall, Hy., Liverpool, about 1770. 
Aspinwall. Thomas, small oval watch, 
about 1605. Samuel, clock-watch in 
possession of Lord Torphichen, about 
1655 ; clock-watch, similar period, Evan 
Roberts collection. Josiah, brother C.C. 
1675. John, Liverpool ; long-case clock, 
about 1750. Robt., Liverpool, 1818. 
Asprey, Wm., 4 Bruton St., 1820. 
Asselin, Francis (French), C.C. 1687 ; 
bracket clock, case covered with tortoise- 
shell on a red ground, about 1690; 
another somewhat similar clock, inscribed 
" Stephen Assehn " (see p. 574). Mr. 
W. T. Harkness has a 28-day long-case 
clock by Asselin, London, about 1700. 
Astley, Ed., Liverpool, 1833. 
Astwood, Joseph, apprenticed in 1659 to 
Ben. Bell, C.C. 

Atchison, Robert, app^nticed to Robert 
Harding, 1753; C.C. 1760; 1760-1819. 

Athaud, Louis, a Lyon ; mid- 
seventeenth-century Watch, S.K.M., silver 
case pierced and engraved. 

Athern, Jno., Liverpool ; long-case 
clock, Mr. E. H. Coleman ; above dial 
motto, " Time shows the way of Ufe's 
decay," about 1780 (?). 

Atherton. Thos., Liverpool ; watch, 
1776. T., London; watch, 1780. 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

& Hewett (tools), 49 Red Lion St., 
ClerkenweU, 1789-94. 

Atis, Leonard, London ; lantern clock, 
about 1660. 

AtMn. Robt., Liverpool, 1818. Also 
Francis, same date. 

Atkins. Joseph, apprenticed to Robt. 
Fowler, 1654 ; C.C. Jonathan, appren- 
ticed in 1659 to Sam. Clay, C.C. Francis, 
35 Clement's Lane ; born 1730 ; appren- 
ticed to Joshua Hassel 1746 ; C.C. 1759, 
master 1780, clerk 1785 ; died 1809. 
Samuel, Palgrave Court, Temple Bar, 
1752-65. Samuel, & Son, Palgrave Court, 
Temple Bar, 1759-63. George, son of 
Francis, born 1767 ; 35 Clement's Lane ; 
warden C.C. 1809, afterwards clerk ; died 
1855. Robert, Palgrave Court, Temple Bar 
1769. Robert, 20 Salisbury St., Strand, 
1770-88 ; Snow HiU, 1800. Danl., London; 
watch, h.m., 1776. Wm., Chipping-Norton, 
1780. S., watch-case maker, 14 Bridge- 
water Sq., 1810. W., 7 Upper Ashbv St., 
ClerkenweU, 1820. William, 71 High St., 
Poplar, 1835-42. W., 3 High St., Hoxton, 
1835. Jno., Bristol, 1842. George, & Son, 
6 Cowper's Court, Comhill, 1840-42. 
Samuel Elliott, son of George, whom he 
succeeded in business and as clerk of C.C, 
which office he resigned in 1878 ; chosen 
master in 1882 ; born 1807 ; died 1898. 
Of U.S.A. : Rollin, Bristol. Conn., 

Atkinson. James, C.C. 1667, assistant 
1697. Joseph, Gateshead, 1770-90. Lan- 
caster : Thomas., 1767 f. Richard, 1785 f. 
Wm., 1817 f. Robert, apprenticed to 
W. BeU, died 1900, aged 57, a clever 
mechanician. Thos., 38 Piccadilly, 1814-17. 

Atlee. Henry, apprenticed in 1662 to 
Charles Rogers ; C.C. 1671. Roger, 
apprenticed in 1664 to Job Betts, C.C. 

Attbury, J., watch-movement maker, 15 
York St., St. Luke's, 1835. 

Attemstetter, David, Augsburg ; a cele- 
brated enameller, 1610. 

Attwell. Thos., London ; clock, about 
1750. — , near the Court House, Romford ; 
watch paper, C.C, about 1790. Robt., 
Brown's Lane, Spitalfields, 1810-18. Wm., 
11 Pitfield St., 1815-25. 

Attwood, Geo., born 1746, died 1807 ; 
an eminent mathematician ; studied watch 
work, and repeated to Parhament on 
Mudge's timekeeper, 1793. 

At wood. — , Lewes ; watch, 1774. 
Richard, 41 Poultry, 1800-10. Geo., 17 
Leonard St., Shoreditch, 1820. 

Auber, Daniel, Whitefriars, 1750. 

Aubert. Jean Jacques, Paris ; " horloger 
du Roy," 1737. Etienne, Rouen, 1775. 
D. F., Geneva, 1820 ; afterwards partner in 
London with C J. Klaftenberger. & 
Klaftenberger, 157 Regent St., 1835-42. 

Audebert, D., Amsterdam ; long-case 
clock, about 1720. 

Audemars, Louis, La Vallee, Switzerland, 

Audley, Jos., apprenticed to Thos. 
Tompion in 1683. 

Aughton, R., London ; pull-alarm 
bracket clock, about 1720. 

Augier, Jehan, Paris ; maker of large 
watches, about 1650. 

Aukland, Wm., London ; watch, 1790. 

Auld, see Reid & Auld. 

Ault. Jos., Belper ; clock, about 1800. 
Thomas, 34" Prince's St., Leicester Sq., 

Aussin, — , French cruciform watch, 
Wallace collection, about 1650. 

Austen, John, Shoreditch ; C.C. 1711 ; 
bracket clock with square dial, pull- 
chime, black bell-top case, 1711-25. — , 
Cork; about 1820 he made three-wheel 
clocks (see p. 381). 

Austin. Isaac, Philadelphia, 1785-1805. 
& Co., 176 Oxford St., 1820. John, 136 
Oxford St., 1830-40. 

Autray, Paris ; watch, 1750. 

Aveline, Daniel, " 7 Dials " ; died 1770, 
when warden C.C. ; 1750-70. 

Avenall (or AveneU), a family well known 
as clockmakers in Hampshire for two 
centuries. Ralph, Famham ; balance 
escapement clock, about 1640. Edwd., 
apprenticed to Joseph Duke ; C.C. 1706 ; 
bracket chiming clock, " Avenell, London,' 
about 1710. Jno., son of Edwd. ; C.C. 
1735. Wm. Avenall, Ahesford. 1770. 

Avery. — , church clock, Kingston by 
Mere, Wilts., 1740. Amos, Cheapside, 
1774. Phihp, Red Cross Sq., 1790-94. 

Avice, — , Reims ; watch, about 1723. 

Axeborough, — , Otley, 1730. 

Aylosse, Elizabeth, apprenticed in 1678 
to Joane Wythe (widow) ; C.C 

Aylward, Jno., Guildford ; lantern clock, 
about 1695 ; another about 1710, said to be 
inscribed " John Aylward, Braintford." 

Aymes, see Ames. 

Aynsworth, J., Westminster ; maker of 
lantern clocks, 1645-80. 

A3n:es. Samuel, apprenticed in 1664 to 
Edwd. Norris, C.C. Richard, apprenticed 
in 1670 to Hy. Jones ; C.C. 1680. Thos., 
160 Fenchurch St., 1800-30. & Bennett, 
160 Fenchurch St., 1815-20. 

Ayscough, Ralph, livery Goldsmiths' 
Company ; St. Paul's Churchyard, 1758 ; 
18 Ludgate St., 1766-76. 

Baccuet, — , watch enamelled, painting, 
" Roman Piety," on back, about 1690. 

Bachan, Henry, London ; long-case 
clock, about 1770. 

Bachelder, Ezra, Denvers, U.S.A., 1793- 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


Bachoffner, Andrew, 112 Shoreditch, 

Backhouse, Jas., Lancaster, 1726 f., 
died 1747. 

Backler, Benj., London ; long-case clock, 
Mr. R. Eden Dickson, about 1760. Benj., 
Masham, 1823. 

Backquett, Davyd, C.C. 1632. 

Baclulet, Mathieu, Paris, about 1640. 

Bacon. John, brother C.C. 1639. — , 
" Paid Mr. Bacon, clockmaker, of Tewkes- 
bury, for a clock and case, y*^ summe of six 
pounds and five shillings," 1708. (" Diary 
of Thos. Newnham.") Charles, C.C. 1719. 
Jno., London ; watch, 1810. Charles, 
escapement maker, 37 Gerrard St., Isling- 
ton, was in the early days on the Council 
of the British Horological Institute, and 
took an active interest in its work ; died 
at Barnet, 1917, aged 79. 

Bacott, Peter, London, about 1700. 

Baddeley, Phineas, apprenticed to Evan 
Jones 1652 ; C.C. 1661 ; long-case clock, 
signed "Baddeley, Tong," about 1720; 
long-case clock, dead beat escapement, 
about 1750, signed " Jno. Baddeley, Tong." 

Badger. Hy., apprenticed 1672 to Jno. 
Harris, C.C. John, apprenticed to 
Brounker Watts, C.C. 1720. 

Badiley, Richard, London ; long walnut- 
case clock, about 1730. 

Badley, Thos., Boston, U.S.A., 1712. 

Badollet (several generations at Geneva) . 
J. J., 1770. John, 50 Greek St., 1842. 

Baffert a Paris ; clock, Jones collection, 
S.K.M., about 1780. 

Baggs, Samuel, 3 South St., Grosvenor 
Sq., 1820-35. 

Bagley, Thomas, apprenticed to Richard 
Morgan 1650 ; C.C. 1664. 

Bagnall. Benj., Boston, Mass., about 
1700. Benj., Charleston, U.S.A., 1740-60, 
(or BagneU), W. H., 42 Union St., 
Bishopsgate, 1835-40; 193 Bishopsgate 
Without, 1842. 

BagneU. William, C.C. 1719. Wm., 
watch-spring maker, GreenhiU's Rents, 
Smithfield, 1794. 

Bagot, Jno., Lancaster, 1823 f. 

Bagshaw. Edwd., apprenticed in 1681 
to Thos. Wheeler; C.C. 1691. William 
C.C. 1722. Hy., London ; watch, 1820. 

Bagwell, Richard, 3 Queen St., Cheap- 
side, 1790-94. 

Bailey, Jeffery, "at y^ Turn Style in 
Holburn " ; C.C. 1648, master 1674 ; 
maker of lantern clocks. Jeremiah, C.C. 
1724. Ed., 13 Oxford St., 1730. Jno., 
London ; bracket clock, about 1730. Jno., 
Hanover, U.S.A., 1770-1815. Catherine, 
watch-case maker, 22 ClerkenweU Green, 
1790-94. & Upjohn, 12 Red Lion St., 
ClerkenweU, 1798. Chas., London, about 
1805. Jno., London ; watch in case of gilt 

metal decorated with machine engraving, 
about 1780, S.K.M. ; another watch, h.m., 
1812. W., 19 Radchff Row, ClerkenweU, 
1835. Wilham, 10 Essex St.. Strand. In 
1885 he took over the well-known business 
of the late Mr. John Jones of 338 Strand, 
which business he carried on until the time 
of his death in 1911. 

Baillon. Albert, Paris ; watch, about 
1695, Mr. Evan Roberts. Estienne, Paris ; 
watch, about 1750, Mons. E. Gehs. Jean 
Baptiste, Paris ; horloger de la Reine Marie 
Leczinska, 1751, later on horloger de la 
Reine Marie Antoinette ; he did a large 
trade and was reputed to be the richest 
watchmaker in Europe ; enamelled watch 
formerly in the Dunn Gardner Collection, 
S.K.M., inscribed " J. B. Baillon, horlog. 
du Roy." Francis, a Choudens, 1780. 

Bailly I'Aine, Paris ; an eminent maker, 
1750-75 ; clock on elephant's back, about 
1760. Fils a Paris, about 1780; watch, 
" Bailly, Paris," 1790. 

Bain, Alexander, Edinburgh ; inventor 
of electric clocks, 1838-58. 

Bains, Jno., Snaith, 1770. 

Baird, John, 190 Strand, 1770-83. W. 
& J., 4 Hatton Garden, 1810-30. Geo. 
CarHsle, 1833. 

Baitson, Thos., Beverley, 1822. 

Baker. Richard, brother C.C. 1685 ; 
pull quarter repeating bracket clock, 
Wetherfield collection, square ebony case, 
brass basket top. about 1680 ; 8-day clock, 
ebony marquetry case, square dial, 
cherub corners, no door to hood ; also a 
similar clock in oak case, fine hands, 1685- 
1710. Henry, Maidstone ; one hand lan- 
tern clock, about 1700. " A silver Minute 
Pendulum watch with a silver outcase and 
a coat-of-arms engraven on it (a Lyon 
Passant with three Cross Croslets, made by 
Richard Baker, London), lost in Dunghil 
Fields nigh Whitechapel Church " {Lond. 
Gaz., March 3-6, 1689). " A silver watch 
with a shagreen case, with G. M. on it, and 
with Baker on the Dyal Plate " [Lond. 
Gaz., April 15-18, 1685). Richard, C.C. 
1726. Francis, Poultry, 1738. Thos., 
Gosport ; watch, about 1740. — , Hull, 
1760. Pointer, London ; repeating watch, 
h.m., 1772. John, 5 King St., Covent 
Garden ; hon. freeman C.C. 1781 ; 
1768-84. Hy., hon. freeman C.C. 1781, 
Edward, 33 White Lion St., 1785-1805, 
afterwards at Angel Terrace, Pentonville ; 
duplex watch, G.M., h.m., 1787. Thos., 
Upper Stamford St., 1833. W., 35 Long 
Acre, 1835-42 ; afterwards at 30 Cran- 
bourne St. Thos., Devizes, 1842. 

