Skip to main content

Full text of "The oldest church manual called The teaching of the twelve apostles : [Didache ton Dodeka Apostolon] : the Didachè and kindred documents in the original, with translations and discussions of post-apostolic teaching, baptism, worship, and discipline, and with illustrations and facsimiles of the Jerusalem manuscript"

See other formats








Oldest Ohuech MA]:!iruAL ^^-'^'>/^ 


^eacl)ing of tl)c ^toclui ^pasties 











[All rights reserved] 

Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1885, 


Id the Office of the Librariac of Congress at Washington, D. C. 


PIlilotlicD yrricnnio, G.»i.D. 




JiSaxr) Γ&ϊκ δώδεκα \-1πο6ΓΟΧων 




Ccciiicns (Dricnti 5.D. 

Eh Κνριοζ uia πίΰτιζ εν βάητιϋίΐιχ ειζ θεοί και 

Πατ7)β πάντων ό έηί πάντων και διά 

πάντων και έν παόιν 


As soon as I received a copy of the newly discovered 
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles^ I determined, in justice to my- 
self and to my readers, to prepare an independent supplement 
to the second volume of my revised Church History^ which 
had appeared a few months before. Accordingly, during a 
visit to Europe last summer, I made a complete collection of 
the Didache literature, but could not put the material into 
shape before the fourth volume of that History was published. 
The delay has enabled me to use several important works 
which reached me while my own was passing through the 
hands of the printer. 

The Didache fills a gap between the Apostolic age and the 
Church of the second century, and sheds new light upon ques- 
tions of doctrine, worship, and discipline. Herein lies its 
interest and significance. 

My object is to explain this document in the light of its 
Apostolic antecedents and its post- Apostolic surroundings, and 
thus to furnish a contribution to the history of that mysterious 
transition period between a.d. 70 and 150. 

The reader will find here, besides the discussions of the vari- 
ous topics, the full text of the Didache and kindred documents 
in the original with translations and notes, and a number of 
illustrations which give a unique interest to the volume. 

To the Metropolitan of Mcomedia I desire to express my 
great obligation for the instruction derived from his admirable 
edition of the Didache^ and for the special interest he has taken 
in my work. My thanks are due also to Professor Wai-field, 
Dr. Crosby, and Mr. Arthur C. McGiifert for valuable contri- 
butions. The portrait of the discoverer is from a photograph 
taken several years ago by the photographer of the Sultan, 


whicli Dr. Bryenuios himself has kindly sent me.* The 
baptismal pictures are reproduced, by permission, from Eoller's 
work on the Roman Catacombs. The view of the Jerusalem 
Monastery and the fac-similes of the famous MS. which con- 
tains the Didache, I secured through the aid of my esteemed 
friends, Dr. Washburn, President of Robert College, Constan- 
tinople, and Professor Albert L. Long, of the same institution, 
which shines on the shores of the Bosphorus as a beacon-light 
of promise for the intellectual and spiritual regeneration of 
Turkey and the cradle-lands of Christianity. 

The Author. 

N'ew York, Union Theological Seminary, 
May 21, 1885. 

* I have just receh^ed a friendly lettei• from Dr. B., dated Nicomedia, 
April ^f, 1885, in which he expresses great satisfaction with advanced proofs 
I had sent him a few weeks ago, and gives me permission to dedicate my 
book to him. 






CHAPTER I. The Jerusalem Monastery 1 

'" II. A Precious Volume 2 

(Two Fac-similes of the Jerusalem MS.. 6 and 7.) 

" III. Philotheos Bryennios 8 

" IV. Publication of the Didache 9 

" V. A Literary Sensation 10 

" VI. Various Estimates 12 

VII. The Title 14 

" VIII. Aim and Contents IG 

" IX. The Doctrinal or Catechetical Part 17 

X. The Two Ways 18 

" XI. The Theology of the Didache 23 

" XII. The Ritual of the Didache 26 

" XIII. The Lord's Day and the Christia:n Week 27 

" XIV. Prayer and Fasting 29 

" XV. Baptism in the Didache 29 

" XVI. Baptism and the Catacombs 36 

(Foun Illustrations.) 

" XVII. Immersion and Pouring in History 41 

" XVIII. The Agape and the Eucharist 56 

" XIX. Ecclesiastical Organization 62 

" XX. Apostolic and post-apostolic Government 64 

" XXI. Apostles and Prophets 67 

" XXII. Bishops and Deacons 73 

" XXIII. The End op the World 75 

" XXIV. The Didache and the Sckiptures 78 

" XXV. The Style AND Vocabulary OF THE Didache 95 

" XXVI. Authenticity of the Didache 114 

" XXVII. Time of Composition 119 

'♦ XXVllI Place OF Composition 12:^.' 

" XXIX. Authorship 125 



CHAPTER XXX. The Apostolical Church Order, ok the Eccle- 
siastical Canoxs of the Holy Apostles 127 

" XXXI. The Apostolical Constitutions 132 

" XXXII. Summary of Lessons from the Didache 138 

•' XXXIII. The Literature of the Didache 140 


I. The Didache, Greek and English, with Comments 161 

II. A Latin Fragment of the Didache, with a Critical Essay . . . 219 

HI. The Epistle of Barnabas, Greek and English 227 

IV. The Shepherd of Her.mas, Greek and English 234 

V". The Apostolical Church Order, Greek and English 237 

VI. The Apostolical Church Order from the Coptic, English . . . 249 
Λ^Π. The Seventh Book of the Apostolical Constitutions, Greek 

and English 259 

A Letter and Communication from Metropolitan Bryennios. 289 


Portrait of Bryennios Frontispiece 

The Jerusalem Monastery of the Most Holy Sepulchre 1 

Facsimile of the First Lines of the Didache 6 

Facsimile of the Last Page of the Jerusalem Manuscript 7 

Four Baptismal Pictures from the Roman Catacombs 37, 38, 39, 40 

Autograph Letter from Bryennios 296 















































































The Jerusalem Monastery. 

The Jerusalem Monastery of the Most Holy Sepul- 
chre is an irregular mass of buildings in the Greek quarter of 
Constantinople, called " Phanar." It belongs to the Patriarch 
of Jerusalem, who resides there when on a visit to the capital 
of Turkey. In the same district are the church and residence 
of the Constantinopolitan patriarch, and the city residences of 
the chief metropolitans of his diocese. The Phanar surpasses 
the Moslem quarters in cleanliness and thrift, and its inhabit- 
ants, the Phanariotes, are largely employed as clerks and 
transcribers of documents. 

Around the humble and lonely retreat of the Jerusalem 
Monastery and its surroundings cluster many historical asso- 
ciations. The mind wanders back to the " upper room " in 
Jerusalem, the first Pentecost, the mother church of Christen- 
dom, the last persecutor of the religion of the cross and its first 
protector, the turning-point of the relation of church and state, 
the founding of New Rome, the transfer of empire from the 
banks of the Tiber to the lovely shores of the Bosphorus, the 
doctrinal controversies on the Holy Trinity and Incarnation, 
the CEcumenical Councils, the conflict between the Patriarch 
and the Pope, the Filioque and the Primacy, the origin and 
progress of the great Schism, the wild romance of the Crusades, 
the downfall of Constantinople, the long sleep and oj^pression 
of the Eastern Church, the revival of letters and the Reforma- 


tion in the AVest. We see tbe decline and approacliing end of 
Turkisli misrule, and look hopefully forward to the solution of 
the Eastern problem by a political and moral renovation which 
is slowly but surely progressing. 

The Monastery of the Holy Sepulchre is a type of the 
Christian Orient ; it is a shrine of venerable relics ; it has the 
imploring beauty and eloquence of decay with signs of a 
better future. Some rich and patriotic Greeks in Constan- 
tinople have recently erected near the Monastery a magnificent 
building for national Greek education.* May a new Church of 
the Eesurrection at no distant day rise out of the Monastery of 
the Sepulchre ! 


A Precious Volume. 

The Jerusalem Monastery possesses, like most convents, a 
library. It is preserved in a small stone chamber, erected for 
the purpose and detached from the other buildings. It receives 
scanty light through two strongly barred windows. Its entrance 
is adorned with holy pictures. It contains about a thousand 
bound volumes and " from four hundred to six hundred manu- 
scripts," as the present superior, the archimandrite Polycarp, 
informed a recent visitor " with characteristic indefiniteness." 

Among the books of this library is one of the rarest treas- 
ures of ancient Christian literature. It is a collection of manu- 
scripts bound in one volume, covered with black leather, 
carefully written on well preserved parchment by the same 
hand in small, neat, distinct letters, and numbering in all 120 
leaves or 240 pages of small octavo (nearly 8 inches long by 6 
wide). It embraces seven Greek documents, four of which are 
of great importance. t 

The documents are as follows : 

* See picture of the Monastery, reproduced from a jjhotograpli, facing p. 1. 

f The volume is described by Bryennios in the Prolegomena to his ed. of 
the Clementine Epistles, 1875; and by Prof. Albert L. Long, of Robert 
College, Constantinople, in the New York Independent for July 31, 18S4. 


1. A Synopsis of the Old and New Testaments in the 
ORDER OF Books by St. Chrysostom (fol. 1-82). 

The Synopsis, however, closes with the prophet Mahichi, 
and omits the New Testament. Montfaucon had published 
such a work down to Nahum, in the sixth volume of his 
edition of Chrysostom, reprinted by Migne. Bryennios, in his 
edition of the Didache^ has now supplied the textual variations 
to Migne, and the unpublished portions on Habakkuk, Zepli- 
aniah, Haggai, Zachariah, and Malachi.* 

2. The Epistle of Barnabas (fol. 33-51^). 

This is an additional copy to that found in the Codex Sinai- 
ticus of the Bible, and published by Tischendorf, 1862. The 
older editions contain the first four chapters only in the Latin 
version. The value of the new MS. consists in a number of 
new readings \vliich Bryennios communicated to Professor 
Hilgenfeld, of Jena, for his second edition (1877).t 

3. The First Epistle of Clement of Kome to the Cor- 
inthians (fol. δΐ'' med. — 70 "" med.). 

This is the only complete manuscrijDt of that important 
document of the post-apostolic age ; the only other MS. in the 
Codex Alexandrinus of the Bible, preserved in the British 
Museum, is defective towards the close.:}: 

4. The Second Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians 
(fol. 70 "^ med.— 76 ^ med.). 

Likewise the only complete copy. It contains the first 
Christian Homily extant, but it is not by Clement, although 
the discoverer considers it genuine. 

They differ in the numeration of the MS. : 13ryennios gives 456 as its num- 
ber in the library; Long, from more recent examination, 446. Perhaps the 
former is a printing error, or the volumes of the library have been re-num- 

*In the third Appendix to his Prolegomena, pp. μ'^'-βΐιζ. 

f The Jerusalem MS. is also utilized in the second edition of Barnabas by 
von Gebhardt and Harnack, Leipzig, 1878, and by Fr. X. Funk, in his ed. 
of Opera Pntrum Apost. (the fifth of Ilefele), Tubingen, 1878. ♦ 

:j; Bryennios calls the new text of the Clementine Epistles " The Jerusa- 
lem MS." (Ιεροΰυλνμικόί), and is followed by Hilgenfeld, but von Geb- 
hardt, Harnack, and Lightfoot designate it by the letter C (Constantinopo- 
litanus) in distinction from A (Alexandrinus). In the case of the Didache 
there is no rival MS. 


Documents 3 and 4ΛνβΓ6 publisliecl by Brjennios in 1875 to 
the great delight of Christian scholars.* 

5. The Teaching (Didache) of the Twelve Apostles, 
on four leaves (fol. 76'' med. — 80). 

By far the most valuable of the documents, although less 
than ten pages. It begins on the fourth line from the bottom of 
fol. 76 ^ The half page at the close of the Did. is left blank. 

The following is a fac-simile of the title and first lines, which 
we obtained through the aid of influential friends in Constan- 
tinople : 

διδαχή των δώδεκα ατΐοΰτόλοον. 
/ύΐδαχ?) κνρϊυν διά των δώδεκα (ΧΛοότόλων τοΐζ εΒνεόιν . όδοι δνο 
εΐΰι, ιιία τηζ ζωήζ καΐ μια τον Sayocrov διαφορά δέ ττολλ?) μετα- 
ξύ των δνο οδών. ί) ιχεν ονν όδόζ τήίζωηζ ίότιν αντη' τίβώτον, ayanv— 


" Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. 
Teaching of the Lord, through the Twelve Apostles, to the Gentiles. TwoWays 
there are: one of Life and one of Death; but there is a great difference be- 
tween the two Ways. Now the Way of Life is this: first, Thou shalt love. . " 

6. The Spurious Epistle of Mary of Cassoboli f to the 
Bishop and Martyr Ignatius of Antioch (fol. 81-82* med.). 

* Under the title, as translated into English : The Two Epistles of our 
Holy Father Clement, Bishop of Rome, to the Corinthians, from a 
manuscript in the Library of the Most Holy Sepulchre in, Phanar (εν 
Φαναρΐω) of Constantinople ; now for the first time p)iblished complete, with 
Prolegomena and Notes by Philotheos Bryenxios, 3IetropoUfan of Serrce. 
Constantinople, lS7o. The new portions are given in full with valuable 
notes in Lightfoot's J.;j;;e?wZia; to his ed. of S. Clement of Rome (London, 
187T). Von Gebhardt and Harnack have used the Constantinopolitan MS. 
in their second ed.of Clement (1876), and Funk in his ed.of the Ap. Fathers 
(1878). Comp. my Church History, \l. 648 sqq. (revised ed.). 

I Μαρία Καόόοβόλων or Καόταβάλων. See the different readings in 
Zahn's ed. of Ignat., p. 174. 


Cassoboli is probably Castabala,* a city of Cilicia, The 
Ejiistle is worthless. 

7. Twelve pseudo-Ignatian Epistles, beginning with a 
letter of Ignatius to Mary of Cassaboli and ending with that 
to the Romans (fol. 82^ med.— 120*). 

The value of these Epistles consists in the new readings, 
which Bryennios generously furnished to Professor Funk of 
Tubingen for his edition of the Apostolic Fathers. f 

Near the middle of the left-hand page of the last leaf is the 
subscription of the copyist "Leon, notary and sinner," in the 
most contracted and abbreviated style of handwriting, with 
the date Tuesday, June 11, in the year of the world 6o61 
according to Byzantine reckoning, w^hich is equivalent to 
A.D. 1056.+ 

Leon, probably an humble monk, did not dream that eight 
hundred years after his death the work of his hand would 
attract the liveliest interest of scholars of such nations and 
countries as he never heard of, or knew only as rude bar- 
barians of the West. 

"The hand that wrote doth moulder in the tomb; 
The book abideth till the day of doom." 

The following is a fac-simile of the last page of this remark- 
able volume, which contains the conclusion of the pseudo- 
Ignatian Epistle to the Romans, the subscription, and notes 
on the genealogy of Christ. 

^ Καυτά PcxXa. See Funk, Pair. Αρ., II. 46. 

f Funk says (Opera Pair. Apost., Vol. II. p. xxx.): " PMlotheus Bryen- 
nius, metropolita Nicodemiensis,vir de Uteris Christianis optime meritus,max- 
ima cum libercditaie epistulas pseudoignatianas inusum meum accurafissime 
contulit." The longer Greek recension embraces the Epistles to Mary of 
Cassoboli, to the Trallians, the Magnesians, the Tarsians, the Philippians, 
the Philadelphians, the Smyrnseans, to Polycarp, tothe Antiochians, to Heron 
(deacon of Antioch), to the Ephesians, and to the Romans (pp. 46-214). 
Funk gives, pp. 314-217, the three additional letters of Ignatius to John the 
Evangelist and the Virgin Mary, with her response, which exist only in 

X The Greek Calendar of Constantinople estimates the Saviour's birth to 
have taken place 5508 years after the creation, according to the reckoning 
of the Septuagint. Deduct ϋο08 from 6564, and you have the date 
A.D. 1056, 

rfAA) ■ fl U ΑΛ. ^ 

-^-o ,v -V- oL-rro τ"»^^ 

V '!_,// V \,' *-^^ ^'^ 

o-o^v ο -ΛΑ. ^ ^ ( '»<■ ««— <Π Ot »» • ^^^A^ -TT-bsp <ir/uj -m» o- j ο • cCc^^/yt^ ^τ*< .-f~ 

-TT-L-»» |^,βΜ»ιΛ,6-γ/ j<C<^Y^ ζ^ατη^ -a^^ -t^A<<t-v o-ea-»N/-n. 'τ^ yo^'-rj 


dvy τίολλοΐζ uai αλλυιζ Κρόκο?, τό πο^ητύν υνομα. Περί των τΐρο- 
6ελ3όντων από Ένρίαζ είζ 'Pajjiir/y είζ δόίαν 3εοΰ πιότεύω ν^αζ 
επεχνωκέναι " οιζ καΐ δτ/λώόετε εχχιΗ με ΰντα • τΐάντεζ χάρ είϋτν 
άξιοι 5εοΰ καΐ νμών • υΰζ πρέπον ίότΐν νμϊν κατά πάντα άναπαν- 
όαι. "Eypaipa δε νμΊν ταΰτα τ^/ πρό εννέα καλανδών Σεπτεμβρίων. 
"ΕρρωόΒε ει'ζ τέλοζ εν ύπομονι;}^^ Ιηόον Χριότοι. — 

Έτέλεζω^;/ μηνι 'Ίοννι'ω είζ τήνιά, {μιέραν Γ . "Ίνδικτ. Η', έτυυζ 
ήτψξδ' , χειρι Λέοντυί νυταρίον καιάλείτου. 

[TraiiiiJation, including the remainder of the tenth chapter of the pseudo- 
Ignatian Epistle to the Romans.] 

" (I write this to you from Smyrna through Ephesians worthy of happi- 
ness. But there is with me) Crocus, the beloved name, along with many 
others also. Concerning those coming from Syria unto Rome for the glory 
of God I believe you know them; and to them ye will announce that I am 
near. For they arc all worthy of God and of you, and it is becoming that 
you should refresh them in every way. I have written these things unto 
you on the day before the 9th Kalends of September. Fare ye well ur.til 
the end in the endurance of Jesus Christ." 


" Finished in the month of June, upon the 11th (of the month), day 3d (of the 
week, i.e., Tuesday), Indiction 9, of the year 6564. By the hand of Leon, 
notary and sinner." 

The rest of the page is filled out by the same hand with notes on the gene- 
alogy of Joseph and Mary, following the authority of Julius Africanus and 
Eusebius, who reconcile Matthew and Luke by the theory that Matthew 
gives the royal descent of Joseph through Solomon, Luke the private descent 
of Joseph through Nathan. Bryennios has deciphered the MS. and prints it 
in legible Greek, in his edition of the Didache, p. ρμη. It begins: 

Ίωΰί/φ υ άνήρ Μαρίαζ, ίξ ηζ ίγεννή^η ό^ριότόζ, εκ Αενιτικήζ 
φνλήζ κατάγεται, ώ? υπέδειξαν οί Βεϊοι εύαγχελιόταϊ. \ίλλ- ό μεν 
Ματ^αΙοζ εκ /Ιαβίδ δια Έολυμώντοζ κατάχει τον "Ίοΰόι/ψ' 6 δέ 
Αονκάζ δια Νά^αν, 2ολομών δέ και Νά^αν viol /Ιαβίδ. 



Philotheos Bryennios. 

The Jerusalem Manuscript was liidden from the knowledge 
of the world for eight hundred years. The library was ex- 
amined by Bethmann in 1845, by M. Guigniant in 1856, and 
by the Bodleian librarian, Rev. H. O. Coxe, in 1858, but they 
failed to observe its chief treasure. The monks themselves 
were as ignorant of its contents and value, as the monks of 
Mount Sinai were of the still greater treasure of the Codex 
Sinaiticus. At last it was discovered in 1873, and a portion 
of it published (The Clementine Epistles) in 1875. 

The happy discoverer and first editor is Philotheos Bryen- 
nios, formerly Metropolitan of Serrre, an ancient see (Heraclea) 
of Macedonia, now Metropolitan of Nicomedia (Isrnid). This was 
once the magnificent capital of Bithynia and the residence of 
the Emperor Diocletian, where the last and the most terrible 
persecution of the Church broke out (a.d. 803), and where 
Constantine the Great, the first Christian Emperor, was bap- 
tized and closed his life (337). Bryennios is next in rank to 
the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Bishop of Ephesus, 
and usually resides in Constantinople, in a narrow, unpainted, 
wooden house of four stories, opposite the entrance of the patri- 
archal church and a few steps from the Jerusalem Monastery. 

He is probably the most learned prelate of the Greek Church 
at the present day. He was born in Constantinople (1833), 
studied in the patriarchal Seminar}^ on the island of Clialce, 
and in three German Universities (Leipzig, Berlin and Mu- 
nich). He attended the second of the Old Catholic Con- 
ferences at Bonn (in 1875). He is well versed in the patristic, 
especially Greek, and in modern German literature. He 
freely quotes, in his two books on the Clementine Epistles, and 
on the Didache, the writings of Bingham, Schrockh, Neander, 
Gieseler, Hefele, von Drey, Krabbe, Bunsen, Dressel, Schlie- 
mann, Bickell, Tischendorf, Hilgenfeld, Lagarde, Ueltzen, 
Funk, Probst, Kraus, Uhlhorn, Migne's Patrologia^ Winer's 
Biblisches BealwOrierbucL• and the writers in Herzog-'s Heal- 


EncyMopddie.^ He was cordially welcomed by tlie scholars of 
tlie West, Catholic and Evangelical, to a permanent seat of 
honor in the republic of Christian learning. He may be called 
the Tischendorf of the Greek Church. The University of 
Edinburgh, at its tercentennial festival in 1884, justly conferred 
on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

Bryennios is described as a tall, dignified, courteous Eastern 
prelate, in the prime of manhood, with a fine, intelligent and 
winning face, high forehead, black hair, long mustache and 
beard, dark and expressive eyes, great conversational power 
and personal magnetism. He was a prominent, though passive 
candidate for the vacant patriarchal chair, which, however, has 
been recently filled (1884) by a different man.f 


Puhlication of the Didache. 

Bryennios seems to have paid no particular attention to 
the Didache when he announced its title, and nothing more, 
among the contents of the Jerusalem Manuscript.:}; But after 
the close of the Russo-Turkish war, in 1878, he examined it 
more carefully, and at last published the Greek text, with 
learned notes and Prolegomena, written in Greek, at the close 
of 1883, at Constantinople. § 

* It is quite amusing to meet these names in Greek dress, as υ Έροίτίχιοζ, 
ό Νεανδβοζ, υ Γιόελέριυζ, ό Βικκέλλιοζ, ό'Έφελοζ, ΰ Ίλχεμφελδοζ, 
ό Ονλχόρνιοί {εν γ^ Real-Encycl. of Herzog), etc. 

f I learn from a friend in Constantinople (Feb. IG, 1885,) that " Bryennios 
is now in Nicomedia and not allowed to come to Constantinople," but that 
there is no truth in the newspaper rumor of a " rapprochement between 
the Greek and Roman Churches " under the new Patriarch. 

\ Nor could any other scholar infer its importance from the mere title. 
Bishop Lightfoot (in his Appendix to 8. Clement of Rome, 1877, p. 231) 
simply said : " What may be the value of \he Doctrina Apostolorum remains 
to be seen." 

§ The title, translated into English, reads : Teaching of the Twelve 
Apostles. From the Jerumlem Mamiscript nowfo7• the first time puUished 
with Prolegomena and Notes, by Philotheos Bryennios, Metropolitan of 


Great as was his service to Christian literature by the publi- 
cation of the Clementine Epistles, which were in part known 
before, that service was eclipsed by the publication of the 
Didache^ which had entirely disappeared, with the exception of 
a few references to it among the Greek fathers. 


A Literary Soisation. 

Seldom has a book created so great a sensation in the 
theological world". Tischendorf's discovery of the Codex Sina- 
iticus of the Greek Bible, in the Convent of St. Catherine, at 
the foot of Mount Sinai, in 1859, after three journeys through 
the wilderness, is far more important, and has besides all the 
charm of a heroic romance. But the interest felt in " the find " 
of Bryennios was perhaps even more extensi\-e, though less 
deep and lasting. The German divines fell upon the precious 
morsel with ravenous appetite. The first public notice of the 
Didache appeared in the " Allgemeine Zeitung " of Munich, Jan- 
uary 25, 1884 A few days afterwards, Dr. Adolf Harnack, 
Professor of Church History in the University of Giessen, who 
had received an advance coj)y directly from the editor in Con- 
stantinople, published a notice with a German translation of the 
greater part (from Chs. VII. -XVI.) of the document* This 
was only a forerunner of his able and learned book on the sub- 

Nicomedia. Constantinople, 1883." The book has no preface, but was 
finished in December of that year, and therefore would, according to Euro- 
pean fashion, bear the imprint of 1884. It contains 149 pages Prolegomena 
and 5.1 pages text with critical notes, to which are added indexes and corri- 
genda (p. 57-7o\ It is the only edition taken from the MS. itself, and the 
parent of all other editions. The MS. has since become almost inaccessible, 
but there is not the slightest ground for distrusting either the learning and 
ability, or the honesty of Bryennios ; on the contrary, they are evident on 
every page of his edition. 

* In the " Theologische Literaturzeitung" (of which he is the elitor), 
Leipzig, Feb. 3, 1884. It was from this article that the first notice was 
sent to America, by Dr. Caspar Rene Gregory, in a communication to the 
New York " Independent" for Feb. 28, 1884, containing an English trans- 
lation of the German version of Harnack. 


ject which appeared in June of the same year.* Dr. Hilgenfelrl, 
Professor in Jena, receiv^ed likewise a copy directly from Bry- 
ennios, January 13, 1884, f and forthwith published tlie Greek 
text with critical emendations. :{: Dr. Aug. Wunsche soon 
followed with an edition of the Greek text and German transla- 
tion and brief notes, in May, 1884. Independently of these 
publications. Dr. Theodor Zahn, Professor in Erlangen, and 
one of the first patristic scholars of the age, made the Oidaclie 
the subject of a thorough investigation in his " Supplementum 
Clementiniim" (278-319), which appeared in June or July, 
1884. § Bickell, of Innsbruck ; Funk, of Tubingen ; Kraw- 
utzcky, of Breslau, — three eminent Eoman Catholic scholars, 
— Holtzmann, of Strassburg ; Bonwetsch, of Dorpat, and many 
others, followed with reviews and discussions of special points 
in various German periodicals. 

In England the first notice of the Didaclie appeared in the 
'• Durham University Journal " for February, 1884, by Rev. 
A. Robertson, Principal of Hatfield Hall, Durham. Professor 
John Wordsworth, of Oxford, Archdeacon Farrar, of London, 
Professor A. Plummer, of Durham, and a number of other Epis- 
copalians, appeared on the field with editions, translations and 
critical discussions in the "Guardian," the "Contemporary 
Review," the " Church Quarterly Review," etc. Prof. Hatch, 
of Oxford, delivered an interesting lecture on the subject (not 
yet published) in the Jerusalem Chamber, London. Bishop 
Lightfoot discussed the document briefly in the Church Con- 
gress at Carlisle (Sept., 1884). Rev. Mr. De Romestin (1884) 
and Canon Spence (1885) published the Greek text with an 
English vei'sion, notes and discussions. 

* Die Lehre der Zwolf Apostel nebst Untersuchungen zur altesten 
GescMclde der Kirchenverfassung tind des Kirchenreclits. With an Appen- 
dix by Oscar von Gebhardt, Leipzig, 1884. Text and translation with notes, 
70 pages. Prolegomena, 294 pages. 

f So he informs us in his "Zeitschrift f ur wissensehaf tl. Theologie," 1885, 
No. I, p. 73. 

X In the second ed. of his Novum Testam. extra Canonem receptum. Lips., 
1884. Fasc. IV., 94^103. 

g Comp. also his critical notice of Harnack's book in the 'Theol. Litera- 
turblatt," Leipzig, for June 27 and July 11, 1884. 


More extensive even tlian in any country of Europe was the 
interest witli wliicli the Didache Λvas received in the United 
States. As soon as the first copies reached the AVestern hem- 
isphere, the book Avas reprinted, translated and commented 
tipon by theological pi-ofessors and editors of religious news- 
papers of all denominations and sects. The first American 
edition, with the Grreek text and notes, was prepared by Prof. 
Eoswell D. Hitchcock, D.D., and Prof. Francis Brown, D.D., of 
Union Theological Seminary, New York, as early as March, 
1884. Almost simultaneously appeared a translation by the Rev. 
C. C. Starbuck, with an introductory notice by Prof. Egbert 
C. Smyth, D.D., in the •' Andover Review " for April, 1884. 
Since that time at least half a dozen other translations with or 
without the original were published ; while a list of discussions 
and notices in the periodical press would fill several pages. 

The document has also excited more or less attention in 
France, Holland, Switzerland, and the Scandinavian coun- 


Various Estimates. 

The cause of this unusual attention to an anonymous book 
of less than ten small octavo pages, is obvious. The post- 
Apostolic age from the destruction of Jerusalem (a.d. 70) to the 
middle of the second century is the darkest, that is, the least 
known, in Church history. The newly discovered document 
promised a long-desired answer to many historical questions. 

In Germany and on the Continent generally, where theology 
has a predominantly scientific and speculative character, the 
Didache was discussed with exhaustive learning and acumen 
as a contribution to liistorical information, with regard to its 
authorship, the time and place of composition, its precise text, 
its relation to cognate documents, as the Epistle of Barnabas, 
the Pastor Hermie, the Judicium Petri, the Ecclesiastical 
Canons, and the Ajjostolical Constitutions. 

In England, and especially in America, where theology is 


more practical and more closely connected with Church life 
than in Germany, the Didache was welcomed in its bearing 
upon controverted points of doctrine, ritual and polity, and 
utilized for sectarian purposes. 

Paedobaptists found in it a welcome argument for pouring or 
sprinkling, as a legitimate mode of baptism ; Baptists pointed 
triumphantly to the requirement of immersion in living water 
as the rule, and to the absence of any allusion to infant bap- 
tism ; while the tlireefold repetition of immersion and the re- 
quirement of previous fasting suited neither party. Episco- 
palians were pleased to find Bishops and Deacons (though no 
Deaconesses), but non-Episcopalians pointed to the implied 
identit}' of Bishops and Presbyters; while the travelling 
Apostles and Prophets puzzled the advocates of all forms of 
Church government. The friends of liturgical worship derived 
aid and comfort from the eucharistic prayers and the prescrip- 
tion to recite the Lord's Prayer three times a day ; but free 
prayer is likewise sanctioned, and " the Prophets " are per- 
mitted to pray as long as they please after the eucharistic sac- 
rifice with which the Agape was connected. Eoman Catholic 
divines found traces of purgatory, and the daily sacrifice of the 
mass, but not a word about the Pope and an exclusive priest- 
hood, or the worship of Saints and the Virgin, or any of the 
other distinctive features of the Papal system ; while another 
Eoman Catholic critic depreciates the Didache as a product of 
the Ebionite sect. Unitarians and Rationalists were pleased 
with the meagreness of the doctrinal teaching and the absence of 
the dogmas of the Trinity, Incarnation, depravity, atonement, 
etc.; but they overlooked the baptismal formula and the euchar- 
istic prayers, and the fact that the roots of the Apostles' Creed 
are at least as old as the Didache^ as is proven by the various 
ante-Nicene rules of faith. Millennarians and anti-Millen- 
narians have alike appealed to the Didache with about equal 

"We must look at the Didache^ as on any other historical 
document, impartially and without any regard to sectarian 
issues. It is, in fact, neither Catholic nor Protestant, neither 
Episcopalian nor anti-Episcopalian, neither Baptist nor Paedo- 


Baptist, neither Sacerdotal nor anti-Sacerdotal, neither Litur- 
gical nor anti-Liturgical ; yet it is both in part or in turn. It 
does not fit into any creed or ritual or Church polity or Church 
party of the present day ; yet it presents one or more points of 
resemblance to Greek, Latin, and Protestant views and usages. 
It belongs, like the writings of the Apostolic Fathers, to a state 
of transition from divine inspiration to human teaching, from 
Apostolic freedom to churchly consolidation. This is just 
what we must expect, if history is a living process of growth. 
The Didaclie furnishes another proof of the infinite superiority 
of the New Testament over ecclesiastical literature. Interest- 
ing and important as it is, it dwindles into insignificance 
before the Sermon on the Mount, or the Gospel of John, or the 
Epistle to the Galatians, or even the Epistle of James, which 
it more nearly resembles. 

The Didache claims no Apostolic authority ; it is simply the 
summary of what the unlcnown author learned either from per- 
sonal instruction or oral tradition to be the teaching of the 
Apostles, and what he honestly believed himself. It is ano.ny- 
mous, but not pseudonymous ; post- Apostolic, but not pseudo- 
Apostolic. Its value is historical, and historical only. It fur- 
nishes us important information about the catechetical instruc- 
tion and usages in the age and in the country where it was 
written, but not beyond. It takes its place among the genu- 
ine documents of the Apostolic Fathers so-called — Clement of 
Eome, Polycarp, Ignatius, Barnabas, Hernias. These writings 
fill the gap between the Apostles and the Church Fathers, 
from tlie close of the first to the middle of the second century ; 
just as the Apocrypha of ihe Old Testament fill the gap 
between Malachi and John the Baptist. 


The Title. 

The title of the Didache is borrowed from Acts, ii. 42, where 
it is said of the primitive disciples that " thej^ continued stead- 


fasti Υ in the Apostles' teaching * and fellowsliip, in the breaking of 
bread and the prayers." It is to be understood in the same sense 
as in " the Apostles' Creed," of the contents, not of the form. 
The author does not claim to be an Apostle, but simply gives 
what be regards as a faithful summary of their teaching. The 
work is apocryphal, but no literary fraud. It ditfers in this re- 
spect very favorably from similar productions where the Apos- 
tles are introduced by name as speakers and made responsible for 
doctrines, canons and regulations, of which they never dreamed. 

The manuscript of the Didaclie has two titles : " Teaching 
OF THE TwELA^E AposTLES," f and a longer one, '' Teaching 
OF THE Lord through the Twelve Apostles to the Gen- 
tiles," X The latter indicates the inspiring author as well as 
the inspired organs, and the persons to be taught. " The Gen- 
tiles" are the nations generally to whom the gospel is to be 
preached, Matt, xxviii. 19, and more particularly the heathen 
in course of preparation for baptism and church membership, 
or catechumens of Gentile descent, as distinct from Jewish 
candidates for baptism. § 

Strictly speaking, however, the addition " to the Gentiles " 

* rJ7 διδαχγ} των ατΐοΰτόλων. The Ε. V. renders διδιχχ}} by doctrine, 
the E. R. by teaching. 

f Αιδαχι) των δώδεκα \ΐιΐοότόλων. This corresponds to the titles as 
given by Eusebius, Athanasius, Nicephorus, Rufinus, and Pseudo-Cyprian, 
except that they omit "twelve,' and that Eusebius and Pscudo-Cj'prian use 
the plural διδαχαί, doctrinm, for the singular. The short title is probably 
an abridgement by the copyist. The Germans call it the Zwi/lfapostellehre. 

X διδαχή Κνρίον δια των δώδεκα Ατταότόλων τοίζ ε3νεΰιν. Zahn 
appropriately compares with this title 3 Peter, iii 2 : 7 των ατΐοΰτόλων 
ύιιών ίντϋλ?) τον κορίον ηαΐ ΰοοτηροζ. 

§ So Bryennios, in his note. p. 3, τοΊζ εξ ίΒνών ττροΰιυνΰζ και βονλοιιέ- 
νοιζ κατ?/χεΐΰ3αι τΰν τηζ ενόεβείαζ λόχον εϊζ την τούτων γαρ 
καττΊχηΰτνκαί διδαΰκαλϊαν φέρεβΒαί μοι δοκεΐ ττρώτιότα δ}} και μά- 
λΐότα τα πρώτα ττ/ζ /Ιιδ, κεφαλαία. Harnack (ρ. 27 sq.) objects to this 
natural interpretation as fatal to the integrity of the Did., and under- 
stands ε'^νη to mean " Gentile Christians," as Rom. xi 13 ; Gal. ii. 12, 14 ; 
Eph. iii. 1, since the Did. is intended for Christians. True ; but for Chris- 
tians in instructing Catechumens, to wliom the doctrinal part, Ch. I.-VI., 
applies, before baptism is mentioned (Ch. VII). Athanasius says expressly 
that the Did. was used in the instruction of catechumens (τοΐζ άρτι. προόερ- 
χομένοις και βονλομένοιζ κατηχείσαι τον τηζ ενόεβείαζ λύχυν. Ερ. 
Fcst. 39). 


applies only to the first six chapters, or tlie Didache proper ; 
while the remainder is intended for church members, or the 
congregations which administer the sacraments, elect ministers 
and exercise discipline. The division is clearly marked by the 
words with which the seventh chapter begins: "Having said 
all these things, baptize," that is, after all this preliminary 
instruction to the catechumens baptize them into the name of 
the Holy Trinity. Hence also the address : " My child," is 
only found in the first six chapters, namely, five times in Ch. 
TIL, once in Ch. IV., and "children" in Ch. V.* 


Aim and Contents of the Didache. 

