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<L r < 




PH.D., D.C.L., LL.D., LITT.D. 










\jAll rights reserved^ 

i J 



oxford: HORACE HART 

-SlL' *■:■■.:: '•-■ 

In writing this Grammar we have kept steadily in view 
the class of students for whom the Series of Grammars 
was originally planned. As it is not intended for 
specialists, some details of more or less importance have 
been intentionally omitted, but we venture to think that 
the present volume contains all that the ordinary student 
will require to know about the subject. The student who 
thoroughly masters the book will not only have gained 
a comprehensive knowledge of Old English, but will also 
have acquired the elements of Comparative Germanic 
grammar. But from our long experience as teachers of 
the subject, we should strongly recommend the beginner 
not to work through the phonology at the outset, but to 
read Chapter I and sections ^^2IS^* ^^^ then to learn 
the paiaitl^Sy s^d at the same time to read some easy 
texts such as are to be found in any of the Old English 
Readers. This is undoubtedly the best plan in the end, 
and will lead to the most satisfactory results. In fact, it is 
in our opinion a sheer waste of time for a student to 
attempt to study in detail the phonology of any language 
before he has acquired a j;ood working knowledge of its 
vocabulary and inflexions. 

In selecting examples to illustrate the sound-laws we 
have tried as far as possible to give words which have 
been preserved in Modern English. A comparison of the 
Index to the Grammar with an Old English Dictionary 
would show that we have thus included nearly all the 
simple words which have been preserved in the modern 
language. Our object in doing this was to enable the 


vi Preface 

student to lay a solid foundation for his further study of 
historical English grammar, and to provide a basis for the 
next volume of the Series, which will deal with Middle 

It was originally our intention to include in the present 
volume some chapters on Syntax, but it was found that 
the inclusibn of these chapters would have rendered the 
book too large for the Series. This omission of the 
syntax cannot however be regarded as a serious draw- 
back, because the volume dealing with historical English 
syntax is already in active preparation, and will, it is 
hoped, be ready for press this year. 

Although this Grammar makes no pretence of being an 
exhaustive work, yet it \% by far the most complete 
Grammar that has hitherto been written in our own 
language, and the first to deal with the subject in a strictly 
scientific manner. We gratefully acknowledge the help 
we have derived from the learned articles and books by 
that splendid band of German Anglisten which has done 
so much to throw light upon the history and philology ot 
our language in all its stages. On pp. xiii-xiv will be found 
a select list of the books which we have found most useful, 
but it is our pleasant duty to mention here our special 
indebtedness to the works of Bolbring, Cosijn, and 

In conclusion, we wish to express our sincere thanks to 
the Controller of the University Press for his great kind- 
ness in complying with our wishes in regard to special 
type, and to the Press Reader for the excellent manner in 
which he has read the proofs. 



January^ 1908. 




Classification of the Indo-Germanic languages, and 
a few characteristics of the Germanic languages (§ i) ; 
the periods of Old English ({ 2) ; the Old English 
dialects (§ 3). 


Orthography and Pronunciation 5-17 

Vowels (§§ 4-6) ; consonants (§§ 7-8) ; accentuation 


The Prim. Germanic Equivalents of the Indo- 

Germanic Vowel-sounds 18-23 

The Indo-Germanic vowel-system (§ 16). a (§ 17) ; 
e(§i8); i(§i9); o (§ 20) ; u(§2i); •(§22); ^(§23); 
e(§24); i(§25); o(§26); fi(§27); ai(§28); ei(§29); 
oi (§ 30) ; au (§ 31) ; eu (§ 32) ; ou (§ 33). The Indg. 
vocalic nasals and liquids : m (§ 34) ; n (§ 35) ; r (§ 36) ; 

The Prim. Germanic Vowel-system . . . . 23-28 
Table of the Prim. Germanic vowel-system (§ 38). 
The change of a to a (§ 40) ; the change of e to i, and 
of i to 1 (§ 41) ; the change of i to e (§ 42) ; the change 
of u to o, u (§ 43) ; the change of eu to iu (§ 44). The 
vowel-system at the close of the Prim. Germanic period, 
and table showing the normal development of the 
vowels in the various Germanic languages (§ 45). 

viii Contents 



The 0£. Development of the Prim, Germanic Vowels 

OF Accented Syllables 38-70 

Umlaut : i-umlaut (§ 47) ; u- and o/a*umlaut (§ 48). 
Breaking (§ 49). Influence of nasals (§ 50). Influence 
of initial palatal consonants (§ 51). Influence of w 
(§ 52). The chronology of the sound-laws stated in 
§§ 47-52 (§ 53)- Short vowels : a (§§ 54-79) ; e 
(§§ 80-95) ; i (§§ 96-105) ; o (§§ 106-10) ; 11 (§§ 111-16). 
Long vowels : a (§§ 117-18) ; m (§§ 119-24) ; « (§ i^S) » 
I (§§ 126-7) ; S (§§ 128-30) ; u (§§ 131-2). Diphthongs : 
ai (§§ 133-4); au (§§ 135-6); eu (§ 137); in (§ 138). 
Vowel contraction (§§ 139-42). The lengthening of 
short vowels (§§ i43-9)» The shortening of long vowels 
(§§ I50-I)' Table of the OE. vowel-system (§ 152). 


The Prim. Germanic Equivalents of the 0£. Vowels 

OF Accented Syllables 71-^ 

The short vowels : a (§ 153) ; a (o) (§ 154) ; m (§ 155) ; 
e (§ 156); i (§ 157); o (§ 158); « (§ 159); y (§ 160). 
The long vowels : a (§ 161) ; m (§ 162) ; e (§ 163) ; 
1 (§ 164) ; 6 (§ 165) ; fi (§ 166) ; y (§ 167). The short 
diphthongs: ea (§ 168); eo <§ 169); ie, later i, y 
(§ 170); io, later eo (§ 171). The long diphthongs: 
ea (§ 172) ; eo (§ 173) ; le, later 1, y (§ 174) ; 10, later eo 
(§ 175). The chief deviations of the other dialects from 
West Saxon : a (§ 176) ; m (§§ 177-^) ; « (§§ 181-3) ; 
l(§i84); o(§i85); «(§i86); fe(§i87); e(§§ 188-91); 
1 (§§ 192-3) ; « (§ 194) ; ea (§§ 195-7) ; eo (§§ 198- 

: 201) ; io (§§ 202-7); ea (§ 208); 10 (§§ 209-10). 

The OE. Development of the Prim. Germanic Vowels 

OF Unaccented Syllables 84-95 

The treatment of Indg. final consonants in prehistoric 
OE. (§ 211). Vowels which were originally final or 
became final in Prim. Germanic (§§ 212-17). Vowels 


Contents ix 


which came to stand in final syllables in prehistoric 0£. 
(§ 218). Final vocalic nasals and liquids in prehistoric 
0£. (§ 219). Svarabhakti vowels (§ 220). Vowels in 
medial syllables (§§ 221-3). 

Ablaut (§§ 224-8) 96-100 


The First Sound-shifting, Verner's Law, and other 
Consonant Changes which took place in the Prim. 

Germanic Language 100-121 

Table of the Indo-Germanic consonant-system 
(§ 229). The normal equivalents of the Indg. explosives 
in Latin, Greek, and the Germanic languages (§ 21^), 
The first sound-shifting:— the tenues (§ 231); the 
mediae (§ 232); the tenues aspiratae (§ 233); the 
mediae aspiratae (§§ 234-5)* The chronological order 
of the first sound-shifting (§ 236). The twofold develop- 
ment of the Indg. velars in the Germanic languages 
(§ 237)' Verner's law (§§ 23&^). Other consonant 
changes (§§ 240-^0). Table of Prim. Germanic conso* 
nants (§ 251). 


SPEaAL West Germanic Modifications of the General 
Germanic Consonant-system .... 122-125 

Prim. Germanic z (§ 252). Prim. Germanic d (§ 253). 
The doubling of consonants (§§ 254-6). 


The OE. Development of the General Germanic 

Consonant-system 125-159 

OE. double consonants (§ 258). The simplification of 
double consonants (§ 259). The doubling of consonants 
in OE. (§ 260). The voicing of f, )», s (§ 261). The 
unvoicing of 1>» 5 (§ 262). The semivowels : v (§§ ^' 
7);J(§§a6a-75). Theliquids:l(§§276-7);r(§§ 278-81). 

X Contents 


The nasals : m (§§ 280-4) ; n (§§ 385-8) ; i| (§§ 289-90). 
The labials : p (§ 291) ; b (§§ 292-4) ; f (§§ 295-7). The 
dentals : t (§ 298) ; d {§§ 299-300) ; ^ (§§ 301-5). The 
sibilant s (§§ 306-8). The gutturals: k (§§ 309-12); 
g(§§ 313-24); h(§§ 325-9). 

Nouns 160-199 

Classification of nouns (§§ 330-2). Declension of 
nouns : — 

A. The strong declension :— Masculine a-stems 
(§§ 334-41) ; neuter a-stems (§§ 342-50) ; masculine 
ja-stems(§§ 351-4); neuter ja-stems(§§ 355-8); mascu- 
line wa-stems (§§ 359-60) ; neuter wa-stems (§§ 361-3). 
Feminine o-stems (§§ 364-73); feminine jo-stems 
(§§ 374-S) > feminine wo-steihs {§§ 379-81). Feminine 
abstract nouns in -i (§§ 382-3). Masculine i-stems 
(§§385-8); feminine i-stems (§§389-91); neuter i-stems 
(§§ 39^3)- Masculine o-stems (§§ 395-7); feminine 
u-stems (§ 398); neuter a-stems (§ 399). 

B. The weak declension : — Masculine n-stems 
(§§400-2); feminine n-stems (§§403-5); neuter n-stems 


C. Minor declensions: — Monosyllabic consonant 
stems (§§ 408-13). Stems in -)» (§ 414). Stems in -r 
(§ 415). Stems in -nd (§§ 416-18). Stems in -os, -es 
(§§ 41^20). 


Adjectives 199-222 

General remarks on the declension of adjectives 
(§§ 421-2). The strong declension :— a-stems (§§ 424- 
31) ; ja-stems (§§ 432-4) ; wa-stems (§§ 435-7)- i-stems 
(§ 438)* u-stems (§ 439). The weak declension (§ 440). 
The declension of participles (§§ 441-2). The com- 
parison of adjectives :— The comparative degree (§ 443) ; 
the superlative degree (§ 444) ; irregular comparison 
(§§ 445-6). Numerals :— Cardinal and ordinal (§§ 447- 
52); other numerals (§§ 453-7)- 

Contents xi 



Pronouns 223-333 

General remarks on the pronouns (§ 458). Personal 
pronouns (§§ 459-62). Reflexive pronouns (§ 463). 
Possessive pronouns (§ 464). Demonstrative pronouns 
(§§ 465-7). Relative pronouns (§ 468). Interrogative 
pronouns (§§ 469-70). Indefinite pronouns (§ 471). 


Verbs 233-^79 

The classification of verbs (§§ 472-4). The full con* 
jugation of several strong verbs as models (§ 475). 
The endings of strong verbs (§§ 476-83). General 
remarks on the strong verbs (§§ 484-9). The classifica- 
tion of strong verbs:— Class I (§§ 490-2); Class II 
($§ 493-6) ; Class III (§§ 497-5oa) ; Class IV (§§ 503-4); 
Class V {§§ 5^-7); Class VI (§§ 508-10); Class VII 
(§§ 511-19). The classification of weak verbs :— Class I 
(§§ 521-34); Class II (§§ 535-7); Class III (§ 538). 
Minor groups :—Preterite-presents (§§ 539-46); verbs 
in -mi {§§ 547-51X 


Adverbs (§§ 552-8) ; Prepositions (§559); Conjunctions 
{§560) 279-287 


Word-Formation 287-313 

Simple and derivative nouns (§§ 562-3) ; noun and 
adjectival prefixes (§§ 564-94) ; noun suffixes (§§ 595- 
616) ; compound nouns (§$617-19). Simple and deriva- 
tive adjectives (§§ 620-1); adjectival suffixes (§§ 622- 
39); compound adjectives (§§ 640-1). Simple and 
compound verbs (§§ 642-4); verbal prefixes (§§ 645- 
56) ; verbal suffixes (§§ 657-9). 

INDEX 314-351 


Brugmann^ Karl, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indo- 
germanischen Sprachen. Strassburg, 1904. 

Bulbring, Karl D, Altenglisches Elementarbuch (Lautlehre). 
Heidelberg, 1902. 

CosiJHy P.J. AltwestsAchsische Grammatik. Haag, 1883-6. 

Dieter, Ferdinand, Laut- und Formenlehre der altgermanischen 
Dialekle. Leipzig, 1900. 

Hall^ John R, Clark, A concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary for 
the use of students. London, 1894. 

Holthausen, Ferdinand, AltsAchsisches Elementarbuch. Heidel- 
berg, 1899. 

Kaluza, Max, Historische Grammatik der engUschen Sprache. 
Erster Teil. Berlin-SchOneberg, 1906. 

Kluge, Friedrich, Geschichte der engUschen Sprache (Paul's 
Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, vol. i, pp. 925- 
1166, Strassburg, 1904). 
Nominale Stammbildungslehre der altgermanischen Dia- 
lekte. Halle, 1899. 

Koch^ Friedrich C, Die Satzlehre der englischen Sprache. 
Cassel, 1878. 

Mayhew, A. L. Synopsis of Old English Phonology. Oxford, 

NoreeHy Adolf, AltisUlndische und altnorwegische Grammatik 
unter Berdcksichtigung des Umordischen. Halle, 1903. 
Abriss der urgermanischen Lautlehre. Strassburg, 1894. 

Pogatscher, Alois, Zur Lautlehre der griechischen, lateinischen 
und romanischen LehnwOrter im Altenglischen. Strass- 
burg« 1888. 

xiv Select List of Books used 

SieverSf Eduard. Angelsflchsische Grammatik. Halle, 1898. 

Streitbergy fVilhelnt, Urgermanische Grammatik. Heidelberg^ 

Sweet, Henry. The Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon. 
Oxford, J897. 

Toller, T. Northcote. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, based on the 
manuscript collections of the late Joseph Bosworth. 
Oxford, i88a"i898. 

Walde^ Alois. Die germanischen Auslautgesetze. Halle, 1900. 

Wright, Joseph. An Old High German Primer. Oxford, 1906. 
A Primer of the Gothic Language. Oxford, 1899. 
The English Dialect Grammar. Oxford, 1905. 

^ . 



= Doric 


B Middje H igh German 


= French 


= New English 


= Germanic 
= GotHit 


« New High German 



= Northumbrian 


= Greek 


» Old English 


= Homer 


= Old High German 


= Indo'-Gemianic 


« Old Icelandic 


= instrumental 
= Ken^sh 


= Old Irish 



= Old Saxon 


= Latiri 


= Primitive 


= 15c«itive 


= Sanskrit 


= Middle English 


= West Saxon 

The asterisk ♦ prefixed to a word denotes a theoretical form, 
as OE. da^g, day, from Prim. Germanic *daga2. 


' » ^ . : 

' ^ ', 

- \ 


"■ ^ . \ 

» t 





r, -. ■ 

-, -'' 


§ 1. Old English is a member of the West Germanic 
division of the Germanic (Teutonic) branch of the Indo- 
Germanic family of languages. This great family of lan- 
guages is usually divided into eight branches : — 

I. Aryran, consisting of: (i) The Indian group, including 
the language of the Vedas, classical Sanskrit, and the 
Prakrit dialects. (2) The Iranian group, including (a) West 
Iranian (Old Persian, the language of the Persian cuneiform 
inscriptions, dating from about 520-350 B.C.); (b) East 
Iranian (Avesta — sometimes called Zend-Avesta, Zend, 
and Old Bactrian — the language of the Avesta, the sacred 
books of the Zoroastrians). 

II. Armenian, the oldest monuments of which belong 
to the fifth century a.d. 

III. Greek, with its numerous dialects. 

IV. Albanian, the language of ancient Illyria. The 
oldest monuments belong to the seventeenth century. 

V. Italic, consisting of Latin and the Umbrian-Samnitic 
dialects. From the popular form of Latin are descended 
the Romance languages : Portuguese, Spanish, Catalanian, 
Proven9al, French, Italian, Raetoromanic, Roumanian or 

VI. Keltic, consisting of: (i) Gaulish (known to us 
by Keltic names and words quoted by Latin and Greek 
authors, and inscriptions on coins ; (2) Britannic, including 
Cymric or Welsh, Cornish, and Bas Breton or Armorican 
(the oldest records of Cymric and Bas Breton date back 
to the eighth or ninth century) ; (3) Gaelic, including Irish- 

2 Introduction [§ i 

Gaelic, Scotch-Gaelic, and Manx. The oldest monuments 
are the old Gaelic ogam inscriptions which probably date 
as far back as about 500 a. d. 

VII. Baltic-Slavonic, consisting of: (i) The Baltic 
division, embracing (a) Old Prussian, which became extinct 
in the seventeenth century, (b) Lithuanian, (c) Lettic 
(the oldest records of Lithuanian and Lettic belong to the 
sixteenth century) ; (2) the Slavonic division, embracing : 
(a) the South-Eastern group, including Russian (Great 
Russian, White Russian, and Little Russian), Bulgarian, 
and Ill3Tian (Servian, Croatian, Slovenian) ; (b) the Western 
group, including Czech (Bohemian), Sorabian (Wendish), 
Polish and Polabian. 

VIII. Germanic, consisting of:— 

(i) Gothic. Almost the only source of our knowledge 
of the Gothic language is the fragments of the biblical 
translation made in the fourth century by Ulfilas, the 
Bishop of the West Goths. 

(2) Old Norse (Scandinavian), which is sub-divided into 
two groups : (a) East Norse, including Swedish, Gutnish, 
and Danish ; (b) West Norse, including Norwegian, and 

The oldest records of this branch are the runic inscrip- 
tions, some of which date as far back as the third or fourth 

(3) West Germanic, which is composed of :— 

(a) High German, the oldest monuments of which belong 
to about the middle of the eighth century. 

(b) Low Franconian, called Old Low Franconian or Old 
Dutch until about 1200. 

(c) Low German, with records dating back to the ninth 
century. Up to about 1200 it is generally called Old 

(d) Frisian, the oldest records of which belong to the 
fourteenth century. 

§§ 2-3] Introduction 3 

(e) English, the oldest records of which belong to about 
the end of the seventh century. 

Note.— I. A few of the chief characteristics of the Germanic 
languages as compared with the other branches of the Indo- 
Germanic languages are : the first sound-shifting or Grimm's 
law (§§ 229-84) ; Vemer's law (§ 208) ; the development of the 
so-called weak declension of adjectives (§ 421) ; the develop- 
ment of the preterite of weak verbs (§ Q20) ; the use of the old 
perfect as a preterite (§ 481). 

2. The most characteristic differences between Gothic and 
Old Norse on the one hand, and of West Germanic on the 
other, are: the West Germanic gemination of consonants 
(§§ 264-6) ; the loss of final z which arose from Indo-Germanic 
8 by Vemer's law (§ 262) ; the West Germanic development 
of prim. Germanic ww (§ 00), jj (§ 276) ; the form of the second 
pers. sing. pret. indicative of strong verbs (§ 481). Gothic and 
Old Norse preserved the old perfect ending, as Goth. Old 
Norse namt, thou tookesi, but 0£. nome, OS. OHG. nam!. In 
the West Germanic languages the -t was only preserved in 
the preterite-present verbs, as OE. wast, OS. west, OHG. 
weist, thou knowest 

3. The most characteristic difference between High German 
and the other Germanic languages is : the High German sound- 
shifting (§ 280). 

§ 2. The division of a language into fixed periods must 
of necessity be more or less arbitrary. What are given 
as the characteristics of one period have generally had 
their beginnings in the previous period, and it is impossible 
to say with perfect accuracy when one period begins and 
another ends#^ For practical purposes Old English may 
be conveniently divided into two periods: early OE. from 
about 700 to 900 ; and late OE. from 900-1100. 

§ 8. The oldest records of OE, exhibit clearly defined 
dialectal peculiarities which have been treated in some 
detail in the phonology, so that the student caii easily 
collect together for himself the chief characteristics of each 
dialect. In this grammar early West Saxon is taken 

B a 

4 Introduction [§ 3 

as the standard for OE., and is treated in greater detail 
than the other dialects. In using OE. poetry for gram- 
matical purposes the student should remember that it was 
for the most part originally written in the Anglian dialect, 
but that it has come down to us chiefly in late West Saxon 
copies which contain many Anglian forms. OE. is usually 
divided into four dialects: (a) Northumbrian, embracing 
the district between the Firth of Forth and the Humber. 

(b) Mercian, between the Humber and the Thames. 

(c) West Saxon, south of the Thames, except Kent and 
Surrey, (d) Kentish, embracing Kent and Surrey. 
Northumbrian and Mercian are often classed together 
and called Anglian. 

Note.— A detailed comparison of late OE. phonology with 
that of the Modem dialects would doubtless show that the 
dialects of Sussex and East Anglia were closely related to the 
dialect of Kent in the OE. period. This is not the place for such 
a comparison, so one example must suffice here. The change 
of y to e (§ 182, Note) in late OE. is always regarded as a special 
Kentish peculiarity, but the same sound change must also have 
taken place in Sussex and East Anglia, where OE. y has 
regularly become i (through the older stage e) in the Modern 
dialects, as lis (OE. lys), lice ; mis (OE. mys), mice ; whereas 
had y simply been unrounded to T in the late OE. period of 
these dialects, the Modern forms would have been *loi8 and 



§ 4. OE. was written in the British modified form of the 
Latin alphabet with the addition of p and P (= w) from 
the runic alphabet. Vowel length was mostly omitted in 
writing, but in the case of long vowels it was sometimes 
represented by doubling the vowel or by using the diacritic 
sign ', as httus, h6s, house. The sign ", placed over 
vowels, is used in this grammar to mark long vowels 
and diphthongs. The account of the pronunciation given 
below is only approximately accurate. It is impossible 
to ascertain with perfect certainty the exact pronunciation 
of any language in its oldest period. 

A The Vowels. 

§ 6. The OE. vowel-system was represented by the 
six elementary letters a, e, i, o, u, y, the ligatures a, oe, 
and the digraphs ea, eo» io, and ie, the digraphs having 
the value of diphthongs. See § 6. They all had both 
a short and a long quantity. 

a had the same sound as the a in NHG. ab, gast^ 
siS d^aSf days ; hBhha,n, to have ; hagol, hail; hsLTB.fhare. 
abefgtfi-aasals was probably a low-back-wide vowel like 
The aas pronounced in many Scotch dialects in such words 
as ant, man. In OE. it was accordingly often written- o- 
and may be pronounced like the o in NE. not, as band. 

6 Phonology (§ s 

bond, he bound ; land, londf land; lasig, long, long; mann, 
monn, man ; nama, noma, name. See § 60. 

a had the same sound as the a in NE. father, as Sin, one ; 
bSln, bone; i^p, rope; twSl, two; cn&wan, to know; 
m&wan, to mow ; s&wan, to sow. 

s had the same sound as the a in NE. hat, as daeg, day ; 
feeder, father; fsdstau, to fasten; hasfde, he had ; maegden, 

s had the same sound as the ai in NE. air, and the 
^ in French p^re, as dsed, deed; 8«d, seed; wsepen, 
weapon; clsene, clean; hselan, to heal; Isdan,' /o lead; 
see, sea* 

e had the same sound as the e in NE. west, end, 
as etan, to eat; fell, skin; helpan, to help; segl, sail; 
ende, end; here, army; mete, meat; exen, oxen. 

e had the same sound as the e in NHG. reh, as her, 
here; cwen, queen; fedan, to feed; grene, green; tej), 

i had the same sound as the i in NE. sit, as fisc,yf5/r; 
sittan, to sit ; })ing, thing ; niman, to take. 

1 had the same sound as the i in NHG. ihn, and nearly 
the same sound as the ee in NE. feed, as lif, life; mm, 
my; fxd,time; f%five; Bipe, scythe. 

o had the same sound as the o in NE. not, as col, coal; 
coren, chosen; dohtor, daughter; nostt, nose; oxa, ox. 
See a above. 

5 had the same sound as the o in NHG. bote, as br5})or, 
brother; grbwaHf to grow ; modoTf mother ; mbnB^moon; 
sona, soon ; gps, goose ; 5J>er, other ; I>5hte, he thought. 

u had the same sound as the u in NE. put, as duru, 
door; ivM,full; hungor, hunger; lufian, to love; guma, 
man ; Jninor, thunder. 

vi had the same sound as the u in NHG. gut, and nearly 
the same sound as the 00 in NE. food, as cii, cow ; hiis,. 
house; sur, sour; iit, out; mii]>, mouth; iis, us. 

§ 5l Orthography and Pronunciation 7 

Qd had the same sound as the 5 in NHG. gdttery as 
dat. dcehter, to a daughter] oele, oil; oexen, oxen. 

de had the same sound as the 5 in NHG. 8Ch5n» as 
bdeCy books; dGema(n), to judge ;\CViQdn9 queen. 

y had the same sound as the ii in NHG. mtitter, as 
brycg, bridge; cyning, king; scyld, guilt; ]>3mcan» to 

y had the same sound as the ii in NHG. griin^ as bryd, 
bride ; mys, mice ; wyscan, to wish ; yj>, wave. 

It is difficult to determine what was the precise pronun- 
ciation of the a» e, o in the second element of diphthongs. 
In these combinations they had the function of consonants 
and may be pronounced as very short unstressed &, £, 6. 
The first element of the diphthongs ea, ea was a very 
open sound like the ae in OE. feeder, and the a in NE. hat, 
but the e in the diphthongs eo, eo was like the e in NE. 
bed or like the close 6 in French 6t6. In the long diph- 
thongs each of the elements was longer than in the short 

ea = 8e + &9 as eall, all; healdan, to hold; earm, arm ; 
heard, Aan/; ^BiAsif eight ; weaxan, to grow ; geaifgate. 

ea = se + a, as dea]>, death ; heafod, head; hleapan, to 
leap; slean, /o sAiy ; gear f year; ^c^a^^ sheep; neah, »^ar; 
stria, straw, 

eo =^ e + 6, as meolcan, to milk ; heorte, heart ; steorra, 
star; BWtostor^ sister ; geolOf yellow. 

eo = e + o, as ceosan, to choose ; deop, deep ; ])eof, thief; 
seon, to see ; cneo, knee, 

ie = i-f-6, as giest, guest; ieldra, older; ierfe, inheri- 
tance ; hliehhan, to laugh ; giefan, to give ; hierde, shep- 
herd; sieh]>, he sees; cnieht, boy. 

ie = i-f-e,ashieran,/o/r^ar; gelief an, to believe ; hlehra; 
higher; ciesp, he chooses ; Uehtan^ to give light ; mewe,new. 

io = i + d, as liomian, to learn; mioluc, miolc, milk; 
mioXf manure. 

8 Phonology [§5 6-7 

10 = 1 + o» as node, people ; Jnostre, dark ; sion, io strain ; 
Jnon, to thrive. 

§ 6. From what has been said above we arrive at the 
following OE. vowel-system : — 

Short vowels a, m^ e, i, o, u, oe» y 

Long „ a, ae, e, i, 6, ii, de, y 

Short diphthongs ea, eo» ie» io 
Long „ ea, eo» le, io 

Note.— ae was often written ae, and ^ in the oldest records. 
In the oldest period of the language there must have been two 
short e-sounds, viz. e «= Germanic e (§ 80), and e «= the i-umlaut 
of ae (§ 66), the latter probably being more open than the 
former, but the two sounds seem to have fallen together at an 
early date. Long i was sometimes written ig finally and occa- 
sionally also medially, as big = bl, ^ ; hig = hi, they ; big- 
spell = bispell, parable. The 5 in words like gos, goose (§ 61) 
and mona, moon (§ 121) must originally have been an open 5 
like the a in N£. all, but it fell together with Germanic long 
close 5 (§ 128) at an early period. <e and de» always written oe 
in 0£. manuscripts, only occur in the Anglian dialect ; in WS. 
and Ken. they were imrounded to e already in the oldest period 
of these dialects (§ 129). The diphthongs ea, ea were some- 
times written aeo in the oldest records, ie and le occur chiefly 
in early WS. 

A diphthong may be defined as the combination of a sonantal 
with a consonantal vowel. It is called a falling or a rising 
diphthong according as the stress is upon the first or the 
second element. The OE. diphthongs were generally falling 
diphthongs, but the diphthongs, which arose from the influence 
of initial palatal c, g, and so upon a following palatal vowel, 
were originally rising diphthongs which at a later period be- 
came falling diphthongs through the shifting of the stress from 
the second to the first element of the diphthong. See § 61. 

B. The Consonants. 
§ 7. The OE. consonant-system was represented by the 
following letters r—b, c, d, f, g, h, k, 1, m, n, p, r, s, t, J> 
(8), ♦w, X. 

§ 7] Orthography and Pronunciation 9 

V (written u) and z ( = ts) were very rarely- used except 
occasionally in late loanwords, c, cc, nc» so ; g»ng; and 
h (except initially), hh were guttural or palatal according 
to the sound-law stated in § 808. On the vocalic liquids 
and nasals in OE. see § 20.9. 

Of the above letters h, d, m, n, p, t had the same sound- 
values as in Modem English. The remaining consonants 
require special attention. 

c. Guttural c, sometimes written k in the oldest records, 
was pronounced nearly like the c in NE. could. Palatal 
C (often written ce before a following guttural vowel) was 
pronounced nearly like the k in NE. kid. In the OE. 
runic alphabet the two k-sounds had separate characters. 
Some scholars assume that palatal c and so were pro- 
nounced like the ch and sh in NE. church; ship, fish. 
Examples of guttural c are : bucca, he-goat ; celan, to cool ; 
cneo, knee ; sprecan, to speak ; cyssan, to kiss ; boc, book ; 
weorc, tiH>rk; drincan, to drink; pancian, to thank ; and 
of palatal c : ciosan, to choose ; cinn, chin ; ciese, cheese ; 
bee, books; cry cc, crutch; bene, bench; ]>enc(e)an, to think ; 
of sc: scealy shall; sceap, sheep; scbh,shoe; wascan, to 
wash; Asc, fish, 

f. Initially, finally, and medially before voiceless con- 
sonants, also when doubled, f was a voiceless spirant like 
the f in NE. fit, shaft, as Ue&er, father ; lot, foot; ceaf, 
chaff; hrof, roof; geaf, he gave; sceaft, shaft; pyfifan, 
to puff. Medially between voiced sounds it was a voiced 
spirant (often written b in the oldest records) like the 
V in NE. vine, five, as giefan, to give; hafa]), he has; 
seofon, seven; wulfas, wolves; hraefn, raven; lifde, he 

g was used to represent several different sounds : (a) a 
' guttural and a palatal explosive ; (A) a guttural and a pala- 
tal spirant which had separate characters in the OE. runic 
alphabet. The palatal explosive and the palatal spirant 

lo Phonology [§ 7 

were often written ge before a following guttural vowel 
with e to indicate the palatal nature- of the g. 

Before guttural vowels initial g was pronounced like the 
g in NE. good, but in the oldest OE. like the g in NHG. 
sagen (§ 814), as gast, spirit; god, God; gold, gdd. 
Before palatal vowels initial g was a palatal spirant nearly 
like the j in NHG. jahr and the y in NE. ye, you, as geaf, 
he gave; giefan, to gwe ; giest, yeast; geoCfyoke. 

Medial gg was always a guttural explosive like the g in 
NE. good, as dogga, dog; froggSL, frog ; stagga, stag. 
Medial and final eg was a palatal explosive nearly like the 
g in NE. get, as lecg(e)an, to lay; secg(e)an, to say; 
brycg, bridge ; wecg, wedge* The g in medial and final 
ng was a guttural or a palatal explosive, the former being 
nearly like the g in NE. longer, as sungon, they sang; 
hungor, hunger ; lang, long; and the latter nearly like the 
g in NE. finger, as lengra, longer; streng, string; t^ingf 

Medial intervocalic g was a guttural or a palatal spirant, 
the former being nearly like the g in NHG. sagen, as 
boga, bow; fugol, bird; lagu, /azc;; and the latter nearly 
like the g in NHG. siegen, as bieg(e)an, to bend; feger, 
fair; hyge, mind. 

Note. — i. Some scholars assume that palatal eg and ng 
were pronounced 6^ and n&k where dz = the J in NE. Just. 

a* S ^s generally used for g in OE. manuscripts and printed 
texts, and often also in grammars. In this grammar 5 is only used 
to represent the prim. Germanic voiced spirant (§ 229, Note 5). 

h. Initial h (except in the combination hw) was an 
aspirate like the h in NE. hand, as habban, to have; 
heard, hard; bus, house ; hliid, loud. Initial hw was pro- 
nounced xw like the wh in many Scotch dialects, as hwa, 
who?; hwste, wheat. In all other positions h, including 
hh, was a guttural or a palatal spirant, the former being 
like the eh in NHG. naeht, noeh, as dohtor, daughter ; 

§ 1] Orthography and Pronunciation 1 1 

eahta, eight-, tiohhian, to think, consider; 8tilh» plough; 
feorh, life ; d&h, dough ; troh, trough ; and the latter like 
thech in NHG. nicht, ich, as fLyht, fl^ht; sieh))^ he sees; 
neahf near; hliehhan,' to laugh. In the oldest records 
final h was sometimes written ch, as elch=s eolh, elk; 
salch = sealh, willow. 

k was sometimes used to express the guttural c (see 
above), as kynn, r€u:e, generation ; kyning, king ; knSo. 
knee. See § 319. 

1. In Northumbrian and the greater portion of the 
Mercian district, 1 was pronounced like the 1 in NHG. and 
in standard NE., but in West Saxon, Kentish, and parts of 
the southern portion of Mercia, it was a reverted sound 
formed by the under surface of the tip of the tongue being 
turned to the hard palate which imparted to the sound 
a kind of guttural quality. This explains why breaking 
(§§ 49, 63) took place in WS. and Ken. before 1+ con- 
sonant, but not in Anglian. The reverted 1 is still pre- 
served in the dialects of the southern and south-western 
counties. Examples are: ISbdan, to lead ; folc, folk; fugol, 
bird; eall, all; healdan, to hold; meolcan, to milk. 

r was trilled in all positions as in Modern Scotch, as 
ridan, to ride; duru, door; word, word; fmder, father. 
In West Saxon, Kentish, and parts of the southern portion 
of Mercia, it was reverted like 1 (see above), which accounts 
for breaking taking place before r4- consonant more regu- 
larly in WS. and Ken. than in Anglian, as earm, arm ; 
heard, hard; eor])e9 earth ; liomian, to learn, 

s. Initially, finally, medially before voiceless consonants, 
and when doubled, s was a voiceless spirant like the s in 
NE. sit, as sealty salt; sunu, son; standan, to stand; sweos- 
tor, sister; hiis, house; Is, ice ; cyssan, to kiss. Medially 
between voiced sounds, it was a voiced spirant like the s in 
NE. rise, as bdsm, bosom ; ceosan, to choose ; nosu, nose ; 
oslet ousel. 

12 Phonology [§ 8 

])• Initially, medially when doubled, and finally ]> was 
a voiceless spirant like the th in NE. thin^ as ))encan, to 
think ; ])eof , thief ; mo])])e, mo/A ; bse]), Aa/A ; mu]>, mouth. 
Medially between voiced sounds, it was a voiced spirant 
like the th in NE. then, as bajdan, to bathe; br5])or, brother ', 
eor]>e, earth ; f^jtm, fathom. 

Initial ]> was written th until about 900 in imitation of 
Latin. Afterwards it was written t5, and \> (borrowed from 
the runic alphabet). And the voiced spirant was often written 
d in imitation of the contemporary Latin pronunciation. 

w does not occur in OE. manuscripts, but was repre- 
sented by uu, u until about the year 900, later by P borrowed 
from the runic alphabet. It had the same sound-value 
as the w in NE. wet, as wseter, water; sweltan, to die; 
wlanc, proud ; sa wol, so»/. 

X was pronounced like the x in NE. six, as rixian, to 
rule; siex, six; weaxan, to grow; SLxian, to ask. 

§ 8. From what has been said above we arrive at the 
following OE. consonant-system : — 

To these must be added the aspirate h, and x. The 
double consonants were pronounced long as in Modem 
Italian and Swedish, thus habban = hab-ban, to have ; 
swimman = swim-man, to swim, see §§ 258-9. From the 
above table it will be seen that the OE. alphabet was very 
defective, insomuch as each of the letters c, f, g, h, n, s, 
and }> was used to represent two or more sounds. 






ExplO' ( Voiceless 
sives \ Voiced 

► P,PP 



C, CO 





Spi- f Voiceless f, flF 


S, SB 

h, hh 


rants ' Voiced 







m, mmi 

n, nn 








§ 9l Accentuation 13 

Stress (Accent). 

§ 9. All the Indo-Germanic languages have partly pitch 
(musical) and partly stress accent, but one or other of the 
two systems of accentuation always predominates in each 
language, thus in Sanskrit and Old Greek the accent was . 
predominantly pitch, whereas in the oldest periods of 
the Italic dialects, and the Keltic and Germanic languages, ^^ 
the accent was predominantly stress. This difference in 
the system of accentuation is clearly seen in Old Greek 
and the old Germanic languages by the preservation of 
the vowels of unaccented syllables in the former and the 
weakening or los s of th em in the latter. |y], \\ ^( ^ ear ly \\/^ 
p erigdof thepareniT g^/langriiagr|:>^ \\^^ fttr^«« ^rrrnt TTl'l^^ / 
have been _m Qca^ pr c dom itMuit. than thg pitch arrent» 
because it is only upon this assumption that we are able to 
account for the origin of the vowels 1, fi, (§ 16, Note i), 
the liquid and nasal sonants (§§ 84-7), and the loss of 
vowel often accompanied by a loss of syllable, as in Greek ^ 
gen. ira-rp-^s beside ace. wa-T^p-a ; ir^T-opia4 beside i-irr-^tjK ;' 
Gothic gen. pL atihs-ni beside ace. *atihsa-ns. It is now 
a generally accepted theory that at a later period of the 
parent language the system of accentuation became pre- -.^ 
dominantly pitch, which was preserved in Sanskrit and 
Old Greek, but which must have become predominantly \ ' 
stress again in prim. Germanic some time prior to the / 
operation of Verner's law (§ 288). 

The quality of the accent in the parent language was 
partly ' broken ' (acute) and partly ' slurred ' (circumflex). 
This distinction in the quality of the accent was preserved 
in prim. Germanic in final syllables containing a long 
vowel; as is seen by the difference in the development of 
the final long vowels in historic times according as they 
originally had the ' broken ' or ' slurred ' accent (§ 217). 
In the parent language the chief accent of a word did 

14 Phonology 



not always fall upon the same syllable of a word, but was 
free or movable as in Sanskrit and Greek, cp. e. g. Gr. nom. 
iraTi^p, father^ voc. vdrcp, acc. iraWpa ; Skr. ^mi^ / gq^ pi. 
im&Sy we go. This free accent was still pre^^rved in prim . 
. Germa nic at J; the time when V^^ T^f i ^ g law operate d, 
whereby the voiceless spirants became voiced when the 
vow^l immediately preceding them did not bear the chief 
accent of the word (§ 288). At a later period of the prim. 
Germanic language, the chief accent of a word became 
confined to the root- or stem-syllable. This confining of 
the chief accent to the root-syllable was the cause of the 
great weakening — and eventual loss — ^which the vowels 
underwent in unaccented syllables in the prehistoric period 
of the individual Germanic languages (§§ 212-7). And 
the extent to which the weakening of unaccented syllables 
has been carried in some of the Modern Germanic dialects 
is well illustrated by such sentences as, as et it m9dn» 
/ shall have it in the morning ; ast a dtrnt if id kud, 1 should 
have done it ij I had been able (West Yorks.). 

§ 10. The rule for the accentuation of uncompounded 
words is the same in Old English as in the oldest period of 
the other Germanic' Slanguages, viz. the chief stress fell 
upon the stem-syllable %nd always remained there even 
when sufiixes and infleidonal endings followed it, as 
beran, to bear) dagas, days, greting, greeting; hselnes, 
salvation', Imriht, hairy) handlung, handling) mistig, 
misfy. hleapettan, to leap) ierringa, angrily) leofosta, 
dearest, heafodu, heads) Isnere, lender) sealfian, to 
anoint) wundrode, he wondered, berende, bearing) 
cyningas, kings) grimettan, to rage, gsedeling, com- 
panion) heofonisc, heofonlic, heavenly. 8e])ele, noble) 
hetele, hostile) macode, he made) nerede, he saved. 
s])elinga8, noblemen) fultumian, to help) huntigestre» 
huntress) ma)>elode, he spoke. The position of the 
secondary stress in trisyllabic and polysyllabic words 

$ ii] Accentuation ^ 15 

fluctuated in OE., and with the present state of our know- 
ledge of the subject it is impossible to formulate any hard 
and fast rules concerning it. 

' In compound words it is necessary to distinguish be- 
tween compounds whose second element is a noun or an 
adjective, and those whose second element is a verb. In the 
former case the first element had the chief accent in the 
parent Indg. language ; in the latter case the first element 
had or had not the chief accent according to the position 
of the verb in the sentence. But already in prim. Germanic 
the second element of compound verbs nearly always had 
the chief accent ; a change which was mostly brought about 
by the compound and simple verb existing side by side. 
This accounts for the difference in the accentuation of such 
pairs as ^dgiet, inklligence : ongfetan, to understand 
Andssica, adver$afy : onskcan, to deny; higsingf practtce 
begkagan, to practise ; 6tpanc, device : ^pincan, to devise 
upgenge, fugitive : o]>g&ngan, to escape ; wi])er8aca, op^ 
ponent : wi})s4caii, to oppose. 

§ 11. As has been stated above, compound words, whose 
second element is a noun or an adjective, had originally 
the chief stress on the first syllable. This simple rule 
was preserved in 0£., as &cbe^» oak-tree; aeftergield, 
additional payment; brydguma, bridegroom; comhiis, 
granary; dea])stede, dea^-place; fSowergield, foutrfold 
payment; freomseg, free kinsman; geardagRs, days of 
yore; godbeam, godchild; Iftrhus, school, sfterboren, 
posthumous ; BBi^lcmid, of noble origin ; ftrfest, virtuous ; 
hrynehSit, burning hot; geBTOwyrdig, eloquent ; Isengraeg^ 
iron-grey; mddwlanc, proud; wordsnotor, eloquent. 
^ouns like aiiefednes, permission, onfdngennes, reception^ 
ongfetennes, understanding, onginn, beginning, &c, are no 
exception to the rule, because such nouns were formed 
direct from the corresponding verbs : pp. Siiefed, on- 
fkageUf ongfeten, inf. ongfnnan. 

1 6 Phonology [§§ "-m 

§ 12. Already in the oldest period of the language many 
nouns and adjectives were formed from verbs containing 
an inseparable particle, and accordingly had the chief 
stress on the second element, as bebod, comtnand ; beby- 
TigaeB^ burying; hedelRng, diggitig round ; begang beside 
bigeng, practice ; behftt, promise ; behefe, suitable ; beiaf, 
remainder) belimp, occurrence] forbod, prohibition] for- 
f^^o\ forgetful \ forhaefednes, temperance) forlor, for- 
lorennes, destruction ; butfdrwyrd, ruin. In like manner 
the prefix ge- was already unaccented in the oldest period of 
the language — probably partly also in prim. Germanic — 
and therefore words compounded with it had the chief 
stress on the second element, as gehaim, decree ) gebed, 
prayer) gebro)>or, brethren) gefeoht, /ight ; gefSra, com- 
panion) gesceaft, creation) gepeaht, counsel, thought; 
ge wider, bad weather, storm ; ge-e))ele, congenial ; gecoren, 
chosen) gecynde, innate, natural) gedefe, befitting) gelic, 
alike) gemsne, common; gemyndig, mindful) gesund, 
healthy ; gefym, long ago. 

§ Id. In compound nouns the chief secondary stress was 
upon that syllable of the second element which would have 
the chief stress if it were used alone, as brydgiLma, bride- 
groom) feowergield, fourfold payment) g^arow^dig, 
eloquent. For further examples, see above. But compounds 
which were no longer felt as such did not have a strong 
secondary stress upon the second element, as eorod from 
eoh+r&d, troop of cavalry) hlaford from hiaf+weard, 
lord) weorud, werod from wer + rad, multitude, army. 

§ 14. In the oldest period of the language, the compound 
verbs had the chief stress upon the second or first element 
according as the first element was inseparable or separable^ 
9i%\i^z<xmzxL, to become) heh6al6axi, to behold ) and similarly 
gebsran, to behave ; gehfttan, to name ; forbeodan, to for- 
bid) forgiefan, to forgive) geondseon^ to survey) geond- 
)>encan, to consider) o]>berstan, to break away ; oj^feallatiy 

§ 15] Accentuation 17 

to fall off\ toberstan, to burst asunder; tddslan, to divide. 
ae^ewan, to exhibit) aetniman, to deprive; and similarly 
ofers'm)>any to overcome ; oferweorpan, to overthrow ; un- 
derberan, to support; to comprehend ; ])urh- 
)>yrelian, to pierce through ; Jmrhwoniaiiy to abide conti^ 
nuously; vrHpfbtif to grasp at; wi]>metan9 to compare; 
ymbbindan, to bind round; ymbhweorfan, to revolve. 
Verbs like dndswarian, to answer, ^ndwyrdan, to answer^ 
ftiltumiaiiy to support, 6rettan, to fight, are no exception 
to the rule, because such verbs were formed direct from the 
nouns: ^dswaru, dndwyrde, fdltum, 6ret. Examples of 
separable verbs are : i&ftersprecan,/or/af>ii; ^fterfolgian, 
to pursue ; bistandan, to support; b&ibban, to live by ; and 
similarly eftcierrany to turn back ; eftflowan, to flow back ; 
foTeg3,ng3,n, to precede ; forescea,wiB,n, to/oresee ; upneran, 
to raise up; upiernan» to run up ; incuman, to come in ; 
midwunian, to live together; ongeanfealdan, to /old 
back ; toddn, to put to ; utdiifan^ to drive out ; utfldwan, 
to flow out. 

§ 15. In compound adverbs the first element had the 
chief or secondary stress according as it was the more or 
less important element of the compound, as 6al(l)m8est9 
almost; 6alneg from ealne + weg, always; 6alswa, quite 
so ; but onw^g, away ; tbgAdere, together; ])sednne» 

1 8 Phonology [§ i6 



§16. The parent Indo-Germanic language had the 
following vowel-system : — 

Short vowels a, e, i, o» u, a 
Long „ ft, i, i, 6, u 

Short diphthongs ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou 
Long ,, fti, eiy 51, ftu, eu, du'^ 

Short vocalic 1, m, n, r 

Note.— I. The short vowels i, u, 9, the long vowels i, 5, and 
vocalic 1, m« n, r occurred originally only in syllables which did 
not bear the principal accent of the word. 

The short vowels i, u, and vocalic 1, m, n, r arose from the 
loss of e in the strong forms ei, eu, el, em, en, er, which was 
caused by the principal accent having been shifted to some 
other syllable in the word. 

9, the quality of which cannot be precisely defined, arose 
from the weakening of an original a, e, or 5, caused by the loss 
of accent. It is generally pronounced like the final vowel in 
German Gabe. 

i and 5 were contractions of weak diphthongs which arose 
from the strong forms eia, al, el, 51 ; eua, au, eu, ou through 
the loss of accent. The e in ela, et» had disappeared before 
the contraction took place. See § 9. 

a. The long diphthongs al, el, &c., were of rare occurrence 
in the parent language, and their histoxy in the prehistoric 
period of the various branches of the Indo-Germanic languages, 
except when final, is still somewhat obscure. In stem-syllables 
they were generally either shortened to al, el, &c., or the second 
element (1, u) disappeared. In final syllables they were gener- 
ally shortened to al, el, &c. In this book no further account 
will be taken of the Indg. long diphthongs in stem-syllabfes. 

§§ 11-21] IndoGemtanic Vowel-System 19 

For their trefttment in final syllables in Primitive Germanic^ 
see § ai7. 

3. Upon theoretical grounds it is generally assumed that the 
parent language contained long vocalic 1, m, n, r. But their 
history in the various Indg. languages is still uncertain. In 
any case they were of very rare occurrence, and are therefore 
lef^ out of consideration in this book. 

§ 17. a (Lat. a, Gr. o) remained, as Lat. ager, Gr. dypcSs, 
Goth, akrs, O.Icel. akr, OS. akkar^ OHG. ackar, OE. 
edcer, Jield, acre; Gr. 8Xs, Lat. gen. sails, Goth. O.Icel. 
OS. salt, OHG. salz, OE. seal! (§ 64), salt; Lat. aqua, 
Goth, ahra, OS. OHG. aha, OE. ea from *eahu, older 
*^hu {§ 70), water, river. 

§ 18. e (Lat. e, Gr. c) remained, as Lat. fero, Gr. ^^pw, 
I bear, O.Icel. bera, OS. OHG. OE. heraxip to bear ; Lat. 
edo, Gr. ISo|mii, I eat, O.Icel. eta, OHG. e^an, OS. OE. 
etan, to eat; Lat. pellis, Gr. ir^Xo, OS. OHG. fel, OE. 
fell, skin, hide. 

§19. i (Lat. i, Gr. i) remained, as Gr. Hom. F^ilw, 
Goth, wititm, O.Icel. vitum, OS. witun, OHG. wij^um, 
OE. witon, we know, cp. Lat. videre, to see ; Lat. piscis, 
Goth, fisks, O.Icel. fiskr, OS. fisk, OHG. OE. fisc,/5A; 
Lat. vidua (adj. fem.), bereft of, deprived of, Goth, widuwd, 
OS. widowa, OHG. wituwa, OE. widewe, widow. 

§ 20. o (Lat. o, Gr. o) became a in stem-syllables, as Lat. 
octa, Gr. 6kt«S, Goth, aht&u, OS. OHG. ahto, OE. eahta 
(§ 68), eight; Lat. hostis, stranger, enemy, Goth, gasts, 
OS. OHG. gast, OE. giest (§ 78), guest; Lat. quod, Goth, 
lua, O.Icel. hvat, OS. hwat, OHG. hwa:5,OE. hwet, what. 

§ 21. u (Lat. u, Gr. o) remained, as Gr. koi^ (gen. sing.), 
Goth, hunds, O.Icel. hundr, OHG. hunt, OS. OE. hund, 
dog, hound; Gr. OJpo, OS. duri, OHG. turi, OE. duru, 
door; Skr. bu^budhimd, we watched, Gr. ir^-Tru<nroi, he has 
inquired, Goth, budum, O.Icel. bu6um, OS. budun,OHG. 
butum, OE. budon, we announced, offered. 

c 2 

20 Phonology [J§ 22-7 

§ 22. 9 became a in all the Indo-Germanic languages, . 
except in the Aryan branch, where it became 1, as Lat. 
pater, Gr. mn^p, O.Ir. atfair, Goth, fadar, O.Icel. faSir, 
OS. fader, OHG. fater, OE. fmder, father, Skr. pitdr- 
(from *pat6r-), /a/A^r; Lat. status, Gr. orariSs, Skr. sthit&s, 
standing, Goth. sta}>s, O.Icel. staSr, OS. stad, OHG. stat, 
OE. stede, prim. Germanic *stadiz, place. 

§ 28. a. (Lat &, Gr. Doric a, Attic, Ionic r\) became 5, as 
Lat. m&ter, Gr. Dor. iMnip, O.Icel. mddir, OS. mddar, 
OHG. muoter, OE. modor, mother; Gr. Dor. ^panjp, 
member of a clan, Lat. frater, Goth. br6J)ar, O.Icel. 
broflir, OS.brdthar, OHG.bruoder, OE. hvo^oVf brother; 
Lat. fagus, beech, Gr. Dor. ^y^, a kind of oak, Goth, boka, 
letter of the alphabet, O.Icel. OS. bok, book, OE. boc-tr6ow, 

§ 24. e (Lat. e, Gr. tj) remained, but it is generally written 
»(= Goth, e, O.Icel. OS. OHG. ft, OE. ») in works on 
Germanic philology, as Lat. edimus, Goth. §tum, O.Icel. 
fttum, OS. fttun, OHG. ft^um, OE. ston, we ate; Lat. 
mensis, Gr. ^i\v, month, Goth, mena, O.Icel. m&ne, OS. 
OHG. m&no, OE. mona (§ 121), moon ; Goth. ga-de]>8, 
O.Icel. da8, OS. dad, OHG. tftt, OE. d»d, deed, related 
to Gr. Oi^-o-«, / shall place. 

§ 26. i (Lat. 1, Gr. i) remained, as Lat. su-inus (adj.), 
belonging to a pig, Goth, swein, O.Icel. svin, OS. OHG. 
OE. swin, swine, pig; Lat. simus, OS. sin, OHG. sim, 
OE. sl-en, we may be. 

§ 26. 6 (Lat. 6, Gr. w) remained, as Gr. ttXwt^s, swimming, 
Goth, flodus, O.Icel. floS, OHG. fiuot, OS. OE. flod, 
flood, tide, cp. Lat. pldrftre, to weep aloud; Gr. Dor. inSs, 
Goth, fotus, O.Icel. fotr, OHG. fuo:^, OS. OE. fot, foot; 
Goth, doms, O.Icel. ddmr, OHG. tuom, OS. OE. dom, 
judgment, sentence, related to Gr. Owpi^s, heap, 

§ 27. ii (Lat. ii, Gr. u) remained, as Lat. mils, Gr. fiOt, 
O.Icel. OHG. OE. mus, mouse; Lat. sus, Gr. ife, OHG. 

§§28-32] IndoGemtanic Vcwel-System 21 

OE. su, sow, pig; Goth, ffils, O.Icel. fuU, OHG. OE. 
ful, foul, related to Lat. puteo, / smell bad. Or. ituOm, 
/ make to rot. 

§ 28. ai (Lat. ae ($), Or. ai, Goth. &i, O.Icel. ei, OS. §, 
OHG. ei (g), OE. 9.) remained, as Lat. aedgs, sanctuary, 
on^ndlly fire-place, hearth, Gr. at0«, I bum, OHG. eit,OE. 
ad, funeral pile, ignis, rogus ; Lat. aes, Goth. iHz, O.Ice). 
eir, OHG. er, OE. ar, brass, metal, money, Lat. caedd» 
/ hew, cut down, Goth, sk&idan, OS. skedan, skedan, 
OHG. sceidan, OE. scftdan, sceftdan (§ 138, Note 2), 
to divide, sever. 

§ 28. ei (Lat. i (older el), Gr. ti) became i, as Gr. o-tiixw, 
/ go, Goth, steigan (ei = i), O.Icel. stiga, OS. OHG. 
OE. stigan, to ascend] Gr. Xciitm, / leave, Goth, leihmn, 
OS. OHG. Khan, OE. leon from •Hohan, older ♦lihan 
(§ 127), to lend] Lat. dico, / say, tell, Gr. SciKKu|&i, / show, 
Goth, ga-teihan, to tell, declare, OS. af-tihan, to deny, 
OHG. zihan, OE. teon, to accuse (§ 127). 

§ 80. oi (O.Lat. oi (later u), Gr. 01) became ai (cp. § 20), 
as Gr. otBc, Goth, wdit, O.Icel. veit, OS. wSt, OHG. 
weL^, OE. wat, he knows ; O.Lat. oinos, later unus, Goth, 
dins, O.Icel. einn, OS. 6n, OHG. ein, OE. an, one, cp. Gr. 
oikVi, the one on dice ; Gr. tt^-ttoiOc, he trusts, Goth, bdij), 
O.Icel. bei8, OS. bed, OHG. beit, OE. bad, he waited for. 

§ 81. au (Lat. au, Gr. ou, Goth, du, O.Icel. au, OS. 6, 
OHG. ou(o), OE. ea) remained, as Lat. auris, Goth. &us5, 
OS. OHG. 5ra, OE. eare, ear] Lat. ^auged, Gr. ofifdKoi, 
/ increase, Goth. 4ukan, O.Icel. auka, OS. 5kian, OHG. 
ouhhdn, OE. eacian, to add, increase. 

§ 32. eu (Lat. ou (later u), Gr. €u, Goth, iu, O.Icel. jo 
(ju), OS., OE. eo) remained, as Gr. >««", I give a 
taste of, Goth, kiusan, O.Icel. kjosa, OS. OHG. kiosan, 
OE. ceosan, to test, choose ; Gr. ircuOofioi, / inquire, Goth. 
ana-bittdan, to order, command, O.Icel. bj68a, OS. biodan, 
OHG. biotan, OE. beodan, to offer] Lat. douco (duco), 

22 Phonology [« 33-7 

/ lead, Goth, tiuhan, OS. tiohan, OHG. ziohan, OE. 
teon (§ 189), to lead, draw. See § 44. 

§ 88. ou (Lat. ou (later u). Or. ou) became au (cp. § 20), 
as prim. Indg. ^roudhosy Goth. r&u)>s» O.Icel. raudr, OS. 
rod, OHG. rot, OE. read, red, cp. Lat. rufus, red\ prim. 
Indg. *bhe-bhoudhe, has waked, Goth.b&u]), O.Icel. batiS, 
OS. bod, OHG. bot, OE. bead, has offered. 

§ 84. m (Lat. em, Gr. a, ofi) became um, as Gr. d|io- (in 
dfi^cy, from some place or othet), Goth, sums, O.Icel. 
sumr, OS. OHG. OE. sum, some one; Gr. iKaT6v, Lat. 
centum (with n from m by assimilation, and similarly in 
the Germanic languages), Goth. OE. OS. hund, OHG. 
hunt, hundred, all from a prim, form *kmt6m. 

§ 86. n (Lat. en, Gr. a, w) became un, as Lat. com- 
mentus (pp.), invented, devised, Gr. cUiT6-fMTos, acting of on^s 
own wUl, Goth. ga-munds» OHG. gi-munt, OE. ge-m3rnd 
(§ 112), remembrance, prim, form *mnt6s (pp.) from root 
men-, think ; OS. wundar, OHG. wuntar, OE. wundor, 
wonder, cp. Gr. d6p^a» from *fa6p^«, I gaze at. 

§ 86. r (Lat. or, Gr. op, pa) became ur, ru, as OHG. 
gi-turrum, OE. durron, we dare, cp. Gr. Oapcrus (6peurws), 
bold, Bapirita, I am of good courage; dat. pi. Gr. iraTpd<n, 
Goth.fadrum, OHG. faterum, OE. f8ed(e)rum, to fathers; 
Lat. porca, the ridge between two furrows, OHG. furuh, 
OE. furh, furrow. 

§ 87. 1 (Lat. ol, Gr. aX, Xa) became ul, lu, as Goth, fulls, 
O.Icel. fullr, OHG. vol, OS. OE. full, prim, form *pln6s, 
full; Goth, wulfs, O.Icel. ulfr, OHG. wolf, OS. OE. wulf, 
prim, form *wlqos, wolf 

Note. — If we summarize the vowel-changes which have been 
stated in this chapter, it will be seen that the following vowel- 
sounds fell together :— a, o, and o ; original u and the u which 
arose from Indg. vocalic 1, m, n, r ; i and ei ; a and 5 ; ai and 
oi ; au and ou. 

§§ 38-41] Primitive Germanic Vcwel-System 23 



§ 88. From what has been said in §§ 17-87, we arrive at 
the following vowel-system for the prim. Germanic lan- 

Short vowels a, e, i, u 

Long „ «, e, i, 5, ii 

Diphthongs ai, au, eu 

Note.— « was an open e-sound like 0£. ». e was a close 
sound like the e in NHG. reh. The origin of this vowel has 
not yet been satisfactorily explained. It is important to re- 
member that it is never the equivalent of Indo-Germanic e 
(§ 24) which appears as » in prim. Germanic. See §§ 119, 126. 

§ 80. This system underwent several modifications 
during the prim. Germanic period, i.e. before the parent 
language became differentiated into the various separate 
Germanic languages. The most important of these changes 
were : — 

§40. a+i)x became a.x» as Goth. OS. OHG. f&han, 
O.Icel. fa, OE. f5n (§ 189), from *fai|xanan, to catch, 
seize, cp. Lat. pango, / fasten ; Goth. ])&hta, OS. thahta, 
OHG. dSlhta, OE. )>dhte (inf. ])encan), from older *])ai|xta, 
*J)aijxto-, / thought, cp. O.Lat. tongeo, / know. Every 
prim. Germanic a in accented syllables was of this origin. 
Cp. § 28. 

Note.— The a in the above and similar examples was still 
a nasalized vowel in prim. Germanic, as is seen by its develop- 
ment to 5 in 0£. The i (§ 41) and u (§ 48) were also nasalized 
vowels in prim. Germanic. 

§ 41. e became i under the following circumstances : — 
I. Before a nasal + Consonant, as Goth. OS. OE. 

24 Phonology [§ 41 

bindan, O.Icel. binda, OHG. bintan, to bind, cp. Lat 
of-fendimentum, chin-cloth, of-fendix, knot, band, Gr. 
it€vB€fi^, father-in-law ; Lat ventus, Goth, winds, O.Icel. 
vlndr, OHG. wint, OS. OE. wind, wind; Gr. Wktc, 
Goth, fimf, O.Icel. fim(m), OHG. fimf, finf, OE. fif (§ 97), 
Jive. This explains why OE. bindan, to bind, and helpan, 
to help, belong to the same ablaut-series. See § 226, 

This i became i under the same conditions as those 
by which a became a (§ 40), as Goth. ]>eihan, OS. thihan, 
OHG. dihan, OE. J>ion (§ 127), from *l)ii)xanan, older 
*}>er|xanan, to thrive) and similarly OHG. sohan, OE. 
seon, to strain] OHG. fihala, OE. feol, file; OHG. 
dihsala, OE. ]>ixl 0>isl), wagon-pole, shaft. 

2. When followed by an i, i, or j in the next syllable, as 
Goth. OS. OHG. ist, OE. is, from *isti, older ♦esti = Gr. 
IcTTi, ^5; OHG. irdin, earthen, beside erda, earth; Goth, 
midjis, O.Icel. mi8r, OS. middi, OHG. mitti, OE. midd, 
Lat. medius, from an original form *medt\jos, middle ; OS. 
birid, OHG. birit, he bears, from an original form *bh6reti, 
through the intermediate stages *b6redi, *b6ridi, *bfridi, 
beside inf. beran; O.Icel. sitja, OS. sittian, OHG. 
sizzen, OE. sittan, from an original form ^se^jonom, 
to sit; and similarly O.Icel. liggja, OS. liggian, OHG. 
liggen, OE. licgan, to lie down. 

This sound-law accounts for the difference in the stem- 
vowels of such pairs as OE. feld (OHG. feld), field: 
gefilde (OHG. gifildi), a plain; fe]>er, feather: fij>ere, 
wing; weder (OHG. wetar), weather: gewider (OHG. 
giwltiri), storm; heord (OHG. herta), herd: hierde 
(OHG. hirti), shepherd; helpan, to help: hilpst, hilp)? 
(OHG. hilfis, hilfit) ; beran, to bear : bir(e)st, bir(e)^ 
(OHG. biris, birit), and similarly in the second and third 
person singular of the present indicative of many other 
strong verbs; pp. legen, seten: inf. licgan, to lie down, 
sittan, to sit. 

5§ 42-3] Primitive Germanic Vowel-System 25 

3. In unaccented syllables, except in the combination 
-er when not followed by an i in the next syllable, as OE. 
fet, older fdet, from *f5tiz, older *f5tes, yfe^/, cp. Lat 
pedes, Gr. tr<58cs. Indg. e remained in unaccented sylla- 
bles in the combination -er when not followed by an i in 
the next syllable, as ace. OS. fader, OHG. fater, OE. 
feeder. On mripa, father ; OE. hw«]>er,Gr. ir^cpos, which 
of two. 

§ 42. i, followed originally by an &, o, or e in the next 
syllable, became e when not protected by a nasal + con- 
sonant or an intervening i or j, as O.IceL verr, OS. OHG. 
OE. wer, Lat. vlr, from an original form * wires, man ; 
OHG. OE. nest, Lat. nidus, from an original form 
*nizdos. In historic times, however, this law has a great 
number of exceptions owing to the separate languages 
having levelled out in various directions, as OE. spec 
beside spip, bacon; OHG. lebara beside OE. Ufer, Itver; 
OHG. Iecc5n beside OE. liccian, to lick; OHG. leben 
beside OE. libban, to live ; OHG. quec beside OE. cwic, 
quick, alive. 

§ 48. u, followed originally by an &, 6, or e in the next 
syllable, became o when not protected by a nasal + con- 
sonant or an intervening i or j, as OS. dohter, OHG. 
tohter, OE. dohtor, Gr. Bvyd-n^p, daughter; O.Icel. ok, 
OHG. joh, OE. geoc (§ UO), Gr. Iuy6y, yoke; OHG. got, 
OS. OE. god, from an original form *ghut6m,^orf; OHS. 
OE. gold, gold, beside OHG. guldin, OE. gylden, golden ; 
pp. OS. gihblpan, OHG. giholfan, OE. geholpen, helped, 
beside pp. OS. gibundan, OHG. gibuntan, OE. gebunden, 
bound; pp. OS. gibodan, OHG. gibotan, OE. geboden, 
offered, beside pret. pi. OS. budun, OHG. butum, OE. 
budon, we offered. Every prim. Germanic o in accented 
syllables was of this origin. Cp. § 20, 

This sound-law accounts for the difference in the stem- 
vowels of such pairs as OE. cnotta, knot: cnyttan from 

26 Phonology [§§ 44-5 

*knuttjan, to tie; coss, a kiss: cyssan, h kiss; corn, 
cam: cyrnel, kernel; fox: fyxen, she-fox; god: gyden 
(OHG. gutin), goddess; hold, gracious x hyldo (OHG, 
huldi), grace, favour; pret. bohte, worhte: inf. bycgan, 
to buy, wyrcan, A) work, 

u became ii under the same conditions as those by which 
a and i became a and 1, as pret. third pers. singular Goth. 
jfuhtsL, OS. thdhta, OHG. duhta, 0£. Jmhte, beside 
inf. Goth. ]nigkjan, OS. thimkian, OHG. dunken, 0£. 
pyncsLti, to seem; Goth. uhtw5, OS. OHG. uhta, OE. 
iihte, daybreak, dawn ; OHG. fiihti, OE. fOht, damp. ^ 

§ 44. The diphthong eu became iu when the next 
syllable originally contained an i, i, or j, cp. § 41 (2), but 
remained eu when the next syllable originally contained an 
a, 8, or e. The iu remained in OS. and OHG., but became 
ju (y by i-umlaiit) in O.Icel., and 10, (ie by i-umlaut) 
in OE., as Goth, liuhtjan, OS. liuhtian, OHG. Uuhten, 
OE. liehtan, to give light: OE. leoht, a light; O.Icel. 
dypt, OS. diupi, OHG. tiufi, OE. diepe, depth : OE. deep, 
deep; OS. Uudi, OHG. Uuti, OE. liode, people; OS. 
kiusid, OHG. kiusit, O.Icel. kys(s), OE. ciesl>, he 
chooses : OE. ceosan, to choose. See § 188. 

§ 46. From what has been said in §§ 40-4, it will be 
seen that the prim. Germanic vowel-system had assumed 
the following shape before the Germanic parent language 
became differentiated into the various separate lan- 

Short vowels a, e, i, o, u 
Long „ a, », e, i, 6, ti 

Diphthongs ai, au, eu, iu 

The following table contains the normal development of 
the above vowel-system in Goth. O.Icel. OS. OHG. and 
OE. stem-syllables : — 

5 45] Primitive Germanic Vowel-System 27 

P. Germ. 




OHG. j OE. 





• 1 .-: 






e J e 












„ 1 . 











* . 


e g 





ei »_ 















ai r 















eo, (io) 

eo, (io) 








Note. — The table does not include the sound-changes 
which were caused by umlaut, the influence of neighbouring 
consonants, &c. For details of this kind the student should 
consult the grammars of the separate languages. But as we 
shall have occasion to make use of many Gothic, OS. and OHG. 

28 Phonology [§§ 46-7 

forms in this grammar, the following points should be noted 
here :— 

1. Goth, i and a were broken to ai («: short open e) and 
ad (= short open o) before r, h, and hr, as bairan, OE. beran, 
to bear) saihran, OHG. aehan, to see; huirip, OHG. birit, ke 
bears; naihxip, OHG. sihit, ke sees; pp. badrana, OE, boretS, 
borne; daiihtar, OE. debtor, daughter; waiirms, OHG. wnrm, 
serpent, worm ; saiihts, OHG. atiht, sickness. Gothic ei was 
a monophthong and was pronounced like the i in the other 
Germanic languages. Germanic ai and au remained in Gothic, 
but they are generally written Ai and Au in order to distinguish 
them from the short voweb ai and aH. 

2. a was the only vowel which underwent i-umlaut in OS. 
and OHG., as sing, gast, pi. gesti = Goth. gB^Uin, guests; OS. 
sendian, OHG. senten « Goth, sandjan, to send. When it is 
necessary for phonological reasons to distinguish between this 
e and Germanic e, the latter is written S in this book, as beran, 
to bear, 

3. Prim. Germanic ai became e in OHG. before r, w, and old 
b, as er, be/ore = Goth. Air, soon ; eht = Goth, dihts, possession ; 
gen. snewes, Goth. nom. sn&iws, snow. 

4. Prim. Germanic an became o in OHG. before the con- 
sonants d, t, 1^ s, n, r, 1, and old h, ais tod = Goth, d&ujms, deatk ; 
ko8 « Goth, k&us, ke chose ; hob » Goth, hduhs, kigk. 



§ 46. Before entering upon the history of the separate 
Germanic vowels in OE. it will be well to state and illus- 
trate here several phenomena which concern the OE. 
s^owels in general. 

^^ I. Umlaut. 

§ 47. Umlaut is of two kinds : Palatal and Guttural. 
Palatal umlaut, generally called i-umlaut, is the modification 

§ 47] Umlaut 29 

(palatalization) of an accented vowel through the influence 
of an ! or j which originally stood in the following syllable. 
This process took place in prehistoric OE. and thel or j 
had for the most part already disappeared in the oldest 
QE. records. The i, which remained, mostly became e at 
an early period (§ 215, Note), so that for the proper under- 
standing of the forms which underwent i-umlaut it is 
necessary to compare them with the corresponding forms 
of some other Germanic language, especially with the 
Gothic. The simple vowels and diphthongs which under- 
went i-umlaut in OE. are : a(o), «, O9 u ; ft, o, ii ; ea, io ; §a 
and !o. 

a(o) > e (but » in the oldest period), as bene from 
*bai|kiz, bench ; ende, Goth, andeis, end\ lengra, OHG. 
lengiro, longer ; lengp{vL) from '*lai|gij>u, kngth ; sendan^ 
Goth, san^jan, to send (§ 60). 

e > e, as bedd, Goth. badi, bed; bet(e)ra, Goth. batiza» 
better ; hebban, Goth. haQan, to raise ; here, Goth, haijis, 
army; lecgan, Goth, lagjan, to lay (§ 66). 

o > e (older oe), as dat. dehter from ^dohtri, beside, 
nom. debtor, daughter; ele, Lat. oletmii oil; exen, oxen, 
beside oxa, ox (§ 107). 

u > y, as bycgan, Goth, bugjan, U) buy ; cynhig, OHG. 
ktming, king; cynn, Goth, kuni, race, generation ; gylden, 
OHG. guldin, golden ; })yiicaii, Goth. ]mgkjan, to seem 

a > », as dablan, Goth, d&ijyan, to divide ; snig, any ; 
hslan, Goth, h&iljan, to heal; hse]>, Goth. h&i]>i, heath 
(§ 184); Iswan, Goth, levrian, to betray (§ 120). 

5 > e (older ob), as bee from *b5kiz, books; deman, 
Goth, ddmjan, to judge; fet, OHG. fno:^, feet; secan, 
Goth, sokjan, to seek (§ 128). wenan, Goth, wex^jan, td 
hope; cwen from ♦kwoni-, older '^kwenjz, Goth, qens, 
queen, wife (§ 122). ehtan from ^dhtjaiii to persecute ; feh]>, 
he seizes, beside inf. f5n (§ 118). est from ^osti-, older 

30 Phonology [§48 

*ansti2, Goth, ansts^/ownr ; te)), prim. Germanic *taxi\liz, 
teeth (§ 62). 

u > y,asmysfrom *musiz, mice) brycst from ^brukis, 
thou enjoyest, bryc)> from *briikij>, he enjoys, beside inf. 
brucan (§ 182). cy from *ku-iz, cows (§ 180). cy)>an from 
'^kuj'jan, older *kun)>jan, to make known; dystig, dusty 


ea > ie (later i, y), as fiellan from *fealUan, older 
*falljan, to /ell; ieldra, Goth. al]>iza, older (§ 65). ierfe, 
Goth, arbi, inheritance ; ienn])(u), OHG. armidai poverty 
(§ 67). sdeppan, Goth, skapjan, to create (§ 78). hliehhan^ 
Goth, hlahjan, to laugh ; wiex)>, OHG. wahsit, it grows 
(§ 69). 

io > ie (later i, y), as hierde, OHG. hirtl, shepherd; 
ierre, OHG. irri, angry; siehst, OHG. sihis, thou seest; 
sieh]>y OHG. sihit, he sees; wiersa, OHG. wirsiro, worse 


ea > ie (later I, y), as geliefan, Goth, gal&ubjan, to 
believe; hiehsta, Goth, h&uhista, highest; hieran, Goth, 
h&usjan^ to hear{^ 186). clese, Lat. caseus, cheese ; niehsta 
from ^neahista, nearest (§ 128). stiele, Germanic stem- 
form staxlja-y steel (§ 71). wiellsc, prim, Germanic walxi- 
B)LBZf foreign (§ 64, Note i). 

io > ie (later i, y), as ciesj) from *kiosi}>, older *kiusi]>, 
he chooses; tieh)> from *tiohi]>, he draws; liehtan, Goth, 
liuhtjan, to give light (§ 188). liehtan from liohljan, older 
♦lixtjan, to lighten, make easier; liehj) from *liohiJ>, OHG. 
lihit, he lends (§ 127). friend, prim. Germanic *frij5ndiz, 
Jriends (§ 104). 

§ 48. Guttural umlaut is the modification of an accented 
vowel (a, e, i) through the influence of a primitive OE. 
guttural vowel (u, 8, a) in the next syllable, whereby a 
guttural glide was developed after the vowels a, e, i, which 
then combined with them to form the diphthongs ea,eo,io. 
As a rule umlaut only took place before a single consonant. 

§ 49] Umlaut 31 

When the vowel which caused umlaut was ti» it is called 
u-umlaut, and when 8, or a» it is called o/a-umlaut. 

u- and o/a-umlaut of a only took place in Mercian, as 
featti, vats^ heafoc, hawk^ steapul, pillar, stea]nil, foutt" 
datum, beside fata, hafoc, stapol, 8ta]>ol in the other 
dialects, fearan, to go, feara]>9 they go, feata, 0/ vats, 
beside faran, fara)>, fata in the other dialects. See § 78. 

u-umlaut of e and i, and o/a-umlaut of i took place in 
Ken. before all single consonants, in Anglian before all 
single consonants except gutturals (c, g), but in WS. only 
before labials and liquids, as eofor (OHG. ebur), boar; 
heolostor from older helustr, hidifig place ; heorut, hart, 
meodti, mead (drink), eosol, donkey = WS. medu, esol. . 
Ken. breogo, prtnce = WS. and Anglian brego, see § 02. 
mioluc, milk) cliopung, catttng. siodu, custom, sionu, 
sinew = WS. sidu, sina Ken. siocol, sickle, stiogol, stile 
= WS. and Anglian sicol, stigol, see § 101. liofast, thou 
Hvest. nioma(n), to take, nioma]>, they take, wiotan, to know 
= WS. niman, nima}>, witan. Ken. stiocian from *8ti- 
k5jan, to prick = WS. and Anglian stician, see §§ 82-8i 

o/a-umlaut of e did not take place in WS. In Ken. it 
took place before all single consonants and in Anglian 
before all single consonants except gutturals, as beoran, to 
bear, eotan, to eat, feola, many = WS. beran, etan, fela. 
Ken. weogas, ways, spreocan, to speak =VJS. and Anglian 
wegas, spreca(n), see § 93. 

2. Breaking. 

§ 40. Breaking is due to the influence of an 1, r, or h + 
consonant, or single h, upon a preceding vowel (Germanic 
a, e, i ; tb, 1) whereby a guttural glide was developed 
between the vowel and the consonant, which then combined 
with the vowel to form a diphthong. For the reason why 
breaking took place before 1 and r + consonant more regu* 

32 . Phonology [5 6© 

larly in WS. and^en. than in Anglian, see § 7. In the 
examples given below we shall confine ourselves chiefly to 

a (s) > ea, as ceald, Goth, kalds, cold; healdaUi Goth, 
baldan, to hold (§ 64) ; beam, Goth, bam, child ; heard, 
Goth, hardos, hard (§ 66) ; eahta, Goth, aht&u, eight ; 
weaxan, Goth.* wahsjan, to grow] seah, OHG. sah, he 
saw (§ 68). 

e > eOi as meolcan, OHG. melkan, to milk] sceolh, 
OHG. scelb, wry, oblique (§ 84); eor})e» OHG. erda, 
earth] heorte, OHG. herza, heart (§ 86); cneoht, OHG. 
kneht, boy] seox, OHG. sehs, six] seoh, see thou (§ 86). 

i > io (later eo), as liomian, leomian, from *lim5jan, to 
learn ; miox, meox, from ^mihst, matiure (§ 08). 

» > ea in WS. before h, as neah, Goth, nehr, near] 
near from ^neahur, older *n«httr (§ 128). 

i > io (later eo) in WS. before h and ht, as leoht, Goth. 
leihts, adj. light] weob, idol, Goth, weihs, holy (§ 127). 

3. Influence of Nasals. 

§60. a became a low-back-wide vowel, written a, o, 
before nasals, as camb, comb, comb] nama, noma, name] 
land, lond, land] lang, long, long (§ 69). 

e > i before Germanic m (§ 81), and in early Latin loan- 
words before nasal -|- consonant (§ 82), as niman, OHG. 
neman, to take ; gimm, Lat. gemma, gem ; pinsian, Lat. 
pensSlre, to weigh, ponder, consider. 

o > u before nasals, as guma, OHG.gomo, man] numen, 
OHG. ginoman, taken] himig, OHG. honag, honey] 
))imor, OHG. donar, thunder (§ 109). 

» > o before nasals (§ 121), as mona, Goth, mena, moon ; 
ndmon, Goth, nemim, they took. 

Nasals disappeared before the voiceless spirants f, }>, 
and s with lengthening of the preceding vowel, as fif, 

§ si] Influence of Initial Pat. Conscmanis 35 

OHG. Sxnf,/ive; osle» OHG. amsala, ons^/ (§ 283); cu]>, 
Goth. kun]>89 knotvn ; g5s, OHG. gans, goose ; o]>er, Goth. 
aii)>ar, other (§ 286). 

4. Influence of Initial Palatal Consonants. 

§ 61. Between palatal c (§ 808), g (= Germanic g, § 818), 
g (= Germanic j, § 268), so (§ 312), and the following 
palatal vowel, a glide was developed in prim. OE., which 
combined with the vowel to form a rising diphthong, and 
^hen at a later period the rising diphthong became a fall* 
ing diphthong through the shifting of the stress from 
the second to the first element of the diphthong. The 
examples given below are chiefly WS. ; for the correspond- 
ing forms in the other dialects, the student should consult 
the paragraphs within brackets. 

e > ea (older e^), as ceaster, Lat. castra, cify, fortress ; 
ceaf, chaff; geaf, Goth, gaf, he gave ; sceaft, OHG. scaft, 
shaft ; sceal» Goth, skal, shall (§ 72). 

e > ie (older 16), as cieres, Lat. cerasum, cherry-tree ; 
giefan, OHG. geban, to give ; scieran, OHG. sceran, to 
shear (§ 81). ciele from *keli, older ^kaliz, cold; giest from 
*5est, older ^gastiz,^^^/; scieppan from *skeppan, Goth. 
skapjan, to create (§ 78). 

e > §a (older ese), as ceace, prim. Germanic ^kskon-, 
jaw ; geafon, Goth. gebun» they gave ; gear, Goth, jeri 
vear; sceapi Goth, ^skip, sheep (§ 124). 

Note.— In forms like gioc, geoc (OHG. joh), yoke (§ 110) ; 
giong,,geong (OHG. iaxi%\ young (§ 116); geomor (OHG. 
jamar), sad (§ 122, NoteX the io, eo, eo may have been rising 
diphthongs, but it is difficult to determine how far they were 
diphthongs at all, and how far the i» e were merely inserted 
to indicate the palatal nature of the g «= Germanic j (§ 268). 
It is highly probable that in forms like sceacan, to shake, 
aceadti, ghadow, beside scacan, scadu (§ 67, Note), sceolde, 
OHG. scolta, should (§ 110), sceadan beside scadan, to divide 

34 Phonology [§§ 52-3 

(§ 188, Note 2), the e was merely inserted to indicate the palatal 
nature ofthe8c(§ 812). 

5. Influence of w. 

§ 62. e and e (= Germanic «) were often rounded to 
OB and OB after w in Nth., as cuoB]>a, WS. cwejian, to say 
(§ 80, Note i) ; cuoBUa, WS. cwellan, to kill; tucelf, WS. 
twelf, twelve (§ 66, Note i). hudsr, where, wcBron, were = 
WS. hw«r, wseron (§ 119, Note 2). 

e became eo before w -j- a following vowel, as gen. 
cneowes, treowes, beside nom. cneo, knee, tree, tree 
(§ 89); eowestre (cp. Goth, awistr), sheepfold] meowle 
(Goth, mawilo), matden (§ 77). 

» became & before w, as blSlwan from *blswaii, to 
blow ; cnawan, to know ; sawon, they saw (§ 120). 

Initial weo- became wu- (rarely wo-) in late WS., as 
swtird, sword, swuster, sister, worold, woruld, world, 
beside older sweord (OHG. swert), sweostor (OHG. 
swester), weorold (OHG. weralt), see § 94. 

Initial wio- became wu- in WS. and Anglian, but 
remained in Ken., as wudu, wood, beside Ken. wiodu 

§ 68. The following was the chronological order in which 
the sound-laws stated in §§ 47-52 took place: (i) The 
influence of nasals. (2) Breaking. (3) The influence of 
initial palatal consonants. (4) i-umlaut. (5) u-, o/a- 
umlaut. (6) Influence of w. 

Note.— In the case of words where diphthongization by 
preceding palatals and u-, o/a-umlaut concur, the latter has 
the predominance, as geolo, yellow ; geoloca, yolk ; ceole (ace. 
ceolan, § 408), throat. This does not however prove that 
u, o/a-umlaut chronologically precedes diphthongization by 
preceding palatals. Either geolo, &c., are not pure WS. forms 
(see § 92) or else the ie became eo by umlaut, in which case 
forms like giefu (§ 866) would have ie from the oblique cases. 

§ 54] Short Vowels of Accented Syllables 35 
A. The Short Vowels of Accented Syllables. 

§ 64. Apart from the influence of neighbouring sounds 
the normal development of Germanic a {= Goth. O.Icel. 
OS. OHG. a) is e in OE. 

Examples in closed syllables are: daeg, Goth, dags^ 
O.Icel. dagr, OS. dag, OHG. tag, day) ^t, Goth, fata, 
O.Icel. )>at, OS. that, OHG. da^, the ; and similarly b»c, 
back] baB)>, taih] btec, black] brss, brass) crseft, skUl) 
d«l, dak) »fter, after) »t (unstressed ot), at) f«st, fast, 
firm) fst, vat, vessel) gled, glad) glaes, glass) gr«3 
{fSBits), grass) hsdfde, he had ) hwddU whale) hwrnt^ what) 
pddpfpath) segde, he said; smel, small -, stmt, staff) in 
the pret. sing, of strong verbs belonging to classes IV 
(§ 603) and V (§ 606), as baer (Goth. O.Icel. OS. OHG. 
bar), bore) brsec, broke \ cwae]>, said) s«t, sat) w«s, 
was. On forms like sppel, apple, beside pi. appla, see 

Examples in open syllables when followed by a palatal 
vowel, or a vocalic nasal or liquid in the next syllable, are : 
»cer (Goth, akrs), field, acre) ecem, acorn) feder, 
father) feger (Goth, fagrs), fair, beautiful) hlaedel, ladU) 
hrsfen, hrsefn, raven) hw»)>er, whether) megen (Goth. 
*magn), power ) naegel, n»gl (Goth. *nagls), nail) w»ter, 
water) f»)>m(Goth. *faj>ms), embrace, fathom ; haegl, hail) 
snaegl, snail) tedgl, tail) w»gn, wagon) sing. gen. daeges, 
fsetes, dat. dsege, faete, beside nom. deg, day ; fet, vat 

Note. — i. ae became e in Ken. and partly also in Mercian, as 
deg, feder, fet, hefde, set, wes, weter » WS. dasg, faeder, &c. 

2? ae became » by loss of g, as br»d, he brandished; m&den, 
maiden; 8»de, he said; wabn, wagon, beside braegd, maegden 
(§ 68), saegde, waegn. 

3. a often occurs where we should expect ae. In such cases 
the a is due to levelling and new formations, as sing. gen. pa)>es, 

D 2 

36 Phonology [f SS 

dat. pa}^, beside pv^es, pv^ due to the plural forms pa)>a8, 
p«|m, pa^am (§ 8d6) ; fem. gen. dat. ace. singular sace, smi^ 
beside s»ce, swse}^, due to nom. singular saco, strife^ quarrel ; 
swa)m, /raci^ ; and plural saca, 8wa)>a, &c. (§ 966) ; masc. gen. 
sing, glades, beside nom. glmd^ gkid, due to forms like dat. sing, 
and plural gladimi (§ 424) ; imperative of strong verbs be- 
longing to class VI (§ 606), as far, sac, due to the influence of 
the infinitive faran, io go, travel ; sacan, to quarrel \ and similarly 
in the pp. faren; grafen, dug\ bladen, loaded^ beside grsefen, 
hlseden. On the analogy of such past participles was formed 
slagen beside slsegen, slqin. 

§ 66. » became e by i«umlaut, as bedd, Goth, badi, 
OHG. betti, bed; bet(e)ra, Goth, batiza, betUr; hebban, 
Goth. haQan, OS. he£Ban, io raise ; here, Goth, haijis, 
OS. OHG.heri,arrif)'; lecgan^Goth. lagjan, OS. leggian, 
to lay; and similarly bere, barley; bet from *1>atiz» better; 
cwellan (wv.), to kill; ege, awe, /ear; elles, else; hege, 
hedge; hell (Goth, ha^a), hell; herian, to praise; hete, 
hate; mere, lake; mete, meat, food; nerian, to save; nett, 
net; secgan, to say; sellan, to sell; settan, to set; stede, 
place; swerian, to swear; tellan, to count; twelf (Goth. 
twsiHit), twelve; vrebb, web; vreccBXi, to awake. Butstaepe 
beside stepe, step. 

NoTE.-^i. In Nth. e was often rounded to oe after w, as 
cnodla, to kill; taoBli, twelve. 

2. The regular forms of the second and third pers. singular 
of the pres. indicative of strong verbs belonging to class VI 
(§ 608) would have e, as in OHG. feris, thou goest; ferit, he 
goes, but in 0£. the a of the other forms of the present was 
extended to th c second and third pers. singular, and then 
a became m by i-umlaut, as fsrest, fmrep. 

3. It is difficult to account for the absence of umlaut in 
toccaa, to seize; p»)>)MUi, to traverse; 8»cc, strife; w»cce« 
vigU; and for gemascca, mate ; luecc, gate, hatch ; msBCg, man, 
warrior ; stoppan, to step ; wrascca (OS. wrekkio), exile, beside 
the umlauted forms gamecca, mecg, steppan, wrecca. 

§§ 5^-7] Short Vowels of Accented Syllables 37 

§ 56. Umlaut generally did not take place before Ger* 
manic consonant combinations, as dwasscaOt to exHnguish ; 
«8C from *aski2, ash-tree ; sespe, aspen ; testan, to fasten ; 
haeftan, to hold captive; maestan, to fatten; nmglan, to 
nail; rsscan, to coruscate. But umlaut occurs in eft* 
again; esne, servant; rest, rest; restan, to rest; and in 
efiian, to peffonn ; stefaan, to regulate, beside sfnan, 

§ 67. Germanic a remained in open syllables when 
originally followed by a guttural vowel (&, 69 &) in the 
next syllable, as pi. nom. ace. daga?, gen. daga» dat. 
dagum^ beside sing. nom. daeg, day; gen. dsges, dat. 
daege ; neut. nom. ace. plural ba.'pvLf baths ; blado, leaves 
fatUy vats, beside singular bae}), blaed, faet; OE. Goth. 
OS. OHG. faran» O.Icel. fara» to go, travel; nacod, 
Goth. naqa]>9» OHG. nackot, naked; and similarly alan, 
to nourish; apa» ape; bacan, to bake; calan, to be cold; 
cam, care; cradol, cradle; dragan, to draw; pres. subj. 
fare (Goth, far&i), he may travel; gaderian from ^jado* 
Tbizsif to gather; galan, /o stiff ; gnagan, /o ^aw ; grafan, 
to dig; hafoCi hawk; hafola, hafela, head; hagol, hail; 
hago, enclosure; hara, hare; hladan, to load; hra]>or, 
more quickly; lagu, law; latest, latest, slowest; la]>a^, /t^ 
invites; la]K)de, he invited; maca]>, he makes; macode, 
he made; magu, boy; nafula, nafela, navel; racu, narra- 
tive; HtiCBn, to quarrel; %,^cxi, stnfe ; ssidoU saddle ; stBipotf 
pillar; &ta})elian from *sta)}ulojan, to establish; talu, 
statement ; wadan, to go, wade, macian from *mak5jan, 
to make ; and similarly in the inf. of other weak verbs 
belonging to class II (§ 586), as ba})ian, to bathe; dagian, 
to dawn; giadian, to be glad; hatian, to hate; la]>ian, to 

It also remained in closed syllables before double con- 
sonants (except hh), sc, and at, when the next syllable 
originally contained a guttural vowel, as abb3d (Lat. ace. 

38 Phonology [§§ 58-9 

abbatem), abbot] assa, donkey; catte (OHG. kazza), 
cat\ cassuCy sedge; gaffettmg, scoffing; habban (§ 688), 
to have; hassuc, coarse grass; maffa» caul; mattoc, mat- 
tock; sacc, sack; ]>accian, to flap, pat; flasce (flaxe), 
flask; masc(max), net; wascan (wazan), to wash;hTBsi- 
lian, to crackle. But a few words have « beside a, as 
8&£ce9 ash, cinders; seppel, apple; hnaeppian^ to doze; 
leppa^ lappet, beside asce (axe), appla, apfdes, hnappian, 

NoTE.^8ca- was often written scea- with e to denote the 
palatal pronunciation of the sc, as sceacan, to shake ; sceadu, 
shadow \ Bceafan. to shave \ scealu, scale {balance); sceamu 
(sceomu, § 59), shame, beside scacan, scadu, scafan, scalu, 
scamu (scomu). See § 61, Note. 

§ 68. a became » when followed by an umlauted vowel 
in the next syllable, as aeces (aex) from *aky&i, older 
*akusi-» axe ; and similarly 8e]>ele from *a)>ali (OS. adali), 
noble; »)>eling from *a]3uli]ig, nobleman; «t-, td-gaedere 
from *-5aduri, together; fssten (OS. fastunnia^ /as/iW^), 
fortress; g8edeling(0S. gaduling), companion; h»le]> from 
*xaluj)i-, hero ; hserfest from *x&i*u^ist, harvest ; msgden 
from ^majadin (OHG. magatin), maiden. The ae in the 
above examples is a kind of umlaut. 

Note.— The a in the stem-syllable of the present participle 
and gerund of strong verbs belonging to class VI (§ 608) is due 
to the a of the infinitive, as farende for *fsereiide from *farandi, 
farenne for ^faerenne from *farannjai. 

§ 69. Germanic a was probably a mid-back-wide vowel 
like the a in German Mann. In OE. it became a low- 
back-wide vowel before nasals like the k in French p&te, 
and the a as pronounced in many Scotch dialects in such 
words as ant, man, pass, which English people often mis- 
take for o especially when lengthened. In the oldest OE. 
it was nearly always written a, in the ninth century it was 
mostly written o, and in late OE. mostly a again, but 

§ 6o] Short Vowels of Accented Syllables 39 

in some parts of Mercia it seems to have become o which 
has been preserved in many of the Midland dialects down 
to the present day. Examples are: gangan, gongan, 
Goth, gaggan, O.Icel. ganga, OS. OHG. gangan, to go; 
hana, hona, Goth, hana, O.Icel. hane, OS. OHG. 
banc, cock; lang, long, Goth, lagge, O.Icel. langr, OS. 
OHG. lang, long; nama, noma, Goth, namd, OS. OHG. 
namoy name ; and similarly ancor (Lat. ancora), anchor ; 
banB.f slayer; hTZxA^ firebrand; camb, comb; caxap, battle; 
candel (Lat. candela), candle ; cann, he can ; fana, banner; 
gandra, gander; gesamnian, to collect; hamor, hammer ; 
hsLXiifhand; Irwr, lame; lamb, lamb; land, land; manig 
(Goth, manags), many ; mann, man ; ramm, ram ; span- 
nan, to clasp, fasten ; standan, to stand ; Strang, strong ; 
]>anC9 thought; )>wang, thong; in the pret. singular of 
many strong verbs of class III (§ 498), as begann, began ; 
dranc, drank; fand,/ound; sang, sang; swamm, swam ; 
with metathesis of r in bom from older bronn, brann 
(Goth, brann), burned; cm from older ronn, rann (Goth. 
rann), ran. 

Note. — The a became o in unstressed adverbial and pro- 
nominal forms, as hwonne, when ; on, on ; }>onne, then ; masc. 
ace. singular hwone, whom ; ]:)one, the. 

§ 60. a (o) became e (but » in the oldest period) by 
i-umlaut, as ende, Goth, andeis, O.Icel. ende, OS. endi, 
OHG. enti, stem andja-, end; lengra, OS. lengira, OHG. 
lengiro, longer; sendan, Goth, sandjan, OS. sendian, 
to send; and similarly bene from *bai|kiz, bench ; cemban, 
to comb ; cempa, warrior ; drencan, to give to drink ; ened, 
duck ; enge, narrow ; englisc, English ; fremman, to per- 
form; henn, hen; leng]>, length; menn, men; mengan, 
to mix; mennisc, human; nemnan, to name; pening, 
penny \ strengra, stronger; ])€ncan, to think; wendan, to 
turn, bsman (Goth, brannjan), to burn; aeman (Goth. 

40 Phonology [§§ 61-4 

rani^an), to run, gallop, with metathesis of r and preserva- 
tion of the older stage of umlaut. 

§ 0L Nasals disappeared before the voiceless spirants, 
f, )>, 8, and the preceding a (o) became through the inter- 
mediate stage of a long nasalized vowel (cp. § 40), as hds, 
Goth. OHG. hansa, band, escort, multitude) b^r, Goth. 
aii)>ar, second, other; softe, OHG. samfto, gently, softly ; 
and similarly gbs, goose; oB', god; dale (OHG. amsala), 
blackbird; smbpe, sntoothly ; sop, true; top, tooth; Jirdstte, 
thrush, throstle; wos, moisture. 

§ 62. became e (older de) by i-umlaut, as est, Goth, 
ansts, stem-form ansti^/avour; oe)>an, Goth. ana-nan}yjaii, 
to venture on ; t§)> from *taLaL\AZf teeth ; and similarly fe]>e, 
walking, movement; ges, geese ; gesepsn, to testify, declare ; 
sefte, soft; smepe, smooth. 

§ 63. a was broken to ea before 1, r, and h+ consonant, 
and before simple h. Forms without breaking often occur 
in the oldest period of the language. Breaking did not 
take place in Anglian before 1 + consonant, and frequently 
not before r+ consonant. See 1, r (§ 7). 

§64. I. Before 1 + consonant. 

call, Goth, alls, O.Icel. allr, OS. OHG. al, all; ceald, 
Goth, kalds, O.Icel. kaldr, OS. kald, OHG. kali, cold; 
healdan, Goth. OS. haldan, O.Icel. halda, OHG.haltan, 
to hold; and similarly cealc, chalk; cealf, calf; dealf, 
he dug; eald, old; ealh, temple; fealdan, to fold; feallan, 
to fall; gealgB., gallows ; healf, half; heall, hall; healp, 
he helped ; heals, neck ; mealt, malt ; sealf, salve, ointment ; 
sealfian, to anoint; sealh, willow; sealt, salt; tealde, he 
told; wealdan, to wield; wealh, foreigner, Welshman; 
weall, wall; weallan, to boil. Forms like bealu, bale, 
evil ; fealu, fallow ; sealu, dark, dusky, beside balu, falu, 
salu, have the ea from the inflected stem-form, as gen. 
bealwes, fealwes, sealwes (see § 265). 

Note. — i, ea became ea by loss of h before a following 

§§ 65-6] Short Vowels of Accented Syllables 41 

vowel, as gen. singular seales* weales, nom. pi. sealas, 
wealas, beside nom. singular sealh, wealh. ea became ie 
by i-umlaut, as wielisc,/ofvr]^, Welsh. 

