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In the following work, which comprises the history of a subject never before 
undertaken for England, the author has primarily endeavoured to provide 
information concerning drinking-glasses and glass-making in this country 
from Roman times to 1800. Dealing first with objects in vitreous pastes 
found in Britain, the va\a o-«eu?; of Strabo, the aggry beads, — some of them 
remnants, apparently, of Phoenician commerce, — Roman mosaic beads, and 
their ^//(T^Z-imitations the beads of Anglo-Saxon times, are successively touched 
upon. The evidences of glass-furnaces in Britain during the Roman domina- 
tion are spoken of; and while the large and varied number of drinking-vessels of 
Anglo-Saxon times are discussed historically, an endeavour is made for the first 
time to bring them into order, to classify, and to date them. The imported 
Oriental glasses — " a la fa^on de Damas," " a la Moresque " — are not overlooked, 
and the collateral rise and progress of painted glass in England, from the middle 
of the twelfth century to the time of the English painted windows of the Chapel 
of King's, of the first quarter of the sixteenth, is shown. Testimonies are adduced 
indicating the continuation of the manufacture of glass drinking-vessels in 
England during this long period, and up to the middle of the sixteenth century, 
illustrated by the evidence of inventories and a few actual vessels. 

The introduction of the glasses "fa9on de Venise " to England, the arrival of 
foreign glass-makers, the opening of the monopoly system, and the enormous 
development of glass-making in this country, both in " hollow ware " and " table " 
glass— comprising the period between 1549 and 1660— has now for the first time 
been drawn up and fully set forth from State Papers. Within this period is also 
included the first granting of concessions for glass-making to foreigners, and to 
English men of position, the introduction of coal fuel, and the consequent 
closing of the pots, the dawning of the use of lead, the prohibition of wood, the 


banning of foreign glass, the granting of limited Letters Patent, the long rule of 
Mansel, and the story of his struggles and difficulties. Extracts from Household 
Inventories from 1612 to 1649 illustrate the State Papers, and an account is then 
given of glass of different periods and kinds, and its constituents. 

Continuing the use of the State Papers from 1662 for a further period of a 
hundred years, the definite and systematic inauguration of "flint glass" or 
"glass of lead" and its gradual perfecting are shown to have taken place; and 
the account of the large importations from Venice, during the third quarter of the 
seventeenth century, of glasses made to the order of English merchants to com- 
pete with those of home manufacture, is set forth from original documents and 
drawings alone. The character of the English glasses of this time is demonstrated 
by examples which have been identified. 

Up to the end of the seventeenth century the main history has been drawn 
from documents, with illustrative glass vessels few and far between. The turning- 
point is now reached, and the sources of information are reversed : the glasses 
increase, and the documents diminish both in number and consequence, so that 
long before the middle of the eighteenth century the story is disentangled by the 
evidence of the glasses alone. 

Having finally come into the open, the task is undertaken of organising an 
exceeding great army of items, long since disbanded and dispersed. By striking 
them into sixteen groups, their relative places in the social history of the 
eighteenth century have now been recovered, and it is believed that by the aid 
of the terminology so formulated any eighteenth-century glass may readily have 
its position assigned to it by the collector. Accuracy of classification has been 
assured as to some groups by the accident of dated examples, while the association 
of items in others with political movements, temporary public feeling, or special 
social habits, has suffered their dates to be also ascertained, usually with tolerable 
exactness, often with certainty. Thus the varieties of the baluster-stemmed, 
the air-twisted, the opaque-twisted, and the cut-stemmed glasses are respectively 
restored to their positions in the long history. 

A chapter is devoted to Jacobite Glasses whose story up to the present time 
has, for obvious reasons, been somewhat of a mystery, and an account is given 
of Irish Glasses. A final chapter deals with the Drinks, the Wine, and the 
Ardent and Cordial Waters, from Anglo-Saxon times to the end of the eighteenth 
century, based entirely upon documentary evidence. 

The work is preceded by Introductory Notices concerning glass-making in 
E&ypt, and in Classic, Merovingian, and Mediaeval times; Venetian Glasses are 


treated of, and the origin and progress of glass drinking-vessels in the United 
Provinces is set forth now for the first time in England, with the aid of a large 
series of Low Country documents only of late years made available for use ; the rise, 
advance, and decay of that remarkable art movement, the introduction into the 
Low Countries by Venetians and Altarists of glasses " fa^on de Venise," being 
shown. The course of the glasses of Western Germany, of Silesia, Bohemia, and 
South Germany is similarly exhibited ; the Igel, Roemer, Krautstrunk, Passglas, 
Willkomm, and all kinds of Humpen illustrated, and their origins and varieties 
touched upon. The progression of glass-making in France, province by province, 
under the influence of Altarists and Venetians is in like manner succinctly given. 
It is not pretended that these notices are anything more than slight sketches. 
They give merely the outlines of a large subject with which it is desirable to be 
somewhat acquainted, in order to a proper realisation of the course of glass- 
making in England, and the influence of English glass in some of the regions 

Finally, an Appendix contains the text of the Patents and State Papers, 
which have served to elucidate a rather tangled chapter of glass history, together 
with Original Documents, Inventories, etc., for England ; the entire work being 
bound together by references to the whole of these records and to the text of the 
Introductory Notices, as well as to the authorities quoted throughout, in a series 
of 830 footnotes. 

The author is under no illusion as to the imperfections of a work which has 
of necessity touched upon so many points in an extended and often complicated 
survey. But he believes that those persons best able to realise the difficulties 
inseparable from the efi"orts of a pioneer in a field not heretofore explored, as far 
as the English story is concerned, will look with toleration upon shortcomings 
which can hardly fail to be associated with such initial attempt to piece together 
infinite details for an intelligible account. And, inasmuch as he may venture to 
say, with perfect truth, that no pains have been spared to collect widely-scattered 
materials, both as regards information and illustration ; to verify, as far as possible, 
every statement and date ; and to endeavour to ensure absolute accuracy in his 
drawings, he would fain hope (like the great Lexicographer) at least to escape 
reproach in these respects. 

The gulf that divides us socially from the old world of the Georges is already 
very wide and striking, and it would appear that the account now attempted of 
the glasses of the eighteenth century has by no means been undertaken too soon. 
The greater part of them were withdrawn from use nearly a hundred years ago. 


and the knowledge of the rapid destruction of the glasses of the last century, the 
general disappearance from view in late years of these objects once so familiar in 
old shops, as well as their known broad scattering in distant parts of the Empire, 
and in the New World, as cherished tokens from the mother country, has led to 
the conclusion that the compilation of the present account, and the illustration 
of sufficient types of an array of drinking-vessels formerly so abundant, would 
shortly have become a matter of considerable difficulty, and that the opportunity 
would have soon passed away for recording information as to which posterity 
might naturally desire to be informed. 

It will be at once recognised that with advancing time the varieties of the 
eighteenth-century glasses will in their turns, like the old silver, the pictures, and 
the furniture, take their places as historical relics and antiquities, and pass 
eventually by natural degrees from the condition of scarce to that of rare, and 
finally — long hence — of unique, of their different kinds. Such has been the 
sequence of the English-made glasses of Mansel's period, and of Greene's 
intrusive rivals of the home industry of Charles II. 's time, to look no further 

To the glasses of the eighteenth century the attention of collectors must be 
henceforth mainly directed, because those of a time previous to 1700 are not likely 
often to fall within their reach ; many, indeed, such as the Rose glasses and those 
of the earlier Jacobite period, already belong to the scarce series. 

With regard to the Illustrations, a few words may be convenient. The 
author is responsible for the outlines of one-half of the full-size plates ; sketches 
for others have been furnished by the kindness of friends ; others, again, have 
been taken from well-known archaeological works, and several from the actual 
glasses in the British Museum, by Mr. W. S. Weatherley, who has further drawn 
the entire number in lithography. To this accomplished artist the author is under 
the greatest obligation for his admirable representations of a series of objects 
fashioned in a material most difficult to portray. For the whole of the 366 
blocks in the letterpress the author is accountable. Those in the Introductory 
Notices are various reductions by photography from his full-sized drawings or 
rough sketches, sixteen only being copied from antiquarian works, and the rest 
taken from actual examples and pictures in museums on the Continent. The 
Anglo-Saxon glasses in the English account have been obtained from Akerman's 
Pagan Saxondom, Inventoriutn Sepulchrale, and other standard books. A dozen 
following these have been derived from as many sources, while the remaining 
208 blocks are reductions from the author's full-sized drawings to a uniform 


scale of one-third of the originals. With such a number this course was 

inevitable, but thanks to the care with which Mr. R. Paul has traced in ink the 

whole of the author's pencil drawings for photographic treatment, their distinctness 

has in no way suffered by the reduction. Full-size examples of nearly every group 

of eighteenth-century English glasses are included among the plates. Thus, it 

is hoped, their fragile forms will at least be rescued from oblivion. 

During the course of an inquiry that has extended over several years, the 

author has had cause to feel grateful to many friends and correspondents. His 

special acknowledgments are due to Msgr. de Bethune, of Bruges ; Herr Hans 

Bosh, Director of the Museum at Nuremberg; Herr A. von Czihak, Director of 

the Art School at Konigsberg ; the venerable Geheimer Rath Dr. \'on Hefner 

Alteneck, of Munich ; Jhr. B. W. F. van Riemsdijk, Director of the Rijks Museum 

at Amsterdam ; and Mons. H. Schuermans (Hon. F.S.A.), Premier President de la 

Cour d'Appel, at Liege. The author is also particularly under obligation to Mr. 

H. Syer Cuming; Dr. Fitz-Patrick, M.A., M.D. ; Miss F. Lloyd Fletcher; Mr. 

E. W. Hulme; Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie ; Mr. C. H. Read, F.S.A.; Mr. J. 

Singer; Sir G. R. Sitwell, Bt., F.S.A.; Lord Torphichen ; Sir A. Vicars, F.S.A., 

Ulster King of Arms ; Miss Whitmore Jones ; Mrs. W. Wilmer ; Mr. R. H. 

Wood, F.S.A. ; and the Dowager Lady Williams Wynn. To an old friend. 

Sir A. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., P.S.A., his indebtedness is of a wider 

character, since without the encouragement and sympathy of that distinguished 

antiquary, the present work on Old English might hardly have been 

undertaken at all. 

A. H. 

Bradbourne Hall, Derbyshire. 
January 1897. 




1. Egyptian 

2. Phoenician 

3. Greek . 

4. Roman . 

5. Byzantine 

6. Oriental 

7. Merovingian 

8. Venetian 

9. 'I'liE Low Countries 

10. Holland 

11. The Seventeen Provinces 

12. Germany — Rhine-land 

13. The Hedwig Glasses . 

14. Bohemia, Silesia 

15. Bavaria 

16. France 



















Beads in Britain— Aggry Beads— "Sun Beads"— Beads in Africa— Roman Beads— Anglo-Saxon Beads- 
Roman Glass-making in Britain ........ 



Anglo-Saxon Glasses — Manufacture — Decline — Revival in the North — Artificers from Gaul — A Glass-maker 
from Mayence — Glass-making in Kent and Sussex — Classification, Provenance, and Characteristics of 
Anglo-Saxon Glasses . . . . . . . . . .111 




Origin of Tainted Glass in France— Oriental 1 )rinking-Cups— Painted Glass in England— Early English, 

Decorated, and Perpendicular Glass— Glass in the Beauchamp Chapel . • ■ .124 


English Mediaeval Glasses— Phials— Silver and other Drinking-Cups of the Upper Classes and of the Couunon 
People— Oriental Glasses in England— Venetian (Classes— Henry VIII.'s Collection— William More's 
Glasses — Earl of Leicester's Glasses . . . • • • • • • '3i 


Renaissance of Glass-making in England — State Papers and Documents — Arrival of Venetians in London — 
Glass-making in Sussex and Surrey — Cornelius de Lannoy — Monopoly Patents — Concessions to Glass- 
makers from the Low Countries, Normandy and Lorraine — Patent to Verzelini — Painted Glass in 
King's College Chapel — Examples of English-made Glasses . . . • • • i47 


Lorraine and Normandy Gentlemen Glass-makers in Sussex and Surrey — Removal of the Former to Buckholt 
Wood, Hampshire — Their Progress westward to Newent in the Forest of Dean, to Gloucester, to Stour- 
bridge, and Northward to Newcastle-on-Tyne . . . . . ■ .167 


Patent to Sir Jerome Bowes — To Sir Percival Hart and Edward Salter — To Sir William Slingsby and Others— To 
Sir Edward Zouche, Thomas Percivall, and Others — The New Process— Re-grant to Zouche, Percivall, 
and Others — New Patent to a Court Company, including Sir E. Zouche, Percivall, and Sir Robert 
Mansel — Prohibition of Wood Fuel by Proclamation — Introduction of Coal in Furnaces — Letters 
Patent . . . . . ■ ■ ■ • • • -179 


Sir Robert Mansel Sole Patentee for Glass-making— His Proceedings— Foundation of the Modern System- 
Regulation of his Interests — James Howell — Antonio Miotti — Mirrors— Glass-making in Scotland — 
Renewal of Patent to Mansel — its Sweeping Character — Reasons against it — Defence of it — Motives 
and Reasons for its Maintenance — Answer of Mansel's Opponents— His Difficulties and Losses— His 
Life, Character, and Death — Petitions for Glass Licenses . . . • . .186 


Household Inventories— Lord William Howard— Dorothy Dame Shirley — Sir William and Sir Thomas Fairfax 
— Edmund \Varing — Relative Position of English Drinking-Glasses — Their Gradual Advance in Social 
Life— Henry VIII.'s Glasses— James I.'s Gifts— Charles I.'s Plate and Glasses . . .204 


Crystallinum— Constituents of Glass— Glass of Lead — Flint Glass — Merret's A'i';'-/— Vitrified Forts— Venetian 
Frit— Rarity of Examples of English-made Glasses between Anglo-Saxon Times and the Seventeenth 
Century — Mansel's Glasses and their Successors . . . • • • --13 




Patents continued— The Duke of Buckingham's Petition — Patent to Thomas Tilson for Glass of Lead— The 

Duke of Buckingham's Venetian Glasses — Glass Plates for Mirrors and Coaches . . . 220 


Glasses imported from Venice made to the Order of John Greene and other London Glass-sellers — Greene's 
Letters examined — His Drawings or "Forms" — Duration of Glasses — Existing Examples — English-made 
Concurrent Glasses — Their Characteristics — Glasses with Coins in the Stems — Sundry Glasses of the 
Time of Charles IL •••...... 228 


Sources of Information— Patents continued — Ravenscroft — Re-introduction of Flint and Pebbles in Flint Glass 
— Glass of Lead — Glass Hawkers from the Country — Houghton's List of Glass-houses, 1696 — Glasses 
of the Time of William HI. — Patents continued— Ruby Glass — Oppenheim's Specification for Flint Glass 
— Further Patents — English Glass in France ....... 240 


The Glasses of the Eighteenth Century — Table Equipment — Stages of Social Refinement — Evidences for the 
Classification of Eighteenth-Century Gla.sses — Localisation of Manufacture — Division by Stems and 
under Sizes — The great Punch Period — Manner of Action— Punch Bowls— Ladles^Kettles — Urns . 249 


Classification of Eighteenth-Century Glasses — Group I. Glasses with Incised or Ribbed-twisted Stems and 
Waisted Bowls — Group II. Glasses with Air-twisted Stems and Bell-shaped Bowls — Group HI. 
Glasses with Drawn Stems — Group IV. Glasses with Baluster Stems .... 256 


Classification of Eighteenth-Century Glasses continued — Group V. Tavern and Household Glasses — Group 

VI. Glasses with Opaque-twisted Stems and Bell-shaped Bowls . . . . .265 


Classification of Eighteenth-Century Glasses continued — Group VII. Straight-sided Glasses — Group VIII. Ogee 

Glasses, Fluted Ogee, and Double Ogee Glasses . . . . . . .277 


Classification of Eighteenth-Century Glasses continued — Glass-cutting in Modern Times — Practitioners in 
Germany in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries — Bohemian Cut Glass — Group IX. Cut and Engraved 
Glasses — Group X. Champagne Glasses — Sweetmeat Glasses ..... 287 


Classification of Eighteenth-Century Glasses continued — Brewing — Difference between Ale and Beer — 

Group XI. Ale Glasses — Mead Glasses — Syllabub Glasses ....-■ 300 


Classification of Eighteenth-Century Glasses continued — Origin and Antiquity of Cider — King John's Death 

— Excise Duties — Group XII. Cider Glasses, Perry Glasses ..... 309 




Classification of Eighteenth-Century Glasses continued — Origin and Antiquity of Distillation — Mediaeval 
Substitutes in England for Strong Waters — Their Introduction, Growth, and Establishment — Group 
XIII. Strong Waters Glasses — Cordial Waters Glasses — Masonic, Thistle, and Coaching Glasses . 315 


Classification of Eighteenth-Century Glasses continued — Group XI V^ Rummers, Grog, and Nelson Glasses — 

Group XV. Tumblers, Tankards, and Mugs . ....... 326 


Classification of Eighteenth-Century Glasses concluded — Group XVI. Flutes, Vards, Half- Yards, Horns, Boots, 

Hats, Mortars, Salt-Cellars, and Girandoles ........ 336 



Stuart Relics — The Rebellion of 1715 — Old Pretender Glasses — The Plot of 1723 — The Rebellion of 1745 — 
Young Pretender Glasses— Their Classification — Portrait Glasses — Mottoed Glasses — The Cycle Club — 
Cycle Glasses — Direct and Distorted Portraits of the Young Pretender — Glasses of a Gloucestershire 
Jacobite Club — Varieties of Jacobite Glasses — Sources of Manufacture .... 344 



Enamelling in Ireland in Early Times — Introduction of Glass-making — Proposals and Efforts for its Continu- 
ance — Frustration of the Industry — Revival in Belfast, Dublin, Cork, Waterford, Londonderry — 
Williamite Glasses — The Orange Toast . . . . . . . -374 




Clare — Piment — Wine from France — Its Character and Treatment — Vine Culture in England — Spanish Wine 
— Bastard — Rhenish Wine — Malvoisey — Muscadine — " Parelled " Wine — Hippocras — AVhite Wine — 
Distilled Wine — Imperial Water — Aqua Vitae — "Xeres Sec" — Canary — Sack — List of Wines from 
Documents — Wine in Bottles — Sack Glasses — Alicant — Tent — Port — The Port Wine Treaty — Its 
Results — Claret in Scotland and in Ireland — Price of Port — Its Pre-eminence . . ■ .379 


Original Documents ........... 393 

Inventories, etc. ........... 463 

GENERAL INDEX ........... 473 




1. Beads— Egyptian ; Romano-Egyptian. In the collection of Professor Flinders Petrie. Drawn by Mr. 

\V. S. Weatherley. Full size ...... 

2. Cup found at Couvin, Namur. From Annales de hi Societe Archeologique de Namur, vol. x.x. Drawn 

by the same. Full size 

3. Cup at Buda-Pest. From a photograph. Drawn by the same. Four-fifths full size . . -13 

4. Cup found at Varpelev. From Annakr for Nordisk Oldkyndcghed, 1881, p. 305. Drawn by the 

same. Full size 


5. Jug. From Sittmgbourne, Kent. In the British Museum. Drawn by the same. Three-quarters full size 18 

6. Lobed Glass. From Sarre, Kent. From Archaeologia Catiliami, vol. vi. PI. 5. Drawn by the same. 

Full size 


7. Glass by " Magister Aldrevandinus," and another with appeal to the Virgin. In the British Museum. 

Drawn by the same. Three-fifths full size ....... 2 ■; 

8. Silver-gilt mounted Roemer. In the possession of Lady Harvey. From a drawing by the author, 

and photographs. One-third full size . ,, 


9. Roemer. In the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam. From drawings by Jhr. B. W. F. van Riemsdijk and the 

author. Full size •■....... .g 

10. Berkemeyer. In the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam. From a drawing by Jhr. B. W. F. van Riemsdijk. 

Full size •■...... >8 

1 1. Roemer. In the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam. From a drawing by the same. Full size . . 48 

12. Silver-gilt Bekerschroeve, 1606. In the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam. From a drawing by the same. 

Half full size ••••... co 

13. Krautstrunk. In the British Museum. From a drawing by Mr. W. S. Weatherley. Two-thirds full size 66 

14. Roemer, in the British Museum. From a drawing by the author. Full size . . . .66 

15. Hedwig Glass. In the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam. From a drawing by Jhr. B. ^V. F. van Riemsdijk. 

Full size •••...... 71 

16. Bohemian Covered Cup. In the possession of Mr. C. D. E. Fortnum. From a drawing by the author. 

Four-fifths full size ■■........ 77 

17. German Glass-House. From Agricola. Drawn in facsimile by the author .... 80 

18. Beads— Roman; Anglo-Saxon. In the British Museum. Drawn by Mr. W. S. Weatherley. Full size . 108 

19. Lobed Glass. From Wickhambreau.v, Kent. From Archaeologia Cantiatta, vol. xvii. PI. 3. Drawn 

by the same. Full size . . . . . . . . _ .iig 

20. Lobed Glass. From Ashford, Kent. In the British Museum. Drawn by the same. Five-sixths full size 119 
2 1. Lobed Glass. From Sarre, Kent. From Archaeologia Caii/iana, vol. vi. PI. 5. Drawn by the same. 

Full size . . . . . . . . . . .no 

22. Silver-gilt mounted Oriental Glass. From a photograph. Drawn by the same. Half full size . . 139 

23. Oriental Glass — " Luck of Edenhall." From Lysons's C«;«/w/rt«i/, p. ccix. Drawn by the same. Full size 139 

24. Claimant to Luckship of Muncaster. In the possession of Mr. T. Clutterbuck. From a drawing by Miss 

A. M. Erskine. Full size .......... 141 

25. Jacob Verzelini, died 1606. From his brass in Downe Church, Kent. From a drawing by the author . 157 

26. Silver-gilt mounted Tankard of Lord Burghley. In the British Museum. From a photograph. Drawn 

by Mr. W. S. Weatherley. Full size . . . . . . . .164 

27. Glass by Verzelini, dated 1 5S6. In the British Museum. Drawn by the same. Full size . . 165 



28. Glass dated 1663. In the British Museum. Drawn by the same. Full size 

29. Royal Oak Cup, dated 1663. In the possession of Mr. H. Festing. From a drawing by the author 

Full size ....■■■•••■ 

30. Greene's " Forms " — Wine and Beer Glasses ....... 

31. Greene's " Forms " — Sundry Glasses ........ 

32. Greene's " Forms "—.Sundry Glasses ........ 

(Reduced by photography from facsimiles by the author of the original outlines in tlic Sloane MSS.) 
2,^. Posset Pot. In the possession of Miss Whitmore Jones. From a drawing by the author. Two-third: 
full size ........... 

34. Glass in the collection of the late Dowager Marchioness of Huntly. From a drawing by the author 

Full size ........... 

35. Waisted Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size 

36. Bell Glass, with coin in stem. In the British Museum. From a drawing by the author. Full size 

37. Bell Glass, with coin in stem. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. F"ull size 

38. Drawn Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size 

39. Drawn Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size 

40. FJrawn Glass, waisted bowl. In the possession of Miss Hartshorne. From a drawing by the author 

Full size ........... 

41. Baluster-stemmed Glasses. In the possession of, and from drawings by the author. Full size 

42. Tavern or Household Glass, with lead streaks. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author 

Full size ........... 

43. Illustrations of Tavern Life. From Roberts's Calliope ...... 

44. Bell Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size 

45. Straight-sided Glass. In the possession of Mr. A. Wallis. From a drawing by the author. Full size 

46. Ogee Glass. In the possession of Mr. J. Hodgkin. From a drawing by the author. Full size . 

47. Cut Glass — Frederic Prince of Wales. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Two 

thirds full size .......... 

48. Cut Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size . 

49. Champagne Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size . 

50. Ale Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size . 

51. Cider Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size 

52. Strong Waters Glasses — -(i) In the possession of the Dowager Lady Williams Wynn ; (2) in the 

possession of the author. From drawings by the same. Full size ..... 

53. Nelson Funeral Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size 

54. Glass Tankard " Wilkes and Liberty N"- 45." In the possession of, and from a drawing by Mr. A. 

Wallis. Full size ........... 

55. "The Ale-yard." In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. One quarter full size 

56. Jacobite Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by Colonel Mesham. Full size 

57. Jacobite Glass. In the possession of the Dowager Lady Williams Wynn. From a drawing by the author. 

Full size ............ 

58. Jacobite Glasses, i, 2. From the collection of the late Mr. W. J. Clement, M.P. From drawings by the 

author. Full size .......... 

59. Jacobite Glass. In the possession of Mr. F. Harman OatCs- From photographs. Full size 

60. Jacobite Glass. In the Preston Museum. From a drawing by Mr. H. C. Walton. Full size 

61. Jacobite Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by Mr. G. Sandford Corser. Full size 

62. Jacobite Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size 

63. Jacobite Cabinet, with Portrait and Glasses. In the possession of Sir P. Grey-Egerton, Bt. From a 

photograph ............ 

64. Jacobite Flask. In the possession of Miss Whitmore Jones. From a drawing by the author. Full size. 

65. Jacobite Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size 

66. Jacobite Glasses. In the possession of Admiral Robertson Macdonald. From drawings by Miss 

Robertson Macdonald. Full size ......... 

67. Williamite Glass. In the possession of, and from a drawing by the author. Full size 
















I, 2. 

3, 4- 

















60, 61. 




68, 69. 







81, 82. 


From Wilkinson's Aiicient Egyptians 

From Catalogue of Slade Collection of Glass 

From Gamier, Hist aire de la Verrerie 

From Catalogue of Slade Collection of Glass 

In Museum, Nuremberg 

In Museum, Munich 

From Nordiske Fortidsjnindcr iidgione af del Kgl. Nordiske Oldskriftsehkab 

In Museum, Nuremberg 

In Kunstgewerbe Museum, Cologne 

From Catalogue of Slade Collection of Glass 

In Museum, Munich 

In Museum, Nuremberg 

In the possession of Mr. J. Curie, jun. 

From Catalogue of Slade Collection of Glass 

From Bcilage zu dem Wiirltei/il>ergische?i vicrtclsjahres Heflcn fiir Landcs. 

In Museum, Munich 

In Archaeological Museum, Li^ge 

From Mitteilutigen aus dem germaiiischen Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, 189 

From Early Flemish pictures 

In the possession of Mr. J. R. Boyall 

From the collection of the late Mr. R. H. Soden Smith 

In the possession of Mr. J. Chester 

In the possession of Mr. J. W. Singer 

In the possession of Mr. J. R. Boyall 

In Museum, Nuremberg 

In Museum, Amsterdam 

In Steen Museum, Antwerp 

From picture by van der Heist, Amsterdam 

In Steen Museum, Antwerp 

In Museum, Cologne 

In Kunst und Industrie Museum, Vienna 

In Museum, Munich 

In Museum, Amsterdam 

In Museum, Munich 

In Museum, Amsterdam 

In Museum, Nuremberg 

In Museum, Cologne 

In Museum, Amsterdam 

In Slade Collection, British Museum 

In the possession of Mr. J. Hawkins 

In the possession of Mr. J. Chester 

ichle, ete. 




1 1 

14, IS 

47, 49 
52, 53 



85, 86. 
87, 88. 
89, 90. 



94, 95- 






1 1. 


2 I. 
2 2. 













aux Arts, Brussels 





From the collection of the late Mr. R. H. Soden Smith 

In the possession of Miss Hartshorne 

In the possession of the author . 

In Museum, Nuremberg . 

In Museum, Munich 

In Museum, Cologne 

From pictures by T. Bouts and J. Mostacrt, Palais des Be 

In Museum, Cologne 

In Museum, Amsterdam 

In the possession of the author . 

In Museum, Cologne 

In Museum, Nuremberg 

In Museum, Cologne 

In Museum, Vienna 

In Museum, Cologne 

In Museum, Vienna 

In Museum, Vienna 

In the possession of Mr. C. F. K. Mainwaring 

In Museum, Munich 

In Museum, Nuremberg 

In Museum, Munich 

In Museum, Nuremberg 

From E. v. Czihak's SMcsisi-hc Glliser 

In Museum, Munich 

In Museum, Cologne 

In Museum, Munich 

In Museum, Nuremberg 

From Catalogue of Slade Collection of Glass 

From Akerman's Pagati Saxondom, Wodensborough, Kent 

From Inventoriiim Sepulchrak., Gilton, Kent 

From Collectanea Antigua, vol. iii., Osingel, Kent 

From Archaeological Journal, vol. xi., Linton Heath, Cambridgeshire 

From Archaeologia Caniiana, vol. xvii., Wickhaml)reaux, Kent 

From Inventorium Scpulchrale, Gilton, Kent 

From Inventorium Scpulchrale, Barfreston, Kent . 

From Archaeologia Cantiana, vol. xvii., Sarre, Kent 

Frotn Inventorium Scpulchrale, Kingston, Kent 

From Invenforiutn Scpulchrale, Sibertswold, Kent . 

From Akerman's Pagan Saxondom, Hoth, Kent . 

From Akerman's Pagan Saxondom, Bungay, Suffolk 

From Invenioriu?n Scpulchrale, Kingston, Kent 

From Akerman's Pagan Saxondom, Cuddesden, Oxfordshire 

From Akerman's Pagan Saxondom, Wodensborough, Kent 

From Inventorium Scpulchrale, Barfreston, Kent . 

From Inventorium Scpulchrale, Kingston, Kent 

From Inventorium Scpulchrale, Barfreston, Kent . 

From Archaeologia Cantiana, vol. x., Bifrons, Kent 

From Inventorium Scpulchrale, Kingston, Kent 

F"rom Inventoriiun Scpulchrale, Sibertswold, Kent 

From Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries (Scot.), vol. x., N.S. Coffin at Peterborough 

From Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries (Scot.), vol. viii., N.S. Cist in Forfarshire 

From Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries, 2 S., vol. iv. . 

From Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries, 2 S., vol. vi. . 

From Domestic Architecture, vol. iii. ...... 




80, Si 

[ I ' 

: I ■ 

I \ 

■ 1/ 














161, 162. 


17s. 176. 

178, 179. 


182, 183. 







195, 196. 

198, 199. 


210, 211. 







223, 224. 








From Art Journal, December 1879 

In the possession of Colonel Goodall 

In the possession of Mr. C. H. Woodruff 

In the possession of Her Most Gracious Majesty 

From Journal, British Archaeological Association, 

From Peacham's Cotnpleat Gentleman 

In the possession of the author . 

From Greene's " Forms " 

In the possession of Mr. H. Syer Cuming 

In the possession of Mr. J. W. Singer 

In the possession of the author . 

In the possession of Mrs. Beatty-Pownall 

In the possession of Mr. P. H. Bate 

In the possession of Mrs. Shirley Harris 

In the possession of Mr. J. Lane 

In the possession of Mr. J. W. Singer 

From the collection of the late Mr. R. H 

In the possession of the author . 

In the Museum of Practical Geology 

In the possession of the author . 

From the collection of the late Mr. R. H 

In the possession of the author . 

In the possession of Mr. J. Taylor 

In the possession of Mr. B. F. Hartshorne 

In the possession of the author . 

In the possession of Miss Hartshorne 

In the possession of the author . 

In the possession of Mr. H. Syer Cumin 

In the possession of the author . 

In the possession of Mr. H. Syer Cuminj 

In the possession of the author . 

In the British Museum . 

In private hands 

In the possession of the author . 

In the possession of Lord Torphichen 

In the possession of the author . 

In the British Museum . 

In the possession of the author . 

In the possession of Lord Torphichen 

In the possession of Miss Hartshorne 

In the possession of Lord Torphichen 

In the possession of the author 

In the possession of the author . 

From the collection of the late Mr. R. H 

In the possession of the author . 

In the possession of Mrs. Shipman 

In the possession of Mr. A. Wallis 

From the collection of the late Mr. R. H 

In the possession of the author . 

In the possession of Lord Torphichen 

In the possession of the Rev. S. M. Mayh 

In the possession of the author . 

In the Museum of Practical Geology 

In the possession of the author . 




vol. xvi 





274, 2 

36, 238 

46, 257 

62, 263 
57, 268 

?5. 279 


230. In the possession of Mr. J. Lane 

231. In the possession of the author . 

232. From the collection of the late Lieut.-Gen. Fraser, V.C., 

233. In the possession of Mr. E. A. G. Jewitt 

234. In the possession of the author . 

235. In the possession of Mr. J. W. Singer 
23C, 237. In the possession of Mrs. W. Wilmer 

238. In the possession of the author . 

239. In the possession of Mr. J. W. Singer 

240. In the possession of the author . 

241. From the collection of the late Mr. R. H. Soden Smith 

242. In the possession of the Rev. J. C. Eardley Field 

243. In the South Kensington Museum 

244. In the possession of the author . 

245. In the possession of the Rev. A. S. Porter 

246. In private hands 

247. In the possession of Mr. E. A. G. Jewitt . 

248. In tlie possession of Mr. Edward Grant . 
249, 250. In the possession of the author . 

251. In the possession of Miss C. M. Hartshorne 

252. In the possession of Mrs. A. Birdsall 

253. In private hands 

254. In the possession of the author . 
255, 256. In the possession of Lord Torphichen 
25 7) 258. In the possession of the author . 

259. In private hands 

260. In the possession of Miss Hartshorne 

261. In the possession of the author . 

262. In the possession of Dr. O. Pritchard 

263. In the possession of Mr. B. F. Hartshorne 

264. In the possession of the author . 

265. In the possession of Mr. C. H. Read 

266. In private hands 

267. In the possession of Mr. H. Syer Cuming 

2 68. In the possession of Mr. J. W. Singer 

269. In private hands 

270. In the possession of Colonel Maurice 

271. In private hands 
272-276. In the possession of the author . 

277. In the possession of Mr. B. F. Hartshorne 

2 7 8. In the possession of the author . 

279. In the possession of Mr. H. Syer Cuming 
280, 281. In the possession of the author . 
282, 283. In the possession of Mr. H. Syer Cuming 

284. In the possession of the author . 

285. In the possession of Mr. H. Syer Cuming 

286. In the possession of Mr. H. Willett 

287. In the possession of the author . 

288. In the possession of Mr. J. AV. Singer 

289. In private hands 
290-292. In the possession of the author . 

293. In the possession of Mrs. W. Wilmer 

294. In the possession of the author . 

295. In the possession of Mrs. W. Wihner 


284, 285 

503. 304 




296, 297. In the possession of the author . 

298. In the jjossession of the Rev. R. G. Buc 

299. In the possession of Mrs. Fitz-Patrick 

300. In the possession of Mr. J. W. Singer 

301. In the possession of the author . 

302. In the possession of the Rev. W. D. Pari 
303-307. In the possession of the author . 

308. In the possession of Mrs. Banks . 

309-31 1. In the possession of the author . 

312. From the collection of the late Mr. R. H. Sodcn Smith 

313. In the possession of Miss Fenton 
314-317. In the possession of the author . 

318. In the possession of Lord Torphichcn 

319. In the possession of the author . 

320. In the possession of Mr. B. F. Hartshorne 

321. In the possession of the author . 

322. In the possession of Mr. J. Frank 

323. In the possession of Mr. H. H. Howard Vyse 

324. In the possession of Mr. J. Bagot 

325. In private hands 

326. In the possession of Mr. J. Hawkins 
327, 328. In the possession of the author . 

329. In the possession of Miss Hartshorne 

33°i 331- In Museum, Greenwich Hospital. 

332. ZZ?,- In private hands 

334. In the possession of Mr. W. Money 

335. In the possession of Mr. H. Willett 

336. In the possession of Monsgr. de Bethune 
33 7. ?)2>^- In private hands 

339. In the possession of Mrs. A. Birdsall 

340. In the possession of Mr. W. M. Baylie 

341. In the possession of Mrs. W. Wilmer 

342. In private hands 

343. In the possession of the author . 

344. In the possession of Captain Darwin 

345. Formerly in "Wrestlers'" Inn, Cambridgi 

346. In Norwich Museum 

347. In Archaeological Museum, Liege 

348. In the possession of Mr. W. G. Fretton 
349-353. In the possession of the author . 

354. In the possession of the Dowager Lady Williams Wynn 

355. In the possession of Mr. W. Murray Threipland 

356. In the possession of the Rev. S. M. Mayhew 

357. In the possession of Mr. J. W. Singer 
3581 359- In the possession of Mr. J. L. Way 

360. In the possession of Mr. J. C. Ford 

361, 362. Cycle Jewel. In the possession of the Dowager Lady Williams AV 

363. From the collection of the late Dowager Marchioness of Huntly 

364. In the possession of Mr. J. Wood 

365. In the possession of Mr. J. W. Singer 

366. In the Museum of Practical Geology 



319. 320 

520, 321 

?4i> 342 





That myths and legends should hover and cluster in classic times about the story of the first 
dawnings of an art which, beyond all others, has conferred surpassing benefits upon mankind — 
whether we consider it in its highest capability, in its relation to our increased knowledge of 
the worlds in the firmament of heaven, to the diffusion of light in our dwelling-houses, or to 
the cheap and cleanly vessels which it provides for our constant domestic requirements" — is 
as characteristic of classical sentiment as that such romances should be copied and handed 
down by later writers. 

Pliny first gives us the picturesque account that was reported of certain Phoenician merchant 
mariners returning from Egypt to Syria with a cargo of natron, or carbonate of soda. 
Having landed on the sandy beach of the river Belus, under Mount Carmel, and finding 
no stones proper for the purpose, they rested their cooking-pots on blocks from their own 
freight. It may be recalled that the series of natron lakes in the barren desert of the Natron 
Valley which borders upon Lower Egypt would have furnished material for the particular 
cargo, natron from these sources being much employed in early times both in Syria and in 
Egypt for bleaching linen as well as for other uses. The story continues that the natron 
blocks, becoming fused by the heat of the fire, caused the alkali to form a flux for the silicious 

1 The author takes the first opportunity of acknow- taught to procure a body at once in a high degree solid 
ledging his indebtedness, for information concerning the and transparent which might admit the light of the sun, 
art of glass-making in ancient and in mediaeval times, and exclude the violence of the wind; which might extend 
to the researches of the late Mr. Alexander Nesbitt, as the sight of the philosopher to new ranges of existence, 
set forth in his Notes on the History of Glass-making, and charm him at one time with the unbounded extent 
forming the Introduction to the Catalogue of the Slade of the material creation, and at another with the endless 
Collection, and to the slightly fuller Introductory Notice subordination of animal life; and what is yet of more 
by the same accomplished antiquary which accompanies importance, might supply the decays of nature, and 
the Catalogue of the Glass Vessels in the South Kensington succour old age with subsidiary sight. Thus was the first 
Museum. artificer in glass employed, though without his own know- 

2 " Who, when he saw the first sand or ashes by a ledge or expectation. He was facilitating and prolonging 
casual intenseness of heat melted into a metallic form, the enjoyment of light, enlarging the avenues of science, 
rugged with excrescences, and clouded with impurities, and conferring the highest and most lasting pleasures ; 
would have imagined that in this shapeless lump lay con- he was enabling the student to contemplate nature, and 
cealed so many conveniences of life as would in time the beauty to behold herself." — Dr. Johnson, Rainbkr, 
constitute a great part of the happiness of the world ? No. ix. 

Yet by some such fortuitous liquefaction was mankind 


sand of the river, that a liquid and transparent stream was the result, and that such was 

the origin of glass.' 

It will be noticed that Pliny mentions the matter as a report. Tacitus makes the same 
statement, leaving out the cooking-vessels ; and Flavius Josephus repeats it, substituting the 
Children of Israel for the Phoenician merchants, and somewhat varying the incidents. 

On the other hand, it is difficult to understand how substances which at the present day 
can only be fused in special furnaces at a heat of from 1832" to 2732' Fahr. could have 
become liquefied at an open cooking fire. The story must be taken for what it is worth, 
but it is well known that there are few myths, legends, or reports that have not some basis 
of truth." 

The excavations made in the early part of 1894 by Professor Petrie on the site of 
Koptos, thirty miles north of Thebes, disclosed for the first time remains of remote pre- 
historic Egypt. It is impossible to say whether a cognisance of the production either of 
glazes or of glass was brought into Egypt by primeval settlers from the sacred land of Punt 
in South-Western Arabia. The extent of primitive Egyptian civilisation as revealed at 
Koptos does not point to such a technical advance. The art may, indeed, have had its 
dawning in a civilisation of hoary ages more than seven thousand years ago, when the Book 
of the Dead, with its high religious ideal, was even then venerable, and before remote 
antiquity had begun its course. These are, truly, distances in time which are almost as 
difficult for an ordinary mind to grasp as are those which astronomers have revealed in 
space. But, given the knowledge of fire, the accidental production of a glaze might have 
arrived at any moment. Nevertheless it would, in all probability, be to the artistic period of 
the fourth dynasty (3998-3720 B.C.) that the introduction of glass-making may be ascribed ; 
and one is tempted to think that there need be no reasonable doubt that it then had its 
origin in the furnaces of the potters at this comparatively late period.' 

With respect to the manipulation of glass for vessels by the Egyptians, it has hitherto 
been considered as settled that the blowing tube was used, and the objects fashioned with it 
much as at the present day. In illustration of this practice the paintings at Beni Hassan, as 
given by Wilkinson, of men blowing at or into a fire, through tubes with a lump depicted at 
their ends, have been adduced (Figs, i, 2). Allowing for a certain amount of conventionalism 
in these pictures, both as to the action of the men and the character of the fire, they still 
are by no means convincing, and on examining the Egyptian vases of ornamental glass — often 
called Phoenician, and which greatly resembled them — it is apparent that they have not been 
blown, but moulded by hand with rude tools, decorated and "patted" into shape, the interior 
being manipulated with a piece of wood (Figs. 3,4). It is impossible that the paintings can 

1 " Fama est, appulsa nave mercatorum nitri cum the Middle Ages when the advantage of his House is in 

sparsi per Httus epulas parerent, nee esset cortinis atto- question, or by a scandalous chronicler of the eighteenth 

lendis lapidum occasio, glebas nitris e nave subdicisse, century. 

quibus accensis permixta arena littoris, translucentes novi ^ The man who first noticed the vitrification of 

liquoris fluxisse rivos, et hanc fuisse originem vitri." — certain substances brought about by fire may have been 

Pliny xxxvi. 65. any potter at his kiln, struggling, as in De Foe's capital 

- Yet who would not shrink from the task of attempt- picture of Robinson Crusoe's efforts, to make him a pot ; 

ing to find even a semblance of such basis with regard to but the real discoverer was he who first saw that by 

the childish story of Petronius about malleable glass, blowing into the liquescent substance through a tube 

which Pliny, Dion Cassius, and others have repeated with vessels could be fashioned out of it. That man is more 

no more care for veracity than is shown by a monk of likely to have been a Phoenician than an Egyptian. 

SEC. I. 


be intended to represent the manufacture which the character of the glass vessels themselves 
evince, because blowing is the conspicuous action in the pictures ; but it is probable that metal 
working is intended, much as it is primitively practised at the present day by wandering silver- 


Fig. 2. 

smiths in the Punjaub, and that the lumps at the ends of the tubes are of clay to obviate the 
burning of the hollow reeds. It is fair to give a third illustration from M. Garnier's book, 
taken from Cailliaud, but again it would be difficult to indicate exactly what process is intended 
to be shown by it (Fig. 5). It is very doubtful whether there was any blown glass in Egypt 
before Roman times. 

The city of Tel-el-Amarna in Upper Egypt was e.xcavated by Professor Petrie in 1892. 
This was a place entirely built by Amenhotep IV. in twelve years as a centre for his great 
revolution in religion and art, just before the middle of the eighteenth dynasty — about 1400 
B.C. The new system and the new place were 
swept away within a generation after the death 
of Amenhotep, who reigned only eighteen years. 
Of particular interest in the present inquiry 
are the examples of glass that were found, every 
stage of glass-working being also illustrated 
by the fragments that were unearthed on this 
unique historic site, — crucibles, samples taken out 
of them, opaque and partially clear glass, in rod, 
strip, thread, and tube form, for decorating the 
vases, and wound round wire for making beads, 
some of which were glazed and some in open 
work, and cut and engraved with hieroglyphics. 
Besides these were quantities of portions of 
glass vases ornamented in various patterns, in 
red, blue, green, and yellow, and coloured rods 
placed together in designs drawn out for use in 
sections as inlays — an art pushed to the furthest 
point by the Romans long after. All these ob- 
jects are of the highest interest from the circum- 
stance and precise date of their manufacture. 

With regard to beads, they had their origin in the remote ages of the world in the 
desire of savage men and women to ornament themselves with coloured stones, pebbles, and 
shells which they found so shaped naturally that they could be readily suspended from their 
bodies. By a spontaneous transition these led to the artificial piercing of soft stones of a 
particular kind, colour, and value, and to their subsequent smoothing by attrition, and, later, by 



(Full size.) 

Fig. 4. (Full size.) 



cutting and polishing. Such was probably the course as to stone beads in Egypt, where the 
earliest beads of vitreous paste are of the fifth dynasty, in blue and white. In the general 
treatment of the latter, they follow that which obtained with regard to stone beads, 
the earliest examples being smooth and the latest cut. By the end of the eighteenth 
dynasty (1587-1327 B.C.) the art was fully developed, as the pendent eye beads and other 
pendent beads show ; following these we have glazed-ware beads, bugles, pendent figures of 
divinities, and sacred beasts ; and in the end, under Roman influence, millefiori, zigzagged, 
scribbled, waved, and spotted beads, the decorations being in white, yellow, red, and blue ; 

Fig. 5. 

and square, oblong, fluted, turbinated, gimmal or dumb-bell, blackberry, cut, and faceted 
beads, well known from Roman examples that have been found in Britain. Moreover, the 
tombs and the soil of Egypt have surrendered an infinite quantity of glazed pottery or 
opaque glass paste figures, mystic eyes, eye plaques, scarabaei and ornaments, besides beads of 
brilliant turquoise blue, dusky green, or shades of buff (Plate 1). 

It may be inferred that there was considerable resemblance between the glass manu- 
facture of Egypt and that of Phoenicia, from the accounts left us by Herodotus — who does 
not appear, however, to have been fully aware of the real nature of glass — Pliny, and 
Theophrastus, of great statues and obelisks in both countries, of green glass, described as 
of emeralds, as well as from observation of examples known to be the productions of the 
respective countries. Pliny also tells us that a small spot at the mouth of the river Belus 
furnished sand which has sufficed to produce glass for many centuries. The Venetians 
are known to have imported this sand in later times. 

Following in date the later Egyptian works of the twenty-third dynasty, seems to 
be a vase of transparent greenish glass from Nineveh, now in the British Museum. On 
one side a lion is engraved and a line of cuneiform characters containing the name of 
Sargon, King of Assyria, 722-704 B.C. There is not sufficient material for the formation 
of a decided opinion as to the extent to which glass -making was carried in Assyria, but 
this vessel has extreme value from being the earliest known piece bearing a date. Many 
of the specimens found by the late Sir Henry Layard at Nineveh may apparently be 
referred to the Roman colony of Niniva Claudiopolis. 


The earliest productions of the Phoenicians in the art of glass-making appear to be 
the well-known and widely-distributed coloured or " aggry " beads. Their occurrence in 
such distant parts of the then recognised world points to barter between the merchants 




of Phoenicia and the barbarians, a kind of commerce still carried on at the present day 
through the medium of Venetian beads. It is, however, probable, and seems, indeed, to 
be the natural result of circumstances, that many of the so-called Phoenician beads belong 
to periods later than the flourishing times of Tyre and Sidon. Strabo, in words that are 
somewhat ambiguous, speaks of glass in various forms being imported into Britain in the 
first and second centuries.^ 

It has been stated that glass-making was established at a very remote period in 
Sicily, the Islands of the Archipelago, and in Etruria ; it is possible, but from the close 
resemblance to each other of the little vases usually called Greek, that are found in tombs 
in the countries whose coasts are washed by the Mediterranean, it seems more likely that 
they are Phoenician, and produced in cities not widely separated from each other.- The 
vases of this class have usually the form of alabastra, or of amphorae, the prevailing colour 
being deep transparent blue ; not infrequently the body of the 
vessel is pale buff to white, occasionally deep green, and in rare 
cases red. In almost every instance the surface is ornamented 
in chevrony lines, or in bands of white, yellow, or turquoise blue ; 
in other examples the entire surface is so ornamented, the character of 
decoration which was common both to Egyptian, Phoenician, and 
Romano-Egyptian vessels recalling in a more brilliant degree some of 
the humble marbled papers of bookbinders of the latter part of the last 
century. The high value that was set upon these vessels by the 
Greeks and the Etruscans is sufficiently indicated by the stands of 
gold which were provided for such of them as, having a pointed 
base, required support (Fig. 6). A golden stand of this kind is in 
the Slade Collection, and another one, found with an amphora, is in 
the British Museum. Examples of these vases have been discovered 
associated with objects of a character which indicates a time not earlier 
than the third or fourth century before Christ. A great quantity 
of glass vessels, but chiefly colourless, and doubtless due to the 

colonisation of Cyprus by the Phoenicians, has been discovered within the last few years in 
that island. Whatever may be the period of the earliest of these antiquities, they do not 
seem, as in the case of the coloured vases just alluded to, to have been met with in tombs 
of a later date than the Christian era. 

Fig. 6. (Two thirds.) 

' His words are : reAv; re oi'ttois iVo/xei'oiio-t (iap^a 
TMV T€ etVayo/iercoi' ei9 T))i' K(Xtik-i]V iKiiOiv Kai rHiv i^ayo- 
jxivtav h'OivSi (ravTa 8 cariv l\i(fidvTLva tpiXia Kat irepiav- 
y^evia Kal Xiyyoi'pia Kal vaka uKtvij Kal ciAAos puiiro'S Toi- 
ovTO<s), wcTTC iii]Stv Sell' rjjpovpH'; T?if I'ijcroi'. — Lib. IV. 5, 3. 
"They, i.e. the people of Britain, cannot bear heavy duties 
both on the imports into Keltica {sc. Gaul) from thence 
(iK(Wei') and on the exports from Keltica hither (tvda'oe) 
which are ivory bracelets and necklaces, amber, vessels of 

glass ({laAa (TKEwj), and other such small wares, so that the 
island hardly needs a guard." The language admits of an 
interpretation that vessels of glass were both exported and 
imported; but the use of the word kvO^vBe (in opposition 
to iKiWiv) immediately before the reference to the ivory, 
etc., implies that those articles were imports to Britain 
from Gaul. 

- Introduction, S/ade Catalogue, p. vi. 



The Greeks do not appear to have much cultivated the art of glass-making before 
Christian times. Happily, certainly, on the one hand, for mankind, the nation gifted beyond 
all others of antiquity preferred to work in clay, and to fix upon the cold and plastic substance, 
with the tenderest gradations of the purest forms, the evidence of that surpassing genius 
which had been attained, as the highest of all art development must be, by the gradual labour 
of generations of artists. Nevertheless, on the other hand, it must ever be matter for regret 
that the Greeks did not, in their best periods, bend their transcendent powers to the 
manipulation of glass, the material which beyond any other gives instant form to the bright 
fancies of individual intellect, resigns itself with the utmost freedom to the dictates of sudden 
inspiration, and crystallises the most fleeting creations of the mind ; and the world, lacking 
glass from the Greeks of the great age, remains sadly poorer in consequence.' 

The earliest productions in vitrified pastes and glass in all countries naturally took the 
form of personal ornaments, beads, and inlaid decorations in jewellery. And, similarly, 
vitrified decorations are found in architecture and sculpture, at least in so far as Greece is 
concerned, as is shown by the blue glass inlaid in the capitals of the portico of the temple of 
Minerva Polias, on the Acropolis at Athens, of the best period of Greek art. Within the 
last few years the broken fragments of buildings, sculptures, etc., the effects of the sack of 
Athens by the Persians in 480 B.C. — which had been utilised by the victorious Greeks, after the 
defeat of Xerxes in the following year, for the extension of the plateau of the Acropolis, when 
they began to rebuild their public monuments — have been thoroughly excavated and examined 
with most important historical results. The eyes of the life-size or colossal and richly 
painted female figures, which date at least before 480 B.C., are usually inlaid in glass enamel 
or crystal.^ Pliny tells the quaint story of the marble lion with the brightly-shining emerald- 
green eyes of glass looking out from the headland in the island of Cyprus, which so terrified 
the tunnies in the fisheries that it became necessary to change or remove them.^ 


Allusion has already been made to Romano-Egyptian glass ; there can be no doubt that 
the Romans drew their first inspirations in glass-working from Phoenicia and Egypt. Both 
the fame and the products of the furnaces in those ancient lands had reached the Eternal 
City long before Imperial times, for the glass-houses of Sidon, and particularly of 
Alexandria, certainly supplied Rome with large quantities of their fragile wares. But to 
what extent the Romans themselves had imitated Egyptian and Phoenician models, or carried 

1 M. Gamier contrasts the moderate development to que toute autre matiere a la decoration.'' — Histoire de la 

which glass-making had attained in Greece with the Verrerie et de rEinail/erie, \). 22, edit. 1886. 

perfection of ceramic art — "ce que Ton peut attribuer ^ Archaeological Journal, vol. xlvii. p. 347, Address 

sans doute h. ce que le verre, avec les moyens de fabrica- by the late Prof. Middleton. 

tion dont on disposait alors, se pretait plus difficilement ^ Nat. Hist., Lib. xx.xvij. cap. 5. 


on glass-making at all before the successive subjugation of Syria and Egypt, would not 
be an easy matter to pronounce upon ; inasmuch as the traditional forms of such vessels 
as the oenoche, the aviphora, or the alabastron were generally retained, serving as they did 
the same purposes as in earlier times, whether for the table, the toilet, or the interment, 
while precisely the same processes must have been used in their manufacture.^ The 
difference between Egyptian and Phoenician glass vessels and those of Roman make is 
a question of brilliancy of colours than of purity of form, and this is also a nice point which 
cannot be curiously discussed here. In any case the Roman, with his quick intelligence, 
must soon have become familiar with the processes taught him in their entirety, doubdess 
by chemists, artists, and artisans drawn from conquered Egypt and Syria ; so that in a very 
short time the Roman students and workmen not only equalled the productions of earlier 
civilisation, but carried the art to a point which it had never before reached. In addition 
to these considerations the taste for objects of beauty was stimulated by the luxury and wealth 
of Rome, increasing so rapidly under the Empire ; and the ordinance of Aurelian that glass 
should form part of the Egyptian tribute shows, as Mr. Nesbitt points out, that the manu- 
facture and the importations into Rome continued in the latter part of the third century. 

From the very nature of glass-making the art of an earlier blends almost im- 
perceptibly into that of a later time, and this is true of the subject, with very few exceptions, 
throughout its whole course, from earliest to latest days ; and hence the ever-present difficulty 
in suggesting anything closer than approximate dates to undated glass vessels of any period 
or country. The artificers have invariably used the same elementary materials, employed the 
same general procedure, and fashioned their work with precisely the same few and simple tools, 
to which the Roman first added the mould ; and probably no other art has such a long and 
continuous record. It is a remarkable fact that there is no process in use at the present 
day which was not known to, and practised by, the Romans two thousand years ago, except 
only that of making large sheets of plate glass such as are so admirably produced at Saint- 
Gobain." Triumphs of this kind in connection with the manipulation of glass the size of 
the Roman furnaces did not permit. In all other respects Pliny's description, " Ex massis 
(vitrum) rursus funditur in officinis, tingiturque. Et aliud flatu figuratur, aliud torno teritur, 
aliud argenti modo caelatur,"^ is exactly applicable to modern operations. 

The variety and beauty of Roman coloured glass is not less remarkable than the ingenuity 
and dexterity with which it was manipulated. It would appear that glass-making was, in 
Roman times, carried on at a great number of small furnaces ; to this system may be partly 
attributed the wonderful diversity of the productions of the better kind, and it is doubtless 
owing to it that Roman glass is never, or hardly ever, free from numerous small bubbles 
and flaws, pure crystalline metal being the result of long-continued fusion in large pots.^ It 

1 In \.\\e. Deipnosophistae, or Banguet of the Learned oi - Under the guidance of M. Jules Henrivaux, to 

Athenaeus, Book xi., much curious information is given whom the practice of glass-making in France is so much 

concerning the names of drinking-vessels of gold, silver, indebted. 

pottery, and wood, with quotations from ancient poetry ^ Nat. Hist., Lib. xxxvi. c. 26, § 66. 

concerning their special uses. It is incidentally stated, * From fifty to sixty hours are necessary for the air- 

V. ii. p. 742, that "The men in Alexandria work crystal bubbles to be driven off, and the mass to become homo- 

into various shapes of goblets." Athenaeus died a.d. 194. geneous. — Apsley PcUatt, Curiosities of Glass Mah'ng, 

— See Translation, by C. D. Yonge, in 3 vols., Bohn, p. 48, edit. 1849. 


should be borne in mind that glass at this period satisfied many of the wants which china 
supplies at the present day, and while it is the truth that the Romans made more use of 
glass than we do in the present age, and handled it with feeling as well as dexterity, it is a 
melancholy fact that, with all our technical advantages, we appear to be daily receding further 
and further from ancient artistic models ; they are not to the taste of a utilitarian age from 
which natural artistic instincts have long since faded away. 

In the luxurious Imperial times there was no lack of encouragement for art workers. 
Enormous prices were paid for masterpieces such as the Portland Vase — of which the 
value in artistic labour alone was set by Wedgwood at more than ^^5000, supposing always 
that a man could be found who could do it^the Naples and the Auldjo vases, to mention only 
one class, and this at a time when we know from fragments of others that even such precious 
objects as these were far from rarities. The world was not then, as now, filled with inferior 

'With regard more particularly to the coloured glass of the Romans, who in this respect 
appear to have had great chemical knowledge, the mosaic and variegated or millefiori glass 
takes a high place. Examples of it are well known, because from Rome, doubtless the 
principal place of its manufacture, it was exported to all parts of the wide empire ; fragments 
have been found, for instance, in London exactly like those which excavation reveals in Rome. 
Of transparent colours in glass the Romans had at their command blue, green, purple, amber, 
brown, and rose ; and of opaque, white, black, red, blue, yellow, green, and orange. There 
are of course many shades of both kinds of colours. ^ 

The manufacture of mosaic glass was as follows : — Threads or canes of glass of different 
colours were arranged vertically in a pattern forming a geometrical figure, an arabesque, the 
half or the whole of a mask, a bird, or other object ; or, more commonly, a mosaic pattern, 
usually with the view of forming a small cup. The mass being fused, and the air excluded by 
lateral pressure, the result was a homogeneous slab, which, when cut into veneers at right 
angles, laterally, or otherwise, would yield a number of uniform designs.- Again, the patterns 
were made upon a large scale in rod form, and being drawn forward when hot with a constantly 
reducing diameter, sectional pictures were thus produced, and at last so minute as to be quite 
beyond the power of the naked eye. This process was well known to the Egyptians, who 
also, like the Romans, employed the results in jewellery ornaments, the objects being generally 
embedded or cased in transparent or opaque glass. A vast number of cups, bowls, and paterae 
were formed in Rome of mosaic glass which had been cut into sections, placed edgeways in a 
pm-aisoii or body of semi-transparent glass, and blown and worked into the required form, 
with numberless resulting designs and patterns more easy to imagine than to describe, and 
of course appearing much the same on both sides of the vessel. 

The Romans imitated precious stones in glass with great success ; the onyx also, agate, 
and the favourite chalcedony, and porphyry, serpentine, and granites for pavements {scctilia 
pavimcnta) and wall decorations ; for which purposes slabs, respectively thick and thin, of 
coloured glass were also used, those for walls being frequently cut into shapes, and fitted 
together with the utmost care. Pliny tells us that the Roman glass-makers also imitated 

1 Introduction, South Kensington Catalogue of Glass, glass in the world is that in the K.-K. Oesterr. Museum 
p. xxiii. at Vienna, both as regards fragments and entire examples. 

Perhaps the finest collection of Roman coloured - Apsley Pellatt, /// w/., p. in. 


murrhine— of which mysterious stone not a fragment has yet been discovered in Roman soil, 
at least not identified as such, nor has its counterfeit been recognised among the fragments of 
ancient glass.^ 

Perhaps in some respects more plentiful than the mosaic glass, though not so plentiful 
at this period, is the kind known as filigree, which is formed by the interlacing of bands and 
threads both of milk-white {/atticmio) and coloured glass. Thus we find bands so placed 
in sections as to present a plaited pattern, or the strips simply laid side by side. In other 
cases threads of opaque white or yellow are twisted with clear glass, blue strings also occurring, 
pieces of gold-leaf being sometimes introduced between the layers ; the component parts 
being thus built up and welded together, the vessel was worked to its completion. Under 
the names vitro di trina, di filigrana, a ritorti, and a rcticclli, this process was carried to 
the utmost limits of perfection, and in a variety of ways long after by the Venetians, whose 
most notable efforts both in millifiori and vitro di trina in the sixteenth century must 
have been inspired by a close study of ancient examples, unless, indeed, they acquired the 
secrets and technical methods of the Romans, as is very doubtful, by uninterrupted trans- 
mission. Some of these processes will be briefly spoken of in their proper places, but it will 
at once be obvious that the varieties which could be brought about by the laying together and 
amalgamation of rods or strips of glass, plain, decorated, or coloured, and whether arranged in 
sections or lengths, and working them under heat into vessels, would easily produce a multi- 
tude of designs rivalling the number, and perhaps not always without the harshness of the 
variegated hues and ever-changing patterns of the kaleidoscope ; such a variety, in short, that 
might almost baffle description. 

The near approach which some of the Roman opaque coloured glass makes in appearance 
to porcelain, as has been suggested by a distinguished connoisseur,^ recalls a similar approxima- 
tion to, or rather declension from, china in the white enamel glass of Bristol of the latter half 
of the eighteenth century, painted by Michael Edkins. The extreme fragility of this beautiful 
glass ware caused its early and rapid destruction ; and had it not been for the inquiries 
of a very few collectors and the researches of a specialist, its memorial would have perished 

with it =* 

To return to the Romans. Allusion has been made to the Portland Vase and works of 
that character. These are examples of cased or cameo glass, doubtless the most beautiful 
objects which have ever been produced in glass. The process of manufacture consists simply 
in fashioning first the outer portion or case of a vessel which is set into a stand. An interior 
shell of a different colour is then blown into it, and the vase is shaped and finished in the usual 
way. In the special case of the Portland Vase the artist— and what an artist! — with his 
lapidary's wheel was now set to work, giving subsequently the finishing touches with a file of 
emery or adamant, and with, perhaps, the help of a diamond. The result of cutting away 
portions of the outer white surface of this precious object has been to produce the exact 
appearance of an onyx cameo. The number of the strata in vases of this character is not 

1 See Proceedings Soc. Antiijuar., April 20, 1893. ' "' 'S;\x ^. Q,. -^ohm^on, Pro. Soc. Ant., ut sup. 
Remarks on Murrhine, by Sir J. C. Robinson. Harrison ^ Hugh Owen, Two Centuries of Ceramic Art in 

in his Description of England, Book H., chap, vi,, p. 147, Bristol, p. 379. 
edit. 1586, says — " ... the ancient Murrhina vasa, 
whereof now no man hath knowledge." 



limited to two, though this is the most usual, and for all practical and artistic purposes a 
sufficient number. As many as five layers have been found in pieces of glass forming part of 
a vase.' Wedgwood pointed out, in 1 786,- the ability with which the gifted artist of the 
Portland Vase had availed himself of the dark transparent blue ground for giving depth to the 
shadows, by cutting quite down to it ; and similarly, it may be observed, by thinning the white 
until the blue shows more or less through, gradations of shades have been obtained with the 
happiest results. 

Though not directly included in the scope of the present work, copies in glass of cameos 
and intao-lios may be fitly alluded to here. They were produced in large quantities in Rome, 
and are found on the site of every considerable Roman town. They appear to have been 
made much in the same way as those by the Tassies and their followers in our own day, 
namely, by pressure in a mould when the metal was in a semi-liquid state, and for the most 
part to have been mounted as rings for persons who could not afford real stones. The cameos 
are frequently finished with the wheel, and are occasionally met with of large size. Some of 
these must have been used for the decoration of furniture, just as small plaques of Sevres are 
employed by French cabinetmakers at the present day ; or perhaps as ornaments for "horse- 
trappings," that convenient safety-valve of antiquaries for relics and ornaments which have no 
definite character. As works of art, glass cameos and intaglios have but slight merit, but value 
attaches to those intaglios which have been cast from the finest gems of their time, and have 
thus preserved authentic copies of designs of great beauty which have vanished. 

Here may also be mentioned the process of inlaying upon a surface of glass, generally 
dark blue, figures of small objects, such as a bird, a leaf, etc., fine lines or fillets of gold marking 
the outlines and general forms ; enamels of various colours were inserted in the spaces, and 
the whole submitted to the muffle furnace, with most delicate and beautiful results. The 
great interest of this process is the early examples which it offers of the cloisonnd art, carried 
to so high a point at a later time in Byzantium.^ 

Another special treatment of Roman glass is that which is brought about by blowing the 
metal into a mould. Some of the vessels or ampullae belonging to this class are of very small 
size, from two to four inches in height ; they vary in colour and belong to the Romano- 
Egyptian period. Many of them possess marked interest from having impressed upon them 
the names, or portions of the names, of their makers ; one specially valuable portion of the 
handle of a sapphire-blue cup in the British Museum has stamped upon one side APTAC • 
CEIA6), and on the other artas . sidon ;* another fragment in the same repository bears the 
same stamps, as does also a greenish glass handle of a vessel in the K. K. Oesterreich. 
Museum in Vienna. In the Baierisches National Museum at Munich is a handle inscribed 
SeiAO) NEIKWN ; an example found at Syracuse bears the words EIPHNAIOS SIACONIOS, and 
in this regard, particularly interesting, is a vase handle of amber glass in the British Museum 
bearing on one side the words EIPHNAIOS EIIOIHSEN, and on the other the bust of Caligula 
(37-41 A.D.), which serves to date all these examples.'' There are several instances of portions 
of glass vessels bearing parts of the stamp of a Roman glass-maker. The comparison of the 
different pieces from widely distant localities has decided the reading as firmi hylari hvlae. 

^ Apsley Pellatt, ut sup., p. 140. ^ Introd., Slade Catalogue, p. xviii. 

^ In a letter to Sir W. Hamilton, quoted by Miss * Sladc Catalogue, p. 33. 

Meteyard in Life of Wedgwood, vol. ii. p. 577. '•" Ibid. 



1 1 

This was finally confirmed by a full example found at Weyden, near Cologne. Glass stamped 
with some part of the name Frontinus is not uncommon in Western Europe, particularly in 
France. Further examples might be adduced. 

Among the vessels of blown glass those that bear the impress of masks and human faces 
are noteworthy. Naturally those of small size and thick glass have best withstood the 
onslaughts of time ; bunches of grapes, dates, birds, etc., were also imitated. A vase in thin 
horny-tinted glass, <^\ inches high, and bearing on one side a human face in such low relief 
that the outline of the vessel is hardly affected by it, is preserved in the Ger- 
manisches Museum at Nuremberg ^ (Fig- 7) ; hard by it is sheltered a bowl of 
the same sort of glass, 4 inches deep and 9 inches in diameter, rudely scratched 
with outlines of a man, dogs, hare, and stag, and bearing the inscription 
. . v MTVis VIVAS. Small masks and various ornaments were also pressed into 
moulds and affixed to vases, or stamped on them, exactly as was done 
in glass-works all over Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
Bottle-shaped cages of wire were also used by the Roman glass-blowers, giving 
the kinkled appearance to the surface of a vessel ; and a beautiful and later 
development of this practice is shown by a silver vase in the British Museum, 
of which the sides are pierced with numerous oval holes at set intervals ; into 
this outer shell or case, which takes the same relative place as the exterior 
white shell in the Portland Vase, a lining of blue glass has been blown so that it protruded 
slightly through the openings, the effect being similar to that of a silver cup studded with 

Not less noteworthy than the vases from Sidon are the rare and curious Chariot Race 
and Gladiator cups, apparently of the second century, blown, as it seems, in earthenware moulds 
— they are not sharp enough to imply moulds of metal. They are of rude art, quite distinct from 
that of Italy, and of a particular shape, necessitated to a certain extent by the demands of the 
reliefs upon them. These glass vessels have been found in Belgium, Germany, France, and 
England, to the total number of twenty-one, but, up to the present time, not of this character 
in Italy. Six entire cups, and portions of fifteen other separate ones have been discovered, 
namely : — in Belgium, i (the Couvin cup) ; in Germany, 3 ; in France, 6 ; and in England, 1 1 ; 
their colours varying generally from pale green, like the fragment in the British Museum, to 
dark amber. Among the entire number nine represent chariot races only, three exhibit 
chariot races and gladiatorial combats, while the remaining nine are simply gladiatorial. Taking 
one example, that found in 1892 at Couvin, it is 2f inches high and unique in its inscrip- 
tions and in other respects. The reliefs show in succession round the glass, which may be 
taken itself to represent the spina, four quadrigas driven to the sinister, in accordance with the 

Fig. 7. 
(One quarter.) 

1 A beautifully modelled example, 8| inches high, of 
precisely the same form of vase "a la mode du Janus 
bifrons traditionnel," found at Boulogne, is preserved 
among the important collection of Roman antiquities in 
the museum of that town. — See Revue Archcologiquc, 18 89, 
"Quelques Verreries Romaines de Boulogne-sur-Mer." 
Paper with illustrations by M. V.-J. Vaillant. A rude 
vase, 10 inches high, in white ware, embossed in the 
same manner with a single human face, and having DO 

MIIRCVRIO painted on the lower edge, was found at 
Lincoln, and is probably of local make. It is engraved 
in Proceedings Soc. Antiquar., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 440, 
and is now in the British Museum. 

- Engraved in E. Gamier, Histoire de la Verrerie et 
de r JEmaillerie, p. 41, edit. 1886. An exact copy of this 
vase, made at Murano, was exhibited in the Italian section 
of the Paris Exhibition of 1878. 


traditions of the arena ; over the reliefs are the names of the charioteers : Pyramus, Eutichus, 
Hierax, and the conqueror Olympus holding a wreath and the palm of victory (Plate 2). In 
the fine chariot race cup from Colchester, which much resembles that found at Couvin, there are, as 
usual, four competitors whose names are given as Antilocus, Crescens, and again Hierax and 
Olympus. Three of them are saluted in the inscriptions with "Vale!" having been beaten 
by the workmanlike driving of "Crescens Ave!"^ The three cups with chariot races and 
combats of gladiators have the subjects arranged in two bands round the vessels; and those 
exhibiting gladiators only similarly divide the scenes into four groups, and in all but two 
moderate fragments give the names both of the victors and the vanquished. 

These vessels and their signification have been greatly inquired into on the Continent. The 
whole of the evidence concerning them, their inscriptions, their details, and their use, has been 
brought together, discussed, and weighed by a distinguished Belgian antiquary in an able manner, 
consonant with the high judicial position which he occupies. In considering the probable country 
of their manufacture, M. Schuermans points out that eleven of the twenty-one examples of these 
glasses, at present known, have been found in England; this he courteously allows maybe 
owing to our more careful observation. Statistics of provenance are perhaps inconclusive, 
but while leaning for other reasons to Normandy or to England, M. Schuermans believes, if 
the preference is given to the latter, the date of the objects must be rather in the second 
than in the first century." 

Conspicuous among the attractive and delicate productions of the Roman glass-makers are 
the pictorial representations made by the means of gold-leaf either embedded in the substance 
of the glass or fixed to the surface. These objects are sometimes mythological and sometimes 
Christian; they have decorated the bottoms of shallow vessels, like the "prints" in mazer 
bowls. The disks have been broken out, and have come down to us in large numbers in con- 
sequence of the early Christians having been in the habit of affixing them to the exterior of the 
loculi in the catacombs. By some antiquaries they have been attributed to the fourth and 
following centuries; on the other hand, an Italian authority of note, who has well illustrated 
these relics, carries them into the period between 200 a.d. and 400 a.d., with a margin of date 
in each direction.^ For their manufacture there were various methods employed, the most 
usual procedure being carried out by fixing leaf gold on the upper surface of what was to form 
the bottom of a vessel, tracing lines through it with a point, and clearing away what was not 
wanted, leaving the figure or subjects, and floating a coat of clear glass over the picture. The 
bowl was then added, and the whole finished by fusion.'* 

1 M. Gamier gives an engraving, p. 32, of a cylindrical de la Cour d'Appel a Liege, Verrcs a Courses tie Chars; 

moulded cup found in Numidia (province of Constantine) Annales dc la Socictc Archcologique de Naimtr, tome -xx., 

and bearing the inscription between laurel wreaths: 1893. 

AABE THN NEIKHN. The chariot race glasses were ^ Padre Garrucci, Vitri Orna/i de Figure in Oro. 

common wares bought by admirers of the athletes. In Roma, 1858. 

the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries glasses were con- ^ It may be convenient to mention here the important 
tended for at Venice as prizes in gondola races. Such glass cup known as the Vase of Podgorica, engraved with 
a challenge glass, \o\ inches high, about 1600, with a scenes from the Old Testament by the hand of a Romano- 
cover having the following inscription etched upon it Christian. This is now in the Mus^e Basilewski in Paris ; 
with a diamond point— REMIS STERILIS DVDVM it has been described and illustrated by the Cav. di Rossi 
PAVLVS ARTAQ — is in the appreciative hands of in the Bulktino di Archeohgia Crisfiano, 1877, p. 77. 
Mr. J. Seymour Lucas, A. R. A. See A Evans, "Antiquarian Researches in Illyricum," 


H. Schuermans (Hon. F.S.A.), Premier President Archacologia, vol. xlviii. p. 84. 


» "tSS^JU. 


hi m V H 

. {' 

r * 







Among the most striking efforts of manual dexterity, and tenderness of work in glass, a 
very high place must be accorded to the cups covered with a free and open network of small 
rings, united to the vessel only by a series of upright props or points, and standing about a 
quarter of an inch from it ; these are the Vasa Diaireia, one class of the skilful 
work of the diatretarii. Their extreme delicacy and rarity make it convenient to 
record that such a cup was found at Strasbourg in 1825, bearing just below the rim 
the name of the Emperor Maximianus (286-310 a.d.), — the cup being white, the 
network red, and the inscription green ; this, with the missing parts supplied, 
appears to have been : [bibe ma]xim[ia]ne avgv[ste]. It perished in the bom- 
bardment of 1870.1 A second, also netted and inscribed, is in the Antiquarium 
in the Neue Pinacothek at Munich, from a tomb at Cologne. A third is in the 
Trivulsi Collection at Milan, the cup being white, the net blue, and the in- 
scription — BIBE VIVAS MVLTOS ANNOS — green. A fourth is in the K. K. Oesterreich. 
Museum at Vienna, both cup and net being white and the form resembling that 
of the Strasbourg vessel ; it is incomplete and about /\\ inches high. A fifth 
example is in the Muzeum at Buda-Pest. This is also of white glass, of the bowl 
shape, 5|- inches in diameter and 4 inches high ; it is imperfect and has no net, 
but round the cup is a series of Greek letters — ITIE . . ., and below these a 
hollow moulding closely perforated (Plate 3). A sixth is in the Tesoro of St. 
Mark at Venice ; it is of greenish glass, of situla shape, and about io|- inches high by 8 inches 
wide at the top and 4 inches at the bottom. On the upper part is shown a lion hunt in relief, 
two men being on horseback, accompanied by dogs ; below is network. 

Further examples of cut glass should be alluded to as showing the complete way in 
which the Romans had realised the capabilities of their material. A graceful example of 
crystallinum or colourless glass, so much prized by the ancients, cut in hexagonal indentations, 
is in the Slade Collection." A different and more difficult mode of treatment is shown by a 
vase of the same choice glass in the Baierisches National Museum at Munich ; in this rare 
specimen, which is 6 inches high, the whole of the outer surface has been treated by the wheel, 
the rosettes and leaves standing out in relief (Fig. 8). 

Before touching upon the commoner objects in glass of Roman domestic use, or funeral 
furniture, a few words may be said upon the better sorts of Roman blown glass. V^arious ex- 
ceedingly beautiful examples, some with admirably manipulated handles, h&ve been preserved, 
showing perhaps greater refinement of form than any other ancient glass vessels. Many of 
them are in imitation of crystal, and those of amber, dark purple, deep blue, the rare violet 
tint, and shades of green, are eminently attractive ; and particularly if they exhibit, as old glass 
usually does, in a more or less marked degree — according to the nature of the materials com- 
posing it, the accidents of atmosphere, or long contact with the earth — the beauteous though 

Fig. 8. 

(One half.) 

1 It is badly engraved in Gamier, p. 39, and better 
in A. Sauzay's Marvels of Glass-Making, p. 16, and in 
Schweighiiuser's Notice sur quelques Monuments die De- 
partement du Bas Rliin ; Mcnnnres de la Societe Royale 
des Antiguaires de France, Nouvelle Serie, tome vi. 
p. 95, 1842. 

two other similar cups are in the British Museum ; one of 
them is illustrated by Apsley Pellatt, PI. III., p. 136. 

An ancient Roman would certainly have been dis- 
mayed at the sight of an English cut wine-glass of the 
best kind at the end of the nineteenth century — the finest 
possible glass, the first technical skill, but little artistic 

^ Found at Barnwell, near Cambridge ; portions of merit. 




effacing evidences of decay, justly rendering such vessels so precious in the estimation of 

The pictorial ability of the Roman glass-workers is very conspicuous in their cups decorated 
with combats of animals and other subjects in enamel. From the amount of metallic oxides 
contained in this medium, causing it to perish so readily in damp places, comparatively few 
examples have been met with. Particularly important are those that have been found in 
graves at Varpelev, Thorslunde, and Nordrup (Figs. 9, 10) in Seeland, Denmark. They date 
from the early part of the fourth century (Plate 4).- 

The practice of decorating with thin lines or strings of glass may have been suggested by 
the chevron or wavy lines and belts in the productions of Egypt and Phoenicia, but it is more 

probable that these means of ornament would, 
from the natural tendency of molten glass to 
take such form, at once have been obvious to 
every glass-maker ; and similarly of the denticu- 
lations and some other details which were pushed 
to the farthest confines of dexterity ages after 
in Venice. Such decorations seem to have had 
their dawnings in the initial efforts of the 
Romans connected with the deft and rapid 
attachment of recurved, crumpled scroll handles, 
often working from the neck stringings of their 
glass jugs. Out of the simple stringings as 
shown on the necks of some vessels, and the 
tentative or fuller treatment in the same style of 
the bodies of others, was developed the peculiar plain or ribbed trailings, in opaque sketchy 
lines, on certain curious glass vases, jugs, and drinking-cups. Those that have been found 
as far north as at Nordrup in Seeland, Denmark, are of the early part of the fourth century 
(Figs. II, 12, 13). It is probable that these particular footed cups are the direct Roman 
ancestors of some of the footless Anglo-Saxon "tumblers" which will be spoken of later on. 
Circumstances and conditions tend to point to the Rhine-land generally, possibly to Cologne 
in particular, where several examples have been found, as one of the sources of the latter vessels ; 
and there may be some reason for thinking that Gaul — where were, perhaps, the aptest pupils 
of the Roman glass-workers — supplied a certain amount of such glass to Britain in Roman 
times. Examples of trailed jugs are preserved in the Germanisches Museum at Nuremberg 

Fig. 9. (Full size.) 

' The Decay of Glass has been fully and ably treated 
of by the late Dr. J. Fowler in the Archaeologia, vol. xlvi. 
p. 65 ; it has also been somewhat touched upon by 
M. M. Appert et Henrivau.x : " Sur les devitrifications 
des verres ordinaires du commerce." From the pen of the 
latter an admirable illustrated article, " Verre-Verrerie," 
has been contributed to the Dictionnaire Encyclopcdique de 
r Industrie et des Arts Industrieh. 

^ The two cups from Varpelev are engraved in the 
Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndeghed, 1861, p. 305. The 
one, 3^ inches high, has a lion and a bull painted on it ; 
and the other, 2\ inches high, birds with grapes, etc. 

The cups from Nordrup are illustrated in Nordiske 
Fortidsmitider udgione af det Kgl. Nordiske Oldskriftselskab, 
I. Hefte, 1890; they exceed all the other Danish 
examples in the admirable drawing of the animals 
depicted upon them. In the Louvre is a small cup of 
green transparent glass, about 3 inches in diameter, said 
to have been found at Nismes ; on it figures of animals 
and foliage in yellow and red are discernible. — Introd., 
Slade Cat., p. xv. Plain cups of the same form and 
size, and apparently about the same period, have been 
found in cists in Forfarshire. — Fro. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. viii., 
N.S., p. 136. 






(Fig. 14), and in the Kunstgewerbe Museum at Cologne (Fig. 15). Later evolutions of 
stringings and trailings will be alluded to in their proper places. 

The identification of sites of glass-works, or even of centres of glass-working districts in 
the northern parts of the Roman Empire, has always been a difficult question. Numbers of 
choice vessels have been found whose fragility would seem to forbid the supposition that they had 

^^^•' .iirf o„„„ 34^, .. 

Fig. 10. (One half. 

been transported from any great distance, did we not know to what extent at least the better 
sorts of Roman glass objects were exported from Rome to remote parts of the Empire. But 
with the vast quantity of glass of the commoner kind such exportation would have been im- 
possible. The glass vessels found in tombs and graves throughout the Roman dominions 
bear a most remarkable resemblance to each other ; traditional uses would have caused tradi- 
tional forms, and it appears that the fact must be accepted that they were copied from Roman 
examples by provincial glass-makers. It may be remembered that glass is not a difficult thing to 

Fig. II. (One half.) 

Fig. 12. (One half.) 

Fig. 13. (One half.) 

make, and that a small furnace is not an expensive affair to set up, nor are the component 
parts of the most ordinary sort of glass, namely, green, difficult to meet with. There is con- 
sequently no reason a priori why the Romans should not have erected glass-works, just as 
they set up pottery kilns, and established fulling and dyeing and all sorts of other industries 
wherever they planted their foot and circumstances were favourable. And it seems contrary 
to the genius of so great a people that lumps only (massae) of unworked metal should have 
been continually obtained from central glass-works, to be used plain or to be coloured by 
smaller manufacturers, and that they should not have proceeded in the different provinces upon 




their own lines, and prepared and fused the local material in all its stages, with the assistance 

of natives pressed into service. In fact, the large quantity of vessels of green glass that has 

been found throughout Britain — to take only one province — would quite tend to indicate a number 

more or less considerable of small glass furnaces working with the 
simplest materials and absolutely independent of each other, in accord- 
ance with the practice of the Old World ; the makers always bearing in 
their mind's eye the traditional Roman requirements and forms. The 
smallness of the furnaces would in a measure account for the apparently 
entire absence of any vestiges of them discoverable in our own day. 
Moreover, as regards Britain, it is difficult to believe that the long 
sandy shores facing Gaul, the brilliant siliceous deposits of Vectis, still 
used in modern days, and such places as Salenae in the Mid Lands, 
were passed by unheeded by the Romans, and their products not utilised 
on the spot, and that supplies of so absolutely necessary a commodity 
"^' '"*' '"" " ■ to them as vessels of glass of all kinds, or prepared masses of metal 

for its manufacture, were entirely drawn by the Romans in Britain and the Romanised Britons 

from the Continent. This subject will be touched upon from another point of view in 

speaking more particularly of Roman glass-making in Britain. 

Up to this place the higher qualities of Roman and earlier glass have been alluded to. 

The glass vessels of an inferior kind, which in a way take the place of, and serve the same 

purposes as does our own common earthenware at the present day, have also been revealed 

to us in their perfection, and in countless examples, chiefly of course 

through the medium of the graves. What may be called the glass 

furniture of the tombs of the Romans, or of the Romanised barbarians, 

so-called, such as the Briton and the Gaul, tells us everywhere the 

same story. The general similarity of the glass vessels which the 

spade, intelligently guided, has revealed in the researches throughout 

so vast an empire is, as has been intimated, very striking. Thus 

for a moment, setting the pottery aside and taking glass vessels only, 

we may refer to certain items of the common contents of a tomb : 

the capacious square or round glass cinerary vase, with its inevitable 

broad reeded handle or handles, which no one so well as a Roman 

glass-maker knew how to put on ; the elegant vessels for libations ; 

the minute unguentaria, long the lachrymatories of romantic dilettanti ; 

and occasionally the cherished personal cup, — fragile relics which 

happy accidents, the ploughshare, or sagacious and systematic ex- 
cavations have disclosed on numberless sites of Roman graves in 

Britain. Or we may take the villas, the stations on Hadrian's great 

Barrier, or our buried cities, and find that the dwelling-places of 

those living so long ago render up the same rigid account, but in a much more fragmentary 

state, as the last lodgings of our ancient masters. We may compare the whole of 

these remains with the same frail antiquities which like researches have revealed in 

Gaul, to the enrichment of such notable collections as the museums of Avignon, Lyons, 

or Boulogne. Again, travelling further, and skirting the shores of the Mediterranean, we 

Fig. 15. (One half.) 


may touch and excavate almost at any point between Syria and the Pillars of Hercules, examine 
the spoils from Herculaneum and Pompeii, the extraordinary collection of glass vessels in 
the Museo Nazionale at Naples, dating from before the irruption of 79 a.d., or study the 
teeming soil of Rome itself — to find everywhere the same wonderfully precise correspondence, 
the same unity of direction, the same steadfast art record in the same most fragile of 
materials, the forms and objects necessarily qualified only by the exigences of domestic or 
funeral use, and to a slight extent by local conditions. And as it was with the household 
and funeral glass, so it was, naturally in a more marked degree, with respect to the best 
kinds of coloured or mosaic glass, made, doubtless, as has been said, in Rome itself, and ex- 
ported only for the opulent settler in his villa in the conquered province far away. The 
Roman, like the Chinaman, changed not — 

Coelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt.^ 

As he was in Rome, such he was in Iberia, in Gaul, in Britain ; as with his arms, so with 
his arts and his letters ; every printed page to-day is a testimony of his persistence. His 
ideas, his methods, his buildings, were alike fixed and traditional ; forced at first upon 
conquered races, they were soon willingly adopted by them ; they were woven into the 
foundations of their subsequent efforts, and their effects remain, not quite in all respects to 
the present day, because the artisan has taken the place of the artist ; we have receded from 
classical standards, we are now in a curious state of chaos, and a " Restitution of Decayed 
Intelligence " herein is sadly needed.' Nevertheless, there may always be fresh correctives ; 
the spade will constantly be put into the ground, and even from places now waste and 
wild we shall continue to call up the Roman from the dim past, and, to paraphrase the 
language of one of the greatest of Roman citizens, see him not as through a glass darkly, 
— "in a riddle" — but, as it were, face to face, and carry on the record concerning a 
multitude of points besides that of glass - making, upon which our knowledge is still but 
partial or incomplete. 

Allusion has just been made to the better sorts of Roman glass. That from the 
graves was not always of the ordinary domestic kind. Occasionally a cup of a finer quality 
was added, not so much connected with the strict pagan rites of sepulture, as representing 
an object which from its high character attested at once the self-denial of the survivors 
in so relegating it to the oblivion of the tomb, and its dead owner's attachment to it, as 
a valued personal treasure to be of use to him in the Elysian fields — in the feasts of 
the gods in a future state, or in other mysterious fancies of heathenism. Such a vessel 
was the Portland Vase, consigned to the sepulchre, as it is believed, of an enlightened ruler, 
Alexander Severus (235 a.d.), but of earlier date; the Naples Amphora; the remarkable 
jug, but in a much lower artistic rank, from a tomb at Barnwell, near Cambridge,' a 

1 " The air, but not the mind, they change, ^ It is indisputable that the demand for refined 

Who in outlandish countries range." artistic work at the present day is extremely limited. " Art 

James Howell to Dr. Mansel, Venice, July I, 1621. manufacturers," after all, have to produce what will sell, 

and the things that sell best are those that are very cheap 
"They change their skies above them, curiously Ugly, though one does hear of cut wine- 

But not their hearts that roam ! j o ji o 

Rudyard Kipling, 

glasses at ^4 each for the American market. 

The Native Born," The Times, Oct. 14, 1895. ^ Engraved, S/ade Cat., p. 44. 



SEC. V. 

notable example as much from its form as from its delicate manipulation ; the equally 
remarkable one from Sittingbourne (Plate 5), and perhaps the important sprinkled amber- 
coloured jug from the Rhine district.^ 


It is well known that the unwieldy character of the Roman dominion led to its 
permanent division into eastern and western parts at the end of the fourth century, 
with Constantinople, founded 330 a.d. by Constantine, on the ancient Greek city of 
Byzantium, as the capital of the Eastern, and Rome of the Western Empire. Province 
after province was invaded by the barbarians, popularly classified as the Goths and 
Vandals, and the Western Empire was extinguished at the end of the third quarter of 
the fifth century. The Eastern Empire, whose capital was better placed, with greater means 
and arms, withstood the invasions, and prolonged its existence for many centuries. 

The gradual falling off of such arts as that of glass-making similarly synchronises 
with the decay and break-up of the Roman Empire. Furnaces could not be carried on 
intermittently with life unsafe and whole countries in confusion ; this gentle industry would 
be the first to fail. But we have no certain information of the course of the failing in 
the Western Empire, beyond what may be gathered from the scanty number of such 
glass vessels which may be attributed to this wide period of unsettled or troubled 
times. It may be taken for granted that the same processes continued to be used, though 
with diminishing success, and, naturally, with less demand for the results ; and whereas, 
as regards glass of earlier times, approximate dates are not difficult to arrive at, owing 
to facility of comparing a large number of examples, we are now confronted by the great 

drawback of only meeting with few and 
scattered objects, rude or imperfect in 
manufacture and difficult to date, and 
generally more so still to localise. A 
two-handled vase," resembling those 
that may be seen on Christian sarco- 
phagi, intended to represent chalices, 
is probably of the fifth or sixth century ; 
it has much interest from the early 
example it gives of the ribbed and upper 
folded foot ; and perhaps some of the ill-made heavily trailed cups belong to this period (Figs. 
16, 17). The collateral progress of window-glass, from its scanty use in the first century, 
in the form of small rough cast plates almost impervious to light, to its employment from 
the seventh — perhaps earlier — to the ninth century, as a coloured medium for the transmission 
of light, need merely be alluded to here ; but the latter time furnishes an approximate date 
for a fresh point of departure in a vitreous art that had a brilliant future before it. 

Fig. 16. (One half.) 

Fig. 17. (One half.) 

1 Engraved, Slade Cat., p. 16. 

- ^l"'d; p. 55- 

.'# ,» 





During the period still under consideration Roman glass industry was carried in the 
direction of mosaic, examples of which process may be seen in Rome itself, dating from the 
time of Constantine until the middle of the ninth century. That this art was not confined 
to Rome is shown by the doubtless local mosaics at Ravenna of the fifth and sixth 
centuries. In the eleventh century mosaic work seems to have been discontinued in Rome 
and elsewhere in Italy, except in Venice, inasmuch as mosaic workers were at that time 
sent for from Constantinople to Rome. 

With reference to the glass vessels produced in the capital of the Eastern Empire, and 
in the provinces under the influences of Byzantium, the information is still more limited 
than that for the West. The art of glass-making fell under a similar eclipse, but which, for 
Imperial reasons, as regards historical continuity, was more marked than in the Western 
Empire. That the Byzantine glass artists followed classical models, but with indifferent 
success, before art became paralysed under the Iconoclasts, is apparent from the only 
seemingly undoubted examples of Byzantine vessels of glass which have been preserved, 
but with some hesitation ascribed to this origin. They are chiefly of the bowl form ; such 
is that in the Slade Collection, with the story of Artemis and Actaeon, deeply cut with the 
wheel and having Greek inscriptions ; another, lathe-cut, in oval depressions, is in the same 
collection. To this source should also belong the surprising glass cups with Greek inscrip- 
tions which have been found in Selande and Jutland,' as well as those lathe-cut, with oval 
depressions, all of which must have crept from Byzantium to the north, through Hungary 
and Bohemia, pointing to the relations which Denmark had with the East, through her amber 
trade, from the first quarter of the fifth century. No glass vessels have been found in 
interments in the Scandinavian peninsula. The excavations made in 1894 on the site of 
the Anglo-Saxon cemetery on High Down Hill, near Worthing, under the direction of 
Mr. C. H. Read, have revealed glass vessels of high interest, one vase having a hare hunt, 
and round the rim the inscription °4-TriENa)N XP6), engraved on it by the wheel." 

From the time of Leo the Isaurian, 740 a.d., the first of the Iconoclast emperors, and 
who set his mark on the famous walls of Constantinople, to the middle of the following 
century, the arts perished out of sight, and with them the ancient traditions. On their revival 
they took the new direction to which they had been tending before their obscuration in evil 
days ; but of what character post-iconoclastic glass vessels were, there seems to be no more 
evidence to appeal to than is exhibited by the five thin greenish and rudely-cut glass cups, 
and the two basins now preserved in St. Mark's, Venice, and believed to have formed part of 
the plunder of Constantinople when that city drew off the attention of the Crusaders from 
the Infidels during the fourth so-called Holy War, and was taken from the degenerate Greeks 
with the assistance of the Venetian fleet, led by the aged and blinded Doge Arrigo Dandolo, 
in 1204. Among these vessels is a small vase in dark brown glass, decorated with pale 
flesh-coloured enamel, with inscriptions in Cufic characters, as yet undeciphered, jaerhaps 
merely ornamental, after a not unusual Oriental principle, and further decorated in gold and 
red.^ Such and so few are the Byzantine vessels of glass which can, even hesitatingly, be 
ascribed to the long period between 800 and 1 200. 

1 See C. Englehardt, " L'Ancien Age de Fer en 2 Engraved, ^rc/w^(7%w, vol. xliii. p. 206. 

Selande," Alcmoires des Antiqiiaires du Nord, vol. for " Introd., Slade Cat., p. x.xv. 

1878-83; Du Chaillu, The Viki/tg Age, vol. i. p. 277. 


The Sacro Catino at Genoa, the Holy Grael, a green glass dish, long believed to be 
formed from an emerald ; and the blue glass cup at Monza, from time immemorial reverently 
looked upon as a single sapphire, are perhaps both of Byzantine origin.' 


Among the Oriental glass products, those best known to us are the enamelled lamps 
which were suspended in the mosques. They have great interest on account of their 
usually bearing dates, from the middle of the fourteenth century downwards, and are 
lineal and conspicuously picturesque representatives of an art which was widely practised 
under Arab rule from the tenth century, and whose decorations were probably derived from 
Byzantine models. 

It may here be mentioned that lamps, or, speaking more strictly, lamp-shades, of the 
opaque " Persian " ware, and of the same form as the Arabian lamps, are important and 
rare items among the numerous forms in the four great divisions of this most decorative of 
all true glass-glazed wares. The three first classes are of purely Persian origin, and are little 
known. As to the fourth, also tabulated as "Damas," "Rhodian," and " Lindus," it had its 
rise, like the others, in the glazed bricks of Egypt or Babylonia in remote times. Carried 
to Persia, no doubt by simple travelling potters, after the traditional Eastern fashion, it there 
took some of its decoration, and passed from thence to Damascus. The great development 
of this class appears to have been during the reign of Solyman the Magnificent, the famous 
Ottoman Sultan, 15 20- 1566, its best period corresponding with that of Italian Majolica, 
while its manufacture in the island of Rhodes, under the knights, is nearly as well established 
a fact as the influence of the art of Faristan upon the majolica-makers of Italy — an influence 
which lingered long, as we shall incidentally see, with the glass-makers of Venice." 

To Damascus, so closely associated with the disasters of the second Crusade, was early 
assigned the origin of many enamelled glasses which came over from the Orient to the west, 
a credit more deserved after the fourteenth century than before it. Thus, in 13S0, Charles 
V. of France had " trois pots de voirre rouge a la fagon de Damas " ; in 1399 he possessed " une 
coupe de virre peint a la Moresque." Henry HI. of England had a glass cup given to him 

1 The Santo Calix of Valentia consists of a hair- thought to be a single emerald ; but when it was brought 

brown sardonyx cup, 4 inches in diameter, of Roman to Paris by Napoleon in i 806, the mineralogist, Guyton de 

Imperial times, with two ogee gold handles, stem, and Morveau, recognised it as glass of beautiful colour and 

knop, connecting it with a sardonyx base of the eighth transparency, but containing a few air-bubbles ; it has 

or ninth century. The gold mountings were renewed in been slightly ornamented with a tool as in gem engraving, 

the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. — See Archaeological Theodolinda's lovely blue cup at Monza is about 3 inches 

Journal, vol. xxxiv. p. 316; description by Mr. J. C. in diameter. This is considered to be formed out of a 

E-obinson. The Santo Calix is believed to have been sapphire; it is improbable, and Mr. Nesbitt suggests 

used at the Last Supper ; this is improbable, but difficult that it is glass, though he found it very cold to the touch 

either to prove or to disprove ; its age is not against the and could detect no bubbles in it. — See Archaeological 

attribution though its quality is. Similarly the Sacro Journal, vol. xiv. p. 8. Paper on the Precious Objects 

Catino at Genoa has been variously asserted to be the in the Church at Monza, by W. Purges, 

dish which held the Paschal Lamb at the Last Supper, or '- See Archaeologia, vol. xlii. p. 3S7, "On a Lamp of 

the vessel in which Joseph of Arimathea received the Persian Ware," etc., paper by Mr. C. D. E. Fortnum. 
Blood from the Pierced Side ; it is a hexagonal dish long 




in 1244 by Guy de Rousillon. This was probably Oriental. The king valued it so much 
that he sent it to Edward of Westminster, the goldsmith, with orders to remove the o-lass 
foot and to replace it with one of silver-gilt, apparently to add a cover to it, to hoop it with 
silver, and to present it on his behalf to the queen. ' Of about this date must be one of the 
so-called Hedwig's glasses, preserved in the Museum of Silesian Antiquities at Breslau, 
Oriental, "de Damas," of light greenish glass and decorated at the top and the bottom with 

Fig. 18. (One third.) 

Fig. 19. (One third.) 

rude sketchy flourishes {schnorkele) in the usual thin red enamel lines." Of much the same 
form, I 2 inches high, but fuller in shape and later, is a beautiful Damascus glass at Munich 
(Fig. 18). Later still, apparently early in the fifteenth century, is the Saracenic-looking glass 
known as the "Luck of Eden Hall"^ — not necessarily an ecclesiastical vessel, because the 
leather case, of nearly a century later date, in which it is enclosed bears the sacred monogram 
which was frequently placed on secular objects. Another Saracenic glass, also in a fifteenth- 
century case, is preserved in the Museum at Douai. At Chartres is treasured the glass said 
to have been given by Haroun al Raschid to Charlemagne, but it is considered to be not 
earlier than the middle of the thirteenth century ; it is possible that it is fully a century later. 

Allied to the Oriental drinking-cups of this period are the capacious enamelled glass 
vessels, apparently of the latter part of the thirteenth century, containing earth from the 
Holy Land. Two of these, still so filled, are in the Treasury of St. Stephen's at Vienna ; 
a third is at Nuremberg (Fig. 19); these, again, have been thought, surely erroneously, to 
exhibit Venetian influence. 

1 The extract from the Close Rolls concerning this christlkhe Kuiisf, III. Jahrgang, Heft 11, s. 334; and 

order is printed in the body of the present work, where the Scklesische Gldser, p. 184, edit. iSgi. 
glass in question is again alluded to. ^ Engraved in Lysons's Cicmberland, p. ccix. 

- E. V. Czihak, " Die Hedwigsgliiser," Zeitschrift fiir 





To return to the main story. Based immediately upon late Roman models, but at once 
taking new directions as to their forms, are those very remarkable and rare drinking-glasses 
with stringings, lobes with long free pendent tails, and small bases or feet, which have been 
found in different parts of England associated with Anglo-Saxon interments, as at Sarre, 
Kent (Plate 6), and which bear so close a resemblance to the precious glass vessels of the 
same period which Merovingian or Prankish graves have surrendered over a wide area to 
explorers on the Continent, as to point to a common centre of manufacture. Similar cups 
have also been found as far off as at Narona in Dalmatia.^ Their manipulation is extremely 
delicate, implying an origin in a district long and continuously familiar with the higher char- 
acteristics of glass-working. Possibly Cologne or Treves may have been the source of the 
fabrication of these fragile antiquities, which may be taken to date within the sixth and seventh 

Following somewhat the form of late Roman cups, such as are shown in the Nordrup 
examples of the early part of the fourth century, and differing generally 
in shape from the rare relics emanating from the Anglo-Saxon and 
Merovingian graves just alluded to, but belonging to the same peoples, 
and found under like conditions throughout the same spacious regions, 
are the glass cups of varying heights and modifications of shape, 
comprising tall and short, conical and trumpet-shaped cups, ribbed 
or fluted, stringed and cross-stringed (Fig. 20) ; globular cups for 
service in the palm of the hand (Figs. 21, 22, 23); semi-spherical 
bowls, plain or occasionally ribbed (Figs. 24, 25, 26) ; and small 
plain vessels with widened and rounded bases, sometimes ribbed (Figs. 
27, 28, 29), a button on the bottom (Fig. 30), and with constricted or 
waisted bodies. These last cups are of a distinct Teutonic type. 
The rarest form of all is perhaps the funnel shape. The range of 
the whole of these frail antiquities appears to extend from the end 
of the sixth to the early part of the tenth century. A few of the 
tall trumpet glasses, whose form was doubtless derived from drinking- 
horns, have slight feet or bases, recalling, so far, their late Roman 
prototypes, but these supports tend to the simple knob left on the 
bottom by the maker before he released his work from the pontil ; 
they have no significance as feet to stand on. In some rare in- 
stances the actual curved bugle-horn shape is retained. There is a 
beautiful example in the British Museum, stringed, looped, and fluted, 
from Bingerbriick, near Rude.sheim. With the exception of Mr. J. Curie's stringed and fluted 
beaker from Gotland (Fig. 31), the glasses here illustrated were found in Germany. 

1 A. Evans, "Antiquarian Researches in Illyricum," baden, Mayence, Cologne (Wallraf Richartz), Brussels, 
Archaeologia, vol. xlviii. p. 75. and Munich. There are several in the British Museum. 

^ Examples are preserved in the Museums at Wies- 

FlG. 20. (One half.) 


/ II 


SEC. vn. 



The entire absence, in all other examples and varieties of this devious class of drinking- 
vessels, of any base upon which the object could be supported, has been held to indicate a 

Fig. 21. (One half.) 

Frc. 22. (One half.) 


(One half.) 

compliance on the part of the makers with the users' indisposition to set down their drinking- 
cups unemptied. Perhaps ease of fabrication with glass - workers, who, wherever their 

Fig. 24. (One half.) 

Fig. 25. (One half.) 

Fig. 26. (One half.) 

furnaces may have been, must have gradually lost much of the manual dexterity and many 
of the ancient traditions of manufacture, may also somewhat account for the simplicity of 

Fig. 27. (One half.) 

Fig. 28. (One half.) 

Fig. 29. (One half.) 

Fig. 30. (One half.) 

SO many of these attributes of common life. A characteristic not less remarkable in the 
greater number both of the plain and of the ornamental glasses of this class is their limited 




capacity, implying that the historic and proverbial insobriety of their users was brought 
about, not by deep draughts from great cups, but by the more perilous process of reiterated 
appeals to small ones, with "point de rubis sur I'ongle." It may be suggested that the fluted 

and trumpet-shaped, the ribbed, the horizontally-stringed 
and cross -stringed, and the unpractical pure funnel- 
shaped glasses belong generally to the middle period ; 
while the bowls and the Teutonic constricted cups are 
of the latter part of the eighth to the end of the ninth 
century, and perhaps a little later, whether found in Britain 
or on the Continent. 

It will be remembered that in the Old English epic 
poem of Beotmtlf, first written in portions, some probably 
before the fifth century, one of the bards speaks ' of 
" hroden ealo-woege," twisted ale cups ; it has been thought 
that the expression refers to glass cups spirally stringed, 
as some examples are. The fact of this variety being 
decorated in accordance with late Roman types, might 
tend to place some of the " twisted " ale cups among 
the earlier kinds. Whether certain forms are to be 
assigned to particular tribes, intrusive or otherwise, is 
an intricate, difficult, and large question, which obviously 
suggests itself, but which cannot be entered upon 

Allusion has already been made to the probability of the Romans having made glass 
in Britain. Whatever doubt there may be on this point, one would like to think that there 
should be very little as regards Saxon glass-works in this country ; but it is again a fact 
that evidence is wanting. Cups of the kind we have alluded to have been found in England 
in greater number and variety than elsewhere, thus favouring the supposition, as regards some 
of them, of local manufacture, which is also somewhat supported by the character and colours 
of the metal. They will be spoken of again, and illustrated in the body of the present work. 

Fig. 31. (One half.) 

1 Line 995. The poem was published by Kemble in 
1837, with an English translation; a more convenient 
edition was brought out by Thorpe in 1855. The late 
Mr. Green, in his Making of E?igla>id, p. 162, quotes 
Mr. Sweet (Hazlitt's Warion, vol. ii. p. 10), showing that 
the poem possesses a distinctly Christian element contrast- 

ing plainly with the general heathen current of the whole. 
Mr. Sweet considers it certain that the original work was 
composed before the Teutonic conquest of Britain. As 
it now stands, with its additions and alterations, it is a 
literary monument of the eighth century. 

J 3/ 

1 w < »-, , 





We must now quit the tombs and the graves and come into the Hght of day, still, of 
course, without the aid of documents ; and we enter upon a new phase of the art of glass- 
making on a quasi new site, and which was destined eventually to exercise an extraordinary 
and far-reaching influence upon all the glass furnaces of modern Europe. 

Of the two conjectures put forward for the origin of the Venetian glass manufacture, the 
one is that the art was brought by the fugitives from the mainland, fleeing before Attila — "fleau 
de Dieu," and the sword of the Huns in the fifth century ; the other being that it was 
learnt from the Greeks of Byzantium at a much later date. There is no evidence as to 
whether the mosaics in Venetian churches previous to the thirteenth century are the works 
of native or Byzantine artists, though probability and artistic considerations point to the 
latter source. The great undertaking of covering the interior of St. Mark's with mosaic 
in the last quarter of the eleventh century had, highly probably, " a most important effect 
upon the manufacture of glass in Venice," for, as Mr. Nesbitt truly says,' " if the manufacture 
had already existed, it would unquestionably have received a great impulse therefrom ; if 
it did not exist, the presence of Byzantine artists and workmen skilled in such matters 
would lead in the most natural manner to the discovery that the lagunes, possessing both 
abundance of fine sand and of maritime plants yielding alkali, were well fitted for the seat 
of a manufactory of glass." 

It has been supposed that the taking of Constantinople in 1204" gave the Venetians 
an additional opportunity of obtaining knowledge from the Greek glass-makers. However 
that may have been, we know that the Venetian vitrarii had already formed themselves 
into a corporation as early as in 126S, and in 1275 certain laws were enacted prohibiting 
the exportation of sand and other substances used in the process of glass-making. At the 
end of the century it is believed that the glass-makers quitted the " Citta di Rialto "—that is 
Venice, and established themselves at Murano.' 

