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OLD ENGLISH PLATE. 



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ECCLESIASTICAL, DECORATIVE, AND DOMESTIC: 



m 



MAKEES AND MAEKS. 



Br WILFRED JOSEPS OHIPPS, C.B., F.S.A., 

AUTHOR or "COLLIOK AHD 0OBl*ORATIOir PLATi/' "OLD FRBVCH PLATX,'* ITG. 



FIFTH EDITION, EEVI3ED AND ENLARGED. 



WITH 122 ILLUSTRATIONS, AND UPWARDS OF 2,500 FACSIMILES 

OF PLATE MARKS. 



LONDON : 
JUHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, 

1894. 






BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 

OLD FJRENCH PLATE. Furnishing Tables 

OF THB PaBIS DATE-LsTTEBS AND Fac-SiMII.E8 OF OTHBB 

Mabks. With Illustrations. Second Edition, 1893. 870. 



. _ ■ -•■*' — 



PKEFACE. 



Is the course of the sixteen years which have elapsed since 
the appearance of the first edition of this Handbook, Old 
English Plate has attracted a constantly increasing share of 
public attention. A knowledge of its many points of interest 
has become more general : and whilst specimens of ancient 
secular plate are more eagerly sought for than ever before by 
collector and connoisseur, the preservation of our old church- 
plate has become better assured owing to the lively interest 
now taken by County and Diocesan Archseological Societies 
in what remains of it within their respective districts. 

Before these days few persons, whether amongst the 
clergy or laity, understood the great interest of old English 
church-plate, or possessed the requisite knowledge to take 
proper account of it ; and the literature on the subject con- 
sisted of the papers of the late Mr. Octavius Morgan, upon 
which the chapter on Ecclesiastical Plate in this volume is 
founded, together \^'ith the not less valuable notes and 
observations of Sir A. W. Franks, Mi*. J. T. Micklethwaite , 



vi Preface. 

the late Eev. J. Fuller Eussell, Professor A. H. Clmrcli, and 
others. It was not, in fact, till the year 1880, two years 
after the first publication of Old English Plate^ that the author, 
by the kind present from the Eev. C. E. Manning, of a copy of 
his interesting pamphlet on the church-plate of the Deanery 
of Eedenhall, became aware that he and his earliest coadjutor, 
Mr. T. M. Fallow, had any fellow-labourer in the work of 
making systematic local enquiry into the history of old 
church-plate. Mr. Manning's work suggested an excellent 
paper from the pen of Eev. H. Whitehead on the plate of the 
Deanery of Brampton ; and this soon led up to the publication, 
in 1884, of a complete account of the church-plate of the 
counties of Cumberland and Westmorland forming the 
Diocese of Carlisle, in the volume which, imder the able 
editorship of Chancellor Ferguson, has been mainly instru- 
mental in drawing general attention to a field of great interest. 
Stimulated by the example of Mr. Ferguson, the late Mr. 
J. E. Nightingale shortly afterwards undertook an examina- 
tion of the old ecclesiastical plate of Dorset and Wilts ; and 
it is not too much to say that his volume relating to Wiltshire 
church-plate is the model of what such a treatise should be. 
Eev. A. Trollope has written very fully on the church-plate 
of Leicestershire, whilst that of the small county of Eutland 
has been catalogued by Mr. E. C. Hope. 

A great deal of material has been collected for complete 






Preface. vii 

accounts of the treasures in Kent, Northumberland, Durham, 

Norfolk, Berks, and Surrey, chiefly in the form of papers in 

the Transactions of the ArchaBological Associations of those 
counties ; and a history of the plate in the East Biding of 

Yorkshire, by T. M. Fallow, has long been expected. A 
good commencement, and in some cases more than that, has 
been made in Hereford, Somerset, Devon, Cornwall, Lincoln- 
shire, Northants, Derbyshire, Warwick, Worcestershire, 
Oloucestershire and Suffolk. 

Besides the above local enquiries, and following upon an 
exceUent general notice of Scottish communion-plate by Prof. 
Norman Macpherson, a complete and quite monumental work 
on the same subject by Eev. T. Bums, most admirably illus- 
trated, appeared in 1892, whilst a valuable classification of 
mediaBval English chalices and patens by Mr. W. H. St. John 
Hope and Mr. T. M. Fallow has been contributed to the 
Archceohgical Journal. As regards secular plate, an accoimt 
of the curious and rare plate of the Hull Trinity House has 
been published by the last-named antiquary, and papers on 
Mazers and Spoons are to be found in recent volumes of 
ArchcBohgia. 

It is good evidence of the great interest now taken in old 
plate, that later writers should devote time to enlarging 
chapters or sections from the following pages into articles, 



viii Preface. 

such as the two last named. The sections relating to Salts, 
Ewers and Basins, and the like, are as suitable for treatment of 
this kind as those upon Mazers and Spoons. 

Lastly, it may be mentioned that a great part of Old 
English Plate has been reproduced, almost word for word, 
with many of its illustrations and all its tables of date-letters, 
in an American work, described in the preface as "based 
upon" it. 

If Old English Plate has been not indirectly the moving 
cause of these widely spread researches, it is to some of them 
that its own pages owe, from time to time, much of their 
fresh information. In the present edition this is especially 
the case as regards the late Mr. J. E. Nightingale's volume 
on Wilts church-plate, and the great work mentioned above 
on Scottish Communion Plate, to the author of which and to 
his coadjutor, Mr. A. J. S. Brook, the present writer is 
indebted for many names and dates now added to former 
entries in Chapter YI. 

It is plain that if the successive editions of Old English 
Plate aimed only at being a summary of the literature 
on its subject, brought up as far as possible to date, they 
would need all the careful emendation they have re- 
ceived ; and the author can hardly acknowledge too f re ely 



Preface. ix 

and fully, the help in this behalf of the friends, but especially 
the Bev. C. K. Manning and Mr. Fallow, whose names have 
been already mentioned in these prefatory words, and also 
Mr. Edwin H. Freshfield, as well as the kindness of many 
correspondents, amongst them Mr. T. Wainwright, of Barn- 
staple, who have favoured him with notes of more or less 
value, and who deserve acknowledgments and thanks. 

To Mr. Thomas Taylor of Chipchase Castle the author 
is indebted for nearly all the new information given about 
the goldsmiths of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in the eighteenth 
century ; and to the Kent Archaeological Society for 

wood-cuts. 

W. J. C. 

ClIlENCESTRR : 

Odober, 1894. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGJB 

Preliminary — Gold — ^Silver — ^Their alloys — The English standards — ^The assay — 
Coloared gold — Frosted silver — A simple test for silver — Care of old plate — 
Goldsmiths' weights — Mint prices for gold ] 

CHAPTER II. 

The mediaeval guilds of goldsmiths in France and England — The Goldsmiths* Com- 
pany of London — Regalations of the Goldsmiths* Guild at Montpellier — 
Charters of the London goldsmiths, and early legislation relating to them 
and their marks — The Coronation Reg^alia — The banker-goldsmiths — Legisla- 
tion from the time of Charles II. — Table of London marks • . . .19 

CHAPTER III. 

The marks found on plate assayed in London — The leopard's head— The maker's 
mark — The date- letter — The lion passant— The lion's head erased and 
figure of Britannia — The Sovereign's head 46 

CHAPTER IV. 

The Provincial assay-towns and their marks, prior to 1701 — The Act of 1423 — 
Historical notes of the goldsmiths of Newcastle and York — The relations of 
the London with the provincial goldsmiths from time to .time — Extinction of 
the old provincial Goldsmiths' Companies in 1697 — York — Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne — Norwich — Chester — Exeter — Hull, Gateshead, Leeds, Carlisle, Lincoln, 
Taunton, Dorchester, Barnstaple, King's Lynn, Sandwich — Doubtful provin- 
cial marks — Table of old provincial marks 69 

CHAPTER V. 

The provincial assay-offices and their marks, since 1701 — The Acts of Parliament 
establishing them — York — Exeter — Chester — Norwich — Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne — Birmingham — Sheffield — Table of modem provincial marks . . 109 

CHAPTER VI. 

Scotland — Scotch legislation — The Edinburgh goldsmiths — Their marks, deacons, 
and assay-masters — Old provincial marks — Modem Glasgow — Table nf 
Edinburgh and Glasgow marks 131 



xii Contents. 



CHAPTER VII. 

PAGE 

Ireland— The Goldsmiths* Company of Dublin— Cork — New Geneva— Table of 
Dablin marks 152 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Fiauds and offences — Old offences — The report to Parliament of 1773 — The Acts 
of 1739 and 1844 — Cases proceeded against under their provisions — An 
amateur's experiences 103 

CHAPTER IX. 

Ecclesiastical plate — Episcopal constitutions relating to church -plate — Church 
goods, how affected by the events of the reigns of Edward VI. and Queen 
Elizabeth — Chalices exchanged for communion cups — Pre-Reformation 
chalices and patens — Elizabethan communion cups — Modem chalices, com- 
munion cups and patens — Flagons — Alms-dishes — Candlesticks . . .174 



CHAPTER X. 

Decorative and domestic plate — Introduction — Effect of the Wars of the Hoses — 
Prosperity of the sixteenth century — Great destruction of old plate at 
various times — Gold Plate — Obsolete vessels — Spoons — Mazers — Salts — 
Stoneware jugs — Ewers, basins, and salvers — Standing cups and hanaps — 
Tankards — Smaller cups of various kinds — Plates — Forks — Monteiths- - 
Candlesticks, sconces, etc. — Toilet services — Casters and cruet-stands — Tea 
and coffee services, kettles, etc. — Cake-baskets and epergnes — Maces and oars 
— Racing-bells, etc 227 



APPENDIX A. 

Chronological List of the Examples used as Authority for London Date-letters 

and Makers' Marks. Part 1 357 

Part II 405 

APPENDIX B. 

Improved Tables of the Date-letters used by all the English, Scotch, and Irish 
Assay-Halls from the earliest times 421 



INDEX 449 



LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS. 



PAOB 

1. PEWTER COFFIN CHALICE AND PATEN, 13TH CBNTUBY . . . .188 

2. CHALICE IN THE BBITISH MUSEUM, 13TH CENTURY 189 

3. COFFIN CHALICE OF ARCHBISHOP MELTON (D. 1340) AT YORK MINSTER. 190 

4. CHALICE (1479) AT NETTLECOMBB, SOMERSET 191 

5. CHALICE (C. 1495) AT COOMBE KEYNES, DORSET 192 

6. BISHOP FOX*S GOLD CHALICE (1507) AT COBPUS CHRISTI COLL., OXFORD 194 

7. CHALICE (1521) AT JURBY, ISLE OF MAN 196 

8. CHAUCE (1527) AT TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD 196 

9. CHALICE (1525) AT WYLYE, WILTS 197 

10. PATEN (C. 1200) AT WYKE, HANTS 199 

11. COFFIN PATEN OF BP. CANTELUPE (D. 1266) AT WORCESTER CATHEDRAL 202 

12. PATEN (1479) AT NETTLECOMBE, SOMERSET 203 

13. PATEN (1527) AT TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD 204 

14. COMMUNION CUP (1570) AT CIRENCESTER 205 

15. COMMUNION CUP AND PATEN-COVER (1576) AT CHRISTCHURCH, CO. MON- 

MOUTH 206 

16. COMMUNION CUP (1668), NORWICH PATTERN 208 

17. TWO COMMUNION CUPS (1600, 1622) 209 

18. TWO COMMUNION CUPS (1630, 1686) 211 

19. PEWTER C0MMX7NI0N VESSELS, CIRCA 1640 212 

20. COMMUNION CUP (1676) AT ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCHE 213 

21. COMMUNION CUP (C. 1510) AT SANDWICH, KENT 214 

22. CUP (1535) WITH COYER SURMOUNTED BY THE BOLEYN BADGE, USED AS 

A CHALICE AT CIRENCESTER 215 

23. CUP (1540) USED AS A CHALICE AT GATCOMBE, ISLE OF WIGHT . .216 

24. COMMUNION VESSELS (1707) AT HYATT8VILLE, MARYLAND, U.S.A. . 218 
26. PATEN (1673) AT ST. CUTHBERT'S, YORK 219 

26. COMMUNION FLAGON (1576) AT CIRENCESTER .... .221 

27. COMMUNION FLAGON (1664) AT CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL . 222 

28. SIDEBOARD OF 16TH CENTURY . 232 



xiv List of Illustrations. 

PAGE 

29. MAIDENHEAD BPOON, GIBGA 1540 235 

80. BET OF THIBTEEK APOSTLES* SPOONS (1626) 237 

81. APOSTLES* SPOONS, 16TH CENTX7BY 239 

82. SPOONS OF 16th, 17th, AND 18th OENTUBIES 242 

SB. TEA-SPOONS, GIBCA 1760, at BABBEB SUBQEONS* hall, LONDON . . 243 

34. HAZBB (15th gentuby) 249 

85. THE SCBOPE MAZES (C. 1400) AT YOBK MIN9TEB, AND INSCBIPTION ON 

THE BAND 250 

86. MAZEB (C. 1440) AT ALL SOULS COLL., OZFOBD 252 

87. BOSS OB PBINT IN THE BOTTOM OF THE LAST MAZEB . . .253 

88. MAZEB (C. 1450) AT IB0NM0N0KB8* HALL, LONDON 254 

39. MAZEB (0. 1470) AT OBIEL COLL., OXFOBD 255 

40. MAZEB (1532) FOBMEBLY AT NABFOBD HALL, CO. NOBFOLK, PABT OP 

ENOBAVED BAND, FULL SIZE 256 

41. MAZEB-BOWL (C. 1530—40), THE PBOPEBTY OF SIB A. W. FBANK8 . . 256 

42. STANDING MAZEB (1529) AT ALL SOULS COLL., OZFOBD .... 257 

43. SILVEB-OILT CUP, WITH ABMS OF THE BODNEY FAMILY . . . .258 

44. BILVEB-GILT CUP OF MAZEB FASHION, FOBMEBLY THE PBOPEBTY OF THE 

DUKE OF HAMILTON 259 

45. CUP OF WOOD MOUNTED IN SILYEB-GILT, DATED 1492, FBOM THE SOLTY- 

KOFF COLLECTION 260 

46. CUP OF WOOD MOUNTED IN SILVBB-GILT IN THE COLLEOTION OF SIB 

A. W. FBANK8 260 

47. THE HUNTSMAN SALT (15TH CENTUBY) AT ALL SOULS COLL., OXFOBD . 263 

48. SALT (1493) AT NEW COLLEGE, OXFOBD 264 

49. SALT (1518) AT IBONMONGEBS* HALL, LONDON 265 

60. CYLINDBICAL SALT (1567), IN THE POSSESSION OF THE COBPOBATION OF 

NOBWICH 266 

51. SALT (1569) AT YINTNEBS* HALL, LONDON 267 

62. SALT (1695) AT HABEBDASHEB8* HALL, LONDON 268 

63. SALT (1607) AT CHBIST*S HOSPITAL, LONDON 269 

64. SALT (1661) AT CLOTHWOBKEBS' HALL, LONDON 270 

66. OCTAGONAL SALT (1685) AT MEBCEBS* HALL, LONDON .270 

66. THE EDDYSTONE LIGHTHOUSE SALT (1698) 271 

67. TBENCHSB SALTS (1629, 1667) 272 

68. BTONEWABE JUG MOUNTED IN SILVEB-GILT (1562) AT VINTNBBS' HALL, 

LONDON 278 

69. BTONEWABE JUG (1581) FOBMEBLY USED AS A COMMUNION FLAGON AT 

WEST MALLING, KENT 274 






List of Illustrations. 



XV 



PAQB 

60. BAXYBB (1545) AT CORPUS GHBISTI OOLL., GAHB 276 

61. BWSB (1545) AT OOBPUS CHKI8TI COLL., OAHBBIDGB .... 277 

62. BOBE-WATBB BALYEB (1597) AT MBBOHANT TAYLOBS' HALL, LONDON . 278 

63. BWBB (1617), TBB PBOPBBTT OF THB COBPOBATION OF NOBWIGH . . 279 

64. BALYEB (1617), THE PBOPBBTT OF THB COBPOBATION OF NOBWICH . 280 

65. BWBB (1741), BT PAUL LAICBBIE, AT aOLDSHITHS' HALL, LONDON . . 281 

66. COCOA-NUT CUP (C. 1500) AT IBONMONOBBS* HALL, LONDON . . . 288 

67. OBTBICH-BGO CUP (1610) AT EXBTEB COLLBGE, OZFOBD .... 289 

68. 08TBICH-EOO CUP (1628), THE PBOPBBTT OF H. WILLETT, ESQ. . 290 

69. WA8BAIL HOBN (14tH CENTUBT) AT QUEEN'S COLLEGE, OZFOBD . . 291 

70. IfOXTNTBD DBINKINO HOBN AT CUBIST'S HOSPITAL, LONDON . 292 

71. THB CAWDOB HOBN (TEMP. HENBT VIL) 293 

72. THB FOUNDBBBS' CUP (C. 1440) AT CHBIST'S COLLEGE, CAMBBIDGE . 294 

73. CUP (15TH CENT.) AT OBIEL COLLEGE, OXFORD 295 

74. BEAKEB (1507) AT CHBIBT'S COLLEGE, CAMBBIDGE 296 

75. THB LEIGH CUP (1499) AT MEBCEBS' HALL, LONDON . . . .297 

76. THE BICHMOND CUP (C. 1500—1520) AT ABMOUBEBS' HALL, LONDON . 298 

77. STANDING CUP (1569) AT C0BPU8 CHBIBTI COLL., CAMBBIDGE . . 299 

78. THE CHAPMAN CUP (1580) AT ABMOUBBBS' HALL, LONDON .300 

79. PEA-HEN CUP (C. 1643) AT SKINNEB8* HALL, LONDON .301 

80. DOUBLE CUP (17th CENTUBY) AT VINTNBBS* HALL, LONDON . . .302 

81. THE EDMONDS CUP (1618) AT CABPENTEBS' HALL, LONDON .303 

82. THE BLACKSMITHS' CUP (1655) 304 

83. THE BOTAL OAK CUP (1676) AT BABBEB-BUBGBONS' HALL, LONDON . 306 

84. THB PEPTS CUP (1677) AT CLOTHWOBKEBS' HALL, LONDON . .307 

85. TWO-HANDLED CUP AND COYBB (1739), BT PAUL LAMEBIE, AT GOLD- 

SMITHS' HALL, LONDON .308 

86. CUP (1795) AT MEBCHANT TAYLOBS' HALL, LONDON 309 

87. TANKABD (1574) AT THB ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM, OZFOBD .... 311 

88. THB POISON TANKABD (C. 1565) AT CLABE COLLEGE, CAMBBIDGE . . 312 

89. TANKABD (1618), IN THE POSSESSION OF THE COBPOBATION OF NOBWICH 313 

90. TANKABD (1684), THE PBOPBBTT OF THE COBPOBATION OF BBI8T0L . 314 

91. IBISH TANKABDS (1680) AT MEBCHANT TAYLOBS' HALL, LONDON . 315 

92. TAZZA (1638), FBOM THE OCTAVIUS MOBGAN COLLECTION. . .316 

93. SAUCKB (C. 1632) USED AS AN ALMS-DISH AT BBEDGAB, KENT . . 317 

94. BEAKEB (1604) AT MEBCEBS' HALL, LONDON 319 

95. CAUDLE-CUP (1667) AT CLOTHWOBKEBS* HALL, LONDON .... 320 

96. CAUDLE-CUP (1670), THE PBOPERTY OP EABL BATHUBST . , .321 



xvi List of Illtistrattons. 

PAGE 

97. PORBINOEB (1674) 322 

1)8. FLUTED POSBINOEB (1699) 323 

99. FORK (TEMP. CHARLES II.) DUG UP IN COYENT GARDEN . . 327 

100. MOKTEITH (1702) AT VINTNERS' HALL, LONDON 329 

101. CANDLESTICK (C. 1670) AT PENIARTH 330 

102. CANDLESTICK (1735) 331 

103. CANDLESTICK (1773) AT NEW COLLEGE, OXFORD 332 

104. TOILET-BOX (1682) 338 

105. FIRE-DOG (C. 1685) AT KNOLF. 334 

106. JAR (C. 1685) AT KNOLE 335 

107. WINE-CISTERN (1734) AT THE WINTER PALACE, ST. PETERSBURG .' . 337 

108. OCTAGONAL COFFEE-POT (1715), THE PROPERTY OF AUTHOR . . 339 

109. COFFEE-POT (1764) AT SALTERS' HALL, LONDON 340 

110. TEA-URN (1771) AT BABBEB-SURGEONS* HALL, LONDON . .341 

111. CHOCOLATE POT (1777) IN THE SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM. . . 342 

112. CAKE-BASKET (1731), BT PAUL LAMEBIE 343 

lis. CAKE-BASKET (1749), BT PAUL LAMEBIE 344 

114. MACES AT WINCHCOMBE, CO. GL0UCE8TEB 345 

115. MOBPETH GBEAT MACE (1604) 346 

116. MACE OF WABD OF "CHEAP, LONDON (1625) 347 

117. THE •*HOWABD** MACE (1671) AT NOBWICH 350 

118. MACE OF TOWSB WABD, LONDON, TEMP. CHABLES II 351 

119. OAB-MACE (C. 1690) OF CINQUE POBTS ADMIBALTY COUBT . 352 

120. DOYEB WATBB-BAILIFF'B MACE 353 

121. BACING-BELLS (TEMP. ELIZ.), THE PBOPEBTY OF THE COBPOBATION OF 

CABLISLE 354 

122. COCKING-BELL (1655) 354 



I 



OLD ENGLISH PLATE. 



CHAPTER I. 

PBELIMINABT— GOLD— SILVER— THEIB ALLOYS— THE ENGLISH STANDARDS— THE 
ASSAY — COLOURED GOLD— FROSTED SILVER— A SIMPLE TEST FOR SILVER- 
CARE OP OLD PLATE — GOLDSMITHS' WEIGHTS— MINT PRICES FOR GOLD. 

Gold and silver, the best known of the noble metals, seem marked 
oat bj their natural beauty, their cost, and by the facility with which 
they lend themselves to the designs of the artist and the craftsman, 
as the appropriate materials for all the articles, whether of utility or 
ornament, that are specially devoted to the service of magnificence 
and splendour. From the earliest times devotion and luxury have 
habitually taken expression in their use. 

The beauty and rarity of these metals having thus early attracted 
attention, it is not wonderful that the properties which render them 
80 available to the workman should have long been understood and 
appreciated. Their malleability, ductility, and the brilliant polish of 
which they are susceptible, have been known from time immemorial, 
and valued by every nation that has left any distinct mark upon the 
pages of history. The Egyptians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Oreeks, 
and Bomans, were all well acquainted with both gold and silver, and 
high authority places the vessels recently found on the supposed site 
of Troy and at Mycenae amongst genuine relics of pre-Hellenic or, 
more indefinitely still, Homeric times. 

The early historical books of the Bible show that even a nomad 
tribe in their desert wanderings w*ere able to carry the art of the 
goldsmith to a high state of perfection fifteen centuries before the 
commencement of the Christian era. The malleability of gold must 
have been well understood by him who " did beat gold into thin 
plates" (Exod. xxxix. 8), and could ** cut it into wires to work it into 
fine linen with cunning work." Adorning it with jewels must have 
been a familiar art to those who ** wrought onyx stones enclosed in 



2 Old English Plate, [chap. i. 

ouches of gold " (Exod. xxxix. 6) ; and what more like work of some 
modem artist than the candlestick wrought by the Israelitish smith 
of old, with its six branches of beaten work, '' his shaft, and his 
branch, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers of the same ; three 
bowls made after the fashion of almonds in one branch, a knop and a 
flower ; and three bowls made like almonds in another branch, a knop 
and a flower : so throughout the six branches going out of the candle- 
stick" (Exod. xxxvii.). 

It is unnecessary to multiply these early Biblical evidences — gold 
and silver are mentioned on every page ; the fining pot for silver, the 
furnace for gold, and the refiner's fire are used as familiar images ; 
suffice it to say, that from the time of Joseph's cup of silver and 
Solomon's drinking vessels of gold, all the more costly articles of 
household decoration and use have been made of those precious 
metals, and that from the time of the ark and the tabernacle, devotion 
has lavished them upon the adornment of its shrines and the fabrica- 
tion of utensils dedicated to the service of religion. 

Turn we to Homer and we find the same ; the kpclttjp, wine bowl 
of silver, sometimes with brim of gold, sometimes all gilt, stands in 
the entrance hall on a tripod ; silver wine cups are given as rewards ; 
gold thread, gold plate, refined gold, gold vessels of every kind con- 
stantly mentioned ; Greek words compounded of XP^^^^ (gold) and 
apyvpos (silver) are to be counted by hundreds. 

Roman homes gleamed with silver in the days of Horace — ridet 
argento domus (Hor. Od. iv. 11. 6). Cicero speaks of a shipload of 
wrought and stamped silver; Pliny of suppers served on pure and 
antique silver (Plin. Ep. iii. 1. 9) ; Virgil of libations poured out ot 
golden bowls — pateris libamus et auro (Georg. ii. 192). 

Silver and gold have ever since been prized in the same way, and 
modern nations vie with the ancients and one another in the taste and 
art with which they apply them, and add to their beauty and value, 
whether by the aid of jewels or enamels, chasing, engraving, or the 
exquisite work that may be produced by even the hammer alone, 
wielded by skilful hands. 

Before proceeding to consider the gold and silver plate of our own 
country, and the makers' and other marks from which, as we shall 
find, it is often possible for the expert to gather much curious 
information, it will be well to note what may seem to be of use to the 
amateur and collector of old plate, as to the precious metals them- 
selves and their alloys, and as to the modes adopted from time to time 
of ascertaining the proportion of pure gold and silver contained in 
given portions of sach alloys, or articles made of them, not forgetting 



CHAP. I. 



Gold. 



some remarks upon the England standards, and the weights used by 
the English goldsmiths. And first as to gold. 

GOLD. 

This is one of the most widely distributed of all metals, being 
found alike in volcanic rocks and alluvial deposits, sometimes in 
small masses or nuggets, but more often in a granular form. It is 
found both in the old and new worlds ; Hungary, Brazil, the Ural 
Mountains, Mexico, and Peru, have all furnished large quantities, but 
none of them anything like the amount supplied by California, 
Australia, and South Africa in modem times. According to Cer- 
nuschi, whilst its production annually up to 1850 was but equal to 
±•6,000,000, it was not less than £86,000,000 in 1852. From 1872 
to 1878 it averaged about £19,000,000 ; and in 1889, the latest date 
available, it amounted, according to the Director of the United States 
Mint, to about 179 tons of the metal, which would be worth some- 
thing like £25,000,000. 

The British Isles have contributed their share, gold having been 
found in Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, and in the Wicklow Mountains 
in Ireland ; we find the Crawford Moor district (Wanlockhead, &c., in 
Lanarkshire), once yielding no less than £100,000 of gold in three 
years' washing ; and Mr. Patrick Dudgeon of Cargen notices a mention 
of gold in Scotland, in a grant by King David I., a.d. 1125, to the 
Church of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline, of his tenth of all the 
gold found in Fife and some other places. 

In Wanlockhead nuggets of gold have been found, and gold in 
grains may even now be obtained by washing. A piece of quartz 
having veins of gold in ib was found there in 1872, and is described 
by Mr. Dudgeon. An analysis of this gold, made by Professor A. H. 
Church, gave him the following result, viz. : 

Gold 86•60^ 

Silver 12-39 ,^ .^ 

Iron ,,5 ^ Bp. gr. 16-O0 

Other subBtances and loss '66 ; 

A sample of Sutherlandshire gold has given the same analyst a 
smaller proportion of pure gold, viz. : 



Gold 79-22) ^ ^ _..„ 

Silyer 20-78 {«?• ^- ^^ ^^ 



To these may be added analyses on the same and other high 
authority, from each of the other districts mentioned above, and also 

B 2 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. I. 



one of gold from Asbanti by way of comparison. Tbe Wicklow and 
Wales analyses are by the late David Forbes, F.B.S. 



Wicklow... Gold 92-32 

SUver 6-17 

Wales Gold 90-16 

SUver 9-26 



Corn wall... Gold 90-12 

Silver 906 

Ashanti ...Gold 90*05 

Silver 994 



It will be observed tbat in tbe specimen from Ashanti there was 
found but lu;^ part of anything but gold and its invariable companion, 
silver. 

It remains to notice the physical properties of gold, which are the 
same wherever it is found, — ^its great density and weight, its 
malleability, ductility, its beautiful yellow colour, and the brilliant 
polish of which it is susceptible. Even in its least dense state, as 
cast gold, its specific gravity is 19*t25, that is to say, it is 19i times 
heavier than water, whilst, by hammering or rolling, its specific 
gravity can be made up to 19"80 or even 19*40. 

Its weight is correspondingly great : a cubic inch weighs 10*16 oz. 
Troy, and a cube measuring six inches every way will therefore weigh 
no less than 182*88 lb. Troy, or about as much as a man can lift. 
Gold is so malleable that it can be beaten into leaves the .:^i;^ p^rt of 
an inch thick, and so ductile that a grain can be drawn into more than 
500 feet of wire ; it is these properties that are of such importance to 
the worker in gold. 

SILVER. 

This metal is also very widely distributed : the chief sources of 
supply in former days were Hungary, Transylvania, and Spain, but 
since the discovery of America an enormous quantity has come from 
thence, and especially from Peru and Mexico ; it also exists in large 
quantities in sea water. It is, however, very seldom found pure, bein^ 
usually in combination with other substances, often with lead, and it 
is by separating silver from lead that a great deal of British silver is 
produced at the present time. A mention of this process is noticed 
by Mr. Dudgeon in an Act of Parliament of James I. of Scotland, 
passed in 1424. 

It has been estimated that up to 1880 silver was produced in three- 
fold quantities compared with gold ; the annual production for the 
ten years ending 1871 being about £10,000,000. In 1872 and up to 
1875 valued at the same rate in relation to gold, it would be 
Jil3,700,000 ; and if we assume that the ratio of 1 : 15^ represents 
the proportion between the value of silver and that of gold, then the 



CHAP. I.] Silver. 5 

annual production of both metals for twenty-four years represents 
£33,000,000. It is said that the total amount of silver produced 
throughout the world in 1889 was 3920 tons, which would, at 4«. per 
Troy ounce, represent a value of rather more than iE25, 500,000. A 
specimen of native Cornish silver (Wheal Ludcott) has given Professor 
A. H. Church- 



Silver 97-86> 

Silver Chloride -71 

Gold and antimony *21 

Iron '15 

Loss, &c 1*07 



sp. gr. 10-26. 



Silver is not so malleable as gold, although it may be beaten into 
leaves no more than the j^^ part of an inch thick, and it may be 
drawn into a wire finer by far than human hair, such is its ductility. 

Its specific gravity differs greatly from that of gold, being from 
10'40 to 10'60 according to circumstances, and the weight of a cubic 
inch is 5*52 oz. Troy, or not much more than half the weight of a 
similar cube of gold. 

ALLOYS. 

We have now noted what is necessary as to pure gold and pure 
silver, and the importance of some of the details recorded, especially 
those relating to their specific gravity, will presently be seen. But 
both these metals when in a state of purity are too soft for the 
purposes of either coin or plate. It has therefore been found 
expedient from the earliest times to employ some other metal as an 
alloy to give them the required degree of hardness without materially 
affecting their colour. 

Let it be remarked in passing that the word alloy is often said to 
be derived from the French a la lai, the proportion of baser metal 
that might be used for the purpose having been from very early days 
regulated by law. But the word seems more often than not used for 
the mixed metal itself rather than for the portion of base metal added 
to the pure gold or silver ; and coupling this with the fact that the 
French express it by alliage, there is reason to think that the word 
may not impossibly be derived from allier rather than a la hi. In 
mint language the alloy is the base metal added to the more precious 
one, following the language of successive ordinances down even to the 
Coinage Act of 1870.* It will be found used in both senses in these 
pages. 

* See Prof. W. Chandler-Roberts* Cantor Lectures on Alloys used for Coinage, PrO" 
cttdinga of the Society of Arts, 1884. 



6 Old English Plate. [chaf. i. 

However this may be, the necessity of alloying pare gold and silver 
is certain, and it is found that whilst silver or copper are the metals 
which can be most usefully employed in forming such an alloy with 
gold, copper only can be advantageously used for the alloy with 
silver. 

The admixture of silver alone with gold renders the alloy paler and 
greener than pure gold, whilst copper makes it more red. Copper 
and silver, when both present, make it of a yellow hue. In the case of 
silver it is found that the other white metals render it brittle and not 
easily workable. The maximum hardness of an alloy of silver is 
obtained when the copper amounts to one-fifth of the silver, but the 
colour is scarcely impaired when the alloy consists of equal parts of 
the two metals, hence a means of committing great frauds. 

. The proportions found by experience to produce the best results are, 
for gold twenty-two parts (in technical terms called carats) of fine or 
pure gold, and two parts of alloy ; and for silver 11 oz. 2 dwts. of fine 
silver and 18 dwts. of copper in the Troy pound of 12 oz., or in other 
words, 222 parts of fine silver to 18 such parts of copper. If the 
quality of silver is given in thousandth parts, as is often the case, our 
standard silver, which contains in every 1000 parts 926 of fine silver, 
would be reported as 925* fine, and the higher or Britannia standard, 
which will be presently mentioned, as 959* fine. Standard gold, 
expressed in the same way, is of millesimal fineness 916*66 ; whilst 
18-carat gold would be represented by 750*. It must be added with 
regard to the estimation of the fineness of gold in carats, that 
originally the Troy ounce was divided into twenty-four carats, and 
each carat into four grains, but the carat is now only understood to be 
the -^ part of the metal, and gold of twenty- two carats means a 
mixture of twenty-two parts of fine gold with two parts of alloy, gold 
of eighteen carats a mixture of eighteen parts of pure gold with six 
parts of alloy, and so on. 

Some interesting facts about these alloys are to be found in the 
Report for 1873 of Mr. W. Chandler-Roberts, F.R.S.,* chemist to the 
Royal Mint. He states that the alloying metal now employed for the 
English coinage, both gold and silver, is copper only, and that the 
gold-copper alloys, of one of which " standard " gold is formed, are 
practically homogeneous — that is to say, every part of the mixture is of 
the same quality. They are considered by Matthicssen to be " solidi- 
fied solutions of allotropic modifications of the metals in each other.'* 
The result in the case of standard silver alloy is not so satis- 



♦ Now Mr. W. C. RobertB'Austen, C.B., P.R.S. 



cBAP. I.] The English Standards. 7 

factory. This appears to be a " solidified mechanical mixture of two 
solutions, and the cooling of such an alloy is accompanied with a 
remarkable molecular re-arrangement, in Tirtue of which certain com- 
binations of the constituents of the molten alloy become segregated 
from the mass, and its homogeneous character is destroyed/' Por- 
tions taken from different parts of a trial plate of such metal would 
not necessarily be all of quite the same degree of fineness, though 
the whole plate as a mass might be of exactly the correct standard. 
Levol is said by Mr. Chandler-Boberts in this Beport to have proved, 
as the result of a series of experiments conducted in the Mint at Paris, 
that it is only the alloy containing 71 '893 per centum of silver which 
is absolutely homogeneous, and that while in alloys containing more 
silver than this amount, the centre of the solidified mass is richer 
than the exterior, in alloys of lower fineness than 71*893 per centum, 
the centre contains less silver than the external portions. Mr. 
Chandler-Boberts' own experiments upon standard silver confirm 
Levol's statement as to the concentration of silver towards the centre 
of the mass ; but they also prove that the molecular re-arrangement 
is comparatively slight if the mass is slowly and uniformly solidified. 

THE ENGLISH STANDARDS. 

The proportions which have been mentioned above, viz., for gold 22 
parts or carats of fine gold and 2 parts of alloy, and for silver 11 oz. 
2 dwts. of fine silver, and 18 dwts. of copper, are those which form 
our ''standard" or '^ sterling" alloys in England, and with small 
exception this has been so in the case of gold since the Bestoration in 
1660, and in the case of silver from far earlier times. They are 
signified whenever the expresssions '^ standard gold" and ''sterling 
silver " are used, and they are the standards of the present gold and 
silver coin of the realm. The word ** sterling" is derived, be it said 
with some doubt, from the name bv which the inhabitants of Eastern 
Germany, who were called Easterlings in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, were known. The purity of their money was famous, and 
it is said that coiners were fetched from thence to improve the quality 
of our own currency. 

In connection with this it may be noted, that a statute of 1343 (17 
Edw. III.), providing that good " sterling " money should be made in 
England, also provides that good Flemish money shall pass current, 
but voluntarily, that is to say, its circulation was permitted, without 
making its acceptance compulsory, nor the offer of it a legal 
tender. 



8 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. I. 



In many other countries besides our own, legislation on this subject 
has been found necessary or advisable, but as far as English plate is 
concerned, it is enough to detail the English standards, and even as 
regards these it will be convenient to reserve for the next chapter such 
more minute changes as are found to occur now and then in the course 
of the legal history of the goldsmith's craft. 

For the sake of clearness the following Table is appended, which 
will give at a glance a comparative view of the fineness of English 
gold and silver money, and gold and silver plate from time to 
time. 



compabative table of the standard fineness of gold money and 

Gold Plate. 



Gold Money. 



41 Henry III. 

18 Edw. III. 

to 
12 Chas. II. 

12 Charles II. 



\ 



Carats Udo. 



24 caratR (pnre gold). 
Varied from 23 c. 3^ gr. 

to 22 carats, but never 

lower than the latter. 

except from 37 Hen. 

VIII. to 3 Edw. VI., 

when it was 20 carats. 
22 carats, at which it 

has remained ever 

since. 



Gold Plate. 


Carats tine. 


28 Edward I. . 

17 Edward IV. . 
,18 Elizabeth 
1 38 George III. . 

17 & 18 Vict. . 


("Touch of Paris ")19J 
carats. 

18 carats. 

22 carats. 

22 carats and 1 8 carats. 

3 lower standards of 
15, 12, and 9 carats 
respectively added. 



Comparative Table of the Standard Fineness of Silver Monet and 

Silver Plate. 



Silver Money. 


Fine. Alloy. 


Silver Plate. 


Fine. Alloy. 




oz. dwts. oz. dwta. 




oz dwts. oz. dwts. 


28 Edward I. . 


11 2—0 18 


28 Edwanl I. . 


** As good as sterling." 




(being sterling silver.) 


8 A; 9 Will. III. . 


11 10—0 10 


34 Henry VIII. 


10 — 2 




(New sterling, or " Bri- 


36 ditto 


(50—6 




tannia " standard.) 


37 ditto 


4 0—8 


6 George I. . . 


11 2 — 18 


2 Edward VI. . 


6 0—6 




Being the old sterling 


4 ditto 


3 9 




standard restored ; 


6 ditto 


11 1 — 19 




this and the above 


1 Mary . , . 


11 — 1 




new sterling have 


2 Elizabeth . . 


11 2 — 18 




both been legal stan- 




Being sterling standard 




dards from 1720 to 




restored, at whivh it 




the present day. 




has remained ever 








since. 







It must be understood that the standard of fineness remained the 
same from any one date in the above table, until the next entry 
occurs. 

Formerly, the standard gold of the English coinage was alloyed 



CHAP. I.] Tlte English Standards. g 

with silver as well as copper, and it was consequently of the paler 
yellow colour we notice in the case of old sovereigns, and Australian 
sovereigns up to recent years. This older mixture contained according 
to the standard trial plates of 1728 and 1829 respectively, the follow- 
ing proportions of gold and alloying metals : 



Gold 

Silver 


1728 

.... 9161 i 

.... 60*4 


1829 

915-8 

37-6 


Copper 


.... 33-6 


46-5 



Since 1829 or thereahouts, copper only has been used as an alloy, 
and the specific gravity has been reduced from about 17*82 to 17'57 ; 
whilst more recently even the traces of silver existing in the natural 
gold have been removed. This is e£fected by passing a btream of 
chlorine gas through the molten gold, by a process invented by Mr. F. 
B. Miller, which purifies it not only from the silver, but from other 
metals, some of them injurious to the gold if required for coining 
purposes. This process has been of late years extensively employed 
for recovering silver from gold, and for toughening the latter metal. 
The trial plate of 1878 shows gold 916-61 and copper 88-39. The 
specific gravity of our English standard or sterling silver is lO'BO. 

The last three Mint trial plates for silver show respectively : — 

1728 1829 1873 

Silver 9289 925-0 924-96 

Copper 71-1 75-0 75*04 

The remedy or permitted variation from standard has varied from 
time to time in the case of gold as well as silver. The earliest known 
remedy for the gold coin, then of 23'8^ carats fine, was |^th a carat, or 
5-2 thousandths. This was allowed by Edward III., in 1845. The 
most ancient trial plate now preserved is for this standard, and is of 
the year 1477. It shows 

Gold 993-15 

Silver 5-15 

Copper, etc 1-35 

This, or sometimes ^th of a carat or 6*9 thousandths, remained the 
rule till 1649, since which time till 1817 ith of a carat has continually 
been the remedy for the 22-carat coinage gold. In this last year an 
effort was made to attain greater accuracy in the coinage, and the 
remedy was reduced from ^th to ^V^h of a carat, or 2*6 thousandths. 
It is now 2*0 thousandths. The silver remedy was 2 dwts. or 8*4 
thousandths from 1601 to 1817, when 1 dwt. or 4-2 thousandths was 
substituted. At the present time it is 4*0 thousandths. 



I 

I 

I 



lo Old English Plate. [chap. i. 

THE ASSAY. 

Proceeding to consider the modes by which the fineness of the 
precious metals and their alloys may be tested, we must not forget the 
old story of Hiero's golden crown, and how it was referred to Archi- 
medes to ascertain whether the suspicions of the king that it was 
alloyed with silver, were well founded. The picturesque account of 
his bath oyerflowing on his entering it, thereby suggesting to his 
philosophic mind a mode of solving the difficult problem, and of his 
flight home, forgetting even his garments in his haste, that he might 
set about it at once, may be true ; but certain it is that, well skilled 
in mechanics and hydrostatics, he used the means with which he was 
most familiar, and detected the fraud by the aid of what we should 
call the specific gravity of the metal, instead of by a chemical analysis^ 
at that time not understood. 

It will be obvious that a test depending entirely upon the weight 
and bulk of the object to be examined, as compared with water, can 
only be usefully applied to a mass of some metal, or of mixed metals, 
of the same density throughout and free from any hollows, for the 
occurrence of any foreign substance of a difierent specific gravity, or of 
hollow places in the middle of a mass, would render its application 
useless. 

It is, however, not without its value, and especially in the case of 
gold, owing to the very marked diflference between the weight of equal 
bulks of gold and of silver or copper, or a mixture of the two. A short 
table which has been compiled from figures given by a well-known 
professional assayer,* will show this very clearly : — 

1 cubic inch of pure gold sp. gr. 19-25 = 10*16 oz. Tioy. 

1 „ pure silver 10*47= 5*52 oz. „ 

1 ,, copper 8*72= 4*60 oz. „ 

1 „ 11 parts of silver and 7 of copper = 5*16 oz. „ 

(The usual alloy for gold.) 
1 „ equal parts of silver and copper = 6*06 oz. „ 

The writer now quoted draws attention to the fact that a quantity of 
the last alloy mentioned in this list is almost exactly half the weight 
of an equal bulk of pure gold. There are two cases in which these 
facts can be made of use ; if the quality of the metal be known, it can 
be ascertained whether an article made of it is solid throughout, or 
hollow; and again, if it be known to be solid throughout, as for 
instance in the case of a beaten plate of metal, its specific gravity will 

* Hu Book of Hall MarJc9f by A. Lutschaunig, London, 1872. 



CHAP. I.] The Assay. ii 

readily show whether it is formed of pure gold, or of gold mixed with 
alloy. Archimedes must have satisfied himself that Hiero^s crown was 
solid throughout, before he could have founded a decision that it was 
alloyed with silver on the fact that when immersed in a vessel con- 
taining water it displaced a certain greater quantity of water than was 
displaced when the same weight of pure gold was put into the vessel. 
It will of course be a good tost for articles suspected to be plated. 

But as these early times do not immediately concern the present 
inquiry, we must pass to the mode used in what are called the Middle 
Ages, and even in more modern times, of testing the fineness of gold 
and silver by the touchstone, or 'pierre de touche. King Henry VII. 
by his will directs that " there be made a tomb of stone called Touche 
sufficiently large both for our dearest late wife the Queen and ourself." 
This Touchstone or Basanite is an imperfect black jasper or black 
flinty slate, originally brought from Mount Tmolus in Lydia, and 
therefore called lapis Lydius ; it is, however, found in various parts of 
the world, and indeed any hard black siliceous substance, or even a 
piece of black pottery, will serve the purpose. The great Josiah 
Wedgwood made such, stamped with ^e'?kJ^ia'^ about 1770 or 1780. 

This mode of trying the fineness was called ** touching,'* and the 
word obtained for a long time after the adoption of the chemical 
assay. The word " touch " seems to have been applied indifferently 
to the trial, to the quality of the metal tested, and to the mark 
impressed upon it. A curious mention of the word in this last sense 
occurs in 1586, when it is said that a report was widely spread in the 
north country that everybody was to bring in his plate in order that it 
might have the "touch of the Tower" struck on it.* This has, 
however, in all probability little really to do with our present subject, 
most likely referring to a matter of taxation, and to what in modern 
French plate affairs is called a '' recense," and not to assaying 
generally. 

For the trial of gold, sets of touch-needles or bars were used, one 
set alloyed with copper, another with silver, and in some cases a third 
set alloyed with silVer and copper mixed, twenty-four in each set, 
according to the twenty-four carats' fineness of gold. The streak or 
touch made on the touchstone with the piece under examination was 
compared with the streaks made by the needles, these streaks were 
also washed with aquafortis, which dissolving the alloying metals, left 
the gold pure, and by the comparison its fineness was determined. 

For testing silver, sets of needles were also used. In Germany the 



• State Papers, Domestic, Henry VIIL (1686), Vol. XI., No. 768, fo. 296. 



12 Old English Plate, [chap. i. 

set consisted of sixteen, after the sixteen loth * according to which the 
standard of fineness was there computed, but doubtless the number 
varied in different countries according to the computation of the 
standard. In skilful hands much information could be derived from 
the sensations of greasiness or dryness, roughness or smoothness, 
imparted by the stroke ; but this test has been little used for many 
centuries, and it could never have been a satisfactory mode of ascer- 
taining the purity of silver, into which so much copper could be 
introduced without materially affecting its colour, though it is probable 
that the hardness of the alloy aided in the detection of fraud. The 
" touch," however, long continued the mode of trying gold, and indeed 
is even used at the present day for rough examinations. 

The period at which the chemical assay or assay by the cupel was 
first introduced is not exactly known, but it was certainly practised in 
the thirteenth century, and, as we shall see, was the mode of examination 
adopted by the authorities in the fourteenth century. In the latter it 
was practised at Montpellier in France, a city famous for its goldsmiths. 

In the following chapter we shall come to definite mention of the 
" Assay " in 1800, which is early enough for our purpose. 

The process of the azzay in contradistinction to the touch is as 
follows : — for gold, to a portion of metal scraped off the article to be 
examined, say about eight grains, after being accurately weighed, is 
added three times its weight of silver, and a proper proportion of lead, 
the latter by wrapping the gold and silver in a piece of sheet-lead. 
The whole is placed in a small shallow porous crucible made of bone 
ashes, called a cupel, and exposed to a bright-red heat ; the metals 
melt, and whilst the silver and gold combine, the lead and alloying 
metals become oxydised, and the oxides are absorbed by the cupel^ 
leaving a button of pure gold and silver. This button is then 
flattened, rolled out into a strip, which is then coiled into a sort of 
screw, called a '^ cornet ; " this is placed in hot diluted nitric acid, by 
which the silver is dissolved and the gold alone remains, the comet is 
then treated with stronger nitric acid, washed, and lastly made red- 
hot : when cold it is weighed again, and the difference between its 
present weight and the original weight of the scrapings carefully 
determined. For silver the process is much the same : a certain 
portion, usually about ten or twenty grains, is scraped off the article, 
some being taken from each separate part : this is wrapped in lead of 
proportionate weight, and the whole heated in the cupel. The result 



* The Cologne pound was divided into 2 marks, and each mark into 16 loth. The mark 
= 3608 gr. English. 



CHAP. I.] The Assay, i 



*> 



is the same as in the case of gold, except that the hntton remaining 
is of pure silver only ; the difference between the weight of this button 
and the original weight of the portion operated npon, shows the 
amount of alloy. The portion of metal taken off for examination is 
called the " diet." 

Of this process a minutely-detailed account is given in a small 
book published in 1675, called A Touchstone for Gold and Silver 
TVarea,* and the process is now carried on at Goldsmiths* Hall in 
precisely the same manner as then, even to the mode of folding up 
the papers to contain the scrapings of the metal to be assayed. If 
the article examined is found to be of the required fineness, the 
marks are stamped on it with punches; but if the metal is not 
of the proper quality, the article is crushed, and so delivered back 
to the maker. It is scarcely credible that every separate part of every 
separate article made of gold or silver (with the few exceptions that 
will appear later) in this country, goes through this process of exami- 
nation, either in London or in one of the provincial assay-towns, 
but such is the fact ; and the public are greatly indebted to the com- 
panies of goldsmiths, and especially to the great London guild, for the 
effectual protection afforded by their vigilance against the frauds which 
prevailed in earlier times. 

There is yet another mode of testing silver, an account of which 
has been partly taken from Brande and Cox's Dictionary of Science, 
Literature, and Art, together with some of the notes which follow 
it. This mode, the assay of silver in the humid way, may be adopted 
where the quality of the alloy is approximately known. The process 
depends upon the precipitation of the silver by a standard solution of 
common salt, each 1000 grains of which contain a sufficient quantity 
of salt to precipitate ten grains of silver, so that supposing the silver 
and the salt to be pure, ten grains of silver dissolved in nitric acid 
would be entirely precipitated by 1000 grains of the standard solution. 
The process is as simple as that of assaying by the cupel. The metal 
scrapings after being weighed are put into a small bottle and dissolved 
in nitric acid, to this solution is then added the standard solution of 
salt, as long as it produces cloudiness ; at the moment when no 
further change occurs, the number of measures of salt solution used 
is read off, and the fineness of the alloy determined with great accuracy 
by the amount of the standard solution of salt which has been required 
to precipitate completely the silver from its solution ; thus supposing 



* The title of the edition quoted is A New Touchstone for Gold and Silvrr WareSf by 
W. B., of London, goldsmith, 2 ed., 1679. 



14 Old English Plate. [chap. i. 

we were operating npon fine silver, we should have used 1000 such 
measures, but with the same weight of sterling silver, say silver coin, 
925 only would have been required. 

It may be that assaying by means of the spectroscope may some day 
supersede these older methods, but the attempts which have been 
made as yet in this direction have only served to prove that in the 
present state of science, little or no practical use can be made of this 
beautiful instrument for assaying purposes. 

Some experiments made by Mr. Chandler-Boberts at the mint with 
Professor Hughes' Induction Currents Balance seem to show that it 
is more probable that some day electricity may be pressed into the 
service of the assayer. A detailed description of this invention would 
be out of place here, suffice it to say, that it is capable of revealing the 
existence of very minute proportions of gold in silver, and of silver in 
gold, and thus, already useful in the examination of certain alloys of 
the precious metals, may eventually become of practical value in 
assaying them. It was thought at first that by its means when 
combined with what Professor Hughes calls a Bonometer^ and with a 
telephone, the di£ference might be detected in the sound produced by 
two shillings both fresh from the Mint, one of which has been rubbed 
between the fingers and the other not.* This is perhaps rather 
more than can be said to have been really accomplished as yet, but it 
will doubtless be achieved at no very distant day. 

Enough has now been said about processes, which after all can 
only be carried out by expert hands, and we may pass on to a few 
notes of general utility belonging to the chemical part of the subject, 
referring those whom the subject of practical assaying may interest to 
the standard works on Metallurgy, especially Dr. Percy's volume on 
Silver. 

A word will be expected about the " frosted " silver, and what is 
called the " coloured " gold, that is so often seen in the windows of 
the goldsmiths' shops: and first, what is ''coloured gold?" It is 
metal from the immediate surface of which the copper or other alloy 
has been removed, so as to leave an outer coat of pure gold. An 
article treated in this way has all the appearance of being made of 
purer gold than it is, but the coating of fine gold is one of almost 
inconceivable thinness, ** not thicker," says Mr. Lutschaunig, " than 
the hundredth part of the breadth of a hair. It is the same as if the 
article were gilt or electro-plated, only that in the one instance the 
alloy is taken out of the gold on the surface, leaving the pure gold, 



Nineteenth Century Review, October, 1879. 



cHAi». I.] Care of Old Plate. 15 

and that in the other the gold is put on. Any gold over nine carats 
can be coloured by boiling in nitric acid, or other preparation acting 
in the same manner." "Frosted" silver is silver similarly dealt 
with. If silver mixed with copper, our own standard silver for 
example, be heated to a dull red heat in air, it becomes of a black 
colour from the formation of a film of oxide of copper, and if this be 
removed by its being dipped in hot diluted sulphuric acid, the silver 
becomes of the beautiful white appearance called " frosted " silver, 
owing to a film of pure silver being left on its immediate surface.^ 
We find the celebrated London silversmith of the last century, Paul 
Lamerie, who died in 1751, directing in his will that all the plate in 
hand at the time of his death should be '^ forthwith finished and made 
fit for sale by being hoileA and burnished." New coins owe their 
brilliancy to this mode of treatment before being struck, the darker 
appearance of their projecting parts after some wear is occasioned 
by the alloy showing through the pure surface. Articles of plate 
may also be deadened, matted, or frosted by being boiled in bi-sulphate 
of potash, which acts in the same way as the diluted sulphuric 
acid. 

The bad quality of the silver of which base coin or any other article 
of base metal is made may be detected immediately by the use of a 
solution of common nitrate of silver. If thirty grains of this salt be 
dissolved in an ounce of distilled water, and a drop or two of the 
solution be placed upon the suspected coin or metal, a brown or black 
film or spongy mass of metallic silver will appear in the case of base 
metal, and its quantity will form a rough measure of the degi*ee of 
baseness. 

Some interesting directions for the care and cleaning of silver-gilt 
plate, are preserved with the church-plate of Stinsford, in Dorsetshire.! 
They are dated June, 1787, and are headed '' Directions to keep the 
Gilt Plate clean from the Silversmith that made it," the silversmith 
being none other than Paul Lamerie himself. They run as follows : — 
"Clean it now and then with only warm water and soap, with a 
Spunge, and then wash it with clean water, and dry it very well with 
a soft Linnen Cloth, and keep it in a dry place, for the damp will spoyle 
it." Compare with this extract, the instructions given by the silver- 
smith who made the plate for Carlisle Cathedral in 1679, for they are 
equally well worth our attention. " Be carefuU," he says, " to wipe it 
with a clean soft linnen cloatb, and if there chance be any staines or 



* In Mint language this is called ''blanching." 
t ThA Church Plate of Dorset, Salisbury, 1889. 



1 6 Old English Plate. [chap. i. 

spotts that \7ill not easily come off with a little water, the cloath being 
dipp'd therein, and so rubb the flagons and chalices from the topp to 
the Bottome, not crosswise, but the Bason and patens are to be rubb'd 
roundwise, not acrosse, and by noe means use either chaike, sand, or 
salt." * These last words cannot be too strongly emphasised. It is 
sad to see how much damage has been done to beautiful old plate by 
excessive rubbing and the use of injurious cleaning materials. The 
simple directions given above by Paul Lamerie and his brother silver- 
smiths are still as good a guide as those can wish for, who value their 
old silver and silver-gilt plate. 

GOLDSMITHS* WEIGHTS. 

In former times the Tower pound, or ^pou d^orfevres^ the old pound 
sterling of silver, was used by the goldsmiths, and in the earlier 
inventories, such as those of the Treasury of the Exchequer and in 
the Wardrobe Accounts, the weight of articles of plate is recorded in 
such pounds^ and in marks, shillings, and pence for sub-divisions. 
This ancient pound was equal to 5400 grains Troy, and was divided 
into twenty shillings, and these last into twelve pence or pennyweights ; 
the mark was two thirds of the Tower pound. 

These, however, ceased to-be legal mint weights in the reign of 
Henry VIII. They had long before that fallen out of common use, 
but in 1526-7 (18 Hen. VIEI.) the Tower pound was abolished by 
royal proclamation. The Troy pound then substituted for the Tower 
pound is said to have been introduced into England as early as the 
great French wars of the reign of Edward III., or perhaps earlier, and 
its name was no doubt derived from the French town of Troyes, 
where a celebrated fair was held. It has been used ever since by the 
trade of goldsmiths for all gold and silver wares in England, but as 
its sub-divisions are not so commonly known as the avoirdupois weights 
of commercial life, it will be useful to give in addition to a table of the 
Troy weights, a table by which the weight of plate as ascertained by 
the ordinary domestic avoirdupois scale, may be easily and quickly 
converted into the Troy reckoning by which it would have to be valued 
or sold. 

TROY WEIGHTS. 

24 grains = 1 dwt. (pennyweight). 
480 grains = 20 dwts. = 1 oz. (ounce). 
5760 grains = 240 dwts. = 12 oz. = 1 lb. (pound). 

* Old Church Plate in the Diocese of CarlidCf by B. S. Ferguson, M.A., F.S.A. London, 
1882. 



Ov 



CHAP. I.] Goldsmiths' Weights, 17 

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHTS. 

4374 grains = 1 oz. 
7000 grains = 16 oz. = 1 lb. 

The grain is the same in both cases. 

COMPABATIVE TABLK OP TROY AND AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHTS. 



AvoirdujwU, 




Troy. 




Atoirdupoii, 




Troy, 




J oz. = 


— 4 dwts. 


m gr. 


8 oz. = 


7oz. 


5 dwts. 


20 gr. 


i » = 


— 9 


11 


2J„ 


9 „ = 


8 » 


4 


)f 


li» 


1 „ = 


— 18 


M 


H M 


10 „ = 


9 » 


2 


»» 


7 „ 


2 „ = 


1 oz. 16 


>» 


11 „ 


11 « = 


10 „ 





»j 


12J „ 


3 „ = 


2 „ 14 


>» 


164,, 


12 „ = 


10 „ 


18 


»t 


18 „ 


4 „ = 


3 „ 12 


If 


22 „ 


13 „ = 


11 » 


16 


)) 


23i., 


6 „ = 


4 „ 11 


»l 


34 m 


H „ = 


12 „ 


15 


M 


6 „ 


6 „ = 


5 „ n 


>» 


9 » 


16 „ = 


13 „ 


13 


n 


10i„ 


7 „ = 


6 „ 7 


n 


H4„ 


16 „ = 


H „ 


11 


fi 


18 „ 



192 oz, (12 lbs.) Aroirdupois = 175 oz. Troy, being 84,000 gr. each. 

The weight of an article of plate was always given in ounces and 
pennyweights ; thus 5 Ih. 5 oz. 5 dwts. would he called 65 oz. 5 dwts^ 
but it is now-a-days given in ounces and decimal parts of an ounce, 
in compliance with modern legislation on the subject. It will be 
convenient also to remember that a pound Troy of standard gold is 
coined in England into 46f^ sovereigns, .the weight of a sovereign 
being 128"27447 gr. A pound Troy of sterling silver is coined into 
66 shillings, the weight of a shilling being 87*27272 gr., and of a 
sixpence 43'63636 gr. New silver coins, therefore, to the amount of 
6b, 6d, will weigh an ounce Troy, and could be used at that rate as a 
substitute for ordinary weights on an emergency. The intrinsic value 
of plate made of sterling standard silver would be at present (June, 
1894) prices about 2«. 5d. per ounce, or a very little more. 



MINT PRICES FOR GOLD. 

Lastly, dividing the number of sovereigns contained in one pound 
Troy of standard gold by twelve, the value of an ounce of such gold 
(22 carat) will be found to be £S 17«. lOJd., or 3«. 6Jd. for each -^ 
part (or carat) of fine gold in the ounce weight. The following table 
gives the value per ounce of all the other qualities of gold that it has 
been necessary to mention, at this Mint price. No account is taken 
of the material used for alloying the gold, which would in any case be 
of trifling value. The alloying metal in an ounce of 22 carat gold, if 
sterling silver alone were used for the alloy, would hardly be worth 
2ld, at the present market price of silver : in other words the silver 



iB Old English Plate. [chap. i. 

in a sovereign made of sach an alloy, would be worth less than a 
single penny. 

£ «. d, 

24 carats (or pnre gold) 4 4 11iperoz 

23 car. 3^ gr. (old gold coin. See table, p. 8 4 4 6^ „ 

22 car. ( present gold coin and first goldware standard) 3 17 10^ „ 

20 car. (gold coin temp. Hen. VIIL ):>ee table, p. 8. Also an Irish 

standard) 3 10 94 „ 

19J car. (touch of Paris. See table, p. 8; 8 7 llj „ 

18 car. (second goldware standard) 3 3 8^ „ 

16 car. (third ditto) 2 13 1 „ 

12 car. (fourth ditto) 2 2 of „ 

9 car. (fifth ditto) 1 11 lOJ „ 



CHAPTER II. 

THB MEDIEVAL GUILDS OF GOLDSMITHS IN FBAKCK AKD ENGLAND — THB GOLD- 
SMITHS' COMPANY OF LONDON— BEGULATIONS OF THE GOLDSMITHS' GUILD 
AT MONTPELLIEB— CHABTEBS OF THE LONDON GOLDSMITHS AND EABLY 
LEGISLATION BBLATING TO THEM AND THEIB MABKS— THE COBONATION 
BEGALIA — THE BANKEB GOLDSMITHS — LEGISLATION FBOM THB TIME OF 
CHABLES II.— TABLE OF LONDON MABKS. 

Thebe are no articles in the manufacture of which such extensive 
frauds can be committed in so small a compass as in those made of 
the precious metals, and there are no frauds more difficult of detection 
by ordinary persons. We have seen, too, that whilst a certain amount 
of base metal must needs be introduced into all such articles, it is only 
by a minute scientific examination that the proportion of base metal 
so introduced can be known for certain, and but few persons can possess 
either the skill or the means to conduct the necessary operations. 
The great profit to be made by fraudulent practices, the difficulty of 
detection, and the consequent probability of escape from it and from 
punishment, have at all times exposed the dishonest workman to 
irresistible temptations. In very early times, those who carried on 
particular trades or handicrafts were accustomed to form themselves 
into guilds or fraternities for the purpose of protecting and regulating 
the trade, or mystery as it was called, which they exercised. These 
were at subsequent periods incorporated by royal charters, which gave 
them power and authority to carry out these objects more e£fectually. 
Amongst such associations, those of the goldsmiths seem to have been 
early formed in many countries of Europe. In 1260 it became 
necessary for the provost of Paris to issue a code of statutes for the 
regulation of the goldsmiths, who abeady existed there as a corporate 
body. Not only was gold of an inferior quality substituted for good 
gold, but articles made of laten were gilt and palmed off for gold, and 
pewter was silvered and sold for the genuine metal. In these statutes, 
gold is ordered to be of " the touch of Paris," and silver as good as 
" Sterlings" (esterlins), which was the standard of the English coin, 
as we have seen. In 1300 the mark of Paris was known even abroad, 
for it is referred to in the English Wardrobe Accounts of that year 
(28 Edw. I.) in these terms : — 

2 



20 



Old English Plate, 



[CHAP. II. 



'' 8 coclear* argenti signata in coUo signo Parisius, scilt. de qnodam 
flore glegelli." 

A second and more extensive code was issued by John 11. of France, 
in the shape of Letters of Confirmation given at St. Onen in Aug. 
1855,* when it was ordered that every goldsmith who was approved 
by the masters of the craft should have a puncheon with a counter- 
mark of his own. Amongst other things they were forbidden to work 
in gold unless it be of the touch of Paris, or better, and the statutes 
add that this standard is better than all the gold which they work in 
other lands {en viille terres), and that its fineness is nineteen and one- 
fifth carats. They are also forbidden to work in base metal, to use 
false stones of glass, or to put coloured foil beneath real stones. 
Their silver was to be argent de roy, 11 deniers 12 grains fine,! and 
jurors {prudhommea) were appointed to guard the trade, with power 
to punish those who worked in bad metal. At Montpellier the gold- 
smiths in the fourteenth century constituted a fraternity governed by 
statutes, and they had a standard of their own, which, however, does 
not seem to have been a high one, since silver might contain one-third 
part of alloy, or such silver as would come white out of the fire, and 
gold of fourteen carats fine might be worked. They were expressly 
forbidden to manufacture articles in gilt or silvered copper or brass, 
save ornaments and utensils for churches, to mount real stones in 
jewellery of base metal, or to set false stones in gold or silver. We 
shall presently see how much light the history of the goldsmiths of 
Montpellier throws upon that of their English brethren. 

At Nuremberg and Augsburg, cities most famous for their metal- 
workers, as well as in many other places, similar guilds of goldsmiths, 
regulated by statutes, existed. 

In England a fraternity or guild of goldsmiths had existed from an 
early period, for in 1180, the twenty-sixth year of the reign of Henry 
n., it was amongst other guilds amerced from being adulterine, that is, 
set up without the king's licence. It was not, however, incorporated 
by charter for nearly a hundred and fifty years after this time, although 
it had special duties assigned to it, one of the duties of the wardens 
of the craft being to protect their trade against fraudulent workers by 
holding official examinations of the above-mentioned kinds, and placing 
marks upon articles so examined. 



* CoUeetion de pieces relatives d Vhistoire 
de Franeey par C. Leber, Parii, 1838. Vol. 
XIX. 348. 

t Denier was the term ased in France to 
denote the fineneas of silver as carat is for 
gold. The silver is divided into twelve 



deniers, and each denier into two oboles or 
twenty-four grains ; hence silver of twelve 
deniers was pure, and eleven deniers one 
obole had only one twenty-fourth pari aUoy. 
This quality was the Argent de Roy, 



CHAP. II.] 



Early Goldsmiths^ Guilds. 



21 



Some such marks must have been necessary in order to certify to 
the purchaser, and for other purposes, a certain standard purity of 
metal in articles so examined, and the official stamps by which it was 
certified seem to have been the origin of the marks which are found 
on the gold and silver plate of most countries. 

Every person who is possessed of any article of gold or silver plate, 
has, most probably, observed a small group of marks stamped upon 
some part of it. Few, perhaps, have regarded them in any other 
light than as a proof that the article so marked is made of the metal 
of which it is professed to be made, and that the metal itself is of a 
certain purity. And this is, in fact, the ultimate intention of these 
marks ; but besides this the archaeologist can often deduce from them 
other important and interesting information, — as to the year in which 
any article bearing them was made ; the place at which it was made, 
or at all events, assayed ; the maker's name, and other particulars. 
As regards England, an historical notice of the Goldsmiths' Company 
of London and its charters, and the legislation which from time to 
time has regulated the trade of the goldsmith, will elucidate in its 
course the meaning of all the marks to be found on English plate. 

Some notes of the provincial guilds and assay offices, including 
those of Scotland and Ireland, and of their respective marks, will be 
reserved for separate chapters. 

Except for the early trace of a guild in 1180, which has already 
been noticed, we have to wait until the commencement of the thir- 
teenth century before we come to any definite regulation of the 
mystery of the goldsmiths of London, and even then their formal 
incorporation had not yet taken place. However, by this time they 
were a numerous and powerful craft, for in an afiray which occurred 
in 1267 between the goldsmiths and the tailors, those trades met and 
fought to the number of 500 men on each side, of whom some were 
killed, the dead being, it is said, thrown into the Thames, and others 
wounded before the bailiffs of the city could part them and apprehend 
the ringleaders, some of whom were hanged.* But, truth to say, 
their turbulence was not their only failing, for the frauds that seemed 
so common in France had their place also in England, and by the 
year 12S8 were of such extent as to call for a mandate from the king, 
to be found in the Close Bolls of that year.f This, which is entitled 
" De auro fabricando in civitate Londoniarum,*' ' commands the 



* ChromeUi of the Mayor and Sheriffs of 
London, edited by H. T. Riley, London, 
1863. Such affrays are alao mentioned in 



Herbert's History of the London Livery 
Companies, 
t Close Boll, 22 Henry III., m. 6. 



22 Old English Plate. [chap. ii. 

mayor and aldermen to choose six of the more discreet goldsmiths of 
the city, who were to superintend the craft, seeing that no craftsman 
worked any gold of which a mark was not worth a hundred shillings 
at least, nor any silver of less intrinsic value than the king's money — 
** quod 71011 valeat in se quantum valeat moneta Regis,** They were 
also to prevent anyone working in secret, or anywhere hut in the 
puhlic street, to see that gold hore no colour hut its own, except in 
the case of gold thread, and that no one put gold upon laton or copper. 
There are also provisions as to the use of precious and counterfeit 
stones. 

Fifty years later, the first actual statute on the subject, passed in 
1800, recognizes these discreet goldsmiths by the name of wardens, 
and for the first time establishes their powers on a firm basis, 
ordaining as follows, viz. (28 Edward I., Stat. 3, cap. 20) : — " That 
no goldsmith should make any vessel, jewel, or other thing of gold or 
silver unless it be of good and true alloy, t.e., gold of the standard of 
the touch of Paris (tuche de Pai-ys) and silver of the sterling alloy, or 
better (argent del alloy de le esteiiing ou de meilleur), and that none 
work worse silver than money. And that no vessel of silver depart 
out of the hands of the workers until it be assayed by the wardens of 
the craft, and marked with the leopard's head (e q*ele soit sign'ee de 
une teste de leopart). That the wardens (gardiens) should go from 
shop to shop {de shape en shope) among the goldsmiths and assay 
(assaient) the gold, and if they should find any other, it should be 
forfeit to the King. That no false stones should be set in gold, and 
that all the good towns of England where any goldsmith be dwelling 
shall be ordered according to this Estatute as they of London be, and 
that one shall come from every good town for all the residue that be 
dwelling in the same unto London for to be ascertained of their Touch. 
And if any goldsmith be attainted that he hath done otherwise, he 
shall be punished by imprisonment and by ransom at the King's 
pleasure." 

Here, then, we have mention, not only of wardens of the craft, 
but of an assay and of a distinct mark for standard metal. Mr. 
Octavius Morgan notes that the phraseology of this statute more than 
suggests that such a mark was now ordered for the first time, it being 
termed " vne teste." This is indeed an important step in the history 
of which we are tracing the course. It is the earliest mention too, of 
an assay. 

Now that the duty of the wardens is laid down, we have naturally 
not long to wait for the regular incorporation of a Goldsmiths' guild 
in London, and in 1S27 it was so incorporated by letters-patent from 



CHAP. II.] The London Goldsmiths. 23 

Edward m., under the name of '' The Wardens and Commonalty of 
the Mystery of Goldsmiths of the City of London." 

This charter, which is in old French, and is dated SO May, 1 Edw. 
in., is given at length, hoth in French and English, in Herbert's 
History of the London Livery Companies. It first recites and then 
grants as follows : — ^that the goldsmiths of oar City of London had by 
their petition exhibited to the King and Council in Parliament holden 
at Westminster, shown that theretofore no private merchants or 
strangers were wont to bring into this land any money coined, but 
plate of silver to exchange for our coin ; that it had been ordained 
that all of the trade of goldsmiths were to sit in their shops in the 
High-Street of Cheap, and that no silver or gold plate ought to be sold 
in the city of London except in the King's Exchange or in Cheap, 
among the goldsmiths, and that publicly, to the end that persons in 
the trade might inform themselves whether the seller came lawfully 
by it : but that of late both private merchants and strangers bring 
from foreign lands counterfeit sterling whereof the pound is not worth 
sixteen sols of the right sterling, and of this money none can know 
the right value but by melting it down ; and that many of the trade 
of goldsmiths do keep shops in obscure streets, and do buy vessels of 
gold and silver secretly without inquiring whether such vessels were 
stolen or come lawfully by, and immediately melting it down, make it 
into plate, and sell it to merchants trading beyond sea, and so make 
false work of gold, silver, and jewels, in which they set glass of divers 
colours, counterfeiting right stones, and put more alloy in their silver 
than they ought, which they sell to such as have no skill in such 
things ; and that the cutlers cover tin with silver so subtilely and with 
such sleight that the same cannot be discovered nor separated, and so 
sell the tin for fine silver, to the great damage and deceipt of us and 
our people ; we, with the assent of our lords spiritual and temporal, 
and the commons of our realme, will and grant for us and our heirs 
that henceforth no one shall bring into this land any sort of money, 
but only plate of fine silver, and that no plate of gold or silver be sold 
to sell again, or be carried out of the kingdom, but shall be sold 
openly for private use ; that none of the trade shall keep any shop, 
except in Cheap, that it may be seen that their work be good ; that 
those of the trade may by virtue of these presents elect honest and 
sufficient men, best skilled in the trade, to inquire of the matters 
aforesaid, and that they who are so chosen reform what defects they 
shall find, and inflict punishment on the offenders, and that by the 
help of the mayor and sheriffs, if need be ; that in all trading cities 
in England where goldsmiths reside, the same ordinance be observed 



24 Old English Plate. [chap. u. 

as in London, and that one or two of every such city or town for the 
rest of the trade shall come to London to be ascertained of their touch 
of gold, and there to have a stamp of a pancheon of a leopard's head 
marked upon their work as it was anciently ordained. 

For some years they were governed by the provisions of this charter, 
but in 1868 further legislation became necessary, and by an Act of 
that year (87 Edw. III. cap. 7) it was ordained that so goldsmith, 
as well in London as elsewhere within the realm, should work any 
gold or silver but of the alloy of good sterling {plXoy de bon 
esterlyng) ; that every master goldsmith should have a mark by 
himself which should be known by them who should be assigned to 
survey their work and allay ; that the goldsmiths should not set their 
mark till their work was assayed ; and that after the assay made, the 
surveyor should set the king's mark upon it, and then the goldsmith 
his mark for which he should answer; that no goldsmith should 
charge for silver vessel but Is. 6d. for the pound of two marks as 
at Paris ; that no silversmith should meddle with gilding ; and that 
no gilder should work in silver. This brings us another stage, and 
introduces us to a maker's mark for the first time in England. We 
have a standard mark since 1800, and now a maker's mark dating 
from 1868. 

It is pretty clear that in the fourteenth century, owing to the 
frauds committed, a great move was made throughout Europe with 
respect to goldsmiths, France and perhaps Montpellier taking the 
lead. 

Turn we therefore, by the way, to Montpellier, of whose history the 
Publications de la Soditi Archeologique de Montpellier give many 
interesting particulars, and we find that by 1855 a dispute which had 
arisen between the consuls of the town and the goldsmiths, in conse- 
quence of the great abuses introduced into the trade of the latter, led 
to the following regulations of that year : — 

That all vessels and works of silver made by the argentiers of 
Montpellier must be of the standard of eleven deniers and one obole, 
or twelve grains, at the least.* The goldsmiths were to make two 
patterns or trial pieces of silver, of the standard of eleven deniers 
fourteen grains, marked with the puncheon of Montpellier (for 
Philippe le Hardi had, in 1275, ordained that each city should have 
a particular mark for works in silver), after which the goldsmiths 
should work with an allowance of two grains. One of these trial 
pieces should be kept at the consulate, and the other by the warden of 



See note, p. 90. 



CHAP. II.] Ordinances of Montpellier. 25 

the goldsmiths. That a third trial piece shall he made of eleven 
deniers and one ohole, also marked, which should remain with the 
consuls for trial with suspected works. Every master silversmith 
should mark with a particular mark the pieces of his work, and 
deliver them himself to the warden. The warden, before marking the 
piece with the puncheon of Montpellier, should remove a portion of 
the silver, called, in the language of Montpellier, " borihl " (a technical 
term for a portion of metal removed with a buril, burin or graver, for 
the purpose of the assay), which he should put into a box, keeping a 
separate box for each workman, and once or twice a year make an 
assay of these "borihls," and if the standard was found below the 
eleven deniers one obole they should denounce the worker to the 
consuls, who should make a second assay, and if they found the fraud 
confirmed, should deliver him over to justice. Moreover the wardens 
might break such articles as seemed to them insufficient. In the 
original documents nothing is said of the method of performing the 
operation of the assay ; but as it is expressly ordered that in assaying 
the trial pieces and '' borihls '' the same ashes (probably bone- ashes to 
form the crucible), lead and fire, should be used, it is clear that the 
assay was by the cupel. 

Nothing had hitherto been done or said about gold ; but though less 
worked than silver there were equal abuses ; and in 1401 the consuls 
and wardens of the mystery, assisted by several argentiers, made a 
regulation in presence of the consuls of the city, by which the standard 
of gold, which originally was only fourteen carats and had by a subse- 
quent decree been raised to eighteen carats, was now reduced to sixteen 
carats ; and there is here a question of the trial of gold by the "touch," 
showing that it was then in use. 

In the fifteenth century abuses and frauds in the trade had greatly 
multiplied. Public clamour was raised against the principal silver- 
smiths for working below the standard of 1855. A process was 
instituted against them in 1427. The consuls seized several of their 
works, had them assayed, found them fraudulent, and made the 
makers appear before the tribunal. In their defence they pleaded 
that the ordinances of 1855 were obsolete with regard to small 
** orfevreries." They were condemned to pay a fine of ten marks of 
silver each, and on appeal the sentence was confirmed. They claimed 
exemption from marking girdles and small works. An inquest was 
held, and the following ordinances resulted, which were solemnly 
renewed in 1486 with still stricter conditions, and they show with 
what care the fabrication of works of gold and silver was regulated. 
To ensure the legal standard they ordained, besides the ordinary 



26 Old English Plate. [chap, h. 

precaution of the box, the '' borihls/' the trial pieces, and the name 
of the silverBmith, that the name of the warden of the mystery, 
inscribed on the register of the city and on the private book of the 
silversmiths, should be followed by one of the letters of the alphabet, 
which should be reproduced beneath the shield of arms {ecusson) at 
the town on each work, in order that it might be known under what 
warden it was made. These proceedings of the goldsmiths of Mont- 
pellier are highly interesting, since they not only give us an account 
of the frauds and the alteration of the standard, together with the 
particulars of the assay, which in its system with the box and trial- 
pieces bears a very strong analogy to our trial of the Pyx,* but also 
give us the date, origin and establishment of three very important 
marks, viz., the mark of the country or city, the mark of the maker, 
and the annual letter, two of which we had already adopted in this 
country, whilst the use of the third, the annual letter, was soon to be 
established. 

If we may turn aside for a moment to see how the goldsmiths put 
their powers into actual use, we gather that their original charter 
must have served its purpose to some extent. Proceedings taken 
against one Peter Bandolfe, a Latoner, are enough to show that it was 
at all events not a dead letter in 1876, for upon interrogation for 
exposing two circlets for mazers of mixed silver, we find him promising 
not to interfere with the goldsmiths' trade again, f 

The names of many of the great London goldsmiths of this gene- 
ration are known. Thomas Hessey was the king's goldsmith in 1866, 
and Nicholas Twyford held the same office shortly afterwards; the 
latter is mentioned in accounts of 1879. The names of John de 
Chichester and Thomas Beynham, John Hiltoft and also his executors. 



* The important duty of testing the 
purity of the coinage from time to time has 
been entrusted for ages to the Goldsmiths* 
Company. The ceremony of doing this has 
been conducted with the same formalities 
from time immemorial, and is called ''The 
trial of the Pyx. " Such a trial is known to 
have taken place in 9 & 10 Edw. I., and it 
has been held at short but irregular int'Crvals 
ever since ; it is now an annual event. A 
specimen coin, taken formerly from each 
"journey" or day*8 work, but in modem 
days from each melting of metal, whether 
gold or silver, is placed in a chest kept at 
the Mint, called the Pyx. At the proper 
time a jury of the Goldsmiths' Company is 
summoned, who after being sworn and 
solemnly charged, proceed to an assay of the 
coins found in the Pyx, and to compare their 
quality with the standard trial plates in the 



custody of the Warden of the Standards. 
Their yerdict is the deliverance of the 
authorities of the Mint, who are virtually 
placed upon their trial. Since the Coinage 
Act of 1870, the proceedings have been 
somewhat shorn of their circumstance, owing 
to the jury being summoned to Goldsmiths' 
Hall, and there charged by the Queen's 
Remembrancer, instead of by the Lord 
Chancellor himself at Westminster, where 
the assay was formerly conducted, in an 
apartment specially prepared for the pur- 
pose. The mode of procedure thenceforward 
to be adopted on these occasions is com- 
pletely set forth in the above Coinage Act 
(33 Vict, c 10), and in the Queen's Order 
in Council of 29 June, 1871. 

t Riley's Memorials of London and 
London Life in ike XII L^ XIV., and XV. 
centuries. London, 1868, p. 898. 



CHAP, il] Charters of the Goldsmiths^ Company. 2 7 

all occur in the Wardrobe Accounts as enjoying royal patronage 
between this time and the end of the century. The great goldsmith, 
Sir Drew Barentyn, who died in 1415, was a man of more than civic 
note. 

Here, however, the charter of Edward III. was found insufScient 
for want of proper persons being named in it ; therefore Richard 11. 
in 1892-8 re-incorporated them by another charter dated 6 Feb. 
16 Ric. n., confirming the first and giving them power to choose 
wardens and other officers. 

Edward IV. in 1462 not only confirmed the charter of Richard EE., 
but constituted the Goldsmiths' Company a body corporate and 
politic, with perpetual succession, power to use a common seal, hold 
lands, etc., and by this charter dated 80 May, 2 Ed. IV., invested 
them with a privilege of searching, inspecting, trying, and regulating 
all gold and silver wares, in the city of London, and the suburbs 
thereof, and in all fairs and markets, and all cities, towns and 
boroughs, and all other places whatsoever throughout our kingdom of 
England, with power to punish oflfenders for working adulterated gold 
or silver. These powers were continually exercised, and from the 
records of the Company it appears that periodical progresses through 
the country were made by the assay-wardens for that purpose. 
Several kings at various times have given them new charters, 
enlarging and confirming the older ones. The latest are Inspeximvs 
Charters of James I. (2 Jac. I.), and Charles II. (18 Car. 11.), which 
recite and confirm all those previously granted. The latter of these 
is recited in the Act of 12 Geo. II., c. 26, and empowered the wardens 
to commit offenders to prison and to set fines upon them. The guild 
thus incorporated is now one of the greatest and wealthiest of the 
City Companies, and one to which the archseologist and antiquary are 
indebted for the ready information and assistance it has given to those 
who have from time to time sought permission to consult its records, 
which, commencing about 1881, are carried down to the present day. 
They consist of the wardens' accounts, which begin in that year and 
amount to many large volumes, the ordinances, and other books 
relating to their estates, all of which contain curious and interesting 
particulars. The members of the fraternity were originally all gold- 
smiths, as mentioned in their first charter, and the Company is 
governed by a Prime Warden, three other wardens, and twenty-one 
assistants, with a livery of 160 members, exclusive of honorary 
members and members by special grant. The wardens are now 
annually elected on May 29th ; previously, however, to the Restora- 
tion, in compliance with their ordinances, St. Dunstan's Day, beiug 



28 Old English Plate. [chap. n. 

that of their patron saint, was their proper day of election. On the 
day of election, when the new Prime Warden enters upon the duties 
of his office, the new punches for the mark having heen prepared, are 
delivered by him to the officers of the Assay Office. Formerly the 
old punches were all preserved, but not many years ago the 
accumulation being very great and found inconvenient, it was 
considered that such a mass of old iron was useless, and they were 
destroyed. It is much to be regretted that impressions were not 
taken of them on a copper-plate previous to their destruction, though 
it is hardly probable that there were any earlier than the time of the 
fire of London in 1666. 

The ordinances or statutes of the Company are contained in a fine 
MS. on vellum, with illuminated initial letters. It is therein stated 
that '' thys boke was made and ordeynyd by Hugh Bryce, Altherman, 
Henry Coote, Mylys Adys, and Willyam Palmer, wardens, the xx day 
of September in the yere of our lorde god MccccLXXvnj and in the 
xviu yere of the Beigne of King Edward the fourth. Humfrey Hay- 
ford then Mayre of the Cyte of london, John Stokker and Henry 
Golett, Sheryffys of the same Cyte." The index of the same volume 
is further described as follows : '' Thys Kalendar was made and 
ordeynyd for this boke by Henry Coote, Stephyn Kelke, John Emest, 
and Alen Newman, wardens, the last day of August in the yere of oure 
lorde god mcccclxxxuj and in the fiurst yere of the Beygne of King 
Bichard the thiyd. Sir Edmond Shaa, Knyght, then Mayre of the 
Cyte of london, Willia Whyte and John Mathew, Sheryflfys of the 
same Cyte." 

It contains first the oaths for the wardens and officers ; and secondly 
the ordinances for the government of the Company, which chiefly 
consist of regulations for the masters of the craft and the taking, 
keeping and conduct of apprentices ; but also " for the working of 
gold and silver to the standard, and how it shall be delivered." The 
following may be quoted as examples : — 

'' Also it is ordeyned that no goldsmith of England, nor nowhere 
else within the realme, work no manner of vessel nor any other thing 
of gold nor silver, but if it be of the verry alloy according to the 
standard of England, called sterling money or better." 

" That no manner of vessel or any other thing be borne out from 
the hands of the workers, nor sold till it be assayed by the wardens of 
the craft or their deputy, the assayer ordained therefore, and that it 
be marked with the lyperde's head crowned according to the acts of 
diverse parliaments, and the mark of the maker thereof.*' 

No worker was to be a freeman of the Company until he had been 



CHAP. 11.] Records of the Goldsmiths^ Company. 29 

apprenticed seven years ; and the ordinances were to be read publicly 
on St. Dnnstan's Day. At the end of the book are some additional 
ordinances of the year 1607, being the twenty-second of Henry VII., 
by which it was provided that no goldsmith should put to sale any 
vessel or other work of gold or silver until he had set his mark upon 
it; that he should take it to the assay house of the Hall of the 
Goldsmiths to be assayed by the assayer, who should set his mark 
upon it, and should deliver it to the warden, who should set on it the 
leopard's head crovmed. 

Again, in another MS. book on vellum which has the arms of the 
Goldsmiths' Company emblazoned on the first page, and contains 
ordinances dated July 5th, 1518, being the fifth year of Henry VIII., 
we find that it is ordained that before any work of gold or silver is put 
to sale the maker shall set on it his own mark, that it shall be 
assayed by the assayer who shall set on it his mark, and that the 
wardens shall mark it with the leopard's head crowned. 

Here then in both these sets of ordinances we have three distinct 
marks mentioned : the maker's, the assayer's, and the leopard's head 
or king's mark. What this assayer's mark was we are not expressly 
told, but it must almost necessarily be the annual letter, now there- 
fore to be added to the leopard's head of 1800 and the maker's mark 
of 1868. We shall give reasons when dealing specially with this 
mark for attributing its inauguration to the year 1478. 

The course of State legislation had proceeded pari passu with the 
ordinances of the Goldsmiths' Company, and before passing the 
ill-omened gulf in the history of English plate which occurs between 
1518 and the commencement of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, we 
must bring it down to the earlier of these dates. And first comes a 
statute which, but for the fact that it is not found amongst "the 
statutes " properly so called, and seems therefore to have been only 
provisional and not confirmed on the assembling of parliament, would 
appear to have crippled the new-found powers of the goldsmiths' 
guild, and to have rendered them inoperative outside the city of 
London. Indeed, it was only assented that this ordinance should 
commence at the feast of St. John, and should last till the next 
parliament, to try in the meantime if it were profitable or not. 

It is found in 1879 on the Bolls of Parliament of the second year 
of Bichard II., No. 80, and would have ordained not only that each 
smith should put his mark on his work, but that it should be marked 
with the mark of the city or borough wherein it was assayed, and that 
the assay should belong to the mayors, etc., of the cities and boroughs, 
with the aid of the master of the mint. For the reasons mentioned, 



30 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. II. 



this statute was probably not acted upon very generally ; thoagh, as 
we shall presently see, in the case of York, a recognised touch is 
mentioned in ciyic records of 1410. 

The next Act, in 1381 (5 Bichard IE., cap. 2), forbade the export of 
gold and silver in any shape, or et argent si bien monoie vessell plate * 
et joialx. These provisions are reinforced in 1402 by another Act 
forbidding any person to carry gold or silver in money, vessell or plate 
out of the realm, without the king's licence. 

In 1404 (6 Henry IV., cap. 13), in order to prevent frauds, it was 
enacted that no artificer nor other man, whatsoever he be, shall gild 
nor silver any locks, rings, beads, candlesticks, harness for girdles, 
chalices, hilts, pomels of swords, powder-boxes, nor covers for cups 
{pur hanapes) made of copper or latten, on pain to forfeit to the king 
c shillings at every time that he shall be found guilty; but that 
chalices excepted, artificers may work ornaments for the Church of 
copper and latten, and the same gild and silver, so that at the foot or 
some other part, the copper and the latten shall be plain, to the intent 
that a man may see whereof the thing is made for to eschew the 
deceit aforesaid. 

In 1414 (2 Henry Y., Stat. 2, cap. 4) it was enacted for that the 
goldsmiths of England, of their covin and ordinances, will not sell 
the wares of their mystery gilt, but at the double price of the weight 
of silver of the same, which seemeth to the king very outrageous and 
too excessive a price ; the king for the ease of his people hath 
ordained that all goldsmiths of England shall gild no silver wares 
worse than of the alloy of the English sterling ; and that they take 
for a pound of Troy gilt but 46 shillings and 8 pence at the most ; 



* The word " plate " here stands for bar 
sheet gold and silrer, rather than for 



or 

articles 



»i 



made of them, which were called 
and '*jocalia," or, in English, 
*< vessel," until sboat the middle of the 
fifteenth centary. In the wills and InTen- 
tories of the latter half of that centary, the 
word begins to occur in its modem sense ; 
to gire a single example, one Thomas Brygg, 
in 1494, bequeathes "omnia mea vasaatgen- 
tea voc' le plate," using the ordinary Latin 
word and the less familiar term then just 
coming into use in juxtaposition. 

In the following stalutes of the fourteenth 
century, '* plate" appears to mean merely 
the wrought or flattened metal, which is a 
more strictly accurate use of the word, 
derived as it is from a common origin with 
the Greek irXar^i, our own JUU, and the 
Spanish pUtta^ than its later and secondary 
application as a general term to vessels 



formed of such metal : — 
9 Edw. III. Sut. 2. SUtute of Money : 

c. 1. '*Ai:gent en plate ne vessel dor ne 
dargent." 

"Monoie plate ou vessel dor ne 
dargent.*' 

27 Edw. III. Stat. 2. The Statute of the 
Staple : 

*« Plate of silver and bUlets of gold." 

A '* plate of ale" is the expression used 
at IVinity (}ollege, Cambridge, for one of the 
silver tankards purchased by fellow-oom- 
moners for their own use, and left by them 
as a parting present to the college (Words- 
worth's Social Life at the £ngluh Univerti- 
tiet in the ISth Century) ; and the same 
term is applied at Queen's College, in the 
sister university, to the caudle-cupe with 
ring- handles which are now used for beer. 



CHAP. II.] Acts of Parliament. 3 1 

and of greater weight and less according to the quantity and weight 
of the same ; and that which shall he hy them gilt from henceforth 
shall he of a reasonable price and not excessive, and if any goldsmith 
do contrary to this statute, he shall forfeit to the king the value of the 
thing so sold. 

In 1420 (8 Henry V., c. 8) it was forbidden to gild any sheaths or 
any metal but silver, and the ornaments of Holy Church ; or to silver 
any metal but knights' spurs, and all the apparel that pertaineth to a 
baron and above that estate. 

A more important statute now follows, viz., that of 1423 (2 Henry 
VI., cap. 14), by which it was ordained that no goldsmith or jeweller 
within the City of London should sell any article of silver unless it 
was as fine as sterling, nor set it to sell before it be touched with the 
touch of the leopard's head if it may reasonably bear the same touch, 
and also with the mark or sign of the workman of the same, upon 
pain of forfeiture of the double as afore is said ; and that the mark or 
sign of every goldsmith be known to the wardens of the same craft ; 
and if the keeper of the touch shall touch any harness with the 
leopard's head, except it be as fine as sterling, shall for everything so 
proved not so good in alloy as the said sterling, forfeit the double 
value to the king and the party. By this statute also it is ordained 
that the city of York, Newcastle upon Tine, Lincoln, Norwich, 
Bristol, Salisbury, and Coventry, shall have divers touches, and 
further that no goldsmith anywhere shall work silver of worse alloy 
than the sterling, and shall set his mark upon it before he set it to 
sale, upon the same penalties as if in London. This is the first 
mention of provincial assay towns, of which more will be said in a 
succeeding chapter. 

Next, in 1477 (17 Edward IV., cap. 1), by reason of the provisions 
of the Act of 2 Henry VI., cap. 14, having been daily broken by the 
goldsmiths and other workers of silver, as well in London as else- 
where, it was directed inter alia that no goldsmith or worker of gold 
or silver should work or put to sale any gold under the fineness of 
eighteen carats, nor silver unless it be as fine as sterling, except such 
thing as requireth solder ; also that no goldsmith work or set to sale 
harness of silver plate, or jewel of silver, from the feast of Easter, 
within the city of London or within two leagues {leukez) of London, 
before it be touched with the leopard's head crowned, such as may 
bear the said touch, and also with a mark or sign of the worker of the 
same so wrought, upon pain of forfeiture of the double value of such 
silver wrought and sold to the contrary ; that the mark or sign of 
every goldsmith be committed to the wardens of the same mystery ; 



32 Old English Plate. [chap. n. 

and if it be found that the keeper of the touch of the leopard's head 
crowned, do mark or touch any harness with the leopard's head, if it 
be not as fine in alloy as sterling, he shall forfeit double the value 
of the silver ; and that the craft of goldsmiths of London shall be 
answerable for the non-sufBciency of the warden. This statute was 
enacted for seven years, and was afterwards re-enacted for twenty 
years in 1489, and again for twenty years in 1552 by 7 Edward VI., 
cap. 6. 

In 1488-9 (4 Henry YII., Pari. 3, cap. 2) it was found that whereas 
in previous times finers and parters of gold and silver had used to 
fine and part all the gold and silver needful for the mints of London, 
Calais, Canterbury, York, and Durham, and the fellowship of gold- 
smiths, under the rules and orders of those mints, but now they dwelt 
abroad in every part of the realm, and out of the rules aforesaid, and 
carried on their trade so that men can get no fine silver ; and it was 
enacted that the finers and parters should not alloy fine gold nor 
silver, nor sell anything else, nor to any persons except the officers of 
mints and the goldsmiths ; that silver be made so fine that it bear 12 
pennyweight of alloy in the pound weight, and yet be as good as 
sterling, and that all finers set their marks upon it. 

We have now brought down both the ordinances of the goldsmiths 
and those of the statute-book to the time of Henry VIIL, and it will 
presently be seen what a disastrous period in the history of the art 
has been reached. We have come to the time when the accumulated 
treasures of the Church were swept away, and the wealth of lay 
corporations extorted for the service of the crown and state. Monastic 
and cathedral plate disappears on the Beformation in the reign of 
Henry YIIL, the possessions of the parish churches follow at the end 
of that of Edward VL, w^hilst the " benevolences " of Queen Mary 
ransack the treasure-rooms of the great secular guilds and companies. 

A number of goldsmiths* names occur in the Church inventories of 
Edward VL, and it may be as well to give a few of them for the 
chance of their initials being here and there recognised on Aisessels 
made by them for the reformed use, some of which, as we shall see, 
still remain. One Christopher Terry, is noted about 1515 ; and 
between 1580 and 1558 maybe found working at their craft in London 
Thomas Calton, John Palterton, Eaufe Lathom, John Waberley, 
Thomas Metcalfe, John Danyell, Robert Reyns, Fabyan Wythers, and 
Robert Wygge — ^Wigg and Dickson are mentioned in the inventory of 
St. George's Chapel, Windsor — and to these must be added the name 
of a lady, one Margery Herkins, who carried on business in Lombard 
Street. 



CHAP. II.] Elizabethan Goldsmiths. 33 

In the early years of Queeu Elizabeth the names that most 
frequently occur are those of Robert Tayleboys, found from 1559 to 
1572, Thomas Muschampe, who made a communion cup for Chelms- 
ford, which is unfortunately not now in existence, and Thomas 
Turpyn. Mr. Anthony, of the Queen's Arms in Cheapside, was one 
of the Queen's goldsmiths at the beginning of her reign, and it was 
under the auspices of this respectable tradesman that the first lottery 
of which there is any record was brought out in 1569 ; a little later 
one Hughe Kayle held a similar appointment amoDgst the Queen's 
servants. 

The pedigrees and coats of arms of no fewer than thirteen gold- 
smiths were entered at the visitation of London by the heralds in 
1568, those of the above-mentioned Dericke Anthony, Thomas Metcalfe, 
and Thomas Muschampe among the number. In this record Affabel 
Partridge, Esq., is styled ** Principal Goldsmith " to Queen Elizabeth. 
The others were George Dalton, Henry Gilbert, John Mabbe, Francis 
Heton, Christopher Wace, Francis Jackson, Henry Gaynsford, and 
Thomas Gardiner. Four of these were members of the Court of 
Assistants of the Goldsmiths' Company in 1566, Metcalfe, Mus- 
champe, Mabbe, and Gardiner. There were sixty-eight goldsmiths 
living in Chepe in 1569, besides some twenty in Lombard Street. 
These were the chief resorts of the craft. It is curiously seldom that 
the name of a maker can be traced by the sign of his shop forming 
part of his registered mark. 

It will be inferred that brighter days had now succeeded to a quarter 
of a century of plunder and destruction. The debased standards of 
the last twenty or thirty years were raised once more to their former 
purity, and none knew better than the Queen herself the importance 
of this step, in which she took much personal interest. But it was 
not at first a very popular measure, and the promulgation by royal 
proclamation was necessary of a '' summarie of certaine reasons which 
moved the Queen's majestic to procede in reformations of her base 
and coarse monies, and to reduce them to their values in sorte as they 
may be turned to fine monies," before the public, who saw only the 
loss that the reform would occasion them on the coin then in their 
possession, realised the great benefit it would be to the nation. This 
was dated from Hampton Court on 29th September, 1560, and on 19th 
February, 1560-61, the base money was called in also by proclamation. 
The Queen went herself in state to the Mint, and striking some coins 
with her own royal hand, gave them to those standing about her, 
ordering that a medal should be struck to commemorate the event. 



34 Old English Plate. [chap. n. 

The Minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company record that the diet tried 
on 18th Jane, 1561, was '^ the first dyett of the newe Standard." 

Stringent measures, too, were adopted to prevent fraud and to 
preserve the purity of the re-estahlished standard. Twenty-eight 
goldsmiths were fined in the course of 1566, a not exceptional year in 
this respect ; and amongst them are some of the leading members of 
the craft. Legislation also was resorted to, and in 1575-6, on February 
8 (18 Eliz. cap. 15), it was enacted with this view, that after the 
20th of April then next ensuing, no goldsmith should work, sell, or 
exchange, any plate or ware of gold less in fineness than twenty-two 
'* carrects '' (carats), and that he use no sother amell or other stuffing 
more than is necessary for finishing the same, nor make, sell, or 
exchange, any wares of silver less in fineness than 11 ounces 2 penny- 
weight, nor take above twelvepence for the ounce of gold or pound of 
silver "beyond the fashion" (more than the buyer shall or may be 
allowed for the same at the Queen's exchange or mint) ; nor put to 
sale any ware before he hath set his own mark on so much thereof as 
may conveniently bear the same ; and if after the above day any gold 
or silver wares shall be touched for good by the wardens or masters of 
the mystery, and there shall afterwards be found fraud or deceit 
therein, the wardens shall pay forfeit the value of the thing so 
marked. 

The Goldsmiths' Company, resuming its good work, seems to have 
exercised its powers even harshly. There are constant entries in the 
Minute-Books of plate broken and penalties exacted for silver work, 
usually buckles or clasps, but often larger pieces, found on assa}' to be 
worse than standard. Great dissatisfaction was given in 1588 by one 
Thomas Kelynge, then the assayer at Goldsmiths' Hall, who from over 
zeal, or baser motives as it was alleged, made himself very unpopular 
with the craft. Amongst the records of the Mint are preserved some 
papers detailing '' the grefes of us poor goldsmiths against our assay 
master," one Kichard Mathewe and a fellow craftsman named Henry 
Colley charging Kelynge with breaking their plate unjustly, and 
stating that when they had refashioned a part of the broken plate 
diflferently, and sent it in again under another maker's mark, it passed. 
Colley describes cutting out part of a condemned platter and making 
it into a taster which passed, and he further complained that out of a 
nest of bowls or of a tankard of no more than thirty ounces, Kelyno-e 
took as much as a quarter of an ounce, or at least half a quarter, for 
himself.* There were however faults on both sides, and the strict 

• Public Kecord Office— £'xcA€ju€r, Q. R. {Mint. MUceU,), temp, Eliz. 



CHAP. If.] Frauds in 1597. 35 

supervision of the Goldsmiths' Company was still both exercised and 
needed, as the following entry found among their records testifies : — 
" 4th May, 1597 — ^Edward Cole, Attorney General, filed an information 
against John Moore and Bobert Thomas ; that whereas it had been 
heretofore of long time provided by divers laws and statutes for the 
avoiding deceit and fraud in the making of plate, that every gold- 
smith should before the sale of any plate by him made, bring the 
same first to the Goldsmiths' Hall for trial by assay, to be touched 
or marked and alIo\fred by the wardens of the said company of 
Goldsmiths; the which wardens did by their indenture in their 
search, find out the aforesaid deceitful workmanship and counter- 
feit also of plate and puncheons ; yet the said John Moore and 
R. Thomas being lately made free of the Goldsmiths' Company, 
did about three months past make divers parcels of counterfeit plate 
debased and worse than her Majesty's standard 12^^ and more in 
the oz. ; and to give appearance to the said counterfeit plate being 
good and lawful, did thereto put and counterfeit the marks of her 
Majesty's Lion, the leopard's head limited by statute and the 
alphabetical mark approved by ordinance amongst themselves, which 
are the private marks of the Goldsmiths' Hall, and be and remain 
in the custody of the said wardens and puncheons to be worked 
and imprinted thereon, and the said John Moore did afterwards sell 
the same for good and sufficient plate to the defrauding of her 
Majesty's subjects, i&c." 

It remains to be said that they were convicted and sentenced to 
stand in the pillory at Westminster, with their ears nailed thereto, and 
with papers above their heads stating their offence to be '^ for making 
false plate and counterfeiting her Majesty's touch." They were then 
put in the pillory at Cheapside, had one ear cut off, and were taken 
through Foster Lane to Fleet Prison, and had to pay a fine of ten 
marks. Here we have the first actual mention by name of the hion 
and an alphabetical letter, though both had been long in use, the 
former for about half a century, and the latter for more than double 
that time. 

There is nothing now to note for a long time except that in 1624 
(21 Jac. I. c. 28) certain portions of the earlier enactments of 28 
Edw. L, 37 Edw. III., and 2 Henry VI. were repealed, and that a 
few years later the goldsmiths' hall marks were fully recognised as a 
guarantee of the quality of silver bearing them ; for when Charles I. 
resorted to forced loans for the means of carrying on the war, warrants 
dated from Oxford in 1643, demanded of the individuals to whom 
they were addressed so much money " or the value thereof in plate, 

D 2 



36 Old English Plat^, [(^hap. ii. 

toncht plate at five shillings, and untoacht' plate at foure shillings 
foure pence per ounce."* 

In these and snch like transactions the goldsmiths hore an im- 
portant part, and that their business was right profitable is attested 
by the wealthy and notable men that are found amongst them at this 
time. Who has not heard of George Heriot, goldsmith to James YI. 
of Scotland, and of the noble hospital founded by him in Edinburgh ? 
A goldsmith by descent, for his father was an eminent Scotch gold- 
smith and money dealer, like other people he removed to London witli 
his royal master on his accession to the English throne, and there 
constantly increased in eminence and wealth till his death in 1623-4. 
The Vyners too, and the Jenners both owed their prosperity to the great 
business which they carried on as goldsmiths in the middle years of this 
century. The transactions of Sir Thos. Vyner with the Mercers' Com- 
pany as their goldsmith extend from 1620 to 1643. He died in 1665. 

The name of Vyner must be invoked to justify digression for a little 
while to a subject of considerable archaeological, indeed national, im- 
portance. Some six-and-thirty years ago, Mr. Robert Cole, F.S.A., 
read before the Society of Antiquaries a paper! upon some interesting 
documents that had then lately come into his possession relating ta 
the Regalia made for the coronation of King Charles II. They were 
two in number, one of them being the order, dated 20th June, 1662, 
for the payment from the Royal Treasury to Sir Robert Vyner, his 
Majesty's goldsmith, of the sums of £21,978 9«. lid., and £10,000, 
" for two Crowns, two Sceptrps, and a Globe of Gold, set with dia- 
monds, rubyes, saphires, emeralds, and pearls, St. Edward's Staff, the 
Armilla, AmpuU, and other the Regalia, all of gold." The second 
document was the receipt of Sir Robert Vyner for part of this money, 
and it bears the signature of Sir Robert Vyner himself, dated July 1, 
1662. A third and later document, dated Feb. 23, 1684-5, procured 
by Mr. Cole in the same way and at the same time as the other two, 
was afterwards communicated to the Society. It contained not only 
a list but the weights of the articles comprised in the Regalia, and 
seemed to have been prepared as a sort of estimate of some of the 
probable expensesf of the approaching coronation of James II., which 
took place in April, including the providing of articles such as on the 
former occasion were delivered to the great officers of state for fees. 
It is of considerable interest, and as the Transactions of the Society of 
Antiquaries are at the disposal of comparatively few persons, no 
apology is needed for reprinting it here as follows. J 

• Cod. Top. et Gen.f toI. vii. p. 102. I t Proceedings of Oie Society of Anii- 

t ArchoBologiat vol izix., p. 262. | quaries, 1852, vol. ii., No. 31, p. 222. 



CHAP. II.] Coronation Regalia of Charles II. 37 

" A List of y« Regalias provided for his late Ma»y*» Coronation, and are now in y« 
Custody of S' Gilbert Talbot, Knt., Master and Treas' of his Ma»7'« Jewells and Plate, 
■viz* — 

oz.dwt.gr. li. 8. d. 
Imprim. S« Edward's Crowne poiz 82 6 16 

For y« addition of Gold and Workemanship 350 00 30 

For y« Loane of y« Jewells returned 500 00 00 

It" One Crowne of State* poiz 72 01 00 

For y« Gold, Jewells, and Workemanship 7,870 00 00 

It" One Scepter with a Dove poiz 34 03 20 

For y« Gold, Jewells, and Workemanship 440 00 00 

It" One other Scepter with a Cross .... poiz 32 11 10 

For y" Gold, Jewells, and Workemanship 1,025 00 00 

It- One S» Edward's Staffe poiz 45 08 08 

For y« Gold and Workemanship 225 06 02 

It" One Gloobe with a Crosse poiz 42 07 12 

For Gold, Jewells, and Workemanship 1,150 00 00 

It" One Pair of Spnrrs . . . . *. . poiz 12 18 00 

For Gold and Workemanship 68 07 06 

It" Two Armillas poiz 6 12 22 

For Gold and Workemanship 44 18 06 

It" One Ampulla or Eglet poiz 21 08 00 

For Gold and Workemanship 102 05 00 

It" The Anointing Spoon poiz 3 05 00 

For Silver and Workemanship 2 00 00 

It" One Chalice and Paten poiz 61 12 12 

For Gold and Workemanship 277 06 00 

£12,050 03 05 
G. Talbot." 

*' A List of Regalias provided for his late Ma*'** Coronation, w*^ were delivered for 
Fees, &C., by Order, and are out of y« Custody of S' Gilbert Talbot, Kn», Master and 
Treas' of his Maj'' Jewells and Plate, and are now to be provided, &-3. : — 

oz. dwt. gr. li. 8. d. 
Imprim* One lA High Constable's StafFe . . . poiz 15 00 00 

For Silver and Workemanship 08 15 00 

It" One Earle Marshall's Staffe poiz 9 00 00 

For Silver, Gilding, and Workemanship 07 15 00 

It" Six Canopy Staves poiz 180 02 12 

For Silver and Workemanship 76 1101 

It" One Crowne for Garter King at Arms . . . poiz 24 10 

For Gold and Workemanship 116176 

It" One Chaine and Jewell poiz 5 13 3 

For Gold and Workemanship 43 06 97 

It" One Banner and Rod poiz 3 13 3 

For Golde and Workemanship 37 14 03 

It" One Collar of SS poiz 19 10 

For Silver, Guilding, and Workemanship 24 18 09 

It" Two Coronets poiz 30 12 12 

For Silver, GUding, and Workemanship 22 19 04 



* The framework of this crown was taken 
by Messrs. Band ell and Bridge, in part pay- 
ment for a new crown made by them in 



1838, and is now in the possession of Lord 
Amherst of Hackney. 



38 Old English Plate. [chap. n. 

oz. dwt. gr. li. ■. d« 
It- Two Collare of SS poiz 34 07 12 

For Silver and Workemanship 38 11 10 

It- Six Collars SS poiz 89 15 00 

For Silver and Workemanship 82 08 09 

It- Two Ingots poiz 19 00 00 

For Gold and Workemanship 75 05 00 

It- One Cup poiz 19 07 00 

For Gold and Workemanship 80 05 OS 

It- Coronation Meddalls — Twelve .... poiz 3 10 16 

For Gold and Workemanship 25 06 08 

It- Jewells, 75 for Kn*« of the Bath, of w*** seven are in 

custody poiz 35 10 12 

For Gold and Workemanship 433 04 4 

£1,067 19 4 
G. Talbot." 

Interesting as this curions history of the Begalia is in itself, and as 
showing that none of the old Regalia, not even the Anointing Spoon,* 
as it would seem, surviyed the Commonwealth, it is not of less im- 
portance to note the mode in which these and other documents came 
into Mr. Cole's hands. The instructive particulars of his acquisition 
of them shall be told in his own words. He says : 

" It will be in the recollection of the Society that some two or three 
years ago the then Lords of the Treasury directed the selection and 
mutilation of many tons weight of Exchequer Records (as they were 
not improperly called), and which, after being mutilated, were sold as 
waste paper. It is not necessary for me to make any obseryations on 
the propriety or impropriety of this order for the destruction of original 
documents, nor on the manner in which that order was executed : the 
report of the committee appointed by the House of Lords to inquire 
into the subject is before the public, and to that, and the evidence 
taken on the occasion, I would refer the Society. The contractor with 
the Government for the purchase of the mutilated records re-sold the 
mass in various parcels, and a portion of about two tuns weight 
came into my hands, from which I selected many very curious and 
interesting documents, one of them the subject of my present com- 
munication." 

In view of any similar wholesale destruction of ancient public records 
in future, the necessity cannot be too strongly urged of examining 
them far more carefully and by more expert hands than hitherto, be- 
fore they are altogether condemned ; and it may help to save some of 
them to show, by fragments that have accidentally escaped, what 



* When exhibited by gracious permission 
of Her Majesty the Queen, at the rooms of 
the Society of Antiquaries in 1890, the 



Coronation Spoon i;ras, however, considered 
to be the original one, and of high antiquity. 



CHAP. II.] The Banker Goldsmiths, 93 

cnrions and interesting historical information may easily be over- 
looked and destroyed. 

Beturning to the Yyners and the Jenners, it must not be forgotten 
that from this time until 1700 or even later the London goldsmiths 
frequently combined the business of banking with their trade, many 
of the gentry in those troublous times being glad to adopt the 
practice of keeping '' running cash balances " with their goldsmiths for 
safety's sake instead of keeping gold in their own houses. This, 
indeed, is the origin of modem London banking, and in some cases 
existing firms actually represent ancestors who came in for their 
business in this way, and gradually dropped their earlier calling for 
the new one. 

Not that the goldsmiths' craft was thought by any means a despic- 
able one; they are found resenting association with men of ''meaner 
trades," even as dwellers in the same street, and in the time of 
Charles I., the influence of the king himself was on occasion exercised 
for the removal of such people from Cheapside, which was then 
almost exclusively inhabited by the goldsmiths. 

An account lately published of Messrs. Childs' banking house, tells 
of the apprenticing in early life of the great Sir Francis Child, Lord 
Mayor in 1699, to his grandfather, William Wheeler the elder, a gold- 
smith at Temple Bar ; of his marriage with his cousin Elizabeth 
Wheeler, the only daughter and heiress of his uncle, William 
Wheeler the younger, and of his succession to the business, which has 
ever since been carried on at the sign of the Marigold in the same 
name. 

But this brings us a step further towards modern banking, for a 
list of goldsmiths is given, and it includes Charles Duncomb of the 
Grasshopper, Francis Kenton of the King's Arms, Thomas Fowle of 
the Black Lion, J. Heriot of the Naked Boy, and John Mawson & Co. 
of the Golden Hind, all in Fleet Street, and John Coggs of the King's 
Head in the Strand, who prior even to 1700 kept accounts with Childs" 
instead of carrying on a joint goldsmith's and banking business for the 
benefit of their customers, or even taking care of their own money. 
The same account gives the names of William Rawson and John 
Marryott in 1666, Thomas Williams of the Crown in 1677, William 
Pinckney of the Golden Dragon, Inner Temple Gate, in 1663, Joseph 
Homeby, John Portman, Bobert Welsted, and Thomas Rowe, all gold- 
smiths of more or less note in the time of Charles IL, besides the 
better known one of Edward Backwell, who died in 1679, ruined 
by his dealings with that sovereign. In a bill drawn upon Atwills, 
by Francis Tyssen and accepted by Mr. William Atwill and Company, 



40 Old English PlcUe, [chap. n. 

23 March, 1708, that well-known banking firm are only called 
*' Goldsmiths of London.'* 

But in the midst of more interesting historical remarks, the work- 
ing goldsmith and his regulations must not be forgotten ; and so far 
as these are concerned, we find that things remained where we left 
them early in the century, till in 1675, for the prevention and redress of 
great abuses, the Goldsmiths' Company put forth a notice dated from 
their Hall on Feb. 23, to the following effect : — That whereas divers 
small wares were frequently worked and put to sale worse than 
standard, and also divers pieces of silver plate sold, not being assayed 
at Goldsmiths' Hall, and not marked with the leopard's head crowned, 
and whereas to prevent such frauds the wardens had formerly required 
all plate workers and small workers to cause their respective marks to 
be brought to the said Hall, and struck there in a table kept in the 
Assay Office, notice was by this order given to all goldsmiths in and 
about the cities of London and Westminster to repair to the hall, and 
there strike their marks in a table appointed for that purpose, and 
likewise enter their names and their dwellings in a book, and that 
workers and shopkeepers should forbear to sell any gold or silver 
wares not being agreeable to standard, gold of 22 carats, and silver 
of 11 oz. 2 dwts. fine, nor before the workman's mark be struck 
thereon, and the same assayed at Goldsmiths' Hall, and there 
approved for standard by striking thereon the lyon and Leopard^s 
head crowned, or one of them, if the works would conveniently bear 
the same, and the order concludes with a caution as to the penalty for 
infringing it. 

Passing mention must be made of '* the Plate Lotteries " of Charles 
n. before goin^; on to a later reign. These seem to have been a con- 
trivance for rewarding the fidelity of those who had served the crown 
during the interregnum, and for raising money at the same time for 
present needs. The mode of distributiug gifts of plate from the Crown 
as prizes by means of lotteries, probably recommended itself by the 
opportunity it offered of farming out to advantage the right of setting 
up and bringing out the lotteries in various parts of England, and of 
selling the tickets. Mr. Hone, speaking of this ingenious mode of 
increasing the revenue, gives from Malcolm's Manners a public adver- 
tisement of the year 1669, as follows* : — ** This is to give notice that 
any persons who are desirous to farm any of the counties within the 
kingdom of England or the dominion of Wales, in order to the setting 
up of a plate lottery, or any other lottery whatsoever, may repair to 
the lottery office at Mr. Philip's house in Mermaid Court, over against 

* Hone's Evtry Day Book, ii. 1413. 



ma^^i^m^i^BS-r' 



CHAP. II.] TAe Britannia Standard, 41 

the mews, where they may contract with the trustees commissioned 
by His Majesty's letters patent for the management of the said 
lotteries on the behalf of the truly loyal, indigent ofScers." 

We now come to legislation of a different character. The order of 
1675 had had its effect, and it became necessary rather tb protect the 
coin of the realm from being melted down for plate, than to insist on 
the fineness of the plate itself. 

Large quantities of plate had been sacrificed for King and Parlia- 
ment, or confiscated by one or the other in this disturbed century, and 
now that quiet times had come again, the rich turned their attention 
to replenishing their tables and cupboards with the necessary plate, 
and even tavern-keepers supplied themselves with silver drinking- 
vessels. We find the grand jury of Middlesex presenting in 1695 
that the frequent and common use of silver basons, monteaths, silver 
tankards, bowls, cups and tumblers of silver in public houses and 
taverns have occasioned many burglaries and murders, and praying 
the Bench to make application to His Majesty's Council or Parliament 
or both to find out means to prevent such common use of sUver in 
such places. All classes seem to have resorted to the supply of metal 
that was nearest at hand — the silver coin of the realm. 

In consequence, therefore, of this practice of melting down the coin, 
legislation for its protection became necessary, and in 1696 (8 & 9 
Will. lU. c. 8) with this object the standard for plate was raised 
above that of the silver coinage, so as to make the silver of the coin- 
age less easily available for plate making. It was enacted that on and 
after March 25, 1697, no worker of plate should make any article of 
silver less in fineness than 11 oz. 10 dwts. of fine silver in every pound 
Troy, nor put to sale, exchange or sell any article made after that day 
but of that standard, nor until it had been marked with the marks 
now appointed to distinguish plate of this new standard. These 
marks were to be as follows : — The worker's mark to be expressed by 
the two first letters of his surname, the marks of the mystery or craft 
of the goldsmiths, which instead of the leopard's head and lion were 
to be the figure of a lion's head erased and the figure of a woman, 
commonly called Britannia^ and a distinct and variable mark to be 
used by the warden of the same mystery, to denote the year in which 
such plate was made. The plate made at this period is often called 
of " Britannia standard " to distinguish it. 

But here another difficulty arose, for this Act mentioning no pro- 
vincial offices practically deprived them of the privilege of stamping 
any plate at all, as they were not empowered to use the marks 
appointed for the new, and now the only legal, standard. The result 



J 



42 Old English Plate. [chap. u. 

of this was that from 1697 until the establishment of certain pro- 
vincial offices, as we shall see, in 1701, no plate was properly stamped 
anywhere but in London, and what little plate was made in the pro- 
vinces was stamped irregularly.* 

Leaving, however, the provincial offices for the present, some further 
provisions of the Act of 1697 must not be forgotten, for it not only 
protected the coin by raising the standard, but adopted means for in- 
creasing the supply of it. This was effected by providing for the 
ready purchase by the mint of any wrought plate bearing the stamps 
of the Goldsmiths' Company at 5«. 4^/. per ounce, and such an offer, 
no doubt, brought about a further destruction of some of the ancient 
plate that had escaped previous storms. 

From this time forward, owing to the re-registration of makers' 
marks, which now became necessary, considerably more is known 
about plateworkers' names than is the case in earlier days. Some of 
them were artists of great merit, and the names and abodes of all 
those of much note have been entered against their marks in an 
appendix at the end of this volume. The best patronised of them 
will be known by the number of recorded examples of work stamped 
with their respective marks. 

Ill the course of the next twenty years the object of the last- 
mentioned statute was accomplished, though somewhat slowly, and 
at length the necessity for its continuance no longer existed. Added 
to this it seems to have been found that articles made of the higher 
quality of silver were not so durable nor so serviceable as those of the 
old standard. 

Even as late as 1718, silver coin was very uncomfortably scarce,t 
and this scarcity was one of the principal matters to which the Parlia- 
ment of that year directed its attention. Lord Stanhope in his official 
statement as head of the Treasury ascribed it to three causes : first, 
the increasing luxury in relation to plate, secondly the export of plate 
or other bullion to the East Indies, and thirdly', to. the clandestine 
trade carried on of exporting silver and importing gold to and from 
Holland, Germany, and other countries. In 1717 the East India 
Company had exported three million ounces of silver, which far ex- 
ceeded the imports, so that large quantities of silver specie must have 
been melted up to supply the export and the silversmiths. Lord 
Stanhope also hinted at '' the malice of some persons, who by hoard- 
ing up silver thought to distress the Government." However this 
may be, the " old sterling" standard was restored with its old marks 



Sec p. 107. + Lord Mahon's History of England^ vol. i., p. 448. 



CHAP. II.] Hall Marks on Gold. 43 

from June 1, 1720 (6 Geo. I., c. 11), and took its place beside the new 
or Britannia standard, which, with its own special marks, was left a 
lawful standard for such as preferred it. 

Provisions against dishonesty were again found to be necessary, and 
in 1739, in consequence of great frauds which are detailed in the Act 
of that year (12 Geo. II., cap. 26), particularly in the use of excessive 
quantities of solder, the standards were again fixed at 22 carats for 
gold, and 11 oz. 2 dwts. for silver, though the higher standard was 
not abolished, and the marks to be used were resettled, the maker's 
initials to be those of his Christian name and surname, instead of the 
first two letters of his surname as was ordered in 1697, likewise the 
character or alphabet of the initial letters used was to be in each case 
changed also. The marks to be used by the country assay offices 
were also dealt with, but, as will be seen in a subsequent chapter, not 
so clearly as could have been wished.* As before, the general re- 
registration of marks has stored the books of the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany with a quantity of information as to the names of the goldsmiths 
of the day. 

