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OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 




^XJ 



FRONTISPIECE. 



PLATE XLI. 

Fig. 64. Tile painted with a bouquet of tulips, 
an anemone and larkspur in yellow, 
reddish brown, green, blue and man- 
ganese-purple of the grand feu on a 
white ground. Unmarked. Delft ; 
about 1700. H. 13 ins. {-^-^ cm.), W. gj 
ins. (25 cm.). (See page 98.) 

Ned-erlandsch MiLseum voor Geschiedenis i 
[RijlcsmiiseuTn), Amsterdam, No. 339. 



/ OLD DUTCH 

POTTERY AND TILES 

BY ELISABETH 
NEURDENBURG 

LITT. D., READER IN THE HISTORY OF ART AT 

THE UNIVERSITY OF GRONINGEN. TRANSLATED 

WITH ANNOTATIONS BY 

BERNARD 
RACKHAM 

DEPUTY KEEPER, DEPARTMENT 

OF CERAMICS, VICTORIA AND 

ALBERT MUSEUM 




WITH ONE HUNDRED AND TWELVE 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF WHICH EIGHT 

ARE IN COLOUR 



LONDON: BENN BROTHERS, LIMITED 

8 BOUVERIE STREET, E.C.4 

1923 



Made and printed in Great Britain at 
The Mayflower Press, Plymouth. William Brandon & Son, Ltd. 




TO DR. A. PIT 

FORMERLY DIRECTOR OF THE NEDERLANDSCH 
MUSEUM VOOR GESCHIEDENIS EN KUNST AT 
AMSTERDAM, IN GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF 
HIS SERVICES TO THE STUDY OF DUTCH POTTERY, 
WE DEDICATE THIS BOOK 



FOREWORD 

This work is to some extent based on the chapters relating to Dutch 
pottery in the handbook by the authoress on the earthenware in the 
Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst (Rijksmuseum) at 
Amsterdam, published under the title Oud Aardewerk, of which the first 
edition appeared in 1917 and a second in 1920. Acknowledgment is 
hereby made by the publishers to the Director of that Museum, Mr. M. 
van Notten, for his kindness in permitting the extensive use that has 
been made of the Museum publication, and the reproduction of official 
photographs of the objects in the Museum. The chapter on tiles and 
the greater part of that on Dutch maiolica are entirely new material, 
embodying the results of recent researches in these subjects. The 
chapters on Delft have been considerably amplified by references to 
specimens in public and private collections in England and on the 
Continent. The work was written in Dutch specially for the present 
publishers by Dr. Neurdenburg, and translated with annotations by 
Mr. Rackham, who has also contributed the chapter on the place of 
Dutch earthenware in the history of European pottery and helped to 
choose the illustrations. That these have been drawn in large proportion 
from specimens in the Nederlandsch Museum (Rijksmuseum) is due to 
the fact that the authoress has had exceptional opportunities of studying 
them in her former capacity as Wetenschappelijk Assistente in that 
Museum. 

The authoress and translator desire to express their thanks to 
Mr. Ferrand Hudig, of the Nederlandsch Museum, to Miss Ida Peelen, of 
the Lambert van Meerten Museum at Delft, to Mr. A. Hoynck van 
Papendrecht, of the Museum van Oudheden at Rotterdam, to Dr. 
H. E. van Gelder, of The Hague, to M. Marcel Laurent, of the Musees 
du Cinquantenaire at Brussels, to M. Frans Claes, of Antwerp, to 
M. J. de Pas, of St. Omer, to M. Pierre Turpin, of Lille, and to 
Mr. P. Entwistle, of the Public Museums, Liverpool, for facilities 
courteously extended to them and for valuable suggestions. They 
wish also to acknowledge the kindness with which specimens have 
been placed at their disposal for illustration by M. Th. Clainpanain, of 
Lille, Mr. J. Schouten, of Delft, M. Michel van Gelder, of Brussels, 



FOREWORD 

Mr. John Tenbosch, of Liverpool, and Mr. Henry A. Cole, Chairman of 
the Libraries, Museums and Arts Committees, Liverpool. Lastly, their 
acknowledgments are due for similar privileges to the authorities of the 
museums already mentioned, and also of the Victoria and Albert and 
British Museums, London, the Gemeentemuseum at The Hague, the 
Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, the Musee Ceramique, Sevres, the 
Schlossmuseum, Berlin, and the Danske Kunstindustrimuseum, Copen- 
hagen ; finally, to the Lord Chamberlain for permission to photograph 
and reproduce a vase at Hampton Court Palace. Crown copyright is 
also reserved in the case of the photographs reproduced in Figures 7, 43, 
45> 53> 58, 68, 69, 74, 84, 89 and 109. 



CONTENTS 

Page 
FOREWORD ............. Tii 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS =«» 

Chapter 

I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . • -3 

11 THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE 9 

III DUTCH RED EARTHENWARE AND TILES . I7 

IV DUTCH MAIOLICA OF THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES . . .21 
V DUTCH TILES 33 

VI DUTCH TILE-PICTURES 49 

VII DELFT EARTHENWARE : ITS ORIGINS AND STUDY 57 

VIII BLUE-AND-WHITE DELFT. DE KEIZER, PIJNACKER, FRIJTOM AND OTHER POTTERS 

AND POTTERY-PAINTERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY . . . .69 

IX SAMUEL VAN EENHOORN AND ROCHUS HOPPESTEYN 75 

X LAMBERTUS VAN EENHOORN AND LOUWIJS FICTOOR 79 

XI BLUE-AND-WHITE AND PURPLE DELFT OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY . . .83 

XII POLYCHROME DELFT OF THE GRAND FEU. LAMBERTUS VAN EENHOORN AND LOUWIJS 

FICTOOR 91 

XIII THE " ROSE " FACTORY. VERHAAST AND OTHER SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY POTTERS 97 

XIV DELFT WARE WITH COLOURED GROUND. IMITATIONS OF FOREIGN EARTHENWARE 103 
XV GRAND FEU POLYCHROME WARE OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY . . .107 

XVI THE BEGINNINGS OF MUFFLE-KILN PAINTING. HOPPESTEYN, PIJNACKER AND OTHERS iis 
XVII THE MUFFLE-KILN. THE INFLUENCE OF PORCELAIN TECHNIQUE . . . .123 

XVIII THE RED TEAPOTS OF DELFT 129 

XIX THE DECLINE I33 

XX THE PLACE OF DUTCH EARTHENWARE IN THE HISTORY OF EUROPEAN POTTERY . 137 

APPENDIX : LIST OF MARKS OF DELFT POTTERS IN 1764 MS 

BIBLIOGRAPHY M7 

INDEX 151 

ix 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 
DRUG-POT, DATED 1610. (In Colours) . .1 

Rijksmuseum, Ainsterdom. 

DISH PAINTED WITH FRUIT ON A DISH 2 

Museum Lambert van MeerUn, Delft. 

THREE DRUG-POTS FROM MIDDELBURG 3 

Rijksm.useum, Amsterdam, 



DISH INSCRIBED EERT GOD 3 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

DEEP BOWL WITH THE ROMAN CHARITY, DATED 1601 4 

Rijksmiiseum, Amsterdam. 

DISH WITH FIGURES OF VERTUMNUS AND POMONA S 

Rjjksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

DISH WITH HERALDIC ROSE 5 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

PLATE WITH THE MADONNA AND CHILD 6 

Museum Lambert van Mccrten, Delft. 

DISH WITH FRUIT DESIGN 6 

Schoulen Collection, Delft. 

FOUR TILES WITH ARABESQUES 7 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 

FOUR TILES WITH TERMINAL FIGURES 7 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 

FOUR TILES WITH GEOMETRICAL ORNAMENT 7 

M-useum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 

TWELVE TILES WITH LATTICE PATTERN . 8 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 

TWELVE TILES WITH STAR AND LILY MOTIVES 8 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft, 

NINE TILES WITH VASES OF FLOWERS 9 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 

TWENTY-FOUR TILES WITH FRUIT AND FLOWERS 9 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 

TILE WITH FIGURE OF AN ARCHER 10 

Rijlcsmuseum, Amsterdam. 

FOUR TILES WITH ANIMALS AND BIRDS 10 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Ddfi. 

FOUR TILES WITH TULIPS . 10 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 

TILE-PICTURE FROM THE HOUSE IN DUYSENT VREESEN n 

Museum van Oudheden, Rotterdam. 

xi 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 
TILE-PICTURE, A VASE OF FLOWERS. (In Colours) 12 

Museum van Oudheden, Rotterdam. 

TILE-PICTURE AFTER JOACHIM UTEWAEL 13 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 

FOUR TILES WITH FIGURES 14 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 

TWELVE TILES WITH CHINESE MOTIVES 14 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 

TILE-PICTURE, A TILE-FACTORY AT BOLSWARD. Dated 1737 . . . . . - IS 

Rijksmuseu/m, Amsterdam. 

TILE-PICTURE, SHIPPING, BY CORNELIS BOUMEESTER OF ROTTERDAM . . . .16 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

VASE AND COVER. Mark GK 17 

Cole Collection, Bidston, Birkenhead. 

INKSTAND WITH ARMS OF ORANGE 18 

Rijksmuseumy Amsterdam. 

TULIP-VASE. Mark AK 18 

Rijksmitseum, Amsterdam. 

JUG WITH RING-SHAPED BODY. Dated 1658 19 

Rijksmuseumy Amsterdam. 

TILE, PORTRAIT OF ROBERTUS JUNIUS. Dated 1660 20 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

HYACINTH-VASE WITH CIPHER OF WILLIAM III AND QUEEN MARY. Mark AK . . .21 

Hampton Court Palace. 

TILE WITH LANDSCAPE, SIGNED F. V. FRIJTOM 22 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

TILE, VIEW AT DELFT 22 

British Museum, London, 

PLAQUE WITH SEA-FIGHT, SIGNED REJNER (?) 23 

Musde Ceramique, Sevres. 

PLAQUE WITH VIEW OF CHINESE COAST, SIGNED REINIER 23 

Musee Ceramique, Sevres. 

TWO PLATES WITH LANDSCAPES, FRIJTOM STYLE 24 

M usees du Cinquantenaire, Brussels. 

JUG WITH SILVER LID, HOPPESTEYN STYLE 25 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

VASE, FLORAL DESIGN. Mark RHS 25 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

WIG-STAND, CHINESE FIGURES. Mark SVE 26 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

LARGE VASE AND COVER. CHINESE FIGURES. Mark SVE 27 

Danske Kunstindustrimuseum, Copenhagen. 

PAIR OF GOURD-SHAPED BOTTLES, FLORAL DECORATION. Mark AK .... 28 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

DISH, FLORAL DECORATION. Mark LVE or LP 28 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

xii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



JUG WITH MUSIC-PARTY. Mark Roos 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

PLATE FROM A SET OF THE ZODIAC, SIGNED /. THORN HILL FECIT. DELPH, AUG. Vll 
British Museum, London. 

DISH WITH SUBJECT OF CHRIST BEFORE CAIAPHAS. Mark IVH 
Rijksmuseum, Amsitrdam. 

DISH WITH VIEW OF TWISK, SIGNED M. v. KDYK and dated 1742 
Tenbosch Collection, Liverpool. 

KETTLE AND BRAZIER, CHINESE DESIGN 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

DISH, FLOWERS IN PANELS 

Tenbosch Collection, Liverpool. 

VIOLIN WITH DANCING SCENES 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

TEAPOT, CHINESE DESIGN, STYLE OF L. van EENHOORN or L. FICTOOR 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

DISH WITH " LIGHTNING " PATTERN. Mark WK . 
Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

SET OF FIVE VASES, CHINESE DESIGN. Mark LVE or LF . 

Michel van Gelder Collection, Uccle. 

JUG WITH FLORAL DESIGN. Mark GH ... 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

COFFEE-POT, FLORAL DESIGN. Mark LF and FDK . 
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

VASE WITH FLORAL ORNAMENT. Mark ROOS. (In Colours) 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

SET OF THREE VASES AND TWO BEAKERS. Mark ROOS 
Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

DISH, FAMILLE VERTE DESIGN 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 



DISH, SCATTERED FLOWERS 

Michel van Odder Collection, Uccle. 

WALL-PLAQUE, CHINESE PLANTS AND BIRDS. Mark IVK. Dated 1739 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 

PLATE WITH CHINESE FIGURES 

Michd van Odder Collection, Uccle. 

TILE WITH GROUP OF PEASANTS, ASCRIBED TO G. VERHAAST . 

Musee Cdramique, Sevres. 

TILE WITH BOUQUET. (Frontispiece, in Colours) .... 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

TEAPOT, DECORATION IN RESERVE ON BLACK GROUND. Mark APK 

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 
THREE VASES, DECORATION IN RESERVE ON BLACK GROUND. Mark APK 

Clainpanain Collection, Lille. 

WALL-PLAQUE, FLOWERS ON BLACK GROUND. (In Colours) 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 



FUte 
29 



30 
30 
31 
31 
32 
33 
33 
34 
35 
35 
36 
37 
38 
38 
39 
39 
40 
41 
42 
42 
43 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate 
TEA-CADDY, CHINESE LANDSCAPES ON BLACK GROUND. Mark LF or LVE in monogram . 44 

Victoria and Albert Musewn, London. 

PLATE, CHINESE LANDSCAPE ON BLACK GROUND 44 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

JUG, FLOWERS IN YELLOWISH GREEN ON A MAZARINE-BLUE GROUND . . . -45 

GcmeeiUemuaeuvi, The Hague. 

PAIR OF VASES, DECORATION ON TURQUOISE-BLUE GROUND. Mark D . . . . 45 

Jitjksmuseuw, Amsterdam. 

PLATE, DECORATION IN CHINESE STYLE 46 

Eijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

WALL-PLAQUE, CHINESE LADIES 46 

Rijfcsmusemn, Amsterdam. 

SHALLOW BOWL, CHINESE LADIES 47 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

DISH, PASTORAL SCENE WITHIN FLORAL BORDER 48 

Clainpanain Collection, Lille. 

DISH, VASE OF FLOWERS 48 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

FIGURE OF A BAGPIPE-PLAYER. Mark an axe - 49 

Eijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

FIGURE OF A HORSE 49 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

PAIR OF SLIPPERS 49 

Rijlcsmuseum, Amsterdum. 

FIGURE OF A COW . . .50 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

FIGURE OF A PARROT 50 

Clainparmin Collection, Lille, 

DISH, FLORAL DESIGN. (In Colours) 51 

BijJcsmuseum, Amsterdam. 
DISH, FLORAL DESIGN £2 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

BOWL WITH INSCRIPTION COMMEMORATING THE PEACE OF RYSWICK, 1697 . . . 52 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

PAIR OF PLAQUES WITH FIGURES OF DRINKERS, ONE INSCRIBED 0. SACHTLEEVEN . . 53 

Bijicsmuseum, Amsterdam. 

TILE WITH ARMS OF ORANGE. Marked P. VIZEBB. Dated 1765 S3 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

MONEY-BOX, CHINESE FLOWERS 54 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

PUZZLE-JUG, CHINESE FLOWERS SS 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

TRAY WITH "vase OF FLOWERS SS 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

TILE-PICTURE, CHINESE LANDSCAPE WITH FIGURES 56 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

xiv 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 
JAR, GROUPS OF CHINESE FIGURES. Mark RHS 57 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

JAR, CHINESE FIGURES. Mark RHS 57 

Schlossmuseum, Berlin. 

JUG, CHINESE FIGURES. Mark RHS and a negro's head. (In Colours) 58 

Rijksmuseitm, Amsterdam. 

JAR, WITH FIGURE SUBJECT (perhaps Apollonius of Tyana) 59 

Musses du Cinquantemiire, Brussels. 

EWER AND BASIN, IMARI STYLE. Mark APK ... 60 

Rijksmusewtn, Amsterdam. 

DISH, IMARI STYLE. Mark APK. (In Colours) 61 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

PLATE, ROYAL ARMS OF ENGLAND. Mark APK 62 

Musee des Arts Dicoratifs, Paris. 

PLATE, ARMS OF LOUIS ALEXANDRE DE BOURBON. Mark APK 62 

Clainpanain Collection^ Lille. 

PLATE, ARMS OF FREDERICK THE GREAT OF PRUSSIA. Mark APK 62 

Qemeentemuseum, The Hague. 

JUG, IMARI STYLE. Mark APK 63 

Qemeentemuseum, The Hague. 

CRUET-STAND, IMARI STYLE. Mark APK 63 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

DISH, EUROPA AND THE BULL. Mark APK 64 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

DISH, MUSIC PARTY 64 

Musie des Arts D^oratifs, Paris. 

DISH, CHINESE FAMILLE YEBTE STYLE. Mark AR 65 

Rijks^nuseum, Amsterdam. 

DISH, CHINESE FAMILLE BOSE STYLE 65 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

MINIATURE SET OF VASES AND BEAKERS, JAPANESE STYLE . . . . . .66 

Bijksmuseum, Avisterdam. 

TEA-TRAY, CHINESE FAMILLE YEBTE STYLE 66 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

FOUR TILES, BASKETS OF FLOWERS IN MUFFLE-KILN COLOURS 67 

Museum Lambert van Aleerlen, Delft, 

DISH WITH LANDSCAPE IN MEISSEN STYLE 67 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 

WALL-CISTERN AND WASH-BASIN WITH LANDSCAPES 68 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

TEAPOT, RED EARTHENWARE. Mark of Ary de Milde 69 

Bijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 

COFFEE-POT, WITH FRUIT AND SCALE BORDER. ARNHEM 69 

Clainpanain Collection, Lille. 



XV 



INTRODUCTION 



Chapter I 
INTRODUCTION 

There is little to be gathered from literary sources about old Dutch 
earthenware. It is true that quite a number of documents have come 
down to us relating to the potters and potteries of Delft, Rotterdam and 
other places, as well as those of Friesland, but we read in them very 
little about the wares themselves or their technique. 

Gerrit Paape, a Dutch author who in the year 1794 published a 
description of the Delft pottery manufacture, is the only writer who 
gives us more detailed information, and his work belongs to the very 
end of the eighteenth century, when Delft earthenware had long passed 
its prime. Nevertheless, if we wish to get an idea of the processes of 
manufacture, we shall do well to read Paape's interesting little book 
entitled De Plateelbakker of Delftsch Aardewerkmadker (" The Earthen- 
ware Potter or Delft-ware Manufacturer "). If we do so, we shall at 
once meet with an observation that, to us of the twentieth century, 
accustomed to a more precise use of language, will sound somewhat 
curious. Delft earthenware, says Paape, is a certain kind of porcelain 
that was discovered in Holland about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. And he tells us that the first productions were so successful 
that they immediately became the rage in different countries. From his 
further account it appears that he looks upon " delft " entirely as an 
imitation of what he calls " East Indian porcelain." 

The reason why Paape speaks of Delft earthenware as a kind of 
porcelain will at once be clear to us if we reflect for a moment that, as a 
matter of fact, at that time all European earthenware with a white ground 
was a substitute for " a kind of porcelain." The most eager curiosity 
must have been awakened amongst potters, the Dutch especially, from the 
sixteenth century right up to the beginning of the eighteenth — till the 
time, that is, when porcelain began to be made in Europe itself — by 
the white translucent Chinese porcelain, the splendid homogeneous 
material that the East India merchants had been bringing with them to 
Europe since the sixteenth century. What efforts those potters made 
to imitate this delicate ware, with white body closely united with a 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

transparent white glaze, and its painted decoration in pure blue or the 
strong colours of the polychrome palette ! They never fully realised 
their lack of kaolin, which is essential for obtaining a material white 
throughout its substance. They attempted to imitate this Oriental 
porcelain with their earthenware, and with such deceptive results that 
they themselves almost believed they had succeeded ; in any case, they 
called their productions porcelain when painting in blue or colours gave 
them to the eye an exact resemblance to the Chinese. But their earthen- 
ware always consisted of a core, mostly cream-coloured (never white), 
brittle and readily scratched with a knife, and, overlying this core, clearly 
separate from it, the layer of enamel, that is glaze owing its whiteness to the 
presence of tin in its composition. Moreover, body and enamel not 
being fused into one homogeneous substance, this layer of enamel was 
liable to crack, and in consequence often shows a network of little fissures, 
the so-called " crackle " ; indeed, it not infrequently flakes right away 
from the body. Nor is this earthenware ever transparent or translucent 
like porcelain. Yet the aim of the Dutch potters was undoubtedly to 
approach as nearly as possible in their productions to the porcelain 
which was to them such a mystery. 

Thus we find the potters of Delft, and equally of Haarlem and 
other places, when they imitated Chinese porcelain, calling themselves 
" porcelain potters " (jporseleinbakkers) and their earthenware " porcelain." 
Seen from a distance their work bears a close likeness to porcelain, but 
its unevenness of surface, its softness to the touch, above all its brittle, 
tinted body and its easily chipped layer of glaze, prove that all the time 
they were making " earthenware." That it became customary to look 
upon delft as a kind of porcelain is clearly shown by the fact that, even 
as late as 1794, Gerrit Paape (in his work to which reference has been 
made above) speaks of " porcelain." From this we gather that, from 
the time when porcelain first became known in Europe right up to the 
nineteenth century, no distinction such as we now recognise was made 
between earthenware and porcelain, the boundaries between them having 
been effaced, so to speak, through the effort to copy Chinese porcelain. 

Whilst, therefore, in the nineteenth century delft has again been 
classified, at least amongst connoisseurs, as earthenware (it is still by no 
means uncommon to hear people talk of " Delft porcelain "), it has at 
the same time become customary, with the growth of interest in this 
class of earthenware, to call everything that shows a correspondence with 
it " delft." Thus even in England the expression " English and Dutch 



INTRODUCTION 

delft " is generally current, whilst in the Netherlands no distinction is 
made between the products of the Delft factories and those of other 
places. And in a certain sense it is indeed convenient to call all such 
earthenware ** delft." 

But delft is preceded by an important class of old Dutch earthenware, 
its forerunners, which has only lately become known. Through the 
study made of this early ware since the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, chiefly under the guidance of finds dug up from beneath the 
soil in various places in the country, we have been brought automatically 
to a different date for the origin of earthenware in the Netherlands than 
that of Paape, who in his little book gave it as the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. The discussion, therefore, of old Dutch earthenware 
and even of delft must begin with these early pieces from the Northern 
Netherlands, that is to say, with the earthenware that was produced in 
Holland from the second half of the sixteenth century onwards ; it is 
as yet in no sense an imitation of Chinese porcelain, but displays a 
peculiar character and a peculiar beautiful warm colouring of its own. 



THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE 



Chapter II 
THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE 

No description of the technique has come down to us from the 
early period ; we are therefore obliged to make use of Paape's clear survey 
of the pottery industry in order to picture to ourselves the production 
of earthenware at Delft and also as well as we can in the older factories. 
In so doing we shall here pass over receipts for the glaze and other 
ingredients, names of various shapes of dishes, etc., information that 
would be of value chiefly to facilitate the reading of inventories. We 
shall confine ourselves to the description of the method by which the 
earthenware was made. Nor shall we go into the chemical secrets of the 
potter — ^who, indeed, must have kept them to himself as much as possible, 
although most of them were none the less common property ; there is 
the more reason for omitting these questions in that there is all the 
difference in composition of body, glaze and pigment between the work 
of the time of Paape, that is, the end of the eighteenth century, and that 
of the middle of the seventeenth or the end of the sixteenth century. 

The first operation with which the manufacture of earthenware 
begins is the washing of the clay ; that is to say, the clays of the various 
kinds required are blended into one, repeatedly cleansed with water, 
kneaded and passed through a strainer. Paape relates that for delft 
three kinds of clay are required and in these proportions ; three ordinary 
wheelbarrow loads of Tournay clay, three of black or Rhineland clay and 
two of Delft clay, or greater or less proportions of each of these kinds 
as the washer judged best from their quality. We know also — although 
this is not related by Paape, as he deals only with Delft — that elsewhere 
other clays were used ; at Rotterdam, for example, about 1630 English 
clay was also worked in at the same time with other kinds as well. 

After the clay had been washed in shallow tanks in the washing- 
grounds — ^which were for the most part situated for convenience beside 
the Schie, the water-course outside Delft — it was dried and then broken 
away in blocks and taken to the pottery, where the blocks were deposited 
in pits and kept moist so as to preserve the necessary plasticity. 

Before the clay could be used for throwing on the wheel or — in 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

the case of articles that are not circular — for shaping by pressing into 
a mould — it was first kneaded afresh by the aardetrapper^ From this 
Dutch name it is clear that this operation was performed with the feet ; 
the object was to remove from the clay any hard lumps which would 
at once be felt by the bare feet. Then the thrower, after the clay has 
once more been thoroughly kneaded, presses on his potter's wheel as 
much clay as he requires for the vessel he is going to throw and, setting 
the wheel in motion by pressing with his feet on the large lower wheel, 
he shapes with a simple movement of finger and thumb a round vase or 
bowl on the little spinning disc. Small instruments for measuring and 
for cutting the vessel from the wheel (for which purpose merely a length 
of copper wire or a piece of wood is often sufficient), together with a 
plane for removing after a short drying process any superfluous clay, 
complete the apparatus of the throwing-bench. We must not forget 
also the thrower's board, on which the newly thrown pieces are placed 
to be carried to the drying loft. 

For moulded articles the process is as follows. The moulder first 
makes a model of the objects he has to produce. Around it, leaving a 
small interval, he builds up a case of clay. Then he pours in plaster to 
form a mould between the model and the outer case. Sometimes several 
plaster moulds have to be made for a single article ; their number 
depends upon the more or less complicated nature of the desired object. 
When the plaster mould or moulds are dry and have been removed 
from the case, the moulder can press or mould in them one after 
another the requisite number of pieces. Then the articles are trimmed 
to give them a smooth surface, a process particularly needful when it 
has been necessary to use several separate plaster moulds. 

The articles are now given their first firing at a moderate temperature. 
As to the manner in which they are placed in the kiln we shall have 
something to say shortly when we describe the high-temperature firing. 

The next process that the earthenware has to undergo is dipping in 
the glaze — the white tin enamel. This glaze or enamel, which owes its 
whiteness and opacity to the introduction of tin-ash, is mixed in the form 
of a powder with water. The water is absorbed by the dry porous clay, 
and the enamel remains adhering in a layer on the surface of the ware. 
If it is desired, in order to economise tin, to cover the back of the article 

1 I.e. One who tramples on the clay. In England the process is carried out by 
"wedging," that is, by lifting the clay in a slab and bringing it down repeatedly with 
violence on a bench or table. 

ID 



THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE 

with only a thin layer of enamel, this side is first moistened so that the 
clay, being already more or less saturated, absorbs the water less rapidly 
from the enamel mixture; only a thin film of enamel can then be 
deposited on the surface. 

When the enamel is dry, the article is painted. The painter also works 
with a kind of turning lathe, the " outlining wheel " {profileeriviel), for 
drawing parallel circles. For painting a number of pieces with the same 
design, e.g. plates, he uses a stencil, that is, a piece of paper on which 
the desired pattern is pricked out along all its lines and through which 
powdered charcoal is rubbed so that the outlines are traced in the powder 
on the article (specimens of such stencil-papers are preserved in the 
Museum Huis Lambert van Meerten at Delft, at Rotterdam and else- 
where). The outlines are then painted over in blue pigment with a brush ; 
next comes the shading, dark and light. Painting in polychrome was 
executed in the same manner. For the laying down and painting of the 
outlines and the drawing of details within them a dark blue pigment is 
often used, sometimes purple or black ; this is called the trek. As to 
the composition of this pigment, which, as Paape says, served to make the 
outlines stand out clearly " above " the blue, directions can be found 
amongst his receipts for the various kinds of blue and other colours. 
The pigment, which like the enamel was made up with water only, once 
laid on the enamel, was, of course, immediately absorbed by it. Thus 
the painting demanded of the pottery painter a very sure hand. 

In very many factories in Italy, Germany and elsewhere the earthen- 
ware was fired immediately after painting. At Delft, on the other hand, 
and (except in the earliest times) at Faen^a, we know that the wares, before 
being put in the kiln, were covered with a second glaze — a thin, clear 
glaze owing its transparency to lead — to heighten the sheen which the 
tin enamel will acquire after firing. At Delft this was done on the upper 
or outer surface only by sprinkling with a brush. The process was called 
kwaarten* 

The earthenware is now ready for the chief firing, that is, at a 
moderately high temperature. It is next put in the kiln in cylindrical 
fire-proof boxes or saggars, through holes in which pegs are stuck at 
intervals in sets of three at the same level ; the wares were variously 
placed according to their form, either suspended on the pegs, as in the 
case of plates (hence the three rough scars on the back of a plate), or 
standing on trays, as in the case of cups and other articles. The kiln is 
then completely bricked up except for inspection holes. The maintenance 

II 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

of a uniform wood fire was the great art in stoking. According to Paape, 
low- and high-temperature stokers followed one another as required for 
the regulation of the heat. 

This mode of operations was followed at Delft in its prime both 
for polychrome and for blue-painted earthenware. But the firing at a 
high temperature, generally known as the grand feu technique, by which 
the painting was completely fired into the tin enamel, was not suitable 
for all colours, and the potter was therefore restricted to a limited palette. 
Blue is the colour which best endures firing ; yellow or brown, green, 
manganese-purple and brick-red or scarlet also offer a good resistance to 
the high temperature that the ware has to undergo in the kiln, whilst 
black also was now and then fired as a grand feu colour. 

But there was a demand, especially in the eighteenth century, for 
intermediate tints and gold, the latter in imitation of Chinese, Japanese 
and European porcelain. Recourse was therefore had to the technique 
which was customary for porcelain, and only the colours, blue in particular, 
most capable of resisting heat were fired in the high- temperature kiln and 
burnt into the enamel. Colours of less resistance had to be painted on the 
already-fired ware and subsequently '' muffle-fired " at a low temperature. 
The wares especially that were intended to imitate Meissen (" Dresden ") 
porcelain were for the most part entirely decorated in muffle-kiln colours. 
But with the adoption of this process both literally and, in the long run, in 
a figurative sense also. Delft earthenware lost its brilliance. These products 
of the potter's art are often much sought after for their delicate inter- 
mediate tints and gilding, but, regarded from the point of view of technique 
and also by reason of their much inferior brilliance, they are not to be 
compared with the older work on which all the colours are fired with and 
into the glaze, not even with the ware on which at most a little gilding 
and a single secondary tint has afterwards been added. The muffle 
colours always have a dull feeling. The wares thus miss precisely all 
that distinguishes delft from other earthenware, its sheen and its pleasant 
soft feeling to the touch. 

After this description of the manufacture of delft, in which Paape 
has been our guide, we must add a few remarks about the clay, glaze and 
methods of decoration not only of delft, but also of the other kinds of 
old Dutch earthenware. 

For we do not find in all old Dutch pottery a fine yellow body and 
tin enamel as in Delft ware. Indeed, the yellow body and the entire 
treatment with tin enamel is pre-eminently peculiar to delft. In the 

12 



THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE 

older earthenware and also in the so-called schotelgoed^ — that is, earthen- 
ware that was not made in special potteries, but manufactured in tileworks 
side by side with tiles — we find for the most part a much greyer and 
coarser body, whilst the dishes show a tin enamel only on the front, and 
on the back a glaze made with lead and therefore transparent. This use 
of lead glaze was occasioned not only by the costliness of tin, but also 
by the manner of firing followed for the schotelgoed ; this class of ware 
was not put in the kiln with so much care as Delft ware, in fireproof boxes 
or saggars. The lead glaze on the reverse side needed no protecting 
saggar ; the tin enamel on the front was shielded from the fire by piling 
up the dishes in the kiln and setting them one against another in such 
a way that only the lead glaze was exposed to the fire, whilst the tin glaze 
on the front was protected. Small tripods, or " cockspurs,"^ put on the 
bottom of the dishes, prevented the dishes from getting stuck to one 
another in the firing. Hence arise the three raw scars in the glaze on 
the bottom of a dish of this class. They are often quite rough through 
portions of the cockspurs remaining stuck to the dish. The traces of 
firing are thus quite different from those on Delft ware, on which three 
narrow unglazed stripes are to be seen on the back of the rim, the 
impressions of the pegs on which the ware was suspended in the fireproof 
saggars. 

In the tiles, of which we shall have more to say in Chapter V, we 
find at a late period an entirely yellow body ; whilst often, especially in 
the older tiles, a reddish tone comes out in the yellow or grey body, and 
the oldest tiles known to us, of the Middle Ages, display an entirely 
red body. 

We find a red body, however, not only amongst the oldest wares, 
but also in much later times. Earthenware of red clay is still made and 
used in the kitchen and for other special purposes. Such red clay also 
occurs at an earlier date in the Near East and in Italy, covered with a 
simple lead glaze, a glaze made fusible by means of lead and therefore 
transparent. The decoration on such wares is as a rule carried out under 
the glaze on a body that has only been lightly fired, for the most part 
covered with a white slip in which incised designs can be scratched in 
the manner of the " sgraffiato " of the Italians. In this way a decoration 
was obtained in darker lines (the colour of the red body). The slip itself 
was also used for decoration. It was allowed to run out of a fine funnel 

1 Literally, "dish-ware." 

2 In Dutch, proenen, derived from the Italian pironi (French, pernettes). 

13 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

(called ringeloor), so as to trace on the earthenware formal designs and 
figures which then appeared through a glassy layer of lead glaze. The 
decoration in this case is therefore executed in an entirely different manner 
from that in the tin-enamelled earthenware. 

As regards this tin enamel, we may observe that its use had already 
been brought about in earlier periods by the demand for a pure white 
ground for painting which, though not created, was yet augmented 
by the influence of Chinese porcelain. For efforts had continually been 
made towards a white glaze. It appears that in the Near East it had been 
found possible to obtain an opaque white glaze even without the addition 
of tin-ash, but by far the most thoroughly opaque white glaze is that 
containing tin, and the glaze of the delft and older Dutch wares is of that 
type. Paape therefore devotes a chapter to the method of burning tin- 
ash in the Delft potteries. It would, however, take us too far afield to 
go more closely into this question. 

Not only the glaze, but also the pigments used for the painting, 
which latter were first given their colour by means of metallic oxides, 
were ground into powder, and in powder form, as we have said already, 
had merely to be made up with water in order to be ready for use on 
the ware. The painting on tin-enamelled ware of the grand feu is always 
applied upon the unfired tin-glaze or enamel. It is absorbed by it and, 
as it were, amalgamated with it during the firing. 



14 



DUTCH RED EARTHENWARE AND TILES 



Chapter III 
DUTCH RED EARTHENWARE AND TILES 

Everything tends to show that the Dutch learned the art of making 
maiolica from Italy. In any case, the Dutch earthenware with tin enamel 
of the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth century 
points towards prototypes from that country, and especially from Faenza, 
We shall see on a later page how this relationship probably came about. 

The pottery produced in Holland before that period, the stoneware 
jugs known as Jacobakannetjes, do not come within the scope of a work 
dealing with earthenware. 

This is not the case with the red earthenware with coloured slip and 
lead glaze. The earliest examples are found in the tiles which are combined 
to form a few portions of fourteenth-century or perhaps even older mosaic 
pavements from old Utrecht houses, whence they have been removed to 
the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam and the Gemeente-museum at Utrecht 
(the finest are at the latter place). Similar tiles have lately been found 
in the Dom (the old cathedral) at Utrecht. These and the fifteenth- 
century tiles showing an inlay of coloured slip give us at least some idea 
of the mediaeval production of floor-tiles in Holland. Quite recently also 
tiles with lead glaze over relief decoration have come to light — notably at 
Aduard in the province of Groningen — that seem to be of very early date. 