It seems that the Venetians were actively employed during the fourteenth century in 
bead-making and imitation jewellery, apparently somewhat to the prejudice of progress in 
the making of glass vessels. Of the latter objects no examples that may be assigned either to 
the thirteenth or, with two precious exceptions in the British Museum— one of them the 
work of Magister Aldrevandinus,* and each inspired both as to form and decoration by 
Oriental glasses— to the fourteenth century, have yet been noticed as Venetian art (Plate 7). 
And there are good reasons for believing that glass vessels were not exported from Venice 
into northern Europe during the thirteenth century ; they do not occur in documents of that 
date with glasses from the Orient. But as early as 1376 the noble character of glass-working 
—the "ars tam nobilis "— was recognised, marriage of a noble with the daughter of a veirajo 
being ruled as no impeachment of nobility in the offspring. The "gcntilshommes verriers " 

1 Introd., Slade Cat., p. xxxiv. * mT^GISTaR • 7^LDRaV7^R)OIP.' • ma FSQI • 

2 See p. 19. and * DRIT^ \ fflAlSaR : RQGIS : TvLGISSimi 

3 Introd., Slade Cat., p. xxxv. : ORA : P : PK 
^ These cups are respectively inscribed in enamel, 




SEC. vin. 

of Altare and France will be spoken of in their proper places. The expression "no 
impeachment of nobility" connotes the gist of the matter. 

During the fifteenth century the making and decorating of glass vessels must have 
steadily advanced, and special interest now attaches to the art because the earliest purely 
Venetian glass cups that are now known belong to this century. Such is the notable standing 
cup and cover, i6i inches high, with bands and dots of different colours in enamel, wrythen 
gilt ribs on the bowl and like vertical ribs on the foot (Fig. 32) ; a smaller version, 6^ inches 
high, of sapphire blue, is decorated with gold and white enamel, and has a fluted stem and foot 
of powdered gold ; both these choice vessels are in the Slade Collection. Another example, 

also without a cover, in horny - tinted glass and of extreme 
lightness, is at Chatsworth. A blue cup, enamelled and gilt, 
dating about 1440, with medallion portraits of a man and a woman, 
perhaps a " coppa nuziale," is in the Museo Correr, or Museo 
Civico, at Venice. Another, 8f inches high, in emerald green, 
with a foot and knop, like a fifteenth-century silver chalice, 
and rich with sprinkled gold, and similarly bearing two por- 
traits in medallions, is also in the Slade Collection (Fig. 33). 
To the middle of the century belongs the standing cup, 6^ inches 


(One quarter.) 

Fig. 33. (One quarter. ) 

Fig. 34. (One quarter.) 

high, of fine sapphire blue, with ribbed and gold-powdered foot, in the same collection. 
Round the bowl is a procession including two triumphal cars, Venus, Hymen, and several 
female and other figures (Fig. 34). Another and still finer example, a late fifteenth or early 
sixteenth - century procession glass, Zh inches high, in lovely emerald green, with gold- 
sprinkled and ribbed foot, is preserved in the Stadtisches Kunstgewerbe Museum at Cologne. 
A triumph of Venus is represented with a number of figures on horseback and on foot in 
coloured enamels delicately treated. This is inscribed round the edge : asm dimanda cm 


All these are noteworthy and, for the material, somewhat massive glasses, while the 
general resemblance that their forms bear to the silver standing cups of the period — more 
familiar to us, unfortunately, through the descriptions of inventories than in actuality — must 
not be overlooked. The glass-workers of the fifteenth century had not as yet emancipated 
themselves from current Gothic shapes, and the many Venetian standing bowls and tazzas 
which have been preserved, ornamented with gilded and highly decorated imbrications or 


scales, and which distinguish the productions of the latter part of the fifteenth century, point 
rather to the familiarity of the makers with the decorations and barbaric splendours of the 
Orient, than to long-descended traditions from classical times. 

The Roman working of "millefiori" and "vitro di trina " glass has already been spoken 
of. Ancient examples show us that the Romans had nothing more to learn in any branch 
of the art, save in the development of reticulated glass in which the Venetians, with larger 
furnaces, better "plant," and the accumulated experience of centuries of quiet work and 
with good Roman models to start from, have certainly gone beyond them. And as to the 
suggestion that the Venetians derived their knowledge of these ornamental processes by 
uninterrupted transmission, it has been seen that the earliest glasses of Venice — recognised 
with certainty as such — that have survived, date, with very few exceptions, no earlier than in the 
fifteenth century ; and that these, far from bearing any inherited resemblance to classical 
models, are not much more than heavy imitations, as nearly as the rapid manipulation of 
the different material would allow, of the silver cups of the period, with not a trace of direct 
classical influence in their forms or in their handling. We are consequently driven forward 
upon the influence of the classical revival which, in the latter part of the fifteenth century, 
affected the glass-workers of Murano, and in this way brought about the close study of ancient 
examples. As there was now a " Renaissance " generally of all arts, so there was particularly 
a new birth in that of glass-making at Murano; in its long history there are of course many 
"points de depart"; this is certainly not the least interesting of them, and may not be lost 
sight of. 

The heavy covered cups of Gothic forms, and the rich and gaudy imbricated or scaly bowls 
and tazzas, have now somewhat given way before the revival of classical shapes, and to this time 
and the earlier part of the sixteenth century may be specially ascribed the vases and vessels of 
Venetian work, "whose elegant forms "—as Mr. Nesbitt justly says— "have ever made them 
the delight of all who have a true feeling for beauty." But these things, precious as they are 
in our day, were even more highly esteemed four hundred years ago.' This point, if, indeed, 
we could not readily imagine it, is amply testified to by the coteinporary relations of late 
fifteenth -century travellers, such as William Wey,' Fellow of Eton, who died in 1474, and 
Felix Faber of Ulm, who was at Venice 1484, and the evidence of inventories. Bertrandon 
de la Brocquiere mentions with admiration the glass-houses of Murano in 1432, and it is stated 
by Leandro Alberti that in the first quarter of the sixteenth century there were twenty-four 
glass-houses working at Murano. The Republic had already distinguished the corporations of 
glass-makers by conferring privileges and immunities upon those that practised the art, and by 
placing them solely under the immediate jurisdiction of the Council of Ten, while m 1547 
precautionary measures were adopted to prevent the mystery from being carried abroad. 

The following interesting account of the state of the art in Murano about 1495 is given 
by Marcantonio Coccio Sabellico in his book Dc situ Venaetae Urbis:— 

Murianum inde vicus, sed qui, aedificiorum magnificentia ct amplitudinc, urbs procul spectantibus 
appareat; longitudine ad miUe passus patet ; vitrariis officinis praecipuc illustratur. Praeclarum 
inventum primo ostendit vitrum posse crystalli candorem mcntiri ; mox, ut procac.a sunt hominum 

1 He advises the pilgrim to the Holy Land, when platerrys, sawserrys, and other cuppys of glas."-Introd., 
taking ship from Venice, to provide himself with " dysches, Slade Cat., p. xxxvm. 


ingenia, et ad aliquid inventis addendum non inertia, in mille varios colores innumerasquc foimas 
coepera'nt materiam inflectcre. Hinc calices, phialae, canthari, lebetes, cadi, candelabra, omnis generis 
animalia, cornua, segmenta, monilia ; hinc omnes humanae dcliciae ; hinc quicquid potest mortalium 
occulos oblectare ; et, quod vix vita ausa csset sperarc, nullum est pretiosi lapidis genus quod non sit 
vitraria industria imitata ; suave hominis et naturae certamen. Quid quod et murrhina hinc tibi vasa 
sunt, nisi pro scnsu sit pretium. Age vero cui primo venit in mentem brevi pila includere omnia florum 
genera quibus vernantia vestiuntur prata. Atqui omnium gentium haec oculis maritima subjecere negotia, 
ut, quae nemo alioquin credibilia putasset, jam nimio usu vilexerc occeperint. Nee in una domo aut 
familia novitium haesit inventum ; magna ex parte vicus hujusmodi fcrvet officinis (Lib. iii.)^ 

There is documentary evidence of the arrival of small quantities of Venetian glasses in 
England in 1399, and in the Low Countries five years earlier; but it is important to notice 
from Sabellico's account to what an extent the importations from Murano had increased a 
century later. 

Allusion should be made to the extreme rarity of Oriental porcelain— the purslane of 
contemporary inventories — in Europe in the early part of the sixteenth century, and it may be 
pointed out that, while majolica was then only approaching its highest perfection, the other 
earthen manufactures were of a very rude kind. Roughly .speaking, their grotesque character 
continued in England until after the middle of the eighteenth century, when porcelain works 
were founded at Bow, Chelsea, Derby, Worcester, Plymouth, and Bristol, and Wedgwood ware 
introduced. This was long after our native-made glass vessels had acquired a distinct and 
excellent quality. It was not, therefore, surprising that those who were able to afford it gladly 
availed themselves of the new and beautiful manufactures of Murano, so much more plentiful 
and more readily obtainable than the tasteful Italian pottery, because even gold and silver cups 
and vessels, with which the great men surrounded themselves in such profusion in the latter 
part of the fifteenth century — the inventories of one of the heroes of Agincourt, Sir John 
Fastolfe, give us a typical case — were apt, perhaps, at last to become a little monotonous, and 
the crude English pottery and other rude vessels were quite impossible at comparatively well- 
ordered tables, and even accorded ill with pewter garnishes. 

Hence the exportation of Venetian glass to northern Europe as a recognised article of 
luxury, from the latter part of the fifteenth century, is an important and interesting fact from 
many points of view. Italy, for the second, and not for the last time in the world's history, as 
we shall duly see, sent glass to England, and the English goldsmiths were not slow to 
beautify the Venetian cups with their famous silver and gold harnessings or garnishings, nor 
were French and Flemish artificers deficient in this respect. 

Henry VIII. was a large patron of the glasses of Murano, and we find from a valuable 
document, giving the inventory of the king's glasses, etc., at Westminster in 1542, that he 
possessed a variety of 371 glass vessels comprised in a list specially interesting," because 
it gives an idea of the kind of objects in glass of the highest quality which were made in the 
early part of the sixteenth century. The schedule includes bottles, flagons, basons, ewers, 
layers, cups, goblets, glasses, cruses, candlesticks, casting bottles, plates, dishes, saucers, etc., 
and shows in what way the goldsmiths dealt with many of them. 

This inventory may be contrasted with the following account, by Rend Fran9ois, Chaplain 

1 Quoted with a translation in Introd., S. K. Cat., - Appendix, Inventory, No. III. 

p. Ixxxiv. 


to Louis XIII. of France, of about half a century later, of the fantastic forms and gaudy 

colours which some of the Murano glass vessels' exhibited : — 

Mourano de Venise a beau temps d'amuser ainsi la soif et remplissant I'Europe de mille ct mille 
galanteries de verre et de chrystal fait boire les gens en dcpit qu'on en ait ; on boit un navirc de vin, une 
gondole ; on avale une pyramide d'hypocras, un clocher, un tonneau, un oyseau, une baleine, un lion, toute 
sorte de bestes potable et non potable. Lc vin se sent tout ctonnc prenant tant de figures, voire tant 
de couleurs, car dans les verres jaunes le vin clairet s'y fait tout d'or, et le blanc se teint decarlate dans 
un verre rouge. Ne fait-il pas beau voir avaler un grand trait d'ecarlate, d'or, de lait, ou d'asur ? ' 

Somewhat similar contemporary conceits are observable in the jewellery, much of it from 
Nuremberg and Augsbourg, inspired by Florentine masterpieces of earlier times, but usually 
attributed to Italy, in the adaptation of large misshapen and " brocky " pearls for human and 
other bodies, and in the odd fancies of silversmiths — the nef, the naviir, was, of course, of 
well-known mediaeval origin — in the often most inappropriate forms of their cups and other 
ornamental objects for the table. It was the age of conceits and crotchets from which even 
architecture and sculpture, as well as literature, were not exempt. 

The remarkable custom, common to all European countries during the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, of breaking the glasses at festive gatherings did not exclude the 
delicate productions of Murano. It is thus alluded to" as early as in 1593 in the description 
of a banquet given at Mantua in 1591 at the marriage of the Prince of Mantua: — 

Vi erano oltre le ricchissime credenze e bottigliarie ordinarie una prospettiva di divcrsi biccliieri, 
carrafe, e giarre, e altri bellissimi vasi di cristallo de Venetia, che credo vi fussero concorse tutte le 
boteghe di Morano ; e di cio ve n'era di bisogno poiche tutte le signore convitate doppo che havevano 
bevuto rompevano il bicchiere che tenevano in mano per segno di grande allegrezza. 

Following the fifteenth and early sixteenth-century enamelled vessels are the cups and 
glasses painted and partially burnt in, and others, sometimes of great size, merely decorated 
with oil or varnish colour and gilding.^ After the fifteenth century drinking-glasses were 
made so thin that they would not bear the heat of the enamelling furnace without losing their 
shape ; hence the employment of enamelling in the sixteenth century was generally limited 
to the thicker tazzas, bowls, etc., the decoration being of a much simpler kind than that of the 
preceding century. The same tenuity and fragility made Venetian glasses quite unsuitable for 
cutting on the wheel, and only for engraving with the diamond under such accomplished 
hands and tender touch as those of the sisters Roemer Visscher and Anna INIaria Von 

The Venetians used every effort to keep secret the processes of their glass manu- 
facture. The Inquisition of State, by the twenty-sixth Article of its Statutes of 1454, 
ordered that if any workman of any kind should transport his craft into a foreign country, 
to the injury of the Republic, and refuse to return, an emissary should be commissioned to 
slay him.* It is recorded that two workmen whom the Emperor Leopold (1658- 1705) 
had induced to enter his states were so dealt with.'' 

1 Introd., S. K. Cat, p. Ixxxvii. ably from the Forest, painted and gilt, with expanded 

"- Ibid., p. xli. This curious account of the bases and lofty domed covers ; the pamt tends to flake 

banquet at Mantua is quoted by Mr. Nesbitt from off like the rainbow-tinted patina of ancient devitrified 

the "Aggiunta," dated Venice, 1593, to // Trinciante of glass; they are "verres de parade" and not for use. 

Vicenzo Cervio. " ^aru, Histoire de la Rcpuhlique de Venise, torn. vi. 

3 In the National Museum at Munich is a pair of p. 402- 

these tall cylindrical glasses, i foot gj inches high, prob- ^ IMJ., tom. iii. p. 152. 


But the attractive offers of foreign states and tlie somewhat irregular employment of 
the iirtisans at Murano drew many of them away before the middle of the sixteenth century, 
particularly to the Low Countries, Germany, and France ; indeed, it is recorded that few 
princes in Europe had failed before the end of the century, in spite of the precautions and 
threats of the Republic, to obtain the services of Venetian glass-makers. These men, 
according to the circumstances of the respective countries, developed the rude lingerings 
of glass-making which had fitfully survived through the Middle Ages and from Gothic 
times, and of whose appearance in later days we gather most information, as we shall see, 
from early pictures. Or they founded new furnaces, subsidised by princes and governors, 
and they fashioned far from Venice Venetian glasses, soon to be copied by Flemish, or 
German, or French workmen as " verres facon de Venise." These shortly appeared on 
sixteenth and seventeenth -century sideboards, or were cherished, as they are to-day, in the 
cabinets of artists and collectors. They animate the conversation pieces of the golden age 
of artistic costume, and the pictures of still-life of countless Dutch masters ; they shine from 
the panels of Terburg and the canvases of Van Der Heist, and give the motif to many a 
brilliant and joyous Dutch interior. 

With regard to their gentility or "nobility" it appears that every glass-maker of Venice, 
Murano, or Altare entitled himself a "gentleman glass-maker," although he might be no 
more than a simple journeyman working for wages ; and that, according to these pretensions, 
the practice of glass-making conferred nobility, and the privileges attaching to it, wherever 
the art might be practised. Such claims were naturally resisted as early as in 1581 in 
countries not affected by Venetian customs. The case was that Venetian glass-makers 
did not become noble in foreign countries because of their occupation, but being already 
"noble," they so remained although following a trade. Mr. Schuermans puts the matter 
thus: — In France and the Low Countries they were "noble" although glass-makers; in 
Venice they were noble bccatise glass-makers ; and at Altare they were glass-makers bccmisc 
they were noble, none of lower status being there permitted to exercise the art.' 

Whatever may have been the disposition of the Venetian Republic with respect to 
the personal liberty of Venetian glass-makers in some foreign lands, as, for instance, in 
England, and if it is true that these authorities went so far as to compass the murder of 
two errant Muranists so late as under the Emperor Leopold (1658- 1705), it is certain that 
such capital measures were not dealt out to Venetians in the Low Countries from 1540 to 
an advanced period of the seventeenth century. However much averse the Council of Ten 
may have been to so many of their citizens fabricating abroad the art which was practised 
with so much credit and profit at home, their number and their scattered state made it 
impossible to control them. Moreover, reasons of high policy, the Imperial protection 
accorded to Venice in the war against the Turks, and the alliance between the Republic 
and Charles-Quint in 1538, for instance, probably contributed to cause the Venetian 
authorities to depart from the rigour of their statutes. Apart from these considerations, 

^ "11 y avail done trois sortes de noblesse verriere : la Venetienne fabriques aux Pays-Bas," Lettre III., p. 23. 

(a) En France et aux Pays-Bas, les nobles ^?^«^//c verriers; N.B. — The pages quoted in the references which will 

(li) h Venise, les nobles pane que verriers ; (<■) \ Altare, be made to M. Schuermans' Letters are those of the 

les verriers pane que nobles." H. Schuermans, Bulletin different volumes of the Bullelin in which they are com- 

des Commissiom Royales d'Artet (TAnheologie. "Verres a prised. 


the wishes of sovereigns as expressed by the document of 1623, " Tous les Rois ef. 
Princes desiraient et affectaient avoir en leur royaulme cette science," * and the " force of 
pubHc opinion" — so often evoked at the present day — must have gradually led to 

On the other hand, the Altarists were troubled by no patriotic scruples ; the emigration 
to all parts of Europe of the Venetian-taught glass-makers of Altare — the descendants 
of the colony of strangers from Normandy settled in Montferrat in the eleventh century 
— was simply a matter of business and profit, to which ignoble end, indeed, the action of the 
Council of Ten was also directed. Thus the services of the men who practised at Altare, the 
"ars tam nobilis " of the fourteenth-century Muranists, were in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries regulated by special contracts and sold for money, yearly payments being 
made to the Consuls of Altare." 

In every country to which the Venetians or the Altarists came the glass industry 
received an impetus for good, and was certainly carried at first in a more artistic direction 
than would otherwise have been the case. From this influence, through the force of 
local habits and requirements, it naturally and gradually fell away in every country, taking 
new inclinations, both in form and in substance ; and with such success that, in the early 
part of the eighteenth century, special means were taken by the Venetians in their turn 
to imitate the lustrous cut glass for which Bohemia — where nothing was owing to Venetian 
teaching — the Low Countries, and England had become so justly celebrated, and which fashion 
then demanded. The famous Briati, who died in 1772, learnt Bohemian methods in a 
Bohemian glass-house, and practised them, not without opposition, in Venice itself. 

The gradual decay of the "gentlemen glass-makers" in the Low Countries coincided 
with that of the art which they practised, and the archives of Liege furnish a good example 
of what took place everywhere. As taste changed, furnaces "a la facon de Venise" were 
one by one extinguished. Venetians, other Italians, and Altarists became fewer by degrees ; 
pride of nobility was slowly laid aside in the struggle for a maintenance ; they sank into 

1 Houdoy, Verrerk a -la facon de Venise; la fabrka- could thus re-establish their fortunes by making use of 
tio7i flamande d'aprh des documents inedits, Paris, 1873, their forests, or by leasing them to plebeian glass-makers. 
Document XI. de 7 Janvier 1623. The points are set forth by Sauzay, Marvels of Glass- 
In France numerous edicts were issued against the Making, p. 38 (translation), no date; and the whole 
plebeians who attempted to lay claim to nobility. For subject is fully and admirably treated by M. Gamier, 
instance, in a Decree of the Conr des Aides at Paris, Sep- supported by a series of original documents in Histoire de 
tember 1597, the following occurs: — . . . "from the la Verrerie, -p. 174, edit. 1886. 

mere flict of working and trading in glass ware, the glass- - It is believed that glass-making was first practised at 

makers could not claim to have acquired nobility, or right Altare, in Montferrat, about 10 miles from Genoa, in 

of exemption; nor, on the other hand, could the in- the eleventh century, by emigrant glass-makers from 

habitants of the locality assert that a nobleman was doing Normandy, Brittany, and perhaps Flanders. Venetians 

anything derogatory to his title by being a glass-maker." came from Murano early in the fourteenth century to 

Nothing could be plainer, and it is stated in Article II. of instruct the strangers in the Venetian practices. At an 

the foundation Charter of the glass-works of Saint Gobain early date consuls were appointed at Altare, to whom was 

in 1665, that Du Noyer might take as co-partners even committed the control of the art of glass-making. The 

nobles and ecclesiastics without derogation of their nobility, statutes were revised in 1495, and consist of nine articles ; 

The practice of glass-making in France gave neither a right the first includes the yearly appointment of six consuls to 

to plebeians, or bore forfeiture to nobles, and, inasmuch carry out the regulations.— H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre 

as the science was not included in the list of prohibited VII., p. 329- The statutes have been printed by Enrico 

trades, it could be carried on by the latter without loss of Bordoni, Lindustria del vetro in Italia (L'arte vetraria in 

dignity, and being from their position free from the count- Altare), p. i o i . 
less imposts which oppressed the bourgeois, French nobles 


the ranks of mere workmen, they became coverers of wickerwork bottles, etc., and were 
soon merged into the masses.^ 

Venetian ornamental glasses are of great variety, and their forms do not readily submit 
to verbal description. Nothing less than illustrations, such as are so well presented in the 
Slade Catalogue, will suffice. Sir Wollaston Franks has divided them into six classes : — 
I. Vessels of colourless and transparent glass, or of single — that is, self-colours. II. Gilt and 
enamelled glasses. III. Crackled glass. IV. Variegated or marbled opaque glass, the 
schmelz of the German. V. Millefiore or mosaic glass; and VI. reticulated, filigree, or 
lace glass, — vitro di trina ; the two last classes in their ancient aspects have already been alluded 
to. The manufacture of filigree glass was greatly extended by the Venetians, and several 
writers have explained in what manner the most delicate and intricate results were produced by 
simple means employed with the greatest dexterity and refinement of manipulation.- The 
general outline of the process is as follows : — 

Canes of coloured filigree and transparent colourless glass are arranged side by side 
around the interior of a circular metal or earthenware mould. They are heated near the 
furnace, and when they can be touched by hot glass, a bubble of clear glass is blown into the 
middle ; to this the canes adhere, and the whole being taken out of the mould, a band of glass 
is placed over the canes now forming the exterior surface of the cylindrical mass. It is then 
fashioned in the fire in the usual way into any form that may be desired. An appearance of 
greater intricacy could be obtained by welding two cylinders together, the one inside the other, 
and of which the lines of the canes ran in contrary directions. At each crossing of the canes a 
bubble of air would be captured, and repeat itself at regular intervals according to the form 
which the mass would be made to assume. Doubtless the most striking of all old and modern 
works in glass are the Venetian vessels in vitro di trina ; in them the capabilities of glass 
are pushed to their utmost limit, and their minute delicacy and perfection of handling indicate 
that human workmanship could not possibly be carried any further. Probably the greater part 
of the fine Venetian glasses that have been preserved belong to the seventeenth rather than 
to the sixteenth century ; for obvious reasons of manufacture they are almost as difficult 
to date within half a century as ancient Roman or Anglo-Saxon glass. 


Allusion has already been made ^ to certain glasses of Merovingian or Prankish times, 
based upon late Roman models, and known to us through the medium of the graves. If a large 
number of those glasses, fragile and widely distributed though they are, were really fashioned 
in the Rhine district in or about the sixth and seventh centuries, the probability would seem 
to be that in the ages following the dismemberment of the monarchy of the Prankish king 
Clovis in 511, the glass manufacture would have been continued within the same sphere. The 

' H. Schuermans, vt sup., Lettre V., p. 222. 
^ Labarte, Pellatt, Sauzay, Bontemps, Gamier. ^ Page 22. 


tendency, indeed, of historical events would have been rather to localise and gradually to limit the 
area of this special glass-making district, so that probably Cologne and Coblence — Colonia 
Claudia and Conflueiitia of the Romans — and where glass was certainly made in Roman 
times, Treves — Augusta Treviroricm — and Aix la Chapelle — Aquisgramuii — marked out, with 
the natural boundaries of the Rhine and the Moselle, a glass-making territory from which, 
working after, and gradually falling away from, Roman traditions, the countries far and wide on 
both banks of the Rhine, and possibly England to a limited extent, were supplied for centuries 
with the greater part of the glass vessels that were then used in northern Europe. The 
supply was apparently in a continually decreasing quantity, at least after the seventh century. 
Hence the extraordinary resemblance during so long a period between glasses found in districts 
so widely separated from each other, as, for example, Kent and Dalmatia, would be more than 
partially accounted for. The variety of the forms which, within certain limits, the drinking- 
glasses took during the Merovingian and Carlovingian periods from the latter part of the 
sixth to the end of the tenth century, is not less remarkable than their gradual disappearance, 
owing to political and other causes which cannot be entered upon here. 

It would be unreasonable to suppose that, with so long a record, glass-making was not 
pursued at all in the Low Countries after the tenth century, because it is in the nature of things 
that an established, though seemingly declining, manufacture would linger long before its extinc- 
tion. But was it extinguished? We have, unfortunately, no local documentary proofs or 
material evidence of the continuance of glass-making in this region in the period following the 
tenth century, but we have apparent testimony of it from a distant source. 

In the commune of Liguria, about 20 miles west of Genoa, and 10 from the sea, is 
the small town of Altare, in the province of Genoa, and forming part of the ancient Marquisate 
of Montferrat. According to the traditions of Altare, French and Flemish emigrant glass- 
makers were allowed to settle there, with certain privileges, in the eleventh century, to practise 
and teach the Altarists the art for which the place subsequently became so famous.' This 
sounds a little startling at first. The truth of the tradition has perhaps been somewhat pre- 
judiced by too precise relation and expansion ; but, weighing physical characteristics and 
linguistic peculiarities with deliberation, and without trying to get more out of the story than it 
may properly give, there seems to be no reason for casting doubt on the main proposition. It 
is interesting also in another way as giving, presumably, the first indications of the system of 
the movement, the- borrowing, or the enticing of glass workmen from other countries which, 
carried centuries after to so great an extent, brought about one of the most remarkable art 
movements which the world has witnessed. The point will be touched upon again later on in 
dealing generally with France. 

With regard to the form which the Low Countries' glass vessels took from the tenth to 
the twelfth century we have no certain information. The probability is that during this period 
very little was made, and, as in Germany, that little only in the form of small and unimportant 

1 " Le Dizionario corographico deh' Italia, d'Amati, statut particulier," quoted by the President Schuermans, 

i. p. 237, nous apprend qu'Altare, commune de la Ligurie, id sup., Lettre I. p. 135. At a glass-makers' fete held 

province de Genes, dependait vers le XP siecle des in 1S82 at Altare the programme recalls that the art 

Marquis de Montferrat, et que ceux-ci concedferent a des was initiated at that place in the tenth century by 

emigres frangais de Bretagne et de Normandie le privilege emigrants from Flanders as well as from France.— //'/V/., 

d'y exercer I'industrie verriere et accorderent \ leurs Lettre III., p. 25. 
families la noblesse et la magistrature consulaire par un 





vessels. Glasses of price would have been obtained from the East. We have no longer the 
testimony of the graves, and it can be readily understood that vessels of moderate size for 
ordinary use, and in a material that could be re-melted as "collet," would, when broken, leave 
very little trace, and by the lapse of centuries perish out of sight. But there is reason to 
believe that a reaction had set in, and that improvement was slowly going on both in the 
Low Countries and in France, because glass-makers from both countries are believed to have 
had something to teach the Altarists in the eleventh century. 

Reference has been made to a special and ancient glass-making district in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Rhine and the Moselle as providing glass vessels in early times for much of 
the requirements of a spacious district. Now, in various collections in Germany are preserved 
small glass vessels which have been discovered embedded or built up into altars, following a 
common mediaeval practice for the enclosing of relics. It may be taken for granted that 
such glasses were new when they were so applied, and, at least in those times for such a 
purpose, good examples of the current art. This being the case, when a vessel of the kind is 

Fig. 35. (One half.) 

Fig. 36. (One half.) 

Fig. 37. (Full size.) 

Fig. 38. (One half.) 

found, containing not only the precious remains but also a parchment giving the date of the 
deposit, and the name of the bishop under whose hand the valued objects were so deposed, 
the glass itself becomes a relic, — more significant indeed for the present purpose than the very 
memorials themselves which it enshrines. To take a noteworthy example, — such a glass con- 
taining relics and a testifying document {Ui'kundc) in Latin on parchment, with the bishop's 
seal attached and giving the date 1282, was found in a hole formed in the substance of the 
ancient stone altar of the Church of Michelfeld, near Hall, in Wurttemberg, in 1889 (Fig. 35). 
The clear green glass, nearly 3 inches high, is of that sort which indicates xX.?, provenance from 
the glass-making district near the Rhine, before alluded to, and more than suggests in its rude 
traditional trailed decoration its remote ancestry in glasses of late Roman times. As a dated 
example in the history of glass-making both in the Low Countries and in Germany it is a con- 
necting link of great value. ^ 

^ Die Urkunde lautet verdeutscht : — Im Jahre des 
Herrn 12S2 am Sonntag nach dem Fest des heiligen 
Gallus des Bekenners wurde dieser Altar geweiht von dem 
ehrwiirdigen Herrn Inzelerius, Bischof von Budua, zu 
Ehren der heiligen Apostel Petrus und Paulus und 
folgende Reliquien sind in diesem Altar enthalten : — Ein 
Stiick Holz vom Kreuz des Herrn, von der Dornkrone 
des Herrn, etwas von der Erde, wo der Herr gebetet hat, 
von dem Stein, auf den das Blut des Herrn geflossen ist, 
von der Kette des heiligen Petrus, von dem Leib des 
heiligen Petrus, Ein died des heiligen Apostels Paulus, 

des heiligen Stephanas, des ersten Martyrers, der heiligen 
Martyrer Adon und Sennes, des Martyrers Theodorus und 
des Martyrers Simphorianus.— ^^//rt^'f zu dem Wiirttcin- 
bcrgiscliai vieridsjahres Hffte}i fiir Landeigeschichfe. Vom 
histonchen Verein Jiir ]Viirt/em : Franken, 1892. "Das 
Michelfelde Reliquien Glas," von Professor Gaupp, in Hall. 
It is preserved in the museum of this historical Society at 
Hall. Only two wood and two bone fragments were 
recognisable. The former were wrapped in pieces of 
red silk. 


A tiny white glass, circa 1200, for relics, i:^ Inch high, and enclosed in a rude 
wooden box, is in the Baierisches National Museum at Munich (Fig. 36). Another relic 
glass, pale green in colour, if inch high, and ornamented with flat beady "prunts,"was 
found in a coffin of an ecclesiastic in the ancient collegiate Church of St. John, at Liege (Fig. 
l"]). In the same coffin was discovered the very delicate circular foot, up to the knop, of 
a glass chalice, the whole dating from the end of the fourteenth century. These objects 
are preserved in the Musee Archeologique in the Palais des Princes Eveques, at Liege. 

In 1 89 1 Herr A. v. Essenwein acquired for the Germanisches Museum a relic glass 
taken from an altar of a church in Vinstgaue in the Tyrol (Fig. 38). This is a clear bluish- 
green glass, properly called an Igel, decorated with " prunts " {StacJicl-Niippen) and is slightly 
oxidised. The mouth of the vessel is closed with wax and sealed with the seal of S. stipljani . 
i!pi . billini;, his episcopal title as suffragan of the Archbishop of Tirus. The glass has very 
properly not been opened, but through the sides can be seen the linen wrapping of the relics. 
They are further rolled round with a strip of parchment, upon which, as far as can be seen, is 
inscribed as follows : — 

. millesimo quingentesimo decimo nono die 

. mensis Julii nos frater steffanus ordinis predicatorum 

. apostolice gracia episcopus Bellinensis consecravimus 

. in honore sancti Michaelis et sancte Ursule et sancto 

. decim auxiliatorum et inclusimus eo reliquias 

. Steffani et sancte Ursule et sodalium ejus.^ 

It is to be observed that the small Nuremberg glass and the two Liege coffin examples 
among the above-mentioned vessels exhibit but slight indications of granular decay ; the 
others, dated 1282 and 15 19, are quite smooth and transparent. All these must have come 
from the Rhine district. 

In a MS. Pontifical of a bishop of Metz of the first quarter of the fourteenth century, 
in the possession of the Rev. E. S. Dewick, is an illumination admirably showing the intro- 
duction by the bishop of the sealed and attested relics into the sepulchre of an altar — " Deinde 
ponat intra in confessionem tres partes de incenso cum litteris sigillo episcopi sigillatis ; et 
tunc recludantur reliquie in confessionem.'"'^ 

In consequence of the remarkable commercial prosperity which arose in Flanders, great 
improvements rapidly took place in glass-making. We find from an inventory of Charles 
V. le Sage, of France, of 1379, that he had " ung gobelet et une aiguiere de voirre 
blant de Flandre garni d'argent." No doubt trade relations had already made the merchants 
of Bruges familiar with the beauties of Venetian glass, and caused their importation as early 
as in the middle of the century; at the end of it, in 1394, Philip II. le Hardi, Duke of 
Burgundy, paid for "seize voirres et une escuelle de voirre des voirres que les galeres de 
Venice ont avant apportez en nostre pays de Flandre." In 1454 his grandson, Philip III. 
le Bon, bought certain glass objects from Gossuin de Vieuglise, a "maistre voirrier" of Lille.^ 

With such few and isolated proofs as have been referred to has the continuous story of 
glass-making in the Low Countries been brought down to the end of the fifteenth century. 
Less than fifteen years ago the means for carrying it later still were almost as slight ; the 

1 Mitlei/ungen mis dem gcrinanischen Natioiia/mHseian, ^ Archaeologia, v. 54, p. 419, PI. XXXV. 

Jahrgang 1891, s. 7. ^ De Laborde, Glossaire, p. 545. 


real history was sealed up in the national archives. The late M. Houdoy, author of La 
Verrerie fiamande a la fafou de Venise, was the first to direct attention to the mass of 
documentary evidence throwing light upon the manufacture of glasses after the fashion 
of Venice in the Low Countries. Ably followed as he was by M. Genard, state archivist at 
Antwerp, by INI. St. Bormans, archivist at Namur, by M. van de Casteele, occupying a 
similar position at Liege, and by the late 11. Pinchart, and all of them encouraged by the 
friendly pressure of the well-known Belgian antiquary, the President Schuermans, an entirely 
new volume of the art history of the country has been laid open and become available for 
use.' In addition, AL Schuermans has himself worked diligently and written largely upon the 
subject, Lcs vcrrcs fafon de Venise fabriqu('s aux Pays Bas ; and not only relating generally to 
the Low Countries, but particularly to the city of Liege, where he exercises his high judicial 
functions. He has also collected and published documentary and other evidence concerning 
the movements of the Venetians and Altarists, their connection with "foreign" glass-makers, 
and their work in every country of Europe which came under the influence of this great 

art movement. 

According to a Venetian chronicle, crystal glass was invented by the Berovieros of Venice 
in 1463, and at once exhibited by them in different courts of Europe. An early notice 
of it occurs in the inventory of the goods of Charles le Temeraire, Duke of Burgundy, 
1467-77— a glass and a pot of " cristallin." Mention is also made in the Duke's inventory of 
a number of vases of coloured glass, and among them " ung hanap de jaspre garni d'or a oeuvre 
de Venise.- The new style, aided by the Renaissance, brought about the abandonment of 
heavy Gothic forms, and it appears probable that Venetians of the Ferro family, about the 
third quarter of the century, taught the Altarists the new processes of Murano. It is clearly 
confirmed that at the same time other Ferros made their way to the Low Countries, associated 
themselves with the fifteenth-century Flemish glass-making family of De Colnet, and with them 
first practised there the novel Venetian art of glass-making. From this time forward it gradu- 
ally spread throughout the Seventeen Provinces ; artistic glass-making was grafted by degrees 
upon an already existing, inconsiderable, and purely commercial industry, with three great 
centres— Antwerp, Brussels, and Liege, the Venetians mainly favouring the first, and the 
Altarists the last-named city after the sixteenth century. It flourished for nearly two hundred 
years and then as gradually passed away. 

M. Genard has ascertained from documents that a glass-house was established at great 
cost— " begost met groote costen "— at Antwerp in 1537, and made " crystallynen glasen" ;' 

1 The author acknowledges the effect of the President ^ pg Laborde, Histoire des Arts Indiisirkls, tome iv. 

Schuermans' encouragement, which caused him to extend p. 572 ; V. Gay, Glossaire, vol. i. p. 498- 
the present effort far beyond its first contemplated range, » h. Schuermans, utsiip., Lettrell., p. 359- Thisglass- 

and his obligations to him for his labours. In his eleven house was 'directed first by Luc van Hehiiont, then by 

"Lettres," published, 1SS3-1S91, in the Bulkfifi des Bernard Swerts and Jacques Steur ; it is evident that these 

Commissiofis Roy ales d' Art et d' Arch'cologie, Brussels, the were purely Low Country "crystalline" glasses, and quite 

" Premier President de la Cour d'Appel " has availed independent of any Italian hand in their manufacture, 
himself of documentary and other information brought " Lucas van Helmont met zynen medegesellen hier 

together by Belgian and Dutch authors and antiquaries, hebbende gebracht de neringe van cristalyn te maken, 

in\ddition to his own valuable comments and large in- ende dat tot reparatien ende stoffe van eenen gelaesoven 

dependent researches; besides recording intelligence of te zetten : Lxij lib. iij sc. iij den" {^Archives communales 

a like nature concerning glass-making in England, France, ^'^«zr«).— Pinchart, Les fabriques de Verres de Ventse 

Germany, etc., up to tlie end of the eighteenth century, dAnvers et de Bruxelles au XVI' et an X VII' suck. 

with a twelfth and final letter upon en.imelling. Cap. vij. Bulletin des Commissions, etc. 


these seem to have been rather glasses better than the common sort than direct imitations of 
the crystal glass of Venice ; they were more crystal in name than in nature ; in fact, we gather 
that the first establishment of an Italian, Cornachini, in the Low Countries was at Antwerp 
in 1541, privileged by Charles-Quint to make " cristallyne en staele spiegels," that is crystal 
and steel glasses. This was perhaps the glass-house alluded to by Gramaye, who was born 
in Antwerp, and first published his book in 1607 — "Cum officinas vitrorum anno 1541, tapeti- 
orum 1544, et alias circa id tempus coepisse didicerim."^ A document was discovered by 
M. Pinchart showing that eight years later, in 1549, Jean de Lame, of Cremona, was authorised 
to establish at Lierre, near Antwerp, or in any other place, " ou mieul.x il trouvera sa com- 
modite, I'art et science de faire verres de cristal a la mode et fa9on que Ton les labeure en la 
cyte de Venise." This was two years before a similar privilege was granted by Henry II. of 
France to Thesio Mutio, glass-maker of Bologna. Jacomo di Francisco, of Venice, obtained 
in 1556 the continuation of the concession granted to de Lame, and he relinquished it two 
years later to Jacomo Pasquetti, of Brescia, who, in 1558, as far as documents tell us at present, 
first made drinking-glasses "fa^on de Venise" at Antwerp and in the Low Countries. 
M. Houdoy quotes from a document of 1569 — " Ung hault verre de cristal d'Anvers ayant le 
pied et le couvercle d'argent dore par dedans, armoye des armes de Molenbais."^ This was 
perhaps a production of Pasquetti. 

The Principality and Bishoprick of Liege, though embedded as it was in the Provinces, 
formed a part of Lower Germany until 18 15, when it was united to the Netherlands. 
For art reasons we have treated it throughout as part of the Low Countries, as, in- 
deed, geographically it strictly was. That glass was being made at Liege of artistic 
quality, but not of Venetian fashion, quite early in the sixteenth century is apparent, 
because in an inventory of Margaret of Austria, Governess of the Low Countries, drawn 
up in 1523, mention is made of " un grant verre vert, le couvercle et le pied d'argent dore, 
donne par Monseigneur de Liege, Erard de la Marck.''^* Chapeaville, who was born in 
1 55 1, referring to the year 1569, speaks thus of the introduction of crystal glass-making into 
Liege, a fact of which he had personal knowledge : " Coeperat circa haec tempora vir 
ingenuus Nicolaus Francisci, Leodii ad ripam Mosae, in parochia ad divi Nicolai cristallina 
vitra conficere, Mosae alveo lapides pro materia administrante ; " he adds that Francisci was 
"I talus." * Foullon, who wrote his book about 1650, tells us also that Nicolas Francisci established 
in July 1569 the first crystal glass-works at Liege. In 1571 Pasquetti of Antwerp caused to 
be seized two great barrels full of Venetian glass made in Liege—" Luycksche gelaesen 
gecontrefeyt naer de veneetsche gelaesen," which, having been sent for sale, struck a blow 
against the speciality of the Venetian glass-makers in Antwerp.^ It seems that the Italians 
had at that time, and later, a monopoly of the manufacture in the Low Countries of 
" crystalline,"— that is, transparent white, as opposed to the old local greenish or yellowish glass ; 
the latter never approached nearer to " crystalline " than " off-white," and for the most part was 
of a horny tint, and employed in the making of small plain cups for ordinary use such as may 
be seen in early Flemish pictures, and of which time has spared a very few examples (Figs. 

1 Antverpia, III. x., p. 24. ^ H. Schuermans, Verres Licgeois Fawn de Ve>i!se,p. 4. 

- Houdoy, la sup., p. 34. Inventaire dcs meubles ^ Ibid., p. 7. 

daivres par Antoine van Berghe, etc., le xi mars, T569.— « Ibid., Verres a la Venitienne, etc., /// sup., Lettre I., 

Archives departementales die Nord. P- 146- 




-•9-54). The green glass of Margaret of Austria must have been a superior vessel of Liege 
origin, and quite independent of Italian influence. 

As soon as the separation of the United Provinces from the Spanish Low Countries was 
effected in 1579-80, the glass industry took an extended direction. Thus, in 1581, Godefroid 
Verhaecen left England, where he appears to have been working, and established glass-making 

Fig. 39. 


Fig. 40. 



Fig. 41. 

Y\G. 42. 

Fig. 43. 

after the Venetian fashion at Middelburg in Zelande, ' aided by runaway Italians from 
Antwerp. Mention is frequently made in petitions of this period of the e.xpenses incurred in 
attracting " de longz pays les maistres ad ce necessaires ; " an Act of 1565 alleges the "grandz 
depens excessifz sallaires et courtoisies " " and the other expenses necessary in obtaining, of 

Fig. 44. 

Fig. 45. 

Fig. 46. 

Fig. 47. 

course secretly, glass-makers from Venice. During the terms of Pasquetti and his successors, 
Mongarda and Gridolphi, at Antwerp, the crystalline glass made there is described more than 
once in the privileges as the great ornament and honour of Antwerp, and of as good, and even 
better quality than at Venice — " Alhier alsoo ghoet ende betere dan tot Venegian vinden."^ 

Fig. 49. 

Fig. 50. 

Fig. 52. 

Fig. 53. 

From a petition of Gridolphi, in 1607, it is shown that, while the entrance into the Low 
Countries of the glasses from Venice was not interdicted, those " facon de Venise" were only 
authorised to be made at Antwerp, Brussels, and Liege. Apropos of this point the municipal 
archives of Lille for 1620 give the following entry: — "A Paul Verhaeghe, pour plusieurs 
parties de verres, tant d'Anvers que de Venyse qui par lui furent livrees ceste presente annee 
pour banquets faits en la maison echevinale." This item of expenditure occurs almost every 
year/ The grievance now was that the merchants obtained their Venetian glasses from places 

^ Ibid., ut sup., Lettre II., p. 371. 
2 Ibid., pp. 366, 367. 

^ Genard, Les anciennes verreries d'Anvers ; Btdlettn 
des Archives d'Anvers. 

* Houdoy, vt sup., p. 34. 



most convenient to them — it might be from Cologne, Paris, Mezieres, London, etc., — " ou Ton 
pratique cle contrefaire lesdits verres de Venise si ponctuellement qu'a grand peine les maitres 
eux-memes sauraient juger la difference." So there were in the Low Countries in the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth century real Venetian glasses, imported from Venice ; Venetian glasses 
legally made in the Low Countries ; those illegally made ; and foreign imitations of Venetian 
glasses. The artistic distinction between the varieties of lawfully and unlawfully-made 
glasses, all inspired by Italians, or by Altarists, would be a nice question to solve. As to 
Venetian glasses generally, greater delicacy and refinement of manipulation should distinguish 
them at once from those made in the Low Countries. It is evident, on seeing some examples 
of the two kinds together, that similarity of form and handling will not produce the same results 
unless there is similarity of material also, yet the masters themselves could hardly tell the 
difference in 1607.^ Moreover, Venetian soda-glass is much lighter than that made in the Low 
Countries with potash, both being free from the metallic oxides which distinguish glass of lead, 
as is also the fern-ash glass, " verre de fougere," which is the lightest of all potash glass, and 
will be spoken of in another place. " Verres de fougere " are always distinguished from crystal 
glasses, which were the specialty of the Venetians and the Altarists. 

Again, in 1607, it was protested to the archdukes that certain workmen from Antwerp 
were suborned by Liege makers who sold their productions as Venetian wares. A Venetian 
glass-house was first set up at Brussels in 1623 by Miotti, a name well known at Murano. It 
was in opposition to the Antwerp furnaces which were extinguished in 1642 and re-lighted later 
with small success. Brussels ceased to make "verres fa^on de Venise" soon after 1713. In 
1626 Italians were making at Liege crystalline and gilt glass, imitations of precious stones, 
and enamels in all colours. Precisely thus did the Altarists at Nevers in the centre of France. 

From the foregoing notes it will be understood that the establishment in glass-houses of 
Venetians and Altarists had been accomplished in numerous cities and towns of the Low 
Countries before the second quarter of the seventeenth century. This had the effect of 
creating an artistic fabrication throughout these regions side by side with the already existing 
and purely commercial or industrial manufacture, such as the de Colnets, the de Bonhommes, 
and others directed in so many furnaces — as at Antwerp, Liege, Brussels, Ghent, Bois-le-Duc 
(s'Hertogenbosch), Maestricht, Mezieres, Namur, etc. It was obviously to the advantage of 
local glass-makers that they should, either alone, or aided by Italians or Altarists, produce the 
new and fashionable artistic glass as well as continue to provide for the common glass require- 
ments of the country. The peculiar interest of the great art movement is the rapidity with 
which it spread throughout Europe — " Tous les Rois et Princes desiraient et affectaient avoir 
en leur royaulme cette science," says a document of the time. The jealousies and difficulties 
which constantly accompanied its establishment in any part of the Low Countries have caused 

1 From various documents brought to light by M. absolue d^importer et de vendre dans les Pays-Bas tous 

Houdoy(seep.3i,notei)itclearlyappearsthattheprivileges autres verres faits h I'imitation de ceux de Venise.'' He 

granted in the Low Countries for the manufacture of glass adds that in spite of this privilege and prohibition 

" h. la venitienne " amounted to no more than protection " certains marchands, au lieu de faire venir leurs verres 

against foreign and local imitations; there was no pro- de Venise, les tirent Ji leur plus grand commodite des 

hibition of glasses direct from Venice. In Gridolphi's places les plus voisines, ou Ton pratique de contrefaire 

petition of 1607 he refers to his singular privileges— les dits verres de Venise si ponctuellement qu'^ grand 

" parmi lesquels le principal est I'interdiction h, tout autre peine les maitres eux-memes sauraient juger la difference." 

qu'a Gridolphi de fabriquer des voires de cristal et de les — Houdoy, at sup., p. 8. 
contrefaire h. la fagon de Venise, ainsi que la defense 


the abundant accumulation of cotemporary documents, from which so much of the history of this 
artistic development has been only lately brought to light. To make full use of this material, 
and to follow the intricate account of the industry step by step over so wide' an area through 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, would clearly be quite beyond the compass of the 
present sketch. 

Having seen the establishment, the most important point, of Italian art in glass in the Low 
Countries, and traced something of its course, it must be sufficient to add that it sustained no 
very appreciable decline until the last quarter of the seventeenth century. Then it fell away 
rapidly in public favour, and the first dawning in England of " Flint Glass," that is " Glass 
of Lead," between 1660 and 1663, gave the signal not only for an entirely fresh departure 
in glass-making, but also for the abandonment of the old artistic fashion, which had held its 
ground in the Low Countries for exactly two hundred years. The new style was hardly less 
far-reaching in its influence, or more rapidly adopted in foreign countries than had been the 
ancient crystal of Venice ; and as at the end of the fifteenth century the novel art was inspired 
from two sources, so at the end of the seventeenth two sources supplied the Continent not 
only with the new mode, but also with a large part of the objects themselves, which were 
made after it. These bountiful origins were, first England, and then Bohemia — whose 
beautiful engraved artistic glasses were successfully competing with those of Murano;^ the 
one acting under instinctive commercial promptings, and the other largely led in the same 
direction, owing to the cession by Spain to Austria of a great part of the Low Countries, 
through the settlement of the Peace of Utrecht in 1713," and encouraged thereto later on by 
the patriotism and protection of the great Maria Theresa. 

At once English Flint Glass was introduced into the Low Countries, and since 1680 the 
de Bonhommes, who in 1681 were making glasses " facon dAllemagne," had engaged workmen 
to produce " Verres a I'Angleterre " at Liege.' In 1693 ^ furnace for Venetian glass was set up 
as a kind of last effort at Ghent, but, unable to struggle against the new fashion, it submitted 
in 1 714 to that particular manufacture. Similarly, at Brussels, the lately-founded glass-house 
ceased at the same time. At Bruges, little beyond bottles were made after 1700.* Already in 
I 710 the de Bonhommes complained of the importation, ruinous to them, of Bohemian glasses 

1 "It was in Bohemia, however, about the beginning ^ -^ Schuermans, tii sup., Lettre VII., pp. 323. 

of the seventeenth century, that the pernicious pseudo-art * The custom of bottling and "laying down" wine, 

of engraving and cutting in imitation of crystal originated. which was of classical origin, was revived with the luxury 

This was a retrograde step, the material of itself being of the Renaissance, and appears to have grown into 

capable, as the Venetians had already taught us, of the general use in France before the end of the seventeenth 

most artistic treatment, without imitating a treatment century — " et ce n'est guere qu'ii la suite des raffinements 

belonging to another substance and foreign to its own du luxe qui s'introduisirent a I'e'poque de la renaissance, 

nature." — J. Fowler, Decay in Glass, etc., p. 33 ; reprinted que commenca I'usage general des bouteilles en verre, 

from the Archaeologia, vol. xlvi. non seulement pour contenir, mais pour y faire vieillir les 

- Full and interesting accounts of this important vins." — G. Bontemps, Guide du Verrier, p. 495, edit, 

treaty, which terminated the war for the Spanish .Succes- 1868. A mciiioire of 1724 of the Academie Royale 

sion, and transferred the Low Countries from Spain to des Sciences of Paris runs as follows :— " Depuis que la 

Austria, is given in Koch, Traitcs de Fai.x ; Flassan, mode est venue, surtout a Paris, de tirer et garder le vin 

Histoire de la Diplotnalie franfaise ; Ancillon, Sysfcme en bouteilles de verre, il s'est etabli, pour la fabrique de 

politique de I Europe, and in the Mhnoires de Torcy. The ce grand nombre de bouteilles, de nombreuses verreries 

remarkable representation of the House of Commons con- qui n'ont presque point d'autre objet." — H. Schuermans, 

cerning the war, presented to the Queen, and her not less re- iit sup., Lettre VI., p. 271. These bottles were of fixed and 

markable answer to it, in her speech from the throne on 6th regular forms as distinguished from the often shapeless 

June I 7 1 2, are given in Swift's Four Last Years of the Queen. productions of the previous centuries. 




into Liege. Before 1757 they gave up crystal glass-making there, but Nizet, who had 
started a furnace at Liege in 1710, continued to carry it on with some success. From the 
middle of the century Zoude of Namur, a pushing, vulgar, and boastful glass-nuiker, was a 
determined opponent of the Liege works. He produced a great quantity of glass of all kinds 

including " Venetian," long after that fashion had passed away in the Low Countries — 

and, of course, the English Flint Glass. Suiting his productions specially to the taste of the 
time, he supplied Brussels, Louvain, Antwerp, Mechlin, Mons, Ghent, Tournai, and Paris. 
Liege was too well established to be shaken by Zoude. 

Immediately after the Peace of Utrecht in 1713, a large number of merchants of Bohemian 
elass established themselves in the Low Countries. Drawing their supplies from warehouses 

Fig. 55. (One third.) 

Fig. 56. (One third.) Fig. 57. (One third.) Fig. 58. (One third.) Fig. 59. (One third.) 

at Antwerp and Middelburg, quantities of glasses from Prussia, Silesia, and the neighbouring 
districts, "which it was not possible to distinguish from those of Bohemia," ^ were also intro- 
duced into the country (Figs. 55, 56, 57, 58). This inHux continued during the long adminis- 
tration of Maria Theresa, and in addition large consignments of cut glasses came later on 
from England competing with it (Fig. 59), and from France, who was herself in 1760 wholly 
supplied with flint glass from this country.- No Venice glass was made at Ghent after 
1710, but in 171 1 Francois de Colnet made bottles and glasses "more anglicano," and for 
six years he sent them all over Flanders. In 1744 Maria Theresa entered Ghent as 
Countess of Flanders. For a banquet in her honour special glasses were made in Ghent, 
finely engraved by the wheel with armorial bearings, like those of Bohemia and Holland.^ 
At a number of other places in Belgium, such as Charleroi, Barban^on, Saint Hubert, 
Ghin, etc., glasses were made chiefly under the direction of the de Colnets, in some places 
assisted by Englishmen, during the latter part of the seventeenth and to the end of the 
eighteenth century. These productions naturally followed the leading style of the times in 
which the works flourished, tempered by that of the district or place where they were carried 

1 " On introduit par ces bureaux toute espece de 
verres presentes comme verres de Boheme ; car, ainsi 
qu'on le declare au Conseil des finances, on fait 'en 
Prusse et en d'autres pays ' des verres qu'il n'est pas 
'possible de distinguer des verres de Boheme.'" — H. 
Schuermans, tit sup., Lettre VII., p. 324. 

2 Bosc d'Antic, who first published his papers in the 
Manoires de lAcadcmie Fran^aise in 1760, states that 
the English sent four-fifths of their flint glass abroad, and 
that, in spite of its dearness and imperfections, the whole 
of France was supplied from this country. 

3 H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre VIII., p. 471- 



on, but were not of sufficient importance, like those of Liege for example, to react upon or 
affect the general taste. Many of the table glasses will be referred to when tracing the 
history of the English wine-glasses during the eighteenth century. 

There would have been no significance in the action of the glass-makers of the Low 
Countries, when they took to working "more anglicano," if the English metal had not a few 
years before that time taken a new direction. They did not attempt the imitation of glass 
"a I'anglaise" of an earlier date, because it was of much the same character as they were 
themselves making, and would have offered no better foil or rivalry than their own pro- 
ductions to the Silesian or other German glasses which were so rapidly making their way 
into the Low Countries, and by their cheapness undermining the markets. In saying this, 
we are far from suggesting that "flint glass "—that is, "glass of lead "—had, in 1680, much 
advanced from its first stage, and some of the glasses which may be assigned to the last 
quarter of the seventeenth century illustrate this position. But after the middle of the 
eighteenth century it is often hard to distinguish by the metal alone an English-made from a 
Low Country wine-glass "a I'anglaise," such, for instance, as Liege and Amsterdam produced. 
This is the case as to certain types of the bell shape and the drawn forms. With others 
of essentially English fashions, such as the straight-sided, and the ogee, the difference is 

obvious at a glance. 

The M^moires of the Brussels Academy show that in i 7S5 nothing but common glass and 
table glasses were then made in the Low Countries, even the latter being also extensively 
imported.! \^ j^gy it was officially declared in the "Conseils" of the Low Countries: "We 
have ceased to make fine crystalline things ; we have to get them from Bohemia ; " ' and in 
1 794 official documents' state that no more glass goblets are made in the departments of 
Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, and Bruges. In short, with the exception of works at Liege— 
which city had successfully adapted itself to the new style— artistic glass-making was clean 
wiped out from the Low Countries at the end of the eighteenth century ; fully fifty years 
earlier Bohemian glass had become " le verre de luxe" throughout that spacious region. 

Voneche takes us out of the century and beyond our allotted period. On account of 
its brilliant though light imitation of English glass, which was not undertaken until after 
1800, it had a great renown until 1826 when its furnaces came to an end. It was the parent 
of the fine crystal glass-works of Val Saint Lambert, 7 miles from Liege, and of Baccarat, 
near Luneville. The productions of the latter glass-house are perhaps the best known, on 
account of the " dated examples " which are placed within the reach of sky-aspiring travellers 
at the top of the Eiffel Tower.^ 

1 H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre VIII., p. 381. works which, under excellent administration, have become 

2 " Nous ne faisons pas les ouvrages fins et cristallins ; the most important establishment of the kind in France, 
nous devons les tirer de Bohhmt."— Ibid., ut sup., Lettre —See G. Bontemps, vt sup., p. 529. 

VII. p. 326. The reason of the resemblance which the Baccarat 

3 The glass-house of Voneche, near Givet, was founded glass bore to old English " flint " glass in M. d'Artigues' 
about 1800 by M. d'Artigues. By the Treaty of 181 5 time was that, seeking in vain for white sand in the neigh- 
•t became outside French territory and transferred to the bourhood, he was finally obliged to content himself with 
Low Countries. D'Artigues obtained the right of sending certain hard, white, flinty pebbles then abounding in the 
his glass duty-free into France for three years, on the bed of the river Meurthe hard by. These, being calcined, 

• condition of founding crystal glass-works in France during finely ground, and otherwise prepared, served his purpose 

~-^|C' the interval. This he did by buying the glass-house of admirably, until the handy supply becoming used up and 

."j-f . Sainte Anne at Baccarat, where, up to that time, only difficult to procure, d'Artigues' successors had to fall back 

common glass had been produced, and establishing crystal upon sand from Champagne.— G. Bontemps, ut sup., p. 50. 



Concerning the history of glass-making In the Seven United Provinces of the Dutch 
Republic, now constituting the kingdom of the Netherlands, from the time of the first arrival 
of the Venetians and Altarists to the end of the eighteenth century, it is so bound up and 
interwoven with the story of the art in the Spanish or Austrian Low Countries during 
the same period that the account of the movement is, generally, the same for the one 
country as for the other. What, indeed, with regard to art of any kind in the Seventeen 
Provinces — save that which may be purely and narrowly local — is the accident of a 
boundary ! And large as the materials are that have already been made available for the 
Low Countries, the whole history of a most remarkable artistic movement has not even 
yet been brought to light in Belgium ; while, as regards the Northern Provinces there 
appears to be still a great deal to be learnt. 

Holland was favoured more by Altarists than Venetians, and as early as in 1597 the 
Italians at Antwerp resented the competition of the Amsterdam glass-houses, as did also in 
1607 the Venetians established so far off as at Cologne.^ This implies Italians, or Altarists, 
working with considerable success at Amsterdam. There are strong reasons for believing 
that the glass manufacture "a la Venitienne " was carried on at Amsterdam throughout 
the seventeenth century, but the absolute proof of documents are at present wanting. No 
doubt the character of the "output" was adapted later on to the changed taste, but with no 
diminution of energy, for a traveller — perhaps with somewhat of a traveller's literary licence — 
likens Amsterdam, in 1738, to classic Alexandria — " C'est une ville opulente, ou tout abonde, 
ou personne ne vit dans I'oisivete : les uns y soufflent le verre . . ., telle etait autrefois 
Alexandrie, telle est aujourd'hui Amsterdam."" Thus Amsterdam continued to make her 
own glass in addition to the facilities which she had after the Peace of Utrecht in 171 3 
for obtaining glasses of all countries from Middelburg or Antwerp. From this time sprang 
up in the great city on the Amstel the art of cutting and polishing glasses, which, being 
developed during the eighteenth century, brought it such deserved fame. 

We have seen that a native of the Low Countries, Godefroid Verhaegen, set up 
glass-works " fa9on de Venise " at Middelburg in 1581. He came from England for 
this purpose, and in 1597 the glass-men at Antwerp complained not only of his competition, 
but also of the kidnapping, by the Middelburgers, of their workmen.^ Half a century 
later all sorts of glasses were being made in this outlying, place where the Bohemian 
merchants later on, as has been shown,* had some of their large warehouses. In 1740 
the furnaces were directed by an Englishman, as was a few years after the neighbouring glass- 
house of Flushing, all certainly then working "more anglicano." 

The de Bonhommes first obtained and directed glass furnaces at Maestricht in 165 1, which 

' H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre X., p. 595. ... calices tibi allassontes versicolores transmissi, quos 

2 De la Barre de Beaumarchais, Z« /f^//rt«fl'rt/5, p. 67. mihi sacerdos templi obtulit." The exact meaning in- 

This is a plagiarism from Vopiscus in a letter which tended by calices allassontes has been discussed. — See E. 

Hadrian wrote from Alexandria to the Consul Servius Garnier, tit sup., p. 43. 

"... civitas opulenta, dives, foecunda, in qua nemo vivat ^ H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre X., p. 605. 

otiosus . . . alii vitrum conflant, ab aliis charta conficitur * See p. 41. 



had already been some years at work. They were in close relation with the glass-houses 
belonging to the same family at Liege, and workmen were interchanged as convenience 
demanded. Under this management the furnaces continued active, and constantly assisted 
both by Altarists and Venetians up to the end of the seventeenth century when they ceased. 
No doubt, at Maestricht, as in other places in Holland and the Low Countries, artistic glass 
industry was annihilated by the rapid change in taste and the importations from other 
countries. In 1778 the widow of the diligent Zoude of Namur supplied glasses to 

At s'Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-Duc) in 1657 a glass-house was established, again under 
the control of the de Bonhommes. A Venetian gentleman was specially engaged there by 
them in 1666 to make beer-glasses "a la fa^on d'Altare et Murano." A century later it 
is quoted by Zoude of Namur as making goblets and wine-glasses. This was a considerable 
glass - producing place until the end of the century, when it was disabled by foreign 
competition. An interesting feature of the s'Hertogenbosch manufacture was that, being 
much pampered and fostered by the civic authorities, they gave during the latter half of 
the seventeenth century, as presents to persons of distinction who had deserved well of 
the town, cases of home-made glasses instead of gifts of wine as in former times. A series 
of covered cups, porringers, sweetmeat vessels, etc., engraved with armorial bearings, is still 
preserved at s'Hertogenbosch— examples of the simple generosity of the town in bygone 

In 1609 and 16 19 certain glass-makers of Dordrecht had business relations with the 
glass-makers of Nevers. At Haarlem coloured glass was being made in 1667, white and 
coloured at the Hague in 1668, and there is no doubt that glass-furnaces existed at Rotterdam 
from the fifteenth to the end of the seventeenth century, as is shown by Gerspach. The 
same authority mentions Sybert Meynertsz van Duyn and Hugo Spierings as having been 
privileged in Holland in 1665 to make Rhine wine-glasses called " rheumers," and beer- 
glasses.- This is an important statement, as bearing upon the fact of the German influence 
in Dutch glasses from the beginning of the century, corroborated by the number of 
"rheumers" or " roemers " — which have nothing to do with the vulgar English rummers 
of a hundred and fifty years later — still existing in Holland and represented during a century 
in so many Dutch pictures, more frequently than any other glasses. The de Bonhommes, 
also, in the second half of the seventeenth century, employed Germans at Liege to make 
"remeurs verdes " and a fairly early instance of a roemer, doubtless made at Liege, is 
quoted by M. Houdoy^from an inventory of 1570 — " Un rumer vert encasse en ung pied 
d'argent dore et couvercle de meisme, armoye des amies de la dame de Buren." 


Having now seen something of the course of glass- making generally in the Seventeen 
Provinces, and particularly of the works of Venetians and Altarists in those parts of Europe 

1 H. Schuernians, ut sup., Lettre X., \\ 592. '- Gerspach, L'art de la vanric, p. 287. ^ Houdoy, ut sup., p. 27. 


during close upon a century and a half, it may be allowed, without much reservation or 
compunction, that with a very few obvious exceptions of glasses imported from Venice, all 
the artistic glasses "fa9on de Venise," and diamond-etched with Dutch or Flemish portraits, 
subjects, arms, or various devices, were both made in the Low Countries and there decorated ; 
in fact, to come to any other conclusion in this regard would be almost impossible in the face 
of the documentary testimonies — the "pieces justificatives " — that have, within the last fifteen 
years, been placed within the reach of inquirers.^ As to undecorated glasses, while 
presumptive evidence naturally leads to the same conclusion, the difficulty of positive 
attribution yet remains, and sympathy will not be withheld from the connoisseurs of to-day 
who find themselves, after two hundred and eighty-nine years, in much the same position 
as the petitioners of 1607 who then declared that Venice glasses were counterfeited so 
accurately in the Low Countries " qua grand peine les maitres eux-memes sauraient juger 
la diff(;rence." Nevertheless, a separation of nearly three centuries from the facts has not 
discouraged Belgian and Dutch specialists from the endeavour to determine that which 
almost baffled contemporary experts, and not alone the origin, but the exact local sources 
of the graceful artistic glasses which are so conspicuous in the art history of their countries. 
For instance, if the difference between Venice glasses and those of Altare could be accurately 
recognised, then Italian glasses made at Antwerp, where Venetians worked, could be dis- 
tinguished from those of Liege, where Altarists practised.- Important initiatives of 
information to this end — at present not available for reference — are original working 
drawings or outlines, veritable "pieces de conviction." Some, for example, are known to 
remain among the archives of the de Bonhomme family ; others are believed still to be in the 
possession of the successors of the Nizets, referring, no doubt, to the glass-works of Antwerp 
and Brussels. In this respect England has been, in a way, more fortunate.^ 

The value of pictures in giving information respecting the dates and forms of glasses, 
their relative value and application to use in all grades of society, has not been overlooked 
by Low Country antiquaries. In these exact and beautiful pictorial records, which no 
other country possesses to such an extent, the wide influence of the Italians upon native 
art in glass is so clearly set forth, that, in order fully to illustrate the ancient industry 
in the National Exhibition of 1880, the Belgian Minister of the Interior commissioned 
M. J. van Mansfeld to make drawings of all the glass vessels represented in pictures 

1 <i| 

' Of the manufactory («V) of glass in Flanders and in the Low Countries, by a Venetian or an Altarist who 

Holland little seems to be known."— Nesbitt, Introd., carried his Italian mask stamp with him, and toned the 

Shide Cat. p. xlviii. "The greater number of the speci- form of his glass by the vessels he saw around him, or 

mens under this head were probably manufactured in fashioned by an Italian who had returned to " Rialto " after 

Venice for the Flemish and Dutch markets, and decorated working in the Low Countries, would be a nice question 

in those countries."— ^/a^/t; Cat., p. 152, Sec. VIII., to decide. 

Flemish and Dutch Glasses, 1 87 1. In the Introductory ^ u papers relating to the Glass-sellers, 1667-72, 

Notice to the Catalogue of Glass Vessels in the South Sloane MS. 857," Appendix, No. XXIX. Of a later 

Kensington Museum (1878), Mr. Nesbitt had the ad- time, in the Flambeau Astronomique, or Calendar for the 

vantage of the information resulting from M. Houdoy's year 1725, in an advertisement of the glass-house of Samt- 

first researches into the subject (see p. 36). Paul-lez-Rouen, at Eauplet, the public is informed that 

2 No. 493 of the Slade Collection is an Italian roemer "les personnes curieuses pourront, en leur presence, faire 

with a gilt incurved rim. The stem or base is decorated mettre a execution leurs dessins, tels qu'ils puissent etre," 

with three sets of double vertical rows of bosses with pale etc., a long list being given of the different objects that 

blue centres, the sets being divided from each other by are produced in glass, both for the table and for the 

gilt satyric masks. Whether this glass was made in requirements of the church.— H. Schuermans, ut sup., 

Venice itself, quite independently of German influence, or Lettre VI., p. 266. 



in public collections throughout the Provinces.' These drawings were finally deposited 
in the Bibliotheque du Musee d'Antiquites at Brussels. They form a valuable series 
of evidence, which it may be hoped will ere long be supplemented and made complete by 
drawings from Flemish and Dutch pictures in the numerous galleries near or f^ir from 
Holland and Belgium, where genuine examples of these very original and human schools 
are so justly prized. The great interest of representations of glass in pictures consists 
in their showing not only the purely Venetian forms — the glasses dc hixc — made in the 
Low Countries by Venetians and Altarists as long as they were prominent there, or rather, 
until the last quarter of the seventeenth century, and by their imitators, but also the glass 
cups of late Gothic times — cups mounted in gold with mullet -footed bases, lingering on 
the buffets in the pictures side by side with the simple thin glass drinking-vessels, of 
which — as with the late fifteenth-century Igels, and the early Krautstrunks — original examples 
are so excessively rare, and which preceded the first productions of the foreigners in the 
Low Countries. Then we have also in the pictures, up to the end of the seventeenth 
century, the likenesses of the spacious wine and beer glasses, both of the better and of 
the common sort, and so faithfully depicted that if actual examples had not happily been 
preserved, the continuous story could have been set forth from the not less fascinating 
pictures alone. Now the sources unite in showing exactly how Italian influence, exercised 
under sunnier skies, for the most part upon delicate tazza-shaped cups and wine-glasses 
of moderate dimensions, crept into the designs of the capacious vessels which the ruder 
tastes and more vigorous habits of the Flemings and the Batavians demanded. 

Glasses in the Seventeen Provinces, from the middle of the fifteenth to the end of 
the eighteenth century, may be conveniently divided into three principal groups: (I.) Those 
that are anterior to the coming of the Italians; (II.) those that were made during the 
stay and operation of the Italians; and (III.) those that belong to the time when Italian 
influence had passed away. 


As regards the glasses in Group I., the representations in pictures and the few actually 
remaining examples show us exactly what they were like, namely, small thin cups or 
tumblers, crudely shaped — like the food or drinking-vessels of pottery, the so-called "incense" 
cups, from primeval graves — plain, or delicately fluted in various directions, the glasses being 
white or rather horn-colour, and dark blue, and their only further ornamentation being a plain or 
cable band, or a denticulation forming a foot at the base (Figs. 39-54). Others following these 
in date have short bases formed by the simple process of constricting cylindrical glasses taller 

1 The late M. Houdoy began some years ago to ment les echantillons encore nombreux qui ont survecu." 

collect sketches of examples of glasses represented in The same idea occurred independently in 1887 to the 

Flemish and Dutch pictures, with the view of determining present writer, who, encouraged by the suggestions of a 

their periods. He said : " Pour etablir la serie de ces trans- valued Dutch friend, now, alas ! removed, and with views 

formations successives des formes primitives, il faudrait, precisely similar to those of M. Houdoy, visited the 

dans une suite de dessins, relever chez tous les peintres des principal galleries and museums in the Low Countries and 

ecoles des Pays-Bas, et en suivant I'ordre chronologique, made several hundred sketches of glasses from pictures, 

d'aprfes la date des tableaux, toutes les verreries repre- and from the actual objects, with dimensions, preserved 

sentees ; on aurait ainsi I'histoire graphique des produits des in the museums, and in some private collections, for the 

usines du pays, ce qui permettrait de classer methodique- purpose of the present work. 



^ i 1ili i -J'H.ilMI M i i 





than those just alkided to. Cups of precisely similar forms in turned wood, plain or 
harnessed in pewter, are shown in pictures of the time, leaving little doubt as to the origin 
of the shapes of native-made glasses in the Low Countries in Group I. To this period 
must also be assigned a few rare dark green or brown glasses, with or without the single 
handle, and decorated with flat strawberries or compound " prunts " ; it is probable that 
these cups were made in Cologne ; they remain a class apart and will be spoken of later on. 


With regard to the glasses in Group II. — those that were made during the stay and opera- 
tion of the Italians, — at the beginning of the sixteenth century a certain late fifteenth-century 
glass called an Igel (Fig. 60), which lengthened later into the Krautstrunk (Fig. 61),^ arrived in 
the Low Countries from the Rhine-land, precursor of a long and varied line of glasses which 
flourishes more vigorously than ever at the present day in the country of its origin. The 

to c 
lib d 

Fig. 60. (One quarter.) 

Fig. 61. (One qiiarler.) 

Fig. 62. (One quarter.' 

Fig. 63. (One quarter.) 

mediaeval Igel expanded into the Roener (Fig. 62), and this, in its settled and normal form, 
quickly became the most popular and picturesque glass which has perhaps ever been devised ; 
to use an expressive modern vulgarism, it "stands on its record." 

We have seen that Germans were making roemers in the Low Countries before the 
middle of the seventeenth century, and there also the quaint vessel had a long course, being 
the glass par excellence, with its delicate shades of blue, yellow, or green, that the painters 
never tired of painting, whether as roemers simple, or in their more ample shape as 
Berkemeyers- (Fig. 63), and such as Lady Harvey's great glass (Plate 8). These were the 

1 Krautstrunk, i.e. a leafless cabbage or kohlstalk, is 
the name, now seldom used, originally given to the old 
German, tall, cylindrical drinking-vessels with expanded 
mouths, closely studded with bosses or " prunts " on the 
sides, and with plain or denticulated bases. The usual 
form of a Krautstrunk is a tall, slim-bodied glass, as the 
name implies, the prunts being constant features. 

^ The original berkemeyer was a covered cup turned 
out of a length of a thick branch of a birch tree, the 
bark being left on as an ornament. Following the classi- 
cal practice of bees'-waxing the insides of beechen cups, 
the berkemeyers were similarly lined with pine resin, in 
which various spices were embedded to impart a flavour to 
the wine. It appears that in Holland at the present day 
glasses of varieties of the roemer form, whether large or 

small, are all properly called roemers, the name berkemeyer 
being also used, but only to indicate the larger vessels. 
The latter are described in " Nederlands Displegtigheden 
vertoonende De plegtige gebruiken aan den dis in het 
houden van Maaltijden en het drinken der gesondheden 
onder de oude Batavieren," etc., by Philippus Losel, 1732. 
Dutch dinner ceremonies, showing the observances at 
dinners and at health-drinkings as carried out by the old 
Batavians, etc. Perhaps the finest berkemeyer in existence 
is the monumental example in pale green glass, in the 
possession of Magdalen, Lady Harvey. This, with its 
silver cover and base, is exactly 2 feet high, the berkemeyer 
itself measuring i foot 5I inches. Round the cup is an 
engraved representation of the city of Hamburg ; over the 
land side it is daytime, with the sun " in splendour " ; over 



glasses which the accomplished sisters Anna and Maria Tesselschade Roemer Visscher, and the 
learned Anna Maria van Schurman, decorated with their exquisite diamond-point engravings. 

Anna, Gertrude, and Maria Tesselschade were the three daughters of Roemer Visscher 
( 1 547-1626), a wealthy merchant of Amsterdam, and an excellent poet. He formed a 
literary and artistic circle at Muiden, near Amsterdam, to which the great poet Vondel, and 
Hooft, the historian and purifier of the language, belonged, and which had important results in 
developing literature and the arts in Holland in the early part of the seventeenth century. 
Another similar centre was constituted at the same time at Middelburg, in Zelande, of 
which Cats was the moving spirit. When he went to live at Dordrecht, that town became 
a focus of literary society. In this relation the names of Huygens, Grotius, Barlaens, 
and Spiegel also occur to the mind ; but we are concerned now chiefly with the ladies 
of the Visscher family. 

A contemporary writer, speaking of their varied literary and artistic accomplishments, 
adds that they excel in needlework and dancing, are finished musicians, write poetry, 
eno-rave elass with the diamond, and can all swim. In the Riiks Museum at Amsterdam 
is a beautiful pale sea-green glass, 5^ inches high, e.xquisitely engraved by the author of 
the Anistclstroom — Anna Roemer Visscher (i 581- 1651). On one side is a wild rose, a 
carnation, and a marigold, and on the other, this inscription — 

Bella Dori gcniil. Noi vaghi fiore 
Da le prendiam gli honori, 

with a great dragon-fly above, and a conns imperialis below; on the stem is her name, 
and the date 1621 (Plate 9). A pale green glass, a berkemeyer, 6|- inches high, is inscribed 
by Anna in a free flowing hand, ornamented with intricate scrolls, after a peculiar Dutch 
manner — Vincetis titi ; this is signed and dated 1646 (Plate 10). When Cats was inaugurated 
Pensionary of Dordrecht, Anna sent him a glass inscribed by herself: Sit cum Felino felicitas 
Senahii pax Popnlo Dordrcchtano Anno 1623. Of Gertrude Roemer Visscher's works on 
glass little is known. 

Maria Tesselschade (1594- 1649) was so named in consequence of the death of her 
mother at her birth, and to mark the loss, three months before that incident, of a large 
part of her father's merchant fleet near the island of Tessel or Texel in a great storm. 
From the hand of this beautiful and accomplished woman, the friend of Hooft and 
Vondel, is at Amsterdam a pale green roemer, (i\ inches high, with the inscription — 

A Demain les Affaires. 

This is also ornamented with flourishes, and dated 1646 (Plate 11). It was specially engraved 

for Hooft, together with four others. 

the water and the shipping it is night, with the half moon but the whole is surmounted by a vulgar Bacchus astride 

" illuminated," and numbers of gilt stars. The whole upon a barrel. Between this sumptuous " verre de parade " 

picture is engraved on the wheel, the clouds and some and the smallest roemer that has been noticed by the 

details being polished. On the stem twelve sea monsters writer — namely, one 2\ inches high in the Rijks Museum 

and mermaids are shown in three rows; their heads are at Amsterdam — there is a wide distinction. The date 

all alike and stamped in relief on prunts, the bodies belong- of Lady Harvey's glass is just after the middle of the 

ing to the two lower, and the foliage surrounding the four seventeenth century. The expanded roemer, which, 

heads in the upper set being skilfully arranged to fill the for convenience, we also call a berkemeyer, was much 

field, and excellently engraved. The base of the glass anti favoured by Franz Hals, as may be seen in the pictures 

the cover are of silver gilt in rich Renaissance work, with of extraordinary breadth and power by that master at 

the hall mark of Hamburg and of a maker in that city, Haarlem. 



■■'?''' £y iCtZ-y-^- : "wKjll 





.-r?-. i" 







4"-^ J. 






In the art of diamond-point engraving upon glass to which the learned poet and linguist 
Anna Maria van Schurman (1607- 1678) humbled her genius, she excelled even the productions 
of the sisters Visscher, as she also surpassed them in her very high mental qualities. A 
good example of her skill is preserved at Amsterdam on a tall cylindrical dark green 
glass, 8|- inches high, which was filled with the wine of honour and presented by Viglius 
van Zuychem to Charles-Quint, on the occasion of his state entry into Utrecht. Anna 
Maria ornamented this glass with figures, the date 1646, and the following distich : — 

"Als schijn ik duistcr, 
De naem geeft luyster." 

Painters- etchers of repute also bent themselves to the adornment of roemers with 
portraits of contemporary celebrities, and their armorial bearings, while minor artists 
decorated them with views of towns, and country seats, — "Lusts" — or with the coats of 
princes and Stadhouders, and the always popular arms of the Seventeen or the Seven 
Provinces. Mr. Mainwaring has a capital example. Many are admirably pencilled in gold 
or grisaille, and with artistic results all that could be desired.^ The manipulation also of these 
delicately-tinted glasses in the early part of the seventeenth century is worthy of all praise ; 
it is, however, impossible for a casual observer like the present writer to point out the 
minute particularities that might indicate Dutch-made from German roemers, or berkemeyers — 
perhaps for any one to trace with certainty the hand of an Italian upon a vessel of which the 
form is, surely, totally free of Italian origin, whatever some of the details may occasionally 
seem to indicate. It must be sufficient here to call attention, with regard to these details, 
to the accurate judgment as to the exact amount of metal necessary, and the peculiar 
dexterity with which the large smooth applied blots or prunts of 
glass cover the stems of the berkemeyers and roemers without en- 
croaching upon one another, and give in their slighdy varied shapes 
the delicate play of light and shade unattainable in any other 
way, making it no cause for wonder that the painters loved them ; to 
signalise the swift movement of the workman, who, travelling from 
point to point with unerring skill as he decorated the stem, from time 

i- ^ c> ^ -piG. 64. (One third. ) 

to time connected the blots, "prunts," "noppen," or " doornstokje " 

with a slender trail of glass (Fig. 64) ; and to show in those other examples in which 

the " thorn," caused by the quick withdrawal of the hand, and generally left erect, is sometimes 

1 Mr. C. F. K. Mainwaring's glass is a pale green 
roemer of the finest quality, engraved with the diamond 
point, with the arms of the Seven United Provinces, 
surmounted by crowns, and respectively subscribed : 
Geldria, Hollandia, Zelandia, Vtrecht, Frisia, Transy- 
sulana {i.e. Overyssel, the land beyond the river Yssel, 
styled by Mercator, Belgii inferioris Geographicae tabulae, 
Daysburgi editae 1585 — " Dland van over Yssel"), and 
Groninge. A larger shield, also crowned, bears the 
following arms: — quarterly, (i) Nassau, (2) Catzenellen- 
bogen, (3) Vianden, (4) Dietz ; on an inescutcheon of 
pretence — quarterly, (i) and (4) Chalons, (2) and (3) 
Orange ; on an inescutcheon-in-chief the coat of Veere, 
and on one in base that of Buren. These are the arms 

of Frederic Henry, Prince of Nassau and Orange, who 
died in 1647, son of the great William the .Silent, and 
half-brother and successor, as Stadhouder of the United 
Provinces, of the celebrated Maurice of Nassau. A 
precious glass, 6f inches high, of much the same shape 
and colour, is in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam ; on 
one side is the portrait of Prince Maurice, a pair of clasped 
hands below, and on the other is a view of Dordrecht on 
a cartouche held by two angels ; below is a butterfly and 
an eagle, the whole being engraved with the diamond. 
Another very choice pale green roemer, 9 inches high, in 
the same collection, is decorated in gold with the arms of 
Maurice of Nassau, a tree, the motto of the Vxmcz— Tandem 
fit surculus arbor — and the date 1 606. 



folded with a half-turn upon the basis out of which it is drawn, or, in other cases, rapidly 
impressed by the assisting "gamin" with a human face, a strawberry, a blackberry, or a 
mask. The delicate stringings, or wheeled quillings, also, round the necks of the roemers 
and berkemeyers are not less noteworthy than the stringings or spinnings— naturally never 
quilled— of their bases or footings. These feet, in the earlier glasses, were comprised 
only of denticulated rims, as in the coeval, but limited and short-lived, survivals of the 
crude or delicately fluted early sixteenth - century cups, and which the roemers finally 
swallowed up. Nor will the connoisseur overlook the minute bubbles in the metal- 
never approaching to "mossiness," the striations, and the unforced artistic irregularities 
which distinguish these choice old glasses, upon which age has as yet barely had an effect, 
from the cold soulless formality and the glistering rigid perfections of modern imitations.' 
The dimensions of roemers vary between 1 7f and 2\ inches high. They will be spoken of 
more fully under Germany. 

Allusion should be made to the Dutch "beaker-screws," bckcrschroeven, for which 
roemers of the finest kind were specially made with single-rimmed or very moderately 
stringed bases.' Five beautiful silver-gilt examples, all of the same design, are preserved in 
the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam of the early part of the seventeenth century (Plate 12). 
In a picture by D. Teniers (i6 10-1690), in the Musee Royal at Brussels, a great gold beaker 
stand supports a sky-blue berkemeyer, and a picture in the same collection by an unknown 
hand, dated 162 1, exhibits a dark blue roemer upon an elaborately chased gold stand 
carried by a black servant. In the great picture by van der Heist, " Het Schuttersmaaltijd," 
described by Sir Joshua in 1781 as "the first picture of portraits in the world," an aged 
man in black satin holds a roemer on its elaborate gold beaker-screw and proffers a 
toast to William the Drummer.' Simpler stands are seen in pictures by C. de Heem.* 
The method of fastening a roemer on its mount is by the ingenious working of a rod 
passing through the centre of the stand, and acting by a thumb-piece at the lower end, 
through screws fixed within at two points, upon certain pivoted ornamental details at the 
top, which expand and close at will, and release or clip the base of the glass. 

The Italian influence afi'ected but slightly the development of the early German and 
the Low Country-made roemers, though it certainly set its mark upon the collateral and 
short-lived dvast's cups decorated with masks, the direct successors of the ancient crude and 
small native-made glasses. This is apparent in the few examples which have been pre- 
served of the thin early cups, the first that were improved in form by the Italians, with 
widened movX\\s—evasL's—7md. decorated with narrow quilled strings, lions' faces, masks, and 
prunts, and as seen in pictures of the early part of the seventeenth century (Figs. 65, 66, 67). 

1 The author takes this opportunity of acknowledging was naturally firmer and easier than with deep-footed 

the obliging co-operation of Herr Oskar Rauter, Director glasses. 

of the Rheinische Glashiitten - Actien - Gesellschaft at » " This is perhaps the first picture of portraits in the 

Ehrenfeld, near Cologne, and of Messrs. H. J. and J. C. world, comprehending more of those qualities which make 

Powell of the Whitefriars' Glass Works, London, in which a perfect portrait than any other I have ever seen."—" A 

establishments both antique, ancient, and old glasses Journey to Flanders and Holland in the year 1781," 

have been reproduced with great technical skill. Literary Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, vol. ii. p. 197, 

'- The shallow stringed or spun bases of many of the edit. 1852. 

roemers of the early part of the seventeenth century * An excellent picture by this master, in the possession 

were evidently brought about, and apparently long influ- of Mr. J. R. Boyall, shows the roemer held in its open- 

enced by the use of the bekerschroeven ; the attachment work silver stand by three recurved griffins. 

If ^ 

if ^^M^ ill 





It should be remembered that the Old Masters were collectors of classical antiquities, and 
objects of art near to and of their own times, for use when necessary in their canvases, 
just as modern painters are at the present day; the date of a picture after about 1620 is 

Fig. 65. (One quarter. ) 

Fig. 66. (One quarter.) 

Fig. 67. (One quarter.) 

not therefore necessarily that of the glass portrayed in it. Such evidence has consequently 
to be used with discretion. Rubens, of course, was a collector,^ and so was Rembrandt, 
in the catalogue of whose effects we find in the "Room of the Arts," " quelques petits 
vases rares et verres de Venise." These formed part of the assemblage of art objects 
which Rembrandt's good taste had amassed, the cost of which was one of the causes of 
the bankruptcy of the great painter. He was not the friend of princes, and it is a melancholy 
fact that so great a genius should have passed the last years of his life in poverty, and in 
discouragement worse than death. 

But the simple early glasses soon passed away, and in their places, side by side with 
the roemers in their first stages, came the fine-quilled, stringed, and free-ringed cups, " verres 
a anneaux," which under Italian influence grew out of the small and simple glasses (Figs. 
68, 69, 70). Their colours are ruddy brown, pale blue, pale sea-green, dull red, and dark 

Fig. 68. (One third.) 

Fig. 69. (One quarter.) 

Fig. 70. (One third.) 

Fig. 71. (One quarter.) 

gold. As with the birthplace of Homer, several cities desire the honour of the origin of 
these curious vessels : Brussels, Liege, Nevers, Cologne — the latter place is the most likely 
source. It is to be noticed that in seven examples from widely separated collections every 

1 In the beautiful house, Hilweme, which he built at 
Antwerp soon after his return from Italy, a saloon was 
constructed for his collections. It is shown in section in 
one of the two engravings illustrating this building. — Cata- 
logue des Estampes gravees d'apres P. P. Rubens, par F. 
Basan, p. 230, edit. Paris, 1767, interleaved and anno- 
tated copy by Thomas Kerrich. 

Mr. Nesbitt quotes a collection of " quatre cens beaux 
verres de Venise gentillisez des plus jolies gayetez que les 
verriers sgauroient inventer," collected by the Treasurer of 
the kings of France, Robertez, between 1504 and 1532. 
It is one of the oldest collections of the kind of which a 
catalogue exists. — See 5. K. Cat., p. clix. 




one has the stringings quilled or wheeled on the cup, and plain or spun on the base. Such 
are the invariable details of the old roemers, whose bases are thus spun on or built up. In 
modern times the base has grown up at the expense of the stem, and is made in the usual 
way with stringings spun over it to simulate the old artistic work. A few early Low Country 
tumblers were also ringed (Fig. 71). 

Of special interest are the great Antwerp-made glasses, with covers, of the middle 
of the seventeenth century, with enamelled decorations and arms of cities ; their forms 
are accidentally allied to those of some of the German " Humpen." 

Continuously collateral with the early native-made glasses, with the roemers, the 
berkemeyers, and the other glass cups that have been spoken of, were the 
" verres fa^on de Venise" which were made throughout the Low Countries, and 
of which so many seventeenth-century examples exist in collections, and are 
also so fully represented both by real Italian masterpieces and in the pictures. 
Doubtless familiarity with these imparted an elegance, which they would not 
otherwise have acquired under native hands, to other well-known Low Country 
glasses: the tall flutes tapering to a bulb just above the foot, "toujours 
souvient a Robin de ses flutes," the short or lengthy molenbekers (Figs. 72, 
73), made both in glass and silver, the glass bells or tocsins, " Hansje in de 

Kelder," the boots, horns, bucks, and other 
attributes of boisterous or coarse merry-making. 
Obviously these frail drinking - vessels did not 
lend themselves with readiness to decoration 
in enamel ; the diamond etcher, the gilder, and 
the light grisaille painter alone could operate 
successfully upon them.^ 

Besides these, which we have always with 
us throughout the seventeenth century in the 
Low Countries, and more particularly in the 
Seven United Provinces, are also to be recorded 
the turbinated or barrel-shaped glasses, alike 
German in origin, and blotted with " prunts " 
(Figs. 74, 75, 76) ; and running down through 
the same period, and alongside of the varied 
multitude of artistic vessels, were the toilet 
dishes, the " Schmuckschalchen " of Germany, 
the massive and graceless mead-cups (Figs. 77, 78, 79), beer, and posset-pots of 

—'^ ^-- - 

Fig. 72. 

Fig. 73. 

1 The molenbekers were made both short and long. 
To the silver mill at the lower end of the glass a pipe was 
attached ; by blowing through it, after the glass was filled, 
the sails were set in motion and a hand marked up to 
1 2 upon a dial. The orthodox proceeding was to 
empty the glass as many times as the hand indicated on 
the dial when the sails stopped — doubtless a very popular 
game. But persons who flinched, and were not disposed 
to run the risk of twelve glasses "deep as the rolling 
Zuyder Zee," were suffered to compound by emptying the 

beaker once before the sails stopped, also a thing not easy 
to do, but less hazardous. In spite of their peculiar service, 
which must have led, as with the English Yard-of-Ale 
glasses, to much roughness and many breakages, a number 
of these remarkable vessels still exist. In the Rijks 
Museum at Amsterdam, together with many tocsins and 
mill glasses of glass and silver, is a molenbeker, with a 
mill of early construction fixed to the end of a long " fluit " 
glass which is engraved with the arms of Maurice of Nassau, 
and the dates 1585 and 1595. Special customs were 




raw greens and blues, doubtless chiefly for tavern and common household use, and thick 
flat-sided cordial water bottles, or flasks, owing their preservation apparently as much 
to their solidity as on account of their decorations with names of owners, popular Dutch 


Fig. 77. 
(One quarter.) 

Fig. 78. 
(One quarter.) 

_ o o fe 
o o' oi 

"1 r^ r-^ I' 

Fig. 74. (One quarter.; 

Fig. 75. (One quarter. ) Fig. 76. (One quarter.) 

Fig. 79. (One quarter.) 

or Flemish truisms, and marvellously mazy scrolls. Such, with the exception of the scrolled 
glasses, were the cups of low life, represented in the pictures by the disorderly Brouwer 
of the tavern society which he loved, and in the faithful interpretations of the homes 
of the people by the younger Teniers or the elder Nollekens. 


With regard to the glasses in Group III. — those belonging to the time when Italian 
influence had passed away — the irruption into the Low Countries of English, Bohemian, 
French, and German glasses, though it struck a heavy blow against native 
manufacture, it did not crush it, and at once wipe out all trace of art glass 
of the older kind. With German glasses, indeed, the Republic and the 
Provinces had long been familiar ; but those were the glasses of the Rhine- 
land — the roemers — which they imported and copied, particularly at Rotter- 
dam, where a collection of roemers made in that city is preserved; and 
they held their ground through good and evil report, and appear to have 
continued to be made in the Low Countries up to the end of the eighteenth 
century, some of the latest exemplifying a curious transition between the old 
roemers and the "twisted stemmed" glasses (Fig. 80), others being clumsy, 
thick white glass roemers, appropriately enough degraded by crude engravings on the wheel, 
but a sad falling off from the " classic " treatment of the roemers of 150 years before. 

Fig. 80. 
(One third.) 

also associated with the use on festal occasions in Holland 
of the tocsin, made both of silver and of glass, and of 
the great silver dice cups. 

The story is told of a certain Frisian, Abbot Zardus, 
who forbade the monks in his convent to drink more than 
three cups of wine at dinner, one to the honour of each 
person of the Trinity. Being naturally annoyed at this 
restriction, they rose from the table without the customary 
grace. Boniface VIII. (i 295-1303) was appealed to; he 
confirmed the abbot's injunction, but, in a moment of 
weakness, very foreign to his masterful character, he 

granted an additional cup to all the greedy regulars 

under the rule of Zardus who said their grace. Hence the 

saying — 

" Een glasie na de gracie 
Naar de les van Bonifaci. " 

(A glass after grace 

By the law of Boniface.) 

The "Hansje in de Kelder" glasses were those used 
to drink the health of newly married couples, a little 
figure making its appearance when the cup was 




The flutes certainly long stemmed the torrent of foreign importations. Fashions change, 
but customs — especially those of a convivial kind — die hard. In the heavier flint glass, 
in diminished lengths and plainer forms, neither vertically channelled or diamond etched 
by artists, the flutes rapidly degenerated into plain tubes drawn out and tapering slowly 
from the top to the base, and without the intervention of a bulb, or, as it was called in 
Eno-land, a button at the bottom of the bowl, which gave so much character to the tall 
seventeenth-century flutes, " fagon de Venise." The simple tubular forms, which reappeared 
some time after in England under a different aspect, led later on in the Low Countries 
to the tall and slender " straw - drawn " glasses with expanded funnel-shaped mouths, 
reminiscences of special Venice glasses, and they, in their turn again modified, shrank 
finally about the middle of the eighteenth century, collapsed, and dwindled into the plain 
drawn glasses of tavern and every-day service, still plentiful enough in England, where 
they were in use somewhat earlier, and common also in their day throughout the Low 
Countries, but much lighter in weight, and often with long " blows " in the stems instead of 
the air twists or the plain stems with " tears " in them of the English examples. 

Very conspicuous among the successors — they cannot all be enumerated — of the thin 
artistic glasses in the Low Countries, and emanating for the most part from glass-houses 

in Holland, are the tall wine-glasses with moulded 
and uncut baluster stems, " pieds balustres," recalling 
those of the English tazza-shaped silver cups imitating 
certain Venetian glasses, either solid or lightened in 
their bulbs and knops with single or connected "tears," 
bubbles, or sets of beads (Figs. 8i, 82). These are 
quite distinct in character from the intrusive vessels 
of Prussia and Silesia. First associated with these 
glasses in the Low Countries and in Holland was 
the practice of a new school of glass engravers and 
cutters and a new style deriving originally, as to the 
cutting, from Bohemia.' The art was carried by 
the Schwanhards from Prague to Nuremberg, where 
Henry Schwanhard is believed to have discovered, about the year 1670, the art of etching on 
glass through a film of wax, by the action of fluoric acid upon the lines or stippled parts 
bared by a steel point, as in copper-plate etching. The old practice of sketching upon glasses 
with the diamond was still being carried on in Holland, and particularly by van Heemskerk, — 
whose portrait was engraved by Blooteling, van Bull, Charlotte van Santen, Cornelia Kalff, 
and the artists of the monograms F. C. M. (the C combined with the F) and W. M., for 
that excellent artist W. Mooleyser.- As usual, the older style overruns the new, and 
many Dutchmen applied themselves with great success throughout the eighteenth century 
to glass-engraving and stippling by the means of fluoric acid, constantly emphasising their 
work with the diamond point, and so grafting the art which they applied to "flint glass" 

Fig. Si. (One quarter.) 

Fig. S2. (One quarter.) 

1 At Antwerp gelacschryvers were inscribed in the Rolls 
of the Corporation of St. Luke. — H. Schuermans, Lettre V. 
p. 169. 

- The author is indebted to M. A. M. Gareau, Vice- 
President of the Tribunal at Amsterdam, for the following 

unidentified initials, or in monogram form, with their dates, 
which he has met with upon Dutch glasses : — B. G., 1 60S ; 
A. D., 1632 (or 1682); t-r., 1644; F. M., 1650;, 
1657 ; A. M. S., about 1650. 


upon that which was associated in the preceding century with the " verres fa^on de Venise." 
Foremost of these artists is Greenwood, whose admirable works, ranging between 1722 
and 1743, are now very scarce. Among others must be mentioned Schouman, the portrait 
painter,' the two Hoolaarts, Fortuyn, Luyten, Vanden Bhjk, van Lokhorst, Emaus, 
ElHnkhuysen, Sang," and the famous Wolff, who has fortunately left a large number of 
glasses stippled in a manner that is quite unapproachable for their delicacy and beauty. 
Favouring the style of Watteau and Boucher, he applied his talents in various directions, 
including portraits, allegories, armorial bearings, figure subjects, etc., and often using the 
hard and brilliant English glasses with facetted stems, such as are seen in Sir Joshua's 
pictures,^ for the display of his art. He had imitators. 

In our own day the Melorts, father and son, practised the art of glass-stippling with some 
success up to the middle of the nineteenth century, and contemporary with them was Daniel 
Henriques de Castro, who worked excellently well after the manner of Wolff from 1833 to 
1862. He died in the following year, and is appropriately recorded in these pages as the 
very last of the slender line of artists who worked at glass-engraving and stippling ; many 
examples of glasses decorated by De Castro remain to evince his skill in the use of the 
diamond.* Thus we have during three hundred years a direct succession of artists, scanty in 
number, and working with the fewest possible tools in a manner quite peculiar and essentially 
appropriate — the most important point — to the material which they treated. This was an art 
which required at once delicacy of touch, firmness of hand, and distinctness of work, one 
more perhaps than any other in which the merest slip of the tool was irreparable, and fatal 
to success, recalling in this regard the far higher capacities of the artists who drew with a 
stylus, with unerring skill, the outlines and the muscles of the incomparable figures on the 
Greek vases. 

The feet of all the semi-Gothic ^lasses and of some of those succeedino- them, with which 
earlier traditions lingered, have their edges turned or folded over from below, forming a 
sharply-defined fillet round the upper edge, such as in an Early English stone base would 

1 A glass inscribed on the foot a. f. a. Schumann " port " shape, which is very easy to empty. On the 
CANONicus SANCTAE MARIAE SCULPSIT 1 7 5 7, was exhibited table is an ordinary black bottle with a silver label and 
in the Brussels Exhibition of i8Si. He was a canon of chain, such as came into general use soon after for de- 
Antwerp Cathedral. canters. In Hogarth's series of Election pictures in the 
- In the cabinet of the author is a glass finely engraved Soane Museum two black flasks have paper labels passed 
with the arms of William, Prince of Orange and Nassau, over their necks through holes torn in them. They are 
within the Garter. He was elected a Knight of The inscribed Champaign and Burgundy, and show the origin 
Most Noble Order when a child of four years old, 13th of silver decanter labels which were also made in Battersea 
March 1752, and installed 5th June by his proxy. Sir enamel, generally decorated with cupids. 
Clement Dormer Cottrell. The letter of acceptance was The service of plate provided for the use of the Princess 
signed by the prince's mother, " The Princesse Gouver- Caroline at Kensington Palace, on her marriage with the 
nante." Under the foot of the glass is written with a Prince of Wales in i 795, included eighteen silver-gilt wine 
diamond, /rt'tv/^ Sang Fee, Amsterdam, 1765. A glass labels «i .faZ/t? with the ormoulu plateau, and fifteen silver 
similarly decorated, in honour of the same prince, who ones. 

assumed the office of Stadhouder in 1766, is in the *■ Mr. de Castro bequeathed several of his glasses to 

possession of the Rev. J. A. Hewitt, Rector of Worcester, the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap at Amster- 

South Africa, to whom the author is indebted for informa- dam. They are now on loan in the Rijks Museum, 

tion concerning many large cut and engraved glasses in — Een en ander over glasgraviire door D. Henriques de 

the South African Museum at Cape Town. A betrothal Castro, Oud Holland, 1880. In this interesting privately 

glass engraved by Sang, inscribed as above, and dated printed pamphlet the son of Daniel Henriques de Castro 

1760, is in the collection of Lord Torphichen. has brought together much information concerning an 

3 In the two pictures of the Dilettanti Society by Sir art which, from its delicate nature, had but few prac- 

Joshua, 1779, many glasses are shown, all of the old titioners. 



be described as a water-bearing moulding. This received the ends of the ribs of the bases, 
and was almost, so to speak, a structural necessity of the fifteenth -century cups. In later 
Venetian and " fa9on de Venise " glasses a fillet of a different kind constantly occurs, but chiefly 
in vessels of a larger size, for the purpose of giving more stability to the foot ; this is always 
folded over from above, so that the fillet is on the under side ; it was the origin of the welted 
or wide-folded feet so constantly met with in Low Country, German, and English stemmed 
glasses — the stengel-glaser of the Germans, as distinguished from the roemer, the pass- 
glaser, the wilkommbecher, etc., from the last quarter of the seventeenth to not much later 
than the end of the third quarter of the eighteenth century. It is a feature which is so far 
useful in defining in a general way a period in regard to glasses of these countries. Similarly 
the roughness in the centre of the bottom of a glass, where it was finally knocked off, or re- 
leased from the pontil in the manufacture, was retained — with certain exceptions of highly 
finished cut and engraved Dutch glasses, and Bohemian glasses, not blown but cast in the 
rough in wooden moulds and finished on the wheel — until about the end of the eighteenth 
century, from which time the practice of smoothing and polishing the rough centres became 

Perhaps the earliest examples of folded-footed glasses of the latter kind that have been 
alluded to, and in the new material, are those with baluster stems." A tall Venetian glass, 
stripped of its wings and ornamental accessories, gave the model for a Low Country 
baluster stem. Such glasses were not made in England until the end of the seventeenth 
century, and then in a smaller size, and they gradually degenerated. And belonging to the 
early years of the eighteenth century are the tall and sometimes narrow glasses with richly-cut 
thistle-shaped bowls, well engraved with arms, etc., faceted bulbous stems with " tears " in them, 
and folded feet. Some must be Silesian, but their strict attribution is difficult. The chief char- 
acteristics of these vessels are their rigid formality of cutting, and widely folded feet. Many 
of them appear to have come from England to be cut and engraved in Holland, probably in 
Amsterdam.^ Closely allied to them are glasses of the same general form but sometimes 

1 The forefinger of the connoisseur passes involuntarily break of the Civil Wars; these, again, owed their form to 

under the foot as soon as an old wine-glass is offered for delicate Venetian glasses. 

his inspection, this being almost his only " touch " in both ^ There are some excellent examples in the Musee 

senses of the word, just as his brother collector of English Plantin at Antwerp, one engraved with three ships and 

plate — with so many more aids at once to facilitate his own inscribed 't wel vaaren van de vreye see vart ; 

researches and tempt the cupidity of the fraudulent, often another with a ploughing scene and inscribed t'lands 

indeed, happily, serving as pitfalls for the unwary deceiver velvaaren. If these are English glasses engraved in 

— looks for the minute differences in the punches, for Flanders, as seems very probable, they have peculiar 

the touch of the leopard's head or the regular touch of interest in illustrating the commercial relations as regards 

Britannia. glass, between the Low Countries and England in the 

- There are several engraved examples in the British early part of the eighteenth century. Another goblet in 

Museum, two of them masterjsieces by Greenwood. It is the same museum, but of Flemish make, is engraved with 

apparent that such glasses are heavy versions, partly a ship and inscribed de nobelle zee vaart. A somewhat 

necessitatedby the new metal, of the light bulbous-stemmed similar glass to the two first mentioned, but with a brown 

glasses " fagon de Venise " of the end of the seventeenth tint, and undoubtedly English, is in the cabinet of the 

century. Later examples in this class, of the time of author; it is engraved with the cypher and feathers of 

George I., have beaded bosses — answering to the knops Frederick, Prince of Wales, so created 9th January 1729, 

of mediaeval chalices — in the stems, the beads being the when in his twenty-second year. Mr. J. R. Boyall has a 

precursors of the air twists. The almost solid early good English example (Fig. 59), engraved in Holland, with 

baluster stems recall those of a more refined character in the coat, surrounded by the Garter, and flanked by trophies 

silver of the tazza-shaped cups which, after enduring for of arms, of William, Charles, Henry, Frisco, Prince of 

little more than half a century, passed away with the out- Orange and Nassau, elected Knight of the Garter in 1733. 




considerably thinner and lighter, in less brilliant metal, with high folded feet, approaching occa- 
sionally to the dome shape, and with long hollows or " blows " in the uncut or lightly flat-faceted 
stems. They would not bear the deep and elaborate work that was applied to English-made 
glass, and are usually only coarsely decorated on the wheel with hunting scenes, sailing 
ships, tavern subjects, military trophies, etc., and inscribed in Dutch or Flemish : — Vivat de 
Prins van Oranien ; Vivat de Prins Onse Staathouer ; Het wel varen van ons 
Vaderland ; Het wel wesen van de code vrienden ; T'landes w"el waaren ; De nouelle 
ZEE VAART ; De gode vrvnt-sciiap ; De goede WELKOM.ST ; DoET uw BEST, and such-like 

Fig. 8; 

(One third.) 

Fig. 84. (One third.) 

Fig. 85. (One third.) 

Fin. 86. (One third.) 

dedications. It was the ^&nod par exec Ik iicc oi i\\& wel vaarcu gX^iSso.?,. These are certainly 
types of the drinking-vessels which came into the Low Countries after the peace of Utrecht 
in 1 7 13, from Prussia and Silesia, and were engraved in the Low Countries; their particular 
treatment and inferior quality of metal should readily serve to distinguish them from Low 
Country-made glasses of much the same shape and period in flint glass "a I'anglaise " (Figs. 
83, 84, 85, 86). 