The Didache is a Church Manual or brief Directory of Apos- 
tolic teaching, worship and discipline, as understood by the 
author and taught and practised in the region where he lived. 

It is intended for teachers and congregations. It serves its 
purpose admirably : it is theoretical and practical, short and 
comprehensive, and conveniently arranged in four parts. 

The Didache is the oldest Manual of that kind. It was 
afterwards expanded in various modifications, and ultimately 
displaced by fuller manuals, especially by the pseudo-Clement- 
ine Constitutions, which correspond to a later develojDment in 
doctrine and discipline, f 

The work is very complete for its size, and covers the whple 
field of Christian life. It easily falls into four parts : 

L The doctrinal and catechetical part, setting forth the 
whole duty of the Christian. Chs. I. -VI. 

* The same view is taken by Zahn (in his Supplem. Clem. , p. 28G), and by 
Massebieau {L'enseignement des douze apotres, p. 6), who says that the first 
part of the Oid. (I. -VI.) is intended '■^aux pcnens disposes a se convertir," 
the second "atixfideles." 

\ On the relation of the Did. to later documents, see below, Ch. XXX., 
and especially the learned discussions of Harnack, Proleg., pp. 170-268, and 
Holtzmann, Die Didache und ihre Nebenformen, in the '' JaJirbucher fur 
Protest Theologie," Leipzig, 1885, pp. 154-167. 


II. The liturgical and devotional part, giving directions for 
Christian worship. Chs. VII.-X. and Ch. XIV. 

III. The ecclesiastical and disciplinary part, concerning 
Church officers. Chs. ΧΙ.-ΧΙΠ. and XV. 

IV. The eschatological part, or the Christian's hope. Ch. 


The Doctrinal or Catechetical Part^ Chs. L- VL 

The Doctrinal and Moral part is a summary of practical 
religion as a guide of Christian conduct in the parabolic form 
of Two Ways, the Way of Life and the Way of Death. It 
corresponds to our Catechisms. 

The first division, Chs. I.-IV., teaches the Way of Life, ivhich 
consists in keeping the royal commandments of love to God and 
love to our neighbor. The second division, Chs. V.-VL, shows 
the Way of Death, or the way of sin. The lessons are given 
as exhortations to the learner, who is addressed as " my child." 

The Didache begins thus : 

" There are two Ways, one of Life and one of Death, but there is a great 
difference between the two Ways. The Way of Life then is this: First, thou 
shalt love God who made thee; secondly, thy neighbor as thyself; and what- 
soever thou dost not wish to be done to thee, do not thou to another." 

Then the Way of Life is set forth in brief sentences posi- 
tively and negatively, with warnings against murder, adultery, 
theft, etc., according to the second part of the Decalogue 
(Chs. I-IV.). The Waly of Death is described by a list of sins 

* Harnack, pp. 37-63, gives a much more minute analysis, but it is arti- 
ficial and deserves in part the adverse criticism of Hilgenfeld and Holtz- 
mann, although Harnack is right against Hilgenfeld in maintaining the unity 
and integrity of the Didache. He assumes three parts with many subdi- 
visions: I. The Commandments of Christian Morals, which constitute the 
Christian character of the churches. Chs. I.-X. II. Directions concerning 
congregational life and intercourse. Ch. XI. -XV. III. Concluding exliorta- 
tion to watchfulness. (Jh. XVI. Η. de Romestin makes only two parts: 
1. Rules of Christian morality, and the duties of individuals (I. -VI.); II. Du- 
ties of Christians as members of the Church (VII.-XVI.). 


and sinners (Cli. V.). Then follow warnings against false 
teachers, and the eating of meat offered to idols (Ch. VL). 

The first part of the Didache is an echo of the Sermon on the 
Mount, as reported in Matthew, Chs. V. -Λ'ΙΙ., with some 
peculiar features derived from oral tradition ; but the reminis- 
cences from Matthew are far superior to the new matter. 


The Two Ways. 

The popular figiire of the Two ΛVays was suggested by 
Jeremiah, xxi. 8 : " Thus saith the Lord : Behold, I set before 
you the way of life, and the way of death ; " by Moses, Deut. 
XXX. 15 : "I have set before thee this day life and good, and 
death and evil : " and by the passage in the Sermon on the 
Mount which speaks of " the broad way that leadeth to de 
struction," and the " narrow way that leadeth unto life" (Matt. 
vii. 13, 14). Somewhat similar is also the saying of Elijah : 
"How long halt ye between two opinions? If Jehovah be 
God, follow him, but if Baal, then follow him " (1 Kings, xviii. 


Peter used this mode of teaching ; for he speaks of " the 
way of truth," " the right way," " the way of righteousness," 
and contrasts it with " the way of Balaam." * 

Here is, perhaps, the origin of the connection of the name 
of this Apostle with a lost apocryphal book mentioned by 
Rufinus f and Jerome X under the double title, " The Two 
Ways " {Duce Vice), and " The Judgment of Peter " {Judicium 
Petri). This mysterious book has been identified by some 
with the " Apostolical Church Order," because Peter has there 
the last word among the speakers. § But it is, probably, 

* δδόζ ττ/ζ άλη^είαζ, εν^εΊα 68υζ, όδόζ τον Βιχλαάι,ι (3 Pet. ϋ. 2, 
15, 21). 

f Expos, in Suml•. Apost., Ch XXXVIII. 

XDeVirisill., Ch. I. 

§ So Hilgenfeld (in the first ed. of his JVoi'. Test, extra cayionem receptum, 
1866, and in the second ed., 1884, Fase. IV., p. 110). An anonymous 


identical witli tlie Didache^ that is, witli its first part, wLicli 
may appropriately be entitled, " The Two AYays." The name 
of Peter, however, does not occur in it, nor that of any other 
Apostle; and in the "Apostolical Church Order," which is 
an apocryphal expansion of the Didache, the sentence of the 
Two Ways is attributed to St. John. For in the estimate of 
the Eastern Church, where both originated, John had the char- 
isma of teaching, Peter the charisma of governing ; the former 
was the theologian, the latter the churchman, or ecclesiastic, 
among the Apostles. The hypothesis of . the authorship of 
Peter is connected with the Western conception of his pri- 
macy, and occurs only in Latin writers. 

The same teaching of the Two AVays we find with slight 
modifications in several post-Apostolic productions still ex- 

The Epistle of Barnabas contrasts " the Way of Lirjld^'' and 
" the Way of Darkness^'' the first under the control of the 
ano^els of God, the second under the control of the ano-els of 
Satan. He calls them ways of " teaching and authority," and 
thus seems to claim Apostolic origin for this method of instruc- 
tion.* He describes the Way of Light as the wa}^ of love to 
God and man, and the Way of Darkness as " crooked and full of 
cursing," as "the way of eternal death with punishment in which 
are the things that destroy the soul, namely, idolatry, arrogance, 
hypocrisy, adulter}^, murder, magic, avarice," etc. The con- 
cluding part of Barnabas (Chs. ΧΛ^ΙΙΙ-ΧΧ.) furnishes a strik- 
ing parallel to the first part of the Didache, so that either the 
one must be the source of the other, or both are derived from 
a common source. On this question able critics are divided, f 

writer in the "Christian Remembrancer" for 1854, p. 293 sq., had pre- 
viously made the same conjecture, but had also suggested the possible iden- 
tity of the document with the old Didache known to Eusebius and Atha- 
nasius. See also Bickell, Gesch. dcs Kirchenrcclits (1843), I. 65 and 96. 

* Ch. XVIII. : όδοΙ δύο είόΐν δ ι δ a χτ/ ζ καΐ ε ξ ο ν ό ι'α ?, ή τε του 
φωτόζ ηαί η του όκότουζ. 

f (1) The priority of Barnabas is advocated by Bryennios (who, in the 11th 
Chapter of his Prolegomena, prints the parallel sections, marking the differ- 
ence by distinct type), Hilgenfeld, Ilarnack, Krawutzcky. (2) For the pri- 
ority of the Didache are Zahn, Funk, Farrar, Potwin. (3) For an older 
source of both : Holtzmann, Lightfoot, Massebieau. 



But the brevity, simplicity and terseness of the Oidache seem 
to me to decide clearly in favor both of its priority and superi- 
ority. It is less figurative, more biblical, and more closely 
conformed to the Sermon on the Mount. The last chapters of 
Barnabas are an ill-arranged and confused expansion of the 

* Hero are the passages on the Two Ways in parallel columns ; the identi- 
cal words being printed in small capitals: 

DiDACHE, Ch. I. 

Epistle of Barnabas, Chs. xviii., xis. 

•' There are two ways, one of life 
and one of death ; and there is a 

WAYS. {'05ol δυο ε ιό I, μία τηί 
ζωηζ και Ilia τον θάνατον δια- 
φορά δέ Λολλι) μρ.Γαξν των δύο 
ideky. Barn, omits μετάξι .) 

Now THE WAY of life is this :— First, 
Thou shalt love God who made 
THEE {άχαπήβειζ τον ^εόν τον 
■ποη']<5αντά 6ε) — 

' ' But let us now pass to another 
kind of knowledge and teaching. 
There are two ways of teaching and 
of authority, the one of light and 
the other of darkness; and there 

IS A, GREAT difference OF THE TWO 

ways. For over the one have been 
appointed light-bringing angels of 
God, and over the other angels of 
Satan ; and the One is Lord for ever 
and ever, and the other is prince of the 
present season of lawlessness. * * * 
Ch. xix. — Now THK way of light is 
THIS : If any one wishes to travel to 
tlie appointed place he must be zeal- 
ous in his works. The knowledge, 
then, which is given to us for 
walking in this way, is this: Thou 


{άγατΐήΰειζ τϋν 6ε ποιήόαντα)•, 
thou shalt fear Him who formed thee; 
thou shalt glorify Him who redeemed 
thee from death. Thou shalt be sim- 
ple in heart and rich in spirit. 
Thou shalt not join thyself to those 
who walk in the way op death. 

secondly, thy neighbor as thyself 
(τον πλ?/ΰιΌν όον ώζ 6εαντόν)•, and 
all things whatsoever thou wouldest 
not have done to thee, do not thou 
to another." 

Thou shalt love thy neighbor aboA^e 
thine own soul, {άχαττήΰειζ τϋν 
πληΰίον 6ov ντΐέρ την -φνχην 
6ον.)" The MS. in the Cod. Sin. 
corrects it into ώ εαυτόν. 


The Sheplierd of Hernias, with another variation, spealvs of 
a " straigltt Way " and a " crooked Way." * 

In the so-called " Apostolical Church Order," or '* Ecclesiasti- 
cal Canons of the Holy Apostles," which exist in Greek, Cop- 
tic and Syriac and probably date from the third century, if not 
from the close of the second, f St. John, as already remarked, 
introduces the Apostolic instructions with the distinction of 
the Two Ways in the very words of the Didache.j^ 

The " Apostolical Constitutions " from the fourth century re- 
peat the same teaching in a still more expanded form and in- 
terwoven Vv'ith many Scripture passages. 

The general distinction of Two Ways for two modes of 
life with opposite issues is not confined to biblical and 
ecclesiastical literature. The Talmud speaks of Two Ways, 
the one leading to Paradise, the other to Gehenna. The 
familiar myth of Hercules told by Prodicus in Xenophon's 

*Theop3?; ό(5ο? and the ΰτρεβλή ΰδύζ. Mandat. vi. 1 and 2 (in 
Funk's ed., I. 406). Hermas assigns two angels to man, an angel of right- 
eousness and an angel of wickedness {δυο είΰίν άγγελοι μετά τον άν- 
^ρώτΐου, ει'ζ τηζ δικαιοόννηζ, yiai ειζ ττ/ζ ττονηρίαΐ); and he warns the 
reader to follow the former and to renounce the latter. Punk quotes a par- 
allel passage from the "Testaments of the XII Patriarchs," iv. 20, which 
speaks of two spirits in man, the τίνενμα τηζ άλη^είαί and the πνεν/ια 
τήζ τΐλάνηζ. See also Bryennios, Prolog. 

f First published in Greek by Bickell, 1843, and also by Hilgenfeld (Z. c. 
111-121), Harnaek (in his book on the Didache, pp. 205-237), and others. 

X Didache, Ch. \[. Ap. Church Oeder, Ch. I. 

" There are two Ways, one of "John said; 
Life AND oxE OF Death ; but there "There are two Ways, one of 
IS A great difference between Life and one op Death ; but there 
the two Ways. Now tiik Way of is a great difference between the 
Life is this: First, Thou shalt Two Ways. Now the Way of Life 
love God who MADE thee; second- is this: first. Thou shalt love 
ly, thy neighbor as thyself." God who made thee, from thy whole 

heart, and thou shalt glorify him 
who redeemed thee from death, which 
is the first commandment. Second- 
ly, thou shalt love thy neighbor as 
THYSELF, which is the second com- 
mandment, on which hang the 
whole law and the prophets." (Matt. 
xsii. 40.) 


Mevnorahilia represents tlie hero in liis youth as standing be- 
tween tlie Way of pleasure and disgrace and tlie arduous Way 
of virtue and glory. 

But there is a great difference between the heathen and the 
Christian conception of the Two Ways, as there is between 
the Ways themselves. Love of glory was the motiΛ'e power 
of heathen virtue ; love to God and man is the soul of Chris- 
tian life, which derives its inspiration from the redeeming love 
of Christ. 


The Tlieclogy of the DidacJie. 

The prominent features of the catechetical part of the Didache 
are its j)revailing moral tone, and the absence of the specific 
dogmas of the Church which were afterwards developed in the 
theological controversies with Ebionism, Gnosticism and other 
heresies. For every true dogma is the result of a conflict, and 
marks a victory of truth over error, 

Christianity appears in the Didache as a pure and holy life 
based upon the teaching and example of Christ and on the 
Decalogue as exjDlained by him in the Sermon on the Mount, 
and summed uj? in the royal law of love to God and man. 
The Didache agrees in this respect with the Epistle of James, 
the Epistle of Polycarp, and the writings of Justin Martyr 
(who, however, already branched out into philosophical specu- 
lation). The younger Pliny describes the Christians in Bithyn- 
ia as scrupulously moral and conscientious Avorshippers of 
Christ. It was by the practical proof of virtue and piet}^ more 
than by doctrines that the Christian religion conquered the 
heathen world. And to this day a living Christian is the best 
apology of Christianity. 

Compared with the New Testament, the Didache is very poor 
and meagre. It echoes only the Synoptical Gospels, and even 
them only in part ; it ignores, with the exception- perhaps of a 
few faint allusions, the rich Johannean and Pauline teaching. 
It is behind the doctrinal contents of some other post- Apostolic 


writings. It has neitlier " the pastoral jiathos of Clement of 
Rome, nor the mystic fire of Ignatius, nor the pietistic breath 
of Hermas." Not even the doctrine of one God is laid down 
as the foundation, nor is the commandment of the love of God 
expanded. * 

But we must not infer too much from these omissions. 
Silence here implies no opposition, not even ignorance. We 
cannot suppose for a moment that the writer depreciated the 
commandments of the first table, because they are not men- 
tioned in detail. In such a brief tract, not larger than the 
Epistle to the Galatians, many things had to be taken for 
granted. It is only one among other means of instruction 
and edification. The Didache expressly and repeatedly refers 
to the "Gospel " as the source and rule of Cbristian life (Chs. 
VIII. 2 ; XI. 3 ; XV. 3, 4). The baptismal formula implies 
the germ of the dogma of the Holy Trinity, and the eucharistic 
thanksgivings the germ of the doctrine of tlie atonement. We 
should also remember that the more mysterious parts of the 
Christian system were from fear of profanation concealed from 
the Catechumens by the Secret Discipline of the ancient 
Church ; but some confession of faith, similar to the Apostles' 
Creed, was early required from the candidates for Baptism, and, 
hence the chief facts of revelation therein contained must have 
been made known in the preceding catechetical instruction. 
The rules of faith which we find in the writings of Irenisus, 
Tertullian, Cy23rian, Novatian, Origen, and other ante-Nicene 
writers, date in substance from the post- Apostolic, if not from 
the Apostolic age.f 

A Roman Catholic critic unjustly charges the Didache with 
Ebionism, and puts its composition down to the close of the 
second century. :|: In this case it would lose all its value as a 

* See Zahn, Supplementum Clementinum, pp. 288 sq. 

f They are collected in Schaff's Creeds of Christendom, II. 11-44. 

X Dr. KrawTitzcky, of Breslau : Ueher die sog. Zwolfapostellehre, ihre 
hmtptsacMichsten Quellen und Hire erste Aufnahme, in the " Theologische 
Quartalschrift " of the Roman Catholic Faculty of Tubingen, 1884, No. IV. 
pp. 547-606. He says, p. 585 : ''Die angegebenen Einzelheiten, wozu noch 
der u'ahrscheinliche Gebrauch des Eiangeliums der Nazardar und Ebioniten 
und Nichtgebrauch der paulinischen und Johanneischen Schriften kommt, 


link in the regular cliain of post- Apostolic Christianitj. But 
tke Didache shows no trace of the chief characteristics of tliis 
Judaizing heresy : the necessity of circumcision for salvation, 
the perpetual obligation of the whole ritual as well as moral 
law of Moses, the denial of the divinity of Christ, the intense 
hostility to Paul as an apostate and heretic, the restoration of 
the Jews, the millennial reign of Christ in Jerusalem. It has 
no affinity with the legalistic or Pharisaical Ebionism whose 
forerunners Paul opposes in his Epistle to the Galatians, nor 
with the theosophic or Essenic Ebionism, the germs of which 
Paul refutes in the second chapter of Colossians, and least of 
all with the wild speculations of the jiseudo- Clementine Homilies, 
which date from the middle or end of the second century. The 
DidacJie calls the Pharisees " hypocrites " and opposes their 
days of fasting ; it recognizes the Lord's Day instead of the 
Jewish Sabbath, and completely ignores circumcision and the 
ceremonial law. 

Let us gather up the theological 23oints exjoressed or implied 
in this little book. 

God is the Creator (L 2), the Almighty Euler who made all 

fuhren zu dem. Ergehniss, dass der Verfasser der Zwolfapostellehre wahr- 
scheinlich einer ehionitisierenden Bichtung huldigte and somit an dem Auf- 
schwunge, welchen die Sekte de)- Ehioniten gegc7i das Jahr 200 nahm, wohl 
nicht unbeiJieiligt ivar." He remarks in a note that the Clementine Hom- 
ilies appeared about the same time ; while the vulgar Ebionism was a little 
later represented by Symmaehus, the translator of the Hebrew Scriptures. 
He also refers to Blastus and Theodotus in Rome about 192, and ventures on 
the conjecture that Theodotus of Byzantium (Euseb. V. 19 sq.), was probably 
the author of the Didache. He derives the quotations from an apocryphal 
Gospel, instead of Matthew, but without proof. He even finds in it a direct 
opposition to the doctrine of the atonement, and to the sacrifice of the New 
Covenant. He construes the second ordinances of the Apostles spoken of in 
the second Irenasus-Fragment (ed. of Stieren I. 854) into an appointment of 
ihenew sacrifice (v έ a ν τίροΰφορην εν rtj uatvy δια'ίήκι^) made against 
the Ebionites under the fresh impression of the fall of the temple with its 
.Jewish sacrifices, and infers from the omission of this reference to the new 
covenant in the DidacJie, Ch. XIV., that it was written in opposition to 
that apostolic ordinance. But this is certainly very far fetched, and set 
aside by the fact that the Didache quotes the same passage as Irenteus 
from Malachi in proof of the continuance of the sacrifice. Hence another 
Roman Catholic scholar (Dr. Bickell, of Innsbruck) finds here the germ of 
the sacrifice of the mass. But he is equally mistaken. 


things (X. 3), He is our Father in heaven (Λ^ΙΙΙ. 2). No event 
can happen Λvithout him (III. 10). He is the Giver of all good 
gifts, temporal and spiritual, the author of our salvation, the 
object of prayer and praise (IX. and X.). To him belongs all 
glory forever, through Jesus Christ (VIII. 2 ; IX. 4 ; X. 4). 

Christ is the Lord and Saviour (X. 2, 3), God's servant and 
God's Son (IX. 2) and David's God (X.. 6), the author of the 
Gospel (VIII. 2 ; XV. 4). He is spiritually present in his ' 
Church, and will visibly come again to judgment (XVI. 1, 7, 8). 
Through him knowledge and eternal life have been made known 
to us (IX. 3 ; X. 2). 

The Holy Spirit is associated with the Father and the Son 
(VII. 1, 3). He prepares man for the call of God (IV. 10). 
He speaks through the Prophets, and the sin against the Spirit % 
shall not be forgiven (XI. 7). 

The Holy Trinity is implied in the baptismal formula, the "^ > 
strongest direct proof-text for this central doctrine (VII. 1, 3). 

The Church is God's instrument in bringing on the King- \ 
dom of Heaven which he prepared for her ; he will deliver her i 
from all evil and perfect her in his love (IX. 4 ; X. 5). All 
true Christians are one, though scattered over the world, and 
God, the head of the Church, will gather them all from the 
four winds into his Kingdom (X. 5). 

Baptism and the Eucharist are sacred ordinances instituted 
by Christ, and to be perpetually observed VII. 1-4; IX., X., \ 
XIV.). The Lord's Day shall be kept holy as a day of wor- 
ship and thanksgiving (XIV. 1). The Lord's Prayer should j 
be repeated daily (VIIL 2), and Wednesday and Friday be 
given to fasting (VIII. 1). Eeverence and gratitude are due 
to the ministers of Christ (XL 1, 4 ; XIL 1 ; XIIL 1, 2). 

There is to be at the end of time a resurrection of the dead ( 
and a general judgment (XVI.). 

Man is made in the image of God (V. 2), but sinful, and | 
needs forgiveness (VIIL 2) ; he must confess his transgres- 
sions to receive pardon (IV. 14 ; XIV. 1, 2). 

Man's whole duty is to love God and his neighbor, and to 
show this practically by abstaining from all sins of thought, 
word and deed, and bv observing all the commandments (Ch. 


1. 6), according to the Gospel (XL 3), neither adding nor taking 
away (IV. 13). This is the Way of Life, but the way of sin 
is the AVay of Death. There is no third way, no compromise 
between good and evil, between life and death. 

It would be difficult to find more theology in the Epistle of 
James, which has nearly the same size. If this teaching be 
Ebionism, then Ebionism is no heresy. But the Didache and 
the Epistle of James antedate the Ebionitic heresy properly 
so called, which was a stunted and impoverished Christianity 
in opposition to Catholic and orthodox Chrisxianity. They 
represent the early Jewish-Christian type of teaching, before 
the universalism and liberalism of the great Apostle of the 
Gentiles had penetrated the Church. They teach a plain, com- 
mon-sense Christianity, not dogmatical, but ethical, not very 
profound, but eminently practical, and even now best suited to 
the taste of many sincere and devout Christians. We cannot 
disregard it as long as the Epistle of James keeps its place in 
the canon of the New Testament. 


The Ritualistic or Liturgical Part. 

The Second Part of the Didache is a Directory of Public 
Worship, Chs. VII. -X. and XIV. It corresponds to our Hymn 
Books and Prayer Books. It treats first of the administration 
of Baptism, which is to follow the catechetical instruction and 
conversion of the Catechumen (Ch. VII.) ; then of Prayer and 
Fasting (Ch. VIIL), and last of the celebration of the Agape 
and Eucharist (Chs, IX., X. and XIV.). 

We have here an important addition to our knowledge of 
ancient worship. The New Testament gives us neither a lit- 
urgy nor a ritual, but only the Lord's Prayer, the baptismal 
formula, and the words of institution of the holy communion. 
The liturgies which bear the names of St. Clement, St Mark, 
and St. James, cannot be traced beyond the Nicene age, though 
they embody a common liturgical tradition which is much 


older, and explains tlieir affinity in essentials.* The full text 
of the first Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, as published 
by Bryennios from tlie Jerusalem MS. in 1875, made us ac- 
quainted with the oldest post- Apostolic prayer, which was 
probably used in the Eoman congregation towards the close of 
the first century.f But the Bldache contains three eucharistic 
prayers besides the Lord's Prayer. 


The Lords Day and the Christian Week. 

As to sacred seasons, the Didache bears witness to the cele- 
bration of the first day of the week, and gives it (after the 
Apocalypse) the significant name of the Lord's Bay, or rather 
(with a unique pleonastic addition), " the Lord's Bay of the j 

On that day the congregations are directed to assemble, to 
break bread, to confess their sins, to give thanks, and to cele- 
brate the sacrifice of the Eucliarist. But before these acts of 
worshij) every dispute between the brethren sliould be settled, 
that their sacrifice may not be defiled (comp. Matt. v. 23, 24). 
This is the pure sacrifice wliicli shall be offered in every place 
and time, as the Lord has spoken through the prophet (Mai. 
i. 11, 14). 

No reading of Scripture is mentioned, but not excluded, ι 
The use of the Old Testament may be taken for granted ; the 
New Testament canon was not yet completed. Justin Martyr, 
writing about the middle of ihe_second century, adds to the ^ 
prayers and tlie Eucbarist the reading of the Memoirs of the j 
Apostles {i e., the Canonical Gospels) and the Prophets, and a ( 
verbal instruction and exhortation by the " president " of the ^ 

* See Church History, III. 517 sqq. 

t Chs. LTX.-LXI. See Church History, II. 228 sq. 

X Ch. XIV. 1: Κυριακή Kvpiov. The earliest use of κνριακή&?, a noun. 
St. John first used it as an adjective, κνμιακή ημέρα, Dominica dies. Rev. 
i. 10. 

28 THE lord's day and the christian week. 

congregation, as regular exercises of Christian worship on 
Sunday. * 

The celebration of the first day of the week is based upon 
the fact of the resurrection of Christ, as the completion of the 
new creation and redemption, and is sanctioned by Apostolic 
23ractice.f Its general observance during the second century 
is established beyond a doubt by the concurrent testimonies of 
Pliny ("stoto die "), Barnabas ("the eighth day," in distinction 
from the Jewish Sabbath), Ignatius ("the Lord's Day"), Jus- 
tin Martyr, Melito, IrenaBus, and Tertullian. X 

Next to the first day of the week, the Didache gives a subor- 
dinate prominence to the fourth day (Wednesday), and the 
Preparation day (Friday), as days of fasting, in distinction 

I from the second and fifth days which the Pharisees observed 

' as fasts (Ch. VIII.). 

Here, too, the testimony of the Didache foreshadows the cus- 

' torn of the second century, to observe ΛVednesday as the Day 

S of the Betrayal, and Friday as the Day of the Crucifixion, by 
special prayer and half -fasting {semijejunia). 

The Christian week Λvas determined by the passion and res- 
urrection of the Lord, as the two great eΛ'ents through which 
the salvation of the world was accomplished. They are to be 

I commemorated from week to week, the Lord's Day by rejoic- 
ing and thanksgiving for the victory OΛ'er sin, Wednesday and 
Friday by exercises of repentance. This was the idea and 
practice of the ante-Nicene Church. 

Beyond these simple elements of the Christian week the Di- 
dache does not go. It shows no trace of annual church 
festivals, not even of Easter, although this certainly was abeady 

I observed as the Christian Passo\-er, in the days of Poly- 
carp of Smyrna (d. 155), who had a controversy with Anicetus 
of Rome on the time and manner (not on the fact) of its obser- 

I vance. § This silence is one of the many indications of the 

' antiquity of our document, 

*Apol. I. c. LXVIL 
f Acts, XX. 7; 1 Cor. xvi. 2 ; Rev. i. 10. 
X See the details in Church History, II. 301 sqq. 

girenaeus in Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. V.24. See Church History, II. 213 



Prayer and Fasting. 

The Didache prescribes tlie recital of the Lord's Prayer 
tliree times a day, in imitation, no doubt, of the Jewish hours 
of devotion at nine, twelve, and three, and of the example of 
Daniel (VI. 10). Tertullian adds to them the morning and 
evening prayers {ingressu lucis et nodi's), which need no special 

The Lord's Prayer is given in the very words of Matthew 
(VL 9-13), Avith slight alterations ("heaven" for "heavens," 
and " debt " for " debts "), and with the doxology (though not 
complete, "tlie kingdom" being omitted). This is the oldest 
authority for the use of the Lord's Prayer. The doxology no 
doubt passed from Jewish custom (comp. 1 Chr. xxix. 11) into 
the Christian Church at a very early day, and was afterwards 
inserted into the current text of the Gospel. 

The Didache thus sanctions a form of prayer in the daily 
devotions, and gi\^es besides three thanksgivings for the pub- 
lic celebration of the Eucharist, but with the express reserva- 
tion of the right of free prayer to the Prophets. The prescrip- 
tion of the frequent repetition of the Lord's Prayer, however, 
and the apparent restriction of free prayer in public worship 
to the Prophets, indica te the_beginning of liturgical bondage. 

The prescription to fast before Baptism (in Ch. VII. 4) 
and on Wednesdays and Fridays (Ch. YIII.) goes beyond the 
New Testament, and interferes with evangelical freedom. The 
Lord condemns the hypocritical fasting of the Pharisees, but 
left no command as to stated days of fasting. 


Bajytism in the Didache. 

The Didache knows only two sacra ment s, Baptispi and the_ 
Eucharist . On the former it gives the following important 



and interesting directions, wliich have, in America, excited 
more attention than any other part of the book (Ch. VII.) : 

"As regards Baptism, baptize in this manner: Having first given all 

the preceding instruction [on the Way of Life and the Way of Death, Chs. 

I-VI], baptize into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 

' Holy Spirit, in living [running] water. 

)' "But if thou hast not living water, baptize into (i/5) other water: and if 

thou canst not in cold, [then] in warm [watei*]. 

" But if thou hast neither [neither running nor standing, neither 
cold nor warm water, iti suflflcient quantity for immersion], pour (ε^ίχεον) 
water on the head three times, into the name of Father and Son and Holy 

" But before Baptism let the baptizer and the candidate for Baptism fast, 
and any others who can ; and thou shalt command him who is to be baptized 
to fast one or two days before." 

It is instructive to compare with this chapter the next 
oldest description of Baptism by Justin Martyr, which is as 
follows : f 

" As many as are persuaded and believe that the things taught and spoken 

\ by us are true, and promise to be able to live accordingly, are instructed to 

j pray, and to entreat God with fasting for the remission of their past sins, 

while we at the same time pray and fast with them. Then they are brought 

by us to a place where there is water {evSa νδωρ εϋτΐ), and are regenerated 

{a V αχ ε ννών τ cxi) in the same manner in which we ourselves were regen- 

- / erated. For in the name (εττ' όνό/ίΐατοζ) of the Father and Lord of the 

whole universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, they 

' then receive the washing with water (to εν τω νδαη τότε λοντρόν 

ί ποιοννταί). For Christ also said, 'Except ye be born again, ye shall not 

I enter the kingdom of heaven.' " (John, iii. 5.) 

From the baptismal directory of the Didache we may infer 
the following particulars : 

1. Baptism shall take place after preceding instruction in 
the "Way of Life and the Way of Death.:]: 

* The definite article in this passage is omitted by the carelessness of the 
writer or copyist. In the first paragraph the form is given correctly accord- 
ing to the text in Matthew. 

t Apol. I. 61. 

X The words ταντα τίάντα ηροειπόντεζ refer, of course, to the preced- 
ing six chapters. No baptismal creed is implied. The Apostles' Creed was not 
yet shaped ; but a shorter rule of faith may have been used with a promise of 
obedience to Christ, The Apost. Const, vii. 40 sqq. give a long form of the 
renunciation of Satan, and a confession of faith. 

AVI a., c^tv ycoKz.. ^^- ' ^^t^ 


Notliing is said of Infant Baptism. Tlie reference to instruc- 
tion and the direction of fasting show that tlie writer has in 
view onlj the Baptism of catechumens, or adult believers. 
Christianity always begins by preaching the gospel to such as j 
can hear , understand and believe. Baptism follows as a solemn i 
act of introduction into fellowship with Christ and the privi- 
leges and duties of church-membership. Infant Baptism has 
no sense and would be worse than useless where there is no 
Christian family or Christian congregation to fulfil the condi- 
tions of Baptism and to guarantee a Christian nurture. Hence 
in the Apostolic and the whole ante-Niceue age to the time of 
Constantino Baptism of believing converts was the rule, and is . 
to this day on every missionary field. Hence in the New 
Testament the baptized are addressed as people who have died 
and risen with Christ, and who have put on Christ. Baptism 
and conversion are almost used as synonymous terms.* 

But for this very reason the silence of the Didache about In- 
fant Baptism cannot be fairly used as an argument against it 
any more than the corresponding passages in the New Testa- 
ment, which are addressed to adult believers. When Chris- 
tianity is once established and organized, then comes in family 
religion ^vith its duties and privileges. That Infant Baptism ) 
was practised in Christian families as early as the second cent- ' 
ury is evident from Tertullian, who opposed it as imprudent 
and dangerous, and from Origen, who approved it and speaks 
of it as an apostolic tradition.f Compulsory Infant Baptism, , 
of course, was unknown even in the Nicene and post-Nicene 
age, and is a gross abuse, dating from the despotic reign of 
Justinian in close connection with the union of church and state. 

2. Baptism must be administered into the triune name (fi? 
το όνομα) of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. 
This is the prescribed form of Christ. (Matt, xxviii. 19.) 

The shorter form " into the name of Jesus," is not mentioned. 

* Comp. Acts, ii. 38, 41; Rora. vi. 3, 4 ; Gal. iii. 27. 

\ Ep ad Rom. I. v. e. 6; "Ucdesa ah Apostolis traditionem suscepit, efiam 
parvulis baptismum dare." Mom. XIV. in Luc. : " Parvuli hapttzantur in 
remissionem peccatorum. Quorum peccatorum f ml quo tempore pcccor 
verunt 9 . . . Quia per haptismi sacramentum natimtatis sordesdeponuntur, 
propter ea baptizantur et parvuli." See Churc?i History, τοί. ii. 258 sqq. 


8. The normal and favorite mode of Baptism is thre efold 
immersion* "in living water," i. e. fresh, running water, either 
in a stream or a fountain, as distinct from standing water in a 
pool or cistern. Immersion must be meant, otherwise there 
would be no difference between the first mode and the last 
which is aspersion or pourin_g. Besides it is the proper mean- 
ing of the Greek word here used. The preference for a river 
was naturally derived from our Saviour's Baptism in the Jor- 
dan. Justin Martyr, when he says that the converts were led 
to a place " where -there is water," means probably a river; 
since water sufficient for pouring or sprinkling could be had 
I in every house. The direction of the Didache receives con- 
firmation from the baptismal pictures in the catacombs where 
\ the baptized stands ankle-deep or knee-deep or w^aist-deep in 
a stream and the ' baptizer on dry ground, extending his hand 
to perform the act. We shall return to this subject in the next 
chapter. TertuUian represents it as a matter of indifference 
I whether Baptism take place in the sea, or in a lake, or a river, 
i' or in standing water,f but he insists on trine immersion. X This 
was the universal practice of the ancient Church, and is still 
continued in the East. It was deemed essential with reference 
! to the Holy Trinity. Single immersion was considered hereti- 
I cal or incomplete, and is forbidden by the Apostolical Canons. § 
After Constantiue, when the Church was recognized by the 
secular government and could hold real estate, special Baptis- 
teries were built in or near the churches for the more con- 
venient performance of the rite in all kinds of weather and 
away from running streams. 

* " Three times " is only mentioued in connection with pouring, but must, 
of course, be supplied in the normal form of immersion. 

f De Bapt., c. iv : ^^ Nulla distinctio est, mari quis an stagno, flumine an 
fonte, lacu an aheo diluatur." 