Except for the lower standards of gold, we have now been carried 
through all the marks to be found on plate stamped in London, save 
one only — the mark of the sovereign's head. This was introduced in 
1784 (24 Geo. III., c. 53) by an Act granting a duty from December 1 
in that year of 8«. per oz. on gold plate, and of sixpence per oz. on 
silver. It directed the wardens or assay master to mark the pieces 
with a new mark, viz. the king's head over and above the several marks 
already used. 

Some further details as to duties payable, articles exempted, and 
dealers' licences will be found under the head of the duty mark in the 
next chapter. 

Last of all we come to some quite recent improvements in the 
system of marking gold, and to the authorization of the above-men- 
tioned lower gold standards, a step brought about by the use of that 
precious metal amongst larger classes of society. These provisions 
are the last on our list relating to marks, and are perhaps the least 
interesting of all from an antiquary's point of view, however valuable 
they may be to the purchaser in the every-day dealings of trade. The 
lower standards, or rather all those below 18 carats, have never been 
much used nor appreciated by the public, and it will not be necessary 
to refer to them at any length. The Act, however, is an important 
one (38 Geo. III., c. 69), which in 1798 authorized the much-used 



♦ See Chap. V., p. 111. 



44 Old English Plate. [chap. n. 

standard of 18 carats fine for gold, and provided for its being marked 
with a crown and the figures 18 instead of the lion passant ; for it had 
the good effect of giving gold a different distinguishing mark from 
silver for the first time, a distinction which should have been made 
long before. It must always be remembered that until 88 Geo. III. 
there was no special distinguishing mark for gold, and then only for 
18-carat gold, and further that it was not until 1844 that 22-carat 
gold was marked otherwise than as silver would have been. By 7 & 
8 Yict. c. 22, s. 15, this last improvement was made, and 22-carat gold 
has from that time been marked with a crown and 22, instead of the 
lion passant, to the great advantage of the public. 

The still lower standards for gold were legalised in 1854 (17 & 18 
Vict. c. 96), by a provision enabling Her Majesty in Council to allow 
any gold standard of not less than one-third of fine gold. In pursuance 
of this, three reduced standards were ordered to be marked as follows, 
viz. : — 15-carat, with the figures 15 and '625 ; 12-carat, with 12 and 
'5 ; and 9-carat, with 9 and '875 — the second figure in each case being 
the proportion of fine gold expressed in decimals. 

The Act called " the Goldsmiths Act " of 1844, which has been 
already mentioned as regulating the marking of 22-carat gold (7 & 8 
Vict. c. 22), also regulates the trade as regards forgeries of dies or 
marks, the selling of plate worse than standard, and other such 
frauds. But as this is rather a matter of present-day interest than 
connected with the history of the craft or their marks, a fuller con- 
sideration of it is reserved for a separate chapter devoted to frauds and 
offences. 

The result of this somewhat long historical and legal notice is that 
we shall find, on plate made in London, the following marks, or some 
of them, in accordance with the various statutes and ordinances that 
have been recounted. Stated for clearness in their chronological order, 
they are as follows : — 

1. The Leopard's head, from 1300. 

2. The Maker's mark, from 1363. 

3. The Annual letter, from 1478. 

4. The Lion passant, from 1545. 

5. The Lion's head erased, and figure of Britannia, from 1697.* 

6. The Sovereign's head, from 1784. 

The following chapter treats of each of these marks in turn more 
fully. 



* From 1697-1720 used for silver in- that interval. Since 1720, used, when re- 
steiftd of the leopard's head crowned and lion i quired, for plate made of the higher standard 
passant, which were discontinued during ! silver. 



CHAP. II.] 



Table of London Marks. 



45 







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CHAPTER III. 

THE MABK8 FOUND OX PLATE ASSAYED IN LONDON ~THE LEOPABD'S HEAD — 
THE MAKEB'S MABK — THE DATE-LETTEB— THE LION PASSANT — THE LION*S 
HEAD ERASED AND FIOCBE OF BBITANNIA — THE SOVEBEIGN'S HEAD. 

THE LEOPARDS HEAD. 

Though, in all probability, workers in the precioas metals had been, 
from even earlier times, in the habit of signing their work each with 
his own distinguishing symbol, the ancient mark of a leopard's head 
appointed by statute in 1300 is the first which is mentioned in any 
law or ordinance regulating the goldsmith's art in England. In the 
translation of the original Norman-French of this enactment, as given 
in the Statutes at Large, the words used are ** the leopard's head," as 
if it were some known and recognised symbol, but in the original itself 
the words are " une teste de leopart," and Mr. Octavius Morgan has 
suggested that the article " une " implies that it was a new mark 
invented for the purpose. On the other hand, the first charter of the 
Goldsmiths' Company, dated 1327, refers to the mark as ordained 
*' of ancient times," and this would seem a somewhat inappropriate 
description of a mark instituted within living memory. 

However this may be, from 1300, if not before, it was, until the 
introduction of the lion passant, the king's mark for " gold of a certain 
touch," and " silver of the sterling allay." And first, some confusion 
and error seem to have existed with regard to the term '^ Leopard* 8 
head," it being, in fact, a Lion's head. It will, however, be remem- 
bered, that in old French, the language alike of heraldry and of our 
early statutes, the term ^^leoparf' means a lion passant guardant. 
The arms of England from the time of Henry IIL have been three 
such lions, and in the old French heraldic works they are described 
as three " leoparts " or " lions leopardies,** The leopard's head, 
therefore, is properly the head of a lion passant guardant, which, in 
fact, is a lion's front face ; and all the early examples of this mark 
show a fine bold lion's face with mane and beard, having on the head 
a ducal crown. It was in all probability, therefore, taken from the 
arms of the sovereign, and the crown added as a further indication of 



CHAP. III.] The Leopard's Head. 47 

its being the King's mark. It is actually called '' the King's mark" 
in the next statute in which it is mentioned, that of 1868. It must 
here he remarked that although in the Act of 1800, the charter of 
1827, and the Act of 1428, it is only termed '' the leopard's head," in 
the earliest Goldsmiths' ordinances it is spoken of as ''the Liberds 
hede croicned,'' whilst in the Act of 1477 it is described in both ways : 
later, in the Goldsmiths' records of 1597, it appears as the leopard's 
head only, though it is certainly and always found bearing a crown, 
upon plate of that period, and as far back at all events as 1478. It 
may be that it was crowned from the first, and that it is a mistake 
arising out of the wording of the Act of 1477, to date the addition of the 
crown from that year. To set against this two or three spoons of the 
fifteenth century seem to have an uncrowned leopard's head within a 
beaded circle in the bowls ; but as none of them have any mark on the 
handle, it is not safe to draw any conclusion from them. It is not at 
all impossible that the crown originated with the date letter in 1478. 

It is a very doubtful point too whether the mark should be called, 
as it often is, the London hall-mark. It certainly was not so origi- 
nally, except in the sense that in early times the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany in that city were the only authorised keepers of " the king's 
touch." In 1477 it was not Used as a London mark only, for the Act 
of that year, speaking of the prevalent abuse of setting this mark on 
gold and silver that was not fine, recites as a grievance that the '' said 
touch of the Leopard's bead is oftentimes put on such things by the 
keeper of the said touch of London and other places.** Here the 
''said touch of the Leopard's head*' is recognised as the sign of the 
standard, used as well in London as elsewhere. The right reading of 
the Acts is that in 1423 it was intended to limit the leopard's 
head mark to London, other places in future to use " divers touches ; " 
and that it was to carry this into better effect that the Act of 1477 
ordained that within the City of London and for two leagues round, 
the leopard's head should be crowned. When the goldsmiths of 
Norwich were setting their house in order in 1565, and establishing a 
proper touch for that city, they adopted as a standard one which they 
describe as of the same fineness and better than the " lyberd's hedde 
with the crowne." This practically means that they adopted the 
national standard, as worked in London and as guaranteed by the 
mark, which had become very much limited to London since 1423. 
It had no doubt gained a great reputation ; and we gather from the 
Touchstone * that in the seventeenth century it was practically 

* Se« p. 13. 



J 



48 Old English Plate. [chap. m. 

necessary to send to London to have the touch of the leopard's head 
applied. Bat this is not quite the same thing as saying that it was 
the London mark, and in point of fact when the leopard's head 
crowned was abolished for a time (1697-1720), together with the lion 
passant, in favour of two new marks, those two new marks were both 
used under the Acts which, shortly afterwards, established the pro- 
vincial assay offices ; neither of them was reserved specially for the 
Goldsmiths* Company, as would probably have been the case if its 
own peculiar hall mark had been abolished, and the inference is strong 
that at that time it was considered a national standard mark and not 
the London hall-mark at all. Further, upon the restoration of the old 
sterling standard of silver in 1720, the leopard*s head crowned was 
resumed in ordinary course by several of the provincial offices for 
metal of that degree of fineness, and in one such office, viz., Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, it was so used until recent years. 

It should also be noted that even when the leopard's head and the 
lion passant were disused on silver, they still remained in force for 
standard gold, and it may favour the view of the leopard's head being 
a standard mark rather than the distinguishing mark of the London 
Goldsmiths' Hall, that it was used at this time on one metal assayed 
there, but not on the other. 

Like the question of the derivation of the mark, this point is, how- 
ever, rather of antiquarian interest than of practical importance, for 
even if it were the standard mark until the invention of the lion 
passant practically released it, if we may say so, from doing duty in 
that capacity, it may perhaps not unfairly since that date, say from 
1545, when found on London-made plate, be looked upon as answering 
the same purpose as the shields of arms used as their distinguishing 
hall-marks by assay-offices in the provinces. 

When we come to consider the London date letter, we shall urge its 
claim to be the London mark properly so called. 

In conclusion, although evidently not always confined to London, 
the leopard^s head crowned has been used at Goldsmiths' Hall for 
whatever purpose from time immemorial on standard gold, and on old 
sterling silver whenever such silver has been worked. 

The appearance of the stamp has from time to time been altered, 
and always for the worse. It is found within a circular line from 1478 
to 1547. From 1548 to c. 1680 it is on a stamp with its outline follow- 
ing that of the crown and the head. The crown is an open ducal one at 
first, but at certain periods, for instance about 1515, 1531, and some 
other years, the crown appears almost as if it had four balls instead 
of the more open design. This is probably the effect produced by using 



CHAP- III.] The Maker^s Mark. 49 

a worn punch rather than of any alteration iu the style of the crown. 
The size of the lion*s head was somewhat diminished in the year 1729» 
when he was also shorn of much of his mane and beard, the character 
of the crown being also altered ; and in or about 1822, from the fact, it is 
believed, of the mention of a simple " leopard's head '' being found in 
some of the earlier documents and especially in the Act 12 Geo. II. 
c. 26, without being followed by the word " crowned," the form of 
the stamp was altogether changed, and the head deprived of its crown, 
was made to present an object far more resembling the head of a cat 
than the fine bold face of former days, which we would fain see restored 
to its pristine form. 

The wording of 12 Geo. II. c. 26 in this particular was no doubt 
somewhat a matter of chance : but however this may be, it deserves 
to be remarked, that in and after 1824-5, but for the omission of the 
crown, it would be somewhat difficult to distinguish the small Boman 
letters then current from those of the former small Roman alphabet of 
1776-1795. Until then the letters would be sufficiently distinguished 
by the fact that the earlier alphabet, down to the " i *' of 1784, would 
be unaccompanied by a king's head mark; but this distinction ceasing 
with that letter in 1784, there would for the rest of the cycle be 
nothing but a slight difference in the royal portrait to depend upon, 
were it not for the absence of the crown from the leopard's head. 
This consideration seems however to have had nothing to do with the 
innovation, which accidentally proves so useful. 



THE WORKER'S OR MAKER'S MARK. 

The next thing to be considered in the chronological series is the 
maker's mark. Following closely, as we have seen, on its adoption 
in other countries, such a mark was first instituted in England by 
statute in 1363, when it was directed that every master goldsmith 
should have a mark of his own, known by those who should be ap- 
pointed by the king to survey the works ; which marks, for which 
the goldsmiths should answer, should be set on the works after they 
had been assayed. The Goldsmiths' Company made similar pro- 
visions in their earliest known ordinances, to that which now became 
the law of the land ; and almost every subsequent statute provides, 
under heavy penalties, for the marking of plate with the mark or sign 
of the worker. 

These marks were at first, in many cases, emblems or symbols ; 
probably often selected in allusion to the name of the maker. In 

E 



50 Old English Plate. [chap. m. 

early times most shops had signs by which they were known, and 
some retain the custom even to the present day, especially on the 
Continent. This no doubt arose from the fact that, as few persons 
could read, the writing of the name would be of little use, whereas the 
setting up of some sign, such for instance as the golden ball, which 
was easily understood, gave a convenient name to the shop ; it is 
therefore not improbable that the goldsmiths, in some cases, took for 
their mark the sign of their shop. 

Several of the old goldsmiths' signs are well known, as, for instance, 
the " grasshopper " of Sir Thomas Gresham's house in Lombard 
Street, now occupied by Messrs. Martins, and the " marigold " which 
a century later distinguished the house where the Childs carried on 
their banker-goldsmith business in Fleet Street. The squirrel, too, 
which we find on plate of 1599 (see Appendix A.), may remind us of 
the three squirrels still to be seen on the front of Messrs. Goslings* 
banking-house also in Fleet Street. The Golden Bottle has always 
been the distinguishing sign of Messrs. Hoares' bank, now in the 
same thoroughfare, but formerly in Cheapside. Neither are there 
wanting notices here and there of the signs of more obscure working 
goldsmiths, especially in the accounts of parish churchwardens in the 
reigns of Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth. In accounts of 1551, 
one Calton is found working at the sign of " the Purse in Chepe," 
and a fellow craftsman of the name of Wark at " the George in 
Lomberde Strete ; *' another account of 1560 mentions a " Mr. 
Muschamp, goldsmith of London," as of "the Ryng with the Rube," 
also in " Lumbarde St." A spoon of 1525 has the figure of a heart 

stamped thus ^ as the maker's mark, and many early specimens 

have similar symbols. Some few marks of the earlier goldsmiths 
resemble those so well known as merchants' marks, or the masons' 
marks on ancient buildings ; see for example what seems to have 

been the trade mark of Robert Harding, alderman and gold- 
-^ smith, who died in 1508, having served as master of the 

Goldsmiths' Company in 1489. An engraving of this is 



^ 



-sy ijoiasmitns eiompany m i^otf. An engravmg oi inis is 

given in the margin.* Another somewhat simpler, viz. ?t 

is found on a small cup of 1599, in the possession of the Armourers' 
Company. It has, however, been previously remarked how very 
seldom the shop sign of a maker is reproduced in his mark. Some 
half-dozen pieces of plate alone in the early Elizabethan period, and 
those somewhat doubtfully, are all that can be attributed to their 



• Surrey Archaeological Society' $ Trantaciiom^ vol. vL, part i., p. 36. 



CHAP. III.] Tlie Maker^s Mark. 51 

proper maker by the mark they bear. The fleur de lys found on plate 
of 1562 may possibly belong to William Dyxson living at " the Fleur de 
Luce in Chepe,'* in 1569 ; the leg of 1550 to William Beereblocke, of 
*' the Legge in Chepe," also of 1569 ; Robert Wright, of ** the Wynd- 
mylle," in 1569, may have made a cup bearing that symbol in 1578 ; 
the covered cup found in 1548 and 1561, may be the mark of John 
Mabbe, of " the Cup in Chepe," in 1569 ; Thomas Bampton, of " the 
Falcon," also in 1569, may have made plates bearing that mark in 
1567. John Harysson, in 1569 of " the Broad Arrow," may have 
made the Tokerys Bowl in 1534. 

Sometimes initial letters were used as the workers' marks, and 
eventually they became the rule ; indeed, symbols and emblems un- 
accompanied by any initial letters hardly ever occur later than the 
commencement of the seventeenth century. The examination of a 
great number of specimens of that century has given us not more 
than a dozen such marks ; a water-bird in a dotted circle, found on an 
example belonging to the Hon. Society of the Middle Temple of the 
year 1682, and other pieces down to 1693, being the very last, and 
except this and a mark of three storks found in 1685, there is nothing 
of the kind later than 1661, when the Communion- plate at Gloucester 
Cathedral is found to bear some animal or other not easily to be 
recognized, on a shaped shield. 

The anonymous author of the Touchstone for Gold and Silver 
Wares, writing in 1675, makes the following remarks as to the super- 
vision exercised by the Goldsmiths' Company over the makers' 
marks : — " In this office *' (referring to the Assay-Office at Gold- 
smiths' Hall) ** is likewise kept for pnblique view a table or tables 
artificially made of columns of parchment or velom, and several of the 
same sorts ; in the lead columns are struck or entered the workers' 
marks (which are generally the first two letters of their Christian and 
surnames), and right at^ainst them, in the parchment or velom columns, 
are writ and entered the owners' names ; This is that what is meant 
in the before-recited statutes, by the expression of making the workers* 
mark known to the surveyors or wardens of the craft ; which said 
wardens' duty is to see that the marks be plain and of a fit size, and 
not one like another, and to require the thus entering the said marks, 
and also the setting them clear and visible on all gold and silver work, 
not only on every work, but also on every part thereof that is wrought 
apart and afterwards soldered or made fast thereto in finishing the 
same. Our law-makers (as I conceive) did think the thus setting the 
marks on the work, to be the securest way to prevent fraud in this 
kind ; for if it would not deter from the working and selling coarse 

E 2 



52 Old English Plate. [chap. m. 

silver and gold wares, yet would it be a sure way to find out the 
oflfeaders and to have the injured righted. But if the marks might be 
omitted, and the works should pass but into a third owner's hand, for 
the most part it would be impossible to discern one man's work from 
another, by reason that divers workers make all sorts of work in shape 
so near alike." 

Much of the information once possessed by the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany as to workers* names or their places of abode down to the year 
1697, is unfortunately lost, together with those tables, and it is only 
by the examination of ancient inventories and accounts that here and 
there a name can be put to a mark ; as, for instance, when the ac- 
counts of churchwardens give the name of the goldsmith from whom 
communion-plate was purchased, and it chances that their successors 
in office are still in possession of the article so procured. 

At Headcorn in Kent is a communion cup of 1562 bearing for 
maker's mark the initials WC with a cricket or grasshopper. This 
is most probably the William Cater mentioned in the books of the 
Goldsmiths* Company as follows: — "Friday the liJth of February 
1562. At this Court, William Cater promised to bring in within this 
month a communion cup which he made and sold into the country 
untouched." 

" Friday the 26th of February 1562. At this court William Cater 
brought in a communion cup according to his promise here made the 
12th day of this month, which cup he sold into Kent untouched, and 
the same at the assay was found good and so delivered to the said 
Cater again." ■**■ 

The only official record now in existence of any of their marks prior 
to 1697, is a copper-plate, preserved in the Assay-Master's Office, 
carefully framed and glazed to save it from further harm, which con- 
tains a number of impressions in nine parallel columns from the 
punches used by the makers who were working between 1675 and 1697- 

This plate bears the following inscription, viz. : — '* On the above 
Plate are the Marks from Workmen taken at this Office Prior to the 
Fifteenth of April, a.d. 1697, of which not any other Entry is to be 
found." It was at one time thought possible that it contained the 
marks of workers for generations past, and its importance in that case 
could hardly have been over-rated : but it is now clear that it owes 
what interest it has to being the identical table referred to in the 
Goldsmiths' Order of 1675 (see p. 40). Almost every maker's mark 
found on plate from 1675 to 1697 is registered thereon, but none of 



• Note communicated by Mr. H. D. Kllis. 



CHAP. III.] The Makers Mark, 53 

any other period. The book referred to in the same Order as appointed 
for the entry of names, has perished with the earlier tables ; and this 
one remaining table, interesting as it is as a relic, is therefore but a 
bare record of certain marks used for those few years only, without 
any names against them. It cannot be said to possess the value, and 
is not of the interest, that would attach to a portion of an unbroken 
series, but all the more important marks upon it will be found in the 
list of examples given later. From 1697 onwards, impressions of the 
marks from the makers' own punches have been taken regularly, and 
are preserved in volumes with the owners' names and addresses, 
apparently in their own handwriting, entered against their respective 
marks. In that year, it will be remembered, we came at last to an 
express enactment that the worker's mark should be the first ttvo 
letters of his surname, and this must have caused a general change of 
marks throughout the trade, indeed we can trace it in certain 
instances ; for example, we may safely assume that the mark of P'H 
under a crown and two ermine spots found on the copper plate, was 
the earlier mark of the Peeter Harracke who entered his new one of 
HA with the same accessories in compliance with this Act in the 
month of October, 1698. 

The first letters of the surname were alone used (and on gold as well 
as silver) as long as the use of the higher standard of silver was com- 
pulsory, that is to say, from 1697 until 1720 ; but on the restoration 
of the old sterling standard in 1720, makers seem to have thought 
themselves at liberty to use their ordinary initials, at all events, on 
vares of the restored standard ; and from that year till 1789, their 
practice was somewhat uncertain, for initials are often found in that 
interval which could by no possibility have been the first two letters 
of any surname whatever. Many makers in 1720 registered a new 
mark of their ordinary initials for use on ''old sterling" and so had 
two marks, one for each standard ; thus Paul Crespin signs his work 
of the Britannia standard with CH, but old sterling silver with PC ; 
Isaac Callard with CA and IC respectively, and so on. One or two 
old established smiths brought into use again the old mark they had 
used on their work before 1697, without entering it afresh at Gold- 
smiths' Hall. This was done by Timothy Ley and Benjamin Pyne, 
whose marks as found on the copper-plate re-appear on work in and 
after 1720. This want of uniformity was effectually remedied for the 
future by the Act of 1739, which came into operation on May 28th, 
and ordered the makers to destroy their existing marks, and to sub- 
stitute for them the initials of their Christian a?id surnames, directing 
in addition, that the new letters should, in each case, be of a difierent 



54 Old English Plate. [chap. m. 

character or alphabet from those used before. This was no doubt to 
further secure the destruction of the old punches. 

The marks of that celebrated silversmith Paul Lamerie illustrate 
this course of things throughout. His first registered mark in 1712 
was LA ; his second in 1788 P'L ; his third being, in accordance 
with the provisions of 1789, 0^ Jo in what may be termed script 
letters, registered in the month of June in that year. 

The initial letters of the Christian and surname have been used 
from 1739 to the present time. Watch-case makers of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries seldom use an escutcheon ; their initials 
are merely stamped in without any accessories, except perhaps a 
crown. It only remains to note that the minute mark often found 
beside the maker's is a workshop mark to show which particular work- 
man was employed upon the article bearing it. 

THE ANNUAL LETTER; ASSAYER'S OR WARDEN'S MARK. 

This is perhaps the most interesting of all the marks, for it goes 
far to enable us to ascertain the precise year in which any piece of 
plate was made. It may seem somewhat of a paradox to begin by 
stating that it is by no means certain when it was itself introduced. 
This is nevertheless strictly true. If nothing is better ascertained 
than that the mark must have been in use from the later part of the 
fifteenth century, it will scarcely be believed that there is no positive 
mention of it till 1597, when at last it occurs in the Attorney-Oenerars 
information, in which it is styled " The alphabetical mark approved 
by ordinance amongst the goldsmiths ; " and no one has been able to 
discover the ordinance by which it was appointed, nor any earlier 
notice of it by name, although the mark itself is plain enough upon 
plate of generations before that time. 

Those who would claim for it the highest degree of antiquity depend 
upon a supposed mention in 1886 of a '' sayer's " mark in addition to 
the maker s mark and the leopard's head crowned in a goldsmith's 
ordinance. 

No such ordinance is to be found amongst those preserved at 
Goldsmiths' Hall, the very earliest of which profess themselves to be 
in accordance '' with the acts of diverse Parliaments," and cannot 
therefore be nearly so early as that year. It is, however, pretty clear 
how the mistake arose. 

Mr. Herbert, in his history of the Goldsmiths' Company,* gives a 



* Herbert's Hittory of the Livery Companiu, toL iL, 175. 



«» — 'I ^1 



CHAP. III.] The Date Letter. 55 

summary of the provisions contaiued in their ''ancient ordinances/ 
in the course of which all three marks, including a sayer's mark, and 
also the " assayer^s book/' are mentioned, but without any dates. 
His paragraph proceeds as follows :— 

" The entries as to the assay just given show the practice to have 
been very early exercised by the company, in addition to the notice of 
William Speron in 1836 (now five hundred years ago), we find it 
ordained in 1866 by general assent that none of the fraternity shall go 
to fairs, to trade, without having all the goods of the mystery [gold- 
smith's work] first assayed before the wardens for the year ; and, in 
1444, a member is fined 6«. %A. 'for withstondyng the wardens in 
taking of assaie.' " 

On an earlier page Mr. Herbert had given some extracts from the 
accounts of the company, and amongst them the following entry of 
the year 1886, " Argent bailie, a William Speron, des am^ciam^s cest 
assaie vi « viij c!." 

It is probable that by connecting without any good reason the year 
mentioned in one sentence with the ordinances referred to in another, 
a date which referred only to an early mention of the assay itself, has 
been sometimes attributed to an annual letter as an assayer's mark. 
There seems no ground for attaching William Speron's date to any 
part of Mr. Herbert's summary of the ordinances. That summary is 
an accurate one of all the successive ordinances taken together, but if 
the originals are examined in detail it will be seen that whilst in the 
earlier of the ordinances the assayer*s mark was the leopard's head, in 
those of 1507 and of 1518 another assayer's mark is mentioned for the 
first time. 

It will be remembered also that in the ancient Acts of 1868 and 
1428 the mark to be fixed by the surveyor, " gardien," or warden, is 
always described as the king's mark, or leopard's head ; and although 
all the marks to be used are described in detail in these enactments, 
no mention whatever is to be found of any mark besides that leopard's 
head mark and the mark of the maker. The terms " assay er " and 
'' warden " refer to one and the same officer, for the assay was then 
conducted by the wardens, or " their deputy, the assayer ordained 
thereto," to quote from one of the ordinances. 

A more moderate, but probably still too high, antiquity was assigned 
to it by Mr. Octavius Morgan, who, thinking that with certain excep- 
tions he had been able to obtain examples of all the various alphabets 
used from 1488 but none earlier, came to the conclusion, for the 
reasons we are about to quote, that that date was the period of the 
first adoption of the annual letter. 



56 Old English Plate. [ciup. nr. 

It has already been seen from the proceediDgs of the Montpellier 
goldsmiths that, in consequence of repeated and increased frauds, new 
securities were invented from time to time to provide against them, 
till at last, in the year 1427, it was ordained as a fresh security that, 
in order to insure the fineness of the articles assayed after that time, 
the name of the warden of the mystery inscribed on the register of 
the city should be followed by one of the letters of the alphabet, which 
letter should be reproduced beneath the arms of the town on the piece 
of plate, in order that it might be known under what warden it was 
made, so that in e£fect he might be held answerable for having made a 
fraudulent assay, and suffered bad silver to be Hold as good standard. 
The fact of the Montpellier ordinances giving the specific reason for 
the introduction of a new mark seems very like the origin of it, and 
it led Mr. Morgan to attribute the first invention and adoption of this 
mark to the authorities of Montpellier in 1427. When once adopted 
in one place, it probably soon became a custom in others as an 
improved security against fraud, and the date of the first alphabet 
of the English use of which Mr. Morgan thought any trace is to be 
found, commencing as it does in 1438, very well agreed with the 
supposition of that being the period of its first introduction into this 
country. 

Further than this, he observed the curious coincidence that the first 
Act rendering the wardens responsible for abuses committed daring 
their respective periods of office is that of 1428, which provides that 
''if it may be found that the keeper of the touch touch any such 
harness with the leopard's head except it be as fine in allay as the 
sterling, that then the keeper of the touch for everything so proved 
not as good in allay as the said sterling, shall forfeit the double value 
to the king and the party." 

What more probable than that here, as in France, the want of some 
means of fixing the right offender in each case with the responsibility for 
his default was soon felt, and that the Goldsmiths' Company in 1488 
adopted the practice that had ten years before commended itself to 
their brethren of Montpellier ? So much for 1438. 

It now seems, with some hesitation be it said, a safer conclusion 
that the real date of the introducing of a date-letter into their system 
of hall-marking by the London goldsmiths was 1478. 

Mr. Morgan was certainly right in considering that the object of our 
annual date-letter was the same as in the case of Montpellier. The 
statute of Elizabeth in 1576 again asserts the liability of the wardens, 
ordaining that if any article shall be touched for good by the wardens, 
and there shall afterwards be found fraud or deceit therein, the warden 



v^ 



CHAP. III.] TAe Date Letter. 57 

shall pay forfeit the value of the thing so marked ; and at last in 1679 
the author of the I'ouchstone,* ^Titing of the date-letter, says plainly, 
** The reason for changing thereof is (as I conceive), for that by the 
aforesaid recited statutes, it is provided that if any silver work that is 
worse than sterling be marked with the Company's marks, the wardens 
and corporation for the time being shall make recompence to the party 
grieved, so that if any such default shall happen, they can tell by the 
letter on the work in what year it was assayed and marked, and thereby 
know which of their own ofiScers deceived them, and from them obtain 
over a recompence." 

If it is true that the wardens were made responsible in 1428, it is 
much more to the purpose that in the act of 1477 the craft was made 
answerable for the non-suflBciency of the warden. It then became an 
immensely more important thing for the company to be able to know, 
in the words of the Touchstwie, " which of their own officers deceived 
them, and from them obtain over a recompence." 

This would not perhaps in itself be conclusive, but there is the 
farther fact that though in 1478 a date-letter was certainly used, no 
mention of it is found in the important Act of the preceding year, 
which says much about both the other marks, viz., the leopard's head 
crowned and the maker's mark, and, as above mentioned, makes the 
company responsible for its warden. 

It seems very unlikely that the date-letter would have escaped 
mention here, had such a mark been in use ; but it seems very likely 
indeed that the company would then and there institute one. Had it 
been in existence already, the only way of accounting for its not being 
mentioned in 1477 would be that the warden's mark not being one 
ordered by Parliament, but only a domestic arrangement of the Gold- 
smiths' Company, did not obtain recognition by the legislature in the 
same manner as the leopard*s head and the maker's mark. This is, 
however, at best rather a far-fetched explanation, especially as in later 
diiys the variable mark is mentioned in Acts of Parliament. It would 
certainly be referred to in some of the goldsmiths' own ordinances 
within a certain time of its introduction, and, so far from being 
mentioned soon after 1488, it is not till 1507 that any notice of it 
occurs. In ordinances of 1507 and 1518, as we shall remember, an 
assayer's mark, in addition to the leopard's head and the maker's mark, 
is spoken of ; and as the date-letter was then not only in use, but the 
only mark used except the two others just mentioned, it was clearly 
the assayer's mark referred to. If this is so, we can carry back 

* Sec p. 13. 



58 Old English Plate. [chap. m. 

mention of a date-letter from 1597 to 1507, or within a very few years 
of 1478. The great book of Ordinances and Statutes of the Gold- 
smiths* Company was itself commenced in the year 1478 ; and every- 
thing seems to show that it was a point of fresh departure for the 
craft. Further than this, there is but one single piece of marked plate 
in existence, to which there has ever been positively attributed a date 
earlier than 1478. This is the Pudsey spoon, which has been sup- 
posed upon certain historical evidence to belong to the year 1445. 
Its marks, however, upon careful examination cannot be distin- 
guished from those of 1525, the spoon may have at some time or other 
been accidentally changed for another in the absence of any inscription 
or other means of preserving its identity, and it is on the whole 
much more probable that something of this kind has happened, than 
that two cycles of date-letters, for which no other evidence exists, 
should have run their unknown course before the date at which so 
many circumstances concur in indicating that a date-letter was in- 
troduced. In the following pages and tables the year 1478 is, for 
all these reasons, given as the commencement of the London series of 
alphabets. 

It is only fair to say that some consider England to have given 
the lead to France in these matters. A distinguished writer* 
remarks that, to judge by dates, " the change from makers' marks 
alone to guild marks preceded in England, by more than half a 
century, the same change in France ; " and he cites a letter of Charles 
v., written in 1876, which seems to speak of a maker's mark only, as 
follows : 

** Quelconques orfevres ne porront tenir ne lever forge ne ouvrer en 
chambre secrete ne ilz ne sont approuvez devant les maistrea du meatier 
et estre temoigner souffisavient de tenir forge et d^ avoir poingon a con- 
tresaign et autrement non.'' 

This hardly, however, precludes the possibility of there being other 
marks also in use at the same time, and the wording seems taken from 
earlier statutes, in which the touch of Paris is ordained as a standard, 
as, for instance, those of King John of France in 1855, which again 
are themselves only letters of confirmation of still more ancient regu- 
lations, taking us back as far as 1260. 

The parallel passage from King John's letter of confirmation 
provides that he who wishes to be a goldsmith of Paris must either 
be apprenticed, " ou qu'il soit tel iprouve par lea maistrea et bonnes 
gens du meatier estre souffisant estre orfevre et de tenir et lever forge 



♦ Quarterly Revieto, April, 1876. 



CHAP. III.] The Date Letter. 59 

et Savoir poinqon a contreseing ; " but a later clause adds that, " mil 
orfevre ne pent ouvrer d'or a Paris qu'il ne soit a la touche de Paris, 
ou meiUeur la quelle touche passe tons les ors dont Von euvre en mille 
terres.*' It must have been long a celebrated touch to be spoken of in 
such terms, and it is clear that in 1800 the lily was well known and 
recognised even here in England as the Paris mark* ; add to this that 
Philip le Hardi had ordained in 1275 that each city should have a 
particular mark for works of silver. In all these cases the word 
'* touch " must be taken to refer to the mark by which the quality of 
the metal is certified as well as to that quality itself. It is so used in 
our own early statutes, in which the phrases " touched with the 
touch," " bearing the touch," ** touched with the leopard's head," 
occur as well as another set of expressions in which it is used rather 
to denote the standard of the metal, for instance, '^ gold of a certain 
touch." 

Two " chargeoursde touche London," are mentioned in the inventory 
of the goods of Richard de Bavenser, Archdeacon of Lincoln, who died 
in 1886; a quart pot of silver with the " touche of Parys," and also 
dishes of silver of "London makyng" occur in a will of 1443 ;t 
" spones marked with the touche of London " in a will proved in the 
Canterbury Prerogative Court in 1468; "peciam dez markes Fran- 
cifiB," in 1481 ; and " spones having the toche of the goldesmyths *' in 
another will of 1522. 

The foregoing remarks, it will be observed, deal with the comparative 
antiquity of the leopard's head and the lily quite as much as with the 
English and French date-letters ; indeed they apply to either pair of 
marks alike, and have only found a place here rather than earlier, 
because they followed naturally upon a comparison of the periods at 
which the guilds of London and Montpellier respectively adopted a 
warden's mark. 

Some might say, as we have seen, that neither the leopard's head 
nor the lily is a guild mark properly so called, but rather the mark of 
the royal or national standard, each for its own country ; and in the 
case of England, everything points to the date-letter as the only special 
mark of the London guild. It is the date-letter which is described in 
1597 as the mark approved by ordinance amongst the goldsmiths 
themselves, whereas the two other marks then used are " Her 
Majesty's " and " appointed by statute " respectively. 

It would be somewhat of an anomaly to find that of all places in the 



* Wardrobe acconnts of that year, 28 Edward I. (see p. 20). 
f TeH. £bor., see note Art. Spoons, chap. x. 



6o Old English Plate. [chap. ht. 

world, London should have been the one without a peculiar mark of its 
own, other than its date-letter, if it were not that in times when the 
Goldsmiths' Company was the only keeper of the national touch, that 
touch might so easily come to be regarded in practice almost as much 
the mark of the guild as of the standard. It is a point of no practical 
importance, at all events since the appointment of a special mark for 
each provincial assay office ; but to be strictly accurate, we should 
have to say that London plate is distinguished by the absence of any 
provincial mark rather than by the presence of any special mark of its 
own, unless we admit the claim of its peculiar series of date-letters to 
that character. These it has undeniably used from 1478, in the form 
of a succession of alphabets, each consisting of twenty letters ; J, U or 
V, W, X, Y and Z, being the letters omitted. From 1560-1 they 
have, with hardly any exception, been enclosed in regular heraldic 
shields of various shapes, but till then the letters are surrounded with 
a line more or less closely following their own outline ; the ends of the 
punches having been originally of the shape of the letters they bore, 
and afterwards of a shield shape, with the letter sunk in the centre of 
the shield. The most notable exceptions to this rule are the letters L 
of 1726-7, and M of the following year, which are often, if not always, 
found on a square punch.* From 1678, if not earlier, more than one 
size of punch is found to have been used, large and small articles 
having been stamped with marks of di£ferent sizes, the smaller ones 
being often on plain square punches with the corners slightly cut off, 
instead of in more heraldic shields. Very small letters indeed are 
found towards the end of the seventeenth century in the inside of 
watch-cases. In certain years also the letters on the punches in use 
differ a little in form from one another. Two forms of the letter for 
1619-20 occur ; and the differences to bo noted at 1567-8, 1575-6, 
and at 1658-9 ai'e also so marked as to require representation in the 
tables. 

The introduction of a shield in 1560-1, in the middle of an alphabet 
be it noted, curiously enough coincides exactly with the restoration of 
the old sterling standard silver by Queen Elizabeth, which has been 
spoken of in the preceding chapter ; and the probability that an event 
of such importance to the Goldsmiths* Company was marked by them 
in this or some other particular way suggested a careful examination 
of the journals of the Company, which resulted in the discovery of the 
following minute for 16 December, 1560 : — 

^^ Also forasmuch as Mr. Wardens and the Assistants have found that the moneys 



No doubt the punch in these cases is of the second size. 



CHAP. III.] The Date Letter. 6i 

of our sovereign Lady the Quene conteyne in f ynesse (xi oz.) eleven ounces and upward 
therefore it is by them agreed that after the feast of the Epiphaine of our Lord God 
next comynge the assaymaster and wardens of this companie shall touch no plate 
under the f ynesse of (xi oz. ii. dwt) eleven ounces two pennie weight and for a certe 
knowledge to be had betwene the same plate and other before touched it is agreed 
that the letter of the yeare shall be grayved round about for a difference." 

This positive proof of the reason for the shield lends additional 
weight to the suggestion which is to be made when the lion passant 
comes under notice, that its invention in 1545 marks the divergence 
of the standard of the silver coinage from that of silver plate which 
then took place. It would be very odd if the degradation of the 
coinage from the sterling quality maintained throughout for plate, and 
its subsequent restoration to that standard of purity, were events of 
two years, in each of which is found to occur a novel feature in the 
system of hall-marking practised by the Goldsmiths' Company, and if 
one of the alterations in the marks, but not the other, were connected 
with the coincident changes of the standard. The fleur-de-lys and 
pellets which accompany in some instances the letter for 1575-6 no 
doubt relate to the Act of that year, as in later days the Act of 
1789-40 is marked by the adoption of a new shape of shield for the 
rest of the letters of the then current alphabet. 

The variation noted for 1658 is merely duo to the use of a damaged 
punch, probably towards the end of the year ; but the annulet under 
the letter for 1567, and the two forms of letter found in 1619 are 
happily accounted for. In 1567 it appears from the Minute Books 
of the Court of the Goldmiths' Company that a long-standing dispute 
with the Assay Master Bichard Bogers came to a head. The Company 
required him to give up his house in Chepe and to come and dwell in 
the proper apartments for the Assay Master at the Hall, as early as in 
August, 1566. From that time forward there are constant entries of 
his delays and excuses until at last in Aug. 1567 he promised to come 
in to the Hall or yield up his office next quarter-day. It was then 
found necessary to come to close quarters, and ten days more were 
given him on Nov. 3, 1567, to make up his mind in. The next entry 
relating to the matter records that on Dec. 24, he was '^ discharged of 
the office of assayer." Thomas Keelynge was appointed to be his 
successor ; and on commencing work he no doubt adopted the annulet 
under the date-letter for the remaining portion of the year. So too in 
1619 the second form of the letters is accounted for by the death of 
the assayer Thomas Dymock in the month of September, and the 
appointment a month later of John Beynolds. 

The letters have been annually changed on the day of election of 



62 Old English Plate. [chap. m. 

the new wardens, that being St. Danstan*s Day prior to the Restora- 
tion ; the new punches were accordingly handed to the assay-warden 
for use, on or about May 19th in each year, and were continued to the 
same time in the year following. Since 1660 the new punches have 
been first used on the morning of May SOth, the new wardens having 
been elected the day before. 

No entry is found of the letter for the year in the goldsmiths* 
journals, until the occurrence of some dispute with the officers of the 
assay, after which the letters were mentioned. Their earliest note is 
of the letter for 1629, but from that time the notices are sufficiently 
regular to indicate the character of all the alphabets. For the earlier 
letters, it was only by the examination of a great many pieces of 
ancient plate, chiefly belonging to public companies, colleges, corpora- 
tions, and churches, of which the histories are known, that Mr. 
Octavius Morgan was able to collect the information necessary to 
enable him to construct a table of the alphabets used. The difficulty 
was increased by the obvious fact that the dates which are engraved 
on ancient plate cannot always be relied on for the date of the work. 
Oftentimes pieces of plate which individuals or their families have had 
in their possession for many years, have afterwards been given or 
bequeathed by them to public bodies, and then the date of the gift is 
recorded in the inscription, which will not agree with the period of the 
work. Again, plate given to public bodies, having been worn out, has 
been re-made at subsequent periods, or exchanged for more useful 
articles, and the original date has been engraved on the new-made 
piece. As an illustration of this difficulty, one of the loving cups of 
the Goldsmiths' Company itself goes by the name of " Hanbury's 
Cup," and bears engraved on it the record of its having been the gift 
of Richard Hanbury in 1608. The form and workmanship of the cup 
are clearly of the period of Charles II., and that was confirmed by the 
annual letter. In searching the books of the Company, Mr. Morgan 
found by accident a memorandum stating that *' Hanbury 's cup, 
weight 60 oz., was sold with other plate in 1637, and re-made in 
1666." This latter date agrees precisely with the annual letter it 
bears. The present writer's experiences on this point are the same. 
He was somewhat surprised to find, when examining the plate of the 
Salters' Company, that though bearing the arms and dates of Sir 
Nicholas Crispe, Ent. and Bart., and other great salters of the reign 
of Charles I. and Charles II., it all seemed made in 1716 by a well- 
known goldsmith named Humphrey Payne. At last a Monteith dated 
1660 appeared. This was too much of an anachronism ; and a refer- 
ence to the old books of the Company being kindly permitted, some 



CHAP. III.] The Date Letter. (>^ 

carious facts, which had been entirely lost sight of and forgotten, 
came to light. It appeared that the Company had resolved, in 1711, 
to sell all their plate, after carefully registering the weights of the 
articles, and also the dates, names, and arms of the donors which 
might be engraved upon them, in order to invest the proceeds in 
lottery tickets (it will be remembered that State lotteries were then 
just a new thing, having been first authorized by Parliament in 1709). 
It further appeared that in 1716, it was determined to replace the 
plate, the lottery tickets were sold, tenders by London goldsmiths 
were invited ; and the tender of Humphrey Payne and Co., which was 
the lowest of three sent in, being accepted, new plate of the same 
weight, but not in articles of the same description, as that sold in 
1711, was made by him for the Company ; and it was ordered that 
the names, arms, and dates of the donors of the old plate should be 
placed upon the new. Humphrey Payne's receipt for " self and Co." 
is extant amongst the minutes of the year 1716. 

In this way were gradually put together the alphabets published in 
1853 by Mr. Octavius Morgan, who succeeded in ascertaining the 
forms of no less than sixty-five letters previously unknown, including 
specimens of every alphabet as far back as 1478. To these many 
more have now been added, and some of the occasional gaps later 
than 1629, which existed in the original tables, filled up. Some 
time after their publication by Mr. Morgan, these alphabets were 
reproduced with the addition of shields, by the late Mr. W. Chaffers, 
who seems to have adopted Mr. Morgan*s tables and data ; but some 
of the letters, and the shields in many cases, were incorrect, and a 
somewhat doubtful improvement upon the original tables thus 
laboriously compiled. * 

The cycles of twenty years seem to have proceeded regularly from 
1478 to 1696, when, on the occasion of the new standard being 
introduced and new marks appointed for it, a fresh alphabet was com- 
menced. The entries in the Goldsmiths' minutes are as follows : — 

•*A.D. 1696, May 29th. — New puncheons received; the letter for 



the year being ( in a scutcheon I ^l< 



" A.D. 1697, March 27th. — The puncheons for the remaining part 
of this year were received, being according to an Act of Parliament, a 
Lyon's head erased, a Britannia, and for the letter the great court 3 

in an escutcheon I^J." 

It must be borne in mind that as the new letters were not fixed till 
May 29th, each letter served for a portion of two years, even in days 



64 Old English Plate. [chap. m. 

before the change of style. This t and R, therefore, between them, 
served as the letters for the goldsmiths' year 1696-7, that is, for the 
year beginning May 30th, 1696; the court-hand letter for 1697-8 
coming into use on May 30th, 1697. 

Some instances of a small black letter tt for the year 1697-8 are 
said to exist ; and if so, no doubt it is upon certain articles made, 
but not marked or sold, previous to the adoption of the new standard. 
It would have been very hard on those who had expended time and 
skill upon old sterling silver in the year 1696-7, with no notice of the 
impending alteration in the standard, if such wares had been thereby 
rendered unsaleable. The act was, however, so worded as to avoid 
doing this injustice, and such articles would be stamped with the 
old marks, including the U that would have denoted 1697-8 in 
ordinary course. The new court-hand alphabet was applicable only 
to plate of the new standard inaugurated with it. 

New and carefully constructed tables of the alphabets, and their 
shields or other inclosures, are given at the end of this volume. 

THE LION PASSANT. 

There is no mark better known and none less understood than the 
lion passant. Far from being the ancient sign of sterling silver, it is 
not found at all until the middle of the sixteenth century. The most 
careful enquiry has failed to produce an earlier instance than one of 
the year 1645, and it is not mentioned in any statute, ordinance, or 
other proceeding until the indictment by the Attorney-General in 
1597, in which it is called Her Majesty* 8 Lion, whilst the other two 
marks are described respectively as '* the leopard's head limited by 
statute,'* and " the alphabetical mark approved by ordinance amongst 
themselves " (i.e., the Goldsmiths' Company). 

In earlier days the leopard's head was the king's mark ; does the 
lion passant now take its place ? 

Its origin, intention, and even the precise date of its introduction 
are all equally obscure. It is never found before 1543, nor is it ever 
absent after 1545 ; but there is no article of plate known to exist of 
the intervening year. In one or the other of the years 1544 and 1545 
it must have been introduced. Its description in 1597 would imply 
that it had been appointed to be used by some royal order, but the 
Kegisters of the Privy Council and the records of the Goldsmiths' 
Company have alike been searched in vain ; there is no mention of it 
in the latter, and the volume of the former for just this period is 
almost the only one of a long series that is missing. We are there- 



CHAP. III.] The Lion Passant. 65 

fore thrown back upon a conjecture, but one which there seems good 
ground for adopting. 

It will be remembered that it was in 1542 that the fineness of the 
silver coin of the realm was, for the first time since the Conquest, 
lowered ; not that the pound sterling of silver had not been lessened 
in value several times in that long period, but it had always been 
efiected by diminishing its weight, leaving the fineness of the silver 
unaltered. In 1542, however, Henry VIII. not only diminished the 
weight but reduced the standard from 11 ounces 2 dwts. fine to 10 
ounces fine, and again in 1544 from 10 ounces to 6 ounces, leaving 
but 6 ounces of fine silver in a troy pound, this being followed by a 
further and final degradation in 1545. It will also be remembered 
that the touch of the leopard*s head crowned certified only that the 
silver was ** of the alloy of the sterling or better.'* What security 
then would the buyer have had after 1542 that plate bought by him 
was of any better silver than the debased coinage of the day ? None 
whatever. May we not, therefore, hazard a conjecture that the lion 
passant was adopted at about this period to show that plate bearing it 
was not only as good as the coin, but was of the old sterling standard ? 

No later writer has attempted to penetrate the mystery since Mr. 
Octavius Morgan first drew attention to it, and the Quarterly Beviewer, 
in 1876, who may be taken to sum up modern learning on the point, 
does so in a wish that '^ some of those laborious gentlemen who are 
engaged in calendering the State Papers, may fall, in the course of 
their researches, on some Order in Council or Gracious Proclamation 
enjoining the addition of this royal lion — for it at least came out of the 
coat-armour of the sovereign — to the three marks rendered imperative 
by statute." 

From 1545 the lion passant, or more properly lion passant guardant, 
has invariably been found upon silver of the old sterling, and until 
1844 upon standard gold ; and, whilst it must be confessed that this 
theory does not account for its appearance on gold plate, there is 
nothing improbable in the assumption that it was thought convenient, 
ou its adoption for silver for the reason we have given, to adopt it also 
for gold for the sake of uniformity in the standard marks. It is an 
important landmark to the archaeologist, for whilst its presence or 
absence alone tells him something, the alterations which are observed 
in its size and shape from time to time are often of material assistance 
to him in fixing the date of the articles on which it appears. 

In the first few years the beast is thin and spirited in shape, and a 
small crown appears over the head of the lion. This is so in 1547 
and 1549. From 1550 the crown disappears, and from that year till 



66 Old English Plate. [chap. m. 

1557, the animal is in a plain oblong shield, whilst from 1557 
to 1677 the shape of the escutcheon follows the outline of the animal. 

THB LION'S HEAD ERASED AND FIGURE OF BRITANNIA. 

Of these two marks there is little to be said. They were appointed 
by the statute of 1696-7, which raised the standard for silver plate from 
11 ounces 2 dwts. to 11 ounces 10 dwts. fine, in order to distinguish 
the plate so made from that which had previously been made of silver 
of the old sterling, and they were for this purpose substituted for the 
leopard's head crowned and lion passant. 

The new marks were in sole use from March 27, 1697, until June, 
1720, when the old sterling standard was restored and its own old 
marks with it, not, however, to the exclusion of the new. Since that 
year, therefore, both standards, each to bear its own marks, have been 
legal. For some short time after the restoration of the old standard 
a good deal of plate made of the new or higher standard silver seems 
still to have been stamped, but it quickly fell into disuse, and, after 
1732 or thereabouts, the lion's head erased and the Britannia are very 
rarely to be met wdth. The higher standard is occasionally used even 
at the present day, and in such cases is of course distinguished by its 
proper marks. 

The Britannia stamp is sometimes found of a rectangular and at 
other times of an oval shape ; in one instance that has come under 
the writer's notice it is absent altogether, a set of loving cups of the 
year 1716 in the possession of the Worshipful Company of Salters 
bearing no Britannia, but instead of it a second impression of the 
lion's head erased placed beside the first, and of a difierent size. It 
may be noted also that several pieces of plate bearing irregular marks 
occur in the year or two next after the restoration of the old sterling 
standard in 1720. For old sterling silver some of the punches dis- 
used since 1697 seem to have been put into commission again, and 
confusion was doubtless occasioned by the two sets of marks being in 
daily use at the assay-office. The writer has seen a candlestick bearing 
both old and new standard marks. Even more remarkable is a salver 
of 1721 bearing the Britannia and an old leopard's head crowned, but 
both partially obliterated, the former by having a lion passant and the 
latter a lion's head erased stamped over it. The original combination 
and the correction are equally without meaning. 

THE SOVEREIGN'S HEAD. 

This mark is found on all plate that has been liable to the duty 
imposed from Dec. 1, 1784 (24 Geo. III. c. 53) ; that is to say, upon 



CHAP. III.] 



The Sovereign's Head. 



67 



all plate liable to be assayed, the only exemptions from the control of 
the assay-offices, and therefore from duty, being : — 

(1), Certain gold articles exempted by 12 Geo. II. c. 26.* 
(2). Certain silver articles exempted by 30 Geo. III. c. 81. t 
(3). Watch-cases, by 38 Geo. III. c. 24, These are exempted from 
duty and so from being marked with the Sovereign's head, but are not 
amongst the exemptions from the general marking requirements of 12 
Geo. II. c. 26. An Order in Council of 1887 regulating the marking 
of foreign watch-cases imported from abroad will be found mentioned 
later (see Chap. VIH). 

It will be observed that, from 1738 until 1790, the silver as well as 
the gold exempted was so under 12 Geo. 11. c. 26, which was repealed 
in 1790 as to silver by 30 Geo. III. c. 31 ; and it must be added that 
by 18 & 19 Vict. c. 60, wedding-rings pay duty even though of less 
weight than 10 dwts. 

The mark itself, when first introduced, was in intaglio instead of 
in relief, looking like the matrix of a seal instead of its impression ; 
in this form it is found in conjunction with the letters i and k, 
standing for 1784-5 and 1785-6 respectively, specimens of both of 



* 12 Geo. II. c. 26.— 

Exemptions : — 

8. 2. Any jewellen* works, that is to say, 
any gold or silver wherein any jewels or other 
Ktones are or shall be set (other than moorn- 
ing rings), any jointed night ear-rings of 
geld, or gold springs of lockets. 

s. 6. Rings, collets for rings, or other 
jewels, chains, necklace beads, lockets, hol- 
low or raised liattons, sleeve buttons, thim- 
bles, corral sockets and bells, ferrils, pipe- 
ligbters, cranes for bottles, very small book- 
dasps, any stock or garter clasps jointed, 
very small nutmeg-graters, rims of snuff 
boxes whereof tops or bottoms are made of 
:ihell or stone, sliding pencils, tooth- pick 
cases, tweezer cases, pencil cases, needle 
cases, any philligree work, any sorts of tip- 
piugs or swages on stone or ivory cases, any 
mounts, screws, or stoppers to stone or glass 
bottles or phials, any small or slight orna- 
ments put to amber or other eggs or urns, 
any wrought seals, or seals with cornelians or 
other stones set therein, or any gold or silver 
vessel, plate, or manufacture of gold or silver 
so richly engraved, carved, or chased, or set 
with jewels or other stones, as not to admit 
of an assay to be taken of, or a mark to be 
struck thereon, without damaging, prejudic- 
ing, or defacing the same, or such other 
things as by reason of the smallness or thin- 
ness thereof are not capable of receiving the 



marks hereinbefore mentioned, or any of 
them, and not weighing ten pennyweights of 
gold or silver each. 

t 30 Geo. III. c. 31.— 

Exemptions : — 

s. 3. Chains, necklace beads, lockets, any 
philligree work, shirt buckles or broaches, 
stamped medals, or spouts to china, stone 
or earthenware teapots, or any of them, of 
any weight whatsoever. 

s. 4. Tippings, swages or mounts, or any 
of them, not weighing ten pennyweights of 
silver each, save and except only necks and 
collars for castors, cruets or glasses apper- 
taining to any sort of stands or frames. 

s. 5. Any wares of silver whatsoever nnt 
weighing five x>ennyweights of silver each, 
save and except only the following silver 
wares (that is to say), necks, collars, and 
tops for castors, cruets or glasses appertain- 
ing to any sort of stands or frames, buttons 
to be affixed to or set on any wearing 
apparel, solid sleeve buttons and solid studs, 
not having a bissilled edge soldered on, 
wrought seals, blank seals, bottle tickets, 
shoe clasps, patch boxes, salt spoons, salt 
shovels, salt ladles, tea spoons, tea strainers, 
caddy ladles, buckles (shirt buckles or 
broaches before mentioned excepted), and 
pieces to garnish cabinets, or knife cases, or 
tea chests, or bridles, or stands or frames. 

F 2 






68 Old English Plate. [chap, hl 

which are in the writer's possession, and the profile is, in these 
cases, turned to the left. The date letter for 1784-5 is of course 
sometimes with, and at other times without; the Eing's-head mark, the 
duty not having been imposed till the middle of the Goldsmiths' year. 

After the end of 1785-6 it is always found in relief like the other 
assay-marks, and with the profile to the right. Her most Gracious 
Majesty Queen Victoria is, however, turned to the left again. 

The head is in a rectangular stamp with comers clipped in 1784 
and 1785. It occurs in a sort of trefoil stamp, about 1804 to 1808. 
This is the case at York, Sheffield and Edinburgh ; and so no doubt 
at all the provincial assay-offices, as well as in London. At all other 
times it is in a plain oval shield. 

A duty of sixpence per ounce troy was first imposed upon plate in 
1720 when the old standard of silver was revived and by the same 
statute (6 Geo. I. c. 11), but it was taken off again in 1758 (81 Geo. 11. 
c. 82) by an Act which substituted a dealer's licence costing 40«. per 
annum.* 

The Act of 1784 re-imposed a duty, but this time of 8«. per ounce 
on gold plate, as well as 6t2. per ounce on silver ; which amounts were, 
omitting intermediate stages, increased finally in 1815 (55 Geo. III. 
c. 185) to Viz. per ounce for gold, and 1«. ^d. for silver, calculated on 
|-ths of the weight to allow for waste in finishing. At these rates they 
remained, the duty being paid through Goldsmiths' Hall at the time 
of assaying, and the money returned with the articles if they were cut 
as being below the proper standard. 

A drawback of the whole duty was allowed upon plate made in the 
United Kingdom for export and exported new. The Act of 1784 
directed that such plate should be specially marked with a figure of 
Britannia which was used like the first stamp of the king's head as an 
intaglio. This direction was, however, repealed by 25 Geo. IH. c. 64, 
in consequence of the damage done to plate by stamping it after it was 
finished, and the mark disused after an existence of only seven months. 
The provisions as to the drawback itself were not altered. The plate 
duties were finally abolished in 1890. 



* Dealers' liceDces are now regulated by 30 h, 31 Vict. c. 90. 

Dealent in gold exceeding 2 dwts. and nnder 2 ok. \ £2 6«. 

„ Bilver ,, 5 „ ,, 30 ,, ) perannnm. 

„ gold 2 OS. or upwards ) 

,, silyer 30 oz. or upwards > £5 16«. per annum. 

Gold and silver refiners, etc. ) 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE PBOVINCIAL ASSAY TOWNS AND THEIR MARKS PRIOR TO 1701. 

THE ACT OF 1423 — ^HISTOBICAL NOTES OF THE GOLDSMITHS OF NEWCASTLE AND 
TOBK — THE BELATIONS OF THE LONDON WITH THE PROVINCIAL GOLD- 
SMITHS FBOM TIME TO TIME — EXTINCTION OF THE OLD PBOVINCIAL 
GOLDSMITHS' COMPANIES IN 1697 — YOBK — NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE — 
NOBWICH — CHE8TEB — EXETER — HULL, GATESHEAD, LEEDS, CARLISLE, 
LINCOLN, TAUNTON, DORCHESTER, BARNSTAPLE, KING'S LYNN, SANDWICH — 
DOUBTFUL PBOVINCIAL MABKS — TABLE OF OI<D PBOVINCIAL MABKS. 

We now come to the consideration of the marks found upon plate 
assayed in the provinces ; but as the act of 1700 established, or in 
certain cases re-established, the provincial assay-offices on an entirely 
new basis and with entirely new marks to distinguish them, the history 
of provincial marks divides itself into two distinct portions, the earlier 
of which terminates at that year. There is nothing more certain than 
that goldsmiths' guilds existed in mediseval days in many English 
provincial towns and cities. There is nothing less certain than that 
what is known of their work as a trade matter is practically nothing. 
A few purely antiquarian vestiges are what they have left behind. 

It is not until 1428, that provincial '^ touches," except the touch of 
York, can with any certainty be said to have existed at all, so far as 
any legislation about such things is concerned. In very early days all 
goldsmiths were required to bring their wares to London to be marked ; 
and even in 1879 the enactment found on the Bolls of Parliament for 
establishing an ''assay of the touch" in cities and boroughs under the 
superintendence of their Mayors and Governors, with the aid of the 
Master of the Mint, if there be one, who should put the mark of the 
city or borough where it was assayed upon plate, does not, as we have 
already seen, appear to have become law. 

At best, for reasons already given, its provisions were but temporary ; 
and it is clear that even in parts of England distant from the metropolis 
there was no general custom at this time of marking plate with peculiar 
local marks ; indeed, there is some direct evidence to the contrary in 
the claims of the Wardens of the Goldsmiths in 1404 to have had the 
right from time immemorial to have the governance of all manner of 



70 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. IV. 



gold and silver work as well within the city of London " a« elsewhere 
within the kingdom of England.'' 

Let us quote, as an instance of the exercise of this jurisdiction, the 
case of one John of Bochester, who, in 1414, was taken hy the master 
of the trade of goldsmiths there for counterfeiting mazer bonds in 
copper and brass plated over with silver or gilded, and brought up to 
London, having sold them within the city.* 

It is not clear, from this particular instance, whether the jurisdic- 
tion of the governors of the craft in London would or would not 
have extended to the case, if the fraudulent wares had been sold as 
well as made in Rochester ; it only shows that the maker of articles, 
sold as these were within the city, was amenable to it wherever he 
resided and worked. Had they been sold in Rochester or elsewhere 
in the provinces, the case would probably have been dealt with in the 
same manner, but without bringing the culprit up to London ; the 
** venue,*' to borrow a legal phrase, would have been local. At all 
events, with the increase of population, the necessity of sending every 
article of plate to Loudon to be stamped, became a greater hardship 
upon country goldsmiths, and the legislation which proposed to meet 
it in 1S79, shows that a need of some such measure was already found 
to exist. Accordingly, less than half a century later, in 1428,t the 
divers touches of York, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Lincoln, Norwich, 
Bristol, Salisbury, and Coventry, were set up "according to the 
ordinance of Mayors, Bailiflfs, or Governors of the said towns ; " and 
it was enacted, " that no goldsmith nor other workers of silver nor 
keepers of the said touches within the said towns shall set to sell nor 
touch any silver in other manner than is ordained before, within the 
City of London," upon pain of forfeiture. The act further provides 
that no goldsmith anywhere in England should work silver of* worse 
allay than the sterling, nor without setting his mark or sign upon it 
before he set it to sale, upon the same penalties as if in London ; and 
it empowered justices of the peace, mayors, and bailiffs to hear and 
enquire of such matters. 

Mints had been established at York and Bristol in the preceding 
year, possibly also in the other places now associated with them ; and 
it is well ascertained that most, if not all, of these cities and towns 
had guilds or fraternities of goldsmiths already established in them. 

As to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, it would appear I that at so remote a 



• Riley's Mcmorialt of London and Lon- 
don Life J p. 601. 
t 2 Henry VI. c. \i (see p. 31). 



X From An impartial ffistory of the Town 
and County of Ntwcastle-upon-Tyne, pub* 
lished anonymously in 1801, p. 429. 



CHAP. IV.] The Provincial Goldsmiths. 71 

period as 1249, Henry III. commanded the bailiffs and good men to 
clioose four of the most prudent and trusty men of their town for the 
office of moneyers there ; and other four like persons for keeping the 
king's mint in that town, also two fit and prudent goldsmiths to be 
assayers of the money to be made there. In 1586, the goldsmiths 
were, by an ordinary, incorporated with the plumbers, glaziers, pew- 
terers and painters, and the united Company required to go together, 
on the Feast of Corpus Christi, and maintain their play of *' the three 
kings of Coleyn." They were to have four wardens, one goldsmith, 
one plumber, one glazier, one pewterer or painter ; and it is quaintly 
added that no Scotchman born should be taken apprentice or suffered 
to work in Newcastle. The first ** goldsmith " warden was Thomas 
Cramer. There were four other ** goldsmiths ** at this time ; but only 
thirteen names of goldsmiths occur afterwards till that of William 
Kamsey, the earliest whose work still remains to be seen, and it is not 
known whether any of the number were actually working goldsmiths. 
Their hall in Morden Tower was granted them in the mayoralty of 
Sir Peter Biddell in 1619, and the association of the goldsmiths with 
the other tradesmen lasted till 1717, when owing to something which 
necessitated reference to the Becorder, it ceased. They did not, 
howcTer, take a leading place in this brotherhood, though it will be 
seen that they were in full work during the second half of the seven- 
teenth century. 

There is an exceedingly early mention of Durham work in the 
Wardrobe accounts of 28 Edward I., in which a pastoral staff is 
described as " de opere Dunolm;'* and as to York, "coclearia 
facta in Ebor," are bequeathed in a York will of as early a date as 
1866. 

In the latter city the art seems to have flourished, and the names of 
many goldsmiths working there during the second half of the fourteenth 
and in the following century are known. Alan de Alnewyk, gold- 
smith of York, whose shop was in ** Stayngate,*' bequeaths, in 1374, 
his tools to his kinsman William, when he shall attain twenty years of 
age, provided he attain that age '^ in bonft conversatione ad discendum 
ad scolas et ad artem aurifabri," quaintly adding " ac sit humilis, ac 
bonorum morum nee arguendo uxorem meam," or in plain English, 
that he must keep on good terms with the testator's widow. The 
names of two goldsmiths, Wormod and Jonyn, almost certainly of 
York, occur in the will of an archdeacon of Richmond proved at York 
in 1400 ; and the wife of a third, bearing a no less singular name, 
Wermbolt Harlam, leaves her gold knopped ring, in 1401, to the wife 
of John Angowe, a craftsman of the same mystery. Besides these, the 



72 Old English Plate. [chap. iv. 

wills of two goldsmiths settled at York in the fifteenth century, both of 
them containing interesting trade details, are to be found amongst 
those proved in that city. By one of them, John Luneburgh, in 1458, 
leaves some of his working tools to his friends and fellow goldsmiths, 
Robert Spicer and John Pudsay, and 6«. 8d. to the craft — ^^ anri 
fahrorum arti" — towards buying a new silver crown. His small 
stock-in-trade included, amongst other things, the following articles, 
viz. : — " incudem meam sccundariam et j malleum vocatum j forchyn- 
gamer, sex limas vocatas files et vj gravers, incudem meam minimi 
valoris in opell& me& j planysshing stithy et j plauysshing hamer." 
The other will, that of John Colam, dated 1490, gives us a fall 
inventory of the working tools and appliances then considered necessary 
for carrying on the goldsmith*s business. The contents of his ''opella," 
from its quaint spelling and curious mixture of Latin, French, and 
English words, form a list too curious to curtail. 



Opella. De j lez wirkjng bord cum j lez deske 
De ij Btethez iij« iiij** 
De ij Bparhawke stetbez x' 
De vi grett lez forgeyng hamere ij* 
De ▼ lez planeshyng haroers xii<* 
De j lez hake hamer ct j lez strenyng hamer iij** 
De ▼ small lez clenches iiij' 
De ij lez spoyn tayses x*> 
De ij lez stampis xiiij*^ 
De iij lez swages vi*^ 

De j lez rownde stake cam j lez flatt stake et j lez nebid stake iiij<* 
De iiij paribus de lez sherithez xvi** 

De j pari de lez spanae taynges cum ij paribus de lez plyorys iii<* 
De ij paribus de lez fyre taynges cum j pari parvo lez taynges vii** 
De j shavyng hooke cum j lez standard cupri v** 
De j long lez lokker cum lez pounsones xx<^ 
De ij lez drawyng teynges cum ij lez drawyng toyllys xiiij* 
De ij lez paribus of skaylettes cum pertiucntiis iiij** 
De j parvo lez stethe cum lez hoylles in it j** 
De ij lez ynsfottes cum j pari lez pounsones iiij** 
De j lez lokker cum lez gravers et lez shavers iiij«* 
De j candelabro cum lez fayn j«* 
De j lez lokker cum lez fyilles viiij<* 
De ij aliis lez lokkers cum lez pounsones iiij<* 
De j rownd lez stampe auricalci cum ij lez bossellys ij** 
De j parvo lez tryblett cum j pair lez wood spanne taynges ob. 
De iiij lez pattron lokkers cum veteribus lez pattrones viij** 
De j lez pyill cum iij paribus lez ballance ij* ij** 
Dc ij paribus ballance pro auro iiij** 
De j lez sairee pixide cum j lez reyn spyndyll ij* 
De j lez gylttyng plater cum pertinentiis iiij** 
De j enaymelyng lez lokker vi** 
De j foco cum j pari follium xii«* 
De iij tyn peyces x* 
De j yeteri lez bord cum lez deske iij** 



CHAP. IT.] The Provincial Goldsmiths. 73 

De ij lapidibus de lez sclait j' 

Non legata. De j grett lez pyill weght cum j pari balance' v« De j osculatorio 

argenti pond' xii an. et di., pris unc. iij' ij** 

Snmma xxxix* vii<* 
De iij mirrarum lez bandys cam j pede murrse pond, xii one pris unc. iij' iiij', xl* 
De j mime lez band cum j lez lokker cum argento fracto pond, xii un. et di. 

xli« viii* 
De j arcu argenti cum catapulto argenti et j nola auri v* 
De j cocliari argenti sine lez knope xii<* 
De XX peirlys ii* 
De ij cristaules viii** 
De iij foliis de lez booke gold iij** 
De j lez heft cultelli de lez greyn cerpentyu j** 
De j lez maser shell xli<* 
De j pari balance' j** ; de j lez stampe iiij** 
De j Premario vi** 
De ij aliis libris veteribus ij** 
De j cresmatorio de lez tyn ij* 
De j lez sarce pixid' ij** 
De j pari precularium de le jeitt ij** 
Le lez swcpynges dictae opellse xx* 

Summa ix^* iii" x* ob. 

Thomas Skelton, goldsmith of York, is found selling mazers in the 
middle years of the fifteenth centary. It is worth noticing that the 
names of several of these goldsmiths point to their foreign descent. 
Lnneburgh and Harlam must have come from those cities ; Golan, or 
Colam, was not improbably from Cologne ; and the Christian name 
of his son Herman, who is mentioned in his will, points in the same 
direction. But notwithstanding these glimpses of the tradesmen of 
York and their families, there is no single bit of marked plate left to 
show that this city, nor indeed any of the others, until much later 
days exercised the privilege conferred upon them in 1879 or in 1423, 
of touching their plate with their own touches. Very interesting 
documentary evidence has, however, been found by Canon Baine 
amongst the archives of York of the existence of a common touch 
there in 1410-1. In that year a dispute arose in the craft as to 
whether there should be three or only two " searchers,*' and the ques- 
tion is laid before the mayor, aldermen, and other good citizens on 
5th March, 12 Henry IV., with the result that two searchers. English- 
men born, and no more, were to be chosen and duly sworn. The 
goldsmiths were to bring their touch and mark '' come la statut pur- 
port," and those who had none, to make themselves new punches '* en 
complisent de justice come le comune lez eut demand." They were 
to forfeit 6«. 8d. if they sold anything of gold or silver before "le 
comune touch de la dite cite " and its maker's mark were properly 
applied to it. All this came under review again in 1561, when the 
" ancient ordynances of the mystery or occupation of goldsmiths of 



74 Old English Plate. [chap. iv. 

the citie of Yorke " were diligently perused and examined " by the 
right worshipfull Parsyvall Crafourth, mayour, the aldremen and pryray 
councell" at their assembly in "the counsell chamber upon Ousebrig," 
10th April, 3 Eliz., and reformed, to be thenceforth firmly observed 
and kept for ever. Thomas Sympson and Robert Gylmyn, the two 
searchers under the old ordinances, and the other good men masters of 
the craft, were present. The old ordinance of Henry IV. as regards 
the two searchers was ratified and confirmed and as regards makers' 
punches. It was also ordained that all work should be " towched with 
the pounce of this citie called the half leopard head and half flowre de 
luyce " as the statute purporteth. Gold was to be of the " touche of 
Paryse,*' and of silver none of ** worse alaye than sterlyng" might be 
w^orked, except that " sowder " should be allowed for, under pain of 
forfeiting the double value. A great deal followed about apprentices 
and fraudulent work, to a great extent according with the provisions 
of the acts of 1404 and 1420, especially as regards work done for 
Holy Church, knights' spurs, and so on. But despite all these regula- 
tions 1682 was a stormy year at York, when the two searchers, 
Martyne "dubiggyn" and William Peareson got themselves com- 
mitted to ward — Peareson for one day, but his fellow at the Lord 
Mayor's pleasure, and to be deprived of his office. It appears from 
later records that the new searcher then (10th May, 1588) appointed 
in his place was Thomas Waddy, who, with Peareson his colleague, 
was soon in fresh difficulties ^dth one George Kitchin, which were 
tit last settled by arbitration 28 Sept., 1588. The next searchers 
appointed, 5 Jan. 1588-4, were John Stocke and William ffoster; 
and a year later than this (27 Jan. 1584-5) it was ordained that from 
henceforth the searchers were to be chosen on the fourth day after the 
Feast of St. James, the apostle, to continue till that day year (July 
29). In 1606 some fresh orders were made about apprentices and 
searching ; and in these the " towch and mark belonginge to this 
cittye called the halfe leopard head and half flower-de-luce " is again 
mentioned. On Sept. 1, 1684, the searchers were fined 40«. a man 
for having omitted to call the meeting to choose their successors, and 
the company was ordered to meet that day fortnight to choose them. 

From about 1500 the leading craftsmen occasionally figure in the 
list of the Lord Mayors of York. Thomas Gray serves this office in 
1497, WUliam Willson in 1513, George Gaile in 1534, and Balph 
PuUein in 1537 ; but then several generations elapse before a goldsmith 
again attains the civic chair in the person of John Thompson, Lord 
Mayor in 1685, to be followed in 1697 by Mark Gill. Charles Rhoades 
was Sheriff in 1694. The mark of each of these last three worthies 



CHAP. IV.] The Provincial Goldsmiths. 75 

occurs upon plate. The goldsmiths in 1628 paid only 2«. a year 
towards the repair of the Mote Hall called St. Anthony's Gild, whereas 
the " Merchants or Mercers " paid as much as 5 shillings. At about 
this time too, a glimpse of craft life, and the more interesting because 
relating to goldsmiths much of whose work remains to be seen at the 
present day, comes from the will of Christopher Harrington of York. 
Dying in 1614, he leaves to the company of the trade of goldsmiths 
a silver spoon of ten shillings price, and after a bequest of some tools 
to his ''mann James Plummer," devises the rest to his son Robert 
Harrington, and a drawing-book between them, six leaves of paper 
apiece.^ Plate by all these three will be found in our list of old York 
plate. 

To return from this York digression, the act of 1477 speaks of the 
keepers of the touch in London and other places ; but in 1488, when 
the statute of that year notices '' the rule and order of the mints of 
London, Calice, Canterbury, York, and Durham," also of "the Gold- 
smiths' Hall of London," and recites that " finers and parters dwell 
abroad in every part of the realm out of the rules aforesaid," no men- 
tion is made of any of the country assay offices ; and it may be pre- 
sumed that they did little or no business towards the end of that 
century. Even later, in 1509, it is expressly stated in one of the charters 
of the Goldsmiths' Company in London, that search for and punish- 
ment of abuses in the trade was but seldom executed out of London. 

Possibly the supervision of the Goldsmiths' Company in London 
was exercised at first in a spirit that did not encourage the develop- 
ment of the trade in the provinces; for the confirmation of their 
charter by Edward lY. in 1462, gave them the inspection, trial, and 
regulation of all gold and silver wares, not only in London, but in all 
other parts of the kingdom ; and these powers were continually exer- 
cised, periodical progresses being made by the assay wardens through- 
out the country for the purpose. It is recorded in 1498, that the 
costs of the wardens to " Sturbitch Fair," amounted to £2 ; and from 
the accounts relating to the sixteenth century we may take the follow- 
ing extracts : — 

** 1512. Agreed that Mr. Wardens shall ride into the country this 
year, to make search * in div's feyres, cytyes, and townys,' as they had 
done in tymes past." 

" 1517. Agreed ' that the wardens shall ryde at Seynt Jamys' 
Feyre' and to such other places and towns in the west parts of 
England as they shall think most necessary." 



* Communicated by Mr. T. M. Fallow. 



76 Old English Plate. [chap. iv. 

But such circuits as these were clearly not every-daj events; it 
would seem as if nothing of the kind had taken place for some years 
previously to 1512, and the provincial authorities did but little in the 
absence of any higher supervision. 

Much more plate was melted than made during the half century 
which followed this outburst of energy ; and country goldsmiths 
gradually fell, equally no doubt with those of London, into the abuses 
which called so loudly for enquiry at the commencement of the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. Up to that time at all events their work does 
not seem to have been held in very high estimation. The touches of 
London and Paris are constantly mentioned in the wills and inven- 
tories of the fifteenth century ; that of Bruges is also occasionally 
referred to ; but no mention will be found of any English touch except 
that of London : and in the inventories of church furniture made in 
the reign of Edward YL, in which the names of many London gold- 
smiths occur, there are not to be found those of any provincial crafts- 
men, even in the case of parishes far from the capital, and compara- 
tively near one or other of the local centres at which that mystery 
would seem to have had a settlement. This is the more significant, 
as in the self-same documents the sale of pewter to pewterers resident 
in various country towns is recorded, which would warrant a presump- 
tion that broken or superfluous silver plate would have been in like 
manner disposed of to neighbouring goldsmiths, had there been any 
such to be found. 

The country goldsmiths shared, however, in the general revival of 
the trade that now followed, and provincial marks are often found on 
Elizabethan church plate, which is still in abundance in every part of 
England. This is especially the case in the neighbourhood of Norwich, 
York, and Exeter ; but in most other districts, even when remote and 
inaccessible from London, the occurrence of any marks but those of 
the Goldsmiths* Company is very rare. The wardens in 1667 were 
again directed to " ryde a searchynge this year to Sturbridge " and 
were allowed four pounds for their charge " according to the old 
custom ; " this again showing that such an expedition was not under- 
taken every year. 

The mints in the provinces did not flourish so well, for the precious 
metals were somewhat scarce, and much was being made into plate. 
Harrison, chaplain to Lord Cobham, writing in 1586, says that divers 
mints had been suppressed within his own recollection, " as South- 
warke and Bristow, and all coinage brought up to one place, that is to 
say, the Tower of London." 

Domestic as well as ecclesiastical plate of country manufacture is 



CHAP. IV.] The Provincial Goldsmiths. JJ 

not unknown, and the goldsmiths of York and Norwich commanded a 
good deal of the castom of their counties. Apostles' spoons are 
marked at Norwich and Exeter in some quantity from 1560 to 1650, 
some of the plate of the Corporation of Norwich was home made 
between 1560 and 1570, and specimens of plate of all kinds from that 
time down to the end of the seventeenth century are referable to the 
goldsmiths of York. 

It is difficult to reconcile this entirely with the account given of the 
provincial assay offices by the author of the Touchstone * who writes 
thus of them in 1679 somewhat more contemptuously than they would 
otherwise seem to deserve : '' but what are the particular Marks the 
respective chief Governors of those seven places set on the Silver works 
I can give no account thereof. But this I can assert, that by reason 
the Marks of those places are little known they bear as little Credit, 
and therefore the Goldsmiths in those and other remote places do 
frequently send up their Silver Works to receive the London touch,*' 

Our practical author remarks upon the obligation of country gold- 
smiths to make their marks known, not only to the local chief magis- 
trate but to the wardens of the London goldsmiths, who had the 
ultimate supervision of the craft in all places, including the seven 
towns ; and goes on to comment upon the danger provincial corpora- 
tions ran of losing their charters and being disfranchised in conse- 
quence of lax exercise of their duties and privileges, especially ''now 
since by the favour of our King's predecessors and their Parliaments 
Goldsmiths in those seven towns are remitted those extremities of 
bringing their vessels of silver to London to be stamped with the 
Leopard Head, but are allowed each of them a Touch by themselves 
to pass their works upon." 

He refers also to the debased quality of work executed in country 
places, in consequence of the remissness of the magistracy in prose- 
cuting their authority in making search, assaying and marking the 
goldsmiths' work, and of the infrequency with which the Wardens of 
the Goldsmiths of London made search in the country, and strongly 
recommends intending purchasers of plate to spend their money in 
London. 

If this was all true, it is not surprising to find that in 1697 when, 
owing to the scarcity of silver coin, it was desirable to encourage per- 
sons having wrought plate to bring it to be coined, although it was 
provided that such plate as plainly appeared to have thereupon ''the 
mark commonly used at the hall belonging to the company of Gold- 

♦ See p. 13. 



78 Old English Plate. [chap. iv. 

smiths in London, besides the workman's mark/' should be received 
at the mints without question, and paid for at the rate of 5«. 4(2. per 
oz., no cognizance was taken of any other marks. All plate not bear- 
ing the above marks was to be melted and assayed before it was 
allowed for, unless the vendor were satisfied with a rough valuation 
made upon oath by the master of the mint. Lastly, whether pros- 
perous or not up to the year 1697, the provincial oflSces were all then 
extinguished at a blow, for the further provisions of this Act,* after 
proceeding to establish a higher national standard of fineness for silver 
plate as a protection to the coinage which its earlier clauses were in- 
tended to call into existence, entrusted the marking of all new plate 
to the warden of the craft of the Goldsmiths only, and made no 
mention of any other corporations whatever. 

That great inconvenience was by this measure, occasioned to the 
goldsmiths remote from the city of London is clear from the preamble 
of the Act by which, only three years later, in 1700-1, this hardship 
was removed by the appointment of wardens and assay masters for 
assaying wrought plate in the cities of York, Exeter, Bristol, Chester 
and Norwich, being the cities in which mints had then lately been 
erected for re-coining the silver moneys of the kingdom. Newcastle- 
npon-Tyne was added to the number in 1702. The next chapter will 
be devoted to these modern offices and their marks; meanwhile it 
will be convenient to notice in detail the ancient marks used in the 
places now under consideration. 

The ground may be somewhat cleared by saying that nothing is 
known at present of any of the touches appointed in 1423, except 
those of York, Norwich, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Minting cer- 
tainly was carried on at Bristol ; but there are only the faintest indi- 
cations that goldsmith's work proper was ever carried on there, nor can 
any town marks be appropriated to either Lincoln, Bristol, Salisbury, 
or Coventry. It is very probable that none of them ever availed them- 
selves of their privileges at all as far as assaying plate is concerned. 
Casual mention of goldsmiths at Bristol is all that is found in early 
records. One William Halteby dwelt at the end of the bridge of Avon 
there in 1896, and in a will of 1414 Edward Pounsot is said to have 
then lately possessed houses in Horse Street. These men are both 
styled goldsmiths. '' Goldsmiths dwelling in the Goldesmythes 
Rewe, nowe y callyd the Cookyn Rewe," are mentioned amongst the 
benefactors of the church of All Halow Bristowe in a ledger belonging 
to that church, and this entry may be attributed to the first half of the 



♦ 8 & 9 Wm. III. c. 8. 



CHAP. IV.] Old York Goldsmiths. 79 

fifteenth century. Early as this the row named after them had there- 
fore lost its name. As to Lincoln too, there is some indirect evidence 
that it never marked plate, from the fact that in no less than nine 
Lincohishire parishes, Elizabethan church plate is known with the 
same maker's mark without the mark of any town. The mark (an M 
with an I above it on a shield of very peculiar shape) is presumably 
that of a goldsmith residing at Lincoln. Two cities, on the other 
hand, the origin of whose right to stamp plate is unknown — ^Exeter 
and Chester — used marks from early times. Hull made and marked 
plate in the seventeenth century. These, together with the York and 
Norwich marks and perhaps that of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, can alone 
be allotted with certainty to their proper localities. 

YORK. 

It has at length proved possible, by the documentary evidence 
referred to on a preceding page, to identify the well-known old 
English mark of a fleur-de-lys and leopard's head crowned, both being 
dimidiated and conjoined in a plain circular shield, as that which was 
anciently used at York. The number and locale of the specimens on 
which it had been found by the writer and others had already left the 
matter no longer open to question, but until lately the evidence had 
been wholly circumstantial. 

Unfortunately, the mark itself being only found on old and often 
much-worn plate, and being nearly always very indistinct, the 
dimidiated leopard's head looks so much more like a half rose that it 
long seemed hazardous to say which it was intended for. It is now, 
however, clearly proved to be the half of a leopard's head crowned. 
The exact date of its introduction is still unknown ; but as it is always 
accompanied by an alphabetical letter, it can be traced to about the 
commencement of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, which seems to 
have inaugurated a new era for the York goldsmiths. A date-letter 
was then or tbenabouts adopted for the first time, and very probably 
in consequence of the inquiry into the working of the craft which took 
place in 1561. Twenty-four or twenty-five letters must have been 
used, the omitted letters being I or J, and sometimes U or Y. A 
table containing the known instances, and carried down to 1698, is 
given at the end of this volume. At certain points some of the 
letters seem just a year wrong for a short period ; but even after 
consultation with Mr. Fallow, who has seen more Yorkshire hall- 
marks than all other antiquaries put together, the author is unable to 
make any alteration in the tables of date-letters that would not result 



8o 



Old English Plate. 



[OHAP. IV, 



in creating far more difficulties and discrepancies than it would 
remove. The following are the articles which have served as 
authority for the construction of this table ; many of .them, it will be 
observed, are actually dated, and the fashion of the others enables 
them to be placed, without any hesitation, in their proper cycles. 

The names, which are now added to the initials from the docu- 
mentary evidence kindly contributed by Canon Baine, through the 
author's friend, Mr. T. M. Fallow, have corroborated in detail the 
correctness of the York date-letter tables, which were originally 
compiled by the author without any better help than the specimens 
of plate which came to his notice from time to time. 

Examples of Old Yobk Plate. 



Date. 



Makk&'s Mask and Name. 



1570 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 

Do. 
1571 
1576 

1577 

157» 

1583 

1585 

1593 

Do. 








WR 



Do. 



Thos. Symson, 1548* . . 

Christopher HantoD4551, 
d. 1582. 

William Foster, 1569, 
d. 1610. 

Robert Beckwith, 1546, 
d. 1585. 



Robert Gylmyn, 1550 

George Kitchen, 1561, 

d. 1597. 
Robert Gylmyn, as in 

1570. 
R. Gylmyn, see 1570 

G. Kitchen, as in 1570 . 



Articlk. 



William Rawnson 



Do. . 



R. Gylmyn, as in 1576 . 



William Rawnson, as in 
1583. 



Commanion cup and cover. — Salkeld, 

Camb. 
Communion cup. — Thorpe Basset, 

Yorks. 

Communion cup. — Old By land, Yorks. 



Communion cups. — St. Mary, Bishop- 
hill, junior ; and St. Maurice, 
York. Also Roxby, Barnby-upon- 
Don, and Amplcforth, Yorks. 

Communion cups. — Crofton, South 
Stainley, and East Cowton, Yorks. 
Communion cup. — Rufforth, Yorks. 

Communion cup, with crossed belts 
but no foliage. — Handsworth, Yorks. 

Seal-headed 8i)oon. — From the Stani- 
forth Collection. 

Mount of stoneware jug, dated 1576. 
—From the Addington Collection. 

Small communion cup, with peculiar 
Elizabethan belt. — Ad wick • on - 
Dearne, Yorks. 

Communion cup. — Long Preston, 
Yorks. 

Communion cup, rude Elizabethan 
belt. — Troutbeck, Westmoreland. 

Seal-headed spoon. — From the Stani- 
forth Collection, 

Communion cup, with usual belt. — 
Crathome, Yorks. 



* When a date follows the name, it is the year in which the goldsmith took np his freedom. 
The date of his deaUi is given where known. 



CHAP. IV.] 



York. 



81 




1600 

1608 
1609 
Do. 

1611 

1612 

1613 

1614 

1615 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1617 

Do. 
Do. 

1619 

1620 
1622 

Do. 

1623 
1624 

1626 
1626 

1627 
1628 

Do. 

1630 
1631 
Do. 



Maubb's Mask ahd Name. 



Do. 



Do. 




Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 





mm 



• • 




w/ 



^ 



Da 



Peter Pearson, 1603 . . 
Do. ..... 

Francis Tempest, 1597 . 
Peter Pearson, as in 1608. 

Chris. Harrington, 1595, 
d. 1614. 

Do 



Do. 



Abtioli. 



Francis Tempest, as in 

1609. 
Peter Pearson, as in 1608. 

Chris. Mangy, 1609 

Francis Tempest^ as in 
1609. 

X/O. . . a . • 

Do 



Sem. Casson, 1613 • . 

Peter Pearson, as in 1608. 
Do 



Robert, son of Christr. 

Harrington, 1616, d. 

1647. 
Peter Pearson, as in 1608. 

Robert Williamson, 1623, 

d. 1667. 
S. Casson, as in 1619 . . 

Tbos., son of Christr. 
Harrington, 1624, d. 
1642. 



Communion cap, from a church near 

Cawood, Yorks.— T. W. U. Robin- 

son, Bsq. 
Communion cup. — Brantingham, 

Yorks. 
Communion cup with cover, dated 

1609. — Sutton-on-Derwent, Yorks. 

Communion cup. — Cottam, Yorks. 

Cup, gift of Coniston Wrightington. 
— Trinity House, Hull. 

Small communion cup. — Patterdale, 
Cumb. 

Communion cup with engraved belt 
Pickering, Yorks. 

Beaker cup. — From the Dasent Col- 
lection. 

Apostle spoon. — From the Staniforth 
Collection. 

Communion cup. — Irthington, Cumb. 

Communion cup, dated 1615. — 

Slingsby, Yorks. 
Communion cup, dated 1615. — 

St. Cathbert*s, York. 
Communion cup, Klizabethan belt. — 

Cleator, Cumb. 
Communion cup. — Heijiingbro, Yorks. 
Do. — Speunithome, Yorks. 



• • • • 



• • * 




IP 



Robert Harrington, as in 

1622. 
James Plummer, 1616, d. 

1663. 

Christr. Mangy, as in 1615 
6. Casson, as in 1619 . . 
. Robert Harrington, as in 

1622. 
. James Plummer, as in 

1628. 
. , Christr. Mangy, as in 1615 



Do. — Bilbrough, Yorks. 

Do., dated 1619. — Bempton, Yorkg. 
Silver rim, dated 1622, under Scrope 
mazer. — York Minster. 

Communion cup. — Darton, YorksL 

Com. cup and cover. — Holy Trin., 
Goodramgate, York. 

Communion cup. — Howden, Yorks. 

Do.— Nabum, York. 

Apostle spoon. — From the Staniforth 
Collection. 

Communion cup. — Cawthome, Yorks. 
Do. — Thornton Watlass, Yorks. Also 
cup, dated 1628. — Latherton, Yorks. 
Do. — Hayton, YorksL 

Do., dated 1630. — Bewcastle, Cumb. 
Do.— Pickhill, Yorks. 
Do. — Ebberston, Yorks. 

Do. — Ueadingley, Yorks. 

Do.— Thirsk, Yorks. 



82 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. IV. 



Dati. 

1631 

1632 

1633 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1634 

Do. 

Do. 

1686 

Do. 
1636 



Makkb'b Mark and Name. 



Do. 



1637 



Do. 

Do. 
1638 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1639 

Do. 
1640 
1641 

Do. 
1642 
1650 

1654 




... 



PB 




Artiole. 



^ 



Thos. Waite, 1618, d. 1662 

Robert Williamson, as in 

1624. 
Robert Harrington, as in 

1622. 
S. Casson, as in 1619 . . 



Thos. Harrington, as in 

1626. 
James Plammer, as in 

1628. 
Robert Williamson, as in 

1624. 
Thos. Waite, as in 1631 . 

ThoR. Harrington, as in 
1626. 

John Thompson, 1633, d. 
1692. 

Thos. Harrington, as in 

1626. 
James Plammer, as in 

1628. 
Francis Bryce, 1634, d. 

1640. 



Robert Harrington, as in 

1622. 
James Plammer, as in 

1628. 
James Plummer, as in 

1628. 
Thos. Harrington, 1624, 

d. 1642. 
Robert Harrington, as in 

1622. 
Robert Williamson, as in 

1624. 
Robert Harrington, as in 

1622. 
Robert Williamson, as in 

1624. 
Thos. Harrington, as in 

1638. 
Robert Harrington, as in 

1622. 
John Thompson, as in 

1635. 
Thos. Harrington, as in 

1638. 
James Plummer, as in 

1628. 



Ck)m. cap, given by Abp. Harsnet. in 
1630.— All Sainte, North St., York. 
Commanion cap. — CaWerley, York. 

Cap and paten, dated 1633. — Chapel 

Allerton, Yorks. 
Com. cup. — St. Helenas, York. 
Do., dated 1632.— Kirkby Malham, 

Yorks. 
Commanion cap. — St. Olave^s, York. 

Do. — Danby Wiske, Yorks. 

Do. — ^Bilton-in-Ainsty, Yorks. 

Do., Elizn. belt. — Burton-in-Kendal, 
Westmor. ) 

Do., plain pricked belt, dated 1634. — ' 
Threlkeld, Camb. 

I 

Com. cup. — Conistone Eilnsey, Yorks. 

Do. — Cundall, Yorks. 

Do. — Northallerton, Yorks. 

Plain cup on baluster stem (bearing 
an inscription relating to Norwich, 
dated 1578). — Formerly in the Bohn 
Collection. 

Com. cup. — Lanercost, Cumb. 

Do. — BiUingfaam, Durh. 

Cup and paten. — Fiaxton, Yorks. 

Communion cup, dated 1728. — Scam- 

monden, Yorks. 
Cup and paten. — Levisham, Yorks. 

Plain com. cup. — Elmley, Yorks. 

Communion cup. — Hanmanby, Yorks. 

Do., dated 1638.— Thomer, Yorks. 

Com. cup. — Eirkandrew*s-upon-Esk, 

Camb. 
Cup, used a«« Com. cup, dated 1640. — 

Gaisbro', Yorks. 
Cup and paten. — Mclsonby, Yorks. 

Communion cup. — Wheldrake, Yorks. 

Commonwealth mace. — Richmond, 
Yorks. 

Commanion cup. — Stockton - on - 
Forest, Yorks. 



ii-TTTm 



CHAP. lY.] 



Vor/t. 



8 



*> 

o 



Datb. 

16o5 

1657 

1660 

Do. 

1661 

Do. 



Makkr's Mark akd Namk. 



Article. 



1662 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 

1663 
Do. 

1664 



Do. 



Do. 
1667 

166S 

1669 
Do. 



Do. 



1671 

1672 
Do. 



Do. 



Do. 
1678 




• • • 




• • 





Do. 




• • • • 



John, son of James Plam- 
mer, 1648. 

UOm ..... 

Mannaduke Best, 1657 . 



Wm. Waite, 1653, d. 1689. 

John Plammer, as in 1657 
Do 



Do. . 
Do. . 



Marmaduke Best, as in 
1660. 

Bobert, son of Robert 
Williamson, 1653. 

Marmadake Best, as in 
1660. 

George, son of Chris- 
topher Mangy, 1638 ; 
living 1666. 

Robert Williamson, as in 
1662. 

John Plammer, as in 1657 

Thos.. son of Goo. Mangy, 
1664. 

JifOm • • • a . 

Marmaduke Best, as in 

1660. 
Thos. Mangy, as in 1664 . 
Philemon Marsh, 1652, d. 

1672. 

Thos. Mangy, as in 1664 . 



Marmadake Best, as in 
1660. 

Marmaduke Best, as in 

1660. 
Do 



Do. 



William Mascall, 1664 . 

Marmaduke Best, as in 
1660. 



Beaker used as Com. cup. — Cumber- 
worth, Yorks. 
Paten. — Stillingfleet, Yorks. 

Cup, gift of R. Hunter, who died 
1659.— Thornton Dale, Yorks. 

Tankard, given 1666. — Corpn. of 
Hull. 

Small two-handled basin on ball feet. 
— T. M. Fallow, Esq. 

Spoon, fiat stem. — From the Stani- 

forth Collection. 
Cup and paten cover, dated 1663. — 

Aldbrough, E. Yorks. 
Com. cup, undated. — Otley, Yorks. 
Do., dated 1663.— Brafferton, Yorks. 
Do., dated 1662.— Birkin, Yorks. 
Do., and cover, undated. — Healaugh, 

Yorks. 

Do. — Alne, Yorks. 



Cup and paten cover. — Bolton Abbey, 

lorks. 
Cup and paten, dated 1663. — St. 

Mary, Cottingham, Yorks. 

Com. cup and paten. — Tadcaster, 

Yorks. 
Large paten, dated 1666. — Beverley 

Minster. 
Communion cup. — Catterick, Yorks. 

Large repouss^ dish on foot, given 
1668.— Corporation of Hull. 

Communion cup and cover — Cartmel, 

Lancashire. 
Communion cup. — Sandal, Yorks. 
Silver lining, dated 1669, of Scrope 

mazer. — York Minster. 

Paten, dated 1669. — Almondbury, 
Yorks. Also plain cup on baluster 
stem, dated 1670. — Edmund James, 
Esq. 

An " article " ordered 19 AprU, 1672. 
— Corp. of York. 

Gold loving cup. dated 1672. — Cor- 
poration of York. 

Cup and paten cover, gift of Leonard 
Milbourne, who died in 1672. — 
Skelton, Cumberland. 

Do., no cover, given by the same. — 
Ousby, Cumb. 

Candlesticks, dated 1673. — York 
Minster. 

Communion cup. — Appleton-on-Wisk, 
Yorks. 



a 2 



84 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. IV. 



Datk. 



1673 
Do. 

1674 



Maker's Mark ahd Naxi. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

1675 
Do. 



Do. 

1676 

1678 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



1679 



Do. 



1680 







William Mascall, as in 
1672. 

John Thompson, see 1635 

Robert Williamson, see 
1662. 

Mannaduke Best, as in 

1660. 
John Plammer, as in 1657 

Roland Kirbj, 1666 . . 

John Plummer, as in 1657 

John Thompson, as in 
1673. 

Thos. Mangy, see 1664 . 
John Plammer, as in 1657 
Do 



Articli. 



t • • • 



1681 


^ 


Do. 


^ 


Do. 


® 


1682 


@ 


Do. 




Do. 

Do. 


• » • • 


1683 


. . • • 


Do. 


. • • . 



Marmaduke Best, as in 
1660. 

Do 



John Thompson, as in 
1673 

John Plammer, as in 1657 



Roland Kirbj, as in 1674. 

Marmaduke Best, atf in 

1660. 
George Gibson, 1678 



Charles Rhoades, 1677 
Wm. Busfield, 1679 . 

Thos. Mangy, see 1664 . 

Robert Williamson, see 
1662. 

Roland Eirby, as in 1674. 
John Thompson, as in 

1673. 
Charles Rhoades. as in 

1681. 
George Gibson, as in 1681 



Communion cup. — Penistone, Yorks. 

Paten.— St. Cuthbert's, York. 

Cap and cover, dated 1674. — St. Mary 
Bishophill, senior, York. 

Tankard, dated 1674. — Corporation of 

York. 
Another. 

Tumbler Cup.— W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 

Communion plate, dated 1676. — 

Ripon Minster. 
Communion cup, dated 1676. — 

Ormesby, Yorks. 

Paten, dated 1675. — Eccleafield, 
Yorks. 

Com. cup, dated 1677. — ^West Witton, 
Yorks. 

Paten, dated 1677.— Eirkby Malzeard, 

Yorks. 
Com. cup, dated 1678. — St. MichaePs, 

Spurrleigate, York. 

Cup, dated 1677.— Drax, Yorks. 
Com. cup, dated 1679. — Leathley, 
Yorks. 

Peg tankard, dated 1680; inherited 
by its present owners from the 
family of Osbaldeston, of Hon- 
manby, Yorks. — Lord Amherst of 
Hackney. 

Cup and paten, dated 1679. — Shipton 
Thorpe, Yorks. 

Do., dated 1681.— Skelton-in-Cleve- 

land, Yorks. 
Paten, dated 1682.— Sancton, Yorks. 



Com. cup. — Gargrave, Yorks. 

Com. cup. — St Laurence, York. Also 
1680, com. cup, dated 1681.— Ben- 
tham, Yorks. 

Smaller cup, dated 1684. — St. Lau- 
rence, York. 

Lid of com. cup, and paten on stem. 
— Guiseley, Yorks. 

Com. cup. — All SS., Pavement, York. 

Sockets to Abp. 8ancroft*s candle- 
sticks. — York Minster. 

Paten, dated 1687. — Whitkirk, 
Yorks. 

Caudle cup. — Canon Raine. 



CHAP. IV.] 



Newcastle-upan- Tyne. 



85 



Datb. 



Makkr'b Mark and Name. 



1683 



1684 



Do. 
Do. 




... 



1685 

Do. 

Do. 

1686 

1688 



1689 

1690 

1692 

Do. 

1694 

1696 

1697 

Do. 

1698 




Da 




CA 



Mark Gill, 1680. 



George Gibson, as in 1681 

Wm. Busfield, as in 1681. 
Thos. Mangy, as in 1682 . 
John Oliver, 1676 . 



Do 

Thos. Mangj, as in 1682 . 
John Oliver, as in 1685 . 

Do 



Christopher WhitehiU, 
1676. 

Wm. Basfield, as in 1681. 
Do 



John Oliver, as in 1685 . 

Charles Bhoades, as in 

1681. 
Do. (7) mark imperfect . 

Wm. Busfield, as in 1681. 
Do. ..... 

Do 



Abtxoli. 



Com. cup. — Camabj, Yorks. 



Plain flat-lidded tankard. — Edm. 

James, Esq. 
Large paten. — St. Martin's, York. 
Com. cup. — Tod wick, Yorks. 
Paten cover. — S. Maurice's, York. 



Flagon. — Lowtber, Westmor, 

Paten cover. — Featherstone, Yorks. 

Caudle cup, with acanthus decoration. 
— From the Staniforth Collection. 

Alms-dish, dated 1689.— St. Michael le 
Belfry, York. Also Com. cup, tulip 
band, dated 1689.— Stockton, Durh. 

Cup and paten. — Oswaldkirk, Yorks. 

Com. cup. — Holtby, Yorks. 

Paten, dated 1694. — Famham, Yorks. 

Com. cup and cover. — Kettlewell, 

Yorks. 
Cup.— T. M. Fallow, Esq. 

Com. cup, dated 1700. — Mytton, 

Yorks. 
Paten. — Darfield, Yorks, 
Com. cup. — Bilstone, Yorks. 
Do. — Barmby Moor, Yorks. 



NEWOASTLB-UPON-TYNE. 

Notwithstanding the proved existence of a guild of goldsmiths in 
this town from 15S6 and earlier, but little remains of their work until 
we come to the later part of the seventeenth century, when specimens 
of church-plate are to be met with, and enough to show that a date- 
letter was not used in Newcastle at this period. The hall-mark, at 
that time, consisted of three castles, arranged, as in later days, two 
above and one below, on a shield of irregular outline, in some instances 
smaller at the lower part, where it had to surround only one tower, 
than at the top. Sometimes the castles are in a small plain shield. 
A good deal of church plate, dated from 1670 to 1700, is found in 
Cumberland, bearing the three towers in shields of one or other of 
these shapes. WR is the most usual maker's mark on these pieces, 
and it is sometimes accompanied by a rose on the same or a separate 
punch. This is the mark of one William Bamsey, who took up his 



86 Old English Plate. [chap. it. 

freedom in 1656, and worked till towards the end of the century. He 
was mayor of the town in 1690. Another mark, probably attribntable 
to Newcastle, is on church-plate at Gateshead, dated 1672. This is a 
single heraldic castle or tower, on a small shield, and accompanied by 
a lion passant on a plain oval shield, but turned to the right.* The 
lion passant mark is struck twice on these pieces. The same marks 
occur on a communion cup at Boldon, also dated 1672. The maker's 
mark is ID in both cases, and stands for John Douthwayte, who died 
in 1678, having taken up his freedom in 1666. In addition to other 
marks, a communion cup of c. 1685 at St. Nicholas', Newcastle, bears 
what seems to be a Boman letter on a shaped shield ; but this single 
instance is the only trace of a date-letter that has at present been 
found on ancient Newcastle plate. For fifty years before 1656, the 
date of William Bamsey's freedom, no goldsmith's name at all appears 
in the Minute Book ; but from then to 1697 more than a dozen are 
noted in the following order, viz. : John Wilkinson, free 1658 ; 
William Bobinson; John Douthwayte, free 1666, died 1678; John 
Norris ; Francis Batty, who worked from 1674, and is spoken of as 
dead in an entry of 18th Sept. 1707 ; Albany Dodgson ; Eli Bilton, 
who was apprenticed to Douthwayte, became free in 1688, and died 
1712 ; Cuthbert Bamsey ; William Bamsey, junior, admitted 1691, 
died 1716 ; Abraham Hamer ; Bobert Shrive, free in 1694, and 
Thomas Hewitson, free in 1697. A John Bamsey was admitted in 
1698, but he died before 1708. 

Some of these men will be mentioned again in the next chapter. 

It remains only to say here that in the interval between the 
suppression of the Newcastle assay office and its re-establishment in 
1702, the Morden Tower was partly rebuilt, and that amongst the 
subscribers to the cost of this were the above-named Francis Batty, 
W. Bamsey, junior, Thomas Hewitson, Eli Bilton, Bobert Shrive, 
and John Bamsey, besides Bichard Hobbs, Thomas Leightley, Thomas 
Armstrong and Boger West, who belong more properly to the later 
period.! 

* This curiooB variation may be obserred on modern Newcastle plate from 1721 to 1725. 

t Per Rev. J. R. Boyle, F.S.A. 



CHAP. IV.] 



Newcastle-upon- Tyne. 



«7 



Examples of Old Newcastle Plate. 



Bats. 



1664 



X. D. 

1672 



Do. 
X. D. 

1670 

N. D. 
X. D. 

1680 

K. D. 
1681 

Do. 

N. D. 

1684 
c. 1685 

Do. 
1686 

1687 
N. D. 
H. D. 

1688 
1698 

c. 1698 
1701 



Makbr. 



@[gl@^ 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



do. 
do. 



do. 
do. 



do. do. 
do. 



do. 
do. 




do. 
do. 






m 



Do. do. do. do. 




33 (each 



twice) 






Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



do. (each twice) 
do. (each twice) 




(each twice) 
do. (do.) 



(maker 
\A) twice) 





Do. do. 





(each 
twice) 



Do. do. (do.) 

Do. do. (maker twice) 

. . do. (twice) 

Do. do. (each twice) 

Do. E^ 





Do. KS1 (each twice) 




John 
Wilkinson. 

Do. 

John Dow- 

thwayte. 

Do. 
Do. 

Wm. 
Bamsey. 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Thos. 
Hewiteon. 

Robert 
Shrive. 

Eli Bilton. 



Articlr. 



Com. cup and cover, dated 1664.- 
Ryton-on-Tyne, Durham. 

Com. cup. — Warkworth, Northumb. 
Flagons, dated 1672. — Gateshead. 



Com. cup. — Boldon, Durham. 
Do. — Ormside, Westmor. 

Flagon, dated 1670. — Sawley, near 
Kipon. 

Com. cup and paten. — Aspatria. 

Cumb. 
Paten. — St. John^s, Newcastle. 



(]!up and paten, dated 1680. — Enner- 
dale, Cumb. 

Dj. — Torpenhow. Cumb. 
Com. cup, dated 1681. — Kelloe, Dur- 
ham. 
Paten, dated PB81. — Boldon, Durham. 

Paten. — Corbridge-on-Tyne, North- 

umb. 
Com. plate, dated 1684. — Rose Castle 

Chapel. 

Com. cup. — St. Nicholas*, Newcastle. 

Do. — Brampton, Cumb. 

Flagon and patens, dated 1686. — St. 
Nicholas*, Newcastle. 

Paten. — Haverton Hill, Durham. 
Alms-dish. — Wark worth, Northnmb. 
Com. cup. — Bywell St. Peter, North- 

umb. 
Com. cup, dated 1688. — Ho wick, 

Northumb. 
Flagon, dated 1698.— All Saints*, 

lifewcastle. 

Flat-lidded tankard. 

Porringer, dated 1701.— Taylors* 
Guild, Carlisle. Also Com. cup, 
dated 1687.— ChoUerton, North- 
umb. 



88 Old English Plate. [chap, it 



NORWICH. 

Plate was made, assayed, and marked in this city at an early period, 
but the trade has long ceased to exist there. It has now no Gold- 
smiths' Company, nor does any vestige remain of the hall which is 
mentioned by Blomefield. Its old distinguishing mark was an 
escutcheon with the city arms, viz., a castle in chief above a lion 
passant in base, and it is found on plate belonging to the Corporation 
of Norwich of 1560-70, also on Norfolk church-plate of about the same 
date, in a shaped shield ; later the same arms were borne on a plain, 
angular, heraldic shield with pointed base. Peter Peterson, a Norwich 
goldsmith of eminence in the reign of Elizabeth, is one of the few 
provincial craftsmen whose fame as well as name has been handed 
down to our times ; in 1574 he is found presenting the Corporation 
with a standing cup gilt, on being excused serving the office of sheriff, 
and it is probable that the " sun " often found on Norwich plate was 
his mark. Bom about 1518, he died between May 15 and August 1, 
1608, for his will, dated on the former, was proved at Norwich on the 
latter of these days. He lefk an immense quantity of plate, including 
a pot '' of Cobbold'a making," and speaks of the London touch as well 
as of '' the castle and lion touch of Norwich.*' Amongst this plate is 
** a hanncepott graven upon the covers with the sonne, the Lion and 
the Castle of Norwich touch of my owne making," and a great deal 
more is either " graven with the sonne " or " having knoppes of the 
Sonne : '' pewter vessels also '' marked with the sonne " are mentioned. 
The sun was therefore clearly Peterson's badge or crest, and as a sun 
in splendour is well known amongst the Norwich makers' marks of 
the period, it is the more likely that it was also his mark as a gold- 
smith. To set against this, an inscription on the " Peterson " cup, 
belonging to the Corporation of Norwich, presented by him in 1574 
on being excused serving as sheriff, runs as follows : THE -h MOST 
+HERE+OF+IS+DVNE-hBY+P£TER-hP£TEBSON, and 
this piece bears the equally well known maker's mark of an orb and 
cross, or cross-mound. At first sight this would seem to make it 
more probable that the cross-mound was his mark. But it is clear 
that this cup was not wholly of his making, and perhaps it was only 
finished up by Peterson, but bears the mark of him who began it. 
As regards the cross-mound mark too, we find a communion cup at 
Haddiscoe, co. Norf., with Norwich marks for 1570, bearing it, and as 
well the inscription '^ made by John Stone and Bobert Stone." It 
occurs also on the beaker cups till lately belonging to the Dutch 




CHAP. IV.] Norwich. 89 

Church in Norwich, which are not mnch, if at all, earlier than 1596, 
and this would be probably long after Peterson had ceased to work, at 
all eyents with his own hand. Altogether, the question is left at 
present in a little uncertainty ; but the weight of evidence seems on 
the side of the sun being the mark of Peterson. Norfolk archsBologists 
have collected the names and some few particulars of other less known 
members of the craft in their county from the reign of Edward III. 
It is known, for example, that two wealthy goldsmiths of Norwich, 
John Bassingham and John Belton, occupied the same house succes- 
sively in that city, and that the mark to be found upon it belonged to 
one of them, probably the latter, who was buried in the church 
of Saint Andrew, Norwich, prior to 1521, for in that year 
his wife was buried beside him.* John, Son of Robert * 
Belton, goldsmith, was admitted freeman of Norwich, 6 
Henry VII., John Basyngham in 8 Henry VIII., and John 
Basyngham, the younger, in 30 Henry VIII. ; Ffelyx Puttok, alderman 
and goldsmith, bought plate of the churchwardens of Saint Andrew's, 
Norwich, in 2 Edward VI. ; whilst Peter Peterson, apprenticed to 
John Basyngham, was admitted in 1 & 2 Philip and Mary. 

A little later than this there must have been a number of gold 
smiths in Norwich, the Corporation plate bearing the symbols of 
several different makers, whilst others occur on the early Elizabethan 
communion cups in the country round. One William Cobbold, a 
leading goldsmith, is mentioned in the Corporation records for 1581, 
and a Mr. Skottow as providing beer-cups and wine-cups in 1684. 
Cobbold is perhaps the .... Cobolde apprenticed to one Thomas 
Bere, and admitted freeman in 6 Edw. VI. The name of Bere occurs 
in the lists at intervals from 6 Henry VI. But however many early 
goldsmiths worked in Norwich, there is good evidence in the City 
records that they went pretty much as they pleased until 1565, and 
that the Norwich city mark, mentioned above, was in point of fact 
first set up in that year. To the industry of Mr, R. C. Hope, F.S.A.+ 
we owe the interesting discovery of a petition made by the company or 
fellowship of the Art or Science of Goldsmiths within the City of 
Norwich to the Mayor, Sheriffs, and Commonalty on 2 Oct. 7 Eliz. 
(1565), that whereas no standard had been set up for Norwich as for 
other places, and abuses had consequently become common, and 
whereas they had no common stamp or mark, it might be ordained as 
follows : — that masters and servants should work honestly under 



* Norfolk and Norwich Archaciogical Society' a Tramactiona, vol. iii., 195. 

t See Hdiquary, vol. iv., N.S., p. 208. 



J 



go Old English Plate. [chap. iv. 

penalties ; that after the ensuing Michaelmas Day the Norwich 
standard should be of the same fineness and goodness, and better as 
the standard '' of the lyberds hedde with the crowne " is and hath 
been always hitherto adjudged ; that a common stamp or touch should 
be provided bearing the castle and lion, the arms of the city ; that all 
work should be brought to be tried before being set for sale and in an 
'' unbumished '' state, under penalties ; that the wardens should only 
charge a fixed fee ; that every artificer should have a several punch 
or mark and should set it on his work after it had been assayed and 
stamped by the wardens ; and lastly, that the wardens should once a 
quarter search for defaults and have right of entry to houses and shops 
for that purpose. A date letter was used, at all events from 1566, 
when the first known alphabet commences ; but unfortunately, although 
a number of dated specimens bearing the letters for 1566, 1567, 1568, 
1569, and 1570 exist, the writer has been able to find no dated speci- 
mens from that time until the year 1627, in which the letter was d ; 
luckily an i for 1632 and l for 1634 are to be found ; n is seen on an 
article dated 1636, and b of the same alphabet, on a specimen dated 1640. 
This rather points to the use of alphabetical cycles consisting of twenty 
letters each, as in London, but not without some slight irregularity, 
and the Table at the end of this volume has been constructed on this 
principle, which is no doubt correct, down to the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. From about 1660 to 1685 no date-letter at all was 
used, but at the very end of the century there are traces of a 
renewal of the use. 

If the first town-mark used at Norwich was that so often found 
upon Elizabethan church -plate in Norfolk, a fresh punch was adopted 
in 1624, when an entry in the books of the Corporation of Norwich 
dated " 1624 ultimo Julii " states that by the authority of the Mayor, 
a mark, viz. the castle and lion, was then delivered to the wardens and 
searchers of the trade of goldsmiths. It is found on plate of 1627 
and other years ; the shape of the shield containing the lion and 
castle being somewhat more regular than before, though still shaped 
out, and the castle altered from the rudely outlined building repre- 
sented on older stamps into a tower of the conventional heraldic 
pattern. 

Norwich seems also to have used various standard marks ; at one 
time it was a double-seeded rose, surmounted with a crown. Mr. 
Octavius Morgan had a spoon stamped in the bowl with that mark 
just in the place where the leopard's head is found on ancient spoons 
of London make, from which it may be supposed that it was used as 
the standard mark. This spoon has the Norwich arms on an es- 



CHAP, rv".] 



Norwich. 



9^ 



cntcheon with other marks on the back of the stem (see table, p. 92, 
c. 1637). 

This rose is not found on Elizabethan specimens, but it occnrs on 
apostles' spoons and other plate of the reign of Charles I. ; it is also 
found towards the end of the century. Other specimens of plate, 
which seem to belong to the interval between 1660 and 1686, bear a 
rose-sprig, or else a seeded rose and a crown on two separate stamps, 
instead of the usual rose crowned. This is as far as the matter can 
be carried at present, except to say that a seeded rose crowned is 
occasionally found on plate of Dutch manufacture, and that it is no 
doubt a Dutch as well as an English mark. It may be put down to 
the town of Dordrecht in Holland, when not found in conjunction with 
the Norwich arms. 

The following list of articles will serve as authority for the Table 
in Appendix B, and for what has been stated here as to the Norwich 
marks. The letter a for 1566 was discovered, and kindly brought to 
the author's knowledge by the Bev. C. B. Manning, M.A., who has 
published most interesting lists of the church-plate in the rural 
deanery of Bedenhall, and in the city of Norwich itself, with the 
marks that are to be found on each piece as well as an illustrated 
monograph upon the mediaeval patens in Norfolk, of which there is 
such a remarkable number. To his papers in the Norfolk and Nor- 
wich ArcJuBologi^al Society's Transactions, the author is indebted for 
many of the above particulars as to the old goldsmiths of Norwich. 
The TH above a star on a plain shield, which is the mark of Thomas 
Havers, and is found from 1676 to 1697, is almost the only mark, 
except that of Peter Peterson, which can be identified with any 
certainty. 

Examples of Old Nobwich Plate. 
Table I. c. 1550—1650. 



DATS. 



1566 

Do. 

1567 

1568 
Do. 

Do. 



Makib^s Mark. 



Articlb. 



^S Commanion cap. — Diss, Norfolk. 

Do. 



Communion cup and paten. — St. Savioar's 

j Norwich. 
The sun, no shield . Cap on stem. — Lord Zouche. 



Do I Paten, dated 1568. — Aylsham, Norf. 



Do. 




Estoile of six rays 



Civic plate, dated 1567. — Coiporation of 

Norwich. 
Commanion cap, undated. — Beighton, Norf. 



92 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. iy. 



Datb. 



1508 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1569 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1570 



Do. 
c. 1595 



1627 
1632 



Do. 

1634 
Do. 
Do. 

1636 

c. 1637 

1638 

Do. 

1640 

Do. 

1641 



ILlkbb'b Mabk. 



Abtiolb. 



Orb and cross, as in 1566 
Do 



Maidenhead, in plain 
shield. 




Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



[21 Trefoil slipped in plain 
^ shield. 



Do. 
Do. 




Flat fish in 07al 
shield. 



Do. 



Orb and cross, as in 1566 . 

J^rO. . * . . . 

Cross patt^e 

Trefoil, as in 1568 . . . 
|T| Inscribed "made by 
Is^ John Stone and 
Robert Stone." 



® 



... 




A PegasQS .... 

Two horses passant and 

coanterpassant, the one 

surmounting the other. 

Lion rampant, in 

shaped shield. 



Lion rampant, in shaped 

shield, as in 1632. 
A large bird 

Lion rampant, as in 1632 

XJO. a • • • 

A large bird, as in 1636 



Probably Timothy 
Skottowe.* 



cf.1680 




as 



Commuuion cups, all dated 1567. — Buxton, 

Bressingham, Pnlham,and Aylsham, Norf. 
Communion cup, dated 1568 (formerly at 

Raveningham, Norf.). — A. H. Church, Esq. 
Do. undated. — Newton, Booton,and Skeyton, 

Nort 
Do. dated 1567. — Oulton and Cawston, Norf. 
Do. dated 1568.— North wold, Norf. 
Do. undated (formerly at Whissonsett, 

Norf.). — £<lm. James, Esq. 
Do. dated 1567. — Erpingham, and Beeston 

Regis, Norf. ; also Wenhaston, Suffolk. 
Do. undated. — North Tuddenham, Norf. 
Ci?ic plate, dated 1568. — Corporation of 

Norwich. 
Communion cup and paten, dated 1568. — 

Sail, Norf., and St.Martin-at-Oak, Norwich. 
Communion cup, undated. — Winfarthing, 

Norf, 
Standing salt, gift of Peter Reade, who died 

1568. — Corporation of Norwich. 
Communion cup and paten. — St. Martinis- 

at-Palace, Norwich. 
Cup and paten, dated 1570. — St. Stephen's, 

Norwich. 
Com. cup, dated 1567. — Stockton, Norf. 
Cup and paten, undated. — Haddiscoe, Norf. 



Mount of stoneware jug. — Edm. James, Esq. 
Four beaker cups. — Formerly at the Dutch 
Ch., Norwich. 

Flagon,dated 1628.— St. Gregory's, Norwich. 
Communion cup, dated 1632. — Great Melton, 
Norf. 

Do., dated 1634. — SS. Simon and Jude, 
Norwich. 

Paten, dated 1635. — Booton, Norf. 

Paten, undated. — Cawston, Norfolk. 

Paten of communion cup, dated 1634. — SS. 

Simon and Jude, Norwich. 
Button-headed spoon, dated 1636. — From 

the Stanlforth Collection. 
Seal- head spoon, pricked with date 1637. — 

O. Morgan Collection. 
Seal-head spoon, pricked date 1637. — Sir 

F. Milbank, Bart. 
Paten, undated. — Skejrton, Norf. 
Communion cup, dated 1640. — Lamas, Norf. 
Paten, Riddlesworth, Norf. 



Cocoa-nut cup. — Marquess of Breadalbane. 



* Timothy Skottowe became free 1617. 



. ■ 



CHAP. IV.] 



Norwich. 



93 



TABLB II. C. 1650—1700. 



Dats. 






1661 

c. 1662 
c. 1675 

1675 
1679 
1680 

Do. 

1685 

c. 1689 

1691 

1692 
1694 
Do. 

c. 1695 

Do. 
C1696 

C1697 



Makir'b Mask. 




Do. do. 
Do. 

Do. do. 



g? (Jl ^ 



do. 





'^P'* 




^"' 



do. 



Do. 



do. do. do. 



(As on Bp.'s Palace Chapel 
plate of c 1662.) 
do. do. 



E 



^ 



Afl paten, 1675. — St. Peter's, 
Hi 




Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



ungate. 

53 

do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 




do. 

do. 
XD 





\VD\ 



Do. do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 
do. 



Abtioli. 



Communion cup, dated 1661. — South wold, 
Suff. 

Communion plate, given c. 1662. — Bi8hop*B 
Palace Chapel, Norwich. 

Paten, undated. — Pakenham, SufE. 



Paten, dated 1675. — St Peter's, Hungate, 
Norwich. 

Paten, dated 1679.— St. Peter's, Mounter- 
gate. Norwich. 

Cup and paten, dated 1680. — ^Helton Con- 
stable, Norfolk. 