To the class of true peasant art belongs the red earthenware decorated 
under a lead glaze by means of the ringeloor, a funnel-shaped instrument 
through which liquid clay is laid on the ware in a thin streak, so that 
by moving the funnel the potter can draw lines in clay on the surface ; 
we find on it also sgraffiato decoration, that is, designs scratched through 
the applied clay. Both kinds of decoration were often painted in yellow, 
green and sometimes blue. The earliest pieces of this kind known to us 
date from the same period as the early Dutch tin-enamelled earthenware 
(maiolica). They are found in the ground together with the latter in 
various places in the country. As regards this class of " slip ware," it 
is often difficult to say whether we have to deal with German or Dutch 
work. Examples are to be found in various museums. We may mention 
a few from the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam. There are dishes with 
designs incised through slip and with slip-painting ; one of these, bearing 

17 c 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

the figure of a man with a glass beaker in his hand, although found in 
Holland, is probably German (Hessian) and therefore imported ware ; 
whilst other work of this kind may be regarded as Frisian or from 
Limburg. An example of Frisian earthenware is a dish of heavy build 
with bottom rounded like a bowl and three small round, shell-shaped 
feet ; it is decorated with a dove amongst ornamental motives. We may 
assume that other similar earthenware is to be regarded as of indigenous 
production, with all the more reason if it shows such simple ornament 
as yellow and green spots, or is more Dutch than German in character, 
such as a dish bearing the date 1602 in the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam. 

Some interesting though not altogether beautiful plates from just 
beyond the frontier belonging to the same museum make such a con- 
spicuous show of their Dutch inscriptions that we must not omit 
mentioning them amongst Dutch earthenware. They are very large 
dishes, none of earlier date than the eighteenth century, with sgraffiato 
decoration ; as examples we may take one decorated with a coach and 
the inscription, "Eenen waegen met paerden,"^ etc., by "Gerrit Eevers 
potbacker an' het Schaphuysen " (near Crefeld) " anno 1770," and another 
with a Pieta, signed "Christianus Lappen, 1713." Amongst others one on 
which is represented the Flight into Egypt bears the name of the maker 
Gerrit Lonnen and the date 1728 ; yet another shows the Madonna of 
Kevelaar. All these pieces prove the hardy vitality of this peasant pottery 
with its red body, clay slip and lead glaze, of which the technique was 
being practised in the early Middle Ages and even before in the Near 
East ; whilst simple examples can still be pointed out in the Dutch 
kitchens of our own time. 

That the decoration was not confined to slip trailed through a funnel 
or engraving through a slip coating {sgraffiato decoration), but included 
also modelling in slip, is proved by two small bowls in the Rijksmuseum 
of the years 1609 and 1651, which are both ornamented with relief work 
and painting in yellow and green. 

Amongst earthenware of this and similar types occur also tiles which, 
together with certain dishes, may be of Limburg provenance. Earthen- 
ware of the same kind was purchased across the frontier by pilgrims to 
Kevelaar and also often imported thence into Holland by boat, so that 
it will be difficult to point out precisely what is Dutch work and what 
foreign, even in the case of specimens found beneath the soil in various 
parts of Holland. 

^ "A carriage with horses." 



DUTCH MAIOLICA OF THE SIXTEENTH AND 
SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES 



Chapter IV 

DUTCH MAIOLICA OF THE SIXTEENTH AND 
SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES 

Shortly after 1900 attention was first directed to the art of the Dutch 
maiolica-potter of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, the forerunner of Delft earthenware. Since that time new pieces 
have continually been coming to light, amongst them especially fragments 
from excavations. From written documents, however, we knew little or 
nothing on the subject. An important piece of information is given by 
Karel van Mander in his book on painters, in the course of his account 
of Hendrik Cornelissen Vroom, who was born in 1566. Van Mander 
relates there of Vroom's father that he was a sculptor who devoted himself 
to the art of making pottery, or " porselein." He had such a mastery of 
the art that he knew how to turn out drinking vessels so wonderfully 
constructed that the drinker could not tell where to put his mouth to 
them for drinking. From this we may almost conclude that he was 
already making puzzle-jugs such as are familiar to us amongst the 
works of the later Delft potters. Van Mander further praises Vroom's 
father for his artistic ability and his fine colours. When we go on to 
read that Hendrik was forced by his stepfather to take up the potter's 
craft, and became a pottery painter, we arrive at 1580 at latest as the 
earliest date afforded by the evidence of Van Mander for the making of 
maiolica in Holland. At that period, according to his description, this 
art was well advanced, so that we were able from his account to infer that 
maiolica potteries already existed in Holland before 1580, in Haarlem if 
not elsewhere. This surmise was in agreement with a find of pottery at 
Middelburg, in Zeeland, on the spot where the hospital of the Premon- 
stratensian abbey formerly stood. The drug-jars excavated there (Fig. 3) 
must date from before 1570, seeing that the abbey was dissolved in that 
year ; to these little jars we shall shortly revert. 

Exactly what kind of earthenware was made by Vroom's father we 
do not know, but Van Mander's praise leads us to suppose that it 
consisted of articles of more importance than drug-pots. Our thoughts 
naturally turn to the many dishes, large and small, and especially the 

21 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

fragments found in such great quantity in Holland, as well as to the early 
tiles. These drug-jars, dishes and tiles immediately bring to mind the 
palette of the Italian potter of the fifteenth and the earlier part of the 
sixteenth century. How the influence thus betokened spread from Italy 
was not at first obvious. It was known, it is true, from the treatise on 
maiolica written in 1548 by the Italian potter Piccolpasso, that a potter 
from Castel Durante named Guido di Savino set up kilns at Antwerp, 
but nothing was known of any contact with the Northern Netherlands, 
and the tile-picture of 1547 (representing the Conversion of St. Paul), in 
the Vleeschhuis section of the Steen Museum at Antwerp, is of a some- 
what different character from the old Dutch maiolica. 

This was the state of our knowledge until a short time ago. Quite 
recently references to one Guido Andries as working at Antwerp from 
1512 till his death in 1541 were discovered by the same Belgian investi- 
gators, who found out for us that as early as 1530 an Italian was making 
drug-pots — not of stoneware, but of maiolica — in that city. There is 
little reason to doubt that this Guido Andries is identical with the Guido 
di Savino mentioned by Piccolpasso. The tile-picture of 1547 is ascribed 
by the Belgian authorities to the sons of Savino, who are spoken of by 
Piccolpasso as carrying on their father's work at that very time. If, as 
seems almost certain, we are right in accepting the surmise that he assumed 
at Antwerp the name Andries, there can be little doubt that it was one of 
his sons who set up a pottery at Middelburg. For a document in the 
Middelburg archives tells us that a pottery was established in the Zeeland 
city in 1564 by an Antwerp potter, Joris Andriesz by name ; we also 
learn that in 1552 Joris (George), one of the sons of Guido Andries, was 
enrolled in the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke. From these recent dis- 
closures we may argue that the drug-pots found at Middelburg were 
probably made on the spot, either by Joris Andries^, son of Guido di 
Savino, the Castel Durante potter who migrated to Antwerp, or perhaps 
by another potter, Adriaen Ingelsz by name, who worked in Middelburg 
at the same time.^ 

Tiles are also to be found in Belgium, of later date than the picture 
of the Conversion of St. Paul, which come much nearer to those found 
in the last few years in the Northern Netherlands. The question has not 
yet been thoroughly studied, but we believe that even now we are in 

^ Joris Andriesz of Antwerp and Adriaen Ingelsz are both described in the financial 
records of Middelburg for 1565-1567 and 1568 as geleyerspottebacker or geleyersbackere, 
that is, "maiolica-potter." 

22 



MAIOLICA OF THE XVIth AND XVIIth CENTURIES 

a position not only to draw a somewhat closer distinction — even though 
still with some reserve — between North and South Netherlandish tiles, 
but also to regard it as almost proved that the connecting link between 
Italy and Holland is to be sought in the South Netherlands — at Antwerp. 

Meanwhile we learn from the account in Van Mander's book of 
Hendrik Vroom's journeys to Spain and Italy that the Dutch maiolica- 
potters may also have learned direct from the Italians and their Italo- 
Spanish fellow- craftsmen. Vroom goes to the South in order to become 
qualified as a painter in oils, but we find him again repeatedly earning 
his livelihood by pottery painting. He worked in this manner amongst 
other places at Seville for an Italian, and at a later date he was again 
working in a maiolica factory, at Venice. It is, however, to be regretted 
that we do not hear whether Vroom was still engaged in the potter's craft 
when he went back to Haarlem. It appears probable that he was able 
to make his living as an artist by painting shipping subjects; and Van 
Mander tells us that he also painted ships on tiles. Amongst Dutch tiles 
there are many with ships on them, also whole pictures in tilework with 
ships on a large scale, but none of them are so early in date that they 
could have been painted by Vroom. 

We can therefore, from the biography of Hendrik Vroom alone, 
rightly infer a direct connection between the Dutch pottery painters on 
the one hand and the Italian potteries on the other. It is certainly a fact 
of importance that he worked at Seville for an Italian. This could not 
have been the well-known Niculoso Italiano ; the latter lived in the first 
quarter of the sixteenth century, and Vroom's travels took place in the 
last quarter. But Vroom must naturally have seen this master's work at 
Seville, and the Italian for whom he painted pottery was doubtless some- 
one from the school of Niculoso. Where we find Vroom travelling, 
others may perhaps have gone before, and others again have followed 
him. Possibly also Italians may have brought the art of tin- enamelled 
pottery into Holland ; but as to this we know nothing. 

Van Mander's account of Vroom's travels has of course lost some of 
its weight, now that we may probably find the connecting link at Antwerp ; 
but the statement that Vroom's father made such wonderful drinking- 
vessels remains of importance, as it shows that finely-made articles were 
produced in maiolica at Haarlem before 1580. 

However this may be, the earthenware itself points to a connection 
with Italian and particularly Faventine maiolica and with Spanish maiolica 
of the Italian type (we may compare, for instance, the tile-picture by 

23 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

Niculoso Italiano in the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam). The technique is 
the same. Tin enamel is used on the front and lead glaze on the back of 
the ware, as on certain types of Italian maiolica ; the colours — blue, yellow 
including orange, brown, green and manganese-purple — correspond exactly 
as regards their strength and brilliance ; whilst the motives also are Italian, 
although for the most part translated into a Dutch version. 

Except in the case of the little drug-pots discussed above, it is not 
known where the oldest Dutch earthenware with a tin enamel was made. 
Joris Andriesz and Adriaen Ingelsz are, as far as we know, only mentioned 
during a few years in the Middelburg archives. That various fragments 
were found at Delft proves nothing, as no trace of any maiolica pottery 
of that period is known there. Yet the possibility of such a thing is 
naturally not excluded. An argument on the other side is that we do not 
know of maiolica-potters at Delft at so early a date ; as regards Haarlem, 
however, this is not the case, and it is known that in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century potters, or at least workmen engaged in the potter's 
craft, went from Haarlem to Delft. Again, at Rotterdam, in addition to 
a very large quantity of potsherds, " wasters " of this kind of ware have 
been found, showing that in any case one or more maiolica-potteries 
were in operation in that city, whilst at the present time documents and 
earthenware as well are being brought to light in Friesland also. Mean- 
while similar potsherds are being dug up in various other places in 
Holland, not only at Delft, Middelburg and Rotterdam, but also at 
Kampen, Hoorn, Leeuwarden and elsewhere. At Cologne, too, some 
years ago a considerable find was made on a site on which a monastery 
formerly stood. In England, again, similar wares have been found. 
From all these facts the evidence steadily grows that we are dealing with 
an industry that was practised chiefly in the Netherlands, but also in 
Germany and England ; priority belongs in all probability to Antwerp. 

From the collection of this class of wares belonging to the Rijks- 
museum at Amsterdam, and on the strength of a single date found on 
a specimen, we can trace the improvement in technique, and finally the 
use of a beautiful pure white enamel (on both sides of the ware) which 
is characteristic of ** delft." The body, which to begin with is of a warm 
grey or sometimes brick-red colour, becomes steadily lighter, till it attains 
the pale ivory colour of delft, although for tiles in particular a coarser 
red body still continues in frequent use. The finishing off also improves 
— in the oldest earthenware rough traces of the spurs, used to keep the 
plates apart from one another in the kiln, are often to be seen stuck fast 

24 



MAIOLICA OF THE XVIth AND XVIIth CENTURIES 

to the surface. Yet it is far from true that with the perfecting of technique 
Delft earthenware establishes its superiority over the old Dutch maiolica 
in all respects. It is only necessary to compare the vigorous combinations 
of warm colour of the plates of the latter class with those of delft in order 
to prefer the first, from the decorative point of view also. Even a good 
collection of fragments, such as that in the Museum van Oudheden at 
Rotterdam, is enough to show the wonderful variety of the maiolica. The 
Delft ware often betrays most strongly in the most carefully finished 
pieces the intention of emulating Chinese porcelain, and in so doing 
repudiating its peculiar character as earthenware. 

The oldest pieces belonging to the Rijksmuseum are actually the 
little drug-pots (Fig. 3) mentioned above, which were dug up on the site 
formerly occupied by the hospital of the Premonstratensian abbey at 
Middelburg and probably made on the spot about 1565. Formerly these 
pots, or similar ones found in England, were regarded as Italian earthen- 
ware, but none have been found in Italy with such simple ornament or 
of such small dimensions. These drug-vases, one of which is supported 
on a foot, are decorated with bands, in one case in blue and manganese- 
purple, in another in blue and yellow, the largest of them in blue with 
a border of small flame-like ornaments in yellow and manganese-purple ; 
this last motive is reminiscent of Italian albarelli. Many similar drug-jars 
and pots are also found in other collections, English included ; amongst 
them are some of much larger size. 

It is known likewise where some of the fragments of dishes belonging 
to the Rijksmuseum were found ; they are, therefore, although not dated, 
of more importance for our survey of this class of earthenware than 
dishes, often in much better condition, which appear from time to time 
in the hands of dealers. This second group of earthenware was for the 
most part found during the widening of a canal at Delft. It comprises 
the following specimens : a fragment of a dish on which are depicted in 
blue, yellow and green the Virgin and Child in an aureole ; two fragments 
of dishes with linear ornament and one with a running fox, the body of 
which shows curious reserves such as are seen also in Italian pottery and 
earlier still in Egypt ; lastly, one with a star-shaped leaf design in which 
manganese-purple is introduced in addition to the colours appearing 
together or severally on the pieces previously mentioned — yellow, orange, 
green and blue. All these pieces show a lead gla2;e on the back. Having 
drawn attention to these fragments of dishes all dug up together, we 
must mention certain dishes in the Kunstgewerbe Museum at Cologne 

25 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

which were dug up on the spot. One of these shows the same Virgin 
as the Amsterdam fragment, but with a wide border of check-pattern. 
A small unbroken plate (Fig. 8) in the Lambert van Meerten Museum at 
Delft also shows the Virgin represented in precisely the same fashion as 
on the Amsterdam and Cologne fragments, but here we find already on 
the rim a pattern copied from Chinese Ming dynasty porcelain. The 
same combination of incongruous elements occurs on plates in the Musee 
Ceramique at Sevres and the Musee Dupuis at St. Omer. We must next 
return to the Rijksmuseum, where our attention is demanded by a very 
unusual large deep bowl (Fig. 5, a and b), signed both inside and outside 
with an unknown mark H^B and dated 1601. The same mark is found 
on a tile-picture dated 1606, with which we shall deal in the chapter 
on tiles ; this picture is copied from a print after Maerten van Heemskerck, 
a Dutch painter. The bowl is painted inside with the subject of " the 
Roman Charity " — Cimon in prison fed by his daughter Pera ; the 
colours used are blue, green, yellow, touches of manganese-purple and, 
in large quantity, yellowish brown. On the wide, flat rim are grotesque 
motives reserved on a yellow ground, in blue outline filled in with the 
same colours as the middle subject ; the colours are repeated in the 
design of flowers on coiled stems on the outside of the bowl. In the 
combination of colours and the predominance of brown we may perhaps 
trace the influence of the Italian school in Spain ; there is certainly a 
striking contrast with the predominant orange of Dutch dishes and tiles 
of slightly later date. The Dutch origin of the bowl is somewhat uncertain, 
but a comparison of the tile-picture by the same hand with undoubtedly 
Dutch and Flemish examples suggests Dutch workmanship. The tin 
enamel on both exterior and interior is occasioned by the form of the 
bowl, by which neither side is hidden from view. 

A deep dish in the British Museum, bearing the mark " C L " in 
monogram and the date 1583, must not be allowed to pass unnoticed in 
this connection. It shows a decided resemblance to the bowl at Amsterdam, 
the design on the back of which calls to mind the border of formal flowers 
on its rim ; it is painted in the middle with a bust of a lady wearing a 
ruff and a wide lace cap. The colours used are bright blue, orange, yellow 
and green, with some manganese-purple on the dress. The lower side 
of the rim is devoid of ornament. Here, again, it is difficult to decide 
between a Dutch and a Flemish origin. 

Another unusual but undoubtedly Dutch piece, showing a more 
brilliant surface than the " Roman Charity " bowl, is a small jar with 

26 



MAIOLICA OF THE XVIth AND XVIIth CENTURIES 

handles, bearing a date. This jar (Fig. i), in the Rijksmuseum, displays 
the arms of Amsterdam and Haarlem and the date 1610 in warm, strong 
colours that remind us of maiolica from Faen^a, whilst, as in Faenza ware 
also, a lead glaze is used as a coating for the inside. A very decorative 
dish with fruit ornament, made of a reddish body, and two dishes at 
Delft (Fig. 2) and Amsterdam (Fig. 4) respectively, painted with a dish 
of fruit, and with the inscription '*Eert God "^ in old Dutch lettering, 
display the same technique and, with the exception of purple, the same 
colours as the little jar of 1610. The predominance of orange is a note- 
worthy feature. On the rim of the two last pieces the centres of the 
rosettes are impressed from the back in the mould, so as to stand out as 
bosses in relief. The same manner of decoration with bosses is to be 
seen also on dishes painted with a shield of arms and provided with a 
similar rosette border. A small dish with the date 1630 is a still later 
and less carefully made example, without relief, of this class, as is also 
a plate of a not uncommon type in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
inscribed with the words " Loof Godt altijt "^ in Roman capitals. We 
shall shortly see a seventeenth- or perhaps eighteenth-century Delft 
descendant of these old Dutch plates, with the same inscription, but 
modified in colour and technique. They prove that this class of wares 
long continued to be made, though without the old strength and freshness 
of colouring — a Delft eighteenth-century version of the old Dutch theme. 
A dish (Fig. 7), in the Victoria and Albert Museum, is painted in 
softer colours — greyish blue, brownish yellow, pale green and a dull 
manganese-red — the result perhaps of faulty firing, unless this modification 
indicates a somewhat more advanced date ; the very effective design — 
a heraldic rose enclosed by a band of lozenge motives and a border of 
oblique dashes — is paralleled on fragments in the museums at Rotterdam 
and Leeuwarden. Another type which must have been made in some 
quantity, as fragments of exported specimens have been found in 
excavations in London, Colchester, Oxford and elsewhere in England, is 
that represented by a dish (Fig. g) in the Schouten Collection at Delft ; 
the leading motive here consists of formalised fruit in blue, green and 
orange, the gadroon pattern on the rim being painted in blue only. 

To this same group, again, belongs a fragment of a dish, also found 
at Delft, with a portrait of William the Silent in blue and yellow, that 

^ " Honour God." Similar specimens may be seen in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, in the Mus6e Dupuis at St. Omer, and in German museums. 
* "Praise God alway." 

27 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

already shows a pure white on the front. Another piece perhaps to be 
included is a rare dish (Fig. 6) on which is depicted, in blue, green, 
yellow and purple, the story of Vertumnus and Pomona. A plate with 
chequer-pattern in blue and white (probably intended to represent 
white blossoms on a blue background) is an example of a pattern 
found in various colours on dishes in the Rotterdam, Cologne and other 
museums. 

A small plate, corresponding in technique and colouring, but with 
a design of small buildings of Chinese character, points to the approaching 
influence of Chinese porcelain, which was already generally known and 
was indeed imported into Holland in great quantities from the beginning 
of the seventeenth century onwards. We have already noted dishes with 
the Virgin and Child enclosed by a border of Chinese (Ming) design. 

Meanwhile an example of improved technique is provided by a 
potsherd also found at Delft — a fragment of a dish with star-shaped 
ornament — still free from Chinese influence and rather of the Italian type. 
This piece, dated 1622, is covered with a splendid white tin enamel on 
front and back alike. Even as late as this a close correspondence is often 
found with Italian maiolica. 

After these early pieces it is worth turning our attention to a number 
of representatives of certain groups of earthenware, polychrome as well 
as blue-and-white, which have only quite recently been distinguished in 
detail. They comprise productions from various places in Holland. Many 
specimens of this type have been found at Delft and Rotterdam, but 
they occur also in Friesland and Limburg, where students are beginning 
to recognise a distinctive individual character. Earthenware of this 
class was undoubtedly made, like that of the older type, in different 
parts of the country, as well as in England and on the Rhine. As regards 
Friesland we know that at Harlingen, Makkum and Bolsward this ware 
was made in quantities together with tiles and, in fact, actually in tile- 
works ; it is always tin- enamelled on the front and lead -glazed on the 
back, with painting in polychrome and also in blue only, but much 
inferior in quality to the old Dutch maiolica described above. This 
industry, already mentioned in the Introduction, lasted till far into the 
nineteenth century — indeed, the Makkum factory still exists ; it turned 
out great quantities of this class of ware for foreign as well as for inland 
use. The Rijksmuseum only possesses a few pieces ; there are specimens 
also in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. A good example in 
the former is a dish in the decoration of which, executed in blue of 

28 



MAIOLICA OF THE XVIth AND XVIIth CENTURIES 

washing-blue tone and manganese, are introduced the words " sta paL"^ 
Another specimen is a small plate with an alphabet and the date 1722, 
in manganese with a little blue, yellow and green ; on the analogy of a 
corresponding plate in private possession with the word "Mackom " it 
may be regarded as a production of Makkum, so that here we have a more 
precise indication of a definitely Frisian fabrication. The Rijksmuseum 
has a somewhat better representation of earthenware of this class from 
Limburg, probably produced at Megelsum and other places in that 
province, 

1 "Stand fast, don't budge." 



29 



DUTCH TILES 



Chapter V 
DUTCH TILES 

The Dutch tiles, painted in blue or several colours on a white tin 
enamel, have fared the same as the corresponding pottery. All tiles of 
this kind found in Holland or brought from that country have been 
regarded as of Delft origin, though they are often called merely " old 
Dutch tiles." They are known all over the world. The seventeenth- 
century Dutch painters, such as De Hoogh and Vermeer, depict them for 
us in the rooms shown in their pictures, and foreigners also used them 
to decorate the passages and kitchens of their houses and even their sitting- 
rooms. In Holland they are, or were, to be found everywhere cemented 
into the walls of old dwellings. By far the greater number have long ago 
attracted the attention of collectors and antique dealers, and have 
consequently, by their removal from their position or through demolition 
of the houses, found their way into museums or private collections. We 
may note here that they were made only to cover walls, never for paving 
purposes. 

Amongst all these tiles there are, of course, many that were made 
at Delft, but even more than the pottery they were the product of various 
factories throughout the country, particularly at Rotterdam. There 
existed in that city a large number of tileworks, and the municipal Museum 
van Oudheden possesses an extensive collection of tiles, for the most part 
taken from old houses in the city. Certain definite types can also be 
ascribed to Frisian factories. 

In the case of tiles also a distinction has to be drawn between the 
later blue-and-white type and the earlier. The same is true even 
more of the later tiles with the colour scheme of Delft ware, in which red 
plays a part and muffle-kiln decoration also occurs, and the tiles with the 
older palette, which with its blue, brownish yellow, green and occasional 
manganese-purple shows absolutely the same colouring as the old Dutch 
maioUca. As regards technique also, there is an exact correspondence. 
Lastly, the identity of patterns provides even stronger confirmation of the 
view that the tiles and the corresponding pottery must have been made 
in the selfsame factories — that is, in tileworks, and that therefore the 

33 D 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

history of both runs on absolutely parallel lines. In order to obtain a clear 
idea of the tile manufacture, we must bear in mind that a distinction has 
to be made in general between potteries properly so-called, in which 
Delft was especially rich, and tileworks, which were to be found in various 
places in Holland. 

It has already been explained in the Introduction that the finer 
earthenware — " delft " — was being made in faience potteries, whilst the 
tileworks were producing, in addition to tiles, a coarse kind of earthenware 
{schotelgoed), which could be fired in the same kilns as the tiles, without 
saggars to protect it. We must therefore bear in mind that the oldest 
factories made the tiles with the earlier fine colouring and the correspond- 
ing pottery, whilst the faience potteries (plateelbakkerijen), properly 
so-called, in which what we call " delft " was made, are of later date and 
were not in fact tileworks ; the wares produced by them were entirely 
covered with tin enamel and needed careful protection from the flames 
in fire-proof saggars. This does not exclude the firing of tiles also in 
the faience potteries, but such tiles are the later ones of finer quality 
displaying the colours of the Delft pottery. Tiles of this kind are not 
nearly so frequently met with as blue-and-white tiles or those with the 
older polychrome palette. The chief product of the plateelbakkerijen was 
obviously plateelen — that is, pottery. Hence it is that Paape, who describes 
for us the firing of Delft earthenware, makes no special mention of the 
making of tiles, and shows in his illustrations dishes, vases, jugs, etc., and 
fire-proof saggars, but no tiles ; in a tile-picture, on the other hand, in 
the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam (Fig. 25), representing a tileworks at 
Bolsward, we find, apart from tiles, no wares but dishes and notice the 
absence of saggars. 

The course of development appears therefore to be as follows. The 
oldest factories at first made both pottery and tiles as well, corresponding 
entirely in colouring and often even in decoration. It was in this early 
period (the second half of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth 
century) that their most carefully finished work was turned out. Gradually 
a finer sort of earthenware, that we generally call " delft," began to be 
produced in potteries in which tin enamel was used for both back and 
front of the wares. Delft was above all places the town in which such 
potteries were established, whence its name is generally applied to this 
type of ware. The wares of the tilemakers, being of inferior quality, 
began to play a less important role. Less care was inevitably taken in 
their production ; even the tiles steadily declined in artistic merit, perhaps 

34 



DUTCH TILES 

for the reason that the best painters could always find plenty of work in 
the delft potteries. 

Examples, nevertheless, occur of good tile-pictures with the old 
colouring as late as the middle of the seventeenth century ; for instance, 
a fine large panel depicting a vase of flowers, in the Evenepoel Collection 
in the Musees du Cinquantenaire at Brussels, bears the date 1647. It 
shows the old strong colour scheme — blue, yellow, brown, green and 
manganese-purple. We do not know of any later date than this for this 
beautiful type of tiles. But this is quite in accordance with the statement 
of Gerrit Paape, not indeed to be taken in too narrow a sense, that Delft 
earthenware was invented about the middle of the seventeenth century ; 
for it was, in fact, about that time that the delft potteries {plateel- 
bakkerijen), working with a pure tin enamel, began to attain to a position 
of great significance, and the tileworks to decline in artistic importance. 

Many of these tileworks were endowed with a more robust vitality 
than the potteries, which, if they survived at all, ceased to produce the 
technically more refined delft. One such tile-factory is shown in the 
tile-picture, already mentioned, from Bolsward (Fig. 25), now in the 
possession of the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam. Not only is it a very 
clear picture, but it is of the more importance from the fact that it is 
executed in tilework. It is painted in blue on a white ground and dated 
1737, at which period delft was still in its prime, but not so the tileworks ; 
consequently the tiles are not altogether finely painted. The picture 
owes its importance to its subject, and also to the fact that it depicts a 
tile factory at Bolsward in Friesland and was therefore made at that place. 
It is another reminder to us that the tile-factories were by no means 
peculiar to Delft, and that tiles were made elsewhere, in Friesland amongst 
other regions, and especially in Rotterdam, where, in addition to many 
tiles, a quantity of documents have been found, as well as wasters of 
tiles and dishes. 

In order to give some idea of what such a tile-factory was like, it 
will be well to describe this picture, which in the illustration suffers 
somewhat in clearness through reduction in size. At the same time 
allowance must be made for the fact that, in order to obtain a good 
pictorial survey of all the processes of tile manufacture, too much has 
probably been crowded into a small space. But the picture shows very 
well all that goes on in such an establishment, and we need not stay to 
consider whether its subdivision is exactly in accordance with the actual 
facts. It is no doubt correct that the drying lofts were placed in 

35 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

proximity to the kiln, in order to take the greatest possible advantage of 
the heat. 

The kiln, as the most important part of the factory, is the main 
feature in the picture. At the bottom, a stoker is seen at work, whilst 
other men are bringing up wood for the fire. Piles of dishes, large and 
small, placed in such a manner as to protect one another on the tin- 
enamelled side, are set out on planks in readiness for being put into the 
kiln. To the right we see horses working the mills in which the various 
ingredients of glaze and pigment are being finely ground. It is not quite 
easy to make out what is going on in the room to the left below, of which 
a glimpse is obtained through an open door, but we can see painters at 
work there. A not unimportant part of the artistic activity of the factory 
thus finds a place in the panel. 

On the second floor, to left and right, are throwers busy at their 
wheels making dishes. Other workmen are putting planks with dishes on 
them upon the drying-racks. Here also stands a boy looking in at the 
inspection-hole in the kiln, to control the right distribution of the fire. 

The uppermost floor is given up to the production of tiles, but tiles 
are also to be seen a storey lower, piled round the kiln. To the right and 
left on the top storey men are at work " wedging " the clay, pressing 
tiles into moulds, trimming them off and smoothing them, in short, 
preparing them for the kiln. A quantity of tiles are also spread out to 
dry on planks on the drying-racks. 

Having thus obtained from the Bolsward tile-picture an impression 
of a tile factory, though of a very late period (1737), we may now return 
to the oldest tiles. 

We noted that the Dutch mediaeval tiles known to us — those of red 
clay with a slip and a lead glaze — were generally floor-tiles, though some 
of them also were intended for walls. The tin-enamelled tiles, on the 
other hand, early and late alike, were, as far as we know, all wall-tiles. 
They were often used to line the entire walls of corridors, kitchens, cellars 
and even rooms, and for the fronts of chimney-pieces. Sometimes they 
were set in rows round white walls or in combination with plain white 
tiles ; this is the case especially with the later tiles. The older tiles, 
with strong colouring in blue, yellow, brown, green and occasional 
manganese-purple, were generally set together so as to cover entire wall- 
surfaces with colour. The later blue-and-white tiles, and, perhaps to a 
still greater extent, those painted in monochrome purple, were sometimes 
treated in the same manner. 

36 



DUTCH TILES 

The origin of the wall-tile manufacture is not very easily explained. 
It looks as though it had stepped forward into the ranks in place of that 
of the floor-tiles. But the transition from lead-glazed to tin-enamelled 
tiles must not be regarded as so simple and sudden a process as this. 
The fact that an identical pattern is found on enamelled tiles and on 
brown lead-glazed tiles, whilst the latter show a close correspondence 
with others bearing the date 1556, points to a closer contact than we 
should otherwise recognise. Again, the early wall-tiles, displaying patterns 
in reserve on a coloured ground, call to mind through this peculiarity 
their lead- glazed forerunners, in which the reserve decoration was effected 
by means of slip. The wall-tile manufacture, no less than the pottery, 
may very well owe its tin-enamel technique to Italian, perhaps also to 
Spanish, influence through Flemish channels. Prototypes of such tiles 
are certainly to be found in Italy, and their immediate predecessors in 
Flanders. The connecting link is here more clearly recognisable than in 
the case of the pottery ; it may be identified particularly at Antwerp, as 
has already been stated above. 

The earlier tiles, with strong colouring, are to be regarded as very 
nearly related to the contemporary pottery. This is indeed proved by 
the fact, already pointed out, that these tiles have the same colours, and 
sometimes also the same motives, as this early ware ; blue, green, yellow 
and brown occur on nearly all the tiles with ornamental designs. 
Manganese-purple must be added to the list in certain types, particularly 
the tile-pictures. The rough spur-marks of the dishes are not, of course, 
found on the tiles, as there was no need for cockspurs in the baking of 
the latter. The tiles, particularly the older amongst them, show in the 
corners of the upper surface little holes — which have sometimes almost 
disappeared — caused by the use of a board with nails in it to support 
the tiles in the process of fabrication. In the vigorous colour- 
scheme the red of later Delft ware is lacking. The later muffle colours 
naturally find no place in it, as the firing at this period is entirely carried 
out at the highest temperature. The older tiles may also be recognised 
by their "body" and their thickness. Even in late tiles an entirely 
yellow clay is not always seen, but it is chiefly in the older types that 
a reddish hue is found running through the yellow or grey body, whilst 
the oldest tiles known, dating from mediaeval times, are made of an 
entirely red clay. As regards thickness, the oldest kinds are about f in. 
(15 cm.) thick and often twice as thick as the late tiles, especially those 
of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Their surface measures 

37 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

for the most part about 5 in. (approximately 13 cm.) square. We have 
sometimes thought that tiles of larger dimensions, amongst others a single 
type in the Rijksmuseum that also shows a more broadly painted design, 
should be regarded as Flemish, not Dutch ; but tiles do occur larger and 
even smaller than the normal size which are yet indisputably Dutch. 

In approaching a general survey of the tiles we must remark at the 
very outset that it does not lie within our aim to make it in any sense 
complete. In fact, the tiles have not yet been exhaustively studied by 
anyone. Plenty of documents are to be found relating especially to the 
later tileworks, but here, as in the case of delft, it is generally impossible 
to connect the documents with the productions of the factories, familiar 
to us as tiles of the most diverse character and moreover seldom or never 
showing a distinctive mark. It is true that we know somewhat more 
about the Rotterdam and Frisian factories and their output, but as regards 
the oldest classes of tiles, with the fine strong colouring, we are still 
groping entirely in the dark. Yet a connecting link has been preserved 
(unfortunately not for the very earliest tiles), which, so far as we know, 
is lacking in the case of the pottery. It is provided by designs for large 
as well as small tile-pictures, and especially for individual tiles ; they are 
often perforated with pinpricks and black with charcoal, through having 
been used as stencils. Such stencils, amongst other things, have been 
found in Friesland, amongst the plant of an old tile factory, and at 
Rotterdam a considerable number, including some of great size, are 
preserved, together with designs for tiles, in the municipal archives. 
There is something quite attractive about them, especially when they 
show a careful design pricked through with very fine perforations, and 
we can understand that if the design were transferred to the tile with 
some care, a good tile painter might make a really beautiful thing of it. 

It will probably be supposed that with the help of these designs for 
tiles, some of which can be regarded as coming from particular factories, 
something might be done in the direction of dating and localising more 
precisely the many tiles known to us. But the results are disappointing. 
Local attribution is possible up to a certain point. It is undoubtedly 
interesting to be able to identify certain patterns as from Rotterdam and 
others as from Frisian tileworks, but for dating purposes the information 
given by the stencils is not very helpful. The reason for this can easily 
be explained. The very fact that they are stencils means that they provide 
no sure ground for dating. In the first place, perforated sheets of stout 
paper, or even old engravings, could be used for a considerable time, and 

38 



DUTCH TILES 

could be rubbed over again and again with charcoal before becoming 
unfit for further use. Again, what guarantee have we that the older 
patterns were not again transferred to new stencils ?" It is, in fact, remark- 
able that, so far as it has been possible to trace a few of the watermarks 
upon them, the stencils appear to be often much more recent in date 
than would be judged from their patterns. 

We find it, therefore, quite impossible to agree with those who seek 
to classify the tiles by date of production on the evidence of differences 
of style in their design, and then talk of the earliest and latest classes on 
the strength of the patterns employed, finding some peculiar significance 
in every slight variation of pattern. Even when a criterion of date is 
thought to have been provided by details of costume, etc., in a figure- 
subject on a tile, the most that can be said is that a terminus post quern is 
established, seldom, and assuredly never with absolute certainty, that an 
actual date of origin is indicated. 

