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Old English Ballads 










Old English Ballads 


Chiefly from Manuscripts 







Printed in Great Britain 
ty Turnbull & Spears, Edinburgh 









CATHOLIC BALLADS (Nos. 10-25) . . .62 


MISCELLANEOUS BALLADS (Nos. 64-75) . . . 322 




GLOSSARIAL INDEX . . . . .411 


For permission to reprint the ballads and 
broadsides in this volume grateful acknowledg 
ment is made to the authorities of the Society 
of Antiquaries, London ; Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge ; the Pepysian Library, 
Magdalene College, Cambridge ; the Bodleian 
Library ; and the British Museum. Thanks 
are due also to my friend Dr Alwin Thaler 
for some help with the MS. and to Professor 
C. H. Firth for his kindness in reading the 
proof-sheets of the Introduction. 

H. E. R. 

May 1920 



THROUGHOUT the history of the black-letter ballad no 
subject has called forth so many rhymes as the struggle 
between Protestants and Catholics. One of the earliest 
broadside ballads extant deals with riots that grew out 
of the dissolution of the monasteries in Cornwall and 
Devon. This paean of rejoicing is, unhappily, preserved 
only in a fragment of four (or parts of four) stanzas, 1 
but is worth reprinting : 

There hartes ware so roted in the popes lawes 
They be gane the laste yere when they slew bodye 2 
All England reioysethe at ther ouer throwse 
For only the Lorde is oure Kynges victorye 

They had falce prophetes which brought thi[n]ges to passe 
Cleane contrary to ther owne expectation 
Ther hope was for helpe in ther popishe masse 
They wolde nedes haue hanged vp a reseruacion 
The vicare of pon wdstoke with his congeracio 
Commanded them to sticke to ther Idolatry 
They had muche proui[s]ion and great preperacion 
Yet God hath gyuen our Kynge the victorye 

They did robe and spoule al the Kynges frendes 
They called them heritekes with spight & disdayne 
They toffled a space lyke tirantes and F[e]indes 
They put some in preson & sume to greate payne 

1 This ballad, which I have never seen reprinted or alluded to, is 
preserved in the British Museum, press mark Cup. 651. e. 2. It is in 
Black Letter throughout. All the stanzas on the left side of the sheet 
have been torn off, though a few scattering letters remain. 

2 " William Body, gentleman, one on the King's side, was slain " in 
the Cornish Popish rebellion of April, 1548 (Strype, Ecclesiastical 
Memorials, 1822, II., ii., 143 ; cf. Froude's History of England, 1870, 
V., 97). I cannot identify the martyr William Hilling mentioned in the 
third stanza. 



And sume fled a waie or else they had bene slayne 
As was Wyllam hilling that marter truly 
Whiche they killed at sandford mowre in the playne 
Where yet god hath giuen oure Kynge the victory 

They Came to plumwo with the Kynges trusty towne . . . 

Ballads of this type were pleasing to Henry VIII. 
and his advisers. But the extraordinary popularity of 
ballads, and the no less extraordinary versatility of the 
ballad-writers, not infrequently resulted in songs to 
which the King bitterly objected and to suppress which 
he spared no pains. He was particularly displeased 
with the attacks made on Cardinal Wolsey and Lord 
Cromwell. He complained, also, in 1537, to James V. 
of Scotland, through the agency of Sir Thomas Wharton, 
Warden of the West Marches, of various ballads by 
Scotch subjects in which he himself, no less than the 
true Protestant religion, was satirized. James replied 
to Wharton that he had given " sharp charges to all 
parts of our borders " for the ballads to be thoroughly 
suppressed and for their authors to be sought out, but 
added that, because he personally had never before 
heard of such ballads, he suspected them to have been 
written " by some of your own nation." l Hardly a 
year later, Wharton informed Lord Cromwell that a 
ballad deriding the English for living in the false religion 
was circulating through Scotland ; and, subsequently, 
he reported that his " espial," Mungo Armstrong, had 
secured a copy of the ballad and believed it to have been 
written by the Scotch Bishops or else at their direction. 2 

Armstrong's suspicion was probably well-founded. 
Men of prominence and education throughout the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries used ballads to 
disseminate their views or to ridicule their opponents. 

1 Henry Ellis, Original Letters, 1st Series, II., 103 ; Maidment's 
Book of Scottish Pasquils, p. 418. 

2 Calendar of State Papers, Henry Fill., XIII., Pt. II., Nos. 1129, 


Cromwell himself had done so. John Foxe reckoned as 
one of Cromwell's chief services that by his " industry 
and ingenious labours, divers excellent ballads and books 
were contrived and set abroad, concerning the suppres 
sion of the pope and all popish idolatry " ; and printed, 
as a specimen, a ballad of fifty stanzas called " The 
Fantassie of Idolatrie." l This was the work of William 
Gray, a man of some ability, who wrote ballads at the 
dictation of high officials in the reigns of both 
Henry VIII. and Edward VI. His best-known work, 
however, was a non-political ballad, " The Hunt Is Up." 

But, as Gray found to his sorrow, there was no real 
liberty for the ballad-press. In 1540 he indulged in 
a ballad-flyting v/ith Thomas Smyth (Sir Thomas 
Smyth, Secretary of State ?) that originated in a libel 
against the deceased Lord Cromwell, but soon degener 
ated into personalities. 2 On December 30, 1540, the 
Privy Council sent letters to Banks and Grafton, whose 
names appeared on the colophons of the ballads, and to 
Gray, directing them to appear before the Council on 
the following Sunday. Gray and Smyth gave an 
unsatisfactory explanation of why they had written 
ballads against each other, and were instructed to 
appear for a re-examination at 7 a.m. on the following 
morning. Interrogated by the Council, Banks denied 
that he had printed any of the ballads, or " invectives," 
laying the " fault to Robert Redman deceased and 
Richard Grafton." The latter confessed to a share in 
the printing, and was sent to the Porter's ward. As a 
result of their further examination, Gray and Smyth 
were committed to the Fleet. 3 

An Act for the Advancement of True Religion and for 

1 Acts and Monuments, First Edition, p. 598. 

2 For the ballads see Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, XVI., 212 ; 
Hazlitt's Fugitive Tracts, ist Series, Nos. VI.-XIII. ; Kingdon's 
Incidents in the Lives ofPoyntz and Grafton, p. 84. 

3 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, XVI., No. 366 ; Acts of the Privy 
Council, ed. Nicolas, VII., 103, 105, 107. 



the Abolishment of the Contrary, of 1543, specifically 
named " printed ballads, rhymes and songs " among the 
instruments used by malicious persons to " subvert the 
very true and perfect exposition, doctrine, and declara 
tion " of the Scriptures, and provided that printers and 
sellers of such matter were, for a first offence, to be 
fined .10 and imprisoned three months, for a second 
offence to suffer confiscation of property and life im 
prisonment. 1 In April of this year eight London 
printers were brought before the Privy Council for 
violations of the statute. A fortnight later, five of them 
were released, on the condition that they would furnish 
a complete list of all books and ballads bought and sold 
by them within the past three years. On April 25 
twenty-five other booksellers were similarly bound. 2 
No better proof of the popularity of the ballad could 
be asked for. 

Though under Edward VI. the Statute of 1543 was 
repealed, 3 yet, as always, the Privy Council kept a 
watchful eye on the printing of ballads. Thus on 
June 7, 1552, William Marten was summoned to ex 
plain why he had printed a seditious ballad written by 
John Lawton. After the hearing, he was placed under 
bond of ;ioo to report to the Council daily until further 
orders, and instructed " in the meantime to bring in 
as many of the same ballates as he may come by." 4 
Controversial ballads (like those of the Churchyard- 
Camell flyting 5 ) abounded during Edward's reign ; 
and a number of anti-Catholic ballads have been 
preserved. 6 

1 Statutes of the Realm, III., 894. 

2 E. G. Duft's Century of the English Book Trade, pp. xxiv ff. 

3 Statutes of the Realm, IV., 19. 

4 Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, IV., 69. 

5 These are reprinted in H. L. Collmann's Ballads and Broadsides, 
Roxburghe Club, 1912. 

6 Percy's Reliques, ed. Wheatley, II., 125, 133 ; Collier's Old Ballads, 
from Early Printed Coties, 1 840, p. 9. 



No English sovereign has ascended to the throne 
among more sincere rejoicings than Mary I. General 
sympathy had been aroused by the unscrupulous methods 
the Duke of Northumberland had employed in dis 
puting both her legitimacy and her accession. What 
ever sympathy existed for Lady Jane Grey was thoroughly 
neutralized by the fear and hatred felt for the Duke. 
A striking description of this feeling is given in the first 
ballad in this volume. Ballad-writers, whatever may 
have been true of the country as a whole, had no fears 
that Mary would introduce changes in religion and 
state policy. Thus Richard Beard, in his " Godly 
Psalme of Marye Queene," l rejoiced at the thought 
that Mary would continue the work of true religion 
begun under Edward VI. : 

Yet are wee comforted agayne 

Lyft vp, and eke erect : 
By cause the Lord hathe placed thus 

His chosen and elect. 

Whiche beeing oure moast godly Queene 

That seekes our preseruasion : 
No doubt wil strongly buyld vpon 

Her brothers good fondacion. 

The ground worke hee hathe layde him selfe, 

And she is left a Ion, 
To buyld the house, and fortresse vp 

Of trew religion. 

Mary wag_fully aware of the powerful influence^ of 
>allads,_a_nd of all printed matter, in influencing public 
opinion. A bare month after she was proclaimed 
Queen six weeks before her coronation she issued a 
proclamation against the printing of " books-, ballads, 
rhymes, and interludes " without special licence. 2 There 
was a vital need for such legislation if the Queen was 
effectually to carry out her plans to crush heresy and 

1 Hazlitt, Fugitive Tracts, ist Series, No. 17. 

2 Arber's Transcript of the Registers of the Stationers' Company, V., xl. 



to restore the ancient faith. She had already reinstated 
the Catholic Bishops, had imprisoned Ridley, Coverdale, 
Hooper, Latimer, and Cranmer, and had issued orders 
that no one should presume to preach without special 
license from her. At the opening of Parliament, on 
October 5, Mass was celebrated before the two Houses. 
On October 10 some person addressed a ballad of warn 
ing to her. It begins, pleasantly enough, 

O louesomme Rosse most Redelente, 

but goes on to warn her against that " myserable mask- 
yng masse," and ends by comparing her to Jezebel. 1 

Ballads of every description now abounded, the work 
not only of professional ballad-mongers, but also of men 
of education and social standing. Priests, in particular, 
thought it no indignity to sign their names at the end 
of printed ballads. Two priests, William Forrest and 
L. Stopes, are represented by works in this volume 
(Nos. 2, 3). Mary found herself, like her predecessors 
and successors, unable to exercise complete control over 
ballad-printing. Along with Forrest's flattering ballad 
of " The Marigold " (No. 2) her people were reading 
and singing such pieces as John Bradford's " Tragical 
Blast of the Papistical Trumpet for Maintenance of the 
Pope's Kingdom in England," with its mocking refrain, 

Now all shaven crownes to the standerd 
Make roome, pul down for the Spaniard. 2 

It was all very well for the poet-dramatist John Hey- 
wood to pen " A Balade specifienge partly the maner, 
partly the matter, in the most excellent meetyng and 
lyke Manage betwene our Soveraigne Lord and our 
Soveraigne Lady " 3 ; but simultaneously books of 

1 Furnivall, Ballads from M55., I., 431. 

2 Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, 1822, III., ii., 339 ; Dyce's Skelton, 
L, cxvii. 

3 Harlelan Miscellany, 1813, X., 255. 



" very evil and lewd songs " against the Mass, the 
Church, and the Sovereigns themselves were being spread 
throughout the Kingdom. 1 Outrageous libels were 
printed and put into circulation. 

To crush these, an Act against Seditious Words and 
Rumours 2 was passed, which recites that " dyvers 
heynous, sedicious and sclanderous Writinges, Rimes, 
Ballades, Letters, Papers, and Bookes," tending to stir 
up discord, had been circulated. The statute provided 
that for such offences in the future, the guilty person 
should be placed in the pillory and have his ears cut off, 
or else pay a fine of 100. By a further provision, any 
person who after this proclamation should write a book, 
rhyme, or ballad against the King and Queen, or who 
ever should print it, was, if the offence were not already 
covered by a statute of treason, to have his right hand 
cut off. Queen Elizabeth later availed herself of this 
provision to gunish the printers of a libel against her 
suitor, the Duke of Anjou. 3 

Active steps to control ballads were taken. In 
March, 1554, Mary sent orders to the Bishop of London 
to be put into effect throughout his diocese. The sixth 
article required him to suppress " ballads and other 
pernicious and hurtful devices engendering hatred 
among the people and discord among the same." 4 In 
the visitation of London during 1554-55 Bishop Bonner 
(himself a severe sufferer from libelous ballads) directed 
that inquiry be made " whether there be any that hath 
printed or sold slanderous books, ballads or plays contrary 
to Christian religion : declaring and specifying their 
names, surnames, and dwelling-places " and " whether any 

1 Rye, Depositions before the Mayor and Aldermen of Norwich, p. 55 
(cited by C. H. Firth, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 3rd 
Series, III., 64). 

2 Statutes of the Realm, IV., 240. 

3 Stow's Annals, 1615, p. 695 (October, 1581). 

4 Frere and Kennedy, Visitation Articles and Injunctions of the Reforma 
tion, 1910, II., 326. 



teacher or schoolmaster do teach or read to their scholars ] 
any evil or naughty corrupt book, ballad or writing." 1 

Presumably, these measures proved fairly effective. 
Certainly few printed ballads of even remote political 
significance remain, though ballads of other types are 
preserved in comparatively large numbers. To be sure, 
John Heywood, an ardent and consistent Catholic (as 
his later life showed), wrote a number of political ballads, 
but he was of the ruling class. The printer of a ballad 
on Lord Wentworth, who surrendered Calais to the 
French, was heavily fined. 2 Henry Spooner, who in 
Edward's reign had lampooned Bonner, now perforce con 
tented himself with the safer subjects of love, satire, 
and morality. 3 Only Catholic poets had a free hand. 

The hope of the Catholic religion in England lay in 
the permanent exclusion of Elizabeth from the throne. 
Mary fervently hoped and prayed for an heir to whom 
she could pass on the succession and the true faith. 
The third ballad in this volume deals with that subject, 
giving an interesting contemporary account of the 
supposed pregnancy of the Queen and the rejoicing of 
the Catholics. But the Queen had mistaken her con 
dition, and, according to Froude, her disappointment 
led her to believe that she had forfeited Divine Favour 
because of her failure to root out heresy. The persecu 
tion of Protestants began with renewed vigour. 

No printed ballad contemporary with and describing 
the burning of the martyrs is known to exist. It is 
doubtful whether any could have been published, but 
that ballads on the martyrs circulated in manuscript is 
certain. Ballads connected with John Careless (No. 8), 
Robert Glover (No. 7), John Bradford, and Robert Smith 

1 Frere and Kennedy, Visitation Articles and Injunctions of the Reforma 
tion, 1910, II., 353, 356. 

2 Arber's Transcript, I., 101. The offending ballad is printed in 
H. L. Collmann's Ballads and Broadsides, 1912, p. 183. 

3 See Thomas Wright's Songs and Ballads Chiefly of the Reign of Philip 
and Mary, 1 860, passim. 



were well known to their contemporaries, and are pre 
served both in manuscripts and in printed copies of the 
subsequent reign. Long after the' Marian persecutions 
had ended, ballads on Anne Askew and the misfortunes 
of the Duchess of Suffolk were composed. 

When Mary died, an enthusiastic Catholic composed 
an epitaph (No. 5) in which her surpassing virtues 
are extolled to the skies her meekness, her mercy, 
her kindness ; and the printer was promptly sent 
"to ward." The evil that Queen Mary did has 
lived after her with a vengeance : the good qualities, 
which the ballad-poet saw, were interred with her 
bones. Perhaps Dickens was right when, through the 
mouth of John Grueby, he remarked, " She s done a 
eal more harm in her grave than she ever did in her 
lifetime. . . . One of these evenings, when the weather 
gets warmer and Protestants are thirsty, they 11 be 
pulling London down-and I never heard that Bloody 
Mary went as far as that." The Gordon riots, which 
Grueby predicted, are an example of a bigotry and 
cruelty rivalling that of the Catholic Queen 
sincerity and her faith have never been questioned. 

With the accession of Elizabeth, the picture changed. 
Now it was the Catholics who were martyred, only 
Protestants who could print ballads unmolested, 
of the Queen's first acts was to put into effect the statute 
of Seditious Words and Rumours " that Mary had 
promulgated. 1 At the same time, she gave strict 
orders that, " because many pamphlets, plays, and 
ballads be oftentimes printed, wherein regard would be 
had that nothing therein should be either heretical, 
seditious or unseemly for Christian ears," no work was 
to be printed until it had been licensed by three of the 
Commissioners for Causes Ecclesiastical^ Numerous 
sealchln were appointed tolceep watch on .he output 
of the printing presses. The Privy Council and the 

1 Journals of the House of Lords, I., 579- 

2 Arber's Transcript, I., xxxviii. 



Lord Mayors of London constantly kept themselves 
informed of the subjects of printed ballads. 1 

The position of Elizabeth's Catholic subjects was 
extremely difficult. The writer of the epitaph on Mary 
evidently felt no fear of Elizabeth, and indeed her 
earliest utterances seemed to indicate that the period 
of religious intolerance and persecution had ended. 
Such, however, was far from being the case. The 
rebellion of 1569, led by Catholic nobles, and the bull 
Pope Pius V. issued shortly thereafter, brought about 
distressing conditions. The bull itself declared' that 
never at any time had Elizabeth been the true Queen 
of England, absolved her subjects from their allegiance, 
and threatened with excommunication her adherents. 
John Felton, who had dared to nail the bull before the 
Bishop of London's palace, was promptly hanged, drawn, 
and quartered. His execution, like that of his pre 
decessor, the notorious Dr Story, formed the subject 
of many ballads, all bigoted and malicious to a degree. 
William Elderton, Stephen Peele, John Awdeley, and 
their crew of professional Smithfield bards, whatever 
their actual religious sentiments, gloated over the news- 
value of Tyburn executions, and indulged in never- 
failing adulation of the Queen who was responsible for 
them. Of the hundred ballads licensed at Stationers' 
Hall during the year 1569-70, fully three-fourths dealt 
with the Northern Rebellion, while nearly all of 
those registered in the following year were tirades 
against Dr Story, Felton, the Pope, or the Roman 

By a statute of 1571 it was made treason to call the 
Queen heretic, schismatic, or usurper, to introduce Papal 
bulls, and to send money or aid to fugitives across the 
seas. A rigid persecution of Catholics followed : the 
exercise of their religion, even in the privacy of their 

1 E.g. Journals of the House of Commons, I., 122, 125, 136; Stow's 
Survey of London, ed. Strype, II., v., 333 ; Acts of the Privy Council, ed. 
Dasent, XXXI., 226. 



homes, was forbidden ; private houses -were continually 
subjected to search, and their inmates carried before 
the Courts of High Commission, where fines and im 
prisonment were lavishly awarded. In 1581 a drastic 
Act to Retain the Queen's Majesty's Subjects in Their 
J^u&.JS'bedience was passed, which provided that any 
person who led another to accept the Roman religion 
should be treated as a traitor ; that saying Mass was to 
be punished by a fine of two hundred marks and a year's 
imprisonment, hearing it with a year's imprisonment 
and a fine of one hundred marks ; that absence from 
church should be punished by a fine of twenty pounds 
monthly, and, if long continued, sureties of four hundred 
pounds were to be required for good behaviour in the 
future. The victims of these laws have been duly 
chronicled by historians. It is especially noticeable 
that just after the defeat of the Armada a time when 
the Catholics of England had rallied loyally to the 
support of their ruler some thirty persons suffered by 
the cord and axe for religion. Other statutes followed 
in due succession, one of 1593 forbidding " Popish 
recusants " to travel more than five miles from their 
respective homes. 

It is appalling to see how frequently contemporary 
chroniclers record the execution of recusants bare, 
unrelieved, unexcused jottings, such as that on Feb 
ruary 27, 1602, " was hanged a Gentlewoman, called 
Mistris Anne Line, a widow, for relieving a priest con 
trary to the Statute," and that on February 18, 1594, 
at Tyburn a priest named Harrington was " cut down 
alive, struggled with the hangman, but was bowelled 
and quartered." Still it must be remembered that all 
criminal offences met with punishment equally severe. 
In 1586 George Whetstone remarked that "there are 
more executed from Newgate and the Marshalsies, than 
in three of the greatest Cities of Fraunce, and yet I 
truely say, that more offenders are fauourably quitted, 
and pardoned in London in one moneth, than in Paris 



in a whole yere, so exceeding great is the mercie of our] 
most good Queene Elizabeth" l A casual glance 
through the annals of Stow and Camden shows that 
" wenches burnt in Smithfield " for various crimes and 
men strangled on the gallows and then quartered or 
hanged in chains for murder, counterfeiting, arson, or 
theft, equal, perhaps surpass, the number of persons 
executed because of their religion. Furthermore,. 
Protestant nonconformists were at times in danger of 
the gallows or the stake. The city of Norwich, in 
particular, gained a special odour of sanctity by the 
zeal with which it hunted out and burned John Lewes 
(No. 9) and others who scorned the Established 
Church no less than the Church of Rome, holding beliefs 
that, in large measure, anticipated those of the present- 
day Unitarians. Atheists, too, were ruthlessly punished. 
Christopher Marlowe's views were hurrying him to the 
fire when a dagger, in a low tavern-broil, put him out 
of the reach of " justice." 

The number of Protestant martyrs during three 
years of Queen Mary's reign is estimated at almost 
three hundred. During the forty-five years of 
Elizabeth's reign " there were put to a most barbarous 
and shameful death for conscience' sajbe/^ _a Catholic 
scholar reminds us, " at least one hundred and twenty^- 
four Catholic priests and as many as fifty-seven laymen 
and women." 2 The author of " A Song of the Four 
Priests" (No. u) sorrowfully wrote of "two hundred 
priests, almost, in our time martered." If among these 
are included priests who, like Throgmorton and Babing- 
ton, certainly were not guiltless of treason, yet by far 
the majority were, like Campion (No. 10), Nutter, Hunt,. 
Middleton, and Thwing (No. n), undoubtedly martyrs 
to Elizabethan bigotry. A distinguished victim comes 
to mind at once : Robert Southwell, poet and priest,, 

1 The Enemy to Unthriftiness, 1586, sig. K 3 V . 

2 T. G. Law, editing Challoner's Martyrs to the Catholic Faith, 1878,, 
I., ix. 



ho was imprisoned for three years and tortured thirteen 
es before finding peace at the gallows. 

In " A Triumph for True Subjects " (No. 10) an 

phatic statement is made that religion had nothing, 
treason everything, to do with the death-sentence 
passed on Campion, Sherwin and Brian. The Govern 
ment naturally tried to give this impression in all its 
dealings with the Catholics ; and the Lord Treasurer, 
Cecil, has been credited with the authorship of a book 
called The Execution of Justice (1584), in which the 
distinction between treason and religion is stressed. 
Since, however, the Roman religion required a denial 
of the Queen's, and an affirmation of the Pope's, 
supremacy as head of the Church, and since the act of 
denying the Queen's supremacy was treason, it was 
an easy matter to prove even the most innocent Catholic 
a traitor. Dr (afterwards Cardinal) Allen wrote a 
Modest Answer to the English Persecutors, in which he 
purposed to demolish the arguments advanced in The 
Execution of Justice ; and for distributing copies of it 
in England, Thomas Alfield, a priest, and Thomas 
Webley, a dyer, were put to death (July, I584). 1 Their 
crime, too, was treason. 

Into a further account of the penal laws against 
Catholics it is not necessary to enter. To dismiss the 
unpleasant subject briefly, it may be said that James I. 
brought them no relief, among his earliest public acts 
being a proclamation warning Jesuits and Seminary 
priests to leave the Realm, A later proclamation to 
this same effect (1624) is celebrated in two ballads 
(Nos. 27, 28) in this volume. Naturally enough, the 
Gunpowder Plot (Nos. 70-72) led to redoubled efforts 
to crush the Roman Church. 

No person, whatever his religious beliefs, can deny 

that the barbarity with which Catholics were treated 

forms a very dark blot on " the spacious times of great 

Elizabeth " and on the reign of her successor. Excuses 

1 Challoner's Martyrs to the Catholic Faith, 1878, I., 1 12. 



for this barbarity are at the present time superfluous,^ 
though many some of them logical enough have 
been presented by the historians. It is a sufficient 
explanation to say that real religious tolerance was still 
unheard of, on the Continent as well as in England 
and, unhappily, intolerance is not the exclusive posses 
sion of any age or any religion. The very people (surely 
it is permissible for a ballad-editor to moralize !) who I 
to-day express the greatest horror at the religious || 
persecutions of " Bloody " Mary and Elizabeth, in times 
long past, are often quite unmoved when Christians in I 
Armenia are massacred on a scale never dreamed of by 
these Queens, or when in race riots, for the mere accident 
of colour, unoffending men and women are subjected 
to tortures that sometimes surpass those of the Tower 
and the Inquisition. Glover, Lewes, and Thewlis 
(Nos. 7, 9, 13) represent three phases of religious per 
secution, all to be deplored alike. 

As a result of censorship of the press, most extant 
ballads and poems give an altogether one-sided view 
of the years 1558-1625. Unless written as denuncia 
tions (like No. 10), ballads on Catholic martyrs had 
small chance of being printed, less chance still of being 
widely circulated, and almost no chance of being pre 
served. There are extant many Elizabethan and 
Jacobean ballads which treat of recusants from the point 
of view of Protestants. But ballads written by Catholics 
have been conspicuous by their absence and are unknown 
to historians. A partial exception to this statement is 
the group of poems printed secretly in a book called 
A true report of the martyrdom of M. Campion, Jesuit, 1 
a book burlesqued by Antony Munday with what 
Hallam called "a savageness and bigotry which I am 
sure no scribe of the Inquisition could have surpassed. 3 

It would, however, be a serious mistake to believe 

1 See the introduction to No. 10. Certain other poems connected, 
in one way or another, with Catholic martyrs are given in the Ballad 
Society's Ballads from MSS., II., xxiii., 191. 



that Catholic ballads did not exist. Valuable evidence 
to the contrary is furnished in the one place where it 
is least to be expected in the Registers of the Stationers' 
Company. Thus in the year 1565-66 it is recorded that 
Alexander Lacy licensed for publication a ballad called 
" a Replye agaynste that sedicious and papesticall 
wretten ballet late caste abrode in the stretes of the 
Cetie of London." What was evidently a similar work, 
" a Papisticall Byll, cast in the streetes of Northampton, 
and brought before the ludges at the last Syses, 1570," 
called forth an answer from T. Knell, which has sur 
vived in a single printed broadside. 1 On July 7, 1601, 
was licensed a book called A short poeme conteyning an 
answere to certen godles and seditious balledes spred abroad 
in Lancashire. Lancashire was the home of the Catholic 
ballads here printed from Addit. MS. 15,225, and it 
is probable that some of them, particularly the ballad 
on the four priests executed in 1600-1 (No. 11), were 
alluded to in the 1601 Short Poem. On May 22, 1602, 
Simon Stafford registered a book called an Answere to 
A popishe Ryme Lately prynted and intituled " A proper 
newe Ballad wherein are conteined Catholycke questions 
to the protestant." * Two years later on August 31, 
1604 Samuel Heiron secured a license for An Answere 
to A popishe Rime latelie scatered abroade in the weste 
panes much Relyed vppon by some simply seduced* 
Finally, the fourteenth ballad in this collection was 
licensed for publication in 1586; another (No. ^ 24) was 
entered in the Stationers' Registers for transfer in 1624, 
as an old ballad ; and another (No. 25) had appeared 
in a book of Catholic poems in 1601. 

There can, then, be no question about the circulation, 

1 H. L. Collmann's Ballads and Broadsides, 1912, p. 171. 

2 There are copies of this book in the British Museum and the 
Cambridge University Library. 

3 See Arber's Transcript, L, 311 ; HI., l8 7> 2 6 > ^9. There are 
copies of Heiron's book in the British Museum and the 
(Ashmole, 995). 



both in manuscript and in print, of Catholic ballads. 
The chief interest of this volume lies in the fifteen 
unique Catholic ballads of the years 1586-1616 
(Nos. 11-25) it contains: they furnish a striking con 
trast to the five Catholic ballads (Nos. 2-6) of Queen 
Mary's reign, and to Nos. 26-28, which are bitterly 
Protestant. Some of the fifteen were written in prison 
by priests ; over all hangs the shadow of Tyburn ; so 
that wholly unlooked-for is the calm resignation of tone, 
the lack of bitterness, the absence of invective. Narrow 
religious beliefs do occasionally present themselves : 
there is a mournful account of the evils heresy has 
brought on the kingdom (No. 20), a sarcastic rhyme on 
the hypocrisy of Puritans (No. 19), and a description 
of heaven, from which heretics are, as a matter of 
course, excluded (No. 22) ; but after the tirades of 
Antony Munday and the bigoted rejoicings in the anti- 
Papist ballads of William Elderton (cf. No. 10), Thomas 
Deloney, and Martin Parker (No. 28),-7it is pleasant to 
find in these Catholic poems a semblance of charity and 
a piety wholly free from thoughts of personal vengeance. 
The writers were firmly convinced of the justice of 
their cause. They look forward with equanimity 
professedly with real longing to the rack and the halter, 
with the comforting thought that through torture and 
death they will be made fit to associate with the apostles 
and saints. Schematically pictured in their minds is 
the New Jerusalem (Nos. 22-25), which, down to' the 
smallest peach and plum, is a place of never-ending 
material joys. Intent on preparing themselves for the 
attainment of this heavenly bliss, the authors were 
not particularly concerned with thoughts of revenge. 
The heretics temporarily in control of England will 
have no place in the Land of Joy, they believe : that is 
punishment enough ! No better ballad was ever 
written than " The Song of the Death of Mr Thewlis " 
(No. 13). And while, like most of the other ballads, it 
has small pretensions to poetry, it unquestionably has 



genuine pathos, personal interest, and historical value. 
The five Catholic ballads of Mary's reign illustrate an 
intolerance and a bigotry with which everybody is 
familiar : perhaps the fifteen manuscript ballads of the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James, portraying an intolerance 
and a bigotry often glossed over or even unknown, will 
aid in giving a truer historical perspective. 

Of the other ballads in the volume little need be said 
here, as all essential facts are given in the separate 
introductions. Attention should, however, be called to 
the comparatively large number that were entered in 
the Stationers' Registers and are here first identified 
and printed. Religious verse enjoyed great vogue m 
Elizabeth's day. Ninetnetri^^ 


with music, are said to have been printed during the 
P en5a~Ts6o-i6oo. Poets like Googe, Turbervile, 
Whetstone, Edwards, and Churchyard contributed their 
full quota; professional ballad-mongers, either from 
expediency or taste, followed their example ; so that 
there was an enormous production of " pious chansons. 
Of this flood of verse, the ballads of piety here reprinted 
are thoroughly representative. Most of them are 
sicklied o'er with didacticism, a few (like Nos. 53 and 63) 
are pleasant little poems ; all are an effective answer to 
those critics (and their name is legion) who persist in 
describing non-traditional ballads as " lewd and scur 
rilous journalism." Fearful warnings of the imminence 
of Death and the Judgment Day abound (Nos. 42 et seqj, 
as do invectives against pride (Nos. 43, 49) and the sins 
of society (Nos. 51, 52)- Several are melancholy 
lamentations by sinners, whose penitence demanded a 
poetical outlet (Nos. 30, 55, 57) ; others a . re salcs f 
general advice on holy living and holy dying (Nos. 38, 
30 54). There are, also, didactic ballads on Tobias 
(No. 36) and Job (No. 33) ; y a pretty Christmas carol 
(No. 41) ; and a pleasant song on friendship (No. 37). 
The miscellaneous ballads (Nos. 64-75) include a burlesque 
song on the Gunpowder Plot, a scornful attack on the 



Scotch beggars who, after 1603, overran England, 
" good-night " by Mrs Sanders, a delightful ballad on 
drunkenness, and " A Very Pretty Song " in which a 
lover tunefully narrates his woes. The volume, as a 
whole, presents a fairly characteristic collection of 
Elizabethan and Jacobean ballads. Among them are 
many that would have ravished the ear of Mopsa an<~ 
enriched the purse of Autolycus, though that clever 
singer would keenly regret the absence of ballads of 
" good life " and of miraculous or sensational news. 
For the absence of these subjects the piety of the com 
pilers of the two principal manuscripts accounts. But 
the ballad of Good-Ale and the sobs of Mrs Sanders 
would have brought to Autolycus and his audiences 
genuine delight and edification. 


Treatment of Printed, Texts. The printed ballads in 
this volume are reproduced exactly, except for the 
punctuation (which is made to conform to modern 
usage) and for obvious printers' errors, such as inverted 
letters, which are corrected in the text but indicated 
in the notes. In a few instances, dropped letters have 
been inserted in square brackets. It is customary to 
sneer at the slovenliness and inaccuracy of the ballad- 
press : a comparison, however, of early ballads with 
printed books of the same period will show that, as far 
as accuracy is concerned, one is quite as good (or as 
bad) as the other. Real laxity of printing began after 
the Restoration, and reached its climax in the roman- 
letter ballads of the eighteenth century. Early six 
teenth-century ballads (like Nos. 1-6) are, on the 
whole, admirable specimens of printing ; in them only 
black-letter type, unrelieved by roman or italics, is 
used. Later (as in Nos. 9 and 28) proper nouns and 
refrains were, with more or less consistency, printed in 



roman, or " white," letter, a custom imitated in 
this book, where black-letter type is represented by 
roman and roman by italics. In the case of the Mb. 
ballads, I have followed this scheme much more con 
sistently than, as a matter of fact, the printed ballads 
do : there are, for example, many proper nouns not 
italicized in No. 10. 

Treatment of the MSS. In all essential particulars 
the MSS. are reproduced in their present state. Con 
ventional abbreviations and contractions, such as y, y, 
w ch , fcf, and the like, are here of no importance, and 
have been expanded without notice ; while the ^use of 
capital or small letters at the beginning of lines is 
normalized. Elsewhere the use of capital and ^smali 
letters strictly follows the MSS., as does the variation 
between u and v, i and j. The spelling of the MSS., 
always uncertain, is reproduced exactly. Many obvious 
errors are allowed to stand in the text, but corrections 
are indicated in the foot-notes. Occasionally, missing 
words or dropped letters have been supplied within 
square brackets. The punctuation of the MSS. is scanty 
and haphazard ; it has been disregarded, and modern 
pointing substituted. 

' Location of the MSS. With the exception of the 
Rawlinson MSS., in the Bodleian Library, all the MSS. 
used in the preparation of this volume are preserved in 
the British Museum. Only the two basic MSS., 
Additional 15,225 and Sloane 1896, demand a detailed 
description ; but in regard to MS. Rawlinson Poet. 185, 
from which three ballads have been taken, it may be 
said that this MS. (dating about 1592) has been fully 
described and partially reprinted in the Reverend 
Andrew Clark's Sbirburn Ballads (Oxford, 1907), and 
that it is edited in Herrig's Archiv, 1904 (vol. 114, 
pp. 326-57), though so inaccurately as to have little 
value. . . 

Additional MS. 15,225 was purchased by the British 
Museum on June 18, 1844, at the .Bright Sale, lot 188. 



It is a small, neat quarto of sixty leaves, size 6x7! inches, 
without title-page or list of contents, and part of th< 
original MS. has been lost. The page-numbering 
the compiler runs from I to 124. Pages 95-98, however, 
are missing, while at the bottom of page 124 ( = the 
present fol. 6o v ) there is a title, " A Godly Exhortation 
to Love by the Parable of Our Saviour Christ. To 
the Queen's Almaine" but the leaves that contained 
this ballad, and probably others, have disappeared. 
The volume has suffered at the hands of binders, various 
margins being clipped so closely as to have injured the 
text ; many of the leaves are stained by damp, on others 
holes have been eaten through by inferior ink, several 
have torn edges, some of which are mended. Never 
theless, the MS. can be said to be in good condition, 
and the scholarly Jacobean handwriting is everywhere 
clear and legible. 

The date of compilation is about 1616. A ballad 
(No. 12) on fol. 22 V deals with the priest Thewlis, who 
was executed in 1616, and this appears to represent the 
latest date in the MS. A ballad on fol. 31 (No. n) 
is concerned with events of the years 1600 and 1601 : 
others originally date back to 1560-65, but were un 
doubtedly copied from later broadside issues. 

It is a curious fact that this MS., though known to 
many scholars and often referred to, has so long escaped 
a careful examination. Collier frequently mentioned 
it, Halliwell-Phillipps and William Chappell appear to 
have glanced through it, and in more recent days cer 
tain Catholic investigators have given it a cursory 
view. The remarkable nature of its contents has not 
been appreciated, and the ballads have remained 
unknown to students. There are in all thirty-five 
separate compositions, including one partial duplicate 
of the first ballad in the MS. and a brief prose work. 1 
Fifteen of the ballads are distinctly Catholic produc 
tions : most of the others are religious or moralizing 
1 See Appendix II. 


verses with no apparent theological bias ; but there is 
also a long Catholic poem on the life of Christ, 1 a 
splendid burlesque on drunkenness (No. 67), and an 
historical ballad on Buckingham and Bannister (No. 69). 
The MS. is reprinted entire, with the following 
exceptions : 

1. "A dolfull daunce and song of death Intituled: 
the shakeing of the sheetes. . . . Finis. Thomas Hill," 
fols. 15-16. 

[There are many printed copies of this ballad (see the Roxburghe 
Ballads, III., 184), but none of them is signed.] 

2. " A song in praise of a Ladie," fols. i6-i6 v . 

[This poem, attributed to John Heywood and licensed in 1 5 60-6 1 
and 1566-67 for broadside issue, is printed in Tottel 's Miscellany, ed. 
Edward Arber, pp. 163 f.] 

3. A poem beginning " My mind to me a kingdom is," 
fols. 43-43-. 

[The work of Sir Edward Dyer ; printed in William Byrd's Psalmes, 
1588, John Forbes's Cantus, Songs and Fancies, 1666, Clark's Shtrbum 
Ballads, and elsewhere. Entered for transfer as an old ballad at 
Stationers' Hall on December 14, 1624.] 

4. " A dittie most excelent for euerie man to reade, 
that doth intend for to amende and to repent with 
speede. To the tune of a rich marchant man, or John, 
come Kiss me now" fols. 56-58. 

[This poem, beginning " Who loveth to live in peace," is printed in 
Totter s Miscellany, ed. Arber, p. 205. It was registered as a ballad on 
September 4, I 5 64.] 

That an ardent Catholic compiled the MS. is obvious. 
An identification of him with " Father Laurence 
Anderton alias John Brerely " has been proposed by 
J. H. Pollen, who adds : " It is quite possible that 
Anderton should have composed some and collected 

1 See Appendix I. 


the rest." l I do not feel competent to judge the 
probability of this suggestion. But the mildness and 
resignation expressed in these fugitive poems speak well 
for the charity of the author, whoever he was. The 
compiler has also preserved certain pious ditties that were 
perhaps the work of Protestants, as well as a jocular 
ballad on the exploits of Master Good-Ale. It is a 
pity that some of his work is lost. Yet even as it stands, 
this MS. is unique among ballad-anthologies, and is far 
from being the least important. 

Sloane A1S. 1896 is a small oblong quarto of fifty- 
nine leaves, about 4$ x 8 inches in size, which have 
been cut out of their original covers, pasted on heavy 
flaps, and rebound. There is a Table of Contents, and 
this Table, the original foliation, and the entire MS., 
save for two pages (fols. 9 v -io), are in a single neat, 
well-formed, Elizabethan hand. The second hand is 
scrawling and illiterate, possibly that of some child. 
The MS. is well preserved, except that a few margins 
have been pared too closely and that on several pages 
the ink has faded so badly as to be almost indecipherable. 
In recent years the foliation has been changed so as to 
include several unrelated sheets of parchment that have 
been bound in at the beginning. Among scribbles on 
an otherwise blank sheet at the end of the MS. 
occur the names k< Thomas hatcheman," " Thomas 
hachemane," and " John Blounte," all in the neat writing 
of the chief compiler of the MS., though the second 
hand has also repeated the name of " Thomas Hache- 
man/' Perhaps Hachman or Blount compiled or owned 
the MS. 

The latest date is 1576: this occurs in "A Godly 
and Virtuous Song Made by the Honourable the Earl 
of Essex, Late Deceased in A.D. 1576 " (fols. 58-59), 
with which the MS. ends. There is no reason to 
believe that any part of the MS. is of a later date. It 

1 The English Martyrs, Catholic Record Society's Publications, V 



is a collection of pious songs and ballads, quite un 
relieved by humour or satire, most of them devoid of 
poetry, but a few (like No. 53) of considerable merit. 
The gem of the MS. is the " good-night " of Mrs 
Anne Sanders, heroine of the Elizabethan play, A 
Warning for Fair Women (No. 68). Twenty-four ballads 
and poems are not reprinted from the MS. These 
include " A Godly Song in Commendation of Mr 
John Bradford," and five ballad-poems by Robert 
Smith, familiar because of their inclusion in Foxe's 
Book of Martyrs l ; five poems that appear in TotteVs 
Miscellany 2 ; and the Essex ballad previously men 
tioned. 3 The compiler of Sloane MS. 1896 was a 
devout Protestant ; his work affords an interesting con 
trast to that in Addit. MS. 15,225. 

Order of the Ballads. In this volume the ballads are 
grouped according to subjects, but within groups the 
sequence of the MSS. is retained as closely as possible. 

1 Foxe's Acts and Monuments, ed. Townsend, VII., 195, 356 ff. 

2 Totters Miscellany, ed. Arber, pp. 25, 1 10, 142, 205, 256. 

3 Printed in the Paradise of Dainty Devises, 1578, ed. Collier, p. 136; 
in the Camden Society Miscellany, 1855, Vol. III.; in Farr's Select 
Poetry of the Reign of Elizabeth, I., 316; in Grosart's Fuller Worthies 
Miscellany, IV., 102 f. On the matter of authorship see Notes and 
Queries, 4th Series, III., 361, and the Dictionary of National Biography. 


Considering oft the state of man 

A unique copy of this ballad is preserved in the British Museum, 
press-mark C. 18 e. I (88). It is printed in black letter on a folio 
broadside in two columns ; there are no woodcuts, but a large orna 
mental C begins the first line. The ballad has not been reprinted, and 
appears in no ballad collection, but is reproduced in facsimile in Richard 
rarnett's Accession of Queen Mary (1892). A copy of it, made by 
[erbert, is referred to in Herbert-Ames's Typographical Antiquities, II., 

To present the historical situation briefly : the Duke of Northumber- 
id had prevailed upon Edward VI. to disinherit both Mary and 
lizabeth in favour of Lady Jane Grey, who was proclaimed Queen on 
ily 10, 1553. Three days later Mary was proclaimed Queen at 
lorwich ; a similar proclamation was made at London, after the 
>llapse of Northumberland's army, on July 19 (cf. stanza 10). From 
anza 10, with its reference to "this month of July," it is obvious that 
ic ballad was written and printed after July 25, when Northumberland 
ras sent to the Tower (cf. stanza 12, line 2), and before August I. 
[ary was crowned on October i . 

As a contemporary account of the joy with which the proclamation of 
[ary was welcomed in London, the ballad is of rare interest ; and it is 
)propriate that this volume, which contains ballads on both Protestant 
id Catholic martyrs, should open with a ballad-poet's eulogy of Mary, 
greatly misunderstood and too much reviled Queen. The poet 
limself was not concerned with Mary's religious views : indeed, though 
speaks of her " leading the perfect dance of godliness " (stanza 8), he 
probably knew little or nothing of them, and may well have been a 
Protestant. That he was a Protestant seems to be indicated by his 
eulogy of Edward VI. (stanza 7) and by the striking absence of comment 
on the ill-fated Protestant Queen, Lady Jane. His joy, like that of the 
people at large, arose from the knowledge that Mary's accession would 
put an end to the power and tyranny of the Duke of Northumberland. 
Very interesting indeed are his bitter comments (stanza 12) on the 
Duke. Perhaps it would be a better thing for all concerned if our 
ideas of Mary, Elizabeth, Lady Jane, Northumberland, and the' other 
leading persons of that time came from Ainsworth's admirable, but 
almost forgotten, romance of The Tower of London, just as the ideas of 
almost all English-speaking persons about Henry V. and Richard III. (cf. 
stanzas 2-4) come from Shakespeare's plays. 


The initials T. W. may be assumed to be those of Thomas Watertoune, 
whose name is signed to a ballad of slightly later date in MS. Ashmole 
48 (Thomas Wright's Songs and Ballads chiefly of the Reign of Philip and 
Mary, p. n). 

a ninuertjwe agap0t ereagon, 

11 Remember well, o mortall man, to whom god geueth 

How he truly, most ryghtfully, doth alwayes punyshe 


Consyderyng oft the state of man, and of this mortall 


which is but short and very ful of mutabylyte, 

I called to remembraunce the hateful war and stryfe 

Which hath ben don within this realm e thrugh gret 


In clymyng to achyue the crowne & reyal dingnyte 
Of this kyngdome, now called England, but somtyme 

greate bretain, 
And howe by false and ranke traytours the kynges they 

haue ben slayne. 

[2] I 

What moued the Duke of Glocester, Edwarde the 

fourthes brother, 

Of his two natural Neuewes, by lyneall dissent, 
Sekyng of them distruction, and also of the queene their 

But that he the ryghtfull rayne of them he falsely myght 

preuent ? 
Styll workynge tyl he had brought to passe his false and 

yll entent, 

[i] 3 stryfe : text has stryle ; 5 reyal .dingntye : read, regal dignity. 
[2] I Duke : better known as King Richard III. ; 2 dissent : i.e. 


by murtherynge the innocentes, that he him selfe myght 

Yet lyke a noughty false traytour at Boseworth was he 


He neuer rested tyll he had made away his owne naturall 

George, the good duke of clarence, that noble prince 

truly ; 
Causyng the kynge to graunt therto, for it wolde be none 

For which wycked fact sone afterwarde the kynge was 

ryght sory, 

That in a but of Malmesey the man was forst to dye, 
Within the towre, as wel was knowen, the story is ryght 

playne ; 
Yet at the last this ranke traytour at boseworth was he 



11 He eke slewe with a short dagger that mylde Henry 

the sext, 

Remaynynge in the towre vntyl his lyf e he did there end ; 
That he to were the crowne, therby, myght surely be 

the next. 
Thus to murther and false treason he dyd him selfe 

Vntyll suche tyme, most ryghtfully, god brought him 

to his ende ; 

Leuyng hym in tyranny no lenger for to raygne, 
But at the last, for his desartes, at Boseworth was he 


[2] 7 Boseworth : i.e. Bosworth Field, where Henry VII. slew 
Richard III. 

[3] 3 kynge : i.e. Henry VI. ; 5 man : i.e. the Duke of Clarence. 
[4] 3 were : i.e. wear. 



7: [5] 
Lyke treasone to our last Henry was wrought by haynous 


By olde Hemson and by Dudley, as traytours most 

vntrue ; 
At Rychemond was their full entent to haue distroy'd 

him quyght, 
That their malicious purpose myght there forthwith 

But god out of this present lyfe awaye them streyght he 

Takyng their heades from their bodyes, which thyng 

is most certayne ; 
So, not vnlyke to false traytours, they both were iustly 



Yet many treasons mo were done agaynst this noble 


By dyuers men of wyckednes, as is most euydent, 
But god alwayes, of his goodnes, reueled their dowynge,. 
So that theyr euyl deuysed thynges he euer dyd preuent, 
That no myscheuous traytour could obtayne his owne 

entent ; 
But al theyr crafty false treasons, which deuelyshely they 

Were ryght sone serched out truly, and ryght sone 

brought to nought. 


But out, alas, the noughty sede of traytours hath 

And spronge vp very hastely, nowejn his sonnes dayes, 

[5] i Henry : i.e. Henry VIII. ; 2 for Edmund Dudley and Sir 
Richard Empson, who were executed on Tower Hill on August i8 x 
1510, see the D. N. B. ; 3 Rychemond : /.^.Richmond. 

[6] 3 dowynge : i.e. doing = acts. 


Edwarde the syxt, forsoth I meane, whom god hath 

now displaced, 
Which sought and mynded goddes glory, entendyng 

vertuous wayes, 
With him and his two vncles deare they made dyuers 

Vntyll such tyme as they cought them, in theyr most 

crafty trayne, 
And so workyng most wyckedly the ryghteous haue 

they slayne. 

At last they dyd attempt agaynst theyr lyege Lady and 


Mary, by the grace of god of Englande and of Fraunce, 
And also ryght heyre of Irelande, most comly to be sene, 
Whom the myghty lorde perserue from all hurt and 

myschaunce ; 

For she to ioyful godlynes ledeth the parfect daunce : 
Whom god at her great nede doth helpe, workynge 

nothyng in vayyne, 
Subdueth to her her enemies al, which wrought with 

dredful trayne : 


When they forth went, lyke men they were, most fearefull 

to beholde ; 
Of force and eke of pusaunt power they semed very 

stronge ; 
In theyr attemptes, also, they were both fearse and 

wonders bolde. 

[7] 5 vncles : i.e. the Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector, and Lord 
Seymour. The first of these "dear uncles," Edward VI., at the 
instigation of the Duke of Northumberland, allowed to be executed. 
There is a heartless comment on this execution in the young King's 

[9] 2 pusaunt : i.e. puissant ; 3 wonders : read wondrous. 




If god wolde haue ben helper to such as stryueth in the 

But at the last he helped vs, though we thought it ryght 

The Nobles here proclaymed her queene, in voydyng 

of all blame ; 
Wherfore prayse we the lorde aboue, and magnyfie 

his name. 


Which thyng was done the .xix. day of this moneth of 

The yere of God .xv. hundred fyfty addynge thre, 

In the Cytie of glad London, proclaymed most ioyfully, 

Where cappes and syluer plenteously about the stretes 

dyd flye : 
The greatest ioy and most gladnes that in this realme 

myght be, 
The trumpettes blewe vp all on hye our Marie's royall 

Let vs, therfore, styll gloryfy and prayse his holy name. 

The nobles all consented than together, with one 

To go to Paules churche, euery man, to gyue thankes 

vnto the lorde ; 
Wheras they harde a songe of praise, as custome it hath 

To rendre thankes to god alwayes for the victorie of our 

Suche chere was made in euery strete as no man can 

In settyng forth wyne and plentie of meate and fyers of 

much gladnes ; 

[9] 7 magnyfie : text has mangnyfie. 

[ 1 1 ] I than : read then ; 3 wheras : pertaps whereat 



Such myrth was made in euery place as the lyke was neuer 

That god had shewed on vs his grace in geuyng a ryghtful 



And where as he went forth full glad, as prince both 

stout and bolde, 
He came a traytour in full sad, with hart that myght 

be colde ; 
The same whom al before dyd feare, and were in most 

The people wolde in peeces teare, yf they myght haue 

election ; 
The same for whom before they prayde, reuyled was and 

And he that longe the swynge hath swayde was now 

most vyle & worst. 

We se, therfore, the ouerthrowe of al theyr wicked wayes, 
Howe wicked might is brought furlowe, to god's great 

Laude & prayse. 


Imprynted at London by Roger Madeley, and are 

to be solde in Paules Church yearde at 

the sygne of the Starre. 

[12] I he : i.e. the Duke of Northumberland ; 8 furlowe : read full 

ittte. qd. T. W. 


The God above for marts delight 

From a unique broadside in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London (Lemon's Catalogue of Broadsides, p. 12). Black-letter type is 
used throughout, printed in two columns, no cuts. The ballad is re 
printed in the Har/eian Miscellany (1813), X., 253 f. It was written to 
eulogize Mary I., under the figure of the Marigold, shortly after her 
accession, and was entered at Stationers' Hall for reprinting in 1569-70 
(Arber's Transcript, I., 409). The author, William Forrest, a Catholic 
priest, served as one of the Queen's chaplains, and was a musician of 
some skill. There is a sketch of his life in the Dictionary of National 

a netn balla&e of ttje s^arigotoe. 

The God aboue, for man's delight, 
Hath heere ordaynde euery thing, 
Sonne, Moone, and Sterres, shinyng so bright, 
with all kinde fruites that here doth spring, 
And Flowrs that are so flourishyng. 

Amonges all which that I beholde, 
As to my minde best contentyng, 

I doo commende the Marigolde. 

In Veare first springeth the Violet ; 
The Primerose, then, also doth spred ; 
The Couslip sweete abroade doth get ; 
The Daisye gaye sheweth forth her hed 

[i] 2 ordaynde : read ordayned. 
[2] i Veare : i.e. ver : Spring. 



The Medowes greene, so garnished, 
Most goodly, truly, to beholde ; 

For which God is to be Praised. 
Yet I commende the Marigolde. 

The Rose that chearfully doth showe 
At Midsomer, her course hath shee ; 
The Lilye white after doth growe ; 
The Columbine then see may yee ; 
The Jofiflowre in fresh degree, 

with sundrie mo then can be tolde : 
Though they neuer so pleasaunt bee, 

Yet I commende the Marigolde. 


Though these which here are mencioned 

Bee delectable to the iye, 

By whom sweete smelles are ministred, 

The sense of man to satisfye, 

Yet each as serueth his fantasye ; 

wherfore to say I wyll be bolde, 
And to aduoide all flaterye, 

I doo commende the Marigolde. 


All these but for a time doth serue, 
Soone come, soone gone, so doth they fare, 
At feruent heates and stormes thei sterue, 
Fadyng away, their staulkes left bare. 
Of that I praise, thus say I dare, 

Shee sheweth glad cheare in heate and colde, 
Moche profityng to hertes in care, 

Such is this floure, the Marigolde. 

[3] 5 Joliflowre : i.e. gillyflower. 
[4] 2 iye : i.e. eye. 



This Marigolde Floure, marke it well, 
with Sonne dooth open, and also shut ; 
which (in a meanyng) to vs doth tell 
To Christ, God's Sonne, our willes to put, 
And by his woorde to set our futte, 

Stiffly to stande, as Champions bolde, 
From the truthe to stagger nor stutte, 

For which I praise the Marigolde. 


To Marie, our Queene, that Floure so sweete, 

This Marigolde I doo apply, 

For that the Name doth serue so meete 

And properlee, in cache partie ; 

For her enduryng paciently 

The stormes of such as list to scolde 
At her dooynges, with cause why, 

Loth to see spring this Marigolde. 


Shee may be calde Marigolde well, 
Of Marie (chief e), Christ es mother deere, 
That as in heauen shee doth excell, 
And Golde in earth, to haue no peere : 
So (certainly) shee shineth cleere, 

In Grace and honour double folde, 
The like was neuer earst seene heere, 

Suche is this floure, the Marigolde. 

Her education well is knowne, 

From her first age how it hath wrought ; 

In singler Vertue shee hath growne, 

[6] 2 Sonne : i.e. sun ; 5 futte : i.e. foot ; 7 stutte = desist from, 
[8] 6 honour : text has hononr. 
[9] 3 singler: i.e. singular. 



And seruyng God, as she well ought ; 
For which he had her in his thought, 

And shewed her Graces many folde, 
In her estate to see her brought, 

Though some dyd spite this Marigolde. 


Yf she (in faith) had erred a-misse, 
which God, most sure, doth vnderstande, 
wolde hee haue doone, as proued is, 
Her Enmies so to bring to hande ? 
No, be ye sure, I make a bande, 

For seruying him he needes so wolde 
Make her to Reigne ouer Englande, 

So loueth hee this Marigolde. 

Her conuersacion, note who list, 
It is more heauenly then terraine, 
For which God doth her Actes assist ; 
All meekenesse doth in her remaine. 
All is her care, how to ordayne 

To haue God's Glorie here extolde ; 
Of Poore and Riche, shee is most fayne. 

Christ saue, therfore, this Marigolde. 


Sith so it is, God loueth her, 

And shee, His Grace, as doth appeare ; 

Ye may be bolde as to referre 

All doubtfulnesse to her most cleare, 

[9] 8 some : i.e. Lady Jane Grey's adherents. 

[10] 5 bande = bond. 

[i i] 2 terraine : i.e. terrene. 



That, as her owne, in like maneare 

She wilth your welthes, both yong & olde, 

Obey her, then, as your Queene deare, 
And say : Christ saue this Marigolde. 


Christ saue her in her High Estate, 
Therin (in rest) long to endure ; 
Christ so all wronges heere mitigate 
That all may be to his pleasure : 
The high, the lowe, in due measure, 

As membres true with her to holde, 
So cache to be thother's treasure, 

In cherishyng the Marigolde. 


Be thou (O God) so good as thus 
Thy Perfect Fayth to see take place ; 
Thy Peace thou plant here among vs, 
That Errour may go hide his face. 
So to concorde vs in eache case, 

As in thy Courte it is enrol de, 
wee all (as one) to loue her Grace, 

That is our Queene, this Marigolde. 

<90tr tfstte tftt 


Imprinted at London in Aldersgate strete by Richard Lant. 
[12] 5 maneare : i.e. manner ; 6 wilth : i.e. willeth. 



Hail Queen of England^ of 
most worthy fame 

From a unique broadside in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London (Lemon's Catalogue of Broadsides, p. 12). Printed in two 
columns, black-letter type throughout, no woodcuts. 

This striking ballad is the work of Leonard Stopes, an English priest, 
who, after the death of Mary, suffered the loss of his Fellowship at St 
John's, Oxford, imprisonment and, later, exile. (See the sketch in the 
Dictionary of National Biography.) The eulogy of "Bloody" Mary as a 
mirror of merciful meekness has, to phrase it mildly, an unusual sound ; 
but, in any case, the ballad is no more exaggerated in its way than are 
the later eulogies of Queen Elizabeth. The sincerity of the priest, 
unlike that of various Elizabethan poets, is not open to question : the 
chief reason for his admiration lay in the " great travail " Mary took to 
"weed out sects and schisms and horrible errors" (stanzas 3-4). The 
prayer (stanza 20) that Mary's marriage may prove fruitful, expanded at 
considerable length, forms the subject of the ballad next following. 

an AVE MARIA in Commendation of 
our most l9crtHou0 cuteene. imprinted 

at London, in Pater Noster Reaw, by Richard 

[i] HAILE 

Haile Quene of Englad, of most worthy fame 
For vertue, for wisdome, for mercy & grace ; 
Most firme in the fath, Defence of the same, 
Christ saue her and keepe her in euery place. 

[Title] Reaw : read Row. 
[i] 3 fath : read faith. 



[2] MARIE 

Marie, the mirrour of mercifulnesse, 
God of his goodnesse hath lent to this lande ; 
Our iewell, our ioye, our ludeth, doutlesse, 
The great Holofernes of hell to withstande. 


Full well I may liken and boldly compare 
Her highnesse to Hester, that vertuous Quene ; 
The enuious Hamon to kyll is her care, 
And all wicked workers to wede them out clene. 


Of sectes and of schysmes a riddaunce to make, 
Of horrible errours and heresies all ; 
She carckes & cares & great trauell dooth take, 
That vertue may flourish and vice haue a fall. 

[5] GRACE 

Grace and all goodnesse doth garnish her Grace 
with mercifull meeknesse, on euery syde, 
And pitifull Prudence, in rennyng her race, 
Her highnesse in honor most godly dooth guyde. 

[6] OUR 

Our life is a warfare, the worlde is the fielde : 
Her highnes her army hath alwayes at hande ; 
For Hope is her helmet, Faith is her shielde, 
And Loue is her brestplate, her foes to withstad. 

[2] 3 ludeth : i.e. Judith. 

[3] 2 Hester : i.e. Esther ; 3 Hamon : i.e. Haman. 

[4] 3 trauell : i.e. travail. 

[5] 3 rennyng: read running. 



[7] LORDE 

Lorde, for thy mercy, vouchsafe to defende 
Her Grace from all griefes, and dredfull distresse ; 
whom thou hast vouchsafed, so frendly, to sende 
Our maners to mende, our deedes to redresse. 

[8] Is 

Is not this Ilande of duty most bounde 
To pray for her highnesse most prosperous state ? 
By whom all our enmies be cast to the grounde, 
Exilyng all errour, all strife, and debate. 

[9] WITH 

With wisdome, her wisdome, most witty & wise, 
Most wisely dooth welde vs, in wele and in wo ; 
In rest to rule vs, this dooth she deuise, 
In grace and in goodnesse, with vertue also. 

[10] THEE 

Thee humbly we honour, most mercifull Lorde, 
Besechyng thy goodnesse to graut vs thy grace, 
That we in faith as one may accorde, 
All vices exiled, may vertue imbrace. 


Blessed be lesu, and praise we his Name, 
who of his mere mercy hath lent to this lande 
So Catholike Capitaynes, to gouerne the same, 
And freely the foes of Faith to withstande. 

[12] ART 

Art thou not a-shamed, thou caitif vnkynde, 
To whisper, to whimper, with traitourous tene ? 

[8] 2 highnesse : read highness'. 

[9] 2 welde : i.e. wield. 

[12] 2 tene : i.e. teen = malice, anger. 


to matter, to mourmure* with mischeuous mynd 
Aflinst thy so louyng and gracious * Queue ? 

[13] Tiro* 

Thou wishest and woldest* But til is in vayne 
(God dooth abhorre) ; to thinke in thy harte 
Or speake in sev x rete of them that doo raigne ; 
the birdes \vyll be\vrai thee : to prai is thy parte, 

[14] AMONG 

Amcy al the scriptures* \vher hast thou but sene 
the murmurers punishte, & neuer had their wyll 
Agaynst their heade ; our $oureigne Queene, 
\vhcv<e GMCC I pray G\xi prcserue from aU yll* 

[15] WOMEN 

\\\v v uct\ AUvi \rido\ves* with maidens & wiue$* 
Of this blessed woman example may take, 
lu womanly wisdonxe to leade wdl their Hues, 
All Englaixde is bie<^cd for this wman % s sake* 

[TO] Axr 

And for thit therf is suche gvxihr behauiour, 
Srecixlly ter.dryr^: God's worthy tune : 
He, through his rower xnd Princeiy fiuour, 
Vxith blincievi her foes* to their crtat shame. 

e, thertone, our Lorde Gv\i 
Ar.d Marie* our Miistrtsse, our r.-Lerciful Queue ; 
For vntv> this lande our Lorvie, for her loce, 
Hith of his mesxv most n^crvifull ber.e, 

ctx a&i cr ts rssrt;**: c* ti?5 
is v>^c^ 



[18] Is 

Is not her highnesse most worthy of prayse, 
And England moch holden her grace to cSmend 
By who it hath pleased our Lord many wayse 
His bountefull blessyng on vs for to sende. 

[19] THE 

The plentifull pitie, the faith, and the grace, 
The meruailous mekenes and mercy, also, 
And other the vertues that shine in her face, 
Doo saue vs her subiectes in weale and in wo. 

[20] FRUYTE 

Fruyte of her body God graunte vs to see, 
This-Royalme to rule in peace and in rest ; 
That louyng, as she is, to vs maye be, 
who woulde vs all, as our hertes can thinke best. 

[21] OF 

Of this may the good be bolde as to say 
She woulde God's glory to flourish and spryng, 
And her true subiectes to walke in one way, 
In vnitie of faith all vs for to bryng. 

[22] THY 

Thy gracious goodnes to God, therfore, 
we humbly beseche her grace to preserue ; 
And thy holy Churche in state to restore, 
As daily desireth our princely Mynerue. 

[23] WOMBE 

Wombe that she beareth by God be it blest, 
From dauger of childing whe God he shal sende 

[ 1 9] 4 subiectes : text subiected. 

[20] 2 Royalme = realm. 

[22] 4 Mynerue : i.e. Minerv(a). 

B 17 


Neuer by enemyes to see her supprest, 
But, as his chosen, to haue heere her ende. 

[24] IESUS 

lesus most gentle, graunte this request, 
Our Noble Queene with thy grace to encrease 
In health and honour, as pleaseth thee best, 
That long ouer vs she may reigne in peace. 



Now England is happy and 
happy indeed 

Reprinted from a unique black-letter broadside preserved in MS. 106, 
fol. 630, at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. This text has been 
reprinted in Herbert- Ames's Typographical Antiquities, III., 1794. 
Evidently from the same exemplar came the MS. copy preserved in the 
Pepys Collection, I., 23. There Pepys added the following note : 

"Extract of a Letter from Mr. Michael Bull, M.A., Fellow of Bennet 
Coll., Camb. of the 12 th of June 1701 to Mr. Humphry Wanley, 
relating to the foregoing Ballad. 

" I have according to your desire copyed out the Ballad, and with all 
the exactness I could. There is no picture in it ; nor anything wrott 
in Capital or Roman Letters, but all printed in the old English Letter. 
I have spelt it and pointed it, just as it is printed. 

" There is pasted on the Backside of this Ballad, a printed copy of a 
Letter sent from the Councel to the BP- of London, to sing Te Deum 
for her Maj tie ' s being w th child. 1 If a copy of it will be usefull to 
you, I shall send it you assoon as I know it." 

Pepys has also added the title, " The Ballad of Joy vpon the publica 
tion of Q. Mary, Wife of King Philip, her being with child, Anno 
Domini I5[54]." 

This MS. copy has been reprinted, with a brief introduction, by Pro 
fessor C. H. Firth in the Scottish Historical Review, IX. (1912), 361-63. 