Communion cap, dated 1680. — East Dere- 
ham, Norf . 

Paten, dated 1685. — Frostenden, Suif. (town 

mark illegible). 
Tankard, c. 1689.— Rev. H. P. Marsham, 

Rippon Hall, Norwich. 

Flagon, dated 1691.— St. Michael's-at-Plea, 
Norwich. 

Paten, dated 1692.— St Paul's, Norwich. 

Basin, dated 1694.— St. Stephen's, Norwich. 

Com. cup, dated 1694. — Stockton, Norf. 
This maker's mark only occurs on an 
undated paten at EUingham, Norl 

Flat-handled spoon. — Late Albert Way, 

Esq. 
Do., dated 1695.— Rev. W. Jex Blake, Thur- 

garton, Norf. 
Fluted porringer, c. 1696.— R. Fitch, Esq., 

Norwich. 

Flat-handled spoon (maker's mark illegible). 
— Per Rev. C. R. Manning. 



CHESTER. 



The goldsmiths of Chester, though not mentioned in 1428, are 
known to have enjoyed chartered privileges from an early date — ^local 
tradition says from the time of Edward I. This seems to some extent 
borne ont by references to ancient charters in the records still pre- 



* One Jamat Daniel took up the freedom of Norwich, 1698.— Per lir. R. C. Hope^ F.S.A. 



94 Old English Plate. [chap. iv. 

served at Chester. There is a full list of the members of the guild, 
including its aldermen and stewards, for the year 1585, and a notice 
of the admission of a brother even earlier, on October 4th, 1578. 
There is certainly reason to believe that a charter granted by Queen 
Elizabeth was only a confirmation of ancient rights, for there is no 
mention of the receipt of a charter as if for the first time, nor of the 
fresh formation of a company in the records of that date. 

Minutes regulating the trade are found entered in the books before 
we come to the above entry of 1578, and they are presumably of earlier 
date. One of them ordains as follows : — 

'' It"* that noe brother shall delevere noe plate by him wrought unles 
his touche be marked and set upon the same befibre deleverie thereof 
upon paine of forfeture of everie defifalt to be levied out of his goods 

Another quaint notice is to the following effect : — '' It is agreed by 
the consent of the Alderman and Steward of the Gouldsmyths that 
who soe ever shall make the bell that shalbe made against Shroufbide 
ffor the Sadlers shall have ffor his paines iij' iiij'' and yf any of the 
Compeney shall offend in the premisses shall pay unto the Alderman 
and Steward ane the reste of the Compeney being iij' 4''. 

'' And yt all the oulde bells shalbe broke and not any of the Com- 
peney to by any to be new burnished or sould to the peneltie aforesaid 
nj' luj^. 

The arms of the company of goldsmiths in Chester are mentioned 
in a list of 1579 ; and the coat is the same as that of the London 
Company, but the crest is different, being a crowned male figure 
holding a golden cup.* 

There are, however, few or no remains of the work of these ancient 
artificers. 

The large silver-gilt mace belonging to the Mayor and Corporation, 
which was given by the Earl of Derby when he was Mayor in 1668, is 
stamped with a goldsmith's mark and the arms of the city of Chester 
as they were then borne, viz., three lions ramp., dim., impaled with 
three gerbes, dim. It bears neither leopard's head, lion passant, nor 
annual date-letter, and the marks which are there have been nearly 
obliterated when the mace was re-gilt. It is almost too late in the 
day for the antiquary to suggest that when ancient plate is repaired 
or regilt, silversmiths should be careful not to deface the marks, for 
many are past recall. Possibly now that the interest, and therefore 
value, which attaches to plate of which the precise age and date can 



* Harleian MSS. 2167, fo. 230. 



CHAP. IV.] Chester. 95 

be ascertained is better understood, the danger lies in the opposite 
direction. 

On this point the Quarterly Eeviewer in 1876 took occasion to make 
a remark which will be borne out by the experience of every one who 
has studied the matter, namely, that the region over which the forger 
seems to have specially delighted to range is England, outside the 
metropolitan district. The fraudulent worker has availed himself 
freely of the field afforded by the doubtful provincial marks, and the 
buyer cannot be too much on his guard against being imposed upon 
by pieces of apparently ancient plate, bearing what purport to be 
marks of this description. 

Betuming to Chester, it may be said that its history as an assay 
town practically commences with its charter from King James II., 
dated March 6th, 1685. The first notice in the books of the Gold- 
smiths' Company there of the marks to be used, is of the following 
year, 1686, a date which barely anticipates the modern re-settlement 
of 1701. 

The following extracts are all that relate to the subject down to 
1697, when the ancient offices were extinguished : — 

1686. Feb. lat. And it is farther, concluded that the Warden's Marks shall be 

the Coat and crest of the Citty of Chester on two pansons with a letter 
for the year. 

1687. Paid for ye taches engraving 0120 

„ for ye three punsons 00 6 

1690. June 2nd. And the same day the letter was changed from A to B, 

and so to continue for one year. 

1692. April. Paid for a puncheon and engraving ye letter c . . . 16 

1692. Nov. Paid Mr. Bullen for coi)er plate and punson . . .. 00 04 00 

1694. Paid Mr. Bullen for a new letter punson 01 00 

1697. Paid for the punson and carriage 05 8 

This points to the adoption of a date-letter in the year 1689, and 
the regular change of letter each year following. The copper plate 
bought in 1692 may be the very same that is now preserved in the 
Chester Assay Office, but none of the punch marks with which it is 
covered seem referable to an earlier date than 1701. 

The alphabet adopted in 1689 is given as of Boman capitals in the 
minutes ; though this is not, of course, conclusive evidence, especially 
as it is known that the letter for 1690 was not of that character. In 
any case, it must have come to a premature end with the letter i for 
1697-8. This fragment of an alphabet is given after the old Norwich 
alphabets, in Appendix B. 

The coat of the city as used at this time for the '' punson " was a 
dagger between three gerbes. It so appears on a flagon of 1690, the 



96 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. IV. 



property of the Independent Chapel at Oswestry. The crest was a 
sword erect with a band across the blade. These marks disappear in 
1701, having probably only been used from 1686 till that year. 

A number of so-called " goldsmiths " were free of the city at the 
end of the seventeenth century as well as at all other periods ; but 
few working craftsmen were among them. The names of Alexander 
Pulford, Balph Walley, and Peter Pennington are all that seem 
known of the latter class, from 1686 onwards. To these succeeds the 
Richardson family, who temp. Queen Anne seem almost alone to have 
made plate in Chester. 

ExAMPLB OF Old Chesteb Plate. 



Datb. 



1690 



Maker's Mark akd Nami. 




Ralph Walley, 
ent. 1682. 



Article. 



Flat-lid tankaid. In- 
dependent Chapel, 
Oswestry. 



EXETER. 

Although there are no records of an assay office at Exeter until the 
commencement of its modern history, an ancient guild of goldsmiths 
flourished in that city. Much of the church and domestic plate of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the counties of Devon and 
Cornwall hears the old Exeter mark, which was a large Roman capital 
letter X crowned. Examples of it are not uncommonly found even in 
other parts of England. Hardly any two marks are exactly alike, 
some of them heing surrounded with a plain, others with a dotted 
circle ; whilst in later times than Elizabethan the escutcheon follows 
the shape of the contained letter. Very occasionally the X is not 
crowned. 

In the sixteenth century, the letter, enclosed in a plain or dotted 
circle, is usually accompanied by two pellets, mullets, or quatrefoils, 
one in each side angle of the X, but in the next century these are 
wanting. In the case of spoons it is always found in the bowls in the 
usual place. 

It is almost invariably accompanied by a maker's mark, which is 
the whole, or sometimes what seems to be a part, of the surname, and, 
in the latter cases, somewhat unintelligible. A good many of the 
Elizabethan Communion cups still to be seen in Exeter parish 
churches, nearly all of them being of the years 1572, 1573, or 1674, 



CHAP. IV.] Exeter. 97 

bear the word IONS with or without the crowned X, and this same 
mark is found on many village communion cups of the same date and 
fashion in Devon and Cornwall. At Trevalga, it appears on a com- 
munion cup and paten with the Exeter mark and dated 1571, and at 
Littleham near Bideford on a cup of 1576. The latest example at 
present noted is of 1579. We are fortunately enabled to identify this 
as the mark of an Exeter craftsman of that day by an entry in the 
Churchwardens' accounts of St. Petrock's in that city, which records 
that in 1571 they paid '' lohn Ions Goldsmith for changing the 
chalice into a cup £X 15if. 5(2." The cup itself engraved with the date 
of 1572 on its paten-cover, and duly marked by its maker, is still 
the property of the parish, which much values so interesting a posses- 
sion. 

Two stoneware jugs, formerly in the Staniforth Collection, have 
respectively ESTON aud EASTON as their makers' marks, whilst 
a third, formerly in the Bernal collection, bears the name HOR- 
WOOD; all these are accompanied by the usual Exeter mark. 
ESTON is found on a Communion cup at St. Andrew's, Plymouth, 
of which the date is 1590, and EASTON on the cup at Venn Ottery, 
dated 1582. A kind of rude letter C is usually found with the 
ESTON mark, which may be the initial of that maker's Christian 
name. To another mark, that of one SADCLIFF, as in the case 
of the IONS and ESTON marks, it is possible to assign a date, for 
it appears on a cup at St. Petrock's church in Exeter, engraved with 
1640, a date which corresponds well with the year 1687 pounced on 
an apostle spoon with the same maker's mark, in the Staniforth 
collection. These last each bear the maker's initials, on a separate 
stamp, as well as his name in full, and are good examples of the 
Exeter mark of the time. The mark on the apostle spoon is as 
follows : — 




vfk Iradcliff 




That on the cup gives the same initials in monogram 

instead of with tho little flowers between them, the other marks being 
the same as those on the spoon. An earlier form of the Exeter mark 
will be found in the Table at the end of this chapter. The name 
COTON occurs upon church-plate of the Elizabethan period some- 
times with D and sometimes with I for initial letter. 

Spoons occasionally bear the initials in the bowl, instead of the 
crowned X, and have the whole name on the back of the stem ; some 

H 



98 Old English Plate. [chav. iv. 

Beal-headed baluster-ended spoons among the domestic plate still 
in use at Cotehele, the ancient Cornish seat of the Earls of Mount 
Edgcumbe, bear TM in monogram with a dotted circle in their 



IS 



bowls, and MCTKV on the stems : on others the word BEITLY 
to be found, with the Exeter mark in the bowl. YEDS occurs on a 
flat-stemmed spoon, and ^ on an apostle spoon of the late Mr. Stani- 

forth*s, both bearing the Exeter mark. OSBOBN with the Exeter 
mark is the name on an apostle spoon with pricked date 1688, and 
also on a lion sejant spoon dated in the same way 1668. 

The mark (RQ) is on an undated lion sejant spoon and f^J on a 



seal-head spoon, the first the property of Earl Amherst and the other 
of the author : both of these were formerly in Dr. Ashford's collection. 
R perhaps signifies Osborn, but the spoon itself looks rather of the 
sixteenth than the seventeenth century. 

It is impossible to say for certain, even after the examination of so 
many specimens as are described here, whether a date- letter was ever 
used at Exeter. The stoneware jugs and the Communion cups of the 
Elizabethan period sometimes bear two letters, one of which might 
be for dating them, and the other for an initial, but nothing at all like 
a date-letter is found upon spoons. On nearl}' all the Communion 
cups which bear the mark IONS, the Roman letter I is to be seen 
put on in such a way that it might be a date-letter or the initial letter 
of the maker's Christian name. But as these were not all made in 
the same year, and as on other Exeter examples, a letter which is 
known to be the maker's initial is found as well as his name, it would 
be safe to say that this letter I is not a date- letter. C is in this way 
found with ESTON or EASTON, and T with MATHEV. The 
date of the latter is probably 1565 to 1585. Further research may 
clear up the question, but it is almost certain that a date-letter was 
not regularly used in the sixteenth, and not at all in the seventeenth 
century. The specimens in the following table bear of course the 
Exeter mark, as well as the maker's and other marks given against 
each. 



CHAP. IV. ] 



Hull. 



99 



Examples of Old Exeter Plate. 



Date. 

1571 

1572 

1574 

c 1575 

c. 1575 

1575 

y. D. 

1575 

1576 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1581 
1582 
Do. 
1590 
1637 
1638 

1640 
1641 



Maker's Mark. 



Do. 
Do. 

D COTON 
I COTON 

Do. 

fioi noNsi fjn 



DC5iS3 



IIONSJ lJ] 



CSEl 



m rToNsi [5] 

El lESTONI 



[t.Vii'hJ 



SIKHii:! 



ICl lESTONl lMl 

If'SSIlRADCUFTI 
lOSBORMi 



l7.VH^IiJ 




Article. 




Commanion cup and paten cover, dated 1571. — 
Trevalga, Cornwall. 

Do., dated 1572.— St. Petrock's, Exeter. 

Do., dated 1674.— St. Winnoe, Cornwall. 
Communion cup. — Stoke Rivers, Devon. 

Do. — Morwenstow, Cornwall. 

Cup and cover, dated 1575. — Lympston, Devon. 

Do., undated. — St. Eerrian's (now with St. 
Petrock), Exeter. 
Paten cover, dated 1575. — Duloe, Cornwall. 

Communion cup, with paten cover, dated 1576. — St. 
Gennys, Cornwall. 

Do., dated 1576. — Tamerton Foliot, and Little- 
ham, Devon. 

Do., dated 1576. — Stockleigh Pomeroy, Devon. 

Do., dated 1576. — Perran-Uthnoe, Cornwall. 

Mount of stoneware jag, dated 1581. — Menheniot, 

Cornwall. 
Cup and paten cover, dated 1582. — Venn Ottery, 

'Devon. 
Communion cup, dated 1582. — Cadbnry, Devon. 

Communion cup and cover, dated 15i)0. — St. 
Andrew's, Plymouth. 

Apostle spoon, pricked date 1637. — Staniforth Col- 
lection. 

Apostle spoon, pricked date 1638. — Sir T. Thomhili, 
Bart. 

Communion cup, dated 1640. — St. Petrock's, Exeter. 

Seal-head spoon, dated 1641. — Cotehele House. 



HULL. 

The mark now to be mentioned is one that can no longer be called 
doubtful. Though Hull had been made a mint town in 28 Edw. I. 
it was not included in the Act of 1428, and does not seem to have 
assayed plate in early times ; but in and near that town there is a 
great deal of plate of the seventeenth century bearing the town arms 
of three ducal crowns one above another for assay mark. So much, 
indeed, is to be found, that it would almost lead to the conclusion that 
Hull must have had some charter such as those which Exeter and 

H 2 



lOO Old English Plate. [chap. nr. 

Chester are supposed to have enjoyed, entitling its goldsmiths to their 
own proper provincial mark. The "Company of Goldsmiths and 
Braziers " there are found presenting a petition to James II. with 
other loyal burgesses of the town. To set against this it must be said 
that the Hull mark only occurs just when other unauthorisedmarks 
were much in vogue. Further it is not mentioned by the author of 
the Tou^^hstone in 1679 ; nor was it recognised by the Acts of 1701 
and 1702, any more than in 1423. It is clear, however, that whether 
authorised or not to use a special mark of its own, the goldsmiths 
residing there did a good trade amongst their neighbours, at all events 
from about 1625 to nearly the end of the century. 

About 25 specimens have come to light, bearing various dates from 
1621 to 1697, and the marks of nine different makers. Many of them 
are in the possession of the Hull Trinity House, others are from village 
churches in the neighbourhood, and one piece of some historical interest 
is in private hands in Yorkshire. The nine makers' initials are IC. 
CW. RR. HR. IB. AB. EM. TH. and EM. They are in shields of 
very marked shapes, and all but one of them have some distinguishing 
emblem, such as a crown, star, or other like addition. 

With one example of the EM mark, which is of the very end of the 

seventeenth century, is found a large letter (p like the York letter for 
1661-2. Whether this is intended for a date-letter it is impossible to 
say. A similar letter ^ occurs once with the EM maker s mark, and 

a letter c^has once also been noted. It looks as if for some half 

dozen years or more a date-letter was tried, but after a very short trial 
abandoned. 

The only other circumstance to be observed is that on a piece or two 

of about 1630 both the [h] mark and the three-crowns mark are to be 

found. This perhaps marks the period of the change from the one 
mark to the other as that of the Hull local touch. 

The first two of the makers' marks given below are to be expected 
rather with the H than with the crowns, the third and fourth with 
both these marks, the rest with the three crowns only. The three- 
crowns mark is always struck twice, usually on each side of the maker's 
mark; and very likely by the makers themselves, and not by a warden 
at all. 



SBC 



CHAP. IV.] 



Gateshead. 



lOI 



Examples of Hull Plate. 



Towff Marks. 



H . . 
H . . 

H (twice) . 

H . . 

H. 3 crowns 

Do. . 

Do. 

Do. . 
Do. 

3 crowns 
(twice) 

Do. . 
D). 

Do. . 

Do. 

Do. . 

Do. 
Do. . 

Do. 

Do. . 

Do. 
Do. . 

Do. 



Maker's Mark. 



Articli. 




Do. 

^^ Chr. Watson . 




Do. (twice) . 
gj] (twice) 




R. Robinson, free 
1617.* 



Do. . 

Do. 
Do.. 



• > 



Commanion cup, dated 1587. — ^Trinity Ch., ' 

Hull. 
Seal-headed spoons. — Trin Ho., Hull. 

Communion cup, dated 1638. — St. MarjV, 

HuU. 
Seal -headed spoon. —Trin. Ho., Hull. 

Beaker cup, dated 1621.— Trin. Ho., HuU. 

Cup and paten, dated 1629. — Nth. Froding- 

ham, Yorks. 
Rim, dated 1629, of cocoa-nut cup. — Trin. 

Ho., Hull. 
Communion cup, dated 1630. — Hes.sle,Yorks. 
Cup and paten, dated 1638. — Burton Pidsea, 

Yorks. 

Com. cup — Preston, near Hedon. 



lBJ (twice) 
gT 

Do Small tumbler cup. — T. M. Fallow, Esq. 

[IB] (twice) Jas. Birk- Two-handled jwrringer.— Hon. and Rev. S. 
^"4^ by, free 1651.* Lawley. 

|ygj EJw. Mangy, free ' Communion cup, dated 1666. -Beverley 
•v^ 1660.* Minster. 

Do Paten, dated 1674.— Bamoldby-le-Bcck, 

Yorks. 

Bo Communion cup, dated 1676. — Kirk Ella, 

Yorks. 
Do. 



m 



Do. 




Communion cup. — Copgrove, Yorks. 



. Tankaid.— Trin. Ho., Hull. 





K. Mangy ' Com. cup. —Trin. Ho., Hull. 

Peg tankard, dated 1689. — Corpn. of Hedon. 



Do. 



Thos. Hebden, 
free 1681.* 

... 

as above . 



Do. 



. Tumbler cup, dated 1689. -Trin. Ho., Hull. 

Communion cup, dated 1695. — Skeffling, 

Yorks. 
Tobacco box, dated 1697.— Trin. Ho., Hull. 



GATESHEAD. 



A little plate was made and marked in Gateshead at the same period 
as in Hull. A tankard with flat lid of the later part of the seventeenth 
century, and a small mug in the possession of the Bight Hon. Sir J. 
B. Mowbray, Bart., both of which can be traced to a Northumbrian 



• Per Mr. R. C. Hope. 





I02 Old English Plate. [chap. iv. 

family, have a goat'8 head couped in a circle and the initials A'F, als>o 
in a circular stamp, both marks twice repeated. The goat's head was 
a sort of re})u% for the name of the town. It is found on a carved chair 
of the year 1666 in the vestry of Gateshead church ; and it also occurs 
on a tradesman's token of a certain John Bedford, who was one of 
** the twenty-four of Gateshead " in 1658.* 

LEEDS. 

The mark of a pendant Iamb, like the badge of the Order of the 
Golden Fleece, is possibly referable to Leeds. It occurs with a 
maker's mark of TB in a heart-shaped shield on a paten at Almond- 
bury Church in Yorkshire, and on a tumbler cup in the author's 
possession. It is also found with maker's mark of ST in linked letters 
on a shaped escutcheon on a pair of patens, one of which is dated 1702, 
at Harewood Church in the same county. 

*®^ Com. cup. — Almondbury, Yorks. 
Do. do. Tumbler cup.— W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 

Do ^f5? ^^^^ ^^ patens, one dated 1702. — Harewood, Yorks. 
I5J Also com. cup. — Darrington. Yorks. 

CARLISLE. 

A single maker of village church plate in the neighbourhood of 
Carlisle seems to have used a seeded rose as well as his initials. His 
name was probably Edward Dalton, and his mark is found on small 
and rudely made communion cups of the early Elizabethan period 
at Ireby, Bolton, Long Marton, and Cliburn, all in the county of 
Cumberland. 

Rude communion cups. — Ireby, Bolton, &c., Cumb. 

There are two other cups in Cumberland of precisely the same make 
and fashion in every detail, both dated 1571, but bearing no marks, — 
one at Uldale and die other at Lazonby. As it is practically certain 
that, though unmarked, they must be by the same maker as the Ireby 
cup and the other examples mentioned above bearing the ED mark, 
the date of the whole group may be considered not to be a matter of 
a^y doubt. The seeded rose is taken from the old city arms ; and the 
same mark was used for stamping weights and measures at Carlisle. 






* Bojne's Tohent of the Seventeenth Century. 



CHAP. IV.] Lincoln. 103 

LINCOLN. 

A mark usually found alone, and therefore only a maker's mark, 
occurs on a number of Elizabethan communion cups in Lincoln- 
shire, and may pretty safely be assigned to a Lincoln craftsman. 
It is on a specimen of 1669 at Osboumby and of 1570 at 
Aubom and Upton-cum-Eexby, besides being on undated pieces at 
Haxey, Boultham, Scotton, Lea near Oainsboro', Heapham, and 
Thimbleby. 

^av Coxnmnnion cup, dated 1569. — Osbournbj, Line. 

/nih Do. dated 1670. — Aaborn, Line. 

^'^ Do. do. — Upton-cum-Kcxby, Line. 

Do. undated — Haxey, Boultham, Scotton, &c.. Line. 

On the two examples of the year 1670, at Aubom and Upton-cum- 
Kexby respectively, a seven-pointed star, formed of seven small heart- 
shaped indentations without any shield or escutcheon, is found, as 
well as the above-mentioned maker's mark. 

TADNTON. 

A mark of considerable interest is on a spoon pricked with 1678 for 
date. It consists of a tun or barrel placed across the stem of a large 
letter T, and no doubt stands for the town of Taunton. It is in the 
bowl of the spoon, which has TD with a fleur-de-lis under the letters 
on an escutcheon for maker's mark on the back of the handle. This 
spoon is in the collection of Mr. Chichester of Hall. The same 
marks are found on a beaker in the Staniforth collection; on a 
paten dated 1676 at Wootton Courtenay in Somersetshire ; and on 
spoons of 1686 and 1691, noted by the Somersetshire Archaeological 
Society. 

[^^ Spoon, dated 1678.— C. Chichester, Esq., Hall, Devon. 
Do. Paten, dated 1676. — Wootton Courtenay, Som. 

DORCHESTER. 

The following mark has lately been identified as that of Lawrence 
Stratford of Dorchester, who in 1579, 1583 and 159B, is mentioned 
in the Corporation and other records. 




^ ^^ ^ Paten cover, dated 1574.— Maiden Newton, Dorset. 

This mark is found on Elizabethan communion plate in no less 



I04 Old English Plate. [chap it. 

than thirty Dorsetshire parishes ; and the pieces are dated from 1578 
to 1578, but most of them are of 1574. 

One John Stratforde, also goldsmith of Dorchester, is mentioned in 
1526. 

BARNSTAPLE. 

A spoon bearing three marks, viz., IF twice repeated for maker's 
mark, and on another stamp the same initials one on each side of a 
castle with the letters BAS above, and VM below it, was made by 
John Peard, of Barnstaple. He was buried there 15 Nov., 1680.* 
It is a flat-handled spoon, having some good chasing on the bowl, 
and it was formerly in Mr. R. Temple Frere's well-known collection. 

KING'S LYNN. 

Two examples of plate are known, marked with the arms of Lynn 
accompanied by a maker's mark. This town mark consists of a shield 
bearing three congers' heads erect, each with a cross croslet fitche 
in the mouth ; and it is found on a communion cup at the church of 
St. Peter, Southgate, Norwich, and on a paten in St. Nicholas' Chapel, 
King's Lynn. 

SANDWICH. 

A very peculiar communion cup of tazza form and early sixteenth 
centuiy date, at St. Mary's, Sandwich, bears with other marks a lion 
passant and ship*s hull dimidiated and conjoined, from the town arms. 
Its approximate date is known by the coincidence of the cup exactly 
matching a tazza, also used as a chalice, at Wymeswold in Leicester- 
shire, which is hall-marked 1512, and also a similar tazza in the posses- 
sion of Mr. H. Willett, of the year 1500. Both these last-mentioned 
pieces bear an inscription round the bowl in Tudor capitals SOLI 
DEO HONOR ET GLORIA, whilst the Sandw ich cu p has in the 
same way the words, also in Tudor capital letters, THIS IS 'I' h k 
COMMVNION COVF ; but this last inscription can hardly be 
much earlier than 1550. Mention occurs of a goldsmith of Sandwich 
in 1514, named Christopher Johnson, alwA Coper, al\a% Goldesmyth, 
and called "of Sand^vich Ooldsmith," This occurs m Foreign and 
Domestic State Papers, Henry VIII., Vol. L, No. 5548. 



* Communicated by Mr. T. Wainwright, Sec. of the North DeTon Athemeom, Bamataple. 



CHAP. TV.] Doubtful Provincial Marks. 105 

DOUBTFUL AND OTHER PROVINCIAL MARKS. 

The above are perhaps all the local marks which can at present be 
traced home with certainty. Bat there are other marks, many of them 
pretty well known, that are of interest to us to note. Of some of them 
all that can be said is, that as they are found on plate, often spoons, 
apparently of English make, and of the middle of the scTenteenth 
century, the articles bearing them probably escaped more regular 
marking owing to the social disturbances with which their makers 
were surrounded. Others occur repeatedly in certain districts, and 
become almost identified with the localities in which they are found. 

One of the best known of such marks is a fleur-de-lis within a 
plain, or sometimes beaded, circle. It is often found in the bowls of 
spoons of that date ; examples occurred in both the Staniforth and 
Octavius Morgan collections. 

Another is a small and indistinct mark of a circle crossed and re- 
crossed with lines, some of them running, like the spokes of a wheel, 
to the centre. This was found in the bowl of a spoon in the collection 
of the late Mr. B. Temple Frere, aijd of one at Cotehele : both of 
these have a small sitting figure like Buddha, by way of knop, and 
both have as maker's mark the letters RC with a five-pointed star 
between them on the back of the stems ; a seal-headed spoon also at 
Cotehele bears the same marks ; and 1647 for date pricked upon it. 

A fourth mark of the same kind is formed of four small hearts 
arranged with the points inwards, so as to form a sort of quatrefoil. 

Other such devices and monograms in great variety occur, sometimes 
the same monogram in the bowl and on the handle of the spoon, two 
or even three times repeated in the latter position. Amongst them 
is occasionally to be recognised the registered mark of some London 
maker, but so seldom that in most cases they may safely be said to be 
of provincial origin, and of about the period we have mentioned. 
Exceptions may of course be found ; some few are certainly of the 
earlier part of the same century ; but as a general rule, this class of 
marks may be referred to the reign of Charles I., or else to the time 
of the Commonwealth. 

The most puzzling doubtful mark that has ever come under the 
author's notice is on a piece of church-plate at Bradford. It bears a 
Catherine wheel, and italic h for date-letter, and as maker's mark the 
letters 8S crowned on a shield repeated twice. It is dated 1691, and 
is almost certainly of Yorkshire make, for the same set of marks are 
to be found on plate at Todwick also in Yorkshire, and of the very 
6'ime year, 1691. The maker's mark is one of those registered at 



1 



io6 



Old English Plate. 



[CBAP. IV. 



Goldsmiths' Hall, but may well belong to a provincial maker for all 
that ; and as the Catherine wheel occurs on more than one specimen 
of plate, and in more than one form, it is in all probability the local 
mark of some northern town. 

It is engraved in the following list together with a few other such 
marks : — 

®In bowl 
and twice Maidenhead spoon (from Edkins collection). — The author, 
on hand] A. 




on handle, 
bowl. ^ 




On 



fifl hanme ®®*^"^®*^ spoon, c. 1 620.— The author. 




I^ §S] (^ ^^\ Church plate, dated 1691.— Bradford and Todwick, Yorkg. 

Some spoons with very similar marks to the above-mentioned 
example of 1620 were in the late Mr. R. Temple Frere's collection. 
They are of about the same date, one being pricked 1629. 

The following marks occur alone as follows : — 



Pre- Reformation paten. — Hartshome, Derbs. Also an Elizabethan com. cup 
at 8nave, Kent. 

Com. cupSf with Eliz. bands, dated 1570-76-77. — Cricklade St. Mary and 
8omerCord Keynes, Wilts, and Winchcomb. Glouc. 

Com. cup, dated 1571. — Upceme, Dorset. 



Dorsetshire church plate, temp. Eliz. 



Com. cups, dated 1573 and 1577. — Swepston and Dadlington, Leics. 



\^jfs\ Alms dish. — St. Mary, South Baily, Durham City; and on the smaller 
aU^ mace at Wilton, Wilts. Ihe latter piece is inscribed Lie. Grafton fecit, 
163U. 



Paten, c. 1640.— Tisbury, Wilts. 









(^9 Com. cup, c. 1655. — Wraxall, Dorset. 



^ 





(Probably Thos. Vyner, see p. 36.) Gold chalice of middle of seventeenth 
century. — Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace. 

Com. cup and paten, dated 1677. — ^Bishop's Knoyle, Wilts. Also paten, 
undated.— Winkfield, Wilts. 

Flagon, given 1 700.— Corsley, Wilts. Also Paten, given 1704.— Kingstw 
Devcrill, Wilts. 



CHAP. IV.] Doubtful Provincial Marks. 107 

Sometimes the same single mark, usually a very indistinct one, 
occurs on a good many examples of church-plate in the same 
neighbourhood. Eev. A. TroUope found a sort of indistinct rose very 
prevalent in Leicestershire, and also instances of a leopard's head 
uncrowned without any other mark, on village church-plate ; just as 
Mr. Nightingale found in Dorsetshire a quantity of examples of the 
marks engraved on p. 103. Mr. TroUcpe also found in Leicestershire 
the curious mark of a small and indistinct shield flanked by the letters 
N and G, one on each side of it. In two examples of this last the 
letters appear upside down and turned the wrong way. This list will 
be prolonged by the experience of most readers of this volume. 

It remains to notice in conclusion another very interesting and 
perhaps unique mark, though it can hardly be called a doubtful one. 
It will be remembered that no provincial offices seem to have had any 
right to mark plate from 1697 to 1701, and the inconvenience to the 
trade and the public occasioned by this has already been noticed. It 
appears, however, that plate made in the provinces between those 
years is not entirely unknown, as a saltcellar (see engr. chap. X., art. 
Salts), in the form of a lighthouse, formerly amongst the family plate 
at Tredegar, will show. It bears for goldsmiths' marks the three 
words Britan, Bowe, and Plin^, each on a plain oblong punch (like 
the word Badcliff on page 97), and it may be safely attributed to the 
year 1698, or the early part of 1699. The marks taken together 
indicate that it was made by one Rowe of Plymouth, of silver of the 
then new Britannia standard. The piece is not only of considerable 
historical interest, as will be seen later on, but of great rarity as a 
specimen of provincial silversmith's work and marking at a period 
when but little was made, and none could by proper right be marked, 
except in London. 

The following table gives a summary, in a form convenient for 
reference, of all that has been said about ancient provincial English 
hall marks, and some illustrations of those which are of most import- 
ance to the collector of old plate : — 



io8 



Old English Plate. 



(chap. IV. 



o 



o 

H 

M 
O 

»-• 

M 

o 

H 

< 

00 

< 

;^ 
;« 

> 
o 



H 

» 

Q 
H 

OQ 

P 

OD 



O 
H 



« 


■h 












M 

X 


1 
















• 

o 


1 


• 

o 


o 


o 


X 


fe 2-S 








.rj 


M 


Initials < 
ortl 
comi 


s 


p 


i-0 

•1 


s 


S 




CHAPTER V. 

THE PROVINCIAL ASSAY OFFICES AND THEIR MARKS SINCE 1701. 

THE ACTS OF PABLIAMENT EBTABLIBHING THEM — YORK — EXETER — CHESTER — 
NORWICH— XBWCA8TLE-UP0N-TYNE — BIRMINGHAM — SHEFFIELD — TABLE OF 
MODERN PROVINCIAL MARKS. 



We come now to the re-establishment of provincial assay offices in 
1701 and 1702 under the circumstances mentioned at an earlier page. 
The Acts of Parliament* which appointed York, Exeter, Bristol, 
Chester, Norwich, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne for the assaying and 
marking of wrought plate may be taken together. They incorporated 
the goldsmiths and plate- workers of each place under the name of the 
" Company of Goldsmiths," for carr^^ing out their various provisions. 
No plate was to be made less in fineness than the standard of the 
kingdom, and the following marks were appointed : — The worker's 
mark, to be expressed by the two first letters of his surname, the lion's 
head erased, the figure of Britannia and the arms of the city where 
such plate shall be assayed, and a distinct and variable letter in 
Roman character, which shall be annually changed upon the election 
of new wardens to show the year when such plate was made. Every 
goldsmith and silversmith in each city was required to enter his 
name, mark, and place of abode with the wardens, and not to stamp 
plate with any other mark than the mark so entered. The assay- 
master was to be sworn in before the mayor. 

It seems almost certain that Bristol! never exercised the power of 
assaying plate, and Norwich soon abandoned the privilege. The 
other places named carried the provisions of the Act into efiect by 
establishing assay offices, none of which, however, except that of 
Chester, still continue in active operation. 

In 1773, after an enquiry by Parliament into the working of these 



* 12 & 13 Wm. III., cap. 4, York, 
Exeter, Bristol, Chester, and Norwich. 1 
Anne, cap. 9, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

f There are some anomalous marks on a 
spoon at the Temple Church, Bristol, which 
might be taken for Bristol hall-marks ; but 



the civic archives of the i)eriod do not record 
the establishment of any Qt)ldsmiths' Com- 
pany, nor the swearing-in of any assay- 
master before the mayor, as prescribed in 
the Act. 



no 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. v. 



offices, Birmingham and Sheffield were appointed for the same 
purpose ; goods made in these towns having, as it appeared, until that 
time, been sent at great inconvenience and expense to Chester or 
London to be marked. The provisions of the Act appointing them 
are, speaking generally, much like those by which the older assay 
offices were regulated, except that the later provisions were more 
precise and complete, an advantage to be attributed, it is pertinently 
suggested by Mr. Byland in his Assay of Gold and Silver Wares, to 
the opposition of the Goldsmiths' Company in London, which was a 
little jealous of rival offices. Out of this wholesome rivalry arose the 
parliamentary enquiry and report, without which the statute establish- 
ing the offices at Sheffield and Birmingham would have been far less 
complete and satisfactory. 

A few words must be said about each of the provincial offices in 
turn, except Bristol, which may bo considered to be disposed of; 
premising that the lat.er general Acts of the last and present century, 
regulating the goldsmith's trade, and noticed in chap. II., apply 
to all offices alike. 






YORK. 

This office has had a somewhat fitful existence. Re-established in 
1701, it is mentioned with the rest in the Acts of 1789 and of 1784, 
although it was certainly not working at the time of the parliamen- 
tary enquiry of 1778. Probably the company was stirred up by it a 
little, and started work again in 1774 with a new alphabet. Certainly 
at the commencement of the present century its operations were more 
regular, and there is a record in existence of the work done from 1805 
— 1821.* From this it appears that duty to the amount of about 
£300 a-year was paid through the York office for work sent to be 
assayed by some four or five silversmiths ; the articles made by them 
consisting of household plate, now and then some articles of Com- 
munion plate for a York church, and some wedding-rings ; ** a coffin 
plate " is mentioned more than once. Later on, in 1848, it is again 
to be heard of, but working as before on a very small scale. A return 
then obtained shows it to have assayed on an average no more than 
2,000 ounces of silver, besides an insignificant quantity of gold in the 
five preceding years ; and in 1856 the office had practically ceased to 
exist. The annual date-letter seems to have been changed more or 
less regularly from 1800, and perhaps earlier, nearly down to the time 



* Doe of the register- books of the Assay- 
OflBce is now in the possession of Cancn 



Raine, who has kindly furnished the foUow- 
ing notes from it. 



CHAP, v.] Modern York. 1 1 1 

of the discontinuance of the office, but owing to the loss of its books 
and the small quantity of work done, it is hopeless to attempt any 
complete list of the letters used in the previous century. An alphabet 
of Boman capitals seems to have been commenced about 1774, and to 
have been continued for some ten letters, but from 1787 a new alphabet 
of Boman small letters is found running till we come to Broman capital 
M for 1798. Then follow capitals in order. A letter J is found with 
the York arms and the incused King's Head, and seems to fit in pretty 
well with other pieces of known date. From the M of 1798, the tables 
given in the Appendix are certainly correct. 

The distinguishing mark of the York office was a shield of the 
arms of the city, which are five lions passant on a cross. (See Table, 
p. 129.) 

The usual Britannia standard marks and perhaps Boman capitals 
for date-letters were used from 1701 to 1720, but a court-hand letter 
I appears on a communion cup at Hawkswell, Yorkshire, which bears 
1714 as its engraved date ; and the same letter is found on an undated 
tumbler-cup in the author's possession. Both these pieces have for 
maker's mark LA for John Langwith in a shield with escalloped top. 
Afterwards, from the time of the restoration of the old sterling standard 
for silver in the year 1720 until about 1847, York, like some of the 
other provincial assay towns, used the leopard's head, but without 
any very good reason after 1789, though the practice is defensible 
until then according to the wording of the Act which restored the old 
standard. 

A well-known legal authority characterises the addition of the 
leopard's head mark in these cases as an unnecessary incumbrance \* 
and from 1789 this is clearly the case. The Act of 1720 restoring 
the old sterling standard with its proper marks says nothing about 
the provincial offices, which accordingly adopted the ordinary London 
marks ; but in 1789 these matters were further regulated by 12 Geo. 
II. c. 26, and standard gold and old sterling silver were to be marked 
'^ as folio weth (that is to say) with the mark of the maker or worker 
thereof, which shall be the first letter of his Christian and surname, 
and with the marks of the Company of Goldsmiths in London, viz., 
the leopard's head, the lion passant, and a distinct variable mark or 
letter to denote the year in which the plate was made ; or with the 
mark of the worker or maker, and with the marks appointed to be used 
by the assayers at York, Exeter, Bristol, Chester, Norwich, or New- 
castle-on-Tyne." A reference to the Acts of Will. III. and Anne 



* Tilsley'B iSfto7?ip /kluw. 



A 






112 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. t. 



shows the marks so appointed to he the arms of the cities, and a 
variahle mark or letter, which from 1720 should properly have heen 
used, in conjunction with the mark of the maker. 

The names of the York goldsmiths which can he traced in the early 
part of the eighteenth century are as follows : — 



Daniel Turner, free 1700, died 1704. 
Joseph Buckle, free 1715, died 1761, 
John, son of Marmaduke Best, free 1694. 
William, son of John WiUiamson, free 

1G94. 
Clement Reed, free 1698. 
John Morrett, jeweller, free 1721. 



Tbos. Parker, silversmith, son of Edward 

Parker, free 1721. 
Wm. Hudson, silversmith. 
John Bentley, sUversmith, 1725. 
John Busfield, goldsmith, son of Wm. 

Busfield, goldsmith, free 1727. 
Jonathan Atkinson, goldsmith, 1735. 



The above-named Joseph Buckle, John Busfield, and William 
Hudson, together with a Stephen Buckle, son of Joseph Buckle, 
are all who voted as goldsmiths according to poll-books of 1741. 
Stephen Buckle was apprenticed to Cookson of Newcastle in 1782, for 
seven years. 

Goldsmiths are found voting also in 1758, amongst them Stephen 
Buckle again. In 1774 John Prince of Coney Street appears with 
others. Several names occur in 1758, 1774, and 1784 ; but few or 
any of them were working goldsmiths, though two or three were 
watchmakers. 

Examples of Modbbn York Plate. 



Ikscribbdi Date- 



Date. 

1702 

1705 
1714 

N. D. 
1777 



Letter. 



® 




® 

Do. 
Do. 



None. 



Maker's Mark. 



Probably John 
Best, 1694. 

r^vrs ProbablyWm. 
^CSS^ Busfield, 
1679. 

\^t);\ John Lang- 
IJ^ with.* 



Do. . . . 
Probably Wm. 
Williamson. 
1694. 

Hampston 
and Prince. 



Article. 





Racing cup, inscribed ** Maggot on Eip- 
lingcotes, 1702."— Rise Park,HuU. 

Cup and paten, dated 1705. — St Michaers, 
Malton, Torks. 

Commnnion cup, dated 1714. — Hawks- 
well, Yorks. 

Tumbler-cup. — W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 

Communion cup. — Kirkby Ravensworth, 
Yorks. 

Communion cup, dated 1777. — Selby 
Abbey, Yorks. 



* He registered his mark also at New- 
castle-on-l^ne, see p. 124. His mark occurs 
alone on a plain com. cup at N. Otteiiogton, 



Yorks. A com. cup at Sberburn is marked 
Ili in a sort of quatrefoil shield, probably 
his old sterling mark. 



CBAP. v.] 



Modern Exeter. 



113 



Ihboribbd' Date- 

DaTK. , LSTTBR. 



1780 
K. D. 
1780 
N. D. 
1780 
1784 
N. D. 

?178o 
1791 
1792 

N. D. 

1798 



© 

Do. 

© 

Do. 



Makbb*8 Mark. 



Artxolx. 



Do. 
Do. 

® 

® 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
D). 
Do. 
Do. 



^S\ 



<s> 



Hampston 
and Prince. 

Do. 






Do. . . . 

H. Prince and 
Co. 



Flagons, dated 1780.— All Saints', North 

Street, York. 
Communion cap and salver. — Bumsall, 

Yorks. 
Paten, dat4>d 1780.— All Saints', North 

Street, York. 
Communion cup and cover. — St. Michael 

le-Belfry, York. 
Paten, dated 1780.— Kirk Burton, Yorks. 

Communion cup, dated 1784. — Hunting- 
ton, Yorks. 

Paten, given by Mary Lady Goodricke. — 
Hunsigore, Yorks. 

Communion cup. — Holme-on-Spalding 
Moor, Yorks. This piece bears the in- 
cused King's Head mark. 

Flagon, dated 1791.— St. John's, Ouse- 
bridge, York. 

Flagon, dated 1792.— Kirk Deighton, 
Yorks. 

Communion cup. — Askham Bryan, Yorks. 

Flagon, dated 1798.— Warter, Yorks. 



The firm of Prince was in 1805 Prince & Cattle, and until ISOT^ 
when it is Bichard Cattle. From 1808 Cattle & Barber till 1814 ; 
then Barber & Whitwell. The only other makers of the early part 
of the present centary were W. Astley of York, and G. Booth of 
Selby. 

EXETER. 

This city availed itself forthwith of the powers conferred upon it in 
1701 y and its office has continued to work until recently. Eleven 
goldsmiths met on August 7th, 1701, and proceeded to elect William 
Ekins and Daniel Slade as their first wardens. Steps were taken to 
procure a convenient house for an assay office, resolutions for its 
management passed, and punches for marking plate ordered in 
November, one Edward Bichards having been appointed assay-master 
in the preceding month, an office which he seems to have held till 
January, 1707-8. 

Early in the following year such goldsmiths of Devon, Cornwall, 
Somerset, and Dorset, as had not yet entered their marks, were 
notified that the office was ready to assay plate according to the Act 
of Parliament. 



114 Old English Plate. [ohap. v. 

The distinguishing mark of the office is a castle of three towers. 
At first the mark used was a somewhat bold one : the two outer towers, 
which are lower in the shield than the central one, are bent inwards 
towards it, and the shield is shaped ; but after 1709, or thereabouts, 
the shield was reduced in size, and was made of the ordinary plain 
angular heraldic pattern, with the towers smaller and upright. In the 
case of both the shields there is what might be taken for a small flaw 
running &om the central tower to the bottom of the shield ; this in 
reality denotes the partition 'per pale of the field on which the triple 
castle of the city of Exeter is borne. (See Table, p. 129.) 

The minutes of the year 1710 give the first actual mention of the 
alphabetical date-letter, which was for that year e ; we may say, 
therefore, that the first alphabet used was one of Roman capitals, and 
commenced on Michaelmas Day, 1701, in which year the observance 
of the Act became obligatory. The letters a and b are found in 
ornamental or shaped shields. Later on the letter was changed on 
August 7th. It will be seen from the table given at the end of this 
volume that Roman letters, capital or small, were used until the 
commencement of an alphabet of old English capitals in 1887 ; we 
shall also notice that since 1797 the same letters have been used as 
at the Goldsmiths' Hall in London. This table shows them just 
as they are written in the minute-book, which is the safest course 
to adopt, even though printed letters may not be exact facsimiles in 
all cases of the punches used. The letters for the present century, 
and perhaps a longer period, have been in square shields with the 
corners slightly cut oflf, or sometimes with the upper corners of the 
shield cut off and the lower end rounded, as best suited the letter 
enclosed. 

The early makers' marks were, in compliance with the Act, the first 
two letters of the surname ; but, most unfortunately, a leaf is now 
missing from the Company's record-book which contained the first 
twenty-three entries. The earliest of those left is the twenty-fourth, 
entered on Nov. 13th, 1703, and is that of *' Mr. Peeter Eliot of 
Dartmouth," whose mark was to be EL. 

Other marks follow at the rate of one or two in each year, entered 
by goldsmiths residing at Launceston, Plymouth, Dunster, Truro, 
and other places as well as Exeter, some examples of which may be 
given, viz. : — 



CHAP, v.] 



Modem Exeter. 



115 



M 



M 



1703 

Do. 

Do. 
1704 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1705 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



EL 
:JL: 



HO 




VA 

Sb 






Name. 



Peeter Eliot, of Dartmouth. 

Jacob Tyth, of Laonceston. 

Maiy Ashe, of Laonceston. 

Richard Wilcocks, of Ply- 

moath. 
Mr. Richard Holin, of Truro. 

Edward Sweet, of Dunster. 

Richard Vavasor, of Totto- 

Dess. 
Robert Catkitt, Exon. 

James Strong, Exon. 
John Manby, Dartmouth. 

Thos. Reynolds, Exon. 

Richard Flint, Truro. 







1716 



1728 




Namb. 



Thos.Hay6ham,Bridgewater. 



Tho9. Sampson, Exon. 



Pent. Simons, Plymouth. 



Geo. Trowbridge, Exeter. 



Tolcher, Plymouth. 




Andrew Worth. 



Pent. Symonds. 



Abraham Lovell. 



John Elston, junior, Exon. 



In 1723 may be noted an instance of the change to the initials of 
the Christian and surname when John Elston, junior, of Exeter, 
entered as his mark JE under a small heraldic label on a shield. An 
example of his work remains in the shape of a plain two-handled cup 
of 1725, at the Baptist Chapel in South Street, Exeter, of the con- 
gregation of which he was a member. 

The other makers, whose names and marks are entered or re- 
entered up to about 1730, are : — 



John Suger, 1712. 
Adam Hutchins, 1714. 
Peter Amo, 1716. 
Pent. Symonds, 1720. 
Joseph Collier, 1720. 
John Reed, 1720. 
John Marsh, 1720. 
Zachariah Williams, 1720. 
Sampson Bennett, 1721. 
Samuel Blachford, 1721. 
Henry Muston, 1721. 
James Stevens, 1721. 
Andrew Worth, 1721. 



Jane Maryeu, 1722. 
Abr. Lovell, 1722. 
Samuel Wiluiott, 1723. 
Philip Elston, 172.S. 
John Webber, 1724. 
Thos. Clarke, 1725. 
Anty. Tripe, 1 72r>. 
Jas. Marshall, 1725. 
Jas. Strong, 1726. 
John Boutell, 1726. 
John Torkington, 1727. 
Saml. Blachford, 1728. 
Kichard Plint, 1729. 



These all used from 1720 the usual initials on old sterling silver, 

I 2 



1 1 6 Old English Plate. [chap. t. 

or the first letters of the samame when new sterling was worked. 
Bat singularly little of their plate has ever been foand by the author 
in Devon, Cornwall, or elsewhere. The names of some Exeter 
goldsmiths in 1701 are recorded, but not their marks nor whether 
they were all goldsmiths by trade. They are John Audry, Wm. Briant, 
Nichs. Browne, Wm. Drake, John Ekins, John Elston, Thos. Foote, 
Joseph Leigh, John Mortimer, E. Bichards, Danl. Slade and 
Edw. Spicer.* 

Some rites and ceremonies took place on the initiation of new 
members of the Company, for, say the minutes of Aug. 7th, 1767, '' at 
this Court appeared Mr. Thomas Kaynes and Mr. Bichard Freeman, 
Paid their coltage, and were duly shod." 

From the parliamentary return of 1773 we find that the Company 
then consisted of five members (but seventeen plateworkers' marks 
were registered, being those of tradesmen residing at Plymouth and 
Dartmouth, as well as Exeter itself), and that the average weight of 
plate assayed in each of the seven preceding years was about 4479 oz. 
The names of 1773 were : — ^Edward Broadhurst, Boger Berryman 
Sjrmons, Mr. Welch, Jason Holt, James Jenkins, Thos. Thome, 
Benj. Symons Nathan, John Tingcombe, David Hawkins, John 
Brown, Thos. Strong, William Harvey, Thos. Beer, and Bichard 
Bidlake, all of Plymouth or Plymouth Dock, William Eveleigh of 
Dartmouth, and Bichard Jenkins and William Coffin of Exeter. 
According to the later return of 1848, the office was carrying on an 
extensive business, more, in fact, than any other provincial office 
except Sheffield. It had stamped, in that year, no less than 44,451 
oz. of silver, besides 266 oz. of gold. In 1856 its business had some- 
what increased, but almost all its work came &om a single firm at 
Bristol. 

At last in the early part of 1885, this firm finding it more con- 
venient to have its produce assayed elsewhere, the Exeter Office was 
closed from want of work, and it is not likely ever again to be re-opened. 

Except for the city arms, the marks of Exeter are the same as 
those given in the table for York ; and, as at York, the Exeter office 
adopting the leopard*s head in 1720, continued its use long after the 
passing of the Act of 1789. It may be again remarked here that the 
retention of that mark after 1739 by those offices was probably owing 
to a misinterpretation of the Act of that year, which no doubt intended 
to confine the use of the leopard's head for the future to London. It 
was used at Exeter on an unusually large oblong stamp, and forms a 



EnglUK QoldiinUhi, hj R. C. Hope, F.S.A. 






CHAP, v.] 



Modem Exeter. 



117 



fine bold mark ; indeed, this may be said of all the punches employed 
in this city, the lion's head erased being of large size, and the 
Britannia on a rectangular punch as bold in its way as that adopted 
for the leopard's head crowned in 1720. This last was still in use in 
1773, but was discontinued a good many years ago. The date of 
its discontinuance is not recorded in the books of the company, and is 
unknown. 

Examples of Modebn Exeteb Plate. 



Datb. i 



Makkr's 
Mabk. 



Article. 



1701 
1702 

1704 
1705 

Do. 
1706 
1709 

Do. 
1710 

1712 

Do. 
1713 
1714 

1715 
Do. 

Do. 

1716 
1717 
1718 

1725 
Do. 




[OJ 





1 




Do. . . 
Do. . . 





«2 



Do. . . 

Do. . . 

Bi 




JS 



(Perhaps Thos. Foote, d. 1708.) Flat-stemmed spoon. — Rev. 

Canon Raine, York. 
(I'robably Klston, of Exeter.) Large paten or ciborium, with 

cover. — St. Martin's, Exeter. 

Straining spoon. — St. Petrock's, Exeter. 

(Perhaps Richard Freeman.) Tankard, dated 1706. — St. Govan, 
Com. 

(Probably Zachariah Williams, before 1720.) 

(Ehton, as in 1702.) Plain alms-dish or large paten. — St. Mary 

Arches, Exeter. 
Communion cups, with covers. St. Stephen's, Exeter. 



(Elston, as in 1702.) Patens on feet, dated 1710.— St. SidwelFs, 

Exeter. 
(Edw. Sweet, of Dunster.) Flat-stemmeil spoon. — From the 

Staniforth Collection. 

(Probably Edw. Richards, of Exeter.) Flagons, dated 1712.— 

St. Bidweirs, Exeter. 
(Elston, as in 1702.) Communion plate. — Padstow, Com. 
Paten, dated 1713. — Mamhead, Devon. 
Large paten, on foot, dated 1714. — 8t. David's, Exeter. 

(George Trowbridge, of Exeter.) Salver. — Redruth, Com. 
(John Mortimer of Exeter.) Flagon. — Do. 



(Pentecost Symonds, of Plymouth.) Paten. — St. Gennys, Com. 

(Do.) Communion cup and paten. — Redmth, Com. 
(Do.) Paten. — Tamerton Foliot, Devon. 
(Richards, as in 1712.) Two-handled cup and cover, dated 
1717.— St. David's, Exeter. 

(Probably SamL Blachford.) Flagon, given 1726. — Lelant, 

Corn. 

(John Elston, jun., of Exeter.) Two-handled cup, dated 1725. 

— Baptist Chapel, Exeter. 



nS 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. v. 



Date. 



Maker's 
Mark. 





1728 Do. . . 
Do. 

1729 
1730 
1731 

1734 

1740 
1743 

1747 , 

1748 







[^ 



Article. 



(Do.) Paten, dated 1728. — Mopwenstow, Corn. 

(Philip Elston, ent 1723.) Flagons, dated 1728.— St. Edmund*s, 

Exeter. 
Small comxnanion cap for the sick. — St. Martin's, Exeter. 
Straining spoon. — Exeter Cathedral. 
(Probably Joseph Collier.) Plain chocolate pot — noted by' 

author. 
(Sampson Bennett, ent. 1722.) Paten, dated 1736. — Constan- 

tine, Com. 
Note. — ^This maker's mark appears alone on cap and paten, 

dated 1726. — Lelant, Com. 
Flagon, dated 1741. — Talland, Corn. 

(Probably John Boatell.) Pair of collecting basins with handles. 
— St. Ives, Corn. 

(Probably Thos. Blake, 1724—59.) Alms-bowl, dated 1747.— 
Crediton, Devon. 

Small paten on foot. — St. Martin's, Exeter. 



CHESTER. 

Here, too, the office established in 1701 has been at work ever since, 
though sometimes on a small scale ; the growth of Liverpool and 
Manchester has not added as much as might have been supposed to 
its work in recent times. The date-letters, as in the case of the other 
provincial offices, commence with the Koman capital a in 1701, and 
they have been changed regularly every year on July 9th, until 1889, 
since which time the change has been made the same day in August. 
Its business was at one time veiy small, dwindling from 824 oz. in 
1766, to no more than 161 oz., or the weight of a single salver of 
moderately large size, in 1769 ; but a great increase seems then to 
have suddenly taken place, for, in 1770, 1771, and 1772 it stamped 
about 2,200 oz. a year. The Company consisted of nine goldsmiths 
and watchmakers in 1778, though only two of them were goldsmiths 
by trade, Joseph Duke and Geo. Walker, and even Joseph Duke does 
not seem to have had a registered mark of his own. Seventeen plate- 
workers' names had been entered there from Manchester, Liverpool, 
Shrewsbury, Birmingham, Chester, and Warrington. Their names 
were William Hardwick of Manchester, Ralph Wakefield of Liverpool, 
T. Prichard of Shrewsbury, Joseph Walley of Liverpool, John Gimlet 
of Birmingham, Christopher Thinne of Liverpool, Geo. Walker of 
Chester, Geo. Smith of Warrington, William Pemberton of Chester, 



ipa 



CHAP, v.] Modem Chester. 119 

Richard Richardson of Chester, Ralph Walker of Liverpool, James 
Dixon of Chester, John Wyke and Thos. Green of Liverpool, Bolton 
and Fothergill (no doubt of Soho), and Gimble and Yale of 
Birmingham. 

The fidelity and skill with which the operations of the office were 
conducted, secured the special commendation of the Parliamentary 
Committee in that year. 

At the date of the next inquiry, in 1848, it appears to have again 
been doing but little business ; 656 oz. had been the greatest total 
weight of silver stamped as liable to duty in any of the five preceding 
years, to which must be added an average of about 200 oz. of gold 
wares. It however received from Liverpool and from a maker at 
Coventry a large number of watch-cases for assay, which did not 
increase the duty payable through the office, though it added greatly 
to the business done in it. In 1855 it was stamping some 25,000 
oz. annually of silver, and 10,000 oz. of gold of this description of 
wares. 

Its distinguishing mark was at first a shield bearing the city arms 
of three lions passant guardant dimidiated, 'per pale with three garbs 
also dimidiated. This was the coat used, it will be remembered, 
before 1686. It was again changed in the latter part of the last 
century for a dagger erect between three garbs ; but it is known that 
the Goldsmiths* Company continued the use of the old arms some 
years after the city had adopted the new coat. It seems somewhat 
uncertain in what year the new coat first found favour at the Hall ; 
the present assay-master is of opinion that the change was made in 
the year 1784 or thereabouts, and this is corroborated by the occurrence 
of the letter " i," which appears to be the letter for that year, 
accompanied sometimes by the old and at other times by the new 
arms. The rest of the marks correspond with those of the other 
provincial towns, the leopard's head having been used from 1720 — 
1839, when it was discontinued. 

Partly owing to the smallness of the business done at Chester, and 
partly owing to the loss of one of the books which contain the records 
from 1808 to 1818, it is a matter of some doubt and difficulty to give 
a list of the date-letters used. Those from 1701 to 1726, and from 
1818 to the present day, are recorded ; but in the interval between 
1726 and 1818 the only information the books afford is that from 1726 
to 1803 they were regularly changed. Happily, however, the letters 
for certain years are known in other ways, such as the italic M for 
1738-9, the Roman capital u in the next alphabet for 1772-3, and a 
small Roman i found without the king*s head, and also with the 



I20 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. v. 



king*s head in intaglio. This last mast therefore almost certainly be 
the letter for 1784 ; and it would seem to indicate that at Chester the 
preceding alphabet was shortened by two letters, and a new cycle 
commenced in 1776 with the same letter as that used in London. 
This uniformity of practice has not, however, been maintained. The 
evidence of the marks found on a number of undated specimens of 
plate corresponds with that afforded by the fixed points mentioned ; 
and our table will be practically a safe guide to the Chester date- 
letters. It will of course be seen that the lengths of the alphabets 
have necessarily had to be cut to fit, but the position of any given 
letter will not be affected by more than a year, and the uncertainty 
occasioned is therefore of little consequence. The only well-known 
smith of the Queen Anne epoch is Bichard Richardson, whose mark 
constantly occurs 1710-40. It is Bi in the Britannia period, and 
appears as two Boman capital letters rb linked back to back, on old 
sterling silver after 1720. The Bi mark, with the word Sterl. as a 
second mark, occurs on the mace, dated 1718, of the borough of 
Carnarvon. 

Examples of Modebn Chesteb Plate. 



Date. 



c. 1 701 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
1704 

Do. 
1709 
1713 



Do. 
1714 
1715 
1717 
1718 

1721 
1722 

1723 



Maker's Mark akd Namb. 



Bu Nathl. BuUcn . 

Ta 

Co 

Oi 

uCU . . . . 

^(^ probably P. Pen- 
nington, see p. 96. 

Ro Thos. Robinson, 
1682—1710. 
Richard Richard- 
son. 





Richard Richard- 
son. 



Ki, as above . 



Articlk. 



■ \ 



, Entries on the Chester copper plate, c. 1701, 
These are not here given in facsimile. 



Large oval snnfF-box, dated 1704. — Corpora- 
tion of Chester. 

Communion cup. — Worthenbury, Wrexham. 

Silver oar. — Corporation of Chester, 

Communion cup and flagon, dated 1716. — St. 
Peter's, Chester. 

Spoon dated 1715. — Corporation of Chester. 

Paten. — St. John's Blue Coat School, Chester. 

Communion plate. — St. Mary's, Chester. 

Alms-dish, dated 1719. — St. John's, Chester. 

Communion cup, dated 1720.~St. Bride's, 
Chester. 

Tumbler-cup. — Shoemakers' Guild, Carlisle. 

l^nch-ladle, dated 1722, — Corporation of 
Chester. 

Punch-ladle, dated 1724. — Duke of West- 
minster, Eaton House. 



CHAP, v.] 



Modem Newcastle. 



121 



Date. 



1723 

1728 
Do. 



Makbb'b Ma&k ahd Namk. 



• 




R. Bichardson 



1730 
1736 


BBy as above in 1728 . 


1738 

1748 

1769 

Do. 

1772 


BB, as above in 1728 . 

BB 

Do 


1774 


OW Geo. Walker. 



Article. 



Paten. — St Michaers, Chester. 

Cup.— T. Hughes, Esq. 

Cap for sick communicants, given 1728. — 
Kendal, Westmoreland. 

Others of 1732, 1734, and 1736, all by Richard- 
son, are at Whitehaven and Workington, 
Cumberland, and Eirkby Lonsdale, West- 
moreland. 

Silver seal. — ^Corporation of Chester. 

Communion cup and paten, dated 1735. — 
Poulton-le-Fylde, Lane. 

Paten, dated 1737.— Chester Cathedral 
Mark noted by author. 

Paten, given 1767. — ^Tattenhall, Cheshire. 

Sugar-ladle. — W. R. M. Wynne, Esq., Peniarth. 

Date-letter U. — Report of Parliamentary Com- 
mittee. 

Plain skewer. — E. W. Colt- Williams, Esq. 



NORWICH. 

As to modern Norwich, nothing seems to be known except that on 
July 1st, 1702, one Bobert Harstonge was sworn in assayer of gold 
and silver plate to the company of goldsmiths in that city. This is 
the only evidence at all that any step was taken to put in force the 
powers of the Act of Will. III. ; it is clear that as far as Norwich is 
concerned, the privileges conferred by it soon fell into disuse, and for 
a very long time past no plate has been assayed there. 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

Although this town, lately become a city, was one of those anciently 
appointed to have a touch of its own, it was not included amongst the 
offices re-established in 1701. Its claims were, however, made good 
in 1702, upon a representation of its ancient rights and of the ruin 
impending over its goldsmiths and their families in consequence of its 
omission from the list. A company was then established in the same 
manner as in the case of the other offices ; and its first assay-master, 
Francis Batty, senior, was elected June 24th, 1702. This was the 
first meeting of the new Company, and Robert Shrive and Thomas 
Armstrong were elected wardens for the ensuing year. Those who 
attended the meeting were Francis Batty, Eli Bilton, Bobert Shrive, 
Bichard Hobbs, Thos. Leightly and Alexander Campbell, all of whom 
have been mentioned already except Campbell. Francis Batty was 
succeeded in his office in 1707 by Jonathan French, and French in 



122 Old English Plate. [chap. t. 

his turn by Thos. "Heweson" in 1712. Mark Grey Nicholson was 
sworn assay-master in 1718, and William Pryor in 1722. 

The Newcastle mark is a shield with three towers or castles upon it, 
being the arms of the city, and is found at first with an ornamental, 
afterwards with a heart-shaped shield, and later still with a shield 
having a pointed base almost the shape of an egg. The other marks 
are the same as those of the other provincial offices, the leopard's head 
crowned being used from 1720. Of late it was the only provincial 
town retaining that mark, but the crown upon the leopard's head 
served to distinguish it from the London stamp for some time from 
1822 onwards. Some quite modern Newcastle plate shows the 
leopard's head uncrowned. The lion passant is to sinister, that is to 
say, turns to the right, from 1721 to 1725. 

The annual date-letter seems to run regularly from 1702 onwards 
to the present time, except for a break between the years 1760 
and 1769, as is evident from, but otherwise unexplained by, the books 
of the company which are fairly complete as regards the minutes ; but 
the first Assay Book commences only in 1747 and ends in 1755, 
whilst the next does not begin till 1761. The letter is changed on 
May 8rd. Boman and old English capitals were used until 1815, 
when a small letter (Boman) was introduced. 

The letters in the tables at the end of the volume are given as they 
appear in the books of the company, but some of those of the earliest 
alphabet were certainly not exactly as there shown. The Boman 
capital letter s for 1784 is found with and also without the Sovereign's 
head, which last is in intaglio when it occurs on plate of 1784 or 
1785, as it is on London plate of the same years. More than one 
instance of the incused form of duty mark coupled with the letter u 
of the year 1786 is known. 

The principal silversmiths of the time of Queen Anne were Francis 
Batty, senior, who has already been mentioned as the first appointed 
assay-master in 1702 ; Eli Bilton, Thomas Hewitson, and J. Bamsey, 
who have also been all mentioned before. Jonathan French, who 
became free in 1708, was apprenticed to Bobert Shrive in 1695, and 
died in 1732, and one John Younghusband became free in 1706, and 
died in 1718. A younger Francis Batty takes up the freedom in 
Nov. 1708, and died in 1727-8, and the mark of a younger John 
Bamsey is found 1721-28. Eli Bilton died in 1712. The leading 
men of the reigns of George I. and George 11. were James Kirkup, 
who, apprenticed to Bilton in 1705, became free in 1713 and worked 
to 1753 ; Isaac Cookson, whose name occurs from 1728 to 1754 ; 
William Dalton, 1724-67, John Langlands, 1754-78, and William 



CHAP. T.] Modern Newcastle. 123 

Partis of Sanderland, the mark of the last-mentioned occurring 
1733-69, Other makers' marks are of very rare occurrence. All the 
above makers used their initials as marks for old sterling plate, and 
the first letters of their surname on new sterling. Robert Makepeace, 
admitted 1718, was using before 1789 his initials in old English 
characters ; and afterwards plain Roman capitals as R'M : he died in 
1755 ; and James Crawford, 1768-88, puts his initials IG under a 
two-handled covered cup. Isaac Cookson and John Langlands have 
their initials under a gem ring, the former using italics after 1789. 
Entries of payments for assays occur in 1717 and some following years 
as made by John Langwith and Joseph Buckle, both of York. 
W. Beilby is found from 1789 to 1761 sending work from Durham ; 
and also Samuel Thompson of the same city from 1750 — 1785. One 
Wilkinson sends some &om Sunderland 1747 to 1752, as well as 
Thomas Partis, 1720 to 1726, and the William Partis mentioned 
above. Other outsiders send very trifling amounts indeed. 

At Newcastle itself, too, the bulk of the trade was very much in 
a few hands. By far the largest businesses were those of Isaac 
Cookson, followed by his apprentice and journeyman, John Langlands, 
and his successor in turn, John Langlands, junior. The second John 
Langlands was succeeded in 1795 by his partner, John Robertson, also 
a considerable tradesman ; but James Kirkup, Robert Makepeace, 
John Kirkup, James Crawford, David Crawford, and later on Wm. 
Stalker and John Mitchison in partnership, as well as Pinkney and 
Scott, also partners, were all in fair work, as will be seen by the 
subjoined list, which gives the necessary details as to their dates. The 
rest were but very small workers indeed. 

In 1778 it shared with Chester the praise bestowed on the well- 
conducted operations of the goldsmiths' companies in these two 
places, but the company consisted of three persons only, viz., John 
Langlands, John Kirkup, and another. There were, however, nine 
makers' marks registered, their owners residing at Newcastle itself, 
Durham and Sunderland ; and it then stamped about 12,000 oz. of 
silver per annum, but no gold. These persons were John Langlands, 
John Kirkup, Samuel James, James Crawford, David Crawford, John 
Jobson, and James Hetherington, all of Newcastle ; together with 
Samuel Thompson of the City of Durham, and John Fearney of 
Sunderland. It was doing much the same amount of business in 
1848, and also in 1856, when such matters were again made the 
subject of Parliamentary inquiry ; but it was finally closed in 1885. 
The last assay made of silver had been on April 22, and of gold on 
May 2, 1884. No gold plate was assayed here before March, 1785. 



124 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. v. 



Examples of Modern Newcastle Plate. 




1702 

Do. 

1703 
Do. 

Do. 
1706 

1711 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
1712 

Do. 

1712 

Do. 

1713 

c. 1717 

1718 
1721 

Do. 
1722 

1724 
Do. 
Do. 

1727 

1728 



Maker s Mark amd Name. 



Bz 

.A. 



© 




Ba 



yo 



Do. 
Do. 




Do. 
Do. 







M 



Do. 




Do. 




TP 




Eli Bilton . 



Richard Hobbs 



Eli Bilton, as in 1702. 

John Ramsey, free 
1698. 

Francis Batty, senior. 

Eli Bilton, as in 1 702. 



John Tounghusband . 
do. . 

do. • . . 
Jon. French. 



(Sa) Francis Batty, junior. 



do. . . . 
do. . 

J. Younghusband, as 

in 1711. 
John Langwith, of 

York. 

James Eirknp (new 
sterling). 

Joseph Buckle, of 
York. 

John Camaby (new 

sterling). 

Francis Batty, junior 

(old sterling). 

do. . 

John Camaby, adm. 
1718 (old sterling). 

do. . . . 
Jonathan French 

Francis Batty, junior, 
as in 1721. 

Thos. Partis, of Sun- 
derland. 



Flat-handled rat-tailed table-spoons. — 
Rev. J. Arlosh, Woodside, Carlisle. 
Also com. cup, dated V^'^ — »♦ xioi-w^ 
South Baily, Durh. city. 



Church -plate, dated 1704. — Stanhope, 

Durham. 
Com. cup. — Kirkbampton, Cumb. 

Com. cup and cover. — Askham, Westmor. 

Paten, dated 1707. — Eirkandrews-on-Esk, 
Cumb. Also com. cup, dated 1707. — 
Castle Eden, Durham. 

Flagon, dated 1711. — Askham, Westmor. 

Tumbler-cup, given 1711.— Taylors' Guild, 

Carlisle. 
Com. cup. — ^Ainstable, Cumb. 

Com. cup, dated 1712.— Esh, Durham. 

Paten, dated 1712. — Ormeside, Westmor. 

Com. cup. — St. MichaePs Bongate, 

Appleby, Westmor. 
Small tumbler, used as com. cup. — 

Blawith, Lane. 
Flagon and paten, dated 1712.— Sherbum 

Hospital, Durham. 
Com. cup, dated 1708. — Newton Kyme, 

Yorks. 



Occurs c. 1717. 



Tankard, dated 1722. — Hexham Abbey. 

Also paten, dated 1722. — Wooler, 

Northumb. 
Communion plate, dated 1722. — St. John's, 

Newcastle. 
Com. cup. — St. Mary's, Gateshead. 



Paten. — St. Nicholas', Newcastle. 
Com. cup. — Dufton, Westmor. 
Com. cup. — Bowness, Westmor. 

Flagons, dated 1727. — Ryton-on-Tyne, 

Durham. 
Paten, dated 1728.— Ch. Ch. Tynemouth. 



CHAP, v.] 



Modern Newcastle. 



125 




1730 

Do. 

1731 
1732 

1738 

Do. 

1739 
1740 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1743 

1746 

Do. 
1748 

Do. 

1750 
1764 

Do. 

1757 

Do. 



1758 
1759 

1769 
1770 
1772 



Maevr^s Mark and Name. 




Do. 



[IB] 



705 
33^ 




f?gl 
Do. 






(^ 




. • 



I-K 



• • 



Isaac Cookson, 1728 

—1739. 
James Kirkup . . 

Robt. Makepeace 

do. . . . 

Isaac Cookson, as in 

1730. 
Probably W. Beilby 

and Co., Durham. 



Do. 



do. 



William Partis, of 

Sanderland. 
Stephen Buckle, of 

York. 
James Kirkup, as in 

1730. 
William Daltod 

Isaac Cookson, from 
1739. 

Isaac Cookson, as in 

1743. 
Wm. Partis, as in 1740 
Isaac Cookson, as in 

1743. 
Ptobably Beilby, of 

Durham. 

do. . . . 
John Langlands and 

John Goodrick, d. 

1757 ; 1754—1757. 
Bobert Makepeace. 

John Kirkup, 1753 — 

1774. 
John Langlands, 1757 

—1778. 



Article. 



Paten. — Barningbam, Yorks. 

Tankaid, dated 1730.— Corpn. of Carlisle. 

Flagon, given 1731. — Rothbury, Northumb. 

Paten, dated 1734.— St. Mary's, Morpeth, 

Northumb. 
Com. cup. — Allendale Town, Northumb. 

Hand candlestick. — Havensworth Castle. 
Also 1728, cup dated 1730.— St. An- 
drew's, Newcastle. 

Occurs in and after 1739. 

Flagon, dated 1740. — Boldon, Durham. 

Flagon. — St. Martin-cum-Gregory, York. 

Flagon. — Kirkandrews-on-Esk, Cumb. 

Com. cup, dated 1741-42. — Burgh-by- 

Sands, Cumb. 
Com. cup, dated 1743. — Birtley, Northumb. 

Also flagons, dated 1743. — Hartburn. 

Also 1740, com. cup. — Halton, Lane. 
Com. flagon, dated 1746. — Holy Trinity, 

Goodramgate, York. 
Paten, datetl 1747.— All SS., Cockermouth. 
Paten. — Ripon Minster. 

Com. cop. — St. Mary-le-Bow, Durham 

city. 
Chocolate pot, dated 1750. 
Paten, dated 1755. — Elsdon, Northumb. 



John Langlands, as in 
1757. 



John Earkup, as in 

1757. 
John Langlands, as in 

1759. 
Jas. Hetherington . 



Flagon, given 1763. — ^Long Benton, North- 
umb. 

Com. flagon, given 1761. — Billingham, 
Durh. Also cup and paten, dated 1762. 
— Blyth, Northumb. Also flagon, dated 
1760. — South Shields. Also com. cup 
and flagon, given 1762.— Enderby, Leics. 

Com. cup, dated 1766. — Acaster Malbis, 
Yorks. 

Com. flagon. — Calverley, Yorks. Also com. 
cups, dated 1764. — Hexham, Northumb. 
Also alms-dish, given 1765. — Castle 
Eden, Durh. 

Com. plate given by Bp. of Durham. — 
St. Anne's, Newcastle. 

Flagon, dated 1771. — Rokeby, Yorks. 

1772—1782. 



126 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. V 



Date. 



Maker's Mark ahd Name. 



1772 


» 




. John Langlands, rb in 


1 


1759. 


Do. 


m 


James Crawford, 1 770 






TlT 


1783. 






IC 




1774 


• 


. John Langlands, as in 
1759. 


Do. 


• 


do. 


Do. 


• 


. James Crawford, as 
in 1772. 


Do. 


[iter 


^ Samuel Thompson, of 




f Durham, 1750—85. 


1783 


(I't 


Langlands and Robert- 




Ii-rJ 


son, 1778—1795.* 


1784 


Do, 


do. 


Do. 




RP 


Pinkney and Scott, 






RSi 


1779—1790. 


1787 


Do. 


do. 


1788 


• 


. Langlands and Robert- 
son, as in 1783. 


1790 


ICR] 


Christian Reid, from 
1790. 



Akticli. 



Flagon.— St. Giles', Durham. 

Flagon, dated 1773.— Holy Trin., White- 
haven. Also 1773, com. cup, given 1773. 
— Belford, Northumb. 

Flagon, dated 1776.— St. Andrew's, New- 
castle. 

Paten, dated 1776.— Bothal, Northumb. 

Com. cup. — Laithkirk, Yorks. 

Spoons. 

Communion cup, dated 1784. — Ovingham, 
Northumb. 

Alms-dish, dated 1784 (no king's head). — 
St. Andrew's, Newcastle. 

Flagon, dated 1785 (king's head incuse). 
— St. Mary's, Qateshead. 

Paten, dated 1788.— St. Andrew's, New- 
castle. 

Com. cup, dated 1789. — Holy Island. 

Flagon.— Greystoke, Cumb. 



SHEFFIELD AND BIRMINGHAM. 

Lastly, we have Sheffield and Birmingham, efltablished by an Act of 
1778 as the result of the parliamentary enquiry to which we have so 
frequently referred. This Actf enabled them to assay silver goods 
only, but Birmingham was further empowered to stamp gold in 
1824,1 by the Act under which that office is now regulated, and by 
which, so far as Birmingham is concerned, the earlier Act of 1778 
was repealed. At Sheffield silver only is assayed to the present day. 
A district of thirty miles radius round the town was assigned to 
Birmingham, and one of twenty miles to Sheffield, for the better 
support of the offices. 

Owing to their recent establishment their work has of course not 
yet had time to acquire any archseological interest ; but their marks 
are — the maker's, which is to be the first letters of his Christian and 
surname, the lion passant, a distinct variable letter to be changed 
annually upon the election of new wardens for each company, and 
the mark of the company. This mark is a crown in the case of 
Sheffield, whilst an anchor distinguishes articles assayed at Birming- 
ham. For silver of the higher standard, the Britannia stamp alone, 



* Also entered at Goldsmiths' Hall, London, in March, 1780, '* by letters of attorney." 
t 13 Geo. III. cap. 52 (local). t 5 Geo. IV. cap. 62 (local). 



CHAP. T.] 



Sheffield and Birmingham. 



127 



unaccompanied by that of the lion's head erased, has been nsed by 
these offices. The Birmingham date - letters have been regular 
alphabets, but at Sheffield for the first half century the letters were 
selected at random ; since 1824, however, both have used regular 
alphabets, though Sheffield has here and there omitted some letters. 
In both cases the letter is changed in July, at Sheffield on the first 
Monday in that month, on which day the annual meeting of the com- 
pany is held. These offices have both carried on an extensive and 
well-conducted business, earning the commendation of those whose 
duty it was to report upon the working of the provincial assay offices, 
before a select committee of the House of Commons which sat in 1856. 
The Diet is sent up from both Sheffield and Birmingham to the Mint 
for trial annually as their Act directs. This is one of the improve- 
ments and safeguards owed to the more modern legislation under 
which they were established. The other provincial offices are only 
liable to the obligation of sending their diet up to the Mint, '* to be 
tried as the pix of the coin of this kingdom is tried," if required to do 
80 by the Lord Chancellor, and it appeared in 1856 that it had never 
been sent for within living memory from any of them. 



Examples of Sheffield Plate. 




Maker's Mark and Name. 



YwiC*) Probably John Winter 
' ^' & Co., ent. 1773.» 
X/O. • • • • • 



I^C 



H-T 
T-L 



HUTtfi 



Do. 



Frrt'i 



Geo. Ashfield & Co., 
eut. 1773.* 

In plain square . . 
Tudor and Leader, cnt. 

1773.* 
John Parson & Co., 

ent 1783.* 
. • . • ■ 
John Qreen & Co., ent. 

1792.* 



Article. 



Table candlea ticks.— Col. A. Tremayne, 

Carclew. 
Do. — New College, Oxford. 

Do.— Rev. E. Ji\ Wayne. 

I 

Sauce boats, drapery over medallions. ! 

— Capt. M. Longfield. ' 

Table candlesticks. — Sir Geo. Chet- 

wode, Bt. 
Do. Do. 

Do., given 1795. — Corpn. of Oswestry. 



__1 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

Two general remarks must here he made upon the suhject-matter ot 
this and the preceding chapter : one is, that it must not be supposed 
that there is not plenty of genuine plate, bearing old English provincial 
marks, to be found in modern collections; and if the writer has 



* EwjlUh Goldtmiths. R. C. Hope, F.S.A. 



128 Old English Plate. [chap. v. 

based his remarks chiefly on ancient specimens of church plate, and 
in other cases upon specimens of which it can safely be said that 
they have never changed hands at all, it is only that the absolute 
authenticity of the data relied on may be ensured beyond all possible 
question. 

The other remark is a caution that in the case of specimens of 
provincial make of which the date-letter is doubtful, no help can be 
obtained from the alphabets of the Goldsmiths' Company in London. 
The York and Norwich tables, which will be found in Appendix B., 
are enough to show that in respect of their date-letters the provincial 
goldsmiths used different alphabets from those adopted by their 
metropolitan brethren. They occasionally, in the seventeenth century, 
sent up their wares to be touched in London, and in that case they 
seem to have registered the same mark at Goldsmiths* Hall as that by 
which they were known to the local assay- wardens. Two such instances, 
both of goldsmiths in the north of England, and one of a Scottish gold- 
smith, have come under the writer's notice. 



The following tabular summary of the marks dealt with in this 
chapter, is constructed on the same plan as the tables already given at 
the end of Chapters 11. and lY. 



CHAP, v.] 



Table of Provincial Marks. 



129 






o 

«^ 

► 
o 

H 
K 
!-• 

p 

H 
00 

n 
Pt 

o 

H 

•J 
ft 



M 



o 




g. 

St; 




2 







o 







00 



o 




Bl 

M 






_!::'25 5 ^ « 



' a 

CO eS 4$ 

_ Jisi 

HH "^ ^ i-i «rt O 



I 



s 

s 



s 



-00 






00 



II 

o 



•v4 

p 



M 
H 



c8 

Q 



V 



^5 



O 



!3 

to 

H 

QQ 



c8 



S 



.3 





1 



o 



1-^ 







2 

P 



5 

P 



n 





• 






QQ 



Ǥ 



O »> c< 



N '<^ 
C4GO 

p-so*" 



GO 
{2; 

a 

> 

OQ 









O 



o 



5 82^:: 

P'5SO*^ 



Pl 

M 
H 



QQ 

o 

► 

QQ 



00 O t) • 

O t* c^ "^ 
^ 1-1 c^ 00 

♦» s ^ — * 

M^ c o '^ 

P'SO 






S 

a 
I 

§ 

J! 
Q 



I 

s 



I 



I 





1 





§ 






I30 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. y. 






! 



o 



H 
SB 

n 
o 



o 

o 

p: 

Q 

H 
en 

OQ 

M 

:^ 

c 




CHAPTER VL 

SCOTLAND. 

SCOTCH LEOISLATIOy — THE EDINBURGH GOLDSMITHS — THEIR MARKS, DEACONS, 
AND ASSAY-MASTERS— OLD PROVINCIAL MARKS — ^MODERN GLASGOW — TABLE 
OF EDINBURGH AND GLASGOW MARKS. 

In Scotland attention was paid at an early period to the fineness of 
wrought gold and silver, and steps were taken by the Legislature to 
prevent frauds in the working of those metals. 

For in the reign of King James II., a.d. 1457,* a statute was passed 
by the parliament of Scotland, enacting that " anent the reformation 
of gold and silver wrocht be Goldsmithes, and to eschew the deceiving 
done to the kingis lieges, there sail be ordained in ilk burgh, quhair 
Goldsmithes workis ane understandard, and a cunning man of gude 
conscience quhilk sail be Deakone of the craft. And quhen the warke 
is brocht to the goldsmithe and it be gold, what gold that beis brocht 
till him he sail give it foorth again in warke na war nor xx grains, 
and silver xi grains fine.f And the said Goldsmith sail take his warke 
or he give it foorth and passe to the deakone of the craft and gar 
him examine that it be sa fine as before written. And the said 
deakone sail set his marke and taken thereto togidder with the said 
Goldsmithes. And gif faulte be founden therein afterwards, the 
deakone aforesaid and Goldsmithes gudes sail be in escheit to the 
King, and their lives at the kingis will and the said deakone sail have 
to his fee of ilk ounce wrocht an penny. And quhair there is no 
Goldsmithes hot ane in a towne, he sail shew that warke takensd with 
his awin marke to the head officiates of the towne quhilkis sail have a 
marke in like manor ordained therefore and sail be set to the said 
warke. And quhat Goldsmith that givis foorth his warke utherwaies 
then is before written his gudes sail be confiscat to the King and his 
life at the Kingis will." We have thus early, therefore, a maker's 
mark established, and in addition to it, a deacon's mark in towns 



* Fourteenth Parliament, VI. of March, 
1457. 65. Of the Deakon of Goldsmithes ; 
Aud of the marking of their warke. 



t That is : 20 grains or parts of fine gold 
in 24 ; 11 of pare silver in 12. 



K 2 



I';2 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. vr. 



where goldsmiths are established or a town mark in places where but 
a single goldsmith resides. 

In 1483 the thirteenth parliament* of the next reign, that of 
James III., further ordains as follows : " that for the eschewing of 
the great damnage and skaithes that our Sovereign Lordis lieges 
sustein be the goldsmithes in tb^ minishing the fines of the silver 
warke that fra thine furth there be in ilk burgh of the realm quhair 
goldsmithes ar, ane deakon and ane searchour of the craft. And that 
ilk goldsmithes warke be marked with his awin marke, the deakone's 
marke and the marke of the Towne of the finesse of twelve-penny 
fine. And quhair there is ony sik warke within the said finesse, 
the warke to be broken the workman to upmake the avail of the 
finesse aforesaid, and the said workman to be punished therefore at 
the King's will." 

It further provides that no goldsmith be a master, nor hold open 
booth unless he be admitted by the officers of the craft and the whole 
body of it. This same year we come to the grant by the Town Council 
of Edinburgh, of certain privileges to the goldsmiths and members of 
some other trades, all being included under the name of ** Hammer- 
men," in answer to a petition in which they complained of infractions 
upon the ** auld gude rule '* of their craft. 

Next follows, in 1489, another statute,! to the same effect as the 
earlier ones, providing '' that ilk goldsmith have ane special marke^ 
signe and taiken to be put in his said warke quihilk he makis. And 
they samin warkes to be of fines of the new warkes of silver of 
Bruges. And that there be ane deakon of the craft of goldsmithes 
quihilk sail examine the said warke and fines thereof and see that it 
be als gude as the said wark of Bruges. And thereafter the samin 
deakon to put his marke and signe on the said warke, and to answer 
thereupon his life and gudes. And as touching the warke of gold, 
that it be maid als fine as it is first molten in the presence of the 
awner, like as the touch and assaie given to him quhen it is first 
molten." 

In 1555, an Act | to regulate ** the finesse of goldsmith's warke 
and the marke thereof" proceeds: — "Forasmuch as there is great 
fraud and hurt done unto the lieges of the realm by goldsmiths that 
make silver and gold of no certain finesse but at their pleasure by 
which there is some silver warke set furth of such baseness of alloy 



• XXIV. Feb., 1483. 96. Of Gold- 
smiths. 

t James IV. Second Parliament, XV. 



Feb., 1489. 13. Of Goldsmithes. 

X Maiy, Sixth Parliament, XX. June, 
1555. 



7Q 



CHAP. VI.] Edinburgh. 133 

viz., of six and seven penny fine against the public weal of the realm, 
it VA ordained that na goldsmith make in warke nor set foorth either 
of his awia or uther mennis silver under the just finance of elleven 
pennie fine under the paine of death and confiscation of all their gudes 
moveable. And that everie goldsmith marke the silver warke that 

he makis with his awin marke and with the townis marke And 

als that na goldsmith make in warke or set furth of his awin or uther 
mennis gold under the just finesse of twentie twa carat fine under the 
pains aforesaid." 

Then come letters-patent of King James YL, granted in 1586, and 
ratified by parliament in the following year, to the deacon and masters 
of the Goldsmiths' craft in Edinburgh, which gave further eflfect to 
these statutes by empowering that body to search for gold and silver 
work, and to try whether it were of the fineness required by law and 
to seize all that should appear deficient : this gave them a monopoly 
of their trade and the entire regulation of it, separating them finally 
from all association with the '^ hammermen " or common smiths. 
The working rules of the craft received in 1591 the ratification of the 
Town Council ; but they contain no further mention of marks to be 
used. We may remark that George Heriot, a name so well known in 
the mystery, was "deykin" of the goldsmiths in Edinburgh that 
same year. This most distinguished of all the Scotch goldsmiths was 
bom in 1563, and was eldest son of another George Heriot, who 
belonged to the company of goldsmiths in Edinburgh. The younger 
Heriot has already been mentioned ; but it may be interesting to note 
in this chapter that his father, who died in 1610, was also a man of 
eminence, having been a commissioner in the convention of estates and 
parliament of Scotland, and a convener of the trades of Edinburgh at 
five different elections of the council.* Lastly, the Charter of Incor- 
poration of the Goldsmiths of Edinburgh, granted by James VII., in 
1687, confirms tlieir previous privileges, and extends their powers over 
the whole kingdom of Scotland. 

It seems clear that at this time but little plate, and henceforward 
none at all, was assayed, except in Edinburgh, until the establish- 
ment of the office at Glasgow in the present century. In earlier 
times several towns used marks in compliance with the early Acts 
of Parliament, but few instances of plate bearing them are now to be 
found : such as there are will be noted presently. 

The earliest marks, therefore, were the maker's and deacon's punches 
only, to which the mark of the town is added in 1483 ; though we 



* Hone's Every Day Book, ii., 747. 



M 



1 34 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. VI. 



must not forget, as a piece of antiquarian information, the mention of 
a town mark as early as the Act of 1457. 

The introduction of a variable date-letter seems nearly coincident 
with the granting of the charter of James VIL, the first mention of 
it being in Sept. 1681, when a small black letter a was adopted as the 
letter for the ensuing year. It has been changed regularly ever since 
on the first hall-day in October. 

In the Goldsmiths' books, there is a wonderfully consecutive record 
of the date-letters used from that time forward, but no note of the 
shape of the shields surrounding them, except for impressions from 
the actual punches used in the earliest cycle, which are struck upon 
the pages containing the minutes. 

A new and carefully corrected Table was prepared expressly for this 
volume, by the late Mr. James H. Sanderson, well known as one of 
the best authorities on the subject of Scotch plate, and time has only 
proved its accuracy. The extensive MS. collections made by this 
painstaking antiquary with a view to a complete history of Scottish 
plate and its marks which unfortunately proved too great a work 
for a lifetime, passed at his death into the possession of the present 
writer. Such a history has now been accomplished for Scottish 
communion-plate and its marks by Eev. T. Burns,* and Mr. A. J. S. 
Brook, in a work which was mentioned as forthcoming in the preface 
to the last edition of Old English Plate. The authors of this 
monumental volume have really exhausted their subject, but have 
hardly done as much justice to the labours of their predecessors as 
they would if they had been aware of the extent of ground covered 
by Mr. Sanderson, and of the mass of information as to Scottish 
plate and plate marks collected by him, much of it very laboriously, 
in the course of journeys made on foot in every part of Scotland. 
Almost every mark noticed by Mr. Burns had been found, and the 
difficulties connected with many of them, discussed in almost the 
same detail by Mr. Sanderson ; whilst much of Mr. Sanderson's work 
that the present writer has hesitated to use, solely owing to want of 
the opportunity of personally verifying it, has been now recorded in 
such identical fashion by Mr. Bums, as to place the accuracy of either 
enquirer beyond question. 

We have now enumerated four of the marks to be found on plate 
assayed in Edinburgh, — the maker's, the deacon's, the castle, and the 
date-letter. Two others have to be mentioned, one an alteration, and 



• Old Scottish Communion Plate, by Rev. 
T. Burns, Edinburgh, 1892, from which 
many dates and names are now added to 



entries given in previous editions of this 
chapter, as far as possible in square brackets 
in order to show their origin. 



CHAP. VI.] Edinburgh. 135 

the other an addition. In 1759, the deacon's mark was abolished, 
the standard mark of a thistle being substituted for it ; and in 
1784, as in England, the Sovereign's head was ordained as a duty 
mark. 

Beturning to the course of legislation there is nothing to notice, 
and the old laws seem to have remained in force, until the date of the 
general enactment* which now, to quote from its title, fixes the 
standard qualities of gold and silver plate in Scotland, and provides 
for the marking and assaying thereof. Its provisions much resemble 
those of the Acts establishing the more modern of the English 
provincial assay offices, except as regards the standard and the city 
mark. It prohibits the sale not only of plate manufactured in Scot- 
land, but of any plate without the marks of one of the Scotch assay 
offices, so that no plate made in London or elsewhere out of Scotland 
can be sold in Scotland, unless it be re- assayed and stamped at the 
Edinburgh or Glasgow offices. Of the Glasgow offices, established in 
1819, presently. 

The Act recapitulates the marks to be used, and they are as 
follows : — 

For gold of 22 carats, the five stamps of which mention has been 
made — the maker's initials, the town, the standard, the duty, and 
date marks. 

For gold of 18 carats, the same, with the additional stamp of the 
figures 18. 

For diver of the old standard, the same stamps as for gold of 22 
carats. 

For zilcer of the new standard, the same stamps, with the 
additional mark of Britannia. 

It may be remarked that the higher standard silver has been but 
little used in Scotland. 

To sum up in chronological form, the Edinburgh marks are : — 

1. Maker's mark, from 1457. 

2. Standard mark, being deacon's initials from 1457 to 1681 ; and 
assay-master's from 1681 to 1759, when the thistle was substituted 
for it. 

3. The town mark of a castle, from 1483. 

4. The date-letter, from 1681-2. 

5. The duty mark of the Sovereign's head, from 1784, as in 
England. 

• 6 & 7 WUl. IV. c. 69. 



136 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. VI. 



As so much of our means of dating old Scotch plate depends upon 
the Deacon's mark, the first thing to do is to give a list of the Deacons 
of the craft from early times down to the year 1681 when the Deacon's 
initials ceased to be used as the standard mark ; and after doing so, 
it will be as well to give a tabular view of some typical examples of 
Edinburgh marks from 1617 to 1778, in order that the character of 
Scotch hall-marking may be seen at a glance, with short notices of the 
makers, deacons, and assay-masters of that period : — 



List of Edinbuboh Deacons.* 



1625. 

1526. 

1629. 

1530. 

1631. 

1532. 

1534. 

1535. 

1644. 

1547. 

1548. 

1550. 

1551. 

1552. 

1653. 

1554. 

1556. 

1558. 

1561. 

1562. 

1563. 

1564. 

1565- 

1568. 

1672. 

1673. 

1574. 

1575. 

1577. 

1578. 

1579. 

1580. 

1581. 

1582. 

1583. 

1584. 

1585. 



Adam Lies [Leis]. 
Thomas Rtnd. 
Michaell Gilbebt. 
James Collie [Cokkie]. 
Allane Mossman. 
John Lyle [Kyle]. 
Geobge Hebiot. 
Thomas Rynd. 
John Lyle [Kyle]. 
Abchibald Maysonn. 
John Gilbebt. 
John Lyle [Kyle]. 
Michaell Rynd. 
Thomas Ewing. 

Do. 

Do. 
Thomas Rynd. 
Michaell Gilbebt. 
Thomas Ewinq. 
Geobge Rind. 
James Collie [Cok]. 
Do. 
6-7. Geobge Hebiot, 
James Mosman. 
Adam Cbaig. 

Do. 
David Denniston. 
Geobge Hebiot. 
William Collie [Cokie]. 

Do. 
Edwabd Haibt. 

Do. 
David Denneibtoun. 
Edwabd Haibt. 
[Thomas Annand. 
Geobge Hebiot. 
John MosMAN].f 



1586. Ion Mosman. 

1587. Adame Cbaige. 

1588. Do. 

1589. Geobge Hebiot, S^ 

1 590. Do. 

1591. "William Colie [Cokie]. 

1592. Do. 

1693. Do. 

1694. Do. 

1695. Claudebonb Beyeabd. 

1696. [David Hebiot]. 

1597. Daniell Cbaufuibd, J» 

1598. Geobge Hebiot, J»- 

1599. David Hebiot. 

1600. Do. 

1601. Geobge Foullis. 

1602. Do. 

1603. Geobge Hebiot. 

1604. Robebt Colie. 

1605. Geobge Foullis. 

1606. Do. 

1607. Geobge Hebiot. 

1608. Robebt Dennistoun. 

1609. Do. 

1610. Geobge Foullis. 

1611. David Palmeb. 

1612. Do. 

1613. James Denkibtoun. 

1614. Do. 

1615. Geobge Cbawfubd. 

1616. Do. 

1617. John Lindsay. 

1618. Do. 

1619. J AS. DeNNISTOUN. 

1620. Do. 

1621. Geobge Cbawfubd. 

1622. Do. 



* The small discrepancies between this 
list and the list as it appeara in Old Scottish 
Communion Plate are given in square 
brackets. 

t These three names appear in the city 



records as goldsmiths, members of the tovn 
council : so they were probably the Deacons, 
but there are no minutes of the Goldsmiths 
for these years. — W. J. C. 



CHAP. VI.] 



Edinburgh. 



137 



1623. 


Gilbert Eibkwoode. 


1654. 




1624. 


Do. 


1655. 


Geoboe Cleohobn. 


1625. 


Alex. Reid. 


1656. 


Do. 


1626. 


Do. 


1657. 


Jas. Faibbaibn. 


1627. 


Adam Lamb. 


1658. 


Do. 


1628. 


Do. 


1659. 


Andbew Bubnett 


1629. 


Alex. Reid. 




[Bubbell]. 


1630. 


Do. 


1660. 


Do. 


1631. 


Jas. Dennistoun. 


1661. 


Patbick Bobthwick. 


1632. 


Do. 


1662. 


Do. 


1633. 


Geoboe Crawfubd. 


1663. 


Edward Cleohobn. 


1634. 


Do. 


1664. 


Do. 


1635. 


Adam Lamb. 


1665. 


Jas. Symontone. 


1636. 


Do. 


1666. 


Do. 


1637. 


John Scott. 


1667. 


Alex. Scott. 


1638. 


Do. 


1668. 


Do. 


1689. 


Adam Lamb. 


1669. 


Alex. Reid. 


1640. 


Thos. Cleohobx. 


1670. 


Do. 


1641. 


Do. 


1671. 


Edward Cleohobn. 


1642. 


Jas. Dennistoun. 


1672. 


Do. 


1643. 


Do. 


1673. 


Thos. Cleohobn. 


1644. 


Adam Lamb. 


1674. 


Edwabd Cleohobn [Alex. 


1645. 


Do. 




Reid]. 


1646. 


John Scott. 


1675. 


W. Law. 


1647. 


Do. 


1676. 


Do. 


1648. 


Geoboe Cleohobn. 


1677. 


Alex. Reid. 


1649. 


Do. 


1678. 


Do. 


1650. 


Jas. Faibbaibn. 


1679. 


Edward Cleohobn. 


1651. 


Do. 


1680. 


Do. 


1652. 


Do. 


1681. 


Thos. Youbston. 


1653. 


Andbbw Bubnett 

[Bubbell]. 


1682. 


Do. 



There seems to be some small doubt as to who was Deacon in certain 
years ; but the above list, which the author owes greatly to the care of 
Dr. Norman Macpherson, is nearly correct, compared as it is through- 
out, with that of Mr. Brook in Old Scottish Communion Plate. 
The Deacons were appointed in the month of September in each 
year. All the Deacon's marks that have been noted by the author 
will be found engraved in one or other of the two following lists of 
marks. 

To illustrate the use of the Deacon's mark in dating old Scotch 
plate, it is the proper place to turn here to our tabular view of marks 
on old plate. The sets of marks are numbered to correspond with the 
biographical notes which belong to and follow them. The maker's 
mark is as a rule found on the left of the Edinburgh mark, and the 
deacon's or assay-master's on the right of it. 



1.— 1617. Edinburgh City mace. 




138 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. VI. 



2. — 1618. Fyvie com. cup. 



3.— 1633. Trinity College bread- 
plate. 



4.— 1642. ♦Tolbooth Church com. 
cups, Edinburgh. 



r>. — 1646. Newbattle com, cup. 



0. — 1657. Dunbar com. cups. 



7. — 1677. Pittenweem com. cup. 



8. — 1692. Culross com. cups, 
dated 1693. 



9. — 1699. Dunblane com. cups. 



10. — 1717. Legerwood com. cups, 
dated 1717. 



11.— 1728. William Aytoun. 



12.— 1735. James Kerr. 



13.— 1746. Edward Lothian, 



14.— 1760. Kobt. Gordon. 





IL 



15. — 1778. Patrick Robertson. 




^Et3^® 



* The real date of this piece is probably 1650-1. 



CHAP. VI.] Edinburgh, 139 

1. George Robertson was master of the Cuinziehous (coining-house), 
and made the Mace belonging to the city of Edinburgh in the year 
1617. Between that date and 1629 we have his punch 6 times, as 
the maker of church-plate. [He was admitted 1616.] 

The deacon GC in monogram was George Crawford. We find his 
punch on church-plate nine times between 1617 and 1638. He was 
Deacon in 1615-6 and 1621-2 as well as later in 1633-4. His mark 
occurs again at No. 3 in this list. [He was admitted 1606.] 

2. Gilbert Kirkwoode was deacon of the Goldsmiths' Craft in the 
years 1623-4. He made the Fyyie parish communion plate (Aberdeen- 
shire) in the year 1618, and that of the parishes of Marnock andBeith 
in 1623-4 ; we have his punch four times between those dates ; at 
Marnock and Beith as both maker and deacon. [He was admitted 
1609.] 

The deacon's mark I'L occurs several times, circa 1618 and 1619 ; 
his name was Johnne Lyndsay, deacon 1617-18. [He was admitted 
1605.] 

8. Maker's mark is found on several examples in 1633, including 
the plate in the Tron Church and the Forgue Church, and at 
Marnock, all dated pieces of 1633. [His name Thos. Kirkwoode, adm. 
1632.] 

The deacon's mark is the same as in the first example ; being 
the mark as deacon of George Crawford. It occurs on many pieces 
of 1633. 

4. From the Tolbooth parish communion plate (Edinburgh). The 
maker PB crowned, for Peter Borthwick. [Admitted 1642.] We 
have his punch four times between the years 1642 and 1662, in this 
last year at Fogo both as maker's and deacon's mark, being struck 
twice on the same piece. In 1645 he appears as maker at Haddington 
with Adam Lamb for deacon. 

The deacon's punch is that of James Fairbairn,* admitted master 
in 1641, which we have ten times between 1642 and 1657. It occurs 
with the same maker's mark on the Dalkeith plate and with a different 
maker's mark on that of the High Church, Edinburgh, of 1643. It 
also occurs in 1650 at Dalmellington with the mark of George 
Crawford as maker. 

5. George Cleghorn was deacon of the craft in the year 1648-9, and 
again in 1655-6 ; we have his punch as G'C three times on church- 



* Mr. Brook attributes this Deacon's ' Bat the marks occur on a cup at Daimelling- 

mark to one John Pmzer, adm. Ifi24, who ' ton dated 1650, when Fairbaim was certainly 

acted, he thinks, at some period as a Deacon. 

Deacon though never mentioned as such. , 



140 Old English Plate. [chap. vi. 

plate, from 1646 to 1650. He made a cup for Newbattle Church in 
1646, and some Old Grey Friars Church plate in 1649 bears his mark 
as deacon. [He was admitted in 1641.] 

The deacon's monogram we have five times between 1629 and 1646, 
name Adam Lamb ; it occurs on the Dunfermline plate in 1629, on 
the Haddington Church plate in 1645, and in connection with the mark 
of George Robertson on an alms-dish now at St. Patrick's Church, 
Brighton, but formerly the property of the church of Duffus, co. Elgin. 
This is probably of the year 1629. 

6. Dunbar parish communion plate, maker's punch [John Ward- 
law, adm. 1642] occurs from 1644 to 1657. It is found with London 
marks at Canongate Church, Edinburgh. 

Deacon's punch, James Fairbairn, as above. No. 4. It occurs in 
1659 at Dalgety, and it is heart-shaped in this second period of ofiBcc. 

7. Alexander Reed [admitted 1660] was deacon of the craft in 
1677-8 and other years, and made some of the Fittenweem parish 
church plate, dated 1677. His mark is found 1670 to 1677,— in 
1670, as both maker and deacon, and again as deacon in 1674. 

The deacon's mark is for W. Law ; we have his punch, usually as 
a maker, five times between the years 1667 and 1681. It occurs in 
1673 at Mid Calder, and in 1667 at Glencross. [He was admitted 
1662.] 

8. Robert Ingles [Inglis, adm. 1686] was deacon of the craft in 
1691, and again in 1701 ; we have his pimch seven times, as a maker, 
between the years 1692 and 1719. It is on communion plate at 
Cromdale, in ]VIorayshire, given in 1708. This has the Edinburgh 
letter for 1707-8, and the assay-master's mark is the italic P, which 
appears as maker's mark on the following example. [It is the mark 
of James Penman,] assay-master 1697-1708. 

The deacon's, or rather in this case and henceforwards, the assay- 
master's, mark is o^ in a shaped border ; we have his punch twenty 

times between the years 1681 and 1699. [His name was John 
Borthwick] assay-master 1681-97. From 1681 a date-letter appears. 

9. From Dunblane parish church communion plate. Maker's name 
James Penman as above. He appears as a maker five times between 
the years 1685 and 1695, and as assay-master sixteen times from 
1695 to 1707. For the assay-master see No. 8 as above. 

10. Patrick TurnbuU [adm. 1689] who was maker and deacon of 
the craft in that year, as found on the Legerwood parish church 
communion plate. He must have acted as assay-master for a time 
in 1717, perhaps in an interregnum ; but it seems rather an in- 



CHAP. VI.] 



Edinburgh. 



141 



explicable circumstance, as no other indication of such an interruption 
occurs. 

11. William Ayton [adm. 1718] who was deacon of the craft in the 
years 1730-1. We have his punch four times between the years 1729 
and 1733. The assay-master EP [Edward Penman] held that office 
from 1708 to 1729. During that period we have his punch six 
times as a maker, and twenty-four times as assay-master ; his name 
unknown. 

12. James Kerr [adm. 1723] was deacon of the craft three times, 
and for two years at each time, in the years 1784-5, 1746-7, and in 
1750-1. He was also a Member of Parliament ; we have liis punch 
six times between the years 1721 and 1745. 

The mark AU [Archibald Ure] appears as that of the assay-master 
from 1729 to 1740. During that period we have his punch twelve 
times as such. From 1740 to 1743 it is uncertain who was assay- 
master, but Edward Lothian seems to have been in 1743 and 1744.* 

13. Edward Lothian [adm. 1731] was deacon of the craft in the 
years 1742-8, and from the Hammermen's Arms (a hammer with 
Imperial Crown) which the device over his initials is intended to 
represent, he had been a member of that coi*poration ; we have his 
punch both as maker and deacon, in all five times, from 1744 to 
1759, and then with the standard mark (the thistle) introduced in 
1759, instead of the deacon's or assay-master's mark, as in the next 
example. 

The assay-master, Hugh Gordon [adm. 1727] was deacon of the 
craft in 1782-3, and seems to have been in office as assay-master 
1744 to 1759. During that period we have his punch sixteen times. 

14. Robert Gordon [adm. 1741] was deacon of the craft in 1748-9 ; 
we have his punch three times between the years 1744 and 1760. 
The Castle and Thistle, in square punches, differ a little at this date 
from the same marks as used a few years later. 

15. Patrick Robertson [adm. 1751] was deacon of the craft in the years 
1754-5, and again in 1764-5 ; being two years in office each time ; 
we find his punch fourteen times as maker between the years 1766 
and 1790. 



* It seemB to the author that in that in- 
terral the Beacon for the year, Dongal Ged 
and E. Lothian successirely, acted as assay- 
master, but Mr. A. J. S. Brook, no doubt 



on better authority, says that from 1740-44, 
pending a dispute, plate was stamped by the 
oldest and youngest masters. 



142 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. VI. 



1561 

1586? 
1596-9? 

c. 1610 

1617-8 

1619-20 

( 

' 162a-4 
1633 
1638 
1645 

Do. 
1649 

1650-1-2 

Do. 
Do. 

1660-1-2 
1653-4 

1655-6 

1667 



Examples op Edinbuboh Plate, prior to 1681. 
With Maker's and Deacon's Murks. 



MM 




t 

t 




IL 











©@ 




Do. 








ss 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 









Maker, Alex. Auchiuleck. Deacon, Thos. Ewing. Mazer, 
dated, 1667.— St. Mary's Coli St. Andrew's.* 

Maker and Deacon, probably John Mosman. Com. cap, 
undated. — Rosneath. 

[Maker, Hugh Lyndsay, adm. 1587. Deacon, Dayid 
Heriot, adm. 1692.] Com. cup, undated. — Carrie. 

Maker, Robt. Dennistoun [ailm. 1597]. Deacon, 
illegible. The George Heriot Loving Cup, formed 
of a Nautilus shell. — The Heriot Trust, Edinbui^gh.* 

Maker unknown. Deacon, John Lyndsay. Com. cupe, 
undated. — Carstairs and Glencaim. 

Maker as last. Deacon, James Dennistoun [adm. 1598]. 
Com. cup, undated. — Blantyre. 

Maker and Deacon, Gilbert Eirkwoode. Com. cups, 
undated. — Marnock and Beith. 

Maker probably Thos. Cleghom [adm. 1604]. Deacon, 

George Crawfunl. Com. cups, dated 1633. — Old 

Grey Friars Ch., Edinburgh. 
Maker unknown. Deacon, John Scott. Com. cup, 

tazza form on baluster stem, given 1638 to Monif uth. 

— Messrs. G. Lambert, 1888. 
Maker as in 1633. Deacon, Adam Lamb. Com. cup, 

dated 1646.— Newbattle. 

Maker [Andro Dennistoun, adm. 1636]. Deacon as 

last. Com. cup, dated 1646. — Newhattle. 
Maker, Andrew Burnett [BurrcU]. Deacon, George 

Cleghom. Basin, dated 1649.— Old Grey Friars Ch,, 

Edinburgh. 
Maker, Nicol Trotter [adm. 1635]. Deacon, James 

Fairbaim. Com. cups, dated 1643. — Tolbooth Ch., ; 

Edinburgh. ' 

Maker, John Scott. Deacon as last. Com. cup, dated 

1644. — Canongate Parish Ch., Edinburgh. 

Maker, George Crawfunl. Deacon, James Fairbaim. 
Com. cup, dated 1650. — Dalmellington. 

Maker [Robert Gibson, adm. 1628]. Deacon as last 
Com. cup, undated. — Dalkeith. 

Maker and Deacon, Andrew Burnett [Burrell]. Com. 
cup, undated. — Paisley. 

Maker, Peter Neilsone [adm. 1647]. Deacon, Gcoi^e 
Cleghom. Spoons. — Heirs of Thomas MaxwelL* 

Maker, "W. Law. Deacon, James Symontone. Com. 
cup, dated 1667. — Glencross. Also com. cup, dated 
1673.— Mid-Calder. 



* From SwUuK National Memorials, 
Glasgow, 1890. 



t Mr. Brook gives both these marks 
Gilbert Kirkwoode's (see 1623). 



CHAT. YI.] 



Edinburgh. 



143 



1670 

c. 1680 

1680 




m 1] 



Maker and Deacon, Alex. Reid. Com. cups, dated 1670. 
— ^North Berwick. 

Maker, Alex. Scott [adm. 1649]. Deacon, Edward 
Cleghom [adm. 16491. Ck)m. cups, undated. — Lin- 
lithgow. 

Maker and Deacon, Edward Cleghorn. Com. cnp, 
dated 1681.— Newbattle. 



Examples of Edinbubgh Plate, from 1681. 
With Maker's Marks and the Assay- Master's Mark till its discontinuance in 1759. 



1682 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



1G94 

1695 
1698 



1701 



Do. 



I Do. 

I 



1702 





IJIJ 










f 





Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



1683 


\ix/ 


Do. 


1685 


• • 


Do. 


1689 


• • 


Do. 


1 1690 


@ 


Do. 


1692 


§ 


Do. 




Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



[Probably James Cockbum, adm. 1669.] Jug. — The 
late Lord Murray. Assay-master, John Borthwick, 
1681-97. i 

Duddingston Church plate, dated 1682. [Rev. T. 1 
Bums reverses this mark and attributes it to 1 
£. Cleghom.] i 

[Andrew Law.] Baptismal Basin. — Tron Church, 
Edinburgh. 

Com. cups. — Culross. [Rev. T. Bums attributes these 
to W. Law.] 

Com. cup. — Rttenweem. 

(ThoB. Yourston.) Com. cup. — Peebles. 

Jas. Cockbum, as in 1682. Auchtermuchtie com- 
munion cups, dated 1686. 

(Do.) Benholm Church plate, dated 1690. 

[Walter Scott, adm. 1686.] Temple Church plate, 

Edinburgh, dated 1689. 
[James Sympsone, adm. 1687.] Benholm Church 

plate, dated 1693. 

(Robert Ingles.) Prestonkirk Church plate, dated, 1694. 

(Thos. Cleghom, a<lm. 1689.) Com. cups. — Preston- 
pans.* 

[Thos. Ker, adm. 1694.] Trinity College Church plate, 
dated 1698. Also 1704 com. cups, given 1705. — St. 
MichaeVs, Dumfries. Assay-master, James Penman. 
1697—1708. 

[Geo. Scott, adm. 1697.] New North Kirk, Edinburgh, 
communion cup, dated 1702. 

[J. Penman.] Com. plate, dated 1702. — Dunning, 
Perthshire. 

(Tho9. Cleghom, as in 1695.) Dalmeny Church plate, 
presented by Lord Rosebery, 1702. Also 1703 com. 
cups, dated 1703.— Mertoun Kirk, St. BoswelPs. 

Com. cup, given 1702. — Pittenweem. 



T. CIeghora*B bill for these, dated and receipted July, 1695, is still preserved. 



144 



Old Ettglish Plate. 



[chap. VI. 



1703 

Do. 

1704 

1705 

1707 

Do. 

Do. 
1708 

Do. 

1712 
1716 

1717 
Do. 

Do. 
1718 
1719 
1720 
1721 

1722 

Do. 
1726 

1727 
1728 
1729 
1732 



GS 



B.I 



WS 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Do. Do. 



Rio Do. 



Do. 
Do. 




AF 



BI 



See No. 10,p. 138. 
B*I ^^ 









(S) 




Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



-^> Do. 
(P§) ^o- 




IM) 



Do. 



Com. cup, given 1704. — New North Kirk, Edinburgh. 

(Maker as in 1701.) New North Eirk communion 

cup, dated 1704. 
[Alex. Kincaid, adm. 1692.] Carmichael Church 

plate, dated 1705. 
[Japies Taitt, adm. 1704,1 Rattray church plate. Alao 

1781 Com. cups. — Crichton. 

(Robert Ingles, as in 1694.) Communion cup, Crom- 

dale, Morayshire, given by Jean Houston, Lady 

Grant, 1708. 
(Maker as in 1690.) Communion cups, dated 1708. — 

Lady Yester's Ch., Edinburgh. Assay-master, Edward 

Penman, 1708-29. 
[Mungo Yourstone, adm. 1702.] Baptismal laver, \ 

dated 1708.-— New North Kirk, Edinburgh. i 

Eddleston communion cups, dated 1709. Also 1714 
Com. cups, dated 1714. — Maryton. 

[Robt. Ker, adm. 1705.] Com. cups. — Irongray. 

[Alex. Forbes, adm. 1692.] Candlesticks. — Cluny. 

(Robert Ingles, as in 1694.) Abbotshall (near Klrk- 

aldy) Church plate, dated 1717. 
( Patrick Tumbull.) Legerwood com. cups, dated 1717. 
(Robert Ingles, as in 1694.) Errol Church plate, dated 

1718. 

[John Seatoune, adm. 1688.] Com. cups, dated 1719. 

— Corstorphine. 
(Robert Ingles, as in 1694.) Galashiels Church plate. 

dated 1719. 
[Wm. Ged, adm. 1706.] Punch bowl of 'the Royal 

Company of Archers, dated 1720. 
[Alex. Simpson, adm. 1710.] Pencaitland Church 

plate, dated 1721. 

[Harry Beatone, adm. 1704.] Kelso Church plate, 

presented by Christiana Kerr, ** daur. of the Master 

of Chatto and widow of Frogden, 1722." 
[Colin Campbell, adm. 1714.] Spoons. — Alexander 

Drysdale, Esq. Also 1723, Com. cups, dated 1723. 

— Dalziel. 

[Chas. Dickson, adm. 1719.] Com. cup, dated 1722. — 

Ayr. 
[Qy. Harry Beatone.] Forteviot (Perth) Church plate, 

given 1727. 

[Patrick Gream, adm. 1725]. Table spoons. — Marquis 
of Breadalbane. 

[Alexr. Edmonstoune, adm. 1721.] Com. cups, dated 
1729. — Anstruther Easter. 

(James Kerr.) St. Ninian's Church plate. Also 1733 

Com. cups, given, 1734. — ^Auchinleck. Assay-master 

Archibald Ure, 1729-40. 
[John Main. adm. 1729.] Kincardine Church plate, i 

given 1733. Also 1733 Com. cup, dated 1734.— Pan- ' 

bride. 



CHAP. VI.] 



Edinburgh. 



145 



1733 

1735 
1736 
Do. 

1747 

1749 

1751 

1752 

1753 

1754 

1755 
1760 
1762 



1763 
1765 

1766 

1770 

1771 

1776 

1777 

1783 

1784 

1785 

1788 
j 1789 
1790 
Do. 

1791 j 

1795 
1799 






KM) 



aEna 




Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

[55] 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



L5a 




a>!]i 



IWDi 

Do. 
K&D 



Do. 




W^ 



[Ml 



Do. 
Do. 



WC 
PC 



(Wm. Ayton.) Com. cup. — Kilrinnej. 

(James Kerr, as in 1729.) Bowl on feet.— Castle Grant. 
(Do.) Set of salvers. Do. 

[Hugh Penman, adm. 1734.] Com. caps, dated 1737. 
— Kinross. 

Guthrie Church plate, dated 1 748. Assay-master, Hugh 
Gordon, 1744-59. 

[Ker and Dempster.] Old Church, Edinburgh, com- 
munion cups, dated 1750. 

Forks. Noted by author. 

(Dougal Ged.) Spoons. 



[James Gillsland, add. 1748.] Pepper-box. — Sir 
George Home, Bart. Also 1762 Com. cups, dated 
1763.— Gordon. 

Do. [Lothian and Robertson.] Lochgoilhead Church plate, 
given by Sir James Livingstone, of Glenterran, Bart, 
1754. 
Do. [Ker and Dempster.] Double-handled porringer. — 
Castle Grant. 
Alexr. Aitcheson, adm. 1746.] Com. cup, dated 1761. - 
Langton. 

William Drummond.] St. Cnthbert's Parish Chapel of Ease, 

Edinburgh, communion plate, dated 
1763. 
(Do.) Do., baptismal laver, dated 1763 

Maker as in 1755.) Auchinleck Church plate, from Lady 
Auchinleck, "given by Lord Auchinleck, 1766." 
Patrick Robertson.) Cake-basket. — Messrs. Mackay and 

Chisholm. 
(Do.) Spoon. — Capt. Gordon, of Cluny. 

James Welsh, adm. 1746.] Plain bowl. — Castle Grant. 

William Davie, adm. 1740.] Oznam Church plate, dated 

1776. 
Patrick Robertson, as in 1766.) Mauchline Church plate, 

dated 1777. 
William Davie, as in 1776.) Cramond Church plate. 

James Hewitt, adm. 1760.] St. Andrew's (Edinburgh) 
Church plate. 

Francis Howden.) Leecroft (Bridge of Allan) Church plate. 

Patrick Robertson, as in 1766.) Mauchline baptismal basin. 
(Do.) Pencaitland Church plate, given 1789. 

(Do.) Kippen Church plate, given 1790. 

Alex. Gairdner, cut. 1754.] Carmylie Church plate, given 
1791. 

William and Patrick Cunning- ) Tolbooth Church baptismal 
ham, adm. 1776.] j basin, renewed 1792. 

William Robertson.) Westerkirk Church plate. 

Francis Howden, as in 1785.) Kincardine Church plate, 
dated 1799. 



146 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. VI, 



SCOTTISH PROVINCIAL MARKS. 

Before coming to the establishment of the modem assay office of 
Glasgow, we must pause to notice six proyincial towns in Scotland, 
where plate was marked in olden timeR. 

These, and possibly other towns, availed themselves of the privileges 
conferred by the Act of 1457, the provisions of which in this behalf 
will be remembered. It is certain that these provisions were not very 
strictly attended to, for in many cases the mark of the assay-master's 
tool is the only proof that the metal had been examined and tested by 
any authorised person ; the maker s and the town mark being found 
unaccompanied by a deacon's. The following marks have been 
selected as illustrations of the mode of marking plate in the Scotch 
provincial towns ; and an explanatory note of each is added to conclude 
this section of the subject. 

In Glasgow the old town mark was the arms, with the bell on one 
side of the tree, a letter G on the other, the fish's head is sometimes 
to the dexter, and sometimes to the sinister side, and has a ring in its 
mouth : of this mark we have above twenty examples between the 
years 1694 and 1766. 

On early plate the town mark is on a small round punch, so small 
that it is often difficult to recognise the bearings at all. In most 
examples we have a date-letter, but it is impossible to place them in 
regular order, except for a very short period. It seems probable, that 
the letters used at the end of the seventeenth, and beginning of the 
following, century were of the same character as those of the first two 
Edinburgh alphabets, and that the same letters stood for nearly the 
same years at both places. 

The Glasgow letters seem to occur about three years later than the 
corresponding letter at Edinburgh, thus the small Gothic for 1694 
at Edinburgh would be for 1697 at Glasgow. But the letter S in 
various escutcheons which appears on several of the following examples 
in 1784 and later, seems not to have been a date-letter. Mr. A. J. S. 
Brook suggests that it denotes " standard " quality. 

Glasgow, 1697. [Robert Brook, 1673.] Church plate 
dated 1697.— Hamilton. 

Glasgow, 1701. Com. caps, formerly at Cardross.* — 
Sudeley Castle. 




* The initials I.L and S.L are attributed 
to members of the Luke family, goldsmiths in 
Glasgow from about 1660 to 1750.— IG to 



James Glen, who sncceedf^ to Robert Luke 
in 1753. — Scottish National Mefnoriali, 
Glasgow, 1890. 