Of purely Dutch origin and make, of the first half of the eighteenth century, are the 
short and bulky covered natal cups, or posset glasses. There is a refreshing simplicity in 
the engraved representations on these quaint vessels. The leech in his fur cap grasps the 
conventional Batavian foliage, while the rigid and angular nurse, seated far off in a high- 
backed chair, rocks the distant cradle by alternately twitching and slacking a string. The 
inscriptions run : — het wel vaeren van de kraem vraum en het kintie^ (Fig. 87). 

Arising out of the baluster-stemmed glasses with "tears "or beads in the stems, and 
immediately succeeding them, are those with the same .shaped bowls and of which the upper 
or lower half of the stem is decorated with a series of hollow twists, formed by throwing out 

1 The same subject was also engraved upon baluster- 
stemmed glasses, thus taking the fashion back to the 
beginning of the eighteenth century ; an example is 
preserved in the Museum at Boulogne. Mr. J. E. 
Hodgkin and Miss E. Hodgkin illustrate in their Ex- 
ampks of Early English Pottery, No. 208, a large four- 
handled posnet or tyg with a cover, dated 1692, and 
inscribed — 

Here is the gest of the barly korne 
Glad ham I the cild is born. 

In the Lakenhalle at Leyden is a bocal of green glass, 
inscribed hymens blevde boodschap, the happy message 
of Hymen ; below is a cradle and the word overwinst — 
gain ; a woman is also shown offering a glass to a man, 
with the inscription, vreugde tot erkentenis — joy to 



or prolonging and twisting the sets of beads already alluded to in the earlier glasses.^ The 
process consisted in pricking a series of holes round a gathering of glass on the blowing-iron ; 
by covering this with a second coating of glass, air bubbles are captured and enclosed, and 
these being drawn out to any distance and revolved, a twisted air stem— quadrille— was pro- 
duced, from which the standards of wine glasses were f^rst in part built up, as in these transition 
glasses under notice, and afterwards wholly formed (Fig. 88). But such air-stemmed glasses 
appear to have been little made in the Low Countries in the early part of the eighteenth 

Fig. 87. (One third.) 

Fig. 88. (One third.) 

Fig. 89. (One third.) 

Fig. 90. (One third.) 

century ; circumstances, both commercial and political, as has been seen, were against them. 
The few air-stemmed glasses of the first half of the eighteenth century that are met with in 
the Low Countries have either high-shouldered stems upon which the funnel-shaped bowl is 
planted, or plain drawn air-stems. They rarely have folded feet, and are much lighter than 
the examples which were imported from England. - 

The most distinctive glasses in the Low Countries from the end of the first quarter 
of the eighteenth century — treating the Principality and Bishoprick, as we have intimated, 
geographically— are those of Liege. To this city belong the tall descendants of the ancient 

^ See p. 54. The beaded stems, out of which the air 
twists were derived, continued to be made in Holland 
until the end of the third quarter of the eighteenth century. 
They were slowly driven out by the twisted standards, and 
the beads finally took refuge in the bottoms of the bowls 
of wine-glasses with white twisted stems. Such glasses 
were made with great success in Liege in, and just before 
the last quarter of the eighteenth century, the brilliancy of 
the metal, as well as its "ring," leaving nothing to be 
desired. Mr. R. H. Wood was fortunate enough to buy 
a set of two dozen at Hereford in 1877, ^^'i'^ a double set 
of beads in the base of the bowls ; they are probably of 
Liege make about 1770. A few inferior Dutch and good 
Liege examples are in the cabinet of the author. It is 
almost certain that such glasses were never made in 
England, but beads do appear at the lower end of the 

stems of certain rare wine glasses of the time of George 
L, and they may be seen in the knops of sliort champagne 
glasses, etc., a little later. Bubbles or beads were of 
course the sources from which were developed with such 
success in England, principally, perhaps, at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, the air-twisted stems of different kinds which will 
be spoken of elsewhere. 

- The Low Country flint or crystal glass was not of 
sufficiently high quality to allow of successful operation in 
this direction, save at Liege. Careful observation shows 
that the Dutch and Flemish air twists run irregularly and 
with uncertainty, while the ring of the metal and its light- 
ness usually betrays its lower character. The earlier air- 
stemmed glasses may be distinguished by a certain dis- 
order in the sizes and dispositions of the twists, the 
punctures having been irregularly done. 


flutes, many of them of very graceful shapes (Fig. 89), engraved on their edges with arabesques, 
with delicate single bulbs with tears in them half-way up the stem, or with tall tapering 
square stems with half a turn in their length, shouldered at the junction with the bowl (Fig. 90). 
Others, again, have long slender bowls supported on short stems, with moulded tops 
and bases, or moderate bowls with tall and somewhat harsh standards blown into large 
bulbs separated only by mouldings. Certain very fine sapphire-blue glasses, true master- 
pieces of Liege, and commemorative of marriages, etc., were also made here. Smaller Liege 
glasses are characterised by diagonally furrowed or fluted funnel- and bell-shaped bowls, 
apparently started in a mould, the stem being drawn out of the cups and fashioned by 
the pucellas into plain tops and simple expanded bases, and so that the flutes disappear 
and reappear according to the pressure of the tool and the diminished or increased diameter 
of the stem ; plain feet are attached to these glasses, and always folded, a favourite fashion 
of Liege make. The metal is very bright and limpid, but lighter than English glass of 
the same period, and with less ring in it. Other Liege glasses of note are those with short 
wide bowls, of which the lower part is strengthened by ribs or trailings in zigzag, the 
stems usually consisting of a series of bulbs, and the feet always folded.^ With this Liege 
group may also be included the openwork glass baskets, corbeilles ajourdes, with trailed and 
pinched denticulated bases ; the rude bdiiitiers, decorated with twisted blue and white rods, 
and the primitive water barometers which tend to reveal the truth only after the event. 
Peculiar also to Liege are the smallpoxed, or, as the Wallon tongue has it, verves fi'ezds, 
namely, glasses covered with small spots in relief, said to be the special cups for Burgundy, 
and with moulded stems and high domed and folded feet, and, as in some rare examples, 
with wings. To these may be added small vessels in the shape of military jack-boots, edged 
and spurred with blue or quite plain, recalling the almost ceaseless rolling of the tide of 
war in the days of Charles XIL, the Earl of Peterborough, and Prince Eugene;'- and, 
not least interesting, the long- necked Spa water-bottles, like flattened gourds, with their 
painted wooden stands, and the glass candlesticks, following the lines of those in brass, before 
the separate nozzles came in. 

It would certainly be a bewildering effort for the reader to follow him if the writer were 
to attempt the task of assigning to individual towns the origin of more than a very few of the 
numerous fantastic glasses that were produced during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 

1 The author acknowledges his indebtedness to M. for Joy. He is fully determin'd to see Yardley, and its 

Baar, President of the Tribunal of Commerce at Liege, for beautiful Mistress : But (whether he thinks He shall look 

the opportunity of studying his remarkable collection of better, when his cold is gone off: or perhaps stays, till his 

Liege-made glasses, of which the extraordinary limpidity new clothes are made) he has not yet nam'd the day. 

and brilhancy is a very noticeable characteristic. Many The Town is very Empty both of Company and News. 

Liege glasses are spoilt by inferior engraving by the wheel Pr. Eugenes glorious Victory is, at present, our only 

of animals, etc., on them. Entertainm'. We had once killed 100,000 Turks upon 

- But the e.xaggerated reports of victories which reached the spot, but the heat of our Fury being over we cool'd, 

England were cautiously received by the town. For and quickly fell to 50,000 : and now (more merciful still) 

instance, the battle of Peterwaradin was won by the we have slain but 30,000 of 'em in all. Our Prince and 

Imperialist forces under Prince Eugene against the Turks, Princess of Wales dine every day at H. Court in publick ; 

6th August I 7 16, and is thus alluded to in the following surrounded with a Crowd of white Aprons, and Straw-hats : 

e.\tract from a letter dated i 7th August from R. Graham which doubtless must needs be very delightful to them, 

to the beautiful Mrs. Anne Chauncy of Yardley, near because it puts 'em in mind of the place from whence 

Stevenage, Hertfordshire : — They came." — Original Correspondence, 1633- 1828, 

" I show'd your Letter to S"' Charles : and thro' his Families of Rogerson, Postlethwayt, Kerrich, vol. xxvii. p. 

Coat, and 2 Wastcoats cou'd plainly see his Heart jump 92 ; in the possession of Albert Hartshome. 




Fig. 91. 
(One quarter.) 

Fig. 92. 
(One quarter.) 

in the Low Countries. The names of numbers of them, mere trade or slang terms — such as 
ainprous, gorlettes, have been preserved with others of more legitimate title in documents, 

printed lists, and glass-makers' inventories, though 
e.xamples of the objects themselves have well-nigh 
perished.^ Thus we have the much discussed j^z//rt'£>?^^.y ^ 
— Germ, hittrolf — presumably our own "goddard," 
of mediaeval, perhaps of Roman origin (Figs. 91, 92); 
the glasses a boutous, specialities of Lille ; the godiuettcs, 
the bucks, the viasierleties, the beast-glasses — vei'rcs a 
betes, and those a la bonne fcvinie ; the bird glasses, the 
escarbots, viassacottcs, triboulettes, twyfclaers, and the 
mediaeval oiirinals — alike the retorts of the alchemist and 
the water-globes for the poor Flemish flax-thread spinners 
in their damp underground rooms, and the lace-makers weaving the subtle webs — Lavori 
d'Aracnc — of Brussels, Mechlin, or Valenciennes. 

That glasses inscribed to Freedom and Liberty should be frequently met with in the 
Low Countries is natural enough in a land where independence was so long and ardently 
struggled for, and had such lofty champions. Besides those inscribed with the words 
DE Vrede, de Vriheyd, Vreede en Vryheit, etc., the national feeling found expression 
in many glasses of the earlier part of the eighteenth century engraved by the wheel, with 
a representation of a bird escaping from an open cage, or perched upon it, and inscribed 
above Aurea Libertas.^ Throughout the century the subject was constantly shown, 
both by means of the diamond point and fluoric acid etchings, elaborated with figures and 
foliage, and worked with the greatest refinement upon English faceted glasses, in the 
style of Greenwood and Wolff", those able masters themselves also paying their delicate 
tribute to Sterne's " thrice sweet and grracious soddess."^ 

As to the origin of the so-called twisted-stemmed glasses with opaque, white, or coloured 
lines, they are clearly survivals, or rather revivals in a different material, of the reticulated 
filigree or lace glass — vii?'o di trina, a filigrano, a rctoi-ti, a reticclli — of the convoluted stems 
of Venetian vessels, and it is probable that when, under the pressure of events, the 
glasses "facon de Venise," with their stems of slender undulating opaque white and many- 
coloured rods, gradually fell out of favour, there was for a time a pause in this direction. 
It was not at first realised that a very attractive feature of the old artistic glasses could 

1 M. .Schuermans gives a valuable classified and 
annotated vocabulary of terms used by glass-makers for 
their productions from the beginning of the seventeenth 
century in his Lettres IV. p. 316, VI. p. 259, and VII. 

P- 357- 

- Rabelais says (Pantagnicl II., xvi.) that Panurge 
carried " en la poche une petite guedoufle, pleine de vielle 
huile, et quand il trovoyt ou feinme ou honinie qui eust 
(luelque belle robbe, il leur en gressoyt et guastoyt tous 
les plus beaulx endroicts." Thus it was a vessel with a 
single orifice, from which oil could be made to issue dro]) 
by drop, as its derivation — ;.;itt/a Jliicrc — implies, and not 
a gimmal flask for oil and vinegar as some have sup- 
posed. Cotgrave, in 161 1, describes th& guedoufle or guc- 

douilk as " small oyle-pot, most commonly covered with 
leather," just such a thing as the spiteful Panurge would 
have carried in his pocket. This is a good example of 
the curious philological questions that are called up in 
discussing the obscure words which have been preserved 
in glass-rnakers' lists. 

^ Such a glass with the latter variety is in the collec- 
tion of Monsgr. de Bethune. 

^ In the Slade Collection, No. 902, is a wine-glass 
with an opaque twisted stem on which Wolff has depicted 
with most exquisite delicacy, by means of fluoric acid, a 
boy and a girl setting a bird free from a cage ; on a scroll 
above are the words aure.\ libertas. 


still be retained, worked in the new metal, and applied in a simpler manner, and with thicker 
rods for the standards of wine-glasses then coming into demand. There was, therefore, 
as is usual between two styles, a transition, during which the slender convoluted and 
filigree rods, and the twisted ribbed baluster stems of the glasses " fagon de Venise " 
gradually passed to the straight filigree stems in flint glass. There was thus a suspension 
between the two styles of something less than a quarter of a century, and the transition marks 
the distinction between the glasses in the old and in the modern metal. During this period, 
say, between 1690 and 1720, the straight ribbed-twisted standards made their appearance, 
and they have particular interest as being the oldest of the simple stemmed glasses — the 
Stengel glaser of Germany— that have fallen under observation. And it is during this 
time also that the artistic glasses " facon de Venise," which had already been rapidly falling 
into disfavour since about 1680, passed almost completely away in the Low Countries; 
so that very shortly after the end of the first quarter of the eighteenth century the glasses 
which we know generically as those with "twisted stems," that is, with thin air-threads, and 
opaque white spiral lines in their standards, alone remained to represent the artistic sinuosities 
in the stems of the Venetian glasses which, for two hundred years, had been such familiar objects 
on sideboards and tables in the Low Countries. Such, in a few words, appears to have 
been the rise of the twisted-stemmed glasses in flint glass ; and as they undoubtedly had their 
origin in the Low Countries, so it is probable that they were first made at Antwerp, and then 
at Brussels and Liege, and without question within a few years of their revival in nearly 
all the principal glass-making towns both of the northern and of the southern Provinces. 

Speaking now only generally of the drinking-glasses in these parts of Europe, it will 
merely be necessary to say that the manufacture of twisted-stemmed glasses in the Low 
Countries was carried on collaterally both with the other vessels, to which allusion has already 
been made, and with the glasses of the latter part of the eighteenth century, to which attention 
will be briefly called. Like other art objects they had, of course, their varieties of shape, 
often indeed slight, but sufficiently marked to enable the inquirer to range them in groups 
and in order of date, so that the tall champagne or Rhenish wine-glasses with twisted stems, 
the more moderate ones for French or Spanish wine, and the small glasses for the " schnapps " 
and the " oude klare" and the cordial waters of the still-room, may be respectively tracked 
down step by step, and something like order evolved from seeming chaos. To follow the 
twisted-stemmed glasses in detail at this point into the present century, and show how the last 
traces of Venetian filigree in legitimate descent, and as genuine articles of commerce to meet a 
certain demand, gasped to an end within living memory, would not be in accordance with the 
plan of the present attempt ; they will be touched upon at large in another place. The course 
of these glasses in the Low Countries was coeval with their succession in England, where the air- 
threaded — quadrilM — and the opaque twisted stems — -torsine — were carried to the highest degree 
of excellence in special English shapes, with the best glass in the world, but ending badly — as 
long descended artistic things must do — in fine-drawn and tightly-wrung standards, some- 
times of many colours. As contra-distinguished from the English, the latest Dutch examples 
have their stems loosely and imperfectly made ; the lack of full ring, sometimes of any 
ring at all, in the metal, the dulness of the white twists, and the form of the bowls, 
readily mark their origin. On the other hand, the Dutch " ruby stemmed " glasses, though 
nearly always worked together with inferior white twists, have an excellent effect ; they 


were produced, to meet a natural demand, up to the end of the last century in the principal 
cities of Holland, as well as in Liege, and some other Belgian centres of glass-making. The 
glasses with expanded mouths — dvasds, with bulbs or knops in the stems, sometimes also twisted 
with white and ruby and blue, perhaps in allusion to the national colours of the Netherlands,^ 
the tall champagne glasses of the "flute" form and those of the "port" shape, are most fre- 
quently met with. Ruby stems were never seriously attempted in England. 

Somewhat degenerate descendants of the great thistle-shaped cut goblets with bulbous 
faceted stems of the early part of the eighteenth century, are the tall tapering champagne 
glasses elaborately cut in facets from the top to the bottom of the bowl, often, in the later 
examples, with octagonal and banded cut stems and square feet, and probably of Amsterdam 
make ; their style of decoration necessitates their thickness. Of a similar shape, and of the end 
of the century, are those with faceted stems and decorated with gilded borders, festoons, stars, 
etc., so poor both in style and execution as to lead to the supposition that they were copied in 
Holland from German or Bohemian originals. It is very doubtful whether cut and gilded 
crystal glasses were made anywhere in Belgium during the eighteenth century ; and it was 
declared to the Council of Finance in 1791, that no furnaces for such purposes then existed in 
the Belgian provinces. The shorter cut and faceted stemmed glasses were produced in the 
Low Countries during the latter half of the century in the ogee form. Some beautiful 
varieties were made in England, but in the Low Countries they pass with austere square feet 
and graceless semi-oval bowls into the nineteenth century. In both countries they soon 
lapsed into the homely shapes of "port" and "white" glasses, of the traditional and 
beloved British type. The redeeming features of the English examples are the rare brilliancy 
of the metal, the beautiful parcel polished decoration of their bowls, the employment of 
some of them by Wolff for his delicate etchings, and their delineation in the canvases 
of Sir Joshua. 


We have seen the establishment from Roman times of glass-making in the Rhine district, 
and the probability has been shown, through the evidence of the glass vessels from the graves, 
of the continuance of such an industry in the same region through Merovingian and Carlo- 
vingian ages. Interesting proof of the fame of the glass-makers from the Rhine district in the 
middle of the eighth century is given in the request of Cuthbert to the Bishop of Mayence for 
a man, one of the glass-makers in or near his diocese, to be sent to Northumbria to "make 
vessels of glass well." Whether such an artisan was despatched to J arrow — as makers of 
window-glass and vessels were sent from Gaul at the instance of Benedict Biscop at 

1 In the possession of Mrs. William Wilmer are two preserved in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam, notably 

minute waisted glasses i i- inch high, with twisted stems a full-furnished model of a house, covered with inlaid 

of white, ruby, and blue. They are of great refinement, tortoise-shell, made for Peter the Great. Mrs. Wilmer's 

and perfect models in every respect of the glasses of the glasses were bouglit at Lifege in 1S94; they are probably 

normal size. They are, perhaps, part of the furniture of of Liege make, about 1740, and were fashioned with the 

a doll's house, of which such excellent examples are blow-pipe "at the lamp." 


Wearmouth, eighty years before — we know not ; such a record would have been welcome 
indeed, if only as a peaceful item in the bloody annals of Deira and Bernicia. 

The character of some of the glasses made then, and long after, in the Rhine district, may 
be gathered from what will be said with regard to those of Anglo-Saxon times in England, 
many produced, as has been conjectured, in a defined glass-making district.^ That the 
custom of using glass drinking-vessels was continued, and widespread in Germany, is indicated 
by a passage in the metrical life, by his disciple Candidas, of Eigilis, died 822, Abbot 
of Fulda, in Hesse Cassel, then forming part of the markgrave of Thuringia. In the 
description of the preparation for a banquet in the monastery we have "... alii normaque 
inclita vitro ordine composito miscebant pocula Bacchi." Also in the life of St. Odilo, Abbot 
of Fulda, died 1049, he is mentioned as pouring wine into a little glass: "... accepto 
confectim parvo holovitreo infudit merum.'"' All these, Mr. Nesbitt observes, "were very 
possibly articles of home manufacture ; " it would seem that no other conclusion could 
be come to. We can form an idea of the appearance of at least some of them from the 
Michelfeld reliquary, dated 1282,' and of which the form and the details bear some 
resemblance to certain Roman trailed cups, which one is tempted to think may be due to 
long-descended traditions, through Merovingian and Carlovingian times.* The probable 
course of glass-making in the Low Countries, from the tenth to the twelfth century, has been 
pointed out, and it will be readily conceded that the scanty history of the art in Western 
Germany and in the Low Countries during this period must be read, not separately, but 
as a whole, and geographical boundaries treated merely as political accidents and in no way 
as affecting the question in consideration. 

Under these conditions we may still look upon the Rhine district as continuing to supply 
the greater part of the glass requirements of an area, certainly very wide, but of which the 
confines may not now with any approach to accuracy be delineated. That ornamentation of 
blown glass vessels by means of sketchings, or by stringings in the same material, whether 
clear or opaque, is proper to the nature of glass — ^just as casting and chasing is for brass, and 
hammering for iron and the honourable metals — will be readily admitted, for it was a means 
of decoration which was naturally suggested by the material itself. The Michelfeld reliquary 
is valuable evidence. An important detail now presents itself for consideration — the origin 
of the Njippcn, or "prunts," to use the English technical but ugly word. These decora- 
tions were more mechanical than the stringings, but are also well hallowed by antiquity. They 
had their distant origin in the projecting bosses of Roman glass cups, blown into a mould 
like such once ordinary wares as the chariot-race cups, now so uncommonly interesting.'' 
The Museo at Naples exhibits many examples of plain bossed and fluted cups from Pompeii, 
none of which can be later than 79 a.d., and it may be taken that the allied treatment of 
glass vessels, namely by adding irregular nodules or pellets of metal, transparent or opaque, 

1 See pp. 22, 33. p. 109, "Notes on Circular Churches," by the Rev. J. 

- The crypt with a very constricted ambulatory be- L. Petit, 
neath the round church at Fulda, visited by the author in In the Life <?f St. Odilo it is stated that a "vas pre- 

December i860, has its vaulting supported by a low tiosissimum vitreum Alexandrini generis," belonging to 

column with a rough imitation of an Ionic capital, the Emperor Henry, and having been broken by a fall, 

This seems to date from the abbacy of Eigilis, and is was mended by the saint, 
a very interesting work. The church above is of the ^ See p. 34. 

time of Odilo (see Archaeological Journal, vol. xviii. * ^t& Slade Catalogue, ^. 2,^. ^ Seep. 11. 




by way of ornamentation, was a later and a less skilful practice than the spontaneous operation 
which Pompeiian vessels show, and, of course, far inferior in technique to the lions' faces 
stamped on the glass prunts of Roman vases. 

Most prominent and persistent of all the decorative features of the glasses deriving from 
the Rhine district are the Traubcn- and the Stachel-Ntippen. The earliest e.xamples that we 
have met with occur on a reliquary of pale green glass, found in the coffin of an ecclesiastic at 
Liege, together with the lower portion, to the under side of the knop, of a glass chalice.^ There 
seems no reason to doubt the attribution of these remains to the end of the fourteenth century. 
That the nuppen of this period should not follow the form of any of those of Roman times is 
not surprising, but that an example of a glass with grape or beaded nuppen — sometimes also 
likened to strawberries, and a fashion of decoration which has been continued uninterruptedly 
down to the present day in the self-same Rhine district — should be found of so early a date, is 
a remarkable instance of the endurance of an ornament. For reasons too numerous to enter 
upon here we have arrived at the opinion that the nuppen, as we know them on the glasses 
of Western Germany and the Low Countries, whether plain, with thorns, or stamped with grapes 
or in other ways, had their origin at some time during the fourteenth century, perhaps not 
before the middle of it. They are, as has been intimated, the decorations/^?;' excellence of the 
glasses of the Rhine district. 

At this point we meet with a noteworthy variety of early Germa'n glass cups of the latter 
part of the fifteenth century. An example preserved in the small but choice collection of glass 

Fig. 93. (One half.) 

Fig. 94. 

Fig. 95. 

vessels in the Stadtisches Kunstgewerbe Museum at Cologne is of dark green colour; it has 
a single flat leaf-shaped handle jutting out, and is decorated with compound prunts, or such 
as have three thorns on them, formed by a second operation of touching the nuppen with tips 
of molten glass, thus forming thorns, and laying them down with half a turn (Fig. 93). Such 
cups occur in early Flemish pictures — for instance, in a Last Supper by T. Bouts (1400-1475) 
(Fig. 94), in the Palais des Beaux Arts at Brussels, shown as in pale brown glass, and with a 
curious spur-like handle, which would pass between the fingers and steady the vessel when in 
use. Another example of much the same shape is seen in a picture in the same gallery, by J. 
Mostaert (1474-1555), (Fig. 95); the date of these rare cups is therefore assured, and the 
Cologne example becomes an important link in the history.' 

* See p. 35. in general form are the silver-mounted double wooden 

2 These are undoubtedly quite late fifteenth-century cups of Italian and of South German origin, of which 

versions in glass of the rare silver vessels, with single examples exist, as well as representations of them in 

handles jutting out from the bowl, of which the Rodney ancient German heraldry, and in early printed books. 

and the Hamilton cups offer examples. Allied to them They are distinct from mazers. Several gold-mounted 




Again, the evidence of a glass reliquary presents itself in illustration of early glass objects 
of the Rhine district, and carries us on for another century. This is a vessel, properly called 
an Igel, from the altar of a church in Vinstgaue in the Tyrol, and dated 15 19 by the parchment 
which it enshrines.^ It is decorated with stachel-nuppen, irregularly disposed upon it, and both 
its date and character show it to be quite free of Italian influence. 

Amateurs will have observed the curious variety of the prunts not impressed with a 
stamp — whether raspberry, blackberry, strawberry, or mask — a variety brought about by the 
deft manipulation of the glass-maker, and it will be at once noticed in a collection of Rhine 
glasses that the inclination of the thorn is invariably, for reasons of manufacture, in a 
direction reverse to that of the lobes of the ancient Merovingian cups. A usual ancient 
practice was to drop the lumps of molten glass on the vessels and to leave them thorned and 
unstamped. With these plain stachel-nuppen, variety is found in the final treatment of the 
thorn or spike of glass left on the boss by the sudden withdrawal of 
the operator's hand. This action generally results in a more or less sharp 
point like that of a mediaeval prick spur, varying according to the 
liquescence or the character of the metal. Other thorns are snipped 
off square with the shears, or manipulated with a turn of the hand, and 
laid down on the prunt like a pig's tail ; curved over or under into a 
loop to receive jumped silver or metal rings — an idea derived from the 
goldsmiths (Fig. 96) ; or deeply indented with a thick round-ended punch, 
forming bosses on the interior of the glass. The rare vessel at Cologne, 
already spoken of, has prunts with three thorns carefully laid down upon 
each of them, with half a turn ; these are, perhaps, unique examples, and they show how 
familiar the fifteenth-century glass-makers were with their manipulation. 

The plain nuppen, without the stachel or thorn, are equally Dutch and German ; they 
are the most artistic and effective of all. It appears that the glass, after the application of 
these decorations, was submitted to the furnace. The thorn vanished before the heat, the 
prunts were "rendered down," and by rubbing became extremely flat, and blended with 
the happiest effect, and almost imperceptibly, into the surface of the stem of the glass. The 
ringed or corrugated base was spun on afterwards. Such smoothed prunts are usually 
found on the roemers with wide expanded mouths, and vessels so ornamented were known 
in Holland both as berkemeyers and roemers, the former term applying rather to the 
more capacious vessel. In Germany a roemer of large size was also known as a Humpen, a 
name applicable to every large German glass and signifying a brimmer or bumper. The 
Low Country artists, with their keen perceptions, never tired of introducing the berkemeyers 
and the roemers into their delightful pictures ; their characteristics, whether made in Holland 
by Germans, or by their Dutch imitators, or in the Rhine-land, the country of their origin, 

inches high, belongs to the parish of Edenham, Lincoln- 

FlG. 96. (One quarter.) 

examples are preserved in the Pitti Palace at Florence, 
and there are three silver-harnessed ones in the South 
Kensington Museum. The first, 7 inches high, is called 
English, the capacity of the upper portion being just 
one half that of the lower part; another, 4f inches 
high, with tljs on the lid, is German, and dated 1493 ; 
the third is only 2| inches high. In each the single 
handle is of silver, and of the characteristic form. A 
very fine example, about 1530, in silver, parcel-gilt, 12 

shire. — See Archaeological Joitrnal, vol. xi. p. 187; and 
VV. Cripps's Old English Plate, p. 214, edit. 18S6, for 

The pictures show the glass vessels to have been too 
large, and, indeed, too delicate and fragile, for a probable 
use of certain of the smaller silver or wooden ones, namely, 
for taking assay of the drink. 

1 See p. 35. 



T. T^JT^d only be added now, without disparagement 

have already been toncl^ed upon, and ,. "«^ ° ^ ,^^„^^,^, by Dutch artists in 

of German examples, that the ^^^ ^ ^ ,^^:'Xi„, „,, ,here brought to its highest 
gris«U.. in gold, or with the hght touch of the d.amond ^^^^^.^^ ^^ „ ^.^^ 

point of artistic excellence. The pru.ary P-P"- °^ ^ ^^^ ,^ ^^^^ ,,, M,a„e district; 

Luntry^ w-.-;---'t^ ;:::"!;;!:::: it presents are almost endless, 

it consequently had no cover. me ii^w^ndblue^ They were occasionc^Uy 

.he traditional co-co,ours being ^^^^^^^ =:::V::^,:. ' h' Ta'rgest parade, 
made white, of which more later on. Covers are fou „ ^^^_^^ ^^^ ^^,, 

Like those of the Provinces the small early glasses ^^_^^^ ^^^^^ ^_^^^ 

i„„s.rated by the pictures '^ .^^ 2Z ^Z^ ^^"^^ '^^ ^^ '°- '- 
sometimes by a representation m pamted glass , tney ^^^ Krautstrunk 

these sources generally the growth and ° 7 ' "^ = ;^„^^^ ^ ^„, ,V. to a 
*^'- '1' :r L-gtTre^lljS'r ^ut lllc^ing the, of which 

::re::x:a:errh:y begm .o be further ^---frr^piiTe'xre 

from the end of the sixteenth century onwards by the boon 

of which in England has been the bane of many a collector. ^^^^ ^^^^ 

,. The Igel, so named after the annual the '^'=^8-'^°S' J "* .^ „^^ ,,„,„,d ; but the 
„r German glass from which the roemer^ -* ^^^ ^^ ^ , rllV sixteenth century : the 
well-known normal shape was not arrived at before the m 

steps in the evolution are not quite ;° *>;-"- j;^;;,;::' , .eafless cabbage stalk, 
,1. The Krautstrunk. so called fron, ,ts fancied ■•= «""^ „^^ ^,„3^, 

was a short-lived vessel, notable for the accuracy with which Ion, 
studded with prunts. It was early overwhelmed by the roeni^=r ^ ^^ ^^^ 

„,. The earliest Roemers have the simple <>=";-''-=- ^,^^, ^Jp„,,,i„„ 

heginning of the — ~ and it seems o. rave ^be^ ^^^ ^.^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 

^ ^ of the mouth of that vessel, wliether the name has reference 

hs foot, which produced the P^'^. g'^^' J f ^ ^^ „„, ^o we know 
to a supposed Noma,, origin there is no evidence to show, 
:: o,r*e name is. A collection of drawings of ~ ^^^^^ denticulated base was partially replaced quite early n the --"'- 

fr.r.t This was deepened until the heignt 

-^ :r £1:^:-::::::::-. -• - r .7":: 

^■^■97- . u 1 . ,.prtc. c-tem ^ parts, foot i part, = 8 (iMg. 97)- 

(One third.) being :- bowl 4 parts, stem 3 1 ' ^ ^^^^ 

.here was a pause in style -^ -"^ ^1 j 'cILT: <- ^^^'^ «— 
naturally many variations from it ^ delicate sea ^^^^ ^^^ ^.^_^^^^^ ^^._^^ 

offers an excellent example (Plate 4). t is e g ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

„,h the bust of William Ih and . e words-^ M W^^^^^ ^;^ ^^^ ^,^,^ ^^„„„ 

: ^\Vi.d .he sh.d.3 of sre» « jl-»=^ » ^ ^'Tsefpt," ^" *""'• 

,«/,V7«« referring to the Middle Ages; beep. 47- 

antique green — antique reieunio 

■VI i 


i Iff - ' i. - 

'<rtl '\r 

.»-■ ; ^/M^ 






Fig. 98. (One third.) 

bases survived until long after the middle of the seventeenth century. Towards the 
end of it the spun feet gradually rose higher and higher, always at the expense of the 
stem, until at the end of the eighteenth century the latter had become so short that there was 
barely room on it for the almost invariable quilled neckband, and three or four strawberry- 
stamped prunts set horizontally. This condition is shown by an example in the author's 
cabinet. The proportions now were : — bowl 4 parts, stem i part, foot 3 parts, = 8 ; the 
heights of the stem and of the foot having changed places (Fig. 98). So the 
shape degenerated, and between the two sets of proportions given, the form 
of the roemer proper oscillated during something like a hundred and fifty 
years. It may be borne in mind that a roemer was always made in two 
parts only — the stem, forming a portion of the bowl and contributing to its 
capacity, and the added or spun base or foot. It is apparent that the 
deep bases of roemers of the latter part of the eighteenth century were blown 
and moulded on a form, and subsequently stringed in imitation of the early 
spun feet. For convenience of form and use, and other attributes, it is 
doubtful if any better glass was ever devised than a well-proportioned 
roemer, and it continued to be made in the land of its origin throughout the eighteenth 
century, notwithstanding the steady advance of the white glasses from Bohemia and Silesia 
on the one side, and the flint glasses from England on the other. This is sufficient proof 
of its worth. 

In addition to the variety of roemers between the two forms just alluded to, there were 
the very rare short igels with prunts, and denticulated, or plain ringed bases, called 
" Schmuckschalchen," — toilet-trays, but more suitable as dishes for sweetmeats or spices (Fig. 
99) ; the early turbinated glasses ; the thick maigelein for cordial waters ; the heavy cylindrical 
prunted cups, which have already been spoken of ;^ and the thin stringed 
cups with movable glass rings, which may quite well have been made in 
the Rhine-land under Italian influence." Space would fail to show in 
detail here the collateral development of some of the early rude cups 
into tumbler-like vessels, dvasds and decorated with prunts, and with 
masks " fa9on de Venise " ; it must suffice to say that these glasses were 
in due time replaced or swallowed up by the roemer, German and Dutch, the humpen, and 
the berkemeyer. Finally, as we have seen, the roemer and its varieties held the field in 
Western Germany and the Low Countries, and became the keynote of the table-glass industry 
of that spacious region. 

With regard to the special vessel which we must consider as an expanded and more 
substantial variety of the roemer, and more properly spoken of as a berkemeyer, it exhibits, 
as we have said, more than any other vessel, the smoothed prunts. The " Vincens tui " 
glass already illustrated (Plate 10) is a capital example. The glasses of this shape have shallow 
spun feet, and were greatly admired by the Dutch painters, particularly by Franz Hals, 
as his pictures at Haarlem show. The character of their feet did not fluctuate like those 
of the roemers, and their manufacture in the best artistic forms, in pale green and yellow 
glass, appears to have ceased soon after the middle of the seventeenth century. They 
were eclipsed, in fact, by the roemers. 

1 See p. 52. ^ See p. 51. 

Fig. 99. (One quarter. ) 




IV. Touching the Passglas, its usual type was a tall cylindrical vessel more or less 
reo-ularly spaced, by fine wheeled stringings, into divisions for measuring and controlling 
the drinking ; it was usually planted upon a low conical foot, and frequently had a cover (Fig. 
loo). Those that were made in the Rhine district are sometimes slighdy pressed, from the rim 
to about half-way down, into an octagonal form. Pale sea-green and gray are generally 
the tints of the earlier of these very fragile and choice vessels. There is a fine pale green 
example in the Stadtisches Kunstgewerbe Museum at Cologne (Fig. loi). Rembrandt, with 

Fig. ioo. (One quarter.) 

Fig. ioi. (One quarter.) 

his wife upon his knee, in his portrait by himself at Dresden, holds up exactly such a Rhine-land 
Passelas. We shall revert to them later on under their different treatment in the Forest, and 
their manner of use. 

It will have become obvious that, for a full realisation of the circumstances of glass- 
making in Western Germany during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the vessels and 
their history must be studied together with those of the Low Countries during the same 
period, exactly as with the scanty records of the art and the glass cups of earlier times. The 
subject is so large that it naturally can only be skirted now by an amateur and "oudandish 


1 All the ancient varieties of the Rhine-land glasses 
have been reproduced at Ehrenfeld, near Cologne — not 
with the natural artistic irregularities inseparable from the 
old examples, but witli the frigid accuracy associated with 
modern science. Fanciful names, such as, " Dagobert- 
Romer," " Wieland-Humpen," " Weinbecher-Chlodwig," 
" Gambrinus-Pokal," etc., have been given to these pro- 
ductions apparently for identification for purposes of trade. 
A large number of other forms allied to them have also 
been devised with a view to modern requirements and 

tastes ; and other vessels, such as punch-bowls ; jugs, etc., 
skilfully adapted from the old styles, as well as imitations 
of Italian and Cerman cut glasses. Some of the new- 
forms, particularly those for Rhine wine, have much merit. 
The improvement which has taken place in the table glass 
industry within the last ten years is very noticeable in 
good houses and hotels in Germany. The punctilious- 
ness with which special shapes are insisted upon for 
certain wines is a survival of the custom of the seventeenth 
century. A similar reversion, as to table glass, to earlier 


That Cologne took a part, but a moderate one, in the general artistic movement with 
regard to glass-making " fagon de Venise " as early as in 1607, has been shown by the late 
M. Pinchart from the Ratsprotocolle of the city between 1607 and 1609. In the former year 
two Venetians offered to establish a glass-house at Cologne on condition that they should 
enjoy the same privileges which had been accorded to other industries of the same kind at 
Antwerp and Amsterdam. They were allowed to set up a furnace in the street of Saint-Severin, 
but this was soon complained of as a danger by the neighbours on account of fire. The 
following year the Venetians fled — riddled with debts. Shortly after others appeared, but 
they were not successful, for in 161 1 it was stated that their furnaces " etaient allees en 

Upon these limited circumstances of operation an extended interpretation was based, in 
1876, to the effect that the numerous " winged " and other Venetian glasses to be met with in 
the Rhine district, which were regarded as Italian art, proceeded from the Cologne glass- 
works.- This was before the researches of the antiquaries which have laid bare the history 
of glass-making " fagon de Venise " in the Low Countries. Similarly, Demmin makes the 
strange attribution of all the winged glasses " fagon de Venise" to Dessau in the principality 
of Anhalt,^ in a glass-house founded in 1669, and where Italians were not introduced until 
1679; this furnace was closed in 1686. The fact is, that such glasses were made, but not 
necessarily to a large extent, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, besides at Cologne 
and Dessau, at Kiel, Vienna, Weidlingen, Nuremberg, and many other places in Germany, 
just as they were made in the Low Countries, in France, in Spain, and, but to a somewhat 
less degree, in England. The origin, development, and decay of the art was nearly 
synchronous in each realm ; the same artistic workmen — whether "contracted" from Altare 
or runaways from the power of the Council of Ten — moving from place to place, or from 
country to country, produced everywhere much the same objects from mainly the same materials. 
The whole of the glass-works on the continent of Europe were affected and stimulated in 
varying degrees by the movement, and the influence of the Italians had everywhere the same 
general effect upon the home industries. It was less marked in Germany than elsewhere, 
partly because Venetian glasses were hardly capacious or substantial enough for ordinary 
German requirements, particularly in so far as beer-drinking was concerned ; the case was 
much the same in England. And, however much the graceful or fantastic shapes from Italy 

forms is noticeable in the glass-making districts of Bavaria 1 A. Pinchart, " Les Fabriques de Verres de Venise," 

and Bohemia and the parts adjacent. etc.. Bulletin des Commissions Royales d'Art et d'Arckc- 

At Prague may be seen the decoration of modern oiogie, vol. xxi. p. 3S8. 

glasses with enamel and gold carried to the highest pitch - " . . . und es ist anzunehmen, dass die vielen am 

of perfection, but at times with an excess of ornament, Rheiii vorfindlichen Fliigel — und anderen venetianischen 

and a touch of garishness, upon coloured glass of great Gliiser, welche man bis jetzt fiir italianische Arbeit gehalten 

beauty and of all hues, such as the old men never dreamt hat aus der Kolner Glasfabrik hervorgegangen sind." — M. 

of, and far superior to the vapid tints of the Tassie Thewalt, Kit list historische Ausstclluug zu Koln, 1876, p. 

gems, so attractive to the British public in the Gold xv., preface. 

Room in the British Museum. Alongside of these are ^ "Les verres a ailettes attribues a tort, avant mes 

glasses painted with black dancing figures, and others, recherches, a la verrerie de Venise, ne datent que du 

modern Viennese vulgarities, which would have astonished XVII« siecle, oii ils ont ete' souffles \ Dessau, dans une 

and offended the old glass artists indeed. This, it may manufacture fondee en 1669, au chateau d'Oranienburg." 

be hoped, is only a passing caprice. The armorial glasses, —Guide de I'amateur de faiences et de porcelaines, p. 

always popular in Germany, are picturesque and good, 1331, edit. 1873, quoted by M. Schuermans, Lettre I., 

and the heraldry capitally drawn. p. 138. 


may have been admired, the practical character of the German glasses was never lost sight of. 
This is fully evinced by the great glasses from the Forests— the Waldglaser — both plain and 
decorated, which have marked originality and owe very little to Italian influence. They will 
be spoken of presently. 


While the glass-makers of Germany of the late thirteenth, the fourteenth, and the fifteenth 
centuries were struggling with their modest home-made cups, trailed or prunted, the East was 
sending, as to England and France, the enamelled glasses and vessels, such as the cup at 
Breslau, dedicated to St. Hedwiges, or Avoice, the patroness of Silesia and Poland, died 1243 ; ' 
the Damascus glass at Munich ; the holy earth vase at Nuremberg ; and the two at Vienna 
from the same sources, still containing their prized contents. At the same period also came, 
by another route and from a different origin, the remarkable heavy tumbler-shaped so-called 
Hedwig glasses, more advanced in style than the crystal vessels at St. Mark's, Venice, taken 
at the sack of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204, but like them emanating, as we 
are greatly inclined to believe, from Byzantium. 

Of these peculiar cups — " Hedwigsglaser " ^ — seven have been preserved, viz. at— 

I. Breslau, in the Museum; 2. Cracow, in the Cathedral; 3. Nuremberg, in the Museum; 
4. Amsterdam, in the Museum ; 5. Berlin, in the possession of the late Major-General Rose — 
this came from Halberstadt Cathedral in 1820; 6. Halberstadt, in the Cathedral; and 7 
Minden, in the Cathedral. Records remain of the former e.xistence of others. 

The Hedwig glasses have long been considered by German antiquaries, and the subject 
has been fully discussed by Herr E. v. Czihak," and the opinions of MM. von Essenwein, 
Friedrich, A. Hoffman, Gerspach, Bock, and his own conclusions given. None of these 
authorities pronounce decidedly for the Byzantine origin which, with all respect for their 
convictions, we are disposed to claim for the glasses, and as to which we are supported by the 
character of the Byzantine vessels at St. Mark's, and the opinion of Mr. Nesbitt, and his 
ascription of them, and of the Hedwig glass at Cracow, as well as by the testimony of M. 
Gamier. It is true that there are great difficulties in the question; this is marked by the 
indecision of the German antiquaries, the Orient, Byzantium, Bohemia, and Germany having 
been severally suggested as the source of the objects, and even a possible date so late as 1370 
proposed. Their peculiarities place them in a distinct class and they have to be judged 
accordingly, but we must think that the place of their manufacture, if not actually at 
Byzantium, was at least strongly under the influence of Byzantine art. 

The Hedwig glasses are very thick, generally more than a quarter of an inch, dark in 
colour, with many bubbles, and deeply cut on the wheel, so that the figures stand out in relief 
There is a marked resemblance between them, indicating not only one manufactory, but 
suggesting the same artist at the wheel, and about the same date for the whole series. Under a 

1 Seep. 21. Illustrated as in following ;w/^. 5 Abbildungen ; and Schksische G/aser, s. 184, with the 

^ Zeitschrift fiir ChristUche Kiiiist, III. Jahrgang, Heft same illustrations, edit. 1891. 

II, s. 329, 1890; Die IJcdzvigsglaser, niit Lichtdriick und 



Byzantine ascription the Hedwig glasses would have been valued objects passing to Northern 
Europe along the ancient trade route from Byzantium through Hungary and Bohemia, and 
as such naturally dedicated to a revered patron saint, and deposited in great churches. Thus 
at least the examples existing in the cathedrals of Cracow, Breslau, and Halberstadt would 
be properly accounted for, and quite apart from the question of glass vessels of Damascus 
of a very different character. These may have been brought by German crusaders or by 
pilgrims from the Holy Land, or have come as prized articles of trade by way of Venice 
or Genoa, and are generally later in date than the Hedwig glasses proper. 

The Amsterdam example gives a capital type of the whole series, being engraved with 
two lions and an eagle, exactly as they appear on the Breslau, the Cracow, the Nuremberg 
the Rose- Halberstadt, and the Minden glasses (Plate 15). It is, moreover, unmounted, and 
has the following inscription engraved on the under side of the foot : — 

Alsz diesz Glasz war alt tausent Jahr, 
Es Pfaltzgraft Ludwig Philipszen 
Werehret war. 1643.^ 

It belonged to the princely family of Orange-Nassau, whose ancestors were Stadhouders 
in Friesland, and came from Oranje Woud, their country seat in that province. The 
inscription is so far interesting as showing that in 1643 the origin and real age of the 
glass was quite unknown, although the date of all of them can hardly be earlier than the 
latter part of the twelfth century.^ The glass at Halberstadt is covered with geometrical 
figures not easy to describe, but the character of the work is the same as on the others. 

Nothing like the Hedwig tumblers has ever appeared in England, and they are 
among the most remarkable of the glass vessels which time has bequeathed. Their solidity 
has tended greatly to their preservation, added to the sacred uses to which they have 
been applied, whether as chalices or reliquaries, and the veneration with which they have 
been regarded as memorials of a saintly personage. 

1 The author is indebted to the friendly courtesy of tombs of his ancestors in the abbey. He asked the 

Ihr. B. W. F. van Riemsdijk, Director of the Rijks Prior the names of " dyvers Kynges which lay on the 

Museum at Amsterdam, for a copy of this inscription southe syde of the saide Shryne aforesaide, tyll he come 

and a full-sized drawing of the glass. to the tombe of his fadre Kyng Henry the V'*' wher he 

■' The ignorance and superstition in ancient times made his prayers," and declared " Nay let hym alone he 

concerning earlier memorials has often been exemplified. lieth lyke a nobyll prince I wolle not troble hym." It 

There was no easily available written history outside the was as rare then as now to "let things alone." Less 

monasteries, and within their walls, as without them, fables excusable ignorance, in times by no means so distant, is 

were not unacceptable, and many a queer version of an attributable to the fables which the printing-press has 

event crept into the Chronide in the Scriptorium, and promulgated, and which, as all antiquaries know, it is 

soon passed as history. Even Henry VI., when he impossible to recall. Many fictions concerning old 

" shewed his mind " in the Chapel of St. Edward con- glasses have had to be resisted during the progress of the 

cerning the place of his burial, knew nothing about the present work. 



The establishment of glass-works in or near the forests and mountains which divide 
Bohemia from Bavaria, Saxony, and Silesia was brought about by the presence in the 
forests of boundless fuel, and of inexhaustible materials for glass-making in the primitive 
rocks of the heights, such as quartz, natron, manganese, and in many places on the 
eastern slopes of the mountains of a fine white sand. From the Fichtelgebirge, the pine 
mountains in Upper Franconia, at the westernmost point of Bohemia, issues the range known 
as the Erzgebirge, or ore mountains, which divide Bohemia from Saxony. These are 
not precipitous, the long slope being towards Saxony and the short one towards Bohemia, 
and with a few exceptions are wooded almost to their summits. Another range of 
mountains, the Bohmerwaldgebirge, or Bohemian forest mountains, runs in a south-easterly 
direction from the Fichtelgebirge, dividing Bohemia from Bavaria. In these mountains 
the long slope is towards Bohemia, while the very abrupt one faces Bavaria. Again, the 
Sudetengebirge, the Sudetsh chain, comprising the Sausitzer Bergplatte, the Isergebirge, the 
Riesengebirge, and the Erlitzgebirge, separate Bohemia from Silesia, and the Bohmer- 
Mahrengebirge from Moravia, and thus the country is walled in. From the Fichtelgebirge 
runs in a north-easterly direction the Thuringer Wald, a mountainous chain about a hundred 
miles long, crossing the ancient kingdom of Thuringia, and dying out at Eisenach. It is 
necessary to bear these geographical conditions in mind in touching upon the early glass- 
making of Western Germany. The various sites which will be alluded to are readily 
identified upon the excellent maps in The Times Atlas. 

Of an ancient glass industry in Bohemia before the fourteenth century no records have 
at present been made available; but we may reasonably conclude that glass -making in 
this country and in the parts adjacent took much the same course that it did in Western 
Europe, and that, as in the Low Countries and the Cologne district, nothing better than 
small rude cups and vessels for ordinary use — the best they could then make — were 
produced before the middle of the fifteenth century. The story of the industry must have 
been much the same in the Thuringian Forest as well as in other widely-separated places 
in Central and Northern Germany, where glass-making was early the natural result of 
materials for use conveniently at hand. The glass cups of the abbots of Fulda, Eigilis 
and Odilo, may have been remote examples from the neighbouring Thuringian Forest, far 
more accessible to the Benedictines of that ancient House than the district of Cologne. 

Similarly, it was not until the period of the movement of the Venetians and Altarists — 
but not as a result of it — that the forest glasses took an extended and artistic direction. 
The state of the case must have been precisely the same in Northern Bohemia as in the 
neighbouring country of Silesia adjoining the Iser and the Riesengebirge ranges. This 
brings us to the point where Silesian and Bohemian glass-making appear to have had 
their origin, namely, in the valleys and slopes on either side of these eminences, on the 
southern side as to Bohemia, and on the northern, particularly in the Zackenthal, for 
Silesia. The frequent designation of places, " Glasshutte," " Glazen," " Glazersdorf," "Glatz," 
etc., attest at the present day, as names do in England, the ancient and extensive nature of 



the industry both in Silesia and Bohemia. In each district up to the present day im- 
portant centres of glass-making have remained firmly established. This is strong testimony 
to the merits of the local materials. We can only imagine what use the Romans would 
have made of them, but they were beyond their sphere. 

Herr v. Czihak has shown' that there was one glass-house in Silesia in the fourteenth 
century, and at least three in the fifteenth and sixteenth, which were increased to seven in 
the seventeenth century. At the present day the number amounts to fifty-six glass-houses 
in six principal centres, a great increase being due to the introduction of coal as fuel since 
the beginning of the present century. In 1364 a glass-house near the existing village of 
Schreiberhau, in the Zackenthal in the Hirshberg circuit, close to the Bohemian frontier, was 
held by one Kung Kone ; it was bought two years later by a certain Sydil Molstein : — " Sydil 
Molsteyn hat vorkouffet alden Cunczen glaser die glasehutte in dem Schribirshau mit allim 
rechte, als er sy selbir gehabt hat vnd die do lyt in dem wichbilde zu Hirsberg, im, syne erbin 
vnd nachkomen. Do hat der herzoge (Bolko II.) zynen willen zu gegebin. Gegebin zu 
Stritisvorwerk am vritage vor Sente Lorencen tak, noch Gottes gebort anno Dom. 
1366."- In 1371 another glass-house was let to Thomas Kegil, " Bekennen ... das 
wir von vnsin furstlichen gnaden die glasehutte zum Schreibershovv yn dem wichbilde 
zu Hirschberg gelein mit allin zogetanen rechte, nucze, geniesse vnd fruchtberkeit, als sie 
von aldirs gelein hat Thomasen Kegil vnd seinen erben gelegin vnd gelanget haben . . . 
o-eo-ebin zue Scwidnicz anno Dom. 1371 in die Sanctae Trinitatis." ' This glass-house 
was sold to Kegil in the following year, " mit alien iren zugehor alz sie von aldirs gelegen 
ist vnd leit vnd mit allem rechte nucze vnd geniesze zn besiczen," etc., Anno Dom. 1372. 
The expressions "alz sie von aldirs gelein hat," and "gelegen ist," used in the formula for the 
two last sales, points to a foundation of this particular glass-house at least as far back as 
the beginning of the thirteenth century, and such foundation may be taken to have succeeded 
other and far earlier series of glass-houses on both sides of the Border. One would have 
been crlad of such precise record of the glass industry in the middle of the fourteenth 
century in England, and in the vernacular of Chaucer and Wycliffe. But the first clear 
prospect we have of a Bohemian glass-house is of that set up about the middle of the 
fifteenth century by Peter Berka von Duba and Lipa, under the Tannenberg at St. 
Georgenthal near Haida, one of the oldest glass-making centres in Bohemia, and where 
numerous glass establishments are still to be found, as well as at Gablonz, at the present 
day a most active bead, mock jewellery, and button-making locality, with a large trade 
with Paris and Africa.* We also have the glass-houses of 1442 at Daubitz, and those 
.at Falkenau and Steinschonau near Haida of the following year. 

The Italians who came to seek for gold and precious stones in the mountains were 
known in the country as "Welsche,"^ and also styled Wahlen— apparently with reference 

1 " Schlesische Glaser. Eine Studie iiber die schlesi- '' Landhuch Sclnveidn.-Jaiir., A, fol. -^b. 

schen Glasindustrie fruherer Zeit, nebst einen beschrei- ^ Ibid., C, fol. 2j\,a. 

benden Katalog der Glasersammlung des Museums * Reports from the Consuls of the United States, No. 

schlesischer Altertiimer zu Breslau," etc., von E. v. 103, March 1889, p. 393. 

Czihak, 1891. ^ Italy was known in the German of the Middle Ages 

The author takes this opportunity of acknowledging as " Welschland," and its inhabitants as "Welsche" or 

his indebtedness to Herr v. Czihak for his able researches, strangers ; similarly the German-Swiss style the Romance- 

and of which he has availed himself in the present notice. Swiss " Welsche." The Cymri were called Uelsh by the 



to their seekino- or selecting valuables, and were soon brought into relations with the glass- 
makers. Antonio von Medici, known as Anton Wale, has left instruction, of about 1430, 
as to digging after treasures — schatzgraberei, and while fixing the proper place for such 
ventures localises the spot by reference to the glass-works of Schreiberhau — " Item czu 
Hirspergk froge nach eynem dorffe daz heyssit Petirssdorf, dornoch keyn Seywershawe, 
do gehe obene den obir wegk kegin dem swartczyn berge vor dy glazchutte, zo komestu 
zcu dem weissin wassir adir zcu der weissin bach, zo findistu zcu waschen golt vnd 
ametissten. . . ."' Whether the Italian gold-washers and precious-stone grubbers were 
beneficial in the way of instructing the glass-makers in Italian methods must be an open 
question ; that was not their purpose. Moreover, Italian assistance is not mentioned in 
the numerous notices of the glass-works in the Iser- and the Riesengebirge of the latter 
half of the sixteenth century. This indicates that help was not much wanted, and we find 
it stated, for instance, in the Schlcsischen Chronika : " Es mangelt in Schlesien auch nicht 
an glasehtitten, darinnen Glaser von allerley Arten und Manieren erdacht und gemacht 
werden. . . ."- and "In Schreiberau supra Zacum fluuium ; probantur vitra maxime quae 
Candida et pellucida sunt." ■ 

The Schiirer family from the neighbourhood of Marienberg in Saxony, in the Erzgebirge, 
had great infiuence in the unfolding and extension of the glass-works in the Haida district. 
In 1540 Paul Schiirer founded a glass-house at Falkenau ; from this developed the Hiada- 
Steinschonau and the Biirgstein centres of glass industry. In the next generation John, 
son of Paul Schiirer, set up, 1558, a furnace near Gablonz. His great-uncle Bartholomew 
was master of the glass-house at Griinwald, near the same place, in the early years of the 
seventeenth century, which had been set up in 1548 by Franz Kunz. The Schiirer family, 
like those of de Bonhomme and de Colncl in the Low Countries, had an unbroken connection 
with glass-making until the beginning of the eighteenth century, a very noteworthy record 
of nearly three hundred years. 

In 1600 a glass-house was built at Reichenberg near Gablonz, around which already 
in 1604 a whole village, Friedrichswald, had spread itself After the two last generations 
of Schiirers in the Gablonz district in the offshoots of the Riesengebirge, particularly at 
Starkenbach, these works passed into other hands, and from 1701 to the present day have 
belonged to the noble family of Harrach. ' 

At Nieder Roclitz in 1550 a certain Donath built a glass-house which came, fifty years 

Anglo-Saxons for the same reason, and as speaking a racecourse is a striking survival of the mediaeval word 

different language, and being of a different race. M. Wclsche. 

Schuermans, referring to "Nicolas dit le Welche," who ^ Chrysopoeie, Commonplace Book of Anton Wale, 

sought for and obtained leave to set up a glass-house Breslauer Stadtbibliothek, Hs. R., 454, vellum page 2b. 
"facon de Venise " at Vienna in i486, says that "Welche "- Des kaiscrUchen Rates und KaiiniiLrjiskals in Ol'Cf- 

est quelquefois pris pour Beige," and he makes the easy schlesien Schichfus (15 74-1 637), A. a. O. IV. 34. 
mistake of suggesting that we may have here the evidence '' Stirpiinn et Fossilium Silesiae Catalogus, 1600, p. 

of a German glass-house associated with a Flemish one, 407. The whiteness and transparency are noticeable 

to which the brothers Dandolo of Venice referred in characteristics, as contrasted with the green and the 

their request of 1507. — Bulletin des Commissions, etc., yellow glasses of Western Germany and the Low 

lit sup., Lettre III., pp. 13, 25. In Peru "gringo" is Countries at that time. 

the epithet universally applied to any foreigner, and ■* It does not appear that glass-making in l!oliemia or 

the original English equivalent flourishes in its purity in Germany implied any impeachment of nobility, as one 

in the United States. The term of reproach applied to would have expected, with the haughty aristocracy of those 

the poor terror-stricken bleeding wretch on an English countries. 


later, into the hands of Kaspar Schtirer, who soon sold it on his setting up a furnace at 
Sahlenbach. The continued destruction of the woods drove the glass-houses nearer and 
nearer to the Silesian borders. After Sahlenbach came the glass-house of Seifenbach, 
where a second furnace was set up early in the eighteenth century. From this the 
Neuwald establishment derived, and this takes us up to the Silesian boundary, with Count 
Harrach's glass-works at Neuwelt (Harrachdorf), of the present day. 

Such, in a few words, is the outline of the origin of the glass industry of Northern 
Bohemia, namely, in the spurs of the Iser- and the Riesengebirge, and it will at once be 
seen that its history cannot be separated from that of Silesia; and as the history was 
connected so were the glass-makers on either side of the Border by marriage. 

To Schreiberhau also went one of the Preussler family, Wolfgang, then an aged man, 
from Bohemia, and built in 1617 a new glass-house on the Weissbach, where glass had 
been made, as we have seen, from the middle of the fourteenth century. Wolfgang was 
succeeded by his son Hans, who died in 1668, and his grandson John Christopher, who 
built another glass-house on the right bank of the Zacken. This last was followed by 
his son of the same name, and he, again, by his son George Sigismund, whose early death 
in 1 75 1 placed the works in his widow's hands; owing to bad management they had to be 
sold to the highest bidder. In 17S3 the new glass-house was again taken on by Carl 
Christian, son of George Sigismund Preussler, and a new furnace was set up at Martins- 
Heide, about a mile off. These were carried on by Christian Benjamin, son of Carl, who 
was the last bearer of the name so long associated with the Silesian glass industry, and 
by his death in 1848 the lengthy chain was broken. Of the three Preussler-built glass- 
houses only one is now carried on. 

In the Isergebirge, near Schwarzbach, a glass-house was founded in 1651 by Protestant 
Bohemians driven out of their country by the measures taken against them after the 
Thirty Years' War. The first builder was Martin Scholze, a banished glass-maker. This 
establishment appears to have endured until the beginning of the eighteenth century. It 
should be noticed that this man merely crossed the border into Silesia, still keeping within 
the Riesengebirge range, for reasons of materials conveniently to be gotten. The furnace 
came to an end early in the eighteenth century. One of the Preusslers was glass-master 


Through the activity of the Preussler family the glass industry was carried into the 
Waldenburg mountains in Silesia, offshoots of the Riesengebirge. A furnace was set up in 
1 66 1, and well supported locally. It took the name of Freudenberg, from a neighbouring 
mountain, and had considerable success until it was shaken by the War for the Austrian 
Succession (1740-1748).^ In consequence of the bloody and futile Seven Years' War (1756- 
1763), which raged in its vicinity, it came to an end, and has never been reconstituted. 

As to glass-making in the graffschaft or county of Glatz, in the Erlitzgebirge, nothing 
certain is known, but it is established by the building accounts of St. Adelbert's convent 

1 Full accounts of the War for the Austrian Sue- universal, and perpetual Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle," signed 

cession .ill be found in Coxe, House of Austria; x 8th October: 748, which concluded the war, the Duchy 

Koch, Traitcs dc Fai.x ; Flassan, Histoire dc la Diplomatie of Silesia and the County of Glatz, '"^l^ded the 

francaise; Lacretelle, Histoire des Fran^ais ; Ancillon, important glass-making districts, were by Article XXII. 

Systhne politique de /'Europe, etc. By the "Christian, confirmed to the King of Prussia. 


at Breslau, that about 1501 so-called " Waldglas " was obtained from Glatz, and payment 
rendered to the "domini de glotz." The oldest named glass-house was founded at 
Kaiserswald in 1656. It suffered in the Seven Years' War. A century later furnaces 
were set up in the neighbourhood at Schreckendorf, and in 1770 at Friedrichsgrund. 
Since then many more have been built, and towards the end of the century the use of 
coal as fuel was introduced. At the present day the country of Glatz takes the second 
place in Silesia as to extent and employment in glass-making. 

Of the early glass-works in the spurs of the Sudetengebirge proper, known as the 
Reichensteiner- and Altvatergebirge, we again have cognisance through Anton Wale, about 
1430: "Wiltu aber off eynen seyffen gehen in das hoche gebirge, so froge von dem 
Reyhensteyne off Fredebergk, doselbist ist alleyne eyn wegk, dy iij meylen off den Golden- 
steyn, wen du wirst komen bey iij firtil wegis von Fredebergk, do seyn czwe glasehuttin 
gewest, dornoch ge abir j firtil wegis vnd sieh dich denne vmbe off beyde seyten, zo findistu 
eyne wortczel . . . dornoch gehe obir den Bobinbergk, bas du komest an dy strosse, dy 
von Freyenwalde off den Guldensteyn gehet . . ."' From the topography here displayed 
the site of the " czwe glasehuttin " can only be Gurshdorf. Some interesting documents of 
1536 show that these furnaces were then in being, and that they were sold in 1557. Nothing 
more is known of them. 

At Jungferndorf, in 1509, Bishop Johannes Thurzo of Breslau, in a very interesting 
document in the vernacular,^ confirms to Hans Flessig certain land for building a glass- 
house thereon, and endows it with waste or wild spaces where ashes could be burned and 
wood could be taken under certain conditions. The advantage to the district of such an 
industry in its midst is referred to. Again nothing further is known of this glass-house. 

In 1636 Carl Bishop of Breslau granted to Elias Wilhelm leave to build a glass-house 
at Einseidel, near the Altvatergebirge, with a quit-rent for six years of 100 thalers, a chest 
of glass and nine shock, i.e. 540 wine and beer glasses. Wilhelm died in 1638, and the works 
subsequently passed through various hands and have an interesting history until the last quarter 
of the eighteenth century. In the middle of the seventeenth much hollow ware, " hohlglas," 
that is, bottles and drinking-glasses, as well as common sheet-glass and some looking-glass 
plates, were produced. 

Nothing is known of glass-making in Upper Silesia before the end of the seventeenth 
century. It was practised in many places during the eighteenth century — at least to the 
number of twenty-five, not counting privileged houses — and first became of artistic importance 
in the time of Frederick the Great. From most of the Upper Silesian furnaces making 
white glass must have issued, via Prussia, a great part of the quantity of glasses which 
inundated the Low Country markets after the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. Many of these 
houses ran but a short course, and the industry steadily declined from the end of the eighteenth 
century. On account of its late establishment its history lacks the interest of other districts. 
The two glass-houses — Sklarka— on the Polish frontiers dating respectively from about 
1670 and I 750 do not call for remark. 

Those of Lower Silesia in the Oberlausitz are of much importance by reason of the 

1 Chrysopocie, ut sup., Hs. R., 454, vellum pnge 4/'. for the first time by Herr v. Czihak, SchksiscJu- Gliiscr, ut 

■- Breslaucr Siadfarckiv, Neisser Lagerbuch, F. Neisse, sup., p. 23. 
III., 21Z, 1 506-1 5 I S, p. 176. This document is printed 





high quality of their productions towards the end of the eighteenth century. This was 
brought about by the very fine sand near Hohenbocka, and the convenience of fuel in the 
forests. At Weisau, at some time after the Thirty Years' War, a glass-house was founded 
which, together with that at Schreiberhau in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, stood 
at the head of the Silesian glass-works. Here were made drinking-glasses of all kinds in 
pure white metal, cut and gilt, besides the ordinary green vessels. The Rausche furnaces 
are first mentioned in 1724, and those at Kolzig forty years later, one of the places where 
soda from Spain was first used in Silesia, as it had been in England by Jean Carre, as long 
ago as in 1567. The great activity and increase which has characterised the glass industry of 
Silesia belong to modern times with which we are not particularly concerned. It received 
a large impetus through the introduction of coal as fuel about the beginning of the present 

The origin and course of cut glass in Bohemia and Silesia have been spoken of in the 
English account ; and the work of the Schwanhards and other able artists at Prague, 
Nuremberg, and Ratisbon referred to in relation to cut glass, and need not be repeated 

Fig. 102. (One quarter.) 

Fig. 103. (One quarter.) 

Fig. 104. (One quarter. ) 

Fig. 105. (One quarter.) 

here. Deriving their style, early in the seventeenth century, from the cut rock-crystal 
shell-shaped vessels (Figs. 102, 103), the engraved and cut rococco decorations of the later 
Bohemian and Silesian covered cups and glasses— well suited to the taste of the time 
—were long unapproached. They have, of course, much less interest than the vessels of 
the earlier date which they displaced ; but nothing finer of their kinds have been produced 
than the covered cups— of which an example in the collection of Mr. Fortnum is here 
illustrated (Plate IG)— trefoil or quatrefoil or octagonal in plan, or the fluted goblets, with 
ruby and leaf gold in their cut or twisted stems, and in the knobs of the covers (Figs. 
104, 105, 106, 107, 108). These gradually replaced throughout Europe the finest of 
the old artistic glasses " facon de Venise," and took the lead in the general change of 
taste which advanced so rapidly early in the eighteenth century. To Bohemia and Silesia 
is due the credit of the movement. Their glasses were soon copied in a very poor style 
in Prussia, and in other parts of Germany, and a quantity made of a very inferior kind, 
more acceptable, perhaps, in the Rhine -land district and in the Low Countries because 
they were white. All these glasses gravitating westward, the old art glass industry of 
the Low Countries— already giving way to glass a /'ano-/aise—was, as we have seen, 




soon crushed out. The roemer lingered until the end of the century. In Holland cut glass 
took a new direction with much success, but the growing excellence and the taste for 
English flint-glass early gave it a high place on the Continent, and the final superiority 
which it has since retained. 

Ruby glass, well known to the ancients, was brought to perfection about 1679 by Johann 
Kunckel, a Silesian, and a distinguished chemist, while in the service of Frederic William, 
Elector of Brandenburg, at his glass-works on the Isle of Peacocks at Potsdam. The furnaces 

Fig. 106. (One quarter.) Fig. 107. (One quarter.) Fig. 108. (One quarter.) 

were removed to Zechlin after the death of the elector, and there continued with a great 
renown up to the middle of the last century. It is believed that Kunckel obtained his fine 
ruby by the use of gold instead of copper. The best examples are desirable objects of their 
kind, but many are of inferior colour, and the shapes of the Kunckel glasses are far from 
attractive, being usually no more than plain or fluted tumblers, a form as little suited as that 
of the Hedwigsglaser for the elaborate silver- gilt mountings that are often bestowed upon 

The double and gilt Bohemian glasses may not be overlooked. In these a round- 
bottomed cup, sometimes of ruby glass, and exactly fitting the interior of a goblet, is gilded or 
silvered over its whole exterior surface. The subjects to be depicted — battle-pieces, landscapes, 
etc. — are then drawn through with a style or etching needle, after the manner of the disks from 
the early Christian locitli, hatched and shaded, and the superfluous metal cleared away. The 
cup, having a shoulder or rebate just below its rim, is then placed inside the glass, and fixed 
with clear cement and an almost imperceptible joint at the place of junction of the shoulder 
with the rim of the goblet, the sides of the latter being usually fluted to enhance the eftect 
of the picture within. Varieties of such vessels are not uncommon ; they differ greatly as to 
their merits, and are all too harsh and mechanical for any high art quality to be claimed for 
them. They were no doubt also made in Bavarian glass-works. 

Another treatment was to deeply engrave the subjects on the inner glass and to paint 
and shade the intaglios, with most brilliant. If not a little vulgar, results. Many of the double 
glasses have been ruined by being placed in hot water. Tumblers and glasses with inserted 
ruby medallions backed with gilded or silvered decorations belong to the same class, and are 
generally after the middle of the eighteenth century. These methods are varieties of the 
" verre eglomise " of the late sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries.^ 

^ An account of the process, and the derivation of Anhhlogujiie, 1887, vol. i., a work unfortunately in- 
the strange name, are given in Victor Gay, Glossain complete. It is stated that the subjects were all burnt 



With regard to glass-making in Bavaria, like that in Bohemia and Silesia it had its 
origin in the Forest Mountains, the Bohmerwaldgebirge, dividing Bavaria from Bohemia, 
and for the same reasons of convenience of materials. Again the history cannot be 
dissociated from that of the Bohemian and Silesian glass-works, because much the same 
glasses must have been made in all these countries until after the middle of the seventeenth 
century, when different lines were taken both as to form and decoration by each. 

The commerce and industry of Bohemia stood in the closest relation with Nuremberg, 
and this, no doubt, gave an impetus to Bavarian glass-works early in the sixteenth century, 
and brought about the development later on of the drinking -glass and mirror industry 
on both sides of the Bohemian mountains. In consequence of the artistic influences of 
Nuremberg and Ratisbon the glass industry of Bavaria — or, speaking more closely, of the 
Upper Palatinate in Franconia — must have had quite as early an origin as those of Bohemia 
and Silesia ; the making of mirrors and drinking-vessels advanced rapidly, and the industry 
became of great importance during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The small 
mirrors blown in Bohemia and in the Franconian Palatinate were silvered and finished in 
Nuremberg, and many kinds of glasses found their decorators in that picturesque Free City of 
the Empire. At the present day the manufacture of glass of all kinds, particularly of looking- 
glass plates, is carried on, and to a large extent, in the ancient seats of the industry. 

As early as in 1428 Onossorius de Blondio, an Italian, was established in Vienna, in the 
Karntner Street; the glass-house " fagon de Venisc " set up in the Prater by Nicolas the 
Welsche in 14S6 was certainly served by Italians, and was still working in 1563;' another 
was built in the time of Ferdinand I. (1557-63) at Weidlingen, near Vienna, "a la mode 
italienne." There is good reason for believing that many Italian glass-makers were working 
in Vienna during the seventeenth century. It is stated by Daru that, in the time of the 
Emperor Leopold (1658- 1705), the Council of Ten issued orders that two runaway Venetians 
working at Weidlingen should be sought out and put to death. - 

But we have no evidence of Venetian glass-makers being employed in Bohemia. On 
the contrary, Josepo Briati went from Venice to Bohemia in the middle of the eighteenth 
century, and having secretly learnt the processes of the crystal glass manufacture— then the 
most important on the Continent— returned and set up a Bohemian glass-house, first at 
Murano, and afterwards in Venice itself. Per contra, from Nuremberg Hans Nickel, 
Oswald Reinhardt, Joshua Reich, and Augustin Hirschvogel were sent as early as in 
1 53 1 to Venice in order to learn the Venetian processes— not Venetian fashions. This 

in; those in colours certainly were not, whatever may ^ m. Santi, Ongine deW ark vetraria in Vcneda c 

have been the case with the late Greek gold-leaf work, Murano, p. 25, has verified, from the archives of Venice, 

in which the modern practice had its origin. The heads that a date of such an order touching a workman at 

of foxes, dogs, etc., painted in crystal and glass intaglios Weidlingen is i7S4, but it is improbab e that it was 

in jewellery, so popular some years ago, belong to this ever carried out. Daru's statement (see footnote, p. 29, 

class of art. "'P-) '""^^ ^^ ^"°"g- 
1 H. Schuermans, iit sup., Lettre X., p. 546. 




they did, and in the following year set up a glass-house at Nuremberg.^ Italians may 
well have been employed at furnaces in the Spessart, in the Schwartzwald, etc., at Lauenstein, 
in the Thuringerwald, at Karlshafen am Weser, at Zechlin in Brandenburg, and at many 
isolated open or private Court glass-works between the Rhine districts and the Forests, of 
which the memorial has perished. " Tous les Rois et Princes ddslralent et affectaient avoir en 
leur royaulme cette science." Yet, while the Italians made their winged glasses pure and 
simple, as at Cologne and Dessau, it cannot be said that they deeply affected the developing 
course and style of the German glasses, or influenced their character to anything like the 
extent that they did those of the Low Countries. 

George Agrlcola, Biirgermelster of Chemnitz in Saxony, 20 miles north of the Erzge- 
birge, and who had studied the art of glass-making during a long stay at Venice, gives 
much Information {De Re Mctallica, Basle, 156 1) concerning the processes in use, and 
illustrates the productions by woodcuts. That of a German glass-house has great interest 
in showing the behaviour of the workmen, their instruments, the shape of the glasses at this 
particular date, and the glass-man " qui portat vltra ad dorsum " starting on his rounds, with 
his well-filled crate, his staff in his hand, and girded with a broadsword (Plate 17). There is 
nothing Italian about any of these vessels ; Indeed, as Mr. Nesbitt has pointed out, Agrlcola 
does not suggest that any fine glass wares were made In Germany, but refers to Murano as 
the source of " opera multa praeclara et admiranda." - This point will be returned to. 

A glance at a number of sketches of Forest Glasses proper, the Waldglaser, such as the 

Relchs-, or Adler-, the Kurfiirsten-, the Apostel-, 
the Zunft-, or Innungs-, and the Passglaser, whether 
In pale green, or gray approaching white, or the rare 
pale purple glass, show at once that there was no 
"Walsch" influence In their forms, or in those of 
the great white glass roemers, and nothing Italian 
In their decorations save what was coincident 
with and attributable to the general effect of the 
Renaissance wave which was sweeping over Europe. 
Other German glasses, with high feet and open- 
work bases and rims, certainly show In their odd 
designs Italian forms grafted tout bonnevicnt upon 
purely German ones ; but these are exceptional ; 
Low Country cvasds tumblers were mounted upon 
similar bases. Those with perforated margins could only have been for flowers (Figs. 
109, 1 10). 

Besides the large glasses just spoken of, there were the great cylindrical vessels decorated 
with painting in varnish colour, which is apt to flake off. Such glasses were too large and 
often too thin for convenient manipulation upon them of enamel painting at the furnace. 
They occasionally reach the height of 2 feet 6 inches, some being quite narrow, with lofty 

^ Gerspach, iit sup., p. 259. The foundation of a glass- we may assume that artists of the second rank Hke Virgil 

house under such circumstances and in such an art centre Solis, who designed goblets for silversmiths, also assisted 

must have resulted in the production of vessels of far the glass-makers, 

greater merit than those made at that time in the Forests, - Introd., .S'. K. Cat., p. cxxiv. 
and anterior to the enamelled Humpen. Particularly, if 

f'lG. 109. (One quarter.; 

l-'iG. 1 10. (,One quarter.) 




domed covers, and high bases — mere " verres de parade" and not for use (Fig. 1 1 i). 
Many of the wider and more capacious ones are painted with portraits (Fig. 1 12), battle scenes, 
etc., excellently well done, or engraved with the diamond point with noble and armed men on 
horseback, ready "to ope the purple testament of bleeding war," allegorical and mythological 
figures, and so forth. Others, smaller, are stringed as Pass glasses simple, or decorated in 
enamel with the Ages of Man, graphic stages of drunkenness, armorial achievements, illustra- 
tions and rude poetry inculcating crude moralities, views of castles and villages, series of 
armorial bearings, etc. (Fig. 113). Certain rare Pass glasses are ornamented with figures of 
knaves from playing cards, painted in enamel on white grounds. In these the Laubbube and 

Fig. 113. 
(One quarter.) ^i 

Fig. III. (One quarter.) 

Fig. 112. (One quarter.) 

Fig. 114. (One quarter.) 

the Eichelbube are signalised by a leaf or an acorn, with the motto for the one, " Ich fiirchte 
mich nicht" (Fig. 1 14), and for the other, " Ich steche dich,"— expressions used in the course 
of the obscure game to which the figures belong. What relation, if any, the Pass glass 
divisions for drinking bore to the progress of the game it would be difficult now to say or 
even to suggest. 

The whole of the large German glasses, of whatever shape, and whether decorated or 
plain, with covers or without, are comprehended under the term Humpen, i.e. brimmers. 
Under this name are also included the great roemers, the "verres de parade," the Pass glasses, 
and the Willkomm or salutation glasses— if of large size— which were offered to the guest 



on his arrival, just as in England the Stirrup Cup was given to "spede" him on his departure.^ 
Naturally a glass of any size or shape would have served for either purpose. 

The French, by a misconception of the meaning of a Willkomm glass, and lacking the 
W in their alphabet, and the genius of their language having little sympathy with the letter K, 
have turned Willkomm into " Vidrecome." This coined word being retranslated into German 
becomes Wiederkomm, and having been adopted by the English has caused much confusion." 
The Willkomm was now pushed aside, and it was considered, and unfortunately set down in 
many printed books, out of which it can never be eradicated, that a glass called a " Wiederkom " 
was one which was filled, passed round the table from mouth to mouth and came again empty 
— vidre, i.e. vide — to the host. It was a plausible and convenient definition, and thus any 
large Forest glass came to be talked of in England and France as a " Wiederkom " and a 
"Vidrecome" instead of a Humpen, and the real circulating cup, the ancient Passglas, was 
ousted from its high estate. 

The Passglas, already alluded to,^ was a tall cylindrical vessel, with a low or a high base 
which always runs up in the form of an inverted funnel — like the " kick " of a common black 
botde — into the cylinder which is planted upon it. The name is derived from the measuring 
lines or " Passe "—Pas, in Low German Mass. A constant feature of a Passglas is its more or 
less regular divisions into spaces by the external stringings, answering to the internal pegs in 
wooden and silver Scandinavian tankards, and, like them, for the ordering and controlling 
of the drinking. This was the vessel which was drunk out measure by measure round the 
table, and the manner of its use is clearly explained by the following doggerel upon a capital 
five-spaced Passglas richly enamelled with busts, flowers, etc., in the K. K. Oestcrreich. 
Museum fur Kunst und Industrie, at Vienna — 

Vivat. In gesundheidt vnsser aller Inssgemein 

Sollen die Pass aussgetruncken sein 

War aber seinen Pass nicht dreffen Kan 

Der soil den andern gleich auch hahn 

Nun so will Ich sehen zu 

Dass Ich den Pass bescheidt auch thu 

Wie Es mein nachbar hadt gemacht 

Da hien will Ich auch sein bedach Vivat.* 

The Reichs- or Adlerglaser (Empire or Eagle glasses) are the most striking of all the 
enamelled German Humpen, as much on account of the character of their decoration as for 
the quantity of heraldry which they exhibit. They vary but slightly in shape, being usually 
plain cylinders with low bases, sometimes with a cover, and occasionally with tapering sides 
and a handle, the bases and rims being ornamented in an elementary sort of way with gilding, 
dottings of various colours, imbrications, flutings, and bands, distantly resembling the decora- 
tion on early sixteenth-century Italian glass cups and tazzas. 

The Imperial double-headed eagle is shown with wings displayed, each head is crowned, 

1 The slab of a full-sized brass of a civilian at All kom ' gemacht." — Gerspach, La Verrerie, p. 274, quoted 
Saints, Stamford, is semk of small labels inscribed, ►J* mc by E. v. Czihak, Siiiksisc/ie Gliiser, p. 72. 

SpE&E, a very rare feature. ^ See p. 68. 

2 Mr. Nesbitt has fallen into the same error in the * Bruno Bucher, Die G/assaminlung des k. k. Oestcr- 
Slade and the i^ K. Catalogues. " Franzosen und r«<7/. J//«<7/;;/y, p. 91, edit. 188S. E. v. Czihak, 7// 5///., 
Englander haben aus Willkommen das sinnlose 'wider- p. 73. 



and nimbed, and in the best examples it bears upon its breast the Crucifix (Fig. 115). 
Other Eagle Humpen have only the imperial orb of sovereignty in this position. On the wings 
are arranged in fourteen sets of four, according to an ancient precedent, the arms of the 
members of the German Confederation to the number of fifty-six, the name of each being above 
the shield. Round the rim of the glass is usually inscribed, with certain variations : das • 
HEiLiGE • ROMiscHE • REICH • MIT • SAMPT • sEiNEN • GLiEDERN.^ The date is generally at the 
back of the glass, the earliest that has been noticed being 1547, but they continued to be made 
until about the end of the first quarter of the eighteenth century, together with other large 
enamelled glasses. 

The Kurfursten Humpen followed the same shapes as the Adler glasses, and like them 
exhibit much vigour of treatment. The Emperor and the seven Electors are usually arranged 
in two rows under semicircular arches, and, 
mounted on white horses and habited in 
their robes of estate, make a brave and 
imposing appearance (Fig. 116). On the 
Apostel glasses of the same shape the 
representations are not so happy ; they 
tend, indeed, to the grotesque, and one 
does not quite recognise why they should 
be depicted on drinking - glasses at all. 
Moreover, the figures of the early Chris- 
tian leaders, with their lofty characters and 
homely emblems, did not submit to the 
picturesque handling which was associated 
with the pride of heraldry and the pomp 
and circumstance of worldly power, such 
as the old German artists so well knew 
how to depict. The Zunft- or Innungs- 
glaser were naturally very popular with 
the corporations and guilds for whom they 
were made, and the representations on 
them of the different trades are often 
very amusing and interesting. No less so are the inscriptions in the dialect of Swabia 
and Franconia. Glasses on which the Ages of Man are pictured extend "the days of our 
age" two decades beyond the allotted point of "labour and sorrow." The hundred years 
are divided by tens, and the three last and dismal stages of the life of man candidly inscribed 
"nimmer weiss," " der Kinder spod," and "gnad dir got"; and of woman, " wtist und erkalt," 
"eine Marterbildt," and "das Grab auss ftillt." 

The other large enamelled glass vessels, already enumerated, do not require special notice 
here, but as regards the whole of them it should be stated that the earlier examples exhibit 
considerable delicacy of execution. This must have been partially owing to observation of 
Italian enamelled glasses ; but if so, and such excellence being so early acquired, it is a little 

1 The fullest version runs, Godt belwdt und erhalt dass zu gkkh, as on an example in the Germanisches Museum 
game Hcilige Romische Reich init Sampt scinen Gliedci-n all at Nuremberg. 


Fig. 115. (One quarter.) 



remarkable that the art should have steadily declined after the middle of the seventeenth 
century. It is true that the colours were always harsh and vivid, and the later work 
coarsely done ; but taken as a whole, the enamelled German glasses have much vigour 
and originality, the heraldic shields and crests, the "chalumeaux," unknown in English 
heraldry, and other accessories of mantling, costume, etc., being capitally drawn. There 
is nothing of the kind to compare with these great Forest glasses in England, in France, 
or in the Low Countries. As to where they were made, tradition and illustrations on 
many glasses point to the Fichtelgebirge, and no doubt a large number were made in the 
neighbourhood of these mountains, and in the Thuringerwald, which runs out from them 
westward ; but they must have been produced in other localities also. 

Besides these enamelled glasses, large vessels of the roemer shape in white glass were 
made in the Forests, one in the Germanisches Museum at Nuremberg being as much as 
I foot 5 inches high, half an inch more than Lady Harvey's pale green Rhine -land 
example,^ and perhaps the largest roemer in the world. In the same collection is a great 
waisted cylinder complete with no bottom, and engraved with the arms of a high ecclesiastic. 
These were all "verres de parade," show glasses, and, particularly that last named, not 
for use. 

As to what extent the artists lent their assistance to the glass-makers and decorators 
we know very little. Nuremberg was a great inspiring centre, but no imagination can 
have been wanted for the designs of the cylindrical Humpen. With regard to their 
decoration, Augustin Hirshvogel is thought to have been one of the first who painted 
glasses in enamel in Nuremberg. He was, as we have seen, sent with three others from 
that city to Venice in 1531 ; dying in 1553, such work may well have been carried on by 
Nickel, Reinhardt, and Reich, who had also learnt the Venetian processes. Examples 
from the hands of these men would have been sent to the Forests, and copied by hirelings 
with the varied degrees of excellence exhibited. Thus the large number would be accounted 
for, as well as the mistakes in the tinctures of some of the heraldic shields. Albert 
Glockendon the engraver, also of Nuremberg, and whose engraved prints are rare, painted 
two glass cups for the Emperor in 1553;" and one is willing to think that Virgil Solis, 
again a Nuremberg artist, who made such a quantity of designs for goblets, aiguieres, etc., 
for the silversmiths and metal-workers, would have also lowered his talents, if not to the 
forms of the glasses, at least to some of the decorations which appear upon them. He 
said of himself — inscribed it under his portrait — 

Mit meiner Hand ich erfurbracht 
Das mancher Kiinstler ward gemacht.^ 

The illustration of the ten Ages of Man occupied the attention of the early German 
engravers. For instance, Tobias Stimmer, born at Shaffhousen in 1534, well known by 

' See p. 47 (footnote). for instance, shows how much he was indebted to Albert 

■- Dr. G. W. K. Lochner, Nachrichten von Kiinstkrn Durer ; just as tlie prints after Martin Heeniskerck indicate 

lend Werklcuti-ii, edit. 1S79, quoted by E. Gamier, ut the influence of Michael Angelo, and figures in Rubens' 

sup., p. 269. pictures the indebtedness of that noble colourist to the 

" A glance through a series of prints engraved after great draughtsman of the human figure — "the Raphael 

Virgil Solis, his Biblische Figuren, first published in 1560, of Holland." 


the numerous woodcuts from his burin, and after his designs, drew on wood the ten Ages 
of Man, and a similar series for woman, in sets of two ; these were engraved by an 
unknown hand, and have served or assisted in the deHneation of the Ages on the Forest 

With respect further to Itahan influence upon German glass-making, the Hungarian 
priest Mathesius about 1560, and other writers of the latter half of the sixteenth century, 
imply the inferiority of the German to the Venetian glass at that time. We are hampered, 
or rather inhibited, by the paucity of examples, but we meet with a few fantastic-shaped 
vessels, for the most part of random design, small, and poor imitations of Venetian. 
Similarly the German versions of filigree glasses are heavy in design and somewhat 
elementary in execution. We have, of course, the Kuttrolf" — French guddoufie — or 
sprinkling-bottle, with a single or a triple spirally-twisted neck for dispersing 
rose-water or other fragrant essence over the noisome rush-strewn floors ; 
the vexir or trick glasses common to all countries ; bear glasses ; fountain 
glasses ; plain dvasds cups, mounted upon pierced and openwork feet, and 
other cups with loose glass rings of quite a different design to those of 
the Low Countries,^ but inspired from the same sources ; and, finally, the 
curious stringed and prunted humpen already mentioned, with openwork 
rims and set upon genuine Venetian bases with the water-bearing moulding F,G.7i7~Tone 
or upper fold on the foot. The odd early eighteenth-century so-called Igel '^^'^^■'' 

may be classified as a moderate trick glass on account of the difficulty of emptying it. 
It was a Breslau speciality, and is here depicted by the kind permission of Herr von 
Czihak, from his work on Silesian glasses. 

The conclusion we must come to is that Venetian art in glass did not hinder the 
general national current of German glass-making, and had but a moderate influence 
upon the native taste, affecting the smaller rather than the larger vessels, and that the 
imitation of large or elaborate Venetian glasses was not seriously attempted in the Forests. 
Nor have we in this regard, as we have in the Low Countries, any records to the effect 
that counterfeits were so well made "qua grand peine les maitres eux-memes sauraient 
juger la difference." The German genius was led in other directions— it is certainly not 
a matter for regret — and the Venetian influence died away before the end of the seven- 
teenth century, Venetian art in glass also at that period falling into its decadence and, 
fashion decreeing, was soon itself to meet with a strong rival in the glasses from the forests 
of Germany and Bohemia. 

Besides the enamelled humpen, so strangely different in every respect to anything 
that was produced in England, other great glasses of the same form were decorated with 
representations of triumphal processions, always popular in Germany, painted in grisaille, 
and sometimes winding spirally round the vessel : colours are often introduced. The glasses 
are frequently spaced as Passglasses and the pageants so divided into a series of scenes.' 

1 The division of human Hfe into stages has been Lausanne and his wife, 1487, 1489. at Ypres, gives a 

treated of during a period of at least two thousand years, series of sixteen scenes. It is well illustrated by Mr. 

Much information has been brought together on the sub- Greeny in his great work on the Continental Brasses, 
ject by the late Mr. Winter Jones in the Anhacohgia, vol. " See p. 60. 

XXXV. p. 167. The memorial brass in the form of a * Seep. 51. 

border, 7 feet 6 inches by 4 feet 5 inches, of Pieter ' Every connoisseur of armour and costume who 




The glass pocket-flasks or bottles, sometimes called snuff-bottles, and rudely decorated 
in enamels, generally in the primitive colours, were made as early as 1581, and were 


Fig. 118. (One quarter.) 


Fig. 119. (One quarter. ) 

Fig. 120. (One quarter.) 

continuously in fashion until quite modern times. They have their places in the general 

history, and a certain interest from being so often dated, like the mugs 
and "trifles," from Yarmouth and Lowestoft. Every one knows the 
figures of angular and gaudy shepherds, love-sick swains and bashful 
lassies ; the brilliant and impossible flowers, the doves, the clasped 
hands of friendship, the bleeding hearts, and arrows. All these tokens 
differed but little throughout cultivated Europe during the eighteenth 
century, and in Germany the inscriptions run : " Lieb mich allein oder 
lass gar sein " ; " Vivat mein Schatz " ; " Ich Hebe die treii die Falscheit 
Ich scheii" (Figs. 118, 119), and such-like trite sentiments. It is 
probable that many of these bottles were parting gifts to soldiers filled 
with strong waters, particularly welcome under the rude circumstances and 
appalling personal miseries of self-supporting Continental warfare in 
the seventeenth and the early part of the eighteenth centuries.^ 

While the enamelled humpen of the Forest glass-makers were 
advancing in the period of their deterioration, Johann Schaper came 
from Hamburgh and settled in Nuremberg in 1640. A number of 
glasses of a graceless shape have been preserved, admirably painted 
by him in dark brown with battle-pieces, landscapes, etc. (Fig. 120). 
Hermann Benchertt and Johann Keyll followed a similar style, with 
rather less success, painting quite up to the end of the seventeenth 
century upon cups of the same form, which have acquired the generic name of " Schaper " 
glasses, and of which examples may generally be found in museums in Germany. The 
large covered cups of Nuremberg make, with tall bulbed and annulated stems, are important, 
as much from their imposing appearance as from having been engraved by members of the 
Schwanhard family (Fig. 121). 

Fig. 121. (One quarter. 

has once seen them must retain in his mind a recollection 
of Hans Burgmair's Noble Triumph of Maximilian, and 
of the scenes in the Pompe Funcbre of Charles Quint, 
printed by Plantin. Nor will he forget such items as the 
figures of the harquebusiers, musketeers, and targiters in 
buff jerkins of Lant's Sydney Roll ; or those of the 
dignified gentlemen walking two and two, in the illus- 
trations of Monk's Funeral Procession. The training 
panoramas on the old glasses of a very strenuous and 

mystical people have like value for students, and faithfully 
depict many vagaries of processional costume of which we 
have no other records. 

1 Analogous to these objects are the quaint glass 
rolling-pins of Dibdin's time, parting gifts from faithful 
blue-jackets, and gaudily decorated and spirally inscribed 
with such reflections as " I love a Sailor," " Jack's the 
Lad," etc., the words unfolding themselves backwards and 
forwards as the cylinder was in use. 



Glass-making in Roman times in Gaul, whether for domestic or for funeral use, must 
have been carried on in precisely the same manner as in other parts of the Roman Empire,— 
in a multitude of small furnaces where fuel and materials were conveniently at hand, the 
forms and character of the glass furniture for villa or grave being affected only by local 
conditions and substances. This is shown by the results of the excavations which have 
been made. The large quantity of glass vessels, many enclosed, as usual, in pottery urns, 
or of fragments, found at every Gallo-Roman station, villa, or cemetery, is evidenced by 
the collections in museums in France, such as at Boulogne, Rouen, Lyons, or Avignon, 
showing that in no part of the Empire was glass-making for general requirements more 
extensively carried out, the highest class of vessels only being procured from Rome. 

It is certain also, from the testimony of the graves, and from documentary evidence, 
that the art survived the devastating influence of the northern tribes, and that extended 
glass industry continued through Frankish or Merovingian times ; partaking, however, 
rather of the nature of a luxury than of the necessity of civilisation, which it was under 
Roman domination. This survival is clearly manifested by the cups and vessels — often 
closely allied in character to those of the same period which have been found in Britain — 
which the tombs have surrendered to the researches of antiquaries like the Abb(f Cochet, 
M. Moutier, M. Lenormant, and others. These objects have already been touched upon, and 
are further discussed in the body of the present work. 

Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers, died 609, speaks in his Carmina, 1. xi. No. 10, of having 
received from the Abbess of Sainte-Croix at Poitiers glass dishes with birds prepared in them,' 
and it was to Gaul that Benedict Biscop sent in 675 for makers of glass for the windows of 
his church at Wearmouth. The action of Cuthbert, Abbot of Jarrow, in 758, in sending 
so far off as to Mayence for a glass-maker, simply implies that the craft was better carried 
on there than in Gaul, and it may well have been so at that particular time. However, 
it is evident that the art did not vanish in Gaul, as it so strangely appears to have done 
in Northumbria between 675 and 758, but continued, as there is reason to believe it long 
did in the south of England. Of this continuance in Gaul we have proof in the glass 
cups just alluded to, which have been recovered from Merovingian and Carlovingian graves, 
of much the same character as have been found on the hither side of the Channel. It 
must be remembered that the greater part of the glasses from Merovingian sepulchres 
are not of complicated or difficult manufacture, but are such as any glass-maker with 
moderate practice could produce ; yet their characteristics are very distinct, and their 
general period cannot be mistaken. As with vessels of Anglo-Saxon times in England, 
difficulties at once present themselves on attempting to arrange Merovingian and Carlovingian 
glasses in strict order of date. No doubt the styles very much interpenetrated. A dark 
green bowl, said to be of the sixth century, stringed in yellow, and bearing in white 

1 Introd., .S". K. Cat., p. cviii. 



letters the name evtvciiia, other stringed vessels, and a plate or dish — perhaps of the same 
character as those sent by the Abbess of Sainte-Croix to the Bishop of Poitiers— were 
found in a tomb at Grue, in Vendee, Poitou ; all these were objects of a better kind 

than usual. 

M. E. Gamier, in his excellent work, considers that the ancient Gallo- Roman 
glass-houses lost much of their importance from the second half of the fourth century, 
but that the greater number continued upon the old ground, their sites being recognisable 
at the present day by the names of such places as "La Verrerie," "Veyriera," " Verrieres," 
'•"Voirrieres," "Verrines," etc., formerly Vitraria, Verreria, Vcrrcrioe, Vitrinoe, etc. ; ^ 
convenience of wood fuel and materials would have caused this persistence. We have 
seen the same system of place-names in the region where Bohemian and Silesian glass- 
works had their origin," and it obtained, but to a less extent and at a later date, in 


It is probable that whatever glass cups were procured from the East before the 
first Crusade of 1095 came by way of the trade route to Limoges, and it is very doubtful 
whether any glass-works in France during the tenth and eleventh centuries— to go no 
later— could have produced vessels to which the descriptions " Cuppas vitreas auro ornatas 
duas . . . hanapum vitreum optimum unum " would apply, or could have fashioned a glass 
chalice such as the Emperor Henry II. (1002-1024) found fitting to present to the Abbey 
of Saint- Vannes at Verdun. Most probably these vessels came from the East.^ A great 
falling off in glass-making appears to have taken place in the tenth and eleventh centuries, 
and not only in France, but in Western Germany also ; in England it had seemingly died 
away altogether. The art was now about to be revived and to take a new and brilliant 


This great movement has been spoken of in the body of the present work in dealing 
with painted glass for windows in France and England, and it need only be mentioned 
here that a restoration, or rather rehabilitation, of glass-making in France appears to have 
been brought about by Byzantine influence at Limoges upon painted glass for windows. 
But there is neither documentary nor tangible evidence that such revival imparted a higher 
character to the drinking-glasses. We have, indeed, long since quitted the tombs, but 
we have not in this regard come into the light of day; nor was it until the end of the 
twelfth century that improvement took place in this direction in France. It may be 
added here that we are almost as badly off in the one country as in the other, in our lack of 
knowledge as to the kinds of glasses which were made side by side with the painted 
window-glass down to the end of the fifteenth century. 

That there were glass-houses in the Vendomois in Orl<^anais producing " Voirres de 
Vendome" is well known from the popular saying dating from the thirteenth century. 
Those of Provence, of the same period, were also well esteemed. An inventory of the 
Countess Mahaut d'Artois of 1316 has as follows: "Grant plante de poz de voirre et 
de voirres d'Aubigny, et de Provence, et d'autres pais, et de diverses couleurs, et bocaux 
et bariz, tous du temps de Monseigneur d'Artois, qui bien valoient i lib." These early 
Provence glasses are believed to have come from the furnace established by the Carthusians 

1 E. Gamier, ut sup, p. 113. " See p. 72. " vas holovitreum valde pretiosum et Alexandrini operis 

3 The same potentate sent to Odilon, of Cluny, tarte composkim."— Gamier, id sup., p. 59. 


in 1285 in the forest d'Orves, or, as ]\I. Gamier thinks, in that existing from time 
immemorial at Reillane (Vaucluse), on the right bank of the Durance. This dispels the 
opinion that " le bon roi Rene" of Anjou introduced glass-making into Provence on his 
retirement into that province, much as his enlightened taste did towards the forwarding of 
the arts in the Midi during the fifteenth century. 

Glass-houses existed in the Middle Ages at and near Paris. Charles VI. took much 
interest in their progress and visited the furnaces. The Comptes royaiix of 1382, the king 
being then only fourteen years of age, contains the following entries: "A maistre Johan 
de Montagu, secrettaire, pour don fait par lui aux voirriers, pres de la forest de Chevreuse 
ou le Roy estoit alez veoir faire les voirres, par commandement dudit seigneur et de Ms. 
de Bourgogne . . . vi liv. iiij s." — "A Guillaume, le voirrier, lequel avoit presente au roy, 
voirres, pour don fait a luy, le roy au Louvre . . . xiiijs. p." — "A Jehan le voirrier, de la 
forest Dotte, lequel avoit presente au roy, voirres par plusieurs fois, pour don a lui fait . . . 
xiiijs. p." ^ 

In all probability it was at a glass-house at Goult near Apt (Vaucluse), established 
by Rene for Benoit Ferro, an Altarist, that the glasses "moult variol(;s et bien peinct" 
were made, and which Rene sent as presents to his nephew, Louis XL He is said to 
have frequently visited these works, and to have made drawings himself for some of the 
designs. Benoit Ferro was descended from a Venetian family which came to Altare in 
the early years of the fourteenth century to teach Altarists glass-making " fa^on de Venise." 
That such teaching was desired indicates the Norman origin of glass -making at Altare. 
Under the name of Ferry, the Ferro family spread in a remarkable manner throughout 
the Midi and to other parts of France, and "les eleves des Ferrys " were well known. 
This family of gentlemen glass- makers was ennobled in 1673, and became de Ferry of 
Provence. At the present day, as in the last century, nearly all the glass-houses in the 
province are in their hands. 

Enamelled glass cups were also made in the sixteenth century in glass-houses in the 
Dauphine, where works were established as early as in 1338, under heavy tributes to the 
Dauphin of Viennois ; and in other parts to which Italian influence, as we shall see, 
naturally came as part of the great art movement which ran through Europe. But the 
scarcity of early examples of these objects, and their dispersion in widely - separated 
collections, make it impossible to localise strictly their origin, or, consequently, to gather 
from them much definite historical information. - 

The glass-houses of Poitou were for a long period the most important. M. Fillon 
instances « in 1466 a delivery from the glass-works of La Ferrieres to the Abbess of 
Sainte-Croix at Poitiers of twelve dozen glasses and one dozen ewers, against the liberty 
for the glass-makers to collect fern on her land. These were therefore " verres de fougere," 
and, as we shall briefly see, were made under Italian influence. The proximity of this 
province to Limousin, with Limoges as its chief town and the centre for centuries of 
window-glass painting and enamelling, naturally occurs to the mind m this relation. 


De Laborde, Glossaire. century, on account of the rarity of the examples which 

"- M. Gamier, p. 173, speaks of the difticuliy of de- have survived, 
fining precisely the nature and the character of the old ^ 13. YiWon, L'Ait de Tare chcz k Poitevms, p. 

French glasses up to about the end of the seventeenth 202. 



While the glass-works of Poitou, Provence, and Dauphine were making a certain 
artistic progress — it must be granted at least from the end of the fourteenth century 
under the influence of the Altarlsts — the East was sending to France, as to England 
and Germany, her prized vessels and lamps already alluded to, imperfect in make, but 
beautiful in their enamelled and gilded decorations, the former to be mounted in gold and 
silver, for reliquaries or royal sideboards. They are usually styled in mediaeval times as 
" de Damas," "a la morlsque," or " d'Alexandrle," and are now often spoken of in a general 
way as "Saracenic" and "Arab." The probability Is that they nearly all derived from 
the ancient Phoenician glass-making district, of which Damascus was then the chief trading 
city — it was one of the favoured spots of the earth which flourished in all ages, and ever 
rose superior to sieges and devastations — and that the greater number were brought back 
as mysterious relics during the Crusades. An inventory of Louis of France, Due d'Anjou, 
drawn up about 1364, contains the following entries : — 

Premicrcmcnt deus flascons dc voirre, ouvrcz d'azur, a plusieurs diverscs choses de I'ouvragc de 

Un autre flascon de voirre, ouvre d'azur de I'ouvrage de Damas, dont la garnison est de 
semblable facon. 

In an inventory of his brother, Charles V., King ot France, Indited in 1380, we 
have : — 

Un long pot de voirre ou aiguiere, de la fa^on de Damas, le biberon garni d'argent. Trois pots 
de voirre rouge a la fagon de Damas. 

Une lampe de voirre, ouvrce en fa^on de Damas, sans aucune garnison d'argent. 

Un trcs petit hanap de voirre en la fagon de Damas. 

Un bacin plat de voirre peinct a la facon dc Damas, et une bordure d'argent esmaillce de France 
et de Bourgognc.^ 

• In 1399 Charles VI. had : — 
Une coupe de voirre pcint a la Morisque. 

Many of these valued objects having come westward in consequence of the Crusades, a 
taste for them was acquired which seems not to have died out until towards the end of 
the fifteenth century. In this respect the history In France follows much the same lines 
as in other countries. Venetian glasses were imported Into Flanders soon after the 
middle of the fourteenth century, and at least as early as at the end of It to France, and 
they gradually took the place, in the estimation of princes, of those from the Orient. 

We have seen that F"rance was early Involved In the great movement In glass- 
making "facon d'ltalie" — specially in her case "facon d'Altare." From the geographical 
position of the country It was natural that it should be so, and that In the favoured land 
of a gifted artistic people the art should have a far more extended range, a better organ- 
isation, a more successful practice, and a longer course than In any other country In Europe. 
Moreover, a copious mass of Information, documentary, historical, and topographical, has 
been brought together by F"rench authors relative to the matter. This knowledge has been 
collected by the President Schuermans, added to from his own documentary researches, 
and commented upon and criticised by him. The results have the value conferred by the 

' De Labordc, Glossain. 


insight into the subject which M. Schuermans' large studies in the Low Countries and 
elsewhere have given him. The advantage of having the isolated information for France 
brought together in this way is obvious, but so much has been thus amassed that it would 
be impossible under the limited scope of the present essay to do more here than call 
attention generally to the subject ; in so doing the expedience of making use, with M. 
Schuermans' most friendly leave, of the latest collected information, and of quoting the 
authorities where most desirable, in an investigation that belongs to quite modern limes, 
will be immediately apparent.^ 

It is certain that there was the desire in the south of France, before the time of King 
Rene (1409- 1480), to make glasses after the Italian manner, and that in the last quarter of 
the fourteenth century, as is shown by a reference in a document of 1623, the glass-makers of 
Languedoc succeeded so well "que les ouvrages de Venise n'ont plus aucun avantage sur les 
leurs."" This was the consequence of the teaching of Italians, and thus it is shown that a 
considerable number of Altarist glass-makers was established in the Midi at least since the end 
of the fourteenth century. Further back than this with regard to the presence of Altarists in 
these parts of France we have not the warrant of documents to take us, but there is no 
reason why they should not have come a century sooner. From hence the Italians from 
Provence, Dauphine, and Languedoc, and the natives who had learnt under them, spread 
in an organised way and carried their art throughout France, being constantly encouraged, 
privileged, and protected by the Crown, and continually working at glasses " fagon de Venise " 
or "d'Altare," and at looking-glass plates, until the period of decay arrived, and the art 
fell out of favour, as in the Low Countries, but at a rather later time. Efforts were made, 
with small success, to contend against Bohemian and Flemish importations throughout the 
eighteenth century ; long before the end of it, as in the Low Countries, the old artistic 
glass, yielding to " tyrant custom," was utterly effaced, and flint glass more anglicano and 
Bohemian crystal took its place in France. 

It will now be proper to add to what has already been said with regard to the establish- 
ment of glass-making by Altarists in some of the southern provinces of France, and to 
follow this by a few notes upon the introduction and early course of Italian glass-making ni 
the central and northern provinces. 