But what can be said of tiles actually bearing a date ^ To begin with, 
they are of great rarity ; moreover, much depends on the manner in 
which the date is introduced. Occasionally it is beyond dispute a clear 
indication of the date of manufacture — where the numerals on a tile are 
included in the pattern, or a tile-picture is signed and dated. But when 
a print has been copied, caution is necessary, just as in the case of dishes 
and other pottery. Often prints as much as a hundred years old were 
used, and only when the signature or date of a print has been replaced 
on a tile by another, or the subject has been supplied with a date, can 
we be quite sure that the date in question is that of the ware itself and 
not that of the print used as a model. It is therefore a very difficult 
matter to find one's way amongst the quantities of tiles in existence, 
even more so than in the case of the pottery, for which in the later wares, 
i.e. delft, a basis of classification is provided by marks. 

Marks occur on tiles with the utmost rarity. A name is found as 
signature on at most a few tile-pictures, or on later Delft tiles to which 
special care was devoted. It is true that a letter or numeral is often seen 
painted with broad strokes on the back of a tile, but such letters cannot 
be explained, whilst the numerals may well be serial or class numbers ; 
the letters may also have the same significance. Meanwhile it may be 
taken as established that tiles with painting in blue only, like the 
corresponding pottery, were first made under the influence of blue-and- 
white Chinese porcelain. More clearly stated, both tiles and pottery 
conformed with the fashion for blue-and-white, not earlier than the second 

39 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

or perhaps even the third decade of the seventeenth century. But even 
with this knowledge to guide us, we are confronted with the many classes 
of blue-and-white tiles without any more precise data of a satisfactory 
nature. In their case, to a much greater degree than with the pottery, 
the older patterns must have been continually used again in later times, 
not only for the reason that stencils could be employed so much more 
readily on the flat surface of tiles, but especially because their use was 
imposed as a matter of course by the demands of mass-production. For 
our part, therefore, we can only consent to the assignment of a date in 
cases where it is possible to establish a clear distinction in the thickness 
of a tile, the character of the glaze, the colours or a distinctly recognisable 
deterioration of pattern. Even this last criterion has by no means always 
the same significance ; obviously there will be a difference in the treat- 
ment of the same stencilled pattern by a good and a bad painter. 

From these considerations is it not clear that distinctions of style will 
not carry us very far ^ It is better, therefore, not to venture on this 
slippery path, and to be content with a description of the finest patterns 
and with reproductions of a few of them, in the conviction that there 
may perhaps still be somewhat more that could be related about the tiles, 
and that many collectors will probably be able to point to other fine 
patterns in their collection. As it is not possible to set beside one another 
illustrations of tile-patterns from a variety of sources, we confine our- 
selves in the main to the new and admirably equipped museum of tiles 
at Delft, the Lambert van Meerten Museum, which has recently been 
enriched by the purchase of a splendid collection. It contains fine 
examples of nearly all patterns. We have borrowed a few from specimens 
in the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam, and for important examples of tile- 
pictures we shall include other museums in our survey. Rotterdam also 
possesses in its Museum van Oudheden a fine collection of tiles and 
tile -pictures, which unfortunately through lack of space do not receive 
their due. 

The older tiles, and indeed those of later date as well, must be 
divided into two groups. The first consists of those which combine to 
form a continuous pattern, extending vertically and horizontally over the 
wall- surface ; generally these tiles when set together in fours make up 
a continually repeating motive. Next to these come the tiles which show 
each a separate design — a figure or an animal or flower, with or without 
a geometrical border, in some cases with corner fillings which form a 
geometrical connection with the contiguous tiles, as if to reinforce the 

40 



DUTCH TILES 

continuous design. In tiles of this class sometimes the geometrical 
motives predominate, sometimes the figure-subjects or plant-motives ; 
the pattern displayed by a tiled wall is more or less continuous in 
accordance with such predominance, but in all cases this rhythmic effect 
is more or less intended. 

The second group, that of tile-pictures, always displays a representa- 
tion of some kind, a scene, a landscape, a ship at sea, or a vase of flowers, 
carried over several tiles, sometimes covering a large wall-surface, so that 
each tile has its individual role to play in the great whole. Each tile thus 
demanded separate handling, but this was also the case with the tiles of 
a continuous pattern that could be produced with a single stencil. Hence 
they are never all exactly alike. The outline design was transferred with 
a stencil on to the tiles, but the painter, according to his greater or less 
artistic ability, had his own manner of transforming in blue or other 
colours the charcoal design — in a word, his own style. This is the reason 
why the tiles vary so widely in artistic merit, quite apart from the fact 
that they often differ greatly in quality as productions of the tilemaker's 
craft. At the same time the number and diversity of really beautiful tiles 
is great enough to ensure much aesthetic enjoyment from a visit to a good 
collection. 

First we will discuss the tiles with the older polychrome colouring, 
corresponding to that of the old Dutch maiolica. The colours are the 
familiar blue, yellow, brown, green and manganese-purple ; but a 
distinction is to be observed between the tiles with a continuous pattern 
and the tile-pictures and figure-subjects painted on tiles. In the latter 
manganese-purple is seldom wanting ; in the former, on the other hand, 
we rarely meet with its use. In most of these continuous designs a 
powerful colour effect is obtained with blue, yellow or yellowish brown 
and green, in which the predominance of one of the colours, and the 
influence of the colours in juxtaposition upon one another, combine to 
enrich the colour scheme, though the number of colours remains limited 
to the same restricted total. The warmth of the colouring is not inferior 
to, and indeed often surpasses, that of the much richer palette of the 
delft of later times ; it is decidedly superior to that of the muffle-pigments 
of the eighteenth-century factories. 

We deal, then, first with the group of continuous patterns displaying 
the old colouring. Their manufacture went on well into the seventeenth 
century — some, indeed, were made as late as the middle of it — but many 
of them certainly date from the latter years of the sixteenth century. We 

41 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

can to some extent class in groups the tiles of this type. In our survey 
we shall constantly refer to examples in the museum at Delft, some of 
the finest of which are shown in the illustrations. The tiles in that 
museum are set together in large panels, giving their full value to the 
patterns. 

We shall confine ourselves to tiles that we can regard with tolerable 
certainty as of Dutch origin, though it may quite possibly be found later 
that certain kinds must be ascribed to Antwerp. For the present we draw 
the line, in agreement with certain Belgian authorities, at the point where 
the clear canary-yellow of the Flemish tiles is no longer to be seen in 
the designs ; we regard as Dutch those tiles in particular with ornament 
of less strongly pronounced Renaissance character, giving a greater 
impression of flatness than the Flemish, which call to mind more vividly 
the scrollwork of grotesque designs. But, as in the case of the pottery, 
the dividing line cannot as yet be drawn quite definitely. 

I. The first class is that of patterns in which geometrical figures 
predominate, whilst such plant-motives as occur are formally treated. To 
this class belong simple chequer-patterns, as well as formal fleurs-de-lys 
in circles and lozenges ; geometrical compartments enclosing arabesques ; 
star-motives combined with formal foliage and rosette-motives with leaf- 
ornament or foliated arabesques ; lastly, lozenges or circles or compart- 
ments of other shapes with formal leaf- or arabesque-ornament. A very 
interesting pattern recalls, by the filling up of the surface in the form 
of a cross with arabesques, the old Persian star and cross tiles, although 
it is carried out over four tiles set together. This motive also occurs on 
sixteenth- century tiles of red clay with a lead glaze ; this fact, combined 
with the decoration in white reserved on a coloured ground, suggests 
that the design should be reckoned as one of the earliest types. We may 
mention some pretty examples of this kind, including a design (Fig. lo) 
in which each tile is painted with an oblong hexagon set diagonally, flanked 
by motives in the two angles which combine with similar motives on 
three other tiles to build up a regular hexagon. Both forms of hexagon 
are filled with reserved arabesques, in blue, yellow, brown and green. 
A beautiful and uncommon pattern (Fig. 12) shows kidney-shaped motives 
reserved against a ground of the same colours surrounded by foliated 
arabesques, likewise in reserve ; the corner - motives form various 
patterns, such as a rosette, in combination with those on the other 
tiles. The dominant green, contrasted with orange - brown, gives 
to this pattern a very pretty effect. The leading motive in green is 

43 



DUTCH TILES 

displayed in its entirety on each tile, but they form a pattern only 
when set together, in fours or even in larger panels. Another very 
carefully worked-out example (Fig. 13) consists of a central star- 
motive in a circle on a white ground, surrounded by stylised leaf- 
motives, whilst the corners of the tiles also form star - motives in 
conjunction with the adjacent tiles ; the whole pattern is enclosed by a 
framework of oblong motives, traversing the edges of the tiles and 
decorated with small spirals somewhat reminiscent of Oriental inscription- 
decoration, scratched in reserve through the colour of the ground. Here 
again the colours are blue, yellow, brown and green. A very different 
effect is produced by a design (Fig. 14) which nevertheless belongs to 
this group on account of its motives. It shows, on a white ground telling 
vividly between the ornament, a starlike rosette in the middle, formal 
fleurs-de-lys, verging on foliage, in the corners, and simple rosettes with 
small scrolls on the edges. This fine pattern, painted in the same familiar 
colours, is marked by strong diagonal lines. Variations of this design 
occur, as indeed of all those described. These tiles, with their blue, 
yellow, brown and green on a white ground, give the effect of the particles 
of coloured glass in a kaleidoscope constantly forming and reforming 
themselves into different combinations, the patterns thus formed recurring 
in different variations. 

2. We pass to designs still comprising geometrical motives, but with 
plant forms, naturally rendered or only slightly stylised, as the dominant 
note. An example is a design, again composed of four tiles, with a 
fieur-de-lys, rosette or star motive in the middle, and tulips and pome- 
granates or bunches of grapes radiating from it. There are very fine 
specimens of this type amongst others in the museum at Delft. An 
example is a pattern (Fig. 16, also represented in that museum in plain 
blue and white) showing a four-tile design of radiating tulips, with pome- 
granates between them and bunches of grapes in the interspaces ; here 
again the effect given by a large number of tiles fitted together is that of 
strongly accented diagonals. There are many variations ; in some of 
them the grapes play a part in the diagonal bands. The same pattern is 
found also confined in its entirety to a single tile. Again, the same 
motives or some of them, particularly the orange, are arranged in pointed 
quatrefoil compartments, sometimes extended over four tiles. Again, 
the quatrefoil and its contents may be comprised on a single tile, in which 
case the four corner ornaments, when the tiles are brought together, 
form rosettes of arabesque character reserved on a blue ground. The 

43 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

colours are as usual, but the bright orange-yellow of the tulips and 
oranges here plays an important part. 

3. The last class in the group is that in which a figure of a man or 
animal, a flower, a flower-vase, a dish of fruit, etc., is the leading feature, 
usually forming the middle motive and often bordered by a geometrical 
framework, the corners of which are filled with ornament reserved on a 
blue ground. Some of the designs approach those of the former group 
by the manner in which the geometrical border gives a well-marked 
rhythmic effect in conjunction with the surrounding tiles. A pattern of 
this type (Fig. 15) has as its central motive a symmetrical bouquet in a 
vase, somewhat formal in its treatment, in blue, yellow and green ; this 
is enclosed within a pointed quatrefoil surrounded by corner decorations, 
in which appear foliated arabesques reserved in white on blue, also 
forming four-sided figures when brought together. The colours are as 
usual, and many variations of the pattern occur. But in this group, as a 
general rule, the rhythmic connection between the tiles, although main- 
tained, is less striking than the chief motive, a human figure or portrait 
bust, an animal, flower or vase of flowers. All these motives occur both 
with and without corner ornaments, enclosed not only in lozenges but 
also in circles and oval, lozenge- or quatrefoil-shaped frames. They are 
exemplified by various tiles at Delft, in the Rijksmuseum and at Rotterdam. 
In the painting of the figures manganese-purple is sometimes added to 
the usual colours. In this group each tile forms a much more definite 
unit by itself, especially when there is no corner decoration of any kind, 
as in the tiles painted with figures of Roman soldiers (Fig. 17), which 
moreover fill the tile-surface in a very satisfactory manner. To this class 
also belong, amongst others, the tiles with mermaids and mermen, on a 
green sea painted so as to continue through several tiles. A pretty type 
with figures of animals, often drawn in a very spirited manner, is well 
represented in Fig. 18. In these the various animals are enclosed in 
circles with foliage reserved on a blue ground in the corners of the tiles ; 
they show here and there the use of a little manganese, together with 
the customary colours (it will be noted that it is generally in figures that 
this pigment occurs). Lastly, we may mention a pattern (Fig. 19) of 
detached flowers (different varieties of tulip), with fleurs-de-lys in the 
corners and in addition baluster-motives at the sides, all in the four usual 
colours. A somewhat exceptional pattern, in the same colours, is that 
(Fig. 11) of four tiles forming when put together a rosette of terminal 
figures radiating from a centre. 

44 



DUTCH TILES 

The patterns of all the well-known types of tiles undoubtedly 
continued for a long time in use, so we should not be prepared to go 
further than to say that they were made equally towards the end of the 
sixteenth century and in the first half of the seventeenth, and to count 
amongst the earliest the tiles showing the pure reserve technique. Further, 
less careful execution of a pattern is often a proof of later date, whenever 
it is obvious that the pattern must be derived from a more firmly drawn 
original. 

4. We have already mentioned a pattern which was carried out in 
blue only as well as in the old colouring. We will now turn our attention 
to the tiles executed solely in blue and white. The patterns of the older 
polychrome types were sometimes produced in blue, but blue tiles as a 
class only began to be made in the course of the seventeenth century. 
We shall now deal only with the designs that we do not find in the older 
colouring, and must take as our fourth group the tiles with figure- 
subjects, with or without a circular border and corner ornaments. 
Amongst them we see representations of every class, such as biblical 
subjects, landscapes, shipping subjects, soldiers on foot or mounted, 
children playing games, flowers, animals, coats of arms, etc. Chinese 
influence is perceptible not only in the use of blue alone on a white 
ground, but also to some extent in the motives. An example is a design 
(Fig. 24) of leaf-motives forming diagonals enclosing medallions, in 
which are painted various motives under the influence of Chinese porcelain 
of the time of Wan Li (1573-1619). The vogue of " blue-and-white " 
had a very long life, examples occurring from the early seventeenth until 
the nineteenth century. Tiles, and especially tile-pictures of this class, 
were also made at Delft. In so far as we regard them for one reason or 
another as of Delft origin, or can assign them to individual Delft potters, 
we shall describe them in a later chapter, on Delft earthenware. We 
shall refer here only to a few other designs, such as figures in costume of 
the early seventeenth century, surrounded by ornamental motives filling 
the corners (Fig. 23). 

5. Meanwhile the blue-and-white fashion of the seventeenth century 
was followed in the eighteenth century by a vogue for purple-and-white, 
which was not, however, an entirely new development, as painting in 
manganese-purple had been practised much earlier. An eighteenth- 
century rococo pattern in manganese and white in the museum at Delft, 
consisting of formal foliage and rococo motives, shows that the new 
styles of ornament did not escape the notice of the tile-maker. 

45 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

Obviously we have mentioned only a few important designs. The 
innumerable variations and other combinations have no fresh significance 
for our survey, any more than the tiles with various subjects, not always 
applied to the surface with much decorative feeling. They were made in 
very numerous factories, amongst other places especially in Rotterdam, 
whilst Friesland also (Harlingen and Bolsward, Fig. 25) provides a 
contingent in this class of production. 

We must, lastly, draw attention to another class of ornamental tiles. 
The tiles splashed or marbled with purple, so far as they are of later 
(eighteenth century) date, belong to the same class as those we have just 
described with painting in purple ; but the older type, of thicker tiles, 
rather brownish purple in tone and more heavily splashed, must be 
specially mentioned. Tiles of this latter kind have been found amongst 
others in excavations at Rotterdam, together with factory " wasters," 
proving that they were made in that city. 



46 



DUTCH TILE-PICTURES 



Chapter VI 

DUTCH TILE-PICTURES 

Our consideration is now demanded by tile-pictures showing the 
old polychrome palette, in which generally manganese-purple is found as 
well as blue, yellow, brown and green. Here again, as regards the earlier 
examples, we have for dating purposes only vague criteria to guide us. 
The most important early tile-picture^ is the well-known panel (Fig. 20) 
which was built into the front of the house of which the name is displayed 
as well as illustrated by the picture, the House of the Thousand Terrors 
{In duysent vreesen) at Rotterdam. The panel depicts a lamb standing 
in the midst of four snarling wild beasts, with a soldier on either flank ; 
a blading fire is seen in the background. When the house was demolished 
these tiles were broken away from the position in the facade which they 
adorned, together with a stone dated 1594, and subsequently passed with 
it into the Museum van Oudheden at Rotterdam. The obvious question, 
which we are not the first to put forward, is whether this date 1594 is 
to be regarded as that of the picture. A decisive answer has not yet 
been found, nor even a satisfactory elucidation of the allegorical repre- 
sentation. But, in view of the fact that the house is already mentioned 
in legal documents at that period, there is not, in our opinion, any 
insuperable difficulty in accepting the picture as a fine example of tile- 
work of the end of the sixteenth century. It is, however, certainly 
somewhat strange that a fine large panel with a vase of flowers of 
absolutely the same technique and colouring, which the Musees du 
Cinquantenaire at Brussels possess in the Evenepoel Collection, bears 
with the mark C.I.V. the date 1647 ; on the analogy of this example 
we are inclined to assign to a date not earlier than 1647 the vase-panel 
of closely corresponding character in the museum at Rotterdam (Fig. 21). 

1 Not long ago four tiles from a panel of twelve, bearing the signature IB and date 
1570, were found built into the wall in a house at Delft. The subject is more extensive 
than that of a picture of 1606 at Amsterdam, which is based on Heemskerck. Are we to 
infer from it that the Dutch tile-manufacture also goes back as far as 1570 ? It seems too 
much to believe, but it is not impossible in a country in which Vroom's father was already 
at this early period making wonderful drinking- vessels of "porcelain" with beautiful 
colouring. 

49 E 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

This latter panel was at one time built into a house since abolished, and 
entirely agrees in technique and colouring with the Duysent vreesen panel. 
An unequivocal date is provided by a tile-picture, largely restored, in the 
Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam, which must surely be of Dutch origin. 
The subject is the Prodigal Son, based upon a print by Maerten van 
Heemskerck. In the place where in the print the monogram of the 
master is seen, we find on the tile-picture an unidentified monogram 
consisting of the initials H^B. and the date 1606. We may therefore 
accept these figures with certainty as the date of origin of the tiles. They 
are painted by the same hand as the large bowl of 1601, mentioned on 
an earlier page, with the subject of the " Roman Charity." 

It will be observed that both the dating, and sometimes also the 
distinction between Dutch and Flemish productions, still present some 
difficulties, which, however, do not in any way impair the enjoyment 
afforded to the amateur by the beautiful material and strong, warm 
colouring of the tile-pictures. We will note here certain fragments of 
pictures in the Rijksmuseum with the old colouring, showing mounted 
figures (amongst them Prince Maurice) within an ornamental border, and 
other fragments in the Lambert van Meerten Museum at Delft. Lastly, 
we must mention a tile-picture in the latter museum (Fig. 22) with a 
large figure of a naked boy ; it is 5 ft. 6 J in. (1*70 m.) high, and is made 
up of thirteen rows of six tiles each. The painting is carried out chiefly 
in manganese-purple, with blue, yellow, brown and green. This picture 
came from Gouda. The painter used as his model, in reverse, a detail 
from a drawing of 1599 by Joachim Utewael, a design for a painted 
window in the Groote Kerk in that town. Its subject is the Victory of 
Conscience over Force. The boy, one of two supporters of a cartouche, 
is represented in a dancing attitude, and rests his left foot on a heavenly 
sphere in place of the shield of the original design ; in the foreground 
is a bright green scroll. Whilst the tile-painter will not, from his repro- 
duction of the design, be ranked as a first-rate master, the power of the 
painting and the size in which he has rendered the figure (equal to that 
of the window design) justify us in regarding the work as an effective 
and powerfully painted picture. We do not know who the artist was ; 
he himself perhaps worked at Gouda, but his name is there unknown. 
We recognise his hand, however — or at least that of a nearly related artist 
— in another tile-picture, in private possession ; it is carried out on the 
same large scale, and also came from Gouda, being based upon the design 
for another detail of the same window. The colours of this latter picture 

50 



DUTCH TILE-PICTURES 

are restricted to light and dark manganese-purple^ thus providing us 
with an example of a tile-panel painted in this colour alone, going back to 
the first half of the seventeenth century (it is dated 1640). This clearly 
established dating proves the need for caution in assigning dates on the 
evidence of prints used as models. The window designs date from 1599. 
The figure of the boy bespeaks almost certainly the same hand as the 
tile-picture in purple, and can therefore be assigned to a date not much 
earlier than 1640. 

There is therefore no certainty to our knowledge of the existence of 
sixteenth- century Dutch tile-pictures. One would, indeed, be inclined 
to refer to a period not earlier than about 1640 some of the undated 
pictures already mentioned. To the year 1640 belongs also a large blue- 
and-white panel representing Julius Caesar, in the Museum van Oudheden 
at Rotterdam. Figures for the fronts of chimneypieces, painted both in 
the old colours and in blue alone, are also known dating from about the 
same time ; examples are to be found in museums and private collections. 

There is no great likelihood of our being able to point out older 
blue -and -white pictures. It is true that the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam 
possesses a picture representing a ship at sea, that shows a type of vessel 
of about 1626, but the picture may be a later copy of an early print. We 
may mention also in the same museum (in a room in the basement) a 
large picture of the battle of the Downs in 1639 (in which a Spanish 
fleet was defeated by the Dutch under Tromp) ; it is much damaged, 
having been broken away from the front of a house in Amsterdam and 
put together again with some of the tiles in the wrong order. This 
picture is copied from a print by C. J. Visscher. There is also a large 
figure of a knight, with the inscription Het Graefscap van Buren, 

After the oldest types, executed in colours and at a later stage also 
in blue only, we must next deal with the tile-pictures with which are 
associated the names of the well-known Rotterdam craftsmen, Boumeester 
and Aelmis. 

Cornelis Boumeester, tile-painter, who executed large pictures in 
blue and white, representing especially ships at sea, but also landscapes, 
signed his works with his full name or with the monogram C.B.M. He 
worked from about 1675 till shortly after 1700, and died at an advanced 
age in 1733. Pictures of larger or smaller size by his hand, or fragments 
of them, are to be found in various museums, for the most part broken 
away from old houses. We may name amongst others those in the 
Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam and the Museum van Oudheden at Rotterdam. 

51 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

Amongst those at Amsterdam is the well-known large panel on which 
are depicted ships at sea enclosed by a border of small purple tiles ; it 
is marked C. Boumeester. As an example for illustration we have selected 
a smaller panel from Amsterdam (Fig. 26), with shipping on a stormy sea. 
Amongst other subjects by his hand we will merely mention a quay for 
merchandise with a tower, and an Italian landscape with ruins, both at 
Amsterdam. 

The name Aelmis is not that of a single master, but of a family of 
potters, in which the industry was handed down from father to son 
through several generations. Of the oldest, Pieter Jansz Aelmis, we know 
that he bought a tileworks in 1692. His son, Jan Pietersz, who died in 
1755, and the son of the latter, Johannes or Jan (1714-1799), were the 
tilemakers who made the panels known to us, which are moreover usually 
signed. It is not always clear to which of the two named Jan a panel 
must be ascribed. Thus the two fine panels painted in blue within a 
border of splashed purple tiles, which are still to be seen as a chimney- 
piece in one of the rooms in the Weeshuis (Orphanage) at Rotterdam, 
were at one time attributed to the son, but in view of the Louis XIV 
style of the framework it may possibly be that the father was the maker. 
For our purposes there is no need to make a precise distinction between 
the pictures of the two ; we will merely describe their character as a class. 
Many of the pictures, including unsigned examples, are executed in 
purple and white. Evidently they were much sought after. Specimens 
in purple and white are even to be found at Hamburg, in the Museum 
fiir Kunst und Gewerbe, which were broken away from a house in that 
city and are known to have been ordered from Rotterdam by an Altona 
merchant in 1765. They are signed and dated Jan Aalmis a Rotterdam 
1764, and are painted with the subjects of Astronomy, Music and Sculpture, 
after engravings by Jacopo Amigoni. In the Museum van Oudheden at 
Rotterdam are to be found, amongst other examples, a tile-picture (much 
damaged), with a vase of flowers in blue which was the sign of the tile- 
works of the Aelmis family, called the " Flowerpot " {de Bloempot). 

Amongst the designs for tiles and tile-pictures preserved in the 
Gemeente-Archief (municipal archives) at Rotterdam are several that 
came from the " Flowerpot " tileworks ; they also include stencils for 
panels executed by that factory. Two panels in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum are copied from an engraving out of a work entitled De zege- 
praalende Vecht, published in 1719, and represent a country-seat by the 
Vecht, a waterway near Utrecht, at that time noted for its attractions. 

52 



DUTCH TILE-PICTURES 

They may be ascribed with little hesitation to the " Flowerpot " factory, 
seeing that another subject borrowed from the same book was found 
amongst the above-mentioned tile-designs, whilst several similar tile- 
pictures, of identical size, are named in the lists of the stock remaining 
at the factory when it was sold in 1843. These pictures appear, however, 
to be of later date than the Aelmis management and belong probably to 
the early nineteenth century. 

Apparently enamelled earthenware was also made in the Aelmis 
tile-factory. The mark and date /. Aelmis 1731 C,B., with a star, occur 
on two square trays with round, projecting corners and four small feet, 
painted with a party on a terrace, surrounded by an ornamental border 
with clowns in medallions. These pieces, respectively in the Rijksmuseum 
and in the Gemeentemuseum at The Hague, were formerly attributed 
to a Delft factory ; now they are regarded as Rotterdam work. A lozenge- 
shaped wall-plaque, also at Amsterdam, decorated with medallions 
containing figures of ladies amongst ornament, is signed with a monogram 
(probably that of Jan Aelmis) and dated 1736. It is quite probable that 
some of the earthenware of fine quality that we ascribe to Delft may 
have been made at Rotterdam ; this is to be inferred from the fact that 
as early as 1614 one Claes Wijtmans, when making arrangements for the 
establishment of a pottery at Rotterdam, applied for a patent " for making 
all sorts of porcelain, decorated or not, nearly identical with the porcelains 
that come from distant countries."^ At the same time we are unable 
as yet to point out any other piece as certainly of Rotterdam origin, and 
practically all the other factories at that place were not potteries, but 
tileworks. Moreover, there seems in general to be a decided difference 
between the productions of Delft and Rotterdam, since both classes of 
ware are clearly distinguished in the lists in the old inventories of 
Rotterdam retailers. The superiority in quality of the Delft wares, with 
few exceptions, over those of Rotterdam is proved by the quantity of 
Delft shown by the records to have been sold in the latter city; most of 
the Rotterdam wares must have been merely schotelgoed, of the later, 
coarser quality, made in the tile-factories. We have a witness to this 
superiority in the account given by Bleyswijck, writing in 1667, in his 
Beschrijvinge der Stadt Delft (" Description of the Town of Delft "). It 
is, of course, obvious that he would praise the earthenware of his own 
town, but from his words it seems clear that the productions of Delft 

1 " Voor het maken van alle soorten van porsdein versierd of niet, hijna overeen- 
komend met de porseleinen die van verre landen komen." 

53 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

were really of better quality than those of other places. A certain amount 
of pottery, he tells us, was made at Haarlem, Gouda and Rotterdam, but 
of a coarse kind, so that only Delfsche Porceleyn is bought far and 
wide in Brabant, Flanders, France, Spain and even England. It some- 
times went even as far as to the East Indies. 

This brings us into the region of the Delft potteries and their work. 
As already explained, we do not propose now to mention tiles made by 
potters known or presumed to belong to Delft ; they will be discussed 
in due course when we come to deal with the Delft potters. We will 
here draw attention only to another example of a large flower-vase panel 
in blue and white in the Rijksmuseum, that must date from about 1700, 
and may have been made at Delft or perhaps at Rotterdam. 

For tiles and tile-pictures showing the polychrome palette of Delft, 
with red and also black, and for those with the intermediate shades of 
the muffle-kiln, we refer the reader to the following chapters on Delft 
earthenware. 



54 



DELFT EARTHENWARE : ITS ORIGINS AND STUDY 



Chapter VII 
DELFT EARTHENWARE : ITS ORIGINS AND STUDY 

When we speak of " delft " — as we have already explained — ^we 
confine ourselves to the old meaning of the name, and use it of the tin- 
enamelled earthenware made first and foremost at Delft. Tradition is 
not without significance, and it is therefore not for nothing that Delft 
has a name as a town of potteries. That such earthenware was made 
also at factories elsewhere, and that Rotterdam, for example, produced 
not only tiles, but also what may be called delft, are facts that have quite 
recently been set in a clearer light, and rightly so ; they are, however, 
of less importance to us when there is no mark, such as is found, for 
example, on the pottery of Arnhem, to prove that certain wares were 
undoubtedly produced in a certain place, or when the earthenware 
cannot on technical or other grounds be clearly distinguished from that 
of Delft. It is true that, even amongst what we call delft, pieces of very 
diverse character are to be met with, but generally there is nothing to 
prove that they were made elsewhere than at Delft, seeing that their 
technique does not point, by a different method of fabrication, to another 
place of manufacture. We shall therefore regard the term " delft " 
rather as the name of a class, understanding that the earthenware thus 
named was, in general, made at Delft. At the same time we are fully 
convinced that we shall allow to pass as delft, by reason of our scanty 
knowledge of the products of particular factories, occasional specimens 
which were made elsewhere, not only at Rotterdam, but also at The Hague 
or Haarlem, for example, or in Friesland. 

We can, as a matter of fact, identify, in a certain class of blue and 
white, the earthenware of Frisian factories. It is generally called Makkum 
ware, but this class of pottery was made at other Frisian factories as well. 
The enamel is of a chalky whiteness, and the blue is duller than in delft ; 
there is an inferiority in quality also. Specimens are to be seen in the 
Rijksmuseum and in the Frisian Museum at Leeuwarden. 

A special position is also taken by the ware of Arnhem, on the Rhine, 
which is generally marked with a cock. In contrast with the Frisian 
wares it often displays such an extreme of refinement that a typical 

57 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

Arnhem coffee-pot in the Clainpanain Collection at Lille (Fig. 112) 
competes alike in its enamel and in its painting — in pinkish lilac, yellow, 
pale blue, green and reddish brown — with genuine porcelain. 

Similar pieces, inspired by Meissen or other porcelain, are to be 
seen in the Evenepoel Collection in the Musees du Cinquantenaire at 
Brussels, and in the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam. The factory was 
established by Johan van Kerckhoff in 1755 and appears not to have 
continued for long in operation. Its sign, an earthenware panel, painted 
in blue, may be seen by the curious in the Evenepoel Collection at 
Brussels ; it displays a group of figures after Lancret, with a view of the 
factory in the background, and its mark, a cock above a ribbon with the 
legend arnhemse fabrique. The panel has no great merit as a painting, 
but is of importance as the first clue to the identification of the Arnhem 
wares. 

We will now turn to Delft. The first Delft potters known to us by 
name are found mentioned in the Registers of the Guild of St. Luke, 
and in the Huwelijksboeken (marriage registers) of Delft of about the year 
1600. Their names are of no importance to us, seeing that we know of 
none of their works. Very probably their earthenware was still of the 
class which we have described above as " Dutch maiolica," for we know 
nothing that we can with certainty call " delft " of so early a date. But 
we have already observed the development from this Dutch maiolica of 
the more recent product. Pure tin-enamelled blue-and-white we class as 
delft. No important documents have come down to us from the first 
period of Delft. We have already referred to the application to the States- 
General by Claes Wijtmans, of Rotterdam, between 1614 and 1616 — 
under the influence of the porcelain imported in the earliest years of the 
seventeenth century from China — for a patent for making " all sorts of 
porcelain, decorated or not, nearly identical with the porcelains that 
come from distant countries." From this we can presume that blue-and- 
white earthenware was made at Delft also at the same time, but of this 
class we may say, even more than of other types of ware, that extant 
specimens cannot with any certainty be assigned to an earlier date than 
the third or fourth decades of the seventeenth century. 

In the case of Delft we are confronted with an entirely different 
state of affairs from that of the Dutch maiolica and the majority of 
the tiles. Our knowledge of its makers is considerable. Even in this 
case, however, we have to regret the lack of documents, and precisely of 

58 



DELFT EARTHENWARE: ITS ORIGINS AND STUDY 

those most important documents that might bridge over the gulf between 
the potters and their productions. For obtaining extensive information 
as to the Delft potteries and the Guild of St. Luke, to which the potters 
belonged, there is an abundance of material ; not so, however, as regards 
the earthenware itself. The loss amongst other evidence of any list on 
which the manufacturers recorded their marks, earlier in date than 1764, 
is the chief reason why documents have so much less to teach us about 
the earthenware than might be thought, in view of the quantity in 
existence of documents in writing and of marked wares. In 1680, it is 
true, the authorities decided that, as a safeguard against forgery, the 
potters must register their marks, but this decision held good only for 
red earthenware teapots. The marks of this list even do not occur, so 
far as is known, on the teapots themselves. We therefore obtain hardly 
any certain information before the year 1764, virtually, that is to say, 
until the manufacture had passed its prime. There has been preserved 
a list of that year, consisting of marks registered in compliance with the 
" by-law against the forging of the signs or marks of the potteries, 
together with the altering of the aforesaid signs or marks " {Keure tegens 
het Namaaken der Teeckens of Merken der Plateelbakkerijen mitsgaders het 
veranderen der voorseijde Teeckens of Merken). But this list is too late 
to be of any help to us except in the elucidation of certain factory marks, 
in so far as these are not already known to us. 

Havard, the pioneer of the study of Delft earthenware, who gave 
up to that study an enormous amount of time and patience, attempted 
to meet this difficulty by making a collection of all the potters' names 
that he could find in registers of marriages and births, registers of hearth- 
taxes, guild-books and notarial documents, that is to say, in the archives. 
In the second edition of his book, published under the title of La ceramique 
hollandaise in 1909, he informs us that he has added more than seven 
hundred new biographies of potters to the original total of forty. This 
gain, which is not without significance for our knowledge of the pottery 
industry, appears greater than it really is for the classification of the 
wares. For what are the actual facts !* Not everyone who called himself 
a " potter " (plateelbakker) was a potter in the sense that he is of import- 
ance to us in the elucidation of marks. Of many amongst this host of 
potters, all that Havard can tell us is that they were twice or three times 
married, or recorded the births of numerous children ; and when we 
take into account the propensity shown by many persons to give them- 
selves titles not lower than their actual station in life, we shall be sure to 

59 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

find included in the designation of potters all the workpeople engaged in 
the potters' craft, down even to the humblest, unless they were, for 
example, pottery painters. Thus the kiln-stokers, who were the actual 
" bakers " of the earthenware, must certainly often have called themselves 
plateelbakker {'* potter "), the more so as the proprietors generally styled 
themselves meester -plateelbakker {" master-potter "). 