Bakewell, — , lantern clock, about 1700, 
inscribed " Thomas Bakewell, on Tower 
Hill, fecit." 

Balch. Of U.S.A. : Daniel, Newbury- 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

port, 1760-90. Thos. H., died 1819. Chas. 
H., 1787-1808. Benj., Salem. 1837. Jas. 
(& Lamson), 1842. 

Baldwein, of Marburg. In conjunction 
with H. Bucher, he made a clock similar to 
Fig. 40, p. 56, 1563-68. 

Baldwin. Chris., apprenticed 1656 to 
Jno. Freeman, C.C. TJios., apprenticed 
1672 to Jno. Benson ; C.C. 1685. Robt., 
apprenticed 1682 to Thos. Virgoe, C.C. 
Jno., C.C. 1685. Jno., apprenticed 1691 to 
Stephen Rayner, C.C, long-case clock, 
minute hand curved in the Dutch style, 
inscribed "J. F. Baldwin, Feversham, 
Kent," about 1740. J., Andover. 1760. 
Geo., Sadsburyville, 1808-32. Anthony, 
Lancaster, U.S.A., 1810-30. T., 69 Curtain 
Rd., 1830-35. Thomas, 50 Brudenell PL, 
New North Rd., 1840-42. 

Baldwyn, Thomas, C.C. 1706. 

Bale. Thomas, C.C. 1724. Robert 
Brittel, Poultry ; dials bearing his name, 
1813. Thos., Bristol, 1842. 

Balestree, J., 2 Queen St., Soho, 1811. 

Baley, Thos., C.C. 1786. 

Balfour, Gilbert, London ; watch, 1760. 

Ball. Victor, 1630-50. John, C.C. 1637 ; 
fine long lacquer-case calendar clock about 
1760, signed " Wm. Ball, Biceter," Mr. Geo. 
F. Glenny (see Fig. 724, p. 544). Jno., New- 
port Pagnell, 1760. Sam., High -Wycombe, 
1786. Edwd., 32 Ironmonger Row, 1794. 
& Macaire, watch-case makers, 32 North- 
ampton Sq., 1820; 26 Myddelton St., 

Ballantyne, Wm., 6 Cable St., 1815-20; 
2 White Lion St., Goodman's Fields, 
1835 ; 1820-42. 

Ballard, Geo., Frome, 1842. 

Ballinger, Chas., 7 Northumberland PL, 
Bath, 1845. 

Balliston, Thos., 5 Banner St., 1842. 

Balmer, Thos., Liverpool, 1833. 

Baltazar. Chas., Paris ; about 1710. 
Cadet (the younger). Place Dauphine, Paris, 
1769 ; " clockmaker to Mesdames lilies de 
Louis XV." Noel, Paris ; about 1770. 

Balteau a Lyon ; cruciform watch, 
Pierpont Morgan collection, about 1610. 

Banbury, John, C.C. 1685. 

Bance, Matthew, Kintbury ; watch 
dated 1775, owned by Mr. Thomas Fisher. 

Bancroft, Wm., Scarborough, 1822. 

Band, Wm., London ; watch, 1805. 

Banfield, Jno., 116 Cheapside, 1814-17. 

Banger, Edward, apprenticed to Joseph 
Ashby for Thomas Tompion 1687 ; C.C. 
1695 (see p. 295). 

Bangiloner, — , London ; clock-watch, 
about 1660. 

Banister. Thos., Norton ; long-case 
clock, about 1765 (see also Hedge & 
Banister). Joseph, Colchester ; patented a 
crutch for clocks in 1836 (No. 7,083). 

Henry, succeeded Jno. Grant the younger 
at 75 Fleet St., 1852, and remained there 
till 1860. 

Bankes, William, apprenticed 1690 to 
Ben. Bell ; C.C. 1698 ; on a large lantern 
clock, " Wm. Bankes in Sheffield," date 
about 1680. 

Banks. S. & W., Leicester ; chiming 
clock, about 1760. J. C. & B., London ; 
watch, 1802. J., 68 Long Alley, Finsbury', 

Bannerman, Gilbert, Banff, 1760. 

Bannister. Anthony. C.C. 1715 ; watch 
with sun and moon indicator, signed 
" Anthony Bannister," on dial " Bannister, 
Liverpool," about 1705. Thomas, London, 
about 1801. James, 14 Clerkenwell Close, 
1820-35 ; 32 Prince's St., Leicester Sq.. 
1810-42. Thomas & James, 39 K^rby St.. 
Hatton Garden, 1825. 

Banstein, John, Philadelphia, 1791. 

Banting, William, C.C. 1646. 

Barachin, Stephen (French). C.C. 1687. 

Barbaull, see Widman. J. 

Barber. Jonas, Ratcliffe Cross, brother 
C.C. 1682. — , Lincoln, wall clock on 
Smeaton-Franklin plan in the collection of 
Mr. Hansard Watt, about 1770. Jonas, 
Winster, Windermere ; died 1720 ; the 
Rev. F. C. Townson has a long-case clock, 
"J. Barber, Winster," about 1750 ; watch, 
"J. Barber. Winster." 1755. Wm., 30 
Cornhill. 1785-94. Benjamin, 21 Red Lion 
St.. Clerkenwell. 1788-94. Josh., 168 
Borough. 1795-1817. Hy., London ; 
watch, h.m.. 1805. Thos., 75 Lamb's 
Conduit St.. 1810-17. Jas., York, f. 1814. 
& WhitweU, York, 1818. Cattle & North, 
1830. Abraham, 56 Cheapside, 1835-42. 
& North, York, 1838. 

Barberet, Jacques, Paris ; octagonal 
watch, Garnier collection ; cruciform 
watch, about 1620 ; splendidly enamelled 
watch, formerly in the Hawkins collection, 
about 1640. 

Barbier le Jeune, sur le Pont Marie. 
Paris, 1770. 

Barbot, Paul, Greek St.. Seven Dials, 
1768-69. et le Marechal, Paris, much later. 

Barcelet, Mathieu, Paris, about 1570. 
M. Leroux has a square table clock, with 
dome over, by him. . 

Barclay. (? Barkley) Samuel, appren- 
ticed to George Graham ; C.C. 1722. 
Hugh, Edinburgh, 1727. C, London ; 
watch, 1815. James, 7, Jamaica Terrace. 
Commerical Rd.. 1820; James Pyott 
succeeded him in 1873. 

Barcole, John, admitted C.C. 1648. 

Bareham, Samuel, 9 Chapel St.. Penton- 
ville. 1842. 

Barford. Thos., apprenticed 1655 to 
Thos. Daniell. C.C. Henry, London ; 
watch, 1780. 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


Baxgeau, Peter, London ; long Oriental 
lacquer-case clock {Tempits fugit), 1740. 

Baridon & Fils, Geneva ; gained a prize 
in 1823 for a curious gravity regulator, 
Geneva Horological School. 

Baril. Lewis, Tokenhouse Yard, 1754-59. 
Bercher, 29 Prince's St., near Mans'ion 
House, 1763-72. 

Barilon, — , Paris ; watch, 1770. 

Barin, John, Hvery CO. 1776. 

Barjon, John, CO. 1685. 

Barked, Edward, 2 St. Martin's Church- 
yard, 1820. 

Barker. WiUiam, C.C. 1632. Daye, 
London ; clock, about 1720, lantern move- 
ment, 7-inch dial arched, Mr. G. F. C. 
Gordon. Thomas, Portsmouth, clock, 
about 1740. Wm., Wigan ; about 1760. 
B., New York, 1786. Benj., 21 Red Lion 
St., 1788. Thos. ,London ; watches, 1792- 
1813. R. (tools), 4 Benjamin St., Clerken- 
well. 1820-25. James, 38 Colet PI., 
Commercial Road, 1840-42. 

Barkham, Geo., 1630-50 ; C.C. 

" Barkley & CoUey, Graham's Suc- 
cessors " ; on a long-case clock, with 
ingenious mechanism for a perpetual diary, 
about 1760 ; see Colley. 

Barling, — , Maidstone, 1835. 

Barlow. (Booth) Edward, invented the 
rack striking work and cyhnder escape- 
ment ; born 1636, died 1716 (see p. 276). 
— , served as steward C.C. 1677. Thos., 
C.C. 1692. W. Ashton, 1760. Mat. 
Brumhill, Wilts., 1770. Jas. Oldham, 
1775. Jno. Oldham ; long-case clock, 
1780. Benj., Ashton, 1780. Benj., Old- 
ham, 1780-85. Geo., Oldham ; long-case 
clock, about 1790. J., London ; watch, 
1798. J. H., & Co., 7 Vere St., 1812-20. 

Barnard. Nich., apprenticed 1662 to 
Thos. Claxton, C.C. Jno., apprenticed 
1675 to Francis Dinnis ; C.C. 1682. Ralph, 
apprenticed 1778 to Jno. Cotsworth, C.C. 
Phil., London ; long j apanned case clock, 
about 1745. Wm., Newark, 1760-80. 
Wm., London ; watch, h.m., 1762. Chas., 
Ashton, 1770. Thos., 72 Strand, 1783- 
1823. & Savory, 1786-99. & Kidder, 72 
Strand, 1809-12. Jno., 36 Little Sutton 
St., 1817. Jas., Peckham ; bracket clock, 
about 1825. Franz, 57 Leman St., 1840-42. 
Barnardiston, Jno., London ; long-case 
clock, 1760. 

Barnes. Ri., Worcester ; oval watch, 
S.K.M., about 1600 ; another, Schloss 
collection, about 1610. Geo., apprenticed 
1693 to Josh. Allsopp, C.C. Jno., Badger 
Row, Red Lion St., 1770-94. Timothy, 
Litchfield, U.S.A. ; maker of American 
clocks. 1790. 

Barnett. John," at y^ Peacock in Lothe- 
bury " ; apprenticed 1675 to Jno. Ebs- 
worth ; C.C. 1682 ; long marquetry case 

clock, ebonised dome top, 10-inch dial, 
Wetherfield collection. Mr. Hansard Watt 
has a very fine clock signed " John Barnett, 
Londini, fecit " (see p. 533). J., " the 
corner of Shakespeare's walk, near Shad- 
well Church, Ratcliff Highway," card, 
Hodgkin collection, about 1780. G., 10 
Staining Lane, Wood St., 1800. J., 48 
Shadwell High St., 1810-15. J. W., 
watch-case maker, 43 Galway St., St. 
Luke's, 1835. Montague, 16 Swan St., 
Minories, 1842. 

Barnish. Wm., Rochdale, died 1776. 
Jno., a well-known maker of Toad Lane, 
Rochdale, who probably succeeded Wm., 
is traced till 1816. , 

Barnitt, Joseph, 23 London -Prentice 
St., Birmingham, 1768. 

Barns. Timothy (Thomas), Lichfield, 
1790. & Co., 53 Duke St., Smithfield, 

Barnsdale. Thos., Bale, Norfolk, 1770. 
John, City Rd., 1840. 

Baron, Edmd., apprenticed 1692 to Thos. 
Feilder, C.C. 

Baroneau, Louys, Paris ; clockmaker to 
the Queen, 1760 ; fine enamel watch, 
about 1680. 

Barr. Thos., Lewes ; lantern clock, 
about 1700. — , Bolton ; about 1790. 

Barraclough, John, Haworth, 1750. 
Afterwards at Thornton. 

Barratt, P., Strand, 1785 ; 71 Swallow 
St., 1812 ; 83 New Bond St., 1830. 

Barraud. Hy., presented a spoon to C.C 
1636 ; see Beraud. Francis & Paul Jno., 
Wine Office Court, 1759-94; watch, h.m. 
1756. Paul Philip, 86 Cornhill ; master 
C.C. 1810, 1811 ; 1796-1813. Fredk. 
Joseph, Committee of C.C. 1813. & Sons, 
85 Cornhill, 1813-36 ; 41 Cornhill, 1838. 
& Lund, 41 Cornhill, 1838-42. 

Barret, — . In the churchwardens' book 
at Halifax Parish Church in 1720 is " Paid 
Wm. Barrett for Clock work £0 9s. Od." 

Barrett. Simon, apprenticed 1668 to 
Joseph Wells ; C.C. 1678. Robert, C.C. 
1687. Thos., Lewes ; ktiown as a maker 
of lantern clocks ; in 1690 he agreed to 
mend the town clock for twenty shiHings. 
" Also hee to have four pounds yearley 
for ringing ' Gabriel ' the Curfew Bell at 
four in the morning and eight at night." 
Henry, apprenticed to Chas. Gretton ; 
admitted C.C. 1692. Samuel, C.C. 1701. 
Thomas, C.C. 1702. Joseph, Cheapside, 
1738 ; clock-watch 4| in. in diameter, pair 
of metal gilt cases, the inner one pierced, 
the outer chased, about 1760, inscribed 
" Barrett, London." William, 50 Alders- 
gate St., 1783. Henry William, 24 Queen 
St., Bloomsbury, 1815 ; 25 Museum St., 
1820; 18 Plumtree St., 1835-42. John, 
47 New Compton St., 1820. 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

Barridge, Jno., apprenticed 1654 to 
Hugh Cooper, C.C. 