Provence.— When that interesting personage King Rene of Anjou lost the throne of 
Naples, he retired to Provence and concerned himself greatly, as we have seen, in the glass 
industry. Much information has been brought together by French antiquaries upon 
mediaeval art in Provence, and drinking-glasses which served King Rene are stated by M. 
Fauris de Saint-Vincent to exist in collections in this province.^ M. Gamier describes one 
' The story of the movements of the Altarists in native country. He had made a general beginning when 
France and other European countries would have been he was suddenly carried off by fever m 1866. Smce then 
far more complete and valuable but for a regrettable all efforts to trace the MSS. have been unavailmg. It 
incident— the loss of the documents entitled Ddihcrazwne recalls the vicissitudes of the Paston Letters. I he mforma- 
del Consulato delf Arte vitria di Altare, dating between tion which M. Schuermans has gathered together on the 
the years 1498 and 1637. These registers contained the subject must be only a tithe of what was contamed m 
entries of applications and agreements for glass-makers from the papers which are so unfortunately raissmg. 
Altare, their names and destinations, the terms, and the ^ De Girancourt, Nouvelk Hude sur la verrene de 

periods of their stay in foreign countries. These important Rouen, et la fabrication de cristal u la fapn de Vemsey. 1 18. 
records were most reprehe^sibiy consigned in 1864 to ^' Fauris de Saint-Vincent, Menwtre sur I ctal du 

Canon Torterolo of Altare, tlien settled at Savone, who had commerce en Provence au moyen age. Reboul, Us de /■er>y 
undertaken to draw up a iiistory of the glass-works of his et ks d'Escrivnins, verriers provcncaux. 




nre.served at Aix. On the bottom of the glas.s inside, the Magdalen is painted kneehng 

at the feet of our .Saviour, who is depicted against the side of the vessel ; below the rim, in 

gold letters : — 

CQui bifu boira 

Dint btrra 

(ijui boira tout &'unf halrinr 

^frra Difu tt la iHa&ilaint.' 

Fig. 122. (One c|iuiiter.) 

Pictures in glasses, of a very different character, are mentioned by the jovial Brantome. 

Similarly from the Goult furnaces may have come several enamelled glasses dating 
from the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth century ; these would also 
have been made under the influence of the Altarists. In accordance 
with the fashion of the time and country the vessels are generally 
decorated with figures and inscriptions. A glass in the Slade 
Collection," (i\ inches high, an important Provencal example of a few 
years before the middle of the sixteenth century, has on it a repre- 
sentation of a gentleman holding some flowers, with a scroll before him 
inscribed IE svis a vov.s, and of a lady holding a heart surmounted by 
an orb, possibly intended for a spherical padlock, with the inscription 
on a label in front mo cvevu aves. In a third compartment is a goat 
attempting to drink out of a narrow-necked vase, forming the rebus — 
bouc-eau. Below the rim, cleared through a gilded ground, is the inscription ie svis a vovs 
lEiiAN BOVCAV ET ANTOYNETE liovc (Fig. 12 2). The name of Boucau is common still in Provence. 
M. Fillon, who has been untiring in his antiquarian researches in Poitou, has been 
fortunate in discovering and making known a few other examples of vessels of the same 
form and character as those of Provence. Such is a glass made for a member of the family 
of Pineau of La Rochelle, inscribed qvi en christ crov est hevervx — ive pineav ; ^ another, 
now in the Louvre, has a female bust, a shield of arms, and a label marked svr tovte cohvse ; 
a third, in the Museum at Poitiers, has the inscription in relief vovs savez bien qve ie seap 
TOVT ; and on a fourth in the same collection is the ancient and catholic proverb A eon vin ne 


Dauphine. — This province had considerable and early importance as a glass-making 
district in France from its position with regard to Italy. The Altarists had long been 

1 E. Gamier, ut sup., p. 117. This is a remarkable 
example of a glass specially prepared, and with surprising 
familiarity both in the decoration and in the appeal, for a 
curious accomplishment which long obtained throughout 
Europe, and is still popular enough in German universities. 
Allied to such pictures in glass were the silver " prints " 
in the bottoms of mazers. Pepys has recorded in his 
Diary that, when he visited the Aims-House at Saffron 
Walden, 27th February 1659-60, they brought him "a draft 
of their drink in a brown bowl tip't with silver " ; this he 
drank and revealed the " print " at the bottom engraved 
with the Virgin and Child. This mazer still exists. 

- Slade Catalogue, p. 136, with engravings. 

•* B. Fillon, ut suf., p. 206. 

'' Slade Catalogue, p. 136 ; E. Gamier, ut sup., p. 122. 

"The common saying is, the luy bush is hanged at 
the tauerne doore, to declare the vvyne within. But the 
narrovve searchers of nyce and curious questions, afifirme 
this the secreat cause. For that tree by his natiue 
property, fashioned into a drinking vessell, plainlye 
descryeth to the eye, the subtill arte of the vintner in 
mingling licours : which els would lightly deceiue the 
thristye drinkers taste. And therefore, where good 
vvyne is, according to the prouerb, nedeth no bushe at 
all. Euen so to praise it whose excellency vttereth it 
selfe, is but matter superfluous, and mere mispent tyme." 
— Richard Argall of thinner Temple, his proeme to 
Gerard Legh's Accedens of Armory, edit. 1568. 



planted here when certain of their number were called into Provence by King Rene. 
Numerous " verrieres delphinales " have been recognised, the earliest being that of 
Chambaran (Drome) of 1338. In this year Guionet obtained from Humbert, Dauphin of 
Viennois, certain privileges for the exercise of glass-making in the forest, rendering in 
return, yearly, no less than two thousand four hundred and thirty objects, showing the 
great plenty of glass at that time. The document has much value as giving information 
concerning the glass vessels which were then in use : — " Verres en forme de cloches, petlts 
verres evases, hanaps ou coupes a pied, amphores, urinals, ecuelles, plats, pots, aiguieres, 
gottelfes, salieres, lampes, chandeliers, tasses, barils, et bottes pour transporter le vin."' 
All this activity in Dauphine was, as far as we know, previous to the coming of the Altarists. 
There was a glass-house at La Veyriera (Drome) since 1484; at Salles in the same depart- 
ment, founded about 1500; at Les Verreries (Drome);" at Chatonnay (Isere), and at several 
other places, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and all under the direction or influence 
of Altarists such as the Ferros, the Varaldos, and the Bormiolos. 

Languedoc. — Members of the d'Azemar family established at Rouen in the seventeenth 
century affirmed, as we have seen by a document of 1623, that their ancestors brought the 
art of glass-making to such perfection at the end of the fourteenth century that their works 
were quite equal to those of Venice." The d'Azemars and the de Virgilles were conspicuous 
Languedoc glass-making families, who, before their establishment in Normandy, Poitou, and 
Nivernais, carried on several furnaces in the departments of Gard, Tarn, Ardeche, etc. 
The de Virgilles also claimed an ancient ancestry in glass-making, and intermarried with the 
Bormiolo family. The extensive and important province of Languedoc certainly furnished 
a large proportion of the multitude of the gentlemen glass-makers, pupils of those of Italy. 
Many of them were working in Normandy at the beginning of the sixteenth century. 1\L 
Schuermans very truly says ■* that researches in local documents would not fail to show 
Altarists in full activity in Languedoc from the sixteenth century and earlier. So fruitful a 
study yet remains to be prosecuted. 

In Guyenne Vincent Saroldo had authority from Henry IV., 4th May 1600, to make at 
Bordeaux and other places all sorts of enamel and glasses such as could be fashioned with 
the blow-pipe at the lamp.^ 

Lyonnais, — In an inventory of 1467 the following objects occur: — " Ung voirre 
cristallin, couvert, garny d'or, perche a jour, fait des lettres esmailles, enleves de gris et rouge 
cler, et au-dessoulx sont les armes de Monseigneur de Lyon."'' These were sent by Charles 
de Bourbon to his uncle Philip le Bon, and may either have been made in Provence 
or in Lyonnais ; the earliest information at present of a glass-house in Lyons " fa9on de 
Venise " is in 151 1 : one was in that year subsidised by the local authorities, and directed by 
Matthieu de Carpel ; soon after there was a swarm of Altarist glass-makers at Lyons, which 
spread through France. Here we have the Buzzones in 1550, Marinos, Saroldos, and 
Bormiolos; and in 1597 Henry IV., on the establishment of a furnace at Melun by Jacques 

1 T.e Grand d'Aussy, Histoire dc la vie ptivce dcs ■* H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre XI., p. 726. 
Fraiii-ais, tome iii. ch. v. p. 220. ■' Und. p. 698 ; and Lettre XII., p. 885. 

2 Erun-Durand, Dictionnaire Topographique du dc- ^ h.Vmc\\i.xi, ut sup.. Bulletin dcs Commissions royalcs 
pariement de la Drome, p. 413, edit. 1891. d\vt et d'arclieologie, vol. xxi. )). 359. 

^ See p. 91. 


and Vincent Saroldo and Horace Ponta, declared concerning them: — ayant cy-devant et 
depuis longtemps tenu les fournaises et verreries de cristal a Lyon, ils y ont acquis une telle 
reputation a la perfection de leurs ouvrages que la plupart des verres dudit cristal desquels 
Ton s'est servi en nostre court et suitte et par tout notre royaume, ont etc apportds desdites 
villes de Lyon."^ These same men and their descendants reappear at Nantes, Nevers, and 
Paris, where their glass so far excelled that of Lyons that the latter city had to furnish itself 
from Nevers in the eighteenth century. - 

There were formerly glass-works near the pine forests of the mountains de la Margeride 
between Limousin and Auvergne, and glasses " facjon de Venise " exist which appear to have 
come from these furnaces. Further information concerning the two provinces has to be 

Angoumois. — The master of the glass-house at Courlac (Charente) received payment in 
September 1465 from the seigneur de Vasles for "4 douzaines de vayres et sept acueres.^ 
He is called Musset, and may have been one of the Mussi family of Altare. Long after, in 
1627, Laurent Rossi and Jean Marie Perotto, an Altarist, set up glass-works in Angoumois. 

Saintonge. — At Coiffard, near Oriolles (Charente), Bernard Buzzone — at the present day 
de Busson — " ecuyer gentilhomme verrier," had a glass-house, and married, 1628, Marguerite 
Bouvier. From this alliance a family descended which obtained, in the persons of Jehan and 
H^lie Buzzone, an attestation of nobility from the judge and consuls of Altare. On producing 
their titles at Limoges in 1668 they were freed from further proceedings for usurpation of 
nobility. The last male representative of the de Busson family died in 1890. His son-in-law 
M. Delol states that scoriae and fragments of glass are frequently found on the site of the 
glass-works in the woods of the Coiffard estate.** 

Poitou. — In this province were glass-works before the fifteenth century, as at Parc-de- 
Moulchamp (Vendee) and Bichat (Vienne), and there seems good reason for thinking that, 
in King Rene's domains in Poitou, some of the Ferro family were employed in the latter part 
of the fifteenth century in the departments of Deux-Sevres and Vendue. Also at Courlac, 
Le Ferriere-Vandelogne (Deux Sevres), and Rorteau (Vendee) glass-works "a I'italienne " were 
carried on in the latter part of the fifteenth century, and favoured by Rene. Girolamo Matteo 
directed a glass-house at Amailloux (Deux-Sevres) in 1557; and at Largentiere, in the same 
department, Fabiano Salviati, a refugee from the Venetian republic, set up a furnace in 1572. 
He was fortunate in finding a protector in the Comte de Lude, governor of the province, who 
issued a letter of protection — " Voulant gratiffier, favoriser et bien traicter Fabian Salviate, 
escuyer, gentilhomme de Myrane, pais de Venize, venuz, luy et sa famille, en ce pais de 
Poictou pour praticquer I'art de la verrerie."^ 

Members of the Saroldo family ajjpear to have worked in glass-houses at Vendrennes 
(Vendee), and Vincent Saroldo turned his attention, as many Italians did in France, to the 
subject of enamels. Although there are no indications of further districts in Poitou favoured 
by Italians, the working out of the privilege accorded by Louis XIII. in 1627 to Jean Marie 
Perotto and Laurence Rossi is not likely to have been disregarded by those in whose interests 
it was granted. 

^ UAtib&'RouXWWQr, Hisfoire dcs ge/ili/shoiniiies verriers ^ Gerspacli, nf si//>., p. 196. 

et de la verrcrie de N'evcrs, p. 17. * H. Schuermans, itf sup., Lettre XI., p. 838. 

- Ibid., p. 102. 5 j5_ Fillon, ut sup., p. 215. 


Nivernais. — On account of its forests, Nivernais was favourably placed for glass-making, 
and the Altarists were further drawn there by the Dukes of Nevers of the House of Gonzaga, 
rulers of Monferrat, in which duchy Altare was situated. The confused history of the 
Nivernais glass industry has been well unravelled by Canon Boutillier. Nivernais drinking- 
glasses of the fourteenth century are spoken of, and some authors have gone so far as to give 
precedence to this province over Normandy as regards the antiquity of its window glass.' 
This seems excessive local patriotism. 

Canon Boutillier has divided glass-making at Nevers into four periods. During the first, 
from the latter part of the sixteenth century, the chief glass-makers were Jacques and Vincent 
Saroldo and their nephew Horace Ponta, already spoken of under Lyonnais, and at Nevers ; 
as elsewhere, the Saroldos were both glass-makers and enamellers. 

During the second period — the first half of the seventeenth century — Ponta was sole 
master of the Nevers works, with many Altarists under him, until his death in 1646. 

From 1647 to 1726 included the third period. Jean Castellano came from the works 
of the Bonhommes at Liege, and associated with Bernard Perotto his nephew. On his wish 
to retire, the Duke of Nivernais retained him with special favours ; he died in 1670. Michael 
his son occupied his place until his death in 1721. By arrangement Jean Castellano employed 
a few Venetians before 1665, and with a subsidy of a thousand livres was able to recruit 
others, and to assist Colbert in his remarkable reorganisation of affairs. At this time, 1665, 
the glass and glazed pottery productions of Nevers amounted to 200,000 livres a year." 

The fourth period reaches far into the eighteenth century, where we need not follow 
it in any detail. At the present day glass-making in Nivernais is principally confined to 
the manufacture of bottles. 

A notable feature in the Nevers history is that the glass-makers obtained from the 
Gonzaga dukes the erection of Nivernais into a peculiar department for the exercise of their 
art, and in 1661 they even obtained the monopoly upon the whole of the Loire, and from 
Nevers up to Poitiers. The institution of " departements verriers " — the cantonment of glass- 
makers — tended, indeed, to over-production, and exposed the masters to the caprices of the 
workmen, or, in other cases of independent glass-houses too near each other, the workmen 
were drawn or suborned by the masters from one to the other. Hence the custom as to 
glass-making " facon de Venise " in France of having such furnaces isolated from each other. 
For the manufacture of ordinary glass such precautionary measures were not necessary.^ 

Altarists were working in at least a dozen glass-houses in Nivernais up to about the 
middle of the eighteenth century. At Giverdy, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, 
we meet with members of the de Houx, de Hennezel, and de Bongars families from Lorraine ; 
the two latter names are conspicuous in the history of glass-making in England in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. M. Schuermans gives a long annotated list of 
Altarists, as well as of Muranists, which, though necessarily incomplete, forms valuable material 
in a history of the art in one of its most important centres in France. Besides its glass- 
works, Nevers had a great and well-deserved renown for enamels in all colours, with which 
admirable figures and " plusieurs sortes de gentillesses d'email propres a orner les cabinets, 

1 Savary des Bruslons, Diet ion, mire du Commerce , \ol. ^ Piganiol de la Force, vol. x. p. 378, edit. 1752. 

ii. p. 1387, edit. 1723. ^ H. Schuermans, iit sup., Lettre XL, p. 753- 


les cheminees et les armoires " were fashioned, as well as subjects with many figures, beautifully 
modelled "in the round,"' an art quite distinct from that of enamelling on metal plates. 

Boupg-ogne. — At Chalon-sur-Saone (Saone-et-Loire), on 8th November 1584, a dozen 
glass-makers came under the notice of the civic authorities in their mistrusted condition of 
foreigners ; the amount of wood which they might consume was accordingly fi.xed, and they 
were arbitrarily constrained to sell to the inhabitants of the town at the same price as to 
the hawkers.- A glass-house was carried on at Leffonds (Haute- Marne, Champagne), by 
Charles Massaro, gentleman glass-maker from Altare, in the middle of the seventeenth 
century. The States of Burgundy discharged him from certain fiscal duties over which 
they had control in this part of Champagne. Other Altarists in Burgundy were members 
of the Saroldo family, working up to the end of the eighteenth century, besides de Virgilles 
from Languedoc, early the pupils of the Altarists, like their compatriots the d'Azemars. 
At Montcenis (Saone-et-Loire), in the latter part of the century, glass vessels, etc., were 
made which had a certain credit, particularly in the Russian market.' 

Champagne. — A privilege was granted in 1577 to certain native glass-makers;^ among 
the names occur those of Bigault and Thietry, which are also met with in the English story ; 
these and others were common both to Lorraine and Belgium, the I""rench province being 
the seed-plot. 

We have seen that Gridolphi complained in 1607 of the competition of the glass-works 
of Mezieres (Ardennes);'' he declared in 161 1 that they had come to an end. At 
Charleville in the same department it has been shown by laborious researches into 
documents, patiently undertaken by M. Laurent, archiviste of the Ardennes, that a certain 
Pierre de Esbarar — a name sounding rather Spanish than French or Italian, but meant for 
Esberard — carried on glass-works until after the middle of the seventeenth century. But 
unfortunate gaps in parish registers restrict the knowledge as to the presence of Italians, save 
in the instance of "Paul Francois Italien" — perhaps a Francisci.'' At Sainte-Menehould, 
Chatrices, Vienne-le- Chateau, and Vieux-Etangs (all in the department of Marne), the 
Massaros, Ferros, and other Altarists were interested in glass-works during the seventeenth 
century, and much information has been brought together by M. Schuermans concerning 
the industry during the following century ; this can only be alluded to here. 

Anjou.^King Rene also encouraged the glass-makers in his dominions of Anjou, among 
others, at la Roche-sur-Yon. Angers (Marne-et-Loire) was one of the cities in which Vincent 
Saroldo was privileged by Henry IV., 4th May 1600, "y faire toutes sortes d'ouvrages de 
verre, comme il s'en faisait a Venise et autres lieux, sans bruler bois ou charbon." ' This 
refers to enamelling and such works, which could be made with the blow-pipe at the lamp. 

Orleanais. — Allusion has been made to certain glasses in Vendomois in the Middle 
Ages.^ Between the thirteenth and the seventeenth centuries is a wide step, but it is not 

1 H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre XII., p. 8S9; Diction- ■' See p. 38. 

naire de Trcvou.x. " H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre XL, p. 673. 

- Ibid., Lettre XL, p. 656, information from M. G. " Gerspach, //;■ sup., p. 200; Monteuil, Notias his- 

Millot, archiviste at Chalon. toriques siir les anciens rues de Marseille, p. 115; Reboul, 

s Louandre, Histoire de Pindustrie francaise et des Notes historiqucs, p. 3. The other privileged cities were 

gens de metier, vol. ii. p. 167. Paris, Orleans, Rouen, Caen, Poitiers, Bordeaux, Toulouse, 

* H. Schuermans, ?// J?^/., Lettre XI., p. 672, original Lyon, and Marseille. — H. Schuermans, Lettre XII., 

document, bundle 2109, p. 238, of Conseil des Finauecs, p. 885. 
among the Brussels archives. ^ See p. SS. 


until 1672 that information presents itself. Before this time Bernard Perotto had obtained 
from his uncle Jean Castellano the benefit of the monopoly granted in 1661 for the supply 
of glasses throughout the whole length of the Loire, and from Nevers to Poitiers. In 1672 
privileges were completed by which Perotto obtained the concession or patent for twenty 
years to make at Orleans all sorts and kinds of glass. In 1 691 he is said to have discovered 
"le secret de contrefaire I'Agathe et la Porcelaine avec le Verre et les Emaux." ' There 
never was much secret about these things. " II a pareillement trouve le secret du Rouge des 
Anciens." This had also been "discovered" by Kunckel about 1679,- and England was 
not without her claimants in this direction. Perotto was the first to make use, before 1666, 
of anthracite for the furnaces, and there remains no doubt now that he was the inventor of 
the process of casting glass in plates, commonly attributed, even at Saint-Gobain at the 
present day, to Louis Lucas de Nehou.^ 

Bretagne. — It is perhaps an open question whether we meet with more Altarists 
in this province on account of the attraction to the region of their origin, or because the 
question has been better studied in this district than elsewhere. Thanks to the labours 
of M. Vaillant de la Fieffe for Normandy, and of Canon Boutillier for Nivernais, a great deal 
of information has been collected which serves also for Brittany. 

At the latter part of the fourteenth century the only glass-makers known are the Esquires 
of Meigret, masters of furnaces at Belligne and Marteaux.-* In the sixteenth century 
numbers of glass-makers from Altare settled in Brittany, particularly in the Nantes district. 
Many took out letters of naturalisation which were registered at the Nantes Parliament. 
Such were the families of Bianchi, Saroldo, Massaro, Bormiolo, Buzzone, Marino, Ferro, 
and other well-known Altarist names. These men continued during the greater part of 
the seventeenth century, the Saroldos, indeed, remaining at Nantes for more than two 
centuries. There is the usual difficulty in identification caused by the repetition of the 
same Christian names. 

In the Loire I nferieure, glass-works were carried on by Altarists at Machecoul, Ferce, Le 
Heric, Le Croisic, Riaille, and Coueron, near Nantes ; Rouffigne is still working, and is prob- 
ably of Italian origin. In Ille-et-Vilaine, at Laignelet, Italians were making glass in the 
sixteenth century, and the furnaces are carried on at the present day. There were formerly 
glass-houses at Saint-Magan, near Saint-Malo, and at La Fond (Charente Inferieure) a royal 
glass-house was set up in the eighteenth century. 

1 A. du Pradel, Le livre comnuuk contenant ks addresses leave had already been given to the petitioner to make all 

de Paris, et le Trcsor des Almamichs pour Pannee bissex- sorts of glass, and it continues : "Neantmoins comme cette 

tile 1692, vol. ii. p. 44; E. Gamier, ut sup., p. 169. nouvelle invention qu'il a trouve depuis ce temps-la, defaire 

"- See'p 78. couler le cristal en table comme des metaux, paroist si 

3 "Ainsi en 1688 de Nehou, associe \ A. Thevart, extraordinaire qu'elle semble ne pouvoir etre entendue ni 

invente le procede de coula^^e des glaces," C>;>fire,iee comprise sous des termes generaux et qu'il est n(Jcessaire 

/alte a la Societe de Gh^rapliie, a Laon ; "Etude sur d'en faire une declaration speciale et precise, pour oster 

Saint-Gobain," par J. Henrivaux, Directeur de la manu- tout pr^exte k ceux qui voudroient troubler ledit exposant 

facture des glaces, p. 1 2. M. Gamier says : " Ce qui est dans son dit privilege, c'est ce qui I'oblige \ recounr i notre 

certain c'est que c'est \ Louis Lucas de Nehou qu'est du autorit.^, \ ce qu'en confirmant et expliquant le susdit 

le procdde du coidage^^ {Histoire, etc., ut sup,, p. 329)- privilege, il nous plaise de le faire jouir du fru.t de ses 

A note upon the origin of so important a manufacture travaux et des depenses qu'il a faites pour ses recherches 

may be appropriately added here. In a letter of con- curieuses qui peuvent etre utiles pour les orncments 

formation granted by Louis XIV. to Perotto, M. Henri publics."— H. Schuermans, /// sup., Lettre XL, p. 804. 
Havard tells us that it is recited that in 1662 and 1668 * Dom Lobineau, Histoire de la Bretagne, col. 1614. 



He de France. — We have seen that glass-houses existed at and near Paris in the 
fourteenth century, but it is not until 1551 that we have knowledge of Venetians in the 
province. In this year Teseo Mutio, a native of Bologna, but of Altare origin, was authorised 
by letters patent of Henry II., to the exclusion of all others in France, to set up a furnace 
at Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Seine-et-Oise), and to make " verres, myroers, canons, et autres 
especes de verreries a la fa^on de Venise."* The works of Mutio were signalised by 
the king as " trouves de meme beaute et excellence que ceux qu'on souloit apporter de 
Venise." ^ 

As in London, the sites of old glass-works in Paris are recognisable by the names of 
streets mentioned as early as in 1407 by Guillebert de Metz.^ We again meet with Jacques 
and Vincent Saroldo, and Horace Ponta, who had under Henry IV. the exclusive privilege 
of glass- making for thirty lieues round. In furtherance of this concession they attracted 
numerous Altarists — Buzzones, Bertoluzzis, Pontas. During the seventeenth century it is 
difficult to disentangle the history of glass plates from that of drinking- vessels ; both 
manufactures were encouraged by Colbert, and extraordinary means were taken to attract 
and retain the Italians. Money was advanced to them, taxes waived in their favour, and 
free letters of naturalisation granted.* Thus eighteen gentlemen glass-makers were enticed 
from Murano to Paris, and became the subjects of much interesting diplomacy. They were 
"proclaimed" at Venice, and some of them went back fearing the consequences. Others who 
remained were not quite satisfactory. They are spoken of in 1666 as " Les ouvriers 
venitiens ne veulent rien enseigner aux Francais, et quand celui que les mene est malade, 
tout s'arrete ; en sorte que tout depend non seulement du caprice de ces messieurs, mais 
meme de leur vie et de leur sante."^ However, their services were not much required, 
for Colbert wrote to that effect to the Venetian Ambassador in June 1670. M. Schuermans 
gives a sketch, which is typical, of the wanderings of one Paolo Mazzolao, a fugitive from 
Venice who, as " Monsu la Motta," roamed from country to country during a quarter of a 
century, working at glass in London, Liege, Maestricht, and Normandy. He reappeared 
at Orleans in 1672 as Paul Massolay de la Motte, and he, or his son, is spoken of in 1691 
as being about to open an establishment under the broad seal in Paris for enamels and 
glass like agate and porcelain.'' The porcellaneous character of some of the glass of this 
particular period is suggestive. The new works were situated between the modern Place 
de la Concord and the Trocadero. Another venture in artistic glass in Paris was the 
manufacture allowed by letters patent granted in 1699 to the Sieur Launoy de Bourmont, 
but owing to opposition not established until 1709. The letters patent have great interest 
on account of the details they give concerning glass-making in Paris and in the provinces, 
information so much wanted of this period for England. Glasses engraved and chiselled 
in intaglio and in cameo, and sculptured busts and bas-reliefs are spoken of; others — cut, 
facetted, and engraved " — belong to the new style then coming into fashion. 

At Fontainbleau (Seine-et-Marne) Antoine Clericy — who was installed in the Tuilleries 
under Marie de Medecis, with lodgings, furnaces, and ceramic workshops — had leave by 

1 H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre XI., p. 69S. "* Le Vaillant de la Fieffe, Les Verreries de la Nor- 

- Ibid., Lettre III., p. 16. mandie, pp. 397, 533. 

^ Sauval, Histoire et recherches des antiqiiites de Paris, '■' H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre XL, pp. 710, 713. 

vol. i. p. 123. ^ Ibid., do., p. 714. " Ibid., do., p. 719. 


royal letters in 1641 to establish a glass-house at the end of the Pare de Monceau, with full 
liberty of manufacture and sale. He is described as " escuier, maitre de la verrerie royale 
et nostre ouvrier en terre sigillee." He succeeded well and employed Italians, among them 
a Saroldo.^ 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century a glass-house at Sevres (Seine-et-Oise) made 
drinking-glasses and small objects " fa^on de cristal." It is said to have supplied all Paris. 
Zoude of Namur" towards the end of the century prided himself on supplying Paris with 
his productions; apparently the taste for glasses " facon de Venise" had not yet died out in 
that city. 

Lorraine. — Although the chief works of the Lorraine glass-houses were general table 
glass, bottles, and window glass, it is recorded that in the district of Clermont (Meuse) in the 
sixteenth century " petits et menus voirres, grand miroirs et bassins qui ne se font ailleurs 
dans tout I'univers," and " plusieurs sortes de voirres fins a la semblance de christallins, 
et d'autres voirres communs, autant que Ton s9auroit soubhaicter" were made. From 
Pont-a-Mousson (Meurthe) came a certain crucifix as large as a man's thigh, upon a 
cross of glass — " accoustre si richement de couleur, que Ton estoit aveugle de la beaute 
et lueur."^ 

The privileges of the Lorraine glass-makers date from Rene of Anjou who, through 
his son Jean de Calabre, granted them a charter in 1448, and in their joint names confirmed, 
in 1469, the rights, etc., which the gentle glass-makers of Lorraine had enjoyed "de tous 
temps passes."* The principal names in the early documents are Thietry, Hennezel, 
Bongars, Houx, Bigo— spoken of in the body of the present work in their connection 
with England — Conde, Sandrouin, Bonnay, etc., and such well-known Altarist names as 
Bormiolo, Saroldo, Mazzolao, and others. 

In 1603 Charles II., Due de Lorraine, took steps to introduce the manufacture of 
"verres de cristal" fa^on de Venise, as did also his successor Henry. By the terms of 
certain contracts with Italians, the Bonhommes in 1666 sent Benoit Marius joined with 
Jean-Tilman d'Heur to work in an old glass-house at Verdun, and they introduced 
glasses so made, as they did those from their works at Maestricht, Liege, and Bois-le-Duc, 
into the Low Countries, and in very large quantities.^ 

There was a glass-house at Saint-Ouirin (Meurthe) before 1530, making mirrors then 
and long after. It changed its fashion in the eighteenth century, and became " Royal " 
in 1753, when it took to making table, Bohemian, and crystal glass. The furnaces at 
Baccarat, founded in 1765, have been spoken of already.'' 

Picardie.— A glass-house was established at Charles -Fontaine (Aisne), not far from 
the castle of Saint-Gobain, at the beginning of the fifteenth century. It fell under the 
protection of Marie de Luxembourg, great - grandmother of Henry IV., until her death 
in 1546. Its privileges were confirmed by Charles IX. and Henry HI., and by Henry 
IV., who duly became lord of Saint-Gobain in 1589. The glass -makers held now in 
capite by the yearly service of the delivery to the king of a hundred and fifty drinking- 

1 H. Schuermans, ;// sup., Lettre XL, p. 721. * This interesting and important document has often 

•' See p. 41. been reproduced ; it is given by M. Gamier, p. 157. 
3 Volcyr de Serouville, and k President Thicry AlLx, ^ H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre XL, p. 733- 

quoted by Beaupre, p. 23 ; E. Gamier, p. 160, etc. " See p. 42. 


glasses; this in England would have constituted a tenure in free socage by petit serjeanty. 
The furnaces were in the hands of the De Brossards, who introduced Italians, and about 
the end of the seventeenth century an alliance between a De Brossard and Peter Massaro, 
an Altarist, brought about a change in the direction, and great beauty and taste in the 
objects produced, some of them being of a porcellaneous character which would stand the 
fire. RI. Schuermans has worked out a careful account of the descent of the Massaro 
family, and the connection of some of them with glass-houses at Liege. Other furnaces 
in Picardie making bottles, and not artistic glass, need not be spoken of here, save that 
of Ouicangrogne (Aisne), where a glass-house is said to have been established in 1290.' 
The De Colnets were concerned here as early as in 1467. 

Normandie. — That Roman glass-furnaces were at work in Lugdunensis Secunda during 
the first centuries of the Christian era is beyond question. And the continuity of glass- 
making in the same district from Roman times to the eleventh century has already been 
spoken of," as well as the migration of glass-makers from Normandy to Altare at the latter 
period. The support which the proposition of such foreign origin obtains from local tradition, 
the physical types, and the peculiarities of the language of the " Monsu " of Altare, as 
contrasted with the characteristics of the native " Paesani," is overwhelming.^ The Flanders 
of the tradition must, however, be taken in that general denomination of the Low Countries 
in ancient times, and, in the present case, narrowed down to those parts of it nearest to 
France. In this sense a certain number of glass-makers from "French Flanders" may well 
have joined with those from Normandy — a boundary in such a case being a mere accident — 
from whence, bringing down tradition to its just value, the bulk of the emigrants must have 
proceeded ; and probably a few from the parts of Brittany adjoining the Duchy. A district 
which could provide and dispense with the services of a not inconsiderable body of glass- 
makers in the eleventh century, and which had supplied '' makers of glass " to Northumbria in 
679, is not likely to have lacked them during the intervening period. Yet it is doubtful whether 
the Norman emigrants to Altare had been at all afi"ected before their departure by the art 
movement at Limoges in the tenth and eleventh centuries. Moreover, Venetians came 
from Murano itself to Altare early in the fourteenth century to instruct the strangers in the 
Venetian practices.^ 

The names of Ragenulf and Baldric, glass-makers, occur in a charter of 863 relative 
to the abbey of Saint- Amand- en - Pevele ; ^ an account of 1302, under Philip -le -Bel, 
regulates the payment of workmen charged with cutting fern in the woods of Normandy — 
this shows the light quality of the glass — the " verre de fougere" so often alluded to in 
French poetry — that was then being made;" and a document of 1333, of Philip de Valois, 
grants the privilege of making panes of glass to a Norman named Cacqueray." 

Four families took the first position in the Normandy glass-works — the de Caqueray, the 

'^ Matton, Diitionnaire topographique du dcparteincnt or potash for the manufacture of ordinary and extremely 

del Aisne, p. 44. light glass. The term "un fougere" was synonymous 

^ See p. 87. with "a drinking glass," and as such was employed by the 

^ H. Schuermans, ?// 5///., Lettres III., p. 27; XL, p.777. poets. Good accounts of " verre de fougere" are given 

* See p. 89. by M. Schuermans (Lettre VI., p. 238), and by M. 

^ Martene et Durand,^w//w/wa C(7/'/f(r//(7, vol. i. p. 168. Gamier, p. 130, and the subject is fully discussed in 

^ Fern burnt to ashes was largely used in France Merret's Ncri, edit. 1662. 
down to the end of the last century to furnish the alkali ' Le Vaillant de la Fieffe, ul sup., pp. 4, 457. 


de Bongars, the de Brossard, and the Le Vaillant. We have already met with these names 
associated with ItaUan gentlemen, and it will be understood that wherever the latter artists 
were established there also were native glass-makers working with them, naturally on the 
friendly terms which would prevail between the one set of persons desirous of learning 
as much as they could from the other, save under special circumstances. 

As an example of the curious difficulties which arise, a question presents itself as to 
whether the Normandy family of Barniolles springs from that of Bormiolo which came 
into France from Altare at the end of the fourteenth century, or was it of Norman purity, 
always remaining on its own ground ? 

At Rouen, Saint-Sever (Seine Infdrieure), Vincent Buzzone and Thomassin Bertoluzzi, 
Altarists in two generations of descent, but of Venetian origin, had privilege to set up a 
glass-house " fa^on de Venise " in 1598, being authorised by Henry IV. to make "verres 
de cristal, verres dores, esmaulx et aultres ouvrages qui se font a Venise et aultres lieux es 
pays etrangers, et aultres qu'ils pourront de nouveau inventer, avec defenses a tous aultres 
verriers d'etablir dorenavent aucune autre verrerie a vingt lieues a I'entour, excepte pour 
les verres communs, dits verres de fougere." ' Just within the year they left to join Saroldo 
in Paris. In 1605 the industry was resumed in Rouen by Fran9ois de Garconnet from 
Provence, who introduced many strangers, among them Bormiolos, who excelled in their 
looking-glasses. Antoine Montchrestien, de Vatteville, in his Tmitd cUdconomie politique, 
1615, vol. i., " Des Manufactures," tells us in effect what he actually witnessed going on in 
Rouen : — " Grace a nos deux ou trois milles gentilshommes verriers, la plupart eleves des 
verriers italiens, les Fran9ais ne boivent plus dans des tasses de poterie, mais dans des 
tasses de verre, teint en toutes sortes de couleurs, en bleu, en jaune, en vert, en rouge, 
faconne en toutes sortes de formes, en nef, en cloche, en cheval, en oiseau, en eglise."- 
Thus the custom of fashioning glasses of bizarre shapes obtained in France, having been 
brought from Venice.^ 

Garconnet was followed at Saint-Sever, Rouen, by the d'Azdmars, Jean and Pierre, 
who obtained letters of perpetual concession in 1635, for making crystal glass, which were 
fruitful of legal proceedings later on. These letters declare that from the glass-house of 
Saint-Sever came "de plus excellents ouvrages que d'aucun de ce royaume." The d'Azemars 
were joined by de Virgilles and other Italians who produced excellent crystal glass ; it is very 
doubtful whether the French learners could have then dispensed with their Italian teachers. 
They continued, indeed, at Rouen until the furnaces were extinguished about 1 760. 

Pierre d'Azdmar founded a glass-house at La Guyonnee (Eure) in 1626, and another 
at La Caule-Sainte-Beuve (Seine Inferieure) in 1634, where Jean Bormiolo and at least two 
of the de Virgilles worked respectively in 1646 and 1666. Several rival glass-houses in the 
departments of Eure, Orne, Calvados, and Manche were proceeded against by the d'Azemars 
in virtue of their perpetual concession, and some of them were thereby much hampered as 
to their productions, or closed in consequence. However, the defendants obtained certain 
privileges under Royal Letters in 1650 and 1659; so a prejudicial monopoly for the making 
of crystal glass in Rouen alone was broken down, and many new crystal glass-houses 

1 Le Vaillant de la Fieffe, ut sup., p. 185. " Montcil, see Louandre, ut sup., vol. ii. p. 26. 

^ See p. 29. 



sprano- up, particularly in the department of the Seine Inferieure, and in Orne, Calvados, and 


The furnaces of Nonant (Calvados), founded by the Duchess Elizabeth d'Orldans in 
the forest of Exmes, made opal glass, crystal, and mirrors of some merit far into the eighteenth 
century.' At this time a struggle was going on between the crystal of England, of Bohemia, 
and of Normandy " fagon de Venise." After 1729, at Saint-Paul-lez-Rouen or Eauplet 
(Seine Inferieure) the first attempts to imitate English "flint glass" were made by a 
M. Lefebvre.^ At Romdnil and Val-d'Aulnoy (Seine Inferieure), in the middle of the 
century, crystal glass of Venice and of Bohemia, and "flint glass" of England were made, 
both works being under a certain M. Libaude, who in 1772 gained the national prize of 
1200 livres for having discovered the "secret" of English crystal.^ 

At Petit-0u6villy (Seine Inferieure) Meyer Oppenheim established, in 1783,3 "manu- 
facture royale de cristaux" which was exclusively devoted to English flint glass, and which 
he had long studied in the glass-houses of Birmingham. The venture did not answer, nor 
did a second attempt near Rouen in 1784 meet with any success.* 

1 Le Vaillant de la Fieffe, ut sup., p. 333. * Much information concerning Oppenheim's pro- 

- H. Schuermans, ut sup., Lettre XL, p. 797. ceedings in Normandy has been brought together by M. 

^ See Appendix, Original Document, No. XXXV., for Le Vaillant de la Fieffe, Les Verreries de la Norma ndie, 

0-\^\iZ.\'i\i€vcvLS specification for "red transparent glass," and pp. 300 and 521, drawn from State documents of 1783 

for the "secret" of flint glass. and 1784. 




The earliest objects in glass, or, speaking more strictly, in vitreous paste,^ which 
have been found in Britain are the coloured or " aggry " beads, and there appears 
to be some reason for believing that a great number of them may have been 
imported from Phoenicia ; but certain types are so widely distributed as to make 
it difficult, in spite of their distinct characteristics, to decide upon the country 
of their fabrication. Hence also the dates of beads are rather uncertain, and 
although some of them have been submitted to the test of chemistry, analysis does 
not appear at present to have thrown much light upon their age, or to have even 
warranted the drawing of a distinction, more or less sharp, from their component 
parts alone, between beads presumably of Phoenician make, those of Roman origin, 
or of native manufacture in Britain during the Roman occupation and immediately 
succeeding Roman times, or those of the Anglo-Saxon period. Of special import 
as regards the more conspicuous of such objects as beads — namely those to which 
talismanic virtues might have been anciently attached — is the consideration that 
the approximate date of an interment is not necessarily that of the beads that may 
be found in it. 

With regard to the history of early examples of these glass relics in Britain, 
it is unfortunate that Strabo, speaking of glass wares, vaXd a-Kev/], should have 

' See footnote I, Introductory Notices, p. 5. Dr. transparent or crystalline, and the pattern opaque ; 

Fowler classifies the material of glass as follows : — third, both body and ornament translucent ; fourth, 

First, opaque throughout, both body and orna- both body and pattern transparent. — " Decay of 

ment ; second, translucent or horny, and not yet Glass," Arcliaeologia, vol. xlvi. p. 83. 


expressed himself somewhat ambiguously ; it seems reasonable to conclude that he 
refers to the imports of glass into Britain ; the beads would be included among 
the small-wares alluded to.^ 

The earliest beads were probably self-coloured, or single-tinted, and in vitreous 
pastes, following the forms of the stone beads, which preceded them.- " Sun 
beads," or those tending usually to the oval form, and cut or shaped so as 
to exhibit chevrons or rays of colours at each end, were formerly classed as 
"Druids' beads" or "adders' eggs." They are conspicuous, important, and 
puzzling antiquities, to which dates have been assigned varying from Phoenician 
times to the thirteenth century, and even much later. Like other early beads, they 
are usually of opaque glass, the coloured ornamental parts, by the essential process 
of manufacture, extending into the substance of the bead, the object being, as it 
were, built up, with the final coating usually of a rich blue colour, which, it must 
be confessed, has a very non-Roman appearance. The degree of skill is about the 
same in each example of the "sun beads," and this might tend to indicate that 
they all belong to the same period ; the manipulation of those of other kinds is 
almost as varied as the coloured patterns which they exhibit. Many " sun 
beads " have been found in Britain, and are preserved in museums ; it is just 
possible that some of them are from late Celtic burying-places, but few have any 
history that might suggest or indicate their origin.^ As examples of early decorated 
objects in glass they are important, but they form only one class, and that pre- 
sumably an early as well as a late one, in a long series of personal ornaments 
which are, perhaps, more widely distributed throughout the world than any other 

' In the excavations made in 1893 on the site served in the British Museum, together with a bead 
of the late Celtic pile settlement near Glastonbury, of the same pattern, seems to show that the manu- 
portions both of crucibles and vitreous paste were facture was at least revived in Venice early in the 
discovered. present century. Notes upon these objects by Mr. 
'" See Introductory Notices, p. 3. Syer Cuming are printed in theyw^rwi^r/^^y/Z/g^nVw/^ 
^ An example is engraved on PI. V., No. 3, Archaeological Association, vol. xvii. p. 59. Mr. 
Itiveutoriinii Scpidcliralc. It was found by Faussett Cuming somewhat hesitatingly takes them to be of 
at Gilton, Kent, between 1760 and 1763, but British manufacture. The account of the discovery 
whether in a Roman or an Anglo-Saxon interment of the Warrington example, resting as it does upon 
there is no evidence to show. This example has the shaky evidence of the labourer who found it, 
a dark blue centre or iris, in a light blue star double is not convincing, and considering the general con- 
edged with yellow, the main body of the bead con- dition of the objects in question, the author tends 
sisting of a radiating red, with an outside of brilliant to the conclusion that, while some of them may 
dark blue. It presents the common polychromatic possibly be Roman, the greater number are subse- 
arrangement of such objects, and is possibly from a quent to, and perhaps long after Saxon times. 
Roman grave. It is very improbable that any of Useful information upon sun beads has been 
them are of Anglo-Saxon origin. They are either brought together by Mr. J. Park Harrison. — Arcliae- 
older or much later. The appearance of a rod ologia Oxo)iicnsis,Tic<zc:\T\\)Q.x 1892. 
about 9 inches long for making sun beads, pre- 


objects of antiquity. The classification and complete illustration of beads is 
desirable, but it would not be an easy task.^ 

Although colonisation at the Cape has largely destroyed the simplicity of the 
aborigines, there are still large districts of Africa, in Basutoland, Zululand, 
Bechuanaland, Matabeleland, and in the regions northward, where beads are still 
important mediums of exchange. An " aggry " bead is understood in the trade to 
be that in which the colours go right through ; many African tribes will only accept 
such beads nowadays, but imitations with surface colours are made. Amber beads, 
roughly shaped, are for the African trade, instead of those rounded and polished 
for the home market. Certain tribes will not believe them to be genuine unless 
they are irregularly shaped. Natives of West Africa require the more brilliant beads. 
The small plain round ones of various colours, such as are used in Europe for 
fancy work, are also largely exported to South Africa, a ton or two at a time. 
In Central and Western Africa the natives still continue to drill small pebbles and 
special ivory-looking sea-shells for their ornaments. Beads are much used for the 
decoration of mocassins and other personal attributes of North American Indians. 
In 1 62 1 a subscription was opened in London for funds to erect a glass-house in 
Virginia to make beads for the aborigines. 

Among the beads for Africa are round, square, oblong, and crooked types, and 
some very beautiful and regular examples. They are also made in amethyst, 
bloodstone, onyx, carnelian, wood, copper, enamelled and chased, etc., some of the 
latter being imported from Japan. In coral beads the trade is very large, some of 
them being w^orth as much as £s an ounce, according to the size and colour, and 

1 Excellent work in this direction has been of beads decorated in relief could be obtained. Mr. 

done by the Rev. L. Hasse in a paper on " Egyptian Hasse considers that the " Egyptian " beads most 

and Irish Beads" (/.«;-««/ of the Royal Historical resembling the Irish "were cither such as charac- 

and Archaeological Association of Ireland, vol. viii., terise Roman imperial times, or such as had survived 

4th series, p. 382, 1 8S9), and by Mr. W. J. Knowles into Roman times." And while " it is probable,' as 

in an article on "Ancient Irish Beads and Amulets," he says, " that all the different classes of Insh beads 

in vol V 4th series, p. 532, 1S81. The subject are more or less represented in English finds," the 

has also been touched upon by Mr. R. Day in the likelihood is that further investigation would show 

same volume p 112. Both Mr. Hass6 and Mr. that, although the presumably late and locally made 

Knowles divide beads into classes, and the former Irish beads seem to indicate particular methods 

writer gives good and suggestive information as to and appliances, their general history offers no very 

the way in which some of the coloured beads were marked exception to that of beads in other European 

made, by sprinkling coloured fragments on them, countries. ^ . . . 

rolling them on a flat surface scattered with assorted An account of bead-making in Venice is given 

grains of glass, which would give blotches passing by Mr. Nesbitt (Introduction, South Kenstngton 

more or less, according to their size and the force Catalogue, p. ciii.). At the end of the last century 

used, into the body of the bead, pressing them in a between 600 and lOOO men " found occupation at 

mould, or by working them upon a grooved or the lamps." 
ornamentally incised surface by which many varieties 



some as low as is. a pound. Cowries also are imported from India, and pierced 
and sold largely as beads in Western Africa. 

All the above-mentioned objects are used in Africa for mercantile purposes, 
principally by Arab and other traders, \vho receive them on the coast and barter 
them in the interior for native products, ivory, gold dust, india-rubber, etc. 
Native chiefs frequently send a man to the coast with three or four samples of par- 
ticular beads to be transmitted to Europe for the exact reproduction of a quantity. 
In one case an accident of manufacture having caused a curvature in certain beads, 
the shape has ever since been insisted upon in ornaments of that quality. Ancient 
Egyptian or Phoenician beads are still found in use in Africa, and it is one of the 
curiosities of bead-making, that although modern imitations are very close, the 
natives can always detect them.^ 

Roman beads of mosaic glass have been found in great numbers in Britain, 
and with as infinite varieties of patterns as in the glass vessels and other art 
objects of the same character and in the same material. It would be obviously 
impossible here to attempt to show in detail a distinction between the presumably 
Phoenician, the Roman, and the later beads ; but it may be taken for granted that 
in every country to which Tyrian and Sidonian examples made their way, those 
of Roman source found in the same districts bear the inherited resemblance to 
them due to a common origin. There should therefore be a difference more 
marked between Roman and Anglo-Saxon beads than between those of Rome 
and Phoenicia, and such appears, indeed, to be the fact. But it must always be 
remembered that the style of each period passed by slow transition into that which 
succeeded it. No one man of ancient times invented a totally new method of 
bead-making — he modified and improved ; just as, to compare small things with 
great, no one individual suddenly invented Gothic architecture, or any " period " of 
it — a word which has proved such a stumbling-block to the modern world ; though 
we may truly say that the earliest pure Gothic building in existence is the choir of 

^ Up to about forty years ago beads of the is the centre. The largest export from hence is of 
ordinary self colours were made by small workers glass beads coming chiefly from Gablonz and find- 
in Bethnal Green and Shoreditch. They bought ing their principal market in Paris. Figured beads 
their coloured glass canes from the glass-makers and come from Venice as of yore. The opening up of 
melted them at a jet, dropping the metal upon a Africa is giving an impetus to the trade, and an 
copper wire coated with whitening, the wire being idea may be formed of its extent by the fact of 
turned during the process, and when cold the beads between sixty and seventy tons of beads having 
would slip off. The men were, however, so careless been lately destroyed by fire on the premises of 
and unpunctual that the trade came to an end. Mr. L. Levin, a bead merchant in Bevis Marks. 
Bead-making at the present day is in continental To the obliging courtesy of this gentleman the 
hands, principally in the district of which Rcichen- author is indebted for much of the above in- 
berg, the second manufacturing town in Bohemia, formation. 


Lincoln/ and that the earliest Perpendicular, but impure, is at Gloucester. So 
there must have been a period when the purest and most beautiful beads were 
made, but it would be difficult, in a few words, to define its exact limits here. Be- 
sides self-coloured examples, Roman beads of blue glass with white decorations 
are found with Roman interments ; green and blue fluted ones with circular or 
wavy ornamentations in yellow and red perhaps predominate on Roman sites in 

Beads of the Anglo-Saxon period may be mentioned here. They are of as 
great interest and variety as those of Roman times, but are not of terra-cotta, with 
vitreous incrustations, as some have maintained, for the two materials could not 
have been worked together. They are of opaque, vitreous pastes approaching 
more or less to translucent glass, and often — especially in cases where the colouring 
is owing to metallic oxides — so disintegrated as to present much the appearance of 
porcellaneous terra-cotta. Anglo-Saxon beads are decorated with brilliantly-coloured 
chevrons, circles, spiral threads, wavy ornamentations, striations, vivid dots, etc., 
and are so far imitations of Roman glass beads ; but they are inferior to them both 
in materials and workmanship. An art which passes through a series of imitations 
ends at last in gross types in which the original becomes hardly recognisable. And 
so it was with regard to what may be taken to be the latest phases of Anglo- 
Saxon beads. The value in the present inquiry of these comparatively rudely- 
made objects is considerable, inasmuch as they point with much probability to 
native glass-making in Britain during the times which are now being touched 
upon, and strengthen the conjecture that such home-made vitreous beads of the 

1 A comparison quite accidental suggests the consists in the dated illustrations offered of the 

following note : — The question of the earliest pure gradual and certain advance with which the Early 

Gothic or Early English, as distinguished from the English style was unfolded, almost year by year, in 

latest phase of Romanesque, has lately had further places so widely apart as Canterbury, Wells, and 

light thrown upon it by the researches of Canon Lincoln, up to the perfection which was first at- 

Q\i\xxc\\ {Chapters in the Early History of the Church tained at Lincoln, where the pure Gothic is not 

of Wells). The advanced character and purity of only quite free from French influence, but also 

St. Hugh's work at Lincoln, begun 1 192, is marked greatly in advance of its age, both in France and 

by the round abacus— which had, indeed, been in England. St. Hugh began his work at the 

already introduced into the Transition work of moment of the final change. But it is almost 

William the Englishman at Canterbury between certain that the perfected style would have been 

I 179 and I 184— as contrasted with the square or first reached at Wells, if the buildings designed by 

octagonal abaci of Bishop Reginald's building at St. Hugh and his architect, Geoffrey of Noyers, had 

Wells, I 174-91. Taking all details into con- been postponed until after the death of the bishop 

sideration, the work at Wells is the earliest Somerset in i 200. It may be here noted as a further and 

Gothic, NV'ith traces only of Romanesque, while that special point of interest in the present inquiry that, 

at Lincoln remains the earliest pure Gothic building in spite of English architectural advance, we were at 

in the world, the Roman trammels having been the end of the twelfth century fifty years behmd 

finally quite shaken off. The interest of the question France in the art of painted glass. 

io8 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. i. 

Anglo-Saxon period, like the vitreous pastes or enamels in the decoration of 
fibula, etc., were nothing less than survivals of the glass manufacture carried on 
in Britain by the Romans during their military occupation of Albion ^ (Plate 18). 

It seems improbable that the legions of Caesar, when they had well settled in 
this country, and the civilians who established themselves here under their pro- 
tection, drew from distant Rome, or even from Gaul — the Keltica of Strabo — the 
glass vessels, other than those of the choicest kind well known to have been 
made in Rome itself, which were then indispensable attributes alike of a Roman's 
existence and of his obsequies. For the fact of a military occupation would not 
prevent but rather encourage, as things became more reduced to order, the estab- 
lishment in the conquered country of small glass-houses after the usual ancient 
manner. These would be at first for working up the inassae or lumps of glass 
spoken of by Pliny, sent from Rome, — or, as is more likely, as regards imports 
to Britain, from Gaul or Spain, — and later on for the carrying out, principally on the 
coast for convenience of materials, and by artisans who followed in the wake of 
the legions, of most of the glass processes known to the Romans. It was one 
of the natural results of conquest, then as now, that, in modern speech, trade 
should follow the Eagles, and that, in consequence of the influx of foreign artisans, 
native workmen should presently become instructed in the new art which the 
conquerors introduced. With the knowledge that glass-making in small furnaces, 
as it was then carried on throughout the Roman dominions, was by no means a 
difficult process, and the principal materials not far to seek in a sea-girt country, 
it would be much more surprising if it were to be absolutely proved that the 
Romans did not make glass in Britain than that they did so. As a matter of 
fact, however, we do not know for certain whether the Romans established glass 
furnaces here; and, although it is reasonable to presume that they did so, the 
tangible evidence of it is not very strong. 

The late Dr. Guest found in 1848, on the sea-shore between Brighton and 
Rottingdean, several pieces of coloured glass worn by attrition to the form and 
appearance of pebbles. On showing them to a lapidary at Brighton, he produced 
several lumps of coloured glass similarly discovered, from double the size of a 
man's fist to quite small, in amethyst, amber, emerald green, and deep maroon 
colours, and portions of which he was in the habit of cutting and polishing as 
ornamental features in brooches, etc. It was supposed that parts of the cliff, 
owing to encroachment of the sea, had given way, and carried down in their fall the 
remains of a Romano-British glass manufactory, the pieces cast upon the shore 

^ See Wriglit, The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon, 1st edit., p. 226. 


p« ^ 











being portions of lumps of glass — the tnassae of Pliny's description — which were 
either imported into Britain to be worked up, or made on the spot from local 
constituents to be transmitted to inland cities. It is to be noticed that the 
Brighton lumps of glass were all coloured ready for use, and not, as Pliny appears 
to imply in speaking of the glass niassac, plain, to be tinted subsequently by the 
glass-workers. As far as the author is aware no similar evidence pointing directly 
to local Roman glass-houses has been found in Britain. Mr. Thomas Wright 
was of opinion that the fragments found upon the Brighton shore were " no doubt 
parts of the lumps {inassae) of the material which were sent away hence to the 
glass-workers in the great towns through the island. Pliny seems to intimate 
that the mass of glass thus sent out was colourless, and that it was coloured by 
the glass-workers, but it seems here to have been made in coloured masses to be 
still more ready for use." Thus, from the discoveries on the Brighton coast, Mr. 
Wright establishes in Britain not only glass-making according to the Roman 
practice, and during Roman times, but he takes the question a stage further by 
also showing from them that lumps of a more carefully made metal, namely 
coloured, were made on the coast near Brighton and sent away for working up 
to inland cities in Britain. Some antiquaries may think that this is building too 
much upon slight foundations.^ 

Mr. Roach Smith, speaking of the collection of Roman glass at Boulogne, 
also quotes Pliny, who, after describing the process of glass-making as practised 

1 The Brighton evidence is unfortunately incon- Fragments of such glass have been not uncommonly 

elusive, because there is no certain proof that the found in England on sites of Roman villas. In 

lumps of glass in question were Roman at all. It 1855 the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on- 

is this absence of certain proof that has caused the Tync caused excavations to be carried out at 

hesitation and caution of many antiquaries of Brcmenium, or High Rochester, on the Watling 

authority in pronouncing one way or another upon Street in Northumberland to the north of the 

the question. It must be remembered with regard Roman Wall. In Dr. Bruce's Report the following 

to it that the Romans established in Britain iron, occurs: — " Under the head of glass may be reckoned 

copper, tin, and lead smelting works, and exported some fragments of vessels formed of a very fine 

the proceeds ; that they also established pottery material and ' cut ' ; some window glass, and some 

kilns, fulling and dyeing works, and other industries, fragments of bottles of the ordinary green shade, 

and that there is no reason why glass-making should There are besides some scoriae of glass ; but whether 

not have been also carried on here, as in Gaul, they have resulted from the manufacture of the 

though perhaps to a smaller extent, and possibly in article, or have been produced by the burning of 

the south of Britain and near the coast only. We houses in which glass vessels were, it is difficult to 

must await the issue of further research. determine." — See Archaeologia Aeliana, II. S., vol. i. 

Allied to the question of glass in vessel form is Thus the inquirer is baffled at every step in this 

window glass, which, in Roman times, was made by direction. 

simply pouring the molten metal upon a slab of A large pane of glass and many portions were 

marble or stone, the result being panes smooth and found, December 1 894, at the Roman villa at 

glistening on one side, and rough on the other, Darcnth, Kent, during the course of the exploration 

and consequently translucent and not transparent, conducted by Mr. G. Payne. 

I lO 


in Italy, adds that the manufacture had extended in his time to Spain and Gaul — 
"Jam vero per Gallias Hispaniasque simili modo arena temperantur." ^ Mr. 
Roach Smith says that it may reasonably be considered that the Boulogne glass 
vessels were fabricated in Gaul; "and also, that from Gaul were imported into 
Britain the glass vessels which are so frequently found among the ruins of its 
ancient towns, and on the sites of burial-places, in quantities, and under circum- 
stances sufficient to prove that their use was not confined to the high and wealthy." - 
This was his opinion before the time of the discoveries at Brighton by the illus- 
trious scholar the Master of Caius ; but, writing many years later, Mr. Roach 
Smith describes four remarkable glass unguentaria fitting together at their ends 
in pairs, from a Roman leaden coffin found at York. These vessels, he says, "are 
an additional evidence of the skill of the Romans in the working of glass, and it 
may be in the town of Eburacum itself."^ 

The question standing as it does at the present day, it appears that while 
there is no kind of reason why the Romans should not have made glass in 
Britain, as they made it in Gaul, there is at present no absolutely certain evidence 
of the manufacture, such as inquirers might have been justified in expecting to 
find. It is, it is true, but a mere detail of general history which, not having 
been honoured by the notice of Tacitus, or of Marcellinus, has yet to be retrieved 
from the buried life, or from the graves of the past. 

> Nat. Hist., lib. xxxvi. c. 26, § 66. - Collectanea Ai/tiqiia, vol. i. p. 2, 1S48. 

^ Ibid., vol. vii. p. 177, 1880. 



That the glass drinking-cups found in England which Ave are accustomed to 
associate with Anglo-Saxon times are, like those of the Merovingian period, 
based upon late Roman models, there seems no reason to doubt. But while the 
evidence in favour of the direct transmission of the art of glass-making from 
Roman to Merovingian days may be inferred to a certain extent on the Continent 
from examples apparently consecutive in date — though rude and imperfect 
manufacture makes it difficult to accurately classify them — which have been found 
throughout a wide area, such suggestion of continuity does not seem to be 
exhibited by the glass cups which our own land has surrendered to excavators. 
It will be convenient presently to divide these into four classes. 

It is true that Post-Roman glass vessels have been found here in greater 
number and variety than on the Continent, thus favouring the supposition that 
such glasses were home-made, and possibly causing a superficial inquirer to tend 
to the thought that some of the glasses of precisely the same character found on 
the Continent may have also been made in England and exported. It is un- 
fortunate that the tangible evidence of Anglo-Saxon glass furnaces here is entirely 
absent. Yet, if the probabilities are strong that there were glass furnaces in 
Britain in Roman times, they should be far stronger as regards the same industry 
during the later period. Per contra, while there are some seeming indications of 
glass furnaces in Britain during the Roman occupation, we have absolutely no such 
testimony as regards the practice of the manufacture during Anglo-Saxon times.^ 

This condition of the case introduces the historical question whether, shortly 

' See Introductory Notices, p. 24. 


after the departure of the Romans — and supposing that they made glass here as 
they did in Gaul and elsewhere — there was not a gradual decline of such surviving 
manufacture until the middle of the sixth century, when the country had at last 
become somewhat settled under Saxon and Engle rule. We know that such a 
falling-off in the art of glass-making took place in the regions of the Western 
Empire; like causes would have produced like results; and such an industry, 
small though it may have been, and by no means unfamiliar to the invaders, 
could not have been easily carried on during the confusion, violence, and blood- 
shed of the period during which Britain became England, 450-560, and the 
Britons were dispossessed. In the period of settlement which followed, a revival 
in the glass-makers' art may well have taken place here, during which some of 
the cups in Class No. 2 which have been revealed to us may have been made. 
But although such revival would at first have been hampered by the internecine 
strife which soon began between the Saxon and the Engle, we must gather, on 
the one hand from the testimony of the graves, that glass-making was carried 
on from this time in the south of England ; and on the other, from documentary 
evidence, that the art had certainly died out in the North soon after the middle 
of the seventh century. 

Now, as to its re-establishment and re-use in the north of England. We 
find evidence of this in the statement of Bede concerning the foundation by 
Benedict Biscop of his church and monastery at Wearmouth in 675 : — 

When the work was drawing to completion, he sent messengers to Gaul to fetch makers of glass, 
more properly artificers, who were at this time unknown in Britain, that they might glaze the windows 
of his church, with the cloisters and refectory. This was done and they came, and they not only 
finished the work required, but also taught the English people their handicraft, which was well adapted 
for enclosing the lanterns of the churches and for the vessels required for various uses.^ 

The inhabitants of Northumbria must have been well accustomed to seeing 
remains of the dull Roman translucent glass in the villas and military stations 
along the line of Hadrian's Wall. 

The question here arises whether glass windows were not first used by 
Wilfrid at York. He was enthroned in 669, when he began the repairs of his 
cathedral ; he found it in a great state of dirt and neglect, the windows empty, and 
birds flying in and out ; deposed in 678, he was restored in 686. It is improbable 

^ " Proximantc autem ad pcrfectum opere, misit Anglorum ex co gentcm hujusmodi artificium nossc 

legatorios Galliam, qui vitri factorcs, artifices vide- et discerc fccerunt : artificium nimirum vel lampadis 

licet Brittaniis eatenus incognitos, ad cancellandas Ecclesiae claustris vel vasorum multifariis usibus 

Ecclesiae porticuumque et coenaculorum ejus fcnc- non ignobiliter aptum." — Baeda, Historia Ecdest- 

stras, adducerent. Factumquc est, et vencrunt ; ^i-Z/Vrt, cura Jo. Smith, edit. 1723, p. 275. 
nee solum opus postulatum complevcrunt, sed et 


that he inserted the glass — through which, nevertheless, as Eddius says, the light 
shone within,^ therefore cylinder- made and not cast glass — after 678, and possible 
that it was blown by the men his friend Benedict Biscop brought over from Gaul. 
At the same period there was, according to Bede, another Wilfrid at Worcester, 
who held the see for thirty years, until his death in 744, and who also substituted 
glass for the wooden shutters in his cathedral, or for the wickcr-w^ork lattices then 
in use. The new material excited great astonishment there, and supernatural 
agency was suspected when the moon and stars were seen through a substance 
which excluded the weather.'^ It was therefore its transparency, rather than the 
glass itself, which caused amazement at Worcester, and to a greater extent than 
at York about fifty years before. Thus the making of glass adapted for windows, 
"and for the vessels required for various uses," established by Benedict Biscop 
in the North, appears to have at once flourished, but not for long, because in or 
about the year 758 Cuthbert, Abbot of Jarrow, and a disciple of Bede, wrote as 
follows to Lullus, Bishop of Mayence : — 

If there be any man in your diocese who can make vessels of glass well, pray send him to me ; 
or if by chance he is beyond your bounds, in the power of some other person outside your diocese, 
I beg your fraternity that you will persuade him to come to us, for we are ignorant and helpless in that 
art ; and if it should happen that any one of the glass-makers through your diligence is permitted, 
D.V., to come to us, I will, while my life lasts, entertain him with benign kindness.^ 

Window-glass making, as it was then practised, whether cast or blown, was 
no doubt easier than the fabrication of vessels, but Bede tells us that glass was 
" well adapted " for both purposes at Wearmouth in 675, showing that the art 
was carried on there in both kinds, and that the foreigners taught the English 
their handicraft. A curious point is that men should have been brought from 
Gaul to teach mainly Saxons and Engles, whose immediate ancestors must have 
been familiar with the glass vessels from the Rhine-land. Eighty years later the art 
of glass-making in vessel form is shown by Cuthbert to have been completely lost, 
at least in the North, and a teacher is desired— not again from France, whence 
it might be supposed both the makers and the glasses themselves could still 

' " . . . per fenestras introitum avium ct im- vasa bene possit faccrc . . . mihi mittere digneris, 

brium vitro prohibuit, per quod tamen intro lumen aut si fortasse ultra fines est in potestate cujusdam 

radiebat."— f 7a? 5'. Wilfridi. Rcnim Aiiglicarum alterius sine tua parochia, rogo ut Fraternitas tua 

Scriptorcs Veteres, vol. ii. p. 59- § >^vi., T. Gale, ilH suadeat ut ad nos usque pervcniat, quia ejusdcm 

jgg,_ artis ignoti et inopes sumus, et si hoc fortasse con- 

- J. Clcpham, " The Manufacture of Glass in tingit ut aliquis de vitri factoribus cum tua diligentia, 

England ; Rise of the Art on the Tyne," Archacologia Deo volente, ad nos usque venire permittatur, cum^ 

Aeliana, New Series, vol. viii. p. 108, 1880. benigna mansuetudine vita comite ilium suscipio." 

^ " Si aliquis homo in tua sit parochia qui vitrea — Ep. Bonifacii, ed. Giles, Ep. cxiv. 



have been easily obtained, or possibly even from Kent, but from the distant 
diocese of Mayence, in a country long renowned for glass-making, and from which 
region in all probability the glasses in Class No. i had been drawn during the 
sixth century. 

At Jarrow, then, only a few miles from Wearmouth, steps were taken in 
758 for a fresh revival of one branch of the art in question, which had so soon and 
so strangely perished, with what success, or if with any, we know not. The 
elucidation of the subject is beset with difficulties ; a great number of minute 
historical and archaeological points have to be weighed and considered in dealing 
with glasses of the Anglo-Saxon period, the matter would require a volume to 
itself, and there is always the danger, in a limited notice, of being unconsciously 
tempted or led to extract more from isolated records than they properly give. 
In any case the information contained in the documents concerning glass-making 
in Northumbria in the seventh and eighth centuries is not necessarily also 
applicable to a presumed practice of the same mystery in Kent or Sussex, of 
which operation it is conceivable that the northern prelates know as little in the 
seventh and eighth centuries as we do at the present day.^ 

It is improbable, if Cuthbert's revival was carried out, that it was con- 
siderable or of long duration. The sword of the invading marauders fell first and 
most heavily in the countries drained by the Tyne, the Tees, and the Humber, and 
the wretched condition to which the country generally was reduced from the third 
c]uarter of the eighth century by the Danish invasions must have almost eclipsed 
the art. This again makes it improbable that glass-working was carried on, save 
to a somewhat limited extent, in England, perhaps only in Kent and Sussex, during 
the following hundred years, or until the time of Alfred (871-901), when the Danes 
were finally overcome and the country brought into a comparatively high state of 

Glass-making may then have revived, but, with regard to this point, we have 
a passage in a MS. of Anglo-Saxon Dialogues of about the middle of the tenth 
century, by Archbishop Alfric, in which a speaker, in the character of a merchant, 
states that he imports glass to England, together with costly gems, gold, silver, 
ivory, and other commodities of less value.'- The glass would hardly have been 

^ See Introductory Notices, p. 87. " The glass the rich, and to all people. I ascend my ship with 

vessels from the Saxon graves in Kent are of a my merchandize, and sail over the sealike places, 

great variety of form, and of very marked char- and sell my things, and buy dear things which are 

acter." — Collectanea Antiqua, vol. ii. p. 162. not produced in this land, and I bring them to you 

- Cotton MS., Tib., A. III. — "I say that I am here with great danger over the sea ; and sometimes 

useful to the King, and to the caldermen, and to I suffer shipwreck, with the loss of all my things, 

cuAr. II. 



Fig. 123. 
(One third.) 

spoken of in this connection if fashioned as cast slabs for windows, nor, perhaps, 
if in the form of vitrified beads, and may therefore be referred to the Anglo-Saxon 
drinking-vessels of the later kind discovered in England, and of which counterparts 
have been found on the Continent. These are the small glass 
cups with constricted bodies, plain, stringed, or fluted (Fig. 123), 
found, for example, in a grave of the ninth century at Oberflacht, 
in Swabia,^ in Normandy, in Cambridgeshire, and in Kent — 
about thirty of them, apparently a trader's consignment" — and 
the bowls. 

If any of the glasses of the Anglo-Saxon period found in 
England are earlier than the sixth century, which is unlikely, their 
certain identification would be very difficult. They have, more- 
over, all been usually assigned, upon apparently sufficient general historical, 
and archaeological evidence, to times not previous to the sixth century, but in 

and subsequent to it. Those of cognate character from the 

Continent have been similarly ascribed to the Merovingian and 

Carlovingian periods: — 

The entire series of such glass vessels found in England 

may be roughly divided into four classes. 

1. The stringed and lobed vases (Fig. 124). 

2. The tall or short, conical or trumpet - shaped cups, 
ribbed, fluted, waved, or stringed, one variety representing, 
perhaps, the twisted ale-cups of Beowulf, and all deriving 
from observation or recollection of Roman tumblers, such 
as may be seen in their earlier forms in the Museo Nazionale 

Fig. 124. (One third.) at Naplcs, obtaiucd from Pompeii; the usual funnel-shaped 

scarcely escaping myself." He is then asked, 
" What do you bring to us ? " to which he answers, 
" Skins, silks, costly gems, and gold ; various gar- 
ments, perfumes, wine, and oil, ivory, and orichalcus 
(copper) ; brass and tin, silver, glass, and such like." 
The merchant's words are: " Ic secge >a;t behefe 
ic com ee cinsic and eoldormannum and weligum 
and eallum follce ic astige min scyp mid hlsestum 
minum and rowe ofer sselice da^las and cype mine 
I'ingc and bicge I'incg dyr\vyri5e >a on )'isum lande 
ne bco> acennede and ic hit to-gelaede eow hider 
mid micclan plihte ofer sa; and hwylon forlidenesse 
ic I'olie mid lyre ealra ]'inga minra unease cwic 
a;tbcrstende " — " hwylce >inc gela^dst \>\x us" — 
" pjEllas and sidan deorwyrj^e gymmas and gold 

selcu]ie reaf and vvyrtgemangc win and ele ylpes- 
ban and maestingc a^r and tin swefel and glaes and 
J'ylces fela." — Library of National Antiquities, vol. 
i.. Vocabularies, edited by T. Wright ; Colloquy of 
Archbishop Alfric, p. 8 (privately printed, 1857). 

' ArcJiaeologia, vol. xxxvi. p. 129, "The 
Graves of the Alemanni at Oberflacht in Suabia," 
by W. M. Wylie, PI. XIV., Fig. i. 

- Akerman, Remains of Pagan Saxondom, PI. 
XXXIII., Fig. I. One of about thirty others found 
at Wodensborough, — a suggestive name, — Kent, at 
the end of the last century ; this was apparently a 
consignment from the Rhine-land. These cups 
were wickedly used at harvest-homes, and were 
finally all broken. 



ciiAr. II. 

glasses, and the very rare examples like seventeenth -century hunting-horns^ 
(Figs. 125-128). 

3. The small vessels with more or less globular bodies for holding in the 

Fig. 128. (One third.) 

Fig. 125. (One third.) 

Fig. 126. (One Ihird.) 

Fig. 127. (One third.) 

Fig. 129. (One third.) 

palm of the hand, narrowing, sometimes quite suddenly, to a short neck, and with 
rounded, pointed, or slightly flattened bases. The bodies of these globular glasses 

Fig. 130. (One third. 

Fig. 131. (One third.) 

Fig. 132. (One third.) 

Fig. 133. (One third.) 

are plain, stringed in spirals, in waves, in flutes, or in sketchy zigzag lines, 
recalling Roman examples in blue and yellow, and some of the scribbled beads 
(Figs. 129-144). 

' See Introductory Notices, pp. 22, 87. One shown on p. 24, Fig. 31, sup. It is not quite ac- 

of the pure funnel form, stringed and fluted, was curate to say that " no glass vessels have been 

found at Osingel, Kent, engraved Collectanea found in Interments in the Scandinavian peninsula " 

Antiqua, vol. iii., PI. III., No. 8 ; and a plain one (p. 19, sup:) Fragments of a lobed glass were dis- 

of a different form at Gilton in the same county, covered in a ship-grave at Borre, Norway, 1857 ; 

engraved Inventorium Sepulclirale, PI. XVIII., No. 5. and the remains of two others, in pale blue glass, at 

A beautiful example of a stringed beaker is Vendel, in Uppland, Sweden, in 1881. 




4. The bowls, plain, ribbed, or banded, and sometimes with a folded edge 
(Figs. 145, 146); and the latest examples of the palm cups of Teutonic origin. 

Fig. 134. (One third. 

Fig. 135. (One thirtl.) 

Fig. 136. (One third/ 

Fig. 137. (One third.) 

with constricted bodies and often with a button at the bottom outside (see Fig. 
123). The use of the palm cups and bowls is exactly shown in the Illuminated 

All the glasses which have been enumerated have been recovered from the 
graves of their ancient possessors ; there is no question whatever as to their authen- 
ticity ; they all seem to have been based more or less upon reminiscences of late 
Roman glass cups and vessels of the fourth century, and form without doubt the 

Fig. 138 (One third.) 

Fig. 139. (One third.) 

Fig. 140. (One third.) 

Fig. 141. (One third.) 

most interesting series, as they are the most fragile of all the ancient vessels for 
domestic use which English earth has disclosed to the explorer.^ 

The stringed and lobed vases, with bases just large enough to support them 
in an upright position, are perhaps the most rare and remarkable of all the glasses 
of early Post-Roman times. They are, indeed, rather vases than glasses, but some 
of them are allied in form to the trumpet-shaped cups or elongated tumblers, which 
must approach them very nearly in date. The vases discovered in England are of 
a character so precisely similar to the delicate and very precious examples of the 

* It is significant that the greatest variety of forms Iiave come from graves in Kent. 




same period which have been found in Prankish or Merovingian graves, as well as 
in Sweden, and even so far off as at Narona in Dalmatia, as to suggest the manu- 
facture of these particular vessels in a district almost continuously familiar for ages 
with the higher characteristics of glass-making. It is possible, therefore, that all 
the fragile and carefully-fashioned cups of Class i were made in the Rhine district 
between Coblence and Cologne, or in the neighbourhood of Mayence, or in Treves 
itself, and imported from thence into the different countries in which they have 

Fig. 142. (One third.) 

Fig. 143. (One third. 

Fig. 144. (One third.) 


Fig. 145. (One third.) 

Fig. 146. (One third.) 

been found ; although against this conjecture is the fact that some of the stringed 
and trumpet-shaped glasses — though somewhat less difficult of execution, are quite 
as frail and delicate in make as the lobed cups, and appear to have rather an Eng- 
lish than a continental origin. It is to be noted, with regard to these lobed vessels, 
that the supposed date of the grave in which they are found is not necessarily that 
of the glass itself, though the difference between them cannot be great.^ 

' In England they have been found at Castle 
Eden, Durham, engraved Archaeologia, vol. xv., 
PI. XXXVI., p. 402 ; Fairford, Gloucestershire, 
engraved Wylie, Fairford Graves, PI. I., p. 17; 
Reculver, Kent, engraved Akerman, Pagan Saxon- 
doiii, PI. II., p. 3 ; Gilton, Kent, engraved luven- 
torium Sepulchrale, PI. XVIII. — this example has 
a wavy line interspaced with dots round the lip ; 
Sarre, Kent, two examples : in one the lobes are 
vertically separated by long trails ; both are engraved 
Archaeologia Cantiana, vol. vi., PI. V. Figs, i and 
3 ; Wickhambreux, Kent, of the rare blue colour, 
engraved ibid., vol. xvii., PI. III. Fig. 5 ; Ashford, 
Kent, tall, conical or trumpet -shaped, engraved 

Baron J. de Baye, Anglo-Saxon Antiquities ; Coombe, 
Kent — this example fell into the hands of an old 
lady, and was long used as a sugar-basin. Collectanea 
Antiqiia, vol. ii. p. 221 ; Weston, Hampshire, ibid., 
p. 222 ; Chatteris, Cambridgeshire, engraved Gentle- 
man's Magazine, March 1766, and described by 

Among examples on the Continent is one from 
the Selsen cemetery, near Nierstein, now in the 
Museum at Mayence, discovered by Messrs. Linden- 
schmidt, engraved, " Das Germanische Todtenlager 
bei Selzen in der Provinz Rheinhessen," and in 
Collectanea Antiqua, vol. ii., PI. LI., p. 218; one 
from a grave at Nordendorf, now in the Museum 















The method of the manufacture of the lobed glasses was so curious, and 
implies the continuance of such advanced technical skill in the latter half of the 
sixth century, that a description may be attempted here. 

A "gathering" of glass being first blown into bulb shape, and fashioned, a 
foot was formed, the body was stringed, and the whole allowed to cool ; lumps or 
" prunts " of molten glass were then attached one by one to the sides of the cup, 
and irrespective of the lines of the stringings. The hot liquid metal acting upon 
the thin cooled sides of the object caused it to give way successively at the points 
of attachment under renewed pressure of blowing. The concavities thus formed 
extended into the bodies of the prunts, the projecting outer points of which, being 
seized by the pucellas, were rapidly drawn forward to a tail, and attached to the 
outside of the glass lower down. The invariable downward position of the free 
pendant hollow lobes made in this way was brought about by the natural action of 
the operator, who handled the material he was attaching in the direction away from 
his body, and, necessarily for this particular manipulation, working with the foot 
of the vessel farthest away from him.' The whole of the pendant lobes having 
been thus put on, and quilled or ornamented, as some of the examples show, the 
pO)itil\\2iS attached to the base, the blowing-iron whetted off the other end, and the 
closed bulb being softened at the mouth of the pot, presently became an open 
cup ; the mouth of the glass was now sheared, widened, and finished, the string- 
ing of the upper end of the vase usually forming part of this final operation 
(Plate 19— Wickhambreaux, Kent ; Plate 20— Ashford, Kent ; Plate 21— Sarre, 

The tall or short conical or trumpet-shaped cups of Class 2, ribbed, fluted, 
waved, or stringed, are almost as interesting in their shapes, and fragile in their 
character, as the lobed vases. The globular palm cups of Class 3 have less 
variety of form, but are distinguished by the careful accuracy of their stringings 
and sketchings. Some of the examples are of heavy make. Circumstances of 
provenance and indirect historical evidence seem to point to glass-houses in the 
weald of Kent and Sussex as the source of some of the Anglo-Saxon glasses in 
Class 2 and Class 3. 

at Munich; one in the WaUraf-Richartz Museum Museums at Wiesbaden, Mayence, Brussels, and 

at Cologne, with the lobes quilled like the Fairford Berlin. 

example ; and one in the Museum at Nuremberg, ' The points of the " prunts " {blobs, stachel- 

with a single row of lobes, in this respect like nuppen, or doornstokje) of the sixteenth and seven- 

the Sarre example, but with no "prunts" above teenth century Igel,Krautstrunk, Roemcr, and Bcrke- 

them. The whole of these vessels, with the ex- meyer are invariably set upwards, indicating their 

caption of that from Ashford, Kent, are of the application as the last operation of the maker and 

vase form. Further examples are preserved in the after the attachment of the pontil to the base. 



The full-mouthed and ahiiost semi-spherical bowls in Class 4 apparently 
first came into use with the globular palm cups of Class 3, which they long 
survived. Like them and all the others, they varied in colour from amber 
and different shades of green, and sometimes of blue, to horny white. They 
have also been found in France and Germany. An unusually large and 
heavily made example in amber-tinted glass, from a grave at Desborough 
in Northamptonshire, measures yi inches in diameter and 4f inches in 

The absence in the greater number of the varieties of Anglo-Saxon glasses 

of any base upon which they could stand, has been considered as indicative 

of the desire of their ancient users not to attempt to set them down unemptied, 

or to linger in applying them to the proper purpose. Pressure in this direction 

was, doubtless, not much needed, for it may be remembered that excessive 

drinking in England was at that period a fashionable vice in all ranks of 

society. And it is an interesting item of the higher social life of those days 

that in the employment of glass cups and bowds, of which the use could not 

at any time during the Anglo-Saxon period have been other than restricted, 

their limited capacity — a necessity probably of their manufacture — would imply 

prolonged carouses, with dangerous tippling out of small " tumblers," as 

contradistinguished from copious and potent draughts from horns and portly 

metal or wooden goblets of ordinary use. We know exactly from Illuminated 

Anglo-Saxon MSS., which bring us taut soit pen into the light of day, in 

what manner the feasters and revellers sat at table or on the " mede settle,"- 

handled their drinking-vessels — a not unimportant detail — and pledged one 

another with their small conical vessels, their round - bottomed cups, and 

their little bowls — the two latter kinds being always held in the palm of the 

hand — or drank deep draughts from great horns." Whether the cups and 

the bowls in the illuminations are always intended for glass it is difficult to 

say, but their forms are undoubtedly versions of those of the later glass vessels 

recovered from the graves. A few of the cherished glasses may have lingered 

in use in England in high places, or in quiet Benedictine monasteries where the 

illuminations were made, after their fabrication had been abandoned here, but 

the probability seems to be that many small cups and bowls were imported from 

the Continent, most likely from Germany, during the ninth century, by traders 

like the merchant of the Dialogues ; it would be reasonable to believe that many 

^ Now in the British Museum, engraved " Cotton MS., Tiberius, B. 5. 

Archaeologia, vol. xlv. p. 469. ^ //;/,■/., Julius, A. 6 ; Cleopatra, C. 8. 


also came then from France. The drinking habits of the people are not 
likely to have improved after the irruptions of the boisterous and intemperate 
Danes ; and while the destruction of glass vessels must have been rapid, the 
demand for them would also have been such as a limited and dislocated 
industry could not have alone supplied. 

To arrange the whole series of glass cups of the Anglo-Saxon period in 
rigid order of date is as desirable as with the beads, but with our present 
knowledge this is, perhaps, not possible. Any suggestion upon this point 
must consequently be now put forward with great diffidence, and because the 
origin and comparative date of these glass vessels is, as has been intimated, 
a matter of considerable complication. Moreover, the question becomes the 
more difficult of accurate solution on account of the finding of glasses of 
precisely the same make and shape in countries so widely distant from each 
other. Their story is, in short, as obscure as the details of much of the 
history of the so-called dark period — that is, of the period dark to us — to which 
they belong. 

With regard, therefore, to the chronological classification and the provenance 
of the glasses of the Anglo-Saxon period that have been found in England, 
the author desires to do no more at the present time than to suggest — sons toutes 
rdserves — as follows : — 

1. That the stringed and lobed glass vessels of vase form, and those of 
trumpet or tall conical shape, similarly ornamented, come from the district of 
Cologne, Coblence, or Treves, and are the earliest in point of date, and derive 
accordingly from late Roman models more immediately than any others. Their 
presence in widely separated parts of the Continent, as well as in England, 
would thus be accounted for. They do not appear in Illuminated MSS., 
and may have been imported to England during the latter half of the sixth 

2. That those stringed spirally or otherwise, conical, trumpet, or funnel 
shaped, waved, ribbed, or fluted, thick or thin, the spirally stringed being 
perhaps the earlier, may, with almost equal probability, have been produced 
in England or in France ; but with a leaning towards the view of the greater 
variety having been made in England in the latter part of the sixth, and during 
the seventh century. We have seen that the glass-makers' art had died out 
in the North before 675; it may well have continued in the forests of Kent 
and Sussex without the cognisance of Bede. But while many of these are 
vessels such as any glass-maker of moderate capacity could produce, if we 

122 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. ii. 

may claim special English peculiarities in any of the shapes, the chemists 
may perhaps discover in them distinctive qualities of metal also. 

3. That the above remarks as to provenance and make apply also to 
the globular ornamented and plain palm cups of slightly varying forms, which 
apparently come next in date, and carry us on to nearly the end of the eighth 
century, when the coming of the Danes must have deeply affected their 
manufacture here. 

4. That the semi-spherical bowls, also for use in the palm of the hand, 
were made contemporaneously in England, France, in the Rhine district, and 
possibly beyond it. That the period of the English bowls is, generally speaking, 
the latter part of the eighth, the ninth, and perhaps some way into the tenth 
century, and coincides with that of the German cups with rounded bases and 
waisted or constricted bodies, of a special and late Teutonic type, rarely found 
here, and probably never made in England, but imported ; ' and that the bowls 
found in England were concurrent with the later palm cups, but outlasted 
them, and are consequently the latest of Anglo-Saxon glass vessels. This is 
also a fact which seems to be well authenticated by the Illuminated MSS. 

It will be at once understood that the four classes of glass drinking-vessels 
of the Anglo-Saxon period present no exception to the usual rule in the 
allocation of a series of archaeological objects ; the classes overlap one 
another in both directions, and are merely arbitrary divisions, more or less, 
for the purpose of endeavouring to obtain and show some order. The 
difficulties as to origin or provenance are, of course, more emphatic than 
those of date. 

The fifty-third illustration of the Bayeux tapestry — et • hic • episcopvs : 
ciBV : ET : POTv : benedicit — represents a feast at a horse-shoe table, at which 
Odo, standing by the side of the Conqueror, blesses the viands, the scene 
taking place after the arrival of the army at Hastings. Small semi-spherical 
bowls are depicted for drinking purposes, showing, with the perfect accuracy 
of the Record, as far as the range of its materials would allow, that vessels 
of this not very convenient form were still in use in the middle of the 
eleventh century, and were held in the palm of the hand and steadied and 
supported for service by the tips of the fingers and thumb.'^ The capricious 
and limited polychromy of the Stitchwork makes it difficult to say for certain 

They are said to be of inferior glass to that of represented holding shallow bowls in exactly the 
the generality of vessels found in England. same manner. 

- In the Nineveh sculptures the kings arc often 


whether these Norman representatives of the last survivals of the ancient 
Anglo-Saxon, Merovingian, and Carlovingian drinking- vessels were made 
of glass, metal, or wood. But their colours — green, blue, red, and yellow — are 
all applicable to glass. That the shape of much earlier times, whatever 
the material composing it, was retained up to so late a date is, however, a 
point of interest, and this is, pro taiito, a step towards the correct classifica- 
tion of Anglo-Saxon glasses. 



Benedict Biscop's glass for the windows of Wearmouth in the last quarter 
of the seventh century is an isolated and curious record, and the fact of the 
makers having been obtained from France is suggestive, because we know 
from the Treatise of Theophilus, written apparently in the twelfth century, 
and probably in Germany, that France was the cradle of the art of painted 
glass for windows at least as early as at that time. Some, indeed, consider 
the Treatise as a record of the tenth century. The probability is that Biscop's 
glass was plain white, and perhaps also coloured in the mass, and in small 
pieces for insertion in the apertures of stone or marble, or perhaps in 
metal frameworks for window openings, like those in the church of St. Sophia 
at Constantinople of the early part of the sixth century, and that Limoges in 
the Limousin, or its neighbourhood, was the spot where the art of painted glass 
was first practised. 

It is almost essential to the consideration of the subject in hand that some- 
thing should be said about window-glass in England in mediaeval times, and it 
will not be irrelevant in the first place to recall to mind that at Limoges, so 
famous in the Middle Ages for its enamelling, a Venetian colony was settled 
as early as 979 for general purposes of inland trade, and for which its 
position was very favourable. Thus some of the commerce and of the arts 
of the East, including those of Byzantium, found their way into the West 
by way of Alexandria, Marseilles, and Limoges ; and as there was an amber 
trade route from Denmark and the Scandinavian peninsula, and along the 
shores of the Baltic, to the East through Bohemia and Hungary, from the 
end of the first quarter of the fifth century — as is attested, among other 


evidence, by the dates of Byzantine coins found in those regions — so there 
was another commercial line, originating in the early tin trade with Britain, 
of which Limoges was at once a distributing point and an art centre. Greek 
artists, indeed, as the Abbe Texier has shown, were settled at Limoges later 
on, and without assuming that the Byzantine enamellers were the inventors 
of glass-painting, there can be no doubt that it is to the Byzantine influence, 
which came westward in this way, that must be attributed a great part of 
the impulse then given both to enamelling and glass - painting in western 
Europe. We have seen that the art of enamel painting on drinking-vessels 
was practised by the Romans, at least as early as the fourth century. The 
ascertained resemblance between the texture of the twelfth-century glass and 
that of the antique is too close to have been accidental, and the alien character 
of the former is supported by the Byzantine style of the earlier mediaeval glass- 
painting in windows, both in their design and drawing.^ 

The earliest well-authenticated existing example of painted glass for 
windows is at Saint- Denis, of the middle of the twelfth century, and then 
presented by Suger to his church. It is executed according to the method 
described by Theophilus, the colouring being effected by pieces of white and 
tinted glass, and the drawing and pencilling of the design done with enamel 
brown. This type of painted glass continued until about 1250, as the examples 
at Angers, Sens, Chartres, Bourges, Canterbury, Lincoln, Salisbury, and other 
places attest.^ 

But while the window-glass was being treated during so long a period in 
this manner, it is remarkable that there does not appear to have been correspond- 
ing artistic activity in the direction of the decoration of glass drinking-vessels 
in England, or perhaps up to the end of the twelfth century in France. In 
both countries the choicest glass drinking-cups that have been recorded in 
inventories, or that have been preserved, are not Byzantine but Oriental- 
Saracenic, "a la fa^on de Damas," and "a la Morisque," as spoken of, for 
instance, in French royal inventories of the last quarter of the fourteenth 
century.3 Both in England and France such vessels were mounted in silver, 
gilt, and enamelled, and were evidently much esteemed, so that it becomes 
the more difficult to understand why French and English window -glass 
makers and painters did not bend themselves to the easier process of making 

' Sec Winston, Memoirs Illustrative of the Art ' Ibid. p. 238. 

0/ Glass Painting,^. 2 T,7 ; and Introductory Notices, ^ See Introductory Notices, p. 90. 

p. 88. 

126 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. in. 

and painting, and, after about 1310, yellow-staining their own "coupes de voirre " 
— a mode of decoration so successfully practised in Germany on drinking- 
vessels in the latter part of the sixteenth and the early part of the seventeenth 
centuries — instead of continuing to accept them ready-made from the Orient, with 
their imperfections of manufacture and beauty of enamelled decorations, at the 
hands of the traders of Limoges, and of pilgrims from the East. That the 
English and French glass-makers did not so exercise their undoubted great 
talents in this direction we might gather from the fact that, when they should 
have been doing so, the glass artists of the Orient were sending westward 
their much-prized glass cups, and that no similarly valued drinking-vessels 
of the period under consideration have come down to us, or been noticed in 
inventories, as specially of French or of English make. 

Yet the absence at the present day of the glasses themselves, or even of 
fragments of them, is, as we shall duly see, no valid proof that none were 
produced ; examples of the glasses of a period centuries nearer our own time are 
similarly wanting. It must be remembered, in this regard, that Roman and 
Anglo-Saxon glass vessels have only been preserved because pagan custom 
decreed that they should be carefully buried in the earth with the ashes or bodies 
of their ancient owners. With the introduction of Christianity such preservation 
naturally ceased, save under special circumstances. And if it is a matter for 
wonder that no English mediaeval glass vessels have escaped destruction, and 
simply a few late fifteenth-century French ones, it should be still more so that 
there is only indirect testimony of the appearance of English-made glasses during 
the greater part of Mansel's career in the first half of the seventeenth century. 

It is not surprising that the art so successfully practised in France 
should have soon been carried on in England, and it is fitting that the earliest 
and finest examples of English picture windows should be in Canterbury 
Cathedral : there seems strong reason for believing that their date is not later 
than the middle of the last quarter of the twelfth century. The importance 
of this fixture is obvious, because, inasmuch as we have seen that glass- 
making in England was alternately in a declining and a reviving condition 
during the whole of Anglo-Saxon times, we now find from the windows at 
Canterbury that it was flourishing here in great vigour and perfection at the 
end of the twelfth century. A high condition of the art, thus verified, implies 
a season of practice and training in England of such a length as to carry 
back the reintroduction of sjlass-makino- to within measurable distance of the 
Conquest, or, speaking more strictly, to the end of the unsettled period 


which followed that vigorous military movement. During this time peaceful 
pursuits were naturally more or less hampered or laid aside, and it may con- 
sequently be assumed that it was not before the middle of the twelfth century, 
and, in fact, until the reign of the great monarch Henry II. (1154-1189), that 
the glass-making industry was again established here, at a time when other 
arts underwent a permanent improvement. That this condition was brought 
about by the large commercial intercourse with France which followed 
Henry II. 's acquisition, through his marriage in 1151, of the Duchy of 
Aquitaine, in addition to the vast dominions beyond the sea to which he 
succeeded in right of his father and of his mother, and the consequent 
command of the French coast from Picardy to the Pyrenees, there can be 
little question, and it is a remarkable fact in the history of the art of glass- 
making and painting, that while Suger's glass at Saint-Denis is of the middle of 
the twelfth century, that at Canterbury, not much later in character, is no 
earlier in date than of the extreme end of it. As has been already stated, 
the significance of these conditions is that, whereas at the end of the twelfth 
century we were nearly fifty years behind France in the art of painted windows, 
as regards style of architecture we were greatly in advance of that country, 
as the undoubted date of the work of St. Hugh at Lincoln testifies. 

The art of glass-making and painting having been thus acquired from France 
about the middle of the twelfth century, it was assuredly at first mainly produced 
in this country by Norman hands, or under Norman direction ; it must therefore 
be impossible to pronounce with absolute certainty upon the nationality of much 
of the painted glass in England which may be safely assigned to the first half of 
the thirteenth century, such, for instance, as the splendid rose window in the 
north transept of Lincoln, the remains of a Jesse in a window on the north side 
of the nave clerestory at York, and the pattern windows in Salisbury Cathedral. 
But whether by Norman or English hands, these are pronounced by the competent 
authority of Mr. Winston to be productions of the English school. Without 
attempting to indicate with precision at what time the English artificers finally 
shook off their foreign instructors, it may be assumed that it doubtless took less 
than half a century for the learners to acquire all that their teachers could tell 
them. The mention of Salisbury reminds us, only too vividly, of the shocking 
destruction which has taken place of those precious English works in glass now 
known to us only by fragments ; and not only is wanton havoc to be deplored 
at Sarum, but throughout the country, and of all periods, making it impossible 
to form anything approaching to a connected series of complete examples of the 

128 OLD EX GUSH GLASSES. chap. iii. 

English glass-painters' art. Entries could be quoted from documents respecting 
the introduction of painted windows into castles and houses in the hands of the 
Crown, by the usual means of mandates to sheriffs ; and from Fabric Rolls 
concerning the purchase of glass, both white — so-called, it was more or less green 
— and coloured, for great monastic churches, such as the Abbey. But it must be 
sufficient for the present purpose to bridge over with wide steps the centuries 
during which glass was principally made in England for windows, and only, as 
far as we may assume, to a very moderate extent in the form of vessels for 
general domestic uses. 

As we descend the stream of time and leave the fascinating Early English 
epoch, the greatest of the "good old times," examples of u-indow-glass, both 
pictorial and heraldic, increase and crowd in ; of the latter kind, Avhich belong 
specially to the Decorated period, are the Dene window at York, the striking 
figures of the De Clares and Despenccrs in Tewkesbury's solemn Abbey Church, 
all wearing ailettes and carrying lances, and showing some French influence in 
the details of the armour, and, cjuite late in the style, the great Cressy window 
at Gloucester — naturally a purely English work, and apparently, from heraldic 
evidence, set up by Lord Bradeston between 1347 and 1350. All these are 
notable examples of the high point of excellence to which glass and glass- 
painting was pushed before the middle of the fourteenth century by English 

That glass was still sent from France, in honourable rivalry with native work, 
we know from documentary evidence concerning the purchase of glass from 
Rouen in 13 17, for Exeter Cathedral. It is possible, also, that some of the early 
Decorated glass in the Abbey, and in Merton Chapel, Oxford, came from France.^ 

1 Edward III. began the rebuilding of St. each receiving is. a day. Eleven painters at yA. 

Stephen's Chapel at Westminster in 1330. The a day laid the glass on the tables, and painted it, 

expense rolls show that when the work was so far and fifteen others cut, broke, and joined it together, 

advanced that steps could be taken for obtaining at the wages of 6d. a day, w ith assistants who were 

and painting the glass for the windows, the whole paid at the rate of 42-d. or 4d. John Geddyng 

of it was procured in England, by means of writs washed the tables with " servicia " and whitening 

to sheriffs (i 349-135 i), in no less than twenty- from time to time as fresh surfaces were required 

seven counties, including Surrey and Sussex, of for the drawings, and Thomas de Dadyngton and 

course, Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, and the distant Robert Yerdesle ground the colours at the wages 

duchy of Cornwall. This shows to what a large of 4.yd. a day. White, blue, azure, and red glass 

extent glass was then made in England. It should was bought by the " pondus " ; blue, red, and azure 

be noticed that the best glass was required for the coming by water from London to Westminster, and 

royal chapel, and not a word is said about glass much white glass from John de Alemayne at 

from " beyond the seas." Master John de Chester, Chiddingfold in Surrey. — J. T. Smith, Antiquities 

and his five assistant master glaziers, drew the (?/ ffVjVw/wjVtv-, pp. 83, 191, edit. 1S07. 

"images" for the glass windows on white tables, - Winston, ?// j///., p. 171. 


The introduction of the yellow stain, quite in the beginning of the fourteenth 
century, certainly gave an impulse in a new direction to glass-painting in England ; 
and after the middle of the century a great change took place in the manufacture 
simultaneously with the alteration in the manner of painting it. W'ykeham's 
glass at New College is an early instance of the new style. 

Light and delicate shading, and a large proportion of white glass with the 
figures standing against dark backgrounds under white and yellow -stained 
canopies, signalise the continuing development of Perpendicular glass between 1360 
and 1380, as well as mark its progress towards the perfection which it reached as 
an English pictorial art at the end of the first quarter of the sixteenth century. 
Its native origin is absolutely borne out by the evidence of armour and costume. 
Every style has its beauties, and if the later Perpendicular glass lacks somewhat 
of the peculiar vigour and deep colouring of the thirteenth, or the gem-like 
brilliancy of the early fourteenth-century glass, we may always recognise with 
thankfulness that the latest architectural style, as it expanded from its cradle at 
Gloucester, was so happily met by the native glass-painters. The choir of York 
may stand as warrant of this statement.^ And, taken as an artistic whole, what 
more beautiful thing than a genuine Perpendicular window with its genuine 

glass ! 

The oft-quoted extract from the covenant of 1447 between the executors of 
the Earl of Warwick, " Brass Beauchamp," and John Prudde of Westminster, 
for the glazing of the windows in the Beauchamp Chapel, stating that Prudde 
should use glass of "beyond the Seas" and "no Glasse of England," has been 
frequently put forward in proof of the inferiority at that time of the English 
metal. But, as a matter of fact, there is no superiority in this glass over other 
windows of the same period elsewhere in England ; it differs in no respect from 
them, and is nothing more than an average example of the time.- Prudde was, 
indeed, limited by his contract as to his use of white, green, and black glass, 
but the quantity of white and green that he used is very considerable, and there 
is no black glass at all ; and while this tends to show that he exercised his own 
discretion in the matter, it is not improbable that he also did so with regard to 
all the coloured glass and its nationality, for he evidently had better taste than his 

1 Sec Drake, History and Antiquities of York, the accomplished autlior, ^^■\^o was snatched auay 

y edit 1736 i" his prime by a sudden stroke, 3rd October 1864, 

' =" Winston, nt 'sup., p. 339. The preparation of to the grief of all who had enjoyed the friendship of 

his paper on the Painted Glass in the Beauchamp so genial a spirit. 

Chapel, Warwick, was among the last labours of 




employers. He was not required by his contract to procure his coloured o-lass 
direct from abroad, but to get the best foreign glass he could in England. It 
remains to be pointed out that there is nothing in the nature of any of it which 
could enable a critic to say that it is French or Flemish glass because it is either 
better or worse than English.^ 

The windows of King's College Chapel will be alluded to under another head later on. 



The object of the abo\e cursory remarks upon glass-painting in England has 
been to show the re-introduction of glass-making, and the continued practice of 
the manufacture from the middle of the twelfth to the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. But the author is aware of the statement put into print in 1851, "that 
there is not a particle of evidence to prove that any description of glass was 
manufactured in this country before the fifteenth century."^ 

During the long period alluded to above it is too true that we have but one 
certain record of the making of glass vessels, and only the slightest material indi- 
cations, very far from sufficient, it must be confessed, to amount to an absolute 
warranty of such manufacture in England side by side and continuously with 
that of window-glass ; English-made mediaeval glass cups, which might have been 
painted and stained like the windows, as well as mere crude "vessel," are, in fact, 
even rarer than examples of English-made pottery during the same period. The 
one art in question, more fragile, certainly, than the other, and probably always less 
in quantity, has perished and left barely a trace. Yet it is almost inconceivable 
that the makers of blown, and not cast-glass for windows — such as, for example, 
the "verrers" of Colchester of the end of the thirteenth and the early part of 
the fourteenth century must have produced -—did not constantly turn their hands 

1 Hudson Turner, Domestic Architecture in in Britain to have had glass-works in Roman days 

Eno-land, vol. i. p. 75 (1851). from the time when the Colony of Veterans was 

- Introd., Slade Cat., p. xxxii. The town established there. In no place in this country 

which enjoys the unique privilege of having its did Roman influence strike deeper, or has at the 

earliest days recorded by the hand of Tacitus present day more living witnesses ; and it was the 

is as likely, from its local conditions, as any other opinion of Dr. Guest that of all the towns in 

132 OLD EXGLISH GLASSES. ciiAr. iv. 

to the fashioning, if not of decorated, at least of simple drinking-vessels such 
as were being made in the Weald in 1380. On the other hand, unfortunately, we 
may perhaps be as certain as we can be about anything that, w ith the exceptions 
presently to be mentioned, no glass drinking-vessels presumably made in England 
during the twelfth and three following centuries have come down to us. It is 
rather humiliating. 

The antiquity of glass-making at Chiddingfold, in the Weald, has been well 
ascertained by the Rev. T. S. Cooper from documents. Laurence Vitrearius had 
a grant of twenty acres of land in Chiddingfold about 1230. In a deed of 1301 a 
certain rent in the parish was released to William, son of ^^'illiam le Verir of that 
place. During the fourteenth century four generations of the local family of 
Schurtere followed the occupation of "glasieres," i.e. glass-makers, in Chiddingfold 
and Kirdford. On 3rd April 1380 John Glasewryth of Staffordshire had a grant 
of house and land in Shuerwode, Kirdford, and there made " brodeglas " and 
" vessel." 

Between 1214 and 1222 Abbot Robert de Lyndeseye^ gave part of his "vine- 
yard," at the east end of the Abbey Church of Peterborough, for the extension of 
the burial-ground of the monks. This portion was just outside the Saxon wall of 
the close, due east of the Norman choir. At the end of the fifteenth century the 
church was extended eastward by the New Building, of which the east wall was 
planted upon the Saxon wall of the close. In 1876 a drain was carried for the 
first time outside and round this east wall, and in the course of the necessary 
excavations several coffins of Barnack rag were found and exhumed, but they are 
said not to present characteristics sufficient to mark their date. This is very likely, 
because stone coffins were necessarily kept in stock, and their style did not alter 
during long periods. In one of such coffins, placed almost central with the axis 
of the church, was found a bluish-green glass cup, 2h inches high, and 3! inches 
in diameter, with a strip of glass attached on one side horizontally just below 
the rim, and so waved as to leave two orifices through which a thin cord could 
be passed (Fig. 147).^ No burial could have taken place in this portion of 
the vineyard before its grant to the monks by the abbot ; and it is probable that 
the central position was chosen for the interment of some one more important than 

England none was more likely than Camiilodunum ' His bearded effigy in Purbcck marble in 

to have been continuously inhabited through Peterborough Cathedral shows the abbot vested 

British, Romano -British, and English days. The in alb, chasuble, maniple, and amice. 

fourteenth - century verrers of Colchester may, -' Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries (Scot.), 

therefore, have lineally represented glass-makers vol. x., N.S., p. 149. Paper by J. T. Irvine. 

of Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Norman times. 

ciiAr. IV. 



Fir,. 147. (One half.) 

a common monk, soon after the grant. This would, therefore, take back the date 
of the vessel in question to the first half of the thirteenth century. 

It is impossible to say whether it originally contained relics, like the glass 
found in the altar at Michelfeld,^ or was, as is more likely, only an attribute of the 
position held by the dead man, perhaps the taster of 
a ccllerarins major, an important office-bearer in a 
convent, to be suspended by a cord from the girdle, for 
assaying the liquor at the hogshead in the cellar ; not a 
" spare pece " for use in the refectory in view of the ever 
present dread of poison in mediaeval times. It may be 
taken for granted that the cup was nearly new when 
deposited in the coffin, and there is no reason why it should not be of English 
manufacture. It is by no means clear glass and has many air-bubbles. The abbot 
who granted part of his vineyard as a burial-ground at Peterborough filled with 
glass thirty of the church windows, which had previously been stuffed with 
straw ;^ the cup may have been brought to Peterborough at that time. Its 

general resemblance in shape to Roman glasses of the fourth 
century painted in enamel with animals, that have been found 
in Denmark, and to the plain examples from cists in Forfar- 
shire,' also of the Iron Age, must be accidental (Fig. 148). 

In the Accounts of Henry, second son of Edward I., 
who was born in 1268, died in 1274, and was buried in the 
Abbey, is the entry of a glass cup bought for twopence 
halfpenny. Having been bought, and for so small a price, and not sent as a 
present in the usual mediaeval way, this was probably of English manufacture.* 

The use that was made during the Middle Ages of hollow tubes both of 
crystal and of glass for the preservation and exhibition of relics, and their elaborate 
mountings of gold and silver, and of glass vessels for special church purposes, is 
well known, and they are constantly alluded to in inventories. Among such 
venerated objects the precious oil of certain saints— St. Catherine, St. Nicholas, 
St. Mary of Sardinia, and others— occurs, spoken of as contained " in a glass," 
" in a glass vial," " in a vial of crystal." We gather some information concerning 
the form which such vessels may have taken in their use in England from three 

Fir,. 14S. (One half.) 

> Sec Introductory Notices, p. 34- ' I" the Wardrobe Accounts, of 28 Edward I. 

"- Albert Hartshorne, Recumbent Monumental (1300), the entry occurs of the purchase for the 

Effigies in Northamptonshire, p. 54- King of " duo urinaUa vitrea." These were perhaps 

« Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries (Scot.), also of English make. Introd., .S. K. Cat., p. Ixx.j. 

vol. viii., N.S., p. 136. (footnote). 