CHAP. VI.] 



Scottish Provincial Marks. 



147 



Qlaagowy 1703. Renfrew Church plate. 



Olaagow, 1708. Greenock, West Church plate. 



Glasgow, 1 710. Com. cups dated 1 709. — Baronj Church, 
Glasgow. Also at kilmarnock, 1709. 

Glasgow, 1727. [Johan Blitzing, adm. 1717.] Com. 
cups dated 1727. — Dumbarton. 

Glasgow, . Com. cups dated 1734. — Baronj Church, 
Glasgow. 

Glasgow, 1 752. Com. cup dated 1 7o2. — Dalmellington. 
Also cups dated 1752. — Both well. 

Glasgow, 1765. St. Quivox Church plate. — Ayr. 



®i)®i 
®®®® 




(g)®)(i£)|S 

[mid] 






^@\m^ 



Glasgow, c. 1770. Coul cups undated.— Inyerarj. IM&CI (op) IM&CI (3) 



In Dundee also the town mark was the arms, a pot of three growing 
lilies, of which we have only a few examples. The shape of the flowers 
is not always quite the same. One of those given is of the year 1652, 

and has the date-letter ^(in octagonal border) ; the other is on a 

large circular alms-dish of 1665, with the coat of arms of the donor, 
Johannes Fethens. The RG of 1652 is also found on the coyer of a 
cup belonging to the Church of Perth, said to have been given by Mary, 
Queen of Scots, and repaired in Dundee in 1687. The original part 
of the cup is of beautiful Nuremberg work. AL in a square, repeated 
twice, appears on the communion cups at Eettins, Coupar Angus, 
which are dated 1686. [Alex. Lindsay 1628.] 



Dundee, 1652. Forgan Church plate, Fife. 
[Qy. Bobert Gairdyne. j 




Dundee, 1665. Dundee parish church, alms-dish. 
Also St. Yigean^s, Arbroath, dated 1667. 
[Thos. Lyndsay, 1662.] 



In Aberdeen, the town mark was a contraction BD or ABD. The 

first Aberdeen mark on the following page gives it as it appears on the 

Mace of the King's College, which is marked with the maker's name, 

Waltervs Melville Facet, 1650, whose mark occurs at Ellon as early 

as 1642 ; the XX may be the quality of the silver. The same marks 

L 2 



148 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. VI. 



but ABD instead of BD are on a cap dated 1658, belonging to 
Aberdeen University. In most cases the town mark is as in this last 
mentioned, and the next example of 1666, though the contraction 

mark is not always found. c^^c^/J^ script letters were used in the 

eighteenth century. The mark so occurs at Dyce in 1770, and at 
Birnie in 1778. 



Aberdeen, 1650. (Walter Melville), King's Col- 
lege Mace. 



Aberdeen. Ellon com. cup dated 1666, Aber- 
deenshire. [Qy. George Walker.] 



[MlBB^ 




Early in the eighteenth century some makers at Aberdeen used a 
shield with three small castles, not unlike the better known New- 
castle mark, instead of the letters ABD. Examples of this are the 
following : — 



® ^ 




1715. [John Walker, adm. 1718.] Com. cups 
dated 1715.— Marykirk. 

1731. [Alex. Forbes, adm. 1728.] Com. cup 
dated 1731.— St. Fergus. 



The mark of AF is also known with the three castles' mark and 
date-letter A on com. cups dated 1728 at Logie-Pert ; and with date- 
letter B on com. cups dated 1731 at Maryculter. 

Montrose. A mark formerly given in these pages as belonging 
either to Aberdeen or Montrose, seems now to be fairly identified by 
Mr. Brook as that of William Lindsay of Montrose from 1671 to 1708. 
It is found as follows, and the hammer shows that he belonged to the 
Hammermen's Society. 



Montrose, 1682. Fordown Church plate, Kincar- 
dineshire. 



Montrose, 1683. Com. cap, Aberlemno. 

The Inverness town mark was, like that of Aberdeen, a contraction 
INS, but has no mark over these initials. It is found on a commu- 
nion cup given in 1708 by a Lady Grant to Inyerallan (Grantown) 

Church, Morayshire. It has a maker's mark [^] on each side of it, 

and the remains of a Roman letter C in a plain shield. This, it may 
be noted, is also the Edinburgh letter for 1707-8, so perhaps at that 




CHAP. VI.] 



Scottish Provincial Marks. 



149 



time Inyernesa nsed the same letters as the capital. This suggestion 
is rather confirmed by the marks on a com. cup at Forres, mentioned 
by Bey. T. Burns, showing a letter T in a plain shield on a repair 
dated 1724. This would be the Edinburgh letter for 1723-4. A 
more modern maker's mark met with is that of Chai'les Jamison, who 
was in business there about the year 1810* Besides his initials there 
is an animal (very small) something like a dromedary, which happens 
to be the dexter supporter of the Inverness arms. The animal is 
found usually turned to the left, but sometimes to the right. 



Inverness, 1810. (Charles Jamifton.) 



innim 







InTemess. Soup ladle, late 18th cent. Late Dr. 
Diamond, F.S.A. 

Inverness. Tea-spoons. Marqaessof Breadalbane. 

The Perth town mark was a spread eagle, sometimes single and 
sometimes double-headed, part of the town arms, and was used along 
with the Edinburgh marks, as shown on the West Church communion 
plate. The double eagle with |RK[ (Robert Kay) is found on spoons 

of modem date ; and this maker's mark is also found with a single- 
headed eagle on a plain rectangular stamp on spoons, the property of 
the Marquess of Breadalbane. It should be mentioned that the mark 
of a lamb and flag for Perth, with |RG| for maker's mark, occurs on 
the communion cups of Coupar Angus, which are dated 1687, and on 
an undated cup at Meigle, Perthshire. [Robert Gardiner, deacon 
1669, 1678, and 1674.] 



Perth, 1771. Tne West Church, Perth. 




S 



The St. Andretv's town mark was a St. Andrew's cross, as shown 
on the parish church communion plate ; the same marks occur on a 
silver dish, thought to be a salt-cellar, belonging to St. Mary's College 
there. 



St. Andrew*s, 1671. The parish chnrch plate, 
St. Andrew's. [Patrick Gairden.] 




Canongate, Edinburgh. A loving-cup bearing these marks is 
mentioned in a History of the Burgh of Canongate published in 



150 Old English Plate. [ohap. w. 

1879. The mark, borne as is nsual on Scottish provincial plate 
between the reduplicated maker's mark is the Canongate crest. 

Canongate Bargh, Edinburgh. ^^V^ ^^ ^ 



Mr. Brook gives some other examples, but always with a stag's 
head not having a cross above it. 

Banff. A small quantity of table plate seems to have been made 
here, of which the spoon cited is a good example. [Patrick Scott, c. 
1710-31.] 



Banff. SiK)on, Hanoverian pattern. (Late Dr. Diamond, 
F.S.A.) 




cTa 



Greenock. Mr. Brook attributes the small mark of an anchor offcen 
found on Scottish plate to Greenock. 

UNCERTAIN SCOTTISH MARKS. 

Racing beU described as the *' Bell of Lanark, presented to the 

Burgh of Lanark by William the Lion in the year 1160." 7% Vrn U 
(Exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery, London, in the Arts •** *^^ **- 
and Sports Loan Collection, 1890). — A. H. Laidley, Esq. 

This cnrious bell i-esembles the bell of 1655 engraved in Chap. X. It has a closed 
mouth with a number of small shields hanging round it, in the Dutch manner, one of 
which bears date 1628, whilst the rest are modem. It is of the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, not much earlier than the date of its oldest shield', and the maker is 
probably Robert Dennistoun of Edinburgh, or perhaps the maker is Hugh Lindsay and 
the Deacon Dennistoun, which would give the bell to 1608-9, a not improbable date. 
The centre mark denotes the " elleven pennie fine " of the Act of 1555. 



Com. cups. --Drainie by Elgin. frW fMp jpB{ 

Com. cup, dated 1633. — Fintray, Aberdeenshire. 2® Jt 




MODERN GLASGOW. 

Lastly, we come to the establishment of a new assay office in 
Glasgow, by an Act of 1819 (59 Geo. m. c. 28), which formed a 
company in that cit}' whose powers should extend for forty miles 
round, and appoints the marks to be used by it. These marks have 
been used ever since, notwithstanding any references to Glasgow in 
the more general Act 6 & 7 Will. IV. The distinguishing mark was 
to be the arms of the city of Glasgow, — a tree, fish, and bell ; and its 
date-letters, complete alphabets of twenty-six letters each, have been 
regularly changed. It is proposed for the future to use twenty-five 
letters only, in order that the cycles shall each comprise a quarter of 
a century. The standard mark is the lion rampant : these three, 
together with the maker's mark and Soyereign's head, make up the 
set of marks used there. 



CHAP. VI.] Edinburgh and Glasgow Marks. 



151 



For Bilyer of the higher standard, the " Britannia " mark is, how- 
ever, added, and gold of eighteen carats is marked with the figures 18. 
The special remark must he made, that as the marks for gold of twenty- 
two carats have heen, until quite lately, the same as those used for 
sterling silver, an article made of sterling silver stamped as such and 
afterwards gilt, often cannofc, hy the marks alone, he distinguished 
from gold. The figures 22 seem to he now used on gold of this 
quality. The Parliamentary enquiry of 1773 did not extend to 
Scotland ; hut in 1848, both Edinburgh and Glasgow were in fair work, 
the former doing somewhat more than the latter. Edinburgh in 
1847 had stamped nearly 29,000 ounces, and paid to the government 
a sum of £2,152. 

A tabular summary of the marks used in Edinburgh and Glasgow 
concludes the present chapter ; whilst the tables of date-letters used, 
will be found amongst other such tables in Appendix B. at the end of 
the volume. 

Those readers who require still further information on the question 
of Scottish hall-marks cannot do better than refer to the large work 
of Rev, T. Bums on OH Scottish Communion Plate, Edinburgh, 
1892. 

Table of Marks used in Edinburoh and Glasck>w. 



OrFics. 



Edin- 

BUBOH. 



G LAS- 
SOW from 
1819. 



Quality. 



Silver, O.S. 



Ditto, N.S. 



Silver, O.S. 



Ditto. N.S. 



Stai(da.ri>. 



Deacon's 

mark 1457 

to 1759, 

then the 

thistle. 




Ditto. 



Lion 
rampant. 




Ditto. 



Dati. 



Britannia. 



Annual 
letter 
fi-om 
1681. 



Britannia. 



Doty. ' Makxr. TowkMark. 



„ Initials, 

°?^^ I some- 
^»K"» times in 
^^^ mono- 



from 

1784 to 

1890. ' 



gram, 

from 

1457. 



Do. 

from 
1819. 



Do. , 
from ' 
1819 to 
1890. 



Do. 
from 
1819. 



Castle f ron. 
1483. 




Tree, fish, 
and bell. 




For gold of 18 carats since 6 & 7 Will. IV., and quite recently of 22 carats, add 

those figures respectively to the marks for silver, O.S. 
For gold of the three lower standards, the quality is marked for 15, 12, or 9 oarats, 

with those figures, in addition to the marks for silver, 0.8. 



CHAPTER VII. 

IRELAND. 

THE GOLDSMITHS* C0MPA3?Y OF DUBLIN — COHK — NEW GENEVA— TABLE OF 

DUBLIN MARKS. 

The Goldsmiths' Company of Dublin, incorporated by a charter 
from Charles I., dated 1688 (22 Dec, 18 Car. I.)} has the entire 
regulation of the goldsmiths' trade in Ireland. Their Charter is given 
at full length by Mr. Byland in the little book before alluded to,* 
from which some of the following details relating to it haye been taken. 

The company was to have the correction of all abuses within the 
kingdom of Ireland, and to exercise the same powers as the Gold- 
smiths' Company of London had in England. The incorporated 
members were William Cooke, John Woodcocke, William Hampton, 
James Yanderbegg, William Gallant, John Banister, Nathaniel 
Houghton, James Acheson, Clement Evans, George Gallant, Sylvanus 
Glegg, William St. Cleere, Gilbert Tongues, Edward Shadesy, Peter 
Yanemhown, Matthew Thomas, William Crawley, Thomas Duffield, 
John Cooke and John Burke, all styled of the city of Dublin, gold- 
smiths ; and the above-named William Cooke, John Woodcocke, 
William Hampton, and John Banister were appointed the first 
wardens. Their successors and future wardens were to take ofGce 
on All Saints' Day. No gold or silver of less fineness than the 
standard in England was to be vn*ought, and ''the King's Majesty's 
stamp called the Harp crowned now appointed by his said Majesty '' 
was not to be put on any silver below his Majesty's standard. These 
privileges have been exercised to the present time, subject to the 
various subsequent Acts of Parliament which are presently to be 
noticed ; and the books of the company have been kept with regularity 
even through troublous times. The early entries occasionally give 
the annual date-letters, as in 1644 and some succeeding years, but 
this is not often the case. In that year, too, it is recorded that Thos. 
Parnoll, Daniell Bellingham, Gilbert Tongues, Bobert Fossit, Natha- 
niell Houghton and Peter Yandyndowm had plate assayed. Two of 
these, therein called Gilbert Tongues and Peter Yandenhoven, with 



* Aitay of Gold and Silver Waret, London, 1852. 



CHAP. VII.] 



Ireland. 



153 



Sir John Yeale, Ent, had heen named in the previons year 1648 as 
goldsmiths, in a Proclamation relating to melting plate for the King. 

Notices of civic importance are not wanting, such as the riding of 
the franchises of the city of Dublin, in which the Company of Gold- 
smiths took a prominent part in 1649, and other years. In that year, 
we have a detailed account of the attendance of the company with 
horse and armour, and after the names of those who bore their part 
in the cavalcade, including Gilbert Tongues as captain, and also a 
Captain Waterhouse, comes a note which serves to indicat'O that the 
goldsmiths were of no mean importance socially speaking, for it adds, 
" certain above-named were not of our corporation, but of their own 
goodness forsook more ancient corporations and rode as loving brothers 
in our company, viz.. Captain Waterhouse ; some were invited by Mr. 
Sheriff Yandyndhowm to his tent, the rest with us at Mr. Sumynour, 
having no tent in the field." The minute of this event ends with the 
words " Sic transit gloria hodiei." 

The list of the goldsmiths contributing to the expenses of the day 
contains the following names : — 



Kathaiiiell StonghtoDf M' Wanlen. 
Danjell Burfoot, Warden. 
Danyell BelliDgbam, Warden. 
Gilbert Tongues. 
Thomas Surayner. 
Edward Shadsey. 



£dward Bentley. 
Ambrose Fen t well. 
Joseph Stokes. 
Christopher Wright, and 
Thomas Taylor. 



Another such festivity is recorded in 1656 ; but later on the times 
seem changed, for we come upon a motion in 1776 resolving that the 
company was incapable of riding the franchises that year. It was not 
unmindful of its duty of prosecuting the fraudulent, for in 1777 it is 
entered that one Michael Keating, whose mark was MK, was convicted 
of counterfeiting marks, and sentenced to a fine of 502. and six months' 
imprisonment '* at the last commission of Oyer and Terminer." 
As some of their initials occur on pieces of plate, a list of Dublin 
wardens for a certain number of years may be added, as follows, but 
the spelling of some of the names seems a little doubtful : — 



1671. 


Thos. Button. 


1681. 


Samuel Marsden. 


1672. 


John Dickson. 


1682. 


Abel Kam. 


1673. 


RiCHABD Lord. 


1683. 


Edward Harris. 


1674. 


Paul Lowland. 


1684. 


Capt. James Cottingham 


1675. 


Do. 


1685. 


Do. 


1676. 


Abel Voisin. 


1686. 


. . . Adam. 


1677. 


Jahes Cottingham. 


1687. 


John Shelly, John 


1678. 


James Kelly. 




Phillips 


1679. 


John Cope. 


1688. 


John Cuthbebt. 


1680. 


Gebbabd Gbace. 


1689. 


John Dickson. 



1 54 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. tit. 



1690. 
1691. 
1692. 
1693. 
1694. 
1695. 
1696. 



William Dhayton. 
Adam Sowt. 
Joseph Shigbaft. 
Thomas Bolton. 
John Phillips. 
Capt. Benj. Bubton. 
Do. 

1697. Vincent Kiddeb, John 

Clifton. 

1698. John Humphbeys. 

1699. David King. 

1700. W. Bingham. 

1701. Joseph Walkeb. 

1702. BOBT. Bigmabden. 

1703. • • . Habbis. 

1704. James Holding. 
1706. BoBT. Smith. 



1706. Benj. Bacine, Bichd. 

Gbosvenob. 

1707. . . . Sliceb. 

1708. Thob. Bbowne. 

1709. . . . DOWLING. 

1710. ... Bacoons. 

1711. Thos. Billing. 

1712. Kdw. Wobkman. 
. . . Tough. 
H. Daniel. 

1713. W. Abchdall, E. Cope, 
John Bubton. 

1714. John Hamilton, Wm. 

Babby. 

1715. Ebasmus Cope. 

1716. John Cbamptok. 

1717. Mabtin Billing. 

1718. Wm. Babby. 

A compaDy of goldsmiths existed also at Cork, and regularly elected 
its master and wardens each year, at all events from the middle of the 
seventeenth century for some seventy-five years. The Cork goldsmiths 
marked their plate with a galleon and a castle with a flagstaff on sepa- 
rate stamps, but they did not nse a date-letter. Plate thus marked is 
found towards the end of the seventeenth century in and near the city 
of Cork. One Bobert Goble was a very prominent member of the 
company at that period. He was master in 1694 and 1695, and his 
mark KG appears on a mace dated 1696 in the South Kensington 
Museum (No. '69.81), and on communion cups dated 1694 at Ino- 
shannon and Midleton, both in co. Cork. The mark WB of one 
Walter Burnett, warden in 1694 and master in 1700, occurs on more 
than one example. Later the word STERLING seems to have been 
used with a maker's mark. It occurs thus on a flagon at Carrigaline, 
near Cork, and at other places in the South of Ireland. 

Examples of Cobk Plate. 

Chalice, dated 1663.— Lismore Cathedral. 



Communion plate given 1670 and 1671. — Carrig* 
aline, Cork. 

(John James, Master, 1692.) Plain Tumbler 
cups. — Earl of Ilchester. 

Chalice, dated 1694. — Inoshannon, Cork. Also 
paten, dated 1694. — Ballymodan, Bandon. 

(William Clarke, Master in 1714.) Flagon.— 
Carrigaline, Cork. 

(William Martin, Master, 1720 and 1727.) Maces 
repaired 1738 by Martin. — Corporation of 
Cork. 




HI^IIIR 








ISTERLINMlWMl 



CHAP. Til.] The Dublin Marks. 155 

It is possible that a little plate was made at Limerick or other 
places ; but examples bearing what seem to be local Irish marks are 
Terj rare, and most of the church-plate at Limerick is either of 
London or Dublin make* 

Nothing in the way of legislation need be noted till 1729 (3 Geo. 11. 
c. 8, Ireland) y when the Irish Parliament enacted that all articles 
of gold and silver should be assayed at Dublin by the assay-master 
appointed by the Company of Goldsmiths, fixed the standard of gold 
at 22 carats, and silver at 11 oz. 2 dwts., and ordered that the articles 
should be marked with the marks then used, which, we may add, 
would be the harp crowned, a date-letter, and the maker's initials. 
The English enactments as to silver of the higher standard, were not 
imitated in Ireland, and no plate of that standard has ever been made 
there. To these marks, however, another was added in the following 
year 1730, by order of the Commissioners of Excise, who introduced 
the figure of Hibernia, to denote the payment of the duty first charged 
upon plate in that year. The subsequent Act of 1807, requiring the 
king's head to be stamped on plate for the same purpose, took no 
notice of the Hibernia mark, and the two marks have since that year 
been used together till 1890. 

In 1783 a second statute (28 & 24 Geo. III. (Irish) c. 28), repealed 
that of 1729, as far as gold was concerned, and fixed three standards 
for gold, viz. of 22, 20 and 18 carats* All articles of gold were to 
be marked with the maker's mark, consisting of the first letters of his 
Christian and surname, and the various qualities were to be distin- 
gaished as follows : — ^22-carat gold was to be marked at the assay 
office in Dublin with the harp crowned, and at the assay office at New 
Geneva then established with the harp crowned having a bar across its 
strings ; 20-carat gold at Dublin with a plame of three feathers, and 
at New Geneva with a plume of two feathers ; and 18-carat gold at 
Dublin with a unicorn's head, and at New Geneva with a unicorn's 
head with a collar round its neck. It further ordered that the punches 
were to be so constructed that the impression should be indented, 
instead of being in relief, so as to prevent its being defaced. It will be 
remembered that in England the duty mark of the King's head intro- 
duced at about this same time, is at first found '' indented "in the fashion 
here described. Certain specified gold wares, and all that should weigh 
less than 6 dwts., were exempted from the operation of the Act. 

New Geneva is a village near Waterford where in 1788 a colony of 
foreign Protestants was established after some persecution on the 
Continent. Many Swiss were among them, especially Genevese, 
whence the name. They exercised various trades, especially working 



156 Old English Plate. [ohap. vn. 

in silver and jewellery, and hence the establishment of an assay office 
and particular marks. After a few years and the expenditure of 
jG80,000, the settlement was abandoned ; the Genevese became dis- 
contented at not having obtained as much as they wanted, and quitted 
the country, and the place has dwindled to a small obscure village 
without any trade. It is therefore probable that very few if any articles 
were assayed or marked there. 

It remains to be said that date-letters have been used in Ireland from 
the time of the Charter of 1638, and as elsewhere have formed more or 
less regular alphabets, the course of which is, however, not always 
quite certain. Plate of about the middle of the last century is some- 
times found bearing the other proper marks, but no date-letter at all. 

The lists at the end of the volume have been most carefully compiled 
from the books of the company, and from a number of specimens of 
plate, several of the latter Idndly noted by Mr. W. D. Waterhouse, who 
has paid much attention to the subject. As might be expected, some 
few difficulties have been met with. 

The old English C^ for 1680-1 for example, and the ft for 1698-4, 
leave us an interval of thirteen years, but only six letters to distribute 
over it. If these six letters succeeded each other in regular order, 
from 1680 to 1686, historical events might be left to account for the 
next few years. The charters of all Irish Corporations were annulled 
for a time in 1()87, and little trade in silver or gold work could have 
been carried on in Ireland, between the landing of King James at 
Kinsale in 1689, and the Treaty of Limerick which was concluded iu 
October, 1691. 

It must be confessed that it is less easy to account for a second gap 
between the years 1695 and 1709, and if the Dublin records are to be 
trusted, work seems to have been regularly carried on through the 
most troublous times. It is understood that the matter has attracted 
the attention of the Boyal Irish Academy, and there is therefore reason 
to hope that some day an authoritative explanation of it will be fur- 
nished. The tables given may be depended on as nearly, if not quite, 
accurate ; and all recent research, by fixing that the B of the alphabet 
which begins in 1678-9 must be certainly put at 1705-6, and the S 
which is the first letter which occurs in a shield with an escalloped 
top, at 1707-8, has gone to show that each letter probably stood for 
two consecutive years from 1695 to 1715. It may also have been so 
from 1680 to 1698, but hardly any hall-marked examples of plate are 
known for that stormy period. 

Mr. Byland states that the small Boman letter alphabet commenc- 
ing in 1821-2 was changed at the letter e (for 1825), to one of Boman 



CHAP. v!i.] Examples of Dublin Plate, 157 

capitals, by order of the Commissioners of Stamps, to denote the 
transfer of the duties then made to them from the Commissioners of 
Excise by 6 Geo. IV. c. 118, and to mark the reduction of the allow- 
ance of 2^ dwts. per lb., which had up to this time been made from 
the standard, to the allowance of 1^ dwt. in accordance with the better 
practice of the London assay office. A careful investigation into the 
matter by Mr. Waterhouse, gives the letters for that cycle as they are 
found in the appended lists. They are all of them Boman capital 
letters, but a small Boman letter e in a shaped escutcheon is found in 
addition to the usual large letter in 1825. 

From the alphabetical tables a good deal of additional information 
may be obtained, if one or two leading facts be borne in mind. The 
harp crowned will be found of larger size, and on a punch adapted to 
the outline of the mark, until 1785 ; after which, and until 1792, it 
was smaller, and placed in a plain oval escutcheon, like the Hibernia 
which is to be looked for from the year 1780. The letters of the 
alphabet which commences in 1746, are to be distinguished from those 
of the next by their being somewhat bolder, and their shields larger 
and more angular at the bottom than those of the later alphabet, which 
last have the harp in an oval from the letter P of 1785-6 as remarked 
above, a second distinction. Both these hints are due to the observa- 
tion of Mr. Waterhouse. From about 1792 to 1808, both the harp 
crowned and Hibernia were in square stamps with the comers slightly 
cut off, and from 1808 to the end of that alphabet they are in shaped 
shields like the date-letter. 

The letter L of 1807-8 is found both with and without the sovereign's 
head. During the present century, the shapes of the other stamps 
seem to have pretty much corresponded with the shape of the shield 
used for the date-letter of the year ; when that is plain or merely has 
the comers cut off, the same sort of shields are used for the harp, 
Hibernia, and King's head ; but when shaped the escutcheons of these 
others correspond with it. 

In 1848, Dublin was stamping from 20,000 to 40,000 ounces of 
silver per annum, besides a small quantity of gold, the annual totals 
varying very much, but being about as much as the Edinburgh office, 
though a great deal less than Birmingham, Exeter, or Sheffield. At 
the time of a Parliamentary enquiry held in 1856, it was doing a some- 
what smaller business, nearly all the country work having fallen off, 
especially that coming from Cork. The business originating in Dublin 
itself, appeared to be somewhat on the increase. 



158 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. VII. 



Examples of Dublin Plate. 



1638 
1639 
1640 
Do. 

1641 

1659 

1663 
Do. 



1676 

1679 
Do. 

1680 

Do. 
Do. 

1684 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
1693 

Do. 
' Do. 

. Do. 
Do. 
1694 
! 1695 
, Do. 



Do. 




Do. 




Do. 
Do. 





® 

Do. 



Do. 







Do. 




Da 




@) 



Commimion flagon. — Trinity College, Dablin. 

Communion cnp, dated 1639.— Fethard, Wexford. 

Paten, dated 1640.— Do. 

(Probably Wm. Cooke.) Communion cup and paten, dated 
1639-40.— St. John Evangelist, Dublin. 

(Do.) — Communion cup, given 1637. — Derry Cathedral. 

Communion cup, given 1659. — St. John's-in-the-Yale, Cros- 
thwaite, Cumb. 

Communion cup, dated 1665. — Corporation of Drogheda. 
Communion cup and flagon, both dated 1667. — St Peter*s. 

Drogheda. 
Note. — A communion plate, dated 1669, rx d(tHo Belling- 

ham, at Trinity College, Dublin, is by this maker. 

(Probably Samuel Marsden, vrarden 1681.) Communion cup 
and paten, given 1676. — St. Michan, Dublin. 

Cups, dated 1674. — Sir J. K. James, Bart. Also flagon, dated 
1677.— St. Werbui>rh, Dublin. 

(The other initial Indistinct, probably SM as in 1676.) — 
Casket of St. George's Guild, dated 1678. 

(Probably Andrew Gregory, sworn 1673.) Tankards (see 
woodcut. Chap. z.). — Merchant Taylors' Co., London. 

(Do.) Small communion cup, originally the property of n 

Dean of Cork.— late Rev. H. H. Westmore. 
(Probably John Phillips, warden 1687.) Tankard-flagon.— 

St. John's, Limerick. 

(Probably John Humphreys, wartlen 1698.) Communion 
cup, called the new dialless in 1686. — St. John's, Dublin. 

(Do.) Communion cup. given 1685. — St. Werburgh, Dublin. 

Alms-dish, dated 1683.— Do. 

*' Doggett " paten, given 1693.— Do. 

(Thos. Bolton, Alderman of Dublin and Assay-Master this 
year.) Cup, given 1696. — Mansion House, Dublin. 

(Do.) Cup, ex dono Duncombe. — Trinity College, Dublin. 
(Piobablv Joseph Walker, warden 1701.) Paten, dated 1693. 

— Ch. Ch. Cathedral, Dublin. Hlso paten, given 1693.— St. 

Michan, Dublin. 
(Do.) Communion cup, dated 1696. — St. Nicholas', Dublin. 
(Probably Adam Sowt, warden 1691.) Piece of plate, dated 

Jan. 169^. — Abbey Leix. Also alms-dish, given 1694. — 

Ch. Ch. Cathedral, Dublin. 
(Probably David King, wanlen 1699.) Flagon, dated 1698.— 

St. Mi Chan's, Dublin. 
(Thos. Bolton, as in 1693.) Cup, given 1696.— Mansion 

House, Dublin. , 

Flagon, dated 1700.— Trinity College, Dublin. | 



CHAP. VII.] 



Examples of Dublin Plate. 



159 



1697 

Do. 

1699 f 

1700 ( 
Do. 
Do. 

1701) 
1702 \ 
17051 

1706 J 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1707 1 
1708) 
Da 

I Do. 

i Do. 
1709 I 
1710/ 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1711 \ 
1712/ 

Do. 

1713 ) 

1714 ( 

1715 
Do. 

Do. 
1716 



Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1718 

Do. 




Do. 

■py 

AS 



Do. 




/r 



Do. 



Do. 



/# 





[OK) 
Do. 

» • 

AS 



Large monteith with arms and inscription. — Noted by Messrs. 
West and Co. 

(Probably David King, warden 1699.) Oadrooned salver from 

the same collection. — Do. 
(Do.) Mace, dated 1701, formerly belonging to the borough 

of Lifford. — Earl of Erne. 
Paten, dated 1703.— St. Mary's, Dublin. 
(Joseph Walker, as in 1693.) Flagon and paten, dated 1720. 

— Ch. Ch. CathcHlral, Dublin. 

(A. Sowt, as in 1693.) Tankard. ^Notcd by author. 

(Joseph Walker, as in 1693.) Communion cup and paten, 
dated 1706.— St. Nicholas', Dublin. 

(David King, as in 1694.) Paten, undated.— Ch. Ch. Cathe- 
dral, Dublin. 

(Do.) Small salver on foot. — Noted by Messrs. West and Co. 

Paten, dated 1705.— St. Mary*s, Dublin. 

(Thos. Bolton, as in 1693.) Paten, dated 1707.— Staplestown, 

Carlow. 
(loseph Walker, as in 1693.) Cup, dated 1709, ex dono 

Palliser. — Trinity College, Dublin. 

(David King, as in 1694.) Mace. — Corporation of Enniskillen. 
Communion cup, dated Feb. 1703-4.— ^^Jloyne CathedraL 

(Joseph Walker, as in 1693.) Alms-dish. — St. Mary's, Dublin. 

(Do.) Communion cup and paten, dated 1706. — St Nicholas*, 

Dublin. 
(Thos. Bolton, as in 1693.) Flagon ; legicy, dated 1712.— 

Cloyne Cathedral. 
Communion cup, dated 1709. — St. Margaret's, Dromiskin. 
(David King, as in 1694.) Flagon, dated 1711.— St. Audoen's, 

Dublin. 

(Do.) Communion cup, given 1713. — Killcshandra, Cavan. 

Paten, dated 1712.— St. Mary's, Dublin. 

(Thos. Bolton, as in 1693.) Fine fluted monteith. — Capt M. 
Longfield. 

Communion plate, dated 1715. — Cashel CathedraL 

(Joseph Walker, as in 1693.) Paten, dated 1716.— St. Luke's, 
Dublin. 

Paten. — Daglingworth, Glouc. 

(Thos. Bolton, as in 1693.) Candlesticks with square bases, 
the comers cut off, winged busts on the stems. — Earl of 
llchester. Also two-handled cup. — Col. Tremayne, Carclew. 

(Edward Workman, wanlen 1712.)— Flagon dated 1717.— St. 
John Evangelist, Dublin. 

Flagon, dated 1716. — Templeport, Cavan. 

Flagon, dated 1716. — Killcshandra, Cavan. 

(Thos. Bolton, as in 1693.) Mace. — Corporation of Dublin. 

(A. Sowt, as in 1693.) Plain salver on foot. — Noted by West 
and Co. 



i6o 



Old English Plate. 



[€HAP. VIT. 



1718 

1720 

Do. 
1724 

1725 
Do. 

172fi 
Do. 

1728 

1720 

1730 
1731 
1732 

Do. 

1733 

1784 

Do. 

1735 
1736 



Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1730 

1740 

1743 
1744 

1745 

1747 

1753 
c. 1755 





W,C 



I-H 



3N0C 



T-W 




3M0C 



DK 

TW 




• • * 
IW 






t+C 



Alms-dish, dated 1720. — Noted by Lambert and Co. 



Flated salver- late Col. Meadows Tajlor, C.S.I. 

Salver on feet, bearing Qore arms. — Lord Harlech. 
Coffee-pot. — Rev. F. bntton. 

Two-handled cap and cover — late J. R. Daniel-Tjssen, Esq. 
Alms-dish, dated 1724. — St. Michan's, Dublin. 



Communion Cup. — St. Nicholas*, Dublin. 



Plain salver on foot. — Noted by Messrs. West and Co. 



Mace, dated 1728. — Goldsmiths' Co., London. 

Plain bowl. — Blair 0. Cochrane, Esq. 

(I-H, as in 1725.) Plain bowl.—Notetl by Messrs. West and Co. 
(Crowned, as in 1716.) Small salver. — Marquis of Breadalbane. 
(As in 1726.) Flagon, dated 1731.— St. Nicholas*, Dublin. 

Mark notetl by Author. 

(As in 1726.) Two-handled cup.— Ion T. Hamilton, Esq. 
Flagon, dated 1733.— St. Patrick's, Waterfortl. 
Jug, won by ** Smileing Bald," at Waterford Races. — Lord 
Harlech. 

Racing cup, dated 1734. — Earl of Enniskillen. 

(As in 1726.) Large shaped salver and pair of small two- 
handled cups. — Sold at Christie & Manson's in 1875. 

Also cake-basket in imitation of wicker-work. — Capt. M. 
Longfield. 

Mark noted by Author. 



Mark noted by Author. 

(As in 1728.) Gold snuff-box, presented with the freedom of 

Naas, 1737. — Earl of Shannon. 
Communion cup, dated 1741. — Kildare Cathedral. 

Mark noted by Author. 

(As in 1725.) Table-spoons. — Lord Amherst of Hackney. 
(As in 1726.) Do. — Noted by Messrs. Waterhouse. 

Mark noted by Author. 



Flagon.— St Nicholas', Dublin. 

Table-spoons, Hanoverian pattern. — Col. Tremayne, Carclew. 

Salvers and tankard.- Lord O'Neill. 



CHAP. VII.] 



Examples of Dublin Plate. 



i6i 



1755 
1756 

Do. 

1759 

1765 

1767 

1769 

Do. 

1770 

1776* 

1778 

Do. 
1782 

1785 
1789 
1794 
1796 

1805 

1807 

1811 

1815 




OB 



@ 




ra 




m 




JB 






i-s 



m 



I-LB 



Do. 



(David Petre.) Fluted soup-ladle. — Col. Tremayne, Carclew. . 

Spoons. — Noted by Messrs. Waterhouse. 

Table-spoons, fcatber-edged. — Late J. J. Lonsdale, Esq. 

Mark noted by Author. 



Mark noted by Author. 

Dessert-spoons. — Noted by Messrs. Waterhouse. 

Laigc circular salver. — Late Col. Meadows Taylor, C.S.L 

John KaiT. — Noted by Author. 



I 



Two-handled cup. — J. Y. Burges, Esq. 

Snuff-box, presented with an address, 1778. — Earl of Shannon. 

In plain oblonpr (Michael Keating). Plain tablespoons with 
|K>inted handles. — Capt. M. LongiSeld. 

In oval. Salad spoon and fork, feather-edged. — Do. 

As in 1776. Table spoons with pointed handles, feather- 
edged. — Do. 

Sugar-basin, on three feet. — From the Staniforth Collection. 
Mark noted by Author. 
Mark noted by Author. 
Mark noted by Author. 

Cake-basket, repousse and chased. — Late Rev. C. Daniel. 

Large gravy-spoon. — Messrs. Waterhouse. 

(Le Bas.) Teapot (also stamped with dealer's name WEST). — 
Late Rev. C. Daniel. 

(Do.) shaped salver, on feet. — Do. 



* The date-letters F, H and M of this alphabet, and no doubt others, have a small dot 
or pellet beneath them within the shield. 



l62 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. VII. 



Table of Dublin Mabk6 since 1638. 



Quality. 



SUver,|O.S. 



Gold, 22 c, 
till 1784.* 



Standard. 



Harp crowned. 





i 



17th 18th 1785-92. 1792 

cent, cent to 

till 1808. 
1786. 

Ditto. 



Datb. 



Annual 
letter. 



Ditto. 



Duty. 
1780—1890. 



Hibemia from 1730. and 
King's Head in addition 
frrjm 1807. 




ji 



1792 

to 

1808. 



Ditto. 



Makeb. 



Initials. 



Ditto 



N.B. — The provisions as to gold of 15, 12, and 9 carats, of 17 k. 18 Vict., c. 96, 
extend to Ireland, and these qualities are denoted by the same decimal 
numbers as in England, by way of standard marks. 



* Since 1784, for standard marks on gold 
of 22, 20, and 18 carats, and for the ^ew 
Geneva marks, see the notice of the Act of 



that year (23 & 24 Geo. III. c. 23) 
165. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

FRAUDS AND OFFENCES. 

OLD OFFBKCBS — THE REPORT TO PARLIAMENT OF 1773 — THE ACTS OF 1739 AND 
1844 — CASES PROCEEDED AGAINST UNDER THEIR PROVISIONS ~AN AMA- 
TEUR'S EXPERIENCE. 

The lessons that may be derived by the plate-buyer from a little 
practical experience, as well as from a record of some of the offences 
that have from time to time been attempted in contravention of the 
legislation of which we have now considered the course, are so 
important, that a short chapter may be fairly devoted entirely to 
them. 

Frauds are no new thing, and a description of the deceits of the 
goldsmiths in Queen Elizabeth's days might almost word for word 
have been written in those of her present gracious Majesty. They are 
amusingly set out in Stubbes' Anatomy of Abuses,* thus : — 

" Theodorus. Be there Goldsmithes there any store also, as in some 
other countries there be ? 

" Amphilogus. There are inow, and more than a good meanie. They 
are (for the most part) very rich and wealthye, or else they turne the 
fairest side outwards, as many doe in DnalgneA They have their 
shops and stalles fraught and bedecked with chaines, rings, gold, 
silver, and what not woonderfuU richly. They will make you any 
monster or antike whatsoever of golde, silver, or what you will. They 
have store of all kinde of plate whatsoever. But what ? Is there no 
deceit in all these goodlye shewes ? Yes, too many. If you will buy 
a chaine of golde, a ring, or any kinde of plate, besides that you shall 
paye almost halfe more than it is woorth (for they will persuade you 
the workmanship of it comes to so much, the fashion to so much, and 
I cannot tell what) ; you shall also perhaps have that golde which is 
naught, or else at least mixt with other drossie rubbage, and refuse 
mettall, which in comparison is good for nothing. And sometimes, or 
for the most part, you shal have tinne, lead, and the like, mixt with 



• Phillip Slubbea' Anatomy r]f Abuses in 
Eng^ndy Part II. 1. Tricks of GoldsmithB 



and Vintners. — Nev Shakespeare Society, 
Series VI., No. 12. f England. 

M 2 



164 Old English Plate. [chap. vm. 

silver. And againe, in some things some will not sticke to sell you 
silver gilt for gold, and well if no worse too now and then. But this 
happeneth very seldome, by reason of good orders, and constitutions 
made for the punishment of them that offend in this kind of deceit, and 
therefore they seldome dare offend therein, though now and then they 
chance to stumble in the darke.*' 

There is little here that would differ from an account of practices 
that are, unhappily, too prevalent at the present time. 

The earliest provisions against fraud concern themselves with the 
use of metal worse than standard, the setting of false stones in gold, 
and of real stones in base metal, the price at which goldsmith's work 
shall be sold, and the prevention of working in secret ; later on penal- 
ties were instituted, not only for selling silver of inferior quality, but 
for selling even fine silver before it was marked with the proper touches 
and the maker's own mark, whilst in 1597 we come as a third stage 
to proceedings instituted against those who counterfeited marks, which 
resulted, as we have seen, in the offenders being put in the pillory and 
losing an ear. Some of these offences owe their very existence to a 
state of things, socially speaking, which has long passed away. The 
very notion of legislating against working in a back street, or at night, 
or fixing the price at which articles should be sold, is enough to raise 
a smile at the simplicity of mediaeval economy. Neither need we 
notice here the statutes directed against exporting silver and melting 
down the coin of the realm to make plate. 

Coming to modern days, a short review of the reported cases will 
answer the useful purpose of suggesting to the reader the sort of frauds 
against which he should be on his guard, even though changes in the 
law, and the abolition of the intricacies of special pleading, have 
deprived them to a certain extent of their legal interest. 

Several such cases were appended to the report presented to the 
House of Commons in 1778, this appendix being in point of fact an 
account of the prosecutions carried on by the Goldsmiths' Company 
against persons for frauds and abuses in matters relating to gold and 
silver plate during the seven years then last past. 

They ivere four in number, and omitting technicalities they were as 
follows : — 

(1.) In 1767, for soldering bits of standard silver to tea-tongs and 
shoe-buckles, which were worse than standard, and sending them to 
the Company's assay oflBce in order fraudulently to obtain their marks 
to the same. 

(2.) In 1768, for making salt-cellars worse than the standard, and 
selling them for standard. 



CHAP. Tin.] Fradus and Offences. 165 

(S.) In 1770, for making and also for selling gold watch-chains 
worse than standard. 

(4.) In the same year for selling two silver watch-cases without 
being marked. 

To this report of 1773 was appended a remark that the heavy 
penalty (no less than death as a felon) imposed by 81 Geo. 11., c. 82, 
for counterfeiting hall-marks, had greatly put a stop to frauds in 
wrought plate. 

It is more than doubtful whether as much could be said at the 
present day, though the goldsmiths' trade is now regulated by an Act 
which does all that can be effected by careful provisions in the 
direction of rendering abuses difficult or impossible ; bat such is the 
temptation to the forger of these days, in consequence of the demand 
for '' antique " plate, that a single walk through the streets of London 
will be enough to show that present legislation is powerless against 
his cunning arts. The Quarterly Reviewer has not overstated the 
case in saying that a buyer may return home, after traversing our 
great thoroughfares for a day, with '' a cab-load of real old English 
plate,*' if he be not too fastidious, and has money in his purse.* By 
the time the reader has got to the end of this chapter, if he ever does, 
and if he did not know it before, he will have found where all this 
stuff comes from, and how little genuine antique plate is to be had at 
a moment's notice, or indeed at all, however much one may be willing 
to pay for it. 

First, let us recount the main provisions of the Acts which now 
regulate the craft ; then note a case or two that have been dealt with 
under them ; and conclude the chapter with some personal experiences 
of the modes in which they are evaded. 

We may ignore, as this is not a legal treatise, the various minor 
provisions of the last and present centuries, altering penalties from 
time to time, and also certain details found only in the Sheifield and 
Birmingham Acts. Everything of general interest is practically 
summed up in the most recent Act,t which, with the Act of the 
reign of George U.4 are those to which we now turn ; the latter still 
providing for the maintenance of the standards, whilst the Act of the 
present reign deals with abuses in the marking of wares. 

As to the standards, then, the Act of 1789 provided that all gold 
wares should not be less in fineness than 22 carats of fine gold, and 
all silver wares not less than 11 oz. 2 dwts. of fine silver in every 



♦ QuarUrly RevUw, April, 1876. t 7 & 8 Vict. c. 22 (1844). 

X 12 Geo. II. c. 26 (1739j. 



1 66 Old English Plate, [chap. vm. 

pound weight Troy, and inflicted by s. 1 a penalty of ;£10 for every 
offence. 

It is, however, not quite certain but that these offences are still 
indictable as misdemeanoars under older legislation ; for the ancient 
Acts of 28 Edw. I., 2 Hen. VI., 18 Eliz., and 12 Will. HI. are recited 
but not repealed by the Act we are now considering : and since the 
passing of it, prisoners have been sentenced to fine and imprisonment 
on indictment under 28 Edw. I. for making silver plate worse than 
standard. Instances of this occurred in 1758, 1759, and 1774, the 
last case being tried by Lord Mansfield.* 

The Act of 1739 also inflicts a penalty of J£10, or in default im- 
prisonment, for selling, exchanging, or exposing to sale any gold or 
silver ware before it is duly marked ; it directs the entry of makers' 
marks at the Goldsmiths* Hall ; and it details under penalties the 
particulars which must accompany every parcel of wares sent to the 
assay office for stamping. These last are repeated in the Duty Act of 
1784. 

Turning now to the other branch of the subject, we find that every- 
thing relating to the prevention of frauds and abuses in the marking 
of gold and silver wares in England is summed up in the Act of 1844, f 
which enumerates the following offences, all punishable as felonies : — 

Sect. 2. Forging or counterfeiting any Die for marking Gold or Silver Wares or know- 

ingly uttering the same ; 
Marking Wares with forged Dies, or uttering them ; 
Forging any Mark of any Die, or uttering the same ; 
Transposing or Removing Marks, or uttering them ; 
Having in possession knowingly any such Die, or Ware marked with the 

same; 
Cutting or severing Marks with Intent to aflSx them upon other Wares ; 
Affixing any Mark cut or severed from any other Wares ; 
Fraudulently using genuine Dies. 

Later sections deal with other offences, as follows : — 

Sec. 3. Selling or having possession of any Wares with forged or transposed Marks 
without lawful excuse (even unknowing that the Marks were so forged or 
transposed) ; penalty £10 each offence. 

Sec. 4. Dealera to be exempt from the above penalties on giving up the names of the 
actual manufacturer of such wares of gold or silver or base metal, or of the 
person from whom they received them, but not from the consequence of 
uttering them with guilty knowledge. 

Sec 5. Adding to, or altering by addition or otherwise, the character of wares already 
marked and so as to increase the weight by more than one-third of the 
original weight, without having them re-assayed as new ; or in certain 
cases, with the assent of the Company, the added part only assayed ; or 
selling such ware without the same being marked ; penalty £10 for each 
offence and forfeiture of the ware. 



R. V. Jacksoa. Cowper, 297. t 7 & 8 Vict. c. 22. 



CHAP. VIII.] Frauds and Offences. 167 

Sec. 6. Exceptions to the preceding section corresponding to those of section 4. 

Sec. 7. If any officer of any of the Halls shall mark any base metal with any die, etc., 

such Company to be liable to a penalty of £20, the officer to be dismissed 

and the ware seized. 
Sec. 8. Dealers to register every place where they work or carry on business or deposit 

wares, under a penalty of £5. 
Sec. 9. Dealers not to fraudulently erase, obliterate, or deface any mark under a penalty 

of £5. 
Sec. 1 1. Upon information given upon oath against persons suspected of having in 

possession illegal wares, etc.. Justices may grant search-warrants, but not 

for wares not required to be marked. 
Sec. 13. Actions to be commenced within three months after the fact committed. 

This being the state of the law, at the risk of repeating what has 
been said by other writers, some notice must be taken of the most 
instructive case that had occurred under it down to the year 1876, 
condensing our account from that given by Mr. Ryland.* 

Two silversmiths were tried before Lord Denman at Taunton Spring 
Assizes, 1849, for having in their possession, without lawful excuse, 
a silver spoon and soup-ladle having thereon marks of dies used by the 
Goldsmiths' Company, which had been transposed from silver skewers. 
The spoon and ladle were of modern make, but bore the mark of the 
year 1774. An officer from the Goldsmiths' Company proved that, 
on clearing off the gilding and using a blow-pipe he found that the 
spoon and ladle were not made in one piece, which would be the 
ordinary mode of manufacture, but that the parts bearing the marks 
were " inserted " or " brought on." A working silversmith proved 
that by direction of the prisoners he had made and sent to them two 
silver-bowls for spoons ; that they afterwards were returned to him 
with handles attached to be gilt, and when he burnished them he 
perceived the old hall-marks ; he proved also that the bowls and stems, 
or handles, were generally made together. 

The defence set up was that this did not amount to a transposition, 
but was only an addition, a minor offence under the Act and entailing 
a lesser penalty ; and it was suggested that the spoon and ladle were 
made by using old silver skewers with the old hall-mark for the stems, 
and adding to them bowls and figures at the top called " apostles " in 
order to give them the appearance of old plate, and that this was an 
addition, which, though a fraud in contravention of the Act, would not 
be a felony. This ingenious transposal of the process commended 
itself to the jury, and they acquitted the prisoners, though evidently 
against the summing-up of the learned judge, who thought that the 
description of transposition in one section, and of addition in another, 
came to much the same thing, and avowed that he was at a loss to see 



Auay of Gold and Silver Wares, London, 1852. 



1 68 Old English Plate. [chap. vm. 

any difference between taking out just merely the mark and patting it 
into a new article, which would clearly be a transposition, and doing 
the same thing with some more dexterity and more disguise in a con- 
siderable length. A more recent case is not less suggestive. 

D. L. G., a dealer, carrying on business in London, was convicted 
at the Central Criminal Court in August, 1876, of feloniously altering 
and transferring a certain mark of a die used by the Goldsmiths' 
Company under the following circumstances. A customer found 
displayed in the prisoner's shop, and purchased for £10, a coffee-pot, 
hall-marked and bearing the letter m of the year 1747, there being 
appended to it a label with the words '* 120 years old." He also 
purchased of the prisoner a small silver ewer, bearing the goldsmiths' 
letter for 1744. 

It being found that the articles were of recent pianufacture, the 
Goldsmiths' Company issued a writ against the prisoner to recover 
penalties under s. 8 of the Act we are considering, in regard to which, 
under another section, a dealer could, however, be protected if within 
twenty-one days he gave up the name of the person from whom he 
bought the article. At first stating that he had bought the article in 
the way of trade and did not know from whom, he afterwards gave the 
name of a working electro-plater, w^ho was thereupon arrested and, on 
the prisoner s evidence being committed for trial, pleaded guilty. 
Judgment was postponed, and his evidence taken against the principal 
offender, from which it appeared that he had transferred to the coffee- 
pot and ewer certain old marks from pieces of silver brought to him 
by the prisoner for that purpose, the prisoner agreeing to purchase 
those articles if the witness would put the old marks on. The 
offenders were thereupon sentenced, the dealer to six months and the 
electro-plater to two months' imprisonment, in both cases with hard 
labour. A number of penalties were sued for in the course of the 
year 1878, by the Goldsmiths' Company ; and in one case no less a 
sum than £240 paid on account of the sale of 24 forks bearing forged 
hall-marks of a good period. It would be very desirable to give 
fullest publicity to all such convictions ; without this they have but 
little effect. 

A few words may conveniently be said here about the importation 
of plate bearing forged English marks. Legislation upon this abuse 
seems to commence with a Customs Act of 1842 (5 & 6 Vict. c. 47), 
which enacts that foreign plate shall not be sold unless duly assayed 
and marked, but does not oblige the importer to send such plate to be 
marked at the time of its importationy nor indeed at any time. 

Another Customs Act of the same year (5 & 6 Yict. c. 56), provides 



CHAP. VIII.] Frauds and Offences. 169 

that ornamental plate made prior to the year 1800 may be sold with- 
out being marked. 

A third such Act, passed in 1867 (30 & 81 Vict. c. 82), directs that 
any imported plate sent to an assay office to be marked, shall be 
marked with all the usual marks, and with the letter F in an oval 
escutcheon in addition. This Act has been repealed ; but the 
provision in question was re-enacted (89 & 40 Vict. c. 85) in the same 
words. Last of all, we find in the London Gazette of Dec. 9, 1887, 
an Order in Council under the Merchandise Marks Acts of the same 
year, prescribing special marks for foreign watch-cases admitted to 
assay, after a declaration as to place of manufacture. For gold, 
the word " Foreign " on a cross. For silver, the same on a regular 
octagon. These to be used together with the year-letter, and other 
usual marks. 

It will easily be seen that none of these enactments offer any real 
hindrance to the importation of plate beanng forged English marks, 
and some stringent legislation is sorely needed to put a stop to 
fraudulent practices and to protect the honest dealer and the public 
alike. 

There is nothing, however, so telling as personal experience : let 
us see what can be picked up in this way by the amateur of old 
plate as he walks along the London streets. 

He will soon see that in consequence of the first series of imita- 
tions having been usually of seventeenth century plate, and the better 
credit that silver work of the reigns of Queen Anne and the earlier 
Georges therefore maintained, the latter period became in time the 
more profitable one to attack, and that the market is now flooded 
with the plain and fluted plate of those reigns, which is made to all 
appearance, both at home and abroad for importation hither, by the 
waggon-load. 

Next he will find that the modern forger scorns to be at the trouble 
of transposing or adding, call it which you will, genuine old hall- 
marks to modern plate. He boldly fashions antique plate, marks and 
all ; and here we may say that so far from giving him information to 
turn to base advantage, as one writer has feared would be the case, 
the published lists of date-letters and other marks have, by their very 
inaccuracies, proved pit-falls for those who have used them for 
purposes of fraud. 

How shall we distinguish the real from the spurious ? Well, one 
chance is, that our enquirer finds in nine cases out of ten that the 
forger has not learned his lesson thoroughly. A living amateur has 
seen, for instance, at a public exhibition in London, a large jug 



170 Old English Plate. [chap. vm. 

conspicaously labelled as by the fainoas George Heriot, but bearing 
marks which could only belong to the end of the seventeenth century, 
if they were genuine at all ; and they were not if the said amateur 
knew anything about the matter. He has also seen, as conspicuously 
labelled in a shop- window, a pair of Queen Anne pattern candlesticks, 
bearing what purported to be a well-known maker's mark, and beside 
it the date-letter of a year that had elapsed long before the adoption 
and registration by that maker of the particular mark in question. 

What would the unsophisticated collector say to finding that two 
specimens of Queen Anne plate in his cabinet, with their gadrooned 
edges, court-hand date-letters and all, of some five or ten years 
apart, and by quite different makers, proved on a careful examination 
of the ornamentation, to have come from one and the same modern 
atelier, a small defect in one of the tools used having left its fatal sign 
on both articles alike ? 

What, again, if he should see an Elizabethan treasure, say of 1576, 
put into a sale by its disgusted owner, who had arrived at a know- 
ledge of its real age all too late, and knocked down by the auctioneer 
for a small sum as what is called in the trade a *' duffer," amid 
the pleasantries of an appreciative audience of dealers who will 
possibly welcome it again before long under much the same circum- 
stances ? 

Another surprise may await him if he should be fortunate enough 
to secure for his collection some relic of thrilling historical interest, 
such as a cup proved by the inscription upon it to have been the gift 
of Mary Queen of Scots to Darnley ; for it is not beyond the bounds 
of possibility that he may meet ere long with a second cup, of precisely 
similar pattern, and proved as conclusively to have been the one given 
in exchange by Darnley to that unfortunate lady. 

As he wdll hardly expect to pick up a third treasure of this descrip- 
tion, he may perhaps turn his attention to real old ** family plate," of 
which he may think that there is likely to be more in the market. It 
would be very odd if he did not soon come across plenty to be sold, 
**in strict confidence," and "under peculiar circumstances,*' with a 
condition that the ancient coats of arms with which it is decorated are 
to be carefully erased* 

Much of this precious stuff has been bought by those who have 
afterwards found that, like some other people who preceded them — 
sero sapiunt Phryges, — they have come by their wisdom too late. 

A most flagrant case came to light long after the publication of the 
first edition of this volume in 1878, and it is full of warning, 
illustrating almost every point that has been mentioned in the last 



CHAP. VIII.] Modern Frauds. 171 

few pages. Were it not an actual fact, it would be hard to believe 
that dealer dared sell, or buyer could be found to buy, a set of many 
hundreds of spoons, forks, and other table plate marked as of the first 
ten or fifteen years of the eighteenth century. More astonishing still 
is it that, though he marked his wares as of Britannia standard, the 
manufacturer should not have taken the trouble to make up his metal 
to that quality, for the chance of avoiding detection by the assay ; and 
most astonishing of all that he should have included in his set, dessert- 
knives, fish-slices, and other articles unheard of in bygone days. The 
handles of the forks appear to have been cast, marks and all, in a 
mould made from a spoon-handle, and then fastened on to prongs, for 
which cast metal would not have been sufficiently hard and un- 
bending. Great numbers of these had the letter for 1703-4, with the 

Britannia standard marks, and for maker's mark the letters &r(^ with 

a crown above, and a pellet below them, all within a circle. Others 

had the letter for 1712-3, with c^L^for maker's mark on a stamp 

with indented edge ; others, again, had ^IpiM as it appears in Ap- 
pendix A at the year 1782, together with the London hall-marks for 
1688-4. And many other blunders of the same sort came to light as 
soon as the objects were submitted to careful examination. 

On the institution of proceedings the dealer who sold all this rubbish 
gave up, under the provisions of section 4 of the Act of 1844, the 
name of a person from whom he said he had received it in the ordinary 
way of business ; and in the end judgment was signed by the Gold- 
smiths' Company against this person for the full amount of £10 for 
each of the articles, of which there were 647, bearing forged marks. 
It seems very much open to question whether the Act works at all 
well, or for the interests of the public. Penalties are nominally 
recovered, it is true, by the Goldsmiths' Company ; but the forger 
goes to work again as before at his profitable trade, escaping in most 
cases by judicious and timely surrender^ the exposure which would be 
the only effectual hindrance to his operations. If full advertisement 
in the newspapers of all penalties recovered by the Company were part 
of the punishment inflicted upon such offenders, it would probably be 
much more dreaded and more effectual. 

It is sometimes possible to guess correctly the very shop from which 
articles purporting to be of the Queen Anne period have come, from 
the marks used upon them. A much-abused mark has been that of 
William Gamble ; being the letters G A under a crown with a pellet 
on each side, all in a circle. 



1 72 Old English Plate. [chap. vm. 

There is uo need to condemn all plate found bearing these varions 
marks ; but much that is spurious haying been put into circulation 
80 marked, it will be well to be cautious about such and the like 
specimens. The date-letters for 1688, 1789 and 1746 have been seen 
by the author so well executed as almost to defy detection, did they 
stand alone. 

Should the collector fail in finding ready to his hand anything of 
sufficient historical or family interest to tempt him, let him further 
beware of giving orders for articles not to be found of the date he 
covets, — a coflFee-pot, of the reign of Queen Elizabeth for example, — 
or he will run the risk of finding his newly acquired possession, when 
at last soma fortunate agent has picked up one for him, to be formed 
of the sloping body of an ordinary chalice of a well-known type in 
those days turned bottom upwards to get the slope the right way and 
fitted with a foot, lid, handle and spout of suitable fashion, the position 
of the hall-marks upside down in a row round the lower part of the pot 
revealing to the initiated alone the ingenious adaptation. 

Here we may remark that the observant amateur will soon find a 
good guide in the situation of the hall-marks ; those marks were always 
placed by rule, and will be found in unusual positions on pieces of plate 
that have been altered from their original shape. 

An early tankard ought to be marked on the side near the handle, 
and straight across the flat lid in a parallel line with the purchase or 
perhaps upon the flange of the lid, but a more modern one will be 
stamped on the bottom and inside the lid ; a standing cup of Queen 
Anne or earlier bears the marks round the margin, one of thirty years 
later on the bottom of the bowl up inside the hollow stem, and so on 
in other cases. 

Time was when ornamentation of one date coupled with hall-marks 
of another would have passed muster, and for the detection of such 
anomalies as these the illustrations given in later chapters will be of 
some use ; but blunders of this kind are not so frequent now, and the 
buyer is left to the careful examination first of the metal itself, then 
of the execution rather than the fashion of the ornamentation, and 
lastly of the hall-marks. The silver in spurious specimens will be 
rolled perhaps, instead of hammered, and betray to the practised eye 
and hand what has been called "a fatal air of newness ; *' the same 
fatal air may condemn the fashion and decoration, especially the gilding 
if any be present ; and the hall-marks are still so little understood 
that forgeries almost court detection by trained eyes, but trained they 
must be. Failing this, the buyer can scarcely do better than resort 
for what he wants to one or other of the great houses of goldsmiths 



CHAP. VIII.] Modern Frauds. 173 

whose names are household words, and leave himself in their hands, 
or to some one whom he knows to be a respectable and well-skilled 
tradesman. Good plate and genuine after all can be got, and it is 
into such hands that what is really valuable generally passes. Patience 
and money the collector will require, and plenty of both ; for such 
houses as these do not make old plate to order, and they are as much 
as other people under the laws of supply and demand which regulate 
the price of it when it comes into the market. 

But if the buyer prefer foraging for himself, whether in highway, 
bye-way, or sale-room, to be forewarned is to some extent to be fore- 
armed ; and surely he is better off with the means of forming a good 
judgment placed at his disposal than if ignorant of facts the greater 
part of which are already well known to the fraudulent, and daily used 
by them against their victims. 

We cannot end the chapter better than with the words — caveat 
emptor. 



CHAPTER IX. 

ECCLESIASTICAL PLATE. 

EPISCOPAL CONSTITUTIONS BELATINO TO CHUBCH PLATE— CHUECH GOODS, HOW 
AFFECTED BT THE EVENTS OF THE BEIONS OF EDWABD VI. AND QUEEN 
ELIZABETH— CHALICES EXCHANGED FOB COMMUNION GUPS — ^PBE-BEFOBMA- 
TION CHALICES AND PATENS — ELIZABETHAN COMMUNION CUPS— MODEBN 
CHALICES, COMMUNION CUPS AND PATENS — FLAGONS — ALMS -DISHES — 
CANDLESTICKS. 

The precediDg chapters have dealt with the marks by which the 
age and authenticity of ancient plate may be verified, and it is time to 
turn to what remains of the possessions of our ancestors, and to see 
what additional information may be gathered from its fashion and 
other circumstances. 

It will be convenient to divide the subject into two portions, devoting 
the present chapter to ecclesiastical plate, and reserving decorative and 
domestic plate for separate consideration. 

The misfortunes that befell the goods of the Church in England 
during the sixteenth century, and the simplicity of later ritual, have 
shortened the history of our church-plate a good deal. The examples 
of pre-Reformation art now left in England are comparatively few ; 
those of any importance are very few indeed ; for the rest, cathedral 
and church alike possess certain simple articles of communion and 
altar plate of dates ranging from the reign of Edward YI. to the 
present day, and varying in their design from time to time, as we shall 
see, but hardly ever rising to any high level of art excellence. 

It is difficult to realise the splendour of the display that would have 
met the eye of him who entered one of our great cathedrals or wealthy 
parish churches on any high festival day in the three or four centuries 
that preceded the Reformation. The church was the nursing-mother 
of the arts, which lent themselves in their turn to the adornment of 
her services ; the monks were the goldsmiths of the middle ages ; St. 
Dunstan himself was the patron of their craft in England; what 
wonder, then, that the wealth of gold and silver in its shrines and 
treasuries was immense, so immense as to be almost incredible. 

It would be foreign to our present purpose to reprint long lists of 



CHAP. IX.] Modem Church Plate. 175 

treasures, of which not so much as an article remains ; but some few 
historical remarks are necessary to enable us to understand the earlier 
specimens of English church-plate that still exist. 

Let us take for a starting-point the episcopal constitutions which 
ordained what ornaments and furniture were necessary for the ordinary 
seryice of the church. One of the best of these is that of Robert 
Winchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1293 — 1318, who directs, in 
1805, that parishes should provide, and keep in proper repair, the 
following articles : — * 

"Legendam antiphonarium gradale psalterium troperium ordinale 
missale manuale calicem vestamentum principale cum casula dalmatica 
tunica et cum capa in choro cum onmibus suis appendiciis frontale ad 
magnum altare cum tribus tuellis tria superpellicia unum rochetum 
crucem processionalem crucem pro mortuis thuribulum lucernam 
tintinabulum ad deferendum coram corpore Chrisbi in visitatione 
infirmorum pixidem pro corpore Christi honestum velum quadrage- 
simale vexilla pro rogationibus campanas cum chordis feretrum pro 
defunctis vas pro aqua benedicta osculatorium candelabrum pro cereo 
Paschali fontem cum serura imagines in ecclesia imaginem principalem 
in cancello." 

In another edition of these same constitutions a chrismatory is 
added to the above requirements. 

We have given the complete list, as it is a very full and interesting 
one, and more of it has some relation to the art of the goldsmith than 
might seem likely at first sight ; for besides the sacramental vessels, 
the pyx, censer (thuribulum), chrismatory, and pax (osculatorium), 
the images also and the covers of the service-books were often of silver 
and of great weight. The image of its patron saint, taken from the 
chapel of St. Stephen at Westminster in the time of Henry VIII., 
weighed no less than thirteen score and thirteen ounces, and the 
inventory of St. Olave's, Southwark, in 1552, includes a ** gospeller 
booke garnyshed with sylver and parcell gylte with Mary and John, 
weynge cxx. ounces,'* and a "pisteler booke with Peter and Palle 
garnished with sylver and parcell gylte weynge C. ounces." Such 
covers as these served as pax-bredes or osculatories. 

The requirements of Winchelsey are almost identical with those 
of Archbishop Simon in 1368 ; and if certain other articles, such as 
phials for wine and water and also candlesticks, are mentioned by an 
earlier prelate, Gilbert de Bridport, Bishop of Sarum in 1256, the pyx, 
the vessel for holy-water, and the pax — all included by Archbishop 



* Lyndewode, Provincialit, Lib. uL tit. De eccleaiis edificandis, fo. 137. 



176 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. iz. 



Winchelsey — are omitted from the more ancient list. The constitations 
of William de Bleys in 1229 add but a single item of interest, an nn- 
consecrated chalice, which might bo of tin, for burial with the priest.* 

Fui'fcher, it is clear that even in early days country churches were 
properly supplied with all these vessels, vestments, books, and other 
necessaries. The inventories taken by William de Swyneflete, Arch- 
deacon of Norwich in or about 1868, the year of Archbishop Simon's 
Constitutions, may be quoted to show that the Norwich churches were 
all amply supplied at that time, and later visications give the same 
testimony.'!' 

A very beautiful Thurible or Censer of the end of the reign of 
Edward III. was sold at Messrs. Christie, Manson & Woods' Auction 
Booms in the Grenville Wells Collection, in the summer of 1890. It 
was found, together with a Ship or Incense Boat, in Whittlesea Mere ; 
and is figured in Shaw*s Decorative Arts, and described in ^rc/tcpo2o^i- 
cal Joumalf Vol. YIII. The Incense Boat bore ramd' heads on its 
two extremities, part of the arms of Bamsey Abbey, to which no doubt 
both pieces belonged. They were purchased by Lord Carysfort at the 
sum of £1155 for the Censer, and £900 for the Boat. The Incense 
Boat is of early Tudor work. 

In the days of Edward YI. there is good evidence of the great value 
of parish church plate years after the events of his father's reign 
had bestowed the still greater treasures of cathedrals and monasteries, 
upon the king under the general name of " Church-stuff." St. 
Olave's, Southwark, in 1552 still possessed no less than 1062 ounces 
of silver in chalices, crosses, basins, mounted covers for the books, 
pyxes, a pax, a chrismatory, censers, cruets, and the like ; a church 
in Norwich returned a list of 857 ounces to the commissioners about 
the same time ; and it was the same everywhere, the amounts varying 
with the importance of the parishes. 

It is hardly fair, therefore, to charge King Henry VIII. and his 
advisers with the whole course of spoliation which the Church suffered 
in the years which followed 1586. On the contrary, it was reserved 
for succeeding reigns to carry on and complete the work of destruction 
which was then only commenced. The seizure of parish church plate 
was not decided upon until the last year of King Edward VI., and 
some was left untouched till the days of the Protestant reaction which 
marked the accession of Elizabeth and resulted in some places in a 



* For these two last-mentioned Constitn- 
tioDB, see Wilkins's ConcUia, Vol. I., pp. 
714 and 623. 



t Norfolk and Norwich Archaolooy, Vol. 
v. 98. 



CHAP. IX.] Church Goods under Edward VI. 177 

repetition of the excesses in which the puritanism of her brother's 
reign had vented itself. 

Whilst all this was going on, it is not wonderful that parochial 
authorities, alarmed at the misfortunes befalling their more powerful 
neighbours, the monasteries, guilds, and fraternities, took advantage 
of the excuse afforded by the necessity of altering their churches, and 
adapting them to the new and more simple ritual, and of repairing the 
damage done by the destruction of painted glass, images, and all that 
could come under the denomination of " monuments of superstition," 
to dispose of a portion of their more valuable property by way of meet- 
ing these extraordinary expenses. This practice, commencing about 
1536, soon became so general, that the commissioners sent through 
the land more than once in the reign of Edward YI. professed to take 
their inventories for the purpose of stopping it, and insuring the pre- 
servation of all that was left. In fact, their proceedings go far to show 
that up to that time, whilst much that was valuable had been aUenated 
by churchwardens themselves for repairs and other like expenses, real 
or pretended, neither plunder nor embezzlement from other quarters 
bad done much harm. This, however, compels us to note in passing 
the extraordinary number of losses by thieves that are mentioned in 
the returns of these churchwardens. If they are to be believed, 
almost every church in many counties was broken into and robbed at 
some time or other in the interval between 1547 and 1553. It may 
have been so, but when we remember that the commissioners of the 
year last mentioned were ordered to make strict comparison of the 
returns now made to them, with the best of the inventories compiled 
in answer to the earlier inquisitions of the reign, and that under these 
circumstances it became very doubtful how much of the proceeds of 
any sales of church furniture that had been effected, the parishes 
would be allowed to retain, even under the pretence of their having 
been spent upon repairs, it is hardly possible to get rid of a suspicion 
that such an allegation as a loss by robbery was found the simplest 
mode of accounting for missing articles. Many of the returns honestly 
represented that by '' the consent and agreement of all the parish- 
ioners," the churchwardens had sold some of their plate, and spent 
the proceeds on improvements and necessary expenses. Large 
quantities of church stuff came in this way into private hands ; and 
this would seem to dispose, to some extent, of the charges so broadly 
made by Heylin, and repeated also in Fuller's Church History^ of 
general plunder and spoliation. Both these authorities comment upon 
the parlours to be found hung with altar-cloths, tables and beds 
covered with copes, carousing cups made of chalices, and the like ; 



178 Old English Plate. [chap, ix 

Fuller saying, that " as if first laying hands npon them iirere sufficient 
title nnto them ; seizing on them was generally the price they had 
paid for them ; " and Heylin that, " It was a sorry house and not 
worth the naming, which had not somewhat of this furniture in it." 
But how, we may remark, could it be otherwise if churchwardens 
provided themselves as best they could with the funds they required 
for such purposes as the following, which may be taken as a fair 
sample,* viz. : — " altering of oure churche, and fynisshing of the 
same according to our myndes and the parisshioners. Itm., for the 
new glassing of xvii. wyndows wherein were conteyned the lyves of 
certen prophane histories and other olde wyndows in church. Itm., for 
and towards the paving of the kinge's highe way in stoans aboughte 
our Churche and in our Parisshe which was foule and needfuU to be 
doon. Item, for a cheste and a box sette in our Churche according to 
the Kinge's Maties Injunctions." 

Such were the objects upon which some Norwich churchwardens 
had spent the money ; and after all, these and the like alterations and 
repairs were ordered by the Injunctions issaed on the accession of 
Edward "VI. in 1547 " to all his loving subjects, clergy and laity," 
though it was not perhaps intended that they should be paid for by 
the sale of valuables which might eventually be seized by the Crown 
when decent pretence arose. Much of these injunctions reappeared 
in the following year in the Visitation Articles of the province of 
Canterbury, which at the same time straitly enquired of the clergy 
" whether they have not monished their parishioners openly that they 
should not sell, give, nor otherwise alienate any of their Church 
goods."! But Boyal injunctions were more imperative than episcopal 
monitions, and the expenses were no doubt met in the most obvious 
way ; indeed these injunctions actually authorised the churchwardens 
to bestow part of their property upon the reparation of the church, 
*' if great need requires, and whereas the parish is very poor, and not 
able otherwise to repair the same." So things went on until the last 
year of Edward YI., when the final step was taken of seizing all that 
was then left, or nearly all, for the Commissioners were directed even 
then to leave ** one, two, or more chaUces or cuppes according to the 
multitude of people." 

For this the Crown may have said in excuse that by this time all 
the repairs and alterations rendered necessary by the Beformation had 
been efifected, and that what was still over after making all due pro- 



• Norfolk Archxsdogy^ Vol. VI. p. 864. 

t Cardwell's Documentary AnnaU, Vol. I. 42. 



CHAP. IX.] Chalices Abolished. 179 

Tisions for the future use of the Church according to the simplified 
ritual was superfluous if not superstitious, and in either case proper 
for conversion to His Majesty's use. 

It may be asked where then are these " one, two, or more chalices,'* 
even if all the rest have perished ? Will they not form an ample 
remnant by which to judge the ecclesiastical goldsmith of earlier 
times? 

Alas ! it must be said that they too have perished with the rest, 
for whilst the instructions of the Commissioners directed their return, 
the King's injunctions ensured their destruction ; for by the latter, 
after more minute provisions, it was directed in one sweeping general 
clause that ^' all monuments of feigned miracles, pilgrimages, idolatry 
and superstition " were to be taken away, utterly extinguished, and 
destroyed, '' so that there remains no memory of the same in walls, 
glass windows, or elsewhere within churches or houses." The 
holy vessels that had been used at the Mass were from this point 
of view no less '' monuments of superstition " than the representa- 
tions of saints in windows of painted glass, or sculptured in stone 
to occupy the canopied niches of the reredos, and all fell under the 
same ban. 

Let us illustrate its practical working by the case of the parish 
of Dartford in Kent, where the Commissioners are found expressly 
ordering, in 1558 (6 Edward VL), that the chalices and patens, and a 
pax to add to the quantity of silver retained by the inhabitants, should 
^' be exchanged by the said church-wardens for ij cuppes to receyve 
the Communyon in to amount to the like weyght and value." Some 
parishes, in compliance with the feeling of the time and the injunc- 
tions, had already altered their chalices into Communion cups. Quite 
as many of the parishes in the county of Surrey in the year last- 
mentioned certify to the possession of communion cups as of chalices ; 
some return in their list of plate one of each, marking the distinction, 
and some mention the exchange of one for the other. The church- 
wardens of St. Andrew's, Norwich, mention such a transaction, also in 
€ Edward VI. :— 

'< There do nowe remayne in the seide Churche at this day one 
Oommunyon Cuppe weing xl. unces parcell gilte at v" the unce S" 
X li. whiche was made of twoo peir of challeis w^ the patens parcell 
gilte." 

St. Saviour's, Southwark, sometime between the inventory taken 
ill 1548 and that of 1652, had parted with four chalices weighing 
flfty-four ounces to one Calton at the sign of the Purse in Cheap, of 
which the said Calton made two communion cups weighing but fifty- 

K 3 



i8o Old English Plate. [chap. ix. 

two ounces. The parish was constrained to charge the difference, 
being 17a. 8^., against itself, on the occasion of the later of the above 
inventories being taken.* • 

The parochial authorities of Wimbledon, co. Surrey, record among 
the receipts for 1552 the following : — 

** Eeceivede for thre chalisses waying xxx^' and v ounces at v» the 
ownce whereof went to the communyon cuppe xxj ounces and a 
quartern which commeth to v^ vi' iij*^. And so remayneth xiij 
ownces and thre quartours which commythe to iii^' viii' ix*^ whereof 
paide to Robert Wygge goldsmythe of London for the making and 
gilding of the communyon cupp after xx*^ an ounce which commyth to 
XXXV' v^."* 

A few such communion cups provided under Edward VI. may still 
be seen. Two are the property of St, Margaret's, Westminster, to 
this day ; but most of them were only made to be almost directly 
destroyed again, as unfit for the purposes of the restored ritual of the 
reign of Queen Mary. True it is that the respite consequent upon her 
accession following so quickly upon the heels of the Commissioners, 
for the King died that same year, saved for a time some of the few 
ancient chalices left by them in accordance with their instructions in 
the hands of their owners : for such of these as had not been 
immediately destroyed, like those at Dartford, were brought again into 
use, and of course carefully preserved until the end of Queen Mary's 
short reign. In some cases, too, the Commissioners had not had 
time to carry out their work at all. Chelmsford, for example, is found 
dealing with plate in 1558, which would not then have been in 
existence at all if the Commissioners of Edward YI. had ever got there. 
But at last these relics, which had weathered all previous storms, fell 
victims to the stringent orders of Queen Elizabeth and her prelates at 
the head of the outburst of Protestant zeal which then ensued. 

Once again were the Injunctions of King Edward VI. re-enforced 
and repeated almost word for word in those issued by Elizabeth. The 
proscribed church goods were again followed even into private hands^ 
for the Visitation Articles of 1558 enquire, as did those of 2 Edw. VI., 
" whether you know any that keep in their houses any undefaced 
images, tables, pictures, paintings, or other monuments of feigned 
and false miracles, pilgrimages, idolatry and superstition, and do adore 
them, and especially such as have been set up in churches, chapels, 
and oratories." 

Inclination and injunction seemed now to work in harmony, and 



Surrey Church Notes, by J. E. Daniel-TyBsen. 



CHAP. IX.] Purchase of Communion Cups, i8i 

each parish vied with its neighbours in the haste with which it 
proceeded to melt up what remained of its plate, especially all that 
had been profaned by use at the Mass, and to get rid of its other 
church furniture. The books were sold to pedlars ** to lap spices in ; " 
the sacring bell was ** hung about a calf's neck " or ** at a horse's ear," 
and the holy water vat was turned into a swine's trough.* But still 
it seemed to the bishops of the reformed Church necessary to maintain 
the stringency of former orders, and even as late as 1569 we find 
amongst articles to be enquired of within the diocese of Canterbury at 
the ordinary Visitation of Matthew Parker, the following : — t 

" Whether they do minister in any prophane cuppes, bowles, dishes, 
or chalices heretofore used at masse or els in a decent Communion 
cuppe provided and kept for the same purpose only." 

Lastly, we may quote the Visitation Articles of Archbishop Grindal, 
in 1576, enquiring ** Whether you have in your Parish Churches and 
Chapels, a fair and comely Communion Cup of Silver, and a Cover of 
Silver for the same, which may serve also for the ministration of the 
Communion Bread." 

The churchwardens' accounts of every year from 1558 teem with 
notes of changes made in obedience to these orders ; a few examples 
may be taken from town and country. 

Amongst the parochial payments of St. Andrew-Hubbard in London 
for 1558 is the following : — 

**Paide for the Eschaunge of two chalices with the covers weygh- 
ing xxxii oz. halfe for a communion cup waying xxx oz. and halfe 
thexchaunge with the odde oz. at xiiij" viij^." 

At Chelmsford these items occur in 1560 : — 

** Keceived of Mr. Mustchampe goldsmyth at the syne of the ring 
with the rube in Lumbarde St. for a gylt challys with a paten gylt 
waying xxiii oz. and a quarter at v* iiij^ the ounce, som is vi^ iiij*. 

** Paid to Mr. Muschamp in Lombard St. at the sygne of the ring 
with the rube for a coupe of gilt weighing 19 oz. 3 qr., 6' 8^ the oz., 
som is ^6. 11. 7." 

Bungay St. Mary in 1568 pays " For a Co'mmunyon cuppe made of 
one payer of chalice havyng a cover, for workmanship and some silv', 
xxi»." 

The Leverton churchwardens in 1570 pay " Thomas Turpyn the 
goldsmith for facyonenge of the Communyon Cuppe weynge xii oz., x'. 

** It"* he putt to the same cupp a q*" and a half of an ounce of his 
own silver ij"." 

* Peacock's Church, FurrAiure, 

t Cardweira l)oisWBM:nia,ry Annalt, I. 321 



1 82 Old English Plate. [chap. ix. 

At Eltham thoy exchange a chalice and paten weighing 18| oz. for 
a cup and cover only 10 oz. in weight. 

At Lyminge in Kent there is a curious little cup of the year 1561-2, 
bought with a bequest to the church of vli. by one Daniel Spycer in 
1558 for the purchase of a chalice. Four years later, at the Arch- 
bishop's visitation in 1562, it is recorded as decreed " that a Commu- 
nion Cwppe shall be bought with the money." The cover of this cup 
is of different make, and engraved with the date 1578 ; this was added 
no doubt in compliance with the enquiry in that behalf made by the 
Visitation Articles of Archbishop Grindal in 1576. The cup itself 
had always been supposed to be of the date engraved on the cover, 
but the present rector's discovery of the visitation of 1562 has proved 
the hall-mark to be a safe guide. It may be added that the cup is 
by the same maker as the oldest Protestant Communion cup known, 
being one of those at St. Lawrence, Jewry. 

In some parts of the country, perhaps owing to the energy of the 
diocesan, these changes were effected more promptly than in others. 
In the diocese of Norwich so many of the cups that remain are either 
of the year 1567 or 1568 that it suggested an enquiry whether the 
Bishop of Norwich of that day, John Parkhurst, was not an excep- 
tionally zealous reformer. He had been one of the exiles at Zurich, 
and Strype says of him, '^ and so delighted was he with the discipline 
and doctrine of that Church, that he often wished that our Church 
were modelled exactly according to that."* The annalist goes on to 
say, ''this bishop was supposed to be inclinable to the puritans, and 
to wink at them." 

To these notes may be added an extract from his injunctions of 
1561, the year of his first visitation, in which he directs his clergy to 
'' see the places filled up in walles or ellswhere where imagies stode, 
80 as if ther hadde been none there." 

Again, in later injunctions of 1569, he asks, 

"Item, whether you have in your Church a decent pulpit and 
Communion table, furnished and placed as becometh, with a comely 
Conmiunion cup with a cover." . . . 

In Worcestershire so many cups of the year 1571 occur, that the 
late Archdeacon Lea, when enquiring into the subject, was led to 
suppose that this was the case all over England, and to search for 
some reason for the coincidence, just as the present writer had done 
some years before for Norfolk. In the neighbouring county of Glou- 
cester, cups of 1576 or 1577 are much more common than those of 



* Annals, I. ii. pp. 508-9. 



CHAP. IX.] Purchase of Communion Cups. 183 

any other years. In Dorsetshire, Mr. Nightingale found nearly all 
were of the years 1570 to 1574 inclusive ; whilst the experience of 
the Rev. A. Trollope in his Leicestershire researches puts the greater 
number of the dated Elizabethan pieces in that county as from 1567 
to 1571. 

In the west of England, Devon, and Cornwall, most of these cups 
were obtained quite as late as in Gloucestershire, but every village far 
and near was properly provided by 1580 ; and not only were they so 
provided, but in many a church the very same '' fair and comely Com- 
munion Cup " is in existence and in use at the pi*esent day. 

Some have urged that these exchanges were made merely because 
the chalices were too small for congregational use ; but it will be 
observed that in many of the above-mentioned instances the com- 
munion cup is no larger, and in more than one case is of even less 
weight, than the chalice it replaces. The tone of the episcopal visita- 
tion articles is, however, conclusive as to the real reason for it, and 
some of the earlier ones speak in plainer terms than the later versions 
we have already quoted.* For instance, Grindal, when Archbishop of 
York, had in 1571 required his clergy " to minister the Holy Com- 
munion in no challice nor any profane cup or glasse, but in a Com- 
munion Cup of Silver, and with a cover of Silver appointed also for 
the ministration of the Communion bread." 

Since this chapter was originally printed, the late Bev. J. Fuller 
BuBsell, B.C.L., gave in the Archaological Journal (vol. xxxv. p. 48), 
the reply of George Gardiner, one of the Prebendaries of Canterbury, 
to Archbishop Parker's " articles to be enquired of," in Canterbury 
Cathedral in 1567. ** This respondent saith that their divine service 
is duely songe in maner and forme, according to the Queen's Injunc- 
tions : saving that the Communion, as he saith, is ministered in a 
chalice, contrary, as he saith, to the Advertisements .... He wold 
have service songe more deliberately with Psalms at the beginning 
and ending of service, as is appointed by the Injunctions ; and their 
chalice turned into a decent communion cup." 

Mr. Bussell observed that neither chalices nor cups are even men- 
tioned in Archbishop Parker's Advertisements of 1566 ; but that in 
15t>2 he had, according to Strype, intended to order '^ chalices to be 
altered to decent cups." His proposed articles of 1562, were " exhi- 
bited to be admitted by authority, but not so allowed," and therefore 
never issued ; but as Mr. Bussell proceeds, " Master Gardiner may 
have had some inkling of the Archbishop's inclination in favour of the 



* Appendix to Second Report of the Ritual CommiBsion, p. 411. 



184 Old English Plate. [chap. ix. 

alteration of chalices to decent cups and sagaciously opined that his 
recommendation of it might advance him in the good graces of his 
Metropolitan, who notwithstanding his failure to obtain the allowance 
of authority for such a change in 1562, did not scruple to enjoin it in 
1575, if not before." It may be noted as a curious fact that a great 
number of the Elizabethan communion cups still preserved in the 
arch-diocese of Canterbury are of the very year 1562. 

We are now in a position to say what the antiquary may expect to 
find around him in church or cabinet. 

It may be summed up very shortly : he will find a few chalices of 
Norman or late Homanesque type, chiefly cofiin chalices, and suc- 
ceeding to them a few — a very few — Gothic and Tudor chalices and 
their patens, remains of pre-Reformation art. Of the latter hardly a 
dozen were known when these pages were first printed, about the same 
number of years ago ; and to this small number the addition of some 
twenty examples at the outside has been the result of the more general 
interest taken in the subject of old church-plate and the very extensive 
and in many counties and dioceses exhaustive, search that has since 
been made for what remains of it. 

He will find here and there a communion cup with its cover of the 
reign of Edward YI., made no doubt of the materials afibrded by some 
more ancient chalice. Of these there are still fewer than of the 
chalices which preceded them ; and next in order he will find broad- 
cast over the whole country a multitude of examples of the communion 
cups provided in the first years of Queen Elizabeth under the circum- 
stances that have been narrated, each with its paten-cover ; and he 
will find flagons of shapes varying with their date, and other special 
considerations to be mentioned later. 

Coming to more modern times there is less and less to be said ; 
the needs of an increased population, and the pious liberality of 
donors, have added from time to time to the quantity of our church 
plate, but not to its interest or artistic value. Art in these matters 
appears to have steadily declined from the middle of the sixteenth 
to the middle of the present century, when a salutary reaction has 
directed attention to the examples that Gothic art has left for our 
study and guidance. Modern reproductions of these, in some cases 
admirable, in others still leave much to be desired ; a slavish adhe- 
rence to ancient models that cannot be surpassed would be better than 
the bastard results of coupling pure Gothic form with inappropriate 
ornamentation, or of adapting beautiful Gothic adornment to articles 
of tasteless modern shape. 



CHAP. IX.] Chalices. 185 



CHALICES. 

In the early days of the Church, chalicefl were no doubt formed of 
Tarious materials, some of them simple and quite the reverse of 
costly. But in process of time objections were found to these ; wood 
was porous, and liable to absorb a portion of the sacred element 
placed within ; horn was an animal substance and so formed by blood ; 
glass, crystal and precious stones were all brittle and liable to fracture ; 
and at length the precious metals alone were allowed to be employed. 
It was decreed by the Council of Bheims in 847 that if not of gold, 
chalices should be wholly of silver ; tin being allowed only in cases 
where means to provide anything better were wanting. Other 
materials were forbidden altogether. Silver is prescribed by a consti- 
tution of Stephen Langton (1206),* the commentator in Lyndewode 
adding " vel aureum,*' 

Something may be gathered as to the fashion of the chalices of the 
thirteenth and next centuries from wills and mortuaries. Nicholas 
de Famham in 1257 bequeaths to the monks of Durham '' j calix cum 
lapidibus pretiosis in pede ; " and John, Earl of Warrenne, in 1847, 
another such to Durham Cathedral. It is described in his will as 
** unum calicem magni valoris de auro purissimo cum multis lapidibus 
pretiosis insertis." 

In the inventory of the goods of a bishop of Durham who died in 
1881, his chalices are mentioned as follows: — "j calicem magnum 
argenteum et deauratum in cujus pede est ymago Domini crucifixi et 
super nodum ejusdem Scuta armorum ejusdem Episcopi cum iij leun- 
culis argenteis. It™ j cuppam infra deauratam et extra anemelatam 
pro Eukaristia." 

Stephen Lescrop, Archdeacon of Bichmond, makes a bequest in 
1418, of *' unum chalescuppe cum longo pede de argento deauratum 
et coopertum cum j knop in sumitate." 

Proof could be adduced that chalices were cups of a somewhat fixed 
and well-known form, from the fact that drinking-vessels were some- 
times described as " chalyswyse," or ** ad modum calicis factum." 
Sir R. de Roos mentions in his will, dated 1892, " unum ciphum qui 
Tocatur chaliscopp ; " an almost identical entry is to be found in the 
will of John Stoke, a burgess of Bristol, proved in 1893 ; t whilst 
among a number of articles of table-plate bought by Edward III. in 
1866 of Thomas Hessey his goldsmith, and presented to the Constable 



• Lyndewode, lib. iii. fol. 136. 
t The Bristol Oreat (h-phan Booh, 



1 86 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. iz. 



of Flanders and other personages as gifts from the King, was '' on 
coup de chalice endorr' et esm'." 

Bat it is hardly necessary for the purposes of such a handbook as 
this to discuss at any length the form of ancient chalices which no 
longer exist. We may pass by the chaUces with handles which were 
often found and perhaps necessary till the denial of the cup to the 
laity ; and come to the known if rare examples of the twelfth century. 

Most of the earliest chalices known to exist, are those which have 
been discovered in the tombs of ecclesiastics of about this epoch, but 
one or two massing chalices of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
also remain. 

Mr. Octavius Morgan says as to the form of the Pre-Reformation 
English chalice, '' A chalice consists of three parts — the cup or bowl ; 
the stem, which in its middle swelled into a bulb called the knop ; 
and the foot. The bowl itself was usually quite plain, in order that 
it might be more easily kept pure and clean. The stem, knop and 
foot were frequently ornamented with enamels, or chased work repre- 
senting the emblems of the Passion or other sacred subjects ; and on 
the foot, which was usually made hexagonal,* to prevent the chalice 
rolling when laid upon its side to drain, there was always a cross 
which the priest kept towards himself at the time of celebration. In 
the thirteenth century the chalices seem to have been short and low, 
and the bowl wide and shallow, as exemplified by the celebrated chalice 
of St. Bemy, once at Bheims, but removed to the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, which is considered to be of the time of St. Louis, as also 
by the chalices of silver and pewter which have been found in the 
tombs of the priests of that century. In the fourteenth century they 
were made taller, the bowls assumed a decidedly conical form, being 
narrow at the bottom, and having the sides sloping straight outwards. 
In the fifteenth century they were usually broader at the bottom, with 
the sides still forming part of a cone, like that at Nettlecombe, co. 
Somerset, till a form altogether hemispherical was assumed, of which 
a fine chalice at Leominster, figured in Archaologia, voL xxxv. p. 489, 
is a noble specimen. Of this type also is one at Comb Pyne in 
Devonshire." 

A great many recent discoveries have only confirmed the value of 
this original description by the accurate observer, to whom the author 
owes so much ; and if we follow his account by its steps, and distin- 



* The author is indebted to Mr. T. M. 
Fallow for a reference in the will of Sir 
John Foxley, dated 1378, which awma to 
indicate that thia hexagonal form of foot 
maj then have been something new. The 



testator, after speaking of a ohalioe with 
circalar foot {cum pede rotunda), describes 
another as having a foot of the shape of a 
mullet of six points (eum pede dc forma 
molette 9tx puinetorwn). 



CHAP. IZ.] 



Chalices. 



187 



guish old English chalices into classes, we shall find the most ancient 
group with " wide and shallow " bowl and circular foot, which we have 
called late Bomanesque, or Norman, includes, as Mr. Morgan notes, 
the coffin chalices, together with the Berwick St. James example to be 
mentioned again presently. 

The " decidedly conical " and narrower bowl of the fourteenth 
century is well exemplified by the latest known of such coffin chalices, 
that found in the tomb of Archbishop Melton of York, who died in 
1840. This bowl we shall also find in the earlier examples of the 
succeeding group or class, which consists of the Gothic or hexagonal- 
footed chiJices, the earliest known of which are at Hamstall Bidware 
in Stafibrdshire, and at Goathland, Yorkshire. 

This Gothic class includes amongst its later examples the well- 
known Nettlecombe chalice, used by Mr. 0. Morgan to illustrate 
the characteristic features of its period, one of which is the bowl 
'' broader at the bottom, but with the side still forming part of a 
cone," a form which carries us on, as the Archbishop Melton chalice 
did earlier, to the first of the next or Tudor class, the chalices with 
six-lobed and flowing or wavy-sided feet but less conical bowls, which 
are found during a period almost exactly coinciding with the reign of 
Henry VIII. These form our third and equally well-marked group, 
and bring us gradually through such bowls as that at Jurby to the 
" hemispherical " bowl noticed by Mr. Morgan as a feature of the 
latest chalices of Pre-Beformation form. 

The first type is found till about 1850 ; the second from then for a 
full century and a half, say till 1510 ; and the thu'd carries us onward 
to 1586, the date of the latest example. 

These main and typical forms cover so many and varied details of 
ornament, that in a recent admirable paper on the subject,^ the authors 
have found it possible to divide Pre-Beformation chalices into eight, or 
perhaps nine types, some of them referring to the form, and others to 
the ornamentation of the vessels ; and the corresponding patens into 
two forms and seven types, the latter relating to their decoration. A 
number of divisions, taking note of almost every distinguishing feature 
in turn, are very useful for classifying new finds ; and apart from con- 
siderations of chronology the arrangement could not be improved upon. 
But, for historical purposes, divisions are not very convenient, the dating 
of which is obviously subject to much uncertainty in consequence of 
the tyi>eB sometimes being contemporaneous, sometimes overlapping one 



* Enffliah MedicevcU CTmUms and PatenSf 
by W. H. St. John Hope, M.A., and T. M. 



Fallow, M.A., Arehocologieal Journal^ vol. 
xliii. 



i8S Old English Plate. [ch^i-. «. 

another iu point of time, and sometimeB reappearing after an interval. 
It 18 in fact almost, and in the eai'Iier epochs quite, impossible to date 
a series of groups formed upon this principle. 

A very early chalice like ihat discovered in the tomb of Archbishop 
Hubert Walter at Canterbury, ivho died in 1205, wonld fall, owing to 
its decoration, into a class by no means the most ancient ; whilst the 
much later example, from the tomb of Bishop Swinfield of Hereford, who 
died in 1316, would be placed amongst those of the rudest and there- 
fore the supposed earliest type. It is very far from certain that excel- 
lence in workmanship and decoration is any sure proof of lateness of 
date, or rudeness in those respects good evidence of greater antiquity. 
It seems preferable, therefore, in the present chapter, to divide 
chalices, according to their form, 
into tj'pes or classes that are chro- 
nologically, as well as in point of 
fashion, more certainly distinct ; 
and without treating details of 
workmanship as if they indicated 
differences of period. These can 
be easily sub-divided if necessary, 
for minor considerations, but a sin- 
gle sub-division for each group 
seems all that is required. Such 
au arrangement will be found on 
page 200 in a tabular form, the 
three main groups of which cor- 
No. 1.— PEWTEB coi-vis cHiucK AUD respond in a general way with the 
late Komanesque or Norman, the 
Gothic, and the Tudor styles in architecture, at all events nearly 
enough to he called by those names for the sake of distinction, and 
includes the patens, as well as the chalices under the same headings 
and indications. 

If the first group extends through more tbau one architectural 
epoch, the second covers almost exactly the Perpendicular period, 
and the third coincides, as we have said, with the reign of 
Henry VHI. 

Turning now to each of our three groups successively we find that 
the earliest (A) consists almost entirely of the chalices which have 
from time to time been discovered in the cofKns of bishops and priests 
of the eleventh and following centuries. 

They are the oldest pieces of plate known to exist in England, and 
they have been found usually of silver, but sometimes of pewtet, in 



CHAK IX.] Chalices. 189 

cofiins at Canterbury, York, Lincoln, St. David's, Hereford, Salisbury, 
Exeter, and Chichester Cathedrals, and also at other places. Amongst 
the very oldest of silver are chalices from the coffins, which are 
supposed to be those of Bishops SefTride and Hilary, snccessively 
occupants of the See of Chichester in the twelfth century. These are 
of silver-gilt and have their patens. But there is a still earlier one of 
pewter at Cbicheater, probably buried with Bishop Godefridas, who 
died in 1088 ; and this also has its paten. Similar chalices of silver 



So. : 

have been found at York Minster of the later part of the twelfth or the 
first half of the thirteenth centnry. 

So many coffin chalices are of pewter that it may be permissible 
to give an illustration of a very early specimen made of that metal. 
It was found in the coffin of a priest at Cheam in Surrey (No. 1), and 
gives a good idea of such a vessel in the thirteenth centnry. 

No better illustration of the general character of the early silver 
chalices can be found than a massing chalice (No. 2) formerly at Ber- 
wick St. James, Wiltshire, but now in the British Museum. It has all 
the points to be observed in those of earliest date, including the slight 
lip to the howl which only occurs npon the most ancient of these 
vessels, quite disappearing before the end of the thirteenth centary. 



I90 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. 1 



The wood-out would do almost equally well for one of the coffin 
chaliceB found at York or Cbicheater. But the finest chalice of this 
earlieRt class is without doubt one which was dug up in 1890 with its 
paten, near Dolgelley, N. Wales. It is of unusual size and character, 
showing the early lip bat coupled with an elaborate knop and orna- 
mentation on the stem and foot of decidedly Early English design. 
The paten has six lobes with ornamental spandrils, and in the central 
space the Saviour sitting, with the tight hand raised as in blessing, 




(p. 1340] A 



an inscription in plain capitals running round the device, features 
which, with the characteristics of the chalice itseu, place both vessels 
in the early or middle part of our first class or group ; but which it 
would be difBcult to include under any one head in the more detailed 
system of classification, mentioned at an earlier page. The Dolgelley 
vessels are little, if at all less ancient than those lately found in Arch- 
bishop Hubert's tomb at Canterbury, 

A later example, found in the tomb of Bishop Longesp^ of 
Salisbury, who died 1297, is of good execution, the bowl wide and 



CBAP. IX.] 



Chaiices. 



igi 



shallow irithont a lip, the Rtem and foot, like all the rest, circular bnt 

decorated with a little chaBing, and having an ornamental knop. It 

18 shghtly more Gothic in feeling and finish. Plainer vesBels 

resembhDg the earl; ones at York and Chicheater, are from the 

tomba of Bishop Sattoo of Lincoln, who died in 1299, and of Bishop 

Swinfield of Hereford, who died in 1316. Almost the latest of it8 

class is a chalice with similar foot and stem t« the other examples, 

but with the deeper and more conical howl proper to the fourteenth 

century, preserved at York, 

and foand in the coffin of 

Archbishop Melton, who 

died in 1S40; and this 

(No. 3), with its transitional 

features, brings ns to the 

middle of the fourteenth 

century and to examples of 

a more definitely Qothio 

type. (A2 in our table.) ^ 

Of the second and third j| L 

gronps or types (B and C in jS Mi 

the table) to which we now ^ ''^ 

come, the chalice mentioned 

by Mr. 0. Morgan as at 

Nettlecombe, together with 

examples at Coombe Keynes 

in Dorsetshire, at Corpus 
Chrieti College, Oxford, at 

Jurby in the Isle of Man, 

at Trinity College, Oxford, ''»■ 4— (™ii.ioi (H7S1 at hbttlbcombi, 

and at Wylye, Wilts, have 

been selected as illustrations. The first two represent the Gothic 

and the rest the Tudor class. They are all of great beauty and 

merit, and whilst five out of the six are hall-marked, and their dates 

therefore accurately known, the date of the sixth is not less well 

ascertained.* 

The Nettlecombe Chalice and its Paten were brought to light by 
Mr. OctaviuB Morgan some years ago, and are of the greatest interest, 
not only from their beauty and perfect coudition, but from their 
antiquity, for they are older than any other hall-marked example of 



192 Old English Plate. [chai-. nt. 

EDglish goldamitb's work. The chalicfl is described by Mr. Morgan 
as follows : — • 

" The cbalice stands very nearly six inobeB bigb. The bowl is in 
form between a cone and a hemisphere, that is, the bottom is broad 
and round, wbilst the sides coutiuae straight and conical, a form 



(C. 1495) IT CObHBB EITKI9, DOSaiT. 

which is rather indicative of its date. This bowl is Bapport«d on a 
hexaf!onal stem divided into two portions by the knop, which is a 
beautiful piece of goldsmith's work formed by the projection from the 
angles of the stem of eix short square arms, each terminating in a 
lion's mask, or in proper heraldic language ' a leopard's head,' and 
having the intermediate spaces filled up with elegant flowing Gothic 

* This deEcription origiuKllj appeared in I and paten of the actunl eiie of the sriginmk. 
ArchinAo'jia, vol. ilii. 405, and wu aceom- 1 from whii;h the eiignivin(» prepared for Uiis 
I>Mued bf coloured litbograplu of the Gh»ltGe | TOlume hare been carefoll; reduced. 



CHAP. IX.] Chalices. 193 

tracery of pierced open work. The lower part of the stem rests on a 
curved hexagonal foot, being united to it by Gothic mouldings, and 
the foot terminates in an upright basement moulding, which is en- 
riched with a small vertically reeded band. One of the six compart- 
ments of the foot was ornamented, as is usual in ancient chalices, by 
a representation of the Crucifixion. The metal of this compartment 
has been cut out, and a silver plate engraved with the Crucifixion has 
been rudely riveted in. This silver plate is, T think, the original 
work, and it was formerly enamelled — for it would probably have 
been found easier and more convenient to prepare the enamel on a 
small separate plate and then fix it in its place, than to have sub- 
jected the whole chalice to the heat of the enameller's furnace, 
which must have been the case had the enamel been done on the 
foot itself. The silver plate is deeply engraved, or rather the metal 
is tooled out to receive transparent enamel in the style of the work 
of the fourteenth or the beginning of the fifteenth century, and 
small traces of the enamel with which it has been filled may still 
be discovered. It will be seen at once that the design was made for 
the place from the peculiar attitude of the figure, the arms being 
drawn up over the head to adapt it to the form of the compartment" 

This last feature is a typical one, appearing in most of the chalices 
of this type and period, sometimes with the addition of figures stand- 
ing beside the Cross, and other modifications of the like kind accord- 
ing to the fancy or the skill of the artist. 

The date of this chalice is 1479, though from the want of examples 
it was difficult in former days to positively assign the date-letter which 
it plainly bears to that year. This letter was supposed to stand for 
the year 1459, but the date-letters are now well understood and the 
many points of resemblance between this and chalices more recently 
discovered, the dates of which are well ascertained, are conclusive as 
to its age, though to judge from the enamelling alone, it might have 
been of a somewhat earlier date than 1479. 

The only special feature to notice about the next illustration, (Glass 
B 2 in the table) the Coombe Keynes chalice, is that it has a small 
projecting ornament or toe at each angle of the foot. Mr. Hope and 
Mr. Fallow called these " knops ** on the authority of an early 
mention of them, and record a notice in 1525, in which they are 
described as '' half mones, otherwise called Knappes." But as 
" knop '* was the word exclusively applied to the projection on the 
stem of the chalice by Mr. Octavius Morgan, it would not be appro- 
priate to follow a newer and less established use here. Tho usual 
design of these projecting toes is that of an ornamental letter M, and 



194 



Old English Plate, 



[chap. IX. 



this is often so decidedly the case that it may be intended to indicate 
the name of the Virgin. Chalices with this ornamental addition are 
the latest of the Gothic group. Two of them are hall-marked as of 
1494 and 1496 respectively, dates which happily coincide with the 
period at which these chalices had been placed already by their 
fashion in the absence of any known dated or hall-marked example. 
Of the fifteen specimens at present known, several have lost some 

or all of their toes. 
They were somewhat 
easily broken off ; and 
when a chalice had lost 
one or more of them, 
the easiest wav of re- 
storing the symmetry 
of its appearance was 
no doubt to lop off the 
rest. Mr. Hope sug- 
gests that their liabi- 
lity to catch in the 
altar linen or the vest- 
ments of the priest 
caused the change in 
the form of foot which 
we soon have to notice. 
It is with some 
hesitation that they 
have been classed as a 
sub-division of the 
Gothic group to which 
they belong ; for it is 
not at all impossible that some of the earlier chalices, now without 
toes, may originally have been so ornamented. 

It will be seen from the engravings of Bishop Fox's chalice (No. 6) 
and the chalices at Trinity College (No. 8), and Wylye (No. 9), that 
they form a regular series, the cable-like edges to the stem and the 
engraving on the foot of the chalice of 1507 giving an intermediate 
point between the very beautiful simplicity of the earlier Nettlecombe 
and Coombe Keynes chalices and the later pair. Much of Mr. 
Octavius Morgan's description of the Nettlecombe chalice is equally 
applicable to the other examples. 

But these bring us to the third type, (Class C in the table) which 
we have called the Tudor ; and as the chalice of 1340 was treated as 




No. 6. — BISHOP fox's gold chalicb (1507) at corpus 

CHRISTI COLLEOE, OXFORD. 



CHAP. IX.] Chalices. 195 

a transitional example between the two earlier groups, bo Bishop 
Fox's, with the chalice at Leominster, the former dating back and 
the latter loohing forwards, may illastTate the passage from the better 
Gothic of the second to the debased of the third and latest class. In 
the Corpus College chalice we still have the conical bowl of the 
middle type conpled with the lobed foot which now replaces the mora 



(1521) il JUMV, ISLII Oir lliK. 

Gothic and angular form ; whilst in the Leominster example we hare 
the features reversed, the foot being of the earlier fashion, but the 
bowl of the coming hemispherical form. At Jurby we come to the 
debased form of bowl as- well as the lobed foot. Traces of this form 
of bowl may have been seen before, but at the time of the Jorby 



ig6 Old English Plate. [cmap. «. 

chalice the change from the Gothic to the Tudor hemispherical bowl 
IB well in progress, and it is not a change for the better. 

With the Trinity College and Wylye cups we have arrived at the 
fnll development of the Tudor type. (Class C 2 in the table.) To all 
the oruamentatioD of the older vessela they add a complicated flowing 
foot, a highly elaborated stem, in the details of which almost sU 



Xn. 8.— CHiLicE (1527) jr ibinitv colimf, oxfom.. 

Gothic feeling ih lost, and with these features a nearly hemispherical 
bowl which abandons the extreme simplicity of the Gothic period, 
by showing an engraved inscription on a belt mnning round the centre 
of it, to match in the case of the Trinity chalice an inscription 
similarly engraved npon its paten. Thia inscription is not anusnal. 
"A chalice with a patent gilt graven with Calxeem Saliitaris weing 
xxi. onz.," is mentioned amongst the gilt plate belonging to Henry 
Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, at his death in almost the very year in 
which the Wylye chalice was made. 



The beautiful example at Wylje is one of those discovered by the 
late Mr. J. E. Nij^btingale, F.S.A., who described it as follows: — 
" It is of silver gilt and in excellent preservation ; 6| inches iu height, 



(1S25) 1 



stem and base hexagonal. Some of the ornamentation corresponds 
with the Trinity College cbalice at Oxford. It has the same cable 
oniunent at the angles of the stem, and the same Gothic open 
embattled work at the foot of it, but not the open tracery work between 



198 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. IX. 



the cables. The knop is similar to that of the Nettlecombe chalice, 
except that it has human heads instead of lions' heads ; the moulding 
of the base, too, is like the Nettlecombe cup, and likewise the form 
of the bowl, which is not so globular as that of the Trinity College 
example. It has an inscription both on bowl and foot, and the usual 
crucifix on the base ; the lettering on the cup is small Gothic, and 
that on the base in capitals of the early < ^g^ sixteenth century type." 
The hall-mark is a Lombardic capital m|||[ and will give us the year 

1525 as the date of this interesting cup. It is as close to the Trinity 
College, Oxford, chalice in point of date, as it is in the style of its 
ornamentation. The six engravings given of the chalices of the 
Gothic and Tudor period, give for each of these groups one example 
in outline, followed by another in full perspective. It may be not 
undesirable in conclusion to give a complete list of the known Pre- 
lieformatiou chalices, as nearly as may be in chronological order, 
omitting the coffin chalices. They are as follows : — 



Type A. 

1. British Museam (from Ber\\'ick 

St. James, Wilts) . early 13th cent. 

2. Dolgelly, chalice found near (Do.) 



Ttpb B. 

3. Hamstall Ridware, Staff. 

4. Ooathland, Yorkshire 



late 14th 
century, 
early 15th 
century. 
6. Nettlecombe, Somerset . . 1471) 

6. Brasenose Coll., Oxford, a pair . 141)8 

7. Manningford Abbas, Wilts 

8. Hinderwell, Yorks. . 

9. Clifford Chambers, Glouc. . .1494 

10. Very Rev. Dr. Darby . 1496 

11. Codford St. Mary, Wilts . . 

12. Beswick, Yorks. 

13. Hornby, R. C. Church, Lanes. . 

14. Old Button, Westmorland . . 
ir*. Bacton, Hertfordshire 



16. Blaston St. Giles, Leicestershire. 

17. Little Faringdon, Oxfordshire . 

18. Coombe Keynes, Dorset . . 

19. Chalice, now in the Rodney 

family but formerly at 
Chavenage, Glouc. 

20. Comb Pyne, Deron . . . 

21. West Drayton, Middlesex . 

22. Clanghton, Lanes. . . . 

23. Leominster, Herefordshire c. 1510 



Type C. 

24. Pillaton Hall, Staffs. . . . 

25. Corpus Christi College, Oxford . 

26. St. Sampson, Guernsey . . 

27. Ebbesbourne, Wilts . . . 

28. Leyland, R. C. Church, Lanes. . 

29. Jurby, Isle of Man . 

80. Sturminster Marshall, Dorset . 

81. Wylye, Wilts .... 

32. Trinity College, Oxfoid . 

33. Highworth, Wilts .... 



1507 



1518 
1521 
1536 
152.-> 
1527 
1534 



Would that many more such remained, but the chalices mentioned 
in the foregoing list are all that have come to the author's knowledge, 
after years of enquiry, and with the advantage of the researches of 
many friends and a constantly increasing band of fellow-labourers in 
this interesting archseological field ; amongst whom must be specially 
mentioned the kte Mr. J. £. Nightingale, F.S.A., who brought to 
light no less than eight chalices in Wilts and Dorset, and Mr. T. M. 



CHAP. IX.] Patens. 199 

Fallow, F,S.A., who has been as snccessfnl in tbc Yorkshire and 
LaDCBshire dietrict. 

The examples from No. 9 to No, 23 inclusive, form a beaatiful 
group, having much good work and interesting features, including the 
projecting toes which have been described as peculiar to them. One 
of the first discovered of these was the chalice at Old Hutton, found 
by Miss Ellen K, Goodwin (now Mrs. Ware) in the course of examin- 



Ifo. 10.— FITIK (C. 1200) IT WTEI, HAKTS. 

ing the chnrcb-plate of the Deanery of Kendal for publication in the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archieological 
Bociety'e Transactions. This was the only piece of Pre -Reformation 
plate remaining in the diocoae of Carlisle. It is to the great interest 
excited by the successful volume upon the church-plate of the Carlisle 
Diocese, edited by Chancellor Ferguson, which was the first complete 
Diocesan or County account to see the light, that we owe the 
admirable works on the same subject which have succeeded it, and a 
number more which are in hand, some of them rapidly approaching 
completion. 

We now come to Patens, which are more numerous, and a good 
many of which are still in use. Above ninety are now known, by 
far the greater part of them of the very end of the fifteenth or the 



200 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. IX. 



A TABULAR CLASSIFICATION OF PRE 



A. irOBl^Air TYPE. CHALICES WITH CIRCULAR FEET 
circa 1170—1350. 

Chichester I., slight lip. 

Canterbury, 1205. Abp. H. Walter, slight lip. 

Berwick St. James, slight lip {illustration), 

Chichester II., slight lip. 

Lincoln, 1253. Bp. Grostete, slight lip. 



(1) 12 & 13 cent. 

Bowls wide and shallow 



(2) Early 14 cent. 
Bowl conical. 



Lincoln, 1279. Bp. Gravesend, slight lip. 
Salisbury, 1297. Bp. Longe8p<^e. 
Lincoln, 1299. Bp. Sutton. 
Exeter, 1307. Bp. Bitton. 
Hereford, 1316. Bp. Swinfield. 

♦York, 1340. Abp. Melton {illustration). 



B. GOTHIC TYPE. CHALICES WITH HEXAGONAL FEET. 



circa 1350—1510. 
(1) 1350—1510. 

Bowls conical ai first, 

then less so. 
Feet without toes. 



(2) 1490—1510 . 

Bowls as before. 
Feet with toes. 



Hamstall Ridware Goathland. 

Nettlecombe, 1479 {illustration). Manningford Abbas. 

B. N. C. Oxford, 1498. Hinderwell. 



Clifford Chambers, 1494. Very Rev. Dr. Darby, 1496. 
West Drayton, 1507. Claughton. 

^Leominster, c. 1510 (stem buttressed as in Pillaton 
Hall chalice of following class and bowl hemi- 
spherical), and ten others; including Coombe 
Keynes {UlustraJtion). 



C. TTTDOB TYPE. CHALICES WITH SIX-LOBED AND FLOWING FEET, 

circa 1510—1536. 

/ C.C.C. Oxford, 1507 {illustraiion). Pillaton Hall. 
(1) 1510—1536. . . I Leyland, 1518. Jurby, 1521 {iUustration). 

Bowls often less conical, ", Ebbesboume. St. Sampson, Guernsey. Sturminster 
Feet six-lobed. i Mai^shall, 1536. Highworth, 1534. 



(2) 1525—1536 . . . 

Bowls nearly hemi- 

spherical. 
Feet flowing outline. 



Wylyo, 1525 {illustration). 

Trin. Coll. Oxford, 1527 {illustration). 



* The bowls of the York and Leominster chalices serve to mark tiansitiors. 



HAF. IX.] 



Chalices. 



20I 



MMATION CHALICES AND PATENS. 



IHEIR PATENS. 


Deprt6sUyn, 


Device, 


Ar-^^I. 


4.foil. 


Agnus \ with inscription 


fiprTQiT. 12(15. 


Plain plate. 


Agnus ( in uncial 


b '''feiraiion). 


8-foil. 


Agnus ) letters. 


^XfT II. 


8-foil. 


Manus. 


k4il 1253. 


4.foil. 


Bp. blessing. 


rett»:er,1266. Bp. Cantelupe 


4.foil. 


Manus. 


'u''»4fnttiifM). 






iolt, 1279. 


4 -foil and square. 


Manus. 


Aoy. 1297. 


8-foil. 


Manus. 


ock. 1*299. 


Plain plate. 


Manus. 


i^r. l:J07. 


Plain plate. 


Manus. 


««»:d. l:U6. 


Plain plate. 


Manus, inscription. 



4. \Ui\. 



6 -foil (as in earliest of 
next class at Ham- 
stall Eidware). 



Manus. 



THEIR PATENS. 



QstaQ Bidware. fi-foil. Manus (as in preceding class). 

^1th this exception, almost all the patens now are 6- foil with rude ** vemicle " for 
fiw-t The six-foil depression (quite at last) occasionally gives way to plain circular 
^■j*^ion. US at Hinderwell, with **agnu8** or ** ihC," a^d some of the latest have 
nd round rim, like those in following class. These are at Happisbrough, 1504, and 
i&S'hton. 

ttiecombe [tUtittfxUion), 6-foil. Vemicle. 



TEKIR PATENS. 

Tke Patens axe aa in preceding class, till circa 1520. f From c. 1520, '* vemicle" 
Wabwated with rays, &c., the sexfoil depression giving way more often than before 
itU plain plate, as at C. C. C. Oxford, 1507, Great Waltham, 1521, and St. Edmiuid's, 
ki-lraiT, 1533 ; and a legend round rim is the nile. 

tt. < oil. Oxford {illusiraiion), 6-foil. Vemicle elaborated. 

Legend round rim. 



t Efeiy hall-marlced paten down to lfi20, of which nineteen are known, is thus ; except C.C.C. 
'^)nl, U07, vbicfa is a plain plate ; and Happisbrough, 1504, which has legend in addition. 



202 Old English Plate. [rsAP. .x. 

early part of the Bixteenth century. One of tfae moBt beantifol and 
oldest at the same time is at Wjke in HampBhire (No. 10). With an 
octofoil depre!48ion, it exhibits both the characteristic features of the 
most ancient examples, viz. : — the Agnua for central device, and 
an inscription running ronnd the rim of the plate in uncial lettering. 
The inscriptioD is CTJNCTA CREO VIRTUTE KEOO PIE 
TATE BEFOBMO. Very aimilar lettering is to be seen on the 
paten found at Canter- 
bury in the tomb of 
Archbishop Walter 
who died in I'iOS. A 
third Tery early ex- 
ample is at Chichester 
bearing, like the Can- 
terbury example, the 
inscription AONVS 
DEI aVI TOLLIS 
PECCATAMVin): 
UISEBEBE NO- 
BIS, both of tbem 
having the "Agnus" 
for central device. 
The spelling in all 
these examples is 
more or less abbre- 
■ (D. 1266) yi^tgj 0, incorrect, 
and in the case of the 
Canterbury paten the letters NIT are engraved, as we shonld say, 
upside down. The Canterbury paten has around the rim a second 
band with a curious inscription which does not occur elsewhere in 
England. In the thirteenth century, the "Manns Dei" became 
the usual device for the centre, and the depression seems more 
often than not of quatrefoil shape. An engraving (No. 11) is given 
of a very typical example of c. 1266 found in the tomb of Bishop 
Cantelupe of Worcester. 

By the time we come to the Gothic period, we have a more settled 
form and fashion of Paten. Instead of the plain plate or the tenfoil 
or octofoil or quatrefoil depression, we have now almost invariably a six- 
lobed depression corresponding to the hexagonal form of the foot of the 
chalice and the " agnus " and " manus " give way to the " vemicle " or 
face of the Saviour rudely engraved in the middle of the depression. 
This is illustrated by the Nettlecombe paten, which Mr. O. Morgan 



X.] 



Patens. 



303 



described as follows : — " The paten is 4| inches in diameter, with a 
narrow moulded edge and a brim like an ordinary plate, within which 
is sank a six-lobed depression. The centre points from which the 
workman formed the lobes are still visible, and the spandrels between 
the lobes are filled 
with a small radiacing 
ornament as is usual 
in similar patens which 
are not unfrequently 
met with. In the 
centre is a still further 
depression, in which 
has been inserted from 
the back a small silver 
plate having in trans- 
parent enamel sunk 
in the metal, a repre- 
sentation of the Tcr- 
nicle or face of our 
Saviour surrounded by 
a cruciform nimbus. 
It fortunately remains 
perfect. This central 
depression with an in- 
serted plate of enamel 
is very unusual, the surface of patens being usually made as smooth 
as possible. The back of this small plate is gilt and engraved with the 
aacred monogram (see No. 12) in black letter of the fifteenth century." 
Such patens were commonly made to match the chalices with which 
they were used, and the tno were called " a cbalice with his paten " 
in the old inventories of cbnrcb goods. The depression of the 
paten often fitted exactly into the top of its chalice if placed upon it. 
As we get later into the Gothic period the form of the paten becomes 
a little more uncertain, the six-lobed depression giving way to the 
single depression of a plain plate ; and in the late Gothic times too, 
we find the sacred monogram instead of the vemicle. In the Tudor 
time the paten is elaborated to match the chalices of which we 
have already spoken, and as an inscription around the bowls of the 
chalice became usual, so did the same addition become a common 
featnre around the rim of the paten, and they were engraved to match 
one another. Of this final development the fine paten (No. 13) at 
Trinity College, Oxford, supplies us with an illustration. 




» (147B) 



204 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. : 



Th(3 letteriug of the Tudor period will be noticed, and the elabora- 
tioD of rays with which the vernicle is surrounded as with a halo, 
spreading over the whole surface within the sis-lobed space left round 
the central portion of the paten. The latest dated paten at St. 
Edmund's, Salisbury, is of the year 1533, and nrnch resembles the 
Trinity paten. 



No. 13.— PATHC (IS27) *T Tminiw oollioi, oifobb. 

Of the whole number of known patens, some nineteen are hall- 
marked. Tbey arc as follows : 



Nettlecombe, Bomerset 


1479 


Vernicle. 


' Orcheston St. Mary, Wilts. 1610 Vcmick 


Stow Louga, HuntH. 


1491 


do. 


Scremb;, LincB . . 1QI2 


do. 


Sbirley, Derbjebire 


1493 


<lo. 


Hewortb, Durh. . . . 1614 


do. 


Clifford Chambere, Gloac. 




Late Rev. Tlios.Slaniforth 1617 


do. 




1494 


do. 


1 Durham Cathl. Library . 1619 


do. 


Childrey, Berks . 


1496 


do. 






Coaaey.Norf. . . 


1496 


do. 


Oieat Waltham, Essex . 1521 


do. 


HappisbroQgh, Norf. 


B504 


do. 


Trin. Coll., Oxford . . 1527 




C. C. C, Oxfonl . 


1607 


do. 


Giesing, Norf. . . . 1690 


do. 


West Drajton, MiJx. 


1507 


do. 


St. Edmunit, SalUbury .1633 


do. 


Hockham Psrva, Norf 


1509 


-lo. 







It will be noticed that no less than foar of these ball-marked patena 
come from Norfolk, a county which can boast of possessing more than 



CHAP. IX,] Edward VI. Communion Cups. 205 

thirty out of the whole number of Pre-Reformation patens remaining 
at the present time. 