The attempt of Havard to explain as far as possible the monograms 
found by him on the wares with the help of names in his extensive list 
of potters involved a great danger, the more so because most of the marks 
are not signatures at all. For in the first place, in the list of 1764 there 
is no mention of the marks of potters (plateelbakkers), but of potteries 
(plateelbakkerijen). And what is in reality the meaning of the marks on 
the wares '^ Factory marks can for the most part easily be distinguished, 
as most of the factories occurring in the list of 1764 were already in 
existence in the seventeenth century. If such factory marks are accom- 
panied by a monogram agreeing with the initials of an owner or foreman 
at a time to which, on stylistic grounds, the object can be assigned, then 
the question is not a difficult one. But this is by no means always possible, 
and there are factories, for example, which continued working for a period 
of 150 years. Again, what are we to say if the earthenware is marked 
only with one or two letters f* The numerals often met with on the 
wares may naturally be regarded as factory numbers, that is, numbers 
indicating shape, size or series. But what of the monograms J' These 
may be : (i) factory marks unknown to us, (2) initials of the owner or 
owners of a factory, (3) initials of a foreman, (4) initials of a pottery 
painter, (5) a combination of one or more of these four. Who shall 
distinguish all these, or who knows how long a monogram once adopted 
continued in existence $* Again, who that reflects upon the resolutions 
against the forging of marks adopted in 1680 and 1764 will venture to 
tell us how many marks were imitated by contemporaries or successors f" 
It is, indeed, admitted by Havard himself, as regards the AK monogram, 
that it was counterfeited by several manufacturers. And, viewing the 
case in its most favourable aspect, ought we not to feel some doubt as 
to the interpretations that have been given of the various marks in the 
form of letters, when we see how complicated the interpretation often is 
of a monogram known to us f' In addition to this there is the difficulty 
that various potters have no proper family name, so that father and son 
can easily be confused in the monograms. Moreover, they have no fixed 
signature. 

60 



DELFT EARTHENWARE: ITS ORIGINS AND STUDY 

Again, the factories continually changed owners. The difficulty of 
connecting the name of an owner of a factory with a particular production 
is proved by the fact that an individual could own a quarter or half share 
of one or more factories. From this, and from the curious circumstance 
that a doctor of medicine, for example, owned three-quarters of a pottery, 
and that a potter, Jacob Wemmersz Hoppesteyn, was at the same time 
— in fact, primarily — a cooper, we may conclude that many owners or 
part-owners had only a financial interest in the factories which they 
called their property. They were therefore, to use a modern expression, 
merely shareholders, and did not themselves practise the potter's craft. 
Indeed, we need not look for any personal activity on the part of an owner. 
It was, in the eighteenth century especially, a very simple matter. 
Everyone with money was only too glad to see it invested in the profit- 
able pottery industry, and bought a pottery without having the slightest 
knowledge of the business, allowing his name to be enrolled in the guild 
as a winkelhouder (retail dealer). In order to be able actually to carry on 
the industry, it was only necessary to engage a foreman who satisfied the 
requirements of the guild. 

Foremen and workpeople naturally changed no less rapidly than 
proprietors. But it is not merely impossible to keep count of these 
continual changes ; we see in the wares also all kinds of confusing varia- 
tions, probably as a direct consequence of the changes of owners, foremen 
and workpeople, and perhaps also through competition. Thus we find 
plates and vases showing identical patterns but different marks ; we may 
cite, for example, dishes with the heron-pattern, peacock-feather plates, 
drug-vases, and, last but not least, work in the manner of Rochus Hoppe- 
steyn. Again, objects of very divergent character bear an identical mark, 
as for example the " AR " mark, amongst others. Lastly, there are the 
difficulties presented by the great mass of unmarked pieces. 

However things may be, most marks mean for us less than they 
would lead us to expect. Only in very few cases are they signatures of 
factory owners. A comprehensive work such as Havard undertook was 
necessary in order to arrive at this discovery, but Havard himself did 
not draw this conclusion from it ; in his desire to explain all marks as 
far as possible, he led those who came after him into many a false track. 

But we have a less agreeable criticism to make. Havard 's work is 
full of small and even greater inaccuracies which have given rise, and 
may continue to give rise, to the greatest confusion. It is just for this 
reason that we rejoice over the fact that a beginning has been made with 

6i 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

the preparation of an accurate authoritative work.^ This work will for 
the first time put students of earthenware in a position to write a new 
history of Delft ware, for the teaching of the written documents will 
stand on surer foundations than those hitherto afforded, chiefly by the 
publications of Havard. Meanwhile it is possible — indeed, in our opinion, 
probable — that even then the bridge between Delft ware and its makers 
will remain to a large extent broken down, and that the publication will 
be found to have more importance for our knowledge of the pottery 
industry in general, for which indeed it has been undertaken, than for 
the study of the wares in particular. We expect from it many rectifications, 
not, however, a complete revolution in the present study of delft, which 
naturally yields a large place to stylistic criticism. This is therefore the 
reason why we see no difficulty in writing even at this stage a new account 
of Delft earthenware, without having been able to examine the documents 
as yet unpublished. Our survey of delft is based entirely on the wares 
themselves. We have therefore grouped them, like the classes of earthen- 
ware already described, in so far as the marks yield no clear data, by the 
characteristics they display in their material and decoration ; at the same 
time we have naturally been glad to make use of the dates we have been 
able to find upon them. The marks have served us often merely as links 
between the specimens. We have not tried to explain them. Of course, 
we have given full weight to the interpretations of which we could be 
absolutely sure. The writings left by the late Mr. Van der Burgh, which 
contain such important commentaries for the new publication of docu- 
ments, are our source for certain matters as to which there was immediate 
need for emendation. Where, in part as the outcome of the researches 
of Havard, a tradition was in existence and we were unable to replace it 
with anything better, we have not thought it necessary to make any 
alteration, seeing that the names of the manufacturers for the most part 
are more useful in the classification of various kinds of delft than as a 
means of identifying the productions of particular factories. 

As regards marks, completeness is for the present impossible, and, 
as already remarked, it is questionable whether completeness will be 
attainable even after the publication of all the still unpublished material 
from the archives. We shall not give an extensive list of marks, such as 
those of Havard, Justice or Pitcairn Knowles, because we have adopted 

1 This publication has been undertaken by the Nederlandsch Economisch Historisch 
Archief. Dr. H. E. van Gelder, of the Hague, has been occupied for some years with the 
critical examination of the extremely copious material. 

63 



DELFT EARTHENWARE: ITS ORIGINS AND STUDY 

a classification by types rather than by marks ; the selection of examples 
makes no pretence to be exhaustive. The chief reason, however, is our 
desire to avoid attributions where the data are too slender, or where a 
critical view of the style of the objects too clearly reveals a discrepancy 
between the period of a piece and the interpretation of its mark offered 
by one of the authors named. 

So far as opportunities allowed we have chosen our examples for 
illustrations from collections in various places. Where this is not the 
case, we shall make our selection from the Nederlandsch Museum voor 
Geschiedenis en Kunst (Rijksmuseum) at Amsterdam, which, especially 
since the accession of the Loudon Collection, possesses a very fine 
assemblage not only of polychrome, but also of blue-and-white delft. 



When we engage in the study of Delft ware, we are met by a 
sense of something contradictory, which forces itself upon us again and 
again as in the case of no other product of good craftsmanship in earthen- 
ware. Whenever we enjoy the fine blue on a white ground, or the 
beautiful palette of the polychrome wares, the reflection comes upon us 
sooner or later that we are, as a matter of fact, generally in the presence 
of an attempt merely to imitate something else, that is, porcelain. But 
let us look more closely. Some of the pottery painters of the seventeenth 
as well as the eighteenth century made it their business to copy as closely 
as possible Chinese, and at a later stage also other, porcelain, and often 
succeeded wonderfully well in doing so. Others, and on occasion these 
same potters as well, introduced variety by their choice of colours, their 
preference for a particular palette, that was sometimes florid and vigorous, 
sometimes soft or delicately shaded. Some artists achieved the same result 
by modification of the motives. Others, again, as well as these same artists, 
painted pottery and tiles also with Dutch landscapes or other subjects 
which they copied with their brush from prints — generally line for line, 
but sometimes freely. Their choice in these matters depended perhaps 
on chance. But the fact, for instance, that a Dutch print or a Chinese 
subject was chosen, the fact that the article with the copy of a Dutch 
print was painted in Chinese fashion in blue on a white ground, was not 
dependent on chance. And as soon as an individual palette is in question, 
the taste of the painter begins to be of some significance. It is worth 
noting incidentally that both contemporary and earlier Chinese porcelain 

63 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

was brought into requisition, and also that subjects were sometimes copied 
on earthenware from prints that were more than a hundred years old. 

The taste of the painter is of still more importance when he is his 
own designer, albeit his designs, however decorative, are often somewhat 
rough. Such pieces are important because their decoration is original. 
But the most carefully executed pieces — and this is typical of the art of 
the Delft potter — are with few exceptions precisely the adaptations of 
Chinese floral motives — for example, the dishes and vases with branches 
of flowers of more or less Chinese character. In these the peculiar 
character of Delft ware comes out clearly. We see the Delft potters and 
pottery painters in a perpetual state of wonder in the presence of the 
fine homogeneous, translucent white material — the mysterious porcelain, 
that first came from distant lands and was later manufactured in Europe 
also. To counterfeit it they were not able, as they always lacked the fine 
kaolin-clay that was needful to give the ware resistance in the kiln, so 
that under a great heat it could fuse without changing form into a homo- 
geneous white porcelain. They merely endeavoured to approach it in a 
material that consisted of a brittle core of cream-coloured clay, coated 
with a covering layer of white tin enamel which in a hot kiln (much less 
hot, however, than that required for porcelain) fixed itself as a glassy film 
on the clay body, but without coalescing with it ; a consequence of this 
last characteristic was that a tendency in the enamel to flake off was a 
defect never absent from delft. This material was at times to the eye 
quite wonderfully like porcelain, and was then actually called porcelain 
by the Dutch potters. With it, by adaptation of motives, by their taste 
for colours and shades, and especially by the warmth of tone of the 
material itself, they succeeded in evolving a product capable of equalling 
the original by its artistic worth, though not in its nature, and even of 
surpassing the original by the glowing quality of its hues and substance. 
Therein lies the miracle achieved by the potters of Delft ! 

We shall now deal first with the blue-and-white ware, " blauw Delftsch," 
which is also actually older, or rather of which the earliest pieces are older, 
than that class of polychrome ware which is included in the category 
of " delft." Polychrome ware of the Dutch maiolica type may also 
have been made at Delft, although we do not know this for certain. In 
any case, we find at a quite early period of the seventeenth century much 
blue-and-white, but no polychrome in the sense of what we understand 
by the term in speaking of " delft." It may be surmised that at that 
time blue-and-white formed the chief part of the porcelain imported from 

64 



DELFT EARTHENWARE: ITS ORIGINS AND STUDY 

China. Moreover, it is quite possible that here also the influence may 
have been felt of the tendency or fashion observable in painting and 
costume, in which a reaction against the wealth of colour prevailing before 
1620 brought about the adoption of monochrome schemes of colouring. 

From blue-and-white we shall pass to polychrome wares, divided, by 
the technical processes described in an earlier chapter, into three groups, 
as follows : — 

(i) That in which all the colours are of the grand feu, that is, fired 
with and into the enamel at a high temperature ; they comprise blue 
especially, reddish brown or red, yellow, green, manganese-purple and 
also black. 

(2) That with a few colours (chief amongst them blue) of the 
grand feu, combined with others which would not sustain any great heat, 
and were fixed at a later stage by a second firing at a lower temperature, 
that is, in a muffle-kiln ; chief amongst these muffle pigments are bright 
red, green, gold and also intermediate tints. 

(3) That painted only in muffle-kiln pigments, on the already fired 
enamel. In this last group the firing of the whole decoration in the 
muffle-kiln was doubtless dictated by convenience ; but this method of 
working was induced by the search for refined colours and shades in the 
effort to imitate not only Chinese, but also Meissen and other European 
polychrome porcelain. This question has already been discussed in the 
Introduction. 



65 



BLUE-AND-WHITE DELFT. DE KEIZER, PIJNACKER, FRIJ- 

TOM AND OTHER POTTERS AND POTTERY PAINTERS OF 

THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 



Chapter VIII 

BLUE-AND-WHITE DELFT. DE KEIZER, PIJNACKER, FRIJ- 

TOM AND OTHER POTTERS AND POTTERY PAINTERS OF 

THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 

The oldest group of fine carefully painted blue-and-white delft 
consists of the earthenware with the mark AK. The blue is of good 
quality, applied to a beautiful clear white enamel. This AK mark (there 
are also others to be mentioned later) is explained as that of the pottery 
of Aelbrecht de Keizer, who worked about 1650. Like the majority of 
marks it is a factory mark, and must have been very long in use after 
his time, and also, to judge by appearances, counterfeited by his contem- 
poraries. We find amongst the wares bearing it imitations of Chinese 
porcelain, and even copies of it (as, for example, a vase made to replace 
a broken one in a set of porcelain vases). 

Fine examples of this class are to be found in various collections. 
When reproduced they so exactly resemble Chinese porcelain that it is 
hardly necessary to give illustrations of them ; we need merely mention 
one or two examples in the Rijksmuseum, such as a gourd-shaped bottle 
and some small plates, which have even the thinness and lightness of 
porcelain. In many such pieces the decoration is outlined in dark blue 
'' trek,'* and then worked up in lighter blue. The Victoria and Albert 
Museum possesses, in the Salting Collection, a pair of gourd-shaped 
vases (Fig. 43) charmingly painted in this manner, with tulips and guelder- 
roses combined with Chinese flowers and borders. Pieces with similar 
decoration of Chinese style occur with other marks, such as GK and 
WK in monogram ; these marks have been associated respectively with 
the names of Ghisbrecht Lambrechts Kruyk and his brother-in-law 
Willem Kleftijus, but these identifications as yet lack confirmation from 
the archives, and must be regarded as conjectural. In the Victoria and 
Albert Museum are several pieces bearing the GK monogram, including 
a large covered vase with Chinese ladies in panels, painted in a noticeably 
vivid blue, and a pair of gourd-bottles with lotus pattern closely simulating 
a Chinese type of the reign of K'ang Hsi. The jar illustrated in Fig. 27, 

69 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

in the Cole Collection at Bidston, Birkenhead, is an example bearing the 
same mark and decorated in soft blue with darker trek. 

We occasionally find on earthenware with the AK mark a black 
" trek," just as on the ware with the mark of Samuel van Eenhoorn (SVE), 
described on a later page. Large jars and jugs, sometimes with a cover, 
puzzle-jugs and various other vessels occur in this group. 

In addition to Chinese motives, we also find on earthenware of the 
factory of Aelbrecht de Keizer and on other pieces of the same type 
finely executed Dutch landscapes, biblical and other subjects. The 
Rijksmuseum possesses several examples ; amongst them are two oblong 
brick-shaped tulip-pots showing outlines in bluish black trek, marked 
AK (Fig. 29), and plates with subjects from the Bible and other books 
within a border left white in the true seventeenth- century manner. 
Other examples are two jugs decorated with landscapes and scrollwork, 
one of which bears the mark of the factory at the sign of the Rose ; again, 
certain plates with shipping subjects show the type of vessel of the middle 
of the seventeenth century. Other specimens are characterised by very 
carefully finished painting. We may mention as examples in the 
Rijksmuseum a brushback with a figure in the manner of Willem 
Buytenwech, and two butter-dishes with flower decoration ; in the latter 
yellow is added, probably as a substitute for gilding. 

We get more reliable clues to the period in which Delft earthenware 
was produced from specimens with dates inscribed upon them. We shall 
adduce here a few dated pieces of the seventeenth century from the 
Rijksmuseum, and shall include with them those that can be dated either 
by an inscription upon them or by their decoration, or can be immediately 
associated with dated work. With their help we may learn to recognise 
the fine blue painting of the second half of the seventeenth century, a 
period in which the majority of the most beautiful blue-and-white delft 
was made. The dated specimens in the museum, in chronological order, 
are as follows : a tile with a side view of the tomb of William the Silent, 
at Delft, dated 6/16 1657 and marked Junius, and a corresponding tile 
with the front view ; a jug on a foot, with ring-shaped body enclosing 
a figure of a running horse, carefully painted with flowers and insects, 
inscribed Dirck J arise van IJselsteyn and dated 1658 (Fig. 30) ; a small 
plate with a portrait of little Prince William III (afterwards King 
William III of England), after Harmanus van Aldewerelt, dated 1658 ^ ; 

^ A dish in the British Museum with a similar portrait is probably later than the 
date it bears (1661). 

70 



DE KEIZER, FRIJTOM AND OTHERS 

a tile on which is depicted Elijah fed by ravens, of the same year ; a tile 
with a rustic scene, a small round plaque with a subject from St. 
Matthew iv., and a finely painted portrait on a tile of Robertus Junius 
(Fig. 31), after an engraving of 1645 by C. van Queborn, all three dated 
1660 ; a similar portrait, bearing the same date, of Dionysius Spranck- 
huysen (d. 1650), a preacher of Delft, also after an original, of 1641, by 
the same engraver, obviously belonging to the same series as the last- 
named specimen and betraying the hand of the same painter ; two 
octagonal tiles with church interiors, both dated 1662 ; a jug bearing 
the arms of Orange and a verse in honour of the House of Orange and 
of Cornelis Tromp, the great admiral, presumably of 1666, and relating 
to the disagreements between him and his rival, Michiel de Ruyter (the 
oranges in the design are rendered in yellow) ; a dish with a village 
school scene after Teniers, dated 1670 ; a jug with a portrait of 
William III, a coat-of-arms and an inscription relating to the restoration 
to health of the Prince of Orange, dated 1674 ; two flat plates with an 
inscribed cartouche and a monogram with an inscription on the rim, 
dated 1685 9/19 ; a globular jug with twisted handle and adherent spout, 
decorated with landscapes, dated 1687 ; an inkstand with the arms of 
Orange, surmounted by two figures of lions supporting shields with the 
arms of Leiden and Delft, mounted in silver, analagous in decoration 
with the last example (Fig. 28) ; a vase in the form of a large beaker, 
with representations of craftsmen, amongst them a potter, dated on a 
cartouche 1693. 

Exactly ascertainable dating is also afforded by three pairs of hyacinth 
vases, of exceptionally large dimensions, made to adorn Hampton Court 
Palace, where they are still preserved. One of them is here reproduced 
as a specimen (Fig. 32). It is marked AK, and painted in blue outlined 
in bluish black trek ; it is decorated with the combined monogram of 
the king-stadholder William III and Queen Mary, enclosed within the 
Garter, alternating with ribbons bearing the Orange motto, " Je main- 
tiendray." These vases must have been made between the accession of 
William and Mary to the British throne in 1689 and the death of the 
queen in 1694. The lambrequin motives in the decoration are entirely of 
the character of the period of Louis XIV. Of the other two pairs of 
vases, one also bears the mark AK, whilst the second is unmarked ; in 
the latter a bust of William III is combined in the decoration with a 
peacock and a boy with a captive heron. 

To this same period must also belong a large dish in the Rijksmuseum 

71 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

with the subject of a family gathered round a cradle ; it is analogous in 
drawing and in its reserved decoration with the vase of 1693 named 
above. It is an example of the work of the pottery of Adriaen Pijnacker, 
whose mark was a monogram composed of the letters APK ; this factory 
also produced beautiful polychrome wares, to be described on a later page. 

We find, however, on the wares of the seventeenth-century blue-and- 
white painters not only factory marks and dates. We know also the full 
signature of a master amongst pottery painters, Frederik van Frijtom, 
who dwelt and worked at Delft from about 1658 onwards. As an example 
we may cite a very large tile in the Rijksmuseum (Fig. 33) with a land- 
scape, bearing the mark F. V. Frijtom. Other specimens painted in the 
manner of Frijtom, but unmarked, are a large tile and two oval plaques 
in the same museum, all with landscapes. The Musee Ceramique at 
Rouen possesses two large tiles, one with a boar-hunting scene, the other 
with a particularly pleasing view of a windmill beside a waterway on 
which is a ferryboat. Two oval plaques in the Musee Ceramique at 
Sevres (Figs. 35, 36), somewhat similar in type to the work of Frijtom, 
bear shipping scenes and a signature, impossible of explanation, in which 
figures the name Reinier ; on one are seen Dutch and Chinese vessels 
off the coast of China, whilst it has been suggested that the other depicts 
the battle of La Hogue, between the French and the combined Dutch 
and British fleets in 1692. The association by Havard of these plaques 
with Renier Hey of the factory at the sign of " the Roman " {de Romein) 
is purely conjectural. A tile in the British Museum (Fig. 34), also very 
finely painted, calls for mention in this connection ; it bears a view of 
the " Zee-visch-marckt en Vleeshal " at Delft, after an engraving by 
C. Decker, in Van Bleyswijck's Beschrijvinge der stadt Delft, of 1667. 

To Frijtom also are ascribed certain small plates of a charming type 
with exquisitely painted landscapes in the middle, and the rim left plain 
white. Specimens of these are to be seen, amongst other places, in the 
British Museum, the Musees du Cinquantenaire at Brussels (Figs. 37, 38) 
and the Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam ; the last-named possesses, in 
addition to specimens of the small plates, a dish of large size. 

A tile of large dimensions in the Rijksmuseum, the work of an unknown 
hand, less finely but powerfully painted with a picture after Wouwerman, 
dates from the latter part of the seventeenth century. 



72 



SAMUEL VAN EENHOORN AND ROCHUS HOPPESTEYN 



Chapter IX 

SAMUEL VAN EENHOORN AND ROCHUS HOPPESTEYN 

Another important group of seventeenth-century blue-and-white 
delft may be placed about 1680 or 1690. It shows the mark SVE (for 
Samuel van Eenhoorn) and that of Rochus Hoppesteyn (RHS). We 
have already noticed, in the AK group of wares, two small dishes 
decorated in blue, outlined in black trek, with a very delicately executed 
Chinese flower design and a border-pattern of foliated stems. An exactly 
analogous dish in the Rijksmuseum bears the mark SVE ; like the AK 
dishes, it shows a more bluish white tone in the enamel than the fore- 
going wares. The trek, in black or sometimes in purple, and the bluish 
yet beautiful creamy enamel, are characteristic of the factory of Samuel 
van Eenhoorn and even more of that of Rochus Hoppesteyn ; another 
noteworthy point is that the Chinese wares chosen by these, amongst 
other potters — particularly often by Rochus Hoppesteyn — are of a peculiar 
late Ming dynasty type. We may refer to tea-caddies of this class with 
floral decoration or figures, such as a large square one, marked SVE, in 
the Rijksmuseum, and an example with its lid in the Gemeentemuseum 
at The Hague ; other pieces of this class in the Rijksmuseum are two flasks, 
similarly marked, each with four medallions in relief on the body, decorated 
with Chinese landscapes, panels and borders, the trek being black ; a 
little vase with narrow neck, decorated with a spray of flowers and marked 
RHS (Fig. 40), and a short, wide vase with floral sprays within pointed 
foliated borders, the trek black, also marked RHS. A small octagonal 
jug with silver lid, with black-outlined design of figures and foliage 
(Fig. 39), though unmarked, is probably from the Hoppesteyn factory- 
Another class of pieces ascribed to this pottery show a delicately drawn 
purple trek, or purple combined with blue in the painting. The same 
decoration is shown by a wigstand in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
London (Fig. 41), decorated with Chinese figures in blue outlined in deep 
purple, and by a large covered vase (Fig. 42) in the Kunstindustri- 
museum at Copenhagen, on which is painted in the same colours a crowd 
of Chinese figures with an elephant amongst them. Both of these pieces 
bear the monogram of Samuel van Eenhoorn. 

75 



LAMBERTUS VAN EENHOORN AND LOUWIJS FICTOOR 



Chapter X 
LAMBERTUS VAN EENHOORN AND LOUWIJS FICTOOR 

Two factories that were working about 1700, and both made also 
polychrome ware of importance, are those of Louwijs Fictoor and 
Lambertus van Eenhoorn. Their marks are often indistinguishable. 
Both used for the purpose the same monogram, which may therefore 
be read as LVE or LF. Only when they added to their monogram the 
mark of their factory, DS or DSK, for De Dubbelde Schenkkan {" The 
Double Tankard "), of Louwijs Fictoor, or MP, for De Metalen Pot {" The 
Metal Pot "), oi Lambertus van Eenhoorn, can we arrive at any certainty ; 
even so, the certainty thus afforded is of relatively slight importance for 
us, as the work of the two factories — especially their polychrome wares — 
shows great similarity, and may therefore best be regarded as forming 
a single group. The drawing is for the most part looser and less delicate 
than in the AK group. The surface is, in general, more filled up with 
ornament ; less of the enamel is visible. In addition to scattered motives, 
ornament reserved in white on a blue ground is often found. A very 
fine example of this type is a large dish with a design of scattered flowers 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Fig. 44), with the mark LVE or LF. 
The Rijksmuseum possesses a pyramid bearing the same mark, and two 
smaller ones with the mark LF combined with DS. Small hyacinth or 
tulip vases also occur with the mark LF or LVE. 

To the period about 1700 belong also certain pieces with more or 
less pronounced modelling in relief, all unmarked ; we may name in 
the Rijksmuseum an oval wall-plaque of cartouche form, on which are 
two angels holding an armorial shield with the name Gaal below it, also 
a bust of William III, painted in blue, with two cupids on the pedestal. 



79 



BLUE-AND-WHITE AND PURPLE DELFT OF 
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 



Chapter XI 

BLUE-AND-WHITE AND PURPLE DELFT OF 
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

The eighteenth century has nothing unusual to show as regards 
technical processes. The early years still come within the period of the 
prime of Delft ; even at a somewhat later date we find very fine works, 
but this is exceptional. The decline soon announces its approach in the 
quality of the enamel and in the painting. Mass-production gives rise to 
hasty and inferior workmanship. The output, to a much greater extent 
than in earlier times, wears the aspect of factory work, in which far less 
care can be bestowed on each production. The enamel often assumes 
a different colour, of bluish tone, the painting becomes coarser, the blue 
changes its tint. The shapes of the wares, and especially the decoration, 
alter in conformity with the evolution of styles in France — Louis Quatorze, 
Louis Quinze, Louis Seize ; the Delft potter, however, was never a great 
modeller and adjusted himself only very superficially to the various 
changes of style. 

We may name various pieces bearing dates which belong to the 
good period of the eighteenth century ; some of the later ones are of 
somewhat inferior quality. A square tea-caddy in the Rijksmuseum, 
with scenes from the story of Tobit, bears the mark and date D,V.K, 
boot 1700 ; this refers to the factory of Dirk van der Kest, at the sign 
of " the Boat " (de Boot). 

Mention may here be made of a series of blue-and-white plates in the 
British Museum of the year 171 1. They are painted in broad, rapid strokes 
with half-figures symbolising the signs of the Zodiac, and are signed on 
the back: /. Thornhill fecit. Delph Aug. 171 1; the plate representing 
Cancer is here reproduced (Fig. 46). The tradition is that these plates 
were actually painted at Delft by the English artist Sir James Thornhill, 
Sergeant-Painter to George I, and that they were in the possession of his 
daughter Mary, who married the painter Hogarth. The English speUing 
" Delph " in the signatures seems to confirm this tradition. If it is 
correct, the Chinese designs on the rim of the plates must be by another 
painter. On the other hand, the normal practice in pottery painting 

83 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

suggests that it is at least possible that the whole decoration is the work 
of a single brush — that of a ceramic painter of Delft — and that he faith- 
fully copied not only the designs supplied by Thornhill, presumably 
during a visit to Delft, for the middle of the plates, but also the signature 
and orthography of that artist. 

Passing to other dated specimens in the Rijksmuseum, we come to 
a plate of 171 2 with a subject from 2 Samuel xiiu 1, and a narrow floral 
border, and two pieces bearing the unidentified signature IVH, namely, 
a dish of 1725, with Europa and the Bull within an ornamental border, 
and a square tea-caddy of 1727, with Daniel in the Lion's Den, Jacob's 
Dream and other subjects, and on the lid a very fine landscape with a 
farm-waggon. This mark has been attributed to Johannes Verhagen, 
recorded as master-potter at the " Young Moor's Head " factory in 1759, 
but as yet evidence in support of this is not forthcoming. The same 
mark and the date 1728 appear on three dishes, painted one with a rustic 
festival within an ornamental border, another with a similar subject after 
David Vingboons and landscapes in medallions on the rim, the third 
with a similar decoration on the rim and the Building of the Temple at 
Jerusalem in the middle. Another example of the mark IVH is a finely 
painted dish, dated 1729 (Fig. 47), with the subject of Christ before 
Caiaphas, after a print of Hendrik Goltzius ; round the central subject 
are medallions with other incidents from the life of Christ, amongst 
foliage and angels. To the year 1736 belongs a rectangular mirror-frame 
with foliage decoration in reserve, amongst which are sporting children 
and four medallions with allegorical female figures ; it bears an unidentified 
mark. On one of two three-handled baskets from the factory at the sign 
of the " Peacock " (de Paauw), with pierced sides and decoration of vases 
of flowers in medallions, is the date 1740. A carefully executed specimen 
dated 1744 is a kettle with lamp (Fig. 49), bearing a Chinese design of 
flowers and birds in a garden. A dish of 1748 is painted with a figure 
under a portico of Moses with the Tables of the Law, and underneath, 
the Articles of Faith. Two finely painted oval butter-dishes, decorated 
with landscapes, a monogram and relief foliage, are dated 1750. The 
next date, 1763, is seen on a lozenge-shaped wall-plaque with the Woman 
taken in Adultery. A puzzle-jug, decorated with a landscape amongst 
floral ornament, bears the date 1768 amongst the openwork of the neck. 
An oblong rectangular tobacco-jar, with fluted angles and decoration of 
landscapes in medallions and floral borders, is marked A.D.W. and dated 
1769. With these dated specimens at Amsterdam we may include a finely 

84 



BLUE-AND-WHITE OF THE XVIIIth CENTURY 

painted dish in the Tenbosch Collection at Liverpool (Fig. 48). It is 
decorated with rustic landscapes in panels against a ground of close 
stylised foliage. The middle view, of the village of Twisk, near Enkhuizen, 
on the western shore of the Zuiderzee, is based on an engraving after 
a drawing dated 1726 by Cornelis Pronk, afterwards published by Isaak 
Tirion at Amsterdam amongst a set of views of Holland entitled Het 
verheerlijkt Nederland ; on a log in the foreground is the signature 
M. V. Kuyk and the date 1742. The painter is probably the second of 
three artists, of successive generations, who bore the same name, Michiel 
van Kuyk. 

Another dish (Fig. 50), in the same collection at Liverpool, may be 
mentioned here on account of the similarity of the groundwork, with 
small figures of amorini amid close foliated scrollwork, to that of the 
dish with Passion subjects after Goltzius described above. The panels 
in this case are painted with Chinese vases and flowers in the style of 
K'ang Hsi blue-and-white porcelain, but the composition of the whole 
is so well conceived that one is scarcely conscious of the incongruity of 
the motives. 

Of the undated blue-and-white delft of the eighteenth century, 
marked as well as unmarked, it is even more true than of the dated 
specimens that the quality is very unequal, although good pieces are still 
to be found. The middle and second half of the eighteenth century are 
the period of decline for this class of delft. Mass-production and the 
manufacture of every possible shape and class of article are now the chief 
features. Factories like the " Axe " {de Bijl), the " Claw " {de Klaauw), 
the " Fortune " ('i Fortuyn), the " Ewer " {de Lampetkan), the " Greek A " 
or *' Alpha " {de Grieksche A), the " Three Ash-barrels " {de drie Astonnen) 
and many others, competed in output and in variety of wares. Whether 
it be that they often borrowed patterns from one another, or that they 
did not scruple to copy one another's work, we find numerous specimens 
with the same patterns, but made in different potteries. Examples of 
this are the dishes decorated with a heron, some from the " Ewer " 
factory, others, somewhat different in execution, from the " Axe " ; we 
know of plates of this class from other factories also, whilst types such as 
the peacock-feather plates (with a design of feathers springing from a 
small vase), blue and polychrome as well, and drug- vases of various 
patterns, were produced in several factories. 

We may now mention a few of the best pieces of undated blue-and- 
white showing the characteristics of the eighteenth century. Amongst 

85 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

these are wall-plaques and tiles, as well as dishes and other vessels. The 
dishes and plates may be clearly distinguished from their seventeenth- 
century forerunners by their form, the more frequent presence of a footrim 
and their greater weight, as well as by their colouring, their drawing and 
the costume of the figures depicted on them. It is not unprofitable to 
compare such pieces as two plates in the Rijksmuseum, one of the seven- 
teenth century, the other dated 1753, with the mark of the factory at the 
sign of the " Porcelain Axe " (de Porceleyne Bijl) and the initials HB^ ; 
both are painted with a ship. A comparison of the two shows clearly 
the difference between the zenith and the decline. Amongst the 
eighteenth-century plates with landscape subjects are many series illus- 
trating the twelve months ; another series often met with is that of the 
herring fishery. We find other plates made for purely ornamental 
purposes, including many with inscriptions, in French and English as 
well as in Dutch. Examples of such pieces in the Rijksmuseum are nine 
plates from a series of twelve with subjects from the life of Christ after 
engravings by Hendrik Goltzius, seven from a series representing the 
twelve months from the factory at the sign of the *' Axe " {de Bijl), and 
a series of six large dishes with various scenes from the story of the 
Prodigal Son. In the Tenbosch Collection at Liverpool is a nearly 
complete set of twelve plates with scenes from the Passion and quatrains 
of a pious character inscribed on the back. We still find at this period 
exact copies of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain. A dish of this class, 
also at Amsterdam, with rising rim and six small feet, painted with a 
Chinese garden scene, bears the mark CB with a star. This mark has 
been taken to refer to the factory owned by Cornelis de Berg, at the sign 
of the " Star " ; it has also been attributed to Cornelis Brouwer, but 
neither attribution has as yet been confirmed from the archives. 

We now pass to the great variety of other vessels made in the 
eighteenth century. Incidentally we may observe that in blue-and-white 
we do not find so many different shapes as in the polychrome ware, in 
which we meet also with all kinds of little figures and statuettes in far 
greater abundance. In blue-and-white we find, in addition to the articles 
to be specially mentioned, tobacco- and snuff-jars and drug-vases with 
names to indicate their contents, barber's basins, candlesticks, calendars 
with revolving disc, small boxes, basins (sometimes with pretty Oriental 
motives), sauce-boats with rococo decoration, cream-jugs, tea-pots, 

1 The mark HB has been ascribed to Hugo Brouwer, but in the list of 1764 he signs 
his name as proprietor of the Drie Porceleyne Flessies. 

86 



BLUE-AND-WHITE OF THE XVIIIth CENTURY 

grotesque urns for coffee or other drinks in the shape of a seated man 
or woman (resembHng the Staffordshire " Toby-jugs "), and other articles 
for household use. Drug-pots, to a large extent, retained even in the 
eighteenth century their seventeenth-century character, their shape and 
their white enamel, devoid of painting except for an ornamental panel, 
for the name of the drug. Apart from drug-pots, the great speciality of 
the factories of the eighteenth century, particularly that of Van Duyn, 
were sets or garnitures of vases, beakers and jars. Of all these things 
there was a gigantic output, but of steadily diminishing significance as the 
eighteenth century advanced. 