2. a remained unbroken in late Latin loanwords, as albe 
(Lat albaX alb\ alter (Lat. altare), altar \ fals (Lat. falsua), 
false \ palm (Lat. palma), palm-tree, 

§ 65. ea became ie (later i, y) by i-umlaut, as fiellan 
from *feaUjan, older *falUan, tofeU\ fielst from ♦feam£(t), 
thou fallest; fiel]> from *fealU]>» he falls-, ieldra (Goth. 
Blpiza), older ; ieldesta, oldest; ieldu, old age; snieltan 
(wv.), to melt. 

Note.— The corresponding vowel in Anglian is m (also e), as 
»ldra, eldra, eeldti, f8ella(n), fella(n); and in Ken. e, as eldra, 

§ 66. 2. Before r + consonant. 

beam, Goth. O.Icel. OS. OHG. bam, child; heard, 
Goth, hardus, O.Icel. harfir, OS. hard, OHG. hart,Aarrf; 
and similarly beard, beard; bearg, pig; bearm, bosom; 
cearf, he carved; dearr, / dare; earc (Lat. area), ark; 
earm, arm; esurm,poor; eart, thou art; fearh, boar, pig; 
gezrdf yard; gearn, yam; gearwian, to prepare; ge- 
mearcian, to mark ; hearg, heathen temple; hearm, harm ; 
mearCf boundary; mearg, marrow; mesirh, horse; pearroc, 
park; scearp, sharp; swearm, swarm; wearm, warm; 
wearp, he threw ; wear]>, he became. Forms like bearu, 
grove; gearu, ready; meant, tender; nearu, narrow; 
seam, plot, device, have ea from the inflected stem-form, 
as gen. bearwes, gearwes, mearwes, &c. (see § 266). 

Note. — i. In Anglian ea became m (later e) before r + guttural, 
as berg, ere, feerh (ferhX m»rc (mere), &c. 

2. a remained unbroken in late Latin loanwords, as carcem, 
prison ; martyr, martyr. 

3. ea became ea by loss of h before a following vowel, as 
gen. singular feares, meares, nom. pi. fearas, mearas, beside 
nom. singular fearh, mearh. 

42 Phonology [§§ 6-9 

4. Forms like aem (Goth, razn), house ; pret. sing, am (Goth, 
rann), ran\ bam (Goth, brann), burned; beerst (OHG. trast), 
burst \ gaer8(Goth. gras),^a55; haem, 7Mit;^, are due to a late 
metathesis of the r. 

§ 67. ea became ie (later i, y) by i-umlaut, as dieme, 
OS. demi, OHG. tami, secret; ierfe, Goth, arbi, OS. 
OHG. erbi, inheritance ; and similarly cierran, to turn ; 
gierdy rod, twig; gierwan from *gearwjan, to prepare; 
iermingy pauper; ienii]>u (OHG. armida), poverty; wier- 
man, to warm. 

Note.— The corresponding vowel in the non-WS. dialects 
is e, as deme, erfe, ermtm, &c. 

§ 68. 3. Before h + consonant (also x = hs) and simple h. 

eahta, Goth, aht&u, OS. OHG. ahto, eight ; seah, Goth, 
satv, OS. OHG. sah, he saw ; weaxan, Goth, wahsjan, 
O.Icel. vaxa, OS. OHG. wahsan, to grow; and similarly 
eajs^axk-tree; e3.i^, shoulder; feaht, he fought; feax, hair; 
fleaxy /lax ; gefeah, he rejoiced ; geneahhe, enough, often ; 
hleahtor, laughter; meaht (later miht), power, might; 
meaht» thou mayest; meahte, he might, could; neaht 
(later niht), night; seax, knife; sleah (imperative), slay 
thou; weaxy wax. 

Note.— I. ea became » in Anglian, as aehta, faex, hlsehtor, 
aseh, waex, &c. 

2. It became e in late WS., as ehta, exl, fex, seh, sex, sleh, 

§ 69. ea became ie (later i, y) by i-umlaut, as hliehhan 
(Goth, hlahjan), to laugh ; mieht (Goth, mahts, stem-form 
mahti-), power, might; miehtig, mighty; nieht, night; 
sliehst (Goth, slahis), thou slayest; slieh]> (Goth, slahit), 
he slays; slieht, stem-form slahti-, slaughter; wiexj) 
(OHG. wahsit), it grows. 

Note.— The corresponding vowel in Anglian is », as hlseh- 
ha(n), mseht, maehtig, &c. 

§§ 70-5] Short Vowels of Accented Syllables 43 

§ 70. ea became ea by loss of intervocalic h, as ea, Goth. 
atva» OS. OHG. aha, water, river] slean from *sleahan, 
Goth. OS. OHG. slahan, to slay, strike; and similarly 
flean, fo^oy; lea from *leahu, / blame; lean, to blame; 
slea, I slay ; slea}> from *sleaha}), they slay; }>wean, to 
wash ; ear (Nth. shher) from *eahur, older *ahur, OHG. 
ahir, ear of corn ; tear (Nth. taehher) from ^teahur, older 
♦tahur, OHG. zahar, tear. 

§ 71. ea became ie (later i, y) by i-umlaut, as stiele from 
*stiehle, Germanic stem-form *staxlja-, steeL 

§ 72. » (older a) became ea (older ecb) after initial 
palatal c, g, and so, as ceaf, chaff; ceafor, cockchafer; 
ceaster (Lat. castra), city, fortress ; forgeat (OS. forgat), 
he forgot; g^Ki (Goih, %2if), he gave ; geat(O.Icel. OS. gat), 
gate, opening, hole; sceaft (OHG. scaft), shaft; sceal 
(Goth, skal), / shall; sceatt (Goth, skatts), money, property. 

Note.— I. Anglian has ae beside ea, and Ken. e (se), as Anglian 
caester (ceaster), gaet (geat), scael (sceal) — Ken. cester, get, 
seel, e also occurs occasionally in Mercian. 

2. Forms like ceald, cold; cealf, calf; geard, yard; gearn, 
yam; scealt, thou shalt; scearp, sharpy are due to breaking 
(§§ 64, 66), which took place earlier than the influence of 
palatals upon a following ». In both cases the ea became e in 
late WS., as celf, gef, get, &c. 

§ 73. ea became ie (later i, y) by i-umlaut, as ciefes 
from *kabisd, concubine ; ciele from *kaliz, cold ; cietel 
(Lat. eatillus), kettle; giest(Goth. gasts, stem-form gasti-), 
guest ; scieppan (Goth, skapjan), to create. 

Note.— The corresponding vowel in the non-WS. dialects is 
e, as cefes, cele, gest, sceppan, &c. 

§ 74. Germanic a generally remained before the w which 
was regularly preserved in OE., as gen. dat. singular clawe 
beside nom. clea, claw ; awul, awel, awl; pawian, to thaw. 

§ 75. a+u (which arose from wu or vocalized w (§ 265)) 
became ea (cp. § 136), as clea from ^ kla(w)u, claw ; nom. 

44 Phonology [§§ 7^-80 

ace. pi. neuter fea from ' f a( w)U9 /m^ ; dat feam from 
'*fa(w)i]m ; hrea from *hraw-, raw ; strSa from *8traw-, 
straw ; Jwea from *J>ra(w>, Oireat. 

§ 76. Prim. Germanic aww (rs Goth, aggn^) became 
auw in West Germanic, which regularly became eaw in 
OE. (cp. § 186), as dSaw (Goth, ^daggwa-, OHG. tou, 
gen. tcuwes), dew ; gleaw (Goth, glaggwu-ba, dUigentiy\ 
wise) heawan (Goth. *haggwaii, OHG. houwan), to hew ; 
8ceawian(Goth. *skaggw5n, OHG.scouwon), fy) examine, 

§ 77. a became e by i-umlaut, then at a later period the 
e became eo before w, as ewe beside eowe, eowu(cp. Lat. 
ovis),ewe; eowde, flock, herd; eowe8tre(cp.Goth.awistr), 
sheep/old; meowle(Goth. mawilo),^V/; sirewede beside 
streowede (Goth, strawida), he sirewed. 

§ 78. In Mercian a became ea before single consonants 
by u- and o/a-umlaut| as ealu, ale ; beadu, battle ; eafora, 
son; featu, vats; heafuc, hawk; heafola, head; hea]>u, 
war; stesipvd, pillar ; steRpvd, foundation, fearan, to go, 
travel; feara]>, they travel; gen. pi. feata, 0/ vats; geata, 
0/ gates; gleadian, to rejoice; hleadan, to load; leatian, 
to be slow. For the corresponding non-Mercian forms, see 
§ 57. 

Note. — i. The ea became m before gutturals, as deegas 
(« WS. dagas), days ; dreeca, dragon ; meegun, they can, 

2. Umlaut rarely took place before double consonants, as 
eappultun (WS. aeppeltiin), orchard; hneappian (WS. hnap- 
plan), to doze, 

3. WS. ealtt, and forms like eafora, beafoc, &c., which are 
common in poetry, are all originally from the Mercian dialect. 

§ 70. Final a was lengthened to 9. in monosyllables, as 
hwa (Goth, hras), who ; swa (Goth, swa), so, 

§ 80. Germanic e (= Goth, i, but af before r, h, and hr, 
O Icel. OS. OHG. e) often remained in OE., as OE. OS. 

H 81-3] Short Vowels of Accented Syllables 45 

OHG.feld,yWi/; fej>er, OS. fethara, OHG. fedara,/i?a/A<rr; 
wegt Goth. v^igB, O.Icel. vegr, OS. OHG. weg, way ; and 
similarly bes(e)ma, besom) cwene (Goth, qind, OHG. 
quenaX woman ; denu, valky ; ef (e)ii» even ; f ela, much ; fell, 
5>b>f ; ittOT 9 fetter; helm, helmet] lejyer, kather; nefa, nephew; 
nest, ^5/; reg(e)n, raiVi; segl, sai?; seldan, seldom; 
senep, mustard; setl, 5^a/; snegl, 5»ai7; snell, ^iiir/6; 
)>egn, //raif^; weder, weather; wel (adv.),w^i7; wer, fiwiw; 
west, west ; in the present of strong verbs belonging to 
classes III (§488), IV, and V, as helpan, Goth, hllpan, 
OS. helpan, OHG. helfan, to help ; and similarly belgan, 
to swell with anger; bellan, to bellow; delfan, to dig; meltan, 
to melt; swellan, to swell; sweltan, to die; beTBXif to bear ; 
brecan, to break ; helan, to conceal ; stelan, to steal; teran, 
to tear; cnedan, to knead; cwe)>an, to say; etan, to eat; 
fretan, to devour; lesan, to collect; metan, to measure; 
sprecan, to speak; tredan, to tread; wefan, to weave; 
wesan, to be. 

Note.— I. In Nth. e was often rounded to oe after w, as ctitt|>a, 
wobI, woeg =:: WS. cwejmn, wel, weg. 

2. e became e by loss of g, as bredan, to brandish ; ren, rain ; 
stredan, to strew ; pea, thane, beside bregdan, regn, stregdan, 

§ 81. e became i before Germanic m, as niman (OHG. 
neman), to take; rima, rim. This sound-change did not 
take place when the m arose from f by assimilation 
with n, as emn, even ; stemn, voice, beside older ef(e)n, 

§ 82. e became i before nasal -f consonant in early Latin 
loanwords, but remained in later loanwords, as gimm (Lat. 
gemma), gem; mint (Lat. mentha), mint; pinsian (Lat. 
pensSre), to consider ; but tempi (Lat. templum), temple. 

§ 83. e was broken to eo before Ic, Ih, before r and 
h+ consonant, and before simple h. Breaking did not 
take place in Anglian before Ic, Ih. 

46 Phonology [5§ 84-6 

§ 84. I. Before Ic, Ih. 

aseolcan, to become languid] eolh (OHG. elaho), elk ; 
meolcan (OHG. melkan), to milk] seolh (OHG. selah), 
seal] sceolh (OHG. scelh, scelah), wry, oblique. But 
Anglian elh, melca(n)^ selh, &c. 

Note.— 1. eo became eo by loss of h before a following vowel, 
as feolan from *feolhan (= Goth, filhan, OHG. bifelhan), to 
hide ; gen. eoles, secies, beside nom. eolh, seolh. 

2. It is difficult to account for the breaking in heolfor, t^ood, 
gore ; and seolf, self^ beside the commoner form self. 

§ 86. 2. Before r + consonant. 

eorJ)e, Goth. afr})a, OS. erda, OHG. erda, earth] 
heorte, Goth, hafrtd, OS. herta, OHG. herza, heart] 
weor}>an, Goth. wair])an, O.Icel. verSa, OS. werdan, 
OHG. werdan, to become] and similarly beorcan, to 
bark) beorg, hill] beorgan, to shelter] beorht, bright] 
ceorfan, to cut, carve] ceoTl, churl] deorc, dark] dweorg, 
dwarf] eorl, nobleman^ earl] feorh, life ; f eorr,/ar ; geom, 
eager ; heord, herd^ flock ; heorj), hearth ; steorfan, to die ; 
steorra, star] sweord, sword] weorc, work] weorpan, 
to throw ] weor J), worth. 

Note.— I. Breaking is older than the metathesis of r in forms 
like berstan (OHG. brestan), to burst; terse, fresh; ]>er8can, 
to thrash, 

2. The eo became e in Anglian before r + guttural, as 
berga(n), berht, derc, dwerg, ferh, were = WS. beorgan, 
beorht, &c. 

3. The eo became ea in Nth., and io in Ken. (cp. § 137), as 
Nth. ear}>e, hearte, stearra = Ken. ior]>e, hiorte, stiorra » 
WS. and Mercian eor]>e, heorte, steorra. 

4. eo became eo by loss of h before a following vowel, as gen. 
feores, }>weores, beside nom. feorh, life; ]>weorh, perverse ^ 

§ 86. 3. Before h+ consonant (also x=hs) and simple h. 
cneoht (OHG. kneht), boy ; eoh, horse ; feoh, catde ; 


§§ 87-90] Short Vowels 0/ Accented Syllables 47 

feohtan (OHG. fehtan), to fight; Peohtas, Picts ; pleoh, 
danger] reoht (Goth, ralhts, OS. OHG. reht), right \ 
seox (Goth, saihs, OS. OHG. sehs), six) imperative 
sing, seoh, see thou. But already at an early period the 
eo became ie (later i, rarely y) before hs and ht in WS. 
and i in Ken., as cnieht, cniht ; ryht, riht ; siex, six. 

Note.— eo became e in Anglian, as cneht, feh, fehta(Q), reht, 
sex s early WS. cneoht, feoh, &c. 

§ 87. eo became eo (10) by loss of intervocalic h, as seon 
(sion) from *seohan, older ^sehan = Goth, saftvan, OS. 
OHG. sehan, to see) sweor from *sweohur, older 
^swehtir = OHG. swehur, father-in-law ; and similarly 
gefeooy to rejoice ; gef eo from *gefeohu, / rejoice ; pleon, 
to risk ) seo from ^seohu, I see ; gen. singular feos, pleos, 
beside nom. feoh, cattle ; pleoh, danger, 

§ 88. Final ew became eu, and then eu became eo 
at the same time as Germanic eu became §0 (see § 137), as 
sing. nom. cneo, Germanic stem-form *knewav knee ; treOy 
tree ; J>eo, slave^ servant. See § 266. 

§ 80. Antevocalic ew became eow, as sing. gen. 
cneowes, treowes, })eowes» dat. cneowe, treowe, ]>eowe ; 
)>eowian (}yiowian), to serve. Forms like nom. cneow, 
treow, ])eow had the w from the inflected forms. And 
conversely forms like gen. cneowes, treowes, )>eowes 
had eo from the uninflected forms. 

§ 90. Prim. Germanic eww ( = Goth, iggw) became 
euw in West Germanic, and then euw became Sow in 
OE., as treow (OS. treuwa, OHG.triuwa), trust, faith, 
cp. Goth, triggwa, covenant. 

Prim. Germanic ewwj became iowj through the inter- 
mediate stages iwwj, iuwj, and then iowj became iew(e) in 
WS. and iow(e), eow(e) in non-WS., as WS.getriewe, non- 
WS. getriowe, getreowe (OHG. gitriuwij, prim. Ger- 
manic *-trewwjaz, cp. Goth. triggws» true, faithful) WS. 

48 Phonology [§§ 91-2 

getriewan, non-WS. getiiowan, getreowan, prim. Ger- 
manic *-trewwjan, to trust And similarly West Germanic 
iwwj (§ 254) from prim. Germanic ewj, as WS. hiew» 
hiw, non-WS. hiow, h$ow, prim. Germanic stem-form 
*xewja-, shape^ colour; WS. niewe, niwe, non-WS. 
mowey niowe» prim. Germanic stem-form *newja-, new. 

§ 81. e became ie (later i, y) after palatal c, g, and sc in 
WS., but remained e in Anglian and Ken., as cieres, 
cires (Lat. ace. cerasum), cherry-tree] forgietan (OS. 
forgetan), to forget] giefan (O.Icel. gefa, OS. gel>an, 
OHG. geban), to gtve; giefa, gift; gieldan, to yield; 
giellan, to yell; gielpan, to boast; giest (cp. OHG. jesan, 
to ferment), yeast; scield, shield; scieran (OHG. sceran), 
to shear. But Anglian and Ken. gefa(n), gekla(n), sceld, &c. 

Note.-— The above sound-change took place later than breaking, 
cp. ceorfan, ceorl, geom, § 86. 

§ 02« e became eo by u-umlaut in Ken. before all single 
consonants, in Anglian before all single consonants except 
gutturals (c, g), and in WS. before single labials and 
liquids, as beofor, beaver; eofor (OHG. ebur), boar; 
geoloca, yolk; geolo (OS. OHG. gelo, gen. gelwes), 
yellow ; heof on, heaven ; heolor, scales, balance ; heolstor 
from older helustr, hiding place; heorut, hart; meolu 
(OHG. melo» gen. mel(a)wes), meal,. flour; seofon, seven ; 
smeoru, grease, fat; teem, tar; weorod, troop. Non- 
WS. eodor, enclosure; eosolt donkey; feotOTffetter; meodu, 
mead (drink) ; meotod, creator = WS. edor, esol, fetor, 
medu, metod. Ken. breogo, prince ; reogol (Lat. regula), 
rule = WS. and Anglian brego, regol. 

Note.— I. n-unUaut took place in WS. in the combination we, 
as hweogol, whees ; Bweotol, plain^ dear; weotuma, dotvty, and 
probably also before two consonants in sweostor, sister. 

2. The regular forms due to u-umlaut were often obliterated 
in WS. by levelling, as mela, meal, flour, with mel- from the 

§§ 93-6] Short Vowels of Accented Syllables 49 

gen. melwes, dat. melwe ; pi. nom. sperti, spears ; dat. sperum, 
due to the forms of the singular, as spere, gen. speres, gen. pi. 
spera; and similarly for many other forms. 

§ 93. e became eo by o/a«umlaut in Ken. before all 
single consonants, and in Anglian (but Nth. generally ea) 
before all single consonants except gutturals (c, g), as 
beoran, to bear] eotany to eat] feola, many] meotan, to 
measure] ^eof a., heart ] steolan, to steal ] treodsnif to tread ] 
weofan, to weave = WS. beran, etan, fela, metan, sefa, 
stelan, tredan^ wefan. But Ken. weogas, ways ; spreo- 
can, to speak = WS. and Anglian wegas, sprecan. Nth. 
beara, eata, treada = WS. beran, etan, tredan. 

§ 04. The combination wee- which arose from breaking 
{§§ 84-e), or from u-, o/a-umlaut (§§ 92-8), became wu- 
(rarely wo-) in late WS., and wo- in late Nth., but remained 
in Mercian and Ken., as late WS. swurd (later swyrd), 
sword] swuster (later swyster), sister] swutol, plain, 
clear] wurpan beside worpan, to throw] wurj?, worth, 
price ] wurjjan, to become ; but vrorCfWork ; woruld,worold, 
world. Late Nth. sword ; worj), worth ; worJ)a, to become] 
worold, world] wosa from older weosa = WS. wesan, 
to be, 

§ 96. Final e was lengthened to S in monosyllables, 
as he, he] me, me] se (masc. nom. sing.), the] we, we] 
J>e, relative particle (§ 468). 


§ 96. Germanic i (= Goth. O.Icel. OS. OHG. i) generally 
remained in OE., as biddan, Goth, bidjan, O.Icel. bidja, 
OS. biddian, OHG. bitten, to pray, beg, entreat] fisc, Goth. 
fisks, O.Icel. fiskr, OS. fisk, OHG. fisc, fish] witan, 
Goth. OS. witan, O.Icel. vita, OHG. wL^i^an, to know ; 
and similarly bit(t)er, bitter] blind, blind] bridd, young 
bird] bringan, to bring] cild, child] cinn, chin ; clif, cliff] 
cribb, crib] cvHde, saying] disc, dish] finger, finger] 

50 Phonology [§§ 97-8 

gefilde(sb.), plain; ^ti^ price of wife) hider, hither; hild, 
battle, war; hhid{sh.), hind; IMdJid; bring, ring; licgan, 
to lie down; libban, to live; lifer, liver; Um, limb; list, 
cunning; midd, middle; nift, niece; nSi^pex, downwards; 
^c, pitch; ribb, rib; scilling, shilling; scip, ship; sibb, 
relationship; sife, 5i>t;^; sige, victory; sittan, to sit; sadp, 
smith ; s^eh spindle; tw\gftwig;piccef thick ; ^detfthither; 
]>ing, thing; }>ridda, third; wilde, wild; wind, «;iW; winter, 
winter; in the second and third pers. sing. pres. indicative of 
strong verbs belonging to classes 1 1 1, IV, and V, as hilpesty 
hilpe]>, birest, bire}>9 itest, ite]>, beside inf. helpan, to help ; 
beran, to bear ; eta^, to eat ; in the pret plural and pp. of 
strong verbs belonging to class I, as biton, biten^ ridon, 
riden, stigon, stigen, beside inf. bitan, to bite ; ridan, to 
ride; stigBXi, to ascend ; in the inf. and present of strong 
verbs belonging to class III, as bindan, to bind; drincan, 
to drink; findan, to find; sincan, to sink; singan, to sing; 
spinnan, to spin; swimman, to swim. 

Note. — i. i became 1 by loss of g, as bridel, bridle ; frinan, 
o ask ; ISp, he lies down ; rinao, to rain ; 8])>e, scythe; tile (Lat. 
tegiila), tik, beside brigdel, frignan, lige]>, Big]>e, tigele. 

2. i appears as e in the Latin loanwords, peru (Lat. pimm), 
pear; segn (Lat. sigaum), sign, 

§ 07. i became i by loss of nasal before a voiceless 
spirant, as Hf, Goth. OHG. ^mS, five; flfely sea-monster; 
gemp (OHG. gisindo), companion; hrijjer (OHG. rind), 
ox; Upe (OHG. lindi), gentle; si}) (Goth. sinj)8), way; swip 
(Goth. swinj)s), strong. But in remained when it came 
to stand before a voiceless spirant at a later period, as 
pinsian from Lat. pens^re, to weigh, consider; winster 
beside winester (OHG. winister), left (hand), 

§ 88. i was broken to io before r and h+ consonant, and 
simple h, but already in early WS. the io became eo and 
thus fell together with the eo from e (§§ 86-^), as liomian, 
leomian from *lim5jan, to learn; miox, meox from 

§ 99l Short l^owels of Accented Syllables 51 

^mlhst, fftanure, cp. Goth, maihstui, dunghill] tiohhian, 
teohhian from *tihh5jan» to arrange, think, consider; 
twiogan, tweogan from *twixojaii (§ 139), to doubt. 

Note.— I. eo then became ie, later i, in WS. before h+con- 
sonanty as stihtan, to arrange, regulaie ; wriexl, wrizi» exduMnge. 

2. In Anglian io became i before gutturals, as getihhian, to 
arrange^ think, consider, 

3. In the two verbs corresponding to Goth, brinnan, fa bum ; 
and rinnan, fo run, the metathesis of the r took place earlier 
than breaking, whence Anglian bioma(n), beoma(n)» ionia(ii), 
eonia(n). In WS. we have bieman (Uter biman, byrnan), 
ieman (later iman, yman) for *biomaii, ^beoman, *iomaii, 
*eonian» with ie from the third pers. singular biem(e)|> (» Goth. 
brinni|>)» iem(e)]> (« Goth. riiini|>). The new formation in WS. 
was doubtless due to the fact that the two verbs were mostly 
used impersonally, cp. the similar new formations in NHG. 
ziemen, to beseem ; and wiegen, fo weigh, 

§ 88. io became ie (later U y) by i-umlaut in WS., 
as ftfierran (OHG. arflrren^ from *-flnjan» to remove; 
bierce, birch; flelist (OHG. fihtis), thou fightest; fieht, 
he fights; gebierhtan, to make bright; gesieh]), vision; 
gieman (OS. girnian), to desire; bierde (OHG. birti), 
shepherd; ierre (OS. OHG. irri), angry; ribtan, ryhtan 
(OS. ribtian), to set straight; siebst (OHG. sibis), thou 
seest; 8ieb]> (OHG. sibit), he sees; smierwan (OHG. 
smirwen), to anoint; wierretsrta, wiersta (OHG. wir- 
sisto), worst; wiersa (OHG. wirsiro), worse; wier^ 
(OHG. wirdi)^ worthy. 

Note.— I. The i-umlaut of io generally did not take place in 
the non*WS. dialects, hence we have io in Nth. and Ken., and 
io (eo) in Mercian, as Nth. Ken. gioma(n), hiorde, iorre» 
Mercian geoman, beorde, iorre, WS. gieman, bierde, ierre. 
Forms like afirra(ii), to remove*, smirwan, to smear, are not 
pure Anglian forms. 

2. io became i in Anglian before a following guttural or 
r + guttural, as birce, gebirbta(n), geaib|> ; ndxen (mod. northern 

E 2 

52 Phonology [§§ 100-2 

dialects mixen), dunghill \ rihtan; wircan (OS. wirklan), to 
work. The i then became i by loss of intervocalic h and con- 
traction in Nth., as 8i8(t) from 'sihis, WS. siehst, thou seest; 
sip from *8ihi^, WS. sieh^, he sees, 

3. io in the combination wio became u at an early period in 
Anglian, and then n became y by i-umlaut, as wyrresta, worst ; 
wyrsa, worse ; wyrsian, to worsen ; wyrfe, worthy, 

§ 100. i became io by u-, o/a-umlaut in Ken. before all 
single consonants, in Anglian before all single consonants 
except gutturals (c, g), and in WS. before single labials and 
liquids. But already at an early period (ninth century) the 
io became eo in WS. and Mercian. 

§ 101. I. u-umlaut. 

Pret. cliopude, -ode, beside inf. clipian, to call; cliopung, 
calling; mioluc, miolc (later mile), milk; sioluc, silk; 
siolufr, siolfor, silver; pret. tiolude, -ode, beside inf. 
tilian, to aim at; tiolung, produce, labour. Anglian and 
Ken. liomu, leomu, limbs; nio])or (WS. niJ)or), lower; 
siodu (WS. sidu), custom; sionu (WS. sinu), sinew. 
Ken. siocol, sickle ; stiogol, stile = WS. and Anglian 
sicol, stigol. Forms like liomu, xAopOTf which are occa- 
sionally found in WS. prose, are not pure WS. 

Note.— I. u-umlaut was mostly obliterated in WS. by levelling 
and new formations, as plural clifu, cliffs ; scipu, ships (Anglian 
cliofu, sciopu), due to levelling out the stem-forms of those 
cases which had no u in the ending. Pret. plural drifun, •on, 
they drove ; gripun, -on, they seized, due to preterites like biton, 
they bit; stigon, they ascended. Pret. tilode beside tiolode, he 
aimed at, formed direct from the inf. tilian. And conversely 
forms like inf. cliopian (cleopian), tiolian (teolian), were 
formed from the pret. cliopode, tiolode. 

2. io became i in Anglian before 1 + guttural, as mile from 
miolc, older mioluc, milk. 

§ 102. 2. o/a-umlaut. 

hiora, heora, their, of them ; liofast, thou livest. Anglian 
and Ken. behionan, on this side of; glioda, kite, vulture; 

§§ I03-6] Short Vowels of Accented Syllables 53 

hionan, heonan, hence) iiioiiia(n), to take) nioma]), they 
take] piosan (WS. pisan), peas; wiota, sage, wise tnan; 
wiotan, to know. Ken. stiocian, WS. and Anglian stidan, 
to prick. 

Note.— Forms like behionan, wiotan, &c., which occasionally 
occur in WS. prose, are not pure WS. 

§ 108. The combination wic- which arose from breaking 
(§ 98) or from U-, o/a-umlaut (§§ 101-2), generally became 
wu- in WS. and Anglian, but remained in Ken., as 
betwuh (betuh), between; betwux (betux), betwixt; 
c{w)ucu, alive; c(w)udu, cud; wucu (Goth. wik5, OS. 
wika), week; wudu (OS. widu, Ken. wiodu), zuood; 
wuduwe (Goth, widuwo, OS. widuwa), widow; wuht 
(OS. OHG. wiht), creature, thing; wuton (uton), kt us! 
But before gutturals we have wi- in Anglian, as betwih, 
betwix, cwic(u) ; cwician (WS. cwucian), to revive, bring 
to life ; wicu, wlht. 

§104. i or ij by contraction with a following guttural 
vowel became 10 (eo), as bio, bee (OHG. bia, Germanic 
stem-form ^b^dn-), bee; diofol, deofol (Lat. diabolus), 
devil; fiond, feond (Goth. Qjands), enemy, fiend; frio, frgo 
from *fTii^',/ree; friond, freond (Goth, fr^onds), friend ; 
luo, heo from *hi+u, she; fern. nom. sing, sic, sec from 
*si +u, the ; nom. ace. neuter })rio, ])reo from *}>riju = Goth, 
frija, three. 

§ 106. io (eo) became le by i-umlaut, as plural flend 
from *fijandiz, enemies ; friend from *fr^bvi6\z, friends. 

§ 106. Germanic o, which arose from older u (§ 43), 
generally remained in OE. as also in the other Germanic 
languages except Gothic. In Gothic it became u which 
was broken to o (written a6) before r, h, and hr. Examples 
are : dohtor, Goth, dadhtar, OS. dohtar, OHG. tohter. 

54 Phonology [5 107 

daughter; folc, O.IceL OS. OHG. folk, folk; hord, Goth, 
huzd, OS. hord, OHG. hortt treasure; oza, Goth. atUisa, 
O.Icel. oxe, OHG. ohso, ox; and similarly boda, tnessen- 
ger; bodig, body; boga, bow; bohte, he bought; bold, 
AoM5^; bolt, to//; hord, board; holm, bottom ; hrop, broth ; 
cnotta, knot; cocc, cock; col, ^oa/; colt, colt; com, rom; 
coss, ^'55; dogga, dog; dor (OS. dor, OHG. tor), door, 
gate; dropa, drop; fola,/{7a/; folgian, to follow; forst, 
/ro5/; f 0^9 fox; troggSL^frog; god, Gorf; gold, gold; hlot, 
/o/; hof, enclosure ; hoi, Ao/? ; hold, /o>^a/, gracious ; hopian, 
/o hope; horn, Aofri; hors, Aors^; loc, lock; lof, praise; 
molde, earth; morgen, morning; mor]>, mor)H>r, murder; 
nor)>, /for^A; nosu, if 05^; ofen, oven; ofer, £>t;^r; open, 
open; smocc, smock; storm, storm; toh, toll ; \fom, thorn; 
)>orp, village ; word, worrf; worhte, he worked; in the pp. 
of strong verbs belonging to classes II (§ 498), HI (§ 499), 
and IV (§ 608), as boden, Goth, budans, O.Icel. bo&enn, 
OS. gibodan, OHG. gibotan, offered, commanded; and 
similarly coren, chosen ; froren, frozen ; soden, cooked, 
sodden; Xiogeti^ drawn; fohien, fought ; holpen, helped; 
worden, become ; worpen, throtvn ; boren, borne; brocen, 
broken ; stolen, stolen ; toren, torn. 

Note.— o became o by loss of consonant, as gen. holes 
beside nom. holh, hole; broden beside brogden, brandished, 

§ 107. o became e (older oe) by i-umlaut. All native 
words containing this umlaut are really new formations 
due to levelling or analogy, because prim. Germanic u 
(cp. § 48) did not become o in 0£. when followed by an 
i or j in the next syllable. Examples are: dat. sing, 
dehter, to a daughter, from '^dohtri with o levelled out 
from the other cases, the regular form would be '^dyhter 
from older *diihtri ; efes (OHG. obasa) beside yfes, eaves, 
cp. Goth, ubizwa, porch ; pi. nom. ace. exen, beside nom. 

§§io8-ii] Short Vowels of Accented Syllables 55 

sing, bxa* ox\ mergen (Goth, matirgins), beside morgen, 
morning) ele (Lat. oleum), oil. 

§ 108. In a certain number of words o became u in OE., 
especially before and after labials, as bucc (OHG. boo), 
buck) bucca, he-goai; fugol (OHG. fogal), bird, fowl \ full 
(OHG. fol), full; farpor,/urther; fiir]mm, even; lufian, to 
love ; lufu, love ; murcnian, to nturmur, grumble ; muman, 
to mourn; spura beside spora, spur; spuman beside 
spoman, to kick; ufan (OHG. ohana^/rom above), above; 
ufer(r)a, upper, higher; ufor, higher; wulf (OHG. wolf), 
wolf; wulle (OHG. wolla), «;oo/; cnucian beside cnocian, 
to knock ; scurf, scuff; turf, tuff. 

§ 109. o became u in OE. before nasals, as pp. cumen 
(OHG. quoman), come; guma (OHG. gomo), man; hunig 
(OHG. honag), honey; and similarly numen, taken; scu* 
nian, to shun; sumor, summer; pxmor, thunder; wunian, 
to dwell. Also in early Latin loanwords, as munuc (Lat. 
monachus), monk; munt (Lat. ace. montem), mountain; 
nunne (Lat. nonna), nun ; pund (Lat. pondo), pound. 

This u became y by i-umlaut, as mynster (Lat. mona- 
sterium), minster, monastery ; mynet (Lat. moneta), coin, 

§ no. p may have become the rising diphthong 16 (e6) 
after g = Germanic j (§ 263), and also occasionally after sc, 
as gloc (geoc), OHG. job, yoke; geon, yon, that; sceofl, 
shovel; sceolde, should ; sceop, poet, singer ; sceort, short ; 
sceoten (pp.), shot, beside scofl, scolde, scop, scort, scotexL 
But see § 61, Note. 

NoTE.—The e in the combination sceo- probably merely 
indicated the palatal pronunciation of the sc-. 


§ 111. Germanic u (§ 21) generally remained in OE. as 
also in the other Germanic languages, as dumb, Goth. 

56 Phonology [§ "^ 

dumbs, O.Icel. dumbr, OS. dumb» OHG. tumb, dumb-, 
bund, Goth. bunds» O.Icel. hiindr, OS. hund, OHG. hunt, 
dog, hound) and similarly burg, city] duruyifeor; grund, 
ground', hnutu, nut) hund, hundred) hungor, hunger) 
lust, desire ; sugu, sow ; sulh, plough ; sunne, sun ; sunu, 
son) tunge, tongue) tungol, star) ]mrst, tiiirst) under, 
under) wund, wound) wundor, wonder) in the pret. 
plural of strong verbs belonging to classes II (§ 498) and 
III (§ 497), as budon, Goth, budum, O.Icel. buSum, OS. 
budun, OHG. butum, we offered, commanded) and similarly 
curon, chose) fixxgon, flew) gruton, wept) tugon, drew) 
bundon, Goth. O.Icel. bundum, OS. bundun, OHG. 
buntum, we bound) and similarly druncon, drank) dulfon, 
dug) fundon, found) fuhton, fought) hulpon, helped) 
spunnon, spun) suncon, sank) sungon, sung) wurdon, 
became) wurpon, threw) in the pp. of strong verbs be- 
longing to class III; as bunden, bound) druncen, 
drunk) fvLndeUf found ) spunnen, spun) suncen, sunk) 
sungen, sung. 

Note.— u became o in the prefix or- (= Goth, tw-, OHG. ur-, 
out), as orsorg, without anxiety \ or)>anc, skill\ orwene, despairing. 
And in the Latin loanwords box (Lat. buxus), boxtree ; coper 
(Lat. cuprtun), copper. 

§ 112. u became y by i-umlaut, as cyning, OS. OHG. 
kuning, king) cynn, Goth, kunl, OS. OHG. kunni, race, 
generation) })yncan, Goth. Jjugkjan, OS. thunkian, to 
s^em) and similarly blyscan, to blush) bryce, brittle) 
brycg, bridge) bycgan (Goth, bugjan), to buy) byrd, 
birth) clyppan, to embrace) cnyttan, to bind) crycc, 
crutch) cyme, advent) eyre, choice) cymel, kernel) 
cyssan, to kiss ; cyst, choice ; drync, potion ; dyppan, to 
dip) dysig, foolish ) fiyhi, flight ) fyllan, to Jill) fyrhtan, 
to fear) fyxen, vixen) gemynd, remembrance) ges3mto, 
health) gyden (OHG. gutin), goddess) gylden (OHG. 
guldin), golden) hrycg, back, ridge) hycgan (Goth, hug- 

§§ "3-15] Short Vowels of Accented Syllables 57 

jan), to think; hyge, thought; hyldo, grace, favour; hyll, 
hill; hyugran, to hunger; hype, hip; hyrdel, hurdk; 
hymen, 0/ horn; lyge, falsehood ; myceli much; mycg, 
midge; myr]>ran, to murder; njrtt, use; scyld, guilt; 
scyldig, guilty; sc3aira, shorter; stycce, piece; synii, 
sin; trymman, to make strong; )>ynne, thin; )>yrstan, to 
thirst; jrfel, evil; ymb(e), about; jrppan, to open; wyllen 
(OHG. wuUin), woollen; wynn, /oy; wyrcaiii to work; 
wyrhta (OS. wurhtio), workman ; wyrin from *wurmiz, 
snake, dragon, worm ; wyrt, herb. 

Also in early Latin loanwords, as cycene (late Lat. 
coquina, cucina), kitchen ; cylen (Lat. culina), kiln ; mylen 
(Lat. molina), mill; pyle (Lat. ace. pulvinum), pillow ; pytt 
(Lat. ace. puteum), pit 

Note.— I. y became e in Ken. in the ninth century, as besig, 
efel, gelden, senn = WS. bysig, busy, yfel, gylden, synn. 

2. y was often unrounded to i in late WS. and Anglian, 
especially before and after c, g, h, as cinn, cining, fliht, hricg, 
hige, sdldig, ]>iiican, &c. 

§ 113. u became u by loss of n before s and )>, as cu)> 
(Goth. kun)>s), known, familiar ; cuj)e (Goth. kun)>a), he 
could; dust (OHG. tunst, storm), dust; fus (OHG. funs), 
ready, eager for; gu)) (OHG. gundia), war, battle; husl 
(Goth, hunsl), Eucharist; muj) (Goth. mun)>5), mouth; us 
(Goth. OHG. uns), us; tusc from Hunsk, tusk; suj> 
(OHG. sund), south. 

§ 114. u became y by i-umlaut, as cyj)an (Goth, gaswi- 
kunfj'an), to make known; dystig (OHG. tunstig, stormy), 
dusty ; fysan from *funsjan, to send forth, hasten ; wyscan 
from *wunskjan, OHG. wunsken, to wish ; yst (OHG. 
unst), storm, tempest; yj> (OHG. undea), prim. Germanic 
♦unfijo, wave. 

§ 115. u became u by loss of h after 1, r, before a following 
vowel, as gen. sing, fure, pi. gen. fura, dat. furum, beside 

58 Phonology [§§116-19 

• * 
nom. sing. ffoctYif Jurrow ; pi. gen. sula» dat. sulum, beside 
notn. sing, sulh, plough. 

§ 116. u may have become the rising diphthong iikf later 
16 (e6), after g = Germanic j (§ 268), and also occasionally 
after so, as giung, giong, geong, older iiing (gong) = Goth, 
juggs, OHG. jung, young] giogu)>, geogu)>, older iugu]> 
(gugu]>), youth ; inf. sceolan, shaU) pi. indicative sceolon^ 
beside sculaoi sculon. The i-umlaut of which was ie 
(later i, y), as giengra (OHG. jungiro), gingra, gyngra, 
younger; giengesta (OHG. jungisto), gingesta, gyngesta» 
youngest. But see § 51, Note. 

Note.— The e in the combination sceo« probably merely 
indicated the palatal pronunciation of the so-. 

B, The Long Vowels of Accented Syllables. 


§ 117. Germanic nasalized a, which arose from a accord- 
ing to§ 40, became 6 in OE., as brdhte, Goth. OS. OHG. 
brahta, / brought; fon from *fohan, Goth. OS. OHG. 
flUian, to grasp, seize; and similarly hdh, heel; hdn, to 
hang; oht, persecution ; toh, tough ; }>5 (Goth. ]>aho), clay ; 
])ohte, / thought; woh, crooked, wry. 

§ 118. 5 became e by i-umlaut, as ehtan (OS. ahUan), to 
persecute; feh)) (OS. fUiid), he seizes; hela from older 
*h5hila, heel. 

§ 119. Germanic « (Goth, e, OS. OHG. a) generally 
remained in WS., but became e in Anglian and Ken., as 
WS. d«d, non-WS. did, Goth, ga-defs, OS. dad, OHG. 
tat, deed; WS. sad, non-WS. sed, OS. sad, OHG. sat, 
seed; WS. radan, non-WS. redan, OS. radan, OHG. 
ratan, to advise ; and similarly bar, bier; bladre, bladder; 
blsetan, to bleat; brar, briar; afen, evening; al, eel; as, 

§ 120] Long Vowels of Accented Syllables 59 

carrion \ ityaif breath; hftr, Aair; imct, physician ; Ubtan, 
io leave ; nueg, kinsman ; msel, meaU^Hme ; Anglian mSce 
(OS. mftki), 5won/; mstv^f renowned] nmdlf needie ; iubdre» 
snake; rad, advice; swses, pkasant; )ifler, ^^^; wseg, 
«;at/^ ; wftpen, weapon ; in the pret. plural of strong verbs 
belonging to classes IV ($ 603) and V (§ 605), as bftroOi 
bore; cwdbdon, said ; ittoUfate; Btmlonf stole ; smUmpsat. 

Note.— I. It is difficult to account for the & beside » in a few 
words, such as lacnian, to cure; sl&pan, to sleep ; swar, heavy; 
tal, bkime ; wat, wet, beside l»cnian, slspan, sw»r» t«l, w&t. 
In forms like wag beside w»g, wave, the & is due to the stem- 
form of the plural, see § 120 (2). 

2. The e from older m was often rounded to 6 after w in Nth., 
as httttr, where ; wdepen, weapon ; wcbron, they were ^ WS. 
hw»r, w&pen, w»ron. 

3. The & in early Latin loanwords had the same development 
in 0£. as Germanic », as n^p (Lat. napos), turnip; str»t 
(Lat. strata), street. 

§ 120. Germanic « became ft in OE. (i) before w, as 
biawan (OHG. blften), to blow; cnftwan (OHO. knften), 
to know ; crftwan (OHG. krften), to crow ; mawan (OHG. 
maen), to mow; sftwan (OHG. sften), to sow ; sftwon (OS. 
sftwun), they saw; tftwian, h prepare; ]>rftwany to twist; 
wftwan (OHG. wftenX to blow. 

This ft became it by i-umlaut, as l«wan from '^Ulwjan, 
older '^Uewjan = Goth, lewjan^ to betray. 

(2) In the combination seg followed by a guttural vowel 
in the next syllable, as plural nom. mftgas, gen. mftga, 
dat. mSLgtim, beside nom. singular m»g, kinsman; pret. 
plural l&goOt lay; jT&gon, received; wflgon, carried 
(§§ 605, 507). 

Note.— Forms like msgas ; w»ga8, waves, were new forma- 
tions from the singular m£g, wseg. And l»gon, )>»gon, 
wsegon were due to the analogy of such preterites as b»ron, 
stselon which regularly have ». 

6o Phonology [§§ 12 1-5 

§ 12L 86 became 5 before nasals, as mdna^ Goth, mena, 
OS. OHG. mftno, moon ; ndmon, Goth, nemun, OS. OHG. 
nftmun, they took ; and similarly brdm, broom ; c(w)dmon, 
Oiey came) geddn, done] mona)>, month \ om, rust) sona, 
soon) spdtii chip) woma, tumult. 

Note.— The o may have become the rising diphthong eo 
after g = Germanic j (§ 268), as geomor (OS. OHG. jamar), 
sad) ge5mrian, to mourn. But see § 51» Note. 

§ 122. 5 became e (older ce) by i-umlaut, as wenan from 
"^wonjan = Goth, wecjan, OS. wanian, OHG. wanen, to 
hope ) and similarly bremel, bramble ; cweman, to please ; 
cwen, queen ; gecweme, agreeable ; weo, hope, 

§ 123. In WS. » was broken to ea before h, as neah, 
Goth, nehr, OS. OHG. nah, near) near from *neahur, 
older *n«hur, nearer. By i-umlaut ea became ie (later i, ^), 
as nlehsta from "^neahista, but Anglian nesta from *ne- 
hista (OHG. n^histo), nearest. 

§124. In WS. it became ea (older e4) through the inter- 
mediate stage ese after palatal c, g, and sc, as gear, Goth, 
jer, OS. OHG. jtr, year) and similarly ceace,yazc;; for- 
geaton, they forgot) gea, yes) geafon, they gave) sceap, 
sheep ) scearon, they sheared, ea became ie by i-umlaut, 
as ciese from *ceasi (Lat c^seus), cheese. 

Note.— The e (§ 119), which arose from «, remained un- 
influenced by palatals in the non-WS. dialects, as ger, gefon, 
seep = WS. gear, geafon, sceap. This ea also became e in 
late WS. 


§ 125. Germanic e, which cannot be traced back phono- 
logically to Indo-Germanic e (§ 38, Note), is of obscure 
origin. In Gothic the two sounds fell together in e, but in 
the other Germanic languages they were kept quite apart, 
thus Indg. e = OE. a (§ 119), Goth, e, O.Icel. OS. OHG. a, 
but Germanic e = OE. Goth. O.Icel OS. e, OHG. ia (ie). 

Germanic e remained in OE, as cen (OHG. kian), 

§§ 126-7] Long Vowels of Accented Syllables 6i 

torch ; OE. Goth. O.Icel. OS. Mr, OHG. hiar, here ; OE, 
med, OS. meda, OHG. miata,/ay, reward \ in the preterite 
of the old reduplicated verbs {f§ 6ia-14), as OE. OS. hgt, 
OHG. hia:^, inf. OE. hfttan, to call) and similarly preterite 
feng, red, slep, beside inf fon, to seize ; redan, to advise ; 
slspan, to sleep. 

Note.— Latin e became i in early loanwords, as cipe, Lat. 
cepa, onion \ pin (OHG. pina), Lat. poena, late Lat. pena, 
torture \ side (OHG. sida), late Lat. seta, silk\ but e remained 
in later loanwords, as biete, Lat beta, beetroot \ creda, creeds 
Lat. cred5, / believe. 

§ 126. Germanic i generally remained in OE., as also in 
the oldest periods of the other Germanic languages, as 
OE. OS. OHG. sin, Goth, seins, his; OE. OS. OHG. 
swTn, Goth, swein, O.Icel. svln, pig, swine; and similarly 
bli]>e, bh'the; hwn, space of time ; hwit, white ; idel, empty ; 
ifig, ivy ; is, ice ; isen, iren, iron ; lif, life ; min, mine ; rice, 
kingdom; rim, number; side, side; sUm, slime; tid, Uma, 
time ; ))in, thine ; wid, wide ; wif, wtfe ; wis, wise ; in the 
present of strong verbs belonging to class I (§ 490), as OE. 
OS. bitan, Goth, beitan, O.Icel. bita, OHG. bL^an, to 
bite; and similarly bidan, to remain; drifan, to drive; 
glidan, to glide ; gripan, to seize ; li])an, to go ; ridan, to ride ; 
BClnsLn, to shine ; sUdsin, to slide ; strntBLTif to smite ; sni])an, 
to cut; stigan, to ascend; stridan, to stride; writan> to 

§ 127. i was broken to io before h and ht in WS. But 
already at an early period the io mostly became eo 
(= Anglian i), as betweoh, between, cp. Goth, tweihn&i, 
two each; leoht, Goth, leihts, OHG. lihti, adj. light; 
weoh (Anglian wih), idol, Goth, weihs, OHG. wih, holy, 
OS. wih, temple; imperative singular leoh (Anglian lih), 
Goth, leihr, OS. OHG. lib, lend thou ; and similarly teoh. 

62 Phonology [§§ia8-9 

accuse ; }>eohy Arwe ; wrSoh, r(7Z^^. With loss of medial 
h after breaking had taken place, as betwionum, between ; 
(Sol (Anglian ffl, OHG. tShaiB),fik ; infinitives Bon, Uon 
(Goth.leihran,OS. OHG.lIhan)^/bi^iMf; and similarly sion, 
sten, /St> shtdn ; ]non, ]>eon, /t> thrive ; wtion, wreon,/d crai/^r. 
The i*umlaut of this io(§o) is le, as liehtan from '^Hoht- 
jan, to lighten, make easier, Anglian geUbtan ; liehst from 
''Uohis (OHG. lihis), thou lendest ; lieh)> from *lioUp (OHG. 
mdt), he lends. 


§ 128. Germanic 5 (= Goth. O.Icel. OS. 6, OHG. uo) 
generally remained in OE., as brd)H>r, Goth. brd]>ar» 
O.Icel. brofier, OS. broder, OHG. bnioder, broiher; OE. 
OS. fot, Goth, fotus, O.Icel. fotr, OHG. tno^f/oot; and 
similarly bl5d, 6i!9o^; hlbwBn, to bloom ; hoc, book; bdsm, 
bosom; brdc, brook; brod, brood; col, cool; dom, judg- 
ment, doom ; d5n, to do ; flod, flood ; flowan, to flow ; 
foda, food; gendg, enough; gl5f, ghve; glbm, gloom; 
glbw^n, to glow ; god, good; grbwBn,togrow; hoc, hook; 
hod, hood; hot, hoof; hr5c, rook; hrof, roof; hropan, to 
shout; mod, mood, mind; mddor, mother; r5wan, to 
row ; sdhte, he sought ; sot, soot ; stol, stool; in the pre- 
terite of strong verbs belonging to class VI (§ 508), as OE. 
Goth. O.Icel. OS. f5r, OHG. fuor, he went, travelled; and 
similarly b5c, baked; h5f, raised; sl5g, struck, slew; 
swor, swore. 

Note.— The combination sco- was often written sceo* with e 
to denote the palatal pronunciation of the &€•» as preterite 
sceoc, shook; sceop, created, beside scoc, scop ; sceSh beside 

§ 129. 6 became S (older oe, preserved in Nth.) by i- 
umlaut, as fet, OS. f5ti, OHG. fuoi^, from *fotiz, older 
*f6iez,/eet; secan, Goth, sokjan, OS. sdklan, to seek; 
and similarly bee, books; betan, /!o improve; bledan, to 

§§ 130-2] Long Vowels of Accented Syllables 63 

bked\ br6))er, dat. sing, of bro]K>n brother; cSlan, to cool; 
d§man» to judge ; drSfan, to make turbid ; fedan, to feed; 
Wan, to fed] gled, live coal; gr^ne, green ; gr^tan, to greet ; 
hedan, to heed; meder, dat. sing, of m5dor, mother ; mStan, 
to meet; spSd, success ; swSte« sweet; wepan, to weep. 

§ 180. Final wd became u in monosyllables, as ca» OS. 
ko» OHG. kiio, cow, from an original ace. form *gdm 
(cp. Gr. Dor. ^«r) = prim. Germanic *kw6n, older *kwom ; 
hu (OS. hw6), how ; tu (neut.) from *tw6, two. The neuter 
bu for older "^bo, both, is due to association with tu in the 
combination bii tu, both, literally both two. 

XL became y by i-umlaut, as cy from older *ku-i, prim. 
Germanic *kwo-iz, cows. 

§ 181. Germanic ii generally remained in OE., as also 
in the oldest periods of the other Germanic languages, as 
OE. O.Icel. OS. OHG. bus, house, cp. Goth, gud-hiis, 
temple ; OE. O.Icel. OS. OHG. rum, Goth, rums, room ; 
)mhte, Goth. ]nihta, OS. thiihta, OHG. diihta, it seemed, 
inf. OE. )>3mcan, to seem; and similarly bru, eyebrow; 
brucan, to enjoy ; briin, brown ; buan, to dwell; biigan, to 
bow, down; clud, rock; cltit, clout; fxdf foul; hiM, loud; 
hliitor, dear, pure ; liican, to close ; lus, louse ; mils, mouse; 
n%now; pruU proud; rnsi, rust; Bcrnd, garment ;BCuf an, 
to push ; slupan, to glide; sucan, to suck; sciir, shower; 
sUpan, to sup, drink ; sur, sour; tun, enclosure ; triiwian 
(pret. trUde), to trust; Uder, udder; uhte, early dawn; lit, 
out; ]mma, thumb ; ]msend, thousand, 

§ 182. u became y by i-umlaut, as bryd, from prim. 
Germanic ^briidiz, bride; mys, from prim. Germanic 
*miisiz, mice; ryman, Goth, ^nii^jan, OS. rumian, to 
make room; and similarly fyVfjire; fyst, /s/; hlydan, 
to make a sound; hyd, hide; hydan, to hide, conceal; hyf, 
hive ; lys, lice ; lytel, little ; ontynan, to open ; scrydan. 

64 Phonology [§133 

to dress ) )>ymel9 thumbstaU; in the second and third pers. 
sing. pres. indicative of strong verbs which have u in the 
infinitive (§ 406), as brycst, bryc}>, from older *briikis» 
*brvikipf inf. brucan, to enjoy. 

Note.— y became e in Ken. in the ninth century, as Ken. 
hef, mes, ontenan = WS. hyf, mys, ontynan. 

C. The Diphthongs of Accented Syllables. 


§ 188. Germanic ai (= Goth. &i, O.Icel. ei,OS. e, OHG. 
ei(e)) became 9. in OE., as Sin, Goth. &ins, O.Icel. einn, 
OS. en, OHG. ein, one; hal, Goth, h&ils, O.Icel. heill, 
OS. hel, OHG. heil, whole, sound, kale; hatan, Goth. 
hditan, O.Icel. heita, OS. hetan, OHG. hei^an, to name, 
call; and similarly ac, oak; ad, heap, funeral pile; agan, 
to possess; agen, own; ar, oar; ascian, to ask; ator, 
poison; aj), oath; ba, both; ban, bone; bar, boar; bat, 
boat; brad, broad; cia]>, cloth; da, doe; dag, dough; 
gast, spirit; gat, goat; grapian, to grope; had, rank, 
order; ham, home; hat, hot; hiaf, loaf; hlaford, lord; 
hlaw, grave, mound; hraw, corpse; lar, lore, learning; 
ma])m, treasure; ra (OHG. reho), roe; rad, rairf; rap, 
rope; sal, ro/^; sar, 5or^; sawol, soul; sia (OHG. 
sleha), sloe ; snaw, snow ; stan, stone ; swapan, to sweep ; 
ta (OHG. zeha), toe; tacen, token; twa, two; J)as, those; 
wa, wo^ ; wat, he knows ; in the pret. singular of strong 
verbs belonging to class I (§ 490), as bad, Goth, b&i]>, 
O.Icel. bei8, OS. bad, OHG. belt, A^ awaited; and simi- 
larly bat, W/; iSip, went; dnf, drove ; WjL,lent; r^d, rode; 
stag, ascended. 

Note.— I. It is difficult to account for o beside a (Goth, 
aiw), ever; and similarly in the compounds o-wiht, -wuht, any- 
thing; no-wiht, -wuht beside awlht, na*wiht. 

§§ 1 34-6] Diphthongs of A ccented Syllables 6 5 

a. The combination sdl- was often written sc^ with e to 
denote the palatal pronunciation of ac-, as aceftdaiiy to divide; 
pret sin^lar sceSn, shofu, beside sddan, 8cln« See § 61« 

§ 184, ft became & (late Ken. S) by i-umlaut, as hmp, 
Goth. hUpU heath ; hablan, Goth. h&Ujan, OS. hSlian, to 
heal; ft» ew from *&wi*y prim. Germanic *aiwlZt divtne 
law) and similarly sht, possession; senigt aiiy; en 
formerly f before ; bl&caiit to bleach ; bnedan» /o broaden ; 
cl«ne» dean ; d»l, part, portion ; dslan, to deal) drafan» 
to drive] f&t^, flesh) g&t, goats ) bmtBLB, to heat ; hinder, 
ladder; hl»w, grave, mound; hraw, corpse; hw&te» 
wheat; ledan, to lead; l8bfan» to leave; Ueran, to teach; 
Isbstan, to follow; maenan, to mean; racaOf to reach; 
rseran, to raise; nm, sea; spradan, to spread; stienen, 

0/ stone* 


§186. Germanic an (=Goth. tax, O.Icel. an, OS. 5, 
OHG. ou (5)) became Sa in 0£., as dto)>, Goth. d&a]>ii8, 
O.Icel. dauSe, OS. d5d, OHG. t5d, death; Sage, Goth. 
&tigo, O.Icel. auga, OS. 5ga» OHG. ouga, eye; read, 
Goth. rkvLpB, O.Icel. rauSr, OS. rod, OHG. r5t, red; and 
similarly beacen, beacon ; bSag, ring, bracelet; h^9ai,bean ; 
brSad, &r^a^; cl^Sip, cheap; cSapian, to buy; dSad, dead; 
deaf, deaf; dream, jcy ; eac, also ; eadig (Goth, dudaga), 
blessed; eBTe,ear; ^ast,east; KBJ(h),flea; geVeaisi, belief ; 
great, great; hgafod, head; hgah, h^h; hgap, troop; 
hlSapan,/o leap; ISac, leek; leaf, leaf; lead, lead; lean, 
reward; sceaf, sheaf; stSap, 5/^^ ; stream, stream ; 
teag, rope ; in the pret. singular of strong verbs belonging 
to class II (§ 498), as ceas, Goth, kius, O.Icel. kaus, 
OS. OHG. k5s, he chose, inf. 0£. ceosan, to choose ; and 
similarly bead, Q^^^/ ; bresic, enjoyed ; cleBt, cleft; freas, 
froze ; geat, poured out ; leag, lied ; sceat, shot ; teah, drew. 

NotB.— I. ea became e in late WS. before c, g, h, and after 

ocom F 

66 Phonology [§§13^7 

C g, sc, as becen^lec, beg, ege, heb, tai ; cepian, ces, get, scet 

a. In Anglian it became 6 (later e) before c, g, h, as ftc, laec, 
flleb, b£h, t»g, later ec, lee, Hai, hSb, teg. 

§ 1S6. Sa became ie (= non-WS. S) by i-umlaut in the 
oldest period of WS. ie then became i, y already in early 
WS., as geUefan, early WS. gefifan, gelyfan, non-WS. 
gelefan, Goth. gaUtubjan, OS. gildbian, to believe ; lueran, 
early WS. hiran, hyran* non-WS. heran, Goth, h&usjan, 
OS. hdrlan, io hear; nied, early WS. nid, nyd, non-WS. 
ned» Goth. tdLVLps, prim. Germanic *naudizy need; and 
similarly biecnan, to beckon; biegan (Goth. *b&ng}an)y 
to bend; clepan^ to buy; drieman, to rejoice; diiepan, to 
let drop; iecan, to increase; ie}>e, ea^; fiprefnan* to take 
notice of; hiehra, higher; hiehsta (Goth, h&uhista), 
highest; hienan, to humiliate; niedan, to compel; scieie, 
sheet; s&ttet sleeve ; stiepely steeple. 


§ 187. Germanic eu (= Goth, iii, O.Icel. jd(jfi), OS. OHG. 
eo (io)) became eo in OE. The So remained in WS. and 
Mercian, but was often written io in early WS. and 
Mercian. In Nth. it mostly became §a which fell together 
with the ea from Germanic au (§ 185). In Ken. it became 
io (also written ia), and thus fell together with io from 
Germanic iu (§ 188). Examples are : deop, Goth, diups, 
O.Icel. 4Jfipr, OS. diop, OHG. tiof, deep; WS. and 
Mercian leof, liof, Nth. ISaf, Ken. Hof^ Goth, litifs, O.Icel. 
Ijiifr, OS. liof, OHG. liob, dear; WS. and Mercian d*or, 
^or. Nth. dgar. Ken. dior» deer; and similarly bSod, 
table; beor, beer; fLeos, fleece; leoht, a light ; seoc, sick^ 
steor, rudder ; ])eod, nation, race ; y^t, thief; )»eoh, thigh ; 
in the present of strong verbs belonging to class II (§498), 
as beodan, Goth, biudan, O.Icel. bjdfia, OS. biodan. 

§ 138] Diphthongs of Accented Syllables 67 

OHG. biotan, io offer; Qiosati, Goth, klusan (to test), 
O.Icel. kjdsa, OS. OHG. klosan, to choose; and similarly 
cleofan, to cleave ; crSopan, to creep ; dreosan* to fall ; 
fieogan, to fly ; freosan, to freeze ; gSotan, to pour out ; 
leogan,tol$e; reocan, to smoke; sceoian, to shoot ; 8So])an, 
to boil, cook ; tSon (Goth. tiuhanX to draw, lead. 

Note. — i. The old diphthong eti was occasionally preserved 
in the oldest monuments, as steapfaedaer, later steopfoder, 

a. eo (ea) became e in Anglian before c» g» ti» as reca(n)» sec, 
flega(D\ l^sa(n)y leht « WS. reocan, seoc, &c. 


§ 138. The normal development of Germanic iu, which 
arose from older eu when the next syllable contained an 
i, i, or j (§ 44), is 10 in OE. (= Goth, iu, O.Icel. jii (y), OS. 
OHG. iu). In WS. io generally became ie (later i, y) by 
i-umlaut But when no umlaut took place, early WS. had 
10 beside §0, and later generally io only. It is difficult to 
account for the non-umlauted forms, unless we may suppose 
that they are not pure WS. Examples are : desp, Goth. 
kimAy, O.Icel. k^s)» OS. kiusid, OHG. klnsit, he chooses, 
tests, inf. OE. ceosan; tieh]>» Goth. tittbi)>, OS. tiuhid, 
OHG. lAxOdtfhe draws, leads, inf. OE. tion; liehtan, Goth, 
litthljan, OS. Uuhtian, OHG. Uuhten, to give light, diere 
beside deore, OS. diuri, OHG. tiuri, dear, beloved ; dierling 
beside dSorling, darling; ge])iedan beside gejnodan, ge* 
l^eodsn, to join, associate; stieran (O.Icel. styra, OHG. 
stiuren) beside stioran, to steer; )nef|>, Jnestre (OS. 
thiustri), beside >eof|>, theft; ]nostre, ))iostre, dark. 
ge]node» ge]>eode, language ; liode» leode (OS. liudii, OHG. 
Uuti), people ; and a few other words. 

The i-umlaut of io did not take place in the other 
dialects, so that we have in Nth. and Ken. io (also written 
ia in the latter dialect), and in Mercian 10 beside §0 (later 

F 2 

68 Phonology [J§ 139-41 

mostly eo), as Nth. Ken. dioref Uode, Jnostret 8tiora(si), 
but in Mercian io beside So« 

NoTC^In Anglian 10 became 1 before c and h, as cicen, older 
*]doken from 'kiukln, chicken ; lihta(n), ti|> from *iihi]i « WS. 
Hehtan, tieh]>. 

Vowel Contraction. 

§ 189» Vowel contraction took place in OE. when inter- 
vocalic h, w, or j had disappeared. 

A long vowel or a long diphthong absorbed a following 
short vowel, as rft beside older r&ha, roe (§ 188) ; gen. sses 
from *S8ees older *sawis (§ 184) beside nom. ssey sea; 
Anglian nesta from '^nehista beside WS. niehsta, nearest 
(§ 128) ; Anglian U]> from '^tihi)), older *tiuxi)>9 he draws 
(§ 138, Note); fon from *f6han, to seize, fo from *fohu, / 
seize (§ 117) ; pi. scos from '^scdhas, beside sing. scOh, shoe 
(§ 128, Note); seen from '^s§o(h)an, to see] sic from 
'^seo(h)u, / see ; gen. fees from '^feo(h)es, beside nom. fech, 
cattle (§ 87) ; slean from '^slea(h)an, to slay, slea from 
*slea(h)tt, / slay ; ear from *ea(h)ur, ear of com (§ 70) ; 
near from *nea(h)ur, nearer (§ 128); Hon, ISon from 
*lio(h)an, older *lihan, to lend, leo from *lio(h)u, //iwrf 
(§ 127); teon from Heo(h)an, to draw, lead; dat. pi. })rum 
from *J)ru(h)um beside nom. sing, pruh, trough. 

§ 140. a+u (from older wu or vocalized w) became ea, 
as clea from *cla(w)u, clatv ; strea from *straw., straw 
(§ 76). 

e + u (from w) became eo, as cneo from *cnewa-, knee, 
tree from *trewa-, tree (§ 88). 

i or ij + guttural vowel became 10 (eo), as bio, bSo from 
'^'bijon-, bee; nond, feond, Goth, fijands, enemy; ftiond, 
freond, Goth, friionds, friend; nom. ace. neut. )>rio, }>reo, 
from *J>H(j)u = Goth. }w^a, three (§ 104). 

§ 141. i+i became!, as Nth. »s(t) from *aihis, thoti seest; 
si)i from *sihi]>, he sees (§ 829, 4). 

§§ i4a-7l The Lengthening of Short Vowels 69 

§ 142. Long palatal vowels absorbed a following short 
palatal vowel, as g&st from '^{sis older *piBf thou goesi ; 
g&p from *s«i]>9 he goes; dest from Mois, thou doest; de]> 
from *d6ij>, he does; gen. drys from Mryei, beside nom. 
dry, magician. 

The Lengthening of Short Vowels. 

§ 148. From our knowledge of ME. phonology it is clear 
that short vowels must have been lengthened some time 
during the OE. period before certain consonant combina- 
tions, especially before a liquid or nasal + another voiced 
consonant. But it is impossible to ascertain the date at 
which these lengthenings took place, and whether they took 
place in all the dialects at the same time. 

§144. Final short vowels were lengthened in mono- 
syllables, as hwa, who ?, swft, so (§ 70) ; he, he, me, met 
we, we (§ 06). 

§ 146. There was a tendency to lengthen short vowels in 
monosyllables ending in a single consonant, as wSl (mod. 
northern dial, wil from older wSl) beside wel, well. 16f, 
praise^ weg, way, but in words of this kind the short vowel 
was restored again through the influence of the inflected 
forms, lofes, wages, &c. 

§ 146. Short vowels were lengthened through the loss of 
g before a following consonant, as meeden, maiden, ssde, 
lie said, beside older msegden, ssegde (§ 64, Note 2); 
bredan, to brandish, stredan, to strew, beside older breg- 
dan, stregdan(§ 80, Note 2) ; bridel, bridle, tfle, tik, beside 
older brigdel, tigele (§ 06, Note i). 

§ 147. By the loss of a nasal before a following voiceless 
spirant, as 5]>er, Goth. an]>ar, other, gds, OHG. gans, 
goose, sdfte, OHG. samfto, sq/Sy (§ 61) ; swij>, Goth. 
swings, strong, fif, Goth. tbnaS^five (§07); ciij>, Goth, 
ktmjys, known, us, Goth, tms, us (§ 113). 

76 Phonology [5§ 148-52 

§ 148. Short diphthongs were lengthened by the loss of 
intervocalic b, as 8l£an from ^aleahaii, Goth, slahan, 
to ^rike^ day (§ 70) ; sSon from ^seohaii, OHG. sehan, 
to see is B7). 

§ 149. By the loss of antevocalic h after 1 and r, as gen. 
scales beside nom. sealhf seal{^ 64f Note i) ; gen. meares 
beside nom. mearh, horse (§ 669 Note 3) ; gen. eoles beside 
nom. eolhy «tt (§ 84, Note i) ; gen. feores beside nom. 
feorhi life (§ 86, Note 4) ; gen. holes beside nom. holh, 
hole (§ 106, Note). 

The Shortening of Long Vowels. 

§ 160. Much uncertainty exists about the shortening of 
long vowels. They were probably shortened before double 
consonants some time during the OE. period, as bliss, ^jf, 
hlammaesse, Lammas^ wimman, woman^ beside older 
bli]>s, hlafinesse, wifman ; blaeddre, bladder^ deoppra, 
deeper^ beside older bUedre, dgopra, see § 260. 

§ 161* In the first or second elements of compounds 
which were no longer felt as such, as enlefan, prim. Ger- 
manic *ainlib5n-, cp. Goth. dat. &inlibim, deven ; si]>]>an, 
sio]}]}an from si]> + ]>an, since, gorod from eoh + rSUl, troop 
of cavalry) werod from wer+rftd, multitude^ army. Ad- 
jectives ending in -lie, as deadlic, deadly^ see § 634. 

§ 162. From what has been said in §§ 64-161 it will be 
seen that the Germanic vowel-system (§ 46) assumed the 
following shape in OE. : — 

Short vowels a, se, e, i, o, u, oe, y 

Long „ &, », e, i, 6, u, ce, y 

Short diphthongs ea, eo, ie, io 

Long ,, ea, eo, ie, 10 

§§ «53-5l Prim. G. Equivalents o/OE. bowels 71 



A The Short Vowels, 

§ 158. a s (i) Germanic a in open syllables when origin- 
ally followed by an &, 6, ft in the next 
syllable, as faraii»/o^o; nacod^ naked; 
pi. dagaSy days, gen. daga, dat dagom 
(§ ^7); gen. dawe, o/a claw ; ^wian 
from *]>aw5jaii9 U) thaw (§ 74). 

= (2) Germanic a in closed syllables before 
double consonants (except hh), so, and 
st, when the next syllable originally 
contained a guttural vowel, as abbody 
abbot; catte, cat ; sacc, sack ; wascan, 
to wash ; brastlian, to crackle (§ 67). 
§ 164. a(o) =: Germanic a before nasals, as lang, long, 
hfig ; lamb, lomb, lamb ; mann, monn, 
man ; nama, noma, mim^ (§ 69). 
§ 166. ae = (i) Germanic a in closed syllables, as daeg, 
day ; baer, he bore ; saet, he sat (§ 64). 

s (2) Germanic a in open syllables when fol- 
lowed by a palatAl vowel or vocalic 
nasal or liquid in the next syllable, as 
BdceVf field; ta6der,/ather ; gen. dseges, 
0/ a day, dat d«ge ; f«]>m, embrace, 
fathom; haegl, Aaf/(§ 64). 

= (3) Germanic a by semi-umlaut, as »]>ele 
from *3Lpah, noble ; 8e))eling from *a]>ul- 
ing, nobleman ; gsedeling from ^gadu!* 
log, companion (§ 68). 

72 Phonology [5§ »s<5-9 

§ 166. e =: (i) Germanic e» as beran, to bear ; cwenCf 

woman ; wegy way (§ 80). 
s (2) 1-umlaut of ae, as bedd (Goth, badi), bed; 

here, am)' ; lecgan, to lay (§ 66). 
= (3) i-umlaut of a(o), as ende, end; bene, 

d^ncA ; sendan, to send (§ 60). 
= (4) i-umlaut of O9 as dat. dehter, beside nom. 

dohtor, daughter; ele, oil; exen, oxen 

$ 167. I = (i) Germanic it as Uddan, to pray; bire]i,/i^ 

bears ; bindaiii to bind ; ridon, we rode ; 

liden, ridden ($ 96). 
= (2) Germanic e before m, as niman (OHG. 

nemanX to take (§ 81). 
= (3) Latin e before nasal + consonant in early 

loanwords, as gimm (Lat. gemma, 

gem ; pinsian (Lat. pens&re), to tveigh, 

ponder CI 82). 
= (4) older eo (ie) before bs and ht, as cnibty 

boy; six,5Mr(§86). 
= (5) older ie, see § 170. 
= (6) the unrounding of y before and after c, 

g» h in late WS. and Anglian, as cinn, 

race, generation ; cining, king ; Jiincan, 

io seem ; fiihU flight (§ 112, Note 2). 
§ 168. o = (i) Germanic o, as debtor, daughter; coren, 

chosen ; herd, treasure ; oxa, ox (§ 106). 
= (2) a (o), see § 164. 
§ 160. u = (i) Germanic u, as curon, they chose ; dumb, 

dumb; bund, dog; hunger, hunger 

(§ lU). 
= (2) Germanic e before or after labials, as bucc 
(OHG. bee), buck ; full (OHG. fol), 
>//; fugel(OHG. fogal), *ih/; wulf 
(OHG. wolf), wo//(§ 108). 

§§ i6o-2] Prim. G. Equivalents o/OE. Vowels 73 

; = (3) Germanic o before nasals, as gumay man ; 

hunig, honey; Jninor, thunder (§ 109). 

I = (4) older eo in the combination wee-, as 

i swurd, sword] swustery sister (§ 04). 

= (5) older lo in the combination wio-, as 

wttCUy week ; wuduwe, widow (§ 108). 
§ 160. y = (i) 1-umlaut of u, as bycgan (Goth, bugjan), 

to buy; cyning, king ; gylden, golden ; 

wyllen, woollen (§ 112). 
( = (2) older le, see § 170. 

B. The Long Vowels. 

§161. & = (i) Germanic ai, as ftn, on^; bat, he bit; 
hai, whole ; hfttan, to call (§ 188). 
= (2) Germanic & before w^as blftwan, to blow ; 
I cnftwan, to know ; s&won, they saw 

I = (3) Germanic « in the combination »g fol« 

lowed by a guttural vowel, as pi. 
m&gas, beside sing, msg, kinsman; 
pret. lagon, they lay (§ 120). 
=: (4) lengthening of final a in monosyllables, 
as hwa, who ? ; swft, so (§ 79). 
' § 162. » = (i) Germanic » (non-WS. e), as bsron, they 

bore; cwsdon, they said; d»d, deed; 
reedan, to advise (§ 119). 
= (2) i-umlaut of & = Germanic ai, as dslan, 
to divide; h»lan, to heal; h»}>, heath 
r' . =5 (3) i-umlaut of a = Germanic ee before w, as 

cnsw]}, he knows; leewan, to betray 
= (4) OE. aeg, as m»den, maiden, s»de, he 
said, beside msegden, saegde (§ 64, 
Note 2). 


74 Phonology [§§ 163-4 

= (5) Latin ft in early loanwords, as luep (Lat 

nftpttsX turnip) stnet (Lat str&ta), 

street (§ 110, Note 3). 
§163. e=:(i) Germanic i, as her, here; med, pay^ 

reward (^VSUS). 
= (2) i*unilaut of Germanic 5, as bee, botJts ; 

atf feet; deman, to Judge; sScan, to 

seek (§ 129). 
= (3) i-umlaut of =s Germanic nasalized ft» 

as ehtan, U) persecute; fSh]»» he seises 

=r (4) i-umlaut of o = Germanic se before nasals, 

as cwen, queen, wife ; wenan, to hope 

= (5) i-umlaut of 5 = Germanic am, an before 

f , ^ s, as sefte, soft; te)>, teeih ; ges, 

geese (§ 62). 
= (6) OE. eg, as bredan, to brandish^ ren, 

rain, beside bregdan, regn (§ 80, 

Note s). 
s: (7) lengthening of final e in monosyllables, 

as he, he ; me, nte ; ]>e, thee (§ 96). 
= (8) early WS. ea = Germanic au, before 

c, g, h and after c, g, sc, as becen, 

beacon; ege, eye; heh, high; cepian, 

to buy; get, he poured out; scef, he 

pushed {^W6, Note 1). 
§164. i = (i) Germanic i, as bitan, to bite; is, ice; 

min, mine ; ridan, to ride (§ 126). 
s (2) Germanic im, in before f, ]>, as fif (Goth. 

fimf), yit^^; ll]>e, gentle; si^)>, 5/h2ii^ 

(§ 97). 
= (3) OE. ig, as bridel, bridle, si)>e, 50//A^, 

beside brigdel, sig]>e (§ 96, Note i). 
= (4) older ie, see § 174. 

§§ 165-8] Prim. G. Equivalents qfOE. Vowels 75 

= (S) Latin i (ce) in early loanwords, as cipe 

(Lat. cSpa), (mioH) pin (Lat poena, 

late Lat. pSna), torture (§ 126, Note). 

§ 165. 5 = (i) Germanic 0, as bdc,6aa£; hrb^rfbroOier; 

growan, to grow; for, he went (§ 128). 

= (2) Germanic nasalized ft, as brohte, he 

I brought] f8n from *f5han, older *fll* 

! han, to seize] ])5hte, A^ /Aoff^A/ (§ 117). 

^ (3) Germanic se before nasals, as m5na,mooif ; 

nbmon, they UxJi ; sona, soon (§ 121). 
= (4) Germanic am, an before f, ]>, s, as sdfte, 

softly; gbB9 goose; td)>, tooth (§ 61). 
= (5) from Germanic o by loss of h, as gen. 
I holes beside nom. holh, hok (§ 106, 

> § 166. fi = (i) Germanic u, as hus, house ; mus, tnouse ; 

BCxdBn,topush; yaseDdfthousand UlSl). 
= (a) Germanic final w5, as cu, cow; hu, how 

=^ (3) Germanic un before ]>, s, as cii]i, kfwwn ; 

mu]>, mouth ; us, m5 (§ 118). 
= (4) Germanic u by loss of h, as gen. pi. sula 
beside nom. sing, sulh, plough (§ 114). 
§ 167. y = (i) i-umlaut of Germanic u, as bryd, bride ; 
mys, mice ; bryc)>, he enjoys (§ 182). 
= (2) i-umlaut of u s Germanic un before )>, s, 
as cy^n, to make known ; yst, storm 

= (3) older ie, see § 174. 

C. The Short Diphthongs. 
§ 168. ea ss (i) Germanic a by breaking, as eall, all, 
ceald, cold (§ 64) ; heard, hard ; wear]>, 
he became (§ 66); eahta, eight ; weaxan, 
to grow ; seah, he saw (§ 68). 

76 Phonology [§§ 169-71 

=: (2) older « = Germanic a, after palatal c, g« 

sc, as ceaster, city^ fortress] geaf* he 

gave; scealy shall (^ 72). 
§ 169. eo s= (i) Germanic e by breaking, as meolcan» 

to milk; sceolh, wry, obliqtie (§ 84); 

eorJ)e, earA] heorte, heart (§ 86); 

cneoht, boy\ feohtan, to fight (§ 86). 
= (2) i-umlaut of Germanic a before w, as 

eowestre, sheepfold; meowley maiden 

= (3) Germanic antevocalic ew, as gen. 

cneowes, treowes, beside nom. cneo, 

knee, treo, tree (§ 80). 
= (4) Germanic e by u-umlaut, as eofofy boar; 

meolUy med^ flour ; seofon, seven (§ 02). 
§ 170. ie (later !» y) = (i) i-umlaut of ea = Germanic a 

by breaking, as fiellan, to fell) ieldra, 

elder, older (§ 66) ; ierfe, inheritance ; 

dieme, secret (§ 67); hllehhan, to 

laugh ; 8lieh}>, he slays (§ 60). 
^ (2) i-umlaut of io = Germanic i by breaking, 

as fiehsty thoufightest] ierre, angry; 

sieh]), he sees (§ 00). 
= (3) Germanic e after palatal c,g,sc,as cieres, 

cherry-tree; giefaxit (0 give ; scieran, /a 

shear (§ 01). 
= (4) i-umlaut of ea, after palatal c, g, as ciele, 

cold; giest, guest (§ 78). 
§ 171. io (later eo) = (i) Germanic i by breaking, as 

liomian, to learn; miox, manure 

(§ 98). 
= (2) Germanic i by u-, o/a-umlaut, as clio- 

piing, calling; mioluc, milk (§ 101); 

liofast, thou livest (§ 102). 

§§ 172-31 Prim. G. Equivalents ofOE. Vowels 77 

D. The Long Diphthongs. 

§ 172. ia = (i) Germanic au, as ceas, he chose; d§a]», 
death ; iage, eye ; hiafod, head; rSad, 
red (§ 186). 

= (2) Germanic se after palatal e, g, sc, as 
ceacey jaw ; giafon, they gave ; g§ar, 
year ; sc€ap, sheep (§ 124). 

= (3) Germanic se by breaking before h, as 
neah, near; near, older *ii§ahur, 
nearer (§ 128). 

= (4) Germanic aw which became final in 
prim. OE.y as hrga, raw; strea, 
straw (§ 76). 

= (5) from au after the loss of intervocalic w, 
as clea from *cla(w)u9 claw; ]»r§a 
from •J>ra(w)u, threat (§ 76). 

= (6) Germanic aw in the combination eaw 
=s Germanic aww, as deaw (Goth. 
*daggwa-), dew; hiawan, to hew 

= (7) OE. ea, Germanic a, by loss of ante- 
vocalic h after 1 and r, as gen. sSales, 
wealesy beside nom. sealh, willow, 
wealhf foreign (§ 64, Note i) ; gen. 
fgares, mSares, beside nom. fearh, 
pig, mearhy horse (§ 66, Note 3). 

=: (8) OE. ea, by loss of intervocalic h, as ea, 
river; slean, to slay ; tiar, tear (§ 70). 
§ 178. eo = (i) Germanic eu, as ceosan, to choose ; deop, 
deep; Igof, dear; peot, thief {^ 187). 

= (2) Germanic ew which became final in 
prim. OE., as cn€o, knee; tr6o, tree 
{§ 88). 

78 Phonology [5§ 174-^5 

= (3) Germanic ew in the combination eow 
s Germanic eww, as treow, trust, 
faith (§ 90). 

= (4) OE. eo/ Germanic e, by loss of ante- 
vocalic h after 1 and r, as feolan, to 
hide] gen. eoles, beside nom. eolh» 
elk (§ 84t Note i); gen. leores, beside 
nom. feorh, life (§ 86, Note 4). 

= (5) OE. eo by loss of intervocalic h, as 
seon, to see; sweor, father-in-law; 
gen. fSos, beside nom. feoh, cattle 
{§ 87). 
§ 174. ie (later If y) = (i) i-umlaut of ea, Germanic an, 
as geliefan, to believe ; hieran, to 
hear; hiehsta, highest (§ 136). 

= (2) i-umlaut of 10, Germanic iu, as cies)>» he 
chooses; dierling, darhng; liehtan, to 
give light; iisitipphe draws, kails (^IZS). 

= (3) i*umlaut of io, Germanic 1 before h» ht 
by breakings as liehst, ihou lendest; 
liehtan, to li^tten, make easier (§ 127). 

= (4) i-umlaut of io (eo), Germanic U + guttural 
voweV as fiend from *^2aijS^, fiemis ; 
friend from *tr^m&]z^ friends (§ 106). 

=s (5) Germanic ew in the combination iew(e) 
= Germanic ewwj, as getriewe, true, 
faithful (% 90). 

= (6) Germanic ew in the combination iew(e) 

= Germanic ewj, as niewe, new (§ 90). 

§ 176. 10 (eo) = (i) Germanic iu, as ge])iode, ge))eode9 

language; Uodefleode^ people; jAostre, 

))€ostre, dark (§ 188). 

= (2) Germanic i or J|j + guttural vowel, as 
Hond, feond, Goth, fijands, fiend, 
enemy; friond, frSond, Goth. fr^ onds. 

^ 1^6^^] Prim. G. Equivalents of OE. Vowels 79 

friend) neut. pL \ft\Ot \tho from *)>rtiu, 
Goth. )ntia» Aree (§ 104). 
ss (3) Germanic i by breaking before h and ht» 
as yLoTkf ]>§on9 OHG. dihan, to thrwe ; lioh, 
lech, OHG. lih, knd thou; betweoh, ^- 
ttveen ; ISoht, OHG. lihti, adj. l^t (§ 127). 

The Chief Deviations of the other Dialects 
FROM West Saxon. 

§ 176. a (Anglian) = WS. ea before 1+ consonant, as 
cald, cold, fallan, to fall, haldan, to hold, 
WS. ceald, feaUan, healdan (§ 68). 
I § 177. ae (Anglian) = (i) WS. ea before h and h+ con- 
sonant, as stthf he saw, fsez, hair, aehta, 
e^ht, WS. seahy feaz, eahta (§ 68, Note i). 
= (2) WS. ie, i-umlaut of ea before h+ con- 
sonant, as hl8Bhha(n), to lat4gh, msehtig, 
mighiy, WS. hHefahan, miehtig (§ 60, 

§ 178. m (later e) = (i) WS. ea before r+ guttural, as 
berg, p^g, ere, ark, terh, ferh, boar, pig, 
maerc, mere, boundary, WS. bearg, earc, 
fearh, meare (§ 66, Note i). 
s (2) WS. ie, i-umlaut of ea before 1+ con- 
sonant, as addra, eldra, older, f8ella(n), 
fella(s), to feU, WS. ieldra, fiellan (§ 66, 

§ 179. as beside ea (Anglian) = WS. ea after palatal 
c, g, sc, as caester, city, fortress, gsstfgate, 
seael, shall, beside ceaster, geat, sceal 
(§ 72, Note i). 

§ 180. td (Mercian for older ea by o/a-umlaut) = WS. a 
before gutturals, as draeca, dragon, daegas, 
days, WS. draca, dagas (§ 78, Note i). 

8o Phonology [§§ 181^4 

§ 181. e (Anglian and Ken.) ^ (i) WS. ie after palatal c^g, 
sc, as gefa(n), to give, gelda(n), to pay, sceld, 
shield, WS. giefaiit gieldan, scield (§ 01). 

= (2) WS. ie, i-umlaut of ea before r+ con- 
sonant, as deme, secret, erfe, inheritance, 
WS. dieme, ierfe (§ 67, Note). 

=s (3) WS. ie, i-umlaut of ea, after palatal 
c, g, sc, as cele, cM, gest, guest, sceppan, 
to create, WS. ciele, giest, scieppan 
(§ 78, Note). 
§ 182. e (Anglian) = (i) WS. eo before Ic, Ih, as elh, elk, 
melca(n), to milk, WS. eolh, meolcan 
(§ 84). 

= (2) WS. eo before h, hs, hi, as fell, cattle, 
sex, six, cneht, boy, early WS. feoh, seox, 
cneoht (§ 86, Note). 

= (3) WS. eo before r+ guttural, as derc, elark, 
were, work, dwerg, dwarf, ferh, life, WS. 
deorc, weorc, dweorg,feorh (§ 86,Note2). 
§ 188. e (Ken.) = (i) WS. «, as deg, day, feder, father, 
hefde, he had, WS. daeg, faeder, hsefde 
(§ 64, Note i). 

= (2) WS. ea after palatal c, g, sc, as cester, 
city, fortress, get, gate, seel, shall, WS. 
ceaster, geat, sceal (§ 72, Note i). 

= (3) WS. y, i-umlaut of u, as besdg, busy, 
efel, evil, senn, sin, WS. bysig, yfel, synn 
(§ 112, Note i). 

= (4) WS. ie, i-umlaut of ea, as eldra, older, 
eldu, old age, WS. ieldra, ieldu (§ 65, 
§ 184. i (Anglian) = (i) WS. ie before a guttural or r+ 
guttural, as birce, birch, gebirhta(n), to 
make bright, gesih]>, vision, WS. bierce, 
gebierhtan, gesieli)> (§ 09, Note 2). 

f§ «85-9] Print. G. Equivalents qfOE. Vowels 8i 

= (2) WS. io (u-umlaut) before 1 + guttural, as 
milCt milk^ WS. mioluc, miolc (§ 101, 
Note 2). 
= (3) WS. io (eo) before gutturals, as getlh- 
hia(n), WS. tiohlilaii» teohhian, to arrange, 
think, consider (§ 08, Note 2). 
= (4) WS. a in the combination wu* before 
gutturals, as betwih, between, cwic(tt), 
quick, alive, wicu, week, WS. betwoh, 
c(w)uca, wucu (§ 103). 
§ 186. o (late Nth.) = late WS. u in the combination 
wu-, as sword, sttford, wor}>a, to become, 
late WS. swurd, wur]>an (§ 94). 
§ 186. KB (Nth.) = (i) WS. e, i-umlaut of o, as dat. 
doehter, to a daughter, oele, oU, WS. dehter, 
t ele (§ 107). 

= (2) WS. e after w, as cuce]>ai to say, wceg, 

way, WS. cwejjan, weg (§ 80, Note i) ; 

cucella, to kill, WS. cweUan (§ 66, Note i). 

§ 187. » (Anglian) later e = WS. ea, Germanic au 

before c, g, h, as sec, also, h»h, high, tsg, 

rope, later ec, heh, teg, WS. eac, heah, 

teag(§ld6, Note2). 

§ 188. e (Anglian and Ken.) = (i) WS. », Germanic », 

as bgron, they bore, ded, deed, siton, they 

sat, slepan, to sleep, WS. beeron, d«d, 

* sston, sUepon (§ 119). 

= (2) WS. §a after palatal c, g, stc, as cece, 

jaw, ger, year, gifon, they gave, seep, 

^ sheep, WS. ceace, gear, geafon, sceap 

(§ 124, Note\ 

= (3) WS. le, i-umlaut of ea, as gelefan, to 

believe, heran, to hear, ned, need, WS. 

geliefan, hieran, nied (§ 124). 

§ 180. e (Anglian) = (i) WS. eo, Germanic eu, before 

82 Phonology [§§ 190-4 

c, g, h, as reca(n), to smoke, sic, sick, 

flega(n), to fly, ISht, light, WS. rgocao, 

seoc, fleogan, leoht (§ 187» Note 2), 
= (2) WS. ie, i-umlaut of ea from older m by 

breaking, as *nesta from neUsta, WS. 

Diehsta, nearest, next (§ 128). 
= (3) oWer », see § 187. 
§ 190. e (Ken.) = Anglian and WS. yt i-umlaut of Uy as 
.hefy hive, mes» mice, ontenany to open, 

Anglian and WS. hyf» mys, ontynan 

(§182, Note). 
§ 191. $ (late Ken.) = ^glian and WS. «, i-umlaut 

of ft, as clene, ckan, helan, to heal^ hetan, 

to heat, Anglian and WS. clsene, hslan, 

hstan (§ 184). 
§ 192. i (Anglian) = (i) WS. 10 (eo), Germanic i before h 

and ht, as wih, idol, lib, lend thou, Hht, 

adj. light, WS. weoh, leoh, leoht (§ 127). 
= (2) WS. ie, i-umlaut of 10 = Germanic iu, 

before c and ht, as ciceiii chicken, llhtan, 

to give light, WS. ciecen, liehtan (§ 188, 

= (3) WS. ie, i-umlaut of 10, Germanic i, before 

ht, as llhtan, to lighten, make easier (§ 127). 
§ 198. i (Nth.) = WS. ieh, as sis(t) from ''sihis, thou 

seest, sij> from *sihij>, he sees, WS. siehst, 

sieh]> (§ 99, Note 2). 
§ 194. CB (Nth.) = (i) WS. e, i-umlaut of 6 oi whatever 

origin, as bdec, books, foet, feet, groene, 

green, WS. bee, Kt, grene (§ 129) ; goes, 

WS. ges, geese (§ 62); fdej), WS. fehj), he 

seizes (§ 118). 
= (2) WS. «, Germanic », after w, as huder, 

where, wderon, they were, WS. hwser, 

wsron (§ 119, Note 2). 

§§i95-»o4] Prim. G. Equivalents o/OE. trowels 83 

§ 196. ea (Anglian) beside 9, see § 170. 

§ 196. ea (Nth.) = (i) WS. eo before r-f consonant, as 
ear]>e, earth, hearte, heart, steam, star, 
WS. eor]>e, heorte, steorra (§86, Note 3). 
= (a) WS. e, Mercian eo by o/a-umlaut, beara, 
eata, h eat, treada, to tread, WS. beran, 
etan, tredan (§ 98). ^ 

§ 197. ea (Mercian) by u-, o/a-umlaut = WS. a, as 
featu, vats, heafuc, hawk, fearan, to go, 
WS. fatu, hafttc, faran (f 78). 

§ 198. eo (Mercian and Ken.) by u-umlaut = WS. e 
(before all single consonants except labials 
and liquids), as eodor, enclosure, eosol, 
donkey, WS. edor, esol (§ 92). 

§ 199. eo (Ken.) by u-umlaut = Anglian and WS e 
before gutturals, as breogo, prince, reogol, 
nde, Anglian and WS. brego, regol 

§ 200. eo (Mercian and Ken.) by o/a-umlaut = WS. e, 
as beoran, to bear, eotan, to eat, feola, 
many, WS. beran, etan, fela (§ 98). 

§ 201. eo (Mercian and Ken.) =r late WS. u in the com- 
bination wu, as sweord, sword, sweostor, 
sister, late WS. sward, swu3ter( § 84). 

§ 202. io (Anglian and Ken.) by u-umlaut = WS. i 
(before all single consonants except labials 
and liquids), as liomu, limbs, nio]>or, lower^ 
siodu, custom, sionu, sinew, WS. limu, 
ni]>or, sidu, sinu (§ 101). 

§ 208. io (Anglian and Ken.) by o/a-umlaut = WS. 
i, as nioman, to take, nioma}>, they take, 
WS. niman, nima]> (§ 102). 

§ 204. io (Nth. and Ken.) = WS. ie, i-umlaut of io, Ger- 
manic i, as hiorde, shepherd, iorre, angpy, 
WS. hierde, ierre (§ 99, Note i). 

84 Phonology [§§ 205-11 

§ 806. io (Ken.) = WS. eo by breaking before r+ con- 
sonant, as hiorte, heart, ior]ie, earA, stiorra, 
^ar^ WS. heorte, eor]ie, steorra (§ 86, 

§ 208, io (Ken.) by o/a-umlaut = Anglian and WS. i 
before gutturals, as stiocian, Anglian and 
WS. stician, to prick (§ 102). 

§ 207- io (Mercian) beside eo = WS. ie, i-umlaut of io, 
as iorre, eorre, angry, hiorde, heorde, 
shepherd, WS. ierre, hierde (§ 88, Note i). 

§ 208. ea (Nth.) = Mercian and WS. eo, Germanic eu, 
as deap, deep, dSar, deer, Igaf, dear, Mer- 
cian and WS. deop, dter, leof (§ 187). 

§ 208. io (Ken.) beside ia = (i) Mercian and WS. go, 
Germanic eu, as dlop (diap), dior, fiof = 
Mercian and WS. deop, dgor, leof (§ 187). 
= (2) WS. ie, i-umlaut of io, Germanic iu, as 
diore (diare), dear, Hohtan, io give light, 
WS. diere, liehtan (§ 188). 

§ 210. io (Mercian) beside eo s= WS. ie, i-umlaut of io, 
as diore (deore), liolitan (leohtan), WS. 
diere, liehtan (§ 188). 



§ 211. Before formulating the laws which govern the 
treatment of the vowels in final syllables, it will be useful 
to state here the laws relating to the treatment of final 
consonants in prehistoric OE. : — 

(i) Final -m became -n, and then it, as also Indg. final 
-n, disappeared already in primitive Germanic. When 

§ 2ii] Vowels of Unaccented Syllables 85 

the vowel which thus became final was short, it had the 
same further development as if it had been originally final, 
as geoc, Goth, juk, Lat. jugiim, Gr. (uy^, Indg. *jiig6iii» 
yoke] ace. sing. OE. Goth, wulf, Lat lupum^Gr. X<{Kor, 
Indg. *wlqom» mJf] giest, Goth. gast» from ^sastim, 
guest, cp. Lat turrim, tower] fot, Goth, fotu, from *f5tuii, 
cp. Lat. pedem, Gr. v<SSa (§ 84), foot; gen. pi. daga from 
^dajSn, older -fim, of days^ cp. Gr. 0cw, of gods ; f5ta» of 
feet] and similarly in the gen. plural of the other vocalic 
and consonantal stems ; pret sing, nerede, Goth. nasida» 
prim. Germanic *nazidon, older -dm, / saved] nom. sing, 
of feminine and neuter n-stems, as tunge, Goth, tuggo, 
tongue ] eage» Goth, iugd, ^e, original ending -on. 

(2) The Indg. final explosives disappeared in prim. Ger- 
manic, except after a short accented vowel, as pres. subj. 
bere, Goth, bafr&i, from an original form *bheroit,A^ tnay 
bear ; bemn, Goth. bSnin, they bore, original ending -nt 
with vocalic n (§ £6) ; mdna, Goth, mena, from an original 
form *mendt, moon ; but )>8et, that, the, Indg. "^tod ; hwset = 
Lat. quod, what] set = Lat. ad, at. 

(3) Final -z, which arose from Indg^ •& by Vemer's law 
(§ 262), dfsappeared in the West Germanic languages, as 
nom. sing, dseg, OS. dag, OHG. tag, beside Goth, dags, 
O.Icel. dagr, day, all from a prim. Germanic form *dajaz, 
day ] and similarly in the nom. sing, of masc. and feminine 
!• and u*stems ; in the gen. singular of 5-, and consonantal 
stems ; in the nom. and ace. plural of masc and feminine 
nouns ; in the dat. plural of all nouns, adjectives, and 
pronouns; &c. 

Note.— It is difficult to account for the -s in the nom. plural 
of a*stems in 0£. and OS., as dagas, OS. dagos, days, see § 334. 

(4) Indg. final -r remained, as feeder, Goth, fadar, Lat. 
pater, Gr. iratVip, father ; modor, Lat. m&ter, Gr. Dor. 
fianip, mother. 