Besides the paten, a spoon aometimea appertained to the ancient 
massing dial ice. A chalice 
is mentioned in a will of 
1432, as " calicem sanctifi- 
catam cnm patena et cocliari 
eidem calici pertinente." The 
nse of this chalice spoon ia 
told us by an entry in the York 
Minster fabric rolU, 23 Dec. 
1870, which adds to the men- 
tion of a silver gilt spoon that 
it was " ad proporciouandum 
vinum sive aquam pro calice 
magai altaria." 

This brings us to Protestant 
times and the new form of 
commnnion cup introduced in 
the reign of Elizabeth, or 
rather of Edward VI. 

Cups of the earlier reign are 
seldom to be found. Those 
known to the author were, un- 
til lately, only ten in nnmber; 
bat to this short list Mr. Ed- 
win Freshfield. junr., F.S.A., 
has added no less than Ave, all 
found in the City of London. 
The fifteen now known are as 
follows: — St. Lawrence, Jewry, 
1548; St. Peter, Cornhill, 
1549 ; St. James, Garlick- 

hitbe, 1649 ; St. Mildred, No. U.— comkubioh cup (1570) ir ciBKicgsTEii. 
Bread Street, 1549 ; St. 

Michael, Wood Street, 1549 ; Bridekirk, Cumberland, 1550 ; 
St. Michael, Cornhill, 1650 ; St. Margaret, Westminster (2), 1551 ; 
Hunstantcn, Norfolk, 1551 ; Totnes, Devon, 1551 ; Bt;ddingtoii , 
Surrey, 1551; Owlyabury, Hants, 1662; St. James, Garlickhithe, 
1552; Great Houghton, Northants, 1552. Most of these so 
much resemble the engraving we have given (No. 14) of the 
communion cups of 1570 still preserved at Cirencester, that more 
need not be said about them. Their peculiarity is the plain bowl 



Old English Plate. 



[CB 



T 



with at most a little dotted orna- 
ment and the conical stem with 
godrooned flange close up under 
the bowl. Tho Cirencester pair 
no doubt owe their early fashion to 
the fact that though thej are them- 
selves of Elizabethan date, they 
were made by a silversmith who 
had been much employed upon 
such work in the time of King 
Edward VI., and who continued, as 
it seems, to use his original shop 
pattern long afterwards. They 
are plain standing cups with 
conical stem, as shown, and with- 
out knops. Their large size 
adapted them for the use of the 
whole congregation, now that in 
1547 the administration of the 
Communion in both kinds was 
restored according to the practice 
of the early Church, and in this 
respect they are a great contrast 
to the chalices they replaced. 

There is fortuuotely no lack 
of examples of the Elizabethan 
communion cup. They are found 
everywhere, and of the same form, 
and bearing the same style of 
ornamentation, from one end of 
England to the other. (No. 15.) 
There are sixteen within a walk 
of Cirencester, and as many ia 
one county as another. Mr. 
Morgan has given the following 
account of them : — 

" The chalice still consisted of 
the same parts — bowl, stem, 
and foot — though I have known 
two instances in small parishes 
where the chalices consist of 
the cup only, without stem or 
foot. The stem, although altered in form and character, still swells 




CHAP. IX.] Elizabethan Communion Cups. 207 

out in the middle into a small knob, or the rudiments of one, 
and is occasionally ornamented with small bands of a lozenge- 
shaped ornament, or some other such simple pattern, and the foot 
is invariably round, instead of indented or angular. The form of 
the cup, however, is altogether changed, and instead of being a 
shallow wide bowl, it is elongated into the form of an inverted 
truncated cone slightly bell-shaped. The form of the paten is also 
much changed, the sunk part of the platter is often considerably 
deepened, the brim narrowed, and thereon is fixed a rim or edge by 
which it is made, when inverted, to fit on the cup as a cover, whilst 
a foot is added to it which serves also as a handle to the cover, as 
though it were intended to place the wine in the chalice and cover it 
with the paten-cover until the administration of the Sacrament, when 
the cover would be removed and used as a paten fpr holding the 
bread. On the bottom of the foot of the paten was a silver plate 
which almost always bears the date when it was made, and the name 
of the parish to which it belongs. The ornamentation on all 
these chalices and paten-covers, as they may be called, is invari- 
ably the same ; it consists simply of an engraved band round the 
body of the cup and on the top of the cover formed by two narrow 
fillets which interlace or cross each other with a particular curva- 
ture in every instance the same, the space between them being 
occupied by a scroll of foliage, sometimes replaced by plain lines of 
short strokes like hyphens, as at Cirencester, and as shown also on 
the Christ Church paten (No. 15), and this ornament is marked by a 
total absence of letters, monograms, emblem, or figures of any kind.* 
It is curious how this exact uniformity of shape and ornament was so 
universally adopted, unless there had been some regulation or standard 
pattern to go by, but I have not been able to find any such, to guide 
the makers." 

To this it may be added, that some years ago, before much attention 
was paid to hall-marks, a silversmith assured the present writer that 
these cups were all made by order, and issued one to every parish by 
Government under an Act of Parliament ; it is, however, hardly 
necessary to say now that no such Act can be found. They were 
made by provincial as well as London goldsmiths ; plenty were made 
at York, Exeter, and Norwich, and there are almost as many different 
makers' marks upon them as there are cups themselves. In York- 
shire and in Worcestershire they are of 1570 or 1571 ; in Norfolk 
five years earlier, and in Gloucestershire and the west of England 
about as much later. 



Sometimes the band is close round the lip. A number of examples of this variation 



2o8 Old English Plate. [cuap. ix. 

Ko two again are exactly alike in size or Gnieb, there is everything 
from the tiny cup of some village church weighing no more than live 
or six ounces and deatitnte of all ornament, up to a tall vessel a foot 
high, holding nearly a quart of wine, and fully ornamented as in the 
engraving, some few having a second belt around the cup. It may 
he remarked that both the Norwich and Exeter goldsmiths bad 
patterns of their own for the 
bowls ; at Norwich they were 
made wider, shallower, and 
Vi'ith straigbter sides thou in 
London and elsewhere in Eng- 
land, and tbey often bore the 
name of the parish engraved 
around them instead of the 
ornament described by Mr. 
Morgan. A good idea of tho 
Norwich style is given hy the 
cup formerly at Raveningham, 
CO. Norfolk, but siuce in the 
collection of Prof. Church (No. 
16). The inscription round 
the band is THE CVPPE 
PTENYNG TO RANYNG- 
HAM. Another bears FOR 
THE TOW'NE OF CASTVN, 
1567, and a third on the paten- 
handle THE TOVNE OF 
AYLSHAM, 1568. Those 

„ ,. , .„, made at Exeter are, without 

No. 16.— coimijmoF oof (1588), nuhwich . v j 

pATTiitN. exception, very handsome ves- 

sels, quite as tall and deep as 
the London patterns given in onr engravings, and the bowls vase- 
ahaped, larger at the top than the bottom, the sides just at the rim 
turning straight up for abont a quarter of an inch rather than forming 
a lip. Many of them are richly gilt or parcel gilt, and engraved more 
often than not with a quadruple belt interlaced in the usual manner, 
instead of the ordinary double one, and elaborately finished. In 
Worcestershire a number of the cape noted by Archdeacon Lea have 



occur betTeeo 1&64 and 1570. Sometimes I vider compound band u found at abont 
Iben are two separate bnnde : many ar« tbe oame period ; but the design ii of th« 
kDown from IflGS to 1573. SomelimeB a | tome general character in *U tbena caaM. 



CHAP. IT.] Communion Cups. 2og 

stems of the Edward VI. pattern or a modification of it. These have 
Qsnally a maker's mark only, probably that of a local man ; bnt 
several of them are dated 1571. Except for such small differences 
and local pecaliarities, they are all so alike in shape and style, that it 
is indeed somewhat wonderful, as Mr. Morgan remarks, that no 
aatbority or direction for their formation has ever been found. 
Bnmet and Strype, the Constitutions and Canons of the Church, the 
Acts and Proceedings in Convocation, the Documentary Annals of the 
Reformation, the Injunctions, Declarations, and Orders, were all 
searched by Mr. Morgan without finding any specific direction that 



s (1600, 1622). 

would account for the extraordinary uniformity of shape and pattern 
which could hardly have been the result of the taste or caprice of 
churchwardens or silversmiths. To this long list may be added the 
Statute Book, the Eegisters of the Privy Council, and every other 
likely record, which have all since been searched in vain. 

There is one suggestion left, that some regulation on the Bubject, 
though unrecorded, may have emanated from the Convocation held in 
London in 1562, at which many important matters concerning the 
doctrine, articles, rites and discipline of the Church of England were 
settled. The earliest cup of this fashion is of the year 1558. 

The same pattern found favour &om this time to about the middle 
of the Best century, but in examples of a later date than 1600 the 



2IO Old English Plate. [chap. ix. 

engrayed belt is usually wanting, and the bowls are perhaps rather 
straighter sided. There are good specimens of these at the Temple 
Church made in 1609, and a pair of rather plainer finish at Hackney 
Church of the year 1687. All these are about nine inches high. 

Plain upright beakers are found doing duty as communion cups in 
Yarious places. Au example of 1608 is preserved at Stickney, Lines., 
and another of the following year at Aj*mathwaite. A late example 
of London make in 1676, and dated 1678, is at Maiden Newton, 
Dorset. They are yery common all through the seventeenth century 
as communion cups in Scotland. The Dutch Church community at 
Norwich had a set of four such cups of Elizabethan date, made by 
one of the local goldsmiths. 

Between 1600 and 1680 the cup is often fo^nd shaped something 
like the letter Y, and supported by a baluster stem. An eugraying 
(No. 17) is given of an example of this kind and date, together with 
a cup of 1622 which also shows the baluster stem, and much resembles 
the chalice in which King Charles 1. received his last communion 
on the morning of his execution. This sad historical relic was 
made in 1629, and is preserved at Welbeck. The wine-glass shaped 
vessels, and tazza-form cups like that engraved on p. 816, were the 
popular shape for communion cups in Scotland. It is not too much 
to say that most Scottish communion cups of the seventeenth century 
are of one or other of these two patterns, or else of beaker fashion. 
Of the tazza form of communion cup the author only knows two 
examples in Englaud. These are at Peatling Magna, Leicestershire, 
of 1608 ; and at Shenton in the same county of 1641. 

The last two illustrations with the pair which follow next (No. 18) 
give us four of the most usual forms of communion cups in the seven- 
teenth century. They all have been reproduced for the sake of conve- 
nience from some of the very accurate outlines given by Mr. A. Trollope 
in his Leicestershire church plate, as follows : — 

(1.) Com. cup, 1600. Pickwell, Leicestershire . . .J scale. 

(2.) Com. cup, 1622. Ashfordby do do. 

(3.) Com. cup, 1630. Melton Mowbray do. ... do. 

(4.) Com. cup, 1686. Carlton Curlieo. do } scale. 

The first gives an illustration of the Y-shaped cup in vogue for a 
few years from 1600 ; and the second, of the wine-glass shaped cup 
which succeeds the last and is found till about 1650. Of the earlier 
type are cups at Scaleby, Cumberland ; at Pickwell, Leicestershire ; 
and Newbold Pacey, Warwickshire, all of them of the year 1600 ; at 
Glooston, Leicestershire, of 1601 ; and at Gilmorton in the same 



ouLP. IX.] Communion Cups. 211 

county of 1605. Of the latter, there are a host of examples from 
1622 to 1642. The fourth represents the rude vessels of the later 
part of the century. But the third is for many reasons of unusual 
interest, and deserves more detailed notice. It is a form of cup 
constantly found &om 1630 to 1640, and many of them are by the 
same maker, who used an escallop for his mark. No less than 
eighteen cups of this make are known to the author. Of these cups 
the peculiarity is the stem and foot. Instead of the baluster stem 



No. 18.— TWO eoBHDliioN onps (1(130, IfiSB). 

more usual at this period, or the evenly divided and knopped Btem of 
the Ehzabathan type which was not yet out of date, we have a collar 
or flange around the upper part of s trumpet-shaped stem which 
plainly recalls the form of foot which has been already described as 
first found in the reign of Edward YL, and then again later in the 
case of some cups of the early years of Elizabeth. 

It will be remembered that the re-appearance of this shape of foot 
at the later of these dates, when the general fashion of foot was some- 
what different, was accounted for by the fact that it must have been a 
shop pattern of the smith, whose mark of a stag's head proved that 
the same hand had fashioned both groups of cups. And now again in 
the seventeenth century there is a coincidence which seems to account 
as happily for its second re-appearance. The author has always been 



513 



Old English Plate. 






of opiuioD that tte Tesemblance of the new foot of c. 1630 and that of 
the commnnion cups of the time of Edward VI. was too marked to be 
accidental, and that the smith of the escallop shell must have been 
acquainted with the work of him who so many years before had nsed 
the stag's-head mark. The very earliest in date known of the later 
gronp is this of 1630 at Melton Mowbray, and cnriously enough an 
older cup belonging to the same parish is one of the rery rare 
examples of the early Elizabethan group marked with the stag's head. 



That this last formed the model for the newer cap which was probably 
ordered to match it, is almost certain ; and it is an interesting con- 
jecture that the rest of this large and well-marked group of communion 
cups by the smith of the escallop shell, owe their fashion directly to 
the pattern originally supplied him by his customer at Melton 
Mowbray. It may be added that in 1628, only two years before the 
old pattern thus came to his notice, he ia found producing a cup for 
Witley in Sarrey of the usual Elizabethan type. 

It will be seen from the pewter vessels (No. 19) formerly at a village 
church in Gloucestershire, that the pewter communion cnpa and 



CHAP, IX.] Communion Cups. 213 

flagons of this period are very much like those made of more precious 
metal. 

Of the CommonweBlth period are found a few communion cups, 
such aa those at Bocbester Cathedral, which seem to have been 



No. 20. — COHHIIBION CDP (1670) AI UBBTOK-LA-ZOUOBB. 

tashioned after Pre-Beformntion models. They have the six-sided 
or else eight-sided foot with cherub-heads at the points, but]the 
bowls are deeper and straighter than those of the Gothic period. The 
fine set at Bochester is of 1653 ; aud equally fine vessels by the same 
maker are at Staunton Harold, Leicestershire, of the following year. 



ai4 Old English Plate. [chap. ix. 

A fine example of this cIbbb is at Ashby-de-la-ZoQcbe, an engraTuig 
(No. 20) of which is given from so original drawing furnished by the 
kindness of the vicar. It was given in 1676, and resembles, in 
general form, an undated and not so highly ornamented cup used in 
Lambeth Palace chapel. Somewhat Eimilar ones dated 1637 are at 
St. Mary's, Lambeth. These dates fairly mark the period during 
which snch cups are met with. 

li'rom about the time of the Restoration a ruder fashion prevailed ; 



No. 21. — OOMIIDRIOII OOP (o. 1510) *T SAIDWICH, KIBT. 

many capa are then found of great size, with straight sides having 
somewhat of a lip, and mounted on a plain circnlar stem and foot, 
wholly onrelieved by any ornament, save that the stem perhaps Bwells 
out at its centre into a simple boss or ring as plain as the rest of it. 
(See the cup of 1686, Ko. 18.) The paten-cover fitting on is still foond 
as on those at Westminster Abbey, dated 1660, and many other places. 
Another pattern in vogue then and later, had an even ruder stem 
and foot all in one, it being merely a truncated cone somewhat of the 
shape of the bowl of an Elizabethan oommnnion cup turned apside 



CHAP, IX.] Cups used as Chalices. 215 

down, and attacked to the bottom of the cnp. There are examples of 
them dated 1661 at St. Margaret's, Westminster, and they are not at 
all uncommon ; from this time the paten-cover ie often wanting. 

Before we leave the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, note mast 
not bo omitted of other cups of 
qnite exceptioQal form which are 
occaBionallj found, some of great 
excellence; these have, no doubt, 
been originally secnlar drinking cnps, 
bat since devoted by the piety and 
liberality of their owners to more 
tiacred porposes. They are found 
of all dates and shapes. The 
earliest known to the author is a 
beautifnl Gothic cup with conical 
bowl at Marston, near Oxford. Its 
stem is as a truncated cone, and 
has beantiful pierced mouldings at 
its outer edge which rests apon 
three talbot dogs, themselves upon 
small oblong stands or pedestals. 

Two most singnlar cnps are those 
at Wymeswold, Leicestershire, and 
at Sandwich, Kent. They are ex- 
actly alike, simple, shallow, cir- 
cular, tazza- shaped, flat-bottomed, 
straight- sided bowls, on truncated 
cone feet ; and they each have an 
inscription ranning roand the bowl 
in Tudor lettering; SOLI DEO 
UONOR ET GLORIA, being on the 

Wymeswold cup, and the words No. 22.— odf (1635), witb coth Bira- 
THIS IS THE COMMVNION "" "~ 

COVP on the cup at Sandwich which 
basacoveT(No. 21). The inscription 
at Wymeswold is the same as that which appears on a very similar 
cap in the possession of Mr. H. Willett of the year 1500; but the 



BADOB,* DSI0 IB A OBAUOI 



* Tbe Bolejn bn^Ka vu it crowiied fatcoD 
bearing a *Mptre in the dexter eUw uid 
bsTing « moDDt of lilie> graving in front of 
ita breut. The above ongTariDg gire* ths 
liliea ntbar too mneh in prnSU to b« intal- 



ligible Tithoat expUnition, and mikai the 
■ceptre, (he upper portion of which ii now 
broken olT in the cue of the cap at Cinn- 
colter, too like a dagger. 



2i6 Old- English Plate. [chap. is. 

inscription on the Sandwich cup can hardly have been placed upon it 
before c. 1550. 

The Leicestershire example is hall-marked 151'2, a circumstance 
which may be taken to date its fellow at Sandwich at all events 
approximately. 

Perhaps the most beautiful of all these eecular caps is one at 
Cirencester, made in 1685, and in all probability for the onfortunate 
Queen Anne Boleyn. An engraving 
of this is given (No. 22). It is not 
known at what time it came into the 
possession of the cbnrchwardens at 
Cirencester, hot it is not improbable 
that it was one of the royal New Year's 
Day presents, made by Anne Boleyn's 
daughter, Qaeen Elizabeth, after the 
fashion of those days, to her physician, 
Dr. Richard Master (to whom the lands 
of the Abbey of Cirencester were 
granted in 1565), and by bim given 
to the parish with which his descend- 
ants have ever since been connected. 
Another very ancient cop at Oatcombe, 
Isle of Wight, bears the hall-mark of 
the year 1540. (No. 23.) 

A fine hanap at Watford in Hert- 
fordshire, is of the year 1S61. Sir 
Ko. 23.— oDi'(i540)osBDJBioaiLics John Maclean notes a very good one, 
fHau'iXr "" "' ™"' dated 1576, at St. Mabyn, Cornwall. 
It is some 13 inches high, and has n 
cover snrmonnted by a boynnde holding a shield, both bowl and cover 
engraved in arabesque style with birds and foliage. Kensington parish 
church has a tall standing cup of 1599, the bowl ornamented with escal- 
lop shells in bold reponss6-work ; and at Hucknall Torkard is a very 
bimilar banap, of about 1610, in character much like the Edmonds' Gup 
of the Carpenters' Company, of which an engraving is given in the nexi 
chapter (p. 803) ; but the steeple is in this case wanting, or more 
probably has been broken off. A magnificent cup of 1614 at Odcombe, 
Som., another of 1617 at Bodmin, and a third of 1619 at Linton, 
Kent, are as fine as that at Carpenters' Hall ; others of the same 
fashion are at Welland, Wore, and at Braunstone, whilst there are no 
fewer than four in the Diocese of Carlisle. Simple beaker caps are in 
use at Llaniyllin, N. Wales, Scremby, Lines., and at Armathwaite, in 



cuiLP. IX.] Communion Cups in N. America, 217 

Cumberland. These are of the years 1598, 1608, and 1609 respec- 
tively. Such cups were popular also for secular use at this period. 
(See No. 94.) 

Last of all comes an ordinary two-handled fluted porringer, like 
No. 98, Chap. X. Made in 1708, it has done duty as a chalice at a 
village church in Gloucestershire ever since. A similar vessel of 1709 
is to be seen at the Independents' Chapel in Oswestry. 

It is interesting to find examples, and fine examples too, of each 
successive fashion of secular drinking-cup amongst the ancient posses- 
sions of our parish churches. It may, perhaps, be thought by some 
at the present day inappropriate to use such vessels for the sacred 
purposes to which their former owners have dedicated them, but 
surely they should be carefully treasured and preserved instead of 
exchanged, as they too often are, for articles of modem design that 
cannot be thought of without a shudder of horror. Less suitable they 
may seem to a few for their present use than such models of mediseval 
art as the chalices at Nettlecombe or at Oxford, but they have an 
interest and a value of their own that can never attach to the brand- 
new vessels decorated with sham jewels and nineteenth century filigree- 
work, that are too often obtained in exchange for them. 

At the commencement of the eighteenth century, cups were made very 
upright, much like those of 1660 at Westminster Abbey, but narrower 
and straighter, and always perfectly plain. It is said that Queen Anne 
presented most of the American churches of that day with silver altar 
vessels ; some of these are preserved still, and it is much to be hoped 
that many more examples will be found sooner or later. 

There is even now in use, or was in 1861, the hundredth anniversary 
of the foundation of the church, at Christ Church, Cambridge, Mass., 
a silver paten, cup and flagon bearing the date 1694, originally part of 
a service presented by King William and Queen Mary '' for the use of 
their Majesties' Chappell in New England," that is, the King's Chapel, 
Boston. This set seems to have been given by the Church to Governor 
Hutchinson in exchange for a more valuable set in 1772, and by him 
divided equally between Christ Church, Cambridge, and St. Paul's 
Church, Newburyport.* 

The silver service sent to Grace Church, Jamaica, in Long Island, 
by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel,* in the year 1704, 
is still in existence there, engraved '' Ex dono Societatis pro promovendo 
Evangelis in partibus transmarinis, 1704," and the record of the grant 
of money with which it was bought is to be traced in the Journal of 



• Not« kindly communicated by Rev. H. W. Tucker, M.A., Secretary S.P.a. 



2 1 8 Old English Plate. [chap. it. 

the Society on Nov. 17tb in that year. It waB made by John Wib- 
dome of London. Plate of the year 1708, given by Qaeeu Aane, 
remains at St. George's Chorch, Hempstead, Long iBland, and at St. 
Petet'B Church, Westchester, N.Y., both cups being made by John 
Eastt. The service with royal arms and AA at Trinity Church, N.Y., 
is of the following year and by Francis Qarthorne. A set of communion 
plate given in 1711 by Queen Anne " to her Indian Chapel of Onondaw- 
gas," ia now in use at St. Peter's Ghnrch, Albany, N.Y. Other plate 



No. 24.— ooMMnmoK viaaiu (1707), ii hyitmyilib, murL^sn, o.s.i. 

of this Bame year, and like the last, bearing the royal arms and AH, 
is at Brantford and also at DeBoronto, both in Canada. The plate at 
Christ Church, Boston, Mass., was given by King George n. in 1738, 
and was made in that year by Joseph Allen and Mordecai Fox, of St. 
Swithin's Lane. 

Again Trinity Charch, Boston, was given plate by the same sovereign 
in 1742. This was raade in 1741 by the same silversmiths as the last. 

The latest royal gift yet traced in the United States is an alms- 
baBin at Trinity Church, New York, by the well-known Thos. Heming, 
in 1766. It is engraved with the royal arms, and bears the initials 
6It. Of the same year is some of the plate at Ch. Cb. Braton, 
Virginia, which is marked GUIIl. 



CHAP. IX.] Eighteenth Century Communion Plate. 219 

Moderc chalices ma; be seen in use at St. Paul's Cathedral, and at 
Kensington parish church, to mention places that are easily accessible, 
and these may be nsefally compared with the Ulnatrations of older 
chalices giTen in this chapter by those who are interested in such 
matters. 

After this no attention was paid to art in ecclesiastical matters, and 
it can only be said that the church plate of the last century was well 
suited to the churches of the period. No better general illustration 



No. !G.— Pitur (1873) it si. oaiBBist'i^ tnax, 

of the taste of the reign of Queen Anne and later, in such matters, 
could possibly be found than the Cup and Flagon (No. 24), at 
Hyattsyille, Maryland, made by tbe well-known London smith, M. E. 
Lofthonse. These were originally at Patuzent or Upper Marlboro, 
but eyentually came to the church at which they are now preserred. 
Many an English town and village can show just such vessels. 
Fortunately, older churches in most cases treasured the better piste 
acquired at an earlier period, and well wonld it be if this were still so, 
and fewer Elizabethan communion cups were seen in the shop- 
windows of tbe modern silversmith. Many of them are made of the 
very same silver as the more ancient chalices which they replaced. 



220 Old English Plate. [cbap. ix. 

yessels that bad, perchance, belonged to their parishes from time 
immemorial. It is to be feared that they are constantly parted with 
for the mere price of the silver of which they are made, by those who 
are in ignorance, or are regardless of the curious historical associa- 
tions which surround these ancient and interesting relics of the 
Beformation period. 

So much for chalices, but a few more words must be added to carry 
down the history of patens. 

The paten usual in the seventeenth century was not fitted to the 
cup, but was a plain circular salver on a central circular and conical foot 
like the stem of the rudest of the communion cups, and that of the 
eighteenth century was a plain plate. In feet, everything may be 
found from a plain but solid plate, about the size and shape of a 
dinner-plate, down to a small domestic waiter, standing on the three 
usual small feet, and made, if not of silver, of Sheffield plate. 

As an illustration of the patens of the seventeenth century, a wood- 
cut (No. 26) is given of an unusually fine one at St. Cuthbert's, York, 
by the kindness of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society. It affords 
also a good example of the stiff feather mantling that so often sur- 
rounds the coats of arms engraved on plate of the Charles 11. period. 

FLAGONS. 

The earliest of these are of the reign of Elizabeth, and succeeding 
as they did the phials or cruets of earlier days, one of which was for 
wine and the other for water, they are usually found in pairs, although 
a single vessel of the kind would have been all that was actually 
necessary, even to bring to the church the larger quantity of wine that 
was now used. Tankard-flagons of an Elizabethan pattern with 
tapering sides that will be found described under the title Tankards 
later on, are in use as communion flagons, one at Fugglestone St. 
Peter, Wilts, and another at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, with 
a third at Heddington, WUts, this last being of 1602, but there 
is nothing to identify their fashion especially with ecclesiastical uses. 
We may, therefore, pass on to the very early pair of ** round-bellied " 
or jug-shaped flagons at Cirencester church (No. 26), which were 
made in 1576, and supply us with a distinctive form of flagon which 
was used till about 1615. Several examples of them have been found 
at intermediate dates; a pair at St. Margaret's, Westminster, and 
also one at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, are of 1588; and at 
Kendcombe in Gloucestershire, there are flagons of the same shape 
ornamented round the bowls with engraved belts of the usual 
Elizabethan communion-cup pattern. They are of the year 1592. 



cHAP.-ii-i Flagons. 221 

Then come a fine pair ol 1598 at Wadham College, Oxford. These 

are gilt and covered with engraved strap-work all oyer the nocke and 

bovrlB. They were a legac; of the foundress. A plainer flagon of 

1604 is at Salis- 

bnry Cathedral. A 

second at St. 

George's Chapel, 

Windsor, is as late 

as 1613 ; bnt it was 

no doubt made to 

match the one of 

1569. It is cnrions 

to note that there 

are no less than 

snven or eight large 

flagoDB of this exact 

HhapesndofEnghsh 

make, amongst the 

treasures of the Czar 

und of the Patriarch 

of Moscow in the 

KremUn. The Rns- 

HJan examples are 

ornamented all over 

in flat repousse 

work, and are of 

TariouB dates from 

1596 to 1612. 

Flagons were pro- 
bably not so in- 
vtuiably made of 
silver as were cha- 
lices. The church- 
wardens of Wing, 

CO. Backs, are found No. -2S.— comidnidii rLAaoH (isre) at cirbmobstik. 

in 1576, paying 

" for a tynne wyne bottell for the chnrche, xviijrl.," and in 1605 the 
anthorities of Leverton ijs, viiJ. " for a puter communion pott." 

The word " pott " will remind us of the Canons of 1603, by which 
(Canon 20] the wine was required to be brought to the communion table 
in " a clean and sweet standing pot or stoup of pewter if not of purer 
metal." 



222 Old English Plate. [oh*p. k. 

Ever; now and tben s later flagon is found to recall the earlier 
pattern. For instance, a pair of very large gilt yoHBels, chased all orer 
with decoration as feather-work, and of the year 1660, at the Chapel 
Boyal, St. James's Palace, are almost exactly of the " rotmd-bellied " 
shape ; but from thu time the " ronnd>bellied " flagona, as they are 



No. 27. — ooxHonoH moos (1664) it outubv&t dathui&ii. 

called in a MS. inventory of the plate of St. George's Chapel, 
disappear from common use, and the nsnal tankard pattern comes in 
which has ever since been used and is so familiar. A rare example 
of an upright-sided plain tankard-flagon is at Te&bnt Ewyas, Wilts. 
This is of 1672. Early examples like this are of small size compared 
with the more common tall and large vessels which came in with the 



CHAP. IX. J Flagons. 223 

seyenteenth century. The earliest of these tall tankard-flagons known 
to the writer is an example at C. C. C, Oxford, of 1698 ; the next is 
at New Coll., Oxford, and of 1602, to which succeed a pair quite 
plain, save for one or two small bands of moulding, at Brasenose 
College, Oxford. These are of 1608. Then come a pair at Salisbury 
Cathedral of 1610, given by John Barnston, Canon of Salisbury, and 
of Brasenose College, Oxford. Possibly as both pairs are by the same 
maker, both were presented by Barnston. Following these are two 
of the same year, 1618, a plain one belonging to Ghray's Inn Chapel, 
and a beautiful specimen ornamented with belts and scrolls of strap- 
work, the property of the parish of Bodmin : a very similar one to 
the last at Kensington Church, London, was made in 1619. The 
illustrations later under the article on Tankards, of tall tankards at 
Norwich and Bristol, give a good idea of the church flagon-tankards 
of this period. Later than this, and to the present day, they are all 
of the general shape and character of the pewter example shown on 
page 212, which is of 1640 or thereabouts. Usually plain, and often 
of great size, and with a spreading base or foot, in the reign of 
Charles 11. they are found covered with heavy Louis XIV. scrolls 
and flower ornamentation in repousse work all over the drum. Very 
occasionally exceptions occur, as in the case of those at Canterbury 
Cathedral, which are of a jug shape with swelling bowls on short 
stems or feet, and have spouts, their lids being surmounted by crosses. 
(No. 27.) They are ornamented with flat applique silver ornamenta- 
tion of the kind sometimes called by amateurs ''cut card work," for 
want of a better name, and are of the year 1664. The jug-shaped 
flagon is occasionally found in the eighteenth century. A pair at 
Durham Cathedral, which are of the year 1766, are ornamented with 
flower-sprays in repousse work, and are not very unlike the cofiee-pot 
of the same period in shape and general style, except that a short 
lip at the rim replaces the long spout inserted lower down in the 
bowl, which would be proper to a cofiee-pot. The ordinary flagon 
of the eighteenth century is shown by the woodcut (No. 24) on 
p. 218. 

The word " flagon " seems to have been always appropriated to a 
vessel intended to hold wine, and has therefore been continued to 
these communion vessels, which would otherwise be more appropriately 
called '' tankards," or '' pots," as in the language of the Canons of 
1603. 

The very derivation of the word connects it with ** flask," and with 
the travelling bottles, or costrels, suspended by a cord or chain, 
similar to what are now called "pilgrims' bottles." A large and 



224 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. iz. 



handsome bottle of this description bearing the arms of General 
Charles Churchill younger brother of the great Duke of Marlborough, 
and said to have been used by him as a campaigning wine-flask, was 
sold lately (1892) in London. It was by P. Platel and its date was 
between 1702 and 1714, probably nearer to the former than the later 
year. In England the wine was brought to the communion table in 
the sort of vessels described above ; but it is a curious fact that at 
this ver^ day, at All Souls' College, Oxford, the flagons used to 
contain the wine for consecration at the Sacrament, are two very 
ancient large silver-gilt flasks, or pilgrims' bottles, having chains to 
which the stoppers are attached. It is said that they were spared at 
the Beformation, as having nothing popish about them. They are of 
foreign, and, from the goldsmith's marks, almost certainly of French, 
workmanship ; their precise date is unknown. Possibly they are the 
very vessels described in the will of Richard Andrew, Dean of York 
(1477) as bequeathed to the College ; but from their general character, 
and particularly that of their stoppers, they are probably of the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. 



ALMS-DISHES OR BASINS. 

These in early days may have been of various forms, such as ships, 
but were more often basins. The Wardrobe accounts of 1296 (24 
Edward I.) mention " j navis argenti cum pede p' elemos'," and in the 
time of Edward III. occurs an entry, " una magna oUa p' elemosinar'," 
but these were probably articles of table plate intended for the recep- 
tion of broken meat to be given to the poor. Another such alms-dish 
of gold, called the " Tygre," and standing upon a golden bear 
ornamented with rubies and pearls, is mentioned in Palgrave's State 
Inventories at the year 1431 (9 Henry VI.). This appears from other 
entries to have been a ship, like the dish of 1296, and was pledged 
over and over again for loans of money. 

Basins in great number, whatever they may have been used for, are 
mentioned in the church inventories of 1552 and other years, but 
those which are now found in our cathedrals and churches are not 
ancient ones. A large plain gilt alms-dish, with Tudor rose on the 
central boss, of the year 1556, at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, is 
the oldest known to the writer.* Next to that comes another gilt dish 
at Lambeth Palace Chapel, of 1636, and this is followed by a curious 



* A secular dish of 1524, at St. Magnas, 
London Bridge, seems to hare been altered a 
good deal at the time of its presentation in 



1564 to the Church of St Michael, Crooked 
Lane, now linked with St. Magnus. 



CHAP. IX.] Pricket Candlesticks. 225 

fluted dish bearing punched ornamentation in spirals, dated 1689| and 
belonging to the parish of Bermondsey. Small shallow trays, with 
punched ornamentation of this period, are used as alms-basins at 
several village churches, amongst which are Chalton, Hants, and 
Bredgar, Kent, also Alderton, Wilts. They are almost all included 
between the years 1630 and 1640. 

A plain dish, that might serve for either alms-dish or paten, part of 
the Gray's Inn Chapel plate, is of the year 1639. Later ones are 
always plain plates or dishes of silver or silver gilt, differing from one 
another only in size, some few having a coat of arms engraved on the 
centre or rim. Hardly any of them are of earlier date than 1660, and 
few are as old as that. A magpificent altar dish of that year is at 
the Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace. The centre is filled with a 
representation of the Last Supper in very high relief, and on the wide 
rim are other subjects, the chased and repousse panels being 
surrounded by Louis XIV. decoration. 

There is a fine large dish of 1684 ornamented with repousse work 
at Westminster Abbey, and a pair of plainer ones, of about the same 
date, engraved with the well-known heraldic bearing of a cross 
between five martlets, the coat assigned to Edward the Confessor. 

CANDLESTICKS. 

Those used before the Beformation were usually in pairs, and made 
of latten, or of copper gilt, often they were of silver. Such a pair are 
found amongst the plate of Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Bichmond, natural 
son of Henry VIII., in 1527, described as follows : — 

'' Pair of candelstikkes chaced wrethen for an aulter, weing Ixxviij. 
oz. iii. qts. Another pair, Ixiij. oz. iij. qts." 

They have all entirely disappeared, those which were of intrinsic 
value in the time of Edward VI., and those made of commoner 
materials were destroyed as ''monuments of superstition " in the early 
years of Elizabeth. 

Pricket candlesticks, or candlesticks with an upright spike upon 
which to place a large candle, are found amongst the plate of our 
cathedrals, but are seldom older than 1660, and still seldomer of any 
artistic interest. Candlesticks such as these are at Bochester, Canter- 
bury, Gloucester, and other places. The Bochester examples are the 
earliest known to be still in use, being of 1653. Those preserved in 
Salisbury Cathedral are of 1662. A very fine pair of chased candle- 
sticks of great size on tripod stands and of good workmanship belong 
to Westminster Abbey, but these are somewhat later, being of the 



2 26 Old English Plate. [chap. ix. 

year 1684. Others at Exeter Cathedral are fluted columns on 
pedestals, and were made in 1681. 

Good candlesticks of more modern design, ornamented with fluted 
work, chased flowers, and the like, may be seen at Durham. These 
were made in 1767. 

The dates of all these specimens suggest the concluding remark 
that little or no communion plate of any kind is found in our cathedrals 
older than the Restoration period. Probably cathedrals were more 
exposed to spoliation during the Civil War than parish churches, 
which could better deny the possession of any treasure worth taking ; 
at all events nothing of their earlier plate now remains. 



CHAPTER X. 

DECORATIVE AND DOMESTIC PLATE. 

IXTBODUCTION — EFFECT OF THE WABS OF THE ROSES — PROSPERITY OF THE SIX- 
TEENTH CENTURY — GREAT DESTRUCTION OP OLD PLATE AT VARIOUS TIMES 
— GOLD PLATE — OBSOLETE VESSELS — SPOONS— MAZERS— SALTS — STONEWARE 
JUGS— EWERS, BASINS, AND SALVERS — STANDING CUPS AND HANAPS — 
TANKARDS — 6MALLEB CUPS OF VABIOUS KINDS — PLATES — FOBKB — MON- 
TEITHB — CANDLESTICKS, SCONCES, ETC.— TOILET SEBVICBS — CASTEBS AND 
CBUET-STANDS — TEA AND COFFEE BEBVICES, KETTLES, ETC. — CAKE-BASKETS 
AND BPEBGNE8 — MACES AND OABS — BACING BELLS, ETC. 

Passing from ecclesiastical to secnlar plate, it needs no apology to 
commence a chapter which is intended to form part of a practical 
guide to the plate-collector, with the period to which the oldest extant 
specimens belong. 

It may be said at once that the Wars of the Boses were to secular 
plate what the events of the next century were to the treasures of the 
Church. Domestic plate, of an earlier date than the reign of Henry 
YU., is as scarce as pre-Beformation church-plate. The known 
examples may be almost reckoned on the fingers, and none of them 
are hall-marked except the Nettlecombe Chalice and Paten, and the 
Anathema Cup at Pembroke College, Cambridge. They comprise the 
few chalices and patens of which particulars have been given in the 
preceding chapter; several mazers which will be mentioned later; 
about half-a-dozen drinking vessels of note ; and a salt or two. The 
cups are the Lynn Cup, the Horn at Queen's College, Oxford, the 
Foundress' Cup at Christ's College, Cambridge, and a Cocoa-nut Cup 
at New College, Oxford. Almost the only salt is the Huntsman or 
Giant Salt at All Souls* College, Oxford. 

But in prosperous Tudor times the goldsmith had once more 
become a dependent of no mean consideration in the households of the 
great. The will of Eatherine of Arragon mentions her goldsmith, to 
whom she gives a year's wages, and one Bobert Amadal held a similar 
office in the domestic establishment of Cardinal Wolsey. 

Very early in the sixteenth century an English gentleman's house 
of the better sort would have been found well supplied with silver 
plate. Sir John Heron, Knt., Treasurer of the Chamber to King 

Q 2 



228 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

Henry VIII., bequeaths to his wife in 1526, " my daily usual plate 
being in my buttery, that is to say, three saltes silv' with a cover, 
xxii* of silver spones, two standing cuppes with ij covers gilt, three 
Gobletes with a cover and ij white holies of silver oon pounced and 
another playn." 

The same testator had more covered cups, covered salts, ewers and 
basins, and other things besides to leave to his children ; but the 
terms of the bequest to his wife give a good idea of what was thought 
necessary for ordinary domestic use in such a house as his at that 
period. 

By the middle of the reign of Queen Elizabeth the wealth and 
luxury of the country had been on the increase for almost a century, 
and an extract from the Description of England, by William Harri- 
son, Chaplain to Lord Cobham, which is prefixed to Holingshed's 
Chronicles, will supply us with a convenient preface. Writing in 
1586 he quaintly comments as follows on the times in which he was 
living : — * 

'* Certes in noble men's houses it is not rare to see abundance of 
Arras, rich hangings of tapestrie, silver vessell, and so much other 
plate as may furnish sundrie cupbords to the summe often-times of a 
thousand or two thousand pounds at the least, whereby the value of 
this and the rest of their stufife dooth grow to be almost inestimable. 
Likewise in the houses of knights, gentlemen, merchantmen, and 
some other wealthie citizens, it is not geson to behold generallie their 
great provision of tapestrie, Turkic work, pewter, brasse, fine linen, 
and thereto costlie cupbords of plate worth five or six hundred or a 
thousand pounds to be deemed by estimation. But as herein all these 
sorts do far exceed their elders and predecessors, and in neatnesse and 
curiositie the merchant all other ; so in time past the costlie furniture 
stayed there, whereas now it is descended yet lower, even unto the 
inferior artificers, and manie farmers who by vertue of their old and 
not of their new leases have for the most part learned also to garnish 
their cupboards with plate, their joined beds with tapestrie and hang- 
ings, and their tables with carpets and fine naperie, whereby the wealthe 
of our countrie (God be praised therefore and give us grace to employ 
it well) dooth infinitelie appeare." 

Plenty of evidence here, of the wealth of plate possessed by men of 
every degree late in the sixteenth century, and a little farther on he 
gives in more detail the amount of it that might then be found 
amongst what may be called the lower middle classes. He speaks of 



♦ Book II. cap. 12. 



CHAP. X.] 



Sixteenth Century Plate. 



229 



the exchange of ''treene platters into pewter, and wooden spoones 
into silver or tin ; " and after stating that in old times all sorts of 
'' treene '' stuff were so common that a man would hardly find four 
pieces of pewter, of which one was usually a salt, in a good farmer's 
house, whereas there was now a fair garnish* of pewter in his cup- 
board, he concludes with a list of such a farmer's plate, consisting of 
'* a silver salte, a bowle for wine (if not a whole neast), and a dozen 
of spoons to finish up the sute." 

And as it was three hundred years ago, so it is now. Emerson says 
of the Englishman of to-day that '' he is very fond of his plate, and 
though he have no gallery of portraits of his ancestors, he has of their 
punch-bowls and porringers. Incredible amounts of plate are found 
in good houses, and the poorest have some spoon or saucepan, gift of 
a godmother, saved out of better times/'f 

Smaller curiosities too have ever had a charm, for the fairer sex 
especially. And if our sisters carry their treasures about with 
them hung round their waists, their grandmothers did not value 
theirs the less because they kept them at home in a Chippendale 
cabinet. 

" With what admiration of the ingenuity of the fair artist," says 
Sir Walter Scott, '' have I sometimes pried into those miscellaneous 
groups o{ pseudo-bijouterie "i 

'' Blessings,'' adds the great novelist, ** upon a fashion which has 
rescued from the claws of abigails and the melting-pot of the silver- 
smith those neglected cimelia for the benefit of antiquaries and the 
decoration of side-tables." 

It is the plate of the century or more beginning with the reign of 
Henry YII. and ending with that of Queen Elizabeth, which furnishes 
the modem sideboard with its choicest specimens ; and rare as they 
are, the only wonder is that so many have been preserved, when we 
consider the events of subsequent times. 

It is needless to say that the requirements of King or Parliament 
in the following century swept much away; but two less obvious 
causes have wrought the destruction of even more than can be laid to 
the charge of Cavalier and Boundhead put together. One of them 
has already been alluded to in detailing the measures adopted by 
William III. to remedy the scarcity of bullion so grievously felt at the 
end of the seventeenth century. The premium then offered for hall- 
marked silver brought to the Mint was only too tempting, and a vast 



* A garnish = a full set o£ an established 
number of pieces, such as a dozen of each 
sort. A ''garnish " and ** half a garnish " 



are both often spoken of. 
t Emerson's English Traits, 
X St, RonarCs Well, Chap. X. 



236 Old English Plate, [chap. x. 

qaantity of ancient plate was sacrificed to the cupidity or the necessity 
of its owners in 1697. But scarcely less must have been melted down 
a century afterwards to furnish the mere metal required for the 
immense dinner equipages which the altered fashions of the day then 
rendered indispensable. No new supply of silver was available, such 
as that which had once poured in from Spanish America; whence 
then came the tons of silver which were fashioned into dinner services 
with their various appendages by the industry of London silversmiths, 
from Lamerie to Bundell and Bridge ? It is clear that at that time 
another and perhaps the largest consignment of old-fashioned and 
disused plate must have gone to the melting-pot, to be returned to its 
owners in the shape of the plates, dishes, forks, and spoons with 
which our houses are even now to a great extent supplied. The grand 
service of plate which graced the royal table at the great banquet given 
by Sir Samuel Fludyer at the Mansion House on Lord Mayor s Day, 
1761, which the King and Queen honoured with their presence, was 
made new for the occasion by Mr. Gilpin, the goldsmith, with whom 
the City exchanged a quantity of old plate for the new ; and many 
royal and other services still in use were thus provided between that 
time and the end of the century. Table-services of plate were pro- 
vided at the public expense for certain great personages of state, on 
taking office, such as Ambassadors, Viceroys of L-eland, and the 
Speakers of the House of Commons. It may be gathered from 
account-books preserved by the Messrs. Garrards for the interval 
between 1712 and 1720 that a set of the first class was about 7,000 
ounces, and of the second rank about 4,000 ounces. The largest sets 
never included more than two or three dozen forks, one set silver, and 
another gilt ; nor do we find mention of butter-boats, sauce-ladles, 
fish-knives, or butter-knives. A large cistern and fountain were 
usually provided, and these were probably used for washing the forks 
on the sideboard. These last articles often weighed 2,000 ounces or 
more ; but they seem to have gone out of fashion by about the year 
1720. The grandest services were sometimes, but very rarely, of silver 
gilt, and such are popularly called '' gold services," a mistake which 
suggests a remark as to the very small quantity of real gold plate that 
is now to be seen. 

Only five examples were exhibited amongst the art treasure col- 
lected at South Kensington in the Loan Collection of 1862 — a gold 
cup and cover of seventeenth century work, given by Bishop Hall to 
Exeter College, Oxford ; a cup on baluster stem, given to the Cor- 
poration of York in 1672 ; a covered cup of the following year, the 
property of Mr. J. W. Walrond ; a chocolate cup and cover with one 



CHAP. X.] Gold Plate. 231 

handle, found in the lake at Knowsley, belonging to the Earl of 
Derby ; and last in date, but not least, a pair of massive ice-pails 
from Blenheim, weighing together no less than 865 ounces, the gift of 
Queen Anne to the great Duke of Marlborough. There are two gold 
salyers in the collection of plate of Her Majesty the Queen at 
Windsor Castle, and a small salver of pure gold was noted by Mr. 
Octavius Morgan amongst the plate of King William lY., which was 
said to have been made of the presentation rings of Serjeants-at- 
Law. This is no doubt still preserved. Besides these, there is a 
double-handled gold cup at Berkeley Castle, made by Paul Lamerie in 
1717, a legacy from the then Countess of Berkeley to her celebrated 
daughter, Lady Betty Germain. It is of the usual plain Queen Anne 
pattern. 

A small racing cup of the same period and shape by Benjamin 
Pyne, a well-known goldsmith, is in existence, or was a very few years 
ago, engraved with a horse ridden by a jockey, and underneath 
the words " Saltby Stakes." It bore the hall-mark of the year 
1710-1. Sir F. A. Milbank has a very similar one of 1705-6 by 
Harracke. Lord Yarborough possesses two such gold cups, both of 
small size. 

The Corporation of Oxford has a solid gold porringer with two 
handles and cover, of the year 1680 ; and at Tredegar there is a gold 
cup presented to Sir Charles Gould, Bart., by the Equitable Assur- 
ance Society, about 1780. 

It is very possible that a good many other specimens of gold plate 
may exist, but enough has been said to prove its extreme rarity at the 
present day. Formerly it was by no means uncommon. Gold plate 
is frequently mentioned in the Wardrobe Accounts ; and in the Intro- 
duction to the State Papers of the reign of Henry YIII., printed by 
order of the Master of the Bolls, a banquet given by that monarch is 
mentioned, at which two cupboards (by which we must understand a 
sort of sideboard of many stages), reaching from the j9oor to the roof, 
were covered with a large and varied assortment of vases all of massive 
gold, silver-gilt dishes of another sort being used for the service of the 
meats. 

An engraving of such a sideboard of five stages, taken from a volume 
published at Dilingen in 1587, descriptive of the ceremonies at Prague 
when the Grand Duke Ferdinand of Austria invested the Emperor and 
the Grand Dukes Carl and Ernest with the order of the Golden Fleece, 
was given by the late Mr. W. Fairholt in his description of the cele- 
brated Londesborough Collection, and is reproduced here (No. 28). 
That eminent antiquary reminds us that the series of receding steps 



232 Old English Plate. [chap. r. 

not onl; eerved for the dtte diepla; of tlie plate, bnt to indicate the 
rank of the person who used it ; persons of royal blood alone being 
allowed to ase dreseers of five " degres " or stages, whilst those of 
four were appropriated to nobles of the highest rank, and so on 
down to st^ee of two or but a single step, which were proper 
for knights-bannerets, and nnennobled persons of gentle descent 
respectively. 

The engraving is also Taluable for the examples it presents of many 



qaaint forms of plate then in use, and fitly introduces a few words 
about such obsolete articles before we go on to those that are still 
found and can be classed under definite heads. 

The tall tankard at the servitor's feet would in those days be called 
a " can " — a German as much as an English word. 

The large double cups made to shut up the rims of each other 
are also noticeable. These, too, are mentioned occasionally in English 
inventories, and are called " doable " or " trussing " cups. The will 
of a north-conntry ecclesiastic proved at York in 1895, describes his 
"ciphum duplicem argenti deaurati vocatam le trussyng coppe," and 
other early examples of them occur. 

A conspicuous object is the " nef," or ship, which was used in 
England as well as abroad; it seems to have originally been used to 



CHAP. X.] Obsolete Vessels. 233 

contain the articles used by the noble at his banquet.* The writer 
knows of no example of English workmanship or bearing an English 
hall-mark, but there were a number of beautiful specimens in the 
Londesborough collection of foreign make. 

Like the ''nef/' the "just" the "goddard" and the "Voider'' have 
all disappeared, but they deserve a passing word. 

Of the "justa," de Laborde says that it was a vase or j9agon for 
the table of an invariable size as to capacity, but that its form varied. 
This agrees in general terms with the definition of the word as given 
by Du Cange. 

The " goddard " seems to be derived from the French godet^ a sort 
of goblet or cup, often with a cover. Under the head of " mazers " 
a little later, we shall find some cups of that description called 
" goddards," in an account of the year 1444. 

The " voyder " was a large dish in which were collected the broken 
victuals which were removed from the table with a large knife with 
a broad flat blade called the voyder-knife^ from vider^ to empty, clear, 
or make void. 

The Boke of Nurture, by Hugh Bhodes, the date of which is 1577, 
one of the curious set of handbooks of manners and etiquette repro- 
duced by the Early English Text Society, speaks of these vessels as 
follows : — 

'* See ye have Voydera ready for to avoid the Morsels that they doe leave on their 
Trenchours. Then with your Trenchour knyfe take of such fragments and put 
them in yoor Voyder and sette them downe cleane agayne.'* 

A " new voyder or charger " of silver is included in a list of plate 
made in the course of a lawsuit in 1616 f ; and a ** great silver 
voyder with a lardge ewer belonging to it," occurs in a Tredegar 
inventory of 1676. Few silver ones remain, but some large brass 
voiders or dishes which have probably been so used, may still be 
seen, of the history of which nothing is known by their present 
owners. 

The student of medisBval wills and inventories will find many other 
vessels mentioned here and there which it is difficult or impossible to 
identify with any existing forms. A "skinking pot" occasionally 
occurs, deriving its name from the obsolete Saxon word scencan — to 
serve drink at table. Wliat is the cup called a ''costard" in one 
Bristol will of 1491 ; or the article styled a " custerd cofiyn " in 
another of 1580? A " chafFar" of silver for " partrich mynced " is 
included in a list of plate of the year 1443 {Test. Ebor.). A " little 



• See p. 286, note. f Mastcri Reports, 1616, F. to N. 



234 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. X, 



silver pot with two ears called a little conscience/' is another carious 
entry in the list of articles of plate in dispute upon the death of Sir 
H. Lee in 1616 of which mention has already been made.* But as we 
are not primarily concerned with this kind of enquiry, it is now time 
to turn to articles that may be mot with by the amateur and collector 
of the present day. 

SPOONS. 

Our notices of domestic plate must begin with spoons by right of 
seniority, for, says the learned de Laborde,f ''Les cuillers sont 
Yieilles, je ne dirai pas comme le monde, mais certainement autant 
que la soupe ; " after this we shall not be surprised to find that 
amongst the most ancient pieces of English hall-marked plate in 
existence are simple spoons. 

In early days, when forks were as yet unknown, spoons played an 
even more important part at meals than they do at the present day, 
and persons of every rank seem to have striven to possess a spoon, if 
only a single one, of silver. Our ancestors evidently anticipated in 
their way, the view of Professor Wilson — 

" A plated spoon is a pitifu' imposition," 

though, be it said, their alternative would have been honest pewter 
or wood ; and no bad substitute either, according to the same modem 
authority, who adds : — 

** A wudden ladle ; indeed, gents, I'm no sure, but it*s no sae apt to be stown ; in 
the second, maist things taste weel out o' wud ; thirdly, there's nae expense in keepln 
't clean." % 

It would be difficult anytime for the last six hundred years to find a 
man, of however humble station, without a spoon or two to bequeath 
to his widow or his son. The wills and inventories of the rich mention 
them in great numbers ; and the quaint treatises, to which reference 
has been made on a preceding page, contain many directions as to the 
service and management of the spoon at board. 

The Boke of Kcrvyng, which was printed in 1518 by Wynkyn de 
Worde, perhaps from a MS. of much earlier date, instructs the panter 
as to setting on the salt and trenchoures, and proceeds : — '* then laye 
your knyves and set your brede one lofe by an other, your spones and 
your napkyns fayre folden besyde your brede, then cover your brede 
and trenchoures spones and knyves." 



* A ** conscience " 



= a bellarminc, see 
The Ordinary y a play by Cartwright, 1659. 
f Notice des Emaux^ etc., par M. de 



Laborde, II« Partie, 238. 
^ NocUi AmbrosiawKf XXXI. 



CHAP. 1.1 Spoons. 235 

The Babees Book of 1475 deals with the polite nse of the spoons so 
laid:— 

■' Antl whenne your potago to yow shall be broubte, 
Take yow sponyB and Boupe by no way. 
And in youre Ayasbt leve nat your spone, I pray." 

The Young Children's Book adds to this in 1600 the farther advice, 
" Ne pleje with spone trenchere ne knyffe." 

The spoons of the thirteenth 
and two following centaries seem 
to have had stems terminating in 
a Bpear point, diamond point, 
pine cone, a plain knop, or some- 
times an acorn. An entry of 1410 
(Text. Ebor.) de vno codiari 
plexilnli, seems to point to a fold- 
ing-spoon, as also do "myfoulden 
sylver spoone" in another will of 
the same century, and unum 

eoclear argenti /olden in 1482 ' 

{Test. Ebor.). The first mention 
known to the author of spoons 
with the image of the Virgin — 
cum ymaginibus Beati Maria in 
fine eorundem — occars in a will of 
1446. These were known later 
as " maidenhead " spoons ; they 
are eo called in a Bristol Orphan 
Book will of 1493, and are common 
enough in the sixteenth centnry, 
but not before. 

The same may be said of 
Apostles' spoons, which are sel- 
dom fonnd before 1500, but were 
Tery popular for a century and a 
half afterwards. It was an old 

English custom for sponsors at Na. 29.— haidihheid bfoob, cihca IGIO. 
christenings to present these 

spoons to the children for whom they answered ; the wealthy giving 
a complete set, others a smaller number, a poor person a single spoon 
with the figure of the eaint in honour of whom the child was named, 
or perhaps the patron saint of the donor. 



2^6 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

Hone's Every Day Book* gives some amusing notices of this 
laudable custom collected from various writers, Ben Jonson, Middle- 
ton, and Beaumont and Fletcher, amongst the number. Ben Jonson 
has a character in his Bartholomew Fair, saying '' and all this for the 
hope of a couple of apostle- spoons, and a cup to eat caudle in." 
Beaumont and Fletcher likewise in the Noble Gentleman, say : — 

" 1*11 be a Gossip. Bewford, 
I have an odd apostle-spoon." 

Hone notes, too, that in 1666, the usage was on the decline, quoting 
from the Gossips, a poem by Shipman : — 

** Formerly, when they us'd to troul, 
Gilt bowls of sack, they gave the bowl ; 
Two spoons at least ; an use ill kept ; 
'Tis well if now our own be left." 

A certain number of these spoons, which were called apostles' 
spoons from the figures of the apostles they bore on their handles, are 
still to be seen, and they are of considerable value from their antiquity 
and comparative rarity. Good specimens have fetched high prices, 
varying from £5 to JSIO each, and even much more of late years ; 
whilst a complete set of thirteen is so seldom to be met with, that a 
fine early set of matched spoons would doubtless realise a very large 
sum, perhaps not less than a thousand guineas, if put up to auction 
to-morrow. This opinion is borne out by the mention in iJie Quarterly 
Review of April, 1876, of the sale some twenty years before that, of a set 
of twelve such spoons belonging to a member of the Tichbome family, 
for a sum closely approaching £400. A set of eight apostles' spoons 
of 1527, the property of Bp. Whyte of "Winchester, temp. Q. Eliz., 
realised £252 at Christie, Manson & Woods' Booms in 1890 ; and a 
very interesting set of twelve spoons, in two sets of six spoons each, 
the earlier being of the year 1524 and the later of 1553, but these last 
evidently made in that year to complete the set, which had always been 
in the same hands, were sold at the same Booms in March, 1892, for 
£400. St. Paul replaces St. Jude in this set. 

Only two sets of thirteen are known to the writer : one of them is 
in the possession of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and consists 
of thirteen spoons, one of which is supposed to represent St PauL 
They are of the year 1566-7, with the exception of the St. Paul 
spoon, which is of the year 1515-6. The other set has been pre- 
sented to the Goldsmiths' Company by Mr. George Lambert, F.S.A., 



Hone*8 Every Day Booh, yoI. L, 176. 



CHAP. X.] 



Apostles' Spoons, 



237 










CO 



00 

o 

£ 

xn 

s 

\ 



M 
H 

OS 





o 
pa 



o 

CO 







238 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

and represents our Lord and twelve apostles, Matthias taking the 
place of Judas Iscariot. It is somewhat more modem ; but the 
spoons being all of one year, 1626, and by the same maker, form a 
set of unique interest and importance. 

A third set, which forms a complete series of the eleven apostles, 
was secured by the late Rev. T. Staniforth at the Bernal sale, and is of 
great value from its antiquity, having been made in 1519. That 
gentleman also possessed the most ancient hall-marked apostle- spoon 
known, it being of the year 1493. 

The set of 1626 has been selected for our engraving (No. 30), owing 
to the presence of the rare " Master '* spoon, and the fact of the 
whole being made by one maker at the same time. A reference to the 
various emblems by which the apostles are here distinguished will 
facilitate the identification of individual figures found in private or 
public collections. 

1. St. James the Less, with a fuller^s bat. 

2. St. Bartholomew, with a butcher's knife. 

3. St. Peter, with a key, sometimes a fish. 

4. St. Jade, with a cross, a club, or a carpenter's square. 

5. St. James the Greater, with a pilgrim's staff and a gourd, bottle or scrip, and 

sometimes a hat with escallop shell. 
r>. St Philip, with a long staff, sometimes with a cross in the T ; in other cases a 
double cross, or a small cross in his hand, or a basket of fish. 

7. The Saviour, or " Master," with an orb and cross. 

8. St. John, with a cup (the cup of sorrow). 

9. St. Thomas, with a spear ; sometimes he bears a builder's rule 

10. St. Matthew, with a wallet, sometimes an axe and spear. 

11. St. Matthias, with an axe or halberd. 

1 2. St. Simon Zelotes, with a long saw. 

13. St. Andrew, with a saltire cross. 

The figure of St. Paul distinguished by a sword, or sometimes two 
swords, is frequently found, St. Jude being omitted from the set of 
twelve to make room for him, and St. Luke and St. Mark occasionally 
replace St. Simon and St. Matthias. 

In the Byzantine Manual, James the Less, Jude and Matthias are 
all omitted, their places being taken by St. Paul, St. Luke and St. 
Mark. 

As to the emblems attributed to each, there is not much variation 
to be noted, but the saw is sometimes given to Jude as well as to 
Simon. This is the case in the representations of the apostolic 
college, by Agostino Caracci.* As it appeared advisable to give the 
whole of these emblems on a single page, that they might be seen at 



Mrs. Jameson's Legendary Art. 



CHAP. X.] 



Apostles' Spoons. 



239 



one view, an illustration is given of a group of three other apostle- 
spoons from a set which belonged to the late Rev. S. Lysons (No. 31), 
in order that the general shape and character of such spoons, their 




No. 81. — APOOTLis' spooHS, 16th osntu&t. 

bowls as well as handles, may be clearly understood. The figures 
represent St. Simon Zclotes, St. Andrew and St. James the Less. 

The most modern specimen that has come to the knowledge of the 
present writer is one of 1660, and belonged to Mr. Staniforth. Mr. 



240 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

Octayius Morgan had seen one of as late a date as 1665, bearing the 
figure of St. James. This bears out what was said by Shipman in 
1666, as to the custom of presenting them at christenings being then 
on the wane. 

Besides '' maidenhead " and '^ apostles " spoons are found some with 
sejant lions for knops. Other devices than these three are more 
uncommon, though balls and spear-points for handle ends occur. 
The lion-sejant spoon is found both in the sixteenth and early in the 
seventeenth century. A good specimen in the author's possession is 
of 1547. This is a very early example, and came from the Ashford 
Collection. The spoons with the ends of the handles simply cut off 
at an angle, as if they had once been Apostles' spoons but with the 
ends roughly lopped off, are very commonly called " Puritan " spoons : 
but spoons seem to have been often so made, and were not unpopular 
for a long period. Our subjoined list speaks of them in heraldic 
terminology as " slipped in the stalks " in 1500, and again as ** sleppe '* 
ended in 1580. It may be remarked that when made in this fashion, 
the date-letter is often stamped at the end of the handle close to the 
slip end, perhaps to show that it has not been shortened or tampered 
with. 

Before turning to the ordinary domestic spoon, two special spoons 
must be mentioned, and first the coronation spoon preserved among 
the regalia at the Tower of London. The date of this seems to be 
early in the thirteenth century, and it is thought to be the original 
spoon, notwithstanding the goldsmith's account for the fabrication 
of a new one, at the coronation of King Charles II., which has 
been given at page 87. The other is the ancient spoon said 
to have been given by King Henry VI. together with his boots 
and gloves to the loyal Sir Balph Pudsey, at whose seat, Bolton 
Hall, that unfortunate monarch concealed himself for some weeks 
after the battle of Hexham. Of the antiquity of this spoon 
there is no doubt, even if its identity with the spoon which is the 
subject of the historical tradition is open to question. The 
head of its handle is octagonal, somewhat resembling the capital 
of a Gothic shaft, and on the flat top is engraved a single rose, the 
badge of the king. It is of the usual form of ancient spoons, 
and the marks thereon are as follows : inside the bowl is stamped 
the leopard's head, — and all the ancient English spoons previous to 
the Eestoration are so marked; on the back of the stem is 
stamped with a punch a small heart for maker's mark; and above 
that is the annual letter, also stamped with a punch. This was long 
supposed to be the Lombardic letter for the year 1445-6, which 



CHAP. X.] Seal-headed Spoons. 241 

would certainly agree both with the history and the make of the 
spoon; bat there is now mnch more known about marks, and 
strong reason to assign it to the year 1525-6, and to suspect that 
the story has by some chance in the course of ages transferred 
itself from the original spoon to this one, which is ancient enough 
to haye an interest of its own, but is not quite old enough to have 
belonged to King Henry YI. These accidents will sometimes 
happen. The " Godwin " cup at Berkeley Castle, '* the property 
of Earl Godwin in 1066, and regilt by the Earl of Berkeley 1766 " 
as the inscription tells, seems to be formed out of the head of a 
mace of the year 1610. The silver furniture at Knole, long thought 
to haye been provided in honour of a visit of King James I., was 
the boudoir suite of a Countess of Dorset probably presented 
in 1680, by her second husband Henry Poole Master of the Bolls, 
and certainly made in that year. The form of spoons used in 
Ens^land seems to have continued the same from the middle of 
the fifteenth century to the time of the Bestoration, when a new 
&shion was introduced which completely superseded the more ancient 
pattern. 

The more ancient model, with its baluster and seal-headed end, 
is shown by No. 1 (engraving No. 32).* Spoons of this form, 
very common from 1585 to about 1620, were made as late as 
1659, the date of the very latest known to the writer, whilst a 
specimen of the next form (No. 2) and of the year 1667, was in 
the late Mr. 0. Morgan's collection. The shape was then altogether 
changed. The stem and handle became flat and broad at the 
extremity, which was divided by two clefts into three points, slightly 
turned up, whilst the bowl was elongated into a regular ellipse, and 
strengthened in its construction by a tongue which ran down the back. 
This form of spoon, the handle of which is termed by French 
antiquaries jptecJ de biche or the hind's foot, obtained till the reign of 
George I., when a third fashion was introduced. In the latest part 
of its period, temp. Q. Anne, the outer points of the pied de biche 
handle were just lopped off, so that the splay narrowed to the blunt 
point, which was bent backwards rather than upwards. It is a curious 
circumstance, that the first change in form occurred at the Bestoration, 
and the second at the accession of the House of Hanover. Did the 
spoons brought over with the plate of the respective courts, at these 
periods, set the new fashion ? 



* An nnuBually slight and tapering shaft 
or stem, — '* stele " as it is called in old in- 



ventories — indicates an early spoon of the 
fourteenth or fifteenth century. 



B 



242 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. X. 



In the third form (No. 3), the bowl was more elongated and 
elliptical, and the extremity of the handle was qaite roand, turned up 
at the end, having a high sharp ridge down the middle. It continued 
to be made certainly as late as 1767, but not to the exclusion of other 
patterns, for towards the end of the reign of George 11. another 
new fashion came into use, which has continued to the present time. 









1. 2. 3 

No. 32. — SPOONS OF 16th, 17th, and 18th cbnturies. 

The bowl became more pointed, or egg-shaped, the end of the 
handle was turned down instead of up, whilst the tongue, which 
extended down the back of the bowl, and is so well known by the 
name of '' the rat's tail," was shortened into a drop. Transition 
spoons with the HanoTerian handle, but the strengthening drop 
and not the rat-tail at the back of the bowls, appear in 1754 and 
1762. Following this transition we have the well-known plain 
spoon of common use from 1760 or 1765 till 1800, to which we 
haye referred, and which is called by the trade the " old English " 
pattern. The fiddle-headed pattern, in which a sharp angular 
shoulder was introduced on either side the stem, just above the bowl 



Eighteenth Century Spoons. 



243 



and also near the end of the handle, came into vogne in the early part 
of the preeent century, and still seema popnlar. 

Tea-BpoouR follovr the fashion of larger spoons, but are not often 
found before the middle years of the eighteenth century. 

Except as regards the ends of the handles, spoons have not usually 
been much ornamented. A little 
scroll-chasing is found on the 
back of bowls at the insertion of 
the handle of all periods from 
Charles U. onwards. Tea-sponus 
of the Louis XV. period have, 
however, been decorated with 
oriiameuts of the time, both in 
bowl and on handle, and the 
handles were sometimes of fancy 
shapes, formed as vine tendrils, 
flower rose-sprays, and other such 
devices. From sboat 1775 to 
1785 feather- edging and beaded- 
edging not unfrequently adorn the 
handles of the plain " old £^ng- 
lish " spoons then in use. Strain- 
ing spoons for tea are mentioned 
later in this chapter. 



1259. xii cocleaiia nrgenti. (Will of 
Martin de St. Cios*,)— 3urtees 
Society Trans. Wills and Inv.» 

1296. iz coclear' auri, j coclear' argenti 
inagiiO pcoqOapond. zxis. iijd. 
— Wardrobe Accoants, 24 
Bdw. I. 

ISOO. T coclear' aari, 8 coclear argieoti 
Rignata ia collo signo Parisias 
scittdequodamflorc glegelli. — 
Wardrobe Accounts, 28 Kdw. I. 

136«. «oclearia nova ultimo facta in 
Bbor. — Surtees Society Trana. 
Test. Ebor. 

1385. XXX cocliaria argenti.— Will o( Ric. A 

* Haa; refereDces aie nvule in tliia chap, 
icr to tbe iDr&laable collection of Mortunriea, 
UTillB, and InTenlorias publiahed by the 
Sarteoa Society, under the following titles:-^ 

Teilameata Uboncenua. Willi> regiatered 
atYorL ITat. Sbor.) 



Bavenser, Aicbdeaeon of Lincoln. 



Wills and In>enl«rie« from the Registry nf 
tbeArchdeaconryof Bichinonil. (SieL ]l'iil$.i 

Wills and Inventories from the Registi? of 
the Diocese of Durham. ( WilU and Inc.) 

Theie Tolnmes have also snpplied some ut 
the materiali for Cbapler lY. 

B 2 



244 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

1S92. Bex ooclearia ai^ntea cum acrinsse de auro. — ^Test. Ebor. 

1421. zij cocliaria arg. de opere London. — Idem. 

14S2. calicem sanctificatam cum patena et cocliarl eidem calici pertinente. — Idem. 

1440. sex cocliaria argenti de fradelett. — Idem. 

do. unnm cocliar* ai^genti cum longo brachio pro viridi zinzebro. — Idem. 

1441. Tj cocliaria argenti cum quodam signo viz hawthomleves.— Idem. 

1444. xxiiij coclear' argenti de opt. (Will of Thos. Brygge de Salle.) — Norwich 

Begistrj. 
1440. ij ooclearia argentea et deaurata unias sectae cum ymaginibos BeatSB Mariae in 

fine eorundem. xii coclearia argentea cum glandibuB in nodis. vii ooclearia 

argentea cum nodis deauratis. 
do. x^xi coclearia argenti diversorum opemm et ponderis. (Inv. of Durham 

Priory.) — Surtees Society Trans. Vol. II. 91. 
1452. sex cocliaria argenti de Parysh. — ^Test. Ebor. 

do. TJ cocliaria arg. de una sorte signata cum flore Yocato flour de lice. — Idem. 
1459. dim. dos coclearium arg. cum akeboms. — Test. Ebor. 

146.S. xii coclearia argenti operis Paris' de un& 8ect& signata cum litera f|. — Idem. 
1474. ij sylver sponnes marked wt lybbard hedys and square knoppis. — Idem. 
1477. half doz. spones wt lepanles hedes prynted in the sponself. — (Will of Robert 

Bagworth, C.P.C. 80 Wattys.) 
1487. ij dozen and vi sponys with dyamond poyntes pond xii unc. i qua. at 3#. 2^., 

vi. li. xs. yiid. ob. (Inv. of Robert Morton, gent) — Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 

30.064. 
1490. vj cocliaria arg. cum fretlettez. vi coclcareA arg. cum lez acomez deaur*. — Test 

Ebor. 

1497. sex coclearia cum capitibus puellarum. — Idem. 

1498. a spone and a forke for grene ginger. (Will of Anne, Lady Scrope.) — Idem. 
1500. xii coclearia argenti slipped in lez stalkes pond, inter se xiiij unc. (Will of 

Thos. Rotherham, Abp. of York.) — Idem, 
do. 12 great spones with knobs wrought and gilt 24 oz. at 4#. 4Z. 16«. ; a dozen of 
spones not gilt 14 oz. at 3«. 'Id, ; a little spone of gold. — Inr. of Thos. Eebeel 
S.L. 

1505. xl doz. sponis, ij dos. gylt sponys. — Lord Mayor's Feast. (E. E. Text Soc.) 

1506. 6 spoons with owls at the end of the handles. See Appendix A. — C. C. G. 

Oxford. 

1515. ij silv' sponys being in a purse, 1 whrof being a gemewe spone and the other a 

spone with a forke. — ^Korf. Arch. Soc. Trans. 

1516. 6 spoons with balls on the ends of the stems gilt. See Appendix A. — C. C. C. 

Oxford. 
1525. spone knopped with the image of our lady. — Bury Wills. 
1527. a spone of golde with a rose and pomegranat 11 oz.qt.di. (Inv. of Henry 

Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond.) — Camden Society Trans. 
1542. a longe silyer spone (and a longe forke) for sokett, a spone with an aconie 

doble gilt. (Will of Countess of Northumberland.)— Coll. Top. et Gen. 
1546. ij sylver sponys withe angells on the knoppys gyltyd. — Wills and Inv. 
do. S silver spones with mayden heids. — Rich. Wills. 
1558. xii silvr s{K>nes wt skallap shells on ther heads, one silv* spone kilt wt an 

accome on the head. — Idem. 
1560. syxe silver spones of ye mayden heddes. — Idem, 
do. 4 silver spones with lyons off thends gilt. — Idem. 
1565. spoons with diamond knops. See Appendix A. — Mercers* Company. 
1567. \ dosune lyones and \ dops. madine hedes xvi oz., ij doss flat ended spones^ 

xxviii oz. — Rich. Wills. 
do. thre spones wt knoppes of our ladle, and v wt lyons p*cell gilt — Idem. 
1570. i doss silver spones with maden heades. — Idem. 
1577. vi silver spoones with lyons on the ends of them. — Idem. 
1580. dosen spones, theis spones being sleppe endyd. — Wills and Inv. 



CHAP. X.] Spoons, 245 

1582. 3 silver spoones with acomea. — Idem. 

1583. zi sjlvcr spones with lyone knopes gilte at the ends. — Wills and Iny. 

do. xij spones called slippes weying xxiiij ownces and a halfe, and preised at Vs 
the ounce. — C. P. C. Inv. of William Dallison, Esq. 
1 588. xi sponnes with madcn heads weing xiiij ounces and J at U. per ounce, 21. 18«. 

— Idem. 
1596. six lesser sylyer spones with the knobs at th' endes. — Rich. Wills. 
1618. spoons with slipped ends. See Appendix A. — Mercers* Ck>mpan7. 
1620. a sugar box spoon. (The Unton Inventories.) — Berkshire Ashmolean Soc. Trans. 
1660. a dosson of sillver spouns w'^ flat handels. — ^Will of Eliz. Gresham of Titsey. 

Apostles' Spoons. 

1493. Apostle spoon. See Appendix A. — From the Staniforth Collection. 

1494. xij cocliaria arg. cum apostolis super eorum fines. — Test. Ebor. 

1517. xiij spones with xii appostells. (Will of S' Ralph Shirley.) — Stem. Shir. 

1519. eleven apostles* spoons. See Appendix A. — From the Staniforth Collection. 

1527. xiij spones of Chryst and the xii Apostells, whereof j gilt and the rest sylver 

with mages gylt. — Inv. of Minster Priory in Sheppey. 

1555. xii silver spones with xii apostles on beads. — Rich. Wills, 

do. Apostle spoon. See Appendix A. — ^W. R. M. Wynne, Esq., Peniarth. 

1566. 12 Apostles' spoons. — See Appendix A. — C. C. C. Cambridge. 

1 567. xiiij postle spones, xxv oz. — Rich. Wills. 
1570. vi silver spones with postle heads. — Idem. 

1580. one dozen of postell spoones of silver weyng 24 ounces at 4*. — Idem. 

1582. a dozen spones with apostles heads xxxv oz. 52. 16«. 8r/. — Idem. 

1587. my xii silver spones called the xii apostells. — Wills and Inv. 

1588. xii appostell s^^ons, the ends being gilted weing xx ounces at 4«. %d, per ounce. 

— Idem. 
1626. 18 Apostles' spoons. See Appendix A. — Presented to Goldsmiths* Company by 
G. Lambert, Esq., F.S.A. 

For further notes of apostles' and other spoons now in existence, see 
chronological list in Appendix A. 

MAZERS. 

If spoons are as old as soup, drinking vessels have been in use as 
long as spoons, and from spoons it is therefore convenient to pass to 
the ancient and interesting bowls that are known as mazers. 

It is easier to say that these were for centuries amongst the 
commonest articles in domestic use, than to give a satisfEictory reason 
for their being usually called '' murraB " in medisBval inventories, or to 
define the material of which they were made. On the former of these 
points a great deal of learning has been expended by the antiquaries 
of past generations, so much indeed that it ought to have gone farther 
than it has towards settling the latter. 

Du Cange only ventures to say that mazers were '' pretiosiora 
pocula," adding that opinions differed as to what they were made of. 
First he quotes Somner, a well-known writer of the early part of the 
seventeenth century, who supposed that they were wooden vessels and 
made of maple ; but he proceeds himself to say that the better opinion 



246 Old English Plate, [chap. x. 

is that they were the vessels called ''myrrhine" in classical ages. 
Other authorities are then cited who in turn suggest gum, porcelain, 
ehell, metal and lastly onyx as the materials of which they were 
probably fashioned. Somner was guided by the fact that the word 
'' maeser '' signified in the Flemish language an excrescence of the 
maple-tree ; and notwithstanding the opinion of Du Cange, which was 
no doubt influenced by the inventories of the twelfth and following 
centuries, in which he found these vessels actually described as 
** de murra," " de murro," or by the adjective *' murreus," there can 
be no doubt that nothing but wood was in ordinary use in mediaeval 
days for utensils such as these. 

The menders of broken cups in Paris are said by John de Gar- 
landia in the eleventh century to have worked upon cups made of 
many different kinds of wood, *' de murris, planis, brucis, de acere, et 
tremulo," and he gives it as the opinion of some that the '' murra '* 
was a tree mentioned by Lucan — in auro murrave hibunt. 

In England too, '' treen " vessels preceded powter, as pewter did 
silver plate : — 

" Beech made their chests, their beds, their join'd stools ; 
Beech made the board, the platters and the bowls." 

Cowley. 

A reference to the older English poets, or to early wills and the 
inventories which are often appended to them, will go far to convince 
us that mazers were merely the best sort of wooden bowls, and that 
these favourite drinking vessels were made of the speckled portions of 
the maple-tree, from which they derived their name. 

The word '* maser *' is explained by Skinner, an antiquary of the 
same century and as trustworthy as Somner, to mean a wooden cup, 
''poculum ligneum, a Belg. maeser, tuber ligni aceris ex qu& 
materia prsecipue hs&c pocula confici solebant : '* and to this may 
be added Planta's definition of it, '' un neud ou bosse a un arbre 
nomme erable."* 

The same vessel was called in French madre, which, says Cotgrave, 
is used '' of wood whose grain is full of crooked and speckled streaks 
or veins." 

The German Maser is a spot, speck, or the grain of wood ; Maser- 
holz is veined wood in the same language, and Maserle, maple-wood 
or the maple-tree. From this source our word mazer is clearly 
derived. In old inventories the word is often turned into an ad- 
jective ; mazereus and mazerinvs are Latin, and meslyn or messiUing 



Planta. Threwr du Lang, Bas Alnian, 



CHAP. X.] 



Mazers. 



247 



English forms in which it is found. The latter recalls the lines of 
Chaucer: — 

" They fet him first the swete win, 
And mede eke in a maselin, 
And real spicerie." 

BKiiiie of Sire Thopas, V. 13, 780. 

Such a meslyn or mazer is described more in detail by Spenser : — 

" A mazer y wrought of the maple wood 
Whereon is enchaaed many a fair sight 
Of bears and tigers that make fierce war.'* 

Sheph^rd^M Calendar^ Augwtt, 

That " masere '' was a wood of price may be gathered from the old 
romances, French and English. Several of the French are quoted by 
Du Cange and De Laborde, and with these extracts may be read the 
lines from Syre Gaivene and the Carle :* — 

*' The harpc was of masere fyne, 
The pynnys were of gold I wene."— V, 433. 

The Scottish ballad of Oil Morricef places the silver cup and the 
mazer dish together on the baron's table : — 

^' Then up and spake the bauld baron, 
An angry man was hee ; 
He's tain the table wi' his foot, 
Sae has he wi' his knee ; 
Till siller cup and mazer dish 
In flinders he gard flee." 



It may be noted that, in the reign of Edward m., the manor of 
Bilsington Inferior was held by the service of presenting three 
'* maple ** cups at the king's coronation. Hone records that this 
service was performed by Thomas Bider at the coronation of 
George III., when the king, on receiving the maple cups, turned 
to the Mayor of Oxford who stood on his right hand, and, having 
received from him for his tenure of that city a gold cup and cover, 
gave him these three cups in return, t 

Whilst the best and most highly prized bowls were always of maple, 
it is quite possible that the term '* mazer,'' originally proper to those 
of maple-wood only, was afterwards extended to all bowls of similar 
form, regardless of the materials of which they were made: 
'* dudgeon " wood, whatever that may bo, occurs in more than one 



* These are taken from a valuable notice 
of mazers, and especially of the Scrope bowl 
at York, to be foand in the Transactions of 



the Archeological Institate for 1846. 
t Tercf a Hdiques, 4th Ed. Vol III. p. 94. 
t Hone's Table Book, p. 616. 



248 Old English Plate, [chap. x. 

English will;* beech has already been mentioned, and some have 
supposed that even if the word *' mazer " sometimes signified maple, 
it was more properly applied to walnut-wood.t 

If gourds, eggs, nuts, and other rare substances were used when 
obtainable, wood and the turner s art more often provided drinking- 
yessels for our forefathers ; and whilst the simple '' beechen goblets '* 
so dear to the poets have perished, a few of the more valuable sort 
have been preserved to our own time. Those which have come down 
to us are of maple- wood, almost without exception. 

So much for the name and materials of these bowls, which seem to 
have been valued in proportion to the beauty of the wood of which they 
were made, the knots and roots of the maple being especially prized 
for their veined and mottled grain. As knots would not be very thick, 
and therefore the bowls made of them shallow, their depth was 
increased by mounting them with the high metal rim which is one of 
the characteristic features of mazers. This rim answered the further 
purpose of ornamenting and adding to the value of choice specimens 
of wood, and it was frequently of silver or silver-gilt, and bore an 
inscription running round it. 

Their second characteristic feature, the boss, which is almost 
invariably found in the bottom of these vessels, is also simply ac- 
counted for. When the half of a calabash or gourd having a hard 
rind was employed as a drinking-cup the necessity .would arise of 
covering with a plate of metal the point where the fibres of such 
gourds were clustered in a knot. Badly turned wooden bowls would 
present a similar imperfection, and Mr. Octavius Morgan considered 
that the '' prints" or bosses of mazers had their origin in the desire 
to conceal the blemish with an ornament. This may well be so, but 
similar bosses are commonly found in very ancient cups of silver, as 
well as of wood or gourd ; so much so that an ornament in the bottom 
of a drinking-cup may be considered a general fashion. 

The elaborate enamelling found upon some of these bosses has 
sometimes suggested a doubt whether the vessels containing them 
were really intended for use as drinking cups ; but their enumeration 
in all cases amongst other domestic utensils for the service of the 
table, would be conclusive evidence on this point, even if their use 
were not often expressly mentioned. 

Such a cup was, ** le hanap du Roy S. Louis dan lequel il beuvote, 



• Unum ciphum de Dtgun in 1387. of Godefriius super Palladium. MS. Harl. 

Bristol Orpban Book. 116, fo. 158, that from ripe walnuts soaked 

t Parker's Domatie Archiieeture, I. 144, in water in a moist pit, ** ther sbaile growe 

which quotes from Nicholas Bollarde's Version thereof a grett stok that we call * maseie.' " 



cHAj, X.] Mazers. 249 

fait de Madre avec boq couvercle de mesme matiere garny d'uo pied 
d'argent dore et dedans icelui hanap au milieu da fond en email de 
demy rond taille de flenrs-de-lys d'or a champs d'azar.* 

The accounts of Stephen de la Fontaine, silversmith to the king of 
France in 1850, include " un hanap de madre fin, a tout le couvercle, 
dnquel Ten sert le Roy a table ; " also " madres et caillers pour boire 
Tins nouvcaux," and other similar entries. 

A will proved at York in 1446 disposes of no less than thirty-three 
" mnrrte usuales," besides twelve " murrse magnoe et largae," and two 
of BQch importance as to have bad names assigned to them. These 



No. 31.— HAzicR (15tk oimoBT). 

must almost necessarily, judging by their description and number, 
have been ordinary household requisites. Others bore inscriptions 
which of themselves prove, if proof were needed, that they were in- 
tended for wine-cups. The well-known specimen (No. 34) in the 
collection of the late Mr. Evelyn Philip Shirley, of Eatington, bears 
the legend : 

In tf)t namt of X\t Cirnitt 

dPtUt If)t 6up an)) ttriniit lo mt. 

This cup is of polished maple, and is figured in Parker's Domestic 
Architecture of the Middle Ages. The annexed eugraving of it was 
taken by permissioa of Mr. Parker from the same wood-block. 

In more than one country church a mazer now serves as an alms- 
dish ; but perhaps even these were originally acquired for festive pur- 
poses. To the description of one that was amongst the church goods 

* Doublet, p. !)44, quoted b; Dn Cange. 



250 Old English Plate. [chap, i. 

at St. Saviour's, Soatliwark, id 1552, it is added " whiche maser was 
gflren to the wardeyna when they mete to drynk in."* 

Id one of the smaller mazers, belonging to the Harbledown Hospital, 
near Canterbary, as well as in the print or boss of a small mazer at 
Fairford Church, Gloucestershire, a white crystal is fixed, much 






No. SG.— IB! BCROVE llAZIK (ailK-A 1400) It lOHE HtlcniB, 

resembling that fotmd in the cover of the so-called " Poison Tankard" 
at Clare College, Cambridge. It may be that Id all these cases soch a 
crystal was selected for its supposed virtae in detecting poison. 

The Ust, long as it is, which is appended to this section, has been 
carefally selected from notes of a much larger nnmber of English 
muzers, with the view of indicating their antiquity, variety, value, 
the domestic purpose bhey served, and the period at which they fell 
out of use.t 

Turning meanwhile to extant specimens that we may see for our- 
selves what manner of vessels these ancient bowls were, it is found 
that within certain limits they are all very mach alike. They are of 
two kinds, large bowls holding half-a-gallon or more, usually standing 

* Mr. J. R, DBnidl - Ty-neii's Surrci/ . ronnmces, roysl aeoonnts und other Bourcti, 

( hureh Qoodi. trmp. Edic. VI. U giveD bj Je Ubonie, uQiier ths title 

■f An iuterestiDg ciitaloKUe of fonign "modre" ia bia glouarj, irhich hu beea 

insUnces, extending from the tcst ]080 Wore referred ta (p*g» 231). 

diioi to about 1600, and taiken Irom ' 



CHAP. X.J 



Mazers. 2^1 



on a foot, and smaller bowls about six or seyen inches across, which 
are with or without feet as the 6ase may be. 

The earliest known example belongs, like the crystal mounted 
mazer mentioned above, to the hospital at Harbledown, and is of the 
time of Edward II. It has a plain gilt foot or stem, and a plain rim 
or mount, whilst within it is a large silver-gilt medallion, bearing the 
figure of Guy, Earl of Warwick, with a curious inscription running 
round the edge of it in good Lombardic lettering. 

Next to this venerable relic, precedence must be given to the so- 
called ''Scrope" mazer at York, which is a fine specimen of the 
larger sort, and, more than this, has supplied us with important evi- 
dence as to the course of the date-letters used in that city. It is 12 
inches across by 8^ inches deep. 

By the kindness of the Boyal Archl. Institute, in whose Transactions 
for the year 1846 an account of it by Mr. Robert Davies appears, we 
are enabled to give an engraving (No. 85) of the cup and its curious 
inscription. In an inventory of 1465 it is thus described : — 

^* Unus ciphus magnas de murro cum ligatara plaaa ex argento deaurato, qui 
vero ciphus iudulgentialis digno nomine censetur et hAC de caus& : — Beatss quidem 
mcmorisB dominus Ricbardus Scrop, quondam archiepiscopus Ebor., vere poeniten- 
tibus et confessis qui si de hoc cipho sobrie tamen cum moderamine et non excessive, 
nee ad voluntatem, mente pura potaveriiit, quadraginta dies indulgentiae contulit 
gnitiose. Eadem enim murra appret. xls. Quam quidem murram seu ciphum Agnes 
Wyman, olim uxor Henrici Wyman, quondam majoris civitatis Ebor*. fraternitati 
Corporis Christi obtulit quam devote, cujus anima pace requiescat perpetua. Amen." 
— (From a list of jewels belonging to the Guild of Corpus Christi Lansd. MSS. 
CCJCIII. fo. 1). 

Its somewhat interesting history seems to be shortly this, that 
presented originally to the Corpus Christi guild at York by one Agnes 
Wyman, who died in 1418, and consecrated by Abp. Scrope as sug- 
gested by the inscription it bears, which fixes its date as from 1898 to 
1405, it passed from that guild on its dissolution in 1546, or later, 
to the Company of Cordwainers, with whom it remained till, on their 
dissolution in turn in the present century, it passed into the hands of 
the then master of the company, and by him was placed in the custody 
of the dean and chapter of York, its present owners. 

It is suggested that possibly the plate on the foot, recording the 
names of the searchers and beadle of the company in 1622, denotes 
the date at which it came into the possession of the Cordwainers. 
However this may be, the tradition that it was presented to the Cord- 
wainers by Abp. Scrope himself can hardly stand in the face of so 
much identification of the cup as the one originally belonging to the 
C. C. Guild. 



252 Old English Plate. [chat. t. 

The aacceesive repairs to the Bilver mounts of this ancient cnp 
bear not only the goldsmiths' date-letters but the dates themselves, 
and so afTord important aid in patting together the alphabets anciently 
used in York. 

Another large mazer, with silver-gilt rim and foot less elaborately 
ornamented but far older than the nKAtnt of the last, is at All Sonls' 
College, Oxford : on the boas of this is the coat of arras in 
enamel, and initials ({T ^) of Thomas Ballard. He died in 1465, 



No. 36. — HUBS (a. 144U) AT ALL gOULa OOLLEOK, DITORD. 

hut gave the mazer some years before, as it is mentioned in a College 
inventory of 1448 (Nos. 36, 37). This mazer ia of the fifteenth century, 
as also are a pair of smaller and plainer bowls at the same College. 
These are about six inches in diameter, and the plain gilt mounts 
which extend down, inside as well as outside, \\ inch from the brim, 
seem to have been added to give them greater depth. 

This College ia the fortunate owner of a set of mazers, of which the 
above form a portion, probably part of the plate given to it by Arch- 
bishop Chichele in 1442, or other early benefactors, and of nuiqae 
interest. Besides the mazers already mentioned, there is a small but 



CHAP. X.] Mazers. 253 

beautiful bowl of light yellowish maple-wood with a corer, the kuop or 
handle of which is a projecting ornament of gold, having a pale rubj 
polished bnt uncut set in the top. Four pearls have originally been 
fixed on wires projecting from the setting of the raby ; but of these 
only two remain, and it is curious to note that there were no more than 
two left at the date of an inventory made in the time of Warden 
Hoveden, circa 1583. 
A large mazer was exhibited by Rev. G, W. Braikenridge in 1862. 



This ia known ae "the Tokerys bowl," and is 9| inches in diameter, 
aud 7J inches high. It is inscribed in Tudor lettering of the period, 
much resembling that of Sir A. W. Franks' (No. 41) small mazer 
— " (Ji Be yow mere and gUide and soo the Master* Tokerys do 
byde," — on invitation to drink which has no doubt often been accepted. 
The words are divided by an ape, a dog, a pig, a stag, a huntsman, 
fruit or flower. The mount of the bowl is of the year 1534, but as 
usual the bowl itself seems older, whilst the foot bears the hall-marks 
proper for 1560-1. This foot is simply a fine tazza inverted and 
fastened beneath the mazer, from which it differs much in style, 
being quite Renaissance whilst the mazer is Gothic. Were this 
hybrid composition divided honzootally, two fine pieces of 16th cen- 
tury plate would be restored to their proper condition without injury 
to eitiier. 



254 Old English Plate. [ch*i-. :l. 

A fine epeci'mpn of the larger boivis is at Armourers' Hall, Loudon. 
It is nearly a foot in diameter, and of considerable depth ; the rim 
iind foot are of silver-gilt, and are united to each other bj vertical 
bands, all the metal-work being covered with inscriptions, fiom 
which it appears that it was repaired in 1579, the year of its hall- 
mark (1578-9), thoogh the original bowl was older, having been 
presented by Everard Frere, the first master of the Arraourera' 
Company after its incorporation in 1458. Within the bowl are the 
itrms of the Company, St. George and the Dragon, and a cross within 
a wreath. 

Coming to the smaller mazers, some of which hnve already been 
spoken of, we find the same stylo of ornament on nettrly all of the 



Ko. 3S.— MAZiiK (cmci 1450) a 

«xtant bowls of the fifteenth century ; but some of them bear inscrip- 
tions on the band, which is left plain in others. One of a pair 
amongst the ancient plate of the Ironmongers' Compsnj {No, 38), 
bears a Latin inscription from Luke i. verses 28 and 42, in old Gothic 
letters : — 

Dki . ttmm . trnrhirta . tii in ntntitrffc' . c 



Its fellow has no inscription. They are of about the same size and 
-date. 

A somewhat similar specimen is at Oriel College, Oxford. The 
Oriel mazer, said to have been given to the College by Bishop 
Carpenter, circa 1470, is described minutely in Shaw's Ancient 
furniture, and Skelton's Oxonia Atttiqua Regtaurata, to which the 
reader is referred. For the beautiful wood-cut (No. 39) of it. prepared 
by Sir A. W. Franks to illustrate a proposed paper by Mr. Albert 
"Way, but unhappily never put into use owing to Mr. Way's lamented 
^eath, the author is indebted to the Council of the Royal Arcbfeologicul 



oHAp. X.] Mazers. 255 

iDBtitute. The bowl is of about the date of its gift to the College, and 
it is ^mewhat larger than the smaller pair at All Souls', being as much 
as 8 inches across, and 2^ inches in depth. The inscription upon it 
is in Gothic characters : — 

"'Fir r«ianc litbai non quoD vtlit aira bolnptai 
£it raro laata tetur lii [ingui anppetritatur." 

It should be remarked that with the end of the fifteenth century 
we come also to the end of Gothic lettering of this description, which 
gives place to the sort of Tudor capitals that are found on the 



Ko. 39.— Knu (circa 1470) it oriel collkoi, oxraBD. 

Tokerys howl and oa the mazer long preserved at Nai'fbrd Hall, Korfolk. 
The Narford mazer was engraved many years since in Archaologia.* 
It is of the early part of the sixteenth centni^, and has a silver-gilt rim 
with inscription, as follows : ciphus refectorii bofekbib pee fratrem 
BOBERTUH PECHAM. Of part of this rim and inscription an engraving 
(No. 40) is given of the full size, which may be of use in identifying 
lettering of the period upon other' specimens, for the hall-mark fixes 
the date of this interesting bowl as of the year 1532. It has an 
enamelled boss hearing the figure of St. Benedict with ataflf and book, 
with[flower8 in green and red, and s. bemit inscribed round the border. 
At the Fountaine sale, in 1884, it passed into the hands of Sir A. W. 
Franks. Another mazer in Sir A. W. Franks' collection is very like 
the last. 

• Vol. «iii., p. 892. 



256 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

The inscription on this is taken from Job zix. 21, Vulgate version : 

HI9EREMIHI ' MEI ' MISERBUINI ' HEl ' 8ALTEH * T08 ' AUICI * HEI, and the 

Bimilarit; of some of tbe letters to those on the Narford mazer will be 
seen by the annexed engraving (No. 41). 

It has been already remarked that some of these small mazers were 



monnted on feet ; and it will be convenient to close this section with 
an illustration of one of the latest now preserved having this addition 
(No. 42). It is one of the All Souls* College series and of the year 
1529. It is of interest to note that it bears the name of " R. Hoveden* 
Cnstos, 1671," scratched on the inside of the foot with a pointed In- 
stroment, apparently by the warden's own hand, for it corresponds 



No. il.— MltlE-BO-wi. (oiBOi lfi30-40), : 



uith his signature as appended to the College inventory of 1583, which 
has already been mentioned. 

There seems to be but a single mazer known of more modern date 
than the three last-mentioued specimens, which are all temp. Henry 
ym., and which like the chalices of that reign show, it will be noticed, 



* Bobert HoTeden. oi tlie well'knowD I 
yeomkD funily of HovtnJea (aa tbe want ii 
uauallj found), at UurieUliuD, Cnubiook I 



CHAP. X.] Mazers. 257 

almost hemiBpIierical bowla instead of the more conical or " splayed " 
bowls of earlier times. 

Tbis, therefore, brings ua to the end of English mazers, but a 
notice of mazer-bowls would be incomplete without some reference to 
another form of wooden cup which, tboagb of considerable rarity, is 
represented in several Euglish collections. No less than five of these 
have come under the notice of the Society of Antiquaries at different 
times, to whom as well as to Mr. Octavius Morgan, we are indebted 
for the accompanying en- 
gravings. They all appear 
to he of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, or earlier, and from 
their occurrence in German 
heraldry, it has been thought 
probable that they are chiefly 
of German and Swiss origin. 
Cups of this kind appear as 
the arms and crest of the 
family of Liebenberg, of the 
Canton Zurich, in a curious 
Roll of Arms published by 
the Society of Antiqnariee 
at Zurich, Die Wappen- 
roUe von Zurich, which is 
of the middle of the four- 
teenth century; and in some 
remarkable German illumi- 
nations of the early part of ^o. 42.-n«i.wo mu.r (1529) at ill «.«*■ 
the fifteenth century, now wllmb, oiroRD. 

preserved in the British 

Museum (Add. MS. 24,189), being illuBtrations to Mandeville's 
Travels, a covered cup of the kind in question occurs. It stands on 
a table set out for a feast, and is apparently all of one material ; a 
similar cnp is held by one of the attendants.* 

The suggestion, then, that they were the German representatives of 
mazer-howls, like them used for drinking, and the smaller ones — for 
some of them are very small — employed in testing or taking assay of 
the drink, seems a very good one, but it is by no means safe to 
conclude that they were not also fashionable in England at the same 

• There are lome otter early Germaaand I JaDo 20, 1881, from which th« above hare 
French nottca of them given in the Pn- beea takau. 
^etdingt of Iht SoeUtj/ of Antiguariei for | 




258 Old English Plate. [chap. i. 

time, and to be incladed equally amongst the English drinking Tessels 
of the period. One snch cop has been in the possessioD of the Rod- 
ney family for centuries, and hears their arms ; another formerly 
belonged to the Hamilton Palace collection. Like mazers, too, they 
lent their peculiar form to- 
vessels made of other materials 
than vood, and whilst some of 
them are of maple, others, in- 
cluding the Rodney and Ham- 
ilton Cups, are of silver-gilt. 

The former is shown in the 
wood-cut given here (No. 43). 
It is 6^ inches high, and 4^ 
inches in diameter at the 
widest part. It probably, says 
Mr. Morgan, was made for, 
and belonged to. Sir John 
Rodney, Knt., of Rodney 
tjtoke, who was living in 1512, 
as the arms of the Rodney 
family — three eagles 4iBplayed 
— are engraved on the top of 
the handle of the cover in a 
style very ancient, and not 
improbably coeval with the 
make of the cup. 

The Hamilton cup is of 
about the same size as the 
last, or a little smaller, but in 
the wood-cat (No. 44) is drawn 
IBM or rai ^'^ A somewhat larger scale- 
lODwii rmiLi. It has no cover, and 00 orna- 

ment save the narrow Gothic 
bands shown.* Neither of these caps is hall-marked. Other speci* 
mens, of which engravings are here given (Nob. 45 and 46), were 
exhibited by John Webb, Esq., and Octavius Morgan, Esq., but both 
of these are probably of foreign make. The Webb cup was from the 
Soltykoff Collection, and is now in the South Kensington Museum. 



* At the Sal« of ths Bwailton Colteetian I 40G gnintas. I( i< now, vith lu m»nj Qtfasr 
at Heun. Christie ud Uanson'a in 1882, choico pitcu, id the collectioa ol Sir A. W. 
thii piece w>a sold for ra lea b mm thut | Frinki, K.C.B. 



oHAr. X.] Mazers. 359 

On Mr. Moi^ao's deatb the choice cap in his collectioa (Ho. 46) 
was presented by his nephew, the late Mr. H. S. Milman, Director 
of the Society of Antiquaries, to Sir A. W. Franks, in whose valuable 
collection it remains. 

NOTES OF AMCIKNT HAZEBfl, ABBAMOKD IN OHBONOLOOiaAL OBQER. 

1 de Maiem.— Will ol WiU : do la Wjch, Bisliop of 



No. a. — MLvut.aii,T OOP or haiik iuhioh, rouiiKLi t 



129S. j maaer cfl coop'cio cnm pede et pomelle arg. — Wardrobe Accts. 24 Bdw. I. 
1302. platea " aigenti " to fix in a mazer-bowl, — Rc^ra' Hutonj of Pricei, ii. B68. 
1311. nnum niagnam maieram.^Will of Sir Wm. de Vavogour. 

1337. a maier cup valued at G*. in an inventory of a felon's goods.— Eiley'e London 

Life, etc. 

1338. a hannp oi mnzer with impression of St. Thomas of Lankier. — Sale Indentare 

of JocaUa,I2E(l«. III. 
1316. dphum meum de murr^ unum ciphum parvum meom de morro cum pede argenti, 

unum cipbnm de murro com ymagine Sci. Mich, in fundo. — lest Gbor. 
13i8. nnum maEcrum cum pede argenti. — Iden). 
1351. nnum ciphum de murro meliore qnem habeo, — Idem. 
ISeS. unum ciphum murreum cum qaadam jmagine de TrinitateB depictft in fundo. 

—Idem, 

■ 9 



Old English Plate. 




I36B. meliorem eiphnni de 



lounce.* — Idem. 
nnam parTum m 
cam coopercalo de 

parvum nuueriDnm 
menm com circnlo 
deaurato. — Idem. 



13S2. 



Ko. 4G. — oup Of Ti 

□ILT, DITED 1492. 

{From th« Soltjkoff Collectinn.) 



1395. 



No. 46.— <DF 0» WOOD irODRTID IB glLVItt OILI. 

(In ^ CoUeetion of Bir A. W. Vraobi, E.C.B.) 



one maier cup bound 
with Bilrer gilt Talne 
lOf., another smaller 
value h*., itoleu from 
John Frcniwhe, gold. 
imith. — BUey'B Lou- 

1391. Tiij maieriB argenti lig* 

atis et deaoralu (irom 

■It indictment for 
I house-breaking). — P. 

% R. 0. per late W. D. 

Selby, Esq. 
do. unum msiernm TOCftt 

Qodeiere. — Bristol 

Orphan Boole. 

1392. j ciphnm de mazeio et j 

cocliiT arsenti ad fac- 
turam unius calicU. — 
Teat. Ebor. 

n ciphum de nuuer 
cum coopertnrA et 
pede aijenti deanrati 
BJgnatum cum dlvenia 
liteiis de beea (BB).— 

>to. nnus godet de moiro 
cum coopeTColo mnr- 

1396. unum mazeram qnem 
Duper emi de ezecn- 
toribuB Domini Johan- 
nia dc Bjsahopeston 

argenteo deaorato lig- 
ato in Bummitate 
ejusdem Bcriptum. 

• Ftovim* of a cap, fronti- 
nella, in niodeni golilBniitli'B art 
Uio ornament called "gadrooned" 
from Ft. goderouDe — knuriins. 
Cotg., it implies a "wrinkle ' 
— ftwnpf. Parwl. — Camden So. 



CHAP. X.] List of Old English Mazers. 261 

)o 00 90 Iengs0t a Ipbe 

taft \\\% cope tDitt ototcit 0trsfe.— Idem. 

1399. It" j aut'e petit haDap de mazer ove le cov'cle a guyse dun pot steant s' iij 

peez t garnis darg' d' enorrez pris yi' viijdi. It" j large mazer cont* iij galons 
liez environ* d'arg endorrez enbossez en le founce,* itm j 'g'nt pee endorrez 
pr la dee maser, pois xiiij lb iiij unc. 
It" j maser tour de nutte gamisez d'argent enorrez t cov*ez. — ^Treasury Inv. 
1 Hen. IV. 

1400. cum uno cjpho de mazer nomine mortuarii mei. — ^Test. Ebor. 

do. unum mazer vocatum Spang ; meliorem ciphum meum de murreo scilicet 
mazer. These were bequeathed by Sir B. le Scrop (Lord Bolton) to his son 
the Archbishop of York. — Idem. 

1404. unam murram in cui fundo infra scribit. hoc nomen Jhc in asura p*cii zs. — 
Bristol Orphan Book. 

1406. nnus ciphus masar stans super pedem argent! deauratam mobilem portatum 
super tres leones cum bordur& argenti deaurata et ymagine Sancti Johannis 
Baptists in fundo coopercnlum borduratum de aquilis argenti deauratis et 
pomellnm aimellatum de azuro cum j chapelletto viridi et iiij rosis albis. 
Will of a Bp. of Durham.— Test. Ebor. 

1415. unu* ciphum TOcAt grete maser qui quondam fnit ciphus p*ris mei ad te*minu* 
Titae su». — Coll. Top. et Gen. 

1433. unum mazer flat com singula liga argenti deauratum ; unum mazer cum 

ymagine Sanctse Katherine vocat Frounce in fundo.* — Test. Ebor. 

1434. majorem patellam de mesl3m. — Idem. 
1436. unam murram quas vocatur cossyn. — Idem. 

1442. unum standyng maser ligatum cum argento. — Idem. 

1444. a standing maser of silver and gilt, uncov'ed, wt p'armes of England and 
F'aunce. and wt a poyse write Qood Edward^ weyng xxi ounces p*s |>eunce 
iij" iij*^ Smft., Ixx*, also ij litil masers called Qodarda^ cov'ed and anoper 
litil maser uncov'ed, weyng togydre ij lb. i unc t. dL p. unc ij" vi* Sma. 
Ixij" ix«».— Inv. of Treasury of Exch. 22 Hen. VI. 

1446. j murra cum pede deaurato vocata HERDEWTEE cum cooperculo ; alia murra 
larga et magna vocata ABELL sine cooperculo : xii murrss magnss et largie, 
cum uno cooperculo quorum iij cum pedibus ; zzziii mume usales. — ^Test. 
Ebor. 

1462. muTTse altae ; murrss basse. — Idem. 

1453. unum ciphum murreum coopertam vocatum j nott. — Idem. 

1454. unum maser hamasiatum cum argento et deaur* cum uno rose prynte. — Idem. 

1455. unam murram cum uno browne shell. — Idem. 
1459. unam murram vocatam Crumpuldud. — Idem. 

1463. aliam murram coopertam habentem in summitate castellum deauratum. — Idem. 

1464. unam murram sine Frounce.* — Idem. 
1471. matri meo unam parvam murram. — Idem. 

1485. my litle mazer. — Idem. 

1486. a mazer the printe of a nemying of Seynt George. — Idem. 

1487. vii lytell masers with duble bonds pond xli unc di at 2#. 4rf. iiil" xvi* x* 

T masers with sengyll bonds, and an olde blak nutte with a cover, with iij 

knoppys for coverynges of mazers pond xliiij un at 2#. 2<{. iiii^^ xv* iiij'. 

Inv. of Robert Morton.— Brit. Mus. Add. MS., 80,064. 
1490. 3 mazer shell. — Test. Ebor. 
do. a little mnzer bounden with silver and gilt, which that I bought upon Palmc- 

Bondaie in the lurst yere of the reign of King Edward the iiij'**. — Idem, 
do. unam murram cum j frounce * et Jhesus insculpt in eodem ; unam murram 

cum fronce fracto. — Tdem. 



See note on preceding pa^^e* 



262 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

1496. nnnm ciphnin Yocatum nut de mazer coop. — Idem, 
do. a mazer with a plajne band sjlver and gilt ; a standing nntte of mazer with a 

foot of silver and over-g^lt wt. a coyerjng to the same, wt. three oatrich 
fedders of silver and over-gilt — Idem. 

1497. ij mazer bandes inde factor* unam marram. — Idem. 

1498. a masser wt. the prynt in the bottom. — Idem. 
1449. a standynge maser wt. cover of wode. — Idem. 
1502. j pel vim de mesljn. — Idem. 
1506. a pardon maser (having round the brim an indulgence of 40 days to the 

drinker). — Idem. 
1527. a standynge maser with a cover, the foot gilt ; ij greate, and ij less mazers with 
brymmys and rosys in the botome save j lacketh a roose. — Inv. of Minster 
Priory in Shepey. 

1534. a standynge maser wt a cov* and shell wtall weyng xxvi unccs di. ; Itm one 

great maser wt a sengle band '^t a prynt in the bottom gilt wt an ymage of 
Allmyghti god sittynge at the iugement in the myddes of iiij evangelistes 
weynge zlix unces di. ; Itm a masar wt a sengle band wt a prynt in the 
bothom of the passion of saynt Thomas the martir and a plate of sylv' and 
gilte wt an Ape lokynge in an vrynall written wt these woordes *' this wat* 
is p*olows ^' weynge xv unc. di. These and many other mazers are described 
in an Invent, of the Guild of the B. V. M. at Boston, co. Line. — Peacock's 
Church Furniture. 

1535. v'grete masers with small ^nds of sylver and gylt ; iiij mascrs whrof iij of 

them be with gylt bonds and the fourth with a sylver bond dailyc occupied 
' xxiiij un. ; ij masers with brode bands sylver and gilt and a little mazer 

with a fote and a small band sylver and gilt xviij un. ; ij small masers 

with brode bands of sylver and gilt. — Inv. of Maison Dieu at Dover, ^^ 

Hen. VIII. 
1542. a silver masser. — Rich. Wills. 
154S. a masour cuppe and three silver spones, to each of testator's two daughtem — 

Idem. 
1555. ij messilling bassens. — Idem. 
1557. j masser egged about with silver. — Idem. 

1577. one mazer with one edgle of sylver. — Idem. 

1578. ij massers. 

1585. j silvar mazar. — Wills and Inv. 
1592. A maser cuppe 2«. ^d, — Idem. 

THE SALT. 

We now come to what was the principal article of domestic plate in 
English houses of whatever degree. The massive salt-cellar, which 
adorned the centre of the table, served to indicate the importance of 
its owner, and to divide the lord and his nobler guests from the 
inferior guests and menials, who were entitled to places "below the 
salt " and at the lower ends of the tables only. It seems rather to M 

have served this purpose than to hold salt for the meal, a supply of 
which was usually placed near each person*s trencher in a smaller 
salt-cellar, called a " trencher " salt. There are many allusions in 
the poets to the distinction marked by the position of the salt amongst 
the guests, and to the social inferiority of ^' humble cousins who sit 
beneath the salt." The great salt was, therefore, an object of consider- 



CBAF. X] Salts. 263 

able interest, and it was often of great magnificence and of cnrlona devica 
Edmnnd Mortimer, Earl of March, in 1360, had such a ealt-oellar, 
" in the shape of a dog ; " John Earl of Warenne's waa in the form of 
au "olifaunt" (1347); Bait-cellars, en- 
Hmelled or gilt, nearly all with covers, are 
found on every table. Fifteenth century 
wills mention salts of every shape a^ 
size and kind. Salts square, round, plai^ 
iTTeathed, high, low, with covers and with- 
ont, are all found ; the words 'pro tale ' 
being often added to the description of 
the vessel. Salts formed as dr^ons 
occur, also those shaped as lions. Silver, 
silver-gilt and "herall"* are the materials 
of which moat are made. Whoever coald 
afford au article of plate, besides his spoon, 
had it, in those days, in his salt, even in 
preference to a silrer cap for his own par- 
ticalar use. A very fine and early salt is 
the Hnntsman Salt (No. 47) at All Souls' 
College, Oxford, and of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. It is so called from the standing 
fignro bearing upon his head the receptacle 
for salt, which, be it noted, is a box made 
of rock-crystal with a hinged lid of the 
same. A description of the principal salt 
of Henry Eitzroy, Duke of Bichmond, 
the natural son of Henry VIII., taken 
from the inventory made on his death in 
1527, gives a good idea of those which 
graced the boon] of royalty. It was "a 
salte of golde with a blak dragon and 
V peries on the bak, and upon the fote 
iij course saphirs, iij course bolaces, xxiij 
course garnisshing peries, and upon the 
cover of the same salt vii saphirs or ,^ .■, Z 

glasses, and uij course balaces, and xxxij (ista ciktubt) at ai,l 

garnishing peries, upon the knoppe a white """^ ""''"' ''^""^°- 

rose with rubjes and a pyn of silver to here the salt going through the 
dragon and the bace made fast to a plate of silver and gilt nndei the 

• Tat. Sbor. 1471. 



264 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

Baid bace veing sst oqz. di." To this may be added tbst one of his 
small salts was " a little salt of birrall, the cover and fote well gamis- 
shed with golde stones and perleB, sent from mj Ld. Cardinelle for a New 
Yere's gift, anno xixmo, with a ruby npon the cover, weing m. onz." 

Another, of even less weight but of no less value, was "a salte of 
gold, BUppOEed to be of an unycom horn, welle wrought and sett with 
perles, and the cover with turkssses sent from 
the king by Mr. Magnus, t onz. di." 

A Lincolnshire will of 15S6 mentions 
"my silver salte with a cover doble gilte, 
having iu the middle of it a pece of Birrall." 
Let the little treatise of 1500 entitled Ffor 
to Serve a Lord, say how the chief saltrcellar 
should be placed : — 

'* Thenne here-uppon the boteler or 
panter shall bring forthe his pryncipall salte 
. . he shall sette the saler in the myddys of 
the tabull accordyng to the place where thu 
principall soverain shall sette . . . thenne 
the seconde salte att the lower ende . . . 
then Balte selers shall be sette uppon the 
syde-tablys." 

The Boke 0/ Kenyng too directs that the 
salt should be set on the right side "where 
your Boverayne shall sytte." Further- 
more, it was not graceful to take the sail 
except with " the clene knyfe," bo says 
the Young Children's Book, in 1500, far less 
to dip your meat into the salt-cellar. The 
Babees Book is strong upon thia point, 
even a generation before (1475) : 

" The Bnlte also toQche not in his ealere 
With nokjnB roele, bat lay it honestly 
No. 48.— Silt (liBS) it HI* On yonre Trenchoora, for thnt iBcurtesy.'' 

OOLLIOK, OXrOBD. 

Omitting for the present the smaller 
trencher salts, there are four patterns of Old English salt^ceUars, 
of which examples have come down to our time, and of each of them 
an illastration must he given. First come the honr-glass salts of 
the reigns of Henry VII. and Henry VIII,, of which some five 
or BIX hall-marked specimens are known to the writer, besides one 
or two undated. The undated ones are the older, and they comprise 
Bomo of the finest workmanship and great beauty. Two are at 



CHIP. X.] Salts. 265 

Oxford, Corpus Cliristi College and New College each boasting ot 
one. The Corpns salt wae given by the founder, Bishop Fox ; and 
bearing the letters K and E amongst the ornamentation, it seems 
safe to refer it to the period daring which he held the see of Exeter, 
1487 to 1492. The New College specimen, given by Walter Hill, 
is dated 1493, and serves Tvell as an illustration of these beaatifal 
salts (No. 48). Both these are figured in Shaw's Specimens of 
Ancient Furniture. A pair at Christ's College, Cambridge, part 
of the plate of the foun- 
dress, Margaret, Countess 
of Gichmond, are of about 
the same period. They 
are ornamented with a 
double rose in repousse 
work on the alternate 
lobes and 'Gothic work 
with pinnacles at the 
angles round the waist. 

Amongst the later and 
hall-marked examples is 
a third given to Christ's 
College, Cambridge, by 
its foundress. This is 
engraved with Tudor 
rose, fleur-de-lys and 
portcullis on alternate 
lobes, and was made in 
1507. The next is at 
Cotehele and of 1516; "^ 

vhilst the pair from „ ,„ ,,,„, __ , 

'^ , „ No. jB. — ULT ilSlS) AT iBOBHoiraiiia 

which our second illus- iull, lohdoh. 

tration (No. 49) of this 

class of salt is taken, arc of 1518 and 1522, and in the possession of 
the Ironmongers' Company in London. All alike are six-sided in 
plan, with raised lobes alternately ornamented and plain, only differing 
in the details of the decoration. The salt at Cotehele has beautiful 
Gothic pinnacles around the knop or waist, like the earlier pair at 
Christ's College, Cambridge. 

By the middle of the sixteenth century we come to the second type, 
and the earliest of this class again is at Corpus College, Oxford. It 
is a cylindrical standing salt, of the year 1554, and, with its cover, is 
ornamented with repouss^ and engraved work in a pattern formed of 



266 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

three priacipal cartoucbes with central bosseB, the interrals filled with 

foliated scrolla. The cover is anrmoniited by a statuette of a boy with 

a staff and shield. It was exhibited id the South Kensington Loan 

Collection of 1862, and has been 

erroneoQsly catalogued at different 

times as of 1618 and of 1594. 

Later specimens of this fashion 
of salt are in the possession of the 
Goldsmiths' and the Armourers' 
Company. These cylindrical salts 
occur oftener than the square ones. 
The example selected to represent 
them (No. 50) ia one in the pos- 
session of the Corporation of Nor- 
wich, given by Peter Beade, who 
died in 1566. It was made in 
Norwich in the following year. 
The drawing is after one published 
some years ago in a volume re- 
lating to Norwich antiquities, but 
for want of shading hardly gives it 
a sufBciently rounded form. It 
Affords a good example of Norwich 
work, and of this style of salt. 

Of the same type, but square 
instead of cylindrical, is the 
beautiful salt of the year 1569, 
l)elonging to the Vintners' Com- 
pany. From this the illustration 
No. 51 is taken, and it is a pos- 
session of which its owners are 
justly proud. It is thus described 
inthecatalo^ueof the works of art 
exhibited at the Hall of the Iron- 
No. 60. — oTLiBDHiciL BiLT (1669) IK iB« mongeis' Compauy some years 

POSSMHIOB OF TII» OOBPORATIOH OF 

HoiiwicH. *gO :— 

" A square salt silver gilt 
with cover. It is 12 inches high, and A.\ inches square ; on the 
panels at the sides, in bold relief, are four female figures repre- 
senting Virtues, viz. : 1. Justice, with sword and scales ; 2. Forti- 
tude, holding in her left hand a blazing heart, and in her right a 
dart ; 3. Temperance, pouring from a vessel into a cup ; 4. Chaatity, 



CHAP. X.] Standing Salts. 267 

with a lamb at her feet ; all within landBcapee, and at the angles 
are therm figures. The cornice and foot ate boldly moulded and 
richly emboseed. The whole rests on four sphinxes, crowned ; above 
the arch of each panel is an escallop. The cover is sarmonnted by 
a female figure, standing on a 
richly embossed vase ; a serpent 
is coiled ronnd her, and she 
holds a shield, whereon are the 
armsofthe Yintners' Company," 

The Hammersle; salt (No. 
62), at Haberdashers' Hall, ie 
of 1595. The drum is in re- 
ponss^ with pastoral subjects in 
bold rehef, which have a very 
pleasant effect, ami contrast 
with the conventional decoration 
''Vhich was more usually afiected 
at that period. 

At the very end of the six- 
teenth centory we find a circular 
bell-shaped salt, or spice-bos, in 
three tiers or compartments, 
much in fashion, bat only for 
a few years. They are no doubt 
the " Bell " salts of contem- 
porary inventories. "The bell 
salt of silver with his cover " 
was an item in the will of Sir 
Thomas Scott, of Scot's Hall, 

which is dated 1694; and a ko. 51.-iult (1569) *i vi»T>i»a' hili, 
Ihirham will of 1693 refers to losdok. 

" a white bell salt " as well as 

"a trencher salt." The specimen from which our illustration 
(No. 5S) is taken belongs to Christ's Hospital, London, and ia 
fonrteen inches high. Its style of ornamentation speaks for it- 
self, and is very representative of its period. The two lower com- 
partments form Bait-cellars, and the upper one serves as a pepper- 
castor. A similar salt of 1594, found at Stoke Prior, is now in the 
S. Kensington Museum ; and a third specimen was in the collection 
of Mr. Ootaviua Morgan. A pair, one of 1699 and the other of the 
following year, are, or were, in the possession of Sir O. Dasent, As 
to their valne, it may be mentioned that a piece in the Hailstone 



268 Old English Plate. [cha^. i. 

CollectioQ, almost exactly like the CbrisfB Hospital salt, was sold for 
380 guineas in 1891. It had been bought at Exeter in the year 1858 
for five pounds. 

About the middle of the seventeenth century we find a rare example 
of a style of decoration more affected in Holland than in our own 
country, in the Waldo salt of 1661 at Clotbworkers' Hall (No. 64). 
The Dutch repoass^ work of 
the Utrecht School was marked 
by the skill with which ailver 
was hammered into volutes, 
which shape themselves at every 
point into grotesque faces or 
masks, testifying to a master^' 
of the art of metal -working 
which has never been surpassed. 
Next comes a simple and well- 
known form of salt, which carries 
us all through the seventeenth 
century, from 1638, the date of 
one of the earliest known, to 
1685, when some in the poa- 
aeasion of the Worshipful Com- 
pany of Mercers were made, 
from one of which our engraving 
Ni>. G3.— wLt (I69G) IT HUIBM8BRR8' (No. 55) Is takcu. These salts 
aiiL, 10HW.B. Qf (.jjg Mercers' Company show 

the stiff feather decoration under 
the shield of arms, which is so characteristic of the period from 1670 
to 1685. It is most common of all about the year 1675. Similar 
salts of intermediate date are amongst the splendid plate of the 
Clothworkers' Company. Some of them are circular, others are 
square or octagonal. 