The question of whether Protestantism or Catholicism should triumph 
in England hinged upon the fruitfulness or unfruitfulness of Mary's 
marriage with Philip of Spain. In October, 1554, the Queen believed 
herself to be enceinte, and the present ballad was no doubt written at 
that time. As Froude (History of England, 1870, VI., 346) tells the 
story: "About the 2Oth of April [1555] she withdrew to Hampton 
Court for entire quiet. The rockers and the nurses were in readiness, 
and a cradle stood open to receive the royal infant. Priests and bishops 

*A copy of this letter is in the Corpus Christi MS. 106, fol. 629. 
See M. R. James's Descriptive Catalogue of the MSS. in the Library of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1912, 1., 221, and the note in Herbert- 
Ames, op. cit., III., 1793. 



sang litanies through the London streets ; a procession of ecclesiastics in 
cloth of gold and tissue marched round Hampton Court Palace, headed 
by Philip in person ; Gardiner walked at his side, while Mary gazed J 
from a window. Not only was the child assuredly coming, but its sexL 
was decided on, and circulars were drawn and signed both by the king 
and queen, with blanks only for the month and day, announcing to I 
ministers of state, to ambassadors, and to foreign sovereigns, the birth of 
a prince. On the 3Oth, the happy moment was supposed to have ; 
arrived. . . . The bells were set ringing in all the Churches ; Te Deum I 
was sung in St Paul's ; priests wrote sermons ; bonfires wer* 1 piled ready 1 
for lighting, and tables were laid out in the streets." According to I 
Froude, the Queen's disappointment on this occasion (as well as later) 
incited her to more diligent persecution of heretics. 

jaotoe 0inge, notne 0pringe, oure care is eril'D, 
fwre bertuous duene 10 quicfeneD fnify ctnlt). 

Nowe englande is happie, and happie in dede, 
That god of his goodnes doth prospir here sede ; 
Therfore, let vs praie, it was neuer more nede, 
God prosper her highnes, god send her good sped. 

[2] I 

Howe manie good people were longe in dispaire 
That this letel england shold lacke a right heire ; 
But nowe the swet marigold springeth soo fayre 
That England triumpheth without anie care. 

[3] \ 

Howe manie greate thraldom es in englan[d]e were seene 
Before that her highnes was pwblyshed quene : 
The bewtye of englade was banyshed clene, 
with wringing & wrongynge, & sorowes betwen. 

[i] 2 prospir: text pspir, an crdinary abbreviation; here sede L 
i.e. her seed. 




And yet synce her highnes was planted in peace, 
* Her subiectes wer dubtful of her highnes' increse ; 
But nowe the recofort their murmour doth cease, 
They haue their owne wyshynge, their woes doo releasse, 


i And suche as enuied the matche and the make, 
And in their procedinges stoode styffe as a stake, 
Are now reconciled, their malis dothe slake, 
And all men are wilinge theyr partes for to take. 


Our doutes be dyssolued, our fansies contented, 
The manage is ioyfull that many lamented ; 
And suche as enuied, like foles haue repented 
The Errours & Terrours that they have inueted. 


But God dothe worke more wonders then this, 
For he is the Auther and Father of blysse : 
He is the defender, his workinge it is, 
And where he dothe fauoure, they fare not amys. 


Therfore let vs praye to the father of myght 
To prospre her highnes and shelde her in ryghte ; 
Wyth ioye to deliuer, that when she is lighte 
Both she & her people maie Ioye without flight. 

God prossper her highnes in euery thinge, 
Her noble spouse, our fortunate kynge, 
And that noble blossome that is plated to spring. 
Amen, swete lesus, we hartelye singe. 

[8] 2 shelde : i.e. shield. 



Blysse, thou swete lesus, our comforters three, 
Oure Kynge, our Quene, our Prince that shalbe ; 
That they three as one, or one as all three, 
Maye gouerne thy people to the plesure of the. 

U Imprinted at London in Lumbarde strete, at the 
signe of the Eagle, by Wyllyam Ryddaell. 

[ i o] i Blysse : i.e. Bless ; 4 the : i.e. thee. 


Tain is the bliss, and brittle 
is the glass 

From a unique broadside in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London (Lemon's Catalogue of Broadsides, p. 16). Printed in one 
column, black-letter type throughout, no woodcuts. It is reprinted in 
the Harleian Miscellany (1813), X., 259 f. 

Mary I. died on the morning of November 17, 1558, and before 
noon of the same day Elizabeth was proclaimed Queen. An ardent 
Catholic, very probably a priest, promptly wrote this exaggerated eulogy. 
Certainly the most ardent apologist could not now urge that Mary 
* never spared her hand to help the righteous man distressed,' or that she 
showed ' pity to both friend and foe ' ; and the balladist's prophecy that 
" no age can thee obscure " has been fulfilled in quite a different fashion 
from that he anticipated. From the last lines of the epitaph it appears 
that the accession of a new Queen brought no premonitions or fears of 
change to the poet : Elizabeth's inclination towards Protestantism 
always largely political was evidently not known to him. 

It is curious to read in the Stationers' Registers (Arber's Transcript, I., 
101) that "Rychard Lante was sente to warde for the pryntynge of an 
Epithaphi of quene Mary with out lycense," undoubtedly the present 
production. It is difficult to see how this epitaph could have offended 
the new Queen. 

epitaph bpon ttie Deatb of ttje 
excellent ana our late toertuous 
duene, spatie, Deceaseu, augments bp 
tlje ffr0t author, 

Vayne is the blisse, & brittle is the glasse, of worldly 

wished welth ; 

The steppes vnstayde, the life vnsure, of lastyng hoped 



witnes (alas) may Marie be, late Quene of rare renov/ne, 
whose body dead, her vertues Hue, and doth her fame 

resowne ; 
In whom suche golden giftes were grafte, of nature and 

of grace, 
As when the tongue dyd ceasse to say, yet vertue spake 

in face, 
what vertue is that was not founde within that worthy 

wight ? 
what vice is there that can be sayde wherin she had 

delight ? 
She neuer closde her eare to heare the rightous man 

Nor neuer sparde her hande to helpe, wher wrog or 

power opprest. 
when all was wracke, she was the porte from peryll vnto 

when all was spoyle, she spared all, she pitied to 


How many noble men restorde, and other states also, 
well shew'd her Princely liberall hert, which gaue 

both friend & fo. 
where conscience was, or pitie moued, or iuste desertes 

dyd craue, 
For lustice' sake, all worldly thynges, she vsed as her 

As Princely was her birth, so Princely was her life, 

Constante, courtise, 1 modest, and mylde, a chast and 

chosen wife. 
In greatest stormes she feared not, for God she made 

her shielde, 
And all her care she cast on him, who forst her foes to 


Her perf ecte life in all extremes her pacient hert dyd shoe, 2 
For in this worlde she neuer founde but dolfull dayes 
and woe. 

1 courtise : i.e. courteous. 

2 shoe : i.e. show. 

2 4 


All worldly pompe she set at nought, to praye was her 


A Martha in her kyngdomes charge, a Mary named right. 
She conquer'd death in perfect life, and feared not his 

darte ; 
She liued to dye and dyed to Hue, with constant 

faithful hart. 
Her restles ship of toyle and care these worldly wrackes 

hath past, 
And safe arriues the heauenly porte, escapt from 

daungers' blast, 
when I haue sene the Sacrament (she said, euen at her 

These eyes no earthly syght shall see, and so lefte life 

and breath. 
O mirrour of all womanhed, o Quene of vertues pure, 

constaunt Marie filde l with grace, no age can thee 

Thyne end hath set the 2 fre from tongues of tickle 3 trust, 
And lockte the lippes of slauder's brute, which daily 

damnes the iust. 

Thy death hath geuen thee life, thy life with God shall ioye, 
Thy ioye shall last, thy vertues Hue, from feare and 

all anoye. 
O happie heauens, O hatefull earth, O chaunge to Marie 

Though we bewaile, thou maist reioyce, thy longe 

retourne to reste. 
worthy Quene, most worthy life, o lampe of vertue's 

But what auayles, sith flesh is wormes, 4 and life is 

deathes 5 of right ? 
Mercy and rest may Marie fynde, whose fayth and mercy 


Eternall prayse here in this earth, and ioye with God, 
to haue. 

1 filde : i.e. fill'd. 2 the : i.e. thee. 3 tickle = unreliable, uncertain. 

5 deathes : i.e. death's. 



Marie is gone, whose vertues teache of life and death 

the way, 
Learne we that Hue her steppes to treade, and for her 

soule to pray. 
Make for your mirrour (Princes all) Marie, our maistres 

whom teares, nor plaintes, nor princely mace might 

stai in her estate. 
Lo, here we see, as nature formes, death doth deface at 

lengthe ; 
In life and death, pray we to God to be our guyde 

and strengthe. 
Farewell o Quene, o pearle most pure that God or nature 

The erth, the heaues, the sprites, the saintes cry honor to 

thy graue. 

Marie now dead, Elisabeth Hues, our iust & lawf ull Quene, 

In whom her sister's vertues rare habundantly are seene. 

Obaye our Quene, as we are bounde, pray God her to 


And sende her grace longe life & fruite, and subiectes 
trouth to serue. 


Imprinted at London in Smithfielde by Richarde Lant. 


O heresy with frenzy 

From a unique broadside in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London (Lemon's Catalogue of Broadsides, p. 16). Printed in two 
columns, black-letter type throughout, no woodcuts. 

This Catholic ballad of the reign of Mary I. is a bitter attack on 
heresy, and a plea for a general acceptance of the Catholic faith, which 
should be compared with No. 20. Notice the defense of images in 
stanzas 7-9, and the plea to authority and antiquity in stanja 14. Very 
few ballads of this nature have survived, though undoubtedly many were 

an ejcclamatio bpo fl;e erronious ann 
fantasticall sprite of tieresp, troublig ttie 
tmitie of ttje ctiurct), fceceauig tlje simple 
, urittj Ijer tonperfect, Unprofitable 
$ tiapn tuoroes. 

O Heresy, with frenesy, 

disobedience and pride, 
Hast lead man's mind, with fancies blind, 

headlong runnyng farre [and] wyde, 
From the path way to Christ, I saye, 

o fonde, folish, vayne guyde ! 

11 Brought many one to perdicion, 
to play a desperate parte, 

Made deuition in eche Region ; 
a false traitour thou arte 

i ] 3 lead : i.e. led ; 4 headlong ; text has headloug. 
2] 3 deuition : i.e. division. 



To God aboue, the knotte of loue 
to Christ Church to subuert. 


11 The Sacramentes, our regimentes 
of health, .vii. giftes of grace, 

when we doo fall through synne, to call 
for them, our great solace ; 

A remedie, for eche degree, 
God's fouour to pourchace. 


11 Babtisme is one, Confirmation, 
with trew Penaunce certayne ; 

wedlocke to endure, Presthod most pure, 
Christ body to remayne ; 

At our last ende suche grace God sende, 
Extreme Unction to attayne. 


11 By which all we membres knitte be 
to Christ, our most chiefe head, 

In vnitie through his Bodie, 

which dyde for quicke and dead ; 

Christ's Church, likewise, doth Sacrifice 
the same, in fourme of bread. 

11 Very flesh and blood, our daily food, 

in vs to byde and dwell, 
Bi who we moue, Hue euer through loue, 

in vertew to excell. 
The other dead be not in this bodie, 

shall perish, and burne in hell. 

[2] 6 to Christ : read of Christ's. 

[3] 6 fouour : rend fauour ; pourchace : i.e. purchase. 

[4] 4 remayne : text remayue. [5] 4 dyde : i.e. died. 



11 O infidell, darest thou rebell 

against Christes humane body ? 
Thymage to graue, pictures to haue, 

thou calst ydolatry, 
The laye man's booke, theron to looke, 

to folow their lyues by. 

H God doth forbed ydoles in dede ; 

for ydolatry playne 
Doth signify thynges made therby, 

not hauyng life certayne ; 
which represent a false entent, 

that worke of man is vayne. 


11 The ymage of ma is God's worke tha, 
praise him in his sayntes daily : 

Their ymage to make for vertew sake, 
no good man can denye, 

His sayntes liuyng (for vs praiyng), 
to haue their memory. 


If whose fame imortall dye neuer shall : 
the lust man lyues for euer, 

where the vniust is scatred like dust, 
consumed with the wether ; 

whose mortall fame dyeth with shame, 
no mention of him neuer. 

11 O Traitour vntrue to Christ lesu, 
his ymage to deface, 

[7] 5 man's : read men's. 



To set at nought hym that the bought, 
thou arte cleane voide of grace ; 

whose remebrauce thou ought taduauce, 
with his sayntes in eche place. 

H" whose life & dayes in penauce alwayes 

dyd byde Religiously, 
In praier by night, w[i]the world to fight, 

and wunne the victory. 
Their vow thei kepte bi the flesh, ne slept, 

most chaste Virgens dyd dye. 


H Thou counterfaite, O foule disceate, 

a false fayth to entende, 
To breake thy vowe for thy lust nowe, 

death needes must be thy ende : 
Dew execution to thy confusion, 

Christ churche for to defende. 


11 whose vnitie, by antiquitie, 

vniuersall is knowne ; 
Continewed, from Rome the hed, 

by trew succession ; 
By Counsels tride, the truthe out spide 

of God's sprite longe agone. 


H O heresy, thou walkest a-wrye, 
abrode to gadde or raunge ; 

[u] 3 the : i.e. thee ; 5 taduauce = t[o] advance. 
[13] 2 entende = to devote oneself to. 
[15] I thou : text thon. 



Kike false brethren, deceaue children, 
this Churche nowe for to chaunge : 

Her praier by night to banish quight, 
with new imientions straunge. 


11 To breake, also, thy first faith, to[o], 

through wilfull impietie ; 
For thy debate excomunicate 

from Christ spousesse holy. 
Thou canst not accord with spouse & lord 

that liuest in aduoutry. 


11 Runyng retchlesse from thy spousesse, 
Christ Churche, most Chatholike, 

whose company God kepes, truly, 
to banish the heretike ; 

Her errours all, schismatical, 
out of this churche to strike. 

H Fro her ne swerue, lest thou do sterue 

with childer reprobate, 
whose parentes be iniquitie, 

gotte by the sprite debate, 
Thulauful spouses, whose workes, doutles, 

as hypocrites God doth hate. 

I [19] 

H Repent & tourne, your Hues refourme, 
Come to Christes Church most trew, 

[i 5] 3 kike : this seems to be an obsolete imperative form o/~keek, meaning 
peep ; but the word may be a misprint for like. 

[ 1 6] 5 with : text wthi ; 6 aduoutry : i.e. adultery. 

[17] I retchlesse = reckless ; 2 Chatholike: read Catholike. 



with humilitie reconsilde to be 

to the mother of vertew, 
which night and day serues God alway, 

whose faith her childre ensew ; 

11 And doo endure, in one pasture, 

of one folde styll together, 
Both all and some, lest the wolfe come, 

them for to disceuer 
From our Pastour, which doth succour, 

keepe, and defende vs euer. 

U Imprinted at London in Pater Noster Reaw, by 
Richarde Lant. 

[20] 4 disceuer : i.e. dissever. 

O Lord) thou God of Israel 

Stowe MS. 958, fols. 8 v -iy. The small quarto leaves on which this 
ballad is written, in a hand contemporaneous with the events described 
(1555), have severely suffered, many of the initial and final letters of 
the lines being torn off. These letters are supplied, by guess when 
necessary, in square brackets. The writing itself is badly faded, and at 
times is difficult to decipher. 

This ballad on a prominent martyr of Queen Mary's reign is unique : 
no ballad even remotely resembling it though laments on Anne Askew 
and John Bradford, among others, are extant has been preserved. 
Robert Glover, a gentleman in the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry, 
was burned for religion, along with Cornelius Bungey, a capper of 
Coventry, "about the 2Oth day of September, 1555," according to 
Foxe. A long account of his martyrdom in Foxe's Acts and Monuments 
(ed. Townsend, VII., 384-399) makes him out to have been quite as 
lovable and courageous as does the ballad. He is given prominence i^i 
the Reverend Thomas Brice's metrical Register * of the martyrs (1559), 
where the day of his death is said to be September 19 : 

September 19 When Glover, and Cornelius 

Were fiercely brent at Coventry ; 
4 When Wolsay and Pigot, for Christ Jesus 

At Ely, felt like cruelty. 

19 When the poor bewept Master Glover's death, 
We wished for our Elizabeth. 

Robert Bott, the author of the ballad, who describes himself as god 
father to Glover's youngest son, devotes most of his lines to eulogizing 
the martyr and advising the widow ; but in stanzas 49-63 there is an 
account of Glover's arrest, imprisonment, and trial. Several stanzas 
appear to have been omitted after stanza 6 1 . This is disappointing, 
because Bott seems to have planned to tell how the day of Glover's 
burning was set by divine intervention, " not by chance." There is 
nothing of this in Foxe. Laurence Saunders, mentioned in stanza 61, 
was a learned preacher, who, after being imprisoned " a whole year and 
three months," was burned at Coventry on February 8, 1555. Foxe 
gives a full account of his martyrdom, as well as verses from " Laurence 

!See Arber's English Garner, IV., 158. 

c 33 


Saunders to his Fellow-Prisoners in the Prison of the Marshalsea," and 
remarking that he went " with a merry courage towards the fire," com 
pares him to St. Laurence. This remarkable ballad should i be compared 
with the even more remarkable ballad on the Catholic martyr, John 
Thewlis (No. 1 3), that follows it. 


a ballati concefnpnge ttie fceatt) of mr. 

Robart glover, tttptOnC tO map0ttf0 
marye glover, 1)10 ttpf, Of a frmD Of font*. 

O lord, thou god of Israeli, 
to the[e] I macke my mone ; 

In my distrese and miserye, 
I pray the[e] helpe me sone. 

For why, my hart is so oppreste 
with sorowe and wyth payne, 

[So] that except thou helpe me nowe 
[I] shall not long remayne. 


When I considere with my selfe 
the death of my deare frend, 

Which in coventrye was burnt of lat[e], 
no reste my hart can fynd. 


Robart glovere his name it was, 

yf you will liste to knowe, 
A mane of lernyng excellent, 

to antechryste a foo. 

[Title] of a frend of heres : read by a friend of hers. 

[ i ] 4 sone : MS. some ? 

[4] 3 a mane : one word in MS. 



Which evere loved godlynes 

in all his wordes and dedes, 
As it appered in hys end 

in gevyng vpe his sprites. 


What stedfastnes, what manfuli[ness], 

he showed at his deathe 
(A numbre ther cann witnes bay[r]), 

in all his moste distrese. 

O Coventry e, thou wickede towne, 
which haste spylt this man's blood, 

That was moste giltles in his lyfe, 
in chryste to all mene good. 

Macke haste, amend thy lyf with spede, 

or els thou wylt be shent ; 
The plages of god will fall on the[e], 

except thou doo repent. 


O glover dear, happye thou arte 
that thou haste paste this lyfe, 

Whear I am lafte to se the paynes 
of thy childrene and wyf ! 


Th]ear wippynge and ther waylynge sore 
[fjor the[e] both day and night, 

[7] 4 mene : read men. 

[10] I wippynge : i.e. weeping. 



The[y] fill my hart (that is appreste) 
[w]ythe heavynes and syght. 

[] SKjM I|| 

When I call to rememberaunce 

the tendre love whych thou 
Dedste bear to me, vnfanedlye, 

and with thy dedes dedeste showe, 


I am appreste with heavynes, 

so that I cannot fynde 
No reste nor quyit for my hart, 

nor also for my mynd. 


Therfore to god I macke my mon[e], 

desyerynge hys comfort, 
Yet to lament I cannot chose, 

my great lose of this sort. 

But nowe to you whom he hath [left] 
be-hynd hym in this world, 

That is his wyfe and childr[en], 
of whom I well be bolde, 


To tell you without all vayne[ty] 
that god your hosband is, 

A father swe[e]t, without desete, 
in all your myseries. 

i o] 4 syght : evidently means sighes. 



4 dedeste : read didst. 

2 desyerynge : I.e. desiring ; 3 yet : read but, meaning except.. 

3 children : read childeren ; 4 well : read will. 
3 desete : i.e. deceit. 



To you, therfore, dear maysterese, 

whom I doo reverence, 
Bothe in my mynd and in my hart, 

dpo showe my full pretence ; 

Desyerynge you, in godes behalf e, 

your sorowe to forgett ; 
Cheryshe your hart with godes word, 

whear comfort you shall gett. 


[Co]nsydre well the cause for which 

[yo]ur hosband ded depart 
[This] worlde and so from all worldly thynge,- 

[bec]ause of godes reward, 


[Whi]ch is promysed in his worde 

to all them that doo professe 
His holy name and gosple dear, 

which he dothe nowe possese. 


Reioyse, therfore, in godes behalfe, 

so fare as nature will bear ; 
And doo not morne as hethene doo, 

which are wrapt in despayre. 


Praypare your selfe in hart and myfnd] 
to goo his stepes allway, 

[ 1 7] 3 godes : read god his. 

[18] 3 omit so ; thynge : read thynges. 



The which he went to heaven's blis[s], 
then shall you not decaye. 

[22] . : ' '..' I 

Doo nott forgett his wernynges g[ood] 

and admo-nisions swett, 
Which he gave you out of godes bo[ok], 

which was all his delyte. 

. [23] 

Call to remembrance for your [sins] 

yf anye you have doone, 
And aske godes pardon with all spede, 

with syighinge and wythe groone. 


Prepare your hart to bear your chrose 

for cbryste and his gosple, 
The which, trullye, will folowe you, 

as scripture dothe vs tell. 


[Bojthe fleshe and pleasuers of the same 

in sprit do you withstande ; 
Soo shall you fynd without delay 

his good and helpynge hand. 


[In] prayer be fervente and ofte 

[to] god macke all your mone, 
[His] helpe desyar moste instantly e, 

[then s]hall you fynd it soone. 

[22] 2 swett : i.e. sweet ; 3 omit you ; godes : nWgod-es0r god his. 

[24] I chrose : i.e. cross. 

[26] I fervente: read fer-vi-ente. 


[AJbhore paprye ; to god doo cleve ; 

[d]efyle not you your selfe 
Wyth wicked doctryne ; tacke no hed 

to all your warily pelfe. 


Have your delyt in christ allways, 
and marke his godlye will ; 

Soo will he be your helper true 
and gued you ever styll. 


His word see that you not neglec[t] ; 

butt in his gosple deare 
Lett all- ways your pleasuer be, 

soo shall you then be suer. 


To your howsholde tacke good hed, 

gyd them in godlynes, 
Which are att your governynge, 

kype them from wickednes. 


Your neglygence in that behalf e 

God will punishe it selfe ; 
Be-wayre, therfore, and sycke his love 

above all warldlye pelfe. 

[27] i papyre : i.e. papistry, Popery ; 4 warily : i.e. worldly, 
[28] 4 gued : i.e. guide. 

[29] 2 deare : read pure ; 3 all-ways : perhaps always all. 
[31] 3 sycke : i.e. seek. 



Consydre offt with-in your hart 
the treasuer whych you have 

Of god, in all your chyldren dear, 
from syne see the[y] be save. 


In godlynes and vertue puere, 
see that you teache them all ; 

So that the[y] may, an other day, 
be free from devylles thrall. 


[IJnstructe them in the laus of god, 

[n]or let them not forgett 
[Th ? ] ensample of ther father swe[e]t, 

[be]for ther eyes that sett. 


Reherse to them, without all vayn, 
his vertues great and puer ; 

Teach them to folowe hym allways, 
from yll shall the[y] be suer. 


His lernynge and his godlynes, 

his eloquence soo greatt, 
His godlye lyfe, his gentelnes, 

in england which are spred, 


His wisdome and experience, 
his counsells wythout vayne, 

That no man yet that godly [is] 
nor shall ever disdayn. 

i [3 6] 4 spred : Faulty rhyme here. 

4 o 


In daungers and callamityes, 

manfull without dispayre ; 
In god put he all confydens, 

as no man ded ells whear ; 


In paciens, he may to all 

a teacher be ryght well ; 
Agaynste the lord for he ded not, 

nor ever woulde, rebell. 


His sicknes, which he had longe tym, 
coulde never macke hym shrynke 

From god, his lord ; but ever ded 
spaycke well of hym and thyncke. 

He had delyte to rede and spacke 

the gosple, puer and clayne, 
To everye man, bothe highe and low ; 

no mane he ded disdayne. 

[4*] _ 

He had great pleasuer in the pore, 

[to] helpe them in distrese, 
[Than] anye man in england ded, 

[no] man can say no leasse. 


[The] callynge and estat he ded 

applye accordynglye, 
To which god had appoynted hym, 

as in his end you see. 

[41] i spacke : read speak ; 4 no mane : one word in MS. 

4 1 


He ded with ryght vnfanede love 

embrace you, his dear wyfe ; 
For your sacke he coulde have bine 

content to losse his lyfe. 


His childrene he ded love so muche 

as anye man elles whear ; 
In godlynes brought he them vp, 

so longe as he was heare. 


His fethfull harte towardes his fre[nds] 

no man ought to forgett ; 
His lyberall mynd and hart so ky[nd] 

to them whych weare in debt. 


His reverent behavyore 

to them which weare in giftes 

And lerny[n]ge, also, excelent, 
he would have them in syghtt. 


He was not met to tarrye hear 
in this moste wicked warld, 

When his tym cam, at Coventry 
ther was he bought and sold. 


The sheryffe ther layd hand on him ; 
full meckelye he ded bear 

[44] 3 sacke : i.e. sake ; 4 losse : i.e. lose, 
[47] i behavyore : i.e. behav-i-or. 
[48] i met : read mete. 



The crosse of cbryst, for why, he knew 
[th]at he sholde leve els-whear. 


The[y] kept him in the prison ther, 
agaynste all lauwes and ryght ; 

Full wickedly the[y] ded off ende 
the lord, him selfe, of myght. 


The busshope, att his commyng ther, 

sent for him out of hand, 
Intendyng hym to bring from christ ; 

manfully he ded stand 

Agaynste the busshope and his trayne, 
agaynste ther masse so vayne, 

Ther tromperye and paperye, 
he ded dispyse moste playne. 

The bosshope, beinge moved then 

with his boldnes and his sprit, 
To lychefyld he ded sende hym th[ere] 

with great disdayne and spyte. 


What trouble, what great my[series], 
the[y] ded showe vnto hym 

In his impriso[n]ment so longe. 
O lord, forgive ther syne ! 

[51] i busshope: i.e. bishop. 
[52] 3 papeiye : i.e. Popery. 
[53] * bosshope : i.e. bishop. 



From tyme to tyme he ded disp[ute] 

with them that sought his blode, 
Agaynste ther masse and papish dr[ove],- 

in lernynge he was goo<~ 


The day of condempnacion 
then being comm att hand, 

Full manfully and lernedlye 
aganst them all ded stand. 


The busshope and his schapplens all 
ther lernyng ded thene fayll, 

No ansure the[y] coulde macke to hym, 
therfore the[y] fell to rayll. 


[With] wickednes and lyes foulle, 
[they] ded withstande his worde, 

Which he spacke in godes behalfe 
[God] will distroye ther sword. 


Moste cherfullye and merelly, 
without all tremlynge feare, 

Ded he reseve ther sentence ther, 
as men cane witnes bear. 

The day of execution 
and his deleverance 

[57] I schapplens: i.e. chaplains. 

[58] i lyes : read\y&> full. 

[59] i merelly : i.e. merrily ; 4 cane 


i.e. can. 


Att coventrye appoyntted was 
by god, and not be chance. 

For ther suffred not long before 

a man of good halase, 
His fethfull frende and brother treu, 

Sandars he namede was. 

Too tell you nowe, my dear mary, 

the maner of his deathe, 
And his vnfaned hartenes 

and hope in christe with feathe, 


It nedethe not, for why, all men 
which wear with him presentt 

Canne bear recorde that never man 
to dye so was content. 

Butt that I wishe moste hartely 
be not to[o] slacke nor slowe, 

By his deathe to teche your sons 
to god to stand in awe ; 


To folowe, with all godlynes, 
ther father's lyfe and deathe ; 

The which wilbey the beste tresuer 
the[y] may reseve on earthe. 

[61] 2 good halase : perhaps God, alas ! 
[62] i too : i.e. to ; 4 feathe : i.e. faith. 
[65] 3 wilbey : i.e. will be. 




[I]n syence and in l^rnyng good 
god grant the[y] may excell, 

To helpe to teache the flocke of god 
Antecbriste to expelL 


Moste instan[t]lye I doo requear, 
forgett not that same chylde, 

Tymothye glover , yonge in age, 
the lordes will be fullfild ! 

For him to care above the rest, 

my dutye doth requear ; 
Beinge the yongest of them all, 

also my good-sonne dear. 


My prear is, and shalbey soo 

so longe as I doo leve, 
To god, my lord, to kepe them all 

and you, his f eathfull wyfe. 


Thus fare you well in god, the lord, 
whoo graunt that you may fyn[d] 

Eternall reste in heven's blys. 
Amen, I say, your frynd. 

in $i0 sagntr 0. 

W* Robart Bott. 

[66] I and in : MS. and is. 
[68] 4 good-sonne : i.e. godson. 
[69] i prear : i.e. pray-er. 

4 6 

.8 :;,;; 

Some men for sudden joy do weep 

Sloane MS., 1896, fols. n-i2 v . No sketch of John Careless, a 
Coventry weaver who occupied a place of honour and friendship among 
the martyrs of Queen Mary's reign, appears in the Dictionary of National 
Biography ; but a great deal of information about his life is given in 
Foxe's Act* and Monuments, while twenty-two of his letters have been 
preserved. The latter were first printed in Bishop Miles Coverdale's 
Certain most godly, fruitful, and comfortable letters of such true Saintes and 
holy Martyrs of God, as . . . gaue their lyues for the defence ofChristes holy 
gospel, 1564 ; this work was reprinted by Edward Bickersteth, London, 
1837. At the end of the letters, Coverdale remarks : " Because he maketh 
mention in the former letter and other heretofore, of the most godlye 
and Christian conflictes which he had susteyned, we thought good to 
adioyne hereto this swete and heauenly exercise followyng, whereby it 
may appeare what fruite these conflictes wroughte in hys most godly and 
Christian conscience." He then prints a version (A.) of the ballad given 
below. To this poem Thomas Nashe referred in a letter to William 
Cotton (Works, ed. McKerrow, V., 196) : "well some men for sorrow 
singe as it is in the ballet of lohn Carelesse in the booke of martirs, & I 
am mery whe[n] I haue nere a penny in my purse." 

Long before that time, however, this " sweet and heavenly exercise " 
had begun to be printed and sung as a ballad. As early as October 8, 
1583, a ballad called "A Declaration of the death of John Lewes" (see 
No. 9) was written " To the tune of John Carelesse" and " Sortie men 
for suddaine joyes doe weepe " is the tune of " The Confession of a 
Penitent Sinner" (Roxburghe Ballads, III., 168). "A ballad of John 
Careles, &c.," was licensed for publication on August I, 1586, "John 
Carelesse " on December 14, 1624, and " Sir John Careles " on February 
9, 1635, all undoubtedly broadside versions of the ballad preserved in 
the Certain Letters and the Sloane MS. 

Nashe refers to it a second time in Have With Tou to Saffron Walden, 
1596 (Works, III., 104), where he says of Barnaby Barnes's Divine 
Century of Spiritual Sonnets : " such another deuice it is as the godly 
Ballet of lohn Carelesse, or the Song of Greene sleeues moralized." The 
first two lines are quoted in Shakespeare's King Lear (I., iv. 168) and in 
Hey wood's Rape of Lucrece (Dramatic Works, 1874, ^., 179). 

The MS. copy probably represents closely the ballad as it appeared in 
printed broadside form, but all the variants between it and A. are given 



in the footnotes. Four stanzas of A. are, it will be observed, omitted 
in the MS. A. ends with the words, " Continue constant in Christ 
q[uoth] Careles." 

Careless is named in the Reverend Thomas Brice's interminable verse 
Register of the Martyrs (Arber's English Garner, IV., 158), where a 
marginal date places his death on June 25, 1556. 

a go&lp ano tortuous 0onge or 'Battaue, 
ma&e bp t^e constant member of 
John Careiesse, being in pri0an in 
hinge* benche for pwfe00ing ft 
ttfjae, enning tits t>ape0 tberin, toa0 
ttjrotten out anti burpeti mo0t 3igno= 
miniou0lp bpon a tiongtuU, bp 
anuer0arpe0 of goDe0 tuortie, 

Some men for sodayne joye do wepe, 
and some in sorrowe synge ; 

When as they are in daunger depe, 
to put away mournyng. 


Betwene them both will I begyn, 
being in joye and payne ; 

With sighing to lament my synne, 
and yet reioyce againe. 


My synfull lyfe doth still encrease, 
my sorrowes are the more ; 

From wickednesse I cannot cease, 
woe is my heart therfore. 

[i] 3 as ... are : that they lie (A.}. 
[2] 3 with : In (A.) ; 4 and : But (A.). 
[3] 2 sorrowes are : sorow is (A.). 

4 8 



Sometyme when I thincke to doe well, 
and serve god night and day ; 

My wicked nature doth rebell, 
and leadeth me astray, 

[si : ; " 

As bond and captive vnto synne, 
which grieveth me full sore ; 

This misery doe I lyve in, 
woe is my heart therfore. 


Indede, sometymes I doe repent 

and pardon doe obtayne ; 
But yet, alas ! incontinent, 

I fall to synne againe. 

I [7] 

My corrupt nature is so ill, 

offending more and more ; 
That I displease my lord god still, 

woe is my hart therfore. 

I [8] 

Woe is my hart, woe is my mynde, 

woe is my soule and spirit ; 
That to my god I am vnkynde, 

in whome I should delight. 

His love alwayes I should regard, 
which towardes me was pure ; 

[6] i some tymes : sometyme 
[8] 2 spirit : read sprite (A.). 
[9] 2 towardes : towarde (A.}. 



With synne and vice I him reward, 
oh most vnkynde creature ! 


The beast, the bird, the fishe, the foule, 

their maker doe obey ; 
But I which am a lyving soule, 

am farre more worse then they. 

For they, according to their kynde, 
doe serve god nyght and day ; 

But I, alas, with hart and mynde, 
offend him many wayes. 

Thus doe I sore complayne of synne, 
and with king David wepe ; 

For I doe feele, my hart with-in, 
the wrath of god full depe. 


To heaven myne eyes I dare not lyft, 
against it I haue trespast ; 

And in the earth I fynde no shift 
nor succor that may last. 

What shall I doe ? shall I dispayre, 
and from my saviour slyde ? 

[9] 3 With . . . I : But I wyth synne do 

[10] 3 which : that (A.) ; 4 more : much 

[ 1 1 ] 2 To seme -him do not cease (4.) ; 3 alas with : wyth sinful! 

.) ; 4 Do daily him displease 

[i 3] 4 may: can 


Noe, god forbid, ther is noe feare, 
syth Christ hath for me dyed. 

God became man, and for vs men 

he dyed and rose againe ; 
His mercy greate we may se[e], then, 

for ever doth remayne. 


Therfore, my synnes I will confesse 
to god and mourning make ; 

He will forgeue the same, doubtlesse, 
for his sonne Christ his sake. 


If synne in me god should respecte, 
then doe I knowe full well, 

His justice would me sone reiect 
doune to the pit of hell. 

His glorious eyes could not abyde 

my fowlle and fylthy smoke ; 
Wherwith I am one euery syde, 

couered as with a cloke. 

But christ in me doth he behold, 
in whome he doth so delight, 

[ 1 6] I synnes : sinne (^.) ; 3 He : who (^.) ; 4 Christ his 

[17] 4 doune to the : To the deepe 

[18] i could : can (A.) ; 2 my : the (A.) ; 3 one : read on 

19] i Christ ... he : he in Christ doth me (A.) ; 2 omit so 



That myne offences manyfold, 
he doth release them quyte ; 

[20] ^ , ^ 

Reputing me amonge the iust, 

forgeving all my synne ; 
Therfore, my faythfull hope and trust 

shall ever be in hym. 

. m 


O lord, encrease true fayth in me, 

thy good spirit to me geue ; 
That by the fayth I haue in the[e], 

I may both love and lyve 


In true obedience to thy will, 

and thanckefullnes of heart ; 
And with thy grace so guyde me still,. 

that I never depart 

From thy true word and testament,, 

all the dayes of my lyfe ; 
Nor from thy churche most innocent 

thine owne true spouse and wife. 

[But from that filthy whore of Rome 
Lord kepe me euermore ; 

[19] 4 he ... them : Through him releaseth (A.). 

[20] i amonge : amongest (A.) ; 3 faythfull hope and : faith, my 
hope, my (A.). 

[21] 3 That I may grow in loue toward thee (A.) ; 4 And euer seeke 
to Hue (A.). 

[22] i to : of (A.). 

[24] i Stanzas 24-27 added from A t 



As gratiously thou hast yet done, 
Thankes be to thee therfore. 


And sith thou haste of thy goodnes 

Forgeuen me all my sinne, 
Stregth me thy truth for to cofffesse, 

And boldly die therin. 


That as I haue confessed thec 

Before the wicked sort, 
thou maiest in thy good time know me, 

To my ioy and comfort. 


My soule returne vnto thy reste, 

Thou art wel satisfied ; 
The Lord hath graunted thy request, 

And nothyng thee denied.] 

". [*] 

Praysed be god, the father of might, 

praysed be thou, o christ ; 
Praysed be thou, o holy spirite, 

thre[e] in one god most highest. 

[28] I Praysed : Prayse (4.) ; 2, 3 praysed be thou : Praise be to 
| thee (A.) ; 3 spirite : read sprite 


9 | 
Shall silence shroud such sin 

Printed from a unique black-letter broadside in the Library of th( 
Society of Antiquaries, London. The sheet has three columns enclosed 
in a light ornamental border. There is one rude woodcut, representing 
Lewes tied to the stake ; it has been reproduced in Lemon's Catalogue 
of Broadsides, p. 26. The ballad was not entered in the Stationers' 

All historians who, presumably, would have been interested in this 
metrical account of John Lewes have overlooked it. The earliest of 
these is Fuller, who in his Church History of Britain (ed. J. S. Brewer, V., 
72) wrote : 

We must not forget how, this year [1584], one John Lewes was burnt at 
Norwich for denying the Godhead of Christ, and holding other detestable 
heresies. He called himself " Abdoit " (let him tell you what he meant thereby), 
alluding therein to the promise of a new name, which no man knoiueth but him that 
recelveth it [see Revelations ii. 17] ; having in it a little mock-Hebrew, to make 
himself the more remarkable. 

According to Brewer, " the original draught of the significavit for his 
burning is still preserved among the Sarum MSS. in the Bodleian." 
Fuller's date, 1 584, is repeated in all histories of Norfolk, but undoubtedly 
is incorrect : there is every reason for accepting the date given in the 
ballad. In his Annals (ed. 1615, p. 697) John Stow gives the date as \ 
September 17, 1583. 

Lewes was a victim of a religious intolerance seldom referred to in the I 
histories of the Elizabethan period. His "detestable opinions" now I 
form a part of the creed of the Unitarian Church. There were both I 
predecessors and successors at Norwich to Lewes's martyrdom. Thus I 
on May 20, 1579, Matthew Hamount was burned for having said that I 
" the New Testament and Gospel of Christ is but mere foolishness, a I 
mere fable ; that Christ is not God or the Saviour of the world, but a 
mere man, a shameful man, and an abominable idol ; that he did not 
rise again from death or ascend unto Heaven ; that the Holy Ghost is 
not God ; and that baptism is not necessary, nor the sacrament of the 
body and blood of Christ." (Victoria History of 'Norfolk ', II., 275 ; cf. 
Stow's Annals, 1615, p. 685.) In 1588 a clergyman, Francis Ket, 
was burned for having expressed " divers detestable opinions against 
Christ our Saviour" (R. H. Mason, History of Norfolk, 1884, p. 401). 

Apart from the merits of the case and the attitude of the ballad- 



writer, the reader's sympathy will naturally be with Lewes, With 
startling na'ivett the poet unwittingly presents a picture of a man resolute 
in his views and beliefs even unto death, a man whose courage is far 
more admirable than the piety of his judges. The grotesque travesty on 
Christian charity by which preachers are described as using persuasion, 
almost force, to drag a confession of faith from their victim before 
thrusting him in the flames was often duplicated in England under both 
Catholic and Protestant rulers. 

It seems a bit ironical that the ballad is directed to be sung to the 
tune of John Careless, to the tune (itself unknown) of the ballad (No. 8) 
directly preceding. 

The Biblical quotations appear to have been made from one of the 
editions of the Geneva Bible. 

a Declaration of tyt Deatt) of hbn 
a most Detestable anD obstinate 
ticfee, burneD at Norwich, ttie Ftoiii Dape 

Of September, 1583. aftflUt t&m flf flje 

clocfee in ttje after noone. 

To the tune of lohn Carelesse. 

Math. x. vers. 33. 

He that denieth me before men, I will denle him before my Father which 
is in Heauen. 

loan. 1 17. 3. 

This is eternall life, that they know thee to be the very only true God, and 
him whome thou hath sent, lesus Christ. 

lohn. 3. 1 8. 

He that beleeueth in him shall not be condemned : but hee that beleeueth not, 
is condemned already, because hee beleeueth not in the name of the only begotten 
sonne of God. 

Shall silence shrowde such sinne, 
as Sathan seemes to showe 

Euew in his impes, in these our dayes, 
that all men might it knowe ? 

1 loan : read John. 



No, no, it cannot be ; 

but such as loue the Lorde, 
With heart and voyce, will him confesse, 

and to his word accord. 


And do not as this Deuill did, 
though shape of man he bare ; 

Denying Christ, did silence keepe 
at death, deuoyde of care. 


Yet did this wretch, most wickedly 

(lohn Lewes, who to name), 
Full bouldly speake, and brutishly 

God's glorie to defame, 


In presence of those Persons which 
were learned, wise, and graue, 

That wisht in heart, with weeping teares, 
repentance he would craue. 


But he, dispising reuerence 

to Prince or any state, 
Not them regardes, but vsed tearmes 

as ech had beene his mate. 


For he did thou each wight the which, 

with him had any talke ; 
Thus did his tong most deuilis[h]ly 

with defamie still walke. 

[7] i thou : read thus. 



But when that no perwasion might 

procure him to relent, 
Then Judgement did, by Justice right, 

vnto his death consent. 

[9] ; 
That he should burned be to death, 

this Justice did awarde ; 
Now marke what after did insue, 

and therto haue regarde. 


The time then of his death being come, 
which was the eighteene daye 

Of September, in eightie three, 
this wretch wrought his decaye. 

For when he to the place was brought 
where he his life should ende, 

He forced was a time to stay, 
a Sermon to perpende. 


The which was preached by the Deane 

of Norwich, in such wise, 
Which well might mooue ech sinful soule 

from seat of sinne to rise. 


He, like a tender Father, did 

geue documents most pure 
Unto this wretch as to his childe, 

from ill him to procure. 

[n] 4 perpende = ponder over, consider. 




But all in vaine, this varlet vylde 

his doctrin did detest ; 
For when he spake of Christ, God's Son, 

he made therat a iest. 


And smilingly his face wold turne 

from Preachers present there, 
Which argued that he neuer stood 

of God or man in feare. 


When that the Sermon drew to ende, 

then did the Deane desire 
Him that he would fall on his knees, 

and God's mercie require. 


But still he stood as any stone, 

not liftyng hand or eye, 
Unto the Heauews, which shew'd his hart 

to God was nothing nie. 


The Shryfe, thew, strikes him on the brest, 

wishing him to returne ; 
Yea, Gentlewomen, two or three, 

before he went to burne, 


Would seeme to pull him on his knees, 
his sinnes for to confesse, 

[14] i vylde = vile. 

[18] i Shryfe : Sir William Heydon was Sheriff in 1583 (R. H. 
Mason's History o/Norfott, 1884, p. 535). 

58 ' 


But he full stoutly stood therein, 
not meaning nothing lesse. 


From preaching place vnto the stake, 
they straight did him conuaye, 

Where preachers two or three him wyld 
vnto the Lorde to praye, 


And Christ our Sauiour to confesse 

both God and man to be ; 
That soule and body, by true faith 

in him, might be set free 


From Sathan, who had him in houlde ; 

but he not this regarde, 
As countinance his did shew full plaine, 

for why, no worde was harde 

That he did speake ; but like a dogge, 
did end his dayes with shame, 

Not bending knee, hand, hart, or tong, 
to glorifie God's name. 

For though that diuers Preachers than, 
both Godly, graue, and wise, 

Did hope (in heart) to win this man, 
yet all would not suffise. 

[24] i than : read then. 



For not one worde that they could get, 

what so they did or sayde, 
Till one that was right earnest set, 

by these wordes him assayde : 

" If that thou doest not lesus Christ, 

God's onely Sonne confesse, 
Both God and Man, and hope in him 

for thy saluation, doubtlesse, 


" As sure as now thou shalt be burnt 

before vs here at Stake, 
So sure in Hell thou shalt be burnt, 

in that inf email lake." 


Quoth he, " thou liest," and no more words 

at all this Caytife sayd ; 
Nor no repentant signe would show, 

which made vs all dismayde. 

And when the fire did compasse him 

about on euery side, 
The people lookt he then would speake, 

and therfore lowde they cryed : 


" Now call on christ to saue thy soule ; 

now trust in Christ his death." 
But all in vaine, no wordes he spake, 

but thus yeeldes vp his breath. 



Oh wofull state, oh daunger deepe, 

that he was drowned in ; 
Oh graunt vs, God, for Christ his sake, 

we fall not in such sinne. 

And we that thinke wee stand in faith 

so firme, Lorde let it be 
To thee, thy Sonne, and holy Ghoste, 

one God in Persons three. 


Aue morta nonfa mele. 

Rom. 14. 9. 

For Christ therfore dyed and rose againe and reuiued, that he might be. 
Lord both of the dead and the quicke. 

2. Corin. 5. 21. 

For he hath made him to be sinne (for vs) which knewe no sinne : that wee 
should be made the righteousnes of God, in him. 

Coloss. i. 15. 1 6. 

Who is the image of the inuisible God, the first begotten of euery creature* 
For by him were all things created which are in Heauen and Earth, thinges 
visible and inuisible, &c. 

Imprinted at London by Richard lones, 

dwelling neere Holbourne Bridge. 

October. 8. 




Good subjects of England, rejoice 
and be glad 

Reprinted from the unique black-letter broadside in the Library of 
the Society of Antiquaries, London (Lemon's Catalogue of Broadsides, 
p. 26). It is printed in two columns enclosed in a heavy ornamental 
border. There are no cuts ; but the first line begins with a large 
ornamental block-letter, and similar block-letters, spelling the name 
" Ed Campion," separate the columns. 

The author of the ballad was probably the celebrated Smithfield bard, 
William Elderton. A true reporte of the death and martyrdome of M. 
Campion, 1581, states definitely that Elderton had written at least one 
ballad on this subject : 

Fonde Elderton, call in thy foolish rime, 

thy scurile balates are to bad to sell ; 

let good men rest, and mende thy self in time, 

confesse in prose thon hast not meetred well ; 

or, if thy folly can not choose but fayne, 

write alehouse toys, blaspheme not in thy vain. 

Antony Munday, who had been instrumental in the capture and con 
demnation of the three priests, replied to this book with a bigoted 
parody called A breefe Aunswer made vnto two seditious Pamphlets, the one 
printed in French and the other in English, containing a defence of Edmund 
Campion and his complices, their moste horrible and vnnaturall Treasons against 
her Maiestie fcf the Realme, where the stanza corresponding to that just 
quoted runs : 

Yea, Elderton dooth deskant in his rime, 

The high offences of such gracelesse men, 
Which causeth him to yrke at euerie crime, 
And gainst their treasons to prouide his pen : 
Yet not without wisedome and modestie, 
To warne all other that liue wickedlie. 

(See the convenient reprint of these poems in Furnivall and Morfill's 
Ballads from MSS. II., 170, 183). 

No other ballad on Campion is preserved in print. Curiously, too, 
none was licensed, or at least entered in the Register, at Stationers' Hall. 
The only recorded title that seems to be that of a ballad is " master 
Campion the seditious Jesuit is welcome to London/' a work registered 



on July 24, 1581. This was evidently an account of the arrest of 
Campion, Sherwin, and Brian. Captured in Berkshire on July 22, 
Campion was carried through the streets of London to the Tower with 
his elbows tied behind his back, his hands tied in front of his body, his 
feet tied under the horse's belly, and with a placard inscribed " Campion 
the seditious Jesuit " fastened on his hat. He was twice tortured, was 
tried for treason on November 20, and was executed on December I. 
By an extraordinary innovation the ballad emphasizes the statement that 
the priests were condemned for treason, "not for their religion, as 
Papists persuade " (stanza 4). Hallam, however, has declared that " the 
prosecution was as unfairly conducted, and supported by as slender 
evidence, as any, perhaps, that can be found in our books." The most 
complete and judicious account of the priest is given in Richard 
Simpson's Edmund Campion, a Biography, 1867; see also Ballads from 
MSS., II., 157 ff. 

The following passages from Stow's Annah (1615, p. 694) give 
specific facts and dates that apply to the ballad, though discrepancies in 
names will be noticed : 

"On the 1O. of Nouember [1581], Edm. Champion lesuit, Ralfe Sherivine, Lucas 
Kerbie, Edivard Rishton, Thomas Coteham, Hcnric Orton, Robert lohnson, and lames 
Bosgraue, were brought to the high bar at Westminster, where they were seuerally, 
and all together indicted vpon high treason, for that contrary both to loue and 
dutie, they forsooke their natiue countrey, to Hue beyond the seas vnder the Popes 
obedience, as at Rome, Rheimes, and diuerse other places, where (the pope hauing 
with other princes practised the death and depriuation of our most gracious 
princesse, and vtter subuersion of her state and kingdome, to aduance his most 
abhominable religion) these menne hauing vowed their alleagiance to the pope, 
to obey him in all causes whatsoeuer, being there, gaue their consent, to ayd him 
in this most trayterous determination. And for this intent and purpose they 
were sent ouer to seduce the harts of her maiesties louing subjects, and to conspire 
and practise her graces death, as much as in them lay, against a great date, set & 
appoynted, when the generall hauocke should be made, those onely reserued that 
ioyned with them. This laid to their charge, they boldly denied, but by a iurie 
they were approoued guiltie, and had Judgement to bee hanged, bowelled, and 

"The first of December, Ednond Champion lesuit, Ralfe Sherivine, and Alexander 
Brian seminary priests, were drawne from the tower of London to Tyborne, & 
there hanged, bowelled & quartered." 

"On the l8. day of May [1582], Thomat Ford, lohn Shert, & Robert Johnson 
priests, . . . were drawne from the Tower to Tiborne,and there hanged, bowelled, 
& quartered. 

" And on the 30. Luke Kirby, William Filby, Thomas Cottam,*nd Laurence Richardson, 
were for the like treason in the same place likewise executed." 

The ballad was printed shortly after the first execution of December I . 


a criump^ for true subiectg, ant) a 
Cerrour tonto al raitour0: T5p tyt 
example of tty late Deatlj of Edmund 

Campion, Ralpbe Sberwin^ atll) Thomas 

Bryan, 3ie0uite0 anti seminarie prieste0: 
0ufferet) at cpburne, on JFriDap, 
fir0t Dave of December, 
anno Domini 1581. 

GOOD Subiectes of ENGLAN>E, reioyce and be glad ; 

Gyue glorie to God with humble knees downe ! 
That Campion the Traytour his hyre hath now had, 

Who sought for to spoyle our queene and her Crowne ; 
And all vnder colour of Jesuits' profession, 
To perswade the Queenes Subiects to their own destruc 

Therfore vnto God for our Queene let vs pray, 

That the Lorde may preserue her lyfe many a day. 

H And it was not he only that went thus about, 

Under cloake of Hipocrisie Subiects' harts to bring 
down ; 

But sundrie Seducers (his Associates) founde out, 

That sought for to spoyle the Realme and the Crowne ; 

Sent in by the Pope, Saunders, Allen, and sutche, 

[Title] Thomas : in an old handwriting this name is scratched out 
and the correct name of " Alexander " substituted. 

[2] 5 Saunders : on the suspected activities of Dr. Saunders in Ireland 
see Bishop Challoner's Martyrs to the Catholic Faith, 1878 ed., I., 46, 6cv 
68, 105 ; Allen : i.e. Dr. (afterward Cardinal) William Allen, who- 
founded the seminaries abroad for the education of English priests. 


Who at England** happy state most trayterously grutch ; 
Which sort God reuealed with their trayterous intent, 
For what cause was their comyng, & who had them 

11 Their cruell Conspyracie at Rome was deuised, 

And the lyke at Rheims agreed vpon ; 
And that they were Authors, it was manifestly prooued, 

And Styrrers, of late, in the Irysh Rebellion. 
And now were fully purposte in Englande agayne 
To rayse new Rebellion, as prooued was playne, 

To the great endaungeryng of the Realme and the 

But Goddes name be praysed, their deuices are 
frustrate ; 


11 And they apprehended and iustly condempned, 
Not for their Religion, as Papistes perswade, 

But for haynous hie Treason whiche they did and in 

tended ; 
Neither were they endicted on the Acte lately made, 

But by an auncient olde statute, made long tyme agoe, 

As by their Endictmentes the Recordes do shoe. 
Therfore, all true Subiectes haue cause for to ioy 
That God cut them off whiche the Realme did annoy. 


11 If they had preuayled, as they did intende, 
To rayse vp Rebellyon in Countrey and towne, 

[3] 4 Rebellion : it was crushed by Lord Grey of Wilton in 
November, 1580. 

[4] 4 Act: the Act of 1581 here referred to is discussed in tke 
Introduction, p. xix. ; 6 shoe : i.e. show. 

-E 65 


They had brought many a Papist vnto an yll ende, 
As well as good subiectes to the Queene and the 


For suche is their malice in thirstyng for blood, 
To the one or the other they meant but small good, 
As some (their late Harbourers) their acquaintance 

deare bought, 
To others' Example great cause they be taught. 


H As the Deuyll, no doubt, set these Traytours aworke, 
By the Pope's appoinctment his Chaplayne of Rome 

Whose spight to Goddes people is worse than the Turke 
In dayly enticing Christian Subiectes to come 

From their naturall Prince, withdrawyng their allegeance, 

And yeld it by Oath vnto his obeysance ; 

Euen so from his falshed God delyuer vs for euer, 
That to his allurementes our hartes agree neuer. 

[7] 1 

11 Though Campion, his Captayne, did no whit forget 

To put all in practise, as much as he might, 
Yet the Lord to preuent him his deuices detecte, 

With his other associates, and brought them to light, 
To their vtter confusion, as lately was seene 
By Campion and others that hanged haue beene, 

Which cal'd themselues lesuits, blaspheming his name ; 

But in-deed ranker Traytours in England nere came. 

[8] ... .I 

11 These are the Deuices that Sathan doth vse 

in seekyng Goddes people eche day to deuoure ; 
By many lyke meanes he doth them abuse, 

as farre as God suffreth and is in his power. 

[7] 7 his : i.e. His, Jesus'. 



Yea, rather then fayle of his purposed spight, 
He'le transforme him selfe to an Angell of light 
That, if it were possible, the very Elect 
With his faire Shewes of Holynesse he would infect. 


If Therefore, beware of him, resist him and his Frie, 

With all his illusions and showes of Hipocrisie ! 
What Glozes his Prophetes do bryng do you trye ; 
If they bring not their warrant by God's word and 

Though they come in sheep's clothing, let their talk be 

in vain ; 

For rauening Wolues inwarde ye shall proue them plaine. 
By their fruicts ye shal know them, the Scripture doth 

Therfore, beware of them, if you wyll scape Hell. 


11 They will talke so diuinely, with fancies to feede you, 

And rattle out Rethorique your mindes to amaze, 
With Learning and Logique theyle seeme for to lead you 

Euen straight into Heauen, so graue is their grace. 
Theyle make you beleue that white is fayre blacke, 
Except by strong fayth ye put them quite backe ; 

Th' effecte is playne treason against God and our 

As by these late Traytours well tryed hath beene. 

fl" Yea, treasons playne proued, as dyuers they were, 

As well in generalyte against them all 
As also particuler, as nombers did heare, 

[9] 7 Scripture : i.e. Matthew vii., 1 5 . 



Gainst ech of them, seuerall, in open Court hall. 
By Letters, by Lybelles, by Bulles and confession, 
Were foureteene found gyltie, for all their illusion, 
Beside sundry witnesses, deposed in place, 
Avowde seuerall treasons, viua voce^ to their face. 

ff Three of them haue suffred the Guerdon of treason, 

Not small, but as hye as the lyfe of our Queene, 
Was most plainely proued, yet in their confession 

No whit they acknowledged, no grace to be seene. 
But euen as they lyued in treason and treachery e, 
Euen so with false hearts they dyed in Hypocrisie, 

Acknowledging y e Queene souerain Prince of this 

But the Pope of the Church to be head and supreame. 

1F God graunt the rest grace to repent their misdeedes, 
And to spend well the time they haue for to Hue, 

To fly those affections which their fancy so feeds 
That God of his goodnes their faults may forgiue. 

God graunt them acknowledge the trueth as it is, 

As well toward God, the Queene, and the Realme, 
That due prayse and glory all only may be his, 
Who to saue them and vs suffered death most extreame. 

God blesse and preserue Elizabeth our Queene, 

Most graciously to gouerne vs long time in this land > 

As now twenty yeares and three shee hath beene, 
And bring to confusion her foes out of hand. 

Her Godly wise Counsell direct them, good Lord, 

In all trueth and Justice to agree and accorde, 
To roote out the Rebelles and foes of this land, 
That our Queene and her subiectes in saftie maye 




From the Pope and his Chaplaynes deliuer vs, good Lord, 
Of sectes and seditions that we may beware, 

And not to giue eare, nor in ought to accord, 

When they seeke to seduce vs in their trayterous 

How soeuer they cloake it with c^aft and collusion, 

It may rebound backward to their vtter confusion ! 
God open the eyes of our hartes for to spy 
Hys trueth from all treasons, f alshoode, and villanie ! 

The names of the condemned Prtsonners that weare araigned with CAMPION 
on Munday, the twent\\e\th of Nouember, and the rest on the Thesdaye 
fillowynge, who remaine in the Tower of London, at her Maiesties pleasure, 
as yet unexecuted. 

lohn Bosgraue. Thomas Cotehamc. Luke Kyrbie. 
Robert lohnson. Edivarde Rushton. Henric Orion. 
Thomas Foord. Thomas Fi/lbie. lohn Hart. 
Laivrance Richardson and Wiliidm Shert. And one 
other, named lohn Colyngton, was quight by the lurie. 


Printed by Richarde lones, dwellinge ouer agaynst the 

Faulcon, neare Holburne Bridge. 

Anno. 1581. 

6 9 


O God, of thy great might 
strengthen our frailty 

Addit. MS. 15, 225, fols. 31-33. 

This quite remarkable ballad was written, and evidently put into | 
circulation, shortly after the events (1601) which it describes. It has 
not been reprinted, but stanzas 22-24 are quoted in J. H. Pollen's 
English Martyrs, p. 385. The first 21 stanzas are a mere conventional 
enumeration of other glorious martyrs who have suffered patiently, 
almost identical with that given in the ballad " written by Mr. Thewlis 
(No. 1 2) ; but the stanzas which deal specifically with the four English 
priests and the moral drawn from their execution must greatly have 
strengthened the hearts of Catholic singers and readers. The estimate 
of the number of priests executed in England (stanza 22) as two 
hundred is not, we are told, much exaggerated. 

None of the four priests was guilty of any crime, apart from his 
religion. Robert Nutter, of Burnley, and Edward Thwing, of York 
shire, were executed at Lancaster on July 26, 1600. Nutter's career 
had been a stormy one : as early as February, I 584, according to Bishop 
Challoner, he had been imprisoned in the Tower, "where he was put 
down into a dungeon for seven-and-forty days, loaded with chains for 
the greatest part of the time, and twice tortured, and in November 
following was lodged again in the same hole, and remained there for 
two months and fourteen days." He is said rather to have " despised 
than conquered death," going to the gallows " with as much cheerful 
ness and joy as if he had been going to a feast, to the astonishment of 
the spectators." Robert Middleton was arrested on September 30, 
1 600, and carried to Preston, where his examination (a report of which 
is extant) was held. A rash attempt by four priests, led by Thurston 
Hunt (alias Greenlowe), to rescue him, resulted in the capture of Hunt. 
In November Hunt and Middleton were delivered into the hands of the 
Privy Council at London, where they remained in prison until March 
3, 1 60 1. They were then sent back to Lancaster, the Council having 
given orders that " the legges [be] bound under the belly of the horses 
they shall ryde upon and their hands behinde them," treatment 
regularly accorded to criminals. The result of the trial that followed 
was, naturally enough, a sentence of death. A contemporary account 
says : " They being brought to the place of execution professed their 
faith very constantly and dyed very resolutely. They asked benediction 



one of another and embraced each other before they went up the 
gallows. M r Hunt was first executed, and having the corde about his 
neck he gave his blessing to all Catholicks there present which were 
a greate number : both executed in their cassocks. M r Hunt hanged 
til he was dead. M r Middleton seemed to have flowen up the gallows, 
he went so nembly up, and was cutte [down] alive by error, as some 
think. For as soon as the rope was cutt and he began to stirre in the 
butchers hands, the sheriff bid streight waies cutt of his head, and soe it 
was ; and thus he being last hanged was first quartered." 

Abundant information about the four priests will be found in Pollen's 
English Martyrs, pp. 384-90 ; Bishop Challoner's Martyrs to the Catholic 
Faith, 1878 ed., I., 251-53, 263 ; Victoria History of Lancaster, VIII., 
14, 1 6 ; Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, XXX., 751 ; XXXI., 
194, 198, 238. The four were beatified by Leo XIII. in 1886. 

For the tune see Chappell's Popular Music, II., 517. 

a 0onge of faitre pretefe0 ttiat 0uffereo 

at Lancaster. 

To the Tune of Daintie, come th:u to me. 

O god, of thy great might strengthen our frailtie soe, 
Stoutlie to stand in feight against our infernall foe ! 
Thy Campe in Order standes, where many a Champion 

In their victorious handes et email Tryumph hould. 

Saihan sustaines the foyle, Christ gaines the victorie, 
The world doth well recoile, the flesh doth faint we see. 
Let vs march on amaine, Christ's Crosse be our good 

Full resolu'd to sustaine what Jesus hath decreede. 

- [3] 

In measure of our feight, reward we beare a-way ; 
Then let vs stand vpright stronglie in our aray ; 

[2] I foyle = defeat. 



And never be dismaide with anie adversitie, 
Sith Christ, our lord, hath said : " take my Crosse, 
followe mee." 

Our lord is gonne before with his Crosse, rufullie 
Laid on his shoulders sore, to mount of Caluarie ; 
Our blessed Ladie sweete this dolfull sight did see, 
With her sonne shee did meete, laden soe cruellie. 

[5] m 1; 

The sworde of sorrow then pearced her louinge hart. 
Amongst all blessed men Christ doth his Crosse impart. 
From Abell to Zacherie, the scripture telleth plaine, 
By greeuous crueltie many sweete saintes were slaine. 


O the seven machabees with their sweete mother deare, 
The wonderful cruelties those blessed marters beare 
Would throughlie foarce, I thinke, the hardest hart to 

thawe ; 
Yet would they never shrinke from Christ his most sacred 



Eich Prophet and eich saint of the Quid Testament 
In hart did never faint, but with their Crosse content ; 
But walked on louinglie, St. Paule did plainlie say, 
That to them there might bee more joy the latter day. 

[8] j 

St. lohn, that Prophet great, whome Christ did soe 

Reproouinge Herald's lust, whoe lewdlie did offend, 

[3] 4 See St Matthew xvi., 24. 

[6] 3 throughlie : i.e. thoroughly ; 4 Christ his : read Christ's. 

[8] 2 Herold's : i.e. Herod's. 



A wench heroldes fancie fed, soe with her dancing skill, 
That saint John lost his head at a lewd woman's will. 


All the Apostles deare, whose happie lot was such, 
Their weightie crosses bare, for god did loue them 

much : 

St. Peter principall vpon a Crosse was kil'd, 
His louinge duties all to Christ were soe fulfil'd. 


St. Paule, that b[l]essed wight, godes elect vessell deare, 
In travell day and night his painfull Crosse did beare ; 
And, as the storie saith, by the sword lost his head ; 
In plantinge of Christ's faith, his sacred blood was shedd. 


St. Andrew with godes aide, when he his Crosse did see : 
" O good crosse," then he said, " welcome thou art to 

mee ; 
Take me with gladsome cheere, whoe long haue wisht for 

For soe my sauiour deere thus hath redeemed mee ! " 

Lykewyse St. James the Just, for his fidelitie, 

From a Tower he was thrust, brained most cruellie ; 

St. Earthlomew, also, aliue did lose his skinne, 

Fleed from the top to toe, thereby godes blisse to winne. 


St. Stephen, stoned to death by the Jezues feirce and fell, 
Through bloodie tormentes past in endlesse joyes to dwell; 

[8] 3 A wench : i.e. Salome (St Matthew xiv., 1-12). 

[12] i James : i.e. the Apostle, St. James the Less, who was thrown 
from the battlements of Jerusalem and stoned to death ; 3 Barthlomew : 
i.e. Bartholomew ; 4 Fleed : i.e. flayed. 