We will now mention some of the best specimens, amongst them 
still a few of fine quality, as, for example, the earthenware violins and a 
birdcage. On various pieces we find the marks of well-known factories 
of the eighteenth century, such as the pottery of the Dextra family at 
the sign of the " Greek A," that of Van Duyn and others. A violin 
(Fig. 51, a and b), acquired by the Rijksmuseum as part of the Loudon 
Collection, is painted on the front with a ballroom scene, and on the 
back with peasants dancing outside a tavern ; from the costumes of the 
dancers it can be assigned to the second quarter of the eighteenth century. 
It is one of four such objects in blue-and-white delft which have been 
the subject of a certain measure of romance in ceramic literature ; of the 
others, two belong respectively to the Evenepoel Collection in the Musees 
du Cinquantenaire at Brussels and to the Musee Ceramique at Rouen. 
The painting on the Amsterdam violin closely resembles that of a music- 
party on a jug in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Fig. 45) ; this has 
the R mark of the factory at the sign of the '* Rose " {de Roos). A 
hexagonal covered box in the Rijksmuseum may be noted on account 
of its scenes bordered in black, and a small basket decorated with seated 
figures of ladies, for its mark, H. A large bowl in the same museum 
is of interest by reason of its subject, the " Midnight Conversation," 
from a print by Hogarth ; this was a favourite also with the delft- 
ware potters of Bristol and the Staffordshire salt-glaze makers. A rare 
piece at the same place is a birdcage, with decoration of Chinese flowers 
and birds. A set of three vases and two beakers, also at Amsterdam, 
all five marked with a D and decorated with Chinese floral ornament or 
landscapes and figures, was made at the " Greek A " factory during 
the proprietorship of Jan Theunis Dextra. It is worthy of remark with 
regard to these pieces that on the list of 1764 Dextra deposed as his 
mark the letters A and ITD, to be placed only " on his best produc- 

87 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

tions " {achter mijn beste goederen). In his estimation, therefore, the 
pieces just enumerated do not belong to that category. 

The Rijksmuseum possesses several marked specimens from the 
factory of Johannes van Duyn and from various other potteries ; amongst 
these are a small basin with vertical openwork rim, painted on the bottom 
with two figures in a garden, marked H.V.H., and a snuff-box of rococo 
shape decorated with pastoral scenes, marked G.V.S. (from the factory 
of Geertruy Verstelle). The same mark appears on a kettle with lamp 
on high legs of rococo form in the Victoria and Albert Museum. A 
coffee-pot at Amsterdam, also with rococo ornament surrounding land- 
scapes, bears the mark (W.V.D.B.) of the widow Van den Briel, proprietress 
of the factory at the sign of " Fortune " (In 't Fortuyn) ; this is a piece 
of craftsmanship showing a truly refined feeling for style, such as is 
seldom met with amongst the Delft potters. 

Blue was not the only pigment used alone on the white enamel at 
Delft. Manganese-purple and even soft brown were also employed for 
monochrome decoration, but objects so painted are of comparatively 
rare occurrence. We may mention as examples a small model of a sledge, 
and a pepper-pot with the mark A, in the Rijksmuseum. 



88 



POLYCHROME DELFT OF THE GRAND FEU 
LAMBERTUS VAN EENHOORN AND LOUWIJS FICTOOR 



Chapter XII 

POLYCHROME DELFT OF THE GRAND FEU 
LAMBERTUS VAN EENHOORN AND LOUWIJS FICTOOR 

When Delft ware was at its zenith, the potters turned their 
attention to the production of polychrome earthenware, as well as 
blue-and-white. There is, however, scarcely any connection to be 
discovered, and certainly no direct connection, between the Dutch 
polychrome ware of maiolica type and that of Delft. The gulf between 
them was, in fact, bridged by blue-and-white ; that is to say, there 
was a slow transition, through improvements in technique and under 
the influence of Chinese porcelain, from the old polychrome earthen- 
ware, first to decoration in blue alone on a fine white tin enamel, and 
subsequently, as a consequence of the importation from China of 
polychrome porcelain, to painting in fresh colours, amongst them as 
an entire novelty iron-red, on an enamel of clear white hue ; the 
beautiful " polychrome delft " was evolved. The Delft potters found 
themselves as a result in the presence, as it were, of an entirely new 
technical procedure. The difficulties that presented themselves in the 
use of their polychrome palette were not slight. Most of the colours, 
if not wholly unsuitable for firing at a high temperature at the same time 
with the enamel, were only just capable of enduring the heat. The skill 
shown by the Delft potters in the polychrome ware of the grand feu class 
is on this account the more remarkable. Hardly less remarkable are their 
endeavours to achieve more than was possible by these means, although 
the path on which they thereby set foot — the fixing of pigments by a 
second firing at a low temperature, as described in the Introduction — 
was a much easier one to tread. 

The class of polychrome wares with grand feu colours, fired with 
the enamel, may be called, from the technical point of view, the most 
important made at Delft. The colours suitable for the high-temperature 
kiln {grand feu) are, in addition to blue (the most heat-resisting of all 
the pigments), yellow, green, purple, reddish brown or red and, lastly, 
black. The number is therefore limited, but the variations attainable in 
the application of this palette are many, and polychrome delft displays 

91 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

to us, in continually surprising alternations, a colour scheme which is 
now soft and delicate, now again powerful and florid. 

Amongst the most beautiful wares of the grand feu are those of the 
potteries of Lambertus van Eenhoorn, Louwijs Fictoor and certain others, 
of which the colouring shows such a close correspondence that they can 
scarcely be distinguished except by their marks. Even so it is often 
even less possible than in the case of the blue-and-white produced by 
these factories to make out whether we have to do with earthenware of 
Lambertus van Eenhoorn or of Louwijs Fictoor. As we have seen in 
dealing with the blue-and-white, identification can only be established 
with certainty in the case of pieces bearing the mark of Fictoor's factory, 
DS (for de Dubbelde Schenkkan, the " Double Tankard "), or the MP of 
Van Eenhoorn's " Metal Pot." The specimens often bear a mark that 
can be read either as LVE (Lambertus van Eenhoorn) or as LF 
(Louwijs Fictoor). Whether one or the other of these two potters is the 
maker of a piece is of less importance to us here than the question 
whether it is the work of a third individual ; the type shows a definite 
character, which differentiates it clearly from the other polychrome wares. 
As regards the period of production, Lambertus van Eenhoorn and 
Louwijs Fictoor worked about 1700. The dates which we find upon 
pieces in the Rijksmuseum are 1704 on a pair of small armorial plates 
and 1739 on an oval wall-plaque, so that we can indicate the first forty 
years of the eighteenth century as the period during which wares of this 
type were made, to which may with probability be added the last ten years 
of the seventeenth century. The colours used are soft blue and red, 
pale green, and purple, on a white ground, generally reeded (the so-called 
cachemire), a soft colour-combination in which a class of decoration with 
birds and flowers of Chinese character is carried out. In another type 
we find the same group of colours in stronger tones and, for the most 
part, enlivened with a fresh yellow. We may mention in the Rijksmuseum 
a set of three covered vases and two beakers, all octagonal and reeded, 
marked LVE, ascribed to Lambertus van Eenhoorn on account of the 
accompanying mark, IVK in monogram, supposed to be that of Arij van 
der Kloot, who became foreman to Van Eenhoorn in 1708. A large 
octagonal reeded vase with cover bears the same mark. Two pyramids 
in the same museum, marked LF, bear another mark, IP in monogram, 
ascribed to Jan Pietersz, who is believed to have been foreman in the 
factory of Fictoor. Other specimens of this type at Amsterdam bear 
various other marks. A large ribbed bowl is marked WK ; these initials 

93 



POLYCHROME DELFT. VAN EENHOORN AND FICTOOR 

have been assumed, without proof, to be those of Willem Kleftijus. Two 
small hyacinth- or tulip-vases, with feet and eight spouts and handles in 
the form of birds, bear the mark IH. Unmarked specimens are a reeded 
teapot (Fig. 52), a very fine example of this class, and a very important 
large set of five pieces in the Van Gelder Collection at Uccle, near 
Brussels (Fig. 54), comprising a covered vase, two covered beakers and 
two gourd-shaped bottles, all octagonal and reeded, and decorated with 
ornamental borders with floral sprays and birds between them. In this 
set, as in some of the following pieces, yellow is included in the colouring. 
A similar set, more heavily painted, is in the Rijksmuseum. A coffee-pot 
with long spout, also reeded, in the same museum (Fig. 56), bears the DS 
mark of the " Double Tankard " {de Dubbelde Schenkkan), the factory of 
Louwijs Fictoor. The style of Louwijs Fictoor is seen in a dish painted 
in red, blue and yellowish green, with scattered flowers, in the Van Gelder 
Collection (Fig. 60) ; the design recalls the blue-and-white dish in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum (Fig. 44) already mentioned. Two oval 
wall-plaques in the Rijksmuseum with scrolled edge, decorated with 
Chinese sprays and birds within an ornamental border, differ slightly 
from one another in the colouring ; one of them (Fig. 61) is dated 
7 June 1739 and marked IVK. Two plates with coats-of-arms on a black 
ground are dated 1704. 



93 



THE "ROSE" FACTORY. VERHAAST AND OTHER 
SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY POTTERS 



Chapter XIII 

THE "ROSE" FACTORY. VERHAAST AND OTHER 
SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY POTTERS 

One of the few better- known factories is the pottery at the sign of 
the " Rose " {de Roos), The factory is found mentioned as early as 1675 ; 
it occurs on the list of 1764 and was still in existence at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century. It would be difficult to date its productions 
from the occurrence of the simple word Roos as a mark, were it not for 
certain circumstances to help us on the list of 1764. The owner at that 
time, Dirk van der Does, who also, according to his deposition, used the 
mark D.V.D.D., deposed as his factory mark a drawing of a rose (really 
a rosette), and not the word Roos ; this word, on the other hand, serves 
as mark on a blue-and-white jug which we have included, on account of 
its decoration, amongst the seventeenth-century group of specimens 
with landscapes, of the class of Aelbrecht de Keizer. For this reason, and 
by the character of the ware, we may place the good coloured specimens 
from the factory about the year 1700. They bear the mark Roos in full. 
The colours are light red, blue, green, purple, yellow and also black. 
It may here be noted that the mark Roos was sometimes shortened to R, 
as is shown by two plates in the Victoria and Albert Museum from a 
single series with scriptural subjects ; one of them bears the name in 
full, the other the initial only. 

Specimens with the mark Roos in the Rijksmuseum are two large 
jars with covers painted with Chinese floral decoration in which a fresh, 
bright red is the leading note of colour, a small plate, slanting on the 
under side, with a spray of Chinese flowers, and a small ribbed vase with 
a rare design of flowers of almost Turkish type (Fig. 57). In the Victoria 
and Albert Museum is a large set of three covered jars and two vases 
marked Roos (Fig. 58) ; they are decorated with Chinese flowers in red, 
blue, green and purple. A dish (restored) in the Rijksmuseum (Fig. 59), 
with figures of monsters in landscapes and an ornamental border in 
imitation of a Chinese famille verte design, though unmarked, may be 
attributed with confidence to the " Rose " factory. Another good example 
of adaptation from the Chinese famille verte is provided by the plate 

97 H 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

with figures crossing a bridge, from the Van Gelder Collection at Uccle, 
reproduced in Fig. 62. 

In the polychrome ware also we meet with a great master amongst 
the pottery painters of the seventeenth century, by name Gijsbert 
Verhaast. He was formerly regarded as an eighteenth-century artist. 
We now know that Verhaast was working about 1690 in the factory of 
Rochus Hoppesteyn, but also painted in other factories and on his own 
account. We are acquainted with certain tiles painted by him, marked 
G. Verhaast. One in the Rijksmuseum shows a landscape in grey 
ranging from a light to a dark tone, buff and pinkish buff, blue of various 
tints, brown, yellow and green — in short, in wonderfully rich shades of 
the Delft colours of the grand feu. The tile here reproduced (Fig. 63) 
is not signed, but is so clearly from the hand of Verhaast that no doubt is 
possible as to its authorship ; its colours also agree absolutely with those 
of the signed example at Amsterdam. It is preserved in the Musee 
Ceramique at Sevres. Another such piece, painted with an interior, is 
in the Evenepoel Collection at the Musees du Cinquantenaire at 
Brussels. 

We now pass to a number of pieces, dating from the seventeenth, 
or at latest the beginning of the eighteenth, century, which were made in 
various factories or cannot be assigned to any known factory. 

A charming specimen of unknown origin is a large tile in the Rijks- 
museum (Frontispiece, Fig. 64) painted in yellow, reddish brown, green, 
blue and purple with a bouquet of two tulips, an anemone and a spray of 
larkspur. In the same collection are a teapot with floral design • 
in red, blue and green, bearing the mark AK with a dot, thus : A^ 
and a jug with a metal lid (Fig. 55), finely decorated with flowers -^"^^ 
in the same colours, marked GH. A small plate, also at Amsterdam, bears 
a portrait in blue of Antonie Leeuwenhoek, the biologist, after a detail 
of a print of the year 1686 by Verkolje. 

We may mention here the well-known class of " lightning " plates 
(bliksembordjes), so called from a conspicuous feature in their design, 
which is borrowed from Japanese (Imari) porcelain. An example of this 
type in the Rijksmuseum bears the mark WK, to which reference has 
already been made. The same mark occurs on an oval dish with this 
design in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Fig. 53). A large dish at 
Amsterdam with the mark Tome Siva, not yet satisfactorily explained, 
bears the subject of the Last Judgment painted in blue with passages of 
yellow and purple, with small figures of boys amongst the decoration on 

98 



THE " ROSE " FACTORY. VERHAAST AND OTHERS 

the rim ; it shows a quite exceptional type of colouring, somewhat 
recalling that of the Old Dutch maiolica. 

Of the so-called " peasant delft " (boerendelftsch), the coarser but 
often much more decorative and artistic type of delft, we shall have 
more to say in discussing plates of the eighteenth century ; some pieces, 
however, undoubtedly go back to the seventeenth century, though no 
dated specimens exist to prove it. We can only name as a piece akin to 
this class a bowl in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Fig. 84) with an 
inscription commemorating the Peace of Ryswick and a bird amongst 
foliage broadly painted in blue, olive-green and lemon-yellow ; the 
legend is as follows : Anno 1697 den 20 September is de vreede gesloten 
met Hollant spanjen engelant en vrancrijk (" Peace concluded between 
Holland, Spain, England and France, Sept. 20, 1697 "). 



99 



DELFT WARE WITH COLOURED GROUND. IMITATIONS 
OF FOREIGN EARTHENWARE 



Chapter XIV 

DELFT WARE WITH COLOURED GROUND. IMITATIONS 
OF FOREIGN EARTHENWARE 

A fine black colour has already been mentioned in connection with 
the earthenware from the " Rose " factory and of the type of the Van 
Eenhoorn and Fictoor potteries. We must now draw attention to certain 
pieces with the mark of the Pijnacker factory, in which the ornament is 
reserved on a black ground. First we will cite a rare set of four small 
vases in the Clainpanain Collection at Lille ; they are of three different 
shapes, and thus presumably belonged originally to a set of five or perhaps 
seven pieces. Three are illustrated in Fig. 66. The decoration, painted 
entirely in undergla^e colours, consists of stylised flowers and foliage in 
red, yellow and greyish green in white reserves on a black ground. A 
teapot in the Rijksmuseum (Fig. 65), with decoration carried out in 
precisely the same manner, shows also, in its ornament of cherubs and 
floral sprays, blue in addition to the other colours ; it bears the mark 
of Adriaen Pijnacker, APK in monogram. 

Next to the pieces showing this very unusual reserve technique we 
come to the class, of more frequent but still rare occurrence, covered 
with a black enamel on which various colours are applied. The pigments 
generally used are blue, red, yellow, green and white, as on a teapot with 
small Chinese scenes and the mark LF or LVE (of Fictoor or Van 
Eenhoorn), and an oval plaque (Fig. 67), with a Chinese floral design, 
both in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and on a tea-caddy in the 
Rijksmuseum ; other examples in the latter museum are a small plate 
decorated with Chinese buildings and sprays in various colours, and a 
pair of brush-backs. Exceptionally fine decoration, doubtless intended 
to simulate Chinese lacquer, is displayed by certain small black plates, 
exemplified in various collections, which are painted only in a fine green 
and a yellow resembling fine gilding. A good example belongs to the 
Victoria and Albert Museum (Fig. 69). A tea-caddy similarly painted 
(Fig. 68), also in that museum — in the Salting Collection, — bears the 
monogram LF or LVE. 

In addition to the pieces with black enamel we find also a few with 

103 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

an enamel stained mazarine-blue or turquoise-blue. We may mention 
a small jug in the Gemeentemuseum at The Hague (Fig. 70), with floral 
ornament in yellow on a mazarine-blue ground (similar to another, in 
the Clainpanain Collection, at Lille), and, in the Rijksmuseum, a dark 
blue bottle with painting in white, and a set of three vases with a Chinese 
design in yellow and white on a dark mazarine-blue ground ; all these 
pieces may be regarded as imitations of the faience of Nevers, in 
France. A plate, also at Amsterdam, made at the " Fortune " factory, 
with floral and linear design in white, blue and purple on a light greyish 
blue ground, appears to be an imitation of Bristol delft ; the type is 
perhaps originally Italian. Two small covered vases (Fig. 71), bearing 
the mark D and dating from the eighteenth century, are entirely covered 
with a turquoise-blue enamel and painted over it with floral sprays in 
colours. Examples of other coloured enamels are two flower-pots with 
scattered flowers in colours on a yellow ground, bearing the mark of the 
'* Ewer " (Lampetkan) factory, a small bowl with openwork vertical sides 
similarly decorated, with the mark of the factory at the sign of the " Three 
Ash-barrels " (de drie Astonnen), and a teapot with yellow flowers on a 
brown ground, marked L.V.D. ; these initials have been supposed to 
refer to Lucas van Dale, of the " Fortune " factory. 

We have just mentioned certain pieces which are imitations of the 
productions of other places. We may name a few more examples which 
indicate that not only Chinese porcelain, but also French faience, was 
imitated at Delft. We may refer to a pair of finely painted models of 
slippers (Fig. 79), decorated on a white ground with floral scrollwork in 
scarlet and blue, in imitation of the rust-red (rouille) and blue of Rouen. 
Another example is a plate with birds amongst flowering branches and a 
formal border in red and blue ; it is marked with an unknown monogram 
consisting of the V and L combined, with a dot above them, thus : 
a mark found on other specimens with fresh colouring and reputed 
to be that of Jan van der Laan, of the factory at the " Three Bells " 
{de drie Klokken). It appears that there was reciprocity of imitation ■ I 
between the factories of Delft and Rouen. 



k. 



104 



GRAND FEU POLYCHROME DELFT WARE OF 
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 



Chapter XV 

GRAND FEU POLYCHROME DELFT WARE OF 
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

When we come to survey the grand feu wares of the eighteenth 
century we find ourselves confronted by an abundance of dishes and 
wall-plaques, mostly with strong colouring, diversified with a few equally 
florid vessels and figures. There is a large group of dishes (examples are 
to be seen in the Rijksmuseum), painted with a landscape or a scene of 
rustic genre or from Bible history, in blue, surrounded by a polychrome 
border, in which sometimes further subjects are introduced in small 
medallions. The various motives of the borders, such as floral ornament 
and small figures of cupids, reflect the French styles of Louis XIV, the 
Regency and Louis XV, and enable us more or less to date these dishes ; 
at the same time we find here again that the Delft potters did not 
always conform with the style of their own time, so that motives of the 
French periods must not be pressed so far for dating purposes as to 
exclude the possibility that various dishes with designs of different styles 
may have been made about the same time. The same can be said 
of designs painted after prints or copied from Chinese originals. We 
must not go to the potters of Delft for lessons in the evolution of 
style. We greatly prefer their work when it shows real originality, and 
find much to give pleasure in its flower-like colours and beautiful 
material. 

A good example of the type last referred to is a dish in the Clain- 
panain Collection (Fig. 75), with a pastoral scene in blue within a 
border of floral decoration in reddish brown, purple, yellow, green and 
blue, reserved on a black ground. Amongst dishes with a landscape in 
blue within a coloured border are two in the Rijksmuseum, bearing the 
date 1756. These bring us to the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Unfortunately, all further indications are lacking, as almost all dishes of 
this class are unmarked ; one at Amsterdam is by exception marked with 
an axe, the mark of the factory bearing that sign (de Bijl). This is also 
true of the wall-plaques of the eighteenth century with polychrome 
decoration ; they differ in this respect entirely from the blue-and-white 

107 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

plaques, which, as we have seen, afford sure evidence of the development 
of the craft in the shape of dates and often also of marks. A dish in the 
Rijksmuseum shows, within a border of European design, a Chinese 
landscape in colours, in place of the Dutch landscape in blue ; it is 
marked with a D, the mark of the Dextra family. 

A finer and more important class of dishes is that with floral 
decoration, after the European style or borrowed from a Far Eastern 
original, in both cases with a character of its own peculiar to Delft. 
Amongst pieces of this last type are some in the Rijksmuseum with 
coloured branches of flowers in which a strong reddish brown predomi- 
nates. On two dishes (Fig. 72) we see the brightest colours of the Delft 
palette beautifully distributed against a splendid white ground in a 
design of flowers and birds. The motives are Chinese, but yet belong 
by virtue of their rendering wholly to Delft, and to Delft at its best on 
account of their distinctive combination of colours. Fine examples of 
colouring, again, are two dishes with subjects of Chinese women and 
children ; their palette is striking, and, though identical in design, they 
show variations in colouring. A wholly different character is worn by 
a large shallow bowl in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Fig. 74), on 
which are depicted four Chinese figures in a garden ; the design, painted 
in dark and pale manganese-purple, dull blue, yellow and green, outlined 
in red, is borrowed from one of the most distinguished types of famille 
verte porcelain of the reign of K'ang Hsi. A companion bowl is in the 
Musee Ceramique at Sevres. 

The dishes and plates (mostly of large size, but occasionally small) 
which show European designs are decorated with a vase of flowers, and 
on the rim floral or other ornament. They range in date from the early 
to the later years of the eighteenth century. An undoubtedly early 
example is a dish in the Rijksmuseum (Fig. 76) with a preponderance 
of blue in the decoration, which consists of a vase of flowers within a 
border of Louis XIV style. 

Amongst plates with armorial designs and inscriptions are those 
with the arms of the Van der Hoeven family, bearing the Dextra mark 
(D) and still recalling somewhat in their colouring the older armorial 
plates ; examples of these are to be seen in the Rijksmuseum and in the 
British Museum. A proof also that the old tradition continued to prevail 
— as we have already pointed out — is a plate in the Rijksmuseum made 
towards the end of the seventeenth, or more probably as late as the 
eighteenth, century decorated in blue, yellow and green with the inscription 

108 



GRAND FEU POLYCHROME OF THE XVHIth CENTURY 

Loof Godt altijt ; it shows the same method of decoration, and even the same 
type of ornament on the rim, as the Dutch maiolica dishes of earlier times. 

We may now draw attention to certain dishes and plates of frequent 
occurrence decorated with all the known grand feu colours, to which we 
have already referred in dealing with wares of the seventeenth century. 
They form an extensive group of roughly painted but very decorative 
and often original pieces, for the most part made in the eighteenth 
century. This class is usually called boerendelftsch (" peasant delft "). 
They are often in their simple way more tasteful than the finest Delft 
copies of Chinese porcelain, as may be seen from the specimens in the 
Rijksmuseum illustrated in Figs. 82 and 83. We may mention also in 
particular a plate in the Victoria and Albert Museum with fruit in colours, 
in panels reserved on a yellow ground, and a dish in the Rijksmuseum, 
painted with a basket of fruit, not because they are remarkably fine (the 
colouring is frankly heavy), but on account of the dates they bear, 1770 
and 1776 respectively. The latter museum also possesses a nice collection 
of small plates of this kind, as well as a few more finely painted. Amongst 
them the so-called " peacock-feather plates," with a design with which 
we have already met in its blue-and-white version, were produced by 
various factories. 

The wall-plaques may be classified in the same manner as the dishes. 
We find, for example, several specimens in the Rijksmuseum that are 
decorated with a pictorial subject in blue enclosed by a border of coloured 
flowers, in some cases modelled in relief. A large group have a modelled 
border roughly following the forms of the Louis XIV and Louis XV 
styles, painted in blue, brown, yellow and green, surrounding a subject 
in blue, generally a pastoral scene. An example in the Salting Collection 
at the Victoria and Albert Museum shows a figure-subject borrowed 
from a French engraving, one of a set of Cris de Paris, by Ravenet after 
Boucher. Tvv^o small oval plaques, forming a pair, in the Rijksmuseum 
(Fig. 85, a and b) are decorated in soft colouring with charmingly drawn 
figures of seated men drinking ; one of them bears on a band the words 
G. Sachtleeven, probably the name of the engraver of the print which 
served as a model. On both plaques the figure is enclosed by cartouche- 
ornament in Louis XIV style, with two cupids supporting a shield at 
the top. 

An example of Chinese decoration is afforded by a fine oval plaque 
in the Rijksmuseum (Fig. 73) with figures of two ladies. Another, with 
scrolled edge and a sleighing scene, may be mentioned on account of the 

109 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

date 1754 painted on the back ; whilst the Victoria and Albert Museum 
possesses an example, dated 1763, with a cock among flowering plants 
in the Chinese manner. 

Other wall-plaques show, in deeper or paler tones of the usual 
colours, a vase of flowers within a border. Such examples as may be seen 
in the Rijksmuseum belong to the finest works of this class. The fresh 
colours of the crowded bouquets give a splendidly rich effect. Decoration 
of this class is seen on a tray in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Fig. 89) 
with a vase of flowers. Other plaques, again, much inferior in artistic 
worth, depict a birdcage ; such pieces are on the border of " peasant 
pottery," the so-called boerendelftsch, if not beyond it. 

Two tiles in the Rijksmuseum with the arms of William V of Orange 
are works of quite exceptional charm. The shield is enclosed within the 
Garter, in reference to the Prince's rank as a Knight of that Order. The 
tiles are dated, one, which has a green ground, 1752, the other (Fig. 86), 
with a white ground, 1765 ; the latter is also signed in full on the reverse 
P. Vizeer, With their fine painting they prove that, like Verhaast in 
the seventeenth century, Piet Vizeer in the eighteenth was a true artist 
amongst pottery painters. It is a curious thing that as yet we know 
nothing of a painter of this name at Delft in 1765 ; an elder P. Vizeer, 
perhaps his father, died before that year. 

We may notice here a few more dated pieces of polychrome delft 
in the shape of figures, table wares and other vessels. Two small figures 
of parrots, with soft colouring, bear the mark I.D.V. and the date 1729 ; 
a larger pair, with a bolder and at the same time coarser combination of 
colours and more vigorous modelling, are dated 1784. Both pairs are in 
the Rijksmuseum. Being dated, they afford a good opportunity for 
comparing early and late eighteenth-century work. On a boldly painted 
puzzle-jug (Fig. 88), with bright colouring, we find the date 1758 on the 
openwork neck. 

Amongst undated specimens in the Rijksmuseum may be named a 
money-box (Fig. 87) of attractive shape ; it displays a quite unusual 
colouring with only a sparing use of red, the decoration consisting of 
Chinese floral sprays combined with European motives. In the same 
museum may be seen two small boxes with lids in the form of fruit 
bearing the mark IVDB, a melon with that of the factory at the sign 
of the " Axe " {de Bijl), and a brush-back marked M.D.V. The mark 
on the first of these has been conjectured to be that of Jan van der 
Buergen, or Verburg, a painter employed by Lambertus van Eenhoorn 

no 



GRAND FEU POLYCHROME OF THE XVHIth CENTURY 

and later at the " Greek A " and " Star " factories ; that on the last is 
unknown. 

Amongst the figures made at Delft in the eighteenth century some 
are naturally statuettes for decorative purposes only, whilst others were 
intended for use as covered bowls, vases or jugs. Examples in the 
Rijksmuseum are a pair of small Chinese figures from the factory of the 
" Metal Pot " {de Metalen Pot), a boy blowing a trumpet, and a bagpipe- 
player with the mark of the " Axe " factory (Fig. 77). A figure of a 
parrot, perched on a ring, in the Clainpanain Collection at Lille, is here 
illustrated (Fig. 81). We may mention also, in the Rijksmuseum, a cock 
with the mark LC, a pair of small horses (Fig. 78) and a cow (Fig. 80). 

The Rijksmuseum possesses also two small vases in the form of 
cocks, of bright colouring, with the mark, ITD, of Jan Theunis Dextra ; 
a hen and ducks forming covered bowls ; jugs for coffee and other 
beverages in the shape of seated figures, such as one with the mark of 
the factory at the sign of the " Claw " {de Klaauw), and another marked 
Van Duyn. Monkeys are generally chosen to form small milk-jugs. We 
find also amongst these modelled pieces quite literal copies of Chinese 
work. For instance, we can point to Chinese originals for the parrots 
and for an ape intended as a milk-jug. In such pieces a quaint trans- 
formation has often resulted in the hands of the Delft potter. We may 
mention here, lastly, a modelled bowl or basket in the Rijksmuseum with 
rococo decoration and pale colouring, probably intended to hold flowers, 
which bears the mark HVH, perhaps for Hendrik van Hoorn, of the 
Drie Astonne (" Three Ash-barrels ") factory. 

Having discussed all the more important types of polychrome ware 
of the grand feu class, we may mention, as examples of the skill of the 
Delft potters in another class of work, two large tile-pictures in the 
Rijksmuseum (Fig. 90), probably dating from the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. One is painted with a Chinese figure-subject, 
presumably based on woodcuts, in which are introduced negroes in a 
fine black pigment ; the other is decorated with a vase of flowers. In 
both panels, as in all polychrome delft, it is the splendour of the fresh 
colours that chiefly calls forth our admiration. 



THE BEGINNINGS OF MUFFLE-KILN PAINTING 
HOPPESTEYN, PIJNACKER AND OTHERS 



Chapter XVI 

THE BEGINNINGS OF MUFFLE-KILN PAINTING 
HOPPESTEYN, PIJNACKER AND OTHERS 

The need was already felt in the seventeenth century for an extension 
of the range of colours, in order to make possible the reproduction of 
every class of Chinese and Japanese porcelain. By using only grand feu 
pigments, that could be fired with the enamel, the potters had attained 
to blue, yellow, green, manganese-purple, red and black. But we are led 
to suppose that the red was not absolutely fire-resisting and caused much 
difficulty. In those instances, at least, in which the palette extends to gold, 
we find the red as well as the gold fired in the muffle-kiln. This is the 
case with the productions of the potteries of Rochus Hoppesteyn and 
Adriaen Pijnacker, who worked at the same time as Lambertus van 
Eenhoorn and Louwijs Fictoor, or perhaps even earlier. The blue in their 
work is fired with the enamel, at a high temperature, whilst the remaining 
colours and the gilding are fired subsequently, in the muffle-kiln. 

We here mention Rochus Hoppesteyn and Adriaen Pijnacker together, 
but in so doing we have indicated their only point of correspondence. 
Their work was totally different. The factory of Rochus produced wares 
of an entirely distinctive class of its own, with a peculiar palette, which 
must be specially commended not only for its splendid brilliance and 
fine scale of colours, but also on account of its exceptionally good and 
technically almost unaccountable gilding. As in the case of the blue-and- 
white, we get the impression from the polychrome wares of this factory 
that the Chinese porcelain which served as a model for them was of the 
late Ming and not of the K'ang Hsi type, and that it was blue-and- 
white which the earthenware painter translated in his own manner into 
colours. As an example of the wares of the Hoppesteyn factory we may 
quote first a small jar in the Rijksmuseum (Fig. 91), marked RHS, on 
which are small groups of Chinese figures in blue, red, green, black and a 
splendidly fine gold ; we find in the painting also the black trek or outline 
with which we have already met in the blue-painted wares of the 
Hoppesteyn pottery. A fine covered jar (Fig. 92), with a Chinese 
figure-subject and borders of foliage, belongs to the Schlossmuseum in 

"5 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

Berlin ; it also bears the mark of Rochus Hoppesteyn, A jug in the 
Rijksmuseum at Amsterdam (Fig. 93) is of especial importance, as it 
bears, in addition to the monogram RHS, the mark of a Moor's head ; 
this is the rarely seen factory mark of the pottery of Rochus, at the sign 
of the " Moor's Head " {het Moriaanshooft). The true Hoppesteyn 
technique, and the same border designs as on the jar and jug, are shown 
by an unmarked plate, painted in the same colours, although the red 
approaches brown in tone. 

A group of wares of frequent occurrence, showing altogether the 
character of the Hoppesteyn productions, consists of vases, jars and dishes 
painted with a figure-subject in blue, enclosed by ornament in the typical 
colours with touches of gilding. These pieces, found in various <^ 

collections, always bear the mark IW in monogram, thus : *N^E^ 
An example is a large jar (Fig. 94), in the Musees du Cinquan- <** 
tenaire at Brussels, with a subject perhaps representing a scene in the life 
of Apollonius of Tyana; the same museum possesses other vases of the 
same type, all painted in blue between ornamental borders in colours, 
including a large jar with, amongst other subjects, the death of the children 
of Niobe. The British Museum possesses a dish with the same kind of 
colouring, bearing on the rim the arms of the Elector of Brunswick. In 
the middle is a subject from Roman history, with soldiers building a 
palisade, painted in blue only. Another dish from the same service, 
painted with the Rape of the Sabines, is exhibited on loan at the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. In the Stadtisches Museum at Halle is a vase 
decorated solely with polychrome painting. Two vases in the Rijks- 
museum painted with Chinese figures in medallions display the normal 
colouring and manner of decoration of this class, but on an enamel of 
chalky white tone. 

The IW mark was formerly regarded as the signature of the father 
of Rochus, Jacob Wemmersz Hoppesteyn (i 627-1671). We shall have 
to look upon it rather as the mark of one of those who worked in the 
factory of Rochus Hoppesteyn after his time, or possibly together with 
him, or of a pottery painter who was employed by Rochus and by other 
proprietors as well. Three different marks are found on earthenware 
showing in all respects the character of the work of Rochus Hoppesteyn, 
vi2;. RHS, IW and AK. Havard saw in these wares a consecutive series 
of productions of a single factory, that of the " Old Moor's Head " {het 
oude Moriaanshooft), in which, in succession to the father and son, Jacob 
Wemmersz and Rochus Hoppesteyn, a late owner, Anthonie Kruyswegh, 

116 



HOPPESTEYN, PIJNAGKER AND OTHERS 

was able to keep up the old tradition, with flying colours, until after the 
middle of the eighteenth century. What are the actual facts ^ As 
regards the RHS monogram, its occurrence in combination with a negro's 
head proves that it may be regarded as in very truth the mark of Rochus 
Hoppesteyn. The mark IW, on the other hand, is even less to be 
attributed to his father, Jacob Wemmersz, than AK to Anthonie 
Kruyswegh. In explanation of the monogram IW, Havard assumed 
that the potter in question only adopted the name Hoppesteyn when he 
came into better circumstances ; this assumption, however, is entirely 
at variance with what we learn from the written documents, in view of 
the fact that in various deeds this man is always referred to by the 
name Hoppesteyn. He is therefore not likely to have signed his pro- 
ductions with the initials of his Christian names only. But there is 
other evidence. The large vase in the Stadtisches Museum fiir Kunst und 
Gewerbe at Halle, bearing the IW mark, with a cover added at the Thur- 
ingian faience factory of Dorotheental, near Arnstadt, shows a design 
of a party drinking tea which is unthinkable in the lifetime of Jacob 
Wemmersz Hoppesteyn (1627-1671) ; for we find in it a detail of 
costume, the high cap worn by ladies, known as a fontange, which came 
into fashion at the French court only about 1680, and first occurs in 
Holland in prints of about 1700, appearing on earthenware even as late 
as 1727. 

As regards the AK mark, Havard, undisturbed by the fact that he 
distributed wares of precisely similar character over a period of about 
a century, argued as follows : One of the owners of the " Old Moor's 
Head " pottery was named Kruyswegh ; he occurs without Christian 
name on the list of 1759, but in certain deeds we read the name Anthonie 
Kruyswegh. Mr. A. H. H. van der Burgh, however, informs us, on the 
authority of various deeds, that the Kruyswegh who was the owner of 
the " Moor's Head " factory was named Jacobus ; Anthonie would seem 
to have been a brother of Jacobus and a wine-merchant. 