It will have been observed how carefully the earlier salts were 
covered to preserve the cleanliness of the salt, and perhaps to prevent 
the introduction of poison ; in these later ones the small projecting 
arms were for supporting a napkin with which it now became asual to 
cover the salt-cellar with the same object. 

Last of all must be described the curious and unique salt-cellar of 
which mention, so far as its marks are concerned, has already been 
made (see p. 107). Bnilt in storeys, not unlike the " bell" salts of an 
earlier generation, the lighthouse long preserved at Tredegar is a most 
interestmg piece of plate. On the top will be observed (No. 56) a 



Standing Salts. 269 



Old English Plate. 



l&atem BOTmoanted by a BcroU work, and terminating in a vane, and 
beneath the lantern a dome or cnpola above an open arcade with a 



Ho. 56. — ooTiooNU. uu (1686) ii m 



gallery, within which is a depression for salt ; the lantern itself being 
perforated for pounded sugar. Beneath this galleiy are three storeys 
the upper one empty, the next has a lid perforated for peppar, and 



■ IDDTROn UaHtBODU tAUt (1698). 



272 Old English Plate. [ohap. x. 

the lowest storey forms a larger box, empty like the uppermost. There 
is a winding outside staircase, leading from the basement story of 
masonry to the upper storey and gallery, and a little ladder hangs on 
to the foot of the staircase, to reach down to the rock on which the 
lighthouse is based, or the sea. It is 17 inches in height. For 
generations it was supposed to represent the lighthouse on an island 
called the Flat Holme in the Bristol Channel, but, on closer examina- 
tion by Mr. Octavius Morgan, it proved to be an exact model of the 
first and original Eddystone lighthouse, erected by Winstanley, and 
first lighted in November, 1698. This was much altered and 
strengthened in 1699, but in November, 1708, was swept entirely 
away by a fearful storm, Winstanley himself and all hands perishing 
with it. In Smeaton's account of the Eddystone, the drawing of the 
original lighthouse, which did not exist more than a year without 
alteration, corresponds in every detail with the silver copy, which we 
may therefore safely conjecture was made in the year 1698. 





1629. No. 57. — TBSNGHSR SALTS. 1667. 

" Trencher " salts are at first triangular or circular, with a 
depression in their upper surface ; of the former shape and of simple 
fashion was a little salt of 1629, bearing for inscription '' John Lane, 
Vintner, at ye Mermaide, near Charing Crosse," which was sold in 
1869 in the Hopkinson collection for £20 10^., and re-sold for no less 
a sum than JG80 in the Dasent sale, only six years afterwards. Small 
circular salts of 1667 are in use at Cotehele, and a set of the year 
1688 are in the possession of the Innholders' Compauy. 

These, and such as these, obtained till the reign of George IE., 
when a small circular salt standing upon three feet came in, which gave 
way in its turn to the boat-shaped pattern, with pointed end some- 
times terminating in handles, so common at the end of the last 
century, when everything was made oval, with pointed ends, that 
could by any possibility at all be got into that shape. 

STONEWARE JUGS. 

There are few collectors who have not secured for their cabinets one 
or more of the mottled stone-ware jugs, with silver cover and neck- 
mounts, and sometimes also silver foot-band, which were in vogue for 
the greater part of the sixteenth century. The jugs themselves were 



CH*F. 3t.] Stoneware Jugs. 273 

imported &om Oermany, probably from Cologoe, and were mounted 
by the Eoglish BilyerBmitha. The earliest notices of them occnt 
aboat 1530 to 1540, and from that time to the end of the century 
they were common enough ; but they seem then to have gone out of 
fashion, for it would be difficult to find a Bin^rle specimen with a seven- 
teentb century hall-mark. As regards ornamentation they are all very 
much alike ; the well- 
known Elizabethan in- 
terlaced fillets, with 
running foliage, are 
often engraved aroand 
the neck-bands of the 
earlier ones, whilst the 
later specimens are 
more often decorated 
with repousse work. 

An engraving (No. 
56) is given of one 
of 1562, which shows 
Elizabethan engraving 
on the mount, and 
also some reponsse 
work on the lid. A 
description of one of 
those exhibited at Ken- 
sington in 1662 wil 
give a good idea of all 
of them. 

" A stoneware jug of 
mottled brown glaze, 

mounted in silver gilt ^^ 68.-bio«w*e« «a, .ohsted i> «Ly» «.it (1582). 
as a tankard, engraved at viNTmita' ball. 

neck-band of interlaced 

straps ; the cover reponsse with lions' heads and fruit, snrmounted by 
a flat-rayed button and small bnluster, purchase formed of two acorns ; 
round the foot is a border of upright strawberry leaves and a gadrooned 
edge." This would describe a specimen of about 1665 ; and later ones 
wonld differ from it only in the engraving of the neck-band being 
replaced by cartouches of lions' heads, masks, fruit, and flowers, or 
the like, in repouss^ work. 

Some mounts, bearing ancient Exeter goldsmiths' marks, bave been 
already mentioned in an earlier chapter. (See page 97.) 



274 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

JugB or "covered pots" of ihe aame shape are found in BilTer 

sometimes, just as we shall see the cocoa-nnt or the ostrich egg 

Buggeeted shapes to the goldsmiths. Such a veasol is the jug of 1567 

at Armourers' Hall, and a similar one of 1571, and of English make, 

in the Treasury of the Patriarch at Moscow, 

Three stone J igs from the Staniforth collection were sold in 1889 

at Messrs. Christie, Hanson 

and Woods, for £215, £64, 

and £105 respectively. A 

good specimen of 1549 

passed into Sir A. W. Franks' 

possession. A small but 

good JDg of 1560 was sold at 

the same rooms in 1890 

for £71 8«., a price which 

seemed below its real value. 

A stoneware jug of 1681 

is used as a communion 

flagon at West Mailing, 

Kent — and an engraving of 

it is added to further 

illastrate this section (No. 

59). 

The following notes suf- 
ficiently indicate the period 
during which they were 
found : — 

lotts. a etone pot garnished with 
^Iver and gilt^ with a 

cover of silver and gylte. 

ITo. G9._aTa)riinRi joa (16S1) fosicwL* dsw) — Inv.of tbeMaisonDiea, 

AB A CUHMD:(10K tLAOOH IT ttant HlLLUa, DovuT. 

a INT. 151G. Lid and monnt of jn;;, 

button enamelled with 

Pan aniiB ; bought at Strawberry Hill sale.— Sndeley Castle. (Tbia is of 

1551. Stoneware jug with cover engraved with musical instromenls.— Mcbe™. 

Garrard s. 
1567. iij stone drinking potts covers 1 with silver Ij oz. ii a lii] d. 
1662, Stoneware jug, eorer engraved in Elirabethan fashioo ; see engraving No, 5P, — 

Vintners' Companj. 
JB67, Kilver jag with homlle ami caver engraved .with Elizabctban atrapwork,— 

Armourera" Company. 
1570. 2 Eton pottes,*" covers and bands doblegUt ani one pot covered with ailv', 

vi U liij a iiij d,— Rich. Wills, 



CHAP. X.] Ewers, Basins, and Salvers. 275 

1571. Silver jug with handle and cover omamentel with Elizabethan engraving like 

that of 1567 at Armourers* Hall. — TreRflure of the Patriarch, Moscow. 

1572. a stone cupp garnished with sjlver and gjlte. — Inv. of Thomas Lee, of Marton, 

CO. Bucks. 
1574. 1 stone pott garnished with silver pcell gilt. — Rich. Wills. 

1577. twoo stone pottes layde with silver gylte. — Wills and Inv. 

1578. ij stone potts bounden with silver doble gilt. — Rich. Wills. 
1580. my stone pot with a cover of sylver. — Wills and Inv. 

do. one stone pott garnished with sylver, w''' a cover and gilt. — Rich. Wills. 
1583. a stone cruse with cover brim and f oote of silver dobie gilt. — Bristol Orphan 

Book. 
1585. 3J stone pottes with silver overs gilte and imboste. 
1588. one stone jugge double gilted 1 11 10 s ; one stone jugge covered with silver, 

1 li 10 s.— Wills and Inv. 
1596. ij stone jugges garnished with silver and double gylte.1. — Wills and Inv. 



EWERS, BASINS, AND SALVERS. 

These occur in every old will and inventory of any importancOi and 
being articles in daily use at every table, must have been very common 
indeed, making up as they did for the want of any such utensil as the 
modern fork. 

We must remember that sometimes more than one person ate off 
the same dish, and that with the fingers, aided only with a knife or 
spoon as the case required ; and even if a rule prescribed in the Boke 
of Nurture were never transgressed, — 

" Sett never on fysche nor flesche beest nor fowle trewly 
More than ij fyngui-s and a thombe for that U curtesie," 

still we shall agree with de Laborde in his remark on ancient basins, 
*^ que I'absence de fourchette et Thabitude de manger a deux dans la 
meme ecuelle et k plusieurs dans le meme plat, rendaient necessaire 
la proprete des mains, pour les autres avant le diner, pour soi-meme 
apres." 

Ewers and basins were accordingly handed before and after every 
meal, and after every course, the hands being held over the basin 
whilst water, hot, cold, or scented, was poured over them from the 
ewer by the server. In the houses of the great they were of costly 
material, and fine naperie for use with them is found in abundance 
amoDgst the household goods of the middle ages. 

The Boke of Kervyng and the Babees Boke do not omit to regulate 
the serving of the ewer and basin. 

The Boke of Kervyng directs the attendant to see before meat that 
** thyn ewery be arayed with basyns and ewers and water bote and 
colde, and se ye have napkyns . . ." and the manner in which they 

T 2 



276 Old English Plate. [chai-. z 

Bhonid be ased at the end of the meal i3 laid down iu the Babcea 
Boke .— 

" Tbanue aomme at yow for water owe to goo 
Somme holde the clothe, eomme poure uppoD hie hande." 

The little mannal entitled Ffor to serve a Lord directs this 
service before and after meat in 1500, and even in 1577 the Boke of 
Nurture mentions " a basen ewer and towell to ara}' yonr cuphord." 

With the appearance of forks the nse of the basin was to a great ex- 



tent discontinned, and most of the basins tbemgelves have disappeared, 
perhaps to be converted into forks. It may well be that some of the 
forks DOW in use were made out of the ewers and basins which their 
invention rendered saperSnous. 

The few now remaining are used for sideboard decoration, or for 
handing rose-water after dinner, and the most ancient of them are 
only of the middle of the sixteenth century. 

Amongst the earliest specimens are the silver-gilt ewer and salver 
engraved with foliated arabesques, which were the gift of Archbishop 
Parker to Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge, in 1570. They bear 
the ball-mark of 1545. Of these the engravings (Nos. 60 & 61) give a 
good idea, showing the arabesques which were the usual decoration of 
ttxe Henry VIII. period. Next to these rank a silver-gilt ewer and 



CHAP, x-i Ewers, Basins, and Salvers. 277 

Bitlver of 1579 and 1581 respectively, the property of the Duke of 
Butlaad, the former formed of agate rings with silver - gilt bands 
between them, ornamented, as well as the top and bottom of the vase, 
in repoQSse, with dolphins and tritons in cartouches, snails, shells, 
frait, flowers, birds, lobsters, tortoises and many other objects, " the 
motmts connected hy fonr projecting female terminal figures, with 
figures on their heads ending in scrolls ; the handle is formed by the 
head and body of a warrior, and terminates in twisted serpents' tails. 
On the back of the warrior is a large snail, with a smaller snail on the 
top of its ^ell, ander the lip a female mask. The circular foot is 
repoasse with lions' 
claws, masks, and fruit 
between, with a boss 
of four projectiii{:; 
eagles' heads." The ' 
salver is 18 inches in 
diameter, and has eight 
oval pieces of agate in- 
serted on the border, 
and a circular piece in 
the raised boss, the 
whole field being filled 
with repousse scrolls 
and arabesques of 
birds, etc., and the 
centre ornaments be- 
ing a shrimp, lobster, 
dolphin and tortoise. 

ii the early part of No, ei.— bwkr (lil5), at cobjus chbibti colleob, cms. 
the seventeenth cen- 

tnry they were ornamented with beantifnl reponss6 strap-work, inter- 
laced and enclosing boldly treated flowers or marine monsters, and 
have raised bosses, or " prints," in the centre of the basin, sometimes 
enamelled, bnt oftener engraved, with coats of arms or other devices. 

The engraving (No. 62} is of a rose-water dish belonging to the 
Merchant Taylors' Company, one of two such dishes exhibited by 
them in the Loan Collection of 1862 at South Kensington. It is 
described in the caialogue as "a circular rose-water dish, stiver, 
parcel gilt. On a boss in the centre, much raised np, is a coat of 
arms, viz. : a fess between eight billets. Round the boss are six 
panels, containing dolphins and flowers, all in reponsse. Dolphins 
and flowers in panels are also repeated in the rim. The other part of 



278 Old Evgliik Plate, [chap. x. 

the dieb is enj^ved with flowers in scrolls." It ma; be added that 
the arms are those of Maye ; ooe Bicbard Maye was Warden of the 
Company in 1575, and Master some few years later. 

Tbe Corporations of Bristol and Norwich possess fine sets, — that at 
Bristol bearing tbe date-letter for 1695, and tbe other the marks for 



No. S2.— S09E-WATKK ULVEB [1097], . 

1617. Both are ornamented with engraving and reponssd work, being 
admirable examples of the English goldsmith's art. These as well as 
the Duke of Rutland's were exhibited at South Kensington in 1H62, 
and are described in detail in the official catalogue. Tbe Norwich 
examples are given as illastrations (Nob. 63 and 64). 

Sacfa examples are found down to the end of the reign of Charles I., 
after which a plainer fashion prevails, the salver being quite unoma- 
mented, and the ewers somewhat rade cup-shaped jugs, with or 
without stems, and with a plain handle. With the accession of 
James II. come in tbe well-known helmet-shaped patterns which 



ctur. X.] Ewers, Basins, and Salvers. 279 

afterwards became very osnal, and lasted till about 1720. The later 
ones were sometimeB of elaborate desigu and finish ; and, by permis- 
siou of tbe Goldsmiths' Company, an engraving is given of the finest 



No. 03.— BWKH (1817), 1 

known specimen by that celebrated smith. Paul Lamerie (No. 65), 
This, too, was exhibited in 1862, and was described as follows : — 

" On the lower part of the vaae is a winged mermaid with two tails, 
accompanied by two boy-tritons blowing conches. The foot consists 
of marine flowers, shells, and reptiles. On the upper part of the vase 
are festoons of Sowers and the Company's badges, the leopards' heads. 
The handle has a very bold half-length figure of a sea-god, terminat- 
ing in foliage." It is of the year 1741. 



a8o Old English Plate. [cbap. x. 

This is perhaps the appropriate place to comment upon the remark- 
able absence in English work of examples of the more estraTagsnt rococo 
fashion fonnd in French collections &om 1736 to 1756. English speci- 
mens of this character may be counted upon the fingers, and are chiefly 
by Paul Lamerie. The Goldsmiths' ewer may be taken as an example 
of the class. A curious soup-tureen with its cover piled with grapes 



and pears, and the bowl resting upon two goats, whose heads belong 
to the bowl and bodies to the stand, of a very French type, was sold 
in 1888. It was made by Paul Crespin in 1740, and was probably de- 
signed to match a pair of aoupHres (sold for £1,600 the pair) in the 
same collection by J. Boettiers. These were of 17S9, and were made, 
of course, in Paris. The English example seems to have owed its 
inspiration to its foreign companions. 

The great cistern mentioned later (No. 107), by Eandler, of 1734, 
is a third of these rare examples ; but this is more distinctly English 



CHAP. X.] Ewers, Basins, and Salvers. 281 

in Ha design and workmanship than the other piecei) described 
above. 

The ealver of 1741, at GoIdsmithB' Hall, is of workmaDship to cor- 
respond with the ewer, the border being designed boldly in Louis 



Ho. 65. — BWIR (1711), BK l-AUL IIHRKIE 

Qnatorze scrolls, and panels enclosing figures of boys representing 
heathen gods. It is not, however, very effective. 

The salvers of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth 
centuries were plain circular dishes, and repousse work gave way to 
plain engraving towards the middle of the former century. Those 
which accompany the helmet-shaped ewers are aeually quite plain. 

In the reign of Queen Anne, chasing is found, the edges of the 
salvers being both chased and shaped, the salvers themselves standing 
on three, or sometimes four, small feet. Some are both engraved and 



282 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

chased ; the talents of Hogarth were for some six years employed in 
engraving plate for Mr. Ellis Gamble, the silversmith, to whom he 
was apprenticed in 1712 ; and salvers or waiters, decorated by him, 
are said still to be seen. Strangely enough, the mark of his master 
is not to be found amongst those registered at Goldsmiths* Hall at 
that period. The plainer salvers of this date have often a gadrooned 
edge. Some simple but effective ornamentation is given to some 
salvers, circa 1735, by small semi-circular notches, eight or ten in 
number, in the moulded rim. 

This style of ornament was succeeded by the beaded edges of the 
time of George HI., and circular or shaped salvers were replaced by 
the plain oval trays, having handles at the ends, which are then found 
almost to the exclusion of any other patterns. 

The following list gives a selection of examples, of all dates from 
the earliest : — 

1284. par pelvium arg* emp TiOnd. — Account of ** jocalia " purchased for the king's 

use and presents, 12 & 13 Edw. I. 
1296. 1 par pelvium ; 1 lavator' arg' p aula, 1 bacinns aig' p eodem. — Wardrobe 

Accounts, 24 £dw. I. 
1324. un ewer a triper dorre aymall T taille d*une vyne. — Indenture of royal plate, 

17 Edw. II. 
1339. un eawer endorre od doubles ymages (aymals) en* f ounce C en pomel 

cbisellez d'une vigne. — Indenture of '* jocalia*' found in the Treasury, 

12 Edw. III. 
1347. ij bacyns, ma hure d'argent dore, un petit ewer d'argent dorre (will of John, 

Earl of Warren).— Test. Ebor. 
1349. duos baciones enajrmaillatos in fundo quorum in uno est judicium Salamonis 

et in alio est rota fortunae, duo magna lavatoria (wiU of Henry, Lord de 

Percy). — Idem. 
1369. un peire des bacyns ove swages endorres et cnammaylles ; ewers ove spoutes. — 

Vessels bought of the executors of John Hiltoft, goldsmith, 42 Edw. III. 
1392. Richard, Earl of Arundel, leaves to his wife Philippa a pair of basons, *" in 

which I was accustomed to wash before dinner and supper." — Nichols' Teht. 

Vet. 
1400. unum perepelvm de argento cum coopert* cum armis meis et Domini de Nevylle 

in fundo ; cum ij pelvis et ij aquariis argentl cum armis meis in fundo 

(will of Richard de Scrop).— Test. Ebor. 
1419. duos pelves argenteos cum rosis in medio deauratis, duos aquarios cum ij idriis 

argenteis (will of Will. Gascoigne, L. C. J.).— Idem. 
1433. unum ewer argenti cum le spowte in certis partibus deauratum. — Idem. 
1444. j laver cum ij spowtes deaurat*. — Idem. 

1463. iij pelves cum pryntis et boses argenti et enameld in medio eorundum. — Idem. 
1500. two basons and two ewers part gilt weighing 117 oz. at 3«. 4/2. per oz. ; two 

great basons with two ewers partly gilt 183 oz. at 3«. 4i/. — Will of Thomas 

Kebeel, 8.L. 
1503. an ewer and basin of silver the swages gilt. 



These images were slipped trefoils, the alternate ones being turned upside down. 



CHAP. X.] 



Standing Cups and Hanaps, 



283 



1505. a payyer of gilt basons, xviij basins with ewers. — Inv. of Lonl Mayor's Feast. 

(B. B. Text Society). 
1519. duos pelves argenti ctk lavat's in medio unins est una Rosa in alio scatu armor* 

meor' (will of Rawf Lathom citizen and goldsmith).— C.P.C. 32 Ayloffe. 

For existing specimens see Appendix A. : — 
1545, 1590, 1595, 1616, 1617, 1640, 1651, 1668, 1670, 1675, 
1676, 1677, 1679, 1680, 1685, 1705, 1706, 1715, 1720, 1721. 



STANDING CUPS AND HANAPS. 

An article of hardly less importance in mediaeval times than the 
great salt-cellar, was the standing cup in which lord, abbot, or gentle- 
man received his wune from the butler's hand after it had been duly 
" essayed." 

Whilst simple ** treen " cups were used by the lower classes, those 
which graced the table of the high-born and wealthy were always of 
great magnificence and of costly material. The splendour of the cup 
marked the consequence of him who used it, as the standing salt did 
the position of the lord of the feast ; and if not of gold, silver, or silver- 
gilt, it was formed of some then rare material, such as the egg of the 
ostrich, the shell of the cocoanut, or, at least, of curiously mottled 
wood mounted on a foot and surrounded with bands of precious metal. 
Such cups were of great value, and some were prized no less for the 
historical or other associations which surrounded them than for their 
intrinsic worth. They were often known, not only in the household 
of the owner, but even in the district in which he lived, by special 
names, and the custody of the cup has signified the ownership of an 
estate. 

The " Constable Cup " of Sir Richard de Scrop in 1400, and the 
great silver cup with a cover called " Le Chartre of Morpeth,'* men- 
tioned in the will of John, Lord of Greystock, in 1486, must have 
been of some such importance as this.* Richard, Earl of Arundel, in 
1892 bequeaths to his wife Philippa " her own cup called Bealchier."+ 

This was no doubt a family possession of much interest ; and in many 
other less notable cases, drinking-cups are found to bear particular 
names, sometimes being called after saints. Mazers named '^ Spang," 
" Cossyn," and **Crumpuldud " have already been mentioned, all of 
the fifteenth century ; and a still earlier one called '' Godezere " was 
bequeathed by a burgess of Bristol to the chapel of St. Thomas there 
in 1891.1 These few instances will be enough to show that favourite 



• Surteca Society. — Teji. EUr, 
t Nichols.— re««. Vtt. 



X Bristol Orphan Book, Will. No. 46. 



284 Old English Plate. Ichap. x. 

drinking-cups were often given pet or special names ; but the list 
might be prolonged indefinitely. The same Bishop of Durham whose 
Indian nut will be presently mentioned, calls one of his cups " Chante- 
plure " in 1259 ; * whilst Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March, has 
a cup of gold with an acorn called '' Benesonne " and another of silver 
called " Wassail," at his death in 1380.+ John Halle, rector of Bus- 
cot, leaves to his friend and neighbour the vicar of Lechlade, a cup 
called " Cobbard " in 1400. The prior of Durham called one of the 
cups of his house "Beda" in 1446,1 whilst two others there were 
named " Herdewyke " and " Abell " respectively. 

A few words must be said both as to the term '' hanap," so often 
applied to cups of this description, and as to the mode of using them, 
before going into further detail as to their varying fashion. The 
Norman-French word " hanap," then, which has at last come to mean 
a basket for package, in fact a hamper, is derived from the Saxon htKBp^ 
a cup or goblet, and was applied in mediBBval days to standing cups 
with covers, but only as it would seem to cups of some size and import- 
ance. As drinking vessels grew up, with the increasing luxury of the 
times, from wooden bowls into the tall '* standing cups and covers" 
which is the proper description of the cups called hanaps, the use of 
the latter term became confined to such cups alone, and the place 
where such hanaps were kept was termed the hanaperium. 

This was necessarily a place of safe keeping and therefore a sort of 
Treasury. The hanaper accordingly was the safe place in the Chan- 
cery where the fees due for the sealing of patents and charters were 
deposited, and being received by the Clerk of the Hanaper (or clerk of 
the Chancery Treasury), the term hanaper office has continued to the 
present time. The hanaperium may originally have been a strong 
chest, and so the terms '^ hanaper" or ''hamper" may have been 
applied and continued, at last exclusively, to a chest-like basket with 
a lid, used for various purposes.§ 

A very few notes will show the importance of the hanap. A statute 
of 1285,11 speaking of the security for good conduct to be given by 
tavern-keepers, prescribes that an offender should be bound over by 
" 8oen hanap de la tavevne ou par altre bon gage.*' This was evidently 
his principal drinking vessel. Again, William Lord Latimer specially 
mentions " la grant hanaper d' argent endoere appelle Seint George" in 
his will dated 1881, and John of Gaunt in 1394 bequeaths '' moun 



* Tett, Ebor. I KaX. and Inv. of the Exchequer, Vol. III. 



t Tett, Vet. 

t Sortees Society, Vol II. 

§ 13 Hen. VII., hanaperium de twiggys. 



18 Edw. 1., Stat 5, Statata GiTitatis 
London\ 



CHAP. X.] 



Hanaps. 



285 



j9Zt« grant hanap d'or'' In both these cases the cup is one of price. 
Far later on, in 1670, it is found that " he which is mayor of London 
for the time shall have an hanap d'or or golden tanker at the corona- 
tion of every king." * 

Sometimes these grand cups were placed upon the table and at 
others were handed to the lord when he chose to drink. The Boke of 
Nurture, by Hugh Khodes, written in 1577, directs the server as 
follows : — " When he (the master) listeth to drinke and taketh of the 
cover, take the cover in thy hand and set it on agayne ; " and the 
Boke of Curtasye, circa 1480, another of these treatises, shall de- 
scribe in its own words the mode of serving wine at that still earlier 
period : 

**The kerver anon withoaten thought 
Unkovers the cup that he hase brought 
Into the couvertoure wyn he powres out 
Or into a spare peoe f withouten doute 
Assayes an gef es tho lorde to drynke 
Or seltes hit doun as hym goode thynke • . ." 

It further proceeds to say : 

^ Bothe wyne and ale he tase indede 
Tho botler says withouten drede 
No mete for mon schalle sayed be 
Bot for kynge or prynce or duke so f re . . ." 

This obliges us to note the constant fear of poison in which our 
ancestors lived, and their curious belief in the power of certain sub- 
stances to detect its presence. It has already been remarked that 
cups and salt-cellars in many cases had covers to prevent the intro- 
duction of poison ; but besides this, all meats and drinks were tasted 
or assayed by him who served them before they were partaken of by 
the lord, the books of etiquette prescribing the extent to which these 
precautions should be carried in serving at the tables of personages of 
various ranks. The most exalted had both meat and drink tested, 
those of lower station only their beverages. 

'' Cups of Assay " are not unfrequently found in the inventories of 
the great ; they are usually of small size. Henry Fitzroy, Duke of 
Bichmond, in 1527 had no less than four, graven with various devices 
in the bottom, such as a rose, a ring, or an eagle, and weighing from 
six to nine ounces each. Katherine Countess of Northumberland, in 
1542, has '' a cope of assey gilt with cresande sett on the bodome,'* 



* Calthrop's Reports, 1670, cited in 
Wright's Diet, of ObioUte and Provincial 
Englith, 

t Ptce, cuppe ; Peeiat crater, *' A pece 



of silTer or of metalle, a pyece of wyne 
cuppe " = crater. A cuppe, taase, hanap. — 
Prompt. Parv. It is of constant occurrence 
in old inyentories. 



2 86 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. X. 



and half a century later, in 1614, Henry Howard, Earl of Northamp- 
ton, has such a cup nine ounces in weight 

The cover, or a " spare pece " according to our rhyming authority, 
was Qsed instead of a special cup hy people of less consequence. A 
further precaution was sometimes adopted in making the cup itself of 
one or other of the substances alluded to above. Salts, as we have 
seen, and cups, as we shall also find, were formed of the horn of the 
narwhal, which did duty for that of the fabulous beast known as the 
unicorn, and was firmly believed to have the power of detecting poison.* 
Turquoises were supposed to turn of a paler blue, and certain crystals 
to become clouded, in the presence of poisons, and both were used in 
this faith for the decoration of cups. The well-known ** Poison cup " 
at Clare Coll., Cambridge, has such a crystal mounted in the centre 
of the lid. 

Turning now to standing cups as we find them, precedence must 
be given to those made of ostrich eggs and cocoa-nuts, mounted in 
silver, and having feet of the same metal. These were very popular 
in early times, and they are classed together because they are of 
similar size and shape, and their mounting is of the same character. 
Sometimes the cup itself was formed of silver or silver-gilt, shaped as 
an egg or nut, and in these cases it is difficult to say which of the two 
it is intended to represent. It has been suggested that the silver 
examples only occur when the earlier nut or egg has been broken, and 
the owner not being able to procure another has refilled the mount 
with a silver bowl or lining of similar shape ; but to set against this, 
it may be said that some of the silver linings are found of the same 
date and fashion as the feet and other mountings with which they 
are fitted. A notice of some of these cups will serve to show for how 
many centuries they held their ground. As early as 1269, a bishop of 
Durham bequeaths his '' cyphum de nuce Indyecum pede et apparatu 
argenti ; " and at the opposite end of the social scale, the inventory 
of a felon's goods in 1887 comprises amongst other things *' one cup 
called a note with foot and cover of silver value 809."t An indenture 
of the following year mentions " a nut on a foot and silver covercle " 



* Mr. F. W. FairlMlt, in his Descriptice 
Catalogue of the Landesborough Collection, 
speaking of a nef meDtioned in the inventory 
of Charles V. of France, which is said to 
hold *' his essay, his spoon, knife, and fork," 
alludes to essaying by the narwhal horn as 
follows: — **The essay was a piece of horn 
believed to be that of the unicorn, but really 
obtained from the narwhal ; and which was 
supposed to be an antidote to poison, and to 



detect its presence by becoming agitated 
when plunged in liquor containing it ; for 
which reason it was attached to a chain of 
gold for the greater convenience of dipping 
it in the cup, and it was the butler's duty to 
make trial or essay of the wine when pre- 
senting it to his lord.'* 

t ROey's Memorials of London and 
London Life, pp. 199, 208. 



CHAP. X.] Cocoa- Nut Cubs 287 

amongst jewels sold. In 1839 occur un oef de griffon as well as un 
pot d^une noite noyre and un com de griffon* 

In 1349 Henry Lord Percy dies possessed of '*' unam copam de nno 
gripe ; " t and a Treasury Inventory of 1899 (1 Henry IV.) contains 
the following item : '' j maser tour de nutte garnisez d'argent enorrez 
t cov'erc." Perhaps a cup of silver ''called the rocke," in the will of 
a Bristol merchant of 1669, was one formed of what was supposed by 
its owner to be a roc's egg. 

In the next two centuries they are often mentioned, as the following 
list, compiled from the volumes of the Surtees Society and other 
sources, may serve to show : 

1419. alias ciphas vocatus a grjpey ligatns cam argento et deaarato. — Will of Judge 

Gascoigne. — Test. Ebor. 

1420. nnam note argent! herneisiatam et deaaratam optimum cum coopertorio unum 

cipham vocatum Note cam cooperculo deaarato. — Will of John Fromond, 
Archl. Jour. XVI., 166. 

1428. j hanape dargent dorrez fait a la m de j notto poissant de trove iij lb. iiij unz q 

at le lb. xlviij*., viij li. — Treasury of the Ezcheqaer, Inv. 6 Henry VI. 

1429. a coupe made of gripes eye gamysshed wt siluer and ouer gilt with a fote 

and a couercle. — Will of Sir Gerard de Braybroke of Danbury, Knt. 
1431. unum nigrum nott coopertum et deauratum cum unft aquili in summitate 

cooperculi ; unum cbalescopp argenti et deaurati ad modum unius gripe egg 

cam scriptura in cooperculo. — Test: Ebor. 
1433. unum ciphum vocatum le nutt coopertum cum pede argenti stantem. — Idem. 
1444. iij Gripes eyes cov*ed garnysshed wt silver and gilt weyng yi lb. unc p*8 the 

unce ij«. vid, Sma ixli. idU, yid. ; also ij notes cov*ed gamysshed wt silver C 

gilt weyng xxiii unces ij«. yid, Sma. lvii«. yid, — Treasury of the Exchequer 

Inv. 22 Henry VI. 
1454. unam peciam vocatam Grypeg deaur*. — ^Test. Ebor. 
1459. meum optimum nutt, meum less nutt. — Idem. 
1476. j standyng blake nutte quae f uit matris meae. — Idem. 
1481. a standyng gilt nutt.— Will of Sir Thos. Lyttelton. Nichols* Test. Vet. 
1490. a cup of silver called the grype's egg. — Test. Ebor. 
1492. unum ciphum vocatum le nutte stantem argen* in toto cum coopertorio. — 

Idem. 
1 508. a notte paynted the coveryng silver and gilt. — Idem. 
1527. a gylt nut with fote bryme and rybbes of sylver and gilt ; a small nut with 

fote brimc and cover of sylver. — Inv. of Minster Priory in Sheppey. 
1535. a littell olde nut with a bonde of sylver and gilt and a littell bonde of sylver 

and gilt ; ij nutts with ij covers of sylver and gylt, and the said nuts 

gamysshed with silver and gilt, xxxiii nns. — Inv. of Maison-Dieu, Dover ; 

26 Henry VIII. 
1558. a nutt gilt with a cover. — Surtees Society, Wills and Inv. 
1570. one nutt double gilt weinge xxxv. ounces xili. xiii«. iiij<i.— Idem. 
1572. a nutt enclosed with silver and gilte of accorne woorcke and a cover gilte for 

the same. — Bristol Orphan Book. 
1677. my black not with the cover. — Wills and Inv. 
1596. one nutte of silver to drink in dwoble gilte with a cover. — Wills and Inv. 



* Kal. and Inv. of the Exch,, Vol. III. 

f Sortees Society Trans. —Test. Ebor. Gripe or Grypey^egg of the grype or griffin. 



28S Old English Plate. [chai-. x. 

These Dotes plainly indicate that just as a Bilver-gilt bowl shaped 
as a mazer wonld sometimes be called by that name, silver cope were 
called nuts or eggs if they were so formed, f Cnps of all three 
materials are extant. Cocoa-nut cape of the fifteenth centniy are 
to be seeD at Oriel and New 
Colleges, Oxford, the latter 
society owning two specimens. 
The great City Companies 
possess several ; the Vintners, 
the Armourers, and the Iron- 
mongers each have one, ^m 
the latter of which onr engrav- 
ing (No. 66) is taken. It gives 
a very good ides of the way 
in which they were generatly 
monnted at the beginning of 
the sixteenth centnry. The 
example at Vintners' Hall is 
very like this, and bears the 
hall-mark of 1518. Ostrich- 
egg cups are not so common, 
perhaps becsnse they were 
rather more easily broken. 
Exeter College, Oxford, pos- 
sesses an ^g-cop of the first 
years of the aevent«enth cen- 
tury (No. 67), and the Earl 
Howe another of earlier date ; 
all these were exhibited in the 
Loan Collection at South Ken- 
sington in 1862. 

There is a very ancient 
ostrich egg at Corpns Christi 
College, Cambridge, the his- 
tory of which can be traced to 
the fourteenth century. It 
was originally used for carrying about the Host, and being broken 
in the mastership of one Moptyd, or between 1563 and 1557, it is 
said to have been renewed at the expense of Richard Fletcher, when 
Bishop of Bristol (1589-92). This account of it, given by Masters 
in his history of the college, written late in the last century, is borne 
out by the hall-mark which is still legible on the mount, and fixes 



i. 1500), J 



CHAP, x.j Ostrich-Egg Cups. 289 

its date as of the year 1592. The cup, now mach broken, is held 
together by its very plain silver tripod mounting, the only ornament 
of which is a little Elizabethan engraving. 

The Eseter College cup is of 1610, and 
has a characteristic foot of that period with 
a stem formed as ostriches' legs ; the cover 
is snrmonnted by an ostrich standing on 
a plume of ostrich-feathers (No. 67). 

A third, somewhat more modem but 
an excellent and typical specimen never- 
theless, is the beautiful cpp in the collection 
of Mr. Henry Willett (No. 68). 

Its history is told by an inscription 
mnning round the top of the cup and on 
the flag borne by the figure surmounting 
the cover. The date of its presentation as 
engraved on the cup accords with the hall* 
mark, which gives the year 1623. 

The Earl of Ducie has a silver-gilt cup 
of ostrich-egg or cocoa-nut shape, mounted 
with vertical hinged bands to hold the 
bowl, which rests in a socket or frame 
supported by four dolphins placed on the 
top of a circular foot. This specimen, 
which is possibly unique, is of the year 
1584. 

Other drinking hanaps, no less ancient 
than the eggs, are formed of horns mounted 
in silver, as shown in the accompanying 
engraving (No. 69), of the Queen's College 
horn, now used as a loving cup. It is 
traditionally called focvXum caritatis, or 
loving cup, and is said to have been pre- 
sented to the college by Philippa, queen of 
Edward III., its founder in 1840 being her 
chaplain, Robert de Eglesfield. According 

to the statutes the members of the college (leio'), it"™!"/ omlm" 
were to be summoned together by the sound oxfobd, 
of bom ; possibly this was the horn origin- 
ally used for the purpose. It is formed of a buffalo-hom, and is 19J 
inches high, the horn itself being no less than 25 inches long. The 
cover with its eagle is of later work than the bonds of the horn. 



i English Plate. [csap. x 

A. similar horn (No. 70) is id 
the possession of Christ's Hos- 
pital, London. Either hecause 
horns as well as the other snb* 
stances preTiously mentioned were 
^apposed to have the property of 
revealing the presence of poison 
in any liqnor ponred into them, 
or for some better reason, they 
have been nsed as drinking vessels 
from early times. A drinking 
horn originally represented estates 
held by Comage or by the horn ; 
one of the most ancient being 
the Pnsey horn,* by which the 
family of the same name hold 
the village of Pasey in Berkshire. 
The gift of King Canute, it has 
gone with the estate &om time 
out of mind, and has been the 
subject of a Chancery soit in 
which it was held that the heirs 
were entitled to it if the land was 
held by comage. (Pnsey v. 
Pusey, 1 Vernon, 272.) The 
^ame great ecclesiastic who died 
possessed of a nnt in 1259, also 
had a diinking horn, which he 
left to his sister Agatha, describ- 
ing it aa " coma menm magnam 
ad bibendum cum apparatn ar- 
genti." Sir Brian de Stapleton 
in 1894 bad "j come esteannt 
Bur deux pees," which must have 
been very like our engraving ; 
whilst Chief Justice Oascoigne 
leaves a cup called " Unicom " to 
':. his son in 1419. Three quarters 
of a century later Sir Brian 

* Arekaologia, ui. 3. Ardceologia, xii. 



CHAP. X.] Drinking Horns. 291 

Bowcliffe mentions in his will " unum cornu ad bibendum garnesiatnm 
cnm argenbo et deaar'."* A fifth example may be given from the 
inventory of the Oaild of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Boston taken 
in 1534. " Itm a drynkynge home ornate with silv' and gilte in 
three p'tes of it wt ij feit of silv' and gilte wt a stone sett in silv' an 
gilte weyng in the whole xiiij nnc. di." 



Ku. ti9.— WIUAIL BUftK (l-lTH IWNt.), t3 QUBIUi'b CULUtOI, UXIOUU. 

This is of the same date or thereabonts as the horn engraved next. 

Of a little earlier period was a celebrated horn long preserved at 
Goldep Grove. An engraving of this (No. 71) was kindly placed at 
the author's disposal by His Grace the Duke of Beaufort. It had a 
foot of silver, ornamented with the royal supporters, the date of which 
is somewhere about 1485, and it is said to have been the first drinking 
vessel used by Henry, Earl of Bichmond, after landing in England in 



292 Old English Plate. [cbap. x. 

that year, and presented by him to David up Evan, son of Roderick 
the Great, who lived at Llwyndafydd in Llandisiliogogo, and there 
entertained the Earl and his men in his expedition against Richard 
m. This cap seems to have disappeared, and another horn with 
similar supporters, hnt of seventeenth -century work, at some time or 
other replacing the original relic, is now preserved at Golden Grove by 
the Earl of Cawdor, and is shown in its stead. An elephant's tnsk. 



carved with figures and mounted with silver of sixteenth-ceDtury work, 
is to be seen at the British Masenm. 

Lastly, we come to stan<ling caps made entirely of the precions 
metals themselves. These are not confined to any one century, and 
there are extant specimens to illustrate the work of successive genera- 
tions of goldsmiths for three hundred years. In speaking of the word 
bausp it appeared that such cups as these were in fashion as far back 
as records go. The earliest specimen, however, bearing a recognised 
English hall-mark, and therefore of an ascertained date, is no older 
than 1481 ; not but that there are a few still more ancient cops in 
existence. The enamelled cup at Lynn, for instance, is of the four- 
teenth century, a covered cup of beaker shape at Oriel College, Oxford, 
and one or two others at Cambridge are of the fourteenth and fifteenth 



CHAP, x.) Standing Cups. 293 

centuries, bat of none of them can it poBitively be said that they are 
of English make. Some notice must nevertheless be taken of them 
in passing. The Lynn cnp is one of the most interesting caps in 
existence; it has been known as "King John's cnp " for centnries, 
and is said to have been given to the town by that king. This can 
hardly be the case, as the costumes of the enamelled figures with 
which the bowl is covered are of the fourteenth century ; but it is of 
no less interest for this, being still the most remarkable specimen of 
the goldsmith's work of the period, ancient enough, to which it really 
belongs. It has been suggested that the King John was John of 
France, who may have 
visited King's Lynn with 
Edward III. and Queen 
Philippa on one of their 
progresses, and this is a 
suggestion which accords 
well with the workmanship 
of the cap. It is of silver 
gilt, 15 inches high, with 
a cover, and enriched, as 
we have said, with enamels, 
the bowl being divided into 
compartments by vertical 
ribs, in which figures ap- 
pear, male and female. 

The stem is very slender, [jo. 71.— the oawdok hobs (hbp. hsmht viij. 
and rises from a circular 

foot. It was eshibited at South Kensington in 1662, and had 
before that been engraved in Examples of Art WorkmanBhip. 
The curious cup at Christ's CoUege, called the Foundress' cup, 
is of fifteenth-century work (No. 72). Its diagonal bands, orna- 
mented wiUi running foliage in repousse, and the Gothic cresting 
which surrounds the cover and the base, might be of the second 
half of that century, or even a little later, but the arms en- 
amelled on the boss within the cup are those of Humphrey, Duke 
of Gloucester, impaled with Cobham of Sterborough, and this impale- 
ment, being the distinctive coat of Duke Humphrey's second wife 
Eleanor Cobham according to the heraldry of that day, would point to 
1440, or a year or two earlier, as the true date of the cup. The arms 
long passed for those of Countess Margaret ; and the cup itself Is 
supposed to have come into the possession of the College at her death 
in 1500, along with a beaker or stoup and her salt cellars. The 



294 Old English Plate. (chai-. x. 

beaker, or Btoap at Oriel Coll., Oxford, of which an engraving" (No. 
73) is given, ie another very ancient cop, but, like the Lynn cup, not 
of the date that tradition wonld assign to it. The letters and Lan- 
castrian badges seem to refer to Prince Edward, son of Henry VI. ; 
bat at any rate the cnp is nearly a centniy and a half later than the 
reign of Edward II., whose 
gift to the College it was 
formerly supposed to be. It 
much resembles the stoup 
given to Chi-ist's College, 
Cambridge, by its foundress 
Margaret, Conntess of Rich- 
mond. This at Oriel College 
is probably of Paris make 
and of the year 1462, whilst 
the Cambridge one is cer- 
tainly English and only a 
little later in date — 1507 
(No. 74). The daisy, the 
Todor rose, and the port- 
cnllis forming the letter M, 
are all emblematic of the 
Countess' name and family, 
juat as the ornamentation 
of the Oriel beaker indi- 
cates the Lancastrian prince, 
who no doubt once owned it. 
The "Leigh" cup of the 
Mercers' Company (No. 75) 
is the second earliest of the 
hanaps known to be hall- 
marked, the Anathema cup 
being the first. It is of 
the year 1499, and notwith- 
standing some small altera- 
tion and repair, is a beaatiful 
specimen of goldsmiths' 
work. It ia silver gilt, sixteen inches high and six and a half inches 
in diameter. The pierced band of Gothic tracery with a cresting of 



r I Ai 



to the Caandl of the Bot^I 
ArchKoIogiul liutitnte. 



Stanaing Cups. 



Tndor flowers is repeated around the cover, and in the lozenge-shaped 
panels, into which the bowl of the cnp is divided by the intersection 
of corded bands, are maidens' busts and flagons alternately, the former 



296 Old English Plate, [chap. x. 

much like the basts on the sides of the Mercers' Company beakers, 
sn engraving of which will be given later. A demi-virgin gnlea 
within an orle of cionds, formB the coat-of-arms borne by this 
Worshipful Company ; and this is farther alluded to by the figure 
of a pure virgin with a unicorn reposing in her lap, which sarmountB 
the cover of the cup. The coats-of-armB aroaud the knop, and the 
lettered bonds, are in 
enamel. 

The cup next to be 
noticed is of the Bame or 
possibly even of a little 
earlier date than the last. 
It is the beautifal " Rich- 
mond" cup of the Ar- 
mourers' Company, so 
called because presented 
in 1657 by one John Rich- 
mond (No. 76). It is 
thirteen inches high, and 
weighs fifty-one ounces. 
Its style speaks for itself, 
and recalls the simple bat 
elegant make of the hoar- 
glass salts of about the 
same date. The bowl is 
not nnlike that of the 
Leigh cup in shape, though 
the real outline of the latter 
is somewhat hidden by the 
ornaments ; they both re- 
semble in this respect a cup 
of 1511, ased as a chalice 
at Chewton Mendip, and 
Ko. 74.-B.1M.I (1507) AT oHaiBr-8 collm.. ^^^ Anathema cup.atPem- 
aiHBsiDai. broke College, Cambridge, 

which is of the year 1481. 
We now come to a typical specimen of Elizabethan art in the tall 
cup (No. 77), given by Archbishop Parker to Corpus College, Gam- 
bridge. Not the less English becanse it reminds ns of the fine Datch 
and German hanaps of the same period, it is one of the finest of its 
class. Dutch and English ornaments were wonderfully alike at this 
time. As characteristic is the "Chapman" cop of the Armourers' 



Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

Company (No. 78). The 
gift of one Edmond Chap- 
man in 1561, its hall-mark 
corresponds with its his- 
tory, whilst the egg-and- 
tongne motUding and the 
bands of engraven foHage 
identify the cnpat a glance 
as of the reign of Qneen 
Elizabeth. A statuette 
probably once sur- 
mounted the cover, which 
was added to the cnp iu 
1610; but this has been 
broken off. The belt of 
foliage around the npptr 
part of the cap is just 
what is fonnd upon the 
communion cups of this 
period. 

Before passing to the 
seventeenth century a 
few words mast be said 
of cups of exceptional 
form or material. Ivory 
standing cups are some- 
times fonnd, and of these 
- the best known example 
is the celebrated cup 
called Thomas a Bec- 
ket's,* long at Corby 
Castle. This is a very 
ancient ivory cup bearing 
the initials TB and a 
mitre, from which it has 
been supposed that it 
may have belonged to the 
saint and archbishop him- 
self; bat although very 
old, it can hardly be re- 

a Hij QraM the Dake of Iforfolk. 



CHAP, s.] Standing Cups. 299 

ferred to m early a date as the twelfth century, and the mount- 
ing is of the reign of Henry VIII. Ihe date-letter on the mount, 
which is all of the same style, is the 
Lombardic H of 1625, the date properly 
assigned to it many years ago by Mr. 
Octavins Morgan. The interesting his- 
tory of the cap, which was given hy Sir 
Edward Howard, Lord High Admiral, 
to Qneen Katharine of Arragnn, and 
afterwards reverted to the Earl of Arun- 
del, points to the date at which it was 
mounted in its present fashion, and coin- 
cides happily nith the hall-mark. The 
style of the belt, which bears in Tador 
characters the inscription visum . tvtm . 
BiBE . cvH . o&vDio, aud the groundwork 
of the letters, which also carries the 
hall-mark, closely corresponds with the 
inscribed bands on the chalice at Trinity 
College, Oxford, and the Narford mazer, 
which are of the years 1527 and 1532 
respectively. It probably belonged to 
some fifteenth century bishop, perhaps 
to that great prelate Thomas Boorchier, 
Archbi^op of Canterbury, 1464 to 1480, 
and a Cardinal. 

Early in the reign of Elizabeth, cups 
are found fashioned as gourds or melons, 
with feet formed as their twisted stems 
and tendrils. The Armourers' Company 
and the Honourable Society of the Inner 
Temple each have one, the former i>r 
the year 1585, the latter dated 1563. 
Cups, too, shaped as birds and other 
animals, their heads taking off to form 
them into drinking vessels, sometimes 

occur. The set of fine large cups formed No. 77.— stakdhio cup (168B), a* 
as cocks, and called the "Cockayne" m«^* obeimi ooi-ieok. oax- 

cupB of the Skinners' Company, are the 

beat known examples of these. They were made in 1605. The 
pea-ben cup of the same Guild is as characteristic as the Cockayne 
cups ; the engraving of it (No. 79), conveys a good idea of this 



30O I Old English Plate. [cbap. x. 

class of cup geuerally. It was 
presented by the widow of one 
Peacock. In both these cases 
the name of the donor has of 
course anggeBted the design for 
the cup. 

In Germany drinking cups 
often took these and other 
quaint shapes, such as wind- 
milis, at about this time, and 
until the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. The windmills 
seem always of foreign oiigin, 
but another favourite cup is 
found of EDglieb make as well 
as German. These are the 
well-known ones, sometimes 
called " wager cups," in the 
form of a woman, holding a 
smaller cup over her head with 
up-stretched arms. A veiy 
beautiful seventeenth century 
cup of this kind is amongst 
the plate of the Vintners' Com- 
pany, an engraving of which 
is giTen (No. 80). It is not 
quite certain whether it is of 
English or foreign workmen- 
ship. They are all Tery much 
alike. 

A little later another very 
distinctive fashion prevailed. 
The " Edmonds " cap of the 
Carpenters' Company is aa 
admirable illustration of it 
(No. 81). This is one of 
a set of four such cups, in 
the possession of the company, 
jjuDoir. given by the wardens whose 

names they bear. The foot 
resembles those of earlier cups, bat the stem is different, being 
formed aa acanthas or other lea'ves, the apper part of it baluster* 



Standing Cups. 



shaped. It forms a link between the Elizabethaa and the plain 
baluster stems which *re so often found in the seventeenth centary. 
The bowl is as characteristic of its period as the stena, the pointed 



302 Old English Plate. [cHAr. r. 

Bhape being general for a time ; and the covere of all these cupa are 
snrmoDnted by three brackets bearing a triangular spire of pierced 
nork ending in a spear- 
bead as shown in the 
engraving. This " Ed- 
monds" cup was giTen 
in 1618, and was made 
that same year: the 
otherB are of 1609, 
1611 and 1628. Mag- 
nificent cups of this 
period and fashion are 
in use as chalices at 
Odcombe, co. Somer- 
set, at Bodmin in Corn- 
wall, and several other 
places. In a few in- 
stances the ]iyramid is 
surmounted by a statu- 
ette, man with long 
spear and shield or 
other such fignre, in- 
stead of ending in a 
point. 

The Armonrers' 
Company have tvo 
very simitar caps, 
called the "Leycroft" 
and the " Foster " onp, 
the former of 1608, 
and the latter of 1631; 
and the Trinity House 
other two of the years 
1611 and 1«27 respec- 
tively. These dates 
serve to plainly mark 
No. 80.— DocBLB CUP (i7tB ciktbht), *i TiHTKiw' the iuteFval Within 
HiLL, LowDon. which these cups re- 

mained in full vogue. 
The covers in each of these instances are surmounted by open-work 
pyramidal spires, those at the Trinity House being supported by 



CHAP, x.] Standing < 

A cup of this fashion, gilt, and 
weighing 46 oz., was sold at Christie 
and MatiBon's Rooms in June, 1875, 
for J:200, or about four and a half 
guineas an ounce. 

A specimen of 1639, now bereft 
of ita spire, is to be seen in the 
TreaBUty of the Czar at Moscow ; 
and a stray example of as late a 
date as 1616, called the " Rawlin- 
son " cup, is at Vintners' Hall. 
This is the very last known to the 
writer. 

To these succeeded a much less 
artistic form of cup, which held its 
own, however, much longer, being 
found from about 1C81 to 1694, the 
dates of the earliest and latest of 
them that have been noted. The 
example of 16S1 is at Haberdashers' 
Hall. Queen's College, Cambridge, 
has one of 1636. 

The engraving (No. 62) is taken 
from one of the year 1655, which 
was once the property of the Black- 
smiths' Company, but found its way 
into the Bemal Collection and thence 
to Mr. Dester. At the Dexter sale 
it passed to Messrs. Hancocks for 
no less a sum tbau £378, and from 
them into the fine collection of Sir 
F. A. MilLank. 

It is about twelve inches high, 
and stands on a large circular foot. 
Its stem is of somewhat exceptional 
form, being a figure of Vulcan. 
In the general run of the examples 
known of this pattern of cup the 
stems are plain balusters. The 
bowls of a great many of them are 
covered with granulated ornament, 
as shown in the engraving, or 



Old English Plate. 



t (1S55}. 



sometimes sbow a matted surface, and are of tlie same shape, whilst a 
few are chased with a band of upright acanthas foliage round the 
lower part. 

Most of the City Companies, the Trinity Honse, and the Inns of 



CHAP. X.] Standing Cups, 305 

Court are supplied with one or more of these fayourite loving cups, 
which were made in great numbers for more than half a century. 

It is not to be supposed, however, that there was no demand for 
a more decorated style of cup, especially in the festive reign of 
Charles 11. Cups of the greatest magnificence are found of that 
period, of which two examples may be given to show what the 
Caroline goldsmith could accomplish. 

The " Royal Oak *' grace cup (No. 83) was presented by the merry 
monarch to the Barber-Surgeons* Company in 1676. It is 16f inches 
high, including the cover, and is formed as an oak-tree, the bowl being 
supported by the trunk and branches. It is profusely ornamented 
with chased leaves and garlands, and has an arched royal crown as a 
cover. 

The other example is the cup (No. 84) given by Samuel Pepys to 
the Clothworkers' Company. It is of about the same date as the last, 
1677, but of greater size, being 28 inches high, and 166 ounces in 
weight. 

Its general shape is much like that of the plainer loving cups on 
baluster-stems which have already been described ; but in this case 
the plain bowl is surrounded by a removable silver casing of pierced 
flowers and scrolls of very elaborate and beautiful work, and the foot 
and baluster-stem are ornamented in a similar manner. 

This may bring us to the eighteenth century, and the simple but 
massive two-handled cups with covers that mark the reigns of Queen 
Anne and the earlier part of the Georgian period. 

These seem to have been the only cups made for a long time, and 
they are of every size and degree of finish, from those of simplest 
workmanship up to the beautiful specimen by the master hand of 
Paul Lamerie, from which our illustration (No. 85) of the class is 
taken, by permission of the Goldsmiths' Company. 

It is one of the best possible examples of a well-known form of cup, 
of the decoration of the period, and of the work of this celebrated 
artist, who flourished from 1712, when he entered into business, till 
his death in the summer of 1751. It may be remarked that his fame 
was fairly and honourably earned by the personal attention he seems to 
have devoted to his art throughout his whole career. Much of the 
beautiful work which bears his mark must have been executed by his 
own hand, for it appears from his will, which, dated in May and 
proved in August, 1751, gives us the period of his death within a few 
weeks, that he kept only two journeymen, to one of whom, Samuel 
Collins, he entrusted the duty of preparing his unfinished plate for 
sale by auction for the benefit of his widow and three daughters. 



1 HILL, LOKIKIV. 



3o8 Old English Plate. [ch*p. x. 

That he had no son accoantB for the diBappearance of the name from 
the books of the Goldsmiths' Company. He was of French extraction, 
as his name and the names of the personal friends who were his 
execntora sufficiently denote. He worked under the name of Lamerie, 
but Qsed the prefix " de " in signin|r hia last will. 

No special forms or fashions can be identified with any particular 
period from the middle of the last century onwards, if we except the 



AND COVIH (1739), BI I 

oval-pointed cups, sometimes fluted, but more often ornamented with 
hanging festoons sometimes carried over medallions, which are also 
found on Wedgwood ware of the time of Flaxman. The potters and 
the goldsmiths have often copied each other's designs, or else have 
resorted to the same designers ; and as in the reign of William IH. 
Staffordshire ware made by the well-known John Philip Elers, from 
1690 onwards, reproduced the Chinese ornament patronised by the 
goldsmiths a decade earlier, so now Flaxman and his school inflaenced 
the goldsmiths' work of the day almost as much as the ornamentation 
of ceramic ware, with which his name is more popularly associated. 



CHAP. K.] Two-handled Standing Cups. 309 

The Wedgwood ware, for whicb Flasman for many years fumiahed 
models, won extraordinary fame. It is not bo generally known that 
the same great artist was employed also by Rondell and Bridge, the 
crown goldsmiths, notwithstanding the fine examples executed by 
them after his designs that are at Windsor Castle and other places. 



No. 86.— oup (17S5), it 

No better illustration of the style could be found than the vase- 
like cup which has been selected for our engraving (No. 86). It is 
one of a pair made in the year 1795, and is the property of the 
Merchant Taylors' Company, by whose permission it has been 
engraved. 

It is generally admitted that the goldsmiths of the nineteenth 
century in England are not behind those of days gone by, and have of 



3IO 



Old English Plate. 



[chap. 



late years even outstripped their continental brethren in an art which 
is capable of so much. 



TANKARDS. 

The use of the word '' tankard," in its now familiar sense of a large 
silver drinking vessel with a cover and handle, is of comparatively 
modern introduction. No article of plate is called by this name in 
any of the volumes of wills and inventories published by the Surtees 
Society, which carry us down to the year 1600. The word seems to first 
occur in this sense about 1575, and from that time is constantly 
applied to the vessels that have ever since been known as tankards. 
In earlier days it was used for the wooden tubs bound with iron, and 
containing some three gallons, in which water was carried. The men 
who fetched water from the conduits in London were called '' tankard- 
bearers," and in a Coroner s Roll of 1276, for the ward of Castle Bay- 
nard, tankards are mentioned as the vessels they bore. This roll sets 
forth that one Grene, a water-carrier, who had come to St. Paul's 
Wharf, " cu quodam tancardo," intending to take up water with it, 
entered a boat there and after filling the tankard attempted to place it 
on the wharf, but the weight of the water in the tankard making the 
boat move away as he was standing on its board, he fell into the water 
between the boat and the wharf, and was drowned, as the coroner found, 
by misadventure.* 

Again in 1887, the keepers of the conduits received a sum of money 
for rents for ^' tynes and tankards," thereat ; and in 1850 a house is 
hired for one year at 10«. to put the tankards — Uz tanqers — in, and 
two irons costing 2^. 6d. were bought for stamping them.t 

Similar utensils are found in farming accounts of the same 
period. In 1294 at Framlingham, co. Suffolk, the binding with iron 
of thirteen tankards costs 8«., and six years later, a three-gallon iron- 
bound tankard is priced in Cambridge at Is, At Leatherhead a two- 
gallon tankard is valued at 2d. in 1888, and two such vessels at Elham 
together cost 4d. in 1864.1 

All this time tankards are mentioned in no other connection ; but 
when we come to the sixteenth century, a notice of " lether " tankards 
occurs. This is in a church account of 1567, and they were no doubt 
used as fire-buckets. A churchwardens' inventory of the same period 
(1566) speaks of a *' penny tanckerd of wood used as a holy-water 



* Coroner's Roll, 17 June, 4 Edw. I. — 
Biley^B Memorials of London and London 
Life, p. 6. 

t Riley's Memorial, &c., pp. 201, 265. 



J Prof. Rogers' History of AgrieuUurt 
and Prices in England^ Vol. II., pp. 677, 
568, 571, 573. 



CHAP. Jt.] Tankards. 31 [ 

stosk." ETen later than this, taDkards appear in hoasehold accounts 
classed with other kitcheo goods, for afi inTentory of the chattels of 
one Edward Waring, Esq., of Lea, taken in 1625, inclodeB "two 
tankerds and one payle," certainly not amongst his plate. Sometime 
before this, however, the term was occasionally applied to sihar Tessels. 



Mo. S7.— .TUiKAXu (16H), II 

The will of Sir George Heron of Harbottell, proved at Dnrham in 
1576 or thereaboatB, mentions his "three silver tanckards" valned 
at viZi. ; and in a Norwich will of 1583, there is an entry of " one 
Canne or Tanckerd of sylver." In the inventory of the plate of Dr. 
Feme, Master of Feterhonse, Cambridge, which is of the year 1589, 
occnr the following articles* ; — 



* Camb. Udit, Begutry. Dravet 13. Eiudl; commnnicated b; A. F, Hamphrj, Esq. 



312 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

These are some of the earliest iDstsnces of a then new application of 
the word, which soon not only became common, bat entirely super- 
seded the old. 

It WSB, after all, not very nnnatural to transfer a word originally 
used for a capacious water-tab to a drinking vessel that was also large 
of its kind, and it is difficolt to nnderetand why etymologists sboold 



No. SS.^THI IVISOM TADClHIi (clHCA 15S5), AT CLASS OOLUOK, CUIBBIMI. 

have taken so mnch trouble, as they have, to find fanciful derivations 
for it. Dnchat and Thomson would both derive " tankard" from tin- 
quart, and Dr. Thomas Hensbaw from the twang or aonnd the lid 
makes on shutting it down ; but, after all, if tank is derived, as it 
sorely is, from the French estang, a pond or pool, it is not necessary 
to go further for a derivation of the name of a vessel which was origi- 
nally intended to hold water than to connect it with tank, and derive 
it from the same source. Johnson's Dictionary describes it as " a 
large vessel for strong drink," and cites Ben Jonson : " Hath his 
tankard touched your brain ? " 



tmr. X.] Tankards. 313 

One of the earliest extant specimens of what we shonld now call s 
tankard is preserved at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (see page 
2'20). It is of the year 1571, and is elaborately ornamented with 
arabesqae bands of repousse and engraved work. Cains College, 
Cambridge, has one of 1570. Both this and the tankard at Corpus 
Christi College, were 
given by Archbishop Par- 
ker, who also gave one 
to Trinity Hall, which 
ia of 1577. The Ashmo- 
lean Museum at Oxford 
has a beantifnl example 
of 1574 (No. 87). A 
little later comes a good 
example of 1602 now 
used as a communion 
flagon at Heddingtou, 
Wilts. It is very like 
the Asbmoleaa Tankard. 
These are all of moderate 
size, not more than six 
or seven inches high, and 
the Oxford example tapers 
a good deal from the 
bottom upwards. 

The " Poison Cap " 
at Clare College, Cam- 
bridge (No. 88), which 
has already been men- 
tioned in another connec- 
tion, is a glass tankard 

enclosed in silver filigree mo. 89.— liUKABD (iei8), m thb posbiswok of thb 
casing of about the same coBpoHirion of korwioh. 

date as the last. 

The earliest straightsided upright tankard-flagon is one of 1572 at 
Teffont Ewyas, Wilts. It is of smaller size than later flagone of this 
pattern, and has the rayed-hutton knop on the cover, instead of the 
rounded dome. 

To these sacceed the taller, upright, and straightsided tankards, 
often beautifully ornamented, that are found in the reigns of James I. 
and Charles I, One of these, belonging to the Corporation of Norwich, 
and made in the year 1618, is given above (No. 89). The drum is 



3^4 Old English Plate. [chac. x. 

repoaBse, ornameDted with etrapwork, fonuiiig diamond divifiioDa, 
which are filled with flowers and fruit, and with medallionB bearing 
the nsual maiine monaterB of the period. This is Btrikingly like a 
fiagon of the ;ear 1619, which has been referred to before, at 

KensiDgton parith 
charch. A pair of 
similar fashion and 
of the same date 
are at Bodmin 
Church, and an- 
other pair, perhaps 
more elaborate, are 
amongst the valu- 
able possessions of 
the Corporation of 
Briatol. These last 
are of 1684 (No. 
90). 

Later tankards 
are plainer, and are 
of constant occar- 
rence. Seventeenth- 
century inventories 
frequently mention 
them, and plenty of 
specimens are still 
in existence. 

A splendid pair, 
from one of which 
our engraving (No. 
91} is taken, came 
into the possession 
of the Merchant 
Taylors' Company 

Ng. 90.-rANs*i;i. (1634). tbi PHo«KTr of tab com- '" London, on the 
poHiTioH ar BMiaioL. dissolution of a 

Dublin Guild some 
years ago, and they show round the lower part of the drum the 
acanthus-leaf ornament which is so characteristic of the time at which 
they were made. They bear the Dublin hall-marks for 1680. A note 
as to prices may not be inappropriate. From an early accoant-book 
of the Clockmakera' Company it may be quoted that a pair of 



CHAP. X.] 



Tankards. 



315 



tankards, ordered to be bought at about this time, and weighing 
together 100 oz., cost £81 19a. 5t£. 

These domestic tankards of the second half of this century are very 
plain, often of great diameter in proportion to their depth, and have 
flat lids and very massive handles, the lower part of the latter often 
being notched to form them into whistles. They came in at the 




No. 91. — IRISH TANKARDS (1680), AT MKROdANT TAYLORS* HALL, LOUDON. 

Restoration, and are found till about 1710 or 1720, when a pot with 
swelling drum and dome-shaped lid, with or without a knob, was 
introduced, of a fashion so well known at the present day, both in 
silver and pewter, that it is unnecessary to describe it more fully. The 
tankards of the last century, are perhaps as often without lids as with 
them, and examples of the more usual shapes in pewter may be seen 
in every tavern. 

It has already been remarked that the so-called flagons used ordi- 
narily in English churches are, properly speaking, tankards, and the 
origin of the application of the word flagon to them has been explained 
in the previous chapter. 

Tankards of the tall, highly ornamented kind will be found in the 



3i6 OM E7iglisk Plate. [chat. x. 

chronologic&l list at the years 1618, 1619, 1634, a plain one of the 
same shape at 1634 ; and the ordinary flat-lidded tankard at 1664, 
1666, 1669, and onwards. 

SMALLER CUPS. 



Side by side with the standing cups, which were often more fitted 
for decorating the " cup-board " than for use except on state ocoaaioDS, 
and bearing the same relation to 
them that the trencher-salt did to 
the standing salt-cellar, are fonnd & 
number of smaller cups and basins 
adapted for every-day requirements. 
A short chronological notice of their 
forms will perhaps be of more prac- 
tical use to the collector than the 
preceding section ; for whilst stand- 
ing cups are seldom for sale, and 
when they are, command prices that 
are beyond the reach of any but the 
very wealthy, good specimens of 
smaller drinking cups are more easy 
of acquisition. 

Tazze. — Very elegant cups, 
usually on baluster-stems and with 
bowls shaped like the low open 
champagne glasses of nineteenth- 
Hi'. B2.— TAzzi (1633), tBUH Tiu oCTA- ceutuij use, are found from about 
viirs MoBour coilictiom. 1570 till the outbreak of the Civil 

War in the reign of Charles I. 
Specimens of these are much prized by the collector, and they are by 
no means common, though the Armourers' Company are fortunate 
enoagh to possess a number of them. Their bowls are often punched 
all over with small bosses in rings or other patterns from the out- 
side, decreasing in size towards the centre and somewhat resembling 
the designs now produced by engine-tui-ning. This was possibly in 
imitation of the Venetian glasses which were much used for drink 
at this period by those who could afTord them. One of 1S99, the 
property of Mr. Octavius Morgan, is so ornamented ; and seTeral of 
the Armourers' Company cups are similarly treated. 

Others have plain bowls, or have a simple band of ornament ronnd 



CHAP. X.] Smaller Cups. 3 1 7 

the rims, snch as ma; be observed in the case of the beautiful example 
of which a woodcut is givea (No. 92). This is of the year 1633. Very 
many Scottish communion cups are of this, and the V-ehaped or wine* 
glasB pattern cups Bhortly to be mentioned. A Urge number of these 
are found all over Scotland from about 1615 to 1650. 

Sauceks. — Ornamented uBually with punched patterns are found 
several shallow trays or saucerB, like the bowls of the tazze of which 
we have been speaking, deprived of their stems and feet. These occur 



(OIBOA 1S32) DSBD U AN ALMS-DISK AT BKIDOAB, KIKI. 

from 1630 to 1655 at latest. Sometimes they have small flat handles 
formed as escallop shells, or else scroll handles of wire. Several in 
use as patens at village churches have been already mentioned. These 
small trays were all uo doubt originally intended to hold sweetmeats 
or trinkets. The illustration is of one used as a paten at Bredgar in 
Kent (No. 93). 

Tasters are the small shallow circular bowls with a flat handle that 
are sometimes called bleeding-basins, but incorrectly, the latter being 
a different class of vessel, sometimes found in nests. They are con- 
stantly mentioned in the plate-lists of Elizabethan days, but rarely 
earlier than 1670, nor more than a single one in each list. 

Item a white taster ziij onncs, iij quarters, iij li ., tJ a., ti d. 

Item a whit« taster with a carer liiij ouncs and one quarter, iij li., viii b, 

Idv. of Dr. Fenie, Master ot Peteihouse, Cambiidgej 1689, 



3 1 8 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

A silver bowl called U Ta%UT\% mentioned in a Bristol will of 1403, 
and in another of 1645 a '' taster of silver waing by estymacion vi. 
ounces " occnrs. Half-way between these dates *' a taster with a cover " 
is included in an inventory of 1487,^ but this was in all probability a 
cup of assay. The ordinary tasters weighed about three ounces, and 
were valued at about ten or twelve shillings. The extant specimens 
are mostly of the middle or end of the seventeenth century. Bleeding- 
basins of the first years of the eighteenth century about 4^ inches in 
diameter, and having a single flat pierced handle, are not uncommon. 
They are found of pewter as well as of silver. 

Beakers. — These come next in order, occurring first at the very 
beginning of the seventeenth century ; a few may be found of earlier 
but not much earlier date, though their names occur long before in 
inventories. In England, at all events, they are more often seen in 
the cabinet of the collector than amongst the ancient treasures of 
great people or great corporations, a fact which must be left to explain 
itself as best it can. Early foreign examples are more common. 
They are usually Dutch, or from the north of Europe. 

Dr. Johnson derived the word from hcdk^ and defined the beaker as 
a cup with a spout in form of a bird*s beak, an opinion shared also by 
Skinner. Other authorities content themselves with saying that it 
was a kind of vessel probably derived from Flanders or Germany, 
without fixing its shape ; and Forby would trace it to the Saxon &ece, 
ordinary drinking vessels being made of beech-wood. 

The learned de Laborde connects the English word hyker with the 
French huket ; giving for authority the cases in which the latter is 
used for a holy-water bucket, and for a large cup of silver with cover, 
enamelled in the bottom. The vessels commonly called beakers are 
plain upright drinking cups, widening at the mouth and without spout 
or handle, somewhat resembling the tall glass tumblers used in modem 
times for soda-water and the like. The engraving is taken from those 
of the Mercers* Company, dated 1604 (No. 94). A beaker of 1609, 
with belts and flower-scrolls engraved round the top, is used as a 
communion cup at Armathwaite, in Cumberland; and another of 
1598 is at Llanfyllin, N. Wales. In Scotland they seem quite a 
favourite form of communion cup in the seventeenth century. 

1346. ciphum meum biker argenti. Will of a canon of York. — ^Test. Ebor. 

1348. Bikers, cups intended for ladies, see Beltz, Memorials of tlie Order of the 

OaHer, p. 385. 
1379. un hanap tour de hekcr. 



* Inv. of Robert Morton, gent., 3 Henry VII., Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 30,064, Arch, Jour. 
XXXIII. 321. 



CHIP. X.] Caitdle-Cups and Porringers. 319 

1399. two bikera of silver gilt, 29} at., one other biker ^It, 18 oz. (amoi^cat the itock 

o£ R jeweller'a shop in Cheapsirle).* 
144fi. vi bikkez liivergflruni sectArum, It" xiij bikkca cam ij coopercnlis, It" xij 

bik'kei aotiqaa. — Inr. of Durham Priorj. 
1582. a sjlTcr becker— Rich, Wills, 
1601, 1605. Plain gilt beaken, each ornamented with three maidenB' heads on the 

sides (nee enslaving No. 94). — Mercers' Company. 
162i>. one white beaker. — Idv. of Edward Waring- of Lea, Esq. 

V-SHAPED COPS on baluater-stemH 
were veiy common from about 1600 
to 1630, and caps on balnBter-stems 
but with more conical bowls for about 
thirty years more. These last are very 
like the ordinary wine-glaases of the 
present diiy, but are somewhat larger. 
Communion cups, especiitUy in Scot- 
land, as well as secular drinking cups, 
are often found of this shape. Examples 
in silver and pewter have been given 
in the chapter npon ecclesiastical plate, 
pp. 20i), 212. 

With these may be classed the very 
small hexagonal or octagonal grace- 
cups ou high stems that are found in 

the reign of James I. These are quite 

,.",,,, . , o . Nu. 94.— BBiica (16041, it hkk. 

peculiar to that period. Specimens ^^^ hill, lomdok. 

are preserved at Christ's Hospital, 

and by the Armourers' Company. They seem to occur in sets of 
three. 

Caodle-cups and PoRftiKoERs. — Tbeso two classes of vessels, the 
fonner of which were often called " posset " cups or " posnete," include 
all the two-handled cups with covers and sometimes also trays or 
stands, that wei-e so commonly nsed in the seventeenth and the earlier 
part of the following century. 

The former are somewhat pear-shaped, swelling into larger bowls at 
the base, and were nsed for drinking posset, which was milk curdled 
with wine and other additions, like our own white-wine-whey and 
treacle -possets. The curd floated above the liquor, and, rising into 
the narrow part of the cup, could be easily removed, leaving the clear 
flnid at the bottom. Their fashion differs with their date. 



320 Old English Plate. [lhap. x. 

A vell-kDown pattern in the middle years of the seventeeDtb centary, 

IB shown in the engraving (No. 95]. This ie one of three such cups 

at Cloth workers' Hall. It affords a rather late example of a fashion 

of wreath, formed of leaves and berries like myrtle or bay, which was 

very common about 1635. It is found ti'om 1630 to 1664, but is very 

seldom seen either earlier or later. Lincoln's Inn also possesses 

some, and there are many at Oxford, where they are used in college 

halls as beer-cups. A very fine and extremely early caudle-cup of 

1616 is at Mercers' Hall. In the gayer times of the merry monarch, 

they are of more elaborate 

design; manyareomamented 

very boldly with fiowers and 

monsters in repousse work. 

A beautiful example, of the 

year 1C70, is engraved (No. 

96), by the kind permission 

of Earl Bathurst. This cup 

was stolen a year or two ago, 

and has unfortunately not 

yet been recovered. 

Porringers, ou the other 
hand, were wider- mouthed 
bowls, but with covers and 

„ „, ,,„,-, „„,„. handles like the last. Their 

UALL, LONDOH. lesB flowiDg shapc necessi- 

tated a somewhat different 
style of treatment in the way of decoration ; aud they are sometimes 
found, in the middle of the century, octagonal or even twelve-sided, 
vritbout any ornament. 

From about 1665 to 1685, they are often decorated with flat appliqae 
leaves round the bottom of the bowl and the knop of the cover. These 
thin plates of metal, cut into various shapes and applied to the surface, 
have been called by Mr. Octavius Morgan " cut-card " work, for want 
of a better name, and it has been somewhat generally adopted. The 
engraving is of a very good specimen exhibited in the Loan Collection 
of 1862 by the late Paul Butler, Esq. (No. 97). The cover is furnished 
with three small projecting handles that form feet if the cover is used 
as a tray or saucer for the cup, for which, as well as for a cover, it is 
adapted. A fine cup of this fashion made in 1671 is at Wadham 
College, Oxford. 

Some bowls are decorated with the upright acanthus leaf as found 
on the great tankards of the Merchant Taylors' Company in 1680, 



CHAP. X] Cauale-Cups and Porringers. 321 

of which an engraving has been giveu, No. 91. This acanthus 
ornament was mncb in vogue for a short time, say from 1(>75 to 
1685. 

Another well-known but as short-lived style of decoration covered 
everything with Chinese figures in engraved work (for which see 
woodcut, No. 104). The mania for (Jhlnese porcelain which prevailed 
for a few years in the reign of William III., and aO'ected even the 
queen herself, has been immortalised by the eatirists of tlie day. It 
did not die oat before the goldsmiths first and the potters following 



them bad covered their wares with Chinese designs. Upon Elers 
ware of about 1690 is found a whole aeries of representations illustrat- 
ing the cultivation and use of the tea-plant, an old and a young 
viceroy of Canton, and the like. A vast quantity of plate was deco- 
rated in this way in the years 1682, 1663, and 1684, and a few pieces 
are found up to about 1690, but not much later. Amongst other 
specimens is the small gold cup found in the lake at Knowsley, and 
already mentioned as one of the few articles of fjold exhibited at South 
Kensington in 1862, It was then catalogued oa of "circa 1650." 
This is surely too early, especially as the maker's mark, RL, is well 
known, and agrees with the usual date of Chinese decoration, having 
been noted on plate from 1680 to 1693. 

A small tankard, with the same sort of engraving, is in the 
South Kensington Museum ; but the barrel is of one year, the 



322 Old English Plate. [(.-hap. x. 

cover of the next, and the decoration ten or fifteen years later than 
either.* 

Last of all come the fluted porringerB of the reign of Qaeen Anne, 
of which it is necessary to say that, as they have much attracted the 
attention of collectors, imitations of them have been manufactured by 
the cart-load. These modern copies would very often be detected by 
an assay, for they are all marked as made of the Britannia standard of 



(ltt74). 

silver, and many of them if tested would no doubt prove to be of silver 
of lower quality. Their period almost exactly coincides with the first 
quarter of the eighteenth century. An engraving is given of a good 
example selected from a large number of these porringers in the col- 
lection of the late E. Temple Frere, Esq. (No. 98). 

Tumblers. — These useful articles have been rather pushed out of 
their place in the chapter by the necessity of classing together 
porringers and caudle-cups ; for they are decidedly more ancient than 
the last-mentioned class of porringers. They are so-called because 

* As of the Cbinese iieiiod, but rather which are BometiuiFii arrHngeJ on tbe top of 

earlier than the kind of pugmving nieutiotied lihrorj boolccaBeB. Thej are of great aiie ; 

sbo>«, beJDg of the year 1674, mBj be men- the jarg twent; inches high, aad tweiis 

tioDed a set of three large ailver vanes, and inches in diameter, and the beakers Ioiirl«en 

two tall beakere, given to Horace Wnlpole incbis higli. They pasMd tbrongh the 

l>j the I^y Beity l}ennain, and gold at the hands of Messrs. Ltmbert, to the last Mar- 

Strevberrj Hill Sale. They am of the form quis of Breadnlbane in 18S7. There an 
of the blue and white Chinese i>orc«laiD sett, I othen at Knole of about tlie sama date. 



OHAP. X.] Plates. 323 

they will not lie on their side but will only rest on the bottom, 
tumbling or rolling from side to side like a tumbler, till they steady 
themselves in an upright position. The name has somewhat im- 
properly been transferred to our flat - bottomed drinking glasses. 
Such round - bottomed cups are frequently met with from about 
1670 onwards, and are used in some of the colleges at Oxford for 
drinking beer. They were sometimes called bowls, and, being of 
different sizes, the larger ones were called beer-bowls, and the smaller 
wiue-bowla, in old iuTentories. "Bollea" are mentioned from very 
early times. " yi Ciphos vocat. holies de argento " were left by 



Robert Cheddre of Bristol, to his son Richard, in 1882, and they 
constantly occur afterwards. 

PLATES. 

Plates of silver or silver-gilt were used both at dinner and at what 
is now called dessert. The dessert-plates are the more common, 
though silver " trenchers " are sometimes mentioned, as for instance 
in the will of Christopher Urswyke, Rector of Hackney, co. Midx., 
who died in 1521. The " conceites after dinner," such as " appels, 
nuts, ot creame,"* were no doubt placed upon them. 

Silver " spice-plates " occur in the inventories of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries: one of the earliest is of a "plate argenti pro 
speciebus impouendls," in a list dated lS58.t Two or three known 
sets of small silver platen, parcel-gilt and elaborately engraved, are of 
the middle of the sixteenth century. One of these sets, consisting of 
twelve plates, the borders engraved with medallions, heads, flowers, 
and other ornaments of the Klizabethan period, and the centres with 
the labours of Hercules after Aldegrever, was sold by auction at 



• Hugh Rhode., Bake of Xa.rlu,t, 1577. + Tct. Ebor, 1358. 



324 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

Messrs. Christie and Manson's rooms in the summer of 1876 for 
£480, a price far below their real value. They are of the year 1567, 
and once belonged to the Cottons of Connington, one of whom was 
that great antiquary, Sir Robert Cotton, Bart., the collector of the 
Cottonian Library. They were oddly enough catalogued for sale and 
sold as of 1667, and as engraved by Magdalene de Passe, one of the 
celebrated family of engravers of that name. The well-known signa- 
ture of MP in monogram, which some of the set bear, almost certainly 
signifies Martin Foeham, who is known to have worked after Alde- 
grever's designs, although it is described as that of " un graveur 
inccmnu" in some of the best dictionaries. Other engravings 
by the same hand and bearing the same mark are dated 1577. 
These very plates had supplied Mr. Octavius Morgan many years 
ago with the shape of the small old English \^ proper to the year 
1567. 

Similar plates of the years 1568 and 1569 have also been noted 
by Mr. Morgan, as in the possession some years since of Messrs. 
Thomas of New Bond Street. This class of plate will not fail to 
remind the antiquary of those curious sets of little painted sycamore- 
wood trenchers, which he knows by the name of " roundels." Much 
has been said of these interesting objects, and the learning on the 
subject has been lately collected in a contribution to the Portfolio 
(Sept. 1885), by Mr. A. H. Church. Their use and the meaning of 
the posies upon them has been alike discussed, but possibly the 
simplest explanation is the best, that they were for serving fruit or 
cheese. More than one reference of Elizabethan date quoted by 
Mr. Church points to this, and no doubt the silver plates were used for 
the same purposes. 

Dinner plates of silver with shaped and gadrooned edge, are found 
commonly in the last, and sometimes of the preceding, century, 
replacing the simple pewter of an earlier generation. For the reason 
of this we must appeal for a second time to Prof. Wilson. 

NoKTH. Deep must be the foundation and strong the superstructure, of that friend- 
ship which can sustain the shock of seeing its object eating mock-tart le soup 
from a plate of imitation silver. 

Sfephbed. Meaner than pewter ! • 

There was no " imitation silver " to fall back upon in the seven- 
teenth century, and pewter becoming in the reign of Charles II. too 
mean for the times, the only substitute was silver itself. Dishes and 
dinner-plates of this more costly material accordingly began to make 

* Nodes Amhrosiancc^ No. XXXI. 



CHAP. X.] Forks. 325 

their appearance. Prince Rupert buys five dozen plates, amongst 
other things, of Alderman E. Backwell in 1670, and Prince George of 
Denmark 24 plates and 24 trenchers of Child and Rogers in 168G. 
These plates weighed 17} ounces each, and were paid for at the rate 
of 5«. %d. per ounce. The trenchers were 21 ounces each, and cost 
the same per ounce as the plates. Very early examples are the plates 
of the year 1686, still to be found amongst the family plate of the 
Earls Bathurst. 

Lord St. Oswald has a set of as early a year as 1697, part of it 
made by one Chadwick, and the rest by a smith named Gibson. A 
very similar set of 1782, bearing a maker's mark known as Paul 
Grespin's, belongs to Lord Hotham. After that they are of common 
occurrence. An enormous number, with dishes to match, were made 
by Paul Lamerie for the Mansion House in 1787, and are in regular 
use there. 

FORKS. 

These are a modern invention compared with spoons ; so much so 
that, to avoid doing our ancestors grave injustice, we uhall be glad to 
agree with the learned de Laborde, who, speaking of forks, and 
remembering that the exquisites of Greece and Home all ate with 
their fingers, concluded that the use of forks at meals is rather a 
conventional matter than a test by which to measure the advance of 
civilization. 

Certain it is that no mention of forks is to be found in our fifteenth- 
century treatises on etiquette and manners ; whilst in early wills and 
inventories no forks ever occur, except now and then one or two 
mounted in crystal or other ornamental handles, and used for eating 
pears or green ginger. These had usually two prongs only. 

The Boke of Kervyng^ directing the servitor to ** laye your knyves 
and set your brede one lofe by an other your spones and your napkyns 
fayre folden besyde your brede," would have told him where to dispose 
his forks, had there been any ; and the Boke of Nurture in 1577 
would have included them in its caution against the improper use of 
the knife which runs as follows : 

Pick not thy teeth with thy knyfe, 

nor '.yith thy fyngcra end, 
Bat take a stick, or some cleane thyng 

then doe you not offende. 

Again, the Young Children's Book only warns its readers not to play 
with ** spone trencher ne knyfie," not adding fork. Even later than this^ 
the long and detailed inventory of the goods of Dr. Perne, Master of 



326 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

Peterhouse, Cambridge, which is dated 10 May, 1589, only mentions 
one fork, but spoons and every other sort of table -plate in abundance. 
The entry mentioning this single fork is rather a curious one. 

Item, a peece of plate haying in it a chafinge dyshe yj spones one forke ij gobletts 
ij cnppes ij saltes yi trenchers and a pepper box, all waying Yii"xj ounces — ^xxxyii". 

The common use of the fork was introduced from Italy about the 
beginning of the seventeenth century ; and a well-known passage 
from Goryat's Crudities has been often cited as the first mention of 
forks in England. That gentleman, describing in 1611 his travels in 
Europe, notes the ** little fork " used by the Italians instead of their 
fingers when they cut meat out of the dish, and records bow be was 
called furcifer by a friend when he continued the use of his fork on 
his return home. Their Italian origin is also referred to by Ben 
Jonson, who, speaking of the manners of Venice, puts into the mouth 
of Sir Politick Would-be— 

. . . Then yon most learn the nse 

And handling of your silyer fork at meal^. 

Vulpane or the Ihx^ Act IV. Sc. 1. 

This was written in 1607, but a few years later (1616) the same 
writer speaks of them as known in England. 

Sledge, Forks I what be they ? 
Meeb. The laudable use of forks, 

Brought into custom here, as they are in Italy, 

To the sparing of napkins. 

The Devil is an Ass, Act V. Sc. 3. 

Massinger too, about the same time, recognises the use of the fork in 
polite society : — 

I hayc all that's requisite 

To the making up of a signior . . . 

.... and my silver fork 

To convey an olive neatly to my mouth. 

The Great Duke of Florence, Act III. 

This fork for eating olives might be one of the more ancient kind, 
but at all events the employment of dinner- forks was now becoming 
more general, and a fork was added to the knife and spoon w*hich 
most persons seem to have carried about with them for their own use 
wherever they went. The same knife, fork, and spoon no doubt 
served for the whole meal, perhaps wiped and sometimes washed, for 
few families had any great number, especially of forks. The large 
dinner- forks which we now call " table " forks are said to have been 
first used in France by the Duke de Montausier, circa 1645. Prince 



CHAP. X.] Forks, 327 

Rupert parchased 24 forks with his plates in 1670, and Prince George 

of Denmark a dozen in 1686, besides hia plates and trenchers. These 

cost, the Epoons, two shillings apiece for the making, and the forks 

two shillings and sixpence, besides the silver at Ss. 2d. per ounce. 

A set of twelve forks amongst the domestic plate at Cotehele was 

made in 1667, and it is believed that these are the oldest now in use. 

They were probably all that the Sir Kicbard £dgcumbe of that day 

possessed, and were no doubt considered an unusually 

handsome equipage. Tbey have plain flat handles like 

the spoons of the period, of which the spoon No. 2 in 

the engraving given at page 242 is an example ; but 

the tops are not so mach cleft, the two side projections 

being rounded ofl" like the central one. One of the 

handles is lengthened out to form a marrow-spoon. 

Another such set is mentioned by Viscount Gort in 

Note% and Queries, as bought by one of his ancestors, 

in 1698, of a Dublin silversmith named Bolton, whose 

account for them was as follows : — " For 12 forks, wt. 

80 oa. 14 dwt. at 6«. 10(/. per oz., £10 10s." There 

are only seven forks in a long Tredegar inventory of 

1676. All thesu would resemble our wood-cut, No. 99. 

A spUt-ended, flat-handled fork of the year 1688 with 
four prongs has been dug up in the grounds of Eden 
Hall. It bears the Musgrave crest engraved in the 
fashion of that day, and if genuine it must take rank 
as the most ancient English foar-pronged table-fork 
known. Most probably, however, this fork has been 
fashioned out of a spoon. 

When the custom arose, most likely in the eaily part 
of last century, of the host supplying his own table with 
the plate requisite for the use of his guests, a much No. 99.— rou 
larger quantity was needed, and more and more as time (»«"P-oh*rlm h.) 
went on. Mr. Octavius Morgan suggests that a great oakdiim. 

deal of old-iashioned, unused plate — ewers and basins 
and the like — was, about a century ago, melted down to supply this 
new want ; and that the magnificent services of gilt and silver plate 
which were then made for royal and other tables were provided in this 
way. An enormous quantity of metal must have been required to 
provide silver for the number of plates, dishes, sauce-boats* (never 

* The urtieBt WLDce-bnata &re doubts- I the middle of the boat-Bhapod body, one on 
B|ianlcil. 90 tbut tbe Banco could b« poured I eacb lide. which facilibatwl the ptaing at 
from either end, aud bure t«o handle* at I the T«a»el from hand to bond. 



328 Old English Plate, [chap. x. 

found much before the reign of George II.), spoons and forks, which 
were made by Bundell and Bridge, the Garrards, and other firms 
their immediate predecessors, and the spoon and fork makers of a 
hundred years ago ; and, as at that period old plate was not valued, 
every one was glad to change antiquated silver articles for those of a 
newer and more useful fashion. This will partly account for the 
comparatively small quantity of ancient plate to be found in the 
plate-rooms and treasuries of the present day. 

The older dinner or table forks (see No. 99) are three-pronged, 
but about the middle of the last century four-pronged forks came into 
fashion ; the earliest four- pronged forks known to the writer, except 
the Eden Hall fork above mentioned, are of the years 1726 and 1727, 
and are at Narford Hall, Norfolk, but they were not common before the 
reign of George the Third. The handles of modern forks follow the 
fashions of spoons. 

Notes of Fobkb, abbanoed in Crbonolooical Obdeb. 

1300. uuum par cultellorum cum manicis argenti ajmellat' cum uno furchetto de 

Cristallo. — ^Wardrobe Accounts, 28 Edw. I. 
1304. duo furchetti arg' deaur* et duo manubrias de cristallo. — Wardrobe Accounts, 

32 Edw. I. 
1349. Henrico filio meo . . . dimidiam duodcnam furcarum argenti deanrataram 

Margaretae fillBB meae . . . duas f ureas argenti deauratas. (Will of Henry 

Lord Percy.) — Test. Ebor. 
1395. unum instrumentum argenteum pro zinzibo. — Idem. 
1399. j furche darg' poisant xv unc* di*. 

It" ij f urches p' zinzibr' v*t darg' ennorrez. 

1" j fourche de beryle garnis darg' enorrez debrusez. 

1" j large furche d'arg' endorrez p' ging' vert pois vi unc t di. 

It* j large fourche en p'tie endorrez meindre pois j unc*. — Treasury Accounts 
1 lien. IV. 
1443. ij forkes for grene gynger. (WiU of Sir Hugh Willoughby.)— Test. Ebor. 
1448. j grate arg' pro zinzebro. 
1463. my silver forke for grene ginger. — Bury Wills. 

1487. ij gynger forkes. (Inv. of Robert Morton, gent.) — Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 30.064 
1498. a forke for grene gynger. (Will of Anne Lady Scrope.)— Test. Ebor. 
1500. a prange of silver for grene gynger. — Will of Sir John Treffry, Knt. 
1615. a silver spone wt a forke. — Norf. Archaeology. 
1523. Itm too forkes with ther spones doble gylte to eete grene gynger with all. 

Itm one fork with hys spone parcel 1 gylte to eete green gynger with all. 

Itm a forke of sylver doble gylte graved with lybertes on the end. — Inv. of 

Lady Hungerfoixi, attainted 14 Hen. VIII. 
1 642. a longe forke of silver for sokett. ( Will of Kateryne C tess. of Northumberland.) 

—Coll. Top. et Gen. 
1554. spone wt a forke in the end. 

1567. one long silver spone with a forke in the end double gilt. 
1615. a knife a spoone and forke of a greene and white stone garnished with gold. 

(Inv. of Duke of Somerset.) — Loseley MSS. 

For more modem specimens see Chronological List, Appendix A, 
1667, 1715, 1727, 1737, 1738. 



Montdths, 



MUNTEITHS. 



The mocteitb vas ft punch-bowl which seems to hftve come into 
fashiOD with the new standard silver of 1697 or a little earlier. It had 
a moveable rim, oruamented arotmd the top with escallops or else 
battlements to form indentations, in which the glasses were placed 
with the feet outwards for the purpose of bringing them into the room 



without breaking. The bowl was of course brought in empty, the 
punch being made in the room, each gentleman fancying he had an 
especial talent for concocting the beverage, and a silver ladle and 
lemon-strainer were brought in with it. When the glasses were taken 
out, the bowl was placed on the table, the rim was removed, and the 
process of punch-making commenced. The pierced bowl of the old- 
fashioned wine- strainers (in general use when gentlemen decanted 
their own port wine in the parlour) served as a lemon-strainer, there 
being generally a small flat hook at the side of it, by which it was 
appended to the side of the bowl.* This particular pattern of punch- 
bowl was so called aft«r a gentleman of fashion, of the name of Men- 
teith, who was remarkable for wearing a scalloped coat. 

New things produce new woixIh, anrl go Monteith 

Has bj ooe vessel saved bimsrlF from Deatb. 

King's Art !•/ Cooliery. 

* Tbe lemonitninera irith two long flat handles were no iloubt also used with thes« bowls. 



330 Old English Plate. [chai-. x. 

Besides the characteristic nm, their fluted bowls should be noted, 
their gadrooned bases or feet, and the large rings bangiog from lions' 
months which are almost invariable, — the only exceptions known to the 
writer being the y&ry earliest and the very latest Bpecimens he has 
ever seen. The former has no handles, but all of the other cbarac- 
teristicB of the true Monteith ; it is of 1696, and is the property of 
the Fishmongers' Company. And the latter, which was given to the 



Ko. lUl.— CAHULKSTICK (ClKCl 1670),! 

Clothworkers in 1718, by Sir John Bull, has buU's-head handles 
instead of lions' heads, the variation being, no doubt, adopted in 
allusion to the donor's name. The engraving (No. 100) is of a Mon- 
teith in the possession of the Vintners' Company. 

The following references clearly mark the period of their intro- 
duction, and comprise the best Monteiths that the writer has had the 
opportunity of examining ; but to these must be added a good and very 
early specimen noted by Mr. Morgan, the property of the Corporation 
of Newark. Its moveable rim is shaped like the top of a cbess-csstle, 
and it bear^ an inscription as follows : " This Monteith and thirteen 



CHAP. X.] Candlesticks. 331 

caps were given by the honourable Nicholas SaunderBon of the Cor- 
poration of Newark upon Trent, a.d. 1689." A Monteith appears in 
1690 aa a " Mountbeth," in a list of the plate at Tredegar. In a later 
inventory of 1698 it ia spelled " Monteth." For others see Appendix 
A, 1696, 1698, 1699 (three specimens), 1700 {two specimens), 1702, 
1707, 1713, 1716, and 17l8. 

CANDELABKA, CANDLESTICKS, AND SCONCES. 
These are occasionally, but not very frequently, mentioned in wills, 
accounts, and other documents 
of every period. There is, 
however, but little to be said 
about them that could not 
equally well be gathered from 
the subjoined lists. No really 
ancient specimens are known 
to esist iu the precious metals, 
the earliest now to be found 
being the candlesticks shaped 
as fluted columns which are 
found in the reign of Charles II. 
(No. 101). They have square 
bases, which are sometimes cut 
off at the corners so as to be- 
come octagonal, and bave also 
a projection to match the base, 
but smaller, and a convenient 
distance above it, to serve as a 
knop by which to hold or carry 
them. In the time of William 
and Mary and of Queen Anne, 
the fashionable candlestick was 

equally simple, but with a No. 102.— oANDLEancK (1735). 

baluster- stem, terminating in a 

square base, which has the corners cut off or else set back and rounded. 
Additional ornament was gradnally added to the plain balaster. A 
candlestick of 1736 illustrates a transition period, after which, at 
about the middle of the last century, the baluster-stem, already a little 
modifled as will be seen by the cut (No. 102), became much ornn- 
mented with the oblique gadrooning of Louis XV. taste. Towards 
1765 this last finally gave way to the Corinthian column pattern 



33^ Old English Plate. [cHAr. x. 

(No, 103), vhich was the first, it may be observed in paasing, that is 
alvays foand with removable socket-pans or nozzles. These Corin- 
tbian colamns in turn were replaced by candlesticks ornamented with 
festoons of flowers, or drapery hanging between bosses or medaUions 
which bear masks or other devices of the fashion introduced by those 
who designed for silversmiths and potters of the time of Josiali 
Wedgwood. Bemovable nozzles are some- 
times found 00 candlesticks of the reign 
of Oeo. JI., bnt not oHen. The sockets 
of the candlesticks of the later part of the 
century are, in many cases, shaped as 
vases ornamented with hanging wreaths. 

Silver sconces are very seldom seen ; 
there are good examples at Sudeley Castle, 
the back plate being repousse and having 
a single branch for the light ending in a 
tulip-shaped cup. They are of 1668. 
Prince Eupert buys six sconces of Alder- 
man E. Backwell in 1670. At Enole a 
number of sconces are preserved, the back 
plates showing the Dorset arms and coro- 
net in beaten-work. Some of them bear 
the London marks for 1685. The author 
has also seen a tiny toy-sconce by Anthony 
Nelme of the Queen Anne period bearing 
the arms of Russell on the back plate in 
a lozenge. There is hardly a single entry 
of sconces in old-Enghsh wills ; but it 
may be as well to saythat " un chandelier 
I d'argent blanc, en maniere d'esconce," 
occurs in the inventory of Charles V., 
which is ascribed by de Laborde to the 
year 1880. 

NOTKS OF CANDELABSA, ETC., ABRAKGED IN ChbONOLOOICAL OBDEB. 

132*. Channdelabres,— IncJentnre of plate, 17 Edw. III. 

— Ti c&ndelRbr' arg. alb. et denar. jti pcde. — Wardrobe Accounts temp. Eili*. III. 

1346. dno9 candelabnw argenti. (Will of a Canon of Tort.)— Test. Ebor, 

1400. candelabra. (Idi. oI an ArcUdeacon of Richmond.) — Idem. 

1438. an bond candilBtikke.— Treasury Inv. IG Hen. VI, 

1*43. cbauadelieiB of silver. (Will of Sir Hugh Willoughby.)— Teat. Ebor. 

H53. ij candilalicks of Bilver for qwetloB parcell gilt. (Will of John Lord Scrope.) — 

1458. ij ronndechanndelerBot silver, w' pyltes. (Will of SirThoa. Che worth,) —Idem. 



CHAP. X] Toilet Services. 333 

1527. four chftunilelera, gilt prykettea, for » table, ciij m. (Inv. a\ Henry Fitiroy, 

Duke of Richmouii.)— Camden Society. 
li)72. vi caniileHticks.— lay. ot Thos. Lee of Marton, co. Bucks. 
Ili2-). one small silver caiidlesticke. — Inv. of Edward Waring of Lee. 

For more modern examples, 8ee Appendix A, 1666, 1685, 1690, 
1699, 1715, 1716, 1721, 1734, 1735, 1759, 1775. 

TOILET SERVICES, AND BOUDOIR FDRNITnRE. 

The luxary of the later years of tbe Stuarts is suitably illustrated 

by the rich toilet services which are one of its creations. They came 



>x (I8S2). 

into fashion at about the Chinese period of which mention has been 
made, and more than one set is found decorated in that style. They 
usaally consist of a number of pieces of silver or silver -gilt, a mirror 
with silver frame, candlesticks, snafTers and tray, pin-cushion, tazze, 
boxes for trinkets and soap, sometimes a basin and ewer, and a variety 
of other articles. The set at Knole is perhaps tbe best known of all. 
It is composed of a number of toilet-boses and a table-mirror, the 
boxes plain oblong and octagonal with frosted panels, and their covers 
bearing coronets and pierced cyphers fastened on with pins and nuts. 
The date of this service is 1673. There is also preserved at Knole a 
table entirely covered over with plaques of silver, beaten and chased 
with acanthus foliage, scrolls, amoriui, etc. Like the toilet-boxes, it 



334 Old English Plate. [cbav. x. 

has coTonetB and pierced monograms attached in the same way ; in 
this case the initials are those of Frances Countess Dowager of Dorset 
and her second husband Henry Poole, Master of the Rolls, and M.P. 



Nu. 105.— riu uuu (ciKci 1685), at emulk. 

for Cirencester. It was made in 1680. On each side of this table 
stand tall silver tripoda (gueridooe) for candlesticks, and above It 
bangs a mirror in silver framing to match the table. The tripods are of 
1676, and the mirror was probably made at the same time as the 
table, being evidently of the same workmanship. The whole forms a 
suite of great magnificence, and it was long supposed to have been 
provided in anticipation of a visit of King James I. to Knole ; but 



CHA1-. X.] Toilet Services and Boudoir Furniture. 335 

there is now no doubt that it was acquired by gift or purchase upon 
occasion of the second marriage of the Countess Frances, whose first 
husband Richard, 6th Earl of Dorset, had died in 1677. A toilet-bos 
from a service of the year 1682 is given as a good specimen of engrav- 
ing in the Chinese style {No. 104). Two somewhat simiUr boxes of 
1695 from the Marquis of Exeter's Collection sold for 275 and 291 
gnineas respectively in 1888, which was at the rate of about 60s. per 
oz. A pair of scent-bottles at 
828. per oz., and a pair of small 
cups engraved with birds at ISOs. 
per oz. These were all by P. 
Harracbe. Other toilet-table 
sets are known of the years 1661, 
1682, and 1683 ; the Herners set, 
and the beautiful service formerly 
belonging to the late Sir C. Tre- 
velyan, Bart., and now in the 
South Kensington Mnsenm, being 
both of them of the latter year. 
Sir F. A. Milbank, Bart., has a 
set of 1686. Somewhat later 
ones were exhibited at South 
Kensington in 1862. One of the 
finest possible of eighteenth cen- 
tury sets is the property of Sir 
W. Williams-Wynn, Bart. It is 
gilt in the very best Louis XV. 

tale and of the year 1768 »..„,._,„,„,„ ,,,5,, „ „„„ 
One of the above earlier sets hod 

lain for generations foi^otten in the cellars of the Bank of England, 
where it had once upon a time been deposited for safe custody, and 
only came to light on the falling to pieces from age of the case 
containing it, long after all record of its ownership had been lost. 
Heraldic or other internal evid^nce was, however, forthcoming, 
which enabled the anthorities to restore it to the descendants of the 
original owners. It is very possible that other unknown treasures 
remain in the same repository. 

There are several boudoir-tables, either made of or mounted with 
silver plaques like those at Knole. Amongst them are two at 
Windsor Castle. One of these is of the time of Charles II., the 
other a little later. Silver fire-dogs or andirons also occur of the same 
period and fashion. Examples of these are preserved both at Windsor 



33^ Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

and Knole ; and reproductions in facsimile of the fire-dogs and the 
tables in these collections may be seen in the South Kensington 
Museum. 

Of the andirons there are no better examples than those at Knole, 
from one of which the illustration (No. 105) is taken. A pair of 
fire-dogs of the first year of George I. is known to the author. 

With these the large jars mentioned at a previous page naturally 
class themselves. They mark both the luxurious fashions of this part 
of the seventeenth century and the Chinese taste which prevailed, as 
we have seen, in the reigns of James 11. and of William and Mary. 
The illustration (No. 106) is also from Knole. 

WINE-CISTERNS AND FOUNTAINS. 

Not less magnificent than the boudoir furniture that has just been 
mentioned are the great wine-cisterns that are found of the same 
period. These cisterns range from 1665 to 1735, but the earlier ones 
are not accompanied by fountains. The oldest are of gigantic size, 
and their use may be indicated by the fact that one of the finest of 
them, now at W^elbeck, bearing Harley arms, was made in the year in 
which the great statesman Bobert Harley, who became in turn Speaker, 
liOrd High Treasurer, and Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, came of age. 
This was in 1682. A still earlier one, of 1667, was amongst the 
plate of the Cootes, Earls of Mountrath. The later ones are somewhat 
smaller, and have fountains or great covered urns or vases with taps. 
It has been conjectured that those which have already been men- 
tioned in the preface to this chapter, in speaking of ambassadors' 
and other oflScial services of plate, were really not used for wine but 
for washing-up the forks as required on the sideboard. The finest and 
largest of such pieces is a cistern at the Winter Palace, St. Petersburg, 
made in 1784 by one Charles Kandler, a silversmith in London, from 
a design by Henry Jernegan (No. 107). It weighs nearly 8000 ounces, 
and holds 60 gallons. Perhaps the most immense and one of the most 
elaborate pieces of decorative plate in the world, it is no doubt the 
very cistern referred to in the Journals of the House of Commons for 
1735 in a somewhat curious connection. In that year a lottery was 
authorised by Parliament for raising the funds necessary for building 
a new bridge over the Thames at Westminster; and this same 
Jernegan is found petitioning the House to take as a lottery prize a 
very magnificent cistern upon which he had expended a vast sum of 
money and years of work, and which had been pronounced by all to 
excel anything of the kind that had ever been attempted. He repre- 



Wine Cisterns and Fountains, 337 



338 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

sented, that although he had offered it to various foreign Bovereigns 
through their ambassadors, it remained upon his hands unsold, and 
in the end Parliament ordered its disposal in the lottery. How it got 
eventually to the Winter Palace, the author, who himself discovered it 
there, has not yet been able to ascertain, though an old engraving 
describes it as '' the property of the Empress of Bussia/' 

CASTERS AND CRUET-STANDS. 

Of these the former first occur at the commencement of the last 
century, or a few years earlier, and are occasionally found of great size. 
The larger ones must have been intended as standing-pieces for the 
decoration of sideboards ; but it would be difficult to produce legal 
proof of the genuineness of some of the specimens that have changed 
hands of late years. The natural tendency of a demand to create a 
corresponding supply should never be forgotten by the plate-collector 
any more than by the economist. A gigantic sugar-caster is often 
doubtful> about in proportion to its size. 

One of the earliest cruet-stands known is of plain massive silver 
with five rings and central handle, the rings containing two glass 
cruets with plain silver caps to slip over the necks by way of stoppers, 
and three shaped casters of silver with pierced tops for sugar, pepper, 
&c. — one large, and two to match of smaller size. These are of much 
the same fashion as the sets of three casters so often seen, of dates 
ranging from 1720 to 1770, but they are of plainer fashion than more 
modem examples. This cruet-stand is by Pyne, made in 1706, and is 
the property of Lord Tredegar. The separate casters above mentioned 
seemed to have formerly formed part of the fittings of cruet-stands. 
See Appendix A, 1706, 1738, 1734, 1758, 1775. Count A. B. 
Bobrinsky of Moscow possesses beautiful sets of casters fitting into a 
great cruet-frame or centre-piece, the work of Paul Lamerie in 1735. 

TEA AND COFFEE SERVICES, KETTLES, ETC. 

Tea and coffee must have been well known in England many years 
before we find silver tea-pots or coffee-pots in common use. A toy 
tea-pot with tea-cup and tea-spoon of the year 1690 is known. This is 
also about the date of the first earthenware tea-pots. The earliest tea- 
pot known to the author in actual domestic use is one of 1709. It 
has a raised conical lid and a small flap shutter to the spout. This is 
closely followed by specimens in the possession of the Earl of Bchester 
and Earl Amherst. Very few are found for the next twenty years ; 



CHAR X.] Tea and Coffee Services. 339 

but a great nnmber of both tea and coffee-pots, tea-caddies, and 
kettles were made in the reigns of George I. and George 11., at first 
of very plain design, bnt afterwards more freely ornameDted with 
eliasing and repousse work. 

The coffee-pot of the reign of George I. was a plain one, tall and 
tapering, often octagonal, and with a conical octagonal lid to match. 
(No. 108.) Tea-pots are found of very similar fashion as far as regards 



Ko. 108,— ooTiQOKit oorrM-roT (1715), i 

the lids, bat with the round or octagonal body swelling out at the 
lower part into a bowl instead of having straight upright sides. 
Chocokte-pots of the same period are of plain tapering cylindrical 
form. 

In the time of George IL and the early days of George HI. (No. 109) 
gadroons and flower-wreaths in the Louis Qainze taste will be looked 
for ; and later on, oval tea-pots engraved with festoons, knots of riband 
and medallions, are usually found. 

Tea-kettles are found from the first years of the centory. The 
earliest are globular, either quite plain, or with a little engraving; 
sometimes they are fiut«d so as to resemble melons or gourds. They 



340 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

are always on openwork stands, with feet ; and to these, spirit-lamps, 
often of a later date, are fitted. 

There is no better example of the melon-shaped tea-kettle than one 
in the royal collection at Windsor Castle ; it has been copied for the 
South Kensington Maseam. This stands in a triangular tray, and is 
of the year 1782. 

Later in the centnry nms sac'ceeded to kettles ; many of them are 



No. lOS.— OOriMl POT 0764), IT S*I.Wlia' HitL, L0KD05. 

of the pointed oval shape then so popalar, and are chased or engraved 
with festoons and medallionB to match the tea-pots of the period. 
(See No. 110.) 

Tea-caddies are not commonly fonnd till the time of George II, ; 
but all through that reign sets of two tea>caddies and a haain fitted 
into shagreen cases were very fashionable. Some of them afford good 
examples of chased flowers and foliage, which are very sharply esecated 
in high relief. Such caddies were usually also supplied with a small 
spoon with pierced bowl and long pointed handle nsed for straining 
the tea and clearing the spout of the tea-pot before the introduction of 



cuAP. z.] Tea-Urns. 341 

tbe fixed strainer at the inner end or insertion of the spont. They 
are often but erroneously called strawberry-spoons. 

Of the minor accessories to the tea-table, a few words may be said. 
A wire basket or strainer was sometimes hang in the spout of the tea- 
pot, answering the same pmpose as the pierced spoon. 

Of another kind was " the silver strainer, on which, in more 



Ko. 110. — TSA-DBS (1771), IT BiBBlB-gDBaWm' HALL, LOmOK. 

economical times than oars, the lad; of the house placed the tea- 
leaves, after the very last drop had been exhausted, that the; might 
afterwards be hospitably divided amongst the company to be eaten 
with sugar, and with bread and butter."* About tea-spoons there is 
nothing to be said that cannot be gathered from the general article on 
spoons. A very small toy tea-spoon, only two inches long, of the year 
1689, and having the usual flat handle of those days, is the oldest 
tea-spoon of any kind known to the author. Cream-jugs simply 
follow the Cashion of larger veseela ; the earliest being plain, solid, 



* .St. A>nan'« IF«U, chap. x. 



342 Old English Plate, [chap. x. 

and slightly bellied like miuiatTire blackjacks, with the same short 
fipoutB and no stem nor foot. Others are like tiny helmet ewers, 
whilst later ones are of rococo or of Louis XV. deetgn, and the latest 
not nnlike the cbocolate-pot 1777 given on this page (No. IH), but 
witb a small square foot and without the lid. 



CAKE-BASKETS ASD EPERGNES. 

These are classed together be- 
cause the former oft«n formed the 
central or uppennost portion of 
the latter, and they are of pre- 
cisely similar style of workman- 
ship. They are objects of con- 
siderable importance in the plate- 
collections of the last century, 
and great taste and skill were 
expended upon their production. 
Most of them were made between 
1780 and 1780. An early basket 
of a design peculiar to Paul 
Lamerie (No. 112), was acquired 
by the late Mr. J. C. Dent of 
Sudeley Castle, at the Strawberry 
Hill sale. The bottom is engraved 
with the arms of Sir Robert Wal- 
pole, encircled with the Garter, 
but without a coronet. It will be re- 
membered that Sir Robert enjoyed 
the rare distinction of the Garter 
t (177') IN THE whilst still a commoner. This 
I EinsiKaTOM HusEUK. cakc-basket Is of imitatlou wickcr* 

work, with bandies of the same. 
A more elaborate example by the same good hand is the property of 
the Count Bobrinsky at Moscow. It consists of a basin on feet as the 
centre, with baskets round it which may be removed, and has candle- 
stick branches, double sets of casters, and cruets, which may be 
substituted for the baskets or for each other at will. It is of the year 
1735. The body of the central bowl is chased as wicker-work. 

To this, which seems to have been a favourite pattern, succeeded 
the pierced baskets ornamented also witb chasing and repousse work, 
which were very common in the middle of the century. Many of them 



CHAP. X.1 Cake-Baskets, 343 

are of excellent design and finish. One of the finest, in the possession 
of Lord Amherst of Hackney, is amongst the latest and most 
remarkable specimens of the work of Paul Lamerie, being of the year 
1749. An engraving of this is given (No. 113) ; the chasing of the 
insects is of the very highest excellence. 

The piercing of the later baskets is sometimes rather rude ; the 
holes being merely punched oat of the sheet of silver without much 



No. 112.— CAKK-BASEKT (1731), BV fAl'L LAHKRllI. 

additional ornament except some intervening rows of small punched 
bosses. 

During the last quarter of the centary baskets were not pierced, but 
are solid and either fluted or lobed like escallops, or ornamented with 
chased bands of foliage. 

Where these pierced baskets form the crowning ornament of 
epergnes, or centre-pieces for table decoration, they are accompanied 
by a number of smaller baskets of the same design as the large 
one, all of which could be detached from the branched stand which 
supported them, and handed with the fruits or sweetmeats they were 
made to contain. A very massive epergne of open scroll work chased 
with fruit and flowers, a basket in the centre and branches with leaf- 
shaped dishes on a stand with fi-uits and animals' heads in high 



34il Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

relief, was soU in 1888 for £360. It wrs of 1755 aDd by 
Edward Wakelin. 

Many examples are noted in Appendix A. 

MACES AND OABS. 

A notice of EngliBh plate would be incomplete without a few words 

abont corporation maces and oars. Originally, no doubt, weapons 

of oflfence, in modem times maces baye become mere symbols of 



Hn. 113.— OA-.i-itJiSEET (1749), bt i-jiti. lauirii. 

authority or emblems of State. Imagination easily carries as back to 
thb days when the escort of some great personage bore simple clubs 
upon tbeir shoulders with which to clear the way. We may watch 
ihe growth of the simple club into an elaborate weapon, and of the 
elaborate weapon into a work of art, useless for any purpose but adding 
to the state of legal, civic or academic dignitary. Somehow or other 
maces seem to have got tamed upside-down in the course of these 
changes ; for the handles of some of the more ancient, as they are now 
borne, look very like the beads, as they would have been used in case 
of being required for real work. 

The city of London with its various wards can show as many as 



OHAP. I.] Maces and Oars. 345 

thirty maces, bat none of them are as ancient as some of those in tlie 
posaession of provincial corporations : two of the very oldest being at 
Hedon in Yorkshire, These are of the fifteenth centaiy. Not much 
more modem are the small pair (No. 114), vhich belong to the little 



Ho. 111. — KACU 1 

town of Winchcombe in GIonceBtershire. They are 15| inches long. 
The handles of these are an admirable illustration of what has been 
said above as to the changing of ends. Very uncomfortable to grasp, 
the; are well fitted to form the striking heads of weapons of offence. 
A degree more modem, especially aa regards the head and plain 



346 Old English Plate, [oaap. x. 

handle, is the Great Mace of Morpeth (No. 115), 
for an illoBtratioii of which the author ia indebted 
to Mr. B. S. Ferguson.* 

It is of silver, with bowl and knops gilt, has a 
cresting of thirty flcurs-de-IiH, and on the top the 
royal arms as borne by the Stuarts. Below the 
creBting appears the inscription in italic characters, 
describing it in Latin as the gift of William 
Howard, Lord of Morpeth, and the ladj Elizabeth, 
his wife, in 1604. Then under a cable moulding 
come eight shields with the Howard arms and 
quarterings; and below the foot another coat, 
in Mr. Ferguson's opinion once undoubtedly 
enamelled, but from which the coloured matter 
has completely disappeared. It is 20^ inches in 
length. 

The period of small maces with uncrowned heads 
about ends with the reign of James I. The arched 
crown occasionally found in the time of Charles I., 
aud rather oftener, if of different fashion, under the 
Commonwealth, becomes usual at the Restoration; 
and from the middle of the century, State maces 
increased immensely in size also. Smaller maces 
too from this period, as made for persons and 
places of less.than the first importance, are mostly 
reproductions of the large examples on a reduced 
scale. Sometimes crowns have been added to 
earlier maces, and the crowns are all much alike. 
The mace of the ward of Cheap (No. 116) is the 
earliest of the London maces, and is a good 
example of a mace of the time of Charles I., 
with a more modem crown. This addition was 
made in 1678, at the request of the Ward, as 
one of the inscriptions upon it tells. 

It will be noticed that the arches Spring from a 
narrow band, which is evidently itself an addition 
also. The remainder of the bowl with its cresting, 
which has been mutilated to make room for the 
upper band, together with the shaft, give a good 
idea of the earlier maces. When the city macea 

No. 116. — MOBPKTU 

aaUT lUOK (ISOl). * Arehaiiogieat Joanmt, XLII., p. 90. 



CHAP. X.] Maces and Oars. 

were exhibited at the Society of Antiqua- 
ries ID 1860, this one was selected for 
engraring by Mr. Octavius Morgan, be- 
caase it bo admirably iUnstrated the 
changes which tnaceB nuderwent at varioaa 
times. 

The bowls are usually ornamented with 
royal badges that fix their date ; but most 
of the maceB then in existence underwent 
alteration in this respect in pursuance of 
an order of Parliament made in 1649, the 
arms of the Commonwealth being Bubeti- 
tuted for royal bearings. Mr. A. P. 
Humphry notes that the cost of this 
change in the case of the four maces of the 
University of Cambridge was £9 17s. 3(/. 
The expense of restoring the royal arms 
on the Yeoraan-BedcH's mace in 1663 is 
also recorded. The considerable differ- 
ence between macea as agreeable to Com- 
monwealth notions and those of Boyal 
patterns, may be gathered from Mr. W. H. 
St. John Hope's general description of the 
Commonwealth maces still preserved at 
Congleton, Buckingham, and several other 
places.* He notices that " the coronet 
consisted, not of regal fleur-de-lis and 
crosses, but of an intertwined cable en- 
closing small cartouches with a St. 
George's cross for England and a harp 
for Ireland, and instead of a jewelled 
circlet there was a band inscribed ' THE 
FREEDOME OF ENGLAND BY 
GOD'S BLESSING RESTORED ' with 
the date of the making of the mace. The 
jewelled or beaded arches of the crown 
were replaced by four gracefully curved 
members like ostrich feathers, but adorned 
vrith oak foliage, which nearly met in the 
centre, and supported not the time- 

• iWijuary, N. S., Vol. V., Ko. 1. 



3+8 Old English Plate, [chap. x. 

honoured orb and cross bat a handsome cushion wrought with 
cartouches of the arms of England and Ireland and surmounted 
by an acorn. The sta£f was chased throughout with longitudinal 
branches of oak or other foliage encircled by a narrow spiral 
riband and the knots were wrought with spirally laid gadroons." 
Some public attention has on more than one occasion been devoted 
to the question whether the present mace of the House of Commons 
is one of these conyerted maces. Nothing is now known of any mace 
which may have been used before 1649 ; but it is clear that a new 
one was provided in pursuance of an Order of the House in that year, 
and that it was made by one Thomas Maundy or Mandye of Fetter 
Lane, London, who was to have a monopoly of the making of '' all 
other great maces to be used in this Commonwealth *' according to 
the same form and pattern as that which was ordered for use iu 
the House of Commons. The mark of this worthy is to be found 
on maces at Gloucester, dated 1660. In 1650 he made a new mace 
for Wallingford, allowing a sum of £10 2s. 6e2. for older maces made 
in 1615 by Anthony Bennett of the Sunne in Foster Lana The stem 
of the present mace seems to be that of Maundy's mace of 1650, 
though the mace is now royalist in other respects. This is also the 
case at Gloucester. Here economy seems to have been a consideration ; 
and the changes necessary in 1660 were carried out with strict regard 
to it ; for we find that the sword and maces were to be altered only, 
and that the mayor was charged to '' cause the same to be done to the 
best advantage of the chamber." The present maces at Gloucester 
are these very altered ones, the heads of which were then re-made 
with royal emblems and arched crowns, whilst the old shafts with their 
diaper of oak-foliage and acorns, appropriate to Commonwealth times, 
were retained. All four appear to be of the same make, though two 
of them are dated as of 1652 and the other two as of 16G0, only the 
latter having Maundy's mark. According to the Corporation accounts, 
the whole set with the sword were bought of Aldn. Vyner of London 
in 1651 for i^85 5«. Od., and were altered iu 1660 by Mr. Cuthbertes 
of London, goldsmith, at the further cost of j£74 1«. Oe2. The date of 
1660 was no doubt placed upon two of the maces, together with the 
name of the mayor for that year, Toby Jordan, in course of the 
alteration : and Aldn. Vyner must have employed Maundy to make 
them, as one who devoted his attention specially to the manufacture 
of such articles. 