86 Phonology [§§212-14 

§ 212. (i) a (=Indg. a and o), which was originally final 
or became final in prim. Germanic through the loss of a 
following consonant, disappeared in dissyllabic and poly- 
syllabic forms already in primitive OE., as v^ftt, Goth. 
w&it» Gr. otSa, / know ; wftst, Goth, wdist^ Gr. oto^a, thou 
knowest; pret. first pers. singular of strong verbs, as band, 
/ bound ; bser, / bore, s«t, / sai, prim. Germanic *banda» 
*bara, ^lata, from older *bhondha, *bhorai *£oda ; nom. 
sing, wulf from *walfaz = Gr. Xukos, wolf; ace. wulf from 
*wulfan=: Gr. Xukok; nom. ace. neut. geoc from ^jukan 
= Gr. luy^, Lat. jugum, yoke ; gen. sing, daeges from 
^dajesa, older -o, 0/ a day ; beran from *beranan = 
Indg. *bheronom, io bear; pp. boren from *burenaz, 
borne; pp. genered from '^'-nazidaz, saved; cyning from 
*kiiiiix|{as, king. 

§ 218. (2) Original final e disappeared in primitive OE. 
without leaving any trace, but when the e was originally 
followed by a consonant it became i in prim. Germanic, and 
then underwent the same further development in OE. as 
original i (see below), as wat, Goth. w4it = Gr. otSc, ke 
knows ; pret. third pers. singular of strong verbs, as band, 
he bound; bser, he bore ; sat, A^ sai, prim. Germanic *baiide, 
*bare, *£ate, from older '''bhotidhe^ *bhore, *sode ; im- 
perative ber from *bere = Gr. ♦^pe, bear thou ; nim from 
*neme, take thou = Gr. Wf&c, distribute thou ; voc. singular 
wulf from *wulfe = Gr. Xuice, Lat. lupe, wolf; tit, Goth, 
fimf = Gr. viyr€, Indg. *pei|qe,yfw; mec, Goth, mik, cp. 
Gr. iii-iye, me. But pi, nom. feet, fet from *fotiz older 
•ez, cp. Gr. ir^Ses, Lat. pedeSf/eet; guman from *5umaniz, 
cp. Lat. homines, nien ; hnyte from \mitiif nuts. 

§ 214. (3) Final long vowels, inherited from prim. Ger- 
manic, became shortened already in prim. OE. : — 

•0 (= Indg. and ft) became u, as beru from *bero = 
Gr. ^^pu, I bear; nom. singular glefu from ^jebo, Indg. 
*ghebha, gift, cp. Gr. x<^f»» ^«rf; nom, ace. neut. plural 

§ 215] Vowels of Unaccented Syllables 87 

geoctt from *jukO| older *juka =: O.Lat. Jiigft» Indg. 
*ivifg3^ yokes. 

-i became -i, later -e» as pres. subj. third pers. singular 
wile, he will = O.Lat. velit ; imper. second pers. singu- 
lar nere* Goth, nasei, OHG. nerl, from ^aaslf older 
*tiazij(i)9 Indg. *tios6jey save thou. 

§ 215. (4) Short u and ii which were originally final or 
became final through the loss of a consonant, disappeared 
in trisyllabic and polysyllabic forms. They, as well as the 
u and if which arose from the shortening of o and i, dis* 
appeared also in dissyllabic forms when the first syllable 
was long, but remained when the first syllable was short. 
The regular operation of this law was often disturbed by 
analogical formations. 

Regular forms were : nom. sing, giest = Goth. gasts» 
from *{astiz, guests Lat. hostis, stranger^ enemy \ ace. 
giest ST Goth, gast, from 'jastin = Lat. ^hostim ; dat. 
sing, of consonantal stems, as fdet^ fSt (nom. fbiffoot) from 
*f5tit cp. Gr. iroSi ; dat. plural of nouns, as dagum (nom. 
daeg» day) from ^dagomiz ; giefum (nom. giefti, gift) from 
'^5e1>omiz ; hler = Goth, h&usei, from ^x&uzi, hear thou ; 
sec = Goth, sokei, seek thou ; bend = Goth, bandi, from 
*banffi, band; in the second and third pers. singular and 
third pers. plural of the pres. indicative, as prim. Germanic 
*n]soiz9 thou takest; ^nimid, A^ takes; *nemBxiA9 they take, 
from older *nemesi, ^nemeti, ^nemonti (on the OE. end- 
ings of these forms, see § 476) ; sing. nom. hand = Goth. 
handuSf hand; ace. hand = Goth, handu; ace. singular of 
consonantal stems, as fdt= Goth, fotu, foot; faeder from 
*{a.deTtm9 father; guman from ^gumanun, man; nom. lar 
from *laru, older *laizd, lore, teaching ; neut. pi. word 
from *wordti, older *wurd6, words ; nom. ace. pi. neuter 
yfel from *ubilu, older *ubil6, evil; nom. ace. singular 
winif wine (OHG. wini), from *winiz, *winin,/n>«rf; 
mere (OHG. meri), from *mari, lake ; nom. plural wine 

88 Phonology [|§ 216-17 

(OHG. wini), from *wiiiiz, older -i(i(i)z» -eies, /riettds ; 
imperative sete from *8ati, Indg. *8odeje, set thou ; pres. 
subj. scyle from older *sktill, shall; sing. nom. sunu = 
Goth, sunus, son ; ace. sunu = Goth, sunu ; feola (fela) 
ss Goth, filu, much ; neut. pi. fata, from *fat5» vats; beni 
(beoru) from *ber6, / bear. Then after the analc^y of 
these and similar forms were made feoh for *feohu, money 
= Goth, falhu, OHG. fihti, Lat pecu, catUe ; bindu, / bind, 
helptt, / help, ceosUy / choose, for *bind, "^help, *ceos. 
The final -u from older -w (§ 265) also disappeared after 
long stem-syllables, as g&d, Goth, g&idw, want, lack; 
ft, Goth. 4iw, ^^ ; bT§^,corpse ; but remained 
after short stem-syllables, as bealu, evt'l, calamity, bearu, 
grove, beside gen. bealwes^bearwes. 

Note.— Final i, which remained in the oldest period of the 
language, regularly became e in the seventh century. And 
final tt became o at an early period, and then in late 0£. a, 
whence forms like nom. ace. sunn, suno, suna, son ; pi. fatu, 
fato, fata, vats, 

§ 216. In trisyllabic forms final -u, which arose from 
prim. Germanic -0, disappeared after a long medial 
syllable. It also disappeared when the stem and medial 
syllable were short, but remained when the stem-syllable 
was long and the medial syllable short, as leomuug from 
*lirnungu, learning ; byden from ^budinu, older budlnd, 
tub; pi. raced from *rakidu, older '''rakidd, halls, palaces ; 
neut. pi. yfel from *ubilu, older *ubild, evil; but fem. nom. 
sing, haligu, holy, heaf odu, heads, nietenu, animals. 

§ 217. (5) The Indg. long diphthongs -9i,-di,-ou became 
shortened to -ai, -au in prim. Germanic, and then under- 
went the same further changes as old -ai, -au, that is, they 
became -a, -6 in West Germanic. 

Later than the shortening mentioned in § 214 occurred 
the shortening which was undergone in dissyllabic and 
polysyllabic words by the long vowel, after which an 

§ 2i8] Vowels of Unaccented Syllables 89 

-n or -z had disappearedi and by the •& and -o from older 
-ai and -an, which were either already final in prim. Ger- 
manic, or had become so after the loss of -z. In this case 
a distinction must be made according as the long vowel 
originally had the 'slurred* (circumflex) or 'broken* 
(acute) accent (§ 0). -8 with the circumflex accent became 
-e (older ae) after the loss of •z^ but -a after the loss of -n. 
•o with the acute accent became -e (older se) aft^r the loss 
of -n. The •» and -5 from older -ai and -au became -e 
(older 8e) and -a. All these shortenings took place in pre- 
historic Old English. Examples are :— gen. sing, and nom. 
plural gefe (Anglian) from 'seftSz = Goth, gibds^ nom. 
sing. giefu(WS.), gifi\ gen. plural daga from ^dajSn, older 
•8m, of days \ f5ta from *fdt8n, of feet^ cp. Gr. Ocwr, of 
gods; and similarly in the gen. plund of other vocalic and 
consonantal stems ; nom. singular of masculine n-stems, as 
guma from *5um8(n), man; acq, singiiljir ppi tfe fro m 
*jebon, older 'Om,pgtft, cp. Gr. x^^ land; nom. singular 
of feminine and neuter n*stems, 'as tunge from 'tuij^on = 
Goth, tuggd, tongue ; gage from *BXL^bn = Goth. &ugo, 
eye; nerede from *nazidon, older -6m, / saved; fore, 
before = Gr. irapai, near ; dat. sing, daege from ^dagai, older 
-oi, to a day, cp. Gr. locative oUot, at home, dat. Xuk^, to 
a wolf; dat sing, giefe = Goth. gib4i, Indg. ^ghebh&i, to 
a gift, cp. Gr. dat. x^^Pf for *X^f^^i lo land; fem. dat. sing. 
blindre from '^1>lindizai, blind ; masc. nom. plural blinde = 
Goth. blind4i, blind; bere = Goth, bair&i, Gr. <|»^poi, he 
may bear; eahta = Goth, aht&u, from an original form 
*oktdu, eight ; e)>})a = Goth. ai])]}&u, or ; gen. singular 
suna = Goth, sun&us, of a son. 

§ 218. After the operation of the sound-laws described 
in §§ 812~17» many vowels, which originally stood in medial 
syllables, came to stand in final syllables in prehistoric 
OE. These vowels underwent various changes. 

I. Indg. o remained longer in unaccented syllables than 

90 Phonology [§218 

in accented syllables in prim. Germanic. It became a 
during the prim. Germanic period except (i) when followed 
by an m which remained in historic times, and (2) when 
the following syllable originally contained an tu In these 
cases the o became tt in OE., as dat. plural dagum beside 
Goth. dagam» prim. Germanic Magomiz, to days; ace. 
sing. br5}>ur (later -or^ -ar), from *br5]>orun, brotiier = 
Gr. ^pdropo (§ 84), member of a clan ; ace. pi. bro}>ur from 
*1>rd]K>runz. Prim. Germanic a remained before n, but 
became e (older se) in other cases, as inf. beran from 
^beranan, Indg. '*'bheronom» to bear; ace. sing, of masc. 
and feminine n*stems, as guman, man; timgan, tongue, 
from -antuiy older -onm (with vocalic m); nom. plural 
guman» tungani from -aniz, older -ones ; but huneg older 
hunaeg (OHG. honag), honey. 

2. Indg. e remained in OE. when originally not followed 
by a palatal vowel in the next syllable, as hwsejjer = Gr. 
ir^Tcpos, whether, which of two; gen. sing, dseges from 
*da5esa» older -o, of a day; pp. bunden from ^bundenaz, 
Indg. *bhndhetios, bound; 5)>er from ^anjierazy other. 
But when e was originally followed by a palatal vowel 
it became i already in prim. Germanic^ see below. 

3. Prim. Germanic i remained in OE. before palatal 
consonants, as englisc, English; hefig, heavy; usic^ us. 
It also remained in other cases in the oldest period of the 
language, but became e in the seventh century (see § 216, 
Note), as pp. genered from *-nazidaz, saved; nimes(t), 
OHG. nimis, thou takest, Indg. *nemesi ;. nime}), OHG. 
nimit, he takes, Indg. " nemeti. The e in the second and 
third pers. singular was mostly syncopated in WS. and 
Ken., but generally remained in Anglian (see § 476). 

4. Prim. Germanic u always remained before a following 
m, but in other cases it became o already at an early 
period, and in late OE. also a (see § 216^ Note), as dat. 
plural sunum, to sons; fotum, to feet, prim. Germanic 

§ 219] Vowels of Unaccented Syllables 91 

-umiz ; pret. pi. indicative berun, -on, they bore] neredon, 
-on» they saved. 

5. All long vowels underwent shortening already in 
prehistoric Old English : — 

«>e, as faedery cp. Gr. -norfip, father \ neredes (older 
•dses) from ^nazidses, cp. Goth, nasddesy thou didst save. 

i > i, later e, except before palatal consonants, asgylden 
(OHG. guldln) from *jul}>iiiaz ; maegden = OHG. maga- 
tin, maiden] subj. pret. plural b8eren=Goth. bSreina, 
OHG. bftrin, they might bear] but mUitig = Goth. mah. 
teigs, OHG. mahtig, mighty] godlic, goodly, beside the 
stressed form gelic, like. 

b>\Xf later o, a (cp. § 216, Note), but u always remained 
before a following m, as hunto}), -a}), from *xu&to]>tiz» 
hunting] heardost,Aar(^5/, V^oiositdearestf prim. Germanic 
superlative suffix -dst- ; 8ealfas(t) = Goth, salbos, thou 
anointest ; sealfa)> = Goth. salbd})» he anoints ; pret. sing, 
sealfude, -ode^ -ade = Goth, salboda, / anointed] 
sealfud, •od, -ad =: Goth. salbo}>s ; but always u in the dat« 
pl.giefum = Goth.gibom,/o^5; tungum = Gbth.tuggdm, 
to tongues. The combination -dj- was weakened to -!• 
(through the intermediate stages -ej-, -ej-, -ij-), as in the inf. 
of the second class of weak verbs : lufian, to love] macian, 
to make] sealfian, to anoint. The prim. OE. ending -d]) 
from older -onj) (see § 61), -an]), -an})!, Indg. -onti, was 
regularly weakened to -aj), as bera)> = Gr. Dor. ^^poin-i, 
they bear. 

u>u (later o, a). In this case the ii arose in prim. OE. 
from the loss of n before a voiceless spirant (§ 286). 
Examples are: fracu)>i •o)>» from *fiakun]>az, wicked -s^ 
Goth. frakun})S, despised] dttgu)> from ^dujun])- = OHG. 
tugunt, valour, strength ; geogu}) from *ju5unj)- = OHG. 

§ 219. If a nasal or a liquid, preceded by a mute con- 
sonant, came to stand finally afler the loss of a vowel 

92 Phonology [§219 

(§ 212), it became vocalici and then a new vowel was 
generated before it in prehistoric OE. just as was the case 
in prehistoric OS. and OHG. The vowel thus generated 
was generally e when the preceding vowel was palatal, 
but o (u), later also e, when the preceding vowel was 
guttural, as nom. efen from *ebnaz, cp. Goth, ibns, even ; 
nom. ace. aecer from *akr, older *akraz, ^akran, cp. Goth. 
akrs, akr, field) nom. ace. fugol, •ol, from *ftigl, older 
^foglaz, ^foglan, cp. Goth, fugls, fugl, bird,fou>l; nom. 
ace. m&]nim from *mai]»n, older *mai]nnaz» *mai]nnan, 
cp. Goth. m&i]>m8» m^]xm, gift. In the oldest period of 
the language forms with and without the new vowel often 
existed side by side. The new vowel occurred most fre- 
quently before r. Vocalic 1 was common especially after 
dentals, and vocalic m and n generally occurred after 
a short syllable. The forms with vocalic 1, m, n, r in the 
nom. ace. singular were due to levelling out the stem-form 
of the inflected cases. Thus regular forms were: nom. 
segel, saU; m&Jmm, gift; b§acen, stgn^ beacon ;^&if 
even ; aecer, field; )mnor, thunder; gen. segles, ma]>mes, 
beacnesy efnes, secres, )>unres. Then from the latter 
were formed new nominatives segl, m&))m, beacn, efn.; 
and from the former new genitives aeceres, ]mnores. 
Examples are: 8eppel> aepl, apple; hiisul, husel, husl, 
Eucharist, cp. Goth, hunsl, sacrifice ; luedl (Goth. ne]>la), 
needle; naegl, naU; setl (Goth, sitls), seat; tempel^ tempi 
(Lat. templum), temple; tungul, -ol, -el, star. b5sm, 
bosom ; botm, bottom ; Bty/m, breath ; }>rosm» smoke ; 
waestum, -em, wsestm, growth, hraefh, raven; regn 
(Goth, rign), miVf ; stefn, z;oiVr^ ; t&cen,tacn(Goth.t&ikns), 
token ; ]>egen, ]>egn, retainer ; w«gn, wagon. &tr, fttor, 
poison; f»ger (Goth, fagrs), fair, beautifiil ; finger 
(Goth. ^%fSX^\ finger; hlutor (Goth, hlutrs), /»fi?, dear; 
sttotor, wise; winter (Goth, wintrus), winter; wundor, 

$§ aao^i] Vowels of Uftoccented Syllables 93 

§ 220. In OE., especially in the later period, a svara- 
bbakti vowel was often developed between r or l+c, g, or 
h; and between r, 1, d, or t+w. In the former case the 
quality of the vowel thus developed regulated itself after 
the quality of the stem-vowel. In the latter case it fluc- 
tuated between u (o) and e, rarely a. The development of 
a similar vowel in these consonant combinations also took 
place in OS. and OHG. Examples are : nom. sing, burug, 
buruh (OS. OHG. burug) beside burg, burh (OS. OHG. 
burg), city ; but dat. sing, and nom. plural bsrrig beside 
byrg ; byriga beside byrga, bail, surety; fyiigan beside 
fylgan, to follow ; myrigp beside myrg)>, mirth; stsrric 
beside styrc, calf, cp. modern northern dial, starak 
beside 8i§k; wortihte, worohte (OHG. worahta) beside 
worhte (OHG. worhta), he worked, beadu, -o, battle^ 
gen. dat. beadttwe, -owe beside beadwe; bealtt, evil, 
gen. bealuwes, •owes beside bealwes; beam, grove, 
beamwes, -owes beside bearwes; fraetuwe, -ewe beside 
fraetwe, trappings ; gearu, ready, gen. geaniwes (OHG. 
garawes), -owes, -ewes beside gearwes; gearuwe 
(OHG. garawa), -ewe beside gearwe (OHG. garwa), 
yarrow; geolu, yelhw, gen. geoluwes, -owes beside 
geolwes; melu,meolu, meal, flour, gen. meluwes (OHG. 
melawes), -owes, -ewes beside melwes (OHG. melwes) ; 
nearti, narrow, gen. nearawes, -owes, -ewes beside 
nearwes ; and similarly with several other words. 

§ 221. Original short medial vowels in open syllables 
regularly remained in trisyllabic forms when the stem- 
syllable was short, as ae]>ele, noble; gen. sing, heofones, 
metodes, nacodes, rodores, stapoles, waeteres, beside 
nom. heofon, heaven; metod, creator; nacod, naked; 
rodor, sky; stapol, pillar; waeter, water; gen. dat. sing. 
. idese beside nom. ides, woman ; pret. fremedest from 
. *framid«s, thou didst perform ; neredest from "^nazid&s, 
thou didst save. On the syncope of i after prim. Germanic 

94 Phonology [§223 

short stems in the preterite and past participle of weak 
verbs, see § 684. 

They also remained in closed syllables irrespectively as 
to whether the stem-syllable was long or shorty as gen. 
sing, cyninges, f»telses» hengestesy wistennes, beside 
nom. C3aiiiigy king ; feetels, tub ; hengest^ staOtdn ; westen, 
desert ; f&gettaiiy to change colour ; pres. participle nimende, 
taking; superlatives ieldesta^oAfes/; lengestsif longest. It 
is difficult to account for the syncope in hiehsta, hi^est; 
and niehstai nearest. 

They also remained after consonant combinations, when 
preceded by a closed stem-syllable, or a stem-syllable con- 
taining a long diphthong or vowel, as pret. hyngrede, tim- 
brede^ dieglede, frefirede, beside inf. hsmgran, to hunger^ 
timbran, to build, dieglan» to conceal, frefran, to comfort] 
dat, pi. syndrigum beside nom. sing, syn^ixigf separate. 

They regularly disappeared in open syllables when the 
stem-syllable was long, as gen. sing, diegles^ ^engles^ 
h&lges» heafdes, o]n:es» beside nom. diegol* secret; engel» 
angel; hiUig» Ao/y; heafod, head; d]>er» other; h&lgian, to 
make holy; streng)>u from *8trai|5i]>o (OHG. strengida), 
strength; ieldra (Goth, aljyiza), older; gen. dat. sing. 
frofre, mdn]>e» sawle, beside nom. frofor, consolation; 
m5na)>9 month; sftwol, soul; dsldest (Goth, d&ilides), 
thou didst divide ; hierdest (Goth, hiusides), ttwu heardest. 

§ 222. Short medial guttural vowels^ followed by a 
guttural vowel in the next syllable, often became palatal 
by dissimilation, as hafelai head, beside hafola; nafela, 
navel, beside nafola; gaderian from *jadurdjan» to gather; 
pi. nom. heofenas, gen. heofena, dat. heofetium» beside 
sing. gen. heofonesy dat. heofone, nom. heofon, heaven; 
pi. nom, roderas^ gen. rodera, dat. roderum» beside sing, 
gen. rodoresy dat. rodore» nom. rodotf firmament ; pi. nom« 
stapelasy gen. stapelai dat. stapelusif beside sing. gen. 
stapolesy dat. stapole» nom. stapolf pillar. The inter- 

§ 223] Vowels of Unaccented Syllables 95 

change between e and o in forms like sealfedon (OHG« 
salbdtun), they anotfUed, beside sealfode (OHG. salbota), 
he anointed, is probably due to the same cause. 

§ 223. In prim. OE. polysyllabic forms the second 
medial short vowel disappeared when it stood in an open 
syllable, but remained when it stood in a closed syllable, 
as ace. sing. masc. o]>eme from *an]7erand(ti), other; and 
similarly gldedne, glad ; godne,good; hftlignet Ao/y ; &c, ; 
dat fem. singular d]ierre from *an])erizai; and similarly 
gl8Bdre» gddre» hftligre; gen. plural d]>erray prim. Ger- 
manic *an]7eraiz&(ti), older -Sm; and similarly gddra» 
haiigra. But having a secondary accent in a closed 
syllable, the vowel regularly remained, as nom. plural 
gaedelingaSf companions) dat. singular gademnge, to an 
assembly ; innemesta, inmost. 

Note.— I. There are many exceptions to the above sound- 
laws, which are due to analogical formations. Thus forms like 
masc. and neut. gen. singular micles, dat. miclttm, great \ 
yfles, yflum, beside yfeles, yfelttm, evil\ gen. pi. gUtdxtL, glad, 
were made on analogy with forms having a long stem-syllable. 
And forms like gen. singular deofbles (nom. deofol, devil), 
e)>ele8 (nom. e)>el, native land), haliges, holy, beside older 
deofles, e)»les, halges, were made on analogy with forms having 
a short stem-syllable. 

2. In late 0£. syncope often took place after short stems, 
and sometimes in closed syllables, as betra, better; dree, 
church ; f»gnian, to re/oice, gadrian, to gather, beside older 
betera, chrice, f»genian, gaderian; betsta, best; winstre, 
left (hand), beside older betesta, winestre. 

3. Original medial long vowels, which were shortened at an 
early period, were syncopated in trisyllabic forms in OE., but 
remained when the shortening took place at a later period, as 
dat. singular m5n]>e beside mona}> (Goth. meno}>s), month; 
but locodest from *iokod»8, thou didst look. 

96 Phonology [§ 224 


§ 224. By ablaut is meant the gradation of vowels both 
in stem and suffix, which was caused by the primitive 
Indo-Germanic system of accentuation. See § 0. 

The yowels vary within certain series of related vowels, 
called ablaut-series. In 0£., to which this chapter will 
be chiefly confined, there are Isix such series^ which appear 
most clearly in the stem-forms of strong veVbs. Four 
stem-forms are to be distinguished in an OE. strong verb 
which has vowel gradation as the characteristic mark of 
its different stems : — (i) The present stem, to which belong 
all the forms of the present, (2) the stem of the first or 
third person singular of the preterite indicative, (3) the 
stem of the preterite plural, to which belong the second 
pers. pret. singular, and the whole of the pret subjunctive, 
(4) the stem of the past participle. 

By arranging the vowels according to these four stems 
we arrive at the following system : — 

































Note.- i. The six series as given above represent the simple 
vowels and diphthongs when uninfluenced by neighbouring 
sounds. For the changes caused by umlaut and the influence 
of consonants, see the phonology, especially §§ 47-52, and the 
various classes of strong verbs, §§ 480-619. 

2. On the difference in Series III between i and e» see § 41 ; 
and between n and o, § 48. 

§ 225] Ablaut {Vowel Gradation) 97 

3. Strong verbs belonging to Series II have le from older iu 
(§ 188) in the second and third pers. singular of the pres. 
indicative ; and strong verbs belonging to Series III-V with e 
in the infinitive have i in the second and third pers. singular 
of the pres. indicative (§ 41). 

§ 226. But although the series of vowels is seen most 
clearly in the stem-forms of strong verbs, the learner must 
not assume that ablaut occurs in strong verbs only. Every 
syllable of every word of whatever part of speech contains 
some form of ablaut. As for example the sonantal elements 
in the following stem-syllables stand in ablaut relation to 
each other : — 

li]>an» to go, lijiendy sailor : Uld, way, course : lida, sailor) 
lar, learning: liornung (leomung), learning; 8iii}>aii, to 
cut: snaed from *sn&di-, morsel, slice: snide, incision] 
iKHtega, prophet: w&t» he knows: witan, to know, wita» 
wise man, gewit, intelligence. 

beodan, to command, order: gebod, command, precept, 
bydel from *budil, messenger; fleon, to flee: fiea,mf flight: 
flyht from ^fLuhti', flight ; neotan, to use: geneat, com- 
panion: notu, use, n3rtt (Germanic stem-form *nutja-), 
useful; teon, to draw, lead: team, progeny: here-toga, 
army leader, general, 

bittdan, to bind: bend from *bandi-, band; drincan, to 
drink: drenc from^ *dranki-, drink: druncen, drunk; 
sweltan, to die: swylt from *8wulti-, death; weor}>an 
from *werj)an, to become : wyrd from * wurdi-,/a/^. 

beran, to bear : bar, bier : ge-byrd from *5i-burdi-, birth, 
byre from *btui-, son; cwelan, to die: cwalu, killing; 
stelan, to steal: stalu, theft: stulor, stealthy. 

giefan, to give, giefa from *5el>a, giver, gift from *5efti-, 
price of wife : gafol, tribute; cwe]>an, to say : cwide, prim. 
Germanic ^kwedi^ speech; sprecan, to speak: sprsc, 

calan, to be cold: col, cool; faran, to go, travel, fierd 


98 Phonology [§ 226 

from *fardi-, army : f5r, journey^ g^ra, prim. Germanic 
♦.f6ij8, companion ; stede from *8tadi, place : stod, herd of 
horses. See § 662. 

Examples of ablaut relation in other than stem-syllables 
are: — 

Goth. nom. pi. anstd-B, favours : gen. sing, anstdi-s: 
ace. pi. ansti-ns ; Goth. nom. pi. sunju-s from an original 
form *siineu-e8, sons : gen. sing, sundu-s : ace. pi stinu-ns ; 
Gr. ^i^iuv, we bear : ^^c-tc, ye bear = Goth, baira-m, 
bairi-}). t 

§ 226. In this paragraph will be given the prim. Ger- 
manic and Gothic equivalents of the above six ablaut- 
series, with one or two illustrations from OE. For 
further examples see the various classes of strong verbs, 
§§ 490-610. 

Prim. Germ. i ai 1 i 

Gothic ei dl i i 

OE. hlizn, to bite bat biton biten 
li]>an^ to go la]> lidon liden 
Note.— Cp. the parallel Greek series ireiOw : Tr^iroiOa : IttiOok. 

Prim. Germ. eu au u o 

Gothic in du u u 

OE. beodan^ to offer bead budon boden 
ceosan^ to choose ceas curon coren 

Note.— Cp. the parallel Greek series A€M(0)ao|Aai (fut.): 
€iXi^Xou6a: ^Xu6ok. 


Prim. Germ. e, i a u u, o 

Gothic i a u u 

OE. helpan, /d A^^ healp hulpon holpen 

weor]>an» to wear)> wurdon worden 


hinAsLUftobind band bundon bunden 

§227] Ablaut {Vowel Gradation) 99 

Note.— I* To this series belong all strong verbs having 
a medial nasal or liquid + consonant, and a few others in which 
the vowel is followed by two consonants other than a nasal or 
liquid + consonant. 

a. On the forms healp, wear)> see § W, and on weor)>an see 

3. Cp. the parallel Greek series S^pnojiai : S^opua : ^paKOK ; 
ir^|iirtt : ir^iro|i^a. 

Prim. Germ. e a a o 

Gothic i a e u 

OE. beran, to bear baer bsron boren 
J , stelan, to steal steel stslon stolen 

flD||E:.— I. To this series belong all strong verbs whose stems 
eiV in a single liquid or nasal. 

A Cp. the parallel Greek series ^vv» : |ioin^ : |ii-|iK« ; S^« : 
So||d : Sc4ap-|i^K0S« 

Prim. Germ. e a a e 

Gothic i a e i 

OE. metaxiy to measure maet mseton meten 
cwe]>any to say cw8e]> cwsedon cweden 

Note.— I. To this class belong all strong verbs whose stems 
end in a single consonant other than a liquid or a nasal. 

2. Cp. the parallel Greek series Wtojmh : ir^Tfios : i-irr'i^i\v ; 
Tp^irw : W-rpo^a : rpair^atfai. 

Prim. Germ. a 06 a 

Gothic a 5 5 a 

OE. fBXBXif to go f5r foron faeren, faren 

§ 227. Class VII of strong verbs embracing the old 
reduplicated verbs (§§ 611-19) has been omitted from the 
ablaut-series, because the exact relation in which the vowel 
of the present stands to that of the preterite has not yet 

H 2 

I oo Phonology [§§ 228-9 

been satisfactorily explained. The old phases of ablaut 
have been preserved in the present and preterite of a few 
Gothic verbs, as letan, to ki, laildt« lafldtum, letans; 
saian, to sow, saiso, saf-so-uniy saians. 

§ 228« The ablaut-series as given in § 226 have for 
practical reasons been limited to the phases of ablaut as 
they appear in the various classes of strong verbs. From 
an Indo-Germanic point of view, the series I-V belong to 
one and the same series, generally called the e-series, 
which underwent in primitive Germanic various modifica- 
tions upon clearly defined lines. What is called the sixth 
ablaut-series in the Germanic languages is really a mixture 
of several original series, owing to several Indg. vowel- 
sounds having fallen together in prim. Germanic ; thus the 
a, which occurs in the present and past participle, corre- 
sponds to three Indg. vowels, viz. a (§ 17), o (§ 20), and a 
(§ 22) ; and the in the preterite corresponds to Indg. 9. 
(§ 28), and Indg. (§ 26). For the phases of ablaut which 
do not occur in the various parts of strong verbs ; and for 
traces of ablaut-series other than those given above, the 
student should consult Brugmann's Kurze vergleichende 
Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, pp. 138-50. 



§ 229* The first sound-shifting, popularly called Grimtn's 
Law, refers to the changes which the Indo-Germanic 
explosives underwent in the period of the Germanic primi- 
tive community, i. e. before the Germanic parent language 
became differentiated into the separate Germanic Ian- 

§ 329] The First Sound'Shifting loi 

guages :— Gothic, O. Norse, O. English, O. Frisian, O. 
Saxon (= O. Low German), O.Low Franconian (O. Dutch), 
and O. High German. 

The Indo-Germanic parent language had the following 
system of consonants : — 

Labial. Dental. Palatal. Velar. 
tenues p t k q 

mediae b. d g g 

^ I tenues aspiratae ph th kh qh 

mediae aspiratae bh dh gh gh 

voiceless s 

^ I 

Spirants "! . , . 

'^ I voiced z j 

Nasals m n ^ g 

Liquids I, r 

Semivowels w (y) j (j[) 

Note.— I. Explosives are consonants which are formed with 
co mplete closure of the m outh passage, and may be pronounced 
with or without, voice, i. e. with or without the vocal cords 
being set in action; in the former case they are said to be 
voiced (e. g. the mediae), and in the latter voiceless (e. g. the 
tenues). The aspirates are pronounced like the simple tenues 
and mediae followed by an h, like the Anglo-Irish pronunciation 
oft in tell. 

The palatal explosives are formed by the front or middle ot 
the tongue and the roof of the mouth (hard palate), like g, k (c) 
in English get, good, kid, could; whereas the velars are 
formed by the root of the tongue and the soft palate (velum). 
The latter do not occur in English, but are common in Hebrew, 
and are often heard in the Swiss pronunciation of German. 
In the parent Indo-Germanic language there were two kinds of 
velars, viz. pure velars and velars with lip rounding. The pure 
velars fell together with the Indg. palatals in Germanic, Latin, 
Greek, and Keltic, but were kept apart in the Aryan and 
Baltic-Slavonic languages. The velars with lip rounding appear 
in the Germanic languages partly with and partly without 
labialization, see § 287. The palatal and velar nasals only 

I02 Phonology [§ 230 

occurred before their corresponding explosives, nk, ^g ; ijq, 
TO. &c. 

a. Spirants are consonants formed by the mouth passage 
being narrowed at one spot in such a manner that the outgoing 
breath gives rise to a frictional sound at the narrowed part. 

z only occurred before voiced explosives, e. g. *nizdos « Lat. 
nidtts, English nest ; *ozdo8 « Gr. ^los. Germ, ast, bough, 

j was like the widely spread North German pronunciation oi 
j in ja, not exactly like the y in English yes, which is generally 
pronounced without distinct friction, j occurred very rarely 
in the prim. Indo-Germanic language. In the Germanic, as in 
most other Indo-Germanic languages, the frictional element in 
this sound became reduced, which caused it to pass into the 
so-called semivowel. 

3. The nasals and liquids had the functions both of vowels 
and consonants (§ 16). 

4. The essential difference between the so-called semivowels 
and full vowels is that the latter always bear the stress (accent) 
of the syllable in which they occur, e. g. in English c6w, stdin 
the first element of the diphthong is a vowel, the second a con- 
sonant; but in words like French rwd (written roi), bjer 
(written bi^e), the first element of the diphthong is a con- 
sonant, the second a vowel. In consequence of this twofold 
function, a diphthong may be defined as the combination of 
a sonantal with a consonantal vowel. And it is called a falling 
or rising diphthong according as the stress is upon the first or 
second element. In this book the second element of diphthongs 
is written i, u when the first element is the bearer of the stress, 
thus di, du, &c., but when the second element has the stress, 
the first element is written j, w, thus jA, wA, &c. 

5. In the writing down of prim. Germanic forms the signs 
)> (»=th in Engl, thin), d (=th in Engl, then), b (=a bilabial 
spirant, which may be pronounced like the v in Engl, vine), 
5 (= g oflen heard in German sagen), x (= NHG. eh and the 
ch in Scotch loch). 

§280. In the following iables of the no rmal equivalents 
o fihe Indg. e xplosives in J-atin^ Greek, and the Germanic 
^giiguages, Table^ jcontains the Indg. tenues p, t, k, the 

§ 23o] The First Sound'shtfttng 103 

mediae A d, g and the pure velars q, g. Table II contains, 
the Indgj. mediae aspiratae and the velars. ^q, g_with 
labialization. The equivalents in the Germanic languages 
do not contain the changes caused by Verner's Law, &c. 
The East Franconian dialect is taken as the normal 
for OHG. 
The following points should be noticed :— 

(i) The Indg. tenucs p, t, k and the mediae b, d, g 
generally remained unchanged in Latin and Greek. 

(2) The pure velars (q, g) fell together with the palatals 
ky g in Latin and Greek. They became x> ^ ^^ prim. 
Germanic, and thus fell together with the x» ^ ^^om 
Indg. k, g. 

(3) The pure velar gh fell together with the original 
palatal gh in Latin and Greek. 

(4) The Indg. mediae aspiratae became in prehistoric 
Latin and Greek tenues aspiratae, and thus fell together 
with the original tenues aspiratae. 

(5) The Indg. tenues aspiratae became voiceless spirants 
in prim. Germanic, and thus fell together with the voiceless 
spirants from the Indg. tenues. See § 283. 

(6) In Latin Indg. q with labialization became qu, 
rarely c. g with labialization became v (but gu after n, 
and g when the labialized element had been lost, as 
gravis = Gr. PapJs, heavy). 

Indg. ph, bh became f initially and b medially. 

Indg. th, dh became f initially, b medially before and 
after r, before 1 and after u (w), in other cases d. 

Indg. kh, gh became h initially before and medially 
between vowels; g before and after consonants, and f 
before u (w). 

Indg. qh, gh with labialization became f initially, v 
medially except that after n it became gu. 

(7) In Greek Indg. q, g with labialization became ir, p 

I04 Phonology [§ 230 

before non-palatal vowels (except u) and before consonants 
(except Indg. j) ; t, 8 before palatal vowels ; and k, y before 
and after u. 

Indg. phy bh became ^ ; th, dh became 0; and kh, gh 
became x« 

Indg. qhy gh with labialization became ^ before non- 
palatal vowels (except u) and before consonants (except 
Indg. j) ; before palatal vowels ; and x before and after u. 

(8) When two consecutive syllables would begin with 
aspirates, the first was de-aspirated in prehistoric times in 
Sanskrit and Greek, as Skr. b&ndhanam, a binding, Goth. 
0£. bindan, OHG. bintan, to bind; Skr. bodhati, he 
learns, is awake, Gr. vcuOcrai, he asks, inquires, Goth, ana- 
biudan, 0£. beodan, to bid, OHG. biotan, h offer, root 
bheudh- ; Gr. kokOiSXti, a swelling, 0£. gund, OHG. gunt, 
matter, pus ; Gr. 0pi{, hair, gen. rpixos ; lx»> -^ Aa«/^, flit. I{«. 

(9) In OHG. the prim. Germanic explosives p, t became 
the affricatae pf, tz (generally written zz, z), initially, as 
also medially after consonants, and when doubled. But 
prim. Germanic p, t, k became the double spirants ff, :^, 
hh (also written ch) medially between vowels and finally 
after vowels. The double spirants were simplified to 
f, ^, h when they became final or came to stand before 
other consonants, and also generally medially when pre- 
ceded by a long vowel or diphthong. 

as©] The First Sound-shifting 






P. Ger- 



























P , 























p. Ger- 





qu, c 

If, T, K 



hw, h 







cw, c 

qu ; k, hh 






b, b. (f) 












g. 5 




f, V, gu 





g. w 

io6 Phonology [§ 231 

§ 281. The Indg. tenues p» t, k, q became in prim. Ger- 
manic the voiceless spirants f,)»y x» X (xw). 

p > f. Lat. pes, Gr. iroi^s, OE. OS. fot, Goth, fotus, 
O.Icel. fotr, OHG. fuo?,/cto/; Lat. piscis, OE. fisc, Goth. 
fisks, Olcel. fiskr, OS. OHG. tsUL^fish; Gf. irXwr^, 
floating, swimmingf OE. OS. flod, Goth, flodus, O.Icel. 
flo6, OHG. fivLot, flood, tide; Lat. pecti, OE. feoh, Goth, 
fafhu, O.Icel. fe, OS. fehu, OHG. fihu, caUle ; Lat. nepos, 
OE. nefa, O.Icel. nefe, OHG. nefo, nephew. 

t > ]>. Lat. tu, Gr. Doric tiJ, OE. O.Icel. OS. Jm, Goth. 
])U, OHG. dCi, thou ; Lat. tres, Gr. rpcis, OE. OS. ]«i, 
O.Icel. J>rir, OHG. dri, three) Lat. tenuis, OE. ^yrm^, 
O.Icel. ^iiimr, OHG. dtinni, thin ; O.Lat. toi^re, to know, 
OE. )>encan, Goth. ]>agkjan, OS. )>enkian, OHG. den- 
Chen, to think) Lat. frater, OE. br6J>or, Goth. br5]>ar, 
O.Icel. brofier, OS. brodar, OHG. bruoder, brother) Lat. 
verto, / turn, OE. weor]>an, Goth. wafr])an, O.Icel. 
verfla, OS. werdan, OHG. werdan, to become. 

k > X. Lat. canis, Gr. koW, OE. OS. hund, Goth, 
hunds, O.Icel. hundr, OHG. hunt, hound, dog) Lat. cor 
(gen. cordis), Gr. KapSia, OE. heorte, Goth, hafrtd, O.Icel. 
hjarta, OS. herta, OHG. lierza, heart) Lat. centum, Gr. 
i-Ki^i6v, OE. Goth. OS. hund, OHG. hunt, hundred) Lat. 
pecu, OE. feoh, Goth, fafhu, O.Icel. fe, OS. fehu, OHG. 
fihu, cattle ; Lat. decem, Gr. S^Ka, OE. tien from *teohuni-, 
older *textmi- (cp. §§ 87, 447), Goth, taihun, OS. tehan, 
OHG. zehan, ten) Lat. duco, / lead, OE. teon from 
*teohan, older *teuxan (§137), Goth, tiuhan, OS. tiohan, 
OHG. ziohan, to draw, lead. 

q > X (xw). Lat. C3,pib9 1 take, seize, OE. hebban, Goth, 
hafjan, O.Icel. hefja,OS. hebbian,OHG. heffen, to raise) 
Lat. can5, / sing^ OE. hana, hona, Goth, hana, O.Icel. 
hane, OS. OHG. hano, cock, lit. singer) Lat. vinc6(perf. 
vici), I conquer, Goth, weihan, OHG. wihan, to fight. 

Lat. quis, Gr. ns, OE. hwa, Goth, hras, OS. hwe, OHG. 

§ 232] The First Sound'Shifftng 107 

hwer, who ? ; Lat. linquo, Gr. Xciirw, / kave^ 0£. Hon, leon 
from *Hohan, older *lixwan (see §§ 127, 246), OS. OHG. 
lihan, to lend. 

Note.— I. The Indg. tenues remained unshifted in the com- 
bination 8 + tenuis. 

sp. Lat. spuere, 0£. OS. OHG. spiwan, Goth, speiwan, to 
vomit, spit; Lat: con-8pici5, / look at, OHG. spehSn/ to spy, 

St. Gr. oTcixw, I go, Lat. vestigium, /oo&fe/, OE. OS. OHG. 
stigan, Goth, steigan, O.Icel. stiga, to ascend; Lat. hostis, 
stranger, enemy, OE. giest, Goth, gasts, O.Icel. gestr, OS. OHG. 
gast, guest. 

sk. Gr. cTKia, shadow, OE. OS. OHG. soman, Goth, skeinan, 
O.Icel. skina, to shine ; Lat. piscis, OE. fisc, Goth, fisks, O.Icel. 
fiskr, OS. OHG. fisk,>5A. 

sq. Gr. 0uo-<rit6o«, sacrificing priest, OE. sceawian, Goth. 
*skaggwon, OS. scauwon, OHG. scouwSn, to look, view. 

a. The t also remained unshifted in the Indg. combinations 
pt, kt, qt. 

pt>ft. Lat. neptis, OE. OHG. nift, niece, granddaughter; 
Lat. captus, a taking, seizing, OE. hseft, OHG. haft, one seized 
or taken, a captive, 

kt>xt. Lat. octo, Gr. 6kti5, OE. eahta, Goth. ahtAu, OS. 
OHG. ahto, eight ; Gr. 6-p€KT<5s, stretched out, Lat. rectus, OE. 
riht, Goth, raihts, OS. OHG. reht, right, straight, 

qt>xt Gen. sing. Lat noctis, Gr. I'UKTiSs, nom. OE. neaht, 
niht, Goth, nahts, OS. OHG. naht, uight, 

§ 282. The Indg. mediae b, d, g, g became the tenues 
p, t, k, k (kw). 

.b > p. Lithuanian dubtis, OE. deop, Goth, diups, O. Icel. 
djiipr, OS. diop, OHG. tiof, deep] Lithuanian trobk, 
house, OE. J)orp, OS. thorp, OHG. dorf, village, Goth. 
"pSL&rp, field ; O. Bulgarian slabu, slack, weak, OE. slsepan, 
Goth, slepan, OS. slslpan, OHG. slafan, to sleep, origin- 
ally,' to be slack, b was a rare sound in the parent language. 

d > t. Lat. decern, Gr. Uk^, O E. tien, Goth. taihun,0. Icel. 
tio, OS. tehan, OHG. zehan, ten ; Lat. dens (gen. dentis), 
OE. toj), Goth, tunjms, OS. tand, OHG. zand, tooth ; 

io8 Phonology [§ 233 

Lat. videre, to see, OE. Goth. OS. witan, O.Icel. vita, 
OHG. wii^an, to know ; Lat. edo, Or. I8«, / eat, OE. 
OS. etan, Goth, itan, O.Icel. eta, OHG. e^BXi^toeat; 
gen. Lat. pedis, Gr. iroS^^nom. OE. OS. fot, Goth, fotus, 
O.Icel. f5tr, OHG. ivLoz,/foot. 

g>k. Lat. genu, Gr. y<(Fu, OE. cneo, Goth, kniu, 
O.Icel. kne, OS. OHG. knio, knee', Lat. gustd, / taste, 
Gr. ycJtt, / let taste, OE. ceosan, Goth, kittsan, O.Icel. 
kjosa, OS. OHG. kiosan, to test, choose) Lat. ager, Gr. 
dyp^s, OE. secer, Goth, akrs, O.Icel. zkx, field, acre; Lat 
ego, Gr. iy6, OE. ic, Goth. OS. ik, O.Icel. ek, OHG. ih, /. 

g>k(kw). Lat. gelu, frost, OE. <;eald, Goth. k^Ods, 
O.Icel. kaldr, OS. kald, OHG. kalt, cold; Lat. augere, 
Goth, dukan, O.Icel. auka, OS. okian, OHG. oulihdn, 
to add, increase, OE. particfpial adj. eacen, great; Lat. 
jugum,Gr. Itiy6v, OE. geoc, Goth, juk, OHG. joh, yoke. 

Gr. Boeotian pa^a, OE. cwene, Goth, qino, OS. quena, 
woman, wife ; Gr. pios from *giwos, life, Lat. vivos from 
*gwiwos, OE. cwicu, Goth, qius, O.Icel. kvikr, OS. 
qiiik, OHG. quec, quick, alive; Lat. veniofrom *gwemj6, 
/ come, Gr. PaiVw from *Paji'«, older ^pajiju = Indg. *(p\jo, 
I go, OE. OS. cuman, Goth, qiman, O.Icel. koma, OHG. 
queman, to come, 

§ 233. The Indg. tenues aspiratae became voiceless 
spirants in prim. Germanic, and thus fell together with 
and underwent all further changes in common with the 
voiceless spirants which arose from the Indg. tenues 
(§ 281), the latter having also passed through the inter- 
mediate stage of tenues aspiratae before they became 
spirants. The tenues aspiratae were, however, of so rare 
occurrence in the prim. Indg. language that two or three 
examples must suffice for the purposes of this book ; for 
further examples and details^ the learner should consult 
Brugmann's Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der 
indogermanischen Sprachen, vol. I : — Skr. root splial-, run 

§§234-5] The First Sound-shifting 109 

vtoUnUy agatnst, OE. feallan, O.Icel. falla, OS. OHG. 
fallan, to fall-, Gr. d-aKV|Oi^s, unhurt, OE. sce)>]>an, Goth. 
ska]>]an, OHG. skadon, to injure ; Gr. <oc^l"# I split, OE. 
scSLdan, Goth, skdidan, OHG. sceidan, to divide, separate; 
Gr. ♦dXXti, OE. hw8Bl, O.Icel. hvalr, OHG. (h)wal, whale. 

§ 284. The Indg. mediae aspiratae probably became first 
of all the voiced spirants t), d, 5, ^(w). These sounds under- 
went the following changes during the prim. Germanic 
period :— D, d initially, and D, d, 5 medially after their corre- 
sponding nasals, became the voiced explosives b, d, g, as 

b, OE. OS. OHG. beran, Goth, bairan, O.Icel. bera, 
to bear, Skr. bhir^mi, Gr. ^ipw, Lat. fero, / bear; OE. 
OS. bitan, Goth, beitan, O.Icel. bita, OHG. bi:^an, to bite, 
Skr. bhed9,mi, Lat. find5, / cleave; OE. bro])or, Goth. 
brd]>ar, O.Icel. brofler, OS. brodar, OHG. bruoder, Skr. 
bhratar-9 Lat. f rater, brother, Gr. ^parnp, member of a clan, 

OE. ymbe, OS. OHG. umbi, Gr. d,i+(, around; OE. 
camb, comb, O.Icel. kambr, OHG. kamb, comb, Skr. 
j&mbhas, tooth, Gr. y<5|a+os, bolt, nail, prim, form *gombhos. 

d. OE. d»g, Goth, dags, O.Icel. dagr, OS. dag, OHG. 
tag, day, Skr. ni-daghds, older *iii-dhaghds, hot season, 
summer, Indg. form "^dhoghos ; OE. dad, OS. dad, OHG. 
tat, deed, related to Gr. ^-vm, I shall place, Skr. dhama, 
law, dwelling-place, root dhe-, put, place ; OE. dohtor, Goth. 
datihtar, OS. dohter, OHG. tohter,Gr. Ooyd-nip, daughter; 
OE. duni,OS. duri, OHG. tmi, Gr. eu>a, door. 

OE. Goth. OS. bindan, O.Icel. binda, OHG. bintan, to 
bind, Skr. bdndhanam,a binding, cp.jr^yBep^s, father-in-law, 
Lat. of-fendimentum, chin-cloth, root bhendh-. 

g. OE. enge, Goth, aggwus, OS. OHG. engi, narrow, 
cp. Lat. ango, Gr. &yx«, I press tight, rootaAgh-; OE. 
lang, long, Goth, laggs, O.Icel. langr, OS. OHG. lang, 
Lat. longusy long. 

§ 286. b, d, 5 remained in other positions, and their 
further development belongs to the history of the separate 

I lo Phonology [§ 235 

Germanic languages. In Goth, b, d (written b, d) re- 
mained medially after vowels, but became explosives (b, d) 
after consonants. They became f, ]> finally after vowels 
and before final -s. 5 remained medially between vowels, 
and medially after vowels before voiced consonants, but 
became x (written g) finally after vowels and before final -s. 
It became g initially, and also medially after voiced con- 
sonants. In O. Icel. b (written f) remained medially between 
and finally after voiced sounds, but became f before voice- 
less sounds, d (written S) generally remained medially 
and finally. 5 remained medially after vowels and liquids, 
but became x ^nd then disappeared finally. It became 
g initially, d became d in all the West Germanic lan- 
guages and then d became t in OHG. In OS. D (written 
b, b) generally remained between voiced sounds. It be- 
came f medially before 1 and n, and before voiceless 
consonants, and also finally. 3 (written g) remained 
initially and medially, but becamlTc finally, although it 
was generally written g. In OHG. D, 5 became b, g. 
On the history of b, 5 in OE. see §§ 293-^, 813-24. 
Geminated bb, dd, 55, of whatever origin, became bb, 
dd, gg in the prehistoric period of all the Germanic lan- 
guages. Examples are :— Goth. *nibls, OS. nebal, OHG. 
nebuly Lat. nebula, Gr. kc^v|, mist, cloud, cp. Skr. n&bhas, 
Gr. K^+os, cloud) OE. leof, Goth. Uufs, O.Icel. ^jiifr, OS. 
liof, OHG. Hob, dear, original form "^leubhos, cp. Skr. 
ItibhySlmi, //^^/a strong desire^ Lat. lubet (libet), it pleases ; 
OE. OS. dder, OHG. titer, Skr. udhar, Gr. ofieap, udder) 
OE. read, Goth rdufs, O.Icel. rauflr, OS. rod, OHG. 
rot, prim, form *roudhos, cp. Skr. rudhirds, Gr. ^puOp<(s> 
prim, form *rudliros,r^rf; OE. Goth, guma, O.Icel. gume, 
OS. OHG. gumo, Lat. hom5, prim, stem-form *ghomon-, 
man) OE. gos, O.Icel. gSs, OHG. gans, Gr. xVi goose) 
OE. OS. OHG. wegan, Goth, ga-wigan, O.Icel. vega, to 
move, carry, Lat. veho, prim, form *wegh6, / carry ; OE. 

5§ 236-7] The First Sound'Shifting 1 1 1 

giest, Goth, gasts, O.Icel. gestr, OS. OHG. zBxXf guest, 
Lat. ho^Ms, shranger, enemy, prim, form ^ghostis ; OE. OS. 
OHG. stigan, Goth, stdgan, O.Icel. stiga, to ascend, Gr. 
oTCixw, prim, form *8teigh5, / go, cp. Lat. vestigium, 

§ 236. Various theories have been propounded as to the 
chronological order in which the Indg. tenues, tenues 
aspiratae, mediae, and mediae aspiratae, were changed by 
the first sound-shifting in prim. Germanic. But not one of 
these theories is satisfactory. Only so much is certain 
that at the time when the Indg. mediae became tenues, the 
Indg. tenues must have been on the way to becoming 
voiceless spirants, otherwise the two sets of sounds would 
have fallen together. 

§ 287. We have already seen (§ 280) that the parent 
Indg. language contained two series of velars : (i) pure 
velars which never had labialization. These velars fell 
together with the palatals in the Germanic, Latin, Greek, 
and Keltic languages, but were kept apart in the Aryan 
and Baltic-Slavonic languages. (2) Velars with labializa- 
tion. These velars appear in the Germanic languages 
partly with and partly without labialization ; in the latter 
case they fell together with prim. Germanic x> ^f S which 
arose from Indg. k, g, gh. The most commonly accepted 
theory is that the Indg. labialized velars q^ g> gh regularly 
became x» ^9 5^ in prim. Germanic before Indg. fi, o, o 
(= Germanic a, § 20), and xw, kw, 5W before Indg. 8, 1, 
9, a^ 9, (= Germanic 5, § 28) ; and that then the law became 
greatly obscured during the prim. Germanic period through 
form-transference and levelling out in various directions, as 
Goth, qam, OHG. quam, prim, form *goma, / came, for 
Goth. OHG. *kam after the analogy of Goth, qima, OHG. 
quimu, original form ^gemo, / come ; Goth, hras, who ?, 
Indg. *qos for *has after the analogy of the gen. hris = 
Indg. *qeso, &c. "^ - - 

1 1 2 Phonology [§ 238 

Note.— In several words the Indg. velars, when preceded or 
followed by a w or another labial in the same word, appear in 
the Germanic languages as labials by assimilation. The most 
important examples are r—OE. OS. wulf, Goth, wulfs, OHG. 
wolf = Gr. XJkos, for *^XiJkos, prim, form *wlqos, cp. Skr. vfkas, 
wolf\ OE. feower (but fy)>er-fete, four-footed), Goth, fidwor, 
OS. OHG. fior, prim, form *qetwores, cp. Lithuanian keturi, 
Lat. quattuor, Gr. Woaapcs, Skr. catvaras, four ; OE. OS. f If, 
Goth, fimf, OHG. fimf, finf, prim, form *pei|qe, cp. Skr. p&dca, 
Gr. ir^rrc, Lat. qumqtie (for *pinque),y?w ; OE. weorpan, Goth, 
wairpan, O.Icel. verpa, OS. werpan, OHG. werfan, to throw, 
cp. O. Bulgarian vrig^ / throw; OE. swapan, OHG. sweifan, 
to swings cp. Lithuanian swaikstii, / become dizsy, 

Verner's Law. 

§ 238. After the completio n ^ f thfi .Acst. sound-sh ifting, 
and while th£_ pria.cigal accent was not yet confined to the 
root-syllablgi ^a unifo r m_interchange took place between the 
voiceles s and voiced spira nts, which may be thus stated : — 

The medial or final spirants "f, j?, x» X^, s regularly 
^ became D, d, 5, 5W, z when the l^owd nfe xt preceding 
them did _not, ax!Cording to the original Indg. system of 
accentuat ion, bear the principal accent of the Word. 

The % d, 5, 5W which thus arose from Indg. p, t, k, q 
underwent in the Germanic languages all further changes 
in common with the b, d, g, gw from Indg. bh, dh, gh, gh. 

Verii£r!s.tew manifests itself most clearly in the various 
parts of strongj^erbs, where the infinitive, present parti- 
ciple, present tense, and preterite (properly perfect) singular 
had the principal accent on the root-syllable, but the indi- 
cative pret. plural, the pret. subjunctive (properly optative), 
and past participle had the principal accent on the ending, 
as prim. Germanic *w6rJ)o > OE. weor])ey / become '=^ 
Skr. vdrta-mi, / turn ; pret. indie. 3. sing. *w4rj)i > OE. 
wear)), he became = Skr. va-v4rta, has turned] pret. 
I. pers. pi. *wurdumi > OE. *wurdum (wurdon is the 
3. pers. pi. used for all persons) = Skr. va-vrtim4, we have 

§239] ' Verne/ s Law 113 

turned; past participle *wurdan&- > OE. worden = Skr. 
va-vrtfind- ; OS. birid, OHG. birit =: Skr. bhirati, he 
bears ; Goth. a. sing, indie, passive bairaza = Skr. bh&raae ; 
Goth, bairand* OHG. berant = Skr. hhknxiMfthey bear; 
present participle OE. berende, Goth. bairandSf O.IceL 
berandCy OS. berandi, OHG. beranti, Or. gen. ^pmrrof. 
Or to take examples from noun-forms, &c., we have e. g. 
Skr. pit&r-y Gr. vari^ = prim. Germanic *fad6r-9 OE. 
faeder, Goth, fadar, O.Icel. fafler, OS. fader, OHG. 
fster, father ; Gr. irXwr^, floating, swimming, OE. OS. 
flod, Goth, flodus, O.Icel. fl56, OHG. fluot, flood, 
tide; Skr. qsi&m, Gr. I-kot^k, Lat. centum = prim. 
Germanic *xun46m, older \vaxiA6m, OE. Goth. OS. 
hund, OHG. hunt, hundred; Indg. ^sw^kuros, Goth. 
swaihra, OHG. swehur, OE. sweor (§ S29), father-in-law, 
beside Gr. Uu^, OE.'sweger, OHG. swigar, mother-in- 
law ; Gr. S^Ka, Goth, tafhun, OS. tehan, OHG. zehan» 
ten, beside Gf. SckA?, OE. OS. -tig, OHG. -zug, Goth. pi. 
tigjus, decade; Skr. sapti, Gr. hnd, OE. seofon, Goth. 
sibun, OS. sibun, OHG. sibun, seven ; Gr. ku^ from *9vwrii, 
OE. snoru, OHG. snura, daughter-in-law; OHG. haso 
beside OE. hara, hare ; Goth. &usd beside OE. eare, ear. 

The combinations sp, st, sk, S8, ft, fs, hs, and ht were 
not subject to this law. 

NoTE.—The prim. Germanic system of accentuation was like 
that of Sanskrit, Greek, &c., i. e. the principal accent could fall 
on any syllable ; it was not until a later period of the prim. 
Germanic language that the principal accent was confined to 
the root-syllable. See § 9. 

§ 289. From what has been said above it follows that 
the interchanging pairs of consonants due to Verner's law 
were in prim. Germanic : f— b, J>— d, s — z, x — ^5* x^ — jw. 
They underwent various changes partly in prim. Germanic, 
partly in West Germanic, and partly in Old English. 
Already in prim. Germanic gw became g before u, but 

1 1 4 Phonology [§ 239 

w in other cases (§ 241) ; and i|5 became i|g. In West 
Germanic d became d (§ 268) ; z became r medially and 
was dropped finally (§ 262) ; xw became x (§ 246). In OE. 
the two sounds f— D fell together in D (written f) medially, 
and in f finally, see §§ 293-4, 296 ; x disappeared between 
vowels (§ 829), when preserved it was written h ; and ^9 s 
became voiced between vowels, although the J), s were 
preserved in writing. So that for OE. we have the 
following interchanging pairs of consonants : — 

J>— d 8 — r 

h or loss of h (= prim. Germ, x) — Z (§ 820) 

h or loss of h (= prim. Germ, xw) — g, w (= prim. 

Germ. 5W) 
h or loss of h (= prim. Germ. gx» § 246) — ^ng. 

J)— d. cwe]>an, to say, ll]>an, to go, sm}>an, to cut; pret. 
sing. cw«]), la}), sna}); pret. pi. cw»don, lidon, snidon; 
pp. cweden, liden, sniden ; cwide, saying, proverb; snide, 
inctsion ; dea)>, death, beside dead, dead. 

s — r. ceosan, to choose, dre()san, to /all, ferleosan, to 
lose ; pret. sing. ceas^< dreas, forleas ;> pret. pi. curon, 
dniron, forluron; pp. coren, droren, forloren; eyre, 
choice; dryTe,/all; lyre, loss. 

h—g. fleon (OHG. fliohan), to flee, slean (Goth, sla- 
han), to strike, shy, teon (Goth, tiuhan), to draw, lead; 
pret. sing, fleah, teah ; pret. pi. flugon, slogon, tugon ; 
pp. flogen, stegen, togen ; slaga, homicide ; siege, stroke, 
blow ; here-toga, leader of an army, duke. 

h>-g, w. seen (Goth, saihran), to see; pret. sing. 
seah; pret. pi. WS. s^won, Anglian segon; pp. WS. 
sewen, Anglian segen; sion, seen (Goth. *8eihran, 
OHG. sihan), to strain ; pret. sing, sah ; pp. siwen, sigen ; 
horh, dirt, gen. horwes. See Note i below. 

h — ng. f5n (Goth, fahan, prim. Germ. *fai|xanan, 
§ 246), to seize, h5n (Goth, hahan, prim. Germ. *x^i|X<^i^<^)> 

§a4o] Other Consonant Changes 115 

to hang; pret. pi. fengon» hengon; pp fangen, hangen; 
fengy grasp, booty ; hangian, to hang ; })Ion, }>eon (Goth. 
}>eihaii, prim. Germ. ]>ii|xanan), /b thrive ; pret. pi. Jmngoii ; 
pp. Jmngen; the usual pret. pi. ))igon, pp. ^gen, were 
new formations, see § 492. 

Note.— I. The results of the operation of Verner's law were 
often disturbed in 0£. through the influence of analogy and 
levelling, e.g. the p, n of the present and pret. singular were 
extended to the pret plural and pp. in abreoj^an, to /ail; 
mi)>an, to avoid; wtipan, to twist; arisan, to arise; genesan, 
to recover; lesan, to collect; pret. pL abru)K>n, mi)K>n, wri^n, 
ariaon, genseaon, Ueson ; pp. &bro]>en, mi]>en, wri]>en, arisen, 
genesen, lesen. The g of the pret plural was levelled out into 
the singular in flog, he flayed ; hlog, he laughed ; log, he blamed ; 
slog, he slew ; J^wog, he tvashed, see § 609. The nd of the pret. 
plural and pp. was extended to the present and pret. singular 
in findan, pret sing. fand. The regular forms of this verb 
would be *fi}>an (» Goth, finj^an, OS. fi|>an), to find; pret sing. 
*iof (see § 61), pret pi. fandon, pp. funden. The WS. pret pi. 
sawon, they saw, had its w from the pp. sewen, and conversely 
the Anglian pp. segen, seen, had its g from the pret plural 
aegon, see § 241. 

2. Causative verbs had originally suffix accentuation, and 
therefore also exhibit the change of consonants given above, as 
weor))an, to become: &-wierdan, to destroy, injure, cp. Skr. 
vdrtami, / turn : vart&ySmi, / cause to turn ; Itpsn, to go : 
l»dan, to lead; S-nsan, to arise: rseran, to raise; genesan, to 
recover: neTi&n^ to save. ^ 

Other Consonant Changes. 

§ 240. Most of the sound changes comprised under this 
paragraph might have been disposed of in the paragraphs 
dealing with the shifting of the Indg. mediae and mediae 
aspiratae, but to prevent any possible misunderstanding or 
confusion, it was thought advisable to reserve them for 
a special paragraph. 

The Indg. mediae and mediae aspiratae became tenues 

I a 

ii6 Phonology [§240 

before a suffixal t or s already in the pre-Germanic 
period : — 

bt I . bs ) 

dht}" Ss}** 

fht}" Ss}"" 

Examples are : Lat. niiptum, niipsl, beside niibere, to 
marry; Skr. loc. pi. patsd, beside loc. sing, padi, on foot; 
Lat. rexi, rectum, beside regere, to rule; Lat. vexi, 
vectum, beside vehere, to carry; root wegh- ; Lat. lectus,. 
Gr. \ixfi%f bed, 0£. licgan, Goth, ligan, to lie down ; Skr. 
yukti-y Gr. 16okt<5s, Lat. junctusy yoked, root jeug> cp. 
Skr. yug&m, Gr. l^v, Lat. jt^um, OE. geoc, Goth, juk, 
yoke; &c. 

Then pt, kt, qt ; ps, ks, qs were shifted to ft, xt ; fs, x^ 
at the same time as the original Indg. tenues became voice- 
less spirants (§ 281). And tt^^ts became ss through the 
intermediate stage of Jit, J)s respectively, ss then became 
simplified to s after long syllables and before r, and then 
between the s and r there was developed a t. 

This explains the frequent interchange between p, b (b), 
and f ; between k, 5 (g), and h (i. e. x); and between t, J), 
d (d)^ and 8S» s in forms which are etymologically related. 

p, b (b)— f. OE. scieppan, Goth, skapjan, to create, 
beside OE. ge-sceaft, OHG. gi-skaft, creature, Goth. 
ga-skafts, creation; Goth, giban, OHG. geban, to give, 
be^de Goth, fra-gifts, a giving, espousal, OE. OHG. gift, 
gift; OHG. weban, to weave, beside English weft. 

^9 S fe) — ^* O^- wyrcan, Goth, watirkjan, OHG. 
wurken^/o work, beside pret. and pp.OE. worhte,worht, 

§24o] Other Consonant Changes 117 

Goth, wadrhta, wadrhts, OHG. worhta, giworht ; OE. 
})3mcan, Groth. }mgkjan» OHG. dunken, beside pret. and 
pp. OE. Jnihte, Jmht, Goth. ]mhta, *))uhts, OHG. diihta, 
giduht; OE. magon, Goth. *inagun, OHG. magun, they 
may, can, beside pret. OE. meahta, Goth. OHG. mahta, 
pp. Goth, mahts, cp. also OE. meaht, Goth, mahts, OHG. 
maht, m^ht, power; OE. bycgan, Goth, bugjan, to buy, 
beside pret. and pp. OE. bohte, boht, Goth, batihta, 
batihts; OE. OHG, bringan, Goth, briggan, to bring, 
pret. and pp. OE. brdhte, brdht, OHG. brahta, gibr&ht, 
Goth, brahta, *brahts. 

t, )), d (d)— ss, s. OE. Goth. OS. witan, O.Icel. vita, 
beside pret. OE. wisse., Goth. OS. OHG. wlssa, O.Icel. 
vissa, participial adj. OE. gewiss, O.Icel. viss, OS. wls(8), 
OHG. giwis(s), sure, certain; OE. sittan, O.Icel. titja, 
OS.sittian, to sit, beside OE. O.Icel. OS. sess, seat; OE. 
cwe}>an9 Goth. qi])an, to say, beside Goth, ga-qiss, consent; 
Goth, ana-biudan, to command, beside ana-busn?, com* 
mandment, pre-Germanic -*bhfitsiii-, root bheudh-. 

ss became s after long syllables and before r: OE. 
hSLtan^Goth. h&itan, to call, beside OE. habs from ^haissi-, 
command; OE. Goth. OS. witan, to know, beside OE. OS. 
OHG. vns, wise, Goth. unweiSy unknowing; OE. etan, 
Goth, itan, to eat, beside OE. »s, OHG. IBis, carrion, OE. 
fostor, food, sustenance, cp. OE. fedan, Goth, fddjan, to 
feed; Goth, guj^blostreis, a/orsA/^^^ q/" Gorf, OHG. bluo- 
ster, sacrifice, cp. Goth, bldtan, to worship. 

Instead of ss (s) we often meet with st. In such cases 
the st is due to the analogy of forms where t was quite 
regular, e.g. regular forms were Goth, last, thou didst 
gather, inf. lisan; Goth, sldht, thou didst strike, inf. 
slahan; OE. meaht, OHG. maht, thou canst, inf. magan ; 
then after the analogy of such forms were made OE. 
for *was, Goth, w&ist for *wdis, OHG. weist for *wele, 
thou knowest; OE. most for *m6s, thou art allowed; regular 

1 1 8 Phonology [§§24 1-3 

forms were pret. sing. OE. worhte, Goth, watirhta, OHG. 
worhta, beside inf. OE. wyrcan, Goth, watirkjan, OHG. 
wurken, to work ; then after the analogy of such forms 
were made OE. wiste beside wisse* OHG. wista beside 
wissa, I knew; OE. moste for *m5se (= OHG. mtiosa), 
/ was allowed. 

For purely practical purposes the above laws may be 
thus formulated : — every labial + 1 became ft ; every guttural 
+t became ht ; and every dental +t became as, a (st). 

§ 241. Prim. Germanic 5W, which arose from Indg. gh 
(§ 287) and from Indg. q (§288) by Vemer's law, became 5 
before u, in other cases it became w, as Goth, magus, 
boy, beside mawi from *ma(5)wi, girl\ pret. pi. Anglian 
segon from *S8B5(w)im, they saw, beside pp. sewen from 
*se(5)wen6s; OE. sien {sion, seon, cp. § 188), Goth. 
siuns, from *se(5)wnfs, a seeing, /ace; OE. sntw (with 
•wfrom the oblique cases), Goth, sn&iws, from '^snai(5)waz, 
prim, form *sii6ighos9 snow; OE. OHG. sniwan for 
"^smgan, formed from the third pers. sing. OE. sniwe}>» 
OHG. sniwit, it snows. See § 289, Note i, § 249. 

§ 242. Assimilation : — nw- > -nn-, as OE. Goth. OHG. 
rinnan from *rinwan, to run; OE. cinn, Goth, kinnus, 
OHG. kinni, from *genw-, Gr. y^i't-s, chin, cheek; Goth. 
minniza, OS. minnira, OHG. minniro, from *minwiz6, 
less, cp. Lat. minu5, Gr. jjiipuOw, / lessen; OE. yytme, 
O.Icel. J>unnr, OHG. dunni, thin, cp. Skr. fem. tanvi, thin. 

•md- > -nd-, as OE. Goth. OS. hund, OHG. hunt, prim, 
form *kmt6m, hundred; OE. scamian, Goth, skaman, 
OHG. seamen, to be ashamed, beside OE, scand, Goth, 
skanda, OHG. scanta, shame, disgrace. 

-In- > -11-, as OE. full, Goth, fulls, Lithuanian pilnas, 
prim, form *pln6s, fuU; OE. wuUe, Goth, wulla, OHG, 
wolla, Lithuanian wilna, wool. 

§ 248. Prim. Germanic bn, tfn, 511 = Indg. pn-, tn-, kn^, 
qn^ (by Verner's law), and bhn^, dhn^, ghn^, ghn-, became 

§§244-6] Other Consonant Changes 119 

DD, dd, 55 before the principal accent, then later bb, dd, gg ; 
and in like manner Indg. bn^, dn-, gn^» gn- became bb, 
dd, z%. And these mediae were shifted to ppy tt» kk at 
the same time as the original Indg. mediae became tenues 
(§ 282). These geminated consonants were simplified to 
p, ty k after long syllables. Examples are : OE. hnaepp^ 
OHG. napf, from *xiiabn- or xn^bn^ basin, bowl] OE. 
hoppian, O.Icel. hoppa, MHG. hopfen, from '^x<>^^^9 ^o 
hop] OE. OS. topp, O.Icel. toppr, from *tobn^ or tobn^, 
top, summit] OE. heap, OS. hop, OHG. houf, from 
*xaubii^; OE. cnotta, from *knodn^, beside OHG. 
chnodo, chnoto, knot] OE. OS. hwit, Goth, hreits, from 
*xwidn^, white] OE. bucc, O.Icel. bokkr, OHG. boo 
(gen. bockes), prim, form '^bhugn6s, buck] OE. liccian, 
OS. leccdn, OHG. lecchdn, from *le5n^, to lick] OE. locc, 
O.Icel. lokkr, prim, form '^lugii6s, lock] OE, smocc, 
O.Icel. smokkr, from smojn-, smock] OE. Idcian, OS. 
lokon, from 15gn- or lojn-, to look. 

§ 244. Indg. z + media became s + tenuis, as Goth, asts, 
OHG. ast = Gr. olos, from *ozdos, branch, twig] OE. 
OHG. nest, Lat. nidus, from *ni-zdos, nest, related to 
root sed-, sit] OE. masc, OHG. masca, mesh, net, cp. 
Lithuanian mezgii, / tie in knots, 

Indg. z 4- media aspirata became z + voiced spirant, as 
OE. meord, Goth, mizdo, pay, reward, cp. O. Bulgarian 
mizda, Gr. fiia0<5s, pay] OE. mearg, OHG. marg, 
O. Bulgarian mozgii, marrow, root mezgh- ; OE, herd, 
Goth, huzd, OHG. hort, hoard, treasure, root kuzdh-. 

§ 246. Guttural n (r|) disappeared before x> as Goth. OS. 
OHG. fSlhan, OE. fon, from *fai|xanan, to seize] Goth. 
OS. OHG. hahan, OE. hon, from "^xaijxanan, to hang] 
Goth. })eihan, OS. thihan, OHG. dihan, OE. >ion, >eon, 
from '^]>ii)xanan, to thrive] pret. OE. ])5hte, Goth. ]>ahta, 
OS. thahta, OHG. dahta, from *J)ar|xto-, / thought, beside 
inf. OE. J)encan. See §§ 40-1. 

1 20 Phonology [§§ 246-^ 

§ 246. X became an aspirate (written h) initially before 
vowels, as OE. Goth. OS. hund, OHG. hunt, from 
'^xuntfan, prim, form *kmt6m, hundred) OE. OS. hund, 
Goth, hunds, O.Icel. hundr, OHG. hunt, from *x^ndaz, 
dogy hound. Some scholars assume that it also became an 
aspirate medially between vowels. Upon this assumption 
it would be difficult to account for the breaking in OE., as 
OE. slian, from *sleahan, older *slaxan-, Goth, slahan, 
to strike, slay ; OE. sweor, from *sweohur, older *swexur, 
OHG. swehwr,/ather'in'law. See §§ 87, 829. 

Medial and final x^ became x in Old Norse and the 
West Germanic languages, as OS. OHG. sehan, OE. 
seon, O.Icel. sja, from *sex(w)an-, beside Goth, saihran, 
to see; OS. OHG. Khan, OE. Hon, leon, O.Icel. Ija, from 
*Hx(w)an-, beside Goth, leihran, to lend; OS. OHG. aha, 
OE. ga from "^eahu, beside Goth, ahra, water, river; OE. 
seah, OS. OHG. sah, beside Goth, sahr, he saw; OE. 
neah, OS. OHG. nah, beside Goth, nehr, near. 

§ 247. The consonants, which arose from the Indg. final 
explosives (t, d), were dropped in prim. Germanic, except 
after a short accented vowel, as OE. OHG. here, Goth, 
bair&i, from an original form *bheroit, he may bear. See 
§ 211. 

§ 248. Original final -m became -n, and then it, as also 
Indg. final -n, disappeared in dissyllabic and polysyllabic 
words during the prim. Germanic period. For examples, 
see § 211. 

§ 249. w disappeared before u, as Goth, kadrus from 
♦kwuruz, Gr. PapJs, heavy; OE. sees, OHG. ackus, 
from *ak(w)usi-, beside Goth, aqizi, axe; OE. nacod, 
older *nakud, OHG. nackut, from "^nak^wjud-, beside 
Goth. naqa]>s, naked; .OE. sund, a swimming, from 
*8wumda-, beside inf. swimman ; OE. pp. sungen, beside 
inf. swingan, to swing. In verbal forms the w was mostly 
reintroduced in the pret. plural and pp. after the analogy 

§§ 250-I] other Consonant Changes 1 2 1 

of forms which regularly had vr, e. g. pret. pi. swummon, 
swungon, swullon, pp. swtunmen, swungen (beside 
regular form sungen), swollen, beside inf. swimman, to 
swtm, swingan, to swing, swellan, to swell. For levelling 
out in the opposite direction, cp. OE. OS. OHG. singan, 
beside Goth, siggwan (regular form), to sing] OE. sin- 
can, OS. OHG. sinkan, beside Goth, sigqan, to sink, 
Cp. § 241. 

§ 260. Initial and medial sr became str, as OE. stream, 
O.Icel. straumr, OS. OHG. strom, stream, cp. Skr. 
sr&vati, it /lows; pi. OE. eastron, OHG. ostarun, Easter, 
cp. Skr. usra, daum ; OE. sweostor, Goth, swistar, OHG. 
swester, sister, with t from the weak stem-form, as in the 
locative singular Goth, swistr = prim. Germanic *swesri 
== Skr. dat. sv&sre. 

§ 261. The remaining Indg. consonants suffered no 
further material changes which need be mentioned here. 
Summing up the results of §§ 231-60, we arrive at the 
following system of consonants for the close of the prim. 
Germanic period : — 

Inter- Palatal and 

Labial, dental. Dental, Guttural. 

Exploswes r^^^^^ P * ^ 

(voiced D a g 

spirants jvoiceless f ]J s x 

I voiced o a z g 

Nasals m n i| 

Liquids 1, r 

Semivowels w j (palatal) 

To these must be added the aspirate h. 

122 Phonology [§252 



§ 262. Prim. Germanic z, which arose from s (§ 288), 
became r medially, and was dropped finally, as OE. mara, 
OHG. mere = Goth, m&iza, greater] pp. OE. coren, 
OHG. gikoran, beside inf. OE. ceosan, OHG. kiosan, to 
choose] OE. herian,Goth.hazjaii,/o/rai.s^; and similarly 
hieran, to hear, Iseran, to teach ; leomian from "^liznojan-, 
to learn] neriaa» to save] OE. bet(e)ra» OS. betera, 
OHG. be^iro, Goth. batiza» better] OE. OS. herd, 
OHG. hort, Goth, huzd, hoard, treasure] OE. deer, OS. 
dior, OHG. tier, Goth. dius'(gen. diuzis), prim. Germanic 
'^tfeuzan, from an original form "^dheusdm, deer, wUd 
animal] OE. d«g, OS. dag, OHG. tag = Goth, dags, 
from Masaz, day] OE. giest, OS. OHG. gast = Goth. 
gasts, from *5astiz,^^s/; OE. OS. OHG. sunu = Goth, 
sunus, from *sunuz, son] pi. OE. giefa, OS. geba, OHG. 
geba = Goth, gibos, from *5eb8z, gifts ; OE. guman 
= Goth, gumans, from ^^omaiiiz, cp. Lat. homines, men ; 
OE. men(n) = Goth, mans, from *maniz, men] adv. OE. 
OS. bet, O.Icel. betr, from ♦batiz, better] OE. OS. leng, 
O.Icel. lengr, from *lax|giz, longer. The following OE. 
pronouns are developed from original unstressed forms 
where -s became -z and then disappeared, whereas in 
OHG. the -z became -r in these words : ge, OS. gi, Goth. 
jus, ye ] hwa, OS. hwS, OHG. hwer, Goth, hras, who ? ; 
dat. me, OS. mi, OHG. mir, Goth, mis, me ; dat. fe, OS. 
thf, OHG. dir, Goth. }>us, thee] we, OS. wi, OHG. wir, 
Goth, weis, we. It is difficult to account for the loss of 

§§ 253-4] The Doubling of Consonants 123 

the final consonant in the OE. adv. mft^ Goth, m&ls, from 
*maisiz» more. 

§ 268. Prim. Germanic d (§§ 284, 288) became d, which 
was shifted to t in OHG., as OE. beodan, OS. biodan, 
OHG. biotan, to offer \ OE. fader, OS. fadar, OHG. 
faier, father ; OE. mddor, OS. mddar, OHG. muoter, 
mother; OE. healdan, OS. haldan,OHG. haltan,/o hold; 
pp. OE. worden, OS. wordan, OHG. wortan, beside inf. 
OE. weor})an, to become; OE. OS. god, OHG. got, God; 
OE. OS. word, OHG. wort, word. 

§ 254. All single consonants, except r, were doubled 
after a short vowel before a following j. This j was mostly 
retained in Old Saxon, but was generally dropped in OE. 
and OHG. t)j, dj, jj became bb, dd, gg (generally written 
eg in OE.). Examples are : OE. hliehhan, OS. *hlahhian, 
OHG. hlahhen = Goth, hlabjan, to laugh ; OE. lecgan, 
OS. leggian, OHG. leggen= Goth, lagjan, to lay; OE. 
settan, OS. settian, OHG. setzen = Goth, satjan, to set; 
OE. scieppan, OS. skeppian, OHG. skephen = Goth. 
skapjan, to create; and similarly OE. biddan, to pray; 
fremman, to perform ; licgan, to lie down ; sce]?})aii, to 
injure ; sellan, to sell, give ; sittan, to sit ; swebban, to lull 
to sleep ; ]>ennaii, to stretch ; ]>ridda (Goth. ]>ridja), third ; 
hell (Goth, halja), hell; sibb (Goth, sibja), relationship; 
gen. cynnes (Goth, kunjis), of a race, generation; and 
similarly brycg, brieve; cribb, crib, stall; crycc, crutch; 
henn, hen. But OE. OS. nerian, OHG. nerien = Goth. 
nasjan, to save; OE. herian = Goth. hazjan, to praise. 
For examples of West Germanic ww from wj, see § 90. 

Note.— I. The j in the combination ji had disapfDeared before 
the West Germanic doubling of consonants took place, e. g. in 
the 2. and 3. pers. sing, of the pres. indicative, as 0£. legest, 
lege)>, OS. legis, legid, OHG. legis, legit =: Goth, lagjis, lagji)>, 
beside inf. OE. lecgan, OS. leggian, OHG. leggen, Goth. 
lagjan, to lay. 

1 24 Phonology [5§ 255-6 

2. The sing. nom. and ace. of neuter nouns like bedd (Goth, 
nom. bad), gen. badjis), bed^ cynn (Goth. )Lvaii)y race, generation \ 
nett (Goth, nati), net, had their double consonants from the 
inflected forms, see § 274. 

•^ § 255. p, t, k, and h (= x) were also doubled in West 
Germanic before a following r or L The doubling regu- 
larly took place in the inflected forms (as gen. OE. OS. 
OHG. bittres, OE. apples, OS. apples* OHG. aphles), 
and was then generally transferred to the uninflected 
forms by levelling, as OE. bitter (biter), OS. OHG. 
bittar, cp. Goth, bditrs, biHer\ OE. hlfittor (hlutor), OS. 
hluttar, OHG. hliittar, cp. Goth, hlutrs, ckar, pure; 
OHG. kupfar, beside OE. coper, Lat. cuprum, copper] 
OE. snottor (snotor), OS. OHG. snottar, cp. Goth, 
snutrs, wise; OE. waeccer (wascer, wacor), OHG. 
wackar, watchful; OS. akkar» OHG. ackar, beside OE. 
secer, cp. Goth. akrs^Jield; OE. aeppel («pl), OS. appul, 
OHG. aphul, cp. O.Icel. epU, apple; OS. luttil, OHG. 
lutzil, beside OE. lytel, little. In some words double 
forms arose through levelling out in different directions ; 
thus regular forms were nom. sing, tear (= OHG. zahar) 
from Heahur, older *taxur, tear, gen. "^teahhres (Nth. 
tsehhres), nom. pi. *teahhras (Nth. taehhras). From 
tsehhres, tsehhras, &c., was formed a new nom. sing, 
taehher in Nth., whereas the other dialects generalized 
tear, whence gen. sing, teares, nom. pi. tiaras. In like 
manner arose ear beside Nth. sehher, ear of corn ; geol 
beside geohhol, Yule, Christmas. See §§ 219, 260. 

§ 266. Doubling of consonants also r^ularly took place 
before a following n in the weak declension of nouns, as 
sing. nom. ^knoto, knot, ace. *knotan(un), beside pi. gen. 
*knotn6(n) > *knott6(n), dat. '^knotnum- > *knottum-. 
This interchange between the single and double consonants 
gave rise to levelling in a twofold direction, so that one or 
other of the forms was transferred to all cases ; thus in OE. 

§§257-9] The OE. Consonants 125 

the forms with double consonants were generalized in 
words like bucca, he-goai; cnotta, knoi; earwicga, earwig; 
ebba, ebb ; frogga, frog ; lappa (laeppa), lappet ; scucca, 
demon; stagga, stag; sugga, water wagtail; and the 
forms with single consonant in words like boga, bow; 
cnafa beside OHG. knabo, knappo, boy^ youth ; draca 
(Lat. draco) beside OHG, trahho, traccho, dragon ; 
dropa beside OHG. troffo, tropfo, drop; nama, name; 
nefai nephew ; wita, wise man. 



§ 267. Before entering upon the history of the individual 
consonants, it will be well to treat here several points 
concerning the OE. consonants in general. 

§ 268. In OE. as in the oldest period of the other 
Germanic languages, intervocalic double consonants were 
really long, and were pronounced long as in Modern 
Italian and Swedish, thus OE. buc-ca, he-goat; set-tan, 
to set; and similarly cyssan, to kiss; feallan, to fall; 
feorran, from afar ; frogga, frog ; hebban, to raise ; 
lecgan, to lay; sce]>]>an, to injure; scieppan, to create; 
]>ennan, to stretch ; swimman, to swim. 

§ 269. OE. double consonants were simplified in pro- 
nunciation, although they were very often retained in 
writing, especially finally : — 

I. Finally, as buc, buck, cos, kiss, eal, all, feor, /ar, 
man, man, beside bucc, coss, call, feorr, mann ; faesten, 
fortress, gyden, goddess, saewet, sowing, beside gen. 
faestennes, gydenne, ssewettes. . eg was always preserved 
in writing in order to show that it was an explosive and 

126 Phonology [§260 

not a spirant (cp. § 828), as brycg, bridge ; mycg, midge ; 
8ecg» man. In this grammar the double consonants are 
generally retained in writing, as cinn, chin\ fvUL^JuU-, 
hyll, M/; P3rtt, pit] sceatt, treasure, money, Bjrm, sin; 
swamm, he swam. 

2. . Medially before other consonants, as ace. masc. sing. 
ealne, gen. dat. fern. sing, ealre, all, beside eallne, eallre ; 
pret. sing. &fierde, cyste, fylde, ypte, beside inf. a.fierran, 
to remove, cyssan, to kiss, fyllan, to /ill, srppan, to reveal; 
third pers. sing. pres. indie. fiel]>, giel]>, ongin]>, 8wim]>, 
win]), beside inf. feallan, to fall, giellan, to yell, onginnan, 
to begin, swimman, to swim ; wiiman, to fight. 

3. Medially after consonants, as geomes from georn 
+nes, zeal; gesynto from *gesynttu, older "^gisundijm, 
health; ]>earlic from J)earl+lic, severe; wiersa from 
*wier8sa, older * wiers(i)ra, worse ; wilder, wildeor from 
wild+deor, wild beast; wyrtnima from wyrt+truma, 
root-stump ; pret. sing, gewielde from *gewield-de, gyrde 
from *gyrd-de, Iseste from *l«st-te, reste from *rest-te, 
sende from *send-de, wende from *wend-de, beside inf. 
gewieldan, to subdue, gyrdan, to gird, Isestan, ta perform, 
restan, to rest, sendan, to send, wendan, to turn. 

4. In late OE. in unstressed syllables, as bliccetan, to 
glitter, liccetan, to pretend, feign, beside bliccettan, lie- 
cettan; atelic, terrible, singalice, always, yfelic, bad, 
beside atoUic, singallice, yfellic ; forgiefenes, forgiveness, 
forlorenes, destruction, beside forgiefennes, forlorennes ; 
gen. sing. f»stenes, of a fortress, ssewetes, of a sowing, 
beside fsestennes, ssewettes ; gen. pi. 5})era, other, snot- 
(t)era, prudent, wise, beside 5})erra, snot(t)erra ; fasgera 
beside faegerra, /aiWr. 

§ 260. Consonants were doubled during the OE. period 
before a following r or 1, with shortening of a preceding 
long vowel or diphthong, as aetgsddre, together, bl«ddre> 
bladder, aeddre, vein, gegaddrode, he gathered, nseddre, 

§§ 261-3] Semivowels 127 

adder^ beside older »tg8ed(e)re, blsdre, sedre, gegad(e)- 
rode, niedre ; comparative bettra, better, deoppra, deeper, 
geliccra, more like, hwittra, whiter, riccra, more powerful, 
yttra, outer, beside older bet(e)ra,deopra9 gelicra, hwitra, 
ricra, ytra. Gen. miccles beside older micles, nom. 
micely great. In words like attor, poison, fodder, food, 
moddoFy mother, ttxddor, progeny, beside older JBLtor, fodor» 
modoFy tudoF, the doubling of the consonant went out 
from the inflected forms, as gen. SLtres, nom. pi. mddru, 
which regularly became attres, moddru and from which 
a new nom. attor, moddOF was formed. On a similar 
doubling of consonants in West Germanic, see § 266. 

§ 261. The Germanic voiceless spirants^ f, ]>, s became 
the voiced spirants D, d, z medially between voiced sounds, 
although the f, ]>,s were retained in writing, as ceafl,yiia;; 
ofen, oven ; wtdfas, wolves, § 296 ; ^^sls, oaths ; bFO]>OFy 
brother; eorjje, earth, ^B02; bdsm, bosom; nosu, nose; 
dsle, ousel, § 307. 

Note. — This voicing off, J>, s only took place in simple words, 
but not in compounds, such as aj^wean, to wash; gefeoht, 
battle ; gesendan, to send ; wynsum, pleasant, 

§ 262. The Germanic voiced spirants D, 5 became the 
voiceless spirants f (§ 294), x(§§ 820, Note, 828) before voice- 
less sounds and finally, as geaf, OHG. gab, he gave ; healf, 
OHG. halb, half; wif, OHG. wib, woman, wife; burh, 
cify, sorb, sorrow, dah, dough, beah, ring, bracelet, beside 
gen. burge, serge, dages, beages; stihst beside older 
stigest, thou ascendest. 

The Semivowels. 


§ 268. Germanic w = the w in NE. wet (generally 
written uu, u, f in OE. manuscripts) remained initially 
before vowels, and generally also initially before and after 

128 Phonology [§264 

consonants, as waes, Goth. OS. OHG. was, was ; OE. 
OS. Goth. witaii» OHG. wii^an^ to know) and similarly 
wadaiiy to go, wade ; wascan, to wash ; wsepen, weapon ; 
wseron, were; waeter, water; wearm, warm; weder, 
weather; wefan, /o weave; weor)>an, /o become; wid, 
ze;i4&; wilde, zc^f2(/; windan, /o zc^iW; winter, winter; 
wolcen, c/oM€/; wtindor, wonder ; wyrcan, /b tcwr^. 

wianc, proud; wlite, OS. wliti,/orwi, beauty, Goth. 
wlit8,/ar^, countenance; wlitig, beautiful; wracu, Goth, 
wraka, revenge, persecution; wra}), angry; "writan, to 

cwen, Goth, qens, queen, wife ; cwe)>an, Goth. qi]>an, /b 
SO)' ; hwa, Goth. hraSyZc^Ao .^; hwsete, Goth. hr&iteis, wheat; 
dwellan, OHG.twellen, to tarry ; dweorg, OHG. twerg, 
dwarf; })wean, Goth. })wahaii, /o wash ; })weorh, Goth. 
]>wairhs, angry, perverse ; sweltan, Goth, swiltan, to die ; 
sweostor, Goth, swistar, sister; twft, Goth, tw&i, /izvo ; 
twelf, Goth, twalif, twehe. 

§ 264. Medial w generally remained before vowels, as 
OE. OS. OHG. spiwan, Goth, speiwan, to vomit, spit; and 
similarly awel, awl; gesewen, seen; iawerce,/arA ; sftwol, 
Goth. s&iwala, soul; sniwan, to snow; ]>awiaii from '^]>a- 
wdjan, to thaw, see § 266. In verbs like blSLwan, OHG. beside bia.ian, to blow ; blowan, OHG. bluoan beside 
bluoian, bluowen, to bloom ; s&wan, Goth, saian, OHG. beside s&ian, sawen, to sow ; wawan, Goth, waian, 
OHG. waen beside wiian, to blow (of the wind), it is diffi- 
cult to determine how far the w was etymological and how 
far it was originally merely a consonantal glide developed 
between the long and the short vowel ; and similarly in 
cn&wan, to know; era wan, to crow; fid wan, to flow; 
growan, to grow ; hldwan, to low ; mawan, to mow ; 
rowan, to row ; ]>rawan, to twist. 

eowe,ewe; eowestre, Goth. SLwistr, sheepfold ; hweo- 
wol, wheel; meowle, Goth, mawild, maiden ; streowede, 

§ 265] Semivowels 1 29 

Goth, strawlda, / strewed; )>eowian» to serve. See 
§§ 77, 89. 

Gen. sing, bearwes, bealwes, cneowes, gearwes^ 
sn&wes, strawes, treowes, }>eowe8, beside nora. beam, 
grove, bealu, evt'l, calamity, cneo, knee, gearu, ready, sn&y 
snow, strea, straw, treo, tree, J>eo, servant; gen. dat. sing. 
Isswe, msdwe» sceadwe, beside nom. Ises, pasture, msd^ 
meadow, sceadu, sAa^fe, shadow. See §§ 215, 266. 

fraetwan, to adorn ; gearwe, completely ; gearwian, to 
prepare; nearwe, narrowly; nierwan, to narrow; sier« 
wan, to devise; smierwan, to anoint, smear ; spearwa, 
Goth, n^^iwr^, sparrow; wealwian, to wallow; wielwan, 
to roll. 

breowan, to brew, cp. O.Icel. pp. bruggenn, brewed; 
ceowan, OHG.kiuwan, to chew; getiiewe, tnie,faithjul; 
getriewan, to trust; hSawan, Goth, '^haggwan, to hew; 
nlewe, niwe, new; sceawian, Goth, ^skaggwon, to 
examine, view. See §§ 76, 90, 186. 

§ 266. When w came to stand at the end of a word or 
syllable, it became vocalized to u (later o). The u then 
combined with a preceding short vowel to form a long 
diphthong, but disappeared after long stems, long vowels, 
and diphthongs, as nom. bealu (later bealo), evil, calamity, 
beam, grove, gearu, ready, mearu, tender, nearu, narrow, 
searu, armour, beside gen. bealwes, bearwes, gearwes, 
mearwes, nearwes, searwes ; masc. ace. sing, gearone 
from *gearwne, ready. Nom. cneo, knee, strea, straw, 
treo, tree, J>eo, servant, beside gen. cneowes, streawes, 
treowes, ])eowes. gSld, Goth, g&idw, want, lack, &, 5, 
Goth. &iw, ever ; hrft, Goth, hr&iw, corpse ; hrga, raw ; 
sn&, Goth, sn&lws, snow. 

But the w was mostly reintroduced into the nom. sing, 
from the inflected forms, especially after long vowels and 
long diphthongs. Regular forms were : nom. cneo, sna, 
strea, gen. cneowes, snSlwes, streawes, from the latter 


I30 Phonology [§ 266 

of which was formed a new nom. cneow, snftw, streaw; 
and similarly hr&w, corpse; hreaw, raw; treow, tree; 
))eow, servant; slftw, lazy; fAbWf* place; bSow, barley; 
deaw, dew; glSaw, wise; hiew, hiw, shape, colour; 
hnSaw, stingy; hreow, repentance; \xlovr, faith. And 
conversely from the new nom. was sometimes formed a 
new gen., as cn§owe9» treowes, beside older cneowes, 

§ 266. w disappeared before u, and e (= older i), as 
nom. clSa from *cla(w)u, claw ; Ises from *l8es(w)iiy pasture ; 
msd from *m«d(w)u, meadow; sceadu from *£cad(w)u, 
shade, shadow ; frea from *}>ra(w)u, threat, beside gen. 
l»8we» m«dwe, sceadwe ; nom. ace. neut. lea from 
*fzJi;w)fx,few ; dat. f&am from *fa(w)tim» see § 140 ; dat. pi. 
cneom from '^cne(w)iim, beside nom. sing, cneo, knee. And 
similarly at a later period : betuh» between, cucu, quick, 
alive, cvAvLf cud, uton, let us, beside older betwtth, cwucu, 
cwudu, wuton. 

cu from *k(w)u, older *kwo, cow; hu from *h(w)ii, 
older *hw6, how ; neut. tu from *t(w)u, older *tw6, two. 
See § 130. 

m from *a(w)i-, older *aiwi- (Goth, iiws), law ; hra 
from *hra(w)i-, older *hraiwiv corpse ; sse from *sa(w)i., 
older *saiwi- (Goth, s&iws), sea ; giere]>, prim. Germanic 
♦jarwij), he prepares; pret. gierede, prim. Germanic 
^{arwidee-, he prepared, beside inf. gierwan; and simi- 
larly pret. nierede, sierede, smierede, wielede» beside 
inf. nierwan, to narrow ; sierwan, to devise ; smierwan, 
to anoint ; wielwan, to roll. 

The w was often reintroduced after the analogy of forms 
where w was regular, as nom. clawu, ]>rawtt (beside the 
regular nom. clea, ]>rea), new formations from the gen^ 
and dat. clawe, )>rawe ; dat. pi. ssewtim beside ssm, 
with w from the gen. pi. seewa, of seas ; pret. pi. reowun 
beside reon, with w from rdwan, to row; and similarly 

§§ 2<57-9] Semivowels 1 3 1 

greowun, •01I9 they grew ; siowtm, they sowed-, &c. On 
forms like pret. pi. swulton, they died] swummon^ /A^j; 
swam, see § 240. gierwe]>, A^ prepares, pret, gierwede, 
beside the regular forms giere^, gierede, with w from 
gierwan; cn»w]> for *ciue]> from *ciift(w)i]>, A^ Am>w5, 
with w from the inf. cnftwan. 