Fig. 149. 
(One half.) 

examples, closely resembling each other, which were discovered respectively the 
one in the east wall of the Church of St. Nicholas, South Kilworth, Leicestershire, 
in 1868, and the other two in the west wall of the north aisle of St. Mary's, Lutter- 
worth, in 1868 or 1869 (Fig. 149). All three vessels had contained oil ; they were 
perhaps merely deposited for safety where they were found, at the time of the 
Reformation, and may be dated about the middle of the fifteenth 
century.^ They stand almost alone in tlie circumstances of their 
discovery, and if we may assume that they are examples of English 
glass, they have a special interest with reference to the present 
inquiry. It can readily be imagined that these little " monuments of 
superstition" w^ere plucked away from their silver-gilt mountings, 
and cast aside to be reclaimed by pious hands, and secretly hidden 
in the sacred walls, not as their ancient preservers hoped, soon to be 
reinstated in honour, but to rest undisturbed, the phials by flu.x of 
time becoming more valuable than their once cherished contents, 
and finally marking a point in an obscure chapter in the history of 
an art centuries after their deposit. These slight examples appear 
to show a manufacture of glass vessels for ecclesiastical purposes in the fifteenth 
century which one is tempted to believe was English, because they are not choice 
objects, and their use was so common that it is improbable that they would have 
been imported into a country where glass was largely made. 

A phial of a very similar character to those already mentioned, but belonging 
to a different category, was found in 1866, imbedded in the 
east wall behind the altar of the church of St. Phillack, 
Cornwall, half filled with a substance believed to be the blood 
of St. Felicitas. From the position in which it was reposed 
it is said not to be later than the twelfth century.- This seems 
to require confirmation. Another phial was found in 1872 in a 
prepared cavity in the outer side of the south corner of the east 

. . Fic. 150. (One half.) 

wall of the chancel of Anstey Church, Hertfordshire (Fig. 150). 

Chemical analysis showed the remaining fluid in the vessel to have been blood. ^ 

Mr. Powell was of opinion that, from their peculiarity of manufacture, the 
phials from South Kilworth and Lutterworth were ancient.^ On the other hand. 
Dr. Fowler classed them with seventeenth or eighteenth-century bottles, used to a 

' Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries (Lond.), 2 ■* Ibid., vol. v. p. 135. Mr. Powell's opinion 

S., vol. iv. p. 284 ; vol. V. pp. i 14, 132. is borne out by a drawing of a thirteenth-century 

" Ibid., vol. V. p. 135. glass phial in MS. Douce, 180, Bodleian. 

" Ibid., vol. vi. p. 390. 


large extent in accordance with certain well-known, widespread, and very queer 
medical superstitions — buried magical remedies in churchyards, wall roots, under 
hearth-stones, door-sills, etc., against sickness, witchcraft, demons, and other 
troubles. He based his conclusions upon the absence of granular decay of any 
kind in the glasses.^ This is a test which, it seems, may easily be pushed too far, 
inasmuch as the decay of glass is largely influenced by circumstances of contact 
and surroundings, more so than by the flight of time ; but it will never be easy 
to distinguish with certainty between ecclesiastical and magical relics. Another 
example of a glass phial was found under the pavement of Lapworth Church, 
Warwickshire.^ Tubes of glass were used to enclose thorns from the Crown of 
Thorns. Such a relic is at St. Mark's, Venice, and another at the abbey of St. 
Maurice in the Valais, under the frowning heights of the Dent du Midi. Both 
were the gift of Saint Louis." 

An example of a drinking-vessel for secular use may be quoted from a MS. 
of the middle of the fifteenth century, — " How a man schalle be armyd at his 
ese when he schal iighte on foote." Among the articles enumerated as necessary 
for the Appellant and the Defendant to have with them in the field are, "a cuppe 
to drynke of" and "a glas with a drynke made." ^ It is hardly likely that a 
precious " Damas " glass would have been used in such rough amusements as 
" joustes a plaisance," or that glasses of the common sort, which any glass-maker 
could fashion, were imported. The "glas with a drynke made," of which, un- 
luckily, no drawing is given in the MS., may therefore be taken to have been 
English; and it will not be too much to infer, from its mention under such 
circumstances, that the use of rude native-made drinking-glasses — the "vessel" 
of the Weald — was fairly established here in the middle of the fifteenth century. 
It should be suggested that such drinking-vessels must have partaken of 
the simple character of the small glass cups that appear in the early Low 
Country pictures, but of which England can produce no corresponding pictorial 

In a fifteenth-century MS. in the Bodleian— Douce 219— two glass tumblers 
are shown, the one vertically fluted, and the other ornamented with diagonal 
bands (Figs. 151, 152). These bear out the view just expressed as to the appear- 
ance of the glass in the jousts alluded to. In the same MS. a glass jug with a 
handle, and following the general form of metal household vessels of the time, is 

1 " Decay oiGld-ss" Archaeologia, vol. xlvi. p. 132. ^ Iiitrod., S. K. Cat., p. clix. 

- Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries, 2 S., vol. vi. ■* Archaeological Journal, vol. iv. p. 235. 

p. 390. 




Fiu. 151. 

Fic. 152. 

depicted. In 1465 sixpence was paid for a bottle of glass at Ipswich.^ This 
was probably English also. 

With further regard to the reasons why neither choice nor common glass 
cups appear to have been made and generally used in England, during so great 

a part of the long period in which the art 
of painted glass was successfully practised 
here, it must be borne in mind that the rude 
habits of secular life, even among the highest 
classes, where were many gentlemen but little 
gentleness, were not such as to render fragile 
vessels of this kind acceptable, at least, as 
has already been suggested, not before the last quarter of the fourteenth century. 
The valued glasses from the East must have been regarded more as mysterious 
curiosities and ornaments for the sideboard than as vessels for use, and their 
shapes were so much at variance with the traditional and requisite form of 
the chalice as to preclude their being offered for use at the altar.- The glass 
coffin chalice from Liege is a departure from general rules. But, specially, 
the rough conditions of living in England repelled the idea of native imitations, 
however imperfect, for ordinary service, of such frail wares, while they forbade 
the general employment even of simple English-made glass cups for domestic use 
much before the middle of the fifteenth century, and then only to a very limited 
extent, and in the same crude inartistic forms as those of the Low Country 
glasses previous to the influence of the Venetians and Altarists. 

Moreover, a semi-barbaric splendour, coarse abundance, whimsical variety, 
and stately parade were better promoted and enhanced by massive cups and 

^ Douiestic Architecture in Eug/aud, vol. iii. 
p. 159. 

'" Glass chalices, which were sometimes decorated 
with painting, were forbidden in 895 on account of 
their fragility, and doubtless also for fear of the use 
of their fragments for purposes of magic ; but they 
were not wholly discontinued because glass fell 
into the category of molten materials, such "as gold 
and silver, which were enjoined to be used. Pope 
Zepherinus, 197, ordered glass instead of wooden 
chalices, and St. Ambrose employed the former 
for a time. Horn was naturally discarded because 
blood had entered into its composition, and wood 
on account of its absorbent quality ; copper was 
objected to " quia provocat vomitum," brass " quia 

contrahit rubiginem " ; but the use of tin or pewter 
is thought not to have been infrequent in poorer 
churches. The latter metals are common enough 
for use in the symbolical " coffin chalices." — See 
Archaeological Journal, \o\. iii. p. 129, "Notices of 
Ancient Ornaments, Vessels, and Appliances of 
Sacred Use," by A. Way. 

The lower portion or foot, up to the under side 
of the knop, of a very delicate glass chalice was 
found in a coffin of an ecclesiastic of the end of the 
fourteenth century, in the ancient collegiate church 
of St. John the Evangelist at Liege, together w ith 
a small glass reliquary. Both are preserved in the 
Musee Archeologique in the Palais des Princes 
Eveques at Liege. See Introductory Notices, p. 35. 




vessels of gold and silver of far larger size than could then be attained in 
glass. ^ With these — besides great silver spice-plates, dishes, plates, and salts, 
and silver-harnessed horns, gripes' eggs, nuts, and cups of agate, crystal, etc. — 
the great men and women surrounded themselves with a profusion which is 
quite astonishing. For instance, when the youthful Princess Elizabeth, Countess 
of Holland, went to Flanders with her husband and her illustrious father in 
1297, she took with her no less than sixty-one silver-gilt cups, some with feet 
and covers, in addition to a quantity of other plate, but not one piece of glass. ^ 
The silver and silver-gilt plate of Sir John Fastolfe, who died in 1459, amounted 
to eighteen hundred and ninety ounces, besides his gold plate ; one silver flagon 
alone weighed three hundred and sixty-eight ounces. With "this intolerable 
deal " of plate were but " ij lyttyll Ewers of blewe glasses powdered with golde,"^ 
no doubt Venetian. 

As to the drinking-cups of the common people in England during the later 
Middle Ages, their case was, perhaps, not harder in this respect than was consonant 
with the appalling squalor of their lives and their dreary, hopeless surround- 
ings. "* For them were vessels of wood — trccn, of horn, and of leather. The use 
of the latter also among the better classes gave rise to the report, long believed in 

^ Such were the hanaps of silver which Kings bowl offered by the white -bearded Caspar. The 
occasionally presented to favourites filled with golden ciboria, cups, and bowls, containing the 

nobles. Richard II. at Windsor gave a silver cup frankincense and myrrh, are shown in art as pre- 

charged with a hundred nobles to Froissart in sented covered. Miss Strickland, in her amusing 

1395, after his visit to the king at that very Lives of the Queens of England, vol. vii. p. 398, 

peculiar structure Ledcs Castle in Kent. — Johnes's edit. 1S41-1848 (no index), says that "silver cups 

Froissart, xi. c. 24; xii. c. 32. ' heaped with gold angels" were given by "the 

On the panels of triptychs and fifteenth-century northern cities " to Queen Anne on her progress 

church screens, and in other early pictures of the to London in 1603. One would have been glad 

Adoration of the Magi, one of the three is frequently of an authority for this statement, it seems a late 

shown as lifting off the cover of a great golden cup, date for the practice, and rather improbable, 

and presenting it filled with bezants. Thus does ' C. H. Hartshorne, Illustrations of Domestic 

Balthazar, the Ethiopian king, in Luino's beautiful Manners during the Reign of Edward /., p. 35 — 

fresco in the church at Saronno, justly famous also reprint from Journal of British Archaeological 

for the superb works of Caudenzio. In Mabuse's Association. 

wonderful picture of the same subject at Castle John de Weston was appointed attorney for the 

Howard, Caspar has offered a golden chalice held princess and had charge of these valuables. He is 

by the Virgin, and from which the Son of Cod has represented in his wooden effigy in Weston Church, 

deigned to take a coin. It was a picturesque episode Shropshire, wearing a purse dependent from his 

which the painters would naturally seize upon and sword belt, in token of his official position, 

elaborate. The representation of such ancient ^ Archaeologia, vol. xxi. p. 269. See Appendix, 

mark of homage lingered in art long after the Inventories, No. I. 

custom had been abandoned in actuality in courts. ■* Sec Archaeologia, vol. xxx. p. 205, " On the 

In Rubens's picture of the Adoration of the Magi Political Condition of the English Peasantry," paper 

in the Louvre the fingers of the Divine Child, with by T. Wright ; and " The Coming of the Friars," 

admirable artistic unity and spontaneity, inconti- Village Life Six Hundred Years Ago, p. 53, edit, 

nently toy with the gleaming bezants in the golden 1889, by the Rev. A. Jessop, D.D. 





France, that the Englishmen drank out of their boots. ^ We may be sure that 
such cups were far removed in style from the handsome silver-mounted black 
jacks of the seventeenth century. Other drinking-vessels were of the coarsest 
pottery, degenerate representatives of the Jigiili and potarii of Domesday, the 
homely criisekyus de terve of the fourteenth century, long made in England, and 
also imported in the fifteenth century from Holland. The shapes of these things 
may be fairly gathered from the rare examples which are preserved in the British 
Museum, and the representations of their lineal descendants in seventeenth- 
century Dutch pictures of low life. Of glass drinking-vessels in the miserable 
homes of people who could not have silver ones, there cannot have been a trace. 
Ill-clad, ill-fed, ill-housed, and oppressed, how could they even have had the 
wish to possess the cleanly objects which at the present day are the absolute 
necessities of the very humblest? We shall see in working the subject down 
through the ages how the change was gradually brought about. 

Alluding again to Eastern glasses in England in the thirteenth and 
following centuries,— Henry HI. had one given to him, in 1244, by Guy de 
Rousillon, probably obtained direct from the East or from Limoges. This the 
King valued so highly that he ignorantly sent it to Edward of Westminster, 
the goldsmith, with orders to remove the glass foot and to replace it with 
one of silver-gilt, to hoop it with silver, and to present it on his behalf to the 
Queen." He treated it as a cup of rock-ciystal. 

A fourteenth-century Damascus glass, enamelled with an Arabic inscription. 

^ WiUi regard to the drinknig-vessels of all 
classes in the early part of the seventeenth century 
Heywood, in his Philocothonista, 1635, p. 45, says : 
" Of drinking cups divers and sundry sorts we 
have ; some of Elme, some of Box, some of Maple, 
some of Holly, etc., mazers, broad-mouth'd dishes, 
noggins, Whiskins, piggins, cruizes, ale-bowles, 
wassell-bowlcs, court dishes, tankards, Kannes, from 
a bottle to a pint, from a pint to a gill. Other 
bottles we have of leather, but they are most used 
among the shepeards and harvest-people of the 
countrey : small jacks wee have in many ale-houses, 
of the citie and suburbs, tip't with silver, besides 
the great black jacks and bombards at the court, 
which when the Frenchmen first saw, they reported, 
at their returne into their countrey, that the English- 
men used to drinke out of their bootes : we have 
besides, cups made of homes of beasts, of cocker- 
nuts, of goords, of the eggs of Estriches, others 
made of the shells of divers fishes brought from the 
Indies and other places, and shining like mother of 

Pearle. Come to' plate, every taverne can afford 
you flat bowlcs, French bowles, prounet cups, beare 
bowles, beakers ; and private householders in the 
citie, when they make a feast to entertaine their 
friends can furnish their cupboards with flagons, 
tankards, beere-cups, wine bowlcs, some white, 
some percell guilt, some guilt all over, some with 
covers, others without, of sundry shapes and 


2 Close Roll. 29 Henry iij. m. 18. 

R niittit Edwardo de Westiri unam cuppam 
vitream quam Regi misit Gwido de Russilun 
Et mandatum est eidcm Edwardo qd amoto 
pede uitreo quendam pedem argenteum 
decentem 1 deauratum loco illius pedis vitrei 
'X quoddam pomellum desup respondens 
eidem pedi 1 Orios deauratos 1 decentiores in 
ea sub quanta potit festinatoe fieri 1 earn sic 
paratam Regine ex pte Regis presentari fac. 
Et cum I^ custum scindit illud acquietari 

T ut s (i.e. 1 I^ apud Merleberg 
xxviij die Noij). 

L> j cuppa 
vita repandii 

(A.D. 1244.) 




part of it extolling the beauty of the cup in the hand of the slender cup-bearer, 
and six allegorical figures, and mounted on a silver-gilt late fourteenth-century 
chalice-wise foot, apparently French work, with a knop in rock-crystal, was sold 
at Christie's, 17th July 1893, for ;^i732: los., an excessive price. This beaker- 
shaped cup had long been preserved in the Palmer-Morewood family, but there 
was no history attached to it (Plate 22). It much resembles the Oriental glass 
said to have been given by Haroun al Raschid (756-809) to Charlemagne, 
preserved in the Library at the Hotel de Ville at Chartres, which is also a 
Damascus glass but not anterior to the middle of the thirteenth century. 

The well-known " Luck of Edenhall " is a Saracenic glass of the early part 
of the fifteenth century, richly enamelled all over in arabesque patterns in red, 
blue, yellow, and white. Its leather case is later, and English work; it is 
impressed with alternate vertical bands of leafy and plain scrolls, and on the 
lid is the sacred monogram. This glass assuredly is not, and never has been, 
an ecclesiastical vessel ; its shape is the usual one of civil cups of its orio-in 
and period, and it is exceptional only in not having been mounted in silver. 
Apart from the veneration in which it has so long been held, and the peculiar 
and pardonable superstition that has grown around it,i it is a highly interesting 
survivor of a class of greatly valued cups, many of which must have come to 
England during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, because local talent could 
not, or rather did not, attempt to furnish works in glass of so high a quality 
(Plate 23). 

Edward III. possessed in 1338 a "gourde" of glass supported on snails, noted 
as "niente prise," possibly English; in 1371 he had a glass described in the 
inventories as " un warre de wildchien."- Henry IV. in 1399 had a little vessel 
or pot for " theriacum " of silver-gilt, with a glass of Alexandria, a " verre de glass," 
and another "verre de glass," painted on the outside, with a cover of silver- 
gilt. It is noteworthy that in the same year, and only twelve days before his 

The story is that the prosperity of the house If e'er that glass should break or fall, 

of Musgrave depends upon the preservation of the Farewell the Luck of Edenhall. 

glass. It seems that the butler, in vague days of No antiquary would grudge the ancient house the 

yore, having gone out one night for water from St. delightful romance which has preserved so valuable 

Cuthbert's Well, surprised a company of fairies a glass up to the present day. 

dancing on the lawn. They had been drinking - Mr. Nesbitt, Introd., 5. K. Cat., p. cxxxiii., 

at the fountain, and had left their cup behind them, footnote, suggests that this may have been a glass 

This the worldly and irreverent butler seized and made in some place called the little wood or 

refused to give up. Whereupon the queen of wdldchen. Nothing is more likely, and it is prob- 

the fairies advanced and uttered this ominous able that it formed part of the effects brought over 

couplet — by Philippa of Hainault. 



deposition on 29th September, Richard II., being then in the hands of Duke 
Henry of Bolingbroke in Chester Castle,^ granted permission, by Letters Patent — 
" teste me ipso apud Westiii " — to the masters of two Venetian galleys arrived 
in the port of London, for the passengers to sell on the decks small glass 
vessels and earthenware plates duty free.^ This opens a new era, and is the 
earliest intimation that we have of the advent of glass vessels from Venice 
to England. The time nearly coincides with that of the record of a similar 
arrival in the Low Countries, for in 1394 Philip le Hardi, Duke of Burgundy, 
paid for "seize voirres et une escuelle de voirre des voirres que les galeres de 
Venise ont avant apportez en nostre pays de Flandre."^ Venice glasses 
must have been well known in Flanders by importations half a century 

The " Luck of Muncaster," preserved in the strong-room at Muncaster Castle, 
is a glass bowl which may well be as old as the middle of the fifteenth century. 
Tradition has invested it with the unique historical interest of having been 
presented to Sir John Pennington by Henry VI., on the occasion of his being 
sheltered at Muncaster after the battle of Towton in 1461, or in 1463 after the 
battle of Hexham. The account is well borne out by the character of the bowl, 
and is so far supported by a small picture on panel which represents the King 
holding the Luck in his left hand, and presenting it with two fingers of the right 
hand upraised in benediction, as he pronounced the blessing on the ancient 
family so long as the vessel remained unbroken. A larger picture, apparently 
in distemper, representing this incident was unhappily destroyed by some 
alterations in the castle. The glass bowl, which is 5^ inches in diameter, and 
2^ inches high, is of a pale green tint, and there is no reason for thinking that 
it is of English manufacture. It is ornamented with a row of white dots on 
a gold band, and a row of gold billets below it, the two being comprised within 
two bands of pale purple dots in sets of three, after the usual Venetian method. 
The lower part of the bowl is roughened or frosted of a brownish colour in 
a manner sometimes seen in Venetian glasses (Fig. 153). 

A claimant to the Luckship of Muncaster is in the possession of Mr. Thomas 
Clutterbuck. This is a horny tinted glass of remarkable lightness, not thin, 
and from the character of the French inscription probably of Flemish origin. 
It is said to have passed from Muncaster in 1756 by the marriage of Elizabeth 
Pennington with Farrer Wren. It descended to Mr. Charles Lyon of Binchester, 

^ Archaeologia, vol. .xx. p. 173. Deposition of '- Calendar of State Papers,N&n(t\\dSi,\l(^<^-\:^oo. 

Richard II. s g^,^ Introductory Notices, p. 35. 





Fig. 153. 

and came from him by bequest to the present owner. The glass is a very 

interesting one on its own merits, and may have come from Muncaster, but it 

cannot be older than the first decade of the sixteenth century. The costume of 

the two figures sufficiently shows this, if the 

style of the inscription and the form of the 

glass did not point to the same conclusion 

(Plate 24). So has another soi-disant memento 

of Henry VI. — "the Pudsey Spoon" — been of 

late years degraded in its date from 1445-46 

to 1525-26, by the inexorable logic of Hall 

Marks. Such are the painful mischances of historical relics, and how few will 

bear the test of critical examination ! ^ 

At this point we meet with a remarkable vase in emerald-green glass, of a 
form called an olla in a pictorial vocabulary of the fifteenth century, 7^ inches 
high, and at once recognisable from illustrations of pottery vessels in Illuminated 
MSS. of the same period.'- On one side is somewhat coarsely presented a 
portrait in enamel thought to be of Edward IV., and on the other the royal 
arms of England, as they were borne from 1405 to 1603, ensigned with a 
coronet. This interesting relic, in the possession of Colonel Goodall, has 
been preserved in his family for many generations, and though there can be 
little doubt that it is of Venetian manufacture, it may well have mention here on 
account of its historical character. It will be remembered that the east window of 
Little Malvern church still contains the figures in painted glass of Edward, 
Prince of Wales, afterwards Edward V., and of the Princess Elizabeth of York 
and three of her sisters, set up by the Chancellor-prelate, John Alcock, between 
1480 and 1482." Unfortunately, four of the lights have perished, and among 
them that which contained the portrait of Edward IV. It is, perhaps, not an 
extravagant suggestion that the vase may have been made and painted by 
order of Chancellor Alcock, for presentation to the King at the time the Malvern 
windows were set up. It is to be noted that the King wears in his portrait 
on the vase " hys ryghtefull imperiall crowne," the arched crown which 
first appears on the seal of Edward IV., and which is spoken of by Thomas 

^ The Luck of Burrcll Green lacks the essential 
quality of Lucks, namely, fragility. It is a brass 
charger, i6 inches in diameter, of late si.xteenth- 
century character, inscribed round the central 
" wrythen " flutes in black or late Gothic letters — 

JHarg ilotijrr of Scsus Safaiour of iHcit. This 

of picturesque antiquity tends to shake the faith in 
luck altogether. 

- MSS. Douce, 219 and 311, Bodleian. 

^ Archaeological Journal vol. xxii. p. 302. 

again circumscribed by the words in modern Paper by E. Oldfield. 




Fig. 154. (One third. 

Habington in his description of the window in the time of Elizabeth — when 
all the figures were still in existence — as being worn both by the King and the 
Oueen. Accuracy of likeness is not to be expected in such a medium as 

painted glass, but the face on the vase is, as usual in 
the authentic portraits of Edward IV., smooth and 
beardless, the eyes dark, and the hair long and flowing, 
as distinguished from the shorter and clubbed hair of 
Henry VII. 's time (Fig. 154).^ 

In the inventory of the effects of the Countess of 
Richmond — "the venerable Margaret" — who died in 
1509, the item of "glassery basons" occurs.-' This 
sounds like Venetian work. In the list of the goods of 
Dame Agnes Hungerford, executed for murder at Tyburn 
in 1523, a " presse full of glasses with waters in them" 
is mentioned.^ These were probably flasks of wholesome 
cordial waters, to be thriftily doled out in thimblefuls from the stilling-room, 
and very unlike the maddening fire-water so freely used in the nineteenth century. 
The Venetian drinking-glasses which were introduced into England at the 
end of the fifteenth and in the early years of the sixteenth century — whether they 
came direct from Venice, or by way of Antwerp, together with Low-Country-made 
o-lasses of less artistic style, such as the claimant to the " Luck of Muncaster" — 
must nearly all have had the character of the somewhat heavy cups of late Gothic 
form. We know quite well what the shapes of some of them were from the 
few fortunately existing examples, and to a certain extent the character of others 
from the notices in inventories, and representations in early pictures. 

Henry VIII. had a large number of choice glasses, and from the descriptions 
in his inventories of 1542,^ as well as the fact of many of them being substantial 
and massive enough to be mounted in gold and silver, we must infer that the 
greater number in the collection were of the latest Gothic style — imitating as 
nearly as the rapid handling necessary in the totally different material would 
allow, the silver cups of the period ; or, perhaps, not so strictly imitating them 
as following the general form of fifteenth-century drinking-vessels, as expressed 

^ Two portraits of Edward IV. are at Windsor, 
and two in the possession of the Society of 
Antiquaries. One of the latter examples was 
bequeathed to the Society, together with twenty- 
five other ancient pictures, by the Rev. Thomas 

17S7 on the death of Mrs. Harvey of Palgrave in 

- Introd., S. K. Cat., p. cxxxiv. 

^ Arcliaeologia, vol. xxxviii. p. 366. 

■* Archaeological Journal, vol. xviii. p. 134. 

Kerrich in 1828, into whose possession it came in See Appendix, Inventories, No. III. 


by examples in the noble metals. Such were the immediate forerunners of the 
glasses of the time of the classical revival. In addition to those mentioned in 
his inventories the King had "a goblett of glasse with a foote of golde," and 
"a glasse with a cover garnished with gold,"^ both evidently Gothic vessels. 
In 1529 fifty-three shillings and fourpence was paid for "a great glasse" for 
the King, and forty-five shillings in the following year for another "glasse."^ 
It is improbable that any but Venetian glasses would at that time have merited 
the epithet of "great," or have been bought at such high prices, equal to from 
;^2o to £2^ of money of the present day ; but " a great glasse " was possibly a 
Venetian glass looking-glass, and therefore included among Henry VIII. 's glasses 
instead of among the " Loking Steele glasses " of another inventory. 

A pair of glasses with elaborate gold stems and mullet-shaped feet, as 
well as another pair of somewhat similar gold-mounted glasses, from all of 
which the original glass feet seem to have been displaced by the goldsmith's 
work — a recurrence to an ancient practice — appear on a sideboard of three 
degrees, together with silver baluster-stemmed cups and small and thin early 
glasses, evidently Flemish, in a picture of a peacock banquet by "Velvet" 
Brueghel in the Palais des Beaux Arts at Brussels. Henry VIII. s collection 
of glasses consisted of cups, such as the mounted ones just mentioned, 
flagons, pots, bowls, goblets, cruses, and layers. Their colours were generally 
jasper— the variegated chalcedony, the schmelz of the German— blue, green, 
many-coloured, probably millifiori or mosaic glass, white, gilt and diapered ; 
several were garnished in various ways with silver. There were also 
glass spice -plates, trenchers, plates, dishes, saucers, candlesticks, casting 
bottles or sprinklers — guedoufles — to sweeten the evil-smelling rush-strewn 
floors, and forks with glass " steelis " or stails.^ 

The Account Book of William More of Loseley, of 1556,* contains a priced 
list of fifty-nine glasses in his wife's closet. The items respectively " emayled " 
white, and white and green, and gilt, may have been Venetian wares, but the 
prices both of these and of the humble glasses for waters, etc., offer a strong 
contrast with the rich objects in Henry VIII.'s inventory of half a century 
earlier. It is probable that some of Mrs. More's glasses were Flemish, for 
many were imported during the sixteenth century. If any of them were English, 

' Kal. Treas. Exchequer, vol. ii. p. 285 ; quoted for the handle of a fork or other agricultural imple- 

in Introd., S. K. Cat., p. cxxxiv. ment. 

"' '^\co\2.^, Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII., * Arcliaeologia, vol. xxxvi. p. 288. See Ap- 

November 1529-December 1532. pendix, Inventories, No. IV. 

' A word in common use in Northamptonshire 



it can readily be imagined that they assumed at that time a crude beaker or 

tumbler form, like the glasses in the early Flemish pictures. Making allowance 

for the different handling necessary in the working of metal, a cloud of witnesses 

in silver of the latter part of the century— and not seldom articles of church 

plate among them— might be cited to show the shape, sometimes quite 

rudimentary,^ that must have been taken by household glasses in England 

immediately after the middle of the sixteenth century. This would be before 

the influence of Edward VI. 's eight Italians of 1549 had been felt, and at 

the time when the proscribed " massing chalices " were being swept away and 

supplanted by "comely communion cups," and frequently, later on, by secular 

cups and hanaps taken direct by generous or conscience-stricken donors from 

their sideboards, and presented to the churches. The Elizabethan communion 

cups all over England bear such a general resemblance to each other as to 

suggest an authorised pattern. The particular shape and invariable ornament 

can hardly be accidental ; they are distinct from the cups for secular use, and we 

have no record, tangible or otherwise, of glasses like them. In short, the type 

of the Elizabethan cup was as persistent, while it lasted, as that of the ancient 

"massing chalice," which had its fixed form of cup, knop, and foot, to which 

when the glass-makers approached — as they did sometimes in the later years of 

the fifteenth century — such shaped secular drinking-vessels were specified in 

inventories as " chalyswyse," or "ad modum calicis factum;" the entry in the 

list of Henry VIII. 's glasses of "two little standing cups with covers, chalice 

fashion, of glasse of many colours," is a case in point. Nevertheless, fifty-nine 

glasses was a large number for the establishment of a country gentleman of only 

fair estate like Sir William More, at that time, and when "garnyshes of pewder 

vessell " — that is, sets in dozens of dishes, platters, and saucers of pewter, far 

indeed removed from the Cellini -like chargers of Nuremberg and Augsburg — 

were the highly-esteemed though rude table appliances of persons of position, 

with the not very congruous drinking -cups, salts, and other requisites in 

gleaming silver.- At the end of the century silver cups were used in some of the 

Inns of Court as being cheaper than glass or pottery on account of the breakages. 

Many remarkable examples of rude village Beaux Arts at Brussels, of Christ in the house of 
communion cups from the latter half of the six- Simon the Pharisee, square pewter plates with gilt 
teenth to the early part of the eighteenth century edges are set out on the table. The Son of God 
remain in the Diocese of Carlisle. — See Old Cliurch has at His left side a footed glass of tumbler form, 
Plate in the Diocese of Carlisle, edited by R. S. like a modern masonic glass, with a cover. It con- 
Ferguson, 1882. tains red wine. In the More Inventory both round 
" In a picture by Mabuse, in the Palais des and square trenchers are mentioned. 


The old order of things has now quite passed away ; the Gothic is clean 
gone, and the glasses which are coming before us belong to the Renaissance. 
But before touching upon the first circumstances which led to the new birth of 
glass-making for vessels in England exactly in the middle of the sixteenth 
century, we may refer to an interesting series of choice Venice glasses belong- 
ing to a conspicuous though darkly-stained character in history. These are 
comprised in the inventory of the effects of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester,^ 
so created in 1564, taken after his death in 1588. That these glasses were 
obtained before 1575, the year of the " Princely Pleasures "^ at Kenilworth Castle, 
where everything was " apted in all points to the best,"''' is more than probable. 
As to the twelve " beare glasses," it has been assumed that they were made to 
an order in the form of bears in allusion to the ancient badge of the Earl of 
Warwick, to which Dudley became entitled, by the restoration, in 1557, of his 
elder brother Ambrose under a new creation to the earldom of Warwick, enjoyed 
by his father John Dudley, who was further advanced in 1552 to the dignity of 
Duke of Northumberland, and beheaded in the following year. It is far more 
likely that these cups were not "verres a bete," but that "beare" is simply the 
free and usual spelling of a scribe for beer. This is a sad descent from chivalry 
to the commonplace, but a glass fashioned like a bear could hardly have had a 
cover, though a beer glass at that time usually had, the liquor being often 
unhopped and the cover to keep the flies out, as in Germany at the present 
day ; nor would the " bears " have been spoken of, as the " beare " glasses 
are in the inventory, as "of several fashions."^ More interesting than 
those suppositious glass animals are the dishes "gilte with the sinque foyle 
on the brims," and the forty " dishe glasses" of two sorts, perhaps of tazza 

In 1570 Bertram Anderson, alderman of Newcastle-on-Tyne, had ten dozen 
drinking-glasses. This quantity recalls the entry in the archives of Lille of 1620, 
under which date Paul Verhacghe was paid for " plusieurs parties de verres, tant 

1 Halliwell's Ancient Inventories. Sec Appendix, through the cultivation of hops in Kent by Flemish 

Inventories, No. V. immigrants. Ale was the old English word, and 

^ Gascoyne, Princely Pleasures, reprinted in G. the liquor, made only of malt and water, was drunk 

Adlard's Amy Robsart, p. 175. new. Beer was the same drink with the addition 

^ Lancham, Letter, etc., ibid., p. 156. of hops after the foreign fashion, long considered an 

■* As to when hops were first used in England adulteration. Rude beer-pots made in the shape of 

the subject is Vv'ell discussed in Bickerdyke's Curi- a bear, of which the head is removable, like the 

osities of Ale and Beer, chaps, i. and iv. It will be hat of a Toby Fillpot jug, were made both in white 

sufficient to state here that the fashion seems to and brown earthenware in the early part of the 

have been introduced early in the sixteenth century, eighteenth century ; it is said, at Nottingham. 




d'Anvers que de Venyse qui par lui furent livrdes ceste presente annee pour 
banquets faits en la maison echevinale." ' It is probable that Anderson's glasses 
were imported from the Low Countries, inasmuch as there is no evidence that 
glass-works were established at Newcastle-on-Tyne before 1615, the year of the 
prohibition of wood for glass furnaces by Royal Proclamation. 

^ See Introductory Notices, p. 38. 



As to the circumstances which brought about the Renaissance of glass-making 
in England, they were of a nature precisely similar to those which had the same 
effect a decade earlier in the Low Countries, and which have been spoken of in 
another place. Documentary proofs of glass-making in the form of drinking- 
vessels in those regions during a long preceding period are certainly few and 
isolated ; but the recorded evidences of the same industry during the like length 
of time in England are fewer still ; and as no single example appears to remain of 
a Low-Country-made glass that may be referred to the thirteenth or even to the 
fourteenth century, so — Avith the exceptions of the thirteenth-century vessel from the 
cofhn in the vineyard at Peterborough, the relic phials, Queen Elizabeth's cup at 
Windsor, that in the possession of Mr. C. H. Woodruff, Lord Burleigh's tankard, 
and the glass in the British Museum inscribed, in : god : is ; al : mi : trvst, and 
dated 1586 — no English-made glass drinking-cups or vessels appear to exist 
which can be dated between the end of Saxon times and the end of the sixteenth 
century. It is a melancholy antiquarian truth which has to be accepted. 

Nevertheless, while the slight evidences for England have been evoked, and 
supported by the collateral testimony of the windows, to demonstrate that this 
particular artistic torch was always handed on, and never extinguished, it must be 
confessed that it is not until the arrival of the Venetians and Altarists in the Low 
Countries, and of the Venetians ten years later in England, that we finally, and 
almost suddenly, come into the light of day. In the place of solitary and widely- 

148 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. v. 

scattered items we now have a chain of Documents in which the whole story of 
one of the most remarkable art movements that the world has witnessed is fully 
and clearly set forth ; and not only told us by the documents, but, what is better 
still, completely illustrated by the graceful Venetian glass vessels themselves, the 
Low Country versions of them, and their delineations in the pictures. 

Antiquaries both in Belgium and in Holland have availed themselves of their 
considerable documentary evidences with an industry and acumen that is beyond 
praise, and have ably set forth the results of their labours ; in short, during the 
last twenty years the national archives have been unsealed, and a new volume of 
the art history of the Seventeen Provinces made available for students.^ 

Far less favoured than our Dutch and Belgian confreres, the documentary 
aids to the history of the establishment of glass-making in England, under 
artistic auspices, by the Venetians in the middle of the sixteenth century, is 
comprised within public records of a very small compass as compared with the 
detailed accounts of the settlement and movements of the Venetians and Altarists 
in the Low Countries ; for the stay of the Italians in England was very short.- 
But these documents are followed by others, fuller and still more interesting, 
concerning the steps taken by certain Flemings and Frenchmen to set up glass- 
houses here, and the subsequent efforts made by Englishmen alone for the 
carrying on of the glass industry which eventually became so famous. 

The whole of these State Papers and Documents will now be referred to in 
chronological order, from 1549 to 1660. 

The establishment of Venetian glass-makers in England was on this wise. 
In 1549 eight glass-makers^ quitted Murano, as many others did in those days, 
on account of the long cessation of work, namely, two months and a half in the 
year, during which time they had no means of livelihood. They appear to have 
been enticed to Antwerp by one Delame, and they soon departed from thence to 
London, attracted by the offers of Edward VL, for then, as later, as a document 
of 1623 states — "Tons les Rois et Princes desiraient et affectaient avoir en leur 
royaulme cette science."^ It is probable that the Venetians were set up by the 
King in the hall of the Crutched Friars in the city of London. The author of 
The Present State of England affirms wrongly that it was in 1557 that glasses 

^ See Introductory Notices, p. 36. Terrible, Picro Terrible, Gracioxo, called Disperato, 

- No glasses " facon de Vcnisc " made by the Battista da Chiari, Alvixc di Albertino, Hcremia 

first Italians in England can be referred to as such. Pixano, Sebastian Zanon. — H. Schuermans, nt sup., 

It is probable that they were somewhat inferior to Lettre X., p. 558 ; Angleterre, Bulletin dcs Coinmis- 

those produced at the same period in the Low sioiis royales d'ai't et ifarclu'ologie. 

Countries. ■* Houdoy, ?<f/ j?//., Document XI. of 7th January 

■' Their names were: Josepo Casselari, Marco 1623. 



first began to be made in England ; he is right in saying that the finer sort were 
produced in Crutched Friars in 1575, as they were by Verzelini. 

The Venetian Inquisition of State ordered, as long ago as in 1454, that, if any 
workman transported his craft into a foreign country to the injury of the State, an 
emissary should seek him out and kill him. In spite of these precautions several 
foreign states had procured glass-makers from Murano before the middle of the 
sixteenth century. At a meeting of the Council of the glass trade in Murano, on 
7th September 1549, the citizens complained of being unemployed for two and a 
half months at a time, and the authorities were then petitioned to take steps for 
preventing the manufacture from being carried out of Murano. The result was 
that, on 1 8th September in the same year, it was enacted that all artificers who had 
left Murano to work, contrary to the order of the Council, should be summoned 
from the Edict Steps of St. Mark's at " Rialto," that is Venice, to return within 
a certain time ; and that if they refused and should be captured, they should be 
sent to the galleys for four years. News of this measure reaching the ears of 
the Muranese glass-makers in London, they explained that poverty compelled 
them to seek employment abroad before the Act lately passed, and that on 
endeavouring to escape from the hands of the " signori alieni " in England, they 
were imprisoned in the Tower, fed on bread and water, and kept in custody and 
under penalty of the gibbet unless they worked out the money which they had 
received ; this was to be accomplished in two and a half years' time.^ A com- 
promise was arrived at on 13th June 1550, by which eighteen months were 
allowed for the English engagements to be satisfied, and in order to gratify the 
King, who took much interest in the matter, the men promising then to return to 
Murano. Seven of them in due course did so, but the eighth, Josepo Casselari, 
less patriotic, remained in England and associated himself in London with 
Thomaso Cavato from Antwerp until 1569, when he made his way to Liege.^ 

The seven Venetians quitted England at the end of 1551, and their stay 
here of about two and a half years must have had good effect in improving the 
technical skill of the English glass-makers who would have worked with them, 
probably, as we have seen, in Crutched Friars. The fact that the finer sort of 
glasses were stated to have been made in Crutched Friars, in 1557, indicates the 
natural results of the teaching of the Venetians in their particular manipulation 

1 State Papers, Venetian, 1549-50. The - H. Schuermans, id sup., Lettre X., p. 568; 

menace of the gibbet must have been mere empty Moy et Neessen, vol. i. p. 195 ; Sardo di Sardi, 

threat. These men had done nothing worthy of Florentin, declare entre autres que Cavata avait ete 

death or of bonds in England, still less of exposition associ^ avec Josepo Casselari "che estava in London." 

in chains in terrorein. See Hanging in Cliains, by — Act cited by M. Genard. 
Albert Hartshorne, edit. 1891. 


of glass. We have no evidence to produce in proof that there were any 
Venetians, except Cassclari and Cavato, then working in England, but it is 
possible that there were others ; nevertheless, from the circumstance of no 
foreigners being alluded to in connection with the mention of the manufacture 
of glass of the finer sort in 1557, we are free to infer that such were then made 
by English workmen alone, six years after the departure of the first Italians. 
Writing under the last-named year, Thomas Charnock, in his Breviary of 
Philosophy, says : — 

As for glassemakers, they be scant in this land, 

Yet one there is as I doe understand : 

And in Susse.x is now his habitacion, 

At Chiddingsfold he workes of his Occupacion : 

To go to him it is necessary and ineete, 

Or send a servant that is discreete : 

And desire him in most humble wise 

To blow thee a glasse after thy devise.^ 

This man can only have produced, as his predecessors did, the commonest 
green glass, made from coarse local sand and impure alkali obtained from wood 
ashes. Chiddingfold is not in Sussex, but on the borders of Surrey, on the Weald 
Clay, and in a district which must, in the middle of the sixteenth century, have 
been a dense forest, ranged in earlier times by the gray wolf of the Weald. It 
immediately adjoins the tract of country geologically known as " Hastings Sand," 
and was w^ell placed for common glass-making. This industry was far older in 
those parts than the iron workings, and largely added to the consumption of wood. 
Camden says, referring to Sussex: "Neither want here glasse-houses, but the 
glasse there made, by reason of the matter and making, I wot not whether, is 
likewise nothing so pure and cleare and therefore used of the common sort only."" 
Another notice of the glass manufacture in the same favoured county records : 
" Neither can we match the purity of the Venice glasses, and yet many green 
ones are blown in Sussex profitable to the makers and convenient to the users 
thereof;"^ and waiting in 1662, Fuller, speaking of Sussex, says that "coarse 
glass-making was in this county of great antiquity." ^ 

To return for a moment to the Venetians. Stow, in his Chronicle, says that 

' Printed in Ashmole's TItcatniiii Clieinicuiii, Vercellini arrived.^save Casselari and Cavato, up to 

165 I. As with many points in Churchyard's i 569, and the Frenchmen did not come until 1567. 

Wort/lines of Wales, of 1587, Charnock's doggerel The latter came naturally to Sussex as known from 

does not tell us quite enough ; but it is certain that time immemorial as an English glass-making centre. 

the glass-maker in question was an Englishman and - Britannia, Philemon Holland's translation, p. 

not an "outlandish man." There is no evidence 306. 

that any Italians were working here between i 55 i ^ W. II. Blaauw, Sussex Areli. Coll., vol. i. p. 11. 

when the seven Venetians departed, and 1575 when ' Worthies of England, vol. iii. p. 242. 


"the first making of Venice glasses in England began at the Crotchet Friars, in 
London, about the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by one Jacob 
Vessaline, an Italian." "The Father of English Antiquities," although writing 
so near the time he spoke of, has confused two circumstances — the first coming 
of the Italians in 1549, and the arrival of another Italian, Verzelini, in or 
immediately before 1575, who obtained in this year a special license to make 
drinking-glasses for twenty-one years. We shall come to him presently. 

In the meantime Cornelius de Lannoy appears, apparently from the Low 
Countries.^ He came towards the end of 1564, subsidised by the Government, 
to introduce improvements and give certain instructions, both in the glass-pot 
making and in the glass - makers' art as practised in the Netherlands. He 
worked in Somerset House, but he was not satisfied with the materials — the 
" provisyons " — which were supplied to him; so he sent for others from Hesse 
and Antwerp ; nor did the skill and receptive nature of the English workmen 
impress him. Although De Lannoy was somewhat of an impostor, it is not 
unlikely that he wished to introduce glasses of an ornamental kind, "verres 
fa^on de Venise " of a high quality, perhaps in themselves not beyond the 
powers of the English glass-blowers at that time, but of a character for which 
the materials conveniently to be gotten in England were not quite suitable. 
Does this marked difference in the English "provisyons" which so bafifled 
De Lannoy point to some of the early local sources or constituents of "flint 
glass"? It is, indeed, stated in a letter, dated from Belsize, from Armigill 
Waade, the clerk of the Council, to Cecil,- which contains all the information 
we have concerning De Lannoy and his enterprise, that " All our glasse makers 
can not facyon him one glasse tho' he stoode by them to teach them." Evidently 
the ill-tempered clay for the melting-pots failing at the high temperature 
demanded by De Lannoy — a characteristic indicating the advanced crystalline 
quality of glass he was attempting to make — was the chief source of trouble, for 
"the potters cannot make him one pot to content him." We hear no more of 
this venture, which was to continue for three years ; the solitary record is of 
particular value as marking the continued desire of the English Government to 
have thus early in the period of its Renaissance, in its perfection, and made at 

^ He was a professed alchemist, one of a class of advantage in the science of metallurgy and 

of men who, while pretending by fraudulent experi- medicine. Glauber, died 1668, was an alchemist, 

ments to seek for such unattainable objects as the but his important discoveries give him a high position 

Philosopher's Stone, and by its aid the transmuta- among early chemists. 

tion of the base into the noble metals, indirectly - Appendix, Original Documents, No. I. 

caused the study of chemistry, and many discoveries 




home, the science "que tons les Rois et Princes desiraient et affectaient avoir en 
leur royauhne." There was no question, as some have thought, of De Lannoy intro- 
ducing a knowledge of the art-stoneware of the Low Countries and Germany, such 
as is now ranged under the indefinite name of " Gres de Flandre."^ With 
Waade's letter is enclosed an account indicating that ^^150 had been paid to De 
Lannoy for " provisyons," and /^so on his coming to England, and a note that 
he was to receive jCso a quarter; the first quarter fell due on 25th March 1565, 
showing that he had not been long at work. 

We have now entered the period of the Monopoly system. This industrial 
policy of Elizabeth was "originally promoted with the object of reviving or 
introducing certain mining and metallurgical industries," and was destined, as 
we shall see, "to exert an important influence on the development of the glass 
industry."- It appears that the history of the Elizabethan Monopoly Patents 
still remains to be written, the accepted version of these grants being based upon 
a misconception of the Monopoly debate of 1601, and consequently opposed to 

^ It appears from Dugdale's Origines Juridkales, 
1680, p. 148, that the Register of the Inner 
Temple, fol. 127, A, contains the following entry : — 
" Untill the second year of O. Eliz. reign, this 
Society did use to drink in cups of Ashen Wood 
(such as are still used in the King's Court), but then 
those were laid aside, and green earthen pots used 
which have ever since continued." It is shown by 
the books of the Drapers' Company (Herbert, vol. 
i. p. 442) that the ashen cups for red wine and 
hippocras at an election feast in 1522 were gilded. 
In a letter from Sir J. Csesar to Sir W. More, written 
from the Inner Temple, 19th August 1591, printed 
in Kempe's Loscley Manuscripts, p. 31 i, it is stated 
that the white clay for making the green earthen- 
ware pots, no doubt green glazed, was specially ob- 
tained from the Bishop of Winchester's park at 
Farnham, but that owing to the vacancy in the 
bishoprick the clay could not be obtained without 
the authority of certain persons in the neighbour- 
hood, of whom More of Loseley was one. Cssar, 
as a member of the Inner Temple, requests for this 
leave in order that the green pots may be made 
and the house furnished as aforetime. Thus we 
fashioned our own drinking-vcsscls of earthenware 
quite well without the help of the foreigners. 

Paul Hcntzner states that a person of distinction, 
once being surprised at the great number of silver 
drinking-cups in the Inns of Court, said, " he 
should have thought it more suitable to the life of 
.students, if they had used rather glass, or earthen- 

ware than silver." To which he was answered that 
the college would gladly give him all their plate if 
he would undertake to supply them with all the 
glass and earthenware they would have a demand 
for, since it was very likely, owing to the constant 
breakages, that he would find the expense exceed 
the value of the silver. — Hentzner's Travels in the 
year 1598, England, p. 44, edit. H. Walpole, 1757. 
In the course of the erection of the new part of 
Paper Buildings in 1 849, a quantity of broken green 
pots were dug up. About 1823 two earthenware 
green jugs were found in making the foundations for 
Raymond's Buildings, and a similar example on the 
site of the new hall of Lincoln's Inn. vessels 
were not only for the use of the legal societies, but 
were common drinking-cups of the period to which 
they belonged. It is almost certain that they con- 
tinued in use in the Inns of Court until the time of 
Charles II., when they would have been gradually 
supplanted by glasses, either home - made, or 
fashioned in Venice from English designs, and im- 
ported by members of the Glass-sellers' Company. 
Pepys, 29th October 1663, complains of having 
nothing better than earthen pitchers to drink out 
of at the Lord Mayor's Feast at the Guildhall. 

- Tlie Antiquary, November 1894, p. 210, 
" English Glass-making in the Sixteenth and Seven- 
teenth Centuries," by E. W. Hulme. See " A Sketch 
of the Early History of the English Patent System, 
List of the Grants, etc., 1 561- 1 570," by the 
same, Latv Quarterly Revieiv, April 1896. 


the contemporary evidence of the State Papers and Patent Rolls. That the first 
Monopoly Patents were fruitful of good is sufficiently shown by the establishment 
of the copper industry at Keswick, that of alum and copperas in the Isle of Wight, 
and that of brass and iron wire at Tintern, besides the introduction through these 
agencies of improved machinery and processes in all kinds of industries, within the 
short time of the granting, in 1561, of the first Monopoly Patent of soap, and 1567.^ 

Obviously the glass industry was not destined to remain long passive and 
unaffected by this movement, and in August 1567 Pierre Brief and Jean Carrd, 
from the Low Countries, being recommended by the Vidame of the Bishop of 
Chartres,- wrote to Cecil from Windsor, asking for a License for twenty-one years 
to set up a glass-house in London, similar to those in Venice, for the manufacture 
of crystal glass for drinking-vessels. They hope within a few months to adorn 
London with an art as famous as that of Venice or Antwerp, and state that all 
the necessary materials for the undertaking exist in the country, except soda, 
which they expect to find ; the fuel would be procured from Arundel.-' This 
seems a long way to go for wood, but Sussex was then familiar ground to glass- 
makers, and the petition was accompanied by a request from a body of French 
workmen from Normandy, evidently then halting in the Weald, for a monopoly 
of the window-glass manufacture. 

Upon this, in order not to do injustice to native subjects, communications were 
instituted with one of the Chiddingfold glass -masters, who declared that he 
neither had made nor could make window-glass. Of course not, working " of 
his Occupacion ; " and he said that he only produced small things, such as orinaux 
— apparently water globes, like those of the Low Countries,^ for improving the 
power of the rushlights— mortars, bottles, and similar articles. He was evidently 
no further advanced, perhaps rather less so, than the Low Country glass-makers 
were in this respect before the coming of the Venetians and Altarists, and doubt- 
less his drinking-vessels generally resembled those that are shown in the early 
Flemish pictures.^ English window-glass— the " brodeglas " of 1380— was made 
in London then, as it certainly was in the time of Henry VH., as we shall see. 

^ The Antiquary, ut sup., p. 210. ^ State Papers, Domestic, 1567. 

2 A vidame of a bishop was the officer who * Ibid. See Introductory Notices, p. 60. 

managed his temporaUties and commanded his '' Precisely the same shapes are shown in the 

troops. The Vidame of Chartres appears to have rude woodcuts heading the ale-house ballads of this 

come with M. de Beauvais on an embassy from the period. — See J. Bickerdyke, Curiosities of Ale and 

French king to the court of Elizabeth in 1589, Beer,^^. 189, 306, 326. 

when he received a present of 657 ounces of gilt We were just as much behind Low Country 

plate. — Arehaeologia, vol. xlviii. p. 201, "Account glass-makers as regards art drinking-vessels as is 

of Papers relating to the Royal Jewel House." marked by the difference between the time of the 



I 54 

Hereupon the Frenchmen demanded a privilege of thirty years, in order that 
furnaces might be erected at their discretion in convenient places, namely, twelve 
in England and six in Ireland, near the woods for fuel, the sea for sand or sea- 
weed, or the rivers for pebbles. It is further particularly stated in the request 
that such other materials used for the manufacture of glass as fougiere— bracken 
or fern, ronces— briars, and cailloux— flints, are of little value. From the assumed 
capability of a furnace each would pay a yearly rent of £a,o or ;^5o to the Crown. 
The application was supported by Carre, and a small royalty was offered to Cecil, 
but declined by him, much to their surprise.^ 

On 9th August Carre writes that he is informed of the Queen's being favour- 
able to the project, and he follows this up by another letter, saying that he has 
himself erected two glass-houses, one at " Fernefol," Sussex, for Normandy and 
Lorraine glass, by Her Majesty's License, and one in London, by the leave of the 
Lord Mayor, for crystal glass, no doubt employing in each place both French and 
Lorraine workmen. He states that he has brought over workmen at his own 
great cost, and to the benefit of the kingdom, and is sending for soda from Spain. 
Yet he hears that another is likely to have the privilege of making glass, which 
would ruin him, and prevent him from paying what he owes to the Queen ; he 
requires the Patent for twenty-one years.- 

Carry's fears as to another having the privilege of making glass were soon to 
be realised. The person he had heard about was Anthony Becku alias Dolin, 
also from the Low Countries, and on 12th August he found it wisest to enter into 
an agreement with him and the Queen. This formed the basis for the Patent for 
window-glass which was granted for twenty-one years on 8th September 1567.^ 
In it Carrd and Becku undertake to exercise and practise "the arte feate, or 
mysterie of makinge of glas for glasinge such as is made in ffraunce, Lorrayne, 
and Burgondy," all other manufacture of the said kind of glass being specially 
prohibited save with the assent of the grantees, they agreeing to supply the needs 
of the realm in this respect, and to sell the glass "as cheape or better cheape " 
than the like glass made abroad— for which there had always been a certain demand 
in England— has hitherto been sold. " And also to teatche Englishe men oure 
subjectes the same scyence or arte of glas makinge parfectlie and effectuallie so as 
the same scyence or arte after the ende of xxj yeares maye be perfectually and 

first arrival of the Italians in the Low Countries — any, had penetrated into the Weald twenty years 

namely, the establishment of Cornachini in Antwerp later. 

in I 541, and the coming of the eight Venetians ^ State Papers, \\i ?.up. 

to London in 1549. But neither the influence of '^ Ibid. 

the latter, nor that of De Lannoy, if he possessed ^ Appcndi.x, Original Documents, No. II. 


substancyally vsed and practysed by Englishe men," who shall be bound to 
them according to the use of the city of London, under pain of forfeiture of 
the grant. 

Neither of these men had any practical knowledge of the art, being only 
speculating Low Country merchants, and they were compelled to lease out the 
benefit of their Patent to the Frenchmen. The substitution of Becku's name for 
that of Brief led to difficulties between the new partners. Li a letter to CeciP 
Becku sets forth that Carre in procuring glass-makers from Lorraine — Thomas and 
Balthazar de Hennezel, and others, doubtless De Thietrys, Du Thisacs, and Du 
Houxes among them, and of whom we shall hear more later on — agreed with half 
of their number in his own name and with half in that of Jean Chevallier,- 
therefore putting the men outside the power of Becku, who could do nothing 
with them. In an evil hour the latter desired Briefs assistance, who, instead of 
helping him, " did contracte with the said workemen to sett vp on the other side 
of the see by Bullen a certeine forneys, saing it was night vnto England, and 
should be as commodious there as in the Realme and so do their feate without 
privilege, and besides should kepe the science out of the Realme, for they wolde 
in no wise have the science to come into England." They were willing indeed to 
sell their glass in England, but they did not wish to show the Englishmen their 
particular Lorraine methods. It is quite certain that the gentlemen glass-makers 
from Lorraine did not again cross the water. 

Thus deceived and deprived of help, Becku, who appears to have been an 
honest, conscientious man, obtained the assistance of an Englishman, Ferdinand 
Foyntz, a citizen of London, and probably, from his name, a native of Sussex. 
With his help, he tells Cecil, he trusts to satisfy his agreement with the Queen. 

On 6th September 1567, two days before the issue of the Fatent to Carre and 
Becku, they petitioned for leave to cut wood and make charcoal in Windsor Great 
Fark, and to convey it from thence ; "" this was probably for use in Carre's crystal 
glass-house in London. 

Now Fierre Brief suborned the Normandy workmen, re-joined himself with 
Carre, and obtained from him, by a straining of the terms of the Fatent, a grant 
of privilege ; Becku's relations at the works were ill-used, and he had to send to 
Germany for fresh workmen. It is difficult to get at the truth of the matter owing 
to the paucity of documents ; the case was eventually referred to Richard Onslow 
and William More, August 1569, who examined Becku, Carre, and Briet, as well 
as John Bonghan, i.e. Bongar, ancestor apparently of Isaac Bongar who annoyed 

' Appcndi.x, Original Documents, No. III. - Ibid., No. IV. ' State Papers, ut sup. 

156 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. ciiai'. v. 

Mansel at Newcastle in the early part of the next century, and three other persons 
described as Sussex glass-makers/ It is easily conceivable that the incursion of 
so many foreigners into a Sussex glass-making district was viewed ^\•ith distrust 
by the native workers, and in 1574 Burghley was informed by the Bishop of 
Chichester of the frustration by the authorities of a plot of certain vicious persons 
about Petworth to rob and murder the French glass-makers, and burn their 
houses.^ Petworth was close to a centre of glass-making in Sussex both by 
native and foreign workmen, the district including Fernfold Wood in Loxwood, 
(the " Fernefol " of Carre), Kirdford, Wisborough Green, Chiddingfold, Ewhurst, 
and Alfold. 

On 15th December 1575, Giacomo Verzelini, a fugitive Venetian, obtained a 
Patent for twenty-one years'' " for the makynge of drynkynge glasses suche as be 
accustomablie made in the towne of Morano and hathe undertaken to teache and 
bringe vppe in the said Arte and knowledge of makinge the said drynkynge Glasses 
owre natural Subjectes." The glasses are to be made " as good cheape or rather 
better cheape than the drynkynge Glasses coinonlye broughte from the cittie of 
Morano or other partes of beyond the Seas." Verzelini had already set up a furnace 
in the Crutched Friars, in Hart Street, Aldgate, three months before the issue of 
his Patent, or was more likely using the old furnace provided there for the eight 
Venetians in 1549, because Stow gives the following account: "The P^riars Hall 
was made a glasse-house, or house wherein was made glass of divers sorts to 
drink in; which house in the yeare 1575 on the 4 Septemb. burst out into a 
terrible lire, where being practised all means possible to quench it, notwith- 
standing, as the same house in a small time before had consumed a great quantity 
of wood by making of glasses, now itselfe, having within it about 40,000 billets of 
wood, was also consumed to the stone wals, which nevertheless greatly hindered 
the fire from spreading any further." ^ Later on complaints w^ere made against 
Verzelini's Patent, the ruin it brought to fifty households selling glasses only, 
and the injury it caused to merchants bringing glasses from beyond the seas, 
besides the consumption of 400,000 billets of wood every year.' 

In 1576 Pierre Briet and Pierre Appell, the assignees of Carre's share in the 
Patent, sought for the confirmation and renewal of the License for twenty-one 

' Molynciix MSS., Hist. MSS. Com., Rep. VII., " State Papers, Domestic, 1574. 

p. 621 ; quoted by E. W. Hulme, The Antiquary, ^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. V. 

November 1894, p. 214. Mr. Garravvay Rice found ■* C/ironicles, y>. 157, edit. 1633. 

the following entry in the Wisborough registers: — ^ Lansdowne MSS. 48, Art. 78. 
"1572 May 23. Joh Carry M' of y' glashouse 
was bur : at Awfolde." 



years, on certain new terms of payment to the Crown, and of arrears of royalty due 
from the Frenchmen, in consideration of the prohibition of foreign glass from 
France and Germany, then, as it was asserted, largely imported. The application 
appears to have been rejected.^ 

In 1581 Godefroid Verhaegen left England to establish glass-works "a 
la venetienne " at Middelburg in Zelandc.- He may have been an employd 
of Carre, and had no doubt learnt something useful from the English. In 
June 1584 Nicholas Moore presented a suit to the Queen for a License to make 
glass within her realm. ^ 

It appears that Verzelini, like De Lannoy in 1565, liked " marvelously 
well the syte of Guldeford " for glass-making, and that he had established, 
before 1586, a furnace immediately north of the Surrey and vSussex glass- 
making district, which included respectively Chiddingfold, Alfold, and Ewhurst, 
and Loxwood, Kirdford, and Wisborough Green. We gather from the Loseley 
MSS. that complaints were made to the Council in 1586 by the inhabitants 
of Guildford, Godalming, and Wonersh, concerning a glass-house erected by 
an Italian in those parts to the wasting of the woods — an early local objection 
to this point — and to the prejudice of the whole country. The Council directed 
Sir Thomas More and others to take bond of the Italian for his appearance, 
and to stay the working of the glass-house.^ No Italian besides Verzelini 
was at this time master of a glass-house in England (Plate 25). 

The fire at the Crutched Friars was a discouraging beginning, but 
Verzelini was certainly still working under his Patent in 1589, because in that 
year Hugh Miller and Acton Scott, footmen of the Queen, prayed for a Lease 
for a term of years, or otherwise, for " making of all mann' of glasses whatsoe'' 
wh'^'' are vsually made w'hin yo' Hygnes Realme of England," namely, " urynals, 
bottles, bowles, cuppes to drink in and such like except those that is already 
granted to one Jacob a stranger dwelling in the Crutched Friars by his patente 
for terme of years, for the makinge of all mann' of counterfayt Venyse drinkinge 
glasses, and except all mann' of glasses for glazing windows." The petitioners 
conclude by saying — " the making of all which sayd glasses straungers which 
are none of your majesties subjects do take the commodytie therof from your 

^ T/ie Antz'qtmjy, DecemhcY 1894, p. 259, Lans- No. 22. At the feast after the funeral of Mary 

downe MSS. 22, Arts. 6, 7, 8, cited by E. W. Hulmc. Queen of Scots, 1st August 1587, in the hall of 

- See Introductory Notices, p. 38. the Episcopal palace at Peterborough, four dozen 

^ StaU Papers, 5th June i 584. glasses were provided at 4s. These may have been 

* A. J. Kempe, Loseley MSS., p. 4c) },, Addenda, the work of " the Italian." 

158 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. " chap. v. 

highnes subiects who are as well able to exercise that trade and with as moch 
scyll as any others are." ^ This is an important statement, as bearing upon 
the capability of native makers of glass and glass vessels in 1589.- 

On 3rd October 1589 George Longe addressed a petition to Burghley,^ 
repeating the statement in Carre and Becku's Patent as to the teaching of 
Englishmen, and pointing out that the business having failed owing to the 
divisions between the foreigners, glass-making was carried on by "divers" 
without license, to the great waste of timber and woods, to which notable point 
attention is now, for the second time, seriously called, and to the loss of custom 
to the Crown. He also proposes to reduce the fifteen glass-houses in England 
to four only, and to erect the rest in Ireland where wood was superfluous, and 
where every glass-house would be as good as a garrison of twenty men. He 
undertakes to employ all glass-makers thrown out of work in England by the 
measure he suggests, and says that he has spent his time wholly in the trade, 
and has brought to perfection, during two years of trial, the making of glass 
in Ireland, having found there the proper materials. 

Longe states further that he has bought the Patent for Ireland from Captain 
Wodehouse, who, it appears from the Irish State Papers, together with one 
Ralph Pylling, had assisted Longe in setting up two glass-furnaces in that 
country. This point will be reverted to. Longe's great difficulty was to 
persuade glass-makers to remain in Ireland when they could obtain work in 
England. The unsettled state of Ireland, in spite of the exertions of Sir William 
Fitzwilliam, was, no doubt, the drawback.^ 

1 Lansdowne MSS. 59; Plut. Ixxiv. E. xxvi dave of October An° Dni 1607 aged lxxiij 

- Though this is the last we hear of Verzelini yeares and rest in hope of resvrrexion to lyfe 

at work, it appears that he did not leave the country eternall. 

as his compatriots of 1551 had done. He liked ,•■,,-•,• 1 • ij „r ^..^, ^„a 

^ ^^ , , . ,r Over Verzelini s head is his shield of arms, and 

the "signori alieni so well, and being himself a , .r 1 r ir u a t\t ^„ 

^ ' ^ over the wife the arms of Vanburen and Mace 

fugitive, that he settled in England, was naturalised .t • ■ 4.- ^ „ k-^.o 

^ ' & ' quarterly. Below the inscription are two brass 

26th November 1576, and dying in 1606 was . . ,• 1 c r ■ .^ ^^a 

-" ' . ^ , , r , plates containing respectively figures of SIX sons and 

buried at Dovvne, Kent, where, in the chancel of the , , , j . ,.1 ^i ■ ^\ ■„]a 

, , , ,r ,T • three daughters ; and beneath them again a shield 

church, monumental brasses half hle-size represent ^ ,^ ,. . . ,• tr u i i\,t „ 

^ ^ of arms — Verzelini impaling Vanburen and Mace 
him in civil dress, together with his wife. Below 

, ,, . . . . quarterly, 

them is the following inscription : — ^, ^, , ,,, ^ .. ,, .. ,,., j ,,-„^^„ 

^ '■ The Rev. A. W. C. Hallen, Scottish Antiquary, 

Here lveth bvried Iacob Verzelini Esqvire borne April 1893, p. 148, notices that his son and heir 

in the cittie of Venice, and Elizabeth his wife Francis was plaintiff in a Chancery suit in 1621, 

borne in Andwerpe of the Avncient hovses of Van- the defendants being his brother Jacob and others. 

BVREN and Mace, who havinge lived together in It is seldom that so much is known about an artist 

holve state of Matrimonie fortie nyne yeares and in England so far removed from our own time. 


Iacob the twentye day of Ianvarye An° Dni 1606 ^ Sir William Fitzwilliam was for nearly thirty 

AGED Lxxxiiij YEARES AND THE SAVu ELIZABETH THE ycars Commaiidcr-in-chicf in Ireland, and vigilantly 


The result of the petition seems to have been favourable, in so far that 
Burghley suggested that Longe should have an interview with Dolin on the 
subject. Shortly afterwards Longe wrote a letter to Burghley,^ pleading for 
the Patent, and repeating and strengthening some of the points in his petition. 
He also says that the superfluous woods in Ireland are the Queen's greatest 
enemies there in time of rebellion. But the matter appears to have been dropped, 
and we hear no more of this interesting episode. There is reason to believe 
that Longe was of Sussex extraction, probably from the neighbourhood of 

On February i6th 158;^ an Act^ was drawn up "against the making of 
glass by strangers and outlandish men within the Realm, and for the preservation 
of timber and woods spoiled by glass-houses." This was the first time that 
attention was authoritatively directed to the question. No alien was to carry on 
the trade of glass-making unless he employed and instructed one Englishman for 
every two foreigners, and only cut timber within certain specified areas. The 
Bill is said to have passed through all the stages but not to have received the 
Royal assent. Longe in his petition of 3rd October 1589 implies, however, that 
it was suppressed and shelved, "and so it rested undetermined."" 

It will have been observed that in the Patent granted in 1567 to Carrd and 
Becku it is stated that they are to teach Englishmen in the science or art of 
glass-making for glazing, as it is produced in France, Lorraine, and Burgundy; 
and that in the Patent to Verzelini in 1575 it is provided that he is to teach 
the Queen's subjects the art and knowledge of making Venetian drinking- 
glasses. These conditions have been constantly and loosely repeated, and 
held to signify in the former case that Englishmen at that time could not 
make window -glass, and in the latter that they could not fashion glass 
drinking-vessels. Clearly it was to the interest of the foreigners who sought 
employment in the glass manufacture in England, when times were troublous 
abroad, to pretend that we had everything to learn, and that it was necessary 
for the advantage of the country that the Patents should be issued to them 
in order that they should instruct us ; but, when the time came, they declined 
to do so. 

Now, how stand the facts as to English window-glass in the sixteenth 

prevented the landing of the Armada in 1588. He ^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. VII. 

died in 1599, and is buried in the beautiful chancel ' Hist. 3ISS. Conivi., Report III., p. 8. 

of Marholm Church, Northamptonshire, where a ^ Sec Appendix, Original Documents, No. VI. 
tomb remains with efifigies of himself and his wife. 



century? To take one example only — the series of painted windows of King's 
College Chapel.^ These were set up between 15 15 and 1531, and it is 
absolutely certain from documentary evidence that they are chiefly English 
works, both as regards the glass and the painting. The designs for the vidimuses 
or cartoons for the subjects are gathered from German, Flemish, and Italian 
sources. Some of them were devised by Barnard Flowre, a German, who 
was naturalised here, 6th May 1514, and by Galien Hone, "from parts of 
Holland under the obedience of the Emperor," and who took out Letters of 
Denization, 5th March 1535." Others are the work of English artists, Richard 
Bounde, Thomas Reve, and James Nicholson. The glass was probably made 
and painted in Southwark, where window-glass was then made both by aliens 
and natives. The designs of the windows of King's are better than their 
execution in the glass, and are, of course, vastly superior in both those 
qualities to the painted windows by Dirk and Wouter Crabeth, Adrian de 
Vrye, and Dirk van Zyl, set up in the great church at Gouda between 1560 
and 1597, striking as that display is. At King's Chapel "Normandy" glass 
was, indeed, at first contemplated, but the documents show that English glass 
was finally decided upon, no doubt because it was, as was specially wished, 
the best that could be obtained for a building in which everything was to 
be of the very best.-^ After the centuries of practice in window-glass making 
in Eno-land it would have been remarkable if English glass had not been 
chosen. Other examples might readily be adduced, and thoughts arise of the 
brilliant sacrifices to Dowsing's ravages in East Anglia, but it will have been 
sufficient to have alluded to the Chapel of King's. Could the English window- 
glass have so deteriorated between 1531 and 1567 — in one short lifetime — that 
we had at the latter date to begin the whole thing afresh, and, with an 
unbroken national record in window-glass making, as has been already shown, 
from the tw^elfth to the sixteenth century — or, indeed, for that matter, up to the 
present day, to start anew in 1567? 

Vasari, no slight authority, ranked the English painted glass of the sixteenth 
century as among the best then produced, and such was not the kind of art that 
should perish away in thirty years, leaving no trace, or the sort of manufacture 
that should die out and necessitate new instructors after four centuries of practice. 

* Seep. 130 (footnote). vol. i. p. 170, edit. 1782; Archaeological J oiirnal, 

- "Letters of Denization," i 509-1 563, Publica- vol. xii. p. 153, "King's College Chapel Windows,"- 

tions of the Huguenot Society, vol. viii. pp. 93, 125, paper by the Rev. W. J. Bolton ; and p. 356, "Artistic 

Preface, p. xlv., edit. W. Page. Notes on the Windows of King's College Chapel," 

^ Sec Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting in England, paper by G. Scharf 


The time was surely badly chosen as to which to assert, or even to suggest such an 
extraordinary disappearing when the much-windowed Perpendicular, of which the 
tracery had been so greatly influenced by the English painted glass, was passing 
away in churches, but assuming a new direction in houses ; when the Renaissance 
with its magnificent glass pictures was taking its place in England, and the 
influences of Torregiano, of Holbein, and of the mysterious " John of Padua " were 
permeating through the land. The proposition of the foreigners, the arbitrary 
statements of irresponsible annalists, of unscrupulous detractors of Sir Robert 
Mansel, to be referred to later, and of eager claimants for Patents, were therefore 
quite untenable. 

But let us be just to these continental glass-makers in England. Their 
knowledge of the capabilities of their English compeers was chiefly derived from 
what they saw in the Weald of Surrey and Sussex, and they framed their petition 
in 1567 accordingly. What they could teach the English was no more than 
just so much of the continental practice of glass-making, whether for glazing or 
for vessels, as might be novel to them. We know what the untutored Sussex 
glass-men could make in 1557, but we are not told what was then done by 
practised artists in London, where the windows for King's Chapel were produced 
thirty years before. In short, to teach Englishmen in 1567 the rudiments of an 
art which they had known and practised from time immemorial, must have been 
quite out of the question. And as to drinking-glasses the foreigners themselves 
had only been latterly and still were improving their hands in that art, through 
the teaching of the Venetians and Altarists, just as the Englishmen were doing. 
All stood then upon nearly the same footing in this respect, unless, haply, there 
might have been some teaching to the foreigners on the part of the English in 
regard to window-glass. Moreover, in Long's letter to Burghley of 1589, it is 
stated that the Frenchmen "by no means would teach Englishmen,"^ but we 
hear of no complaints of this lack of instruction. Dugdale,'^ writing a century 
later, fell into the error on this point, saying that Carre and Becku obtained a 
Patent for making glass in England on condition of teaching the art to English- 
men, as if it were a novelty to them, the fact being that the Patent distinctly 
states that they are to teach the art of making glass for glazing, " such as is made 
in ffraunce, Lorrayne, and Burgondy," which was quite another matter. 

With regard to Verzelini's teaching his case is very different. We have 
seen that the Chiddingfold glass-makers could only, on their own showing in 
1567, produce small glass vessels, no doubt of the same kind as appear in the 

^ See Appendix, Original Documents, No. VII. ^ Warwickslnre, p. 355. 


1 62 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. v. 

early Flemish pictures, and are alluded to by Harrison in his description of 
England. There seemed in 1575 to be a real want in England of drinking- 
glasses of a better kind, such as the eight Venetians had partially introduced 
during their short stay under Edward VI., from 1549 to 1551, and Verzelini 
came avowedly to teach "the arte and knowledge of makynge of drinkynge 
glasses suche as be coinonly made and wroughte in the towne of Morano nere 
vnto the Citie of Vennys," which " hathe not bene knowen vsed or contynued 
by anye oure Subjectes or any others inhabiting within oure Realme of England." ^ 
This was not quite true, but the Patent was granted for the educational purpose 
only, and it is intimated therein that the large sums of money heretofore expended 
abroad " for that manner of ware " may now for the good of the commonweal 
be utilised at home. 

In consequence of her long reign and popularity many personal relics have 
been attributed to Queen Elizabeth which will not always bear close scrutiny. 
Such attributions are easily made under misapprehensions, and by lapse of time 
acquire a kind of stability. For example, a circular white glass dish, 13! inches 
in diameter, preserved in the Dr. Williams Library in Gordon Square, London, 
is reputed to have held the water for the baptism of the Princess Elizabeth in 
1533. We know from Hall and other chroniclers that a silver font was used for 
the ceremony — special precautions being taken lest the exalted child should catch 
cold from the immersion. That the dish in question — which is more likely to be 
Venetian than English, and was probably taken from among Henry VIII. 's large 
collection of Venetian glass — was used as a taufbecken for the unconsecrated 
water in which the sponsors should wash their hands before leaving the church, 
lest some of the holy oil should adhere to them, may not be improbable. Beautiful 
examples of such large platters, decorated in relief, were produced in pewter 
in Augsburg in the sixteenth century, and specially in Nuremberg by Kaspar 
Enderlein, working in the manner of Francois Briot. Crude modern brass 
versions of this class of platter are unfortunately common enough. 

A chalice-shaped cup, 4f inches high, and 5^ inches in diameter, of dark 
purple glass, is in the possession of Mr. C. H. Woodruff (Fig. 155)."" This 
vessel, on a short silver foot of perhaps later date, has a well-authenticated pedi- 
gree, taking its history back to Bishop Ridley, chaplain to the Princess Elizabeth, 
who is believed to have received the Holy Communion from it, and is said to 
have given the cup to the martyr prelate. The well-known rarity of the use of 

^ See Appendix, Original Documents, No. V. 
^ Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries, 2 S., vol. v. p. 442. 




glass chalices, and other reasons, make it difficult to believe that the cup served 
for this purpose at so late a date ; but it has particular interest if it may be 
considered as English work, which seems probable, and supports the view that a 
few glass-drinking vessels of a higher quality than those produced in the Weald 
continued to be made in England up to the arrival of Edward VI. 's Venetians. 

By the will of John Whitfield, who died in 1691, he bequeathed Queen 
Elizabeth's glass, which was his grandfather's.^ The date of this record carries 
conviction as to the authenticity of the glass, but it no longer exists. 

There is good reason for believing that a tazza-shaped glass, 5-g^ inches high, 
said to have been used by Queen Elizabeth, and now in the royal collection at 

Fig. 155. (One third.) 

Fig. 156. (One half.) 

Windsor Castle, is of English origin. If so, it may be from the hand of Verzelini. 
It was formerly in the possession of the Vickers family, and the arrangement 
of the shaped and stamped leather case shows that it originally had a cover, now 
gone (Fig. 156).- 

In the possession of Sir A. W. Franks is a cylindrical glass tankard of the 
slightest possible brown tint, and full of minute striations. It is 8| inches high, 
with its beautifully chased silver-gilt mountings and handle, with no hall marks. 
On the top of the lid, in opaque and translucent enamels, is the following coat : — 
I. Barry of ten Arg. and Az. on six escutcheons, 3, 2, and i, Sa. as many lions 
rampant of the first, Cecil. 2. Party per pale Gu. and Az. a lion rampant Or. 
(? Arg.) supporting a tree eradicated, ppr. Winston. 3. Gu. (? Sa.) a plate between 
three towers triple-towered Arg. Cayerleon. 4. Arg. on a bend cottised Gu. three 

- ^ Archaeological Journal, vo\. •s.kW. ^. 167. 2 S., vol. ix. p. 357. It was included in the 

- The glass was exhibited by Mr. W. Money, Tudor Exhibition, 1890, Catalogue, p. 200, and is 

in whose possession it then was, to the Society of illustrated, together with the case, in the Art Journal 

Antiquaries, 2ist June 1883. — -See Pro. Soc. Ant., 1890, p. 28. 


mullets Or. Heckino-ton. 5. Arg. a chevron Erm. between three chess rooks Sa. 
Walcote. 6. as I. On the front of the thumb-piece is the crest in enamel on a 
wreath of the colours, — a garb Or. supported by two lions rampant, the dexter 
Arg. the sinister Az. These are the bearings of William Cecil, Lord Burghley. 
The presumed date of the mountings indicate that the glass is of the time of 
Verzelini's Patent, and that it was probably made by him (Plate 26). 

That Verzelini's teaching was efficacious and sound, and that improvement 
was rapidly made, is shown by the fact that Hakluyt, in 1580, included in the 
list of things he proposed to take, no doubt for trading purposes, in the 
expedition for the discovery of "Far Cathay," that is, China, besides Venice 
glasses, "glasses of English making,"^ just as William Wey, a hundred 
years before, recommended the pilgrim quitting Venice to provide himself with 
" cuppys of glass," and other glass vessels.^ Again, we have the evidence of 
Harrison, in 1586, showing that the desire for drinking-glasses, both Venetian 
and home-made, had already grown up, to the disuse or " lothing " of silver 
cups, and not only among the upper and middle classes, but with the poorest 
also, who contented themselves with those made from " feme and burned stone," 
exactly such as were produced by the native glass-makers in the Weald. ^ 

In the British Museum is a glass goblet of Venetian character, s\ inches 
high, and recently acquired, here illustrated. It consists of a semi-oval bowl 
upon a short moulded stem with a ribbed and gilt knop. The bowl is 
banded in the middle by strings and white lines, which comprise the in- 
scription in broken gold leaf— in : god : is : al : mi : trvst. Forming part of 

^ Hakluyt, Voyages, vol. i. p. 496, edit. 1S09. whereby the gain gotten by their purchase is yet 

^ Introd., S. K. Cat., p. l.xxxii. more increased to the benefit of the merchant. The 

3 "It is a world to see in these our dales, wherein poorest also will haue glasse if they may ; but sith 

gold and silver most aboundcth, how that our the Vcnecian is somewhat too deere for them, they 

gentilitie as lothing those mettals (because of the content themselves with such as are made at home 

plentie) do now generallic choose rather the Venice of feme and burned stone ; but in fine all go one 

glasses, both for our wine and beerc, than anie of waie, that is, to shards at the last, so that our great 

those mettals or stone wherein before time we have expenses in glasses (besides that they breed much 

becnc accustomed to drinke ; but such is the nature strife towards such as haue the charge of them) are 

of man generallie, that it most coueteth things diffi- worst of all bestowed in mine opinion, bicause their 

cult to be atteincd ; & such is the estimation of pecces do turn unto no profit." — ¥i?irnson, Description 

this stuffc, that manie because rich onelie with their of England, Book IL.chap. vi., p. 147, New Shakspere 

new, vnto Murana (a townc neere to Venice situat Society, 1877. The above extract does not appear 

on the Adriatike sea), from whence the verie best in the first edition of 1577, but was inserted in that 

are dailie to be had, and such as for bcautie doo of 1586. 

well neere match the christall or the diwclcni Murrhina Engraving on glass and pewter was carried on in 

vasa, whereof no man hath knowledge. And as the Liberty of St. Martin Ic Grand, by Anthony dc 

this is seen in the gentilitie, so in the wealthie com- Lysle in 1585. — "Letters of Denization," nt sup., 

munaltie the like desire of glass is not neglected, vol. viii., Preface, p. xlvi. 





1, ; ^ I »- '., 


''^,<*>»vA»f'^i.-V_''^ j*^v. A^-^ __^ 

1 ^' ^' l\ S±j^i^^; 




a deep ornamental border round the rim are the letters gs, united by a knot, 
twice, and the date 1586 (Plate 27). At this time Verzelini was the only person 
allowed to make glasses " fa^on de Venise " in England, under a Patent for 
twenty-one years, granted 15th Dec. 1575. It is improbable that a glass with 
an English inscription would at that time have been made to order in Murano, 
indeed the importation of such glasses was by the same instrument prohibited 
during its term. We must therefore claim the one under notice as the work 
of "Jacob a stranger dwelling in the Crutched Friars, and making all mann'' of 
counterfayt Venyse drinkinge glasses,"^ as we know for certain he was doing 
from the beginning to the end of the term of his Patent. The motto is not of 
unusual character for art objects, and the glass was no doubt made or decorated 
for a worthy of Elizabeth's time, and his initials, or those of himself and his fiancee 
added, as the knot uniting the letters suggests, thus constituting it a betrothal 
glass. It is probably the only remaining example that may with confidence be 
attributed to Verzelini's hand, and is a most interesting relic. 

In 1589 we have the testimony of Miller and Scott to the high quality of 
glasses of all sorts then made in England by Englishmen. What these glasses 
were like we have, perhaps, no certain tangible evidence. It is probable that 
they were much less fragile than Venetian glasses. Although the latter would 
appear to have been appreciated in England by some of the upper classes, they 
are very rarely mentioned in seventeenth-century inventories or expense books, 
and must have been too delicate for any but occasional use, or for the adorn- 
ment of cabinets, considering the robust — not to say rude — English tastes and 
habits in Elizabeth's spacious days. But the Queen, like all the kings and 
princes of those times, naturally desired and affected to have the science of 
making Venice glasses in her kingdom. 

Somewhat discounting the statement of Harrison by the more reliable 
evidence of documents, we must further gather that English-made glasses, " fa^on 
de Venise," were also only at first to a limited extent popular, because — although 
Sir Jerome Bowes, in 1592, obtained a Patent for carrying on the manufacture^ 
— it is stated in the "Reasons against Sir Robert Hansel's Patent, 16 April, 
1624" that " For Venice glasse the first Patent was granted to Jacob Verseleene, 
on purpose to instruct the natives of these Dominions therein, but the same 
hath been altogether neglected, and (although that Patent hath continued almost 
fifty years) but very few Englishmen have been brought up in that Art."^ 

' See p. 157. " Appendix, Original Documents, No. VIII. 

^ Ibid., No. XIX. 

1 66 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. v. 

On the other hand, the taste for home-made glasses, " fa^on de Venise," had 
evidently improved under Mansel, because in his "Defence" of Nov. 1624, 
against the " Reasons" set forth by his enemies, he says that he brought " many 
expert Strangers from Forraigne parts beyond the Seas, to instruct the Natives 
in making all sorts and kinds of right Christalline Morana glasses,"^ and 
spectacle glasses, and looking-glass plates, and to wholly perfect the work. Other 
Italians were, as we shall see, employed up to the middle of the century by 
Mansel, but not specially or necessarily only for making glasses " fa^on de 
Venise" — the "glasses of rare and curious sorts," which were, in fact, imported 
from the Low Countries, and probably a few only from Venice, and exempted 
from duty by the Proclamation of 25th Feb. 1620. The real revival of Venetian- 
glass making in England to meet a positive demand was brought about by a 
patent to the Duke of Buckingham for that purpose in 1663, as will duly 

' Appendix, Original Documents, No. XX. 



Mention has been made in the preceding chapter of the arrival, on two 
occasions, of Italian glass-makers in England, firstly in 1549, when they worked 
for the King, producing Venetian glasses only, and not pretending to teach their 
"mistery" to others; and secondly in 1575, when Verzelini came, avowedly to 
teach the art of making Venetian glasses to the English. We know for certain 
that seven of the eight Venetians of 1549 left England in 155 1, and that the 
eighth also departed later, and that Verzelini remained here until his death in 

In the interval, in 1564, De Lannoy came from the Low Countries, under 
the auspices of the Government, not to teach the rudiments of glass-making to 
the English, for we have seen that the art had been well understood here from 
time immemorial, but to give certain information as to the practice of the science 
in his own country. De Lannoy also made no stay here ; he was a dreamer, an 
alchemist, and seems to have found us at least rather credulous. Cecil says of 
him in his Diary, loth Feb. 1567, that he "abused many in promising to convert 
any metal into gold."^ 

In 1567 we have Carre and Brict introducing a number of French glass- 
makers from Lorraine and from Normandy, — the latter, perhaps, glad to flee 
from religious persecution, — and obtaining a Patent for making glass for glazing 
in England. The wording of this Patent as to the teaching of Englishmen 
must be considered, together with the known state of the art of window-glass 

* State Papers, Domestic, vol. xxxvii., No. 3. 

1 58 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. vi. 

makino- in England in the first and second quarters of the sixteenth century. 
To take neither earlier nor later tests, the wording is to be judged by the 
documents and the still existing glass in the Chapel of King's. 

The coming of the French Huguenots in 1567 was certainly a more notable 
event than could possibly have been foreseen. Within a few years this move- 
ment gave an impetus to glass-making of all kinds in London, in Sussex, and 
during a long period later on at Stourbridge, and at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The 
foreigners now did not return to their place after a short visit, as their pre- 
decessors had done. They remained and induced their relations from Lorraine 
to join them ; and these allies were in addition to the glass-makers from 
Normandy, who similarly stayed in England and in like manner increased their 
number. The Parish Registers of Wisborough Green, Sussex, give the names, 
between 1581 and 1600, of Tyzack, Henzy, Tyttery, Bongar, Cockery, — Du Thisac, 
De Hennezel, De Thidtry, De Bongar, De Caqueray, — and show that at Alfold was 
buried John Carry (Carrd), " M'^ of y^ glashouse," ^ 23rd May 1572. 

In the glass-house at Beckley, near Rye, in 1579, a stray Venetian, Sebastian 
Orlanden, and Frenchmen from Lorraine, Delakay, Okes, and Sondaye Exanta 
made bugles, "amells,"and " glasse in collers," i.e. coloured glass. There was 
also a furnace at Nordiham. In 1581 complaints were made by the Mayor and 
Jurats of Rye of the wasting of the woods near those ancient Cinque Ports, 
Hastings, Rye, and Winchelsea, by the iron and glass-houses. But the point of 
the grievance was, as in Warwickshire, that "the glasse-houses remove and 
follow the woods with small charge, which the iron-works cannot so easily do."- 
Aubrey states that eleven glass-houses at Chiddingfold, Surrey, were put down 
during the reign of Elizabeth, and others were petitioned against at Hindhead. 
Longe wrote to Burghley to the same effect in 1589.^ Jacob du Houx married 

^ Much valuable information concerning the to these sources of knowledge the Rev. T. S. Cooper 

families of De Hennezel, De Thietry, and Du Thisac, has a work in hand upon Chiddingfold Parish, and its 

their establishment in England at Stourbridge, and at Glass-Houses, mainly drawn from original documents. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, their families and intermarriages, " Hist. MS. Coinm., Report XIII., App., pt. 4, 

and with regard to glass-making in England, has p. 62. So long before as in 1556, and apropos 

been brought together by the late Mr. H. Sydney of the inferior quality of the iron produced in 

Grazebrook in his Collections for a Genealogy of England for the use of the king's armourers, the 

the Noble Families of De Hennezel, etc., privately increased cost of wood was urged as a reason for 

printed, 1877. The Rev. A. W. Cornelius Hallen closing all iron-mills in England. Spanish iron 

has supplemented Mr. Grazebrook's researches by was then five marks the ton as against nine marks 

notes upon "Glass-making in Sussex, Newcastle, for English. — Archaeological fournal,\-o\. \\\. ^. \ 21, 

andScotland,"ofgreatinterest, printed in the ^co/Zw/i "An Elizabethan Armourer's Album;" paper by 

Antiquary, 1893, p. 145, and the author is indebted Viscount Dillon. 

to Mr. R. Garraway Rice for extracts from the ^ See Appendix, Original Documents, Nos. VI., 

Parish Registers of Wisborough Green. In addition VII. 


Anne Tyzack and had a family at Stourbridge. He appears to have removed 
afterwards to London. Isaac du Houx was in the glass-house at the Hyde, 
Cheshire, 1616-1621. 

In addition to the three Lorraine families of "gentlemen glass-makers," and 
the members of the ancient Norman houses of De Bongar, Le Vaillant, and De 
Caqueray, and the other foreigners already mentioned, we have the De Bigault 
family from Lorraine, — Bago, Bigo, Bagge. Jeremy Bago was married to 
Suzanna Henzey at Oldswinford in 1619. He had a glass-house at Greenwich, 
and, with his English partner, Francis Bristow, gave trouble to Mansel — as so 
many did — later on. In 1623 Abraham Bago had a glass-house in the Isle of 
Purbeck, where Mansel's works failed, and another Bago settled in Ireland. 

Besides the glass-making centres in the Weald at Chiddingfold, Kirdford, 
Wisborough Green, Loxwood, Petworth, and Horsham, already spoken of, and 
those in the district of the Cinque Ports, there was another at Alfold, just within 
the borders of Surrey, where John Carre, " M' of ye glashouse," was buried in 
1572. The foreign names of Brasso, Perres, Pereor, Bosson, and Parnys also 
occur in parish registers in the early part of the seventeenth century, locally in con- 
nection with the Sussex glass-works. Mr. Evelyn tells us that his father brought 
over glass-workers after the massacres in France and settled them on his estates 
in Sussex, where they remained for many generations. Thus were the foreigners 
scattered about the country before the end of the first quarter of the seventeenth 
century. All these men fell — not without complaints, contumacy, and resistance 
— under the dominating monopoly of Mansel. They found it better, however, to 
stay and endure the ills they had, than return to others they had some of them 
fled from, and all knew of They intermarried with the English, and their names 
were gradually adapted into English equivalents; the bulk of them certainly 
prospered, and, like the Italians and Altarists in the Low Countries, they became 
gradually merged into the people. 

In his letter of 1589 Longe speaks of other men erecting divers glass-houses 
in sundry parts of the realm, and moving on from place to place, consuming the 
woods. In all probability he alludes to the glass-houses in Sussex, spoken of 
above, and others to which we shall presently refer. It was probably also in 
consequence of complaints, and the suppression of some of the Sussex glass- 
houses, that certain of the De Hennezel, De Thidtry, and Du Thisac families, 
gentlemen glass-makers from Lorraine, betook themselves to the West of England, 
when their contract with Carrd expired. It will be remembered that the latter 
had a furnace at " Fernefol " and one in London. But it should be borne in 


mind that the Lorraine men were not refugees fleeing from their country for a 
livelihood. On the contrary, the De Hennezels made the agreement with Carre 
being still resident in Lorraine. They were persons of some position, members 
of the lesser nobility, who, having practised glass-making at home, as their 
Decrees allowed, desired to continue to do so in England with the free exercise 
of their religion, which actually was, or was likely to be, denied to them at home. 
Hence they did not choose to teach the English their particular practices ; as 
Longe states, they would "by no means" do it; they did not come for that 
purpose, and they did not agree to do so, anything in Becku and Carre's Patent 
to the contrary notwithstanding. The fact of the Lorraine gentlemen glass- 
makers being associated with Becku and Carre was an incidental, not an essential, 
feature of the business in hand ; the Normandy men under Briet could have done 
all that was proposed. 

The agreement of the De Hennezels with Carre, dated 22nd April 1568,^ 
was for nine years, to begin from the day that they should set to work. It is 
certain that there was no delay, and consequently they would be free at the end 
of April 1577 to take the control of, or work in a furnace elsewhere. This they 
made preparations for doing, in or just before 1576, assisted by Tysacks, Houxes, 
and other foreigners, no doubt first brought over as their assistants, as alluded 
to in the agreement with Carrd. A glass-furnace was established at Buckholt 
Wood, then a vast beechwood forest on the line of the Roman road, about two- 
thirds of the way between Winchester and Salisbury. These men had been 
working at Carre's furnace at " Fernefol," and it was the growing dislike in 
Sussex to glass-houses that seems to have caused them to seek a new home. 

In i860, on a site at Buckholt farm, long known as "the bottle factory," 
from the quantity of fragments of glass scattered over it, the foundations of the 
old glass-house were uncovered, and its rather puzzling plan completely exposed. 
The walls of the rectangular central furnace were built of brick, with flint walls 
surrounding it and striking out from it at the four corners, forming rectangular 
chambers for the glass-pots (Fig. 157). The whole building was comprised within 
a circular trench. A mass of wood ashes was found, and "burnt flints in some 
quantity." Whether these were specially calcined for use in the frit, or were 
parts of the walls adjacent to the furnace, there is no evidence to show. Most 
significant for the purpose of the present work are the fragments of glass which 
were revealed, because they furnish dated portions of glasses which were made 
in England at a particularly important time in the history of the art, and of which, 

^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. IV. 




with SO very few exceptions, no complete specimens have survived. The fact of the 
Buckholt glass-house being situated on the line of the Roman road led at first to 
the idea that it might have been of Roman origin, and this was strengthened by the 
accidental presence among the ddbris of a piece of Roman pottery. It is probable 
that the situation near a Roman road was partly occasioned by the ancient way 
being still in use in the latter part of the sixteenth century. Fortunately the 
whole of the objects found at Buckholt were submitted to Mr. H. Syer Cuming, 
most reliable of antiquaries, who reported upon them as follows : — 

The fragments of glass transmitted are of several colours, the majority being of two 
shades of green, viz. an olive and an aqua-marine. There is also a quantity of dingy greenish- 
white glass, a few pieces of colourless glass, and several 
pieces of a rich blue. Judging from the examples, we 
should be led to infer that the whole was mere ciillct, 
collected together for re-melting, but among the mass may 
be selected certain fragments which indicate the contour 
of the vessels of which they once formed portions. The 
fragments of blue glass furnish remains of the rim and base 
of cups : the upper part of a cup, the rim of which is 
bent down and extended laterally in a peculiar manner ; 
the mouth and conic neck of a good-sized bottle ; the curved 
handle of a jug or cup ; and a tri-lobed handle of a (saucer- 
shaped ?) vessel. There are two similar handles of the 
green glass to which traces of the blue vessels are still 
attached. Neither the olive nor the aqua-marine coloured 
glass present any remarkable forms ; but mention may be 
made of a solid conical base with remains of the stem of a 

vessel ; the creased edge with portion of the handle of a cup ; and a ribbed knob, which may 
have surmounted the cover of a vessel ; all of the olive tint. The dingy greenish-white group 
contains remains of tubular necks of flasks, and portions of the mouths of botdes, which may be 
compared with one engraved in the Journal (viii. 324). Also broad circular feet of tall drinking- 
vessels with tubular hems, the largest being 3^ inches in diameter. A fragment of a lower 
part of a tumbler-shaped vessel, of thin pale green colour, with beaded edge similar to examples 
dug up in London with objects of the first half of the seventeenth century. Of colourless glass 
there is a fragment of a slender stem, and a part of a curved handle decorated with seven 
spirals of opaque white enamel ; both are Murano work of the sixteenth century. There 
remain three fragments demanding special notice, as they differ in ornamentation from the 
other pieces. Two are portions of vessels of dingy green glass, one bearing three stripes of 
white enamel, the other having five spots of the same material, bringing to mind the " slip " 
adorned pottery of the seventeenth century. The third fragment is of importance, as it 
appears to be the most ancient of the whole of the specimens sent, and upon this a positive 
opinion may be pronounced. It is a portion of a small quarry of painted glass of the fourteenth 
century ; the device being a disc of open circlets, placed upon a cross. 

Among the pottery are portions of melting-pots, of which five of the fragments are of gray 
earth, varying in thickness from about ^ inch to full i\ inch. The sixth fragment is 
nearly i inch thick, composed of red terra-cotta. The interior of these pieces are coated with 

172 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. vz. 

blue, green, and light-coloured glass, identical with the examples already described. These 
pots seem to have been fabricated in the same manner as now practised, i.e. built up of rolls 
of clay pressed firmly together, giving the outer surface a somewhat ornate appearance. The 
other pottery consists of a portion of the edge of a stout Roman mortarium of red terra-cotta, 
scored with cris-cross lines ; a fragment of a thin vessel of hard stone-coloured terra-cotta, 
possibly of Roman fabric ; part of the rim of a dish of brown glazed-ware with yellow scorings, 
of the sixteenth century, and two fragments of brown stone-ware of the time of Elizabeth or 
James I. 

Such is a careful analysis of the remains submitted for inspection, and the inferences 
deducible therefrom may be stated thus : — First, we have one piece of undoubted Roman 
pottery, and one piece which ms.y possibly be Roman. Secondly, we find one piece of painted 
glass unquestionably of the fourteenth century, two fragments of Murano glass of the sixteenth 
century, the base of a tumbler-like cup of the seventeenth century, and three fragments of 
pottery of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Thirdly, we find a mass of fragments of 
vessels of glass of various hues, none of which can be considered older than mediaeval times. 
There is such a uniformity in colour and design in Roman glass discovered in this country 
and the Continent, that some have supposed the provinces received their supply from the seat 
of Empire in Italy; whilst others have thought each province had in all probability its glass- 
factories as well as its potteries. If this latter assumption be correct, it might be argued that 
the remains obtained at Buckholt farm are examples of Romano-British glass ; but the whole 
current of evidence negatives such an hypothesis. We ought not to lose sight of the 
important fact of the presence of large quantities of window-glass ; for though the Romans 
sometimes glazed the windows of their villas, glazing to any extent was certainly not much 
in vogue until long after the Roman rule had ceased in Britain. It is further worthy of notice 
that the window-glass employed in ancient times was cast in plates, whereas that now discovered 
exhibits distinct and unmistakable proofs of being blozvn, the thick hem being well preserved 
in one of the examples. These accumulated facts bring conviction to my mind of the 
comparatively recent origin of the furnace and its contents, an origin which in all probability 
dates irom about the middle of the sixteenth century. The discovery is interesting as 
probably furnishing evidence of the remains of the earliest glass-factory noticed in this 

Mr. Syer Cuming's opinion, which one naturally takes as conclusive in itself, 
has been corroborated thirty years after from an unexpected quarter — the Registers 
of " L'Eglise Wallonne de Southampton." In the list of those who made 
profession of their faith, and were admitted to the Lord's Supper, are the 
following: — 

I 576. 7 October. 

Jan du Tisac "\ . , ,r 

ouvners de V erre a la 
Pierre Vaillant \ 

^, J „ ,. Verriere de boute haut 

Glaudc Potier j 

1577. 6 October. 
Monsieur de Henneze et s. f. ^ 

Louis de Hennezee 
Arnoul Bisson 
Jan Perne 

tous de boc- 

' Journal, British Arcliaeotogical Association, vol. xvii. p. 57. 


1577. 7 October. 
Jail Burc, J.F. {i.e. Bachelor) 

1579. 4 Janry. 
RIonsr. dii IIou. Verriercn, a bouque haut.^ 

It can be no mere coincidence that the Wallon Registers just quoted 
should show the gentlemen glass-makers at Buckholt first in the very year of the 
termination of their agreement with Carre, and these slight documents show 
the direction which ^^"as taken by foreign glass -makers in their wanderings 
here. Amateurs of costume can easily picture the appearance of these 
honest, God-fearing gentlemen, after months of toil smartening themselves up 
and speeding along the Roman road to Winchester, bound for the temple of 
their faith 12 miles further on at Southampton. They must have worn small 
gray hats, high off the forehead, with plumes of feathers en aigrette in front, wide 
single ruffs, very short dark cloaks, thrown open, and (XivcV jiistaiicorps, chausses, 
and bas de chausses. And each man would have carried on his left hip his glass- 
maker's compasses fitted with qui lions and closed for use as a dagger, after the 
manner of the time ;- but we must pass on. 

The history diXid personnel of the Buckholt furnace are therefore more clearly 
established than those of any other old glass-house in England ; and it is 
particularly noticeable, from the remains found, that more glass was made here 
for vessels than for windows. The De Hennezels came avowedly to make window- 
glass, and nothing else ; ^ at Buckholt they turned their attention to vessels also. 
Was this because they found their \\indow-giass was not much wanted in 
England, inasmuch as the natives made it themselves, and— as for King's Chapel less 
than half a century before — better than the aliens could do so ? The vessels from 
Buckholt would have been distributed throughout the country, according to the 
custom at that time, by pedlars or "glass men "—"qui portant vitra ad dorsum,^ 
who had certain privileges later on under the Statute of Vagabonds passed in the 

^"Rcgistre de TEglisc Wallonne de South- large pair of compasses, formed for use when closed as 

a.m\jion;' Publicatious of the Huguenot Society, \-o\.\\-.; a dagger, with the hilt and quillons inlaid in silver. 

Mr.Y{3.\\Gn,Scottish Antiquary, i'S,gi,^.\4g,\\ A pair of gunner's callipers of steel, fashioned in 

aware of the Buckholt discovery, placed the site of the form of a dagger, with the grip damascened in 

"bocque haut " as possibly at Wisborough Green, gold and silver, was exhibited by Mr. A. Gibbs 

Sussex, where the names of Tyzacks, Tyttcrys, to the Society of Antiquaries, 19th May 1892. — 

Hennezels, and other foreign glass-makers occur in See Pro. Soc. Ant., 2 S., vol. xiv. p. 172. 

the parish registers during the last quarter of the ^ See Appendix, Original Documents, No. IV. 

sixteenth century. ■* A Venetian Decree of 1279 thus mentions 

- The portrait of Ralph Simons, architect of German hawkers of glass. — Introd., S. K. Cat., 

Sidney and Emmanuel Colleges, Cambridge, and p. Ixxvij. 
preserved at Emmanuel, represents him holding a 

174 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. vi. 

Parliament of 39 Elizabeth (1597), ^^ whose opening Mr. Speaker Yelverton gave 
such a curiously grotesque character of himself.^ 

We know from the remains found at " the bottle factory" that the furnace on 
that spot was a foreign and a French one;'- but it is certain that there were also 
English glass-houses at Buckholt, because Mansel, in his "Defence" of 1624,^ 
alludes to the wood of great extent there which was wholly consumed by glass- 
makers — a result which could not have been arrived at by a single and limited 
body of foreigners at one glass-house. Of course all paid for the wood that they 
used, but no rent to the Crown. Mansel alludes also to the consumption of 
woods by glass-makers in all parts, and he says that in Warwickshire the people 
rose in tumult, with curses and imprecations, and expelled the glass-makers. 
These were assuredly natives, or Mansel would have stated to the contrar}\ So 
thorough was the eviction, and the effect of the subsequent action of Mansel, that 
in Houghton's list of 1696' only one glass-house had been revived, namely, at 
Coventry ; there was then no glass-house in Hampshire. Mansel makes no 
mention of foreigners working glass-houses, but his statements show how many 
unlicensed native glass-houses there must have been up to the time when he 
obtained the sole concession for the kingdom in 1623. 

It may be taken that the duration of the French furnace at Buckholt was 
only coincident with that of the wood fuel conveniently to be obtained, and we 
accordingly find that the gentlemen glass-makers moved to the Forest of Dean, 
where wood was then plentiful enough.^ In how many places they settled in or 
near the Forest we know not, but the Parish Registers of Newent, on the borders 
of the Forest of Dean, contain the following entries : — 

1599. — May 6. Baptized Thomas, son of Anthony of the glasse-house. 

1599. — Oct. 29. Baptized, Tyzack Abraham, sonne of a frenchman at the glasse-house. 
1 60 1. — Feb. 24. Margaret daughter of Anthony Voydyn, glass-founder." 

Was it a simple coincidence that the Frenchmen should settle in the middle of the 

' The excellent effigy of the learned Sir ^ See Appendix, Original Documents, No. XX. 

Christopher Yelverton, in his full robes as Justice * Houghton's Letters for the Lnprovemeni of 

of the Queen's Bench, lies on an altar tomb beside Trade and Husbandry — " List of Glass Houses in 

that of his wife in the beautiful Church of Easton England and Wales," 15th May 1696, Appendix, 

Maudit, Northamptonshire. There also reclines the No. XXXHI. 

effigy of his son, Sir Henry Yelverton, Judge of '•' See Penny Cyclopaedia, vol. xi. p. 266, for 

the Common Pleas, with that of his wife. information concerning the granting, wasting, and 

- Lorraine was one of the Grands Fiefs of re-afforcsting of the Forest of Dean for the uses of 

France and the last united to the Crown, viz. in the navy in the time of Charles L and Charles H. 
1735. — See Abrcge Chronologiqzie des Grands Fiefs. '' Scottish Antiquary, ut sup., p. 151. 

Brunet, Paris, edit. 1759. 


little Newent coal-field ? The license for the invention of coal-heated glass- 
furnaces was first granted in 1610/ and the system was then by no means 

It will readily be allowed that some firm legislation was necessary when a 
body of foreigners could steadily move from place to place where wood was 
abundant, use it for fuel, paying only a small price for it, and conduct a lucrative 
business free from rent or royalty. How many of these unlicensed glass-houses 
there were in 1600 it is impossible now to ascertain. The fifteen furnaces in 
England, which Longe proposed in 1589 to reduce to two, must have been 
principal establishments only ; the minor ones — " divers glass-houses in sundr)^ 
parts of the Realme " — were being protested against or summarily suppressed 
locally. Paul Hentzner, the traveller from Brandenburg, was in England in 
August and September 1598, and makes a note that "glass-houses are plenty 
here." The prohibition of wood as fuel was most opportune. It was the natural 
result of the invention of coal-heated furnaces, without which the glass industry 
must have left the country in order to save the woods for the navy. The 
prohibition soon brought about the entire cessation of many glass-houses, such 
as those in Sussex, and divers parts, where coal was not procurable, the 
removal of others to coal districts, and the opening of new glass industries in 
fresh centres. 