St. Lawrence eake, god wot, long time did broile and fry 
Vpon a grid-Iron hot, for Jesus' sake to dye. 


And st. 5 'abas tine, quicke, vnto a tree was bound, 
With arrowes sharpe and thicke shot through with manie 

a wounde. 

O whoe can wryte with pen, or yet what tonge can showe, 
What loue these blessed men did to their maker owe ? 

Infinite marters moe, which pen cannot expresse, 
In this same way did goe to endlesse happinesse, 
With merie hart and cheere in their most deepe distresse, 
For god would not for-beare to leaue them comfortlesse. 

[16] - . I 

And such as marterdome kiPd not with violence 
To their conflict did come in Austeare penitence, 
In praier to entreat, in fast and discipline, 
In workes of mercie great, and soe they spent their time. 

Thus Christ hath gonne before ; and thus hath followed 


All his saintes euermore, whose Crosses now are past. 
Raigninge in heauen aboue, crowned with glorie great, 
In measure of their loue eich hath his kinglie seat. 


Codes grace it was that made the saintes soe well to doe ; 
Let vs not be airraid, for that is oures alsoe ! 

[14] i Sabastine : i.e. St. Sebastian, A.D. 288 ; according to the story, 
he did not die after the tortures here mentioned, but later, at the order 
of Emperor Dioclesian, was beaten to death. 

[15] i moe = more. [16] 3 praier: i.e. pray-er. 



If we will seeke, therefore, by feruent prair still, 
Though our crosse greeue vs sore, godes grace shall 
strength our will. 


Was ever blessed wight, since man first came to losse, 
That wonne eternal! blisse without bearinge his Crosse ? 
All of necessitie, as saint Paulle doth repeate, 
Walke to felicitie with toiles and trouble greate. 


Wor[l]dlinges heereat will muse in their volupteousnesse, 
And thinke these wordes I vse nothinge but foolishnesse. 
Godes wisdome, as we reade, amongst the worldlie-wise 
Is follie deem'd indeede vnto their veiled eies. 

But let the flesh repine, let worldlie wittes say nay. 
Let vs beginne in time to walke this blessed way, 
As manie marters doe in these our present daies, 
Many confessors, too, godes name haue all the prayse ! 

In this our English coast much blessed blood is shed : 
Two hundred preistes almost in our time martered ! 
And manie lay-men dye with joyfull sufferance, 
Manie moe in prison lye, godes cause for to advance ! 


Amongst these gratious troupe, that follow Christ his 

To cause the devill stoupe, foure preistes were lat[e]lie 

slaine : 

[18] 3 prair : i.e. pray-er. [23] i these : read this. 



Nutter's bould constantie, with his sweete fellow, 

Of whose most meeke modestie Angells and saintes may 

singe ! 

Hunters hawtie corage staut, w[it]h godlie zeale soe 

Myld middleton, o what tonge can halfe thy virtue 

shew ! 

At Lancaster, louingly, these marteres tooke their end 
In glorious victorie, true faith for to defende. 


And thus hath Lancashyre offered her sacrifice 

To daunt their lewde desyre and please our sauiour's 

eies ! 

For by this meanes, I trust, truth shall haue victorie, 
When as that number just of such saintes compleat bee. 

Whoe the holie ghost doth moue vnto his deitie, 
In feruent flames of loue thus sacrifis'd to bee, 
Whose faith and fortitude, whose grace and constantie, 
With mildnesse meeke indude, confoundeth heresie ; 


Whose sacred members rent, and quarters set on hye, 
Caus'd moe to be content in the same cause to dye ; 
Whose Hues whyle they did Hue, whose blessed deaths 

Doe admonishion giue what waie we ought to goe. 

[23] 3 constantie : i.e. constancy. 

[24] i with : MS. defective here. [26] 4 indude : i.e. endued. 

7 6 



If we should them dispise, as manie wretches doe, 

We should contempne, likewise, our blessed sauiour too, 
Let their examples, then, moue our hartes to relent 
These were most blessed men, whom god to vs hath sent. 


Codes holie truth they taught, and seal'd it with their 


Dyinge, with tormentes fraught, and all to doe vs good. 
Let lyinge heresie with her false lyebilles lout, 
Truth will haue victorie through such mild champions 

stout ! 


Praise be to godes good will, whoe doeth his truth 

defend ! 

Lord, to thy Viniard still such worthie workemen send ! 
And, good lord, grant vs grace that we may constant bee, 
With our Crosse in each place to please thy maiestie ! 

On[e] thinge here I request and still of thee implore, 
In thy house to aspire to dwell for evermore, 
There for to see thy will in virtue all our daise, 
And visit thy temple still to thyne eternall praise. 

I [32] 

All laud and glorie great be to the Trinitie, 
In his eternall seat one god and persones three ; 
And to the virgin mild, the Queene of heauen hye, 
With Jesus, her louinge Child, in all eternitie ! 

[29] 3 lyebilles: i.e. libels; 3 lout =- mock, jeer. 
[30] i doeth : i.e. doth. 




Vnto all Prophetes meeke, to Christes Apostles deere, 
Marters, Confessors eake, and to all virgins cleare, 
And vnto each of them, Crowned in their degree, 
With joy in Jerusalem godes blessed face to see ! 


True Christian hearts, cease to 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 22 v -25. Thirteen stanzas are printed from 
this MS. in J. H. Pollen's Acts of the English Martyrs, pp. 204 ff. 

John Thewlis, of Upholland, a seminary priest, was executed for his 
religion at Lancaster on March 18, 1616, and his head set on the castle 
walls. He was beatified by Leo XIII. in 1886, and is entitled 
"Venerable." Some account of him is given in Bishop Challoner's 
Martyrs to the Catholic Faith, 1878 ed., II., 68, in the Victoria History of 
Lancaster, 1914, VIII., 16, and in Pollen's Acts. See also the next 
ballad (No. 1 3), which describes his death. 

It is by no means improbable that Thewlis was actually the author 
of this ballad : cf. stanzas 1 5 and 1 9, in which he appears to be address 
ing his fellow-prisoners. The custom of writing farewell verses from 
prison (debased though it was by the shameless fabrications of the ballad- 
journalists) was general. For poetry the ballad is not distinguished. 
Particularly awkward is the variation in the refrain between rising and 
rising. The lengthy enumeration of earlier martyrs is conventional : in 
the "Song of the Four Priests" (No. 1 1) almost the same enumeration 
is made. With stanza 1 3 may be compared these verses which appear 
with music in Byrd's Psalmes, 1588, XXXIII. : 

That stoare of such were once on earth pursu'd 
the histories of auncient times record, 
whose con>tancie great tirants rage subdu'd, 
through patiet death professing Christ their Lord, 
as his Apostles perfect witnesse beare, 
with many more that blessed Martirs were. 

Whose patience rare & most couragious minde 
with fame renoum'd perpetuall shall endure, 
by whose examples we may rightly finde, 
of holie life and death a patterne pure : 
that we therfore their vertues may embrace, 
pray we to Christ to guide vs with his grace. 

St. Laurence (cf. stanza 1 2) was so frequently referred to in Elizabethan 
and Jacobean days that his " Grid-yron " came near losing its significance : 
trifling uses of the phrase abound, as in Mercurius Democritus for September 
7.14, October 5-12, 1653, pp. 573, 602. Antony Munday, in his 



English Romaine Life, 1582, sig. 04, observes of St. Laurence's Church in 
Rome : " There also they saye to be the Grediron whereon S. Lauraunce 
was broyled : but that I neuer sawe." A coarse song of " A Puritan " 
in Merry Drollery, Part I., 1661, p. 2, contains the lines : 

Here's a Rib of St. Laurence, 
'Tis also at Florence, 
And it may be in France, or in Spain ; 
It cures Stone and Gravel . . . 

foUowtt) ttye songe mr. 
uirit l;im sclfe. 

To the Tune of [none given] . 

True Christian hartes, cease to lament, 

for greefe it is in vaine ; 
For Christ, you know, was well content 

to suffer bitter payne, 
That we may come to heaven blisse, 

there joyfully to singe. 
Whoe doth beleeue, shall never misse 

to haue a joy full ry singe. 

But, England?, heere my hart is sad 

for thy great crueltie ; 
And losse of faith which once thou had 

of Christianitie ; 
In thee false doctrine doth appeare 

abundantlie to springe, 
Which is the cause, I greatlie feare, 

thou loose thy happie ry singe. 


As for my selfe I am not affraid 
to suffer constantlie ; 

[i] 5 heaven : read heaven's. [2] 8 thou loose : read thou'll lose. 



For why ? due debt must neede be paid 

vnto sweete god on hye. 
St. Paule he being firme of faith, 

hopinge with saintes to singe, 
Most patientlie did suffer death 

lord send vs bap-pie ryseinge I 


Marke well my ghostlie victorie, 

my frendes both great and smale, 
Bee firme of faith, remember me, 

and dread not of your fale. 
For you, my sheepe, I (sheaparde) haue 

mad[e] labour for to bringe, 
You to my fould, your soules to saue 

Christ send vs happie ryseinge ! 


I haue said masse and mattinnes both, 

and true instructions tought ; 
Confirmed by the holie Ghost 

and mightie power wrought ; 
The holie communion, also, 

with manna ever liuinge, 
The holie Sacramentes I taught 

lord send vs happie rysing ! 


Christis passion oft before your face, 

I haue declared plaine ; 
How for our sinns he suffered death, 

and how he rose againe ; 
And how the twelue Apostles, eike, 

were put to death for preachinge 

[6] i Christis : read Christ's. 



The Catholike faith which Christ did teach 
Christ send vs happie ry singe ! 


St. Andrew he condempned was 

vpon a Crosse to dye. 
The[y] could not hurt his sacred soule, 

she to thee then did fly ; 
There streatched foarth her armes soe wyde, 

most joyfullie doth singe, 
That we with her may there a-byde 

Christ send vs happie ry singe ! 


St. James he never did refuse 

most faithfullie to pray, 
Euen when the cruell-harted jfewes 

did take his life away. 
And St. Bartholomew, also, 

a-liue did loose his skinne ; 
Yea, for his truth and confidence 

in Christ, our heavenlie kinge. 

St. lohn Euangelist did preach, 

being simplelie arayed, 
The Catholike faith (in Englande heere, 

though now it be decaid). 
St. lames the more headed was he, 

of death he fealt the stinge, 

[7] i According to the legend St. Andrew was crucified at Patrae in 

[8] i James: i.e. St. James the Less, or the Just. Cf. No. n, 
stanza 1 2, note. 

[9] 5 James : the first apostle to suffer martyrdom, beheaded at 



Although he liued verteouslie 
lord send vs happie ry singe J 


St. Matthew lost his life becau[s]e 

godes word he did maintaine ; 
And manie saintes in like case, 

which truth could not refraine. 
St. Thomas, the apostle cleere, 

he by a cruell kinge 
Was murthered with a hatefull speare 

lord send vs happie ry singe ! 

St. Paule, a Catholike of Roome, 

for loue of Christ he beare, 
Did lease his life, but yet his fame 

is spread both far and neare. 
St. Steuen was ston'd to death, also, 

and when he lay a-dyinge, 
He prayed for his enemyes 

Christ send vs happie ry singe ! 


Moreover, Marke Evangelist, 

a cruell death died hee : 
A rope about his necke was cast, 

and dragg'd to death was hee. 

[ i o] 3 saints : MS. substitutes for Angels, in : later hand makes MS. 
read in the, to restore metre ; 6 according to Leucina, in his false Acts, the 
"cruel king" was Gundaphore, usually explained as the King of 
Gandispor, a city in Persia. 

[i i] 7 See Acts vii., viii. 

[12] 2 died : on April 25, A.D. 68, tempo Nero. He was dragged for 
two entire days. 



St. Lawrence on a grid- Iron hot 
did lye most freshlie fryinge, 

Was put to cruell death, god wot 
Christ send vs happie ry singe ! 

[13] ; : 

And manie saintes and marters moe, 

which were too long to wryte, 
Haue suffered cruell death, you knowe, 

as scripture doth recyte. 
They now with Christ aboue doe raigne, 

and joyfully doo singe, 
That we may all attaine godes loue 

Christ send vs happie ry singe ! 

And then why should I be afraid 

to suffer constantlie ? 
Sith in this cause soe manie saintes 

did suffer patientlie ; 
And left examples for vs all 

that we with them may singe ; 
God grant wee may for mercie call, 

and haue a happie ryseinge ! 


O yea poore prisoners, dread not death, 
though you haue donne amisse ; 

But pray to god with faithfull hartes 
to bringe you vnto blisse ; 

[12] 6 fryinge : This horrible word does not seem to have jarred on 
the Elizabethan ear. Many instances of its use occur ; e.g. " I fry in 
freesing colde " (Southwell's Poems, ed. Grosart, p. 85), "Each noure 
amidst the deepe of hell I frie " (John Dowland's First Book of Songs, 
1600, XVI.), "I ... with loue doth fry, doth fry " (Thomas Weelkes's 
Madrigals, 1600, sig. Dz). See also No. n, stanza 13. 

[13] i moe = more. [15] i yea: i.e. ye. 


Confesse your sins with contreete hartes 

vnto our heauenlie kinge ; 
For he is mercifull indeed 

Christ send vs happie ry singe ! 

[16] f 
There is noe man Hues in such case 

that hath not done amisse ; 
Yet through repentance and godes grace 

may reape eternall blisse. 
Our sauior Christ did suffer death, 

poore soules in blisse to bringe 
Vnto that blessed, heavenlie place 

god send vs joy full ryseinge ! 


The saintes also did suffer death, 

and marteres as you heare ; 
And I my selfe am now at hande, 

but death I doe not feare. 
Then haue I trust of greater grace 

vnto my soule will bringe, 
When we shall meete both face to face 

Before ou\r~\e heavenlie kinge. 

[i 8] 

Noe heardle hard nor hempen rope 

canne make me once afraid ; 
Noe tyrantes knife against my life 

shall make me disamaide. 

[17] 6 will : read to ; 8 oure : MS. possibly one. 

[18] i heardle: i.e. hurdle, a kind of sledge on which till 1870 
traitors were drawn through the streets from the prison to the place of 
execution. Sometimes, according to contemporary accounts, horses 
obstinately refused to draw the hurdles on which Catholic martyrs were 
placed, an incident regarded as a sign from heaven. Cf. Pollen's English 
Martyrs, pp. 60, 185, 231, etc. 



Though flesh and bones be broken and tome, 

my soule, I trust, will singe 
Amongst the glorious cornpanie, 

with Christ, our heavenlie kinge. 


Thus I, your frend lohn Tbuelis, 

haue made my latest end, 
Desyreinge god, when his will is, 

vs all to heaven send ; 
Where neither strange nor dampned crewe 

can greefe vnto vs bringe. 
And now I bid my last adue 

Christ send vs happie ryseinge ! 


God grant you grace still in your hartes 

false doctrine to refraine, 
And hould the true Catholi[ke] faith, 

which Christ did once ordaine. 
All honour be to god of hoastes, 

all glorie to his sonne, 
All praise be to the holie ghost, 

three persones all in one ! 

[20] 3 Catholike : MS. leaves space for the letters ke. 



O God above relent 

Addit. MS. I5,225,fols. 25-27 v . Stanzas written in double columns 
on each page. 

This marvellous ballad has escaped the eye of all ballad-collectors, 
though it has been inaccurately reprinted in J. H. Pollen's Acts of the 
English Martyrs ', pp. 194 ff. No other ballad, and but few prose 
accounts, comparable to it, in its graphic journalism, its nai've admixture 
of the supernatural, and in what modern critics are fond of calling 
human interest, either about Protestant or Catholic martyrs exists. In 
spite of his halting poetry, the author makes the unfortunate priest appear 
in a most attractive light ; and the mildness, the resignation, of his tone 
is wholly remarkable. The "constant wight" of Part I., stanza 33, 
was Roger Wrennall, a weaver who had been imprisoned for religion. 
Because he assisted Thewlis in an attempt to escape, he was condemned 
to death and executed with his friend. He was beatified in 1886. The 
Parson Lee referred to in Part I., stanza 7, and Part II., stanza 18, was 
William Leigh, B.D., rector of the Standish Church of St. Wilfrid, 
Fellow of Brasenose College, and Tutor of the Prince of Wales : full 
accounts of his life are given in the Dictionary of National Biography and 
the Victoria History of Lancaster, VI., 189. 

Every particular connected with the trial and execution of Thewlis 
was many times duplicated in the reign of James I. The refinement of 
cruelty by which these two men were compelled to witness the execution 
of three felons recalls the similar case of Lady Jane Grey and the 
decapitated body of her husband. Wrennall, it will be observed, was 
forced to see Thewlis hanged, just as the priest Middleton watched the 
hanging of his friend Hunt before his own turn came (see No. n). 
In 1595 two priests, Henry Walpole and Alexander Rawlins, were taken 
to the place of execution together ; " and when Mr. Rawlins was in 
quartering, they showed him to Father Walpole, bidding him be more 
wise than to follow his example " of refusing to take the oath (Challoner's 
Martyrs, 1878, I., 225). An eye-witness of the execution of Robert 
Southwell tells how that ill-starred poet-priest kept making the sign of 
the cross for a considerable space, the rope being adjusted so as not to 
break the neck but to cause strangulation ; and adds that only the 
murmurs of the crowd prevented the executioner from cutting the rope 
(to proceed with the ghastly business of quartering) before life was 
extinct. Even more sympathetic were the spectators at the hanging of 



the priest Garnet (in 1 606, for the Gunpowder Treason), who only by 
determined threats prevented his being prematurely cut down. The 
spectators eagerly sought Garnet's blood and other " relics " while his 
body was being quartered ; and observed " a visible and apparent circle 
of red about his head in the form of a crown " (John Morris, Father 
Gerard's Narrative, 1871, pp. 296 f.). 

For the tune see ChappeH's Popular Music, II., 5 1 7. 

foUotnetl) fye songe of ttie fceatt) of 

Hit, Tbeivlis. 

To the Tune of Daintie, come thou to mee. 

O god aboue, relent, 

and lissten t[o] our cry ; 
O Christ, our wooes prevent, 

let not thy Children die ! 


As at th' assyses late, 

good proofe, too much, we see, 

Thy lambes their lyms haue lost, 
through Tyrant es' Cruelltie. 


One Thewlis is the man 

which makes me call and cry ; 

Come helpe me all that can 
of Christ to beg mercie ! 


His courage myld and meeke, 
and his most comlie glee, 

[ i ] 2 to our : MS. tour. 

[2] i assyses: i.e. assizes held at Lancaster in 1616 ; 3 lyms 
MS. possibly lyu[e]s. 



His answere not to seeke, 
in middes of misserie, 


In a dungeon he was cast, 
amonge the theeues to lye. 

Of all meates he did tast[e] 
which came to fellons' fee. 


And in th' assyses weeke, 
in lent, arainde was he ; 

Where frendes and kinsfolks were 
to see hjs constanccie. 


Best preachers in the land 
by name one parson Lie ; 

Noe better can be found 
within the Counterie 

[8] _ 
Three seuerall daies did tempt 

to try his constancie ; 
The judge beinge present there, 

with all his companie. 


To all thinges they demande, 
he answeres Cheerfully e ; 

His answere there was sound 
in all contraversie. 

[4] 4 middes : I.e. midst. 

[7] 2 by : read perhaps to ; Lie : i.e. Lee (Leigh). 



As they were apt to moue 
from poynt to poynt, trulie 

He did not them reprooue, 
but answered quyetlie. 

When they could not preueile 
to wrest his constantie, 

They did him treator call, 
and said that he should die. 

Then smylinglie he said, 

with sweete and pleasant glee : 

" Noe treason I haue wrought, 
nor wicked Treacherie. 


" Noe Treason I haue done 
against king nor Countrie ; 

Christ Jesus, godes owne sonne, 
a witnes take for mee. 


" It is for his deere sake, 
his Church both meeke and free, 

That I doe vndertake 

a true Catboli\ke\ to dye ; 


" It is for his deere sake, 
that gaue his life for me, 

[n] 2 constantie : i.e. constancy. [13] 2 king : i.e. James I. 
[14] 4 Catholike : space is left in the MS. for the letters ke. 



My Crosse I vndertake, 
his spouse to glorifie." 


Then they gaue him a note : 

th' effecte did signifie 
That he must take the oeth, 

or eles prepare to dye. 


Then answered he and said : 
" for dutie temperall, 

1 anye oeth will take, 
whensoeuer you doe call. 


" For o-ther oath," quoth he, 

" I vtterlie denye. 
God saue our king and queene, 

and send them,meekle joy ! " 


Accordinge to the law, 

death sentance then had hee ; 

And, as all people knowe, 
he took it patientlie. 


On fry day in the morne, 
attempted sore was hee ; 

They wilde him to reforme 
and take the king's mercie. 

[16] 3 oeth : i.e. oath. 

[18] 3 I.e. James I. and Anne ; 4 joy : read glee. 

[20] 3 wilde : i.e. willed. 

9 1 



His kinsfolke, in like cause, 

did proffer gould and fee, 
If his faith hee would refuse, 
a Protestant to bee. 


He gaue them hartie thankes, 
and tould them, Cheerfullie, 

His life they should not craue 
a Protestant to bee. 


In wrastinge of[f] his bondes 

somwhat too hastilie, 
They hurt his tender leggs, 

whereat they seem'd sorie. 

Then smylinglie he said : 

" Forbeare to mourne for mee ! 
Smale hurts doe little greeue, 

when great on[e]s are soe nye. 

[25] _ 

" I thanke my sauiour sweete 
from these bondes I am free ; 

Soe soone I hope I shalle 
from all extremitie. 


" By afflixtions god doth prooue 
who his true Children bee ; 

21] 2 Bishop Challoner (he. cit.) tells of one person's offering Thewlis 
Q yearly for the rest of his life if he would take the oath. 



Christ Jesus this can remooue, 
in the twinklinge of an eye ! " 

They forst him to the Church, 

in spite of his bodie, 
Wher he full myldlie sate, 

for all their crueltie. 


Then did he aske the Sheriff e 
his breedren for to see, 

With them to take his leaue 
before he went to dye. 


The sheriffe gaue consent 
he thankt him hartelie. 

He to his breedren went 
with humble Curtesie. 


Then did he frendlie leaue 
of all his breethren take ; 

Sayinge, " doe you not greeue, 
nor mourne not for my sake ; 


" For it's godes blessed will 
that I must leade the way ; 

But be you constant still, 
and I will for you pray." 




And then with watterie Cheekes, 
they parted mournfullie ; 

His gesture little shranke 
such was his constantsie. 


Another Constante wight, 
which I had neare forgot, 

Was constant day and night, 
and thankfull for his lot ; 


On[e] wrennall was he cal'd, 

a lay-man happie he, 
They both prepar'd themselues 

on hurdle for to lye. 

[35] _ 

And thus these faithfull wightes 
soe myldlie fram'd the same : 

The father and the sonne 
thus hath their journey tane. 


My muse beginns to faint, 
and greefe me overflowe ; 

But of these martered saintes, 
the seconde part shall showe. 

[35] 4 journey : MS. joirney. 



gecont) part. 

As Tbewles past the way, 

the poorest he did spye ; 
He gaue that money he had lefte 

their wantes for to supplye. 


O god aboue, relent, 

and listen to our crye ; 
Sweet Christ, thy spouse defend 

from tyrantes' crueltie ! 


To Th' execution place, 

the[y] beinge thither drawne, 

Present before their face 
was fier one cruell flame. 


Then did they them attempt 

their faith for to denye ; 
Sainge they must be hangde 

and buried cruellie. 


Then, smylinge, Thewles said : 
" If that the worst may bee, 

Our sauiour Christ hath paid 
farre greatter paines for me ! " 

drawne : i.e. on hurdles ; 4 one : perhaps in or a. 
they = the executioners, them = Thewlis and Wrennall 




Then myldlie they preparde 

to Th' execution place. 
Three fellones they did see 

hanged before their face. 

[7] ' 

And at the ladder foote, 
where manie people stoode, 

He held them with dispute, 
while ever they would abyde. 


Then did they profer them 
part of the oath to take, 

And they should not be slaine, 

such frendshippe they would make. 


But all could not preveale 
their mindes for to remoue ; 

Nor once their courage quaile, 
soe constant was their loue. 


With Crosse and signes soe meeke, 

the ladder he did take ; 
Where manie a watterie eye 

appeared for his sake. 

A hundred poundes was there 
for his life offered free, 

7] 3 He = Thewlis ; 4 Read while ever abyde they would. 
10] 2 he = Thewlis. 

9 6 


If he would yet consent 
a protestant to bee. 


Then, smylingely, he said : 
" That ransome I denye ; 

That may noe way be paid 
but by death eternally. 


" I thanke you for your loues, 
your good will all I see, 

But I must take the Crosse 
that Christ hath lefte for me." 

Then willingly he did 

himselfe most readie make ; 
He preferred to vnbare, 

and his Cloath of[f] to take. 


A cap as white as snowe 
over his face puPd hee ; 

His hat he threw him froe, 
and purse away gaue he. 


The hangman plaid his part, 
as he did him command ; 

Three stroakes upon his brest, 
he gaue with his right hand, 



The father beinge gone, 
the Child did after hye ; 

Without all show of mone 
he suffered willingly. 


At first the rope did breake, 
which parson Lee did see ; 

He said it was godes will, 
to shew him such mercie. 


The[y] profered him the oath, 
which he did still denye. 

" This night I hope we boath 
shall sup in heaven hye." 


The people moou'd and blusht, 

both hye and low degree, 
And said they thought noe lesse 

but he should saved bee. 

[17] 2 the child : i.e. Wrennall. 

[18] I Personal pronouns in this portion of the ballad are used very 
carelessly ; but according to Bishop Challoner (op. '/., II., 68) stanzas 
18-20 apply to Wrennall, not Thewlis. "The rope broke with th 
weight of his [WrennaH's] body, and he fell to the ground ; and after 
short space he came perfectly to himself, and going upon his knees, begai 
to pray very devoutly." He refused emphatically to take the oath 
saying : " * I am the same man I was, and in the same mind, use you 
pleasure with me ' ; and with that he ran to the ladder, and went up i 
as fast as he could." 

[19] 3 boath : i.e. both Thewlis and Wrennall. 



When that the rope was cut, 
and quartered he should be, 

The hangman did denye, 
and then a-way went hee. 

[22]. "".:..', : .: 
The sherifTe did him oppresse 

with great extremitie, 
And said : " either thou or I 

must doe this butcherie." 

When Thewles was vnbarde, 
a vision there was seene : 

Out of his mouth appeared 
of couller bright and sheene ; 

Most lyke the glorious sunne, 
shyninge in clearest skye, 

Downe over his bodie ranne, 
and vanish from their eye. 

The butcher play'd his part, 
his bodie he did goare ; 

And sure the hardest hart 
did much his death deplore. 

I M 

A hundred handcarchaffes 

with his sweete blood was dight, 

[21] 2 he : perhaps Thewlis is meant. 

123] 4 of : read a. [24] 4 vanish : read vanished. 

26] i handcarchaffes : I.e. handkerchiefs. 



As Reliques for to we[a]re 
for this said blessed wight. 

Then were his quarteres set 
vpon the Castell hye, 

Where hapt as strang a thinge 
as ever man did see. 

A flight of Ravens came, 
and pyked flesh from bones ; 

In the Church-yarde the[y] did light, 
and scraped there deepe holes ! 

O Christian hartes, relent ; 

prepare your soules to saue 
When fethered foules shall help 

for vs to make a graue ! 

[30] _ 

O happie martered saintes, 
to you I call and crye, 

To helpe vs in our wantes 
and begge for vs mercie ! 


O Christ, that suffered death, 
thy spouse for to defend, 

Lyke co[n]stansie till death 
and in heaven be our end ! 

[26] 3 Reliques : MS. Reliuqes. 
[28] 4 deepe : MS. dedpe. 


A jolly shepherd that sat on 
Zion hill 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 1-2. Written in four-line stanzas; the 
margins are closely trimmed, so that some of the stanza numbers have 
disappeared. Line I as printed below is metrically incomplete ; but it 
is obvious from stanzas ^ adfinem that an eight-line stanza was intended. 
On fol. 33 of the MS. the first two stanzas again appear, and are 
arranged in seven lines. They are printed here as an example of the 
uncertain spelling even of the cultivated class in Jacobean times, a class 
to which the compiler of this MS. certainly belonged, and of the equal 
uncertainty of ballad-texts. 

A Jollie sheppard that sate on Sion hill, 

whoe with his rodde and shepardes Crooke 

his sheepe derecteth still, 
His Church it is the fould, 

in tender grasse they feede, 
And to the lountaines fair they goe, 

which is his word indeede. 

The way vnto the holie Church, if anie list to goe, 

by shepardes Tabernacle past 

they must on foot-steppes goe ; 
Where shepardes ould are wonted 

to walke right reuerentlie, 
And there this shepardes spouse soe sweete 

at noone day sure doth lye. 

The first line recalls the later song by John Wootton of " Damaetas ligge 
in praise of his Loue " in England's Helicon (ed. Collier, pp. 5 5 f. ) : 

Jolly Sheepheard, Sheepheard on a hill 

on a hill so merrily, 

on a hill so cherily, 

Feare not Sheepheard there to pipe thy fill, 
Fill euery Dale, fill euery Plaine : 

both sing and say : Loue feeles no paine. 

The ballad, an exposition of the Crucifixion, is distinctly Catholic in 
expression ; but it was evidently regarded by Henry Carr, who licensed 



it for publication on August 15, 1586, as "A ballat begynnynge O Jolly 
shepherd on Sionbill" as an allegory of the Holy Protestant, rather than 
the Holy Catholic, Church. Possibly Carr omitted the fifth stanza. 
Collier (Extracts from the Stationers 9 Registers, II., 2 1 2), following his 
usual manner of mystification and vague references, says of this entry : 
" A reprint of this ballad is in the Roxburghe Collection.'* It is not. 

A Jollie sheppard 

that sate on Sion hill, 
That with his rod [and] sheppardes crooke 

his sheepe derecteth still, 
His Church it is the fould, 

in tender grasse the[y] feede, 
And to the fountaines faire they goe, 

which is his word indeede. 

The way vnto the holie church, 

if anie list to knowe, 
By sheppardes tabernacle past, 

they must on foote-stepes goe ; 
Where sheppardes ould were wonted 

to walke right reverently, 
And there this sheppardes spouse soe sweete 

at noone dayes sure doth lye. 

[3] _ 

This Church is like a Citie faire 

that builded is on hye ; 
Like to a candle shininge bright 

to all that passed by ; 
Where truth shall never fade away, 

but virtue still abyde, 
And where this sheppard dwellinge is, 

both church and sheepe doth guide. 

[2] 2 know : substituted by a later hand for goe. 



The holie scriptures sure to keepe, 

this Church she hath in charge ; 
And power, eike, to bynd and lose, 

to keepe and let at large ; 
And with the holie sacramentes 

his sillie flocke to feede, 
Which is his blood and bodie both 

to them in time of neede. 


And, for the glorie of his Church, 

this shepard did prouide 
Both Prophets and Appostles, eake, 

and marteres trulie tryde, 
With Virgins and confessors pure, 

and docters manie moe, 
The praises of this holie Church 

throughout the world to sho[w]e. 


And more then this : he promissed, 

when he should passe away, 
The holie ghost, the comforter, 

to send with her to stay, 
Whoe in all truth should her defend, 

in virtue euermore, 
Although the waues of wickednesse 

should wash her wales full sore. 


This Church did at Jerusalem 

full visiblelie appeare, 
And afterward confirmed was 

by Christ, our sauiour deere, 

[4] 3 lose : i.e. loose ; 6 sillie : i.e. silly, innocent, helpless. 
7] 2 visiblelie : read visibly. 



When breade and wine he blessed 

and to his Appostles plaine 
Said, "take and eate, this is my flesh, 

which for you shall be slaine." 


For to confirme what he hath said 

the cruell Jewes that night, 
With clubs and staues and weapons sharpe, 

with toarch and lantorn b[ri]ght, 
Came for to take this shepard sweete, 

as he at prayer was, 
If that his father's will it were 

that cup from him might pas. 


They bound him fast, they beat him sore, 

they stroake him on the face, 
They spit at him, they rail'd on him, 

with spite and vile disgrace ; 
By witnes false, they him accus'd, 

for to put downe their lawes, 
Although the Judg did answer them, 

" I finde in him noe cause." 


In-stid of princlie Cepter, 

in his hand the[y] put a reede, 
And like a f oole they him araid 

in whiteish cloathes, indeede ; 
They whipt him soe the blood ran downe, 

his blessed bones were scene, 
And on his head a crowne they set 

of thornes bothe sharpe and keene. 

[9] 2 stroake : I.e. struck. 


" Behould the man," the Judg did say ; 

they " crucifie " did crye. 
And Bar abas they did let goe, 

but Jesus iudg'd to dye ; 
Although the Judg did answere them, 

" I finde in him noe ill ; 
You haue a law, and by that law, 

goe kill him if you will." 


Away they led him wickedlie, 

and on his backe they cast 
The crosse of our offences all, 

that downe he fell at last ; 
And on a roode betwixt two theeues 

they did him crucifie. 
His loue and likinge to his Church, 

these thinges did trulie trye. 


To witnes cale those rageinge words 

the two theeues they did vse, 
To witnes cale the blasphemies 

then spoken by the Jewes, 
To witnes cale his bloodie woundes 

in handes, in feete, and hart, 
To witnes cale his mother deere, 

that thereof had her part. 

To witnes cale the bloodie speare, 
which at his syde did runne ; 

To witnes cale both heaven and earth 
before whome it was done ; 

[u] 3 Barabas : i.e. Barabbas. 



To witnes call both sunne and moone, 

whoe then Eclipsed went ; 
To witnes call the Temple vaile 

that all in sunder rent. 


To witnes calle the darknes great 

that couered earth and skyes ; 
To witnes cale the dead men's bones, 

which from the graues did ryse ; 
To witnes cale his bitter drinke 

and Joyfull wordes he saide ; 
To witnes cale his charitie, 

when for his foes he praid. 

[i 61 

To witnes cale his coate vnseam'd, 

for which the loates were cast ; 
To witnes cale his d[e]ath and paine, 

which euerie lim[b]e did tast ; 
To witnes cale his goeinge downe 

to hell, through his greate might ; 
To witnes calle his assendinge vp 

to heauen in glorie bright. 


Then sith this sheppard paid soe deare 

to buy our freedome lost, 
His scornes, his blo[w]es, his blood and life 

was price of that it cost ; 
And heere doth giue vs all we haue 

and after Joyes for aye, 
And doth requeere our seruice true, 

in humble wise to pray. 

1 6] 2 loates : i.e. lots. [17] i sheppard : MS. sphepard. 




" O come away, [O] come away," 

this shepard cales and cryes ; 
" Take vp your crosse and follow me, 

and doe this worled dispise." 
Like sheepe, in humble sort, let vs 

vnto his voice giue eare, ' 
And in his lawes still walke vpright, 

while we abyden heere. 


" O come away, [O] come away," 

this shepard cales and cryes : 
" Take vp your crosse and follow me, 

and doe this world dispise, 
And in this house and truth abyde, 

what ever shale befalle, 
And in i[t]s truth both Hue and dye." 

Amen, amen, say all ! 


[18] 4 worled : i.e. world. 


No wig/it in this world that wealth 
can attain 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 7 V -9 V . The stanzas are numbered in the 
MS., but some of the numbers have been trimmed away by the binder. 

Owen Rogers licensed " a ballett agaynste covetous " on October 30, 
1560. Collier, in his Extracts from the Stationers' Registers, I., 32, 
identified this entry with the present ballad, and mentioned another 
version : " In the Editor's MS. [of the reign of James I.] it has only 
eleven stanzas, and those with some variations ; and as it is clearly the 
older and more correct copy of the two," and as " the title there accords 
more with that of the entry ; viz. : Against Covetousnes" he printed it. 
Collier's copy, however, is an impudent fabrication ; nor is there any 
reason for identifying this genuine and unprinted ballad with the entry 
in the Registers. That entry is more applicable to the ballad here 
printed as No. 52 from a Sloane MS. Not covetousness but, instead, 
the evil and the good done by money is dealt with : the author dwells, as 
poets of all times have delighted to do, on a vanished Golden Age when 
all was right with the world. The mention of priests in stanza 23 is 
the only Catholic note in the ballad. 

against nigamie anD riches. 

Noe wight in this world that wealth can attaine, 

vnles he beleeue that all is but vaine ; 
And as it doth come, euen soe let it goe, 

as tydes vse their times to ebb and to flowe. 

[2] I 

This muche on the mould that men soe desyre 

doth worke them much wooe, and mooue them to ire ; 



With greefe it is gott, with, care it is kept, 

with sorrow soone lost ; that long hath beene rept, 


And wooe worth the manne that first dolue the mould, 
to finde out the myne of siluer and gould ; 

For when it lay hid, and to vs vnknowne, 
of strife and debate the seede was not sowne. 


Then liued men well and held them content 

with meate, drinke, and cloath, without anie rent ; 

Their houses but poore, to shrowd themselues in, 
for Castles and Towers were first to beginne. 

I . Cs3 

Noe Town had his wale ; they feared noe warre 
nor enemies hoast to seeke them of farre ; 

Soe let they their Hues in quiet and rest, 

till hoard beganne hate, from East vnto West ; 

And gould for to grow, a lord of great price, 
which changed the world from vertue to vice, 

And turned all thinges soe farre from their kind 
that how it should be is worne out of mynd. 

_ [7] 

For riches beare now the fame and the brute, 
and is onelie the cause of all our pursuit, 

Which maketh amongst vs such mischeeff to raigne, 
and shall till we seeke the right way againe. 

[2] 4 rept, pas t part. <?/*reap. 

[3] 4 seede : followed in MS. by who, but later scratched out. . 

[5] i wale : i.e. wall ; 3 let : read led. 



When mariage was made for vertue and loue, 

then was noe divorce, godes knotte to remooue ; 
When Judges would suffer noe brybes in their sight 

their iudgmentes were true, accordinge to right. 

When prelates had not possessions nor rent, 

they preached the troth, and truelie they meante ; 

When men did not flatter for favour nor meede, 

then kinges h[e]ard the troath and how the world 


And men vnto honour throwe vertue did ryse ; 

but all this is turned cleane contrarie wyse ; 
For money makes all, and rules as a god, 

which ought not to be, for Christ it forbode ; 

And bad that we should take nothinge in hand, 

but for our lordes loue and the wealth of the land ; 

And wills vs full oft that we should refraine 

from wrestinge his will to make our owne gaine. 


For couetous folke, of euerie estate, 

as hardlie shall enter with-ine heauen-gate 

As through a nedle eie a cammell to creepe ; 

why doe these mad men then hoard vp and keepe ? 


Yea, more then may serue themselues to suffice, 
as though perfit blisse should that way arise ; 

[9] 4 yeede = went [from O.E. eoden, to go]. 

[10] i throwe : i.e. through. [12] 3 Matthew xix., 24. 



But if they would suffer to sinke in their brest, 
what trouble of mynd, what vnquiet rest, 


What mischeefe, what hate, this money doth bringe, 
they would not soe toyle for soe vyle a thinge ; 

For they that haue much are euer in care 
which way for to winne, and how for to spare ; 

Their sleepes be vnsound, for feare of a theefe ; 

the losse of a little doth worke them much greefe. 
In seekinge their lacke, they want what they haue, 

and subiect to that which should be their slaue. 


They never doe know, while riches doe raigne, 
a frend of effect from him that doth faine ; 

For flatterers doe seeke where fortune doth dwell, 
and when that she lowreth, they bid them farewell, 


The poore doth him curse, as oft as they want, 
in hauinge soe much and make it soe scant ; 

Their children, sometime, doe wish them in graue, 
that they might posses the riches they haue. 


And that which they winne with trauill and strife, 
oft times, as we see, doth cost them their life. 

Loe these be the fruites that riches bringe foarth, 
with manie other moe which be noe more worthe. 

!i 3] 4 vnquiet : 
1 8] 4 moe = m 

MS. vriquied. [17] I him : i.e. a rich man 



For money is cause of murther and thefte, 

of battle, and bloodshed, which would god were left ; 

Of ravine, of wronge, of false witnesse-bearinge, 
of treason conspired, and eake of forswearinge. 

And for to be short, and knit vp the knot, 
few mischeefes at all that money makes not ; 

But though it be ill, when it is abused, 
yet, never-the-less, it may be well vsed. 


Nor I doe not find that men be denyde 

for sufficient thinges them selues to prouide, 

Accordinge as god hath put them in place, 
to haue and to hould, a time and a space, 


Soe it be well wone, and after well spent, 
for it is not theirs, but for that intent. 

And if they soe doe, then it is good still, 
they haue that is meete to vse at their will. 


As Preistes should not take promotions in hand, 
to Hue at their ease like lordes of the land, 

But onelie to feede godes flocke with the troth, 
to preach and to teach, without anie sloth. 


Nor folke should not need great riches to winne, 
but gladlie to Hue and for to flee sinne ; 

His will for to worke that is their soules health, 

and then may they thinke they Hue in great wealth. 

[19] i thefte : substituted in MS. for strife. 


. ' [25] 

For in this vaine world, which now we be in, 
is nothinge but miserie, mischeefe, and sinne, 

Temtation, vntroth, contention, and strife ; 
then let vs not set by soe vile a life. 

. [26] 

But lift vp your eies, and looke through your faith, 
beholdinge his mercies that manie times saith : 

" The iust men shall Hue by their good beleefe, 
and shall haue a place, where canne be noe greefe, 


" But gladnes and mirth that non[e] can amend, 
vnspeakable ioyes, which never shall end, 

with pleasures that passe all that we haue sough[t], 
felicities such as cannot be thought." 


Which place they shall haue, which his will intends, 
with life everlastinge ; and thus my tale endes. 


H 113 

16 :\ 

O blessed God, O Saviour sweet 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. n v -i3. In this interesting ballad the 
author who, to judge from stanzas 19 and 20, was a priest or, at any 
rate, a Catholic, who feared " rack and cord " laments his sins, extols 
the mercy of Christ, and professes to make a whole-hearted repentance. 
The last stanza is not numbered in the MS., and is an exact repetition 
of the last four lines of the ballad on " Calvary Mount " (No. 22). The 
repetition may possibly be due to confusion on the part of the copyist. 


O blessed god, O sauiour sweete, 

O Jesu, looke on mee ! 
O Christ, my kinge, refuse me not, 

though late I come to thee ! 

I come to thee, confounded quyte, 
with sorrowe and with shame, 

When I beheld thy bitter woundes, 
and knew I did the same. 


I am the wretch that Crowned thee, 
I made those woundes soe wyde ; 

I nailed thee vnto the crosse, 
with speare I pearst thy syde. 


Thy sydes, thy bellie, eike, I rent 
with whip and cruell rod ; 



'Twas I that wrought thee all that wooe 
forgiue me, my good lord ! 

[5] t ; 

For onelie pryd of Cherubines 

how manie thousandes fell 
From pleasure to perpetuall paine, 

From heauen to hatefull hell. 

More then a thousand thousand times 

haue I deseru'd thine Ire ; 
Yet doe I (myser) still remaine, 

and feele not yet hell-fire. 


Yet doe I still thy favour finde, 

yet thou doest keepe me still 
Against the foarce of all my foes, 

that seeke my soule to spill. 

Yea, more then this, that I might Hue 

thou diedst on the roode ; 
And to redeeme my soule from hell, 

thou speandst thy deerest blood. 


That pretious blood which from thy syde 

came gushinge out amayne 
Was spent to saue my sinfull soule 

from endlesse wooe and paine. 

[4] 4 lord : read God . [7] 2 doest : i.e. dost. 

[8] 4 speandst : i.e. spent. 



Alas, my lord most mercifull, 

what haue I donne or wrought, 
That thou shouldst like soe well of mee ? 

What haue I said or thought ? 

What didst thou see in mee (vile wretch !) 

O god, what didst thou see ? 
What mooued thee, o Judge most iust, 

to take such ruth on mee ? 

O come, Angelles ; come, Archangelles ; 

come, saintes and soules divine ; 
Come, marters and Confessors eike, 

your aide to mee assigne. 


Let mee your helpe, your councell giue, 

O tell me how I may 
Releeue my lord that loues me soe, 

which am but dust and clay. 

All worldlie honour now farewell, 

all wicked welth adew ; 
Pryde and vaine-glorie, packe you hence,, 

too longe I served you ! 

[15] _ 

In you I dream'd my ioy had beene, 
but I deceiued was, 

[13] i Let: read Lend. 



And now broade-wakeinge I doe see 
that it hanges on the Crosse. 

Vpon the Crosse, betweene two theues, 

starke dead, alacke, hee hanges. 
For me, the Child of endlesse Death, 

hee felt these bitter panges. 


O that it once were my good chance 
to kisse those woundes soe wyde, 

O that my hart had once the happe 
to harbour in his syde ! 

I _ [18] 

O that I might with Magdalenne 

Imbrace his fastened feete, 
Or that with good thefe hange by him, 

a thinge for me more meete. 

I [I9] . 

Then would I bouldlie dare to say 

that neither racke nor Coard 
Nor any tormentes in the world 

debarre me from my lord. 

I [20] 

Then machavell, with all his sleights, 
should not once make me mone ; 

Noe Turke nor Tyrant, noe, nor divell 
should make me leaue my lord. 

[15] 4 Crosse : no rhyme here. [18] 3 thefe : perhaps read thieves. 
[20] i machavell : i.e. Machiavelli ; 4 lord : no rhyme here. 




Grant blessed god, grant saviour sweete, 

grant Jesu, kinge of blisse, 
That in thy loue I Hue and dye, 

sweet Jesu, grant me this ! 



Behold our Saviour crucifed 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 2O-22 V . A splendid ballad in which a 
Catholic author vigorously applies the lessons taught to man both by the 
Crucifixion and by its permanent symbol, the crucifix. No doubt because 
he was addressing a strictly orthodox audience, he makes no apologies 
and indulges in no recriminations. 


Behould our saviour crucifide, 

and beare it well in mynd ; 
Which will suppresse all sinfull pryde, 

and make vs groe more kynd. 
O let vs striue to flee from sinne 

and righteous courses hould, 
And take our crosse and followe hime, 

as he hath said we should. 

I [2] 

The Crucifix as lecture cheefe, 

let vs not faile to learne ; 
And with the eise of true beleefe 

devoutlie it disserne, 
How for our sinne and for our sake 

a prickeinge crowne of thorne, 
Which manie a bloodie hole did make, 

his blessed head hath borne. 

I . [3] . 

And for our sinne with scourges keene 
his tender flesh was rent ; 

[2] 3 eise : I.e. eyes. Lines 3 and 4 of this stanza were at first 
omitted by the copyist, and were later inserted in the margin. 



And for our sinne of Jewes hath beene 

with manie a scorne content ; 
And for our sinne condemn'd was he, 

that once must be our Judge ; 
And for our sinne to Caluarie 

with his owne Crosse did trudge ; 


And for our sinne he was contente 

in tormentes there to dye, 
His father's Justice to prevente, 

for sinne to satisfie. 
Hi3 Crowne of thornes may plucke away 

our vndeserved pryde, 
His mournfull teares will cause vs lay 

all wanton mirth asyde. 


In his great thirst the bitter gaule 

to drinke they doe him giue, 
A doccument vnto vs all 

in temperance for to Hue. 
His armes out stretched to imbrace 

all men, both frende and foe, 
May teache vs still to call for grace, 

all malice to forgpe. 

Handes, feete, and syde with nayles and launa 

through pearced on the roode, 
May teache vs true perseueraunce 

to the sheedeinge of our bloode. 
His Virgin's flesh all full of woundes, 

both blacke and blewe to see, 
All fleshlie lust in vs confoundes, 

teachinge true Chastitie. 




His prayinge for his enemies 

a-midste his bitter payne, 
Doth teache vs in all iniuries 

in meekenesse to remaine. 
Veiwe, and reveiwe, and never cease 

these lessones for to feade 
If thou in virtue will increase, 

and prosperously proceede. 

Thinke whoe it is that suffered all 

these bitter paynes for thee ; 
Our god and lord, the Virgin's Childe, 

in his humanitie, 
Whose power and potent maiestie 

filles heaven, earth, and hell ; 
Yet suffered he all this for thee, 

and more then tounge can tell. 


For thee vnkynd and base, abiecte, 

he suffered all this payne ; 
Yet thou, poore wretch, doth still neclect 

thyne owne eternall gayne. 
O man vnkynd, behould his loue, 

behould his bitter smart, 
And let his paynes and passions mooue 

compassions from thy hart. 


Since Christ from sinne vs to release 

hath suffered all this payne, 
Why doe we not from sinne then cease, 

but still in sinne remaine ? 



Let vs hate sinne with all our hartes 
that wrought our lord this woe ; 

True Christianes all, it is our partes 
in earnest to doe soe. 

O man vnkynd, forgetfull in 

thy loue and sirvice due, 
And hast thou still such mynd to sinne, 

and yet this mirror vewe ? 
In thy temptations doe not say 

thou hast noe power to stand, 
For Christ his grace shall be thy stay, 

sent from his mightie hand. 


The well of grace standes open wyde, 

and bounteously doth springe, 
Since Lungeus speare first pearst his syde, 

that fountaine foarth to bringe ; 
Within the holie Sacramentes 

throughe Crist his Church doth flowe, 
Whereby to verteous complementes 

eache Christian soule may growe. 


The Crucifix is now our owne, 

behould it well therefore ; 
In brason sarpent once fore showne 

to heale each deadlie sore. 
His Crosse, his Nailes, his crowne of thorne, 

his speare, his spunge, his reede, 
His bitter gaule and bodie torne, 

his lanced woundes that bleede, 

[12] 3 Lungeus : i.e. lungeous = violent, spiteful. 
[13] 3 Numbers xxi., 8, 9. 



[Hi ' 

His streatched armes vpon the crosse, 

and all admonish thee, 
In tyme he will repaire thy losse, 

if thou repentante bee. 
If in this tyme,.throughe worldlie pelfe, 

thou lose this libertie, 
In time to come accuse thy selfe, 

fore-warned thus to bee. 


In all affares yet rightlie scanne, 

and beare it well away, 
What to the soule of sinfull man 

the Crucifix doth say : 
" For thee, from heavenlie maiestie 

I did my selfe Imbase ; 
As Erringe shippe, I haue sought thee 

in manie a wearie place ; 


" I thee pursude with hartes desire, 

I ranne with faintinge breath ; 
Wilt thou vnkinde from me retyre, 

and frustrate soe my death ? 
My enemies they did not payne 

my bodie halfe so sore, 
As thy vnkyndnesse doth constraine 

my sorrowes tennes more. 


" Shall satanus, my deadlie foe, 
my labors all defeate, 

[15] i affares : i.e. affairs ; 7 shippe : perhaps sheep. 
[16] 8 tennes : possibly temes or tonnes or ten times. 



And with that pearle away to goe 
I sought with bloodie sweate ? 

O that thy soule I loue soe much, 
and was soe deare to mee, 

Should in thy handes, I say, of such 
a carelesse keeper bee ! 


" How deepe a danger was thou in, 

inwrapt through Adam's fale, 
Whome none but I could freedome winne, 

and my hartes blood recalle ; 
Which like the Pelicanne I giue, 

even everie droppe for thee, 
That thou the foode of life might haue, 

a[nd] soe regayned bee. 


" How deare a Gemme thy soule, I thought, 
then vmbethinke the[e] well, 

Which with soe deare a pryce I bought 
from Satkan, death, and hell. 

[17] 7 thy : read the. 
[18] 5 Pelicanne : cf. "The Waterman's Delight," Bagford Ballad;, 
I., 259: 

"My loves she's like a Pellican,/that sucks blood from her breast, 
And feeds her young ones every day/as they lye in her nest." 

There seems to be no foundation for this ancient belief: cf. Proceedings 
of the Zoological Society, 1869, p. 146. In William Hunnis's Seven Sobs, 
1583, p. 6 1, there is a peculiar passage : 

"The pellican as some report,/hir harmelesse birds doth kill, 
And three daies after mourneth shee,/and is vnquiet still; 
Then with her beake hir breast she plucks/till blood gush out amaine, 
Which she lets drop vpon hir young,/till they reuiue againe." 

In Hunnies Recreations, 1595, p. 49, he speaks of the Pellican restoring 
to life in this fashion her young who have been killed by a serpent. 



Thou maist well thinke there was more losse 
then man's tonge can expresse, 

Which nailled Christ vnto the Crosse, 
this danger to redresse. 


" And wilt thou, then, in franticke moode, 

soe smale the same esteeme, 
As not regarde my precious bloode 

which did ihy soule redeeme ? 
O heaven, O earth, astonisht bee, 

and stand amazed mute : 
This thanklesse sinner thus to see 

my precious blood polute. 


" Though mercie now doe plead ihy case, 

expect inge thee a whyle ; 
Yet Justice once must needes take place, 

and change my former stile ; 
Though like a lambe I earst haue borne 

my passions all for thee, 
Yet lyon-lyke I will retorne 

and once revenged bee ; 


" When all men's bodies must aryse, 

both from the sea and lande, 
And at that day in dreadfull wyse 

before my Judgment stande ; 
When heaven and earth shall mooued bee 

before my fearfull Throne, 
Where thou in endlesse shame shall see 

thy thankelesse hart made know[n]e." 



O lord, those wordes doe me agri[e]ue, 

and thrilleth throughe my hart ; 
And on my knees, in humble wyse, 

I heere to thee convert. 
Heere cut, o lord, and turne away, 

with fier of tribulation, 
My soules defectes, that at that day 

I may 'scape thyne Indignation. 

And soe thy bitter passion deere, 

which thou for me hast taken, 
Let vs on thy right hand appeare, 

and not to bee forsakenne. 


When as mankind through Adam's 


Addit. MS. i5,225,fols. 2j v -2g v . In several places holes have been 
eaten in the leaves by inferior ink. 

Protestant ballads on the cross are not unusual. One, registered in 
1 568-69 as " a frutfull songe of bearynge of Christes Cross " is preserved 
in MS. Ashmole 48 (ed. Thomas Wright, Songs and Ballads, Roxburghe 
Club, No. 30) ; another, "The lamentacion of the crosse," is in MS. 
Cotton Vespasian A. XXV. (ed. Boeddeker, Jahrbuch fur romanische und 
englische sprache, N.F., III., 95) ; earlier than these is a long ballad in 
the Gude and Godlie Ballatis of 1567 (ed. A. F. Mitchell, pp. 79-82) 
with the refrain 

And gloir in the Croce of Christ Jesu. 

I do not know of any other Elizabethan or Jacobean ballad written by 
a Catholic in glorification of the cross and its symbolism in the Catholic 
faith. The author gives a spirited defence (stanzas 14, 15) against con 
temporary criticism of crucifixes. He was evidently a man of learning, 
with considerable knowledge of the works of the Church Fathers. 
Most of the ballad is made up of comments on the crucifix culled from 
these Latin writers, the source of which it has not seemed worth while 
to attempt to trace. 

a gong of tl)t cros0e. 

To the Tune of [none given] 

When as mankind,- through AdanCs fale, 

to endlesse greefe was led, 
God promised the woman's seede 

should breake the serpentes head ; 



And though four thousand yeares and moe 

man was the Chyld of death, 
God sent his sonne him to redeeme, 

for soe the scripture saith. 

Whoe wrought it not with sacrifice 

of Ca[l]fe, younge lambe, or kidde, 
But by his death vpon the crosse 

from thrall he did vs ridde ; 
Whose benefittes soe great we may 

within our hartes renewe, 
The crosse when as before our face 

we daylie see and vew. 


This crosse was plaine prefigured 

in Exodus, we knowe, 
By wood that made the waters sweete, 

as St. Sir ill doth showe. 
To call the crosse the tree of life 

damasine doth not let, 
Which in the middes of Paradice 

god planted and it set. 


The arke of Noe man for to saue, 
great floodes when god them send, 

This marke Esekeall speaketh of 
his people to defend. 

[i] 7 him to redeeme : MS. substitutes for to suffer death. 
[3] 2 i.e. Exodus xvi., 2554 Sirill : I.e. Cyril ; 6 damasine ; i.e. St. 
Damasus ; 6 let : i.e. leave undone. 

[4] i Noe : i.e. Noah ; 3 Esekeall : i.e. Ezekiel ix., 4-7. 



This is our maister's badge that we 

must daylie were in feild, 
The speare where-with our deadlie foe 

wee doe enforce to yeald. 

[5] -T 
Because (St. Austine saith) you are 

beset with manie a foe, 
With this sine of the crosse still blesse 

you daylie where you goe. 
St. Hierome willes vs with this signe 

our foreheades to be sign'd, 
Lest he that Egipt did destroy 

in vs should restinge fynd. 


Chrisosdome biddes vs make this signe 

daylie vpon our face, 
Whereby thou shall the wicked sprites 

cleane frome thee driue and chase ; 
" For how dare they him set vpon," 

saith he, " in rageinge broyle, 
When as they see the speare where with 

Christ did their kingdome foyle ? " 

This is the marke by damasine, 

as we may plainlie learne, 
Panims and Jewes from Christian men 

derecteth to disserne. 
" I doe not blush," St. Austine saith, 

" this holie signe to weare, 
Nor seeke to hyde my selfe since on 

my forehead I it beare." 

i4_] 6 were : i.e. wear. 
6] i Chrisosdome : i.e. Chrysostom. [7] i by : read that. 

I 129 



Cbrisosdome alsoe doth vs charge, 

and warne both more and lesse, 
And teach our Children with this signe, 

them daylie for to blesse ; 
Before that they this thinge can doe, 

the nurse their head must take 
Vpon the Infantes yonge, saith he, 

that they this crosse still make. 


This Crosse is of such force and might, 

as Origin? doth wryte, 
That haueinge Christ and crosse in sight 

to sinne non[e] hath delight ; 
And as a shippe, St. Ambrose saith, 

without mast cannot saile, 
Lykewise whereas the crosse doth want 

that Church forthwith shall quaile. 


Without the crosse noe sacrament 

can ministred right be due, 
St. Austine, if we credite which, 

the same to vs doth shew. 
Both prince and subiect, great and smale, 

the crosse did on them weare ; 
In everie place, Chrisosdome saith, 

this signe did then appeare. 

Did not god shew to Constantino, 
for ayde when he did call, 

[8] 3 And : read To ; 6 head : read heed. 
[9] 2 Origine : I.e. Origen. 



The crosse, and h[e]ard a voyce that said, 
" in this signe winne you shall ? " 

Wherefore he straitlie gaue in charge 
eich souldier should it weare, 

And on his standard after still 
in feild he did it beare. 


What strength it hath by Julian 

and power, all men may know, 
Whoe, being an apostata, 

this signe droue sperites him froe. 
When Austen came England for to 

convert vnto the faith, 
The crosse before him still was borne, 

as holie Bede he saith. 

I . [I3] 

Yet some will say, to haue the crosse 

at all it is not fitt, 
Because there-with Idolatrie 

the people doe commit. 
Thinke they that man whome god hath made 

heere ruler of the rest, 
In sence and reason nothinge doth 

excell the brutishe beast ? 

I [I4] . 

What hound doth hunt at painted hare, 
with coullers wrought full new ? 

Or where at painted partridge yet 
ever any sparhauke flew ? 

If they diserne the quicke from dead, 
whom sences onelie scoole, 

[12] I Julian : MS. badly damaged by action of ink here ; 3 apostata : 
i.e. Julian the Apostate, Roman Emperor, 331-63 ; 5 Austen : i.e. St. 
Augustine ; 8 Bede : i.e. Ecclesiastical History, Bk. I., chap. 25. 


He that doth Judge farre worse of man 
shall proue himselfe a foole. 

[15] ;; 

Lyke cryme to Athanatius once 

the heathen did obiect, 
Whoe did their errores confounde in this, 

and did plainlie them detect. 
You say our godes are made of wood, 

which thinge you cannot prooue, 
And that yours ours doe farre excell 

in starrie skyes that mooue. 

[i6J . 

Our Crosse consistes of peeces foure, 

in sunder if wee it take ; 
And from eich other seperate 

noe count thereof we make ; 
But made in cosse we honour it, 

although not with devine, 
Whereby you see wee doe not weigh 

the substance bvt the signe. 

Which signe it selfe hath not such health 

vnto mankynd heere brought, 
But by the sheedeinge of his blood, 

which all thereon hath wrought ; 
And when all flesh shall ryse againe, 

at the last dreadfull day, 

[15] i Athanatius: i.e. St. Athanasius, 293-373. " Athanasius his; 
Creed, Quodcumque vult " found a place, with musical score, in 
William Hunnis's Handful! of Honeysuckles, 1583, pp. 16 ff. 

[16] I, 2 MS. damaged by ink, though decipherable; 5 cosse = 
exchange, barter. 



This holie signe will then appeare, 
As Ephraim doth say. 

[18] ' 
A Joy to those that faithfull heere 

at everie time are tryde, 
A torment to all such as leavue 

heere Christ his crosse denyde. 
God grant heerein we may reioyce, 

lyke as st. Paule doth say, 
And learne to beare the crosse of Christ 

vpon vs night and day. 

[17] 8 Ephraim 
[18] 3 leavue 

I do not find this prophecy. 
read have ; 6 Paule : i.e. in Galatians vi., 12, 14. 


1 9 | 

In days of yore when words did 
pass for bands 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 29 V -3<D V . The numbers of stanzas 1-5 have 
been cut off in binding, and the leaf is damaged in several places, though 
still decipherable. The interest of this ballad as a contemporary con 
demnation of Jacobean Puritans by a Catholic poet is undeniable. No 
other ballad of this nature has yet come to light. 

5>eere foUown) a songe of ttje puritan. 

In dayes of yore when wordes did passe for bandes, 
before deceit was bread or fraud was seene, 

When tounges did signe and seale with clappe of handes, 
before the purt 'gainst Christians tooke their spleene, 

The maister paid, and pleased was the man, 
and then vnborne was anie Puritane. 

In those good daies liued hospitalitie ; 

men hoarded not, nor did they hyde their pelfe ; 
Then liued resident kynd Charitie, 

and then plaine dealinge bouldlie show'd himselfe ; 
The blacke Jacke vs'd, noe pewter nor noe canne, 

nor men neare heard of anie Puritanne. 

[i] i bandes = obligations ; 2 bread : i.e. bred. 
[2] 5 blacke Jacke = a leather jar for beer, etc. 



But now of late they all are growne soe holie, 

puer, vnspotted, alwayse vpright treadinge ; 
Yet vnto practice lewd they are bent wholelie, 

Lucifer's lantorns vnto hellmouth leadinge, 
Puer in show, an vpright holie manne, 

corrupt within, and cal'd a Puritanne. 

; W /; 

These fellowes haue both day and nightlie meeteinge, 
where Tinkers comment, most of gouldsmiths' trade ; 

And there the sisters take their brothers' greeteinge, 
they wreth and wrest the word which god hath made ; 

They make new lawes accordinge to their functionne 
against the ould and against the kinges Iniunctionne. 


Then there is Racbell, maude, Doll, Jane^ and Grace, 
kate starched with a ruffe halfe an inch longe ; 

And mistris mince-pepin with her mumpinge face, 
Peg that hates musique, yet she loues prick songe ; 

And prittie malle that loues the place soe well, 
she will not leaue meetinge till her bellie swell. 


When these haue had their conference a space, 

and they growe something wearie with longe sittinge, 

And see they haue a good convenient place, 

with each thinge necessarie and well fittinge ; 

[4] 4 wreth : i.e. writhe. 

[5] 2 On the introduction of starch and ruffs (against the use of which 
ballad-writers continually inveighed) see Stow's dnnals, 1615, p. 869. 
Many proclamations restricting the making and use of starch were issued 
by Queen Elizabeth ; 3 pepin : i.e. pippin ; mumpinge = grimacing ; 
4 musique : MS. musiuqe ; 6 she will : read she'll. 




Out goes the light, the brethren swere they loue them, 
they must increase, for why, the spirit mooues them I 

[7] '"."" 

If Puritans plucke downe the house of prayer, 
oppresse the crosse whereon our sauior dyde ; 

If puritans preach nothinge but dispaire, 
and noe good recreation can abyde ; 

And if they thus will frame a new religion, 
beleeue me, I will be noe puritanne \ 

[8] : I 

But if in Chambers wiues haue nightlie meeteinge, 
and the[y] be free the time their husbandes sleepe ; 

And if the spirit mooue to seuerall greeteinge, 
and they may say and doe what eare vnmeete ; 

And if with these vile sinnes dispence they canne, 
Tie change my note and be a Puritanne \ 


[8] 4 what eare : i.e. whate'er. 



Winter cold into summer hot 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 33 v -35 Everything's going to the dogs, 
this extremely interesting ballad tells us ; for England hangs priests as 
traitors, jeers at and scorns the doctrines and faith of the Catholic 
Church, and substitutes therefor a new error "a bird of Calvin's 
brood " that neither demands nor expects obedience to Government 
and God : only the true faith can help and can preserve England. The 
mildness of tone is quite remarkable when one recalls the cruelties heaped 
upon Catholics in James I.'s reign : it is never found in the anti-Catholic 
ballads of the Jacobean writers. In connection with stanza 6, it may 
be remarked that the King seems to have attempted to put a stop to the 
" killing, dressing, and eating Flesh on Fish days " and in Lent, issuing 
proclamations dealing with this on November 14, 1619, January 30, 
1621, February 4, 1622, January 30, 1623, Decerriber 27, 1623, and 
February 7, 1625. 