If we now turn our attention solely to the character of the wares 
bearing the three different marks, RHS, IW and AK, we shall be obliged 
to consider them all as work made in the lifetime of Rochus Hoppesteyn 
and later, showing the same technical methods and painted with a common 
type of ornament. It will therefore be best to speak of the " Hoppesteyn 
group," or of wares in the Hoppesteyn style. Certainly these wares are 
not the work of early, middle and late periods of a factory that flourished 
for a hundred years, and continuously turned out wares of one single 

117 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

type of decoration and technique. That was a thing unheard of in the 
Delft pottery industry. 

Before leaving the Hoppesteyn group of wares we must refer to a 
jug in the Rijksmuseum displaying all their characteristics, with decoration 
wholly carried out in pigments fired with the enamel — blue, brown, 
yellow and green ; we have here perhaps an example of the grand feu 
technique employed at this factory, which may be said to have turned 
out some of the best work known to come from Delft. In connection 
with all these carefully executed wares we may mention the name of 
Gijsbert Verhaast, already discussed above, who worked at the Hoppe- 
steyn factory ; we do not, however, know whether he was, in fact, the 
painter of them. 

The earthenware of the factory of Adriaen Pijnacker, marked with 
the monogram APK, belongs to the best known of all classes of delft. 
It was obviously intended to imitate a definite type of Japanese porcelain, 
the Imari ware of the Arita kilns, but the preponderance of bright red 
as compared with blue and gold indicates a modification of the motives 
of decoration. This has given to the earthenware a character quite its 
own, somewhat strengthened by the fact that the palette is completed 
by other colours, such as green, yellow and occasionally a small proportion 
of black and more delicate tints, like pink and grey. The character of 
the work of Pijnacker is shared by many unmarked pieces, and also by 
the wares with the monogram AR ; these letters are usually explained 
as the mark of Augustijn Reijgens. This potter, however, worked about 
1660, and the pieces marked AR are certainly of later date. They all 
show, in addition to red, blue and gold, green and occasionally yellow. 

As specimens of the factory of Adriaen Pijnacker in the Rijksmuseum 
we may name two large jars with flat cover and two with a knob on the 
cover ; various plates and dishes, such as that illustrated in Fig. 96, 
painted with figures or a vase of flowers and an ornamental border, some 
with green, some without ; a finely painted cruet-stand with bottles for 
oil and vinegar (Fig. loi), a small bowl with ribs coloured alternately blue 
and gold, and two tea-caddies with screw covers. The museum also 
possesses a wash-basin with its accompanying ewer (Fig. 95, a and b), 
articles which rarely survive together unbroken. Amongst various jugs is 
one decorated with a musician in European costume of the time of 
Louis XIV amid Japanese flowering sprays. The Salting Collection in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum includes several fine specimens of Pijnacker's 
work. 

118 



HOPPESTEYN, PIJNACKER AND OTHERS 

We now come to the pieces with European subjects or heraldry 
enclosed by an ornamental border, painted with the same colours as those 
named above. A good example is a plate in the Clainpanain Collection 
at Lille (Fig. 98), with the arms of Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, comte 
de Toulouse, as Admiral of France, painted in red, blue, gold and black, 
with touches of green. A plate in the Musee des Arts Decoratifs in Paris 
(Fig. 97) is decorated in dark blue, red, turquoise-blue and gold with the 
royal arms of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain and Ireland, as 
borne from the accession of George I in 17 14 until the end of the year 
1800. Another, in the Gemeentemuseum at The Hague (Fig. 99), bears 
in the centre the arms of Frederick the Great, and on the rim the black 
and red eagles of Prussia and Brandenburg alternately, separated by the 
royal monogram ; the whole is painted in blue, red, green, purple, black 
and gold. Even more extensive is the palette shown by a large dish in 
the Rijksmuseum (Fig. 102) with the subject of Europa and the Bull, 
after a print by Goltzius, enclosed by a decorative border on the rim. 
From the colours — red, blue, green, yellow, black, pink, lilac, grey and 
gold — we are led to regard this rare dish as a late production of the 
factory of Pijnacker, though, like the armorial pieces just mentioned, 
it is unmarked. 

A place apart is occupied by wares in which the green is so markedly 
predominant and the other colours, with the exception of red, are so 
sparingly applied, that the intention seems to have been to imitate a fine 
piece of Chinese famille verte. A covered jug (Fig. 100) in the Gemeente- 
museum at The Hague is a fine example of this class of Pijnacker's work, 
in which, be it noted, all the pigments are fired at a second operation 
in the muffle-kiln. 

The mark AR appears on several pieces in the Rijksmuseum. In 
most of these the enamel is of less fine quality than in the work of the 
Pijnacker factory. Many specimens with the Pijnacker technique bear 
no mark. We shall make no attempt to assign them to a particular 
factory, as other factories may perhaps have made this class of ware, just 
as Pijnacker himself also produced both blue-and-white and polychrome 
ware of the grand feu. It is quite possible even that specimens marked 
APK may comprise imitations of Pijnacker's work made in other factories. 
There are many such pieces with very fine painting in the Rijksmuseum, 
amongst them a dozen plates with a small landscape surrounded by 
swags of flowers within a border, noteworthy as a complete set, and a 
small figure of the spinario, a variant of the well-known antique, which 

119 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

is incidentally another proof that modelling was not the strong point 
with the potters of Delft. Sometimes we find yellow in addition to red, 
blue, green and gold. Certain small plates with the arms of Hoekke, 
of which there are specimens both in the Rijksmuseum and in the 
Clainpanain Collection at Lille, show also pink and black. This extensive 
palette makes it unlikely that the date introduced on these plates beneath 
the shield, 17 19, is to be taken as that of their production ; they show 
the influence of the Chinese famille rose, with which the Delft potters 
cannot have been acquainted until some years after the date in question. 
A miniature set of five jars and beakers in the Rijksmuseum (Fig. 106) 
wears a different character from the work of Pijnacker on account of its 
bluish white enamel, but shows in other respects the same technique 
and the same colours. The same is true of a small pair of shoes, marked 
AB. Other pieces of the Pijnacker group show clearly the influence of 
Japanese porcelain. 



120 



THE MUFFLE-KILN. THE INFLUENCE OF 
PORCELAIN TECHNIQUE 



Chapter XVII 

THE MUFFLE-KILN. THE INFLUENCE OF 
PORCELAIN TECHNIQUE 

As we have seen, Pijnacker and Hoppesteyn made use of a second 
firing, at a lower temperature, in order to introduce on their earthenware 
more delicate colours and gilding, and in this manner to imitate Chinese 
and Japanese porcelain. In the course of the eighteenth century the 
colours of Chinese porcelain became more refined, and the so-called 
famille verte, and especially the famille rose, porcelain made their way to 
Europe ; at the same time porcelain began to be made in Europe itself. 
These developments pointed the direction in which the Delft potters 
were bound to follow. It was essential that they should have an extensive 
palette at their command. In porcelain painting, in which blue and 
copper-red were practically the only colours that could be fired with 
the glaze (the temperature being too high for other pigments), the muffle- 
kiln technique came into use as a matter of course. In this manner the 
porcelain painter was able to use whatever colours he wished. His 
palette was almost unlimited. At Delft the potters were seized with 
the desire to copy this Chinese and European porcelain (and what did 
they not imitate 0* and the way first pointed out by Pijnacker and 
Hoppesteyn was now pursued. The practice of firing the blue only, of 
which now there was less need, in the high- temperature kiln was given 
up, and, with the definite object of simulating porcelain, earthenware 
was made, which was painted entirely in overglaze pigments fired in the 
muffle-kiln. The effect was quite different on the colours themselves, 
including blue, which, when fired in the muffle-kiln, is always lighter 
and somewhat purplish in tone. Technically this class of ware is of less 
significance than that in which all the colours are fired at a high 
temperature, although some pleasure is certainly afforded by the soft, 
delicate colours, often applied with great care to the fine white enamel. 
It is a curious fact that not a single one of the many specimens of this 
type in the Rijksmuseum bears a date. Only in one case is there a 
signature ; in another there is a mark known to us from its occurrence 
amongst those registered with the authorities by the potters in 1764. 

123 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

Here and there also an unknown mark is found, that is all. It is difficult 
to guess at the reason for this. Most of the muffle-decorated wares must 
have been made after the middle of the eighteenth century. For other 
classes of Delft ware also we have few data of this period, but it is 
certainly singular that marks are almost entirely lacking on pieces in other 
respects so carefully finished, seeing that in 1764 the potters were obliged 
to report their marks to the authorities. 

There are two points of contact by which wares of this class, with 
painting in overgla2;e muffle pigments, link themselves on to the Pijnacker 
group. The first is of a technical nature ; even here now and then there 
is to be seen a narrow border in blue fired with the enamel, placing such 
pieces technically on an identical footing with the work of the Pijnacker 
factory. The second point is that the small jug with the APK mark, in 
the museum at The Hague, already described, exemplifies the occurrence 
at this early period of decoration wholly painted in overglaze pigments 
on wares of the Pijnacker group, and that two dishes in the Rijksmuseum, 
similarly painted to imitate Chinese porcelain (Fig. 104), bear the letters 
AR, which mark is known to us also on pieces of the same group. These 
dishes, on which is depicted a mounted lady accompanied by four serving- 
men on foot, enclosed within a narrow ornamental border, are almost 
exact copies of what is called famille verte ; the palette shows precisely 
the colours of that class of Chinese porcelain. The same colours, but a 
little brighter, are seen on a tray (Fig. 107) painted with Chinese figures 
in a garden. The translation into Dutch of the design, certainly not 
intended, gives it a somewhat odd effect. 

The purplish pink of the famille rose class of porcelain appears at 
this stage to have become the fashionable colour at Delft, whilst the blue 
is always the peculiar pale violet-blue to which we have already referred. 
A pair of very charming plates in the Rijksmuseum (Fig. 105), decorated 
with sprays of flowers, birds and, in the background, two figures, would 
call to mind famille rose porcelain were it not for the intrusion of too 
much* brownish red and gold amongst the colours ; they are another case 
of the quite individual manner in which the Delft potters modified 
Oriental themes. Another noteworthy specimen of muffle-painted ware 
in the same museum is a puzzle-jug marked S, beautifully painted with 
Chinese figures. We pass now to a dish in the Musee des Arts Decoratifs 
in Paris (Fig. 103), on which is a painting in red, green, yellow, grey, 
blue, purple and gold of three figures in a garden, a lady and gentleman 
dancing to the music of a hurdy-gurdy played by the third. Several 

124 



THE INFLUENCE OF PORCELAIN TECHNIQUE 

small plates in the Rijksmuseum, with coloured bouquets in a vase or a 
basket, include one which bears, in addition to baskets of flowers in 
reserved compartments, small Chinese subjects ; with its red painting 
on a gold ground this piece is marked by a character of its own more 
reminiscent of Chinese porcelain. 

We find also tiles distinguished by this technique and colouring, 
decorated with a basket of flowers in a medallion and ornamental motives 
in the angles, just as on the tiles of the earlier type. Examples are in 
the possession of the Lambert van Meerten Museum at Delft (Fig. io8). 
A set of three vases in the Rijksmuseum are of a peculiar twisted 
shape with the head of a Chinese lady to form the knob of the cover; 
they are important not only as imitations of the so-called *' Harlequin 
porcelain " of China, but also chiefly because their mark has been identified 
and thus enables us to give an approximate date to the set. The letters 
A and IH which they bear occur on the list of marks registered with the 
authorities in 1764 in pursuance of the bye-law already mentioned ; 
they are there given as the mark of Jacobus Haider, who succeeded Jan 
Theunis Dextra about that year as proprietor of the " Greek A " pottery 
{de Grieksche A), This set of vases cannot therefore have been made 
before 1764. 

We have to deal lastly with the earthenware in which the Delft 
potters borrowed both form and decoration from European porcelain, 
especially that of Meissen. A good example of this type is a wall-cistern 
with a wash-hand basin in the Rijksmuseum (Fig. no); they are 
decorated in various colours with landscapes surrounded by very finely 
painted floral borders. Here again we have the usual pigments, including 
especially a beautiful pale violet, heightened with gilding, whilst here 
and there an effective groundwork is obtained by alternations of blue 
stippling with small red coils ; the colours, moreover, are applied in 
varying shades. A large soup-tureen in the same museum is decorated 
with detached flowers, in addition to landscapes ; one of these is identical 
with that on a fine dish in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London 
(Fig. 109). Amongst various other pieces of the same class at Amsterdam 
is a small basket with an incised F, perhaps the mark of the workman 
(vormer) who shaped the article in the mould. A more subdued colouring 
is shown by a pair of sauce-boats and two butter-dishes, all in the same 
place, each of which bears the mark VA ; they are decorated with small 
landscapes in which a deep violet is the prevailing tone. 

The Rijksmuseum possesses a large tile-picture with a vintage scene 

125 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

painted with the same palette of colours. It is marked M: V: Kuyk, 
I: Baen, a Delft 5.29.1744. We have already met with the signature 
of this painter on a blue-and-white plate dated 1742 in the Tenbosch 
Collection. Late as it is, this picture is not devoid of a certain liveliness 
of effect, thanks to a fresh red and green in the painting. It is exhibited 
in the museum in a position in which it is instructive to compare it, with 
its muffle pigments, with the tile-pictures already mentioned, fine examples 
of the earthenware of the grand feu, which was, above all, the great glory 
of the potters of Delft. 



126 



THE RED TEAPOTS OF DELFT 



Chapter XVIII 
THE RED TEAPOTS OF DELFT 

In addition to enamelled earthenware, unglazed red earthenware 
teapots were also made at Delft in imitation of the Chinese stoneware 
of Yi-hsing Hsien. The Victoria and Albert Museum possesses a 
specimen with the mark of Ary de Milde (an oval stamp with his name and 
a figure of a running fox) ; it is decorated with small applied rosettes 
and bud-like ornaments. We may name also two examples from the 
collection of the Rijksmuseum ; one of these (Fig. iii) bears the same 
mark of De Milde, the other that of Jacobus de Caluwe. 

Whether De Milde really made red stoneware or only teapots of 
fine red earthenware like that in the Rijksmuseum is a question which 
has again come to the fore in recent years. If the first claim is true, 
Ary de Milde played a very important role in the development of the 
potter's craft, since he may be regarded as the discoverer, as far as Europe 
is concerned, of the red stoneware which was also called " red porcelain," 
so named because, in common with porcelain properly so-termed, it 
consists of a fusible and an infusible substance combined under a very 
high temperature (higher, that is to say, than earthenware could support) 
into a homogeneous stone-like material. Such red stoneware is, in any 
case, regarded as the forerunner of white porcelain. However this may 
be, to Ary de Milde belongs without doubt the merit of having anticipated 
Bottger, the inventor of European hard-paste porcelain and founder of 
the Meissen factory, in the production of red teapots of the Chinese 
type. For as early as 1680 he registered with the authorities at Delft 
the mark which was to protect him against counterfeit imitations of his 
teapots ; it is to be noted that he is described as Mr. Theepotbacker 
{" Master Teapot-maker "). From the fact that such protection was 
necessary, and that several makers registered their mark at the same time 
with De Milde, it appears that the manufacture of teapots of this kind 
was an important industry at Delft. A very similar manufacture was 
being carried on about this time by two Dutch potters, John Philip and 
David Elers, at Bradwell Wood in Staffordshire. 

The manufacture of these wares, in Holland and England alike, was 

129 K 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

occasioned by the introduction from China of tea-drinking. In China, 
teapots of boccaro ware are beheved to be more suitable for making tea 
than those in any other material. At first they were imported with the 
tea itself into Europe, but it is not surprising that European potters soon 
found a source of profit in obviating, by the production of imitative 
wares, the risk and expense of transport from the East. 



130 



THE DECLINE 



Chapter XIX 

THE DECLINE 

We have now seen what was produced by the Delft potters at their 
prime. We have also noticed a few products of the period of decline, 
earthenware having still been produced in large quantity at that time. 
But there was an end even to this stage of the industry. Paape writes 
in 1794 that not more than ten potteries were surviving at that date, 
and that these ten " were nearly all in a state approaching extinction." 
What was the reason for this i Every kind of art has its rise, its time 
of prosperity and its decline, but in this instance all kinds of external 
causes were contributory. One of the chief of these was certainly the 
invention and distribution in the eighteenth century of European 
porcelain. As a result of this, delft became steadily degraded to a less 
sought-after and therefore less costly commodity. In spite of this it was 
still being produced all the time in great quantities. A more important 
agent in the total ruin of the Delft ware industry was the establishment 
in England of factories for fine earthenwares such as " Queen's ware," 
" cream-coloured ware," " salt-glazed ware " and the like, a new 
invention generally known in Holland as Engels steen. A cheap and 
much more durable material, a species of hard, non-porous earthenware 
such as this was, taking up a position, as it were, between porcelain and 
delft, was bound to drive delft off the market. And just as in a former 
age delft had banished pewter as an article of household use — as may be 
learned from the inscription on a plate in the Rijksmuseum^ — so in turn 
it was itself driven out by the English steen. The results of this change 
are seen in the numerous plates and other articles of English earthenware 
with Dutch inscriptions.^ A Delft ware panel in the Rijksmuseum, 

1 Tinne borden sijn niet goet, Pewter platters are no good, 

Om dat men se schuuren moet ; You must scour them after food ; 

Maar een hord van porceleijn [i.e. delft] But a plate of porcelain 

Word van 't wassen wit en reiui Comes with washing white and clean, 

Daarom set vrij op den dis Then on the table set, I pray, 

Een hord dat wel geschilderd is. A plate of delft with painting gay. 

2 Examples are the pieces, such as a soup-tureen in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
with portraits of William V, Prince of Orange, and his wife Frederica Wilhelmina, and the 

133 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

intended as an advertisement board, is eloquent of this state of affairs. 
We read there, amongst other information, that a single shop offered 
for sale " all kinds of Delft and English earthenware " [allerhande soorten 
van Delfts en Engels aardewerk). 

From a decorative point of view the delft of the late eighteenth 
century has very little significance. When a foreign production with 
very practical qualities drove out of existence also the " useful " ware 
made at Delft, it was all over with the Delft potteries. To the class of 
" useful " wares belongs especially what is known as " white delft," 
much of which has been destroyed. This well-known class of delft, 
however, includes much that was intended for decoration but was never 
painted. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century the still surviving potteries 
ended their days as tile-factories. The nature of the ornamental wares 
still made at that time may be seen from a set of vases for the sideboard 
in the Rijksmuseum, from the factory of Jan van Putten. We should 
have preferred not to draw attention to these productions of a moribund 
industry, if it were not necessary for the completeness of our survey of 
Delft earthenware. 

sets of plates crudely decorated with paintings illustrating the Sacraments, executed in 
Holland ; on some of these the mark of the Staffordshire potter Turner is impressed. Of 
better quality are pieces (such as a tureen of Wedgwood's "Queen's ware," inscribed 
De Vriendschap and dated 1804, in the Schreiber Collection at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum) made and also decorated in England specially for export to the Netherlands. 



134 



THE PLACE OF DUTCH EARTHENWARE IN THE 
HISTORY OF EUROPEAN POTTERY 



Chapter XX 

THE PLACE OF DUTCH EARTHENWARE IN THE 
HISTORY OF EUROPEAN POTTERY 

To students and collectors of a former generation Dutch earthenware 
was synonymous with " Delft," a product of craftsmanship which through 
some unexplained miracle began life as an adult about the middle of 
the seventeenth century, and came to the end of its brilliant career some 
hundred and fifty years later. How this phenomenon came to pass was 
to some a matter of no concern, whilst to others it was a mystery too 
difficult to solve. We now know that this was a very inadequate view 
of the matter. Researches of the last two decades have enabled us to 
assign to Dutch pottery its appropriate niche in the fabric of ceramic 
evolution, and to give to it the position of honour to which, on technical, 
artistic and historical grounds alike, it is justly entitled. 

The traditions in the potter's art which were first taken up from 
Eastern peoples by the Italians were carried on, as we have seen, by the 
Dutch and handed by them to other nations of the North, the English 
amongst them. As in the main it is true to say that Italy was the link 
between the lands of Islam and the rest of Europe, so, as we now know, 
the Low Countries in turn connected Italy with England, Germany and 
Scandinavia. If the actual spot at which contact with the maiolica of 
Italy can be located proves to be Antwerp, and therefore not in the 
Netherlands as defined in the present day, it was in Holland that the 
great northern development of tin-enamelled earthenware took place. 

With the sundering of the Low Countries which followed the 
religious wars of the sixteenth century, when Protestant Holland broke 
away from the Catholic Flemish provinces, Antwerp fell into the back- 
ground as a centre of ceramic production. The wares of the maiolica 
class made in Flanders after the close of the sixteenth century are of 
minor importance, and without effect on the spread of this type of ceramic 
technique in other countries. It was the great outburst of production 
in Holland during the times of her prosperity in the seventeenth century 
which flooded the civilised world with " delft," and spurred on the potters 
of other lands to emulate the successes of their Dutch fellow-craftsmen. 

137 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

The origins of enamelled earthenware in England are still veiled in 
obscurity, but they may be fixed with certainty many years before the word 
" delft " was added to the English language. Everything tends to show 
that Dutch tiles, and probably Dutch pottery as well, were being exported 
over the North Sea before the end of the sixteenth century. A mug of 1618 
is the earliest piece certainly English in origin, of ascertainable date, of 
tin-enamelled earthenware (which in this connection may better be termed 
" maiolica " than " delft "). That such wares were made by foreign 
potters, or by Englishmen under the direction of foreigners, may be 
taken as almost certain, and it seems that the craftsmen who introduced 
the industry into England were Netherlanders rather than, as has lately 
been suggested, from Italy.' Most of the earlier English maiolica with 
painted decoration, whether from Bristol or from the riverside potteries 
in the neighbourhood of London, shows a decided likeness to the Dutch 
wares of the same class. Here, as in Holland, polychrome decoration 
came before blue-and-white. It was only as the seventeenth century 
advanced that distinctively English types were developed, such as the 
tulip dishes of Brishngton and Bristol, and the blue-and-white wine- 
bottles of Lambeth. There was, however, no complete emancipation 
from Dutch influences, and, until the time when English delft shared 
the fate of its Dutch congeners, there is no lack of evidence to show that 
the English potters had to compete with a large trade in pottery and 
tiles alike from Holland. England was in the seventeenth century more 
remote than its neighbours from contact with China ; consequently 
polychrome wares of the early type continued there in demand longer 
than in Holland. But England, too, fell at last under the sway of the 
vogue of blue-and-white, and to meet its claims there must have been 
a large importation of Dutch delft. We know also that Dutch potters 
settled in England to compete with this import trade ; in 167 1 one John 
Ariens van Hamme took out a patent for the manufacture at Lambeth 
of " tiles and porcelain (i.e. delft) after the way practised in Holland." 
The vases at Hampton Court described on a previous page, and many 
a production of the Dutch plateelbakkers and tile-makers remaining in 
old English houses, speak of a fashion which was given a new impetus 
when in 1689 a Prince of Orange was called to the throne of the Stuarts. 

^ Miss Eliza Meteyard {Life of Josiah Wedgwood, London, 1865, vol. i, p. 109) already 
suggested that the importation of what she termed "Dutch majolica" had a powerful 
effect as early as the reign of Queen Elizabeth on the development of the pottery manu- 
facture in England. 

138 



THE PLACE OF DUTCH EARTHENWARE 

The English delft wares of the eighteenth century, of Bristol in 
particular, are often not easy to distinguish from their rivals, especially 
those made for table use and the similar types known as boerendelftsch. 
But certain forms seem to be peculiar to England — the two-handled 
posset-pot, for instance, with cover and sucking-spout — whilst subtle 
differences in shape or in quality of enamel will usually decide the 
question. Lettering of inscriptions is sometimes a guide ; the triangular 
arrangement of the initials of a maker, or perhaps owner, sometimes to 
be seen on the base or back of a piece, appears to be unknown in delft 
ware of Dutch manufacture. 

In Germany events were taking a similar course. In the south, 
it is true, the making of maiolica was introduced early in the sixteenth 
century direct from Italy, but its production was small and spasmodic 
and hardly rose above the level of a peasant craft. In the north also, at 
Hamburg, the manufacture had begun in the early years of the seven- 
teenth century ; its origin is obscure, but may well have been due to 
potters from the Netherlands. It was only after the end of the Thirty 
Years' War that tin-enamelled earthenware began to be made on a large 
scale in Germany, and it was by Dutchmen that the industry was 
introduced. At Hanau, near Frankfort, in 1661, at Potsdam, where 
Frederick William, the Great Elector, decided in 1678 to establish a 
factory of Delftisch Porzellain, at Cassel in 1699, potteries were founded 
by immigrants from Holland. From these places in turn men of enter- 
prise went forth, through the length and breadth of Germany, to set up 
potteries for making earthenware in which the influence of Delft is again 
and again apparent. From Germany the industry spread to the North. 
In 1722 a Holsteiner named Wolff established at Copenhagen a firm with 
the title Delfs Porselins eller Hollandsch Steentoys Fabrique ; from 
Copenhagen the same potter passed on to Stockholm, where he founded 
the still-existing factory of Rorstrand. 

These German and Scandinavian delft wares are, as a rule, readily 
distinguishable from their progenitors ; but in the earlier wares especially, 
with painting in blue alone or in blue with manganese-purple, there is 
sometimes a marked similarity to the Dutch delft of the Hoppesteyn and 
" AK " types. The German delft is, however, generally heavier and 
more massively built ; its painting lacks the delicacy of touch shown by 
the artists of the town on the Schie. 

If Delft ware was, technically speaking, as we have seen, the offspring 
of Italian maiolica, it was brought to birth and fostered by the social 

139 



OLD DUTCH POTTERY AND TILES 

conditions of the time in which it came into being. The vital struggle 
with Spain in the sixteenth century, so far from enervating or exhausting 
the Dutch people, had sharpened their wits and given new power to their 
energies. Having won for themselves political and religious freedom, 
they turned their efforts to commerce and culture. Trade with the East 
brought wealth and a wider outlook on life. Wealth was expended in 
the increase of comfort and the patronage of art. The Dutch school of 
painters was the major result, but in the minor arts such as that of the 
potter the effects of prosperity were no less apparent. The Van Eenhoorns, 
Hoppesteyn and Frijtom hold a position amongst the great men of their 
craft hardly less honourable than that of Rembrandt, Hals and Vermeer 
amongst painters. The pottery decorators may not have been great or 
original artists — indeed, they drew inspiration for their designs largely 
from engravings ; but they were fine colourists and showed wonderful 
skill in adaptation and in the handling of the brush. How the pottery 
industry came to be concentrated in the town of Delft is a question which 
calls for an answer. The explanation is doubtless to be found in the 
fact that in the seventeenth century the brewing industry, to which Delft 
had formerly owed its prosperity, fell into decline, and the buildings left 
vacant in consequence offered suitable sites for the establishment of 
potteries. The town was, moreover, well placed, with its port at Delfs- 
haven, for holding the patronage of the wealthy and influential class in 
Holland, and for the distribution of its wares in other lands. Traditions 
of craftsmanship accumulated, and Delft rose to a position as a busy focus 
of the potter's craft which finds its only parallels in the " Kannebacker- 
landchen " of the Westerwald in Nassau, and in " the Potteries " of 
Staffordshire. 

By the irony of events it was from seed sown by two Dutchmen 
that a tree sprang up which was to overshadow and at last to take the 
life from the once so flourishing growth of Delft. The heavy stonewares 
of Nassau and the Rhineland were no serious rival ; they were not of a 
nature to meet the needs of the new social order. The cost and risks of 
thousands of miles of transit by sea were an insurance against competition 
from Chinese porcelain. Nor was great danger to be apprehended from 
the tin-enamelled wares made in English potteries or in the many 
factories established directly or indirectly as offshoots from Delft in 
Germany ; they were always markedly inferior in quality. The fate of 
Delft was decided when, about 1690, the brothers John Philip and David 
Elers began at Bradwell Wood, near Burslem, with a secrecy they were 

140 



THE PLACE OF DUTCH EARTHENWARE 

unable to keep up, the manufacture of red teapots akin to those of 
De Caluwe and De Milde. From that moment the Staffordshire potters 
advanced from supplying crude slip-decorated posset-pots and platters 
for the markets of the neighbourhood towards the production in mass of 
articles for table use in a fine and eminently serviceable earthenware 
which found buyers in all civilised countries. The wares which had 
been the pride of Holland, possessing in their soft, pleasant enamel and 
cheerful, harmonious colouring a charm unequalled even by Chinese 
porcelain, went under before the output of an industry to which Dutch 
craftsmen had given its start. 



141 



APPENDIX 
LIST OF MARKS OF DELFT POTTERS IN 1764 



APPENDIX 

LIST OF MARKS OF DELFT POTTERS IN 1764 

The marks in the following list were registered with the authorities 
in pursuance of a by-law against the counterfeiting of tiles ; the factory 
signs were also recorded. As each potter made his declaration on a 
separate page of a book, and the marks could not be traced from the 
drawings in this document, we have taken them from Obreen's Archief 
voor Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedenis, I. 

-^K^ A. Kiell, factory of the " White Star " {de Witte Ster), 

22)^^, Jacobus de Milde ; the " Peacock " {de Paauiv), 

«^ A , Johannes den Appel ; the " Golden Boat " {de Ver guide 
Xi/A Boot), 

JJjQJ} °^ ^ ^^^^ van der Does ; the " Rose " {de Roos). 
/(fP^'^m Lambertus Sanderus ; the " Claw " {de Klaauw),^ 

VD 

jjr--=- J' T. Dextra ; the " Greek A " {de Grieksche A), 



Willem van der Does ; the " Three Bells " {de Drie 
Klokken). He also used three bells as his mark. 



Jacobus Haider, Adr. Z°. ; the " Greek A " {de Grieksche A), 

Hendrik van Hoorn had as mark the sign of his factory, 
the ** Three Porcelain Ash-barrels " {de drie Porceleijne 
Astonnen). 
_y\A? Pieter Paree ; the " Metal Pot " {de Metale Pot), 

• The form of the mark found on the specimen in the Rijksmuseum is thus •a^" "^ 

145 L 




APPENDIX 

'rrrtrnn Elisabeth EUing, wed. van den Briel ; the " Fortune " 
^^^^-^^^ {'t Fortuijn). 

TB^/T Petrus van Marum ; the " Roman " {de Romeijn). 

9 

T^f Jan van den Kloot Jansz.; the "Roman" (rfe Romeijn), 

w 7j ^ Wed. Jan van der Hagen; the "Young Moor's Head" 
Lv'Jj* /J . {'t jonge Moriaanshooft), 

^ ^r Cf Gertruij Verstelle ; the " Old Moor's Head " ('i oude 



/ 



Moriaanshooft). 

Justus Brouwer ; the " Porcelain Axe " {de Porceleijne 
Bijl). 



T i r y Hugo Brouwer ; the " Three Porcelain Flasks " (de drie 



Porceleijne Flessies), 



lHVMLD^ Hendrik van Middeldijk ; the " Heart " {'t Hart). 

ath. Pennis ; the " Two Little Ships " {de twee Scheep- 

^'\- jes). 

» 

T T\ / . . Johannes van Duijn ; the " Porcelain Dish " {de Por- 
jLJIauTI- celeijne Schotel). 

n Dt < P. Verburg ; the " Golden Flowerpot " {de Vergulde 



SP 



Blompot). 
Pieter van Doorne ; the " Porcelain Bottle " {de Porce- 
leijne Fles). 

J\ ct rjr Tomas Spaandonck ; the " Double Tankard " {de Dub- 
-^A> JS^ belde Schenkkan). 

L^ P fC Wed. Gerardus Brouwer; the " Ewer " {de Lampetkan). 

^^ , -r ,^ T5 Willem van Beek ; the " Two Savage Men " {de Twee 
yv: V ; X5 WHdemam). 



146 



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Bremmer, H. P. Delftsch aardewerk, Een practisch aesthetische studie. Amsterdam, 1908. 

Brinckmann, J. Das Hamburgische Museum fiir Kunst und Gewerbe, Ein Fiihrer durch 

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Chaffers, The New, Marks and Monograms on pottery and porcelain. London, 1912. 
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Amsterdam, 1915, p. 37. 
Geus, C. de. Tegels en tegeltableaux. Oude kunst, 191 9 en 1920. 
Geus, C. de. The history of the Dutch wall tile as exemplified in the Vis Collection. The 

Connoisseur (1921). 
Havard, H. Catalogue chronologique et raisonn6 des faiences de Delft composant la col- 
lection de M. John F. Loudon. The Hague, 1877. 
Havard, H. La c6ramique hollandaise, Histoire des fayences de Delft, etc. Amsterdam, 

1909. 2 Vols. 
Hoynck van Papendrecht, A. Oude Noord-Nederlandsche maiolika in het Museum van 

Oudheden te Rotterdam. Reprinted from Eigen Hoard, 5 February, 1916, nr. 6. 
Hoynck van Papendrecht, A. De Rotterdamsche plateel- en tegelbakkers. Rotterdam, 1920. 
Knochenhauer, Paul. Niederlandische Fliesen-Ornamente. Berlin, no date. 
Knowles, W. Pitcairn. Dutch pottery and porcelain. London (1904). 
Laurent, M. Guido di Savino and the earthenware of Antwerp. Burlington Magazine, 

XLI (1922), p. 288. 
Mander, Karel van. Het schilderboeck, 1604. Het leven van Hendrick Cornelissen Vroom, 
Neurdenburg, Elisabeth. Oud Aardewerk, toegelicht aan de verzamelingen in het 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst te Amsterdam. 2nd edition, 1920. 
Neurdenburg, Elisabeth. Oude Noord-Nederlandsche Majolika. Bulletin van den Neder- 

landschen Oudheidkundigen Bond, 1913, p. 228. 
Neurdenburg, Elisabeth. De plateelbakkersfamilie Hoppesteyn. Brediusbundel, Amster- 
dam, 1915, p. 191. 
Neurdenburg, Elisabeth. De Verzameling John F. Loudon. Oude Kunst, 1916, pp. 339, 

383, 411 and 1917, p. I. De techniek van het Oud Delftsch aardewerk. Ibid., 1917, 

147 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

p. III. Oud Delftsch aardewerk in het Nederlandsch Museum te Amsterdam. Ibid., 
1917, pp. 149, 181 and 197. 
Neurdenburg, Elisabeth. De Verzameling John F. Loudon. Onze Kunst, 1916, p. 72. 
Neurdenburg, Elisabeth. De twee majolica-tegels uit het Refugium van de Abdij van 
Aduard in de stad Groningen. Jaarboek van den Nederlandschen Oudheidkundigen 
Bond, 1922, p. 170. 

Neurdenburg, Elisabeth. Twee Rotterdamsche tegeltableaux. BoUerdamsch Jaarboekje, 
1923, p. 62. 

Notten, M. van. Aanwinsten Nederlandsch Museum, Bulletin van den Nederlandschen 
Oudheidkundigen Bond, 1908, p. 204 and 191 1, p. 20. 

Obreen, Fr. D. O. Archief voor Nederlandsche Kunstgeschiedenis, I, i, Het Sint Lucas- 
Gild te Delft; I, 128, Merken van Delftsche Plateelbakkers ; VI, 4, Necrologium van 
Delftsche Kunstenaars, opgemaakt uit de begrafenisboeken in het Archief van Delft, 
medegedeeld door Mr. J. Soutendam; VII, 281, Inventaris van eene tegel- en plateel- 
bakkerij in 1627, medegedeeld door den Heer P. Haverkorn van Rijsewijk; VII, 337, 
Overeenkomst aangegaan tusschen de Delftsche plateelbakkers op 30 Jan., 1778, 
medegedeeld door den Heer A. A. Vorsterman van Oyen. 