Barrington, Vrian, apprenticed 1677 to 
Nat. Delander ; C.C. 1684. 

Barrister, Jas., 33 Fetter Lane, 1815-17. 

Barron, — , London ; watch, 1830. * 

Barrow. Nathaniel, apprenticed to Job 
Betts 1653 ; C.C. 1660, master 1689 ; in 
the Guildhall Museum are an astronomical 
watch and a repeater by him (see p. 325) ; 
" A large silver chain watch, having two 
motions, the hour of the day, and the day 
of the month, with a black case studded 
with silver, lined with red sattin, and a 
silver chain to it, made by Nathaniel 
Barrow, in London " [Lond. Gaz., July 
26-30, 1677). John, apprenticed 1671 to 
Francis Ireland ; C.C. 1681, master 1714. 
Samuel, apprenticed to Jno. Birrow 1688 ; 
C.C. 1696 ; " at the Spring Clock in East 
Smithfield, near Hermitage Bridge " (see 
Gatewood) ; 8-day long marquetry case 
clock, " Samuel Barrow at the Hermi- 
tage," about 1705. James, see Brown, 
Andrew. William, admitted C.C. 1709 ; 
Hatton, 1773, highly esteems the work of 
a watchmaker, named Barrow. Wm., 
Lancashire ; came to London before 1 744 ; 
left London soon after 1746 (Ludlam). 

Barry, Jas., Chippenham, 1845. 

Barry, Waller, Still Yard, Tower, 

Bartholomew. Jno., C.C. 1675. Josiah 
25 Red Lion St., Clerkenwell ; watch, 
B.M. He was a witness before the select 
committee of the House of Commons to 
inquire into the causes of the depressed 
state of the watch trade in 1817 ; 1800-42. 

Barthop, — , Isleworth ; long-case clock, 
about 1780. 

Bartlett. Edward, London ; watch, 
1818. H. & G., watch-case makers, 3 
King Sq., 1830-35. Patten Sargent, born 
1834, died 1902 ; entered the employ of 
the watch company at Waltham, Mass., in 
1855, where he designed several watch 
movements ; was connected in 1864 with 
the inception of the National Watch 
Company, Chicago, afterwards the Elgin 
National Watch Company. 

Bartley, Anrew (also Mark), Bristol 1842. 

Bartlitt. Geo., f., York, 1801 ; Malton, 
1810. Robt., Malton, 1823. 

Barton. Samuel, brother C.C. 1641. 
Jas., Fresco tt, about 1750. Thomas, 
Cheapside, 1750-78 ; Earnshaw challenged 
him to a contest of work in 1776 Jos., 
Eccleston ; long-case clock, about 1760. 
Jas., Whitehaven ; watch, 1751, Rochdale 
Museum. T. & J., Market PL, Manchester; 
watch, h.m., 1770. John, 64 Red Lion 
St., Clerkenwell, 1780-83. Wm., London ; 
large watch with Turkish numerals, 
Captain H. D. Terry, on dial " Markwick 

Markham, Wm. Carpenter," about 1780. 
Thos., 7 Bermondsey Sq., 1799-1823 ; 
Thos. Mudge, jun., refers to Thos. Barton 
as " eminently skilled." James, 191 
Strand, 1819-23. 

Bartram. Simon, petitioner for incor- 
poration of C.C. and one of the first 
assistants, master 1646. William, C.C. ; 
1684. & Austin, 109, 103 Oxford St. ; 
card, B.M., 1808. 

Bartrand, see Bertrand. 

Barts, Geo. Fred., Neards Court, near 
Soho Sq., 1775. 

Barugh, William, C.C. 1715. 

Barwell, Wm., Bath ; bracket clock, 
about 1700 ; month long-case clocks, 
about 1720, Mr. F. J. Young. 

Barwick. A, Great Alie St., 1788-93. 
H. & B., 35 Wapping, 1794-96. 

Barwise. Nathanael, London ; clock- 
watch, 1770. Lett, Cockermouth, 1770. 
John, 29 St. Martin's Lane, 1790 ; Weston 
& Jno., 1820-42 ; in 1841 John Barwise 
was associated with Alex. Bain in a 
patent for electric clocks, and in 1842-43 
chairman of directors of the ill-fated 
British Watch Company. & Sons, 24 St. 
Martin's Lane, 1819-23. 

Basil, John, 76 St. Paul's Churchyard, 

Baskerville. Thos., Bond St. Stables, 
1730. Richard, London ; clock in the 
sacristy of Bruges Cathedral, about 1750. 

Basnett, Wm., 1 Bond St., Bath, 1798. 

Bass, George, admitted C.C. 1722. 

Bassereau, Gui., Palais Royale, Paris, 

Basset. Thos., apprenticed 1668 to 
Isaac Webb, C.C. Jean, Jacques, Louis, 
York, f., 1771. Chas., 58 Upper East 
Smithfield, 1788-93 ; clock, Wm. Bassett, 
Mayfield, about 1790, Mr. E. B. Faithfull. 
Geo. Francis, Philadelphia, 1797.' 

Bassold, Edwd., 55 King Sq., 1855 (after- 
wards Money & Bassold). 

Bateman. — , seventeenth-century oval 
watch belonging to the Rev. Chas. Beck, 
mentioned in vol. xxiii., Archcsological 
Journal. Nathaniel Bateman said to have 
worked for Delander in 1730. Nathaniel, 
apprenticed to Nathaniel Delander ; C.C. 
1747. Hy., 10 Bunhill Row, 1780-85. 
P. & A., 10 Bunhill Row, 1798-1818. H., 
Dublin, 1802-5. Andrew, 5 Great Tower 
St., 1804-20. Teresa, 5 Great Tower St., 
1820-30. Wm., 108 Bunhill Row, 1828-32. 

Bates. Thomas, C.C 1684 Joseph, 
White Alley, Holborn ; admitted C.C. 
1687. T. P., Liverpool, 1780; issued a 
token " works, Duke St., Retail, Exchange 
St." Ed., London ; a good workman men- 
tioned by Earnshaw, 1780-90. John, watch 
pinion maker, 40 Great Sutton St., 1820. 
& Lowe, London ; clock, about 1835. 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


Bath. Thomas, 4 Cripplegate, 1740. 
JaS., Cirencester ; clock, about 1775. — 
J. L., Bath, Somerset, maker of grand- 
father clocks, musical clocks, and compli- 
cated watches. 1870-1920. 

Batten. John, brother C. C. 1668. 
Edwd., apprenticed 1670 to Jno. Mark; 
CC. 1677. 

Battersbee, — , Manchester, 1770. 

Batterson. Robert, CC. 1693. Henry, 
CC. 1701. James, New York, f., 1708-9 ; 
also at Boston, " lately arrived from 
London." R., clock, long-case, lacquer 
decoration, about 1770. 

Battie, Jas., Sheffield, 1770. 

Eattin, Thomas, apprenticed 1654 to 
Ed. Ward ; CC. 1661 ; a contrate second 
wheel of a " dyal " taken from him, and 
judged by CC to be bad, 1658. 

Batting, — , Camomile St., 1842. 

Eattinson, Jno., Burnley, 1818. 

Batty. Anthony, Wakefield, 1750. Jno., 
Halifax ; long-case clock, 1760. Joseph, 
Hahfax, 1760-70. Jno., Wakefield, 1770. 
Jno., Moorfields, 1775 Edwd., Lancaster, 
1826, f. 

Bandit, Peter, 4 St. Martin's Lane, 

Bauer, Carl, Amsterdam ; cruciform 
watch, about 1650. 

Baufay, B., & Son, 3 Bridgewater Sq., 

Baugh, Valentme, Abingdon, U.S.A., 

Baugham, John, Bridgewater Sq., about 

Bauldwin, see Baldwin. 

Baume & Lezard, Paris ; clock, about 

Baumgart, Charles, 37 Dean St., Soho, 
IS 40-42, afterwards in Maddox St. 

Baute & Moynier, Geneva ; watch, 
about 1823, dial gold a quatre coiileurs, 
numerals of pearls, case with pearl 
decoration, Mr. H. K. Heinz. 

Bautte, J. F., Geneva, 1820-25 ;. splendid 
watch by him, decorated with enamel, 
belonging to Dr. Pasteur. 

Bavis, Geo., CC 1687. 

Bawdyson, Allaine, clockmaker to 
Edward VI., 1550. 

Baxter. Wm., CC about 1640. Charles, 
CC 1681. Matt., St. Neots ; watch, 
1723. Pointer, London, 1772. Wm., 
London ; watch, 1790. Thos., Conderton ; 
long-case clock, about 1790. John, 
watch-case maker, St. Luke's, 1835. Thos. 
(Grimshaw & Baxter), 35 Goswell Rd. ; 
died 1897, aged 54. 

Bayes. John, brother CC 1647, M^arden 
1658 ; maker of a watch given by Charles 
I. to Mr. Worsley on his removal to Hirst 
Castle, November 1647 ; another example, 
a lantern clock, inscribed " Johannes 

Bayes, Londini," date on fret 1643 ; 
watch, S.K.M. Benjamin, apprenticed to 
Jno. Bayes 1661 ; CC 1675. 

Bayford, George, Upper Shadwell. 

Bayle, Thomas, CC 1703. 
Bayles, Chas., London ; bracket clock, 
about 1760. 

Bayley. William, apprenticed 1654 to 
Ralph Ash ; CC 1663. Edward, CC 
1658. " A silver watch with a silver 
studded case engraven Edwardus Ba3dey, 
London " [Lond. Gaz., December 19-22. 
1687). Jno., Harrow, 1725. Geo., 
London ; watch, 1750. & Street, Bridg- 
water ; long-case clock. Col. J. B. Keene 
about 1750. S., London ; watch, 1765. 
John, 106 Wood St., 1768-75. Richard, 
Ashford ; watch, ] 780. Thomas, 
summoned to take up livery CC. 1786. & 
Upjohn, Red Lion St., Clerkenwell, 1794. 
Simeon C, Philadelphia, 1794. Barnard & 
Son, 3 Bridgewater Sq., 1800-5. Richard, 
12 Red Lion St., Clerkenwell, 1807. 

BayUe, see Bailey. 

BayliS. J., Tewkesbury ; lantern clock, 
about 1700. Wm., Bristol, 1842. 

Bayly. John, CC 1700. Richard, Ash- 
ford ; watch, 1770. 

Bayne, Wm., Alston, 1833. 

Bayse, Thomas, CC 1695. 

Bazeley, Nathaniel, CC 1694. 

Bazin, Paris, about 1700. 

Beach, Thomas, Maiden Lane, Covent 
Garden, 1765-70. 

Beadle, Wm., apprenticed 1667 to Wm. 
Raynes, CC. 

Beake, Jonathan, Savage Gardens, 1725. 

Beal, Martin, 19 Gerrard St., Soho, 1842. 

Beale. Jno., apprenticed 1658 to Nich. 
Coxeter, CC Robert, apprenticed 1677 
to Bernard Rainsford, CC Chas., Lon- 
don ; watch, 1767. Wm., London ; 
watch, 1805. Jas., 38 Regent St.. 1820-25. 

Beard. Wm., apprenticed 1667 to Jas. 
Elhs, CC. Chris., apprenticed to Jas. 
Atkinson 1670 ; CC Duncan, Appoquine- 
monk, U.S.A., 1755-97. Wm., Drury 
Lane, 1812-17. 

Beare, John, Pilton, 1780. 

Beasley. Thos., CC 1683. Nat., 
apprenticed 1686 to Hy. Hammond. CC 
John, CC. 1719. 

Beaton. Andrew, 22 Cannon Street 
Rd., St. George's East, 1835. & Campbell, 
110 High St., Whitechapel, 1840. 

" Beatson, 32 Cornhill " ; M'Cabe's 
lowest grade full-plate watches, in silver 
cases, were so engraved. 

Beauchamp, R., 147 Holborn Hill, 

Beaufort, Henri, Paris ; watch, revolu- 
tionary decimal time, about 1796. 

Beaumarchais, see Caron. 

Beaumont. — , said to have made a 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

clock at Caen in 1314 (see p. 27). Philip, 
apprenticed 1689 to Wither Cheney, C.C. 
Joseph, Howden, 1770. 

Beauvais. Anthoine, Paris, 1544 (see 
p. 404). Simon, admitted C.C. 1690; a 
celebrated maker ; among his productions 
is a double-case verge, with a rack and 
pinion motion work, the hour hand 
travelling round the dial in twelve hours, 
but the minute hand travelling only from 
IX. to III., in one hour, and, when 
arrived at the III., jumping back to the IX. 
The hand-setting is betwe(;n III. and IIII., 
and the centre of the dial and motion 
work are hidden by a snvall painting on 
ivory. There is in the B.M. a similar watch 
of a later period by a German maker ; 1690- 
1730. Paul, London ; watch, about 1730. 

Beavin, Hugh, 34 Marylebone St., 
Golden Sq., 1800-30. 