From the Forest to Stourbridge was no great distance, and it is manifest 
that the Stourbridge clay had been used for making glass-makers' pots some 
years before the glass industry itself was carried to that place. A lease was 
granted in 1566 for digging glass-house pot-clay there, but the exact date of the 
introduction of glass-making into Stourbridge has not been ascertained. There 
would have been no special attraction there for glass -makers beyond the 
presence of the clay, which was perhaps comparatively a small, though a 
necessary, item of their needs, before the Proclamation of 1615 against 
wood.- After that year the woods of the Forest were denied to the glass- 
makers by law, and the alternative fuel, coal, had to be sought; consequently 
the Lorraine gentlemen should appear at once in the neighbourhood of 
Stourbridge. As a matter of fact, John, son of Paul and Bridget Tyzack, was 
baptized at Kingswinford, 26th April 16 12, and seven members of the 

^ Sec Appendix, Original Documents (Abstract), coal thereabouts, no doubt has drawn the glass- 
No. IX. houses, both for vessels and broad glass, into these 

^ Plot, in his Natural History of Staffordshire, parts, there being divers set up in different forms 

published in 1686, says, under Amblecote : "The here at Amblecote, Oldswinford, Holloway's End, 

goodness of the clay and the cheapness of the and Cobournc-brook." 

176 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. ciiAr. vi. 

Henzey family alone are shown by the parish registers to have had children 
in Oldswinford and Kingswinford between 1615 and 1630, and their names 
are recorded in the former place up to 1780, and in the latter from 1625 to 
1729. At Amblecote also the Henzeys were settled as glass-makers, and had 
a long succession. They continued as glass-makers at or near Oldswinford 
up to the present day, intermarrying with the local families of Pidcock, 
Croker, Dixon, Jeston, Brettcll, Bate, and others; all these details are borne 
out by the entries in the parish registers.^ 

Of the Tytterys the information is but meagre in the neighbourhood of 
Stourbridge. They were glass-makers at Oldswinford, and one of the family 
married Thomas Rogers, a glass-maker at Amblecote, and became the great-grand- 
mother of Samuel Rogers, born 1763, died 1855.' 

The Tyzacks were glass- makers at Oldswinford from 1622 to 1729." 
Members of the family of this calling are entered in the Registers of St. 
Nicholas, Gloucester, seemingly of the end of the seventeenth century.' In 
Houghton's list of glass-houses in England in 1696'' he gives three in 
Gloucester, all making "bottles." At Stourbridge, the only place where glass 
was then made in Worcestershire, he quotes seven houses making window- 
glass, five making bottles, and five " flint green and ordinary."'' 

In brief: — First, we had the Henzeys, Tytterys, and Tyzacks in 
Sussex ; then the Henzeys and Tyzacks at Buckholt ; then the Tyzacks at 
Newent, and later at Gloucester ; and finally, we meet with all three families 
at Stourbridge, where they settled. Thus, without attempting to extract from 
the slight but irrefutable documents more than they properly give, the western 
track of the Lorraine glass-makers becomes assured, the evidence being both 
cumulative and convincing. Would that we could point to examples of 
drinking-glasses made at the Frenchmen's furnaces at this time in England I 
These early glass-makers at Stourbridge must have worked under a license 

^ H. S. Grazcbrook, Collections for a Genealogy ■' Appendix, No. XXXIII. 

of the Noble Families, etc., nt sup., pp. 12, 32, 102. ^ At the beginning of this century there were 

' Ibid.,\i. 16. about ten glass-houses at Stourbridge; at the 

^ Ibid., p. III. present day the manufacture still holds a principal 

"* Scottish Antiquary, ut sup., p. i 5 i : " At place. The Brierley Hill Works of Messrs. Stevens 

the lower end of the town near the river is a glass- and Williams, founded in 1776, and those of Messrs. 

house where they make great store of glass bottles Webb, take a high position for " artistic glass " to 

selling I 5 to the dozen for which I was fain then suit the modern taste. From both establishments 

to pay 4s. for every dozen quart bottles ... at the reproductions of Old English cut glasses, full 

the glass-house now in Gloucester they sell quart of " fire " and " colour," are as good as they can be 

bottles." — Baskerville's Journeys, Gloucester (1682), of their kind. 
Hist. MSS. Com., Rep. XIII. pt. 2, p. 294. 


from Mansel when, by virtue of the Patent of 1623,1 he tightened his grasp 
upon the industry ^vhich had been handed over to him. 

It is apparent from the parish registers of the glass- making districts of 
Surrey, Sussex, of the neighbourhood of Stourbridge, and of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, that the five Lorraine glass-masters, De Hennezel, De Thietry, Du Thisac, 
Du Houx, and De Bigault, with certain assistants, alone went westward, and 
that the Norman gentlemen, De Bongar, De Caqueray, Perres, De Brossard, and 
their workmen, stayed in Sussex as long as the use of wood fuel was allowed. 
At the same time that the Lorraine glass -makers were moving from the 
Forest of Dean, viz. about 161 5, other members of these families pushed on 
to what was then the northern centre of the coal-fields, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
where, if they arrived after May 1615 and established glass-furnaces, these 
would have been on the new system. There is no evidence to show that glass 
was made at Newcastle before 161 5,'- the year of the Proclamation for the 
prohibition of wood, and of the extinction of, or withdrawal of protection from, 
the three then existing Patents under which glass was made with wood-heated 

Sir Robert Mansel obtained a Patent, 19th January i6i|, with eight 
others — one of whom was Thomas Percival, the perfecter of the new process, 
and who is actually called the " first inventor " — for making glass with coal, 
and the business not succeeding, he bought them out and set to work by 
himself. After establishing glass-houses successively and unsuccessfully in 
London, the Isle of Purbeck, at Milford Haven, where he used Pembrokeshire 
coal, and in Nottinghamshire, he finally succeeded at Newcastle-on-Tyne,^ 
aided by the good sense of Dame Mansel. His career will be touched upon 
later on. His attempts in other places can only have been of short duration, 
and he must have founded a glass-house at Newcastle-on-Tyne before the end of 

' See Appendi.x, Original Documents, No. the reach of the public. Bourne ascribes the 

XVIII. coming of the Hcnnezcys, Titterys, and Tyzacks to 

'" " Notwithstanding what Bourne and others Newcastle in the reign of Elizabeth, and Brand 

say, I do not think there is any proof that glass puts the establishment of glass-works on the Tyne 

works existed either in the neighbourhood of at about 1619. It is not an easy question to 

Stourbridge, or on the banks of the Tyne, before decide, but the course of the history of glass-making 

the year 161 5 or thereabouts, when a Patent was points to the latter date. The subject has also 

granted to Sir Robert Mansel, Knt." — H. S. Graze- been touched upon by J. Clepham, "The Manufac- 

brooke, ut sup., p. 10. ture of Glass in England ; " " Rise of the Art on the 

Both Bourne, History of Neivcastle-on-Tyne, Tyne" Air/ureologia Aclia)ia, New Series, vol. viii. 

1736, and Brand, ibid., 1789, valuable as their p. 123, 1880. 

histories arc in other respects, wrote their accounts '* Sec Appendix, Original Documents, No. 

of glass-making on the T>'nc without the aid of all XVIII. 

the State documents which are now placed within ' Ibid., No. XX. 

2 A 

178 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. vi. 

1617, because the Registers of All Saints', under the date nth February i6i|, 
give the entry of "Edward Henzey servant to Sir Robert Mannsfield^ was 
buried." It thus appears that Mansel had in his employ, on his breaking- 
ground at Newcastle-on-Tyne, at least one member of the Henzey family. 

It can be no mere coincidence that from 1620 Perigrine Henzey of 
Oldswinford and his young nephew and niece, Edward and Jane, cease to be 
recorded in the registers there. The inference is, that they must have gone to 
Newcastle about two years after the death of their kinsman Edward, " servant " 
to Mansel. Again, the name of Perigrine is associated frequently with that 
of Henzey at Newcastle. This may be accounted for either by its trans- 
mission from father to son in the usual way — a system so harassing in the 
drudgery of the compilation of a pedigree^ — or by the desire to mark the 
fact of their wanderings and settlement in foreign land, for perigyini et 
advenae they truly were. 

The Tyzacks soon followed the Henzeys, for the baptism of "John son of 
Tymothie Teswick, glass-maker, a Frenchman," occurs 22nd November 1619. 
Some of the Tittory family also came to Newcastle at the same time, and the 
Registers of All Saints' contain upwards of six hundred entries of marriages, 
baptisms, and burials of Henzeys, Tittorys, and Tyzacks between 1619 and 
1750; the entries have not been extracted beyond these dates. The persons 
mentioned are, with few exceptions, described as "glass-makers" or "broad 
glass-makers."'^ The items show how much the three families intermarried, 
and how firmly settled they were, though strangers and pilgrims, in the town 
where glass-making, mainly through their endeavours in the seventeenth century, 
and the leading of Mansel and his English allies, became and has since remained 
a staple of the place. The history of this industry has, in fact, run its course at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne on just the same lines as at Stourbridge; and, as at Liege ^ 
and other towns of the Low Countries during the same period, the foreigners, 
with changed patronymics, became gradually merged with the natives. We now 
leave the Lorraine episode and return to the main English story. 

' The name was often spelt thus, and by was mother of Katherine, sixth wife of Henry VIII., 

Mansel himself, at least on one occasion. and who took as her fourth husband Thomas, Lord 

- There were, for instance, six Sir Thomas Seymour of Sudeley. John Greene, of whom we 

Greenes in succession lords of Greene's Norton in shall hear a good deal later on, was a cadet of the 

Northamptonshire. Maud, one of the two co- Greene's Norton family, 

heiresses of the last Sir Thomas Greene who died ^ H. S. Grazebrook, lit sup., p. i i 2. 

in 1506, married Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal — of ■* See Introductory Notices, p. 31. 
Greene's Norton in right of his wife — and by him 



The License to Verzelini, granted in 1575, was to expire in 1596. Accordingly 
Sir Jerome Bowes — who exhibited so bold a front to Ivan the Terrible on the 
occasion of his embassy from Elizabeth in 1593^ — obtained, 5th February i59-g-, 
a Special License - for twelve years, at a rent of a hundred marks, on the termina- 
tion of the concession to the Italian, to make drinking-glasses " fa^on de Venise " 
in England and Ireland, "like vnto such as be moste vsed made or wroughte in 
the said towne of Morano," " to be as good cheape or rather better cheape than 
the drincking glasses commonly brought from the Citty of Morano or other 
partes of beyond the seas." And no other person should during the term of 
twelve years, " Set on worke or any way counterfeite the said Arte and feate of 
makeing the said drincking glasses," under heavy fines. It is further stated 
that, "our intent and meaning is that the said art and feate of makeing the said 
drincking glasses shall remaine and have continuance within our Realmes of 
England and Ireland and other our domynions." The importation of all such 
counterfeit Venice glasses was prohibited, and full powers of search for any such 
suspected objects granted to Sir Jerome Bowes, and all other furnaces for making 
them forbidden, as well as their sale by any other person. Under his License 
Sir Jerome Bowes is also to " finde furnishe and provide to & for the noble 
men within her Majesties Realme of England & the domynions of the same 

' This remarkable story is told by Pepys, 5th " Appendix, Original Documents, No. VIII. 

September 1662. 

i8o OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. vii. 

to drinke in good and sufficient store & quantity of faire perfecte good & well 
fashioned drinking glasses made or to be made within the Cities or Townes of 
Venice or Morano comonly called Venice glasses," at reasonable rates and 
prices, "or els shall suffer the said noble men and others of her pryvy 
Counsell to make provision thereof only to their owne private vse." It is further 
stipulated that in the case of "any amytie league & frindshipp" growing up 
hereafter with the Duke, chief state rulers, and governors of Venice, the grant 
to Sir Jerome Bowes upon notice may be determined. 

In October 1595 a certain Italian named Adrien is mentioned as having 
been for five years a glass-maker in England,^ probably under Verzelini. He 
was now denounced in a letter from an anonymous Jesuit as being occupied in 
a conspiracy at Rome against England, the plan being to destroy her navy by 
means of Adrien's invention of "artificial fire-balls the size of a fist that 
will fire even though in water." This was a recurrence to an ancient mode of 
warfare known as " Greek fire."- 

On 8th October 1607 a Special License was granted to Sir Percival Hart 
and Edward Forcett'' for twenty-one years, for making drinking-glasses, or 
other glasses whatsoever, such as are made in Murano, on the determination of 
the License for twelve years of 5th February 159^, to Sir Jerome Bowes, at the 
yearly rent of 100 marks, to the prohibition of all other makers of like glasses 
save such as be appointed during the term by the grantees, or any furnaces for 
them in England or Ireland. Importation of such drinking-glasses, whether 
real or counterfeit, was also prohibited, as in the licenses to Bowes and 
Verzelini. Bowes's Patent expired in 1604; it appears to have been renewed 5th 
October 1606. 

Similar " Licenses " were granted to Edward Salter in 1608, " for the making 
of all manner of drinking glasses, and other glasses and glasse workes not 
prohibited by the former Letters Patentes."^ 

On 28th July 1 610 a Special License for twenty-one years was granted 
to Sir William Slingsby, Andrew Palmer, Edward Wolverstone, and Robert 

' State Papers, Domestic, 1595. powder was found more efficacious. Gibbon gives 
'" See Journal, Royal Institution, vol. xiv., paper a striking description of the modes of its employ- 
on Greek Fire by MacCulloch. ment, and its disastrous effects. Glass vessels 
Greek Fire was a mixture in which naphtha, appear to have been first used for Greek Fire by 
sulphur, pitch, and other inflammable ingredients the Saracens in the twelfth century, 
entered. It was of early employment in the East, ^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. IX. 
particularly by the Saracens against the Christians. (Abstract). 
Its use was continued generally in Europe until ■* See Ibid., No. XVIII. 
the middle of the fourteenth century, when gun- 


Clayton ^ for the erection of furnaces, ovens, and engines for brewing, dyeing, 

baking, roasting, brick, tile, and pot making, refining, etc., and for melting glass, 

ordnance, bell-metal, latten, copper, and other metals, with sea-coal and pit-coal, 

for the sparing of wood and charcoal. This was an important concession, but 

from the fact of the Patent being of general application for boiling, melting, and 

baking, and the grantees frit melters and not specially glass-makers, they failed 

to take advantage of it. Moreover, in the " Reasons against Sir R. Mansell's 

Patent, i6 April, 1624,"- it is stated that "The Invention of making Glasse 

with Sea-coale and Pit-coale was practised in several! parts of this kingdome, 

before the first Patent granted, and so much \\as apparently proved in the 

several 1 Parliaments, whereby the appropriating of the Invention unto the 

Patentees, and the suggestions unto his Majesty proved to be untrue." In the 

same document Lord Dudley's testimony is quoted in evidence that two years 

before the "pretence of a new invention, or any Patent granted, there was glasse 

made with coale upon his ground by native Glasse-makers, whereby it may 

appeare that this was no new Invention." The truth seems to be that Slingsby 

and his partners were merely the first to attempt the practice of the new system 

of furnaces, devised by others, and still imperfect, on any considerable scale, 

and call attention to its merits. For this they must have credit ; but their 

pretensions as inventors were groundless, and the new practice made no progress 

under their hands. In fact, when Slingsby wrote to Salisbury,'^ 26th February 

161-Y-, requesting that Sir Edward Zouche and others might not obtain a Patent, 

for which they were petitioning, of the newly invented furnaces for making 

glass with sea-coal, saying that it would be an infringement of the License 

granted to himself and his partners the inventors, for the sole making, using, 

and authorising under composition of the employment of such furnaces, and 

praying for a " Declaration in Print " on his behalf, — he added that "our busynes 

haythe had as yett but slow progression, yett shall those few wee have delte 

wythall, justyfye the excellency of the Invention." Consequently Slingsby did 

not obtain a " Declaration in Print " to bolster up his unsuccessful working in 

the new process ; but the Council went beyond him. 

On 25th March 161 1 Sir Ed\\ard Zouche, Bevis Thelwall, Thomas Perci- 
vall, and Thomas Mefflyn obtained a Patent* to make drinking-glasses for 
twenty-one years, in which the rights in Bowes's Patent for Venetian glass-making, 
which appears to have been renewed to him after its expiration in 1604, those of 

' Appendi.x, No. X. (Abstract). ' Ibid., No. XI. 

- Ibid., No. XIX. .. ■• Ibid., No. XII. (Abstract). 

1 82 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. vii. 

Salter 1608, and those in Slingsby's Patent, granted in 1610, were specially 
reserved. Under this grant Zouche and his partners spent ;!^5ooo,^ clearly with 
the view of perfecting Percivall's process of glass- making with coal furnaces. 
Their works were at Lambeth. This "perfection" " plainelie appeared by mani- 
fest and demonstrative experience in and by the severall furnaces then latelie 
erected and built by the said first Inventor Thomas Percivall and his partners."- 
It is probable that some previous practice by Percivall in a coal district with the 
new furnaces was the usage alluded to by Lord Dudley, in which case Percivall's 
title, here so frankly allowed, to be their first inventor would be a strong one. 
But the same claim had also been made by Slingsby in 161 o, and allowed in his 
Patent of that date. So hard is it to track an invention to its source, even when 
we seem to be within less than measurable distance of it.'^ Obviously between 
the genesis of the idea of the new furnaces and their "perfecting," that is the 
closing of the pots, there must have been a wide space. It is certain that coal 
furnaces were in use for glass-making in many places in England as early as 1608, 
the employment of a fuel other than wood being the natural outcome of the 
scarcity of the latter. This primary change only required a modification of the 
furnaces; the real " Inventor " was Thomas Percivall, the man who further im- 
proved the furnaces. Closed the Pots,^ and, it may reasonably be thought, then 
introduced oxide of lead in moderate proportions into the frit, for the increase of 
its fusibility, almost a necessity of the closing of the pots. 

The Crown recognised the importance of the new step, and the opportunity 
was seized for calling in or extinguishing, as their terms allowed, all glass Patents, 
"growne hurtful and preiudicial to the common weale," ^ then running, namely, 
those held by Hart and Forcett, Bowes, Salter, and apparently so much of 
Slingsby's Patent which, as has been seen, was of general commercial application, 
as related to glass. 

It appears that Sir Jerome Bowes had also placed himself at the head of a 
company, and in 1613 was petitioning for a Patent for glasses with furnaces on the 

' Appendix, No. XIII. published 1612, and reprinted by Bagnall with 
- See Ibid., No. XVIII. Dud Dudley's Metalliim Martis, he states in the 
^ " The glass invention with pitcol was first Preface that, " very lately by a wind furnace 
efifected near the Authours dwelling, namely Greens greene glass for windows is made as well by pit- 
Lodge."— Dud Dudley, Metallum Martis, 1665, coale at Winchester House in Southwark as it is 
p. 35, reprint by Bagnall. Near Greene's Lodge done in other places with much wast and consum- 
was possibly the scene of Percivall's e.xperi- ing of infinite stores of billetts and other wood- 
ments. fuell." 

* Simon Sturtcfant had a Patent in 161 i for '" See Appendix, Original Documents, No. 

making iron with pit coal. In his Metallica, XVIII. 


new principle. His License for making Venice glasses, which implied wood 
furnaces, had been declared void, and being aware of the general feeling against 
the use of wood he naturally desired now to work under the new system. But 
another company which was being formed, and of which Zouche and Percivall 
were members, was a powerful combination, and the reception of Bowes was not 
encouraging ; for the policy of the Crown then was to limit the number of the 
Patents. To Bowes, who was an individual of some importance, was offered the 
compromise of /'igoo a year, which he declined. ^ This sum was therefore 
reserved for the benefit of the evicted patentees,- and thus the ground was 
cleared for a fresh start under the new system, which promised so well. 

On 1 8th July 1613 Sir George More and Sir Edmund Bowyer reported to 
the King as follows : — 

They have repaired to the glass-house lately erected at Lambeth, by virtue of his letters patent to 
Sir Edward Zouch and Mr. Louis Thelwall. By judgment of divers glaziers of the city of London, etc. 
perceived the glass for the metal to be clear and good, but in some places uneven, and full of spots, by 
reason of the negligence of the workmen. The glaziers affirm to have sundry times bought glass as 
good and as cheap there as any other of the same size. The fuel used is Scotch coal, and not fuel made 
of wood. Unlawful practices have been used to overthrow the work, against which it were good some 
speedy course were taken that the same may better proceed.^ 

Zouche and his three partners now surrendered to the King, nth February 
161-I-, their Patent of 25th March 161 1, and on 4th March 161 1 a Special 
License, for making drinking-glasses and all kinds of glass, was granted to Sir 
Edward Zouche, Bevis Thelwall, Thomas Percivall, and Robert Kellaway^ (in 
the place of Mefflyn deceased) for twenty-one years, at the rent of ^1000 a year. 
Steps were being taken to carry a Bill in Parliament for the preservation of woods; 
this met with opposition, and delays ensued.'' In the meantime, it appears that 
certain of the Court were pressing for participation in the benefits they saw were 
likely to accrue from glass-making under the new process. Hence a fresh Patent 
was prepared, and granted, 19th January 16 1|, to Philip, Earl of Montgomery, 
Thomas, Viscount Andever, Sir Robert Mansel, Sir Edward Zouche, Sir Thomas 
Tracy, Thomas Hayes, Bevis Thelwall, Thomas Percivall, and Robert Kellaway, 
for twenty-one years, '^ for making all kinds of glass with sea-coal, pit-coal, or 
any other fuel not being timber or wood, at the yearly rent of p^iooo, the importa- 
tion of all kinds of foreign glass being prohibited save to the patentees alone. 

^ Stale Papers, Domestic, Nov. 17, 16 13. ^ See Appendix, Original Documents, No. XU. 

- Ibid. (Abstract). 

^ A. J. Kempe, Loseley MSS., p. 494, Addenda, ^ State Papers, Domestic, Feb. 23, 16 14. 

No. 23. " See Appendix, Original Documents, No. 


I 84 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. vil. 

Thus, by the inclusion of Zouche and his partners in the new Patent, their License 
of 4th March i6iy was swallowed up. (3n account of their practical knowledge 
their co-operation was necessary for the prosperous conduct of the business, and 
the position of the company was made sure by the stringent terms of the Pro- 
clamation which shortly followed. This was, as the King put it, "to prevent 
misgrief arising wherein the Law hath no Provision, until a Parliament can 
provide;" it was, in fact, an extra, but a provisional protection. 

It is almost certain that the improvements brought about by Percivall were 
crowned by the Closing of the Pots, between March 1611 and February 1614; 
nearer than this we cannot get ; and this marks an epoch in the history of glass- 
making, resulting eventually in the manufacture in England of the most brilliant 
crystal glass ever produced in the world, and the revolutionising of the practice 
of the art. 

It was obvious that unless the use of wood was absolutely prohibited, as 
well as the importation of glass, the commercial success of the new process could 
not be assured ; therefore, four months after the granting of the new Patent to 
Zouche and the Court Company, the Council, having become quite sure of their 
position, issued the famous Proclamation toitchiug Glasses, 23rd May 1615,^ 
a very opportune and prescient document, prohibiting the use of wood in furnaces 
for glass-making, and ordering that it be made only with sea-coal or pit-coal, 
or other fuel not wood, on account of the waste of timber, the value of which for 
shipping is seriously dwelt upon: "And although the case doe so import the 
State of this our Kingdome, as it were the lesse evill to reduce the times unto 
the ancient manner of drinking in Stone, and of Latice windowes, then to suffer 
the losse of such a treasure." The importation of foreign glass was by the same 
Proclamation rigorously interdicted; and on ist June, upon further consideration, 
all glasses forfeited under it were granted to the members of the company to 
whom the new Patent had been conceded.- On account of his former rents 
from the old glass-works an annuity of ;^6oo was allowed to Sir Jerome Bowes 
out of the profits of the new Patent.-^ He died in the following year. 

The introduction of the use of coal in furnaces was more significant and 
far-reaching in its eff"ects than at first sight appeared, and by the prohibition of 
wood and the banning of foreign glass an important point in the history of 
glass-making in England was emphasised. The country was now entirely thrown 
upon its own resources as regards glass of all kinds, and local industry was 

^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. XIV. ^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. XV. 

- State Papers, Domestic, June i, 1615. (Abstract). 


almost suddenly called upon to supply its rapidly increasing requirements in this 
respect. It was a bold movement, but retarding causes were now being cleared 
away. Chief of these, as we have seen, had been the granting of monopolies more 
or less oppressive, according to circumstances, and common under Tudor and 
Stuart monarchs, to persons who may or may not have been original inventors, 
and which, it was asserted, tended to the raising of the prices, the deterioration 
of the commodities, and the impoverishment and grinding down of the artificers.^ 
But the Act of 21 James I. (1624), which abolished monopolies of the more 
mischievous kind, established the granting of Letters Patent for fourteen years, 
or less, to the actual inventor of a new process or method of manufacture. This 
is the foundation of the present law of Patents. 

It is from this point that the modern English glass manufacture may be 
said strictly to begin. From this time forward, with the exception of the Lorraine 
men, then permanently settling at Stourbridge and at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 
certain Italians introduced by Mansel, we hear but seldom of the presence or 
employment of foreigners, and not as " masters " of glass-houses, but as artisans, 
few in number, and working under special circumstances with English patentees 
who understood the science and business in all its branches. Italian influence 
reappeared, indeed, after the middle of the seventeenth century in England, but 
under totally different conditions. 

^ See Appendix, Original Documents, No. XIX. 

2 B 



The new glass company worked together under the Patent of 1615 for two 
years, when Mansel bought out his eight co-partners for ;^i8oo a year, besides 
undertaking the payment of the rent of ;^iooo a year to the Crown. ^ The 
prominent appearance of Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Mansel, Treasurer of the 
Navy, in sole control of the glass business in England, was a notable event. 
He was a man of vigorous character and active business habits, and there can 
be no doubt that it is mainly to him that is due the success of the glass manu- 
facture, as it was carried on in England with the newly-devised furnaces, during 
the first half of the seventeenth century, when the foundation of the modern 
system was laid." But he was a monopolist. 

He appears to have controlled glass-works in London and elsewhere as 
early as in 1606, and to have made himself thoroughly conversant with the 
art. Soon after becoming sole lessee of the Patent of 16 15 he set up furnaces, 
as has already been shown, successively but not successfully in London, Broad 
Street, the Isle of Purbeck, Milford Haven, and on the Trent, but finally 
succeeded at Newcastle-on-Tyne ^ about the middle of 161 7. 

It is beyond question that there were in England up to the end of the first 

' See Appendix, Original Documents, Nos. XVI., capital, and he patriotically took up the matter at 

XVIII. a conjuncture when the continuance of glass-making 

- The eight patentees assigned their interest in England was " in hazard." — See " Defence of 

to Mansel on account of the great charges and non- Sir R. Mansel's Patent," Original Documents, 

success ; similarly Bungard failed in his endeavours No. XX. 
under the new system. Mansel fortunately had ^ See Appcndi.K, Original Documents, No. XX. 


decade of the seventeenth century a number of small glass-houses after the 
Roman fashion — Paul Hentzncr refers to them in his Travels in England in 
1598, "Vitriariae ofticinae permultae " ^ — scattered about the country and 
producing only very inferior wares, which were distributed, together with 
rude pottery, by hawkers licensed and unlicensed. Public opinion was fast 
growing against these mischievous houses, for they wasted the woods, 
plundered the people, and lowered the character of the art. But it was not 
until the "Proclamation touching Glasses," of 1615, that any decided legal 
resistance was made against them. This edict had the salutary effect of 
closing many such furnaces, and causing the removal of others from sylvan 
districts to the neighbourhood of coal-fields, though, doubtless, in more 
remote parts the old system of wood furnaces lingered on and overlapped 
the new — Royal Proclamations quand nicnic. It was naturally to this feature 
of the glass business that Mansel first addressed himself. For instance, 
before 1618, he procured the imprisonment of Paul Vinion, apparently a 
Fleming, and Peter Comley, for heating their furnaces with wood contrary 
to the Proclamation. In May 1618 he applied to the Council for the release 
of these worthies on bond not to repeat the offence.'-^ It was politic to be 
magnanimous, and necessary for him to protect the large interests which had 
been committed to his charge. To this latter end he petitioned the Council, 
December 1618, for Letters of Assistance for the pulling down of all glass- 
furnaces set up as it seems without his license, and for apprehending all 
persons infringing his Patent for the sole making of glass, otherwise he would 
be unable to pay the ^1000 a year to the King, and the ;!^i8oo to the other 
late patentees.^ It must be taken for granted that this request was not 
complied with in its fulness. But it is probable that Mansel had power granted 
him to destroy some glass-houses, as he certainly had authority to grant 
licenses to others,^ such as those at Stourbridge — where there is no evidence 
of any glass-house directed by him — and to some of the Newcastle houses, 
not making glass under the Admiral's own management. No other system could 
have enabled him to hold his ground for the length of time he did in 
the face of persistent and often virulent opposition. Monopolies may or may 
not be desirable according to circumstances, and the sense, good or otherwise, 
of the men into whose charge they are placed. In Mansel's case the concession 
which focussed and concentrated an important industry, at a critical moment, 

' Hentzncr's Travels, ut sup., p. 87. ^ Ibid., No. XVI. 

.- Appendix, Original Documents, No. XVII. •* See Ibid., No. XIX. 



in his capable hands, and saved it from decay among mere lawless artisans, 
working "of their Occupacion," or utter annihilation, was assuredly a wise and 
statesmanlike step. 

In January 1619 Mansel petitioned the King that Paul Vinion should not 
be suffered to make green drinking-glasses to the prejudice of his Patent for 
the sole manufacture of glasses.^ The mention of these sounds like a desire 
to introduce German or Low Country green glass roemers. Fifty years later, 
as we shall duly see, roemers were actually made in white glass in Venice to 
the orders of London glass-sellers. In 1620 Mansel resisted, under the shelter of 
his Patent, a proposed grant to Sir Ralph and Dame Ann Bingley for the manu- 
facture of looking-glasses,- a branch of the glass business in which he said 
he had been at great charge in perfecting.^ This was a case as to which it 
might fairly be said that a sweeping monopoly showed itself to be decidedly 
"hurtfull and preiiidiciall to the common weale," and because the making of 
mirrors and their frames implied a distinct manipulation and trade, and quite 
a different class of artisans from those employed in the fashioning of drinking- 
glasses, the most important part of Mansel's work ; in fact, the Venetians 
marked their recognition of the distinction in 1564, when they separated the 
mirror-makers, the " specchiai," from other glass-makers, and erected them 
into a distinct company.^ Mansel's statement, however, points to the beginning 
of the manufacture of a clear crystal or " flint " glass. 

Mansel employed as steward or travelling manager of the Broad Street 
glass-works, which were situated in a part of Winchester House, in South- 
wark— a spacious mansion where also lived the Spanish ambassador, and now 
Pinner's .Hall— the well-known James Howell, author of the Epistolae Ho- 
Eliauac the Familiar Letters of an accomplished citizen of the world. They are 
extremely interesting from the insight they give into one phase of the conduct 
of Mansel's business. It appears that Howell was on the Continent from 1618 
to 162 1, and visited Holland, Flanders, France, Spain, and Italy. His second 
letter, dated " ist March 1618, Broad St.," explains his affairs to his father :— 

The main of my employment is from that gallant Knight, Sir Robert Mansel), who, with 
my Lord of Pembrook, and divers others of the prime Lords of the Court have got the sole 
Patent of making all sorts of Glass with pit-cole onely, to save those huge proportions of Wood 
which were consumed formerly in the Glasse-Furnaces ; And this Business being of that 
nature, that the Workmen are to be had from Italy, and the chief Materials from Spain, 

^ State Papers, Domestic, Jan. lo, 1619. ^ See Appendix, Original Documents, No. XX. 

- Ibid., 1620. ^ Inti-od., 5. K. Cat., p. c. 


France, and other Forren Countries, there is need of an Agent abroad for this use ; (and better 
than I have offered their service in this kind) so that I beheve I shall have Employments in 
all these countreys, before I return. 

Had I continued still Steward of the Glasse-house in Broad-Street where Captain 
Francis Bacon hath succeeded me, I should in a short time have melted away to nothing, 
amongst those hot Venetians, finding myself too green for such a Charge ; therefore it hath 
pleased God to dispose of me now to a Condition more sutable to my yeers, and that will, I 
hope, prove more advantagious to my future Fortunes.' 

In a list of foreigners in England in 16 18 Mr. Durrant Cooper gives the 
names of four Venetians, glass-makers, in Broad Street, no doubt working for 

After his short stay in Broad Street, Howell was succeeded by Captain Bacon, 

the secretary who subsequently absconded to France, and to whom he wrote, 6th 

June 1619, from Middelburg : — 

... by Sig' Antonio Miotti who was Master of a Crystall-glasse-Furnace here a long 
time, and as I have it by good intelligence, he is one of the ablest, and most knowing men, 
for the guidance of a Glasse-Work in Christendom ; Therefore according to my Instructions, 
I send him over, and hope to have done Sir Robert good service thereby.- 

From Alicante he writes, 27th March 1621, to Christopher Jones, Esq. — 

I am now, (thanks be to God) come to Alicant, the chief Rendevouz I aym'd at in Spain ; 
for I am to send hence a commodity call'd Barillia to Sir Robert Mansell, for making of 
Crystall-Glasse, and I have treated with Signer Andriotti a Genoa Marchant for a good 
round parcell of it, to the value of 2000 pound, by letters of credit from Master Richant, and 
upon his credit, I might have taken many thousand pounds more, he is so well known in the 
Kingdom of Valentia. This Barillia is a strange kind of Vegetable, and it grows no wher upon 
the surface of the Earth, in that perfection, as here : The Venetians have it hence, and it is a 
commodity wherby this Maritim Town doth partly subsist, for it is an ingredient that goes to 

1 Familiar Letters, p. 2, 2nd edit. 1650. England was not the first instance of such further 
- Lbicl, ■p. ig. The name of Miotti is a famous seduction. But the Itah'an glass - master only 
one at Murano. One of the family is said to have remained here until 1623, when he departed and 
re-created the manufacture of glass pearls. According obtained leave to establish the first Italian glass- 
to Lazari — " Notizia delle opere d' arte e d' antichita house at Brussels, as to which he had strong aspira- 
della racolta Correr, Venezia, 1859 " — they are first tions, and to compete with the furnace of Gridolphi 
mentioned at Venice in i 3 1 8, in which year the at Antwerp. He stayed here but a short time, and, 
pearl-makers were regulated by a special statute, between 1623 and 1629, established a Venetian 
One branch of the art is said to have been perfected glass-house at Namur ; but he could only obtain 
by Andrea Vidaore in 1528; but there is no the assistance of a runaway Venetian, Vicenzio 
documentary proof of it. Another Miotti invented Luna, from Antwerp, who was pursued and taken 
avanturine glass in the beginning of the seventeenth back. During these troubles Miotti died, and his 
century, and many of the name are inscribed in the widow, Cornelia, married a native named Van Horen. 
Libro d'oro. The glass-houses in Holland and The Miotti episode is a good example of the restless 
Zeelande had ever been thorns in the flesh of the habits of the Italian glass -makers in the Low 
glass-makers of Antwerp, because they attracted the Countries.— See H. Schuermans, Lcttre V., p. 185 ; 
workmen from that city, and the drawing away by and Lcttre IX., p. 523; see also Introductory 
Howell of Antonio Miotti from Middelburg to Notices, p. 39. 

I go 


the making of the best Castile-Soap : It grows thus, 'tis a round thick Earthy shrub that bears 
Berries hke Barbaries, but twixt blew and green, it lies close to the ground, and when it is ripe, 
they dig it up by the roots, and put it together in Cocks, wher they leave it dry many days like 
Hey, then they make a Pit of a fadom deep in the Earth, and with an Instrument like one of 
our Prongs, they take the Tuffs and put fire to them, and when the flame comes to the Berries 
they melt, and dissolve into an Azure Liquor, and fall down into the Pit till it be full, then they 
dam it up, and som days after they open it, and find this Barillia-juyce turn'd to a Blew stone, 
so hard, that it is scarce Malleable, it is sold at on hundred Crowns a Tun, but I had it for 
lesse ; ther is also a spurious Flower called Gazull that grows here, but the Glasse that's 
made of that is not so resplendent and clecr.' 

Writing from Venice, 30th May 1621, to Sir Robert Mansel, Howell says : — 

The two Italians who are the Bearers hereof, by report here, arc the best Gentlemen- 
Workmen that ever blew Crystal!, one is allied to Antonio Miotti, the other is cousin to 
Mazalao. ... I was, since I came hither, in Murano, a little Island, about the distance of 
Lambeth from London, wher Crystall-Glasse is made, and 'tis a rare sight to see a whole 
Street, where on the one side ther are twenty Furnaces together at work ; they say here, that 
although one should transplant a Glasse-Furnace, from Murano to Venice herself, or to any of 
the little assembly of Islands about her, or to any other part of the Earth besides, and use the 
same Materials, the same Workmen, the same Fuell, the self same Ingredients evry way, yet 
they cannot make Crystall-Glasse in that perfection, for beauty and lustre, as in Murano ; some 
impute it to the qualitie of the circumambient Ayr that hangs ore the place, which is purified 
and attenuated by the concurrence of so many fires that are in those Furnaces, day and night 
perpetually, for they are like the Vestall fire which never goes out." 

The independent testimony here given with regard to Venetians sent over to 
assist Mansel is valuable as showing the honest endeavours he made to improve 
the glass manufacture in England, apart from his OAvn declarations already 
spoken of. 

Writing from Venice to his brother, ist June 1621, Howell says : — 

Since I came to this Town I dispatch'd sundry businesses of good value for Sir Robert 
Mansell, which I hope will give content : The art of Glasse-making here is very highly valued, 
for whosoever be of that profession are Gentlemen ipso facto, and it is not without reason, it 
being a rare kind of knowledg and chymistry to transmute Dust and Sand (for they are 
the onely main Ingredients) to such a diaphanous pellucid dainty body as you see a Crystal- 
Glasse is, which hath this property above Gold or Silver or any other minerall, to admit 
no poyson ; as also, that it never wastes or loseth a whit of its first weight though you use it 
never so long.^ 

Howell here quotes a Venetian saying, " that the first handsom woman that 
ever was made, was made of Venice-Glasse, which implies Beuty, but brittenes 
withal," and this leads him to the jingling euphemism of " Lasses and Glasses," 
used here perhaps for the first time in English literature, just as Sheridan 
employed it in The School for Scandal long after. The particular notice that 
Howell takes of the special properties of crystal glass with regard to poison, and 

' Eamiliar Letters, ut sup., p. 40. - Ibid. p. 45. '' Ibid. p. 47. 



wearing, indicates to how small an extent the use of glass vessels of the higher 
quality — "diaphanous, pellucid, dainty" — had penetrated at that time in the 
community ; otherwise such remarks to a person in his brother's position would 
not have been at all to the purpose. 

In a letter misdated 1618, but really written in 162 1, Howell tells Dr. Mansel — 

. Your honourable uncle, Sir Robert Mansel, who is now in the Mediterranean, hath 
been very noble to me, and I shall ever acknowledg a good part of my education from him. 
He hath melted vast sums of money in the glass busines,^ a busines indeed more proper for 
a Merchant than a Courtier. I heard the King should say, that he wondered Robin Mansell, 
being a Sea-man, wherby he hath got so much honour, should fall from Water to tamper with 
Fire, which are two contrary Elements. My Father fears that this glass employment will be 
too britde a foundation for me to build a Fortune upon ; and Sir Robert being now, at my 
coming back, so far at Sea, and his return uncertain, my Father hath advised me to hearken 
after some other condition." 

Pepys tells us, 24th September 1660, that the Broad Street glass-house was 
then a dancing-school. 

It is certain that between 28th July 1610, when the License for coal furnaces 
was granted to Slingsby, and May 1618, when Mansel petitioned the Council 
respecting an infringement of the Patent of 161 5, from which he had bought 
out his eight co-partners, the use of closed or domed pots had been introduced— 
first, in all probability, by Percivall— and improved upon in consequence of the 
practical experience of them by Mansel. 

Of the progressive development of mirrors, since Eve looked into " the 
wat'ry gleam" and Egyptian and classic beauties beheld themselves— perhaps 
somewhat distortedly — in mirrors of metal and obsidian, this is not the moment 
to say more than a very few words, passing over the Steele Glasses, which are 
touched upon in another place."^ But it may be proper to recall that, according 
to Lazari,^ it was not until the fourteenth century that glass mirrors with 
metallic sheets at the back were first conceived by the Venetians.'' Their 
reception was not encouraging : common sense does not always go hand in hand 
with fashion, and the polished metal mirrors held their ground until the end 
of the fifteenth century. In 1507 the so-called secret of making crystalline 
mirrors was introduced into Venice from Germany and Flanders by two 

' Sec Appendix, Original Documents, Xos. the middle of the thirteenth century, as appears 

XVI. and XXI. in the writings of Vincent of Beauvais, and other 

2 Familiar Letters, ut sup.. Sec. 2, p. 5. authors. Mirrors of crystal are not unfrequently 

'^ Appendix, Inventory, No. VII. mentioned; they were also made of jasper, and 

' " Notizia delle operc d' arte e d' antichita dclla gold and silver were likewise used as the reflecting 

racolta Correr."— A. Sauzay, Marvels, etc., p. 66. medium. Piers Gavcston had an enamelled silver 

= It is certain that glass mirrors were used in vaxxxox. —Sec Archaeological Journal, \o\.^\m.\->. \l^. 


Venetians, and the art was carried on in Murano from that time with 
conspicuous success, and until long after the great epoch. Mirror-making was 
not established in France until the latter part of the sixteenth century, and 
was, no doubt, introduced into England by the Italians on their first arrival 
herein the time of Edward VI. The "table" glass made in England in 1567 
by Lorraine and Normandy men, under the Patent to Carre and Becku, may have 
included plates fit for looking-glasses of an inferior kind. But Mansel, in his 
" Defence " of 1624, claims to have first made them here.^ 

By the vigilance of Mansel's agents, Peter Horegill and John Greene had 
been committed to the prison attached to the Marshalsea Court, for importing 
foreign glass under the pretext of its being for the King's service,- contrary 
to the Proclamation of 16 15. They petitioned for release, 4th February 1620. 
Greene was perhaps the father of John Greene, of whom we shall hear something 
further on. In the same year the Glaziers' Company protested that Mansel's glass 
was bad, scarce, brittle, and thin in the middle.' The great Inigo Jones, as 
Surveyor of Works, testifies to these points, doubtless from his use of the glass 
in the Banqueting House at Whitehall in this very year. It must have been 
cylinder-made glass, blown too thin, to save the metal, before it was opened out, 
and not trundled or twirled sheets, which gave a "bull's-eye" in the middle, 
necessarily the thickest part. The illustrious architect also said that Mansel's 
glass was not so good as in ancient times. 

The petition of Ralph Colborne, hour-glass maker, to the Commissioners 
for Glass, 12th March 1620, points to an objectionable feature in a monopoly, 
for he says he is oppressed by Mansel, who constrains him to buy his glasses 
in London, both bad and high-priced. He desires to buy them at any of his 
works ; ^ these would include glass-houses working under licenses from Mansel. 
In such an instance as this the word monopolist was properly applied in an 
invidious sense, because Colborne was restrained in his freedom or liberty 
to buy what he wanted in the market which appeared to him to be the best. 
It was at this time that Sir Robert was sufi"ering under the machinations of 
Bonrar, who caused the withdrawal of Scotch coal from his London works. 

This was immediately after the Proclamation of 25th February 1620, which 
again prohibited the importation of foreign glass, and confined the permission 
to import glass given to the patentees before their works were completed, to 
glasses of rare and curious sorts, and forbidding the erection of glass-works 

' Sec Appendix, Original Documents, No. XX. ' Ibid., March 1620. 

- State Papers, Domestic, 1620. . ' Ib'd., March 12, 1620. 


by any but the patentees. So Mansel's petition of loth December 1618, as to 
pulling down glass-houses, had been sufficiently complied with. The rare and 
curious glasses, " verres fa^on de Venise," would have been mostly imported 
from the Low Countries, but some, as we know, came direct from Venice in 
"cupboards,"! just as choice cigars are imported at the present day from Havana 
in cedar cabinets. The time had long passed for the introduction of glasses 
"a la fa^on de Damas." 

On i8th June 1620 the Council informed the officers of Customs that no 
glass, save glass made in Scotland, was to be imported to the infrino-ement 
of Mansel's Patent, then under consideration, but respited until his return from 

sea service.^ 

The first mention of glass-making beyond the Borders"' is that in 1610 
James I. granted to Lord George Hay a Patent for the exclusive right of 
making glass at Wemyss, in Fife, for thirty -one years. It is very doubtful, 
considering the rude and backward state of Caledonia, that any glass was 
made there before the use of coal was well introduced in glass-furnaces. In 
1627 Hay transferred his monopoly to Thomas Robinson, a merchant tailor of 
London, who sold it to Mansel for ;^25o a year. Thus it was not only a good 
property but a desirable acquisition for Mansel, because his foreign glass- 
makers — Giovanni dell' Acqua, whom he had brought from Venice before 
16 18, Bernard Tamerlayne, and other artisans — upon discord being stirred up 
about wages, had been drawn away to the Scotch works ; ^ that difficulty 
would now be cleared away. To replace the runagates who could not be 
relied upon after their return to London from Scotland, Mansel had to 
procure a company of glass-makers from Mantua, and it is recorded in the 
"Costs," etc., presented to the King, that the Mantua men effected "the 
bettering of the condicon of his glasse," which result, fifteen years before, 
he could not bring about through the Venetians.^ 

On 4th April 162 1 the Glaziers' Company certified to the Council that 
Mansel's glass was cheap, of good quality, and plentiful, and superior to the 

' See Appendix, Inventory, No. VII. '-' See Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXI. 

^ State Papers, June 18, 1620. It is noteworthy that the improvement in Mansel's 

^ In a piece of late sixteenth-century tapestry glass was brought about at that time by Mantua 

at Arniston is a medallion in which St. Paul is men, and not by Venetians. Mr. Evelyn, in his 

shown offering wine in a " fa^on de Venise " glass Diary, July- August 1645, being then at Venice, 

to Timothy, surrounded by the legend : " Paul says that the Murano glass was made from white 

saying to Temothe tak a lytl vyn to comfort flints from Pavia, pounded and sifted very small, 

stomort." mixed with the ashes of a sea-weed from Syria, and 

■* State Papers, June 20, 1621. a white sand. 

2 C 


1 y4 

glass brought out of Scotland ; so improvement had been rapid. They also 
showed that they were better served now than when Bongar and others used to 
buy up all the glass and sell it at high prices.'^ This latter action was, in truth, 
the most striking and grievous kind of monopoly, in the common acceptation 
of a term which was not properly employed save in connection with a royal 


On 15th April the same Company petitioned the Commissioners for the glass 
business against the proceedings of Isaac Bongar, John Dynes, and others in 
endeavouring to engross the whole trade in glass. Entreaty was made that their 
" slanderous bill in Parliament against Hansel's patent be frustrated," or the 
Company must suffer under these men or be subject to the Scotch Patent.- On 
the other hand, and at the same time, John Worrall and other glass-makers, who 
learned the art under Sir Jerome Bowes, set forth by petition that in consequence 
of Mansel's Patent they are prevented from pursuing their calling; they pray for 
a License, for which they would pay ;;/^iooo a year to the Crown. Bongar, with 
others, also petitioned for the calling in of Mansel's Patent, which, they said, had 
been pronounced a monopoly by two Parliaments. They would offer ;!^i5oo a year 
to the Crown for a License, and would make glass 2s. a pound cheaper than 
Mansel." In the "Answer" to Mansel's " Defence" or " Breviat," printed at the 
end of the " Reasons against Mansel's patent 16 April 1624," these petitioners 
declare that they desired no Patent, but were willing to pay the sums offered for 
liberty of pursuing their trade.^ 

The Patent granted 19th January 161 5, from which Mansel had 
bought out his co-partners, having been complained of as a grievance in the 
one-year Parliament of 162 1, was declared prejudicial and hurtful, and to have 
become void. But in consideration of Mansel's faithful service, the expendi- 
ture of his whole fortune, and the success of his labours in glass-making with sea 
coal and pit coal, the Patent was, on his petition, renewed to him alone, without 
rent, for fifteen years, 22nd May 1623,^^ for the making of all kinds of glasses 
and glass whatsoever, the importation of foreign glass being left unrestrained. 
All other glass-furnaces were prohibited, save by Mansel's license, to whom the 
usual powers of search were also granted, as well as for the demolition of all 
furnaces contrary to the terms of the Patent. This is a most important 
document, and from its re-citement of former glass Patents granted since 1607, 
throws much light upon the complicated history of this period of the industry. 

* State Papers, Domestic, April 4, 1621. ^ See Appendix, Original Documents, No. XIX. 

- Ihul, April 4-15, 162 I. * Ibid. ' Ibid., No. XVIII. 


In consequence of Bongar's hostile attitude under what was to him the 
galling dominance of a monopoly, he had been committed to prison. Dame Mansel 
was willing to procure his liberation on his promising not to infringe Sir Robert 
Mansel's Patent, or disturb his glass-works. He had sent a kind of apology for 
his expressions against Mansel, but feared to bind himself to pledges which mio-ht 
afterwards be strained to his inconvenience.^ 

Four documents now claim special attention. They have already been 
alluded to or made use of for details, and they are particularly valuable from the 
information which they supply upon the subject in hand at an important period of 
its history. And while they are corroborated by the evidence of other public 
records they are not the less interesting from the added zest which they present 
of the question being elucidated from opposite points of view, and from the 
reiteration of former statements. 

I. The "Reasons against Sir R. Mansel's Patent, 16 Apr. 1624,"- pro- 
posed to the House of Commons, set forth that such Patent granted to him for 
the sole making and melting of all manner of glass with sea coal, pit coal, and 
Scotch coal, and the restraining of all others but such as are licensed by him to 
make glass, should be void. Both in the Parliament of 12 and 19 James I. (1614 
and 162 1) Patents granted to others for the sole making of glass were adjudged 
monopolies and grievances, and the invention was practised in several places 
before the patentees appropriated it and deceived the King. The evils arising 
from one man having sole control with arbitrary prices, the restraint to "artists" 
and poor glass-makers, and the injustice to the subjects in being prevented from 
buying in the market that seemed to them the best, are pointed out ; also the 
unskilfulness and incapacity of Mansel, and the hardship of the prohibition of 
wood to glass-makers, who only burnt the lops of trees, while the iron men — the 
greater consumers of wood — were allowed to carry on their work. The search 
writs granted to Mansel for offenders against the Patent, their imprisonment at 
his will, and the starvation and beggary of their children is touched upon, and 
an exaggerated and dismal picture drawn of the continued discouragement and 
hardships of the apprentices, through the gradual decay of the industry and 
the malpractices of Mansel under the Patent for the pretended new invention, 
by which the whole kingdom is tied to one market with increased prices. 
It is wrongly stated that Verzelini's Patent "continued almost fifty years " ; his 
term was for twenty -one years, and the Patent was re-granted to Bowes 
for twelve years only. 

^ State Papers, Domestic, 162 i. - Appendi.x, Original Documents, No. XIX. 

icj6 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. viii. 

II. The "Defence of Sir R. Mansel's Patent, November, 1624"^ against the 
petition of Bongar, Worrall, and others shows that in consequence of the wasting of 
wood the King granted the sole and only making of glass with pit coal and sea coal 
to certain patentees, at whose charge Scotch coal was also brought into use, for the 
term of twenty-one years at a rent of ^1000. They grew weary of the charge and 
assigned their interests to Mansel. Bongar attempted the new manufacture, but 
gave it up on account of the expense. Mansel, finding it to be in jeopardy, 
undertook its perfecting, and after setting up glass-houses in several places 
without success, finally prospered at Newcastle - on - Tyne, using local coal. 
His difficulty was to get clay for the pots nearer than Staffordshire, whence 
it was brought, until some of the petitioners caused its corruption, with the 
result that the pots broke. He then sent for clay beyond Rouen in France, which 
was also spoilt, in all probability by the procurement of Bongar through his 
kinsmen there. Mansel was then driven to seek and send for clay from Spa in 
Germany, of which the petitioners caused the ruin of an entire ship-load. Finally 
clay was found in Northumberland, and thus Mansel was saved from absolute 
ruin. But Bongar, besides refusing the good appointment of Mansel's overseer, 
endeavoured openly to bribe the workmen at the Newcastle furnaces, and so 
persecuted him that his glass suffered in quantity and quality. He was therefore 
obliged to send for expert strangers from abroad in order to save the business. 
Mansel goes on to say that, with the view of the absolute perfecting of all kinds 
of glass in England, these strangers not only themselves made " all sorts and 
kinds of right Christalline Morana-glasses," "never made or attempted here 
before," but instructed the English workmen in these arts. Some of the 
petitioners, having set on foot a Patent for Scotland, in deadly rivalry to 
Mansel, combined to raise the prices of his Scotch coal-shippers, to ruin his 
"Christall and white giasse " works in London. This design was frustrated 
by the good sense of Dame Mansel, who insisted upon the use of Newcastle 
coal, with conspicuous success. It is shown that during Mansel's absence at sea 
in 162 1 his Patent was declared a grievance in Parliament because the barring 
of importations discountenanced navigation and enabled him to sell the sorts of 
glass he liked at his own rates, although Dame Mansel petitioned that her 
husband's absence on State sea-service prevented his reasons as to the upholding 
of the Patent being properly presented and considered. The privilege was 
therefore continued by the King, loth July 162 1, until Mansel's return. It is 
pointed out that in July 162 1 the King issued a Proclamation concerning many 

^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. XX. 


public grievances complained of in Parliament, but ignored those touching 
glass} In October Mansel petitioned the King, stating that he had brought the 
glass business to perfection at the cost of his whole fortune, and prayed for a 
new Patent and that he might be freed from the rent of jTiooo a year. The question, 
the "Defence" states, the King referred to a committee of the Council, for ex- 
amination and report, and this distinguished body put several propositions to 
Mansel which elicited answers concerning his great losses during the perfecting 
of the business, and in consequence of the Scotch Patent. Mansel also showed 
that he was maliciously attacked by Bongar and Worrall in order to obtain Patents, 
the one for green glass and window-glass, and the other for all other kinds of 
glass, offering rents of >C5oo and X^iooo a year respectively. The lords of the 
Committee reported that they advised not to uphold the Patent, but thought fit 
that a new one should be granted without rent, and importations left free. To 
this the Council in general agreed. It is further set forth that, acting upon the 
report, and in respect of Mansel's merits and great disbursements, his perfecting 
of the work, the goodness and reasonable prices of the glasses, as certified by 
the buyers and users of all kinds, so that just occasion of grievance was taken 
away,— the King declared void the Patent of 19th January 161 5, and renewed to 
Mansel, 22nd May 1623, a Patent for fifteen years without rent for the sole 
manufacture of glass of all kinds, leaving importations open. 

III. "The Motives and Reasons "Hor the maintenance of the Patent— a 
document which has already been made use of— are shown in an addeudiun to the 
" Defence." They are conceived in the interests of Mansel, and furnish much 
valuable information with respect to the mischief arising from the destruction of 
woods in Warwickshire, Hampshire, and Wiltshire, and w^ith regard to the efforts 
and expenses, and the general commercial results of his direction of the industry. 
The document was presented by Mansel to the House of Commons for ratification, 
and to clear himself from the imputations cast upon him by the petitioners. 

IV. Nevertheless, Bongar and his friends returned to the charge in "The 
Answer," 3 contained at the end of the "Reasons," to Mansel's "Defence" or 
Breviat. Now the free importations gave off"ence and were said to be adverse 
to the poor glass-makers; moreover, as to imports, they were stdl under the 

1 In the course of a speech by the King to wherein the Law hath no Provision, until a Parha- 

the Lords in the Banqueting House, 9th April 1614, ment can ■^xovxA^:'— Parliaments and Councils of 

four days after the opening of his second parliament, England, p. 263, edit. 1839. 

he thus alludes to proclamations : " As touching = See Appendix, Original Documents, No. 

Proclamations, so did I never intend them to have XX. 
the force of Laws, but to prevent misgrief arising, ^ Ibid., No. XIX. 

J g OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. viii. 

warrants of Mansel. It is set forth that Bongar and Worrall did not desire a 
Patent, but only leave to freely pursue their calling, for which liberty they would 
jointly pay ;;^iooo a year. Bongar naturally objects to Mansel's account of 
his malpractices, and casts the same in his teeth, and the surprising assertion 
is made that Bongar's ancestors were " the men who brought the trade of 
windovv-Glasse into England, which had beene lost many yeares before." The 
rest of the document is taken up by extravagant and categorical denials of all 
Mansel's statements, upon which the Council had thought fit to advise the 
King to grant him a new Patent, 22nd May 1623. This was treading upon 
dangerous ground. Sixty-four reasons were presented to Parliament against 
the Patent, and on 8th December 1626 the King, having referred to the Council 
Bongar's complaint against the glass Patent, it is ordered that the same shall 
stand. "Their Lordships think it to be of dangerous consequence, and far 
trenching on the prerogative, that Patents granted on just grounds and of long 
continuance should be referred to the strait trial of the common law, wherefore 
they order that all proceedings at law be stayed, and that Bongar do not 
presume further to trouble his Majesty on pain of punishment."^ Thus 
Mansel's Patent was exempted from the operation of the Act of Parliament of 
21 James I. c. 3 (1624) against monopolies, and he had a period of peace. 

Mention has been made of the "teaching" of Englishmen in glass- 
making after the Venetian and French manners in the last quarter of the 
sixteenth century. It remains only to add at this point that Bongar's state- 
ment about his ancestors could have been nothing but an exaggeration of the 
fact of some of his family having come over to work at window-glass making 
in Sussex under Carre and Becku in 1567. Nothing is more improbable than 
that between 1531 — to allude only to the date of the completing of the windows 
of the Chapel of King's -—and 1567, the art of window -glass making in 
England should have completely faded away. The thing is, in fact, impossible, 
and Isaac Bongar was assuredly a vindictive, untruthful, and unscrupulous knave. 

On 28th January 163+ Mansel again addressed a statement to the Council 
touching the costs, charges, difiiculties, and losses sustained by him in the 
glass business.^ He recapitulated much that is contained in his "Defence" 
of 1624, and explained in detail how he came to be out of purse about ;^30,ooo 
before the manufacture could be perfected. He alluded to his troubles in 
connection with workmen, both native and foreign, ill-affected to the Patent, 

' State Papers, Domestic, Dec. 8, 1626. " See p. 160. 

^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXI. 


who wasted his materials and broke the pots and then received "dead pay" 
for many months together. There were heavy charges in prosecuting Sir 
William Clavell, Bongar, Worrall, and others who set up glass-works in con- 
tempt of the Proclamation and in opposition to the Patent. Before he could 
reap any benefit from the new Patent for fifteen years, of 22nd May 1623, he 
had the trouble of his workmen in connection with the Scotch Patent, \\hich 
he had to buy at ;^25o a year. Then he had to fetch a company from Mantua, 
and Bacon, his clerk— the blaspheming captain to whom Howell wrote his lofty 
remonstrance in 1628— absconded to France with his accounts and money, and 
procured the setting up of works there, whence came "the greatest part of 
drinking-glasses here spent," until the importation was stopped "upon solempne 
debate" at the Council table, 25th June 1632. Notwithstanding, up to this 
time, Mansel said that he had neither reaped profit nor enjoyed peace. He 
had continued his labours and had not raised the prices, and as to the looking- 
glass business, it was not until the Venetians inhibited the exportation of 
unwrought plates that this manufacture became settled and prospered as it 
did. But at the very time of this his humble petition, submitted with his life 
and fortunes at his Majesty's feet, and when he had received signification of his 
pleasure for a new Patent for twenty-one years, his men were again drawn into 
Scotland — as it seems to rival works — and attempts are made to produce glass 
in Ireland. It is a sad story of struggles and losses ; truly, the lines of a 
monopolist were not fallen unto him in pleasant places ! 

The Patent to Mansel, granted 22nd May 1623, was to expire in 1638. It 
does not appear that Charles I. renewed it at once — he had other things to think 
about — but a Proclamation had been issued, 14th October 1635,^ prohibiting 
the importation of all kinds of glass during the continuance of Mansel's privilege, 
who was allowed to import glass from Moravia, etc., perhaps the earliest instance 
of such importations to England from the neighbourhood of a great and ancient 
German glass-making country, whose productions eighty years later flooded the 
markets of the Low Countries, and completed the annihilation of the ancient 
artistic glass " fagon de Venise " which English " Flint Glass " had first shaken.^ 

Also in 1635 Captain Thomese Francke, probably from the Low Countries, 
and of the numerous artistic family of the name, took out a Patent for alterations 
in the forms of furnaces and kilns. They are represented as effecting great 
saving of fuel. 

On 15th December 1637 petitions were presented to the Council by certain 

^ S/nte Papers, Domestic, Oct. 14, 1635. '" See Introductory Notices, p. 41. 

200 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. viii. 

hour-glass makers, and on 12th January 163^ by the Glaziers' Company, against 
the badness and dearness of the glass produced by Mansel and his contractors. 
These, upon Sir Robert's " reasonable answers," were pronounced " clamourous 
and causeless," and the petitioners were ordered, in the usual despotic and candid 
way, not to trouble the Council any further, under pain of imprisonment.^ 

Questions arose in 1639 concerning demands of men employed in the salt- 
petre works who had petitioned the Lords. It is incidentally recorded in 
Mansel's justification that he had the management of his Majesty's glass-works 
by a commission under the Broad Seal of England. Where they were situated 
is not indicated, but they were most likely at Lambeth. A curious document 
is added respecting the prices of materials and of drinking-glasses of all sorts.^ 

In 1640, when the Scots lay before Newcastle, the workmen fled, and the 
three glass-furnaces were stopped. The enemy prevented the export of coal, so 
that the London works were stayed also, and 12,000 cases of glass ready to be 
shipped south could not be sent. 

On 13th May 1641 Mansel petitioned the Lords, stating that he had a grant 
from the King for the sole making of glass, and for preventing the importation 
thereof, for which he paid ;^iooo a year; of late some persons had dared, under 
colour of a complaint to Parliament, to import glass. He prayed for protection 
of his rights, and for punishment of the offenders, and an order was granted 
accordingly. On 21st July Mansel presented another petition, setting forth that, 
in spite of the order of 13th May, Richard Batson and others had imported large 
quantities of glass, in particular 129 chests on 12th May, had violently resisted 
those who would enforce the order of the House, and entered legal action against 
the petitioner. On 30th July Batson answered the petitioner, stating that the 
Glaziers' Company had approached the Commons as to the matter between him 
and Mansel, which had been referred to the Grand Committee for Grievances. 
The consequence was that Batson had been attached in the wonted arbitrary 
fashion, and still remained in custody without a hearing. He prayed that his 
case may be referred back, and that he may have his goods on paying the Custom 

In the same year Jeremy Bago, who married Suzanna Henzey at Oldswinford 
in 1619, and had a glass-house at Greenwich in partnership with Francis 
Bristow, was served with an order of the House of Lords at the instance of 
Mansel. "But they continued making glass in contempt of the order." Mansel 

^ State Papers, Domestic, 1637-38. and XXIII.; State Papers, Domestic, April 30, 1639. 

'^ Appendix, Original Documents, Nos. XXII. ' H. S. Grazebrook, ut sup., p. 10. 


lived at Greenwich, and in the following year these worthies complained 
to the Lords of the grievous wrongs and insults they had suffered at his 
hands. ^ 

In 1642, when there were doubts about the political leanings of the Earl of 
Northumberland and his Deputy High Admiral, and their commissions were 
revoked by the Crown, 28th June 1642, it was suggested that Mansel should be 
sent to the command of the wavering fleet. The perplexed King admitted his 
experience and loyalty, but thought the duty too fatiguing for so aged a man. He 
was then about seventy. The result was that the English navy passed into the 
hands of the Parliament.^ 

Having spoken only of Mansel in his relation to glass-making, it will be 
proper to say something about himself and the public career of this distinguished 
servant of the State. Sir Robert Mansel, "the proud Welshman," was born 
about 1573, the fourth son of Sir Edward Mansel of Margam, Chamberlain of 
Chester, and Lady Jane Somerset, and grandson of Sir Rice Mansel, a notable 
soldier in the time of Henry VHL, grantee of Margam Abbey, and Chamberlain 
of the county palatine of Chester. He adopted the naval profession, and serving 
with distinction at the siege of Cadiz in 1596, under Lord Howard of Effingham 
and the Earl of Essex, was knighted in that year by Elizabeth. Occupied much 
during the whole of his career in the Narrow Seas, he was named Admiral of 
them as early as in 1601, or 1602, and Vice-Admiral of the Fleet. In 1620 
Mansel commanded a naval expedition to Spain and Algiers. He sat in 
Parliament for many years, successively as member for King's Lynn and 
Carmarthen county. In 1619 he was a canopy bearer at the Queen's funeral in 
the Abbey, and carried the banner of Darnley impaling Scotland at the obsequies 
of King James in the same church in 1625. These honours, particularly the 
latter, are signal proofs of the esteem in which he was held by James and 
Charles. Mansel's last public appearance seems to have been in 1652, and he is 
stated, but not with precision, to have been dead on 12th August of the following 
year.^ There is some confusion— no novelty in a Welsh pedigree— as to his 
second and third wives; but it is certain that he first married, on 15th March 
1617, Elizabeth Roper, a maid of honour of the Queen, and this lady particularly 
deserves mention here for the gallant manner in which she protected her 

1 H. S. Grazebrook, tit sup., p. 5 2. Button, Knt., etc. (privately printed at Dowlais, 1883). 

2 E. B. dc Fonblanque, Annals of the House of ^ J. Brand, History of Nezvcastle-on-Tyne, vol. 
Percy, vol. ii. p. 444, 1887 (for private circulation i. pp. 43, 45 (1789); G. T. Clark, Some Account, 
only); G. T. Clark, Some Account of Sir Robert etc., p. 53. A portrait of Mansel is in the posses- 
Manscl, Knt., Vice-Admiral, etc., and of Sir Thoinas sion of Miss Talbot of Margam. 

2 D 


husband's commercial interests, and successfully carried on his works during his 
absence in the service of the State. 

We have now seen from the evidences — far indeed from copious when com- 
pared with those of the Low Countries— which have been preserved in public 
records or State Papers, that, from 1616 to about 1653— a period of nearly forty 
years— the whole of the glass business in England was controlled and guided by 
Sir Robert Mansel. That this was done mainly through the medium of some- 
thincr very like " an oppressive monopoly " may not be imputed to him for censure. 
That was the accident of the times in which he lived— a natural attribute of Star 
Chamber days, and there is assuredly nothing to show that any of his opponents 
would have brought anything approaching to Mansel's energy and probity to the 
business, or have risked the amount of capital which he did in it. Rather let 
it be remembered, to the honour of the vigorous vice-admiral, that the confidence 
which was reposed in him by the Crown, and the power that was placed in his 
hands, was fruitful of so much good. And it is almost certain that, but for the 
concentration of the practice of the science under Mansel, the glass industry 
would have been dribbled away in countless country places— for moderate glass- 
furnaces are not expensive to set up— and in small houses, for a mere livelihood, 
by men of no accurate knowledge of what was going on elsewhere in the world, 
diligence, or capital, and anything with a resemblance to science or art in their 
conduct postponed for at least another hundred years. Nor may the character 
of the men Mansel employed, such as Howell, and the qualifications of the 
foreio-ners he attracted, like the accomplished Miotti, be overlooked in estimating 
his prescience and the high value and imperial character of his unceasing labours. 
He showed, indeed, the capabilities and the commercial importance of glass-making 
for England such as small men— like he of Chiddingfold, working "of his Occupa- 
cion"— could not possibly have grasped, and it is to Mansel that we are indebted 
for the gradual " perfecting"— to use his own word— of glass-making in this 
country. " I am so well acquainted with every branch of it," he told the Council" 
in 1639; and the fact of his having "perfected the work of looking-glass plates" 
before 1635, implies the early development of something at least very like crystal 
or "flint" glass which, brought to a completion later on, revolutionised the art 
of glass-making, and has resulted in untold benefits to the world. Nothing can 
deprive Mansel of the honour that he is entitled to on this score.^ 

1 Mansel was of course pursued by ruthless concerning the quality of his glass furnish over- 
and warped detractors. But it is scarcely necessary whelming evidence that it steadily improved from 
to say that the opinions of unprejudiced persons the beginning to the end of his career. On one 


The actual date of Mansel's death has not been shown with certainty, but 
it must have been a few years before 1660, because in November of that year 
Philip Howard — son of the Earl of Berkshire and a Colonel in the Guards, whose 
great-grandson John succeeded in 1783 as fifteenth Earl of Suffolk and eighth 
Earl of Berkshire — and Sir Charles Berkeley, Groom of the Stole to the Duke of 
York, petitioned for a Grant, with survivorship of thirteen years, of the office of 
making white and green glass as formerly conceded to Sir Robert Mansel.^ In 
the same year Arundel, relict of Colonel John Penruddock, who was beheaded at 
Exeter in 1655 for taking part in an insurrection against Oliver Cromwell, 
petitioned for the sole license of making glasses for twenty-one years, paying 
£,S'^'^ more rent than was ever paid before. The petition was supported by the 
glass-makers, who desire that the making thereof be let to farm, as it was to 
Mansel and others. The petitioner incidentally states she has lost ^(^ 15,000 by 
her husband's loyalty." Again, in November 1660, Charles Gifford petitioned 
for the incorporation of a company for glass-making, and leave to appoint officers, 
etc., together with the prohibition of the import of any foreign glass, of which, he 
says, the Italians now engross the whole trade. This point will be returned to.^ 

The death of Mansel, which produced all this renewed interest in and zeal 
for the glass trade in England, brings us to the end of a period during which a 
great and important change had been silently taking place here in the science of 
glass-making. This was the gradual introduction of crystal or "flint" glass, 
which must have had its origin in the use of close pots, brought about by the 
newly invented furnaces for which a Patent was first granted to Sir William 
Slingsby and others, 28th July 1610, for the employment of sea coal or pit coal 
instead of wood in the making of glass, though coal was in use at least two years 
earlier. The change which was thus slowly created broke up the old glass- 
making traditions, which linked us directly in this regard with the Renaissance 
and the Middle Ages. 

occasion, certainly, namely, in March 1620, the "ancient times" is a very vague expression. In 

Glaziers' Company were not satisfied with Mansel's 1637 further complaints were made by the Glaziers, 

window -glass because it was thin in the middle, who on other occasions had nothing but praise to 

and they were supported by Inigo Jones, who said bestow, but Mansel gave " reasonable answers." 

it was not so good as in ancient times. The ^ State Papers, Domestic, 1660. 

thinness was, however, no test of the quality, and - Ibid. ^ Ibid. 



At this juncture we may appropriately return to documents of another kind, 
namely Household Inventories, already drawn upon,^ the entries from which 
continue the illustration in a different way, up to the middle of the seventeenth 
century, of so much of the story of glass -making as has up to that date been 
derived from the State Papers ; and though but slight, they are the more interest- 
ing because they refer to the time when the Italians were gradually passing away 
from English glass-houses, and native workmen left by degrees to their own 
resources. The glasses generally in use during this period were, therefore, of 
purely English manufacture, but leavened up to the end of the first quarter of 
the century by an ever-decreasing Italian influence. 

It has been shown that the importation of foreign glasses was interdicted in 
1615 ; again in 1620, for the protection of Mansel, excepting "glasses of rare 
and curious sorts," and a third time in 1635, the prohibition extending to 
glasses of all kinds made in foreign parts. From this year, then, English glass- 
houses supplied every requirement, but not for long, as will be duly shown. 

The following extracts are from the Household Books of Lord William 
Howard of Naworth Castle,^— " Belted Will " of Border history :— 

161 2. "A glasse of rosewater from Carlyle," brought by a boy who was paid 
vjd., and among " utensiles or necessaries" three glasses vjs., and four others js., 
besides further glasses for js. Under the same date glasses to the amount 

' See pp. 137, 142, 143, 145. 
Surtees Society, vol. Ixviii., 1877 ; see Appendix, Inventories, No. VI. 


of viijs. were brought by a horseman from Newcastle, and six glass plates 
xijd. for " My Ladye." There is every reason for believing that the use of 
coal in glass-furnaces was first methodically practised by Thomas Percivall, 
in Staffordshire, in, or possibly a year or two before, 1608. The system was 
apparently introduced into the North by Slingsby in 1610, and not carried 
on by Mansel at Newcastle before 1617, in which year he bought out Zouche 
and the Court Company. Lord William Howard's glasses of 161 2 were 
either imported from the Low Countries, like Alderman Anderson's glasses 
in 1570, or locally made in a small wood-heated furnace suppressed by the 
Proclamation of 161 5; but there is no evidence to show that any glass was 
made at Newcastle before Hansel's arrival. 

In 1618 " a glasse celler " was bought for xvjs. iiijd. Glasses, and a drinking- 
glass were obtained in the same year for Lady William Howard, and thirteen 
glass plates for ijs. These were probably for fruit, March paines, suckets, or 
sweetmeats, and would certainly serve the purpose better than the painted and 
gilded wooden roundels or trenchers of late Tudor times — supposing that such 
delicate tablets were ever put to such a use, which is very doubtful. In 
the same year " Mrs. Mary," the impulsive youngest daughter of the house, 
born in 1604, bought glasses "at the gate"— the picturesque gate of Thomas, 
Lord Dacre. These would have been brought by hawkers,^ "qui portant 
vitra ad dorsum ; " they must have been very bad, like most things " bought 
at the gate," and were probably made at one of the inferior glass-houses which 
the Proclamation of 161 5 and the general action of Mansel had the effect of 
closing, if he did not choose to license them. 

^ A very curious woodcut representing a Oxford, he that had the name of a famous Conjurer, 

German glass-house is given in De re metallica of which was thus. He being a walking a mile or 

the glass-master, Georg Agricola (1490- 15 55), two of Oxford with a Gentleman, met with a poorc 

printed at Bale by Jerome, son of John Frobinius man loadcn with glasses, whom he let passe by, 

the Greek critic and friend of Erasmus (see Plate and afterwards asked the Gent, if he would see 

17, p. 80, sup) Here the pedlar is shown starting that poore man breake his glasses. The Gent, 

on his rounds, with his well-filled pack or crate— desirous to sec that sport, but somewhat loath to 

krackse— on his back, carried like a knapsack, a have the poore man undoe himselfe. Well, old 

staff in his hand, and a sword at his side, recalling Allen made use of his art, the Pedler took his 

the German glass-hawkers of the thirteenth century, staffc, and fell a thrashing upon his glasses ; the 

see Introductory Notices, p. 80, and p. I73- They Gentleman could not forbeare laughing to see how 

are spoken of as " glasse carriars " in the Parish earnest the fellow was at his worke. Yet, when 

Registers of Rudgwick, Sussex, at the end of the he had done, old Allen payd him his wages, for he 

sixteenth century. ask' him how much his glasses cost h.m, and so 

The following notice of an English glass-pedlar is payd him to the full and gave him somethmg to 

given in The True Character of Mercurius Aulicus, a drink besides." Thomas Allen died 30th September 

pamphlet printed by T. Forcet, 1645: "I heard 1632, aged ninety, 
once a storie told of old Allen of Glocester-hall in 

2o6 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. ix. 

In 1620 a great drinking-glass was bought for iijd., and other glasses brought 
by a horseman who, if he came from Newcastle, as in 161 2, would have taken 
the line of Hadrian's Great Barrier from Wall's End to Lanercost, at that 
time, when so much more of the Roman Wall and of the Camps was remaining 
than at the present day, a journey of interest indeed. 

In the following year a much larger number of glasses was bought, as well 
as two bottles to put wine in, stilling glasses and plates. The date of this 
increase coincides with that of the certificate of the Glaziers' Company as to 
the good quality and abundance of Mansel's glass. The works at Newcastle 
must at this period have been in the flourishing state, to which Mansel testified 
in 1624. In the same year, 162 1, Lord William Howard bought "28 glasses 
for beare and wyne," xxjs. The former recall the illusive " beare " glasses of 
the Earl of Leicester, in his inventory of 1588. The fact of glasses at gd. 
each being thus freely used for beer shows that there was no scarcity of them. 
In 1625 20 drinking-glasses were bought for iiijs., a little more than 2Jd. each. 

In 1629 "Venice glasses and French glasses" were bought for xxs. The 
first must have been "glasses of rare and curious sorts," allowed to enter the 
country by the Proclamation of 1620, and the latter glasses from France, of 
which the importation was procured by Mansel's back-sliding secretary, Captain 
Bacon, until it was stopped by order of the Council in 1632. The Venetian 
" viall glasses for vinegar" would have been the double or gimmal flasks with 
canted necks, a form which goes back to early, perhaps to Roman times. 

The " kanne glasse for my Lord," bought in 1633, is a curious entry. 
The term implies a short vessel with a handle and a lid of metal. We know 
what the shape of a can was from that of an oak cup, with a wooden lid and 
handle, and bound with three hoops of silver, the upper one inscribed, " The 
can of Sir Thomas More Lord Chancellor of England in Henry the 8th's 
time."^ The word "kanne" was also used in the Low Countries to signify 
a metal or earthenware wine pot. 

As early as in 1620 the means proper for cleaning glasses engaged the 
attention of careful housewives. No doubt during this process then, as now, only 
too readily, they "came in two in the hand."- So Dorothy Dame Shirley in her 
inventory of this date"^ is shown to have four damask " glasse cloathes," one 

' In the possession of Mrs. Eyston. The Household Servants first devised by John Harington, 

inscription is of the early part of the seventeenth Nugae Antiguae, x. 
century. ^ The Unton Inventories ; Berkshire Ashmolean 

-" If any man breake a glasse hee shall answer Society, 1S41; see Appendix, Inventories, No. 

the preice thereof out of his wages." — Orders for VII. 


being diaper, while in " my la. Closett " was a case of glasses and " one Steele 
glasse," ^ and she was the fortunate possessor of " purslin stuffe," and "chinie 
stuffe," an early instance of the mention of such wares, and which opens out a very 
tempting vista indeed. 

Less considerable in position, but not less historic in name than the stern 
Warden of the Western Marches, are Sir William and Sir Thomas Fairfax, father 
and son. The copious inventories of the former, taken in 1624 at Walton,- 
comprise in the Still House a " seller for glasses " and five shelves " all full of 
glasses with distilled waters." In my Lady's Closet were glass plates, drinking- 
glasses, and glass bottles, and in a press were " cheney dishes, gaily potes, 
glasses and boxes furnished with sweet meates." Sir Thomas Fairfax at Gilling 
Castle^ had only " one glasse vinegar cruett " and " seaven glasses without feet," 
that is " tumblers." A suggestion that all the glass vessels at these two York- 
shire houses came from Mansel's works at Newcastle respectively sixty and seventy 
miles off, as the crow flies, would not be an extravagant or exotic demand upon the 
imagination. In consequence of Mansel's devouring Patent there cannot then have 
been any other glass-works of importance nearer than London or Scotland. 

Edmund Waring, of the Lea, Wolverhampton, had at his death in 1625 
glasses and glass bottles, "potts glasses way schales and such like implements," 
and "a glasse box with tow glasse bottles in it." * 

We have ventured to assume that crude cups of tumbler form, such as those 
shown in the early Flemish pictures, were made in England to a limited degree 
wherever the window-glass was produced throughout the fourteenth, fifteenth, and 
sixteenth centuries ; but they naturally formed no part of the extended English art 
record which the painted windows so well illustrate. Nor were their irregular 
shapes, capacities, and material compatible with the fixed quantities and rough 
usage in the distribution of Liveries in great households like those of the fifth Earl 
of Northumberland and "bounteous Buckingham." The foregoing extracts do 
nothing more than give a general idea to what extent glass vessels of a better, and 
of a medium kind, had crept into use in England in the houses of persons of 
position and condition up to the end of the first quarter of the seventeenth century. 
The taste for such glass drinking-vessels could necessarily only make its way 
slowly with a society accustomed from time immemorial to the brilliant glitter of 

' The Unton Inventories; Berkshire Ashmolean ^ Ibid.,^. 148; see Appendix, Inventories, No. 

Society, 1841 ; see Appendi.x, Inventories, No. VII. VIII. 

2 Archaeologia, vol. xlviii. p. 121; see Ap- ' Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries, 2nd S., 

pendix, Inventories, No. VIII. vol. vi. p. 363 ; see Appendix, Inventories, No. IX. 

2o8 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. ix. 

silver, or parcel-gilt and enamelled cups, along with the strangely incongruous 
and depressing heaviness of dismal pewter livery pitchers, and garnishes, and 
wooden trenchers ; and there was as yet no question of a recognised want of proper 
glass vessels for the lower classes, then, and almost up to the end of the century, 
using uncouth cups of treen, horn, pottery, leather, or pewter. The manufacture in 
the Weald of rude glasses, alluded to by Harrison in 1586 as made from "feme 
and burned stone," would have almost come to an end in that district on the pro- 
hibition of wood, and elsewhere in consequence of the action of Mansel. The 
lower orders were therefore worse off, in a way, after 16 15 than they were before 
that date. Moreover, it appears that the best glass vessels shown to have been 
in use in England even up to 1625 were of comparatively very slight artistic 
account, and far removed in quality from the Italian examples which had come over 
to this country nearly a century earlier; in this respect also we seem to have fallen 
somewhat behind the United Provinces and the Low Countries, who were in the first 
quarter of the seventeenth century so well supplying themselves from their own 
furnaces with " verres fa^on de Venise," that " les maitres eux-memes ne sauraient 
juger la difference."^ The pictures fully illustrate this phase of their history. 

There was at that time no longer a question, nor had there been for at least a 
century, of importing and reverencing, as in Gothic days, "verres de Damas " or 
cups of Alexandria : the glamour of the East had faded away, and there is no 
evidence to show that Venice glasses, such as the Earl of Leicester had at his 
death in 1588, had met with general favour in great English houses, or were 
regarded with anything like the mysterious feelings of veneration which glasses 
from the Orient had excited in Western Europe from the Crusades to the end of 
Gothic times. No doubt the extreme fragility of Venetian glasses of the great 
epoch, their costliness, and difficulty of transport, caused indifference as to their 
merits in England — where the quantity of silver plate was quite astonishing, and 
appealed more readily to the haughty insular imagination — and tended to deter any 
but such favourites of fortune as Leicester, who, as Naunton says,- " had more of 
Mercury than he had of Mars " in his nature, from acquiring them. 

It appears therefore that, however great an activity had prevailed in England 
with regard to glass-making before the close of the sixteenth century, glass vessels 
fit to compete with, or even to take a humble place on sideboards alongside of 
the Gothic and Renaissance silver vessels, and the heavy late fifteenth-century 
Venetian glass cups, had not been much fashioned here ; there was a feeling of 

' See Introductory Notices, p. 39. 
- Robert Naunton, Fragiiunta Regalia, 1641, p. 45, edit. 1824. 



apathy with regard to them and to their manufacture.^ The noblemen and Privy 
Councillors, for whom it is stated in the Patent of 5th Feb. 159^ that Sir Jerome 
Bowes was specially to provide glasses " fa9on de Venise," "fair, perfect, good 
and well fashioned " — do not seem to have much appreciated the solicitude of the 
Crown. These are points which may not be lost sight of in any consideration of 
the table equipment of an Elizabethan house. But when the time arrived in the 
first quarter of the seventeenth century that glasses, which might perhaps have 
been proper as " verres de parade," were produced in England under Mansel, by 
his "expert Strangers from Forraigne parts " and his native workmen, habits of 
social life were undergoing a great change. "The king's young courtier" was 
taking the place of the "old courtier of the queen's,"- and English-made glasses 
were becoming w^ell-established attributes at the better-ordered tables. Liveries 
from the cellar and buttery for breakfasts and suppers, distributed by varlets in 
the chambers, had quite passed out of vogue — 

The lord ne the lady lyketh not to syttc. 

Now hath eche rychc a rule to eaten by himselfe 

In a privee parlour . . . and leave the chief hal,'' 

and dining in great draughty mediaeval halls, with sideboards of degrees behind 
the dais, was soon to become extinct, save on special occasions. The lord had 
long since retired to what was formerly his solar, or fashioned a dining-room by 
striking a wall across the upper end of his ancient hall — as at Broughton Castle, 
or a withdrawing-room — as has been done, and undone again, in the hall of 
Thomas, Lord Dacre, at Naworth ; and comfort, and a certain amount of refine- 
ment, had replaced the boisterous and often riotous mid-day feastings of the entire 
household, in which the salt was the only separation, and the guedoufle a 
welcome refreshment, as the old ballad has it, " when this old cap was new." And 
the lord now sometimes drank " distilled waters," as " Belted Will " must have 
done, of his own making, out of his " Venice and French glasses," the " stilling 
glasses" of 162 1 having been made use of. Furthermore, when, in the last 
quarter of the seventeenth century, in consequence of fifty years of extensive 
manufacture, researches, and discoveries, and, most of all, change of fashion 
happily aiding, we had passed far in advance of continental glass-makers, the 
silver vessels of late Gothic and early Renaissance times had themselves in great 
measure been sacrificed to the needs of the Civil War. Thus, finally, English- 
made glasses took an honourable and an indispensable place on tables, which they 
have since retained. 

' See p. 165. " Percy Reliqiies, vol. ii. p. 318, edit. 1765, "The Old and Young Courtier." 

^ Piers Plowman. 
2 E 


Reverting to the choice glass vessels belonging to Henry VIII., it cannot 
be doubted that some of those mentioned in the list as mounted in gold and 
silver were so treated from designs and under the direction of Holbein, who 
died in 1543, the year following the date of the inventory of those precious 
possessions of a sumptuous prince.^ A hundred years later, in 1649, an 
Inventory and Appraisement'- was made, under the stress of extraordinary 
events, of all the plate, jewels, etc., in the Upper Jewel House of the Tower, 
lately in the possession of Charles I., a monarch certainly not less enlightened 
in his appreciation of the arts than Henry VIII., though less profuse and more 
judicious in his patronage of them. The Inventory includes, among the plate 
and jewels, a number of glass cups, usually garnished with gold, some of the 
mountings being set with precious stones. It is evident that many of these 
vessels were of the time of Henry VIII., and consequently of late Gothic or 
early Renaissance character, and actually deriving directly from the collection 
of that monarch. But the written descriptions are not sufficiently detailed for 
close identification. In the course of a hundred years "glasses like pottes " 
had become " cann glasses," and "standing cups of glasse " "wine glasses" 
of the later inventory. And while the earlier document has the greater interest 
because it is earlier, the value of the later one is enhanced by the " appraisement " 
being added, the prices varying from £1 for a "white glasse cann garnished 
with silver-gilt" to ^^102 : 15s., the assessed worth of a glass such as con- 
noisseurs may in vain hope to meet with at the present day — " one large glass 
cup wrought in figures and set in gould, with some stones and pearles, formerly 
called an aggatt cupp." 

No doubt when James I. in 1604 negotiated a treaty of peace with Spain, 
the first since the Armada, and with characteristic economy gave to the 
Constable John de Velasco "a great quantity of silver-gilt plate — some of it 
richly enamelled, ancient, and of great value for its weight," — "possessions," as 

^ In Nollekens and Ins Times, vol. ii. p. 402 " Archaeologia, vol. xv. p. 274; see Ap- 

(edit. 1828), the startling statement is made that pendix, Inventories, No. X. 

Cosway had " cabinets surmounted with crystal cups The total appraised value of the royal plate in 

adorned with the York and Lancaster roses, which the Upper and the Lower Jewel House of the 

might probably have graced the splendid banquets Tower in 1649, including the Regalia, not at 

of the proud Wolsey." Westminster, and the plate in the Jewel House at 

This scurrilous work was written for J. T. Smith Whitehall, was only ^^14,1 i 5 : i 5 : 2. The glasses 

by Dr. Kitchener. — F. Douce to T. Kerrich, 7th were included among the valuables in the Tower, 

December 1826, et seq. — Original Correspondence, and, beautiful as they must have been, formed but 

1633- 1828, Families of Rogerson, Postlethwayt, a very small part of the treasures of the Crown 

Kerrich, vol. xxiv., in the possession of Albert which had been amassed by Henry VIII. and 

Hartshornc. Elizabeth. 


:i I 

Velasco states in the printed account of his embassy to England, "of the Kino-s 
his predecessors "—he included among them some of Henry VIII. 's gold- 
harnessed glasses in addition to the historic gold cup— doubtless the most 
beautiful thing of its kind in the world— " esmaillee de la vie de Sainte Ao-n^s " 
which a little more than three years ago, by a curious chain of circumstances, 
again became the property of the nation for >C8ooo, chiefly raised by private 
subscription. Whether the King's vicarious liberality showed itself in the same 
manner when Prince Charles went with " Steenie " on their eccentric expedition to 
Madrid in 1625— such a guide for such a Prince !— there is unfortunately not 
the same sort of tangible evidence to show ;^ but it is certain that in one way and 
another the royal collection of plate and glasses had been much minished and 
brought low during its transit from the custody of Sir Anthony Denny in 1542 to 
the charge of Sir Henry Mildmay in 1649. Imagination as to the appearance of 
the display on the royal sideboards at either period may be quickened at the 
present day by the contemplation of the noble series of vessels of rock-crystal 
and of glass, mounted with gold, and enamels translucent and opaque, in a 
manner which we may now hopelessly strive to emulate or even approach, in 
the Kunsthistor. Museum at Vienna, in the Silberzimmer and the Pretiosensaal, 
in the Griines Gewolbe at Dresden, in the Baierisches National Museum at 
Munich, or in the Louvre. The jewelled cups of lapis-lazuli, sardonyx, and 
rock-crystal in the cabinet of gems in the Uffizi belong to a yet higher, though 
cognate, class of works of art in cup form, and generally of a somewhat earlier 
period. Their beauty cannot be exceeded; and they have, besides, an interest 
of a different kind from the names of several artists who fashioned them being 

When Charles I. was transferred by the force of circumstances from New- 

Howell, writing to his father i oth December not extraordinary when it is remembered that rich 
1624, tells him that he has just arrived from Spain plate, including forty "wonderful masterpieces of 
" in convoy of the Prince his Jewells." He says goldsmiths' work," valued at ^"200,000, was de- 
that they were valued at ^100,000, and were taken livered to the Duke of Buckingham in 1625 "for 
as presents to the Infanta, the King and Queen, taking up money in the Low Countries for our use." 
and various officers of the Spanish Court, and doubt- The transaction was not completed, but part of the 
less minor gifts were made. But the mission having quantity was sold outright, and part pawned, 
failed, the jewels were brought back. Olivares was redeemed in 1635, again pledged in Holland for 
to have had a great table diamond of eighteen the needs of the Civil War, and again redeemed 
carats weight, and the Infanta a chain of "great in 1660. — See Archaeologia, vol. xlviii. p. 201, 
Orient pearls" to the number of 276, weighing nine "Account of Papers relating to the Royal Jewel- 
ounces, probably part of the personal ornaments of house," etc. The glasses mentioned above were 
Queen Elizabeth. — Familiar Letters, ut sup., Sec. 4, taken possession of by the Parliament in 1649, and 
p. 1 01, 2nd edit, 1650. sold with the other valuables. 
The great value of the jewels taken to Spain is 




castle to Holdenby House, on 15th February 1646,^ £2 :9s. was paid by warrant 
to John Powell for glasses and knives; and it is recorded by the faithful Herbert 
that the King kept up royal display in " the last and greatest monument " of Hatton's 
youth, and lending the gravity of his presence in the great hall at dinner and 
at supper, and facing the two armorial pyramids, said Grace himself, "standing 
under the State." ^ He drank at such meals but once of beer, and once of wine 
and water mixed, " only after fish a glass of FiriicJi ^^lnc, the Beverage which he 
himself mix'd at the Cupboard so he would have it."-' It were well to think 
that the King's boding thoughts, perhaps also at times anxious fears, " in his 
solitudes and sufferings " at Holdenby, may have been even momentarily dispelled 
by his modest allowance of cheering French wine — so unlike his father's deep 
potations— in a Low Country "verre fa^on de Venise," perchance diamond-etched 
after his own heart by an accomplished Dutch gentlewoman, a friend of the almost 
inspired Vondel, and of Cats, and an ornament of the brilliant literary and artistic 
circles at Muiden and at Middelburg. It will be remembered that the King 
" drank a small Glassfull of Claret-Wine" just before he passed to the scaffold. 
Thus Herbert records in his afflicting narrative. A few hours later — a few hours 
too late — the touching memorial, Eikon Basilikc, was in the hands of the people. 

^ " Yet may I justifie those Scots to all the 
world in this, that they have not deceived Me, for 
I never trusted to them further then to men : if I 
am sold by them, I am onely sorrie they should do 
it ; and that my price should be so much above my 
Saviours." — Eikon Basilike, 1649, " Upon the Scots 
delivering the King to the English," etc. See also 
Civil War Tracts, " Joyfull Nevves from Holmby, 
1647," and "King Charles his Royal Welcome, etc., 
to Holmby, in Northamptonshire, in Peace." 

" Herbert's Memoirs of tJie Last Two Years 
of the Reign of King Charles /., p. 16, edit. 

^ Ibid., p. 25. In 1862 the author made 
careful measurements of the grounds of Holdenby 
House, and by recognising and applying to them 
the original plan of the palace and of the gate- 
house among John Thorpe's drawings in the Soane 
Museum, the Long Walk on which the troubled 
king paced rapidly to and fro, attended by the 
aged Earl of Pembroke, was identified. This 
noble gravelled platform, perhaps after that at 
Windsor the most historic one in England, 320 
yards long, and 8 yards wide, is now covered by 
the green sward. It crowns the terraces and runs 

across the plateau along the line of the south 
fagade of the House, which is now reduced to 
the north side of the second quadrangle, altered, 
modernised, and enlarged into a comfortable dwell- 
ing which Elizabethan palaces certainly never were. 
The front of Holdenby House contained a row of 
twenty-three great four-light muUioned and tran- 
somed windows, separated by Corinthian columns, 
and the whole forming so brilliant a display of 
glass surfaces as to give rise to the local proverb 
still in use, " As bright as Holmby." The house 
having been finished by Sir Christopher Hatton 
about 1580, the glass for the windows might have 
been made under the terms of the first Patent 
issued to Becku and Carre in 1567, for twenty-one 
years, for window glass -making "a la francaise," 
and at their London works. We gather exactly 
what the glass at Holdenby was like from 
that still existing at Hatton's other, coeval, and 
most beautiful house, now, alas ! in ruins, built by 
the same architect — Kirby Hall. It was cylinder- 
made, of a pale sea-green tint, and had many 
striations, " blebs " or bubbles in it, and the 
inequality of surface which added so much to the 
brilliancy of its appearance in the sun. 





Throughout the history of glass-making the aim has been to produce a pure 
crystalline substance as nearly as possible resembling crystal itself. This per- 
fection the ancient Romans could never quite attain to in consequence of the 
limited size of their furnaces, pure crystalline glass necessitating long-continued 
fusion in large pots. But they did approach to crystal glass in the manufacture 
of what they called crystallinum, a colourless glass very light in weight, and held 
by the Romans in the highest esteem ; they could, in fact, never get beyond this 
quality, and glass in Anglo-Saxon times never approached it. The few examples 
of crystallinum that have been preserved exhibit perfection of form and cutting, 
but from their decomposed state, and their generally iridescent surfaces, it is not 
easy to say to what extent the glass composing these precious objects was 
originally invested with the brilliant and transparent qualities of rock-crystal. 
From the nature of the decay in the metal, it is certain that it was, like all ancient 
glass, more or less impregnated with minute bubbles. The crystalliinim of the 
Romans was therefore exceptional rather in being colourless and imponderous, 
than in being "crystalline." But during the whole course of glass-making there 
was, as has been intimated, the ever present desire to produce the higher quality 
of metal, the "crystalline" glass, the "verre de luxe," as distinguished from the 
common green sort made from coarser materials. 

It is generally well known that every description of blown glass contains two 
ingredients essential for its formation — silica and an alkali, the former being 
the acid, and the latter the base or solvent. The varieties in the nature of glass 
result from the alkali used, and upon the other constituents — lime, oxide of lead. 

2 14 '^''^^^ ENGLISH GLASSES. CIIAP. X. 

alumina, etc. — which may be added. The quality of glass depends upon the 
purity of the ingredients, and so long as the alkali was derived directly from the 
ashes of wood, fern, bean-cods, and sea-weed, the character constantly \aried and 
was often inferior. 

There arc many kinds of glass, differing in their chemical composition. 
Obviously a knowledge of chemistry is a most important factor in the direction 
of a glass-house, and, inasmuch as every maker has to a certain extent his 
own secrets with regard to the precise proportion and preparation of the 
different ingredients of the frit — secrets which no amateur would wish to 
declare — and exercises his own acquired skill and experience towards the 
production of the best quality of crystal, or other glass of its kind, it 
will be at once understood that any account even of the general scientific 
and practical aspect of glass-making, either as regards simple or compound 
glass, cannot be entered upon, save in special instances, in the present work ; 
indeed, the subject has been so fully treated of from both points of view in a 
number of comprehensive volumes in England and on the Continent, and a 
vast quantity of receipts for glass-making given, that it would be impertinent 
to attempt to compress so large a matter into the very limited space that 
would necessarily be available in a moderate work in which it is essayed to 
deal with the subject only from a historical and artistic aspect. 

A few words may now be conveniently said about Glass of Lead, and Flint 

In Antonio Neri's ^ rf of Glass, first published in Italian in 1612, much 
information is given concerning the materials and processes used in Italy at 
that time for different kinds of glass, plain and coloured, and enamels. A 
translation into English by Dr. Christopher Merret, himself a practical glass- 
maker, was published in London in 1662, and to which he adds — after the 
manner of "Brooke upon Camden," "Vincent on Brooke," and "Coke upon 
Littleton "—his own valuable "Observations" upon the whole of Neri's work, 
having had recourse, for special information, to Italian workmen. He tells us 
also that "our own workmen in this Art will be much advantaged by this 
publication, who have within these twenty years last past much improved them- 
selves (to their own great reputation, and the credit of our nation) insomuch 
that few foreiners of that profession are now left amongst us/'^ The entire 
volume consequently embraces the whole period during which Sir Robert 
Mansel had the glass-making in hand, and therefore the important time during 

Merret's Neri, " Advertisement to the Inirenuous Reader." 


which a new era in glass-making was being gradually introduced ; the very 
date of the publication of Merret's Ncri is a significant one, as will presently 
be shown. 

Allusion has been made more than once to the invention or perfecting of 
furnaces for making glass, heated with coal instead of with wood ; and it is 
to be recalled that the first patentees for this process were not glass-makers 
but general metal founders, therefore, a priori, not necessarily cognisant of all 
the details of glass-making. It may be proposed that, either they were not 
aware of the chemical action which the fumes and smoke of coal would have 
upon frit containing oxide of lead, in the form of litharge, in the open pots 
which they used, in carbonising or deoxidising the oxide of lead, however 
carefully it may have been calcined, and precipitating a part of it in its 
original metallic state to the bottom of the pot, where its pressure and 
behaviour were most mischievous in concentrating the heat at one point 
and calcining holes through which the glass ran out^ — a difficulty which 
the closing of the pots between 1608 and 161 1 should have got rid of — 
or that the use of lead had not then been introduced save in very moderate 
proportions into the manufacture of simple glass. Lead, whether in the form 
of litharge, or of minium, had, of course, long been employed, together with 
other metallic oxides, in the composition of compound glass in small quantities, 
such as for opaque and translucent enamel, and variously self-coloured glass, 
in all of which combinations such oxides acted as powerful fiuxes for the silica 

and alkali. 

In every country in Europe, except England, where crystalline, then often 
called crystal glass, was produced in the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
it was made in open pots heated with wood, and that the introduction of coal 
furnaces in England did not cause any radical change in the constituents of 
glass of the better kind, " fa^on de Venise," or of the commoner sorts, we 
know from the statement of Merret, in 1662, that "Glass of Lead is a thing 
unpractised by our Furnaces and the reason is, because of the excessive brittle- 
ness thereof. . . . And could this Glass be made as tough as that of Crystalline 
'twould far surpass it in the glory and beauty of it's colours, of which no man 
can be ignorant, that hath any experience of this Metall."^ Whether the 
first patentees of the coal furnaces were aware of the action of coal fumes and 
smoke upon litharge is comparatively immaterial, though it was desirable for 
many other reasons to get rid of these noxious agents ; but it is very important 

1 Men-ct's Neri, p. S'/- ' ^^""'- !'• 3'5- 

,jg OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. x. 

to learn from Merret that glass of lead was not made at all in 1662, and for 
weighty reasons which would have had the same force from the beginning of 



the century. But his remarks as to the beauty and possible capabilities of 
lead glass indicate at least a desire, perhaps an endeavour, to bring about its 
eeneral manufacture. This was not to be long delayed. 

Now as to Flint Glass. From the earliest times it had been recognised 
that certain stone, such as trap, and other basaltic rock, is fusible. This was 
apparently known to the Romans as an item of glass-making. The \\ide extent 
to which this knowledge had attained, and was accurately put into practice in 
quasi pre-historic but post-Roman times, in Scotland, is shown by the remains 
of not less than twenty-five rightly called "vitrified forts" still extant in diff"erent 
parts of the Highlands.^ IMerret appears to allude to this sort of vitrification 
of stone or other substances, and which he describes as—" fossil glass . . ." " like to 
the artificial is found under the earth in places where great fires have been." 
But this was not glass, and it is certain that the makers of the vitrified forts 
had no idea in this respect beyond that of fusing the outsides of lengths of wall 
for the purpose of binding it together with the view of protection. There was 
no question of making glass vessels; indeed, the fusible rock would not have 
lent itself to such an employment, any more readily than would the vitrified 
masses of certain clays which occur in brick-kilns. Such material has no viscidity, 
and would burst under the pressure of the blowing. 

The Venetians are shown by Ncri to have used at Murano in their frit, instead 
of sand, for crystal glass, Tarso—t\\2Lt is, quartz, or a hard, white, and translucent 
" marble " found in different places in Tuscany, at Pisa, Carrara, etc., and in the bed 
of the Arno at Florence. Neri asserts that such of these stones as will strike fire 
with a steel are only proper to vitrify ; the next best, Merret says, commenting on 
this detail, are the stones which are " inferior to cr}'stal in hardness, but yet are 

^ See E. Hamilton, " Vitrified Forts on the came under the notice of Mr. Lindsay-Bucknall 
West Coast of Scotland," Archaeological Journal, about nine years ago, and he accordingly made a 
vol. xxxvii. p. 227. search in England for granulite suitable for glass- 
In 1765 John Scott of Edinburgh obtained a making, and found it of the proper quality near 
Patent for making glass from a single material Okehampton on the borders of Dartmore. The 
without the help of any composition. — Deputy glass which is produced from the Meldon granulite 
Keepers Report, No. 6, App. 2, p. 158. A stone is of excellent quality, and being of a very pale 
called granulite, which contains in itself almost green colour is available for many purposes for 
sufficient alkali to melt the silica of which it is which the dark metal is not suitable. The Chinese 
principally composed, has for some years been have long been accustomed to fuse a pulverised 
successfully used by Mr. Siemens, in his glass-works rock with nitrate of potash for the manufacture of 
at Dresden, for making bottles, of which large glass with their usual dexterity, 
quantities arc supplied , both to England and - Mcrret's A^^;V, p. 222, quoting Ferant Imper- 
to Ireland, chiefly for whisky. This substance atus. Lib. 25. 


white and transparent;" the third kind of Tcwso is "white but not transparent." 
Next to Tarso, Neri commends Quocoli,2\so spoken of as "glasse stone," as hard 
as flint, taken from the bed of the rivers, in fact pebbles, and also used at Murano. 
In his observations upon Neri's statements as to fire-striking stones, Merret says 
that it is true that all white and translucent stones, that will not become lime by 
calcination, serve well for glass-making ; but it is not so, he says, with regard to 
all fire-striking stones, for many will strike fire but not serve the purpose of 
the glass-makers ; he instances the stones for lining furnaces \\hich contain the 
melting-pots for preparing the frit, " such as are brought from Newcastle," 
and others. He continues: "Flints indeed have all the properties, and when 
calcined, powdered, and serced into a most impalpable powder, make incomparable 
pure, and white Crystall Metall. But the great charge in preparing them hath 
deterred the owners of our Glass-houses from farther use of them."^ 

The employment of flint had, perhaps, been first introduced into England by 
the Italians of Edward VI. 's time, but more likely by the Lorraine gentlemen, 
who left calcined flints behind them at the Buckholt furnace. The eff"ect of the 
large proportion of silica was glass of a finer quality and clearer colour than would 
result from the use of impure sand, which contained iron ; and the glass so made 
was properly called Crystalline ; it was the best that could then be made, and was 
with equal or more propriety called Flint Glass. Flints having been long 
abandoned in England when Merret wrote, for "a very white sand, such as 
we strow upon writing," no advance was made until 1663, when Tilson,' being 
aware,. as Merret and others were, of "the glory and beauty" of "glass of lead" 
almost within reach, found means to increase the charge of the metal, and so 
manage or modify the other ingredients of the frit as to produce a crystal glass 
nearly equal to the quality which was claimed for glass of lead ; the drawback of 
brittleness, however, appears to have remained. 

Reference has been made to the extreme rarity of actual examples of English- 
made drinking-glasses dating from between the end of Saxon times and the 
middle of the sixteenth century. =^ Not only are we well-nigh entirely ignorant as 
to the precise forms ^^•hich English glass drinking-vessels took during this long 
period, but we are almost equally uninformed, in consequence of a like absence 
of examples of unquestionable English make, with regard to the appearance of 
the glasses made in this country from the time of Elizabeth to the end of the 
first quarter of the seventeenth century. The countless thousands of glasses 

1 Merret's Nerl, pp. 7, 258. " See Appendix, Original Documents, Nos. XXV., XXVII. 

3 See p. 147. 
2 F 

2i8 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. x. 

which were successively fashioned here during the latter period by the London 
and Sussex glass-makers, the Normans, the Lorraine men, Vercellini, Bowes, 
Percivall, Zouche, and by Mansel up to the end of his career, have left barely 
a trace. The Buckholt furnace of the Lorraine gentlemen has surrendered 
nothing but fragments ; we can only gather what the glasses of Vercellini, Bowes, 
and Percivall were like because they were Venetian, or fa^on de Venise ; and 
similarly with regard to the appearance of some of Mansel's earlier glasses, 
because he employed certain Venetians and Mantua men. Our own pictorial 
records, such as the rude woodcuts of tavern interiors heading the 
Broadsides in praise of ale and wine-bibbing, tell us nothing, because only 
wooden, earthen, and pewter cups were then used in ordinaries. Contem- 
porary Venetian glasses, later ones carrying traditional shapes, and again the 
evidence of the Low Country pictures, help us therefore in this respect. But 
after the departure of his Italians Mansel continued to make Venetian glasses 
without their assistance, as we know from his petition to the Lords of 1639,^ in 
which he stated that he made as follows : Ordinary drinking-glasses for beer 
at 4s. a dozen, and for wine at 2s. 6d. a dozen ; crystal Venetian beer glasses 
with covers at los. a dozen, and at i is. a dozen of extraordinary fashions, and for 
wine at 7s. and 8s. a dozen ; his English crystal beer glasses, which were never 
before made in this kingdom, " of all fashions that are desired and bespoken," he 
sold for 9s. a dozen, and similar crystal wine glasses for 5s. 6d. a dozen, and the 
dearest, of extraordinary fashions, for 7s. a dozen ; also mortar glasses, that is 
small glass vessels for lights, for 2s. 6d. a dozen. There is indirect evidence 
showing what all these later glasses of Mansel's were like. 