Winter could into summer hoate 

well changed now may bee ; 
For thinges as strange doe come to passe, 

as wee may plainlie see : 
England, priestes which honour 'd hath 

soe manie hundred yeares, 
Doth hange them vp as Traytors now, 

which causeth manie teares. 


She doeth condemne her elders all, 

as all the world besyde, 
Religion ould, which long hath beene 

in landes both farre and wyde. 

[2] I doeth : i.e. doth. 



A gospell new she hath found out, 

a bird of Caluin's broode, 
Abandoninge all memorie 

of Christ his holie roode. 


Abstinence is Papistrie, 

as this new error saith ; 
Fastinge, praier, and all good workes 

avoyde ; for onelie faith 
Doth bringe vs all to heauen straight, 

a doctrine verie strange, 
Which causeth men at libertie 

of vice and sinne to range. 


From Angelles, honour taken is ; 

from saintes, all worshippe dewe ; 
The mother of our liuinge god 

(a thing most strang yet true) 
Compared is by manie a Jacke 

vnto a safron bagge, 
To a thinge of nought, to a paltrie patch, 

and to our vicar's hagge ! 


Vnitie is cleane exilde ; 

for preachers doe agree, 
As doe our clockes when they strike noone 

now one, now two, now three ; 
But all together never Jumpe 

when as our elders all 

[5] 3 This figure foreshadows Pope's famous simile : 



'Tis with our Judgments as our watches, none 
Goes just alike, yet each believes his own." 


Of faith and doctrine did accorde 
in poyntes both great and smale. 

Noe restitution they teache 

pill, robbe, pole, rape, and steale. 
Thine ownlie faith cleane freeth all, 

amendes doth nought prevaile. 
Noe vow obseru'd, noe promise kept, 

flesh fry dales now afoarde ; 
Which of our elders, as great sinne 

and vice, was much abhorde. 

I . .[7] 

Fastinge did enrich the Relme, 

feastinge the same distroyes ; 
Single life helpt poore men's needes, 

wiufde life church weale annoyes ; 
Raysinge of rentes pi[c]kes poore men's purse ; 

divorcem[en]tes doe devyde 
The husband from his wedded wife, 

whom god him selfe hath tyde. 

I [8] 

Obedience to magistrates 

this gospell nought esteemes ; 
For that their lawes in conscience 

to bind it noe way deemes. 
Concupiscence is counted sinne 

which non[e] at all can shunne ; 
Therefore in vaine they doe resist, 

for neede int' vice they runne. 

[6] 2 This line uses five words to express one idea, namely, pilfering. 
'f. Mercurius Fumigosus, November 1-8, 1654, p. 199 : "We are not 
ke men, That Pi//, Poll, Rob . . . for a little Earthly Pelf" 



Contrition a trashe is cal'd, 

confession scofte and scorn'd ; 
And soe is satisfaction, 

purgatorie paines forlorn'd ; 
Which causeth feare of sinne to flee, 

where sole faith doth suffice 
To amend all that is amisse, 

but non[e] thinkes soe that's wise. , 


They deeme them selues predestinantes, 

yet reprobates indeede ; 
Free will they will not haue ; good workes 

with them are voyd of neede ; 
Which poyntes of doctrine doe destroy 

eich common-wealth and land, 
Religion ould in order due 

makes Kingdoms longe to stand. 

Their fruites doe prooue their gospell false, 

their Hues most lewd are seene ; 
For sinne and all Iniquetie, 

the like hath never beene ; 
Noe feare of god, noe dread of manne, 

of Prince, nor yet of lawes ; 
Almes-deedes, as all devotion, 

esteemed are as strawes. 

Wherefore I hould him verie wise 
which doth their gospell flee, 

And cleaue vnto religion ould, 
and therein Hue and dye, 

[9] 8 that's : MS. thates. 


As all his elders ever did 

whoe afraid were to offend ; 
Which feare god grant vs all, and then 

our daies wee well shall end. 




Sweet music mourns and hath 
done long 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 35-36. 

This interesting ballad was written by a lover of music and a hater of 
Puritans shortly after the accession of James I. (see line 2),,in the hope 
that James would relieve the " poor songmen." The Injunctions of 
Queen Elizabeth referred to in stanza 10 were issued to Clergy and 
Laity in the first year of her reign (1559), expressly provided for the 
continuance and maintenance of singing in the Church, and forbade any 
alteration whatever to be made in the livings " appointed for the main 
tenance of men and children, to use singing in the church." Later on, 
however, the Queen gave control of the lands intended for the support 
of singers into the control of deans and chapters, by which act, said 
William Chappell (Popular Music, II., 402), " she did more injury to the 
cause she desired to advocate than all puritanism could effect." Elizabeth's 
love for music and her own remarkable skill as a musician are matters of 
general knowledge. Early in her reign she issued proclamations providing 
for an increase in the number of singing men and children at Windsor 
Castle, and she had singing-boys also at St. Paul's, Westminster Abbey, 
and the Household Chapel. Yet only three years after her 1559 
Injunctions were issued, "six articles, tending to a farther reformation 
of the liturgy, were presented to the lower house of convocation, the ! 
last whereof was that the use of organs be removed from churches ; 
which, after great debate, were so near being carried, that the rejection ; 
of them was owing to a single vote, and that, too, by the proxy of an 
absent member" (Hawkins's History of Music, 1875, H- 543)- 

Misappropriation of the funds which the Queen turned over to the 
deans and chapters grossly increased during the reign of James I. The 
conditions described in the ballad are not exaggerated, and the ballad 
furnishes contemporary evidence and comment of great interest. A paper 
on "The Occasions of the decay of Music in Cathedral and College 
Churches " (preserved in a British Museum MS. and quoted in Chappell's 
Popular Music, II., 402) informed James that, in spite of all previous 
grants and the late Queen's Injunctions, the funds had been " swallowed 
up by the Deans and Canons, because they are the only body of that 
incorporation, and the singing men are but inferior members." In other 
words, as the ballad phrases it, the " velvet beggars " alone were profiting. 



[t complains also that the places of singing men are bestowed " upon 
Tailors, and Shoemakers, and Tradesmen," that "divers of the said 
places are bestowed upon their own men, the most of which can only 
read in the church, and serve their master with a trencher at dinner, to 
the end that the founder may pay the Dean's or the Prebend's man his 
wages, and save the hire of a servant in the master's purse " ; that deans 
and canons are living in ease and wealth, while " the poor singing men 
do live like miserable beggars." It recommended to the King that the 
statutes of every foundation be examined, and " if the said lands be not 
employed to the true use and intention of the founder, as the members 
are sworn to preserve them, the aforesaid oath is violated and broken, and 
the abuse needeth reformation." So, too, does the ballad appeal to James. 
Many Elizabethan ballads attacking and defending music are extant : 
a number are discussed in my notes on MS. Ashmole 48 in Modern 
Language Notes, XXXIV. (1919), 341. It will be observed that the 
ballad proceeds along the customary lines in its defence of music : such 
a defence was always felt to be necessary. Even after the Restoration 
John Forbes thought it necessary to put an apology in the preface of 
his Cantus : 

See how much the Royall Psalmist, Holy King David is taken up in singing 
Praises to his Creator, for you shall seldom meet Him, without an Instrument in 
I his Hand, and a Psalm in his Mouth : having Dedicated Fifty-three Holy Meeten 
or Psalms to his Chief Musician leduthun, to compose Mustek to them. . . . 

Some of the reasons for learning singing given by William Byrd in 1588 
(Psalmes, Sonets, and Songs, preface) were : 

[i] It is a Knowledge easely taught, and quickly learned, where there is a 
good Master, and an apt Scoller. 

2 The exercise of singing is delightfull to Nature, & good to preserue the 
health of Man. 

3 It doth strengthen all parts of the brest, & doth open the pipes. 

4 It is a singuler good remedie for a stutting & stamering in the speech. 

8 The better the voyce is, the meeter it is to honour and serue God there-with : 
and the voyce of man is chiefely to be imployed to that ende. 

a songe in prai0e of mu0ique. 

Sweete musique mournes and hath donne long 
these fortie yeares and almost fiue 

God knowes it hath the greater wronge 
by puritanes that are aliue, 

Whose hautie, proude, disdainfull myndes 

Much fault agaynst poore musique findes. 
[Title] musique : MS. throughout has musiuqe. 


Yet haue they nothinge to replye 

within godes bookes that they canne finde 

Against sweete musique's harmonye, 

but their owne proude, disdainfull myndes 

They are soe holie, fyne, and pure, 

Noe melodie they canne endure. 

They doe abhorre, as devilles doe all, 
the pleasant noyse of musique's sounde, 

Although kinge David and st. Paule 
did much commend that art profound ; 

Of sence thereof they haue noe smell, 

Noe more then hath the develles in hell. 


The devilles in noe wise can abyde 
the pleasant noyse of musiques sent, 

As in the booke of kinges is tryde 
by david and his Instrument : 

When David tooke his harpe to play, 

The spirit from Said vanisht away. 


But marke the sequell of the thinge, 
and where- vpon we doe relye, 

In heaven the blessed saintes doe singe 
before the Throne continnually : 

" O holie, holie, lord god," they say, 

" Which was, and is, for ever and aye ! " 


In hell there is the contrarie, 
cohtinuall sorrow without release, 
[4] 3 kinges : i.e. I Samuel xvi., 14-23 ; xix., 9. 



Amongst the dampned companie, 

where is weepinge, wailinge, and gnashinge teeth 
All pleasant noyse they doe detest, 
And soe doth euerie hellish beast. 


When that our sauiour Christ was borne < 

in Betkla[h~\em, that faire Citie, 
To saue mankind that was forlorne, 

the Angelles songe continuallie. 
Thus saintes and Angelles, in heven aboue, 
And godlie men doe musique loue. 

Licurgus, also, you may reade, 

whoe did establishe holsome lawes, 
By him alsoe it was decreede 

(as manie auntiente wryters knowes), 
He gaue commaund to euerie man 
That noble art to learne and scanne. 


In Churches, alsoe, we may knowe, 

our ancient fathers did alowe 
The vse of songe cum Organo 

(which from the Church is taken nowe), 
In skilfull partes where man and Child 
Did praise our lord with voyces myld. 


The Queene's Iniunctions did allowe 
the laudable vse of songe to bee, 

[6] 5 noyse : i.e. music. . [7] 4 songe: i.e. sung. 

[8] i Licurgus : i.e. Lycurgus. 

[10] i Queene's: MS. substitutes for kings. 

K 145 


Eike to be vsde in Churches now, 

yet shame they not this to denye. 
Let everie man Hue by his arte, 
Denye him not his due desert. 

Some veluet beggars, lykewise, they 

haue begde Church landes (poore songmen's right), 
And in their plase doe beare a sway 

in open vew to all men's sight : 
Poore ragged beggars they get smal[l]e, 
For velvet beggars beg vp all. 


noble kinge, restore againe 

Church landes and liuinges as the[y] were, 
Which did poore songe men well maintaine 

and little Children in the Queere. 
Now skilfull songe is laid asyde, 
Church landes maintaineth nought but pryde. 


1 say noe more, god speede the plowe ! 

god saue kinge James from treators' bane ! 
That poore men may haue ioy enoughe, 

god make him carefull for their gaine, 
And eike godes glorie to advance, 
God saue his grace from all mischance ! 

lo] 4 they : i.e. the Puritans. 

12] i kinge : i.e. James I. ; 4 Queere : i.e. choir. 



Calvary mount is my delight 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 2 v -3. Written in stanzas of four long lines. 

This fluent and most remarkable ballad is the work of a fervent 
Catholic, probably a priest, who knew only too well the tortures meted 
out to Catholics in the reign of James I. In a mood of religious fervour 
and exaltation he professes an eagerness to undergo every punishment 
even hanging, bowelling, and quartering in order to attain the joys 
of Calvary Mount. Such ballads as this, passed about in MS. or in 
print, may well have served to stimulate the courage of Catholic 

Caluarie mount is my delight, 

a place I loue so well, 
Calvarie mount, O that I might 

deserue on thee to dwell ; 
O that I might a pilgrime goe, 

that sacred mount to see ; 
O that I might some seruice doe, 

where Christ died once for me ! 

O that I had some hole to hyde 

my head, on thee to stay ; 
To vewe the place where Jesu dyed 

to wash my sinns away. 
Lyke wordes then would I vtter there 

that Peter sometim[e]s did : 
" Lord, well it is that I am heare, 

let me still heere a-bide ! " 

[2] 6 Peter : see St. Matthew xvii., 4. 


. ' [3] I 

Let me still heere abyde and be 

and never to remooue ; 
Heere is a place to harbour me, 

to ponder on thy loue ; 
To ponder, lord, vpon thy paines 

that thou for me hast felt, 
To wonder at the firvent loue, 

where with thy hart did melt. 


Loe heere I see thee faintinge goe 

with Crosse which thou hast borne, 
Imbrude with blood from top to toe, 

lyke one that were forlorne ; 
Like one forlorne, alacke for greefe ! 

with torm[en]ts over runne, 
And alle, deare lord, to seeke releefe 

for that which man hath done. 


With vile rebukes, with scourges whipt, 

most greeuous to behould, 
And lapped lyke one naked stript, 

as earst he had fore-tould ; 
His handes and feete, with nailes full stronge^ 

were fixed to the roode ; 
And there he hounge three houers longe, 

imbrude with sacred blood ; 

With sacred blood to quench men's wrath 

to god for man's decay, 
And with a pure and sacred bath 

to wash man's sinns a-way. 

[5] 3 lapped = disguised, appearing ; 4 St. Matthew xx., 17-19.. 



Caluarie mounte, thus would I muse 

if I migh[t] come to thee, 
All earthlie thinges I would refuse, 

might there my dwelinge bee. 


Might there my dwellinge be, noe foarce 

nor feare should me remooue, 
To meditate with great remorse 

vpon my sauiour's loue. 
Noe herode nor herodiane 

should cause me thence to flee ; 
Noe Polat, Jew^ nor soldier 

should mooue me till I dye, 


Nor all the helpe that they would haue 

from Caluin's cu[r]sed crue. 
There would I make my tombe and graue, 

and never wish for new. 
Noe pursiuant I would esteeme, 

nor craftie catchpole feare ; 
Of gaile nor gailer nothinge deeme, 

if I might harboure there. 


Noe rope nor cruell tortour then 

should cause my minde to faile ; 
Nor lewde deuice of wicked men 

should cause my corage quaile, 

[7] 5 herodiane : i.e. Herodias ; 7 Polat : read Pilate ; 8 mooue me : 
MS. substitutes for cause me. 

[8] 2 crue : i.e. crew ; 5 pursuant = here specifically a priest-hunter ; 
dozens of such pursuivants were employed by the authorities. 



On racke in tower let me be lead, 
let Joynts at large be stretched ; 

Let me abyde each cruell braid, 
till blood frome vaines be fetched. 


And if they can devise worse waies 

to vtter thinges vntrue, 
Let them proceede by all assaies 

to frame Inventions newe ; 
Let all distresse to me befale 

to doe my Countrie good ; 
And let the thirst of Tyrantes all 

be quenched in my blood. 


Let me be falslie condemned ; 

let Sherife on me take charge ; 
With bo[w]es and billes let me be led, 

least I escape at large ; 
Let me from prison passe away 

on hurdle hard to lye, 
To Tyburne drawne without delay 

in tormentes there to dye. 


Let mee be hang'd and yet, for doubt 

least I be dead too soone, 
Let there some devillish spirit start out 

in hast to cut me downe ; 
Let bowells be burnt, let paunch be fryde 

in fier or I be dead ; 
O London*bridg, a poule provide, 

thereon to set my head. 

[9] 6 joynts : MS. originally joyes. 

[n] 4, [12] 2 least : i.e. lest. [12] 6 or = ere. 



O London, let my quarters stand 

vpon thy gates to drye ; 
And let them beare the world in hand 

I did for treason dye ; 
Let cro[w]es and kytes my carkas eate ; 

let ravens their portion hau[e], 
Least afterwardes my frendes intreate 

to lay my corpes in graue. 

Sweete Jesu, if it be thy will, 

vnto my plaintes attend : 
Grant g[r]ace I may continue still 

thy seruant to the end ; 
Grant, blessed lord, grant, sauiour sweete, 

grant, Jesu, kinge of blisse, 
That in thy loue I Hue and dye, 

sweete Jesu, grant me this. 


[14] 5-8 These lines form the last stanza of No. 16. 

is 1 

- : ' I 

Amount, my soul, from earth 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 3 V -6 V . Stanzas 53-55 are written in two- 
line stanzas so that they can be crowded on the last folio. The margins 
are closely trimmed. 

This unique ballad is a remarkable one. No man knows the glory 
of the New Jerusalem save he who actually experiences it, says our ardent 
Catholic poet ; yet he manages to give a concrete and detailed account 
of its unparalleled joys. Into these joys, however, only true Catholics 
can hope to enter : there is no place for heretics 'or for those potentates 
who use Tyburn and the rack in an attempt to root out the true faith. 
The other ballads in this volume describing Heaven are only slightly 
Catholic in tone, and were, with slight and judicious excisions, acceptable 
to Protestants. The present ballad would mortally have offended them. 

Amounte, my soule, from earth awhyle, 

sore vp with wings of loue, 
To see where S[ain]tes and Angelles dwell 

with god in blisse aboue. 

Remember thou a stranger art, 
a wanderinge pilgrime heere, 

A pilgrime heere till thou depart 
to S[ain]tes, thy fellowes, there. 


An exile poore, in earth alone, 

among professed foes 
The world, the devill, the flesh, and non[e] 

but such as seeke thy woes. 



[ w 

O spouse of Christ, why doest thou stay 

to build thy house on sand ? 
The bridgrome comes, the minstrill playes, 

the manage is at hand. 


A weddinge garment thou must haue, I say 

(I meane a vertuous life), 
For other garmentes are not gay 

for such a prince's wife. 


Therefore, renounce this eart[h]lie pelfe 

a heavenlie race to runne, 
Forsake the world, and frame thy selfe 

to Hue as S[ain]tes haue donne. 


Passe over ayre aizar skye 

and thinges that mortall bee, 
Aboue the spheare of heaven to flye, 

if thou these ioyes would see. 

A Citie there renowned is 

for statlie structure rare, 
A princlie place, adorn'd with blisse, 

for costlie buildinges faire. 

[4] i doest : read dost. 

[5] l garment : a later 'insertion in the MS. Fcr the sake of the rhythm 
omit weddinge in this line. 

[7] i ayre aizar : i.e. airy azure. 



Hierusalem the place is cal'd, 

most sumtuous to behould ; 
The place with precious stones is wal'd, 

and streetes are paued with gould. 


The gates with precious pearles are framed, 

there rubies doe abound ; 
The precious pearles that can be namde 

are there in pleantie found. 

Amidst the streetes the well of life 
with goulden streame doth flowe ; 

Vpon whose bankes the tree of life 
in statelie sort doth growe ; 

Whos[e] pleasant fruites of euerie kind, 

delightinge mortall eies, 
Hard by whose roote there you shall find 

where heauenlie manna lyes. 


The Citie shines with endlesse blisse 

and glorie passinge bright, 
For god himselfe the Lantorne is 

and lampe that giueth light. 

[14] _ 

The bodie there of everie one 

is like to Cristale fine, 
And sho[w]es as bright as doth the sunne 

when it most cleare doth shine. 

[9] 3 place : MS. placle. [10] 3 namde : MS. substitutes for made 



There thou shalt see the Gherubins 

in glorious state excell, 
There Angelles and the Seraphins 

and soules of saintes doe dwell. 


There Noe and all the iust doe dwell, 
there doe the prophets stand ; 

The Patriarkes ould there doe remaine 
with Cepters in their hand. 


There marters and apostles Hue, 

there sacred virgins stay ; 
There they doe waite, there they doe giue 

attendance night and day. 

_ [18] 

Our Ladie there most heauenlie singes, 

with sweete melodious voyce ; 
The saintes and all Celestiall thinges 

for ioy of her reioyce. 

Good Magdalene hath lefte her mone, 
her sighs and sobes doe cease ; 

And since her teares and plaintes are gone, 
she Hues in endlesse peace. 

There thousand thousand Angells bee 

and soules in glorie braue ; 
And everie one doth ioy to see 

the ioy their fellowes haue. 

[15] 2 excell : MS. substitutes for to be. [16] I Noe : i.e. Noah. 

[19] 2 sighs : MS. sightes. 




The precious pearle the marchant sought, 

with longe and restles toyle, 
Is here to vew ; the ground he bought, 

in this most happie soyle. 


Tenne thousand tounges cannot expound, 

nor Angells' skill indite, 
The passinge pleasures there abounde, 

and ioyes that doe delight. 


Heere all thy faithfull frendes remaine, 

here doe thy parentes dwell, 
Here thou in blisse shall meete againe 

with them thou louedst soe well. 

[24] j 

There all thy good progenitors 

doe watch and wish for thee, 
And thousandes of thine ancestors, 

which thou didest never see. 


O speachles ioy to meete our frends 

and louinge kinsfolke there ; 
And Hue in life that never endes 

with them we loued soe deare. 


Noe blisse, noe pleasure there doth want 

that man may wish to haue ; 
Noe ioy nor braue delight [is] scant, 

thou canst devise to craue. 
[21] i Cf, St. Matthew xxii., 45-46. [24] 4 didest : read didst. 



If wealth or honour thou desyre, 

or happie dales to see, 
Here nothinge wantes thou wilt require, 

for thou a kinge shalt be. 

Thy cloathinge shale be all of blisse, 

and thou a Cepter beare 
And diademe, that better is 

then earthlie princes weare. 

[2 ? ] 

If thou desyrest daintie cheere, 

or rich or costlie meate, 
The bread and drinke of life are there, 

and foode that Angells eate. 


In aged yeares if thou request 
to liue with faithfull frendes, 

With saintes and Angells thou shalt rest 
in life that never endes. 

. [3I] . 

If learning, skill, or wit thou would, 
in booke of life that's there, 

Most plainlie there thou shalt behould 
the thinges thou knowest not heere. 


Or if thou would, by good advice, 

the will of god goe doe, 
Here is the priest and sacrifice, 

the Church and alter, too. 

[31] 4 knowest : read know'st. 



[33] _ j 

Here god himselfe doth heare our plaintes 

and pittieth cristiane cause ; 
Here all his frendes and holie saintes 

be-hould him face to face. 

[34] _ ] 

Here euerie word and godlie thought, 

each greife and great annoy, 
And euerie worke in vertue wrought 

rewarded is with ioy. 


The widdowes myte here [has] rewarde, 

could water wantes not meede, 
For god respectes and hath regard 

to each good worke and deede. 

[36] . j 

Noe eye hath scene, nor eare hath h[e]arde, 

noe creatur ever found, 
Nothinge on earth may be compar'd 

to ioyes that there abound. 

[37] \ 

The pleasures thou shalt there behould 

were not with treasure bought, 
For gould nor pearles nor siluer sould, 

or thinges that nature wrought. 

. [38] 

Noe value worthie was to buy 

the ioyes are heere to see, 
Till Christ, the sonne of god, did dye 

to purchace them for thee. 

[33] 2 cause : read case. 



O then what ioyes shall these be deemde, 

how great and passing good, 
Which with noe price would be redeemde, 

but with our sauiour's blood ? 

O blisfull ioyes, nothinge there was 
in heauen or earth belowe, 

But Christ alone to bring to passe 
that man such ioyes should knowe. 


St. Paule that did these secretes see 
could not their pleasures name ; 

Their glorie noe man knowes but hee 
that doth enioy the same. 

Noe neede is there, noe want of wealth, 

no death nor deadlie paine, 
Where Christ, the cause of all our health 

and heauenlie life, doth raigne. 


There thou shalt rest foarth of the reach 

and waies of wicked men, 
Blasphemous tounges and filthie speac[h]e 

shall not annoy thee then. 


Noe threatinge wordes to prison vile 

shall terrific thy mynd, 
But Angeles sweete and saintes most mild 

will welcome the[e] most kind. 




For noe blasphemers there remaine, 

non[e] that in blood delight, 
Noe vile adulterer there doth raigne, 

noe lewde nor wicked wight ; 


Noe rude nor raillinge heretikes 
that new religions make, 

Noe temperisinge scismatickes 
that Christ and Church for-sake 


Noe persecutinge potentate 
doth rule and gouerne there ; 

Noe workmaister or pursivant 
hath office there to beare. 


There tiburne nothinge hath to doe, 
noe rope nor racke is knowne ; 

Tormenters all and sathan, too, 
are fullie over-throwne. 


There triumph over sinne is wonne, 
the devill and death devided, 

The kingdome of the iust begunne, 
and they in glorie placed. 

[47] l potentate substituted in MS. for protestant. 
significant a direct slur at James I. 
[49] 4 placed : no rhyme here. 

1 60 

The change 



Concupiscence is rooted out, 

temptations all doe cease, 
Noe motions of the flesh dare roote 

in thy triumphant peace. 


Nothinge that tastes of wickednesse, 
nothinge defield with sinne, 

Doth harbour there or hath accesse 
that place to enter in. 

For it was made for purified soules 

before the world was made, 
Where they possesse both crownes and states 

of ioyes that never fade. 


Then, o my soule, take thou thy winges 

and faith of hope and loue, 
And soare alofte to vew the thinges 

prepar'd for thee aboue. 


O happie day when thou shalt leaue 

this flesh those ioyes to see ! 
What hart can thinke and once conceiue 

the ioyes remaine for thee ? 

[51] 2 defield: U defil'd. 
[5 3] 2 and faith : read of faith. 



O mightie god, grant one request 

and boone that I shall craue, 
O lord, my sute is there to rest 

and there my dwellinge haue ! 



Jerusalem, my happy home 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 36 V -37 V . Reprinted from this MS. in 
The Month, September, 1871, III., 232 ff., with no reference to other 
versions, in John Julian's Dictionary ofHymnotogy, 1907, p. 580, 2nd ed., 
p. 1656; and in Eleanor M. Brougham's anthology, Com from Olde 
Fieldes, 1918, pp. 19-24. 

Other early versions of this not unjustly celebrated hymn are : 

1 . " The zealous Querister's songe of Torke, in the prayse of heaven, 
to all faithfull singers and godlye readers in the world. To the Tune 
of man in desperation" 80 lines, in the Shirburn Ballads, pp. 1 70 fF. 
This version (5.) differs so widely in order of stanzas, in omission of 
certain stanzas found in the MS. and in the introduction of additional 
stanzas, and in phraseology that no attempt is made at a complete 
collation here, only a very few of the variations being noted. 

2. " Another on the same subiect " [i.e. " The description of heauenly 
lerusalem" : cf. the following ballad, No. 25], in The Song of Mary The 
Mother of Christ, 1601, pp. 38-41. This version (^.) consists of 19 four- 
line stanzas, of which three are identical i.e. stanza I is thrice repeated, 
evidently as a sort of refrain. In the foot-notes, where elaborate collations 
are made of the MS. and A., the superiority of the MS. readings (as in 
stanza 8) will generally be obvious. 

3. "The true description of the everlasting ioys of Heaven. To the 
Tune of, O man in desperation" 152 lines, a black-letter ballad in a 
Bodleian collection (4to Rawlinson, 566, fol. 167) "printed for F. 
Coles, T. Vere, and J. Wright." This ballad was registered under the 
title of its first line on December 14, 1624, and has been only partially 
reprinted, by the editor of the Shirburn Ballads in continuation of his 
incomplete MS. version. It is an apparently unique copy, but calls for 
no special attention here. 

4. " The Queristers song of yorke in praise of heaven," Addit. MS. 
38,599, fols. 1 33 v -i 34 V . A line of music, preceded by the words " this 
is the tune," follows the title. This version (F.) consists of 19 eight- 
line stanzas. It is a contemporary copy of the ballad that was registered 
for publication in 1624, and is practically identical with the Shirburn 
and Rawlinson copies. "The Seconde parte" begins with stanza 13, 
at the point where 5. breaks off. 



I can throw no light on the initials F. B. P., though the F. may be 
an abbreviation for " Father " or the P. for " Priest." Various identifi 
cations of these initials are proposed in Julian's Dictionary ; while 
Gillow (Catholic Record Society's Publications, XVI., 421) thinks that 
the initials should be " J. B. P.," that is, " John Brereley, Priest," an 
alias of Laurence Anderton, S.J. (1575-1643). The tune of Diana 
\and her darlings dear\ is evidently equivalent to O man In desperation, 
but neither of these tunes was found by William Chappell (cf. Popular 
Music, II., 770). The ballad is, it hardly need be said, a distinctly 
Catholic production, and in the printed copy lines 93-98 (stanza 23) were 
omitted. For Jerusalem ballads in general, consult Philipp Wackernagel's 
Das deutsche Kmhenlied, passim. A comparison should also be made 
between this ballad and the three other similar ballads printed in this 

a 0ong ma&[e] 

To the Tune of Diana. 


Hierusalem, my happie home, 

when shall I come to thee ? 
When shall my sorrowes haue an end ? 

thy ioyes when shall I see ? 

[2] _ 

O happie harbour of the saintes, 

O sweete and pleasant soyle, 
In thee noe sorrow may be founde, 

noe greefe, noe care, noe toyle. 


In thee noe sickenesse may be seene, 
noe hurt, noe ache, noe sore : 

There is noe death nor vglie devill, 
there is life for euermore. 

[2] I harbour : Citty (4.) ; 4 stanza 3 is not in the Shirburn co 
Stanza 4 precedes stanza 3 in A. 

[3] i seene : found (A.) ; 3 In thee there is no dread of death 
4 there is : there's (A.). 




Noe dampishe mist is scene in thee, 
noe could nor darksome night ; 

There everie soule shines as the sunne, 
there god himselfe giues light. 


There lust and lukar cannot dwell, 
there envie beares noe sway ; 

There is noe hunger, heate, nor coulde, 
but pleasure everie way. 

Hierusalem, Hierusalem, 
god grant I once may see 

Thy endlesse ioyes, and of the same 
partaker aye to bee. 


Thy wales are made of precious stones ; 

thy bulwarkes, diamondes square ; 
Thy gates are of right Orient pearle, 

exceedinge riche and rare. 

[4] I There is no dampe nor foggy mist (4.) ; 3 soule : Saint 
[5] I Stanza 5 is not in A. It has instead : 

There is no raine, no sleete, no snow, 

no filth may there be found : 
There is no sorrow, nor no care, 

all ioy doth there abound, 

and then repeats stanza i. 


with g 


[6] I Stanza 6 is not in A. 

[7] 2 thy streetes paued with golde (^4.) ; 3 are ... Orient : are eke 
of precious (A.) ; 4 most glorious to beholde (A.). 



Thy terrettes and thy Pinacles 

with Carbuncles doe shine ; 
Thy verie streetes are paued with gould, 

surpassinge cleare and fine. 


Thy houses are of Ivorie, 
thy windoes Cristale cleare ; 

Thy tyles are mad[e] of beaten gould, 
O god, that I were there ! 


Within thy gates nothinge doeth come 

that is not passinge cleane ; 
Noe spider's web, noe durt, noe dust, 

noe filthe may there be seene. 

Ay my sweet e home, hierusaleme, 

would god I were in thee ; 
Would god my woes were at an end, 

thy ioyes that I might see ! 


Thy saintes are crown'd with glorie great, 

they see god face to face ; 
They triumph still, they still reioyce, 

most happie is their case. 

[8] i Thy Pinacles and Carbuncles (^4.) ; 2 Carbuncles : Diamondes 

.) ; 3, 4 Thy houses couered are with golde,/most perfect, pure and 
fine (A.). 

[9] I Stanzas 9-14 are not in A. ; 3 And tyles of burnish t bright red 
gould (5.). 

[10] 2 passinge cleane : verye cleere (5.) ; 3 noe durt . . . dust : nor 
filthy thinge (5). ; 4 in thee may once appeare (5.). 

[i i] 1-4 not in 5. [12] 4 Sbirburn version ends here. 

1 66 



Wee that are heere in banishment 

continuallie doe mourne ; 
We sighe and sobbe, we weepe and weale, 

perpetually we groane. 


Our sweete is mixt with bitter gaule, 
our pleasure is but paine, . 

Our ioyes scarce last the lookeing on, 
our sorrowes still remaine ; 

But there they liue in such delight, 

such pleasure, and such play, 
As that to them a thousand yeares 

doth seeme as yeaster-day. 


Thy Viniardes and thy Orchardes are 

most beutifull and faire, 
Full furnished with trees and fruites, 

most wonderfull and rare. 


Thy gardens and thy gallant walkes 

continually are greene ; 
There gro[w]es such sweete and pleasant flowers 

as noe where eles are seene. 

[14] 4 Stanza 15 comes next to the last stanza in A. 

[15] 3 That thousand thousand yeares agoe (A.). 

[16] 1-4 not in A. 

[17] 3 such : the (A.) ; 4 as ... are : that euer erst was (A.). 



[i 8] 

There is nector and Ambrosia made, 
there is muske and Civette sweete ; 

There manie a faire and daintie drugge 
are troden vnder feete. 


There Cinomon, there sugar, gro[w]es ; 

there narde and balme abound. 
What tounge can tell or hart conceiue 

the ioyes that there are found ? 

[Thy happy Saints (Jerusalem) 

doe bathe in endlesse blisse : 
None but those blessed soules can tell 

how great thy glory is.] 


Quyt through the streetes with siluer sound 

the flood of life doe flowe ; 
Vpon whose bankes, on everie syde, 

the wood of life doth growe. 


There trees for euermore beare fruite, 

and evermore doe springe ; 
There euermore the Angels sit, 

and evermore doe singe. 

1 8] 1-4 not in A. 

19] 2 there, Balme springs from the ground (A.). 

190] 1-4 added from A. 

20] i sound : streames (A.) ; 2 doe : read does. 

21] 3 Angels : Saints doe (A.). 

1 68 



There David standes, with harpe in hand, 

as maister of the Queere. 
Tenne thousand times that man were blest 

that might this musique heare. 

Our Ladie singes magnificat, 
with tune surpassinge sweete, 

And all the virginns beare their partes, 
sitinge aboue her feete. 

[24] -. 

Te Deum doth sa[i]nt Ambrose singe, 
saint Augustine dothe the like ; 

Ould Simeon and Zacharie 

haue not their songes to seeke. 

There Magdalene hath left her mone, 

and cheerefullie doth singe, 
With blessed saintes whose harmonie 

in everie streete doth ringe. 


Hierusalem, my happie home, 

would god I were in thee ; 
Would god my woes were at an end, 

thy ioyes that I might see ! 


23 I -[24] 2 do not appear in the printed (Rawlinson) ballad or in F. 
23 4 aboue : read about (A.). 
"24 2 dothe : A. omits ; 3 and : and good (A.). 
^25] 2 cheerefullie: she likewise (A.). 
26] 2-4 A. omits and here repeats lines [i] 2-4. 



Jerusalem, thy joys divine 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 39-42^ Text reprinted from this MS. in 
The Month, September, 1 87 1, and said to be a translation by Father Henry 
Walpole, 1 S.J., from St. P. Damian's Ad perennem vlt<z fontem (cf. Dublin 
Review, CXXXIIL, 354)- This editor was unaware that another version 
(^4.) of the ballad occurs in The Song of Mary the Mother of Christ , . . 
With The description of heauenly lerusalem, 1601, pp. 30-37, whence it is 
reprinted in Edward Farr's Select Poetry of the Reign of Elizabeth, pp. 427 ff. 
Nor did he note the gross error in the MS. which makes the first 
stanza begin with lines 5-8 instead of lines 1-4 (cf. notes on these lines). 
Version A., called " The description of heauenly Jerusalem," consists of 
52 four-line stanzas : the MS. version is twelve lines longer, and affords 
several readings superior to those of A. The chief variations are given 
in the foot-notes. 

This ballad well deserves a place in the present collection not only 
for the purposes of comparison with the other descriptions of heaven 
printed herein, but also for its intrinsic merits. As always there is a 
tendency to make the description so specific as to verge on the ridiculous, 
but on the whole the picture presented is attractive. Some of the stanzas 
(5 if.) remind one of the celebrated passages in Keats's Eve of St. Agnes. 

a pri0oner'0 

My thirstie soule desyres her drought 
at heavenlie fountains to refresh ; 

My prisoned mynd would faine be out 
of chaines and fetters of the flesh. 

I Lines 5-8 should be here, and lines 1-4 should open the first stan: 
as in A. The arrangement in the MS. destroys the sense. The phrase 
"The vnder songe " is not in A., and applies only to lines 5-8. 

1 Walpole was executed for religion at York on April 17, 1595. The 
best account of his life is that of an Anglican minister, Augustus Jessopp, 
in One Generation cf a 'Norfolk House, 1878. 



The vnder songe. 

Ikerusalem, thy ioyes devine 

noe ioyes may be compar'd to them ; 
Noe people blessed soe as thine, 

noe Cittie like hierusalem. 
She looketh vp vnto her state 

from whence she downe by sinne did slyde, 
She mournes the more the good she lost, 

for present ill she doeth abyde. 

She longes, from roughe and dangerous seas, 

to harbour in the hauen of blisse, 
Where safelie ancoreth at her ease 

and shore of sweete contentment is. 
From bannishment she more and more 

desyres to see her countrie deare ; 
She sittes and sendes her sighes before ; 

her ioyes and treasures all be there. 

I [3] ' 

From Babilon she would retorne 

vnto her home and towne of peace, 
Hierusalem^ where ioyes abound, 

continnue still, and never cease. 
There blusteringe winter never blowes, 

nor summer's parchinge heate doth harme. 
It never freeses there nor snowes ; 

the weather euer temperate warme. 

[i] 2 may : to (A.) ; 5 She : i.e. My thirstie soule of line I ; her 
the (A.) ; 8 ill : euill (A.) ; doeth : i.e. doth. 
[2] 3 ancoreth : anchor (A.). 




The trees doe blossom, bud, and beare, 

the birdes doe ever chirpinge singe, 
The fruit is mellow all the yeare, 

they haue an euerlastinge springe ; 
The pleasant gardens ever keepe 

their hearbes and flowers, fresh and greene ; 
All sortes of pleasant, daintie fruites 

at all times there are to be seene. 


The lillie white, the ruddie rose, 

the crimsone and carnation flowers, 
Be wattered there with honie dewes 

and heavenlie droppes of goulden showers. 
Pome-grannat (prince of fruit), the peach, 

the daintie date, and pleasant figge, 
The almond, muscadell, and grape, 

exceedinge good and wonderous bigge ; 


The lemmond, Orange, medler, Quince, 

the apricocke, and Indie spice, 
The Cherrie, warden, plumbe, and peare, 

more sortes then were in Paradice, 
The fruite more eisome, toothsome, farre 

then that which grew on Adames tree ; 
With whose delightes assailed were, 

and both suppressed, Eaue and hee. 

[4] 2 chirpinge : chirpe and (A.) ; 7 .pleasant . . . fruites : dainl 
plants and fruites (A.). 

[6] 2 Indie : Indian (.4.) ; 5 With fruite more tooth-some, eye-some, 
faire (A.) ; 6 Adames : i.e. Adam's ; 8 and both suppressed : Wher- 
with suppris'd were (A.) ; Eaue : i.e. Eve. 




The swellinge, Odoriferous balme 

most sweetely there doth sweate and droppej 
The fruitfull and victorious palme 

layes out her mountie loftie tooppe ; 
The river wine most pleasant flowes, 

more pleasant then the honie combe, 
Vpon whose bankes the sugar growes, 

enclos'd in reedes of Cinomond. 


The wales of Jasper stone be built, 

most rich and faire that ever was ; 
The streetes and houses paued and guilt 

with gould more cleare then Christall glasse. 
Her gates in equall distance bee, 

and eac[h]e a glisteringe margerite, 
Which commers-in farre of[f] may see, 

a gladsome and a glorious sight. 


Her inward Chambers of Delight 

be decte with pearle and precious stone ; 
The Doares and posternes all be white, 

of wrought and burnisht Ivorie bone, 
Her sunne doth never eclips nor cloud, 

her moone doth never there wax wanne ; 
The lambe with lighte hath her endowde, 

whose glorie pen cannot explane. 


The glorious saintes there dwellers bee, 
in number more then man can thinke, 

[7] 4 mountie . . . tooppe : lofty mounting top (A.). 
[9] i of: and (A.) ; 5 eclips : Clipse (A.) ; 6 there wax : wax nor 
(A.) ; 7 endowde : endued (A.). 
[10] i there : her (A.). 



Soe manie in a companie 

as loue in likelinesse doth thinke. 

The Starrs, in brightnesse, they doe passe ; 
in swiftnesse, arrowes frome a bo[w]e ; 

In strength and feircenesse, steele and brasse ; 
in lightnesse, fire ; in whitenesse, snowe. 

Their cloathinge is more softe then silke, 

with guirdles guirt of beaten gould ; 
They in their handes (more white then milke), 

of Palme triumphant, branches hould ; 
Their faces, shininge like the sunne, 

shoote out their gladsome, glorious beames ; 
The feild is fought, the battell woone, 

their heades be crown'd with diademes. 

Rewarde, as merit, different is ; 

distinct, their Joy and happinesse ; 
But each, in Joy of others' blis, 

doth as his owne the same possesse : 
Soe each in glorie doth abounde, 

and all their glories doe excell ; 
But where as all to each redownd, 

whoe canne th' exceedinge glorie tell ? 


Triumphant marters, you may heare 
recount their dangers, which doe cease. 

And noble Citicens ever weare 

their happie gownes of ioy and peace. 

[10] 4 in . . . thinke : in likenes doth them linke (A.) ; 5 doe passe 
surpasse (A.); J and feircenesse : in firmnes (.4.). 

[l l] I is : are (A.) ; 3 more, then : as, as (A.) ; 6 out : forth (A.} 

[12] I merit : vertue (^4.). 

[13] i marters: warriers (A.) \ 3 ever weare: euery where (^ 
4 gownes : gaines (A.). 



There learned clarkes, with sharpened wittes, 
their maker's wonderous workes doe tell. 

The Judges graue on benc[h]e doe sitte, 
to Judge the tribes of Israeli. 


The glorious courtiers ever there 

attend on person of their kinge, 
With Angells, ioyned in a Queere, 

melodious himmes of praises singe. 
The virginne chast, in lillie white, 

the marteres clad in scarlet red, 
The holie fathers which did write, 

weare Lawrell garelandes on their heads. 


Each Confesser a goulden crowne, 

adorn'd with pearle and precious stone, 
Th' apostles (pearles in renowne) 

like princes sit in regall throne ; 
Queene mother, virgine Iminent, 

then saintes and Angels more devine, 
Like sunne amids the firmament, 

aboue the planetes all doth shine. 


The King, that heavenlie pallace rules, 
dothe beare vpon his goulden sheild 

A crosse in signe of triumph, gules 
erected in a vardiant feild. 

His glorie saith as doeth behooue 
him in his manhood for to take, 

[14] 4 himmes of praises : praise of hymmes to (A.) ; 5-8 [15] 1-4 
are not in A. 

[15] 3 pearles : i.e. peerless. 

[16] i that : i.e. who that ; 4 vardiant : i.e. verdant (A.) ; 5 saith : 
read such (^4.). 



Whose godhead earth, and heauen aboue, 
and all that dwell therein did make. 


Lyke frendes, all partners as in blis 

with Christ^ their lord and maister deare ; 
Lyke spouses, they the brydgroome kis, 

whoe feasteth them with heauenlie cheere : 
With tree of life and manna sweete, 

which, tasted, doth such pleasure bringe 
As non[e] to Judge thereof be meete 

but such as banquet with the kinge. 


With Cherubims their winges they mooue 

and mount in contemplation highe ; 
With Seraphims the[y] burne in loue, 

the beames of glorie be soe nighe. 
The virgin's Children deare they bee, 

her louinge sonne for to imbrace, 
And Jesus his brethren, for to see 

his heavenlie father's glorious face. 


O sweete aspecte, vision of peace, 

happie regard, and heauenlie sight ! 
O en[d]les ioy without surcease, 

perpetuall day which hath noe night ! 
O well and wale, fountaine of life, 

ofspringe of everlastinge blis, 
Eternall sunne, resplendant light, 

and eminent cause of all that is ! 

[17] i as : read are (A.) ; 6 tasted, such : taste, such a (A.) ; 8 such 
as : they which (A.). 

[18] 5-8 not in A. ; 7 Jesus his : i.e. Jesus's. 

[19] 5 and wale : of weale (A.) ; 6 ofspringe : a spring (A.). 




Riuer of pleasure, sea of delight, 

garden of glorie ever greene ! 
O glorious glasse and mirror bright, 

wherein all truth is euer scene ! 
O princlie palace, royall court, 

monarchall seate, imperiall throne, 
Where kinge of kinges and soueraigne lord 

for ever ruleth all alone, 

; [21] 

Where all the glorious saintes doe see 

the secretes of the deitie, 
The godhead and, in persons three, 

the super-blessed trinitie : 
The depth of wisdome most profounde,' 

all puisant, high sublimitie, 
The breadth of loue, without all bound, 

in endlesse longe eternitie. 


The heauie earth belowe by kynd 

aboue ascendes the mountinge fier, 
Be this the Center of my mynd 

and loftie speare of her desyre ! 
The Chased deare doe take the soyle, 

the tyred hart the thicke and wood ; 
Be this the comfort of my toyle, 

my refuge, hope, and soueraigne good. 


The marchant cutes the seas for gaine, 
the soldier serues for his renowne, 

[20] 4 euer : clearely (A.). [21] 3 and : one (A.). 

[22] 4 speare : i.e. sphere ; 6 thicke : thickes (A.). 
[23] i cutes : i.e. cuts ; 2 serues for : serueth (A.). 

M 177 


The tilman plowes the ground for graine, 
be this my ioy and lastinge crowne ! 

The falkener seekes to see a flight, 
the hunter beates to see his gamme, 

Longe thou, my soule, to see that sight, 
and labor to enioy the same. 

Noe houre without some one delight 

which he endevours to attaine, 
Seeke thou, my soule, both day and night 

this one, which euer shall remaine : 
This one containes all pleasure true ; 

all other pleasures are but vaine, 
Bid thou the rest, my soule, adew, 

and seeke alone this one to gaine. 


Goe count the grasse vpon the ground, 

or sandes that be vpon the shoare, 
And when you haue the number found, 

the ioyes thereof be manie more. 
More thousand, thousand yeares they last 

and lodge within the happie minde, 
And when soe manie yeares be past, 

yet more and more bee still behind. 


Far more they be then we can weene, 
they doe our Judgment much excell ; 

Noe eare hath hard nor eie hath seene, 
noe pen can wryte, noe tounge can tell. 

[23] 6 see his : view the (A.). [24] i houre : one (A.), 

[25] i Goe : to (A.) ; 4 thereof: heereof (A.). 



An Angell's tonge cannot recyte 
the endlesse ioyes of heauenlie blis, 

Which, beinge whollie infinite, 
behond all speach and wrytinge is. 

We can imagine but a shade, 

it never entred into thought 
What ioy he is enioyn'd that made 

all ioy, and them that ioy, of nought. 
My soule cannot the ioyes contayne, 

let her, lord, enter into them, 
For euer with thee to remayne, 

within thy towne hierusalem. 


[27] 3 What ioyes he hath enioyed, that made (//.). 


If England will take heed 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 56 v -58. This curious ballad, with its slurs 
at " the Romish rout," " popish tyrants," and " prateing Papists,"" 
affords a striking contrast to the ballads from Additional MS. 15,225. 

In 1560 the Spanish Ambassador wrote to Philip II. : "Two- 
thousand families of Flemish Protestants are established in England," 
and by 1570 Flemings had "crowded across the Channel in tens of| 
thousands" (Froude's History, 1870, VII., 202 ; X., 106). The ballad j 
was written about 1570 apparently its author refers to the Northera 
Rebellion of 1569 in the last stanza and reproaches those Engl \shmea 
who objected to the influx of oppressed Protestants as if these unfortunate-jl 
refugees came " to make things dear and vanish wealth away." The II 
ballad, then, has some historical value. Notice the internal rhyme iaj| 
the fifth line of each stanza. 

Dotty blesse t\)w realme for 

receding of straungers being persecuted 

for ttye gospell, alttyougt) some Do repine 


If England will take heede, 

as cause ther is indeede, 
Then let them lo[o]k about, 

and wede abuses out. 
For if they range, the state will change 

from weale to wo, no doubt. 

It is not as some deeme, 

which by their carping seme 

1 80 


Pore straungers to invay, 

as all the matter laye 
That they be here to make thinges deare 

and banishe wealth away. 

Theise men, as may apeare, 

came never yet so neare 
The scripture to discerne ; 

wherin we ought to learne 
With those to beare that strangers are 

their stomakes are to[o] sterne. 


It semes well by their hast 

in tyme of turmoyles past, 
Ye lovde your ease and slepe 

with house and landes to keepe ; 
Else would not you pore strangers now 

dispise, that succor seeke. 


If they had bene exilde, 

as others were turmoylde, 
And so had learnde to knowe 

what kindenesse suche did showe, 
As straungers are to straungers were 

suche blastes they would not blowe. 

We would as well as theise 

that god and prince may please, 

This englishe yle to guyde 
and for the same provyde ; 

As it may gaine a wealthfull raign 
with all good thinges besyde. 

[2] 3 invay = inveigh ; 4 all : read if. 



And eke we wishe also 

that suche as come and goe 

From forraine realmes about 
may well be syfted out : 

If sound they be, and hither fle, 
to voyde the romishe route. 

And suche as be not found 

sincerely bent and sound, 
But make it their pretence 

and have their secrete sence, 
For game to fyshe, to theise we wishe 

let them be banished hence. 


Howbeit suche straungers poore, 

as we have bene to fore, 
That fle the bloudy trayne, 

where popishe tirantes raygne, 
Let vs no wise such gestes despise, 

but well them entertayne. 


Thou shalt not be the worse, 

o england, if thou nourse 
Theise exiles come of late 

(What so theise papistes prate ?), 
Who, to retaine their cbrist, are faine 

to chose this banisht state. 

But god with good successe 
in mercy shall the[e] blesse ; 



And make thy fruites abound, 
thy cattell, and thy ground, 

And corne by heape shall force a cheap, 
if thou in fayth be sound. 

And eke if thou repent 

thy synne and tyme mispent, 
And lyve as god doth will 

in his apointed still, 
Then god, in love, that raignes above 

shall the[e] defend from ill. 

I t'3] 

As for our noble Quene 

in trouble she hath bene 
For truth, and therfore nowe 

poore straungers doth alowe 
A quyet state, thoughe brablers prat, 

they wot not why nor ho we. 


[il] 5 heape = a definite measure, cheap = a bargain. 

[13] I Quene : i.e. Elizabeth ; 2 Possibly an allusion to her imprison 
ment by Queen Mary, or to the Catholic Rising of 1569 ; but only a 
general reference to religious disturbances may be intended. 


. 27 

A happy wind those locusts hence 
doth blow 

From a unique broadside in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London (Lemon's Catalogue of Broadsides, p. 67) : printed in white-letter 
type in four columns, with one wood-cut showing the four personages, 
Truth, Time, Popery, and Politic. 

On May 6, 1624, James I. issued A Proclamation charging all I e suites, 
Seminaries, 8$c., to depart the Land, which recites that the King " doth by 
this his Proclamation strictly charge and command all lesuites, Seminary 
Priests, and all others that haue taken Orders by any authority deriued 
from the Sea \sic\ of Rome, now resident, or being within this His 
Maiesties Realme of England, or the Dominion of Wales, That they, and 
euery one of them, doe before the fourteenth day of lune next ensuing 
the date hereof, make their repaire to some of His Maiesties Ports within 
the said Realme or Dominion, and from thence to Transport themselues 
out of the same, with the first opportunitie of Winde and Weather, into 
some forreine parts beyond the Sea, and neuer after to returne into this 
Realme." Those found in England or Wales after June 14 "shall 
vndergoe the vttermost seuerity and punishment, which by the Lawes, 
in that behalfe made, can bee inflicted vpon them." (The copy of this 
proclamation in the British Museum has the press-mark .83. k. 1/3.) 
Line 88 shows that the broadside was printed sometime between May 6 
and June 14, 1624. Earlier proclamations to this same effect had been 
issued by James I. in February, 1604 ; June, 1606, and June, 1610. 

crabete of cime: 

Eoatrrn tot'tjj }3optsfj 

Great Britaine tO Rome. 

anfc 5Tntt|)> ?30p?g anfc 
of tjjem twlaring tojat setuice tftes twtt* tone 

/o //5^/r Masters. 



A Happy winde those Locusts hence doth blow 

That would our Church and Common- wealth o'rethrowe; 

Who all (so ill) did play their parts so well, 

Stout Actors and true Factors vnto Hell, 

Men's soules and hearts from God and King to steale, 

Cum Priuilegio, vnder Hel's great Scale ; 

That true Religion (to whom all must stoope), 

Like [a] Decaying Tree, did seeme to droope, 

Romis caterpillers did so multiply, 

And in her boughes and branches lurking lye, 

That all true hearts that saw how thicke they swarm'd 

Were (God be thanked) much more fear'd then harnrd. 

Yet no conniuence or no toleration 

Inferr'd a feare of any alteration ; 

But when their Insolence was at the height, 

Then topsie turuy downe it tumbled streight. 

When TIME'S Great Maker (the most high ETERNAL) 

In mercy looked from his Throne supernall, 

And saw the Euils which began to grow 

In his deare Vine, here Militant below, 

HE to my Daughter TRVTH gaue straight command 

That SHEE those dang'rous ERRORS should withstand. 

Then vp I tooke vpon my aged Backe 

This load of Vanitie^ this Pedler's packe, 

This Trunke of Trash, and Romish Trumperies, 

Deluding showes, infernall forgeries. 

This Burden backe to Rome Pie beare againe 

From thence it came, there let it still remaine. 


Deare Father, though I seem'd asleepe a while, 
'Twas but to note their Insolence and Guile, 
Their vndermining trickes, their iugling shifts, 
Their Practice, politicke, and deuillish drifts ; 
Whilst vnder shadowes and meere showes of TRVTH, 
They sought to blinde and coozen age and youth, 


Which my Great Master, GOD Omnipotent, 
Foresaw ; and, seeing, timely did preuent. 
The Sunne-Beames of his Gospell he displayes, 
Whose glorious lights (eternall, piercing Rayes) 
Shines with such burning heate through TRVTH'S bright 

. Glasse 

That errors are consumed like withered grasse. 
But say, old Father TIME, what's that, I pray, 
Which on your backe you beare so swift away ? 


Beloued Daughter, I haue said before 
It is the Figure of the purple Whore, 
Which, like a fugitiue, I beare with shame 
From Tything vnto Tything, whence she came. 
But what is Hee that followes thee behinde, 
Yet to ore-take thee seemes no way inclined ? 


It is a trusty, seruiceable Don, 

A Vassall to the Beast of Babylon, 

Who doth his best and worst, where he doth come, 

To make all Kingdomes subiect vnto Rome. 

He followes TRVTH, but 'tis farre off you see ; 

He neuer meanes to lay true hold on MEE. 

Yet with my Robes himselfe doth oft disguise, 

And make the simple swallow downe his lyes. 

Indeed hee's but a Furie in man's shape, 

His name is Politicize, Religion's Ape. 

And, I perceiue, his minde he faine would breake 

To your sweet Load ; Harke, he beginnes to speake, 


Say, wherefore are you hence in poste thus riding ? 

1 86 



To Rome againe, for here is no abiding ; 

Our labour's lost, my deare adopted Sonne, 

And all that we haue done is quite vndone. 

The things we thought more secret then the night, 

TIME and his Daughter TRVTH hath brought to light. 


Al times and seasons I with care haue watcht, 

And sate on Egges, in hope they would be hatcht ; 

Which, had they taken life, had been a brood 

Of Cockatrices (for our Gen'rall good). 

They were my scrues, my engins, and my trickes, 

Surpassing Machiuilian Politicks. 

Oh had they come to haue a happy birth, 

'T had beene an vniuersall day of mirth ; 

O[u]r great Cause Catholike had beene aduanc'd, 

And all our enemies discountenanc'd. 

Then came a Parliament, whose weighty stroake, 

Found out my Nest, and all my Egges they broke. 

Thus (Father) all our paines and labour's lost, 

And you and I must needs depart this Coast. 

The Catholikes of vs are growne suspitious 

Our lesuit-Priests haue beene so auaritious, 

And with such holinesse haue pick'd their purse, 

Which being spyde, our cause is much the worse ; 

And thus old TIME and TRVTH hath giuen such light 

That Catholikes themselues distaste vs quite. 

Then let's be logging, here's no staying here, 

The fourteenth day of lune is full of feare, 

For then a Proclamation doth take force, 

To Hang vs all. Pray God it proue no worse. 


This sweet Discourse exceeding pleasing was, 
Prais'd be the GOD of TRVTH that brings to passe 


These wondrous things for his beloued VINE, 
Which makes her Militant on Earth to shine, 
And by his mercy here such Grace is giu'n 
That shee shall shine Triumphantly in Heau'n. 


And TIME ascribes all praise and thankes therefore 
Vnto his Glorious Name for euermore. 


28 If - 

Famous Brittany, give thanks 

Reprinted from a unique black-letter broadside in the Pepys Collec 
tion, I., 60. Part I. is printed in three columns, Part II. in two, each 
separated by a heavy rule. There are three good wood-cuts. The 
margins are badly torn : in stanza 2 it has been necessary to fill in the 
gaps more or less by guess. 

This ballad has the distinction of being the earliest work extant by 
Martin Parker, that prince of ballad-mongers. Though not dated or 
entered in the Stationers' Registers, it was printed shortly after the 
Proclamation against Jesuits and seminary priests issued by James I. on 
May 6, 1624. Parker here appears in no very pleasant light, but it is 
not to be expected that a mere ballad-writer should be more tolerant 
and charitable than " the patterne of pietie," James I., whom he so 
devotedly admired. There is a brief sketch of Parker in the Dictionary 
ofNational Biography, and a more elaborate sketch by the present writer 
in Modern Philology, XVI. (1919), 449-474. 

The celebrated printer, John Trundle, was noted for his ballads even 
before 1 600, as readers of Jonson's Every Man in His Humour will 
remember. No other ballad of Parker's came, I believe, from his press ; 
but the widow Trundle, later on, not infrequently published the work 
of M. P. 

For the tune, Room for Cuckolds, see Chappell's Popular Music, I., 322. 

a scourge for tye pope, 
sarpricallp scourging tfoe itcijing sines of tits 
obstinate moot in 

To the Tune of Roome fcr, etc. 

Famous Brittany, 
Giue thankes to God on high 
Who hath deliuered thee 
from Popish fictions. 



Thy Religion free 

With God's Word doth agree, 

While Romis false doctrine 

imply contradictions. 
With subtill intrusion, 
They sought Truthe's confusion ; 
I trust the conclusion 

will frustrate their hope. 
Our King doth defy them, 
Our Commons descry them, 
'Tis fit they should hye them 

away to the Pope. 


Where are the lesuites 
That late were so arrogant ? 
That they would needs 

take vpon them to teach vs, 
In euery corner 
Seduceing the ignorant ; 
But now I hope they 

no more shall ore-reach vs. 
They are best be packing 
(Their power is slacking), 
Unlesse they loue cracking 

[thjeir necks in a rope. 
"Now] Truth's manifested, 
Religion's unmjolested, 
For we have protested 

[against the falsje Pope. 


Long haue they looked 
To get toleration, 
But God kept the heart 
of our King in his Hand ; 

[i] 8 imply : read implies. 



That would haue wrought 
Our Truth's extirpation, 
If they had diuulged 

their lyes through the Land. 
But now 'tis otherwise : 
All popish trumperies, 
With faigned forgeries, 

shall haue no scope ; 
Our Laws will preuent them, 
And shrewdly torment them, 
There's none to content them 

so soone as the Pope. 


You fond Papists 
That late were seduced, 
In time be resolued 

to make recantation, 
That your poore soules may 
Againe be reduced 
Unto his blest Gospell 

who bought your saluation. 
Shake hands and bid adue 
To that deceitfull crue ; 
What pittie 'tis that you 

in blindnesse grope ; 
Make haste and come from thence, 
Submit for your offen[ce], 
Put no more consider[ence], 

in the false Pope. 


Now we shall haue 
No secret Assemblies, 
Nor meeting houses 
to celebrate Masse ; 

[3] 7 diuulged : i.e. divulged. 


Now the lesuit 

With feare made to tremble is, 

To thinke what strange euents 

will come to passe. 
This great vexation, 
Beyond expectation, 
A strange alteration 

hath bred in their hope ; 
They Arguments framed 
And priuiledge claimed, 
But now they are tamed, 

and fly to the Pope. 


All Professors true 
Lately were sore afraid, 
For feare the Papists would 

get some permission 
To haue free vse of their 
Seditious, lying trade ; 
But now, I hope, 

there's no cause of suspicio[n]. 
Our Parliament Royall 
Will giue them deniall, 
A meanes to destroy all 

their causes of hope ; 
Our King will requit th[em]. 
And worthily fit them, 
Their best waie's to [flit them] 

with speed to the [Pope]. 



0econt> part. 

To the same tune. 

[7] '.' 

Farewell, Masse-mongers, 
With all your iuggling tricks ; 
Your puppet plaies will not 

here be allow'd. 
Haue me commended 
Unto your great Pontifex, 
Tell him Saint Peter 

was neuer so proud ; 
And say 'tis needfull, 
That he should be heedfull, 
Lest God's Judgements dreadfull 

do light on his Cope. 
Dominic nor Francis, 
Whom Rome so aduances, 
Cannot from mischances 

secure the proud Pope. 


Our good King is 
The patterne of pietie, 
And well deserueth 

his Stile, Faith's Defender. 
He, like a Shepheard, 
Ordained by the Deity, 
His Flocks most safely 

will nourish and tender. 
The Pope he excludeth : 
Though oft he intrudeth, 
Yet, like zealous ludeth, 

his head he will crop ; 

[8] i King : i.e. James I. ; 1 1 ludeth : i.e. Judith, the apocryphal 

N I 93 


Like good Hezekias 
And feruent losias y 
He serues the Messias, 
and hateth the Pope. 


Then, Professors true, 
Plucke vp a courage good, 
Feare the Lord truely, 

dread not your foes ; 
Keepe your faith still pure, 
And doe not spare your bloud, 
Let not the Papists 

delude you with showes. 
Giue no permission 
To Romis superstition, 
Upon no condition 

of promise or hope ; 
Let due execution 
And stout resolution 
Expell all pollution 

that springs from the Pope. 

That we may effect 
What we desire to see, 
Let vs to God direct 

our supplications 
For our dread Soueraigne ; 
Under whose Maiestie 
We doe enioy the true 

meanes of Saluation ; 
Giue him strength to subdue 
Antichrist and his crue ; 
With zeale Prince Charles endu[e], 

our second hope ; 



Good Lord, be thou present 
In our high Parliament 
That none may giue consent 
to loue the Pope. 


Per me, Martin Parker. 

London : printed for John Trun\dle\ 

and are to be sold at his Shop 

in Smithfield. 


H^ho would not be a cuckold 

Harleian MS. 3910, fols. 41^42. This ballad, wholly unobjection 
able in its phrasing, belongs to the reign of James I., and is worth 
including here not only because of its tone of genuine indignation, but 
because its slurs at Bishops and Catholics give it a real connection 
with many of the other ballads in this collection. The measure, too,.! 
is attractive. 

Whoe would not be a Cuckold, 

To haue a hansom wife ? 

Whoe would not be a wittold, 

To lead a merry life ? 

Though many do disdayne it, 
And scorne to haue the name, 
Yet others intertayne it, 
And neuer blush for shame. 


The good-wife, like a Peacock, 

She getts in braue attyre ; 

The good-man, like a Meacock, 

Sitts smoaking ore the fyre : 

Hee neuer dares reprooue her, 
But letts her haue her will ; 
Nor cares how many loue her, 
So shee the purse do fille. 


Some men attayne to Maces, 
Through bounty of their Dames, 

[2] 3 Meacock an effeminate and cowardly man 


And couer all Disgraces, 
Yf well they playe their games ; 
But when the sole comanding 
Emongst the females fall, 
For want of vnderstanding 
They comenly marre all. 

W : ~. 

Nor doth alone the Citty 
Such presidents aforde : 
In Courte, the more the pitty, 
Some Ladies playe the lorde : 
And then to be in fashion 
Shee turnes Catholicall, 
O vile abhomynation, 
The pope can pardon all ! 


Are women thus devoted 

To levities by kinde ? 

Or are the men so doted 

To see and yet be blynde ? 

But proffitt and promotion 
The worlde do over rule, 
And counterfett Devotion 
Can make the wise a foole. 

[4] 2 presidents : i.e. precedents. 


Jesus, my loving spouse 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. y-y v . Written in double columns. TJ 
title is taken from the only other copy known : that in the Shirbui 
Ballads, pp, 84 ff. The present version is, on the whole, superior 
the Shirburn copy (S.), and is one stanza longer. The chief variatu 
between the two are cited in the foot-notes. The ballad was entered 
the Stationers' Registers (Arber's Transcript, I., 380) in 1568-69 as " 
tru invocation of God in the name of Christe Jesus." 

For the tune see Chappell's Popular Music, II., 517. 

[Clie sinner, tri0pi0inge tlje tnorlu anfc 
all eattftp banitie0, repa0ett) t>fe &>We 
confidence in W0 beloben satiour, 3ie0u0 

To the Tune of Dainty, come thow to mee.] 