§ 267. w often disappeared in the second element of 
compounds ealneg, •ig, for ealne weg, always; folluht 
from *fiiU wttht, baptism', hlftford from *hlftf weard, 
lord; hwilende from *hwa wende, transitory] nftuht 
beside older nft-wuht, naught. And in certain verbal 
forms with the negative prefix, as naes = ne wees, was not; 
nsron = ne wseron» were not] n&t= ne w&t, knows not] 
nolde = ne wolde, would not] nyle = ne wile, will not] 
nys8e = ne wisse, he knew not] nyton = ne witcn, 
they know not. 

§ 268. Germanic j (= consonantal i) generally remained 
initially in Gothic, OS. and OHG., but disappeared in 
O.Icel. In OE. it had become a palatal spirant like the y 
in NE. yet, yon already in the oldest period of the lan- 
guage. It was usually written g, ge (also i, gi before 
a following u). Examples are: gear, Goth, jer, OS. 
OHG. jftr, O.IceL ar, year] geoc, iuc, Goth, juk, OHG. 
joch, O.Icel. ok, yoke] geong, giong, giung, iung, Goth. 
juggs, OS. OHG. jung, O.Icel. \mgr, young] and simi- 
larly ge, gie, ye] g6o, gio, iu, formerly, of old] geogo]?, 
giogo]>, iugo]>, youth] gedmor, sad, mournful] geond, 
through, beyond] giestt yeast] gingra, younger. See § 61, 

§ 269. Germanic medial -U- became •!• which combined 
with a following guttural vowel to form a diphthong, 
as bio, beo, Germanic stem-form '^bijon-, bee] feond, 
Goth, fijands, enemy ; frSo from *frija-, free ; friond, 

K 2 

1 3 2 Phonology [§§ 2 70-2 

Goth, fiijonds, friend] nom. ace. neut. J«io, ]yreo, from 
*J)riju = Goth. >rija, three, see § 104. 

§ 270. It is generally assumed that Germanic j remained 
in OE. between vowels when the first element was a long 
vowel or diphthong, but it is, however, more probable that 
j regularly disappeared in this position and that at a later 
period a consonantal glide (written gy ge) was developed 
between the vowels, as was sometimes the case in OS. and 
OHG., as ciegan from *kat^aii, to call; frigea older 
friegea = Goth, fr&tya, lord, master] dat. hiege, Anglian 
hege s Goth, h&t^a, lege = Goth, ^ko^iit beside nom. 
bleg, hay, ieg, island] ]>reagean from '^J^raudjan, to 
threaten] and similarly feog(e)an, to hate] freog(e)an9 
to love. Cp. § 276, 

Note.— Forms like nom. hieg, Goth, hawi, hay\ leg, ig, 
Goth. *awi, gen. '^^ujos, had the final g from the inflected 
forms, as gen. hieges, dat. hiege, gen. and dat. lege. 

§ 271. Germanic medial j (written i, g ; ig, eg, also ige 
before a) remained after r in the combination^^short vowel 
+r, as herian» hergan, herigan, heregan, herigean, Goth. 
hazjan, to praise ; and similarly nerian, Goth, nasjan, 
to save ] werian, Goth, wasjan, to clothe, wear ; gen. sing. 
heries, herges, heriges, Goth, harjis, nom. pi. hergas, 
herigas, herigeas, Goth, haxjos, armies. The i» e in ig, eg 
represent a vocalic glide which was developed between 
the r and the j. And the e in ige merely indicates the 
palatal nature of the preceding g, 

§ 272. Germanic medial j disappeared after original 
long closed syllables or syllables which became long by 
the West Germanic gemination of consonants (§ 264), 
as deelan, Goth, ddiljan, to divide ; deman, Goth. d5mjan, 
to judge] fyllan, Goth, fulljan, to fiU] gellefan, Goth, 
gal&tibjan, to believe] hieran, Goth, h&usjan, to hear] 
secan, Goth, sokjan, to seek, gierd from *5eardjti = Goth. 

§§ 273-41 Semivowels 1 3 3 

*gar4Ja,rW, twig; hildfrom '^hildju = Goth, '^hildja, war; 
gen. rices from *rikjes, Goth, reikjis, o/a kingdom. 

biddan, Goth, bidjan, to pray ; hebban, Goth, hafjan, 
to raise ; hliehhan, Goth, hlahjan, to laugh ; lecgan, Goth. 
lagjan, to lay ; scieppan, Goth, skapjan, to create ; settan, 
Goth. satjan» to set. Gen. sing, beddes, Goth, badjis, 
of a bed) cynnes, Goth, kunjis, of a race, generation ; 
willa, Goth, wilja, will; henn from *heni\]u, oldei 
*xani\j5 = Goth, "^hai^ja, hen ; and similarly crycc, Goth. 
*krukja, crutch ; hell, Goth. ha]ja,/i^//; sibb^Goth. sibja, 
relationship ; gen. helle, sibbe = Goth, haljos, sibjds. 

Note.— j disappeared medially before i already in West 
Germanic ; hence verbs, which have double consonants in the 
inf. by the West Germanic gemination of consonants, have only 
a single consonant in the second and third pers. sing, of the 
present indicative, as legest, lege)> «= Goth, lagjis, lagji)>, beside 
inf. lecgan = Goth, lagjan, to lay, 

§ 273. Germanic final -djan became -ian through the 
intermediate stages -ejan, ejan, -ijan, -ian, as locian from 
*lokdjan» to look ; macian from '^makojan, to make. The 
g in forms like ldcig(e)an, inacig(e)an is merely a conso- 
nantal glide which was developed between the i and the a. 

The Germanic ending -^(1) from Indg. -eje became 
•i during the prim. Germanic period, then -i became 
shortened 4 (§ 214). This -i regularly disappeared in pre- 
historic OE. after original long stems, but remained •! 
(later e) after original short stems, as hier, Goth, hausei, 
from *xa,uzi, hear thou ; 8§c, Goth, sdkei, seek thou ; but 
nere, Goth, nasei, save thou; and similarly bide, pray 
thou ; iremtf petform thou ; lege, lay thou ; sete, set thou. 

§ 274. When j came to stand finally after the loss of the 
case endings -az, -an (= Indg. -os, •om), it became vocal- 
ized to •! which became -e at a later period, as hierde, OS. 
hirdi, OHG. hirU, Goth, (ace.) hafrdi, shepherd; and 
similarly ende, end; here, army; l«ce, physician; rice, 

134 Phonology [§§ a7S-<5 

OS. rikl, OHG. rihhi, Goth, reiki, kingdom) wite, OS. 
witl, punishment. The regularly developed forms of hrycg, 
back, secg, man, bedd, bed, cynn, race, generation, nett, 
net, and of similar masculine and neuter nouns with double 
consonants in the nom. and ace. singular, would be *hryge, 
Goth, (ace.) *hrugi; *sege, Goth, (ace.) *sagi; *bede, 
Goth, badi; *cyne, Goth, kuni; '^nete, Goth. nati. The 
nom. and ace. sing, are new formations with double con- 
sonants from the inflected stem-forms. 

§ 275. Germanic jj became ddj in Goth, and gg(j) in 
O.Icel. In OE. -Uj- became -i- through the intermediate 
stage -ij- ; and -ajj- became •«• through the intermediate 
stages -ay-, -ij-. And then between the -i-, •«• and a 
following vowel a consonantal glide (written g) was de- 
veloped (cp. § 270), which was often levelled out into the 
uninflected forms, as frigedseg, frigdseg, Friday, beside 
freo from *frio, older *frij6, OS. fri, woman ; eode from 
*iode, older *ij6-d«-, Goth, iddja, he went; gen. sges, 
caege,waege, beside nom. «g (O.Icel. egg, OS. OHG. ei), 
egg, ciBg, key, w«g (Goth, wad^jus, O.Icel. veggr), wall; 
cl«g, Goth, (fem.) ♦kladdja, OS. klei, clay. 

The Liquids. 

§ 276. Germanic 1 generally remained in OE. both 
initially, medially, and finally, as lecgan, Goth, lagjan, 
O.Icel. leggja, OS. leggian, OHG. leggen, to lay; 
sleepan, Gotli. slepan, OS. siapan, OHG. sl&fan, to sleep; 
OE. OS. OHG. stelan, Goth. stUan, O.Icel. stela, to 
steal; OE. OS. helpan, Goth, hilpan, O.Icel. hjalpa, 
OHG. helfan, to help ; sellan, Goth, saljan, O.Icel. se^a, 
OS. sellian, OHG. sellen, to give, sell; feallan, O.Icel. 
falla, OS. OHG. faUan, to /all; sceal, Goth. O.Icel. OS. 

§§a77-8] Liquids 135 

OHG. skal, shall \ and similarly iamb, latnb) land, land] 
lang, long) Isdan, to lead] ISof, dear ; leomian, to learn ; 
Itf, Hfe] lufu, /ov^; lytel, /iV//?. ealu, ak] meolu, meal] 
mioluc, milk] talu, number, tale, blod, Uood] clTOe, 
c/(?a/i; fleon, to flee] glaed, ^/ae/; hlftford, A^</; wlonc, 
proud, feldy fleld] io\c, folk ; foigian, to follow ; gold,^o/^; 
helm, A^//^i^/ ; meltan, to melt ; wealdan, to wield, govern. 
stille, stilly silent] tellan, to /^//; iwilla, will fyllan, to///; 
gealla,^ei//; weallan, to 601/ ; wtille, woo/, coh coal] cdl, 
roo/; fvl,foul] fvLgolf fowl, bird] smael, slender] sadoU 
sa^^fl'^ ; stael, A^ stole, hyll, A/7/. eall, a//; {till, full. 

On vocalic 1 as in aepl, apple ; nsdl, needle ; naegl, nni/; 
segl, sail] setl, s^a/, see § 219. 

§ 277. si underwent metathesis in unstressed syllables, 
as byrgels, OS. burgisli, tomb] rsdels, OS. r&dislo. 
MHG.rmtBel, riddle] and similarly bridels,&rri//f; Cetels, 
tub, vessel] gyrdels older gyrdisl, girdle ; riecels, incense. 
Metathesis of 1 rarely took place in stem-syllables, as 
Anglian bold, dwelling, seld, seat, spUld, saliva, beside WS. 
botl, setl, spatl. 

§ 278. Germanic r generally remained in 0£. both 
initially, medially, and finally, as read, Goth. r&u]7s, 
O.Icel. rauftr, OS. rod, OHG. rot, red; OE. OS. OHG. 
bringan, Goth, briggan, to bring] here, Goth, haijis, 
OS. OHG. heri, army] OE. OS. word, Goth, watird, 
OHG. wort, word] feorran, /row afar, Goth, fairra, far 
of] feeder, Goth. OS. fadar, O.Icel. fafiir, OHG. fater, 
father; and similarly rsdan, to advise] rap, rope] regn, 
rain ; rice, kingdom ; ridan, to ride ; rim, number] rodor, 
sky ] rum, room, creopan, to creep ; dream, mirth ; freo, 
free] grene, green] hrof, roqf] stream, s/r^am ; treo, tree; 
writan, to write, beran, to bear] cearu, care, sorrow] 
duru, door] faran, to go, travel, bierce, birch ; burg, city ; 

136 Phonology [§5 »79-8 1 

eamiy arm; eor])e, ear/A; feorh» lift] heard, hard; 
scearpy sAa^]^ ; spearwa, sparrow ; steorf an, to die ; }>oni, 
/Aom ; }mrh, through ; weorc, wor^. afierran, to remove ; 
steorra, s/ar. tyr^/ire; hamor, hammer; mddor, mother; 
t€ar, /^ar; wer, man. 

Note.— r disappeared in late 0£. in specan, fo speak, spaec, 
speech, beside older sprecan, sprsc. 

§ 279. West Germanic medial r from older z (§ 252) 
remained in OE., as betra, Goth, batiza, better; herian, 
Goth, hazjati, to praise ; herd, Goth, huzd, treasure ; and 
similarly coreti, chosen; deor (Goth, dius, gen. diuzis), 
deer, wUd animal; eare, ear; hleran, to hear; ieldra, 
elder; Ueran, to teach; leomian, to learn; mSxa,, larger ; 
nerian, to save; wsron, they were, ierre, Goth, afrzeis, 
OS, OHG. irri, angry; and similarly *durran, to dare ; 
mierran, to hinder, mar; }>yrre, dry, withered. 

§ 280. Antevocalic r often became post vocalic by meta- 
thesis when a short vowel was followed by n, nn, s, or s 
+ consonant, as aem, Goth, razn, O.Icel. rann, house; 
forsc, O.Icel. froskr, OHG. frosk, >o^; forst, O.Icel. 
OS. OHG. frost, frost; hors, O.Icel. OS. hross, OHG. 
ros (gen. rosses), horse; ieman, Goth. OS. OHG. rinnan, 
O.Icel. rinna, to run ; and similarly b8enian(wv.), biernan 
(sv.), to burn; baers, perch (a fish); berstan, to burst; 
caerse, cress ; fersc, fresh ; fierst, space of time ; gaers, 
grass; hasm, wave; ]>erscan, to thresh (corn); waema 
beside wraenna, wren, 

§ 281. s or 1 + r became ss, 11 by assimilation, as Uessa 
from *lses(i)ra, smaller; fem. gen. dat. sing. J>isse (OHG. 
desera, desero), from *J)isre, of this; gen. pl.]>issa(OHG. 
desero), from *JHsra ; gen. sing, usses from * Qsres, oj 
our ; dat. ussum from *tisrum. sella beside selra, better. 

§§282-5] Nasals 137 

The Nasals. 

§ 282. Germanic m generally remained in OE. both 
initially, medially, and finally, as mdna, Goth, mena^ 
O.Icel. mane, OS. OHG. m&no, moon ; OE. Goth, guma, 
O.Icel. gume, OS. gtimo, OHG. gome, man ; OE. OS. 
dumb, Goth, dumbs, O.Icel. dumbr, OHG. tumb, dumb ; 
OE. O.Icel. OS. OHG. rnm, room] and similarly macian, 
to make] mann, man] m&wan, to mow] meltan, to melt] 
min, my ; modor, mother ; mu]>, mouth, cuman, to come ; 
nama, name ; niman, to take ; tima, time ; )mma, thumb. 
besma, besom ; climban, to climb ; gelimpan, to happen ; 
lamb, lamb, fremman from *framjan, to perform ; swim- 
man, to swim, beam, tree ; brdm, broom ; h&m, home ; 
helm, helmet] vryrm, snake. swB,mm, he swam. 

On vocalic m as in »}>m, breath ; bosm, bosom ; botm, 
bottom ] m&])m, treasure, see § 219. 

§ 283. m disappeared in prehistoric OE. before f, s with- 
lengthening of the preceding vowel, as fif, Goth. OHG. 
fimf. Jive] dsle, OHG. amsala, ousel] softe, OHG. 
samfto, so/tfy ; sefte, soft. But m remained when it came 
to stand before s at a later period, as grimsian from 
'^grimisian = OHG. grimmisdn, to rage] ]>rims beside 
older trimes, trymesse (OHG. drimissa), a coin. 

§ 284. Final -m, when an element of inflexion, became 
•n in late OE., as dat. pi. dagon, giefon, stmbn beside 
older dagum, giefum, sunum; dat. sing, and pi. godon 
beside older godum, good. 

§ 286. Germanic n generally remained in OE. both 
initially, medially, and finally, as nama, Goth, namd, OS. 
OHG. namo, name] OE. OS. OHG. sunu, Goth, sunus, 
O.Icel. sunr, son] OE. Goth. OHG. spinnan, O.Icel. 
spinna, to spin ; }>ennan, OS. thennian, OHG. dennen. 

138 Phonology [§§286-8 

Goth, ]»ai^an9 O.Icel. ]>ei^a» to stretch) and similarly 
nacod, naked) iuedl» needle) nefa, nephew) nett, net. 
clsne, clean ; grene, green ; mona, moan ; munuc, mzm^ ; 
winan, to expect, bindan, to bind) bHod, blind) cneo» 
knee) freond, friend ) hand, Z^ani/; hnutu, nut) sendan, 
to send) windan, to wind, spannan, to clasp ; sunne, sun ) 
}>ynn(e)> thin, b&n, bone ; cwen, queen ; heofon, heaven ; 
mylen, ^nZf ; sUln, 5/0/1^. cinn, chin ; henn, A^it ; mann, 
man) synn, ^m. 

On vocalic n as in hr«fn, raven) regn, rain) t&cn, 
token, see § 219. 

§ 286. n disappeared in prehistoric OE. before }>» s with 
lengthening of the preceding vowel, as cu}>, Goth. ktm]7s, 
OHG. kund, known ; est, Goth, ansts, OHG. anst, stem- 
form anstiv favour ; 6J)er, Goth. an])ar, OHG. andar, 
other) lis, Goth. OHG. uns, us) and similarly cyj«n, /o 
make known ; diist, dust ; fiis, ready ; ge«}>, companion ; 
gds,^<M>5^; hos (OHG. hansa), band, escort) tavi}f, mouth ; 
jm}>, journey ; to]), /o(>/A ; wyscan, /o z£;/5A ; yst, storm. 
The long vowel became shortened in unstressed syllables, 
as fracu}), -o}>, Goth. fraktm}>s, demised ; and similarly 
dugu]>, strength, valour) geogu]>, youth) nima]) from 
*nimo}>, older *nemon]>-, /lA^j^ take, see § 218. But n re- 
mained when it came to stand before s at a later period, as 
clsnsian from *cl«nisian, older '^klainisdjan, to cleanse ; 
minsian from ^minnisian, to diminish) winster older 
winester (OHG. winister), left, left hand) also in the 
Latin loanword pinsian (Lat. pensare), to consider. 

§ 287. n sometimes disappeared between consonants, as 
elboga beside elnboga, elbow ; pret. nemde from '^nemnde, 
he named) sseterdseg beside saetemdseg, Saturday. 

§ 288* Final -n generally disappeared in verbal forms 
before the pronouns we, wit ; ge, git, as binde we, let us 
bind) binde ge, bind ye! ) bunde we?, did we bind?. 
See § 477. 

5 289] Nasals 1 39 

Final -n disappeared in Nth. in words of more than one 
syllable* This law was fairly well preserved in the infini- 
tive, the pres. and pret. pi. subjunctive, the weak declension 
of nouns and adjectives, numerals, and adverbs, but in 
strong nouns and adjectives including the pp. of strong 
verbs, the final -n was generally reintroduced into the nom. 
singular from the inflected forms. It was also mostly 
reintroduced into the indie, pret. plural through the in- 
fluence of the (?)past participle which itself was a new 
formation. Examples are : bera, to bear, gehera, to hear, 
Isra, to teach, senda, to send^VfS. beran^ gehieran, 
libTBXi, sendan ; gihere, they may hear, sprece, they may 
speak = WS. gehieren, sprecen ; bite, they might bite 
= WS. biten; gen. dat. ace. sing, fola,, /oal, heorta, 
fieart = WS. folan, heortan ; nom. ace. pi. galga = WS. 
gealgan, gallows; seofo beside inflected form seofona, 
seven ; befora, before, binna, within^ fearra, from afar^ 
norj^SLffrom the north, vfe^iB,,from the west=: WS. beforan, 
binnan, feorran^ norj^an, westan; but dryhten, lord, 
heofon, heaven, he}>en, heathen, Arisen, arisen, genumen, 
taken, with -n from the inflected forms ; benin, they bore, 
cw5mtm, they came, Isddun, they led. 

§ 289. The Germanic guttural nasal ij (written g in 
Gothic, and n in the other Germanic languages) only 
occurred medially before g and k (written c in OE.). It 
disappeared in the combination r|x already in prim. Ger- 
manic (§ 245). In OE. it remained guttural or became 
palatal according as the following g» c remained guttural or 
became palatal, cp. § 309. Examples are : OE. OHG. 
bringan, Goth, briggan, to bring ; drincan, Goth, drigkan, 
OS. drinkan, OHG. trinkan, to drink) geong, Goth. 
juggs, O.Icel. ungr, OS. OHG. y^mgf young ; and similarly 
^nger, finger ; gangan, to go ; hangian, to hang ; hungor, 

I40 Phonology [}§ ^90-1 

hunger) lang, long) tunge, tongue) sincan, to sink) 
singan, to sing) swincan^ to labour) tongol, star, con- 

bene from '^baijkiz, bench ; lengra, OS. lengira, OHG. 
lengiro, longer ; ])encan, Goth. }>agl^an, OS. thenkian, 
OHG. denken, to think ; and similarly drencan, to give to 
drink ; enge, narrow ; engel, angel ; englisc, English ; fine, 
^hctA; mengan, /o mix) sengan, to singe) streng]), prim. 
Germanic 8traiui]>d, strength ; }>yncan, /o ^^^m. 

§ 280. The guttural i] disappeared in an unstressed 
syllable when preceded by n in a stressed syllable in the 
course of the 0£. period, as cynig, kittg, penig, penny, 
beside older cyning, pening; hunig, O.Icel. hunang, 
OHG. honang beside honag, honey. 

The Labials. 

§ 291. Germanic p from Indg. b (§ 232) was of rare 
occurrence, especially initially. Most of the words begin- 
ning with p in OE. are Latin or Greek loanwords, p 
remained in OE. both initially, medially, and finally, as 
pad (Goth, p&lda), cloak ; pening, O.Icel. penningr, OHG. 
pfenning, penny) open, O.Icel. openn, OS. opan, OHG. 
offan, open ; sUepan, Goth, slepan, OS. sl&pan, OHG. 
sUlfan, to sleep) deep, Goth, diups, O.Icel. 4Jup^» OS. 
diop, OHG. tiof, deep ; and similarly paej), path ; potU pot ; 
plegan, to play) pliht, danger, plight ) plog, plough ; prut, 
proud) spere, spear) sprecan, to speak. cl3rppan, to 
embrace ; grSlpian, to grope ; staeppan, to step ; supan, to 
drink) swapan, to sweep) wspen, weapon) wepan, 
to weep. heBxpe,harp) helpaHf to help) -weorpasiffy} throw, 
cast, hgap, troop, heap ; rSlp, rope ; sceap, she^ ; scearp, 
sharp ) scip, ship ; up, up. 

Examples of Lat. loanwords are: cuppe (late Lat. cuppa). 

5§ 292-3] Labials 141 

cuP) p&wa, pea (Lat. p&vo), peacock ; pern (Lat. pirum), 
pear; pic (Lat. ace. picem), pitch ; pinsdan (Lat. pensftre), 
to weigh, consider; pise (Lat. insiim), pea; pund (Lat 
pondo), pound ; pyle (Lat. ace. pulvinum), pillow ; pytt 
(Lat. aec. puteum), pit. 

§ 292. We have already seen that prim. Germanic b from 
Indg. bh became b initially, and also medially after m 
during the prim. Germanic period (§ 284); that prim. 
Germanic bj became bb in West Germanic (§ 254) ; and that 
the further development of prim. Germanic b belonged to 
the history of the separate Germanic languages (§ 236). 
Germanic h, and West Germanic bb from bj (§ 264) and 
bn in the weak declension of nouns (§ 266), remained in 
OE., as OE. OS. OHG. beran, Goth, bairan, O.Ieel. 
bera, to bear; OE. OS. blind, Goth, blinds, O.Ieel. 
blindr, OHG. bUnt, blind; brecan, Goth, brikan, OHG. 
brebhan, to break ; and similarly bsec, back ; be]), bath ; 
b&n, bone; beam, tree; beodan, to command; bindan, to 
bind; bitan, to bite; blaec, black; bl&wan, to blow; bldd, 
blood; boc, book; bodig, body; brftd, broad; bringan, to 
bring ; brycg, bridge. 

dumb, Goth, dumbs, O.Ieel. dumbr, OHG. tumb, 
dumb; and similariy camb, comb; climban, to climb; 
lamb, lamb ; ymb(e), about, around; wamb, stomach. 

bedd (Goth. gen. badjis), bed; sibb, Goth, sibja, OS. 
sibbia, OHG. sibba» relationship, peace; and similarly 
cribb, crib ; habban, to have ; libban, to live ; nebb* beak ; 
ribb,rr% ; webb, web. ebba (§ 266), ebb. 

§ 298. Germanic medial b remained in OE. between 
voiced sounds. In the oldest period of the language it 
was mostly written b, as giaban, to give ; libr, liver ; ober, 
over. But owing to the fact that Germanic f became 
b medially between voiced sounds, although the f was 

142 Phonology [5§ 294-5 

retained in writing (§ 296), the f also came to be used 
regularly to represent Germanic b in OE. On the normal 
development of D in the other Germanic languages, see 
§ 280. Examples are: giefan, Goth, giten, O.Icel. ge&» 
OS. geDan, OHG. geban, to give; haefde, Goth, hab&ida, 
OS. habda, habda, OHG. habgta, A^ had; sealfian, Goth. 
OHG. salb5n, OS. salboo, to anoint ; seofon^ Goth. OHG. 
sibun» OS. sttbun, seven;, and similarly efen» evening; 
heotor, beaver; cnafa,6oy; delbnftodig; dtitan, to drive; 
hafitst, thou hast; hafa^, he has; heafoc, hawk; heafod» 
head; hefig, heavy ; heofon, heaven ; M&ford, lord, master; 
hnefn, raven ; l«fan» to leave ; lifde, he lived ; lifer, liver ; 
lofian, to praise ; lufian, to love ; ofer, over ; sciifan, to 
push; siolufr, seolfor, 5i%;^r; sXj^fxit voice; steorfanf to die ; 
wefan, to weave; yiA^evil; gen. wifes, OHG. wibes, dat. 
wife, OHG. wibe, beside nom. wif, OHG. wib, ivoman. 
Also in Lat. loanwords with b = late Lat. v, as deofol 
(Lat. diabolus), devil; fefor (Lat febris),/i?i;^r ; tefl (Lat. 
tabula), chess-board, die; trifot (Lat. tributum), tribute. 

Note. — ^fo, fm became mn, mm in late 0£., as emn (Goth. 
ibns), even ; stemn (Goth, stibna), voice, beside older ef(e)n, 
stef(e)a ; vi^mman (pi. wimmen) beside older wifman, woman. 

§ 294. Final b became the voiceless spirant f in OE. 
Goth, and OS. and thus fell together with Germanic final f 
(§ 295), as geaf, Goth. OS. gaf, OHG. gab, he gave ; 
healf, OS. half, OHG. halb, half; hlaf, Goth. ace. hldif, 
OHG. hleib, loaf, bread; and similarly cealf, calf; deaf, 
deaf; dealf, he dug; leaf, lea/; leof, dear; lif, life; lof, 
praise; sceaf, he pushed ; 'wif,wife, woman. 


§295. Germanic f remained initially, medially before 

voiceless consonants, and finally, as feeder, Goth, fadar, 

O.Icel. fader, OS. fadar, OHG. fater,/tf/A^; OE. OS. 

fif, Goth. OHG. fimf. Jive; OE. OS. fot, Goth, fotus. 

§§ 296-8] Dentals 143 

O.IceL fotr, OHG. fuoi^, foot ; gesceaft, Goth, gaskafts* 
creation^ OS. giskaft, destiny^ OHG. giscaft, creature) 
OE. O.Icel. OS. OHG, hof, court, dtvelling ; OE. OS. 
wiilf, Goth. ace. wulf, OHG. wolf, wolf; and similariy 
faeger, fair, beautiful] fmst, firm; faet, vessel, vat; Sa, 
few; feallan, to/a//; teld, field; feohian, h fight ; fSower, 
four; feper^ feather ; findan, to find; f&^c, flesh; fleax, 
flax; flSogan, to fly; ToA^l, food; folc, folk; folgian, to 
follow; tram, from; treOffree; tr^ond, friend ; fr€osan, 
to freeze; fugol, bird; fvJl,full; fyr, fire, setter, after; 
craeft, skill; gift, marriage gift; offrian, to offer; psrffan, 
to puff; rsefsan, refsan, to reprove ; sceaft, shaft, pole. 
ceaf, chaff; hdf, he raised ; hrdf, roof 

§ 296. Germanic medial f became t> (= the v in NE. 
vat) between voiced sounds and thus fell together with 
Germanic D in this position (§ 293). In the oldest period 
of the language the two Germanic sounds were mostly 
kept apart, the former being written f, and the latter b. 
Examples are: ceafl, OS. kail, cp. MHG. kivel, jaw; 
ofen, O.Icel. ofn, OHG. oiKCL,oven; ceafor,OHG. kefar, 
cockchafer ; sceofl, Goth. *skufla, cp. OHG. scufala, shovel ; 
sing. gen. wulfes, OHG. wolfes, dat. wulfe, OHG. wolfe, 
beside nom. wulf, OHG. wolf, wolf; and similarly in the 
inflected forms of words like ceaf, chaff; hrof, roof 

§ 297. Q became bb through the intermediate stage bj, 
as hebban, Goth, hafjan, to raise. 

The Dentals. 


§298. Germanic t remained in OE. both initially, 
medially, and finally, as t6J>, Goth. tun])U8, OS. tand, 
OHG. zan(d), tooth; tunge, Goth, tuggo, O.Icel. OS. 
tunga, OHG. zunga, tongue ; twa, Goth, tw&i, two ; OE. 
OS. etaa, Goth, itan, O.Icel. eta, OHG. ei^^an, to eat; 

144 Phonology [§ 299 

OE. Goth. OS. witan, O.IceL vita, OHG. vvix^^Bn, to 
know; settan, Goth, saljan, O.IceL selja, OS. settian, 
OHG. setxen, to set; snottor, Goth, snutrs, O.IceL 
snotr, OS. OHG. snottar, wise; sceatt, Goth, skatts, 
O.IceL skattr, fnoney, tribute; neaht, Goth, nahts, OS. 
OHG. naht, night; and similarly Ulcn, token ; tarn, tame; 
tiar» tear; tellan, to tell, count; tid, timay time; timber* 
timber; tol, tool; tredan, to tread; tree, tree; trog, 
trough; turf, turf; twelf» twelve; twig, twig^ bitan, to 
bite; botm, bottom; feohtan, to fight; hatian, to hate; 
hwibiepwheat ; meltan, tomelt; metan, to find, meet; restan, 
to rest; setl, seat; swete, sweet; wseter, tiHiter. cnotta, 
knot ; hwettan, to whet, incite ; mAttoc, mattock ; sittan, 
to sit. fot, foot; ^fist,, spirit ; gylt, guilt; hw»t, what; 
h&t, hot ; hwit, white ; pytt, pit ; strat» street. 

Note.— I. Medial and final st was sometimes written 8]> in 
early WS., as dmp, dust, fmBp,fiist, giefes]>, fhougivest, w»8}ym, 
growth, w&8)», thou knowest, for dust, fasst, giefest, waestm, 

2. Latin medial t became d in Low Latin, so that words 
borrowed at an early period have t, but those borrowed at 
a later period have d, as bete (Lat. beta), beetroot ; stnet (Lat 
strata), 5fnp^/,nMi^; butabbod(Lat. acc.abbatem),a6^/; laeden 
(Lat. ace. latinum), Latin {language) ; side (Lat. seta), silk, 

3. t often disappeared between consonants, as fssnian, to 
fasten, tiihSace, justly, |»i8nes, ^iS(/M^55, beside festnian, rihtlice, 


§ 200. Germanic d became d initially, and also medially 
after n during the prim. Germanic period (§ 284). And d 
in other positions became d in West Germanic (§ 253). 
On the normal development of Germanic d in Goth, and 
O.IceL, see § 280. d generally remained in OE. both 
initially, medially, and finally, as dseg, Goth, dags, O.IceL 
dagr, OS. dag, OHG. tag, day ; dohtor, Goth. da6htar, 
O.IceL ddtter, OS. dohtar, OHG. tohter, daughter; 

§ 300] Dentals 145 

teder, Goth, fetdar, O.Icel. faflir, OS. fadar, OHG. fater, 
father ; OE. Goth. OS. bindaii,O.Icel.Mnda, OHG. bintan, 
to bind) biddan^Goth. bidjan, O.Icel. MAja, OS. biddian» 
OHG. Wtten, to pray; OE. OS. blod, Goth. bl6J>, O.Icel. 
hlbb, OHG. bluet, blood] ceald, Goth, kalds, O.Icel. 
kaldr, OS. kald, OHG. kalt, cold; and similarly dftg, 
dough) dead, dead) d^af, deaf) dea]>, death) d€man, 
to judge) dgofol, devil) dSop, (ieep) deorc, dark) dbtif to 
do) dragan, to drag) drifan, to drive) drincan, to drink) 
diifan, to dive ; dumb, dumb ; duru, door ; dwellan, to lead 
astray, bodig, body ; cwsdon, they said ; fddor, fodder, 
food) healdan, to hold) hierde, he heard) hider, hither) 
Isdan, to lead) Isdde, he led) mddor, mother) nsdre, 
adder) sadol, saddle) sendan, to send) slidan, to slide) 
]>ridda, third) weder, weather) pp. worden, becotne) 
vnidvL^fvood. hryd, bride) d&d, deed) treond, friend ) pp. 
gemacod, made) god, God) god, good) hand, hand; 
heafod, head) heard, hard) hlud, loud) midd, middle) 
nacod, naked) read, red) word, word. 

NoT£.~d disappeared between consonants, as pret. gjrrde 
from *g3nrdde beside inf. gyrdan, to gird ; sende from *8endde 
(■s Goth, sandida), beside inf. sendan, to send; sellic beside 
seldlic, strange, wonderful. 

§ 800. d became t before and after voiceless consonants. 
When two dentals thus came together, they became tt 
which was simplified to t finally and after consonants. 
And interconsonantal t generally disappeared before s. 
Examples are : blStsian, older blcedsian from ^blddisdjan, 
to bless ) bitst beside bidest, thou prayest) bint from 
*bind]>, older binde]>, he binds) bit, bitt from *bid]>, older 
bide]>, he prays) cyste from *cyssde, he kissed) gesynto 
from *gesundi]m, health) grette from ^gretde (= Goth. 
*grdtida), he greeted) iecte, Goth, "^iukida, he increased) 
lAtst beside Iftdest, thou leadest. bin(t)st, older bindest, 

146 Phonology [§§ 301-* 

tiiou bindesi) and similarly fiti(t)8t, thoufindest; giel(t)st, 
iltou yiddest] 8teii(t)st, thou standest; mils, mercy, mil- 
sian, /o piiy, beside milts, miltsian. The d was often 
restored from forms where it was regular, as fiUidst: 
flndan; .milds, mildsian : milde, mercifuL 


§ 801. Germanic J> generally remained in OE. initially, 
medially when doubled, and finally, as })encan, Goth. 
)>aglcjan, OS. thenkian, OHG. denken, to think] Jmsend, 
Goth. Jmsundi, OHG. dusunt, thousand; sce]>]>an, Goth. 
ska]>jan, to injure; o]>]>e, e]>]>a, Goth. ai]>]>&u, OS. eddo, 
oddo, OHG. eddo, or; aj>, Goth. ace. 4iJ>, OS. ed, OHG. 
eid, oath; pret. wearj>, Goth. warj>, OS. ward, OHG. 
wardf he became ; and similarly ]>ancian, to /Aa^^ ; ]>eccan, 
to cover; J>eof, thief; ]'ing, thing; ]>om, thorn; Jaraed, 
thread; yriagan, to press ; ]mma, thumb; ^vaiOT, thunder ; 
]>waiig, thong; ]>yncan, to seem, moppef moth; si]>]>an, 
smr^, afterwards ; smi]>]>e, smithy, bmp, bath ; bera]>, //r^ 
6^ar; bire]>, A^ i^ors; broJ>, Aro/A; clftj>, cloth; cuj>, 
known; cw8e]>, A^ saiV/; dea]>, d!?a/A; h8ele]>, hero, man; 
hxp, heath ; mdna]>, month ; mii]>, woi^/A ; nor]>, ^or^ ; 
t5]>, tooth. 

Note.— In late Nth. final 'p appears as -s in the personal 
endings of verbs, as bindes, he binds, bindas, t/iey bind, beside 
hiadep, binda)>. 

§ 802. Germanic medial ]> became d between voiced 
sounds in OE., although the ]> was retained in writing. 
In the oldest period of the language it was often written d. 
Examples are: hajfiaxkf to bathe ; hrbyor, brother ; byr))eii, 
burden; eor]>e, earth; te^pm, embrace, fathom; teper, 
feather; lue]>en, heathen; motpov, murder; 6J>er, other; 
weor]>an, to become. Gen. &]>es, b8e]>es, beside nom. aj>, 
oath, hdsipf bath; inf. cwe]>an, to say, beside pret. sing. 
cwfie]>. ... 

i§303-6] The Sibilant s 147 

§ 808. Germanic medial 1]> became Id in OE. The 
Id then became extended to the final position by levelling. 
Examples are; fealdan, Goth. fal]>an, to fold] wilde, 
Goth. wil]>eis, wild; wuldor, Goth. wul]>a8, glory. Gen. 
goldes (:= Goth. *gul]>is); dat. golde (= Goth. gul)ia), 
from which a new nom. gold for *goVf (= Goth. gul]>) was 
formed; and similarly beald» 6o/(/ ; ealdyo/eif; {eld,/ield; 
hold, gracious; weald, forest. But the 1]>9 which arose 
from vowel syncope, remained, as smlp, OHG. sftlida, 
happiness; fiel]> from older *&eUepf he falls, 

§ 804. Germanic pi generally remained in Anglian, but 
became dl after long vowels in WS., as ftdl (Anglian ft]>l» 
adl, ftld), disease; nsdl (Anglian ne])!^ Goth. ne]>la), 
needle; Y^&dl (Anglian wej>l), poverty; wsdla, pauper; 
widlian, to defile^ 

§ 805. ]> underwent assimilation with another dental 
or 8, and then it was simplified to t finally and after con- 
sonants, as blt(t) from *bid]>, and bit]>, older bide]>» he 
awaits, bite]>, he bites ; bit(t) from bide]>, he prays ; it(t) from 
ite]>, A^ eats; gesynto from *gesundi]>u, health; Ifttteow 
from *l&d yeow, leader; mitty from mid py, when, 
while; ofermetto from *ofermddi]m, pride; )>»tte from 
pmt )>e> that which ; cydde beside cy]>de, he made known ; 
but cwi]> beside cwi]>e]>, he says, ciest from c!es]>, older 
cle8e]>, he chooses; cwist, older cwi]>e8t» thou sayest; 
for]ie8t, older forlie8e]>» he loses ; wiext, older wiexe]>, 
it grows; hafastu= hafas+J^fi, hast thou, bliss, bliss, 
b]i88ian, to rejoice, Usb, favour, beside bUps, bli]>sian» Ups. 

The Sibilant s. 

§ 806. Germanic 8 remained in OE. initially, medially 
in combination with voiceless consonants, and finally, as 
sse, Goth, 8&iws» OS. OHG. seo» sea; slsepan, Goth. 
slepan, OS. slapac^ OHG. siafan, to sleep; OE. OS. 


148 Phonology [§§307-9 

OHG. sunu, Goth, stinus, O.Icel. 8Uiir» son; c^st, OS. 
gest, OHG. geist, spirit; OE. Goth. O.Icel. OS. OHG. 
hiis, house; and similarly sadol, saddk; sabd, seed; sealt, 
salt; sican, to seek; seen, to see; sittan, to sit; 8lidan» to 
slide ; smsely sfHall, slender ; snacRy snake ; sona, soon ; sdt, 
soot; spear wa, sparrow; sprecan, to speak; standan, to 
stand; stream, stream; sii]), south; sweostor, sister. 
assa, ass, donkey; cyssan, to kiss; reslan, to rest; 
yyvstBLTit to thirst; ceas, he chose; gttrs, grass; gos* 
goose; heals, neck; hers, horse; !s» ice; mus, mouse; 
w»s, «^5. 

For the Germanic combinations sk and hs, see §§ 812, 

Note.— s sometimes underwent metathesis with p, especially 
in late OE. ; as eps, aspen^ cop^^ fetter, bond, wHps, tisping, wesp, 
waspi beside aesp, cosp, wlisp, weps (wefs). 

§ 807. Germanic s became z between voiced sounds in 
OE., but the s was retained in writing, as bosm, bosom ; 
ceosaiiy to choose ; grasian, to graze ; haesly hazd shrub ; 
lesan, h collect; nosu, nose; dsle, ousel; wesole, wesle, 
weasel; wesan, to be, beside wss, was ; gen. hiises, dat 
hiise» beside nom. hus, house. 

§ 808. We have already seen that prim. Germanic z 
from Indg. s became r medially and was dropped finally 
in West Germanic (§ 262). Examples of medial r have 
been given in § 270 ; and of the loss of final *z in § 262. 

The Gutturals. 

§ 809» Germanic k, generally written c in OE., remained 
a guttural initially before consonants and before the guttural 
vowels a, SI, o, 0, u, ii, and their umlauts se (e), », e, € (de)» 
y> y, but became a palatal before the palatal vowels^ ai» 

j3«o] Gutturals 149 

» (e) = Germanic S, e (= Germanic e), € (= Germanic €) ; 
ea, eo, io from Germanic a, e, i by breaking (§ 40), §a» eo» 
iOy i» I9 and their umlauts e» ie (= i-umlaut of ea» io), ie 
(:= i-umlaut of §a, io), see § 47. 

Germanic medial k and kk remained guttural when 
originally followed by a guttural vowel, as bttcca, he-goat] 
macian from *mak5jan, to make) sacu, strife] geoc, prim. 
Germanic *jukan,^ait^ ; but became palatal when originally 
followed by an i or j, as bryce from ^brukiz, breach ; secan 
= Goth, sol^an, to seek ; })eccan from *))akjan, to cover. 

The guttural and palatal c oilen existed side by side 
in different forms of the same word, as pret. pi. curon, 
pp. coren, beside inf. cgosan, to choose ; brecan, to break, 
beside hritp from *brilLi]>, he breaks. 

Some scholars assume that palatal c and no became 
tf(= cli in NE. chin), ntj in Mercian, WS. and Ken. in 
the earliest period of the language, but this is an assump- 
tion which cannot be proved. All that we know for certain 
is that OE. had a guttural and a palatal k, that the former 
was sometimes written k and the latter always c, and that 
the two k-sounds had separate characters in the OE. runic 
alphabet. Both the guttural and the palatal k were 
generally written c in OE. When c was palatal it was 
often written ce, ci medially before a following guttural 
vowel, with e, i to indicate the palatal nature of the c, as 
sfcean, /o seek; ]>eccean, to cover; )>enceaii, /c? think, 
cp. § 819, Note. 

§ 810. I. Guttural c. 

celan from *koljan, to cool; cemban from *kambjan, 
to comb; corn, Goth, katim, com; cu]>, Goth. kun]>8, 
known; cynn, Goth, kuni, race, generation; cneo, Goth. 
kniu, knee ; and similarly camb, comb, comb ; cene, keen, 
bold; ceiman, to give birth ; cepan, to keep ; col, cool; coss, 
kiss ; c% cow ; cuman, to come ; cyning, king ; cyssan, 
to kiss; cy^an, to make known, clsne, clean ; climtan, to 

1 50 Phonology [5 3 1 1 

climb', cnotta, knot; crmtif skill) cwSn, queen. Also in 
Lat. loanwords, as candel (Lat candela), candle \ coper 
(Lat. cuprum), copper; cycene (late Lat. coquina, cucfna), 
kitchen; and similarly camp, ^A/, &a/i(&; cempa» womor; 
cdCy cook ; cuppe, cup. 

secer, Goth, akrs, prim. Germanic *akrtLZf field; nacod, 
Goth. naqa))s, OHG. nakot, naked; wracu, Goth, wraka, 
persecution ; and similarly bacan, to bake ; bucca, he-goat ; 
draca, dragon ; ficol, cunning ; hnecca, neck ; sprecan, to 
speak; sticca, stick, macian from *makojaii, to make; 
and similarly liccian, to lick ; 15cian» to look ; prician, to 
prick, drincan, to drink ; ]>anciaii, to thank. 

bucc, O.Icel. bokkr, Indg. *bhugn6s, buck; blaec, prim. 
Germanic *blakaz, black \ geoc, Goth, juk, prim. Ger- 
manic *jukan» yoke ; and similarly &c» oak ; bsec, back ; 
hoc, book; hrocc, badger; fiocc, flock; to\c/folk; mioluc, 
milk ; seoc, sick ; weorc, work ; ]>anc, thought. 

§ 311. 2. Palatal c. 

ceapian, Goth, k&updn, to trade, traffic; ceosan, Goth. 
kiusan, to choose; cinn, chin, Goth, kinnus, cheek; and 
similarly ceaf, chaff; ceafor, cockchafer; cealc, chalk; 
ceald, cold; cealf, calf; ceorfan, to carve, cut; ceorl, 
churl, man ; ceowan, to chew ; cidan, to chide ; ciese» 
cheese ; cierran, to turn ; cild, child; cirice, church. 

bee from *bdkiz, books ; Isece, Goth, lekeis, physician ; 
smiec from *smaukiz, smoke ; weccan, Goth, us-wakjan, 
to arouse ; bene from *bai|kiz, bench ; ]>eiic(e)an, Goth. 
))agkjany to think; and similarly birce, birch; crycc, 
crutch; f^cce, flitch; mece, sword; my eel, great; sec(e)an9 
to seek ; strecc(e)an, to stretch ; stycce, piece ; tsec(e)aii, to 
teach ; wicce, witch ; drenc(e)an, to submerge ; ]>ync(e)an, 
to seem ; stenc, smell, odour. 

Note.— 1, cs was generally written x in OE., as aex beside 
older eces, axe ; rixian beside ricsian from ^likison, to rule. 
a. 0£. final c became palatal when preceded by i or I, as ic. 


§§312-13] '"- Gutturals 151 

/; hwelc from *hwa-lik, which; lie, body; pic, pilch; swelc 
from *swa-l!k, such. 

3. In Anglian final c became x (written h) in unstressed 
words, as ah beside late WS. ac, but; lowih (Iwih), j^om, usih, 
us, beside WS. eowic, usic ; ih, /, meh, nte, peh, thee, beside 
the stressed forms ic, mec, )>ec. 

§ 812. In the oldest period of the language sc, like c 
(§ 809), was guttural or palatal, but some time during the 
OE. period the guttural sc became palatal, except in loan- 
words. It was often written see, scl before a following 
guttural vowel with e, i to indicate the palatal nature ot 
the sc. There is no definite proof that sc became J (= the 
sh in NE. ship, shape) in early OE. as is assumed by 
some scholars. Examples are : sc(e)acan, to shake ; scand, 
disgrace; sc(e)adu, shadow; sceaft, shaft; sceal, shall; 
sceap, sheep ; seearp, sharp ; sc(e)ort, short ; scSotan, to 
shoot; tcield, shield ; Ecieppan, to create; scierRn, to shear ; 
scilling, shilling; scip, ship; scoh, shoe; scriid, dress, 
garment; Ecvldor, shoulder ; ^cnr, shower; scyldig, guilty, 
blyscan, to blush ; ]>erscan, to thresh ; wascan, to wash ; 
-wyscan, to wish. engliEC, English ; f^sCf /ish; ^8bsc, flesh. 
But scdl (Lat. schola), school; scinn (O.Icel. skiim), skin. 

Note.— Medial se often underwent metathesis to es (written 
x); especially in late WS., as axe, ashes, bian, to ask, fixas, 
flshes, waxan, to wash, beside asce, aseian (OHG. eiskon), 
fiscas, wascan. 


§ 313. Germanic 5 became g after i| during the prim. 
Germanic period (§ 234). jj (§ 264) and jn (§ 266) became 
gg in West Germanic. Germanic 5 remained a spirant in 
all other positions in the oldest period of OE. On the 
normal development of Germanic 5 in the other Germanic 
languages, see § 230. 

Germanic initial and medial 5 became differentiated in 
prehistoric OE. into a guttural and a palatal voiced spirant 

152 Phonology [M3'4-i6 

under the same conditions as those by which Germanic k 
became differentiated into a guttural and a palatal explo- 
sive (§ 800). 

§ 814. Initial guttural 5 remained in the oldest period of 
the language, but had become the voiced explosive g before 
the end of the OE. period. Initial palatal 5 (written g) 
remained a spirant f=the y in NE. yet, yon) and fell 
together with Germanic initial j (§ 268). This explains 
why Germanic initial j was written g in OE. 

§ 815. I. Guttural 5. 

gast, OS. gest, OHG. geist, spirit; OE. OS. god, Goth. 
g6J>s, O.Icel. gofir, OHG. guot, good) OE. OS. OHG. 
gold, Goth. gul]>, gold; OE. Goth, guma, O.Icel. gume, 
OS. gumo, OHG. gomo, man ; graes, Goth. OS. OHG. 
grz.'Sf grass ; and similarly gftd, goad; gaderian, to gather; 
galan, to sing; gamen, game, amusement; g&r, spear, 
javelin; git, goat; pi. gatu, gates; ^s, geese; god, God; 
g6s, goose; pret. pi. guton, they poured out; pp. goten, 
poured out; gu]>, war; gylden, golden, glaed, glad; glof, 
glove; gnBM,gnat; grene, green; gnind, ground, 

§ 816. 2. Palatal 5. 

geaf, Goth. O.Icel. OS. gaf, OHG. gab, he gave ; gealga, 
OS. OHG. galgo, gallows, Goth, galga, cross; g§otan, 
Goth, giutan, OS. giotan, OHG. gioi^an, to pour out; 
giefan, Goth, giban, O.Icel. gefa, OS. geban, OHG. 
geban, to give ; and similarly geafon, they gave ; geard, 
courtyard; gesLm,yam; geat(NE. dial, yet), ^a/^; geolu, 
yellow; gewiss, certain; giefu, gt/t; gieldan, to repay, 
yield; giellan, to yell; gielpan, to boast; g^eman, to take 
notice of; gLemaxi, to yearn for; gLesi, guest; gierwan, /o 
prepare ; gift, marriage gift. 

Note.— The guttural and palatal j^ often existed side by side 
in different forms of the same word, as pi. gatu beside sing. 
geat ; pret. pi. guton, pp. goten, beside inf. geotan, pret. sing. 

§§ 31 7-191 Gutturals 1 53 

§ 817. The g in the combination i|g remained guttural 
or became palatal according as it was originally followed 
by a guttural or a palatal vowel or j. It also remained 
guttund before consonants. 

1. Guttural qg : OE. OS. OHG. bringan, Goth, briggan, 
to bring; cyning from *kttnii)gaz,iEi>i^; lang from *lax)gaz, 
long; tunge,Goth. tuggd.OS.tunga^OHG. zunga, tongue ; 
and similarly engIisc,£;^/r5A; finger (Goth, figgrs^yi^^^ ; 
bring, ring) hungor, hunger; ^ingan, to sing; springan, 
to leap; stingan, to sting; J^ing, thing. 

2. Palatal ijg, often written ge medially before guttural 
vowels with e to denote the palatal nature of the g : 

seng(e)an from *8ai|gjan» to singe ; streng from ^strai)- 
giz, string ; and similarly feng, grasp ; gemeng(e)an, to 
mix; lengra (OHG. lengiro), longer; steng, pole. 

§ 818. i|g became i|C before voiceless consonants, but 
the g was generally restored through association with forms 
where g was regular, as brincst, thou bringest, brinc]>, 
he brings, beside bringst, bring]>, with g restored from the 
other forms of the verb ; strenc]> from *strangi)>u, beside 
streng]>, strength, with g restored from Strang, strong; 
and similarly ancsum, narrow, lencten, spring, sprinc]>, 
he leaps, beside angstim, lengten, spring]>. 

§ 819. West Germanic gg from prim. Germanic gn (§ 256) 
remained guttural in OE. and was generally written gg, as 
dogga, rfo^; earwicga, ^ara;i^; frogga, frog; stagga, 
stag; sugga, water wagtail. 

West Germanic gg from prim. Germanic 5J (§ 254) became 
palatal gg in OE. and was generally written eg, also cge, 
cgi, before a medial guttural vowel, as brycg, Goth. *brug- 
ja, bridge; bycg(e)an, Goth, bugjan, to buy; secg, Goth, 
"^sagjis, man ; lecg(e)an, Goth, lagjan, to lay ; and simi- 
larly cycgel, dart; hrycg, back, ridge; licg(e)an, to lie 
down ; mycg, midge ; secgan, to say ; wecg, wedge. 

Note.— Some scholars assume that palatal gg and gg became 

154 Phonology [§§320-1 

nd2y di (« the g in N£. gem) in Mercian, WS. and Ken. in 
early 0£., but there is no definite proof that this sound-change 
took place in 0£., cp. § 800. 

§ 820. Medial 5 remained a guttural spirant before 
original guttural vowels, but became a palatal spirant when 
originally followed by a palatal vowel or j. It also became 
palatal between OE. palatal vowels. 

1. Guttural 5. 

OE. Goth. OS. dragan, O.Icel. draga, OHG. tragan, 
to draw ; Sage, Goth. &ug5, O.Icel. auga, OS. 5ga, OHG. 
ouga, eye ; OE. OS. OHG. stigan, Goth, steigan, O.Icel. 
stiga, to ascend; and similarly tgan, to possess; dagian 
from Majojan, to dawn ; dugu]), strength, virtue ; belgan, 
to become angry; beorgan, to protect, shelter; boga» bow; 
biigan, to bow down ; fleogan, to fly ; fleoge,y7v ; folgian, 
to follow ; fugoly bird, fowl ; lagtt, law ; leogan, to lie ; 
maga, stomach ; sldgon, they slew ; sugu» sow ; swelgan, 
to swallow ; pi. dagas, days ; wegas, ways. 

2. Palatal 5, often written ge before a following guttural 

biegan from ^baujjan, to bend; ege, Goth. agLs,fear; 
sige, Goth, sigis, victory ; wag from *w8B5iz, wave ; and 
similarly byge, /rfl[^t ; eglan, to molest; by ge, mind; lyge, 
falsehood; myrg(i)J>, mirth, fdbgen, glad; faeger, /a/V ; 
maegen, strength; naegel, naU; slaegen, slain; t»g(e)l, 
tail; gen. sing, daeges, weges. 

Note.— 5 became h (= x) before voiceless consonants, but the 
J was often restored from forms where j; was regular, as stlhst, 
thou ascendest, stih}y, he ascends, beside older stigest, st^e)>; 
and similarly fliehst, flieh}y, beside inf. fleogan, to fly, 

§ 821. 5 often disappeared after palatal vowels before a 
following dental or consonantal n with lengthening of the 
preceding vowel, as bredan, to brandish, bridels, bridle, 
frlnan, to ask, lede, he laid, mseden, maiden, ongian 

§§ 3 2 2-4] Gutturals 1 5 5 

(ongeii)^ agaiftsi, rinan, io rain, ssde, he said, ^trSdan, to 
strew, ti]>ian, to grant, })eiiian, to serve, beside bregdan, 
brigdels, frignan, legde, m»gden, ongeagn, rignan, 
ssgde, stregdan, tig])iaii, })egiiian. Gen. rgnes beside 
regnesy from which a new nom. rSn beside regn, rain, was 
formed ; and similarly Y^n, servant, w»n, wagon, beside 
]>egii, wsegn* 

§ 822. Medial -igiv -Ige- were contracted to -i- as in 
MHG., as gelire beside geligere, fornication ; il beside 
igil, hedgehog; sipe from *8igi]>e9 scythe ; tile beside tigele» 
tHe; li}> (MHO. Ut) beside UgeJ> (MHO. Hget), he lies; list 
beside ligest, thou liest, 

§ 828. When Germanic 5 came to stand finally in OE., 
it is probable that it became a voiceless spirant (x) just as 
in Goth. OS., and prehistoric O.Icel., but that the g (= 5) 
was mostly restored again owing to the influence of the 
inflected forms. After liquids and guttural vowels the 
restoration of the g was merely orthographical, but 
the further history of the sound in OE. shows that after 
palatal vowels it was mostly restored in pronunciation as 
well, because -h rarely occurs after palatal vowels, as in 
sextih beside sextig, sixty; weh beside weg» weigh thou. 
The h (= x) seldom occurs in early OE., but is common in 
late OE. especially after liquids and long vowels, as mearh, 
marrow, bealh, he became angry, beside mearg, bealg; 
and similarly beorh, hill; burh, city; sorb, sorrow; 
swealh, he swallowed, dfth, dough, pidh, plough, st&h, he 
ascended, beside d&g, pl5g, stSg; and similarly beah, 
ring, bracelet; hoh, bough; fieah, he flew ; genbh, enough ; 
siSh, path ; troh beside trog, trough. 

§ 824. Final 5 became palatal after palatal vowels, as 
daeg, day ; m«g, may ; weg, way ; anig, any ; bodig, body ; 
dysig, foolish ; h&lig, holy; hefi^, heavy; manig, many. 
Then at a later period (earliest in Ken.) g became i con- 
sonant which combined with a preceding ae, e to form a 

1 56 Phonology [§§ 3»5-6 

diphthong, as daei (Ken. del), mad, wei, late WS. abo 
d»ig, maeig, weig. And -ig became -i through the inter- 
mediate stage -!, as «iii, dysi, hefi, &c. 


§ 826. Initial x had become an aspirate before vowels 
already in prim. Germanic (§ 246). In OE. it also became 
an aspirate initially before consonants except in the com- 
bination xw. The spirant remained in the combination xw 
and has been preserved in many Scotch dialects down to the 
present day. Examples are : OE. Goth. O.Icel. OS. OHG. 
bus, house; habban, Goth, haban, O.Icel. hafa» OHG. 
haben, to have; and similarly hamor, hammer; hand, 
hand ;hsbla.n^ to heal; heafoA, head; heaxd^ hard; heoite, 
heart; Yneran, to hear ; hold, gracious ; hxmgor, hunger. 

hiaf, Goth. hldifs,OHG. hleib, ha/, bread; OE. OS. 
OHG. hnigan, to bend down; OE. OS. OHG. bring, 
O.Icel. hringr, rrVi^ ; and similarly hladan, to load; hlea- 
pan, to leap; hlid, lid; hlot, lot; hnutu, nut; hrsefn, 
raven ; breed, reed; hrimig, rimy, 

hwS, Goth, hras, OS, hwe, OHG..hwer, who; hwil, 
Goth, hreila, O.Icel. hvfl, OS. OHG. hvola, space of time; 
and similarly hwael, whale; hwaete, wheat; hwae]>er, 
which of two ; hwelp, whelp ; hwit, white. 

Note.— h often disappeared with ne and habban, as nabban, 
not to have; naebbe, / have not; naefde, / had not. It also 
disappeared in the second element of compounds which were 
no longer felt as such in OE., as beot from *bi-hat, boast; 
friols from *fri'hBl9, freedom; eofot from 'efhat, debt; licuma 
beside older lichama, body; onettan from '^on-hatjan, to 
hasten; oret (OHG. urhei:^ from *or-hat, battle; waelreow 
beside older wael-hreow, fierce, cruel. 

§ 826. Medial x remained in OE. before voiceless con- 
sonants, and when doubled. It was guttural or palatal ac- 
cording as it was originally followed by a guttural or palatal 
vowel or j, as br5hte, Goth. OS. OHG. brahta, he brought; 

K 3 » 7-9] Gutturals 157 

dohtor, Goth, dadhtar, OS. dohtar, OHG. tohter, 
daughter) eahU, Goth, aht&u, OS. OHG. ahto, ei^t] 
and similarly bohte, he bought ; cnieht, ciiiht» boy ; feoh* 
tan/ to fight] hleahtor, laughter) l§oht, a light] pret 
meahte, he might] reoht, rieht, ryht, right] sdhte, he 
sought] }>dhte9 A^ thought] uhta, e/atc;ii. crohha, iroc^, 
pot] geneahhe, sufficiently] pohha,, pocket] tiohhian, to 
think, consider. 

Dat dehter from *dohtri, beside nom. dohtor, daughter ; 
flyht from ♦fluxtiz,y7i^A/; hiehsta from ^x^uxisi', h^hest ] 
hliehhaiiy Goth, hlahjan, to laugh ; Hehtan, Goth, liuht- 
jan, to give light] siehst, OHG. sihis, thou seest] 8ieh]>, 
OHG.sihity he sees] and similarly fehst, /SAom seizest] fSh]>9 
he seises ] niehsta, nearest] tyht, training, habit, 

§ 827. xs became ks (written x) in OE., as oxa, Goth. 
adhsa, OS. OHG. ohso, ox] siex, Goth, saihs, OS. 
OHG. sehs, six] weaxan, OS. OHG. wahsan, to grow ; 
and similarly feax, hair] fievm, flax] ion, fox ] fyxen, 
vixen ; mioxy dung ; wrixlan, to exchange. 

§ 828. Final x remained, as heah, OS. OHG. )ioh,high ; 
neah, OS. OHG. nfth, near] seah, OS. OHG. sah,^^ 
saw] sealh, OHG. salaha, willow ] ]>urh, Goth. ]>airh, 
OS. thurh, OHG. duruh, durh, through] and similarly 
f eohy cattle, property ; ruh, rough ; scdh, shoe ; toh, tough ; 
woh, perverse, bad] seoh, see thou ] sleah, slay thou] 
teoh, pull thou, eolh, elk] holh, hollow] seolh, ^^a/; 
sulh, plough ] weaXbif/oreigner. teoTh, life ; tvirh, furrow ; 
mearh, /M>rs^. 

Note.— Such forms as late WS. bleoh, co/owr, eoh,^ezt;, freoh, 
free, beside bleo, eo, fireo, owe their final h to the analogy of 
words like feoh, gen. fees. 

§ 820» Medial x disappeared : 

1 . Before s + consonant, as fyst from *fuxstiz, fist ; Nth» 
ae(i)3ta» sixth, beside WSr siexta, syxta which was a new 

158 Phonology {$3^9 

formation from the cardinal; aester (Lat. aextftrias)^ 
vessd^ pitcher, jar; yksX beside older ]nzl (OHG. dihsala), 
wagon-pok; waesma, waestm, growth, beside weaxan 
(OHG. wahsan), to grow. But the x remained in xs when 
it arose from vowel syncope, as siehst, thou seest; hiehsta 
from ^x^uxist^, highest. 

2. Between a vowel and a following liquid or nasal, as 
betweonan» betweonum, between, cp. Goth. tweUm&i, two 
each ; Cored from *eohr&d, troop ; fiol, fSol (OHG. flhala), 
/Ue; h€la from *hohi]a, heel; Uene (OS, Khni), transitory; 
leoma, ray 0/ light, cp. Goth. liuha]>, light; stiele from 
*Bta,y^9L', steel; ]>weal (Goth. ]>wahl), washing, bath ; masc. 
ace. sing, wone beside nom. woh, perverse, bad; ymest 
(Goth. Auhmists), highest; and similarly in compounds, 
as healic, h/fy, heanes, he^ht, beside hSah, high; 
nCaUecan, to draw nigh, neaUc, near, nSawest, nearness, 
beside neah, near. 

3. Between a liquid and a following vowel, as feolan 
(Goth, filhan), to penetrate, hide; ]>yrel from *)mrxil, open- 
ing, aperture; sing. gen. eolesi fSareSi {Sores» holes, 
mearesy s§oles, weales, beside nom. eolh, dk, tdzxhfpig, 
feorh, life, holh, hole, mearh, horse, seolh, seal, wealh, 

4. Between vowels, as ea (OHG. aha), water, river:, eam 
(OHG. oheim), unde; ear (Nth* aehher, OHG. ahir), ear 
of com ; flean from *fleahan, older *flahan, to flay ; and 
similarly l§an, to blame; slean (Goth, slahan)^ to slay; 
]>wean (Goth. ]>wahan), to wash ; fleon (OHG. fliohanX 
to flee; fon (Goth, f&han), to seize; hon (Goth, hfthan), 
to hang; Hon, leon (OHG. lihan), to lend; near from 
*neahur, near; seen from ^aeohan, older *8ehan (OHG. 
sehan), to see ; sion, seen (OHG. sihan), to strain ; sUl 
beside older sl&hae (OHG. slSha), sloe ; swior (OHG. 
swehur), father-in-kw ; ta beside older t&h« (OHG. ziha), 
toe; tear (Nth. tashher, OHG. zahar), tear; )noti, ]ieon 

§329] Gutturals 159 

(Goth. )>eilian), to thrive; sing. gen. fSos^ pleos, beside 
nom. feoh, cattle, property, pleoh, danger ; pi. nom. hea from 
^heahe, beside sing, hiah, high. In Anglian loss of h and 
contraction took place earlier than the syncope of i(e), as 
fll]> from *flBlii]>i he flees, fde]>, he seizes, 8is(t) from *8ihis, 
thou seest, si]> from *8ilii]>, he sees, hesta from '^'hehistat 
highest, nSsta from *nihista, nearest, beside WS. flleh]>, 
f eh]>, siehst, sieh]>, hiehsta, niehsta. 




§ 330. In 0£. as in the oldest periods of the other 
Germanic languages, nouns are divided into two great 
classes, according as the stem originally ended in a vowel 
or a consonant, cp. the similar division of nouns in Sanskrit, 
Latin and Greek. Nouns whose stems originally ended in 
a vowel belong to the vocalic or so-called strong declension. 
Those whose stems originally ended in -n belong to the 
weak declension. All other consonantal stems will be put 
together under the general heading, ' Minor Declensions.' 

§ 331. Owing to the loss of final short vowels, and con- 
sonants, in prehistoric OE. (§§ 211-16), several different 
kinds of stems regularly fell together in the nom. and ace. 
singular, so that, from the point of view of OE., the nom._ 
and ace. singular end in consonants, and we are only able 
to classify such stems either by starting out from prim. 
Germanic, or from the plural, or from a comparison with 
the other old Germanic languages ; thus the OE. nom. and 
ace. singular of daeg, day; word, word; Ami, pari; hand, 
hand; lamb, iamb, correspond to prim. Germanic Majaz*^ 
Majan, older -os, -om ; *wurdan, older -cm ; Mailiz, 
'^dailin, older -is, -im ; ^x^i^^^z (Goth, handus), '*'x&<^Ai^ 
(Goth, handu), older -us, -um; *lB,m'ba,z, older -os (cp. 
Lat. genus, gen. generis). The original distinction between 
the nom. and ace. singular of masculine and feminine nouns 
had disappeared in the oldest period of the English Ian* 




guage except in the 5- and the n-stems. And the original 
distinction between the nom. and ace. plural of masculine 
and feminine nouns had also disappeared, as nom. ace. 
dagas, daySf 5ste, favours^ suna, sons, but Goth. nom. 
dagos, ansteisy stu^us; ace. dagans, anstins, sunmis; 
guman, men, prim. Germanic nom. ^gumaniz, ace. *5uma* 
niinz; fh^feei, prim. Germanic nom. ^fStiz, ace. Goth, 
fotuns. In like manner the original case endings of the 
n-stems, with the exception of the nom. singular and the gen. 
and dat. plural, had also disappeared in the oldest English, so 
that the element which originally formed part of the stem 
came to be regarded as a case ending (§§ 211-16), cp. the simi- 
lar process in the plural of the neuter -os-stems (§§ 419-20). 
Before attempting the OE. declensions from a philological 
point of viewi the student should master the chapter on the 
vowels of unaccented syllables, because it is impossible to 
restate in this chapter all the details dealt with there. 

§382. OE. nouns have two numbers: singular and 
plural ; three genders : masculine, feminine, and neuter, 
as in the other old Germanic languages from which the 
gender of nouns in OE. does not materially differ ; five 
cases : Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, and In- 
strumental. The dat. is generally used for the instr. in 
OE., so that this case is omitted in the paradigms, see § 834, 
Note, The vocative is like the nominative. The nom. 
and ace. plural are always alike; in those declensions 
which would regularly have different forms for the nom. 
and ace, the ace. disappeared and the nom. was used in its 
stead. Traces of an old locative occur in what is called 
the uninflected dat. singular of h&m, home. In North- 
umbrian both the declension and gender of nouns fluctuated 
considerably as compared with the other OE. dialects. 

1 62 Accidence [§§333-4 

A. The Vocalic or Strong Decliension. 

I. The a-DECLENsioN. 

/ § 838. The a-declension comprises masculine and neuter 
nouns only, and corresponds to the Latin and Greek o- 
declension (Lat masc. -uSy neut. -umy Gr. -o^ -w), for 
which reason it is sometimes called the o-declension. The 
a-declension is divided into pure a-stems, ja*stems» and 

a. Pure a«sTEHs. 







Nom. Ace. 

Stan, skme 

dseg, day 

mearb, horse 










Nom. Ace. 











Note.— The gen. sing, ended in -ees in the oldest period of 
the language, and in late 0£. occasionally in -as, -ys. The 
oldest ending of the dat. sing, is •». The dat. sing, is generally 
used for the instrumental, so that this case is omitted in the 
paradigms. In the oldest period of the language the instru- 
mental (originally a locative) ended in -i, later -y» and corre- 
sponded to the Gr. loc. ending oik-ci, at home, not to oiK-oi which 
would have become -e in 0£. as in the dat (§ 217). In late 0£. 
the dat pi. ended in -un, -on, ^an (§ 284). 

The prim. Germanic forms of deeg were : Sing. nom. 
*dR^aZp ace. '*'dagan, gen. '^'dagesa or *dagasa (with pro- 
nominal ending, § 466), dat '*'dagai, instr. *da^ ; Plural 
nom. '*'dag5z (cp. Goth, dagos), ace. *&Si^Bxiz (cp. Goth, 
dagans), gen. *dag8n (cp. Gr. Ocwk, of gods), dat Magomiz. 

§335] Nouns ^65 

From wtett has been said in chapter VI on the vowl 
unaccented syllables it will bei. se^n that air the foi 
of the singular and plural, except the nom. ace. pL, arc 
regularly developed from the corresponding prim. Ger- 
manic forms. The pi. ending -as^ OS. •os, -as, beside 
OHG. -a, has never been satisfactorily explained. The 
most probable explanation is that it represents the ending 
of nouns which originally had the accent on the ending like 
Skr. gharm&s, heat = Gr^ 6cp|Afc, hoiy and that this ending 
then came to be used also for nouns which originally had 
the accent on the stem. That some nouns had the accent 
on the ending in prim. Germanic is proved by such words 
as 0£. ceosan, to choose^ beside eyre from *ktizts (§ 252), 
choice, which at a later period shifted the accent and dropped 
the final -s (? -z) after the analogy of nouns which originally 
had the accent on the stem. Upon this supposition the 
ending -as would regularly correspond to priiti. Germanll^ 
pi. nom. -68 or ace. •ins. In like manner is to be 
explained the retention of the final -s in the second 
pers. sing, of the present tense of strong verbs in the 
West Germanic languages, cp. OE. nime8(t), OS. OHG. 
nlmist beside Goth, nlmist thou takest (§ 476). The usual 
explanation that -as corresponds to an early Aryan double 
plural ending -ftsas from older -oses with -es from the 
consonant stems, is not in accordance with our present 
knowledge of the history of short vowels in final syllables 
in the oldest period of the various Germanic languages. 
An original ending -oses would have become -or in OE. 

§ 885. Like stftn are declmed by far the greater majority 
of monosyllabic a-stems, as el, eel) &d, funeral pile ; ft^, 
oath] b«st, bast) bar, boar) bftt, boat) beag, ring, 
bracelet) beam, tree) beard, beard) bearm, bosom ) beod, 
table ) beorgy hill) beom, warrior ; bog, bough ; bolt, bolt ; 
hOTg, pledge) br&p, odour) hr^XkAf firebrand) hrbm, broom 
{the plant) ; buc, stomach ; eamb, comb ; ciac, jtdg ; ceap» 

M 2 

1 62 Accidence [§5 336-8 

/f ceol, ship; ceorl, churl) clftm (NE. dial. doamX 
. /d\ dis:^, cloUi; clfit, patch; ctiOaX^ boy; craeft* skUl, 
^rengih ; cwealm» <2fail( ; dom, doom ; driam^yoy, revelry ; 
dweorg, dwarf \ earm, arm ; earn, ^a^i^ ; eorl, nobleman ; 
Hsc,Jlsh; fleam^ y7i^A/ ; forsc, frog; torstf frvsi; fox, 
/ojtr; gang, going', C^st» s^W/; giac, cuckoo; geard, 
^^ariflf ; gielp, boasting; haeft, captive; hSLm, home ; healm, 
Aaii/w ; heals, »^r>t ; helm, A^m^/ ; hlasst, burden ; hlftf, 
loaf; hot, hoof; hream, cfy, shout, uproar; hiim, rime; 
hring, ring; hund, <^; hwelp, whelp; VBLst, footprint ; 
masst, mas/; mor, fnoor; mnpf mouth; rftp, ro^; ram, 
rooiif; sceaft, shaft; seam, seam; stbl, stool; storm, 
storm ; stream, stream ; torn, grief; }>anc, thought ; J>eof, 
thief; }>orp, }>rop,/irw, village; weg, way; wer, wa«; 
wulf, wolf 

See § 269 on liouns whose stems ended in double con- 
sonants : hucc, buck ; cocc, cock ; codd, cod, husk ; coss, 
kiss ; cnoll, knoll; cropp, sprout ; hnaepp, cup ; hwamm, 
comer ; pott, /o/ ; sceatt, property, money ; smocc, smock ; 
sw3,mm,fungus ; weall, wall, 

§ 836. Like d«g are declined pae]>, paffi; staef, staff;- 
hw«l, whale, see §§ 64, 67. meg, kinsman, pi. mftgas 
(§ 120) beside megas with e from the singular. 

§ 887. Like mearh are declined ealh, temple; eolh, elk ; 
fearh,/!^, boar; healh, comer; stBXh, willow; seolh, seal 
(animal) ; weaih,fore^ner, see § 149. sc5h, shoe, gen. sc5s, 
dat. SCO, pi. sc5s, see § 189 ; and similarly sloh (also fern, 
and neut.), slough, mire ; eoh (also neut.), horse, gen. eos, 
dat. eo. horh (also neut), dirt, gen. horwes, dat. horwe, 
beside hores, hore ; pi. horwu (neut.) beside horas, see 

§ 838. Sing. 

Nom. Ace. C3ming, ktng engel, angel heofon, heaven 
Gen. C3minges engles heofones 

Dat. cjminge engle heofone 

5§ 339-41] Nouns 165 


Nom. AcG. 










The vowel in the medial syllable generally disappeared 
in the inflected forms of dissyllabic words when tne first 
syllable was long and the second short. It also generally 
disappeared when the first syllable was short and the 
second syllable ended in vocalic 1, m, n in West Germanic 
(§ 20.9). On the retention or the loss of the medial vowel 
in the inflected forms of dissyllabic words, see § 221. 

§ 889. Like cyning are declined secer, field) cocer^ 
quiver ; hserfest, autumn ; hengest, horse, bridels, bridle ; 
fsetels, vesself tub ; for other examples of nouns ending in 
•els, see § 698. 8e]>eling, prince ; cnaepling, youth ; gaede- 
ling, companion] \y\Xing9 child] for other examples of 
nouns ending in -ling, see § 607. 

§ 340. Like engel are declined reled, fire ; angel, fish* 
hook ; a]nim, son-in-law ; bealdor, prince ; bietel, mallet ; 
bl5stm, blossom] bolster (also neut.), bolster] bosm, 
bosom] bremel, bramble] deofol, devU] dryhten, lord] 
esildor, prince] Snger, finger ] Mtahtar, laughter] ma]>um, 
treasure ; morgen, morning ; 5fer, shore ; J>ymel, thimble, 
thumbstall] wddstm, growth. 

botm, bottom ; ellen (also neut.), zeal, courage, strength ; 
tedpm, embrace] fugol, bird, fowl] h8eg(e)l, hagol, hail] 
of en, oven ; naegl, nail] reg(e)n, rain ; J>eg(e)n, thane. 

But nouns like bulluc, bullock ; cassuc, sedge ; lango]>, 
longing (for other examples of nouns ending in -oj), -aj), 
see § 696) ; mattuc, mattock ; pearroc, park, generally 
retain the medial vowel. 

§ 841. Like heofon are declined bydel, beadle ; cradol, 
cradle ; daro)>, dart, spear] eodor, enclosure ; eofor^ boar ; 
hafoc, heafoc, hawk ; hamor, hammer ; heorot, stag, hart ; 

i66 Accidence [5§ 34a-'3 

metod. Creator ; rodor , diy ; sadol, saSdle ; stapolf piUar ; 
paaoTf thunder. On the variation of the vowel in the 
medial syllablei see § 222. 




Nom. Ace. 

wordy word 

hof, dwelling 

UA, vessel 











Nom. Ace. 



fatu " 









The neuter a-stems had the same endings as the mascu- 
line except in the nom. and ace. plural. The prim. Ger- 
manic ending of the nom. ace. plural was -5 which became 
•u and then regularly disappeared after long stem-syllables 
(§ 216). ' In late OE. the long stems often had -tt in the 
plural after the analogy of the short stems. 

§ 848. Like word are declined a large number of mono- 
syllables with long stem, as fir, brass ; bsel, funeral pile ; 
bfin, bone\ beam, child) beor, beer\ blod, blood \ bold, 
dwelling ; bord, board ; breost, breast ; com, com ; deor, 
wild animal) dtist, dust] fJSaa,/oam; f earn, /em; feax, 
hair; ^esLX,/lax; folc, folk; gesir, year; gesim, yam; 
gield, payment ; gold, gold ; hord (also masc), treasure, 
hoard; horn, horn; hors, horse; hreod, reed; hfis,twig; 
hds, house; is, ice; HUn, day; land, land; leaf, lea/; 
lean, reward; leo]>, song, poem ; He, body; Ha, flax, linen ; 
mfio, crime; mod, mind, courage; mor]>, murder; neat, 
ox; nestj nest; nij>, enmity; sfir, pain; sceap, sheep; 
seax, knt/e; sweord, sword; tdl, tool; ]>ing, thing; 

§§344-7] Nouns 167 

weorc, work] weor]), worthy price-, wif, woman. And 
siroilariy -words with a prefix, as behSLU prmisie ; gebeorc, 
barking. See § 259 on nouns whose sterns ended in double 
consonants : fell, skin ; full, cup ; toll, iax, toll. 

§844, Like hof are declined broc, affliction; broJ>, 
broth ; ceaf, chaff; col, coal; dor, door ; geoc, yoke ; god, 
god (heathen); hoi, /roiSp; loc, lock; lot, e&r^V; sol, mud; 
spor, /imr^. And similarly words with a prefix, as bebod, 
gebod, command. geat(§ 72), gate, pi. gatu beside geatu 
with ea from the singular. 

Nouns which have e, i in the stem originally had 
tt-, o/a-umlaut in the plural, as gebeodu, prayers, gen.- 
gebeoda, dat. gebeodum; and similarly geset, seat, dwell- 
ifigj geaprec, speaking, see § 48. cliofu, cliffs, gen. 
cliofa, dat. cliofdm; and similarly brim, sea; hlid, lid; 
lim, limb ; sdp, ship ; twig, twig ; gefiit, strife ; gewrit^ 
writing, letter, fri]) (OHG. fridu), peace, and UJ) (Goth. 
li])us), limb, were originally masc. u-stems. See §§ 101-2. 

§ 846. Like fset are declined bee, back ; bae]>, baA ; 
blaec, in^; hidsA^leaf; hrds^, brass; cr^t, cart; dsBl,dale; 
fddc, period 0/ time, space ; fesr, journey ; fnsed, fnsds,/ringe ; 
g«rs from older '^'grees, grass ; gl»s, glass ; grsef, grave, 
cave ; h«f, sea ; saep, sap ; scraef, cave ; 8W8e]>, track ; 
trsef, tent; ]>8ec, thatch, roof; weed, zc;a/i^, s^a; wael, 
slaughter. See §§ 64, 67. 

§ 846. f^ht fraud, gen. flfts, dat. fla; }>eoh, //t^A, gen. 
J>eos, dat. J>eo, pi. J>eo, gen. J>eo, dat. ]>eom ; pleoh, danger, 
gen. pleos, dat. pleo, pL pleo; holh, hollow, hole, gen. 
holes, dat. hole, pi. holh, see § 149. feoh, cattle, originally 
belonged to the u-declension (§ 399). 

§847. Sing. 

Nom. Ace. tungol, star wseter, water heafod, head 

Gen. tungles waeteres hSafdes 

Dat. tungle waetere heafde 

1 68 Accidence [5§34«-5o 


Nom. Ace. tungol w«ter hSafodu 

Gen. tiingla waetera hiafda 

Dat. tungltim wateruin heafdom 

Dissyllabic words which in West Germanic ended in 
vocalic I9 n^ r (§ 219) syncopated the medial vowel in the 
gen. and dat. sing, and plural and lost the final -u in the 
nom. and ace. plural when the stem-syllablej^sjoog. So 
that the nom. ace. sing, and plural became alike just as in the 
monosyllabic long stems. Original trisyllabic words (§ 228), 
and also dissyllabic words which in West Germanic ended 
in vocalic n, r, retained the medial vowel in the gen. and 
dat. sing, and plural, but lost the final -u in the nom. and 
ace. plural w^en the stem-syllable was short. Original 
trisyllabic words syncopated the medial vowel in the gen. 
and dat sing, and plural, but retained the medial vowel and 
the final -u in the nom. and ace. plural when the stem- 
syllable was long. See §§ 216, 228. 

Note,— In the later period of the language there was great 
fluctuation in the formatiolt of the plural and in the loss or 
retention of the medial vowel, as nom. ace. plural tunglu, 
waet(e)rtt, heafdu beside older tungol, waster, heafodu ; gen. 
sing, wastres beside older wa&teres. 

§ 348. Like tungol are declined &tor, poison ; beacen, 
beacon-, cnbsl, race, progeny ; fSiCtn, deceit ; to Aor, /odder ; 
spSltl, saliva ; tacen, token ; w«pen, weapon ; wolcen, 
cloud; vraldor, glory ; vnmAor, wonder. 

§ 349. Like waeter are declined braegen, brain ; gamen, 
game, sport; leger, couch; maegen, strength; otetf fruit; 
reced, house, hall; weder, weather; weorod, werod, 
troop, pi. weredu (§ 222) beside werod. setl, seat, pi. setlu 
beside setl. 

§ 360. Like heafod are declined cUewen, cHwen, ball 
of thread, clew ; mseden, maegden, maik/t^/i ; tdeten, animal. 

b. ja-stEMS. 




Nom. Ace. 

secgy man 






Nom. Ace. 






§§361-3] Nouns 169 

ende, end 






It is necessary to distinguish between those stems which 
were originally long and those which became long by 
the West Germanic doubling of consonants {§ 254). The 
j caused umlaut of the stem-vowel and then disappeared in 
the inflected forms except after r (§§ 271-2). When the j 
came to stand finially after the loss of prim. Germanic -az, 
•an it became vocalized to i which remained in the oldest 
period of the language, and then later became e (§§ 216, 
Note, 274), cp. here, arwy, ende, ^«rf, beside Goth. ace. 
hari, andi. The OE. forms with double consonants in the 
nom, and accusative singular are all new formations from 
the inflected forms. The regular forms would be *sege, 
ntan ; *d3me, noise — Goth, ace, "^sagi, *duni. 

§ 362. Like secg are declined bridd, young bird ; cnyll, 
knell 'y dyn{n), noise ; hl3m(n), loud sound; hrycg, back, 
ridge ; hyll, hiU] msecg (§ 66, Note 3), man ; mycg, midge; 
wecg, wedge. See § 269. 

§ 363. The j (written i, g, ig 5 also ige before a guttural 
vowel, § 268) remained medially after r preceded by a 
short vowel, as nom. ace. here, army ; gen. heries, herges, 
hedges; dat. herie, herge, herige; pi. nom. ace. herias, 
hergas, herigas, herigeas ; gen. heria, heriga, herigea ; 
dat. heritim, herigum. Forms without j also occur 
occasionally, as gen. heres, dat. here, pi. heras. 

1^70 Acddence [» 354-5 

§854. Like ende are declined esne, servant; hierde, 
shepherd; hwste, wheat; Ubce, physician; m^t^stvord; 
and the nomina agentis, as baecere, baker; Mddere, 
petitioner; bocere, scribe; scedere, sower; for further 
examples see § 602. 

§ 865. Neuter. 


Nom. Ace. cyti(n), race wfte, punishment westen, desert 

Gen. cyiines wites * westennes 

Dat. C3nme wite f &,> wSstenne 

Plur. v " 

Nom. Ace. cyn(n) 1^^ w^s^nni; 

Gen. cynna 'mta westenna 

Dat. cynnum wittun wistennum 

As in the masc. ja^tems it is necessary to distinguish 
between those stems which were originally long and those 
which became long by the West Germanic doubling of 
consonants (§ 264). The neuter ja*stems had the same 
endings as the masculine except in the nom. acc« plural. 
The nom. ace. plural ended in prim. Germanic in -jo which 
became -ju in prim. OE. THfe j regularly disappeared 
after causing umlaut of the preceding vowel. Ajid then 
the -u being preceded by a long syllable also disappeared 

216). The nom. ace. pi. of the originally short stems is 
regularly developed from the prim. Germanic form, as 
cyn(n) from *ktu]jd. But the -tt in the originally long 
stems and in words containing a sufiBx is not the preserva- 
tion of the prim. OE. -u. Such nouns owe their final 
•u to the analogy of the nom. ace. pi. of short a-stems 
(§ 842). That forms like witu, westenntt are new forma- 
tions is proved by the simple fact that from a Germanic 
point of view these nouns ought to have the same ending 
in OE. as the nom. ace. singular of the jo-stems (§ 374), 

S§3S^ Nouns 171 

The 0£. forms with double consonants in the nom. ace. 
singular are all new formations from the inflected forms, as 
cyn(n), bedd, nett for *cyne, *bede, *nete = Goth, kuni, 
badi, nati, see § 274. On the final double consonants in 
the nom. ace. singular, see § 259. In late OE. the double 
consonants in words containing a sufBx were generally 
simplified in the inflected forms, and the medial vowel 
was also occasionally syncopated, as gen. westenes, pi. 
westenu, beside westnu. 

§ 856. Like cyn(n) are declined bedd, bed] bill, sword-, 
denn, den\ flett, floor] giedd, song] nebb, beak] nett, 
net] tihhfrib] webb, web] wedd, pledge] wicg, horse] 
Witt, understanding, 

§ 867. Like wite are declined erende, errand] fe}>e, 
tua/king, power 0/ motion ; ierfe, inheritance] ierre, a«gw; 
lice, kingdom ; ryne, mystery] stiele, steel] wsege, cup] 
nouns with the prefix ge-, as gefilde, ^/aiVi ; gefylce, troop ; 
getleme, yoke {of oxen), team ; getimbre, building ; ge« 
mierce, boundary] gewede, dress, clothing] ge])iode, 
ge])eode, language, fiicce, prim. Germanic *fiiklga-, 
flitch] stycce, prim. Germanic '*'stukkja-, piece. See 
§ 270, Note, on nouns like hieg (Goth, hawi), hay, 
hiew, hiw (Goth, hiwl), shdpe, appearance, giig, gliw (Goth. 
*gliwi),^&^, gen. hieges, hiewes (hiowes), gliges, gliwes. 

§ 868. Like westen are declined f9ssi&i(n), fortress, cp. 
§600 ; b8emet(t), arson] Tii&rNet(t), narrowness] s«wet(t), 
sowing] J>eowet(t), slavery] for further examples, see 
§ 604. To this class probably also belong the diminutives 
in -incel, which generally syncopate the e in the inflected 
forms, as cofincel, little chamber, gen. cofincles; and 
similarly hseftincel, slave ; hiisincel, little house ; scipincel, 
litUe ship ; sulincel, smatt furrow ; for further examples, 
see § 606. fifere, wing. 

17^ Accidence [§$3S9-6o 


§ 850. Mascidine. 


Nom. Ace. bearu, -o, grove . J^io, servant 

Gen. bearwes )>eowe8 

Dat. bearwe )>eowe 


Nom. Ace. bearwas J^eowas 

Gen. bearwa J>eowa 

Dat. bearwum ]>eowum 

In the inflected forms the masc. wa-stems have the 
same endings as the pure a-stems. After the loss of prim. 
Germanic -az, -an in the nom. and ace. singular, the w 
being final became vocalized to -u which, remained after 
short vowels followed by a consonant, but with a preceding 
short vowel it combined to form a diphthong (§§ 264-6) ; 
thus prim. Germanic *barwaz, -an, *J)ewaz, -an regularly 
became beam (later bearo)/]>eo. After a long vowel the 
•u regularly disappeared, as in snft, snow^ from *snaiwaz, 
•an. At a later period the w in the inflected forms was 
levelled out into the nom. ace. singular, whence J)eow, 
snaw beside older ]>eo, snSl. And then from }>eow there 
was often formed a new gen. J^eowes beside the regular 
form ]>eowes (§ 265). On forms like gen. bearuwes 
beside bearwes, see § 220. 

§ 360. Like J>eo, J>eow are declined beaw, gadfly ; 
deaw (also neut.), dew ; lareow from lad + J>eow, teacher \ 
latteow from iad + J>eow, leader \ feaw, custom \ briw 
(Goth. *breiws), pottage^ porridge \ giw, geow, griffin, 
vulture ; iw, iow, eow, yew ; sUw (Goth. *sleiws), tench 

§§ 3^1-4] Nouns 1 73 





Nom. Ace. 

bealtt, -0, 


cnSo, knee 








Nom. Ace. 

bealtt, -o 








The neuter wa-stems have the same endings as the 
masculine except in the nom. ace. plural. What has been 
said in § 860 about the history of the w also applies to the 
neuters. It should be noted that the nom. ace. plural 
bealtt, cneo are from older '^beal(w)u> *kne(w)u (§ 266), 
whereas the nom. ace. sing, bealtt, cneo, are from 
older *bealw-, *knew. (§ 265). On the svarabhakti vowel 
in the inflected forms like gen. bealuwes beside bealwes, 
see § 220. Besides the regular nom. ace. pi. cnSo, there 
also occurs cneow with w from the inflected forms ; and 
also cnSowu with -u from forms like bealtt. In late OE. 
the pi. also ended in -wa. 

§ 362. Like bealu are declined c(w)udtt, cud\ teoru, lar\ 
meolvifmelvL,fHeal,Jlour; ^esLtn, device ; smeom, /at. 

§ 368. Like cneo, cneow are also declined ancleow 
(orig. masc), ankle ; bSow, bariey ; gehlow, hmng, bellow- 
ing; gehreowi lamentation; hleo(w), protection, covering; 
seaw (also masc), Juice ; strea(w), straw; treo(w)^ tree» 

2. The 6-declension. 

§ 864. The 6-declension contains feminine nouns only, 
and corresponds to the Latin and Greek ft-declension, for 
which reason it is sometimes called the ^-declension. The 
o-deelension is divided into pure 5-stems, jo-stems, and 




a. Pure d«sTEMs. 

965. Sing. 



ftr, honour 











Nom. Ace. 

giefe, .a 

ftre, *a 


gie&, (-ena) 

ftra, (-na, -ena) 




The prim. Germanic forms were : Sing. nom. *5et>6,acc. 
'^jebon (op. Gr. x<^P^*^)» g^n. '^jebSz (Goth, gibds), dat. 
*5eDai ; Plur. nom. ace. '^jeDSz (Goth, gibos), gen. '^jebSn 
(Goth, gibo), dat *jebdmiz (Goth, gibom). The ace. gen. 
and dat. sing, and the nom. ace. pi. regularly fell together 
in •» in prehistoric OE. (§ 217). The •» remained in the 
oldest period of the language and then later regularly 
became -e. In the nom. sing, the -5 became -u and then 
regularly disappeared after long stem-syllables (§ 216). In 
late OE. the gen. sing, often ended in -es after the analogy 
of the masc. a-stems ; and sometimes the nom. of the short 
stems was used for all eases of the singular. The regular 
ending of the gen. pi. is -a, but in late OE. the gen. pi. 
often ended in -(e)na after the analogy of the n-stems 
(§ 408). On the ending -tun of the dat plural, see § 218, 5. 
I ( It is difficult to account for the -a in the nom. ace. pi. in 
WS. and Ken., and for the -a in the oblique cases of the 
fem. nouns ending in -ung in these dialects. Seeing that 
the gen. sing, and nom. pi. originally had the same ending 
-8z and that both cases ended in -ee in the oldest OE., the 
-a in the nom. pi. cannot be a regular development from 
older -e. It is sometimes assumed that -a is the regular 

4§ 3^^-8] Noufts 1 75 

development of prim. Germanic -82 in OE., and that what 
is called the gen. sing, is morphologically the dat, but 
against this assumption it should be pointed out that in the 
oldest period of the language the gen. and dat. sing, and 
nom. plural had all the same ending. Short stems with 
ti often have ee beside a in the ace. gen. and dat. sing, and 
nom. ace. pi., as l8B]>e, reece, beside la]>e» race. 

§ 366. Like giefu are declined CHTVL,care; co]>u, disease; 
cwalu, violent death] dam, injury; denu, valley; faru, 
joufTtey; hogu, soliatude ; Uipu, invitation ; Ittfti (also weak), 
love ; nafb, nave (of wheel) ; notu, use ; racu, account^ nar- 
rative ; rudu, redness ; sacu, strife ; sagu, saw ; sc(e)amu, 
shame ; scinu, shin ; scolu, troop ; snoru, daughter-in-law ; 
stalu, theft; swa]m, track; talu, tale, number; ]>racu, 
violence, combat ; waTVLf people ; wra,cvL, revenge ; &c. 

§ 867. Like ftr are declined a large number of nouns, as 
aesp, aspen-tree; b&d, pledge; bmr, bier; beorc, brrch-tree; 
hot, advantage ; brod, brood; eax, axis; eaxl, shoulder; 
Kolp Jile; ^A,goad; glbf,glove; hetdi, hall; heordt herd, 
flock; hvfU, space of time ; )Sui, way,joumey ; \M, remnant; 
Iftr, learning; leod, nation; lind, linden, shield; mearc, 
boundary ; med, meord, reward ; mund, hand ; r&d, ride, 
riding; reord, voice, language; rod, cross; run, secret; 
scand, disgrace; scofl, shovel; sealf, ointment; sorg, 
sorrow ; stund, period of time, hour ; tang, tongs ; }>earf, 
need; ])Sod, nation; ]>rag, time, period; wamb, stomach; 
weaxd, protection ; wund, wound; &c. bru, eyebrow, has 
nom. ace. pi. brua beside bruwa, gen. bruna, dat. briium 
beside bruwum. 

§ 368. SiKG. 


Hreot crime 

sftwol, soul 










1 76 A ccidence [§§ 369-7 « 




Norn. Ace. 

firene, -a 

sftwle, ^a 







In originally trisyllabic words the final -tt reguiariy dis- 
appeared in the nom. sing, when the stem and the medial 
syllable were short, but remained when the stem-syllable 
was long and the medial syllable short (§ 216). Then after 
the analogy of words like firen, the final -u was also 
dropped in words like s&wol. The medial vowel regularly 
disappeared in the inflected forms after long stems, but 
remained after short (§ 221). The nouns of this class do 
not have the ending -(e)na in the gen. plural. 

§ 860. Like firen are declined bisen, bisn, example ; 
bydeiiy bushel-, ciefes, concubine; feter, fetter; fejier, 
feather; netel, nettle; spinel, spindle; stefia, voice; but 
egenu, chaff. 

§ 870. Like sftwol are declined ftdl, disease ; ceaster, 
city, fortress ; frofor (also masc), consolation ; n«dl, needle \ 
wocor, increase, usury. 

§ 371. Nom. streng]>u, -o, strength leomung, learning 
Ace. Gen. Dat. streng}>e leomunge, -a 

The fem. abstract nouns ending in prim. Germanic -i]>o 
regularly syncopated the medial i (§ 221) and in the oldest 
period of the language ret^ned the final -u in the nom. 
(§ 216). Then at a later period the -u (-0) was often dropped 
after the analogy of words like ftr (§ 867). At a still later 
period the nom. with and without the final -o came to be 
used for all cases. The abstract nouns in -ung regularly 
syncopated the final Ak in the nom. (§ 216). 

§ 872. Like streng]>u, -o, streng]> are declined cyji^m, 
cylKf)» native country ; tmhy(\i)Jeud ; f^ei^v^Yfi), prosperity ; 

§§ 313-^] Noufts 1 77 

hilevr^v), shelter I mmgp{VL\/amify, kindred; yief\{n), the/i ; 
wr8Bj)J)(u), anger, wrath ; for further examples, see § 618. 

§ 378. Like leomung are declined efhtmg, evening ; 
seringa daivn; gepaiang, consent; leasung, falsehood; 
dhtttng, direction ; swinsttng, melody ; wenung^ hope, ex- 
pectation ; for further examples, see § 616. 

b. jO-STEMS. 

§ 374. Sing. 


hen(n), hen 

gierd, rod 











Nom. Ace. 

henne, -a 

gierde, -a 







It is necessary to distinguish between those stems which 
were originally long and those which became long by the 
West Germanic doubling of consonants (§ 254). The j 
regularly disappeared after causing umlaut of the preceding 
vowel, and then the -u in the nom. sing, being preceded by 
a long stem also disappeared (§ 215), so that the endings of 
the j5-stems are the same as the long 5-stems except that 
the gen. pi. never has the ending •(e)na (§ 865). On the 
final double consonants in the nom. singular, see § 250. 

§ 875. Like hen(n) are declined benn, wound ; brycg, 
bridge; bytt, /lagon; crihh, crib; cry cc, crutch; ecg,edge; 
hell, hell; nj^t, use, pro/it; sciell, shell; secg, sword; 
sibb, relationship ; slecg, sledge-hammer; sjmn, sin; syll, 
siU, threshold; wynn, joy. On hsecc, gate, hatch ; secc, 
stn/e, see § 55, Note 3. 