Beavis, John, Peartree St ,1789. John, his 
son, afterwards at Wellington St., died 1860 

Beck. Richard, " near ye French 
Church," C.C. 1653. Nicholas, apprenticed 
1660 to Thos. Webb ; C.C. 1669. Joseph, 
C.C. 1701. Christopher, Bell Alley; 
apprenticed to Francis Perigal ; admitted 
C.C. 1761, livery 1787. James, 5 Sweeting's 
Alley, Cornhill, 1815-23, see Bentley. 
Long-case clock about 1790, inscribed 
" Thos. Beck, Bishampton." 

Becke, John, apprenticed to John White, 
but served Daniel Quare ; C.C. 1681. 

Becket, Francis, Chester-le-Street, 1770. 

Beckett. M., long-case clock, Mr. T. F. 
Walker, about 1710. Jno., 23 Greenhill's 
Rents, Smithfield, 1796-1803. Sir E., see 

Beckitt, Thos., Durham, 1770. Mann, 
Durham, 1780. 

Beckman. Daniel, C.C. 1680. A 

watch with a double case of Silver, with 
Minutes, Seconds and Hours, the name 
[Beckman] under the Crystal " [Lond. 
Gaz., March 27-31, 1701). John, C.C. 
1695. Daniel, C.C. 1726. 

Beckford, Wm., London ; watch, about 

Beckner, Abraham, Pope's Head Alley ; 
admitted as a brother C.C. 1652, warden 
and died 1665 ; known as a maker of oval 
watches ; 1650-65. 

Beckwith, Wm., Rotherhithe St., 1794. 

Beddel, see Biddle. 

Bedell, Peter, Hull, 1822. 

Bedford, Helkiah, in Fleet St. ; C.C. 
1667 ; maker of lantern clocks ; to him 
in 1668 was apprenticed Richard Abbott. 
Sam., apprenticed 1691 to Joseph Wind- 
mills, C.C. Wm., London ; watch, Nel- 
thropp collection, about 1790. Alfred, for 
thirty years London representative of the 
Waltham Watch Company ; died 1912, 
aged 79. 

Beefield, — , London ; watch, 1 760. 
Beeforth, Jno., York, f., 1680. 
Beeg, Christiana, C.C. 1698. 
Beesley. Jno., Dean St., 1725. 3 


Manchester ; long-case clock, about 1760 ; | 

watch, 1787. G. B., London died 1918, 
aged 80. 

Begulay, Jno., Swanton, Norfolk ; 
church clock at Ludham, 1676. 

BeUard, FranQois, watch, about 1780 ; 
repeating watch, " Beliard Hor du Roy," 
about 1780. 

Belk, William, Philadelphia, 1796. 

Bell. Benjamin, apprenticed to Thos. 
Claxton 1649; C.C. 1660, master 1682; 
maker of a large verge watch weighing 
over 8 oz.' 1660-83. " Taken way by 4 
Highwaymen in Maiden-head Ticket, A 
plain silver chain watch made by Benj amin 
Bell, the case hned with Red Satten, on 
the back of the case a Perpetual Almanack 
and httle spikes placed at everv Hour " 
[Lond. Gaz., July 7-10, 1690). 

" Lost on the 2nd inst., a gold watch 
with one motion, having a gold chain and a 
steel hook ; made by Benjamin Bell. Who- 
ever brings it to Mr. Sweetapple, a Gold- 
smith in Lombard Street, shall have 2 
guineas reward " {Lond. Gaz., May 4-7, 

" Lost a silver watch with a black case 
studded with Silver, made by Benjamin 
Bell, with an Onyx Stone in a gold Ring 
tied to the watch in which is engraven the 
Head of King Charles the First. Whoever 
brings the said watch and seal to Mr. 
Wilham Penrice, at the Black-Boy in 
Gracechurch Street, shall have 2 guineas 
reward " {Lond. Gaz., December 3-7, 1691). 

Bell. Joseph, C.C. 1691. Thos., appren- 
ticed 1691 to Sam. Mather, C.C. John, C.C. 
1719 ; 30-hour long-case clock, " fecit 
1751," Mr. C. Atkinson. Jno., New York, 
1734. Wm., Sunderland, 1740. Joseph, 
Shoe Lane, 1759. Jno., Garstang, 1760. 
Peter, Garstang, 1770. Jno., Doncaster, 
1780. James, watch, h.m., 1792 ; 131 
Mount St., Berkeley Sq., 1842. Thos., 
London ; long-case clock, about 1800. 
Wm., 2 Clement's Lane, 1812-18. Jno., 
Leyburn, 1822. John, musical clockmaker, 
8 Elm St., Gray's Inn Lane, 1835-40, 
Henry, Mount St., 1850. Jno., Bath, 
1855; Jas., Edinburgh, 1855. William, 
Lancaster, apprenticed to his uncle 
Wilham Hodgson, died 1910, aged 80. 

Bellamy, Adey, 10 Poultry, 1779-85. 

Beliard. John, C.C. 1674. Francois, 
Paris ; horloger du Roy, 1783. 

Belle, T., French clock, about 1780. 

Belief ontaine. A., 59 Brewer St., 
Summers Town, 1835. 

Belliard, Chas., Pall Mall, 1769-94. 

Bellin, see Mott & Bellin. 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


Belling, John, Bodmin, 1780. 1840. 

Bellinge, Jas., Liverpool, 1770 

Bellinger, Richd., apprenticed 1676 to 
Edwd. East ; 0.0.1646. Ch., apprenticed 
1686 to Jno. Pellinger, CO. John, CO. 

Bellinghurst, Henry, Aldersgate St. ; 
livervman CO. 1776 ; 1765-77. 

Bellis, Jas., 9 Pall Mall, 1769-88. 

Bellman, Daniel, Broughton, Lanes., 

Bellune, Peter, 1630-50 ; CO. 

Belon, Pierre, Paris ; clockmaker tc the 
dowager Queen, 1649. 

Belsey, John, Poland St., 1835. 

Belson, Thos., 1630-50; C.C. 

Benard^ F., Paris ; oval watch with sun- 
dial inside cover, about 1600 (sun-dial 
signed " Chauvin ") ; Pierpont Morgan 

Benbrick, Jas., apprenticed 1671 to 
Helkiah Bedford, C.C. 

Benbridge, Thos., apprenticed to Robt. 
Starr 1669 ; C.C. 1683. 

Benfey, B., & Son, 3 Bridgewater Sq. 

Benford, John, 1 Garnault PL, Clerken- 
well, 1832-38. 

Benjamin. Joel, 12 Bury St., St. Mary 
Axe, 1820-35; J. Benjamin & Co., 1840. 
M., Bernard St., Commercial Rd., 1820 ; 
77 Leman St., 1840-42. A., Mvrtle St., 
Hoxton, 1835. 

Benn. Thos., apprenticed 1660 to Ben. 
Hill, C.C. Jno., C.C. 1678. Robert, Fleet 
St.; C.C. 1716. Anthony, 1750; died 
when master C.C. 1763. 

Benner, Johannes, " Aug " ; table 
clock, about 1680. 

Bennett. WiUiam, C.C. 1607. Thomas, 
apprenticed 1667 to Henry Harper ; 
movement oi his condemned by C.C. 1677, 
John, Fleet St. ; C.C. 1678. Mansell, Dial 
and 3 Crowns, Charing Cross ; C.C. 
1685-99 ; fine marquetr}^ long-case clock, 
S.K.M., about 1695 ; Mr. Robert Meldrum 
has a verv similar specimen. John, Bristol; 
C.C. 1712. Richard, C.C. 1715. Samuel, 
C.C. 1716. Thomas, apprenticed to Thos. 
Windmills ; C.C. 1720 ; fine long-case 
clock in the Wetherfield collection, on the 
inside of the door directions for winding, 
and at. the foot thereof " Thos. Bennett, 
at the Dial in Exchange Alley, 1722." 
WiUiam, New St. Hill; C.C. 1729. J., 
Bu gg Lane, Norwich ; watch, 1786. Thos., 
Norwich ; watch, 1795. R., 159 Fleet St., 
1817. Joseph, 60 Red Lion St., Holborn, 
1830-38. Wing, & Co., 60 Red Lion St., 
Holborn, 1840 ; " to H.R.H. the Duke of 
Sussex " ; watch paper, C.C. E., Stock- 
well St., Greenwich, 1840. John, 45 
Seymour Place, 1842. John, Greenwich, 
1810 ; John, his son, did a large business 

in Cheapside from 1846 ; Sheriff of London 
in 1872, when b}^ virtue of his ofhce he was 
knighted in commemoration of a Royal 
visit to the Citv ; died 1897, aged 81. 
Benniworth, t. & W., St. Albans, 1780. 
Benoit. J. E., watch, apparently 
English, about 1780. A. H., Versailles ; 
born 1804, died 1895 ; many fine watches, 
signed " A. Benoit a Paris." 

Bersley, J., maker of a watch for the 
Duke of Sussex, 1790-1820. 

Benson. Jno., apprenticed 1652 to Jas. 
Starnell ; C.C. 1669 ; long-case clock 
dated 1709. Samuel, C.C. 1700 ; watch. 
1730. — , Whitehaven ; long-case clock, 
about 1760. & Higgs, London ; bracket 
chiming clock, Sheraton case with lion- 
head handles, about 1790. William, watch 
and clock spring maker, 60 St. John's St., 
1818-23. Robt., 16 Wilderness Row. 
1818-40 ; auditor Watch and Clockmakers' 
Pension Society 1820. 

Bent, Wm.,'Chadwell St., 1820-44. 
Bentele (? Bentley), Jacobus, clock. 
Imperial collection, Vienna, 1735. 

Bentley. John, Thirsk, 1770. Sam., 
Kings bridge ; watch, 1790. & Beck, 
1815. John, 5 Pope's Head Alley, 1820; 
Sweeting's Alle3% 1823 ; " foreman to Jas. 
McCabe," watch paper, C.C. 

Benton, Wm., London; -watch, h.m., 

Benwell, B., London ; watch, 1785. 
Berain, J., Paris ; designer and chaser 
of clock cases, 1655-1711. 

Berard, — , London ; watch, about 1730. 
Beraud. Henri, Sedan, 1565. — , oval 
watch, about 1600, signed " A. Beraud a 
Bloys," Garnier collection. Jas., 1632. 
Hy., maker of a watch in the form of a 
shell, silver case enamelled, crystal over 
dial, about 1650 ; C.C, but date of election 

Berault, Jno., apprenticed 1691 to Thos. 
Jones, C.C. 

Beresford, Thos., London ; watch, 1828. 
Berg, F. L., Augsburg ; table clock, 
Nelthropp collection, 1719. 

Bergier, S., Grenoble ; watch, Marfels 
collection, about 1550. 

Bergstien, Lulam, 113 Great Lichfield 
St., 1840-42. 

Berguer. John, 44 Great Russell St., 
Bloomsberry, 1810-20. Frederick, 201 
High Holborn, 1810 ; 135 High Holborn, 
1818-20. Franz, 17 Vere St., 1817. 
Charles, musical clockmaker, 13 Richmond 
Buildings, Soho, 1825. 

Berkenhead, John, 31 Gutter Lane, 

Berkley, ■ — , London ; watch, 1810. 
Berlinson, Hy., Ripon, 1833. 
Berman. J., & Co., wooden clock- 
makers, 40 Norton Folgate, 1830-35, 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

& Co., 30 Park Terrace, Regent's Park 
Rd., 1830-42. 

Bernard. Nicholas, Paris ; watch in 
case of rock crystal, primitive movement, 
balance-cock pinned on, about 1590, Pier- 
pont Morgan collection ; two watches, 
bearing tne same name, S.K.M., one about 
1660 and the other about 1690. E., 
Southampton ; clock, about 1770. 

Beminck, Jan, Amsterdam ; watch, 
B.M., a French enamelled inner case by 
G. Bouvier, outer repousse case by H. 
Manley, about 1750. 

Bernstein, H., Glasgow, 1830. 

Berquez, Francis, 17 Vere St., 1822 ; 6 
Thayer St., Manchester Sq., 1825-35. 

Berquin, Urbain, Paris ; clock, 1680. 

Berraud, see Barraud, also Beraud. 

Berres, T., London ; watch, h.m^., 1793. 

Berridge. Jno., Boston ; made a clock 
with compensated pendulum 1738 for Mr. 
Fotheringham, a Quaker of Holbeach. 
Wm., 69 Oxiord Rd., 1770-94. Robert, 
2 John St., Oxford St., 1790-95. William, 
4 Holies St., Cavendish Sq., 1800-20, see 

Berrington. Uriah, apprenticed to 
Nathaniel Delander ; C.C. 1684. — , 
Bolton ; watch, 1808. Jas., St. Helens, 
Lanes., 1818. 

Berrisford, Edwd., apprenticed 1663 to 
Ben. Wolverstone, C.C. 