Jesus, my louing spouse, 

eternall veritie, 
Perfect guide of my soule, 

way to eternitie, 
Strengthen me with thy grace, 

from thee He never flee, 
Let them all say what they will, 

Jesu, come thou to me. 

Poore men seeke after wealth ; 
blind men seeke libertie ; 

[2] 2 blind : bond (5.). 


Crazed corpes cry for health ; 

all seeke prosperietie ; 
I seeke nothinge but Christ, 

he alone pleaseth mee ; 
Let them all say what they will, 

Jesu, come thou to mee. 

_ [3] /<:". 

Some wearie out themselues 

in waies of vanitie ; 
Some folio we painted flees 

in feeldes of miserie ; 
Some, in the mouthes of men, 

place their felicitie ; 
Such tryfles I contemne, 

Jesus , for loue of thee. 


Feruent loue longeth sore 

his ladies face to see ; 
Discarded courtiers seeke 

in princes' grace to be ; 
Noe want nor wooe I f eele, 

whitest I doe inioy thee. 
Let them all say what they will, 

Jesu, come thou to mee. 

I [5] 

Some passe through surginge seas, 

in daylie jeopardie ; 
Hazardinge life and limme, 

to bee inricht thereby ; 

[2] 3 crazed corpes : read craz'd corpses ; 6 he alone : read alone he. 
[3] 3 flees : i.e. flies, trifles. [4] I Stanza 4 follows stanza 5 in S. ; 
3 seeke : not in S. ; 6 while I remane with thee (5.). 



In toyle at home, therefore, 

I, by possessinge thee, 
Haue all they haue and more. 

Jesu, come tbou to mee. 


What can this wretched world 

(repleat with miserie) 
Yeald to delight my soule 

(made for eternitie ) ? 
All is vaine, all is fraile, 

all that compar'd to thee, 
All earthlie thinges doe faile. 

Jesus, come thou to mee. 


All that hart can conceiue, 

eares can heare, eies can see, 
All and more I posses, 

sweete Jesus Christ, by thee ; 
Heauen and earth all therein 

life and lime thou giuest mee ; 
Haue I not then cause to singe, 

Jesu, come thou to mee ? 


If pleasure mooue my mynde, 

power, or nobillitie, 
All this in thee I fynd, 

strenght and agillitie, 
Wisdome, wit, bewtie, wealth, 

peace, and all sanc[ti]tie, 
Perfecte health of my soule. 

Jesu, come thou to mee. 

[5] 5 In : some (5.). [7] 2 Read eares heare or eies can see. 
[8] 4 strenght : i.e. strength ; 6 peace, and felicity (5.). 



Though the world tempt me sore, 

though the flesh trouble me, 
Tho the devill would devoure, 

my refuge is to thee ; 
Though heaven and earth doe faile, 

tho all perplexed bee, 
Thou art and euer shall 

my cheefest comfort bee. 

' [10] 
Thou art my sauiour sweete, 

foode and delight to mee, 
A medicine most sweete 

to eich mfirmitie ; 
To my tast, honnie sweete ; 

to my eare, melodic ; 
Perfecte guyde to my feete ; 

to my hart, Jubelie. 

Not my will, sauiour myne, 

but thine performed bee. 
All thinges I count as dunge, 

Jesu, for loue of thee. 
Pleasure, pompe, all delight, 

that I may blessed bee, 
I doe abandon quyte, 

Jesu, for loue of thee. 


If I faile for thy sake 

in seas of miserie, 
Noe account thereof I make, 

soe thou abyde with me. 

l_io] 2 to : MS. originally vnto ; 3 sweete : read meete (5.). 
[12] I Stanza 12 not in 5. 



Thou alone hast my hart 

in all extremitie, 
From thee lie never part, 

Jesu^ come thou to mee. 


Hauinge thee, tho I dye, 

I Hue most ioyfullie ; 
Wantinge thee, thoe I Hue, 

such life is death to me ; 
Thou art my blisse, my ioy, 

my soules f elicitie, 
Cheefe succour in annoy, 

Jesu, come thou to me. 

For thee my soule was made, 
nought eles contenteth mee ; 

All earthlie pleasures fade, 
thou Huest eternallie ; 

Strengthen mee with thy grace 
that I may warthie bee, 

In heauen to see thy face. 
esU come thou to mee. 

[12] 5 Thou alone : read Alone thou. 
[14] 8 and burne in loue of thee (5.). 


. 3 1 

A word once said, Adam was made 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. io-io v . A pleasant little ballad summariz 
ing the life of Christ, and suggestive of early Latin hymns. On the 
title, Verbum caro, see The Gude find Godlie Ballatis, 1567 (ed. A. F. 
Mitchell, 1897, p. 52), and P. Wackernagel's Das deutsche Kirchenlied, 
I., Nos. 264-266 et passim. 

ierbum caro factum est et gabitauit in nobi0, 
ab 00 Dictum e0t, cretnte rnanoo 

A word once said, Adam was made, 

(the truth I say to you), 
And of his rib a woman's seede 

but whoe cann tell me how ? 

A maiden pure, nothinge more sure 

(the truth I say to you), 
Did beare a Child, she vndefield, 

but who can tell mee how ? 


This Child he wrought woonders full ofte 

(the truth I say to you) : 
The lame did walke, the dumbe did talke, 

but whoe cann tell mee how ? 




In wildernesse vpon the grasse 

(the truth I say to you) ; 
Fiue loaues of bread fiue thousand fed 

but whoe cann tell me how ? 


This Child hath made in forme of bread 

(the truth I say to you), 
His bodie and blood to be our foode 

but whoe can tell me how ? 


This Childe did dye vpon a tree 

(the truth I say to you), 
And buried then did ryse againe 

but whoe can tell me how ? 


The ston[e] vnroul'd, the cloathes vnfould 

(the truth I say to you), 
He, whole and sound, rose from the ground 

but whoe cann tell mee how ? 


Like gardiner he did appeare 

(the truth I say to you), 
To magdalene with spade in hand 

but whoe cann tell me how ? 


Vnto Emaus the scripture sais 
(the truth I say to you), 

7] i cloathes : i.e. cloths = the shroud. 

9] i Emaus : i.e. Emmaus (cf. St. Luke xxiv., 13). 



With Cleofhas he yeede, in Palmer's weede, 
but whoe cann tell me bow ? 


Then after all in cloased hal[l]e 

(the truth I say to you), 
His appostles there saw him appeare 

but whoe cann tell me how ? 

He made an end and did assend 

(the truth 1 say to you) 
To his farther aboue, whoe did him loue,- 

but whoe cann tell me how ? 


Beleeue all this or eles, doubtlesse 

(the truth I say to you), 
Hence shall you goe to sorrow and woe, 

and I shall tell you how. 


At the last day this Child shall say 

(the truth I say to you), 
" [Ye]a cursed, goe to endlesse wooe." 

[W]0ft> haue I tould you how. 

[9] 3 Cleophas : i.e. Cleopas (St. Luke xxiv., 18). 
[13] 3 Yea : MS. torn. Read ye. 


Who is my love ? I shall you tell 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fol. ii. The two lines of the heading are 
bracketed in the MS. and possibly the name of a tune was written, but 
the margin after the bracket is torn away. Stanza I is written as two 
long lines. From stanza 4 on, the refrain is written as an extension of 
the third line, with the result that in stanza 8 and 9 a number of letters 
have been trimmed off by the binder. 

3] loue titme, 31 loue jtfm, ti)t trutl) for to say, 
31 purpo0e to loue ftm, ttl)[o]e euer sate nap. 

Whoe is my loue ? I shall you tell : 
Even he that made both hea[ven] and hell, 
And dyed for me on good fry day. 
I purpose to loue him whoeuer sals na\y~\. 


My loue hath made this world of nought, 
All thinges therein by him was wrought, 
The sunne and moone, the sooth to say. 
I purpose to loue him whoe ever sais nay. 


He made the sea, alsoe the sand, 
The grasse to gro[w]e vpon the land, 
The fish, the f oule, the sooth to say. 
/ purpose to loue him whoe ever sais nay. 

[i] 2 heaven : MS. torn ; 4 nay : y cut off by binder. 



He hath me made to his likenesse, 
Neither in bone not yet in flesh, 
But in soule, the sooth to say. 
7 purpose to loue, &c. 


He doth my bodie cloath and feede, 
It lackes nothinge that it doth neede, 
Meate ney drinke, the soth to say. 
/ purpose to loue, i$c. 


He hath set about my soule 
Mercie and grace, to keepe out all 
My ghostlie enemyes night and day. 
/ purpose to, &c. 


Three foes I haue which would me quell, 
The world, the flesh, the devill of hell, 
But all three stroakes my loue doth stay. 
I purpose, 


He hath bought my loue full deare, 

His hart was cloven with a speare, 

To dye for me he tooke the paine. 

Alacke, I will loue him, an[cf\ loue him aga[ini\. 

[5] 3 ney: i.e. ne = nor. [7] i quell = kill. 




I haue not lou'd him as I should ; 

But what of that ? I will be bould 

To aske him mercie night and day 

And still for to loue him whoe[ver~\ sais na[y\. 



33 ' We .-. 

Walking alone not long agone 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. i6 v -iy. Reprinted from this MS. in 
Collier's Extracts from the Stationers' Registers, L, 92 ff. 

The ballad was registered in 1564-65 by John Kyngeston as "a 
ballett intituled the story of Jobe the faythfull servaunte of God,-&c.," 
and was re-entered a few days later by William Pekering (Arber's 
Transcript, I., 260, 262). It was transferred on December 14, 1624, 
as " Patient Job." Late copies of the ballad, " printed for F. Coles, 
T. Vere, I. Wright, J. Clarke, W. Thackeray and T. Passenger " (on the 
same sheet as " The Shaking of the Sheets," a copy of which is also in 
this MS., fols. 15-16), are preserved in the Pepysian (L, 62), Rawlinson 
(4to Rawlinson, 566, fol. 203), and Crawford (Bibliotheca Lindesiana, A 
Catalogue of English Ballads, Nos. 202, 1239) Collections. The title 
runs : 

" A Godly Ballad of the Just Man Job. 
Wherein his great patience he doth declare, 
His plagues and his miseries, and yet did not despair. 

The Tune is, The Merchant." 

These copies, none of which has been reprinted, are arranged in sixteen 
six-line stanzas, of which the first runs : 

Walking all alone, 
No not long agone, 

I heard one wail and weep ; 
Alas, he said, 
I am laid 
In sorrow strong and deep. 

In the MS. the ballad is written in eight four-line stanzas. Complete 
collations of the MS. copy and the Pepys copy are given in the foot 
notes. On the whole, the MS. has the better readings. Laurence 
Price also wrote a ballad on Job : " Bee Patient in Trouble. To the 
Tune of Bodkin's Galliard" reprinted in the Roxburghe Ballads, III., 174. 



a plea0ant ballaD of tye iust man 
shearing tits patience in ertremitie. 

Walking alone not long agone, 

I heard one weale and weep. 
" Alas," he said, " I am now laid 

in sorrowes strong and deepe." 
To heare him cry, I did apply, 

and priuilie aboade ; 
There did I find, in secret mind, 

the rust and patient Jobe. 

His woofull paine did me constraine 

by foarce to waile and mone ; 
God did him proue how he did loue 

his liueing lord alone. 
In heauinesse he did expresse 

these words, with bitter tears : 
" Alas, poore man ! wretched I am, 

in care my life out-weares. 


" This mortal! life is but a strife 
and battell mightie and stronge ; 

My yeares, also, doe wast and goe 
and not continue longe. 

[i] 1-4 cf. the stanza quoted in the introduction. 

[2] 8 life : self (P.). 

[3] 2 mightie : great (P.) ; 3 doe : to (P.). 



The time wherin I did begine 
to mooue and stir my breath, 

Would god I had to earth beene made 
and turned vnto death ! 


" Then should not I in miserie 

beene wrapped as I am ; 
The time and day well curse I may 

when into this world I cam[e]. 
For my faults past I am out cast, 

and of all men abhorde ; 
O that I might once stand in sight 

to reason with my lord ! 


" Then should I know why he did show 

this extreame crueltie 
Vpon such flesh that is but nesh, 

and borne is for to dye. 
From top to toe I feele such wooe 

that sorrow is my meate ; 
Put to exile with botch and byle 

the dunghill is my seate. 

|-"' [6] 

" My kinsfolke walke, and by me talke, 

much wonderinge at my faule ; 
They count my state vnfortunate, 

and thus forsake me all. 

[3] 5 time : day (P.) ; 7 to earth beene : an exchange (P.). 

[4] I Then : So (P.) ; 2 beene : be (P.) ; 4 into : to (P.) ; 8 my : 
the (P.). 

[5] I Then . . . I : I should then (P.) ; did : doth (P.) ; 3 such : 
his (P.) ; nesh : grass (P.) : 5 such : with (P.) ; 8 the : and (P.). 

[6] i walke, talke : talk, walk (P.) ; 2 much : not in P. ; 4 thus : so (P.). 



My children fiue that were aliue, 

they be all cleane distroy'd ; 
The like plague fell on my cattell, 

and all that I inioy'd. 


" Should I for them my god blaspheme, 

and his good giftes dispise ? 
That will I not, but take my lot, 

giuing his name the praise. 
They were not mine but for a time, 

I know well it is soe ; 
God gaue them me, why should not he 

againe take them meiroe ? " 

[8] 1 

When he thus had said, full still I staid 

his end for to behould. 
There did I see his felicitie 

encreasing maniefould. 
I know well then that patient men 

should not suffer in vaine, 
But should be sure t' haue great pleasure 

rewarded for their paine. 


[6] 5 that : which (P.) ; 6 cleane : quite (P.) ; 7 like : P. omits ; 
plague : MS. plaug ; 8 and : with (P.). 

[8] i When . . . said : Thus having said (P.) ; 3 There ... see : I 
there did see (P.) ; 5 that : how (P.) ; 7 should : shall (P.) ; great i 
P. omits. 



To pass the place where pleasure is 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. I7 v -i8. Printed from this MS. in Collier's 
Extracts from the Stationers' Registers, I., 48-50. The ballad was regis 
tered for publication under the title of " to passe the place, &c.," in 
1561-62, and under the title of "to passe the place where pleasure ys, 
&c.," in 1564-65 (Arber's Transcript, I., 179, 265). The latter regis 
tration was made by Thomas Colwell, who obviously printed the ballad 
on the same sheet as " I might have lived merrily," a copy of which 
follows in this MS. and is the next ballad in this volume. The ballad 
appears to be a moralization of a popular song. 

To passe the place where pleasure is, 

it ought to please our fantasie ; 
If that the pleasure be amis 

and to godes word plaine contrarie ; 
or eles we sinne, we sinne, 
and hell we winne, 
great paine there-in, 
all remedie gone 

except in Christ alone, alone. 

The Hues that we long liued haue 

in wantonnesse and iolitie, 
Although the[y] seeme and show full braue, 
yet is their end plaine miserie. 
Let vs therefore, therefore, 
now sinne noe more, 
but learne this lore : 
all remedie gone 

except in Christ alone, [alone]. 




And say we then, with Salomon, 

that bewtie is but vanitie, 
Yet they that feare the lord alone 
shall sure enioy felicitie. 
For this may wee, may we, 
perceiue and see 
most true to be : 
all remedie gone 

except in Christ alone, alone. 


Our perfett trust and confidence 
must fixed be on Christ onelie, 
Serueinge our lord with pure pretence, 
and shunning all hipocrisie, 
which might vs draw, vs draw, 
from godes true law, 
marke well this saw : 
all remedie gone 

except in Christ alone, alone. 


If godes true word, by preaching plaine, 

might anie wise vs certiefie, 
We should not, then, soe blind remaine, 
but should imbrace the verietie ; 
for why ? the word, the word, 
of god our lord 
doth well record, 
all remedie gone 

except in Christ alone, alone. 

[3] i Salomon : i.e. Solomon. Cf. Proverbs xxxi., 30. 
[4] i perfett : i.e. perfect. 




Our faithfull frendes, the pastors pure, 

doe giue vs councell, certainlie, 
From wickednesse, for to be sure, 
to leaue our fooleish fantasie, 
which is the springe, the spring, 
that doth vs bring 
to eich ill thing : 
all remedie gone 

except in Christ alone, alone. 


What wisdome haue our wicked wittes 

to worke all thinges vntowardlie ; 
What reason rest es in such fond fittes 
to cause things chance so frowardlie ? 
Therefore betime, betime, 
leaue we our crime 
and learne this rime : 
all remedie gone 

except in Christ alone, alone. 


[6] 9 The word/ff/V follows this line in the MS. 



/ might have lived merrily 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. i8-i8 v . Text arranged in four-line stanzas. 
The ballad was entered in the Stationers' Registers in the year 1564-65 
(Arber's Transcript, I., 265) thus : 

T. Colwell Receaved of thomas Colwell for his lycense for 
pryntinge of ij balletes the one intituled to posse the 
place -where pleasure ys <tv/and the Other / myghte have 
leved meryly morralysed . . . . . iiij d 

From the license fee of fourpence it is evident that Colwell printed the 
two ballads on a single broadside. As a copy of "To pass the place" 
occurs in the MS. just before this ballad (see No. 34), it is very probable 
that the compiler of the MS. took the two ballads from Colwell's, or a 
later, single sheet. 

I might haue liued merelie 

If I had sinned never ; 
But now, forsooth and verelie, 

condemp'd I am for ever, 
Except I turne right towardlie 

to god with hart and glee, 
And leaue my sinninge frowardlie, 

and true repentant bee ! 


I haue beene alwais necligent 
to doe the best I canne, 

My sinnes they are most evident 
both vnto god and man ; 

[l] i liued merelie : read liv'd merrily. 


And if my sinning wickedlie 
doe happen to my thrall, 

Then let me know assuredlie, 
I might haue with all. 


For where my god of gentlenes 

doth offer loue soe kind, 
Loe I that in my stubburnnesse 

fulfill my sinfull mynd, 
His grace and eake his godlines, 

his mercie kept in store, 
But onelie for my frowardnes 

were myne for euermore. 


I offered once a reminent 

to god of godlie life, 
But yet alas ! incontinent 

I fell to sinne and strife ; 
Which makes me thinke most suerlie, 

construinge in my braines, 
My god I serue not puerlie, 

I looke for other gainefs]. 


But though that I most wickedlie 

my lord god haue offended, 
Yet doe I hope most stidfastlie 

my faultes shall be amended ; 
And heere repenting puerlie 

my former necligence, 
I know my lord god suerlie 

will pardon my offence. 

[3] 3> 4 Written in two lines in the MS. 


The word Loe is badly 



So Sathan shall not higgle me 

for all his craftie wiles, 
But I will stretch and struggle me 

for to withstand his guiles ; 
And will display his dubbleing 

by help of god most highest, 
And be free from his troubleing 

through faith and hope in Christ. 

[6] 6 highest : read highest. 



Old Toby called his loving son 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 19-20. 

" A pleasant new Ballad of Tobias, wherein is shewed the wonderfull 
things which chanced to him in his youth : and how he wedded a 
young Damsell that had had seven husbands and never enioyed their 
company : who were all slaine by a wicked spirit," beginning 

In Ninivie old Toby dwelt, 

occurs in most of the great ballad collections, and is reprinted in A 
Collection of Old Ballads, 1723, II., 158, and in the Roxburghe Ballads, 
II., 621. Registered at Stationers' Hall on December 14, 1624 (as a 
transfer), and on March I, 1675, it summarizes the first eleven chapters 
of the Apocryphal Book of Tobit. The ballad printed below is decidedly 
interesting because it is a sequel, apparently unique, to the " Ballad of 
Tobias," dealing solely with the concluding (the twelfth) chapter of 
Tobit. It was, I think, the "godly ballet taken out of ye iiijth 
[ = xij th ?] chapeter of Tobeas " which was licensed for publication in 
1568-69 (Arber's Transcript, I., 378). 

The fish mentioned by young Toby in stanza 4 is dealt with in the 
Book of Tobit, vi., 2, " a fish leaped out of the river, and would have 
devoured him," but has a far from formidable appearance in the wood 
cuts that accompany the printed ballads. "The error of our days" 
(stanza 1 7) is possibly Protestantism, though only a general reference to 
sin may have been intended. 

Ould Tobie calde his lovinge sonne 
and eike that faire and loulie bryde ; 

Quoth hee, " my will, Iwis, we are 
to recompence this carefull guyde." 


Younge Tobie said, " my father deere," 
with Joyfull moode and merry glee, 

[l] 2 loulie : i.e. lovely ; bryde : i.e. Sara. 



" Nothinge of woorth wee haue, I feare, 
To recompence his loue to mee. 


" He brought me foarthe and backe agayne, 
both safe and sounde, as you haue scene ; 

He kept me that I was not slayne, 
or now at home I had not beene. 

w ; ; 

" Hee causde Gabella pay the debte, 
and droue the spiritt frome my wife. 

A happie Day when I hime mete, 
or eles the fishe had had my life ! 


" Your selfe was blind and coulde not see, 

which caused sorrow to vs all ; 
By him, the brightnesse of the skye 

you doe behould, which is not smale. 


" Wee were in want and verie poore, 

now riche as cressus at this tyde ; 
Then render thankes to him therefore, 

and giue him halfe we haue besyde." 

[7] ; 

They cal'd the angell then apart, 
and humblie offered halfe the[y] had. 

He thanked them with all his hart. 

" Praise god," he said, " and eike be gladde ; 

[4] I Gabella : i.e. Gabael ; 3 mete : read met. 
[5] i not : MS. non. 
[6] cressus : i.e. Croesus. 



" Our lord this favour hath you donne 

for prayer good, with holie fast, 
And good almes-deedes which non[e] should shunne, 

noe gould doth Equall them at last. 

[9] ; 

" The truth I doe intende to tell, 

and eake my counsell to vnfould : 
Thy workes of mercie helpe thee well, 

from Deathe and sinne they doe thee hould. 


" When thou in prayer did daylie sitte, 

and tricklinge teares runne downe thy face ; 

When thou at dinner eate noe bitt, 
then was I ever still in place. 

" When thou tooke vp the corpse of those 

which lay for want of buriall ; 
When thou would such good deedes inclose, 

for thee I did both cry and call. 


" When thou did breake thy sleepe by night 

to doe such deedes of Charitie, 
I offered vp thy prayers aright 

to god in Throwne of Maiestie ; 


" Whoe hath rewarded all thy deedes 
and sent me to doe all I haue. 

[10] 3 eate : read ate. 


The man is blest which soe proceedes, 
and hath a care his soule to saue. 


" I am the Angell of our lord, 

Raphaell am I calPd by name, 
One of the seven which accorde 
to stand and waite from whence I came." 


The[y] were amazed at his speeche, 
and grou[e]linge fell vpon the ground. 

But then affrighted, with his speach 

they Joyfull rose, out of their s[w]oound. 


With wordes of praise the Angell bright 

assended hath the Airie skyes. 
In prayer and Joy they spent the night, 

and pra[i]s'd our lord in humble wise. 


To god be honour, laude, and prayse ; 

to Angelles Eake be reverend due. 
God mend the error of our dayse, 

and holie customes soone renue ! 


[17] 2 reverend : read reverence. 



The thoughts of man do daily 

Addit. MS. 1 5,225, fol. 38. This beautiful little ballad is very much 
earlier than the only printed copy I have found ; namely, that in John 
Forbes's Cantus, Songs and Fancies (2nd ed., 1666, song VII.). All the 
important variations between the MS. and Forbes's version (F.) are given 
in the foot-notes, from which it will be seen that the two are very 
different. Furthermore, there are two additional stanzas in the Cantus 
(here printed), while there also stanza 4 of the MS. precedes stanza 3. 
The last two lines of stanza 3 of the MS. and stanza 6 of F. are identical : 
probably stanzas 5 and 6 are a later edition to the original ballad, these 
two lines being transferred to the sixth stanza to make a fitting conclusion. 

Ballads and songs on the scarcity or falsity of true friends were written 
out of number by Elizabethans. See, for example, TottePs Miscellany, 
ed. Arber, p. no ; Collier's reprints of the Paradise of Dainty Devises, 
pp. 10, 59, 105, 128, and A Gorgeous Gallery of Gallant Inventions, pp. 85, 
1 24. Among the ballads registered were " the Dyscryption of a tru 
frynde, &c.," in 1563-64, "shewyng how a man shall knowe his frynde 
and What fryndshippe ys, &c.," in 1 565-66, " the treasure of frynshippe " 
in 1569-70, and "howe hard it is a faithfull frend to find" on August 
i, 1586 (Arber's Transcript, I., 237, 305, 417 ; II., 450). Some of 
these entries seem applicable to this ballad. 

The thoughtes of man doe daylie change, 
as fancie growes within their brestes ; 

For now their nature is soe strange, 
a few can finde where frenshippe restes. 

The hautie hart soe plentie growes 

That everie weede doth seeme a rose. 

[i] i man : read men (F.} ; 2 fancie growes : fantasie breeds (F.) ; 
4 a : that (F.) : 5, 6 For double dealing bears such sway,/That honest 
meaning doth decay (F.). 




The stidfast faith that frendes professe 

is fled a-way, and little vs'd. 
Whoe hath soe sure a frend possest 

by whome he never was abus'd ? 
But where thou findst a frend indeed, 
A score there be faile at neede. 

[3] . ' : ! 

A frend in wordes, where deedes be dead, 

is like a well that water wantes ; 
And he that with faire wordes is fead, 

doth looke for fruit es of withered plant es. 
But there as wordes and deedes agree, 
Accept that frend, and credit mee. 


The barren tree doth blossomes beare 
as well as those that good fruites yeald ; 

And boughes and branches beene soe faire, 
as any tree within the feild : 

As simply lookes the subtill man 

As he that of noe falshood can. 


[The fairest way that I can find, 

Is first to try, and then to trust ; 
So shal affections not be blind : 

For proof will soon spy out the just : 
And tryal knows who means deceit, 
And bids us be-ware of their bait. 

[2] i professe : profest (F.} ; 2 a-way : from them (F.) ; 3 He who 
a faithful friend profest (F.) ; 4 Doth make his friendship now abus'd 
(F.) ; 5 But . . . findst : Where one is found (F.) ; 6 be : read be that (F.). 

[3] 2 well : spring (F.) ; 4 looke : hope (F.) : 5, 6 But who can judge 
by hew of eye,/Since deeds are dead, where truth should be (F.). 

[4] i For barren trees will bloom right fair (F.) ; 2 good fruits : fruit 
will (F.) ; 3 Whose bark and branches seems as fair (F.) ; 5 simply : 
simple (F.) ; 6 of no : no kind (F.). 

[5] i Stanzas 5 and 6 occur only in F. 



Without good proof be not too bold, 

If thou my counsel list to take : 
In painting words there is no hold, 

They be but leaves that wind do shake : 
But where that words and deeds agree, 
Accept that friend, and credit me.] 



Seek wisdom chiefly to obtain 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 38^39. This ballad is a sort of Foot 
Richard's Almanac that must have delighted the pious Catholic who 
compiled the MS. : seek wisdom, it advises ; waste not, shun borrowing, 
value true friends, avoid drink and dice, lose no time, envy not thy 
neighbour good advice expressed in a pithy line or two, every item of 
which was both before and after the date of this MS. fully emphasized 
in separate ballads. 

Seeke wisdome cheefly to obteine, 
delight not much in worldlie gaine, 

For riches bringes men's soules in thrall, 
but wisdome suffereth non[e] to fale. 

Much better is the wise man poore 

then welthie churles with all their store. 

Wast[e] thou noe more then thou hast got ; 

if thou dost want, yet borrowe not ; 
Thoughe coyne be sweete when thou dost borrowe, 

yet wilt thou pay it home with sorrowe. 
Better it were thy bodie pyne, 

then borrowed goodes should make thee fine. 

[3] . 

Doe not aquynt thy selfe with stelth, 

thou knowest it bringes a shameifull death, 

Though it at first haue pleasant tast, 
yet it is bitter at the last. 

[3] I aquynt : i.e. acquaint. 


Better thou were thy mouth withdrawe, 
then such vnsavorie meate to gnawe. 


If thou haue smale to keepe thy state, 
doe not dispaire of this thy fate ; 

But giue god thankes for that thou hast, 
and of thy little make noe wast. 

For better is little with quyet life 

then store of gould with wooe and strife. 

If thou doest find a frend at neede, 
him to requyte see thou make speede ; 

Of all thinges this remember still, 
be not vnthankefull for good will. 

For better is one frend in thy scant 

then thousandes when thou hast noe want. 


An honest conscience is a treasure ; 

in drinke be sure thou keepe a measure ; 
To dice and Gardes make thou noe hast ; 

of all thinges see thou keepe thee chast. 
For lust makes purse and bodies bare, 

and throwes the soule downe to dispaire. 


In youth remember to take paine, 
be sure thou spend noe time in vaine ; 

Remember time will not come backe, 
when time requeeres, then, be not slacke. 

.For losse of goodes may greeue thee sore, 
but losse of time will greeue thee more. 

[5] I doest : read dost. 


Search not in other men too neare, 
first see that thou thy selfe bee cleare ; 

For he that seekes an other's spite, 
in others' harmes oft takes delight. 

Whoe soe ioyes to see his neightbour's thrall 
is soonest like him selfe to fale. 


[8] 5 Omit soe. 



O man that runneth here thy race 

Addit. MS. 1 5,225, fols. 43 V -44 V . This ballad obviously was printed 
in two parts, the second part beginning with stanza 6, where the refrain 
changes ; but the copyist numbered the stanzas consecutively from 
beginning to end, although the numbers of stanzas 1-7 have been 
trimmed from the leaves by the binder. 

Stanzas 6- 1 1 are printed as a separate poem, called " Remember thy 
ende," in the Paradise of Dainty Devises, 1578 (Collier's reprint, pp. 34- 
35), where it is signed D. S. The identification, sometimes proposed, 
of D. S[ands] with Dr. (Edward) Sandys, Archbishop of York, is very 
doubtful. The six stanzas in the Paradise differ considerably from those 
in ,the MS., not only in their order but in phrasing : they are arranged 
thus 8,9, 6, 7, 10, ii. Collations with Collier's reprint (P.) are 
given in the notes. 

There is nothing noteworthy about this ballad : many similar ballads 
are extant ; e.g. a ballad in John Forbes' s Cantus (Song VIII.) with the 
refrain " A Conscience clear is worth a world of treasure " correspond 
ing to stanzas 1-5 and a ballad "To the toune of The raire and greatest 
gift" in MS. Cotton Vesp. A. XXV. (ed. Boeddeker, Jahrbuch ftir 
romanische und englische sprache, N.F., II., 326), with the refrain, 

Yet hap what hap, fall what may fall, 
A lyffe content excedethe all, 

corresponding to stanzas 6-1 1. 

For the title and the date of registration see Appendix II. 

[a Cable of ooO Counsel] 


O man that runneth heere thy race 
in worldlie wealth, yet rapt in wooe, 

Provide betime, while thou hast space, 
the ioyfull way and path to goe. 

Though life and liveinge thou refuse, 
Let never conscience thee accuse. 

[i] 2 rapt : i.e. wrapped. 




Thy time is short, thy daies but fewe, 

this life is but a miserie ; 
And marke what after will ensue, 

if thou Hue in iniquitie. 
Though life and liuinge thou refuse, 

Let [never conscience thee~\ accuse. 


Although the world doe thee disdaine, 
and feined frendes vpon thee lower, 

Yet if thou thinke to obtaine the sweete, 
first thou must tast heere of the sower. 

Though life and liuinge thou refuse, 
Let neuer conscience thee accuse. 


For in this life nought canst thou gaine, 
which to thy soule may comfort bee, 

Except that meeklie thou sustaine 
such troubles as shall happe to thee. 

Though life and liuinge thou refuse. 
Let neuer conscience thee accuse. 


Therefore, in time the world reiect, 
account these pleasures all but vaine, 

That thou maist be of godes elect, 
in heauenlie blisse with him to raigne. 

Though life and liueinge thou refuse, 
Let neuer conscience thee accuse. 

[2] 6 Binder has cut off three words in this line. 


aecont) part] 


The happie life, in these our daies, 

that all doe seeke, boath small and great, 

Is all for gaine, or eles for praise, 
or whoe may sit highest in seat. 

But in this life happe what happe shall, 
the happie end exceedeth all. 


A good beginninge oft we see, 

but seeldome stand the[y] at one stay, 
For they doe like the meane degree 

then praise at partinge, some men say. 
The thinge where each wight is in thrall, 

the happie end exceedeth all. 


To be as wise as Cato was, 

or riche as Cressus in his life, 
To haue the strength of Hercules, 

whoe did subdue by foarce of strife, 
What helpeth it when death doth call ? 

The happie end exceedeth all. 

[6] I happie life : happiest end (P.) ; 3 Is ... gaine : Is eyether for 
Fame (P.) ; 4 highest in seate : in highest seate (P.) ; 5 in this life of 
these thinges (P.). 

[7] 2 stand they : standing (P.) ; 3 they : few (P.) ; 5 The thinges 
wherto each wight is thrall (P.). 

[8] 2 Cressus : i.e. Croesus ; 4 whoe, of : which, or (P.). 



The rich may well the poore releeue, 

the rulers may redresse each wronge, 
The learned may good councell giue, 

but marke the end of this my songe, 
Whoe doe this may the[y] happie call, 

the happie end exceedeth all. 

The meane estate, the quiet life, 

which liueth vnder gouernment, 
Which mooues noe hate nor breedes noe strife, 

but takes in worth his happie chance, 
If contentation him befall, 

the happie end exceedeth all. 

The longer life that we desire, 
the more offence doth dailie groe ; 

The greatter paine it doth requeere, 
except the Judge some mercie showe. 

Wherefore I thinke, and euer shall, 
the happie end exceedeth all. 

[9] 5 Who doth these thinges, happy they call (P.) ; 6 the : their (P.). 
[10] 2 gouernment: gouernance (/*.); 3 mooues: seeks (P.); 6 
the : his (P.). 


40 : If 

From sluggish sleep and slumber 

Addit. MS. 1 5,225, fols. 45 v -47 The only other copy of this ballad 
now known is that printed from a manuscript in l\itj>kirJ>Mrn Ballads 
(pp. 182-185). The Shirburn copy (S.) has an additional stanza (after 
stanza 6) not found in this MS., and was made from an earlier broadside 
that concluded with a prayer for Queen Elizabeth. This ballad ends 
with a prayer for James I. The most important variations between the 
two versions are given in the foot-notes. Two stanzas of the ballad 
from this MS. are printed in Collier's Extracts from the Stationers' Registers, 
I., 229. In subject-matter it is a loose paraphrase of St. Matthew xxii.,xxiv. 

Perhaps this was the ballad of " Awake out of your slumbre " which 
was registered for publication in 1568-69: it was certainly "the bell 
mannes good morrowe " and " From sluggish sleepe " that were licensed 
on November 21, 1580, and December 14, 1624, respectively. The 
tune, Awake, Awake, O England ! (equivalent to O man in desperation), 
comes from the first line of " A Bell-man for England " (Shirburn 
Ballads, p. 36 ; Roxburgbe Ballads, IV., 467), which appears in the 
Stationers' Registers for the first time on December 6, 1586. 

bellmanes gooiimorrauje, 

To the Tune of awake, awake, o England. 

From sluggishe sleepe and slumber, 

good Christians, all aryse. 
For Christ his sake, I pray you, 

lift vp your drowsie eies. 
The night of shame and sorrow 

is partinge cleane away, 
God giue you all good morrowe, 

and send you happie day. 

[ i ] 2 aryse : substituted in a later band for awake ; 6 partinge : 
parted (S.). 



. [2] I 

The King of glorie greeteth you, 

desyreinge you to come 
Vnto the mariage banquet 

of his beloued sonne. 
Then shake of[f] shame and sorrowe, 

put on your best array, 
God giue you all good morrowe, 

'and send you happie day. 

[3] ' 1 

From all the rage of wickednesse 

looke that you strip you quite ; 
In garmentes of true godlinesse 

see that your selues be decte. 
Shake of[f] all shame and sorrowe 

which doth your soules distroy, 
God giue you all good morrowe, 

and send you happie day. 

w -f 

And ryse not to revenge thee 

of any trespas past ; 
Thou knowest not of a certaintie 

how longe thy life will last. 
Seeke not thy neightbour's sorrow 

in any kind of way, 
God giue you all good morrow, 

and send you bappie day. 


Forgiue thy brother irendlie, 
for Christ doth will thee soe ; 

[2] 7 Refrain here and later written in one long line in the MS. 
[3] I rage : read rags (5.) ; 4 be decte : delight (5.). Read be dight ; 
8 day : read)oy. [4] 2 of: for (5.). 



And let not spyte and envie 

within thy stomoke growe, 
Least god shoote foarth his arrowe 

thy malice to distroy, 
God giue you all good morrow, 

and send you happie day. 


Seeke not, by fraude and falshood, 

for to procure thy gaine ; 
But beare in thy rememberance 

all earthlie thinges are vaine ; 
For he which searcheth norrowlie 

thy secretes will beray, 
God giue you all good morrowe, 

and send you happie day. 


In whoredome, pryde, and drunkennesse, 

doe not thy pleasure traine ; 
Wish not thy neightbour's hinderance, 

nor blemish his good name ; 
And never take thy sorrowe 

for losses gone away, 
God giue you all good morrow, 

and send you happie day. 

[6] 5 norrowlie : read narrow (5.). 
[7] I S. adds the following stanza : 

Vnto the poore and needye 

stretch forth thy helping hand, 

And thow shalt be most happye, 
and blessed, in thy lande. 

From him that fayne would borow 
turne not thy face awaye ; 

2 traine : frame (5.). 




Be thankefull to thy maker 

eich day, vpon thy knee, 
For all his gratious benefites 

he hath bestoed on thee ; 
And let thy greatest sorrowe 

be for thy sinnes, I say, 
God glue you all good morrow, 

and send you happie day. 


And, beinge thus attyred, 

you may in peace proceede 
Vnto the heauenlie table 

of Christ our lord indeede ; 
Where neither shame nor sorrowe 

shall you in ought anoy, 
God glue you all good morrowe, 

and send you happie day. 


Then looke your lampes be readie, 

and that with oyle of store, 
To waite vpon the bryd-groome 

euen at his Chamber doore ; 
Where neither shame nor sorrowe 

shall you in ought annoy, 
Go d giue you all good morrow, 

and send you happie day. 

Then shall you rest in blessednesse 
which never shall haue end, 

Inioyinge Christ his presence, 
our sweete and sureest frend ; 

[9] 8 [ I0 ] 8 day : read joy. 


Where nether shame nor sorrow 

shall you in ought annoy, 
God giue you all good morrow, 

and send you happie day. 


Thus with my bell and lantorne, 

I bid you all farewell ; 
And keepe in your rememberance 

the soundinge of my bell, 
Least that with sinne and sorrowe, 

you doe your selues distroy, 
God giue you all good morrow, 

and send you happie toy. 


Lord, saue our gratious soueraigne, 

yea, James our king, by name, 
That long vnto our comfort 

he may both rule and raigne. 
His foes with shame and sorrow, 

o lord, doe thou distroy : 
And thus, with my good morrowe, 

god send you a happie day. 

[i i] 8 day : read joy. 

[12] 5 Least : i.e. lest ; 8 ioy : substituted in the MS. for day, the only 
flace in which the correction is made. 

[13] 2 Elizabeth by name (S.) ; 4 he : she (5.) ; 8 day : read joy. 


4 1 

From Virgin's womb this day to 
us did spring 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fol. 47 V . There is a copy of this pretty carol 
(" For Christmas day") in the Paradise of Dainty Devises, 1578 (Collier's 
reprint, pp. 17-18), signed F. Kindlemarsh, /.*., Francis Kinwelmersh, 
the friend of George Gascoigne ; and another in William Byrd's Songs of 
Sundry Natures, 1610 (Songs XXII. and XXXV.), "A Carowle for 
Christmas day, the quire whereof (Reioyce} being of 4 parts, is the XXII. 
song," with a musical score for five voices. Byrd's music for the chorus 
is given also in Bodleian MS. Mus. f. 1 1, No. 24. There is an eighteenth- 
century copy, with 'musical score, in Addit. MS. 23,626, fols. 45 and 
75 V . The Paradise poem is reprinted in Edward Farr's Select Poetry of 
the Reign of Elizabeth, p. 291. Collations with Byrd (B.) and Collier's 
reprint (P.) are given in the foot-notes, and show no great variations 
from the MS. What version the compiler of the MS. followed cannot 
be told, though one is naturally inclined to think that some printed 
broadside copy was available. "A ballad entytuled, A Christmas 
Caroll," licensed on October 9, 1593, may have been the original of 
this MS. ballad. "A godly hymne or carol for Christmas" was also 
licensed by John Aide on December 3, 1579, possibly a reprint of 
this ballad from the Paradise. 

a carall jfor Christmas Day, 

Reioyce, Reioyce, with hart and voice, 
In Christ his birth this day reioyce. 

From Virgin's wombe this day to vs did springe 
the precious seede that onelie saued manne ; 

This day let man reioyce and sweetelie singe, 
since on this day salvation first beganne ; 

This day did Christ man's soule from death remooue, 
With glorious saintes to dwell in heauen aboue. 

[i] I to vs : B. and P. omit ; 2 onelie : B. omits ; 5 man's : P. has man. 




This day to man came pledge of perfit peace ; 

this day to man came loue and vnitie ; 
This day man's greefe began for to surcease ; 

this day did man receiue a femedie 
For each oifence and everie deadlie sinne, 
With guilt of hart that earst he wandred in. 


In Christ his flocke let loue be surelie plas'd, 
from Christ his flocke let concorde hate expell, 

In Christ his flocke let loue be soe Imbras'd, 
as we in Christ and Christ in vs may dwell ; 

Christ is the author of all vnitie, 

From whence proceedeth all felicitie. ' 


O singe vnto this glitteringe glorious kinge, 
and praise his name let everie liueinge thinge ; 

Let hart and voyce, let belles of silver ringe, 
the comfort that this day to vs did bringe ; 

Let Lute, let shaulme, with sound of sweete delight, 

The ioy of Christ his birth this day recyte. 


[2] i perfit : i.e. perfect (/?., P.) ; 6 guilt of: guiltie (B., P.). 

[3] 3 In : of (B., P.) ; 5 all : sweet (B.) ; 6 felicitie : MS. perhaps 

[4] 2 and : O (B., P.) ; 3 let : like (B., P.) ; 4 to vs : P. omits. B. 
has to man doth bringe ; 5 shaulme : MS. substitutes for shalme (B., P.) 
= psaltery ; 6 the ioy : these ioyes (B.). 


What means this careless world 
to Vance 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 45^47. A good specimen of the Judgment- 
Day ballad. According to the author the time for the fearful trump is 
almost at hand, and he finds it peculiar that any one should dislike the 
thought of the imminent change. Like all his associates in balladry, he 
delights in warning his social superiors kings, princes, and bishops 
that before the Awful Judge they shall be equal with him and exactly as 
accountable. Possibly this was the ballad " Remembering Man of the 
Judgment Day " or " The Day of the Lord Is at Hand," registered in 
1557-58 and 1 568-69 ; and very probably it was the ballad of" Christes 
commynge to Judgemente " that was licensed on August I, 1586, and 
the " Dittie worthie to be viewed of all people dechringe the dreadfull 
corny nge of Christ to Judgement and howe all shall appeare before his 
presence" that was licensed on July 4, 1595. 

a maming tmto repentaunce anu of 
comming tonto au&gement 

What meanes this carelesse world to vance 

in course of carelesse race, 
And will no warning voyce regard, 

but raunge in carelesse case ? 

Licentious dealing beares the sway, 
and all delightes the same ; 

Noe feare of hell nor Judgement great 
can aught their wildnesse tame. 

[2] 4 their : i.e. the world's. 



Althoughe the throne prepared be 

wheron the Judge most hie 
Shall sit to aske and call accompt, 

in glorious maiesty, 


Yea, thoughe the heavenly powers above 

already glowe with fyre, 
The world will not reclaymed be 

nor leave their lewd desyre. 


Though blast of trumpe be eke at hand, 
when heaven and earth shall teare, 

Yet, loe, they will not warned be, 
so far they are from feare. 

All ceasoned care is throwne asyde ; 

the people, carelesse nowe, 
Go forth in vayne and carnall race, 

to carnall lyfe they bowe. 


The threates of god they nought regard ; 

his Judgementes nothing move, 
Nor cbristes appearaunce in the skies 

they nought desyer or love. 


But rather wishe, and wishe againe, 

that he would byde for aye ; 
And that ther wer no heaven nor hell 

nor yet noe Judgement day. 



But, loe, the Judge will not be stayed 

that comes in flaming skyes, 
But cause the trumpe so shrill to sound 

that quicke and dead must rise, 

To make accompte before his throne 

and make a reckening plaine : 
Yea, all estates and sortes of men 

not one may thence remayn. 

The emperores, with mighty kinges, 
must stand before the barre, 

Before thie greate and fearfull Judge, 
to make or all to marre. 


For why ? accompte they render must 

of that their highe degree ; 
And howe their talentes vsed have. 

They shall enquired be 


If they in feare of god have walked 
amidst their worldly might, 

And if they have his honor vaunst, 
as them became aright. 

Yea, princes, then, with dukes and lordes, 

with all that honor beare, 
Before that Judge must yeeld accompt, 

thoughe most with trembling feare. 
[u] 3 thie = the. [13] 3 vaunst : i.e. advanced. 



Yea, bishoppes, to[o], and those that take 

the cure of soule in hand, 
A reconing streight must yeld when they 

at barre of Judgement stand. 


If they not nowe the gospell teache, 

and so their soldes defend, 
From gredy guttes (devouring wolves), 

repent they shall at end. 


Then meane and basest sorte of men 

may not exempted be, 
But nedes perforce to Judgement come, 

both hie and lowe degree. 


Yea, man and woman, old and yong, 

must perforce ther appeare 
To yeld accompte, and shortely nowe, 

the tyme aprocheth neere. 


For why ? the signes expired are, 

the tokens sure are past, 
And onely nowe remaines behinde 

of trompe the fearfull blast, 

To call vs vp to this accompt, 
this sessions greate proclaime ; 

let vs, therfore, the life reiect 
that hath bene to[o] to[o] vaine. 

[ 1 6] 2 soldes : i.e. souls. 




Let vs, I say, with hasty spede 

our carelesse lyf e of[f] shake ; 
Let love and dread of Judgement day 

from vaine delightes vs wake. 

_ _ 

Yea, let vs all with virgins wise 
our oyle in lampes have prest, 

To enter when the bridegrom comes 
to that immortall rest. 

O graunt vs grace, thou blessed god, 
that we may so have power, 

And that our hartes so longinge wishe 
for christ, our saviour ; 

With whome the faithfull and elect 

shall raign in blisse alwaies, 
To whome, with his deare father and 

the holy ghost, be praise. 


[22] 2 prest = ready. [23] 4 saviour : read sav-i-our. 


Why should not mortal men awake 

MS. Rawlinson Poet. 185, fols. 2 -4 V . The title given in the MS. 
to this splendid Judgment-Day ballad does not seem appropriate. The 
ballad itself was registered for publication on August 19, 1584, as "a 
godly exhortacon of Doomes Daie is at hand &c." ; and, again, as a ballad 
of "Doomes Daie is at hand &c.," on August 1, 1586. 

The author, R. D., contributed a poem, " No wordes, but deedes," to 
he Paradise of Dainty Devises, 1578 (Collier's reprint, pp. 24-25). 

Thomas Deloney's "Lamentation of Beccles," 1586, was sung to 
Wilson's Tune, and " A proper newe Ballad, declaring the substaunce of 
ill the late pretended Treasons against the Queenes Majestic," 1586 
in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries), was sung to Wilson's 
new Tune. Cf. also Chappell's Popular Musical., 86. 

a goDty anu goou example to atoopne all 
3inronteniende0 a0 hereafter 

To wilson's tune. ft. 29. 

Why should not mortall men awake 

and see the day appere ? 
Why should we not shake of[f] our pride 

and serue the lord with fere ? 
Men are so drowned in peevishe pride 

the worser parte they take ; 
But what attaines to perfect good, 

they wholly do forsake. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with 'humble hartes, therfore, 
Approche the place where mercy is, 

and lerne to sinne no more. 

[Title] examyle : i.e. example. 



How lounge shall we forgett our god 

and laye his law aside ? 
How lounge shall we procure his wrath 

by this excesse of pride ? 
High tyme it is for English e harts 

to god for grace to call, 
With bendinge knees, and liftinge hands, 

and shrikinge woice withall. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble harUs, 

The axe is sett vnto the tree : 

then if we be not rotton, 
Let vs shake of[f] our vanitie, 

let pride be quite forgotton ; 
For god hath shewed examples store 

to move vs to repente, 
But we, alas, sinne more and more, 

we are so lewdly bente. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble hartes, 


For pride, alas, doth bere the swaye 

in outwarde showe and harte, 
But meeknes of the minde, we maye 

perceaue, is put aparte : 
Haue minde, therfore, howe angells bright 

that once with god did dwell 
for pride, wherin they tooke delight, 

were headloung throwne to hell. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble harttes, &c. 

[2] 8 shrikinge woice : i.e. shrieking voice. 


Proud lesabell, whose sinne so great 

did move the lorde to Ire, 
Was headlonge from her tower so neat 

cast in the filthy myre ; 
The raveninge dogges, in open streates, 

devored her wicked corse ; 
Her fleshe and blood with horses' feett 

was trode without remorse. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble hartes, 


Nabuchadnezar so greate, 

of Babylon the kinge, 
Was quite excluded from his seate, 

which plauge his pride did bringe ; 
For when that pride in him encrest, 

he therin did abounde ; 
But for his pride he was a beast, 

and eat the grasse on grounde. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble hartes, 


Antiocus, through pride, thought good 

equall to be with god ; 
Whose thoughts most vile the Lord withstoode 

by his reuenging rod, 
He made this wicked king accurst, 

who showed him selfe so stout, 

[5] I lesabell : i.e. Jezebel (i Kings xxi. ; 2 Kings ix., n). 
[6] i Nabuchadnezar : I.e. Nebuchadnezzar ; 4 plauge : MS. originally 

[7] I Antiocus : i.e. Antiocus Epiphanes (2 Maccabees ix., 1-18) 



And caused his bowells so to burst 
that wormes came cra[w]linge out. 

The day is nye,for shame awake, 
with humble hartes, &c. 

The daughter of a merchant late, 

in Italy that dwelt, 
Accepted pride to be her mate, 

which caused her soule to swelt ; 
Whose ruffes to sett none plesed her sight, 

she was so Coye a dame, 
Tyll sathan had her for his right 

vnto her parentes' shame. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble hartes, 


The Gy antes once to haue the seat 

of suprem head presumed, 
The which was very hard to gett 

at length they were consumed. 
The bewtye of narcis so strainge, 

which did his wittes devour e, 
The godes decree the same did chainge 

into a yellow flower. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble hartes, 


Loe, daintye dames of London braue, 

that now in plesure's barge, 
How mighty kinges and ladies haue 

from vertue runne at large, 

[9] i Gyantes : i.e. the Titans ; 5 narcis so : read Narcissus. 
[ i o] 2 now : read row. 



By hauty hartes before the lord 

of sinnes which is the worst ; 
And angells bright, with one accord, 

howe pride hath made accurst. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble hartes, &c. 

What makes the rich, without all feare, 

disdaine the lowly minde ? 
What causes the sonne his father dere 

denye against all kinde ? 
What cavses whordome now prevayle, 

or theft so muche to raigne ? 
This filthy pride, for why, some steale 

ther mynions to maintaine. 
The day is nye, for shame awake, 

with humble hartes, 


Leaue of[f], therfore, this vaine excesse 

whilst mercye may be had ; 
Abandon all presumptuousnes, 

which makes your soules full sad ; 
For god lifted vp the humble harte, 

he lawdes the lowly minde, 
But puffinge pride he puttes aparte, 

as chaff e against the winde. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble h[arts, 

God doth compare vnto a Child 

his glorious Kingdome wholly, 
And to the little dove so milde 

that sheweth her selfe so lowly : 

[12] 5 lifted : ;*&/ lifts. [13] i Child : i.e. St. Matthew xix., 14. 



The first, saith Christ, shalbe the last, 

the gretest shalbe lest, 
And he that never pride did tast 

with god shall live in rest. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble h[arts, WV.]. 


Strive not for welth, let vertue bounde, 

with lowly minds accord ; 
For when god doth the prowed confound, 

the meeke shall see the lorde. 
The meeke who seekes the lord to plesse 

for his deserued hire, 
Shalle were a Crowne of Blisfull bayes, 

what more can he desire ? 
[The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble harts, &c.~\ 


What can avayle your velvet gownes, 

your Caules of glitteringe golde, 
Your ruffes so deepe, your chaines of lette, 

when you are tourn'd to mould ? 
Your painted face, your fristed heare, 

your Cotes of scarlet red, 
Your colloured hose, your lewells deare, 

your hoodes vpon your head ? 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble, &c. 


Your fingers fine, bedect with ringes, 
your countenance braue and bolde ; 

[13] 5 Christ : i.e. St. Matthew xix., 30 ; 6 lest : read least. 
[15] 2 Caules = caps, or nets, for the hair; 5 fristed heare: i.e. 
frizzled hair. 



Your tatlinge tounges and other thinges, 

most sinfull to beholde ; 
Your trippinge pace and gaddinge grace, 

your lives to venus bente ; 
Your lofty lookes, with lustfull hookes ; 

will cause your soules be shente. 
The day is nye,for shame awake, 

with humble harts, 

When doomes-day comes, as it is nye, 

all thinges shall loose thire light, 
Those which are ioyned with meeknes clere 

shall shine in glory bright ; 
For shame, therfore, shake of[f] your pride, 

put vaine delightes awaye, 
And let dame vertue be your guide, 

your state shall not decaye. 
The day is nye, for shame awake, 

with humble hartes, therfore, 
Approch the place where mercye is, 

and lerne to sinne no more. 

[17] 2 loose thire : i.e. lose their. 



Come on, good fellow, make an end 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 6 v -8. The tops of most of the letters in the 
title have been clipped by the binder, and the ink throughout the ballad 
is badly faded. 

This really good ballad was licensed for publication by John Cherle- 
wood under the title of " betwene Death and youghte" in 1563-64 
(Arber's Transcript, I., 237). There is an especially disconcerting 
reference to the frailty of life in stanza 16. 

a Dialogue bettuene Dcatt) anD poutlje* 

DEATH [i] 

Come on, good fellowe, make an end, 

for you and I must talke ; 
You may noe longer soiourne here, 

but hence you must goe walke. 

YOUTH [2] 

What wofull wordes, alas, 
be theise that I do heare ? 

Alas, and shall I now forthewith 
forsake my lyfe so deare ? 

DEATH [3] 

Come on, come on, and lynger not, 

ye tryfle but the tyme ; 
Ye make to[o] muche of that, Iwis, 

which is but dirt and slyme. 


YOUTH [4] 

O cursed death, what dost thou mean, 

so cruell for to be, 
To him that neuer thought the[e] harm 

nor once offended the[e] ? 


O death, behold ; I am but younge 

and of a pleasaunt age : 
Take thou some old and croked wight, 

and spare me in thy rage. 

I [6] 

Behold, my lymmes be lyvely now, 

my mynd and courage strong, 
And by the verdit of all men 

lyke to continew long ; 


My bewty like the rose so red, 
my heare like glistring gold ; 

And canst thou now of pity then 
transforme me into molde ? 


O gentle death, be not extreme ; 

thy mercy heare I craue ; 
It is not for thyne honor nowe 

to fetche me to my grave : 


But rather let me lyve a while, 
till youth consumed be, 

[5] I younge : MS. yougne ; 2 pleasaunt : badly blurred in MS. 
[6] 3 verdit : i.e. verdict. [7] 2 heare : i.e. hair. 



When crooked age doth me opres, 
then welcome death to me. 

DEATH [10] 

O fo[o]lishe man, what dost thou meane 
to strive against the streame ? 

Nothing there is that can the[e] nowe 
out of my handes redeame. 

Thy time is past, thy daies are gone, 

thy race is fully runne ; 
Thou must of force nowe make an end, 

as thou hadst onse begunne. 


O foole, why dost thou beag and boast 
of theise thy youthfull dayes ? 

Which passeth fast and fadeth swifte, 
as flowers freshe decayes. 

Both youth and age to me be one 
I care not whome I stryke : 

The child, the man, the father old, 
doe I reward alyke. 


The proudest of them all, Iwis, 
can not escape my darte : 

The lady fayre, the lazer fowlle, 
shall both posses a parte. 

[12] i beag : i.e. beg. [14] 3 fowlle : i.e. foul. 




Thou art not nowe the first, I say, 

that I haue eared vppe ; 
Ne yet shalt be the last, pardy, % 

that drincketh of my cuppe ; 

[16] V 

For he that doth vs now behold, 

perusing this our talke, 
He knoweth not yet how sone, god wot, 

with thee and me to walke ! 


Dispatche, therfore, and make an end, 

for ne[e]des you must obey ; 
And as thou earnest into this world, 

so shalt thou nowe away. 

YOUTH [18] 

And must I passe out of this world 

in-dede, and shall I soe ? 
May noe man me restrayn a while, 

but ne[e]des nowe must I goe ? 


Why, then, farewell my lyfe and landes, 

adiew my pleasures all ! 
Loe dredfull deth doth vs departe, 

and me away doth call. 


My chearfull dayes be worne a-way, 
my pleasaunt tyme is past, 

[15] 2 eared = ploughed up (<O.E. grian). 

[17] 3 earnest: read cam 3 st. [19] 3 departe = separate. 



My youthfull yeares are spent and gone, 
my lyfe it may not last ; 


And I (for lacke of lyfe and breath) 

whose like hath not bene sene, 
Shall straight consumed be to dust, 

as I had never bene. 

[22] ^ 

But thoughe I yeld as now to thee, 

when nothing me can save, 
Yet I am sure that I shall lyve 

when thou thy death shalt haue. 




Lo here I Dance with spear and 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 5i v ~52 v . A ballad of a conventional type in 
which Death, after gloating over his victory in destroying Croesus, warns 
all estates of his power and urges them to be ready. He seems to be 
uncertain as to whether his master is God or Jove. In the woodcuts 
that ornament most of the ballads on Death, he is depicted as a skeleton 
with an hour-glass in one hand, a dart (or spear) in the other. A ballad 
much like this appears in the Gorgeous Gallery of Gallant Inventions, 1579 
(Collier's reprint, pp. 1 19 ff.). 

mitt) Ijourcglasse in tbe one 

anu speare in tlje ofljer ttireatnetl) all 


Loe heare I vaunce, with speare and shield, 
To watche my pray, to spoyle, to kill ; 
By day, by night, on sea, one land, 
Noe tyme I stay ; but toyling still, 
My force I try, to worcke the will 
Of ruling Joue : with deathfull dint, 
Eache hart I reave, though hard as flint. 

My shape is dread of wor[l]dly wightes ; 
My piercing darte, abhored sore ; 
Which them devides from vayne delightes, 
From glaring pompe possest before, 

[i] 3 one : read on. 
R 257 


From scepter, croune, and earthly glore : 
With Pallas, throne, yea reign and power, 
I them bereave at 'pointed howre. 

No king so sure nor keyser founde 

But I remove from ruling seate ; 

No wight but when he heres my sound 

Must yeld perforce, thoughe force be great. 

Sith lord of lyfe as man did sweate, 

With trickling droppes of watry bloud, 

Who dare resist, be he never so good ? 


Thoughe thou, a king, thy selfe enclose 
In Iron, in brasse, in stone, in stele, 
Which may defend the[e] from suche foes 
As thou on earth their force might fele, 
Yet I, not rulde by fortune's whele, 
But stay'd on god at tourne of glasse, 
Will sparce thy stele, thy stone, thy bra[sse]. 


One godes decre dependes my power ; 

And serve I do at 'pointed will : 

If he commaund and lot myne houre, 

Then forth I fare to spoile and kill ; 

If he restraine, then rest I still 

(As momme, and eke as cheyned, to[o]), 

Not able ought gaine him to doe. 

2] 6 Pallas : i.e. palace. 

3] 3 heres : i.e. hears. 

4] 7 sparce : i.e. sparche = scorch ; brasse : Clipped by the binder. 

5] i One : read on ; 6 momme = mum, quiet ; 7 gaine : i.e. against. 




And thoughe in hand I vaunce this speare, 
Whose dint is death and wound to grave, 
Yet loe this glasse againe I beare, 
To shewe that I noe fredome have 
For hate to strike, for love to save, 
Till mighty Joue apoint the houre ; 
And then I want no will nor power. 


Defer noe tyme, therfore, I say, 

Ye sonnes of men, your selves prepare ; 

For hence, perforce, ye must away : 

No keyser, kyng, nor Quene, I spare ; 

But when their times fulfilled are, 

I strike them doune, whome none may save, 

But dust to dust I fling in grave. 


Yeld, therfore ; yeld, thou Cresus crounde, 
For glasse is out, hence must thou wend : 
Though pompe, thoughe welth do large abound, 
Yet can not life from death defend. 
Doune, Cresus, doune ; for fat all end, 
By ruling will, hath thronne my speare 
Ha, sturdy wight, now lyest thou there ! 

Sith Cresus now is doune in dust, 
And could not shunne this mortall hour, 
Who may to wealth or worship trust ? 
He wanted neyther pomp nor power : 
Thus death in fyne will all devoure. 

[8] i Cresus : i.e. Croesus ; 6 thronne : i.e. thrown. 
[9] 5 fy ne : l ' e ' fine = end. 



Then note the swiftness e of this glasse ; 
For tyme decreed, thou canst not passe. 


A kyng is now a clod of claye, 

His breathlesse corse must hence to grave 

Report shall good or ill display, 

If well be done, he well shall have. 

But thus no graunt they got that crave 

Of me, but doune with Cresus kyng, 

With vnresisted force, I slyng. 

For sith that he, this princely wight, 
Could not resist my dint of speare, 
Whoe else may thincke to have suche might 
That cause he hath not like to feare ? 
Prepare your selves, therfore, prepare : 
The glasse is swift and runnes out fast, 
Then earth to earth must needes be cast. 


He shrouded lyes in lynnen shete 

That lately was clothed in Pall ; 

His croune bereft and throwen at fete, 

With scepter, mace, he rulde withall, 

In pieces wroong ; his carcase thrall 

To crowling woormes, to feed their fill : 

W T atche, therfore, watche, I warn you still. 


For eache may thus perceyve and se 
That naught can force of death withstand ; 

[12] 2 was clothed : read clothed was ; 3 throwen : read thrown. 



For I depend on Jouis decree, 

And forth will walke with glasse in hand 

To slay, to spoile, by sea and land ; 

Prepare yourselves, therfore, I say, 

Ye knowe noe tyme, no houre, nor day. 


/ am that champion, great of power 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 54-54 v . In this fluent but conventional 
ballad Death enumerates distinguished persons whom he has "flang" 
to the dust. Antony Munday has several ballads in his Dainty Conceits, 
1588 (Harleian Miscellany, IX., 227, 230, 238, 252), shewing that 
"divers worthy personages past in auncient time" could not resist 
death, a truth that might be supposed to be self-evident. One of the 
Gude and Godlie Ballafu, 1567 (ed. A. F. Mitchell, p. 167), asks : 

Quhair is Adam and Eue his wife 
And Hercules, with his lang stryfe, 
And Matussalem, with his lang lyfe ? 
They all ar cum downe ay, downe ay. 

And in his poem " Upon the Image of Death " the talented Catholic 
priest Robert Southwell (Poems, ed. A. B. Grosart, p. 157) falls into the 
ballad style : 

Though all the East did quake to heare 

Of Alexander's dreadfull name, 
And all the West did likewise feare 

To heare of lulius Caesar's fame, 
Yet both by Death in dust now lie; 
Who then can 'scape, but he must die ? 

Cfce triumptje of oeatt). 


I am that champion, greate of power, 
one barbed horse, with coulor pale, 

Which all that lyve will onse devoure 
and thrust in grave with forced bale. 

Against me naught thou canst prevayle, 
what so thou art, the reason why, 

All men that lyve are borne to dye. 

[i] 2 one : i.e. on. 




Yeeld, princes ; yeld, ye men of might ; 

resign to me your rule and croune ; 
Or, if you will presume to fight, 

do on, you lordes that grimly frowne, 
Your steely cotes, you of renowne. 

Come breake a staffe with me who dare : 
No kyng except, no prince I feare. 

. . 

Not Nemrod, with his sturdy lookes, 
could me repulse ; but forcibly 

(As standes in first of Moyses bookes), 
amiddes his pryde and tyranny, 

Doune, doune, he fell confusedly, 
and (nilling-wise) thus catching, fall ; 

By wofull force became my thrall. 

The spoyling Sampson, prince of strength, 
thoughe noble actes by force he wrought, 

Was forcibly enforst at length 

his force to yeld, which holp him nought ; 

But doune I flang him, yea, and brought 
to mouth of grave his vanquisht strength. 

Thus none may dure but yeld at length. 

f [5] 

To speake of noble conqueroures, 

as Alexander (warlike wight), 
Ccesar, with Romaine emperours, 

whose fame one earth remayneth bright ; 

[3] i Nemrod : i.e. Nimrod ; 3 Moyses : i.e. Moses. Cf. Genesis 
x., 8-9 ; 6 nilling = unwilling. 

[4] i spoyling = despoiling, ravaging ; strength : MS. strenghth ; 
4 holp : old strong form of the verb help. [5] 4 one : i.e. on. 