§ 876. Like gierd are declined aex, axe; bend (also 
masc. and neut.), band ; blips, bliss, bliss ; liild, war, battle ; 
hind, ^; lips, Mss, favour, kindness \ milts, mercy, kind- 

178 Accidence [§§377-9 

ness] nifty niece] rest, rest; sprsc, speech, language', 
wrac, vengeance ; wylf , she-ufolf; y]>, wave. On the g in 
cmg, key ; ieg» island, see §§ 270, 272. 
§ 377. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. byr]>en(n), burden b3rr]yeime9 -a 
Ace. byr]>eime byrj)eime, -a 

Gen. byr]>eime byr))eima 

Dat. byr}>etme byr]>eimtim 

In originally trisyllabic words the final -u in the nom. 
lingular also regulariy disappeared after the medial 
syllable which became long by the West Germanic 
doubling of consonants (§§ 216, 254). The nouns ending 
in -611(0) sometimes took -u again in the nom. sing, after 
the analogy of the short d-stems. In late OE. the double 
consonants were often simplified in the inflected forms. 

§ 878. Like byr]>en(n) are declined candel (Lat. can- 
dela), candle ; cneoris(8), generation ; h8egtes(s), witch ; 
biren, she-bear ; fyxen, she-fox ; gyden, goddess ; 'pytten, 
female servant) wiergen, she-wolf \ b3rrgen, tontb', for 
further examples, see §690. cdlnes(s), coolness) swift- 
ues(s), swiftness ; ]>rme8(s), trinity ; for further examples, 
see § 609. raden(n), arrangement, rule) husrsden(n), 
household ; for further examples, see § 610. 

Note.— A few words simplified the double consonants at an 
early period and then added -ti in the nom. singular after the 
analogy of the short o-stems, as hyraetu beside hymet, hornet) 
ielfettt, swan. 

c. wo-stems. ''^ 

§379. Sing. 

Nom. beadu, -o, battle meed, meadow 
Ace. Gen. Dat. beadwe msedwe 

Nom. Ace. beadwe, -a msdwe, -a 

Gen. beadwa msedwa 

Dat. beadwum medwum 

5§ s^o^a] Nouns 1 79 

In the nom. singular the prim. Germanic ending -wd 
regularly became -wu (§ 214), then the w disappeared 
before the -u (§ 266). The -tt remained after consonants 
preceded by an original short vowel, but disappeared after 
consonants preceded by a long vowel (§ 215), When the -u 
was preceded by a it combined with it to form a diphthong, 
as clea from *cla(w)ti, claw, J>rea from *]>ra(w)tt, threat 
(§ 75)| pi. nom. ace. clSa» dat. cieam from *cla(w)uin ; 
beside the regular nom. sing, forms clea, ]yrea new 
nominatives clawu, ]>rawu were made from the stem- 
form of the oblique cases. The final -u also regularly 
disappeared after long vowels and diphthongs (§ 216), but 
was restored again from the inflected forms already in the 
oldest period of the language, as hrSow, repentance ; 8tdw» 
place) treow (§ W), faith, truth. 

In the inflected forms the wo-stems had the same end- 
ings as the 5-stems except that they never had the ending 
•(e)iia in the gen. plural. On the svarabhakti vowel in 
forms like gen. beaduwe beside beadwe, see § 220. 

§ 880. Like beadu are declined sinu, sionu, sinew ; 
sceadu, shadow-, and the plurals fraetwe^ ornaments] 
geatwe, armaments, armour. 

§ 881. Like m«d are declined bldd(es)l»s, blood-letting, 
bleeding; Ubs, pasture. 

3. Feminine Abstract Nouns in -i. 

§ 882. This declension comprises the fern, abstract 
nouns formed from adjectives. The stem originally ended 
in •In, and the nom. in •!, cp. Goth, mikilei, greatness, 
diupei» depth, formed from mikilsi great, diups, deep, gen. 
mikileinSf diupeins (weak declension). The -m, -i were 
shortened to -in, -i in prehistoric OE. (§§ 211, 214), and 
then the i caused umlaut of the stem-vowel. But already 
in the oldest period of the language this class of nouns was 
remodelled on analogy with the short Systems (§ 865), so 

N 3 

i8o Accidince [§§3^3-5 

that the nom. came to end in -u, later -o, and the oblique 
cases of the singular in •€. At a later period the new 
nominative came to be used for all forms of the singular 
and for the nom. ace. plural. Few nouns belonging to 
this class have a plural. 



Nora, strengu, -o, strength 

strenge, -a; -tt,.© 

Ace. strenge, -u, -o 


Gen. w 


Dat. „ 


§888. Like strengu are declined bieldu, boldness] 
bierhtUy brightness ; engu, narrowness ; fyllu, fullness ; 
hselUy health] h»tu, heat] hyldvi, favour] ieldu, age] 
menigu, mengu, multitude] oferfierru, great distance] 
snytrUy wisdom] Jnestru, darkness] wlencu, wlenc(e)o, 
pride. See §§ 668, 614. 

4. The 1-declension. 

§ 884. The i-declension comprises masculine, feminine 
and neuter nouns, and corresponds to the Lat. and Gr. 
i-declension (nom. mase. and fem. Lat -is, Gr. -1$, ace. -im, 
•ii^; neut. nom. ace. -e, -i). 

a. Masculine. 

§886. Sing. 
Nom. Ace. 




giest, guest 




Nom. Ace. 



win^, -as 
wim(ge)a, wina 




The prim. Germanic forms were : Sing. nom. ^gastiz, ace. 
"^gastin, gen. '^gastaiz (cp. Goth, anst&is), dat *gastai (cp. 

§386] Nouns i8i 

Goth, anstdi), loc. ^gasti from Indg. *ghbstgi ; Plur. nom. 
*jastiz older -ijiz (Goth, gasteis), ace. *sastinz (Goth, 
gastins), gen. *sa8ti(j)8n, dat. '^jastimiz (Goth, gastim). 
The endings -Iz, •In of the nom. ace. sing, regularly 
became -i in prehistoric OE. The -i caused umlaut of the 
stem-vowel and then disappeared after long stems (§ 215), 
but remained af^er short stems and later became -e (§ 215^ 
Note). The regular ending of the gen. sing, would be -e 
(§ 217), the -es is from the a-stems. The dat. sing, ended 
in -i (later -e) in the oldest OE. and corresponded to the 
locative ending •! (§ 834, Note). The prim. Germanic nom. 
pi. ending -iz regularly became -i, later -e, which remained 
in the oldest period of the language. But already at ah 
early period the nom. pi. was re-formed after the analogy 
of the masc. a-stems and then later the old ending -e was 
only preserved in a few plurals, especially in names of 
peoples, as Dene, Danes] Engle, the English] Mierce 
(gen. Miercna), Mercians ; NorJ)h3rmbre, Northumbrians ; 
Seaxe (gen. Seaxna), Saxons ; ielde, men ; ielfe, elves ; 
liode, leode, people. The ending •i(j)8n regularly became 
•i(j)a which has only been preserved in a few words with 
short stems, as Deni(ge)a, wini(ge)a. The ending -a is 
from the gen. pi. of the a- and consonantal stems. The 
dat. pi. would regularly have ended in -im, but it had -um 
from the other classes of nouns. Apart from the few 
words mentioned above, the long i-stems have the same 
endings as the masc. a-stems and are only distinguishable 
fronl them by the presence or absence of umlaut. 

§ 886. Like wine are declined a large number of nouns, 
as bile, beak ; bite, bite ; bryce, breach ; bryne, burning ; 
byge, curve ; byre, son] ciele, cold] cjrme, advent ; eyre, 
choice ; cwide, sayings speech ; dene, valley ; drepe» stroke, 
blow] dryref /all] dyne, din] ffyge, flight] gripe, grasp] 
gryre, terror] gyte, pouring forth ; haele (orig. a cons, 
stem, see §414), man, hero] heie, weight] hege, hedge] 

1 82 Accidence [§§387-8 

hrine, touch ; hryref fall; hyge, mind; hype, hip ; hyse 
(pi. hy8(s)a8), youth, son ; lie (pi il(l)a8), sok of the foot; 
lygefjalsehood ; lyre, loss; mere (orig. neut.), lake, pool; 
mete (pi. mettas),/a{M/; m3me, mentory; ryge, rye; ryne, 
course; scyfe, shove; scyte, shooting; sele, Aai7; sice, 
5i^/(; siege, 5/h»i^, blow; slide, 5/i>; slite, s/iV; snide, 
incision; staepe, step; stede, place; slice, stitch; stige^ 
ascent; stride, stride; swyle, swelling; ]>yle, orator; 
wlite, brightness, beauty, beorscipe, /^os/ ; for further 
examples, see § 611. bere (Goth. *baris), barley; ege 
(Goth. a,g^s),/ear ; hete (Goth, hatis), Aa/if ; mene, necklace ; 
sige (Goth, sigls), victory, originally belonged to the neuter 
•OS, •es-declension (§ 419). ele (Lat. oleum), oil, was also 
originally neuter. 

§ 887. Like giest are declined a large number of nouns, 
as »rist (also fem.), resurrection; aesc, ash-tree; blabd, 
blast, breath; bUest, blast; brygd, brandishing; byht, 
bend; byrst, loss; cierm, clamour; cieTr, turn, change; 
dael, part; drenc, drink; dynt, dint; ent, giant; Ceng, 
grasp; &ell,/all; fLet^, period of time ; fiyht, flight ; fyrs, 
furze; gUsm^ gleam; gyltf guilt; hSiep, leap; hlyst (also 
fem.), 5^115^ of hearing; hwyrfl, turning, circuit; hyht, 
hope ; Uest, track; lee, s^ht, looking at; )ieg, flame; list, 
skUl, cunning; lyft (also km.\ air ; m«w, seagtill ; pliht, 
danger, peril; s»l (also fem.), time; scene, cup, draught; 
sXieht, slaughter; stsdtc, smoke ; stenc, odour; steng, pole; 
stiell, leap ; streng, string ; sweg, sound, noise ; swylt, 
death ; tyht, training, instruction ; pyrs, giant; wseg, wave ; 
wiell, spring ; wielm, boiling ; wrenc, trick, stratagem ; 
wyrm, worm, 

§ 888. 8», prim. Germanic '^'saiwiz, sea, gen. s»s, dat. 
s», pi. nom. ace. sees, gen. *sewa, dat. sem beside ssewum 
(a new formation) ; also fem. gen. dat. sse beside sswe ; 
dry, magician, gen. drys, dat. dry, pi. nom. ace. dryas, 
dat. drytim. On the contracted forms, see §§ 180, 142. 

§§ 3^9-91] Nouns 183 

b. Feminine. 
§ 889. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. Ace. cwSn, queen cwSne 

Gen. cwene cwena 

Dat. cwene cwenum 

The masc. and fern, i-stems were originally declined 
alike in the sing, and plural. The nom. pi. and the whole 
of the sing, are regularly developed from the correspond- 
ing prim. Germanic forms, as sing, '^kwsniz, '^kwaenin, 
*kw8enaiz» ^kw^nai, nom. pi. '^kwseniz. The gen. and 
dat. pi. were new formations as in the masc. i-stems. In 
early Nth« and then later also in WS. and Ken. the ace. 
sing, often had -e after the analogy of the d-stems ; and 
in like manner the nom. ace. pL often had -a already in 
early OE. 

§ 800. Like cwen are declined sht, property ; ansien, 
face; ben, prayer; bene, bench) bryd, bride \ cyf, tub; 
cystf choice; dmd^ deed; dryht, troop; ^st, favour; fierd» 
army; fyst, Jist; glSd, live coal; h«s, command; hyd, 
hide, skin; hyf, hive; hjrrst, ornament; meaht, miht, 
might, power; nied, need; scyld» guilt; sped, success; 
syl, pillar; tid, time; fry]>, strength; wibd, garment; 
-wen^ hope, expectation ; vriat, sustenance, food ; wyrdp fate; 
wyrt, vegetable, herb; yst, storm. duga}>y strength, 
geogu]>, youth, ides, woman, which originally belonged 
to this declension, went over into the 6-declension. 

Note.— », prim. Germanic *aiwiz, divine law, generally 
remains uninflected in the sing, and in the nom. ace. plural, 
but beside the gen. dat. sing, e there also exists »we from 
which a new nom. »w was formed. 

§ 801. A certain number of nouns, which originally 
belonged to the fem. i-declension, partly or entirely became 
neuter and were then declined like cynn (§ 856) or hof 
(§ 842) in the singular, and like hof in the plural. Such 
nouns are : fulwiht, fulluht, baptism ; grin, snare, noose ; 

1 84 A cctdence [§§ 35^2-3 

oferhygd» pride ; wiht, wuht, things creature ; nouns with 
the prefix ge> as gebyrd, birih) gecjmd, nature^ kind; 
gehygd, mind; gemyndy memory; gesceaft, creation ; ge- 
]>eaht, thought; gepyld, patience; gewyrht, merit, desert; 
pi. gedryhttt, elements; gifttt, £^. In late OE. other 
fern, i-stems also sometimes took the neut plural ending 
•u (K)). 

c. Neuter. 

§ 392. Sing* Plur* 

Nom. Ace. spere, spear speru, -o 
Gen« spares spera 

Dat. spere sperttm 

The neuter i-stems had originally the same endings 
as the masculine except in the noro. ace. sing, and plural. 
The nom. ace. sing, ended in -i which regularly disappeared 
after long stems, but remained after short stems, and then 
later became -e (§ 215, Note). The nom. ace. pi. ended in 
•i which would regularly have become 4 (§ 214), later -e, 
after short fetems, and disappeared after long stems. The 
nom. ace. pi. ending -u (-0) was due to the influence of the 
short neuter a-stems. The endings of the other cases are 
of the same origin as those of the masc. short i-stcfms. 
The regular form of the nom. ace. singular would be 
*spire (§ 41) if spere originally belonged to the neuter 

§ 808. Like spere are declined ofdaele, downward slope, 
descent; oferslege, /m/^/; otiegef /ate; sife, sieve, AH 
these nouns probably belonged originally to the -os-, -es- 
declension (§ 419). 

A certain number of neuter nouns which originally 
belonged partly to the neut. ja-stems, and partly to the 
•OS-, -es-stems are declined like spere, except that the 
stem-syllable being long the final -e disappeared in the nom. 
ace. singular. Such nouns are : f\&^c, flesh; Mes, fleece; 
heel, health ; hilt (also masc), hUt; leen, loan ; sweng, blow. 

5§ 394-6] Nouns J85 

gefeg> joining, joint] gegrynd, phi of ground; gehield, 
watching, protection) gehlyd, noise; gehnsst, -ftst, col- 
lision; genyht, sufficiency; geresp, blame; gewSd, fury, 
madness ; geswinc, labour ^ affliction. 

5. The a-DECLENsioN» 

§ 304. The u-declension comprises masculine, feminine 
and neuter noiins, and corresponds to the Lat. and Gr. 
u-declension (nom. masc. and fem. Lat. -us, Gr. -119, ace. 
•um, -ui^ ; neut. nom. ace. -u> -u). 

a. Masculine. 

§ 306. Sing. 

Nom. Ace. 

sunu, -0, son 









Nom. Ace. 









The prim. Germanic forms were : Sing. nom. *sunuz 
(Goth, sunus), ace. *8unuii (Goth, sunu), gen. -^sunauz 
(Goth, suniu^), dat *suniwai (*sunwai), loc. *sunau 
(Goth, sun&u); Plur. nom. '^suniwiz (Goth, su^jus), ace. 
*sunuiiz (Goth, sununs), gen. '^suniwSn (*sunw8n), dat. 
'^sunumiz. The endings -uz, -un regularly became -u in 
prehistoric OE., and then disappeared after long stems 
(§§ 21I9 215), but remained after short stems and later 
became -o. -auz regularly became -a (§ 217). The OE. 
dat. sing, is originally the locative. It is difficult to account 
for the ending -a of the nom. plural, which cannot be 
a normal development of prim. Germanic -iwiz = Indg. 
-ewes. The gen. pi. ending -a is from the a- and the 
consonantal iStems. The dat. pi. ending -urn is from older 
•umiz. At a later period the -u (-o) of the nom. ace. sing. 

1 86 A ccidence [§f 396-8 

was often extended to the dat. sing, and nom, ace. pi. 
in the short stems ; and likewise the -a of the gen. and 
dat. sing, to the nom. ace. In late OE. the short stems 
also often ft)rmed their gen. sing, and nom. ace. pi. after 
the analogy of the masc. a-stems. Already at an early 
period the long stems were often declined entirely like the 
a*stems. Many nouns which originally belonged to this 
class went over into the a-declension in prehistoric OE. 
without leaving any trace of the u-declension, as ftr (Goth, 
&irtts), messenger) dea]> (Goth. d&a}>tt8), (leath-, feorh 
(also neut), /i^ ; fLodt/lood; gnmd, ground; hi&tp pleasure, 
desire; scield, shield ; ])om, thorn; beofor, beaver; esoU 
ass; hungor, hunger; ^cci^^ fishing; himto]>, hunting; 
for further examples, see § 605. 

§ 806. Like sunu are declined bregu, prince, rukr; 
heoru, sword yl^ga, sea, flood; magu» son, man ; meda» 
meodu, tnead (gen. meda beside medwes) ; siidu, custom ; 
•^-J' ' spitu, 5^1/; wudu, a;oorf. 

§ 307. Like feld are declined eard, native country ; ford, 
ford; g&r (mostly in compounds), spear; had, rank, con- 
dition (for compounds in •hS.d, see § 605) ; hearg, temple ; 
seaj>,/iif, spring; weald, forest ; sumor, summer; aeppel 
(gen. 8ep(p)les, pi. ap(p)la beside 8ep(p)las, and neut. 
ap(p)lu), apple ; winter (pi. neut. wintru beside winter), 

b. Feminine. 

§ 808. Sing. 

Nom. Ace. 

duru, -o, door 

hand, hand 








Nom. Ace. 












The masculine and feminine u-stems were originally 
declined alike. In the short stems the nom. ace. sing, was 
also sometimes used for the dat. sing, and nom. ace. plural ; 
and the gen, and dat. sing, often had -e after the analogy of 
the short 5-stems. Beside the regular gen. and dat sing. 
dura, there also occurs dyre» dyru with i-umlaut after the 
analogy of the 1-declension. In the long stem3 the nom. 
ace. sing, was sometimes used for the gen. and dative. 
To the short stems also belongs ndsu, nose ; and to the long 
stems : cweorn (also 6-declension), Goth, •qairnus, hand- 
miU] fldr (also masc), floor] ^nd originally also cin(n) 
(Goth; kinnus, Gr. y^nis), chin. 

c. Neuter. 
§ 300. The neuter u-stems had originally the same 
endings as the masculine except in the nom. ace. sing, and 
plural; the former of which ended in -u and the latter in -u. 
Nth. feolUy -o, and the WS. isolated inflected form f^la, 
feola, much^ many, are the only remnants of this declen^ 
sion in OE. feoh (Goth, fofhu), cattle, went over into 
the a-declension in prehistoric OE. 

B. The Weak Declension (N-Stems). 
a. Masculine, 

>; Sing. 


gtuna, man 

frea, lord 











>m. Ace. 










^' OF "rr. ^ \ 

::^:rY } 

1 88 Accidence [§401 

The prim. Germanic forms were: Sing. nom. '^gumft» 
ace. *5i!manttii, gen. ^gtunemuB (Goth, gumiiis), dat., 
properly locative, '^jtunini (Goth, gumin) ; Plur. nom. 
'^jumanis (Goth, gtimans), ace. '^gumanunz^gen. *{amn8n 
(cp. Goth. a^s-nS, OE. ox^nBL, 0/ oxen) beside West Ger- 
manic ^gumonSn (OHG. gomono, OS. gumono) with 
•5n8n from the fern, nouns, dat« *gtimunmlz beside West 
Germanic *ji3md(n)niiz (OHG. gomom) with -d- from 
the genitive. In OE. the nom. and ace. sing, and the 
nom. pL were regularly developed from the correspond- 
ing priiii. Germanic forms. The regular form of the gen. 
and dat. sing, would be *gttmeiit *gymen, but OE. had 
levelled out the -an of the ace. sing, before the period 
of i*umlaut. The gen. pi. can be either from '^gumanSn 
with a from the sing, and the nom. plural, or from West 
Germanic *5umon8n (§§ 20.7, 222). The dat. pi. was 
formed direct from gum+^um, the ending of the a-stems 
and the other consonantal stems, or else it is from West 
Germanic *jumd(n)miz. Beside the regular gen. pi. 
ending -ena, the forms -ana, -ona sometimes occur. The 
e in -ena was generally syncopated after long stems in 
poetry and in the names of peoples. On the loss of final 
•n in Nth., see § 288. 

From a morphological point of view the n-stems should 
be divided into -an, -Jan, and -wan stems, but in OE. 
as in the other Germanic languages all three classes were 
declined alike. The -jan stems have 1-um Jaut in the stem- 
syllable and also gemination of consonants when the stem 
was originally short, as dema, judge, cyta, kiie, becca, 
pickaxe, brytta, distributor, prince, from prim. Germanic 
MomjS, kutjS, *t>akj8, *t>ru1j8. 

§ 401. Like guma are declined a lai^e number of nouns, 
as ftctimbai oakum-, sra^ strigil; eerendra, messenger; 
^glKca,, monster; SLndB,,envy; axkdsaca,, adversary ; anga, 
goad; apa,ape; assa,a55; haxiSL, s/ayer ; b€na, suppliant ; 

§ 4oa] Nouns 189 

beorma, barm, yeast ; bera, bear ; bes(e)ma, besom ; bita, 
bit, morsel; blanca^ horse ; bldstina» blossom ; boda, mes- 
senger \ boga, bow\ bolla, &{>«;/; brdga, terror) bucca, 
he-goat', bylda, builder ; byrga^ surety; cleofa, cleft, cave ; 
cnapa, boy, cnotta, knot-, cofa, chamber) crabba, crab-, 
crvaBBOL, crumb \ cvansL, guest, stranger \ dogga^^o^; dora, 
bumble-bee \ dropa, drop) dwobna, chaos ) eafora, son) 
fana, banner) f§]>a, 6aiu/ of infantry) fiiema, fugitive) 
flota, sailor) fola, />a/; freca, wamor; frogga, frog) 
fruma, beginning) gftra, comer) gealga, gallows) gealla, 
gall) get^TAf companion ; gehola,, protector) geretSL, reeve ) 
gerima, councillor) gesaca, adversary) gepoftSL, com- 
panion) gewuna, custom; haca, hook) hafela, head; 
hana, cock; hara, hare) hunta, hunter) inca, grudge; 
leoma, ray of light; lida, sailor; loca, enclosure; maga, 
stomach) mona, moon; naca, boat; nama, name) nefa, 
nephew) oga., terror) oretta, warrior) oza (pi. oxen 
exen, beside ozan, § 107), ox) plegA,play; pohha,, pouch, 
bag) pricsL, prick, point) Tiaui,rim) Ty\^^, mastiff ) sada, 
cord, snare) scBXicaLt shank ; BCSLpB,,foe, enemy; screawa, 
shrew-mouse; scucca, demon) scu(w)a, shadow) sefa, 
mind, heart) slaga, slayer) snaca, snake) sopa, sup) 
spftca, spoke of a wheel; spearwa, sparrow ; staca, stake ; 
sielsL, stalk) steorr a., star) sweora,, neck; swicsi, deceiver ) 
Bwimsi, giddiness; teiga, branch ; trega, grief affliction ; 
]>earfa, pauper) ]mma, thumb; wela, prosperity; wita, 
sage, wise man ; witega, prophet ; wr8ecc(e)a (§ 55, Note 3), 
exile) wyrhta, worker; and the pi. hiwan (gen. hina 
beside biwna), members of a household. 

§ 402. Like frea are declined flea, ftea ; gef&, foe ; 
(ge)fea,yby; ISo, lion; ra, roe) twee, doubt; wea, woe) 
and the plural Sweon, Swedes, See § 139. 

igo Acddence [§§403-4 

b. Feminine. 

§ 408. Sing. 

Norn, tunge, tongtie M09 bee 

Ace. tungan beon 

Gen. tungan Mon 

Dat. tungan bion 


Nom. Ace. tungan bion 

Gen. tungena beona 

Dat. tungum beom 

The feminine n-stems were originally declined like the 
masculine, as in Latin, Greek and Sanskrit, but already in 
the prehistoric period of the Germanic languages, they 
became differentiated in some of the cases by partly 
generalizing one or other of the forms, thus the nom. sing, 
originally ended in *h or -dn in both genders, the West 
Germanic languages restricted -8 to the masculine and -on 
to the feminine, but in Gothic the reverse took place. In 
the fem. Goth. O.Icel. OS. and OHG. levelled out the 
long vowel of the nom. into the oblique cases, whereas 
0£. had the same forms as the masculine except in the 
nom. sing, -e from prim. Germanic -on (§ 217). The 
general remarks made in § 400 concerning the masculine 
n-stems also apply to the feminine. 

The fem. nouns with short stems began to form their 
nom. sing, after the analogy of the short o-stems (§ 866) 
already in early 0£., as cinu, chink^ spadu, spade^ beside 
cine, spade. 

§404. Like tunge are declined «dre, artery^ vein; 
fiehnessCy aims; ibBce, inquiry] ampre, sorrel; ar(e)we» 
arrow; asse, she^itss; asce, ash, cinders; ft])ezey lisfard; 
bttcestre (also masc), baker (for other examples con* 
taining the sufBx -estretsee §608); hece, beech-iree; belle, 

§§405-6] Nouns 191 

bell) berige, berry; bleme, trumpet) bicce, bitch) Unde, 
head-band) blsdre, bladder) blsese, blaze, firebrand, torch) 
bame, stream, brook) byme, corslet) canne, can, cup) 
ceace, cheek, jaw; ceole, throat) cirice, church) clugge, 
bell) QT^^e9crow) cnppe, cup) cuslyppef'Sloppe, cowslip) 
cwene, woman) docce, dock (plant) ; dfice, duck; eor])e, 
earth) td^ele, torch ) fB,^fauni) ttpele, fiddle) tieoge,fiy) 
fliete, cream) folde, earth; hacele, cloak; hearpe, harp) 
heofone, heaven) heorte (orig. neut.), heart; hlsfdige, 
lady ; hruse, earth ; loppe, fiea ; mmge, mSige, kinswoman ; 
meowle, maulen ; miere, mare; mddrlge, maternal aunt; 
molde^ earth ; more, parsnip ; mo})]>e, moth ; nabdre, snake ; 
osle, ousel; panne, pan; pere, pear; pipe, pipe; pirlge, 
pear-tree; pise, pea ; racente, chain ; seohhe, sieve ; side, 
side; slyppe^^os/^; smippe, smithy; Bimne,sun; swealwe, 
swallow; swipe, scourge ; prote, throat ; pyme, thombush ; 
vde, owl; waecce (§ 66, Note 3), v^'l; w&se, mud; wicce, 
witch; wise, way, manner; wice, wnce, week; wulle, 
wool; vrndnvre, widow ) fee, toad, frog. 

§ 406. Like beo are declined ceo, jackdaw, chough ; fkh, 
arrow ; sSo, pupil of the eye ; slU, sUlh, sloe ) \Sl, toe ) \!b, 
clay. See § 189. 

c. Neuter. 

§ 406. Sing. Plur. 

Nom. Ace. eage, eye eagan 

Gen. eagan eagena 

Dat. eagan eagum 

The neuter n-stems had originally the same endings as 
the masculine and feminine except in the ace. sing, and the 
nom. ace. plural. The nom. ace. sing, had -dn which 
regularly became -e in OE. (§ 217). The nom. ace. pi. had 
•5na in the Indg. parent language. This was changed in 
prim. Germanic into -dnd with -5 from the neuter a-stgms. 
•ond regularly became •dna in Goth., as &ugd, eye, nom. 



[§§ 407-10 

ace. pi. &ttg5iia. The OE. ending -an was due to the 
analogy of die masc. and fem. n-stems. 

§ 407* Like Sage are only declined eare, ear ; wange 
(also with strong forms), chedt. 

C Minor Declensions. 
I. Monosyllabic Consonant Stems. 


The prim. Germanic forms were : Sing. nom. f6t for 
older '*'^s(s) (Gr. Dor. inis) with t from the inflected forms 
(§ 240), and similarly to]> for older *tds(s), ace. '*'fdttin 
(Goth, fdtu), gen. *fota2, dat., properly loc., *f6ti; Plur. 
nom. /^fdUz, ace. *fdtimz (Goth, fotuns), gen. *f5t8n, dat. 
*fdtumiz. The OE. correspond to the prim. Germanic 
forms except in the gen. sing, which is a new formation 
after the analogy of the a*stems. The regular form would 
be *fot 

§ 409. Like fot are declined to]>, tooth ; man(n) (beside 
manna, ace. mannan, n-declension), man ; and wifman, 
wimman, woman. 

a, Masadine. 



Nom. Ace. 









b. Feminine. 

§ 410. Sing. 

Nom. Ace. 

bpc, book 

hnutu, nut 


b§c; bdce 






Nom. Ace 









§§411-12] Nouns 193 

The OE. forms of boc are regularly developed from 
prim. Germanic: Sing. nom. *bdk8, ace. "^bokun, gen. 
*bokaz, dat. *boki; Plur. nom. *b5kiz, ace. '^'bdkunz, 
gen. *bok8n, dat. "^bokumiz. The gen. sing. b5ce was 
a new formation after the analogy of the 5-stems, and bSc 
is the dat used for the gen. The regular nom. sing, of 
hnutu would be "^hnuss (§ 240), hnutu (prim. Germ, 
^^xnutun) is the ace. used for the nominative. The gen. 
sing, was formed after the analogy of the d-stems; the dat. 
sing, and nom. pi. correspond to prim. Germanic *xnutiy 
*xntttiZy the final -i (later -e) being retained after a short 
stem (§ 215). 

In nouns belonging to this class the stem-vowels ft, 5, 
u, u were regularly umlauted to », e (Nth. de), y, y in the 
dat. sing, and nom. ace. plural. In nearly all the nouns 
belonging to this class, beside the gen. sing, with umlaut 
there exists a form ending in -e without umlaut which was 
made after the analogy of the 5-stems. In late OE. the 
dat. sing, was often like the nominative, 

§411. Like boc are declined ac, oak] broc, trousers] 
burg, city (gen. dat. sing, and nom. ace. pi. byrig beside 
byrg, § 220 ; also declined like cwen (§ 889), but without 
i-umlaut); cu, cow (also gen. sing, cue, ciis; nom. ace. pi. cy, 
eye, gen. ciia, ciina, cyna); dung, prison] gat, goat] 
gos, goose ] grut, coarse meal, groats ; lus, louse ; i]ieol(u)c, 
milk ] mus, motise ; neaht, niht, night (also gen. dat. sing. 
nihte ; adv. gen. nihtes, anes nihtes, at night, by night, 
formed after the analogy of deeges); turf, turf] furh, 
furrow (gen. sing, fure beside fyrh, pi. gen. fUra, dat. 
fiirum, § 115) ; sulh, plough (gen. sing, siiles on analogy 
with the a-stems, pi. gen. siila, dat. sulum) ; ])riih, trough 
(dat. pi. ]>ruin, § 829) ; vrlbh, fringe. 

§ 412. Like hnutu are declined hnitu, nit ; studtt, stu]>u, 




c. Neuter, 
§ 418* The only remnant of this class is scrad, garment^ 
dat. scr^d; gen. Bcrades and late OE. dat. scrude were 
formed after the analogy of the neuter a*stems, and also 
the nom. ace. pi. BcrQd ; gen. pi. scruda, dat. Bcrttdtim. 

2. Stems in •]>. 

§ 414. Of the nouns which originally belonged to this 
declension only four have been preserved: masc. hsele]) 
(OHG. helid), haele, hero, man, m5na]> (Goth. mend]>s), 
month ; fern. m8eg(e)]> (Goth. maga]>s), maiden ; neut. ealu, 
ale. hsBle}), heele, m5na])» and m8eg(e)]> originally had the 
same endings as the prim. Germanic forms of f5t (§ 408) 
and boo (§ 410). The J) was reintroduced into the nom. 
sing, from the inflected forms. The old nom. ace. sing, 
has been preserved in ealtu The gen. and dat. sing, of 
heele]) and mona]) were formed on analogy with the 
a-declension ; and beside the nom. ace. pi. hsele]', mona]>, 
there also exist h8ele})a8» mdn(e)]>as. Those forms which 
did not originally have umlaut were generalized in OE. 
They are declined as follows :— 


Nom. Ace. haele, hsele]) mdna]) m8eg(e)]> 

Gen. h8ele})es moii(e)]>es m»g(e)j> 

Dat. h»le])e in5&(e)]>e in»g(e)]> 

Nom. Ace. haele]) mdna]> m»g(e)]> 

Gen. h8ele]>a mdn(e)]>a m8eg(e)})a 





Dat. h»le]>iim m5ii(e)]mm m8eg(e)]>am 

3. Stems in -r. 

§ 415. To this class belong the nouns of relationship : 
fe^er, father ; br6J)or, brother; modor, mother; dohtor, 
daughter; sweostor, sister; and the collective plurals, 




gebr5]>or, gebr5])ru, brethren-, gesweostor, -tru, -tra, 



" Nom. Ace. faeder 



Gen. feeder, -eres 



Dat. faeder 




Nom. Ace. feederas 

br5]H>r, .))r 

u mddor, -dru, -dra 

Gen. faedera 



Dat. faederum 




Nom. Ace. 










Nom. Aee. 


•tru, -tra 








The prim. Germanic forms of faeder were : Sing. nom. 
♦fader (Gr. iran^p), aee. *faderun (Gr. iror^pa), gen. ♦fadras 
(Gr. irarpiSs, Lat. patris), dat. *fadri (Gr. irarpi); Plur. nom. 
*faderiz (Gr. irar^pes), ace. *fadrunz (cp. Goth. br6])runs), 
gen. *fadr5n (Gr. iroTpwi'), dat. *fadnimiz (cp. Goth. 
br5]>rum). The OE. nom. ace. and gen. sing, faeder is 
normally developed from the corresponding prim. Ger- 
manic forms. On the gen. faeder from ^fadras, see § 219 ; 
faederes was formed on analogy with the a-stems. The 
prim. Germanic pi. forms (except the ace.) regularly became 
♦feeder, faedra, faedrtim, the last two of which were common 
in the oldest period of the language ; then later -er was 
levelled out into the gen. and dat., and the nom. pi. ^faeder 
became faed(e)ras on analogy with the a-stems. 

The prim. Germanic case endings of bro})or, mddor, 
dohtor, and sweostor were the same as those of faeder 

o 2 

196 Accidence [§416 

except that bro)H>r and sweostor having originally the 
chief accent on the stem had -raz in the gen. singular. 
The dat. forms *t>r6}«l, *m6dri, MoxW (older *duxtri) 
with o. from the nom. ace. and gen., ^swestri (older 
*8wistri) with e from the nom. ace. and gen., regularly 
became bre])er, meder, dehter, sweostor (cp. § 219). In 
late OE. the dat. med^, dehter were often used for the 
gen. and vice versa. The gen. sing. *hrb}pTBZ, *m5dras» 
*doxtras, *swestraz, regularly became bro])or, modor, 
dohtory sweostor (§ 219). The gen. and dat pi. were 
regularly developed from the corresponding prim. Germanic 
forms. The nom. sing, and pi. were in prim. OE. *br6J)er, 
*in5der, *doxter, "^swestor, then -er became -or (older -iir) 
through the influence of the guttural vowel in the stem 
(cp. § 222), but the ending -er (rarely -ar) often occurs both in 
early and late OE. sweostor had -or in prim. Germanic, 
as nom. sing. *swesor, Indg. *swes6r, pi. *swesoriz, Indg. 
*swesores; the t was developed between the s and r in 
the gen. sing. *swestraz, pi. ^swestrSn, and then became 
generalized (§ 240). 

gebr5]H>r and gesweostor were originally neuter collec- 
tive nouns and were declined like wite (§ 856), whence the 
plural endings gebr5]>rUy gesweostru, -tra, which were 

4. The Masculine Stems 

§ 416. Sing. 
Nom. Ace. freoni,/riend 
Gen. friondes 
Dat. friend, freonde 

IN -nd. ^ 


Nom. Ace. friend, freond, -as 
Gen. freonda 
Dat. freondum 

wigend, -e, -as 



§§417-19] Nouns 197 

The nouns of this declension are old present participles, 
like Lat. ferens, bearing, gen. ferentisy and originally had 
the same case endings as the other consonantal stems. 
But in OE. as in the other Germanic languages they 
underwent various new formations. The OE. present 
participles had passed over into the ja-declension of ad- 
jectives (§§ 488-4) in the oldest period of the language. 

The nom. sing, was a new formation with d from the in- 
flected forms, cp. Lat. ferens from *ferens8 older *fere&ts 
(§ 240). The gen. sing, freondes, wigendes, dat. fr§onde, 
wigende, nom. ace. pi. fr^ondas, wfgendas were formed 
after the analogy of the masc. a-stems. The dat. friend with 
umlaut is from '^'friondi older *frtiondi ; and the nom. pi. 
friend is also from ^friondi older *irydndiz (Goth.frtionds). 
The nom. and gen. pi. endings -e, -ra are adjectival (§ 424). 

§417. Like freond are declined fSond, enemy \ teond, 
accuser ; the compound noun gddddnd (pi. -dond, beside 
•dend), benefactor; and the collective plurals gefiend, 
enemies; gefxiend, friends, which were originally neuter 
collective nouns and declined like wite (§ 866). 

§ 418. Like wigend are declined agend, owner; be- 
swicend, deceiver; ehtend, persecutor ; hslend, Saviour; 
helpend, helper; hettend, enemy; ner(i)gend, Saviour; 
semend, arbitrator ; wealdend, ruler ; for further examples, 
see § 601. 

5. Stems in -os, -es. 

§ 419. This class of nouns corresponds to the Or. 
neuters in -os, Lat. -us, as Or. y^kos, race, gen. y^kcos older 
*yiv€in^, Lat. genusy gen. generis, pi. genera. A fairly 
large number of nouns originally belonged to this class, 
but owing to various levellings and new formations, of 
which some took place in the prehistoric period of all the 
Germanic languages, nearly all the nouns belonging here 
went over into other declensions in OE. The prim. Ger- 

198 Accidence [§420 

manic forms of a word like lamb were : Sing. nom. ace. 
"^lambaz, gen. *lambezaz, ^lambiziz, dat. *lam!>izi ; Plur. 
nom. ace. *lambdzo, gen. *lambez5n, dat '*'lambezumiz. 
After the loss of the singular endings -az, -iz, -i, the follow- 
ing changes took place : from the gen. and dat. sing, a new 
nom. ""lambiz beside lamb was formed. This accounts 
for the preservation of the i in Gothic in such words 
as hatis = OE. hete, hate, sigis = OE. sige, victory, 
which would have been *hats and *8igs in Gothic, had 
these words ended in -Iz in prim. Germanic. The new 
nom. ending -iz regularly became -i in OE., then it caused 
umlaut in the stem-syllable and disappeared after long 
stems, but remained after short stems and later became 
ne, whence forms like nom. sing, lemb, gsst, hlsw, hete, 
sige beside lamb, g&st, hlftw. After medial -z- in the 
gen. and dat. sing, had become r (§ 252) it was levelled out 
into the nom. sing, in some nouns, as Mo^r, *h&lr beside 
"^ddsi, *haii, then later ddgor, hlUor, older -ur, beside 
ddeg (Nth.), hsl. All the nouns which underwent these 
new formations passed into other declensions partly with 
change of gender also. Thus, gftst, g&st, spiritf breath, 
sigor, victory, went into the masc. a-declension ; hUew, 
hl&w, mound, hill, hr«(w), hra(w), also neut., corpse, 
carrion, into the masc. wa-declension ; ddeg (Nth.), day, ge- 
ban(n), summons, gefog, joining, joint, geheald, keeping, 
custody, gehntst, conflict, strife, gewealc, rolling, 9ml,hall, 
dogor, day, eagor, jlood, tid^ ear, ear of corn, h^or, 
salvation, health, hri}>er, hry]?er, ox, salor, hall, stulor, 
theft, pi. hseteru, clothes, into the neut. a-declension ; bere, 
barley, ^g^f fear, hete, hate, mene, necklace, sige, victory 
into the masc. i«declension ; oferslege, lintel, orlege, fate, 
sife, sieve, spare, spear, fLibsc, fleshy fUeB, fleece, hsl, health, 
salvation, hilt, hilt, Isn, loan, sweng, blow, into the neuter 
§ 420. The few remaining nouns formed their gen. and 

§ 421] Adjectives 199 

dat, sing, after the analogy of the neuter a-stems. The 
cases of the plural were regularly developed from the 
corresponding prim. Germanic forms. 


Nom. Ace. lamb, lamb cealf, ccUf eeg, egg 

* Gen. lambes cealfes sges 

Dat lambe cealfe »ge 


om. Ace. 












Beside lamb there also occurs lombor and sometimes 
iemb; in late OE. the pi. was lamb, lamba, lambum 
after the analogy of the neuter a-stems. Beside the 
Anglian sing, calf there also occurs caelf, celf with i- 

Like lamb are declined cild (pi. cild beside cildru), 
child; speld, splinter, torch ; pi. breadru, crumbs. 



A. The Declension of Adjectives. 

§ 421. In the parent Indg. language nouns and adjectives 
were declined alike without any distinction in endings, as 
in Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit. What is called the un« 
inflected form of adjectives in the Germanic languages 
is a remnant of the time when nouns and adjectives were 
declined alike. But already in Indo-Germanic the pro- 
nominal adjectives had partly nonlinal and partly pronominal 
endings as in Sanskrit. In prim. Germanic the endings 
of the pronominal adjectives were extended to all adjectives. 

200 A cadence [§ 421 

These remarks apply to what is called in the Germanic 
languages the strong declension of adjectives. 

The so-called weak declension of adjectives is a special 
Germanic formation by means of the suffixes -en-, -on-, 
which were originally used to form nomina agentis, and 
attributive nouns, as Lat. edo (gen. edonis), glutton, OE. 
slaga, slayer, wyrhta, worker, gen. slagan, wyrhtan; 
Lat. adjectives catus, sly, cunning, rafus, red, red4iaired, 
stilus, pug-nosed, beside the' proper names Cat5 (gen. 
Catdnis), lit. the sly one, Rufo, the red-haired man, Silo, 
the pug-nosed man ; and similarly in OE. blaec, black, fr5d, 
ujise, old, h&lig, holy, beside the proper names Blaca, 
Froda, Halga. In like manner Goth, blinds, OE. blind, 
blind, beside Goth. OE. blinda, which originally meant, 
the blind man ; Goth, ahma sa weiha, lit. ghost the holy 
one. Such nouns came to be used attributively at an early 
period, and then later as adjectives. And already in prim. 
Germanic this weak declension became the rule when the 
adjective followed the definite article, as Wulfm»r se 
geonga, Wulfmcerthe Young, OHG. Ludowigther snello, 
Ludwig the Brave, cp. NHG. Karl der Grosse. At 
a later period, but still in prim. Germanic, the two kinds 
of adjectives — strong and weak— became differentiated in 
use. When the one and when the other form was used in 
OE. is a question of syntax. There were adjectival n- 
stems in the parent Indg. language, but they did not have 
vocalic stems beside them as is the case in the Germanic 
languages, call, all, genbg, enough, manig, many, and 
oJ)er, second, were always declined according to the strong 
declension. Nearly all other adjectives can be declined 
according to either declension. 

The strong form is used predicatively in the positive and 
superlative degrees; and when the adjective is used 
attributively without any other defining word, as wses sSo 
fsemne geong, the woman was young ; ]>& menn sindon 

§§42 2-3] A djec fives 20 1 

g5de» the men are g6od] ]>us wsron ]>& latestan fyr- 
meste, Oius were the last, first In the vocative the weak 
form exists beside the strong, as ]m leofa dryhten, thou 
dear Lord ; })U riht C3ming, ihoujust king. 

The weak form is used after the definite article, and 
after demonstrative and possessive pronouns, as se ofer- 
m5da C3ming, the proud king -, ]>«s eadigan wares, of the 
blessed man ; ]>es ealda mann, this old man ; on ]iissum 
andweardan daege, on this present day ; min leofa sunu, 
my dear son ; })urh June ae^elan hand, through thy noble 
hand. In poetry the weak form often occurs where in 
prose the strong form would be used. 

Note.— When the same adjective refers both to masc, and 
fem. beings, it is put in the neut. plural, as Wit )ni8 baru ne 
magon butu aetsomne. wesan, IVe {Adam and Eve) may not 
both together be thus here naked] cp. Goth, wesun garaihta ba in 
andwair]>ja gtt]>s, O.Icel.]>au v^ro retl§t b»]>e fyr gu]>e, OHG. 
siu warun rehUu beidu fora gote, they (Zacharias and Elizabeth) 
were both righteous before God, 

§ 422. In OE. the adjectives are declined as strong 
or weak. They have three genders, and the same cases 
as nouns with the addition of an instrumental' in the masc. 
and neuter singular. 

I. The Strong Declension. 
§ 428. The endings of the strong declension are partly 
nominal and partly pronominal, the latter are printed 
in italics for glaed, glad, and blind, blind. The nominal 
endings are those of the a-, 6-declensions, The strong 
declension is divided into pure a-, 5-stems, ja-, j5-stems, 
and wa-, wd-stems, like the corresponding nouns. The 
original i- and u-stems passed over almost entirely into 
this declension in prehistoric OE. In OE. the ja-, jo- 
stems and the wa-, wd-stems only differed from the pure 
a-, 6-stems in the masc. and fem. nom. singular and the 
neut. nom. ace. singular. 




I§ 4H 


a. Pure a-. 









gladu, -o 

















Nom. Ace. 


gladu, -o 

glade, -a 











blind, blind 



















Nom. Ace. 



blinde, -a 









The prim. Germanic forms of blind were : Mase. sing, 
nom. ^blindaz (Goth, blinds), ace. *blindanon (Goth, 
blindana); gen. *blindesa, -asa, dat. *blindommd, -6 
(Goth, blindamma), instr. (loc.) *blindai; plur. nom. 
♦bUndai (Goth, blindii), ace. *blindanz (Goth. bUndans), 
gen. "^blindaizSn, dat. "^blindomiz. Neut. nom. ace. sing. 
I'blindan (Goth, blind), nom. ace. pi. ^blindo (Goth, blinda). 
Fern. sing. nom. *blind6 (Goth, blinda), ace. *blind5n 
(Goth, blinda), gen. ^blindizSz (ep. Goth. ]?iz6s, of the), 
dat. ^blindizai (ep. Goth. }>iz&i, to the) ; pi. nom. ace. 
♦blindSz (Goth. blindds),gen.*blindaizon,dat. *b!indomiz. 

§§425-6] Adjectives 203 

On the syncope of the medial vowel in blindne, bllndra, 
blindre, see §221; after the analogy of such forms it 
was also dropped in adjectives with short stem-syllables. 
In late OE. -era, -ere are common after both long and 
short stem-syllables. The nom. ace. neut. pi. and nom. 
sing. fem. go back to prim. Germanic '^'Dlindd, the -5 
of which became -u (§ 214) and then disappeared after long 
stems (§ 215), whence blind beside gladu. In late WS. 
the masc. nom. ace. pi. form was generally used for the 
neuter; and occasionally the -u of the short stems was 
extended to the long. On the u in bUndum, see § 218 ; 
the •um became -un, -on-, -an in late OE. (§ 284). blindra 
goes back to prim. OE. ''^blindaera, *blindera, with ae, e 
from the masc. and neut. gen. singular. This form then 
came to be used for the feminine also. The remaining 
forms require no comment, as they are regularly developed 
from the corresponding prim, Germanic forms. 

§ 426. On the interchange between ae and a in the 
declension of glsed, see § 54, Note 3. Like glaed are 
declined the monosyllabic adjectives with short stems, as 
baer, bare ; blaec, black ; breed, quick ; hwaet, brisk, active) 
Iset, slow ; smael, tender, sntall; seed, satiated; waer, wary, 
cautious; doU foolish; fr^m, active, bold ; free, bold; !rum, 
original, first ; gram, angry, fierce ; hoi, hollow ; hnot, 
bald; til,good, useful; tnim, firm, strong; wan, wanting, 
deficient ; tnlic, solitary (for other examples, see § 684) ; 
angsum, troublesome (for other examples, see § 686). 

§ 426. Like blind are declined the monosyllabic adjec- 
tives with long stems, asbeald,6o/rf; beorht, bright; blac, 
pak; bTVLn, brown; hrsid, broad; ceBld,cold; cnp, known, 
familiar; dead, dead; deaf, deaf ; .deop, deep; deorc, 
dark ; dumb, dumb ; eald, old ; earg, cowardly ; earm, 
poor; forhit feafful, timid; frod, wise, old; fvd,foul; fus, 
ready; gefdg{gefdh), joint; genbg {genbh), enough ; geong, 
young; geom, eager; gnea]>, niggardly ; god, good; grseg, 

204 Accidence [§ 4*7 

grey; griat, large ) hftl, whole, sound; hftr, hoary; h&Sy 
hoarse; healt, halt, lame; hgan, /bo^/v, de^nsed; hold, 
gracious; hrdr, oc:/^^, brave; hwit, o^AiK^; lang, /oi^; 
1&]>, hateful; Vtz!^ free from^ faiMess; leof, efear; ranc, 
proud; read, r^rf; riht, n^/, straight; rof, ^ot^, strong; 
rot, ^/d^, cheefful; rum, nM>iify ; s&r, 5or<f ; scearp, sAaf]^ ; 
scir, 6n^A/, shining; scort, sAor/; sioc, 5i!r£; sb}>ftrue; 
steap, 5/^^/, /^(v; stearc, 5/i]|f; 8li]>, s/fji^ n^; Strang, 
strong; swift, 5«q^; swi)>, strong; torht, bright; trSlg, 
/a0y, 6a^; ]>earl, severe; wset, tt^/; w&c, ze^^oit; wealt, 
unsteady ; wearm, zc;arm ; wid, «^V& ; wis, wise ; wlanc, 
proud; wod, mad; wrsst, firm, strong; wrSlJ), wroth, 
^^^gKy'f wtind, wounded; fym (orig. i-stem), old, ancient; 
col (orig. u-stem), cool; heard (orig. u-stem), hard. The 
double consonants were simplified in the inflected forms 
before other consonants (§ 259) in words like dunn, dun ; 
eall, all; feorr, far; full, /«//; gewiss, certain, sure; 
grhnm,grim ; snell, ready, active. For examples of adjec- 
tives like 8e]>elcundy of noble origin ; anfeald, single ; ftrfaest, 
virtuous ; ftrleas, impious, see Adjectival Suffixes, ?§ 623, 







heah, high 



















Nom. Ace. 












heanne, hearra, hearre were due to the assimilation of 
hn and hr ; and heane, heara, heare arose from the regu- 

§§ 428-9] 



lar loss of h before n» r (§ 829^ 2). In heaum the u was 
restored after the analogy of forms like gladum, blindum. 
The instr., masc. and fern. nom. pi., and fern. ace. singular 
hea was from older *heahe ; and the neut. nom. ace. pi. 
and fem. nom. singular from older ""heahu ; masc. and neut. 
gen. sing, from "^heahes. See § 189. Late OE. forms 
like gen. heages, dat. heage, nom. pi. heage beside older 
heas, hea(u)my hga were formed after the analogy of such 
words as gen. gefdges, gendges beside nom. gefoh, gen5h 

§ 428. Like heah are declined Wi, hostile ; Mh, deceit- 
ful; hreohy rudef roughs wild; neah, nighf near; ruh, 
rough ; sceoh, shy ; toh, tough ; wdh^ crooked, bad. 
sceolh, ^atvry, squinting ; ]>weorh9 cross, perverse, dropped 
the h and lengthened the diphthong in the inflected forms, as 
gen. sceoles^ ]>weores9 dat. sceolum, pweorma, cp. § 149. 







manig, many 



















Nom. Ace. 



manige, -a 











hSMg, holy 


haligu, -o 















2o6 Accidence [§§ 430-1 


Nom. Ace. h&lge h&ligu, -o halge, -a 

Gen. h&ligra h&ligra h&ligra 

Dat. hftlgum hftlgum h&lgum 

Original short medial vowels in open syllables regularly 
remained in trisyllabic forms when the stem-syllable was 
short. They also remained in closed syllables irrespec- 
tively as to whether the stem-syllable was long or short. 
But they disappeared when the stem-syllable was long. 
See § 221* Final -u regularly disappeared after a long 
medial syllable, and also when the stem and the medial 
syllable were short, but remained when the stem*syllable 
was long and the medial syllable short. See § 216* There 
are many exceptions to the above rules due to analogical 
formations, as 3rfles, hftliges, h&lgu beside older yfeles, 
halges, hftligu, see § 228, Note i. In adjectives ending in 
-en, -er, the combinations -enne (masc. ace. sing.), -erra 
(gen. pi.), and -erre (fern. gen. dat. sing.) were often sim- 
plified to -ene, -era, -ere especially in late OE. (§ 269, 4). 

§ 480. Like manig are declined the dissyllabic adjectives 
with short stems, as atol, terrible^ dire ; bedol, suppliant ; 
br»sen, of brass (for examples of other adjectives ending in 
-en, see §626); ef en, even-, etol, gluitonatis ; frngeUpglad; 
fBdger, fair ; fLACor; flickering ; fiagol, fleet, swift; forod, 
decayed; fraco]>, vHe, bad; hnitol, given to butting; micel 
(see § 228, Note i), /ar^^, ^^a/ ; nsLCod, naked; open, open; 
plegol, playful; recen, ready, prompt; sicor, sure; 
svreotol, plain, evident ; yf el, evil; vr2X,ov, vigilant; bysig, 
busy (for other examples, see § 680) ; past participles, as 
boren, borne ; coren, chosen ; legen, lain ; &c. 

§ 48L Like haiig are declined the dissyllabic adjectives 
with long stems, as &col, timid, frightened ; 8ejk(t)reii, poison- 
ous (for examples of other adjectives ending in -en, see 
§ 626); &gen, own; beogol, agreeing; bit(t)er, bitter; 

f§ 432-31 



braegden, deceitful] cristen, christian] d§agol, diegol, 
secret) esicen, great, increased; earfo]>y difficult; firettol, 
greedy; geomor, sad; gylden, golden; hador, bright; 
h8e]>en» heathen ; hlut(t)or« clear ; idel, vain ; lytel* little ; 
5]>er (§ 228), second; 8not(t)or, wise ; st«gel» s/^e^ ; blddig, 
bleeding; crsftig, skilful; Sadig, rich, happy (for other 
examples, see § 630) ; cildisc, childish (for other examples 
see § 682) ; past participles, as bunden, bound ; holpen, 
helped, see § 442. 

b. ja-, jO-STEMS. 

§ 482. In the ja-, jo-stems it is necessary to distinguish 
between those stems which were originally long and those 
which became long by the West Germanic doubling of 
consonants (§ 254). The latter class were declined in OE. 
like the pure a-» o-stems ending in double consonants 
(§ 426), such are : gesibb, akin, related; midd, middle ; 
nytty useful The regular form of the nom. sing. masc. 
and neut. of a word like midd would be "^mide^ see § 274. 

§ 488. 






Wilde, wild 


wildu, -0 

















Nom. Ace. 


wildu, -o 

wilde, -a 









The only difference in declension between the original long 
ja-, j5-stems and the long pure a-, d-stems is in the masc. 
nom.sing.,neutnom. ace. sing. and plural, and thefem.nom. 
singular, wilde (masc. nom. sing.) is regularly developed 

2oS Accidence [f 434 

from prim. Germanic *wU])jaz, and the neut nom. ace. sing, 
from *wil])jan; wildu (fem. nom. sing, and neut. nom* 
ace. plural) was formed on anal(^ with the short pure 
a-stems (§ 424X the regular form would be *wild (see 
§ 216). Double consonants were simplified before or alter 
other consonants (§ 269), as masc. ace. sing. ]y3rime, Uiin^ 
fecne, deceit, ieme, angry, from *]>3nEiime, *f«ciine, 
^ierrne; fem. gen. dat. sing. gifre» greedy, ierre from 
♦gifrre, *ierrre. When n, r came to stand between two 
consonants the first of which was not a nasal or liquid, 
they became vocalic and then developed an e before them, 
as masc. ace. sing, gifeme from *gifnie ; fem. gen. dat. 
sing, f&cenre from ^fsecnre. Nearly all the old long i- 
and u-stems went over into this declension in prehistoric 

§ 484. Like wilde are declined a large number of ad- 
jectives, as seltsvirey entire; 8e]>ele, noble; andfenge, 
acceptable; andrysne, terrible; ftnliepe, single; bli)>e, 
joyful; breme, famous; brycef useful ; cene, bold; clsene, 
clean; cyme, comely, beautiful; cynde, natural; diere, 
deore, dear; dieme, hidden; dryge, dry; ece» eternal; 
egle, troublesome ; §ste, gracious ; fsecne, deceitful; fsege, 
fated; {eovrerfeief four footed; fide, level {of land) ; flgde, 
in flood; fotpgeage, effective; frecne, dangerous, wicked; 
frem{e)de, foreign ; fr6o (§ 10<L), free ; gecnswe, conscious 
of; gecweme, pleasant; jgedBfe, becoming, ft; gefere, 
accessible ; gehende, handy ; gemsene, common ; genseme, 
acceptable ; gesiene, visible ; getenge, near to ; getriewe, 
faithful; gifref greedy ; grene, green ; hlsene, lean ; hnaesce, 
soft, tender; ierre, angry; iej)e, easy; Isene, temporary; 
Istrsde, deliberate; li}>e, gentle; msere, famous; man- 
]>w&re, humane; medeme, moderate ; mepe, tired; milde, 
mild; myrge, merry; niewe, niwe (§ 90), new; ofenete, 
gluttonous ; ofersprsce, loquacious ; ormste, immeasur- 
able; repe, fierce; tict, powerful ; type, ripe; s»ne, slow; 

f 4351 Adjectives 209 

sammsele, agreed) sciene, beautiful; sefte, soft) ^H^^ 
cruel, savage ; sm^}>e, smooth ; smylte, mild, serene ; stille, 
stiU] strenge, strong) swetef sweet) svngef silent ) syfre, 
pure ) }4cce, thick ; ]>iestre, dark, gloomy ; priGngre, three 
fingers thick) ]7iiste, rash, daring) ]>riwintre, three years 
old) ]>3nme, thin) J>yrre, withered) unhiere, horrible) 
vi^Zeage, fugitive) weste, waste, barren ) wierj>e, worthy) 
wrane, wanton. In like manner are declined the present 
participles (§ 441). For examples of adjectives like seppel- 
b«re, apple-bearing) coppede, topped, polled) h&lwende» 
healthful, see Adjectival Suffixes, §§ 624, 638. 

C. Wa-, WO-STEMS. 







gearii, -o, ready 

gearu, -0 

gearuy -0 



gearuy -o 














Nom. Ace. 


gearUy -o 

gearwe, • 









w became vocalized to u (later o) when final and before 
consonants in prehistoric OE. (§265); whence masc. nom. 
sing., neut. nom. ace. sing, gearu from ^jarw-az, -an. 
The u had become o before consonants in the oldest 
period of the language, as gearone, gearora. The fern, 
nom. sing, and neut. nom. ace. pi. are from older ^jarwu 
with loss of w before the following u (§ 266). The dat. 
gearwum for ""gearum was a new formation made from 
forms like gearwes, gearwe, where the w was regular. 
On forms like gen. gearuwes, gearowes beside gearwes, 
see § 220. 

^to Accidence t§$43M 

§ 486. Like gearu are declined basu, beasu, purpk ; 
caltiy baU; cylu, spotted; fealn, /allow ; geolu, yellow; 
hasu* heaau, grey^ tawny ; mearu, tender ; nearu, narrow ; 
salUy sealu* dusky, dark. 

§ 487. The adjectives which had a long vowel or long 
diphthong in the stem reintroduced the w into the nomina- 
tive from the inflected forms (§ 266) and then came to be 
declined like pure long a-, o-stems (§ 424), such are : 
KB,we,/ew ; gedeaw, iletvy ; gehl§ow, sheltered ; geseaw, 
succulent; gl€B,w,wise; ImBaWf stingy; hreaw,ma;; row, 
quietf calm ; sl&w, slow ; }>eow, servile. 

d. i-STEMS. 

§ 438« Of the adjectives which originally belonged to 
this class, the long stems took final -i (later -e) from analogy 
with the short stems and then both classes went over into 
the ja-declension in prehistoric OE. The old short i-stems 
are still recognizable by the fact that they do not have 
double consonants in the stem-syllable. Examples are : 
bryce, brittle; gemyne» rem,embering ; swice, decett/ul; 
and of old long i-stems : bli]>e (Goth. blei]>s), joyful; bryce 
(Goth, bruks), usejul; c^nt^ clean; gecweme, pleasant ; 
gedefe (Goth, gaddfs), becoming, Jit ; gemsne (Goth, ga- 
m&ins), common; ge^ene (cp. Goth, anasiims), visible; 
grene, green; sciene, beauttyul ; swete, sweet; &c. 

e. U-STEMS. 

§ 489, Of the adjectives which originally belonged to 
this class only two have preserved traces of the old u-de- 
clension, namely nom. sing, cwicu, c(w)ucii, alive, masc. 
ace. sing, cucone, and nom. wlacu, warm, tepid. And 
even these two adjectives generally have nom. cwic, wlsec 
and are declined like short pure a-stems. All the other 
adjectives passed over into the a-, ja-, or wa-declension in 
prehistoric OE., as heard (Goth, hardus), hard; egle 

5§ 440^1] 



(Goth, aglus), troublesofne ; hnesce, hnsesce (Goth, hnas- 
qus), soft, tender) twelfwintre (Goth, twalibwintrus), 
twelve years old) J>yrre (Goth. J>adrsus), dry, withered) 
gleaw (Goth, glaggwus); wise. 

2. The Weak Declension. 

Sing. Masc. Neut Fern, 

Nom. blinda, blind blinde blinde 

Ace. blindan blinde blindan 

Gen., blindan blindan blindan 

Dat. blindan blindan blindan 


Nom. Ace. blindan blindan blindan 

Gen. blindra^ -ena blindra^ -ena blindra, -ena 

Dat. blindum blindum blindum 

The weak declension of adjectives has the same endings 
as the weak declension of nouns, except that the adjectives 
generally have the strong ending -ra (§ 424) instead of 
•(e)na in the gen. plural. Beside the regular dat. pi. end- 
ing -nm there also occurs at an early period -an which was 
taken over from the nom. ace. plural. In trisyllabic ad- 
jectives the medial vowel remained after short stems, but 
disappeared after long stems, as wacora, wacore, vigUant, 
beside h^ga, h&lge, holy (§ 221). On adjectives like hea, 
highj gen. hean, see § 427. In like manner are declined 
the ja- and wa-stems, as wilda, wilde, wild) gearwa» 
gearwe, ready. 

3. The Declension of Participles. 
§ 441. In the parent language the stem of the present par- 
ticiple ended in -nt, as in Lat. ferent-, Gr. ^^porr-, bearing. 
The masc. and neut. were originally declined like consonant 
stems (§ 416). The fem. nom. originally ended in -i which 
was shortened to -i (§ 214) in prehistoric OE. (cp. Goth. 

p a 

2 1 2 Accidence [§§ 442-3 

f rtiondi, fern, friend). The -i of the feminine was extended 
to the masculine and neuter, which was the cause of their 
passing over into the ja-declension (§ 488). In O E. the pres. 
participle was declined strong or weak like an ordinary 
adjective. When used predicatively it often had the un- 
inflected form for all genders in the nom. and accusative. 
§ 442. The past participle, like the present, was declined 
strong or weak like an ordinary adjective. When strong 
it was declined like manig or hftlig (§ 429) according as the 
stem-syllable was short or long ; and similarly when it was 
declined weak (§ 440). When used predicatively it gener- 
ally had the uninflected form for all genders. A small 
number of past participles of strong verbs have i-umlaut 
of the stem-vowel, because in prim. Germanic, beside the 
ordinary ending -^az = Indg. -^os» there also existed 
-iniz = Indg. -^nis, hence forms like «gen beside ftgen, 
own ; cymen beside cumen, come ; slegen beside slaegen, 
slagen, slain) tygen from *tu5iniz beside togen from 
^tujenaz, drawn. 

B. The Comparison of Adjectives. 
I. The Comparative Degree. 

§ 448. The Indg. parent language had several suffixes 
by means of which the comparative degree was formed. 
But in the individual branches of the parent language, one 
of the suffixes generally became more productive than the 
rest, and in the course of time came to be the principal 
one from which the comparative was formed, the other 
suffixes only being preserved in isolated forms. The only 
Indg. comparative suffix which remained productive in 
the Germanic languages is -is-, which became -iz- (= Goth. 
•iz-, OHG. -ir-, OE. -r-) in prim. Germanic by Verner's law. 
To this suffix was added in prim. Germanic, or probably 
in the pre-Germanic period, the formative suffix -en-, -on*, 

§ 443] A djectives 2 1 3 

as in Gr. i[%(M¥ from V/^oSwrw, gen. ^Sioras, = Goth, sutiza, 
gen. sutizins, OHG. suo:^iro, gen. suo:^iren, (-in), OE. 
Bwetra, sweeter, gen. swetran. This explains why the 
comparative is declined weak in the oldest periods of the 
Germanic languages. Beside the suffix -iz- there was also 
in prim. Germanic a suffix -oz- (Goth, -oz-, OHG. -or-, OE. 
•r-) which did not exist in Indo-Germanic. This suffix is a 
special Germanic new formation, and arose from the com- 
parative of adverbs whose positive originally ended in -8, 
Indg. -Sd (§ 654). And then at a later period it became 
extended to adjectives. 

In OE. polysyllabic adjectives formed with derivative 
suffixes and compound adjectives had the Germanic suffix 
-5z-; Ja-stems the suffix -iz-; and uncompounded pure 
a-stems mostly had -oz-. Prim. Germanic -izS (= Goth. 
-iza, OHG. -ire) and -ozS (= Goth, -oza, OHG. -oro) fell 
together in -ra in OE., so that, except in the ja-stems, the 
presence or absence of umlaut is the only indication as to 
which of the two suffixes -ra goes back. Only a small 
number of adjectives have umlaut in OE., of which the 
most common are : 

br&d, broad bradra beside brftdra 

eald, old ieldra (Goth. al1)iza) 

feorT,/ar fierra 

geong, young giengra, gingra 

great, great grietra 

heah, high hiehra, hierra beside heahra 

lang, long lengra 

sceorty short sciertra 

Strang, strong strengra. 

Examples without umlaut in the comparative degree are : 
edidig, happy, ea.rm, poor, feRgen,glad, fBdger,/atr, g€aru,.o, 
ready, glaed, glad, grimm, grim, halig, holy, leof, dear, 
neah, near, comparative eadigra, earmra, fsegenra, 

214 Accidence [§444 

faegerra, gearora» glsedntt grimra» hftUgra, lSofra» 
n§ahra (nearra). 

2. The Superlative Degree. 

§ 444. The superlative, like the comparative degree, 
was formed in the Indg. parent language by means of 
several suffixes. But in the individual branches of the 
parent language, one of the suffixes generally became 
more productive than the rest, and in the course of time 
came to be the principal one from which the superlative 
degree was fdrmed, the other suffixes only being preserved 
in isolated forms. The only superlative suffix which re- 
mained productive in the Germanic languages is -to- in 
the combination -isto-, formed by adding the original 
superlative suffix -to- to the comparative suffix -is-, as 
in Sanskrit and Greek, as Gr. {(SurTos = Goth, sutists, 
OHG. 8uo:^isto, OE. 8wete8t(a), sweetest The simple 
superlative suffix -to- has been preserved in Gr., Lat, and 
the Germanic languages in the formation of the ordinal 
numerals, as Gr. IxToSf Lat. sextus, Goth, saihsta, OHG. 
sehsto, OE. siexta, sixth. The Germanic suffix -dst- was 
a new formation like -oz- in the comparative, -ost-, -ist- 
regularly became -ost-, -est- in OE., and the medial vowel 
in the superlative being in a closed syllable remained 
(§ 221). It is difficult to account for its early loss in 
hiehst(a), highest, and mehst(a), nearest (see § 221). In 
late OE. the medial vowel was often syncopated, as 
lengsta, strengsta (§ 223, Note 2). On the interchange 
of the medial vowel in forms like leofesta beside leofosta, 
see § 222. The adjectives which had i-umlaut in the com- 
parative generally had -est(a), but sometimes also -ost(a), 
in the superlative, and those which did not have umlaut in 
the comparative generally had •ost(a), rarely -ust(a),-ast(a), 
as ieldest(a),flerrest(a), giengest(a), gingest(a), grietest(a), 

§§ 446-6] A djectives 2 1 5 

lengest(a), Bcierte8t(a), strengeBt(a), but earmo8t(a), 
f»gnost(a), gearwo8t(aX h&ligost(a)^ leofost(a), &c. 

In Gothic the superlative had both the strong and the 
weak declension, but in OE. it generally had only the 
latter except in the nom. ace. neut. which had both forms 
-est, -est, beside -este, •oste. 

3. Irregular Comparison. 

§ 446. The following adjectives form their comparatives 
and superlatives from a different root than the positive : — 

god, good i bet(e)ra^ bettra bet(e)st, betsta 

\ selra, sella 

lytel, IMe Isssa lsest(a) 

micei, great mftra m»st(a) 

3rfel, evil wiersa wierrest(a), wierst(a) 

Note.— I. On the tt in bettra (Goth, batiza), see § 260. 
bet(e)8t « Goth, batists. sella with assimilation of Ir to 11 
(§ 281). Isssa from *l»s(i)ra, prim. Germanic laisizd (§ 281) ; 
l»st(a) rom *l»sist-. mara « Goth, m&iza ; m«st(a) (Goth, 
mdists) with « from analogy with l»st(a), Anglian m&st(a). 
wiersa (Goth, wairsiza) from *wier8(i)ra; wierre8t(a), wierst(a) 
from *wier8ist-. 

2. In a few words comparative and superlative adjectives 
were formed from adverbs : »r, before^ »rra, farmery earlier^ 
ibTeat(B)y /irst; f3nre8t(a) from *farist-, y?r5/, related to fore, 
before ; fvupcti, higher, greater^ related to forp, farth. 

§ 446. In a number of words the comparative was 
formed from an adverb or preposition, with a superlative 
in -um-y -uma (prim. Germanic -umS), cp. Lat. optimus, 
best, summus, highest The simple superlative suffix was 
preserved in OE. forma (Goth, fruma), first, beside fore, 
before-, hindema, last, hindmost, beside hindan, behind-, 
and meduma, medema, midway in size, related to midd, 
middle. But in prehistoric OE., as in Gothic, to -um- was 
added the ordinary superlative suffix -ist- which gave rise 




to the double superlative suffix •umist-, as Goth, fnunists, 
first) hindumistSy hindmost. In OE. -iimist- became 
-jrmist- (§ 47), later -imestv -emest-, -mest-, as 

sefter, after 
gasty eastwards 
fore, before 

inne, within 
Isety late 
midd, middle 

nio)>an, below 

nor]>, northwards 


svLpf southwards 

ufan, above 

ute, without 
west, westwards 




twa, two 
]>ri, /Ar^^ 
fif, five 
siex, six, siji: 
seofon, s^^n 
eahta, ^/^/r/ 


nor]>erra, nyr)>ra 


sujierra, 8y]>erra 
( uterra 
I yterra 


C. Numerals. 



j ufeme8t(a) 
I 3rfemest(a) 
r ut(e)me8t(a) 
I yt(e)me8t(a) 

I. Cardinal and Ordinal. 

/ forma, formest(a) 
^ f3rrme8t(a), fyrestia), 
y »re8t(a) 

5]>er, sefterra 




8iexta, sixta 









en(d)le(o)foii, eleven 


twelf, twelve 


}>reotiene, thirteen 


feo werUene, fourteen 


aSMenef fifteen 


siex-, sixtiene, sixteen 

siex., sixteo})a 

seofontiene, seventeen 


eahtatiene, eighteen 


nigonHene, nineteen 


twSntig, twenty 


Jwitig, thirty 






siextig, sixty 


hundseofontig, seventy 


hundeahtatig, eighty 


hundnigontig, ninety 


hundteontig I 7 ^ » 
- • - J J > > hundred 
hiind, hundred J 


htindendleofantig, no 


htindtwelftig, 120 


tu hund, hundred, 200 
}>r6o hund, hundred, 300 
}m8end, thousand 

seox, later siex, six, syn (§ 86). seofon, nigon, tien 
(later tyn) had their final -n from the inflected forms, as 
^sehuniv &c., or else they were formed, as in Goth, OS. 
and OHG., from the ordinals in prim. OE. before the n 
disappeared before J) (§ 286). nigon from older *nion 
(= Goth. OHG. niun); "^nion became dissyllabic and then 
between the two vowels a consonantal glide was developed 
(cp. § 270). tien, later tyn, probably from an older inflected 
form *teoni-, cp. teo]>a. endleofan (endlefan, enlefan) 

2 1 8 A ccidence [§447 

from older "^ienlefa]], "^alnina+lilyan-, with excrescent d 
developed between the n and 1 and weak ending -an* twelf 
= Goth, twallf. endleofan and twelf originally meant 
something like [ten and) one left over, {ten and) two left over, 
cp. Lithuanian vSnulika, eleven, dv^lika, twehe, &c., where 
Goth, -lif and Lith. -lika are from *liq-, the weak form of 
the Indg. root leiq-, to leave, and are ultimately related to 
OE. Hon (leon), Goth, leiluan^ to lend, Gr. Xcim, Lat. 
Iinqu5, / leave. The assimilation of *-lih to -lif first took 
place in twallf because of the preceding labial (§ 287» Note), 
and then, at a later period, the -lif was extended to "^iinlif 
(cp. dat. dinlibim) for older *6iiillh. 13 to 19 were formed 
by the simple ordinals plus the inflected form •liene, later 

The decades 20 to 60 were formed in* prim. Germanic 
from the units 2 to 6 and the abstract noun *te5und- = 
Indg. Mekmt-, decade, whence the Goth, stem-form tigu- 
which went over into the u-declension with a plural tigjus, 
as nom. tw4i tigjns, twenty, dat. tw&im tigum. Prim. 
Germanic *te5imd- is a derivative of prim. Germanic 
Hexim- (= Indg. M6km, Gr. S^xa, Lat. decem, Goth. 
taihun, OE. tien) with change of x to j by Vemer's law 
(§ 288) and the loss of the final consonants (§ 211). The 
stem *te5U- regularly became -tig in OE. and OS., whence 
OE. twentig from twegen + tig, lit. two decades^ ]>ritig, 
&c. with the following noun in the gen. case; SLn and 
twentig, twenty-one, twa and twentig, twenty-two, &c. 
Many attempts have been made to explain the decades 
70 to 120, but no satisfactory explanation of their morpho- 
logy has ever yet been given. The decades could be used 
both substantively and adjectively. When used as sub- 
stantives their gen. ended in -es ; when used as adjectives 
they were either uninflected or formed their gen. in -ra, -a, 
and dat. in -um. Instead of hundseofontig, hundeahtatig, 
&c., the shorter forms seofontig, eahtatig, were used when 

§447] Adjectives 219 

immediately preceded by htind = 100, as hund and seo- 
fontig = 170, but hund and seofon and hundseofontig 
= 177. At a later period the shorter forms became 
generally used in all positions. Besides the form hund- 
teontigy there were in OE. the two neuter nouns hund 
(= Gr. k'KaT6vf Lat. centum, Indg. kmt6m), and hundred, 
•rej) (= O.Icel. hundra}>) ; the second element -red, -rej) 
is related to Gothic ra]>jo9 number, 200 to 900 were 
generally expressed by the simple units and hund (also 
sometimes hundred, hundteontig), as tw^ hund, fif 
hund, &c. hund was usually uninflected, but occasionally 
it had a dat ending -e, -um. hundred had a pi. form 
hundredu, when used absolutely. })usend was a neuter 
noun and was often inflected as such. 

The decades, and hund, hundred, and ]>usend, being 
nouns, governed a following noun in the genitive case. 

The forms for 'first' are old superlatives of adverbs 
(§§ 445, Note 2, 446). 6J)er (Goth, anfar, cp. NE. every 
other day) was always declined according to the strong 
declension of adjectives (§ 429). ]>ridda (Goth. ]>ridija, 
Gr. rpiTos) with weak stem-form from Indg. *tri- the weak 
form of *trei-, three. All the other ordinals were formed 
from the cardinals by means of the Indg. superlative 
suffix -to- (§ 444), the t of which regularly remained 
unshifted in fifta, siexta, endleofta, twelfta (§ 231, Notes). 
In other positions the t became J) by the first sound- 
shifting (§ 281), then J) became d by Verner's law (§ 288) 
in those ordinals which did not originally have the chief 
accent immediately before the }>, and later nd became nd 
(§ 263), as Goth. *sibunda, niunda, tafhunda, from Indg. 
'^septmtds, *neunt6s, *dekmt6s« The regular forms of 
these would have been in OE. ^seofonda, *nigonda, 
*teonda, but OE. generalized those ordinal forms which 
in prim. Germanic had the chief accent immediately before 
the J>, whence the OE. new formations seofoJ)a, nigo})a, 

220 Accidence [5§ 448-50 

teo])a from older *sebim]>&, *iiUun])8, textin]>8. In the 
decades the medial o may represent the older u in *te5ti- 
(see above). In compound ordinals the cardinal units 
were generally used, as fSower and fiRigopB,^ /ijfy'/ourfh, 
but sometimes the ordinal forms of the units were used 
with the cardinal decades in the dative, as feo(we)r])a eac 
fiftigum. hund, hundred, and Jmsend had no correspond- 
ing ordinals. All the ordinals, except d])er, were declined 
according to the weak declension of adjectives. 

§448. In OE. the cardinals z to 3 were declinable 
in all cases and genders as in the other Germanic lan- 
guages, ftn was declined according to the strong (§ 424) 
or weak declension (§ 440) of adjectives. The strong masc. 
ace. sing, is generally «nne (shortened later to cenne» 
enne) from prim. Germanic ^ainindn, beside the less 
common form ftnne from "'ainanon. Strong pi. forms are 
rare, but they occur occasionally, meaning each, all, every 
one, anra gehwilc, each one. When declined weak it 
means alone, solus. 

§ 449. Masc. 



Nom. Ace. twegen 

tu, twa 


I twegra 





Dat. tw8em,twam tw»m,twam tweem, twam 

The formation of twegen and of the genitive are 
difficult to explain. tweg(e)a cannot correspond to Goth. 
twaddje, prim. Germanic *twajj5n, which would have 
become *tw8eg(e)a in OE., cp. § 276. tw«m from prim. 
Germanic ^twaimiz; twam was a new formation from 
twa. tu from prim. Germanic *two (§ 180) ; twa corre- 
sponds to the Goth. masc. form tw&i. 

§ 450. Like twegen is also declined begen (shortened 
later to beggen), bu (§ 130), ba (Goth. masc. bdi), both. 

}§ 461-4] A djectives 2 2 1 

Also in the combination masc. and fern. bS. tw&y neut. 
bii tu, often written in one word butu, both. 

§ 461. Masc. 



Nom. Ace. Jwi, })rie 

Jjrio, Jjreo 

J)iio, }>reo 

Gen. { p°~ 
( ])reora 





Dat. Jwim 



Jwi (Goth. ]>reis) from prim. Germanic *J)ryiz ; J)rie had 
its e from the adjectives (§ 424). ])riora was formed from 
})rio with the ending of the strong adjectives ; the regular 
form would have been *J)ria from prim. Germanic *J)ry8n, 
})rim (Goth. ])rim) from *J)rimiz ; beside }>rim there also 
occurs })rim (cp. § 145). Neut. J)rio (Goth. }>rya) from 
*})riu older *J>rijo. Fem. })rio from *J>riu older *}>ry6. 

§ 462. The cardinal numbers 4 to 19 generally remained 
uninflected when they stood before a noun, whereas, if 
they stood after a noun or were used as nouns, they were 
declined according to the i-declension : nom. ace masc. 
and fem. -e, neut. -u (-0) ; gen. -a, dat. -um, as of fif 
Y^lxxmy from five loaves; mid feawum brd]>rum, ]>8et is, 
seofonum o}>^e eahtum, with seven or eight brothers ; fifa 
sum, one of five. 

2. Other Numerals. 

§ 463. In OE. the multiplicative numeral adjectives 
were formed from the cardinals and the Germanic suffix 
for -/o/rf,-Goth. .fal}>s, OHG. -fait, OE. -feald (§ 628), 
as ftnfeald, single, twie*, twifeald, twofold, )>rie-, ]>rifeald, 
threefold, feovrerfeald, fourfold, &c., manigfeald, manifold, 
which were declined as ordinary adjectives. The first 
element of twifeald, ]>rifeald was sometimes inflected, 
as dat. twsemfealdum, ])rimfealdum. 

§ 464. Of the old adverbial multiplicatives only three 
occur : sene (rare in gen. form senes), once ; tuwa,twiwa, 

222 Accidence [$§ 45S-8 

twywa, twu:€\ )>riwa, })rywa, thrice. The remaining 
multiplicatives, and often also once^ twice, thrice, were 
expressed by tt]>9 going, way, and the cardinals, as «ne 
^^ or on snne tt]), tw«m tt)mm (Goth, tw&im sinj^am), 
fif iu])um (Goth, fimf sin])am), &c. 

§ 465. /V /A^ yfrs/, second, third, 4'c. time, were ex- 
pressed by si}) and the ordinals, as forman a]>e, d]>re 
n)>e, ]>riddan 8i}>e, fiftan sipe, &c. 

§ 456. The distributive numerals were ftn-i snliepige, 
one each ; be tw«m or tw«m and tw«m, be Jnim or 
\nrim and ]>rim9 feower and feower, Jmsendum and 
}msendum, &c. A remnant of the old distributive numeral 
corresponding to Gothic tweUm&i, tivo each, has been 
preserved in the compound preposition betweonum, 

§ 457. OE. also had numerals like NHG. anderthalb, 
dritt(e)halb9 lit. (one and) the second ha^, {two and) the third 
half. This method of expressing numbers goes back 
to the prim. Germanic period, and was originally common 
in all the Germanic languages. Originally both elements 
of the compound were inflected, but at a later period the 
compound, when used before nouns, became uninflected 
like other cardinal numerals, as 5]>er healf hiind daga, 
150 days ; ]>ridda healf, two and a half, fe5(we)r]7a healf, 
three and a half] cp. Gr. tpitof ifljiiTdLXarrw, two talents and 
a half, lit. third half talent. 



§458. The most difficult chapter in works on com- 
parative grammar is the one dealing with the pronouns. 
It is impossible to state with any degree of certainty how 
many pronouns the parent Indg. language had and what 

§ 4S8] Pronouns 223 

forms they had assumed at the time it became differentiated 
into the various branches which constitute the Indg. family 
of languages. The difficulty is rendered still more com- 
plicated by the fact that most of the pronouns, especially 
the personal and demonstrative, must have had accented 
and unaccented forms existing side by side in the parent 
language itself; and that one or other of the forms became 
generalized already in the prehistoric period of the in- 
dividual branches of the parent language. And then at 
a later period, but still in prehistoric times, there arose 
new accented and unaccented forms side by side in the 
individual branches, as e. g. in prim. Germanic ek, mek 
beside ik, mik. The separate Germanic languages geije- 
ralized one or other of these forms before the beginning 
of the oldest literary monuments and then new accented 
beside unaccented forms came into existence again. And 
similarly during the historic periods of the different 
languages. Thus, e. g. the OE. for I is ic, this became in 
ME. Ich accented form beside i unaccented form, ich then 
disappeared in standard ME. (but it is still preserved 
in one of the modern dialects of Somersetshire) and i came 
to be used as the accented and unaccented form. At 
a later period it became i when accented and remained 
i when unaccented. The former has become NE. I, and 
the latter has disappeared from the literary language, but 
it is still preserved in many northern Engl, dialects, as i. 
In these dialects i is regularly used in interrogative and 
subordinate sentences; the ME. accented form i has 
become ai and is only used in the dialects to express 
special emphasis, and from it a new unaccented form a 
has been developed which can only be used in making 
direct assertions. Thus in one and the same dialect 
(Windhill, Yorks.) we arrive at three forms : ai, a, i, which 
are never mixed up syntactically by genuine native 
dialect speakers. Something similar to what has happened 



[§5 459-^1 

and still is happening in the modern dialects must also 
have taken place in the prehistoric and historic periods of 
all the Indg. languages; hence in the prehistoric forms 
of the pronouns given below, it must not be assumed that 
they were the only ones existing in prim. Germanic. 
They are merely given as the nearest ascertainable forms 
from which the OE. forms were descended* 

I. Personal. 


First Person, 









mec, mi 


iisic, us 




user, are 






Second Person. 







incite inc 

eowic, eow, iow 




eower, lower 




cow, iow 


Third Person. 







hio, heo 


hine, hiene 






hiere, liire 




hiere, hire 

Plur. all Genders 


Nom. Ace. 



hiera, hira, heora 



§462] Pronouns 225 

§ 462. In the parent language the nom. was rarely used 
except to express emphasis (cp. Skr., Lat., and Gr.), 
because it was sufficiently indicated by the personal 
endings of the verb. Beside the accented form of each 
case of the personal pronouns, there also existed one 
or more unaccented forms just as in many modern dialects, 
where we often find three or even four forms for the nom. 
case of each pronoun. Most of the OE. forms of the per* 
sonal pronouns represent prim. Germanic unaccented forms. 

In forms marked with both long and short vowels, as in 
m8, \>%9 g8, &c., those with long vowels were the accented, 
and those with short vowels were the unaccented forms, 
see § 95. In the pronouns of the first and second persons 
the gen. case sing, and pi. were formed from the stem- 
forms of the possessive pronouns. The c in the ace. forms 
mec, ]>ec, usic, eowic, goes back to a prim. Germanic 
emphatic particle, *ke = Indg. *ge, which is found in Gr. 
pronominal forms like fyiyt. The ace. forms with c only 
occur in the oldest records and in poetry, ic is the old 
unaccented form, the accented form was preserved in O.Icel. 
ek (cp. Lat. ego, Gr. fytS). The e in me, ])e may represent 
Indg. e, cp. Gr. i^ (|a^, W, but it is far more likely that me, . 
]>e are old datives used for the accusative. ]>tt (OHG. du) 
beside }m (OHG. du), NE. has preserved the old accented, 
and NHG. the old unaccented form. Dat. me (Goth, mis, 
OHG. mir), })e (OHG. dir), prim. Germanic ^mes, *})es 
beside unaccented *miz^*])iz, with -s, -z from the dat. plural ; 
OE. me, J>e can represent either form, probably the latter, 
cp. wft, gft. 

wit (Goth. OS. wit), and git (OS. git) were unaccented 
plurals with the addition of -t which is of obscure origin. 
There are grave phonological difficulties against assuming 
that the -t is related to the numeral for two. Ace. uncit, 
incit were formed from unc, inc with •it from the nomina- 
tive, unc, inc are old accusatives also used for the dative ; 

226 Acddence [§462 

tmc (Goth, ugkf OS. tmc) from un (which occurs in the 
ace. pi. us = Goth, tms = Indg. ns with vocalic n)-|-the 
particle *ke = prim. Germanic *iiT|kl ; inc (OS. ink, cp. 
Goth. Igq-isX prim. Germanic *ii)q- which is of unknown 

we» prim. Germanic *wis (Goth, wels) beside the unac- 
cented form *wl2 (OHG. wir) ; *wiz became *wi in prim. 
OE. and then later we, from which a new accented form 
w6 was formed. ' gft for *gfi (= Goth, jus, prim. Germanic 
*ju8 beside *iviz) with S from wS. usic from older *unsek 
(with e from mec) ; iis (Goth. OHG. uns, Indg. ns with 
vocalic n). Sowic from older *iuwek (with e from })ec) ; 
dat. dow (OHG. in, eu) from older *iuw, prim. Germanic 
*iwwiz; eow, iow is the old dat. also used for the 

The pronoun of the third person is originally a demon- 
strative pronoun formed from the Indg. stem *ki-, Ms, 
which occurs in Lat. hi-ce (later h!c), this, ci-s, ci-ter, on 
this side. It has been preserved in Goth, in only a few 
isolated phrases, as und hina dag, to this day) hlmma 
daga, on this day, to-day ; und hita nu, till now. 

hi, prim. Germanic *xis beside unaccented *xlz; *xiz 
became *x^ in prim. OE. and then later he from which 
a new accented he was formed ; hine (Goth, hina), prim. 
Germanic ^xl^^n, beside hiene with ie from hiere, hiera ; 
his from *xisa ; him from *ximi (orig. instrumental), hit (cp. 
Goth.hita, where the t = Lat. -d in id, that), hlo later heo, 
formed from *hi + fi with fi from sio, sSo (§ 466) ; hie later 
In, hy, from *lii + on ; gen. hire from *xiz8z, dat. hire from 
*xizBi ; hiere had ie from the gen. plural ; cp, the prim. 
Germanic endings of the fern, adjectives (§ 424) ; the ace. 
form was often used for the nom. and vice versa.* h! later 
h^, from *xi» unaccented *xi, beside hie with e from the 
adjectives (§ 424) ; hi was often written hig (see § 6, Note) 
in late OE. The masc. form was used for all genders, but 

§§ 4^3-4] Pronouns 227 

sometimes the old fern. sing, heo was used instead of it ; 
hira from *x^8^ beside hicra, heoray hiera with c/a-um- 
laut (§ 102). him from *ximiz» beside late WS. heom with 
eo from the genitive. All the forms with i often had y in 
late WS. 

2. Reflexive. 

§ 468. The reflexive pronoun originally referred to the 
chief person of the sentence (generally the subject), irre- 
spectively as to whether the subject was the first, second, 
or third person singular or plural. This usage remained 
in Sanskrit, but in the Germanic languages, the pronouns 
of the first and second person came to be used reflexively 
already in prim. Germanic, and then the original reflexive 
pronoun became restricted to the third person. But the 
prim. Germanic reflexive pronoun of the third person "'sek, 
unaccented *8ik (Goth, sik, OHG. sih) disappeared in 
OE., and the old genitive (Goth, seina, OHG. sin) only 
remained as a possessive pronoun. So that the personal 
pronouns of the third person also came to be used reflex- 
ively in OE. When the personal pronouns were used 
reflexively self, self (declined strong and weak) was often 
added to emphasize them. 

3. Possessive. 

§ 464. The possessive pronouns min, my, fin, thy, sin 
(mostly used in poetry), his, her, its, are originally old 
locatives, Indg. *mei, *tei, *sei with the addition of the 
nominal suffix -no-, whence prim. Germanic masc. nom. 
^minaz, ^Jnnaz, *^naz ; fem. nom. *mind, *]»[no, *sind, 
which were declined in the sing, and plural, all genders, 
like blind (§ 424) ; but instead of mn, the gen. of the 
personal pronoun was often used as in Lat eius, gen. pi. 
eorttm, earttm. The remaining possessive pronouns were 
formed from the personal pronouns by means of the Indg. 


228 Accidence [§465 

comparative suffix -ero-, prim. Germanic -era-, as uncer, 
incer, user, eower, all of which were declined like h&lig 
(§ 429). ure was declined like wilde (§ 488) except that 
the fem. nom. sing, was ure not *urtL It is difBcult to 
account for the form ure. In the fem. gen. and dat. sing. 
and gen. pi. iirre, urra, the rr was often simplified to r. 
In those cases which had syncope of the medial vowel, the 
sr became ss (§ 281) in the declension ot user, and then 
the 88 was sometimes extended by analogy to the other 
cases, as nom. sing, usser, masc. ace. sing, iisseme beside 
the regular forms user, useme. 

4. Demonstrative. 

§ 466. In the parent Indg. language the nom. sing. masc. 
and fem. of the simple demonstrative was *80, *sa = Gr. 
6, ^f Goth, sa, sd. All the other cases of the sing, and pK 
were formed from the stems te-, to-, toi- ; tSl*, tai«, as ace. 
sing. Gr. t6k, ti^k, Lat. is-tum, is-tam, Goth. ])an-a, Ipb; 
nom. pi. Gr. toi, rai, Lat. is-ti, is-tae, Goth. }>6i, ]>6s. 



NeuL Fem. 


se, the, thai 

]>8et sio, sec 



}>«t JA 



]>8e8 )>«re 


])8B1I1, ]>&]X1 

})«m,]>am Jwre 


}>y, }>on 

Plur. all Genders. 
Nom. Ace. }>a 

Gen. ]>Slra, ]>sra 
Dat. }>8em, ^m 

se was the unaccented form of prim. Germanic *sa (Goth, 
sa) to which a new accented form se was made {§ 144) ; 
))one (Goth. )>ana) the unaccented fomrof prim. Germanic 
*))andn, beside late OE. ]>8ene, ]>ane; ])8es from prim. 
Germanic *]>asa (§ 64), beside *])esa (Anglian ])es, Goth. 

§4^6] Pronouns 229 

]>is, OHG. des); }>sem from the prim. Germanic instru- 
mental *^2Aniif beside })am with i, from the plural }>9.y ])ftra9 
as in the dat. pi. })&m. ]>8et (Goth. ])ata, Lat. is-tud, 
Indg. *tod) ; J)y, J)on are difficult to explain satisfactorily ; 
they were chiefly used before the comparative of adverbs 
and as a factor in adverbial and conjunctional phrases like 
the Goth, instrumental ]}e, as }>on mft, the more, cp. Gothic 
ni }?e haldisy none the more; for ]>% for }7ony because, on 
that account, sic, sec does not correspond to Goth, so^ 
but like OHG. siu, she, it was a new formation from the 
prim. Germanic fem. pronoun *si (= Gr. i, Goth. si^OHG. 
si), she + the Germanic fem. ending -6 ; *sio regularly 
became sio, sec through the intermediate stage of siu 
which is found in the Anglian dialect. The reason why 
the new formation took place was probably due to the fact 
that the unaccented form of *si would have become sS in 
OE. and thus have fallen together with the raasc. nom. 
sing., cp. OE. we, h8 from the prim. Germanic unaccented 
forms *wiz, *xiz {§ 462) ; ace. fa (prim. Germanic *J)6n, 
Goth. ]>6, Gr. Dor. rai', Indg. *tam) is from the unaccented 
form *}>a from which a new accented form fft was formed ; 
gen. })«re from *J)aizj5z (cp. Skr. t&syaS| Indg. *t6aijis) 
with ai from the gen. plural; and similarly in the dat. 
J>8ere from *J)aizjai (cp. Skr. t&sySli, Indg. *t6sjai), beside 
Jjftre from *J)aizai. PI. nom. masc. J)ft (= Goth. }>di, Gr. 
Toi) ; the old nom. was also used for the nom. and ace. all 
genders ; gen. }>ara from prim. Germanic *J)aiz6n, Indg. 
*tois6m (cp. the Goth. gen. pi. of adjectives, as blindaize, 
•5), beside ]>8era with si from ])»in; ])«m (Goth, pidm) 
from prim. Germanic *})aimiz, beside }>am with a from the 
genitive, which became J^an in late WS. 

§ 466. The compound demonstrative pronoun J)&, J)is, 
}>ios (fees), this, was originally formed from the simple 
demonstrative + the deictic particle -se, -si which is probably 
related to Goth, s&i, OHG. se, lo!, behold! Its earliest 

230 Accidence [§ 4^6 

usage was that of an emphatic demonstrative pronoun and 
then later it came to be used also as a simple demonstrative 
adjective in much the same way that this here, these here, 
thai there, them there (s those) are used in most Modem 
English dialects. Originally only the first element was in- 
flected as in OHG. masc. nom. sing, de-se, gen. des-se, 
pi. de-se. At a later period the -se came to be inflected 
also, as masc. gen. sing. OHG. des-ses = OE. ]>i8-8e8. At 
this stage the gen. }>i8- (= Goth. })is) became extended to 
most of the other cases. And lastly the first element ceased to 
be inflected and the second element took in most cases the 
endings of the simple demonstrative. This compound de- 
monstrative pronoun exists in all the Germanic languages 
except Gothic. The nom. sing. ))fe, I)i08 (}?eos) were new 
formations made from the oblique stem-form with ]> (§ 465). 
The old nom. forms were preserved in the oldest Norse 
inscriptions, as masc. sa-si^ fern, su-si^ neut. )>at-si. 

Neut, Fern. 

]xis ])io8y ]7So8 

])is )>&s 

^is(8)es ]>isse 

]>is(s)um Jdsse 
J»ys, Jjis 

Plur. all Genders. 
Nom. Ace. })as 
Gen. JHssa 
Dat. )ds(s)um 

)>es from older *J>e-se (= OHG. de-ae) was the un- 
accented form from which a new accented form )>es was 
made. Jnos from ])iu8 (preserved in the Anglian dialect), 
older *])iii+se (cp. sio, § 465). The fem. ace. sing., instr., 
and nom. pi. represent the simple demonstrative forms 
-f -se which -regularly became -s. The other cases 
singular and plural generalized the ]>is-, the i of which 












§§ 467-8] Pronouns 231 

later became y. ss was often simplified to s. In the dat. 
sing, and pi. Anglian has }>ios(s]iim, ])eos(8)um with 
u-umlaut (§ 101) beside })is(s)um. Fem. gen. and dat. sing. 
}>i8se from older *})isrey gen. pi. }>issa from older ^Jiisra 
(§ 281); in late 0£. there also occur Jiissere, ]^8sera with 
-re» -ra from the simple demonstrative, beside ]}i8re» ]>isra 
with syncope of the medial vowel and simplification of the ss. 

§ 467. ilea, samct which only occurs in combination 
with the def. art., as se ilea, ])8et ilce, 8io ilcey the same, is 
always declined weak. 

8elf, 8eolfy 8ylf, silf, self, was declined according to the 
strong or weak declension of adjectives. In combination 
with the def. art., as sS selfa, seolfa, it meant the selfsame. 
See § 468. 