X Adv. Prax. c. xxvi: " Nee semel, sed ter, ad singula nomma in perso7ias 
singitlas tingidmur." De cor. mil. c. 8: " Ter mergitamiir ," adding, how- 
ever, " amjjliits aliqiiid respondentes quam Dominus in evangelio determina- 
mt." De Bapt. c. xiii: '^ Lex tinguendi imposita est, et forma prcescripta." 
• § Can. 50: "If any Bishop or Presbyter does not perform the three im- 
■ mersions, but only one immersion, let him bo deposed." In this point Prot- 
estant Baptists, who immerse but once, depart from the ancient practice on 
' the ground that it has no Scripture authority. 


4. Wliile thus preference is given to immersion in living 
water, the Didache allows three exceptions : 

(a) Baptism (by immersion) " into other water " {είζ άλλο 
νόωρ), i. e. any other kind of (cold) water in })ools or cisterns. 

(h) Baptism (by immersion) in warm water (in the houses), 
when the health of the candidate or the inclemency of the 
climate or season may require it. 

(c) Threefold aspersion of the head, where neither running 
nor standing, neither cold nor warm water is at hand in suffi- 
cient quantity for total or partial immersion. The aspersion 
of the head was the nearest substitute for total immersion, 
since the head is the chief part of man. There can be no 
Baptism without baptizing the head ; but there may be valid 
Baptism without baptizing the rest of the body. 

Here we have the oldest extant testimony for the validity of 
baptism by pouring or aspersion. It is at least a hundred 
years older than the testimony of Cyprian. The passages 
quoted from Tertullian are not conclusive. * Bryennios would 
confine tlie exception to cases of sickness or to what is called 
" clinical Baptism. "f But the Didache puts it simply on the 
ground of scarcity of water, so that healthy persons might 
likewise be thus baptized (e. g. if converted in a desert, or on 
a mountain, or in a prison, or in a catacomb). 

We have, therefore, a right to infer that at the end of the first 
century there was no rigid uniformity in regard to the mode 
of Baptism and no scruple about the validity of aspersion or 
pouring, provided only the head was baptized into the triune 
name with the intention of baptizing. In the third century 
the exceptional aspersion Λvas only allowed on the sick-bed, 
and even then it disqualified for the priesthood, at least in 
North Africa and the East, though not from any doubt of its 
validity, but from suspicion of the sincerity of the baptized. % 

* De Bapt. cap. xii. (where he teaches the necessity of Baptism for salva- 
vation) ; and. De Poen. cap. vi. (where he mentions hypotheticallv asper- 
ginem unam cuinslibet aqua, "one single sprinkling of any water whatever," 
and uses "bathing " in the same sense as baptizing). 

\ Baptisntiis clinicorum ; κλινΐκόζ, bed-ridden (from κλίνη, couch; 
κλινειν, to recline). 

X This is the reason assigned by the Council of Neo-Cassarea in Cappado- 


Novatianus in Eome was indeed baptized by aspersion when 
on tbe point of death, and Avas nevertheless ordained to the 
priesthood ; but his defective Baptism was probably one of the 
reasons of his non-election to the See of Rome and an occasion 
for the subsequent schism which is attached, to his name. 
Cyprian wrote a special tract in defence of clinical Baptism 
against those who denied its validity. " In the sacraments of 
salvation," he says, ''where necessity compels and God gives 
permission, the divine thing, though outwardly abridged, be- 
stows all that it implies on the belicA^er." * 

Thus explained, the directions of the Didache are perfectly 
clear and consistent with all the other information we have on 
Baptism in the ante-Nicene age. Trine immersion into the 
triune name was the rule, as it is to this day in all the Oriental 
churches ; trine aspersion or pouring was the exception. The 
new thing which we learn is this, that in the post-Apostolic 
age a degree of freedom prevailed on the mode of Baptism, 
which was afterwards somewhat restricted. 

From this fact we may reason (a fortiori) that the same 
freedom existed already in the Apostolic age. It cannot 
be supposed that the Twelve Apostles were less liberal 
than the writer of the Didache, who wrote as it were in their 

It is astonishing how this testimony has been twisted and 
turned by certain writers in the sectarian interest. Some ex- 
clusive Immersionists, in order to get rid of the exception, 
have declared the Didache a literary forgery ; while some zeal- 
ous advocates of sprinkling, as the supposed original and 
Scriptural mode, have turned the exception into the rule, and 
substituted an imaginary difference between pouring in run- 
ning water and pouring on dry ground for the real difference 
between immersion and pouring water on the head. 

5. Baptism is to be preceded by fasting on the part of both 

cia (c. 314^ in its twelfth canon: "If anyone has been baptized in sick- 
ness, inasmuch as his [profession of] faith was not of his own free choice 
but of necessity, he cannot be promoted to the priesthood, unless on account 
of his subsequent zeal and faithfulness, or because of lack of men." — See 
Fulton's Index Cnnonum (N. Y.. 1883), p. 217. 
* Epist. LXXVI. (al. LXIX.) cap. 12, ad Magnum. 


the catecliumen and the baptizer and some others who may 
join. The former is required to fast one or two days. 

There is no such prescription in the New Testament. In the 
case of Christ fasting followed his Baptism (Matt. iv. 2.) ; and 
the three thousand pentecostal converts seem to have been 
baptized on the day of their conversion (Acts, ii. 38-40). 

Fasting is likewise mentioned as customary in connection 
with Baptism by Justin Martyr and Tertullian, but not so 
definitely as in the Didache. The fasting of the baptizer prob- 
ably soon went out of use. 

6. Baptism is not represented as a clerical function, but the 
directions are addressed to all members of the congregation ; 
while in the corresponding direction of the Apostolical Con- 
stitutions the Bishop or Presbyter is addressed,* and Ignatius 
restricts the right to baptize to the Bishop, or at all events 
requires his permission or presence, f Justin Martyr mentions 
no particular person, Tertullian, in his Montanistic opposition 
to a special priesthood, expressly gives the right even to lay- 
men, when bishops, priests, or deacons are not at hand ; for 
what is equally received can be equally given. ^ 

7. No mention is made of exorcism, which preceded the act 
of Baptism, nor of the application of oil, salt or other material, 
which accompanied it as early as the second and third centuries. 
The silence is conclusive, not indeed against the use of these 
additions, but against their importance in the estimation of the 
writer and his age. It is another indication of the early date 
of the book. 

* Book vii. 22: Ttepi δέ βατττίό/ιατοζ, ω εττίόποττε η ττρεΰβύτερε. . . 
οντωζ βαητίΰειζ. 

f Ad Smyrn. 8: ονχ h'loy εότιν χωριζ τοΰ ίπιΰκότΐον ούτε 
βατΐτίζειν ούτε άγάπην ηοιείν. 

% De Bapt. xvii. The Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches allow lay- 
Baptism, even the Baptism by midwives in case of necessity, i. e. in danger 
of death and in absence of a minister. This concession is connected with 
the view that Baptism is (ordinarily) necessary to salvation. The Calvinistic 
churches reject this view, and consequently also lay-Baptism. The Baptists 
regard Baptism unnecessary for salvation, but enjoined upon adult believers; 
the Quakers discard it altogether. 



Tlie Didaclie and the Catacombs."^ 

The oldest baptismal pictures in the Roman Catacombs may 
be traced to tlie close of the second century. They are i-ude 
and defaced and have no artistic merit, but considerable 
archaeological value and furnish monumental evidence of the 
mode of BajDtism which prevailed at that time. They are 
found on the walls of the Crypt of Lucina, the oldest part of 
the Catacomb of Pope St. Callistus (Calixtus) on the Via 
Appia, and in two of the six so-called " Chambers of the Sacra- 
ments" in that cemetery.f 

The art of j^ainting can only exhibit the beginning cr the 
end of the act, not the entire process.:}: But as far as they go 
these pictures confirm the river-Baptism prescribed by the 
Didache as the normal form, in imitation of the typical Bap- 
tism in the Jordan. They all represent the baptized as stand- 
ing in a stream, and the baptizer on dry ground ; the former 

* On this subject the reader is referred to the illustrated works on the Cata- 
combs and early Christian art, by Commendatore de Rossi, Garrucci, Rol- 
ler, NoRTHCOTE & Brownlow, Kraus, J. H. Parker, Victor Schultze, 
all of which are mentioned in my Church Hist. vol. li. 360, 285 sq. Add 
to these WoLFORD Nelso:7 Cote (then at Rome) : The Archceology of Bap- 
tism, London (Yates and Alexander), 1876, which contains many illustrations; 
Egbert C. Smyth (Andover) : Baptism in the "Teaching''' and in Early 
Christian Art, in the "Andover Review" for May, 1884, p. Γ)33 sqq., with 
photo-engravings from Garrucci. Comp. also an article (by the writer) on 
the same subject in the N. Y. " Independent" for March 5, 1885. 

f Giovanni Battista de Rossi, the pioneer of modern Catacomb research, 
in the first volume of his monumental Roma Sotteranea, gives a full descrip- 
tion of the Crrpte di Lucina net cemetero di S. Callisto, with 40 taljles of 
illustrations. For a brief account, see Schultze, Die Katakomhen (Leipzig. 
1882), p. 310 sqq. He says of the ante-Nicene baptismal pictures (p. 136): 
" Die Taufdarstfilltingen vorkonstnnfin ischer Zeit, deren Zahl sich auf drei 
helduft, zeigen sammtlich erwachsene Tatiflinge, in. zwei Fallen Knaben, 
von ctwa zwolf Jahren, im dritten Falle einen Jungling. Der Act ivird 
durch Untertauchen voUzogen." The age of the pictures, however, is dis- 
puted. The late J. H. Parker, of Oxford, went too far in denying that there 
are any religious pictures in the Catacombs before the age of Constantine. 

X In some later pictures given from MSS. in Roman libraries by Cote, pp. 
37, 40, 41, the water is unnaturally represented as a pyramid, within Avhich 
the baptized person stands, entirely surrounded by the element. 



is nude, tlie latter is more or less robed. These two facts 
prove that immersion (either total or partial) was intended ; 
otherwise the standing with the feet in water would be an un- 
meaning superfluity, and the nudity an unjustiliablc indecen- 
cy.* Pouring is also confirmed in two of these pictures, but 
in connection with partial immersion, not without it. The 
illustrations will show this more plainly. f 

The oldest of these pictures represents the baptized as com- 
ing up (after immersion) from the river which reaches over 
his knees, and joining hands with the baptizer, who is dressed 
in a tunic, and assists him in ascending the shore ; while in the 
air hovers a dove with a twig in its mouth. It is usually un- 
derstood to exhibit the Baptism of Christ in the Jordan as he 
comes out of the water.:}: 

* The unclothing of the candidate was a universal custom in the ancient ) 
Church and regarded as essential. Hence the baptisteries Avere commonly 
divided into two distinct apartments, the one for men, the other for women. 
See Bingham, Antiquities, Book XI. Ch. xi. Sect. 1-3. In cases of river- 
Baptism the two sexes were baptized at different times or in different parts 
of the river. 

f The following cuts are taken, by permission, from Roller's great work, Les 
Catacombs de Rome (1881), vol. i. pp. 94, 95, 100, 101. See also the 14th 
Table in the first vol. of De Rossi's Roma Sotter. , and the second vol. of 
Garrucei's Storia delle arte Christiana. The pictures of Roller are not so 
artistic as those of Garrucci, but more true to the homely simplicity of the 
originals. Those of De Rossi are colored (chromo-lithographs). 

ί Matt. iii. 16, dvefJ?/ απο τυϋ νδατυζ, and Mark i. 10, £« τον νδατοζ. 



Another representation, apparently of the same scene, differs 
from the former by giving a slight covering to the baptized 

In a later fresco picture of the Baptism of Christ in the 
Catacomb of San Ponziano, outside of Eome, Christ stands 
undressed in the Jordan with the water up to the Avaist, and 
John the Baptist from a projecting rock places his hand upon 
the head of Christ to immerse him, while the dove descends 
directly from the open heaven.* In a mosaic at Ravenna (S. 

Roller (i. 99) thus explains the picture; " Jesus, moitie pUnge dans I'eau du 
Jourdain, nu, sans attributes divins, sans rayonnement au front, comme un 
simple homme, et a qui le Baptiste tend la main pour le fair sortir dufleuve." 
Le Catacombs de Rome, vol. i. 99. Victor Scluiltze doubts this application, 
because of the nudity of Christ, and of the twig in the mouth of the dove, 
which he thinks points rather to Noah's dove, since Baptism is often com- 
pared to the salvation from the flood. He finds here the Baptism of a mem- 
ber of the family to which that sepuJchral chamber belonged. (Die Knta- 
komben, p. 313 ) But these objections have no weight. Christ is nearly 
always represented as unclothed in baptism, and sometimes a ministering 
angel stands on a cloud holding his dress. See the pictures in Cote, on pp. 
32, 46, etc. 

* See Cote, p. 32. On the opposite shore an angel is seen upon a cloud, 
holding Christ's robes, and below a hart looking fixedly at the water to sym- 
bolize the ardent desire of the catechumen for baptism. Cote gives several 
other pictures of Christ's baptism, pp. 33, 37, 39, 46. 



Giovanni in Fonte) from tlie year 450, the same scene is rep- 
resented, but John the Baptist completes the immersion bv 
pouring water with his right hand from a shell upon the head 
of Christ.* 

Two other pictures in the Catacomb of Pope Callistus 
(the two oldest next to the first given above) represent the 
Baptism of young catechumens by immersion of the feet sup- 
plemented by pouring or some action on the head. 

In the first picture a naked • boy of about twelve or fifteen 
years stands only ankle-deep in a stream ; while the baptizer, 
wearing a toga and holding a roll in his left hand, lays 
his right hand on the head of the candidate — either pour- 
ing water, or ready to dip him, or blessing him after the 
ceremony, f 

* Smyth, p. 543, figure 6. The picture shows on the right the riA-er-god 
rising from the Jordan to worship Christ. In another fresco of RaA-enna. in 
the Arian Baptistery now called "S. Maria in Cosmedin," given on p. 544, 
the Baptist places the hand on the head ready to dip, as in the Catacomb of 
San Ponziano just mentioned. 

f On the meaning of this action of the baptizer the authorities are not 
agreed, in view probably of the indistinctness of the fresco. Garrucci {Storia, 
etc. vol. ii. p. 12; comp. his picture on Table V.) explains it as the rite of 



In the second picture the boy stands likewise in the river 
naked, and is suiTounded bj sprays of water as in a shower- 
bath, or as Garrucci says, " he is entirely immersed in a cloud 
of water." * The sprays are thrown in streaks of greenish 
color with a bmsh around the body and above the head. The 
baptizer lays his right hand on the head of the baptized, while 
another man (whose figure is mutilated) in a sitting posture 
draws a fish from the water. 

confirmaUon, which immediately followed baptism in the ancient Church. 
De Rossi describes the picture as a slight immersion and simultaneous affu- 
sion {" battesimo effigiato /jer poca immersionc e simultanea infiisione deW 
acqua.'") Roller (a Protestant) likewise sees in the picture a specimen of in- 
complete immersion {Leu Catac. i. 131). In the Orient and Africa, he says, 
Baptism was '^une tHple immersion et une triple emersion, aca.mpagnie 
d'une triple confession de foi au Pere, au Fits et au Saint Esprit,'''' but in 
Rome, he thinks, the Christians were for a time satisfied " d'une immersion 
moins complete." The proof for such a distinction is wanting. The Tiber 
afforded ample facility for full immersion. Baptisms, however, were also 
performed in fonts in the Catacombs. An artist, whom 1 consulted, takes 
still another view, namely that the baptizer is about to dip the boy. But 
there seems to be not water enough for full immersion. If experts differ, 
how shall a layman decide? 

* L. c. ii. 13: " JJn ginvanetto tutto ignudo, e immerso interamente inun 
nemho di acqua. U quale hagno e rappresentato da grossi sprazzi di xerde-. 
mare, gittati col penello atiorno alia persona e fin disopra cdla testa di lui." 
See the picture of this Baptism on Table VII. Garrucci's plates are an 
artistic improvement of the original. De Rossi (Tavola XVI.) shows in 
colors the streaks of paint thiOwn with a brush around the body and above 
the head of the baptized. He explains the picture as a specimen of abun- 
dant affusion. It is also reproduced in Cote's Archceology of Baptism, p. 84, 
and in Smith and Cheetham. Christ. Antiq. i. 168. Roller omits the fisher- 
man on the shore, which we have reproduced from De Rossi. 


From tliese pictorial representations we liave a right to 
draw tlie inference that the immersion was as complete as the 
depth of the accessible stream or fount would admit, and that 
the defect, if any, was supplemented by pouring water on the 
head. The Baj^tism of the head is always the most essential 
and indispensable part of Baptism.* 

In one of the catacombs, the cemetery of St. Pontianus, 
there is a baptismal fount supplied by a current of water, about 
three or four feet deep and six feet across, and approached by 
a flight of steps. f In the Ostrianum cemetery, not far from 
the church of St. Agnes on the Via Nomentaha, is the tradi- 
tional spot of St..Peter's Baptisms, called Ad Nymphae S. Petri 
or Fons S. Petri. ;{: 

Eiver-Baptism gradually ceased when Baptisteries began to 
be built in the age of Constantine in or near the churches, with 
all the conveniences for the performance of the rite.§ They' 
are very numerous, especially in Italy. They went out of use 
when immersion ceased in the West. The last is said to have 
been built at Pistoia, in Italy, a.d. 1337. || 


Immersion and Pouring in History. 

The baptismal question has various aspects : philological 
(classical and Hellenistic), exegetical, historical^ dogmatic, ritu- 
alistic, and liturgical. The controversies connected with it 
refer to the subjects, the mode, and the effect of the sacrament. 

* Pouring on the head Avhile the candidate stands on dry ground, receives 
no aid from the Catacombs, but may have been applied in clinical Baptism. 

f Padre Marchi, as quoted in Smith and Cheethara, i. 174. 

X De Rossi, Rom. Stt. i. 189. 

^Βαπτιΰτήριηΐ' , φατΓΐόΓ7}ρίην,δαρίι,<ιίβΓΪηιη, domus iUuminationis, was 
the name for the whole building in which the Baptismal ceremonies were 
performed ; ^^ολυμβη^ρα, piscina (with reference to Ichthys, the mystic 
name of Christ), or lavacrnm was the fountain or pool wherein the candi- 
dates were immersed. 

II Cote, p. 152 sqq., gives a very full account of Baptisteries in the East, 
in Italy, France, Germany, and England. 


We confine ourselves "here to the history of tlie mode as con- 
nected with our subject. 

The Didache^ the Catacomb pictures, and the teaching of the 
fathers, Greek and Latin, are in essential harmony on this point, 
and thus confirm one another. They all bear witness to trine 
immersion as the rule, and affusion or pouring as the exception. 

This view is supported by the best scholars, Greek, Latin, 
and Protestant. Let us hear the standard writers on the sub- 
ject. We confine ourselves to Piedo-Baptist authorities. 

1. On the Greek side, Bryennios explains the Didache in 
accordance with the practice of his Church, and admits pouring 
only on two conditions, the scarcit}^ of water (on which the 
Didache puts it) and the necessity of baptism in pericuL• mortis 
(which he adds).* 

Another modern Greek scholar and Professor of Church His- 
tory, the Archimandrite Philaret Bapheidos, in his Church His- 
tory just published, 'describes the ancient mode as a threefold 
immersion (submersion) and emersion, or descent into and ascent 
from the water, and restricts aspersion to cases of sickness, f 

To them we may add the statement of Dr. John Mason 
Neale, the greatest Anglican connoisseur of the Greek Church, 
to whom Ave are indebted for the best reproductions of Greek 
hymns. He states, with abundant proofs from ancient Rituals, 
that "the mode of administration of the sacrament is, through- 
out the whole East, by trine immersion, or at least, by trine 

* In his notes on Ch. VII. he says: ηνονν εάν ut/ts -φνχρόν μ?}τε 
^εραόν νδωρ ίχ-ηζ inavor eis το βατττίόαι, xai ανάγκτ] ετΐιότ^ 
τον β ατΐ τ ίό u ατ οζ , εκχΕον, ητλ. 

\ " Το βαητιόμα εγίνετο δια τριτίληζ ηαταδνόεωζ icai 
άναδνόεωζ εϋ τϋ υνοικχ τον Πατροζ καΐ τον Tiov xai τον 
άγίον Πνενίΐατοζ, είαιρυνίΐένου μόνον τον βατίττόματοζ τώΐ' κλινι- 
κών, τελονιιένου δτά ραντιόμον τ/ έπιχι'όεωζ (aspersto)." See his 
"Έκκληΰιαβτική ιότορια ατίό τοΰ Κνρι'ον τ/ιιών ^Ιηροϋ XpidTov μέχρι 
των naS^ ?}μαζ χρόνων. Τόμοζ τΐρώτοί. ^Αρχαία εηκληό. ίΰτορία. 
A.D. 1-700. Constantinople, 1884. Bapheides is the successor of Bryen- 
nios as Professor in the Patriarchal Seminary at Chalce. near Constantinople, 
and dedicated his Church History to him. Their works are a welcome sign 
of a revival of learnino: in the Greek Clinrch, and it is remarkable that both 
quote a large number of German Protestant authorities (as Gieseler, Nean- 
der, etc.), but wevj few Latin books. 


affusion over the head, while the Catechumen is seated, or 
stands, in water up to the elbows." He adds : " All the Syrian 
forms prescribe or assume trine immersion." * 

The Orthodox Church of Kussia adopted from the beginning 
the same practice. The Longer Russian Catechism of Philaret 
defines baptism to be " trine immersion in water," and declares 
this " most essential." f 

Dr. Washburn, President of Robert College in Constantino- 
ple (an American Protestant), in answer to a recent letter 
informs the writer: "As to the Baptism question the Orthodox 
authorities here declare that no Oriental Church not under 
Roman Catholic or Protestant influence knows any other Bap- 
tism than trine immersion. When hard pressed, they add, 
' except in case of necessity^ but I could not get them to acknowl- 
edge any other necessity than lack of water."' He adds, how- 
ever, that he knew "a distinguished orthodox priest, now dead, 
who always immersed the child once and then poured water 
twice on the head. From this it would appear that single im- 
mersion may be supplemented by double pouring." 

The Jacobites, a Monophysitic sect in Syria, baptize by par- 
tial immersion (of the feet) and pouring water on the head. X 

2. The archisologists and historians of the Roman Catholic 
Church are likewise unanimous as to the practice of ancient 

* General Introduction to his A History of the Holy Eastern Church, 
London, 1850, p. 949 sq. 

•f Schaff, Creeds of Christendom., ii. 491. Rev. Nicholas Bjerring (for- 
merly a Russian priest) says of the Russian mode: " Baptism is always ad- 
ministered by dipping the infant or adult three times into the water." {The 
Offices of the Oriental Church, N. York, 1884, p. xiii.) The priest, taking 
the infant into one arm, and covering the mouth and nose with one hand, 
submerges him in the baptismal font. In Greece, as I was informed in 
Athens, the priest dips the child only up to the neck, and then supplements 
the act by pouring water over the head. 

X Dr. Hitchcock (id ed., p. 46) states on good authority: "The Syriac for 
a baptized person is amamild, 'one made to stand up,' i. e., like a pillar. 
As Dr. Van Dyck, of Beirut, expresses it, ' The baptized person stood up, and 
declared himself fixed and determined upon a certain course, which was sig- 
nified and sealed by pouring water upon the head, taken up with the hand 
of the baptizer.' This is now the Syrian mode, practised both by Jacobites 
and Maronites, who say it has always been the Syrian mode." The Maro- 
nites, however, have, since the Crusades, belonged to the Roman Church. 


times. The Jesuit P. Raffaele Garrucci, who wrote tlie most 
elaborate and magnificent work on Ancient Christian Art, says 
that the most ancient and solemn rite was " to immerse the 
person in the water, and three times also the head, while the 
minister pronounced the three names ; " but he rightly adds 
that in exceptional cases baptism was also performed by "in- 
fusion " or " aspersion," when a sufficient quantity of water for 
immersion was not on hand, or when the physical condition of 
the candidate would not admit it* 

In the Latin Church immersion continued till the thirteenth 
century, but with some freedom as to the repetition. Pope 
Gregory I. (in a letter to Leander of Seville) allowed the Span- 
ish bishops to use single immersion, which prevailed there for 
a short period, but gave the preference to trine immersion, 
which, though not divinely commanded, was more expressive 
and ancient, f Thomas Aquinas (died 1274), the standard 
divine of the middle ages, allowed pouring water on the head 
as the seat of life and intelligence, but declared it safer to bap- 
tize by immersion, j^ 

From that time pouring gradually, though not universally, 
took the place of immersion on the Continent. A Council at 

* Sioria della arte Christiana, Prato, 1881, vol. i., P. I., p. 27 sq. : " Anti- 
cMssimo e solenne fu il rito cfimmergere la persona neW acqua, e tre volte 
anche il capo, al pronumiare del ministro i tre nomi. JVoJi e pertanto da 
credere die altrimenti nan si hattezzasse giammai. PeroccM mancdndo al 
bisogna ο la copia di acqua richiesta alV immersione, ο la capacita della vasca, 
ovvero essendo la condizione del catecumcno tale che gli fosse pericoloso il fuf- 
farsi internmente nelle acque, ovvero per alexin altro grave mofivo sripplivasi 
col hatiesimo detto di infusione od aspersione, versando ο spargendo Vacqua 
sul capo di colui che si battezzavn, siando egli or dentro una• vasca che non 
hastava a riceverlo tutto, ofuori di essa e sulla terra asciutta" 

f So also Peter the Lombard, " the Master of Sentences." Quoting from 
Gregory, he says (Sentent. Lib. iv. Dist. viii.): "Pi'o vario ecclesidrum usu 
semel, velter, qui baptizatur immergitur." He makes no mention of pouring. 

XSumma Tlieol., ParsIIL Quaest. LXVI. De Bapt. Art. 7: ''Si totum 
corpus aqua non possit perfundi propter aqvce paucitatem. vel propter cdi- 
quam aliam causam, opportet caput perfundere, in quo manifestatur prin- 
cipium animalis vilte." He also says that " by immersion the burial with 
Christ is more vividly represented; and therefore this is the most common 
and commendable way." His contemporary, Bonaventura, says, that "the 
way of dipping into water is the moi-e common, and the fitter and safer." 


Eavenna in tlie year 1311 declared the two modes equally 
valid. The general rubric of the baptismal serWce edited by 
order of Paul V. says : " Though baptism may be administered 
by affusion, or immersion, or aspersion, yet let the first or 
second mode which are more in use, be retained, agreeably to 
the usage of churches."' 

The ritual now in use in the Roman Catholic Church gives 
this direction : " Then the godfather or godmother, or both, hold- 
ing the infant, the j)riest takes the baptismal water in a little 
vessel or jug, and pours the same three times upon the head of 
the infant in the form of the cross, and at the same time, he 
says, uttering the words once only, distinctly and attentively : 


he pours firstly ; and of the ifi Son — he pours a second 
time ; and of the Holy »i« Ghost — he pours a third time." 

The Ritual, however, provides also first for immersion both 
of children and adults,* 

3. Anglican authorities are equally pronounced on the his- 
torical question. William Wall, who wrote the best historical 
vindication of Infant Baptism against the Baptists, freely 
admits that in ancient times the " general and ordinary way 
was to baptize by immersion, or dipping the person, whether 
it were an infant, or grown man or woman, into the water," 
" This," he says, " is so plain and clear, by an infinite number 
of passages, that as one cannot but pity the weak endeavors 
of such Pasdobaptists as would maintain the negative of it, so 
also we ought to disown and show a dislike of the profane 
scoffs which some people give to the English Antipgedobap- 

* Pontificale Romanum dementis VIII. ac Urbani VIII.jussu editum, 
inde vero a Benedkto XIV. recogrJtum et castigatum . Mechlinite, 1845. 
Pars Tertia, p. 80o (Ρ/Ό Baptismo Parvulorum) : "Si haptizet per immer- 
sionem, Pontifex mitram retinens, surgit, et accipit infantem : et advertens 
ne Icedatur, caute caput ejus immergit in aquam, et trina mersione haptizans, 
semel tantum dicit: 

N. Ego te baptizo in nomine Pa ψ trts, et Fi 4» lii, et Spiritus 4• 


The same form is provided ^;?ό Bajjtismo Adidtorum, p. 852. The Ritual 
prescribes also a form of conditional Baptism, in case of reasonable doubt 
whether Baptism has not already been performed : "Si non es haptizatua, 
ego te baptizo,''' etc. 


tists, merely for their use of dipping. It is one thing to main- 
tain that that circumstance is not absolutely necessary to the 
essence of Baptism, — and another, to go about to represent it 
as ridiculous and foolish, or as shameful and indecent ; when 
it was in all probability the way by which our blessed Saviour, 
and for certain was the most usual and ordinary way by which 
the ancient Christians did receive their Baptism. I shall not 
stay to produce the particular proofs of this ; — many of the 
quotations which I brought for other purposes, and shall 
bring, do evince it. It is a great want of prudence, as well as 
of honesty, to to grant to an adversarj^ what is certainly 
true, and may be proved so : it creates a jealousy of all the 
rest that one says.'"* 

Joseph Bingham, whose work on the Antiquities of ilie Chris- 
tian Churchy is still an authority, says : f " The ancients thought 
that immersion, or burying underwater, did more lively repre- 
sent the death and burial and resurrection of Christ, as well as 
our own death unto sin, and rising again unto righteousness; 
and the divesting or unclothing the person to be baptized did 
also represent the putting off the body of sin, in order to put 
on the "new man, which is created in righteousness and true 
holiness. For which reason they observed the way of baptis- 
ing all persons naked and divested, by a total immersion under 
water, except in some particular cases of great exigence, where- 
in they allowed of sprinkling, as in the case of clinic Baptism, 
or where there was a scarcity of water." .... Again :}: : 
" Persons thus divested, or unclothed, were usually baptized by 
immersion, or dipping of their whole bodies under water, to 
represent the death and burial and resurrection of Christ to- 
gether ; and therewith to signify their own dying to sin, the 

* The History of Infant Baptism, vol. ii. 297, of the 4th London ed., 
1819. The first edition appeared 1705. The edition of Henry Cotton, Ox- 
ford, 1836, is in 4 vols., and includes John Gale's Beflecfions, and Wall's 
JDefei.ce afjainst this learned Baptist minister. There is also a Latin trans- 
lation of this work, Guilielmi Walli Historia Baptismi Infantum, by Lud- 
wig Schlosser, Bremen, 1748 and 1753. 2 vols. 

t Book XI. Chapter XI. Sect. 1. The Antiquities were first published in 
10 vols., 8vo, 1710-1722, and translated into Latin by Grischovius, Halle, 
1724-1729 {Origines Bcclesiasticfe, etc.). 

X Book XI. Chapter XI. Sect. 4. 


destruction of its power, and their resurrection to a new life. 
There are a great many passages in the Epistles of St. Paul, 
which plainly refer to this custom.'' Bingham then quotes 
Rom. Λ'Ι 4; Col. ii. 12, and continues : "As this was the orig- 
inal Apostolic practice, so it continued to be the universal 
practice of the Church for many ages, upon the same symboli- 
cal reasons as it was first used by the Apostles." He adds 
the proofs from the Apostolical Constitutions, from Chrj-sostom, 
Ambrose, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, etc. 

Dean Stanley, in his Lectures on the History of the Eastern 
Churchy while clearly expressing his own preference for sprin- 
kling, gives the same view of the ancient mode.* " There can 
be no question," he says, "that the original form of Baptism — 
the very meaning of the word — was complete immersion in the 
deep baptismal waters; and that, for at least four centuries, 
any other form was either unknown, or regarded, unless in the 
case of dangerous illness, as an exceptional, almost a mon- 
strous case. To this form the Eastern Church still rigidly ad- 
heres ; and the most illustrious and venerable portion of it, 
that of the Byzantine Empire, absolutely repudiates and ig- \ 
nores any other mode of administration as essentially invalid. \ 
The Latin Church, on the other hand, doubtless in deference to 
the requirements of a Northern climate, to the change of man- 
ners, to the convenience of custom, has whollv altered the mode, 
preferring, as it would fairly say, mercy to sacrifice ; and (with 
the twcLexceptions of the cathedral at Milan and the sect of 
the Baptists) a few drops of water are now the Western sub- 
stitute for the threefold plunge into the rushing rivers, or the 
wide baptisteries of the East.'' 

In his last work, Dean Stanley gave the following pictorial 
description, which applies to the multitudinous Baptisms in 
the period of Constantine, when the masses of the Roman 
population flocked into the Church : f 

" Baptism was not only a bath, but a plunge — an entire sub- 
mersion in the deep water, a leap as into the rolling sea or the 
rushing river, where for the moment the waves close over the 

*New York ed. 1863, p. 117. 

f Christian Institutions, New York, 1881, p. 9 


bather's head, and he emerges again as from a momentary- 
grave ; or it was the shock of a shower-bath — the rush of water 
passed over the whole person from capacious vessels, so as 
to wrap the recipient as within the veil of a splashing cataract. 
This was the part of the ceremony on which the Aj^ostles laid 
so much stress. It seemed to them like a burial of the old 
former self and the rising u]3 again of the new self. So St. 
Paul compared it to the Israelites passing through the roar- 
ing waves of the Ked Sea, and St. Peter to the passing through 
the deep waters of the flood. ' ΛVe are buried,' said St, 
Paul, ' with Christ by Baptism into death, that, like as Christ 
was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, 
even so we also should walk in newness of life.' Baptism, as 
the entrance into the Christian society, was a complete change 
from the old superstitious restrictions of Judaism to the free- 
dom and confidence of the Gospel ; from the idolatries and 
profligacies of the old heathen world to the light and purity of 
Christianity. It was a change effected only by the same ef- 
fort and struggle as that with which a strong swimmer or an 
adventurous diA^er throws himself into the stream and strug- 
gles with the waves, and comes up with increased energy out 
of the depths of the dark abyss." Stanley goes on to show the 
inseparable connection of baptismal immersion with the patris- 
tic conceptions of repentance, conversion, regeneration, which 
were almost identified. Hence the doctrine of the necessity of 
Baptism for salvation held by all the ancient fathers, and 
chiefly by the great and good St. Augustin. "All," says Stan- 
ley (p. 17), " who profess to go by the opinion of the ancients 
and the teaching of Augustin must be prepared to belieΛ^e that 
immersion is essential to the efficacy of Baptism, that unbap- 
tized infants must be lost forever, that baptized infants must 
receive the Eucharist, or be lost in like manner. For this, too, 
strange as it may seem, was yet a necessary consequence of the 
same materializing system." 

We add the testimony of one of the most recent Anglican 
writers on the subject, Wharton B. Marriott : * " Triple im- 

* In Smith and Cheetham's Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, vol. i. 
(1875), p. 161. 


mersion, that is thrice dipping the head(«a'5cf^-f/3 i'v τινι τάφω 
τω νδατι ηαταδνόντων ημών ταί 7ίεφαλάζ, St. Chrjsostom 
in Joan. iii. 5, Horn, xxv.), while standing in the water, was 
the all but universal rule of the Church in early times. Of 
this we find proof in Africa, in Palestine, in Egypt, at Antioch 
and Constantinople, in Cappadocia. For the Eoman usage Ter- 
tuHian indirectly witnesses in the second century ; St. Jerome 
in the fourth ; Leo the Great in the fifth ; and Pope Pelagius, 
and St. Gregory the Great in the sixth. . , . Lastly the 
Apostolical Canons, so called, alike in the Greek, the Coptic, 
and the Latin versions {Can. 42 al. 50), give special injunctions 
as to this observance, saying that any bishop or presbyter 
should be deposed who violated this rule." I have omitted 
the references to the proof passages. The same writer (p. 169) 
quotes from the Armenian order as follows: "While saying 
this, the priest buries the child (or Catechumen) three times in the 
water.! ^s a figure of Christ's three days' burial. Then taking 
the child out of the water, he thrice pours a handful of water on 
his head, saying, ' As many of you as have been baptized into 
Christ, have put on Christ, Hallelujah ! ' " 

4. Of German historians, I will . quote only two, one who 
wrote before the discovery of the Didache, and another who 
wrote after it. 

Neander says : * "In respect to the form of Baptism, it was 
in conformity with the original institution and the original 
import of the symbol, performed by immersion, as a sign of 
entire Baptism into the Holy Spirit, of being entirely pene- 
trated by the same. It was only with the sick, where the 
necessity required it, that any exception was made; and in 
this case Baptism was administered by affusion or sprinkling. 
Many superstitious persons, clinging to the outward form, even 
imagined that such Baptism by sprinkling was not fully valid ; 
and hence they distinguished those who had been so baptized 
from other Christians by the name of Glinici. The Bishop 
Cyprian strongly expressed himself against this delusion." 