They all at beck obeyed my might, 

and groveling fell, resigning croune 
To me, their lord, that threw them downe. 

Wher is that Hector, croune of Troye, 

whose wing'd renoune no tyme can staye ? 
Wher is, o Jewe, thy boasting Joy ? 

thy Dauyd he but past my way, 
With yong Josias swete, I say : 

theise all ar now in dusty plight. 
Then yeld, perforce, your force and might. 


Now come, contend with me who list ; 

for doune they must, who euer they be ; 
Theise namde, you se[e], could not resist 

my force, but captives now they be. 
Looke, therfore, lo[o]k alwayes for me ; 

for when thy glasse is full runne out, 
I come with speare, be out of doubt. 


[6] 5 Josias : 2 Kings xxii.-xxiii. [7] 2 euer : read e'er. 



O mortal man, behold and see 

MS. Rawlinson Poet. 185, fols. 4 V -$ V . This MS. preserves an 
almost entirely new ballad, which is longer than, and much superior to, 
the two other extant versions. The two-line chorus is written as the 
opening lines of the first stanza, and in an effort to normalize the form 
of this stanza, the copyist did not repeat the last line as he did elsewhere. 
Other copies of the ballad occur: (i) In Additional MS. 15,233 
(Halliwell-Phillipps, The Moral Play of Wit and Wisdom, Shakespeare 
Society, 1848, pp. 110-111). This version (//.) has nine stanzas: it 
omits three of those in the Rawlinson MS., but adds a new stanza, here 
reprinted as stanza 13. It does not repeat the last line of each stanza 
using instead the chorus and is signed " Fynis, quod Mr. Thorne." 
(2) In the Paradise of Dainty Devises, 1578 (Collier's reprint, pp. 121- 
122). The chorus is printed at the head of this version (P.), but neither 
chorus nor the last line of the stanzas is repeated at the conclusion of 
each stanza. Of the eight stanzas in this version four (printed here as 
stanzas 2-5) do not occur in either the Rawlinson or the Additional 
MS. copies. It is signed " Finis. M[r.] Thorne." 

The ballad seems to have been registered in 1 563 by John Cherlewood 
(cf. especially stanza 15) as "ye vanitie of this worlde and the felycite of 
the worlde to come" (Arber's Transcript, I., 231). 

Two other ballads by Thorne are preserved in Addit. MS. 15,233 
(ed. Halliwell-Phillipps, op. cit., pp. 65, 102), and one of these is 
included in the Paradise. 

a pretie trittie ant) a pittite intitules 
flD mortall man. 

O mortall man, behold and see, 
This world is but a vanetie. 

Who shall profoundly way and scan 

the vnassured state of man 
[i] i way : i.e. weigh ; 2 vnassured : assured (P.). 


Shall well perceue by reson, then, 

that ther is no stabilitie. 
All is subiect to vanety, 

[all is subiect to vanety]. 

[2] : 

[For what estate is there thinke ye, 

throughly content with his degre, 
Whereby we may right plainly see : 
That in this vale of miserie, 

remaineth nought but vanitie. 

The great men wish y e meane estate, 
mean men again their state do hate, 

Olde men thinke children fortunate : 

A boy a man would faynest be, 
thus wandereth man in vanitie. 


The country man doth daily swel, 
with great desire in court to dwell, 

The Courtier thinkes him nothing well : 

Till he from Court in country be, 
he wandreth so in vanitie. 


The sea doth tosse y e marchants brains, 
to wish a farme & leue those pains, 

The Farmer gapeth at marchants gaines : 

Thus no man can contented be, 
he wandreth so in vanitie.] 


If thow be kinge or emperoure, 

prince, ether lord of might or powre, 

[i] 4 ther : where (P.) ; 5 remayneth nought but vanitie (P.). 
[2] i Stanzas 2-5 appear only in P. 
[5] 5 Stanzas 6 and 7 omitted in P. 



Thy poore subiectes do not devoure ; 

beware of pride and Crueltye, 
Lose not thy fame for vanetie, 

lose not thy fame, &c. 


If thow be set to do Justice, 
reward vertue and punish vice ; 

Oppresse no man, I thee advice ; 
abuse not thine aut[h]oritye 

To vex poore men for vanetye, 
to vex poor men, &c. 


If thow haue landes or goodes great store, 
consider then thy charge is more, 

Sith that thow must accompt therfore ; 
they are not thine but lent to thee, 

And yet they are but vanetie, 
and yet they are, &c. 

And if thow forten to be poore 
so that thow go from dore to dore, 

Humblie giue thankes to god therfore, 
and thinke in thine adversetie, 

This world is but a vanetie, 
this world is but, &c. 


Yf thow of youth haue oversight, 
refraine thy will with all thy might ; 

3 Oppresse : O ! pres (//.). 

I or : and (H.) ; 3 Synce thow must make acownt therfore 
(H., P.) ; 6 Stanzas 9-13 are not in P. 

[9] i forten : i.e. fortune. [10] I Stanza 10 is not in H. 




For wicked will doth worke his spight. 

Let them at no tyme idle bee, 
For that encreseth vanetie, 

for that encreseth, &c. 

If to seme others thow be bent, 
serue with goodwill, and be content 

To do thy lordes commandement. 
Serue trew and eeke painfully, 

Do not delight in vanetie, 
do not delight, &c. 


But if thow haue men's soules in cure, 
thy charge is great, I thee assure ; 

In wordes and deedes thow must be pure, 
all vertue must abound in thee. 

Thow must eschew all vanetie, 
thow must eschew, &c. 


[Then since ye do perseve right clere, 
That all is vayne as doth apeere 
Lerne to bestow while thow art heere, 

Your wyt, your powre, your landes, your fees ; 

Lerne to bestow thes vanitees.] 

Yf thou be stronge and faire of face, 
sikenes or age doth both deface ; 

Then be not prowed in any case ; 
for how can ther more follye be, 

[i i] i Stanza 1 1 is not in H. 
[13] i Stanza 13 added from H. 
[14] 2 deface : disgrace (//., P.). Stanza 14 follows stanza 8 in //. ; 
3 prowed : i.e. proud. 



Then to be prowed in vanetie, 
then to be proued, &c. 


Now, finally, be not infectt 

with worldly care, but haue respect 

How god rewardes his trew elect 
with most perfect felicitie, 

Voide of all worldly vanetie, 
voide of all worldly, &c. 


Now let vs pray to god aboue 

that he voutsaffe our harts to moue, 

Each one another for to loue 
and flye from all inyquitie ; 

So shall we 'voide all vanetie, 
so shall we 'voide all vanetie. 

[14] 5 For to be prowed in P. reads for to host of. 
[15] 3 rewardes : rewardth (H., P.) ; 4 with glorious felicitie (P.) ; 
5 Voide of: Fre from (H., P.). 

[16] i Stanza 16 is not in H. or P. ; 2 voutsaffe : i.e. vouchsafe. 



Alas how long shall I bewail 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 2 5-2 5 v . This ballad is evidently incomplete. 
Its interest lies in the fact that it was entered in the Stationers' Registers 
on August i, 1586 (several years after the MS. was written), as a ballad 
called " a Dialoge betwene Christ and a sinner." Similar ballads 
abound : e.g. " a Christian conference betwene Christe and a synner," 
registered on November 7, 1586, printed in the Roxburghe Ballads, III., 
1 64 ; "A Dialog betweene Christ and a Sinner," two poems in William 
Hunnis's Comfortable Dialogs betweene Christ and a Sinner, 1583 [added 
to his Handfull of Honeysuckles, pp. 51 ff., 56 ff.] ; a song beginning 
" Satan, my foe, full of iniquity " in John Forbes's Cantus, Songs and 
Fancies, 1666, sig. B 2. 

a Dialogue betmene christe anu fyt pore 


Alas, how long shall I bewaile 

my wofull case to the[e] ? 
O lord, how long shall teares complaine, 

and yet refused be ? 
Alas, my Christ, hath mercy end 

that scepter vsde to beare ? 
Hath grace forgot his wonted trade, 

hath pity closde her eare ? 


Poore synfull soule that dost bewaile 

thy dolefull case to me, 
Thoughe long the[e] seme thy sute delay'd, 

I yet refuse not the[e]. 



No, mercy hath not end for ay, 

but ruling scepter beares ; 
Nor grace forgot his wonted trade 

nor pity closde her eares. 


Why, then, what workes this cause of griefe, 

thine absence still to have ? 
And so to want that swetest ioye 

that most my soule doth crave ? 
Thoughe, dearest christ, confes I do 

my soule vnworthy muche, 
To f ele indede possessing-wise 

thy swetest treasures suche. 

O mourning soule, thoughe cause of myne 

absence bringes indeede griefe, 
It is not the[e] to speale of Joye 

that I thus-wise proceede ; 
But that, by feeling thus this want, 

thou might st be forst to cry, 
And therwith, eke, to know thy selfe, 

and sue for grace on hye. 

[4] I of : Line ends with this word in MS., myne beginning the next line ; 
3 speale : i.e. spiel = to make off with, to deprive of. 



There is no man so lewd of life 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 26-2 7 V . There is no stanza-division in the 
MS. The thoroughly disheartened early Elizabethan poet who wrote 
this ballad enumerates not only venial sins that masquerade as vices but 
also condemns the people's craze for dancing, fencing, over-dressing, and 
for eating imported foods. Especially curious and interesting are the 
stanzas (9-11) which describe Elizabethan styles in dress. The poet 
was evidently an advocate of strict sumptuary laws, and he would have 
enjoyed reading " An excellent newe ballad Declaringe the monsterous 
abuse in apparrell and the intollerous pride nowe a daies vsed, &c.," that 
was printed in December, 1594. 

etoerp trice crepetl) in bn[uer] 
name ant) stjeto of a tmue. 

Ther is noe man so lewde of lyfe, 

so fond in fylthy talke, 
That doth not still perswade him selfe 

in perfect path to walke. 
The covetous carle whose hart and hand 

doth lust and reache for coyne, 
He thinckes it is a glory great 

his bages and heapes to Joyne. 

And Bacchus' knight es whose grapy bowe 
do budde with in their braine, 

They thincke it is good fellow-shippe 
in ryot to remayne. 

[2] i bowe : i.e. bough. 


The lusty laddes whose lecherous lust 

their wanton ladyes fele, 
Do thincke with goddesse for to spinne 

and with a god to reele. 


" Tushe, tushe, whoe would not take," say they, 

" dame nature for his guyde ? 
And we from nature's wanton will, 

we know, do never slyde ; 
We shewe our selves we[e] dwarf es to be 

in doing suche a dede, 
But manly mates to fyght in field 

when England shall haue nede. 


" We store the realme with basterd borne, 

to help our natyve soyle ; 
Whose strength, since parentes were so strong, 

must nedes put foes to foyle." 
The Clyent thinckes he geues noe more 

then larges do requyre ; 
The lawyer thinckes he takes noe more 

then clyentes would desyre. 


So both agre to swymme in synne 

or lurcke in hell, they care not ; 
So both their willes be brought to passe, 

for wyly wayes they spare not. 
The proude doe thincke it comlynesse 

to vaunt in Jolly Jagges, 
And compteth other garmentes all 

to be but rotten ragges. 

[4] 6 larges : i.e. largess. 

s 273 


The ha[i]rbrain'd heades esteme the stoute 

but cowherdes in the fyeld, 
And therfore thincke it manlynesse 

at noe man's sute to yeld : 
The lyver by extorcyon, 

whose wealth is others' woe, 
Hath reasons sound, or else he lyes, 

his foes to ouerthrowe. 


" The losse to ritche is small," saith he, 

" their gaynes were great e of late ; 
The poore that begge devoute men's almes, 

it kepeth in their state : 
The myser feeles noe hurt by stealth, 

for he doth robbe him selfe, 
And gathereth goodes, but wantes the vse 

of all his gotten pelfe. 


" The ryotous man which to the dyce 

his father's landes doth send, 
I helpe to throwe a losing chaunce 

to bring him to his end." 
Excesse in meate is Friendlynesse, 

so names do vs beguyld ; 
Carouse is made a harty draught, 

to pynche the pottes a while. 


And fylthy woordes are mery iestes 

to sporte the gestes with all ; 
And knavyshe dedes are youthfull toyes, 

which still in youthe doe fall ; 

[6] 5 lyver : perhaps Th' usurer. [8] 6 beguyld : read beguile 



Create hose be comely for the legge, 

and makes one semely cladde ; 
French e cappes are nowe the fashion, 

and therfore must be had ; 

. [10] ;; 

Pincke pumpes are good to let in wynde, 

and must in heate be worne ; 
Cut elbowes are as coole as they, 

and cannot be forborne ; 
In sommer bumbast makes a brest, 

wher lately ther was none, 
In wynter bumbast kepes from cold, 

when harvest heate is gone. 

And gaskins now are worne for ease, 

to stretche both leg and arme ; 
Eache one hath now a dagger gotte 

to save himselfe from harme ; 
A handsome hatte is not without 

a tassell hanging downe, 
And custome byddes vs now to weare 

a felt with loftye croune. 


In mockes there is a certaine grace 

which youthfull youthes doe vse, 
And will somtymes, for want of foes, 

their freindes therwith abuse. 
Now should'ring vp of symple soules 

is sign bf courage bold ; 
Now hoary heares ar in contempt, 

their age is doting old. 

[10] i Pincke: read pink'd ; 5 bumbast = a stuffing. 
|f 1 2] 7 heares : i.e. hairs. 



[13] _ 
Nowe dauncing shewes hir good effectes, 

to hyde her lewde conceiptes, 
And Joyfull lymmes will daunce a dumpe 

to worcke some depe deceiptes. 
Her nymble trickes, her capers cros[s], 

do well become our feete, 
And toes that earst did come behinde 

againe before must mete. 

Nowe fencinge must be vsde and had, 

our foes to ouer throwe 
With sleightes and feates of reaching armes 

to strike a quarter blowe, 
I would theise fetches were the worst 

that england nowe doth breede. 
But all the world can scarse, I feare, 

our rage and fury feede. 


Our natyve soyle cannot aforde 

suche meates as may content, 
But shippes must seke for spanisbe spice 

till all our goodes be spent. 
God make vs thanckefull for his giftes, 

which he so freely doth bestowe, 
Least other do obtaine our wealth, 

which will them selves more thankfull shew. 

[15] 6 Read which freely He doth bestow ; 8 Omit which will, 


What way is best for man to choose 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 27 v -z8 v . There is no stanza-division in the 
MS. The melancholy, pessimistic tone that appealed to the compiler 
of the MS. finds its full expression in this ditty. Stanzas 2-4 throw 
interesting light on the street-brawls of the Elizabethan period, when 
the phrase " More work for the Cutler " had actual, as well as pro 
verbial, significance ; but in the remaining stanzas the author expresses 
the futility of human life only in wise saws and general instances. 
Possibly this was the ballad called " a Dyscription of this mortall lyfe," 
licensed for publication in 1561 (Arber's Transcript, I., 175). 

's tyfe is full of mpserp. 

What way is best for man to chuse, 

what path to lyve in rest ? 
What trade of lyfe can man invent 

to chose or lyke for best ? 
Ther is not one amongst them all, 

so pleasant to the ey[e], 
Which hath not thousand thoughtes and cares 

to ban the pleasures bye. 

Abroad the cutlers rule the roast, 

with frayes in every streate ; 
And daggers drawen, with pearcing pointes, 

in tender fleshe doe mete. 

[2] i rule the roast : i.e. rule the roost, a proverbial phrase for assuming 
authority or leadership. 



I thincke since first the world was made 

and fleshe was framed out, 
Suche losse of lyves was never yet 

in countreys round about. 

[3] r: ' 

Suche searching out for turkye blades, 

of highe and lofty pryce, 
Doth make the cutler now-a-dayes 

alofte in wealth to rise. 
The daggers now be all of steele, 

to flashe and cracke the croune, 
With hikes and pommelles pounced out 

to beate their neighbores downe. 


The buckelers, made of beastly home, 

which furious hand doth grasp e, 
In soke must lye before they fight 

their enmyes' sword to claspe. 
And theise be all the goodly sightes 

which we in stretes can fynde : 
At home the griefes of carking cares 

do pinche our wearyed mynde. 


Somtymes we feare the losse of house 

by servauntes' retchlesse hede ; 
Somtymes we spend vp all our gaynes, 

our houshold folkes to feede : 
The countrey all is full of cares ; 

and plowes must play their parte, 
If hoped harvest we will have 

to glad our heavy hart. 

[3] 7 pounced : i.e. chased, embossed. 
[4] i buckelers : i.e. bucklers. 



The sease be full of ragged rockes 

and sands to sincke thy shippe ; 
Whose billowes, beating on thy barcke, 

doth make it mount and skippe. 
If thou abounde in worldly wealth 

and bagges be stuffed vppe, 
For feare of sworde or flashing flames, 

thou canst not dyne or suppe. 


Againe, if want do pynche thy purse 

when naught in chestes be left, 
Then wilt thou wishe thy bones in grave, 

and lyfe, with purse, bereft. 
If thou be lynckt in maryage knotte, 

whoe can expresse thy care ? 
And if thou have noe wyfe at all, 

full simply thou shalt fare. 

I [8] 

To fynde thy sonnes, which thou hast gotte, 

will ask great paine and cost ; 
And then thou semest left alone 

when all thy sonnes be lost. 
If youthfull yeares do the[e] beseke 

with bewtyes rytche aray, 
Then fancyes fond will rage in head, 

for youth must have his swaye. 

I [9] 

If crooked age have dryed thy lymmes 

and sucked vp thy sappe, 
Then hoary heares for[e]shew that death 

will bring his fatall happe. 

[6] 7 flashing: MS. flasyhing. [8] I fynde = support. 

[9] 3 heares : i.e. hairs. 



What then is left for man to wishe, 

thus borne and nurst in griefe ? 
What comfort shall he seke on earth, 

to fynde him some reliefe I 

[10] ' " I 

The best is, eyther not be borne 

by mother's pensyve payne ; 
Or, after death, from whence he came 

straight-wayes to tourne againe. 


5 1 ' 

The lord that guides the golden 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 30^31 v . There is no stanza-division in the 
MS. The ink is badly faded. This ballad, imploring Englishmen 
" born of Brutus' s blood " to be wise, just, and attentive to reason's 
lore, ends with a heart-felt prayer for Queen Elizabeth, part of which 
at least was granted. During all the long years of her reign, the 
Queen's popularity with ballad-writers was unfailing. 

3lt 10 not goD but w our seltoes 0efee 
eucrgion of our own country. 

The lord that guydes the golden globe 

hath not his heavenly army sent 
To lay our cityes in the dust, 

nor yet at them their batt'ry bent ; 
For Pallas, in our stately tower, 

doth stand with speare and shaken shield, 
And myghty mar s hath got the walks 

to beate them downe, that will not yeld. 


But we our selves, lyke wretched wightes, 
doe seke to vndermyne the towne ; 

A civill discord hath begonne 

to make our walles come tumbling downe. 

[Title] euersion = overthrowing. 


By wicked thought of divelyshe hart, 
we still provoke our god to yre ; 

By carelesse lyfe, we him procure 
to wast our walles with flaming fyre. 

[3] _ ' - 

For they whose hungre is for gold 

and thirst for silver's shining gaine, 
They breake the lawes, forsweare the faith, 

as though ther wer no punishing payne. 
Some seke by force of bloudy blade 

a trade of lyving to beginne ; 
Some seke, by open tirranny, 

the princely seate and lyfe to winne. 


So that noe marvaile now it is, 

though simple soules take sword in hand, 
And griefe constraines their yerning hartes 

to ayd and help their native land. 
Some spoile abrode, and bring it home, 

not caring how they winne their welth, 
And leave their countrey sicke in woe, 

dispairing quyte of happy health. 


No shiftes be left for getting goodes ; 

and loke, wher force will not prevayle, 
Ther sleightes and pievyshe pollicyes 

shall geue the onset and assayle. 
They bring Astrea in contempt, 

and iustice can them never fray, 
Her power, her might, her maiesty, 

her anger doth them not dismay. 

[5] 3 pievyshe . i.e. peevish ; 6 fray = frighten. 



Yet she beholdes their wicked woorckes, 

and will reward when tyme shall serve : 
Eache one shall then receive reward 

as he by woorckes doth well deserve ; 
Thoughe god to stay his heavy hand 

from powring out his plagues beneath, 
Yet trust the sworde shall once be drawen, 

which lyeth nowe so depe in sheath. 


Thoughe he be close within his cloudes, 

and semes to mortall men to slepe, 
Yet doth he seke, with mighty arme, 

his glory still on earth to kepe. 
The longer leave that he doth geue 

our naught, and synfull lyves, to mend, 
The greater plagues one careles men 

his armed arme shall surely send. 

And, therfore, do thou not thy selfe 

with faire and flattering wordes beguild, 
The money is not alwayes lost, 

whose payment is differd a while. 
Ye Britaines, borne of Brutus' bloud, 

leave of[f], therfore, to walcke at will, 
That all your woordes and deedes may be 

to reason's lore attentive still. 


Then god will blesse this litle He 

with corne and grasse, in plenteous store, 

[6] 5 to : read do. 

[7] 6 naught and : possibly read naughty ; 7 one : read on. 

[8] 2 beguild : read beguile ; 4 differd : i.e. deferred. 



Then peace, as it hath well begonne, 
so shall it flourishe more and more. 

God save our Quene Ely-sabeth^ 
and ayd her alwaies at her nede, 

That earth may bring her hartes desyre, 
and heavenly foode her soule may fede. 


God graunt full long her noble grace 

with vs in England, to remayne, 
And graunt her in the world to come 

with the[e] and all the sainctes to raign ; 
Wher angelles sing suche heavenly songes, 

with their most swetly-sounding voyce, 
Where all the cherfull cherubins 

with Joyfull hart and mouth reioise. 


The covetous carl when greedy 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 33-35. There is no stanza-division in the 
MS. The ballad is probably " a ballett agaynste covetous[ness]," 
which Owen Rogers licensed on October 30, 1560 (cf. No. 15), though, 
to be sure, it is an invective rather against hoarding than against covet- 
ousness. Addressing his remarks to fathers, the balladist urges them to 
' spend their money in their own lifetime rather than leave it for idle sons 
to spend lewdly, thus foreshadowing Martin Parker's ballad on " Gather- 
good the Father, Scattergood the Son" (Roxburghe Ballads, I., 129). 
The moral is emphatically stated in stanzas 14-16. But whatever point 
this ballad had in the Elizabethan age has been removed, one may well 
think, by our inheritance, income, and luxury taxes. 

a generall Discourse bpon cotetousnesse. 

The covetous carle, when gredy eyes 

the glittering gold doth blynde, 
Noe place so safe, noe tyme so sure, 

that doth not feare his mynde. 
At table tyme, when meate and drincke 

before his eyes doth stand, 
And Gesse declare the wondrous workes 

that chaunce in straungest land ; 

Suche meate and drincke he doth not wey, 
they can him not content ; 

[i] 4 feare = make afraid ; 7 Gesse : i.e. guests. 
[2] i wey : i.e. weigh. 



For all the ioyes of mery mates 

his mynde will not relent, 
" Alas," he sayth, " that blustring prince 

which one the windes doth reign, 
Hath sent his impes amongst the floudes 

to teare my shippe in twayne ; 

[3] I 

" Else Neptune, with his forcked mace, 

hath stroke the swelling wave, 
Whose fomyng force with violence 

my barcke in sonder clave. 
And thoughe the godes should be my freindes 

till wyndes and waves were past, 
Yet sandes wold sincke my shaken shippe, 

and make it sticke full fast. 


" Or ragged rockes would strike her syde[s], 

till they did cleave in sonder ; 
And gaping gulfes would get alofte, 

till all my goodes were vnder." 
And thus he feares his goodes abroad 

and doubtes their safe retourne ; 
At home he feares Vulcamis force, 

his buildinges brave to burne. 


So that he is vnto him selfe 

the cause of all his care ; 
Whilest he in hope of Nestor's yeares, 

from spending still doth spare. 

[2] 4 relent : i.e. soften in temper ; 5 prince : i.e. vEolus ; 6 one 
read on ; 7 impes = children, attendants. 
[3] 2 stroke : i.e. struck. 
[4] 7 feares Vulcamis : read feareth Vulcan's. 
[5] 3 whilest : i.e. whilst. 



He hath enoughe, yet wanteth all 

that he with payne hath gotte, 
For who will thincke a man to have 

the thing he vseth not ? 


Who will believe him satisfyed 

that still doth thirst for drincke ? 
Who thinckes that ground is wet enoughe 

wher raine doth quickely syncke ? 
What man will deme his cofers full 

with gripes of gotten gold, 
If that his chestes and cofers yet 

a greater somme would hould ? 


Soe whoe can well accompt him rytche 

that gapeth still for gayne ? 
Althoughe his bagges lye strouting full, 

and so in chest remayne. 
Yea, lo[o]ke, the more he hath of goodes, 

the more he wantes of fill ; 
Muche lyke the dropsye drye desease 

that craveth water still. 

I [8] 

He is good to none, yet to himselfe 

he is the worst of all : 
His goodes do never profyt one 

till death on him befall ; 
And then most lyke the wrouting sowe, 

which never bringeth good 

5] 5 wanteth : i.e. lacks. 

6] 6 gripes = handfuls ; 8 somme : i.e. sum. 

7] 3 strouting : i.e. strutting. 

8] 5 wrouting sowe : i.e. rooting sow. 



Till meate be of her body made 
by letting of her bloud, 

So he that in his lyfe was naught, 

by leaving good behinde, 
Hath raked vp for ryotus sonnes 

their lyfe a while to fynde. 
And, lo[o]ke, as he with car[e]full cloulthe 

did scrape his goodes together, 
So they will send them out agayne 

at euery tyde and weather. 


Some is on bancketes brave bestowed 

in grocers' sugred shoppes ; 
Some hanges in neate and statly house, 

with brave and golden knoppes ; 
Some Bacchus doth devoure in cuppes, 

and drincketh all away : 
Yea, freindes carousing to and froe 

bringes heapes vnto decay. 

[] I 

When Venus shewes her darlinges deare, 

which earst in chambers lay, 
And do them selves in whoorishe weedes 

before their eyes display : 
One comes with wanton lute in hand, 

in hope of lucky chaunce ; 
Another leades about the house 

some new disguysed daunce ; 

[9] 4 fynde = to support ; 5 cloulthe : MS. perhaps cloulche. Read 

[10] i bancketes : i.e. banquets ; 4 knoppes : i.e. knobs. 




The third hath fyngers redy lymde, 

whilest youthes do tourne aboute, 
To catche their purses in her clawes 

and steale the money out ; 
The fowerth, the 5th, and all the rest 

of all the lecherous trayne 
Doth bid them eyther geve their goodes, 

or else they shalbe slayne. 


This is the end of goodes ill gott : 

they wilbe lewdely spent, 
And as they safely came to hand, 

so swiftly are they sent. 
Beware therfore, ye mysers all, 

and learne to vse your owne, 
That they may still enioye the fruictes 

which first the sedes have sowne. 

Who could abyde to play the asse 

with dainties one his backe, 
Yet he him selfe to feed one thornes 

for needy hunger's lacke ? 
Then vse thy gold both thou and thyne 

in honest state to fynde, 
For sparing fathers oftentymes 

leave spending sonnes behinde. 


Thou thinck'st by hoording vp of heapes 
thou shalt be ritcher still : 

[12] I lymde = ready for pilfering; lime-fingered occurs often in 
Elizabethan usage ; 6 lecherous : MS. lecherour ? 
[14] 2, 3 one : i.e. on. 

T 289 


Nay, nay, thou art more pore, indede, 

when chestes thou sek'st to fyll ; 
For whoe is ritche ? even he that doth 

content him with his store ; 
And whoe is pore ? even he that sekes 

to gather more and more. 


The vnthrifte wilbe quickely pore 

when tyme shall geue him leave ; 
And thou thy selfe vnwittingly 

of substaunce dost bereave : 
Then spend thy goodes among thy freindes, 

whilest lyfe doth lycense lend, 
And let thy sonnes know how to gett 

before they knowe to spend. 




Where pensive hearts relieved are 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 42, 43^44. Because on fols. 42^43 an 
entirely different song is inserted, the copyist has written in the margin 
of stanza i , " tourne to the next leafe saue one fore the rest of this 
sonet." The "sonet" is a delighful little poem that well deserves 
rescuing from oblivion : I have met with no printed copy. 

a jopfuU con0olacon tnfeer Christ 10 
Iptortp felt 

Wher pensive heartes relieved are 

with dewes of grace, 
And peace succeedes turmoyling care 

and takes his place, 
Ther ioyfull Joy the hart doth f ede 
That comfortes swete therout precede, 
And they reioyce, with thankfull voice, 

their happy case. 

Wher christ is felt in lyvely wise 

by fayth sincere, 
And that they doe with inward eyes 

behold him clear e, 
O ther the soule, with Joy repleate, 
Doth crave no better drincke or meate, 
But wisheth she may enioy for aye 

that lyfe most deare. 




Wher christ embraceth in armes of love 

the synfull soule, 
And eke in heavenly booke above 

his name enrowle, 

When fayth, perswaded, feles it sure, 
What turmoyles then may grefe procure ? 
Suche ioye, by grace, triumphes in place, 

and rappes the soule. 


Wher sence of christ is surely had, 

as sainctes possesse, 
And wher the hart, with grefe sor[e] clad, 

hath swete redresse, 
Oh ther they feele the blisfull gaine 
Of pleasure, tourn'd from pinching paine, 
And are, therby, enforst to crye 

with thanckefullnesse. 


Wher sinfull soule persuasion hath, 

when she doth crave 
Of freedome from deserved wrath 

and grace to have, 

Ther dolefull sighes departe their way, 
And Joyfull hymnes their ioy display ; 
Yea, god hath praise, whpe grauntes alwayes- 

suche soules to save. 


Therfore, thoughe we, o blessed lord, 

corrupted be, 
And merite still to be abhor'd, 

oh wretches we ! 

[3] 8 rappes : i.e. wraps. 


Extend thy love, extend thy grace, 
In armes of mercy vs embrace, 
For christe we pray that laude we may, 
both him and the[e]. 



Should my poor heart, O dearest 


Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 44 v -45. 

a l)ancfee0grt)ing for one from pertU of 
re0tarea to former fteattlj. 

Should my pore hart, o dearest lord, 
thy goodnesse greate from minde reiect, 

Sith thou in mercy hast restorde 

my health, whiche long thou didst correct ? 

O lord, should I vnmyndefull be 

of theise, thy giftes, bestowed on me ? 

I 'knowledge, lord, protesting-wise, 

that health of our precedes from the[e], 

Therfore, with lifted hart and eyes, 
I beg'd thy grace to comfort me ; 

So now thou hast thus cured me, 

should I not, therfore, thanckefull be ? 


Not that I haue suche cause to love 
this life, alas, with greate delight, 

But rather long for lyfe above 
with angelles swete to gaine thy sight. 

But sith thy will is suche to me, 

lord, let me, therfore, thanckefull be. 




Let me thy grace in mynd retaine, 
yea, all thy mercies old and newe, 

That thanckefull so I may remaine, 
and fruictes of love therout ensue. 

Sith thou hast done so muche for me, 
let me againe yeld thanckes to the[e]. 


Let me the course of lyfe direct 

thy blessed name to laude and praise, 

And, lord, vouchesafe me to protect 
with grace of thine in all my wayes ; 

That then I may, for love to me, 
breake out againe in love to the[e]. 


And while thou shalt this life maintaine, 
thoughe feble fayth oft stag'ring reele, 

Graunt, lord, or else the rest were vaine,- 
that thy swete mercyes I may fele ; 

Which are most deare, o christe, to me. 
Then shall I alwaies thanckfull be. 


: . ' 55 it 

Dear Christ, my poor and pensive 


Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 45-45 . 

0inne, ano ctatett) parson for tfte 0ame. 

Deare christe, my pore and pensive brest 

I wailing lift to the[e] ; 
Thy chering face, swete lord, let rest, 

and tourne thy grace to me 
That have, alas, offended sore, 
Oh, wo is hart of myne therfore ! 


My thoughtes disperst in strugling-wise, 
now here, now ther, they raunge, 

By greedy sight of wand'ring eyes, 
alas, to[o] woondrous straunge, 

Oh that I might from strayeing cease, 

And the[e] possesse, my Joye and peace. 


O that thou wouldest, displeased lord, 

thy mercy large extend, 
Thoughe I deserve to be abhor'd, 
that dayly so offend. 

[3] i wouldest: r^W wouldst. 


O swetest christe, retourne thy face, 
And me relyeve with lokes of grace. 


My wretched sinne I now confesse, 

as rightfull cause I have ; 
And pardon, lord, with swete redresse 

in fearfull wise I crave. 
With quaking feare my body chilles, 
And wofull teares doune trikling trilles. 

| f _ [5] 

Let theise the[e] move (o mercy, thou !) 

that mercy hast in store, 
To geve and graunt thy mercy nowe 

to me that synned haue sore. 
Thy face convert, or loe ! I dye, 
And let me, lord, obtaine mercye. 

Then aulters I shall make and raise, 

suche as thou dost requyre, 
And offer sacrifice of prayse, 

with ever-burning fyre. 
Yea, never then my lippes shall stay, 
But thy ritche grace, swete christ, display. 


[5] 4 haue : changed by a later hand to had ; c; convert = turn. 



If thou wilt, Lord, extend thy grace 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 47-47 v . A charming little pious ditty with 
a conventional refrain. 

a prayer of one being afflictet) toitt) 0inne. 


If thou wilt, lord, extend thy grace, 

if thou wilt yet thy favour show 
To chaunge my state and ruthfull case, 

which sence of sinne enforcth to grow, 
I vowe and promise, then, to thee 

from this time forth more ware to be. 


But dashe me not, I the[e] desyer, 

thoughe I thus oft have promyse made, 

Nor me reiect in grievous Ire, 
sith I repent my sinfull trade, 

And vowe with promise, lord, to the[e] 
from this tyme forth more ware to he. 


Of right thou mayest my soule denye 

and chase me, wretche, from mercies throne^; 

But canst thou, lord, reiect the crye 
of broken heartes that sighe and grone ? 

Yea, vowe and promise, lord, to the[e] 
from this time forth more ware to he. 

[2] 2 thus : MS. thue. [3] I mayest : i.e. may'st. 




Thoughe blust'ring storme and tempest great, 
confounding- wise, my soule assayle, 

Which flatt to Pluto's gulfe me beate, 
yet mercy, lord, least theise prevaile. 

Then vow and promise, lord, to the[e] 
from this time forth more ware to be. 


Thy heavy wrath so heavy lyes 

(which guilt of myne deserveth right) 

That vp to heaven resound my cries 
for grace, that else am damned quyte ; 

Which graunted, lord, I vow to the[e] 
from this ty me for the more ware to be. 


And thus my dolfull sute I end ; 

let me atchive that I desyer. 
Then shall my dolfull state amend, 

and I to comfort swete aspyre ; 
And for thy grace thus geven to me, 

from this time forth still thankfull be. 


[4] 4 least : i.e. lest. 



Judge me not, Lord, in wrathful ire 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 48^49. The ink is badly faded, and in 
stanzas 6 and 7 is almost indecipherable. 

guilty conscience, acfenotnle&ging 
t)er sinne, cratett) partion for ttie 0ame, 
apealing from justice tnto mercpe. 

Judge me not, lord, in wrathfull Ire, 

ne yet reiect me vtterly, 
But way my ruthfull hartes desyer 

that pantes, alas, dispairingly ; 
For feare of thy displeasure greate, 
O lord, in mercy me entreate. 

My wretched synne, as david cryes, 
lyke mountaine huge, alas and woe, 

Before my face, in lothsome wise, 
remaynes, and me amaseth so 

That feare (o wretche) oppresth me still. 

But, lord, let mercy rule thy will. 


Loke not one my deformed synne, 
nor to[o] precisely viewe my case, 

[i] 3 way : i.e. weigh. 

[3] i one read on, 



For from corrupted hart within 

what fruictes corrupt in me have place ! 
I dye for feare (o Justice, thou), 
Extend, therefore, thy mercy nowe. 


And enter not thy Judgement throne 
to Judge by Justice' scales, alas ! 

Am I so right (what, I alone ?) 

that thou shouldst bring it thus to passe ? 

Sith that all flesh quailes in thy sight, 

How should I, then, be Just and right ? 


To mercies sentence, therfore, lord, 
I now appealle ; o mercy graunt, 

That I may feele thy swete accord, 
and boldly, then, bid Sathan vaunt ; 

Who now turmoyles me in dispaire, 

And drounes my soule in dreadfull care. 


Sith blame I do, in earnest wise, 
my wretched heart, offending so, 

And sith to the[e] I tourne myne eyes, 
in this distresse to cure my woe, 

Thy grace and mercy, lord, extend, 

My ruthfull plight so to amend. 


And let me tast thy goodnes swete, 
which cruell synne hath reft me long, 



Then shall my soule be made full mete 
to spread ihy praise in cherfull song. 
Grant this, therfore, o father good, 
I the[e] beseche for Christ his blood. 



What cause there /If, alas, to wail 

Sloane MS. 1 896, fols. 49-49 v . 

toretcfte&nesse of man's estate taitill 
tetiresge ana comfort come from 

What cause ther is, alas, to waile 
the wretched wofull state, 

Wherin we (sowsing) plunged lye 
in wretched, wofull rate ; 

Whose heart cannot conceive at full, 

whose eyes not clearly se, 
That wayes the state where in we were, 

and vewes what now we be. 


By synne bereft, and spoyled quyte, 

of noble treasures all, 
Which nature had, in noble wise, 

before that ruthfull fall. 

[i] 3 sowsing : i.e. sousing = soaking, drenched. 

[2] 2 clearly : MS. crearly ; 3 wayes : i.e. weighs ; where in we were : 
MS. blurred and ink badly faded here, but these four words can be 

[3] i spoyled = despoiled. 



' ' '*' \ W 

In-stead of which (o cursed chaunge !) 

corrupcon is infusde, 
And vices reign for giftes devine, 

thus Satban vs abusde. 


Among them all (for many be), 
as Judgement shewes it cleare, 

The frosen, flynty hartes of ours, 
me thinkes, do straunge appeare. 


Corrupcon added hath to them 

suche steely hardnesse nowe, 
That naught can bring at all remorse, 

nor ought suffise to bowe ; 

Or pierce theise rockes, these stony flintes, 

at least to make them softe, 
But heavenly showers alone may help 

by their distilling ofte. 


Yet meanes are made, and 'pointed, to[o], 

by him that heavenly is, 
For earthly men to put in proufe ; 

and chefe of those are this : 

To read, to thincke, to muse and way, 

of cbriste the bytter payne, 
His passion, panges, and tormentes large, 

to view them all againe. 




^And therwith, eke, to beare the cause 

of all this griefe in mynde, 
For vs that damned were by synne 
that we release may fynde. 

This, this should melt the frosen hart, 
this same should pierce the flintes, 

And bring vs ioye and make our mouthes 
with prayses not to stint. 


u 305 


In rage of storm and tempests all 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 49 V -5O V . The refrain presents rather a 

JDotn fcappp anfc agguret) ttyp arc, in all 
gtormos, tfcat ffrmelp DepettD tpon gon, 


In rage of storme and tempestes all, 
which syn or Sathan vp doth raise 

To beate the[e] doune, to make the[e] fall, 
pore soule, for ayd in theise assayes, 

Flee to thy heavenly father's will 

That situs betwene the cherubbes still. 

Comfort thy selfe in all distresse, 
sith god supreamely scepture beares ; 

Who can and will give swete redresse, 
and cleane dispatche all cause of teares. 

Oh, therfore, stay vpon his will 

Who sittes betwene the Cherubbes still. 


What thoughe we feele our weakenes so 
that ofte we slippe (oh wretches we !) ; 

From god and christe why should we goe, 
sith fleshe from sinne cannot be fre ? 

Nay, runne, pore soule, vnto his will 

That sitts betwene the cherubbes still. 




Confesse thy faulte, and pardon crave ; 

appeale to grace in constant wise, 
And so be sure thy sute to have ; 

and then sho[u]te forth, with ioyfull cryes : 
" My god, with lyfe praise the[e] I will, 
That sittes betwene the cherubbes still." 


This done, let synne and Sathan rage ; 

yea, thoughe they breake them selves with spit[e] ; 
With all that fowle and vgly rage 

nought can they doe but take their fligh[t], 
And in noe wise resist his will 
That sittes betwene the cherubbes still. 


Oh, happy soule, that canst believe 
and stay thy selfe one him therfore, 

Thoughe grawing synne cease not to greve, 
yet happy thou for evermore ; 

Sith sure thou art of his good will 

That sittes betwene the cherubbes still. 


then with Davyd take thy rest, 
slepe thou with Peter quietly. 
Repose thy head on that swete brest 
wher happy John was wont to lye. 
Yea, stay one god thy father's will 
Who sittes betwene the cherubbes still. 

j] 2 spite : e cut off by the binder ; 4 flight : / cut off by the binder. 
^6] 2 one : read on ; 3 grawing : obsolete form of growing. 
7] 5 one : read on. 




And while one earth thou shalt remaine 
till thou to heaven assumpted be, 

For love love god and christ againe, 
let hart, let tongue, let lyfe agre, 

To spread his mercy and good will, 

To whome be praise and honor still. 


[8] i one : read on. 



Till Christ our Lord return 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 5i-5i v . This Protestant ballad should be 

mpared with the Catholic ballads on the same subject printed earlier 

this volume. It is a bit unusual to find a ballad actually praying for 

the Judgment Day, though ballad-writers often characterized the world 

s*a vale of tears and sin, with an ominous Doomsday close at hand. 

faittifull Despre, according to goD'0 
to mafee etrtange of earttj for 
, ant) tberfot mi0t) tlje coming of 


Till Christe our lorde retourne 
to throne his sainctes in blesse, 

We must content our selves 
with griefe and pensivenesse. 

For earth wheron we byde, 
this world wherin we dwell, 

Wilbe noe heaven nor resting place, 
as wofull chaunges tell. 


Nought here, alas, so sure 

but melting vades awaye : 
Our gaine is griefe, our life is losse, 

all which my hart dismay. 
[i] 2 blesse : i.e. bliss. [3] 2 vades : i.e. fades. 




For meerly vaine, alas, 

theise thing es on earth we try ; 
What then, should those that heaven desire 

on earth turmoyling lye ? 


But shriking clamours send 

from pore distresfull hart, 
That christ from heaven will come with spede 

to end this earthly smart ; 

That then the carfull toyle, 

of those that banisht be 
By earth from heaven may throughly cease, 

and they from griefe set free ; 


That wofull plaintes may end, 
which worldly happes procure ; 

That sinne may cease and saintes possesse 
those ioyes that aye endure ; 

.That thine redemed deare, 

with bloud to the[e] most swete, 
May the[e] enioye in heavenly reign, 

thoughe they, alas, vnmete. 


O ryeve the heavens in twaine, 

breake out throughe toppes of skye, 

[4] 3 What : read why. 

[6] i carfull : i.e. careful ; 3 throughly : i.e. thoroughly. 

[9] i ryeve : i.e. reave. 



Let Angell sound his trump e with spede, 
oh shewe thy selfe on hye ! 


With armes bespread embrace 

thy saintes that then apere, 
And let them yeld eternall praise 

to the[e], their lord most deare. 



Alas, for shame, how dare I sue 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 5J-53 V . 

ctje 0pner, being ashmen of triis gpnne, 
Daretti tjar&ty crate reteaee for ttie same. 

Alas, for shame, how dare I sue 
to the[e], my god, for grace ? 

How dare I (wretche) present my selfe, 
how dare I shew my face ? 

That so polluted am with synne, 

that so offended have 
My dearest god, in heaped-wise, 

how dare I pardon crave ? 


How dare I lyft my synfull hart 
and synfull eyes to the[e] ? 

wretche, howe dare I thus presume ? 
alas, for shame I flee. 


1 dare not, lord, my god, my christ \ 
" Why, man, what hast thou done, 

That thus oppressing feare and sham[e] 
from me should cause the[e] runne ? 

[4] 2-4 Represented as being words spoken by God. 




Ah, luring synne with tysing speache 
hath caught my soule in snare, 

As oft before, yet could I not, 
vnhappy man, beware 


To shunne her cruell, bayted hooke, 

her lure did so provoke, 
Whose pleasures while I thought to tast, 

I caught her deadly stroke ; 


That wounded hath my wofull soule, 

yea, pierst my synfull heart, 
And reft me of my swetest ioye, 

with plunge of deadly smart. 


And yet I dare not seke redresse, 

I dare not sue for ayde ; 
So shame and feare doth hold me back, 

and kepe my hart dismayed. 


Howbeyt, except his grace I crave, 

and, sueng, seke redresse, 
The wound of synne is suche, that dye 

I must, in this distresse. 


And, therfore, payne and perill both, 
encount'ring feare and shame, 

Have vanquisht both, and forst me (loe !) 
to beg in christ his name. 

[5] I tysing = enticing. 



Now, therfore, lord, and father deare, 

my often synnes forgeve, 
And cure my Justly pinched soule, 

let mercy it relyeve. 


With depest hart-rote sighes, I crave 
that grace of thine in the[e] 

May cleane remytt and pardon, lord, 
this synne of myne in me. 


And that I may, in feeling-wise, 

so feele thy swetest grace, 
That ioyfull hart may thankfull be 

while lyfe in me hath place. 

[12] I hart-rote : i.e. heart-root. 


As I on New Year's Day 

Sloane MS. 1 896, fols. 29-30. This ballad may have been that called : 
(l) "xij wittie warninges shewinge faultes to be Refrained," entered in 
the Stationers' Registers on September 18, 1579 ; and (2) the "Dozen 
of pointes" entered for transfer on December 14, 1624, although there 
is extant a printed ballad, on a different subject, with that title (Roxburgke 
Ballads, VII., 780). It is printed from this MS., somewhat inappro 
priately, in F. W. Fairholt's Satirical Songs and Poems on Costume, Percy 
Society, XXVII. (1849), 79' 8 3 tne on ty piece, I believe, hitherto 
reprinted from the MS. Fairholt thought that the ballad was alluded 
to by Ben Jonson in Bartholomew Fair, II., iv. ; but the allusion is not 
altogether certain. Cf. also Roxburghe Ballads, VII., 823. 

Fairings, gifts bought at a fair, often " posies " and " points " like 
this ballad, were enormously popular. Very many such ballads are 
entered in the Stationers' Registers, and a number are preserved. For 
example, ballads called " The newe married wyfes fayringe " and " a 
maydes lamentacon for lack of a fayringe," originally licensed on June 26, 
1 594, were relicensed by an enterprising printer for " timely " publica 
tion on August 21, just before Bartholomew Fair was to be held. The 
present ballad is an excellent example of the type. With it may be 
compared George Whetstone's " Verses written of 20. good precepts, at 
the request of his Especiall good freend and kinseman, M. Robart Cudden 
of Grayes Inne," printed in the Paradise of Dainty Devises (Collier's 
reprint, pp. 1 1 8 ff.). Whetstone's points are " shun many words," 
" be merciful," " cherish the poor," " serve God," " obey thy Prince," etc. 

a Da00en of patnte0, sent bp a gentle- 

woman to tier later far a nea peare0 


As I on new yeare's day 

did walcke amidst the streate, 

My restlesse eyes for you, my hart, 
did seke a fayring mete. 



I sercht throughout the faire, 
but nothing could I fynde. 

No, no, of all ther was not one 
that would content my mynde. 


But all the boothes wer filled 
with fancyes fond attyre, 

And trifling toyes were set to sale 
for them that would requyre. 


Then to my selfe quoth I, 

" what meanes theise childish knackes ? 
Is all the faire for children made 

or fooles that babies lackes ? 


" Are theise the goodly giftes, 

the new yeare to beginne, 
Which friendes present vnto their freindes 

their fayth and love to winne ? 

" I se[e] I came in vayne, 

my labour all is lost, 
I will departe and kepe my purse 

from making any cost." 

[5] 2 new yeare : Began in England on March 25 down to the 
year 1752. 




But se[e] my happy chaunce : 

whilest I did hast away, 
Dame vertue doth display her booth 

my hasty feete to stay. 


I, Joyfull of the sight, 
did preace vnto the place 

To se[e] the tricke and trimmed tent 
for suche a ladyes grace. 


And after I had viewed 

cache thing within her seate, 

I found a knotte of perlesse pointes, 
beset with posyes neate. 

Theise pointes, in number twelve, 
did shew them selves to be ; 

The sence wherof, by poetes skill, 
I will declare to the[e]. 

1. With meate before the[e] set, 

suffise but nature's scant ; 

2. Be sure thy tongue at table tyme 

noe sober talke doe want. 


3. Let word, let thought and dede, 

in honest wise agree ; 

[8] 2 preace : i.e. press. 

[9] 4 posyes : i.e. posies = brief mottoes, or maxims, in verse. 



4. And loke that pore in tyme of nede 
thy helping hand may see. 

5. When foes invade the realme, 

then shew thy might and strength ; 

6. Tell truth in place wher thou dost come, 

for falshed failes at length. 

7. Be fast and firme to freinde, 

as thou wouldest him to be ; 

8. Be shamefast ther wher shamfull dedes 

be offred vnto the[e]. 


9. Weare not suche costly clothes 

as are not for thy state ; 

10. Heare eache man's cause as thoh he wer 

in wealth thine equall mate. 


11. In place thy manners shewe, 

in right and comly wyse ; 

12. From the[e] let peace and quietnesse, 

and wars from others, ryse. 


With theise 12 vertuous pointes, 
se[e] thou do tye the[e] round ; 

And lyke and love this simple gifte 
till better may be found. 

[13] 4 falshed : i.e. falsehood. 

[14] 2 wouldest: read wouldst ; 3 shamefast = modest, virtuous. 
[17] i, [18] i pointes, point : Here/w'ff/ assumes the ordinary Eli; 
bethan meaning of tagged laces used to attach the hose to the doublet. 




Yet one point thou dost lacke 
to tye thy hose before : 

Love me as I love the[e] and shall 
from hence for evermore. 

63 '' 

Though others have their sight 
at will 

Sloane MS. 1896, fol. 30. In this very pretty ditty a pious author 
offers a consolation for blindness that may possibly have been efficacious. 
At any rate, it has the merit of novelty if of specious logic. 

a comfort tonto fctm ttiat is 

Though other[s] have their syght at will, 
with vayne delightes their mynde to fill ; 

Yet when the day is Passed away, 
the night her pleasures doth display. 

Then blynd doth se as well as he 
that hath most perfecte eyes to se. 

The losse of eyes is losse of vyce, 

which throughe the eyes in hart doth rise : 
The eyes do kindle first the flame, 

and hart doth nourishe vp the same ; 
But blyndenesse cannot onse perceyve, 

with folly, reason to disceyve. 


O happy troye haddest thou bene, 
if eyes fayre Helene had not sene ; 

[i] i Though: MS. thought. [3] I haddest: read hadst. 



The mighty walks might yet haue stood, 
which Greece destroyed in angry mo[o]de I 

In fame thou, Lucrece, mightst haue died, 
if Tarquyne had the[e] not espyed. 


Thus eyes are workers of our woe, 

still seking vs to overthrowe ; 
And semely sightes that shew so gay 

be framinge of our depe decay. 
And, therfore, happy thrice is he 

which synfull sightes could never se. 


6 4 

Fain would I have a pretty thing 

MS. Rawlinson Poet. 108, fol. 44. This ballad, with two additioi 
stanzas, is printed in Clement Robinson's Handfull of Pleasant Delights, 
1584 (ed. Edward Arber, p. 50). The exceptional interest taken i 
this poetical miscellany (extant in a single imperfect copy at the Brith 
Museum) from Shakespeare's day to the present time, as well as the fad 
that only one other ballad in the Handfull has as yet been met with in z 
second copy, urges the reprinting of this MS. version, itself approxi 
mately contemporary with the Handfull, which was made from at 
entirely different broadside and which furnishes a few interesting 
variant readings. In the Handfull (H.) the first stanza is repeated as 
chorus at the conclusion of each of the nine other stanzas. 

In MS. Ashmole 48 (Thomas Wright's Songs and Ballads, Roxbui 
Club, p. 195) there is a ballad on Troilus and Cressida, registered ii 
1565-66 (Arber's Transcript, I., 300), "To the tune of Fayne wool< 
I fynd sum pretty thynge to geeve unto my lady," a tune withou 
question named from the present ballad. (Cf. also Popular Music, I., 91.) 
A moralization of the ballad, too, entitled " A fayne wolde I have 
godly thynge to shewe vnto my ladye," was licensed in 1566-67 (Arbei 
Transcript, I., 340), while a further moral parody, "fayne wolde I hai 
a vertuous wyfe adourned with all modeste bothe mylde and meke 
quyett lyf esteemynge chef hyr chastetye," licensed in the same y< 
(ibid., p. 342), shows how extensive was its popularity. 

[a proper ong, 3(ntituUt>: jfain 
31 ftaue a pretfe tiring to giue tonto mp 

To the Tune of lustye gallaunt. 

Fayne wold I haue a pretye thinge 

to geue vnto my ladye. 
I meane no hurt, I meane no harme, 

but as pretye a thinge as may be. 
Title from H. [i] 3 I name no thing, nor I meane no thing (//.). 




Twentye lourneyes wold I make, 
and twentye ways goo hye me, 

To geue adventures for her sake, 
to sett some matter by me. 

Some do longe for pretye knackes, 
and some for strange devises ; 

God send me that my ladye lakes, 
I care not what the p[r]ice is. 

Some go here, and some go there, 
where gapings be not geason ; 

And I goo wandringe euer where, 
and styll come owt of season. 

[I walke the towne, and tread the streete, 

in euery corner seeking : 
The pretie thinge I cannot meete, 

that's for my Ladies liking.] 

I [6] 

The mercers pull me goynge by, 

the sylke wyffes say, " what lake you ? " 

" A thinge that you haue not," say I, 
" you folyshe fooles, go packe you." 

I [7] 

Yt is not all the gold in cheape, 
nor all the golden treasure, 

[2] 3 geue : make (H.) ; her : MS. here. [3] 3 lakes : i.e* lacks. 

[4] 2 gapings : gases (H.) ; geason = rare, extraordinary ; 3 wan- 
inge : gaping (W.). [5] i -4 added from H. 

[6] 3 that you haue not : you haue not, then (//.). 
[7] i gold : Silke (H.). 



Nor twentye busshels in a heape 
can do my ladye pleasure. 


[The Grauers of the golden showes, 

with luelles do beset me. 
The Shemsters in the shoppes that sowes, 

they do nothing but let me.] 


For weare yt in the wytte of man 
by anye meanes to make hit, 

I wold for mony by hit than, 
and say, " faire ladye, take hit." 


But, ladye, what a lucke is this 
that my good wyllynge myssethe, 

To find what preatye thinge hyt is 
that my good ladye wysshethe. 

7] 3 in : on (#.). [8] 1-4 added from H. 

9] i For : But (H.) ; 3 wold : could (H.) ; by, than : i.e. buy, then. 

10] i But : O (H.). 

3 2 4 


Assist me now, you doleful dames 

MS. Rawlinson Poet. 185, fols. 9-10. A splendid amatory lyric 
with a very attractive refrain. The MS. cannot date later than 1592, 
and the ballad itself may be considerably older : in any case the tune 
is distinctly important, for it comes from the traditional song of Hobby 
Noble and John a Side, " one of the best ballads in the world," which 
is No. 187 in Professor Child's superb edition of English and Scottish 
Popular Ballads. So extremely rare are allusions to these traditional 
ballads before 1600 that the present instance of a street ballad sung to 
a traditional-ballad tune assumes considerable importance, and proves 
that at least one Scottish traditional song was well known in Elizabethan 
London. For the tune itself see F. J. Child's Ballads, V., 408. 

a terie prette sounst, 

To the Tune of Hobblnoble and lohn a Side. 


Assist me now, you dolefull dames, 

sing hevely now my ioyes do weare, 
Sound forth your rewfull morning plantes, 

lament my sorofull, wayling cheare ; 
Lament with me, for I am he 

who lives (alas !) and faine would die, 
Oh paine, sorofull paine, paine that nipes me sore. 

Great cause I haue, alas, to morne, 

sing hevely now my ioyes do weare, 
Woe worth the tyme that I was borne, 

to tast of this my wayling cheare ! 

[i] 3 morning plantes : i.e. mourning plaints ; 7 nipes : an obsolete 
for nips. 



And cursed be that crewell happ, 
that fostred me to this ill happ. 
Oh paine, sorofull paine, paine that nipes, &c. 

[3] ; ; 

Did ever weight feell half e such woe ? 
sing hevely now my ioyes do weare. 

fortune fraile, why frownest thow so, 
to make me langvish still in feare ? 

Relent, you stoney hartes, I saye, 

my heapes of greefes for to beraye. 
Oh paine, sorofull paine, paine that nipes me s[ori\. 


My sighes and sobes doth testefie, 

sing hevely now my ioyes do weare, 
What greefe within my hart do lye ; 

lament my sorofull, wailing cheare. 
The grones that comes from my poore hart 

beres witnes of my wofull smarte. 
Oh paine, sorofull, &c. 


If that I might my ladie vew, 
sing hevely now my ioyes do weare, 

1 know she is a dame so trew 

she would redresse my wayling cheare, 
And shew remorse of me, poore rache, 

which liveth heare comfortles. 
Oh paine, sorofull, &c. 


* What dost thow meane, thow crewell spight, 
sing hevely now my ioyes do weare, 

[3] i weight : i.e. wight. 

[5] 5 rache : i.e. wretch ; 6 heare : redd heare so. 



To keep me from my ladies sight, 
who should this wailling cheare ? 

Did ever I deserue of thee 

that thow shouldest worke such woe to me ? 

Ob paine, sorofull paine, &c. 


Full oft I tooke my penn in hand, 
sing hevely now my ioyes do weare, 

To let my ladie vnderstand 
of this sorofull, wailing cheare ; 

But then dispaire aresteth me, 

and saith : " in vaine thy swet shalbe." 

Ob paine, sorofull, 


Then home she comes and comforts me, 
sing hevely now my ioyes do weare, 

And bides me of good cheare to be, 
and not to languish still in feare ; 

And biddes me write vnto my love 
that she my sorroes might remove. 

Oh paine, sorofull, 


The same is donne in-continent, 
sing hevely now my ioyes do weare, 

And to my ladie it is sente, 

who shoulde redresse my wailing cheare, 

To see if she will pittie me 
and show some love of ametie. 

Oh paine, sorofull, &c. 

[6] 4 this : terhaps read this sorrowful. 
[8] i home : read hope. 



With hope and despaire am I fed, 

sing hevely now my ioyes do weare^ 
With trebles tombling in my bed, 
. lament my sorofull, wailing chear ; 
Till that I meete with venix mine, 

whose grace excells the muses nine. 
Ob paine, sorofull paine, paine that nipes me sore. 

[IQ] 5 venix : i.e. phoenix. 



In Crete when Daedalus first began 

Harleian MS. 7578, fol. 103. The text and music of this incom 
plete ballad on the exploits of Daedelus and Icarus were discovered by 
Mr. F. Sidgwick and printed in the Gentleman's Magazine, August, 1 906, 
pp. 179-181. It has seemed worth while, in view of the importance 
of the two stanzas and the unexpected place in which they are printed, to 
give them here. Mr. Sidgwick has mentioned all the allusions given 
below except that in the Knight of the Burning Pestle. 

The MS. is perhaps of the early part of the seventeenth century, but 
the ballad was printed at least by 1591, the year in which one "Simon 
Smelknave," in his Fearfull effects of two Comets, sig. B i , scoffed at " you 
Ale-knights . . . that sing In Creete when Dedalus, ouer a cup." Thomas 
Nashe (Have With You to Saffron Walden, 1596, Works, ed. McKerrow, 
III., 67) said of Gabriel Harvey : " In Creete when Dedalus, a song that 
is to him food from heauen, and more transporting and rauishing than 
Platoes Discourse on the immortalitie of the soule was to Cato" In 
Beaumont and Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas, III., iii., Thomas says he 
can sing, among other ballads, " In Crete when Dedimus first began," 
and shortly afterwards he sings two lines of it : 

The love of Greece, and it tickled him so, 
That he devised a way to go. 

Two lines which have not previously been identified are sung by 
Merrythought in the Knight of the Burning Pestle, I., iii. : 

When earth and seas from me are reft, 
The skies aloft for me are left. 

Possibly there is some faint reference to the ballad in I Henry VI., IV., 
vi., 54, and 3 Henry VI., V., vi., 18, 22. The tune of In Crete is not 
infrequently used for other ballads. 

In creat when dedylus fyrst began 
his stait and long exile to wayle, 

[i] I creat, dedylus : i.e. Greet, Daedalus. 



When mynus* wrath had shutt vpp then 
yche way by land, eche way by Sayle, 

The love of creett hyme prycked So, 
that he devysed away to goo. 

His tender Sonn, yonge Icarus^ 

his fatheres cayre and onlye Joy, 
Bedewed with teares, dyd comfort thus : 

" Be of good chear, myne owen sweet boy ; 
Thoughe land and Seas be from vs Raft, 

the skyes aloft befor vs laste." 

11] 3 mynus : i.e. Minus ; 5 creett : read Greece. 
2] 4 owen : read own. 



6 7 

All you that with good ale do hold 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 58 v -6o v . This curious and delightful 
ballad on drunkenness may at first sight seem out of place among the 
pious and religious verse that makes up the remainder of the MS. No 
other ballad of the same type is extant, though one of much later date, 

"A Pleasant New Ballad to look upon, 
How Mault deals with every man," 

printed in the Roxburghe Ballads (II., 379), has some resemblances. 
For example, the stanzas (quoted from the Pepys copy), 

The Shoomaker sitting on his seat, 
At Master Mault began to fret, 
He said he would the Knave so beat, 
with hii sharp Spanish Knife, Sir. 

But Mjult came peeping through the Hall, 
And did his Brains so fiercely maul, 
He turned round and caught a fall, 
you never \_iaiv the like, Sir~\. 

The Weaver sitting in the Loom, 
He threatned Mault a cruel doom, 
And make him to repulse the room, 
or throto him in a Dike, Sir. 

The doughty warrior Good-ale is given a place of prominence also in 
the ballad of "Sir John Barleycorn " (Ibid., II., 373). 

When Sir John Good-ale heard of this, 

he came with mickle might, 
And there he tooke their tongues away, 

their legs, or else their sight. 

And thus Sir John, in each respect, 

so paid them all their hire, 
That some lay sleeping by the way, 

some tumbling in the mire. 

Some lay groning by the wals, 

some in the streets downe right, 
The best of them did scarcely know 

what they had done ore-night 


Thomas Robins, a well-known ballad-writer, wrote a pamphlet in 
prose and ballad-verse called The Arraigning and Indicting of Sir John 
Barky-Corn, A Man of Noble blood, and well-beloved in England, a much 
less stupid work than the majority of chap-books. 

In the final stanza the author states that he wrote " this merry jest ' 
to declare the loathsomeness of drunkenness, a statement that may serve 
to connect his jest with ballads " agaynste Dronkerdes " and " aganste 
Drunckers" which were licensed in 1560-61 and 1562-63 (Arber* 
Transcript, I., 153, 205). Entries of "a ballad being a Jest of bottel 
ale" (August 19, 1583) and of "A proper newe ballad whiche withou 
any fayle will shewe all the hurte in a pott of good ale " (May 27, 1612 
could appropriately refer to the present ballad. 

All you that with good ale doe hould, 
Draw neere, I say, both young and ould, 

and listen to my tale ; 
And you shall heare how in what wether 
A sort of Souldiers met together 

for to devour good alle. 


It chanc'd of late, in smale braynshire, 
One maister good-ale did appeare 

out of a lether canne ; 
He held the countrie for his owne, 
Where he by strength had overthrowne 

manie a proper manne. 


It fell about the wbitsontyde, 
The Countrie rose on everie syde 

on him to make a ryot ; 
They mustered all at one ale-stake 
With stronge good-ale a feilde to make, 

which did them sore disquiet. 

[i] 6 alle : read ale. 

33 2 



Thither came a full heuge hoast 

With pompe, with prid[e], with bragge, and boast, 

against good- ale the[y] goe ; 
But if a while you will giue eare 
Their names in order you shall heare 

out of the Christ crosse-rowe. 


Now Christ his crosse be my good speede 
That I may shew that doughtie deede 

by good-ale doone that day ! 
There was never fought with speare and sheild 
Such a battell as he held, 

I dare be bould to say. 


Adam, Austine, and Adrian, 

The first stout skirmiche they beganne 

with Polax in their hand. 
But good-ale arest them with his mase, 
And brought them soone in such a case, 

much care they had to stande. 


33 Benet, Brandon, Barnard, Beede, 

With Blase and Bryan, made great speede 

with their bo[w]es readie bent ; 
But good-all smote them on the heades 
That they were caried home on sleades, 

sore mained home they went. 

[4] 6 Christ crosse-rowe : i.e. the alphabet. 
[7] 4 good-all : read good-ale. 




C Clement and Crabbe came cracking in, 
And swore they would lay on the skinne 

all that durst carpe one worde ; 
But good-ale troubled soe their braine 
That they to looke their bedes were faine, 

all nigh vnder the board. 


9 David, Denis, Dicke, and Daniell 
Came rydeing in vpon a paniell, 

for saddles non[e] they had ; 
But good-ale seru'd on them a writ 
That on their mares the[y] could not sit 

nor speake, they were soe madde. 