5. Relative. 

§ 468. A relative pronoun proper did not exist in prim. 
Germanic. The separate Germanic languages expressed 
it in various ways. In Goth, it was expressed by suffixing 
the relative particle ei to the personal pronouns for the 
first and second persons, and to the simple demonstrative 
for the third person ; in O.Norse by the particles sem and 
e8 (later er) in combination with the simple demonstrative ; 
in OS. and OHG. generally by the simple demonstrative ; 
and in OE. by the relative particle })J alone or in com- 
bination with the personal or the simple demonstrative 
pronoun, as se mon-dryhteiiy se eow ^a maj^mas geaf, 
the lord who gave you the treasures ; ]>onne tdd«la]> hi his 
feoh ]78et td Ulfe bi]>, then they divide his property which is 
left, ic hit eom, ]7e wi]> ]>e sprece, it is I who speak with 
thee ; idesa scenost ]>e on woruld come, the fairest one of 
ladies who came into the world] ge })e yfle synt, ye who are 
evil, se ]>e bryd haef]), se is brydguma, he who hath the 
bride is tite bridegroom ; gehyre, se ]>e earan hsebbe, let 
him hear who hath ears ; ]>aet )>e acenned is of flssce, 
Jjaet is flsesc, that which is born of the flesh is flesh, we J>as 

232 Accidence [§ 469 

word 8preca)>9 }>e wi in carceme sitta]>, zi;^ who sit tn 
prison speak these words ; saga hwset ic h&tte, ]>e ic lond 
riafige, say what I am called, I who lay waste the land; 
fBSt se mon ne wftt, ]>e him on foldan fsegrost limpe]>, 
the man to whom on earth the fairest happens knows not that 

6. Interrogative. 

§ 460. The parent Indg. language had two stems from 
which the interrogative pronoun was formed, viz. qo- and 
qi- with labialized q (§ 237). The former occurs in Gr. 
v^cpos, which of two?, Goth. hras» OE. hwa, who ?, from'' 
an original form *qos; Lat. quod^ Goth, hra, O.Icel. 
huat, OS, hwat, OHG. hwa^, OE. hwaet, whatF, from 
an original form *qod« And the latter occurs in Gr. tis, 
Lat. quiSy who ?, from an original form *qi8 ; Goth, hrileiks, 
OE. hwilc, what sort of? 

The OE. simple interrogative pronoun had no indepen- 
dent form for the feminine, and was declined iif the singular 

Masc. Neut. 

Nom. hwa hwaet 

Ace. hwone hwaet 

Gen. hwses hisses 

Dat. hw«m, hwSlm hw»m, hwam 

Instn hwy, hwi 

On the long vowel in hw^, see § 79. hwone (Goth, 
hrana) from prim. Germanic *xwanon, is the old un- 
accented form, beside this there rarely occurs the accented 
form hwane, later hwaene. hwaes from prim. Germanic 
*xwa8a beside Goth. hHs from *x^^^^* hw»m from 
prim. Germanic *xwaimi (instrumental) beside hwam, 
a new formation from hwa. Beside the instr. hwy, hwi 
which are difficult to explain, there also occur hwon, 
in such adverbial phrases as for hwon, to hwon, why ?, 
and hu (§ 180), how ? 

5. V - 

>^H^; -rv V- Verbs 

§§47o-^»kr;; -o-v V- yerbs 233 

§ 470. hwaejjer (Goth. lua])ar), which of two ?, and 
hwelc, hwilc (Goth, tuileiks), what sort o/F, were declined 
according to the strong declension of adjectives, 

7. Indefinite. 
§471. OE. had the following indefinite pronouns: — 
sbghwa, each one, every one, from a, ^^r+gi+hwa ; and 
similarly £e.ghw8e]>er9 each of two, both ; seghwelc, ceghwilc, 
each one, every one. kIc, each, every ; senigy any, nsenig^ 
not any one, no one; aethway each; 9.hw&y any one; 
ahwas]>eT, bhw^dper, aw})er, 5 wj)er, one of two, nhhwmper, 
nbhw^dper, nS-wJ^er, nbwper, neither of two ; a.n, some 
one, a certain one, in plur. each, every, all, nan, no one, 
nan})ingy nothing; awiht, owiht, &wuht, owuht, aht, 
oht, anything; n9,wiht, nowiht, nawuht, nowuht,, 
noht, nothing; gehwi,, each one, every one; gehwaej)er, 
each of two, both ; gehwilc, each, every one ; hwelchwugu, 
any, some, some one ; hwaethwugu, somewhat, something ; 
loc, loca + pronoun hwa, hw8e]>er, as 16c hwaB]>er ]>sera 
gebrd})ra, whichever of the two brothers, bide melocehwaes 
J)U wille, ask me for whatever thou wUt; man, one; nat+ 
hwa, hwelc, some one I know not who, which ; samhwilc, 
some; sum, some one; swa . . . swa, as swa hwa 
swa, whosoever, whoever, swa hwaet swa, whatsoever, 
whatever, swa hw«J>er swa, whichever of two, swa hwelc 
swa, whichever ; swelc, swilc, such ; }>yslic, ])uslic, 
pyllic, }mllic, such. 



§ 472. In the parent Indg. language the verbs were 
divided into two great classes: athematic and thematic. 
In the athematic verbs the personal endings were added 
to the bare root which had the strong grade form of 

234 Accidence (^473 

ablaut in the singular, but the weak grade in the dual and 
plural. Thus for example the singular and plural of the 
verbs for *iobe\ and 'io go* were: *£8-mi, *£8-si, *£8-ti» 
*8-m£8 or *8.m6s, *9rtk, *s-£nti; *6i-mi, *6i-8i, ''^i-ti, 
*i-m£8 or *i-m6sy *i*t£, *j-6iiti. Verbs of this class are 
often called mi-verbs because the first person singular 
ends in -mi. The Germanic languages have only pre- 
served a few traces of the mi-conjugation (§ 547). Nearly 
all the verbal forms, which originally belonged to this 
class, passed over into the o-conjugation in the prim. 
Germanic period. 

In the thematic verbs the stem- vowel, which could be 
either of the strong or weak grade of ablaut, remained 
unchanged throughout the present; in the former case 
they are called imperfect presents (as cSosan, to choose ; 
helpan, to help; etan» to eat) &c.), and in the latter case 
aorist presents (as OE. lucan, to close ; muman, to mourn ; 
&c.). The present was formed by means of the thematic 
vowels, e, o, which came between the root and the per- 
sonal endings, thus the present singular and plural of 
the verb for 'to bear* was *bh6r6 (from *bh6r-o-a), 
*bh6r-e-si9 ^bh^r-e-ti, *bh6r-o-mes9 (-mos), ^bh^-e-te, 
*bh6r-o-nti. Verbs of* this class are generally called 
5-verbs because the first person singular ends in -o. The 
old distinction between the mi- and the o-conjugation was 
fairly well preserved in Greek, as cljii, / am, ctjii, / go, 
SiSwf&i, / give ; ji^w*, / remain, irci6w, / persuade ; rpipw, 
/ rub, Tu^, / smoke, 

§ 478. In treating the history of the verbal forms in 
OE. it is advisable to start out partly from prim. Germanic 
and partly from the oldest OE. The Indg. verbal system 
underwent so many radical changes in prim. Germanic 
that it would be necessary to treat here in detail the verbal 
system of the non-Germanic languages such as Sanskrit, 
Greek, and Latin in order to account for all the changes. 

§ 474] Ferbs 235 

In the Germanic languages the verbs are divided into 
two great classes : — Strong and Weak. The strong verbs 
form their preterite (originally perfect) and past participle 
by means of ablaut (§ 224). The weak verbs form their 
preterite by the addition of a syllable containing a dental 
(Goth, -da, (-la), OE. -de, -te), and their past participle by 
means of a dental suffix (Goth. •]>, (-t), OE. -d, (-t)). 

Besides these two great classes of strong and weak 
verbs, there are a few others which will be treated under 
the general heading of Minor Groups, 

The strong verbs were originally further sub-divided 
into reduplicated and non-reduplicated verbs, as Goth. 
haldan, to hold, letan, to lei, preterite hafhald, lafldt; 
nimaiiy to take, hilpan, to help, preterite nam, halp. In 
OE. the reduplication almost entirely disappeared in the 
prehistoric period of the language (§ 511). The non-redupli- 
cated verbs are divided into six classes according to 
the six ablaut- series (§ 226). The originally reduplicated 
verbs are put together in this book and called class VII. 

§ 474. The OE. verb has the following independent 
forms: — one voice (active), two numbers, three persons, 
two tenses (present and preterite), two complete moods 
(indicative, and subjunctive, the latter originally the 
optative), besides an imperative which is only used in 
the present tense; two verbal nouns (present infinitive 
and present participle), and one verbal adjective (the past 

The simple future was generally expressed by the pre- 
sent tense as in the oldest periods of the other Germanic 
languages, but already in OE. the present forms of been, 
to be, sculan, shall, willan» will, with the infinitive began to 
be used to express the future. In the oldest OE. the 
perfect of transitive verbs was formed by means of the 
forms of habban, to have, and the past participle, and that 
of intransitive verbs by means of wesan, to be, and the past 

236 Accidence [§ 475 

participle. At a later period habban came to be used 
to form the perfect of intransitive verbs also. The only 
trace of the old passive voice preserved in OE. is hSltte 
(Goth, hiitada), is or was called, pi. hfttton. Otherwise 
the passive was expressed by the forms of been, wesan, 
to be, occasionally also weorjiany to become, and the past 

A. Strong Verbs. 

§ 475. We are able to conjugate a strong verb in OE. 
when we know the four stems, as seen (i) in the infinitive 
or first pers. sing. pres. indicative, (2) first pers. sing. pret. 
indicative, (3) first pers. pi. pret. indicative, (4) the past 
participle. The pret. subjunctive and the second pers. 
pret. indicative have the same stem-vowel as the pret. 
pi. indicative. The conjugation of beran, to bear, helpan» 
to help, bindan, to bind, ridan, to ride, ceosan, to choose, 
weorpan, to throw, foran, to go, biddan, to pray, feallan, 
^fall, teoiiy to draw, slean, to slay, fbn, to seize, will serve . 
as models for all strong verbs, because in addition to verbal 
endings, one or other of them illustrates such phenomena 
as umlaut, the interchange between i and e in the pres. 
indie, of verbs belonging to classes III, IV, and V, break- 
ing, vowel contraction, vowel syncope, the simplification 
of double consonants, Verner's law, and the consonant 
changes in the second and third pers. sing, of the pres. 



Sing. I. bare helpe binde ride 

2. bir(e)st hilpst bintst ritst 

3. bir(e)J) hilpj> bint rit(t) 
Plur. berap helpa)> binda}> nda)> 

5 475] 



























healp . 


























weorpe fare 
weorpen faren 





weorp far 
weorpa]) fara]> 




weorpan faran 



weorpende farende 








wearp for 
wurpe f5re 
wearp for 
wurpon foron 




wurpe fore 
wurpen foren 



worpen faren 







teo slea 
tiehst sUehst 
tieh)> sUeh]) 
teo}> slea]> 





fealle ' 

tgo slea 
teon slean 








t§oh sleah 
teo)> slea)> 




teon siean 




tSonde slSande 







t§ah sldh, sldg 
tuge sldge 
teah sldh, sldg 
tugon sldgon 




tuge sldge 
tugen slogen 



togen slsgen 


The Endings of Strong Verbs. 

§ 47e« Pres. indicative : The Indg. and prim, Germanic 
ending of the first pers. sing, was -d (cp. Lat. ferd, Gr. 
^^9 Indg. *bh6rd, / bear) which became -u (later -o) in 
prim. OE. (§ 214). The -u (-o) regularly remained after 
short stems and disappeared after long stems, as beru,^-o 
beside *help, *Und (§ 215), but already in prehistoric OE. 
the verbs with long stems took -u again after the analogy 
of those with short stems. The Anglian dialect mostly 
preserved the -u (-o), but in early WS. and Ken. its place 
was taken by -e from the pres. subjunctive. 

240 Accidence [§ 47<5 

The prim. Germanic forms ol the second pers. sing, of 
beran and bindan were ^Mrizi, *bindizi := Indg. *bh6resi, 
^bhindhesiy which would regularly have become *bire 
(older *biri), *bind in OE. (§§ 211, 216), but already in 
prehistoric OE. the second pers. sing, of strong verbs was 
remodelled on the analogy of the first class of weak verbs 
which did not have the chief accent on the stem in prim. 
Germanic (§ 289, Note 2). The oldest OE. forms were 
biris, bindis which regularly became later bires, bindes 
(§ 215, Note). The ending -st arose partly from analogy 
with the preterite-present forms wS^st, ])earft, scealt, &c. 
and partly from a false etymological division of the 
pronoun from the verb to which it was often attached 
enclitically, thus biris]m became biristu, from which birist 
was extracted as the verbal form, cp. the similar process 
in OHG. The ending -st occurs earliest in the contracted 
verbs, tiehst, sliehst, &c. 

The prim. Germanic forms of the third pers. sing, of 
beran and bindan were *biridi (= OS. birid, OHG. 
Writ), *bindidi = Indg. *bh6reti, *bh6ndheti, which would 
regularly have become *bired, older *birid, and *bind(d) in 
OE., but already in prehistoric OE. the third pers. sing, 
like the second was remodelled on analogy with the first 
class of weak verbs. The oldest OE. forms were biri}), 
hindi]), later bir(e)J>, Wnt (§ 800). The -ej) became -es in 
late Nth. 

In the second and third pers. sing, the -i- (-e-) was 
regularly syncopated after long stems, as hilpst, hilp)>, 
ritst, rit(t), tifehst, tieh}>, &c., and remained after short 
stems, as birest, bire]>, faerest, fere]>, &c. (§ 221), but 
there are many exceptions to this rule, especially in WS. 
and Ken., owing to new formations in both directions, as 
bindest, binde]), hilpest, hilpe]), &c., and on the other 
hand Urst, bir)>, faerst, fer]), &c. In Anglian the forms 
without syncope were almost entirely generalized, but in. 

§ 416] Verbs 241 

WS. and Ken. syncope was almost quite general, especially 
after voiceless consonants and after d, f (= !>), and g» but 
as a rule not after a single liquid or a nasal. 

The loss of -e- in the second and third pers. sing, gave 
rise to various consonantal changes: Double consonants 
were simplified before the personal endings (§ 259)| as 
flelst, flel}>, spinst, spin}), beside inf. feallan, spinnan. 

d became t before -st, as bintst, Mist, ritst, wieltst 
/ beside wealdan, to wield, d and t:f •}> became tt (common 
in the older period)^ later t, as bint, bit(t), r!t(t); birst, 
it(t), beside inf. berstan, to bursty elan, to eat, see § dOO< 
Forms like bindest, bidst, wieldst ; binde}), bid(e)}>, &c. 
were new formations after the analogy of forms which 
regularly had d. 

/ After a long vowel, diphthong, or liquid, g became h 
1)efore -st, •}> (§ 820, Note), as stihst, stih}), inf. stigan, to 
ascend, fiiehst, fiieh}), inf. fleogan, to fly, swilhst, swilh}), 
inf. swelgan, to swallow, but the g was often restored from 
forms which regularly had g. 

s, ss, st + -st, •]) became -8t(§§ 259, 805), as ciest ; cyst 
beside inf. wv. cyssan, to kiss, birst beside birstest, birste}> 
(new formations); x (= hs) + -st, -J) became xt, as wiext 
beside inf. weaxan, to grow. In verbs of this type the 
second and third pers. singular regularly fell together. 

J> disappeared before -st (§ 805), as cwist, wierst, beside 
inf. cwe])an, to say, weor])an, to become. Forms like 
cwi]>st, wier]>st, siii}>st (inf. sm]>aii, to cut), were new 
formations after the analogy of the other forms of the 
present. ]>+•]> became ]>, as cwij>, wierf. 

The forms of the first and second pers. plural had 
disappeared already in the oldest period of the language, 
their place having been taken by the form of the third 
person. The prim. Germanic forms of the third pers. 
pi. of beran, bindan were *berandi, *1>indandi = Indg. 
'*'bh6ronti, '^bh^ndhonti, which would regularly have 

54^ Accidence 15§ 477-8 

become in 0£. *beraiid, *bliidatid = Goth, bairand, 
bindandy but, as in the second and third pers. singular, the 
third pers. pi. was remodelled on analogy with the first 
class of weak verbs which regularly had •&n]yi in prim. 
Germanic. -4n)d became -a]> in OE. through the inter- 
mediate stages -an]>, -on)), -5^ (§ 218). -a)) became -as in 
late Nth. This -s plural has been preserved in the Modern 
northern dialects when the subject is not a simple personal 
pronoun placed immediately before or after the verb, 

§ 477. Pres. subjunctive : This tense is properly an old 
optative. The original forms of the singular and plural 
pf beran were *bh6roi-, *bh6rois, ^bh^roit^ ^bh^oirn-, 
^bh^roite, *bh£roiiit The final -t was regularly dropped 
in prim. Germanic (§ 211) and the oi became ai during the 
same period (§ 80). Then ai became s which was short- 
ened to » (§ 217). The ae was preserved in the oldest 
period of the language and afterwards became e. In OE. 
the original forms of the singular regularly fell together in 
bere. The old forms of the first and second pers. plural 
disappeared and their place was taken by the third pers. 
beren. Beside -en there also occurs in late WS. -an, and 
also -iin, -on taken over from the pret. pi. indicative. On 
the loss of final -n in Nth., see § 288. The final -n also 
disappeared in WS. and Ken. when a personal pronoun of 
the first or second person came immediately after the verb, 
as bere w8, wit, gl, git. Then bare w8, &c., came to be 
used also for the indicative and imperative. 

§-478. Imperative: The original ending of the second 
pers. sing, was -e which regularly disappeared without 
leaving any trace of its former existence {§ 218), whence 
OE. ber = Gr. ifr^pc, Indg. *bh6re. On the -e in bide 
beside its absence in ber, bind, &c., see § 278. In OE. the 
third pers. plural of the pres. indicative was used for the 
second pers. plural. A form in -an, as beran, bindan, was 
occasionally used in the oldest period of the language for 

5§ 479-80 Ferbs 243 

the first pers. plural. This form was originally identical 
with the first pers. pi. pres. indie, which disappeared 
in OE. The first pers. pi. is generally expressed by the 
pres. subjunctive, as beren, binden, &c. 

§ 479. Pres. participle : In the parent language the stem 
of the pres. participle ended in -nt> as in Lat. ferent-, Gr. 
^ipwT-, Indg. "^bh^ront- = OE. berend-e» Goth, bairand-s. 
The masc. and neut. were originally declined like con- 
sonant stems (§ 416). The fem. nom. sing, originally 
ended in -i which was shortened to -i (§ 214) in prehistoric 
OE., cp. Goth. fem. MiondU/riend. The -i of the feminine 
was extended to the masc. and neut. which was the cause 
of their passing over into the ja-declension (§ 433). See 
§ 441. The oldest OE. ending is -aendi, -endi, later -ende. 

§ 480. Infinitive : The inf. was originally a nomen 
actionis, formed by means of various suffixes in the dif- 
ferent Indg. languages. The suffix -ono-, to which was 
added the nom. ace. neuter ending -m^ became generalized 
in prim. Germanic, thus the original form of beran was 
*bh6ronom9 the •onom of which regularly became -an 
in OE. Goth. OS. and OHG. On the loss of the final -n 
in Nth., see § 288. In prim. West Germanic the inf. was 
inflected in the gen. and dat. like an ordinary noun of the 
ja-declension (§ 365), gen. 'eimes, dat. -enne. The in- 
flected forms of the inf. are sometimes called the gerund. 
The gen. disappeared in prehistoric OE. The dat. to 
berenne generally became -anne through the influence of 
the inf. ending -an. Beside -enne, •ani^e there also occur 
in late OE. -ene, -ane, and -ende with d from the present 

§ 481. Pret. indicative : The pret. indie, is morpho- 
logically an old perfect, which already in prim. Germanic 
was chiefly used to express the past tense. The original 
endings of the perf. singular were -a, -tha, -e, cp. Gr. otSo, 
oloOa, ol8e» The -a and -e regularly disappeared in pre- 

R 2 

244 A cadence [f 483 

historic OE. {\% 212-18X whence OE. first and third pers. 
singular bsBr, tNUidy &c. The ending of the second pers. 
singular would regularly have become •]> (§ 2dd) in OE. 
OS. O.Icel. and Goth., except after prim. Germanic s, f, h 
where it regularly became t (§ 281» Notes^ as in Goth. 
last, thou didst gather , aldht, thou didst slay, Jntrft (OE. 
)^arfc), thou needest. This -t became generalized in prim. 
Germanic, as Goth. O.Icel. namt, thou tookest. But in 
the West Germanic languages the old ending was only 
preserved in the preterite-present verbs, as OE. }>earft, 
thou needest, scealt, thou shalt, meaht, thou mayest, &c. 
See § 589 ff. The third pers. plural ended in the parent 
language in -nt (with vocalic n) which regularly became 
•un in prim. Germanic (§} SB, 211). -un remained in the 
oldest OE. and then later became -on, and in late OE. -an 
beside -on occurs, whence bsron, bundon, &c. 

§ 482. Pret. subjunctive : The original endings were : 
singular -Jem, -jes, -jet, plural -im, -lie, -int, consisting 
of the optative element •je-, (•!•) and the personal endings. 
Already in prim. Germanic the -i- of the plural was levelled 
out into the singular. The new sing, endings -im, -is, -it 
would regularly have become -i (§§ 214, 218) in the oldest 
OE. The -i would have caused umlaut in the stem- 
syllable and then have disappeared after long stems and 
have remained (later -e) after short stems. Regular forms 
would have been *bynd, *hylp, *fer, &c., but *cyre, *tyge, 
&c. The pi. ending -int would regularly have become -in 
(later -en) with umlaut in the stem-syllable, as *b3mden, 
*cyren, &c. But real old pret. subjunctive forms have 
only been preserved in OE. in a few isolated instances 
as in the preterite-presents, dyge, scyle, fyrfe. In OE. 
the old endings of the pres. subjunctive came to be used 
for the preterite some time before the operation of i- 
umlaut. This accounts for the absence of umlaut in the 
pret. subjunctive in OE., as bunde, bunden, &c. Already 

§§4?3-4] l^erbs 245 

in early OE. the pret. subjunctive began to take the endings 
of the pret. indicative. On the loss of the final -n in Nth., 
see § 288. The final -n also disappeared in WS. and 
Ken. when a personal pronoun of the first or second 
person came immediately after the verb, as b«re wS, wit, 
gS, git. Then later bare wS, &c., came to be used also 
for the indicative. 

§ 488. Past participle : The past participle was formed 
in various ways in the parent language. In prim. Ger- 
manic the suffix -6nc-, -dno- became restricted to strong 
verbs, and the suffix -16- to weak verbs. In the strong 
verbs OE. and O.Icel. generalized the form -6no-, and 
Goth. OS. and OHG. the form •6no-. Beside the suffix 
•^no-9 •6iio- there also existed in prim. Germanic -ini- = 
Indg. -^ni- which was preserved in a few OE. past parti- 
ciples with umlaut in the stem-syllable, see § 442. Prim. 
Germanic -6naz, -faiz = Indg. -^nos, -6nis regularly fell 
together in -en in OE., but they were still kept apart 
in the oldest period of the language, the former being 
-aen (-en) and the latter -in. 

General Remarks on the Strong Verbs. 

§ 484. Present indicative : On the interchange between 
i in the second and third pers. sing, and e in the other 
forms of the present in verbs belonging to classes III, IV, 
and V, as hilpst, hilp]) : helpan, to help ; bir(e)st, bir(e)]> : 
beran, to bear; cwi^t, cwi]> : cwe])aii, to say, see § 4L 
i-umlaut took place in the second and third pers. sing, 
of all verbs containing a vowel or diphthong capable of 
being umlauted. On the i-umlaut in verbs of class VI, as 
fer(e)8t9 fer(e)]), see § 66, Note 2. On the Anglian forms 
of the second and third pers. sing, of verbs like ceosan, 
teon, see § 188. The regular forms of the second and 
third pers. sing, were often remodelled on analogy with 

246 Accidence [§§ 485-7 

the other forms of the present, especially in the Anglian 
dialect, as help(e)st, help(e)]>; fealst, feal]>, feallest, 
fealle]>; weorpest^ weorpe]>, beside older hilpst, hilp]); 
flelst, fiel]> ; wierpst, wierp]). 

On u* or o/a-umlaut of a, e in the first pers. sing., and 
the pi. in the non- WS. dialects, sec § 48. On the breaking 
of Germanic a to ea, as in feallan, healp, wearp, and of e 
to eo, as in weorpan, see § 49. On the vowel contraction 
in the present of the contracted verbs, see § 189. 

Strong verbs like biddan, to pray, hliehhan, to laugh, 
licgan, to Ite down, sittan, to sit, had single medial con- 
sonants in the second and third pers. sing., because the j, 
which caused the doubling of the consonants in the other 
forms of the present, had disappeared before the West 
Germanic doubling of consonants took place, whence bitst, 
bit(t); hUehst, hUeh]>; Ug(e)st, lig(e)]); sitst, sit(t). 

§ 486. Infinitive : On the o/a-umlaut in the non-WS. 
dialects, see § 48. 

§ 486. Pret. indicative : The West Germanic languages 
only preserved the old pret. (originally perfect) of the 
second pers. sing, in the preterite-present verbs (see §§481, 
689). In all other strong verbs the OE. second pers. sing, 
was formed direct from the pret. subjunctive, which 
accounts for the absence of i-umlaut in the stem-syllable 
and the preservation of the final -e after both short and 
long stems, as ride, cure, &c., and b«re, hulpe, bunde, 
&c. The regular forms would have been ride, *cyre, and 
*b«r, *hylp, *bynd. 

On the question ot u-umlaut in the plural of verbs 
belonging to class I, see § 101. 

§ 487. Pret. subjunctive : If the OE. pret. subjunctive 
had been normally developed from the corresponding 
prim. Germanic forms, it would have had i-umlaut in the 
stem-syllable as in O. Icelandic. But this tense took the 
endings of the pres. subjunctive in the prehistoric period 

§§ 488-90] Ferbs 2^y 

of the language before the operation of i*umlaut. See 

§488. Past Participle: The ending of the past participle 
has already been explained in § 442. In prim. Germanic 
the prefix ^ji- was added to the past participle to impart to 
it a perfective meaning. Verbs which were already per- 
fective in meaning, such as bringan, to bring, cuman, 
to come, findan, to find, niman, to take, weor]?an, to become, 
did not originally have it But in OE. the simple past 
participle generally had ge-, irrespectively as to whether 
it was perfective or imperfective in meaning. On past 
participles which have i-umlaut, see § 442, 

§ 489. On the parts of strong verbs which exhibit 
Verner's law in OE., see § 238. 

The Classification of the Strong Verbs. 
Class I. 

§ 490* The verbs of this class belong to the first ablaut* 
series (§ 226) and therefore have i in all forms of the 
present, JSl in the first and third pers. sing, of the preterite, 
and i in the preterite plural and past participle, thus : 

bidan, to await b^d bidon biden 

Goth.beidan b&i]> biditn bidans 

And similarly aetwitaiiy to biame, reproach] SLcwinan, 
to dwindle away ; behlidan, to cover ; beHfan, to remain ; 
bescitan, to befoul -, besmitan, to pollute; bitan, to bite; 
blican, to shine ; cinan, to crack ; clifaiiy to stick, adhere ; 
cnidan, to beat] drifan, to drive; dwinan, to dwindle ] 
ffitan, to strive, quarrel] gewitan, to depart; ginan, to 
yawn ; glidan, to glide ; gnidan, to rub together ; gripan, 
to seize ; hnitan, to knock ; hrinan, to touch ; hwinan, to 
whizz ; nipan, to grow dark ; ridaiiy to ride ; sicah, to sigh ; 
soman (§ 188, Note 2), to shine ; scrifan, to prescribe ; slidan, 
to slide; slitan, to slit; snican, to crawl; spiwan (§ 266), 
to spew, spit; ^ticaxi, to stroke; atridan, to s/nife ; swican, 

t48 Accidence [5§ 491-3 

iocease/rtm; vwttBn^ to sweep ; tSaBTaiiy/os^i/; ]>wiiiaiu 
io grow soft ; ^witan, to hew; wican, to yield, give way; 
wlitan, to gaze ; wiidan» to grow, flourish ; writan, to 
write, stigan, to ascend, pret sing, stftg beside st&h 
(§ 828) ; and similarly hnigan, to incline ; migan, to make 
water; tigtok, to sink. 

§491. svSpBXittocut mOip snidon sniden 
And similarly li]>an, to go ; scfipan, to go, proceed. See 
§ 289. In arlsan, to arise; gerisan, to befit; m!)>an, to 
avoid; wrl))an, to twist, the s, ]> of the present was ex- 
tended to all forms of the verb. 

$ 492. ^on, tSon, to accuse tfth tigon tigen 

Hon, teon, from older Hlolian, *tihan (§ 127) ; on the g 
in the pret. pi. and past participle, see §289. In the pres. 
the §0 from older io regularly fell together with the So from 
Germanic eu (§ 187) which was the cause of verbs of this 
type often forming their preterite and past participle after 
the analogy of class II (§ 495), as teah, tugon, togen ; 
and similarly leon, to lend; sion, to strain ; )>eon» to thrive ; 
wreon, to cover. ])eon from prim. Germanic *]>ii|xanaii (§ 41) 
originally belonged to class III ; the regular principal parts 
in OE. would have been J)eon, *J)6h (§ 40), ]>tixigon, jnmgen^ 
all of which occur except *J)6h. The regular past participles 
of leon (Goth, leiluan) and seon (prim. Germanic *»xwaii-) 
were *liwen, siwen with w from prim. Germanic jw 
(§ 241) ; ligen, sigen were formed on analogy with the other 
verbs of this t3rpe. 

Class II. 

§ 498. The verbs of this class belong to the second 
ablaut-series (§ 226) and therefore have eo in the present, 
ga in the first and third pers. sing, of the preterite, u in the 
pret. plural, and o in the past participle, thus : 

beodan, to command bead budon boden 

Goth, biudan b&u}) biidun biidans 

§§ 494-7] Verbs 249 

And similarly a}:reotaii, to tire of) breotan, to break, 
destroy) cleofan, to cleave asunder) crSopan, to creep) 
dreopan, to drip ; fleotan, to flow ; geopan, to take to one- 
self) geotan, to pour) greotan, to weep) hleotan, to cast 
lots) leodan, to grow) neotan, to use, enjoy) reocan, to 
smoke, reek ; reodan, to redden ; reotan, to weep ; 8ceotan» 
to shoot) smgocan, to smoke ; )reotan, to howl, dreogan, 
to endure, pret. sing, dreag beside dreah (§ d2d) ; and simi- 
larly fleogan, to fly ; leogan, to tell lies, breowan, to brew, 
pret. sing, breaw (§ 266) ; and similarly ceowan, to chew ; 
hreowan, to repent of, rue. 

§ 404. ceosan, to choose ceas ctiron coren 

And similarly dreosan, to fall ; forleosan^ to lose ; 
freosan, to freeze) hreosan, to fall ) s§o}:aii (sudon, 
soden), to boil. See § 239. ftbrgopan, to perish^ ruin, 
extended the ]> to all parts of the verb. 

§ 496. teon, to draw teah tugon togen 

teon (Goth, tiuhan) from *teohan (§ 139) ; on the g in 
the pret. plural and past participle, see § 239 ; and similarly 
fleon, to flee. 

§ 496. Here belong also the aorist presents with weak 
grade vowel in all forms of the present (§ 472). 

brucan, to use breac brucon brocen 

And similarly dufan, to dive ; hrutan, to snore ; lucan, 
to lock ) lutan, to incline, bow down ; scufan, to push, shove ; 
slupan, to slip ; sucan, to suck ; supan» to sup ; strudan, 
to pillage) ]mtan, to howl, btigan, to bend, pret. sing. 
beag beside beah (§ 323) ; and similarly smugan, to creep ; 
sugan, to suck. 

Class III. 

§ 497. The verbs of this class belong to the third ablaut- 
series (§ 226)y and include the strong verbs having a medial 
nasal or liquid + consonant, and a few others in which the 

250 Accidence [§§ 498-9 

vowel is followed by two consonants other than a nasal 
or liquid -h consonant. 

§ 498. Verbs with nasal + consonant had i in all forms 
of the present, a, o (§ 69) in the first and third pers. sing, of 
the preterite, and u in the preterite pi. and past participle, 

bindan, to bind band (bond) bundon bunden 

Goth, bindan band bundun bundans 

And similarly ftcwincan, to vanish; climban, to climb; 
clingan, to shrink ; crimman, to insert ; crincan, cringan, 
to /all, succumb ; drincan, to drink ; gelimpan, to happen ; 
grimman, to rage; grindan, to grind; hlimman, to 
resound; hrindan, to push; linnan, to cease; onginnan, 
to begin ; rinnan, to run^ flow ; scrincan, scringan, to 
shrink; sinnan, to meditate; slincan, to slink, creep; 
spinnan, to spin; springan, to leap; stincan, to stink- 
stingan, to sting; Jindan, to swell; \>Tinga,n, to throng, 
press; ])rintan, to swell; windan, to wind; winnan, to 
toil, fight ; wringan, to wring. On sincan (Goth, sigqan), 
to sink ; singan (Goth, siggwan), to sing ; swincan, to toil ; 
swindan, to disappear ; swingan, to swing ; swimman, 
to swim, see § 249. The regular principal parts of findan 
(Goth. fln])an) would have been HJ^an (§ 97), fd]> (§ 64), 
f undon, fiinden (§ 239) ; the present, and the pret. sing. 
fand were formed on analogy with verbs like bindan; 
beside fand there occurs funde which is the second pers. 
sing, also used for the first and third. On bieman (Goth. 
brinnan), to bum, barn (Goth, brann), bom (later beam), 
bumon, burnen ; and ieman (Goth, rinnan, see above), 
to run, am (Goth, rann), om (later earn), urnon, umen, 
see § 98, Note 3. 

§ 499. Verbs with 1 + cons. except Ic (§ 84) have e in the 
present, ea (§ 64) in the first and third pers. sing, of the 
preterite, u in the pret. plural, and o in the past participle 
(§ 43), thus : 

§§ 500-2] 



helpan^ (o help healp htilpon holpen 
Goth, hilpan halp hulpun hulpans 

And similarly belgan, to swell with anger; bellan, to 
bellow ; beteldan, to cover ; delfan, to dig ; meltan, to melt; 
swelgan, to swallow, swellan, to swell; sweltan (§ 249), 
to die. gieldan (§ 91), to yield, geald, gtildon, golden; 
and similarly giellan, to yell; gielpan, to boast. 

§ 500. Verbs with Ic, r or h + consonant have eo in the 
present (§§ 83-6), ea in the first and third pers. sing, of the 
preterite, u in the preterite plural, and o in the past parti- 
ciple. On the verbs with the combination weo in the 
present, see § 94. 

weorpan, to throw wearp wurpon worpen 

And similarly Slseolcan, to languish; beorcan, to bark; 
beorgan, to protect; ceorfan, to cut, carve; deorfan, to 
labour; hweorfan, to turn, go; feohtsin, to /ight ; meol- 
can, late WS. also melcan, to milk ; sceorfan, to gnaw ; 
sceorpan, to scrape ; steorfan, to die ; sweorfan, to rub ; 
sweorcan, to become dark. weor);an, to become, wear)>, 
wurdon, worden (§ 239). 

§ 601. feolan from ^feolhan (§ 84, Note i), to enter, 
penetrate, fealh (§ 64), fulgon (§ 239) beside the more 
common form fslon made after the analogy of verbs of 
class IV, folgen; pret. pi. and pp. also fulon from 
*fulhoii,fdlen from *folhen with hfrom thepres. *feolhan. 


bregdan, to brandish 




stregdan, to strew 

strsegd % 



berstan, to burst 




}>erscan, to thresh 




frignan, to^sk 




muman, to mourn 



spuman, to spurn 




J 52 Accidence [5503 

In bregdan and atregdan, beside the forms with % there 
also occur forms with loss of g and lengthening of the pre- 
ceding vowel, as brSdan (§ 80, Note 2), bned (§ 64, Note 2), 
brGdon, broden ($ 106, Note), berstan (OHG. brestan) 
and })eracan (OHG. dreakan) have metathesis of r ($ 280), 
hence the absence of breaking in the present and pret. 
singular. The i in frignan is due to the influence of the gn ; 
beside frignan there also occurs frinan ;§ 96, Note i) to 
which a new pret. sing, frftn was formed after the ana- 
logy of verbs of class I ; the n belonged originally to the 
present only, and the g to the pret. plural and past parti- 
ciple ; the n and g were extended to all forms of the verb, 
cp. Goth, frafhnan, Crah, frShun for *fregun, fraihans 
for *frigan8 ; the Goth, shows that the OE. verb originally 
belonged to class V and that the principal parts would 
regularly have been *freohnan(^freonan,§ 328, 2), *freah, 
*fr&gon (§ 120), *fregen; beside the pret. pi. frugnon there 
also occur frungon with metathesis of gn, and frunon with 
loss of g; and beside the pp. frugnen there also occur 
frunen with loss of g, and frognen. muman and spuman 
(also spoman) are properly aorist presents (§ 472). 

Class IV. 

§ 508. The verbs of this class belong to the fourth 
ablaut-series (§ 226), which includes the strong verbs whose 
stems end in a single liquid or nasal. They have e in the 
present, tt in the first and third pers. sing, of the preterite, 
» in the pret. plural, and o in the past participle, thus : 

beran, to bear baer bsron boren 
Goth, bafran bar berun bat!irans 

And similarly cwelan, to die ; helan, to conceal) stelan, to 
steal; teran, /o tear; )>weran, /o stir, scieran (§91), to 
shear, ecear (§ 72), scSaron (§ 124), scoren. 


5§ 504-5I Verbs 253 


ctunan^ to come c(w)5m c(w)omoii cumen (cymen) 

Qiman, to take ndm nomon numen 

From the regular forms of the second and third pers. 
sing. pres. indie. cym(e)st, cym(e)]>9 the y was often 
extended to other forms of the pres., especially to the pres. 
subjunctive as cyme beside cume; cuman is an aorist 
present (§ 472) from older '^kwoman with regular loss of 
w before u ($§ 100, 268), after the analogy of which it was 
often dropped in the preterite ; c(w)dm for *cwam, *cwom, 
was a new formation from the plural where was regular 
(§ 121) ; cumen from older '^kwomen ; on cymen, see 
§ 442. niman from older *neman (§ 81) ; ndm was a new 
formation from the plural which regularly had 6 (§ 121) ; 
beside ndm, nomon there also occur the new formations 
nam, n&mon ; numen from older "^nomen (§ 109). 

Class V. 

§ 605. The verbs of this class belong to the fifth ablaut- 
series (§ 226), which includes the strong verbs whose stems 
end in a single consonant other than a liquid or a nasal. 
They have e in the present, « in the first and third pers. 
sing, of the preterite, and e in the past participle, thus : 

metan, to measure m»t mston meten 
Goth, mitan mat metun mitans 

And similarly brecan (pp. brocen after the analogy of 
class IV), to break; cnedan, to knead] drepan (pp. also 
dropen after the analogy of class IV); screpan, to scrape \ 
sprecan, late 0£. specan, to speak; swefan, to sleep; 
treAsinf to tread; wetsai, to weave; wegan (pret. pi. wegon 
beside wagon, see § 120), to carry; wrecan, to avenge. 
giefan (§ 91), to give, geaf (§ 72), geafon (§ 124), giefen ; 
and similarly forgietan, to forget, etan, to eat, and fretan 
(Goth, fra-itan, pret. sing, fret), to devour, had e in the 

254 Accidence [ff $(^6^ 

pret sing, already in prim. Germanic, q>. Goth. it».O.Icel. 
OS. ftt, OHG. ft« (§ 119). cwepatkf to say, cw»)>, cwsdon, 
cweden ; wesan, to be, pret pi. wwron (§ 289). genesan, 
to be saved, and lesan, to collect, gather, have extended the 
8 of the present and pret. sing, to all forms of the verb. 

§ 606. 86on (Goth, saihran) from *seohan (§ 87), to see, 
seah (§ 68X sftwon beside sttgon (§ 241), sewen (§ 241) 
beside sawen with a difficult to account for, and Anglian 
gesegen with g from the pret plural ; and similarly gefeon, 
to rejoice, gefeah, pret pi. gefsgon; pleon, to risk, pret. 
sing, pleah. 

§ 607. To this class also belong biddan, topraj>; licgan, 
to lie down ; sittan, to sit, which originally had j in the 
present (§ 264) : biddan (Goth. bicUan), baed (Goth. ba)>), 
bsdon (Goth, bedun), beden (Goth, bidans). The pret. 
pi. of licgan is Ulgon beside Isegon (§ 120). J^icgan, to 
receive, is a weak verb in WS. ; in poetry it has the strong 
forms ]>eah [jMi), )>8egon, ]>egen. fricgan, to ask, inquire, 
with strong pp. gefrigen, geCnigen (cp. § 602). 

Class VI. 

§ 608. The verbs of this class belong to the sixth ablaut- 
series (§ 226), and have a in the present, o in the pret. sing, 
and plural, and ae beside a in the past participle. There is 
a good deal of fluctuation between ae and a in the past 
participle, as faeren, grsefen, saecen, slaegen beside faren, 
grafen, sacen, slagen. The regular development of Ger- 
manic a when followed by a palatal vowel in the next 
syllable is ae (§64), so that forms with a like faren, &c., are 
new formations with a from the present, see § 64, Note 3. 
faran, to go for foron faeren, faren 

Goth, faran f5r forun farans 

And similarly alan, to grow; bacan, to bake; calan, to 
be cold; galan, to sing; grafan, /o dig; hladan, to lade. 

§§ S09-I0] 



had) sacan, to strive f quarrel] wacan, to awake, be bom ; 
wadan, to go ; wascan, to wash, gnagan (pret. sing, 
gnog beside gndh, § 823), to gnaw ; and similarly dragan, 
to draw, scacan, sceacan (§ 67» Note), to shake, scdc» 
scedc (§ 128, Note), scacen, sceacen ; and similarly scafan, 
sceafan, to shave, scrape, standan (Goth, standan), to 
stand, stod, stddon, standen, with n from the present. 
spanan, to albire, pret. spdn beside speon which was 
formed after the analogy of verbs of class VII. 


slgan, to strike sl5g, sldh sldgon slsgen, slagen 

slean (Goth, slahan) from *sleahan (§ 70) ; sl5g with g 
from the plural, beside sloh (§ 823), slogon (§ 239) ; beside 
slsegen, slagen there also occurs slegen with i-umlaut 
(§ 442) ; and similarly flean, to flay ; lean, to blame ; 
]>wean, to wash. 

§ 610. To this class also belong hebban (Goth. haQan), 
to raise] hliehhan (Goth, hlahjan), to laugh] sce]>]>an 
(Goth. ska])jan), to injure, cp. § 626 ; scieppan (Goth, ga- 
skapjan), to create ; stsppan beside steppan (§ 66, Note 3), 
to step, go ] swerian, to swear, which originally had j in the 
present (§ 271). 


hof hofon 

hsfen, hafen 


hlog, hloh hlogon 


scdd sc5don 


scdp scopon 



stdp stdpon 

steepen, stapen 


swor sw5ron 


hebban has also weak pret. and pp. in late WS. (hefde, 
hefod); beside haefen there also occurs hefen (§ 442). 
hl5g with g from the plural beside hl5h (§ 823). The 
regular WS. form of sce])])an would be scie}>])an (§ 61). 
On sceo- beside sod-, see § 128, Note. On sceapen, see 

256 Accidence [$§511-14 

§ 67, Note, sworen with o from analogy of verbs of 
class IV as in OHG. gisworan. 

Class VII. 

§ 611. To this class belong those verbs which originally 
had redui^icated preterites like Goth, haihald, lafldt, 
fa(fl6k, hafh&it, ralrd)>, lafl&ik, inf. haldan, to hold, IStan, 
to let, flokan, to complain, hUtan, to call, rSdan, to advise, 
l&ikan, to leap. Traces of the old reduplicated preterites 
have been preserved in Anglian and in poetry, viz. heht 
(also WS.), leolc, leort, ondreord, reord, beside inf. hfttan, 
Iftcan, Istan, ondrsdan, rsdan, see below. This class 
of verbs is divided into two sub-divisions according as the 
preterite had § or eo. Much has ^been written about the 
stem-vowel in the preterite of these verbs, but little or 
nothing is really known of how it came about. It is 
usually assumed to be due to the old reduplicated syllable 
having undergone contraction with the stem-syllable, but 
this assumption leaves many phonological difficulties unex- 
plained. The preterite sing, and pi. have the same stem- 


§ 612. hatan, to call het haten 

And similarly Ulcan, to play ; scadan, sceadan (§ 133, 
Note 2), to separate, pret. seed beside scead. 

§613. Imiaxi, to let, allow let Isten vs 

And similarly ondrsdan (WS. also weak pret. ondribdde), 
to dread, fear] radan (pret. and pp. mostly weak in WS. : 
r»dde, gersedd), to advise ; slsepan (WS. also weak pret. 
slepte). blandan, to mix, pret. blend, pp. blanden. 

§ 614. fdn (§ 117), to seise feng (§ 239) fangen 
And similarly hon, to hang. 

f§ 515-20] Verbs 257 

Sub-division 2. 
§ 616. bannan, to summon beoii(n) bannen 

And similarly gangan, pret. also gieng, to go ; spannan, 
to join, clasp. 

§ 616. fealdan (§ 64), to /old fSold fealden 

And similarly feallan, to /all; healdan^ to hold; stealdan, 
to possess; wealcan^ to roll; wealdan, to rule; weallan, 
to boH; weaxan (originally belonged to class VI), to grow. 

§617. h]SwBXi, to blow bleow (§ 266) bUlwen 

And similarly cnftwan, to know ; cr9.wan9 to crow ; 
mftwan, to mow; s9.wan, to sow; swUpan, to sweep; 
}>rawan» to turn, twist ; w&wan, to blow. 

§ 618. biatan, to beat beet beaten 

And similarly fthnSapan, to pluck off; heawan, to hew ; 
hl§apan» to leap. 

§ 619. blotan, to sacrifice blSot bloten 

And similarly blowan, to bloom, blossom; hrdpan, to 
shout; hwopan, to threaten; flowan, to flow; grdwan, 
to grow ; hldwan, to low, bellow ; r5wan (pret. pi. rgon 
beside rgowon, § 226), to row; sp5wan, to succeed; 
wepan (Goth, wdpjan), to weep. The pret. of fl5can» to 
clap, strike ; swogan, to sound; wrotan, to root up, do not 

B. Weak Verbs. 

§ 620. The weak verbs, which for the most part are 
derivative or denominative, are divided in OE. into three 
classes according as the infinitive ends in -ul (Groth. -jan), 
pret. -ede, -de, -te (Goth, -ida, -ta); -ian (Goth, -on) from 
older .Qjan (§ 273), pret. -ode (Goth, -oda) ; -an (Goth, -an), 


253 Accidence [§52* 

pret. -de (Goth. •&ida). The weak preterite is a special 
Germanic fonnatioDi and many points connected with its 
origin are still uncertain. Some scholars are inclined to 
regard it as a periphrastic formation which was originally 
confined to denominative verbs, and then at a later period 
became extended to primary verbs as well. The OE. 
endings -de, -de8(tX -de, pi. -don (older •dun), would thus 
represent an old aorist formed from the root dhS-, put^ 
place (Gr. Ti4i)-|ii), which stands in ablaut relation to OE. 
dSn, to do. The old preterite (perfect) of this verb has 
been preserved in the preterite plural of Gothic weak 
verbs, as h&usi-dSdum {we heard), -dedu]>, -dedun. But it 
is also probable that the dental in the OE. preterite stands 
in close relationship to the dental in the past participle, 
where the -d = prim. Germanic -dAs = Gr. -t^s. Prim. 
Germanic -don, -dss, -de(]>), pi. third pers. -dun(]>) from 
Indg. *-dhnt with vocalic n, regularly became -de» •des(t), 
•de, -don older -dun in OE. Three stems are to be 
distinguished in the conjugation of a weak verb : the stem 
of the present, preterite, and past participle, which mostly 
agrees with that of the preterite. 

NoTE.^Many points concerning the inflexion of weak verbs 
in the oldest periods of the Germanic languages have never 
been satisfactorily explained. For a summary and discussion 
of the various explanations which have been suggested by 
scholars, the student should consult: Brugmann's Kurze 
vergleichende Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen ; 
Streitberg*s Urgermanische Grammatik; and Kluge*s Vorge- 
schichte der altgermanischen Dialekte in Paul's Grundriss der 
germanischen Philologie, vol. I. 

Class I. 
§ 621. In OE. the verbs of this class are divided into 
two sub-divisions : (a) verbs which originally had a short 
stem^syllable ; (b) polysyllabic verbs and those which 

§S 5^2-4] Verbs 259 

originally had a long stem-syllable. Nearly all the verbs 
belonging to this class are causative and denominative. 
On the personal endings^ see §§ 2789 476-88. 

Sub-division (a). 

§ 622. Formation of the present stem : The present 
stem of verbs ending in a single consonant, except r, 
became long (except in the second and third pers. sing, 
pres. indicative, and second pers. sing, imperative) by the 
West Germanic law of the doubling of consonants (§ 264). 
The j had already disappeared in these persons before the 
operation of the law, for which reason they had single 
consonants in 0£. (§ 264^ Note). 

§ 628. Formation of the pret. and past participle : The 
j, which caused the doubling of the final consonants in 
the present stems, never existed in the preterite or past 
participle, so that these stems ended in single consonants. 
The pret. generally had the ending -ede from prim. Ger- 
manic -idon, but verbs whose present stems ended in dd, 
tt (= West Germanic 4j» Id) had -de^ -te on analogy with 
the verbs which originally had long stems (§ 628). On 
many verbs whose present stems ended in cc, 11 (= West 
Germanic kj, U), see § 684. 

The past participle generally ended in -ed from older -id, 
prim. Germanic -id&s, as genered, gefremed. But in WS. 
and Ken. the verbs whose stems ended in d» t had vowel 
syncope and assimilation of consonants, as geset(t), masc. 
ace. sing, gesetne, dat. gesettum» fem. gen. dat. sing. 
gesetre, beside Anglian geseted, gesetedne, gesettum, 
gesetedre; gehredd beside Anglian gehreded, rescued. 
See § 800. 

§ 624. The full conjugation of nerian (Goth, nasjan), to 
save) fremman (Goth. *fraii]dAn)i to perform ) settaii(Goth. 
sa^an), to set, will serve as models for this class. 

s 2 






Sing. I. 













Sing. 2. 
Plur. 2. 












Sing. I. 






sette 1 

setton 1 





sette ! 



geseted, geset(t) | 

§ 626. On forms like nergan, nerigan, nerigean, see 
§ 271. Like nerian are conjugated amerian, to purify] 

§§526-8] Verbs 261 

aiidswerian, to answer) berian, to make bare ; bescierian, 
to deprive \ byrian» to pertain to^ belong to; derian^ to 
injure; erian, to plough; ferian, to carry; gewerian» 
to clothe; heriaxkf to praise ; onhyrian, to emulate ; scierian, 
to allot; snyrian, to hasten; spyrian, to pursue; styrian, 
to stir; werian, to defend. 

In late WS. many of the verbs of this type went over 
into class II owing to the ending of the infinitive being 
the same in both classes. 

§ 626. Like fremman are conjugated ftswebban, to kill; 
clyimany to sound; cnyssan, to knock; dynnan, to make 
a noise; gremman, to anger, provoke; hlynnan, to roar; 
hrissan, to shake; sce])])an (also sv. § 610), to injure; 
swe]>]>aii, to swathe; temman, to tame; trymman, to 
strengthen; ])ennan» to stretch; ])icgan (in poetry also 
strong pret. yeah, ])9.h), to receive; wecgan, to agitate; 
wennan, to accustom ; wre]>]>aii, to support. 

In WS. and Ken. most of the verbs whose stems ended 
in 1, m, n, s, )> were remodelled on analogy with verbs like 
nerian with single consonant, as clynian^ fremian^ helian, 
to conceal, sylian, to sully, swejAan, and then later often 
went over into class II. On the pret. and past participle 
of verbs ending in ]), see § 306. 

§ 627. Like settan are conjugated fttreddan, to search 
out; cnyttan, to bind, knit; hreddan, to rescue, save; 
hwettan, to whet, incite; lettan, to hinder; spryttan, to 
sprout; and lecgan^ to lay. 

Sub-division (b). 

§ 628. The preterite generally ended in -de from older 
-ide» the i of which caused umlaut in the stem-syllable and 
then disappeared (§ 221). The following points should be 
noted in regard to the consonants : (i) Germanic double 
consonants were simplified before -de, as fyllan (Goth. 
fttl^an), to Jill, pret. fylde (§ 260), pp. gefylled; (a) ]> + d 




became dd in late WS., as cy>an, to make known, pret 
cy))de, pp. gecy>ed, later cydde (§ 806), pp. gecyd(d) with 
dd from the inflected forms ; (3) -de became -te after voice- 
less consonants (§ 300), as cyssan* to kiss, pret. cyste, 
pp. gecyssed ; gretan, to greet, pret. grette, pp. gegret(ed) ; 
(4) the d in -de disappeared after consonant +d or t (§ 229, 
Note), as sendan, to send, pret. sende, pp. ge8end(ed); 
faestan, to make fast, pret. fasste, pp. gefasstCed). Verbs 
which would regularly have vocalic 1, n, r in the pret. 
generally have -ede, especially in the combination long 
syllables If n, r» as hyngran, to hunger, dieglan, to hide, 
pret hyngrede, ^eglede (§ 221) ; but in the combination 
short syllable +1, n, r they generally had -de in the oldest 
period of the language and then later -ede, as eglan, to 
trouble, pret. eglde beside later eglede ; the verbs of this 
t3rpe often went over into class II (cp. § 222). 

§ 629. The full conjugation of deman (Goth, ddn^an), 
to judge, drencan (Goth, dragkjan), to submerge, h3mgran 
(Goth, hoggijan), to hunger, and gierwan from "^jearwjan, 
to prepare, will serve as models for this class. 

» Present. 


Sing. I. 



drence h3mgre 
drenc(e)st hyngrest 
drenc(e)J> hsmgre]) 
drenca]) hyngra)> 





drence hyngre 
drencen hjmgren 





Sing. 2. 
Plur. 2. 


drenc h3mgre 
drenca}> h3mgra}> 






drencan hsmgran 


dSmende drencende hsmgrende gierwende 
Sing. T. dSmde drencte hyngrede gierede 

2. demdes(t) drenctes(t) hyngredes(t) gieredes(t) 

3. demde drencte hjmgrede gierede 
Plur. demdon drencton hyngredon gieredon 

Sing. demde drencte hjmgrede gierede 
Plur. dSmden drencten hjmgreden giereden 

gedSmed gedrenced gehyngred gegier(w)ed 
§ 680. Like deman are conjugated a large number of 
verbs, as elan, to set on fire ; eman, to gallops cause to 
run; hfllega,n, to put to flight; ^Uefan, to allow ; ftwyrgan, 
to strangle, kill; bedan, to compel; barman, to bum up, 
cause to bum ; beneeman, to deprive of; biegan, to bend ; 
brsdan, to broaden ; byrgan, to taste ; byrgan, to buty ; 
celan, to cool; cemban, to comb; ciegan (§ 270), to call; 
cvrielmasi, to kill ;d9bUin, to share; diedan, to kill ; drsefan, 
to drive out; Arefa,n, to stir up; dry g^n, to dry ; ea]>medan, 
to humble; fedan, to feed; fegan, to join; feran, to go, 
journey; fUtmsca, to put to flight ; tylgan, to follow; fysan» 
to hasten ; gefredan, to feel, perceive ; geliefan, to believe ; 
ge]nedan, to join together; gieman, to heed; giernan, (0 
desire, yearn for; glengan, to adorn; heelan, to heal; 
h«man, to marry; hienan, to humiliate, Hi-use; hieran, 
to hear ; hlydan, to make a noise ; hringan, to ring, sound; 
hydan, to hide ; ledan, to lead ; l«fan, to leave ; laenan, to 

264 Accidence [§ 530 

lend; lsran» to teach) lengan, to require; liesan, to set 
free ; mfenani to moan, com/Jain ; nueran, to proclaim ; 
mengan, to mix; nenman (pret. nemde, pp. genem(n)ed), 
to name; Qiedan, to compel; raran, to raise; ryman, to 
make room ; Sttgan, to lay low ; selan, to bind with a rope ; 
scrydan, to clothe; sengan, to singe; sprsdan, to spread; 
sprengan, to burst ; stieran, to steer ; stiieiian, to acquire ; 
swSgaiiy ta make a sound; tielan, to blame; tengan, to 
hasten; tynan, to enclose; i^edan, to rage; i^enan, to 
expect ; wieman^ to refuse ; wregan, to accuse. The con- 
tracted verbs hSan (pret. heade* pp. head), to heighten, 
ratse; and similarly ryn, to roar; tyn, to teach; )>§on, 
to perform, do ; )»yn (also in form )»ywan), to press, cyjian 
(pret. cy])de» later cydde), to make known ; and similarly 
ahyjian, to destroy, lay waste; c^m])an» to lament; Uejiaiiy 
to hate, abuse ; n§])aii9 to venture on ; oferswijiany to over- 
come; 8§)»an9 to testify; wr§])an, to be angry, get angry. 
fyUan (pret. fylde), to fill; and similarly ftfierran, to re- 
move ; cexmaiiy to bring forth ; cierran, to turn ; clyppan, 
to embrace; cyssan (pret. cyste), to kiss; fieUan, to fell; 
mierran, to mar ; pyffan, to puff; spillan, to destroy ; 
stillan, to still; wenunan, to defile, ieldan (pret ielde), 
to delay, sendan (pret. sende^ to send, gyrdan (pret girrde), 
to gird; and similarly behyldan^ to flay ; gewieldan, to 
overpower ; gyldan, to gUd ; Gnhieldan, to incline ; scildan, 
to protect ; spildan, to destroy ; wieldan, to control, subdue ; 
bendan^ to bind; blendan, to blind; lendan, to land, arrive ; 
ontendaiiy to kindle ; pyndan, to shut up, confine ; scendan, j 
to put to shame ; wendan, to turn ; andwyrdan, to answer ; \J 
ftwierdan, to destroy ; hierdan, to harden ; onbyrdan^ to 
inspire, incite, festan (pret feste). to make fast ; and 
similarly ftcreftan, to devise, plan ; Sfyrhtan, to frighten ; 
ftgyltan, to be guilty; awestan, to lay waste; efstan, to 
hasten; ehtan, to pursue, persecute; fyistan, to help; 
gedetttBin, to put in order ; gehlBdsisai,toload; gehyrstan. 

§§631-3] Verbs 265 

to equip] grimettan, to roar, rage (for other examples 
of verbs in -ettan, see § 657) ; haeftan, to hold captive ; 
hieTstB.n, to roast; hiertBH, to hearten, encourage; hlystan, 
to listen ; hyhtan, to hope ; labstan, to perform ; Hehtan, to 
give light; lystan, to please; maestan, to feed with mast; 
myntan, /o mtend, think; restan^ to rest; rihtan, to set 
right; scyrtan, to shorten; tyhtan, to incite, allure; 
)»yrstan, to thirst. 

§ 581. Like drencan are conjugated ftcwencan, to 
quench; fidwaescan^ to quench; ftstiepan, to bereave; 
bstan, to bridle; beriepan» to despoil; betan» to atone for, 
amend; cepan^ to keep ; ciepan^ to buy; cyspan, to bind, 
fetter ; driepaxif to let drop, moisten; gewlencan, to make 
proud; geswencan, to injure; gretan» to greet; hstan, 
to heat ; hwierfan, to convert ; hwitan, to whiten ; hyspan^ 
to mock ; iecan (see § 6d4» Note 2), to increase ; liexan, to 
shine; metan, to meet; n«tan, to afflict; oftyrfan, to 
stone ; of ])ryscan, to beat down ; nesan, to rush ; retan, 
to cheer ; scencan, to pour out ; scierpan, to sharpen ; 
screncan, to cause to tumble; sencan, to cause to sikk; 
spetan, to spit; swetan, to sweat; swencan, to vex, 
afflict; Uesan, to pull, tear; tdstencan, to scatter; 
yppaiiy to open, manifest; wstan, to wet; wierpan, to 
recover; wyscan, to wtsh. 

§ 682. Like hyngran are conjugated biecnan, to make 
a sign; dieglan, to conceal; forglendran, to devour; fre- 
fran» to comfort; ssTmblan, to feast; timbran, to buHd; 
wrixlan, to change, exchange, efnan (pret. efnde, later 
e£Qede, § 628), to level, perform; and similarly hyMsca, 
to build; eglan, to trouble, afflict; reefnan, to perform; 
seglan, to sail; ])rysmany to suffocate. 

§ 688. gierest, giere>, gierede from older *gierwis, 
♦gierwij), *gierwide with regular loss of w (§ 266). At 
a later period the verbs of this type mostly generalized the 
forms with or without w, and often went over into class II 

266 Acctdefice [§ 534 

The verbs with a long diphthong or vowel in the stem 
generally had w in all forms of the verb. Like gierwan 
are conjugated hierwan, to despise, iU4reai; nierwan, h 
constrain ; sierwan^ to contrive, plot ; smierwan, /o anoint, 
smear. Uewan (pret. Uewde), to betray; and similarly 
forsUewan, to delay, be shw; getriewan^ to trust] hleo- 
waiiy hliewan, to shelter, warm ; iewan, to show, disclose, 

uowan, siowan (Goth, siujan, OHG. siuwen) from 
older *siu^an (q). § 188), to sew, pret. siowede, seowede 
from older *siwide ; from the pret. was formed a new inf. 
si(o)wian after the analogy of class II, with preterite 
siowode, seowode. Sfnowan, speswan from *spiuwjan 
older '*'spiwwjan (§ 264), to spit, pret spiowede, speo- 
wede from *spiwide, beside spiode, speode, formed 
direct from the present ; from the pret. spiowede was 
formed a new inf. spi(o)wian after the analogy of class II. 
streowan (Goth, straujan), to strew, pret. streowede 
beside strewede (Goth, strawida), § 77» from which a new 
inf. streowian^ strewian was formed after the analogy of 
class II, pret. streowode. 

§ 584. A certain number of verbs belonging to class I 
formed their preterite and past participle already in prim. 
Germanic without the medial vowel -i-, as bycgan (Goth, 
bugjan), to buy, pret. bohte (Goth, batihta), pp. geboht 
(Goth, batihts) ; )>encan (Goth. )»agkjan), to think, pret. 
>ohte (Goth. JiSlita, § 40), pp. geboht (Goth. ]>ahts), 
whence the absence Of i-umlaut in the pret. and past 
participle of verbs of this type. In addition to a few verbs 
which had long stems originally, they embrace verbs 
whose present stems end in cc, 11 from West Germanic kj 
and Ij (§ 254). On the interchange between c and h, see 
§ 240, At a later period the preterite and pp. of verbs 
with -ecc- in the present were re-formed with e from the 
present, as cweccan, cwehte, gecweht; and similarly 
rsecan, tscan, prim. Germanic "^rai^jan, ^taikjan, gener- 




ally had pret. nehte, tsehte with « from the present, 
beside the regular forms rfihte, t9lite. The verbs with 11 
in the present often formed the pret. and pp. on analogy 
with the verbs of sub-division (a) especially in late OE., as 
dwelede, -ode, beside older dwealde. Beside sellan 
there also occurs siellan (later syllan) from "^sealljan 
with ea borrowed from the pret. and pp. in prehistoric 
OE. bringan, to bnng, is the strong form (cp. § 498), the 
regular weak form brengan is rare in OE. 
bycgan, to buy bohte geboht 

cweccan, to shake cweahte gecweaht 

dreccan, to affltct dreahte gedreaht 

leccan, to moisten leahte geleaht 

reccan, to narrate reahte gereaht 

streccan, to stretch streahte gestreaht 

)>eccan, to cover }>eahte ge)>eaht 

weccan, to awake weahte geweaht 

cwellan, to kill cwealde gecweald 

dwellan, to hinder dwealde gedweald 

sellan, to sell sealde geseald 

stellan, to place stealde gesteald 

tellan, to count tealde geteald 

raecan, to reach raehte, rahte gersht 

tsecan, to teach t«hte, tslhte getceht, getSlht 

secan, to seek sdhte gesdht 

bringan, to bring brdhte gebroht 

)»encan, to think }>dhte ge}>5ht 

yynczxi^ to seem }mhte ge}>uht 

wyrcan, to work worhte geworht 

N0TE.--1. The presents reccan for *recan (pret. rShte), 
to carefoTy reck ; and Iceccan for ^Isecan (pret. Isehte, pp. gelseht), 
to seijge, are difficult to account for. 

2. Especially in late OE. verbs with medial c, cc often formed 
their pret and pp. in -hte, -ht after the analogy of the above type 
of verbs, but with the retention of i-umlaut, as bepsecan, to 

. I 

268 Accidence [§ 535 

dicnvi, bepttte, bepfiht, beside older bepftcte, bepftct; and 
similarly gewiBcan, to vmiAm; iecan, to increase ; nealfecan, 
to approach (for further examples of verbs with •Uscaiit see 
§ 668); oieccan, to flatter \ sycan^ to suckle \ ^ryccan, to press, 
crush ; wleccan, to warm. 

Class II. 

§686. This class of verbs is denominative and originally 
belonged partly to the athematic and partly to the thematic 
conjugation (§ 472). The first pers. singular of the former 
ended in -ftmi and of the latter in -1^5. The ft became 5 
in the prim. Germanic period (§ 28). A large number 
of the verbs which originally belonged to class III went 
over into this class in prehistoric OE. On the verbs of 
class I which went over into this class, see §$ 626-6t 688. 

The full conjugation of sealfian, to anoint, will serve as 
a model for the verbs of this class. 


Indie. Subj. 



sealfie sealfie 






sealfia^ sealfien 






sealfode sealfode 




sealfode „ 


sealfodon sealfoden 


5 S3^1 Verbs 269 

The corresponding prim. Germanic forms of the pres. 
indicative were : *sal^djd, *sal1>dsi (Goth, salbos), *sal* 
1>o>i (Goth. salbd]>X pi. *sal1>djan]ii. In OE. ^j- regularly 
became -i- (§ 278) which not being original did not cause 
i-umlaut in the stem-syllable. The -i- was often written -ig-, 
also -ige- before guttural vowels, as sealfige, sealfigan, 
sealfigean, beside seallBey sealfian» see § 278. On the 
ending -e in the first pers. sing, of the present, see § 476. 
The ending -a in the imperative second pers. sing, was 
from sealfas(t); a form corresponding to Goth, salbd 
would have become in OE. *sealf from older ^sealDu 
(§ 215). Inf. sealfian is from prim. Germanic ^salDo- 

The corresponding prim. Germanic forms of the pret. 
indicative were *sal1>&d5n (Goth, salbdda), *sal1>dd«s 
(Goth, salbddes), *sal1>ods(» (Goth, salboda), pi. *sal1>d- 
dtin(}>). The medial -5- was regularly shortened to -u- in 
prehistoric OE. (§ 218) and then later became -o-y -a^ the 
former of which is usual in WS. and the latter in Anglian 
and Ken. On -e- beside -o-, -a-, see § 222. And similarly 
in the past participle WS. -ody Anglian and Ken. -ad, 
prim. Germanic -ddaz. 

§ 686. Like sealfian are conjugated a large number of 
verbs, as &cealdian, to become cold) &rian, to honour; 
ascian, to ask ; &swefecian, to eradicate ; bedecian, to beg ; 
behofian, to have need of\ bodian, to announce ; ceapian» 
to buy; ceorian, to complain ; costian, to try, prove ; cun- 
nian, to try, test; dysigian, to be foolish; dwolian, to err; 
eahtian, to esteem, consider; eardian, to dwell, inhabit; 
eamian, to earn; endian, /o end; f8eg(e)iiian, to rejoice; 
faesinian, to fasten ; fandian, to try, search out; folgian, to 
follow; tvHian, to fulfil; fwidiBXi, to strive after ; gearcian, 
to prepare ; gearwian (§ 688), to prepare ; gedafenian» to 
beseem ; gemidlian, to bridle, restrain ; gemyndgian, to re- 
member; gedmrian, to be sad, lament; gestrangian, to 

270 Accidence [§ 637 

make strong; grftpian, to grope, /eel; hafenian, io hold; 
haigian, tohaUaw ; hangian, to hang; haMaxtfto hate ; hef(i)- 
gian, to make heavy; hergian (cp. § bM)^ to harry; hlgian, 
to hasten; hnappiaii, /o ^jg^ ; ho\fiSLTifto hope; hwearfian, 
to wander; ieldcian, to delay; Iftcnian, to heal; langian, to 
long for; lajdan, to invite; leanian, to reward; leasian, 
to tell lies ; llcian, to please ; locian, to look ; lofian, to praise ; 
losian, to lose ; lufian, to love ; macian, to make ; manian» 
to exhort; meldian, to announce ; met(e)gian9 to measure ; 
oJOTriaiiy to offer; op(e)iiiany to open; reafian, to plunder; 
samnian, to collect, gather ; sftrgiany to cause pain ; s&rian, 
to grieve, be sad; scamian, to be ashamed; sceawian, to 
look ; 8cyld(i)giaiiy to sin ; sl]>ian, to travel ; sorgian, to 
sorrow, grieve ; sparian, to spare ; syngian, to sin ; tioh- 
hian, teohhian» to think, consider; pSLCCian, to stroke; 
})ancian, to than/i; ])olian, to suffer; ]yrowian, to suffer; 
wacian, to be awake; wandrian, to wander; war(e)iiian, 
to beware, take heed; warian, to beware ; wealwian, to roll, 
wallow ; welegian, to enrich ; weor]iiany to honour ; wer- 
gian, to grow weary ; wilnian, to desire ; wincian, to wink; 
wisian, to guide ; witgian, to prophesy ; ^^tnian, to punish, 
torment; wuldiian, to glorify; wundian, to wound; wun- 
drian, to wonder; wunian, to dwell, bletsian^ to bless; 
b]i])siany bUssian, to rejoice ; clsnsian, to cleanse ; ef esian» 
to shear; eg(e)sian, to frighten, terrify; gitsian, to covet; 
grimsian, to rage ; hreowsian, to repent of, rue ; iersian, 
to be angry; msrsian, io make famous; miltsian, to have 
mercy; ricsian, rixian, to rule, govern; unrdtsian, /o be 
sad; untreowsian, to defraud, deceive, see §660. 

On the second and third pers. sing. pres. indie, impera- 
tive sing., and pret. indicative of verbs like bifian, to 
tremble ; clifian, to adhere, cleave ; clipian, to caB; ginian, 
to yawn, gape ; hlinian, to lean, recline ; stician, to prick, 
stab ; tilian, to strive after, labour, see §§ 101-2. 

§ 587. tweogan, Anglian twiogan, from Hwixdjan 

§538] Ferbs 271 

(§§ 98, 180), to doubt; pres. indie, twgoge, tweost, tweo]) ; 
pres. part. twSonde (poetical) beside twiogende ; pret. 
indie, tweode, Anglian twiode, from HwiXodon; pp. 
tweod. And similarly in WS. the following verbs which 
originally belonged to class III : fiog(e)any to hate; frio- 
g(e)any to hve, make free ; 8]neag(e)an» to ponder, con- 
sider ; ])reag(e)any to reprove^ rebuke. y 

Class III. 
§ 688. Most of the verbs belonging to this class were 
originally primary verbs like Lat. habe-re, OHG. habg-n, 
to have, and probably embraced two types of verbs : (i) 
those which had -ej-, and (2) those which simply had -j- in 
the present. In OE. as in the other Germanic languages 
the two types became mixed, which gave rise to many new 
formations. The -ej- like -dj- (§278) in class II regularly 
became -i- in OE., which is the reason why nearly all the 
verbs of class III went over into class II in the prehistoric 
period of the language, cp. hatian, Goth, hatan, OHG. 
haiK^i^y prim. Germanic *x^^i&i^^» ^ ^^^^* ^^^ V^^' 
terite and past participle were formed, without a medial 
vowel. The chief verbs are : habban, to have ; libban, 
to live ; secgan, to say ; and hycgan» to think. 



I. haebbe 

libbe secge 


"• IhaBfet 

UoM.) 13*" 



3- thsBfj) 

"""f {"Zi 





Ubba]> 8ecg(e)a}> 




libbe secge 




libben secgen 





Sing. 2. 
Plur. 2. 



liofa saga, ssge 
Ubba]> secg(e)a}> 


hoga, hyge 


libban 8ecg(e)an 



libbende secgende 



Sing. I. 





lifde ssgde 
lifdes(t) s»gde8(t) 
lifde ssegde 
Ufdon ssgdon 




lifde ssegde 
lifden ssgden 



gelifd gesaegd 


The endings •as(t), -aj> of the second and third pers. sing, 
pres. indicative, and -a of the imperative) sing., were from 
verbs of class II; the endings correspbnding to Goth. 
•61s, -iij), -41 would have become •es(t), -ej), -e in OE. 
The regular form of haebbe would be *hebbe (OS. hebbiu) 
from West Germanic *xabbj6, but the a of the second and 
third pers. sing, was extended to the first and then a became 
dd by i-umlaut, cp. § 65, Note 2. On the ae beside a in the 
second and third pers. singular, see §§ 64, 67. hafas(t), 
hafa]) are rare in pure WS., the usual forms are hsefst, 
h8ef)>; and similarly with saegst, S8eg]> ; hyg(e)st, hyg(e)J>. 
habba]>, habban (West Germanic *x&hbjan])i, *x^bbja- 

§539] Verbs 273 

nan, OS. hebbiad, hebblan) had the a in the stem-syllable 
from hafa8(t), hafa]). On forms like nebbe from ne 
haebbe, see § 826, Note. 

libbe (OS. Ubbiu), Ubban (OS. libWan), from West Ger- 
manic *libbjd, *libbjanan. Beside Ubban there was also 
lilBian, common in Anglian and Ken., which was inflected 
like sealfian (§ 686) in the present. On the io in Uofas(t) 
and liofa]>, see § 102. 

secge (OS. seggiu), secg(e)an (OS. seggian), from W es 
Germanic *saggjo, *saggjanan. In the present the e as 
in secge, 8ecg(e)an was often extended to forms which 
regularly had ae, and vice versa. In late WS. the e was 
extended to all forms of the present. On forms like pret. 
s«de beside sasgde, see § 64, Note 2. 

On the y in hycg(e)an beside the o in hogde, see § 48. 
In the pret. this verb was also inflected like class II, 
hogode, &c. ; cp. also the past participle gehogod for 

Note.— Traces of the old inflexion of verbs which originally 
belonged to class III are seen in such forms as bya (Nth.), to 
dwells fylg(e)an, to follow^ onscynian (Anglian), to shun, waec- 
cende, being awake, beside bSan, folgian, onsctmian, waciende ; 
hettend, enemy, beside hatian, to hate ; pret. plsegde, trSde^ 
beside plagode, he played, trSwian, to trust. 

C. Minor Groups. 

A. Preterite-Presents. 

§ 680. These verbs were originally unreduplicated per- 
fects, which acquired a present meaning like Gr. otSa, 
Latin novi, / know. In prim. Germanic a new weak 
preterite, an infinitive, a pres. participle, and in some 
verbs a strong past participle, were formed. They are 
inflected in the present like the preterite of strong verbs, 
except that the second pers. singular has the same stem- 

2 74 Accidence [§§ 540-2 

vowel as the first and third persons, and has preserved 
the old ending •! (§ 481). The following verbs, many of 
which are defective, belong to this class : — 

§ 540. I. Ablaut-Series. 

wftt» / know^ he knows, a. sing, wftst (§ 240), pi. witon 
beside wiotun, wietun (§ 101), wuton (§ 108) ; subj. wite ; 
imperative sing, wite, pi. wita]> with -a]) from the pres. 
indie. 3. pers. pi. of other verbs (§ 476) ; inf. witan beside 
wiotan, wietan (§ 102) ; pres. part witende ; pret wisse, 
wiste (§ 240); pp. gewiten; participial adj. gewiss, 
certain. On forms like nftt beside ne w&t, see § 267. 

§641. 11. Ablaut-Series. 

diag (Anglian dig) beside later deah (§ 828), / avail, he 
avails, pi. dugon; subj. dyge beside the more common 
form duge (§ 482) ; inf. dtigan, pres. part, dugende* 

§ 642. III. Ablaut-Series. 

axi(n), on(n), I grant, pL iiiinon; subj. unne; imperative 
unne; inf. unnan; pret u]>e (§ 118); pp. geunnen. 

can(n), coii(ii), / know, can, 2. sing, canst, const with 
•st from forms like dearst, pi. cunnon; subj. cunne; inf. 
cunnan; pret cu]>e (Goth. kiin)»a); pp. -cunnen; parti- 
cipial adj. cti}) (Goth. kun]>s), known. 

}>earf, / need, 2. sing. ]>earft, pi. ])arfon; subj. )»yrfe 
beside the more common form ]>urfe (§ 482) ; inf. Jnarfim ; 
pres. part. )>earfende, needy, pret. ])orfte. 

dear(r) (Goth, ga-dars), / dare, with rr from the plural, 
2. sing, dearst, pi. durron (Goth, ga-dadrsum); subj. 
dyrre beside the more common form durre (§482); pret. 
dorste (Goth, ga-datirsta). 

§§643-7] Verbs 275 

§ 648. IV. Ablaut-Series. 

sceal, / shall, owe, 2. sing, scealt, pi. sctilon beside 
sceolon (§ 116); subj. scyle, later sciile, sceole; inf. 
sculan, sceolan; pret. sceolde (§ 110). 

man, mon, / think, 2. sing, manst, monst with -st from 
forms like dearst, pi. miinon ; subj. myne beside the more 
common form miine (§ 482); imperative -mun beside 
-myne, -mune; inf. mmian; pres. part, mmiende; pret. 
munde (Goth, munda) ; pp. gemunen. 

§ 644. V. Ablaut-Series. 

maeg, /, he can, 2. sing, meaht later miht, pi. magon ; 
subj.maegetpl.megen; inf. magan; pres. part, magende ; 
pret. meahte, mehte (§ 68, Note 2), later mihte. 

be-neah (Goth, bi-nah), ge-neah (Goth, ga-nah), it suffices, 
pi. -nugon; subj. -nuge; pret. nohte. 

§ 646. VI. Ablaut-Series. 

mot, /, he may, 2. sing, most (§ 240), pi. moton ; subj. 
mote ; pret. mdste (§ 240). 

§ 646. The following verb probably belonged originally 
to the seventh class of strong verbs (§ 612) : ftg later ah 
(§ 828), / have, 2. sing, fthst with -st from forms like 
dearst,p]. ftgon; subj. ftge; imperative ftge; inf. ftgan; 
pret. fthte ; pp. ftgen, egen (§ 442), own. 

B. Verbs in -mi. 

§ 647. The first pers. sing. pres. indicative of the Indo- 
Germanic verb ended either in -6 or -mi (cp. Greek verbs 
in •» and -i&t, like ^i^, I bear, tiOi)|&i, I place). See § 472. 
To the verbs in -6 belong all the regular Germanic verbs ; 
of the verbs in -mi only scanty remains have been pre- 
served; they are distinguished by the fact that the first 

T 2 


A cadence 


pers. sing. pres. indicative ended in -m. 
following OE. verbs : — 

Here belong the 


I. The Substantive Verb. 

The full conjugation of this verb is made up out of 
several distinct roots, viz. es- ; er- (perfect stem-form or.) ; 
bheu* (weak grade form bhw-) ; and wes*. From es- and 
or* were formed a pres. indicative and subjunctive ; from 
bhw* a pres. indicative (also with future meaning), pres. 
subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, and present participle ; 
and from wes* an infinitive, present participle, imperative, 
and a pret. indicative dnd subjunctive. 






1. eom 

2. eart 

3. is 

iue, SI 
sien, sin 

bio, beo 
bio]), beo]> 

bion, bion 




cam, am 
ear]>, ar]> 

sinty sind 
sindon, -un 
earon, aron, 
' -un 






Mo, beo 




V -un 

bfo, beo 
bion, beon 



§549] Verbs 277 


Indie, wees, were, waes, pi. wsron (§ 506) 
Subj. wiere, pi. weren 

Pres. indicative : eom was the unaccented form of *eom 
with eo from bee (cp. the opposite process in Anglian 
biom) ; the regular fomk would have been *im = Goth. 
im ; earty ear]>y ar]>, and pi. earon, aron are old perfects 
from the root er-, perfect stem-form or-, prim. Germanic 
ar-, of which nothing further is known ; on the -J) in ear]>, 
arj), see § 481 ; is with loss of -t from older *ist = Goth, 
ist, Lat. est; sind from prim. Germanic '^sindi = Indg. 
*senti (§ 472) ; sint was the unaccented form of sind ; 
sindon,-un» with the ending of the pret. pi. added on (§ 481) ; 
beside sint, sindon there also occur in WS. sient, siendon. 
bio later beo (cp. § 104), from *biju (cp. § 188^, Indg. 
*bhwtjd, Lat. fid; Anglian biom with m from eom; bist 
from older bis, Indg. *bhwisi, Lat. fis; bi]) from older 
*bi])i, Indg. *bhw!ti, Lat. fit ; Anglian bio])on with u-umlaut 
(§ 101) was a new formation from bij) ; bioJ> from *byan})i. 

Pres. subjunctive : ae, sien later si (OS. OHG. si), ^n 
(OS. OHG. ^n), beside sio, sio with io, §0 from bio, beo. 

§ 549. 2. The Verb don, to do. 


















Infinitive don 
Participle ddnde 


278 Accidence [§ 550 




Sing. I. dyde 

2. dyde8(t) 

3. dyde 
Plur. d3rdon 




Participle gedon 

Anglian has the older form dom for the first pers. singu- 
lar; dest» Nth. ddes(t); dg]>. Nth. dobp, does, from *dd-is» 
*d6-i}) (§ 47) ; dbp from *d6-aiij)i ; Anglian often has longer 
forms in the present, as imper. d5a» dosLp, inf. dda(n). 
The y from older u in the pret. indie, and subj. is of 
obscure origin ; in poetry there occurs the real old pret. 
pi. indie, dsdon, corresponding to OS. dadtin» OHG. 
t9.tun, Goth, -dedun which has only been preserved in the 
pret. of weak verbs (§ 620). Pret. subj. dyde, dyden from 
*dudi-, '''dudin (§ 482) ; beside dyde there also occurs in 
poetry d«de, corresponding to OS. dftdi, OHG. tati, and 
Goth. -dedi. Beside the pp. -ddn there also occurs in 
poetry -den. Nth. -dden (§ 442). 

§ 660. 3. The Verb gan, to go. 

Indie. Subj. Imper. 

Sing. I. ga ga 

2. gsst ff ga 

3. g*}> 

Plur. ga^ gan ga]) 

Infinitive gan. Past participle gegan. 

g»st, g»J), from older *5a-is, *5a-i)) (§ 47). The pret. 
indie, and subjunctive were supplied by Sode (§ 276) which 
was inflected like the pret. of nerian (§ 624). 

§§551-3] Adverbs 279 

§ 551. 4. The Verb wiUan, wOl. 

The present tense of this verb was originally an optative 
(subjunctive) form of a verb in -mi, which already in prim. 
Germanic came to be used indicatively. To this was 
formed in OE. a new infinitive, present participle, and 
weak preterite. 

Indie. SubJ. Infin. 

Sing. I. wille wille, wile willan 

2. wUt,. „ 

3. wile, wille „ Participle 

Plur. wiUa]> willen 

The pret. indie, and subjunctive wolde was inflected 
like the pret. of nerian (§ 524). wilt was a new forma- 
tion with -t from the preterite-present verbs, cp. OHG. 
will, Goth, wileis, Lat. velis /wile, indie, and subj. = 
Goth. OHG. will, Lat. velit ; Willa]> was a new formation 
with the ordinary ending of the pres. indie. (§ 476), the 
old form was preserved in Goth, wilein-a = Lat. velint. 
The various forms of this verb often underwent contrac- 
tion with the negative particle ne, as nille, nylle, nelle 
(especially in late WS.), pret. nolde. 



I. Adverbs. 

§ 552. We shall here chiefly deal with the formation of 
adverbs from adjectives, and with the inflected forms 
of nouns and adjectives used adverbially. 

§ 553. The -e, generally used to form adverbs from 
adjectives, is originally a locative ending and is identical 

28o Accidence [§ 553 

with the -e (= prim. Germanic 'ai, § 217) in the instru- 
mental case of adjectives (§ 424). Examples are : deop : 
deape» deeply ; nearu, -o (cp. § 485) : nearwe, narrowly, 
closely, yfel: yf(e)le, wtckedfy; and simUarly bit(e)re, 
bitterly ; cftfe^ quickly, boldly ; Ctt)>e, clearly ; earge, bcuUy ; 
earme, wretchedly ; gearwe^ completely ; geome, eagerly ; 
grame^ angrily ; hate, hotly ; h5ane, ignominiously ; hearde, 
fiercely) hlude, loudly, bolde, graciously, loyally) late, 
slowly ) micle, much ; rihte, n^/Zv ; scearpe, sharply ; 
singale, always, continually) smicere, elegantly) snode, 
quickly ; 8d)>e, /Itm/v ; strange, violently ; sweotole, clearly, 
evidently) svnpe, exceedingly, very) ssmdrige, separately) 
)>earle, severely) ungemete, excessively) wide, widely) 
wra)>e, angrily. 

When the adjective ends in -e (§ 434) the adverb and 
adjective are alike in form, as bh\fe,joy/ul: hM^, joyfully ; 
and similarly breme, famously, gloriously ; dl«ne, fully, 
entirely) ece, eternally) £ecne, deceitfully) frgcne, dan- 
gerously, fiercely) ged^te, fitly ) gehende, at hand, near) 
milde, mercifully) myrge, merrily) swegle, clearly, 
brightly ; }>icce, thickly. A few adverbs, the corresponding 
adjectives of which did not originally belong to the ja- 
or i-declension, do not have umlaut in the stem-syllable, as 
ange, anxiously, sm5)>e, smoothly, sdfte, gently, softly, 
sw5te, sweetly, beside the adjectives enge, sine]>e, sefte, 

In adverbs like creftllce, skilfully ; dollfce, foolishly ; 
freondllce, kindly ; gelice, as, similarly ; loSicef gloriously ; 
hetelice, violently, which were regularly formed from 
adjectives ending in 4ic (see § 684), the -lice came to 
be regarded as an adverbial ending, and was then used 
in forming adverbs from adjectives which did not end 
in -lie, as eomostlice, earnestly) holdtice, graciously) 
hw»tlice, quickly ; laetlice, slowly ; spedlfce, prosperously ; 
stearclice, vigorously, &c. 

§§ 564-6] Adverbs 281 

§ 554» The adverbial ending in the other Germanic lan- 
guages, as Goth, -o, OS. OHG. -o, goes back to the Indg. 
ablative ending -8d which regularly became -a in 0£. This 
•a was preserved in a few adverbs ending in -inga (= Goth, 
-igso), -unga (= OS. ungo), -linga, -lunga (cp. §§ 607» 
615), as deamunga, *inga, secretly] eallunga, -inga, en- 
tirdy ; and similarly eawunga, openly^ publicly ; edniwunga, 
anew) ferunga, quickly ^ suddenly) gegnunga, straight 
forwards ; holunga, in vain, without cause ; sim(b)lunga, 
alwaySf continually ; unwenunga (Goth, unweniggd), un- 
expectedly; wgnunga, perhaps, by chance. ierringa, 
angrily ; neadinga, niedinga, by force, against one^s will; 
orsceattinga, gratuitously; stieminga, sternly, grund- 
Ittnga, -linga, to the ground, completely; and similarly 
midlunga, moderately; neadlunga, by force, against one^s 

§ 555. The comparative and superlative degrees of the 
adverbs in -e generally ended in -or (prim. Germanic -oz, 
§ 448), and -est (prim. Germanic -ost-, § 444), as earme, 
wretchedly, earmor, earmost ; hearde, fiercely, heardor, 
heardost; holdlice, graciously, holdlicor, holdlicost; 
strange, violently, stranger, strangest; but seldan, 
seldom, seld(n)or, seldest. 

§ 556. A certain number of adverbs had originally -iz 
(Goth, -is, -s) in the comparative and -ist (Goth, -ist, -st), 
rarely -est, in the superlative (cp. §§ 443-4), as ea]>e, 
easily, ieji from '^au]>iZy ea]>ost ; feerr, far, fierr from 
*ferriz, fierrest; lange, long, leng from "^langiz, lengest ; 
sdfte, softly, seft from "^samftiz ; tulge, strongly, firmly, 
tylg from ^ttdjiz, tylgest ; »r from "^airiz (Goth, diris), 
earlier, formerly ; sij> from *a[J>iz (Goth. ]>ana-seiJ)S,/wr/A^r, 
more), later. The following form their comparative and 
superlative from a different word than the positive : — 
lyt, lytle, litde, les from *laislz, l»st ; micle, muck, mSl 
(Goth, m&is, Anglian m»), m«st; wel, well, comp. bet 

282 Accidence [§ 557 

from ^tetLe^ with loss of -e after the analogy of compara- 
tives with long stemsy beside sel from ^soliz^ superl. betst, 
sSlest; yf(e)ley badly, wretchedly, wiers, wyrs, from 
*wir8lz (Gotk wafrs, OHG. wire), wierrest, wjrrrest, 

§ 557. A large number of OE. adverbs consist of the 
various cases of nouns and adjectives used adverbially, as 
ace. sing, ealne weg, ealneg, always; &wiht, ftwuht, 
at all, by any means; baecling, back, behind, eal msst, 
almost; eall tela, quite well; iast nor]>, north-east; ea]>, 
easily; fela, feola, very much ; foil, perfecOy, very; iym^ 
formerly ; geador, together, joinUy ; gefsrm, onu, long ago, 
formerly; %&ibg, enough, sufficiently; heah^Ai^A; lythwon, 
litde; mestt mostly; samen, togeAer; a]>, late; stindor, 
asunder, apart ; tela, teola, well, bejitttngly ; tmgefym, not 
long ago; tmtela, amiss; west» westward; west lang, 
extending westwards. Compounds of -weard, as forweard, 
continually, always ; hindanweard, hindwards, at the end ; 
nor))weard,. northward; SQ]>weard, southward; opweard, 
upwards; toweard, towards, see § 687. 

Gen. sing., as &nstreces, continuously ; daeges, daily, by 
day; gewealdes, willingly, intentionally; hii geares, at 
what time of year ; hii gerades* how ; idaeges, on the same 
day; hmssibordes, at home ; IsSpesp at tiiat time; orceapes, 
without payment ; or])aiices9 heedlessly; samtinges, imme- 
diately, forthwiA; selfwilles, voluntarily; sundorHepes, 
separately; sunganges, moving with the sun; ]>ances9 
gladly, voluntarily; ungemetes, excessively, immeasurably; 
ungewealdes, involuntarily ; im]>atices, unwillingly ; 
willes, wUlingly ; the -es was sometimes extended to fem. 
nouns, as eiideb3rrdes, in an orderly manner; medes, of 
necessity, needs; nihtes, at night, by night, sghwaes, 
altogether, in every way ; d»glanges, during a day ; elles, 
otherwise, else ; ealles, entirely, wholly ; endemes, equally, 
in like manner ; gehw»})eres, on all sides; nealles, #fo/ a/ 

§ 557] Adverbs 283 

all, by no means; nlhtlanges, all night long; slmbles, 
ever, always ; singales, always, ever ; so)>es, truly, verily 
sumes, somewhat, to some extent; }>8^, ^fl^) ]>w§ores, 
athwart, transversely; tingewissesy unconsciously; hftm 
weardes, homewards; nor]>wearde8y northwards; iii)>er 
weardes, downwards; tdweardes^ towards. A preposi- 
tion was sometimes prefixed to the genitive, as in-staepes, 
instantly, at once; tb'dbtenes, tUl evening ; tb'emnes, along- 
side, beside; t5-geanes, towards, against; t5-geflites, in 
emulation; td-gifes^ f^^dy, gratis; to*middes, amidst, 

Gen. pL, as enge I>inga, anyhow, in any way ; geara, 
0/ yore, formerly ; hu meta, how, in what way; hii nyta, 
wherefore; nsnge, nftnge I>inga, not at all; ungeara, not 
long ago, recently. 

Dat. and instrumental sing., as bearhtme, instantly; 
elne, strongly, vigorously; f&cne, exceedingly; hlodswege, 
loudly ; niede, of need, necessarily ; neode, zealously, dili- 
gently; niwan stefne, anew, again; recene, instantly, 
at once ; tome, grievously ; wihte, at all. ealle, entirely ; 
heo-daeg, to-day ; hwgne, somewhat. d»g-hw&m, daily ; 
far]mm, even, indeed; gegnum, forwards, straight on; 
Itofvren&mii, ardently ; vrrJSLpvasi, fiercely. 

Dat. pi., as dseg-tidum, by day; fir(e)num, excessively, 
very; geardagtim, formerly, in days of old; ge]>yldtim, 
patiently ; hwll-tidum, at times, sometimes ; hi^tim, some- 
times; of(e)stum, speedily, hastily; searwtim, skilfully; 
snyttnim, cunningly, wisely ; spedum, speedily ; sttindiim, 
from time to time ; tidum, at times, occasionally ; ]>ingum, 
powerfully, violently, purposely; ]>rymmtun, powerfully; 
ungemetum, excessively ; tinsnsrttrum, foolishly ; tinsjm- 
num, guiltlessly; unweamum, irresistibly; unwillum, 
unwillingly ; wimdrum, wonderfully ; wynnum, joyfully, 
pleasantly; compounds with -m»lum, as byr)>enm8elum, 
by loads; delmelum, piecemeal; dropnuelum, drop by 




drop ; flitmslttin^ conlentiousfy ; flocc]iuelum» in troops ; 
fStmnlum^ step by step ; hiapnuelum, in troops; hidnueliim, 
by hides ; limmslum, limb by limb ; nammKlum, name by 
name; siuedmaelum, bit by bit; stttndnuelttm, gradually; 
styccemelom^ piecemeal; sundormfilumy singly; )>rag- 
mMnrnf from time to time ; preBtm&lum, in crowds; wom- 
maelum, in troops. 

By nouns, &c. in conjunction with prepositions, as 
etforan, beforehand; setgaedere, together; aethindan^ 
behind; aet-hwdn, almost; aet-niehstan, at last; aet-rihte, 
nearly, almost; setsamnef together; be tingewyrhtum, 
undeservedly; for hwon, wherefore; in-staepe, forthwith; 
in-stede, at once ; ofdune, down ; onbaec, backwards ; on- 
baecling, behind ; ontiutan, about ; onefh, close by ; onforan, 
before, afore; on scipwisan, like a ship; onsundrum, 
singly, separately; onweg, away; to^l8eg(e)» to-day; to- 
eacen, besides; td hwon, wherefore; td-morgen, to-morrow ; 
tbsamne, together; to-sbpRnf in truth, in sooth ; towissum, 
with certainty; underbeec, backwards; tuidemeo})an, 
underneath; wi]i»ftan» behind; wijtforan, before; wi]>- 
innan, within; wi})neo})an, beneath; wi]mtan, outside of, 

§ 668, The following are the chief adverbs of place : — 
Rest Motion towards. Motion from. 

feorr{axi), far, afar 



foran, fore, before 



her, here 



hindan, behind 



hw»r, where 



inne, innan, within 



neah, near 



nio]>an, beneath 



}>ar, ihere 


])anan, ]>onan 

uppe, up, above 



ute, utan, outside 



§ 559] Prepositions 285 

sti]>, southwards^ su])an, from the south ; and similarly 
east^eastan; nor]>y nor}>an ; west, westan; »ftan,/row 
behind ; ufan, from above ; utane, yiv/M without ; widan, 
/row /ar. asghwsr, ceghwider, gehwsr, everywhere^ in 
all directions ; sghwanon, yi^aw aU parts ; &hwser, 9.wer, 
ower, anywhere) Slhwanon, from anywhere-, nahwsr, 
nSlwer» nower, nowhere ; welhwar, welgehwsr, gewel- 
hw»r, «^ar(v everywhere] hider-geond, thither) hidres 
}>idres, hither and thither, 

§ 669. 2. Prepositions. 

(i) With the accusative : geond, throughout^ during) 
geondan, beyond) undemeo]>an, underneath, below ) wi]>- 
geondan, beyond) ymb, around, about, at; ymbutan, 
around, about ; op (more rarely dat.), to, up to, as far as, 
until) ]>urh (more rarely dat, or gen.), through, during. 

(2) With the genitive : andlang, andlanges, alongside. 

(3) With the dative : aefter, behind, after, along, during, 
through, according to, in consequence of) »r, before) aetforan, 
before, in the presence of) bi (be), also with instr., by, along, 
in ) baeftan, behind) beheonan, on this side of ) beneo]>an, 
beneath, below ; binnan, within, in, into ; eac, m addition to, 
besides ; fram (from), also with -instr., from, by ; gehende, 
near) mid, also'^ith instr,, together with, among) neah 
(also comp. near, superl. niehst), near) of, from, away 
from, out of) ongemang, onmang, among) oninnan, in, 
within, into, among ; onufan, upon ; samod, together with, 
at (of time)) til, /a; to-emnes, alongside, on a level with) 
toforan, before, in front of) tomiddes, in the midst of) 
wi]>»ftan, behind) wi}>foran, before) wi]mtan, outside, 
without, except. The following also sometimes govern the 
ace. : aet, at, by, in, on, upon ; beforan, before, in the presence 
of) butan, outside, without, free from ) fore, before, in th$ 
sight of) to (also occasionally gen. and instr.), to, into, 
at, by ; vdpbmaxi, within. 