Dr. Adolph Harnack, of Giessen, the chief German writer 

* General History of the Christian Church. Translation of Jos. Torrey, 
Boston ed. vol. i. , p. 310. German ed. i. 534. 


on the Didache, in reply to some questions of C. E. W. Dobbs, 
D.D., of Madison, Indiana, made the following statement on 
"the present state of opinion among German scholars" con- 
cerning the ancient mode of Baptism : * 

"GiESSEN, Jan. IGth, 1885. 
C. E. W. Dobbs, D.D. 
Dear Sir : Referring to j^our three inquiries, I have the honor to reply : 
1. Baptizein undoubtedly s-ignifies immersion (eintaucJien). 
2 No proof can be found that it signifies anything else in the New Testa- 
ment, and in the most ancient Christian literature. The suggestion regard- 
ing a ' sacred sense ' is out of the question. f 

3. There is no passage in the New Testament which suggests the supposi- 
tion that any New Testament author attached to the word baptizein any 
other sense than eintauc^\en=unteriauchen.X 

4. Up to the present moment, likewise, we possessed no certain proof from 
the period of the second century in favor of the fact that baptism by asper- 
sion was then even facultatively administered; for Tertullian (Z)e Pcenit., G, 
and Be Baptismo, 12) is uncertain; and the age of those pictures upon 
which is represented a Baptism by aspersion is not certain. 

' The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles,' however, has now instructed us 
that already in very early times, people in the Church took no offence when 
aspei-sion was put in the place of immersion, when any kind of outward 
circumstances might render immersion impossible or impracticable. [Then 
follows Chap. VII. of the 'Teaching,' quoted in full, emphasizing the 
clause Ed ν δε άβφότίρα. etc. : 'if thou hast neither, pour water thrice 
upon the head,' etc.] 

For details regarding the above you will please to consult my commentary 
on the passage. This much is lifted above all question — namely, that the 
author regarded as the essential element of the sacrament, not the immer- 

* Published in the N. Y. "Independent" for Febniary 9, 1885. The 
" Independent," of Feb. 28, 1884, gave the first notice in America on the pub- 
lication of the Didarhe by translating Harnack's article from his " Theolog. 
Literaturzeitung," of February 3, 1S84. 

f By "sacred sense " Dr. Dobbs means that the Greek verb in the New 
Testament denotes ' ' the application of water for sacred purposes, irrespec- 
tive of mode," — an opinion held by many Paedobaptists in America and ad- 
vanced as an argument against the Baptists. The most learned advocate of 
this view is the Rev. James W. Dale, who wrote no less than four volumes on 
the subject, namely, Classic Baptism (Ρ\ύ\Άάΐ\ι^\\\&. 18G7); Judaic Baptism 
(1871); Johannic Baptism (1872); Christie and Patristic Bajnism (1874). 
He condensed the substance of these books shortly before his death (1881), 
in an ingenious article for the Schaif-Herzog Encyclop. vol. i. 196-198, 
which is preceded and followed by other articles representing the different 
opinions held in the baptismal controversy. 

■j: This assertion may be disputed. See below, p. 55. 


sion in water, but chiefly and alone the use of water. From this one is 
entitled to conclude that, from the beginning, in the Christian world immer- 
sion was the rule ; but that quite early the sacrament was considered to be 
complete when the water was applied, not in the form of a bath, but in 
the form of an aspersion (or pouring). But the rule was also certainly 
maintained that immersion was obligatory, if the outward conditions of 
such a performance were at hand. 

With high regard, your obedient, 

Adolph Harnack." 

5. The question now arises, wTien and how came the mode of 
pouring and sprinkling to take the place of immersion and 
emersion, as a rule. The change was gradual and confined to 
the Western churches. The Roman Church, as we have seen, 
backed by the authority of Thomas Aquinas, " the Angelic 
Doctor," look the lead in the thirteenth century, yet so as to 
retain in her Rituals the form for immersion as the older and 
better mode. The practice prevailed over the theory, and the 
exception became the rule. 

It is remarkable that in the cold climate of England the 
old practice should have survived longer than in the South- 
ern countries of Europe. Erasmus says : " "With us " (on the 
Continent) " infants have the water poured on them, in Eng- 
land they are dipped." - 

King Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth were immersed. | 
The first Prayer-Book of Edward VI. (1549), following the 
Office of Sarum, directs the priest to dip the child in the water 
thrice, "first, dypping the right side ; secondly, the left side ; 
the third time, d3^ping the face towards the fronte." In the 
second Prayer Book (1552), the priest is simply directed to 
dip the child discreetly and warily, and permission is given, 
for the first time in Great Britian, to substitute pouring if the 
godfathers and godmothers certify that the child is weak. 
During the reign of Elizabeth, says Dr. Wall, " many fond 
ladies and gentlewomen first, and then by degrees, the common 
people would obtain the favor of the priests to have their chil- 
dren pass for weak children too tender to endure dipping in the 
water." f The sam.e writer traces the practice of sprinkling to 

* " Perfunduntur apud nos, merguntur apud Anglos." Erasmus in the 
margin of 76th Ep. of Cyprian, quoted by Wall, ii. 303. 
f History of Infant Baptism, vol. ii. 309. 


the period of tlie Long Parliament and the Westminster As- 

This change in England and other Protestant churches from 
immersion to pouring and from pouring to sprinkling was en- 
couraged by the authority of Calvin, who declared the mode 
to be a matter of no importance, f and by the Westminister 
Assembly of Divines (1643-1652), which decided by a close 
vote of twenty-five to twenty -four, in favor of sjDrinkling. The 
Westminster Confession declares: "Dipping of the person 
into water is not necessary ; but BajDtism is rightly administered 
by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person." ^ 

But the Episcopal ritual retains the direction of immer- 
sion, although it admits sprinkling or pouring as equally 
valid. In the revision of the Prayer Book under Charles 11. 
(1662) the mode is left to the judgment of the parents or god- 
fathers, and the priest is ordered : " If the godfathers and god- 
mothers shall certify him that the child may well endure it, to 
dip it in the water discreetly and warily ; but if they certify 
that the child is weak, it shall suffice to j)our water upon it." 
The difference is only this : by the old rubric the minister was 
to dip unless there was good cause for exception in case of 
weakness ; by the new rubric he was to dip if it Λvas certified 
that the child could endure it.• The theory of the Anglican 
Church is still in favor of dipping, but the ruling practice is 
pouring. § 

* Vol. ii. 311 : " And as for sprinkling properly called, it seems it was, at 
1645, just then beginning, and used by very few. It must have begun in 
the disorderly times after 1641 ; for Mr. Blake had never used it, nor seen it 

\ Instit. IV. Ch. XV. § 19. He adds, however, that "the word baptize 
means to immerse (mergere),'" and that " immersion was the practice of the 
ancient Church." 

X Chapter XXVIII. 3. The proof passages quoted are Heb. ix. 10, 19-23; 
Acts, ii. 41 ; xvi. 38; Mark, vii. 4. 

g See Wall, Ί. c. IT. 313. The Prayer Booh Interleaved (London and Ox- 
ford, 1873, p. 185) states the facts thus: " Trine immersion Λvas ordered in 
the rubric of 1549, following the Sarum Office. In 1553 single immersion 
only was enjoined. The indulgence of aflfusion for weak children was 
granted in 1549 and continued in 1553. In 1663 dipping remained the rule, 
but the proviso was then added, ' if they shall certify that the child may 
well endure it.' Trine immersion or affusion was the ancient rule." In the 


On tlie Continent the change had taken place earlier. Yet 
the mode of Baptism was no point of controversy between 
Protestants and Catholics, nor between the Reformers and the 
Anabaptists. The Lutheran and Reformed Confessions pre- 
scribe no particular mode. They condemn the Anabaptists 
for rebaptism and the rejection of Infant Baptism, (some also 
for teaching that infants may be saved without the sacrament), 
but not for practising immersion,* Nor was this practice 
general among the early Baptists themselves ; on the contrary, 
the Mennonites baptize by sprinkling.f It was the English 

preparation of the Reformed Service of Baptism under Edward VI. " much 
use was made of the previous labors of Bucer and Melanchthon in the ' Con- 
sultation ' of Archbishop Hermann ; and some ceremonies, which had the 
authority of that treatise, were retained in 1549, although afterwards dis- 
carded." Procter, History of the Booh of Common Prayer, 11th ed., Lon- 
don, 1874, p. 371. The change in the revision under the Restoration Procter 
(p. 381, note 3) explains as a protest against the Baptists and "the un- 
due stress laid upon immersion." In the American editions of the Prayer 
Book the condition in the rubric is omitted, and the following substituted: 
"And then, naming it [the child] after them, he shall dip it in the ivater 
discreetly, or shall pour water upon it, saying," etc. 

* Thus e.g. the Augsburg Confession (1530) says, Art. IX.: "They con- 
demn the Anabaptists who allow not the Baptism of children, and affirm 
that children are saved without Baptism (pueros sine Baptismo salvos fieri)." 
In the altered ed. of 1540, Melanchthon added " et extra ecclesiam Christi." 
But in the German edition he omitted the last clause, saying simply and 
more mildly : " Derhatb werden die Wiedertaufer verworfen [not, verdammt], 
welche lehren, dass die Kindertauf nicht recht sei." The Calvinistic Con- 
fessions make salvation to depend upon eternal election, not on the temporal 
act of Baptism, and the Second Scotch Confession, of 1580, expressly rejects, 
among the errors of the Pope, " his cruel judgment against infants departing 
without the sacrament," and " his absolute necessity of Baptism." Zwingli 
first advanced the opinion that all infants dying in infancy, as well as many 
adult heathen, are saved. See Schaflf, Creeds of Christendom, i. 378 sqq. ; 
iii. 483. 

f And so did also the first English Baptists who seceded from the Puritan 
emigrants and organized a congregation in Amsterdam. See Henry Martyn 
Dexter: TJie Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years (N. York, 
1880), p. 318, note 108 : "Although a Baptist church, it is clear that they 
did not practise immersion. Aside from various circumstances which need 
not be dwelt upon to make this probable, it is made certaia by the fact that 
when some of them subsequently applied for admission to a Mennonite 
church in Amsterdam which baptized by affusion, that church said, after 
questioning them as to tlieir mode of Baptism, 'no difference was found 


Baptists in the seventeenth century who first declared im- 
mersion essential and jiut it in their revision of the West- 
minster Confession.* 

6. Let us now briefly sum up the results of this historical 
survey concerning the mode of Baptism, 

(a) Trine immersion and emersion of the whole body was 
the general practice in the ancient Church, Greek and Latin, 
and continues to this day in all the Eastern churches and sects 
and in the orthodox State Church of Russia. 

(h) Trine affusion or pouring was allowed and practised in 
all ancient churches as legitimate Baptism in cases of sickness 
or scarcity of water or other necessity. 

(c) Single immersion has no proper authority in antiquity, 
as it was forbidden in the East, and only tolerated in the West 
as valid but incomplete. 

(d) Affusion or pouring was used first only in exceptional 
cases, but came gradually into general use since the thirteenth 
century in the Latin Church, and then in all the Protestant 
churches, last in England, except among Baptists, who during 
the seventeenth century returned to the practice of immersion. 

7. We will also state the bearing of the historical facts upon 
the parties at issue. 

(a) The Psedobaptists are sustained by antiquity on the sub- 
ject of Infant Baptism, but as regards the mode they can only 
plead the exceptional use, which they have turned into the 

between them and us.' " John Smyth, the founder of the Arminian Baptists, 
baptized himself (hence called Se-Baptist), and then his followers by aifu- 
sion. Barclay, as quoted by Dexter, ρ 318 sq., says that the practice of 
immersion '* seems to have been introduced into England [i. e., among the 
Baptists] 12 September, 1(533." This was then called "a new Baptism " by 
the Baptists, " a new crotchet" by their opponents. Featly, in his Dippers 
Dipt (1645, p. 187, quoted by Dexter, I. c.) criticises the Anabaptist Confes- 
sion of 1644 as " wholly soured with this new leaven " of immersion. 

* The Baptist Confession of 1677 and 1688 declares: "Immersion, or 
dipping of the person in water, is necessary to the due administration of this 
ordinance." Schaif, Creeds of Christendom , vol. iii. 741. The New Hamp- 
shire Baptist Confession of 1833 defines Christian Baptism to be " the immer- 
sion in water of a believer into the name of the Father, and Son, and Holy 
Ghost." Ibid, iii., 747. The definition of the Free ΛΥϋΙ Baptist Confes- 
sion of 1834 and 1868 is substantially the same. Ibid., p. 755. , 


rule. They defend their position, first, })j assuming that the 
terms hapiize and baptism have in Hellenistic Greek a wider 
meaning than in classical Greek, so as to include the idea of 
washing and affusion ; * secondly, by the general principle that 
the genius of Christianity in matters of form and ceremony 
allows freedom and adaptation to varied conditions, and that 
similar changes have taken place in the mode of celebrating 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. Water is necessary in 
Baptism, but the quality and quantity of water, and the mode 
of its application are unessential Other arguments are incon- 
clusive and should be abandoned, f 

* The chief (and only applicable) passages adduced are Judith, xii. 7, 
(Sept. ίβαπτίζετο tv ry πίχρεμβολ-ζΙ ίπι τηζ πιιγτιζ τον νδατοζ, 
"she baptized, i.e., bathed herself in the camp at the fountain of water ") ; 
Sirach, xxxi. 25 (''being baptized, βαπηζό/ιενυζ, from a dead body, what 
good will it do, if he wash it again;" compare the description of the cere- 
mony, Num. xix. 11-22) ; Mark, vii. 4 (where it is said of the Jews that in 
returning from market, they do not eat, except "they baptize," i.e., they 
wash themselves ; and where Westcott and Hort, with some of the oldest 
authorities, read ραΐ'τίβω/ται, i.e., sprinkle themselves, for the received 
text βαητίόωνται, compare the passage Matt. xv. 2, ^'tvash their hands," 
νί-πτυνται) ; Mark, vii. 4 (where in the same connection "baptisms, βαττ- 
τιόμοί, of cups and pots and brazen vessels" are spoken of) ; Heb. vi. 2 
("the teaching of Baptisms" Λ -arious kinds of Baptism) ; ix. 10 {διάφοροι 
licx%Ti6uoi, "divers washings," by immersion or bathing or pouring or 
sprinkling). The advocates of pouring appeal also to the tropical use of 
βαπτίζω, to baptize in (with) the Holy Ghost, and in {tvith) fire (Matt. iii. 
11 ; Luke, iii. 16) ; and to baptize (i. e. to overwhelm) with calamities (Matt. xx. 
22, 23; Mark, x. 38, 39; Luke, xii. 50). Dr. Edw. Robinson in his Lexicon of 
the iV. T. (p. 118) takes this view : "While in Greek writers, from Plato on- 
wards, βαπτίζω is everywhere to sink, to immerse, to overwhelm [ships, ani- 
mals, men], either wholly ov partially ; yet in Hellenistic usage, and especially 
in reference to the rite of Baptism, it would seem to have expressed not 
always simply immersion, but the more general idea of ablution or affusion.'" 

f It is often urged that the pentecostal Baptism of three thousand persons 
by total immersion (Acts, ii. 81 ; comp. iv. 4) was highly improbable in Jerusa- 
lem, where water is scarce and the winter torrent Kidron is dry in summer 
(I found it dry in the month of April, 1877). But immersion was certainly 
not impossible, since Jerusalem has several large public pools (Bethesda, 
Hezekiah, Upper and Lower Gihon) and many cisterns in private houses. I 
The explorations of Captain Wilson (1864) and Captain Warren (1867) have | 
shown that the water supply of the city, and especially of the temple, was j 
very extensive and abundant. The Baptism of Christ in the Jordan and { 
the illustrations of Baptism used in the New Testament (Rom. vi. 3, 4; Col. 

^t^tiT d.c^ /-^yt^» 


(b) The Protestant Baptists can appeal to the usual meaning 
of the Greek word, and the testimony of antiquity for immer- 
sion, but not for sirujle immersion, nor for their exclusiveness. 
They allow no exception at all, and would rather not baptize 
than baptize in any other way. The root of this difference is 
doctrinal. The Greek and Latin (we may also say, with some 
qualification, the Lutheran and Anglican) creeds teach baptis- 
mal regeneration and the (ordinary) necessity of Baptism for 
salvation ; hence they admit even lay -baptism to insure salva- 
tion. Their chief Scripture authority are the words of Christ, 
John iii. 5 (understood of water-Baptism) and Mark xvi. 16 
(o πιστενσαζ uai βαπτισ3είζ σω^ησεται) The Baptists, on 
the other hand — at least the Calvinistic or Regular Baptists — 
deny both these doctrines, and hold that Baptism is only a 
sign and seal (not a means) of conversion and regeneration, 
which must precede it and are therefore independent of it. 
They reason from the precedence of faith before Baptism 
(Mark xvi. 16) and from the Pentecostal Baptism of converted 
adults (Acts ii. 38, 41). * They hold moreover that children 
dying in infancy are saved without Baptism (which would be 
inapplicable to them), and that adult believers are saved like- 
wise if they die before immersion can be applied to them in 
the proper way. 

The Baptists come nearest in this respect to the Quakers, 
who go a step further and dispense with the sacraments alto- 
gether, being contented with the inward operation of the Holy 
Spirit, who is not bound to any visible instrumentalities. 

The Baptists and Quakers were the first organized Christian 
communities which detached salvation from ecclesiastical ordi- 

ii. 12; 1 Cor. x. 2; 1 Pet. iii. 20, 21) are all in favor of immersion rather than 
sprinkling, as is freely admitted by the best exegetes, Catholic and Protest- 
ant, English and German. Nothing can be gained by unnatural exegesis. 
The persistency and aggresiveness of the Baptists have driven Paedobap- 
tists to the opposite extreme. 

* On this point they might also quote Tertullian, who says, De Pam. VI. : 
" The baptismal bath [lavacrum) is a seal of faith (obsignaiio fidei). . . We 
are not washed {nbluimur, baptized) in order that we may cease from sin- 
ning, but because we have ceased, since in heart we have been bathed already 
(quoniamjamcorde loti sumus)." 


nances, and taught the salvation of unbaptized infants and un- 
baptized but believing adults. 

A settlement of the baptismal controversy will require 1) a 
full admission, on both sides, of the exegetical and historical 
facts ; 2) a clearer understanding of the meaning and import 
of the sacrament and its precise relation to conversion and 
regeneration ; 8) a larger infusion of the spirit of Christ which 
is the spirit of freedom. 


The Agape and the Eucharist. 

The Lord's Supper is the second Sacrament of the Apostolic 
Church, which has ever since been observed and will be 
observed to the end of time, in remembrance of his dying love 
and sacrifice on the cross for the redemption of the world. 
" Eucharist," or " Thanksgiving," was the original name for 
the celebration of this ordinance, in connection with the Love- 
Feast or Agape. The Didache^ in Chs. IX. and X., gives us 
the oldest elements of a eucharistic service, but without the 
words of institution or any directions as to particular forms 
and ceremonies and posture of the communicants. The whole 
has the character of utmost simplicity. 

The Eucharist is again mentioned in the beginning of Ch. 
XIV. as a pure sacrifice to be offered on the Lord's Day, in 
fulfilment of the prophetic passage of Malachi (i. 11, 14), 
which was often used as early as the second century for the 
same purpose. 

The following are the eucharistic prayers : 

(Chap. IX.). " As regards the Eucharist, give thanks in this manner. 

First for the Cup: 

'We thank Thee, our Father, for the holy vine of David, thy serv'ant, 
which Thou hast made known to us through Jesus, Thy servant [or, child] : 
to Thee be the glory for ever.' 

And for the broken bread: 

' We thank Thee, our Father, for the life and knowledge which Thou hast 
made known to us through Jesus, Thy servant : to Thee be the glory for ever. 
As this broken bread was scattered [in grains] upon the mountains, and 

KS ίΛ 


being gathered together became one, so let Thy church be gathered together 
from the ends of the earth into Thy Kingdom ; for Thine is the glory and 
the power through Jesus Christ forever.' 

But let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist except those Avho have been 
baptized into the name of the Lord, for respecting this the Lord has said, 
' Give not that which is holy to dogs. ' 

(Chap. X.). "And after being filled, give thanks in this manner: 'We 
thank Thee, Holy Father, for^Thy holy name, which Thou hast enshrined 
in our hearts, and for the knowledge, and faith, and immortality which Thou 
madest known to us through Jesus, Thy servant: to Thee be the glory for 
ever. Thou, Sovereign Almighty, dklst create all things for the sake of 
Thy name, and gavest both food and drink to men for enjoyment, that they 
may give thanks to Thee. But to us Thou hast graciously given spiritual 
food and drink and life eternal through Thy servant. Before all things we 
thank Thee, that Thou art mighty : to Thee be the glory for ever Remem- 
ber, Lord, Thy Church to deliver her from every evil, and to make her 
perfect in Thy love ; and do Thou gather her together from the four winds 
[the Church] sanctified for Tlr^ji^ingdom, which Thou didst prepare for her : 
for Thine is the power and the glory for ever. Let grace [Christ ?] come, 
and let this wo rld pass aw ai^. Hosanna to the God of David. If any one is 
holy, let him come; if any one is not, let him repent. Maran-atha! Amen.' 

But permit the Prophets to give thanks as much as they wish." 

In order to understand these prayers, we must remember 
that the primitive Eucharist embraced tlie Agape and the Com- 
munion proper.* The Agape was the perpetuation of the last 
[ Passover of our Lord, and culminated in the particijiation of 
Ihis body and blood. The Jewish Passover meal consisted of 
five distinct acts : 

(1) The head of the family or party (numbering no less than 
ten ) asked a blessing on the feast and blessed and drank the 

* See 1 Cor. xi. 20 sqq. ; Jude, ver. 12. The Did. comprehends both in 
the word ενχαριότία, Ignatius {Ad Rom. γ'ύ.; Ad Smyrn. vii, and viii.) in 
the word αγάπη. Ενχαριότι'α means the expression of gi'atitude in words 
(thanksgiving, 1 Cor. xiv. 16; 2 Cor. iv. 1.1; ix. II, 12; Phil. iv. 6, etc.), or 
in act (thank-offering), or both united in the sacrament. The last is the 
early patristic usage (Justin Martyr, Clement of Alex., Origen). Sometimes 
it denotes the consecrated elements of bread and wine, sometimes the whole 
sacramental celebration with or without the Agape. The earliest eucharis- 
tic pictures represent chiefly the Agape or supper which preceded the actual 
Communion. Thus an Agape with bread anc[ fish (referring to the miracu- 
lous feeding and the anagrammatic meaning of ίχ3νζ) is painted in the very 
ancient crypt of Domitilla, which De Rossi traces to Flavia, the grand- 
daughter of Vespasian. The bread and fish occur repeatedly in the Cata- 
comb of St. Callistus. See Smith and Cheetham, vol. i. 026. 


first cup of wine (alwa)^s mixed with water). This is mentioned 
in Luke, xxii. 17, before the thanksgiving for the bread, ver. 19. 

(2) The eating of the bitter herbs, the first part of the 
Hallel (Ps. cxiii. and cxiv.) and the second cup. The father, 
at the request of the son (Ex. xii. 26), explained the meaning 
of the feast and gave an account of the sufiierings of the Israel- 
ites and their deliverance from Egypt. 

(3) The feast proper, that is, the eating of the unleavened 
loaves, the festal ofiierings, and the jjaschal lamb. 

(4) The thanksgiving for the meal, and the blessing and 
diinking of the third cup. 

(δ) The siugmg of the remainder of the Hallel (Ps. cxv.- 
cxviii.), and the drinking of the fourth cup (occasionally a 
fifth cuj), but no more). 

No male was admitted to the jDassover unless he was circum- 
cised, nor any man or woman who was ceremonially unclean. 

The eucharistic cup which the Lord blessed and gave to the 
disciples, corresponds to the third paschal cup of thanksgiving 
which followed the breaking of the loaves and was made by 
Him, together with the broken bread, the sacrament of redemp- 
tion by the sacrifice of his body and blood. 

The Christian Agape was a much simpler feast than the 
Jewish Passover. Rich and poor, master and slave sat down 
together once a week on the same footing of brotherhood in 
Christ and partook of bread, fish and wine. Tertullian de- 
scribes it as " a school of \drtue rather than a banquet," and 
says, " as much is eaten as satisfies the cravings of hunger ; as 
much is drunk as benefits the chaste." * But occasional excesses 
of intemperance occurred already in Apostolic congregations, 
as at Corinth, f and must have multiplied with the growth of 
the Church. Early in the second century the social Agape was 
separated from the Communion and held in the evening, the 
more solemn Communion in the morning ; and afterwards the 
Agape was abandoned altogether, or changed into a charit}^ 
for the poor. 

* Apoc. xxxix. : "Editur quantum esurientes capiunt, bihitur quanhim pu- 
dicis utile est . . . ut qui non tarn ccenam ccenaverint quam discipUnatn." 
1 1 Cor. xi. 20-23. 


In the Didache tlie two institutions seem to be as yet hardly 
distinguishable. It contains the three prayers of thanksgiv- 
ing, given above, first for the cup, secondly for the broken 
bread, thirdly for all God's mercies spiritual and temporal, with 
a jDrayer for the Church universal,* 

Between the second and the third prayer is inserted a warn- 
ing against the admission of unbaptized or unconverted persons, 
and the phrase, " after being filled.''^ The question arises: Does 
this phrase refer to the Communion,f or to the Agape. :j: I think 
it must be applied to both, which were then inseparably con- 
nected, the Agape preceding, the Communion completing the 
Christian Passover. If referred to the Communion alone, the 
expression is too strong ; if referred to the Agape alone, the 
Communion must be put after the third prayer. But the Com- 
munion is indicated before the third prayer by the warning : 
" Let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist except those who 
have been baptized," etc. And the author of the Apostolical 
Constitutions so understood it when he substituted for " after 
being filled," the phrase " after participation," or " commu- 
nion." § Consequently the third thanksgiving must be sl post- 
communion prayer. 

This view, however, is not free from objections : 

1. That the thanksgiving for the cup precedes the thanks- 
giving for the broken bread, and seems to be a preparatory 
blessing corresponding to the blessing of the first cup in the 
Passover. This is the reverse of the usual liturgical order, but 
had a precedent in Luke xxii. 17 (comp. 19). || 

* These prayers are much enlarged in the Apost. Constit. vii. 9, 10. 

f Bryennios, John Wordsworth, Hamack. 

X Zahn (p. 893) rightly insists that ίμτΐλνΰ^ηναι implies the satisfaction 
of hunger and thirst by a regular meal (comp. John, vi. 13; Luke, i. 53; vi. 25; 
Acts, xiv. 17); for it is here not taken in a spiritual sense as in Kom. xv. 24. 

p Lib. vii. c. 26: Μετά δε την μετάλη-ψιν οΰτωζ ενχαβίβτήδίχτε. 
The warning of the Did. : "Give not that which is holy to the dogs " (Matt, 
vii. 6), is equivalent to the later liturgical formula, holy things to holy 
persons (τ a άγια τυίζ άχι'υιζ), which immediately preceded the distribu- 
tion of the elements. 

II Paul also mentions the cup first in 1 Cor. x. 16 and 21, but in the 
report of the institution, 1 Cor. xi. 23, he gives the usual order. So also 
the Did. in the warning at the close of Chap, ix, " Let no one eat or drink " 


2. That tlie warning after the third prayer : "If any one be 
holy let him come, if any one be not holy let him repent," 
seems to be an invitation to the Communion. But as such an 
invitation with a warning is contained at the close of the sec- 
ond prayer, we must understand the second warning as an ex- 
hortation to catechumens to join the church.* 

3. That there is no allusion to the atoning death of Christ — 
the central idea of the Eucharist, Very strange. But the 
Didache calls the Eucharist a sacrifice, shows the influence of 
John's Gospel (Chs. VI. and XVII.), and leaves room for 
additional prayers and exhortations by the Prophets. 

The eucharistic service of the Didache indicates a mode of 
worship not far removed from the freedom of the Apostolic 
age. The fourteenth chapter of Paul's first Epistle to the 
Corinthians, written in the year 57, makes the impression — to 
use an American phrase — of a religious meeting " thrown 
open." Everybody, who had a spiritual gift, whether it was 
the gift of tongues, or the gift of interpretation, or the gift of 
prophecy, or the gift of sober, didactic teaching, had a right to ί 
speak, to pray, and to sing ; even women exercised their gifts 
(comp. 1 Cor. xi. 5). Hence the Apostle checks the excesses 
of_this democratic enthusiasm and reminds the brethren that 
God is not a God " of confusion, but of peace," and that " all ' 
things should be done decently and in order " (1 Cor. xiv. 33, 
40). It was especially the Glossolalia or the abrupt, broken, \ 
ejaculatory, ecstatic outburst of devotion in acts of prayer or 
song, which was liable to abuse and to produce confusion. ' 
Hence the Apostle gave the preference to prophesying, which 
was addressed to the congregation and tended directly to prac- 
tical edification. ^ 

In the Didache wejQnd no trace of the Glossolaha, and the , 
worship is already regulated by a few short j^rayers, but it is 
not said who is to offer these prayers, nor is praying confined 
to these forms, on the contrary the " Prophets " are allowed to 
pray in addition as much as they please. A similar liberty 
was exercised, according to Justin Martyr, by the "President " 
(Bishop) of the congregation, who prayed according to his 

* So Harnack (p. 36). 



ability under the inspiration of the occasion." * The Mon- 
tanists wished to revive or to perpetuate the liberty of prophe- 

j sying by laj^men as well as ministers, by women as well as 

I men (like the Quakers in recent times), but the strong tenden- 
cy to order and hierarchical consolidation triumphed over 
freedom and restricted the active part of worship to a clerical 
function according to j^rescribed and unalterable liturgical 
forms, which appear under various Apostolic and post- Apos- 
tolic names in the Nicene age. The Reformation of the six- 

I teenth century revived the idea of the general priesthood of 
the laity, and recognized it in congregational singing and in 

. responsive liturgies. 


Ecclesiastical Organization. 

The third Part of the Didache is a Directory of Church 
Polity and Discipline. It contains instructions to Christian 
congregations concerning various classes of ministers of the 
gospel, Chs. XI.-XIII. and Ch. XV. The intervening four- 
teenth chapter treats of the observance of the Lord's Day and 
the sacrifice of the Eucharist ; it interrupts the natural con- 
nection and belongs rather to the second or liturgical section 
of the book. With this exception the order of the Didache is 
remarkably clear and logical. 

The Didaclie places us into the situation between the church 
polity of the Pastoral Epistles and the establishment of Epis- 
copacy, or between St. Paul and Ignatius of Antioch. The 
Apostolic government was about to cease, and the Episcopal 
government had not yet taken its place. A secondary order 
of Apostles and Prophets were moving about and continued 
the missionary work of the primitive Apostles ; while the 
government of the particular congregations remained in the 
hands of Presbyter-Bishops and Deacons, just as in Philippi 

* Apol. I. Ixvii: ΰό-η δύναμιζ αντω, quantum potest, quantum faeul- 
tafis eius est. Seethe notes of Otto, and comp. Tortullian's "ex proprio 
inr/enio," "ex pectore," "sine monitore." 


and other congregations of Paul. Siicli a state of things we 
should expect between A.D. 70 and 110. 

The organization of the Church in the Didache appears verv 
free and elastic. There is no visible centre of unit}•, either at 
Jerusalem, or Antioch, or Ephesus, or Kome ; which are not 
even mentioned. The author is silent about Peter, and knows 
nothing of his primacy or supremacy. No creed or rule of 
faith is required as a condition of membership or bond of 
union ; but instruction in Christian morality after the pattern 
of the Sermon on the Mount precedes Baptism. The bap- 
tismal formula which includes some belief in the Trinity, 
and the eucharistic prayers which imply some belief in the 
atonement, are a near approach to a confession, but it is not 

Nevertheless there is a spiritual unity in the Church such as 
Paul had in view, Eph. iv. 3. All Christians are brethren in 
the Lord, though scattered over the earth : they believe in God 
as the author of all good, and in Jesus Christ as their Lord 
and Saviour ; they are baptized into the triune name ; they 
partake of the same Eucharist ; they pray the Lord's Prayer : 
they abstain from the sins forbidden in the Decalogue and all 
other sins ; they practise every Christian virtue, and keep the 
royal law of love to God and to our neighbor ; they look hope- 
fully and watchfully forward to the second coming of Christ 
and the resurrection of the righteous. The Church is to be 
perfected into that kingdom which God has prepared for her. 

There is a strong feeling of Christian brotherhood running- 
through the eucharistic pra3^ers and the whole Didache.^ 
Every wandering brother who shares the faith and hope 

* Harnaek, p. 90: " Von einer formttlirten regula fidei ist in der 
/Ιιδαχτ; iioch nicht die Rede ; unziceifelhaft genugt dem Verfasser noch der 
Gebraiich der Abendmahlsgebete ^ind der Taufformel, urn den christlichen 
ChnraJcter dessen, der auf den Namen ^Christ ' Arispruch erhebt, festzu- 

f G. Bonet-Maury {La doctrine des dome ap6tres, Paris, 1884, p. 4\ says: 
"■ L'auteiir a un vif sentiment de la solidarite de tous les membres disjierse de 
Veglise universelle.'''' This catholicity of feeling is incompatible with the 
bigotry of the Ebionitie sect, and a strong argument against Krawutzcky's 


of the Churcli is to be hospitably received, witliout 
formal letters of recommendation. False propliets and cor- 
rupters are mentioned, but their errors are not described. 
The solidarity and hospitality of the primitive Christians 
are acknowledged and ridiculed as a good-natured weakness 
by the heathen Lucian, the Voltaire of the second century, 
who had no conception of the irresistible attraction of the 
cross of Christ. But they were often abused, which made 
caution necessary. Hence the restriction of congregational 
hospitality to two or three days, and the requirement of labor 
from those who can perform it (xii. 3, 4). 


Apostolic and Post- Apostolic Forms of Oovernment. 

It is interesting to compare the church polity and church 
officers of the Didache with the preceding and succeeding con- 

I. Let us first glance at the organization of the Apostolic 
churches. Christ himself founded the Church, appointed 
AjDostles, and instituted two sacraments, Baptism for new 
converts, and the Lord's Supper for believers. Beyond this 
fundamental woi'k he left the Church to the guidance of the 
Holy Spirit which he promised. 

(1) In the Acts of the Apostles we find Ajwstles, Prophets 
and Teachers (xiii. 1), Evangelists (xxi. 8), Presbyter- Bishops or 
Elders (xi. 80 ; xiv. 23 ; xv. 2, 4, 6, 22, 28 ; xvi. 4 ; xx. 17, 28 ; 
xxi, 18; xxiii. 14; xxiv. 1; xxv. 15), and in Jerusalem also 
Deacons^ under the name of tlie Seven (vi. 3 ; xxi. 8). 

(2) In the Pauline Epistles, the following officers and func- 
tions are mentioned: 

1 Cor. xii. 28 : " first Apostles^ secondly Prophets^ thirdly 
Teachers^ then miracles (j)owers, δυνάμεις)^ then gifts of heal- 
ing, helps, governments, divers kinds of tongues. Are all 
Apostles ? are all Prophets ? are all workers of miracles ? 
have all gifts of healings? do all speak with tongues? do all 


interpret ? " Paul here unites officers and gifts together with- 
out strict regard to order or completeness. He omits Evan- 
gelists, Bishops and Deacons (unless they are included in 
"Teachers" and in " helyjs and governments"), and the gifts 
of wisdom, of knowledge {ver, 8), of_discerning of spirits (ver, 
10), and love, the greatest of all gifts, described in Ch, XIII. 

Eph. iv. 11 : "And he gave some to be Apostles ; and some 
Prophets ; and some Evangelists ; and some Pastors and Teach- 
ers ; for the perfecting of the saints unto the work of min- 
istering, unto the building up of the body of Christ." Here 
Evangelists are distinguished from Apostles and Prophets; 
Bishops and Deacons are not named ; but probably included in 
Pastors and Teachers. 

Phil. i. 1 : " Bishojjs and Deacons " of the congregation at 
Philippi. The " Bishops" (mark the plural) must be Presby- 
ters or Elders; for one congregation could not have more than 
one Bishop in the later diocesan sense. 