Edmunde, Elvish, and sir Elis 
Provided harnes for their bellies, 

their backes were bare, god wot ! 
They linde their salletes soe with barme, 
And couch'd vnder the stayers warme 

for feare of the gunshotte. 

Jf Francis and Fabian fought full sore, 
The space of halfe an houre and more, 

thinkinge to winne the flagge ; 
But good-ale gaue them such a bloe 
That they their best frendes could not knowe 

nor scarce their heades to wagge. 

[9] 2 paniell : i.e. pannel, a sort of saddle without a cantle. 
[10] 2 harnes : i.e. harness ; 4 linde : i.e. lined ; salletes : i.e. heads ; 
barme : the froth that forms on malt liquors. 




Gawine and Guy, George and Gyles, 
Came leapinge in on merrie styles, 

and rushinge on they runne. 
They fought lyke hardie men and bould, 
Till noe man wist whither they would 

nor yet from whence they come. 


Henrie was hardie and soe was bugh, 
And cryed, " a new feild, a new, 

in spite of th' villaines nose " ; 
But good-ale with his good Blacke boule 
Soe beate them both about the noule 

that the[y] bepist their hose. 


lainkin, lerome, lonas and lude, 
With lames and lefferey, did conclude 

they would not bee opprest. 
But good-ale troubled soe their pates 
That all night vnder the towne gates 

they tooke their naturall rest. 


& Kidwallader stoode and beheld 

How good-ale troubled all the feild, 

he was of such a might ; 
He tooke soe longe his fellowes' parte 
Till he fell drunken vnder th' carte, 

and there he lay all night. 

12] 2 in on : perhaps reading should be on in. 

14] i lainkin : i.e. Jenkin. 

15] 3 he : i.e. good-ale ; 4 He : i.e. Kidwallader. 




3t Lawrence^ Lewis^ and long Leonard, 
Kept them selues in the middleward 

lyke warlike men and tawlle ; 
But good-ale arest them to the peace 
That all the night they did not cease 

to sleepe vnder the wale. 


Michaell, Matthew and Morison 
All that night full fast had runne 

with good-ale for to meete ; 
But good-ale paid them soe their hyre 
That they lay tumblinge in the mire 

and swearing in the streete. 


Nicolas came in with his browne bill, 
And swore, and stared that he would kill 

all that durst him abyde ; 
But good-ale shew'd him such a game 
That all his limmes were taken lame, 

he could neither goe nor ryde. 


Oliver though he were [ould] 

Came in most like a Champion bould 

in a pair of blew sockes ; 
But as he pressed to the boule 
Good-ale full sore did pearse his noule 

with all his hoarie lockes. 

[16] 3 tawlle : i.e. tall. 

[18] 2 stared : Read said. 

[19] i ould : MS. torn ; 5 noule : i.e. noil, head. 




|3 Peter, Patricke, and prateing Peers 
Held out the stirre lyke valiant Sqyres, 

with everie man a tunne ; 
Lyke hardie fellowes then they say 
That they would carrie good-ale away, 
but then the sport beganne. 


Quarters of malt came in apase 
To strengthen good- ale in that case, 

that all these men were faine, 
First, to lay their cloathes to pledge 
And, after, creepe vnder a hedge 

to saue themselues from raine. 


Richard, Reinold, Rowland, and Raufe 
In great anger beganne to chaufe, 

like franticke boares did fome ; 
But good-ale taried them aright, 
And fought with them such a might 

that they came speechles home. 

Simkin, Sabastion, and Steven 

With all the world they made cleane even 

before they went to battaile ; 
But yet, as holie as they went, 
Good-ale them home full naked sent 

without either corne or cattell. 

[20] 3 tunne : a tub, a barrel ; 6 beganne : read begunne. 




C Thomas saw this soe feirse a fray, 
How good-ale bare the name away 

all that longe afternoone ; 

He thought [to] haue fled and fought noe more, 
But good-ale tooke him prisoner thore 
he had no legges to runne. 


The whole hoast beinge soe neere distroyde, 
Walter and William would not abyde, 

but thought t' haue stol'ne away ; 
But good-ale got of them a sight 
And lodged them as frendes al night 

besydes a cocke of hay. 


Xpofur made a rufull mone 
When he saw all his f ellowes gone, 

he waxed wonderous sad ; 
For why ? he would noe more strife make, 
He offered to the good ale-stake 

even all that ever he had. 

All you that now be present heere 
Thinke on this frey in smale brainshire, 

and note it in your braine ; 
Keepe you from thence if you be wyse 
And with good ale be not too nyce, 

least it put you to paine. 

[24] 5 thore : i.e. there. 

[26] i Xpofur : i.e. Christopher. 

[27] 6 least : i.e. lest. 



[28] . 
This merrie Jest thus did I wryte, 

Meaning noe man hurt nor noe man spite, 

but onelie to declare 
The loathsome life and beastlie waies 
Daylie vsed in these our daies 

by those that drunkards are. 


Finis : MS. repeats this word three times. 


O high and mighty God 

Sloane MS. 1896, fols. 8-n. There is no division into stanzas in 
the MS., save perhaps on fols. 9 V and 10 (see note on stanza 10), where 
an attempt seems to be made to group the lines in fours. 

The crime bewailed in this ballad the murder of George Saunders 
(or Sanders), a London merchant, in 1573, by George Browne, the lover 
of Mrs. Saunders, with the connivance of herself, Roger Clement, and 
Anne Drewry is too familiar to students of Elizabethan literary history 
to need discussion here. There are accounts of the murder in Stow's 
Annals (1615, pp. 674 f.), in Antony Munday's View of Sundry Example* 
Reporting Many Strange Murders, 1580 (edited by J. P. Collier, Shake 
speare Society, 1851, pp. 78-80), in a tract called Sundry Strange and 
Inhuman Murders Lately Committed, 1591 (Lambeth Palace Library), and 
in A[rthur] G folding's] Brief e discourse of the late murther of master George 
Saunders, 1573. Saunders was murdered on March 25, 1573. On 
April 1 8 following, Browne was arraigned in the King's Bench, West 
minster Hall ; he was executed two days later, and his body was hanged 
in chains. "Trusty Roger," Mrs. Saunders, and Mrs. Drewry were 
hanged in Smithfield on May 13. For a time it had seemed as if 
Anne Saunders, by the aid of her confederates and of an infatuated 
minister, George Mell, would escape punishment : her scheme was 
unmasked, and on May 1 2 the Privy Council sent a peremptory letter 
to the Sheriffs of London, instructing them " to precede to thexecution 
of ... Saunders' wyfe, acording to the judgment given at their con- 
dempnacion ; and also to put one Mell, a mynister, to some shame, 
who have been a practiser to move Saunders' wyfe to conceyle her facte " 
{Acts of the Privy Council, ed. Dasent, VIII., 121 ; cf. pp. 91, 92, 94, 
105). The author of this ballad would have us believe that it was 
actually Mrs. Saunders's own work : evidently she must have composed 
it after this order from the Privy Council was communicated to her 
along with the news that she was to be hanged on the following day ! 
Mell, as students of the drama know, was " put to some shame " in the 

To-day the chief interest in the murder lies in the fact that it was 
written up for dramatic presentation in the play called A Warning for 
Fair Women, variously attributed to Lyly, Lodge, and Kyd. In the 
editions of this play by Richard Simpson (School of Shakspere, II., 219) 
and by A. F. Hopkinson (London, 1904) most of the contemporary 



(accounts mentioned above are reprinted. But both editors agree in 
< saying that " probably ballads were written on the events dramatised in 
A Warning, but if there were they have not, unfortunately, come down 
to the present time." The Stationers' Registers for the years 1571-76 
are lost ; so that no record exists of the ballads that were undoubtedly 
licensed for publication on the murder. (The ballad of " George 
Sanders," transferred among a large number of old ballads on December 
14, 1624, and doubtfully connected by Arber, in his Transcript, IV., 
131, with Anne Saunders's husband, dealt with an entirely different 
person : it was " The Confession and Repentance of George Sanders, 
Gent., late of Sugh, in the County of Hertford" and is reprinted in the 
Roxburghe Ballads, VIII., 72.) But at least one ballad on the murder, 
not improbably that here reprinted, was still in circulation in 1596, for 
in that year Thomas Lodge (Wits 1 Misery, sig. F iij v ) wrote of Cousenage : 
" Shee will reckon you vp the storie of Mistris SANDERS, and weepe 
at it, and turne you to the Ballad ouer her chimney, and bid you looke 
there, there is a goodly sample." 

The ballad here reprinted has escaped the notice of all commentators 
on the Warning for Fair Women and all writers on the murder. It has no 
poetical merit whatever, but is an interesting example of a " good-night," 
and is preserved in a MS. itself contemporary with the murder. The 
contents of the ballad harmonize well with " Anne Saunders confession as 
she spake it at the place of execution " and " The Prayer whiche was 
said by Anne Saunders at the place of execution," both of which are 
given in Arthur Golding's tract. Significantly enough, the ballad makes 
no mention of the intrigue between Mrs. Saunders and George Mell, 
while only by implication is her earlier liaison with George Browne 
noticed. The theological views expressed in the ballad are, to say the 
least, dubious. 

Cl)e toofull lamentacon of mr0* Anne 

Saunders, fol)tCl) $\)t tUfOte toltl) l^t OttUt 

), bring pri0oner in *#*/*, Sitistty 
conDemneti to neatly 

I lament, I repent, I beleve, I reioyce, 

I trust in the lord christ, he will here my voyse. 


O highe and mighty god, 

which reignst the skyes above, 


With watred eyes I muche commend 

thy provydence and love. 
With wofull broken hart, 

with swolne and blobred face, 
I wayle my wanton lyfe long spent, 

which had noe better grace. 

I make my mone to the[e], 

with sighes and sobbing teares ; 
In what distresse and heavy case, 

my conscience wytnesse beares. 
Depryved of worldly joye, 

which late I had at ease, 
Depryved of wealth and clad with care, 

which sought not thee to please. 


Depryved of pleasures greate, 

bewrapt in griefe and payne, 
And all throughe synne which thus to mourne, 

deare god, doth me constraine. 
My babes and children deare, 

can heart of myne but sobbe 
To lose them thus, o gryping griefe, 

can intrelles sease to throbbe ! 


Alake, I cannot stay, 

myne eyes will not byde dry, 
To thincke what sinne hath brought me to, 

out one me wretche, fye, fye ! 
Let tender mothers judge 

and gushe out teares with me, 
When as the[y] wey my inward doubt 

and eke my anguishe se. 

[4] 4 one : read on ; 7 wey = weigh. 




For naught besyde my facte, 

I more lament then they ; 
God send them better grace to lyve 

and not to walke my way. 
For wealth did pricke me soe, 

being well and could not se, 
Oh swetest god, I say thou knowest 

this is performed in me. 


And righteous is thy rodde, 

a plague procured long ; 
And those that warned me of my fault, 

I thought they did me wronge. 
I lyncked my selfe in love 

to hatefull bitter bale, 
Throughe which my barcke is ouertourn'd 

with quyte contrary gale. 


Anne Drewry^ woe to thee, 

which drewe me to decaye ! 
And woe the tyme I loved thy lure, 

woe me and wele away ! 
Woe worth thy false entent, 

woe worth thy bloudy mynde, 
And woe thy flattering wordes which made 

my doting hart so blynde ! 


And, Roger^ woe to the[e], 

in whome it was to staye 
Brownis handes from slaughter of my deare 

and vs from this decaye ! 

[5] i facte = crime. 



Take hede, all honest dames, 
what servauntes ye retayne, 

For if thou, Roger, hadst feared god, 
we had not felt this payne. 

O righteous god, thou knowest 

their councell wrought me ill ; 
And yet, Anne Saunders, woe to the[e] 

that leanedst so muche thertill ! 
My husband to betray 

(a grieffe to say or thinke), 
And iustly weighed as I haue brewed 

this bitter drafte to drincke. 


Behold, all honest wyves, 

and fynest london dames, 
Beare to your husbandes trusty hartes, 

procure not to your shames ; 
Tacke patterne playne by mee, 

well vewe my race and end ; 
And while yow stand, see to your stepes, 

and lett the faultye amend. 

For god, thoughe longe hee Beares, 

att lenghte will sharply paye, 
As may bee Sine by my fyrst State 

and now by mee decaye. 

[10] 6 Fols. 9 v -io are in a vicious and illiterate handwriting, quite 
different from that of all the other leaves in the MS. The scribe has 
written the lines as if they were prose, paying no attention to the metre 
(which is here restored), though apparently he attempted to break up 
his work into four-line stanzas ; 8 amend : read mend. 



Trust never Trusties tayles, 

detest that odius love, 
Defie suche frindship fraughte with fraude, 

as matrones dothe beehove ; 


For I beewailinge told 

off this my fau[l]te the causse, 
I had noe perfytte loue nor care 

to godes wourd nor y[e]tt his Lawes 
My Love was daylie hate, 

my faythe was flatteringe sure ; 

cvrsyd Satban, I lament 
thow didest mee Soe A-lure ! 

I [I3] 

1 yellded to to mvche 

to thie Foulle helliche lore, 
I gaue the[e] Rainge to Rulle the Fleche, 

which nowe I rew full Sore. 
For grudginge att my State, 

I thought to mend the Sam[e], 
Thoughe which, in-stede of lyfe, to deathe 

a Foulle and [hatejfull sham[e]. 


See what A gayne ys gotte, 

o god, see whate A gayne, 
off my childerne, goodes, and Frindes, 

and more which dothe Remayne, 

[i i] 6 odius : MS. odiues ? 8 beehove : i.e. behoove. 

!i 2] 2 off : read of ; 4 yett : omit ; 6 sure : MS. Suer. 
1 3] i yellded to to : read yielded too too ; 3 Fleche .- read flesh ; 
8 hatefull : MS. indecipherable. 
[14] 3 off: read of all. 



A losse Farre mountinge this, 

for breche off my deare, 
My Soule and Bodie bothe quytte Spylte, 

christ, where ytt not For thee. 


Cbryst, For thie presious deathe, 

thie woundes, and Blodie harte, 
Which are my pardone by thie crosse 

and my Releyffe From Smarte ; 
Thou arte all which nowe Remaynes, 

com dayned wrothe dysmaye, 
Thou, crist, arte all my anker-hould, 

which hast my Ransom paye ; 


Which cheres my wounded harte, 

and mackes mee glad to dye, 
A thousand Times mor[e] cruell deathe 

my Sellffe I quytte defye. 
Oute of this carnall wourld, 

deare god, I longe For thee : 
O when shall I bee ryd of Sin 

that I thie face maye see ! 


I am Full Redie prest, 

my Sines I doe Repent, 
O for my Blodie facte, o god, 

lett notte my Soule bee shentte ! 

[14] 6 breche = breach, an assault on, an injury to. Murder would 
restore the rhythm. 8 where : read were. 

[15] 5, 6 Possibly Thou (all which now remains), condemned wrath 
dismay ! the last three words also being parenthetical. 



Noe, noe, I am full sure 

thy promyse is full just ; 
Christes bloud my bloudy facte hath clensde, 

and therto will I trust. 


And nowe behold and se 

what for me god hath done, 
A lost and infected wandring shepe 

his merry home hath woonne ; 
Whose love so let me fall, 

and justice threw me downe, 
From worldly pompe to foule reproche, 

and losse of all renowne, 


That he might rayse me vp 

from death to state of blisse, 
From Satban's baytes, by his rebukes, 

to be a child of his ; 
In flower of constant age 

my dayes to end with shame, 
To my immortall blisse and joye 

set fre from synne and blame. 


And yet what shame is this 

for me, so clad with synne, 
To take noe more then I shall tast 

the lasting throne to wynne ? 
And, therfore, nowe farewell, 

all thinges corrupt and vayne, 
It is not longe til heavenly throng 

will make me vppe agayne, 

[17] 5 The original copyist resumes his work here. 
[18] 3 infected : " Evilly affected or contaminated in respect of moral 
character, opinions, etc." N. ./).; 5 love : MS. lore. 
[20] 3 tast, 8 make : read take. 




In this my very fleshe 

to se christe with myne eyes, 
And sould and body dwell with him 

aboue the christall skyes. 
For whome my freindes prepare, 

and so I yow commend 
To Jesus Christ, who shall ye kep, 

and thus I make an end. 

[21] 3 sould : read soul. 


The noble peer while he lived here 

Addit. MS. I5,225,fols. 13-15. This ballad, except for two stanzas 
gratuitously printed in Collier's Extracts from the Stationers'* Registers, I., 4, 
has not been reprinted. There is another, and a much later version, in 
the Percy Folio MS., edited by Hales and Furnivall, II., 255 ff. The 
P.P. version differs considerably from this, among other things being 
five stanzas longer : the most important variations are indicated in the 

The ballad does not appear to have been entered in the Stationers' 
Registers : a ballad called " The murnynge of Edwarde Duke of 
Buckyngham," which was registered in 1557-58 (Arber's Transcript, 
I., 75) is that reprinted in the Ballad Society's Ballads from MSB., I., 62 ; 
and another called " A mournefull songe comparatiuely of the miserable 
ende of Bannister that betraied the duke of Buckingham his lord and 
master to the punishement of mystres Shore, &c.," which was registered 
on January 18, 1600, is "A most Sorrowful Song, setting forth the end 
of Banister, who betrayed the Duke of Buckingham, his Lord and 
Master," reprinted from the unique copy in the Pepys Collection (I., 64) 
in Evans's Old Ballads, 1810, III., 23. There is in Richard Johnson's 
Crown Garland of Golden Roses, 1612 (Percy Society ed., pp. 25 ff. ; A 
Collection of Old Ballads, 1725, III., 38), a ballad of 24 stanzas called 
"The Life and Death of the Great Duke of Buckingham ; who came 
to an untimely End, for consenting to the deposing of two gallant young 
Princes, King Edward the Fourth's Children. To the tune of Shore's 

The historical background has been only vaguely hinted at by previous 
editors, though there are full accounts in both the Annals of Stow 
(1615, p. 466) and the Chronicles of Holinshed (III., 743). Briefly, 
Buckingham's fatal mistake came in his attempt to further the cause of 
the Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., against King Richard III., 
-before time was ripe. After the unfortunate and premature defiance 
of Richard III., the Duke found himself (as the ballad describes) deserted 
by his men. He then, to quote Holinshed, 

conueied himselfe into the house of Humfreie Banaster his seruant beside Shrewes- 
burie, whome he had tenderlie brought vp, and whome he aboue all men loued, 
fauoured, and trusted. [A proclamation offering 1000 reward for information 
leading to his capture was issued by the King, whereupon] Humfreie Banaster 
(were it more for feare of life and losse of goods, or allured & prouoked by the 



auaricious desire of the thousand pounds) he bewraied his guest and maister t( 
John Mitton then shiriffe of Shropshire : which suddenlie with a strong power j 
of men in harnesse apprehended the duke in a little groue adioining to the mansion 
of Humfreie Banaster, and in great hast and euill speed conueied him apparelled 
in a pilled blacke cloake to the towne of Shrewesburie, where king Richard then 
kept his houshold. Whether this Banaster bewraied the duke more for feare 
than couetous, manie men doo doubt : but sure it is, that shortlie after he had 
betraied the duke his master, his sonne and heire waxed mad, & so died in a 
bores stie ; his eldest daughter of excellent beautie, was suddenlie striken with a 
foule leprosie ; his second sonne maruellouslie deformed of his lims, and made 
lame ; his yoonger sonne in a small puddle was strangled and drowned ; and he 
being of extreame age, arreigned, and found guiltie of a murther, and by his 
cleargie saued. And as for his thousand pounds, K. Richard gaue him not 
one farthing. 

Buckingham "without arraignment or judgment" was beheaded at 
Salisbury on All-Souls' day, 1483. 

No subject more appealing to Elizabethan and Jacobean ballad- 
writers could be conceived of than Holinshed's straightforward account 
of the woes resulting from Bannister's treachery. Richard Johnson thus 
chronicles these woes : 

Thus Banester was forst to beg, 
And crave for food with cap and leg, 
But none to him would bread bestow, 
That to his master prov'd a foe. 

Thus wand'red he in poor estate, 
Repenting his misdeed too late, 
Till starved he gave up his breath, 
By no man pittied at his death. 

To wofull ends his children came, 
Sore punisht for their father's shame ; 
Within. a kennell one was droun'd, 
Where water scarce could hide the ground. 

Another, by the powers devine, 
Was strangely eaten up by swine ; 
The last a woofull ending makes, 
By strangling in a stinking jakes. 

In the Pepysian ballad Bannister in person relates his misfortunes, 
following the historical account fairly closely : 

My eldest, first, through misery 
Did hang himself in a pig-sty, 
Whilst over him we sat and mourn'd, 
My youngest in a ditch was droun'd. 

Where we did leave our children dead, 
Above the ground unburied, 
Myself, my wife and daughter dear 
Did range the country far and near. . . . 



Then we returned home again 
At our own door to end our pain, 
Whilst I sought sticks to make a fire, 
My daughter's death brought her desire. 

His servant which my land possess'd 
Came first, and found my child deceased, 
Mitton's young son my wife there kill'd, 
His father's heart with sorrow filFd. 

Bannister, so the ballad goes on, himself killed the servant's " only son," 

And after this my wife and I 
Ended our lives in misery. 

a gong of ttie Dufee of Bucfemgtiam. 

The noble Peere, while he liued heere, 
the worthie Duke of Buckingham, 

Whoe florisht in king Edwardes raigne, 
the fourth king of that name ; 


Which did in seruice keepe a man, 

of meane and low degree, 
Which of a child he had brought vp 

from base to dignitie, 


He gaue him landes and liuinge good, 

of which he was noe heire, 
And maried him to a galant Dame, 

as rich as she was faire. 

[i] i P.P. begins with this stanza : 

You Barons bold, ma[r]ke and behold 

the thinge that I will rite ; 
A story strange and yett most true 

I purpose to Endite ; 

3 raigne : MS. substitutes for daies. [2] 3 of : read as. 

[3] 4 The two stanzas following are added from P.P. 



[It came to passe in tract of time 
his wealth did soe excell, 

His riches did surpasse them all 
that in that shire did dwell. 

Who was soe braue as Banister ? 

or who durst with him contend ? 
Which wold not be desirous still 

to be his daylye freind ?] 


But out, alas ! it came to passe, 

and soe the strife beganne, 
The maister he constrained was 

to seeke succour at the man. 


King Richard the third he got the sword, 
forswore himselfe t' bee king ; 

Murdered two princes in their beddes, 
the which much strife did bringe. 

This noble Duke when he saw that, 

that vile and wicked deed, 
Against this Tyrant rais'd an hoast 

of armed men with speede. 


But when the king that he heard tell, 
a mightie hoast he sent 

W i, * 

For then it came to passe ; more woe, alas ! 
for sorrowes then began (P.F.}. 

5] I he got : swaying (P.P.) ; 2 cryed himselfe a kinge (P.P.). 
6] i, 2 

And then the duke of Buckingham 
hating this bloody deede (P.P.}. 



Against the Duke of Buckingham, 
his purpose to prevent. 

When the Duke his souldiers they h[e]ard tell, 

feare pearst their hartes eich on[e] ; 
That all his souldiers fled by night 

and left this worthie Duke alone. 


Then in extreame neede he tooke his steede, 

and poasted night and day ; 
Vnto his owne man Banister, 

these wordes to him did say : 

" O Banister, sweet e Banister, 
pittie thou my cause," quoth hee ; 

" And hyde me from my cruell foes, 
which thus pursueth mee." 

" O you are welcome, my maister deere, 

you are hartelie welcome heere ; 
And like a frend I will you keepe, 

although it cost me deere." 

[8] I Duke his : read Duke's. P.P. has and when the duke's people 
>f this heard tell ; 3 all : many of (P. F.) ; 4 and left : perhaps and left 
he Duke alone. P.P. has and left him one by one. 

[9] 4 in secrett there to stay (P.F.). 

[10] 4 thus pursueth : here accuseth (P.P.). 

[i i] 3 And as my liffe He keepe you safe (P*F.). 

Z 353 



His velvet sute then he put of[f], 

his chaine of gould likewise ; 
An ould letherne coate he put vpon, 

and all to blinde the people's eise. 

Sayinge, " Banister, O Banister, 

O Banister, be true ! " 
" Christ his curse then light on me and myne, 

if ever I be false to you." 

An ould felt hat he put on his head. 

ould letherne slopes also ; 
A hedginge bill vpon his necke, 

and soe to the woodes did goe. 


This worthie Duke went to the woodes, 

as did not him beseeme, 
And soe in sorrow spent his dais, 

as he some drudge had beene. 


[And there he liued long vnknowen, 

and still vnknowne might bee, 
Till Banister for hope of gaine 

betray'd him ludaslye.] 

[12] i The order of stanzas 12 and 13 is reversed in P.P. ; 3 Andj 
soe he did his veluett capp (P.P.) ; 4 and all : omit. 

!i 3] 3 Christ his : read Christ's ; 4 omit ever. 
^14] I a lethern lerkyn on his backe (P. F.) ; 2 slopes : i.e. trousers ; 
4 Here P.P. adds the following stanza : 

An old felt hat vppon his head, 

with 20 holes therin ; 
And soe in labor he spent the time, 

as tho some drudge he had beene. 

[15] 1-4 Not in P.P. 

The stanza following is added from P.P. 




A proclamation there was made, 

whosoeuer then could bringe 
Newes of the Duke of Buckingham 

vnto Richard the kinge, 


A thousand pound should be his fee, 
of gould and money bright, 

And be preferred by his grace 
and made a worthie knight. 


When Banister that he h[e]ard tell, 
he to the Court did hye ; 

And he betraid his maister deere 
for luker of that fee. 


King Richard then he sent in hast 
a mightie hoast with arrowes good, 

And for to take this worthie Duke, 
as he was wander inge in the wood. 

[17] I thousand pound : 1000 markes (P.F.). 
[18] 2 straight to the court sent hee (P.P.). 
[19] 1-4 Not in P.P., which has instead 

A herald of armes there was sent 
and men with weapons good, 

Who did attach this noble Duke 

where he was labouring in the wood ; 

t, 4 Both lines have too many syllables. 





And when the Duke that he saw that, 
he wronge his handes with wooe. 

" O false Banister" quoth he, 

" why hast thou serued thy maister soe ? 


" O Banister, false Banister, 

woe worth thy f ained hart ! 
Thou hast betraid thy maister deere, 

and play'd a treator's part ! " 


The noble Duke to London was brought, 

in his great feare and dread, 
And straight in prison he was cast 

and Judg'd to loase his head. 


Then Banister went to the court, 
hopeinge these gifts to haue ; 

And straight in prisson he was cast, 
and hard his life to saue. 

Noe frend he found in his distresse, 
nor yet noe frend at neede ; 

[20] i Stanzas 20-21 have a wholly different wording, though the 
same general contents, in the P.P. ; 3 Perhaps O thou false, etc. ; 4 thjr 
maister : perhaps reading should be me, for sake of the metre. 

[22] 1-4 In the P.P. this stanza runs : 

Then Fraught with feare and many a teare, 

with sorrowes almost dead, 
This noble Duke of Buckingham 

att Salsbury lost his head. 



But euerie man reviled him 

for his most hatefull wicked deed. 

His eldest sonne starke mad did runne ; 

his daughter drouned was 
Within a shallow runninge streame, 

which did all danger passe. 

Accordinge to his owne desyre, 
godes curse did on him fale ; 

That all his wealth consumed quyte, 
and soe was wasted all. 


Yonge Banister liu'd longe in shame, 

but at the length did dye ; 
And soe our lord he shew'd his wrath 

for his father's villanye. 

524] 4 Omit wicked. 
25] i The P.P. reverses the order of stanzas 25 and 26. For 
([25] i, 2 it reads : 

For one of his sones for greeffe Starke madd did fall ; 
the other For sorrow drowned was. 

|It then adds this stanza : 

His daugter right of bewtye bright, 

to such lewde liffe did Fall 
That shee dyed in great miserye ; 

and thus they were wasted all. 

[27] i Yonge : Old (P.F.) ; 3, 4 




And thus they Lord did plague them al 
For this his trecherye (P.f.\ 



Good lord, preserue our noble kinge, 

and send him longe proceede ; 
And god send euerie distressed man 

a better frend at need ! 


[28] i kinge : i.e. James I. P.P. has Now god blesse our king an 
councell graue. 


70 ' 

Of Gates by ', Faux^ and Garnet 

Stowe MS. 182, fols. 47-47 v . In the MS., which belongs to the 
(latter part of the reign of James I., the ballad is written in three-line 

mzas. Though the metre is rough, as a burlesque the ballad is wholly 
[delightful, and it is perhaps more nearly contemporaneous with the Plot 
lan any other ballad yet discovered. For other poetical effusions on 
[the Gunpowder Plot see Professor C. H. Firth's excellent Ballad History 
\of the Reign of James I. (Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 3rd 
| Series, Vol. V.). 

It is a striking commentary on the personality of James I. that even 
during his lifetime, and quite openly in the reign of Charles I., the 
Gunpowder Treason was regarded as a legitimate subject for burlesque. 
There is a ridiculous ballad " Upon the Gun-powder Plot " in Choyce 
Drollery, 1656 (ed. J. W. Ebsworth, p. 40 : cf. Roxburghe Ballads, IV., 
273 ; VIII., 757), certainly somewhat older than the date 1656 would 
indicate, of which one stanza may be quoted for illustration : 

And will this wicked world never prove good ? 

Will Priests and Catholiques never prove true ? 

Shall Cattily, Piercy, and RookiuooJ 

Make all this famous Land to rue ? 

With putting us in such a feare, 

With huffing and snuffing and runt-powder , 

With a Ohone houonorcera tarrareera, tarrareero hone. 

As another illustration take this passage from the post-Restoration 
ballad of "The Loyal Subject" (Pepys, IV., 243 ; 410 Rawlinson, 566, 
fol. 84 ; Douce, II., I43 V , etc.) : 

See the Squibs, and hear the Bells, 

the fifth day of November, 
The Preacher a sad Story tells, 
And with horror doth remember, 
how some dry-brain 'd traitors wrought 
Plots, that would to ruine brought, 

both King and every member. 

One of Antony a Wood's MS. ballads (Wood, 417, fols. 24-24^) is a 
quaint disputation between a Jesuit and a Presbyterian, in which the 
crux of the discussion hinges upon the question whether the Gunpowder 
Plot or the execution of Charles I. was the more heinous crime. It 
begins : 




Jack presbiter & a sonn of the pope 
had of.late a dispute of aright to the rope : 
who meritted hanging without any hope ? 
iv ck nobody can deny. 

First Jack began, and bade him remember 
A horrible plott on the 5th of nouember, 
that very month preceadeing december, 

''The 3Oth of January," the other replyed, 

" wee heard on 't at Roome, it can't be denyed ; 

had Jack bin Loyall. then Charles had not dy'd, 

A later stanza runs : 

" Oh powder treason, oh horrible plott ! " 
" 1 prethee, deare brother, be not soe hott ; 
for Charles was kil'd, but Jammy was not. 

But occasionally ballad-writers treated the Plot seriously : of such a 
nature are the lines beginning " My Masters all, awake from sleep, 1 
pray" in A Loyal Garland of Mirth and Pastime, 1685, and the ballad 
on "The Gun-Powder Plot " in the Pepys Collection. The latter, as 
well as a broadsheet in the Collections of the Society of Antiquaries, is 
reprinted for comparison with the present ballad. 


Of Catesby, Faux, and Garnet, 
a Story Fie you tell-a, 

And of a Rare Plott, 
ne're to be forgott, 

And eke how it befell-a. 

All on the 4th of November, 
the Papists they had a drift-a 

Quite for to destroy 
brave England' s joy, 

And to blow it all vp on the fifth- a. 



Soe many Barretts of Gunpowder, 

the like was never seen-a, 
That eke that the match 

had chanc'd for to catch, 
Good L[or]d, where should we all have been-a 


Why we should all have been slaine outright, 
for marke what thee varlets had don-a, 

They had sett soe many Barrells 
to decide all our Quarrells, 

Nay they had don't as sure as a Gun-a. 


O Varlets that esteeme noe more 

3 K[ing]doms than 3 shillings ! 
It were a Good deed 

to hang 'm with Speed^ 
Oh out vppon them Villaines ! 

But now these Papists their designs 

we care not for a louse-a ; 
For fit as it was, 

it soe came to passe 
That the Plot was blown vp, not the house-a 

For our King he went to the Parliam[en]t 

to meet his Noble Peers-a ; 
But if he had knowne 

where he should have been blown, 
He durst not have gori for his Eares-a. 

[3] 3 that the : read if the. 

[4] 2 thee : i.e. the ; 5 don't : I.e. done t. 

3 6l 



Then, " Powder I smell," quoth our gracious King 
(now our King was an excellent smeller) ; 

And lowder and lowder, 

quoth the King, " I smell powder " ; 

And downe he run into the Cellar. 

And when he came the Cellar into, 

and was the danger amid-a, 
He found that the traine 

had not been in vaine, 
Had he not come downe as he did-a. 


Then the Noble-men that there stood by 
and heard the words of the King-a, 

" Ah, my So[u]l, if the Fire 
had come a little nigher, 

'Twould have made vs all flye without wing-a ! " 

[10] 3 Fire : read Fi-er. 



O Lord, we have continual cause 

From a broadside in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London (Lemon's Catalogue of Broadsides, p. 77) : white letter, no cuts, 
printed in two columns with ornamental border running around the 
four edges of the sheet. There is no stanza-division in the original. 
The sheet appeared only a short time before the death of James I. 

a >ong or p0alme of 

in remembrance Of OUr great deliuerance 

from the Gun-powder Treason, the fift of 

Nouember, 1 605. 

O Lord, we haue continuall cause 

thy mercies to remember ; 
For thou hast bin our God and guide, 

our Keeper and Defender, 
Deliuering vs from those Attempts 

that wicked men haue sought 
Against thy truth, against thy Saints, 

to bring them vnto nought. 

Amongst the great Deliuerances, 
thou hast this Land affoorded, 

There is one chiefe, that doth deserue 
in heart to be recorded : 

O let vs not forget, good Lord, 
but grant we may remember, 



What thou didst do for vs and ours, 
the fift day of Nouember. 


That when we on our beds did rest, 

the night before, secure ; 
Next day prepared was for vs 

great sorrowes to endure. 

When that our King, Queene, Prince & Peeres, 
* our commons chiefe and best, 
In Parliament should meet to make 

good Lawes to guide the rest, 


A hellish blast with powder mad 

from vnder them should rise, 
To cast them vp into the aire 

betwixt the earth and skies. 
When as in health and strength they were, 
- and danger none did feare, 
A hideous cracke and cruell blow 

in peeces them should teare. 


No cruell beast more eager then, 

and greedier of his pray, 
Then Antichrist his priests and slaues 

were of our Hues that day. 
They thought our ruine to haue wrought 

in twinckling of an eye, 
But God, our great Deliuerer, 

this mischiefe did descry. 

[4] i mad : i.e. made. [5] 3 Then : i.e. than. 




And when that they the spoile did thinke 

amongst them to deuide, 
The high and mighty Lord of hoasts 

their counsels did deride, 
By making lames, our royall King, 

so quicke in apprehension, 
As to discouer and preuent 

Rome's Diuels' deepe intention. 


So that the net and snare is broke, 

Hel's counsell is reueled, 
That from the ages for to come 

it may not be concealed. 
Now we that Hue may sing a Psalme 

of praise and thankes to him ; 
And where that they with shame did end,- 

with ioy we may begin. 


And say : " O Lord, to thee alone, 

alone to thee, O Lord, 
The Praise is due, the praise is due, : 

euen all with on[e] accord ; 
Nothing there was in vs that did 

deserue this loue of thee ; 
It was thy loue and mercie great 

bestowed on vs most free. 


It was thy loue vnto thy name, 
and to thy Saints most deare, 

That mou'd thee thus to deale with vs 
in danger when we were ; 



Euen while we Hue we will confesse, 

to thy eternall praise, 
That by this great Deliuerance wrought 

thou hast renewed our daies. 


And giuen vs time for to repent 

and to amend our Hues, 
And of thy mercies manifold 

the higher for to prize. 
O let the practise of these men 

against thy children deare 
Make vs to hate their wicked wayes, 

and thee the more to feare. 

And grant that we may still detest 

that doctrine and that sinne 
That teacheth vs to eate our God 

and eke to kill our King. 
And euermore whiPst that our Hues 

and breath in vs doth last, 
To lay vp in our hearts thy law, 

and there to keepe it fast ; 


That by the same we may be kept 
from errors grosse and nought, 

Vntill we haue obtain'd that crowne 
that Christ for vs hath bought. 

[n] 2 doctrine : i.e. of transubstantiation. 



Lord blesse thy Church, preserue our King 

and Prince and Race royall, 
Prolong their dayes, make them the meanes 

of Antichrist's downfall. 

amen. T. s. 

London, Printed by William lones. 1625. 
[12] 5 King : i.e. James I. ; 6 Prince : i.e. Charles, Prince of Wales. 


True Protestants, I pray you, do 
draw near 

From a printed broadside, probably unique, in the Pepys Collection, 
II., 370. The text dates several years after the Restoration, though it 
may be considerably older originally. For the tune see Chappell's 
Popular Music, I., 167. 

(SuiHpatiJfcer plot: 


& Brief account of tftat bioufcg anfc subtle Qf sign 

laifc against tfjr Eing j)is Hov&s anfc Commons 

in ^aritamnU, antr of a JJapps Qfitbrrancr fop 


To the Tune of Aim not too high. Htcettsetr ac cortrtng to Ortretr. 

[I] ' 

True Protestants, I pray you, do draw near, 
Unto this Ditty lend attentive Ear ; 
The Lines are New, although the Subject's Old, 
Likewise it is as true as e'er was told. 

When James the First in England, Reigned King, 
Under his Royal, Gracious, Princely Wing 
Religion flourished, both in Court and Town, 
Which wretched Romans strove to trample down. 


To their old plotting Trade they strait did go 
To prove Three Kingdom's final Overthrow, 


A Plot contriv'd by Catholicks alone, 
The like before or since was never known. 


Rome's Counsel did together often meet, 
For to contrive which way they might compleat 
This bloudy Treason ; which they took in hand 
Against the King and Heads of all the Land. 

At length these wretched Romans all agreed 
Which way to make the King and Nation bleed ; 
By Powder, all agreed with joint Consent, 
To Blow up both the King and Parliament. 


For to keep secret this their Villany 
By solemn Oaths they one another tye ; 
Nay farther, being void of Grace and Shame, 
Each took the Sacrament upon the same. 


Their Treason wrapt in this black Mantle then, 
Secure and safe from all the Eyes of Men, 
They did not fear ; but by one fatal Blow 
To prove the Church and Kingdom's Overthrow. 


Catesby, with all the other Romish Crew, 
This Powder Plot did eagerly pursue ; 
Yet after all their mighty cost and care, 
Their own Feet soon was taken in the Snare. 

2 A 



' . [9] 

Under the House of the Great Parliament, 
This Romish Den and Devils, by consent, 
The Hellish Powder-Plot they formed there, 
In hopes to send all flying in the Air. 


Barrels of Powder privately convey'd, 
Billets and Bars of Iron, too, was laid, 
To tear up all before them as they flew, 
A black Invention by this dismal Crew. 

And with the fatal Blow all must have flown, 
The gracious King upon his Royal Throne, 
His gracious Queen, likewise their Princely Heir, 
All must have dy'd and perish'd that was there. 


The House of Noble Lords of high Degree, 

By this unheard of, bloudy Tragedy, 

Their Limbs in sunder strait would have been tore> 

And filPd the Air with noble, bloudy gore. 


The worthy, learned Judges, Grave and Sage, 
The Commons, too, all must have felt Romis rage ; 
Had not the Lord of Love stept in between, 
Oh, what a dismal Slaughter had there been. 


The King, the Queen, and Barons of the Land, 
The Judges, Gentry, did together stand 
On Ruine's brink, while Rome the blow should give, 
They'd but the burning of a Match to live. 




But that the Great God that sits in Heaven high 
He did behold their bloudy Treachery ; 
He made their own Hand-writing soon betray 
The Work which they had Plotted many a day. 


The Lord in Mercy did his Wisedom send 
Unto the King, his People to Defend ; 
Which did reveal the hidden Powder-Plot, 
A gracious Mercy ne'er 'to be forgot. 


And brought Romis Faction unto Punishment, 
Which did the Powder Treason first invent ; 
And all that ever Plots I hope God will, 
That the true Christian Church may flourish still. 

Printed for P. Brooksby, J. Deacon, J. Blare, J. Back. 
[15] I But that : read But. 


73 I 

Christmas is my name 

Addit. MS. 38,599, fols. 142-143. This interesting MS., a seven 
teenth-century commonplace book, account book, and diary of the 
Shanne family of Yorkshire, contains thirteen ballads, which are prefaced 
by the title, " Certaine pretie songes hereafter followinge, Drawn 
together by Richard Shanne, 1611," but a number of which, like the 
present ballad, date about 1624. 

This ballad is a distinctly Catholic production, lamenting the decay 
of Christmas festivities under the regime of Protestants and Puritans. 
The ballad was sung to the tune of Now the Spring is come (cf. Roxburghe 
Ballads, L, 154 ; Popular Music, II., 464), and not improbably it was 
connected with the " northerne songe of He awaie " that was licensed for 
publication on August 15, 1586. A non-extant ballad of "Christmas 
Delightes" was licensed on December 12, 1593, and a far from gloomy 
account of Christmas is given in a prose and verse pamphlet, by the 
celebrated ballad-monger, Laurence Price, called Make Room for Christmas. 

a >onse beaailinge tlje tpme of Christmas, 
g>o mucti DecapeD in England. 

M : 

Christmas is my name, 

Fair have I gone, have I gone, have I gone, 
Have I gone with out regarde, 

Where as great men by flockes they be flowen, they be 

They be flowen, they be flowen to London warde, 

Where they in pompe and pleasure do waste 
That which Christmas had wont to feast, 

Wellay daie ! 
Houses where musicke was wonted to ringe, 

Nothinge but Batts and Ouls now do singe. 
Wellay daie, wallay daie, wallay daie, where should I stay ? 




Christmas bread and Beefe is turn'd into stons, into 

stons, into stons, 
Into Stones and Silken ragges ; 
And ladie monie it doth slepe, It doth slepe, It doth 


It doth sleepe in Mysers' bagges. 
Where manie gallantes once abounde 

Nought but A dogg and A Sheperd is founde, 

Wellay day ! 
Places where Christmas revells did keepe 

Are now becom habitations for Sheepe. 
W allay day, wallay day, wellay day, where should I stay ? 


Pan, the Shepherdes God, doth deface, doth deface, 
doth deface, 

Doth deface Ladie Ceres' crowne ; 
And Tilliges doth decay, doth decay, doth decay, 

Doth decay in everie towne. 
Landlordes their rentes so highly Inhaunce 

That Peares the plowman barefoote doth daunce, 

Wellay day / 
Farmers that Christmas would Intertaine 

Hath scarselie withall them selves to mantaine. 
Wellay day, wellay day, wellay day, where should I stay ? 


Go to the Protestant, hele protest, hele protest, hele 


He will protest and bouldlie boaste ; 
And to the Puritine, he is so hote, he is so hote, he is so 

He is so hote he will burne the Roast ; 

[2] 5 abounde : read did abounde. [3] 3 Tilliges : i.e. tillage. 

[4] 3 The last he is written in MS. as one word ; 4 he is : one word in MS. 



The Catholike good deedes will not scorne, 
Nor will not see pore Christmas for-lorne, 
Wellay Day I 

Since Holmes no good deedes will do, 
Protestantes had best turn Papistes, too, 

Wellay day, Wellay day, wellay day, where should I stay 


Pride and Luxurie doth devoure, doth devoure, doth 

Doth devoure house-kepinge quite, 
And Beggarie doth beget, doth begett, doth begett, 

Doth begett in manie A knight. 
Madam, for-sooth, in Cooch she must reele, 

Although she weare her hoose out at heele, 

Wellay day ! 
And on her backe were that for her weede 

That woulde both me and manie other feede. 
Wellay day, W allay day, wellay day, where should I stay ? 


Breefelye for to ende, here I fynde, here I fynde, 

Here I fynde such great vacation 

That some great houses do seeme to have, Seme to have, 
seeme to have, 

For to have some great Purgation ; 
With Purginge Pills such effectes they have Shewed 

That out of dores theyr owners they have spewed. 

Wellay day ! 
And when Christmas goes by and calles, 

Nothinge but solitude and naked walls. 
Wellay day, Wellay day, wellay day, where should I stale ? 

[5] 5 Cooch : i.e. Coach ; 8 were : i.e. wear. 




PbilemeVs Cottages are turn'd into gould, into gould, 

Into gould for harboringe Jove ; 
And great men's houses vp for to hould, vp for to houlde, 

Vp for to hould make great men mone ; 
But in the Cittie they saie they do live, 

Where gould by handfulls away they do give, 

Wellay day ! 
And, therefore, thither I purpose to passe, 

Hopinge at london to fynde the goulden Asse. 
He away, lie away, lie away, lie no longer staie. 

[7] i Philemel's : i.e. Philemon's. 


74 . 

Let bare-footed beggars still walk 
in the street 

Addit. MS. 23,723, fols. I7 v -i8. Several bars of music are given at 
the end of this attractive ballad. The MS. dates about 1620, but the 
ballad is several years older. At the beginning of the verses the compiler 
of the MS. wrote : " His witte was indifferent that made this following 
rime, but for his wisedome I leave it to the grave and wise to be 

The extravagant gifts which James I. bestowed upon his countrymen, 
somewhat at the expense of the English, caused much ill feeling. Many 
ballads on the Scotch " beggars " are extant : they were widely circulated 
at the time, and versions almost identical with the present ballad (a very 
early specimen) are preserved in other MSS. Of the same general 
description, too, are " A Songe of a fine Skott " printed in Fairholt's 
Satirical Songs and Poems, Percy Society, 1849, P I2 7 > "Our Scottish- 
men are beggars yet," in MS. Rawlinson Poet. 160, fol. 179 ; and a 
ballad in the Percy Folio MS. (ed. Hales and Furnivall, II., 43). The 
subject is adequately discussed by Professor C. H. Firth in the Trans 
actions of the Royal Historical Society, 3rd Series, V., 23 f. Addit. MS. 
23,723, it may be added, contains a number of songs on James I., some 
of which have not been reprinted. 

Let barefooted beggers still walke in the streete 
in ragged attire, as for them it is meete ; 

For it is most certaine, and ofte hath bene triede, 
set a beggar on horsebacke, and then he will ride 
a-galloppe, a-galloppe. 


Our ould English beggars in summer did swarme 
at Fayers and markets, at feaste and at ferme ; 

[2] 2 ferme : i.e. farme. 


Theire certaine, by begging, eche day was supplide ; 
also for a peny for good ale they'de ride 
a-begging, a-begging. 

But nowe in these dayes from Scotland we see, 

for one English begger, of Scottes there come three ; 
In fayers and markets they scorne to abide, 

the courte is theire Couerte to mainteine theire pride 
by begging, by begging. 

Theire bonny blewe bonnets [ar]e nowe caste away, 

and beaver and fether for Jocky is gay ; 
With brave golden hatte-bandes to mainteine theire 


with guilte sworde and dagger now Jocky must ride 
a-begging, a-begging. 

Theire russet gray mantles both threedbare and ould 

are turned to scarlet, all laced with gould, 
Theire belte of horse-leather to veluet and pearle, 
and Jockie will caper as high as an Earle 
by begging, by begging. 

. [6] 
Too many Scottsh beggars in England doe dwell, 

by Hobbie and Jockie and Jenny and Nell ; 
A page at the first, of a page grewe a knight, 
a Lord and a vicounte, an Eirle (by this light) 
by begging, by begging. 

[2] 3 Theire : i.e. there. 




You lusty young gallants, looke well to your handes, 
leste stabbing or striking you forfeite your landes ; 

At one place or other theire palfries abide, 
your living once forfeite, then Jockie will ride 
on-begging, a-begging. 

I thinke, if the devill of hell could be gotte, 

that Jockie would begge him, or some other Scotte 

Our noble king James, Lord ever defend, 

and all Scottish beggars soone home againe send 
a-gallope, a-gallope. 


. II 75 WK : jff 

/, a Constable, have took mine oath 

Harleian MS. 367, fol. 159. The ballad is in six-line stanzas on a 
single " broad-sheet " of paper which has been pasted into the MS. 
Practically all the initial letters of the lines are torn off or smudged, and 
many are indecipherable. 

I have been unable to discover any facts about the author of this 
somewhat cryptic production. It appears from stanza 8, with its address 
to " hearers, sayers, and singers," that the ballad was actually circulated 
in print. The metre is rough, the phrasing disjointed and occasionally 
vague ; but the curious account here retailed of the difficulties attendant 
on a constable's office, and especially the description of the procedure of 
the courts, is of considerable interest. Albury is presumably the Surrey 
parish. In connection with the tune, it may be remarked that in John 
Hilton's Catch That Catch Can, 1663, p. 73, one of the catches runs : 

Come jump at thy Cosen and kiss, 
that men may say another day. 
What jumping call you this ? 

Though the date 1626 given in the title is later than that of the 
other ballads in this volume, the ballad is included because it obviously 
applies to Jacobean courts quite as well as to those of Charles I., who 
had just come to the throne when Mr Gyffon wrote his song. 

tie song of a constable: mane bp 

James Gyffon, Constable Of Alburyt, 

a[nn]o 1626. 

To the Tune of Jump to me, Cossen. 

I, a constable, haue took myne oath 
by which shall plaine appeere 

The troth and nothing but the troath, 
whos[o]euer my song will heare. 



[O]ne greate Constable of Ingland was, 

another late should haue ben ; 
But litle ones now 'tis found will serue, 

so they be but honnest men. 
A Constable must be honnest and Just, 

haue knowledge and good Reporte, 
And able to straine with bodie and braine, 

ells he is not fitting for't. 

w . .. : 

Some parish putts a constable on, 

alas without vnderstanding ; 
By cause they'd Rule him when they haue done, 

and haue him at their comanding ; 
And if he commaunds the poore, they'le grutch 

and twit him with partial blindnes ; 
[A]gaine and if he commaunds the rich, 

they'le threaten him with vnkindnes. 
To charge or compell 'im hee's busie, they'le tell 'im, 

in paying of rat[e]s they'le brawle. 
Falls he but vnto do that he should do, 

Tie warnt you displease them all. 


Whip he the roagues, they'le raile and they'le curse, 

soldiers as rude cause they are ; 
Sent to the treasurer with their passe, 

and may not beg euerye where. 
[I]f warrantes do come, as often they do, 

for money, then he it demaundes. 
To eu'rye one with's rate he does go, 

wherein they are leuied by landes. 
They'le say then he gathers vp money of others 

to put to vse for Increase ; 
Ells gathers it vp to run awaye wu't, 

what terrible wordes be these ! 

[2] 1 2 warnt : i.e. warrant. 



Hearing a presse for souldiers, they'le start ; 

ells hide them selues when we come. 
Their wiues then will saye, " to presse wee yee maye, 

our husbands are not at home." 
Coyne for magazens sent for in hast, 

much ado was eare they yeilded ; 
Yet's gather'd and paid, and I am afraid 

they will not in hast be builded. 
The Justices will set vs by the heeles 

if wee do not do as we should ; 
Which if we performe, the townsmen will storme, 

some of them hang's if they could. 


The constable's warnde to th' sessions then, 

vnwilling some goes, alas ! 
Yet there maye wit and experience lerne, 

if that he be not an asse. 
There shall he see the Justices set, 

here three of O yeses, And 
Then shall he here the comission Read, 

though litle he vnderstand. 
[Fo]ur free landed men are calPd for in, then, 

to be of the great inquest : 
the cheife of our townes, with hoare on their crownes, 

that what should be done knowes best. 


Choice men of euerye towne in the sheire, 
3 Juries their must be more, 

[4] 3 A ballad of a Constable in Pills to Purge Melancholy, 1719, VI., 
236, has the refrain, 

" If I miss the Man, I'll Press the Wife " ; 
5 magazens : i.e. magazines. 


Cal'd vnto the booke with here, sir, here, 

the wisest of twentye Before. 
Then there shal he see whom hath transgrest 

punished for his Offence ; 
There shall he here an number amerct, 

along of their negligence. 
What things are amisse, what doings there is, 

Justices charge them enquier 
'Fore clarke of the peace and baylies, at least 

a dozen, besides the Crier. 


Verdicts must come from these Juries then, 

but howsoeare they endite them, 
They'le not be tooke till next day by ten, 

vnlesse that their clarkes do wright them. 
Ruffe wordes or smoth are all but in vaine, 

all courts of profHt do sauour ; 
And though the case be neuer so plaine, 

yet kissing shall go by fauour. 
They'le punish the leastest and fauour the greatest, 

nought may against them proceede, 
And who may dare speak 'gainst one that is great 

lawe what a powlder indeede ! 


[TJhus Now my constableship's neare done, 

marke heareres, sayers, and singers,- 
Not an officer vnder the sunne 

but does looke through his fingers. 

[7] 8 Cf. Mercurius Melancholicus, No. 24 (1648), p. 142 : "I see 
the old Proverb verified, Kissing goes by favour but marriage and hanging 
goes by destiny." There is a ballad of " Kissing goes by Favour. To 
the tune of I marry and thank you too" in the British Museum (c. 20. 

r. H/I). 



Yet where I see one willing to mend, 

not prating nor making excuses, 
Such a one if I can Pie befreind, 

and punish the grosse Abuses. 
My counsel now vse, you that are to chuse, 

put able man euer in place ; 
For knaues and fooles in authoritye do 

but them selues and their countrie disgrace. 


Appendix I 

When Mary was great with 

Addit. MS. 15,225, fols. 48-55^ This is in no sense a ballad but 
is included because it furnishes a good, and almost unknown, text of an 
interesting old Catholic poem. Furnivall edited another version, A 
Song Called Te Deuelis Perlament, Or Parlamentum of Feendis (F.), from 
MS. 853, Lambeth Palace Library, for the Early English Text Society 
(Hymns to the Virgin, etc., pp. 41-57) in 1867. He mentions the 1509 
version (^.) printed by Wynkyn de Worde, a unique copy of which is 
preserved in the Cambridge University Library. There is a modern 
reprint of this work made by Heber for presentation to the Roxburghe 
Club but never put into circulation by him (Lowndes's Bibliographer? 
Manual, s.v. Parliament of Fiends). In Warton-Hazlitt's History of English 
Poetry, III., 166, reference is made to the Lambeth MS,, to the 1509 
edition, and to editions, without date, by Richard Fakes and Julian 
Notary. Perhaps older than any of these is the version preserved in 
Addit. MS. 37,492, fols. 83-90^ (^.). It is considerably shorter than 
the other versions named, and varies widely from them, among other 
things transposing whole blocks of lines. E.g., stanzas 2-14, as printed 
below, come after stanza 18. It ends at stanza 58, line 4. 

F. and W. consist of 504 lines. This copy has but 490, twelve lines 
(21-32) perhaps being purposely omitted, two (stanza 20) inadvertently. 
It agrees sometimes with IV., sometimes with F., and sometimes differs 
from both : it was evidently made from a different printed version, 
perhaps from Fakes's or Notary's (though I know nothing about these 
editions). No attempt is made here at printing a " critical text," so 
that only a few of the variant readings from A., IV., and F. are given, 
In all these versions the metre is irregular. 

The poem covers sketchily the life of Christ, chief emphasis being 
placed on the Temptation and the Harrowing of Hell. Ballads dealing 
with the life and miracles of Christ were a staple production of the pro 
fessional ballad-mongers. Typical titles are those of "a mournefull 
memory of the Death of Christ," " The Devills temptacon to Christ our 
salvacon," and " ye fyrst fall of our father Adam and Eve for the breache 
of Gods commandement and of his Recouerye againe by the pro 
mised seede Jesus Christe," ballads registered during 1578-79 (Arber's 
Transcript, II., 342, 348). 



C^c parlament of Detotlte. 

[i] '' ' -: 

When marie was great with Gabriell, 

and had conceuid and borne a child, 
All the devills of th'ayre, of the earth, and hell, 

held their Parlament of that maiden myld. 
What man had made her wombe to swell, 

or whoe had wrought with her those workes wyld, 
That child his father's name, whoe could tell ? 

or whoe had marie soe beguild ? 

In hell the feindes they answered : 

" We near knew father that he had, 
But amongst Prophets we haue learned 

that god with man had covenant made : 
* As a serpent in desert was reared, 

soe shall godes sonne to glorie be led ; 
The soule of hime is yet vnspyred ; 

hio hart the[y] cloue and he sore bled.' 


" The Prophetes spake soe, in the myst, 
that what the[y] meant we never knew ; 

They spake of one whoe should high[t] Christ, 
but mar Us sonne he hight Jesu. 

[And they sayd y e Ciyst w* god sholde be at wyst ; 

But this Ihesu never in the godhede grewe. 
We ben begyled all with our lyst, 

The clothe is all of another hewe. 

[2] 2 near : i.e. ne'er ; 5 cf. Numbers xxi. ; 7 vnspyred : i.e. 
unspoiled. F. reads vnsperid = set free, unlocked. 
[3] 5-[4] 8 Added from W. Also in F. 

2B 385 



And though^od make his parlyment 

Of peas, mercy, trouthe, and reason, 
And from heuen to erthe his sone he sent 

In mankynde to take a ceason, 
We shall ordayne, by one assent, 

A preuy counceyle all of treason, 
And clayme Ihesu for our rent ; 

For y* he is kynde of man, it is good cheson.] 


" We will worke whether that we speede, 

for vnto vs he is vnknowne ; 
And although he be come of a strange seede, 
' yet in Adam's ground was he sowne. 
When he is rype, doe we our deede ; 

and looke we doe him reape and mowe, 
Though he him selfe our roule in reede, 

by right we chaleng him for our owne." 


The maister devill said : " it lyes in mee ; 

to Jesu will I take good heede, 
To norish him in fantasies, 

his fraile flesh to cloath and feede. 
And though he be never soe wyse, 

yet out of th' way I shall him leade ; 
To make of him both foolish and wyse, 

and into hell his soule to breade." 


Thus the devilles their wyles did cast, 
with argumentes many and great ; 

And thirtie years they founded fast 
to tempt Jesu in many a heate. 

f 5] 7 our . . . reede : our rolles rede (^.), oure rollis rede (F.). 
[6] 7 foolish and wyse : fool and nice (W. y F.). 



Into a wilderness with Jesu I past, 

of him knoledg for to gett, 
And fortie dais there did he fast, 

without either sleepe, drinke, or meate. 


The maister devill wonder thought 

of Jesus' worthie complection : 
By man's foode liued he nought, 

but by prayer and devotion. 
But when he hungered, as I thought, 

to tempt him then I made boune : 
" Loo, heere be stones that be hard wrought, 

make thereof bread to man's feson." 

" Forsooth," Jesu said, " not onelie by bread 

is everie man's proper liuinge, 
But everie word of the godhead 

to bodie and soule is comfortinge." 
Vpon a high pinacle I him brough[t] anon 

and left him there, and downe I sprunge, 
And said : " saue thee harmeles, both limme andfbone, 

and doe noe masteries, whilst thou art younge. 


"" If thou be godes sonne, let vs see ; 

for of thee it's writen long agone 
That Angelles in handes shall hould thee, 

least thou spume thy foote against a stone." 
Jesus said : " in holie writ thou maist see, 

' tempt not thy lord god liuing alone ; 
With all thy might, in everie degree, 

thou shalt him serue and other non[e].' 3 


8] 6 boune : i.e. ready, prepared ; 8 feson : foysowne (^.), foisoun 
from French foison = plenty. A. has seson. 



The devill saw it might not gaine, 

but of Jesus his purpose he did mysse. 
He brought him to a high mountaine, 

and bade him doe as he would wish. 
There he shewed him certaine 

Jewells, riches, and worldlie blisse, 
And said : " worship me heere and become my swayne, 

and I will giue thee all this." 


" Avant, Satanus ; from blisse thou hye, 

from heaven rich, that royall tower ; 
In Exodus it is written certainly : 

6 the lord thy god thou shalt honour.' ' 
" Alas," quoth the devill, " art thou soe wittie ? 

thy wordes be bitter, thy workes be sower, 
Thy conclution kniteth me soe ferventlye, 

that I neare aboade soe sharpe a shower." 


The devilles gathered a great nome, 

and held their parlament 'nith myst : 
One would reaue vs at home, 

and gather the flower out of our twist. 
New Jeolors would wait vs shame ; 

one (they called him John Baptist] 
Now he hath turned Jesus 9 name, 

it first was Jesus, now is Christ. 

[i i] 7 And said : Omit (W. and F.). 
[12] 3 Exodus xxi., 3 ; 8 neare : i.e. ne'er. 

[13] i nome: i.e. number. A., W. t and F. read frame; 2 'nitli 
myst = 'neath mist ; in the mist (A. y F., 



Laugh nor sport I him never saw, 

but in stablenesse he is alway, 
And straitlie keepeth godes holie law, 

and stronglie withstandeth myne affray. 
To workes of vice he will not draw, 

a wonderous worde I heard him say, 
That the great Temple he would downe draw 

and raise it agayne on the third day. 


When he was borne, wonders fell : 

over all was peace, both East and west ; 
In Rome of Oyle there sprang a well, 

from Trestmore t' Tybur it ranne prest ; 
In Rome the Temple it downe fell, 

and their Mahometes did all to burst, 
Angelles to shepardes glorie can tell 

and to all mankind both peace and rest. 


The Emperour in Roome stood hee, 

three sunns in one he saw shineinge cleare ; 

In the mids of them a maid he see 

that a man child in her armes did beare. 

The Emperour and Cibell spake Profhesie, 
and the[y] accorded both, in feare, 

[i 5] 4 Trestmore : Trystyvere (^.), trystmer (W.\ tristiuer (F.). 
" Is this Trastevere ? " F. ; 6 Mahometes : Mawmettes = idols (A., W., 
F.) ; 7 can : read gan. 

[16] 5 Cibell : i.e. Sibylla Cumana (cf. Vergil, Eclogues, IV., 4 ff.). 
" Certayne Verses of one Cibila, a Prophetis among the heathen. . . . 
By me, Henry Sutton for the buke of Mr. Rich. Bradgere" are 
preserved, with a musical score, in Addit. MS. 4900, fol. 8. 



And said, " godes sonne mankind should buy, 
it is a token the time drawes neare." 


Also three kings came from a farre, 

to worshippe Jesus all they sought, 
Which raised Herodes hart soe there 

him for to slay, for soe he wrought. 
By the lighteninge of a starre 

all three to Jesu presentes brought ; 
Homwardes an Angell taught them f aire 

an other way then they had thought. 


There I counsailled Herod within a while 

to distroy the former Prophesie, 
To slay all men children in Towne and pyle, 

that Jesu might amonge them dye. 
He fled into Egipt in that while : 

their mahometes fell downe from on hye ; 
He knew my thought, he saw my guile, 

I could not hyde it from his eye. 


To tempt Jesu it will not availe : 

of the worldes good, he hath noe neede ; 
I loose in him soe much travaile, 

the more I soe worke, the worse I speede. 
With the sharper assaults I him assaile, 

the les of me he standes in dread ; 
The boulder in bicker I bid him battaill, 

the lesse of me he taketh heede. 




If I tempt him with welth or pryde, 
he voydeth me of[f] with chastitie ; 

In gluttonie and Envie he'ill not abyde, 
but is euer in largnesse and pouertie. 

In covetousnes and avarice he will not ryde, 
but alwais is full liberall. 


The devill said, " nether in heate nor could, 

I may not make him stumble or faale. 
I wist him never goe to scoole, 

yet I see him dispute in the scoole haule : 
He set him selfe on the highest stoole 

and a[r]gued against the maisters all. 
Some cal'd him wyse, some caPd him foole, 

but godes sonne he did him selfe cale. 

f ; ' . [22] 

" His workes passeth all man-kind, 
for crooked cripples he makes right, 

The deafe and dumbe and the borne blind, 
he giueth them speach, hearinge, and sight. 

Mad men he giueth them their mynd, 
he maketh measells whole and light ; 

[20] I The copyist got confused In stanza 20, changing his original 
considerably and omitting two lines. In W. the stanza runs : 

For yf I tempte hym with wrathe or pryde 

With pacyence and mekenes he scomfyteth me 
If I tempte hym w l lechery 1 must me hyde 

He voydeth me of with chastyte 
In ^lotony and enuy he wyll not abyde 

But is euer in mesure and charyte 
In couetyse and auaryce he wyll not ryde 

But is euer in largesse and pouerte. 

[21] 2 faale : read fall. 

39 1 


A legion of feindes in a man he did finde, 
all he droue out throughe his great might. 


" Wyne of water he maketh blyth, 

and doth many a wonderous deede ; 
With two fishes and loaues fiue, 

fiue thousand men I see him feede. 
Twelue Basketes of releife thereof did thriue 

to men and children that had neede ; 
Dead men he raised againe on Hue, 

and yet he neare weare but one weede. 

" He handleth neither money nor knife, 

nor in sinne he desyres noe woman to kisse, 
But once he saued a wedded wife 

that in spousage had donne amisse. 
He is soe wonderfull in life, 

I cannot know well what he is ; 
I would that we had ended our strife, 

and he out of our bookes and we out of his. 

" Sith I him first to tempt beganne, 

I saw him never change his hewe. 
Once he bade mee ' goe, foule sathanne^ 

ever that reproofe I rewe. 
In workes he is god ; in personne, man : 

the like to him I never knew ; 
Where learned he all wit ne know I canne, 

euerie day he doth wonders new. 