286 Accidence [§ 560 

(4) With the accusative and dative : ftbutan, onb&tan, 
around, about {0/ time) ; beseondan^ beyond; bebindan, 
behind; betwConan, betwtemim, between, among; be- 
tweoz, betweohf bet(w)iih, betwib, betwix, between, 
among; Xmbau above, away from ; for (also instr.), before, 
in the sight of, during, for, on account of instead of ; gemang, 
among, into the midst of; in, in, into, on, among, during; 
ofer, over, above, beyond, contrary to ; on (also instr.), on, in, 
into, on to, to, among; ongean, ongeagn, ongegn, ongen, 
opposite, in front of, against; onuppanyon, upon; tdgeanes, 
togegnes, tdggnes, towards, against; under, under, beneath, 
among ; uppan, on, above. 

(5) With the genitive and dative : tdweard, tdweardes, 

(6) With the accusative, genitive, and dative : innan, 
within, in, into ; wi)), against, towards, to, opposite, near. 

§ 560. 3. Conjunctions. 

(i) Co-ordinate: ac, but; and, and; ibgper . . . and, 
»g]>er • . • ge, both . . . and; eac, also; eac swelc 
(swylc), swelc eac, as also; for ]mm (Ji&m), for ]>on, for ]>y, 
]>onne, therefore; ge, and; ge . . . ge, both . . . and; 
hw»]>(e)re, }>eah, swa )>§ah, swft )>eah hw8e])(e)re, how- 
ever; ne . . . ne, ne . . . ne eac, n&bw8e)>er ne . . . ne, 
neither . . . nor; o]>]>e,{>r; oJ>J>e . . . o^i^, either , ..or; 
samod . . . and, both . . . and. 

(2) Subordinate : aefter ])«m (]>&m) ]>e, after; mr jOna )>e, 
before ; butan, unless, u/dess that; for pibm {pSna) )>e, for ]>on 
pe, for py \fe, because; gelic and, as if; gi^ if, whether; 
bw8e)>er, whether ; hw»)>er )>e . . . ]>e, whether . . . or; mid 
]>y )>e, mid ]i&m )>e, w/r^, although ; nemne, nefne, nym)>e, 
unless, except ; rm ]>e, »o«; that ; op, o]> ])8et» o]> ]>e, mm/^, 
MH/// /Aa/; swa . . . swa, so ... as; swa swa . . . 
ealswa, p/^st ... as; swa s5na swa, as soon as; swa 
pBdt, td ]>on ]>set, so thai; to })on})e, m order that; pBntJpe, 

§§ 66 1-2] Word-Formation 287 

si]>))an )>e, after, since ; ))8et, )>eettey that, tn order that; }>ft» 
]>& )>ey wA^ ; ]i& hwile )>ey o^Ai/s/, so Zon^g' as ; })iahy a/- 
Moii^A ; )>eah ))e . . . sw& ]>eah, hw8e])(e)re9 although 
. • . ^^/; )>enden, wAiib; })Oiine, wAen; ]>y, because] ]>y 
)>e, so ^a/. 



§ 561. By far the greater part of the word-forming ele- 
mentSy used in the parent language, were no longer felt as 
such' in the oldest period of the English language. In this 
chapter we shall chiefly confine ourselves to those word- 
forming elements which were felt as such in OE., such as 
prefixes and suffixes. 


§ 662. Nouns may be divided into simple, derivative, 
and compound. Examples of simple nouns are : Ac, oak ; 
bfiiiy bone\ bdc» book\ borg^ cify; ceg, key; cild, child) 
dael, dale] dSor, deer] ende, end] telAf /ieU] tolCf folk] 
foU/oot] gold, gold] hSim,home] hsini, hand; hvLs, house] 
land, land] lim, limb] lie, body] lot,pratse ; maxm, man ; 
molde, mould] mWf mouse] nama,, name ] nett,net] oxa, 
OX] vyitfpit] ram, room; s», sea] scield, shield ] spere, 
spear] tima» time] tree, tree] ))eof, thief] jAng, thing] 
wegfWay] viitn,hqpe] vieoTC,work] word, worrf; wyrm, 
worm ] y)), wave. Many simple nouns are related to the 
various classes of strong verbs (§§ 490-519), as bite, cutting, 
bite] lad, way, course] Iftf, remnant] lida, sailor] rftd, 
riding] ridda» rider] slide, slip] sneed, morsel, slice] 
snide, indsum ; wita, wise man. 

boga, bow ] bryce, use ; eyre, choice ; fleoge,y^ ; flota, 
sailor ; loc, lock ; l3rre, loss ; notu, use ; sceat, r^^'o». 

288 IVord'Formation [§ 563 

bend, band ; tuyne, burning ; drenc, drink ; feoht, battle, 
fight; i^tU, payment; ryne, running, course ; stenc, odour; 
stengppole; wyrA, fate. 

bmr, bier; brjcef breaking ; b3rrey son; cmna, guest; 
cwalu, killing; C3ane, advent; stalu, theft. 

spree, ^ech ; w»g, wave. 

fa,m, journey; toVf Journey ; siege, blow. 

S^^Sp going; heald, protection; hHep, jump; rad, 
counsel. See § 225. 

§ 563. Derivative nouns are formed in a great variety of 
ways : — 

1. From adjectives, as bieldo, boldness; brsdo, breadth ; 
cieldo, cold; tyUo, JuUness ; h»lo, health; h»to, heat; 
hyldo, favour, grace ; ieldu, -o, old age ; lengo, length ; 
menigo, crowd; snjrtru, wisdom ; strengo, strength. See 

2. By means of various suffixes which were no longer 
felt as such in OE., as bydel, messenger; tagoUbird; 
gafol, tribute; hagol, hail; nsdl, needle; n»gl, naU; segl, 
sail ; setl, seat ; sta}>ol, foundation ; tungpl, star, m^m, 
breath ; botm, bottom ; mftj^m, treasure ; wsestm, growth. 
Aryhten, lord ; heoton, heaven; morgen, morning ; pegen, 
thane; wepen, weapon. br5]>or, brother; fstAer, father ; 
finger, finger ; (odor, food; hamor, hammer; sweostor, 
sister; InmoT, thunder ; vriater, winter. 

3. From verbs by means of a dental suffix, as bUed, 
blowing; cyst, virtue, excellence; dttd, deed; fierd, army; 
fLyht, flight; gebyrd, birth; genyht, sufficiency ; gesceaft, 
creation; ge]>eaht, plan; gift, price of a wife; gled, live 
coal; hsft, captivity; hyht, hope; ikst, track; meaht, 
power; mse]>, mowing; ssd, seed; slieht, daughter; sped, 
success ; weft, weft. 

4« From verbs with inseparable particles, as bebod, com- 
mand; beclysing,<:^i/; he&isSi&iigt digging round; begang, 
practice; behSit, promise ; beiSif, remainder ; belimp, occur- 

§§ 5^4-9] Word-Formation 289 

rence] begiemen, care^ attention, forbod, prohibition; 
forhaefednes, temperance] forlor, destruction] forwyrd, 
fate, destruction, gebann, decree, prochmatton ] gebed, 
prayer ; geblot, sacrifice ; gebrec, clamour, noise ; gefeoht, 
fight, battle, ofcyrf, cutting off] ofslegennes, destruction] 
ofsprec, utterance. 

5. By means of various prefixes. Some of the forms 
given as prefixes below are in reality independent words 
forming the first elements of compounds. They have been 
included among the real prefixes for purely practical 
purposes. It should be noted that the examples given 
below include both nouns and adjectives : — 


§ 664. a-, Goth. Aiw, ever, as Slbremende, ever celebrate 
ing ] aiibbende, everlasting ; Slwunigende> continual. 

§ 565. »-, privative prefix denoting without, like the 3. in 
OHG. Slmaht, without power, as cefelle, without skin] 
«gilde, without compensation] «men(ne), depopulated] 
emdd, out of heart, dismayed] swene, hopeless. 

§ 566. »fv stressed form of of^ off, as aefest, envy ; 
mf}pKnc(9L), grudge ] ddwesLrd, absent. 

§ 567. aefter-, a/?^r, as aeftergenga^ successor] aeftergield, 
after-payment] edtterfolgtre, follower] aefterweard, /o/foa/- 
ing] aefterlean, recompense] dstterielAo, old age] aefterlic, 

§ 568. an-, stressed form of the preposition on, on, as 
anfilte, anvil] anginn, beginning] ansien, countenance] 
anweald, authority, anbrucol, rugged] anforht, alarmed] 
ansiind, entire, sound. 

§ 569. and- (Goth, and-, OHG. ant-; Gr. i^vri, against, 
Lat. ante, before), the stressed form of on- (§§ 59, Note, 654), 
as andcwis(s), anstver] andfenga, taker up, defender] and- 
^etf intelligence ] a,ndssica,, adversafy ] RudswRrvL, answer] 
andweald, power] andwlita, countenance] andwyrde^ 

290 IVord'Formation [§§ 570-4 

at^swer. andtengtf acapUMe ; uod^etoU iniettigent; and* 
lang, conHnuaus ; andweard, present ; andwrA)), hostile. 

§ 670. M- (OHG. U), the stressed form of the preposition 
and adverb M» by^ of which the unstressed form is be- (§ 647), 
as Mcwide, proverb ; Uf^lce, neighbouring people ; tngeng, 
practice; tdg3rrdel, girdle, purse \ bileofa, sustenance; bi- 
spell, example ; Mwist, sustenance ; biword, proverb. 

§ 671. ed- (Goth, id-, OHG. ita-, it-), back, again, re-, as 
edcierr, return; edgield, repayment; edgift, restitution; 
edgrowungy regrowing; edlgan, reward; edroc, rumina- 
turn; edwit (Goth, idweit), reproach, edgebng, growing 
young again ; edrnwe, renewed. 

§ 572. fore- (Goth, fa^a, OHG. fora), the stressed 
form of the preposition and adverb fore, before, fore-, as 
f orebSacen, /or^/oy^ ; foredum, vestibule; foregisl, pre- 
liminary hostage; forespreca, advocate; fore})anc, fore- 
thought foreh&lig, very holy ; forem»re, illustrious, 

§ 578. fram- (Goth. OHG. fram), the stressed form of 
the preposition and adverb fram, from, as framcyme, 
progeny; framl&d, retreat; framsi)>, departure, fram- 
weard, turned from. 

§ 574. ge- (Goth, ga-, OHG. ga-, gi-); originally a pre- 
position meaning together, which already in prim. Ger- 
manic was no longer used as an independent word. It was 
especially used in forming collective nouns, but at a later 
period it often had only an intensitive meaning or no special 
meaning at all, as gebedda, o^nsor/; gebropor, brethren ; 
gefera, companion ; gefylce, army ; gegaderung, gather- 
ing; gehSlda, brotiter minister; gemaecca, mate; gemot, 
meeting; gesceaft, creation; ge^]i, comrade; gewider, 
bad weather, gebyrd, birtit, descent; geweorc, work; 
gewita, witness; gewuna, custom. ge-»]>ele, congenial; 
gecjmde, innate, natural; gedefe, befitting; gelic, similar; 
gemyndig, mindful; gem»ne, common; gesund, healthy, 

S§ 575-^0] Word'Farmaiion 291 

. § 575. in-, the stressed form of the preposition in, in, as 
nOLdlf internal disease] iahu^^nAt inhabitant] incoihtf house- 
servant] incofa, inner chamber] infaer, entrance] infaru, 
invasion] inhere, home army ] insegl, seal, signet. in]>iccey 
very thick, coarse. 

§ 576. mid. (Goth. mi>, OS. mid, OHG. mit), the 
stressed form of the preposition mid, with, as midspreca, 
advocate ; midwist, presence, society ; midwunung, living 
in company ; midwyrhta, co-operator. 

§ 577« mis- (Goth, missa-, OHG. missa-, missi-), origin- 
ally a participial adjective meaning lost, the same word as 
OHG. missi, different, as misfadung, misconduct ; mislftr, 
bad teaching ; misrsd, misguidance, misboren, mis-shapen 
at birth] mishwoTfen, perverted. 

§ 678. ofer- (Goth, ufar, OHG. ubar, Gr. &nip, Skr. 
upiri), the stressed form of the preposition ofer, over, as 
of er^tf gluttony ] oferbru, eyebrow] oferdrenc, drunken- 
ness ] 'of erhygd, pride] of erm^gen, superior force ] ofer- 
slop, surplice] ofersprac, loquacity] ofer})earf, extreme 
need] oferweorc, tomb, oferhlud, overloud] ofermste, 
excessive] of ervdcel, over-much ] ofertaodig, overbearing. 

§ 579. on-, in late formations with the preposition on, on, 
of which the real stressed form is an, see above. Examples 
are: onbring, instigation] onbryce, inroad] onfisescnes, 
incarnation] onstigend, rider] onsting, authority, on- 
»])ele, natural to. 

§ 580. or-, originally a preposition meaning out, pre- 
served as an independent word in Goth, us, OHG. ur, 
cp. also NHG. urteil beside erteilen. Examples are: 
ordal, ordeal] orsorg, without anxiety] or]>anc, skill, 
intelligence] orweor]>, ignominy. orceBS, free from com- 
plaint] orcnftwe, easily recognized] oreald, very old] 
OTgiete, manifest ] orgUde, unpaid for ] orhleahiref blame- 
less ] ormste, excessive ; ormdda. despairing ; ors&wle, 
lifeless ] ortydre, barren ; orwene, despairing. 


292 Word'Fomtatton [§§ 6^1-6 

§ 581. sam*, related to the adverb Goth, samana, OHG. 
saman, OE. aainen, together. Or. preposition a|&a» together 
with, as samhiwan, fnembers of a family; samwist, living 
together; samwrednes, union, combination; samheort, 
unanimous; BB,mmMef agreed ; samwiojieDde, contending 

§ 682. sam-, a prim. OE. shortening of ^sftmi-, older 
*8«mi- = 0HG. sftmi-, Lat. semi-, Gr. ^i&i-, half, the 
unshortened form of which would have been somi- (§ 121), 
as sambsemed, A^-^r»/; sAmcncn, half-dead ; samhftl, 
in bad health; samgreney half green; samUered, half- 
taught; aamaoien, half cooked ; SAmv^lBf dull, foolish. 

§588. sin-(Goth.OHG.sln-),^^,/^y]^/iwa/,assiiidream9 
everlasting joy ; sinherOf immense army ; sdnhiwan^ married 
couple; sioDiht, eternal night ; sinscipe, marriage, wedlock ; 
sinsorg, continual sorrow, sinceald, ever cold; sinfialley 
singrene, houseleek ; singrim, ever fierce. 

§ 584. t5-9 the preposition to, to, as tdcyme, approach, 
arrival; tdhlystend, listener; tdhyht, hope; to-iecnesy 
increase; tonama, surname; tosprsc, conversation; 
tdtyhtingy instigation, tocumende, foreign, strange; 
toheald, inclined, leaning; t5-iemende» approaching; to- 
weard, facing, approaching. 

§ 585. twi- (OHG. zwi-, Lat. bi-, Gr. 81- from *tfi^), two, as 
twiWlf two-edged axe ; twigMe, double payment; twiweg, 
place where two roads meet ; twibete, needing double com- 
pensation; twifeald, twofold; twifere^ accessible by two 
ways; twifete, two-footed; twifingre, two fingers thick; 
twiheafode, two-headed; twi-hweole, two-wheeled; twi- 
nihte, two days old; twireede, irresolute; twisprsce, 
double-tongued, false in speech; twiwintre, of two 

§ 586. J)ri- (OHG. dri., Lat. tri-, Gr. Spi*), three, as 
}>rid»glic, lasting three days; ]>rid{eledy tripartite; ]>ri* 
feald, threefold; J>rlfete, having three feet; }>riflere, three- 

§§ 687-90 Word-Formation 293 


storied; yrHeate, ire/oil ; ]>rinihte, /Ari?^ days old; J>rireJ>re, 
having three banks of oars ; })risciete, triangular. 

§ 687. }>urh-, the preposition })urh, through^ as Jmrh- 
beorht, very bright; })urhbitter, i^ery Ai'/ter; furhfere^ 
penetrable ; ]mrhh9.1ig, z;ery Ao/v ; Jmrhscinendlic, splendid; 
])urhscyldig, very guilty ; Jnirhspedig, very wealthy ; purh- 
wacol, sleepless. 

§ 588. un- (Goth. OHG. un-, Lat. en-, Gr. d-), a negative 
particle, un-, sometimes used intensitively with the meaning 
badf evil, &c., as unftr, dishonour; unbealo, innocence; 
uncyst, vice; unfri]>, war; unhslo, sickness, uncraeft, 
evU practice; undebd, crime; ungepanc, evil thought; 
ttngield, excessive tax ; unlagu, evU law, injustice ; unUlr, 
false doctrine ; unswef n, bad dream ; unwritere, careless 
scribe, widdpele, plebeian ; nn^gieien, unpaid ; unandgiet- 
full, unintelligent; unbeald, Hmid; uncUene, unclean; 
undeadlic, immortal; undeop, shallow; undieme, mani* 
fest; unfseger, M^{v ; VLngeorne, reluctantly ; vmleof, hated ; 
unmsere, inglorious; unriht, wrong; unslSlw, active; 
unsbp, untrue; unswete, sour; unsjmnig, innocent; 
ungewiss, uncertain. 

§ 689. under-, same word as the preposition tinder, 
under, as underburg, suburb; undercyning, viceroy; 
underdiacon, sub-deacon ; underling, underling. 

§ 690. up-, the preposition up, up, as upcyme, rising, 
origin; upende, upper end; vLpfLering, upper/loor ; upgang, 
rising, sunrise ; upheofon,5^; uply ft, upper air ; upstige, 
ascent; upstigend, riVfer; upvreg, way to heaven, upcund, 
celestial; npheah, uplifted; nplendisc, rural, rustic; upriht, 
upright, erect. 

§ 691. ut-, the preposition ut, out, as utcwealm, utter 
destruction ; utdraef, expulsion ; utfsr, exit ; iitgang, exit ; 
utgefeoht, foreign war; utgemsre, extreme boundary; 
vXhtT^, foreign army ; utlagu, outlaw, utlendisc, strange, 
foreign; niiic, external, foreign. 

294 Word'Formation [5§ 592-7 

§ 698. wan> the same word as the adjective Goth, 
wans, OE. OHG. wan, wanting, lacking, defideni, as 
wanh«l}>, weakness ; wanhafa, poor person ; wanhoga, 
thoughtless person) i^anhygd, carelessness] ii^ansped, 
poverty, wans»lig, unhappy; wanscrydd, poorly clad] 
wanspedig, poor. 

§ 693. wi^r., the preposition Goth. wi)>ra» OHG. 
widar, OE. wij)er, against, as wi])ercwide, contradiction ; 
wi]>erl5an, requital] wi])ersaca, adversary] wi]>erssec, 
opposition ; wi])ertrod, retreat, wi]>err»de, adverse. 

§ 694. ymb-, the preposition ymb (OHG. *uinb» Gr. 
dfftft), around, and related to the adverb ymbe» OHG. 
umbi, both from an older umb+bi, literally around by. 
Examples are ymbfaer, circuit ; ymbgang, circumference ; 
ymbhoga, consideration. 


§ 696. -a)?, -oJ> (Goth, -ojju-, OHG. -od, Lat. -atu-, Gr. 
-i|Ti3*), used in forming masc. abstract nouns from the 
second class of weak verbs, as drohta}>, way of life] 
dnigo}>, dryness, drought ; fisco}), fishing ; fiagelo}>, fowl- 
ing] hunto}>y hunting] lango}>, lof^'ng, desire] sweolo]), 
swolo]>, heat, burning. Often extended to -no)> with n from 
the verbal forms, as drohtnian, to pass life ; hseftnian, /o take 
captive] whence fiscno)>, fugelno]> ; ^aAno\, sowing ]^z, 

§ 696. •bora, also used as an independent noun, one 
who bears or sustains the charge of anything, a ruler, related 
to beran, to bear, as sescbora, spear-bearer] cegbora, 
key-bearer] mundbora, protector] rsedbora, counsellor] 
rddbora, cross-bearer] strselbora, archer] wspenbora, 
warrior] w6)>bora,^o^/; wrohtbora, ar«/5^r. 

§ 697. -dom (OHG. -tuom), also used as an independent 
word, Goth, ddms, OE. dom, judgment, OHG. tuom, 
state, condition, as abbudddm, abbacy ; campddm, contest. 

§§ 598-601] Word-Formation 295 

war) cynedom, kingdom] ealdorddm, authority] fr§o- 
ddm,/reedom ] h^dttedbm, captivity] hLSifordddmf lordship ] 
Iseceddm, medicine] l^reovrdom, office 0/ teacher ] reccend* 
dom, rule, governance] svncdbmf deceit] ]>§o wdom, s^n/ir^. 

§ 698. -els from older -isl by metathesis (§ 277), West 
Germanic -islja- = OHG. -isli, used in forming masculine 
nouns, as brsdels, covering, carpet] bridels, brid/e] 
byrgels, tomb] cnyttels, sinew ] fsetels, tub] g3rrdels, 
girdle ; hydels, hiding-place, cave ; msrels, moortng-rope ; 
miercels, mark ; radels, riddle ; recels, incense ; smierels, 
ointment] sUcels, goad ] vrrigels, covering. 

§ 699. -en (OHG. -in, ace. -inna), prim. Germanic -ini, 
•ii^jo- (West Germanic -ini^d-y § 254), mostly used to form 
the feminine from nouns denoting male beings ; also used 
to form fem. abstract and concrete nouns, as fyxen, she-fox ; 
gyden, goddess ; menen, female slave ; myneceii(n), nun ; 
)>§oweii(n), servant] ^igQ.ea,'}fiXi&[i, handmaid ] wiergen(n), 
she-wolf giemen(n), care, responsibility ; haeften, custody ; 
heagen, hanging] lygen,falsehood ] scieldeti{n), protection ] 
seleiir sellen, gift ; streowen» bed ; tyhten(n), incitement ; 
waecen, vigil, watching. 

§ eoo. -en (Goth, -ein, OHG. -in), West Germanic -in- 
beside -innja-, used in forming neuter nouns often with 
diminutive meaning, as cliewen, clywen, clew] cycen, 
chicken] embren, bucket] fdBsten, fortress ] filmen, flm] 
gseten, Itttle goat, kid] msegden, msden, maiden ] ticcen, 
kid, westen(n), desert, 

§ 601. -end (-nd), originally the ending of the present 
participle of verbs (§ 441), used in forming nomina agentis, 
as feond, enemy] frgond, friend] galend, enchanter] 
h&lend, Saviour] hettend, enemy] hlystend, listener] 
Isstend, doer ; li})end, sailor, traveller ; metend, measurer ; 
reccend, ruler] ridend, rider] sceotend, wamor] sec 
gend, speaker] selLend, giver] Ublend, reprover] wealdend, 
ruler] wigend, warrior] wrecend, avenger. 

296 Word-Formation [§§ 602-5 

§ 608. -ere (Goth, -arels, OHG. -ftit Lat •ftrius), 
originally used to form nomina agentis from other nouns, 
and then later from verbs also, as baecere, baker; cr§opere, 
cripple; costere, Ampler; dr^amere, musician ; drincere, 
drinker; etere, eater; tagelere, fowler ; folgere, folbnuer; 
gitaer^t miser; godspMere, evangelist; hevLrpere, harper ; 
hordere, steward^ treasurer; hwistlere, piper; Uenere, 
lender; liaseret hypocrite; Igogere, liar; leomere, dis- 
cipkf learner ; nm^ttf mower; mangere, merchant^ trader ; 
riBiere, robber ; reccere, ruler ; Bmiece,soufer; sangere, 
singer; scipere, sailor; sSamere, tailor; sutere, shoe- 
maker; tollere, tax-gatherer ; wiitere, wrtier. 

§ 608. -estre from older •istr», prim. Germanic -istijon- 
beside •astijon*, used in forming fem. nomina agentis from 
verbs, also occasionally from nouns, as bsecestre, baker ; 
cempes^e,/emale novice; tylgestref follower ; hleapestre, 
dancer; huntigestre, huntress; Uerestre, teacher; lop- 
pestre, lobster; lufestre, hver; rsdestre, reader; san- 
gestre, songstress; seamestre, sempstress; taeppestre, 
tavern-keeper; webbestre, weaver; witegestre, pro* 

§604. -et(t) (Goth, -iti, OHG. -izzi), prim. Germanic 
-itja* beside -alja-, used in forming neut. verbal and 
denominative abstract nouns, as baemet, arson ; bealcet(t), 
belchmg; emnet, plain; hiewet, cutting; nierwet(t), 
narrowness; rewet, rowtng ; rym^ space, extent; see wet, 
sowing; sweofot, sleep; ])eowet, -o1^ slavery; ])iccet(t), 

§ 606. -hftd (OHG. •heit), used to form masc. abstract 
nouns from nouns and adjectives, also used as an in- 
dependent word, Goth, h&idus, way, manner^ OE. hftd, 
OHG. heit, grade, rank. Examples are: abbudhad, 
rank of an abbot; CAmphSid, watf are ; cUdhSLi, childhood ; 
cnihthad, boyhood; fulvidhthftd, baptismal vow ; geogiip* 
had, youth; healichSld, loftiness; maegdenh&d, maiden- 

§§ 6o6-9l Word'Fomtation 297 

hood) in«g])hlid, relationship-, munuchlid, monastic state \ 
preosthad, priesthood ; jHdowhSid, service; werhftd, man- 
hood, male sex ; wifhlid, womanhood. 

§ 606. -incel (cp. OHG. -inklin), a neuter diminutive 
suffix of uncertain origin, as cofincel» little chamber ; hseft- 
incel, slcnfe; husincel, little house-, li})incely little joint-, 
r&pincel, cord, string; scipincel, little ship; stanincel, 
little stone; ixmiacel, small estate ; peov^iacel, young slave ; 
weargincel, butcher-bird. 

§ 607. -ing (O.Icel. -ingr, OHG. -ing), used in forming 
masc. concrete nouns, especially patronymics, as 8e])eling, 
son 0/ a noble, prince; C3riilng, king; Ealdulfing, Scefing, 
Scylding. Mesting, first milk of a cow after calving; 
clisering, a coin; scilling, shilling; hiering, herring; 
bearding, hero, bold man ; hemming, shoe of hide ; ierming, 
poor wretch; sUfriiig, silver coin ; Bweriiing, titlark. From 
nouns like seipeliag beside the adj. »]>ele, noble; and 
lytling, child, beside lytel, little, was extracted the suffix 
•ling which became common especially in forming nouns 
denoting persons, as cnaepling, youth ; deoriing, favourite, 
darling; feor]>]itig,fourth part, farthing; fostorling, foster- 
child; geongling, youth ; gesibling, kinsman ; hseftling, 
prisoner; heafpdling, equal, companion ; hyrling, hireling; 
ierpUng, ploughman ; niedling, slave, bondman ; repling, 
prisoner; ]7eowling, slave. 

§ 608. -Iftc, used in forming neuter nouns. Also used 
as an independent word, Goth, l&iks, dance, O.Icel. leikr, 
play, OHG. leih, play, song. The original meaning seems 
to have been 'motion in general', but in OE. lac means 
battle ; offering, sacrifice ; gift, present. Examples are : 
sefenUlc, evening sacrifice ; breowl&c» brewtng ; brydlac, 
marriage gift; feohiX§,c, fighting ; reafLSiC, robbery, booty; 
ssel&c, gift or offering from the sea ; scinUlc, magtc ; wed- 
lac, wedlock ; witeiac, punishment ; wrohtiac, accusation. 

§ 609. -nes(s), -nis(s) (OHG. -nessi, -nissi), used in 

298 Word-Formation [§§610-12 

forming fem. abstract nouns from adjectives, as »]>elnes, 
nobilify; Mtemes, bitterness; hUndne^ blindttess ; celnes, 
coolness ; clmmef^pur^ ; drSorignes, sadness ; §adignesy 
prosperity; fssBtnes, firmness; gliawnes, sc^actiy; grennes, 
greenness ; twines, salvation ; heardnes, hardness; idelnes, 
idleness; lufsumnes, amiability; mlldheortneSy mercy; 
oferetolnesy gluttony; slaecnesy slackness; strangnes, 
strength; wfleterseocnes, dropsy; weemeSy prudence; 
wddnesy madness. 

§ 610. •r»den(n), used in forming fem. abstract nouns 
denoting a state or condition. Also used as an independent 
word, r»deii(n), state^ condition, related to the verb gersedan, 
to arrange, put in order. Examples are : geferrsden» 
companionship; ge])Sodr»deiiy fellowship; hiwrsden, 
family, household; holdrsden, loyalty; hiisrseden, house- 
hold; hyldrsden, fidelity ; msdneden, grass mown on 
a meadow ; mibgrmden, relationship ; man(n)neden, atlegi- 
ance, homage; tSonrsden, injury; treoy^ribden, fidelity ; 
]>ingrndeny intercession ; witeneden, punishment. 

§ 611. -scipe (related to Goth, skafyjan, OE. scieppan, 
to create), used in forming masc. abstract nouns, as beor- 
scipe, feast; burgscipe, township; cSlfscipe, activity; 
dryhtscipe, sovereignty; fracodscipe» vHeness; feond- 
scipe, hostility ; fridondscipetfriendship ; geapscipe, deceit ; 
geferscipe, companionship ; gem«nscipe« fellowship, com- 
munion ; godscipe, goodness ; hie]>enscipe9 paganism ; 
hlftfordscipe, lordship; holdscipe, loyalty; hwaetscipe, 
bravery; maxiscipe, humanity ; pTutscipe, pride; sinscipe» 
wedlock; tiinscipe, inhabitants of a village; ])eodscipey 
nation; wwrscipe, prudence. 

§ 612. -stafas, the plural of staef, staff, stick, used to 
form masc. abstract nouns, as ^rstafas, kindness; f&cen- 
stafasy treachery; hearmstafas, trouble, affliction; sorg* 
stafas, sorrow, affliction ; wrdhtstafas, crime ; wyrd- 
stafas, destiny. 

§§ 613-15] Word-Formation 299 

§ 618. -Jjo, -J), older -Jju (Goth. -i]>a, OHG. -ida, prim. 
Germanic -i])©), used in forming fem. abstract nouns from 
adjectives, as fyl]), filth ; hieh]>(o), height ; hien])(o), A«- 
miliation) hKew]>, coverings shelter; hrief)>(o), scurfiness; 
ierm])(o), poverty; ierg])(o), cowardice; l8e]))>o, hatred; 
leng>(o), fe«^/A ; mserXo), /aw^, ^fory ; m3a'(i)gj), wiWA ; 
s»l)>, happiness; sl8ew)>, 5/0/A; streng])(o), strength; 
treow]), triew]), fidelity; trjrmj), firmness; J)ief|), /A^/; 
wra)>f(o), ze/ni/A. On the t in words like gescentu, rfi'5- 
^^r^ ; gesyntu, health ; ofermetta, pride^ see § 806. In 
nouns formed from adjectives ending in -leas, the -j^ became 
-t after the 8 (§ 805), as Uirleast, -Hest, ignorance ; lifleast, 
death; BXiA^e\Xt^%tffolly;^wi^\e^sX,f sleeplessness; gpleme- 
liesty carelessness, negligence; hlUeast, want of bread; 
hygeleast, thoughtlessness. 

§ 614. -u, -o, embracing fem. abstract nouns formed from 
adjectives. In prim. Germanic the stem of this class 
of nouns ended in -in, cp. Goth, manage!, multitude, gen. 
manageins. The OE. nouns have -u, -o from the 6- 
declension (§ 866), as menniscu, -o, humanity, human state ; 
micelu, size; waestmbaro, ^r/i7i(y ; wlenco,^nife. For 
further examples, see § 568, 1. 

§ 616. -ung, more rarely -ing (O.Icel. -ung, -ing ; OHG. 
•ung, -unga), used in forming fem. abstract nouns, especially 
from the second class of weak verbs (§§ 585-6), as 9.bidung, 
waiting ; 9.scung, interrogation ; biegung, curvature ; blac- 
ung, pallor ; brocung, affliction ; ceapung, trading ; cost- 
ung, temptation ; deorcung, twilight ; gemiltsung, pity ; 
gldmung, gloaming ; handlung, handling ; h&ning, hoari- 
ness; hearpung, harping; langung, longing; l§asung, 
lying, leasing ; mnrcnnng, murmuring ; tdpeTvaig, humilia^ 
tion; sceRViVLng, contemplation ; scotnng, shooting ; striid- 
ung, robbery; swigung, silence; tSlcnung, signification; 
teojmng, tithing; ]>egnung, ministration; })ingung, inter- 
cession; wamung, warning; wiccung, zvitchcra/t; wun- 

300 Word-Formation [§§ 616-17 

ung, dwelling, aerning, riding, racing ; grating, greeHng ; 
ieldingy delay, radingt reading] wending, turning. 

§ 016. •wist, used in forming fern, abstract nouns. Also 
used as an independent word. Goth, wists, OHG. OE. 
wist, being, existence, substance, the verbal abstract noun 
of OE. wesan, to be. Examples are : huswist, household] 
loswist, perdition, hss] midwist, presence] neawist, 
neighbourhood] onwist, dwelling in a place; samwist, 
living together] stedewist, steadiness, cofistancy. 

Compound Nouns. 

§ ei7. In compound nouns formed by composition, the 
second element is always a noun, but the first element 
may be a noun, adjective, or a particle. The declension 
and gender of compound nouns are determined by the 
final element Examples are : 

acliaf, oakJeaf] adTenmete, supper] aeppelwin, cider] 
b«lfyr, funeral fire ; bftncofa, body ; boccrseft, literature ; 
borggielda, debtor] brd]>or8unu, nephew; brydguma, 
bridegroom] campstede, battlefield] comhiis, granary] 
cuhierde, cow-herd] ddmdaeg, doomsday] earmbSag, 
bracelet] fwiersiaLgeL, parricide ] feldhus, tent] fierdleo]>, 
war-song; tdctoga., general ; ftSbBChsima, body ; gftrbeam, 
spear-sha/t] godspelU go^el] gVLphansL, banner] hfimstede, 
homestead] handgeweorc, handiwork] Iftrhus, school] 
mdthus, court-house] rimcraefl, arithmetic] sangboc, 
hymn-book] s«C3ming, sea-king] 8c5hn»gl, shoe-nail] 
staefcrseit, grammar] st&nbrycg, stone-bridge] tongol- 
craeit, astronomy] waeteradl, dropsy] weorcdaeg, work- 
day ] wif man, woman ; woruldcaru, worldly care. 

Slnhaga, recluse] beorhtrodor, heaven] blsecgimm, jet] 
bradbrim, ocean] cwicseht, live-stock] dimhiis, prison] 
esldormaxm, magistrate ] ealdsprwc, tradition ] f8eder(e)n- 
msg, paternal kinsman ; feowergield, fourfold payment] 
freoheam, freebom child; heah83mn, deadly sin] leas- 

§§ 6i8-i9l Word-Formation 301 

gielp, vainglory; middelniht, midnight) niahmsg, near 
relation; rilithandy ' n]^A/ hand; sorglufa, sad love; sd}>- 
word, true word; wids», open sea; wbhgod, false god; 
wansceaft, misfortune. 

BXighrio^ as Ama; eftcymef return; eUoT^, departure, 
death; geosceait, destiny; hidercymef arrival; iii])ergaiigy 
descent; samodsprsec, colloquy. 

§ 618. The first element of a compound noun regularly 
retained its final vowel, when it was a short i-, u«, or wa* 
stem. The final vowel generally remained in ja-stems 
whether the stem-syllable of the first element was long or 
short. On the other hand it regularly disappeared in n-» 
and short 5-stems. Examples are : berelftf, barley loaf; 
cwidegiedd, song; eleb^am, olrve-tree; merewif, water- 
witch; selegiest, hatl-guest; winenueg, kinsman, duru- 
weard, door-keeper; felawyrdnes, loquacity; hagosteald, 
bachelor; heoruword, fierce word; magorinc, warrior; 
medudream, mead-joy ; wudubearo, grove, beadocraeft, 
skill in war; bealo)>aiic, evil thought. 

endelftfy last remnant; hierdebdc, pastoral book; ierfe- 
weardy heir; wHesibw, place of torment, cynerice, king- 
dom ; herefolc, army. 

bangftr, deadly spear; gumcymiy mankind; frumbeam, 
firstborn child; namboc, register; steorsceftwere, astro- 
nomer; swgorbftn, neck bone, ciricbdc, church-book; 
heortcopVL, heart-disease ; moUgrmtf grave ; nunmynster, 
convent, nunnery ; sunbeam, sunbeam. §arwicga, earwig. 
cargftst, sad spirit; giefstdl, throne; luftftcen, love token. 

§ 619. Sometimes the first element of compounds appears 
in its inflected form, as daegeseage, daisy; geacessiire, 
woodsorrel; h&desmann, member of a particular order; 
stSoresmann beside st§ormatin, steersman; Tiwesdaeg, 
Tuesday, hellebryne, hell-fire; hellewlte, hell-torment; 
hildestrengo, warlike strength ; rddeheiigen(n), crucifixion. 
moDBXiMen^ Sunday evening; monandaeg beside mdndae^, 

302 IVord'FormatioH [§§ 62ck-3 

M(mday\ nunnanmynster beside nunmjmster, nunnery \ 
sunnandaegy Sundays sunnanniht, Saturday evening. 
ibgertehnsL^/Um of an egg) sgergeolu, >o/it of egg, beside 
sgsciell, egg'shdl, Englaland, England; witenagemdt, 


§ 620. Adjectives, like nouns, may be conveniently 
divided into three classes: simple, derivative, and com- 
pound. Examples of simple adjectives are : beald, bold ; 
blsec, black; ceald, cold; deop, deep; eald, old; earm, 
poor; fxiXi,/ull; geolvt, yellow ; geong, young ; hSd, whole, 
sound; heard, hard; Iset, slow; lang, long; leof, dear; 
msbre, famous ; niewe, new; read, red; scearp, sharp; 
smael, small; Strang, strong; tnim,Jirm; }>icce, thick; 
wftc, weak ; wis, zc^. 

§ 621. Derivative adjectives often have the same in- 
separable prefixes as nouns (§§ 564-94), as andfenge, 
acceptable; ansund, entire, sound; edgeong, growing 
young; gecynde, innate, natural; sammsle, agreed; un- 
synnig, innocent. 


§ 622. -b«re (OHG. -b&ri, Lat. -fer in ludfer, light- 
bearing ; originally a verbal adj. from beran, to bear), as 
wppelbmre, apple-bearing; Sitorbibre, poisonous ; cwealm- 
hibre, deadly; feperhme, zvinged ; fyrbiare, Jtety ; gram- 
hdbre, passionate; hSdbibre, wholesome ; homhibre, horned ; 
leohtbsere, br^ht, splendid; lustbsere, desirable; mann- 
bsere, producing men ; tungolbsre, starry ; westmbere, 
fruitful; vngbibTe, warlike. 

§ 628. -cund (Goth, -kunds, OHG. -kunt, denoting kind, 
sort, origin ; originally a participial adj., related to cennan, 
to bring forth, beget), as ddpelcvmd, of noble origin; deofol- 
cund, diabolical; eorlcund, noble; eor]>Cttnd, earthly; 

§5 624-8] Word'Fomtati'on 303 

itOTTOimA^ foreign; g^Btamd^ s^ritual ; godcand, divine ; 
heotoncuDdf heavenly; innaxicwid, internal, inward; s&woU 
cund, spiritual; weoroldcund, worldly; yfelcund» evil. 

§ 624. -ede (OHG. -dti), denoting provided witit, furnished 
with, used in forming adjectives from nouns, as coppede, 
topped, polled; healede, ruptured; hocede, shaped like a 
hook; hoferede, humpbacked; hriiiged(e), furnished with 
rings; mlcelheafdede^ big-headed; sureagede, blear-eyed; 
}>riheafdede9 three-headed. 

§ 626. -en (Goth, -ein, OHG. •in^ prim. Germanic -inaz = 
Lat. -mus), used in forming adjectives denoting the material 
of which a thing is made, as asscen, made of ash-wood; 
bresen, of brass ; fellen» of skins ; flsscen, of flesh ; fyren, 
fiery; gsten, of goats ; gielpen, boastful; gylden, golden ; 
lueren, of hair ; hwceten, wheaten ; hwllen, transitory ; 
hymen, made of horns; leaden, leaden; picen, of pitch; 
rygen, of rye ; seolfren, of silver; siden, silken; stsnen, 
stony, of stone ; sweflen, sulphurous ; trgowen, wooden ; 
tunglen, of the stars. 

Note.— Forms like brassen, fellen, leaden, treowen, for 
*bre8en, *fillen, *lieden, *triewen, are new formations made 
direct from the corresponding nouns, without umlaut. 

§ 626. •erne (prim. Germanic -ro^ja-), used in forming 
adjectives denoting direction, as §asteme, east, eastern; 
nor])eme, northern; Bn]>eme, southern; westeme, 

§ 627. -fsest, same word as the adj. f»st,/a5/, fixed, firm, 
as srendfsst, bound on an errand; ^rfsest, virtuous; bid- 
fBdst, stationary ; hUbdfBdst, glorious ; eorpfd^st, fixed in the 
earth; f^eflm^, gifted; hogfedst, prudent ; husisdsi, having 
a home; hygefwst, wise ; mddgetdd^st, vigorous; sigefsest^ 
victorious; stedefddst, stecuifast ; tr^ovrfddst, faithful. 

§ 628. -feald (Goth. -falps, OHG. -fait, related to fealdan, 
to fold), used in forming adjectives from other adjectives, 

304 Ward'Farmation [f§ 629-32 

especially from numerals, as ftnfeald, stngk] felafeald, 
man^M; hmMtBiA^ hundredfold*, maoAgtetM, mam/old ; 
mtotonteald, seven/old ; twhifigte^f twenty/old. 

§ 689. •ftdl, sometimes weakened to -fol, same word as 
the adj. full, JiUl, used in forming adjectives, especially 
from abstract nouns, as andgietfnll, inieUigeni ; bealofull, 
wicked) Msmerfully disgracefid) forhtfkitty Hmorous) 
gelSaffiolly believing] geomftdl, eager] hyhtftdly /qj^; 
modfull, arrogant, proud] scyldftill, guilty ] ]>ancfull, 
thoughtful] wordfolly wordy] wondorfoU, wonderful. 

§ eao. -ig (Goth, -ag, -eig, OHG. -ag, -Ig). The two 
Germanic suffixes -ag, -ig, can only be distinguished in OE. 
by the presence or absence of umlaut in the stem-syllable 
of the derivative adjective. Examples are : andig, envious ; 
craeftig, strong ; cjrstig, bountiful ; dSawig, dettiy ; fyrstig, 
frosty] gesttlig, hafipy, prosperous] ge)>yldig9 patient] 
grSdigy greedy] hungrig, hungry] modig, brave, bold] 
omlgy rusty ; ^yldig,guilfy ; stsnig beside st&nig, stony ; 
jfondgf thorny ] Jmrstig beside pyrMg, thirsty] wordig, 
wordy] fsfig, stormy. 

§ 631. -iht (OHG. .aht(i), .oht(i), NHG. -icht) hasmuch 
the same meaning or force as -ig, as camMht, crested] 
croppiht, bunchy] Sxdht,/inny] hieriht, hairy; hmpihtf 
heathy ; hreodiht, reedy ; Iflht, covered with ivy ; sandiht, 
sandy] stsniht beside st&niht, stony] 'pondht beside 
]>ymiht, thorny ; wudiht, wooded, forest-like. 

§ 68a. -isc (Goth, -isk, OHG. -isc, -isk), generally con- 
noting the quality of the object denoted by the simplex, as 
centisc, jKfM/^/? ; cUdisc, childish ] detdsc, Danish] eng- 
Use, English] entisc, of gtants] eorlisc, noble] folcisc, 
popular] heotordsc/ heavenly ; inlendisc, native ; mennisc, 
human ; scyttisc, Scotch ; wielisc, foreign, Welsh. 

Note.— I. Forms like eorlisc, folcisc for *ierlisc, •fyldsc, are 
new formations made direct from the corresponding nouns, 
without umlaut 

§§ ^33-6] Word-Formation 305 

2. Adjectives of this kind are sometimes used as nouns, as 
iedisc, property^ hiwisc, family^ household \ mennisc, mankind, 

§ 688. -leas (Goth. 4&tts» OHG. -Ids). Also used as an 
independent word Goth. Mm^a, empty) OE. leas^OHG.los, 
devoid of. Examples are: ^rKsLS^ impiouSf cruel ; bftnlgas, 
boneless ; beardleas, beardless ; carleas, careless ; cwide< 
leaS) speechless ; foderlgas, fatherless ; giemelias, heed- 
less ; hlLmlSas, homeless ; hrdfieas, roofless ; maegenleaS: 
powerless] sacleas, innocent] spracl^as, speechless; toy 
ISas, toothless ; weor])l§as, wortitless. 

§684. -lie (Goth, .Idk, OHG. -lib, -Kch). Also preserved 
as an independent word in Goth. ga-leiks» OHG. gi-lich, 
OE. ge-lic,/il6^; originally the same word as Goth, leik, 
OE. He, body. Examples are : senile, unique ; anlie, solitary ; 
cildlie, infantine) eynelie, roya/; daeglie, e^iTy ; deadlie, 
deadly ; ealdlie, venerable ; f orhtlie, afraid ; gearlie, j/^ar/v ; 
gesiii8Ciplie,f0ii;M^a/; h^oiovXiCy heavenly ) heisi&c^hostile ) 
loMc, praiseworthy ) mentdsclic, human ) mibrlic, famous; 
nytlic, useful) sibwliCf local ) tidlie, temporary) wiflle, 

§ 685. -ol (Goth. -Ill, OHG. -al), mostly used in forming 
adjectives from verbal forms, as andgietol, intelligent) 
beswicol, decei^l ) etol, voracious ) heiol, hostile ) hlagol, 
apt to laugh ; meagol, earnest, vigorous ; numol, capacious ; 
nyttol, useful) rgafol, rapacious) slftpol, somnolent, 
sleepy) spreeol, talkative; ]>aneol, thoughtful) wacol, 
vigilant ) vriUAf wise. 

§ 686. -sum (OHG. -sam ; Goth, -sam only preserved in 
lustu-sams, longed for, much desired). Also used as an 
independent word Goth, sama, same, OHG. sama, in like 
manner, OE. sw& same, similarly, -sum stands in ablaut- 
relation to OHG. -sam. Examples are : angsiim, trouble- 
some) linsum, whole) fri}>sum, pacific) fremsum, bene- 
ficial) geleafsnta, credible, faithful ) genyhtsum, abundant ; 

3o6 Ward-Formation [f§ 637-40 

geslbbBiiiii, peaceable, frietuUy ; langsnm, lasting, tedious ; 
VaSwam^ amiabk ; wHsam, pkasant ; wytanm, winsome. 

§ 687. -weard (OHG. •wert,Goth. •wair]>89 originally a 
verbal adjective and related to "weoTpan, to became), used in 
forming adjectives denoting position or direction, as asfter- 
"weardf/olhwing ; BSkdweard, present; torfweard, inclined 
forward ; heononweard, transitory, going hence ; hider- 
weard, hitherward ; imianweardy tnward, internal ; nor})(e)- 
weardy northward] iii]>erweard, downward-, ong§an« 
weaxdf going towards; XJbvrewcd, toward, about to come, 

§ 688. -wende, related to wendan, to turn, used in form- 
ing adjectives from nouns and other adjectives, as hftl* 
wende, healthjul, wholesome; h&twende, hot, burning; 
hwnwende, transitory, temporary; lftj>wende, hateful, 
hostile; Vdot^ende, loving, friendly ; IvtweDde, amiable. 

§ 689. SufiSxes, which were no longer felt as such in OE., 
are omitted, e. g. the -od, -ol (-el), -en, -er (^r) in adjectives 
like forod, broken, decayed; Dacod» naked. Stool, timid; 
deagol, diegol, secret ; idel, vain ; lytel, little ; sweotob 
plain, evident; yfel,evil. efen, even; bdgen, glad ; open, 
open, bitter, bitter; tB^ger,fair; sicor, sure; snottor, 
wise; wacor, vigilant, watchful. On the suffixes in the 
present and past participles, see §§ 620, 601« 

Compound Adjectives. 

§ 640. In compound adjectives formed by composition, 
the second element is always an adjective or used as an 
adjective, but the first element may be a noun, adjective, 
verb, or particle. On the loss or retention of the final 
vowel in the first element of compounds see § 616. Ex- 
amples are : shtspedig, wealthy ; aelfs^ene, beautiful as a 
fairy; hzdC^VLiol, ^amlering ; heaAocrwtUg, skilful in war; 
hlodresid, blood-red ; hrhac^iLd, sea-cold ; brvta&g, brown- 
coloured; hrynehSit, burning hot; cjmegod, noble; dsd- 

§641] Word-Formation 307 

cene, bold in deeds ; iL%B^&gt, fated to die ; deop)>ancol» 
thoughtful) ddmgeom, ambitious ; drttncengeom, drunken; 
dunlendisc, hilly ; eallgdd, perfectly good-, ecgheard, hard 
of edge ; efeneald, contemporary; ellenrdf^ brave; ellorfus, 
ready to depart; faestrml, steadfast; felasynnig, very guilty; 
feohstrang, opulent) folcmsere, cekbrated; fri]>geom, 
pacific; gsersgrene, grass-green; gearo]>ancol, ready- 
witted; heaUcwic, half dead ; hetepancoh hostile ; limhai, 
sound in limb; luftieme, loving, benevolent; modcearig^ 
anxious; namcii)), celebrated; radsnotor^ wise; seldcu}), 
unfamiliar; sigorgadig, victorious; snSlhwit, snow- 
white; ])ancsiiotor, wise; widcu]>, imdely known. The 
present and past participles often form the second element 
of compounds, as eallwealdende, omnipotent ; gl§awhyc- 
gende, thoughtful; healfslsepende, half asleep; leoht- 
berende, luminous; rihtwillende, weU-meaning; ssed- 
herendet seed-bearing ; tea,rgeotende, teafful. aefterboren^ 
posthumous; aelfremede, foreign; srboren, first-bom; 
cyneboren, of royal birth ; goldhroden, adorned with gold; 
heaUsoden, half cooked; rihtg^remedf orthodox. 

§ 641* In addition to the class of compound adjectives 
given above, the parent language had a class, the second 
element of which was originally a noun. Such compounds 
are generally called bahuvrihi or possessive compounds, 
as Lat. longipesy having a long foot, long-footed; Gr. Sua|Acinfs, 
having an evil mind, hostile ; Goth, hr&ii^ahairts, having 
a pure heart, pure-hearted. In OE. the most common ad- 
jectives of this kind are those ending in -heort and -m5d» 
as cUenheorty pure in heart; gramheort, hostUe-minded ; 
Tx^dheovtf gentle ; steaxcheort, stout-hearted ; wulfheort, 
savage; dreorigmdd, sad; faestmod, constant; gledmdd, 
cheerful; gnmmbd, fierce ; ierremdd, angry; langmdd, 
patient; micelrndd, magnanimous; strangmdd, resolute; 
aSirigmbd, sad ; jfancolmbd, thoughtfiil ; wApmbd, wrath- 
ful. Other examples are : brunecg, brown-edged; gleaw^ 

X 2 

3o8 Word-Formation [5§ 642-3 

ftvh^t prudent \ gyldenfeax, golden-haired; sUelecg, steel- 
edged; yfelsprftce, evil-speaking. 


§ 642. From a morphological point of view, all verbs 
may be divided into two great classes: simple and com- 
pound. Simple verbs are sub-divided into primary and 
denominative verbs. To the former sub-division belong the 
strong verbs and a certain number of weak verbs, and to 
the latter the denominative verbs. The simple primary 
verbs are here left out of further consideration, as their 
formation belongs to the wider field of comparative gram- 
mar. Compound verbs are of various kinds : (i) those 
formed from simple verbs by means of separable or in- 
separable particles, (2) those formed from nouns and 
adjectives with verbal prefixes or suffixes. Separable 
verbs call for no further comment, because they merely 
consist of the juxtaposition of two independent words. 

§ 648. Simple verbs are formed direct from nouns and 
adjectives or from the corresponding strong verbs, as 
arendian, to go on an errand; andswerian, to answer; 
andwyrdan, to answer ; arian, to honour ; bajdan, to bathe ; 
cwielman, to torture^ kill; cyssan, to kiss; deman, to 
judge ; fedan, to feed; flieman, to put to flight; geliefan, 
to believe ; hiertan, to hearten^ encourage ; Isran, to teach ; 
liehtan, to give light; mengan, /o mix; nemnan, to name; 
r§afian, to plunder; ryman, to make dear, enlarge; s&lan, 
to bind; scendan, to put to shame; scrydan, to clothe; 
sa}»ian, to travel; sorgian, to grieve; swsetan, to sweat; 
tynan, to enclose, 

brmlan, to broaden; celan, to cool; cy}>an, to make 
known; hdgtdw[i, to rejoice; fo!lhaxi,toful/il; fyUan, hfll; 
Uelan, to heal; hlydan, to make a noise ; ieldan, to delay ; 
leasian, to tell lies; mseran, to proclaim; nearwian, to 
become narrow ; openian, to open ; scierpan, to sharpen. 

§§ 644-7] Word'Formation 309 

eman, to cause to run] bemaii, to bum) biegan, to 
bend; cwellan, to kill; drencan, to submerge] fiellan, 
io fell] geswencan, to injure] gewieldan, to overpower; 
Isedan, to lead] lecgan, to lay ; nerian^ to save] rsran, to 
raise ; ssgan, to lay low ; sencan, to submerge ; sengan^ 
to singe ; settan^ to set ; swebban, to luU to sleep. 

§ 644. Compound verbs are formed from simple verbs, 
nouns, and adjectives, by means of various prefixes. See 


§ 645. From the list of prefixes given below are excluded 
such words as st, ofer, ]3urh, under^ wi)>, vdper, and 
ymb(e), which were separable or inseparable according 
as they were stressed or unstressed. 

§ 646. a- (OHG. ar-, ir-), the unstressed form of or. 
(§ 580), as Slberan, to remove; Slbeodan, to announce; 
Slbidan, to abide ; abitan, to devour ; ftblinnan, to cease ; 
aceorfan, to cut off; adon, to send away; adrifan, to 
expel; afaran, to depart; agiefan, to repay; aheawan, 
to hew off; aistan, to relinquish ; arisan, to arise ; ascufan, 
to shove off; astigan, to climb. 

fSLCweUan, to destroy ; ^rencan, to submerge; afsstnian, 
to confirm; aflieman, to banish; afrefran, to console; 
aisdan, to lead away ; aiiehtan, to illuminate ; aiiesan, to 
redeem ; alibban, to survive ; arsran, to rear, lift up. 

§ 647. be- (OHG. bi-), the unstressed form of bi- (§670), 
as bebrecan, to break off; bebugan, to encompass ; becling- 
an, to enclose; becuman, to become, happen; becwejian, 
to bequeath ; bedrincan, to drink in, absorb ; behealdan, to 
behold; beheawan, to cut off; belicgan, to surround; 
belimpan, to happen ; belucan, to lock up ; bemuman, to 
bewail; beneotan, to deprive ; besingan, to bewitch ; be- 
slean, ^ deprive of; be]>ringan, /o surround; bewindan, 
to bind round. 

3IO Word-Formation [5§ ^48-50 

bebycgan^lostfi?; hehyrgaxi^lobury] hefst^Xsn^totnake 
fast; behSafdlan, to behead; befaeUan, to cover over; 
beUewan, to betray; belendan, to deprwe of land; be- 
swfilan, to scorch; be])encan, to consider; bewSpan, to 

§ 648. ed-f re-, again (§ 671), as edgieldan, to repay. 
tAhytiBSif to regenerate; ediAetteak^ to encourage; edUecan^ 
to repeat; edUestan, to repeat ; edstajyelian, to re-establish ; 
edwierpan, to recover. 

§ 649. for- (Goth, fidr-, late OHG. and MHO. ver-). 
The real unstressed form is fer-^ corresponding to Goth, 
fair* and German ver-, but already at an early period the 
originally stressed form for- came to be used in place of 
fer-. The old stressed form has been preserved in 
f6rwyrd, destruction, beside forwfiorjjan, to perish. Ex- 
amples are: forbeodan, to forbid; forbrecan, to destroy; 
forcwe]>an, to rebuke; fordon, to destroy; fordrifan, to 
expel; forfaran, to perish; forfon, to seize, take away; 
forgan, to forgo ; forgiefan, to forgive ; forgieldan, /So re- 
pay; forl^CBXk, to lead astray; forleosan, to lose; formeltan, 
fy) melt away ; fomiman, to take away ; forrsedan, to plot 
against; forscrlfan, to proscribe; forseon, to despise; 
forswerian, to swear falsely ; forweor))an, to perish. 

forbryttan, to break in pieces ; forcierran^ to turn aside ; 
fordslati, to deal out; fordeman, to condemn; forealdiatt^ 
to become old; forgieman, to neglect; forhabban, to restrain ; 
forherigan, to ravage; forhogian, to despise ; forlsedan, to 
mislead; forsendan» to banish ; forwyrcan, to do wrong. 

§ 660. ful(l). (OHG. folle-), originally the adj. full, fuU, 
used adverbially, as fuUberstan, to break completely ; full- 
brecan, to violate ; fuldon, to satisfy ; folgSln, to accomplish ; 
fullgrdwan, to grow to maturity ; fvXLyimigea, fully grown. 

f ulbetan, to make full amends ; f ullendian, to complete ; 
fullfremman, to fulfil; fullfyllati, to fulfil; fullsestan, to 
give aid; fultriiwian, to confide in. 

§§ ^5 1-4] Word-Formation 3 1 1 

§ 661. ge- (OHG. gi-, unstressed form of OHG. Goth, ga-), 
originally a prep, meaning together (§ 574), as gebelgan, to 
provoke; gebeodan, /So command; gebeorgan, to protect; 
geberan, to brtng forth ; gebindan, to bind; geceosan, to 
choose; gefaran, to go; ge&ignan, to learn by asking; 
gehHtan, to promise ; gelimpan, to happen ; gerinnan, to 
congeal; gestigan, to mount; gewinnan, to win. 

ge-sman» to gain by running; ge-3.gnian, to claim as 
on^s own; ge-Slscian, to learn by asking; gebsedan, to 
compel; gebsran, to behave; gebetan, to improve; ge- 
heflgian, to make heavy; gehycgan, to think; geliefan, to 
believe ; gemetan, to discover ; geracan, to obtain ; gesec- 
gan, to say, tell; ge]>eodan, to join together, 

§ 652. mis- (Goth, missa-, OHG. missa-, missi-, § 577), 
as misbeodan, to ill-treat; miscwe]>an9 to speak incorrectly ; 
misfon, to make a mistake ; misfaran, to go astray ; misdon, 
to transgress. 

misfadian, to arrange wrongly ; misferan^ to go astray ; 
misgieman, to neglect; misgretan, to insult; mishieran, 
to disregard; mislseran, to advise wrongly; misrscan, to 
revile ; miswendan, to pervert. 

§ 658. of-, the unstressed form of sef- (§ 566), as ofbeatan, 
to beat to death ; ofg^n, to exact ; ofgiefan, to give up ; 
ofmunan, to call to mind; ofsittan, to oppress ; ofslingan, 
to stab to death ; ofswingan, to scourge to death ; ofteon, 
to withdraw ; of|)ringan, to press upon. 

of^scian, to find out by asking; ofclipian, to obtain by 
calling; ofearmian, to have pity on ; offeran, to overtake; 
offiellan, to kill; ofsendan^ to send for; ofsteppan, to 
trample upon ; ofstician, to stab to death ; ofwundrian, 
to be astonished. 

§ 654. on- (OHG. int-), the unstressed form of and- 
(§ 569), as onbindan, to unbind; onbeodan, to bid; on- 
beran, to carry off; oncn3.wan, to perceive; onfealdan, 
to unfold; onfindan, to discover; ongietan, to perceive; 

3 1 2 Word-Formation [5§ 655-^ 

onlQcaiiy to unlock ; onttfgasi» to sink ; onspaonaiit to un- 
fasten; onwindan, to unwind; onwrSon, to uncover; 
onwri)«ti» to uncover, onsfelan, to untie ; onscrydan, to 
undress ; ontynan, to undose, open ; onwendan, to change. 

§ 666. o]>>, from, away (Goth. tmpB,* in im)>a]>liiihaQ, to 
escape), the unstressed form of u]>>, preserved in u]>genge, 
departing; VLpmMe, immense. Examples are : o]>cwelan, 
to die; opherBHf to carry away; o)>ber8tan, to escape; 
o)»flSon» to flee away ; o}>gHdaii9 to ^ide away ; o)>hebbaii9 
to exalt; ojdeman, to run away; ojMswerian, to deny on 

oj^testaiif to inflict upon ; o)>hydan, to hide from ; o]>- 
l»dan, to lead away; o)>stlllaii, to stop; o]>weiidati, to 
turn away. 

§ 656. to- (OHG. zar-, zir-, MHO. zer-). The real 
unstressed form is te-, ti-, corresponding to OHG. zar-, 
zir-, but already at an early period the originally stressed 
form to- came to be used in place of te-. The old stressed 
form is preserved in OHG. zur- in compound nouns, 
Goth. tu8-, asunder, apart, and Gr. Su«-, hard, bad, ill, as in 
SiNTfiaOi^s^ hard to learn. Examples are: tdberstan, to 
burst asunder; tdblftwan, to blow to pieces; tobrecan, 
to break to pieces ; tdceorfan, to cut in pieces ; tocleofan, to 
deave asunder ; tdfeallan, to fall to pieces; tdflowan, to 
flow apart ; tdlucan, to pull asunder ; tdniman, to separate ; 
tosciifan, to push apart; tdsdttan, to be separated; td- 
sni|)an, to cut up ; tostandan, to stand apart ; tdweorpan, 
to scatter. 

tobrysan, to crush in pieces; tocnyssan, to shatter; 
tddselan, to sunder; todrsefan, 4o disperse; t5feran, to 
separate; tdfiellan, to cause to fall asunder; tdhaccian, 
to hack to pieces ; tdrendan, to tear -asunder ; tdtwsman, 
to divide. 

5§<^67-9] Word-Formation 313 


§ 667. -ettan (Goth, -atian, OHG. -azzen, later -ezen), 
used in forming intensitive verbs, as grimettan, to roar, 
rage ; hleapettan, to kap up ; hoppettan, to leap^ throb ; 
leasettan, tofetgn, pretend ; lyffettan, to flatter ; ficettan, 
to flatter; s&rettan, to lament; scofettan, to drive hither 
and thither ; scrallettan, to sound loudly ; sicettan, to sigh ; 
8pomettaxi,/b^iir^; BtBimme^XBXit to stammer; sworettan, 
te sigh, pant. 

§ 658. -Isecan, also used as an independent verb, Isecan, 
to move quickly, spring, cp. 4 608. Examples are : «fen- 
Uecaiif to become evening; 6yTsH€dC9Ln, to dare, presume ; 
ef enUecan, to imitate ; gganlscan, to unite, join ; lofiscan, 
to praise; nealscan, to approach ; rihtlsecan, to put right; 
sttmorUecan, to draw on towards summer ; ]>ristlascan9 to 
embolden ; winterUecan, to grow wintry. 

§ 650. -(e)sian. From verbs like Goth, hatizdn, to hate, 
beside hatis» hatred; OE. eg(e)siaii, OHG. egison, to 
terrify, beside Goth, agls, OHG. egiso, OE. egeBa,,/ear, 
was extracted the ending Goth. OHG. Asbn, OE. -(e)sian, 
which then came to be used in forming verbs from nouns 
and adjectives which did not originally contain -is-, as 
bletsian older bletsian, to bless; bli))sian9 blissian, to 
rejoice; clsensian, to cleanse; gitsian, to covet; grimsian, 
to rage ; hrec wsian, to rue ; iersian, to rage, be angry ; 
msersian, to celebrate; miltsian, to pity, have mercy on; 
ricsian, rixlan, to rule. 


The nutnbers after a word refer to the paragraphs in the Grammar. 

a 133. 265. 

a- 564, 646. 
abbod C7, 153,398. 
abbudddm 597. 
abbudhad 605. 
aberan 646. 
abUlan 646. 
abldung 615. 
abrtan 646. 
ablinnan 646. 
abrSmende 564. 
abreo)»an 239, 494. 
abutan 559. 
ac(ah)3ii, 560. 

aci33» 310,411,562' 

acb€am 11. 
aceaklian 536. 
aceorfan 646. 
adeaf 617. 
acol 431, 639. 
acrsftan 530. 
acumba 401. 
acwellan 646. 
acwencan 531. 
acwinan 490. 
acwincan 498. 

^38, 133, 335. 

adl 304, 370. 

ad5n 646. 

adrencan 646. 

adrifan 646. 

adwaescan 531. 

ae (aew), 134, 266, 390. 

a- 565. 

aecer 17, 54, I55» 2I9, 

233| 255, 310, 339. 
aecern 54. 

aeces (aex), 58, 249, 31 1. 
£dre 260, 404. 
aef. 566. 

aelen 119,293. 
aefenlac 608. 
sfenlxcan 658. 
aefcnmete 617. 
aefest 566. 
aefhan 56. 
£fnung 373. 
aeftan 558. 

aeftcr 54, 295, 446,559* 

aefter- 567. 
aefterboren 1 1, 640. 
aefterfolgere 567. 
aefterfolgian 14. 
aeftergenga 567. 
aeflergield 11, 567. 
aefteriddo 567. 
aefterlean 567. 
sefterlic 567. 
sefterra 446, 447. 
aeftersprecaa 14. 
aefterweard 567, 637. 
aef^anc 566. 
aefweard 566. 
aeg 275, 420. 
aegen (agen) 442, 546. 
segerfelma 619. 
aegergeolu 619. 
aeghwa 471. 
seghwser 558. 
sghwaes 557. 
aeghwae];er 471. 
seghwanon 558. 
aeghwelc (aeghwilc), 

aegh wider 558. 
xgilde 565. 
aegsciell 619. 
aegbcr 560. 
aehher 70, 255, 329. 

aeht 134, 390. 
aebtspedig 64a 

«l "9,335- 
aelan 530. 
£lc 471. 
aeled 340. 
aelfiemede 640. 
aelfsciene 640. 
aelmesse 404. 
adtaewe 434. 
aemenne 565. 
emod 565. 
sne 454. 
aenge |nnga 557. 

amy 47, 134,324,471. 

anlic 634. 

aeppd (aepl), 54, 57, 

219, 255, 276, 397. 
aeppelbaere 434, 622. 
aeppeltun 78. 
aeppelwla 617. 
aer 134, 445» 556, 559. 
aera 401. 
aerboren 64a 
aerende 357. 
aerendfaest 627. 
aerendian 643. 
aerendra 401. 
arest(a) 445, 447* 
aering 373. 
aerist 387. 
aem 66, 28a 
aeman 60, 530, 643. 
aes 119,240. 
aesc 56, 387. 
sescbora 596. 
sesce 57. 
aesce 404. 
aescen 625. 
aesp 306, 367. 



aespe 56. 
aBt54, 211, 559. 
aet- 645. 

aetforan 557, 559- 
aetgaedeie 58, 260, 557. 
aethindan 557. 
aetbwS 471. 
aet-hw5n 557. 
aetlewan 14. 
aet-nlehstan 557. 
aetniman 14. 
aet-rihte 557. 
aetsamne 557. 
aet(t)ren 431. 
aetwitan 490. 
aebelcund 11, 426, 623. 
ae]«le 10, 58, 155, 221, 

434, 607. 
aefeiing 10, 58, 155, 

339, 607. 
aebelnes 609. 
spm 1 19, 219, 282, 563. 
aew 134, 266, 390. 
sewene 565. 
afaestnian 646. 
afaran 646. 
afierrad 99, 259, 278, 

^firran 99. 
afliegan 530. 
ilflieman 646. 
afrefran 646. 
afyrhtan 530. 
agan 133, 320, 546. 

agen 133,431. 
agend 418. 
ilgiefan 646. 
aglaeca 401. 
agyltan 530. 
abeawan 646. 
ahneapan 518. 
aht 471. 

ahwa 471. 
ahwser 558. 
ahwae))er 471, 
thwanon 558. 
ahy)ian 530. 
alan 57, 508. 

albe 64. 
alaedan 646. 
aisetan 646. 
alibban 646. 
alibbende 564. 
aliefan 530. 
allefednes 11. 
allehtan 646. 
aliesan 646. 
alter 64. 
amerian 525. 
axnpre 404. 

an 579. 

an- 568. 

an 5, 30, 133, 161, 447, 

anbrucol 568. 
ancieow 363. 
ancor 59. 
and 560. 
and- 569, 654. 
anda 401. 
andcwis(s) 569. 
andfenge 434, 569, 621. 
andgiet 10, 569. 
andgietfuU 629. 
andgietleas 613. 
andgietol 569, 635. 
andig 630. 
andlang 559, 569. 
andianges 559. 
andrysne 434. 
andsaca 10, 401, 569. 
andswarian 14. 
andswaru 14, 569. 
andswerian 525, 643. 
andweald 569. 
andweard 569, 637. 
andwlita 569. 
andwra]> 569. 
andwyrdan 14, 530,643. 
andwyrde 14, 569. 
anfeald 426, 453, 628. 
anfilte 568. 
anforbt 568. 
angbreost 617. 
ange 553. 
angel 340. 

anginn 568. 

angsum (ancsum) 318, 

425, 636. 
anbaga 617. 
anliepe 434. 
an-, senliepige, 456. 
anlic 425, 634. 
anslen 39O9 568. 
anstreces ^57. 
ansum 636. 
ansund 568, 621. 
anweald 568. 
apa 57, 401. 
ar (brass) 28, 343. 
ar {oar) 133. 
ar {messenger) 395. 
ar {honour) 365, 367. 
araeran 646. 
ar(e)we 404. 
arfaest 11,426, 627. 
arian 536, 643. 
arisan 239, 288, 491, 

arleas 426, 633. 
arstafas 612. 
asce (axe) 57, 312, 404. 
iscian 133, 312, 536, 
ascufan 646* 
ascung 615. 
aseolcan 84, 500. 
assa 57, 306^ 401. 
asse 404. 
astiepan 531. 
astlgan 646. 
aswebban 526. 
aswefecian 536. 
atol 430. 

atoUic (atelic) 259. 
ator(atr) 133,219,260, 

atorbaere 622. 
atreddan 527. 
-a)» 595. 
a|) 133, 261, 301, 302, 

abencan 10. 
a «xe 404. 
a »1 (adl, aid) 304. 
apreotan 493. 




awel (awttl) 74, 264. 

iwer 558. 

awestan 53a 

awierdan 230, 550. 

awiht(-wuht) I33,47ii 

awunigende 564. 
awyrgan 530. 
axian 7» 312. 

ba 133, 450. 
bacan57, 128,310, 508. 
bad 367. 

baBc54,292, 310, 345. 
baecere 354, 602. 
baecestre 404, 603. 
baecling 557. 
baecslitol 640. 
bsedan 530. 
baeftan 559. 


balfyr 617. 

baer 425. 

bar 1191225,367,562 

-bsere 622. 

baernan 60, 280, 530, 

baernct(t) 358, 604. 
baers 280. 
baest 335. 
baetan 531. 
bae)> 7, 54, 57, 292, 

balu 64. 
ban 5, 133, 285, 292, 

343, 562. 
bana 59, 401. 
bancofa 617. 
bangar 618. 
banleas 633. 
bannan 515. 
bar 133, 335. 
basu (beasu) 436. 
bat 133, 335. 
baj>ian 7, 57, 302, 643. 
be 559. 
be- 570, 647. 

beacen (beacn) 135, 

163, 219, 348. 
beadocraeft 618. 
beadocraeftig 64a 
beadu 7Z, 220, 379, 

beag 135, 323, 335- 
beab 262. 
bealcet(t) 604. 
beald 303, 426, 620. 
bealdor 340. 
bcalg 323. 
bealofuil 629. 
bealo)>anc 618. 
bealu 64, 215, 220, 264, 

265, 361, 362. 
beam 282, 292, 335. 
bean 135. 
beard 66, 335. 
beardleas 633. 
bearg 66, 178. 
bearhtme 557. 
bearm 66, 335. 
beam 49, 66, 343. 
beam 66, 215, 220, 

264, 265, 359. 
beatan 518. 
beaw 360. 
bebod 12, 344, 563. 
bebr^can 647. 
bebugan 647. 
bebycgan 647. 
bebyrgan 647. 
bebyrignes 12. 
becca 400. 
bece 404. 
beclingan 647. 
beclysing 563. 
becuman 14, 647. 
becwe)>an 647. 
bedd 47, 55, 156, 254, 

272, 274, 292, 355, 

bedecian 536. 
bedelfing 12, 563. 
bedol 430. 
bedrincan 647. 
befaestan 647. 
beforan 288, 559. 

bcgang 12, 563. 

begangan lo. 

begen 450. 

begeondan 559. 

b^emen 563. 

beginnan 59. 

behat 12, 343, 563, 

beheafdidtn 647. 

behealdan 14, 647. 

beheawan 647. 

behefe 12. 

behelian 647. 

beheonan 559. 

behindan 559. 

behionan 102. 

behlidan 490. 

behofian 536. 

behyldan 530. 

belaf 12, 563. 

belaewan 647. 

belendan 647. 

belgan 80, 320, 499. 

belicgan 647. 

belifan 49a 

belimp 12, 563. 

belimpan 647. 

bellan 80, 499. 

belle 404. 

belucan 647. 

bemuman 647. 

ben 390. 

bena 401. 

benaeman 530. 

bene 7, 47, 60, 156, 
289, 311, 390. 

bend 225, 376, 562. 

bendan 530. 

beneotan 647. 

beneo]>an 559. 

benn 375. 

beo 403, 405. 

beod 137, 335. 

beodan, 21, 32, 33, 43, 
106, III, 135, 137, 
225, 226, 230, 253, 

292, 493- 
beofor 92, 293, 395. 
beogol 431. 
beon 474, 548. 

beor 137, 343. 

beorc 367. 

beorcan 85, 500. 

beorg 85, 323, 33S. 

beorgan 85, 320, 500. 

beorht 85, 426. 

beorhtrodor 617, 

beorma 401. 

beom 335. 

beoraan (biornan) 59, 
66, 98. 

beorscipe 386, 611. 

beot 325. 

beow 265, 363. 

bepaecan 534. 

bera 401. 

beran 10, 18, 41, 45, 48, 
54» 80, 93, 96, 106, 
119, 120, 155, 156, 
157, 162, 188, 196, 
2oOy 211, 212, 213, 
214, 215, 217, 218, 
219, 225, 226, 234, 
238, 247, 278, 288, 
292, 301, 475, 476, 
477, 478, 480, 481, 
482, 484, 486, 503. 

bere 55, 386, 419. 

berelaf 618. 

berian 525. 

benepaa 531. 

berige 404. 

berstan 66, 85, 280, 
476, 502. 

bescierian 525. 

bescitan 490. 

bes(e)ma 80, 282, 401. 

besingan 647. 

beslean 647. 

besmltan 490. 

beswaelan 647. 

beswicend 41 8. 

beswicol 635. 

bet 55, 252, 556. 

betan 129, 531. 

bete 125, 298. 

beteldan 499. 

bet(e)ra 47, 54i 223, 
252, 260, 279, 445- 


bet(e)st(a) 223, 445, 

bettra 445. 
betuh 103, 266. 
betux 103. 
betweoh 559. 
betweoh 127, 175. 
betweox 103, 559. 
betwih 103, 559. 
betwix 103, 559. . 
betwuh 103, 184, 266, 

betwux 103. 
betweonan 329. 
betweonum 127, 329, 

456, 559. 
bebencan 647. 
bepringan 647. 
be ungewyrhtum 557. 
bewepan 647. 
bewindan 647. 
bi 6, 559, 57a 
bi- 570, 647. 
bicce 404. 
bicwide 570. 
bidan 30, 126, 133, 305 

biddan 96, 157, 254, 

272, 273, 299, 300, 

305, 475, 476, 478, 

484, 507. 
biddere 354. 
bldfaest 627. 
blecnan 136, 532. 
bieg(e)an 7, 136, 320, 

530, 643. 
blegung 615. 
bieldu, -o 383, 563. 
bleme 404. 
biercc 99, 184, 278. 
bierhtu 383. 
bieman (biraan, byr- 

nan) 98, 280, 498. 
blesting 607. 
bletel 340. 
bifian 536. 
bifylce 570. 
bigang 10. 
bigeng 12, 570. 

bigyrdel 570. 

bile 386. 

bileofa 570. 

bllibban 14. 

bill 356. 

bindan 5,41,43,96, II I, 
157, 212, 213, 215, 
218, 225, 226, 230, 
234, 285, 288, 292, 
299, 300, 301, 475, 
476, 478, 481, 482, 

binde 404. 

binnan 288, 559. 

bio (beo) 104, 140, 269. 

blon (beon) 548. 

birce 311. 

biren ^78. 

(bisn) 369. 

Disen ^vioijy o^ 
bismerfull 629. 
^ 4>ispell 6, 570. 
*^blstandan 14. 
bita 401. 

bitan 96, loi, 126, 133, 
161, 164, 226, 234, 
288, 292, 298, 305, 
bite 386, 562. 
bit(e)re 553. 
biternes 609. 
bit(t)er 96, 255, 431, 

biwist 570. 
biword kjo, 
blac 420. 
Blaca 421. 
blacung 615. 
blaec 54, 292, 310, 345, 

421, 425, 620. 
blsecan 134. 
blxcgimm 617. 
biaed 57, 345. 
blaed 387, 563. 
blaeddre 150. 
bliedfaest 627. 
blsedre 1 19, 150, 260, 

blaese 404. 
blast 387. 



bUHan 119. 
bknca 401. 
bUndan 513. 
Uiwan 52, 120, 161, 

bledan 129. 
blendan {wv,) 53a 
bl«o (blfoh) 328. 
bletsian (bletsian) 300, 

536, 659- 
bllcan 49a 
bliccettan 259. 
blind 96, 217, 285, 292, 

blindnes 609. 
bliss 150. 
blissian 536, 659. 

blibc 126,434, 4381 5S3« 
bllj»s (bliss) 150, 305, 

bll|>8ian (blissian) 305, 
C16. 6co. 

blod 128, 276, 292, 299, 

bldd(es)lss 381. 
blostm 34a 
blostma 401. 
blotan 519. 
blowan 128, 264, 519. 
blyscanii2, 312. 
b6c 5, 7, 47, 128, 129, 

163, 165, 194, 292, 

310, 311, 410, 4", 

boccraeft 617, 
bocere 354. 
boc-treow 23. 
boda 106, 401. 
bodian 536. 
bodig idiS, 292, 299, 

bog 323, 335- ^ 
boga 7, 106, 256, 320, 

401, 562. 
bold {adj.)ic6. 
bold (s^.) 277, 343. 
bolla 401. . I 

bolster 340. 
bolt 106, 335. 
-bora 59(S. 
bord 106, 343. 
boren 430. 
boig 335. 
boiggielda 617. 
bosm 7, 128, 219, 261, 

282, 307, 340. 
bOt 367. 
botl 277. 
botm 106, 219, 282, 

398, 340, 563* 
box III. 
brad 133, 292, 426, 

bradbrim 617. 
braedan 134, 530,643. 
braedels 598. 
braedo 563. 
brsegden 431. 
braegen 349. 
brser 119. 
braes 54, 345- 
braesen 430, 625. 
braf 335. 
brand 59, 335. 
brastlian 57, 153. 
bread 135. 
breadru 420. 
brecan 54, 80, 106, 292, 

309, 505. 
bredan 80, 146, 163, 

bregdan 54, 80, 106, 

146, 163, 321, 502. 
brcgu, -o 48, 92, 199, 


breme 434, 553- 
bremel 122, 340. 
breost 343. 
breotan 493. 
breowan 264, 493. 
breowlac 608. 
bridd 96^ 352. 
biidel 90, 146, 164. 
bridels 277, 321, 339, 

bngdel 96, 146, 164. I 

brigdels 321. 

brim 344. 

brimceald 64a 

bringan 96, 117, 165, 
240, 278, 289, 292, 
317, 318, 326, 488, 

briw 36a 


brdc 128,411. 

brocc 310, 

brocung 615. 

brod 128,367. 

broga 401. 

br5m 121, 282, 335. 

brob 106,301,344. 

br6jK>r 5, 7, 23, 128, 
129, 165, 218, 231, 
234, 261, 302, 415, 

brd|>orsunu 617. 
bru 131, 367. 
brucan 47, 131, 132, 

135, 167, 496. 
brun 131, 426, 
brunecg 641. 
brunf ag 640. 
bryce [aiij.) 112. 
bryce {sd.) 309, 386, 

438, 562. 
bryce 434, 438- 
brycg 5, 7, 112, 254, 

259» 292, 319, 375. 
bryd 5. 132, 167, 299, 

brydguma 11, 13, 617. 
brydlac 608. 
brygd 387. 
bryne 386, 562. 
brynehat 11,640. 
brytta 400. 
bu 130, 45a 
buan 131, 53& 
buc 335. 
bucc 108, 159, 243, 

259, 310, 335. 
bucca 7, 108, 256, 258, 

309, 310, 401. 
bufan 559. 



bugan X31, 320, 496. 
bulluc 340. 
bunden 431. 
burg (burh) 11 1, 220, 

262, 278, 323, 411, 

burgscipe 611. 
bume 404. 
butan 559. 
butu 450. 
bya 538. 
bycgan 43, 47, 106, 

112, 160^ 240^ 319, 

326, 534- 
bydel 225, 341, 563. 
byden 216, 369. 
byge 320, 386. 
byht 387. 
bylda 401. 
byrd 112. 
byre 225, j86, 562. 
^yrga (bynga) 220, 401 . 
byrgan 530. 
byigels 277, 598. 
byrgen 378. 
bynan 525. 
byrne 404. 
byrst 387. 
byr>en(n) 302, 377, 

byr{>enmslum 557. 
bysig 183, 430. 
bytlan 532. 
bytt 375. 

cag 27s, 376, 562. 
csgbora 596. 
caerse 280. 
cafe J53. 
cafscipe 611. 
calan 57, 225, 508. 
calu 436. 
camb 50, 59, 234, 292, 

3101 335. 
cambint 631 
camp 59, 31a 
campdom 597. 
camphad 605. 
campstede 617. 

candel 59, 310, 378. 
cann 59. 
canne 404. 
carcem 66. 
catgast 618. 
carleas 633. 
caru 57, 366. 
casering 607. 
cassuc 57, 340. 
catte 57, I53« 
ceac 335. 
ceace 51, 124, 188, 

ceaf 7, SI, 72, 295, 

296, 3" I 344. 
ceafl 261, 296. 
ceafor 72, 296, 311. 
cealc64, 311. 
ceald, 49, 64, 72, 168, 

176, 232, 299, 311, 

426, 620. 

cealf 64,72, 294, 3", 

ceap 135, 335. 
ceapian 135, 163, 31 1, 

ceapung 615. 
cearu 278. 
ceaster 51, 72, 168, 

179, 183, 37a 
celan 7, 129, 310, 530, 

.?43. ^ 
celnes 609. 
cemban 60, 310, 530. 
cempa 60, 310. 
cempestre 603. 
cen 125. 
cene 310, 434. 
cennan 310, 530. 
centisc 632. 
ceo 405. 
ceol 335. 
ceole 53, 404. 

ceorian 536. 
ceorl 85, 91, 311, 335. 
ceosan 5, 7, 32, 44, 47, 

106, III, 135, 137,1 

138, 158. 159, 172, 
173, 174, 215, 226, 
232, 239, 252, 279, 
305, 306, 307, 309, 
311, 472, 475, 482, 
484, 486, 494. 

ceowan 264, 311, 493. 

cepan 310, 531. 

cicen 138. 

cidan 311. 

clecen 192. 

ciefes 73, 369. 

clegan 270, 530. 

cieldo 563. 

dele 51,73, 170, 181, 

clepan 136, 531. 

cieres(cires) 51,91,170. 

cierm 387. 

cierr 387. 

cierran 67, 311, 530. 

clese7,47, 124, 311. 

cietel 73. 

cild 96,311,420,562. 

cildhad 605. 

cildisc 431, 632. 

cildlic 634. 

cinan 49a 

cinn 7, 96, 242, 259, 

285, 3"> 398, 403. 
cipe 125,164. 
ciricboc 618. 
cirice (circe) 223, 311, 

claeg 275. 
clane 5, 134, 191, 276, 

285, 310, 434, 438, 

claenheort 641. 

dsnnes 609. 

cUensian 286, 536, 659. 

clam 335. 

da)> 133, 301, 335. _ 

clawu 266, 379. 

clea 74, 75» 140, I53, 

172, 266, 379. 
cleofa 401. 

cleofan 135, 137, 493, 
cliewen 350, 600. 



dif 96, 101,344. 


clifian 536. 

dimban 283, 292, 310, 

dingan 498. 
diopiaii(deopian) loi. 
diopung48, loi, 171. 
dipian loi, 536. 
dlwen 350. 
dud 131. 
duggc 404. 
dut 131, 335. 
dynian 526. 
clynnan 526. 
dyppan 112, 291, 530. 
dywcn 60a 
cnaepling 339, 607. 
cnata 256, 293. 
cnapa 401. 
cn^wan 5, 52, 120, 161, 

162, 264, 266, 517. 
cnedan 80, 505. 
cneo (cneow) 5, 7, 52, 

88, 89, 140, 169, 173, 

232, 264, 265, 266, 

285, 310,361,363. 
cneoht 49, 86, 169, 182. 
cneoris(s) 378. 
cnidan 490. 
cnieht (cniht) 5, 86, 

157, 326, 335- 
cnihthad 605. 
cnocian 108. 
cnoU 335. 
cn5sl 348. 
cnotta 43, 106, 243, 

256, 298, 310, 401. 
cnudan 108. 
cnyll 352. 
cnyssan 526. 
cnyttan43, 112, 527. 
cnyttels 598. 
coc 310. 
cocc 106, 335. 
coccr 339, 
codd 335. 
cofa 401. 
cofincel 358, 606. 

cdl 1289 225, 276, 310, 

c61iics(s) 378. 

colt ICO. 

copor III, 255, 310. 

coppede 434, 624. 

cops 306. 

corcn 5, 430. 

corn 43, 106, 310, 343. 

cornhus 11, 617. 

cosp 306. 

coss 43, 106, 259, 310, 

335. , 
costere 602. 
costian 536. 
co^ 366. 
crabba 401. 
cradol 57, 341. 
craeft 54, 295, 310,335. 
craeftig 431. 630. 
craeftlfce 553. 

crawan 120, 264, 517. 
crawe 404. 
creda 125. 

creopan 137, 278, 493. 
creopere 602. 

cribb 96,254, 292,375. 
crimman 498. 
crincan 498. 
cringan 498. 
crohha 326. 
cropp 335. 
croppiht 631. 
cruma 401. 
crycc7, 112, 254,272, 

cu5,47, I30»i66,266, 

cucu 266. 
cudu 266. 
ctihierde 617. 
cuma 401, 562. 
cuman 109, 121, 232, 

282, 288, 310, 488, 


•cund, 623. 
cunnan 113, 542. 
cunnian 536. 
cuppe 291, 310, 404. 
cuslyppe (cusloppe) 

cu)> 50,113,147, x66, 

286, 301, 310, 426. 
cufc 553. 

cwalu 225, 366, 562. 
cwealm 335. 
cwealmbaere 622. 
cweccan 534. 
cwelan 225, 503. 
cwcllan '52, 55, 186, 

534, 643. 
cweman, 122. 
cwen 5, 47, 122, 163, 

263, 285, 310, 389, 

cwene 80, 156, 232, 

cweora 398. 
cweban 52, 54,80,119, 

162, 186, 225, 226, 

239i 240, 263, 299, 

301, 302, 305, 476, 

484, 505. 
cwicseht 617. 
cwician 103. 
cwic{u) 42, 103, 232, 

cwide 96, 225, 239, 

cwidegiedd 618. 
cwideieas 633. 
cwielman 530, 643. 
cwl)»an 53a 
cwucian 103. 
c(w)uca 103, 184, 266, 

c(w)udu 103, 266, 362. 
cycen 600. 
cycene 310. 
cycgel 319. 
cylen 112. 
cylu 436. 
cyme 112, 386, 562. 



cyme 434. 
cymen 442. 
cynde 434. 
cyneboren 640. 
cynedom 597. 
cyne^5d 640. 
cynclic 634I 
cyncnce 618. 
cynig 390. 

157, 160, 313, 221, 

290, 310, 3i7» 338, 
339, 607. 
cyn{n)7,47, "2, I57i 

354, 273, 374, 3iOi 

355, 356. 

eyre 113,239,334,386, 

cymel43, II3. 
cyspan S3i- 
cyssan7, 43, "2, 258, 

259, 300, 306, 310, 

476, 528, 530, 643. 
cyst 113, 390, 563. 
cystig 630. 
cyta 400. 
cyfan 47, 114, 167, 

286, ^05, 310, 538, 


cy)>M«) 372. 

da 133. 

d£d 5, 34, 119, 163, 
188, 234, 299, 390, 

daedcene 640. 
dag 5, 10, 54, 57, yZ, 

153, 155, 180, 183, 

211, 313, 215, 317, 

3i8, 334, 353, 384, 

299, 320, 334, 331, 

334, 336, ?57. 
daegeseage 619. 
d£g-hwam 557. 
daeglanges 557. 
daglic 634. 
daeg-tldum 557. 
dael, 54, 345, 563. 
dal 134, 331, 387. 

dalan 47, 134, 163, 

331, 373, 530. 
d£lin£lum 557. 
dag 133, 399, 333. 
dagian 57, 330. 
dah 7, 363. 
daro|> 341. 
dead 135, 239, 399, 

deadlic 151,634. 
deaf 135, 294, 399, 

deagol 431, 639. 
deamunga, -inga 554. 
dear(r) 66, 542. 
deaf 5. 135, 173, 239, 

299» 301, 395. 
deabfsege 640. 
deaw 76, 173, 265, 36a 
deawig 63a 
delfan 64, 80, 11 1, 293, 

294, 499. 
deman 5, 47, "9, 163, 

272, 299, 529, 643. 
Dene 385, 386. 
denisc 632. 
denn 356. 
denu 00, 366. 
deofol (diofol), 104, 

223, 293, 299, 340. 
deofolcund 623. 
deop 5, 44, 137, 150, 

173, 208, 209, 332, 

260, 291, 299, 426, 

553, 63a 
deope 553. 
deop)«Lncol 640. 
deor 137, 208, 209, 252, 

279, 343, 562. 
deorc 85, 182, 299, 426. 
deorcung 615. 
deore 138. 
deorfan, 500. 
deorling 138, 607. 
derian 525. 
diedan 530. 


d!eglan 32i, 528, 533. 
diegol 331, 431, 639. 
diepe 44. 
dlere (diore, dSore) 138, 

209, 2IO, 434. 
dierhng 174. 
dieme 67, 170, 181, 

dimhus 617. 
disc 96. 
docce 404. 

d«g 419- 

dogga7, 106,319, 401. 

dogor 419. 

dohtor 5, 7, 43, 45, 47, 
106, 107, 156, 158, 
186, 234, 299, 326, 

dol 425. 
doUfce ;53. 

dom 26, 128, 335, 597. 
-dom 597. 
domdaeg 617. 
ddmgeorn 64a 
don 121, 128, 143, 399, 

^ ^^^^ 
dor 106, 344* 

dora 401. 

draca 78, 180, 356, 

draefan 134, 530. 
dragan 57, 399, 320, 

dream 135, 378, 335. 
dreamere 603. 
dreccan 534. 
drSfan 139, 530. 
drenc 335, 387, 562. 
diencan 60, 389, 311, 

^ 529, 643. 
dreogan 493. 
dreoptan 493. 
dreorigmdd 641. 
dreorignes 609. 
dreosan 137, 339, 494. 
drepan 505. 
drepe 386. 
dneman 136. 
drfepan 136, 531. 



dufan toi» 136, 133, 

a93» a99» 49o- 
dnncan 7, 59, 96, m, 
3«, 289, 299, 310, 

drincere 6oa. 
diohu^ S95* 
drohtnian 595. 
dropa 106, 256, 401. 
dropmselom 557. 
drugo^ 595. 
drunoen 225. 
druncengeorn 640. 
dry 142, 388. 
drygan 530. 
<i»yge 434- 
drybt 390. 

dryhten 288, 340, 563. 
drync 112. 
dryre 239, 386. 
duce 404. 
dufan 299, 496. 
dugan 482, 541. 
dugu^ 218, 286, 320, 

dumb Illy 159, 282, 

2921 299, 426. 
dung 41 1, 
duniendisc 640. 
dunn 426. 
*durraii 279. 
durron 36. 
durus, 7, 21,111,234, 

duruweara 618. 
dust 1 13, 286, 298, 343. 
dwaescan 56. 
dwellan 263, 299, 534. 
dweoig 85, 182, 263, 

dwlnan 490. 
dwolian 536. 
dwolma 401. 
dyne 386. 
<iyn(n) 352- 
dynnan 526. 
dynt 387. 
dyppan 112. 

d]rntlaecan 658. 
dysig 112,324. 
dysigian 536. 
dystig47, "4. 

€a 17, 70, 172, 246, 

€ac 135, 187, 559, 560. 

eacen 232, 431* 

eacian 31. 

eadig 135, 43I1 443- 


eafora 78, 401. 

eage 135, 163, 172, 

211, 217, 320, 406, 

cahta 5, 7, 20, 49, 68, 

168, 177, 217, 231, 

326, 447. 
eahtateo^ 447. 
eahtatlene 447. 
eahtian 536. 
eahtojia 447. 
eald 5, 47, 64, 65, 170, 

178, 183, 221^ 279, 

303, 426^ 443, 444, 

ealdlic 634. 
ealdor 340. 
eaidordom 597. 
ealdormann 617. 
ealdsprsec 617. 
£aldul6ng 607. 
ealh 64, 337. 
eall 5, 7, 64, 168, 

259, 276, 421, 426, 

eallgod 640. 
eal(l)ni2est 15, 557. 
eall tela 557. 
eallunga, -inga 554. 
eallwealdende 64a 
ealneg (ealne weg) 15, 

267, 557. 
ealswa 15, 560. 
ealu 78, 276, 414. 
earn 329. 
eappultun 78. 

ear 70, I39i 255, 329, 

earc 66, 178. 
card 397. 
eardian 536. 
eare 31, 135, 238, 279, 

earfo)>, 431. 
earg 426. 
carge 553. 
carm(j^.)5, 7,66,278, 

earm {adj^ 66, 426, 

443, 444, 620. 
eannbeag 617. 
earme 553, 555. 
earn 335. 
earnian 536. 
eart {fhou art) 66. 
earwicga 256, 319,618. 
east 135, 446, 558. 
eastan 558. 
easteme 626. 
eastnor^ 557. 
eastron 250. 
eab 557. 
eabe 556. 
eapmedan 530. 
eawunga 554. 
eax 68, 367. 
eaxl 68, 367. 
ebba 256, 292. 
ece 434, 553- 
e<^ 375. 
ecgheard 640. 
ed- 571, 648. 
edbyrdan 648. 
edcierr 571. 
-ede 624. 
edgeong 571, 621. 
edgield 571. 
edgieldan 648. 
edgift 571. 
edgrowung 571. 
edhiertan 648. 
ediiecan 648. 
edlaestan 648. 
ediean 571. 
ednlwe 571. 



edniwunga 554. 
edor 92, 198. 
edroc 571. 
edsta^lian 648. 
edwierpan 648. 
edwit S7I- 
ef (e)n (emn) 80, 8 1 , 2 19, 

293» 430, 639. 
efeneald 640. 
efenlsecan 658. 
efcs 107. 
efesian ^36. 
efnan 56, 532. 
efstan 530. 
eft 56, 

eftcierran 14. 
eftcyme 617. 
eftflowan 14. 
ege 55, 320, 386, 419. 
egenu 369. 
cg(e)sian 536, 659. 
eglan 320, 528, 532. 

cgle 434, 439. 

ehtan 47, 118,163,530. 

ehtend 418. 

-el 639. 

elboga (elnboga) 287. 

ele5,47, 107, 156, 186, 

elebeam 618. 
ellen 340. 
ellenr5f 640. 
ellcs 55, 557. 
ellorfus 640. 
ellorslj) 617. 
elne 557. 
-els 598. 
embren 600. 
emn 81, 293. 
emnet 604. 

-en 599, 600, 625, 639. 
-end 601. 
ende 5, 47, 60, 156, 

274, 351, 354, 563. 
endebyrdes 557. 
endelaf 618. 
endemes 557. 
endian 536. 
en(d)le;o)fan 447. 

en(d)le(o)fta 447> 


enge 60, 234, 289, 553. 

engel 221, 289, 338, 

Englaland 619. 
Engle 385. 
englisc 60^ 218, 289, 

312, 317, 632. 
engu 383. 
enlefan 151. 
ent 387. 
entisc 632. 
eo (eoh) 328. 
code 275. 

eodor 92, 198, 341. 
eofor48, 92, 169,341. 
eofot 325. 
eoh 86, 337. 
eolh 7, 84, I49i I73i 

182, 328, 329, 337. 
eom (earn) 548. 
eorl 85, 335. 
eoricund 623. 
eorlisc 632. 
eornan (ioman) c,8. 
eornostlice 553. 
eorod 13, 151, 329. 
eorbcund 623. 
eor)>e 7, 49, 85, 169, 

196, 205, 261, 278, 

302, 404. 
eor))faest 627. 
eosol 92. 
eow (low, iw) 360, 460, 

eowde 77. 

eower (lower) 460, 464. 
eowestre 52, jj, 169, 

eowic (lowih,iwih) 31 1, 

-er 639. 
-ere 602. 
erian 525. 
-erne 626. 
-(e)sian 659. 
esne 56, 354. 
esol 48, 92, 198, 395. 