In the Pastoral Epistles, Paul gives the qualifications of 
Bishop)s and Deacons^ omitting the Preshyters, because they were 
identical with the Bishops, 1 Tim. iii. 2. 8, 12 ; Tit. i. 7 ; but 
the Presbyters are mentioned in 1 Tim. v. 1, 17, 19 and Tit. i. 
5. Besides, "the work of an Evangelist^' is spoken of in con- 
nection with Timothy, 2 Tim. iv. 3, and the "Presbytery," or 
body of Presbyters, 1 Tim. iv. 1-i (comp. Acts, xxii. 5 ; Luke, 
xxii. 6). 

(3) The Epistle to the Hebrews mentions the church officers 
in the aggregate, without specification of classes, under the 
name of rulers {ηγούμενοι) who "speak the word of Grod." 
Ch, xiii. 7, 17, 24 The " Elders " in ch. xi. 2 is a title of dig- 
nity and equivalent to Fathers. 

(4) The Catholic Epistles throw no light on church organi- 

James mentions Teachers (iii. 1), and says that the Elders of 
the congregation should visit the sick to pray with them (v. 

Peter exhorts the Elders^ as a "Fellow-Elder," to tend the 
flock of God (1 Pet. v. 1-4). 

(5) The Apocalypse speaks of "holy Apostles and Prophets^'' 
5 ~ 


(xviii. 20), but also of false Apostles (ii. 2) and a false Proph- 
etess (ver. 20). Elders are repeatedly mentioned in the visions 
(iv. 4, 10 ; V. 5, 6, 8, 11, 14 ; vii. 11, 13 ; xi. 16 ; xiv. 3 ; xix. 
4), bat not in the usual ecclesiastical sense. The Angels of the 
Seven Churches in Asia Minor are probably the representa- 
tives of the body of congregational officers.* 

II. In the second and third centuries, we find a considerable 
change, first in the Ignatian Epistles (about 110), and then 
more fully developed in Irenaeus (c, 180), TertuUian (200), and 
Cyprian (250). The clergy and laity are separated, and the 
former are clothed with a sacerdotal character after the prece- 
dent of the Levitical priesthood. The three orders {ordines ma- 
jores) of the ministry a23pear, namely, Bishops^ Priests {Preshy- 
iers), and Deacons^ M'ith a number of subordinate officers called 
the rainoi' orders (Sub-deacons, Readers, Acolyths, Exorcists, 
etc.) ; while the Apostles, Prophets, and Evangelists disappear. 
The Bishops rise above the Presbyters from a local congrega- 
tional to a diocesan position and become in the estimation 
of the Church successors of the Apostles (the Bishop of Rome, 
successor of Peter). 

Among the Bishops again the occupants of the " Apostolic 
Sees " so called (Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, Ephesus, 
Rome) rose in the Nicene age to the dignity of Metropolitans, 
and five of them (Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, Rome, Con- 
, stantinople or New Rome) to the higher dignity of Patriarchs ; 
while the Bishop of Old Rome claimed a still higher dignity, 
a primacy of honor, and a supremacy of jurisdiction over the 
whole Church as the successor of Peter, and the vicar of Christ, 
— a claim, however, which the Oriental Church never conceded.f 

III. The Didache, as already remarked, stands between the 
Apostolic organization of the first century and the Episcopal 
organization of the second, and fills the gap between the two. 
It mentions five officers, namely Apostles^ Prophets and Teach- 
ers, for the church at large ; and Bishop)s and Deacons for par- 
ticular congregations. 

* See my Church History, i. 497 sq. , and History of the Apostolic 
Church, p. 537 sqq. 

f See on these changes, Church History, ii. 121-154. 


In the last respect it agrees with the Epistle of Clement of 
Eome. The Shepherd of Hermas likewise belongs to this 
transition period. He does not jet mention these orders, but 
Apostles, Prophets, Teachers, Bishops and Deacons. 

The Irvingites might find new proof in the Dida^he for their 
church polity, which includes Apostles, Prophets, and Evan- 
gelists, but confines the number of Apostles to twelve. 


Apostles and Prophets. 

Let us now consider the se\^eral gospel ministers of the 

1. The Apostles spoken of in the eleventh chapter, are not 
the Twelve mentioned in the title, but their associates and 
successors in the work of Christianizing the world. They are 
travelling evangelists or missionaries who preached the Gospel 
from place to place in obedience to the great commission of 
Christ to his disciples. The word is used in a wider sense, 
corresponding to its etymology. The original Twelve were 
chosen with special reference to the twelve tribes of Israel. It 
was a typical number, as was also the number of the seven 
Deacons in Jerusalem. The spread of Christianity among the 
Gentiles required an extension of the Apostolate. First of all, 
Paul is the typical " Apostle of the Gentiles," and being di- 
rectly called by the exalted Saviour, he stands on a par in 
authority with the Twelve. Next to him such men as Barna- 
bas, James the Lord's Brother, Epaphras, Andronicus and 
Junias, Timothy, Titus, Mark, Luke, Silvanus, Apollos, are 
or may be called Apostles in a wider and secondary sense.* 

* Comp. Acts, xi\'. 4, 14 (where Barnabas is certainly included in άτΐοβτό- 
λοι); 1 Thess. ii. 6 (where Silvanus and Timothy seem to be included in the 
plural; both being mentioned with Paul in the inscription, i. 1); Rom. xvi. 
7 (where Andronicus and Junias are called έτιίόημοι iv τοίζ αποότόλυιζ 
"noted among the Apostles"; see the Commentaries); 1 Cor. xv. 5, 7 {τοίζ 
αποΰτόλοϊ?, as distinct from the δώδεκα mentioned ver. 5). In the N. 
T. the term απόΰτυλυζ occurs 79 times (68 times in J^uke and Paul), 


Hence false " Apostles " are also spoken of, who counteracted 
the work of the genuine Apostles and sowed tares among the 

The Shepherd of Herroas speaks of " forty Apostles and 
Teachers." t 

The Lord himseK had, during his earthly ministry, set in 
motion such a secondary class of Apostles, in anticipation and 
authorization of Evangelists of future ages, by the mission of 
the Seventy who Avent out "two and two before his face into 
every city and place whither he himself was about to come." X 
The instructions he gave to them, as well as to the Twelve, 
on a similar preparatory mission, help us very much to under- 
stand the state of things in the post- Apostolic age. 

The love of Christ kindled an extraordinary missionary 
enthusiasm ; and this alone can explain the rapid spread of 
Christianity throughout the Eoman empire by purely moral 
means and in the face of formidable obstacles. Justin Martyr 
was a travelling Evangelist or peripatetic Teacher of Jews and 
Gentiles in different places. Eusebius has a special chapter 
on " Preaching Evangelists who were yet living in that age," 
i. e., the age of Ignatius under the reign of Trajan. § He thus 
describes them : 

" They performed the office of Evangelists to those who had not yet heard 
the faith, whilst, with a noble ambition to proclaim Christ, they also deliv- 
ered to them the books of the Holy Gospels. After laying the foundation 

άποΰτολή 4 times (thrice in Paul and once in Luke). See Bishop Light- 
foot's Com. on Gal. pp. 92-101, where he discusses at length the classical, 
Jewish, Apostolic, and ecclesiastical uses of the term . 

* 2 Cor. xi. 13 ; Rev. ii. 3. 

f Sim.: ix. 15. ο'ί δέ μ' άτίόΰτολοΐ itai διδαόκαλοι τον Μηρυχματυξ 
του υίον τον ^εον {quadraginta aposfoli et dodores pradicationis filii 
Dei). Again in cap. 16 and ix. 25. The number forty has reference to the 
forty stones in the building of the tower, which is a figure of the Church. 
Comp. Vis. III. 5: λί^οι . . . είόιν oi άτΐόΰτολοι uai Ιττίβκοποι nai 
διδαόκαλοι και διάκονοι. 

Χ Luke, χ. 1 sqq. ; comp. Matt χ. 5 sqq. 

§ περί των είόέτι τότε διαπρεπόνταον εναγγ ελιότών , De Evangelii 
prcedicatorihus qui adhuc ea cetate florebant, Hid. Ecel. iii. 37. In the pre- 
ceding ch. 36 he treats of Ignatius, in ch. 38 of Clement of Rome, in ch. 39 
of Papias He means, therefore, the time from the close of the first and to 
the middle of tha second century. 


of the faith in foreign parts as the particular object of their mission, and 
after appointing others as shepherds of the Hocks, and committing to these 
the care of those that had been recently introduced, they went again to 
other regions and nations, with the grace and cooperation of God. The 
holy Spirit also wrought many wonders as yet through them, sa that as soon 
as the gospel was heard, men voluntarily in crowds, and eagerly, embraced 
the true faith with their whole minds. As it is impossible for us to give the 
numbers of the individuals that became Pastors or Evangelists during the 
first immediate succession from the Apostles in the churches throughout the 
world, we have only recorded those by name in our history, of whom we 
have received the traditional ^count as it is delivered in the various com- 
ments on the Apostolic doctrine still extant." 

This description is the best commentary on the "Apostles" / 
of the Didache. 

These wandering Evangelists are to be received as the Lord, ι 
but are only allowed^ to remain a day or two in the Christian | 
congregations. This was a measure of seK-protection against 
imposition by clerical vagabonds. A true Apostle would not ' 
forget his duty to preach the gospel to the unconverted. 
False Apostles and false Prophets were known already in the 
Apostolic age, and predicted by Christ. Paul was tormented 
by Judaizing missionaries, who followed him everywhere, and 
tried to undermine his authority and work in Galatia, Corinth, | 
Philippi, and elsewhere. The Apostle, according to the 
Didache^ is entitled to his living, but if he asks for money he 
is a false prophet. Mercenary preachers have been a curse 
from the beginning in unbroken succession. How easily the 
simple-hearted Christians were imposed upon by selfish leaders, 
we learn from Lucian's "Peregrinus Proteus." * 

In this connection the Didache directs that every Christian 
" who comes in the name of the Lord," shall receive hospitality , 
for two or three days ; but if he remains longer, he shall work, ( 
and if he refuses, he is a " Christ-trafficker ; " i. e., one who ' 
makes merchandise of his Christian profession, or uses the ; 
name of Christ for selfish ends, like Simon Magus, f 

2. The Prophets are mentioned in close connection with 

* See Church History, vol. ii., 93 sqq. 

f Ch. XII. 5. Χριότέΐ-ΐηοροζ is a post-apostolic word, but used also by 
Pseudo-Ignatius, Athanasius, Chrysostom, and Basil. The idea is the same 
as 1 Tim. vi. 5, " supposing that godliness is a way of gain." 


the Apostles, but with this difference, that they were not sent 
as missionaries to the heathen, but instructors and comforters 
of converts, and might settle in a particular congregation. In 
this case they are to receive a regular maintenance, namely, all 
first fruits of the products of the wine-press and threshing-floor, 
of oxen and sheep, and of e\xry possession. They are to be 
supported like the priests in the Jewish theocracy, " according 
to the commandment." * A congregation, however, may be 
without a Prophet, though not without Bishops and Deacons. 
There were, it seems, itinerant Prophets and stationary Proph- 
ets. In the absence of a Prophet the congregational offerings 
should be given to the poor. 

The Didache shows a preference for the Prophets : they are 
mentioned fifteen times (the Apostles only three times) ; they 
are called "chief -priests, "f and they alone are allowed the 
privilege to pray extempore as much as they please in public 
worship. But as there are false Apostles, so there are also 
false Prophets, and they must be judged by their fruits. 
Avarice is a sure sign of a false Prophet. 

Paul gives the Prophets the preference over the Glossolalists, 
because prophecy was for the edification of the congregation, 
while the glossolalia was an abrupt, broken, ejaculatory, trans- 
cendental utterance of prayer and praise for the gratification 
of the individual, who spoke in an ecstatic condition of mind, 
and required interpretation into the ordinary language of com- 
mon sense to benefit others. It seems to have passed away 
soon after the Apostolic age. X It is not mentioned in the 

A Prophet in the biblical sense is an inspired teacher and 
exhorter who reveals to men the secrets of God's will and word 
and the secrets of their own hearts for the purpose of conver- 

* Ch. XIIT. 5, 7. Probably with reference to the Mosaic law. The tithes 
are not yet mentioned. 

f Ch. XIII. 3, υί αρχιερείς ιΊμών, a title given to the heads of the twenty- 
four courses of priests and to the members of the Sanhedrin. This is the 
first intimation of the sacerdotal conception of the Christian ministry. 

X On the glossolalia and the other charismata of the Apostolic Age, see 
History of the Christian Church (revised ed.), i., 230-242 and 436 sqq., and 
the commentators on Acts, ii. and 1 Cor. xii. and xiv. 


siou and edification. As tiie word indicates, lie is a spokes- 
man or interpreter of God to men.* The predictive element 
does not necessarily enter into his office. Some of the great- , 
est prophets among the Hebrews did not foretell future events, j 
or only to a limited extent. In the New Testament all Apos- 
tles were inspired prophets, more especially John, the apoca- 
lyptic seer of the future conflicts and triumphs of the kingdom 
of Christ. Agabus was a Prophet from Jerusalem, who pre- | 
dieted at Antioch the famine, under Claudius Ca3sar, a.d. 44 
(Acts, xi. 28), and afterwards (in 58) at C^sai'ea the captivity 
of Paul, Λvhen, like some of the Hebrew Prophets, he accom- 
panied his word with a symbolic action by binding his own - 
hands and feet with Paul's girdle (xxi. 10, 11). Barnabas, 
Simeon Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen, and Saul are called 
"Proj^hets and Teachers" of the church at Antioch, and 
through them the Holy Spirit appointed Barnabas and Saul 
for the missionary work among the Gentiles (Acts, xiii. 1^). 
Nor was the prophetic gift confined to men. As in the Old 
Testament Miriam and Deborah were prophetesses, so the four ; 
unmarried daughters of Philip the Evangelist, prophesied J 
(xxi. 9). Paul recognizes the same gift in women (1 Cor. xi. - 
4), but forbids its exercise in the public assembly (xiv. 34 ; 
1 Tim. ii. 11, 12). In the Jewish dispensation the Prophets, 
since the time of Samuel, constituted one of the three !/ 
orders of the theocracy, with the sacerdotal and royal order. 
In the New Testament, there is no trace of a prophetic order. 
The gift was distributed and exercised chiefly in expounding 
the deeper sense of the Scriptures and rousing the conscience 
and heart of the hearers. 

The Prophets of the Didache are the successors of these earlier 
Prophets. The Shepherd of Hermas is a weak echo of Apostolic r 
prophecy and is full of revelations. Justin Martyr and Irenseus 
testify to the continuance of the prophetic office in the Church. 
The Peregrinus of Lucian's satirical romance is represented as 

*This is the usual classical meaning of πρυφήτηζ, one who speaks for 
another, especially for a god ; hence an interpreter. Thus Apollo is called '• 
the prophet of Zeus. In the Sept. it is the translation of Nabi. Aaron was i 
the prophet of Moses (Ex. vii. 1). 


a Prophet and a sort of Bishop, but was an impostor. Celsus 
mentions Prophets in Phoenicia and Palestine. Gradually the 
prophetic office disappeared before the episcopal, which would 
not tolerate a rival, and was better suited for the ordinary gov- 
ernment of the Church. Montanism revived prophecy in an 
eccentric and fanatical shape with predictions of the approach- 
ing Millennium ; but the Millennium did not appear, and the 
new prophecy was condemned and defeated by the episcopal 
hierarchy. In our days Irvingism made a similar attempt 
and met a similar fate. Prophecy, like all the other super- 
natural gifts of the Apostolic age, was necessary for the intro- 
duction, but not for the perpetuation, of Christianity. Yet in 
a wider sense there are prophets or enlightened teachers speak- 
ing with authority and power in almost every age of the 
Christian Church. 

There is no trace of a Montanistic leaning in the Didache^ 
as Hilgenfeld assumes. The chief doctrines of Montanism, 
concerning the Paraclet, the Millennium, the severe fasts, the 
female prophecy, the general priesthood of the laity, the oppo- 
sition to the Catholic clergy, are nowhere alluded to. The 
book evidently ante-dates Montanism. 

3, The term Teachers (διδάσκαλοι) seems to be used in a 
general way, and may apply alike to the Apostles and the 
Prophets, and also to the Bishops,* For teaching was one of 
the chief functions of their office. The church of Smyrna 
calls her Bishop Polycarp " an Apostolic and Prophetic 
Teacher." f But there were also many uninspired teachers 
without the prophetic gift, like Justin Martyr, Tatian, 

*In Ch. XIII. 1, 2, ηροφήτηζ α•Λ7;9ζκο5 and 8xdc\oHcx\oZ αληΒινόί 
seem to be identical. In Acts, xiii 1, Barnabas, Saul, and others are called 
"Prophets and Teachers." Paul requires of the Bishop — i.e., of the local 
Presbyter — that he be apt to teach (διδακτΐκόζ), 1 Tim. iii. 2. In 1 Cor. 
xii. 28 he puts the Teachers after the Prophets, in Eph. iv. 11 after the 
Evangelists and in connection with the Shepherds (roi3? δέ ποιμεναζ -και 
διδ α6κάΧου%). Hormas (*SiTO. ix. 11) connects "Apostles and Teachers." 
Zahn, I. c, p. 300, understands by the Teachers of the Didache, members 
of the congregation. 

\ Martyr. Pohjc. xvi. (ed. Funk i. 301): διδάόκαλοζ αποόΓολικύζ και 
προφητικόζ, and at the same time έπίΰκοποζ τηζ εν Έμύρνη καΒολικηί 


PantEenus, and the teachers of the catechetical school at 
Alexandria, and other institutions of religious and theological 
instruction and preparation for church work. 


Bishops and Deacons. 

The local churches or individual congregations are ruled by 
Bishops and Deacons elected or appointed by the people.* 
They derive their authority not directly from the Holy Spirit, 
as the Apostles and Prophets, but through the medium of the 
Church. They are to be worthy of the Lord, meek and un- 
selfish, truthful and of good report, and to be honored like the 
Prophets and Teachers (XY. 1, 2). 

This is all we learn of the two classes of congregational 
officers. They are evidently the same with those mentioned in 
the Acts and the Pauhne Epistles. The Bishops are the 
regular teachers and rulers who have the spiritual care of the 
flock ; the Deacons are the helpers who attend to the tempo- 
ralities of the Church, especially the care of the poor and the 
sick. Afterwards the Deaconate became a stepping-stone to 
the Presbyterate. Deaconesses are not mentioned in the 
Didache, but undoubtedly existed from Apostolic times, at 
least in Greek churches (comp. Rom. xvi. 1), for the care of 
the poor and sick and the exercise of hospitality and various 
offices of love among the female portion of the congregation. 
They were required by the strict separation of the sexes. The 
office continued in the Greek Church down to the twelfth 

The Bishops of the Didache are identical with the Presby- 

* Ch. XV. 1: χείβοτονήΰατε οϋν έαυτιήζ έηιόκυπονζ και διακόν^υζ. 
Comp. Acts, xiv. 23; 2 Cor. -riii. 19. The A. V. renders the word in Acts 
wrongly by "ordain," which is a later ecclesiastical sense. The R. V. 
corrects it: "When they had appointed tor them elders in every church." 
The election of Bishops by the people continued to be the practice till the 
time of Cyprian, Ambrose, and Augustin, who were all so elected ; but ordina- 
tion was performed by other Bishops. 


ters; lience the latter are not mentioned at all. Tliis is a 
strong indication of its antiquity. It agrees with the usage in 
the New Testament, and differs from the usage of the second 
century, when Bishops, Priests and Deacons were distinguished 
as three separate orders.* 

Bishops and Presbyters in the Acts and Epistles are not 
two distinct ranks or orders, but one and the same class of 
congregational officers. "Bishop" (βτΓζσποτΓο?), ^■.e., Overseer, 
Superintendent, was the title of municipal and financial offi- 
cers in Greece and Egypt, and occurs in the Sej)tuagint for 
several Hebrew words meaning " inspector," " taskmaster," 
"captain." The term "Presbyter" (πρεσβύτερος)^ or ΈΙάβτ, 
was used of the rulers of the Synagogue and corresponds to the 
Hebrew seken. It was originally a name of age and dignity 
(like "Senator," "Alderman"). Both titles were transferred 
to the rulers and teachers of the Apostolic churches, and used 
interchangeably. Hence the Ephesian " Presbyters " in Acts, 
XX. 17, are called "Bishops" in ver. 28; hence Bishops and 
Deacons alone are mentioned in the Epistle to the Philippians 
(ch. i. 1) and in the Pastoral Epistles. There were always 
several Presbyter-Bishops in one congregation (even the small- 
est), and constituted a college or board called " Presbytery," 
for the government of the Church, probably with a presiding 
officer elected by his colleagues and corresponding to the chief 
ruler of the Synagogue. 

This same identity we find in the Didache, and also in the 
Epistle of Clement of Rome, which was wi'itten before the 
close of the second century. Clement mentions " Bishops and 

* So also Bishop Lightfoot (on the Did. in " The Expositor," Jan. 1885, p. 
7): " When our author wrote, Bishop still remained a synonym for * Presby- 
ter,' and the Episcopal ofBce, properly so called, had not been constituted in 
the district in which he lived." This is, no doubt, the natural view sustained 
by the Pauline Epistles and by the Epistle of the Roman Clement. I cannot 
agree with Dr. Harnack (p. 143 sqq.) who labors to prove that the Bishops 
were originally identical with the Deacons, and that their office was purely 
administrative. He had previously advocated this theory in Die Gesellschafts- 
verfassung der ChristUcfien Kirchen im Alterthum ; Giessen, 1883, p. 229 sqq. 
(A translation, with additions, of Dr. Hatch's Bampton Lectures on The 
Organization of the Early Christian Churches, 1881). 


Deacons" as congregational officers, enjoins obedience to 
"Presbyters" without mentioning "Bisliops," and calls the 
office of the Corinthian '' Presbyters " episcopal supervision 

But these are the last instances of the New Testament use 
of the term " Bishop." In the Ignatian Epistles he is already 
clearly distinguished from the Presbyters, as representing a 
higher order, though not yet a diocesan, but simply as the 
head of a single church and of its board of Presbyters and 
Deacons. By and by as the Apostles, Prophets, and Evangelists 
disappeared, the Bishops absorbed all the higher offices and 
functions, and became in the estimation of the Church the suc- 
cessors of the Apostles ; while the Presbyters became Priests, 
and the Deacons ,Levites, in the new Chiistian Catholic hie- 


The End of the World. 

The Didache aptly closes with an exhortation to watchful- 
ness and readiness for the coming of the Lord, as the goal of .' 
the Christian's hope. The sixteenth chapter is an echo of the 
eschatological discourses in the Synoptical Gospels, especially 
the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew, with the exception of 
those features which especially refer to the destruction of Jeru- 
salem and the Temple. The eucharistic prayers allude like- 
wise to the end, when God will gather his Church from the ' 
four winds into his kingdom (ix. 4 and x. 5). 

Christ prophetically described the downfall of the Jewish 
theocracy and the judgment of the world as analogous, though 
not synchronous events. The divine mind sees the end from 
the beginning. The prophet beholds the future as a pano- 
ramic vision in which distant scenes are brought into close 

* Ep. ad Cor. chs. 42, 44 and 57. Coinp. Rothe's Anfdnge der Christl. 
Kirche; Bishop Lightfoot's S. Clement of Rome, and his essay on The 
Christian Ministry (Excursus to his Com. on Philippians) ; and the author's 
Church History, ii., 139 sq. 


proximity. History is an ever -expanding fulfilment of 
prophecy. The downfall of Jerusalem is itself a type of the 
end of the world. The disciples asked about both, and Christ 
answered accordingly. 

The Synoptical Gospels were written before A.D. 70, and 
hence contain no hint at the fulfilment, which could hardly 
have been avoided had they been written later.* The Epistles 
often allude to the parousia of the Lord as being near at hand, 
and hold it up as a stimulus to watchfulness, but wisely 
abstain from chronological predictions, since the Lo rd Jiad 
expressly declared his own ignorance of the day a nd ho ur 
(Matt. xxiv. 37 ; Mark, xiii. 32). His ignorance was a volun- 
tary self-limitation of his knowledge in the state of humilia- 
tion, or, as Lange calls it, "a holy unwillingness to know and 
to reflect prematurely upon the point of time of the parousia, 
thereby setting an example to the Church." It is an earnest 
warning against idle chronological curiosity. "It is not for 
you to know times or seasons which the Father hath set within 
his own authority " (Acts, i. 7). We cannot and ought not 
to know more on this subject than Christ himself knew or was 
willing to know when on earth, and what he refused to reveal 
even after his resurrection. All mathematical calculations and 
predictions concerning the Millennium and the end of the 
world, are a mere waste of learning and ingenuity, have failed 
and must fail. It is better for us be ignorant of the time of 
our own end that we may keep ourselves all the more in readi- 
ness to meet our Judge whenever he may call us to an ac- 
count, f 

The author of the Didache does not exceed these limits of 
Christian wisdom. He begins with the exhortation to watch 
and pray because we do not know the hour in which the Lord 
Cometh (comp. Matt. xxv. 13). But he points out the premoni- 
tory symptoms, namely, the rise of false prophets and destroy- 

* Comp. John, ii. 22 : " When therefore he was raised from the dead, his 
disciples remembered that he said this," etc. Luke, xxiv. 6. 
. t Comp. Matt. xxiv. 33, 36, 43, 44 ; Acts, i. 7; Rom. xiii. 11, 12; 1 Cor. 
XV. 51 ; Phil. iv. Γ, ; 1 Thess. v. 1, 2 ; James, v. 8 ; 1 John, ii. 18 ; 1 Pet. 
iv. 7; 2 Pet. iii. 10 ; Heb. x. 25 ; Rev. i. 3; iii. 3; xvi. 15. 


ers, tlie decay of love, the increase of lawlessness, persecution, 
and the appearance of the World-Deceiver * (or Anti-Christ), 
who will pretend to be the Son of God (Christ's antipode) and 
do signs and wonders and uuheard-of iniquities. The race of 
men will be tried as by fire, but those who endure in their 
faith to the end shall be saved. Then the heavens will be 
opened (comp. Matt. xxiv. 30, 31), the trumpet will sound 
(comp. 1 Cor. xv. 52 ; 1 Thess. iv. 16, 17), the dead will rise, 
and the world will see the Lord coming upon the clouds of 
heaven with all his saints (corap. Zech. xiv. 8 ; Matt. xvi. 27 ; 
xxiv. 31 ; xxvi. 6-4). These events are, apparently, represented 
as simultaneous, " in a moment, in the twinkling of an eve " 
(1 Cor. XV. 52). 

The resurrection here spoken of is restricte d to the saints / — '^ 
(xiv. 7). This may be understood in a chiliastic sense of the" 
first resurrection {?) ανάστασιζ η πρώτη^ Rev. xx. 5) ; but the 
author of the Didaclie says nothing about a Millennium, and of a 
general resarrection after it. "We have, therefore, no right to 
commit him either to the chiliastic or to the antichiliastic 
school, but the greater probability is that he was a Chiliast, like 
Barnabas, Papias, Justin Martyr, Irengeus, Tertullian, and the 
majority of ante-Nicene fathers before the great revolation un- 
der Constantine, when the Church from the condition of a per- 
secuted sect was raised to 230wer and dominion in this world, ; 
and the opinion came to prevail (through the influence chiefly 
of St. Augustin) that the Millennium was already established.f 

* Ηοόυ-οπλάνοζ (xvi. 4), a very significant word, used here for the first ^ "^^^ 
time, and retained by the autlior of the Apost. Const, viii. 32, with the 
addition ο τήζ aA?/Sf/a? εχ'^ρΰζ, ό τον ψενδουζ ηροΰτάτηζ. It was 
probably suggested by 2 John, ver. 7 ; ττολλοι ηλάνοι (deceivers, impostors) 
iiJfXSov εις τον κόόμον, Matt. χχλϋ. 63 : εκεΊνοζ ό πλάνοί, and Rev. 
XX. 3 : zVa μή τΐΧανήόχι ετι τά eSvyj, and ver. 10 : 6 διάβολοζ ο πλανών 
αντονζ. Comp. also Josephus, De Β. J. ii. 13,4 : ττλάνοι άνθρωποι και 

\ See CJiurcTi History, ii. 614 sqq. The indefiniteness of the Didache on 
this subject, as compared with the explicit chiliastic theory of Barnabas 
(ch. XV), is an additional argument in favor of the prior date of the Didache, L-^ 
and I cannot conceive how Harnack (p. 287 sq.) from a comparison of Did. 
XVI. 2 with Barnabas iv. 9 can come to the opposite conclusion. Dr. CraA-en 
(in the TeacJiing of the Twelve Apostles, printed in " The Journal of 

7<cf t CL fr.-i<^ - 



Tlie Didache and the Scriptures.^ 

The Didache will hereafter occupy an important position in 
tlie history of the New Testament Canon. 

The Apostles quote the Old Testament usually according to 
the Greek version of the Sej)tuagint, as they wrote in Greek 
and for Greek readers. But they quote very freely, in the 
fulness of the spirit of revelation, now from memory, now 
correcting the Septuagint from the Hebrew original, now 
adapting the text to the argument. They never quote from 
the Apocrypha, unless the allusion to the Book of Enoch in 
Jude, ver. 14, be considered an exception. 

The Apostolic Fathers, who wrote between a.d. 90 and 150, 
deal as freely but far less wisely with the Old Testament, and 
use also indiscriminately the ApocryjDha for homiletical and 
practical purposes. As to the ISTew Testament, they still move 
in the element of living tradition and abound in reminiscences 
of Apostolic teaching. These reminiscences agree with the 
facts and doctrines, but very seldom with the precise words of 
the Gospels and Epistles. They give no quotations by name, 
except in a few cases. Barnabas quotes two passages from 
Matthew, without naming him.f Clement of Eome refers to 

Christian Philosophy," N. Y.. 1884, p. 78 sqq.) claims the Lidnche for the 
pre-millennian theory. " Jf the writer," he says, "believed in an earthly 
period of righteousness and blessedness, a Millennium, it must have been 
one which he i-egarded as subsequent to the Advent. On this point, there 
cannot be a rational doubt. Pre-millenarianism may not be affirmed in the 
document, but most certainly Post-millenarianism is impliedly denied." 
Dr Hitchcock (p. 62) leaves the matter doubtful, and says: " The peculiar 
chiliasm of Barnabas, so unlike that of Papias, is best explained by suppos- 
ing it to have come in between the Teaching and Papias." 

* See the table of Scripture quotations in Bryennios, p. 57; the full dis- 
cussion of Harnack, pp. 6.5-88; De Romestin, pp. 10-17, and the third Ex- 
cursus of Spence, pp. 101-107. Zahn (p. 319) promises to discuss this subject 
in the First Part of his projected History of the Canon. 

f In chap iv. from Matt. xxii. 14 (with the solemn quotation formula 
&5? γέχραπται), and chap. v. from Matt. ix. 13. Barnabas furnishes also 


Paul's (first) Epistle to tlie Corintliians and shows familiarity 
with Paul, James, and especially with the Epistle to the He- 
brews, but gives only three quotations from the New Testa- 
ment. * Ignaiiiis echoes and exaggerates Pauline and Johan- 
nean ideas in his own fervent language. Polycarp's short 
Epistle to the Philippians " contains," as AVestcott says,f "far 
more references to the New Testament than any other work 
of the first age ; and still, with one exception, :{: all the phrases 
which he borrows are inwoven into the texture of his letter 
without any sign of quotation." Hennas, on the contrary, has 
no quotations from the Old or New Testament, and never men- 
tions the Apostles by name, although he shows traces of a 
knowledge of Mark, James, and the Epistle to the Ephesians. 
^apia^ gives us valuable hints about the GosjDels of Matthew 
and Mark, and faithfully collected the oral traditions about 
the Lord's Oracles, in five books (unfortunately lost), being 
of the opinion, as he says, that he " could not derive so 
much benefit from books as from the living and abiding 
voice." § 

The next writer of importance who followed the Apostolic 
Fathers and was a younger contemporary of Polycarp and 
Papias, is Justin Mart^jj who was born towards the close of 
the first or the beginning of the second century. He qjiotes 
very often from the Prophets and the Gospels, but very loosely, 
mostly from memory and without naming the Evangelists ; he 
never _ c| notes from the Catholic Epistles and the Epistles of 
Paul; the only book of the New Testament which he mentions 
expressly, is the Apocalypse of John. | With Ireneeu s, who 

parallels to passages in Paul, Peter, and the Apocalypse, see Church Hist. 
ii. 674 sq. Corap. also Reuss, Historyyf the Canon, transl, by David Hun- 
ter (1884), p. 22. 

* See Church History, ii. 642, and Funk, Pair. Ap. i. 566-570. 

f History of the Canon, p. 33. Funk (i. 573 sq.) counts six quotations of 
Polycarp from the 0. Ϊ. and sixty-eight reminiscences from the New. 

X Or rather two, namely, 1 John, iv. 3 and Matt. χχλΊ. 41, which are 
quoted in eh. vii., but the first not literally. 

§ Church Hist. ii. 694 sq. It is a plausible conjecture that the pericope 
of the woman taken in adultery, John, λάί. 53-viii. 11., was preserved by 

I Church History, ii. 720. 



' flourished iu the second half of the second century, begins 
the exact mode of quoting the New Testament Scriptures 
by name and from written copies, though free and loose quota- 
tions from memory never ceased among the fathers, and their 
children and children's children. 

In view of these facts we must judge the relation of the 
Didache to the canon. It is essentially the same as that of the 
Apostolic Fathers, but it has more quotations from the Gospel 
of Matthew than any or all of them. 

1. From the Old Testament two prophetic passages are 
quoted as Scripture, as follows : 

Mal. I. 11, 14 (Sept.). 

Ε V π a V τ ι τ ο π ω S-v- 
μίαμα προσάγεται έπϊ τώ 
ονόματι μου [Hebrew ''Ώΰ•?] 
71 αϊ ^ υ ff i α καθαρά- 
διότι μέγα το όνομα 
μου εν τ οι ς a' Β ν ε σ ι , 
\εγ ει Κν ρ ιοζ παντο- 
κράτωρ . . . 14. διότι μέ- 
γα ζ β α σ ιλε ν ζ έ γ ω ε ί- 
μι , λ έ γ ε ι Κ ν ριο ζ παν- 
τοκράτωρ, και το 6 νο μα 
μον επιφανεζ εν τ οι ζ 
έ Β ν ε σ IV . 

In every place incense shall 
be offered in [unto] rny name, 
and a pure sacrifice; for great 
shall be my name among the 
Gentiles^ saith the Lord Al- 
mighty. ... 14. For I am a 
great king^ saith the Lord Al- 
mighty, and my name is illus- 
trious among the Gentiles. 

Didache, XIV. 3. 

Αντ7] γαρ εστϊν r) ρη^εΐαα 
νπο Κυρίου • * 

1l ν π α ν τ ι τ ο π ω και 
χρονω προσφέρε IV μοϊ 
Β υ σ ί α ν 7ί α S α ρ α ν • ο τ ι 
β α σ ιλ ε υ ζ μέγ α ζ ειμί, 
λέγει Κΰ ρ ι ο ζ , και τ ό 
όνομα μου Βαυμαστόν 
εν τ οι ζ ε Β ν ε α ι. 

For it is that which was 
spoken by the Lord,* '>' 

"/w every place and time 
off^er me a pure sacrifice ; for I 
am a great hing, saith the Lord, 
and Tfiy name is wonderful 
among the Gentiles^ 

* The Bid. seems to refer " Lord" to Christ, as he is called " Lord" in 
the same chapter, ver. L i- 

, ofwi ' 




I . II 




Ου πάντων δε, αλλ' ώζ 
ερρέ^η • 

Και η ξ ε ι Κ ν ρ ι ο ζ 6 Η ξ ε ι ό Κύριος, και 
Βεοζ μου, και τταντε'ζ παντεζ οι άγιοι μ ε τ' 
οι α γ ΙΟΙ μ ε τ' αυτού, αυτού. 