BerroUas, Joseph Anthony, Denmark 
St., St. Giles-in-the-Fields, 1808 ; Coppice 
Row, Clerkenwell, 1810 : afterwards 51 
Welhngton St., Goswell Rd. ; an ingenious 
watchmaker. In 1808 he patented a 
repeater somewhat similar to ElHott's, in 
1810 a warning watch, in 1827 an alarm 
watch, also pumping keyless work (p. 615) ; 

Berry. John, St. Clement's Lane ; ap- 
preijticed 1674 to Richd. Pepys ; C.C. 
1688, master 1723 ; maker of a long-case 
clock at Merchant Taylors' Hall, arch dial, 
brass figures holding trumpets on top of 
case; 1688-1730. " Lost Nov. 14th, 1705, 
from a Gentlewoman's side between Honey 
Lane market and Great Eastcheap, A 
plain Gold Watch case. Whoever brings it 
to John Berry, watchmaker at the Dial in 
Clement's Lane, Dombard St., shall have 
20s. reward for so doing" [The Daily 
Courant, 15th Nov. 1705). Francis, 
Hitchin ; lantern clocks, about 1700. 
Samuel, C.C. 1705. John, St. Clement's 
Lane ; C.C. 1728. Jas., Pontefract ; about 
1740. Jno., Manchester ; 1760. Wm., 
London ; watch, 1815. Frederick, 2 
Arcade, Hungerford Market, 1842. 

Berthoud. Ferdinand, born in Switzer- 
land 1727 ; went to Paris when nineteen 
and settled there ; died 1807 ; an eminent 
watchmaker, author of " Essai sur I'Horlo- 

gerie," " Traite des Horloges Marines," 
" Histoire de la Mesure du Temps," and 
other works containing a mass of useful 
information concerning the history, theory, 
and practice of the horological art, dealing 
with Harrison's, Sully's, and le Roy's 
inventions, and, indeed, everything known 
in Berthoud's time. There are three clocks 
by him in the Wallace collection, one a 
splendid regulator in case of ebony with 
boldly chased mounts of gilt bronze ; 
around the dial is a serpent with the head 
and tail meeting — an emblem of eternity. 
This clock is said to have been taken from 
the luileries in 1793, having been white- 
washed to hide its value. It and a com- 
mode were sold in Paris some years ago to 
the Marquis of Hertford for 100,000 francs. 
Louis, Paris ; nephew of Ferdinand ; died 
1813 ; watch, " Berthoud Freres a Paris," 
about 1800, Evan Roberts collection. 

Bertram, William, died in 1732, when 
master C.C. 

Bertrand. Michand, " hor du Roy " 
(Francis I.), 1515-47. Josephe, Paris 
(garde-visiteur), 1769. Robert, 2 Stewart 
St., Spitalfields, 1790-94 ; Mr. A. E. Owen 
has a long-case clock signed " Robert 
Bartrand, London," dating from about 
1770. L., Paris, 1810. 

Berwick, Abner, Berwick, U.S.A., 1820. 

Besse, Jeremy, 4 Richmond Buildings 
Soho Sq., 1840-42. 

Best. Robert, 5 White Lion Court, 
Birchin Lane ; a watch by him, S.K.M., 
hall mark 1769 ; 1765-88. Thos., 3 Red 
Lion St., Clerkenwell ; between 1770 and 
1794 he made a large number of watches for 
the Dutch market ; also known as a maker 
of musical clocks and watches. T., at the 
Dial in Lewes ; card, B.M., 1780. Thos., 
Newcastle ; watch, 1785. Robert (former- 
ly foreman to Brockbank,) 4 White Lion 
Court, Birchin Lane, 1790 ; 4 Sweeting's 
Alley, 1798 ; 1 Windsor Place, St. Paul's 
1810-20. He attested the value of Earn- 
shaw's improvements in 1804. Richard, 
3 Fountain Court, Strand, 1830-42. 

Bestwick. In 1672 Jas. Dearmar was 
apprenticed to Katherine Bestwick, widow 
C.C. Henry, C.C. 1686. 

Bethell. R., London ; watch, 1760. 
Jno., Stowmarket ; clock, about 1800. 

Beton, Jno., London ; watch, 1800. 

Betson, J., London ; watch, 1797. 

Betterton, — , London ; watch, about 

Bettinson (or Bettison), Solomon, 
Newark, 1776-92. 

Betts. Samuel, back of Exchange ; 
short train watch by him, about 1645 (see 
p. 277). He was an early member of the 
C.C, and in 1656 attested the genuineness 
of Jas. Lello's masterpiece. In the 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


* Wetherfield collection is a 30-hour bracket 
clock by him ; died before 1675 (see 
Marquet). " Lost on the 8th Inst, betwixt 
Enfield and Wormley, on the rode to Warre 
a gold watch with a case and chain of gold, 
the Chrystall out, and the case lined with 
Pink-coloured Sattin, made by Mr. Betts 
in Lumbard Street. Whoever shall dis- 
cover and return or cause it to be returned 
to Mr. Austin, Goldsmith at the Starre in 
Fenchurch St., shall have 40s. for his 
pe\Ties " [The Intelligencer, 13th June 
1664). Job, C.C. 1656. " Stolen from 
Cheyne Rowe, of Walthamstowe, in Essex, 
Esq., a gold watch \\-ith a gold chain made 
by John Betts, with a silver Drinking 
Cup and other Plate. Whoever brings the 
said watch and chain or the watch only 
to iMr. Johnson, Jeweller, at the 3 Flower- 
de-Luces in Cheapside, shall have 20s 
reward, and charges, or if pawned or sold 
their money again %\'ith content " [Lond. 
Gaz., August 11-15, 1692). Samuel, 
apprenticed to Samuel Davis for Job 
Betts 1675 ; C.C. 1682 ; calendar watch 
with revoK-ing ring dials, to which a figure 
of Time points, in Dover Museum. In 
the G.M. IS another specimen of his work : 
bracket clock, square dial, walnut case, 
Wetherfield collection, 1682-1700. 

Bettwood, Jno., Rywick ; watch 

Beverley, Jas., apprenticed 1683 to 
Robt. Doore ; C.C. ; bracket clock, about 
1695 ; watch pendulum balance, about 
1700, inscribed " Ja. Beverly, London." 

Bevington, J., Bolton, Lanes., 1814. 

Bewley, George, Whitecross St. ; C.C. 

Bezant, A. W., Hereford ; watch, 1840. 

Bezar, Stephen, brother C.C. 1648. 

Bibberton, Thos., Silver St., 1774. 

Bibley, Jno., Corporation Row, 1790-94. 

Bickerlo, see Poole. 

Bickerstaff, Wm., Liverpool, 1770. 

Bickerton, Benjamin, 14 Jewin St., 
1795-1810. T. W., 14 Jewin St., 1816-20. 

Bickley, Thomas, 195 RatchfE Highwav, 

Bicknell. Francis, apprenticed to Job 
Betts 1653 ; C.C. 1665. Joseph & Co., 
119 New Bond St., 1807-13. 

Bickton, Geo., London ; watch, 1775. 

Bidard, — , watch mentioned by Thiout, 
about 1730. 

Bidault, Paris (see p. 405) ; a long 
succession of court clockmakers : Claude, 
1628, lodged at the Louvre 1642 ; Henri 
Auguste, succeeded his father at the 
Lou\T:e 1652 ; Augustin Frangois, 1693. 

Biddle, Joseph, C.C. 1684. 

Bidlake. Jas., 31 :\Iinories, 1765-94. 
James, 16 Sun St., 1798-1804 ; hverv C.C. 
1816 ; 48 Chiswell St., 1816-20. Thomas, 

16 Sun St., Bishopsgate St., 1804-18; 
hverv C.C. 1818. James, & Son, 48 Chis- 
well St., Finsbury, 1820-45. 

Bidles, Thomas, London ; maker of 
bracket clocks, about 1760. 

Bidley, Wm., 24 Rahere St., Cler ken- 
well, 1840-42. 

Biefleld, Chas., London ; watch, 1780. 

Bieler a Bienne, calendar watch, about 

Bigaud, Paris, about 1750. 
■Bigg, Ben., apprenticed 1678 to Robt. 
Cooke, C.C. 

Biggs, Roger, 5 Crescent, Jewin St.. 

Bilbee, — , London ; long-case 30-hour 
clock, one hand, about 1710. 

Bilbie. A well-known Somerset family 
of clockmakers. The Hon. H. Hannen 
has a lantern clock by Thomas Bilbie 
dating from about 1660 ; the fret in front 
shows the royal arms, and the side frets 
are of the dolphin pattern. Among other 
specimens are a long-case clock by Edward 
Bilbie, Chewstoke, about 1700 ; one of 
later date by Thos. Bilbie, Chewstoke ; an 
S-da}' long-case clock by WlUiam Bilbie, 
of the same place. 

The following is from an upright grave- 
stone at Oxbridge : — 

• ' Bilbie, thy 
Movements kept in plaj' 
For thirty years or more, 
^^'e saj-. 
•' Thy Balance or thy 
Mainspring-'s broken, 
And all th\- movements 
Cease to work. 
"John Bilbie, ot this parish, clockmaker, who 
died Sept. 13, 17G7, aged 33 years." 

Bilcliff (or Bycliff), York. Jno., i., 
1617. Robt., f.. 1627. Jno., 1, 1639. 
Robt., f., 1653. 

Bilger, Matthias, watch-spring maker, 
4 New St., Co vent Garden, 1790-94. 

Billie, John, C.C. seized watches and 
movements bv him 1687. 

Billing, H. "C, Cheapside, 1835. 

BiUinger, Jno., C.C. 1637. 

Billinghurst. Wm., apprenticed to Thos. 
Fenn 1668 ; C.C. Anthony, apprenticed 
to Helkiah Bedford 1673 ; C.C. Wm., 
apprenticed 1694 to Sam Watson, C.C. 
Henry, 67 Aldersgate St. ; liverv C.C. 
1766; 1760-71. 

Billings, Jno., Bishopsgate, 1775. 

Billingfcon, — , Har borough, 1760. 

Bfilon & Co., Philadelphia, 1797. 

Billop, William, C.C. 1688. 

Bindley, — , apprenticed 1674 to Rich. 
Pierce, C.C. William, 24 Rahere St., 1842 

Bingham. Thos., watch-chain maker 
3 Middle Row, Holborn, 1769-81. Wm., 
27 Bucklersburv, 1842. & Bricerly Phila- 
delphia, 1778-99. . 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

Bingley, Giles, apprenticed ^1692 to 
Edwd. Eyston, C.C. John Bingley, 
watchmaker, advertised for in Lond. Gaz. 
1st June 1696. 

Bing, Dan, Ramsgate, 1775. 

Bings, Edward, " Whereas there was 
stolen from the House of Mr. Thos. 
Dummer in Wellclose on Saturday night, 
between the hours of 9 and 11 o'clock, a 
Gold Pendulum Watch with a chain made 
by Mr. Edward Bings. You are desired 
to stop them and give notice to Mr. Thos. 
Beach, Goldsmith, at the Black-a-Moors 
Head in Cheapside, and you shall have 
2 guineas Reward " [Daily Courant, 
23rd Sept. 1706). 

Binks. Thos., Birmingham, 1740. — , 
London ; watch, G.M., about 1820. 

Binley, J. W., Ironmonger Row, Old St., 

Binns. ■ — , HaHfax ; clock 1720. 
George, 137 Strand, 1832-38. 

Birch. Thomas, apprenticed to Thos. 
Mills 1649; C.C. 1658; Mr. John H. 
Baker has a lantern clock inscribed 
" Thomas Birch in the longe walke Neere 
Christ Church Londini fecit." Thos., ap- 
prenticed 1675 to Sam Clyatt ; C.C. 1682. 
Richard, Bread St., Birmingham, 1776-87. 
William, succeeded Wm. Turner at 173 
Fenchurch St., about 1840 ; died 1903, 
aged 88. 

Birchall. & Son, Warrington, 1770. 
M., Derby, 1790. Wm., 5 St. James's 
Walk, Clerkenwell, 1816; 5 Wellington 
St., 1834-42. Peter, a well-known chrono- 
meter maker. In partnership with Apple- 
ton, he succeeded Molyneux at Southamp- 
ton Row ; shortly after Appleton's death 
he disposed of the business to Wm. Cribb ; 
lived subsequently at Islington ; died 
1885, aged 85. 

Bird. Michael, apprenticed to Ed. Gilpin 
in 1648 ; brother C.C. 1682 ; bracket 
clock inscribed " Michael Bird, London." 
On a 30-hour clock, one hand, about 1650, 
was inscribed " Michael Bird, Oxon." 
Wm., apprenticed 1667 to Hy. Crump, 
C.C. Llike, apprenticed 1675 to Jas. 
Delander ; C.C. 1682. Nat., C.C. 1693. 
Edwd., London, 1710. Robert, Yeldham, 
about 1740. Thos., London ; watch, h.m. 
1753 ; 10 Salisbury St., Strand, 1816. 
Wm., London ; watch, 1760. John, one of 
the examiners of Harrison's timekeeper 
1765. & Branstor, 30 Cheapside, 1775. 
Jacob, 7 Cornhill, 1783. Rich., watch- 
chain maker, Bartlett's Buildings, 1794. 
Edward, Bristol, about 1810. Samuel 
Joseph, watch-case maker (apprenticed to 
Jaspar Swindells), Little Compton St. ; 
CC. 1813. John, & Son, 19 Bartlett's 
Buildings, Holborn, 1822-25. John, 11 
St. John's Sq.. 1840-42. 

Birdwhistell. Francis, C.C. 1687. Isaac, 
C.C. 1692 ; plain pair-case gold watch, 
small swivel bow to the inner case, larger 
bow on the outer one, high movement, very 
rich gold dial, nicely wrought square pillars, 
finely engraved and pierced balance cock, 
excellent work throughout ; 1692-1705. 
Thomas, C.C. 1693. John, C.C. 1718. 