Ottema, N. Bijdrage tot de kennis van het aardewerk in de Noordelijke Nederlanden in 
gebruik in het laatste kwart van de i6de eeuw. Reprint from Vrije Fries, XXVI 
(1918) ; also Oude Kunst, III (1918), pp. 231, 255, and Verslag Friesch Gencotschap, 
1918. 

Ottema, N. Friesche Majolika, een vergeten hoofdstuk uit de geschiedenis van het Neder- 
landsch aardewerk. Vrije Fries, XXVll(ig2o). Jaarverslag Friesch Genootschap, 1918. 

Paape, Gerrit. De Plateelbakker of Delftsch aardewerkmaaker. Dordrecht, 1794. 

Peelen, Ida C. E. Catalogus van de verzameling Nederlandsch aardewerk. Gemeente- 
museum. The Hague, 1917. 

Peelen, Ida C. E. Aanwinsten van het Museum Huis Lambert van Meerten te Delft. Bulletin 
van den Nederlandschen Oudheidkundigen Bond, 1920, p. 196. 

Peelen, Ida C. E. Tegeltableaux uit het midden der XVII''* eeuw. Bulletin van den Neder- 
landschen Oudheidkundigen Bond, 1920, p. 215. 

Pit, A. Oude Noord-Nederlandsche majolika. Oud-Holland, XXVII, 133. 

Pit, A. Aanwinsten Nederlandsch Museum. Bulletin van den Nederlandschen Oudheid- 
kundigen Bond, I, 3 ; II, 68, 234 ; III, 262 ; VI, 12. 

Pit, A. De apothekerspot of albarello. Het Huis Oud en Nieuw, 1905, p. 193. Midden- 
eeuwsch aardewerk. Ibid., 1906, pp. 6, 161. 

Rackham, B. Early Dutch maiolica and its English kindred. Burlington Magazine, 
XXXIII (1918), p. 116. 

Reinhardt, C. Tschirnhaus oder Bottger ? Gorlitz, 1912. 

Riesebieter, O. Friihes Delft. Der Cicerone, IX (1917), p. 341. 

Schnorr von Carolsfeld, L. Porzellan der europaischen Fabriken des 18 Jahrhunderts. 
Berlin, 1912. 

Verschuer, W. F. K. Baron van. Ary de Milde, Mr. Theepotbacker. Amsterdam, 191 6. 

Vlielander Hein, F. E. Over wit Delftsch aardewerk. Het Huis Oud en Nieuw, XI (1913). 

Vogelsang, W. Versierde borden. Het Huis Oud en Nieuw, 1905, p. 65. 

Wiersum, E. De laatste Rotterdamsche tegelbakkerij . Botter dam sch Jaarboekje, 2nd Series, 
X (1921), p. 102. 

Willemse, A. Over Oud-Limburgsch e.a. aardewerk. Oude Kunst, 1917, 1918, 1919. 
Wylde, C. H. Old English drug and unguent pots found in excavations in London. Bur- 
lington Magazine, VII (1905), 76. 

148 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Names with the prefix "van " will be found under "V," not under 
the initial of their substantive. 



A mark, 88, 125, 14s 

Aalmis, Jan, signature, 52 

Aardetrapper, 10 

AB mark, 120 

Adriaen Ingelsz, 22, 24 

Aduard, 17 

Admiral of France, arms, 119 

Adultery, Woman taken in, subject, S4 

ADW mark, 84 

Aelmis family, 52, 53 

AK mark, 60, 69, 71, 75, 116, 117, 139 

AK with dot, mark, 98 

AK with star, mark, 145 

AlbareUi, 25 

Alpha factory {see Greek A) 

Alpha mark, 145 

Altona merchant, order for tiles by, 52 

Amigoni, Jacopo, subject after, 52 

Amsterdam, arms of, on jar, 27 

Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, 17 and passim 

Amsterdam, tiles from house in, 51 

Andriesz, Guido (see Savino) 

Antwerp, 22, 24, 37, 42, 137 

AP mark, 146 

APK mark, 72, 103, 118, 124 

Apollonius of Tyana, subject, 116 

AR mark, 61, :i8, 119, 124 

Arita potteries, 118 

Arnhem pottery, 57 

Ash-barrels, Three, factory, 85, 104, ill, 145 

Astonnendrie {see Ash-barrels) 

Axe factory, 85 

Axe mark, 107, no, in, 146 

Axe, Porcelain, factory, 86 



Barber's basins, 86 

Bells, Three, factory, 104, 145 

Berlin, Schlossmuseum, 115 

Bible history, scenes from, 107 

Bijl, de {see Axe) 

Birdcages, 87 

Birkenhead (see Cole Collection) 

Black ground, 103 

Bleyswijck (see Van Bleyswijck) 

BHksembordjes, 98 

Bloempot factory, 52 

Blompot, mark, 146 

Blue-and-white, 45, 64, 75, 83 

Blue enamel ground, 104 

Boat factory, 83 

Boat, Golden, factory, 145 

Boccaro, ware, 130 

, 99, 109, no, 139 



Bolsward pottery, 28, 34, 35, 46 

Boot, de, factory (see Boat) 

Bottger, 129 

Boucher, design after, 109 

Boumeester, Cornells, 51 

Bourbon, Louis Alexandre de, 119 

Brabant, 54 

Bradwell Wood, 129, 140 

Brandenburg, arms of, 119 

Breweries at Delft, 140 

Brouwer, Hugo, 86, 146 

Brouwer, Justus, 146 

Brouwer, Weduwe, 146 

Brislington ware, 138 

Bristol delft, 87, 104, 138 

British arms, 119 

British Museum, 26, 70, 72, 83, 108, 116 

Brunswick, Elector of, arms, 116 

Brussels, Musses du Cinquantenaire, 35, 49, 58, 72, 

87, 98, 116 
Buren, Graefscap van, 51 
Burslem, 140 
Buytenwech, Willem, 70 



Cachemire decoration, 92 

Calendars, 86 

Cassel ware, 139 

CB mark, 86 

CBM mark, 51 

Cdramiqve hollandaise, Havard's, 59 

Chimneypiece tiles, 51 

China, coast-scene, 72 

Chinese designs, 107, 108 

Chinese porcelain, influence of, 28, 58, 64, 91 ; exact 

copies of, 86 
Chinese stoneware, 129 
Christ, scenes from life of, 84, 86 
Cimon and Pera, subject, 26 
Cinquantenaire, Musees du (see Brussels) 
CIV mark, 49 
CL mark, 26 
Clainpanain Collection, 58, 103, 104, 107, iii, 119, 

120 
Claw factory, 85, in, 145 
Clays employed at Delft, 9 
Cock mark, 57 
Cockspurs, 13, 37 
Colchester, 27 
Cole Collection, 70 
Cologne, 25, 26, 28 
Copenhagen delft factory, 139 
Copenhagen, Kunstindustrimuseum, 75 
Copying between factories, 85 



151 



INDEX 



Cream-coloured ware, 133 

Crefeld ware, 18 

Cris de Paris engravings, 109 

D mark, 87, 104, 108 

Daniel in lion's den, subject, 84 

Dated Delft ware, 70 

Dating of tiles, 39 

De Caluwe, Jacobus, 129, 141 

Decker, C, engraver, 72 

De Hoogh, 33 

De Keizer, Aelbrecht, 69, 97 

Ddfsch Porcehyn, 54 

Delf shaven, port, 140 

Delft, arms of, 71 

Delft, fragments found at, 24, 25 

Delft, Huis Lambert van Meerten Museum, 11, 26, 40, 

50, 125 
Delft, superiority of productions of, S3 
Delft, tile-panel in house at, 49 
Delft, view at, 72 
" Delft," use of term, 57 
"Delph," orthography, 83 
De Milde, Ary, 129, 141 
De Milde, Jacobus, 145 
Den Appel, Johannes, 145 
De Ruyter, Michiel, 71 
Dextra family, 87, 108 
Dextra, Jan Theunis, 87, III, 125, 145 
Dorotheental, 117 

Double Tankard factory, 79, 92, 93, 146 
Downs, battle of, 51 
Dresden (see Meissen) 
Drie Astonne (see Ash-barrels) 
Drie Elokken (see Bells) 

Dri€ Porceleijne Astomnen (see Porcelain Ash-barrels) 
Dne PorceleiJ7ie Flessies (see Porcelain Flasks) 
Drug-vases, 25, 85, 86, 87 
DS, DSK marks, 79, 92, 93, 146 
Dubbdde Schenkkan (see Double Tankard) 
Dupuis, Musee, 26, 27 
Dutch maiolica, 138 
DuysenX vree^en, house, 49 
DVDD mark, 97, 145 
DVK mark, 83 

East Indies, export to, 54 

Elers, the brothers, 129, 141 

Elijah, subject, 71 

Elling, EHsabeth, 146 

Enamel, composition of, 10 

Engds steen, 133 

England, export to, 54, 138 

England, royal arms of, 119 

English delft, 4, 24, 138 

English pottery, importation of, 133 

Enkhuizen, view near, 85 

Europa and the Bull, subject, 84, 119 

Evenepoel Collection, 35, 49, 58, 87, 98 

Evolution of Dutch ware, 137 

Ewer factory, 85, 104, 146 

Faenza, 11, 17 

Famille rose designs, 120, 123, 124 

Famille verte designs, 97, 108, 119, 123, 124 

Fictoor, Louwijs, 79, 91, 92, 103 

Figures, Delft, no 



Flanders, export to, 54 

Flemish maiolica, 137 

Flemish tiles, 50 

Fles, Porceleijne, factory, 146 

Fontange, in delft paintings, 1 17 

Foremen, status of, 61 

Fortune {'t Fortuijn) factory, 85, 88, 104, 146 

Fox mark, 129 

France, Admiral of, arms, 119 

Frederica Wilhelmina, Princess, 133 

Frederick the Great, arms of, 119 

Frederick William, the Great Elector, 139 

French faience, imitations of, 104 

Friesland, 18, 24, 28, 33, 38, 46, 57 

Frijtom (see Van Frijtom) 

Fruit, boxes in shape of, no 



Oaal, inscription, 79 

Garnitures of vases, 87, 93 

Garter, Order of, 71, no 

GBS mark, 146 

Qeleyersbachere, 22 

George I of England, 119 

German enamelled earthenware, 24, 137 

GH mark, 98 

GK mark, 69 

Glaze, composition of, 11 

Golden Boat factory, 145 

Golden Flower-pot factory, 146 

Goltzius, Hendrick, subjects after, 84, 86, 119 

Gouda, pottery, 54 

Gouda, stained glass in Groote Kerk, 50 

Gouda, tiles from, 50 

Grand /cm pigments, 91, 107 

Grand /e)i technique, 12, 14 

Greek A factory, 85, 87, in, 125, 145 

Chieksche A (see Greek A) 

Groningen, 17 

Guido Andries (see Savino, Guido di) 

Guild of St. Luke, Delft, 58 

GVS mark, 88 



H mark, 87 

Haarlem, arms of, 27 

Haarlem potteries, 4, 21, 23, 54, 57 

Hague, The, Gemeentemuseum, 53, 75, 104, 119 

Hague, The, potteries, 57 

Haider, Jacobus, 125, 145 

Halle, Stadtisches Museum, 116, 117 

Hamburg Museum, 52 

Hamburg pottery, 139 

Hamburg, tiles from house in, 52 

Hampton Court, vases at, 71, 138 

Hanau pottery, 139 

Hanoverian Kings, arms of, 119 

Harlequin porcelain, 125 

Harlingen pottery, 28, 46 

Havard, criticism of, 59 

HE mark, 86, 146 

Heemskerck, M. van (see Van Heemskerck) 

Heron pattern, 61, 85 

Hessian pottery, 18 

Hey, Reinier, 72 

Hoekke, arms of, 120 

Hoorn, pottery found at, 24 



152 



INDEX 



Hogarth, subject from, 87 

Hogarth, Mary, 83 

Hogue, La, battle, 72 

Hoppesteyn group of wares, 117, 140 

Hoppesteyn, Jacob Wemmersz, 61, 116 

Hoppesteyn, Rochus, 75, 98, 115 

Hutvelijksboekin, 58 

HVB mark, 26, 50 

HVH mark, 88, ill 

HVMD mark, 146 

Hyacinth-vases, 93 



IDA mark, 145 

IDM mark, 145 

IDV mark, no 

IH mark, 93, 125, 145 

Imari porcelain, 98, 118 

Imitations of foreign earthenwares, 104 

Indies, export to, 54 

Ingelsz, Adriaen, 22, 24 

Inscribed specimens, 86 

IP mark, 92 

Italian influence, 137 

Italian maiolica, 23, 104, 137 

Italy, 13, 17, 23 

ITD mark, 87, III, 145 

IVDB mark, no 

rVDK mark, 146 

IVH mark, 84 

IVK mark, 92, 93 

IW mark, 116 



17 

Jacob's Dream, subject, 84 
Japanese porcelain, influence and imitations of, 

118, 120 
Joris Andriesz, 22, 24 
Julius Caesar, tile-picture, 51 
Junius, mark, 70 
Junius, Robertus, portrait, 71 
Justice cited, 62 



Kampen, fragments from, 24 
K'ang Hsi style, 69, 108, 115 
Kannebackerliindchen, 140 
Kevelaar, Madonna of, 18 
Kiell, A., 145 

Elauttw factory, 85, in, 14S 
Kleftijus, Willem, 69, 93 
Klokken, Drie, factory, 104, 145 
Knowles, P., cited, 6z 
Kruyk, G. L., 69 
Kruyswegh, Anthonie, 116, 117 
Kruyswegh, Jacobus, 117 
Ewaarl, 11 



Lancret, subject after, 58 

Last Judgment, subject, 98 

LC mark, in 

Leeuwarden, fragments from, 24 

Leeuwarden Museum, 27, 57 

Leeuwenhoek, Antonie, 98 

Leiden, arms of, 71 

LFmark, 79, 92, 93, 103 

Lightning pattern, 98 

Lille (see Clainpanain Collection) 

Limburg potteries, 18, 28, 29 

Liverpool (see Tenbosch Collection) 

London maiolica, 138 

Loudon Collection, 63, 87 

Louis XIV style, 71, 83, 107, 108, 109 

Louis XV style, 83, 107, 109 

Louis XVI style, 83 

Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, 119 

LPK mark, 146 

LVD mark, 104 

LVE mark, 79, 92, 103 



Madonna on dishes, 18, 25, 2&, 28 
Maiolica, Dutch, 22, 64, 99, 109, 138 
Maiolica, English, 138 
Maiolica, Flemish, 22, 137 
, Maiolica, Italian, 22, 104, 137 
Makkum pottery, 28, 57 

Manganese-purple in monochrome decoration, 3f 
Marks on tiles, 39 
Marks, register of, 59, 145 
Marks, significance of, 60 
Marriage registers, 58 
Mass production, 83, 85 
Maurice, Prince, picture, 50 
Mazarine-blue enamel, 104 
MDV mark, no 
Megelsum pottery, 29 

Meissen porcelain, imitations of, 12, 58, 65, 125 
Meissen red stoneware, 129 
Metal Pot factory, 79, 92, in, 145 
Meteyard, Miss E., cited, 138 
Middelburg, 21, 22, 24, 25 
Midnight Conversation, Hogarth's, 87 
Ming dynasty porcelain, 28, 45, 75, 115 
Money-box, no 
Monkey jugs, in 
Monograms, significance of, 60 
Moor's head, mark, Ii5 
Moor's Head, Old, factory, 116, 117, 146 
Moor's Head, Young, factory, 84, 146 
MoriauTiskooft (see Moor's Head) 
Moses with Tables of the Law, 84 
Moulded wares, 10 
MP mark, 79, 92, 145 
Muffle-kiln, technique, 12, 115, 123 



Lacquer, imitation of, 103 

Lambert van Meerten Museum (see Delft) 

Lambrequin motives, 71 

JUimpetkan factory, 85, 104, 146 



Nassau, 140 

Nederlandsch Museum (see Rijksmuseum) 

Negro's head (see Moor's head) 

Nevers faience, imitations of, 104 

Niculoso Italiano, 23 

Niobe, subject, 116 



153 



INDEX 



Old Moor's Head (see Moor's Head, Old) 
Orange, arms of, 71 

Otide Iloriaamhooft (see Moor's Head, Old) 
Oxford, fragments at, 27 



Paape, Gerrit, 3, 9, 35, 133 

Paauw factory (see Peacock) 

Paree, Pieter, 145 

PariSt Cris de, 109 

Paris, Musee des Arts Decoratifs, 119, 124 

Passion series of plates, 86 

Peacock factory, 84, 145 

Peacock-feather pattern, 61, 85, 109 

Peasant delft, 99, 109, 110 

Pennis, Anthoni, 146 

Pernetfes, 13 

Persian tile design, 42 

Pewter ousted by deltt, 133 

Piccolpasso cited, 22 

Pietersz, Jan, 92 

Pijnacker, Adriaen, 72, 103, 115, 118, 124 

Pironi, 13 

PtateelbakkeT, meaning of, 59 

Plateelbakkerijen, 34 

PM mark, 146 

Polychrome delft, 91 

" Porcelain," as term for delft ware, 4, 49, S3, 58, 133 

Porcelain Ash-barrels, Three, factory, 145 

Porcelain Axe factory, 86, 146 

Porcelain Bottle factory, 146 

Porcelain, Chinese, 26 

Porcelain Dish factory, 146 

Porcelain, European, imitations of, 12, 125 

Porcelain Flasks, Three, factory, 86, 146 

"Porcelain, red," 129 

Porcelain technique, 123 

Porceleijne Astonnen (see Porcelain Ash-barrels) 

Porceleijns Bijl (see Porcelain Axe) 

Porcdeijne Fles (see Porcelain Bottle) 

Porceleijne Flessies (see Porcelain Flasks) 

Parselein, 21 

Posset-pot peculiar to England, 139, 141 

Potsdam pottery, 139 

Potteries, The, 140 

Prodigal Son, subject, 50, 86 

Proenen, 13 

Profileerwielj 1 1 

Pronk, Cornells, 85 

Prussia, arms of, 119 

Purple-and-white tiles, 45 

Puzzle-jugs, 21, 84, no, 124 

PVD mark, 146 



Queen's ware, 133, 134 



R mark, 87, 97 

Ravenet, engraving, 109 

Reactionary tendency in 17th-century Dutch art, 65 

Red earthenware, 59, 129 

Regency style, 107 

Registration of marks, 59, 145 

Reijgens, Augustijn, 118 



Reinier, signature, 72 

RHS mark, 75, 115 

Rijksmuseum, 17 a.nA 'passim 

Ritujeloor, 14, 17 

Roman Charity, subject, 26, 50 

Roman factory, 72, 146 

Momeijn, de (see Roman) 

Boos factory (see Rose) 

Boos mark, 97 

Rorstrand pottery, 139 

Rose factory, 70, 87, 97, 103, 14S 

Rose or rosette, mark, 97, 145 

Rotterdam, fragments found at, 24, 27 

Rotterdam, Museum van Oudheden, 11, 28, 40, 44, 

49, SI 
Rotterdam potteries, 33, 35, S4, 57 
Rotterdam tile-makers, 52 
Rotterdam tiles, 53 
Rotterdam, Weeshuis, tiles in, S2 
Rouen faience, imitations of, 104 
Rouen, Mus^e Ceramique, 72, 87 
Eoaille, red, 104 



S mark, 124 

Sabines, Rape of, subject, 116 

Sachtleeven, G., 109 

Sacraments, sets of plates with paintings of, 134 

Saggars, 11, 34 

St. Luke, Guild of, 58 

St. Omer, Musee Dupuis, 26, 27 

St. Paul, Conversion of, tile-picture, 22 

Salting Collection, 69, 103, 109, 118 

Salt-glaze ware, 87, 133 

Salvage Men, Two, factory, 146 

Sanderus, L., 14s 

Savino, Guido di, 22 

Scandinavian wares, 139 

Schaphuysen, 18 

Schotelgoed, 13, 34, c^^ 

Schouten Collection, 27 

Schreiber Collection, 134 

Seville, 23 

Sevres, Musee Ceramique, 26, 72, 98, 108 

Sgraffiato ware, 13, 17, 18 

Shareholders in Delft potteries, 61 

Shipping subjects, 23, si 

Ships, Two Little, factory, 146 

Sledge, model of, 88 

Slip-decorated wares and tiles, 13, 17, 36 

Snuff-jars, 86 

Sources of design, 63 

South Kensington (see Victoria and Albert Museum) 

Spaandonck, Tomas, 146 

Spain, 23, 26, 54 

Spranckhuysen, D., portrait, 71 

Star, factory, 86 

Star, White, factory. III 

Ster. Wille. ni 

Staffordshire potteries, 87, 129, 140 

Stained glass design in tiles, so 

Stencils for tiles, 38, S2 

Steen, Engdsch, 133 

Stockholm pottery, 139 

Stoneware, Chinese, 12? 

SVE mark, 70, 7s 

Sweden, potteries in, 139 



154 



INDEX 



Tea-drinking, 130 

Teapots, red, 59, 129, 141 

Technique of polychrome wares, 65 

Temple, Building of, subject, 84 

Tenbosch Collection, 85, 86, 126 

Teniers, subject after, 71 

Theejpotbacker, 129 

Thornhill, Sir James, plates with signature of, 83 

Thousand Terrors, House of, 49 

Three Ash-barrels, factory, 104, in, 145 

Three Bells factory, 104, 145 

Three Porcelain Ash-barrels, factory, 145 

Three Porcelain Flasks, factory, 86, 146 

Tile designs, classification of, 41 

Tile-factory, view of, 35 

Tile-pictures, 35, 41, 49, in, 125 

Tiles, dating of, 39 

Tiles, technique of, 33, 37 

Tirion, Isaak, 85 

Tobacco-jars, 84, 86 

Tobit, scenes from story of, 83 

Toby-jugs, 87 

Tome Swa, mark, 98 

Toulouse, Comte de, arms, 119 

Trek (outline), II, 69, 70, 75, 115 

Tromp, Admiral, 51, 71 

Tulip dishes, 138 

Turkish type of design, 97 

Turner ware, 134 

Turquoise-blue enamel, 104 

Twisk, view of, 85 



Van Kuyk, Michiel, 85, 126 

Van Mander, Karel, 21, 23 

Van Marum, Petrus, 146 

Van Middeldijk, Hendrik, 146 

Van Putten, Jan, 134 

Van Queborn, C, 71 

Vecht, views of the, 52 

Venice, 23 

Verburg, Jan, no 

Verburg, P., 146 

Vergulde Blompot, factory, 146 

Vergulde Boot, factory, 145 

Verhaast, Gijsbert, 98, no, 118 

Verhagen, Johannes, 84 

Verhecrlijki Nederland, Met, view from, 85 

Verkolje, print, 98 

Vermeer, 33, 140 

Verstelle, Gertruij, 88, 146 

Vertumnus and Pomona, subject, 28 

Victoria and Albert Museum, 27, 28, 69, 75, 79, 97, 

98, 99, 103, 108, no, 116, u8, 125, 129, 133, 

134 
Victory of Conscience over Force, tile-picture, 50 
Vingboons, David, 84 
Violins, Delft, 87 
Visscher, C. J., 51 
Vizeer, Piet, no 
VL monogram, 104 
Vleeshal, Delft, view of, 72 
Vorme-r, 125 
Vroom, H. C, zi, 23, 49 



Uccle (see Van Gelder) 
Utewael, Joachim, 50 
Utrecht, tiles, 17 



VA mark, 125 

Van Aldewerelt, H., 70 

Van Beek, Willem, 146 

Van Bleyswijck cited, 53, 72 

Van Dale, Lucas, 104 

Van den Briel, widow, 88, 146 

Van den Kloot, Arij, 92 

Van den Kloot, Jan, 146 

Van der Burgh, Mr., cited, 62 

Van der Buergen, Jan, no 

Van der Does, Dirk, 97, 145 

Van der Does, Willem, 145 

Van der Hoeven, arms, 108 

Van der Kest, Dirk. 83 

Van der Laan, Jan, 104 

Van Doorne, Pieter, 146 

Van Duijn, Johannes, 87, 88, 146 

Van Eenhoorn, Lambertus, 79, 91, 92, 93, 103 

Van Eenhoorn, Samuel, 70, 75 

Van Frijtom, Frederik, 72 

Van Gelder Collection, 93, 98 

Van Gelder, Dr., H. E., 62 

Van Hamme, J. A., 138 

Van Heemskerck, Maerten, 26, 49, 50 

Van Hoorn, Hendrik, in, 145 

Van IJsselsteyn, D., 70 

Van Kerckhoff, Johan, 58 



Wall-plaques, 86, 92, 93, 107, 109 

Wan Li designs, 45 

*' Wasters " from Rotterdam, 46 

WD mark, 145 

Wedging of clay, 10 

Wedgwood ware, 134 

Westerwald, 140 

White delft, 134 

White Star, factory, 14S 

Wijtmans, Claes, 53, 58 

Wildemans, Twee, factory, 146 

William I (the Silent), portrait, 27 

William I (the Silent), tomb of, 70 

William HI, King, 70, 71, 79, 138 

William V, no, 133 

Winkelkouders, 61 

WiUeSter, factory, 145 

WK mark, 69, 92, 98 

Wolff of Holstein, 139 

Wouverman, subject after, 72 

WVB mark, 146 

WVDB mark, 88 



Yellow enamel ground, 104, 109 
Yi-hsing Hsien stoneware, 129 



Zeeland, pottery found in, 
Zeevischmarckt, Delft, vie 
Zodiac set of plates, 83 



155 



Fig. I. Two-handled drug-pot with the arms 
of Haarlem and Amsterdam, painted 
in blue, yellow, brown, green and 
manganese-purple on a greyish white 
ground, Dutch maiolica; dated 1610. 
H. 5i ins. (13 cm.). (See page 27.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Knnst 
{Rijksmv^eum), Amsterdam, No. 235. 



Fig. 2. Dish painted in blue, orange and green 
on a white ground with fruit on a dish, 
and on the rim flowers with embossed 
centres. Dutch maiolica; early seven- 
teenth century. D. I2| ins. (32.3 cm.). 
(See page 27.) 

Miiseum Lambert van Meerten, Delft. 



Fig. 3. Three small drug-pots painted re- 
spectively in blue and yellow, blue and 
manganese-purple, and blue, yellow 
and manganese-purple on a greyish 
white ground. Found at Middelburg. 
Dutch maiolica; about 1565. H. 2 ins. 
(S cm.), 3 ins. (7.5 cm.), 3iS ins. (8.5 
cm.). (See pages 21, 25.) 

Nederlandsck Museum voor Qeschiedems ( 
(Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 129. 



Fig. 4. Dish painted in blue, orange and green 
on a white ground, with the inscription 
Eert God (" Honour God "), and on the 
rim flov/ers with embossed centres. 
Dutch maiolica; beginning of the 
seventeenth century. D. 13 ins. (33 cm.) 
(See page 27.) 

Nederlandsck Museum voor Oeschiedenis i 
(Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 139. 



Fig. 5, a and b. Deep bowl with the subject of 
the Roman Charity Cimon in prison 
fed by his daughter Pera — painted in 
blue, yellowish brown, yellow, green 
and manganese-purple. On the rim, in 
the same colours outlined in blue, 
grotesque motives reserved on a yellow 
ground. On the outside, flowers in the 
same colours with the exception of 
purple. Signed both inside and under 
the base with an unidentified mark 
H'B. Dutch maiolica; dated 1601. 
D. I7i- ins. (44 cm.). (See page 26.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kn 
{M'ijks7miseiim)y Amsterdam. 

[60/ 



}¥ 



Fig. 6. Dish painted in blue, green, yellow, 
orange and manganese-purple: Ver- 
tumnus and Pomona. Dutch maiolica; 
about 1600. D. I2| ins. (31.5 cm.). 
(See page 28.) 

Nedaiandsch Museum voor Oeschiedenis 
{RijksimiseAtvi), Amsterdam, No. 144. 



Fig. 7. Dish painted in greyish blue, brownish 
yellow, pale green and manganese-red 
with a heraldic rose and a formal 
border. Dutch maiolica, early seven- 
teenth century. D. 13} ins. (34.9 cm.). 
(See page 27.) 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London, No. C. S4S- 
1920. 



Fig. 8. Plate painted in the middle with the 
Madonna and Child in blue, green and 
orange, on the rim with panelling in 
blue in imitation of Chinese porcelain 
of the late Ming period. Dutch 
maiolica; early seventeenth century. 
D. 7i ins. (19.2 cm.). (See page 26,) 

Miiseum Lambert i^an Meerlen, Delft. 



Fig. 9. Dish painted with stylised fruit in 
blue, orange and green, and on the rim 
gadroon ornament in blue. Dutch 
maiolica; early seventeenth century. 
D. 12| ins. (31.5 cm.). (See page 27.) 

Sckouten Collection {hvt to the Mvseum 

van Meerien, Delft). 



Fig. 10. Four tiles with arabesques in geo- 
metrical panels in reserve on a ground 
coloured blue, yellow and brown. 
Probably Dutch; second half of six- 
teenth century. (See page 42.) 

Mu^etiiu Lambert van Meerten, Delft, No. A, 566. 



Fig. II. Four tiles forming a rosette of terminal Fig. 12. Four tiles with geometrical and 

figures, painted in blue, yellow, brown foliated ornament in reserve on a 

and green. Dutch; about 1600. (See ground coloured blue, yellow, brown 

page 44.) and strong green. Dutch; about 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft, No. A. 826. 1600. (See page 42.) 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft, No. A. 71i. 








:'l^/s^ 



#^£^- 



Fig- 13- Twelve tiles with a continuous design 
forming a lattice-pattern running 
athwart the edges of the tiles, in blue, 
yellow, brown and green, Dutch; 
about 1600. {See page 43.) 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft, No. A. 721. 



Fig. 14. Twelve tiles with a continuous design 
of star and lily motives in blue, 
yellow, brown and green. Dutch; 
first half of seventeenth century. 
(See page 43.) 
3Iu3eum Lambert van Meerten, Delft, No. A. < 




p 








^ 4 ^ -4-^4>l 






gyx 



Fig. 15. Nine tiles with vases of flowers in 
quatrefoils, forming a lozenge-pattern 
continued across the edges of the tiles, 
in blue, orange-yellow, brown and 
green. Dutch; first half of seven- 
teenth century. (See page 44.) 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft, No. A. 699. 



Fig. 16. Twenty-four tiles with a continuous 
design of stylised fruit and flowers set 
together to form star-like motives, in 
blue, orange-yellow, brown and green. 
Dutch ; first half of seventeenth 
century. (See page 43.) 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delft, No. A. 1000. 












'j^' 






Fig. 17. Tile with a figure of an archer in 

blue, orange-yellow, manganese-purple 

and green. Dutch; first half of 

seventeenth century. (See page 44.) 

Nederlavdsch Museum voor Gesckiedenis t 

{Rijksmuseum), A^nsterdam, No. 153. 



Fig. 18. Four tiles with animals and birds in Fig. 19. Four tiles with tulips and, at the 

circles and connecting motives in the edges, baluster-shaped motives in 

corners, in blue, yellow, brown, green blue, yellow, brown, green and man- 

and manganese-purple. Dutch; first ganese-purple. Dutch; first half of 

half of seventeenth century. (See seventeenth century. (See page 44.) 

page 44.) Mu.seuiii LumbeH van Meerten, Delft, No. 940. 
Museum Lambert van Meerien, Delft, No. A. 681. 








».. iv^n ^' 






>rTv 



Fig. 20. Tile-picture with an allegorical subject, 
in blue, yellow, brown, green and 
manganese-purple, formerly built into 
the front of the house In duyse.nl 
vreesen at Rotterdam. Dutch; prob- 
ably dating from the end of the 
sixteenth century. H. 2 ft. 2^ ins. 
(66.5 cm.). (See page 49.) 

Museum van Oudheden, Rotterdam 



Fig. 21. Tile-picture with a vase of flowers, 
in blue, yellow, brown, green and 
manganese-purple, formerly in a 
house in Rotterdam. Dutch ; first 
half of seventeenth century. H. 3 ft. 
(91.5 cm.). (See page 49.) 

Museum van Oitdlieden, Rotterdam. 



PLATE XIII. 



Fig. 22. Tile-picture with a boy resting one 
foot on a heavenly sphere, in blue, 
yellow, brown, green and manganese- 
purple. After a design by Joachim 
Utewael for a window in the Groote 
Kerk at Gouda. Dutch; about 1640. 
H. 5 ft. 6J ins. (1.70 m.). (See page 50.) 

Jiluseum Lambert van Meerlen, Delft, No. A. GIS. 



PLATE XIV. 



Fig. 23. Four tiles, blue-and-white, with figures 
in panels on a ground of diaper. Dutch ; 
first half of seventeenth century. 

(See page 45.) 

Museum Lambert van Meerten, Delfl, No. A. 961. 



Fig. 24. Twelve tiles, blue-and-white, with 
motives adapted from Chinese 
porcelain of the late Ming period. 
Dutch; first half of seventeenth 
century. (See page 45.) 

Museum Lambert van Meerlen Delft, No. A. 975. 



Fig. 25. Tile-picture of 154 tiles, blue-and- 
white, depicting a tile-factory at 
Bolsward, Friesland, with the names 
and arms of its founders. Restored 
in places; some of the tiles to the 
right of the pictures set in the wrong 
order. Formerly at Bolsward. Dated 
1737. H. 5 ft. Ill ins. (1.82 m.). 
(See pages 34, 35i 46.) 
Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
(Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam. 



PLATE XVI. 



Fig. 26. Tile-picture, blue-and-white, shipping 
on a stormy sea. Signed C B: M 
(Cornelia Boumeester). Rotterdam ; 
second half of seventeenth century. 
H. 2 ft. loi ins. (86 cm.). (See page 52). 
Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis 
[Sijlcsmueeum), Amsterdam, No. 226. 

c 



PLATE XVII. 



Fig. 27. Vase and Cover, painted in blue, out- 
lined in dark blue trek, with flowers 
and birds and formal borders in the 
Chinese style. Mark GK in mono- 
gram. Delft; second half of seven- 
teenth century. H. 16 ins. (40.6 cm.). 
(See page 69.) 

Coh CoUectian, Bidston, Birkenhead. 



I 



PLATE XVIII. 



Fig. 28. Inkstand, blue-and-white, painted with 
the arms of Orange and surmounted 
by two lions holding shields with the 
arms of Leiden and Delft. Mounted 
in silver Unmarked. Delft ; second 
half of seventeenth century. H. 6 ins. 
(15 cm.), W. 8^ ins. (21.5 cm.). (See 
page 71 -) 

Nederland^ch Museum voor Qeschiedenis en Kunst 
{Rijksmusenm), AmsUrdamy No, 210 {Lovdon 
Collection). 



Fig. 29. Tulip-vase, painted in blue with 
blackish blue trek with figures in a 
landscape. Mark, AK in monogram. 
Delft; second half of seventeenth 
century. W. lO^- ins. (26 cm.)- {See 
page 70.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
(Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 1S4. 



A^ 



PLATE XIX. 



Fig- 3°- Jug with ring-shaped body in the 
middle of which is a figure of a running 
horse; painted in blue with flowers 
and insects and the inscription DIRCK 
JANSE VAN IJSELSTEIJN ANNO 
1658. Unmarked. Delft, dated 1658. 
H. loj ins. (26 cm.). (See page 70.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kwnst 
{Eijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 195 {Loitdon 
Collection). 



PLATE XX. 



Fig. 31. Tile, blue-and-white, with portrait of 
Robertus Junius, after an engraving 
by C. van Queborn of 1645. Unmarked. 
Delft; dated 1660. H. 7J ins. (18-5 
cm.). (See page 71.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
{Bijksniuseum), Amsterdam, No. 200. 