[23] 3 w l to loues And fyssches fyue 
] 4 

[24] 4 spousage : spousayle (^.), spousebriche (F.). 




" I followed him once vnto a place, 

vnto a mountaine vpon height, 
Peter , John, and James there was, 

Elie and Moyses stoode there vp right. 
I would haue seene Jesus' face, 

but I could not, it shone soe bright : 
The southwest sunne did him embrace, 

the bright beanies blinded my sight. 


" To let the Prophesie soone I went ; 

the Jewes to slay Jesus, I gaue them choyse ; 
If he did dye on th' roode we shale be shent, 

I would I had not giuen them that voyce. 
I was wooe for that Judgment, 

of * crucifie ' to heare the voyce : 
Pylates wife I bade buselie giue tent 

that Jesus were not done vpon the crosse. 


" Yet the Jewes, for his deedes good, 

false witnesse against him conspyred ; 
And nailed him vpon the rood, 

and slew him which was vndefyled. 
Vnder his left syde my selfe I stoode, 

and after his soule full fast I spyed ; 
But I wist never whither it yeewd, 

when he gaue it vp, soe manlie he cryed. 

[26] 4 Elie: i.e. Elias. Moyses = Moses ; 7 southwest: stedfast 

.\ so[o]thfast (W., F.). 

[27] 7 wife : cf. Matthew xxvii., 19. 

[28] 7 yeewd : yode (A., W., F.). 




" The sunne and moone, they lost their light ; 

the Element es fought as leight and thunder ; 
The earth quak'd and mountaines on height ; 

wal[l]es and stones did burst a-sunder. 
Dead" men arose, through his great might, 

to beare witnesse of that wonder. 
My strength failed, and I lost my sight ; 

I wist not how soone I came there vnder. 


" Jesus 9 soule is gone (I wot not whither), 

soe priuelie it did from mee passe ; 
When his heart was pearsed with a speare, 

full well then wist I whoe he was. 
Ordeyne we vs with all our geere, 

for hither hee thinkes to make a race ; 
Aryse we all that ly bounden heere, 

and stifflie defend wee our place. 


" For if that he would hither come, 

wee shall aryse, euerie each one, 
And goe against him, all and some, 

and teare of[f] him, bone from bone. 3 
Then said Lucifer a-non-: 

" it is but wast[e] for to speake soe, 
The soule of him is now hither come 

to vs, for to worke all wooe." 


There as the good soules did then in dwell 
they chained the gates and bar'd them fast, 




"Jesus said : " yea Princes fell, 

open the gates that eare shall last, 
And let in your king of heauen and hell ! " 

The devilles asked him in hast[e] : 
" Whoe is the king that that doest of tell ? 

weenest thou for to make vs agast ? " 

I [33] . 

" Stronge god and king of might 

I am ; lord of lordes, and king of blisse, 
Vsurper of death ['s] mightie f eight, 

everlasting [gates], open without misse ! 
Both peace, mercie, grace, and rest, 

I brought them at once and made them kisse. 
Everlasting gates, open on high, 

and let in your king to take out his. 


" I, the soule of Jesus Christ, am comon hither 

(witnes my bodie in earth lyes dead), 
The holie ghost with the soule together 

that never shall part from the godhead. 
In heauen's blisse thou stoode full shider, 

through pryde thou offended my father's beed ; 
Man's soule for meekenes shall come thither, 

there as the feinds forfeted that stid." 

f [35] 

Then said Lucifer : " god did forbid 

to Adam in Paradice but one tree 
On paine of death, to haue for that deede 

and ever after hell to bee. 

[32] 3 yea : read ye ; 4 eare = e[v]er ; 7 that that ; read that thou. 
33] 4 ga^s : so fv. and F. 

[34] 5 shider : slyddyr, slyder, slider (A., W. y F.). F. explains the 
word as equivalent to lubricas. 



And thou art come of Adam's seede, 

therefore by right we chaleng thee ; 
For in holie writ thou maist see 

that in hell there is noe remedie." 


Jesus said : " Lucifer, truth thou tellest mee, 

but thy selfe thou wots not how ; 
There is a bond hell, but this is free, 

the bond hell is ordein'd for you. 
For that which Adam forfeted through a tree, 

through a tree againe is bought now ; 
Thou mad'st him to sinne, the paine 'longeth to thee, 

for thou was never good vnto man's prow. 


" Lucifer, thou me vndernome, 

and said I was of the seed of man ; 
For sooth I did out of the godhead come 

and tooke flesh and blood of a maid within : 
As of the earth there springeth a bloome, 

soe met we and parted without sinne ; 
Thine argument is false, soe is thy doome, 

by what right wouldest thou me winne ? 


" Whoe was the cheifest of thy councell, 

in heauen when thou forfeted thy blisse ? 
In Paradice thou didst Adam assaile, 

and tempted him to forfeit his. 
And I in his quarrell tooke battell 

vnto my father, to mend his misse ; 
Therefore of thy purpose thou shalt faile, 

for thy quarrell nought it is." 

[36] 8 prow = advantage. [38] 7 Therefore : MS. threrefore. 

39 6 


[393 _ 

Then Lucifer answered againe : 

" why speakest thou soe to me heare ? 
It was but wanton wordes in vaine, 

I tro thou comest hither vs to feare. 
Somtime when I was in heauen hye, 

that I lost for my pryd certaine ; 
Heereafter I hope full sicarlie 

for to come to that blis agayne." 

[40] : - 

Christ Jesus s[p]ake vnto him againe, 

and said to him on this manner : 
" It is but wast[e] for thee to speake soe, 

or any such wordes to vtter heere. 
That time while thou in heauen were, 

full much ioy hadest thou thoe ; 
For all thy fellowes were glad there, 

but right soone it was overgoe." 

- [41] 

Lucifer spake vnto him againe, 

and said to him with wordes in feare : 
" Heere haue I dwelled, in woe and paine, 

more then four thousand yeare. 
Helpe me to that blisse againe, 

which for my pryde I did loase there ; 
For there is blisse and pleasure certaine 

to dwell with angells shininge clear e." 


" Heare me, Lucifer, I shall thee tell, 
or ever any thinge was wrought 

= make afraid ; 7 sicarlie = certainly, 
feare : sere (^., F.) ; 6 loase : read lose, 


[39] 4 fe^e 
[41] 2 in fe 
[42] 2 or = 


(Either in heaven, earth, or hell), 
forsooth I did make thee of nought. 

In heaven when thou stoodest well, 
I .made thee aboue Angells all ; 

But thereof cared thou never a deall, 
till thou was come to miserable fale. 


" In heaven when thou was at thy will, 

thou might haue beene in peace and rest 
I tooke thee in my seat full still, 

it to serue thou was full prest. 
And whylle I went where soere I list 

and came againe anon on hye, 
Thou said that thou were the worthiest 

to sit there as well as I. 


" And thou repentest thee never the more, 

but ever agredest thy trespasse : 
Adam wept and sighed sore, 

and asked mercie and oyle of grace. 
My father sent mee hither, therefore, 

and on a tree let death me chace ; 
A speare through my hart can boare, 

let out the worthiest oyle that euer was. 


" In my father his name in heauen, 
open the gates now against mee." 

As leyt of earth and thunder even, 
the gates open can burst and flye. 



8 Suche pryde in thyn herte gan fall (W., F.). 

2 agredest = encreaseth (^.) ; 7 can : read gan. 

3 As lyght of ayre and thonder leuen (A.} ; 4 can 



God tooke out Adam and Eaue full even, 

and all his chosen companye ; 
The Prophet es said with myld Steven, 

" a songe of wonder now singe wee." 


" A," quoth Adam, " my god I see, 

he that made me with his hande." 
" I see," quoth Noy, " where commeth hee 

that saued me, both on water and land." 
Quoth Abraham, " my god I see 

that sau'd my sonne from bitter brande." 
Moyses said, " the tables he betooke me, 

his lawes to preach and vnderstand." 


Quoth David, " we spake of one soe stout 

that should breake the brason gates." 
Quoth Zacharie, " and his flocke take out, 

and leaue there still such as he hates." 
Quoth Simon, " he lighteneth his flocke in dime, 

whereas darkenesse shadoweth their state." 
Tho said John, " this lambe, I spoke of him, 

that all the worldes sinne abates." 


Our lord tooke them by the hand, 

and brought them to the place of blis, 

And said to them (I vnderstand) : 

" this bargaine haue I bought for this : 

For rich and poore, both free and bond, 
that will aske grace and mend their misse, 

[46] 3 Noy : i.e. Noah ; 6 brande : bonde {W.\ bande (F.) ; 
7 Moyses : i.e. Moses. 
[47] 5 dime : read dim. 



Shall be with you heere for aye iocand 
in my kingdome, heaven's blis." 


Thus lesu Christ he harrowed hell, 

and led his servantes t' Paradice ; 
With the other hells would he not meddell, 

where feindes blacke bounden lyes, 
And where dampned soules ever shall dwell, 

that will not mend, but doe a-misse, 
Tormented sore with divells fell, 

that some times were angells of price. 


Hell reproued the Devill Satbanne, 

and a rablelie can him dispise : 
" To me thou art a shrewd captaine, 

a combred wretch in cowardice." 
Tho said Lucifer : " since the world beganne 

I haue brought hither manie a prize ; 
Yea, I haue brought of all kinde of men, 

both true, false, foolish, and wise. 

[51] : 

" Soe worshiped never thou were, 

if thou couldst haue kept thee soe ; 
I brought thee both god and mann in feare, 

why was thou soe foolish as let them goe ? " 
Quoth hell : " not with thy power 

I might not warne him one of tho ; 
He tooke out all that weare to hime deare, 

I could not let though he would had moe." 

[48] 7 iocand : i.e. jocund. 
49] 6 doe a-misse : euer be nyse (W., F.) ; 7 Tourmented with 
horryble deuyelles [fell] (W.\ [of hell] (F.). 
[50] 2 rablelie : horrybly (W., F.). 



Quoth Belsabub, " I bar'd full fast 

with locke, chaine, boult, and pinne ; 
With one word of his mouthes blast, 

the gates brake vp, and he came in. 
He bound me fast, and downe me cast, 

it is noe boote to striue with him, 
When the dreadfull day is come and past, 

our endlesse paine is now t' beginne." 


Though the Jewes made Jesu to dye, 

on the third day he rose againe ; 
It was to him more victorie 

then all the Jewes if he had slaine. 
Some were glad when they him see, 

some were sorie, and some were faine ; 
And sometime, in one companie, 

amonge flue hundred he was seene. 


Of oyntmentes full manie a drope 

Marie magdalen to Jesu brought ; 
lesu from her a little of[f] loape, 

and said, " marie, touch me not ! " 
All his disciples were in one hope, 

for to comfort them Jesu thought ; 
And bade them his wounds handle and groape, 

" I haue flesh and blood, soe spirittes haue nought." 


Thomas was of right hard beleefe 
till he had spoken with Jesu tho ; 

[52] 2 with : The gate with (W., F.). 
[54] 5 one hope : wanhope (/F., F.). 

2C 401 


Jesu spake with wordes soe breefe, 

" come hither, Thomas, and speake me too. 

For heere thou may the sooth soone prooue, 
how I was on the roode doo ; 

And he that will not it beleeue 
shall vnto paine for ever goe." 


Then said Jesu, with a mild speach, 

to his disciples : "I will that yea goe, 
To all creatures about, to preach 

my vpriseinge to frend and foe ; 
And he that beleeueth that which yea preach, 

bodie and soule saued shall be ; 
And they that beleeue not, I say to each, 

they shall for eare tormented be. 


" From you feindes shall flee, for my name ; 

adders and vermine shall from you stay ; 
Thoughe you drinke poyson, it shall not tame, 

nor yet you greeue in anye way. 
I shall new tonges within you frame, 

all manner of languages foarthe to deale ; 
And they that yea touch, sicke or lame, 

bodie and soule I shall them heale." 


Our lord, after his resurrection here, 

on earth was for sooth dwellinge, 
Till holie tbursday it come were 

that he stept to heauen where he is kinge. 
At the dreadfull day without leasinge, 

both quick and dead he shall them deeme ; 
God giue vs grace in our beginninge 

to serue our god and marie our queene. 
[56] 2, 5 yea : read ye. 



Of all the Children that euer were Borne, 

saue onelie Christ him selfe a-loane, 
Was non[e] soe holie here be forme 

as was the holie child, saint John, 
That baptiz'd our lord in flem Jordanne, 

with full devout and good devotion, 
And for Jesus' loue to death was donne, 

and for his loue suffred his passionne. 


Now shall I tell, with full good cheere, 

of that holie ascention ; 
And of his blessed mother deere, 

how she was taken vp, with great devotion, 
Vnto her blessed sonne, as his will were, 

that thereto sent his Angells downe ; 
And vp they bare that maiden cleare, 

and Queene of heauen they did her crowne. 


Then all Angelles that were in heauen 

were at the crowning of that maiden free, 
And sung all, with mild Steven, 

Omnis gloria tibi, domine. 
That is a songe of ioy and blisse ; 

god giue vs grace that light to see, 
Of his mercie that we may not misse, 

qui natus est de virgine. 

[59] 3 be forme : beforne, biforn (W., F.) ; 8 And suffred full grete 
passyon (W. ; similarly F.). 

ascention : assumpycon (/F., F.). 

Omnis not in W. and F. ; 8 est : es (W., F.). 


!6o] 2 
6i] 4 



This tale that I haue tould you heare 

is caPd the vivell parliament ; 
Therefore is red in time of yeare 

on the third Sunday in cleane lent. 
Whosoeuer will that heuen procure, 

keepe him from divelles comberant ; 
In heven his soule may then be sure 

with Angelles t' singe in light splendent. 


This lesson new was made of late, 

there be no tryfles in't at all ; 
The divelles boast thus can he abate, 

our curteous Christ soe ryall. 
Help vs all in at heauen gates, 

with s[ain]ts to sit there, out of thrall ; 
Christ keepe vs out of harme and bate, 

for thy holie spirit soe speciall. 


[62] 2 vivell : rafc/divell's ; 6 comberant : combrement, combirment 
(W. y F.). 

[63] 5-8 These lines are j?mmed together as two lines in the MS. ; 
7 bate : hate (IV., F.). 


Appendix II 
\A Singular Salve for a Sick Soul 

Addit. MS. 1 5,225. The title is on fol. 44 V , the text on fols. 45-45 v . 

Valentine Sims registered for publication a broadside called " a table 
lof good Counsell " on December n, 1598, and on May 7, 1599, 
transferred his rights in it to John Brown. In the assignment the full 
| title is given as " The table of good Counsell with a singular salue for 
the syck soule " (Arber's Transcript, III., 133, 144); from which it 
seems certain that " A Table of Good Counsel " in verse and " A 
Singular Salve " in prose were printed on the broadside, and that a copy 
of the broadside was followed by the compiler of the MS. In that case 
"The Table of Good Counsel" was probably the ballad (No. 39) that 
on fols. 43 V ~44 V of the MS. directly precedes the " Singular Salve." 
The title fits that ballad admirably. Ballads were not infrequently 
called "tables" : an example is "A Table of Good Nurture" reprinted 
in the Roxburghe Ballads, II., 570. 

The " Salve " is a curious, highly figurative work with enough 
intrinsic interest to justify its reproduction here. Much longer but of 
similar nature are The Sick Man's Salve by Thomas Beacon (i 580, 1585, 
1631, etc.), and A Soveraigne Salue to cure a slcke Soule, infected with the 
poyson of slnne (1624) "by I. A. Minister and Preacher of Gods Word." 

a singuler 0alue for a sicfee soule* 

Take a quart of the repentance of Niniuie, and put 
thereto both thy handes full of fervent faith in Christes 
.blood, with as much hope and Charitie of the purest 
you can get in Christes shop (a like quantitie of each), 
and put it into a vessell of a cleane conscience, and let 
it boyle well together in the fier of loue soe longe till 
thou seest, by the eye of faith, the blacke foame of this 
worldes loue stinke in thy stomake : then scumme it 
of[f] cleane with the spoone of faithfull prayers ; that 
donne, put in the powder of patience, and bake the 
imaculate cloath of Christes pure Inocentie, and throwe x 

1 i.e. through. 



it straine altogether in to Chris tes cup ; then drinke 
it burninge hoat, 1 betimes, next thy hart. 

This done, lay thee downe vpon the bed of Christ es! 
pure inocencie, and caver 2 thee warme with as manie; 
cloathes of amendement of life as god shall strengthen 
thee to beare, where-by thou maist sweat out all the vile 
poyson of Couetousnesse and Idollatrie, with all kynde 
of pride, whoredome, oppression, extortion, vsurie and 
prodigallitie, swearinge, lieinge, slanderinge, envyinge, 
wrath, sedition, sectes, theft, murther, drunkennesse, 
gluttonie, sloath, and such like sinnes. All which 
sweate cleane out of thy hart, thy head, thy boanes, and 
thy bodie, with all the other partes and powers of thee, 
and ever wash thy hart and eies well with the pure water 
of humilietie mixt with the feare of god. 

And when thou feelst thy selfe altered from all these 
forenamed vices, then take the powder of say-well and 
lay it vpon the top of thy tonge to sauour thy mouth, 
wit[h]all, and the eares of the hearer. But drinke 
thrise as much doe-well daylie, mixt with the same 
mercie that god hath willed vs to vse, and annoynt 
therewith thine eies, thine eares, thy lippes, thy hart, 
and thy handes throughlie, 3 that they may bee light, 
nimble, and quicke to minister to the poore and dispersed 
members of Jesus Christ, ever as you are able and see 

But beware thou takest not wynd in ministeringe 
thereof, least 4 the deadlie dust of vaine-glorie doe thee 
much harme. Also, to keepe a dyet for thy head, vse 
the hot broath of righteousnes continually, and feede 
thee well with the spoone of godlie meditacons ; then 
annoynt thy selfe well with the Oyle of godes peace: 
this beinge done, aryse from sinne willinglie, & thou 
shalt Hue euerlastinglie. 

1 i.e. hot. 2 Read cover. 

3 i.e. thoroughly. 4 i.e. lest. 


Index of 
First Lines, Titles, and Tunes 

Tunes are printed in italics. Titles are distinguished from First Lines 
by enclosure in double quotation marks 


A happy wind those locusts hence doth blow . . .184. 

A jolly shepherd that sat on Zion hill . . . IQI 

A word once said, Adam was made . . .203 

" Against Nigardy and Riches " . . . .108 

Aim not too high ...... 368 

Alas, for shame, how dare I sue . . . .312 

Alas how long shall I bewail . . . .270 

All you that with good ale do hold . . . 3 5 i 

Amount, my soul, from earth a while . . . 152 

As I on New Year's day . . . . .315 

Assist me now, you doleful dames . . . .325 

"An Ave Maria in Commendation of our Most Virtuous 

Queen" . . . . . .13 

Awake, awake, O England . . . . .233 

Behold our Saviour crucified . . . .119 

" The Bellman's Good-morrow " . . .233 

"Buckingham, A Song of the Duke of" . . . 349 

Calvary Mount is my delight . . . .147 

Careless, John . . . . . .47,55 

" Careless, John, A Godly Ballad made by " . . 47 

" A Carol for Christmas Day " .238 

Christmas is my name . . . . .372 

" Christmas, A Song Bewailing the Decay of " . . 372 

Come on, good fellow, make an end . . . 252 

'* A Comfort unto Him that is Blind " . . .320 

Considering oft the state of man . . i 

" Constable, The Song of a " 3 79 

" Covetousness, A General discourse on " . . . 285 

-" Cross, A Song of the " 127 

Dainty, come thou to me . . . 71, 88, 198 

Dear Christ, my poor and pensive breast . . . 296 

"Death with Hourglass Threatened! all Estates" . . 257 

" A Declaration of the Death of John Lewes" . . 54 
" Dialogue between Christ and the Poor Oppressed Sinner" . 270 




" A Dialogue between Death and Youth " . . 252 

Diana and her darlings dear . . . . 1 64 

" A Dozen of Points " . . . . .315 

"The Epitaph upon the Death of Queen Mary" . . 23 

" An Exclamation upon the Erronious Sprite of Heresy " . 27 

Fain would I have a pretty thing . . . . 322 

" The Faithful Desire to make Exchange of Earth for Heaven " 309 
Famous Brittany, give thanks . . . .189 

" Four Priests, A Song of" .... 70 

From sluggish sleep and slumber . . . .233 

From Virgin's womb this day . . . . 238 

" A General Discourse on Covetousness " . . . 285 

"Glover, Robert, A Ballad Concerning the Death of" . 33 

" God doth Bless this Realm " . . . . 180 

" A Godly and Good Example to avoid all Inconveniences " . 245 
" A Godly Ballad made by John Careless " . . .47 

" Good Counsel, A Table of " .... 229 

Good subjects of England, rejoice . . . .62 

"The Grieved Sinner acknowledgeth His Sin" . . 296 

" The Guilty Conscience, acknowledging Her Sin, Craveth 

Pardon "...... 300 

"Gunpowder Plot," 368; " A Song of the ," 360; "*A 

Song or Psalm of Thanksgiving about the " . . 363 

Hail Queen of England, of most worthy fame . . 13 

Hobbinoble and John a Side . . . . 3 2 5 

" How every Vice Creeepeth In " . . . 272 

" How Happy and Assured are They "... 306 
I, a constable, have took mine oath . . . 379 

I am that champion great of power .... 262 
" I love him, I love him " . . . . . 206 

I might have lived merrily . . . .216 

If England will take heed . . . .180 

If thou wilt, Lord, extend thy grace . . . 298 

In Crete when Daedalus first began . . 329 

In days of yore when words did pass for bands . . 134 

In rage of storm and tempests all .... 306 
" An Invective against Treason " . . . I 

" It is not God but We that Seek " . . .281 

Jerusalem, my happy home . . . .163 

Jerusalem, thy joys divine . . . . .170 

Jesus, my loving spouse . . . . .198 

" Job, A Pleasant Ballad of the Just Man " . . . 209 

" A Joyfull Consolation where Christ is Lively Felt " . . 291 

Judge me not, Lord, in wrathful ire . . . . 300 

Let bare-footed beggars still walk . . . jjj 376 

"Lewes, John, A Declaration of the Death of" . . 54 




Lo, here I vance with spear and shield . . . 257 

Lusty Gallant . . . . . .322 

" Man's Life is Full of Misery " . . .277 

" Marigold, A New Ballad of the " . . . . 8 

Mary, Queen, Ballad of Joy upon Her Being with Child" . 19 

" Mary, Queen, Epitaph upon the Death of " . . 23 

The Merchant \cf. Chappell's Popular Music, I., 381] . . 209 

"Music, A Song in Praise of" . . . . 142 

My thirsty soul desires her drought . . . . 170 

A New Ballad of the Marigold " . . . . 8 

" Nigardy and Riches " . . . . . 108 

No wight in this world that wealth . . . .108 

Now England is happy and happy indeed . . . 19 

" Now sing, now spring, our care is exiled " . . . 19 

Now the Spring has come . . . . .372 

O blessed God, O Saviour sweet . . . .114 

O God above, relent . . . . .87 

O God, of thy great might ..... 70 

O heresy with frenzy . . . . .27 

O high and mighty God . . . . .340 

O Lord, thou God of Israel . . . . -33 

O Lord, we have continual cause . . . -363 

O man in desperation . . . . 163,233 

O man that runneth here thy race . . . . 229 

O mortal man, behold and see . . . .265 

Of Catesby, Faux, and Garnet . . . -359 

Old Toby called his loving son . . . .219 

" The Parliament of Devils " . . . .384 

" A Pleasant Ballad of the Just Man, Job " . . . 209 

"A Prayer of One Being Afflicted with Sin " . . 298 

"A Pretty Ditty entitled O Mortal Man" . . . 265 
" A Prisoner's Song " ...170 

"A Proper Song, Fain would I Have a Pretty Thing" 322 

" Puritan, A Song of the " . . . . .134 

Room for Cuckolds . . . . . .189 

" Sanders, Woeful Lamentation of Mrs. Anne " . 340 

41 A Scourge for the Pope " . . . . 189 

Seek wisdom chiefly to obtain . . . .226 

Shall silence shroud such sin . . . .54 

Should my poor heart, O dearest Lord . . .294 

" A Singular Salve for a Sick Soul ". . . .405 

"The Sinner, Being Ashamed of His Sin, Dareth Hardly 

Crave Release " . . . . .312 
" The Sinner, Despising the World, Reposeth His Confidence 

in Christ" . . . . .198 

Some men for sudden joy do weep . . . .47 



" A Song made by F. B .P." .... 

Sweet music mourns and hath done long 

" A Table of Good Counsel " 

" A Thanksgiving for One from Peril of Death Restored " 

The covetous carl when greedy eyes .... 

The God above for man's delight ... . . 1 

The Lord that guides the golden globe . . . 28 

The noble peer while he lived here . . . 34* 

The thoughts of man do daily change . . . 22; 

There is no man so lewd of life . . . . 27; 

"Thewlis, The Song of the Death of Mr." . . . 8' 

" Thewlis, The Song Writ by Mr." .... 

Though others have their sight at will . . 

Till Christ our Lord return ..... 

To pass the place where pleasure is . 

Tobias, A Pleasant Ballad of" .... 

"The Travels of Time" . . . 

True Christian hearts, cease to lament 

True Protestants, I pray you do draw near . 

" A Triumph for True Subjects " 

" The Triumph of Death 

Vain is the bliss and brittle is the glass . . . 23 

" Verbum caro factum est " . . . . . 203 

" A Very Pretty Song " . . . . -325 

Walking alone, [no] not long agone .... 209 

" A Warning unto Repentance and of Christ's Coming" .. 240 
What cause there is, alas, to wail . . . 303 

What means this careless world to vance . . . 240 

What way is best for man to choose . . . .277 

When as mankind through Adam's fall . . . 127 

When Mary was great with Gabriel . . . .384 

Where pensive hearts relieved are . . . .291 

Who is my love ? I shall you. tell .... 206 

Who shall profoundly weigh and scan . . . 265 

Who would not be a cuckold . . . .196 

Why should not mortal men awake .... 245 

Wilson's Tune . . . . . .245 

Winter cold into summer hot . . . .137 

" The Woeful Lamentation of Mrs. Anne Sanders " . . 340 

" The Wretchedness of Man's Estate "... 303 


Glossarial Index 

Abdoit, i.e. John Lewes, 54 

abyden, to abide, 107 

achyue, to, achieve, 2 

I adultery, tirades against, 249, 273, 

I aduoutry, adultery, 3 1 

[agredest, to aggravate, 398 

Ainsworth, Harrison, The Tower of 
London, \ 

Albury, Surrey, 379 

Aide, John, printer, 238 

ale, see good-ale 

ale-stake, 332, 338 

Alfield, Thomas, Catholic martyr, xxi 

Allen, Cardinal William, xxi, 64 

alms-deeds, value of, 221 

ambrosia, 168 

amiddes, amidst, 263 

Anderton, Laurence, S.J., xxix, 164 

annoy, annoyance, 25, 158, 202 

Antiocus Epiphanes, 247 

Antiquaries, Society of, ballad-col 
lection, 8, 13, 23, 27, 54, 62, 184, 

H5 363 
antiquity, Catholic plea to, 27, 30 
apostolic succession, Catholic doctrine 

of, 30 

appreste, oppressed, 36 

apricocke, 172 

Armstrong, Mungo, a spy, x 

Askew, Anne, Protestant martyr, 33 

assumpted, to be, to heaven, 308 

atchive, to, achieve, 299 

authors of ballads : Anderton, 
Laurence, 1 64 ; Bott, Robert, 46 \ 
Careless, John, 47 ; D., R., 245 ; 
Elderton, William, 62 ; Forrest, 
William, 12 ; Gilbart, Thomas, 
6 1 ; Gyffon, James, 379 ; Hill, 

Thomas, xix ; Parker, Martin, 
189 ; S., T., 367 ; Sanders, Anne, 
340 ; Stopes, Leonard, 18 ; Thew- 
lis, John, 79 ; W., T, 7 ; Wai- 
pole, Henry, 170 

Ave Maria, an, 1 3 

Awdeley, John, printer and balladist, 

Babylon, beast of, Catholic Church, 
1 86 

Bacchus' knights, drunkards, 272 

ballads : anti-Catholic, xiv, xxiii, 62, 
1 80, 184, 189, 363, 368 ; 
Bishop Bonner investigates, xv ; 
Catholic, under Elizabeth, xxii, 
70, 101, under James I., 79, 87, 
1 08, 114, 119 ; censored by Privy 
Council, xi, xii, xvii ; flytings with, 
xi, xii ; John Foxe on, xi ; legis 
lation about, xi, xii, xiii, xv, xvii ; 
Protestant, under Mary I., xvi, 33, 
47 ; printing of, xxvi ; searchers for, 
xvii. See also Authors, Elizabeth, 
Henry VIII., James L, Mary I. 

balm, balsam, 168, 173 

bande, a, bond, n, 134 

Banks, Richard, printer, fined, xi 

Bannister, Humphrey, 349 

barbed horse, 262 

Barleycorn, Sir John, 331, 332 

barme, 334 n. 

Barnes, Barnaby, 47 

base, substantive, 3 5 i 

bate, strife, 404 

" Be Patient in Trouble," a ballad, 

Beacon, Thomas, Sick Man's Sahe, 


Beard, Richard, ballad on Mary I., 

Beaumont and Fletcher, ballad- 
allusions in, 329 

Beccles, Suffolk, Lamentation of, 245 

Bede, Venerable, cited, I 3 I 

beed, command, 395 

Browne, George, murderer, 340, 34 j 

brute, reputation, 25, 109 

Brutus, legendary founder of Britain 

Buckingham, Edward, Duke 

ballads on, 349 
Bull, Michael, 19 


beggars, English and Scottish com- ! Bulls, Papal Proclamations, xviii, 68 

pared, 376 ; velvet , 146 \ bumbast, 275 

behond, beyond, 1 79 Bungey, Cornelius, Protestant martyr 

bellman, England's, 233 

beray, bewrai, to, betray, 16, 235, 

bicker, be bold in, 390 

birds, betrayed by, 1 6 

black-jack, 134 

blanked her foes, 16 

blindness, consolation for, 320 

Blount, John, a scribe, xxx 

blubbered face, 342 

Bodkin's Galliard, 209 

Body, William, Cornish martyr, ix 

Bonner, Bishop, xv 

boot, advantage, 401 

Bosgrave, L, Catholic martyr, 63, 69 

Bosworth Field, 3 

botch and byle (boil), 2 1 1 

Bott, Robert, balladist, 33 

boun, prepared, 387 

bound, to, abound, 250 

bounden, p.p., 400 

bows and bills, 150 

Bradford, John, balladist, xiv ; Pro 
testant martyr, xvi, xxxi, 33 

brainshire, 332, 338 

brave, fine, finely, 213, 248, 250, 

breade, breed, 386 ; bred, 134 

breedren, brethren, 93 

Brerely, John, priest, xxix, 164 

Brian, Alexander, Catholic martyr, 
63, 64 

Brice, Thomas, 33, 48 

Brittany, Britain, England, 189 

broad-waking, wide awake, 1 1 7 

Brown, John, printer, 405 

33 . 
burn in love, to, 1 76 

burning to death, 33, 34, 54 
prayers before a, 58 ; spectators 
actions at, 58, 60 

busshope, bosshope, bishop, 43, 

but, a, butt, 3 

byde, to, abide, 28, 30 

Byrd, William, Psalmes, xxix, 79 
143 ; Songs of Sundry Natures, 23$ 

cale, to, call, 105, 106, 107, 391 
Calvary Mount, ballad of, 147 
Calvin's brood, 137, 138; cursec 

crew, 149 
Campion, Edmund, Catholic martyr 

xxi, 62, 63 
Careless, John, Protestant martyr 

xvi, 47, 55 

carking cares, 278 

carks and cares, 14 

carols, Christmas, 238 

carp, to, grumble, 180 

Carr, Henry, printer, 102 

catchpole, 149 

caterpillars, minions, 185 

Catesby, Robert, 360, 369 

Catholics : ballads by, xxii ; Christ 
mas and, 374 ; legislation against 
by Elizabeth, xviii, xix, by James I., 
xxi ; Lord Cecil's book against, 
xxi ; persecution of, xviii, xx. Set 
Martyrs, Priests 

Catholike Capitaynes, I 5 

cattle, possessions, 183, 212, 377 

caules, head-dress, 250 

4 I2 


2ecil, Lord, and Catholic persecution, 


relibacy defended, 139 

Charles I., King, 194, 359, 364, 367, 

37> 379 
cheap, a, bargain, 183 ; on sale 

(Cheapside), 323 

Jherlewood, John, printer, 252, 265 
cheson, encheson, occasion, 386 
Child, F. J., English and Scottish 

Popular Ballads, 325 
childer, childre, children, 31, 32 
childing, child-birth, 17 
Christ and crucifixion, ballads on, 
102, 1 14, 1 19 ; and a Sinner, 
370 ; the life of, 203, 384 
Christ's cross-row,* 333 n. 
Christmas carols, 238 ; decay of, a 

ballad, 372 

Churchyard, Thomas, xii, xxv 
cinnamon, 168, 173 
civette, 168 

civil discord condemned, 281 
Clarence, Duke of, murdered, 3 
Clark, Andrew, editor. See Shir burn 


Clement, Roger, murderer, 340 
cloath, clothes, 97, 109 ; to 

clothe, 386 
cloth of another hue, i.e. another 

matter, 385 

coaches, complaint of, 374 
cockatrices, 187 
Coles, Francis, ptinter, 209 
Collier, John Payne, 101, 102, 108, 

209, 213, 229, 233, 238, 349 
Colwell, Thomas, printer, 213, 216 
Colyngton, John, Catholic martyr, 


comberant, pres. part., harassing, 404 
combred, encumbered, 400 
comon, p.p., come, 395 
concupiscence, 139, 161 
confessors, 75, 78, 103, 116, 175 

...... - 

conscience, ballad of a clear, 229, 

:onstable, ballad of a, 379 

constantie, constancy, 76, 90 

contempne, to, condemn, 77 

contentation, 232 

contreete, contrite, 85 

convert, verb intrans., to turn to, 1 26, 

Cornwall, ballad on Catholic rising 

in, ix 

cosse, a, bargain, 132 
costumes, Elizabethan, 250, 272, 

3*5* 3545 Jacobean, 377 
Coteham, Thomas, Catholic martyr, 

63, 69 

cought, caught, 5 
could, cold, 137, 158, 165, 391 
countinance, countenance, 59 
courtise, courteous, 24 
courts, Jacobean constables', 379 
Coventry, 33, 34, 35, 42, 45, 47 
Coverdale, Bishop Miles, 47 
covetousness, tirades against, 108, 

272, 285 
cowslip, 8 

cracking in, to come, 334 
Crawford, Earl of, ballad-collection, 


cressus, Croesus, 220, 231, 257 
Cromwell, Thomas, Lord, x, xi 
cross, the, ballads on, 127 
crucifix, the, ballad on, 1 19 ; defence 

of, 131 

crucifixion, the, ballad on, 102 
crue, crew, 191 
cuckoldry, ballad on, 196 
cure, in, charge of, 243, 268 
cutlers, complaint of Elizabethan, 277 

D., R., balladist, 245 
Daedalus, ballad on, 339 
daggers, Elizabethan, 275, 278 
Damian, St. P., 170 
dance a dump, 276 
David and music, 143, 144, 169 


Death, ballads on, 252, 257, 262 



decaye, downfall, 57, 148, 321, 343 ; 

to, 38 

deem, to, judge, 402 
Deloney, Thomas, balladist, xxiv, 


depart, to, separate, 255 
deuices, schemes, 65, 66 
Devils' Parliament, 384 
Devon, ballad on Catholic riots 

in, ix 

dialogue ballads, 252, 270, 360 
dice play, 227, 274 
Dickens, Charles, on Mary I., xvii 
dight, to be, 99 
dint, a, stroke, 257, 259, 260 
disceuer, to, dissever, 32 
" Ditty Most Excellent for Every 

Man to Read," xxix 
divorce condemned, no, 139 
do on, to, 263 
" Doleful Dance and Song of Death," 


dolue,/./., delve, to dig, 109 
doo,/./>., do, placed, 402 
doubling, duplicity, 218 


Elderton,William, balladist, xviii, xxiv, 

eles, else, 167, 231 

Elizabeth, Queen, i, 13, 26,68, 183, 
233, 281; Campion's alleged ploti 
against, 63 ; Catholic ballads under, 
xxii; excommunicated, xviii; per-; 
secution of Catholics, xviii, xx, xxi; 
proclamation of as Queen, 23 ; pro 
clamations by, on music, 142, on 
starch, 135; restrictions on ballads, 
xv, xvii 

Empson, Sir Richard, executed, 4 

England, 5, n, 16, 17; little , 20; 
receives Flemish refugees, 180 

England's Helicon, i o I 

Essex, Earl of, poems by, xxx, xxxi n. 

eversion, overthrow, 281 

every each one, 394 

extend, verb intrans., to give oneself 
to, 3 

eyesome, adj., 172 

fact, a, crime, 3, 340, 343, 346, 347 
fairings, 315 

Francis, ballad-collection, faith, doctrine of salvation of by,, 

condemned, 138, 139, 140 
fale, fall, 81, 124, 127, 226, 228, 

357, 39 8 

falshed, falsehood, 66, 318 
fantasy, fancy, 9, 213,215 
far more worse, 50 
Farr, Edward, Select Poetry, 1 70, 238 
fasting, decay of, 139 
Faux, Guide, 360 
fell, fierce, 73, 400 
Felton, John, xviii 
fencing, tirades against, 276 
feson, 387 n. 
fetches, tricks, 276 
Filby, Thomas or William, Catholic 

martyr, 63, 69 

dowynge, dooynges, doing, acts, 4, 


Drewry, Anne, murderess, 340, 343 
drue, drew, 4 
drugs, herbs, 168 
drunkenness, ballads on, 332 
dubtful, doubtful, 2 1 
Dudley, Edmund, beheaded, 4 
dure, to, endure, 263 
Dyer, Sir Edward, ballad by, xxix 

ear, to, plough up, 255 

eare, e'er, 395,402 

Edward IV., King, 2, 349, 351 

Edward VI., King, xii, xiii, i, 5 

Edwards, Richard, xxv. See Paradise ' filde, p.p., fill'd, 25 

of Dainty Devises \ find, to, support, 279, 288, 289 

eich, each, 72,74, 201, 215, 353 
.-eike, eke, 81, 103, 114,219 

fine, the, end, 259 

fines for ballads, xi, xii, xvi 



irth, C. H.,xv, 19, 359, 37^ 

sh-days, abuse of, 137 

jag, to win the, 334 

jeed, flayed, 73 

em, a, river, 403 

^lemings, migration to England, 1 80 

.oure, flowers, Mary I. compared to, 

en,/./., flown, fled, 372 
Joles, fools, 21 ; folish, 27 
Jbnd fits, 2 1 5 
;bo, foe, 34 

botsteps, to goon, 102 
:br why, 43, 45, 46, 59, 81, 136 
^Forbes, John, Cantos, xxix, 143, 223, 

229, 270 
jFord, Thomas, Catholic martyr, 63, 


jfbrlorn, to be, lost, 140, 145, 148 
IForrest, William, priest, ballads by, 

xiv, 2, 12 

iforst, forced, 3, 24, 93, 271, 313 
ifould, a, sheep-fold, 81, 102 
ifbnrme, form, 28 

foyle, a, defeat, 7 1 ; to, 129 

France, 5 

French caps condemned, 275 

frenesy, frenzy, 27 

frey, affray, 338 

Fridays, meat eaten on, 139 

frie, fry, crew, 67 

friends, false, ballads on, in, 223, 
227, 230 

fruit, offspring, 17, 26 

fry, to, burn alive, 74, 84, 150 

futte, foot, 10 

Gabael, 220 

gad, to, 30 

Gandisphore, 8 3 

Garnet, Richard, priest, execution of, 

88, 360 

gaue, forgave, 24 
geason, rare, 323 
geere, gear, 394 
gestes, guests, 182 

geuen, geueth, geuyng, firms of give, 

2, 7,25, 283,322 
ghostlie, spiritual, 81 
Gilbart, T., ballad by, 61 
glore, glory, 258 

Gloucester, Duke of, see Richard III. 
Glover, Mary, 34; Robert, xvi, 33; 

Timothy, 46 
glozes, glosses, 67 
God wot, inter/., 74, 84, 255, 334 
" Godly Exhortation to Love," xxviii 
gold and fee, 92 

Golding, Arthur, pamphlet by, 340 
good-ale, ballad on Master, 3 3 1 
good-nights, last farewells in verse, 

xxxi, 79, 340 
Googe, Barnaby, xxv 

Gorgeous Gallery of Gallant Inventions, 

223, 257 
grafte, grafted, 24 

Grafton, Richard, punished for print 
ing ballads, xi 

grawing sin, 307 . 

Gray, William, balladist, xi 

Create bretain, 2 

greedy guts, 243 

Greenslowe, alias Hunt, Catholic 
martyr, 70 

Grey, Lady Jane, xiii, I, 1 1, 87 

Grey, Lord, de Wilton, 65 

grid-iron, St. Laurence's, 74, 79, 80, 84 

gripes of gold, 287 

grutch, to, grumble, 65, 380 

Gude and Godlie Ballatis, 127, 203, 

guilt,/./., gilt, gilded, 173 

gules, 175 

Gundaphore, 83 

Gunpowder Plot, xxi, 88 ; ballads 

on, 359 3 6 3 3^8 
Gyffon, James, ballad by, 379 

(h)abundantly, 26 
Hachman, Thomas, scribe, xxx 
Hamount, Matthew, Protestant 
martyr, 54 


handcarchaffes, 99 

Handfutt of Pleasant Delights, 322 

happe, the, fortune, 117, 279, 310, 

326 ; to, happen, 231 
harde, heard, 6, 59, no, 131, 178, 


harrowing of hell, 106, 384 
Hart, John, Catholic martyr, 69 
Harvey, Gabriel, 329 
headed, to be, beheaded, 82 
heap, a, measure, 183, 324 
heare, here, 42, 147, 404; hair, 

250, 253, 275, 279 
heart-root sighs, 3 1 4 
heaven, descriptions of, 147, 152, 

,163, 170 
hedging bill, 354 
hell harrowed, 106, 384 
hellish, 145, 345 
Henry VI., King, 3 
Henry VII., King, 3, 349 
Henry VIII., King, x, 4 
here, her, 20, 34 
heresy, ballads against, 27, 137 ; 

Mary I. praised for crushing, 14 
heretics, tirades against, 31, 77, 160 
hert, hertes, heart(s), 9, 17, 24, 

Heywood, John, his ballads, xiv, xvi, 

Heywood, Thomas, ballad-allusion 

in, 47 

hie, high, 65, 241, 243 
Hill, Thomas, balladist, xxix 
Hilling, William, martyr, ix 
Hilton, John, Catch That Catch Can, 

379 " 
hit, it, 324 

hoarding condemned, 109, 285 
hoat, hot, 137, 406 
holp, helped, 263 
honey sweet, 201 
hote, hot, 373 
hounge, hung, 148 
hourglass, Death's, 257, 264 
Hunnis, William, 124, 270 

Hunt, Thurston, Catholic martyi 

70, 87 

hurdle, 85 ., 94, 95, 150 
hye, high, 68, 98, 100, 102, 27; 

390, 397; to, hasten, 98, 32 


Icarus, ballad on, 329 

idolatry, Catholicism defend< 

against, 29, 131 
imbrude, drenched, 148 
imps, children, attendants, 55, 286 
incontinent, immediately, 49, 21 


infect,/./., infected, 269, 347 
iocand, jocund, 400 
Ireland, 5, 65 
Italy, pride punished in, 248 

Jack, many a, 138 
James I., King, 90, 91, 146, i6< 
J 93, 233, 35 8 > 378 ; anti-Catholic 
legislation of, xxi, 184, 189 ; his 
Scotch beggars, 376 ; music 
declines under, 142 ; powde 
treason and, xxi, 359, 363, 368 
proclamations on Lent, 137 
James V., King of Scotland, x 

jeolors, gaolers, 388 

Jerusalem, the heavenly, described, 
78, 152, 163, 170 ^ 

Jesuit and a Presbyterian, a dialogue 
between, 359 

Jesuits, see Seminary priests 

Jews, the cruel, 73, 82, 104 

Jezebel, 247 ; Mary I. compared to, 

Job, ballad of, 209 

Jockie, i.e. a Scotchman, 377, 378 

jogging, let's be, 187 

Johnson, Richard, balladist, 349 

Johnson, Robert, Catholic martyr, 
63, 69 

jolifloure, gillyflower, 9 

jolly jags, 273 

Jones, Richard, ballad-printer, 61, 69 



Jones, William, printer, 367 j Lewes, John, Protestant martyr, 47, 54 

Jonson, Ben, 189, 315 j leyt, light, 398 

Judgment Day, ballads on the, 240, icense fees of ballads, 

245, 309 ; predicted by the cru 
cifix, 125, by Ephraim, 133 
Judith and Holofernes, 14, 193 
jump, to (used of clocks), 138 
juries, Jacobean described, 382 

kaiser, emperour, 258, 259 

Keats, John, 1 70 

Ket, Francis, Protestant martyr, 54 

kike, peep (?), 31 

Kindlemarsh, Francis, ballad by, 238 

King's Bench, Southwark prison, 48 

Kirby, Luke, Catholic martyr, 63, 


kissing goes by favour, 382 
Knell, T., balladist, xxiii 
knot, God's, marriage, no, 279; 

knit up the, to conclude, 112; 

-of love, 28 ; of points, 317 
kynde, kind, nature, 50 
Kyngston, John, printer, 209 

Lancashire, Catholic ballads in, xxiii 
Lancaster, priests executed at 70, 76, 

79, 87 
Lant, Richard, ballads printed by, 12, 

13, 26 ; imprisoned for ballad on 

Mary I., 23 
lapped, 148 n. 
Lawton, John, balladist, xii 
lease, to, lose, 83 
leasing, lying, 402 
least, lest, 150, $&, passim 
lecture, lection, 119 
Leigh, Dr. William, 87, 98 
lemmond, lemon, 172 
lenger, longer, 3 

Lent, legislation for observance of, 

let, to, hinder, 324, 393, 400 ; to 

leave undone, 128 
leuyng, leaving, 3 

2 D 

Lichfield, 33, 43 

ightening, lighting, 390 
imed fingers, 289 n. 

ink in love, to, 343 
little isle (England), 283 
oape, leaped, 401 
base, to, lose, 355, 397 
locusts, i.e. Papists, 1 8 5 
Lodge, Thomas, 341 
look through one's fingers, to over 
look, condone, 382 
loose, to, lose, 82, 251 
lot, to, allot, 258 
lout, to, jeer, 77 
loves, plural sub St., 97 
lover, complaint of a, 322 325 
lowreth, frowns, 1 1 1 
Loyal Garland of Mirth, 360, 
Lucifer's lantern, 1 3 5 
lucre, desire of, 165, 355 
lungeous spear, 122 
lure, a, deceit, 343 
Lycurgus on music, 145 

Machabees, the seven, 72 

Machiavelli, 117, 187 

macke, to, make, 34, 36, 38, 41, 44, 

Madeley, Roger, ballad printed by, 7 

magnificat, the, 169 

Mahomets, idols, 389, 390 

maistresse, mistress, 16, 26 

malis, malice, 21 

malmesey, 3 

mane, a, man, 34, 41 

MS. Ashmole 48, 2, 127, 143, 322 

MS. Cotton Vespasian A. XXV., 
127, 129 

Manuscripts, the, dates of, xxvni, 
xxx ; described, xxvii, xxx ; edi 
torial treatment of, xxvii ; location 
of, xxvii 

margerite, a, pearl, 173 



marigold, 20 ; ballad of the, 8 
Marten, William, ballad-printer, fined, 

martyrs, Catholic, xix, xx ; ballads on, 
62,70,79,88, 114, 137, 147, 152 

martyrs, Nonconformist, xx ; ballad 
on, 54 

martyrs, Protestant, xvi, xx ; ballads 
on, 33, 47 

Mary I., Queen, accession of, i ; com 
pared to Jezebel, xiv ; character 
of, xvii ; Dickens on, xvii ; im 
prisons Elizabeth, 183; instructions 
to Bonner about ballads, xv ; 
libelous ballads on, xiv ; number 
of martyrs under, xx ; restrictions 
on ballad printing, xiii, xv 

Mary I., Queen, ballads on her pro 
clamation as Queen, I ; comparing 
her to a marigold, 8 ; an Ave 
Maria in honour of, 13; her 
supposed pregnancy, 19 (xvi); 
epitaph on, 23 (xvii) 

Mary the Mother of Chris t, 163, 170 

mass, vanity of the, 43, 44 

mass-mongers, 193 

match and the make, the, 2 1 

mate, a familiar, an intimate, 56, 318 

mault, Master, 331; Quarters of, 337 

maxims, ballads of, 226, 229 

maysterese,maystrys, mistress, 1 6, 3 4, 3 7 

meacock, 196 

mean, low socially, 266, 351 

measles, 391 

meat, sorrow is my, 2 1 1 

meckelye, meekly, 42 

medler, a fruit, 172 

meekle, mikle, much, 91 

Mell, George, lover of Mrs. Sanders, 


mend a miss, to, 396, 399 
mene, men, 35 
Mercurms Democritus, 79 ; Fumi- 

gosus, 139 
merry mates, 286 
meruailous, marvellous, 17 

middes, amidst, 89, 128 

Vliddleton, Robert, Catholic martyr, 

.70, 87 

mince pepin, Mrs., 135 
misery of life, ballads on the, 277, 30 j||' 
mo(e), more, 4, 9, 74, 75 76 
iioch, much, 17 
momme, mum, 258 
monasteries, dissolution of, a ballac 

on the, ix 
moneth, month, 6 
money, 'tirades against the evils olj 

109, in, 112 
moralized ballads, 198, 213, 216 


mould, the, earth, 108, 109, 250 
mumping face, 1 3 5 
Munday, Antony, xxii, xxiv, 62, 79 

262, 340 
murders, pamphlets on Elizabethan 

music, ballad on the decay of, 142 

names, Elizabethan and Jacobea 

given, and surnames, 135, 333 
Narcissus, pride of, 248 
narde, 168 
Nashe, Thomas, allusions to ballads, 

47, 329 

ne, nfg., 30, 207, 392 

near(e), ne'er, 385, 392 

neightbour, 228 

nesh, weak, delicate, 211 

Nestor's years, 286 

neuewes, nephews, 2 

Newgate, London prison, 341 

New Year's gifts, 3 1 6 

nigardy, ballad against, 1 08 

ninuectyue, a, an invective, 2 

nipes, 325 

noise, music, 144, 145 

Nonconformists, Elizabethan, treat 
ment of, xx, 54 

Northampton, Catholic ballads in, 

Northern Rebellion, xviii, 1 80 



(Northumberland, Duke of, xiii, I, 

5, 7, 
[Norwich, Mary I. proclaimed at, I ; 

heretics burned at, xx, 54 
| Nutter, Robert, Catholic martyr, 70 

|oeth, oath, 91 

officers, corruptibility of Jacobean, 

110, 382 
one, on, 257, 258, 263, passim 
or, ere, 150, 397 
organs in churches objected to, 142, 

Orton, Henry, Catholic marryr, 63, 

out alas ! 4, 352 
overgo,/./., overgone, 397 

P., F. B., balladist, 164 

painted flies, 199 

paltry patch, 138 

pannel, 334 

pants, the heart, 300 

papyre, popery, 39, 43 

Paradise of Dainty Devises, xxxi, 223, 
229, 238, 245, 265, 315 

pardy, inter/., 255 

Parker, Martin, balladist, xxiv, 189, 

Parliament, the Devils', 384 

paste, passed, 35 

Paul's, St., Cathedral, Mary I. pro 
claimed at, 6 

Peele, Stephen, balladist, xviii 

Pekering, William, printer, 209 

pelfe, treasure, 39, 123, 134, 153,274 

pelican, superstitions connected with 
the, 124 

Pepys, Samuel, 19 ; ballad-collection 
of, 19, 189, 209, 331, 349, 359, 
360, 368 

Percy Folio MS., 349 

perfett, perfit, perfect, 1 10, 214, 2*39, 


perpende, to, consider, 57 
Piers the Plowman, generic term, 373 

Philip II., King of England and 

Spain, 1 9, 180 
pill, to, rob, 139 
pinch the pots, to, drink, 274 
pinched soul, 314; pinching pain, 292 
plenty, adv., plentifully, 223 
plows, need for, 278 ; God speed 

the, 146 
Plymouth, x 

pointed, appointed, 258, 304 
points, maxims, 315; laces, 3 1 8 
pole, to, rob, 139 
Policy and Popery, ballad of, 184 
Pollen, J. H., xxix, 70, 79, 85, 87 
Pon Woodstock (?), ix 
Pope, Alexander, 138 
Popes : Gregory XIII., 64, 69 ; Leo 

XIII., 71, 79; Pius V., 66, 68 ; 

Urban VIII., a scourge for, 189 
posies, 315 

post, to, ride hurriedly, 186, 353 
powlder, a, hubbub, 382 
pray, a, prey, 364 
predestination scoffed at, 140 
press-gangs, difficulties of Jacobean, 

prest, ready, 244, 346, 398 ; quickly, 


Preston, Yorkshire, priest executed 
at, 70 ^ 

pretence, intent, 214 

Price, Laurence, balladist, 209, 372 

prick song (with double entendre], 135 

pride, ballad against, 245 

priests, ballads by, xiv, 2, I 3, 23, 1 14, 
147, 152 ; legislation against, xix, 
xxi ; number executed under 
Elizabeth, xx ; treasonable, xx. 
See Seminary priests 

printers, ballad, works reproduced : 
Back, J., Blare, J., Brooksby, P., 
Deacon, J., 371 ; Jones, Richard, 
6 1, 69 ; Jones, William, 367 ; 
Lant, Richard, 12, 13, 26, 32 ; 
Madeley, Roger, 7 ; Ryddle, 
William, 22 ; Trundle, John, 195 



prisoners, farewell verses from, 79, 
340; treatment of, 43, 48, 55, 
63, 70, 85, 87, 93, 147 

proclamation of Lady Jane Grey as 
Queen, I ; of Mary I., I ; customs 
at, 6 

procure, to, induce, 57, 282 ; con 
trive, 343, 344 

prodigies at execution of priests, 88, 
99, 100 

proufe, proof, 304 

prow, advantage, 396 

pro wed, proud, 250, 268, 269 

Psalms, Elizabethan editions of the, 


puffing pride, 249 
purging pills, 374 
Puritans abhor Christmas, 373 ; 

destroy music, 142 ; satirized by 

a Catholic, I 34 

pursivants, priest-hunters, 149, 1 60 
pusuant, puissant, 5 
pwblyshed, published, 20 
pyle, pile, a small castle, 390 

quaile, to, decline, fail, 130, 149 
queere, choir, 146, 169, 175 
quell, to, kill, 207 
quicke, alive, 28, 74 
quyght, quite, 4, 3 I 

rablelie, rabblement, mob, 400 

rack, torture on the, 63, 70, 151, 160 

ragged rocks, 279, 286 

Raphael, Angel, and Tobias, 222 . 

rattle out rhetoric, to, rant, 67 

ravens bury a priest, 100 ; devour 
quartered priests, i 5 I 

ravine, rapine, 112 

Rawlins, Alexander, Jesuit, execution 
of, 87 

Rawlinson (Bishop Richard), ballad- 
collection, 163, 209 ; MSS., xxvii, 
245, 265, 322, 325, 359 

rayne, raygne, to, reign, 2, 3 

recomfort, 21 

Redman, Robert, printer, xi 
reft, bereft, 301, 313 
regiments, rules, 28 
religious verse, popularity 

Elizabethan, xxv 
" Remember Thy End," a poem 


reminent, remnant, 217 
rennyng, running, 14 
rent, complaints of excessive, 139 


rept, 109 n. 

resowne, to, resound, 24 
retchless, heedless, 31, 278 
Rheims, Jesuit college at, 63, 65 
Richard III., King, 2, 349 
Richardson, Laurence, Catholi 

martyr, 63, 69 
Rishton, Edward, Catholic martyr 

63, 69 

Robins, Thomas, tract by, 332 
Robinson, Clement, 322 
Rogers, Owen, ballad-printer, 108, 


Romans, Catholics, 368, 369 
Rome, Time's travels to, a satire, 


roost, to rule the, 277 
ruffs, great, satirized, 1 3 5 
Rushton, Edward, see Rishton 
Ryddaell, William, ballad-printer, 22 

S., D., i.e. D. Sands, ballad by, 229 

S., T., ballad by, 367 

sacraments, the seven, 28, 122 

saffron bag, a, trifle, 138 

sallets, heads, 334 

Salve for a Sick Soul, A, 405 

Sanders, Mrs. Anne, ballad by, 340 ; 
George, London merchant, mur 
dered, 340 ; George, murderer, 
of Hartford, 341 

Sari%ford Moor, x 

Sands, D., ballad by, 229 

Sandys, Archbishop Edward, of 
York, 229 



Saunders, Dr., 64 ; Laurence, 
Protestant martyr, 33, 45. See 

scant, a, poverty, 227, 317 

scape, escape, 67, 126 

Scotch beggars, 376 

Scotland, libelous ballads in, x 

scrues, screws (of the Inquisition), 

sede, seed, offspring, 4, 20 

Seminary priests, ballads on their 
proscription from England, 184, 
189 ; execution of, 63, 64, 70, 
79, 87 ; laws against, 65, 184, 
189. See Priests 

sext, sixth, 3 

Shakespeare, ballad-allusions in, 47; 

" Shaking of the Sheets," xxix, 209 

shalme, 239 

Shanne, Richard, of Yorkshire, his 

Diary, 163, 372 
sheep's clothing, 67 
shemsters, sempstresses, 324 
shent, to be, severely punished, 35, 

25 1 * 34 6 393. 
shepherd, a, on Zion hill, 101 
Shert, John or William, Catholic 

martyr, 63, 69 
Sherwin, Ralph, Catholic martyr, 


shider, to stand full, 395 . 
shift, action, resources, 50, 282 
Shir burn Ballads, xxvii, 163, 198, 

233. See Andrew Clark 
shoe, to, show, 24, 65, 103, 154 
Shore, Jane, 349, 
shrowde, to, shroud, conceal, 55, 


sicarlie, 397 

Sick Man's Salve, The, 405 
Sidgwick, F., 329 
silly, innocent, helpless, 103 
Simon Smellknave, 329 
Sims, Valentine, printer, 405 
singing defended, 143 

singler, singular, 10 

sinner, ballads of a, 296, 298, 300, 

312 ; Christ and a, 270 
slopes, trousers, 354 
lumber, awake from, a ballad, 233 
Smith, Robert, Protestant martyr, 

xvi, xxxi 
Smyth, Sir Thomas, his flyting with 

W. Gray, xi 
Somerset, Duke of, Lord Protector, 

beheaded, 5 
one, soon, 3, 4 

>ongmen, troubles of Jacobean, 142 
>onne, sun, 8, 10 ; son, 10, 51, 61, 


sousing, 303 
Southwell, Robert, Jesuit poet, xx, 

84, 87, 262 
Sovereign Salve, A, 405 
spacke, spaycke, to, speak, 41, 44 
Spanish spice condemned, 276 
sparch, to, 258 
sparhawk, 131 
spiel, to, deprive, 271 
spill, to, harm, 1 15, 346 
spoile, see spoyle 
Spooner, Henry, balladist, xvi 
spousage, marriage, 392 
spouse, Christ's, the Catholic Church, 

3 1 * 9 ! 95 I00 > I01 5 the 
Protestant Church, 52 ; the soul 

of man, 153. 
spousesse, Christ's, 3 I 
spoyle, to, destroy, 24, 64, 257, 258, 

261, 263 

stagger nor stutte, 10 
stand stiffly, to, i.e. boldly, 10 
starch, legislation against, I 3 5 
stay, to, hold up, support, 26 ; to 

stop, 242, 264, 343 ; a, position, 


stayers, stairs, 334 
sterres, stars, 8 
sterue, to, die, 9, 3 I 
Steven, voice, 399, 403 
stid, a, stead, place, 395 



stiff as a stake, 2 1 

still as a stone, 58 

stirre, a struggle, 337 

Stopes, Leonard, priest, ballad by, 1 3 

store, abundance, 246, 267, 283, 290 

Story, Dr. John, Catholic martyr, xviii 

straws, esteemed as, 14.0 

street-brawls, Elizabethan, 277 

strive against the stream, 254 

strutting full, 287 

styrrers, originators of, 65 

sutche, such, 64 

swelt, to, die, 248 

swet, sweat, 327 

swim in sin, 273 

swinge, to sway the, to bear sway, 7 

syence, science, knowledge, 46 

syne, sin, 43 

tables, printed ballads or broadsides, 

229, 405 

tacke, to, take, 39, 344 
tame, to, subdue, injure, 192, 240, 


tane, /./., taken, 94 
tattling tongues, 25 I 
tene, malice, I 5 
tent, heed, 393 
terrettes, turrets, 166 
texts, treatment of, explained, xxvi, 


than, then, 6, 29, 59, 324 
the, thee, 25, 30, 35; they, 36, 40, 

43> 8z '36 
then, than, 9, 21, 50, 67, 115, 121, 


theretill, 344 
Thewlis, John, priest, 70; ballad by, 

79; ballad of his execution, 87 
thicke, thicket, 177 
thie, the, 242; thy, 346 
tho, those, 400; then, 397, 399, 401 
Thorne, Master, ballads by, 265 
thrall, evil fortune, 40, 128, 217, 

226; 228 
thrilleth, pierces, 126 

throughlie, thoroughly, 72, 266, 310, 


throwe, through, 405 
Thwing, Edward, Catholic martyr, 70 
tickle trust, 25 
tilman, a, ploughman, 178 
Time, Father, ballad on, 184 
Tobias, ballad of, 219 
Tobit, Book of, 219 
too, to, 402 

too, too, adv. phrase, 243, 345 
top to toe, 73, 148, 2ii 
Totters Miscellany, 223; poems from 

in MSS., xxix, xxxi 
Tower, the, of London, I, 3, 69, 70, 


toys, trifles, 274, 316 
train, a, snare, 5, 43; a band, 75, 289 
transubstantiation, 28, 366 
trauvell, to, travail, 14, 1 1 1 
treachery, God's punishment for, 357 
Troilus and Cressida, ballad on, 322 
trump of Judgment, 241, 242, 243, 


Trundle, John, ballad-printer, 189 
Trusty Roger, murderer, 340, 343, 


tun, a, tub, 337 
Turbervile, George, xxv 
Turkey blades, 278 
turmoyle, trouble, 181, 301 
" Twelve Witty Warnings," 3 I 5 
twist, out of our, 388 
Tyburn, 64, 150, 152, 160. 
type, use of, explained, xxvi 

umbethink, to, 1 24 
undernome, p.p., received, 396 
undersong, a, chorus or refrain, 170 
(Other examples of undersongs are 
printed on pp. 20, 206, 238, 265, 

unstayed, unsupported, 23 

vade, to, fade, 309 

vale of misery, the earth, 266 



vance, to, advance, 240, 242, 257,259 
I vanity of the world, ballad on the, 265 

velvet beggars, 146 

vices, tirades against various, 


226, 240, 272, 277, 281, 285 
vine, God's, the Church of England, 

185, 188 
voide, adj., devoid of, 30; to, avoid, 

6, 269 
vylde, vile, 58 

W., T., i.e. Thomas Watertoune, 

ballad by, 2, 7 

walk, to, used of the tongue, 56 
Walpole, Henry, Jesuit, 87, 170 
Wanley, Humphry, 19 
warden, a, pear, 172 
I ware, to be, heedful, 298 
Warning for Fair Women, A, 340 
Watertoune, Thomas, ballad by, 2, 7 

ise, confounding , 299; contrary 
, no; feeling , 314; heaped 
, 312; honest, 317; nillmg 
, 263; possessing , 271; pro 
testing , 294; struggling , 296 

without all vain, 40 

wittold, a, cuckold, 196 

witty, wise, 15, 388 

woe worth, intety'., 325, 343, 35 6 

Wolsey, Cardinal, attacked by ballad- 
ists, x 

Wood, Antony, ballad-collection, 


Wooton, John, 101 
Worde, Wynkyn de, printer, 384 
wracke, ruin, 24, 25 
Wrennall (Wrenno), Roger, Catholic 

martyr, 87, 98 
wringing and wrunging, 20 
wyld, will'd, 59 

weale, to, wail, 167, 210 
weare, were, 42, 35, 324, 400 
Webley,Thomas, Catholic martyr, xx 
were, to, wear, 3, 129, 250 
Whartbn, Sir Thomas, and Scotch 

ballads, x 

Whetstone, George, xix, xxv, 3 1 5 
whore of Rome, 52; the purple - 

1 8 6, the Catholic Church 
wifed, life, married life, objected t 
for priests, 1 39 

yche, each, 330 

yea, ye, 84, 395> 4 2 

yeede, />./., went, no, 205, 393 

"York, Chorister's Song of," 163 

Yorkshire, priests arrested in, 70; 

Shanne family of, 372 
Youth and Death, a dialogue be 
tween, 252 

Zion hill, a shepherd on, I o I 

4 2 3 

SECT. JAN 1 1 






Rollings, Hyder Edward 
Old English Ballads