Birge. Mallory & Co., Bristol, Conn., 
1830. Peck & Co., 1830. John, Bristol, 

Birkhead, Nicholas, removed from King's 
Head, Holborn, to White Hart, Knights- 
bridge [Lond. Gaz., 29th May, 1st June 

B.irley, J., Sheffield ; curious watch, one 
hand, " 1638 " on metal dial in place of 
name, probably made sixty or seventy 
years after that date. 

Bimey, Jno., Templepatrick, 1785. 

Birt, Nathaniel, London ; long-case 
clock, square dial, about 1710. 

Bisbee, J., Brunswick, U.S.A., 1798- 

Bishop. Samuel, Portland St., 1769-94 ; 
hon. freeman of C.C. 1781. Thos., Wych 
St., 1774 ; watch, date on movement 1810. 
James Griffin, 97 Fetter Lane, 1816-24. 
William, 70 New Bond St., 1830. 

Bisot, JacQlues, Paris ; clockmakei to 
the Duchesse d'Orleans, 1681. 

Biss, E. H., Bath, 1850. 

Bisse, — , English alarm clock in gilt 
metal case, about 1620, S.K.M., signed 
" Edward Bisse Fecit." The dial is pro- 
vided with projecting pins for feeling the 
time at night, see Bysse. 

Bissett, Jas. (late Gibson), 12 Sweeting's 
Alley, Royal Exchange, 1815-20. 

Bittleston, John, 207 High Holborn, 
1765-94; hon. freeman C.C. 1781. 
Example of his work — a very curious 
astronomical watch, with two elaborate 
enamel dials — one at the front, and one at 
the back — showing the hour and minute 
both sides, two centre seconds — one the 
usual long hand, the other having a small 
rotating enamel dial — day of the month, 
day of the week, the month, moon's age, 
the tide, and a regulator, case pinchbeck, 
with a border each side of fine old paste in 
imitation of rubies and diamonds. 

Bittner, WiUiam, 26 Dean St., 

Bixler. Christian, Easton, Pennsyl- 
vania, U.S.A. ; clock, about 1750. 
Christian, Easton, 1785-1830 ; a famous 
8-day clock manufacturer. 

Black, W. C, born in Scotland, a 
student at the British Horological Insti- 
tute, settled in Buenos Ayres, 1887 ; 
died 1914. 

Blackborrow, James, admitted C.C. 
1711 ; died 1746, when warden. 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


Blackboum, Saml., London ; watch, 
about 1780. 

Blackboume, William, Paternoster Row, 

Blackburn. William, summoned to take 
up livery C.C. 1786. JnO., watch-spring 
maker, 20 Aldersgate St., 1789-99 ; watch 
so named, 1790. Robt., Lancaster, 1817, f. 

Blackball, J., London ; watch, 1800. 

Blackie. Geo., Musselburgh ; long-case 
dead-beat clock, about 1820, musical 
barrel pla^dng on fourteen bells added, 
Norman-Shaw collection. George, born 
in Scotland ; settled in Clerkenwell as a 
duplex escapement maker and manu- 
facturer ; afterwards took Wilson & 
Gandar's shop at 431 Strand ; died 1885, 
aged 74. 

Blackmore, Jno., apprenticed 1689 to 
Ben. Bell, C.C. 

Blacknell, Peter, London ; bracket- 
clock, about 1705. 

Blacksmith, Robt., London ; watch, 

BlackweU. Thos., C.C. 1654. J., 43 
Plumber St., City Rd., 1820. 

Blainville, — , Rouen ; calendar watch, 
about 1795, Mrs. Geo. A. Hearn. 

Blake. Jonathan, Fulham ; watch, 1784. 
Wm., Whitecross St., 1789-90. Chas., 14 
Bishopsgate Within, 1813. 

Blakeborough. Henry, Burnley, 1818. 
Richard, Ripon, 1838. 

Blanchard. Robt., within Temple Bar, 
1675. Abraham, London ; watch, 1730. 
Charles, Bartlett's Buildings, London ; 
long-case clock, about 1750 ; chiming 
quarter bracket clock, square black case, 
strike-silent, bronze, handle on top, about 
1760. Wm., Hull, 1822. 

Bland, Jas., 33 Norton Folgate, 1816-23. 

Blandford, Hy.W., London ; watch, 1794. 

Blanford, William, born in London 1838, 
emigrated to America in 1879 where he 
died, 1920. Maker of a wonderful astro- 
nomical clock now erected in the Pubhc 
Library Aurora, IlUnois. 

Blay, William, 6 Princes St., Leicester 
Sq., 1825. 

Blaylock, Jno., Carhsle, 1830-42. 

Bhgh, Thomas, watch-case maker, 37 
Great Sutton St., 1820. 

Blinker, Thos., London, about 1745-70. 

Bliss, Ambrose, C.C. 1653 ; sigi ed a 
petition in 1656. 

Bhssett, Isaac, 70 Leadenhall St., 1823. 

Block, Francis, apprenticed 1689 to Jno. 
Bellinger, C.C. 

Blog, — , 129 Aldersgate St., 1825. 

Bloud, Ch., a Dieppe, 1660. 

Blundell. Jno., apprenticed 1678 to 
Geo. Nau ; C.C. Richard, threatened with 
prosecution by C.C. for exercising the art, 
not being admitted ; he promised to take 

up his freedom at the next quarter court, 
1682. William, C.C. 1715. Jos., Dublin ; 
bracket clock, about 1770. Henry, musical 
clock maker, 7 Red Lion St., 1830, see also 
Walker & Blundell. Thos., Liverpool, 1833. 

Blundy, Joseph, 21 St. John St., Clerken- 
well, 1781 ; Brookes Market, 1790. 

Blunt, Morris, 1630-50; C.C. 

Boad, Thos., apprenticed 1684 to Robt. 
Nemes ; C.C. 1692. 

Boak, Samuel, Golden Spread Eagle, 
Without Aldgate, 1692. 

Boardman, T., London ; watch, 1774. 
Chauncey, Bristol, Conn., 1815-38. 

Bobeus, Alphee, a Tolose ; alarm watch 
about 1620, Mons. E. Gelis. 

Bobinet. Abraham, cruciform watch in 
a case of crystal with a gilt and engraved 
cross, about 1630, probably French, Pier- 
pont Morgan collection. Chas. (French) 
watch in circular crystal case, S.K.M., 
about 1650, also (Salting collection) a cruci- 
form watch in crystal and silver case ; a 
circular watch by him in an agate case is 
in the Pierpont Morgan collection. 

Bock, Johann, Frankfort ; oval calendar 
watch, about 1620 ; Pierpont Morgan 
collection ; clock, Vienna Treasury, about 
1630 ; watch showing days of the month, 
about 1640. 

Bockel, Mathys, Haarlem ; oval watch, 
S.K.M., 1610. 

Bockels, — , Amsterdam ; in the Roskell 
collection was a handsome oval alarm 
watch by him, of large size, dating from 
about 1640 ; the inner case is of silver, and 
the outer one covered with fish skin ; on 
the dial is inscribed " Oliver Cromwell " ; 
the watch belonged to the late Mr. Evan 

Bockelts. Jan Janss, watch, Napier col- 
lection, 1620. — , watch, B.M., about 1640. 

Bockett, Richd., London, 1712. 

Bodd, Thos., London, watch, 1715. 

Boddell, Josiah, apprenticed to Danie 
Delander ; admitted C.C. 1741. 

Bode, WiUiam, Philadelphia, 1797. 

Bodenham, Edward, apprenticed to 
Brounker Watts ; C.C, 1719. 

Bodham, Steph., apprenticed 1680 to 
Ed. Enys ; C.C. 

Bodily. Elizabeth, C.C. 1692. N., 21 
Butchers' Hall Lane, Newgate St., 1823. 

Boekett, Jan Janse, Hague ; oval watch, 
about 1610, stolen from the Horological 
Institute in 1873. 

Bogardus, Everardus, New York, f.,1698. 

Bohm, Marcus, Augsburg ; pendulum 
clock, about 1660. 

Boisson. Etienne, London ; watch, 
1700. M., London ; watch, 1745. 

Boislander, — ,Nancy ; watch,about 1690. 

Boislandon k Metz ; watch, about 1590. 
Horological School, Chaux de Fonds. 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

Boiteau, S., a L'Arcenal, Paris ; watch, 

Bold. Jno., Warrington, 1770. Wm., 
-Liverpool, 1833. 

Boley, Gustav, Esslingen, Wiirtemberg ; 
noted maker of watch and clock makers' 
tools ; died 1891, aged 56. 

Bollard, Richard, London; bracket 
clock, about 1770. 

Bolt, Jno., London ; watch, 1820. 

Bolton, — , Wigan, about 1760; Mr. 
James Arthur has a finely made skeleton 
timepiece inscribed " Bolton, London," 
dating from about 1800. 

Bompard, — , a Paris ; timepiece, G.M., 
about 1800. 

Bonbruict a Blois, 1650. 

Boncher, A., musical watchmaker, 23 
Frith St., Soho, 1835. 

Bond, Tho., apprenticed 1685 to Wither 
Cheney, C.C. G., London ; watch, 1800. 
— , Boston, U.S.A. It is claimed that in 
1812, WilHam Bond, the founder of this 
business, made the first marine chrono- 
meter produced wholly in the United 
States, and that, in default of a main- 
spring, he used a weight to drive it. 
Richard F. Bond in 1850 invented a remon- 
toir. or spring governor, to be applied to 
a clock for ensuring continuous motion of 
an equatorial telescope. 

Bone, Wm., Fssex, about 1790. 

Boney, Caleb, a well-known Cornish 
clockmaker ; died at Padstow 1827. 

Bonfanti, Joseph, 305 Broadway, New 
York; advertised in 1823 "German 
clocks, some plain with music and some 
with moving figures, and French clocks, 
some with music, and will play different 
tunes." In 1824 he issued the following 
yerses — 

" Large elegant timepieces playing sweet tunes, 
And cherrystones too that hold ten dozen spoons; 
And clocks that chime sweetly on iiine little bells, 
And boxes so neat ornamented with shells. ' 

Bonna Freres, Geneva, 1780-1800. 

Bonner. Charles, apprenticed to Nich. 
Clark 1650 ; C.C. 1658 ; watch, 1690, 
Evan Roberts collection ; long-case 
marquetry clock, Wetherfield collection, 
about 1710. Jasper, C.C. 1704. Thos., 
Fair St., Southwark, 1790-94. 

Bonnet, J. B., Geneva ; ' watch, about 
1825, Dr. H. Goudet. 

Bonnington. Wm., clock-case maker, 6 
Red Lion St., Clerkenwell, 1793-99. & 
Thorp, clock-case makers, 22 Red Lion 
St., 1793-1816. 

Bonny, — , London ; maker of a repeater 
centre-seconds watch for the Duke of 
Sussex; 1790-1820. 

Booker, Nugent, DubUn ; long-case 
clock about 1750, Mr. J. W. Gunnis. 

Boole, Jonathan, apprenticed 1676 to 
Sarah Payne, C.C. Thos., Reigate ; 
watch, 1758. 

Boone, Edward, apprenticed to Robert 
Dent, and came by several appointments 
to Thos. Tompion ; admitted C.C. 1691. 

Boot. Jno., long marquetry case 
clock, inscribed " John Boot, Sutton, Ash- 
field," dating from about 1710, formerly 
belonging to Joseph Jefferson, the distin- 
guished actor, now owned by Mrs. Thomas 
D. Goodell, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A. 
John & William, 1725. John and James, 
1735 ; clock. Jno., about 1740. 

Booth. Josh. Manchester ; 30-hour 
long-case clock, about 1700. W., long- 
case clock, about 1710. Benj., Pontefract ; 
watch, 1738. Jas. Bowker, Manchester, 
1765. Jno., Huddersfield, 1770. Jno., 
Manchester, 1775. Ben., London ; watch, 
silver dial, red tortoiseshell case, pique, 
inlaid landscape in silver, about 1780 ; 
Pierpont Morgan collection. Jno., London; 
watch, 1780. R. B., Selby, 1785. Jas., 20 
Little Tower Hill, 1788-92. R., Church 
Hill, Woolwich, 1812-17. Jno., Staly- 
bridge,' 1818. Wm., Leeds, 1828. 

Bor, J., Paris ; fine clock in a square 
brass case, minutes shown on a small circle 
below the hour dial, minute hand driven 
from fusee ; about 1590. 

Bordier. Denis, watch, crystal case, 
about 1630. A., Geneva ; watch, Schloss 
collection, case beautifully enamelled, 
about 1785 ; watch in octagonal case, 
" Leonard Bordier," S.K.M., 1800. In the 
Paul Garnier collection is a watch signed 
" Bordier, Paris, 1806." It is in a square 
case of rock-crystal. Freres, Geneva ; 
1820-30, see also Roux. 

Borellas, J., 15 Spencer St., 1840. 

Borelli, J., 8 Aldersgate St., 1790-95. 

Borgin, Henry, Without Bishopsgate, 
issued a token bearing a dial and hands 
about 1677. 

Borrel, A. P., Paris ; pupil and successor 
of A. Wagner ; born 1818, died 1887. 