Fig. 32. Large hyacinth-vase, in three sections, 
one of a pair, painted in blue with 
manganese-purple irck. The form of 
the top is based on that of the royal 
crown of Great Britain and Ireland. 
Round the lower part, the monogram 
WMR (of King William III and Queen 
Mary) alternates with the motto of the 
princes of Orange (JE MAINTIEN- 
DRAY). Above these are the emblems 
of England {the rose), France (the 
fleur-de-lys), Scotland (the thistle) 
and Ireland (the harp), all repeated. 
Mark, AK in monogram. Made at 
Delft between 1689 and 1694 for the 
decoration of Hampton Court Palace, 
where the pair of vases is still pre- 
served. H. 3 ft. 3^ ins. (1.002 m.). 
(See page 71.) 

Uam/pton Court Palace. Copyright of His Majesty 
the King. 



-/j- 



A. 



PLATE XXII. 



Fig. 33. Large tile, blue-and-white, a landscape 
with figures, a bridge and distant 
buildings. Signed F. V. Frijiotn, 
Delft; second half of seventeenth 
century. 2 ft. o^ ins. by 3 ft. 4^ ins. 
(62 by 103 cm.). (See page 72.) 
Nederlandsch Museum voor Gesckiedenis en Kunst 
(Rijksmuseum), No. 213. 

f.V.FRVTOn 



F'g- 34- Tile, blue-and-white, with a view of 
the Fish-market and Meat-market at 
Delft, with the Old Church in the 
background. From an engraving by 
C. Decker in Beschrijvinge der stadt 
Delft, by Dirck van Bleyswijck, 1st 
edition, 1667. The buildings depicted 
remain at the present time practically 
unaltered, apart from restoration 
and details. Unmarked. Delft; 
second half of seventeenth century. 
9|- ins. by 13J ins. (24.4 by 33.9 cm.). 
(See page 72.) 

British Museum, London. 




Z EE-VI ^Oll-n ARCKT 

VLEE J — JHAI^ 







PLATE XXIII. 



F'g- 35- Plaque, blue-and-white; a sea-fight, 
apparently the defeat of the French by 
the Dutch and English fleets off La 
Hogue in 1692. Signed (on a sub- 
merged sail) apparently Rejncr ; on 
a plank to the right is also the name 
7. AJtiibon (?). Delft; end of seven- 
teenth century. W. 11^ ins. (28 cm.). 
(See page 72.) 

Mtisie C&amique, Sevres, No. 1293. 



Fig. 36. Plaque, blue-and-white; Dutch and 
Chinese sailing vessels off the coast of 
China, with a fortress. Signed on the 
back "-Sjfi Reinier." Delft; end of 
seventeenth century. W. 11 J ins. 
(28 cm.). (See page 72.) 

Musee Ceraviique, Sevres, No. 1292. 






PLATE XXIV. 



Fig. 37. Plate, blue-and-white, painted 
Dutch landscape. 



Fig. 38. Plate, blue-and-white, painted with an 
Italian landscape. Both unmarked. 
Ascribed to Frederik van Frijtom. 
Delft; second half of seventeenth 
century. D. 10 ins. (25.5 cm.). (See 
page 72.) 

Musees du Cmqimntenaire, Brussels 
Collection). 



PLATE XXV. 



Fig. 39. Octagonal Jug with silver lid; painted 
on a bluish white enamel in blue out- 
lined in black trek with figures and 
plants in the Chinese style. Un- 
marked. Delft, probably made in 
the Hoppesteyn factory; second half 
of seventeenth century. H. 8 ins. 
(20. 5 cm.). (See page 75.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Oeschiedevis 
{Rijh^museum), Amsterdam^ No. 243. 



Fig. 40. Vase, painted in blue outlined in black 
frek with floral sprays showing 
Chinese influence. Marked RHS. 
Delft, factory of Rochus Hoppesteyn ; 
second half of seventeenth century. 
H. 8 ins. (20.5 cm.). (See page 73.) 
Nederlandsch Museum voor Qeschiedenis 
{Rijksmu^eum), Amsterdam, No. 241. 



n 



PLATE XXVI. 



Fig. 41. Wig-stand painted in blue heavily 
outlined in deep manganese-purple 
with Chinese figures, in the style of 
porcelain of the late Ming dynasty. 
Mark, SVE in monogram. Delft, 
made by Samuel van Eenhoorn; 
second half of seventeenth century. 
H. 7-J ins. (i8.i cm.). (See page 75.) 

Victoria and Albert Mu,'ietmt. London, No. C. 061- 
1909 {Fitzhenry Gift). 



Mf 



PLATE XXVII. 



Fig. 42. Large Vase and Cover painted in 
blue outlined in manganese-purple 
with groups of Chinese figures in a 
landscape and floral borders. Mark, 
SVE in monogram. Delft, made by 
Samuel van Eenhoorn; second half of 
seventeenth century. H. 2 ft. 9^ ins. 
(86 cm.). (See page 75.) 

Danske KuTistiTidvsirimuseum, Copenhagen. 



^E 



PLATE XXVIII. 



Fig. 43. Pair of gourd-shaped bottles, painted 
in blue, outlined in dark blue trek, 
with naturalistic and formal flowers. 
Mark, AK in monogram. Delft, second 
half of seventeenth century. H. 12 ^ 
ins. (31 cm.). (See page 69.) 

Victoria and Albert Mitseum, London, 
2369, 2370-1910 (Salting Collection). 






Fig. 44. Dish painted in blue, outlined in dark 
blue trek, with scattered flowers. 
Mark, LVE or LF in monogram. 
Delft, made by Lambertus van Een- 
hoorn or Louwijs Fictoor; late seven- 
teenth or early eighteenth century. 
D. 19J ins. (49.5 cm.). (See pages 

79' 93-) 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 
647-1921. 



\£ 



PLATE XXIX. 



Fig- 45- J"gi painted in blue with a music- 
party in an interior and guests 
arriving; on the neck, a lady and 
gentleman walking in a landscape. 
Mark, R. Delft, made at the factory 
at the sign of the " Rose " {de Rons): 
second quarter of eighteenth century. 
H. 9 ins. (22.9 cm.). (See page 87.) 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London, No. 100^ 
1853. 

R 



Fig. 46. Plate painted in bright blue, one of a 
set of twelve symbolising the signs of 
the Zodiac (Cancer). Signed on the 
back ./. Thornhill fecit. DelpJi Aug. 
171 1. Painted by Sir James Thorn- 
hill or from his design; subsequently 
in the possession of his daughter, 
Mrs. Hogarth, and in the collection of 
Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill, 
Middlesex. Delft; dated 1711. D. 8 
ins. (20.3 cm.). (See page 83.) 



British Mu.ieu 






PLATE XXX. 



Fig. 47. Dish, blue-and-white, with scenes 
from the life of Christ in medalHons 
reserved amongst foliated ornament 
with angels; the subject of the large 
central medallion, Christ before 
Caiaphas, is copied from a print by 
Hendrik Goltzius. Mark, IVH. Delft; 
dated 1729. D. 16 ins. (40.5 cm.). 
(See page 84.) 

NederlaTidsch Museum voor Geschiedcnis i 
{Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 270. 






Fig. 48. Dish, blue-and-white, with Dutch 
landscapes in panels reserved amongst 
floral scrollwork; the largest, a view 
of Twisk near Enkhuizen, is copied 
from an engraving of 1726. Signed 
1742, M. V. Kuijk, Delft, painted 
by Michiel van Kuijk and dated 1742. 
D. 14 ins. (35.6 cm.). (See page 85.) 

Tenbosch Colhction, Liverpool. 



PLATE XXXI 



Fig. 49. Kettle and brazier, blue-and-white, 
with Chinese design of birds and 
flowers in a garden. Unmarked. 
Delft; dated 1744. H. 11 J ins. 
(29 cm.). (See page 84.) 

NederlaTidsch Museum voor Geschiedenis ell Kunst 
{Eijksmu^eum), Amsterdam, No. 275. 



Fig. SO- Dish, blue-and-white, with Chinese 
floral subjects in panels reserved 
amongst leafy scrollwork with 
amorini. Unmarked. Delft; first 
half of eighteenth century. D. isf 
ins. (39 cm.). (See page 85.) 

Tenhosck Collection, Liverpool. 



PLATE XXXII. 



Fig. 51, a and b. Violin painted in blue on one 
side with a ballroom scene, on the other 
with peasants dancing outside a 
tavern (the upper part of the neck 
restored). Unmarked. Delft; second 
quarter of eighteenth century. H. 25 
ins. (63 cm.). (See page d>y.) 

ycdcrlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kmist 
{Rijks7nuseuin), Amsterdam, No. 299 (Loudon 
Collection). 



PLATE XXXIII. 



Fig. 52. Teapot, reeded, with Chinese plants 
and borders in blue, red, pale green 
and manganese-purple of the grand 
feu, on white ground. Unmarked. 
Delft, style of the factories of Lam- 
bertus van Eenhoorn and Louwijs 
Fictoor; first quarter of eighteenth 
century. H. 4I ins. (12 cm.). (See 
page 93.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Qeschiedenis en Kunst 
{Rijksmuseuvi), Amsterdam, No. 325 {Loudon 
Collection). 



Fig- 53. Dish, reeded, painted in blue, red, 
yellow and green of the grand feu on 
a white ground with a design of 
flowers in panels adapted from 
Japanese (Imari) porcelain, the so- 
called "lightning" {bllksem) pattern. 
Mark, WK. Delft; first half of 
eighteenth century. W. 13I ins. 
(34.5 cm.). (See page q8.) 

Victoria and Albert Museum {formerly in 
Miiseum of Practical Geology), London, 
4739-1901. 



J 



a Mo _ S o " -g t; — 



> o. c s ^ ■" ^ So ■?£ ii ~ S 
tc '^ra J-S „ E? g g c „ ^-s 

cn£!>,o,>j3S-'.t:^o<D>a 



^^ 



PLATE XXXV. 



Fig. 55. Jug with metal lid, decorated with 
finely painted flowers of pseudo- 
Oriental character in red, blue, green 
and touches of manganese-purple of 
the uriiml feu on a white ground. 
Marked, GH. Delft; about 1700. 
H. 9| ins. {25 cm.). (See page 98.) 
Sederlandsch Mvseum voor Geschialenis 
{Rijksmuseum), Aimltrdum, No. 341. 



V 



Fig. 56. Coffee-pot, reeded, with Chinese floral 
design in blue, red, pale green, man- 
ganese-purple and yellow of the 
f/miid felt on a white ground. Mark, 
LF in monogram above 3 and FDK. 
Delft, made by Louwijs Fictoor, pro- 
prietor of the "Double Bottle" 
{Dubbehle Schi^nkktitt) factory; first 
quarter of eighteenth century. H. 10 
ins. (25.5 cm.). (See page 93.) 

Xedeilaiidsch Mii--euiii rnnr Gescltiedeni/i etl Kunst 
(liijk-.'il.nixemii). Jm.ilfrdlim. Nn. .327 (Lnudun 
Co/lec/imi). 



/««< 



PLATE XXXVI. 



F'g- 57- Vase, ribbed, painted with floral 
ornament of Near Eastern character 
in blue, red, green, yellow and man- 
ganese-purple of the grand feu on a 
white ground. Mark, Roos. Delft, 
made at the ' ' Rose ' ' factory ; about 
1700. H. 8| ins. (22.5 cm.). (See 
page 97.) 

Nederlavdsch Museum voor Geschiedenis t 
(Rijksmuseuyn), Amsterdam^ No. 335. 



?\ ooj 



r;p:g"'~*if - -3s»'-Ts*- 




PLATE XXXVII. 



Fig. 58. Set of three vases and two beakers, 
with Chinese floral ornament in red, 
blue, green and manganese-purple of 
the grand feu on a white ground. 
Mark, Moos Delft, made at the 
" Rose " factory; early eighteenth 
century. Height of the largest vase, 
154 ins. (39.5 cm.). (See page 97.) 

Vicloria and Albei-t Museum., London, Nos. C. 247 
to 251-1914. 



P..? 



PLATE XXXVIII. 



Fig. 59. Dish, painted in blue, red,, green, 
manganese-purple, yellow and black 
of the grand feu on a white ground 
with Chinese animals and birds in 
landscapes between floral borders; 
the design adapted from famiUe verte 
porcelain of the reign of K'ang Hsi. 
Unmarked. Delft, probably made at 
the " Rose " factory; about 1700 or 
early eighteenth century (restored). 
D. isl ins. (40 cm.). (See page 97. )_ 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Oeschiedenis en Kunst 
(iJyfcsmiMCMm), Amsterdam, No. 337 (Lovdon 
Collection). 



Fig. 60. Dish painted in red, blue and 
yellowish green of the grand feu with 
scattered flowers and panelled border. 
Unmarked. Delft, perhaps made by 
Louwijs Fictoor or Lambertus van 
Eenhoorn; first quarter of eighteenth 
century. D. 18 ins. (45.5 cm.). (See 
page 93.) 

Michel van Oelder Collection, Uccle, near 



PLATE XXXIX. 



Fig. 6i. Wall-plaque, one of a pair painted in 
blue, red, green, manganese-purple 
and yellow of the grand feit on a 
white ground with Chinese flowering 
plants and birds within a border 
of floral ornament with reserved 
medallions. Mark, IVK. Delft; 
dated 7 Juni 1739. H. 14! ins. 
(37.5 cm.). (See page 93.) 

Nederland^ch Museum voor Gesckiedenis en Kum 
(Rijkstmiseum), Amsterdam, No. 32S (Loudo 
Colleclinn). 



■7 lUNI 



Fig. 62. Plate painted in colours of the grand 
feu on a white ground. In the middle, 
a group of Chinese crossing a bridge, 
in blue, with touches of red, bright 
yellow and green; on the rim, leaf- 
shaped panels with floral sprays in 
dark blue, red and manganese-purple 
on a yellow ground, separated by red 
diaper pattern. Unmarked. Delft; 
first quarter of eighteenth century. 
D. 10 ins. (25.5 cm.). (See page 98.) 
Michel van QeUer CoUection, Uccle, near 



Fig. 63. Tile with a group of peasants in a 
hilly landscape, painted in grey and 
blue of various tones, pinkish buff, 
brown, yellow and green of the jrranrf 
feu. Ascribed to Gijsbert Verhaast. 
Delft; late seventeenth century. 9 
ins. by 8; ins. (23 by 22 cm.). (Wee 
page 98.) 

MuKi Cemiiiiquc, Sivies, A'o. 137li. 



PLATE XLII, 



Fig. 65. Teapot, painted with floral ornament 
in red, orange and greyish green of 
the (jiaml feu in wliite reserves on a 
black ground. Mark, APK in mono- 
gram. Delft, made by Adriaen 
Pijnacker; first half of eighteenth 
century. H. 5J ins. (13 cm.). (See 
page 103.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschi&denis en Kunst 
{Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 346 {Loudon 
Collection). 



n. 



Fig. 66. Three octagonal vases, probably from 
a set of five or seven, reeded and 
painted with stylised floral designs in 
red, orange and greyish green of the 
iimiid feu in white reserves on a black 
ground. Mark, APK in monogram 
and No. 8. Delft, factory of Adriaen 
Pijnacker; first half of eighteenth 
century. Height of largest vase Sf ins. 
(22 cm,). {Sec page 103.) 

^'/iihipatiiiiv Colleciu 






PLATE XLIII. 



Fig. 67. Wall-plaque covered with a black 
enamel and painted with flowers and a 
bird in blue, red, yellow, green and 
white of the grand feu. Unmarked. 
Delft ; about 1700. H. 10 ins. (25.4 
cm.). (See page 103.) 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London, No. 129- 
1SS7. 



PLATE XLIV. 



Fig. 68. Tea-caddy covered with a black 
enamel and painted over it with 
Chinese landscapes in yellow and 
green. Mark, LF or LVE in mono- 
gram. Delft, factory of Louwijs Fic- 
toor or Lambertus van Eenhoorn ; 
about 1700. H. 3J ins. (9.9 cm.). 
(See page 103.) 

Victoria and Albert Mii^eum^ London, No. C. 2346- 
1910 (Salting Collection). 



\P 



Fig. 69. Plate covered with a black enamel 
and painted over it in yellow and 
green with a Chinese landscape. Un- 
marked. Delft, about 1700. 8J ins. 
(22.6 cm.). (See page 103.) 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. No. 126- 
1SS7. 



PLATE XLV, 



Fig. 70. Jug with silver cover, covered with a 
mazarine-blue enamel and painted 
over it in yellowish green with flowers 
of Chinese style. Unmarked. Delft, 
made in imitation of Nevers faience; 
eighteenth century. H. 8J ins. (22.5 
cm.). (See page 104.) 

Qemeentemnseum, The Hagit£, 



Fig. 71. Pair of Vases covered with a turquoise- 
blue enamel and painted over it with 
stylised flowers in yellow, green, 
reddish brown and white of the grmid 
feu. Mark, D. Delft ; eighteenth 
century. H. 10 ins. (25.5 cm.). (See 
page 104.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
[Rijksmttsemn), Awstcrdam. No. 354 [Lotidnn 
Collection). 



PLATE XLVI. 



Fig. 72. Dish painted in red, blue, green, 
yellow and manganese-purple of the 
grand feu. on a white ground with 
birds and a flowering tree, showing 
Chinese influence. Unmarked. Delft; 
eighteenth century. D. 13^ ins. 
(34.5 cm.). (.See page 108.) 

Nederlandsch Museuvi voar Geschiedeiii.^ en KunU 
{Rijksmu^eum), Amsterdam, No. 384 {Loudon 
Collection). 



Fig. 73. Wall-plaque painted in blue, green, 
yellow, pink, manganese-purple and 
black of the (/rand feu on a white 
ground with two Chinese ladies. Un- 
marked. Delft; eighteenth century. 
H. io| ins. (27 cm.). (See page 109.) 
Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis 1 
[Bijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 429. 



PLATE XLVII. 



Fig. 74. Shallow bowl painted in imitation of 
famille verte Chinese porcelain of the 
reign of K'ang Hsi with a group of 
ladies by a flowering tree, in grand 
feu colours on a white ground (washes 
of blue, green, yellow and pale man- 
ganese-purple outlined in red); dark 
manganese-purple is used to render 
the hair of the ladies. Unmarked. 
Delft; eighteenth century. D. isl 
ins. (40 cm.). (See page 108.) 

Victoria and Albert Museum, Lnndon, No. 150- 
1887. 



PLATE XLVIII. 



Fig. 7S. Dish painted in colours of the rjranil 
feu on a white ground; in the middle, 
a pastoral scene in blue alone, on the 
rim a floral pattern of Chinese 
character in red, manganese-purple, 
yellow, green and blue in reserve on 
a black ground. Unmarked. Delft; 
eighteenth century. D. 133 ins. 
(34.2 cm.). (See page 107.) 

Clainpayiain Colleclion, Lille. 



Fig. 76. Dish painted in colours of the i/rand 
feu on a white ground with a vase of 
fiowers supported on a bracket of 
Louis XIV style and with a border of 
diaper ornament, amongst which are 
reserved medallions with lotus-flowers; 
the painting is chiefly in blue, with 
details in brownish red, green, yellow 
and manganese-purple. Unmarked. 
Delft; eighteenth century. D. 13^ 
ins. {34.S cm.). (See page 108.) 

Nederlanisch Museum voor Oeschiedenis en Kunst 
{Rijksmuseum), AmMerdam, No. 3SS (Lmidon 
Collection). 







Tf> VSV'^ 




PLATE XLIX. 



Fig. 77. Figure of a bagpipe-player sitting on a 
barrel, painted in green, reddish brown, 
liver-colour, yellow, black and blue 
of the gra7id feu on a white ground. 
Mark, an axe. Delft, factory of 
the "porcelain axe" (de Porcdeijne 
Bijl); eighteenth century. H. 10 J 
ins. (26.8 cm.). (See page iii.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Oeschiedenis en Kunst 
{Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 457 {Loudon 
Collection). 



y^ 



Figure of a horse jumping, one of a 
pair, painted in yellow, reddish brown, 
manganese-purple, blue and green of 
the cjrand feu on a white ground. 
Unmarked. Delft; eighteenth cen- 
tury. H. 9|- ins. (24.5 cm.). (See 
page III.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Oeschiedenis en Kunst 
{Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 461 (Loudon 
Collection). 



Fig. 79. Pair of slippers, painted with floral 
sprays in light red and blue of the 
grand fen on a white ground, in 
imitation of the rouille et bleu of 
Rouen. Unmarked. Delft, about 
1700. L. 9 ins. (23 cm.). (See 
page 104.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
{Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 359 {Loudon 
Collection). 



Fig. So. Figure of a cow, painted in blue, 
green, yellow, red and manganese- 
purple of the (jrand feu, the enamel 
bluish white. Unmarked. Delft; 
eighteenth century. H. 6 ins. (15 cm.). 
(See page iii.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
{Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, Nn. 462. 



Fig. 81. Figure of a parrot perched on a ring, 
painted in blue, olive-green, yellow 
and manganese-purple of the r/ruiid 
few. Unmarked. Delft; eighteenth 
century. H. 12 ins. (30.6 cm.). 
(See page iii.) 

Clainpanain CoUectio 



Fig. 82. Dish painted with floral ornament 
surrounding a rosette, showing only 
sUght Chinese influence, in blue, red, 
green, yellow and manganese-purple 
of the grand feu on a white ground. 
Unmarked. Delft; eighteenth cen- 
tury. D. 13I ins. (35 cm.). (See 
page 109.) 
Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
(Rijksmuseuvi), Amsterdam, No. 397. 



PLATE LII. 



Fig. 83. Dish with floral design in blue, red, 
green, yellow and manganese-purple 
of the grand feu on a white ground. 
Unmarked. Delft; eighteenth cen- 
tury. D. 13J ins. (33.5 cm.). (See 
page 109.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis 
(Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 409. 



Fig. 84. Bowl painted in -blue, yellow and 
greyish green of the yrund feu on a 
white ground with flowers and birds 
and the following inscription: Anno 
1697 den 20 September is de vreede 
gesloten met Hollant spanjen e'ltgelant 
en munorijk. Unmarked. Delft, 
made to commemorate the peace of 
Ryswick, 1697. D. 12^ ins. (30.7 cm.). 
(See page 99.) 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London, j 
1905. 



PLATE LIII. 



Fig. 85, a and b. Pair of oval plaques painted in 
soft colours, of the grand feu on a 
white ground (red, blue, yellow, green, 
manganese-purple and black). On 
each, within a polychrome Louis 
XIV framework, a figure of a drinker 
in purple; one of them holds a scroll 
inscribed G. Snchtleercii (probably 
the name of the engraver of the 
print that served as a copy). Un- 
marked. Delft; eighteenth century. 
H. 8f ins. (22 cm.). (See page 109.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Qcschiedenis en KuTist 
{Bijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 427 {Loudon 
Collection). 



Fig. 86. Tile painted in brownish red, blue, 
yellow and green of the grand feu on 
a white ground with the arms 
of Orange. Marked P. Vizeer. Delft, 
dated 1765. H. sj ins. (13.5 cm.). 
(See page no.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
(Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 440 {Lotidon 
Collection). 



CT) C^-i/UiS^ 



Fig. 87. Money-box in three sections painted 
with Chinese flowers and European 
ornamental motives, in blue, touches 
of brownish red, yellow, green and 
black of the grand feu on a cream- 
coloured ground. Unmarked. Delft; 
eighteenth century. H. 11 J ins. 
(30 era.). (See page no.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Eunst 
(Eijksjnuseum), Amsterdam, No. 446 (Loudon 
Collection). 



Fig. 88. Puzzle - jug painted with Chinese 
flowers in Ught brownish red, blue, 
yellow, green, manganese-purple and 
touches of black of the grand feu on 
a white ground. Unmarked. Delft; 
dated on the openwork neck 1758. 
H. 8f ins. {22 cm.). (See page 110.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
{Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 443 {Loudon 
Collection). 



Fig. 89. Tray painted with a vase of flowers in 
blue, red, yellow, orange, olive-green 
and pale manganese-purple. Un- 
marked. Delft; eighteenth century. 
W. II ins. (27.9 cm.). (See page no.) 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London, No. 146- 
1S87. 



PLATE LVI 



Fig. 90. Tile - picture comprising 78 tiles 
painted in blue, red, yellow, green, 
manganese-purple and black of the 
grand feu on a white ground; a 
Chinese landscape with figures, 
amongst them negroes rendered in a 
fine black pigment ; probably based 
upon a woodcut original. Unmarked. 
Delft; eighteenth century. H. 5 ft. 
6| in. (1.69 m.). (See page iii.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kmist 
{Rijksmusetim), Amsterdam, No. 476 {Lovdon 
Collection). 




i M, Ai .--I 




■■' 'l^M^^' 




I H: V" ^ 



-si 







P.J -?^'^^^ y-"^*'"^'^'^ ^^ 




PLATE LVII. 

Fig- 91- Js-r painted on a bluish white ground 
in colours of the grand feu and muffle- 
kiln combined (blue, red, olive-green 
and black outlined in black trek; with 
the addition of gilding of fine quality); 
decorated with small groups of Chinese 
figures. Mark, RHS. Delft, factory 
of Rochus Hoppesteyn; end of 
seventeenth century. H. 8 ins. 
(20.5 cm.). (See page 115.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis 
{RijksmiLseum), Amsterdam, No. 478. 



M 



Fig. 92. Jar with cover painted with Chinese 
figures and formal borders on a white 
ground in colours of the grand feu 
and muffle-kiln (blue, red, black and 
gold). Mark, RHS. Delft, factory of 
Rochus Hoppesteyn; end of seven- 
teenth century. H. 20! ins. (52 cm.). 
(See page 115.) 

Schlossmuseum, Berlin, No. 09,20. 



PLATE LVIII. 



Fig- 93- Jug painted with Chinese figures on a 
white ground in colours of the grand 
feu and muffle-kiln (blue, brownish 
red, olive-green, black and gold, with 
black trek). Mark, RHS and a negro's 
head. Delft, factory of Rochus 
Hoppesteyn at the sign of the * ' Moor 's 
Head " {hei Moriaanslioojt); end of 
the seventeenth century. H. lo ins. 
{25 cm.). {See page 116.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Gesckiedenis en Kunst 
(Rijlcsmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 479 {Loudon 
Collection). 



r 



Fig. 94. Jar painted on a white ground with 
a figure-subject in blue, forming a 
continuous frieze round the middle, 
perhaps depicting incidents from the 
life of Apollonius of Tyana. Above 
and below is scrollwork painted 
partly in grand feUy partly in muffle- 
kiln, colours (manganese-purple, 
olive-green, blue and reddish brown, 
outlined in black trek, with gilding). 
Unmarked (the companion vases, 
similarly decorated, with the Labours 
of Hercules, are marked with the 
monogram IW). Delft, probably 
made at the factory of Rochus 
Hoppesteyn; about 1700. H. lojins. 
(27.3 cm.). (See page 116.) 

Musees du Cinguantenaire, Brussels {Evenepoel 

Collection). 



Fig* 95) ^ ^"^ ^- Ewer with basin, reeded and 
painted with a design influenced by 
Japanese (Imari) porcelain, in grand feu 
and muffle-kiln colours (red, blue and 
gold) on a white ground. Mark, APK in 
monogram. Delft, factory of Adriaen 
Pijnacker; about 1700 or first half of 
eighteenth century. Ewer, H. loh ins. 
{26.5 cm.); basin, W. 16 ins. (40.5 
cm.). {See page 118.) 

Nederlandsch Museum vooi' Qeschiedenis en Kutist 
{Rijksnmseum), Amsterdam^ No. 485 (Loudon 
Cnllection). 






Fig. 96. Dish painted with a floral design in 
imitation of Japanese (Imari) porce- 
lain, in grand feu and muffie-kiln 
colours (red, blue, green and gold) on 
a white ground. Mark, APK in 
monogram. Delft, factory of Adriaen 
Pijnacker; first half of eighteenth 
century. D. 15I ins. (39.5 cm.). (See 
page 118.) 

Nederlandsck Museum voor Qeschiedenis en Kunst 
{Rijksmuseu7n), Amsterdam, No. 492 [Lo^idon 
Collection). 



h- 



PLATE LXII. 



Fig. 97. Plate painted in grand feu and muffle- 
kiln colours (blue, red and gold, with 
touches of turquoise-blue, grey and 
green) on a white ground, with 
the royal arms of England as borne 
from 1714 to 1800. Mark, APK 
in monogram. Delft, factory of 
Adriaen Pijnacker; eighteenth cen- 
tury. D. 8i ins. (21.5 cm.). (See 
page 119.) 

Musee des Arts Decnralifs, Paris (Doislau 

Collection). 



^ 



Fig. 98- Plate painted in (j rami feu and muffle- 
kiln colours (blue, red, black, gold and 
touches of green) on a white ground, 
with the arms of Louis Alexandre de 
Bourbon, comte de Toulouse, as 
Admiral of France (1683-1737). Mark, 
APK in monogram. Delft, factory 
of Adriaen Pijnacker; middle of 
eighteenth century. D. 8^ ins. 
(21.5 cm.). (See page iig.) 

Olfiiupmuiin Collection, Lille. 



M. 



Fig. 99. Plate painted in graml feu and muffle- 
kiln colours (blue, red, green, purple, 
black and gold) on a white ground, with 
the arms of Frederick the Great, King 
of Prussia, 1740-1786, surmounted 
by a border with the eagles of Prussia 
and Brandenburg alternately; floral 
sprays on the back. Mark, APK in 
monogram. Delft, factory of Adriaen 
Pijnacker; middle of eighteenth 
century. D. izjj ins. (31.6 cm.). 
(See page 119.) 

QemeentemiiseitTn, The Hague, No. 345. 






PLATE LXIII. 



Fig. 100. Jug, with pewter-mounted lid, reeded 
and painted in imitation of Japanese 
(Imari) porcelain in muffle-kiln 
colours (red, blue, green, black and 
gold) on a white ground. Mark, 
APK in monogram. Delft, factory 
of Adriaen Pijnacker; middle of 
eighteenth century. H. 8 J ins. 
(21 cm.). (See page iig.) 

GemeeTitemuseum, The Hagu€, 



^ 



Fig. loi. Cruet-stand with bottles lettered O 
(OUe) and A {Azijn), for oil and 
vinegar, painted in imitation of 
Japanese (Imari) porcelain with 
figures and flowers in grand feu and 
muffle-kiln colours (red, blue, green, 
black and gold) on a white ground. 
Mark, APK in monogram. Delft, 
factory of Adriaen Pijnacker; first 
half of eighteenth century. H. 6.} 
ins. (17 cm.). (See page 118.) 

Nederlandsch Museum mor Oeschiedenis en Kunst 
(Bijksmuseum), Ainaterdam, No. 495 (London 
Collection). 



Ac 



PLATE LXIV. 



Fig. 102. Dish painted in 3ran<i/e« and muffle- 
kiln colours (red, blue, green, yellow, 
black, pink, lilac, grey and gold) on 
a white ground, with the subject of 
Europa and the Bull, after a print by 
Hendrik Goltzius, within an orna- 
mental border. Mark, APK in 
monogram. Delft, factory of Adriaen 
Pijnacker; middle of eighteenth 
century. D. 15J ins. (40 cm.). 
(See page 119.) 

Nederlandsch Museum, voor Qsschiedenis en Kunst 
{Bijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 501 [Loudon 
Collection). 



Fig. 103. Dish painted in yrflH(//ttt and muffle- 
kiln colours (red, purple, green, 
yellow, greyish blue and gold) on 
a white ground with a m.usic-party ; 
floral border. Unmarked. Delft; 
middle of eighteenth century. D. 153 
ins. (39 cm.). (See page 124.) 

Musie des Arts Decoratifs, Paris [Doislau 
Collection). 



PLATE LXV. 



Fig. 104. Dish, painted in the muffle-kiln 
colours (red, green, purplish blue, 
liver-colour, black and gold) on a 
white ground, with a Chinese lady 
on a horse accompanied by four 
attendants on foot; the design is 
borrowed from Chinese porcelain of 
the famille vcrle, but with alteration 
of the colours. Mark, AR. Delft; 
middle of eighteenth century. D. 11 J 
ins. (30 cm.). (See page 124.) 

Nederlaiuisck Museum voor Gesckicdenis en Kunst 
{Sijksmuseum), Am^terdavif No. 522 {Loudon 
Collection). 



Fig. 105. Dish painted in colours of the mufHe- 
kiln (pinkish red, green, bluish green, 
yellow, brown, pale purplish blue, 
black and gold) on a white ground, 
with floral sprays, birds and in the 
background two figures ; an imitation 
of Chinese porcelain of the famille 
rose. Unmarked. Delft; middle of 
eighteenth century. D. 13J ins. 
(35 cm.). (See page 124.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
(Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No. 526 (Loudon 
Collection). 



PLATE LXVI. 



Fig. io6. Miniature set of three vases and two 
beakers painted in grand feu and 
muffle-kiln colours (blue, red, green, 
purple and gold) on a bluish white 
ground, with floral decoration in the 
Japanese style. Unmarked. Delft; 
middle of eighteenth century. Height, 
vases, 9^ ins. (24 cm.), beakers, 8 ins. 
{20.5 cm.). (See page 120.) 
Nederlandsch Mitseum voor Geschiedenis en Kunsi 
{Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam, No., 517 {Loudon 
Collection). 



Fig. 107. Tea-tray painted in muffle-kiln 
colours (green, red, purplish blue, 
yellow and gold) on a white ground, 
with figures in a garden in imitation 
of Chinese famille verte porcelain. 
Unmarked. Delft ; middle of 

eighteenth century. L. 16^ ins. 
(41 cm.). (See page 124.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunst 
{Rijksmnsenm), Amsterdam, No. 523 {Lomlon 
Collection). 



PLATE LXVII. 



Fig. io8. Four tiles painted in muffle-kiln 
colours {red, blue, green, yellow, 
black and gold) on a white ground; 
on each is a basket of flowers in a 
medallion with formal ornaments in 
the surrounding angles. Delft ; middle 
of eighteenth century. (See page 125.) 
Museum Lambert van Meerien^ Delft, No. A. 1194. 



Dish painted in muffle-kiln colours 
(red, pink, bluish lilac, yellow, green, 
gold and black) on a white ground, 
with a landscape in the manner of 
Meissen porcelain and a baroque 
border. Unmarked. Delft; middle 
of eighteenth century. L. I2| ins. 
(32.4 cm.). (See page 125.) 

Victtyria and Albert Museum, London, No. 1445- 

1S53. 



PLATE LXVIII. 



Fig. no. Wall-cistern and wash-basin painted 
in muffle-kiln colours (pinkish lilac, 
red, yellow, green, purplish blue, 
black and gold) on a white ground, 
with landscapes within scrollwork 
and floral borders. Unmarked. 
Delft; middle of eighteenth century. 
Cistern, H. 17^ ins. (43.5 cm.), 
basin, W. i5f ins. (39.5 cm.). (See 
page 125.) 

Nederlandsch Museum voor Geschiedenis en Kunsl 
(Rijksmuseum), Atnsierdam, No. 543 {Loudon 
Collection), 



PLATE LXIX. 



Fig. m. Teapot of reddish brown earthen- 
ware with applied sprays of flowers, 
made in imitation of Chinese red 
stoneware. Mark, an impressed 
stamp with a fox and the name ARY 
DE MILDE, Delft, factory of Ary 
de Milde ; second half of seventeenth 
century. H. 4J ins. (11. S cm.). 
(See page 129.) 

Nederlavd'Sch Museum voor Gesohiedenis en Kunst 
{Eijksmuseum), Avisterdam, No. 582. 



Fig. 112. Coffee-pot painted in muffle-kiln 
colours on a white ground. Border 
of scale-pattern in crimson; below, 
a group of fruit in red, blue, green, 
yellow and pink; the legs picked 
out in brick red. Mark, a cock in 
red. Arnhem; about 1760. H. isi 
ins. (34 cm.). (See page 58.) 

Clainpanain CoUectk 



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