Not. however, of all, but as 
was said : 

And the Lord, my God, shall '' The Lord shall come^ and all 
corneal and all the saints with the saints with ΙϋπιΓ 

The other allnsions to the Old Testament are too vague to 
be considered as quotations. Two are to canonical books 
(comp. III. 8 with Isa. Ixvi. 2 ; and IV. 13 with Deut. xii. 32), 
and five to apocryphal books, Tobit and Sirach.(^:fr(- • - 

The first two chapters of the Didache are largely based on 
the Decalogue as interpreted and deepened by Christ The 
direction concerning the first fruits is derived from the Mo- 
saic ordinance (Deut. xviii. 4), but there is no indication that 
the author considered the ceremonial law as binding upon 

2. As to the New Testament, the Didache appeals chiefly, 
we may say exclusively, to the " Gospel," as the source of 
Apostolic teaching. The writer goes back to the fountain- 
head, the Lord himself, as is indicated b}^ the larger title of the 
book. " Pray not as the hypocrites, but as the Lord in his Gospel 
has commanded." The Gospel is mentioned four or five times.* 
Once it is called " the Gospel of our Lord." The term is used 
in the general sense of the one Gospel, as in the N. T. without 
specification of one of the four records. The plural " Gospels " 
is never used any more than in the Gospels themselves. The 
word may refer to the oraJ_Gospel, or to any of the written Gos- 
pels. In two passages a written Gospel seems to be meant 
(Yin. 2 ; XX. 4.), and apparently that of Matthew who has 

*Ch. \l\l. 2: (a? εκέλενΰεν 6 Κιψιοζ εν τω εναχχελίφ αύτον. 
1X^5: περί τούτον εϊρηκεν ό Κνριοζ. XI. 3: χατά το Soyua τοΰ 
ευαγγελίου. XV. 3: ω? έχετε εν τω εναχχελίφ. XV 4: ώζ έχετε 
εν τω εναχχελίω τοΰ Κυρίου ήμ,ών . 



the words there mentioned. It is true the Didache does not 
name any of the Evangelists nor any of the Apostles. But the 
reminiscences resemble our Greek Matthew so closely that it is 
difficult to avoid the conclusion that he had it before him. 
Let us first compare the parallel passages. * 


Ch. xxii. 37. Thou shalt 
love the Lord thy God. . . 
This is the great and first com- 
mandment. . . A second . . . 
thou shalt love thy neighbor 
as thyself. 

Ch. vii. 12. All things there- 
fore whatsoever ye would that 
men should do unto you, even 
so do ye also unto them. 

Ch. V. 44, 46. Love your 
enemies, and pray for them 
that persecute you. . . . For if 
ye love them that love you, 
what reward have ye? . . . 
Do not even the Gentiles the 

(Comp. Luke vi. 27, 28, 32.) 

Ch. V. 39-41. Whosoever 
smiteth thee on thy right 
cheek, turn to him the other 
also. And if any man would 
go to law with thee, and take 
away thy coat, let him have 
thy cloke also. And whoso- 
ever shall compel thee to go 


Ch. L 2. First, thou shalt 
ΙοΛ^β God who made thee; 
secondly, thy neighbor as thy- 

Ch. I. 2. All things whatso- 
ever thou wouldest not should 
be done to thee, do thou also 
not to another. (Comp. Job, 
iv. 15.) 

Ch. L 3. Bless them that 
curse you, and pray for your 
enemies, but fast for them 
that persecute you. For what 
thanks is there if ye love them 
that love you ? Do not even 
the Gentiles the same? But 
love ye them that hate you, and 
ye shall not have an enemy. 

Ch. I. 4. If any one give you 
a blow on the right cheek, turn 
to him the other also, and thou 
shalt be perfect. If any one 
shall compel thee to go with 
him one mile, go with him 
twain. If any one take away 
thy cloak, give him thy coat 

* I give the English version. The reader can easily compare the Greek in 
the document and the Greek Testament. See Harnack's list in Greek, p. 70 

i) w, 

t Oc 'b i^»-*-, ^ 

£M<i « 




one mile, go with him twain. 
(Comp. Luke, vi. 29.) 

Matt. V. 42. Give to him 
that asketli thee. 

[Luke, vi. 30. Give to every 
one that asketh thee ; and . . . 
ask . . . not back.] 

Matt. V. 26. Verily I say 
unto thee, thou shalt by no 
means come out thence, till 
thou have paid the last farth- 

Ch. v. 5. Blessed are the 
meek : for they shall inherit 
the earth. 

Ch. xxviii. 19. Baptizing 
them into the name of the 
Father and of the Son and of 
the Holy Ghost. 

Ch. vi. 16. When ye fast, 
be not, as the hypocrites, of a 
sad countenance ; for they dis- 
figure their faces, that they 
may be seen of men to fast. 

Ch. vi. 5. When ye pray, 
ye shall not be as the hypo- 
crites. . . . 

Ch. vi. 9-13. After this 
manner therefore pray ye : 

Our Father who art in the 
heavens {εν τοΊζ οιψανοΐζ). 

Hallowed be thy name. 

Thy Kingdom come. 

Thy will be done, as in hea- 
ven, so also on the earth {επ\ 
τ ή ζ γήζ). 

also. If any one take from 
thee what is thine, ask it not 
back, for neither canst thou. 

Ch. L 5. Give to every one 
that asketh of thee ; and ask 
not back (for the Father wills 
that from our own blessings we 
should give to all). 

Ch. L 5. Being in distress 
he shall be examined concern- 
ing the things that he did, and 
he shall not come out thence 
till he have paid the last far- 

Ch. IIL 7. Be thou meek, 
for the meek shall inherit the 

Ch. YIL 1. Baptize ye into 
the name of the Father and of 
the Son and of the Holy 
Ghost, in living water. 

Ch. VIII. 1. Let not your 
fasts be with the hypocrites ; 
for they fast on the second 
and fifth days of the week. 

Ch. VIIL 2. Neither pray 
ye as the hypocrites, but as 
the Lord commanded in his 
Gospel, after this manner pray 

Our Father, who art in hea- 
ven (f κ τω ουρανώ). 

Hallowed be thy name. 

Thy kingdom come. 

Thy will be done, as in 
heaven, so also on earth {επι 



Give us this day our daily 
[needful] bread. 

And forgive us our debts 
{τά οφειληματα), as we also 
have forgiven (αφήκαμεν) our 

And bring us not into temp- 

But deliver us from the evil 
one [or, from evil], 

[For thine is the kingdom (?) 
βασίλεια)^ and the power, and 
the glory, forever. Amen.]* 

Ch. vi. 16. But when ye 
fast, be not, as the hypocrites, 
of a sad countenance. 

Ch. xxiv. 31. They [the 
angels] shall gather together 
his elect from the four winds, 
from one end of heaven to the 

Ch. vii. 6. Give not that 
which is holy unto dogs. 

Ch. XXV. 34. Inherit the 
kingdom prepared for you 
from the foundation of the 

Ch. xxi. 9, 15. Hosanna 
to the son of David. 

Ch. xii. 31. Every sin and 

Give us to-day our daily 
[needful] bread. 

And forgive us our debt 
(τ7;κ οφειλην)^ as we also for- 
give {αφι'εμεν) our debtors. 

And bring us not into 

But deliver us from the evil 
one [or, from evil]. 

For thine is the j^ower and 
the glory, for ever. * 

Pray thus thrice a day. 

Ch. ΎΙΙΙ. 1. But let not 
your fasts be together with 
the hypocrites. 

Ch. X. 5. Gather her [the 
church] together from the four 

Ch. IX. 4. Let thy church be 
gathered together from the ends 
of the earth into Thykingdom. 

Ch. IX. 5. The 'Lord hath 
said, " Give not that which is 
holy unto dogs." 

Ch. X. 5. Into thy king- 
dom which thou didst prepare 
for her [thy church]. 

Ch. X. 6. Hosanna to the 
God of David. 

Ch. XL 7. For every sin 

* The Didache follows Matthew almost literally, and differs from Luke 
not only in fulness, but also in the details. Luke has τό κα3' i/uepav 
for d?!/iFpov, and aitapria? for όφείλήϋΐηΓα. The doxology of the 
textus recoptus is omitted in the oldest MSS. and versions, and by the critical 
editors. The-Didache furnishes the earliest testimony for its use in devotion. 
The omission of 77 βαότλεία occurs also in Gregory of Nyssa, and in the 
Sahidic or Upper Egyptian version of Matthew. Comp. 1 Chr. xxix. 11. 

iwi ka:. 

^JL^ia^ tfV 'i'Vv*^ |vXA^-\veX Q^^J^Vi 



blasphemy shall be forgiven 
unto men ; but the blaspliemy 
against the Spirit shall not be 

Ch. X. 10. For the laborer 
is worthy of his food. 

[Luke, X. 7. The laborer is 
worthy of his hire.] 

Cb. V. 23,. 24. If therefore 
thou art offering thy gift at the 
altar ... go thy way, first be 
reconciled to thy brother, and 
then come and offer thy gift. 

Ch. xxiv. 42, 44. Watch 
therefore : for ye know not on 
what day your Lord cometh 
.... Be ye ready : for in an 
hour that ye think not the Son 
of Man cometh. [Luke, xii. 35.] 

Ch. xxiv. 10, 11. And 
[many] shall deliver up one 
another and shall hate one 
another. And many false 
prophets shall arise and shall 
lead many astray. And be- 
cause iniquity shall be multi- 
plied, the love of the many 
shall wax cold. 

Ch. xxiv. 10, 13. And then 
shall many stumble . . . but he 
that endureth to the end, the 
same shall be saved. 

Ch. xxiv. 30, 31. And 
then shall appear the sign of 
the Son of Man in heaven . . . 
and they shall see the Son of 

shall be forgiven, but this sin 
shall not be forgiven. 

Ch. XIII. 1, 2. But every 
true prophet ... is worthy of 
his food. Likewise a true 
teacher is himself worthy, like 
the laborer, of his food. 

Ch. XIV. 2. Let no one who 
has a disj)ute with his fellow 
come together with you until 
they are reconciled, that your 
sacrifice may not be defiled. 

Ch. XYL 1. Watch for your 
life ; let not your lamps be 
quenched, and let not your 
loins be loosed, but be ye ready; 
for ye know not the hour in 
which our Lord cometh. 

Ch. XYL 3, 4. For in the 
last days the false prophets and 
the corrupters shall be multi- 
plied, and the sheep shall be 
turned into wolves, and love 
shall be turned into hate ; for 
when lawlessness increaseth, 
they shall hate one another 
and persecute and deliver up. 

Ch. XYL 0. And many 
shall stumble and perish ; but 
they that endure in their faith 
shall be saved from [or, under] 
the curse itself. 

Ch. XYL 6-8. And then 
shall appear the signs of the 
truth: first, a sign of an ex- 
pansion (opening) in heaven ; 


Man coming on the clouds then a sign of sound of a trum- 

of heaven with power and pet ; and third, a resurrection 

great glory. And he shall of the dead, but not of all . . . 

send forth his angels with a Then shall the world see the 

great sound of a trumpet, and Lord coming upon the clouds 

they shall gather together his of heaven, 
elect from the four winds from 
one end of heaven to the other. 

We have in all four literal or nearly literal quotations from 
Matthew, and about eighteen general references to Matthew with 
some sentences from Luke. How shall we account for this fact ? 

Hamack supposes that the Didache used the Gospel of 
Matthew enriched from that of Luke, and that this mixed 
product was probably the " Gospel according to the Egyp- 
tians." * But this was of Gnostic origin, and furnishes in the 
remaining fragments no parallel to the Didache^ which breathes 
a different spirit, f 

Krawutzcky, with more plausibility, in connection with his 
false hypothesis of its alleged Ebionism, conjectures that the 
Didache borrowed its quotations from the apocryphal " Gospel 
according to the Hebrews." :|: But, 1) This Gospel, as far as 

* Page 79. He says that " many arguments might be furnished for this 
hypothesis," but he omits to state any. 

f Lipsius, in his article on the Apocryphal Gospels, in Smith & Wace's 

Bid. of Christian Biography, vol. ii. (1880), p. 712, calls the Εναγγέλιον 

κατ'' Αίχυητίονί "a product of that pantheistic gnosis which we find 

/ among the Naassenes of the ' Philosophumena ' and some other kindred 

1 sects." Hilgenfeld has collected the few fragments in his Evang. secundum 

HebrcEos, etc. (Nov. Test, extra can. rec, second ed. iv., 43-44), and finds in 

them (p. 48) " pantheismum quendam in trinitate et in animee natura cum 

ascetica mundi contcmptione et matrimonii damnatione conj\inctum." He 

' assigns the Gospel of the Egyptians, with Volkmar, to c. 170-180. It is first 

quoted by Clement of Alex., Origen, and Hippolytus (Philosoph. y. 7). 

I In his second article, already noticed, p. 23 sq. His reasons are, that 
the Gospel of the Hebrews was also called " Evangelium Bomini secundum 
duodecim Apostolus" at the time of Origen (see Horn. i. in Luc. ad i. 1, 
and Jerome, Adv. Pelag. iii. 2), and that, like i\ie Bidache XY . 3, it condemns 
with unbiblical severity an offence against a brother as one of the greatest 
crimes, according to Jerome, Ad. Ezek. xviii. 7 : " //i Evang elio quod juxta 
Hebrceos Nnzanvi legere consueverunt, inter maxima punitur crimina, qui 
frairis sui spiritum contristaverit." 


known, is a post-canonical, Ebionitic adaptation of Matthew 
to the Aramaic-speaking Jewisli-Cliristians in Palestine, with 
various omissions and additions, and seems to_date from the 
later part^of_jthe_ second century, as it is not quoted before 
Clement of Alexandria and Origen ; while the Didache belongs 
to an earlier stage of theological development^ and shows no 
trace of Ebionism. 2) The Didache^ while closely agreeing 
with our Greek Matthew, furnishes not a single parallel to the 
more than twenty original fragments which still remain of the 
Gospel according to the Hebrews.* This Gospel is the best 
among the Apocryphal Gospels, and owed its popularity to 
the erroneous opinion, propagated by the Ebionites, that it 
was identical with the lost Hebrew Matthew ; but it certainly 
must have differed very considerably from our Greek MatthcAV, 
else Jerome would not have thought it worth while to trans- 
late it both into Greek and Latin, f 

* These fragments are collected by Hilgenfeld. Xovum Test, extra caiio- 
nem recepfum, Fasc. iv. 1-31 (ed. ii. 1884), and by Nicholson, The Gospel 
according to the Hebrews. Its Fragments translated and annotated. Lon- 
don, 1879. See also Lipsius, Apocryphal Gospels, in Smith k Wace's Did. 
of Christian Biography, vol. ii. (1880), p. 709 sqq. The text from which 
Epiphanius quotes, omitted the chapters on the genealogy, birth and chili- 
hood of Christ ; but the texts used by Cerinthus and Carpocrates had the 
genealogy, though carefully excluding aU that relates to the supernatural con- 
ception. The Lord's Baptism was also differently related. Lipsius infers from 
these and other discrepancies that there were different recensions of this Ev- 
αχγέλιον na^^ 'Efiptxiovi. He supposes that it was nearly related to 
Matthew's λόγια τον Kvpi'ov. and to a later redaction of these λύ;'/α made 
use of by Luke, and in the Ebionite circles of Palestine. Mangold, Drum- 
mond, E. A. Abbott, and Ezra Abbot agree that the Gospel of the Hebrews 
was written some time after the canonical Gospels and was unknown to Justin 
Martyr. See E. Abbot, The A nthorship of the Fourth Gospel (1880), p. 98. 

f Devivis ill. c. ii: "Fvangelium quod appellatur ' Secundum Hebrceos,' et 
a me nuperin Orcecum Latinumque sermonem translatum est, quo et Origenes 
sape utitur, post resurrectionem Salvatoris refert." Then follows the story 
of the appearance of Christ to James who had sworn ne\'er to eat bread or to 
drink wine, after the last passover. till he should see the Lord risen from the 
dead. In cap. iii. Jerome relates that he had seen (a. 413) the Hebrew 
Matthew in the library of Pamphilus at Caesarea; but this must have been 
cither only another title of the same book on the supposition of its identity 
with the Hebrew Matthew (/n Matt. xii. 13: ''quod vacatur a plerisque 
Matthcei authenticum"), or a document differing from the copy which he 


If the Didache liad been based upon an heretical Gospel, 
whether Gnostic or Ebionitic, we could not account for its 
use in catechetical instruction by Athanasius, "the father of 

There remains therefore only the alternative that the author 
of the Didache drew from our Greek Matthew, or from the lost 
Hebrew Logia^ which are supposed to have formed the basis of 
the former. But the parallel passages agree so closely, more 
so than similar quotations in the writings of the Apostolic 
Fathers and Justin Martyr, that it is almost certain that our 
canonical Matthew was the chief written source of the Didache.^ 

The Gospel of Mark, which originated in Eome, is never 
quoted or alluded to. This fact is rather unfavorable to the 
prevailing modern hypothesis of the priority of Mark, as the 
Urevangelist^ but it may be accidental, as the author of the 
Didache lived in the East. 

The use of the Gospel of Luke may be inferred from Did. 
I. 3, 4, 5, compared with Luke vi. 27-35, and from Did. IV. 8, 
compared with Luke xii. 35, where the Didache follows Luke 
rather than Matthew. 

Luke xii. 35. 

Did. XVI. 1. 

"Εότωόαν νμών 
at οϋφνεζ itept- 
εζωόμέΐ'αι και οί 
λύχνοι Ηαιήβε- 
νοι, κατ νμεΐζ 
όμοιοι ανΒρω- 
τΐοιζ Λροό^εγη- 
μένοιζ τόν Κν- 
ριην εαυτών, 
κ. τ. λ. 

Let your loins Ι Watch ΟΛ -er 
be girded about Jyour life, let not 
and your lamps your lamps be 

burning, and be 
yourselves 1 ke 
unto men look- 
ing for their 

quenched, and 
let not your 
loins be loosed 
[for ye know 
not the hour in 
which our Lord 

ΤρηγορεΊτε νττέρ 
τηζ ζοα-ηζ νμών ' οί 
λνχνοι. νβών ιη) 
όβεΰ^ήτωΰαν, και 
cxi οΰφνεζ ν αιών μ?) 
έκλνέόΒωόαν, αλλά 
χινε63ε 'έτοιμοι ' [ον 
yap οί'δατε την ώραν 
εν y υ Κΰβίοζ ημών 

had previously (392) found among the Nazarenes at Beroja, in Syria, and from 
which he made his translation. See my Church History, i. 628 sqq. 

* Dr. Brown (Hitchcock and Brown, second ed. p. Ixxvi.) concludes that 
the author of the Did. "either knew two written Gospels [IMatthew and 
Luke], or that he knew one of them (probably Matthew) and combined with 
it, in his citations from memory phrases from the oral tradition which 
must have been fresh and strong in his time, and that these phrases agree 
with that form of the tradition which the other of the two Evangelists here 
to be considered (probably Luke) crystallized in his Gospel." Dr. Farrar 
("The Expositor," Aug. 1884, p. 84): "It is certain that the writer knew 


The first word and the last clause are in substance taken 
from Matt. xxv. 13 : "TFafc/i therefore, /or ye knoiv not the day 
nor ihe Jiour in which the Sou of Man comeih {γρηγορείτε ούν, 
οτι ουκ οι'δατε τι)ν ημίραν ονδε ττ/ν ωραν εν ή ο νιοζ τον 
ανθρώπου έρχεται). But the body of the sentence is from 
Luke, who alone of the Evangelists uses the plural λύχνοι and 
οσφύεζ. (Matthew uses λαμπάδεζ in the parable of the Ten 
Virgins, xxv. 1-8.) 

An acquaintance with the Gospel of Luke may also be in- 
ferred from a knowledge of Acts, which was certainly written _ '^ 
by the same author. The Didache (IX. 2, 3 ; X. 3, 4) calls 
Christ the serva nt or child {παΐζ) of God, as Peter did in 
the early days of the Church; Acts, iii. 13, 26 ; iv. 27, 30. A 
striking resemblance exists between the following passages : 

Acts, iv. 32. Did. IV. 8. 

And not one of them said that Thou shalt share all things with 
ought of the things which he possessed thy brothers and shalt not say that 
was his own {ϊδιον eivcxi), but they they are thine own {ϊδια είναι); for 
had all things common. if ye are fellow-sharers in imperisha- 

ble things, how much more in perish- 
able. (Comp. Rom. xv. 27.) 

Whether the author of the Didache had any knowledge of 
the Gospel of John is affirmed by some,* denied by others, f 
He never quotes from it, but there are remarkable resemblances 
between the two which cannot be accidental. The resem- 
blance is strongest between the eucharistic prayers and the 
Sarcerdotal Prayer of pur Lord. Li both God is addressed as \ _ 
"Holy Father" {Πάτερ άγιε, Did. X. 1 and John, xvii. 11), / 
.J \ but nowhere_else in the New Testament. The thanksgiv- 
ing of the Didache for " life and hnoivledge and faith and im- 
mortality made known to us through Jesus " (IX. 2, 3 ; X. 2) is 

the Gospel of St. Matthew; and we have here an important confirmation of > 
the views of those who, following the chur ch tradi tion, hold that this was ) ' 
the earliest of all the Gospels." 

* Plummcr (Master of University College, Durham) in " The Church- 
man," London, .July, 1884, pp. 274, 275, Lightfoot, and Spence. Dr. Harnack 
(p. 79 sqq.) denies that the author of the Didache had the written Gospel of 
John before him, but fully admits and points out the striking connection 
of the eucharistic prayers (IX. and X.) with John. vi. and xvii. 

f John "Wordsworth (of Oxford), Farrar, Brown, Krawutzcky (?), Lipsius. 


a response to the solemn declaration: "This is life eternal that 
they should know Thee, the only true God," and " / made known 
(^ε'χνωρισα) unto them Thy name." The prayer for the unity 
of the Church, and such phrases as '^became one" {εγένετο 
eV), the" sawcfoj/zec?" Church (r7;r άγια^είσαν, sc. εΐίΐίλησίαν), 
'.'deliver her from all evil" {and παντός πονηρού)^ ^'■perfect 
her in Thy love" {τελειώσαι αυτήν εν r// αχάπη σον)^ remind 
one of similar petitions and words in the Sacerdotal Prayer 
(John, xvii. 11 : ίνα ώσιν εν, v. 15 : τηρησηζ αντονζ εκ 
τον πονηρού} 17: άχίασον αντονζ, 19 : ίνα ώσιν και 
αυτοί ήγιασμένοι, 23: ίνα ώσιν τ ετ ελε ι ω μ έ ν οι 
€15 εν). 

In the same eucharistic prayers we cannot mistake some 
significant allusions to the mysterious discourse of our Lord 
on the bread of life after the miraculous feeding, in the sixth 
chapter of John. The sentence, " Thou gavest us spiritual 
food and drink and eternal life through thy child Jesus "(x. 3), 
is Johannean (comp. vi. 27 : " the meat abideth unto eternal 
lij\ which the Son of Man shall give unto j'ou," 32, 33 : " the 
true bread out of heaven ". . . which giveth life unto the world ; " 
58 : " he that eateth this bread shall live for ever "). The 
eucharistic prayers of the Didache, then, breathe a Johannean 
atmosphere and must have proceeded from a primitive circle 
of disciples controlled by the spirit and teaching of St. John, 

Compare also the following passages, in which a correspond- 
ence of ideas and words is unmistakable. 

John, i. 14. Didache, X. 2. 

The Word dicelt {ίΰχήνωόεν) We give thanks to Thee, iZoZjr i^a- 

among us. Comp. xvii. 6: I mani- i^er, for Thy holy «rt??i^, which Thou 

fested my name unto the men ; v. 11, hast caused to dwell {πατεόκηνωΰα'ϊ) 

26 ; Apoc. vii. 15; xxi. 3 {ΰκηνώόει in our hearts, 
/uer' αυτών). 

John, xv, 1. Didache, IX. 2. . 

I am the true vine {?) αμ-ττελοζ ή We give thanks to Thee, our ,Fa- 
άλη^ινή), and my Father is the ther,torth&\io\\vine(i)TtipTrji ayi- 
husbandman, ////^λ > α5 a/KTrfAou) of Thy servant David 

which Thou hast made known 
through Thy servant Je§i^. 



John, xv. 15. 

All things that I heard from my 
Father I have made known (ίγνώ- 
ριΰα) unto you. Comp. xvii. 26. 

1 John, π. 5. 

In him verily hath the love of God 
heen perfected {ή αχ άτΐΐ^ τυν Βεον 
τετελείωται). The very same 
Johannean phrase in iv. 13. Comp. 
also ver. 17, 18, and John, xvii. 23, 
quoted above. 

1 John, ii. 17. 

The world passeth away (o' κύόμοζ 
ΐΐαράγεται). Comp. 1 Cor. vii. 31. 

1 John, rv. 1. 

Believe not every spirit, but prove 
(δοκιμάζετε) the spirits whether 
they are of God. 

2 John, 10. 

If any one cometh unto you, and 
bringeth not this teaching (jdcvttjv 
την δΐδαχήν), receive him not into 
your house, and give him no greeting. 

Didache, IX. 2, 3; X. 2. 

which Thou hast made known 
(έχνοόριΰαζ) to us through Thy 
servant Jesus. 

Didache, X. 5. 

Remember, Lord, Thy Church 
to deliver her from all evil and to 
perfect her in Thy love (τελειώόαι 
αντ?}ν tv τ -g αγάπι^ι 6ov). 

Didache, X. 6. 

Let this world pass away (παρελ- 
3έτω ό κόό/.ιοζ οντοί). 

Didache, XL 11. 

Every approved true [δεδοκιμα- 
ΰμένοζ αληθινοί) prophet. 

Didache, XI. 2. 

But if the teacher himself turn and 
teach another teaching (αλλην δι- 
δαχήν) to destroy this, hearken not 
unto him. 

Tlie designation of God as the " Almighty " or " Sovereign 
Ruler " {παντοκράτωρ)^ in the eucharistic prayer, X. 2, is 
probably borrowed from the Apocalypse of John, in whicli it 
occurs nine times (i. 8 ; iv. 8 ; xi. 17 ; xv. 3 ; xvi. 7, 14 ; xix. 6, 
15 ; xxi. 22) ; while elsewhere in the New Testament it occurs 
only once, 2 Cor. vi. 18, and there in a quotation from the 
Septuagint. The designation of Sunday as the Lord's Day 
(XIV. 1.), points likewise to the Apocalypse (i. 10.) The 
phrase " loving a lie " v. 2, occurs Eev. xxii. 15. The words : 
" If any one be holy " (X. 6), have some resemblance to Rev. 
xxii. 12, and the warning against additions to, and detrac- 
tions from, the commandments of the Lord reminds one of the 
similar warning. Rev. xxii. 18, but may have been suggested 
by Deut. xii. 82.^ 

* These resemblances are remote, indeed, and Dr. Brown, p. Ixxvii. denies 
that any traces of the Apocalypse are to be found in the Didache. So also 


We conclude then that the writer of the Didache was ac- 
quainted with our fourth Gospel and the other Johannean writ- 
ings, or at all events with the Johannean type of teaching. He 
would thus furnish the earliest, or one of the earliest, testi- 
monies to the existence of that Gospel. 

The Didache shows acquaintance with several Epistles of 
Paul (Romans, First Corinthians, Ephesians, and Thessalonians), 
and although it does not allude to his distinctive doctrines of sin 
and grace, justification by faith and evangelical freedom (as set 
forth in the Romans and Galatians), there is in it no trace what- 
ever of the animus of the Ebionites who hated the Apostle of 
the Gentiles as an archheretic and abhorred his writings. ■••' 

The enumeration of vices in Chs. II. and III. reminds one of 
the fearful picture of heathen immorality, Rom. i. 28-32. The 
negative description of love to our neighbor in Cli. II. 2 has 
some resemblance to Rom. xiii. 9. The phrase " cleaving to 
that which is good" (v. 2, κολλώμε^οι ayaSo) occurs only 
in Paul (Rom. xii. 9, κυλλώμενοι τω αγα^ώ). The direc- 
tions about the qualifications of Bishops and Deacons (xv. 1) 
presuppose the Pastoral Epistles. The passage about the 
"world-deceiver" and the reign of "lawlessness" [ανομία) in 
Ch. XVI. 4, points back to Paul's prophecy of the man of sin 
and the mystery of lawlessness (το μνστηριον τήζ ανομι'αζ)^ 

Dr. Farrar (in "Expositor" Aug. 1884, p. 87). But considering the famil- 
iarity of the Didache with the other Johannean writings, the probability is 
in favor of the view advocated in the text. 

* Harnack(p.87) says: '* Paulinische Brief e sind in der /Ιιδαχή nirht citirt ; 
auch gieht es keine einzige Stelle, an welcher die Benutzimg jener Brief e evi- 
dent zu nennen ware ; " but he points to several verbal coincidences, as είδω- 
XoSvrov (VI. 3) ; μαράν αΒά(Κ. 6) ; μυότήριον εκκληόίαζ (XI. 11); 
ερχαζε'όΒω καΐ φαγέτω {Χ.\\. 3); ηροψηται και διδάόκαλοι {ΧίΙ\.\, 
2), and the doctrine of the Antichrist and the parousia (XVI. 4-8). Bishop 
Lightfoot asserts, without going into details: " With St. Paul's Epistles the 
writer shows an acquaintance. Coincidences with four of these— Romans, 1 
Corinthians, Ephesians and 2 Thessalonians— indicate a free use of the Apos- 
tle's writings." Canon Spence positively asserts (p. 105) that the author " was 
acquainted with the Epistles to the Thessalonians, the Romans, the Corin- 
thians and the Ephesians." But I can find no trace of Second Corintliians. 
Farrar thinks that acquaintance with Romans and Thessalonians is proba- 
ble, but cannot be positively proA'en. 


which will precede the advent of the Lord, We may also point 
to the following passages which are more or less parallel. 

Rom. XT. 27. If ye Gentiles have Did. IV. 5. If ye are fellow-par- 

,been partakers of their spiritual takers in imperishable things, how 

things, they owe it to them also to much more in perishable, 
minister unto them in carnal things. 
Comp. 1 Cor. ix. 11, 14 ; Gal. vi. 6. 

1 Thess. V. 22. Abstain from every Bid. III. 1. My child, flee from all 

form (or, appearance) of evil. evil, and from all that is like unto it. 

Eph. vi. 5. Bondmen, be obedient Did. IV. 11. Bondmen, be sub- 

unto them that according to the flesh ject to your masters as to the image 

are your masters, with fear and trem- of God {ώζ τύπω Βεον) in reverence 

bling, in singleness of your heart, as (or, modesty) and fear, 
unto Christ. (Col. iii. 22.) 

The Didachographer seems to have known also the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, if we are to infer as much from a few faint 
allusions, as the expression " evil conscience " (XIV. 1 ; comp. 
Heb. X. 22), and the exhortation to attend public worship 
(XIV. 1 ; Heb. x. 25), and to honor tlie ministers of Christ 
(XV. 1, 2 ; Heb. xiii. 7). 

Of the Catholic Epistles one passage is reproduced nearly 
literally from the first Epistle of Peter. 

1 Peter, ii. 11. Didache, I. 4. 

τταρακαλώ . . . . a π ε χε ό 5 a τ άτι έχ ο ν τω ν ό α ρκικ ών καΐ 

των όα ρχικών ετΐι^νμιών ϋωματικών [probably an error of 

αΐτινεζ βτρατενονται κατά τηζ the copyist for jiioiJ/iZKca κ] έπι^ν- 

τΡνχηζ. (Comp. Tit. ii. 1 3.) μι ω ν . 

The allusions to the Johannean Epistles have already been 
mentioned. "With Jude the Didache has in common the term 
ηυριοτηζ (IV. 1 of Jude 8), which, however, occurs also twice 
in Paul (Eph. i. 21 ; Cor. i. 16), and once 2 Pet. ii. 10. 

It is remarkable that the writer of the Didache furnishes no 
verbal parallel to the Epistle of James, although he is evident- 
ly most in sympathy with the conservative spirit and Jewish- 
Christian stand-point of the first Bishop of Jerusalem. They 
agree in emphasizing works rather than faith, in making use 
of the Sapiential litei^uTCjof__the Hebrews, in requiring public 
confession of sin (IV. 14 and XIV. 1 ; comp. Jas. v. 16), and 
in the warning against double-mindedness and doubtfulness in 
prayer (IV. 4 ; comp. Jas. i. 5, 8 ; iv. 8.) 



I. Quotations from the Old Testament. 


Zech. xiv. 5. XVI. 7. 

Mai. i. 11, 14. XIV. 3. 

II. Allusions to the Old Testament. 

I. 1. 


Ex. xviii. 20. i 

Deut. xxxi. 29. y 

Ex. XX. 13-17. 1 

Deut. V. 17-21. S 

Num. xviii. 12, 13, 15, 30. λ 

Deut. xviii. 3, 4. ι 

Ezek. xliv. 30. Γ 

Neh. X. 35-37. J 

Deut. xii. 32. IV. 13. 

Job, iv. 10. IV. 6. 

Isa. Ixvi. 2, 5. III. 8. 

Jer. xxi. 8. I. 1. 

Dan. iv. 27. IV. 6. 

III. Quotations from, and Allusions to, the Old Testament Apocrypha. 

Tobit, iv. 7. IV. 6-8. 

" " 15. 1.2. 

Ecclus. (Sirach) ii. 4. III. 10. 

iv. 5. IV. 8. 

" 31. IV. 5. 

IV. Quotations and Remlviscences feom the New Testament. 
Matt. V. 5. III. 7. 

" " 23, 24. XIV. 2. 

" "25,26 1.5. 

" " 39-41 (Luke, vi. 29, 30). I- 4, 

" "44-16 (Luke, vi, 27). 1. 3. 

" vi. 5. VIII. 2. 

" "1, 5. XV. 4. 

" " 9-13. VIII. 2. 

" " 16. VIII. 1. 

" vii. 6. IX. 5. 

" " 12. • I. 2. 

" X. 9, 10 (comp. Luke, is. 1-6; x. 4-7.) XIII. 1, 2. 

" xii. 31. XI. 7. 

" xviii, 15, 17, XV. 3, 

" xxi. 9. . X 6. 

«' xxii. 37-39. I. 2. 



Matt. xxiv. 10-14. XVI. 4, 5. 

" " 30,31. XVI. 6, 8.' 

" " 31,35. XVI. 1. 

" 42, 44. X. 5. 

" " XV. 34. X• 5• 

«' xxviii. 19, 20. VII. 1. 

Luke, vi. 27-30. I• 3, 4, 5. 

" xii. 35. XVI. 1. 

V. Allusions aio) Parallels to the New Testament. 

Acts, iv. 32. IV. 8. 

Rom. XV. 27. IV. 8. 

1 Cor. XV. 52. XVI. 6. 

1 Cor. xvi. 22 (Maranatha). X• 6- 

Eph. vi. 5, 9. IV. 10, 11. 

1 Thess. iv. 16, 17. XVI. 4-8. 

" V. 22. III. 1- 

2 Thess. ii. 8-10. XVI. 4. 
Heb. X. 22 (όννει'δηόιζ πονηρά). XIV. 1. 

" χ. 25. XIV. 1. 

" xiii. 7. XV. 1, 2. 

1 Pet. ii. 11. (Tit. ii. 12.) I. 4. 

Rev. i. 8, etc. (τταντοκράτωρ). X. 2. 

Rev. i. 10 {κνριακή). XIV. 1. 

Rev. xxii. 15. V. 2. 


The Style and Vocabulary of the Didache* 

The Didache is written in Hellenistic Greek, like the New 
Testament, f It is the common Macedonian or Alexandrian 
dialect with a strong infusion of a Hebrew soul and a Chris- 
tian spirit. It differs on the one hand from the Septuagint, 

* This subject has been specially investigated by American scholars, Dr. 
Isaac H. Hall, in the "Journal of Christian Philosophy," N. York, 1884, 
pp. 51-67 ; Prof. Lemuel S. Potwin, in the " Bibliotheca Sacra," for Octo- 
ber, 1884, pp. 800-817, and Dr. Hitchcock, in his notes to the second ed. 
1885. They give lists of the peculiar words of the Didache. Bryennios, 
Proleg. § 13, and Brown, pp. ci.-civ. describe the orthographic peculiarities 
of the Jerusalem MS. Brown gives also tables of textual variations and 
emendations, pp. cvi.-cxv. 

f On the idiom of the New Testament and its evidential value, see the 
first chapter (pp. 1-81) of my Companion to the Greek Testament, N. York, 
revised edition, 1885. 


tlie Jewish Apocrypha and the writings of Philo and Josephns 
by the deeper Christian meaning of words and phrases; and, 
on the other hand, from the post- Apostolic and patristic writ- 
ings, first by the absence of technical ecclesiastical, and dog- 
matic terms, * and secondly by the presence of Hebraisms, 
which disappeared in later ecclesiastical writers, except in 
Scripture quotations. 