Y 2 

est 47, 62, 286, 331, 

este 434. 
-estre 603. 
etan 5, 18, 24, 48, 80, 


232, 240, 298, 305, 

472, 476, 505, 
etere 602. 
etol 430, 635. 
-ettan 657. 
e|»el 223. 
e))|>a 217, 3CJI. 
ewe (eowe, eowu) 77, 


facen 348. 

facenstafas 612. 

facne 557. 

faec 345. 

faecele 404. 

facne 433, 434, 553. 

faeder 5, 7, 22, 36, 41, 
54, 155, 183, 211, 
215, 218, 238, 253, 
278, 295, 299, 415, 

faeder(e)nmaeg 617. 
faederleas 633. 
faederslaga 617. 
f^ge 434. 
faegen 320, 430, 443, 

444, 639. 
faBg(e)nian 223, 536, 

feger 7, 54, 259, 295, 

320, 430, 443, 639. 
f2eh))(u) 372. 
faer 345. 
faerunga 554. 
faest 54, 295, 298. 
-faest 627. 

fa&stan 5, 56, 528, 5^0. 
faesten(n) 58, 259, 358, 

faestmod 641. 
faestnes 609. 
faestnian 298, 536. 
faestrsed 640. 



fact 48, 54, 7«» 197,215. 

295. 342. 345. 
fietels 221, 277, 339, 

Utym 7, 54, 155. 302, 

flgettan 231. 
fam 343. 
fana 59, 401. 
fandian 536. 
«Mn 48, 54, 55» 57, 


197, 225, 226, 278, 

475. 476, 482, 484, 

faru 366, 562. 
fca 75, 266, 295. 
-feald 628. 
fealdan 64, 303, 516, 

feallan 64,65, 176,233, 

258, 259, 276, 295, 

303, 475, 476, 484, 

fealu 64, 436. 
fearh 66, 172, 178, 329, 

fcarn 343. 
feawe 437. 

feax 68, 177, 327, 343- 
fedan 5, 129, 240, 530, 

^ 643. 

f efor 293. 

fegan 53a 

fela (feola) 48, 80, 93, 

felafeald 628. 
felan 129. 
felasynnig 64a 
felawyrdnes 618. 
feld 41, 80, 276, 295, 

303, 395, 397, 562. 
feldhus 617. 
fell 5, 18, 80, 343. 
fellen 625. 

fcng 239, 317, 387. 
ftog(c)an 270, 537. 
feoh 86, 87, 139, 173, 

182, 215, 231, 328, 

329. 346, 399^ 
feohstiang 64a 
feoht 562. 
feohtan 68, 86, 99, 106, 

III, 169, 170, 295, 

298, 326, 500. 
feohtlac 608. 
feol(ftol) 41, 127,329, 

feolan 84, 173, 329, 

feond (ffond) 104, 105, 

140, 174, 175, 269, 

feorh 7, 85, 149, 173, 

182, 278, 328, 329, 

feorr 85, 259, 426, 443, 
^ 444, 556, 558. 
feorran 258, 278, 288, 

feorrcund 623. 
feor^ling 607. 
feotor 92. 

feower 237, 295, 447. 
f eowerfeald 453. 
f eowerfete 434. 
feowergield 1 1, 13, 617. 
feowerteo|Ki 447. 
feowertiene 447. 
feowertig 447. 
feowertigo|>a 447. 
feo(we)r|^a 447. 
fer- 649. 
feran 530. 
ferian 525. 
fersc 85, 280. 
fetor (feter) 80, 92, 369. 
feba 401. 
febe 62, 357. 
fefer 41, 80, 295, 302, 

fe])erbsere 622. 
ficol 310. 

fieU 387. 

fiellan 47, 65, 170, 178, 

530. 643. 
fierd 225, 390, 563. 
fierdleo^ 617. 
ficrr 556. 
fierst 28O1 387. 
fif 5, 41, 50, 97, 147, 

213, 237, 283, 295, 

f ifel 97. 
f Ifta 447. 
fifteo^a 447. 
fiftiene 447. 
fiftig 447. 
ftftigojia 447. 
fildc 434. 
filmen 600. 
fine 289. 
findan 59,96,111,239, 

295, 300, 488, 498. 
finger 96, 219, 289, 31 7, 

340, 563. 
finiht 631. 
firen 368, 369. 
fir(e)num 557. 
fisc 5, 7, 19, 96, 231, 

312, 335- 
fiscno^ 595. 
fisco)> 395, 595. 
hbele 404. 
fipere 41. 
fla 405. 
flacor 430. 
flsesc 134, 295, 312, 

393, 419. 
flsescen 625. 
flieschama 617. 
flah 346, 428. 
flasce (flaxe) 57. 
flea 402. 
flea(h) 135. 
fleam 225, 335. 
flean 70, 239, 329, 509. 
fleax 68, 295, 327, 343- 
flede 434. 
fleogan in, 137, 189, 

295, 320, 323, 476, 




fleogc 320, 404, 562. 
fleon 225, 239, 276, 

3*9» 495- 
fleos 137. 
fleotan 493. 
flett 356. 
fliccc3ii, 357. 
fllema 401. 
flleman 530, 643. 
flics 393, 419. 
fllete 404, 
flltan 490. 
flitmseium 557. 
flocan 519. 
flocc 310. 
floccmaelum 557. 
flod 26, 128, 231, 238, 

f]ota40i, 562. 
fiowan 128, 264, 519. 
flugol 430. 
flygc 386. 

225, 326, 387, 563. 
fnsed 345. 
fnaes 345. 
foda 128, 295. 
fodor 260, 299, 3 8, 

fola X06, 288, 401. 
folc 7, 106, 276, 295, 

^ 3io» 343, 562. 


folcmsere 640. 


folde 404. 

folgere 602. 

folgian io5, 276, 295, 

320, 536, 538- 
ton 40, 47, 117, 118, 
125. 139, 163, 165, 
194, 239, 245, 326, 

329» 475, 514. 
for 559. 
for- 649. 
foran 558. 
forbeodan 14, 649. 
forbod 12, 563. 

forbrecan 649. 
forbry ttan 649. 
forcierran 649. 
forcwe)>an 649. 
ford 397. 
fordxlan 649. 
fordeman 649. 
fordon 649. 
fordrlfan 649. 
fore 21 7, 445, 446,558, 

^ 559» 572. 
fore- 572. 
forealdian 649. 
forebeacen 572. 
foreduru 572. 
foregangan 14. 
foregisl 572. 
forehalig 572. 
forenuere J72. 
foresceawian 14. 
forespreca 572. 
forefianc 572. 
forfaran 649. 
forfon 649. 
forgan 649. 
forgiefan 14, 649. 
forgiefennes 259. 
forgieldan 649. 
forgieman 649. 
forgietan 72, 91, 124, 

forgietol 12. 
forglendran 532. 
forhabban 649. 
forhsefednes 12, 563. 
forherigan 649. 
forhogian 649. 
forht 426. 
forhtfuU 629. 
forhtlic 634. 
for hwon 557. 
forlacan 649. 
forlsedan 649. 
forleosan 239, 305, 494, 

forlor 12, 563, 
forlorennes 12, 259. 
forma 446, 447. 
formeltan 649. 

formest(a) 447. 

fomiman 649. 

forod 430, 639. 

forraedan 649. 

forsc 280, 335. 

forscrlfan 649. 

forsendan 649. 

forseon 649. 

forslaewan 533. 

forst 106, 280, 335. 

forswerian 649. 

for|> 558. 

for |)2em (|>atn) 560. 

for|>gengc 434. 

for |)on 56a 

for|)weard 637. 

for Jiy 56a 

forweard 557. 

forweor)»an 649. 

forwyrcan 649. 

forwyrd 12, 563, 649. 

fostor 24a 

fostorling 607. 

fot 7, 26, 41, 47, 128, 
129, 163, 194, 211, 
213, 215, 217, 218, 
231, 232, 295, 298, 
331, 408, 409, 562. 

fotmxlum 557. 

fox 43, 106,327,335. 

fracodscipe 61 1. 

fracu|> (-o)>) 218, 286, 

fraetwan 264. 

fraetwe 220, 380. 

fram 295, 425, 559,573. 

fram- 573. 

framcyme 573. 

framlad 573. 

framsi)» 573. 

framweard 573. 

frea 400, 402. 

free 425. 

freca 401. 

frecne 434, 553- 

frefran22i, 532. 

frem(e)de 434. 

fremman 60, 221, 254, 
273, 282, 524, 526. 



fremsum 636. 

frfo (filo) 104, 369, 

^ 278, 295, 328, 434. 

fr€o {sb,) 375. 

freobearn 017. 

freodom 597. 

freog(e)an370, 537. 

freols 325. 

freomslg 11. 

freond (friond) 47, 104, 
105, 140, 174, 175, 
269, 285, 295, 399, 
416, 417, 6oi. 

freondltce 553. 


fr€osan 106, 135, 137, 

295, 494. 
fretan 80, 505. 
frettol 431. 
fric^n 507. 
frigea 270. 
frig(e)daeg 275. 
frignan 06, 321, 502. 
frlnan 90, 321. 
frib 344. 
fri 'georn 640. 
fri jsum 656. 
frdd 42 ly 426. 
Froda 421. 
frofor 221, 370. 
frogga7, 106,256,258, 

319, 401. 
from 559. 
frum 425. 
fruma 401. 
frumbearn 618. 
fugelere 602. 
fugelno)» 595. 
fugeloJ> 595. 
fugol 7, 108, 159, 219 

276, 295, 320, 340, 

fuht, 43. 

ful 27, 131, 276, 426. 

fulbetan 650. 

fuldon 650. 

fulg&n 650. 

full (sb.) 343. 

full (<wy.) 5, 37, 108, 

159, 242, 359, 376, 
295, 436, $57, 6aa 

ful(l). 65a 

-full 629. 

fultiestan 65a 

fuUberstan 650. 

fullbrecan 650. 

fullcndian 650. 

fullfremman 65a 

fuUfyllan 65a 

fullgrowan 650. 

fulhan 536, 643. 

fun|)ungen 65a 

fuUuht 267, 391. 

fultniwian 65a 

fuhum 14. 

fultumian 10, 14. 

fulwiht 391. 

fulwihthad 605. 

fundian 536. 

furh36, 115, 328,4". 

fur|K>r 108. 

fur ;ra 445. 

furfum 108, 557. 

fus 113,286, 426. 

fylgan 220, 53a 

fylg(e)an 538. 

fylgestre 603. 

fylJan II3, 259, 272, 
276, 528, 530, 643. 

fyllu, -o 383, 563. 

fylstan 530. 

fyl)» 613. 

fyr 132, 278, 295. 

fyrbaere 622. 

fyren 625. 

fyrhtan 112. 
fyrmestfa) 446, 447. 
fym 426, 557. 
fyrs 387. 
fyrstig 630. 
tysan 114, 530. 
fyst 132, 329, 390. 
fy|>er-fete 237. 

gad {goad) 315, 367. 

gad {wani) 215, 265. 
gad<e)riaii 57, 332,223, 

gadening 223. 
gaedding 10, 58, 155, 

223, 339. 
gaers 66, 280, 306, 3<5. 
gaersgrene 640. 
gaest 419. 
g£ten 6co, 625. 
gaffetung 57. 
gafol 225, 563. 
galan 57, 31 5» 508. 
galend 601. 
gamcn 315,349. 
gan 143, 55a 
gandra 59. 
gang 335, 562. 
gangan59,289, 515. 

gar 315, 397- 

gara 401. 

garbeam 617. 

gast 7, 133, 298, 306, 

gastcund 623. 

gat 133, 134,315,411.- 


ge-i2, 574,651. 

ge (ge, gfe) 252, 268, 

460, 462. 
gea I24« 
geac 335. 
geacessure 619. 
geador 537. 
ge-aeman 651. 
ge-aB|)ele 12, 574. 
ge-agnian 651. 
gealga 64, 288, 316, 

gealla 276, 401. 
geanlsecan 658. 
geapscipe 611. 
gear 5, 51, 124, 172, 

188, 268, 343. 
geara 557. 
gearcian 536. 
geard 66, 72, 316, 335. 
geardagas 11. 
geardagum 557. 

gearlic 654. 
gearn 66, 73, 343. 
gearo)»ancol 640. 
gearowyrdig 11, 13. 
gearu 66, 220,264,265, 
316, 435, 436, 440, 

443i 444. 
gearwe 220, 264, 553. 
gearwian 66, 264, 536. 
ge-ascian 651. 


315, 316, 344. 
geatwe 380. 
gebsdan 651. 
gebaeran 14, 651. 
gcban(n) ia,4i9> 563. 
gebed 12, 563. 
gebedda 574. 
gebelgan 6^1. 
gebeodan 051. 
gcbeorc 343. 
gebeorgan 651. 
geberan 651. 
gebetan 65 1. 
gebierhtan 99, 184. 
gebindan 651. 
geblot 563. 
gebod 225, 344. 
gebrcc 563. 
gebro)K)r(gebrd)>ru) 12, 

41 5» 574. 
gebyrd 225, 391, 563, 

geceosan 651. 
gecnsewe 434. 
gecoren 12. 
gecweme 122, 434, 438. 
gecynd 391. 
gecynde 12, 574,621. 
gedaeftan 530. 
gedafenian 536. 
gedeaw 437. 
gedefe la, 434, 438, 

553, 574. 
gedryhtu 391. 
gefa 402. 
gefea 402. 
gefeg 393. 


gefcoht 12, 563. 
gefeon 68, 87, 506. 
gefera 12, 225, 401, 

gefere 434- 
geferraeden 610. 
gefiend 417. 
gefilde 41, 96, 357. 
geflit 344. 
gcfog (gefoh) 419,426, 

gefredan 530. 
gefrlend 417. 
gefrignan 651. 
gefylce 357, 574- 
gefym 12, 557. 
gegad(e)rian 260. 
gegadening 574. 
gegnum 557. 
gegnunga 554. 
gegrynd 393. 
gehada 574. 
gehatan 14, 651. 
geheald 419. 
gehefigian 651. 
gehende 434, 553, 559- 
gehield 393. 
gehlaestan 53a 
gehleow 437. 
gehlow 363. 
gehlyd 393. 
gehnasst 393. 
gehnast 419. 
gehola 401. 
gehreow 363. 
gehwa 471. 
gehwser 558. 
gehwaeber 471. 
gehwaeperes 557. 
gehwilc 471. 
gehycgan 651. 
gehygd 351. 
gehyrstan 530. 
geleafa 135. 
geleaffuU 629. 
geleafsum 636. 
gelic 12, 218, 260, 560, 

574, 634. 


gelice 553. 

gclrcfan 5,47, 136, 174, 

188, 272, 530, 643, 

geJigere (gelire) 322. 
gelimpan 282,498,651. 
gemaecca 55, 574. 
gemaene 12, 434, 438, 

gemsenscipe 611. 
gemang ^59. 
gemearcian 66. 
gemecca 55. 
gemengan 317. 
gemetan 651. 
gemldlian 536. 
gemierce 357. 
gemdt 574. 
gcmynd35, 112, 391. 
gemyndgian 536. 
gemyndig 12, 574. 
gemyne 438. 
genaeme 4^4. 
geneahhe 68, 326. 
geneat 225. 
genesan 239, 505. 
genog (genoh) 128, 

323, 421, 426, 427, 

genyht 393, 563. 
genyhtsum 636. 
geo (glo, lu) 268. 
geoc (gioc, iuc) 7, 43, 

51, no, 211, 212, 

214, 232, 240^ 268, 

309, 310, 334. 
geoguji, -o)> (giogub, 

•ob) 116, 218, 268, 

286, 390. 
geogu|)had 605. 
geol 255. 
geoloca 53, 92. 
geolu,.o 5,53,92,220, 

316, 436, 620. 
geomor 51, 121, 268, 

gedmnan 121, 536. 
geon 110. 



geond 268, S59* 

geondan 559. 

geondsfon 14. 

geond^ncan 14. 

geong (giong, giung) 
51, 116, 268, 289, 
426, 443» 444» 620. 

geoogling 607. 

gtopan 493. 

gcorn 85, 91, 426. 

g«ora« 553. 
geornes 259. 
geonifuU 629. 
gSosceaft 617. 
geotan 135, 137, 163, 

3i5> 316^ 493. 
g€ow 360. 
geraecan 651. 
gere£a 401. 
gcresp 393. 
gerinnan 651. 
gerlsan 491. 
gesaca 401. 
gesselig 63a 
gcsaelf(u) 372. 
gesamnian 59. 
gesceaft 12, 240, 295, 

39I1 563, 574. 
gescentu 613. 
gcseaw 437. 
gesecgan 651. 
gese|«n 62. 
gesibbsum 636. 
gesibling 607. 
gesieh^ 99, 184. 
geslene 434, 438. 
gesinsciphc 634. 
gesl)> 97, 286, 574. 
gcsprec 344. 
gestigan 651. 
gestrangian 536. 
gesund 12, 574. 
geswencan 531, 643. 
gesweostor (gesweos- 

tru, -a) 415. 

geswinc 393. 
gesyntu, -o 112, 259, 

300, 305, 613. 
getenge 434. 
getlene 357. 
getimbre 357. 
getitewan (getrlowan, 

getreowan) 90^ 264, 

533- , 
getilewe (getrlowe, ge- 
treowe) 90, 174, 264, 

gehifung 373. 
ge>eaht 12,391,563. 
ge »eodrseden 6ia 
ge »ledan 138, 530. 
geplodan (ge^odan) 

138, 6ji. 
ge)»iode fee)>eodc) 138, 

175, 357. 

gebofta 401. 

ge »yld 391. 

ge »yldig 630. 

gepyldum 557. 

gewaecan 534. 

gewaede 357. 

gewealc 419. 

gewealdes 557. 

gewed 393. 

geweorc 574. 

gewerian 525. 

gewidcr 12, 41, 547. 

gewieldan 259,530,643. 

gewinnan 651. 

gewiss 240, 316, 426. 

gewit 225. ' 

gewita 574. 

gewTtan 490. 

gewlencan 531. 

gewrit 344. 

gewuna 401, 574. 

gewyrht 391. 

gicdd 356. 

giefa 225. 

giefan 5, 7. 5i> 72, 9i> 
124, 168, 170^ 172, 
181, 188, 225, 262, 
293, 294, 298, 316, 

gieffaest 627. 
gjefstol 618. 
giefu 91, 214,215, 217, 
218, 252, 284, 316, 
gicW 343i 562. 
giddan 91, 181, 316, 



gidpan 91, 316, 499, 

gieltan 300. 
gleman 136, 316, 530. 
glemeleas 633. 
glexnelTest 613. 
gfeinen(n) 599. 
gieraan 90, 316, 530. 
gierwan 07, 266, 316, 

529, 533- , 
giest {guest) 5, 7, 20, 


215, 231, 235, 252, 

316, 385, 387. 
giest (yeast) 91, 268. 
gifre 433, 434- 
gift 96, 225, 240, 295, 

316, 563. 
giftu 391. 
gimm 50, 82, 157. 
ginan 490. 
ginian 536. 
giong (giung) 116. 
git 460, 462. 
gftsere 602. 
gitsian 536, 659. 
gladian 57, 78. 
glaed 54, 223,276,315, 

423, 424, 425, 443- 
glaedmod 641. 
gl«m 387. 
glaes 54, 345. 
gleaw 76, 265, 437, 

gleawferh)» 641. 
gleawhycgende 640. 
gleawnes 609. 

gled 129, 390, 563. 
glengan 530. 
glidan 126, 49a 

gl* 357. 
glioda 102. 
gllw 357. 

glof 128, 315, 367. 
glom 128. 
glomung 615. 
glowan 128. 
gnaett 315. 
" gnagan 57, 508. 
gnea)» 426. 
gnldan 49a 
god 7, 43, 106, 253, 

299» 315, 344. 
i^g6di28, 223, 284,299, 

315, 426, 445. 
godbearn 11. 
godcund 623. 
goddond 417. 
godlic 218. 
godspellere 602. 
gold 7, 43, 106, 276, 

goldhroden 640. 
gos 5, 6, 50, 61, 62, 

147, 163. 165, 194, 

235, 286, 306, 315, 


graeg 426. 
graes 54,315- 
grafan 54, 57, 508. 
gram 425. 
grambsere 622. 
grame 553. 
gramheort 641. 
grammdd 641. 
grapian 133, 291, 536. 
grasian 307. 
great 135, 426, 443, 

gredig 630. 
gremman 526. 
grene 5, 129, 194, 278, 



grennes 609. 
greotan 111,493. 
gretan 129, 300, 528, 

greting 10,615. 
grimettan 10, 530, 

657. ^ 
grimm 426, 443- 
grimman 498. 
grimsian 283, 536, 659. 
grin 391. 
grindan 498. 
gnpan loi, 126, 490. 
gripe 386. 
growan 5, 128, 165, 

264, 266, 519. 
grundiu,3i5, 395. 
grundlunga, -linga 

gryrc 386. 
guma 5, 50, 109, 159, 

213, 215, 217, 218, 

235, 252, 282, 315, 

gumcynn 618. 
gund 230. 

gu|> "3,315. 
gyden 43, "2,259,378, 

gylden43,47, 112, 160, 

218, 315, 431, 530, 

gyldenfeax 641. 
gylt 298, 387. 
gyrdan 259, 299, 530. 
gyrdels 277, 598. 
gyte 386. 





^habban 5, 7, 8, 54, 57, 
183, 292, 293, 305, 

325, 474, 538. 
haca 401. 
hacele 404. 
had 133, 397, 605. 
-had 605. 
hadesmann 619. 
hador 431. 

haecc 55, 375. 
haei 345. 

haeft 231, 335, 563. 
haeftan 56, 530. 
haefteddm 597. 
haeften 599. 
haeftincel 358, 606. 
haeftling 607. 
haeftnian 595. 
' ^g(e)l54, 155,340. 

igtes(s) 378. 
..J\ 393, 419. 
hjelan 5, 47, 134, 162, 

191, 325, 530, 643. 
haele 386, 414. 
hxlend 418, 601. 
haelcf 58, 301, 414. 
haelnes 10^ 609. 
hselu, -o 383, 563. 
haeman 530. 
• haer 119. 
"haeren 625. 
haerfest 58, 339. 
hseriht 10, 631. 
hsering 607. 
haem 66, 28a 
haes 240, 390. 
haesl 307. 

hatan 134, 191, 531. 
haeteru 419. 
haetu, -o 383, 563. 
hae|> 47, 134, 162, 301. 
hseben288, 302, 431. 
hae^nscipe 611. 
haej>iht 631. 
haienian 536. 
hafola (hafela) 57, 7^, 

222, 401. 
hafuc, -oc (heafuc, -oc) 

48, 57, 78, 197, 293, 

hagol 5, 57, 340, 563. 
hagosteald 618. 

bagu 57. 
hal 133, 161, 426, 620. 
halbaere 622. 
Hal^a 421. 
Hainan 221, 536. 
halig 216, 221, 223, 



334, 4dli 439> 43l> 

440, 443i 444- 
hilor 419. 
h^lwende 434, 638. 
ham 133, 282,335,562. 
haml^as 633. 
bamor 59, 278, 325, 

^ 341, 563. 
htoistede 617. 
himweardes 557. 
hana 59, 231, 401. 
hand 59, 215, 285, 

299, 325, 331, 398» 

haiidgeweorc 617. 
handlung 10, 615. 
hangian 239, 289, 536. 

haia 5, 57, 238, 401. 
has 426. 
hassuc 57. 
hasu (heasu) 436. 
hat 133, 298. 
hatan 125, 133, 161, 

hate 553. 
hatian 57, 298, 536, 

hatwende 638. 
he (he) 95, 144, 163, 

461, 462. 
heafod 5, 10, 135, 172, 

216, 221, 293, 299, 

325» 347. 350- 

heafodling 607. 

heah 5, 47, I35» ^36, 
163, 174, 187, 221, 
328, 329, 427, 428, 

heahsynn 617. 
heald 562. 
healdan 5, 7, 49, 176, 

253, 299, 516. 
healede 624. 
healf 64, 262, 294. 
healfcwic 640. 
healfsUepende 64a 
healfsoden 640. 

healic 320. 
healichkd 605. 
heall 649 367. 
healm 335. 
heals 64. 306, 335. 
healt 426. 
h€an 426, 53a 
heane 553. 
heanes 329. 
heap 135, 243, 291. 
heipmselum 557. 
heard 5, 7, 49, 66, 168, 

218, 278, 299, 325, 

426, 439, 62a 
heardc 55;, 555- 
hearding 607. 
heardnes 609. 
hearg 66, 397. 
hearm 66. 
heannstafas 612. 
hearpe 291, 404. 
hearpere 602. 
hearpung 615. 
hea]>u 78. 
heawan 76, 172, 264, 

hebban 47, 55, 128, 

231, 258, 272, 295, 

297, 51a 
hedan 129. 
hefe 386. 

hefig 218, 293, 324. 
hef(i)gian 536. 
hege 55, 386. 
hela 118, 329. 
helan 80, 503. 
helian 526. 
hell 55, 254, 272, 375. 
hellebryne 619. 
hellewite 619. 
helm 80, 276, 282, 335. 
helpan 5, 41, 43, 64, 

80,96, 106, 111,215, 

226, 276, 291, 472, 

475, 476, 482, 484, 
, 486,499. 
helpend 418. 
helustr 92. 

hemming 607. 
hengen 599. 
henn 60, 254, 272, 285, 

heo (hlo) 104, 462. 
heo-dxg 557. 
heofon 92, 221, 222, 

285, 288, 293, 338, 

341, 563. 
heofoncund 623. 
heofone 404. 
heofonisc 10, 632. 
heofonlic 10, 634. 
heolfor 84. 
heeler 92. 
heel(o)stor 48, 92. 
heom 462. 
heenan (hienan) 102, 

heononweard 637. 
heora (hiora) 102. 
heord 41, 85, 367. 
-heort 641. 
heortce]>a 618. 
heorte 5, 49, 85, 169, 

196, 205, 231, 288, 

325, 404- 
heor^ 85; 
heom 396. 

heerut, -ot 48, 92, 341. 
heoruword 618. 
heow (hiow) 90. 
her 5, 125, 163, 558. 
here 5, 47, 55, 156, 

274» 278, 351, 353. 
herefolc 618. 
here-toga 225, 239. 
hergian 536. 
herian 55, 252, 254, 

271, 525-. 
hete 55, 386, 419. 
hetele 10. 
hetelic 634. 
hetellce 553. 
hete|iancol 640. 
hetol 635. 

hettend 418, 538, 601. 
hi (hi) 6, 461, 462. 

hidcr 96, 299, 558. 


hidergeond 558. 

hiderweard 637. 

hfdmxlum 557. 

hidres 558. 

hie 461. 

hieg 270^ 357. 


hTeh^(o) 613. 

hlenan 136, 53a 

hien^(o) 613. 

hiera (hira, neora) 461. 

hleran 5, 136, 174, 188, 
215, 221, 252, 272, 
273, 279, 288, 299, 

hierdan 530. 

hierde 5, 41, 47, 99, 

hierdebdc 618. 
hiere (hire) 461. 
hierstan 53a 
hiertan 530, 643. 
hierwan 533. 
hiew (hlw) 90, 265, 

hiewet 604. 
higian 536. 
hild 96, 272, 376. 
hildestrengo 619. 
hilt 393, 419. 
him 461. 
hind 96, 376. 
hindan 446,^58. 
hindanweard 557. 
hindema 446. 
hinder ^58. 
hine (hiene) 461, 462. 
hio (heo) 461. 
hiora (heora, hiera) 

hire (hiere) 462. 
his 461, 462. 
hit 461, 462. 
hrw 357. 
hiwan 401. 
hlwisc 632. 
hiwneden 610. 


hladan 54, 57, 78, 325, 

hlaedel 54. 
hinder 134. 
hlaefdige 404. 
hlaene 434. 
hlaest 335. 
hlaew 134, 419. 

hlaf 133,294,325,335. 
hlafl€ast 613. 
hlnfmaesse 150. 
hlaford 13, 133, 267, 

276, 293. 
hlaforddom 597. 
hl3fordscipe 611. 
hlagol 635. 
hlammxsse 150. 
hlaw 133, 419. 
hleabtor 68, 326, 340. 
hleapan 5, 135, 325, 

hleapestre 603. 
hleapettan 10, 657. 
hieotan 493. 
hleo(w) 363. 
hieowan 533. 
hlid 96, 325, 344. 
hhehhan 5, 7, 47, 69, 

170, 177, 239, 254, 

272, 326, 484, 510. 
hliep 387, 562. 
hllewan 533. 
hllew)»(u) 372, 613. 
hlimman 498. 
hlinian 536. 
hlot 106, 325. 
hid wan 264, 519. 
hlud 7, 131, 299. 
hlude 553. 
hludswege 557. 
hlutor (hlfittor) 131, 

219. 255, 431. 
hlydan 132, 530, 643. 
hlyn(n) 352. 
hlynnan 526. 
hlyst 387. 
hlystan 530. 
hnaepp 243, 335. 

hnasppian (hnappian) 
, 57,78,536. ^ 
hnaesce (hnesce) 434, 

hneappian 78. 
hneaw 265, 437. 
hnecca 31a 
hnlgan 325, 490. 
hnitan 490. 
hnitol 430. 
hnitu 412. 
hnot 425. 
hnutu III, 213, 285, 

325, 410, 412. 
hoc 128. 
hocede 624. 
hod 128. 

hof 106, 295, 342, 344. 
hof 128. 335. 
hoferede 624. 
hogfaest 627. 
hogu 366. 
hoh 117. 

hoi 106, 344, 425. 
hold 43, 106, 303, 325, 

holdlice 553, 555. 
holdrseden 610. 
holdscipe 611. 
holh 106, 149, 165, 328, 

329, 346. 
holpen 431. 
holunga 554. 
hon 117,239,245,329, 

hopian 106, 536. 
hoppettan 657. 
hoppian 243. 
hord 106, 158, 244, 252, 

279, 343. 
hordere 602. 
horh 239, 337. 
horn 106, 343. 
hombsere 622. 
hors 106, 280, 306, 

hos 61, 286. 
hr£ 266. 




lu«f(e)n 7f 54, 219» 

2«St 293, 325. 
hf«(w) 134, 419. 
hrabor 57. 

hra(w) 133. 265, 419. 
hrta 7Sf 17a. 
hrSam 335. 


hreddan 523, 537. 

hrtod 335, 343. 


hrSoh 428. 


hreow 265, 379. 

hreowan 493. 

hr€ow8ian 536, 659. 

hifef^o) 613. 

hxfm 335. 

hrbnig 325. 

hrlnan 490. 

hrindan 498. 

hrine 386. 

bring 96, 317, 325, 335. 

hnngan 530. 

hringed(e) 624. 


hrissan (hrisian) 526. 

hrl)wr(hry)»cr) 97,419. 

hroc 128. 

hrof 7, 128, 278, 295, 

hrdfleas 633. 
hrdpan 128, 519. 
hruse 404. 
hrutan 496. 
hiycg 112, 274, 319, 

352. , 
hu 130, 166, 266. 
hu geares 557. 
hu gerades 557. 
hu meta 557. 
hund (dog) 21, 159, 

331* 246, 335. 
hund {hundred) 34, 

III, 231, 238, 242, 

246, 447. 

hmideahtatig 447. 
hundeahtatij;o^ 447. 
hundendleo&itig 447. 

hundfeald 628. 
hundnigontig 447. 
hundnigontigo^a 447. 
hundred 447. 
hundseofontig 447. 
hundseofontigoWi 447. 
hundteontig 447. 
hundteontipo^ 447. 
hundtweUtig 447. 
hundtwelftigo^ 447. 
hunger 5, 7, in, I59» 

389, 317, 3^5, 395. 
hunffng 63a 

218, 290. 
hunta 401. 
huntigestre 10, 603. 
hunto)> 218, 395, 595. 
hu nyta 557. 
hus 4, 5, 7, 131, 166, 

306, 307, 325» 343» 

husfsest 626. 
husincel 358, 606. 
husul (husely husl) 113, 

husr£den(n) 378, 610. 
huswist 616. 
hwa 7, 79, 144, 161, 

231, 252, 263, 325,. 

hwal 54, 233, 325,336. 
hwar 52, 194, 558. 
hwaet 20, 54, 211, 298, 

hwaet (adj.) 425. 
hwate 7, 134, 263, 298, 

325, 354. 
hwseten 625. 
hwsethwugu 471. 
hwaetlfce 553. 
hwaetscipe 611. 
hwaejier 41, 45, 218, 

325, 470, 560. 

hwae^e)re 560. 
hwamm 335. 
hwanon 558. 
hwearfian 536. 
hwdc 311,470. 
hwelchwugu 471. 
hwelp 325* 335- 
hw6ne 557. 
hweogcd 92. 
hweorfan 500. 
hweowol 264. 
hwettan 298, 527. 
hwider 558. 
hwierfan 531. 
hwll 126, 325, 367. 
hwlle 560. 
hwilen 62$. 
hwUende 267. 
hwll-tldum 557. 
hwHum 557. 
hwTlwende 638. 
hwinan 490. 
hwistlere 602. 
hwit 126, 243, 260, 298, 

325, 426. 
hwltan 531. 
hwone 59. 
hwonne 59. 
hwopan 519. 
hwyrft 387. 
hycgan 112, 538. 
hyd 132, 39a 
hydan 132, 530. 
hydels 598. 
hyf 132, 190^ 390. 
hyge7, 112,320,386. 
hygefaest 627. 
hygeleast 613. 

hyht 387, 563. 

hyhtan 530. 
hyhtfuU 629. 
hyldu, -o 43, 112, 383, 

hyldrseden 610. 
hyU 112, 259, 276, 352. 
hyngran 112, 221, 528, 

hype 112, 386. 



hyrdd 112. 
hyrling 607. 
hyrnen 112, 625. 
hyrnet(u) 378. 
hyse 386. 
hyspan 531. 

ic 33a, 311, 458, 459, 

Tdaegcs 557. 
idel 126, 431, 639. 
f delnes 609. 
ides 221, 39a 
iccan 136, 300, 531, 


iisc 632. 
ieg 270, 376. 
ieldan 530, 643. 
ieldcian 536. 
ielde 385. 
ieldu 65, 183, 383, 563. 
ielfe 385. 
ielfetu 378. 
ierfc 5,47,67, 170,181, 

ieifeweard 618. 
ierg|»(o) 613. 
ierming 67, 607. 
iermfu, -(o) 47, 67, 

ieman (irnan, yrnan) 

. 59, 66, 98, 280, 49«. 
lerre 47, 99, 170, 204, 

207, 279, 357, 433, 

ierremod 641. 
icrringa 10, 554. 
iersian 5^6, 659. 
ier),lmg 607. 
ieb 556. 
IcJks 136, 434. 
iewan 533. 
Ifig 126. 
ifiht 631. 
igil 322. 
-iht 631. 


II 322. 


in 575. 

in- 575. 

inadl 575. 

inbuend 575. 

inc 460, 462. 

inca 401. 

-incel 606. 

incer 460, 464. 

incit 460. 

incniht 575. 

incofa 575. 

incuman 14. 

infaer 575. 

infaru 575. 

-ing6o7, 615. 

inhere 575. 

inlendisc 632. 

in(n) 558. 

innan 558, 559. 

innancund 623. 

innanweard 637. 

inne 446, 458. 

innemesta 223. 

inscgl 575. 

in-staepe 557. 

in-stede 557. 

in)»icce 575. 

Iren 126. 

is 41. 

Is 7, 126, 164, 306, 

-isc 632. 
Isen 126. 
isengraeg 11. 
Isl|)es 557. 
iugu)» 116. 
iung X16. 

-lac 608. 
lacan 511, 512. 
l&cnian 119, 536. 
lad 225,^67, 562. 
-Isecan, 658. 
laeccan 55. 

lace 119,274, 311,354. 
laecedom 597. 
Isecnian 119. 

ladan 5, 7, I34, 239f 
276, 288, 299, 300, 

, 530,643. 

laeden 298. 

lafan 134, 293, 530. 

Ian 393, 419. 

laenan 530. 

laene 329, 434. 

lienere 10, 602. 

laeppa 57. 

laran 134, 252, 279, 

288, 530, 643. 
Ixrestre 603. 
laes (adv,) 556. 
Isessa \ ' 

l2est(a) 387, 445. a 

laestan 134, 259, sjo. 

liestend 601. 

laet 57, 425, 446, 620. 

Iatanii9, 511,513. 

laetuce 553. 

Ixtraede 434. 

Iseban 530. 

l2ej)|)o 613. 

laewan 47, 120, 162, 

Iaf367, 562. 
lagu 7, 57,320,396. 
lam 343. 
lama 59. 
lamb 59,154,276,282, 

292, 331, 419, 420. 
land 5, 50, 59, 276, 

343, 562. 

154, 221, 234, 276, 

289, 317, 426, 443, 
444, 620. 

lange 556. 
langian 536. 
langoJ> 340, 595. 
langsum 636. 
langung 615. 
lappa (laeppa) 57, 256 
lari33, 215, 225,367. 
llreow 360. 
l&rSowdom 597. 
larhus 11, 617. 



lirl€att, -Uest 613. 

tt« 33$» 563. 

late 553. 

latian 98. 

l&ttSow 305, 36a 


la »ian 57, 536. 

la m 36^, 366. 

l&pirende 638* 

Uwerce 264. 

l£ac 135. 

l€ad 135. 

l€aden 625. 

leaf 135, 394, 343. 

lean (sb.) 135, 343. 

lean {v.) 70, 239, 329, 

leanian 536^ 
leas 426. 
-leas 613, 633. 
leasere 602. 
leasettan 657. 
leasgielp 617. 
leasian 536, 643. 
Ieasung373, 615. 
lee 1^7* 
leccan 534. 
Iccgan 7, 47, 55, 156, 

254, 259, 272, 273, 

276, 319, 321, 527, 

legen 430. 
Icger 349. 
lemb 419. 
lendan 530. 
leng 252, 556. 
lengan 530. 
lengo 563. 

lengten (lencten) 318. 
leng)>(u), (-0) 47, 60, 

leo 402. 
leod 367. 
leodan 493. 
leofi37, 173,208,209, 

218, 235, 276, 294, 

426, 443, 444, 620. 
leofosta 10. 
leofwende 638. 

leofwendum 557. 
leogan 135, 137, 320, 

, 493- ^ 
leoht(j^.)44,l37, 189, 

l6oht (adj.) 49, 127, 

175, 192. 
leohtbaere 622. 
l€ohtberaide 64a 
leoma 329, 401. 
leomere 602. 
leomian (liomian) 5, 

7, 49. 98, 170^ 252, 

276, 279. 
kornung (liornung) 

216, 225, 371, 373. 
leo)» 343. 

lettan 527. 
\t\tT 80. 
libban 7, 42, 48, 96, 

102, 171, 292, 293, 

IIC311, 343, 562. 
-lie 634. 

liccian 42, 243, 31a 
licettan 259, 657. 
licgan 41, 96, X20, 161, 

240, 254, 319, 322, 

484, 507. 
llcian 536. 

licuma (lichama) 325. 
Hda 225, 401, 562. 
lleg 387. 
liehtan {to give light) 

5, 44, 47, I3«. 174, 

192, 209, 210, 326, 

530, 643. 
liehtan {to make easier) 

47, 127, 174, 192. 
liesan 530. 
llexan 531. 
llf 5, 126, 276, 294. 
lifer 42, 96, 293. 
lim 96, loi, 202, 344, 

limhal 640. 
Hmmselum 557. 


lind 367. 

-ling 607. 


liodc (Icode) 5, 44, 138, 

175, 385- 
lion (Icon) 29, 127, 133, 

I39» 174, 175, 192, 
231, 246, 329, 492. 
list 96, 387. 


ll]>aii 126, 133, 225, 226, 

239, 491. 
llbc 97i 164, 434- 
ll lend 225, 601. 
li >incel 606. 
llj>s (liss) 305, 376. 
loc 106, 344, 562. 
loc (loca) 471. 
loca 401. 
loco 243. 
locian 223, 243, 273, 

310^ 536. 
lof 106, 145, 204, 562. 
lofian 293, 536. 
loflaecan 658. 
loflic 634. 
loflicc 553. 
loppe 404. 
loppestre 603. 
losian 536. 
loswist 616. 

lot 344. 

lucan 131, 472, 496. 

lufestre 603. 

lufian 5, 108, 218, 293, 

536. ^ ^ 
lufsum 630. 
lufsumnes 609. 
luftacen 618. 
luftieme 64a 
lufu 108, 276, 366. 
lufwende 638. 
lus 3, 131, 132, 4". 
lust III, 3^5. 
lustbsre ^22. 
lutan 496. 
lyft 387. 



lygcn 599. 

lyre 239, 386, 562. 

lystan 530. 

lyt 556. 

lytel 132, 255, 276, 

431, 445, 607, 639. 
lythwon 557. 
lytic 556. 

ma 252, $56. 

macian 10, 57, 218, 

273, 282, 299, 309, 

310, 536. 
mx 556. 

maecg (mecg) 55, 352. 
in«d 264, 266, 379, 

mseden 54, 146, 162, 

321, 350, 60a 
mxdneden 6x0. 
maeg (v.) 324. 
mseg 119, 120, 161, 

maegdcn 5, 54, 58, 146, 

162, 218, 321, 350, 

600. — 

maegdenhad 605. 
m£ge (mage) 404. 
maegcn 54, 320, 349. 
msegenfsest 627. 
maegenleas 633. 
maeg(e)b 414. 
maegrseden 610. 
maegfihad 605. 

magMu) Z7^' 
mael 119. 
msnan 134, 530. 
mseran 530, 643. 
mxre 119, 434, 620. 
mserels 598. 
mserlic 634. • 
maersian 536, 659. 
mser)»(o) 613. 
maest 335. 
mast 556, 557. 
m£st(a) 445. 
maestan 56, 530. 

maeb 563. 


maew 387. 

maffa 57. 

maga 320, 401. 

magan yZy 240, 48 1, 

magorinc 618. 
magu 57, 396. 
man 343. 
manj^ere 602. 
manian 536. 
manig 59, 324, 421, 

429, 43a 
manigfeald 453, 628. 
man(n) 5, 59, 60, 154, 

259, 282, 285, 562. 
manna 409. 
mannbaere 622. 
man(n)rseden 610. 
manjywaere 434. 

mara252,279, 445- 
martyr 66. 
masc (max) 57, 243. 
mattuc, -oc 57, 298, 

mahelian 10. 
mapum (ma|>m) 133, 

219, 282, 340, 563. 
mawan 5, 120, 264, 

282, 517. 
me (me) 95, 144, 163, 

252, 459> 462. 
meagol 035. 
meaht {sb.) 68,240,390. 
meaht {v.) 68, 563. 
meahta 326. 
meahte (v,) 68. 
mealt 64. 

mearc 66, 178, 367. 
mearg 66, 244, 323. 
mearh 66, 149, 172, 

328, 339, 334, 337. 
mearu 66, 436. 
mec 213, 311,459,462. 
mecg 55. ^ 

med 125, 163, 367. 

medeme 434. 

medu (meodu) 48, 92, 

medadream 618. 
meduma (medema) 

meldian 536. 
meltan 80, 276, 282, 

298, 499. 
melu (meolu) 92, 169, 

220, 276, 362. 
mene 386, 419. 
menen 599. 
mengan 60, 289, 530, 

menigu, -o (mengu) 

men(n) 252. 
mennisc 60, 632. 
mennisdic 634. 
menniscu 614. 
meolcan (melcan) 5, 

7, 49, 84, 169, 182, 

meol(u)c 411. 
meord 244, 367. 
meotod 92. 
meowle 52, 77, 169, 

264, 404. 
meox (miox) 5, 49, 98, 

170, 327. 
mere 55,215, 386. 
mere wif 618. 
metan 80, 93, 226, 

metan 129, 298, 531. 
mete 5, 55, 386. 
met(ejgian 536. 
metod 92, 221, 341. 
mej>e 434. 
micel 223, 260, 430, 

micelheafdede 624. 
micelmod 641. 
micelu 614. 
micle 553. 
mid 559, 560, 576. 
mid- 576. 



midd 41, 96, 299» 43*, 

midlunga 554. 
midspreca 576. 
midwist 576, 616. 
midwunian 14. 
midwunung 576. 
midwyrhta 576. 
mieht (miht) {sb.) 68, 

6q, 390- 

miehtig (mihtig) 69, 

177, aia. 

mieltan 65* 
Mierce 355. 
miercels 598. 
mlere 404. 
mierran 279, 530. 
mifde 300, 434, 553- 
mildheort 641. 
mildheortnes 609. 
milts (mils) 300, 376. 
miltsian (milsian) 300, 

536,659. ^ ^ 
mm 5, 126, 164, 282, 

mmsian 286. 
mint 82. 
miol(u)c (mile) 5, 48, 

loi, 171, 184, 276, 

mis- 577, 652. 
misbSodan 652. 
misboren 577. 
miscwe^n 652. 
misdon 652. 
misfadian 652. 
misfadung 5 jj. 
misfaran 652. 
misfeian '652. 
misgieman 652. 
misgr€tan 652. 
mishlexan 652. 
mishworfen 577. 
misyeran 652. 
mislfir 577. 
misr£can 652. 

misraed 577. 
mistig lo. 
miswendan 652. 
mitty 305. 
mllan 239, 491. 
mdd 128, 343. 
-mod 641. 
modoearig 64a 
mddAiU 629. 
mddig 630. 
modor 5, 23, 128, 129, 

211, 253, 260, 278, 

282, 299, 415. 
modwlanc ii. 
molde 106, 404, 562. 
moldgnef 6i8. 
mona 5t 6, 24, 50, 121, 

165, 211, 282, 285, 

mdnaiuefen 619. 
mdn(an)daeg 619. 
mona^ 121, 221, 223, 

301, 414. 
mor 335. 
more 404. 
moigen 106, 107, 340, 

563. ^ 
morb 106, 343. 
mor|K>r 106, 302. 
m58t, moste (v.) 24a 
mot 545. 
mdthus 617. 
moM)e 7, 301, 404. 
munan 543. 
mund 367. 
mundbora 596. 
munt 109. 
munuc 109, 285. 
munuchad 605. 
murcnian 108. 
murcnung 615. 
muman 108, 472, 502. 
mus 3, 5, 27, 47, 131, 

132, 166, 167, 190, 

306,411, 562. 
mu> 5> 7» "3, 166, 

mycel I12, 311. 

mycg 112, 259, 319, 

mylen 112,285. 
myne 386. 
myiiecen(n) 599. 
mynet 109. 
mynster 109. 
myntan 530. 
niyt?e 434, 553. 
myr(>)gl» 220, 320, 

myrjnan 112. 

naca 401. 

nacod 57, 153, 221, 

249, 285, 299, 310, 

430, 639. 
nsdl 119, 219, 276, 

a«5> 304, 370, 563. 
nsedre 119, 260, 299, 

nag(e)l 54, 219, 276, 

320, 340, 563. 
naeglan 56. 
naenge, nai^ i'inga 

luemg 471. 
nsp X19, 162. 
nietan 531. 

nafbla (nafda) 57, 222. 
n&ht 471. 
nahwser 558. 
nahwae)«r 471, 560. 
nama 5, 50, 59, 154, 

256, 282, 285, 401, 

namboc 618. 
namcu)» 640. 
nammaelum 557. 
nan 471. 
nan)>ihg 471. 
nat 540. 
nauht 267. 
nawer 558. 
nawiht (-wuht) 133, 

naw))er 471. 
nd 601 • 



ne 560. 

neaidinga 554: 

neadlunga 554. 

neah 5, 7, 47, 49, 123, 
I39> 172, 189. 221, 
246, 328, 329, 428, 
443, 558, 559. 

neahmseg 617. 

neaht 68, 23 x , 298, 411. 

nealaecan 329, 534»658. 

nealic 329. 

nealles 557. 

nean 558. 

near 123, 329, 558, 

nearu 66, 220, 436, 

nearwe 264, 553. 

nearwian 643. 

neat 343. 

neawist, -west 329, 616. 

nebb 292, 356. 

nefa 80, 231, 256, 285, 

nefne 560. 
nemnan 60, 287, 530, 

nemne 560. 
neode 557. 
neotan 225, 493. 
nerian 10,55,211,212, 

214, 217, 218, 221, 

239. 252, 254, 271, 

nenfg)end 418. 
-nes(8) 609. 
nest 42, 80, 243, 343. 
netel 369. 
nett 55, 2?4, 274, 285, 

neban 62* 530. 
nepl 304. 

nied 136, 188, 390. 
niedan 136, 530. 
niedes 557. 
niedling 6(37. 
nlehst(a) 123,326,329, 


nieht 69. 

nierwan 264, 266, 533. 

nierwet(t) 358, 604. 

nieten 216, 350. 

niewe (niwe) 5, 90, 1 74, 
264, 434, 620. 

nift 96, 231, 376. 

nigon 447. 

nigonteo]>a 447. 

nigontlene 447. 

nigo)>a 447. 

niht 68, 411. 

nihtes 557. 

nihtlanges 557. 

niman i, 5,48, 50, 81, 
X02, 109, 121, 157, 
165, 203, 213, 215, 
218, 221, 282, 286, 
288, 334, 488, 504. 

nioJKin 446, 558. 

niowe (neowe) 90. 

nipan 490. 

-nis(s) 609. 

nib 343. 

ni >er 96, 558. 

niTergang 617. 

ni >erung6i5. 

ni >erweard 637. 

ni)erweardes 557. 

nipor loi, 202. 

n5ht 471. 

nohwse]>er 471. 

nor)> 106, 301, 446, 

norban 288, 558. 
norpeme 626. 
norp(e)weard 557, 637, 
Nor^mbre 385. 
nosu 5, 7, ic6f 261, 

307, 398. 
notu 225, 366^ 562. 
-noj) 595. 
nower 558. 
nowiht (•wuht) 133, 

ndw]«r 471. 
nu 131. 
nutnol 635. 
nunmynster 618, 619. 

nunnanmynster 619. 

nunne 109. 

nym|)e 560. 

nytlic 634. 

nytt 112, 225, 375,432. 

nyttol 635. 

-o 614. 
-od 639. 
of- 653. 
ofascian 653. 
ofbeatan 653. 
ofclipian 653. 
ofcyrf 563. 
ofdsele 393. 
ofdune 557. 
ofearmian 653. 
ofen 106, 261, 292, 340. 
ofer 106, 293, 559, 578, 

ofer 340. 
ofer- 578. 
oferaet 578. 
ofersete 434. 
oferbru 578. 
oferdrenc 578. 
oferetolnes 609. 
oferfierru 383. 
oferhlud 578. 
oferhygd 391, 578. 
ofermsegen 578. 
ofermaete 578. 
ofermettu, -o 305, 613. 
ofermicel 578. 
ofermodig 578. 
oferslege 393, 419. 
oferslop 578. 
oferspraec 578. 
ofersprsece 434. 
oferswifian 14, 530. 
ofer|«arf 578. 
oferweorc 578. 
oferweorpan 14. 
of(e)stum 557. 
ofet 349. 
ofieran 653. 
offiellan 653. 
ofTrian 295, 556. 



ofgiefan 6^3. 
ofmunan 653. 
ofsendan 653. 
ofsittan 653. 
ofslaegennes 563. 
ofelingan 653. 
ofspraec 563. 
ofsteppan 053. 
ofiBtician 653. 
ofswingan 653. 
oftfon 653. 
oftyrfan 531. 
ofningan 6S3* 
ofpryscan 531. 
ofwundrian 653. 
5ga 401. 

ohwae^er 471. 
-ol 635, 639. 
oleccan 534. 
dm 131. 
omig 630. 

on 59. 5S9» 568, 579. 
on- 569, 579, 654. 
onae^le 579. 
onbsec ^57. 
onbaechng 557. 
onbeodan 654. 
onberan 654. 
onbindan 654. 
onbring 579. 
onbryce 579. 
onbfitan 557, 559. 
onbyrdan 530. 
oncnawan 654. 
ondraedan 511, 513. 
onefh 557. 
onettan 325. 
onfangennes ii. 
onfealdan 654. 
onfindan 654. 
onflsescnes 579. 
onforan 557. 
ongean(ongiii, ongegn) 

321, 559. 
ongeanfealdan 14. 
ongeanweard 637. 
on(ge)mang 559. 

ongietan 10^ 654. 
ongtetennes 11. 
onginn 11. 
onginnan 259, 498. 
onbieklan 53a 
onbyrian 525. 
oninnan 559. 
onlucan 654. 
onsacan la 
onsaelan 654. 
on scipwisan 557. 
onscrydan 654. 
onscunian 538. 
onscynian 538. 
onslgan 654. 
onspannan 654. 
onstlgend 579. 
ousting 579. 
onsundium 557. 
ontendan 530. 
ontynan 132, 190, 654. 
oniuan 559. 
onuppan 559. 
onweg 15, 557. 
onwendan 654. 
onwindan 654. 
on wist 616. 
onwreon 654. 
onwri)«n 654. 
open 106, 291, 430, 639 
op(e)nian 536, 643. 
or- 580, 646. 
-or 639. 
orceapes 557. 
orceas 580. 
orcnawe 580. 
ordlLl 580. 
oreald 580. 
orct 14, 325. 
oretta 401. 
drettan 14. 
orgiete 580. 
orgilde 580. 
orleahtre 580. 
orlege 393, 419. 
ormxte 434, 58a 
onnod 580. 
orsawle 580. 
orsceattinga 554. 

orsorg III, 58a 
ortydre 580. 
orWmc 10, III, 580. 
orpances 557. 
orwSne 11 1, 580. 
orweor^ 580. 
OS- 61. 
osle 7, 50,61,261, 283, 

0} 559. 
oJH 655. 
-Ob 595. 
obberan 655. 
o >berstan 14, 655. 
o ^cwelan 655. 
5Jier5,5o,6i, 147,218, 

221, 223, 259, 286, 

obfaestan 655. 
o Kfeallan 14. 
o yfl€on 655. 
o igangan 10. 
o iglldan 655. 
o >hebban 655. 
oibydan 655. 
o >ieman 655. 
o >Jje 301, 56a 
opwendan 655. 
ower 558. 

owiht (-wuht) 133, 471. 
ow))er 471. 
oxa 5,47, 106, 107, 156, 

158, 327, 401, 562. 

pad 291. 

paeb 54, 291, 336. 

paej>)>an 55. 

palm 64. 

panne 404. 

pawa (pea) 291. 

pearroc 66, 340. 

pening (penig) 60, 290, 

Peohtas 86. 
pcrc (peru) 96, 291, 




pic 96, 391, 311. 
pioen 625. 
pin 125, 164. 
pinsian 50, 82, 97, 157, 

236, 291. 
piosan (pisan) 102. 
pipe 404. 
pirige 404. 
pise 291, 404. 
pkga 401. 
pl^an 2QI. 
plegian (pkegian, pla- 

gian) 538. 
plegol 430. 
pleoh 87, 329, 346. 
pleon 87, 506. 
pliht 291, 387. 
Plog 291, 323, 

pohha326, 401* 
pott 291, 335. 
preosth&d 605. 
prica 401. 
prician 31a 
prut 131, 291. 
prutscipe 611. 
pund 109, 291. 
pyffan 7, 295, 530. 
pyle 112, 291. 
pyndan 53a 
pytt 112, 259,291,298, 

ra I33> 139) 402. 
racente 404. 
racu 57, 365, 366. 
rad 133, 367, 562. 
raecan 134, 534. 
rsed 1 19, 562. 
rsedan 119, 125, 162, 

rsedbora 596. 
rsedels 277, 598. 
raedcn(n) 378. 
-raeden(n) 610. 
rsdestre 603. 
rsding 615. 
raedsnotor 640. 
raefsan (refsan) 295, 

raepling 607. 

raran 134, 239, 530, 

rxsan 531. 
rsescan 56. 
ramm 59. 
ranc 426. 
rap 5» 133> 378. 291, 

rapmcel 606. 

read 33, 135, 172, 235, 

278, 299, 426, 62a 
reafere 602. 
reafian 536, 643. 
reaflac 608. 
reafol 635. 
reccan 534.^ 
reccend 601. 
reccenddom 597. 
reccere 602. 
reced 216, 349. 
recels 598. 
reg(e)n (ren) 80, 163, 

219, 278, 285, 321, 

regol (reogol) 92, 199. 
reocani37, 189,493. 
reodan 493. 
reoht (rient, ryht) 86, 

reord 367. 
reotan 493. 
rest 56, 376. 
restan 56, 259, 298, 

306, 530. 

retan 531. 


rewet 604. 

ribb 96, 292, 356. 

rice (adj.) 434- 

ndan 7, 96, 126, 133, 
157, 164, 278, 475, 
476, 486, 490, 5^2. 

rldend 601. 


rignan 321. 

riht 86, 231, 426. 
z a 

rihtan (ryhtan) 99, 530. 
rihtc 553. 
rihteefremed 640. 
rihtnand 617. 
rihtlsecan 658. 
ribtllce 298. 
rihtung 373. 
rihtwillende 640. 
rim 126, 278. 
rima 81, 401. 
nnan 96. 
rinnan 242, 498. 
ripe 434. 
rixian (rlcsian) 7, 31 1, 

536, 659. 
rod 367. 
rodbora 596. 
rodehengen(n) 619. 
rodor 221, 222, 278, 

rof 426. 
r5t 426. 
row 437. 
rowan 128, 264, 266, 

rudu 366. 
ruh 328, 428. 
rum 131,278,282,335, 

426, 562. 
run 367. 
rust 131. 
ryge 386. 
rygen 625. 
ryht 86. 

ryman 132, 530, 643. 
rymet 604. 
ryn 530. 
ryne 386, 562. 
ryne 357. 
ry)>)>a 401. 

sacan 54, 57, 508. 
sacc 57, 153. 
sacl€as 633. 
sacu 54, 57, 309, 366. 
sida 401. 




•* 5f »34, I39i a66* 

306. 388, 5^- 
•access, 375. 
sScyning 617. 
saed 42s. 

weds, 119.306,563. 
saedberende 640. 
s»de 331. 
saedere 3S4, 602. 
s£dno^ S95« 
saegan S3o, 643. 
8«1 387. 
sslac 608. 
saelan S3o» 643. 
ssne 434. 
s«p 345. 
sster(n)da^ 287. 
sagu 366. 
sal 133. 
salor 419. 

salu (seiuu) 64, 436. 
sam- 581, S82. 
sambaeraed S82. 
samcucu 582. 
samen s^y. 
samerene S82. 
samhal 582. 
samheort s8l. 
samhiwan s8i. 
samh wile 471. 
samlsred S82. 
sammaele 434, 581,621. 
samnian S36. 
samod 559, s6o. 
samodspraee 617. 
samraednes s8i. 
samsoden 582. 
samtinges 557. 
sam-winnende 581. 
samwis 582. 
samwist 581,616. 
sandiht 631. 
sangere 602. 
sangestre 603. 
sar 133, 343, 426. 

s^rettan 657. 
s&rj^ian siiS. 
8&nan 536. 
sawan 5, 120,264, 266, 

siwol 7, 133, 221, 264, 

368, 370. 
sawolcund 623. 
scaean 51,57, 128, 508. 

scadusi, 57. 

scafan 57, 508. 

sealu 57. 

seamian 242, 536. 


seand 242, 312, 367. 

soa)»a 401. 

sc(e)acan 51, 57, 312, 

sceadan5i, 133, 512. 
sc(e)adu 51, 57, 264, 

266, 312, 380. 
sceaf 135. 
sceafan 57, 508. 
sceaft 7, 51, 72, 29S» 

3"> 335- 
sceal 312. 
seealu 57. 
sc(e)amu (sceomu) 57, 


scearp 66, yz^ 278, 291, 

312, 426, 62a 
scearpe 553. 
sceat 562. 
seeatt 72, 259, 298, 

sceawian 76, 231, 264, 

seeawung 615. 
Scefing 607. 
scene 387. 
scencan 531. 
scendan 530, 643. 
sceofl no, 296. 
sceoh 428. 

sceolan 116. 
seeolh 49, 84, 169, 428. 
sceop no. 
sceor£ui 50a 
sceorpan 50a 
sc(c)ort up, 312, 443. 
sceotan no, I35» I37i 

seeotend 601. 
sce)»|An 233, 254, 258, 



saelden(n) 599. 
scicU 375. 
s<3ene 434, 438. 
scicppan 47, 51, 73, 

128, 181, 240, 254, 

258, 272, 312, 510. 
scieran 51, 91, 124, 

170, 312, 503. 
scierian 525. 
scierpan 5311643. 
sciete 136. 
scildan 53a 
scilling96, 312,607. 
sdnan 126, 133, 231, 

sclnlac 608. 
scion 312. 
scinu 366. 
seip 96, loi, 291, 312, 


scipere 602. 

scipincel 358, 606. 


scofettan 657. 

scofl 110^367. 

sedh (scedh) 7, 128, 

139, 312, 338, 337. 
scohnaegl 61 7» 
scol 312. 
scolu 366. 
scop no. 
scort 110,426, 
scotung 615. 
scrallettan 657* 



scrSawa 401. 
screncan 531. 
screpan 505* 
scriran 490. 
scrincan 498. 
scringan 498. 
scrl^an 491. 
scriid 131, 312, 413. 
scrydan 13a, 530, 643. 
scucca 256, 401. 
scufan 131, 163, 166, 

293i 294, 496. 
sculan 7, SI, 7a, no, 

168, 179, 183, 215, 

276, 474, 476, 481, 

4«a, 543. 
sculdor 312. 
scunian 109. 
scur 131,312. 
scurf 108. 
sctt(w)a 401. 
scylc 386. 
scyld 5, 112,39a 
scyldfuU 629. 
scyldig (scildig) 112, 

scyld(i)gian 536. 
Scylding 607. 
scyrtan 53a 
scyrtra 112. 
scyte 386. 
scyttisc 632. 
sealf 64, 367. 
sealfian 10, 64, 218, 

222, 293, 535. 
sealh 7, 64, I49» 172, 

sealt 7, 17, 64, 306. 
sealu 64. 
seam 335. 
seamere 602. 
seamestre 603. 
searu 66, 362. 
searwum 557, 
sea)> 397. 
seaw 363. 
scax 68, 343. 

Scaxe 385. 

secan 47, 128, 129, 
163, 215, 27a, 273, 
306, 309, 31 If 326, 

secg 259, 274, 319, 

sccg(c)an 7, 54, 55» 
146, 162, 319, 321, 

secgend 601. 

sefa 93, 401. 

seft 556. 

seftc 62, 163, 283, 434, 

seg(c}l 5, 80, 219, 276, 

seglan 532. 
segn 96. 
sel 556. 
seld 277. 
seldan 80. 
seldcu)> 64a 
seldlic 299. 
sele 386. 
selegiest 618. 
selen 599. 
self (seolf) 84, 463. 
selfwilles 557. 
sella (selra) 445. 
sellan 55, 254, 276, 


sellend 601. 
sellic 299. 
selra (sella) 281. 
semend 418. 
sencan 531, 643. 
sendan 47, 60, 156, 259, 
285, 288, 299, 528, 

senep 80. 
sengan 289, 3^7, 53©, 

643. , 
sec (sio) 104, 405, 465. 
seoc 137, 189, 310, 

seofon 7, 92, 169, 238, 

288, 293. 447. 
seofonfeald 628. 

seofonteo])a 447. 
seofontlene 447. 
8eofo|»a 447. 
seohhe 404. 
seolfor (siolufr) loi, 


seolfren 625. 

seolh 84, 328, 329, 337. 

seon (slon) (to see) 5, 7, 
47, 49. 52, 68, 86, 
87, 120, 139, 141, 
148, 161, 168, 170, 

173, ^77^ 193, 239, 
1:41, 246, 264, 306, 
326, 328, 329, 506. 

seoJ>an 106, 137, 494. 

seowan (sipwan) 533. 

seox 49, 86, 182. 

sess 240. 

sester 329. 

setl 80, 219, 276, 277, 

298, 319, 563. 
settan 55, 215, 254, 

258, 272, 273, 298, 

523, 524, 643. 
se^an 530. 
sextig 323. 
sibb 96, 254, 272, 292, 

sican 490. 
sice 386. 
sicettan 657. 
sicol 48, 101. 
sicor 430, 639. 
side {silk) 125, 298. 
side (side) 126, 404. 
siden 625. 

sidu 48, loi, 202, 396. 
siellan (syllan) 534. 
sien 241. 

sierwan 264, 266, 533. 
siex (six) 7, 86, 157, 

. 327,^447. ^ 
siexta (sixta) 329, 444, 

siex-, sixteo)>a 447. 
siex-, sixtTene 447. 
siextig 447. 
siextigo|;a 447. 



sf gsui 490. 

«g« 9^ 3ao> 3«6, 419. 
sigetaest 637. 
sigor 419. 
sigorSadig 64a 
sigbc (slj»c) 96. 
silfnng 607. 
simbles 557. 
sim(b)lunga 554* 
sin 126, 464. 
sin- 583. 
sincan 96, iii, 249, 

smceald 583. 
sindrSam 583. 
sinfuUe 583. 
singale 553. 
smgales 557. 
singal(l)lce 259. 
singan 7, 59, 96, 11 1, 

249» 289, 317.. 498. 
smgrene 583. 
singrim 583. 
sinnere 583. 
sinhlwan 583. 
sinnan 498. 
sinniht 583. 
sinscipe 583, 611. 
sinsorg 583. 
sinu (sionu) 48, loi, 

202, 380. 
sioluc loi. 
siolufr (siolfor) 101. 
sion (seon) {to strain) 

slowan (seowan) 533. 
sittan 5, 41, 54, 96, 

119, 155, 188, 212, 

213, 240, 254, 298, 

306, 484, 507. 
si|> (sb.) 97, 286, 454, 

sib (tf^T/.) 446, 556, 557. 
si>e (sigfc) 5, 96, 164, 

sibian 536, 643. 
sij>|»n (sio)>fan) 151, 

301, 560. 


six 86. 

sl& (slab) 133,329,405. 
slaecnes 609. 
sUepan 119, 125, 188, 
232, 276, 291, 306, 

suep]§ast 613. 
slaga 239, 401, 421. 
sl&pan 119. 
slapol 635. 
slaw 265, 437. 
slean 5, 54, 68, 69, 70, 

128, 139, 148, 170, 

172, 239, 246, 

328, 329, 475, 

s ccg 375. 
siege 239, 386, 562. 
slegcn 442, 509. 
slldan 126, 299, 306, 

slide 386, 562. 
sllefe 136. 
slieht 69, 387, 563. 
slim 126. 
slincan 498. 
slltan 490. 
slite 386. 
slijic 434. 
sliw 36a 
sloh 337. 
slupan 131, 496. 
slyppe 404. 
smael (4, 276, 

425, 620. 


smeag(e)an 537. 
smeocan 493. 
smeoru 92, 362. 
sine)>e 62, 434, 553. 
smicere 553. 
smierels 595. 
smierwan 99, 264, 266, 

smitan 126. 
smib 96. 
smi}»|>e 301, 404. 
i smocc 106, 243, 335. 

smo|ie 61, 553. 
smugan 496. 
smyltc 434. 
snaca 306, 401. 
snaed 225, 562. 
snaedmaelum 557. 
snaegl 54. 
sna(w) 133, 241, 264, 

snahwit 640. 
sne£^ 8a 
snell 80, 426. 
snican 49a 

snide 225, 239,386, 562. 
snl>an 126, 225, 239, 

476, 491- 
sniwan 241, 264. 
snoru 238, 366. 

298, 431, 639. 
snude 553. 
snyrian 525. 
snytru 383, 563. 
snyttrum 557. 
softe 61, 147, 165, 283, 

553, 556. 
sol 344. 
somi- 582. 
sona 5, 121, 165, 306, 

sopa 401. 
sorg 323, 367. 
sorgian 536, 643. 
sorgstafas 612. 
sorh 262. 
sot 128, 306. 
sob 61, 426. 
sofe 553. 
sobes 557. 
sopword 617. 
spaca 401. 
spadu 303. 
spaetan 531. 
spald 277. 
spanan 508. 
spannan 59, 285, 515. 
sparian 536. 
spatl 277, 348. 



spearwa 264, 278, 306, 

spec (spic) 42. 
specan 505. 
sped 129, 390, 563. 
sp€dlice 553. 
spedum 557. 
speld 420. 

419, 562. 
spildan 530. 
spillan 530. ^ 

spinel 96, 369. 
spinnan 96, iii, 285, 

476, 498. 
splowan (speowan) 533. 
spi(o)wian 533. 
spitu 396. 

splwan 231, 264, 490. 
spon 121. 
spor 344.- 
spora 108. 
spoman 108. 
spornettan 657. 
spowan 519. 
spraec 225, 376, 562. 
spraecleas 633. 
spraedan 134, 530. 
sprccan 7, 48, 80, 93, 

225, 278, 288, 291, 

306, 310, 505. 
sprecol 635. 
sprengan 530. 
spryttan 527. 
spura 108. 
spuman 108, 502. 
spyrian 525. 
staef 54, 336, 612. 
staefcrseft 617. 
staefnan 56. 
staegel 431. 
stsenen 134, 625. 
stsenig 63a 
staeniht 631. 
stsepe 386w 

staeppan 55, 291, 510. 
-stsifas 612. 

stagga 7, 256, 319. 
stala 225, 366, 562. 
stammettan 658. 
Stan 133, 285, 334. 
stanbrycg 61 7. 
standan 7, 59, 306, 508. 
stanig 630. 
staniht 631. 
stanincel 606. 
stapul, -ol 48, 57, 78, 

stabelian 57. 
stapul, -0148,78, 563. 
stealdan 516. 
steap 135, 426. 
stearc 426. 
stearcheort 641. 
stearclice 554. 
stede 22, 55,225, 386. 
stedefaest 267. 
stedewist 616. 
stef(e)n 81, 219, 293, 

stefnan 56. 
stela 401. 
stelan 80,93, i<^» ii9> 

120, 225, 226, 276, 

stellan 534. 
stemn 81, 293. 
stenc3li, 387, 562. 
steng3i7, 387, 562. 
steopfaeder 137. 
steor 137. 
steoran 138. 
steoresmann 619. 
steorfan 85, 278, 293, 

steormann 619. 
steorra 5, 85, 196, 205, 

steorsceawere 618. 
stepe (staepe) 55. 
steppan 55. 
sticca 310. 
stice 386. 
sticels 598. 
stician 48, 102, 206, 


stiele 47, 7h 3291 357. 

stielecg 641. 

stiell 387. 

stiepel 136. 

stieran 138, 530. 

stieminga 554. 

stig 323. 

stigan 29, 96, loi, 126, 
133, 231, 235, 262, 
320, 323, 476, 490. 

stige 386. 

stigol 48, loi. 

stihtan 98. 

stillan 530. 

stille 276, 434! 

stincan 498. 

stmgan3i7, 498. 

8tl)> 426. 

stdd 225. 

stol 128, 335. 

storm 106, 335. 

stow 265, 379. 

stowlic 634. 

straelbora 596. 

straet 119, 162, 298. 

Strang 59,60,318,426, 
443, 444, 62a 

strange 553, 555. 

strangmod 641. 

strangnes 609. 

stream 135, 250, 278, 

306, 335. 
strea{w) 5, 75, 140, 

streccan3il, 534. 
stregdan (stredan), 80, 

146, 321, 502. 
streng 7, 317, 387. 
strenge 434. 
strengu, -o 382, 383, 

strengKu), (o) 221, 

289, 318, 371, 372, 

streowan 'jj, 533. 
streowen 599. 
strican 490. 
stridan 126, 490. 
stride 386. 



stUenan $50. 
strlewan 264. 
strQdan 496. 
stttdu 412. 
stulor 225, 419. 
stund 367. 
stundm&lum 557. 
stundum 557. 
stu)>u 412. 

styccc 112,311,357. 
styccemselum 557. 
styrc (styric) 22a 
styrian 525. 
8u 27. 

sucan I3iy 496. 
sugan 496. 
sugga 256, 319. 
sugu III, 32a 

7, I", "5, 166, 

33S, 4". 
sulincel 35S. 
sum 34, 471. 
•sum 636. 
sumes 557. 
sumor 109, 397. 
sunb&un 618. 
sund 249. 
sundor 557. 
sundorliepes 557. 
sundormselum 557. 
sunganges 557. 
sunnandaeg 619. 
sumianniht 619. 
sunne 11 1, 285,404. 
sunu 7, III, 215, 217, 

218, 252, 284, 285, 

306, 331, 395, 396. 
supan 131, 291, 496. 
sur 5, 131. 
sureagede 624. 
sutere 602. 

sub 113,306,446,558. 
supan 558. 
su >eme 626. 
supweaxd 557. j 

swa 79,144,161, 471, 

560. I 


swaes 119. 

swaetan 531, 643. 

•waeb 345. 

8W& Iiw&swa47i. 

8W& hwset swa 471. 

sw2l hwae^r swa 471. 

swS hwelc swa 471. 

swamm 335. 

swapan 133, 237, 291, 

swa^ 54, 366. 
swealwe 404. 
swebban 254, 643. 
swefan 505. 
swefien 625. 
swegan 530. 
swcglc 553. 
swelc (swilc, swylc) 

swelgan 320, 323, 476, 

sweiUm 80, 249, 499. 
sweltan 7, 80, 225, 263, 

266, 499. 
swencan 531. 
sweng 393, 419. 
sweofot 604. 
sweolo^ 595. 
Sweon 402. 
sweor Zj, 173, 238, 

246, 329. 
sweora 401* 
sweorban 618. 
sweorcan 500. 
sweord (swurd) 52, 85, 

94, 159, 343- 
sweorfan 500. 
sweostor 5, 7, 52, 92, 

94, 250, 263, 306, 

415, 563. 
sweotol 92, 94, 430, 

sweotole 553. 
swerian 55, 128, 510. 

swertling 607, | 

swctc 129, 298, 434, 

438, 443, 444, 553. 
swebian 526. 
swep^n 526. 
swica 401. 
swican 490. 
swicddm 597. 
swice 438. 
swifan 490. 
swift 426. 
swiftnes(s) 378. 
swigc 434. 
swima 401. 
swimman 8, 59, 96, 

249, 258, 259, 266, 

282, 498. 
swin25, 126. 
swincan 289, 489. 
swindan 498. 
swingan 249, 498. 
swinsung 373. 
swipe 404. 

swif 97, 147, 164, 426. 
swl|>e 553. 
swogan 519. 
swolob 595. 
sword 94. 
sworettan 657. 
swotc 553. 

swurd 52, 94, 185, 201. 
swustor 52, 94, 159, 

swutol 94^ 
swylc 386. 
swylt 225, 387. 
swyrd 94. 
swyster 94. 
sycan 534. 
syfre 434. 
syl 390. 
sylian 526. 
syll 375. 
symblan 532. 
syndrig 221. 
syndrige 553. 
syngian 536. 
synn 112,183,259,285, 




ta 133, 3^9. 405. 
tac(e)n 133, 219, 285, 

tacnung 615. 
taefl 203. 
taBg(c)l 54, 320. 
taehher 70, 255, 329. 
tsl 119. 
tselan 53a 
taelend 601. 
tseppestre 603. 
tsesan 531. 
tal 119. 

talu 57, 276, 366. 
tain 298. 
tang 367. 
tawian 120. 
te- 656. 
teag 135, 187. 
team 225. 
tear 70, 172, 255, 278, 

298, 329. 
teargeotende 640. 
tela (teola) 557. 
tcllan 55, 64, 276, 298, 


temman 526. 

temp(e)l 82, 219. 

tcn^an S50. 

teolian (tiolian) loi. 

teon 32,47, 106, in, 
135, 137, I38i 139, 
174, 225, 239, 328, 
475» 476, 482, 484, 

teond 417. 

teonraeden 6ia 

teoru 92, 362. 

teoba 447* 


teran 80, 106, 503. 

ti- 656. 

ticcen 600. 

tid 5, 126, 298, 390. 

tldhc 634. 

tidum 557. 

tien 231, 232, 447. 

-tig 238, 

tigele 96, 146, 322. 

tig)nan 321. 

til (adj.) 425. 

til (Prep.) 559. 

tile 96, 146, 322. 

tilian loi, 536. 

tlma 1261 282, 298, 

timber 298. 
timbran 22X, 532. 
tiohhian (teohhian) 7, 

98, 184, 326, 536. 
tiolune loi. 
tlon (teon) 29, 127, 

tl|>ian 321. 
to 559, 584. 
ta- 584, 656. 
t5-sefenes 557. 
toberstan 14, 656. 
toblawan 656. 
tdbrecan 656. 
tobrysan 656. 
toceor&n 656. 
tocleofan 656. 
tocnyssan 656. 
t5cumende 584. 
tocyme 584. 
todselan 14, 656. 
todon 14. 
todraefan 656. 
td-eacen 557. 
to-emnes 557, 559. 
tofeallan 6^6. 
toferan 650. 
tofiellan 6;6. 
toflowan 656. 
toforan 559. 
togaedere 15, ^8. 
togeanes (-gegnes, 

-genes) 557, 559. 
to-geflites 557. 
to-gifes 557. 
toh 117, 328, 428. 
t5haccian 656. 
toheald 584. 

tohlystend 584. 
to hwon 557. 
tahybt 584. 
td-iecnes i84, 
to-iemende 584. 
tol 298, 343. 
toll 106, 343. 
tollere 602. 
tolucan 656. 
td-middes 557, 559. 
to-morgen 557. 
tonama 584. 
toniman 656. 
topp 243. 
t5rendan 656. 
torht 426. 
torn 335. 
tome 557. 
toaamne 557. 
toscufan 656. 
tosittan 656. 
toslTfan 490. 
tosnTban 656. 
to-sopan 557. 
tospraec 584. 
t5standan 656. 
tostencan 531. 
tdtwaeman 656. 
totyhting 584* 
to|> 5, 47, 61, 62, 163, 

165, 232, 286, 298, 

301, 408, 409. 
td^leas 633. 
toweard (-weardes), 

557, 559, 584, 637. 
toweorpan 656. 
to wissum 557, 
traef 345« 
tr£g 420. 
tredan 80, 93, 196, 298, 

trega 401. 
treo(w) {tree) 52,88,89, 

169, 173, 264, 265, 

278, 298, 363, 562. 
treow (faith) 90, 1 73, 

265, 379- 
treowen 625. 
tr€owfaest 627. 



trSowrseden 6ia 
treow)» (tilew)») 613. 
trifot 293. 

trimes (txymesse) 383. 
trog (troh) 7, 398, 

tnim 435, 63a 
truwian 131, 538. 
trymman 112, 536. 
tu 130, 366» 449* 
tfidor 260. 
tulge 556. 
tun 131. 
tnnge iii, 31I9 317, 

318, 389, 398, 317, 

403, 404. 
tunglen 635. 
tungol 1 1 If 219, 389, 

347, 348, 563. 
tungolbdire 633. 
tungolcraeft 617. 
tiimncel 606. 
turf 108, 298, 411. 
tusc 113. 
tuwa 454. 
twi 5, I33f «63, 398, 

tw€gen 449» 45o. 
twcBf 52, 55, 363, 398, 

twelfta 447. 
twelfwintre 439. 
twentig 447. 
twintigfeald 638. 
twlntigo])a 447. 
tweo 402. 
tweogan (twTogan) 98, 

twi- 585. 
twibetc 585. 
twibill 585. 
twi(c)fcald 453, 585. 
twifgre 585. 
twifete 585. 
twifingre 585. 
twig 96, 298, 344. 
twigilde 585. 

twibSafode 585. 
twihweole 585. 
twinihte 585. 
twiraede 585. 
twispnece 585. 
twiwa 454. 
twiweg 585. 
twiwintie 585. 
twywa 454. 
tygcn 442. 
tyht 326, 387. 
tyhtan 550. 
tyhtcn(n) 599. 
tylg 556. 
tynan 530, 643. 

»a 560. 

»iccian 57, 536. 
>anan 558. 
«nc 59, 310, 335. 
nances 557. 
>ancfull 629. 
>ancian 7,301,310,536. 
>ancol 635. 
»ancolmda 641. 
>ancsnotor 64a 
>as 133. 

>awian74, 153,264. 
>aBC 345. 
>ser 119,558. 
>2erinne 15. 
jaes (adv,) 557, 56a 
:aBt 54, 211,465, 560. 
>attc 305, 560. 
>e (cj.) 560. 
»l irei. pr.) ^Sf 46S, 
>%\ 163,353, 

400, 402. 
:eah 560. 
;earf 367. 
«arl 426. 
«arlc 553. 
>earlic 259. 
)eaw 360. 
>ec3ii,46o, 463. 
»eccan 301, 309, 534. 

)K^(c)n {I>en) 80, 319, 

321, 340, 563. 
begnian 331. 
fcncan 5, 7, 40, 60, 

"7, 165, 331, 245, 

289, 301, 309, 3", 

benden 560. 
f enian 321. 
J^niian 254, 258, 285, 

>eo 88, 89, 264. 
eod 157, 367. 
>eof 5, 7, 137, 173, 

301, 335, 563. 
>eof|> 138. 
'coh 137, 346. 
»€on (wv.) 530. 
'eotan 493. 
leo(w) 365, 359, 360^ 

^eowdom 597. 
)eowen{n) 599. 
:eowet(t) 358, 604. 
eowh&d M>5. 
>eowian (^iowian) 89, 

):eo wined 606. 
beowling 607. 
"perscan 85, 280, 312, 
iccc 96, 434,553,620. 
iccet(t) 604. 
icgan 120, 507, 526. 
ider 96, 558. 
idres 558. 

,IcfKu) 138,372,613. 
J>lcstre (biostre, l^eostre) 

5, 138, 175, 434. 
)Iestru 383. 
)ignen 599. 
)in 126, 460, 464. 
>indan 498. 
>inen 599. 
»ing 5, 96, 301, 317, 

343, 563. 



bingrseden 6io. 
>ingum 557,615. 
))lon (teon) 5, 41, 127, 
175, 239» 245, 329, 
492, 530. 

nos (J>eos) 466. 

>is 406. 


>6 117, 405. 

-)K> 613. 

polian 536. 

ponan 558. 

bone 59. 

bonne 59, 56a 

pom 106, 278, 301, 

39.5. ^ 
H>mig 630. 
H>rnint 631. 
K)rp 106, 232, 335. 
»racu 366. 
»raed 301. 
'rag 367. 
>ragmaelum 557. 
nrawan 120, 264, 517. 
»rawu 266, 379. 
)rea 75, 172, 266, 379. 
>reag(c)an 270, 537. 
veatmselum 557. 
»reoteo]>a 447. 
>reotiene 447. 
>n- 586. 
iridaeglic 586. 
>rid3eled 586. 
iridda 96, 254, 299^ 

jri(e)feald 453, 586. 
>rifete 586. 
miingre 434. 
>riflere 586. 
n-iheaicfede 624. 
'rileafe 586. 
nims 283. 
nines(s) 378. 
>ringan 301, 498. 
>rinihte 586. 
irintan 498. 
>rio (}>reo) 104, 140, 

175, 269. 

Tisclete 586. 
>rTste 434. 
»ristlsecan 658. 
>rlstnes 298. 
>rltig 447. 
)rItigo|>a 447. 
>riwa 454. 
»riwintre 434. 
'J-op 335- 
)rosm 219. 
»rostle 61. 
>rote 404. 
>rowian 536. 
>ruh 139,411. 
>ryccan 534. 
)rymmum 557* 
>rysiBan 532. 
»ry)> 390. 
)rywa 454- 
>u 231, 460, 462. 
-fu 613. 

fullic 471. 
uma 131, 282, 301, 

funor 5, 50, 109, 159, 

2i9» 301, 341, 563. 
)>urfan 476, 481, 482, 


>urh- 587. 
mrhbeorht 587. 
»urhbitter 587. 
mrhfere 587. 
)urhhalig 587. 
mrhscinende 587. 
)urhscyldig 587. 
>urhspedig 587. 
>urh)>yrelian 14. 
mrhwacol 587. 
}urhwunian 14. 
mrst III. 
mrstig 630. 
msend 131, 166, 301. 
mslic 471. 
mtan 496. 
'wang 59, 301. 
>weal 329. 

J»w€an 70, 239, 263, 

329, 509. 
>weores 557. 
»weorh 85, 263, 428. 
>weran 503. 
>wlnan 490. 
>wltan 490. 
>yften 378. 
>yle 386. 
>yllic 471. 
>ymel 132, 340. 
>yn 530. 
)yncan 5,43, 47, 112, 

131, 157, 240, 289, 

)>ynne 112, 231, 242, 

285, 433> 434. 
>yrel 329. 
yyrne 404. 
)yrniht 631. 
>yrre 279, 434, 439. 
>yrs 387. 

)yrstan 112,306, 530. 
)yrstig 630. 
)yslic 471. 
>f wan 530. 

-u 614. 

uder 131, 235. 
ufan 108, 446, 558. 
ufer(r)a 108. 
ufor 108. 
uhta 326. 
uhte 43, 131. 
ule 404. 
un- 588. 
unae)>ele 588. 
unagiefen 588. 
unandgietfull 588. 
unar 588. 
unbeald 588. 
unbealo 588. 
unc 459, 462. 
uncer 459, 464. 
uncit 459« 
unclsne 588. 
uncraeft 588. 
uncyst 588. 



und£d $88. 
undeadhc 588. 
undSop 588. 
under 11 1, 559, 589, 

under- 589. 
underbaec 557. 
underberan 14. 
underbur^ 589. 
underc^ning 589. 
underdiacon 589. 
underling 589. 
undemeo^ 557, 559. 
undemiman 14. 
undieme 588. 
unfaeger 588. 
unlri^ 588. 
-ung 61 5. 
ungeara 557. 
ungcfym 557. 
ungemete 553. 
ungemetes 557. 
ungemetum 557. 
ungeome 588. 
unge)»nc 588. 
ungewealdes 557. 
ungewiss 588. 
ungewisses 557. 
ungield 588. 
unhselo 588. 
unhlere 434. 
unlagu 588. 
unlar 588. 
unleof 588. 
unmsere 588. 
unnan 542. 
unriht 588. 
unrdtsian 536. 
unslaw 588. 
unsnyttrum 557. 
unso^ 588. 
unsynnig 588, 621. 
unsynnum 557. 
unswefn 588. 
unswete 588. 
untela 557. 
untr6owsian 536. 
un)>ances 557. 
unweamum 557. 

unwSnonga 554. 

Qhl«nge 10, 434, 655- 
upnuete 655. 

unwillum 557. 
unwrUere 588. 

up 391, 59a 

wa 133. 

up. 590. 

wac 426, 620. 

upcund 590. 

wacan 508. 


wacian 536. 

upende 590. 

wadende 538. 

upflering 590. 

wacol 635. 

upgang 590. 
upheah 590. 


wadan 57, 263, 508. 

upheofon 590. 

waecce 55, 404. 

upieman 14. 

waBcc(c)a 401. 

upkndisc 590. 

waeccende 538. 

uplyft 590. 

waBc(c)er (wacor) 225. 

up(p) 558. 

waecen 599. 

uppan 558, 559. 


uppe 558. 


uprseran 14. 


upriht 590. 


upstigc 590. 

wag {wall) 27$. 

upstigend 590. 

waeg {wave) 119, 320, 

upweard 557. 

387, 562. 

upweg 590. 

wage 357. ^ 

ure 459, 4^4. 

waegen (waen) 54, 219, 

us 5, 113, 147, 166, 281, 


286, 459, 462. 

wael 345. 

user 459, 464- 

waeb-eow (waelhreow) 

usic 218, 311, 459, 



wapen 5 119,263,291, 

ut 5, 131, 260, 558, 

wsepenbora 596. 


ut- 591. 

waeps (waefs) 306* 

utane 558. 

waer 425. 

utcwealm 591. 

waema (wraenna) 280. 

utdrief 591. 
utdnfan 14. 

waemes 600. 

ute 446, 558- 

waesma 329. 

utfaer 591. 

waesp 306. 

utflowan 14. 

waestmb^re 614, 622. j 

utgang 591. 

waestum, -em, -m 219, 

utgefeoht 591. 

298, 329, 349, 563. 

utgemaere 591. 

waet 119,426. 

uthere 591. 

waetan 531. 

utlagu 59i« 

waeter 7, 54, 221, 263, 

utlendisc 591. 

29«, 347, 349. j 

utlic 591. 

waetcradl 617. 

uton 103, 266. 

waeterseocnes 609. 1 


wag 119. 1 



wamb 292, 367. 
wan 425. 
wan- 592. 
wandrian 536. 
wange 407. 
wanhsel)> 592. 
wanhafa 592. 
wanhoga 592. 
wanhyg:d 592. 
wansselig 502. 
wansceaft 017. 
wanscrydd 592. 
wansped 592. 
wanspedig 592. 
war(e)nian 536. 
warian 536. 
wamung 615. 
wascan (waxan) 7, 57, 

153, 263, 3I12, 508. 
wase 404. 
wat 119. 

wawan 120, 264, 517. 
w«9S,i44, 252,459,462. 
wea 402. 
wealcan 516. 
weald 303, 397. 
wealdan 64, 276, 476, 

w(»Jdend 418, 60I1 

wealh 64, 172, jlhffE^eorcdseg 617. 

weall 64, 335. 
weallan 64, 276, 516. 
wealt 426. 
wealwian 264, 536. 

wcargincel 606. 
wearm 66, 263, 426. 
weax 68. 

69, 168, 305, 327, 

wSdan 530. 
wcdd 356. 
wedcr4i,8o, 263,299, 

349. ^ 
wedlac 608. 
wcfan 80, 93, 263, 293, 

weft 563. 
weg 48, 80, 93, 145. 

156, 186, 320, 323, 

324, 335, 562. 
wegan 120, 235, 505. 
wel (wel) 80, 14S, 556. 
wela 401. 
welegian 536. 
wel(ge)hwaer 558. 
wemman 530. 
wen 122, 390, 562. 
wenan 47, 122, 163, 

28?, 530. 

wendan 60, 259, 530, 

•wende 638. 
wending 615. 
wennan 526. 
wenung 373. 
wenunga 554. 
weoh 49, 127, 192. 
weorc 7, 85, 94, 182, 


329, 476, 516. 
webb 55, 292, 356. 
webbestre 603. 
weccan55, 311, 534. 
wecgan 526. 

weorold 52 

weoroldcund 623. 

weorpan 66, S5, 94, 
106, in, 237, 291, 
475, 4841 500. 

weorb 85, 94, 343- 

weor|>an 66, 85, 94, 
106, III, 168, 225, 
226, 231, 238, 239, 
253, 263, 299, 301, 
302, 474, 476, 488, 

weor^ian 536. 
weor)>leas 633. 
weorud (wexod) 13, 92, 

weotuma 92. 
wepan 129, 291, 519. 

wer 42, 80, 278, 335. 
werhad 605. 
werian 271, 525. 
werod 151,349. 
wesan 52, 54, 80, 94, 

194, 263, 267, 279, 

306, 307, 474, 505, 

548, 616. 
wesole (wesle) 307. 
west 80, 446, 5157, 558. 
westan 288, 558. 
weste 434. 
westen(n) 221, 335, 

358, 600. 
westeme 626. 
westlang 557. 
we)>l 304. 
wican 490. 
wicce 311,404. 
wiccung 615. 
wice 404. 
wicg 356. 
wicu 103. 
wid 126, 263, 426. 
wTdan 558. 
wldcu|> 040. 
wide 553. 
wide we 19. 
wldlian 304. 
widss 617. 
wieldan 530. 
wielisc47,64, 632. 
wiell 387. 
widm 387. 
wielwan 264, 266. 
wiergen(n) 378, 599. 
wierman 67, 530. 
wierpan 531. 
wierrest(a) 99, 445, 

wiers 556. 

wierst(a) 445. 

wierfe 99, 434. 

wif 126, 262, 293, 294, 

wifh&d 605. 
wiilic 634. 


wlfintn (vfiouiiaa) 150^ 

wigbaere oas. 
wieend 416, 418, 601. 
wiht 103, 391. 
wihte 557. 

434> 440- 
wilder, -d£or 259. 
willa 273, 276. 

wiUan 214, 474, 551- 
willcs 557. 
wilnian 536. 
wilsum 036. 
wimmaniso, 409. 
wincian 536. 
wind 41, q6. 
windan 263, 285, 498. 
wine2i5, 385, 386. 
winemaeg 618. 
win(e)stre 97, 223. 
winnan 259, 408. 
winster97, 280. 
winter 96, 219, 263, 

.397, 563. ^ ^ 

winteruecan 658. 

wiodu 52. 

wiota 102. 

wiotan (wietan) 102, 

wis 126, 240^ 426, 

wise 404. 

wisian 536. 

wist 390. 

•wist 616. 

wit 459> 462. 

wita 102, 225, 256, 401, 

witan I, 19, 30, 48, 96, 
102, 133, 212, 213, 
225, 232, 240, 263, 
267, 298, 476, 540. 

wite 274, 355» 357. 

witega 225, 401. 

witegestre 603. 


witenagemdt 619. 

witeneden 610. 


wltestow 618. 

wftgjan 536. 

wftnian 536. 

witol 635. 

witt 356. 

wib 559, 645. 

wi laesftan 557, 559- 

wi wr 593, 645. 

wi per- s^x. 

wi vercwide 593. 

wi «rlean 593. 

wi wrrsede 593. 

wi lersaca 10, 593. 

wi lersaec 593. 

wi «rtrod 593. 

wi pfon 14. 

wi ^oran 557, 559. 

wi Pgeondan 559* 

wi Pinnan 557, 559. 

wiVmetan 14. 

wibneo^ 557. 

wi psacan 10. 

wi|>utan 557« 559- 

wlacu (wUec) 439. 

wlanc 7, 263, 426. 

wleccan 534, 

wlencu, -o 383, 614. 

wlips (wlisp) 306. 

wlltan 49a 

wlite 263, 386. 

wlitig 263. 


wocor 370. 


wGdne8 6o9. 

woh 117, 328, 329, 

wdhgod 617. 
woken 263, 348. 
wdma 121. 
wore 94* 
word 7, 106, 215, 253, 

278, 299, 331. 342, 

wordfiiU 629. 
wordig 63a 
wordsnotor 11. 
wommslum 557. 
worold (worufd) 52, 94. 

wonildcaru 617. 
wos 61. 
wd)»bora 596. 
wracu 263, 310, 366. 
wraec 376, 
wrascca 55. 
wrsene 434. 
wraenna 280. 
wraest 426. 
wrae)>t>(tt)» (-0) 372, 

wrab 263, 426. 
wrapc 553. 
wra pmod 641. 
wrajnim 557. 
wrecan 505. 
wrecca 55. 
wrecend 601. 
wregan 530. 
wrenc 387. 
wreban 530. 
wremin 526. 
wnoan 490. 
wriexl (wrixl) 98. 
wrigels 598. 
wringan 498. 
wiion (wreon) 127, 492. 
wntan 126, 263, 278, 

wrifian 239, 491* 
wrixlan 327, 532. 
wrohtbora 596. 
wrohtUc 608. 
wrohtstafas 612. 
wrotan 519. 
wuce 404. 
wucu (wiocu) lo3» 159, 

wudibt 631. 
wudu 52, 103, 299, 

wuciubearo 618. 
wuduwe 103, 159, 404. 
wuht 103, 391. 
wuldor 303, 348. 
wuldrian 530. 


wulf 7, 37, io8, 159, 
311, 212, 213, 237, 
261, 295, 296, 335. 

wulfheort 641. 

Wulfmier 421. 

wuUe 108, 242, 276, 

wund III, 367, 426. 

wundian 536. 

wundor 35, iii, 219, 
263, 348. 

wundorfull 629. 

wundrian 10, 536. 

ivundrum 557. 

ivunian 109, 536. 


wurpan 94. 

wurb 94. 

wurpan 94, 185. 

wuton 103, 266. 

wylf 376. 

wyllen 112,* 160. 


wynn 112,375. 
wynnum 557. 
wynsum 636. 
wyrcan 43, 106, 112, 

220, 240, 263, 534. 
wyrd 225, 390, 562. 
wyrdstafas 612. 
wyrest (wyrst) 556. 
wyrhta 112, 401, 421. 
wyrm 112, 282, 387, 

wyrs 556. 
wyrt 112, 390. 
wyrtruma 259. 
wyscan 5, 1 14, 286, 31 2, 


yce 404. 

yfel 112,183, 215,216, 
223, 293, 430, 445, 

553> 639. 
yfelcund 623. 


yf(e)le 5S3» 55^. 
yfel(l)ic 259. 
yfelspraece 641. 
yferra 446. 
yfcs 107. 
ymb 559, 594. 
ymb- 594. 
ymbbindan 14. 
ymb(e) 112, 234, 292, 

594, 645. 
ymbfaer 594. 
ymbgang 594. 
ymbhoga 594. 
ymbhweorfan 14. 
ymbutan 559. 
ymest 329. 

259, 531. 
167, 286, 

yppan 112 
yst 114, 

ystig 630. 
ytera 446. 

yfs, 114, 376, 562. 









LOAN DEPT. j^owiD 

VtMtWALS ONL Y-*T1L NO. 44t-340i 

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RECDLD MAY 26170 ■2 PM (> J-fr 

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MAY 2 3 1380- 



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