To the best of the author's knowledge and belief no perfect examples of the 
works of any of the above-mentioned glass-makers in England, during the latter 
half of the sixteenth century — with the exceptions of the cup of Queen Elizabeth 
at Windsor Castle, of which the cover is wanting, Mr. Woodruff's glass. Lord 
Burghley's tankard, and the inscribed glass in the British Museum, dated 1586 — 
have survived to the present day. All have succumbed to " the tooth of time, and 
razure of oblivion." It is a long-drawn and dismal panorama of undesigned and 
natural destruction, commonly and euphemistically called "wear and tear," only 
paralleled by the wicked demolition of the ancient church windows during a short 
and vicious period.'"^ 

A diagram of a wine-glass in 1621, given in Peacham's Couipleat Gentleman^ 

^ See Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXIII. ^ See p. 147. 

^ P. 320, 3rd edit., 1 66 1. 


not only indicates the appearance of some of Mansel's earlier productions, but is 
interesting in showing a short baluster stem like that of a silver cup of the period, 
both forms deriving from a common Renaissance type (Fig. 158). The general shape 
of Peacham's glass can be readily recognised in the Venetian 
examples denuded of their decorations, from which it 
originates. Contemporary drawings of somewhat de- 
generate versions of the same shape,^ which carry the 
inquirer at once and finally out of the centuries of darkness 
into daylight, will be treated of at large later on. They 
leave no doubt as to the appearance of some of the glasses 
of Mansel's make in the latter part of his career, and of 
those of his immediate successors, and they in their turn 
carry on and complete the continuity during the three last 

Fig. 158. 

quarters of the seventeenth century. We shall also see a 

temporary re-introduction of the manufacture in England of pure Venetian glasses 
" of rare and curious sorts " at a time when the taste for such objects was beginning 
to give way in the Low Countries. 

Coming then at last to actual examples of strictly English glasses, the origin 
and progress of the heavy moulded and knopped stems, the air twisted, the opaque 
white twisted, and coloured, and the faceted stems, together with other special 
features of wine and punch glasses in their different series will be shown. The 
course of the champagne glasses and those for beer, ale, cider, cordial waters, etc., 
will be traced, and the collateral succession of those of a more modest but not 
less interesting kind, for ordinary tavern and household use — which have been, 
but may not any longer be overlooked — will also be indicated. The classification 
attempted of all these drinking-vessels will be the natural result of tracking them 
down through their changes. And while the intimate association of certain groups 
of glasses and their decorations with great political movements, temporary public 
feeling, or peculiar social customs will be recalled to mind by their scrutiny, their 
distinct national character will become further assured by the form of the glasses 
and the knowledge of the ringing quality of the metal itself. 

1 Sloane MS., 857. Papers relating to the Glass-sellers. 



The story of glass-making in England as shown by Patents and State Papers 
will now be continued from the point where it was left off under the year 1660/ 
soon after the death of Mansel, down to the reign of George III. Again the period 
to be entered upon is important because it comprises the introduction and the 
gradual improvement of "flint glass" or "glass of lead." The handling of the 
Patents and documents of this era will bring the strictly historical portion of the 
present work to an end. 

On 6th September 1662 Henry Holden and John Colenet obtained a Patent - 
for the sole use of their new invention for making glass bottles, vessels for distilla- 
tion, etc. The name of the junior partner indicates a member of the great glass- 
making family of De Colnet in the parts of the Low Countries then under the 
lordship of the King of Spain. Like the De Bonhommes at Li^ge, w^ho made 
"flint glass a I'anglaise " from 1680" to counteract the importations of Bohemian 
and Silesian glass — a fact of great importance in its bearing upon the introduction 
of " Glass of Lead "—the De Colnets at Ghent, Namur, Charleroi, Barban9on, 
Saint Hubert, and other places engaged Englishmen, and working more aiiglicaiio 
also produced " verres a I'Angleterre." ^ Consequently when the time came these 
glass-makers were somewhat prepared to withstand the mercantile effects of the 
Peace of Utrecht in 1713, which opened the enormous importations of Prussian 
and Silesian glasses, and gave the death-blow to artistic glass-making in the Low 

See p. 203. 3 gj,g Introductory Notices, p. 40. 

- State Papers, Domestic, 1662; Hist. MSS. "• Ibid.^.A^i. 

Comm., Report VII,, p. \6^l>. 



2 2 1 

The Bill to confirm Holden and Colenet's Patent had been delayed owing 
to the late rebellious times, which dealt a rude blow at the Patent System. Now 
it was petitioned against by John Vinion and Robert Ward,^ both names well 
known in the glass-making trade in the seventeenth century, and was not 
proceeded with. The petitioners showed that nearly thirty years before, namely 
about 1632, Sir Kenelm Digby first invented glass bottles and employed Colenet 
and others to make them for him.^ 

In October 1662 Martin Clifford, Thomas Powlsden, and others obtained 
a Patent of the invention of making "crystal" glass, of which they claimed to 
be the discoverers, but no information is given as to its manufacture." 

On 30th June 1663 the Duke of Buckingham, who had been making glass 
at Greenwich under a Patent, showed in a petition to the King* that he had 
long been at great expenses in trials and experiments to find out the art and 
mystery of making looking-glass plates, "a manufactory not knowne nor euer 
heretofore vsed in England," and of late forbidden by the Venetians to be 
exported unless wrought and polished, to the great loss of looking-glass makers 

1 Hist. MSS. Coiinii., Report VII., p. 164*. 

^ This is an interesting item of information, 
and, though not true as to " the Ornament of 
England " having " invented " glass bottles, shows 
the settled practice at the time of putting wine 
and other liquors into bottles for sale in ordin- 
aries, or for table use, instead of drawing 
them fresh from the cask in latten or pewter 
vessels, after the mediaeval manner, and for its 
allotment in liveries, as in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. The ancient method of dis- 
tributing wine from long-spouted metal "pots" 
lingered in the Low Countries, and is depicted in 
many Dutch pictures of banquets, such as Franz 
Hals's " Feast of the Arquebusiers of St. Adrian," 
1633, at Haarlem; and in Van der Heist's great 
picture, " Het Schuttersmaaltijd," at Amsterdam, of 
1648. The appearance of Digby's bottles may be 
well known from the ancient bag- or purse-like shape 
which they assumed, the word itself being derived 
from the German beutel, and the thing from the 
leather bag or bottle, such as Henry VI.'s enviable 
shepherd used for "his cold thin drink," and which was 
in common use for liquids in mediaeval times. Glass 
flasks of this shape may have been as old as glass- 
making in England, because they were the easiest 
production of the glass-blower. The name survives 
in the little wooden barrels which took the place, 
within living memory, of the leather barrel-shaped 

bottles in harvest-fields in Northamptonshire and 
other Midland counties. Ale in glass bottles was 
sold generally in ordinaries in Elizabeth's time ; and 
Markham, in his English Hoiisezvife, 8th edit., 1675, 
p. 184, speaks of round bottles with narrow necks 
for " Bottle-Ale," having the corks " fast tied in with 
strong Packthread." The shape of glass bottles of 
Digby's time underwent but little change until after 
the eighteenth century. They are still lineally 
represented by the Steitt wine and other special 
continental globular bottles. Their form was also 
fixed on the Lambeth tin-glazed "whit," "sack," 
and " claret " bottles of Digby's date. Besides his 
well-known philosophical studies, Digby interested 
himself in many other sciences, including that of 
medicine, the distilling of cordial waters, the com- 
pounding of varieties oiaqua coniposita, the making of 
wine, metheglin, cider, together with directions for 
cookery, etc., all of which are set forth in his Choice 
Experinmits, 1668 ; and his Closet Opened, 1669. 
In the Slade Collection is a cylindrical Roman 
glass bottle, \\ inches high, stopped with a decayed 
cork partly covered with a corroded bronze capsule. 
This was found at Cologne, and contains a mass 
of hardened substance which may once have had 
a flavour imparted to it in the smoke of the 
" apothecae." 

^ State Papers, Domestic, October 1662. 

* Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXIV. 



and grinders in London. In consideration of the perfection he had arrived at 
in making "christali," and his ability to furnish such looking-glass plates as 
good or better than Venetian, Buckingham prays for a renewal of his Patent 
for making crystal glass, with a clause therein for the sole making of looking- 
glass plates, glasses for coaches, and other glass plates, of which he claimed to 
be the first discoverer and promoter. The King referred the petition to his 
Attorney-General for his opinion. Sir Geoffrey Palmer^ reported, 20th July, 
that the required privilege might be granted for the term of fourteen years if 
the invention was a new one, as affirmed by the petitioner, as to which point 
he could find nothing to the contrary ; but that a proviso should be inserted 
to revoke the Patent if it appeared to be of public prejudice or not a new 

In the same year, 4th August 1663, the Attorney-General was ordered, 
upon the surrender by Martin Clifford and Thomas Powlsden of the benefit 
of their invention, for which a Patent was granted October 1662, to prepare a 
Bill under the Great Seal containing the King's grant to Thomas Tilson," " not 
only of the sole makeing and venting of the said Cristall glasse, but also of 
looking-glasse plates of all sorts of glasse w'soever w'"" shall be made in any 
Our Dominions for the terme of 14 yeares, according to the statute in that 
behalfe, it being a new invencon and manufacture." In the grant to Tilson,^ 
which was made 4th September, it was declared that the "Christali glasse" was 
" his Invencon." 

In the meantime, 21st August 1663, while this business was going on, 
Bryan Leigh, Adam Hare, William Broughes, and Ralph Outlye petitioned 
the Crown,* stating that they had " found out a way never yet before discovered, 
of extracting out of Flinte all Sorts of lookeing glasses plates both Christali and 
ordinary and all manner of Christali glasse, farr exceedeing all former experiments 
both at home and abroad." This proposal to make glass from flint was a 
reversion to the old and expensive fashion which Merret tells us in 1662 had 
been abandoned. The petitioners prayed for a Patent for fourteen years, with 
prohibition to all other persons. The King, "remembring something of this 
nature to be already passed to his Gr" the Duke of Buckingham," referred the 
matter to the Attorney-General. Evidently his report was not favourable, and 

' He died in 1670, and is commemorated engraved in W. H. Hyett's Sepulchral Memorials, 

in East Carlton Church, Northamptonshire, by a 18 17. 

standing figure in marble, together with that - Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXV. 

of his wife. Both are represented in shrouds, ^ Ibid., No. XXVII. 

after a peculiar fashion of the time. They are * Ibid., No. XXVI. 



in view of the terms of Tilson's grant it would appear that the proviso inserted 
in the privilege to the Duke of Buckingham had been resorted to, and that 
the Patent to the Duke had become void, as not implying a new invention 
or an improvement of one already in use. His system was apparently a 
modification of the use of flint after the Italian fashion ; Leigh and his company 
would fall into the same condemnation. 

As in the case of the prohibition of wood in 1615, it was desirable to assure 
the commercial success of the crystal-glass and the looking-glass trade by the 
interdiction of foreign imports. Accordingly, 25th July 1664, a Proclamation 
was issued ^ setting forth " the great usefulnes and commodity " of making 
looking-glass plates, etc., "a manufacture lately found out, and brought to 
perfection by some of our natural English subjects," and prohibiting the 
importation so largely carried out since the said invention had been exercised 
in England. Throughout the Proclamation the words "crystal," "crystalline," 
or "flint" are not used, or the expression "all sorts of glasses" in the grant to 
Til son. 

A late acquisition to the British Museum is a glass, 9 inches high, like a 
footless roemer upon a conical base. It is a very uncommon shape. The upper 
part of the bowl is engraved with the diamond point, representing the four 
seasons, and the lower portion with ^^'-^ within branches of bay, and the date 
opposite — August the i8tli 1663 — and decorated with small "prunts," slightly 
gilded. This is a Dutch glass engraved and dated after the manner of the 
accomplished ladies of the Roemer Visscher family (Plate 28). It has consider- 
able interest, and may be mentioned here from being dated in the year and at 
the very time when so many negotiations were going on with regard to 
Patents for new processes of crystal-glass making in England, ending in the 
grant to Tilson and the Proclamation of 25th July 1664. 

It will be remembered that Mansel, as early as in 1620, had "perfected" the 
complete manufacture of looking-glasses, "never," as he truthfully said, "made 
or attempted here before."'^ This was with crystalline glass, the best then to 
be obtained. The Duke's statement to the King in this regard was not true. 
He was proclaimed a traitor on nth March 1667, and his conduct is well set 
down in the pages of Pepys. It is impossible that the knowledge of looking- 
glass-plate making had died out in England, but the free importation of foreign 
glasses and glass plates, allowed by the Proclamation of 1635 on the termination 
of the privilege to Mansel, had flooded the home market and discouraged the 

' Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXVI II. ^ Ibid., No. XX. 



manufacture, as is notified by the Proclamation of 1664. In the latter part of 
Mansel's time the quality of the glass had greatly improved, and the use of the 
word " crystal " by the applicants in the place of crystalline was not only a change 
of word but implied a modification of material. That important further improve- 
ment was made in or about 1663 is evinced by the fact of four persons or parties 
within that year claiming, and three of them actually obtaining, Patents for the 
new invention of making " Crystal Glass." The applicants for Patents in 1660 
proposed to do no more than make glass as Mansel made it ; between that year 
and 1663 the Duke of Buckingham and the. other petitioners had been trying- 
experiments, and by their own showing had all almost simultaneously arrived at 
much the same successful issue ; but only one seems to have attempted to make 
" glass of lead." 

At this distance of time from the circumstances, and \\\i\\ the lack of technical 
evidence, it is difficult to suggest by what proportions of ingredients in the frit, 
or by what management Tilson's new invention was carried, or how far crystal- 
glass making was now pushed towards success. No doubt each applicant made 
out the best case he could, but the fact of the Attorney-General, \\\\o must have 
had all the evidence before him, finally pitching upon Tilson as the real inventor, 
to the exclusion of all the others, must be taken as conclusive in Tilson's favour. 
This is not resting upon slight documentary evidence more than it will bear. 
Again, as collateral testimony, so important was the invention considered, that 
when the Glass Sellers and Looking-Glass Makers obtained, 16 Charles II. (1664), 
a confirmation of the Charter granted to them by Charles I. — an instrument which 
would also have passed under the eye of the Attorney-General — the rights of 
Thomas Tilson, " for the sole making of Christal Glasses and Looking Glass 
Plates of all sorts of Glass whatsoever," are specially reserved. The Proclamation 
of 1664, and the new era — far more important than that of which Mansel was the 
exponent — which was opening for native glass-work, made it very desirable that 
the glass-sellers should be united. 

With further regard to Tilson's invention, it was not a reversion to the 
practice of "extracting glass from flints" which was in question, because the 
Attorney-General set the petitions for that process aside. It is certain that the 
constituents of the frit and its preparation were affected by Tilson's process 
rather than the character of the furnaces, that more brilliant crystal as dis- 
tinguished from crystalline glass was the result, and that his main object was 
the making of looking-glass plates, though he also made drinking-vessels. We 
are therefore forced to the conclusion that Tilson's invention of 1663 was "Glass 

r^ . 

F' 1 








of Lead," of which Mcrret spoke so highly in 1662. It is quite conceivable that 
Tilson's glass was very proper for mirrors, but on account of its brittleness not 
so much so for drinking-vessels ; hence the " perfecting" was not yet reached. It 
may be likewise suggested that, inasmuch as Tilson's improvement appears to 
have mainly consisted in a larger proportion of oxide of lead — an idea derived 
perhaps from observation of the use of lead oxide as a glaze for pottery — it must 
have been by a change in the management of the fritting process that such marked 
advance was made. It was, however, only an important movement in this 
direction, for the process was, so to speak, still tentative, and so gradual, that 
it was not until after the middle of the eighteenth century that the highest point 
of excellence in " flint glass " was attained.^ 

In consequence of the term "Flint Glass" having become transferred to 
brilliant "Glass of Lead," of which flint formed no part, much confusion has 
arisen with regard to the right understanding of scientific descriptions in the 
literature of the time, as to points concerning which precision of language is 
absolutely necessary. To add to the confusion, " pebble glass " is also spoken of, 
an expression still vaguely used. The persistence of the term " flint glass " up 
to the present day is misleading, but it is interesting as a philological survival. 

Undeterred by the loss of his Patent for Venetian looking-glasses, the Duke 
of Buckingham turned his attention to the making of Venetian drinking-glasses, 
under Royal patronage, at Greenwich, apparently near Mansel's old furnace. It 
is probable that he had introduced a company of Venetians before 1662. A 
beautiful glass in the possession of Mr. Henry Festing here comes before us as 
an undoubted and dated example from Buckingham's glass-house. The form of 
the vessel is English, the colour a pale greenish-brown ; it is devoid of brilliancy, 
and its weight is only three ounces, showing that Buckingham was not making 
"glass of lead " in 1663 (Plate 29). The engraving is all executed by the diamond 
point, probably by a Dutch artist ; it was a mode of decoration very little practised 
here.^ The most interesting feature in the engraving, besides the portraits of 

^ In a petition of the Glass Makers'^ Company, imagination might figure it as forming for a time 

9th March i 7 10, to the Lord Mayor and Court of an ornament of one of the cabinets in " that glorious 

Aldermen, for the Revival and Establishment of gallery" at Whitehall. It appears to have been 

the Livery, it is stated that " the Glass Manufactory subsequently in the hands of the family of Grenville 

is of late years much improved, especially in Flint of Stow, Morwenstow, Cornwall. It came into the 

and Looking Glasses, beyond what is done in any possession of the late masterful parish priest, the 

known part of the World to the great honour and Rev. R. S. Hawker ; from his niece it passed, 

benefit of this City and Kingdome." in i860, to Mr. J. Singer; and in 1863, two cen- 

^ This glass was perhaps presented to the turies after its fabrication, unscathed, to the present 

King by Buckingham, and a slight stretch of owner. 

2 G 

2 26 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. xi. 

the King- and Queen, is the Royal Oak with the King's head in a medallion. 
The trunk is shown as hollow, indicating that the tree in whose branches Charles 
II. and Carless took refuge was then well recognised as an old one, thus entirely 
depriving the existing " Boscobel Oak " of any claim to veneration. 

On 1 6th April 1666 a warrant was issued to the Commissioners of 
Ordnance' to deliver to the Duke of Buckingham fifty bags of saltpetre, that is 
nitrate of potash, then highly valued as a solvent or flux in the manufacture of 
fine glass. This entry shows again that Buckingham was making glass with 
potash as the alkaline base, and other considerations, already touched upon, point 
to lime, and not oxide of lead, as the earthy base. These constituents, combined 
in proper proportions with silica in the form of pure white sand, would have 
exactly produced glass assimilated to that of Venetian make, such as is shown in 
the Royal Oak cup. Its " record " is therefore thoroughly established. The order 
was issued to the Commissioners of Ordnance for the prevention of interruption 
and cost in the glass-works, described as having been then lately set up at the 
Duke's expense, and this further marks the interest which the King took in 
the matter. 

Under the date loth June 1673, Mr. Evelyn records: "Thence to the Italian 
oflass-house at Greenwich where glasse was blown of finer metall than that of 
Murano at Venice.'"- Evelyn spoke from a personal knowledge of Venetian 
glass, for he was at Murano in July-August 1645, viewed the furnaces, and saw 
the processes of manufacture. 

It appears that the Proclamation of 1664 did not touch or affect the importa- 
tion of finished and framed looking-tjlasses from Venice. The Council was there- 
fore petitioned by certain of the Glass Sellers' Company that this introduction be 
stopped. On the other hand, it was shown that there was only one glass-house in 
England making looking-glass plates (Tilson's), and that the petitioners were 
simply endeavouring to limit the necessary supply of finished glasses from other 
sources for their own private ends, namely, to import largely and then obtain a 
prohibition in order to raise the prices. The matter was referred to the Council of 
Trade, who declared that if such prohibition was obtained it should be to the 
jeopardy of the Patent, as well as causing the calling in of the Glass Sellers' Charter, 

^ State Papers, Domestic, April i6, 1666. (Leipzig, 1620): "J. F. Gn. wurde auch der Ort 

- Diary, vol. ii. p. 292, edit. 1879. Similarly gezeigct da man Glaser auf vcnedischc Art machct, 

in 161 3, when John Ernest the Younger, Duke of welche an Schonheit fast den Muranischen odcr 

Saxony, went on his travels and visited Antwerp, Venedischen gleich geheii, und sind es Italianer, 

the historian Neumayer von Rammsla records in so sie machen." — See H. Schucrmans, Lcttrc II., 

Reise im Frankreich, Engella)id imd Nicdcrland pp. 356, 374. 


and giving liberty to all to set up furnaces and make glass plates. Nevertheless, 
the petitioners persisted and presented a Bill to Parliament, ostensibly in the name 
of the Company, but with signatures fraudulently procured, for a prohibition both 
of wrought looking-glasses and drinking-glasses.^ If these designs had not been 
successfully combated, a large trade in foreign glass would have been checked, 
much loss to the Customs would have accrued, and it is by no means sure that 
home labour was able to supply the needs of the country as regards the rapidly 
increasing demand for glass plates both for looking-glasses and coach windows. 
As to drinking-glasses they stood upon a different footing, and the imports from 
Venice, large as they were, had the effect of keeping the prices down, and of 
stimulating the efforts of English glass-makers competing with them. The 
importations of drinking-glasses from the Low Countries were unimportant 
complements of the earthenware trade with Holland.'^ 

' Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXX. between the English and the foreign metal rapidly 

- Taking the declaration of some of the London became more marked. It was natural that superi- 

glass-sellers in December 1670 concerning the ority in manipulation should remain with the 

badness of English glass, and that of Greene to Venetians because the perhaps more ductile metal 

Morelli on loth February 167a as to the in- surrendered with greater readiness to their long- 


feriority of Venetian glass to it, and allowing for descended artistic treatment. This is in 

exaggeration on both sides, we may conclude that depreciation of the English glass, which was now 

there was a difference, and that it lay rather in the advancing towards a perfection and an artistic 

character of the glass than in the designs of the handling of quite another kind which the Venetians 

glasses themselves ; as time advanced,- the distinction have never approached. 



With regard to the drinking - glasses imported from Venice there has, 
fortunately, been much information preserved in the "office copies" of Letters 
from John Greene, a London glass-seller, and his partner, Michael Mesey, to 
Signer Allesio Morelli, glass-maker in Venice, between 1667 and 1672.^ Besides 
the letters, copies in pen and ink of the full-sized drawings by Greene, sent to 
Venice to be worked from, and which accompanied the orders, have also been 
preserved ; the number of the different figures of glass vessels amounts to 173. 

What is better still, some results of these materials — existing examples of a 
few of the glasses and vessels themselves, can be clearly identified. Thus we are 
brought into the open at last. 

A general perusal of Greene's letters shows that the business had been 
carried on to a large extent before 1667, not only by him, but by other members of 
the Glass Sellers' Company, to the great advantage of " the Turkey merchants " or 
shippers of commodities from the East. Besides the enumeration of the different 
glasses to be made most carefully according to the " forms " or " patterns " sent, we 
find that the fashion of some special ones was left to the Venetian, but they were 
to have both " feet " and " ears." The number of wine and beer glasses, both large 
and small, of shapes now never covered, but which are specified by Greene to be 
made both with covers and without them, is remarkable as a usage of the time. 
The alternative of glasses for wine and beer with plain or ribbed bowls is 

^ Appendi.x, Original Documents, No. XXIX. See Introductory Notices, p. 45. 


frequently expressed, and some of the vessels are marked to be " calsedonia," 
"speckled enameld," or " milke whit." Tumblers horizontally and vertically 
fluted are also depicted. Morelli seems to have generally performed the orders 
satisfactorily, but damage was sometimes caused by wet having " stay'ned " and 
"rotted" the glasses, showing the tender nature and easy disintegration of the 
metal, so different in density to English glass. The colours of the enamels 
were sometimes bad, and the chests smaller than they should have been, the 
freight charges not abating correspondingly. Special instructions are given in 
each letter that the glasses should be very clear and white, and exact according to 
the " patterns " or " forms " as to fashion and size. This exactness was certainly 
carried out, as a glass in the author's cabinet shows — indeed, Greene's notes on the 
drawings prove that he verified this point ; the shapes were such that the English 
habits required, and the actual remaining glasses have much value accordingly.^ 

Means were taken, as a matter of course, to defraud the Customs by hiding 
prohibited unfoiled looking-glass plates from Venice in the bottoms of the cases, 
with duplicate "factorys" or invoices. The descriptions of some of the glasses 
for which no patterns were drawn sound very attractive. What collector would 
not like to find at the present day, for instance, a "speckled enameld coverd 
beere glasse " or "a clouded calsedonia coverd clarett glass," "with feet and 
ears of good hansom fashions," ordered from Venice 28th August 1668 ! Perhaps 
now that attention has been called to them they may be recognised, with others 
of which outlines will presently be referred to, and brought to light from hidden 
places in ancient houses or homesteads. It is greatly to be wished that modern 
glass-makers would turn their attention to the re-introduction of table glasses in 
" clouded calsedonia " and " speckled enamel " ; they would be a welcome relief 
from the shrill perfections of modern flint glass. 

Nearly every case that was sent over contained necklaces of beads and 
strings of false pearls. Much loss ensued from breakages— as many as forty 
dozen glasses in a consignment of 520 dozen in 1669, ordered 28th August 1668. 
On 17th September 1669 Greene ordered 600 dozen more drinking-glasses ; 
he also gave directions for 576 unfoiled looking-glass plates to be sent in 
separate cases. Intricate steps were taken to deceive the Custom House 
both as to sizes of glass plates— which were measured by the Venetian system 
— and the quantity of drinking-glasses, false invoices being delivered with 

' The funnel-shaped cup or bowl is associated Dutch artists. In the English glasses and their 

with the most graceful of Venetian glasses. The Venice -made competitors, strength and solidity 

form was very successfully adapted in Low Country were the main requisites, 
glasses " fagon de Venise," beautifully etched by 



the chests, and true ones forwarded to Greene. The order for glass plates 
was so directly contrary to the terms of the Proclamation of 25th July 1664 
that it might seem that the scope of that instrument had been relaxed by an 
Order in Council ; but it is apparent that such plates could be introduced by 
the payment of duties so much enhanced as hardly to make the importation 
profitable; hence the temptation to deception. Thus in 1667 a grant was issued 
for landing, Customs free, two looking-glasses, silk, and vermicelli, for the 
King's use.-^ It is evident that it was worth Greene's while to send to Venice 
for unfinished plates, paying duty for some, and cheating the Custom House 
as regards others. On i8th January 167"- 74 dozen glasses were ordered, and 
400 dozen on loth February, when Greene declared that he could get in London 
better looking-glasses, both Venetian and home made, than the imperfect ones 
Morelli sent him. These further quantities of drinking-glasses, looking-glass and 
coach plates were to be shipped for preference in two vessels "for fear of the 
Turks," then the universal bugbears. Hardened and allured by previous successes, 
Greene again requested duplicate invoices — naively styled the right one and the 
wrong one — and the omission of six or eight dozen of drinking-glasses in the 
invoice for every chest, and prepared by various petty devices to defraud the 
Custom House of duty. Greene also imported toys and brushes from Venice, and 
small ebony and ivory hour-glasses, which are occasionally met with at the present 
day. On i8th January 1671 some extra looking-glasses were ordered to be so 
hidden at the bottom of deep chests of drinking-glasses as to escape the scrutiny 
of the "searchers." On 3rd May 1671 Greene again told Morelli — he held it 
over him, in fact, as a gentle inducement for good treatment — that very excellent 
drinking-glasses were then made in England, and better looking-glasses than 
any that came from Venice. Allowing for trade exaggeration, this is still an 
important testimony in favour of English glasses. 

The orders to Venice had now become much smaller, and complaints 
increased both as to prices and quality. On 30th May 1672 Greene pronounced 
that the Venice glasses were indifferent as to clearness, a point which is quite 
borne out by some of the existing examples of this time, but he acknowledges 
that they were generally stronger, that is, less brittle, than those of English 
make. In this, the last order of which record has been preserved, twenty 
dozen of "cruitts for oyl and vinegar" are included. The drawings show that 
some of these were the gimmal canted bottles following the ancient, perhaps the 
Roman pattern. Others were flasks with narrow necks and expanded mouths, 

^ State Papers, Domestic, 1667. 


plain and ribbed. The last two letters prove that the looking-glass market 
was falling, and that the Venetian drinking-glasses were rapidly being driven 
out by those of English make. The casual mention by Greene of other dealers 
in Venice glasses shows that for some years the importations to London had 
been very large, and it will be at once understood that they were only so 
introduced to compete by their cheapness with those of English origin. The 
law allowed the importation, and the glass-sellers took advantage of it. From 
the time that the English " flint glass " improved — as we know it did, from 
Greene's statements to Morelli of loth February 167^ and 3rd May 1671 — the 
Venetian imports gradually fell away, and the period when English glass gained 
the ascendant in an early stage of the " perfecting" of "crystal " or " flint glass" 
may be roughly reckoned from the time of the introduction of the manufacture 
of " flint glass a I'Anglaise " on the Continent, and of large exportations thither, 
which increased enormously during the eighteenth century.^ 

With regard to Greene's pen-and-ink drawings or " forms," they completely 
illustrate the glasses ordered in the eight letters which have just been alluded to. 
They were evidently his standard or " stock " patterns, which were copied over and 
over again, exemplifying also somewhat earlier as well as slightly later orders. 
The number of outlines is 173, the use of each being specified, whether for wine 
or beer, or both, and marked as to the number of dozens by figures which 
fluctuated in tlie copies according to the varying requirements. This is taking 
no account of a few unfinished pencil outlines, repetitions of some of those in ink. 
When it is pointed out that the text of the letters, together with the outlines, 
represent more or less fully the operations of one London glass-seller only with 
Venetian glass-wares, implying the importation by him, between 1667 and 1672, 
of nearly 2000 dozen of glasses, etc., some idea may be formed of the extent of the 
introduction of Venetian-made glass drinking-vessels into England during the few 
years in which the trade flourished in the reign of Charles IL This is irrespec- 
tive of more than iioo looking-glass plates, of which the sizes are carefully 
specified in the letters, and the quantities of false pearls which were imported by 
Greene during the same period, and with which we have nothing to do. 

The figures shown by the outlines divide themselves naturally into Wine 

1 On one occasion only, namely, in the list were then using tarso or flint, instead of sand, for 

sent in the letter of 18th January 167 1, Greene crystal glass. It is just possible that " flint " is a 

mentions flint glass in the order for two dozen clerical error for putt. An outline of a "flute," 

"flintt sack" If he used the word in its original 6\ inches high, occurs among Greene's "forms," 

sense it is difficult to explain why he mentioned but not marked as to quantity required. It is 

it at 'all. because Neri tells us that the Venetians doubtful if " flC.tcs" were ever used for sack. 

232 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. xii. 

Glasses, Beer Glasses, and Sundry Glass Vessels for drinking and other purposes. 
The wine-glasses vary in their cups or bowls from the pure funnel shape, which 
never has a cover, to the rounded and flat-bottomed form. Sufficient diversity in 
the designs of the stems is obtained by the ingenious manipulation of a few simple 
mouldings and a " button " or knop. The largest sizes are inscribed for French 
wine and sack, covered and uncovered, plain or "ribbed," with plain or fluted 
buttons in the stems. The smaller glasses are marked for Spanish wine, French 
wine, and sack ; they are very rarely covered, and never ribbed. Smallest and 
most interesting of all are the speckled enamelled glasses for Spanish wine only ; 
these are never covered, and the stems are decorated with one or two ribbed 
buttons. They are enumerated by Greene in his list for 28th August 1668. One 
glass of this group more capacious than the rest indicates that Greene had noticed 
the shape of at least one of the Duke of Buckingham's Venetian glasses exemplified 
in the Royal Oak cup. This seems to be of English fashion. Roemers, never 
popular here, are only twice illustrated as " riiish wine-glasses"; four dozen only 
of the larger size were ordered loth February i67f. Speckled, ribbed, round- 
bottomed, and plain tumblers are also shown for claret and sack, and minute 
tumblers for strong waters of similar kinds are described under the same date 
as " brandj tumblers." Though the wine-glasses, covered and uncovered, are 
generally smaller than those for beer, it is remarkable how capacious the greater 
number of them are, and how much the habit was used of drinking wine from 
tumblers. In any recognition of wine-glasses of this period the covers belonging 
to them must not be overlooked ; they should be easily distinguished by their 
plain "ring" handles. 

The beer glasses proper may be collectively described as larger versions of 
those for wine, and they include heavier and more ample vessels of another class. 
Some with funnel-shaped bowls are thus particularised on the drawings: "The 
lower partt of these glasses and the buttons must be solid mettall and all Ye Rest 
of ye glasse I woud have to be blowne thicker then usealj especullj Ye feett must 
be strong." The same were provided for French wine, and still more solid 
varieties also ordered, all probably for use in ordinaries. The beer tumblers are 
repetitions of those for wine (Plate 30). 

Among the sundry glass vessels depicted by Greene the covered pots for 
beer or wine, porringers or posnets, in two sizes, with ears or handles, are most 
conspicuous. They were necessary concessions to the English taste in the days 
of the Merry Monarch with the sardonic countenance, and their capacity must 
have sorely puzzled the abstemious Venetians. Then come the fountain pots for 



L J 

l> ■ 




refreshment by suction, the "spout pots" for the same service by old people and 
invalids, recalling the examples in silver of somewhat later date, and the round- 
bottomed tumblers and footed bowls of which the shape had been handed down 
from early times by the silver " bolles " and "mazers" of mediaeval inventories. 
Similarly, sets of six and twelve "glasses in a neast verj well fitted" had their 
types in nests of silver bowls of earlier days,^ and their prototypes in the Roman 
covered bronze boxes of weights (Plate 31). Covered cups, chalice-fashion, for use 
indifferently for beer or wine are also shown, and "beakers" and " flouer pott 
glasses " drawn, and ordered loth February 1670.- There remain to be noticed 
the "clouded Calsedonia," the "speckled enameld," and the " milke whit" cruets 
with and without feet, and the single, the ribbed, and the gimmal flasks (Plate 32). 
With respect to the more ornamental of the above-mentioned objects it may 
be readily gathered that however much Greene insisted that his designs for the 
usual glasses suited to the English taste should be carried out — he gave no orders 
without sending a " form " marked with the quantity he wanted — he adopted the 
better plan respecting the decorative details of handles, ears, etc., of other vessels, 
of only rudely suggesting what was beyond his power to draw, and adding by 
letter that they were to be "of good hansom fashions." The ornamentally 
pinched, denticulated, and other artistic work was therefore a free rendering of 
Greene's pen-and-ink crudities by long descended artists practising the traditional 
methods of work in the manner for which their material was best suited. 
Evidence of this will be shown presently. 

Considering the large number of glasses made in Venice to the orders of 
Greene and other glass-sellers, and the solid character of the greater part of them, 
it is somewhat surprising how few have survived to the present day ; but two 
centuries and a quarter is a long period for the duration of glass vessels liable 
for ordinary use, and not made for ornament. At about this point the limit of 
lasting seems to be reached, for no example of Mansel's glasses— not even a tiny 
mortar glass— known with certainty as such, appears to have escaped destruction.^ 

^ Archbishop Parker, 1577, had a " neste of to be looked for in an unchanging country like 

boules pounced with a cover " weighing Ixiiij ounces. Spain. 

Archaeologia, vol. xxx. p. 26. Sir William More, ^ In consequence of the persistence of traditional 

1558, had one, parcel gilt, and weighing Ixxxij types in Venetian glasses, their dates are often un- 

ounces, and two other sets.— 73/^., vol. xxxvi. p. 293. certain, and it is probable that the greater number 

2 Flower-pot glasses and footed bowls in that have survived are of the latter rather than of 

chalcedony or schmelz are made at the present the earlier part of the seventeenth century. This 

day at Barcelona, where glass has been fabricated view is, of course, apart from the consideration of 

from time immemorial, of exactly the same shapes those rare late Gothic vessels of which the dates 

as shown in Greene's designs. Such a survival is are well ascertained from their character and 

2 II 



CHAr. xn. 

With regard to Greene's actual glasses it will be convenient to notice them, 
too-ether with those presumably of his contemporaries from the same source as 
well as the English-made examples of the same period. A glass in the cabinet of 
the author corresponds so nearly with one of Greene's "forms" that it cannot be 

Fig. 159. (One third.) Fig. 160. (One third.) Fig. 161. (One third.) 

mistaken. It is, moreover, of a glistering cold white metal, with but a moderate 
ring. Both the glass and the "form" are here illustrated (Figs. 159, 160). A 
glass of a small capacity in the museum of Mr. H. Syer Cuming, dug up at 
London Wall in 1886, inscribed on the bowl with a diamond point, "Garrett, 
Cock, Old Street" (Fig. 161), has the same qualities of metal, and though not 
recognisable from the drawings as one of Greene's glasses, it may be safely 

Fig. 162. (One third.) 

Fig. 163. (One third.) 

Fig. 164. (One third.) 

attributed to the design and order from Venice of another London glass-seller of 
the time, Sadler, Allen, or Van Mildert, alluded to in his letters. Of similar 
origin may be a glass of larger size, with a round-bottomed bowl, in the collection 
of the same accomplished antiquary, found at St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield, in 
1867 (Fig. 162). It fulfils the identical conditions as to character of metal, as 
does also an excellent example in the possession of Mr. J. W. Singer, as well as a 

decorative features, and of the very frail and cabinets, and not for use, whicli have almost 
beauteous objects a priori for the adornment of miraculously been preserved. 


like glass in the author's hands (Figs. 163, 164) ; modifications of this shape 
were produced long after in Germany and the Low Countries.^ No example 
of Greene's flat-bottomed glasses for wine or beer has come under observation 
at the present day to the best of the author's knowledge, though a few must 
exist and should be looked for by collectors. 

Inasmuch as the English and Venetian glasses were at this time in competi- 
tion to suit the national taste and requirements, we should expect to find some 
similarity in the rival designs. Such is, in fact, the case ; but while the variations 
in form are but slight, the quality of the metal offers a good criterion of the 
difference between them. Thus the cold and soft white glass from Venice is at 
once distinguishable from that of English make with its deeper tint, greater 
brilliancy, and weight. This is a distinction drawn by an amateur; possible 
chemical differences in the metal would be more difficult to point out and of less 
general utility to the collector. In the glasses from both sources the folded foot 
is a constant feature. 

The English glasses of this time, and deriving directly from it, may be 
accurately spoken of, without disparagement of their historical value, as more 
clumsy and solid than their heavy and anomalous Venetian-made rivals. It is 
doubtful whether any of these that have come under the author's notice are earlier 
than 1680. The thick and lumpy baluster and moulded stems, so far removed 
from normal Venetian traditions, are rarely without large and often misshapen 
bubbles ; these are not due to accident, but are genuine features specially 
introduced with a somewhat primitive idea of ornamentation. Some remarkably 
large vessels of this time, and rather later, have been preserved. Such are Mrs. 
Beatty-Pownall's monumental glass, 16 inches high, accidentally of good design 
(Fig. 165), and one of the normal form in the possession of Mrs. William 
Wilmer, iif inches high. A smaller glass of like kind is in Mr. P. H. Bate's 
collection (Fig. 166). Mrs. Shirley Harris is the owner of a glass of the same 
character, 8^ inches high, with a pedigree which takes it back to the early years 
of the last century (Fig. 167).'-^ 

^ Care must be taken by the amateur not to beads in the base of the bowl, which joins the 

confound them with glasses of German make, of stem with an ogee line, and the feet are always 

about a century later, from Zechlin in Brandenburg, domed and folded. Some examples in the col- 

Carlshafen am Weser in Hesse Cassel, Luissart, and lections of Miss C. M. Hartshorne, Mr. B. F. Harts- 

from glass-houses in the forest between Bavaria and home, and the author, have gilt edges, and the 

Bohemia. These differ in the quality of the metal lion rampant of Hesse Cassel engraved beneath 

from English examples, but could easily be mistaken the foot, and C for Carlshafen. 

in this respect for Venetian make. The German " A tradition has been transmitted with the 

metal has more glitter. They frequently have pedigree, to the effect that the glass was used as 




A considerable number of the glasses of medium capacity, of English make, 
with queer heavily-moulded stems, of the last years of the seventeenth century 
and onwards, for wine, and of smaller sizes for the developing taste for strong 
waters, have been preserved ; and though their period is unmistakable, and the 

Fig. 165. (Une sixth.) 

Fig. 166. (One third. 

Fig. 167. (One third.) 

duration of their production not long — for they were the precursors of a lengthy 
series and soon lapsed into simplicity — they have been neglected by collectors, 
owing to lack of knowledge regarding them, in favour of later glasses of more 
artistic merit ; as with the Venice-made examples, the folded foot is an almost 

Fig. 16S. (One third.) 

Fig. 169. (One third.) 

Fig. 170. (One third. 

Fig. 171. (One third.) 

invariable feature of the English glasses of this time, but many of them are so 
odd that they do not lend themselves readily to classification (Figs. 168-170). 
Certain rare and heavy wine-glasses, with deeply pressed funnel-shaped bowls, 
folded feet similarly treated, and moulded stems, belong also to this series 

a chalice, apparently in a Staffordshire parish, in of the glass dispels the picturesque record, but it 
unhappy Puritan times, when the sacred silver has interest of its own. 
vessel had been hidden for safety. The character 


(Fig. 171). They must not be mistaken for so-called sweetmeat glasses, which 
are much later in date and will be spoken of in their place. 

There can be little doubt that the hollow " blows " in the stems of the larger 
glasses first led to the fashion in England of enshrining a silver coin in them. 
Unfortunately the piece of money cannot be depended upon as supplying the date 
of the glass ; such reliance would imply that the glasses were only made in the 
actual years of new issues, which is improbable. The coins are, therefore, in most 
cases misleading. But, inasmuch as the greater number of those which appear 
in the stems of glasses are of Charles II., it may be reasonably concluded that 
some of them were patriotically so enclosed in the King's honour during his life- 
time, and others out of respect for his memory some few years after his death. It 
is to be noticed in both regards that all are good broad coins, chosen out of the 
millions of clipped money which became so serious an inconvenience soon after 
the death of Charles II. ; the above conclusions are also borne out by the character 
of the glasses themselves in which coins of Charles II. occur. At first the roomy 
bulbs of large goblets only were enlarged and so furnished. A glass in the 
possession of Mrs. Schreiber has a shilling of Queen Anne in the bulb, and a 
Maundy fourpenny piece in the knop of the cover, which is surmounted by a bust 
in "a Hat that was shaped in the Ramillie Cock," probably intended for Prince 
Eusf^ne. Both bulbs are decorated with strawberries. Before the second decade 
of the eighteenth century the stems of many medium-sized wine-glasses were 
systematically fashioned with a neat receptacle for the money, at once enhancing 
the appearance and giving the glass an interest, but not of the highest kind. 
Examples of old coin-glasses are now of infrequent occurrence.^ 

Of the sundry glass vessels of the time of Charles II. very few have 
survived. A flask, apparently of this period, 4J inches high, in the usual 
cold white glass, and decorated with A H in pinched work, small strawberries, 

' It was the custom in Murano to enclose Bohemian tumblers, 3^^- inches high, of the end 

certain medals in the bottoms of glasses for of the last century, decorated with gilding in 

presentation to distinguished visitors. In the arabesques. In the false bottom of each three 

British Museum is a Venetian glass containing a ivory dice are enshrined by means of a separate 

half sequin of Francesco Molino, elected Doge in disk of glass fixed with cement. Thus the cost of the 

1647; an English glass of about 1740 with a liquor could be thrown for without the help of the 

threepenny piece of 1679 ; and another enclosing leather iviirfelbechcr so dear to Heidelberg students, 

a Dutch coin of 1739, the probable date of the Four remarkable bronze dice were found in 1849 

glass. In the same collection is a Venetian in a tomb at Marseilles, apparently Roman. They 

glass containing a die in white paste. Coins are in the form of a human figure seated with the 

were also inserted in the bottoms of glass jugs, arms akimbo, the pips, from one to six, being disposed 

and the practice was revived on the occasion of on different parts of the body, and formed by indents 

Her Gracious Majesty's Jubilee in 1887. In the to be filled with a ^x^r^^x^t.— Proceedings, Society of 

Germanlsches Museum at Nuremberg are five fluted Antiquaries, vol. ii. p. 18, with illustrations. 




and denticulated strips, is in the cabinet of the author (Fig. 172). Modifica- 
tions of this latter ornament are variously styled frilling, quilling, and purfling, 
the last being the term usually applied to the trimming of garments for the 
dead. A posset pot, belonging to Miss Whitmore Jones, is preserved in her 
beautiful ancestral house of Chastleton (Plate 33). This cup may well be an 
improved Venetian rendering of a design transmitted from England, the heraldic 
Stuart roses being concessions to English traditions; it is doubtful if masks 

Fig. 172. (One half.) 

Fig. 173. (One quarter.) 

were ever impressed upon glasses made here. A very similar posnet is in the 
collection of Mr. H. Stear, and a large covered punch-bowl, with moulded 
and trailed decorations, of somewhat later date is, in the cabinet of the author, 
and came through an alliance with a Yorkshire family sixty years ago, with a 
history that takes it back to the early years of the last century (Fig. 173). 
All these vessels have folded feet. It is regrettable that no examples of 
the glasses, tumblers, or cruets in chalcedony, spotted enamel, or milk white 
appear to have survived. A large and a small horizontally-ribbed tumbler were 
obtained by the author from a stall in Nottingham Market in 1891 ; a second 
small one, 2^ inches high, came from a cottage in Bradbourne ; and a 
third, still smaller, is in the possession of Mr. W. Winckley.^ The character 
of these glasses may seem to show them to be members of Venetian-made nests. 

' Formerly belonging to Mr. William Plank of Harrow, who died 20th November 1867, aged a 
hundred years and twelve days. 



such as are set forth in Greene's drawings, but it is possible that they are later 
than his time. The sloping sides suggest this doubt. ^ 

The value of Greene's drawings as dated representations of the generality of 
the glasses used in England during the last quarter of the seventeenth century, 
together with their verification by existing examples, will be obvious to artists, 
collectors, and other persons interested in the minor English arts. 

John Greene, citizen and glass-seller in the Poultry, appears to have been 
connected with the glass business all his life.^ An active member of the Glass 
Sellers' Company, he was constituted an Assistant in the Charter of 1664, and 
elected one of the Wardens in 1677 ; he was Treasurer of the Feast of the Sons 
of the Clergy in 1689. Beyond these facts we know no more of him and his 
commercial dealings and probity than is revealed by his Letters, and the 
Papers ^ which have been preserved with them. He used a seal with the arms 
of Greene of Greene's Norton, Northamptonshire, formerly De Buckton, (Az), 
3 bucks trippant (Or), a distinguished family allied with some of the bluest 
mediaeval blood in England. "* 

' Sir Francis Boilcau has a nest of engraved silver bowls or " tumblers," all of the same size, as 

Dutch glasses. In the Germanisches Museum at contradistinguished from nests, are not uncommon 

Nuremberg are two imperfect nests of six, the of a later period, 

largest glasses being 3 and 22 inches high, " See p. 192. 

respectively. In the one example, counting from '' Appendix, Original Documents, Nos. XXIX., 

the centre, Nos. i, 2, and 4, and in the latter XXX., XXXI. 

Nos. 2 and 3 arc missing. They arc closely fitted, ■* One of the saddest passages of Northampton- 

and belong to the early years of the eighteenth shire history is the shocking maltreatment which 

century ; the glass is thick and dull. Nests of the tombs, effigies, and brasses of the Greenes in 

silver bowls, with a cover to the largest to keep Greene's Norton Church have suffered, principally 

them together, occur sometimes in inventories. Sir in 1S26, at the hands of their legal custodians. 

William More had three nests in 1558, two with The earliest description of them is in Hn/stead's 

cowers.— Archaeologm, vo\. ^-a-avl. p. 293. Sets of Genealogies — rarest of printed books. 



Hitherto the main history has been drawn from documents, in the absence of 
the glasses to which they relate. \\'ith the end of the seventeenth century the 
turning-point is reached and the sources of information are reversed. The glasses 
increase, and the documents diminish both in number and consequence, and 
shortly disappear altogether, so that long before the middle of the eighteenth 
century the story will be disentangled by the evidence of the glasses alone. But if 
there has been some difficulty on account of the paucity or even total absence of 
examples, when endeavouring to track the English glasses through Gothic ages 
and Renaissance times, it does not follow that trouble will be at once smoothed 
away when we enter finally into the open. For the number of types of glasses 
which present themselves for consideration during the course of the eighteenth 
century, and the multitude of examples with minute variations illustrating them, 
induce at first sight the semblance of chaos. This seeming perplexity we shall 
presently proceed to bring into order, with such classification and nomenclature as 
the dates and the shapes of the glasses appear to suggest and permit. 

Continuing the story of glass-making from Patents and documents, we find 
that on 1 6th May 1674 George Ravenscroft obtained a Patent for seven years for 
the "Art and Manufacture of a perticuler sort of Christaline Glasse resembling 
Rock Christall, not formerly exercised or vsed in this our Kingdome," with 
special protection against imitators.^ The remarkable feature of this business is 

' Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXXII. 


that the invention was brought here by an Altarist, De Costa, the only record we 
have of an artist from the ancient glass-making district of Montferrat working in 
England,^ and the last record of an Italian master of a glass-house here. Plot, 
writing in 1676, says that the furnace was at Henley-on-Thames, and that it was 
carried on by Ravenscroft, and lately by Mr. Bishop. He also tells us that Dr. 
Ludwell found out by analysis what the Patent states that Ravenscroft did not 
divulge, namely, that the constituents of the frit were to a pound each of the 
blackest flints calcined, "about two ounces of Niter Tartar and Borax." But the 
glasses thus made being subject to the fault of " Crizzeling," or a clouding of their 
transparency — a trouble often noticed in glasses of the period in question, both 
Venetian and English — Tarso, or white pebbles for use instead of flints were 
imported from the River Po, with which, and some alteration not specified, in the 
proportions of the other ingredients, far superior and whiter glasses were made 
than any from Venice; these would not "crizzel," and were distinguished from the 
others by a seal set upon them. The sealing of each piece rather implies a limited 
manufacture of choice objects. None of these sealed Ravenscroft-Costa glasses 
have been recognised at the present day.- Plot goes on to say that the improve- 
ment lay not in the substitution of pebbles for flints, " but in the abatement of the 
salts for there are some of the flint glasses strictly so called which have stood all 
tests." -^ His History was published in 1676, and when he wrote the above 
remarks as to flint glasses " strictly so called," it is apparent that he thus 
distinguished it from the new glass then being introduced under Tilson's Patent, 
and carried without delay into the Low Countries,^ and also called "flint glass," 
though not made from flints. 

The glass-house at Henley-on-Thames was a venture of the Glass Sellers' 

^ Sec Introductory Notices, pp. 33, lOO. In the same collection is a straight-sided wine-glass, 

- The practice of impressing upon bottles and with an opaque twisted stem, about 1735, twice 

other glass vessels the initials, name, or mark of the sealed on the bowl with the arms — a fesse between 

maker was of Phoenician origin, and again became three garbs, in an arabesque border. This is the 

common, after centuries of disuse, throughout the solitary example of a sealed wine-glass that has 

seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when the been noticed by the author. See Group VII., 

arms, crest, or initials of owners were often stamped Fig. 2 i g. 

upon bottles. Wine -flasks of the last century ' See Appendix, Original Documents, No. 

sealed with the figure of St. Cornelius, for the XXXII., footnote. 

ancient ecclesiastical foundation of Corncli-Munstcr, In a discussion at the Royal Society it was 

near Aix-la-Chapelle, also called Pruyn, arc pre- stated that the Italian had made a mistake in 

served in the Musee Archeologique at Li^ge. In using flint instead of tarso, because it made the 

the cabinet of the author is a bottle of the beiitel glasses fly. This was a worse fault than " crizzeling." 

form sealed with the crest of the knightly family —See Birch, History of the Royal Society, vol. \\'. 

of Ilunlokc of Wingerworth, Derbyshire, circum- p. 276. 
scribed by the legend :— WINGERWORTH, i 7 11. ' Sec Introductory Notices, p. 40. 

2 I 



Company, which took all that was produced, and whose clerk, Samuel Moore, 
furnished "the sizes and fashions."^ On i8th September 1675 the Company 
gave leave to Ravenscroft to transport to Ireland or elsewhere beyond sea ^400 
worth of his " fflint Glasses" made within a certain period, but not to send it in 
future to Scotland, or any place in England and Wales.^ Ravenscroft's manu- 
facture was evidently designed to combat the flint glasses " strictly so called " 
imported from Venice ; but it was a retrograde movement, and probably the last 
serious attempt in England to make glasses with flints. The fact of the Glass 
Sellers' Company taking all that was made looks as if the production was not 
considerable, owing to the difficulty and cost of preparing the flints for use, or the 
expense of bringing pebbles from the Po ; in either case the result must have been 
the best metal then made. It was probably work from the Henley furnace previous 
to Ravenscroft's Patent, and from one in the Savoy, also in the hands of the 
Company, which Greene had in his mind when he warned Morelli on 3rd May 
1671 of the goodness of the English glasses. 

On 3rd June 1685 the Company, who heretofore had sold fifteen to the dozen 
of all sorts of glasses, considered that it was a prejudice to themselves as partners 
in the Henley glass-house that other makers sold eighteen to the dozen "of their 
glasses called fflint glasses," and that in future Hawley Bishop, Ravenscroft's 
successor, should deliver to them sixteen to the dozen. ^ It is not certain that 
the glass-house at Henley was at this date, four years after the expiration of 
Ravenscroft's patent, still using flints, or pebbles, and making flint glass " strictly 
so called," but it is almost certain that no other English glass-house was then 
doing so; the transference by "the trade" of the term to the rising "glass of 
lead " would therefore be an important item in tracing its progress.^ 

In 1688 much concern arose with the Glass Sellers' Company in consequence 
of the great influx of country-made glasses to London, causing the establishment 
of traffic in them by members of the Company, as well as by men newly set up 
for that purpose. This had been resented by the Court of Assistants, under 
threat of depriving such dealers of any glass from the other members of the 

^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXXI., means we easily enough serve our neighbours." — 

(2). Houghton, Letters for the lutproveuient of Husbandry 

' Ibid. (3). and Trade, vol. ii. p. 138, edit. 1690. Thus the 

^ Ibid. (8). export trade in glass was considerable at this 

^ "When the king came in [i.e. 1660) we time, and Houghton's statement illustrates the 

bought our looking-glasses and in a great measure information respecting the introduction of " flint 

our drinking glasses from Venice, but now by the glass," improperly so called, into the Low Countries 

fashion of using glasses in coaches, and other good since 1680. 


Company.^ No doubt this corporate body was wise in the action it took to 
endeavour to suppress the selling by shops, and hawking in the streets of 
London, of bad country-made glasses, besides being, as was expressed in the 
petition to the House of Lords, " greatly mischieved " by the itinerant pedlars. 
The Bill for the suppression of Hawkers and Pedlars, then before the Lords, 
against which the Company petitioned in 1691,- excluded the wandering dealers 
in glasses and earthenware. The Glass Sellers showed that by the statute of 
39 Elizabeth, cap. 4, pedlars and chapmen were adjudged rogues and vagabonds, 
but that glass-men of good behaviour might travel in the country only, under 
a license from three justices,'' and that this liberty for glass pedlars was repealed 
in I James L, because under its shelter rogues and vagabonds followed their 
calling as such. It was further pointed out that there was no need of these 
chapmen wandering about the country with glasses and earthenware, because 
those commodities were sold in all cities and towns, and almost in all villages 
in England. Moreover, the insolence of these illegal hawkers was dwelt upon, 
and the prejudicial effect upon lawful shopkeepers of their immunity, the 
exceeding bad quality of their wares, and their well-earned reputation as "very 
incorrigible and stubborn sort of persons that regard no laws." The existence 
of the Company of Glass Sellers being thus in hazard, it was prayed that all 
peddling glass and earthenware sellers be included in the new Bill, and 
suppressed accordingly, and subjected to the same penalties as other chapmen 
and women. ^ 

By a letter of 4th December 1691, signed by Foot Onslow,'' the glass- 
sellers were ordered to attend and be heard by the Committee as to the Hawkers' 
Bill. From another document it seems that the Solicitor-General, and Onslow, 
the Chairman of the Committee, put into the Bill the trades they thought fit, 
and left out the rest.*' The glass -sellers were invited to state their case 
through counsel, and there is no doubt that they did so, but the documentary 
information now breaks off. 

The improvement of flint glass being a gradual process up to the time 
of its perfecting just before the last quarter of the eighteenth century, it follows 
that, excepting Tilson's invention of 1663, which was introductory, its invention 

^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXXI. ^ Ibid. (13). Foot Onslow was father of 

( I o). Arthur Onslow, the famous Speaker of tiie House 

'^Ibid.{\2). of Commons, from January 1728 to March 

^ See pp. 173 and 187. 1761. 

* Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXXI. " Ibid. (14). 

>44 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. xiii. 

could never have formed the subject of a Patent. Like Greek art or Gothic 
architecture it grew by degrees ; improvement was, however, already rapid in the 
last decade of the seventeenth century as the glasses show. 

In 1691 Robert Hookes and Christopher Dodsworth had a Patent for "A 
way of mixing metall so as to make glasse for windows of more lustre and 
beauty then any that have been heretofore made in England, and to make 
red chrystal glasse of all sorts and likewise the art of casting glasse and 
particularly looking glasse plates much larger than ever was blowne in England 
or in any Foreign parts." This was therefore an improvement in the management 
of the materials ; it was a distinct advance, but whether in the preliminary 
fritting or calcination, or by the substitution of direct fusion with purification 
of the metal by ladling it into water, as commonly now practised, is a matter 
of practical detail which need not be speculated upon, and, indeed, cannot be 
discussed here. 

On account of the double meaning which the expression "flint glass" 
may convey, scientific literature of the time under consideration generally leads 
to no definite conclusion with regard to details of manufacture. Houghton says, 
writing in 1696, that he remembers when " Mr. Ravenscroft first made the 
flint glasses." This process was in the beginning a hopeful re-introduction, and 
the Po-pebble glass seems to have been the best then produced ; but it was 
too expensive and must have been abandoned some years before 1696 ; in 
fact, if it had not been discarded, we should be placed in the dilemma of 
having at the very end of the seventeenth century two kinds of flint glass — 
that properly so-called, good in quality but small in quantity, retrogressive in 
character, and dear, and " glass of lead," to which the term was now, as by common 
consent, but improperly, coming to be applied. 

Houghton, in his List of Glass- Houses in 1696, a valuable table showing the 
enormous increase in glass-making in England, gives a total of eighty-eight 
furnaces, of which twenty-seven made flint glass. He says that for making the 
best flint glass — or, as he also calls it, the best crystal glass — white sand is used 
instead of powdered flint, and well-purified potash. He adds that, "according 
to my information we are of late greatly improved in the art of glass making 
for I remember the time when the Duke of Buckingham first encouraged glass 
plates and Mr. Ravenscroft first made the flint glasses. Since then we have 
mended our window glass and outdo all abroad." He states further that large 
sums had been spent upon the improvement.^ This can only refer to the 

' Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXXIII. 

¥'0d cMfc}j(^<' 





advance which the manufacture of "glass of lead" had made during the last 
years of the seventeenth century. 

With final reference to the glasses of the last twenty years of the seventeenth 
century, they are modified and improved versions of those of the time of 
Charles II., and there is some reason for believing that many Dutch glasses 
were introduced into England on the accession of William III. At this time 
also we first meet with glasses with stems with incised spiral lines at wide 
intervals on them, the precursors of the twisted stems proper. Such a glass is 
in the collection formed by the late Marchioness Dowager of Huntly ; it is 
engraved with the diamond point, on one side with the royal arms crowned, 
within a garter, with supporters, and on the other with "God Bless King 
Willijam " (Plate 34). On the upper side of the foot arc two roses on stalks, 
heraldically known as roses of England. The character and history of the glass 
make it probable that it is English, but very likely engraved by a Dutchman.^ 
A glass with precisely the same stem, and with moulded 
and trailed decorations, is in the possession of Sir Charles 
Rich. In the bottom of the bowl a sixpence of William 
and Mary, dated 1691, is enclosed. A belated example of a 
large goblet of the style of those of Charles II.'s time, 
with a shilling of William III. enshrined in the stem, 
is preserved in the Museum of Practical Geology (Fig. 
174); another of the time of William III., with a sixpence 
of Charles II. in the stem, is in the collection of Mr. J. 
Moore. These sufficiently show the change that was taking 
place ; a good example of a transitional glass is in the 
cabinet of the author. As to the smaller glasses of William 
III.'s time with heavily moulded stems — that is to say, with 
many mouldings, not cast in a mould — (Fig. 175) it is probable that they lost 
some of their solid grotesque character soon after the end of the century. Their 
continuation will be treated of under Tavern and Household Glasses. 

The eighteenth century opened with Patents for improvements in the furnaces, 
and in the materials for making looking-glass plates for panels for rooms and 
chimney-pieces." For these purposes were the Patents of 1700, granted to 

Fig. 174. (One third.) 

' On an old paper document belonging to the the third's landing in England in the year 1689, 

glass is the following : — " The Rev. Mr. Stephen and carried it twice to Virginia and back again." 
Fornacer, father of Charles Fornacer, Esq., had this " Excellent examples of shaped and chamfered 

glass blown in commemoration of King William chimney-piece glasses, set at an angle from the 




Fig. 175. (One third.) 

E. Sayer, and to two Frenchmen, Dumanoir and Saint Marie. Endeavours 
followed to introduce into England the manufacture of ruby glass. This 
occasionally beautiful production is considered to have been brought to a finish 
by John Kunckel about 1679, in which year he became Director of the Elector 
of Brandenburg's glass-houses at Potsdam.^ In the early years 
of the century William and Joshua Price, glass-painters, of Hatton 
Gardens — "the notest men for that art" — claimed to have revived 
glass-painting, and to have recovered the art of ruby glass, "not 
made in Europe for many years," as is set forth in their 

In Houghton's List of 1696 nine glass-houses are mentioned 
as in and near Bristol, three of which were making flint glass. 
Though this is the earliest intimation we have of glass-houses in 
Bristol, it does not follow that there were none before this 
date. In 1734 Humphrey Perrott of Bristol obtained a Patent^ 
for fourteen years for " his new Invention " of various improvements in furnaces 
for all kinds of glass, including the important one of pots with double bottoms, 
evidently to resist their destruction by the lead in the new process for " flint glass." 
The ductibility and transparency of this metal is also alluded to by Houghton 
as making it very proper for barometers. It will be understood that the new 
process was not applied to bottles and other common glass of which the colour 
and quality were unimportant. 

In 1755 Mayer Oppenheim of London acquired a Patent for fourteen 
years for a new method of making red transparent glass which he had at 

wall, form part of the design of the oak-panelled " " Whereas the ancient Art of Painting and 
dining-room at Canons Ashby, Northamptonshire, Staining Glass has been much discouraged, by 
the picturesque ancestral seat of Sir Henry Dryden. reason of an Opinion generally received. That the 
This beautiful room was formed by Edward Dryden Red Colour (not made in Europe for many years) is 
between 1708 and 17 10. totally lost ; These are to give Notice, that the said 
^ Kunckel's glass was highly esteemed in Red and all other Colours are made to as great a 
Germany, and examples are not uncommon in cup degree of Curiosity and Fineness as in former 
and tumbler form, often richly mounted in silver ; Ages by William and Joshua Price, Glasiers and 
such as Mr. C. F. K. Mainwaring has at Oteley. Glass -Painters, near Hatton- Garden in Holborn, 
But it has been much overrated, and many ruby London ; where Gentlemen may have Church- 
glasses lack both brilliancy and depth of colour. — History, Coats of Arms, etc., Painted upon Glass, in 
See Introductory Notices, p. 78. Ruby ruins the what Colours they please, to as great Perfection as 
purple shades of red wine and is the worst colour ever ; and draws Sun-dyals on Glass, Wood, or 
for Sack or Rhenish, giving them a repulsive appear- Stone, etc." — Original Correspondence, 163 3- 1828, 
ance, and recalling the cup of wine placed in the ut sup., vol. iv. p. 3 1 8 (enclosure), in the possession 
hand of Sir Robert Grierson of Lagg, which is said of Albert Hartshorne. 

to have turned to clotted blood. — Old Mortality, ^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXXIV. 
Notes and Illustrations, vol. i. p. 407, edit. 1833. 


great cost perfected. The terms of this wordy document are precisely the 
same as those for Perrott, with the addition that Oppcnheim is required to 
"particularly describe and Ascertain the Nature of his said Invention and 
in what Manner the Same is to be performed by an Instrument in Writing" 
within four months after the date of the Letters Patent, or the same shall 
become void. By a clerical error the final clause of Pcrrott's Patent, which 
nullifies the stipulation made with Oppenheim, as to his recording the details 
of his procedure, has been repeated. But this did not prevent Oppenheim 
from duly particularising in his specification ^ the nature of his invention. 
It is an important document, because it states the component parts of flint 
glass or glass of lead — which formed the foundation for red glass — to be at that 
time — 

two parts of lead, 

one part of sand, and 

one part of saltpetre or bora.x ; 

no Other document has told us this. It will be remembered that the latter 
substance, also called " biborate of soda," was an item of the Ravenscroft- 
Costa mixture, which contained no lead.'- Oppenheim, then of Birmingham, 
made further improvements in 1769 and 1770 to his already very tedious and 
complicated process for red glass, also styled " garnet," which colour it probably 
much more resembled than that of the ruby.^ 

In 1759 William Riccardo and Richard Russell, both of Whitechapel, 
obtained a Patent for fourteen years for a new method of making pots, 
and building furnaces for crown glass, plate glass, and all sorts of green 
glass. The exception of flint glass looks as if the proposed alterations were 
not suitable for the manufacture of the better kind of metal. These inventors 
were also called upon to deposit a specification. Other Patents were granted 
during the long reign of George III. for improvements in some of the 
materials for common glass, and for better methods of grinding and polishing 

^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXXV. and the whole combined with broken flint glass. 

^ Parker, in his Chemical Essays, vol. ii. p. The materials are added a few shovelfuls at a time, 

185, 2nd edit, 1823, gives the constituents of flint and the operation takes from twenty to thirty 

glass as — hours. 

Sand from Lynn -j ' Deputy Keeper's Report, No. 6, Appendix 2. 
Maidstone I 3 cwt. See Introductory Notices, p. 102. 
Alum Bay J The ruby in the twisted stems of Dutch wine- 
Red Lead . . 2 cwt. glasses of the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
Pearl Ash . .1 cwt. though very effective, varies greatly in its quality, 
to which is added a very small quantity of nitre, and is sometimes no better than pale pink. No 
manganese, and white arsenic. The pearl ash is ruby or other coloured stemmed glass of the tune 
carefully refined, the constituents are well mixed, ever had a folded foot. 

248 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. ciiAr. xiii. 

plates and optical glasses ; but none of them had any direct bearing upon the 
drinking-vessels. This shows that flint glass had been well established as 
an English industry long before the middle of the century ; indeed, the 
glasses themselves are clear evidence of it. That the quality of flint glass 
gradually improved up to 1780, when the highest point of excellence was 
reached, is shown by the glasses of that date, and such improvements were 
naturally arrived at by degrees in numberless glass-houses, and from their 
nature were not convenient subjects for Patents. 

Bosc d'Antic, a French philosopher and glass-maker, and a considerable 
writer on the subject, states that in 1760 the English glass-makers sent 
four-fifths of their flint glass abroad ; he alludes to the large quantity of lead 
then used in English glass, and its further improvement twenty years later, 
and he says that, in spite of its dearness and occasional imperfections and 
lack of transparency, the whole of France was supplied from this country 
with flint glass in 1760. 



The number of types of wine-glasses originated in the early years of the 
eighteenth century was partly in consequence of the invention of the new process 
of glass-making for drinking-vessels, resulting in what we now know as " flint 
glass," and partly brought about by the advancing requirements of society, 
which demanded more regular appliances and the better ordering of dinner 
tables, necessitating sets of glasses of various sizes— a want already recog- 
nised and partly met in Charles II. 's time— for ale, strong beer, diff"erent 
kinds of wine, and potent waters. The vexatious custom of "toasting" and 
"sentiments," also had much to say to the plenitude of the table equipage 
as far as glasses were concerned. To be sure, silver forks, at that time 
very much scarcer than spoons, were not in such profusion as at the present 
day, for in the early part of the century they were hurriedly washed in the 
dining-room in the silver cistern and fountain, for immediate re -use, and 
later— perhaps also with the pewter plates— in the oval mahogany brass-banded 
vats often met with in old-fashioned houses, and frequently now mistaken 
for wine-coolers. In this receptacle later on the glasses were rinsed out, in 
spite of the dictum of the bloods that "wine is the best liquor to wash glasses 
in." Glass vessels half -filled with water were finally provided for this 
purpose for each person at the table. Into these the glass was plunged as 
often as change of wine necessitated the ablution. Their use has been 
continued up to the present day, for the "wine coolers" with two lips, in one 
of which the stem of the sherry glass rests, are still to be found on the 

2 K 

250 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. xiv. 

tables of a few people who cling to the departing fashions of their fathers, 
and do not mind the marring of the sherry by the drop of water. Finger 
glasses^ are the "heirs general" of all these washing vessels. The use 
of silver-gilt ewers and rose-water dishes — the successors of the mediaeval 
ewers and basins for dipping the fingers after dinner — is a survival from 
classic times which lingers in university cities and at civic feasts. 

We have touched upon the table equipment in England in the later Middle 
Ages, and in the time of Elizabeth,- and wc have gathered to a certain extent 
what the glasses of Mansel's time were like, both in his earlier and his later 
period, but without the aid of existing actual vessels ; we know from his own 
statement to the Lords of (?) 1639" how many kinds of glasses he made in 
crystal, as well as in ordinary metal, and their prices about the middle of his 
career. Concerning the glasses of the time of Charles II. the information grows 
much fuller, for we have documentary evidence, a series of drawings, and many 
of the glasses themselves ; at this time the third stage of refinement was reached. 
Finally, with the opening of the eighteenth century we enter upon the entirely 
fresh task of organising, without the help of records, an exceeding great army 
of items, long since disbanded and dispersed, naturally diminishing in number, 
liable, in fact, individually, at any moment to perish out of sight, and not until 
lately, save by a few persons of taste, held in any special regard as objects of 
historical interest. 

The relative places of the glasses in the social history of the eighteenth 
century have now been recovered only by means of the assembling of a limited 
collection, and the study and comparison of nearly a thousand full-sized drawings 
by the author of the actual objects,^ assisted here and there, as to some groups, 
by the accident of a dated example, by which accuracy of classification has become 
so far assured ; while with regard to others, the association, already alluded to, 
of many of them with political movements, temporary public feeling, or special 
social habits, has enabled their dates to be also ascertained, usually with tolerable 
exactness, often with certainty. A striking feature in connection with them all 
is the veil of oblivion which has fallen upon them within the short time since the 
greater number ceased to be common objects of domestic use in England. 

On the other hand, there is absolutely no information until the extreme end 

^ In Sir G. R. Sitwell's great collection of Bills to a large number of friends and correspondents 

they arc spoken of as finger cups in 1791. who have entrusted glasses to his hands for this 

" Pp. 137, 208. purpose, or furnished him with graphic or other 

' Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXIII. information. 
^ The author acknowledsjes his obligations 


of the century as to where these multitudes of glasses were made. The common 
ones were, of course, made, so to speak, anywhere, and slight variations in 
types were no doubt owing to different makers. As to those of the better sort, 
however, there are reasons for assigning certain forms to particular places — for 
instance, the fluted glasses to Bristol, some of the Jacobite air-stemmed glasses 
to Newcastle, and the horizontally corrugated ones to Lynn or Norwich. But 
the allocation of the origin of groups of special glasses — the localising of a 
manufacture — must always be a difficulty, yet the question of provenance is 
rather a minor matter for collectors compared with that of date, but tlie former 
point will be touched upon whenever circumstances seem to permit. 

The glasses of the early years of the eighteenth century differ as much 
from those of the latter part as the habits and manners of the bygone world 
of the older Georges contrast with the dull and sober refinements of our own 
time. In going through the century, in the last period now to be dealt with, 
we gradually and finally take leave of the old lively and joyous society- 
drinking, dancing, ogling, playing quadrille; and in reviewing the glasses of 
a hundred years which played so large a part in that happy, careless, social 
period, it will be convenient to bear in mind their rough division into four 
more or less equal portions, corresponding naturally with the four periods of 
the century, the treatment of the stems of the glasses— namely, the moulded, 
the air-twisted, the opaque-twisted, and the cut— loosely marking such arbitrary 


The more detailed classification into which the whole will be struck is com- 
prised under the following heads : — 

Group I. Glasses with Incised or Ribbed-twisted Stems — Waistcd. 

„ II. „ with Air-twisted Stems — Bell. 

„ III. „ with Drawn Stems. 

„ IV. „ with Baluster Stems. 

„ V. „ Tavern and Household. 

VI. „ with Opaque-twisted Stems — Bell. 

„ VII. „ Straight-sided. 

„ VIII. „ Ogee, Fluted Ogee, Double Ogee. 

IX. „ Cut, and Engraved. 

„ X. „ Champagne, Sweetmeat. 

XI. „ Ale, Mead, Syllabub. 

„ XII. „ Cider, Perry. 

„ XIII. „ Strong Waters, Cordial Waters, Masonic, Thistle, Coaching. 

„ XIV. „ Rummers, Grog, Nelson. 

„ XV. „ Tumblers, Tankards, Mugs. 

XVI. „ Flutes,Yards, Half-yards, Horns, Boots, Hats, Mortars, Salt-cellars,Girandolcs. 

252 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. xiv. 

It may be premised that while a number of different forms of glasses were 
made at the same time throughout the century, the duration of the various types 
was very unequal, so that some shapes gave way more rapidly than others, and 
were earlier supplanted ; certain simple forms ran, with slight modifications, 
through the whole century, and others, again, were but temporary off-shoots soon 
rejoining the leading line. But in no case— such is, indeed, the natural course 
of all art objects — did one style suddenly come to an end and perish, to be at once 
replaced by something quite different. There was continued forward movement 
throughout the century ;— like the language of " the Struldbrugs " the glasses were 
always " upon the flux," ^ and the transitions being spontaneous were also gradual, 
and styles overlapped in glasses just as they did in all other works of art, and had 
their natural and legitimate sequence almost until the dreadful day of " art revivals " 
and "art manufacturers" arrived, and art chaos with a legacy to posterity of 
objects which one cannot think of with any sort of moderation. 

It must be also stated at the outset that the various types of glasses which 
will now come under consideration, whether with moulded, air-twisted, opaque- 
twisted, or cut stems, and with engraved or plain bowls, were, for the most part, 
the better kind for the table, as distinguished from the simpler representatives for 
tavern or ordinary household use which will, however, also be touched upon. 

The whole of the glasses of the eighteenth century must obviously be divided 
into three sizes— the largest for beer, or other ample drinks, the medium sizes for 
wine and punch, and the smallest for ardent or cordial waters. With this some- 
what arbitrary division however, brought about by the nature of the objects, wonder 
must be sometimes excited at the great capacity of some of the larger glasses, the 
smallness of many of those for wine and punch, and the very limited room of a 
large number of the ardent and cordial water glasses. 

The wine-glasses of the eighteenth century were, indeed, much smaller than 
in the time of Charles II., and this must be explained by the practice having 
arisen of bottling and laying down wine," improvement in its manufacture, and 
its greater strength and subtility, as contrasted with the rough, rasping, immatured 
liquors of the old regime drawn direct from the wood as in mediaeval times. 
There is no doubt that many of the smaller wine-glasses served also for spirits 
distilled from both fruit and grain, as well as for "aqua mirabilis," "surfeit 
water" — for which there were many receipts, "gold cordial," or other mysterious 

The change that silently takes place in the Salamander " drunk in vessels of quite a different 

character of glasses is well evidenced to a Heidelberg kind to those of his earlier experience, 
student who, going back as a " Philister," after - Sec Introductory Notices, p. 40 (footnote), 

thirty years' absence, finds the " Thundering 


combinations — "very good for the wholesomes," in the uncouth language of the 
Derbyshire baronet, " Sir John Linger," at the table of "Lord Sparkish."' The 
drawn, air-stemmed Fiat glasses of Jacobite societies are notable examples of such 
use. And if the wine-glasses are rather large for the cordial waters, there was 
venial compensation, because they were very small for wine, and particularly for 
punch ; and, in fact, one is puzzled to think how so much of that once attractive 
mixture, now rather fallen under a cloud — save in University cities, where at least 
twenty seductive varieties flourish, hot, cold, and iced, and at civic feasts — could 
have been consumed with comfort at long sittings in such small doles.- And 
the mischief was that punch in the eighteenth century was generally drunk hot, 
and much too sweet, and men grew very stout in consequence. 

The capacious goblets for beer, of which examples remain of nearly all the 
leading types of the wine-glasses, began to give way about the middle of the 
century to the tall strong-ale glasses, which were then welcomed as fitter adjuncts 
of a more refined table, but the great silver tankard of "October" went round 
throughout the century. Of the tall ale glasses more will be said in their turn. 

Entering now upon the great punch period, a few words will be convenient 
upon the manner of action. It appears that punch did not come into fashion until 
the last quarter of the seventeenth century ; Pepys makes no mention of it ; no 
doubt it came with the " Deliverance," having been introduced into the United 
Provinces in consequence of the Dutch trade with the East Indies. The word is 
reported to be derived from the Sanscrit >?//r//r?— five, denoting the number of the 

1 Swift's Works, Miscellanies, Polite Conver- transmitted to their descendants, as in The Best Book 

sation, vol. ix. p. 224, edit. 1751. '" the Town for all Sorts of Receipts, MS. of Mrs. 

One kind of surfeit water was composed of Elizabeth Postlethwayt, born Rogerson 1678, died 

twenty-seven different kinds of herbs, and French 1730; of Barbara Kerrich, born Postlethwayt 

brandy. Another and more soothing sort was a 1707, died 1762; and of Elizabeth Postlethwayt, 

subtle compound of brandy, poppies, and cowslip born 1708, died 1794, i" the possession of Albert 

flowers, and a few herbs, the poppy element being Hartshorne. 

essential. Gold cordial also had brandy for its ' The nucleus of punch in the early part of 

basis and gold - leaf for its decoration. Aqua the century was usually rum. " We can accom- 

vitae like aqua composita and aqua mirabilis, was modate you with a tolerable lodging, give you a 

of late mediaeval origin ; they varied much in bottle of good Ale, which I remember our gentle 

their composition and were rather for medicinal fr" loves, and some rum punch. Sukey joyns 

than for table use. These, as well as the comfort- in hearty Service to Gentle Jane and your self and 

in- " imperial water," were at any rate more bear- we wish you a happy new Year and many — 

abk than goa, and more efficacious than be.oar. Edmund Castle, vicar of Elme, Cambridgeshire 

Aqua vitae contained gold or silver leaf, like the afterwards master of Bene't College to Samuel 

modern eau de vie de Dantzic, and each "aqua" Kerrich, D.D., Dersingham Hall, Norfolk, January 

consisted of a strange mixture of flowers, spices, 16, ,yy^.-Original Correspondence, i6iy 1^2^ ut 

and herbs, with a foundation of Gascony-that is sup., vol. xii. p. 38, in the possession of Albert 

Bordeaux, sack, or ale. All were carefully distilled Hartshorne. 
by curious housewives, and " the conceited secrets " 



ingredients. This is an origin which philologists may be justified in thinking 
rather doubtful. To meet an obvious want the Monteith, the great silver punch 
bowl with a removable rim or "coronet" with an escalloped edge, was devised. It 
is said to have been named after a gentleman of fashion who wore a scalloped 
coat. The bowl was brought empty into the room, with the glasses, according to 
the number of the indentations, placed for safety's sake head downwards within it, 
the stems, as their length permitted, resting in the escallops, and the feet ranging 
around the bowl outside, like shields on the sides of a mediaeval war-ship. The 
glasses being taken out, the " coronet " was removed, and in private houses the 
mixture was concocted on the spot, a critical knowledge of punch-making being 
then a part of the liberal education of a gentleman. On the edge of the coronet, 
or of the bowl, the silver lemon-strainer was hung by the flat loop, the use of 
which must have greatly puzzled many modern owners of such pieces of plate to 
whom punch-drinking is now only a tradition. The punch ladle was frequently 
in later times hammered out of a five-shilling piece, the inscribed edge, dfxus 
ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNi .... being left ou the rim, and the bottom of the ladle, 
where the silver would be inconveniently thinned by the hammering, having a gold 
or gilded coin, generally of an earlier date, fitted into it. The long handles were 
sometimes of hard wood, but generally of whalebone, spirally twisted for the pur- 
pose of stirring the punch by rubbing the handle between the palms. For cold 
punch, ladles of horn, of willow wood, and beech were used. The former with 
their silver rims would sink, but the latter floated, and were accordingly provided 
with a check or stop half-way up the handle to prevent them from slipping into 
the bowl.^ They have become rare ; Captain Darwin has an excellent example, 
and Mr. J. Seymour Lucas, A.R.A., has another with a wide-splayed flat handle, 
like that of a silver spoon of about 1790. The generality of the punch glasses 
held exactly one ladleful. As to other punch bowls, they were of Oriental 
china — there arc many at Houghton, together with the plain drawn glasses, 
all known to have been used by Sir Robert Walpole at his "Congresses" — of 
Chelsea-Derby, and particularly Worcester porcelain, as well as of the delft and 
earthenware of Liverpool and of Leeds. Many of those for tavern use were of 
pewter, and ordinary salt-glazed ware sometimes inscribed as "punch pots."'^ 
Globular punch kettles in red pottery, imitating the Chinese, like the Bottger- 

^ In the possession of Mr. F. Cooper is a holds a plain, straight-sided glass, and at his elbow 

half-length portrait of a gentleman, in his own hair, is a cocked hat filled to overflowing with gold 

of about 1760, seated at a table with a white coins. 

Lowestoft china punch bowl before him, in which - Up to about twent>-five years ago it was a 

the wooden ladle floats. The sullen, solitary toper common thing to find a pewter punch bowl inside 

CHAl'. XIV. 



porzellan of Germany, with their braziers, are occasionally met with, and others 
for the same purpose should be easily recognised. The pretty little silver-mounted 
copper tea-urns, with green-handled vertical taps on their "urn tables," of the 
end of the century would have served for the same purpose. 

the fonts of country cliurches. This has sometimes 
been thought to be the " decent bason " of the 

The punch bowl of the Liverpool Convivial Club, 
styled the Corporation of Sefton, of the end of the 
century held five gallons. 

In Cumber/and and Westmorland J\I.P.s, by Mr. 
R. S. Ferguson, p. 123, edit. 1871, a curious bill 
of expenses at an uncontested election at Carlisle 
in 1754 is given. The quantity of wine and 
punch that was provided, together with pies and 

tobacco, for the " canvass " is rather startling, not 
to mention the cost of " making Freemen." 

In 1 763 it was officially stated to the Duke 
of Northumberland that fifty -four hogsheads of 
different sorts of wine were usually provided by the 
Lord Lieutenant for a parliamentary winter in 
Dublin. This quantity included two hogsheads of 
arrack, brandy, and rum, no doubt for punch. — E. 
B. de Fonblanque, Annals of the House of Percy, 
ut sup., vol. ii. p. 533. 



Group I. Glasses with Incised or Ribbed-twisted Stems — Waisted. 

Allusion has been made to the first appearance in England of glasses with 
widely-spaced incised spiral lines or ribs in the sterns.^ In these lay the origin 
here of the modern twisted stems proper. Such outside twists had their rise in 
an ancient and much practised Venetian detail, and the English glasses which 
first present this feature in a finished and complete state belong to the early years 
of the eighteenth century. These stems were naturally first developed by the 
glass-makers in the Low Countries after two centuries of observation of the 
practice of Venice and of Altare. And in the same way that a Low Country 
baluster stem had its origin in a tall Venetian glass, stripped of its wings and 
accessories, so an English ribbed-stemmed glass is a somewhat rigid and heavy 
version of a more moderate vessel of the same origin. 

The manner of the manufacture appears to have been as follows : — 
A series of ribs were impressed by a mould, or otherwise, on a short stem. 
This was attached to the partially formed bowl of a glass, and heated ; a rapid 

' See p. 245. The term Tivisted Steins will exact, few nomenclatures of the kind can be, but 

be used in the present work, not so much because they have become enshrined in archaeological 

it offers an accurate technical description of the learning ; they are well understood, and sufficiently 

standards of glasses thus decorated, as that it has serve their purpose ; indeed, to alter now what 

been so long in use and is so well understood by time and scholars have given stability to only has 

connoisseurs that no good end would be served by the result of causing confusion at home, and 

now disturbing it. A foolish practice has arisen of bewilderment on the Continent. An air-twisted 

late years of altering or tampering with long stem in France is quadrille, an opaque-twisted one 

accepted nomenclatures in antiquarian literature, torsinc. 
They may not be absolutely comprehensive and 



rotatory motion was given to it, the stem was prolonged, and the ribs resulted in 
a close exterior screw, tight at the bowl end and loosely dying away at the other 
to which the foot was attached, and where the action of the heat for that final 
operation would be greatest. Constant features of these somewhat rare glasses, 
whose career must have been very short, are the marked " waisted " form of the 
bowls, their folded feet, and the diminished bulk of the stems half-way down, the 
natural result of the sudden twisting from the fixed point on the bowl. Two 

early examples in the old bubbly metal, ^^ y ^^ r=W 

bought in Windsor in 1886, are in the V / \ ^i 

cabinet of the author (Fig. 176). | J K-J\ 

The waisted bowl was much used in con- ^^ 

junction with the air-twisted stems of drawn M 

glasses, and when such separate stems, and M 

those with opaque twists came in, a new M^ 

character was given to the bowl in a series of <^^iz:^^> „^^~^^^ ^ 

1 1 • 1 1 .„„<- „.;iU "TVioc-,, Fig. 176. (One third.) Fig. 177. (One third.) 

glasses which are rarely met with. ihese / t / 

have considerable interest from the beauty of their stems and engraving; 
two examples are shown from the collections of the late Mr. Soden Smith 
(Fig. 177), and of the author (Plate 35). An interesting dated glass belong- 
ing to this group is in the British Museum. It is inscribed S' I Pole 
FOR EVER 1754, and seems to refer to Sir John Pole of Shute House, Devon- 
shire, who succeeded as fifth baronet in 1741, and died in 1766. China plates 
with the same inscription have been noticed. They must all pertain to a contested 

Group II. Glasses with Air-twisted Stems— Bell. 
It seems probable that the Low Country air-twisted stems originate from the 
beads in the bulbs of balusters,^ and that they soon became popular in England 
in consequence of the unsatisfactory results and limited scope of the ribbed stems 
which intervened. Certainly the superior English metal was better suited to this 
manipulation, and the air stems here soon went far beyond those made on the 
Continent, and had a long and honourable career. In the Low Countries they 
were but little made, and perhaps only really well in Liege and in the latter part 
of the century. The oldest of the English air-stemmed glasses which have been 
preserved are the scarce representatives of the forerunners of a beautiful series. 
It is possible that they were first made here in the time of James II. The 

1 See Introductory Notices, p. 57, for a descrip- regularity is evinced in their make as the century 
tion of their manufacture. It is obvious that more advanced and practice improved. 

2 L 

258 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. xv. 

earliest examples have the waisted form of bowl, such as is peculiar to the ribbed- 
twisted stemmed glasses ; and on these first appears engraved the natural Rose of 
England. This decoration was subsequently transformed, perhaps about 1720 — 
but the precise date is very difficult to determine — into the conventional quasi- 
heraldic White Rose of Stuart — almost without exception with six petals, as dis- 
tinguished from the proper heraldic five-leaved flower, which had been derived from 
the heraldic Tudor rose, itself a combination of those of York and Lancaster. This 
badge was seized upon lateralikeby the adherents, and thewaverers,ofagreat historic 
cause, and — with the addition of certain mottoes and signs, and without them — 
engraved upon glasses of the several fashions of the time, and after it, when thirty 
thousand pounds was the assessed price of the person of a proscribed Prince. 
They long played a large, and secret, and dangerous part in the hidden social life 
of the country. The Jacobite glasses will be touched upon separately later on.^ 

We have stated that the waisted glasses with ribbed and twisted standards 
were rapidly supplanted by those with air-twisted stems and bell-shaped bowls. 
These were followed by another series of bell glasses, again a beautiful and 
popular group, which had a long course both hei-e and in the Low Countries, 
and is distinguished by the variety and delicacy of its stems with opaque white, 
and later with coloured twists. They will be dealt with presently. 

The early forms of air-stemmed bell glasses have necks and collars, and 
single or double bulbed or knopped and shouldered stems. In their first period 
the twists were imperfect, owing to lack of practice in the peculiar manipulation 
required, and they never had the precision of the drawn air stems. The later 
examples of these bell glasses, with a few exceptions, have necks only, an almost 
necessary condition for the convenient attachment of the air-twisted stem to 
the bowl. A prominent example of the earlier kind is a glass in the Slade 
Collection in the British Museum, engraved with a Rose of England— that is, 
heraldically— the natural flower upon its stalk, a pink, and a conventionalised 
gillyflower. In a bulb below the bowl, decorated with flat strawberries, is 
a threepenny piece of Charles II. dated 1679. Round the rim of the bowl 
is an engraved and gilded ornamental border, not unusual with glasses later 
than this period (Plate 36). The coin is misleading,'- like those in the bottoms 
of punch ladles, but the glass can hardly be later than the time of William 

^ No other country in the world contanis such come to the inevitable end. Scattered examples 

a peculiar and interesting series of historical relics have little value compared with the united interest 

of a hapless cause, and it is very desirable that a of an entire collection, 
complete collection of the Jacobite Glasses should - See p. 237. 

be formed for the British Museum before they 






Fir,. 1 78. (One third.) 

Fig. 179. (One ihirtl.) 

and Mary ; it is said to have come from Whitehall, and no doubt it is English. 
A smaller glass of much the same shape in the cabinet of the author contains 
in a cavity a sixpence of Charles II. dated 1687 (Plate 37) ; another typical 
glass of the time is in the same collection, ornamentally engraved round the 
rim in a more advanced style than that 
of the Slade example (Fig. 178), as well 
as another still larger, with the same 
character of engraving, on a funnel-shaped 
bowl, with a plain knopped stem, apparently 
from the Low Countries (Fig. 1 79). 

Though coins are not reliable evidence 
as to the dates of glasses, they are valuable 
with regard to period, for it is almost incon- 
ceivable that a coin of Charles II. would 
have been put into a glass out of respect 
for him after the time of William and Mary, nor was the memory of this 
monarch so highly esteemed as to make it likely that such long posthumous 
honours would have been offered to him in the time of "the '15" or of "the 
45." Charles II. left no legitimate descent, and in this relation, indeed, one would 
have rather expected a coin of James II. in a Jacobite glass of the early years 
of the eighteenth century ; but no such example has come under the author's notice. 

Some time before the middle of the century, perhaps about 1720— but 
a date is reluctantly suggested — the conventional heraldic rose with two 
natural buds first occurs upon the air-stemmed bell glasses, and nearly always 
with a butterfly on the opposite side. Apart from the Jacobite glasses, which 
give a high character to any collection, these are, doubtless, the choicest and most 
picturesque of the English glasses of the eighteenth century. A noticeable 
point about them and certain others of the better sorts of glasses of the early 
part of the century, and throughout their respective courses, is the rare occurrence 
of the folded foot, a feature almost constant with other coeval but commoner 
types of glasses. There is a remarkable similarity in the designs of the 
engraved roses, indicating that the glasses upon which they appear were only 
of limited manufacture, and produced by few glass-houses. As far as the 
author knows, the air-stemmed bell glasses were not engraved with vine leaves 
and grapes.i This was a decoration which was introduced later, perhaps from 

^ Many of the early Rose glasses have had and re-polished to get rid of chipped margins, 
the edges of their feet ground off in certain parts This shows in what estimation they were held. 




Holland. It is certain that the heraldic Stuart rose and its two natural buds 
were never engraved upon glasses for use in the Low Countries ; but it is 
apparent that some of the opaque, twisted-stemmed glasses from the Continent 
had the rose and buds added here. The character of the stems should generally 
settle this point. 

The air-twisted bulbous stems separately attached to the bowl did not 
find favour with the makers after the middle of the century. Their manufacture 
was tedious, and the first attempts to manipulate the bowl and stem in one 

piece, and to retain the neck, keeping the 
old form, were attended with only moderate 
success. The continuity of the twists was 
broken in the operation, as shown (Fig. 
1 80). But bulbous or knopped air-twisted 
stems were occasionally made successfully, 
and apparently continuously with the bowl, 
as a rose-engraved example in Mr. B. F. 
Hartshorne's possession indicates (Fig. 181). 
The others made separately, as the distinct 
neck implies, were better managed, and are illustrated with the Jacobite glasses. 
The fashioning of a twisted stem with opaque white canes of different sizes, 
instead of with air lines derived from beads, was a much simpler and surer 
process, and with such bulbed and straight stems the building up of a 
wine-glass in the usual way — bowl, stem, and foot — was more easily carried 
out. In this new style, therefore, as to stem, the bell-shaped bowls continued 
their course, as will be shown in Group VI. 

Group III. Glasses with Drawn Stems. 

Fig. iSo. (One third.) 

Fir.. I Si. (One third. 

In the meantime "drawn" glasses, which must have had their origin in 
the flutes} such as Cornelius de Heem shows in his pictures of still life, 
were introduced — that is to say, glasses of which the stem is drawn out from 
the bowl, and the foot attached to it, the whole consisting of two portions 
only. Thus was offered a great opportunity for the development of the air 
stems in a new direction. Nothing could be simpler or more successful than 
their manufacture, by drawing out and revolving a series of bubbles introduced 
into the base of a partially formed bowl, provided that the best metal was used ; 

^ Sec Introductory Notices, p. 54. 


"*'****' — ^»~r*^s^^^ 





and, as a matter of fact, few glasses have been produced in England with more 
elegance and precision than the drawn air-stemmed glasses of the second and 
third quarters of the eighteenth century. There is no series of vessels to 
compare with these on the Continent, either for form, historical interest, or 
brilliancy of material. For they are essentially English, and whether engraved, 
like the earlier ones, with arabesques — as in two shattered sapphire-blue 
examples in the cabinet of the author (Plate 38), recalling the much-discussed 
" blodius " of mediaeval vestments ; with a rose and two buds and the expanded 

Fig. 182. (One third.) 

Fig. 183. (One third.) 

Fig. 184. (One third. 

butterfly; with the same flower and an emblem; with the crowned cypher or 
a motto of the Chevalier of St. George ; or with cognate ensigns of the c/iltiis 
of Prince Charles Edward and the " word " of the Cycle— they are all objects 
greatly to be desired by the collector. 

During the long course of the drawn air-stemmed glasses— for they continued 
to be made until about 1780— a beautiful variety of twisted stem was introduced. 
This was apparently formed by pricking a number of holes close together on 
one side of the lower end of the lump of glass in process of manipulation by the 
glass-blower (Fig. 182). This being coated with metal and the air-bubbles in- 
carcerated, the stem was drawn forward and revolved, with the result of a brilliant 
and most effective multiform spiral (Plate 39). Separate stems of bell and 
straight- sided glasses were also occasionally made in this way. In some rare 
late cases an opaque white spiral is also introduced ; by what process the author 
has not ascertained. An example is shown from his collection (Fig. 183). With 
moderate success in tavern glasses, three larger tears or beads were introduced, 
and the three bubbles of air entrapped in such positions that the two upon 
revolution formed spirals round the central line (Fig. 184). In some rare early 
examples of the drawn air-stemmed glasses, the lower end of the finished stem 




was planted upon a beaded bulb, and this set in its turn on the domed foot, the 
glass being thus again formed of three separate parts. Such a glass, engraved 
with the crowned cypher of the Old Pretender and verses of the Jacobite Song, 
which was eventually transformed into the Georgian National Anthem, is in 
the collection of Mr. Murray Threipland, at Fingask Castle, and a plain one is 
in the cabinet of the author (Fig. 185); these are the only two glasses of the 
kind that he has met with. 

Other scarce and early drawn air-stemmed glasses have waisted bowls 
(Plate 40), and in these and the latest versions of them, and in their varieties with 
the stems set upon plain or beaded bulbs (Fig. 186), the usual long funnel-shaped 
form was diversified by the stem being narrowed immediately below the bottom 

Flc. 1S5. (One tliird. 

Fig. 186. (One third.) 

Fig. 1S7. (One third.) 

of the bowl, and continued in diminished thickness (Fig. 187). In other groups 
of later glasses to be spoken of, lengths of air-twisted stems were used in the 
place of opaque twists or plain stems ; these were also sometimes widened, like 
the opaque twists, into a half-way bulb, properly called a knop, a reversion 
to earlier types, and thought by some connoisseurs to be in the interest of gouty 
fingers, the threads being twisted tighter above and below the knop. But none 
of these introduced lengths in air twists approach the accurate manipulation of 
those in the drawn air stems proper. In some scarce examples of belated waisted 
glasses with drawn air stems, about 1760, a cable moulding, or banding, as on an 
Early English shaft, is applied, which would perform the office of the half-way 
bulb or knop just alluded to (Fig. 188). 

Group IV. Glasses with Baluster Stems. 

The heavily moulded wine-glasses of the last years of the seventeenth and the 
early years of the eighteenth century, already spoken of,^ appear to have soon 

^ Sec p. 236. 

r^r'^'j'^ ,^>;^if>y^^Mff p !6ti i fg' 





taken a smaller form for cordial waters. We shall meet with them again under 
glasses of that class. No doubt the weight and thickness of the larger versions 
were not favourable for wine. 

In their place arose a group of elegant glasses with baluster stems, the earlier 
standards being solid (Fig. 189), and those more advanced lightened with beads 

Fig. iSS. (One third.) 

Fu;. 189. (One third.) 

Fig. igo. (One third.) 

in the bulbs (Fig. 190), and engraved round the rims at first with arabesques 
(Fig. 191), and afterwards with vines (Fig. 192); the latter decoration first 
appears on glasses of this group, and of which the bowls are all of the funnel- 
shape. They were apparently inspired by the contemporary baluster glasses of 
the Low Countries. As the century advances, they become plainer in the 

Fig. 191. (One third.) 

Fig. 192. (One third.) 

Fig. 193. (One third. 

stems and with lofty domed bases. It is occasionally difficult to distinguish 
some of them from those of Liege or other Low Country town make, and which 
have been introduced into England as graceful "curiosities" in modern times. 
They are both thinner and lighter than English glasses. An example of the 
earlier kind, in the cabinet of the author, is exactly the same as those shown 
in use by the Duke of Newcastle, who died in 171 1 from a fall out stag-hunting. 




and by the Earl of Lincoln, who died in 1728, in the only group of two among the 
forty-seven portraits by Kneller, who died in 1723, of members of the Kit Cat 
Club, now happily preserved at Bayfordbury Park, Hertfordshire, by a descendant 
of Tonson. Thus the date of the glass in question — No. i — is assured to be 
before 171 1 ;^ a variety with a beaded stem — No. 2 — is also shown (Plate 41). 
Many later examples are in the author's collection, and a choice little glass with a 
plain stem, which belonged to George II., perhaps not English, is in the British 
Museum (Fig. 193). This excellent group of glasses did not linger long. It was 
swamped out, partly by more than one series of quite a different kind — such as 
the bell, the early straight-sided, and the ogee glasses, and partly by a copious 
array of vessels of a lower class now to be treated of. 

' The founder of the Kit Cat Chib — the name 
being derived from that of the cook, Christopher 
Cat — was Jacob Tonson, in 1688. It came to an 
end about 1720. It had its meetings at the 
" Fountain " in the Strand, and one of its country 
resorts was the " Upper Flask " on Hampstead 
Heath. Its main principles were the Whig interests 
under the countenance of such patriots as William, 
Duke of Devonshire, and Sir Robert Walpole, and 
the welfare of literature with the auspicious presence 
of Addison, Steele, and " the great " Mr. Congreve. 
Social fashions and follies were well looked after, we 
may be sure, by such lively members as the Duke of 
Kingston — father of Lady Mary Wortley-Montagu, 
herself a Kit Cat "toast" in person at the age 0/ 
seven years — and Lord Mohun, who twice stood his 
trial by his peers for murder, and was finally slain in 
a peculiarly bloody duel by the Duke of Hamilton, 
15th November 17 13. Thus the club was soon 
constituted as an authority for the election for a 
year of reigning " toasts " of the town. The 
names of these fair luminaries are recorded to have 
been engraved on the club toasting-glasses, together 
with glowing verses in their honour. Those written 
by Halifax for the club glasses in 1703, for the 
exalted beauties of the day, are well known. It 
does not appear that any of these interesting relics 
have survived, but printed lists exist at Bayfordbury 
of the names of some of the " toasts," together with 
Kit Cat letters. Steele's derivation of the word 
" toast," written rather for our admiration than our 
information, in No. 24 of The Tatler, 4th June 
1709, will be fresh in the minds of readers of those 
delightful papers. He speaks of the names of the 
ladies written with a diamond on drinking-glasses, 
and gives the monitory reasons why it was done. 

The flask held by the Duke of Newcastle in the 
picture is covered with wickcrwork, and is probably 
for the " marvellous searching wine Canary." In 
Howell's Discourse to Lord Clifford, on Wines 
and other Drinks, 7th October 1634 — Familiar 
Letters, vol. ij. p. "jG, edit. 1650 — he says that " when 
Sacks and Canaries were brought in first among us 
they were used to be drunk in aqua vitae measures, 
and 'twas held fit only for those to drink who were 
used to carry their legs in their hands, their eyes 
upon their noses, and an almanack in their bones ; 
but now they go down every one's throat, both 
young and old, like milk." In their decayed condi- 
tion at Liege, in the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, many of the Italians had sunk to the 
condition of coverers of bottles ; this fashion was 
derived from the Romans, and by them from the 
Egyptians who used papyrus stalks for the purpose. 
The Duke of Newcastle holds his glass by the 

foot, according to the old world practice. 


Martin Schon's print of the Adoration, Melchior 
and Balthazar both present their cups holding them 
by the feet, the Ethiopian king raising the cover of 
his offering. In the BibliscJie Figuren of Virgil 
Solis, within borders, printed at Frankfort in 1565 — 
" Apokalypsis, XVII." — "the woman arrayed in 
purple and scarlet colour " holds the golden cup 
of abominations aloft by the foot — 

Die rote Hur den Drachen reit. 

Den Kelch dess Giffts und griiwels treit. 

Albert Durer's " Great Fortune " does likewise, 
and so do several of the figures in Franz Hals's 
" Banquet of the Officers of the Arquebusiers of 
St. Adrian," at Haarlem. Many other illustrations 
misjht be adduced. 




Group V. Glasses, Tavern and Household. 

Concurrent with the waisted, ribbed-stemmed, and the air-twisted glasses 
of both kinds, and running from end to end of the century, were those of a 
commoner sort for tavern or household use, made in any or all of the flint- 
glass houses tabulated by Houghton in 1696, and from that time onwards 
wherever drinking-glasses were made in England. They had correspondents 
on the Continent somewhat allied to them in shape, but generally in inferior 
metal. The distinction is naturally easier to point out in the presence of the 
actual glasses than to describe in print. The rudeness, or simplicity of form 
of the English examples was at first influenced by their then only foils as to 
general domestic requirements of a better kind— the elaborate heavily-moulded 
glasses of the end of the seventeenth and early years of the eighteenth century, 
in so far as they exhibited specific mouldings, and the bowls of the older 
examples correspond to a certain extent with those of glasses of a better kind 
to which attention has already been directed. Others, though plainer and heavy 
in make, were tall and picturesque. When the Drawn Glasses came in, those 
of tavern and ordinary household use soon fell into that form, and they continued 
in it through all the changes and chances of the century, aff'ected but slightly 
by the different varieties of glasses of a better kind, which in their turn arose 
and faded away during the lapse of a hundred years (Figs. 194-198)- 

In noticing more critically the Tavern and Household Glasses, those of 
the first quarter of the century are very capricious in shape ; it was an important 
period of change, and close classification is impossible. Some tavern glasses, 
indeed, among so many thick ones, are far from substantial, and as a matter 

2 M 



ciiAr. XVI. 

almost of course have the waisted form so easily given to thin glasses, and with 
only a single moulding above the foot (Fig. 199). It is to be observed that no 
English glasses exhibit more well-proportioned, though somewhat solid shapes, 

Fic. 194. (One third.) 

Fig. 195. (One third.) 

Fig. 196. (One third.) 

in regard to their purpose of general usefulness, and greater depth and brightness 
of metal than those in one of the classes immediately following, and which date 
from about 1730 (Fig. 200). So good a form was not quite lost, for, though it 
soon quitted the wine and the punch glasses, it survived for a season in a modified 
shape with those for strong waters. This outline, of which there is an excellent 
example in the British Museum— the fellow of one that has passed from a 

Fig. 197. (One third.) 

Fig. 19S. (One third.) 

Fig. 199. (One third.) 

Fig. 200. (One third.) 

dealer into private hands— belongs rather to the straight-sided than to the ogee 
series. It is engraved in good style with the coat of Pyle (Az), 3 piles (Or), on 
a canton (Gu) a leopard's head (of the second). A cordial water glass of the 
same character is in the author's collection. 

For convenience of classification, the rest of the tavern glasses under con- 
sideration of the first half of the century may be divided into two kinds — those 
with "blows" or "tears" in the stem, and those without. As to the former, the 




long bubble is, as every connoisseur in glass knows, a deliberate operation, 
and not an accident of make, and the value of the glass is so {^.x— taut soit pen 
—enhanced by this attribute. As long as the large and extended blows in the 
stems were the fashion, the glass took something of its shape accordingly, both 
the bottom of the bowl and the stem varying in outline conformably with this 

Fig. 201. (One third.) 

Fig. 202. (One third. 

Fig. 203. (One third.) 

condition (Fig. 201). But the introduction of the plain drawn form soon banished 
the blow to the middle of the stem in a greatly modified form, and this shrinking 
finally to a "tear,"^ in the modern euphemism — a tear which is always upside 
down— soon after the middle of the century vanished altogether (Fig. 202). The 

Fig. 204. (One third.) 

Fig. 205. (One third.) 

Fig. 206. (One third.) 

Fig. 207. (One third.) 