Borrell. Henry, 15 Wilderness Row, 
1795-1840 ; watch in finely enamelled 
cases, Turkish numerals, on dial " Mark- 
wick Markham, Borrell, London," h.m., 
1813. MaximiUan, J., 19 Wilderness Row, 

Borret, P., 5 Staining Lane, Wood St., 

Borrett. Geo., Stowmarket ; watch, 
G.M., about 1750. M. M., London, about 

Borrough, Jno., Brampton, 1770. 

Borwick, Jno., Bartholomew Hospital ; 
watch, 1785. 

Bosch, Ukich, C.C. 1652. 

Bosen, — , Paris ; watch, 1806. 

Bosley. Joseph, Leadenhall St. ; C.C. 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


1725 ; Clerkenwell Green, 1730. In 1755 
he obtained a patent for using in watches 
pinions with more teeth than usual. This 
involved an extra wheel and pinion, and 
the balance wheel turned the contrary way. 
Also for (secondly) a slide index for 
watches, which has no wheel, but turns 
upon a brass socket and points to an arc of 
a circle, with the word " faster " at one 
end, and "slower" at the other. Patent 
unsuccessfully opposed by CO. 1725-63. 
Chas., RatchfE Cross ; succeeded Wm.. 
Kipling ; 1750-66 ; livery C.C. Charles, 
Uvery C.C. 1766. Thos., London ; bracket 
clock, about 1780. 

Bostock, Thos., Sandback, 1833. 

Bottomley, Jno., Clayton, about 1750. 

Bottrill, Ebenezer, Coventry, about 1740. 

Botzmayr, Johann Simon, Dantzig ; 
clock-watch, about 1740. 

Boucher, W., 4 Long Acre, 1820. 

Boucheret. Jacob, C.C. 1728. Jno., 
London, 1750. 

Bouchet, Jean Louis, Rue Saint Denis, 
Paris ; clockmaker to the King 1769. 

Boudon, — , octagonal watch inscribed 
" J. Boudon a St. Flour," about 1600. 

Boudry, Gustavus, 64 Frith St., Soho, 

Boufler, see De Boufler. 

Bouguet, see Bouquet. 

Bouhier. Octagonal watches said to have 
been introduced by Bouhier a Lyon 1538. 

Bouillaid, Paul, ' ' at the Eagle and Pearl 
in Great Suffolk St., near the Haymarket "; 
card, Ponsonby collection, about 1775. 

Boulanger, David, apprenticed 1691 to 
Wm. Bertram, C.C. 

Boult. Joseph, C.C. 1709. Michael, 
Cheapside, 1738. — , Bath ; watch, 1760. 

Boulter. Noel, long-case chiming clock, 
about 1790. Samuel, 12 Gloucester Place, 
Chelsea, 1840-42. 

Boulton. Job, at the " Bolt and Tun," 
Lombard St., had a gold and a silver watch, 
with other j ewellery, stolen in 1683. Robt., 
Wigan, 1770. T., watch-case maker, 49 
Gray's Inn Lane, 1820. John, in St. 
Oswald's Churchyard, Durham, is a head- 
stone with the inscription : — 

" To the Memory of John Boulton, 
Clock and Watchmaker, Durham, who 
died Oct. 27th, 1821, aged 60 years. 

" Ingenious artist ! few thy skill surpast 
In works of art, but death has beat at last. 
Though conquer d, yet thy Deeds wiil ever skine, 
Time can't destroy a genius large as thine." 

" Monumental Inscriptions," by C. M. Carlton. 

Boulu, " eleve de Lepine horloger de 
I'imperatrice, a Paris," about 1805. 

Bouquet, David, London ; C.C. 1632 ; 
died 1665 (the books of the C.C. in 1676 
and for some years after refer to Dorcas 

Bouquet, who was probably the widow of 
David) (see Knight, Thos. and Walkden, 
Thos.) ; maker of a watch in the B.M., 
fine case enamelled in relief and encrusted 
with jewels ; another and earlier example, 
an oval watch with covers back and front ; 
in the Dunn Gardner collection was a 
watch in a finely enamelled case, the 
movement clearly signed " D. Bouguet, 
Londini," 1610-40. " Lost lately a steel 
watch, finely cut and the work of it made 
by Bouquet, in a black shagreen case. 
Whoever hath found the same, if they 
bring it to Mr. Michael Scrimpshire, Gold- 
smith, at the sign of the Golden Lyon in 
Fleet St., shall have 20s. reward " {Lond. 
Gaz. Jan. 10, 1680). 

' ' A Pocket Clock made some years since 
by Mr. Boguett of Black Fryars, Watch- 
maker, it hath two Silver Cases, the out- 
most plain, the other wrought ; two Brass 
Keys, one of the usual form, the other 
forked for turning the hand of the Alarum, 
tied to a Silver Chain ; it hath the day of 
the Month, Tides, age of the Moon, and 
some other motions ; it strikes every 
hour " {Lond. Gaz., March 3-7. 1689). 

" Lost the 15 instant, between Rosse and 
Linton in Herefordshire, a watch with an 
alarum in a Silver Case, with a Silver Chain, 
the case lined with Crimson Satten, being 
an old piece ; the name of the maker being 
exprest thus : Daniel Bouquet, Londres " 
[Lond. Gaz., June 19-22, 1696). Solomon, 
C.C. 1650 ; a celebrated maker 1650-70. 
Solomon, C.C. 1683 ; in the B.M. is a 
watch of his with highly engraved gold 
cases, 1680-1700. N., calendar watch, 
Schloss collection, about 1700. 

Bouquett, David, apprenticed 1662 to 
Solomon Bouquett, C.C. ; watch made for 
a member of the family of Sir Hugh Brown, 
of Newington Butts, is in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge. 

Bourchier, W., 13 Broad St., Long 
Acre, 1835. 

Bourdon, Pierre, master engraver of 
Paris ; did much to advance the art of en- 
graving as applied to clocks and watches. 
He published an essay on the subject in 

Bourelier, John Francis, Arundel St., 
Strand, 1769-83: 

BourgheU, J., New York, 1786. 

Bourne, Aaron, Maiden Lane, Covent 
Garden, 1869. 

Bourret a Paris ; watch showing revolu- 
tionary, decimal, and ordinary time, about 
1798, Mons. E. Gelis. 

Bourrit, Daniel, Geneva ; watch, 1775. 

Boursault. HeUe, Chatellerault, about 
1680. J., Paris ; watch, about 1690. 

Boutell, Sam., London ; watch, about 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

Boutevile & Norton, 175 Aldersgate St., 
1810-19. Wm. Hy., 1823. 

Bouts, David, last representative of 
Parkinson & Bouts, Gracechurch St. ; 
died 1883, aged 61. 

Bouvet, Geo., Coleman St., 1730. 

Bouvier. G., a well-known French 
painter of watch cases in enamel, about 
1740. Jacques, watch, about 1770. Freres, 
watch with performing automata (Swiss), 

Boverick, — , "To be seen at Mr. 
Boverick's, Watchmaker, at the dial, facing 
Old Round Court, near the New Exchange, 
in the Strand, at one shilling each person, 
the furniture of a dining-room in a cherry- 
stone, a landau with horses complete, so 
minute as to be drawn along by a flea ; 
4-wheeled open chaise weighing one grain, 
so small, driven by flea also ; a flea chained 
200 links, padlock and key all weighing 
one-third of a grain ; and steel sizzors so 
minute that six pairs could be wrapped in 
wing of fly, but cut large horse hair " 
(handbill 1745). 

Bovet, — Fleurier, began making, 
watches for the Chinese market in 1830. 

Bowden, Jno., London ; long-case clock, 
about 1740. 

Bowdon, J., fine striking watch, about 

Bowen. Richard, apprenticed to Robt. 
Smith 1650 ; C.C. 1657. A " Richard 
Bowen " was maker of a large silver watch 
with two cases, the outer one chased and 
engraved with a border of flowers and the 
figure of the king praying, and the words, 
" And what I sai to you I sai unto all, 
Watch." It was said to have been given 
by Charles I. while at Carisbrooke to 
Colonel Hammond, 1647. Francis, appren- 
ticed to John Bowyer ; brought his master- 
piece on completion of his indentures, and 
was admitted C.C. 1654. Anchor escape- 
ment lantern clock inscribed " Francis 
Bowen in Leaden Hall streete Londini/' in 
possession of Mr. J. Drummond Robertson. 
Richard, apprenticed to Richard Bowen 
1670; C.C. 1678. In 1677 Jno. Bowen 
was apprenticed to Mary Bowen. " Lost, a 
watch in black shagreen studded case, with 
a glass in it, having only one Motion and 
Time pointing to the Hour on the Dial 
Plate, the spring being wound up without a 
ke}'-, and it opening contrary to all other 
watches, ' R Bowen, Londini, fecit, ' on the 
back plate " [Lond. Gaz., Jan. 10-13, 
1686). Thos., apprenticed to Hy. Brigden 
1684. John, C.C. 1709 ; clock with tidal 
record, about 1730, signed " Bowen, 
Bristol." David, Windsor, 1775. Thomas, 6 
Charing Cross. 1797-1813 ; livery C.C. 1811. 
John, 143 Long Acre, 1807-10 ; 2 Tichborne 
St., Haymarket, 1812-42 (Bowen & Holt 

1814-18). D., Alfreton, Derbyshire, died 

Bower. Jno., London ; large lantern 
clock, dolphin frets, about 1690. Peter, 
Redlynch, 1760-80. Michael, Philadelphia, 

Bowers, Wm., Chesterfield ; watch, 1807. 

Bowles, Jno., Poole, 1790. 

Bowley. Devereux, 54 Lombard St. ; 
a well-known maker of repeating clocks ; 
born 1696, died 1773 ; apprenticed to Wm. 
Tomlinson ; C.C. 1718, master 1759 ; was 
a member of the Society of Friends, and 
bequeathed a large sum to their school in 
Clerkenwell, as well as ;^500 to the C.C. ; 
a clock belonging to Mr. G. P. Osbaldeston 
bears the signature ' Devereux Bowly ' ; 
the name is similarly spelt on the dial of 
another clock in the possession of Mr. G. W. 
Toland, Washington, D.C. JnO., London ; 
watch, 1760. 

Bowman. James, apprenticed to Daniel 
Delander ; admitted C.C. 1743. Jas., 
London ; watch, 1815. Joseph, Lancaster, 
U.S.A., 1821-44. 

Bowness, Geo., Lancaster, born 1836. 

Bowra, John, 4 Holies St.. Oxford St., 
1820-28 ; " successor to W. Berridge " ; 
watch paper, C.C. 

Bowtell. Samuel, C.C. 1681. William, 
C.C. 1703. 

Bowvier, Chas. F., Geneva, 1780. 

Bowyer. Wm., a good maker ; sub- 
scribed for incorporation of C.C. ; in 1642 
he presented to the C.C. a great chamber 
clock, in consideration of his being there- 
after exempted from all office and service, 
as well as quarterage and other fees (see 
p. 477) ; 1623-42. Jno., possibly successor 
to Wm., see Bowen, F., & Bower. 

Box. John, 17 Ludgate St., 1775-86. 
William B., Clerkenwell; died 1892, 
aged 76. 

Boyce. Thos., apprenticed 1687 ; C.C. 
Jas., C.C. 1692 ; long marquetry case 
clock, square matted dial, circles round 
winding holes, silvered ring, angel and 
crown corners, about 1720. 

Boyer, T., London ; lantern clocks, 
about 1690. 

Boyle. Richd., apprenticed 1652 to Jno. 
Bayes ; C.C. 1660. Robert, Clare Market, 
1780. William, 11 Arundel St., Strand, 

Boynton Jas., Howden, 1770. 

Boys, A., & Duduict, Jacques, makers of 
a large clock-watch, G.M., about 1700. 

Bracebridge (& Pearce, Coppice Row, 
1800). Edward, 8 Red Lion St., Clerken- 
well, 1805-15. (Bracebridge & Sons, 
1816-18). J. & E. C, 8 Red Lion St., 
Clerkenwell, 1820-90 ; for a short time in 
1865 they also had the shop 199 Bond St. 
James, treasurer to the Watch and Clock- 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


makers' Benevolent Institution ; died 
1892, aged 66. 

Bracewell, Huntley, Scarborough, 1822. 

Brackenrig, Robert, Edinburgh ; made 
a Duplex escapement 1770. 

Brackley, George, C.C. 1677. 

Bradberry, — , Ley burn, 1805. 

Braddock, — , Hayfield ; clock, about 

Bradford. Thomas, CO. 1680. Thomas, 
C.C. 1692 ; watch, about 1700, Norman 
Shaw collection. Robert, London ; Mr. 
Eden Dickson has a small watch by him, 
with fine gold dial, about 1700. Thomas, 
Strand ; son of Robt. ; watch G.M. ; C.C. 
1710-70. J., Liverpool ; watch, 1816. 
Hy., 89 Bethnal Green Rd., 1820. 

Bradin (or Braen), Caspar, Westminster 
Churchyard ; C.C. 1715. 

Bradl, Anthony, Augsburg, 1680. 