Such Hebraisms are : " not all " (ov πά?^ lo kol^ the negative 
belonging to πάζ and merely denying the universality) for 
" no one " (ονδεί?) ; " to accept the person " {πρόσωπον λαμ- 
βάνειν, nasa panim) for "to favor," " to be partial;" the 
designation of Friday as " Preparation day " {παρασκευή) ; 
"day and night" for "night and day." There are also traces 
of Hebrew parallelism, both antithetic and synthetic, e. q. : 

" Thou shalt not exalt thyself, 

Nor shalt thou give presumption to thy soul 

Thou shalt not be joined to the lofty, 

But with the just and lowly shalt thou converse " (III. 9). 

" Thou shalt not desire division, 

But shalt make peace between those at strife " (IV. C). 

" Thou shalt not forsake the commandments of the Lord, 
But shalt keep what thou hast received " (TV. 13). 

"In church thou shalt confess thy transgressions, 

And shalt not come to thy prayer with an evil conscience " (IV. 14) 

"Let not your lamps be quenched, 

And let not your loins be loosed" (XVI. 1). 

" The sheep shall be turned into wolves. 
And love shall be turned into hate " (XVI. 3). 

" Then shall the race of men come into the fire of testing. 
And many shall be offended and perish " (XVI. 5). 

The style is simple, natural, terse, sententious, and popular. 
The vocabulary is redolent of the Synoptic Gospel tradition, 
and the words of the Saviour in the sixth and seventeenth 
chapters of John. It is essentially the same as that of the 

* Or by the use of old terms with a different meaning, e. g. , the verb 
χειροΓονεΙν has in the Did. XV. 1, the biblical sense fo elect, to appoint 
(comp. Acts, xiv. 33; 2 Cor. viii. 19), but in the Apost. Const, and Canons it 
means ίο ordain. 


New Testament ; 504 words out of 552 being identical. The 
new words are either derived from the Septuagint, or the 
classics, or are modifications and compounds of apostolic 
words, and betray familiarity with apostolic ideas.* 

Altogether the Didachographer, as to the linguistic form of 
his composition, shows himself a congenial contemporary, or 
direct successor of the Evangelists and Apostles. 

One of my students, Mr. Arthur C. McGiffert, f has paid very 
careful and minute attention to the vocabulary of the Didache 
and has prepared, at my request, the following summary and 
tables which are more complete and accurate than any hereto- 
fore published. 

The Didache contains 2,190 words. Its vocabulary com- 
prises 552 words. Of the whole number 504 are New Testa- 
ment words, 497 are classical, and 479 occur in the LXX. 15 
occur for the first time in the Didache^ but are found in later 
writers. 1 occurs only in the Didache. 14 occur in the New 
Testament with a different meaning. 

On comparing the parallel chapters xviii.-xx. of the Epistle 
of Barnabas we find that these three chapters contain 625 words. 
Their vocabulary comprises 259 words ; of which 239 are found 
in the classics, 238 in the LXX., 237 in the New Testament, 
and 211 in the Didache. Two words, πρόγλωσσο^ (XIX. 8), of 
hasty tongue, and φωταγογοζ (XVIII. 1), giving light, a light 
hringer, occar for the first time in Barnabas, one of which, πρό- 
γλωσσοζ, is a hapax legomenon, occurring only in Barnabas. 
None are peculiar to the Didache and Barnabas. Three are 
peculiar to the Didache, Barnabas, and the Apost. Const. 

όιγνωμοον {Didache, II. 4 ; Barnabas, xix. 7 ; Apost. Const, ii. 

6), double-minded. 
διπλοκαρδία [Didache, V. 1 ; Barnabas, xx. 1 ; Apost. Const. 

vii. 18), duplicity. 

* As 7ίη6μοηλάνοζ, χριΰτέηπερΊζ, and the much disputed ι^κπέταόιζ. 
See the notes in loc. , .and the Tables below. There is only one absolute 
aitaq, λεχόμενον, and this is perhaps a writing error, ιΐρνβε'ξομυλο- 
γηόάμενυι for πρη^ζίβολ. 

f Of Ashtabula, Ohio, a member of the graduating class (1885) in the 
Union Theol. Seminary. 


παν^αμάρτητος {Didache, V. 2 ; Barnabas, xx. 2 ; Apost. 

Const, vii. 18), a universal sinner. 
One is peculiar to the Didache, Barnabas, tbe Apost. Const. 

and tbe Apost. Canons. 
ανταποδότΐ]^ {Didache^lY. 7 ; Barnabas, xix. 11 ; Apost. Const. 

vii. 12 ; Apost. Canons, § 13), a recompenser. 

Of tlie Didache the vocabulary comprises 2oi per cent, of the 
whole number of words ; of the three chapters of the Epistle of 
Barnabas, 41\ per cent. The discrepancy is to be accounted for 
by the greater length of the Didache^ which contains necessarily 
a larger percentage of common and therefore repeated words. 

Of the Didache, about 90 per cent, of the vocabulary is clas- 
sical ; of Barnabas, 92|^ per cent. Of the Didache, 86J per cent, 
of the vocabulary belongs to the LXX. ; of Barnabas, 91 yV 
per cent. Of the Didache, 91^ per cent, of the %Ocabulary is 
New Testament ; of Barnabas, 91|^ per cent. The agreement of 
the Didache and of Barnabas ■with reference to their percentage 
of New Testament words is remarkable. The agreement with 
reference to classical words is almost as close. But with refer- 
ence to LXX. words there is quite a discrepancv, the ΛΌcabu- 
lary of Barnabas being much closer to that of the LXX. than 
the vocabulary of the Didache is. This may at least suggest an 
argument against the Egj'ptian authorship of the Didache. 

We append six lists : 

I. Words which do not occur in the New Testament. Total, 

IL Words which do not occur in the New Testament but 
are found in the classics. Total, 30. 

III. AVords which do not occur in the New Testament but 
are found in the LXX. Total, 17. 

lY. Words which occur for the first time in the Didache 
but are found in later writings. Total, 16. 

V. Words which occur only in the Didache. Total, 1. 

VL New Testament words not used in the New Testament 
sense. Total, 14."^ 

* The writer has used Tischendorf's edition of the LXX. : Migne's edition 
of the Apost. Const. ; Von Gebhardt, Harnack and Zahn's edition of the 
Apostolic Fathers, and the Apost. Canons as given by Harnack in his Lehre 
der zwolf Apostel, pp. 225-237. 



Total, 48. 

αΒάνατοζ, Did. ΙΛ^. 8, imperishaMe. 

αίσχρολόγοζ, III. Z, foul-motithed. 

αμφιβολία, XIV. 2, a controversy . 

αντατΐοδότΐ]^, IV. ?, a recompenser. 

avSadeioc, V. 1, self-icill. 

γογγυσοζ, III. G, a murmiirer. 

διαφορά, I. 1, difference. 

διγλωσσία, 11, 4, douhleness of tongue. 

δίγλωσσος, II. 4, douhle-iongued. 

διγνώμων, II. 4, double-minded. 

διτΐλοκαρδία, V. 1, duplicity. 

διψνχέω, IV. 4, ίο hesitate. 

έκτΐέτασιζ, XVI. 6, « spreading out, or aw opening. 

ενδεω, IV. 8 ; V. 2, /ο Je m ?ui7wi. 

ίτΓΟΌζίο?, III. 4, an enchanter. 

εριστικόζ. III. 2, contentious. 

ζηλοτυπία, Υ. 1, jealousy. 

^ερμόζ, Ύ\1. 2, loarm. 

Βράσοζ, III. 9, over-boldness. 

Βρασντηζ, V. 1, over-boldness. 

^νμπίός. III. 2, passionate. 

Ορό ω, I. 6, ίο siceaf. 

κακοήθης, II. 6, mcdicious. 

κοσμοπλάνοζ, XVI. 4, the world-deceiver. 

Hvpiam) Κυρίου, XIV. 1, i/ie Lord's day of the Lord. 

μα^7]ματιη6ς. III. 4, an astrologer. 

μακ'ρόΒυμος, III. 8, long-suffering. 

μΐσοζ, XVI. 3, Λαίβ. 

μνησικακίω, II. 3, ίο ^ear malice. 

οΐωνοσκόπο?. III. 4, aw omen watcher. 

τταιδοφΒορεω, II. 2, to corrupt boys. 

παν^αμάρτητοζ, V. 2, α universal sinner. 

παρόδιος, XII. 2, α traveller. 

περικαΒαίρω, III. 4, ίο use purifications. » 


ποΒβω, IV. 3, fo desire. 

πονέω, V. 3, to labor. 

ηονηρόψρων, III. G, evil-minded. 

TtoTovy X. 3 (twice), drink. 

ηρονηστενω, VII. 4, to fast beforehand. 

προσεξομολογέω, XIV. 1, to confess. 

πνκνώζ, XVI. 2, often. 

σιτία, XIII. 5, a baking of bread. 

συσπάω, IV. 5, to draio in. 

τετράζ, VIII. 1, the fourth. 

νψτ/λόφΒαλμος, III. 3, lofty-eyed. 

φαρμακενω, II. 2, to 2ise sorcery. 

φ^ορενζ, V. 2 ; XVI. 3, a corrupter, a destroyer. 

χριστέμποροζ, XII. 5, one luho makes gain out of Christ. 



Total 30, of wliicli 16 are LXX. words. 

(χ^άνατοζ, IV. 8, imperishaMe 

In Homer, Hesiod, et al. ; in the LXX. ; in tlie Apost. Canons, 
§13 ; found neither in Barnabas nor in the Apost. Const. 
The New Testament has άφθαρτος, αφθαρσία, and 
αμφιβολία, XIV. 2, a misunderstanding, or a controversy. 
Occnrs in classic Greek in a somewhat different sense: (1) 
The state of mutual attack (Jldt.). (2) ^mJ/^^w^y (Aristotle, 
Sophocles). In Plutarch it is used in the sense of doubt- 
fulness. The Apost. Const, vii. 30 (parallel passage) omit 
the word. The New Testament has ε'ριζ, contention, and 
μομφή, complaint, Col. iii. 13, ττρος τίνα εχί] μομφην. 
αύ^ άδεια, V. 1, self-tuill. 

In Plato, Aristotle, et al. ; in Barnabas xx. 1 ; in the Apost. 
Const, vii. 18. The New Testament has αυΒάδι^ς. avSa- 
δεια occurs in some old editions of the LXX. in Isa. 
xxiv. 8, but the best editions omit it. 
διαφορά I. 1, difference. 

In Hdt. and Thuc. ; in the LXX. ; in Barnabas, xviii. 1 ; in 


tlie Apost. Canons, §4 ; in Basil and later Fathers. Tlie 
Apost. Const, vii. 1 (parallel passage) have το διάψορον. 
The New Testament has διάφορος (adj.), but uses the 
nouns διαστολή and διαίρεσιζ. 

δίγλωσσος, II. 4, double-toyigued. 

In Thucydides it is found with the meaning speaking two 
languages; hence, in Plutarch, as substantive, meaning in- 
terpreter. In the LXX. it has the meaning double-tongued, 
deceitful ; Prov. xi. 13, etc ; so in the Apost. Const, ii. 6 ; 
vii. 4 ; and in the Apost. Canons, §6. Barnabas, xix. 7 
(parallel passage), has γλωσσώδ?^. The New Testa- 
ment has δίλογοζ ,• 1 Tim. iii. 8. 

ενδίω, IV. 8 ; V. 2, to he in want. 

In Plato, Euripides, et al ; in the LXX.; in the Apost. Const, 
vii. 12 ; and in the Apost. Canons, § 13. The New Tes- 
tament has ένδεήζ, Acts, iv. 34. 

έπαοιδόζ, III. 4, an enchanter. 
In the form επωδός occurs in Plato, JSsch., Euripides, etal.^ 
also in the LXX,; Ex. vii. 11, 22, etc. Έπαοιδόζ is 
found in the Apost. Canons, § 10. The Apost. Const, vii. 
6, have instead επάδων. Barnabas omits the word. 
The New Testament has μαγεία [AgXs,^ viii. 11), μαγεύω 
(Acts, viii. 9), and μάγος (Acts, xiii. 6, 8). 

εριστικός, III. 2, contentious. 

In Aristotle, Euripides, et al. ; in the Apost. Canons, § 7. 
Barnabas and the Apost. Const, (parallel passages) omit 
the word. The New Testament has ερίζω and ερις. 

ε,ηλοτνπία, V. 1, jealousy. 

It is found in ^schines in the bad sense jealousy ; also in the 
LXX.; Num. v. 15, etc.; and in the Apost. Const, vii. 18. 
The New Testament has Β,ηλόω and ^,τ]λος in both the 
good and bad senses ; so the LXX. also. The New 
Testament has also 8,ηλωτης, a zealot. 

Βερμός, VII. 2, warm. 

In Homer, Hdt., et al. ; in the LXX. ; omitted in the Apost. 
Const., parallel passage. The New Testament has 
θερμαίνομαι, Mark, xiv. 54, and θέρμη, Acts, xxviii. 


θράσος, III. 9, over-holdness. 

In classical usage (1) in the good sense boldness, (2) in the 
bad sense over-boldiiess. In the LXX. in the good sense. 
Occurs in the Apost. Const, vii. 8. The New Testament 
has ^άρσοζ in the good sense courage, but it occurs only 
once (Acts, xxviii, 15). 
^ρασϋτηζ, V. 1, over-holdness. 

In Thucydides, et al., in the bad sense. In the Apost, Const, 
vii. 18 ; and in Barnabas, xx. 1; in Theodoret, Chrjsostom 
and other Fathers. 
^νμηιόζ, III. 2, passionate. 

In the classics in both the good and bad senses ; (1) high- 
spirited (Aristotle), {1) passionate (Plato, et al.). The Apost. 
Const, vii. 7, and the Apost. Canons, § 7, have instead 
^νμώδηζ, with the same meaning. The New Testament 
has Βνμόζ and ^νμόω. 
ίδρο ω, I. 6, to siveat. 

In Homer, Aristotle, et al. The Apost. Const, omit the word 
in the parallel passage. The New Testament has the noun 
ιδρως, Luke, xxii. 44. 
Ηακο7]^ηζ, II. 6, malicious. 

In Aristotle, Demosthenes, et al.; in the Apost. Const, vii. 5 ; 
and in the Apost. Canons, § 6. The New Testament has 
naH07]^ei(Y (or καΐίοιβία according to Westcott and 
Hort), malice, Rom. i. 29. 
μαθηματικός,. III. 4, an astrologer. 

In Aristotle, a mathematician. In Plutarch it has the mean- 
ins: astronomical, and in later times came to mean an astral- 
oger, e.g., Sextus Empiricus (225 A. d.), and Porphyry 
(263 A.D.). Occurs in the Apost. Canons, § 10. The 
Apost. Const, vii. 6, have instead, μαθήματα novijpa. 

μαθηματική occurs in Socrates (380 A. D.) with the mean- 
ing astrology, and so this meaning attaches to the word in 
the later church councils. 

The Latin matheinatici is used of astrologers in Tacitus, Ju- 
venal, and Tertullian; mathematica of astrology in Sueto- 
nius. The Latin word may, perhaps, explain the later 


μίσος, XVI. 3, hate. 

In Plato, Euripides, et cd. ; in the LXX. ; in tlie Apost. 
Const, vii. 32 ; in Clem. Alex., Chrysostom, Gregory 
Nyssa, etc. The New Testament has μισίω. 
μνηαικαηίΐο, II. 3, to hear malice, to he revengeful. 

In Herodotus, Demosthenes, et cd. In Barnabas, xix. 4 ; in 
the Apost. Const, vii. 4 ; in the Ajjost. Canons, § 6 ; in the 
LXX. ; in later writings. 
ρίωνοσκοποζ, III. 4, an omen-u; atelier. 

In Euripides; in the Apost. Const, vii. 6; in the Apost. 
Canons, § 10 ; not in the LXX., which has οίωνίζω, 
οίωνισμα, οίωνισμόζ, and οιωνοζ. The Greek versions 
of Theodotion (c. 160 a.d.) and Symmachus (c. 200 a.d.) 
have οίωνοσκόποζ in Isa. xlvii. 13. 
παροδίοζ, XII. 2, a traveller. 

Occurs in Hyperides (c. 335 B. c.) but in a different sense. 
hy or on the way^ of a wall upon the street. In Plutarch it 
is used of windows, looking upon the street. It is found in 
Basil and in Hesychius as an adjective in the sense of 
common., proverbial with Χογος and ρήμα. 
The classical word for " traveller " is 7ΐαροδίττ]ζ. The LXX. 
have τιάροδοζ in the same sense ; while in the New Tes- 
tament πάροδος means a way (1 Cor. xvi. 7). 
The Apost. Const, omit παρόδιος in the parallel passage. 
The Didache therefore seems to stand alone in its use of 
παρόδιος in the sense of a traveller, 
περικα^αίροο, III. 4, to purify or to use piirifcations. 

In classical usage the word has no reference to religious 
rites. It occurs in Plato with τ?}ν στήλην^ and in Aris- 
totle with τα δίκτυα. In the LXX. it is used of "making 
a son pass through the fire," Deut. xviii. 10, from which 
the sense of the word in the Didache seems to be derived. 
It is also used in Josh. v. 4, of " circumcision." Occurs in 
the Apost. Canons, § 10. The Apost. Const, vii. 6 have 
περτκα^^αίρων τον ν ιόν, which illustrates this passage 
and implies that the use of περικαΒαι'ρω by itself with 
the meaning which it has in the Didache was uncommon. 
The New Testament has περικά^αρμα, an outcast (1 Cor. 


iv. 13) ; and ^ιαΒαίρω with tlie meanings (1) to i^rune a 
tree (John, xv. 2), (2) to purify from sin (Heb. x. 2). 

τΐοΒεω, IV. 3, to desire. 

In Pindar, Herodotus, Plato, et al. ; in the LXX. The New 
Testament has επιποΒίω, and επιΒνμεω. The Apost. 
Const. \ii. 10, the Apost Canons, § 13, and Barnabas, xix. 
12, read ποιήσει? σχίσματα^ which favors an emenda- 
tion of the text in this place. 

πονέω, V. 2, to labor. 

Occurs in the classics in two senses, (1) to lohor.^ (2) to afflict, 

to distress; occurs in the LXX., in Barnabas xx. 2, and in 

the Apost Const, vii. 18. The New Testament has πυνο^, 

meaning (1) work (Col. iv. 13), (2) distress (Eev. xvi. 


τΐοτόν, X. 3, (twice) drink ; that which one drinks. 

In Homer, ^schylus, Sophocles, et al. , in the same sense ; 
in the LXX, twice (Job, xv. 16 ; Lev. xi. 31). 6 ποτός, 
occurs in Porphyry of a watering of horses (see Sopho- 
cles' Lexicon). The New Testament has πότος (classical), 
a drinking iogeuier, a drinking bout (1 Pet. iv. 3). The 
Apost. Const, vii. 26 (parallel passage) omit the word. 

προνί^στενω, VII. 4. to fast beforehand. 

In Herodotus and Hippocrates. Apparently does not occur 
in later ecclesiastical Greek. The Apost. Const. \•ϋ. 22 
have νηστεύω. The New Testament has ντ^στενω and 
ντ^στεία, both of which occur in the classics, in the LXX. 
and in ecclesiastical (rreek (Basil, Chrysostom, etc.). 

πνίίνώζ, XVI. 2, often. 

Occurs in Aristophanes. Homer has πνκινώ?. The Apost. 
Const vii. 31 omit the passage. The New Testament has 
the adjective πνκνόζ, and πυκνά and πυκνότερον as ad- 
verbs. The LXX. have πυκνός and πυκνότερον but 
not πνκνώς. 

συσπάω, IV. δ, to draio togetJier, or to draw in. 
In Aristophanes, Plato, et al., with the meaning to draw to- 
geth£.r\ so in Lucian (c. 160 A. D.) with δάκτυλους. Oc- 
cursin Barnabas, xix, 9, and in the Apost Canons, § 13, 
but the Apost Const have instead συστέλλων. 


τετράζ, VIII. 1, the fourth, i. e., the fourth day of the week. 
In classical usage it has tlie meanings, (1) for Ίετρακτυ^ (a) 

the sum of the first four numbers^ (b) a quaternion ; (2) the 

fourth day of the month (Homer, Hesiod, etc.), (3) a space 

of four days (Hippocrates). 
The LXX. have the word of the fourth day of the month. 

τετραζ is used of the "fourth day of the week " in later 

writers (Clem. Alex. ; Ignatius Philipp. § 13 interpol. ; 

the Apost. Const, v. 14 ; vii. 23, etc). 
The New Testament has τέταρτος, τεταρταίοζ and τετρά- 

όιον, but not of " the fourth day of the week." 
φαρμακενω, . II 2, to use sorcery. 
In Hdt. in the same sense ; in the LXX. ; in the Apost. 

Const, vii. 3, and in the Apost. Canons, § 6. The Xew 

Testament has φαρμακεία, sorcery^ φαρμα}ίοζ, a sorcerer, 
φ^ορεύζ ? V. 2 ; XVI. 3, a corrupter, destroyer. 

This is probably a post-classical word, but is read by Brunck 

in Sophocles Fr. 155 (according to Liddell and Scott). 

It occurs in Plutarch and in Anthemius (570 A. D.), also 

in Barnabas, xx. 2, and in the Apost. Const, vii. 18. 

The New Testament has φθείρω, φΒορά and φθαρτός, 

which are found also in the LXX. 


Total, 17, of which 16 are classical words. 

α^ανατοζ, IV. 8, imperishable. 

Wisdom, i. 15; Sirach, xvii. 30. 
διάφορα, I. 1, diference. 

Wisdom, vii. 20. 
δίγλωσσος, II. 4, double-tongued, deceitful. 

Prov. xi. 13; Sirach, v. 9, 14; vi. 1 ; χχλάϋ. 13. 
ενδεω, IV. 8 ; V. 2, to be in want. 

Deut. viii. 9; xv. 8; Prov. xxviii. 27. 
επαοιδος, TIL 4, an enchanter. 

Ex. vii. 11, 22, etc. ; Lev. xix. 31, etc. 


ζηλοτυπία, V. 1, jealousy. 

Num. V. 15, etc. 
Β έρμος, VII. 2, loarm. 

Josh. ix. 18; Job, xxxvii. 16, and often. 
θράσος, ΠΙ. 9, over-boldness. 

Ezek. xix. 7 ; Wisdom, xii. 17. 
μοίκρο^νμοζ, III. 8, long-suffering. 

Ex. xxxiv. 6 ; Psa. Ixxxv. 15, and often. In the Apost. 
Const, vii 8 ; in the Apost. Canons, § 11 ; in Chrysostom, 
etc. The New Testament has μακρο^νμεω, μαηρο^νμία 
and μακροΒύμως. μακρόΒνμος is not a classical word. 
μίσος, XVI. 3, hate. 

2 Sam. xiii. 15, and often. 
μνησίΗίχκεω, 11. 3, to hear malice, to he revengeful. 
Joel, iii. 4, to repay evil ; Gen. 1. 15, to hate, and so often with 
the same general meaning, 
περικα^αίρω, III, 4, to purify or to use purifications. 

Deut. xviii. 10, of " making a son pass through the fire," 
Josh. V. 4, of " circumcision." 
τΓοΒεω, IV. 3, to desire. 

Prov. vii. 15 ; Wisdom, iv. 2, etc. 
πονέού, V. 2, to labor. 

Isa. xix. 10 ; 1 Kings, xxii, 8, and often ; but not with the 
meaning to labor. When used transitively it has the 
meanings to afflict, to distress; when used intransitively, to 
suffer, to endure, etc. 
ττοτόν, X. 3 (twice), drink; that which one drinks. 

Job, XV. 16 ; Lev. xi. 34, 
τετράς, VIII. 1, the fourth, i. e. the fourth day of the tceeh. 

Hag. ii. 1, 10, 18, etc., of "the fourth day of the month," 
φαρμαηεύω, II. 2, to use sorcery. 

In the active voice in 2 Mace, x. 13. In the passive in Psa. 
Ixiii. 6 ; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6. 




Total, 16. 

αίσχρολόγος, III. d, foul-mouthed. 

Occurs in Pollux (c, 180 A.D.), in the Apost. Const, vii. 6, 
and in tlie Apost. Canons, § 9. The New Testament has 
αισχρολογία and αίσχροτηζ. 
ανταποδοτηζ, IV. 7, a recompenser . 

Occurs in Barnabas, xix. 11, in the Apost. Const, vii. 12, 
and in the Apost. Canons, § 13. The New Testament 
has αντατίοδίδαομι, avτaπ6δoμa'Λn^L ανταποδοσιζ. 
γόγγνσοζ, III. 6, a murmur er. 

Occurs in the Apost. Const, vii. 7 ; and in the Apost. 
Canons, § 11 ; also in Theodoret and in Arcadius. The 
New Testament has γογγυστήζ in the same sense (Jude, 
16), also γογγνΒ,ω and γογγυβμοζ. 
διγλωσσία, II. 4, douhleness of tongue. 

Found in the older editions of Barnabas, xix. 8. But the 
latest edition (von Gebhardt, Harnack and Zahn) omits 
it and reads instead παγίς γαρ το στόμα Βανάτον. 
Occurs in the Apost. Canons, § 6. The Apost. Const, vii. 
4, have παγι'ζ γαρ ΐσχνρα ανδρϊ τα ιδία χείλη, 
διγνώμων, II. 4, double-minded. 

Occurs in Barnabas, xix. 7, and in the Apost. Const, li. 6. 
The Apost. Const, vii. 4 (parallel passage) and the Apost. 
Canons, § 6, have instead δίγνωμοί. The New Testament 
has δίψνχος. 
όιπλοκαρδία, V. 1, douhle-heartedness, duplicity. 

Occurs in Barnabas, xx. 1, and in the Apost. Const, vii. 18. 
Sophocles compares διττλί^] ψι^χ'~ΐ in Hippolytus (Ox. ed. 
page 60). 
διψνχέω, IV. 4, to hesitate, to douht. 

Occurs in Barnabas, xix. 5, in the Apost. Canons, § 13, and 
in the Apost. Const, vii. 11 ; also in Clement of Rome, 


First Epistle, § 23 ; in Hermas, Vision ii. 2 ; and in Cjril 
of Alexandria In Johan. vi. The New Testament has 

εκπίτασιζ, ΧΥΙ. 6, a spreading out, or mi opening. 

The word occurs in Plutarch {Oe Sera Numinis Vindicia, 
xxiii., Hackett's edition) with the meaning a spreading out, 
an expansion. The Apost. Const, vii. 32 (parallel pas- 
sage) have τότε φανήσεται το σΐ]μειον του υιού τον 
άνθρωπου εν τω ονρανω. The verb εκπετανννμί 
in the classics means to spread out. The LXX. have 
εκπετάξω with the same meaning in Job, xxvi. 9, where 
God "spreads out a cloud over his throne." 

Ηοσμοπλάνοί, XVI. 4, the wo7-ld-deceiver. 

Occurs in the Apost. Const, vii. 32. πλάνος (which in the 
classics means a loanderer) is used in the New Testament 
of a deceiver. For the meaning of κοσμοτΐλάνοζ compare 
Eev. xii. 9. 

Κυριακή, XIV. 1, the Lord's day. 

Occurs as a noun in Ignatius, Gregory Nazianzen, etc., and 
in the Apost. Const, often. The Apost. Const, vii. 30 have 
την άνεστάσιμον του Jivpiov ήμεραν την ηνριακήν 
φα μεν. The New Testament has the adjective, in 1 Cor. xi. 
20, of the Lord's Supper, and in Rev. i. 10, of the Lord's day. 

παιδοφ^ορεω II. 2, to corrupt hoys. 

Occurs in Barnabas, xix. 4, in the Apost. Const, vii. 2 ; and 
in the Apost. Canons, § 6 ; also in Justin Martyr, Dial. c. 
Trypho, § 95, and in Clement of Alexandria,, Cohortatio ad 
Gentes (Migne, i. 225), Pedagogus II. (Migne, i. 504), etc. 
The classical word is τταιδεραστέω, which is found in 

navB a μά ρτητοζ, V. 2, a universal sinner, a sinner in every- 
Occurs in Barnabas, xx. 2, and in the Apost. Const, vii. 18. 
The formation of the adjective is peculiar ; classic Greek 
having the adjective άμαρτητικο? but not αμαρτητοζ. 

πονηρόφροον, III. 6, evil-minded. 

Occurs in the Apost. Const, vii. 7, in the Apost. Canons, 
§ 11, and, apparently, nowhere else. 


σιτία, XIII. 5, a hahing of hread, a hatch. 

Occurs in the Apophihegmata Patrum (c. 500 α.ώΛ. The 
Apost. Const, vii. 29 (parallel passage) have instead 
αρτών Βερμών. The classics and the New Testament 
have σιτίον and σϊτο?, grain, and άρτοζ, bread. The 
LXX. have αρτοζ and σιτοζ, and αρτοζ is found also 
in Justin Martyr, Chrysostom, etc. 
νφηλόφΒαλμος, III. 3, lofty -eyed, or loanton-eyed. 

Occurs elsewhere only in the Apost. Canons, § 9. 

The Apost. Const, vii. 6 have instead pz^o^S^orA/io? which 
suggests the meaning wanton-eyed or of leering eyes, for 
νψηλόφΒοίλμοζ in the Didache, and this meaning accords 
best with μοιχεΐαι, adulteries, which follows. 

The same section of the Apost. Const, has also ύή}η\οφρων^ 
haughty, and the LXX. have νφΐ]λο7ίάρδιοζ, haughty. 
But this can hardly be the meaning of ύιρηλοφ^αλμοζ in 
the Didache. 
χριστεμποροζ, XII, 5, one loho maTces gain out of Christ. 

The word is not found again until about 300 a.d. It oc- 
curs in Athanasius (d. 873 a.d.), in Basil (d. 379), in 
Gregory Naz. (d. 390 or 391), in Chrysostom (d. 407), and 
in the Ignatian Epistles (interpolated), Ad Troll, vi. and 
Ad Magn. vi. (date 300-400 A.D. ?). 

χριστεμπορείίχ occurs in Theodoret (d. 457). 



ηροσεξομολογεω, XIV. 1, to confess. 

προσομολογεω and ομολογέω are classical, and ομολογεω 
and εξ ομολογεω are found in the LXX., in the New 
Testament, and in ecclesiastical writers. The Apost. Const, 
vii. 30 (parallel passage) have έξομολογέομαι. 
Hilgenfeld and von Gebhardt (followed by Harnack in a 
note, page 54) prefer ττροεξομολογέω. 




Total, 14. 

αισχύνη, lY. 11, modesty. 

In the jSTew Testament in a bad sense only ; subjectively, 
the feeling of shame ; objectively, a shameful deed. In clas- 
sical usage (1) subjectiΛ-ely, shame for an ill-deed; the sense 
of honor. (2) Objectively, disgrace, dishonor. 
Occurs in the parallel passage in Barnabas, xix. 7. In the 
Apost. Const, vii. 13, προσοχτ] occurs instead. In later 
ecclesiastical Greek (Gregory Nyssa and Theodoret) it is 
employed in the bad sense. 

άντατΐόδομα, \. 2, revenge. 

In the New Testament it means a recompense (1) of good, 
Luke, xiv. 12, (2) of evil, Rom. xi. 9. The sense of the 
word in Eom. xi. 9 approaches that in the Didache, 
but is not identical with it, the subjectivity which 
inheres in the word revenge (a word which exacth' trans- 
lates ανταπόδομα in the Didache) being wanting in Rom. 
xi. 9. 
In the LXX. ανταπόδομα is used for i"iD3, recompense. 
The word is not classical. 

δίια/, I. 5, account or trial. 

δώσει δπα/ι^, shall give account (Hitchcock and Brown, 
et al); shall submit to trial (Orris). In the New Testament 
δύί?/ means (1) judgment, sentence, (2) punishment. In 
the classics the nearest approach to the sense of the word 
in this passage is in Hdt., Thuc, and Xen., where διδόναι 
δύίαζ occasionally means to submit to trial ; the ordinary 
meaning of διδόναι δι'κην being to inflict or to suffer pun- 

ειρηνεύω, IV. 3, to reconcile. 

In the New Testament used intransitively only, to be at peace; 
to live in peace. So in the classics. But in Babrius (c. 50 


B.C.) and in Dio Cassius (c. 180 a.d.) the transitiΛ^e 
sense to reconcile, to make peace occurs. So in Barnabas 
xix. 12, in the Apost. Const, vii. 10, and in the Apost. 
Canons, § 13. 

εκλύομαι, XVI. 1, to be loosed. 

In the New Testament with the meaning to he wearied^ to he 
faint. The phrase οσφΰεζ εηλν^σ^ωσαν seems to be pecu- 
liar to the Didaclie. The Apost. Const, vii. 31 have οσφύεζ 
περιεζωσμέναι, Avhich is a New Testament phrase. 

ενχαρίοτια, IX. 1, δ, the Eucharist. 

In the New Testament with the meanings (1) gratitude^ (2) 
thanksgiving^ the expression of gratitude. In the classics 
gratitude. The word is used of " the Lord's Supper "' in 
Ignatius (c. 115 A.D.) Ephesians^ xiii. ; Smyrnceans, Λαϋ., 
etc. ; in Justin Martyr First Apology^ § &Q ; Dialogue icith 
Trypho^ § 117; in Irenseus, iv. 8, 5 ; in Clem. Alex. ; in 
Origen ; in the Apost. Const., etc. 

ε,ηλωτής, III. 2, jealous. 

In the New Testament in the good sense of zeal. So in clas- 
sical usage. Β,ηλοω and B.rf\o^, however, are used in the 
classics and in the New Testament both in the good and 
in the bad sense. The word occurs in the A})ost. Const, 
vii. 6, and in the Apost. Canons, § 7 (parallel passages). 

τιατασκ7]νήω. X. 2, to cause to dwell 

In the New Testament always intransitive, to lodge, to dioell. 
So in the classics. In the LXX. it is used transitively for 
the Hebrew Τψ)'^ in Psa. xxii. 1 ; for |3'_*' in Num. xiv. 
30 ; and for Γ?'*''7 in Psa vii. 6, etc. The Didache there- 
fore agrees with the LXX. in its use of this word, which 
is found also in the Apost. Const, vii. 26 in the same sense. * 

* κνβΐΟΓ7/ΐ, IV. 1, is included in this list by Hitchcock and Brown, who 
translate that wMch pertainefh to the Lord. But other translators (Hai-nack, 
Orris, Starbuck, Spence)read Lordship, Sovereignty of the Lord, etc., which 
is the New Testament sense of the word (Eph. i. 21 ; Col. i. 16 ; 2 Peter, ii. 
10 ; Jude, 8) and the more literal rendering. The Apost. Ccnst. vii. 9, how- 
ever, favor Hitchcock and Brown's rendering, as they read οπον yap ?) 
Ttepi ^εον δτβαβκαλία (κει ΰ Βεΰζ πάρεότιν. But the Apost. Canons, 
§ 13, read as does the Didache. 


λντρωσιζ, IV. 0', a ransom. 

Occurs three times in the New Testament : Luke, ii. 38, 
"looking for {ττροσδεχομένοιζ λντρωσιν) the redemption 
of Israel." 

Luke, i. 68, "hath wrought recfem^i/on (e;roz//^fr λντρωσιν) 
for his people." 

Heb. ix. 12, " having obtained eternal redemption {λντρωσιν 
ενράμενος)" It is used therefore in the New Testament 
only of the deliverance or redemption itself. It occurs in the 
LXX. in the sense of a redeeming, ransoming. The word 
is not classical but occurs in Plutarch (Arat. 11) where it 
is rendered ransoming by Liddell and Scott. 

Cremer {Bihlico- Theological Lexicon of New Testament Greek) 
saj^s ^'■λντρωσιζ literally denotes not the ransom but 
the act of freeing or releasing ; deliverance. In Biblical 
Greek=r€demption, deliverance.^^ λντρον in the New 
Testament, in the LXX., and in the classics denotes the 
means of loosing, tliat which is paid for the liberation of any- 
one, the ransom. 

In the Didache λντρωσιζ is used quite anomalously 
of the ransom paid, as the synonym of the New 
Testament λντρον. The Apost. Canons, § 13, agree with 
the Didache. It is significant that the Apost. Const, vii, 
12 (parallel passage), read διά των χειρών σον δόζ, ίνα 
εργάσΐ] είζ λντρωσιν αμαρτιών σον, using λντρωσιζ 
in the sense of remission, for the New Testament αφι'εσιζ. 

In Barnabas, xix. 10, we have δια των χειρών σον 
εργαστ} εΐζ λντρον αμαρτιών σον, where λντρον is 
used after εις instead of the more exact λντρωσιζ. 