" drawn " tavern and household glasses continued with plain solid stems to the 
end of the eighteenth century (Fig. 203), and a little beyond that date, overrunning 
the short port, white, and strong ale glasses. These latter had their bowls rudely 
engraved with festoons, as in some of the china of the time (Fig. 204), with 
conventional flowers and the hovering bird, often touched with oil gilding, and 
with flat, folded, and unfolded feet (Figs. 205-207). With these declining repre- 

' In appearance they are Addison records having seen such a natural relic 

Like the famed drop in crystal found, at Milan, and at Vendome, where the enclosed drop 

Floating while all was frozen around, was believed to be a tear shed by Our Saviour 

which so fascinated the poet Claudian that he over Lazarus, gathered up by an angel, enclosed 

wrote nine epigrams of singular beauty upon it. in crystal, and given to Mary Magdalene. 




sentatives of a copious series the old shape became merged into the well-known 
short, funnel-shaped glasses of another suite, with meagre octagonal stems fluted 
half-way up the bowl, a form still in ordinary use at the present day. They are 
very wretched and, like Edward II I. 's gourd of glass, oi nieiitc prise ; no collector 
of the future will ever look at them save in the light of miserable and unked 

The illustrations of the tavern and household glasses, taken, for convenience 
of easy reference, from the author's collection, show sufficiently the sequence 
of the group. In an attempt to deal here seriatiiu with the whole the text 
might easily exceed the discourse, on account of the minute variations A\'hich 
characterise so extended a series of subordinate glass vessels. However, the 
relative positions of deviations in the lengthy line may be readily assigned by 
the intelligent collector with the assistance of the leading types 
now given or referred to. The folded foot is the common attribute 
of those of the early part of the century. One glass, of which 
the date cannot be later than 1740, has been specially singled out 
for illustration because the base of the bowl exhibits two sickle- 
shaped streaks of pure lead, arising from the excessive quantity 
of oxide of that metal reasserting itself in its natural state, just 
as it did more than a century before, to the bewilderment and 
dismay of the old glass-makers and the perforation of the pots 
(Plate 42). This glass shows how determined the English makers 
were to increase the dose of lead in their famous " flint " glass. A tavern glass 
inscribed " Fuller and Brown the 394," in type of the F'mt of the Jacobite Cycle, 
has almost the value of a dated example (Fig. 208). 

Although the bulk of the tavern glasses have no artistic merit beyond a 
certain sort of old-world quaintness, those of the early part of the century at 
least deserve more attention and respect than they have as yet received from 
collectors, and the whole series fills so large a space in the long history that a 
few more words may be said in their behalf. The earlier ones were the types 
of the drinking-cups of the wits, the beaux, and the men who comprised the 
most brilliant literary society of modern times, when tippling in taverns was 
the fashion, and coffee-houses and clubs took their rise ; and one can hardly refer 
to the glasses without thinking of " Glorious John " at " Wills's " ; Addison in his 
dignity, with his lofty genius, at " Button's " ; Steele flashing in, and often staying 

' The modern glasses in use in the Hall of and capacious — of the old drawn tavern glasses 
the Inner .Temple are survivals — heavy, stumpy, before their extinction. 

Fig. 208. 
(One third.) 



too late, at the " Rose" ; or Pope, sickly and moderate, at "White's." Then were 
in London crowds of men of fashion, country gentlemen, and military officers 
flushed with victories in Germany and Flanders, each bent upon the same duty 
of "toasting" somebody.^ Thither also came troops of vicious "bloods," 
" sweaters," wicked " mohocks " in Kevenhuller hats, and smart " gentlemen of the 
road," all with their perpetual pipes, their flat-spurred "broseleys," and punch, 
at such resorts as the "Young Devil" tavern in Fleet Street — to which the 
CoUegimn Antiqiiarioriiiu, now the \\'orthy Society of Antiquaries, gave a tone in 
1707 and 1708; at the "Old Devil," Temple Bar — to-day impersonated sub Jove 
by the City Griffin ; at the "Bell," " Lockits," the " Garter," or the "Rainbow," 
or, as chance might fall, in any other handy tavern or mug-house. How the 
generality of these men behaved themselves at the tavern tables is well shown 
in the prints of Roberts's Calliope. All the frequenters of such places went armed, 
and many were prompt to draw upon the smallest provocation, or to force a 
quarrel." As Squire Mockmode says in Farquhar's Recniitiug Officer, " Going 
to the devil was then very modish," and much passed for wit that was certainly 
not good manners. All seem then to have borne Cowley's lines in mind and 
acted up to them — ., ^, . . ^ , , ^ 

i Nothing in natures sober found, 

But an eternal health goes round. 
Fill up the bowl then, fill it high. 
Fill all the glasses there ; for why 
Should every creature drink but I ; 
Why, man of morals, tell me why ? 

Thus the duplicates of the ordinary glasses of a great and historic society, in 
its brilliant, strange, or wild phases, should have something more than the mild 
and transient interest of the later vessels of less individuality, or more ornate. 
The glasses of the taverns, when humanity was not yet swamped by fierce 
journalistic publicity, where life was so much lived, and where " sweet Lepell," 
Mary Bellenden, and scores of others — "Youth's youngest daughters" — were 
honoured as Toasts, should therefore rise in the estimation of collectors. 

' " You will see by Matt's that he glories in Samuel Bradford, Dean of Westminster, Bishop of 
his love of the fair Quaker. Truth is she is very Carlisle (1718-23), to Samuel Kerrich,— London, 
pretty, and might warm any breast but mine, dead 14th October 1717, Original Correspondence, 
to all female charms" — he was then in his twenty- 1633-182S, ut sup. vol. xi. p. 118, in the posses- 
first year — " we meet every night about 6 of us sion of Albert Hartshorne. 

at a Coffee house over against her (w^'' is from ^ " The Schemes of good breeding and com- 

thence called Mr. Kenrick's office) and sometimes plaisance are now such that make ye fine Gentleman 

adjourn from thence to the Bell Tavern, to toast and ye good Christian incompatible." — Matthew 

her in a glass of excellent neat Port. I heartily Kenrick to the same, London, 2nd July 17 16, 

wish thou coudst be w* us." — William, son of Original Correspondence, ut sup., v'ol. xi. p. 4. 

270 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. xvi. 

Coeval illustrations of wine and punch glasses are met with in prints and 
in illustrated volumes, but, of course, rarely in English pictures, except in those 
by Hogarth. It must suffice now to mention, touching the early part of the 
century, the graphic presentments that head the songs in Calliope, vols. i. and ii., 
1739 (Plate 43), in which every page is from an engraved copper- plate by Henry 
Roberts, at the time when there were many good French engravers in England ; ^ 
the glasses shown in the first of the four pictures of The Election, "The 
Entertainment," and in some of the Rakes Progress series by Hogarth, all 
in the Soane Museum ; - and, as to the end of the century, many of the tail- 
pieces by the incomparable Bewick. 

Group VI. Glasses with Opaque-twisted Stems — Bell. 

Continuing the group of bell glasses,'^ we now return to them under a new 
aspect, namely, with bulbed and straight stems, with white and coloured twists, in 
the place of the necked and bulbed, and drawn air stems of earlier years. The 
method of the manufacture of a simple opaque white twisted stem was as 
follows : ^ — 

A cylindrical pottery mould of about 3 inches high and 2^ inches wide was 
fitted around its interior circumference with a series of opaque white glass canes, 
alternating with rods of the same size in plain glass to keep them in accurate 
distance apart, all being further retained in place by a little soft clay at the bottom 
of the mould. This receptacle and its contents were then heated up to the point 
when melted glass might be safely introduced into the void space in the middle. 
The hot canes adhering to the molten metal, the whole was withdrawn from the 
mould, re-heated in the furnace, and the canes drawn together at one end by the 
pincers ; the cylinder was now revolved and prolonged to the proper distance, and 

' The headpieces of The Happy Toper, vol. i. p. (Fig. 85, J///.); on an ogee English glass, about 1770, 

31 ; The Jolly Bacchanalians, vol. i. p. 37; My Jolly in the possession of Mr. J. Hodgkin, is represented 

Companions (2), vol. i. pp. 68, 69 ; and The Toper's three rude men smoking long pipes and drinking 

Sentence on a Sneaker, vol. i. p. 169, show in what a with heavy drawn glasses at a square table ; round 

determined and systematic way, with glasses, pipes, the rim is the needless injunction : KEEP IT UP 

and punch bowls, the society of the time set them- (Plate 46). 

selves to the business. A rather poor Silesian ^ Some tavern glasses of the time are shown in 

glass of this date, which formed part of the collec- Hogarth's illustrations to his Five Days' Peregrina- 

tion of the late Mr. Soden Smith, has engraved tion, 1732. The glasses in Clint's pictures at the 

upon it a scene of two well-dressed men, in long Garrick Club, of scenes in plays, are well painted but 

periwigs, sitting drinking with drawn glasses at not historically accurate. 

a round table with this inscription above them: ^ See pp. 258, 260. 

HET WELL WEEREN VAN DE CODE VRIENDEN ^ See Introductory Notices, pp. 32, 60. 
























































a twisted stem of the required thickness, of opaque white filagree, was the result. 
It is obvious that by varying the positions of the canes, opaque, coloured, or plain, 
and manipulating as described, twisted rods of endless variety could be produced. 

By applying a cane to the side of a nucleus for the central mass, covering it 
with clear' glass, and introducing the whole into a circular arrangement of canes, 
a wavy line within spiral twists was produced, alternately approaching and 
retiring to and from the centre of the stem in accordance with the original 
eccentricity in the mould of the cane in question. 

The tape-like spiral bands which occur in the stems of many of the bell 
glasses, engraved with vine leaves and grapes, roses, and other flowers, were 
formed by placing one or two flat canes against the side of the mould, adding one 
or more eccentric canes for the central twists, and working as before. The late 
Mr. Hartshorne collected some beautiful engraved examples of glasses with these 

The succession of open globular figures, formed of lines, like armillary 
spheres, and occupying the whole width of a stem, was produced by enclosing a 
certain number of canes in a '^2X paraisoii or glass case, setting it upright across 
the mould, and proceeding as before. This pattern was used in the stems of bell- 
shaped glasses both foreign and English, and was continued here in other glasses 
far into the present century ; it is capable, like the others, of endless variety, both 
by adding white or coloured canes round the mould, and by modifying their 

With these general descriptions in his mind, the collector can readily see for 
himself by what process any twisted stem was formed. Further, by making him- 
self thoroughly acquainted with the patterns in the stems of glasses well known to 
be English — such as the straight-sided and the fluted, which had few correspondents 
on the Continent— he will soon recognise the distinguishing characteristics of those 
of the Low Countries. There were certain designs of twisted stems which came 
to be peculiar to England ; others were essentially continental ; and others, again, 
very few, are found with glasses of both countries. This is as might be expected, 
and there is no reason for thinking that lengths of opaque-twisted stems 
were imported from Venice, or from Holland, or France, for service in English 
glasses ; there was no mystery or difficulty in their manufacture, and they were 
largely made in the north of France during the eighteenth century. 

It is clear that a great number of the opaque-twisted stemmed glasses that 
are now met with in England are not English. The non-existence of a Law of 
Primogeniture in Holland has brought about the breaking up of old houses, and. 




as every one knows, the arrival in England for many years past of seventeenth 
and eio-hteenth-century Dutch furniture — a continuance, but in a different spirit, of 
the commercial traffic between England and the Low Countries which dates from 
the Middle Ages. Naturally the glasses have come also, and among them a 
quantity of a very inferior kind, fit only for the odd table decorations known 
as "specimen glasses."^ It appears also that many opaque-twisted and coloured- 
stemmed bell glasses were imported during the latter part of the eighteenth 
century. Their stems generally bewray them, for they were frequently of marked 
complexion such as were never made in England (Fig. 209). Some of them 

Fig. 209. (One third.) 

Fig. 210. (One third.) 

Fig. 21 1. (One third. 

Fig. 212. (One third.) 

were imported plain, and engraved here with the heraldic Stuart rose and natural 
buds, and with vine leaves and grapes and the hovering bird (Fig. 210); others 
came ready decorated with vines, and with natural roses, the sunflower, the fox- 
glove, and the rose of Sharon {Hypericitin Calyciiiiiiii), popularly known as the 
Hanoverian rose and the large-flowered St. John's-wort (Fig. 21 1), also found upon 
English glasses, and far into the present century. Precisely thus was it also as 
to drawn glasses with opaque twisted and coloured stems — a fashion probably 

' When the late Mr. Hartshorne and Mr. 
Albert Way — who were, perhaps, the earliest of 
modern antiquaries to recognise the merits of Old 
English wine-glasses, and used no others at their 
tables — made their collections together more than 
half a century ago, " rose glasses " could be picked 
up for a shilling, or even si.xpence apiece. Those 
halcyon times are long since gone, and there is no 
very hopeful prospect now for genuine collectors, 
who find that a rational pursuit of knowledge is in 
danger of being sapped or destroyed by a fashion- 
able craze for possession. 

It is probable that, in addition to old glasses 
havinc been discarded from time to time throutrhout 

the eighteenth century on account of change of 
fashion, or as remnants of sets of dozens, or of half- 
dozens, many were part of the old stock of glass- 
sellers never " set " for sale, and turned out at last 
as unmarketable and of no value, while others 
lingered forgotten in the recesses of old houses, to 
be at last routed out by a new-fangled housekeeper. 
These circumstances would account for " rose 
glasses " and others of equal interest being finally 
discovered unscathed in the corner cupboards of 
cottages, and for the perfect condition of num- 
bers of twisted stemmed wine, punch, and cordial 
water glasses of all kinds from the same humble 



never made here,^ but imported plain and engraved (Fig. 212). The commoner 
sort of continental bell glasses are easily detected, but those of the better kind, 
chiefly from Amsterdam, Brussels, and Liege glass-houses, run our own very close, 
both as to brilliancy of metal and purity of stem ; and there are many that must 
come under the eye of the collector whose nationality can with difficulty be appro- 
priated without an intimate acquaintance with both English and continental 

Again, as to the possibility of lengths of opaque white twisted and coloured 
rods having been imported from the Low Countries to Bristol, and elsewhere in 
England, for use in the stems of glasses, the English glass-makers had pushed this 
branch of the art to so much higher a point of excellence than that to which the 
Flemish and Dutch makers had reached, that such a trade seems very unlikely. 
Moreover, no typical English glasses have been noticed with the essentially Dutch 
ruby and white stems, which would certainly have come over with the others if 
such importation was carried on. We must, therefore, conclude that the glass- 
makers on either side of the Channel and the North Sea worked in this respect quite 
independently of each other. It must be remembered that the art of fashioning 
twisted stems was not a difficult one after a little practice, and that our own 
superior metal was greatly in our favour. Obviously, the twisted stem work of 
the two countries being manipulated under precisely similar methods, the results 
must sometimes closely approach each other in character. 

It may be stated here that the English opaque-twisted stems have far more 
variety than those of the Low Countries. Many of the English standards are 
embellished with the multiple or compound air spiral, on rare occasions with the 
addition of an opaque white cord twisted with it (see Fig. 183); with the open 
tubular corkscrew spiral of white, alone, as in a scarce and early example in the 
cabinet of the author — of very uncommon manufacture (Plate 44), apparently 

^ The opaque-twisted stemmed bell glasses of the prim borders of Cipriani's bacchanalian designs 

the latter half of the century, engraved with roses engraved by Bartolozzi. By lapse of time the 

and other flowers, are almost invariably accompanied butterfly itself — whose set form surrendered more 

by an expanded butterfly, as with the air-stemmed readily than that of the bird to the skill of the 

bell glasses of earlier date. The butterfly also engraver — degenerated, in defiance of natural laws, 

attends the sunflower, and the Hanoverian rose, into a moth, in which form it reappears on the 

A hovering bird is almost constant on the glasses beautiful cut glasses with faceted stems and delicate 

engraved with vines and grapes, the bird is also polished engraving of the time of Sir Joshua ; then 

seen with the foxglove ; it long survived the it vanished. 

butterfly, it was never well designed, and is found The engraving on many of the English glasses 

in a curiously conventional shape on the odd little of the eighteenth century was oil-gilded, with very 

sherry glasses of the last years of the century, good effect, but not durable. 
The hovering bird, festoons, and vines, occur in 

2 N 



CHAl'. XVI. 

manipulated from the drawn shape— or \\\\h thicker ^vhite cords added ; and with 
corrugated tape-like spirals, sometimes single with coloured edges, sometimes double, 
just like the writhing horn snakes of the toy shops, giving an appearance of great 
intricacy (Fig. 213). The glasses engraved with roses and with blue and white 
spiral stems are of great rarity and beauty as every collector must know. Nothing 
quite of these kinds were made on the Continent. On the other hand, the 
foreign stems, both bulbous, straight, and of the drawn form, exhibit manipulations 
with opaque white or many coloured twists with which we have nothing 
exactly to correspond, or of equal artistic value. Among these must be noted 

Fig. 214. (One third.) 

Fig. 215. (One thivd.) 

Fig. 216. (One third.) 

Fig. 213. (One third.) 

the beautiful stems with emerald-green centres, and ruby-edged w^hite corrugated 
spirals, in bulbous and drawn stems. These are about 1780^ (Fig. 214). 

The most usual attribute of the stems of the Low Country glasses is the 
slightly undulating hollow central tube of close white lines. It is a constant 
feature with the ruby and with the opaque white stemmed glasses, and in the 
bulbous standards widens and contracts according to the changes in the bulk 
of the stem. In the straight and bulbous standards of Low Country bell 
glasses of the end of the century the twists are frequently poor and imperfect, 
and of a dull white, the bell being often too long in the part which bell- 
founders call the "waist," and bad in proportion in consequence (Fig. 215); 
these should not be mistaken for English. Per contm, the Low Country 
glasses of drawn form— really made in three parts, as must be the case with 

' Coloured stems were but little made in 
England save quite at the end of the eighteenth 
century. There was a revival later on of ill-propor- 
tioned glasses, with tightly-screwed twists of crude 
colours, with which we have, fortunately, nothing to 
do. Occasionally blue and white twists, sometimes 
with a feeble red line added, arc found in small ogee 

and straight-sided glasses. One of the latter was 
produced, quite naturally, five years ago for the 
author's use in a small inn at Checkley, in Stafford- 
shire, famous for its two astonishing early cross 
shafts, sculptured with great art with basket-work 
men, and its painted glass. This was an unexpected 
survival of service. 


opaque-twisted stems — have much merit both of glass and stem work, the 
central tube of typical examples diminishing from the top to the bottom, and 
having two thick white cords revolving spirally around it with excellent effect 
(Fig. 216). Many of these glasses came from Liege; the metal has a good 
ring, and only the straight tubes in the stems, apart from what might be shown 
by chemical analysis, announce their origin. The central hollow twisted tubes 
in the ruby and white straight and bulbous stemmed glasses already alluded 
to are usually of poor quality, as are also the ruby twists in the glasses of the 
shape which our forefathers — appreciative of the Methuen Treaty of 1703 — 
consecrated to what that industrious antiquary and honest Jacobite, Thomas 
Hearne, called "good solid edifying port." 

Twisted stemmed glasses continued to be made in England, ever decreasing 
in number, until about 1830— the latest having pressed, or broken-fluted bowls, 
and the mark of the pontil on the bottom smoothed away ; the long languishing 
trade demand for them then ceased. They have been reproduced in small 
numbers up to the present day to make up sets for persons of taste, but these 
are generally easily identified. 

During the last few years a number of bell glasses, with cast or moulded 
feet much less in diameter than their bowls, and the stems straight, or with a 

single knop, have been sent to England from the Low Countries, ^^-^ ^ 

or possibly from Germany, having regard to the eagles rudely \ ■ W 
engraved by the wheel, together with coarse foliage, on some of \ | 

them. The stems are of opaque-white twists of many threads, l|v_J 

sometimes with thin pale ruby lines added, all very imperfectly ^g 

worked, and always twisted in the reverse direction to that of the ^i 

old glasses, which invariably follow the line of the corkscrew of ^ 

commerce; the bowls have no ring whatever (Fig. 217). When ^P 

these miserable productions first came to London about 1890, they "^^" ~^^^^ 

^ Fic. 217. 

did not attract the collecting public— " cautela non nocet" ; but (onetimd.) 

later on a large quantity appeared in East Anglia, and had a rather better 

As soon as a series of things has taken the fancy of the rapidly-increasing 
number of the public which collects because it is a kind of fashion, we may 
expect to find the demand supplemented by forgeries— if objects in glass which 
can hardly deceive anybody may be so called — because genuine examples of 
old glasses can only exist to a limited extent. As with old English silver- 
plate, or Chelsea china— not to touch upon the glaring question of forgeries 

276 OLD EXGLISH GLASSES. chap. xvi. 

in those directions — the taste for collecting old English wine-glasses has also 
received a great impetus during the last few years ; and complaints arise 
naturally now on all sides — within the author's knowledge from Penzance to 
Glasgow — of the difficulty of procuring examples, and of the rapid upward 
movement of the prices, at present, in fact, almost prohibitory, even for very poor 
examples. Fortunately the generality of the old English glasses are not quite 
easy to imitate, and lack of knowledge as to their history, of familiarity with 
their characteristics, and of information as to which glasses are English, has 
been against the insidious industry. Moreover, the artist has been slain by the 
artisan in the craft of glass, as in many others. These conditions will help 
to keep the market pure, but the prices must continue to rise.^ 

There is some reason for believing that twisted-stemmed glasses in imitation 
of the old are being made in a private glass-house in the Potteries. They ought 
to be readily recognised. 

Shortly before consigning this work to the press, two portrait Jacobite glasses 
came under the author's notice, the price of each being £^ ! They were quite 
modern copies of the Shrewsbury Court- House and the South Kensington 
Museum portrait glasses; information has been received of other similar glasses 
which have also been lately sold to unwary collectors. As we have said, lack 
of familiarity with their characteristics, as well as with the treatment of certain 
details, which we shall not define here, will assist in protecting the collector. 

With final regard to the English bell glasses, some beautiful examples 
were made in the last quarter of the last century, with somewhat hard 
coloured stems. They never have folded feet, and the limit of their range is 
indicated by the rough centre under the foot where the glass was knocked 
off the pontil when finished. The latest examples, with which we pass out 
of the century, have this roughness ground away, the stems thin and tightly 
twisted — the scvezo being communicated to the surface of the outside, as in 
modern examples, or with attenuated white lines, and the feet very flat and 
less in diameter than the rims of the bowls— a fatal error in modern design 
into which the old men never fell. 

' In 1S91 the author was told by a dealer in that " Mr. Hartshornc is writing a book upon them." 
the West of England, to whom he was unknown, as Such was the untoward result of a notice in TJie 
a reason for the high price of some old wine-glasses, Atliciiacuin copied by country papers. 



Group VII. Glasses, Straight-sided. 

Among the numerous English glasses which come under the scrutmy 
of the collector, those of which many of the bowls are, strictly speaking, 
reversed truncated cones, but which, for the sake of a comprehensive nomen- 
clature, will be spoken of as straight-sided glasses, fill a large space. The 
manipulation of many of them was allied, as will be seen, to that of the 
drawn glasses, inasmuch as in their simplest form they could be made in 
two parts. 

Hitherto we have been a little hampered by the fact of the bell glasses 
and others having been made on the Continent as well as in England, and 
by the interpenetration of fornis closely allied to each other. We shall now 
treat of a series which is essentially English and has few analogues abroad, 
and its consideration may well follow the bell glasses, because those with 
straight sides endured for almost exactly the same period, and, like them, 
had their two phases of bulbed and simple stems. The bulbed stems, those 
shouldered, or w^ith a shoulder and a knop, are the earliest, and are coeval 
with the air-stemmed glasses, with the same shaped stems which have been 
spoken of under another head. To this class belong also some of the better 
sort of household and tavern glasses of the golden age of English literature, 
such as Addison and Bentley and Steele would have used, and which must 
have been common in all the good old country houses throughout the 
kingdom — the larger kind being for wine and punch, and the smaller for 
ardent waters. All of these are of brilliant dark metal, and with their 

2j,g OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. xvii. 

invariable accompaniment, the folded foot, often a third more in diameter than 
the rim. The absence of the fold in the feet of the air -stemmed glasses 
alluded to above has been already mentioned as noteworthy. 

The bowls of the straight-sided glasses were not often engraved until after 
the middle of the century, when the quasi-heraldic roses were giving place 
to less conventional ones, and to other flowers sometimes only crudely shown. 
On these glasses first appear the conventional flowers with large seeded 
centres, decorations ^vhich had a long run and were still in use quite at the 
end of the century on common port and white glasses. It is a necessary 
condition of the straight-sided glasses with twisted stems that they should 
be fashioned in three parts— bowl, stem, and foot— the standards appearing 
in the different fashions which have already been alluded to, namely, the 
air-stems, simple and compound, and the numerous varieties of the opaque- 
twisted stems made in England. With plain stems these glasses were, of 
course, made easily, and perhaps sometimes after the drawn manner when they 
approach the form of the ogee glass, which will be treated of in its place. 

On the best of the straight- sided glasses the engraved flowers are boldly 
and deeply cut, and sometimes oil -gilded, and their character foreshadows 
the beautiful polished engraving of another group which came later. It is 
in connection with the straight-sided English glasses that natural flowers 
occur more than in any other kind, and they have a certain additional value 
accordingly.! jj-^jg j^ ^pj^-t from the natural buds of the conventional roses. 
To this series also belongs a small and curious group with horizontally 
corrugated bowls, of which all the examples that have been noticed come 
out of Norfolk, possibly deriving from a glass-house at Lynn or Norwich - 
(Fig. 218). A few rare examples of straight-sided glasses have fluted bowls, 
and will be included under another group. A plain sealed-glass is here illus- 
trated^ (Fig. 219). 

Allusion has just been made to the earlier examples of the straight- 
sided glasses for tavern and ordinary household use, with their knopped and 
shouldered stems and folded feet ; six unusual examples, engraved with 
arabesques, are in the collection of Mrs. Shipman (Fig. 220). Those of a 

^ In the "Keep it up" glass already alluded to convivial pictures in Calliope, 1739, the tobacco is 

(footnote, p. 270), a glass tobacco tray is shown on always on a piece of paper opened out flat on the 

the table. Such a dish in the cabinet of the author table, 
is engraved with a rose, a tulip, and a sunflower, " See p. 251. 

treated in exactly the same manner as the flowers ^ See p. 241 (footnote). 

on the straight-sided glasses. In the numerous 






better and later kind which have been mentioned, with straight opaque-twisted 
stems, have great merit, the natural flowers — the rose (Fig. 221), the lily of 

Fig. 218. (One third.) 

Fig. 219. (One third.) 

Fig. 220. (One third. ) 

the valley, the tulip (Fig. 222), the honeysuckle — being well expressed. The 
butterfly and bird arc not constant features of these glasses. Such a rose glass 

Fig. 221. (One third/ 

Fig. 222. (One third. 

Fig. 223. (One third.) 

Fig. 224. (One third.) 

in the possession of Mr. A. Wallis has an undoubted history and the value of 
a dated example^ (Plate 45). Mrs. Wilmcr has an excellent rose glass with 

^ It is one of a dozen which belonged to the 
Rev. H. Cantrell, Vicar of St. Alkmund, Derby, 
who had a number of Prince Charles Edward's 
Highlanders billeted upon him in Derby, 4th 
December 1745. The four glasses now remaining 
have come down in the family by direct descent. 

A straight-sided glass in the collection of Mr. A. 
Wallis is engraved with a rakish-looking ship in full 
sail, and inscribed, " Succefs to the EAGLE FRIGATE 
John Knill Commander." From a search kindly 
instituted by Mr. H. Hall among the Navy Papers 
in the Public Record Office, it appears not only 
that no vessel named T/ie Eagle in the Royal 
Navy was commanded by John Knill between 
1660 and 18 18, but no such officer's name occurs 
in any of the Lists and Books. There were several 
Eagles in commission during this period, and their 

books agree with the officers' Lists, etc. It follows, 
therefore, that the glass has the unusual interest of 
commemorating a privateer, and the words of the 
inscription are consonant with this view. The 
" Success " glasses are the parallels of the Low 
Country " Welwaarcn " glasses. Here, as there, 
we have " Success to Agriculture," to the fruit- 
trade, hunting, etc. ; and political and personal 
felicitations, as well as denunciations of unpopular 
measures and men, just as on china and earthen- 
ware. On 31st December 1798, "A large Goblett 
fluted bole & lettered ' Success to Renishaw hair 
hounds ' " was procured by Sitwell Sitwell, who kept 
harriers, from a glass-house at VVhittington, near 
Chesterfield. This was one of the countless furnaces 
which arose during the eighteenth century. — Reni- 
shaw Bills in the possession of Sir G. R. Sitwell, Bart. 



ciiAr. XVII. 

a very pale \iolet-tinted twisted stem. This characteristic of colour has been 
observed upon other stems of glasses, and is due, perhaps, to a metallic oxide 
imparted by the pottery mould during the fashioning of the twisted stem. In 
the cabinet of the author are examples engraved with vine leaves, grapes, and 
bird, and inserted air-twisted stems (Fig. 223), and others with the natural 
rose and butterfly (Fig. 224). The air stems seldom occur \\ith these glasses ; 
Lord Torphichen has a curious example, u'ith the stem formed of outer spirals 
of three and one alternately round tliree wavy perpendicular cords, all air 
lines; the bowl is emjraved with a man hanging from a gibbet,^ with 

Fio. 225. (One third ) Fio. 226. (One third.) Fig. 227. (One third.) Fir,. 228. (One third.) Fic;. 229. (One third.) 

the initials "A B," and the words, "the coward's reward" (Fig. 225). The 
initials indicate that this glass is in vulgar allusion to the unfortunate Admiral 
Byng, who was sacrificed to political clamour, and shot for cowardice in 1757. 
Posterity has amply vindicated both his courage and his honour. 

In the collection of the Rev. S. Mayhew is a glass well decorated with 
festoons of flowers in white enamel (Fig. 226) — no doubt, like many others 
of this group, from a glass-house at Bristol, unless it comes from the flint 
and enamel glass-furnace advertised in Felix Farley s Journal of i6th October 
1764, as having been opened at Chepstow. Mrs. Wilmer has an extremely 
pretty example of the shape taken to be for mumm, festooned with arabesques ; 
and Mr. H. Willett has some glasses decorated with the seasons in white 
enamel. A set of six in the drawn form, with opaque-white twisted stems of 
many threads, in the possession of the author, have the rims similarly decorated 
with vine leaves and grapes. Their date is about 1790; they were obtained 
in Amsterdam, where in all probability they were made. 

While the straight-sided glasses were being made in England, others some- 
thing akin to them, but w^ith full-bottomed rounded bowls and twisted stems, whose 

For gibbets, sec Hanging in Chains, ut sup. 


Style clearly distinguish them, were produced in the Low Countries. Many of 
these with ruby stems were beautifully engraved with flowers (Fig. 227), and 
later with festoons (Fig. 228). A typical example in the cabinet of the author, 
with an opaque white twisted stem and the usual tubular central twist, is engraved 
round the bowl with the diamond point— " het welvaren van Moordreyt," and 
on the foot — "anno 1790" (Fig. 229).^ 

As with other English glasses, those of the group which has been under 
consideration became at the end of the century, and after it, thin and light, 
and have tightly twisted, or rather screwed, and sometimes garishly-coloured 
stems — the twisting being communicated as spiral lines to the metal outside the 
stem, a sure sign of over-wringing — and thin narrow feet, with bowls cut into 
wide flat flutes — objects, in short, which the well-balanced collector can only think 
of with a shudder. It is with the straight-sided glasses of about 1770 that stems 
with blue in the twists sometimes occur, and many of this time have air-twisted 
stems, but seldom of quite satisfactory make. This art was then in its decadence ; 
indeed, inserted air stems never had the brilliancy and regularity of those of drawn 

Group VIII. Glasses, Ogee, Fluted Ogee, Double Ogee. 

Somewhat allied in form to the straight-sided glasses, and like them of purely 
English origin, are the ogee glasses. With the exception of the long-descended 
tavern and ordinary household glasses, to which, as a matter of fact, each special 
group contributed in turn its quota as regards form, no series is more distinctly 
English, or more copiously represented at the present day, than those of which 
the bowl at its junction with the stem takes the Ogee line. 

From the fact of by far the greater number of these glasses having opaque- 
twisted stems, it would appear that the oldest are not much earlier than the middle 
of the century. That a large proportion of them were made in Bristol is borne 
out by several facts. It is recorded by Houghton that in 1696'- there were nine 
glass-houses in and about Bristol, three of them making flint glass. This shows 

^ A dated glass of this kind is very rare. It account of the rain, the prince was disturbed by 

probably commemorates the appointment of a the noise of his attendants without. Leaning out 

burgemeester. Moerdreyt, or Moerdyck, is a village of the window of the coach to give orders for silence, 

on the confines of North Brabant, where passage the door flew open, and His Highness fell straight 

was formerly taken across the Maas into the into the water and was drowned, together with 

province of Holland. It is known to history by Colonel Ginckel, who sat at his side in the carriage, 

a curious accident — the drowning of Prince John and gallantly sprang to his master's rescue. — See 

William of Orange, Stadthouder of Friesland, in Les Dclices des Pays Bas, \o\. \. ^. 108, edit. 1786. 

171 1. While making the crossing on the pontoon, "See Appendix, Original Documents, No. 

seated in his coach, to which he had retired on XXXIII. 

2 O 


the early establishment of flint-glass making in Bristol, but does not affect directly 
the vessels in question. It is stated by Evans' that in 1761 the number of 
large glass-houses was fifteen. These announcements imply at least a century 
of practice in glass-making at the latter date ; indeed, Dud Dudley speaks of 
an Italian glass-maker named Dagney, from Bristol, having been employed under 
the Protectorate in the attempt to work out a new scheme for smelting iron with 
coal. In the Commonplace Book of Alderman Pembrock, Mayor of Cork in 1733, 
it is entered that Nat Barry bought for him in Bristol in 1725 some dozens of 
glasses of different kinds.-' These were evidently so obtained because they could 
not be got in Ireland. Mr. Owen gives the names of five firms of glass-makers 
in Bristol between 1762 and 1787 ;" it must have been from some of these sources 
that many of the ogee glasses under consideration emanated. 

Connoisseurs, in better times than the present for collecting, have obtained 
the greater part of their glasses of the ogee form from cottages and old shops in 
the West of England; and in a varied collection of about a hundred and twenty glasses, 
so brought together by Mr. Singer from the district of Bristol, the ratio of ogee 
glasses is close upon one-third of the whole, and of straight-sided and air-stemmed 
glasses about one-tenth respectively. These conditions, which are not alone due to 
the popularity of a particular shape — because people are apt to buy blindly what the 
glass-makers choose to provide — tend to localise a large proportion of the glasses 
now under our notice to Bristol, in spite of the paradox that there is nothing more 
misleading than facts, except figures ; and to point to other principal sources of 
origin — Newcastle-on-Tyne, Stourbridge, London — for the air- stemmed and 
straight-sided glasses. But we are far from saying that so simple and popular 
a shape could not have been, and, indeed, was not made in any glass-house in its 
common tavern and household forms, with which the folded foot is found ; the 
varieties of type being due, as has already been suggested,^ to the manipulations 
of difterent makers. Yet the better sorts were evidently principally made in 
Bristol and with unfolded feet. There was a glass-house at Whittington, near 
Chesterfield, during the latter part of the eighteenth century where good table 
glass was produced.^ 

' J. Evans, Picture of Bristol, p. 93, edit. 18 18. ^ Hugh Owen, 7icv Centuries of Ceramic Art 

Sept. 3, 1725 — in Bristol, pp. 379-387. In 1872 there was 

2 doz. glass saucers for holding sweetmeats at 4s. 4d. "o glass-house in Bristol of any importance, the 

per doz. trade having gone northwards to the great coal- 

4 doz. glass fruit baskets at 6s. 8d. per doz. fields. 

6 doz. jelly glasses at is. gd. per doz. 4 ^^^^ ., . j 

2 doz. whipt-sillibub glasses (no price given). r -. . ,• , ^ ■ m x.- 1 

^ ' ° ' bee Appendix, Inventories, No. XL 

(iVotes (Did Queries, 5th S., p. 381, 1875.) 



CHAP. xvir. 



The earliest of the ogee glasses, namely, those just previous to the middle of 
the century, have inserted air stems, with a knop, as in the early straight-sided 
glasses, and the bowls sometimes engraved with arabesques (Fig. 230). The 
form of the glasses of this group did not lend itself readily to the shouldered 
stem, but a few glasses with compound standards take this form. 

Occasionally lipped and knopped ogee glasses are met with (Fig. 231). They 
were also made in the Low Countries, and all are of the last quarter of the century. 
Perhaps this form was derived from the Continent, but the Low Country versions 
are not accurate correspondents of the English examples. The ogee shape 
reappears with the greatest success among the cut glasses. 

It is with the ogee series that large versions of the wine and punch glasses 
first appear, inscribed for use in the abounding draughts in honour of popular 

Fig. 231. (One third.) 

Fig. 232. (One third.) 

Fig. 230. (One third.) 

naval heroes such as Vernon, Anson, Boscawen, Hawke, Rodney, who was 
honoured by decanters being named after him— a sure sign of popularity^— 
Howe, with his ship Queen Charlotte, and the immortal Nelson. The 
inscribing of goblets in commemoration of victories, naval and military captains, 
political celebrities, local events, parliamentary contests, etc., was a fashion also 
adopted by the china makers. A glass in the collection formed by the late General 
Fraser, V.C, with an opaque-twisted stem, is engraved with a seated figure of 
Britannia, two ships at sea, and the date 1759; round the rim is inscribed success 
TO THE BRITISH FLEET (Fig. 232). This refers to Hawke's defeat of the French 
in Quiberon Bay, 20th November, in the above year. The keep it up glass in 
the possession of Mr. J. Hodgkin is of the same form illustrating a different 
sentiment (Plate 4G). " Hero glasses " were made as a matter of course long into 

' Sec Appendix, Inventories, No. XI. 




the present century, for bravery is the most popular of virtues, and never goes out 
of fashion. 

While the general character of the engraving on the ogee glasses does not 
differ from that of the straight-sided glasses — save in so far as many of this large 
series must have come from other centres of manufacture than Bristol, and therefore 
exhibit some variety — it is apparent that fewer ogee glasses were so decorated ; 
perhaps the curved surface did not offer so ready a field. The conventional rose is 
very seldom seen except lingering on the plain-stemmed late Jacobite glasses, with 
the "word" of the Cycle, and emblems, and on some few others, together with a 
belated butterfly of earlier days. A glass in the possession of Mr. E. Jewitt has the 

Fir,. 233. (One tliiiil.) 

Fig. 234. (One third.) 

Fig. 235. (One third.) 

Fii;. 236. (One third.) 

natural rose and thistle upon one stem ; they have been oil-gilded, and possibly 
indicate a long posthumous gratitude for the legislative Union of 1706 between 
England and Scotland, attempted a century earlier and again in 1670. The 
character of the engraving is unusual, and is perhaps Edinburgh work ^ (Fig. 
233)- We find in the ogee series the same sort of natural flowers as on the 
straight-sided glasses, the butterfly rarely, but the hovering bird generally upon 
those with plain and twisted stems engraved with vine leaves and grapes, as in an 
example in the author's and Mr. Singer's collections respectively (Figs. 234, 235). 
Towards the end of the century these glasses are decorated with leafy sprigs and 
festoons, as in the china, the furniture, and the incessant oval panels of plaster- 
work of the time, and with hard conventional flowers with cross-barred centres 
rudely engraved, and marking the vanishing of the heraldic rose. Examples 
from Mrs. Wilmer's and the author's collections illustrate the latter phase (Figs. 
236-238). Among the stems of the ogee glasses the blue lines sometimes occur. 

The ogee series having no true correspondents on the Continent, the nearest 
to them are the short, plain, or engraved ruby and opaque white twisted-stemmed 

A drawn glass in the possession of Mr. J. C. unusual feature for this shape of a fluted stem. 
Ford is similarly engraved, and has the very See Fig. 360. 




Dutch glasses of the " port " shape made in four sizes, plain and engraved, the 
largest being excellent both for use and eftect (Fig. 239). 

Apart from the marked individuality and the long duration of the shape, 

Fig. 238. (One third. 

Fig. 239. (One third. 

Fig. 237. (One third.) 

and the absorption of the normal form into the cut glasses, and its survival into 
the present century, the ogee series has importance from the groups which are 
immediately associated with it. 

Glasses, Fluted Ogee (VIII.) 

The fluted ogee glasses with air, opaque-twisted, and plain stems have much 
brilliancy of effect. They were not engraved on 
account of the uneven moulded surface of the 
bowls, but the edges of the better kind were 
gilded with vines, etc. Examples from the 
cabinet of the author sufficiently illustrate this 
group (Figs. 240, 241). Like some other shapes, 
the fluted glasses were popular for cordial 
waters, and we shall meet with them again. 

rr^ ^ j_ . r .\_ ■ i i u 1 Fig. 240. (One third.) Fig. 241. (One tliird.) 

The latest of these wme-glasses have broken 

flutes and little artistic merit, and soon after 1800 the flutes took refuge in 

the short ale and grog glasses of inns, being then oftener cut than pressed. 

Glasses, Double Ogee (VIII.) 

This is a series of great interest and peculiar form which, for want of a better 
descriptive name, it is proposed, with some hesitation, to classify as Double Ogee 
glasses. Like the fluted examples, they were apparently chiefly produced at Bristol. 
Such glasses, with the rare exceptions of a larger capacity, were only made of the 
usual size for wine or punch ; they never appear in a smaller form for ardent waters. 
The oldest, of about 1730, have stems with bulbs, or a knop, and the folded foot. 




the upper part only of the bowl being occasionally engraved with vine leaves and 
grapes, as in a glass belonging to the Rev. J. C. Eardley Field (Fig. 242) ; in a 
much later glass in the South Kensington Museum arabesques occur (Fig. 243). 
The double ogee line is naturally most emphatic in the drawn glasses of this class. 

Fig. 242. (One third.) 

Flc. 243. {One third.) 

Fig. 244. (One third.) 

Towards the end of the century the compound air spirals, and the opaque-twisted 
stems, usually tapering from the top to the bottom with good effect, were almost 
invariably used.^ Of such stems these glasses offer some of the best examples, 
and with them the lower ogee line at the junction, with the bowl, finally passes 
away. A glass in the collection of the author illustrates these characteristics 
(Fig. 244). Like the straight-sided and the ogee suites the double ogee glasses 
lapsed by a " gentle transfer " into another series which will now be treated of. 

1 Mr. J. A. Hyett has four sapphire blue double 
ogee glasses with knopped stems. They were 
probably made in Bristol about 1770, where much 
blue glass was produced ; it is a shocking colour 
for any wine. But violently coloured glasses and 
drinking-vessels, which no evenly balanced person 
would use at the present day, had the sanction not 
only of classical antiquity and the Renaissance, but 
of the succeeding periods. Ren^ Francois, chaplain 

to Louis XIII. (1610-43), thus alludes to them in 
his Essay des Ulerveilles, referring to the fantastic 
shaped and coloured glasses produced in Murano : — 
" Le vin se sent tout ^tonn6 prenant tant de figures, 
voire tant de couleurs, car dans les verres jaunes le 
vin clairet s'y fait tout d'or, et le blanc se teint d'dcar- 
late dans un verre rouge. Ne fait-il pas beau voir 
avaler un grand trait d'ecarlate, d'or, dc lait, ou 
d'azur?" — See Introductory Notices, p. 29. 



Glass-cutting.— The art of glass-cutting in modern times derives from sculptured 

works in rock-crystal introduced into Italy after the taking of Constantinople by 

the Turks in 1453. It was practised about a century later at Nuremberg, and some 

other places in Germany ; and at the end of the sixteenth century Rudolph II. brought 

Italians from Milan to take control of the crystal and glass-cutting establishment 

which he had founded at Prague. It was there that Caspar Lehmann and 

Zachary Belzer worked from 1590 to 1622, the former dying in the latter year, 

having transferred the art of rock-crystal-cutting to glass, aided by an invention 

of his own.i Lehmann's pupil at Prague, George Schwanhard, of Nuremberg, 

returned to his country at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War, and, working 

with eminent skill at Nuremberg and Ratisbon, added to the cutting process the 

art of engraving with the diamond point, which was then being practised in 

Holland by the ladies of the Roemer Visscher family.'^ He died in 1667, 

leaving three daughters— Sophia, Suzanna, and Mary, who engraved glasses 

with flowers, arabesques, and inscriptions, and two sons— George, with some 

talent, who died in 1676, and Henry, an accomplished engraver of landscapes 

and inscriptions on glass; he long survived his brother, dying in 1693, and is 

stated to have discovered the process of etching on glass with fluoric acid. At 

this time also Stephen Schmidt and Hermann Schwinger cut and engraved 

glasses at Nuremberg with great success.'^ Many of the vessels operated upon 

by the above-mentioned veritable artists take the shell form, following that of the 

1 E. Garnicr, lit sup. p. 273. " See Introductory Notices, p. 48. 

^ E. Gamier, iit sup. p. 274. 



rock-crystal cups, of which they were imitations. In a crystal block of the usual 
shape obtainable, the shell gave the fullest form to the vessel with the minimum 
of waste in the working, the stem or standard, and the foot, being in separate 
pieces, more or less enhanced by gold and silver mountings.^ In the glasses 
the projections were "prise dans la masse," those of Bohemia being cast in 
wooden moulds for subsequent cutting and decoration.- At the end of the 
seventeenth century establishments were opened for cutting and engraving 
glasses at Vienna, and about 1710 at Berlin, where Anthony Spiller of Prague 
distinguished himself by his representations of battles, landscapes, and history 

pieces. •' 

A glass-house was first set up in Bohemia in the middle of the fifteenth 
century.^ By the gradual increase of the industry, owing to the abundance of 
wood for fuel and ash, and of materials such as quartz and lime for the 
manufacture, Bohemian glass competed successfully with that of Venice before 
the end of the seventeenth century, in spite of Venetian endeavours to work after 
Bohemian ways, and shortly after almost broke up the long-descended refined 
traditions of Murano itself. The old artistic glass was rapidly going out of 
fashion, and the engraved crystal glass was taking its place. We have seen how 
the change began by the gradual introduction of English fiint glass, and how it 
operated in the Low Countries.^ 

But the glasses with which Bohemia and Silesia flooded the markets of the 
Austrian Netherlands, under the auspices of Maria Theresa, were not of the best 
kind ; it w^as impossible that artistic work could have been produced in sufficient 
quantity. The intruding glasses were therefore simply decorated wdth flat facets, 
or sent plain, and left to be further ornamented in the Low Countries, which was 
done in very inferior fashion. "^ 

Bohemian glass now had a serious competitor in English flint glass. 

1 See p. 211. of the diatretarii. The crystal and glass-cutting in 

- G. Bontemps, 2it sup. p. 624. Bohemia was rather a survival than a revival of the 

^ The late Dr. Fowler's strictures upon cut glass ancient art applied to both materials. And there can 

(see Introductory Notices, p.40,footnote)seem hardly scarcely be impropriety in a practice which received 

just. Both the Greeks and the Romans directed in so marked a degree the cachet of antiquity, 

their genius to the cutting of the prized crystallinitui, For the names and the manner of use of the 

and with what surpassing success the bowls from various cups of antiquity, see The Deipnosophisis 

Canosa, cut on the wheel, and decorated with gilt of Athenaeus, a most interesting writer on account 

tracery strangely resembling the radiating patterns of the quotations which he introduces from ancient 

of thirteenth - century rose - windows, and other poets whose works are now lost, 
examples of the most refined beauty in the British * E. V. Czihak, ut sup. p. 6. 

Museum, sufficiently evince ; to say nothing of the ^ See Introductory Notices, p. 40. 

boat-shaped cups {aKa-rot.) cut out of the solid " IlnW.. p. 57. 

glass on the lathe, and the skilful " tours de force " 


Already in 1680 ^ " Verres a I'Angleterre " — with reference to the metal, not 
the shape — had been made at Liege, and later at Ghent, Namur, and many other 
places, and when the English cut glasses themselves began to arrive in the 
Low Countries after the Peace of Utrecht, those from Bohemia and Silesia soon 
lost their ground and fell into disrepute, while English flint glass continued to 
increase in favour on the Continent, and in quality until about 1780, when the 
height of perfection was reached. The visible superiority of English over 
Bohemian cut glass is that flint glass when fashioned into prisms for lustres, 
which had so large a sale on the Continent, or in projecting facets on the 
glasses, has the same property as the diamond in breaking up or decomposing 
the light. This quality is not possessed by Bohemian glass, which has neither 
"fire" nor "colour," and of course not satisfactorily by rock-crystal, on account 
of its tendency to irregular refraction of the rays of light. With this know- 
ledge the English glass-cutters arranged their work accordingly, and the most 
brilliant results were obtained. 

Group IX. Glasses, Cut and Engraved. 

It is doubtful if any glasses were cut in England before the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. Early examples, and particularly dated ones, must there- 
fore very seldom be met with ; and it is not to be expected that the practice 
of an art here, which only arrived in its decadence, resulted in any objects fit 
to compare with those which were produced at an earlier time in Germany and 
Bohemia by artists of repute. Nevertheless, the cut English wine and punch 
glasses, in the finest metal in the world, have good character, and many of the 
later ones considerable artistic value, and, like some other English series — the 
straight-sided and the ogee glasses, which are nearest to them chronologically 
— they have few analogues on the Continent. 

As to the English cut glass of the early part of the century, it must be 
understood that the imitations, more or less close, of flint glass " a I'anglaise " 
in the Low Countries, and glasses of much the same thistle forms being 
fashioned at the same time in Germany, Bohemia, and in England, and all 
converging to one point — namely, the Low Countries — unite to make it a matter 
of great difficulty to disentangle them, or to give in a few words an idea of the 
situation in the early part of the eighteenth century. Touching now generally 
upon the English portion of the rather bewildering story, the broad facts can 

1 See Introductory Notices, p. 40. 
2 r 

200 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap, xviii. 

only be pointed out ; collectors will fill in the details by their own observation 

and experience. 

While the heavily-moulded English wine-glasses, of the end of the seven- 
teenth and the early years of the eighteenth century, were lapsing into those 
of smaller sizes for cordial waters, glasses of large capacity, with bowls in the 
thistle form, already spoken of,^ appear here. It seems that the shape is 
Bohemian, and first came to the Low Countries with the glasses from Bohemia 
and Silesia after the Peace of Utrecht in 17 13.- It was somewhat adopted by 
Low Country glass-makers, but they could not w^ithstand the great foreign 
influx. The shape was accepted in England, but the work of glass-cutting was 
untried, and practice was needed, so that it was not until a few years after that 
English-made cut glass could successfully compete with the continental pro- 
ductions. A typical example of some years later, in rich dark glass, is in the 
author's collection, engraved with the Prince of Wales's feathers, and the cypher 
F. P. for Frederic, father of George III. He was created Prince of Whales 
9th January 1729, being then in his twenty-third year, and the glass was probably 
made to commemorate that event (Plate 47). 

It is doubtful if many glasses of this size and kind were made and employed 
in England; they were rather " verres de parade" than for service, and it has 
already been seen that others with ribbed, air-twisted, or heavily moulded stems, 
as well as those of a commoner sort, were in full use in the early part of the 
century. We have failed to gather information as to existing examples of 
glasses of the kind in question in the Low Countries, in support of the well- 
recorded fact that English glasses were imported there shortly after 17 13. If 
any cut glasses were sent they appear to have become very scarce, or to have 
vanished in the Provinces, as in England, and, as a matter of fact, there is a 
hiatus both of information and of examples here as well as there. 

But we do know that a change of shape had soon come about, and that the 
English cut glasses, of which the decorative character was quite unsuited to those 
of the bell shape, soon fell into the form of the ogee series, and so continued to 
the end of their course, running out at last in the early years of the present 

Welcome and highly-interesting dated examples are provided by part of a 
set of large punch glasses, and two capacious glass bowls, ii^ inches in diameter 
and 6^ inches high, in the possession of Captain Stansfeld, made for his ancestor, 
George Stansfeld of Field House, Sowerby, to commemorate the passing of the 

' See Introductory Notices, p. 41. - Ibid. 



Calder and Hebble Navigation Act, for making navigable the River Calder, from 
its junction with the Aire, to Sowerby Bridge, near Halifax, a distance of tvventy- 
t\\"0 miles — a work of great importance at the time, and which was surveyed and 
planned by Smeaton. It forms the connecting-link between the Aire and Calder 
Navigation from Wakefield to the Aire, and the Rochdale Canal which runs from 
Sowerby Bridge to the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal at Manchester, which 
terminates at Runcorn in the tideway of the Mersey. The nine existing glasses 
are all engraved alike, and bear the inscription — up to sowerby bridge 1758, 
the Stansfeld crest, flowers, and an anchor and a golden fleece, tokens of hope and 
prosperity (Fig. 245). The punch-bowls are covered with emblematic engravings 
and figures, and inscriptions significative of the difficulties overcome, animosities 
cleared away, and rejoicings at the expected success of the undertaking. On one 
is inscribed — Smile ye banks of calder your naids laugh and sing your 
RIVER GOD congratulates YOU WITH UP TO SowERBY BRIDGE 1 758 ; and on the 
other — Not only up to Salter hebble thro evil report & good report 
at last triumphant with up to Sowerby bridge 1758.^ There is reason 
to believe that both glasses and bowls were made in Newcastle, perhaps engraved 
by Felix Foster,- or by Giles at York, who also worked with the diamond point, 
and that there were originally twelve glasses for each bowl in consonance with 
Northern hospitality. The example illustrated is in the possession of the Rev. 
A. S. Porter, and it is apparent that the style of cutting exhibited by it can only 
have been developed by some years of practice. 

Having thus seen the cut glasses established in the ogee form in the middle 
of the century, the next stage shows them with knopped stems, always hexagonal, 
and with the same series of deeply-cut three-leaved sprigs running up separately 
into the bowl, and forming a cresting or finish for the cut facets of the stem 
(Fig. 246). A curious hexagonally knopped glass with a lip, approaching the 
double ogee shape proper which is so seldom found, is in the possession of Mr. 
E. Jewitt, and has the cutting of the same character carried nearly to the top 
of the bowl (Fig. 247). The crested arrangement was shortly modified, and 
about 1780 we meet with the finest examples of cut wine-glasses both for 

^ The author is indebted to the courtesy of ^ A memorial glass, 9 inches high, in private 

Mr. G. Stansfeld for much of this information. hands, is engraved with a crowned bust in an oval 

A glass engraved with a view of Sunderland surrounded by the inscription, MEMENTO ANNA 

Bridge, opened 1796, is in the Rev. W. G. Searle's REGINA • HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE ; over the 

collection, no doubt made at Newcastle. It was head two angels hold a crown of glory ; on the 

a popular subject, and is often seen on earthenware bottom of the glass is inscribed, Felix Foster Fecit 

jugs. 1758. 




metal and decoration, as in an example from the cabinet of the author 
(Plate 48). Mr. Grant is the fortunate owner of nine lipped and knopped 
hexagonal stemmed glasses, beautifully engraved round the rim with roses. 

Fig. 245. (One third.) 

Fig. 246. (One third.) 

Fig. 247. (One third.) 

Fig. 248. (One third.) 

carnations, cornflowers, and vines, all flourishing upon one wavy stalk (Fig. 248). 
They appear to have come to Lichborough about 1780. On the later glasses 
with straight, faceted, hexagonal, or pentagonal stems much excellent polished 
engraving is found, sometimes vases or baskets of roses and honeysuckle, and the 
attending butterfly of earlier times (Fig. 249), and occasionally a large goblet with 
a flat conventional rose of the latest type, recalling the crudities of modern 

Fig. 249. (One third.) 

Fig. 250. (One third.) Fio. 251. (One third.) Fig. 252. (One third.) Fig. 253. (One third.) 

"mediaeval" woodwork and "ecclesiastical" embroidery (Fig. 250). But the 
glasses tended to become smaller, and the cutting of the stems loose, shallow, 
and inartistic as the century advanced to its end ; ^ some of the latest having the 
bowls decorated with festoons like much of the china of the time (Fig. 251), or 

1 A glass of the usual drawn form, engraved cinque-foil, and beneath it is written with a diamond 

with a flower and with a knopped and hexagonally- point : Mary Dovaston 1801, and M D in a cypher, 

cut stem, is in the possession of Mr. F. G. Bullcr The date exactly accords with that of the glass. 
Swete. The edge of the foot is shaped into a 



with borders of dead stars and polished indents, the former often touched with 
oil -gilding (Figs. 252, 253). Outlines of all these are drawn for convenience 
from the author's collection. They are not uncommon. In the cut wine- 
glasses of the extreme end of the century the facets developed into long flutes, 
and so the old ogee glasses lapsed into the respectable " port " and " white " 
glasses of our grandfathers. The cut glasses with heavy square feet can never 
have been seriously intended for table use at the end of the century when 
they appear. They will therefore be classified among the later glasses for 
punch and grog. Many large services of richly-cut glass — such as the Lion and 
the Vine services at Windsor Castle, of which a few pieces only now remain — fault- 
less both as to " fire " and " colour," were produced at great cost in the last years 
of the last century. The noble appearance which they made upon the velvety 
oil-polished surfaces of the dark mahogany tables, over which the silver decanter 
stands glided so smoothly in the old hospitable days, when the pestilent French 
polish was not, is now, unhappily, but a dim recollection. 

Group X. Glasses, Champagne, Sweetmeat. 

It has been stated byContant d'Orville ^ that in the sixteenth century the wine 
of Ay was so renowned that Charles-Quint, who " irrigated every repast by vast 
draughts of beer and wine,"" Leo X., Francis I., and Henry VIII. sought after 
it, and that, according to a local tradition in the province, each of these rulers 
acquired land at Ay, whence a supply of champagne should be yearly despatched 
to them. This sounds rather Oriental, and there is no contemporary evidence in 
corroboration of such premature taste. M. Sauzay" quotes in support of it the 
existing tall Venetian glasses, and by analogy the " fldtes " of the Low Countries, 
none of which, it may be safely affirmed, are earlier than the last quarter of the 
sixteenth century, nor were made for champagne, but for " Rhenish," the High 
Country wine of the Rhine — a term not to be confounded with the "High 
Country" wine of Bordeaux from the Medoc district. Contant d'Orville's story 
is a mere fable. 

As to a more reasonable account of the origin of champagne, it is related * 
that a monk named Perignon, in the Benedictine Abbey of St. Peter, Hautvillier, 
Champagne, who had charge of the vineyards, and the superintendence of the 

^ Precis dune liistoire gcnn-ale de la vie des p. i 11, edit. 1861. 
Franqois, p. 66. ^ A. Sauzay, tit sup. p. 122. 

" Motley, Rise of tlie Dutch Republic, vol. i. ■* Notes and Queries, 4th S., vol. xi. p. 37. 

2^ OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap, xviii. 

making of the wine in the seventeenth century, as a result of many experiments 
arrived at sparkling champagne. Like sensible men the House long kept the 
secret to themselves, but the wine is said to have been sent to Louis XIV. (1643- 
1715). That it did not arrive in Paris before the middle of the seventeenth 
century is not improbable, but from thence it would have slowly made its way 
into other countries. 

Voltaire, writing in the middle of the eighteenth century, and speaking of the 
relation which the prosperity of the country bears to the luxury of the towns, 
says : " On a plantd plus de vignes, et on les a mieux travailles ; on a fait de 
nouveaux vins qu'on ne connaissait pas auparavant, tels que ceux de Champagne, 
auxquels on a su donner la couleur, la seve et la force de ceux de Bourgogne, et 
qu'on debite chez I'dtranger avec un grand avantage."^ Voltaire gives no date 
as to champagne, but refers generally to the time of Louis XIV. 

It is not a necessity of the case that champagne should have a particular 
shaped vessel dedicated to its use ; but the custom of specialising glasses was so 
rigorously carried out in the latter part of the seventeenth century, as it is more 
than ever at the present day in Germany with the beautiful glasses from the 
Ehrenfeld works, that we may look for its observance in the matter of champagne, 
and willingly accept for it the tall glasses of the period, or those of moderate 

With regard to the time when champagne first came into England it was 
probably soon after the Restoration in 1660. An early notice of it is given in 
Etherege's comedy, She ivoiid if sJie cou'd, first played 6th February 1668 : — 

She's no Mistress of mine, 

That drinks not her Wine, 

Or frowns at my Friend's drinking Motions ; 

If my Heart thou would'st gain, 

Drink thy Bottle of Champaign, 

'Twill serve thee for Paint and Lovc-potions.- 

In a later play, Man of the Mode: or, Sir Fopling Flutter, \\\q same author alludes 
to the elevating eff"ects of " sparkling Champaign." In Sedley's Mulberry Garden, 
first played i8th May 1668, Jack Wildish sends "for a dozen more Champaign" 
and certain other dainties ; and in Otway's FriendsJiip in Fashion, 1678, one of the 
ladies speaks of the merits of "powerful champaign, as they call it," indicating 
that it was not then much known." In Butler's Hudibras, Third Part, first 

^ Siede de Louis XIV., chap. xxx. p. 423, edit. ' In G. Markham's curious receipts for "the 

1858. ordering, preserving, and helping of all sorts of 

- Act IV. Sc. ii. Wines "( IFrt)' to Wealth, The English House-Wife, 


published in 1678, after the comical incident of the "prodigious flight" of the 
Knight and the Squire from the Enchanted Bower, Ralpho points out, with 
reference to running from the enemy that— 

when the Fight becomes a Chace, 
Those win the Day, that win the Race ; 
And that which would not pass in Fights, 
Has done the Feat with easie FHghts. 
Recover'd many a desp'rate Campain, 
With Bourdeaux, Burgundy and Champain. 
Restor'd the fainting High and Mighty 
With Brandy-Wine and Aqua-vitae.^ 

In 1699 Farquhar says, in Love and a Bottle, that " Champaigne is a fine liquor 
which all great Beaux drink to make them witty ;" this shows considerable use of 
the wine; and in The Twin Rivals, 1703, by the same brilliant author, one of the 
characters says, with worldly wisdom enough, "Show me that proud Stoick that 
can bear Success and Champain ! " - The last-mentioned date brings us to the 
century we are now concerned with, and by this time the wine was evidently fairly 
established here. 

There is no reason for thinking that any "flutes" were made in England for 
champagne on its first introduction, save, perhaps, by the Duke of Buckingham, 
" fa^on de Venise," at his glass-works at Greenwich from 1663." It is very likely 
that "flutes" for champagne were imported for the use of the Court, and for a few 
luxurious persons, but they were too fragile for the reckless handling they must 
have received ; moreover, fashion shortly decreed that the making of artistic glass 
" fa^on de Venise " should gradually come to an end. In the various shapes of 
glasses numbered and named by Greene in his orders to Morelli at Venice, between 
1667 and 1672, glasses for champagne are not mentioned, and the single outline 
given of the " flute " form is only 6\ inches high, and has neither name nor number 
to it. Consequently, we must assume that the little champagne then consumed in 
England was chiefly drunk from any of the Venetian-made glasses for French or 
Spanish wine, such as Greene's outlines show, or from those made here to oppose 
such importations. When all these passed away, or out of vogue, the earliest 
air-stemmed bell glasses^ must have been used, and specially the larger examples 
of the elegant baluster-stemmed glasses with funnel-shaped bowls which have 

" Skill in Wines," p. 112, edit. 1675), champagne - Notes and Queries, 4th S., vol. xi. p. 80; 

is unfortunately not mentioned, because he only note by W. Phillips, 
deals with the treatment of wines in the wood. ^ See p. 225. 

> P. 189, edit. 1684. ^ See p. 257. 




already been spoken of.^ The other glasses of the time were too solid or too 
small for champagne, and it is improbable that this wine was to be obtained in 
every tavern ; Burgundy, with its almost prehistoric "record," "neat Port" just 
come into favour, and the popular punch, were too powerful to be suddenly 

Champagne, whether sparkling, creaming, or still — mousseux, cremant, or 
non-mousseux — made way slowly in England, the price was almost prohibitory, 
and up to the middle of the century was only to be found in great houses.^ 
About 1730 a special shape of glass appears to have been devised for it, with a 
capacious and graceful, wavy or double ogee bowl, plain or ribbed, and a 
corrugated or a ribbed, and domed foot, an almost constant feature, the stem 
being of short baluster form, with a double beaded knop. The date of two 
examples of these kinds in the author's cabinet (Plate 49, and Fig. 254) has been 

Fig. 254. (One third.) 

Fig. 255. (One third.) 

Fig. 256. (One third.) 

arrived at from their general character, supported by a pair of glass taper candle- 
sticks, with the like shape of stem and corrugated foot, and with no suggestion 
of nozzles, in the same collection. A taper candlestick with a baluster stem, and 
a corrugated and domed foot, is also in the possession of Mrs. J. Paull, and 
one with a brilliant air-twisted stem is in the author's collection ; Mr, S. A. Gurney 
has a capital pair of candlesticks about 8 inches high, with " wrythen " sockets, 
twisted stems, moulded and beaded bases, and domed and corrugated feet. All 
these glass objects must have come from the same manufactory, and the known 
dates, from Hall Marks, of English silver taper candlesticks without nozzles, 

^ See p. 263. — shows that as late as 1810 "pink" and " cream- 

" A Rcnishaw Wine Bill — an item of Sir G. ing" champagne was bought at £7 : 17:6 a dozen. 

R. Sitwell's remarkable assemblage of documents This price is partly attributable to the bloats con- 

illustrating the Renishaw household expenditure tincntal decreed against England by Napoleon in 

from 1660 to the early years of the present century i 806. 





whose shape the glass ones so much resemble, leave no doubt as to their period.^ 
Two rather later champagne glasses in the cabinet of Lord Torphichen have 
respectively an air- and an opaque-twisted stem, and domed and folded feet (Figs. 
255, 256). Details of make confirm the impression that the early short champagne 
glasses were, like the taper candlesticks, specialities of manufacture, and not 

Fig. 257. (One third.) Fig. 258. {One third.) Fig. 259. (One third.) 

emanating from a glass-house qitelconqiie. Later examples in the collections 
of Miss Dryden, and of the author (Fig. 257), from the Low Countries, have semi- 
spherical bowls, opaque-twisted stems, and wide feet. From the circumstance 
of champagne having been but little drunk in England before the middle of the 

Fig. 260. (One third.) Fig. 261. (One third.) Fig. 262. (One third.) 

eighteenth century, the earlier short glasses must necessarily be scarce. The later 
ones just spoken of overlap those now to be mentioned. 

^ In Mr. Singer's collection, gathered entirely moulded in deep reticulations. Both have domed 
in the district of Bristol, arc two examples with feet and, like those already mentioned, are probably 
double ogee bowls, the one with a baluster stem of Bristol make. Removable nozzles were not in- 
and a beaded knop, and the other with a bowl troduced into silver candlesticks until about 1740. 

1 Q 




Soon after the short champagne glasses were introduced, the tall ones began 
to be made with baluster stems and beaded knops (Fig. 258), and following 
them, in chronological succession with the wine and punch glasses, came those 
with shouldered and knopped, and straight, air-twisted, and opaque-twisted stems, 
as well as drawn, with plain stems and domed and folded feet (Figs. 259-262). 
Their dates can be readily assigned by the collector, for they run parallel with 
the wine and punch glasses throughout the greater part of the century, and 
present the same characteristics of detail. A difficulty however arises and must 
always remain. It is almost impossible sometimes to say for certain whether a 
tall glass with no engraving upon it is for champagne or for ale. Perhaps in 

Fig. 263. (One third.) 

Fig. 264. (One third.) 

Fig. 265. (One third.; 

Fig. 266. (One third.) 

such cases the better glasses may be appropriated to the wine, together with those 
engraved with the conventional rose and natural buds. A good example is in the 
cabinet of Mr. B. F. Hartshorne, with a ruby and opaque white twisted stem — 
a Dutch glass of the drawn form with inserted stem, and engraved in England 
(Fig 263). Tall champagne glasses with faceted stems appear in their order of 
time. Many of those that have fallen under the author's notice are heavy and 
thick, and not satisfactory in appearance ; they lack the picturesqueness of the 
older examples. Like the silver, the china, and the cut wine and punch glasses 
of the latter part of the century, those for champagne are similarly decorated 
with festoons (Fig. 264);^ others have the same kind of ornament in gold, and 
spangled with stars, apparently of Dutch as well as of English make (Fig. 265). 
Coming later, the facets run up in long flutes nearly to the top of the glass, which 
is often bordered by poorly engraved vine leaves and grapes ; and the fatal narrow 
and flat foot shows that we have passed out of the century (Fig. 266). The 

' One of a set of six obtained by the author in Florence in 1884 ; they arc possibly English. 




introduction of the short open glasses about the year 1832 is a recurrence to 
the form of the earliest champagne glasses specially made for the purpose in 

Glasses, Sweetmeat (X.) 

Allied in shape to the short champagne glasses are some of those for 
sweetmeats— the suckets" of earlier times. These are small standing dishes 

Fig. 267. (One third. ) 

Fig. 268. (One third.) 

Fig. 269. (One third.) 

rather than glasses, and are clearly distinguished from them by their solidity and 
sharply lipped, or thick undulating edges. Like some of the champagne glasses 
they are usually ribbed, and with shouldered and moulded stems, and ribbed 
and domed feet. An example with these features is in the possession of Mr. Syer 
Cuming (Fig. 267). In later versions the lip is purfled or crinkled, the stems air- 
twisted, and the foot, as usual, domed (Fig. 268). The bowls of the cut sweet- 
meat glasses have the edges engrailed, vandycked, or faceted (Fig. 269). In 
modern days they are used as sugar-basins. The changing character of the entire 
group is consonant with the well-ascertained flux of the drinking-glasses. 

^ In Disraeli's Letters to Ins Sister, published - See Appendix, Original Documents, Inventory, 

after Lord Beaconsfield's death, he gives, 1st March No. IV. We have seen that others in saucer form 

1832, an account of a dinner party at Buhver's, and were made in Bristol in 1725, as well as fruit 

says: "We drank champagne out of a saucer of baskets (see p. 282, footnote), like the corbeilles 

ground glass mounted upon a pedestal of cut glass," ajources of Liege (see Introductory Notices, p. 59) ; 

evidently regarding them as novelties. Champagne such baskets are shown in the headpiece to The 

glasses with hollow stems are poor compromises Happy Inconstant, 1739 — Calliope, vol. i., No. 

between the old and the modern shape, and have 10 1. 
no practical merit. 



Brewing.— The first brewing of ale in Britain must have been a notable 
advance in civilisation. Such science, as it then represented, was probably brought 
here by the Romans. Apart from Roman drinking-cups, embossed, fluted, 
"wrythen," and plain, of ordinary tumbler form— such as have been revealed by 
excavations at Pompeii, and which we now naturally associate with beer-drinking, 
and which must have been used, and possibly to a certain extent made here during 
the Occupation — the earliest existing ale glasses in Britain are those clearly 
derived from observation or remembrance of Roman models in Anglo-Saxon 
times. Mention is made by Beowulf of " hroden ealo-woege," the twisted ale 
cups — a term which has been attributed to a variety of the Anglo-Saxon glasses 
which we have grouped under Class 2 of these vessels.^ All these were, of course, 
for the bcoy of the Anglo-Saxons, called cala by the Danes, and for the prehistoric 
and heady metheglin, humming in the brain of the reveller, and speaking, as 
the old saying went, too much of the house it came from. Of this potent 
beverage the common name and kind was hydromel or mead ; and both sorts 
were composed of honey, herbs, and water, and were still largely made, as we 
should expect, in Wales and the Marches as late as at the end of the seven- 
teenth century.- Pepys drank Charles II. 's own iced metheglin — "most brave 
drink" — at the " Backe-stayres," Whitehall, 25th July 1666. The Anglo-Saxon 
glasses likewise served for sweet-wort, also called "ydromellum" and " mulsum," 

' See pp. I 15, 121. up to the time of his death in 1849, in the ninety- 

'" Markham, ut sup. p. 181; Howell, Discourse fifth year of his prolonged pilgrimage. The author, 

to Lord Clifford, ut sup., 7th October 1634. then a small boy, well remembers this aged man 

At Cogenhoe, Northamptonshire, mead was — with whom so many customs of the old world 

regularly made in the house of Mr. Hugh Higgins tarried — relating to him that in 1761 he went 


no doubt because honey was often added to it; for " mellicratum " (geswet win), 
" inomellum " (must mid hunig gemenged), and for the rough drinks made from 
almost prehistoric wild apples and pears, subsequently called cider and perry. In 
the later period the palm-cups and the bowls were used for braggot, a spiced 
mixture of many qualities composed of ale and mead, and which few persons would 
care to drink at the present day. Such also were the cups for the varieties of wine, 
pure and mingled, in use in later Anglo-Saxon times. Many of these broken 
liquors were struck with herbs and condiments recalling the fashion of the waxed, 
resined, and spiced classical cups of beechwood introduced into Northern regions 
by the Romans. 

As to the difference which arose between ale and beer. It appears that 
the wild hops were put into liquors in Saxon times, but rather aimlessly — as 
was usual in the extraordinary unscientific and haphazard receipts both for eating 
and drinking of the Middle Ages— and as pleasant herbs, together with others, 
rather than in view of any known special improvement of the drink by their use, 
or for assisting its keeping quality. Such service of hops was never forbidden by 
law, but the use of the plant in brewing appears in course of time to have differ- 
entiated the drink which was helped with it, from ale which had it not. Gilbert 
Keymer,^ a sensible writer on Dietry in the beginning of the fifteenth century, 
pronounces beer brewed from barley, well hopped (bene lupulata), of middling 
strength, thin and clear, well fined, well boiled, neither too old nor too new, to 
be a sound and wholesome beverage— a dictum which nobody will deny. In the 
Promptoriiim Parvulorum o{ \^^o 2\t is described as " cervisia," "et nota bene 
quod est potus Anglorum " ; it was made of malt and water, while beer is merely 
spoken of as "a drinke," and is defined to consist of malt, water, and hops, 
showing that hops had become a recognised feature of the " drinke " called beer 
some time before 1440. 

up to London in the wain, made his way Academy, informed the author that it was a favourite 

through the crowd into Westminster Abbey, and drink in Kentucky forty years ago. Old MS. receipt 

saw George III. crowned on 22nd September books show that there were many varieties— Sack 

— a long link between the present and the Mead, Walnut Mead, Cowslip Mead, Spiced Mead, 

past. Mead -making lingered in England in a Small Mead, etc., the kinds being differentiated by 

few country places, but seems to have gradually the character of the leading additional ingredients, 

passed away with the old race of servants who The inscribed bronze mortars of the late sixteenth 

took a pride in the oil-polished mahogany tables, and the seventeenth century were used for braying 

and practised and cherished the " conceited secrets " and bruising the brewers' herbs and spices, as well 

of bygone days ; the increase of the beer-brewing as by the leeches, apothecaries, and chirurgeons for 

industry gave it the deathblow. In America drugs. 

mead must have been made from prehistoric times. ' MS. Sloane, No. 4, p. 166. 

The late Dr. Postlethwaite, of West Point Military 

302 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. xix. 

The introduction into the brewing of ale of any hops or herbs came thus 
to be looked upon as an adulteration, and the use of hops in ale was fined. 
But hops were suffered to be employed by the English and foreign beer-brewers 
practising a separate craft in England, and the law w^as enforced to keep the 
productions of the distinct trades respectively pure. The immigration of 
numbers of Flemish brewers in the first quarter of the sixteenth century had 
introduced the proper cultivation of hops — we had heretofore been content with 
the wild variety — and of beer systematically brewed with its aid ; and although 
the liquor was much opposed, with the usual insular prejudice, it gradually 
made its way against the sweet thick ale which no one would dream of 
drinking now.^ 

Group XI. Glasses, Ale, Mead, Syllabub. 

The character of the drinking-vessels in use for wine, beer, and ale during 
the Middle Ages, and down to the end of the sixteenth century, has been 
touched upon,- and we may support the information as to the later time by 
the headpieces of broadsides and ballads of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries ; these in their turn are corroborated by the appearance of the drink- 
ing-cups in earthenware, metal, and glass, shown in early Low Country pictures, 
and by the allusions to glasses for wine, beer, and distilled waters in cotemporary 
extracts from inventories. In the Suit of Sir R. Mansel to the Lords in 
1639 (?)-^ the prices of ordinary beer glasses then, and formerly, are given, and 
it is stated that crystal beer glasses, hitherto obtained from Venice, were first 
made here by Mansel at half the price. We have formed an idea ' what these 
beer glasses must have been like from the general style of the period, supported 
by the outlines of those furnished to Greene from Venice in the latter part of the 
century. They were larger versions of the wine-glasses, and in this way the 
sizes of beer and ale glasses were regulated in England almost up to the 
middle of the eighteenth century. For example, while "the noble men" were 
drinking champagne in London from the beaded baluster-stemmed glasses, 
country gentlemen of the stamp of "Sir John Linger," "Colonel Alwit," and 
the boisterous assistants at the Houghton "Congresses" were tippling March 

Much information concerning the rise and amination ; indeed, we have seen that hops had 

progress of brewing with hops in England has been used on a settled plan in beer-brewing in 

been brought together by Mr. J. Bickerdyke in England a century before the Reformation. 

The Curiosities of Ale and Beer, chap. iv. p. 65, " See pp. 136, 137, 144, 150, 165. 

n.d., but published 1889. The well-known distich ^ Appendix, Original Documents, No. XXIIL 

in its several versions as to the coming of hops, ^ See p. 219. 
pickerel, etc., into England will not bear close ex- 




beer, " October," or strong ale, such as that from Lord Orford's " Hogan," ^ out of 
the larger versions of some of the punch and wine glasses ; but principally the 
capacious and plain tavern and household glasses of the drawn, straight-sided, or 
ogee shape were used (Fig. 270). Many of Sir Robert Walpole's glasses of the drawn 
form, about 10 inches high, were still remaining at Houghton a few years ago.- 

As with the champagne glasses, those for ale were also made in the tall 
modified " flilte " shape. It is apparent that they first began to be fashioned 
in England about 1735, being probably suggested by the changed shape of the 

Fig. 270. (One third.) 

Fig. 271. (One third.) 

Fig. 272. (One third. 

champagne glasses, and the improvement in the quality of the ale which gave 
it a more honourable position at well-equipped tables. The earliest tall ale 
glasses were not engraved, and it must be understood that it is from their 
resemblance to those that are decorated with hops and barley, and their somewhat 
heavy character, that we have assigned certain glasses to ale rather than to 
champagne. Obviously the shape would serve as well for the one as for the 
other beverage, and no doubt the plain glasses were often used indifferently. 

^ " 'Tis 1 2 o'clock & I write in a great 
hurry for we have been at Houghton to day, & I 
daresay it obliged Mr. Baldry highly, for they 
wouldn't have seen any thing without us y' signify, 
& they saw every thing & tasted of ye Hogan, 
Tilly was so merry & comical there, she made 
every body laugh, she did run and fly about, and 
ye Housekeeper got her & laid her onto ye 
Velvet Bed, & kissed her ; & was mightily 
pleased with her." — Barbara Kerrich, Dersingham 
Hall, to Elizabeth Postlethwayt, Denton Rectory, 
Dec. 17, 1745, Original Correspondence, 163 3- 1828, 
ut sup. vol. vii. p. 143, in the possession of Albert 
Hartshorne. This was four years before Mrs. 

Norsa, who was " everything but Lady," was " bear- 
ing great sway at Hougton," ibid., p. 160. 

^ The late genial and accomplished antiquary, 
Sir C. H. J. Anderson, told the author in December 
1890 that, in the time of his grandfather, who 
succeeded in 1765, ale and small beer were drunk 
at the table both by men and women ; the latter 
generally drank small, but when they wanted ale 
they asked for beer and held up a thumb-^a silent 
and unfailing signal. There used to be an expres- 
sion, " Here's my thumb, I'll ne'er beguile you," 
which, in this regard at least, has now lost its 




There are no English Conversation Pieces of the time under consideration 
that might give a clue to the early use of the tall ale glasses here, and Hogarth's 
pictures" do not help us, nor are the copper-plate engravings of the time 
sufficiently distinct or reliable; moreover, the large proportion of them were 
the work of foreign artists of Paris or of Leyden, so do not serve the purpose in 


An ale glass of about 1735, of the new shape, apparently an English imita- 
tion of a Low Country glass " fa^on de Venise " for wine, is banded with three 
quillings, and has a heavy bulbed stem and a wide folded foot ; all these are 
early features (Fig. 271). This example is now in private hands ; two others, almost 

Fig. 273. (One third.) 

Fig. 274. (One third.) 

Fig. 275. (One third.) 

Fig. 276. (One third.) 

identical with it, were sold in Edinburgh in November 1892, but no more 

have fallen under the author's observation. When we come to the tall glasses 

engraved with hops and barley there is no question as to use ; and now, again, 

the ale glasses follow the chronological order that has been set down for those 

for wine, punch, and champagne, the character and shape of the stems similarly 

indicating generally their dates. For examples — (i) a waisted ale glass (Fig. 

272), with a lofty folded foot and plain stem, must belong to an early decade 

in the eighteenth century; (2) one with a shouldered and knopped air-twisted 

stem (Plate 50) ; (3) a plain drawn glass, with a high folded foot (Fig. 273) ; (4) 

one of like shape, with an opaque white twisted stem (Fig. 274) ; (5) another with 

a knopped stem (Fig. 275) ; and (6) a plain-stemmed, straight-sided ale glass, with 

a wide folded foot (Fig. 276), may have their places readily assigned to them in 

the series to which they belong. All these, engraved with hops and barley, 

almost covering the bowls, have been taken as suitable illustrative examples 

from the author's collection. Unengraved tall champagne or ale glasses of the 





latter part of the century, with opaque- twisted stems, are not rare, but are 
likely soon to become so. They diminish in height as the century wanes, 
and there is reason for thinking that some of those in which the junction 
of the bowl with the stem takes the ogee line were primarily for mumm, a 
North German drink of which the merits were not proportionate with the trouble 
taken in its manufacture.^ Pope protests, however, in T/ie Diiiiciad ihzX — 

The clamorous crowd is hush'd with mugs of mum, 

and perhaps mug-houses are synonymous with mum-houses ; but no true 
Jacobite would touch it. Examples from Mr. B. F. Hartshorne's and the 

Fig. 277. (One third.) Fig. 278. (One third.) Fig. 279. (One third.) Fig. 280. (One third.) Fig. 281. (One third.) 

author's collection illustrate this form (Figs. 277, 278). Cut glasses of the same 
shape, with faceted stems, but not engraved, are sometimes met with. Mr. Syer 
Cuming has the remains of one found at London Wall in 1885 (Fig. 279). 
Some of the short ale glasses of the end of the century, of the common tavern 
and household form, have small crossed ears of barley and a bunch of hops 
roughly engraved upon them (Fig. 280). Others have festoons or borders in 
polished indents strung on a thin line after the usual pseudo-classical fashion 
of the time. Finally may be mentioned the small and carefully cut glasses of 
the very end of the century, in the best possible metal, with fluted stems, faceted 
feet, and the bowls engraved with a border of hop flowers and leaves (Fig. 281). 

^ It is said to have been invented by Christian 
Mumme, a brewer of Brunswick, in 1489, and was 
introduced into England shortly after the Restora- 
tion. Pepys drank it at the " Fleece," a mumm 
house in Leadenhall, 3rd May 1664. The 
foundation of mumm was wheat malt, with 
a seventh part of oat malt and ground beans 
respectively. It was flavoured with the inner bark 
and tips of the fir, and a multitude of herbs and 

seeds, including even horse-radish and water-cress. 
No glasses engraved with wheat have been noticed 
here. Tavernier the traveller has recorded the 
craving of the Dutch in Batavia for " mom." 
Houghton (Original Documents, No. XXXIII.) 
mentions that the native manufacture of mumm 
glasses might be encouraged ; they appear at that 
time to have been largely imported, but evidence is 
wanting as to what form they then took. 

2 R 




These were for the strong old ale— the " Upsey- English " of earlier times- 
drawn from the cask and brought to the table like "port" and "white" in 
decanters specially inscribed fine ale, and drunk from the small glasses which 
prudence and its powerful qualities alike suggested. An inscribed "Fine Ale" 
decanter, engraved with liops and barley, is in the author's collection. The 
illustrations are again taken from the same source as those of the taller 
glasses. The butterfly and the hovering bird are never shown in attendance on 
the hops and the barley, as they are respectively on the roses and the grapes, 
and only in one instance a small winged insect has been noticed, irresolute 
between the hops and the corn. These conditions of decoration show the 
deliberate system of the English glass-engravers of the eighteenth century. 

Glasses, Mead (XI.) 
Mention having been made of mead, it should be stated that this beverage 
had its special glasses in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but English 

Fig. 282. (One third.) Fig. 283. (One third.) Fig. 284. (One third.) 

examples are so scarce that there is very little to say about them. They were 
of bowl, or low tumbler form, and those of Old German origin are decorated 
with large flat h\ohs,fyese, like the Li^ge glasses, or with deeply moulded trellis- 
work. The typical shape of glasses from which de mcede was drunk in 
Holland was that of a bowl with incurved edge upon a broad foot, and vessels 
allied to this shape may be seen in seventeenth-century Dutch and Flemish 
pictures of low life. Here we have no such records, but a few English examples 
of mead glasses have been noticed. A trellised bowl, and a plain one in milk 
glass upon a low transparent foot are in the cabinet of Mr. Cuming (Figs. 282, 
283) ; some mead cups are in the collection of the Rev. S. M. Mayhew, and in 
the author's hands is an example slightly dvasd in amber glass splashed with 
white, with a folded edge, and believed to have been made in an early eighteenth- 
century glass-house at Hopton Wafers, Shropshire.^ Another with a waved 

' A pale amber glass jug, 8^ inches high, was late Rev. C. H. Hartshorne about sixty years ago. 
obtained from a cottage under the Wrekin by the It is splashed with red, white, and pale blue. A 




lip in thick yellow glass, full of minute bubbles, and spirally striped with close 
blue lines, is in the same collection (Fig. 284). Outlines of their forms may 
bring about the recognition of other examples of these once numerous vessels. 
Excise duty was collected on mead in 1797 ; it was not repealed until about forty 
years after. 

Glasses, Syllabub (XI.) 

Syllabub, a mawkish drink, was well known and appreciated in the early 
years of the seventeenth century, and in later times had its special glasses of 
open tumbler form; we have seen that " Whipt-sillibub glasses," for the more 
complicated version of it, were sent to Cork 
from Bristol in 1725.^ But inasmuch as 
the final feature of the preparation of simple 
syllabub — its " stroking " at the cow's side 
— necessitated a large bowl, and a punch 
ladle for the service of the thinner beverage, 
the wine and punch glasses were usually 

employed for it. And so it was in hay -fields in Northamptonshire within 
the author's recollection.- The earlier practice was to drink syllabub like 
posset through the spout of an earthenware pot with two handles. The Immortal 

bottle, 6 inches high, rather darker, and splashed box for a great Seal :) that is full of very small 

white, was given to him as a mark of regard by a poor Holes. This Engine, with the help of a pair of 

dying woman in Little Wenlock, who produced it Bellows blows up Cream into Syllabub, with great 

from under her pillow. These, now in the author's expedition. This Complex Machine has already 

possession, no doubt also came from the Hopton procured the D'' the blessing of the Housekeeper 

Wafers furnace under the Titter-stone ; the " Glass of this Palace, and of all such as she is, in the 

Fig. 2S5. (One third.) 

Fig. 286. {One third.) 

House Farm " records its site. Mr. Chandos-Pole- 
Gell has a pale amber bottle, lO^ inches high, 
splashed white. A pale green white - splashed 
jug was lately obtained near this village, and 
is known to have been made there. One source 

present Generation (who know the Time & 
Labour required to ivhip this sort of Geer :) and 
will cause his memory to be had in reverence, by 
all Housekeepers, in the Generations that are yet for 
to come. ... My old Master, the King, is not well : 

of these rather peculiar productions is therefore — very far from it. — He vexes himself — & no 

wonder — at the Deplorable Condition of his Native 
Country, that is undone in a Cause it has no 
relation to — he has lost one Eye, & the other is 
not a good one — and his flesh abates. I am afraid 
for him. But I am apt to fear the worst for those 
I love." — Edmund Pyle, D.D., Chelsea, Canon of 

Rose and drink a CWihuh."— Familiar Letters, ut Winchester, and Chaplain to George H. and George 

HI., to Samuel Kerrich, D.D., Dersingham Hall, 
Vicar of Dersingham, Rector of Wolferton and of 
West Newton, 21st Nov. 1758 — Original Corre- 

identified. Nailsea, near Bristol, was another, with 
darker coloured glass, sometimes blue. 

^ See p. 282. Writing from " Kentis " to 
Thomas lones, 1st June 1625, Howell says: "I 
pray leave the smutty Ayr of London and com 
hither to breath sweeter wher you may pluck a 

sup., Sec. 4, p. 105. 

^ " There is a great Dearth of Literary News. 
The only Articles of that sort, that I know of, are : 
That Dr. Hayles hath actually published ; what 
has been some time talked of ; a Tube of Tin, with 
a Box, of the same, at the lower end of it (like a 

spondence, 1633-1828, nt sup. vol. xiv. p. 143, in 
the possession of Albert Hartshorne. 

308 — 

^;;^^:;^;^:^^Z^^'^^::^^^^^i^Ai^]^A^ m M- Cummg's collection is an 
open-mouthed glass tumbler, a family relic, 3i inches high, sa.d to be of the 
first part of the last century, and called from time immemorial "a syllabub 
or whip glass" (Fig. 285). Mr. H. W.llett has an opaque glass 
of similar size and shape, gilt-edged, and decorated on one side in gaudy colours 
with the figures of a gentleman and a lady of about ,790. It is inscribed m 
gilt letters A token of love from Yarmouth ; on the other s,de is a nose- 
gay of flowers ; and on the bottom, Absolon Yarm, the name of a chma and 
glass-seller at Yarmouth ; it was a martage or fairing (Fig. 286). 



Allusion has been made to the high antiquity of cider, a word which phil- 
ologists have derived from the Hebrew s/idkar, to inebriate. Cider appears to be 
mentioned in Vocabularies dating from, the tenth to the fifteenth century as 
Sicera, Cicera, Scicera, " scisere " ; and Sisera, glossed as " sycher," and is always 
distinguished from cervisia, ale.^ 

In the Gothic Gospels, translated by Ulphilas about 360, the words of the 
angel to Zacharias respecting John the Baptist are rendered, "yah wein yah leilm 
ni drigkid ; " and in the Anglo-Saxon version of about 995 the words are " and 
he ne drinc> win ne beor," the latter being then the stronger of the two. Wycliffe, 
in his translation of about 1380, has, "and he schal not drynke wyn and sydir," 
varieties of the word in MSS. being " cyser " and "cyther." In his later version 
Wyclifte again says, "and he schal not drinke wyn and sidir." Thus he gave 
to the name of the generally mild beverage of the present day the character 
implied by the generic Greek word aUepa, Latinised into " sicera," the " sycher" of 
the thirteenth century, and meaning any fermented drink made from fruit other 
than grapes, intoxicating or strong, such as cider undoubtedly sometimes is. The 
modern and proper rendering of aUepa was first given by Tyndale in his first 
edition of the New Testament, printed in 1525-26, "and shall nether drynke 
wyne ner stronge drynke." Coverdale, in his Bible printed at Zurich, it is 
believed in 1535, uses the words "wyne and stronge drinke," and so does Arch- 
bishop Parker's, or T/ie Bishops Bible in the edition of 1572. But in the 
New Testament of The Doiiai Bible, first printed at Rheims in 1582, " sicer " 

' A Library of National Antiquities, vol. i., printed by Joseph Mayer, 1857, pp. 27, 93, 98, 
•Vocabularies, edited by Thomas Wright, privately 178. 


is reverted to. Finally, strong drink was accepted by the divines of the Authorised 
Version, printed by Barker in i6ii} 

Apple gardens are spoken of in Domesday, and Worcester was early famed 
for its orchards. In Matthew Paris's account of King John's death, 28th October 
1216, he evidently uses the word " cicer " in the same sense as Wycliffe did long 
after ; he says : " But his very liurtful gluttony increased the troublesome nature of 
his illness, who, on that night, having indulged too much in eating peaches and by 
drinking new 'cicer' strongly intensified and inflamed the fevered heat within him."-^ 

Howell, a Welshman from the heart of South Wales, and educated at 
Hereford, spoke with some knowledge of cider. After dealing with ale, beer, 
metheglin, braggot, and mead, in what he calls his "dry discourse upon a fluent 
subject" to Lord Cliftbrd in 1634, he says that "cider and perry are also the 
natural drinks of part of this isle," meaning the Hereford district, namely, 
Herefordshire, Gloucestershire, Monmouthshire, and Worcestershire, and the 
Devon district of Devonshire, Dorsetshire, Somerset, and Cornwall. 

Cider was extensively manufactured during the thirteenth century as far 
north as Yorkshire. It was evidently also made at an early period in Lincoln- 
shire. King John drank it new at Swinestead in October 12 16; it could not 
therefore have come from far, and was consequently what Howell speaks of as a 
" natural drink " of those parts also ; and so it continued, and was largely made 

' See The English Hexapla ; and The Gothic till that the venyme come oute in every side in to the 

and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, etc., by the Rew J. Bos- cuppe, and tho toke he the cuppe and fylled it with good 

worth edit 1874 ^^ ^""^ brought it before the Kyng and knelyng said, Sir, 

2 „ A .. . .^ ,. . , ^. . quoth he, A\'assaile for never daies of your lyfe ne dronke 

Auxit autem aeoritudinis molestiam perm- ^ ^ ; ,,,,.. 

. . ye of such a cuppe. Begynne monk, quoth the King, and 

ciosa ejus inCTluvies qui nocte ilia de fructu Persicorum ., i j i ^ a w j * i ti l- ^ *u 

•' >= ^ the monke drank a grete draught and toke the Kyng the 

ct novi ciceris potatione nimis repletus, febrilem in sc ^uppe and the Kyng also drank a grete draught and sette 

calorem acuit fortiter ct incendit." A curious paper downe the cuppe. The Monke anone right went in to 

on the Death of King John, by the Rev. F. Spurrell, the fermorie and ther died anone on whos soule god have 

in the Archaeological Journal, vol. xxxviii. p. 302, mercy, Amen, and v monkes sing for his soule specially 

shows conclusively that a surfeit of new cider and ''^"'^ shullen whiles the abbey stant. The King aroos up 

«„.,..u„ 4- J i-u T.r- . -11 1 I ,^1 anone full evell at ese and commaunded to remeue the 

peaches aggravated the Kmgs lUness, and accelerated ,,,-,, 

, . table and axed for the monke and men told hnii that he 
his death. Ihis occurrence was in no way charge- j j r 1 ■ 1 u 1 • j ati >i. 

^ ° was dede for his wombe was broke in sunder. When the 

able to poison, or to supposititious venom of a toad j^y^g 1,^,.^ j^is he commaunded to trusse, but alle it was 

administered in a cup of wine by a monk of for nought, for his bely began to swele for the drinke that 

Swinstead, as so many historians have asserted, he dranke that he died withynne ii daies the morwe after 

John Fox, indeed, goes so far as to present the Seint lukes day. 

event in a scries of six dramatic scenes engraved Hemingford, Higden, and Knighton vary the story 

on a copper plate in his Acts and Monuments, by poisoning a dish of pears. It should be noticed 

facing p. 200, edit. 1684. It was nothing but a th^t at the end of October peaches would be ripe 

vulgar monkish legend which Caxton gives as ^^ ^X\q cold east coast of England, and cider newly 

follows in his Chronicle of 1480:— ^ade. The King was, therefore, so far correct in 

Tho went the monke in to a gardeync and fonde a his gastronomical instincts, though unfortunate in 

grete tode therein and toke hir up and put hir in a cuppe the manner of their application, 
and prikked the tode thurgh with a broche many tyme 


in Norfolk during the eighteenth century, just as it is at Banham, and of very 
good quality, in the south of the county at the present day. 

In Lawson's description of cider and perry making in Yorkshire in his time, 
that is, before 1597, he adds: "And if you hang a poeke full of cloves, cinamon, 
ginger and pills of lemmons in the midst of the vessell it will make it as wholesome 
and pleasant as wine. The like usage doth perry require." So the spicing of 
drinks had been extended to cider and perry.^ 

Mr. Evelyn speaks of the "vast apple orchard" which Hereford had become 
through the efforts of the Lord Scudamore, who set his interesting mark upon 
the secluded Cistercian Church of Dore in the Golden Valley.- The accomplished 
author of Syha also quotes Dr. Beale as saying that he had for some years tried 
cider in Somerset, Kent, and Essex, and that after an experience of thirty years 
of that of Herefordshire he found it the best. 

Excise duties are said to have had their origin in the tax laid upon beer, 
cider, and perry in 1643. In 1733 Walpole's obnoxious Excise Bill was abandoned 
amidst general rejoicings, and cockades were assumed with the legend, liberty 
PROPERTY AND NO EXCISE,^ and though the popularity of the motto dates from 
this time, it does not seem to have found its way on to drinking vessels of china 
and glass until later. Cider, like many other products, w^as subjected to excise 
regulations of sale and duties in 1763, and the clumsy and uncertain methods of 
its manufacture further tended to discouragement. The injurious interference 
with this particular home produce was removed before 1838. In Michael Edkins's 
ledger for Bristol glass, under the date i8th August 1763, is the entry, " To 6 
Enamelled p-Canns wrote Liberty and no Excise."^ 

Group XII. Glasses, Cider, Perry. 

With respect to cider glasses, Mansel makes no mention of them, nor does 
Greene in his letters and " forms " for orders to Venice ; and there is no evidence 
that special shapes were made before the middle of the eighteenth century. 
Obviously any fairly capacious cup would serve the purpose, whether of earthen- 
ware — as commonly used in Somerset at the present day — china, or glass ; but 

' A New Orchard, etc., p. 52. ecclesiastical question. The Form and Order was 

^ The Form and Order of the re-consecrating published by the late Mr. Fuller Russell in 1874 

of the church on Palm Sunday, 1634, the from the original MS. used on the occasion, now in 

existing stone altar 12 feet long and 4 feet the British Museum, Add. MSS., No. 15,645. 

wide, and the contemporary foot pace, in front ^ Stanhope, History of England, chap. xvi. 

only, are valuable evidence in a much discussed * Hugh Owen, ut sup. p. 380. 




there is a modern sumptuary fiction that cider tastes better out of a vessel of 
silver than from any other. Such was not the view taken a hundred and thirty 

years ago. 

So little was known about old cider glasses that it was believed both by 
connoisseurs and dealers in Worcestershire that they had no special shape. 
After many inquiries the author was fortunate enough to obtain in Hereford 
two examples of glasses of quite a difterent form to any that have already been 
noticed in the present work. The one with a brilliant air-twisted stem, engraved 
in an admirable manner with an apple-branch border, which has been oil-gilded 
(Plate 51) ; and the other with an opaque white twisted stem, engraved on one 
side with a conventionalised apple tree, and opposite with a large-winged insect 
—a heavy butterfly or, absif omen, the codlin-moth (Fig. 287). An ogee glass 

Fin. 287. (One third.) 

Flc. 288. (One third.) 

Fig. 289. (One third.) 

with a lustrous air-twisted stem, and engraved with the same apple-branch 
border, drawn by the same hand, is also in the author's cabinet. 

In Mr. Singer's collection is a cider glass loosely engraved on one side 
with an apple tree, and on the other with two barrels, and the words, no 
(Fig. 288). Mr. P. H. Bate has a somewhat similar example tending to the ogee 
shape. These words are part of the old popular cry which had been revived 
by the conduct of Wilkes and the appearance in 1763 of No. 45 of the North 
Briton, and, as to cider, by the excise regulations of the same year touching it. 
So the date of these vessels is assured, and it is probable that special cider 
glasses were now for the first time made, in consequence and in support of the 
clamour that was raised. Further examples bearing the same shape have come 
under the author's notice or fallen into his hands. They leave no doubt that, 
for whatever other drink the unengraved ones may have served, the original 
purpose of all was for the strong cider, treated almost like wine, as was the 





"Fine Ale" of later times, and representing in England " le gros cidre pard," 
" le vin de Pomone " of Normandy. Here, then, we have, four centuries after 
his time, the powerful siscm, the "sidir" of Wycliffe's translation, and which he 
was minded that St. John should not drink. 

It is not likely that the no excise cider glasses were made in any 
large quantity, but merely to meet an outburst of public passion which 
soon calmed ; but the shape seems to have been continued for a time. A 
beautiful glass of a larger size than those mentioned, rather thick, and 
weighing 14^ ounces, is in private hands. It is gilt edged, and has a land- 
scape, trees, a horse, and four sheep, excellently painted upon it in white 
enamel, no doubt the production of Bristol or Chepstow^ (Fig- 289). A pair 
of plain and large cider glasses, with widely-folded feet, are in the cabinet of 
the author, and others have been noticed in Norwich, as might be expected. 
The peculiar shape seems to have passed away some years before the end of 
the eighteenth century.^ 

Glasses, Perry (XII.) 

The scientific cultivation of pears, particularly of those of the kind proper 
for baking, such as the Cistercians of Wardon in Bedfordshire produced, dates 
at least from the early part of the thirteenth century ; and no doubt the improve- 
ment of the indigenous wild pear tree is greatly due to the intelligence of monastic 
gardeners. In the first years of Edward I.'s reign a variety of plants of a better 

' See p. 280. 

^ A glass of the cider shape, but probably for 
Burgundy, in the possession of Mr. W. Jackson, is 
engraved as follows : — 

Lady Wms 

Round the rim, — The Confederate 


AV'ynne Lady Parraniount. 


Mifs Mytton 




Mifs Owen 


Mifs Shakerly 




Mifs Williams 



Mifs Nelly Owen^ 


Hark Wenman 

& Dashwood 

S' ^Vat & the 

old Interest 

for E 


On the opposite side is an heraldic rose and natural 
buds, and a thistle. The glass originally had a 
white opaque-twisted stem ; this is now replaced 
by a stem and foot turned out of sycamore, the 
total height being 9J inches. No informa- 
tion has been obtained conccrninsj this local 

hunt ; it is previous to the institution of the 
Tarporley Hunt Club, and may have led to it. 
The latter also had Lady Patronesses and a 
President, and the members drank claret from 
" collar glasses," supposed to have held a bottle, 
as early as in 1762. The admittance glasses were 
larger still. The Confederate Hunt glass seems 
to be a memorial of five years of the Club's 
existence under the auspices of Sir Watkin 
Williams Wynn, M.P. for Denbigh county, and 
intended also to record the names of three famous 
hounds, and a political triumph in the General 
Election of 1754. The Confederate Hunt was 
probably for hare-hunting. 

No animal is more susceptible of modification 
than the dog, and it is not generally recognised 
that the foxhound, as we now know him, is a 
development dating from about 1750, probably 
from Lord Arundel's pack of the last quarter of 
the seventeenth century. 

314 ^ ^ 

^;;:;;^;;;;::^^ was made to almost as great an extent 

as cider early in the following century. The introduction of further and finer 

kinds of pears from France and Belgium is coincident with the conclusion of 

the Great War. 

Of special perry glasses there is at present no evidence. If any exist 
they are more likely to be found in the district of "The Faithful City, 
whose arms-like those of Wardon Abbey-are three pears, or in that "The 
Ever Faithful City," than anywhere else. 



Distilling. — Long before the German peoples and the Northern nations began 
to rudely and reprehensibly mingle different liquors, merely striving after 
something stronger, the Arabians in remote ages of the world had carried on 
the art of skilfully extracting aromatic essences from plants and flowers in the 
form of distilled waters for the bath. Many other arts and sciences had 
their origin in Arabia, and while it is indicated by certain passages in Pliny 
and Galen that both the Greeks and the Romans were well acquainted with 
the distillation of aromatic waters, the character of a multitude of small vases 
of pottery and glass points also to the same conclusion. 

Arnoldus de Villa Nova, a physician of the thirteenth century, is, how- 
ever, the first author who speaks explicitly of an intoxicating spirit, the 
true aqua vifae, as it was called and believed to be, obtained by the distillation 
of wine, and this he speaks of as a recent discovery. Raymond Lully of 
Majorca, a disciple of Arnoldus, in his TJicatruni CJieniicuni, of the end of 
the thirteenth century, describes the slow and tedious process of distillation 
from wine and its results, which were yet unknown in England at the end 
of the fifteenth century. Such knowledge was first brought westward by the 
Moors into Spain about the middle of the twelfth century, and appears to 
have come very slowly northward. It was probably introduced into England 
from Ireland. 

Distilled or cordial waters had their imperfect substitutes in England in 
the claret um and pigmeiituin, the clare, and the piment, or nectar, of the 

3i6 OLD ENGLISH GLASSES. chap. xxi. 

Middle Ages, both being mixtures of honey, sugar, spices, and wine, the 
former containing white, or rather clear red, and the latter deep red Mine, 
and the result in both cases being something akin to what is now known 
as liqueur, though they lacked much of the spirit and most of the subtlety 
of their modern representatives. The treatise De Utcnsilibus of Alexander 
Neckani, of the twelfth century, mentions both clare and nectar as proper 
to be found in the cellar or in the storehouse.^ Neither are spoken of either 
in the Anglo-Saxon Vocabulary of Archbishop Alfric, the grammarian, of the 
tenth century, or in another of the tenth or eleventh century, though 
"gewyrtod win" (spiced wine), "win gemenged mid myrran " (wine mixed 
with myrrh), "gehluttrad win" (refined wine), " gehlyttrod win" (pure wine), 
and "gesweted win" (sweetened wine),- all mentioned by Alfric, well re- 
presented the choicest productions of that age. All these were drunk in the 
aqua vitae measures of the later palm cups which have been tabulated under 
Class 4 of the Anglo-Saxon glass vessels." 

In a Nomina k\ and a Pictorial Vocabulary, both of the fifteenth century, 
clarete and pyment occur. But while " claretum " — a clarcte of the former 
becomes "claretum" — a clerote loyiie of the latter document of the end of the 
century,' nectar remains unchanged as to its definition, and seems to have 
retained its luscious quality as piment, being made with the red wine of 
Auvergne— the viuuiii falermtm of the Middle Ages, which was better suited 
as a foundation for what was required than the clear red wine which formed 
the basis of clarcte. As late as the end of the fifteenth century there appears 
to have been no ardent spirit in England distilled from wine or other drink, 
and presumably no acquaintance with the art of extracting aromatic essences 
from flowers and plants ; a knowledge of the one process would have carried 
that of the other. All these luxuries came slowly westward from the Orient. 

There is nothing to show that distillation of spirits was practised in 
Scotland before the Reformation. For instance, there is no mention of" usky " 
[aqua vitae) in the Statute of 1535, and as late as 1591 it was more than 
twice as dear as Spanish wine, and twenty-four times the price of ale.^ The 

A IJbrary of National Antiqidiics, Vocabu- signifies water, and is applied by way of eminence 

larics, ut sup. p. 98. to strong zvater, or distilled liquor. The spirit 

Ibid., pp. 27, 290. dnmk in the North is drawn from Barley. I never 

bee pp. 115, 121. tasted it, except once for experiment at the inn in 

^ Vocabularies, «/ j«/. pp. 233, 258. /wzwra;-/, when I thought it preferable to any 

E. C. Batten, Tlic Charters of the Priory of E7iglisli malt brandy. It was strong but not 

Beau/)', p. 259, edit. 1877. — "The word Whisky pungent, and was free from the empyreumatick 


Irish, with their ready intelligence, were in advance both of the Scots and of 
the English in th