Recent research seems to have left it a little uncertain whether 
the present House of Commons mace is in reality "the fool's 
bauble*' of Cromwell's high-handed proceedings in 1658, under a 



CHAP. X.] Maces and Oars. 349 

newer royalist guise given it at the Restoration, or is an entirely new 
one made in pursuance of a further Order of the House, which 
rfisolved on May 21, 1660, " That two new maces be forthwith pro- 
vided, one for this House, and the other for the Counsel! of State 
with the Crowne and the King s Majesties Armes and such other 
ornaments as have bin usuall, and it is referred to the Counsell of 
State to take care that the same be provided accordingly." The 
weight and the make of the House of Commons mace both seem to 
show that it is an entirely new one. 

In the first place it is probable* that Maundy's mace was consider- 
ably lighter than the present one. The goldsmith himself states in a 
letter preserved amongst the records of the borough of Leicester that 
he was paid at the rate of 18s. ^d, per ounce for it; and from the 
orders of Parliament it may be gathered that its cost was £146 lis. %d. 
This gives its weight as 219 oz. 14dwt. ; whereas that of the present 
mace is engraved on the head as 251. 2. 2, which rather understates 
its present weight than otherwise. This is not perhaps in itself a 
discrepancy of much importance ; but when we come to the fashion of 
the mace as it is, it seems to the author that the fact of the royal 
badges — rose, thistle, harp, and fleur-de-lys — being hammered out bf 
the solid material of which the head of the present mace is formed, is as 
conclusive that it is a new head of 1660 and not an altered one of 
1649, as the fact that the diaper on the stem reproduces the rose and 
thistle found on the head — royal emblems which were certainly not on 
the head of the Commonwealth mace — ^is indicative of the stem being 
of the same date as the head itself. If this is so, there is very little 
left of the '' fooFs bauble " now. In reality the mace now appertaining 
to the Serjeant-at-Arms attending upon the Speaker of the House of 
Commons, and the two maces similarly used by the House of Lords 
(two being required in this case, as the Lord Chancellor is sometimes 
sitting in Court, and by deputy in the House of Lords at the same 
time) are three out of the eleven maces in all possessed by the Lord 
Chamberlain's Department^ and borne by Her Majesty's ten Serjeants- 
at-Arms. The House of Commons mace is returned to that Depart- 
ment when the House is not in session ; whilst the Upper House 
provides for the safe custody of the maces of the Serjeant-at-Arms in 
attendance upon the Lord Chancellor. The other eight Serjeants-at- 
Arms are seldom required to bear their symbols of office ; and as these 
maces are kept at the Tower they are familiar objects to sightseers. 



* These extracts from the House of Com- John Hope, in the Beliqtuiry, New Series 
mona Journals and the Leicester Records Vol. V., p. 26. 
are taken from a paper by Mr. W. H. St. 



Old English Plate, [cbai-. x. 

The author has had opportonitieB of carefall; 
examining most of the eleveo maces, incladiug 
those at the Houses of Lords and Commons. 
All these are of the second half of the seven- 
teenth century, aod four of them bear the m&rks 
of well-known goldsmiths; two being by Francis 
Crarthotne, who enjoyed mnch royal favour, and 
other two by a maker, like him, of the last 
quarter of the centory. It is just worth adding 
that the maces are most of them so mnch alike 
in size, their general length being about 4 feet 
10 inches, as well as in weight and appearance, 
that in days when no great attention was paid 
to such matters, almost any one of them might 
have been issued for use after a Parliamentary 
recess in mistake for his fellow, though there 
is no ground for saying that this has ever 
actually happened. At any rate the mace now 
used at the Hoase of Commons is wholly of the 
Charles II. period, and too closely resembles 
several of the others to make it in the least 
degree probable that any part of it is of more 
ancient date than the year 1660. No more 
typical example of the usual mace of the later 
h^f of the seventeenth century could be found 
than the mace given to the Corporation of 
Norwich in 1671 by Lord Henry Howard. 

It shows every characteristic of the maces 
at either House of Parliament, and, indeed, 
is so very like them, as well as the other 
mac£s at the Tower in general appearance, that 
the engraving of it (No. 117) wonld serve almost 
equally well for any of them. 

Reference was recently mode by the Speaker* 
himself to the tradition held in Jamaica that a 
mace at Kingston, in that island, is the verit- 
able "fool's banble," which is supposed by 
some to have found a home there when turned 
out of the House by Cromwell. It is true that 
an older mace than either of the two now pre- 

* In & ipeech at Leuningtan, Aognit, 1890. 



OHAP. 1.1 Maces and Oars. 

served in the island was once in exist- 
ence. This was taken ont by Lord 
Windsor, temp. Charles 11., as a present 
to the House of Assembly, and was 
long supposed to bare been lost at the 
time of the great earthquake of 1692, 
when Port Royal was overwhelmed, its 
houses engulfed forty fathoms deep by 
the sea. Though this is doubtful, as 
at a Council held at St. Jago IX Jnly, 
1692, the mending of the mace was 
ordered, which looks as if it had been 
damaged but was not lost, it has since 
disappeared.* It seems to have been a 
little overlooked that the "fool'Bbaable" 
of 1649 would have required very great 
alteration before it was fit to send ont 
as a royal present to a colony in 1664. 
The present maces in Jamaica, which 
have not been in use of late years owing 
to the changed form of government in 
the colony, and are now deposited in 
the Institate for safe custody, are com- 
paratively modern. The older one is 
of the year 1758, and was made by 
Mordecai Fox, of London; and the 
newer mace by the hand of Henry 
Green, also of London, dates from 
1787. They are both of great size, 
being abont 6 feet 4 inches in length, 
and the mace of 1753 weighs no less 
than 297i oz. There are other good 
specimens in the West Indies. The 
Speaker's mace at Barbadoes is a fine 
one supplied by Bnndell and Bridge 
in 1812 ; and the Grenada mace made, 
like the later mace at Kingston, 
Jamaica, by Henry Green in 1781, 



Old English Plate. [chap. s. 

is 276 oz. ID weight, being almost as massire as 
the Jamaica mace of 1763.* 

It maj be of interest to add to these notes that 
a mace now nsed by the Speaker of the House of 
Bepresentatives at CbarlestoD, Roath Caroliiia, 
U.S.A., is of 1756, the work of Magdalen Feline, 
of London. All kinds of traditions quite incon- 
sistent with its teal date have attached themselves 
to this mace, as to othersl Sometimes the 
heads of maces are made to nnscrew from the 
shaft and to &steu on to short stems widi 
feet so as to form standing cups, the arched 
crowns also being removable and serving as coTers. 
This is the case with the mace-heads of the towns 
of Cambridge and Gravesend. A standing cnp 
called the " Godwin cap," preserved at Berkeley 
Castle, is formed of a mace-head of the time of 
James I. mounted as a drinking cap in the same 
way. The stems of maces are qnite plain in older 
examples ; bat in Commonwealth times it was 
the fashion to chase them with a diaper of 
oak foliage, and afterwards of rose, or rose and 
thistle. 

As an example of a mace of exceptional form, is 
given an engraving (No. 118) of the mace of the 
Tower Ward, London. The tower head is of the 
reign of Charles II. Eighteenth century maces 
are very common — Paul Lamerie made a small 
pair at Hythe in 1744. The grand maces at 
Bye and Wincbelsea are by T. Hemiug in 1767. 
They follow the fashion of maces of the Charles II. 
period ; and differ from one another, and from 
our typical engraving (No, 117) of such maces, 
only in matters of details. 

Certain &ea-port towns have maces formed as 
silver oars. There are large and small oars of 
this description. The larger ones were nsed as 
maces and symbolized the Admiralty jurisdiction 
of the to^'n. Specimens are preserved at Southamp- 

* Host o! thcM intareating doUb of mien in the West Indies 
vers mode for the autbar bj Mi. Stule; Leighton, M.P., vfao 
vUited tboM ialudi in the uitumn rec«u of 1860. 



CHAP. X.] Racing and Cocking Bells. 353 

ton, Rochester, Dover, and Yarmouth, whilst a fine one, formerly at 
Boston, is now the property of Earl Brownlow. The smaller ones 
were borne by the water-bailidB. They are made to contain the oar 
inside the barrel when not in use, the blade 
being polled out, reversed, and aprewed into one t 

end of the handle when required to be shown 
by the water-bailiff as an emblem of authority 
on occasion of arresting anyone on board ship. 
Such 83 these were to be found at Bochester, 
Colchester, Dover, and Deal, but the last men- 
tioned is now in private hands. As illnsttations 
are given the large and small oar-maces (Nos. 
119 and 120) at Dover. The larger oar is the 
mace of the Cinque Ports Admiralty Court held 
from time immemorial in St. James's Church 
there, and is of the end of the seventeenth 
century. 

The case of the small oar is of brass. Oars 
are of all periods, from the Elizabethan example 
at Boston (which must, however, have been 
modernized, or, in fact, re-made in 1725 ; for it 
bears the hall-marks of that year with the maker's 
mark of Benj. Pyne on every part of it), to the 
small oar of Deal, which is of the year 1819. 
The silver oar of the Governor of Bermuda is -^ -.^ — !»»«» vath- 
dated 1701, but was made in 1697. That of ' Biiurr-a naoe. 
Great Yarmouth is of 1744 ; whilst the large 
Bochester oar is of 1748. The small Rochester oar was made in 
1723, though it has the year 1721 inscribed open it. 

This is perhaps all that can be said about the oar-maces considered 
as articles of plate ; but those who feel interested in their use and 
history mny be referred to the Arckaologieal Journal, Vol. XXX., 
page 91, and Yol. XXXI., page 82, for some additional particulars 
relating to them. 

RACING AND COCKING BELLS. 

Two curious cuts of racing and cocking bells have been placed at 
the author's disposal by Mr. B. S. Ferguson, to complete the con- 
cluding section of this sketch of Old English Plate. 

There are probably not many examples of either to be found. 

The racing-beils (No. 121), are the property of the Corporation of 
Carlisle, and it would appear that such a prize was not an uncommon 
one there. Bells were also given, says Mr. Ferguson, at York, and 



354 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

at Chester. The York bell in 1607 was of gold ; the Cheater one, 
about 1600, of silver only. A reference to these Chester bells will be 
found amongst the notes about the old goldsmiths of Chester (p. 94) 
in an earlier chapter : and a Scottish racing bell is mentioned in the 



chapter on Scottish Plate. This last, which is not unlike the cocklng- 
hell engraved below, mth the same closed month, has the addition of 
small banging shields, the oldest dated 1628, which is no doubt the 
date of tbe piece. Its traditional hiatory, which has been given 
earlier, need not be repeated here. 

The donor of the larger Carlisle bell was probably Elizabeth, 
danghtet of George Talbot, fourth Earl of Shrewshnry, and wife of 



t (ISGS). 

William Lord Dacre of Oillesland, who was Governor of Carlisle 
ia the reign of Queen Elizabeth. It is of silver-gilt, 2^ inches in 
diameter, and bears as shown in the woodcat the rhyming couplet for 
inscription — 

+ THE + 8WEFTB8 + HORSE + THB3 + BEL + TO + TAK + 
FOR + UI + LADE + DA£ER + BAKE 



CHAP. X.] Conclusion, 



355 



The smaller bell bears the initials of Henry Baincs, Mayor of 
Carlisle, in 1599. The Cocking-bell of 1655 (No. 122), is a curious 
relic of the Commonwealth, and may indicate that there was a lighter 
side to the severity which we are prone to identify with that period in 
the history of our arts, as well as of our manners. 



CONCLUSION. 

The history of plate-working in England has now been surveyed 
in as much detail as is possible within the compass of a general hand- 
book. Many of the subjects only touched upon here would require a 
volume if they were dealt with exhaustively, but enough has been 
said about each to give the plate-collector an idea of the varying 
fashions of each successive art period. The antiquary would wish to 
expand the notices of mazers or salts into chapters; the artist, to dwell 
upon the history of shapes and ornament at more suitable length; the 
working goldsmith, on the technicalities of the art - workmanship 
which distinguish many of the most remarkable pieces we have con- 
sidered. But all will agree that there is a singular interest in English 
goldsmiths' work, and it is this : that whilst it has preserved to us in 
comparatively imperishable materials specimens of the art-workmanship 
of every decade, from the Gothic period to our own, it has given us at 
the same time the means of dating these specimens with far greater 
certainty and accuracy than is the case with any other series of art- 
objects that have come down to our time. In this way it becomes 
possible to use old English silver work as a key for the dating of very 
many and very different objects, which could only be assigned in a 
general way to their period in art-history, but for the indirect aid that 
our ancient English system of hall-marking has thus incidentally 
supplied. In no other way can the gradual melting of Gothic into 
Benaissance style be so delicately measured, or the sequence of the 
art-epochs which we are in the habit of calling by the names of the 
French monarchs of the eighteenth century. The accuracy with 
which both French and English silver work can be dated enables us to 
trace the style known generally as 'style de Louis XY.' through three 
separate developments, in a way that would otherwise be almost 
impossible ; and the same may be said in a greater or less degree of 
almost every other well-known period from early days to the end of 
the eighteenth century. This is the point at which it has seemed 
convenient to break off the various notices which make up the fore- 

A ▲ 2 



A 



/ 



356 Old English Plate. [chap. x. 

going sketch. The art of the goldsmith in the early days of the 
present century made less than no progress. Like other seasons of 
rest, this interral has in our times been followed by a reTival which 
promises much, and especially in our own country ; but it need hardly 
be said that a consideration of contemporary work, howeyer interesting 
in itself, would be inconsistent with the design of a handbook on 
" Old EngUsh Plate." 



■■■9 



APPENDIX A. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST, Part L, 

OF 

THE AETICLES OF PLATE 

WHICH HAVE 8EBVED AS AUTHOBITT FOB 

THE CONSTRUCTION OP THE TABLES OP DATE-LETTEES 
USED AT GOLDSMITHS' HALL, LONDON, 

AND FOB THP] MAKERS* MABES. 

To be used with Part II, following it, as a single List. 



In the following list, the yean must be usderstood to begin in the month of 
May of the year given as the date, and to end in the same month of the year 
following : — 



DATS 



1479 
1481 
1491 
1493 

1496 



1498 

1499 

Do. 
1500 

1504 
1506 
1607 



Maseb*8 Mabk. 




>» 




Dimidiated fleor-dc- 
lys. 



AbTXOLI AMD OWHBR. 



A pod with peas in 
it(?) 





A barrel or ton 



Alphabet I. 1478—1497. 
Chalice and paten. Nettlecombe, Som. 

The Anathema Cap, given 1497. Pemb.CoU.Camb. 

Paten. Stow Longa, Hants. 

Apostle-spoon. (Staniforth ColL) 

Paten. Costessey, Norf. 

Alphabet IL 1498—1617. 
Pair of chalices. B.N.C. Oxford. 
The Leigh Cap. Mercers* Company. 

Spoon. Alnwick Castle. 
Spoon. (Staniforth Coll.) 

Paten. Happisbroagh, Norl 

Bp. Foz*8 spoons, with owls at the ends. C.C.C. 
Oxford. 

Bp. Fox*s gold chalice and paten. C.C.C.Oxford. 



358 



Old English Plate. 



[A.PP. 



DATB 



1507 

Do. 
Do. 

1508 

1509 

1510 
1511 
1512 

1514 

1515 
Do. 

1516 

Do. 

1517 



1518 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1519 
Do. 
1520 
1521 



Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1522 

1523 

1525 



i 



Maksr's Mark. 



Do. 




1^ 



i 




Do. 
$1 






A maidenhead, no 
shield. 

Do. . 

A fish as in 1491 . 

No shield . 



Articlb ahd Owvxk. 



Two links of chain . 
No shield . 



Chalice and paten. West Drayton, Midz. 

Mazer. Saffron- Walden Almshouse, Essex. ! 
Foundress' beaker and hour-glass salt. Christ *s 
Coll. Cambridge. 

Mazer. Whitgift Charity, Croydon, Surrey. 



A barrel or ton as in 
1504. 



Paten. Hockham Parva, Norf. 
. Mazer. Sir A. W. Franks. 
Cup used as chalice. Chewton Mendip, Som. 
Low bowl used as chalice. Wymeswold, Leic. 



^lan with staff . 



Paten. Heworth, Durham. 



As in 1515 



. Low bowl with cover. C.C.C. Oxford. 
Apostle-spoon (St. Paul), gift of Abp. Parker. 

C.C.C. Camb. 
Bp. Fox's spoons, with balls on the ends. C.C.C. 

Oxford. 
Hour-glass salt. Cotehele House, Comw. 



Some small animal . 



Two links as in 1509 



Crescent and star as 
in 1516. 



Two links as in 1509 
Do. . . . 



Paten. (Staniforth Coll.) 



Alphabet III. 1518—1537. 

Chalice. St. Mary's E. C. Church, Leyland, Lane. 
Cocoa-nut cup, with hinged straps. Vintners' 

Company. 
Hour-glass salt. Ironmongers' Company. 
Do. Saddlers' Company. 

Set of eleven apostles' spoons from the Bemal 
Collection. (Staniforth Coll.) | 

Paten. From Hamsterley, Durh. (Durham ' 
Cathl. Library.) 

Standing cup * with imbricated pattern on bowL 
Christ's Coll. Camb. 

Low bowl with imbricated pattern, and inscrip- 
tion round in Tudor capitals. J. Dunn 
Gardner, Esq. 

Chalice. Jurby, Isle of Man. 

Paten. Great VValtham, Essex. 

Mazer, with rose enamelled on boss. C.C.C. Camb. 

Hour-glass salt. Ironmongers* Company. 

Cup, given 1540 by Henry VUt Barber- 
Surgeons' Company. 

Mount of ivory cup, called Thomas & Becket*s 
cup. Duke of Norfolk. 



* The arms on the knop of the cover of this cup have never been identified. They are thus de- 
Bcnbed by the late Mr. Albert Way \—hx%. on a chevr. sa. 8 etitoiles of the field betw. 8 adders' heads 
of the second, a crescent for difference. 



A pp. A.] 



XVIth Century. 



359 



DATB 

1525 

Do. 
1527 



Do. 
1528 



Do. 

1529 
Do. 

1530 
1531 

1532 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1533 

Do. 
1534 



Maker's Mark. 



1535 

1536 
1537 



1539 

I 

1543 
1545 



) 



1546 

1548 
Do. 





m 




Do. 



f> 



• • 




Do. 





TW 



1 






Article and Ownbr. 



. Chalice. Wylye, Wilts. 



A heart as in 1515 . 
A saint's head . 



Miinasses iStocktuii 
was of the " Keye " 
in 1569. 



As in 1528 
Fringed S as in 1519 



Orb and cross be- 
tween I C as in 1 528 
No shield . 

Fringed S as in 1519 

John Mabbe was of 
the "Cuppe" in 
1569. 
Do. 



John Harysson was 
of the " Broad 
Arrow " in 1569. 



As in 1533 
Fringed S as in 1519 



Fringed S as in 1519 



Maidenhead 



Covered cup 



See 1557 . 



Seal-headed spoon, called the Pudsey spoon. 

Mayer Museum, Liverpool. 
Chalice, gift of Sir Thos. Pope. Trin. Coll. 

Oxford. 

Spoon. Sir O. Walker, Bart 
Spoon, with spirally fluted knob. (Staniforth 
Coll.) 

The St. Nicholas spoon. J. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

Small standing mazer. All Souls* Coll. Oxford. 
Apostle-spoon (St. Philip). Dug up at Moreton, 
near Thombury, Glouc. Late J. H. Cooke, Esq. 
Apostle-spoon. (Staniforth Coll.) 
Cover to a cup. C.C.C. Camb. 

The "Narford" mazer. Sir A. W. Franks. 

Apostle-spoon (St. Andrew). Dug up at Moreton. 

Late J. H. Cooke, Esq. 
Tazza, used as almsplate. Arlington, Devon. 



Cover to pair of similar tazze (the tazze are of 

1530 and 1531). Rochester CathdI. 
Paten. St. Edmund, Salisbury. 

Two-handled cup with cover, engraved scrolls. 

C.C.C. Oxford. 
Mazer, known as the ** Tokerys " bowl. Rev. T. 

W. Braikenridge. 

The "Boleyn" cup, used as a chalice. Ciren- 
cester, Glouc. 
Chalice. Sturminster Marshall, Dorset. 
A)K)stle-spoon. (Staniforth Coll.) 



Alphabet IV. 1538—1557. 

Apostle-spoon (St. Julian). Innholders* Com- 
pany. 

Standing cup, with cover surmounted by statu- 
ette. St. Peter Mancrof t, Norwich. 

Ewer and salver, engraved with foliated ara- 
besques, given by Abp. Parker. C. C.C. Camb. 

Mount of glass jug, cover enamelled with arms 
of Parr. (From Strawberry Hill Coll.) Sudeley 
Castle. 

Plain communion cup. St. Lawrence Jewry, 
London. 

Mount of glass jug. Sir A. W. Franks. 



36o 



Old English Plate, 



[app. a. 



DATS 

1549 
Do. 
1550 

1551 

Do. 

Do. 
1552 



Do. 
1553 



1554 
Do. 

Do. 



1556 
1557 

Do. 



1558 
1559 

1560 

Do. 

1561 
Do. 
Do. 



Maker's Mark. 








^ 
^ 



• 




. • 



^ 
^ 




m 








u 



• 



AG linked letter8 



BN linked letters, 



probably for Nichs. 



Articlx avd Owkir. 



Mount of jug. (Staniforth CoU.) Sir A. W. 
Franks. 



Communion cup, engraved with aiabesqaes, 
Bridekirk, Camb. 



Seal-headed baloster-top spoon. (R. Temple 
Frere Coll.) 
lartlemewe. 
Leg in armour. One 
Beereblocke was of 
the "Legge" in 
1569. 

I Pair of communion cups. Bt Margaret, West- 
minster. 



A dexter hand open| Plain communion cup. Hunstanton, Norf. I 

under a crown. 

I 
AK linked letters . Plain communion cup. Totnes, Devon. 



RD linked letters 



RD linked as in 1552 
TL monogram . . 



A bird 



See 1548 . 



Mark very indistinct 
Probably bird's claw. 



Sun in splendour, 
with W in centre, 
on plain shield. 

A covered cup as in 
1548. 



Plain communion cup. Messrs. Thomas, 1883. 

Seal-headed baluster-top spoon. ArmourenB' Co. 

Standing cup with cover, surmounted by statu- 
ette. Armourers' Company. 

Cylindrical standing salt, with cover surmounted | 
by statuette. C.C.C. Oxford. 

Sir Martin Bowes' cup. Goldsmiths' Company. 

Two-handled cup. C.C.C. Camb. 

I 

Nautilus cup, with hinged figure straps, foot: 
repoussd with masks and flowers. Messrs. 
Christie, Manson, & Woods. 1885. 

Alms-dish, with Tudor rose boss. St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. 

Covered cup on stem, with Eliz. eng^raved belt. 
Waterbeshch, Cambs. 

Seal-headed spoon. Messrs. West, Dublin, 1882. 



Alphabet V. 1658—1577. 

I 

Communion cup and cover. St. Michael-le-' 

Belfry, York. 
Plain communion cup, gilt, no engraved belt ; 

egg and dart moulding round foot. St. Peter 

ad Vincula, Tower of London. 
Spoon, with lion sejant on stem. (Date-letter 

not in a shield.) Sudeley Castle. 

Very small communion cup with engraved belt. 

(Date letter in a regular shield.) Ugglebamby, 

Yorks. 
Standing cup used as a chalice. Watford, Herts. 
Apostle-spoon. Innholders' Company. 



Bell-shaped communion cup, paten cover dated 
1578, no engraved belt. Lyminge, Kent. 



APP. A.] 



XVIth Century. 



361 



DATE 
1561 

Do. 

1562 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



1563 



Do. 
1564 



Do. 
Do. 



1565 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Do. 

1566 
Do. 



Do. 

1567 

Do. 



Maker's Mark. 




® 




t 





? 





HW 
IF 





11^1 






Stages head^asin 1551 

NS interlaced, pro- 
bably Nichs. Sutton 



Artioli akd Owksr. 



No shield . 



« ■ 



• • 



A cricket or grass- 
hopper below. 



RD in monogram as 
in 1552. 



• • • • 



Flear- de- lys as in 
1562. 



A hand grasping a 
cross-croelet fitchc^ 

As in 1563 

As in 1557 . . . 



An animal's head 



Some small animal 
passant, as in 1560 



Crescent and three 
stars as in 1560. 



Communion cup, usual belt. Beeford, Yorks. 

Wide Norfolk-shaped com. cup, engraved belt. 
St. Lawrence Jewry, Lond. 

Mount of stoneware jug. Vintners' Company. 
Also com. cup. Swingfield, Kent. 

Cup and cover surmounted by statuette. Ar- 
mourers' Company. 

Seal-beaded spoon. Armourers' Company. 

Communion cup, gilt and handsomely engraved 
in usual style. St. Olave, Old Jewry, Lond. 

Plain com. cup, no belt. High Halden, Kent. 

Com. cup, double belt Headcom, Kent. 



Communion cup, usual Elizabethan belt. Aven- 

ing, GIouc. 
Circular standing salt and cover repouss^ in 

relief with strap work, cartouches, masks, 

foliage, &c. ; given 1570, by Abp. Parker. 

C.C.C. Camb. 
Standing cup formed as a melon, with melon 

stalk and tendrils for foot. Hon. Soc. of Inner 

Temple. 
Cum. cup, usual pattern. Old Alresford, Hants. 
Com. cup, usual pattern. New Alresford, Hants. 

Communion cup, usual pattern, but with two 

belts. All Souls' Coll. Oxford. 
Communion cup. Sberbum Hospital, Durh. 

Communion cup and cover. Little Ness, Salop. 
Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 

Communion cup and cover, usual Elizabethan 
belt. Daglingworth, Glouc. 

Seven spoons with pear-shaped bowls and 
angular knops. Mercers' Company. 

Small com. cup, usual belt. Hawkinge, Kent. 

Another. Temple Ewell, Kent. 
Mount of stoneware jug. Messrs. Garrards. 
Set of twelve apostles' spoons, given by Abp. 

Parker, probably in 1570, as their weight is 

recoixlcd on the salt of 1562-3, which he gave 

in that year. C.C.C. Camb. 
Plain gilt com. cup, no belt. Westerham, Kent. 

Small com. cup, usual belt, with paten-oover ; 

formerly at Beding. British Museum. 
Small communion cup, usual pattern. Oxburgh, 

Norf. Also paten-cover. E. Horndon, Essex. 



i 



362 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DATK 
1567 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1568 

Do. 

Do. 

1569 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1570 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1571 
Do. 

Do. 



Maker*b Mark. 



® 




• • 




^ 




^ 




IP 



NS 




Do. 



IP 
HW 



BT 



A hooded falcon. 

Tho6. Hampton was 

of "The Falcon "at 

this period. 
Hand with hammer, 

shaped shield. 

RD in monogram, as 
in 1553. 



A bunch of grapes . 



Articli and OwNsa. 



A falcon, as in 1567 . 



A bull's head erased 
on shaped stamp. 

A bunch of grapes, 
as in 1568. 



As in 1566 



Twelve parcel-gilt plates, engraved after Aide- 
graver with the Labours of Hercules, formerly 
the property of the Cotton family. Messrs. 
Garrards. j 

Fine parcel-gilt ewer with Bishop Parkhurst's] 
arms on button of lid. Corpn. of Guildford. 

Jug or pot, with cover and handle. Armourers' 

Company. 
Plain aimmunion cup and cover, no belt. Christ's 

Coll. Camb. 

Gilt cup and cover, ornamented with chasing. 

Armourers' Company. • 

Six engraved plates. Messrs. Thomas. 

Communion cup. Suttcrton, Line. 

Standing salt. Vintners* Company. 



Communion cup and cover, usual engraved belL 

Poulton, Wilts. 
Communion cup and cover, usual engraved belt. 

Avening, Glouc. 
Tall Rtanding cup and cover, surmounted by a 

statuette ; given in 1569 by Abp. Parker. 

C.C.C. Camb. 
. Communion cup. Homcastle, Line. 



.i Com. cup and cover, usual belt. Barlings, Line. 

Also a very fine one. Eton Coll. ChajKjl. Also 

I a small one with good belt, dated 1569. Titsey, 

I Surrey. 

Interlaced, as in 15621 Broken lid, probably from stoneware jug. centre 

repousse with portrait of Henry VIII. British 
Museum. 
Communion cups. Sneaton, Yorks., and St. 

Bees', Cumb. 
Large plain communion cups and covers. Ciren- 
cester, Glouc. 
Communion cup, usual belt. Formerly at Alder- 



Linked letters, as in 

1551. 
Stag's head,as in 1551 



HS intcrlaced,proba- 

bly Henry Sutton. | _ maston, Berks. 
Do. ... 
SE interlaced 



As in 1566 



Do., do., dated 1571. Ingleby Amcliffe. Yorks. 
Tazza cup or bowl on stem, used as chalice. Bas- 
church, Salop. 

Two-handled cup to match one of 1555, q. v. 

C.C.C. Camb. 
Communion cup. Stow Longa, Hunts. 



As in 1563 



' /"»- 



Communion cups. Lanchester, Durh., and 
Pilton, Sora. 

AjK)stle-spoon. Innholders' Company. 

A dove on shaped! Small gilt tankard, ornamented with arabesques, 
shield. medallions nnd masks. Given bv Abp. Parker. 

in 1571. C.C.C. Camb. 
Linked letters, as in. Jug or pot with Elizn. engraving like that of 
1567. 1567 at Armourers' Hall. Treasure of the 

Patriarch, Moscow. 



APP. A.} 



XVIth Century. 



163 



DATS 



1571 

Do. 
Do. ' 
Do. ■ 

Do. ' 

1572 

Do. 

Do. 

1573 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1574 

Do. 

1575 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1576 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 






Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 

1577 
Do. 



Majuk's Mark. 







I- 






WC 



M 

fM] 







Pair of bellows . . 

Linked letters, as in 
1568. 



Article amd Owner. 



Linked letters, as in 
1558. 



Commnnion cups, usual pattern. Bothal, Nortbmb. 

and Sutton Asbfield, Notts. 
Communion cup. Qreatbami Durb. 

Com. cup, usual belt The Chapel, St. Michael's 

Mount, Comw. 
Communion cup, usual pattern. Great Smeaton, 

Yorks. 

Communion cup. Adlingfleet, Yorks. 



An eagle displayed in 
circular escutcheon 



. Gilt tazza in form of a Venetian glass. Christ's 
Coll. Camb. 
Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 



Paten cover, engraved 1572. Northleach, Glouc. 



As in 1566 



Communion cup, parcel gilt, two engraved belts. 
I St. Martin, Exeter. 

. Communion cups and covers, usual pattern. 
I Rodney Stoke and Mark, 80m. 
This mark occurs on Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company, 
a similar spoon of 
1575. 
As in 1567 . . . 



A halberd between 

the letters. 
As in 1565 



Grasshopper below. 

as in 1562. 
Linked letters, as in 

1551, but larger. 



as in 1570. 

• « 

As in 1575 



Blue and gray stoneware jug. Alnwick Castle. 
Tankard. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 



Communion cup and cover, usual belt. Kemble, 

Wilts. 
Communion cup and cover, usual belt, parcel 

gilt, Preston, Glouc. 
Stoneware jug, with usual repouss<^ mount and 

lid, Sudeley Castle. 
Communion cup with paten cover, usual belts, 

etc. St Kew, Comw. 
Crescents and star. Gilt com. cup and cover, dated 1575. Oswestry, 

Salop. 
Simon Gibbon's salt. Goldsmiths' Company. 
Communion cup and cover, dated 1576, two belts. 

Somerford Keynes, Wilta 
Pair of large bowl flagons, dated 1577. Ciren- 
cester, Glouc. 



? what . 



Sun in splendour 



As in 1571 

Compasses with 
points downwards, 
a mullet between 
them. 



Communion cup and cover, dated 1577, usual 

pattern, but very handsomely engraved. 

Fairford, Glouc, I 

Communion cup and cover, dated 1577, usual 

belt. Baunton, Glouc. 
Communion cup, usual pattern. Christ Ch. Monm. ' 
Communion cup, dated 1576. Caerleon, Monm. | 
Standing cup with cover surmounted by statuette, ; 

now used as a chalice, St. Mabyn, Cornw. i 



Chalice of tazza form. Wishford, Wilts. 

Communion cup, Magor, Monm, 

Seal -headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 



364 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DATB 



1578 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
1579 

1580 

1581 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1583 

Do. 

1584 
Do. 

1585 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 

1586 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 



Makk&'s Mabk. 




(D 



IC 



• • 




• 




• • 



t 




KW 




ii 

Do. 




Da 



• . 




is) 







PG, as shown . . 

A windmill. Bobt. 
Wright was of the 
"Wyndmylle" in 
1569. 

Animal's head be- 
tween, see 1565, 



An escallop 



ArTIOLB AMD OWVIB. 



No shield . . . 

Double - seeded rose 
in pentagon. 



A flag with staff 
bendwise. 



This mark occurs on 
similar spoons of 
1690. 1596, 1602, 
I6O3; 1609, 1611, 
1612. 

Three leaves with 3 
pellets as in 1576. 

This mark occurs on 
similar spoons of 
1596, 1599, 1600, 
1601. 



A newt on a ton 
(rebus for New- 
ton). 



Alphabet VI. 1578—1597. 

Mount of large mazer-bowl. Armourers' 
CJompany. 

Small cup, lower part fluted, upper part en- 
grayed with fest<K)Ds and animals. St. Mar>* 
the Virgin, Romney Marsh. 

Mount of stoneware flagon. Menheniot, Comw. 

Qilt cup, dated 1578. Drapers* Company. 

Apostle-spoon. (Staniforth CoU.) 

Communion cup and paten-coyer, dated 1579. 
Crawley, Suss. 

Standing cup with more modem cover. Ar- 
mourers' Company. 

Gilt ewer and salver, partly formed of agate. 
Duke of Rutland. 

Mount of stoneware flagon. Mailing, Kent. 

Communion cup. Exton, co. Rutland. 



Com. cup, Eliz. belt, conical stem, knop under 

bowl. Grimston, Leic. 
Large gilt communion cup. Gray's Inn Chapel, 

Lond. 
Pair of large flagons. St. Margaret, Westminster. 

Mount of stoneware jug. Sir A. W. Franks. 
Gilt cup, shaped as an ostrich ^^^ hinged straps, 

foot surmounted by four dolphins. Earl of 

Ducie. 
Gourd-shaped standing cup and cover, stem as 

double twisted tree-trunk. Armourers' Comp. 
Very massive seal-headed spoon. Earl of Mount- 

Edgcumbe. 
Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 



Mazer. Rev. H. F. St. John. 
Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 

Small gilt paten. St. Margaret, Westminster. 

Communion cup with paten cover, usual belts. 
Stanford, Kent. 

Very large standing salt, finely reponss^ with 
flower-swaggs and masks, cover with scroll 
supports to a vase, overall three more supports 
and an acorn knop. South Kensington Mus. 



APP. A.] 



XVIth Century. 



365 




1589 



D(i. 

1595 

Do. 

Da 
1596 
Do. 
Do. 
1597 

Do. 



Makb&*8 Mark. 



RP 








&W 








® 



IQ 






Abtxoli akd Owner. 



This mark occurs on 
a similar spoon of 
1597. 

IS interlaced, as in 
1588. 



An anchor. This mark 
occurs on a similar 
spoon of 1597. 

As In 1581 

A rose below . . 



As In 1586 



Small rose or a mullet 
below. 



Do. I 



Newt on ton, as in 

1586. 
Linked letters, as in 

1591. 
A bear passant below 



Double-headed eagle 
displayed. 



Cocoa-nut mounts. Cooks' Company. { 

Plain cylindrical salt, statuette on cover, ball 
and bird*s-claw feet. Armourers' Company. 

Gilt cup on baluster stem, with knop, engraved' 
with flowers. (Staniforth Coll.) ! 

I 

Flagon, tapering barrel, repouss^ decorations. ' 
Fugglestone St. Peter, Wilts. 

Rose-water salver with raised boss, engraved 
with arms, etc. Merchant Taylors' Company. 
Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 



Ostrich-egg cup. Noted by the late Mr. Albert 
Way in 1864, as then in the possession of a 
family in Kent. 

Cup on baluster stem, oviform bowl, engr. with 
foliage. Messrs. Garrards, 1882. 

Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 



Ostrich-egg cup. C.C.C. Camb. 
Pair of flagons. Bendcombe, Glouc. 

I 
I 

Tall cup made of the great seal of Ireland, anno 
1593. Marquis of Ely. 

Small paten. St. Olave, Old Jewry, Lond. 

Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 

Jug-shaped flagon. Westwell, Kent. 

Ewer and salver. Corporation of Bristol. 

I 

Salver, repouss^ strapwork, marine monsters in 
cartouches, etc. H.M. the Queen. 

The Hammersley salt. Haberdashers' Company. 

Seal-headed spoon. (Staniforth Coll.) 

Jug-shaped flagon, bowl repouss^ with strap- 
work. Treasure of the Patriarch, Moscow. 
Communion cup. Bokeby, Yorks. 

Small communion tankard, or flagon, chased and 
engraved. Christ's Coll. Camb. 

Jug-shaped flagon. Westwell, Kent. (The eagle*8 
heads are between letters t s.) 



366 



Old English Plate. 



[a pp. A. 



DATK' 



Makbr*s Mark. 



1598 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



1599 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1600 

Do. 

Do. 

1601 

Do. 
Do, 
Do. 

1602 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1603 
1604 



m 





^ 




@ 

^ 

\ 





JS 




IS 



IG 




* 






A Bquirrel 



No shield . 



Interlaced 

W within crescent, 
as in 1585. 



A squirrel, as in 1599 

Linked letters, as in 

1591. 
See 1585 . . . 



Animars head erased 

Harp betw. initials, 
probably LM, 
shaped shield. 



Linked letters, as in 
1602. 



Alphabet VIL 1598—1617. 

Circnlar bell-shaped salt with compartments. 
(Octavias Morgan Coll.) 

Cop with cover, gift of Adam Dixon. Armoorers* 
Company. 

Communion cup. East Gilling, Torks. 



Beaker-shaped communion cup. Llanfyllin, N, 
Wales. 



Tall gilt cup, bowl ornamented with large escal- 
lops. Kensington, Midx. 

Tazza-cup, bowl having ornament punched from 
the outside. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

Small gilt cup on baluster stem. Armourers' 
Company. 

The Gwalter cup, dated 1599. Innholders* Co. 
Also paten-cover. Throwley, Kent. 



Large plain gilt bowL Whitgift Charity, 

Croydon. 
Bell-shaped salt or spice-box. From the Dasent ' 

collection. 
Seal-headed spoon. Innholders* Company. 

Pair of great sejant leopards supporting shields. 
Imperial Treasury, Moscow. 

Standing cylindrical salt, ex done Rogers. 
(Goldsmiths* Company. 

Seal-headed spoon. Armourers* Company. 

Silver gilt cup engr. with flowers ; found in one 
of the lakes at Knowsley. Earl of Derby. 

Gourd-shaped cap, stem as twisted tree-trunk. 
Treasure of the Patriarch, Moscow. ' 

Seal-headed spoon. Armourers* Company. I 

Cup on stem, straight-sided bowl, like the Eliza- , 
bethan commanion cups, cover with statuette, 
ex dono Champemowne. C.C.C. Camb. 

Communion cup. Ellel, Lane. 

Plain gilt tankard, straight sides, dome lid with 
ray^ button. Corpn. of Guildford. 

Cup, dated 1640. Corporation of Hedon, Yorks. 

Beaker. Mercers* Company. 



APK A.] 



XV nth Century. 



1 
J 



67 



DATE 



1604 



Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1605 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1606 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Makkr^s Mark. 



Abticlb akd Owner. 



m 




1607 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1608 

Do. 




© 




Do. 
Do. 



nil 





Do. 






wc 

9^ 




This mark occurs on 
similar spoons of 
1606, 1608, 1610, 
1611, 1612, 1613, 
1615, 1617, 1619. 
1620. 



Animars head, as in 

1602. 
Bear passant below, 

as in 1597. 
Monogram, as in 1602 



As in 1585 
Do. . 



Negro's head below 



This mark occurs on 
similar spoons of 
1609,1611,1612. 



T rising from middle 
of W. 



SF interlaced 



Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 



Cup, presented 1588, but must have been re-made 
this year. The Burgesses of Westminster. 

Fine ]ug, snake-handle. Imperial Treasury, 
Moscow. 

Jug-shaped flagons. Romanoff House, Moscow. 

Beakers to match that of 1604. Mercers' Com. 
Rose-water dish, repoussd with marine monsters, 

Elizabethan belts and foliage. Clothworkers' 

Company. 
The Cockayne cups. Skinners' Company. 



Spoon with lion sejant handle. British Museum. 

Apostle spoon. Melbury House, Dorset. 

Shallow cup on baluster stem, bowl ornamented 
with punched pattern from the outside. Ar- 
mourers' Company. 

Cun of similar shape, on bell-shaped stem, with 
three arms to support bowl, which is orna- 
mented with engraving. C.C.C. Camb. 

Communion cups and patens. Halifax, Yorks. 

Gilt salt in form of a temple. R. Neville Gren- 
ville, Esq. 

Circular bell-shaped salt or spice-box« Christ's 
Hospital, Lond. 

Spoons ex dittio Ferris. Trinity House, Hull. 



Communion cap. North Meols, Lane. 
Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 

Apostle-spoon. (Staniforth Coll.) 

Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 
Gilt foot of glass cup. Founders' Company. 
Cup, repoussd with marine monsters in medal- 
lions. C.C.C. Camb. 

Cup, with pyramid on cover. Cutlers' Company. 

Paten. Chelmorton, Derby. 



W within C, as in Apostle spoon. British Museum. 
1607. I 

' Straight-sided tankard-flagons. Brasenose Coll. 

I Chapel, Oxford. 



368 



Old English Plate. 



[app. 



iDATE 



1608 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1609 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
1610 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1611 

Do. 

1612 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1613 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Makkb*8 Mark. 



Articlk ahd Ownsr. 





TF 
SO 

(ta) 

TF 




Do. 
TF 
IV 
CB 
IV 




A casque ; found on 
a similar spoon of 
1610. 



As in 1604 . . . 

Do 

A cross within a cres- 
cent, as in 1607. 
TF in monogram 

Do. . . . . 



.... 



As in 1605 . 



Monogram as in 1609 



. . 



As in 1608 . 



•i 



Cup and cover, engraved all over bowl with 
flowers. Armourers* Company. 

Tall shaped repouss^ cup, surmounted by open- 
work triangular steeple and statuette. Ar- 
mourers' Company. 

Seal-headed spoon. Armourers* Company. 



Cup on stem, bowl ornamented with leaves, cover ' 
with steeple. C.C.C. Camb. 

Plain communion cup. Bermondsey, Surrey. 

Box in form of escallop. Lord Hotham. 

Apostle spoon. Innholders* Company. 

Handsome gilt communion cups and covers. 

Temple Church, Lond. 
Ansell's cup. Carpenters* Company. 
Gilt tazza-cup to match one of 1572, q. v. ChrisVs 

Coll. Camb. 
Communion cup. Halsall, Lane. Also plain 

deep dish. 0. E. L. Baker, Esq. 
Communion cup, V-shaped, on baluster stem, 

formerly at Stanley Pontlarge Church, co. 

Glouc. Sndeley Castle. 
Gilt cup and cover. Armourers* Company. 

Cud called "Earl Godwin's Cup.** Berkeley 

Castle. 
Ewer and salver, repouss^ with marine monsters 

in oval cartouches, etc., given 1613. Eton 

College. 
Communion cups. Prior's Marston, Warw. 



Monogramasinl609 Reeves's Cup. Carpenters* Company. 



Monogram as in 1609 
As in 1607 
Monogram, as in 1606 
As in 1607 . . . 



Tall cup, richly repouss6, pyramid cover. Barford 

.•^t. Martin, Wilts. 
Communion cup, ex dono Ferris. Holy Trinity, 

Hull. 
Tall standing cup, cover with finial supported by 

three mermaids. Trinity House, Lond. 
Communion cun, cover with knob. St. George's 

Chapel, Winasor. 
Tall cop with cover surmounted by open-work 

steeple. Bongate Church, Appleby, Westmrld. 
Plain bowl-shaped flagon (like Cfrencester, 1676). 

St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 
Seal-headed spoon. Armourers* Company. 

Thomas Edmonds* Cup. Carpenters* Company. 

Jug-shaped flagon, repouss^ ornament. Imperial i 
Treasury, Moscow. I 



APP. A.] 



XVIIth Century. 



369 



DATE 
1613 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1614 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1615 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1616 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1617 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Maxir'b Mark. 



Do. 

Do. 
IV 



RB 



IM 
\^ 

(RCl 

wc 





IR 




IV 








Ab in 1608 



Articlk akd OwmsR. 



As in 1607 



This mark occurs on 
similar spoons of 
1617, 1621, 



Tall cup with pyramid on cover. Holm Cultram, 

Cumb. 
Tankard-flagon, repouss^ ornament. Treasury of 

the Patriarch, Moscow. 
Cylindrical salt with cover, ball and claw feet. 

Imperial Treasury, Moscow. 
Another, with triaugular pierced pyramid on 

cover. Romanoff House, Moscow. 
Flagons, dated 1695. St. Michael's, Coventry. 

Cylindrical standing salt with steeple cover, 
dated 16.35. Innholders* Company. 

Tall cup with steeple on cover. Odcombe, Som. 
Also cup. Kirkburton, Yorks. 

Seal-headed spoon. Armourers* Company. 

Three small grace cups on high stems. Christ's 

Hospital, London. 
Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 



Do. . 



A key between 



As in 1607 
Do. . 



A bell below 



Interlaced as in 1607 
Monogram, as in 1609 



As in 1607 . 
A dart between 



One of three small octagonal cups on high stems. 
Armourers' Company. 

Communion cup and paten-cover, usual Eliza- 
bethan pattern. Cricklade St. Sampson, Wilts. 

Communion cup on baluster stem. Cumrew, 
Cumb. 

Rose-water dish, repoussS with marine monsters 
on medallions, etc. Clothworkers' Company. 

Communion cup with paten cover, dated 1616. 
St. Andrew, Plymouth. 

Com. cap to match that of 1612. St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. 

Flagon with marine monsters for decoration. 
Queen's Coll., Oxford. 

Oviform cup on baluster stem, ex dono Johnson, 
dated 1616. C.C.C. Camb. 

Gilt cup, repouss^ with flowers, etc. on high stem. 

Armourers' Company. 
Tall hanap with steeple and figure on cover. 

Bodmin, Comw. 
Oviform cup on stem, with scroll bracket snp- 

Sorts to bowl. Treasure of the Patriarcii, 
[oscow. 
Oviform cup on baluster stem. Chignal, Essex. 
Communion cup, usual engraving, given 1618. 

Sevenoaks, Kent. 
S poons with lion sejant handles. British Museum. 

Ewer and salver. Corporation of Norwich. 

Ewer, flat strap-work decoration. H.M. the 
Queen. 



B B 



370 



Old English Plate. 



[AFP. A. 



DATS 



MAKBa*8 Mark. 



1618 
Do. 

1619 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1620 

Do. 

1621 

Do. 

Do. 

1622 
Do. 
1623 

Do. 
Do. 

1624 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1625 



BC 




CB 



CM 




IS 

TP 

Do. 



IP 
FW 



WC 

1S\ 




DV 

[pjb [ 

TP 

[RDl 




Ab in 1608 . 
In plain shield 



Abticub avd Owvbb. 



HT 



A heart below . . 

Monogram, as in 

1606. 
A bird alighting with 

wings erectyShaped 

shield. 
As in 1615 



ALPHABET VIII. 1618^-1637. 

Tall reponss^ tankard. Corporation of Norwich. 
Tall upright gilt commnnion flagon. Hon. 8oc. 

of 6ra7*B Inn. 
Tall upright gilt commnnion flagon, repouss^ in 

panels with straps, etc. Kensington, Mldz. 

A pair of flagons, yerj like the last, given 1620. 

Bodmin, Comw. 
Tall cap, with steeple and flgure with shield and 

spear on cover. linton, Kent. 
Commnnion plates. All Souls' ColL, Oxford. 



Commnnion cup. St. Mary's, Hull. 
Commnnion cup. Ansley, Warw. 



As in 1617 
Monogram, as in 1609 
Do 



See 1604 . 
See 1615 
As in 1617 



Linked letters, as in 
1611. 



Pilgrim-bottle vase with chains to stopper. 

Imperial Treasuiy, Moscow. 
Tall cup with pyramid on cover. Northleach, 

Glouc 
Plain communion cup, dated 1621. Chelmsford, 
Essex. 

. Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 
. I Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 
. \ Spoon, with lion sejant on stem. (K. T. Frere 
Coll.) 
Pair of patens. St Andrew's, Plymouth. 



A trefoil slipped, on 
shaped shield. 



Blazing star below, as 

in 1615. 
As in 1617 . 



Crowned, shaped 
shield. 



• • 



Monogram, as in 1609 



• • 



Monogram, as in 1622 



Apostle spoon. Innholders' Company. 
Small cup, given 1648. Corporation of Hull. 

Mount of an ostrich-egg cup decorated with 
masks in repouss^, cover bearing figure of 
Minerva with spear and flag, dated 1623. H. 
WiUett, Esq. 

Plain cup, no engraved belt Sir T. Thomhill, 
Bart. 

Communion plate, beautifully repouss^, gift of 
Duchess Dudley in 1627. Ladbroke, Warw. 

Communion plate. St. Margaret, Westminster. 

Mace, dated 1625. Ward of Cheap, Lond. 

Paten or plate. Mark, .Som. 

Tall plain communion cup with two ribs ronnd 
bowl. Eton ColL Chapel. 

Plain ewer. Eton College. 

Communion cup, ew dono Lady Cutts, 1625. 
Shipbome, Kent 

Plain communion cnp and cover. Coin 8t 
Aldwyns, Qlouc. 



APP. A.] 



XVIIth Century. 



371 



DATS 

1626 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1627 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1628 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1629 
Do. 

Do. 
Da 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

16301 

Do. 
Do. 



Maxbb'b Ma&k. 




CB 
TP 




Do. 
B8 

TP 




HS 




BC 




(CTCj 



BS 




m 



DW 



As in 1615 . 



Linkedlettera PH . 



Some object below . 



ABnoLi AVD OwirsB. 



Monogram, as in 

1606. 
Monogram, as in 

1609. 



Do. 

As in 1619 

Monogram, as 
1609. 



in 



As in 1615 



A cinqnef oil below 
As in 1624 



Walter Shute. 

A colnmn or tree be- 
tween the letters. 

As in 1615 

As in 1619 . . . 

As in 1624, but heart 
dotted. 



Anchor between 
As in 1624 



Plain oommonion flagon. Ayening, Glonc. 

Pair of salts like short columns, dated 1626. 

Innholders* Company. 
Gilt basin, like a deep soap-plate. Fishmongers' 

Company. 
Very large plain communion flagons. Christ's 

CoU. Camb. 

Set of thirteen Apostles* spoons. Goldsmiths' 
Company. 

Seal-headed spoon. Armourers' Company. 

Tall standing cup given 1626. Trinity House. 

Pair of large plain gilt patens. Temple Church, 
London. 

Communion cup. Bemers Booding, Essex. 

Apostle-spoon. Innholders' Company. 

Seal-headed spoon. (B. Temple Frere Coll.) 
Communion cup, given 1628. St. Andrew, 

Plymouth. 
Tall cup, like Edmonds cup, cover surmounted 

by modem statuette of Britannia. Christ's 

Coll., Camb. 
Cup and paten, given 1628. Spaldwick, Cambs. 



Small plates with flat rims, dug up in the Castle 
grounds. Mereworth Castle. 

Tall cup, gift of Jarman. Carpenters' Company. 

Triangular salt. (Dasent Collection.) 
V-shaped cup, on baluster stem, in which E. 
Chitrles I. received the communion on the 
morning of his death. Welbeck Abbey. 
Flagon, dated 1628. Totnes, Devon. 

Small gilt paten. St. Peter ad Vincula, Tower 
of London. 

Bowl with handle (see 1628). Mereworth 

Castle. 
Flagon. St. Stephen, Bristol 

Four gilt communion flagona Exeter Cathedral. 



Small paten. St. Mary's, Beverley, Yorks. 



. Communion cups, dated 1631. Queen's College. 
Oxford. 
Plain cups on baluster stems. Charterhouse, 
London. 

B B 2 



372 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DATB 
1630 

Do. 

1631 
Do. 
Do. 

1632 

Do. 
1633 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1634 

Do. 

Do. 

1635 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1636 
Do. 



Makbr*8 Mark. 



BS 



% 



ICBJ 
WM 






CB 

(wsl 



lIQ 




BC 



^%?^ 





ws 




IRHI 









Do. 




Heart below, as in 
1619. 



One above another, 

as in 1630. 
Mallet above escallop 

between pellets. 



Monogranii as in 1606 

Another mark of 
Walter Shute. 



C within D,a8 in 1604 



Walter Shute, as in 
1629. 



An escallop shell 



Articlb afd Owkkb. 



Pair of communion cups. Charterhouse, Lond. ; 

Small alms-saucer with two handles. Ghalton, 
Hants. 

Small tazza cup, baluster stem, bowl punched 

with bosses. Armourers* Company. 
Alms-plate. St. Stephen's, Bristol. 



I 



Owl standing upon 
small animal. 



Small frosted cup, gift of Stone. Haberdashers* 
Company. 

Communion cup and paten cover. St. James, 
Dover. 

Tazza cup, baluster stem, punched bosses, etc. \ 

Armourers* Company. 
Tazza cup, baluster stem, punched bosses, etc. 

Armourers* Company. 

Tazza cup, baluster stem, punched bosses, etc. 

Vintners* Company. 
Apostle spoon. Innholders* Company. 
Tall gilt communion flagon, dated 1633. Hon. 

Soc. of Gray's Inn. 

Paten. Sandal, Yorks. Also com. cup given 
1634. Sevenoaks, Kent. 

Deep plate engr. with arms, dug up in the 
grounds. Mereworth Castle. 

Plain communion cup, gift of 6. Hyde. Chid- 

dingstone, Kent. 
Tankards. Corporation of Bristol. 

Plain communion flagons. Trinity Coll., Oxford. 
Also flagon. Prior*s Marston, Warw. 

Seal-headed spoon. (Octavius Moigan ColL) 



Large communion paten and pair of plain flagons, 
given 1635. St. Olave, Old Jewry, Lond. 

Large plain gilt alms-dish. Lambeth Palace 
Chapel. 

Plain patens. Christ's Coll., Camb. 



Small communion cup. Llangadwaldr, N. Wales. 



Plain alms-dish, ex dono Bainbrigge. Christ^s 

ColL, Camb. 
Communion cup, without belt. Ampney Cmcis, 

Gloua 
Spoon. (Staniforth Coll.) 



wmessam 



APP. A.] 



XVI Ith Century. 



373 



PATB 

1636 
1637 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Makbb's Mark. 



1638 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1639 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

1C40 
Do. 






cc 




IRBI 



© 





m 

TF 
BM 







Do. 



A&TIOLK ASD OWHB&. 



A mullet below, 
shaped shield. 

M uUet above escallop 
as in 1631. 



As in 1634 . 



As in 1629 . 



Monogram, CF 



A buckle beneath, 
probably for name 

BnCKLB. 



Monogram, as in 1609 
As in 1634 . . . 



Small trencher-salt, engr. 1636. Erddig, N.Wales. 

Plain gilt communion cups with paten covers. 

Hackney, Midx. 
Plain gilt flagon, dated 1637. St. Mary at Hill, 

Lond. 

Paten. Glaston, Rutland. 



Communion cup. All Saints', Maidstone. 



Tall gilt communion flagons. Temple Ch. Lond. 

Plain communion cup. Holy Trin., Minories, 

Lond. 
Plain communion cup. St. Peter ad Vincula, 

Tower of London. 



Alphabet IX. 1638—1657. 

Frosted cup and cover on baluster-stem, given 
1638. Trinity House. 

Tall tankard, given 1638. Trinity House. 



Large gilt salt. Mercers* Company. 



Qilt communion cups and a paten, dated 1637. 
St. Mary, Lambeth. 

V-shaped cup on baluster-stem. Vintners* Co. 



Paten. St. Giles, Durham. 



Frosted cup on baluster-stem. Trinity House. 



Plain communion flagon to match one of 1637. 
Temple Church, Lond. 
. Fluted dish, punched pattern in spirals. Ber- 
mondsey, Surrey. 



A pig passant below. 



Do. 



Butter-dish. S. E. Shirley, Esq. 
Seal-headed spoon. (R. T. Frere Coll.) 
Apostle-spoon. British Museum. 

Rose-water dish. Trinity House. 
Another. Charterhouse, Lond. 



374 



Old English Plate. 



[▲PP. A. 



DATB 
1640 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1641 
Do. 

1642 
1643 
1646 
1646 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1648 

Do. 

1650 

Do. 
1651 

Do. 

Do. 

1652 



Maksb's Mabk. 



IM 




® 




rw] 




M' 



ri 



^^ 



(¥3) 








y 






riwi 







Pig below as in 1639 



Linked letters CT . 



As in 1640 . . 

John Wardlaw (see 
p. 140). 



8A linked letten 
IH linked letters 

... 



. . 



As in 1650 



. . 



AsnoLi AID Ownm. 



Pair of flagons. St Ives, Comw. 

Flagon, dated 1639. 8t. Stephen^ Bristol. 

Apostles' spoons. Corporation of Hedon. 

Sets of oommonion plate, gift of Ladj Frances 
Kniveton. Bradley, Kniveton, Ormaston, etc 
Derbys. 

Apostle-spoon. W. R. M. Wynne, Esq. 

Commnnion paten. Halsall, Lane. 

Ewer and basin, ew dono Lister, 1640. Trinity 
House, Hall. 

Commnnion paten. (Stanifortb ColL) 

Commnnion cups dated 1644. Canongate Ch., 

Edinburgh. 
Commnnion cup, giyen by Capt, Poyer, the 

royalist, 1645. St. Mary*s, Pembroke. 
Standing cup with open-work steeple cover, and 

statuette of man on horseback. Vintners' Co. 



V-shaped commnnion cup on baluster-stem. 
Hendoombe, Glonc. 

Shallow lobed bowl, standing on foot, used as a 
paten. Marshfield, Monm. 

Communion cup and paten, ex dono Bedford. 
Charles Ch., Plymouth. 

Plain rude communion cup, gift of Robert Jenner, 
1648. Marston Meysey, Glouc. 

Plain communion flagons, frosted sides. St. 
Stephen, Exeter. 

Frosted cup, on baluster stem. Mercers* Co. 

Communion cup with baluster stem. St. Tudy, 

Comw. 
Ewer and salver, em dono Wandeaford, 1652. 

Hon. Soc. of Lincoln's Inn. 

Pint tankard, chased masks, etc. Sir Hedworth 

Williamson, Bart 
Loving cup, gift of Dashwood, 1654. Saddlers' 

Company. 
l2-sidea gilt porringer and cover with handles, 

said to have been given by Oliver Cromwell 

to Lady Falconberg. In the collection of the 

late Paul Butler, Esq. 



APP. A.] 



XVI Ith Century. 



375 



DATB 
1652 

1663 

Do. 

Bo. 
Do. 

1654 
Do. 
Do. 
1655 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
1656 

Do. 
Do. 

1657 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Makib's Mabk. 





WM 



1658 



Da 





• • 







"^3 




WC 




ri 

Do. 






As in 1648 
Honnd sejant 



• ■ 



• • 



An oral object below 



As in 1655 

Bird with olive 
blanch below. 

As in 1640 . 

Do, • 

As in 1656 . 



Artiolb avd OwmBR. 



Salt, gift of Wrightington, 1653. Trin. House, 

Frosted cup on baluster stem, em dono Blood- 
worth. Vintners* Company. 

Small cap with pnnched ornament. Earl 
Am heist. 

Dish deep like soap-plate. Lord Harlech. 

Set of commanion and altar plate, Bochester 
Cathedral. 

Seal-headed spoon, (Staniforth Coll.) 

Frosted loving cap on balaster-stem. Inn- 
holders* Company. 

Very small cup like that of 1659 at Marshfleld. 
Sir T. Thomhill, Bart 

Plain commanion cups and patens. St. Paul, 
Covent Garden, Lond. 

Pair of alms-dishes. St. Clave, Old Jewry, 
Lond. 

Apostle-spoon (St. Andrew). (Octayius Morgan 
Coa) 

The Blacksmiths* Cup. (F. A. Milbank Coll.) 

Plain communion cup on baluster-stem, Wyth- 
buzn, Cnmb. 

Communion cup. Kavenby, Line 

Tall plain communion flagon. St. Mair, Sudeley 
Manor, Glouc. Another. Escrick, Yorks, 

Spoon, (Staniforth Coll.) 

Communion cup, given 1656. Thombury, 
Devon. 

Seal-headed spoon, Kensington, Midx. 
Seal-headed spoon. Hackney, Midz. 
Plain rude communion cup, em dono Scotson. 
1657, Bermondsey, Surrey. 

Plain caudle-cups, ring handles. Clothworkere 
Company. 



Alphabet X. 1658—1677. 
Pint tankoid, Messrs. Lambert. 

Small caudle-cup. Trin. House, Hull. 



376 



Old English Plate, 



[app. a. 



DATE 

1658 

Do. 
Do. 

1659 

Do. 

1660 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
1661 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1662 

Do. 
Do. 



Makbb's Mark. 



Abticlk akd Owneb. 




SI 



PB 



HN 



SV 









(to) 




SV 

Do. 




HN 

[In] 




BT 




IW 

Do. 



Bird with olive 
branch in beak 
below, as in 1656. 



. Bowl with cover, repouss^ with flowers, etc. 
Viscount Midleton. 

. Apostle-spoon, dated 1658. Innholden' Co. 



Frosted loving cap on balostcr-stem, ex dono 

Osborne, 1658. Innbolders* Companj. 

None — ^Thia cup and the above spoon both have for date- 
letter the black-letter capital A in the damaged state. 

Part of mount to Elizabethan stoneware jag. 
(Staniforth Coll.) 



As in 1664 



Animal sejant, as in 

1653. 
Do 



.[ Communion cup, bowl ornamented with flat 
repousse work. Murshfield, Monm. 

Spoon, plain cut-off end to handle. (R. T. Frere 
Coll.) 

Plain communion cups and flagons. Westminster 
Abbey. 

Communion plate. Gloucester CathedraL 



As in 1646 



As in 1655 
As in 1654 
Do. . 
As in 1658 



Animal sejant, as in 

1653. 
As in 1656 



Standing cup, repouss^, on balnster-stem. Cloth- 
workers' Company. 

Plain communion flagon. Lambeth Palace 
Chapel. 

Altar candlesticks and alms-dish. Ch. Ch. 

Oxford. 
Paten. Skelton, Torks. 

Flagon. Charles Ch., Plymouth. 

Communion cup. St. Teath, Cornw. 
Apostle-spoon. Innholders* Company. 
Another. Innholders' Company. 
Flat tankard. Innholders* Company. 

Communion cups and paten covers. St. Mar- 
garet, Westminster. 

Plain alms-dish. Gloucester Cathedral. 

Gilt pricket candlesticks. Gloucester Cathedral. 

Two-handled caudle-cup. Messrs. Lambert. 
Small caudle-cup, ring handles. Hon. Soc. of 
Lincoln's Inn. 



. Flagons, given 1662. Charles Ch., Plymouth. 
Loving cup, given 1662. Saddlers' Company. 



As in 1653 



As in 1656 
Do. 



Plain communion cup, baluster-stem. Brigham, 

Cumb. 
. Frosted cup on baluster-stem. Mansion House, 

Lond. 
. Plain communion flagons. Bermondsey, Surrey. 
. Quart tankard, flat lid. In the collection of the 
I late Paul Butler, Esq. 



Avr. A.] 



XVI I th Century. 



377 




Makkb's Mabk. 



1662 
Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 

Do. 
166i5 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



1664 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1665 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1666 
1667 

Do. 

Do. 



Aktiolb AMD Owner. 



BN 



^7.K 



'IR5 






TA 




HIT 
G8 
CS 
HG 







Do. 




101 



m 







liq 



PW 



As in 1661 



As in 1660 



Patens. Chester CathedraL 
Caudle-cnp, with corer and handles. Queen's 
Coll., Oxford. 

Communion cnp. Liuton, Yorks. 



. Jug-shaped flagons. Chester Cathedral. 



Small gilt paten. Chester CathedraL 

Two-handled porringer. Emmanuel Coll., Camb. 
Frosted cup on baluster-stem, ex dono Henley, 
1664. Hon. Soc. of Middle Temple. 



As in 1656 

As in 1658 . . . 

As in 1661 

As in 1656 . . . 

A mullet above au 

escallop between 
pellets & annulets. 



Escallop under mul- 
let, as in 1663. 



Another smaller, ex dono Barker. Hon. Soc. of 

Middle Temple. 
Small plain paten. Hackney, Midx. 
Large paten. Hunstanton, Norf. 
Paten, dated 1 66H. Leamington Hastings, Warw. 
Tall tankards, strap foliage. Imperial Treasury, 

Moscow. 
Pair of repouss^ candlesticks. Imperial Treasury, 

Moscow. 

Plain communion flagon, purchased 1664. Also 
pair of smaller flagons. ISt. Mary, Jiambeth. 

Plain two-handled drinking-bowl. Armonrers* 
Company. 

.: Plat quart tankard. Lord Tredegar. 
Jug-shaped communion flagons. Canterbury 
Cathedral. 
. Large paten on central foot. St. Stephen, Exeter. 

Hanbury's cup. Goldsmiths' Company. 
I 

Large paten or alms-dish. St. Margaret, West- 
minster. 

Communion cup, given 1666. Otford, Kent. 



As in 1664. 



Gilt dish, repouss^ flowers. Erddig, N.Wales. 



Plain tankard. Fishmongers' Company. 

Pour plain amall trencher salts. Cotehele House, 
Comw, 

Set of three-pronged forks. Cotehele House, 
Cornw. 

., Plain comnaunion cup and pat«n. "M-Cssro. 
Garrards. 



378 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DATl 
1667 

1668 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
1669 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1670 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1671 
Do. 

Do. 



Maxbb's IfiBK. 





»j 



IK 



^ 




Igl 





TH 

IrlI 



)VVJ|V( 





TM 




Do. 
BL 

[511 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Anchor between, as 
in 1665. 



Crowned, mullet be- 
low, shaped shield 

As in 1662 • . . 



As in 1668 . 



See 1670 



ArTIOLB AVD OWNIR. 



Cherub's face below. 

Anchor between, as 
in 1665. 



As in 1669 



See 1669 



As in 1669 . 



Flat-lidded tankard, dated 1666. Cordwainers' 

Companj. 
Gilt salver, dated 1668. St. Paul, Covent 

Garden, Lond. 

Rose-water dish. Trinitj House. 

Plain communion flagons. Holj Trinitj, 
Minories, lond. 

Wall brackets or sconces, repoussd. Sudeley 

Castle. 
Plain plate, ex dono Raikes, 1668. Trin. House, 

Hull. 
Great communion flagon. St. Paul, Cerent 

Garden, Lond. 
Small cup on low foot, cable pattern round lower 

edge. Armourers* Companj. 

Communion cup, dated 1670. The Dutch Church, 
Austin Friars, Lond. 

Porringer and coyer, cut-card work. Lord 
Tredegar. 

Cup on high stem, cut-card work. Hon. Soa of 
Graj*s Inn. 

Loving cup, given 1669. Oriel Coll., Oxford. 
Paten. Elland, Yorks. 



Large mace, given 1669. Corporation of Hedon. 



Flat tankard. Trinitj House. 



Porringer and cover repouss4 with animals 
and flowers. Earl Bathurst. 

Rose-water ewer and salver, plain. Hon. Soc. of 
Inner Temple. 

Flat tankard. Armourers' Companj. 

Mace. Ward of Billingsgate, Lond. 

Porringer with cover, cut-card work ornament, 

dated 1670. Queen's Coll., Oxford. 
Plain alms-plate. Hatbcrop, Glouc. 

Small tankard, engraved Chinese figures. South 

Kensington Museum. 
Lid of the above. South Kensington Museum. 

Plain alms-dish, gift of Katherine Chenej, 1671. 

Hacknej, Midx. 
Plain tumbler cup. All Souls* Coll., Oxford. 



A»P. A.] 



XVI Ith Century. 



379 



DAT! 
1671 

Da 
Do. 

Da 

1672 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1678 

Do. 

Do. 
1674 

Do. 

Da 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1675 

Do. 
Do. 

Da 
11676 



Makib*8 Ma&x. 











IC 
IB 






TL 






I. 



Da 



As in 1669 . . . 

Crowned, as in 1664. 
See 1686 . 



Cbenib*8 face below, 
as in 1669. 



Abtzoli ahd Owhir. 



BG in cypher, star 
above. 



• • • 



As in 1662 . 



• • 



As in 1668 
As in 1669 



Flat tankard. ArmonrerB* Companj. 

LoTing cup. Fishmongers* Companj. 

Tankard set with Greek coins and bearing scenes 

from life of Penn. H.M. the Queen. 
Commonion cup. Konnington, Yorks. 

Loving-cup and cover, repouss^ scrolls, etc. 

Grocers' Company. 
Flat-handled forks. Charterhouse, Lond. 



Plain communion flagon. Ashridge House 
Chapel. 

Grace cup on high stem, ornamented with cut- 
card work. Hon. Soa of Gray's Inn. 
Tankaid, cut-card work. Queen's Coll., Oxford. 



Plain alms-dish. Cirencester, Glouc. 
The Enole toilet service. Lord SackvlUe. 

Alms-plate, dated 1673. Crediton, Devon. 

Two-handled porringer and ewer, called the 
** Cutler" cup. In the collection of the late 
Paul Butler, fSsq. 

Flat4temmed spoon dug up at Brogyntyn. Lord 
Harlech. 

Tankard« Christ's Hospital, London. 

Plain paten or alms-plate. North Cemey, Glouc. 

Set of vases and beakers like Chinese porcelain 
jars. In the collection of the late Marquess of 
Breadalbane. 

Flagon, given 1678. Titsey, Surrey. 

Alms-plate, given 1673. Chiddingstone, Kent. 

Ewer and plain salver, the gift of the Earl of 
Anglesey, 1675. Hon. Soc. of Lincoln's Inn. 

Laige paten. Ansley, Warw. 

Plain paten. Hendcombe, Glouc. (This maker's 
mark is found on much plate.) 

Paten, dated 1675. Offham, Kent. 

Plain rude communion cup. Steyning, Sussex. 



;8o 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DATS 

1676 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

j Do. 
1677 

1 Do. 
I Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



1678 
Do. 

1679 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1680 



Maker's Mark. 




AM 
OS 

CtfJ 




Iqicrl 







IS 
BM 




m 



IH| 



IS 





p 
I.B 







Articli ahd Owksr. 



Monogram, as in 1672 
As in 1675 



. Ewer and salyer, the gift of Sir Joseph William- 
son, 1676. Cloth workers* Company. 

Tankard on lion feet. Lord Harlech. 



Thos. Ash t 



• • • 

Found 1677-88 


• • 

on 


Kent church plate. 


Monogram, as 


in 


1675. 




Monogram, as 


in 


1676. 




JG Monogram, 


re- 


versed . 


• 



Small flat tankard. Corporation of Oxford. 
Flat-lidded tankard. All Souls* Coll., Oxford. 

Cup giTcn by Countess of Burlington, 1677. 
Keighley, Yorks. 

Octagonal flat hour-glass salt. Saddlers* Com. 

Two-handled caudle-cup. Hon. Soc. of Lincoln*6 
Inn. 

Frosted cup on baluster-stem. Fishmongers* 
Company. 

Plain communion cup, given 1677. Winchcombe, 
Qlouc. 

Ewer and basin, gift of Samuel Pepys, 1677. 
Clothworkers' Company. 

Square salt, with four projecting arms. Cloth- 
workers* Company. 

The " Pepys ** cup, open-work silver casing over 
gilt standing-cup. Clothworkers' Company. 

Plain silver flagons. Welbeck Abbey. 



. Loving cup with acanthus ornament. Stationers* 
Company. 



Monogram,as in 1675 



Alphabet XI. 1678—1696, Part 1. 
Pair of flagons. St. Nicholas, Bristol. 



. Tall flagon, given 1679. Skinners* Company. 



Probably Benj. Pync 



As in 1677 



Eose-water salver. Hon. Soc. of Middle Temple. 



Probably 
Leeke. 



. Flat tankard, acanthus pattern round lower part 
I of barrel. Trinity House. 
. Flat-handled spoons, dated 1679. Cutlers* Com- 
pany. 

., Flat-handled spoons. Cotehele House, Comw. 



Straight-sided porringer, acanthus decoration. 
G. E. L. Baker, Esq. 

Balph Rose-water ewer and salver. Hon. Soc. of 
Middle Temple. 

Note.— There is plate at Westminster Abbey and other 
places by this maker, but without date-letter. 



APP. A.] 



XVI Ith Century. 



381 



DATE 
1680 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1681 

Do. 

Do. 

' Do. 

I 

I 

i Do. 
Do. 



I 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1682 

Do. 

Do. 



Maksb*8 Mark. 



FS 

m 



IS 




EQ 



•M 




SL 



IC 

•; 













5g1 





As in 1676 



• • 



• • 



Monogram, etc., as 
in 1675. 



As in 1671 



As in 1680 



A water-bird ; found 
1678—93. 



Probably George 
Garthome. 



Large plain gilt alms-dish. All Souls' Coll.. 
Oxford. 

Tall loving cup on baluster-stem, given by the 
Spanish Ambassador who was in England at 
the time of the plague. New Coll., Oxford. 

The Knole silver table. Lord SackviUe. 

Porringer, 6} inches high, with two handles and 

cover, made of solid gold. Corporation of 

Oxford. 
Frosted cup, on baluster-stem. Fishmongers' 

Company. 
Pair of ditto, given by John Brett, senr. and 

junr., 1680. Merchant Taylors' Company. 
Alms-dishes. St. Martin, Exeter. 

Tall flagons, ex dono Beckford. Clothworkers' 
Company. 

Large paten. Guisbro', Torks. 

Immense ice-cistern, exhibited in Loan Collection 

of 1862. Duke of Rutland. 
Flat tankard, barrel with acanthus ornament. 

Fishmongers' Company. 

Large paten or alms-plate, given 1682. St Peter 
ad Vincula, Tower of London. 

Pair of small plain communion cups, dated 1681. 
Minchinham pton, Glouc. 

Shallow basin ornamented with cut-card work 
on cover. Earl Bathurst. 

Communion flagon, given 1681. Cricklade St. 
Sampson, Wilts, 

Large tankard with acanthus ornament round 

bottom. Christ's Coll., Camb. 
Tall pricket candlesticks, like columns. Exeter 

Cathedral. 
Two-handled cup, gift of Rich, 1681. Saddlers' 

Company. 

Large paten, givsn 1681. Whiston, Yorks. 



Plain paten. Leeds, Kent. 

Frosted cup on baluster-stem. Hon« Soc. of 
Middle Temple. 

Alms-dish, plain. Cirencester, Glouc. 



t 



Plain communion cup, given 1684. Stow-on-the- 
Wold, Glouc. 



382 



Old English Plate. 



[app. 



DATE 

1682 
Do. 



Mauh's Mabx. 





Do. 

1683 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1684 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1685 
Do. 




BQ 

FS 




TO 





BS 



^ 








Do. 







Do. 



Abtiom avd Owvbb. 



Communion flagon, given 1683. Ampney Crads, 

I OIouc. 

SmiUl tankard, repoass^ strap-work. Trin. Coll., 
Oxford. 



Cypher with star 
above, as in 1673. 
As in 1676 



Toilet service, engraved with Chinese subjects. 

Messrs. Lambert. 
Cup and cover, acanthus omament and fluted, 

given 1683. Hon. Soe. of the Middle Temple. 
Communion paten, given by President Bathurst. 

Trin. Coll.. Oxford. 
. The " Bemers" toilet set. 



As in 1677 

(BY Damaged let- 
ters) 



. Very small plain communion cup. Kensington, 
Midx. 
Cup with handle and spout. Holy Trinity, 
Minories, Lond. 



In heart, mullet be- 
low. 



Plain tankard. Clothworkers* Company. 



Toilet service. (Late Sir Charles Trevelyan, 
Bart.) South Kensington Museum. 

Small spoon, with two*pronged fork handle. 
(0. Morgan Coll.) 



WF linked letters 



Found 1677—93 



. Flagon, dated 1683. St Maiy-le-Port, BristoL 



Gilt tankards repouss^ with battle-scenes. H. 
M. the Queen. 

Communion flagons, ornamented all over with 
repouss^ work ; also tall pricket candlesticks. 
Westminster Abbey. 

Gilt punch-ladle. Fishmongers* Company. 



Benj.Pyne; see 1723 



SH linked letters . 



Porringer and cover, engraved with Chinese 
subjecU. T. W. C. Master, Esq. 

Porringer and cover, em dono Mansell. Jesus 
ColL, Oxford. 

Square salts, with four projecting arms. Cloth- 
workers' Company. 

Communion cup. Chedworth, Glouc. 



Large flagon, bought 1686. Kensington, Midz. 



Octagonal salt. Mercers* Company. 

Doric-column candlesticks. Merchant Taylors* 
Company. 



AFP. A.] 



XVI Ith Century. 



383 



Din 

1685 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1686 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1687 

Do. 

1688 

Do. 



Maker's Mabk. 



Abticu ahd OwiriiL 





^ 




8T 





IC 
Y-T 

8 
BL 



LC 

DB 




EQ 

|Tc] 




Do. Ipc 



Do. 
1689 



P 



As in 1683 
Probably Bateux 

As in 1682 

Probably T. Issod . 

In monogram 
crowned, as in 1681 



3 Storks 



As in 1682 
As in 1681 



Two pellets above 
flenr-de-lys below. 
As in 1664 



Probably Samuel 
DeU. 

As in 1680 



Table-spoons. Mercers' Company. 

Helmet cap, ornamented with cat<K»id work, 
given 1684. Merchant Taylors' Company. 

Pair of salvers on circular central feet, given 
1684. Merchant Taylors' Company. 

Panch.bowl. Lord Harlech. 



Commnnion cap and paten. Dambleton, Gloac. 

Set of sconces, repoass6 with arms. Lord 8ack- 
ville. 

Plain fiat tankard. Clothworkers' Company. 

Bowl repoass^ and engraved in alternate divi- 
sions, nandles formed of plain fiat coiled silver 
riband. (Staniforth CoU.) 

Pair of jags, cut-card ornament. Wynnstay. 



Plain punch-bowl, given 1686. Skinners' Co. 
Plain tankards, ex dono Sebright. Jesas Coll., 

Oxford. 
Two com. cups gilt. St. Maiy Abcharch, 

London. 
Two-handled cap, cover and stand. Christ's 

Hospital, London. 
Plain alms-plate. Winchcombe, Glouc. 






Probably Lawrence 
Coles ; see 1672 



. Set of dinner-plates, with shaped and gadrooned 
edge. Earl Bathurst. 
Flat stemmed, split-ended spoon. (Octavius 
Morgan Coll.) 



Bateux, as in 1685 . 



Probably Nat.Qreene 
As in 1682 . . 



Pair of candlesticks with baluster-stems. Leeds 
Castle, Kent. 

A similar pair. Welbeck. 

Alms-dish, given 1688. Avening, Glonc 

Plain half-pint tumbler. All Souls' Coll. Oxt 



Linked as in 1684 



Probably Fras. Gar- 
thome. 

Probably John Jack- 
son. 
As in 1684 



. Flat-stemmed, rat^tailed table-spoons. Hon. 
Soc. of Middle Temple. 
Plain paten on central foot. St. Mary Arches, 
Exeter. 

Plates, dated 1689. St. Mary-le-Bow, Durham. 



Two handled-cnp, Chinese engraving. Coach- 
makers' Company. 
Large repouss^ paten, given 1 690. tJffington, Line. 



384 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DATE 



1689 
Do. 

Do. 

1690 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

1691 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1692 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1693 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
1694 



Makxr's Makk. 



Artioli and Owhbr. 



pa 




d 






FS 
lY 






MW 



lY 

Do. 

P 

QcQc 
BX. 

•B*T* 
BC 




As in 1688 . . . 

Probably Peeter 
Harache. 

Probably Ant, Nelmc 



As in 1682 . 



As in 1684 
R. Timbrell. 



See 1688 . 
As in 1676 . . . 
As in 1685 
Probably R. Timbrell 



Probably James 
Chad wick. 



As in 1685 

As in 1684 

As in 1682 . . . 

As in 1680 

As in 1691 . . . 

As in 1684 . . . 
Fish aboYC 

Waterbird,asinl682. 
Probably Wm. Keatt. 

Probably John 
Boslen* 



Plain-gilt casters. H. M. the Queen. 

Circular stand with gadrooned foot. Sir F. Mil- 
bank, Bart. 

Toilet-mirror frame, Chinese style. Leeds Castle, 
Kent. 

Caudle-cup, called a "plate" at Queen's 
Coll., Oxford. 

Large Doric-column candlesticks. Hon. Soc of 
Middle Temple. 

Communion flagons, dated 1690. Preston, Glouc. 

Alms-dish, dated 1690. Kensington, Midlx. 

Plain flat tankard, dated 1690. aothworkers* 
Company. 

Salver, gadrooned edge, centre chased with " The 
Last Supper." St. Margaret, Westminster. | 

Plain half -pint tumbler. All Souls' Coll., Ox- 
ford. 

Another. All Souls' Coll., Oxford. 

Frosted cup, baluster-stem. Fishmongers' Com- 
pany. I 

Large flagon, dated 1691. St. Mary Arches,' 
Exeter. 

Loving cups, acanthus decoration, dated 1692. 
Stationere' Company. 

Flagons, dated 1692. St. Petrock, Exeter. 

Flagons, dated 1692. St. Martin, Exeter. 

Plain gilt toilet service, gadrooned edges. Earl 
of Breadalbane. 

Jug-flagon with scroll-handle and cu1>card orna- 
ment. Kensington Palace Chapel. 

Communion plate given by ^' Sarah, latedutchess 
of Somerset," 1694. St. Margaret, West- 
minster. 

Plain jug-shaped communion flagon, Foulden, ' 
Norf. I 

Small rudely shaped communion cup, dated, 
1694. Poole Keynes, Wilts. 

Small communion cups withcoyers, given 1694.1 
St. James', Westminster. 

Cup with paten-cover. Old Romney, Kent. | 

Tall flagon, dated 1694. Weston Subedge, Glouc. 
Flagons. Holy Trinity, Hull. 

Frosted cups, baluster stems, gift of the Bank of 
England. Merceis' Company. 



APr. A.] 



XVIIth Century. 



385. 



DAT! 
1694 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1695 

Do. 

1696 
(1st 
pt.) 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



Makbr's Mabx. 



Aatioli akd Owher. 



• 1696 

(2nd 

pt) 

1697 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



11 





TI 




lMH 




FQ 
II 
IC 



'\ 





^ 













As in 1688 

Probably Robert 
Cooper. 

Probably Thomas 

Allen. 
Escallops, as in 1685. 



As in 1688 . 
As in 1688 
As in 1691 . 
As in 1682 



Thos. Brydon . 



Probably Andrew 
Moore. 



Wm. Denny and 
John Bathe. 



Hugh Bobcrts in 
Newgate Street. 



Joseph Bird 



James Chadwick 



(Tommunlon cup, dated 1694. Llangedwyn, N. 

Wales. 
Communion cup and paten cover, very plain and 

rude. Didlingtoni Norf. 

Alms-plates, dated 1695. Halifax, Torks. 

Ewer, gadrooned. Lord Sackyille. 

Tankaid, flat lid. Magd. ColL, Oxford. 

Oblong box inkstand, acanthus ornament. CoL \ 
Wa^e, Squerries, Kent. 

Credence paten with royal arms. Trin. Ch., 

New York, U. 8. A. 
Pair of communion flagons, given 1695. Bt. 

Margaret, Westminster. 
Large paten or alms-plate on central foot, 

ga^lrooned edge. St. Winnoe, Comw. 
Monteith, ex dmw Abney. Fishmongers' Com. 



Paten on central foot, gadrooned edge, given 
1698. Byfield, Northants. 

Jug-shaped flagon, dated 1696. St. Mary, 
Beverley, Yorks. 

Spoon. St. Nicholas, Bristol. 

Plain communion cup, dated 1696. Boughton 
Monchelsey, Kent. 

Pair of fire-dogs. H. M. the Queen. 



Alphabet XIL 1696, Part 2—1715. 
Communion flagon. St. Bride, Chester. 



Tall communion cup, on baluster-stem, with 
paten-cover. Kensington, Midx. 



Straining-spoon. Westminster Abbey. 

Communion cup with gadrooned knop and foot ; 
also a paten. Byfield, Northants. 

Pmr of large communion flagons, dated 1697. 
Chelmsfonl, Essex. 

Candlesticks, baluster-stems. Welbeck. 



Dinner-plates. Lord St. Oswald. 







386 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DATS 

1697 
Do. 

1698 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1699 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1700 

Do. 



Maker's Mark. 



Article amd Owker. 







DB 

A 




® 












DE 




in) 




William Gibson 

Richard Hatchinson 
of Colchester. 

John Ruslen at y« 
Golden Cup in 
Swithin Lane. 

Benj. Watts, ent. 
1698. 

Denny and Bathe, as 
in 1697. 

Robert Peake, ent. 
1697. 

William Fawdery . 



Robert Timbrell . . 



Bcnj. Traheme 



Simon Pantin, ent. 
1701. 

Joseph Btokes, ent. 
1697. 

Francis Singleton . 



Samaell Hood . 

Samuel Thome, ent. 
1697. 

John Chartier, ent. 
1698. 

William Lukin, ent. 
1699. 

Samuel Dell, ent. 
1697. 

William Gamble,ent. 
1697. 

Peeter Harracke, 
jun., ent. 1698. 



Anthony Nelme . . 



Dinner-plates. Lord St. Oswald. 

Laige flagons, dated 1697. Chelmsford, Essex. 



Monteith, punch-ladle and salver. Fishmongers' 
Company. 

Rat-tailed spoon. W. R. M. Wynne, Esq., 
Peniarth. Also flagon, dated 1699. Hazey, 
Lines. 

Plain gilt alms-plate engraved with Maun arms, 
Linton, Kent. 

Large paten on foot. Melbury, Dorset. 



Tall flagons, given 1698. New Romney, Kent. 
Another. Leamington Hastings, Warw. 

Pair of fine Monteiths. Mercers* Company. 



Four small patens. St. Margaret, Westminster. 



Flat taper candlestick. Earl Bathurst 

Fluted pon-inger. (R. T. Frere Coll.) 

Large plain salver, gift of Lord Chancellor 
Somers, as Recorder of the City. Corporation 
of Gloucester. 

Monteith. (Staniforth Coll.) 
Monteith, gilt, noted by the author. 



Communion plate. Ch. Ch. Oxford. 



Preserving saucepan. G. E. L. Baker, Esq. 
Large alms-dish. Holy Trinity, Coventry. 



Paten. Great Ousebum, Yorks. 

Very large salver. Earl Bathurst. 

Note,— Some of the Bplendid plate made for the great 
Duke of Marlborough, and exhibited in the Loan Oollection 
of 1862 by Earl Spencer, was by this maker. 



Fine lai^e Monteith, dated 1700. 
Taylors* Company. 



Merchant 



APP. A.] 



XVIIIth Cmtury. 



;87 



DATS 



Makkr'8 Mark. 



1700 
1701 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

i 

'1702 

1 Do. 

• Do. 
Do. 



I 



Do. 

I 

1703' 
Do. 

1704 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1705 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 















Do. 
Do. 

[2^1 







John Cory . . . 

George Boothby, at 
the sign of the 
Parrot. 

John Bodington 



George Lewis, ent. 
161^9. 

Benjamin Pyne, see 
1684 and 1723. 

Joseph Ward, ent. 
1697. 

JJO. a • . . 

John Fawdery (A 
smaller than the F). 

Pierre Platel, ent. 
1699. 



Robert Cooper, ent. 
1697. 



John Sutton 



William Andrewcs 



Article a5D Owkbr. 



Paten. Aubom, Line. 
Helmet ewer. Eton Ck)llege. 

Plain communion flagon. North Cerney, Glouc. 



Plain communion cup, goblet shape, and cover. 
Gricklad3 St. Sampson, Wilts. 

Circnlar salvers, on round central feet. Hon. 
Soc. of Gray's Inn. 

Plain communion cup and cover. Sapperton, 
Glouc. 

Plain communion cup and cover. Dantisboume 

Rous, Glouc. 
Monteith. Vintners' Company. 

Helmet-cup with strap-work ornament, and two- 
handled cups. Messrs. Garranls, 1878. 



Large paten, dated 1703. Weston Subedge, 
Glouc. 



Paten. Long Marston, Yorks. 

Tankard. South Kensington Museum. Also 
much Kent church plate 1697-1707. 



John Ladyman . . Table-spoon. W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 

Do Spoon, flat stem, cut end, (Staniforth Coll.) 



PhiUp RoUos 



John Smith . . . 

Seth Lofthonsc, ent. 
1697. 

Peeter Harracke, as 

in 1700. 
Do. . . . . 

Do 



Fire-dogs. Welbeck. 



Communion cup. Driffield, Glouc. 

Plain half-pint tumbler. All Souls' Coll., Ox- 
ford. 

Helmet-shaped ewer. Vintners' Company. 

Large two-handled cup and cover. Berkeley 

Castle. 
A small racing cup of gold. Thorp- Perrow. 



John Eastt, ent. Communion plate. Newton, Norfolk. 
1697. 

Large paten, em dono Pendarves. St. Ives, 
ComwalL 



John Martin Stocker 
and Edwd. Pea- 
cock, ent. 1705. 



c c 2 



388 



Old English Plate. 



[apf. 



DATE 



Maksb's Mabk. 



Artiolb ahd Owver. 



1706 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1707 

Do. 
1708 

Do. 

Do. 
i Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1709 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1710 



Ti 







'^' 





FA 



rwi 








R. Timbrelli as in 

1699. 
David Willanme in 

the Pell MelL 

i Edward York, ent. 

1706. 
B. Pyne, as in 1701 . 

J. Barbut, ent. 1703 



John Gibbons, ent. 
1700. 



John Downes, ent. 
1697. 

Andrew Raven . 

Simon Pan tin, as in 

1699. 
Alice Sheene, ent. 

1700. 
VVm. Fawdery, as in 

1698. 
John Wisdome, ent 

1704. 
Edward York, as in 

1706. 
David Willaume, as 

in 1706. 
Robert Cooper, as in 

1702. 
" Goyce Issod 

widdow.** 

Thomas Allen in 
Gutter Lane. 

Samnel Hood, as in 

1699. 
Simon Pantin, as in 

1699. 
Gabriel Sleath, ent. 

1706. 

Humphrey Payne, 
ent. 1701. 

Francis Garthome, 
ent. 1697. 



John Read, ent. 1704. 
B. Pyne, as in 1701. 



Large fiat-lidded tankard. Vintners* Company. 

Helmet-cup with mermaid-handle and a salver. 
Fishmongers' Company. 



Pair of patens on circular central feet. Gray's \ 
Inn Chapel. i 

Cruet-stand. Lord Tredegar. 

Rat-tailed spoons. Hon. Soc. of Inner Temple. 



Paten. Springthorpe, Line. 



Paten. Paull, Yorks. 



Paten, dated 1706. St. Mary Bishophill, senior, 

York. 
Very large two-handled cup and cover. Earl 

Bathurst. 
Plain paten or alms-plate. Chcdworth, Glouc. 

Punch-ladle. Hon. Soc. of Middle Temple. 

Small plain chocolate pot. Lord Hotham. 

Paten on foot. Eemble, Wilts. 

Large round salver on foot. Earl Bathuist. 

Communion cup and patens, given 1708. 

Lincoln's Inn Chapel. 
Two-handled fluted porringer, used as a chalice. 

Uley, Glouc. 

Rat-tailed table-spoons. Hon. Soc. of Middle 
Temple. t 

Pair of salvers, gadrooned edge. Mercers* Co. 

r 

Globular box, perhaps for soap. Lord Hotham. ' 

Another. Lord Hotham. I 

Note.— These boxes are like the ol^oct above the initials 
in Sleath's mark. 

Large plain communion flagon, dated 1709. 
Wincncombe, Glouc. 

Communion plate, gift of Q. Anne. Trinity Ch., 
New York, U.S.A. 



Communion cup. Wrexham, N. Wales. 

Gilt two-handled drinking cup and cover. 
St. Margaret, Westminster. 



APP. A.] 



XVI I nil Century, 



389 



DAT! 



Maker's Mark. 



1710 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



1711 
Do. 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1712 

Do. 

1713 

Do. 

Do. 
1714 

Do. 

Do. 

1715 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
I 




Ho 







Do. 





BO 




Fa 



EA 




B. Pyne, as in 1701 . 

Richard Greene, ent. 
1703. 

Seth Lof thoose, as in 

1705. 
Philip Relies, junior, 

ent. 1705. 

Another mark of 
Qabriel Sleath. 

Do 

A within the G. as in 
1709. Francis Gar- 
' thome. 

Nath. Lock, ent.1698. 



John Eastt, as in 

1705. 
£dmund Pearce, ent. 

1704. 

Matth. Yi. Lofthouse, 
ent. 1705. 

William Twell, ent. 

1709. 
Probably Edward 

Vincent. 
William Lukin, as in 

1699. 
S. Pantin, as in 1699 
Matth. £. Lof thoase, 

as in 1712. 
Do. .... 

John Bathe, ent. 
1700. 

B. Pyne, as in 1701. 
John Bodlngton, as 

in 1701. 
B. Pyne, as in 1701. 

Isaac Liger in Hem- 
ing's Row, ent. 
1704. 

H. Payne, as in 1709 

Wm. Fleming, ent. 

1697. 
John Eastt, as in 

1705. 

Robert Timbrell 



Artiolk and Owsbr. 



Gold two-handled cap and cover. Koted by the 

author. 
Paten or alms-plate on foot* Oxburgh, Norf. 



Paten. Bradford, Torks. 

Small chocolate pot. Lord Sackville. 



Large monteith, lion handles, &c. The Winter 
Palace, St. Petersburg. 

Paten and flagon. Sappertor, Glouc. 
Communion plate, gift of Q. Anne. St. Peter^s, 
Albany, N. Y. 



Plain alms-plate. Bermondsey Church, Surrey. 

Paten. Buxton, Norl 

Two-handled cup and cover. Lord Harlech. 



Fine half-gallon tankard. All Souls* Coll., 
Oxford. 

Candlesticks with octagonal bases. Xoted by the 

author. 
Helmet-ewer. Trin. Coll., Oxford. 

A fine monteith. Mansion Hous3, Loni. 

Shaped salvers. Hatfield House. 
Plain communion cup. Coates, Gl:iuc. 

Large repoussS and chased salad bowl. W. 

Cripps, Esq., C.B. 
Plain dinner plates. Viscount Falmouth. 

Hand candlestick. Ravenswurth Castle. 
Plain octagonal chocolate pot. W. Cripps, Esq., 

C.B. 
Helmet-ewer and salver. Berkeley Castle. 

Three-pronged table forks. Lord Amherst of 
Hackney, 

Paten, Llangedwyn, N. Wales. 

Small oval tray, edge lobed outwards. Lord 

Amherst of Hackney. 
Plain communion cup and cover. Foulden, 

Norfolk. 

Communion flagon. Belton, Line. 



390 



Old English Plate. 



[a pp. A. 



I 



I 



DATX 

i 

1715 

Do. 
Do. 



Maker's Mark. 



Articue and Owker. 









1716 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1717i WI 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
1718 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1719 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 




FA 
TA 



* 




CI. 




William Spackman, 
ent. 1714. 

Petley Ley, ent. 1715 

Samuel Hitchcock, 
ent. 1712. 



Gabriel Sleath, as in 

1710. 
H. Payne, as in 1709 

Henry Jay . . . 



Niccolaus Clausen, 
ent. 1709. 



Samuell Lea, ent. 
1711. 

John Wisdome, as in 

1708. 
Paul LameriCi ent. 

1712. 

M. E. Lofthonse, as 

in 1712. 
David Tanqneray, 

ent, 1713. 

Richard Bayley, ent. 

1708. 
Edward Holaday in 

Grafton St., ent. 

1709. 
W.Fawderya8inl698 
Tanqueray, as in 1717 

G. Sleath,asinl709. 

Jonah Clifton, ent. 
1703. 



Paten. Dent. Yorks. 

Paten. Borden, Kent. 

Hat-tailed table-spoons. Lord St. Oswald. 

Alphabet XIII. 1716—1735. 

Flagon dated 1716, given by the widow of Sir 

Robert Atkyns. Coates, Glouc. 
Loving cups on baluster stems, monteiths, 

salvers, etc. Salters' Company. 

Alms-plates, dated 1718. Hunton, Kent. 
Massive ink-tray. Welbeck. 

Tankard. G. £. L. Baker, Esq. 

Communion flagon. Kemble, Wilts. i 

Gold two-handled cup and cover. Berkeley 
Castle. I 

Plain paten or alms-plate on central foot. 

Foulden, Norf. 
Circular salver on central foot. Narford Hall, 

Norf. 

Taper candlestick. Rt. Hon. Sir J. R. Mow- 
bray, Bart. 

Immense upright flagons given by the Corpora- 
tion of Mines Royal, etc., 1718. Mercers* Co. 

Monteith, given 1718. Hon. Soc. of LincoIn*s Inn. 
Coffee-cap saucers, with frames to hold the cups. 

Narford Hall, Nort 
Monteith, bull's-head handles. Clothworkers' Co. 

Paten. Green Hammerton, Torks. 



Anthony Nelme, as, Dinner plates, shaped and gadrooned edge. 



in 1700. 
John White, ent. 1719 



Lord Hotham. 
Low open dishes, fluted. T. W. C. Master, Esq. 



Nicolas Clausen, as Shaped dinner plates. Viscount Midleton. 

in 1716. I 

Thomas Mason, ent.- Plates, given 1720. Westerham, Kent. 

1716. 

Louvs Cuny, ent. Salver. Col. Warde, Squerries, Kent. 
1703. 



APP. A.] 



XVI nth Century. 



391 



DATS 



1719' 



MAKKR*a Mark. 




! Do. 



1 Do. 












Samnel Margas, ent. 
1714. 

P. Lamerie,asin 1717 

B. Pyne, as in 1701 . 

JohnEckfonrd^inBed 
Lion Court, Drury 
Lane ent. 1698. 

John Edwards . 

B. Pyne, as in 1701 . 

John Bipnell, o. s., 
ent. 1720. 

R. Greene, as in 1710 
Joseph Clare, old 

sterling mark, ent. 

1720. 

Aug. Courtauld, ent. 

1708. 

Probably Edw. Vin- 
cent. 

Bowles Nash, ent. 
1721. 



Artiolb akd 0?rvBR. 



Candlesticks. Col. Warde, Squerries, Kent. 

Large two-handled cap and cover, chased. Lord 

Hotham. 
Very large shaped ewer with lid and handle. 

Mansion House, Lond. 
Large two-handled cup and cover. Karford Hall, 

Norfolk* Also cup dated 1719. Doncaster, 

Yorks. 

Flagons, dated 1720. Scarboro', Yorks. 

Three pairs of ewers and salvers, Brit. st. 

Mansion House, Lond. 
Plain communion cup and cover. Holy Trinity, 

Minories, Lond. 

Tankard, Brit. st. Hamon le Strange, Esq. 
Pint mug. Messrs. Lambert. 



Square salver, Brit. st. Messrs. Lambert. 



Communion cups, dated 1722. Orton, Westmor. I 



Alms-dish, given 1723. St. Margaret, Westminster. 



Nathaniell Gulliver, Paten, dated 1722. Howden, Yorks. 
ent. 1722. 





Abraham Buteux, 
ent. 1721. 



Wm. Paradise, ent. 
1718. 

Thos. Ffarrer in 
Swithing Lane, 
ent. 1720. 

John East, ent. 1721 



1724 LI l8aacLiger,asinl715. 



John White, as in 

1719. 
MeshachGodwin, ent. 

1722. 

M. Amett and E. 
Pococke, ent. 1720. 



Oblong salver given by Lady TroUope, 1724. 
Uffington, Line. 

Small paten, Brit. st. Poole Keynes, Wilts. 
Punch-bowl. Lord Harlech. 



Large tankard. Armourers* Company. 

Low bowl, lobed edge, Brit. st. Narford Hall. 

Norf. 
Communion plate. St. German's, Comw. 

Small communion cup, dated 1724. St. Thomas 
Cliffe, Lewes. 

Communion cup. Barmston, Yorks. 



Jas. Smith, ent. 1720 Communion plate. Owston, Yorks. 



392 



Old English Plate. 



[app. 



DATE 

1725 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1726 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

1727 

Do. 

1728 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1729 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1730 



Maker's Mark. 



&^ 



• • 











CB 





Xd' 





ArTIOLB A9D OWKBR. 



Humphrey Payne,old 
sterling mark, eui. 
1720. 



George Wickes, ent. 
1721. 

PaDlHanet,ent.l721 

John Edwards, ent. 
1724. 

Dayid Willaame,ent. 
1720. 

Edward Wood, ent. 
1722. 



P. Lamerie, as in 

1717. 
William Atkinson, 

ent. 1725. 

John Tuite . 



Paul Crespin, old 
standard mark, 
ent. 1720. 

Edward Wood, as in 

1726. 
Do. . . . . 

James Gould, ent. 

1722. 
Edw. Cornock, ent. 

1723. 
Paul Crespin, NS 1720 

(scallop and mullet 

as in 1727). 
Aug. Courtauld, ent. 

1729. 

P. Lamerie, as in 

1717. 
Francis Nelme, old 

standard mark , ent. 

1722. 
Humphrey Payne, as 

in 1725. 
Lion rampant above. 

Edward Pocock, 

ent. 1728. 
Probably Jona Kirk, 

ent. before 1697. 



Plain beer-jug. Sudeley Castle. 



Small plain paten, cover to an older cup, both 

given 1725. Folkestone, Kent. 
Paten. Holy Trin., Coventry. 



Dessert forks. Lord Sackville. 



Square salver. Kt. Hon. Sir M. E. Hicks-Beach. ! 
Bart. 

Dinner plates. Viscount Falmouth. 



Repouss^ sugar-basin. Lord Amherst of 
Hackney. 

Paten. Portslade, Sussex. 

Square salver on feet. Messrs. Hunt & RoskelL 

Alms-dish. Burstwick, Yorks. 



Shaped snuffer-tray on feet. Lord Amherst of 
Hackney. 

Four-pronged table-forks. Narford Hall, Norf. 



Small oblong salts. All Souls* Coll., Oxford. 

Small oblong salts. (Staniforth Coll.) 

Table-candlesticks. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Salver, given 1729. Chart Sutton, Kent. 

Epergne, chased, etc., bearing the royal aims, 
Brit. St. Lord Hotham. 

Two-handled cup, cover and salver to match. 
Trinity House, Lond. 

Four small square waiters, Brit. st. Lord 

Amherst of Hackney. 
Dinner plates, shaped and gadrooned edge. 

Earl Bathurst. 

Plain communion cup. Middle, Salop. 
Small teapot. (Staniforth ColL) 



Pair of two-handled cups with covers. Hon. 
Soa of Middle Temple. 



APP. A.] 



XVI nth Century. 



393 



DATS 
1730 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
1731 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1732 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1733 

Do. 
Do. 

1734 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



Makbii*8 Mabk. 



LA 
T'P 




B*B 




E!£a 




IiA 

Do. 

SfSf 




Do. 
IK 




PC 






Do. 
IS 




AC 





P. Lamerie, as in 

1717. 
Thos. Pfarrer, as in 

1723. 
Abraham Buteox, as 

in 1723. 
Geoiif^e Wickes, as in 

1725. 

Richard Bayley, NS 
1720. Plain oblong 

Gabriel Sleath, ent. 
1720. 

David Willaumc, ent 
1728. 

William Lukin, ent. 
1726. 

Paul Lameric, as in 
1717. 

Do. . • . . 

John Tuite, as in 
1727.- 

Wm. Darker, ent. 
1731. 

Do. .... 
As in 1730 . . . 

Joseph Smith, ent 

1728. 
Paul Grespin, as in 

1727. 
Edward Pocock, as in 

1729. 
George Hindmarsh 

ent 1731. 

Caleb Hill, ent 1728 

Paul Lamerie, 2nd 
mark, ent 1732, 
" old sterling mark" 

Do. 

John Gamon, ent. 
1726-7. 

Samuel Wood . 

Aug. Courtauld, as in 

1729. 
William Gould, ent 

1732. 

Charles Eandler, ent. 
1727. 



Abtiolb ahd Owkbr. 



Chocolate pot, Brit st Lord Amherst of 

Hackney. 
Pair of alms-plates. Holy Trin., Minories, Lond. 

Two-handled cup and cover, ornamented with 
raised belts. Sir W. Williams Wynn. Bart. 

Set of four gilt maces, arched crown heads. 
Corporation uf Exeter. 

Flagon and alms-dish. Halsall, Lane. 

Covers to pair of older cups. Merchant Taylors' ! 
Company. 

Set of table candlesticks, square bases with 
comers cut off. Lord Sackville. 

Small salver. Rt Hon. Sir J. R. Mowbray, 
Bart. 

Set of four small circular salts, with masks above 
the feet, and wreaths between, Brit. st. Lord ! 
Hotham. | 

Open-work cake-basket, imitation of dicker- 
work, Brit, st Sudeley Castle. | 

Set of tea-caddies in shagreen case. W. R.. M. ' 
Wynne, Esq. 

Communion flagon. Sandal, Yorks. 

Sauce-pan. Lord Harlech. 

Tankards (one made of British silver). Mansion 

House, Lond. 
Tankard on lion-feet. Ironmongers* Company. 

Dinner plates, shaped and gadrooned edges. 

Lord Hotham. | 

Small square waiters, comers shaped. All Souls* , 

Coll., Oxford. 
Salvers. Rt Hon. Sir M. E. Hicks-Beach, Bart. 



Table forks. G. E. L. Baker, Esq. 

Large two-handled cup and cover, chased with 
strap-work ornaments. Lord Amherst of 
Hackney. 

Large oblong salver. Sir T. Thornhill, Bart. 

Small pepper-caster. Clothworkcrs' Company. 

Sugar-casters, plain shape. Clothworkcrs' Com- 
pany. 

Melon-shaped kettle, with lamp and stand. 
Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Taper candlesticks. Clothworkcrs' Company. 



Immense wine cistern. The Winter Palace, St. 
Petersburg. 



394 



Old English Plate. 



[apf. a. 



DATS 

I 

1735 
Do. 
Do. ' 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Makkr*s Mabk. 




X0^ 



1736 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

17.S7 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1738 

Do. 
Do. 




as 

Do. 



[g5 



PIi 





(gB) 



2A 




PL 




9f& 

1^ 




Robert Abercromby, 
ent. 1731. 

Humphrey Payne, as 
in 1726. 

Richard Gumey & 
Co., old sterling 
mark, ent. 1734. 

Gabriel Sleath, as in 

1730. 
Peter Archambo . . 

Do 

Geo. Hindmarsh, ent. 

1735. 
Paul Lamerie, as in 

1733. 



John Eckf ord , j unior, 
ent. 1725. 

Georpfe Wickes, ent. 
1735. 



AbTICLE and OWKIR. 



Robert Brown, ent. 

1736. 
Robert Abercromby, 

as in 17.S5. 
Joseph Allen and 

Mordecai Fox, ent. 

1729. 
John Le Sage, ent. 

1722. 

Paul Lamerie, as in 

1733. 
Louis Dupont, ent. 

1736. 

Isaac Callard, old 
sterling, ent. 1726. 

Joseph Smith, as in 

1731. 
John Tuite, as in 

1727. 

Benj. Sanders, ent. 
1737. 

Joseph Sanders, ent. 
1730. 

Thos. Tearle, old 
sterling, ent. 1720. 



Waiter on feet, shaped edge. Prof. A. H. 
Church. 

Waiter. J. Vanghan, Esq., Nannau. 

Pair of candlesticks. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

NoTK.— Thiit mark was first entered in 1727 by Thomas 
Cooke and Richard Gumey, living at y* Golden Cnp in 
Foster Lane. 

Plain two-handled cups. Clothworkers' Com- 
pany. 
Pierced cake-basket. T. W. C. Master, Esq. 

Pierced cake-basket. Lord Harlech. 

Fine-shaped salver, given 1735. Clothworkers' 
Company. 

Centre-piece with branches for small baskets, 
candlesticks, casters, cruets, &c., all inter- 
changeable, with beautifully chased upper 
basket. Count Bobrinsky, Moscow. 

Plain flagon. Minchinhampton, Glouc. 

The first mark entered as of the house now 
occupied by the Messrs. Garrard. 



Alphabet XIV. 1736—1765. 
Plain tankard. Vintners' Company. 

Chased salver on feet. T. W. C. Master, Esq. 

Alms-plate. Kensington Palace Chapel. 

Tall sugar-casters. Viscount Falmouth. 

Dinner plates and dishes to match. Mansion 

House, Lond. 
Two-handled cup and cover. Lord Tredegar. 

Three-pronged table forks. Lord Amherst of 
Hackney. 

Pint tankard. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Waiter. Lord Harlech. 

Kettle and stand to form epergne, with candle- 
branches and sweetmeat trays to fit on. 
(Octavius Morgan Coll.) 

Mark found on portions of the above. 

Tea-pot repouss^ with flowers. (Octavius Mor- 
gan Coll.) Also much Kent church-plate, 
1725—37. 



APP. A.] 



XVIIIth Century. 



395 



DATS 



Maksr*8 Mark. 








□3 






Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1741 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
1742 



mc 







0'J 

Do. 




3X1 

t^7 




Artiolb ahd OwiriR. 



Broth-basin, with cover, tray, and spoon. 
Viscount Midleton. 

Flagon , given 1738. St. Mary*s, Sandwich, Kent. 

Two-handled cup and cover, handsomely chased. 
Lord Tred^[ar. 

Another. Goldsmiths' Company. 
Rat-tailed dessert-spoon. Lord Tredegar. 



Isaac Callard, as in Three-pronged table forks. Lord Tredegar. 

1737. 
Fras. Spilsbury, ent. Flagon, dated 1738. Tideswell, Derbyshire. 

1729. 

Benj. Godfrey, ent. 
1732. 

Thos. Rush, ent. 1724 

P. Lamerie, 3rd 
mark, ent. 1739. 

Do. . . . . 

Jeremiah King, ent. 
1739. 

George Wickes, 
King's Arms, Pan- 
ton St., ent. 1739. 

William Garrard, ent. 
1739. 

Thos. Tearle, ent. 
1739. 

Augustin Courtauld, 
ent. 1739. 

Gumey & Co., ent. 
1739. 

P. Lamerie, as in 
1739. 

William Hunter, ent. 
1739. 

Gabriel Sleath, ent. 

1739. 
Thos. Farren, ent. 

1739. 

Fras. Spilsbury, ent. 
1739. 

Lewis Fantin, ent. 
1739. 

P. Lamerie, as in 

1739. 
Do. . 

D. Willaume, ent. 
1739. 

J. Allen and Mordecai 
Fox, ent. 1739. 

Edward Feline, ent. 
1739. 



First entry of the name of Garrard, which at 
length in 1792 becomes associated with that of 
Wakelin, the successor of Wickes in Panton St. 

Flagon. Holy Trin., Micklegate, York. 



Paten, em doTio Bathurst. Siddington, Glouc. 

Coomiunion flagon, given 1741. Steyning, Sussex. 

Two-handled cup and cover, chased strap orna- 
ments. Clothworkers' Company. 

Pierced and chased cake-basket. All Souls* 
Coll., Oxford. 

Two-handled cup with cover, and salver to match. 

Mansion House, Lond. 
Tankards. Charterhouse, Lond. 

Small tea-pot. Sir W. Williams Wynn, Bart. 

Kettle with lamp and stand. Noted by the 
author. 

Plain saucepan. Messrs. Lambert. 

Ewer. Goldsmiths* Company. 

Dinner plates. Viscount Falmouth. 

Communion plate, gift of E. Geo. II. Trin. Ch., 
Boston, New England. 

Coffee-pot. Sir W. Williams Wynn, Bart. 



396 



Old English Plate. 



[app. 



DATE 

1742 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1743 

Do. 
1744 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
174c 



Makbb'b Mabk. 







5 




J.3Ciu9 




&1 



Do. 



0c^ 





G 



Do. 

1746 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 




Do. 



0^1 




G 




EG 



Abticli ahd Owvib. 



Jeconiah Ashley, ent.: Large inkstand. Sir W. Williams Wynn, Bart. 
1740. 



Elizabeth Godfrey . 



A paten or alms-plate. St. Minver, Gomw. 



I 



Chas. Hatfield, ent. Globe-shaped kettle, lamp and stand* T. W. C. 



1739. 



Master, Esq. 



Samnel Wells, ent.. Small salver or alms-plate. St. Margaret, West- 

1740. I minster. 

John Neville and Spoons and three-pronged forks. E. R. Wing- 



Ann Craig, ent. 
1740. 



field, Esq. 



Wm. Gould, ent. 1739 Table candlesticks. T. W. C. Master, Esq. 

As in 1739 , . Dessert-spoon. W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 

Benj. West, ent. 1739 Baptismal bowl. St. Clement's, Sandwich, Kent 

P. Lamerie, as in Plain mug with handle. Lord Amherst of; 
1739. Hackney. I 

Do. . . . . Oblong tea-caddies, masks at comers, panels' 

chased with Chinese subjects. Quentin Hogg, > 

I Esq. ' 

Edward Feb'ne, as in Pierced and chased cake-basket. (Octavius Mor- ' 

1742. I ganColl.) i 

John Robinson, ent. Large salvers on feet, shaped edges. Lord 

1739. I Amherst of Hackney. 



Peter Archambo, ent. Candlesticks. Rt. Hon. Sir J. R. Mowbray, Bart. 
1739. I 

Gumey & Co., as in Two-handled cup and cover. Lord Harlech. 
1740. 



Pez6 Pilleau, ent. Coffee-pot. W. R. M. Wynne, Esq. 
1739. I 



Do. . 



Kettle, lamp, and stand. W. R. M. Wynne, Esq. 



Paul Lamerie, as in Three plain mugs with handles. Lord Amherst 

1739. , of Hackney. 

Hugh Mills, ent. Small salver, shaped edge. Hon. Soc. of Middle 

1745. Temple. 



Gumey & Co., as in j Large tankards and also butter-boats. Hon. 
1740. Soc. of Gray's Inn. 



Eben. Coker, ent. 

1739. 
Elizabeth Godfrey, as 

in 1742. 



Three-pronged forks. Hon. Soc. of Gray's Inn. 
Pierced and chased cake-basket. Lonl Tredegar. 



I 



JkTf. A.] 



XVIIIth Century. 



197 









®c} 




§6^ 





DATE 
1746 

Do. 

1747 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1748 

Do. 

Do. 

:i749 Of J 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



1750 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1751 
1762 

Do. 

175B 
Do. 



Makkb 8 Mahk. 



Abticlb ahd Ownbb. 





^ 




WP 




BvG 





William Peaston, ent. 
1746-6. 

Thos. Gilpin, ent. 
1739. 

William Grandy, ent. 
1743. 

Hugh Mills, as in 
1746. 

£dw. Wakclin, ent. 
1747. 

William Cripps, ent. 
1743. 

Thos. Heming, ent. 

1746. 
Gabriel Sleath, as in 

1740. 

Samuel Taylor, ent. 
1744. 

Ayme Yedeau, ent. 
1739. 

P. Lameric, as in 

1739. 
Fuller ' White, ent. 

1744. 

John Pollock, ent. 

1739. 
Fredk. Eandler, ent. 

1739. 

William Peaston, as 

in 1746. 
John Bo we, ent. 1749. 

Humphrey Payne, 
ent. 1739. 

Benj. Gignac, ent. 
1744. 

Ellas Cachart, ent. 
1748. 

Sam. Courtauld, ent. 
1746. 




Salver. W. B. M. Wynne, Esq. 
Salver. Bev. Q. F. E. Shaw. 

Two-handled cup and cover, chased, given 1747. 
Fishmongers* Company. 

Salver. W. B. M. Wynne, Esq. 

(See 1739.) 

Pierced cake-basket. Col. Warde, Squerries, 
Kent. 

Jug with cover. Melbury House, Dorset. 

Plain communion cup, given 1748. Dumley, 
Glouc. 

Tea-caddies in shagreen case. (Edkins Coll.) 



Oval salver, shaped and chased edge. Fish- 
mongers' Company. 

Cake-basket, circular salver, also coffee-pot. 

Lord Amherst of Hackney. 
Communion flagon, given 1749. Chapel- AUerton, 

Yorks. 

Sauce-boat, W. B. M. Wynne, Esq. 

Kettle, with lamp and stand. E. B. Wingfield, 
Esq. 

Large lobed rose-water bowl. Trin. Coll., 

OjLford. 
Two-handled cup. Clothworkers* Company. 

Flagon, dated 1750. Navenby, Line. 

Small trays, formerly part of epei^ne. G. E. L. 
Baker, Esq. 

Table spoons. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Set of table candlesticks. Narford Hall, Korf. ! 



m 



L 



Gumey & Co., ent. Plain two-handled cup. Bev. G. F. E. Shaw 
1760. 

Communion flagon, dated 1754. Llantredwvn 
N.Wales. ' e j^ , 

Fuller White, as in Communion flagon. Hunmanby, Yorks. 
1749. 



398 



Old English Plate. 



[apf. a 



DATE 
1763 

Do. 
1754 

Do. 

Do. 

1755 



Mauir*8 Maek. 




[1:2 





)PtG/ 






FW 

Do. 
DP 




1756 %% 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
1757 
Do. 

Do. 

1758 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1759 

Do. 




MP 



WC 



Do. 



Aetigle and Owkee. 



fV^MPl 




Sf'& 




RR 



James Shruder, ent. 
1739. 

John Qaantock . . 

Dan. Piers, ent. 1746. 

John Cafe, ent. 1742 



Phillips Garden, ent. 
1751. 

John Payne, ent. 
1751. 



Samuel Taylor, as in 
1748. 

Panl Crespin, ent. 
1739, 



Oblong box and other pieces of Tarioiis dates. 
Melbnry Honse, Dorset. 

Candlesticks. Do. 

Large batter-boats with handles and feet, 
gaidrooned edges. Hon. Soc. of Gray's Inn. 

Table candlesticks. W. R. M. Wynne, Esq. 

I 

Pair of large jags. Rt. Hon. Sir M. £. Hicks- 1 
Beach, Bart. I 

Plain coffee-pot. Lonl Amherst of Hackney. , 



Alphabet XV. 1756 — 1775. 

Pair of tea-caddies in shagreen case, chased and i 
repouss^ with flowers, spiral flutes, etc. In 
the collection of the late Paul Butler, Esq. 

Massive circular salts. Welbeck. 



I 



John Swift, ent. 1 739. Half-pint tumbler cups. All Souls* Coll., Oxford. 

Quart tankai'd. Lord Tredegar. 



Fuller White, as in 

1749. 
Wm. Grundy, as in 

1747. 
Do. • . . . 

Dan. Piers, as in 

1754. 
Edw. Aldridge and 

John Stamper, cut. 

1763. 
Pierre Qillois, ent. 

1764. 



Wm. Plummer, ent. 

1765. 
Thos. Whipham, and 

Chas. Wright, ent 

1757. 

John Payne, as in 
1756. 

Parker and Wakelin, 
goldsmiths to the 
Prince of Wales. 

Robert Rew, ent 
1764. 



Gilt patens, gadrooncd edge, un central feet.' 

Canterbury Cathedral. 
Cheese-toaster, ex dono Charles Morgan. Queen's 

Coll., Oxford. 
Set of candlesticks, also meat-dishes. Lord' 

Hotham. ^ 

Pierced basket. Rt. Hon. Sir J. R. Mowbray,; 

Bart 

Tea-caddies. Idsworth, Hants. 



Set of three casters, one larger and a pair 
smaller. Lord Hotham. i 

Parish mace. St. Margaret, Westminster. 

Pierced cake -basket Lord Tredegar. ! 

Cake-basket pierced and having spiral flutes. 

Lord Amherst of Hackney. 
Communion flagons and alms-basin. St Paul, 

Exeter. 



Small tumbler cups. (Octavius Morgan Coll.) 
Inkstand. Soane Museum, London. 

Large salver. Noted by the author. 



APP. A.] 



XV II nil Century. 



399 



I»ATB 



1759 



Do. 
Do. 

I Do. 
, Do. 



Makxk's Mars. 



Abtiolk ahd Owhbk. 



I 



C 

T-W 

W 





%*% 




Do. 
17C0 
Do. 

1761 
Do. 

1762 
Do. 

1763 

t 
' Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1764 

Do. 



fg«Q 



\BF¥A 



[CM] 

C 

T-W 

W 



SI 



[1a 




IP 

BW 

@) 
35 




|w.p] 
IR'P 



I 



Do. 






Whipham & Wright, 
as in 1758. 



Wm. Cafe, ent. 1757. 

John Langfoid and 
John Sebille. 

John Swift, as in 

1756. 
Wm. Shaw and Wm. 

Priest, ent. 1749. 



Abraham Portal, ent. 
1749. 

Richard Rugg, ent. 
1754, smaller size 
letters than Robert 
Rew of same year. 



Whipham & Wright, 
as in 1758. 

Jacob Marshe, ent. 

1744. 
Puller White, ent 

1758. 



Parker and Wakelin, 

as in 1759. 
William Shaw, ent. 

1749. 
John Swift, as in 

1756. 
Lewis Heme and 

Francois Butty, 

ent. 1757. 



Helmet-cup, merman handle ornamented with 
strapwork. Fishmongers* Company. 



Candlesticks. Earl of Durham. 
Inkstand. Noted by the author. 