Bradley. Henry, C.C. 1681. Langley, 
Whitechapel, afterwards in Fenchurch St. ; 
apprenticed to Joseph Wise 1687 ; ad- 
mitted C.C. 1695, master in 1726 ; maker 
of the St. Paul's and other turret clocks 
(see p. 331) ; long-case clock, Wetherfield 
collection. " Stolen out of Mr. Bradley's 
Shop, the ' Minute Dyall ' in Fanchurch 
St., on the 8th Inst., a Gold minute watch 
in an engraven case," &c. {Flying Post, 
8th Oct. 1698). Benjamin, apprenticed to 
Langley Bradley ; admitted C.C. 1728. 
L. & B., made a clock for Bancroft's 
School, Mile End, the date on the bell being 
1734 ; the clock is now in Bancroft's new 
school at Woodford. Thos., Ilkston, 1760. 
Wm., London ; watch h.m., 1784. John 
H., 3 Great Russell St., Bloomsbury, 1842. 

Bradshaw, Jno., apprenticed 1651 to 
Lancelot Meredith, C.C. Jno., C.C. 1658. 
Hy., apprenticed 1687 to Wm. Slough, 
C.C. ; Thos. Reynolds was apprenticed to 
him in 1699. Edwd., Puddle Dock Hill ; 
C.C. 1725. John, C.C. 1731. & Ryley, 
Coventry, 1760. Jno., York, 1, 1762 ; at 
Manchester 1770. Wm., Liverpool, watch, 

Braemar, Gerrett, P., Amsterdam ; 
repeating watch, S.K.M., about 1735. 

Braene, Caspar, London, 1729 ; C.C. 

Brafield, William, C.C. 1678 ; fined 5s. 
by C.C. in 1688 for making a bad watch- 
case. Thos., London ; long-case clock, 
about 1705. 

Braillard fils, Besanyon, 1680. 

Braithwaite, Geo., Lombard St., 1738. 
& Jones, Cockspur St. ; the Hon. Gerald 
Ponsonby has a fine repeater by them, 
about 1800. 

Bramble. Joseph, 407 Oxford St., 
1804-35 ; clock, enamel dial, Mr. T. D. 
Chapman, " Joseph Bramble London," 
about 1805. Wm. & Edwd., 407 Oxford St., 
1840. Eliza,'9 Wells St., Oxford St., 1842. 

Brambley, Joseph, 10 Maiden Lane, 
Wood St. ; in 1797 founder and citizen ; 
petitioned against being compelled to take 
up freedom in C.C. 1783-97. 

Bramer, Paulus, Amsterdam ; watch, 
about 1700. Garrit, Amsterdam ; clock- 
watch, about 1750. 

Bramwell, Frederick, Fishergate, 
Preston ; died 1913. 

Brand. Basil, apprenticed 1660 to Jno. 
Matchett, C.C. Alexander, Edinburgh, 
1727 ; though not apprenticed in Edin- 
burgh, he was by favour admitted to the 
Incorporation of Hammermen, and in 
return presented a clock which is still in 
Magdalen Chapel, Cowgate, then the 
meeting-place of the Incorporation. & 
Matthey, Philadelphia, 1797. C. (see 
Brandt), musical watch maker to H.M., 
22 Frith St., 1814-19. 

Brandon, Benjamin, C.C. 1689. 

Brandreth, Joseph, C.C. 1718 ; long-case 
clock, " Brandreth, Middlewich," about 

Brandt, Chas., musical watch maker, 
74 New Compton St., 1815 ; 82 Theobald's 
Rd., 1820; 145 Regent St., 1825; 22 
Upper Belgrave Place, Pimlico, 1835. 

Branston & Bird, 39 Cornhill, 1775 
(Thos. Branston, livery Glovers' Company) 

Brant, Richard, apprenticed to Sam 
Davis 1649 ; C.C. Richd., apprenticed 
1692 to Jno. Dickens ; C.C. 1700. John, 
Stockholm, 1730. Brown & Lewis, Phila- 
delphia, 1795. 

Brasbridge, Joseph, 98 Fleet St., 1794. 
& Son, 198 Fleet St., 1825. 

Brasier, Amable, Philadelphia, 1811. 

Brass. Jno., Guildford, 1725. Thos., 
London ; long-case clock, about 1750 ; 
Mr. B. L. F. Potts has a bracket clock 
signed " Thomas Brass, London," about 
1760. It formerly belonged to Jno. 
Thorpe, the antiquary. 

Brasseur, — , Rue Bourg I'Abbe, Paris, 

Bratt, Andre, Augsburg, about 1740. 

Bray. Robert, C.C. 1728. Thomas, St. 
Margaret's Churchyard, 1798-1804; 8 
Little Queen St., Westminster, 1807-25. 
Wm., 171 Tottenham Court Rd., 1840. 
James, 40 Cheapside, 1846-1918. A clever 
horologist. Served on the Council of the 
British Horological Institute for many 

Bray field. William, apprenticed to Thos. 
Wilhamson 1671 ; C.C. 1678. " Drop'd 
the 21st December in Little Weld St. or 
thereabout, a middle siz'd Silver Minute 
Pendulum watch, going Thirty hours, 
with a chain, in a silver case, the name 
' William Bray field, London.' Whoever 
brings it to Redmond Regard, Clockmaker, 
at the upper end of Russell St., near Drury 


Old Clocks and their Makers 

Lane, shall have 40s. reward " {London 
Gaz., January 25-28, 1691). Thos., 
apprenticed 1675 to Erasmus Mickle- 
wright ; C.C. 1682. John, C.C. 1716. 

Brayley. Joseph, 6 Little Guildford St., 
Bernard St., Russell Sq., card, Hodgkin 
collection, about 1810. 

Breakspear & Co., Oxford St., 1807. 

Breames, Leonard, C.C. 1633. 

Breani a Paris, skeleton clock, about 

Brear, Jas., Philadelphia, 1793-99. 

Brearley, — , Spa Fields ; C.C. 1782. 
Jas., Philadelphia, 1797-1811. 

Brebant (or Brebent), Peter. Mr. F. T. 
Proctor, Utica, N.Y., has a regulator by 
Peter Brebant, London, about 1710 ; 
repeating watch, Peter Brebent, London, 
about 1690. 

Breese, Jas., 5 North Place, Gray's Inn 
Rd.. 1842. 

" Breghtel, J. H. C, Hagae," signature 
on case of late-seventeenth-century clock, 
S.K.M., see Van de Bergh. 

Breguet, Abraham Louis, born 1747, 
died 1823 ; a French watchmaker of rare 
attainments and inventive power ; 
Berthoud, w^ho was Breguet's senior by 
two years, ends a brief notice of hisbrilliant 
contemporary thus : " II n'a rien public." 
Breguet lived sixteen 5^ears longer than 
Berthoud, but. unfortunately for us. it 
must still be recorded " he published 
nothing " (see p. 385). Louis Antoine, son 
of the above ; retired 1833. Louis, son 
and successor of L. A. ; born 1804, died 
1883, see Brown, Edwd. 

Brentwood, Wm., London ; watch, 1775. 

Brest, Edwd., Prescot, 1770. 

Breton, Henry, keeper of the West- 
minster clock 1413. 

Bretonneau, Auguste, Paris, a watch 
by him belonging to Earl Amhurst 
described in ArchcBological Journal, vol. 
xvii.. enamelled. Holy Family on one side, 
St. Catherine on the other, about 1680. 
In the Pierpont Mcrgan collection is a 
clock-watch by him of later date, with 
white enamel dial enclosing a gilt centre, 
silver case beautifully pierced with flowers 
and bird, a coat-of-arms on the back. 

Brett, Jas., lantern clock, about 1695. 
Thos., London ; bracket clock, about 

Bretton, Jno., Milsom St., Bath, 1798. 
Brewer. Edwd., apprenticed 1665 to 
Stafford Freeman, C.C. John, C.C. 1677. 
Richard, Norwich ; long-case clock, about 
1720. Mr. Sheldon, Leicester. Richd., 
Lancaster, 1783, f. Wm., Philadelphia, 
1785-91. J., 25 New Surrev St., Black- 
friars, 1810-15. Wm., Blackburn, 1814-24. 
Thos., Preston, 1818. W., 149 Great 
Surrey St., Blackfriars. 1825. 

Brewster & Ingraham, Bristol, Conn., 

Brewton, Robt., apprenticed 1660 to 
Jno. Archer, C.C. 

Breynton, Vaughan, C.C. 1693. 

Brice, Wm., Sandwich ; watch, 1784. 

Brickell, Edmund, London ; clock, red 
lacquer case, about 1730. 

Brickenden, Nat., apprenticed 1651 to 
Robt. Whitwell, C.C. 

Bricker, Wm., Hosier Lane, 1730. 

Brickie, William, 5 Church St., Mile 
End, 1842. 

Bridgden, Henry, C.C. 1682. 

Bridge, Wm., C.C. 1674. Thos., Wigan, 
1690-1720. Thos.j London ; long-case clock, 
marquetry in panels," Thos. Bridge Londini 
fecit," about 1695 ; another, arabesque 
marquetry, about 1700, Wetherfield col- 
lection. Richard, London ; watch, 1748. 
Edwd., London ; watch, 1802. 

Bridgeman, Edwd., apprenticed 1655 to 
Jno. Matchett, Russell St., Covent 
Garden ; C.C. 1662. 

Bridger, Samuel, admitted C.C. 1703. 

Bridges. Henry, Waltham Abbey (see 
p. 396-8), 1730-41. Thos,, London ; long- 
case clock, bird and flower marquetry 
in panels, about 1700. Robt., London ; 
watch, 1784. 

Bridgman, Richard, an excellent work- 
man, some years with M'Cabe, then in 
Mount St., afterwards with Charles Frods- 
ham & Co., then for a short time in the 
Haymarket, in partnership with Brindle; 
died 1904.. aged 62. 

BriggS, John, " a cutter of glasses for 
watches " ; brother C.C. 1669 ; several 
generations of Briggs, clockmakers, in 
Gargrave and Skipton, Yorkshire. 

Bright. Jno., 72 Long Acre, 1780-94. 
John, Sheffield, 1790. Isaac, Sheffield, 
1810. & Sons, Sheffield, 1817-33. Richd., 
9 Foster Lane, 1815-26, see Upjohn. 

Brille, — , Paris ; clock, about 1750. 

Brimble & Rouckhffe, Bridg\vater, 1770; 
clock by them belonging to Mr. Edwin 
Ash ; their names are also on the weather- 
cock of St. Mary's Church, Bridgwater. 

Brind, Walter, livery Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, 34 Foster Lane, 1773-88. 

Brinkman, George, 12 Union St., 
Bishopsgate, 1815-40. & GoUin, 1842. 

Briscoe, Stafford, at the " Three Kings 
and Golden Ball," Cheapside, 1738-59. 
& Morrison, 1768, see Morrison, Richd. 
Sam., London ; watch, 1810. 

Bristow. Jno., apprenticed 1653 to Richd. 
Craille, C.C. Tim., apprenticed 1691 to 
Vrian Berrington. C.C. Wm. G., 6 Hoxton 
Fields, 1790-1835 ; trunk dial, Guildhall, 
about 1800, inscribed " Bristow, London." 

British Watch Company, 75 Dean St., 
Soho. formed in 1843, to manufacture 

Former Clock and Watch Makers 


watches with duplicating tools invented by 
P. F. Ingold. John Barwise was chairman 
of the directorate, and he with Thos. Earn- 
shaw and Thos. Hewitt formed a committee 
of managers. John Frodsham & Son, 
Gracechurch St., were to be the London 
" agents." An excellent watch was 
designed, and several were made, but the 
" trade " successfully opposed the appli- 
cation to Parhament for an Act of In- 
corporation, and the enterprise came to 
a close. Ingold afterwards went to 
America ; and although he was not success- 
ful in forming a company there, it is said 
that some of the tools made for the 
British Watch Company formed the 
nucleus of the American factory system. 

Brittaine. Boaz, apprenticed to Wm. 
Speakman 1670 ; C.C. 1679. Stephen, C.C. 

Britten, S., w^atch-glass maker, 11 
Charles St., Hatton Garden, 1835. 

Britton. Stephen, C C. 1728. Sandys, 
48 Wvnyatt St., 1835. 

Brokd. Thomas, C.C. 1682. John, Bod- 
min, 1790-1820. Wm., 53 Leadenball St., 
1804-30. R., 204 Bermondsey St., 1820. 
Broadhead, Benjamin, C.C. 1709. 
Broadley, Jas., 24 Wood St., 1772. 
Broadwater, Hugh, C.C. 1692. 
BroadwOOd, — , London ; watch, 1795. 
Brock, James, foreman to Dent, after- 
wards at 18 George St., Portman Sq., 
died \S^, aged 67. 

Broaooank. John, apprenticed to Joseph 
Hardin 1761 ; C.C. 1769, livery 1777 ; 
7 Queen St., Cheapside, card, Hodgkin col- 
lection ; afterwards at 5 Cowper's Court, 
Corn hill. John & Myles, 6 Cowper's 
Court ; INIyles was the son of Edward 
Brockbank, of Corners, in Cumberland, and 
was apprenticed to his brother John at 17 
Old Jewry, 1769 ; C.C. 1776'; they were 
eminent chronometer makers ; John died 
early in the nineteenth century, and Myles 
retired about 1808 ; they were succeeded 
by their nephews, John and Myles Brock- 
bank, who for a few years carried on the 
business as John Brockbank & Company