Large tankard. All Souls' Coll., Oxford. 

Quart tankard. Lord Amherst of Hackney. i 



Tripod pricket altar candlesticks, ornamented 
with wreaths, cherubs, etc. Trin. Coll., Oxford. 

Two-handled cup and cover. Sir W. N. Throck- 
morton, Bart 

Hand candlesticks, W. R. M. Wynne, Esq. 



Small wired basket with entwined wreaths. 

Earl Ducie. 
Spiral fluted tea-urn on square open-work foot. 

Salters' Company. 

Pint tankard. W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 
Communion flagon. Dursley, Qlouc. 

Pierced cake-basket, Trin. Coll., Oxford. 
Gravy spoons. Hon. Soc. of Gray's Inn. 

Two-handled racing cups and covers, vase-shaped 

and chased. Duke of Cleveland. 
Communion flagon, usual pattern, given 1763. 

By field, Northants. 
Inkstand, gilt, Louis XV. style. Sir W. Williams 

Wynn, Bart. 
Shaped dishes in sets. Earl Amherst. 



Probably W. and R. 
Peaston. 

Septimus and James 
CrespeU. 

Samuel Herbert and 
Co., ent. 1750. 

David and Robert' 
Hennell, ent 1763. 



E|^)crgne with pierced baskets, etc. The Schloss, 

Berlin. 
Tankards. Gift of K. George III. and Q. 

Charlotte. Eton College. 

Large oblong inkstand with lids. Viscount 
Midleton. 

Cake-basket Sir H. Felly, Bart 



Large salt-cellar. Sir W. Williams Wynn, Bart. 



400 



Old English Plate. 



[▲FP. ▲. 



Do. 

1765 

Do. 

1766 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 

1767 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1768 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1769' 
Do. 

' Do. 



DATS 

1764 
Do. 

Do. ^g 

Do. 
Do. 



Masib's Mark. 



Abticlb ahd OwiriB. 




2^ 






Do. 

I 

WV 

Ii 






Do. 




Do. 
ND 



SC 
IC 

C 

T-W 

W 

© 

Do. 
T.P. 




Probably Ebenezer 

Coker. 
William Bond and 

John Phipps, ent. 

1764. 
Wm. Grandjy as in 

1747. 

Louis Blacky ent. 

1761. 
William and James 

Priest. 

Daniel Smith and 
Robert Shaip. 



Small waiter nsod as paten. Ickbuigh, Kozf. 

Shaped coffee-pot, repooss^ with scrolls and 
foliage. Salters* Company. 

Heads of parish beadles* staves, bought 1765. 
St. Paul, Covent Garden, London. 

Table candlesticks, Corinthian caps. Sir Geo. 

Chetwode, Bart 
Coffee-pot repou886. G. E. L. Baker, Esq. 



John Swift, as in 

1756. 
Do 

As in 1765 

Francois Butty and 
Nich. Dumee, ent. 
1759. 

Do 

Peter Werritzer, ent. 
1750. 

Thos. Hannam and 
John Crouch. 

Aug. Lesage . . . 



Do. . . . . 
Butty and Dumee. as 
in 1766. 

Thos. Heming . . 

S. and J. Crespell, as 
in 1764. 

Whipham & Wright, 
as in 1758. 

Probably John 
Carter. 

Richard Rugg, as in 
1760. 

Do 

As in 1763. 



John Hyatt and Chas. 
SemorCi ent. 1757. 



Salver. Welbeck. 



Cake-basket. Sir H. Pelly, Bart. 

Quart tankard. All Souls* Coll., Oxford. 

Pint tankards. All Souls* Coll., Oxford. 

Tea-caddies. Sudeley Castle. 

Communion plate (flower sprays and gadroons). 
Durham Cathednd. 

Alms-plate, dated 1766. St. German*8, Comw. 
CandlcsUckfl, Corinthian capitals. Sudeley Castle. 

Paten. Newchurch, Romney Marsh. 



Plain kettle, lamp, and stand. Lord Amherst of 
Hackney. 

Quart tankard. Lord Tredegar. | 

Chased and fluted pricket altar-candlesticks. | 

Durham Cathedral. , 

Large maces, dated 1767, engr. T. HEMING' 
fecit Corpn. of Rye. I 

Butter-boats, gadrooned edge, handles at each 
end. Salters* Company. 

Communion plate. Croft, Yorks. 



Salvers, gadrooned edges. T. W. C. Master, Esq. 

Salver. Sir W. WiUiams Wynn, Bart. 

Shaped and gadrooned salvers. Earl Amherst. 
Epergne, with hanging baskets and larger basket, i 

T. W. C. Master, Esq. 
Table candlesticks. T. W. C. Master, Esq. 



AIT. A.] 



XVIIIth Century. 



401 




Articlb avd Owheb. 



1769 



Do. 

1770 

Do. 

Do. 
1771 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1772 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1773 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1774 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



IH 



SC 
IC 

Eel 

WP 



Joseph Heriot, ent, 
1750. 

Fras. Cramp, ent. 

1766. 
Tbos. Heming, as in 

1767. 
S. and J. Crespell, as 

in 1764. 

See 1768. 

W. Plommer, as in 
1758. 



TP , As in 1763. 
EC I See 1764. 



ff^ PhiUp Norman 




IP 



^^ 





IP 
EW 

WP 



SC 
10 

^1 





fws 

BC 



10*1] 



Tbos. and Jabez 
DanieL 

Parker and Wakelin, 
as in 1759. 

Probably Emick Ro- 
mer. 

Thos. Heming, as in 

1767. 
Probably C. Wright. 



Jonathan Alleine 

Probably John Barry, 

ent. 1758. 
Parker and Wakelin, 

as in 1759. 

W. Plammer, as in 
1758. 



S. and J. Crcspell, as 

in 1764. 
William Vincent 

Crouch and Hannam, 
see 1766. 

George Smith, ent 
1774. 

Sumner and Crossley, 

ent. 1773. 
James Young and 

Orlando Jackson, 

ent. 1774. 



Oblong box, chasing by Moser, presented witli 
freedom of London to K. Christian YII. ol 
Denmark. Rosenberg Museum, Copenhagen. 

Communion cap, dated 1770. Sawley, Yorlu. 

Soup tureen and cover. Hon. Soc. of Middle 

Temple. 
Set of dinner plates. Earl Bathurst. 

Waiters with shaped and gadrooned edges. 

Earl Ducie. 
Pierced and repooss^ cake-baskets. Earl Ducie. 

Epergoe, with pierced hanging baskets. Lord 

Amherst of Hackney. 
Candlesticks like Corinthian columns. Merchant 

Taylors* Company. 
Goblet-shaped communion cup and paten. 

Exeter Cathedral. 
Muffineer. Prof. A. H. Church. 



Large circular salver, shaped and gadrooned 
edge. Earl Amherst 

Epergne with pierced work and flower-sprays. 
Rt. Hon. Sir J. R. Mowbray, Bart. 

Chocolate pot Hatfield House. 

Large two-handled cup and cover, with dragon 
handles, fluted stem, wreaths, cover sur- 
mounted by statuette. Mansion House, Lond. 

Set of candlesticks with gadrooned ornament 
on feet Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Snuffers. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Sauce-boats. Lord Hotham. 

Pierced and repouss^ cake-basket (Edkins 

Coll.) 
Plain tumbler, with belt round middle, fitted 

into a stand. Berkeley Castle. 
Set of dinner plates. Lord Harlech. 

Open-work (vine pattern) sugar-basket W. 

Cripps, Esq., C.B. 
Salver. Earl Ducie. 



Three-pronged forks. Hon. Soc. of Gray*8 Inn. 



Spoon-makers* mark. 

Two-handled oval vase with leaf straps. E. H. 
Luxmoore, Esq. 



D D 



402 



Old English Plate. 



[APP. A. 



I 



DATE 
1775 

Dd. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Makbe*8 Mabk. 



1776 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1777 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1778 

1779 

Do. 

1780 

Do. 

1781 
Do. 
Do. 



1782 
Do. 
Do. 



ro 

<fB) 



[133 





&m 



BD 



•Mf 




IB 



E-F 




DS 



Do. 
1>). 




See 1768 . 



T. Dtoiell, ent. 1774. 



Robert Piercji ent. 

1775. 
James Young, ent. 

1775 



Bobt. Jones and John 
Soofield, ent 1776. 

Chas. Aldridge and 
Henry Green, ent. 
1776. 

Bnirage Davenport . 

Andrew Fogelberg . 

As in 1775 . . . 

Chas. Aldridge and 
Henry Green, as in 
' 1775. 

As in 1772 . . . 

Daniel Smith and 
Robert Sharp. 

T. Heming, as in 
1767. 

B. Davenport, as in 

1776. 
Thos. Northcote, ent. 

1776. 
John Wakelin and 

Wm. Tayler, 1776- 

92. 
John Scofield, ent. 

1778. 

Probably John Barry, 

as in 1772. 
Edward Fennell, ent. 

1780. 
Daniel Smith and 

Robert Sharp, ent. 

1780. 
x/o. . • . . 
Do. . . ' . 
Hester Bateman, ent. 

1774. 



Abticue Airn Owitkb. 



Set of candlesticks ornamented with rams' heads, 
etc. From the Hopkinson collection. E.Waller, 
Esq. 

Pierced and repooss^ cake-basket Sadeley 

Castle. 
Wine-strainer, beaded edge. Hon. See. of Gray's 

Inn. 
Sugar-casters. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Sogar vase, urn-shaped, with handles as ropes. 
Rt. Hon. Sir J. R. Mowbray, Bart. 



Alphabet XVI. 1776—1795. 
Set of salvers. Sir H. Pelly, Bart. 

Claret jugs, festoons and medallions for orna- 
ment Also a salver, with beaded edge. 
Clothworkers* Company. 

Open-work cake-basket Earl Amherst 

Dinner plates. Rt. Hon. Sir M. E. Hicks-Beach, 
Bart 

Small communion cup. Gloucester CathedraL 

Inkstand. Late Re?. C. Orlando Kenyon. 



Communion plate. Coin St Aldwyns, Glouc. 

Toilet set, with medallions, wreaths, etc. National 
Museum, Stockholm. 

Salvers. Rt Hon. Sir M. E. Hicks-Beach, Bart 
Also 1777, candlesticks. Melbury House. 

Large bread-basket, shaped as a shelL Noted 

by the author. 
Feather-edged spoons. Late Earl of Glasgow. |j 

Plain kettle, lamp and stand. Sold at Christie 
and Manson's, 1876. 



Candlesticks. Sudeley Castle. (This maker pro- 
duced a great number of candlesticks and 
much other plate.) 

Snuffers. Lord Amherst of Hackney. 

Flagon, dated 1786. Lympne, Kent 

Pair of large tankards. Trin. Coll., Oxford. 

Chased salver. Trinity House. 

Flat tankard. All Souls' Collie, Oxford. 

Small two-handled tray. W. R. M. ^ynne, Esq. 



APP. A.] 



XVIIIth Century. 



403 



DATS 

1783 
1784 

Do. 

1785 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



1786 

Do. 

Do. 

1787 
1788 
Do. 

1789 
Do. 

1790 

Do. 

1791 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



Makkb*8 Mark. 






TD 



IS 



as 



IS 




(SB) 
10 

TH 



Da 



^S^ 




WV 



cza 



HQ 



AB 



HC 



Edward Jay, ent 

1757. 
George Smith, as in 

1774. 

Samuel WinUe, ent. 

1783. 
T. Daniell, as in 

1775. 
Richd. Crossley, ent. 

1782. 
Hester Bateman, as 

in 1782. 

John Lambe, ent. 

1783. 
John Scofield, as in 

1780. 
George Smith, as in 

1774. 



Geom Smith and 
Wniiam Feam,ent 
1786. 

John Scofield, as in 
1780. 

John Harris, ent 

1786. 
Henry Green, ent. 

1786. 

Hen. Chawner, 1786- 

96. 
Cronch and Hannam, 

as in 1774. 

Do. . • • 

Hester Bateman, as 
in 1782. 

Wra. Pittsand Joseph 
Preedy, ent. 1791. 

Wm. Vincent, as in 

1774. 
Robert Hennell, ent. 

1773. 

Wm.Abdy, ent. 1784. 

Henry Green, as in 
1787. 

Peter and Ann Bate- 
man, ent. 1791. 

Henry Chawner, as 
in 1788. 



Abtzoli ahd Ownbb. 



Flat-candlestick. W. E. Oakley, Esq. Plas 

Tanybwlch. 
Gravy spoons, feather-edged. (No King*s head 

mark.) W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. (This maker 

made many spoons.) * 
Very small tea-spoons. (King's head mark in 

intaglio.) W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 
Oviform commonion cap. Old Shoreham, Soss. 

Spoons. Lord Tredegar. (This maker made 

many spoons.) 
Paten, dated 1785. Gateshead, Darh. 

Large tankard, ez do-no Dilke. Trin. Coll., 

Oxford. 
Candlesticks. Earl Bathnrst. 

Set of dessert-spoons, feather-edged. W. Cripps, 
Esq., C.B. 

NoTC— All the abore spedmenB of this year have the 
King's head in intaglio. 

This mark is found on a large number of spoons 
from this year till about 1792. 

Oval-pointed tea-urn, pointed handles. Late 
Miss Ker- Porter. 

Bread-basket W. R. M. Wynne, Esq. 
Baige-ma8ter*s badge. Clothworkers* Company. 

Oval-pointed, boat-shaped salts, with handles at 

each end. E. Waller, Esq. 
Salver. Sudeley Castle. 



Oval salyer, with handles. Lord Amherst of 

Hackney. 
Small plain communion cup. St. Paul, Covont 

Garden, Lond. 

Small stand, with festoons and medallions. 
Earl Dude. 

Oval waiter or teapot stand. Late Miss Ker- 

Porter. 
Plain circular sugar-basin, on square foot, two 

glinted handles of the period. Berkeley 
astle. 
Oval-pointed, boat-shaped salt-cellars. W. Cripps, 

Esq., C.B. 
Oval waiter or tea-pot stand. Ravensworth 

Castle. 
Oval-pointed, boat-shaped sugar-basin.W. Cripps, 
Esq., C.B. I 

Ewer. Sir H. Pelly, Bart. 



D D 2 



404 



Old English Plate. 



[▲PP. A. 



DATS 
1792 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1793 

1794 

1795 
Do. 

Do. 



Makib*8 Mark. 



Articlb avd Owvbb. 



1796 

1797 
Do. 

Do. 



1798 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

1799 

Do. 

1800 
Do. 

1802 
1804 



HC 



fTK 



IS 




RS 



TH 



WP 
IP 

Do. 
IS 



IT 



IS 

Do. 
WA 



fRH 

DH 



OS 



EC 




fFw" 



I-R 






FB 
AB 
WB 



RE 
BE 
BE 



H 



Henry Chawner, as 

in 1788. 
John King, ent. 1785. 

John ScQfield, as in 

1780. 1 

Paul Stonr, ent 1792- 

3. 
Robert Sharp, ent. 

1789. 
George Smith and 

Tho8. Hayter, ent. 

1792. 
John Moore, ent. 

1778. 
Pitts and Preedj, as 

in 1790. 
Do. .... 
John Scofield, as in 

1780. 
John Thompson of 

Sanderland, ent. 

1786. 



John Scoficld, as in 

1780. 
x/o. « . . . 
Wm. Abdy, as in 

1791. 
Robert and David 

Henell, ent 1795. 



Richard Crossley, as 

in 1785. 
John Ernes, 1796- 

1808. 

J. Wakelin and Robt. 

Garrard,! 792-1802 
John Robins, ent. 

1774. 
Wm. Ealeyand Wm. 
' Feam, ent 1797, 



Peter, Ann, and Wm. 
Bateman, ent 1800. 

Messrs. Henell • 



Fluted baptismal basin. St Margaret, Westm. 

Plain communion cup. Bagendon, Qlonc. 

Fluted oval tea-pot (Rundell and Bridge). 

Lord Tredegar. 
Oval-pointed cup with cover and handles. 

Lord Sackville. 
Large and also smaller candlesticks on square 

bases. Saltcrs' Company. 
This mark is found on many spoons. 



Small plain paten, given 1793. Marston Meysey. 

Wilts. 
Epergne and plateau. Mercers' Ck>mpany. 

Inkstand. Trinity House. 

Very fine Wedgi^'ood-shaped, two-handled 

and covers. Merchant Taylors* Company. 
Coffee-pot Lord Harlech. 



Alphabet XVIL 1796—1815. 

Oval tea-pot and stand (bought of Rundell and 

Bridge). W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 
Tea-pot stand. W. K. M. Wynne, Esq. 
Oval solid cake-basket H. Bertie Williams 

Wynn, Esq. 
Large shaped and gadrooned dish for fish. 

(Btaniforth Coll.) 

Table-spoons. Royal North Gloucester Militia. 
Table-spoons. Royal North Gloucester Militia. 
Fish-slice. Royal North Gloucester Militia. 



Oval-pointed soup-tureen with handles. Lord 

Tredegar. 
Communion plate. South Cemey, Glouc. 

Soup-ladle. Royal North Gloucester Militia. 



Table-forks. W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 

Pair of small beaker-cups. Sudeley Castle. 



Tea-pot, raised rim, and coffee jug or pot t«i 
match. Noted by the author. 



Henry Nutting, ent Tea-pot, raised rim. Welbeck. 
1796. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST, Part II., 

TO BE USED 
IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE PRECEDING PORTION. 



DATK 



Makbr*s Mark. 



Abtiolb akd Owhsil 



1494 

1496 

Do. 

1510 
1512 

1523 
1524 

1528 



1543 
1547 

1549 

Do. 



1552 
1553 




* 




BN 
RD 




w 



1559 

Do. 

1562 

1563 



A 




Bird's head . 

Dim. flear<-de-ljS| 

as in 1479. 
Indented leaf, no 

shield. 



Fish, as in 1507 



Fleor-de-lys, &c.| 
as in 1 525. 



Fringed S, as in 
1619. 



Do. do. 

Linked letters, as 

in 1549. 
Linked letters, as 

in 1552. 



Bird, as in 1555. 



• 



Stag's head, as in 

1551. 
Lamp • • • 

Letter S, surroun- 
ded by ray8,alter- 
nately straight 
and waving. 

Three mullets and 
cre8cent,as in 1560 



Alphabet L 1478—1497. 
Chalice and paten. Clifford Chambers, Qlouc. 

Chalice. Very Rev. Dr. Darby, Dean of Chester. 

Plain paten, with vemicle. Childrey, Berks. 

Alphabet II. 1498—1517. 

Paten, sezfoil depression, usual yemicle. Or- ' 

cheston St. Mary, Wilts. 
Do. do. Scremby, Lines. 

Alphabet IIL 1618—1537. 
Paten. Beachamwell, Norf. 

Alms-basin, indented Gothic moulding round 
rim, engraved with Elizabethan medallions. — 
St. Michaers, Crooked Lane (now with St. 
Magnus, London Bridge). 

Apostle spoon. British Museum. 

Alphabet IV. 1538—1557. 

Maidenhead spoon. Sir A. W. Franks. 

Spoon with lion sejant end. W. Cripps, Esq., 
C.B. 

Com. cup, bell-shaped bowl, conical stem. St. 
Peter, Comhill, London. 

Com. cup and paten without foot. St. James, 
Garlickhithe, London. Also another, St. Mil- 
dred, Bread St., London. 

Com. cup. Owlysbury, Hants. 

Com. cup, on short stem. Great Houghton, 
Northantfi. 

Alphabet V. 1558—1577. 
Com. cup. Melton Mowbray, Leics. 

Com. cup and cover gilt, with unusual stem. 

St. Mary-le-Bow, London. 
Com. cup. Buckhorn- Weston, Dorset. 



Standing salt, in two storeys. South Kenung- 
ton Museum. 



I 



i 



4o6 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DATE 

1567 

1569 
Do. 

1570 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1571 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1573 
1576 

Do. 

Do. 
1577 
1578 



Makib*s Mark. 



1579 
Do. 




Do. 



© 



W.\ 







^ 





IF 



t t 






m 



Ball's head erased, 
as in 1569. 

Do. 



Horse^shead coaped 
to sinister. 

Covered cup . 



Orb and crosSi as 

in 1569. 
No shield . . . 



Abtiou avd Owvxr. 



HW i As in 1563 . 



Animal's head 
erased. 



As in 1571 . 



Bird, as in 1567 . 



. . a . 



Small animali 
1 snail. 



As in 1578 
HW I As in 1563 



Com. caps with paten coyers. Kinecote, Goadbj 
Marwood, &c., Leics. 

Nethcrhampton, Dorset. 

Com. cup, usual belt. Northleach, Glouc. 

Caps with paten covers. Walditch and Tarrant 
Keynstone, Dorset. 

Com. cup, usaal belt, dated 1571. Doncaster. 

Another, dated 1571. Caundle Purse, Dorset. 

Another, dated 1571. tit. Mary le Bow, 

Durham. 
Com. cup. St. Stephen, Bristol. 

Com. cup, usual belt. Fugglestone St. Peter, 
WUts. 

Com. cup. Shapwick, Dorset. 



Com. cups. Saddington, Leics. ; Long Bridy 

and Charminster, Dorset, &c. 
Com. cup. St. Bees, Cumb. 

Com. cups, usual belt. Cropthome, &c., Wore. 

Also small cap, usual belt, dated 1571. Holm 

Cultram, Cumb. 
Com. Caps. Isel^ Cumb., and Thomoomb, 

Dorset. 

Com. cup and cover. Tetminster, Dorset. 

Com. cup, dated 1571. St. John, Dinsdale, and 

Boos, Vorks. Also paten cover. Loweswater, 

Cumb. 
Cup made of the Great Seal. £dm. Wodehouse, 

Esq. 
Com. cups. South Newton and W. Grimstead, 

Wilts ; and at Hever, Kent. 

Com. cup. Ashmore, Dorset, 

Com. cup. Chilmark, Dorset. 

Com. cup and cover. Lympley Stoke, Wilts. 

Shallow cup with wide pointed bowl and 
baluster stem (found at Stoke Prior).' South 
RcDsington Museum. 

Alphabet VI. 1578—1597, 
Tapering tankard. (Ashford Coll.). 

Pair of vase-shaped jars, with screw-stoppers 
and chains passing to lions'-head rings on the 
bowl. The Schloss, Berlin. 



APP. A.] 



XVIIth Century. 



407 



DATS 

1679 

1581 

1583 

1685 
1594 

1595 

1596 

1597 



Mauir*8 Hark. 



Aeticls Ain> OwvsB. 






1598 
Do. 
Do. 

1599 

1600 

1603 
1606 

Do. 

1608 

1609 

1610 
Do. 

1613 

1614 
1617 











• • 



^ 




Linked, as in 1568 
As in 1580 . . 

As in 1604 . . 



Mallet below 
shaped shield, as 
in 1624. See p. 
370. 



Eagle displayed, as 
in 1597. 



Hart lodged . 



Tan below 



As in 1608 

W within Crescent 




Tazza, helmeted head engraved in bowl. Loan 
Cat. 1862, No. 5744. H.R.H. The Dake of 
Cambridge. 

Com. cap and cover. West De^n, Wilts. 

Bound-bellied flagon. St. Gfsorge^s Chapel, 

Windsor. 
Gourd-shaped cup. Troitsa Hon, Russia. 
A bell salt with strapwork of the period (found 

at Stoke Prior). SouUi Kensington Museum. 

Plain com. cup, conical stem. Woodchurch, 

Kent. 
Oviform cup on baluster stem. Leigh, Wilts. 

Maye rosewater dish. Merchant Taylors' Ca 



Alphabet VII. 1598—1617. 
Flagons, tankard-shaped. C. C. C, Oxford. 

Mounts of cup, with glass egg-shaped bowl. 
St. Kew, Cornw. 

Pair of fine gilt round-bellied flagons, chased 
with usual strap-work. Wadham ColL Chapel, 
Oxford. 

Bell salt in three tiers. (Dasent and Ashford 
Colls.). 

Cup with baluster stem. Whitgift Charity, 
Croydon. 

Small saucer, punched ornament. Lacock, 

WUts. 
Tazza cup with punched ornament. Sir A. W. 

Franks. 

Com. cup, usual belt ; paten cover dated 1607. 
Crowmarsh, Oxon. 

Beaker communion cup. Stickney, Lines. 



Ostrich egg mounted as a jug, with lid and 
handle and engraved band round mouth. 
Sir A. W. Franks. 

Com. cup, dated 1610. Woodhouse, Lelcs. 

Apostle spoon, St. Matthias. (Ashford ColL) 
W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 

Tall narrow tankard-flagon, lid with arms 
enamelled on small boas. AUhallows, Lom- 
bard Street, London. 

Seal-head spoon. (0. Moi^gan CoU.) 

Paten on foot,, dated 1618. Ch. Ch., Newgate 
Street, London. 



4o8 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 




1618 
Do. 

1619 
1622 

1624 
1625 

1630 

1631 

1632 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
1634 

1636 
Do. 



Makib'5 Mabk. 



Abtioli ahd Owmbr. 





IM 

« • 






1638 

1639 

Do. 

1640 
1641 

1647 
1649 
Do. 





KF 




As in 1630 . 
And 963 1633 . . 



And see 1660 

Pig below, as in 

1639. 
Escallop shell as 

in 1635. 



Italic F as in 1635 



W with I above, 
as in 163G. . 

Buckle beneath as 
in 1638. 



Bird in plain shield 

Do. Do. 
As in 1652 . . 



Alphabet VIII. 1618—1637. 
Slip-ended spoons. Mercers* Co. 

Plain dmm standing salt. Mercers* Co. 



Small cup on high stem, npper part of bowl | 
octagonaL Rev. J. K. Kempe. 

Com. cup. Chillingham, Northumb. 



Com. cup. Lyme Regis, Dorset. 

Pair of tall tankard-flagons, given 1625. St. 
Peter's, Comhill, London. 

Com. cup, dated 1630. Bilsington, Kent. Others, ' 
dated 1630 and 1633. Burmarsh and S tod- 
marsh, Kent. 

Paten. Wootton Bassett, Wilts. 

Com. cup, dated 1633. Dodington, Kent. 

Com. cap. Ashfoid, Kent. Nineteen com. cups 
bj this maker, all between 1628 and 1636, 
have been noted by the author. 

Plain com. cup, nsnaJ stem. Shomcott, Wilts. 

Flagon, dated 1626. St. Nicholas, Gloucester. 



Com. cup, dated 1635. Lythe, Ugthorpe, Yorks. j 
Eight pieces of ch. plate by this maker, 1632 I 
to 1641, have been noted by author. < 

Frosted-sided cup. Queen*s Coll., Camb. 

Com. cup and cover. Fetcham, Surrey. 



Alphabet IX. 1638—1657. 

Com. cup, wine-glftss shape, on baluster stem. 

St. Nicholas, Gloucester. 
Paten. Sturminster Newton, Dorset. 

Com. cup. Chelsflcld, Kent. 



Com. cup. Winterbom<». Came, Dorset. 

Plain tankard-flagon with splayed foot. St 
Mary, N. Fish Street, London. 

Com. cup. Guiseley, Yorks. 
Com. cup. Stapleton Iweme, Dorset. 
Three cups in original case, given 1649. Ca of 
Merchant Adventurers, Newca^tle-on•Tyne. | 



APP. A.] 



XVIIth Century. 



409 




Abtiolb and Ownir. 



Flagon. Lydiard Tregoze, Wilts. 
Com. cup. Brokenborongh, Wilts. 

Tall flagon and deep dish. Ossington, Kotts. 

Spoon, of foreign shape. R. Day, Esq., junr. 

Shallow tray for sweetmeats, punched ornt. 
M. Biddulph, Esq. 

Wide tankaid, given 1656. Innholders' Com- 
pany. 

Alphabet X. 1658 — 1677. 
Pair of cups and paten. Hinckley, Leics. 

Flat tankard, with arms and mantling in 
repouss^ Noted by author. 

Arched-crown maces, dated 1660. Corpn. of 
Gloucester. 

Jug-shaped flagons, feather-work bodies. Chapel 
Royal, St. James's Palace. (Others are at St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.) 

Tall tankard-flagons. Chapel Royal, St. 
James' Palace. 

Large salver, repouss^ flowers and animals. Do. 

Tall tankard flagon. Kensington Palace Chapel. 

Large gilt alms-dish. Eton ColL Chapel. 

Plain plate, engraved with arms. St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor Castle. 

Com. cups, flagons and patens. Do. 

Com. cup. Brozholme, Lines. (Eight pieces 
by this maker, 1660 to 1675, noted by author.) 

Plain com. cup on short baluster stem. Ken- 
sington Palace Chapel. Also com. cup and 
cover. Addington, Kent. 

Communion plate. Chapel Royal, Whitehall. 

Com. cup, dated 1669. Kirkby Cane, Norf. 

Caudle cup. Noted by author. This mark also 
occurs on an undated cup at Chapel Royal, 
St. James's Palace. 

Plain com. cup. Harley, Salop. 

Com. cup, given 1670. Barnard Castle, Durh. 



4IO 



Old English Plate. 



[app. 



DATK 



Maker's Makk. 



1678 

1679 
1681 

Do. 

Do. 

1682 

Do. 
1683 

1684 

Do. 
1685 

1686 

Do. 

1687 

1689 

Do. 

1690 

Do. 

Do. 

1692 
Do. 



TO 



CK 








® 





IN 
TI 













Fish above, as in 
1677. 



Italic A 



As in 1662. . . 

Escallop aboYC and 
below, as in 1685 



Probably Timothy 
Ley. See 1699 
and 1727. 

Probably Wm. 
Gamble. 

Two italic BBad- 
dorsed. 



Abticli avd Owvn. 



Alphabet XL 1678—1696, Part L 

Com. cap, dated 1678. . Birchington, Kent 
(This maker's mark occurs on much Kent ch. 
plate, 1677 to 1688.) 

Tankard. Eton College. 

Flat-handled spoon. £. W. Colt-Williams, Esq. 



Flagon, dated 1678. Gillingham, Dorset. 
Com. cap. Sedgefield, Darh. 

Frosted loving-cup. Innholders' Company. 

Tall gilt tankard-flagons with splayed feet. 
Merton Coll. Chapel, Oxford. 

Gilt alms-dish, arms engraved in centre. All- 
hallows, Lombard Street, London. 

Oval gilt tobacco-box. Stanley Leighton, Esq. 

Com. pUte, dated 1685. Hatfield, Herts. 
Large mace, dated 1686. Wilton, Wilts. 

Com. Clip. Thrybergh, Torks. 

Paten. Kirkland, Camb. 

Paten. Collingboome Kingston, Wilts. 

Com. cup, dated 1689. Thomford, Dorset. 
Alms dish. Damford, Wilts. 



Flat-hflndled spoon, found under floor of halL 
Oriel Coll., Oxford. 

Flagon. Pangboame, Berks. 

Flagon. St Nichs., Whitehaven, Cumb. 



Paten. Tadcaster, Yorks. 

Frame of toilet mirror. Earl Bathurst 



APP. A.] 



XVI Ith Century. 



411 



DATE 



1692 



C 

1696 



1697 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



1698 



Do. 



Makbb's Ma&k. 












Another mark for 
Fras. Garthome. 









Thos. Parr, ent 
Apr. 1697. 

John Laughtoxii 
ent. 1697. 

Isaac Dighton . . 



Another mark for 
Jos. Bird. 

Thomas Brydon. 



Samuel Jefferys. 



Jona Eirke. 



Thomas Issod. 



PhiUp Boker. 



Name unknown . 



William Keatt . . 

Another mark for 
Wm. fEawdery. 

William Fetley, 
ent. 1699. 

Timothy Ley, ent. 
1697. See 1690. 

Richard Syngin, 
ent. 1697. 

John Leach, ent. 
1697. 



Abticli avd Owhib. 



Wall sconce, with arms and coronet. Hatfield 
House. 

Jug. with handle, cover, and spout, with ^ cut- 
card '* omt. Windsor Castle. 



Alphabet XIL 1696, Part 2—1715. 
Paten. Bilstone, Yorks. 

Snuffers. CoL Tremayne, Carclew. 
Monteith. Late Lady Molesworth. 



Do. |rO:| Alex. Boode . 



Caudle cups, thumh-ring handles. Eton College. 



Plain tankard. Noted by author. 



Paten. Sherborne, Dorset. 



Com. cup. Puddletrenthide, Dorset. 



Mace. Corporation of Deal, Kent 



Flagon. Ansley, Warw. 



412 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DATS 

1700 
Do. 

1701 

Do. 

c. 
1701 

1702 

Do. 
1707 

Do. 

1708 
1709 

Do. 

Do. 

1710 

1712 

Do. 

1713 
Do. 

1714 

Do. 



Maebb'8 Mabk. 






VTAI 




f& 




(^ 





PY 









PE 



[iaj 



Gabriell PUyer, 
ent ]700. 

William Denny . 



Samnell Wastell, 
cnt. 1701. 

Willaghbj Mas- 
ham, ent. 1701. 

Lawrence Coles, 
ent. 1697. 

Thos. Sadler, ent. 
1701. 

Thos. Gorbett, eat. 
1699. 

John Abbott, ent 
1706. 

Thos. Folklngham, 
ent. 1706. 



Benj. Pyne, as in 

1701. 
Thos. Ffarren, ent. 

1707. 

John ChaTtier,2nd 
mark. See 1699, 
p. 386. 

Lewis Mettayer, 
ent. 1700. 

John Martin Stoc- 
ker, ent. 1710. 

Richard Kaine, ent. 
1712. 

Thos. Port, ent. 
1713. 

Mullet above and 
below. W. Pen- 
stone, ent. 1712. 

Charles Jackson, 
ent 1714. 

W. England and 
John Yaen, ent. 
1714. 



ABTICLI ikVD OWHBB. 



Salver. Corporation of Chester. 

Small flat-handled spoon. E. W. Colt- Williams, 
Esq. 

Flat-handled spoon. Noted by author. 



Tall standing cup and cover, gilt Pewterers' 
Co. 

Tankard. Noted by author. 



Paten. Box, Wilts. 



Small salver on foot. Earl Amherst. 

Great mace of Borough of Qravesend, Kent 

Plain gilt alms-<lish, dated 1709. Allhallows, 
Lombard Street, London. 

Plain cylindrical chocolate pot, flap on spout. 
Noted by author. 

I 

Plain small table candlesticks, octagonal feet. 
Noted by author. 

Small salver on foot Earl Amherst 



Paten. Smarden, Kent. 
Kent ch. plate. 



He made also other 



Flagon. Nettleton, Wilts 



APP. A.] 



XVII Ith Century, 



41 



DATl 



Do. 



Do. 



MakiVb Mabk. 




Francis Plymley, 
ent. 1715. 

Nathl. Roe, ent. 
1710. "Gone to 
live in Norwich." 

ThoB. Langf onl, ent. 
1715. 



Artioli akd Owirn. 













Joseph Clare, ent 
1713. 

Michael Boult, ent 
1713. 

Thos. Kwisden, 
ent 1713. 

See 1711 



Anne Tanqueray ; 
probably widow 
of David Tan- 
queray. 

Rdn^ Hadell, ent. 
1717. 

Wm. Darker at the 
Aoom, ent 1718. 

Thos. Tearle, ent 
1719. 

Thos. Bamford,ent 
1719. 

Do., ent, 1720. Old 
sterling. 

Samael Marfnw. 
ent 1720. Old 
sterling. 

John Sanders, ent 
1717. 

Peter Archambo, 
ent 1720. 



Hanoverian-pattern spoon. B. W. Colt- 
Williams, Esq. 

Com. cap. Lillington, Dorset 



Alphabet XIII. 171&— 1735. 
Paten. Steeple Grange, Dorset 

Pair of candlesticks, octagonal feet. Noted by 
author. 

Patens, given 1716. St Nicholas, Gloucester. 

Paten on foot, dated 1718. Halsall, Lanes. 

This mark, and the same with AT instead of 
TA, are both entered at year 1717 ; the AT 
probably should be at 1720. 



Plain shaped octagon sagar-casters. 
Coll., Oxford. 

Paten. Corsham, Wilts. 



Merton 



Same as in 1719, with SM for MA, 



Paten. West Chelborough, Dorset 



New sterling mark. 



David Tanqueray . Old sterling mark. 



Lewis Mettayer . 



Benj. Watts 



Do. 



. Do. 



414 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DATB 
1720 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1721 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

1722 

Do. 
Do. 

1723 

Do. 



Makir*8 Mabk. 



o 






i: 





iSi 














^SWi 



Richard Bayley . 
William Fawdeiy . 

J. Barbut . . . 
Isaac Liger . 
Charles Jackson . 
Samuel Hitchcock 



Paul Hanet, ent. 
1716. 

Simon Pantin,ent. 
1720. 

£dw. Turner, ent 
1720. 

Edw. Gibbon, ent. 
1719. 

John Wisdome,ent. 
1720. 

S. Holadaj, ent. 
1719. 



Samnell Lea, ent. 
1721. 

John Bathe, ent. 
1721. 

Matth. E. Loft- 
bouse, ent. 1721. 

Nic. Clausen,, ent. 
1722. 

John Eckfouid 

W. Scarlet, ent. 
1722. 

Edw. Gibbon, ent. 
1723. 



Artiolx An) OmnuL 



Old sterling mark. 
Do. 

Da 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



Official inkstand, with bell, ink, and pounce- 
box. Bt. Hon. Sir M. E. Hicks-Beach, Bart. 

Tea-spoons, gilt. Naifoid Hall, Norfolk. 



Two-handled cup. Painter-Stainers* Company. 

Candlesticks, baluster stems. (Staniforth ColL) 

Small octagonal pepper-pot with handle. Noted 
by author. 

Com. cup. Pnlham, Dorset. 



Double-handled and double-spouted sauce-boatf . 
Noted by author. | 

I 

Old sterling mark. 



Do. 

Do. . 

Do. 

Large mace. Henley-on-Thames. 
Old sterling mark. 

Do. 

Paten. Obome, Dorset. 



APP. A.] 



XVIIIth Century. 



415 



DATS 

1723 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1724 

Do. 

1726 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

1726 

Do. 

1727 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Makkr'b Maul 



Abtxoli akd Owhbb. 


















ICHl 




Abraham Batenz. 
See 1723. 



Benj. Pyne. See 
1684. 



Thos. Ffarrer. See 
1723. 

Arthur Dicken, 
ent. 1720. 

Amett and 
Pococke. 



Geory^ Wickes, ent. 
1721. 

Bernard Fletcher, 
ent. 1725. 

Isaac Ribouleau, 
ent 1720. 

Benj. Pyne, as in 
1723. See 1684. 

Sarah Holadaj, ent. 
1725. 

Wm. Toone, ent 
1725. 

Benj. Pyne, as in 
1723. 

Wm. Atkinson, ent. 
1725. 

Wm. Darker, ent. 
1724. 

Timothy Ley, as 
ent. before 1697. 

Jacob Maigas, ent. 
1720. 

Chas. Hatfield, ent. 
1727. 

Wm. Shaw, ent. 
1727. 



New sterling mark. 



Beadles' maces. Oxford University. 



New sterling mark, ent 1707. 



Flagon, dated 1723. Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts. 



New sterling mark, ent 1719. 



Paten. Obomc, Dorset. 



New sterling mark. 



Salver, shaped edge. Late Lady Molesworth. 
Tea-pot, partly chased. Noted by author. 



The Boston Oar Mace. Earl Brownlow. 



Hanoverian-pattern table-spoons. Park Hatch. 
Great Mace of the Borough of Westminster. 
New sterling mark. 

Com. cup. Frome St Qnentin, Dorset 

Paten. Newchurch, Kent T. Ley made much 
Kent church plate. 

Oval lobed dishes. Welbeck. Also octagonal 
gilt dish. Hatfield House. 



[ 



4i6 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



DAT! 



Makib'b Makk. 





Do. 




Do. 



Do. 



1730 



1731 







1733 




Edmand Bodiog- 
ton, ent 1727. 

Heater Fawdery, 
ent 1727. 

James Gould, ent. 
1722. 

John Millington, 
ent 1728. 

Thos. Mason, ent. 
1720. 

John ffawdery,ent. 
1728-9. 

Jane Lambe, ent 
1719. 

Fras. Garthome, 
as before 1697. 

Charles Kandler 
and James Mur- 
ray, ent 1729. 

ijQ» m • • • 



Richard Scarlet, 
ent 1720. 

William Petley, 
ent 1720. 

Tbofl. England, ent 

1726. 
James Wilkes, ent. 

1722. 
Edward Bennett, 

ent 1731. 

Peter Bennett, ent 
1731. 

Eliz. Butenx, ent. 
1731. 

Sarah Parr, ent> 
1720. 

Thos. Parr, ent 9 
Feb., 1733. 

Mary Pan tin, ent. 
1733. 

Lewis Pantln, ent 
1733. 



Articli a«d Owhib. 



New sterling mark. 



Alms-dish. Stoar ProYOst, Dorset 



Three-pronged table-forks. Melbnry. 



Flagon. Allerton Mauleverer, Yorks. 
New sterling mark. 



Old sterling mark. 



Table-spoons, Hanoverian pattern. Corpn. of 
Gloucester. 

Straining spoon, Hanoyerian pattern, half bowl 
pierced. St. Magnus, London Bridge. 

Cover to cup of 1709. Rt Hon. Sir J. R. Mow- 
bray, Bt. 

Table-spoons, Hanoverian pattern. Corpn. of 
Gloucester 



Flagon, given 1732. Blandford Fonun, Dorset 
Com. cup, given 1732. Do. 



APP. A.] 



XVI ink Century. 



417 



Makir^s Mark. 



rl736 
Do. 



1736 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
1737 

Do. 
Do. 

1738 
Do. 
Do. 

1739 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



as 




^^1 



[ica 






as 





pffi 




IH 








m 



Gabriel Sleath, as 
in 1730. 

Griffith Edwards, 
ent 1732. 

Peze Pilleaa . • 



AanoLB AVD Owhir. 



Henry Herbert, 

ent. 1734. 
Eliz. Batenx, as in 

1731. 
John Newton, ent. 

1726. 

Fras. Snilsbnry, 
ent 1729. 

Fredk. Kandler, 
ent. 1735. 

Gabriel Sleath, as 
in 1730. 

Isaac Callard, ent. 
1726. 

Richard Zouch, ent. 
1735. 

Phil. Bmguier, ent. 
1738. 

Ebenezer Coker, 
ent. 1738. 

Dinah Gamon, ent. 
1739. 

John Harwood.ent. 
1739. 

John Harvey, ent. 
1739. 

John Taite, ent. 
1739. 

Robt. Pilkington, 

ent. 1739. 
Geo. Hindmarsh, 

ent. 1739. 

John Newton, ent. 
1739. See 1736. 

Edward Vincent, 
ent. 1739. 

?ras. Nelme, ent. 
1739. 



Kettle with stand. Lord Walsiugham. 
Flagon. Upavon, Wilts. 



Plain globnlar soap-box on foot. Viscount 
Midleton. 



Alphabet XIV. 1736—1755. 

Plain paten or plate. Kensington Palace 

Chapel. 
Finely-chased two-handled cup. Col. Tre- 

mayne, Carclew. 
Chaseid tea-caddies in original case. W. Cripps, 

Esq., C.B. 

Com. cap. Desford, Leicester. Also com. cup. 
and flagon. St. Nicholas, Leicester. 

Rococo sauce-boats, storks for handles. ' Noted 
by author. 

Large plain two-handled cup. W. Cripps, Esq., 
C.B. 

New sterling mark. 



Com. cup. Edington, Wilts. 



Mounts of fish-skin tea-caddy case. 
Esq., C.B. 



W. Cripps, 



K K 



/ 



41 8 



Old English Plate. 



[app. a. 



y 



DATS 

1739 
1740 

Do. 

Do. 

1741 
Do. 
Do. 

174S 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
1745 

Do. 

1749 
1750 
1751 

Do. 

1753 

Do. 

1754 
Do. 



Maker's Mark. 






F8 






ARTICLI Aim OWVKR. 








• • 






Lewis Pantin, as 
in 1740. 

Probably D. Hen- 
nell ; and see 
1761. 

Jonathan Fossy, 
ent. 1739. 

T. Whipham and 
W.Williams,ent 
1740. 

Fras. Spilsbury, as 
in 1740. 

Robt. Abercromby, 
ent. 1739. 

Paul Crespin, ent. 
1739.(Seep.280.) 

Robt. Abercromby, 
as in 1741. 

Henry Brind, ent. 

1742. 
Edward Wood, ent. 

1740. 

George Greenhill 
Jones, ent. 1739. 

John Neville, ent. 
1745. 

Isaac Callard, ent. 
1739. 

Andrew Killik, ent. 

1749. 
John Wirgman, ent. 

1745. 
Probably D. Hen- 

nell, as in 1740. 

Fredk. Knopfell, 

ent. 1752. 
Peter Archambo 

and P. Meure, 

ent. 1749. 

William Gonld,ent. 
1753. 

Simon Lesage, ent. 
1754. 

In plain oval. Do- 
rothy Sarbit, ent. 
1763. 



Chased casters. Col. Tremayne, Carclew. 

Punch-ladle with double spoat, given 1740. 
Corpn. of Oswestry. 

Short candlesticks. (Staniforth Coll.) 
Chocolate-pot Earl Amherst 

Fine kettle with stand. Sir F. Boilean, Bt 



Tea-caddies in case. Bev. E. F. Wayne. 

Alms-dish. Todber, Dorset 

Pair of small salvers. Corpn. of Gloucester. 

Salts. Noted by author. 

Ch. plate, engr. George Greenhill Jones, fedt 
Highworth, Wilts. 



Table-spoons. W. Cripps, Esq., C.B. 



Plain two-handled cup. £. A. Leatham, Esq. 

Salts on three feet with satyr heads, grapefs 
and festoons, shell feet Bt Hon. Sir M. £. 
H. Beach, Bt 

Com. cup, dated 1752. Bexley, Kent 

Pierced and chased (com ears,&c.) cake basket 
Noted by author. 



Small George II. candlesticks. Elmore Court, 
Glouc. 



APP. A.] 



XVII Ith Century. 



\ 



DATK 



1756 

Do. 

1757 
Do. 

Do. 



1758 
1760 

1761 

Do. 
1762 

1763 
1764 

1765 
Do. 

1766 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
1767 
1770 
1771 

1772 



Makkr's Mark. 





SI 




IK 
TO 




(^ 




• • 



^ 







T'C 





LC 



• . 



AF 





W. and R. Peaston, 
ent. 1766, 

Tfaos. Whipham, 
ent. 1739. 

Benj. Cartwright, 
ent. 1739. 

John Jacobs, ent. 
1739. 

In plain square. 
Jonn Kentenber 
andTho8.Groves, 
ent 1757. 



Mordecai Fox, ent. 
1746. 



F. Elandler, as in 

1749. 
Magdalen Feline, 

ent. 1753. 

Probably E. Homer. 



Wm. Robertson, 
ent. 1753. 



Thos. Bumfriss and 
Orlando Jack- 
son, ent. 1766. 



In lozenge. Louisa 
CourtauldjWidow 

Fuller White, as in 
1762. 

As in 1776. 

Orlando Jackson, 
ent. 1759 and 
1770. 



AanOLI AKD OWITBB. 



Alphabet XV. 1756—1775. 



Pair of com. flagons, dated 1757. Brit. stan. 
St. Mabyn, ComwalL 

Flagon. St. John's, Dinsdale. 
Laige mace. Stratford-on-Ayon, 



Soup ladle. Noted by author. 

Flagon. Landfoid, Wilts. 

Alms-bason. Trin. Ch., New York, U.S.A, 

Small sugar-basket Noted by author. 

Set of ch. plate, dated 1762. Mylor, Comw. 

Shallow bowls or trays with lobed edges. Noted 
by the author. 

Corinthian pillar candlesticks. Melbnry Ho. 

Short candlesticks. Sudeley Castle. 

Alms-plate. St. Mabyn, Comw. 

Fretwork ink-tray. Rt Hon. Sir J. R, Mow- 
bray, Bt 

Plain table-spoons. Gran. Leveson-Gower, Esq. 
Shaped tea-caddies in case. Park Hatch, 



Two-handled vase-shaped cup with flower-sprays 
and oblique gadroons. Corpn. of Gloucester. 

Tall two-handled cup and cover, oblique gadroons 

and flower-spray ornament Elmore Ct, Gloua 

Maces, dated 1767, and engr. Fuller White fecit. 

Rochester. 
Corinthian column candlesticks. Col. Tre- 

mayne, Carclew. 
Vase-shaped coffee-pot. Noted by author. 



Tankard flagon. Wyke Regis, Dorset. 



N 



\ 



R B 2 



/ 



420 



Old English Plate. 



[▲PP. A. 




1773 

1776 
Do. 

1776 

Do. 

1777 

1778 
1780 

1782 

1784 

Do. 

1786 

1790 

Do. 

1791 

Do. 
Do. 

1794 



1796 



Do. 



1800 



Makir's Mark. 




N-D 




EH 



\Iii^ 



31 





Si? 



EI 




TP 



IB 



NH 



AF 
SO 



I'E 



SG 



♦•iA 



Wm. Holmes and 

Nich^. Dumee, 

ent. 1773. 
Abraham Barrier, 

ent. 1775. 
Loais Ducommien, 

ent. 1775. 

Nichs. Damee, ent. 
1776. 

Walter Tweedie, 
ent. 1775. 

Robt. Makepeace 
and Richard Car- 
ter, ent. 1777. 

Abraham Barrier 
and Louia Da- 
commien. 

T. Heming, as in 
1767. 

Wm. Sumner, 

8poonmaker,ent. 

1782. 
Edward Jay, ent. 

1757. 
Benj. Laver, ent. 

1781. 



As in 1763. 

Peter and Jona- 
than Bateman, 
ent. 1790. 

Dancan Urquhart 
and Napthali 
Hart, ent. 1791. 

John Edward, ent. 
1788. 

Andrew Fogelberg 
and Stephen Gil- 
bert. 

Tho8.Howell,Bath, 
ent 1791. 



Henry Chawner 
and John Emes, 
1796—1798. 

In plain square. 
Samuel Godbe- 
here and Edward 
Wigan, ent. 1786. 

Thos. Wallis, ent. 
1792. 



Alphabbt XVI. 1776—1796. 



Two-handled preserving pan. Bt. Hon. Sir M. 

E. Hicks-Beach, Bt 
Shaped and gadrooned salver. Noted bj author. 



Table-spoons. Saltwood Castle, Kent 

Plain dinner-plates, beaded edge. Hatfield Ha 



Salver. Keble Coll., Oxford. 

Oval dish-stand and lamp. Noted bj author. 

Cover of com. cup, dated 1 786. Mavis Endeiby, 

Lines. 
Epergne, Louis XVI. style. Sndeley Castle. 

Small mugs, given 1791. Corpn. of Oswestry. 



Small plain tea-pot Welbeck Abbey. 
Alms-plate. Appledore, Kent 

Flagon. St Nicholas, Guildford, Surrey. 

Alphabet XVII. 1796—1815. 

This firm is now represented by E. Barnard 
and Sons, viz., John Emes alone, 1798 — 1808 ; 
Emes and Barnard, 1808—1828 ; E. Barnard 
and Sons, 1828 to t^e present time. 

Com. cup. Oxenton, Glouc 



Spoons. Noted by author. 



APPENDIX B. 



IMPROVED 

TABLES OF THE DATE -LETTERS 

UBBD BT ALL THE 

ENGLISH, SCOTCH, AND IRISH ASSAY-HALLS, 
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMEa 



NoTB. — It must be observed that the following tables of marks should be consulted 
by the light of the chapters that relate to them ; and it is thought better to refer the 
reader to those chapters, and especially to the tabolar sheet appended to each, than to 
encumber the tables now to be giyen with a number of minute notes. For example, 
the tables give the marks as they are found on silver plate, and on gold plate until 
quite recently ; but the marks now used to distinguish gold plate may be seen at a 
glance in the tabular sheets given at the end of Chap. II. for London plate, and 
at the end of Chaps. Y., YI., and YII., for Provincial, Scotch, and Irish gold 
respectively. 



EACTERS OF THE ALPHABETS OF DATE-LEnERS 

USED BY GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY OP LONDON. 



I. 1478 to 1497.— Lombardic, doable cusps. 

II. 1498 to 1617.— Black letter, smaU. 

III. 1618 to 1637.— Lombaidic. 

IV. 1638 to 1667.— Roman letter, and other capitals, 

v. 1668 to 1677.— Black letter, small. 

VI. 1678 to 1697.— Roman letter, capitals. 

VII. 1698 to 1617. — ^Lombardic, external cusps. 

VIII. 1618 to 1637.— Italic letter, small. 

IX. 1638 to 1667.— Court hand. 

X. 1668 to 1677.— Black letter, capitals. 

XI. 1678 to 1696.— Ditto, small. 

XII. 1696 to 1716.— Goart hand. 

XIIL 1716 to 1736.— Roman letter, capitals. 

XIV. 1736 to 1766.— Ditto, small. 

XV. 1766 to 1776.— Old English or black letter, capitals. 

XVI. 1776 to 1796.— Roman letter, small. 

XVIL 1796 to 1815.— Ditto, capitals. 

XVIII. 1816 to 1836.— Ditto, small 

XIX. 1836 to 1856.— Old English or black letter, capitals. 

XX. 1866 to 1876.— Ditto, smaU. 

XXI. 1876 to 1896.— Roman letter, capitals. 

The various forms of the leopard*s head crowned, and of the lion passant, afford snch 
material aid in determining the date of a piece of plate, and in enabling the letters of 
one alphabet to be readily distinguished from those of another, that engravings have 
been given of those marks at the foot of each alphabet. The Old English of 1695 
maj by their aid be instantly distinguished from the same letter in Alphabet V., the 
Roman capitals of Alphabet VL from those of Alphabet XIII., and so on. It will 
be seen that in this way the addition of the leopard's head and lion's head erased 
renders any small and accidental inaccuracies in the letters and their shields of com- 
paratively little importance. 



London Date-Letters. 



1489 
1500 



1S12 
161S 

leu 

IGIG 
1G16 
IGIT 



1522 
1B23 


w 


lGi2 
1S4S 


152* 




1644 




H 


1343 


162S 


1 


1S46 


1527 




ID. TI. 

1647 


152S 




IMS 
1G4» 


1530 


IE 


1650 


1631 


# 


16G1 


1632 




1662 
16Git' 



1633 
1534 

1536 

is3(: 

1637 



163S 
1639 
1640 



N 1478-1647. ^ 1B48— 1537. 

^^ u occaaionally fonnd, t.g. 1616 and 1521, et«. 
1645-1540. ^1 1650-1667. 



London Date-Letters. 




London Date-Letters. 



1G40 
1641 
lUZ 
1643 
1614 

i<;45 

1G46 
1647 



1632 
1663 
1661 
1653 
1656 
1867 



^ 



Hur.toMiy 

1697 



its 

i 
i 



HARKS. 
L LMpud'i hnd croinuid. % ll*ktf» murk. 
Hots.— Prom Much, IMa-T, to Jddb. 1T9), Brttunli u 
Leopwd'a bwd cnnrned and th* Lion |<«Ha(, on lUTir. 



London Date-Letters. 




APP. B.] 



London Date-Letters. 



427 



XVII. 













1796 
1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 
1801 
1802 
1803 
1804 
1805 
1806 
1807 
1808 
1809 
1810 
1811 
1812 
1813 
1814 
1816 



As before. 



XVIII. 









1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 

GEO. IV. 

1820 
1821 

1822 

1823 

1824 

1825 

1826 

1827 

1828 

1829 



WM. IV. 

1830 



1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 



XIX. 












1836 

VICT. 

1837 
1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 
1855 



As before. 



MARKS. 

1. Leopard's hetd crowned. 2. Maker's mark. 8. Date-letter. 4. Lion passant. 5. Sovereign's head. 

Note.— The leopard's head is without a crown in and after 1822. 



428 



London Date-Letters. 



[app. b. 



XX. 



XXT. 



I 
















1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 







As before. 





1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 



As before. 



NOTE. 

Since 1697, If not 
earlier, the London marks 
have been of aeTeial 
sixes so as to suit laige 
and small articles, and 
whilst the largest size of 
punch bean the marks 
as they are here given, 
the siiialler sisesi often 
have the letter, lion pas- 
sant, or other mark, on a 
plain square or oblong 
with the comert slightly 
cut off; sometimes, how- 
ever, they are a small 
edition of the fUll-sized 
marks. 



1. Leopard's head. 



HARKS. 

S. Maker's mark. 8. Date-letter. 

5. Sovereign's head. 



4. Lion passant. 



Avy. B.] O/d York Date-Letters, Prior to lyoi. 429 





1 
1561 




1584 




1562 


^ 


1585 




1563 




1586 




1564 




1587 




1565 




1588 




1566 




1589 




1567 




1590 




1568 




1591 




1569 




1592 


8 


1570 


i 


1593 


m 


1571 


• 


1594 




1572 




1595 




1573 




1596 




1574 




1597 




1575 




1598 


^ 


1576 




1599 


X 


1577 


® 


1600 




1578 




1601 


150 


1579 




1602 




1580 ; 




1603 




1581 




1604 




1582 




1605 





1583 




1606 










m 




m 




m 

m 




m 



1607 
1608 

1609 

1610 

1611 
1612 
1613 
1614 
1615 
1616 
1617 
1618 
1619 
1620 
1621 
1622 
1623 
1624 

1625 
1626 
1627 

1628 

1629 
1630 

1631 







15 




51 



m 




^ 



1632 
1633 
1634 
1635 
1636 
1637 
1638 
1639 
1640 
1641 
1642 
1643 
1644 
1645 
1646 
1647 
1648 
1649 
1650 
1651 
1652 
1653 
1654 
1655 
1656 



1. Old York mark. 



MARKS. 
2. Maker's mark. 



S. Date-letter. 



430 Old York Date- Letters^ Prior to 1701. [apf. b. 



^ 





§] 




^ 









m 





ra 





1657 
1658 
1659 
1660 
1661 
1662 
1668 
1664 
1666 
1666 
1667 
1668 
1669 

1670 
1671 
1672 

1673 

1674 

1675 
1676 

1677 
1678 

1679 
1680 
1681 
1682 








D 




1683 
1684 
1685 

1686 

1687 

1688 

1689 
1690 
1691 
1692 
1693 
1694 
1695 
1696 

1697 

1698 



1. Old Tork mark. 



MARKS. 
S. Maker's mark. 



8. Date-letter. 



APF. B.] Old Norwich Date-Letters^ Prior to lyoi. 431 



\s^ 


1 

1 
1566 




r 

1586 


• 


1606 




1624 


n 


1567 

1 




1587 




1607 




1625 


IS 


1568 

1 




1588 




1608 ; 




1626 


na 


1 
( 

1569 

1 




1589 




1609 

1 




1627 


SI 


1 

1670 

1 




1590 




1 
1610 




1628 




i 

1571 1 




1591 




1611 




1629 




1572 




1592 




1612 

1 




1630 




1573 


•| 


1593 


1 


1613 




1631 




1574 
1575 
1576 


Length of alphabet nnce: 

• 


1594 
1596 
1696 


i 

1 

-a 
•s 

1 


1614 

1615 
1616 


$ 
1& 


1632 
1633 

1634 




1577 


1597 


J 


1617 




1635 




1578 




1698 




1618 


m 


1636 




1579 

1 




1599 




1619 




1637 




1580 




1600 




1620 


® 


1638 




1 
1581 1 


• 


1601 




1621 




1639 




1 
1582 




1602 




1622 


% 


1640 




1583 




1603 




1623 




1641 




1584 


• 


1604 








1C42 




1585 




1605 








1643 




MARKB. 






KoR.— Til 


1. Norwich niftrk. i. Maker's mark. 
4^ Doable-teedad roM erowi 

is fourth mark is found in 1627-S8-M-3&-40, hat nol 


8. Data-letter, 
led. 

b on the early Elixahethan 


specimens 



432 Old Norwich Date-Letters, Prior to 1701. \kw. b. 



s 
c 

I 

P 

O 






1644 
1645 
1646 
1647 
1648 
1649 
1650 
1651 
1652 
1653 
1654 
1655 
1656 
1657 
1658 
1659 
1660 
1661 
1662 
1663 



4) 

P 

O 



^ 



1664 
1665 
1666 
1667 
1668 
1669 
1670 
1671 
1672 
1673 
1674 
1675 
1676 
1677 
1678 
1679 
1680 
1681 
1682 
1683 






15 




1684 
1685 
1686 
1687 
1688 
1689 
1690 
1691 
1692 
1693 
1694 
1695 
1696 
1697 



OLD 
CHESTER 

DATE- 
LETTERS, 

1689-1697. 



B 



P 
O 

H 
I 



1689 
1690 
1691 
1692 
1693 
1694 
1695 
1696 
1697 



MARKS. 

1. City arms — Dagger 

betw. S garba. 

2. City creat— a aword 

erec^ blade croaaad 

by a ribbon. 
9. Maker'amark. 
4. Date-lotter (character 

of alphabet aee p. 

95). 



MARKS. 
1. Norwich mark. 2. Maker's mark. 8 Date-letter. 

Nbn. — Some apeclmena of 1660-86 bear a rose-sprig and a crown on separate atampn ; othera a 
seeded roae and a crown on separate stamps, in addiuon to the Norwich and maker'a mark, but no 
date-letter. 

Specimens of c. 1685-95 have a seeded rose crowned and an irregular date-letter. 



App, B.] Modern York Date-Letters^ 1 787-1856. 433 



1 

t 
1 
1 


1787 ; 


® 


1 
1812 


■ (A) 


1837 


1 

1 


\ 


1 

1788 


\ b 


1813 


B 


1838 


1 
1 




1789 


t 

1 


1814 


C 


1839 




1® 


1790 


, H 


1815 


D 

1 


1840 


• 




1791 


t 


1816 


' E 


1841 


1 




1792 


i 


1817 ! 


F 


1*842 


i 


ID 

1 


1793 


9 


1818 


G 


1843 


REMARKS. 


I 
\ 


1794 


\i 


1819 I 


n 


1844 


In eooaeqnenoe of the 


® 












l088 of the ABBay-Offlce 


1796 


t 


1820 


I 


1845 


booka, and the «mall 




1 








amount of plate ttamped 


1 


1796 




1821 


E 
L 


1846 
1847 


at York, it ia Impossible 
to give alphabets for the 
interval between 1701 


i 


1797 


I 


1^22 


and 1787. Letters of vary- 


1 


1 










ing character were used 


i® 


1798 


m 


1823 


M 


1848 


firom 1701 to 1726, conpled 
with the marks for Bri- 




1799 


n 


1824 


N 


1849 


tannia standard plate till 
1720. The office did not 











1850 


work continuously, and 





1800 





1825 


seems to have oessed to 


1 .^ 


* 




1 


P 


*% f\w •% 


record assays from about 


• p 


1801 


9 


1826 


1851 


1847, thongh plate was 




Af^TVA 


1 






occasionally stamped on- 


@ 


1802 


Q 


1827 


Q 


1862 


tU 1856. 


• R 


1803 


r 


1828 i 


R 


1853 


1 

(See p. 110.) 


S 


1804 





1829 


S 


1864 


1 


T 


1805 


t 


1830 


T 


1865 




U 


1806 


u 


1831 


1 


1856 


i 


V 


1807 


1) 


1832 ' 






1 

i 


W 


1808 


\xs 


1833 








X 


1809 


r 


1834 






■ 


IXI 


1810 


P 


1835 1 








z 


1811 


1 


1836 ' 

1 














MARKS, 


1787—1856 






1. 


Modern Ybrl 


fcmark. 


3. Leopard 


i's head crowi 


ned. 


8. Maker's mark. 


1 


i. Dato-lett 


Ler. 6. Lio 


npBMaut. 


And ((h>m 1 


1784) 0. Soy 


ereign's head. 



F F 



434 



Exeter Date^Letters. 



[app, b. 



^ 


1701 


'm 


1726 


A 


1 
1749 


A 


1773 





1702 


b 


1736 


B 


1760 


B 


1774 


1703 





1727 


C 


1751 


C 


1775 I 


^ 


1704 


Ui 


1728 


D 


1752 


D 


1776 


E 


1705 


^ 


1729 


E 


1753 


E 


1777 


^ 


1706 


i 


1780 


F 


1754 


F 


1778 ; 





1707 


i 


1731 


G 


1755 


G 


1779 


H 


1708 


h 


1732 


H 


1756 


H 


1780 


lU 


1709 


• 


1733 


I 


1757 


I 


1781 


fi 


1710 


k 


1734 


K 


1758 


I 


1782 

j 


L 


1711 


1 


1736 


L 


1759 


K 


1788 1 


^ 


1712 


m 


1736 


M 


1760 


L 


1784 


N 


171S 


n 


1737 


N 


1761 


M 


1785 

1 

1 


isJ 


1714 





1738 


O 


1762 


N 


1786 


p 


1715 


P 


1739 


P 


1763 


O 


1787 


Q 


1716 


q 


1740 


Q 


1764 


P 


1788 


ISJ 


1717 


« 


1741 


R 


1765 


q 


1789 


l§) 


1718 


8 


1742 


S 


1766 


r 


1790 


T 


1719 


t 


1743 


T 


1767 


f 


1791 


15^ 


1720 


u ; i7« I 


U 


1768 


t 


1792 


w 


1721 


W 1746 


w 


1769 


1 u 


1 
1793 


X 


1722 


X 1746 


X 


1770 ' 


w 


1794 


T 


1723 


' lyj 1747 


Y 


1771 ! 


X 


1795 


Z 


1724 


iz) i "" 


Z 


1772 i 

1 


y 


1796 

1 
I 




MAS 


tKa 








1. ] 
crowned ai 


tfodern Exeter mark. 2. Leopan 
4. Date-letter. 5. lion passant. 

Prom 1701 tm 1720, Britannia and LI 
id Lion passant, on silver. 


r* hetd erow 

iLiid(lh>m 

on'a bead en 


ned. \ 
L784) e. Bove 

ued instead 


1. Makex^smi 
reign's bead. 

of the Leoi 


irk. 

)ard'sliead 



APP. B.] 



Exeter Date-Letters. 



435 



M 


1797 


® 


1817 


a 


1837 


1 

A 


1867 


B 


1798 


b 


1818 


3B 


1838 


1 

B 


18S8 


C 


1799 


c 


1819 


C 


1839 


C 

1 


1869 


D 


1800 


d 


1820 


fi 


1840 


D 


1860 


E 


1801 


e 


1821 


e 


1841 


E 


186 1 


F 


1802 


f 


1822 


s 


1842 


F 


1863 


G 


1803 


% 


1823 


<0 


1843 


G 


1869 


H 


1804 


h 


1824 


% 


1844 


H 


1864 


I 


1806 


• 

1 


1825 

1 


% 


1846 


I 


1866 


K 


180« 


k 


1826 


£ 


1846 


K 


1866 


L 


1807 


1 

t 


1 
1827 


I 


1847 


L 


1867 


M 


1808 


i 

m 

r 


1828 

1 


M 


1848 


M 


1868 


N 


1809 


1 

n 


i 

1829 


B 


1849 


N 


1869 


O 


1810 


o 


1830 i 


& 


1850 





1870 


P 


1811 


P 


1831 


9 


1851 


P 


1871 


Q 


1812 


q 


1832 

1 


e 


1852 


Q 


1872 


R 


1813 


r 


1833 

1 


K 


1853 


R 


1873 


S 


1814 


s 


1 

1834 


» 


1854 


S 


1874 


T 


1815 

1 


t 


1835 1 


z 


1855 


T 


1875 


U 


1 
1816 


u 


1836 


1 


1856 


U 


1876 






MABK& 






1. Modern Exeter mark. 
4. Lion pa 


2. Maker's mark. 8, Date-letter. 
Bsant 6. Sovereign's head. 





F r 2 



436 



Chester Date-Letters. 



[app. b. 



A 


1701 


c^ 


1726 


(A) 


1752 


® 


1776 


IBI 


1702 


« 


1727 


B 


1768 


b 


1777 




^ 




1703 1 G 

1 


1728 1 

1 


C 


1764 ,; 


c 


1778 




D 




1704 , 


1 
i 1729 1 


D 


1756 


d 


1779 , 




B 




1705 § \ 1730 \ E 


1766 


e 


1780 1 




1706 ' 


Sf 


1751 ' 


F 


1767 


f 


1781 


1 

1707 : 

1 

1708 
1709 


■ 

ub 

J 

/ 

oil 

■J\p 


1732 
1733 
1734 


G 

H 
I 

1 

J 
K 


1768 
1769 

1760 
1761 


g 
h 

1 

• 

k 


1782 
1783 
1784 
1785 


m 


1710 


1786 


1 
1762 


' 1 


1786 




1711 
1712 

1713 1 

1 


1736 
1737 
1738 
1739 


L 

M 

N 


1763 
1764 
1766 


i m 
n 
o 


1787 

1788 
1789 


® 


1714 





1740 


O 


1766 


P 


1790 


(p; 


1716 




1 F 

1741 


1767 


q 


1791 


@ 


1716 




1742 


Q 


1768 


r 


1792 
1793 
1794 


(5) 


1717 


01 


1743 




1769 


s 

t 


(S) 


1718 1 ^ 


1744 


s 


1770 


^0 

U 


1796 


ffl 


1719 g^ 


1745 


JT 


1771 


V 


1796 


(c) 


1720 


<U 


1746 


u 


1773 






® 


1721 


^ 


1747 


V 


1773 


1 

1 




M 


1722 


, ^ 


1748 


w 

__ 


1774 








1723 


ss 


; X 

1749 


1776 






w 


1724 


y ! 1760 

1 


1 

1 

1 


1 








m 


1725 


z 

\ 


I 1761 l! 


1 


, \ 


1 




HARKH. 




1. Chester mark. 2. Leopard's head crowne< 


L 8 


. Maker's mark. 


4. Date-letter. 5. Lion paaaant. ADd(fh)m 


1784) 6. BoTi 


(reign's head. 


NoTB.— From 1701 till 1720, Eritannia and Lion's bead ei 


rased insteac 


1 of the Leopard's head 


crowned and Lion iiaaaant, on silver. 







APP. B.] 




Chester Date-Letters. 


• 


437 




a 


1797 


, ® 


1818 

1 


S 


1839 


a 


1864 




B 


1798 


B 


1 

1819 

1 


<B 


1840 


h 


1865 




C 


1799 


i C 1 1820 


C : 1841 


c 


1866 




D 


1800 


D 1821 


fi , 1842 

1 


rj 


1867 




E 


1801 


E 


1 
1822 


(gf 1 1843 

1 


e 


1868 




F 


1802 


F 


1823 


f 


1844 


t 


1869 




G 


1803 


G 1821 


<0 


1845 


d 


1870 




H 


1804 


H 


1825 


11 


1846 


6 

f 


1871 


I 


1805 


I 


1826 


3 


1847 


i 


1872 


K 


1806 


K 1827 


% 


1848 


k 


1878 




L 


1807 


L 


1828 


C 


1849 


I 


1874 


! M 


1808 


M 


1829 


iH 


1850 


m 


1875 




N 


1809 


N 


1830 


B 


1851 


n 


1876 







1810 





1831 


e 


1852 





1877 




P 


1811 


P 


1 

1832 ; 


9 


1853 


P 


1878 


: Q 


1812 


Q 


1833 


® 


1854 


Q 


1879 




R 


1813 

1 


R 


1834 ! 


» 


1855 




1880 




s 


1814 , 


S 


1835 


» 


1856 




1881 


\ T 

I 


1815 

1 


X ■ 18S6 


c 


1857 




1882 




u 


1816 


U 1837 


m 


1858 




1883 




V 


1817 


V : 1838 © 

3 


1859 ' 

1860 

1861 




1884 
1885 
1886 


1 




• 


t 


1862 ' 




1887 








1 


z 


1863 




1888 








MARK8 


« 


« 


1 


1. ChertCT mark. 2. Leopard's head crowned (till 1889). 
J. Maker'a mark. 4. Date-letter. 6. lion paasant. 6. SovcwIgn\iliea<i 


1. 



438 



NewcastU-^pon-Tyne Date-Letters. 



[app. b. 



i 


1702 


%. 


•1721 


1^ 


1740 




1769 




® 


1708 


n 


1722 


B 


1741 


1760 






1704 


c 


1723 


C 


1742 


l^ 


1769 






1706 


® 


1724 


D 


1743 


® 


1770 




m 


1706 


16 


1726 


E 


1744 


l£l 


1771 






1707 


f 


1726 


F 


1746 


SI 


1772 






1708 


® 


1727 


G 


1746 


IGI 


1773 






1709 


S) 


1728 


H 


1747 


m 
I 


1774 






1710 


3 


1729 


1748 


1776 




£) 


1711 


» 


1730 


K 


1749 


K 


1776 




® 


1712 


E 


1731 


L 


1760 


L 


1777 






1713 


(§) 


1732 


M 


1761 


M 


1778 






1714 
1716 




1733 
1734 


N 


1762 
1763 




N 
o 




1779 
1780 






1716 


f 


1736 


P 


1764 








p 


1717 


jh 


1786 


Q 


1766 


P 

SI 


1781 






1718 


% 


1737 


R 


1766 


1782 




D 


1719 


l§i 


1738 


S 


1767 


R 


1783 




E 


1720 


ixi 


1739 


T 


1768 


S 


1784 








^^^^ 


1 








h: 




1786 
















U 


1786 
















W 


1787 






1 










X 


1788 






1 

i 
1 








* 


Y 


1789 






1 












z 




1790 




MARKS. 




1. Newcastle mark. S. Leopard's head crowned. 8. Maker's mark. 
4. Date-letter. 6. Lion passant And (from 1784) 6. Sovereign's head. 
NoTB.~170S till 1720, Britannia and Lion's head erased instead of the J>opard's head crowned 
and Lion passant, on silver. j 





* From 1721 to 1727 the Lion passant is fonnd tamed to the right, a most unnsnal dreomstance. The 
letter for 1721 often resembles the Bdlnborgh letter for 1681. 



APP. B.J 



Newcastle-upon-Tyne Date-Letters. 



439 



® 


1791 




^ 




1816 


® 


1839 


® 

1 


1864 


B 


1792 


B 


1816 


B 


1840 


: b 


1866 


C 


1793 


C 


1817 


C 


1841 





1866 


D 


1794 


D 


1818 


D 


1842 


d 


1867 


E 


1795 


E 


1819 


E 


1843 


e 


1868 


F 


1796 


F 


1820 


F 


1844 


f 


1869 


G 


1797 


G 


1821 1 


G 


1845 


g 


1870 


H 


1798 


H 


1822 ' 


H 


1846 


h 


1871 


I 


1799 


I 


1823 


I 


1847 


i 


1872 










J 


1848 






K 


1800 


K 


1824 


K 


1849 


k 


1873 


L 


1801 


L 


1826 


L 


1850 


1 


1874 


M 


1802 


M 


1826 


M 


1851 


m 


1875 


N 


1803 


N 


1827 


N 


1852 


n 


1876 





1804 


O 


1828 


O 


1853 


o 


1877 


P 


1806 


P 


1829 


P 


1854 


P 


1878 


Q 


1806 


Q 


1830 


Q 


1855 


4 


1879 


R 


1807 


R 


1831 


R 


1856 


r 


1880 


S 


1808 


S 


1832 


S 


1857 


8 


1881 


T 


1809 


T 


1833 


T 


1858 


t 


1882 


U 


1810 


U 


1834 


U 


1859 


U 


1883 


w 


1811 


w 


1835 


1 W 

1 


1860 






X 


1812 


X 


1836 


X 


1861 






Y 


1813 


Y 


1837 


Y 


1862 






Z 


1814 


Z 


1838 


Z 


1863 








MARKS. 








1. N 


fewcasile xmirk. 2. Leoptid's head erowiu 
4. Date-letter. 5. Lionpasaant. 


)d. 
6. Bovereig 


8. Haker'aii 

;n'a head. 


dark. 



0Km 



440 



Birmingham Date-Letters. 



[app. b. 



A 

1 


1773 


1 

a 


1799 


1 


1825 


1 

A 


1850 


a 


1875 


B 


1774 


b 


1800 


3B 


1826 


B 


1851 


h 


1876 





1775 





1801 


€ 


1827 1 


, c 


1852 


t 


1877 


D 


1776 


d 


1802 


1 


1828 1 


D 


1853 1 

1 


tl 


1878 


E 


1777 


e 


1803 


1 
1 (^ 


1829 


E 

1 


1854 


e 


1879 


P 


1778 


1 

f 


1804 


s 


1830 


1 

P 


1855 

1 


J 


1880 


G 


1779 


g 


1805 


.^ 


1831 

1 


G 


1856 


fl 


1881 


H 


1780 


h 


1806 


% 


1832 


: H 


1857 

1 


^ 


1882 


I 


1781 


i 


1807 


% 


1883 

1 


i I 


1858 


1 t 


1883 


J 


1782 


• 

J 


1808 


» 


1834 


E 

t 


1859 


^ 


1884 


E 


1783 


k 


1809 


1 


1835 


L 


1860 


I 


1885 


1 

L 


1784 


i 1 


1810 


iH 


1836 

1 


! M 


1861 


nt 


1886 


M 


1785 


m 


1811 


^ 


1837 ' 


N 


1862 


n 


1887 


N 


1786 


n 


1812 


e 


1838 


1 




1863 ; 





1888 





1787 


I 



1813 


9 


1839 


P 


1864 

1 


P 


1889 


P 


1788 


P 


1814 

1 


m 


1840 


Q 


1865 


q 


1890 


Q 


1789 


q 


1815 


^ 


1841 


R 


1866 

1 


r 


'l891 


R 


1790 


1 r 


1816 


s> 


1842 


S 

1 


1867 

1 


£i 


1892 


S 


1791 


' 8 


1817 


€ 


1843 


T 


1 

1868 


t 


1893 


T 


1792 


t 


1818 ' 


« 


1844 


XT 


1869 ' 

1 


tt 

1 


1894 


U 


1798 


U 


1819 


W 


1845 


V 


1870 

1 


: b 


1895 


V 


1794 


V 


1 

1820 


mi 


1846 


1 
W 


1871 


tu 


1896 


W 


1795 


w 

1 


1821 


f 


1847 


1 X 

1 


1872 


¥ 


1897 


: X 

1 


1796 


1 

1 ac 


1822 


^ 


1848 


1 

Y 


1873 


V 


1898 


! Y 


1797 


7 


1823 


z 


1849 


Z 


1874 


2 


1899 


! z 

1 
1 


1798 


z 

1 


1824 


1 


















¥▲ 


BK& 








1 
No 


. AnchQE. 
rri.— Fof Hi 


2. Maker's in 

And(frc 

^w Btandard silver the 


lark. 

tm 1784) I 

s figure ol 


3. Date 

). Sovereign 
r Britamiiu i 


(-letter. 
I's head. 
8 used in 


4. L 

stead of the 


ion passant 
Lion passant. 



f 
* 

i 

1 

1 
1 

1 J 


kvr. B.] 




Sheffield Date-Letters^ 


1773 


-1892. 




441 


' 


Ig* 1773 (E 


1799 II 121 


1824 


a 


1844 


® 


1868 


1 

1 


f 1774 ' N 


1800 1 b 


1825 


B 


1845 


B 


1869 




^ 1776 H 


1801 


c 


1826 

1 


C 


1846 


c 


1870 




^ 


1776 M 


1802 


|[ 1627 


D 


1847 


D 


1871 




^ 


1777 P 


1803 


1 e 


1828 


E 


1848 i 

1 


E 


1872 




l> 


1778 G 


1804 ! f 


1829 


F 


1849 1 


F 


1873 




a 


1779 B 


1805 


Z 


1830 : 


G 


1850 < 

1 


Q 


; 1874 




C 


1780 1 A 


1806 ll 


1831 


H 


1851 


H 


1875 




9 


1781 1 S 


1807 k 


1832 


I 


1852 


J 


1876 


<s 


1782 


P 


1808 , 1 


1833 


E 


1853 


K 


1877 


B 


1783 K ; 1809 m 


1834 


L 


1854 




1878 




9 


1784 L 1810 '[ P 

1 1 * 


1835 


M 


1855 




1879 




« 


1 

1785 C ! 1811 Q 


1836 


N 


1856 




1880 




aa 


1786 D 1812 X 


1837 





1857 




1881 




£ 


1787 


R i 1813 , g 

1 


1838 


P 


1858 




1882 




2isa 


1788 W 

1 


1814 1 t 1839 


R 


1859 




1883 




iH 


1789 


1815 U 1 1840 


S 


1860 

1 




1884 




2: 


1790 


T 1816 \ V 18*1 

1 


T 


1861 

1 




1885 




9 


1791 


X 


1817 


X 1842 


U 


1862 j 




1886 




« 


1792 I 


1818 


z 


1843 1 V 

1 


1863 




1887 




(2^ 


1793 V 


1819 




1 


W 


1864 




r 

1888 


i iH 


1794 Q 1820 






X 


1865 


• 


1889 


1 


1795 Y 1^21 ! 


Y 

1 


1866 




1890 




% 1796 Z ' 1822 


Z 


1867 

1 




1891 

• 


^ ^ 1797 U ; 1823 1 








1892 




1 
^ 1798 


1 




1 ' 




^ 




HARKS. 










1. Crown. 2. Maker's nuirk. 8. Date-letter. 

And (from 1784) 5. Sovereign's head. 
KoTKS.— For new standard silver the flgnre of Britannia is used ini 
Crown and Date-letter are used on the same punch, or applied as w 
article to be stamped. 


4. : 

stead of the 
sparatemar] 


Ldonpasa. 

Lion nasi 
ks, as Desl 


UDt 

lant. The 
b suits the 



* The lettx^rs of this alphabet cannot be aoeuiately rendered in type. They cloaelT resemble those of 
Alphabet XII. in the London tables. 



442 



Edinhurgh Date-Letters. 



[afp. b. 



Alphabet I. 




in 

ESI 
® 
i 
III 




($1 

ii 




m 
§> 



1681 
1682 

1683 
1684 
1685 
1686 
1687 
1688 
1689 
1690 
1691 
1692 
1693 
1694 

1695 
1696 
1697 
1698 
1699 
1700 
1701 
1702 
1703 

1704 



Alphabet II. 












(D 





W 




5) 




® 




f 





m 




z 



170S 
170S 

1707 
1708 
1709 
1710 
1711 
1712 
171S 
1714 
1716 
1716 
1717 
1718 
1719 

1720 
1721 
1722 
1723 
1724 
1725 
1726 
1727 
1728 
1729 



Alphabet IIL 



ALPHJlBKT 17. 



Q) 










® 






@ 







® 









§ 




1730 
1731 
1732 
1733 
1734 
1735 
1736 
1737 
1738 
1739 

1740 
1741 
1742 
1743 
1744 
1745 
1746 
1747 
1748 
1749 
1750 
1751 
1752 
1753 
1754 



® 

(S 






® 




® 

(B 






d) 




(8 








® 






z 



1755 
1756 
1757 
1758 
1759 
1760 
1761 
1762 
1763 
1764 
1765 

1766 
1767 
1768 
1769 
1770 
1771 
1772 
1773 
1774 
1775 
1776 
1777 

1778 
1779 



HARKS 

1. The Castle. S. Haker's mark. 8. Date-Ietter. 

4. Anay-Master'a initials tlU 1759, in which year the Thistle was snbstitated. 



* 1682, also [^ and [K]. t 1716, also |^. 

§ 1753. also 



} 1717, also [n| kbA (^. 




Edinlmrgh DtUe-Letters. 



ALPHABM V. 


AlPHABM VI. 


Alphabet TIL 


AlPKABBT Tin. j 


® 


1780 


® 


1806 


® 


IS33 




1867 


Bi 


1781 


® 


1807 


1888 




1868 


© 


1783 


© 


1B08 


183* 




16E9 


[E 


1783 


@ 


1809 


1836 




1860 


H 


1T8f 


© 


1810 


1836 




1861 


m 


1786 


® 


1811 


1837 




1863 


m 


I7M 


® 


181S 


1888 




1863 


® 


1787 


(S 


1818 




1839 




1864 


11 


1788 


(S 


leu 




1840 




1866 


[p- 


1789 


® 


leie 




1841 




1866 


@ 


1790 


® 


ISIS 




IS42 




1867 


5) 


1781 


a 


1S17 




1843 




1868 


^ 


1792 


@ 


1818 




1844 




1869 


w 


1793 


® 


1S19 




1845 




1 
1870 1 




1794 
1796 




1820 
1821 


1 


1S4S 
1S47 




1871 j 
1872 


p 


I7>6 


® 


1832 


1848 


1 


1873 

1874 j 

1873 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

ISSl 


i 


1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 
1801 
1802 
1803 
1801 
1806 


© 
© 
© 
© 

© 

© 


1828 
1834 

1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 


® 

m 
i 


1849 
1850 
1861 
1852 
18S3 
1854 
1866 
1856 










HARSa. 






1. Tbc 


3utKL 




t. Dite-lrttcr. 






4. ThlltU. 


Aiid(Cr™l784)!..Bo«n 


rign-.l«d. 



444 



Glasgow Date-Letters^ 1819-1895, 



[app. b. 



A 


1819 


a 


1845 ; A 


1871 

1 




B 


1820 


B 


1846 B 

1 


1 

1872 

1 




C 


1821 


C 


1847 ' C 


1873 


• 


D 


1822 


! 19 


1848 D 


1874 




E 


1823 


e 


1 

1849 E 

1 


1875 




F 


1824 


f 


1850 


F 


1876 




G 


1825 


<@ 


1851 1 Q 

1 


1877 




H 


1826 


^ 


1 1 

1862 1 H 


1 
1878 1 




I 


1827 


i 


1853 


1879 


1 


J 


1828 


% 


1854 


1880 


1 


K 


1829 


aa 


1855 


1881 




L 


1830 


% 


1 
1856 1 




1882 




M 


1831 


M 


1857 

1 




1883 




N 


1832 < 


^ 


1 

1858 1 




1884 







1833 , 


(B 


1859 

1 




1885 


1 


i P 


1834 


9 


1 

1860 i 

1 




1886 


] 


Q 


1835 


(8 


1861 




1887 


' R 

1 


1836 


' ^ 1862 

1 1 


1888 ' 


\ S 


1837 


§^ 1863 , 


1889 


1 T 


1838 


C 1864 

'1 


1890 


1 

1 


U 


1839 


29 1865 


1 


1891 




V 


1840 


51 1 1866 


1892 , 




W 

1 


1841 


' SI23 1867 


1893 




' X 

1 


1842 


j^ 1868 


1894 1 

1 


i 


1 Y 


1843 


^ 1869 


1 
1895 




z 

1 


1844 


Z 


1870 






1 








MAB 


KS. , 




1. Tree, fish, 


and bell. 2. Maker's mark. 8. Date-letter. 
L Lion rampant. 5. Sovereign's head. 



A pp. B.] 

D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

I 

K 

L 

M 

N 



P 

Q 

R 

S 
T 

U 



Dublin Date-Letters. 



445 



1638 
L639 
1640 
1641 
1642 
1643 
1644 
1645 
1646 
1647 
1648 
1649 
1660 
I66I 
1652 
1653 
1664 
1655 
1666 
1657 



a 
b 
c 

d 

e 



g 
h 



1 
k 
1 

m 
n 

f 

o 

p 
q 

r 

8 
t 
U 



1658 

1659 

1660 

1661 

1662 

1663 

1664 

1665 

1666 

1667 

1668 

1669 

1670 

1671 

1672 

1673 
1674 

1675 

1676 

1677 




1 











1678 
1679 
1680 
1681 
1682 
1683 
1684 
1685 
1686 
1687 
1688 
1689 
1690 
1691 
1692 
1693 

1694 

1695 
1696 
1697 



m 













1698 
1699 
1700 
1701 
1702 

i7oa 

1704 
1705 
1706 
1707 
1708 
1709 
1710 
1711 
1712 
1713 
1714 
1715 

1716 

1717 

1718 

1719 

1720 



1. Hiup crowned. 



MARKS. 
2. Maker's mark. 



8. Date-letter. 



NoTK.— The letters for 1644—48, 1666, 1659, and 1098, are from the Goldsmiths' books ; the others 
down to 1716, from dated specimens. ' 



446 



Dublin Date^Letters. 



[app. b. 



> 


I 




1 










1721 

1 

1722 


15 

B 


1 

1746 
1747 j 


B 


1771 
1772 


(2) 

® 


1796 
1797 


c 


1723 


C 


1748 C 


1773 


c 


1798 


S) 


1724 


D 


1749 


D 


1774 


D 


1799 





1725 


E 


1750 


E 


1775 


E 


1800 


i- 


1726 i 


F 


1751 


F 


1776 


F 


1801 


<1E^ 


1727 


G 


1752 


G 


1777 


G 


1802 


% 


1728 


H 


1753 


H 


1778 


H 


1803 


9 


1729 


I 


1754 


I 


1779 


I 


1804 


% 


1730 


K 


1755 


K 


1780 


K 


1805 


% 


1731 


L 


1756 


L 


1781 


L 


1806 


» 


1732 


M 


1757 


M 


1782 


M 


1807 


Ift 


1733 


N 


1758 


N 


1783 


(Si 


1808 


iD 


1734 i 





1759 





1784 


© 


1809 


» 


173S 


P 


1760 


P 


1785 


P 


1810 


A 


1736 


Q 


1761 


Q 


1786 


Q 


1811 


» 


1737 


R 


1762 


R 


1787 


B 


1812 


A 


1738 


S 


1763 


S 


1788 


S 


1813 


C 


1739 


T 


1764 


T 


1789 


T 


1814 


« 


1740 


U 


1765 


U 


1790 


U 


1816 


« 


1741 


V 


1766 


V 


1791 


V 


1816 


Oft 


1742 


I W 


1767 


w 


1792 


W 


1817 


€ 


1743 


1 

X 


I 
17«8 ,, X 


1793 


X 


1818 


i? 


1744 Y 


1 ( - 

1769 ' Y 


1794 


Y 


1819 


z 

1 


1746 


z 


1770 


I z 


1796 


Z 


1820 


1 

1 




MABK& 








1. Hftrp crowned. 

4 (From 1780X Hlbcn 


S. Ifakot's mark. 
lia. And (from 18( 


)7) 5. Boverei 


S. Date-lett 
gn'shead. 


M-, 


NoTR.— The shape of the shield for 
. olphjibet was chjinged fh>m a plain 1 
, found in escuteheona of both shapes. 

1" 


each alphabet is given at 
to an ornamental escntchc 


the oommeno 
»on in 1808, tl 


emeint;thetl] 
he N for that 


ten current 
year being 



AFP. B.] 



Dublin Date-Letters. 



447 



® 
I® 

!© 
® 

F 
G 
H 
I 
K 

L 
M 

N 

P 

Q 
R 

S 
T 
U 
V 

w 

X 
Y 
Z 



1 

1 

1 

1821 


1 

i a 


1 

1846 


^ 


1871 

1 




1822 


b 


1847 


B 


1872 

1 




1823 i 

1 


c 


1848 

1 


C 


1873 




1824 


; d 

1 


1 

1849 i 

1 


D 


1 
1874 




1825 


e 


1860 


E 


1876 




1 
1826 , 


■ f 


1861 


F 


1876 




1 

1827 . 

I 


1 S 


1852 




1877 




1828 

! 


■ h 


1863 




1878 




1829 '' 


J 


1864 




1879 




1830 


1 k 


1866 




1880 




1831 


1 


1866 




1881 




1882 


m 


1867 




1882 




1833 

1 


n 


1868 




1883 




1834 \ 


o 


1869 




1884 !{ 


1836 


P 


1860 




1886 


1 


1836 


Q 


1861 




1886 


( 


1837 

1 


r 


1862 




1887 




1838 


8 


1863 




1888 

1 




1839 


1 t 


1864 1 

1 




1889 ' 




1840 


1 

u 


1866 1 




1890 *, 

! 


1841 ; 


V 

1 


1866 




1891 


1 
) 


1842 


w 


1867 

1 




1892 




1843 ! 

1 


X 

1 


I 

1868 


1 


1893 

1 




1844 


Y 


1869 


1 


1894 \ 


1 


1845 ; 


z 


1870 




1896 


1 



MARKS, 

2. Maker's niArk. 8. Date-letter. 

5. Sovoreign'a head. 

NoTC.— From 1820 to 1870 the Date-letten are found In ahlelda of many dlflTerent ehapee. 



1. Harp crowned. 

4. Hibemla. 



INDEX. 



[Marks cansisiing of two or more leUert should be looked for under the first leUer of the pair 
or group. Marks showing objects ae well as inituUs are entered under the initials. ] 



A. 



A 



PAOB 

106, 361 



,, linked . 
91b . . 



142,410 

. 101,160,370,891 

142, 366, 406 

. 412 

148 

Aberdeen, marks used at . . . 147 

AB.LD 420 

AC 392 

„ linked 360 

AC.IN 396 

e.^& 395 

„ linked 409 

Acanthos, ornament . . . 321 

Act, the Goldsmiths', 7 & 8 Vict, 
c. 22 . . . . .44 

AD, linked 142 

AB 144 

AF . 102, 144, 148, 374, 377, 402, 409 
AF.Sa . .420 

Aa . . . ' . . 145, 158, 160 
AH 381, 406 

„ linked 150 

AH.W^ 408 

AK 144,379,418 

„ linked . . . . .360 

AI. . . . 143,147,160,388,400 

„ linked . . . 138, 142 

Aldegrever, designs by ... 323 

Alloy, deriyation of the word . 5 

„ metals used as, with gold and 

silver 6 

Alloys, their use . . . . . 5, 9 
Alms, plates and basins f or ' . 224 

Alphabetical date-letter, first men- 
tion of; in England . .' .29,54 
Alphabetical date-letter, first Inen- 
tion of, in France . . 26^ 56 

ALT . 145 

Altar candlesticks . . . 225 



11 



11 



A8SATEB*S MABK. 

PAOK 

Clinked. . .377,379,385 

Ambassadors* official services of plate 230 

AK 161,387 

„ linked . 384,386,392 

Analyses of gold 3, 9 

„ of silver . . . . 5, 9 

Anchor, mark . 365, 371, 377, 387, 389 

„ a Birmingham mark . 126, 130 

Ancients, the, their knowledge of 

gold and silver .... 1 

Andirons 334, 336 

Animal, mark .... 358, 360 
Animars head, mark 358, 361, 366, 406 
Antique plate, cost of 173, 236, 258, 272, 

303, 335 

AP 399 

Apostles* spoons . 235, 245 

forgery of . 167 

. 138, 160, 380, 413 

„ linked 143 

Archimedes, hydrostatic test applied 

by 10 

AB.PO 415 

Arrow, broad, mark .... 359 

143, 144, 158 

. 116 

. . 880 

Ashanti gold, analysis of . 4 

Assay, first mention of, in England 22, 54 
articles exempted from . 66 

cups of 285 

by the cupel, when intro- 
duced . . . 12, 25 
by the cupel, how conducted 1 2 
in the humid way^ for silver 13 
Assay-Office marks. See under 

names of towns. 
A8sayer*s mark, why a date-letter 26, 56 

when first appointed 

in London . . 66 
when first appointed 
at Montpellier 2(| 

o o 



i» 
11 

11 

11 



11. 



It 



11 



ti 



450 



Index. 



AT. 

PAOB 

AT 407,415 

ATT 138,144 

Augsburg, goldfflniths of . .20 

Australian coinage, quality of . . 9 

dV .397 

Avoirdupois weight and Troy com- 
pared 17 

» 106,143 

0^ 138, 143, 410 

388,389,390 

124,385,413 

BANF, mark 150 

Banker - goldsmiths of London, 

notes ol the 39 

BAK . .147 

Barrel, mark .... 103, 367 

„ and newt, mark • . . 364 

Barnstaple 104 

BABVK 104 

Basins, ewers and 275 

Baskets, cake and bread . . 342 

BCT 419 

BD 148,402 

BB Ill 

Beakers 318 

Bear, mark 365 

Becket*s, Thomas &, cup called . 298 

Bell, mark 369 

Bells, cocking . . 354 

„ racing 353 

BBNTLT 98 

Beryl 263,264 

BF 372,373,415 

Ba 395,397 

„ cypher 379 

BI 385 

Bl 124,411 

Bible, early notices of gold and 

silver in the 1 

Bird, mark 92, 360, 362, 370, 372, 381 , 385 
Bird's head, mark . 405 

Birds, three, mark .... 383 
Birmingham, appointed an assay- 
town . . . . 126 
„ marks used at 130, 440 

BIi 420 

BK 360,391,405 

BO 387, 413 

Borihl, what 25 

Bottles, costrels or pilgrims* . . 223 
Boudoir furniture ... 333 

Bow and arrow, mark . . 371 



CH. 



FAOB 



Bowls, or saucers 317 

BP 871,380 

Br 411 

Bristol 70,78,100 

Britannia, figure of, mark of new 

sterliug silver . 41, 45, 65, 425 

Britanuia, figure of, as a drawback 

mark ....•• €8 
Bruges, touch of . . 76, 132 

BS 394 

BT 407 

„ linked 361 

Bu 112,120 

Buirs head, mark . . . 362,406 
Bullion, plate melted up to supply 35, 48 
„ refiners, licences required by 68 
BV 124,416 

0^W 396 

BW 413 

371 

409 

417 

115 

124 

402 

331 

331 

225 

6 

17 

lOS 

338 

Castle and lion passant, a Norwich 

mark .... 88, 93, 108 
Castle, single, mark 85, 92, 93, 108, 154 
„ triple, an Edinburgh mark 136, 151 
„ of three towers, an Exeter 
mark .... 114,129 
Castles, three on a shield, a Kew- 

CAstle mark . 85, 108, 122, 180 
„ three on a shield, an Aber- 
deen maxk .... 148 
Catherine-wheel, mark . . .106 

Caudle*cups 319 

CB 372,419 

„ linked 367 

CO 144,371 

„ linked ...... 360 

CD 144 

Gtfio 



o 

CA 

c» 

C. a within .... 

CA.Ha 

Candelabra .... 

Candlesticks .... 

„ altar . 

Carat, meaning of the word 

„ value of standard gold per 
Carlisle, mark used at 
Casters 



f> 



linked 



81,885,386,393,412,415 
80 



Index. 



451 



CHAIK. 



»9 



» 



»f 



PAQB 

358 

186 

186 

68 

93 



Chain, two links of, mark . 
Chalices, ancient 

,, Gothic .... 
Charles V., emperor, letter of . 
Chester, ancient gpiild at . 

goldsmiths, their marks 94, 108, 

432 

office, as re-established in 

1701 .... 118 
office, marks used at, since 
1702 .... 118,129,436 

Chinese sabjects, plate engraved 

with .' . . . 321,333 

Chronological list of plate . . . 357 
„ tables of date-letters 423 

Charch, Prof. A. H., varioos analyses 

of gold and silver by . . 8, 5 

Charch plate, historical notice of 

English 174 

01 414 

C, I within 367 

Cisterns and fountains 336 

CJ 149 

CK 410 

CI< . . . . 146, 390, 413 

CliABK 145 

CM ... . 81,369,379,399 

CO 372,387,391 

Co 120,412 

Cocoa-nut cups .... 286 

Coffee-pots 338 

Coffins, chalices found in priests* . 188 
Coin, melting of, to make plate . 41 
„ silver, how used as weights . 17 
Coinage, English, debased under 

Henry VIIL . . 8, 64 

restored under Q. Elizabeth 8, 33, 

60 
standard of English . . 7 
Act, 1870 .... 26 
Coins, various, weights of . 17 

Coloured gold 14 

Communion cups . 179,205 

flagons. .220 

patens . 199,220 

plate, historical notes of 174 

. . 363 

. 104 

. . 234 

. 6,9 

. . 154 



ti 



>» 



If 



It 



»» 



If 



Compasses and star, mark 
Congers' heads, three, mark 
Conscience, a cup 
Copper as an alloy, use of 
Cork, marks used at . 
Coronation regalia, made new for 

Charles II 36 

COTOK 97,99 



DI. 

PAOR 

CP 363 

CB 84,86,126 

Crescent and star, mark . 868, 361, 366, 

867, 408 
„ and three stars, mark . 860 
„ and T, mark . ... 364 
„ and W, mark . . 364, 367 
Crescents, two, mark . . 368 

Cross, mark . . 149,357,368,366 
„ patt^, mark . . . 92 

., with four pellets, mark 87, 106 
Crown, ancient mark used at Nor- 
wich ... 90, 93, 108 
„ a Sheffield mark . . 126, 130 
„ and 18 or 22, mark . 44, 45 

Crowns, three, Hull mark 99, 108 

Cruet-stands 338 

Crystals, for detecting poison . 250 

OS 376,410 

OT 161 

„ linked .... 374,382 
Cup, mark .... 359, 406 
Cupboard, arrangement of the me- 
diaeval 282 

Cupellation, assay by . . . . 12 

Cups, standing 283 

„ various drinking 245, 283, 310, 316 
Cut-card, ornament 223, 320 

OV 390 

OW 86, 101 

0,w within 367 



D 364 

^ 3S2 

DA 418 

Date-letters, alphabetical tables of . 423 

„ when first used and why 

26,56 

„ when changed at Gold- 
smiths* Hall 63 

DB 383 

D, o within ?67 

BB 386, 412 

Dealers in plate, licence required by 68 

BB.BA 386 

Deniers, French measure of fineness 20 

Ba 371,417 

»» 418 

BH linked 142 

BH.BH 399 

BI 411 

Bi 415 

o o 2 



452 



Index. 



DIES. 



PAQB 



Dies, penalties for forging or coun- 
terfeiting 166 

Diet, annual trial of . . 26, 127 

„ meaning of the word . . 18 
Dinner sernces, when introduced 324, 327 
„ „ old plate melted up 

to supply 327 

DK 158,169 

DO 388 

Dog sejant, mark . . 376 

Dorchester 103 

161, 398 

375,379 

Drawback, when allowed . . . 68 
Dromedary, mark .149 

DS 418 

DS.BS 400,402 

DT 412 

Dublin, Goldsmiths* Company at, 

notices of . . . . 152 
„ Goldsmiths' Company, its 
marks .... 158, 162, 445 
Dundee, marks used at . . 147 

DU.l^H 420 

Duty, on plate, when imposed 43, 66, 135, 

155 

„ „ when abolished . . .68 

Duty articles exempt from paying . 66 

Duty-marks . . 45, 66, 129, 151, 162 

DW 371,374,392,393 

^# 395 



.143 
387,399 

98 

. . . . 419 
Bagle, mark . .149, 363, 365 

Eagle*s head, mark . . . 405 

BA.IS .398 

SASTON 97, 99 

BB 87,414,415 

EC . . . 160,391,392,400,417 

^G 396,397 

BD 93,408 

„ lijiked . . • . .102 

tfB 391 

Edinbuigh goldsmiths and theiiv 

marks . . . 137, 149, 151, 442 
Edward VI., destruction of church- 
plate under ... 176 
BF . 402 

^gi- 



8S 



FBATHBB8. 

PAOK 

. 379, 381, 396, 414 



„ linked 



395 



»» 



•> 



385 

93 

BI 403 

SL 115, 138, 369 

ei 117 

Electricity, testing by . .14 

Elizabeth, great prosperity of the 

reign of . . . 228 

destruction of church- 
plate under .180 
restoration of the old 
coinage standard by 8, 33, 60 
England, analyses of gold found in 4 
„ , silver found in 5 

EK 101 

BK.VA 412 

BP 138,144,392 

Epergnes 342 

BB 401,407,419 

Erasing marks, penalties for . . 166 

ES 158,374 

„ linked 362 

Escallop, mark . . 364,372 

„ and star, mark .372,373,377 

Esterlings, the good money of the . 7 

ESTOK 97,99 

. 382, 391 

8V 417 

BW 392,413 

era 397 

(^# 159 

Ewers, basins and 275 

Exeter, ancient guild at . .96 

„ ancient marks used at . 96, 108 
„ office, as re-established in 

1701. .... lis 
„ office, marks used at since 
1701 114,129,434 



169, 372, 414, 416 
. . 372 



P . . . 

PA . 386, 387, 411, 412, 414, 415 

PB . .82, 150, 405 

PB.KD 400 

dflB 124 

PC 401 

„ linked . . ... 373 

Feathers, plume of, an Irish mark . 155 



Index. 



453 



FO. 



PAOK 

PO 383,384,416 

PH 146 

Fire^ogs 336 

Fish, mark .... 92,367,405 

91^ 397 

PK 417,418 

PL 389,409 

Flag and staff, mark . . . 364 

Flagons, commanion . 220 

Flasks .... . . 223 

FlaxmaD, his designs for plate . 308 

Fleece, mark 102 

F letter, mark on imported plate . 169 
Flear,de.]yB, mark 160, 357, 369, 361, 

364, 405 
„ crowned . . . . 367 

Flear-de lys and leopard^s head 

crowned,dimidiated, a York mark 74, 108 
Flower, mark .... 406, 408 

PN 417 

PO. linked 410 

Po . 117,412 

Foreign, the word, as a mark . . 169 
„ plate, regulations as to im- 
portation of ' 169 

Forged marks, penalties for selling 

wares with 166 

Forks, when introduced . . 325 

Fountains and cisterns . 336 

PB 117 

„ linked 362 

S^r 124 

France, earlj guilds of goldsmiths 
in . . . ..... 19, 24 

Frauds, how to detect certain . . 169 
„ mediasval 23, 34, 163 

„ modem . . . .164 

„ penalties for various ... 166 
PS . . 380,395,407,417 

„ linked 367 

PT 81 

PV 117 

PW . . 160, 375, 377, 381, 397 
„ linked 368 

^if 399 

a 367 

aA 171.386,413 

OAACo 127 

Qadrooning, ornament 260, 331 

OABTHOBNS 411 

Qateshead, marks used at .101 



QOLDSlflTHS. 



PAGE 

a8H 



Q>, A within 

OC 138, 142 

„ linked .... 137,142 

OD 373 

OS 417 

OED 145 

Geneva, New, colonj of goldsmiths at 1 55 
„ marks used at . . . 155 

OG 84,379,381 

OH 393,394,417 

#{ 386 



w ■ 



Ol . . . 

OX, linked 

OL . . . 

Glasgow, its marks . 

GK . . . 

OO . 

Goat*8 head, mark 



... 418 

. 120, 388, 414 

80, 137, 142 

. . 106 

. 146, 161, 444 

. . 83 

. 416 

. . 101 

Goddards 233, 261 

Gold, analyses of various specimens 

of . . . . . 3, 9 

annual production of . . 3 

coloured 14 

18-carat, first mention of . 8, 43 

„ marks for 44,130,155,162 

known to the ancients . . 1 

„ lower standards of, marks for 45, 

130, 155, 162 
,, lower standards of, when first 

authorised . . . . . 44 
malleability and ductility of . 4 
plate, rarity of . . . 230 
„ specimens of . 1 94. 230 
specific gravity of . . 4 

22-carat, marks for 4o, 130, 155, 162 



>» 
If 



>f 
»» 
»» 
>» 

„ value of, per carat fine . 17 

„ weight of, as compared with 



other metals . 
„ where found . 



. 4,10 
3 

Goldsmiths* Company, charters of 
the 23, 27 

Goldsmiths* Company, incorporation 
of the 20 

Goldsmiths* Company, its constitu- 
tion . . ... .27 

Goldsmiths* Company, legislation re- 
lating to the . . 22, 29, 166 

Goldsmiths* Company, ordinances 
of the 28 

Goldsmiths* Company, prosecutions 
by, in sixteenth century . . . 34 

Goldsmiths, London , become bankers 39 



454 



Index. 



OOLDBMITH0. 



PAOB 



Goldsmiths, London, names of in 

sixteenth century . . ... 32 
Goldsmith's workshop, contents of 

mediflBval 72 

Gourds, caps formed as . . 299 

Grapes, bunch of, mark . . 362 

Grasshopper, mark . . .361 

Grayity, specific, of gold and silver 4, 5, 10 
Greece, ancient, use of gold and 

tfilyerin 2 

OB, linked 137 

O, B within 389 

CH8 . . . . 143, 375, 393, 404 

8^ 395.401 



. . 404 

OS.WP , . ... 403 

OTX . . . ... 391 

Guilds, early, of French goldsmiths 19, 24 
„ „ in London, historical 
notes of 20 

OV 409 

OW 120,148,394 

WSSi 395 

O, w within 392 



H, as a Hull mark 



• V 



• 



„ linked .. 



• • 



. 406 

100, 108 

. 386, 414 

. 93, 150 

. 115 



Hall-marks, where placed on phite . 172 

Hanaps 283 

Hanbury cup, the, at Goldsmiths* 

HaU 62 

Hand, mark 359 

„ and croslet, mark . . . 361 

„ and crown, mark . . 360 

„ and hammer, mark . 362 

Harp, mark 366 

„ crowned, an Irish mark . . 162 

Harrison, W., his description of 

England temp. Eliz. . . ^28 

HB 144, 418 

„ linked . .144, 154, 363, 374, 407 

^^ ... 171, 402 



HC.IB 



• • 



• • 



403, 407 

. . 420 

. 407 

. . 379 

Head, animal's, mark .101. 358, 361, 366 
„ man's, mark . . 359 



• ■ • 



IB. 

PAOB 

Heart, mark . . 106, 150. 358, 366 

Helmet, mark 86ft 

Henry VIIZ., church goods seized by 176 
„ debasement of coinage 

under 8,64 

Herbert's History of the Goldsmiths' 

Company 23, 54 

Heriot, Geoiige . 133, 136, 142 

. 138,145,374.375,403 

. 417 
. . 390 

„ linked .... 374,375 
Hibernia, figure of, an Irish mark 155, 

162 
Hiero's crown, story of testing . 10 
•.linked . 142,150,365 
169 

MJ/l 39G 

HN 375,404 

HO 115,390 

Ho 124,414 

%n 386 

Hogarth, an engraver of plate . 282 
Horns, drinking . . 289 

Horse's head, mark .... 406 
Horses, two, mark . . 92 

HOBWOOD 97 

HP 113,145,397 

HP A Co 113 

^& 392 

101, 377 
106, 369 

HT, linked 370 

HT.TL 127 

Hull, goldsmiths of, and their 

marks 99, 108 

. 413 

. . 386 

361, 407 



J 371,376 

lA 367,379,412 

JJl 396,401 

LA.1IKF 304 

Jjl,j((S' 395 

IB . 101, 147, 365, 366, 368, 873, 378, 

380,381,391,404,414 

J^ 118,397 



Index. 



455 



PAOS 

ZO 1.01, 125, 126, 158, 159, 161, ^59, 361, 
378, 381, 383, 384, 391, 394, 400, 406 

J0 125,418 

ZC.TH 401 

ID . . 87,160,379,385,407,419 

„ linked 93 

IB . . 391,392,394,411,414,420 

c/(^ 116,117 

IV . 138,142,360,363,369,416 

JUF 124,418 

la . 106,145,147,372,375,376,378, 

393, 409 

„ linked .... 365,392 

lOftCo. 127 

tfSi cypher 380 

IH 125, 158, 160, 363, 365, 380, 401, 

403, 411, 417 
„ linked .... 374, 375 

IH.08 400 

IH.IP . 112,113,380 

J^ 



n 



. 145,417 
. 154, 370, 374, 381, 383 
419 



. 125, 138, 144, 161, 368, 377, 380, 

392, 401, 404 

c/. SfSing 395 

rCTO 419 

n. 99, 112,125,138,142,146,161,403,414 
113 161 

JJJS 125 

II«.IB 126 

II..IS 399 

Illegal wares, penalty for possessing 166 
IX . 144, 364, 373, 399, 404, 408, 410, 416 

„ linked 103 

IX.OK 416 

IK.FB 369 

IN 377,409,417 

JJf 417 

INe 418 

INS . 149 

Inverness, marks used at . 148 

10 85 

IONS ... .97,99 

IP . 81,88,104,158,161,361,369 

J& 397,398 



PAOB 

ft Co 127 

IP.BW 398 

la 398 

IB . 97, 369, 377, 380, 384, 397, 404, 415 
„Unkcd 97,99 

J0l 396 

Ireland, analysis of gold found in • 4 

Irish marks, table of .162, 445 

„ Parliament, acts of . . . 155 

„ plate, list of specimens of 154, 158 

Irregular marks on London plate 

about 1720 66 

IS . 142, 144, 158, 161, 368,369, 380,383, 

388, 391, 393, 394, 402, 410 

„ linked . 142,143,^65,369,379 

JS . .118,394,398,410 

Israelites, their skill as goldsmiths . 1 

ISZ 411 

IT . . 82,84,158,371,374,404,417 

J9f 392 

rv 367,376 

Ivory cups 298 

IW . 138, 145, 148, 160, 374, 376, 382, 

414, 416 
„ linked . . 87,138,374,408 

JW 158,418,419 



IW ft Co. 

iw.Ba 

IW.VI. . 
IW.WT 



lY.OI 



. 127 
. . 404 

. 400 

. . 402 

383, 402 

. . 401 



JB . 

^^Unked 

/S' linked 
JB . 

f8 . . 



390 
161 



• • 



. 408, 409 

. 118, 124, 398 

. . 142 

. 404 

116, 117 



161 

linked 142 

John, King of France, his confirma- 
tion of goldsmiths' privileges . 20, 68 

JP 161 

JS . . ... 161 

g^ ... ... 398 



456 



Index. 



JUGS. 

Jugs, stoneware mounted 
Justa, the 



PAGE 

272 
233 






KA.an7 



384 

U5 

393 

416 

411 

Kettles, tea 338 

Key, mark 359,369 

... . .375 

411 

Kl . .124 

XnrO, J 395 

King's head, mark of, when instituted 43,66 

„ „ mark of, in intaglio 68 

King's Lynn, marks used at . . 104 

XK 101 

Knop, the word 193 



LftB 161 

LA . 111,112,124,390,413,416 

^o4 387,411 

Lamb and flag, mark . . . 149 

Lamerie, Paul 15, 54, 149, 305, 343, 390, 

393, 395 

Lamp, mark 405 

LftB 145 

I*B 400,407 

1*0 379,383,419 

XJ> 394,420 

LB .... 387,390,411 

*e 390 

Leaf, mark ... . 405 
Leeds, mark probably used at . . 102 

Leg, mark 360 

Lemon strainers 329 

Leopard's head crowned, first men- 
tion of the . 22, 46 
„ „ crowned, the national 

standard mark . 46 
„ „ crowned, uncrowned 

since 1823 46 

lAk 93 

^uId . . ... 419 

I1H.FB 399 

LI 389 

Licences, plate dealers* and bullion 

refiners' . . . 68 



VAN. 

PAOK 

Lilies, pot of, mark . . .147 

Lily, mark of the Paris touch . 20 

Lincolnshire, mark found in . . 103 
Lion, and ship, mark 104 

Lion, castle and, a I^orwich mark . 88, 

93,108 
Lion passant, first actual mention of 35, 64 

,, „ to sinister, where used 

as a mark 87, 108, 122 

„ „ ' when introduced as a 

mark and why 64 

Lion rampant, mark ... 92, 151 

„ „ a Glasgow mark 151 

Lion's head erased, mark of new 

sterling silver .41, 45, 65 

Lions, five on a cross, a York mark 111, 

129 

„ passant, three dimidiated, with 

three garbs dim., a Chester mark 94, 108» 

119, 129 

LX 413 

LO 389 



^^, linked 



. 389 



ftO 115,387 

London date-letter, wh.en first ap- 
pointed 29,56 

London marks, table of .45, 423 

„ the touch of . .47, 59 

Loth, a German weight 12 

Lotteries, plate 38,40.336 

. . 416 



J0^ 



LS 

„ linked 



. 395 

. . 381 

. 108, 357 

. : 386 



X 142, 360, 361, 363, 366, 376, 377, 379 

X ft C 147 

391,412 

390 



c/^cy^, linked 115 

Mace heads, cups formed of . . 352 

Maces 344 

KA.BP 391 

Maidenhead, mark . . 92, 358| 369 
Maker's mark, first mention in Eng- 
land of 24, 49 

Makers' marks, chronological list of 357 
„ „ how recorded at 

Goldsmiths' Hall . . 40,49 

Man, mark ...... 358 



Index. 



457 



MARKS. 

FAQE 

Marks, London, table of . . 45, 428 
„ penalties for obliterating or 

erasing 166 

., penalties for transposing . 166 
» H „ selling wares 

with forged 166 

Marks osed at Birmingham . 130, 440 
„ Chester 108, 129, 432, 436 
„ Exeter . . 108, 129, 434 
„ Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

1.08, 130, 438 
„ Norwich 108,431 

„ Sheffield . . 130,441 
,, York 108, 129, 429, 433 
„ where placed on plate . .172 
JCATHSV .98,99 

Mazers 245 

German . ... 257 



PC. 



PAOK 



11 

»» 
M 



l> 



, linked 



Melons, cups formed as . 

jk$!. . . . 



83, 867 

384, 412 

. 299 



,, linked 



419 

419 

. 86,391 
384,385 

„ linked 93,407 

Milli^mes, fineness of gold and silver 

expressed in .... 6 

Mint prices for gold . . . . 17 

„ standard trial plates at the 9 

Mitre, mark 387 

161,381 
, linked .... 148,414 

kMo 117 

Monograms, uncertain, marks 357, 358, 

405 

Monteiths 329 

Montpellier, goldsmiths at . .24 

„ date-letters first used at 26 

Monl^se, marks used at . 147 

MP 416 

Murra, the 245 

161 

144 



Nanda 107 

Narwhal, horn of the . .286 

NB, linked 360 

JTC 414 

JTD . 420 

Nef,tbe 232,286 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, ancient guild 
of goldsmiths at . . 70 5 



Newcastle-upon-Tjne, assay-office as 

re-established in 1702 . .121 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, goldsmiths of, 

their marks . . . 108,130,438 
New Geneya, marks used at . .155 
New sterling silver, marks for 41, 66 
Newt and barrel, mark 364 

Na 383 

Nitrate of silver, simple test for 

silver by 15 

Norwich, its ancient marks . 88, 108 
Norwich Goldsmiths' Company re- 
established in 1701 at . .121 
Norwich, goldsmiths' guild at . . 88 
Norwich, Peter Peterson, a cele- 
brated goldsmith, at . .88 

KB 867 

,, linked 407 

NS, Unked 361 

NT, linked .... 106, 142 

irw 374 

Nuremberg, goldsmiths at . .20 



Oabs, maces formed as ... 352 
Object uncertain, mark 359, 360, 406, 409 
Obole, French measure of fineness . 20 

OF, linked 410 

OJ 419 

Old sterling silver . . . . 7, 8 
„ „ „ restored in 1720. 8, 42 

OX 373 

Orb and cross, mark 91, 92, 359, 362, 405 

OS 379 

OSBOBN .... 98,99 
Ostrich eggs, cups formed of . . 286 



P 138, 143, 382, 416 

PA 386,389,391,894,411 
P» 388 

&jl 396 

PA.PX 418 

Paris, touch of . . . 8, 19, 22, 76 
Parliament, enquiry in 1773 by 110, 126, 

164 
1866 by . 127 
.* 138,373,376,417 

PB.AB.WB 404 

PB.IB 420 

PC 361,392,398 



>» 



458 



Index. 



PC, 



&G 



0^8 



rxoE 
. . 418 

118, 386, 889, 412 
.171,411 



120 



II 



Peacock, mark 389 

Peahen, cap formed as . . . 301 

Pece, the word 285 

Pegasus, mark 92 

Penalties for frauds ... 166 

Perth, marks used at . . . 149 
Peterson, Peter, celebrated Norwich 

goldsmith 88 

Pewter . . 188. 212, 229, 324 

144, 149, 398 

linked 364 

384,392 

„ linked 371 

Pia 398 

Pig, mark 106 

160,382 
. 115, 387, 393, 412, 413 

&J 395 

„ linked 410 

Plate, abundance of, in sixteenth 

century .... 228 

„ chronological list of . . . 357 

„ cost of antique 173, 236, 258, 272, 

303, 836 

„ the word 30 

Plates, dinner 323 

Plates, engraved . . 323 

„ spice 323 

PN 401 

„ linked 142 

PO 412 

Pod with peas (7), mark . . 357 

Poison, detection of 250, 285, 290, 312 
Porringers and posnets . . 319 

Pound, Tower, weight of . . 16 

„ Troy and Avoirdupois com- 

17 

81,878,417 



pared 

P . 



396 



138,145,383 

Prosecutions instituted by Gold- 
smiths* Company . . . 34, 167 
Provincial assay towns, as re-en tab. 
lished in 1701.2 . . 109 



BO. 



PAOC 



Provincial date-letters, where used 108, 

129 
„ „ alphabets of 429 

Provincial goldsmiths, early notices 

of 70 

Provincial goldsmiths' companies, 

establishment of . . 31, 70, 109 
Provincial goldsmiths, control exer- 
cised by London over . . . 75 
Provincial goldsmiths* work, small 

repute of 77 

Provincial marks, often forged . . 95 
,, „ some doubtful . 105 

Provincial touchef*, first mention 
in England of . .29, 31 

PS 150,404 

PT 138 

Padsey spoon, the .... 240 

PW 400 

PY 387 

Pyx, trial of the 26 



QUBEN*s head, duty mark of the . 45, 

66, 169, 151, 162 



142 
382 



149, 3; 6, 388, 394, 412 
0iJl 418 



124 

.80, 369, 370, 373, 394, 414 

<^ci^, linked . . . . 14G 

BC 105, 160, 366, 369, 370, 371, 373, 382, 

392, 40S 

„ linked 385 

BD 370,378 

„ linked . 142,150,360 

BB 11& 

He 388 

Rebellion, plate melted at the great 35 
Reformation, effects of the, as' 

regards church goods • . • 176 
Regalia, coronation, made new for 

Charles IL 38 

Remedy, what 9 

BF 365, 375 

0l§ 138 

Ba . . 80,142,147,149,154,408