We can only say, therefore, that the Didache and its paral- 
lels use these two words in a very loose and careless way. 
παρεητόζ, VI. 1, opart from. 

The word is rendered apart from by Hitchcock and Brown, 
and by Spence; aside from by Starbuck ; aloof fi-om by Or- 
ris ; anders als by Harnack. 

It occurs three times in the New Testament (Matt. v. 32 ; 
Acts, xxvi. 29 ; 2 Cor. xi. 28) and possibly a fourth time 
in Matt. xix. 9. According to Meyer it means always 


" heside in the sense of exception.''^ It is rendered in a 
different way each time by the English versions, but never 
has the meaning which it has in the Didache. The word 
does not occur in the classics, in the LXX., in Barnabas, 
nor in the Apost. Const. 

συνοχή, I. 5, arred or confinement. 

Occurs but twice in the New Testament (Luke, xxi, 25 ; 2 
Cor. ii. 4) with the meaning distress^ anguish. In the clas- 
sics it means a being held together in many different con- 
nections, and in Manetho [300 B.C., Poet. Works, I. 313] it 
is used of imprisonment. It occurs four times in the LXX., 
twice of a siege (Jer. lii. 5 ; Micah v. 1) where it translates 
the Hebrew li^'? The passage is omitted in the Apost. 

νττερεΐδον (second aorist of νπεροράω), XV. 3, to despise. 
Occurs but once in the New Testament (Acts, xvii. 30) where 
it means to overlook, to hear ivith. In the classics it means 
both to overlook and to despise. In the LXX. it has fre- 
quently the meaning to despise (Tobit, iv. 3 ; Wisdom, xix. 
21 ; Sirach, ii. 10, etc.). The Apost. Const, vii. 31 read 
ΐ)μειζ δε τιμάτε τούτουζ, etc. 

νφοζ, Υ. 1, haughtiness. 
In the New Testament it means (1) height, of material eleva- 
tion only ; (2) elevation or dignity of a Christian, Jas. i. 9. 
In the classics it has the meanings (1) height; (2) Metaph. 
the top, summit. The Apost Const, vii. 18, have instead 
νφιβοφροσυνη. Barnabas, xx. 1 has νφοζ δυνάμεως. 

φΒορά, ΙΓ. 2, abortion; εν φ^ορά, by abortion. 

In the New Testament the word means corruption, both phy- 
sical and spiritual, and also moral corruptness, depravity. 
In the classics it means destruction, decay, etc. The mean- 
ing abortion appears only in ecclesiastical Greek; in Bar- 
nabas, xix. 5 ; in the Apost. Const, vii. 3, in the Apost. 
Canons, § 6, and in Clement of Alexandria 



Authenticity of the Didache.^ 

The Didache is no modern or ancient forgery, but has every 
internal evidence of very great antiquity and genuineness. 
It serves no party purpose, and disappoints all parties. " No 
one," says Bishop Lightfoot, " could or would have forged it." 
The existence of the Jerusalem MS. is placed beyond all doubt 
by a number of witnesses and the fac-similes which we pub- 
lished, pp. 5 and 6 ; and the conjecture that Bryennios wrote 
it, is not only contemptible but absurd. The forger, then, must 
have been Leo " the sinner," who Λvrote the MS. in 1056, or 
some older sinner from whom he copied. But it can be 
proven that the Didache is identical, at least in substance, with 
a book of that name which was known to the early fathers, 
and then disapjDeared for centuries. 

Clement of Alexandria (who died about 216) gives us the 
first clear' trace of the book, though without naming it. He 
quotes, in his Stromata^ which were written between 201 and 
203, a passage from it, as a passage of " Scripture " {γραφή), 
and therefore regards it as an inspired book in a wider sense, 
like the Epistle of Barnabas and the Pastor of Hermas, which 
he used frequently, with a great want of critical discernment 
between the Apostolic and post- Apostolic writings. f He 

* Bryennios discusses the authenticity in the fifth section (g e.') of his 
Prolegomena, Harnaek in his Prolegomena , pp. 6-11, and Zahn in his Sirpple- 
mentum Clfme7itinnm, p. 279 sqq. Comp. also Hitchcock and Brown, second 
ed. p. xxiii, sqq. 

t Stro7n. lib. I. cap. 20 (in Migne's Didache, c. III. 5. 
ed. I,, col. 817): 

Ουτοζ χλέπτηζ ν η ό τ η ζ Τεκνον μον, μ ή γτνον φ ε ν- 

y ραφή ζ εϊρηται' φηΰΐ χουν, 6 τ ηζ' ίπετδή όδηγ ει τ υ -φ εν6- 
" Τίε, μ ή γίνον φ ε ν (ί τ τ/ζ • μα είί τήν ηΧοτίήν. (My child, 
ϋδ η γ ει γα β το φ ε ν 6 μ α become not a liar; since lying leads 
ηρόζ τ i", ν χ λ ο η ή x' .'" (Such a to theft.) 
one is called a thief by the Scripture ; 
at least it says : " Son, become not a 
liar; for lying leads to theft.") 

The quotation (probably from memory) agrees with the passage in the 


seems moreover to refer to the Didaclie when he speaks of the 
doctrine of the Two Ways as being proposed by the Apostles 
(in the Didache?) as well as by the Gospel and the Prophets.* 
At the close of his Pa'dagogue^ he gives himself a sort of Apos- 
tolic instruction for Neophytes based upon the Mosaic Deca- 
logue and the two royal commandments of love, and this in- 
struction corresponds in general with the teaching of the Two 
Ways in our documentf Clement also uses the term " Vine of 
David," which occurs nowhere else than in the Didache.''' X 

Perhaps we may go still further back to Irenasus who 
flourished about twenty years earlier. In the second of the 
Fragments discovered by Pfaff, Irenseus speaks of " Second 
Ordinances (or Constitutions) of the Apostles," § which may 
possibly mean the Didache^ as a secondary Apostolic, or post- 
Apostolic production. He says : " Those who have followed 
the Second Ordinances of the Apostles know that the Lord has 
established a new offering in the New Covenant, according to 
the word of Malachi the prophet" (Mai. i. 11, 14). The 
same passage of Malachi is quoted in the Did. (XIY. 3) for 
the same purpose, and was often used in the second century 

Did. except that it reads vie for τέκνον μου, γάρ for ίπειδη, and ττρύζ 
for είί. Paul de Lagarde first directed attention to ttiis quotation, in his 
Reliqum juris ecclcsiasiici antiqnissimce. Lips. 1856, but traced it to the 
Apost. Church Order, as the Didache was not yet discovered. 

* Strom, lib; v. cap. 5 (in Migne's ed , \-ol. ii. col. 54) : δύο ΰδονζ 
ύποτιΒεμένον τον ευαγγελίου [cf. Matt. vii. 13, 14] και των άπ ο- 
ό τ ό λ ω ν [cf. our /Ιιδαχή των αττοότ.] ύμοίωζ τοΐζ προφΐ}ταιζ απαΰι 
[Jer. xxi. 8]. He then refers also to the myth of Prodicus on virtue and 
vice (Xenophon's Memornh. ii. 1, 21 sq.),and to the teaching of Pythagoras. 

f Peed. Lib. iii. cap. 12 ; ed. Migne i. coL 665 sqq. (ed. Potter, p. 304, 
sqq.). Krawutzcky in the "Theol. Quartalschrift" of Tubingen for 1884, 
p. 588 sqq., ingeniously, but unsuccessfully, tries to show that Clement, 
while acquainted with the Didache, was not quite satisfied with it, and that 
his quotation \n Strum, i. 20 is probably from a shorter and older book of 
Peter on the Tiw Ways. 

X ή αιιπελοζ /Ιαβίδ. Quis dives salvus. cap. 29 ; comp. Fdd. IX. 2. 

§ δεντεραι των απσϋτόλων διατάξει?. Opera, ed. Stieren, i. 854 sq. ; 
Harvey's ed. ii. 500. Harvey (i. clxxii.) considers the Fragment genuine. 
/ίιατάίειζ is the Greek word for the Latin Constitutiones. Rothe's elabo- 
rate argument that it means the institution of the Episcopate is a failure 
The context shows that it refers to the Eucharist. See Church Hist. ii. 137. 


with reference to tbe sacrifice of the Eucharist.* Possibly the 
lost treatise of Irenaeus on Apostolic Preaching or on the sub- 
ject of Teaching was a comment on the Didache.^ 

Origen, the pupil of Clement and the most learned divine 
of the third century, seems to have been ignorant of the Bi- 
dache ; at least he never refers to it. 

Eusebius, the historian (d. 340), who was familiar with the 
entire ante-Nicene literature, is the first to mention the book 
by its name, " The so-called Teachings of the Apostles.''' He uses 
the plural and omits the number twelve. ^ The addition " so- 
called" (which occurs again in Athanasiusj qualifies the 
Apostolic origin as being only indirect in the sense in which 
we speak of the "so-called Apostles' Creed." Eusebius puts 
the Didache last among the ecclesiastical but uncanonical and 
spurious books [ev τοιί voBoi;), and in the same category 
with " The Acts of Paul," " The Shepherd of Hermas," " The 
Apocalypse of Peter," " The Epistle of Barnabas;" i e., with 
writings which were publicly used in some churches, but which 
he himself as an historian with good reason did not find sufii- 
ciently authenticated and intrinsically important enough to 
entitle them to a place among the " Homologumeaa," or even 
among the seven " Antilegomena," which are now parts of the 
New Testament canon. 

Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria (d. 373), in like manner 
mentions the '* Teaching so called of the Apostles'' § (together with 
the Wisdom of Solomon, the Wisdom of Sirach, Esther, Ju- 
dith, Tobit, and the Shepherd) among the books which 

* Krawutzcky's hyiwthesis that the Did. was written in opposition to 
these Ordinances is utterly baseless. See above, p. 24 note. 

f A plausible conjecture of Bryennios accepted by J. Rendel Harris (in 
the "Journal of Christian Philosophy," April, 1884. p. 35). 

X Των Άπυότόλων αϊ λεγύμεΐ'αι /ύιδαχαι. Η. Ε. iii. 25. Rufinus, 
in his translation, substitutes for the plural the singular, Dodrina quce 
dicitur Apostoloruin. The Apost. Const, are called both Jiaraiii and 
^ιατάξειζ των ^Απ., as Bryennios remarks. There is no ground therefore 
to refer the Αιδαχαί of Eusebius and the Dodrince Apostolonim of Pseudo- 
Cyprian to a different work from the διδαχή or Dodnna. The number 
" twelve " is omitted in all allusions. 

§ Αιδαχή καλούμενη των άηοΰτόλων. 


are not canonical, but useful for the instruction of catechu- 

Rufinus, Presbyter of Aquileia and translator of Eusebius 
(d. 410), repeats this statement of Athanasius, but with two 
differences : he substitutes the books of the Maccabees for the 
book of Esther, and a little book, "The Two Ways," or "The 
Judgment of Peter,'' or '' according to Peter,'' for the " Teach- 
ing of the Apostles." f Jerome (d. 419) likewise mentions 
Peter's " Judgment " among five apocryphal books ascribed to 
that Apostle. :|: This was probably the same with the first six 
chapters of our Didaclie^ or, possibly, an older source of it. § 
The name of Peter was probably used in a representative sense 
as he stood at the head of the Twelve, especially from the 
Roman point of view. 

In a work, De Aleatoribus, falsely ascribed to Cyprian, there 

* He calls them βιβλία ov κανυνιζόμενα uiv, τετνπωμένα δέ παρά 
των πατέρων dvayivoDoxf.oSai τοϊζ άρτι πρνόερχυμενυιζ και βυυλυ- 
μένοιζ ηατηχεΐό3ατ τον τηζ ενϋεβείαζ λόχον, books not canonized, 
but appointed by the fathers to be read to those that are just coming to us 
and desire to be instructed in the doctrine of godliness." Epistola Fest. 
39, in Opera ed. Bened. I. 2, 963 ; in Migne's ed. ii. col. 1437. The Ep. is 
from the year 367. 

f Comment, in Symb. Apost. c. 38 {Opera, ed. Migne, col. 374): " Scvmchim 
tainen est, quod d alii libri sunt, quinon canonici, scd ecdesiastici η majori- 
htis appellati sunt." Then after mentioning the Apocrypha of the 0. T. he 
continues: "in Novo Testamento libellus qui dicitur 'Pastoris' sive 'Her- 
mes ' (al. 'Hermatis') ; {ef] qui appellatur ' Ducb Vice,' rel ' Judicium Petri.' " 
The bracketed et before qui (omitted by Migne) is a conjecture of Cred- 
ner. The older editions read Judicium secundum Petrum, and one MS. 
secundum Petri, which would imply a primum Judicium Petri, but is 
probably a mere error {secimdum iov judicium). 

X De vii-is illustr. c. 1. He mentions, besides the two canonical Epistles of 
Peter, the following books ascribed to him: " Libri e quihusunus ' Actornm' 
ejus inscribitur, alius ' Evangelii,^ tertius ' Prcedicationis,^ quartus ' Apoc- 
aJypseos,'' quintus ' Judieii,'' inter aporryphas Scripturas repudiantur.''^ 

tj Grabe (1711, Spicileg. i. 56) identified the Duoe Vice or Judicium Petri 
with the Pnedicatio Petri (xr/pvyna, abridged κρμα, misunderstood 
for κρίμα), Hilgenfeld with the Apost. Church Order in which Peter 
gives the hierarchical instruction. Krawutzcky with an earlier (lost) docu- 
ment between Barnabas and the Church Order, Zahn, Hamack, and nearly 
all English and American writers with the DidacTie. Hilgenfeld explains 
the title Judicium Petri from 2 Pet. ii. 2sq., and from the Judicium Her- 
culis described by Prodicus in Xenophon (Z. c. iv. 90). 


is a quotation from a book called the " Doctrines of tlie 
Apostles " (" in Doctrinis Apostolorum "), but it bears only a 
very remote resemblance to a few passages in the Didache.'^ 

The last mention of the " Teaching of the Apostles" from 
personal knowledge was made in the ninth century by Niceph- 
orus, Patriarch of Constantinople (d. A.D. 828), who speaks 
of such a book as among the Apocrypha of the New Testa- 
ment, and as consisting of two hundred lines (στzJo/).f It 
turns out that the MS. discovered by Bryennios numbers two 
hundred and three lines, χ 

After this notice the Didache disappeared from history till its 
recovery in 1873, or rather its publication in 1883. § The.sub- 

* See Bryennios, p. mf, and Harnack, p. 20 sq. 

f Nicephorus gives a list of all the books of the 0. and X. T., and nine 
Apocrypha of the N. T., with the number of βτίχυι, and as the fifth among 
these Apocrypha he mentions (between the Gospel of Thomas and the Epistles 
of Clement, Ignatius, Poly carp and Her mas) the 

/Ιιδαχή άττυϋτόλων ότίχοι ζ~' 

The canon of Nicephorus is fully discussed by Credner, Zur GescMchte 
des Kanons (Halle, 1847) p. 97 sqq., and printed pp. 117-122. See Nicephoei 
Opera, ed. Migne (1865, in " Patrol. Gr." Tom. C. p. 1058 sq.), and also the 
fifth ed. of Westeott's Hist, of the Can. pp. 560-62. 

X Bryennios assumes the substantial identity of the verse-measure of Leon's 
MS. with that of the text of Nicephorus. The verse-measure of antiquity was 
an average hexameter (about 15 syllables), but it varied according to the size 
of the page or the column. See the article Stiohometry by J. liendel Har- 
ris in Sehaff-Herzog, " Rel. Eneycl.," iii. 2244 sqq. According to Harnack 
(p. 13, note 22), the Did. numbers 10,700 letters, i. e., 305 stichoi, count- 
ing 85 letters to a stichos. Gordon (" Modern Review," 1884, p. 455) throws 
doubt on the value of the inference from Nicephorus. " This measurement," 
he says, ' so far from favoring the identity of the two, is an argument against 
it. Nicephorus fixes the combined length of the two Epistles of Clement at 
2,600 lines : they occupy in the Jerusalem 3Ianuscript 1,120 lines (See 
Bryennios' Clement, p. 142, n. 4). What then, on this calculation, 
should be the length, in the Jerusalem Ilanuscript, of Nicephorus' 
200-line tractate ? Not 203, but only some 86 lines. This would imply a 
very much shorter document than either the Greek or the Syriac Teaching. 
To suit the requirements of our Greek document the estimate in Nicephorus' 
stichometry would have to be increased to 455 line*, instead of 200." 

§ Biyennios quotes two later authors who mention the Did., namely 
Joannes Zonaras (c. 1120) and Matthfpus Blastares (c. 1335), but they had no 
personal knowledge of it. and confounded it with the Apostolical Constitu- 
tions of Pseudo-Clement. 


stance of it had passed into otlier books, tlie " Ecclesiastical 
Canons" and the "Apostolical Constitutions," which superseded 
it as a separate work. 

Dr. Oscar von Gebhardt has recently (1884) ascertained the 
existence of an old Latin translation of the Didache and pub- 
lished a fragment of it, containing, with sundry variations, the 
substance of the first two chapters, and beginning : " Vice duix. 
sunt in seralo^ vike et mortis^ lucis et tenebrarum.''^ It must be 
either a free translation of the Did. conformed to Barnabas 
andHermas, or derived from an older source of all these books. 
It is too small to form a defi lite conclusion. The MS. dates 
from the tenth century, and was formerly in the convent libra- 
ry of Melk in Austria, but has unfortunately disappeared ; the 
remaining fragment was copied by the librarian, Bernhard Pez, 
together with the sermon of Boniface De abrenunciatione in hap- 

Harnack conjectures that the Waldenses were acquainted 
with this translation and borrowed from it their institution of 
Apostles or travelling Evangelists, f But it is far more prob- 
able that they derived it directly from the tenth chapter of 
Matthew and the mission of the Seventy in the tenth chapter 
of Luke. 


Time of Composition, 

The Didache has the marks of the highest antiquitv and is 
one of the oldest, if not the very oldest, of the post- Apostolic 
writings. There is nothing in it wliich could not have been 
written between a.d. 70 and 100. 

This is evident, negatively, from the absence of allusion to 
facts, movements, customs and institutions known throughout 
Christendom from the middle or beginning of the second cent- 
ury. No mention is made of a New Testament canon, or any 

* Texte u. Untersueh. 1884, or Harnack, pp. 275-286. See below, Doc. II., 
and the Excursus of Dr. Warfield . 

f See his Excursus on the Didache and the Waldenses, pp. 269-274. 


book except " the Gospel ; " there is no trace of a baptismal 
creed, or church festival (as Easter), or formulated dogma, or 
specific heresy, either Ebionism or Gnosticism, which were 
already rampant in the age of Trajan and Hadrian.* The 
Didache is entirely uncontroversial. 

Still more conclusive are the positive indications of antiquity. 
The Didache presents Christian teaching and Christian institu- 
tions in primitive, childlike simplicity.f The Church appears 
in a state of orphanage, immediately after the death of its 
founders. Apostles still continue, but are of a lower grade and 
as it were dying out. The Prophets are the chief teachers and 
not yet superseded by the Bishops. Nor had the Presbyters 
taken the place of the primitive Bishops, but both are still 
identical. Of the supernatural gifts {χαρίσματα) prophecy was 
flourishing, but the glossolalia and the power of miracles had 
disaDpeared. The Agape and the Eucharist are one feast ; 
while from the beginning of the second century they were 
separated. There is no class distinction of clergy and laity, 
no mention of ordination, of three orders, of sacerdotal func- 
tions. Only two sacraments are mentioned. Discretionary 
freedom is allowed in the mode of administering Baptism, and 
room is left for the extemporaneous exercise of the gift of 
prayer in public worship, whicb had not yet assumed a settled 
order. No reading of Scripture lessons is even mentioned. 

* Hilgenfeld and Bonet-Maury find in the Didache allusions to the Mon- 
tanistic prophecy, and the former «also to Grnosticisra by an arbitrary emenda- 
tion of the text {h(>6i(ih&)v for κηύμη^όν, and μΐ)ων for ποιών Ch. XI. 
11). But this is certainly an error. The Bid. ante-dates the Montanistic 
revival of prophecy and martyr-enthusiasm in opposition to the episcopal 
hierarchy and its secularizing tendency, and iirnores ail the characteristic 
features of that movement. See p. 72, and Brown, in H. and B. p. xciii 

f As Bishop Lifihtfoot well expresses it: "There is an archaic sim- 
plicity, I had almost said a childishness, in its practical directions which 
is only consistent with the early infancy of a church." My friend of 
Christiania, a first-class judffe of ancient Christian documents, received the 
same impre.=;sion. I quote from a private letter (June 21, 1884") : " Mit neu- 
tcMameiitUch-eranr/rlisrhem Mn/tssstab gempssen stflit sic [die Did.^nicht lioch, 
vnd repruscnUrt so recTit die. νηηιότηζ der ersten nachapostoUschen Zeit, 
zumal ihrer judenchristlichen Kreise. " 


The eucliaristic tlianksgivings are much shorter and simjDler 
than those in the ancient liturgies. The sixteenth chapter 
moves in the eschatological atmosphere of the Synoptical 
Gospels; and the whole book reflects the Jewish Christian 
stage of the Church in the land of its birth under the living 
power of the one Gospel of the Lord. 

The antiquity is confirmed by the close affinity of the style 
and vocabulary to the writings of the New Testament, as dis- 
tinct both from classical and from patristic Greek.* 

Let us reason back from the end of the second century when 
it was certainly known and used. 

The Didadie is older than Clement of Alexandria, c. 200, 
who already quoted it as ''Scripture," regarding it as semi- 
Apostolic and semi-inspired. It cannot have been a new book 
then to be so highly esteemed. 

It is older than Irena3us, c. 180, and Justin Martyi-, c. 140, 
who opposed the full-grown Gnostic heresy, and present a 
more advanced state of doctrinal development and ecclesiastical 

It is older than the Epistle of Barnabas, which was certainly 
written before 120, probably before 100 ; \ for Barnabas pre- 
sents in the last chapters (which are wanting in the Latin 
version) a verbose and confused ex|)ansion of the first chapters 
oi the Didache or some other similar document; while the 
Oidache has all the marks of originality : brevity, simplicity 
and uniformity of style. :{: 

It is older than the Shepherd of Hermas, whether composed 

*SeeCh. XXV. p. 94 sqq. 

•f• On the different dates assigned to Barnabas, see Church History, vol. ii. 

X See above, p. 20. I am unable to understand how such learned and 
acute writers as Bryennios, Rilpenfeld, Harnack, and Krawutzcky can be of 
the opposite opinion. The priority of the Didache is strongly advocated by 
Zahn, Funk, Langen, Farrar, E. L. Hicks, Potwin, Hitchcock and BroΛvn 
(second ed. p. xxxvi. sqq ), De Romestin, Spence, and nearly all English and 
American writers on the subject. The only other possible view is that sug- 
gested by Lightfoot, Massebieau, Holtzmann, Lipsius, and Warfield, that 
both Barnabas and the writer of the Did. drew from a common source which 
is lost. But until this is found we must assume that the Did. is the source 
of Barnabas, or at all events the older of the two. 


under Bishop Pius of Rome, 139-154, or mucli earlier at tlie 
time of Presbyter-Bishop Clement, 92-100 : for in its brief 
parallel sections, Hermas is likewise an enlargement of the 
simpler statements of the Didache.^ 

It is older than the oldest recension of the Ignatian Epistles, 
which dates from the first quarter of the second century : for 
Ignatius enforces with great earnestness the Episcopal office 
as a distinct order of the ministry superior to the Presbyterate, 
and opposes Gnostic docetism ; while the Didaclie still iden- 
tifies the Episcopate with the Presbyterate, and specifies no 

This would bring ns to the threshold of the Apostolic 

Yet we cannot well go far back of the year 100. For the 
Didache^ in the eschatological chapter, makes no allusion to 
the destruction of Jerusalem as an impending event. And 
it is not likely that any writer should have undertaken to 
give a summary of the " Teaching of the Twelve Apostles," 
while one or more of them were still alive. James, Peter, 
and Paul, it is true, had suffered mart\Tdom before the de- 
struction of Jerusalem ; but John lived to the reign of Trajan, 
which began a.d. 98. 

We may therefore assign the Didache with some confidence 
to the closing years of the first century, say between a.d. 90 
and 100. 

In the Jerusalem MS. our document follows the Clemen- 
tine Epistles and precedes the Ignatian Epistles. This nearly 
indicates, whether intentionally or not, the probable date of 
its composition. 

The views of scholars still vary considerably, but seem to 
incline with increasing unanimity to a very early date. Bry- 

* Hermas is probably younger than Barnabas, and hence still younger 
than the Did. The views on the date of Hermas differ very much. See 
Church Hist. ii. 687 sq. Zahn, Λvhile favoring the priority of the Did. over 
Barnabas, maintains its posteriority to Hernias, whom he assigns (with 
Caspari, Alzog, and Salmon) to the age of Clement of Rome or the reign of 
Domitian. But this early date cannot be maintained, since Hort has proven 
that Hermas made use of Theodotion's translation of Daniel. 


ennios, on account of tlie supposed priority of Barnabas and 
Hernias, puts the Didache down to between a.d. 120-160; 
Harnack, for the same reason, to 120-165 ; Hilgenfeld and 
Bouet-Maurj, who find in it anti-Montanistic features, assign 
its present shape to 160-190, and Krawutzcky traces it to 
Ebionitic origin at the close of the second century. But 
nearly all the other writers, especially the English and Amer- 
ican scholars, favor an earlier date: Zahn between 80 and 
120 ; * Hitchcock and Brown between 100 and 120 ; Farrar, 
100 ; Lightfoot, 80-100 ; Funk, Langen, Massebieau, Potwin, 
Sadler, De Romestin, Spence, assign it more or less confidently 
to the last quarter of the first century, Bestmann goes back 
even to 70-79. 


Place of Composition. 

The majority of scholars assign the Didache to Alexandria 
in Egypt,f a minority to Palestine or Syria. X 

Some city of Asia Minoi-, § or of Greece, || or even Eome, ^ 
has also been conjectured, but without response. 

The choice is between Egypt and Syria including Palestine. 

For Alexandria speaks the fact that there the Didache seems 
to have been first known and quoted (by Clement of Alex- 
andria), and used for catechetical instruction (according to 
Athanasius). The kindred Epistle of Barnabas and the 
Apostolical Church Order are probably likewise of Egyptian 

*Zahn puts the Ep. of Clement c 96, Hermas 97-100, Ignatius 110, Bar- 
nabas 120-125. 

f Bryennios, Zahn, Harnack, Bonet-Maury (p. 35), Farrar, Lightfoot (not 
confidently), De Romestin, Hitchcock and Brown. 

X Caspari, Langen, Krawutzcky, Spence, Bestmann. 

§ Hilgenfeld. 

II Canon Wordsworth mentions Corinth, Athens, and Philippi ; Hayman 
(in the " Dublin Review" for January, 1885), the region of Thessalonica. 

1[ Mas.sebieau, p. 17. 

** Harnack and Bonet-Maury (p. 35) argue also from the omission of the 


But there is an insuperable objection to Egypt in tlie allu- 
sion, in one of the eucharistic prayers, to the broken bread 
which was " scattered (in grains) over the mountains^ * This 
is entirely inapplicable to the valley of the Nile and to the 
bare rocks on the border of the desert. Of less weight is the 
provision for exceptional baptism in warm water (Ch. VII. 2), 
which seems to point to a cold climate. 

On the other hand, nothing can be said against, and much 
in favor of, Southern or Northern Syria as the fatherland of 
the Didache, provided we put its composition, as we must, 
before the Ignatian Epistles and the establishment of Episcopacy 
in Syria, as a separate order of the ministry. 

Some considerations point strongly to Palestine and even to 
Jerusalem ; the constant use of the Gospel of Matthew, which 
originated in that country; the affinity with the theology and 
practical genius of James, whose letter hails from the capital 
of the theocracy ; and the aj^proA'al of the community of 
goods (com p. lY. 8 with Acts, iv. 82), which seems to have 
been confined to that cit}^ The church of Jerusalem was in- 
deed dispersed to Pella in the Decapolis during the Jewish war, 
but it was reconstructed afterwards and continued its existence 
down to the second and more complete destruction of the 
city under Hadrian, when its continuity was again interrupted. 
The Didache is not unworthy of the mother church of Chris- 
tendom, where once all the twelve Apostles lived and labored, 
where the first Christian Council was held, and where James 
the brother of the Lord spent his public life as the last con- 
necting link between the old and new dispensation and sufi^ered 
martyrdom for his faith in Christ. That church was never 
much influenced by Paul's teaching and kept him at a respect- 
ful distance. This would well agree with the spirit of the 

But nearly as much may be said for Antioch, the Northern 

β(χ6ιλεία in the doxoloiry of the Lord's Prayer, VIII. 1, and in the Sahidie 
version of the Gospels; but Gregory of Nyssa omits it likewise. 

*IX. 4: ωόττερ TJy mvroTO κλάόιιο: διεδΗομτττβ/ίΐένυν ίπάνω τωνυ- 
ρ έ ω ν . The last three words are significantly omitted in a similar eucha- 
ristic prayer ascribed to Athanasius and quoted in my notes ad loc. 


capital of Syria, the motlier church of Gentile Christianity, 
where the Christian name was first given to the disciples, 
where Jews and Grentiles first mingled into one community, 
and where the two nationalities first came into conflict with 
each other about the question of circumcision and the yoke of 
the ceremonial law. There, as well as in Jerusalem, all the 
conditions (except the community of goods) were given for such 
a Jewish-Christian Irenicum as the Didache. The book must 
have been well known in Syria, for there it was expanded and 
superseded by the Pseudo - Clementine Constitutions and 
Canons, which are certainly of Syrian origin. 



The author modestly concealed his name and gives no 
clue to his identification. But he was certainly a Jewish 
Christian, and probably a companion and pupil of the Apostles. 
He belongs to the school of Matthew and James; he empha- 
sizes the legal and moral element in Christianity, but is fully 
pervaded at the same time by the spirit of charity, meekness, 
gentleness and generosity which animates the Gospel. He ' 
shows no influence of the ideas and doctrines of Paul, which 
had hardly reached the Jewish congregations, and never fully 
pervaded them. The few probable allusions to his Epistles 
refer to matters of common agreement. Yet he is no more 
opposed to Paul than either Matthew or James. He may be 
said to be ante-Pauline (as to spirit, not as to time), but not 
anti-Pauline.* He gives the teaching of the Twelve Apostles 

* This is the opinion of Dr. Sadler in " The Guardian " for June 4, 1884 
(I quote from the article of E. V. in the "British Quarterly Review" for 
April, 1885, p. 389). It is as far as a fair interpretation allows us to go. 
Canon Churton, in the same paper, is certainly wrong when he stigmatizes 
the Didache as " distinctly anti-Pauline and heretical," pervaded by a " Sad- 
ducean tendency" {sic!), and "evading the doctrines of the cross," like the 


of Israel, but with no more intention of denying the authority 
of the Apostle of the Gentiles than the author of the Apoc- 
alypse when he speaks of the " Twelve Apostles " of the Lamb 
(xxi. 14). His style and phraseology are Hebraistic. He 
calls the Prophets " high priests." He refers to the first fruits 
of the produce, and to the Jewish fasts on Tuesday and Thurs- 
day. He calls Friday " Preparation day." He is acquainted 
with the Old Testament and the Jewish Apocrypha (The Book 
of Ecclesiasticus and Tobit). He abstains from all j3olemics 
against the Jewish religion, and thereby differs strongly from 
the author of the Epistle of Barnabas. He enjoins the recital of 
the Lord's Prayer three times a day, in evident imitation of the 
Jewish hours of prayer. He abhors the eating of meat offered to 
the gods as a contamination with idolatry, and adheres to the 
compromise measures of the Council of Jerusalem, over which 
James presided. He even seems to recommend the bearing of 
the whole yoke of the law as a way to perfection, but he is far 
from requiring it or casting reflection upon the more liberal 
Gentile Christians. The whole sum of religion consists for 
him in perfect love to God and to our fellow-men as 
commanded in the Gospel, or in what James calls " the perfect 
law of liberty " (i. 25). 

It does not follow, however, that the DidacJie was written 
exclusively for Jews ; on the contrary, it is, according to the 
title, intended for "the nations " in the same sense in which the 
Gospel is to be preached to "all nations," according to the 
Lord's command in Matthew (xxviii. 19). 

Beyond this we cannot safely go. The real author will 
probably remain unknown as much as the author of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews, which is of the order of Melchisedek, 
"without father, without mother, without genealogy, having 
neither beginning of days nor end of life." 

In conclusion, we mention two conjectures as to authorship, 
which have been proposed by the most recent writers on the 

false apostles and deceitful workers who transformed themselves into 
Apostles of Christ. Such a book would have been denounced and abhorred 
by Enspbius and Athanasius instead of being allowed to be used for 
catechetical instruction. 


Diddche^ and which are about equally ingenious and plausible, 
but alike destitute of solid foundation. 

Canon Spence* assigns the authorship to Bishop Symeon 
of Jerusalem, the son of Cleopas, the nephew of Joseph and 
cousin of our Lord, who, according to Hegesippus in Eusebius, 
succeeded James the Lord's brother after his martyrdom, 
and ruled the Pella community in the Decapolis from about 69 
to 106. He wrote the Didache between 80 and 90 as a manual 
for the instruction of the surrounding heathens. 

Dr. Bestmannf goes further back, to the momentous collision 
between Paul and Peter at Antioch before the church, and the 
reaction of Jewish conservatism under the lead of James of 
Jerusalem. Soon after the destruction of the city the Didache 
was issued as a Manifesto and Ultimatum of the Jewish section of 
the Antiochian Church, but was rejected by the Gentile portion, 
which issued the Epistle of Barnabas as a counter-Manifesto. 
This Epistle shows that God had already, through the Prophets, 
and then through Christ, abolished the law as an outward 
ordinance, that the unbelieving Jews have no claim to the Old 
Testament, and that it is only an allegory of Christianity. 
The opposition, however, was softened by the Appendix of the 
Two Ways, which was added to Barnabas for the purpose of 
exhibiting the harmony of the Jewish and Hellenic sections of 
the Church in the fundamental moral principles and practices 
of Christianity. 


The Apostolical Church Order, or the Ecclesiastical Canons of the 
Holy Apostles. 

"With the progress of ecclesiasticism, the change of customs, 
the increase of legislation, and the power of the clergy, the 
Didache underwent various modifications and adaptations, 
and was ultimately superseded. 

* Excursus ii., ρ 95 sqq. 

f In his Geschichte der christUchen Sitie, Theil ii., Nordlingen, 1885, pp. 


It was long felt that the Pseudo-Clementine Apostolical Con- 
stitutions and Canons, of the fourtli century, presupjDcse an older 
and simpler document free from sacerdotal and hierarchical 
interpolations. This was found at last in the Didache, but not 
at once. There is an intervening link, which probably dates 
from Egypt in the third century.* 

This is the so-called Apostolical Church Order, f or 
Ecclesiastical Constitutions and Canons of the Apos- 
tles, also quoted as Epitome, or Apostolical Canons, χ but 
not to be confounded with the Canons at the end of the eighth 
book of the Apostolical Constitutions. It is the great law 
book of the churches of Egypt. 

It was first made known at the close of the seventeenth cent- 
ury in ^thiopic and Arabic texts, but excited little atten- 
tion. § 

Professor Bickell, of Marburg, an eminent historian of 
churcb law, discovered a Gi-eek MS, at Vienna and published 
it with a German translation in 1843 under the title Ordinatio 
ecclesiastica Apostolorum or Apostolische Kirchenordnung.\ He 

* The argument which Lagarde drew from the quotation of Clement of 
Alexandria in favor of an earlier origin, in the second century, is now worth- 
less, as that qiiotation is made from the Didnche. 

t Apostolische KircTienordmmg. Under this title it is usually quoted by 
German writers, as Bickell, Harnack. Krawutzeky, Holtzmann. 

X A title preferred for brevity's sake by English and American writers. 

§ The ^thiopic text was published by Hiob Ludolf at Frankfort in 1691, 
with a Latin version, in his Commentary on u^tJiiopic History, p. 314 sqq., 
The Arabic text was described by Assemani, and by Grabe in his Essay 
upon Two AraUc MSS., in the Bodleian Library, 1711. 

II In the first volume of his Oesrhiclite des KirchenrecMs, Giessen, 1843, 
Part I. pp. 107-132. (The second part of the first vol. was published after 
his death by Dr. Rostell at Frankfort, 1849Λ The title of the document 
in the Vienna MS. is ^i δταΓΛ;κη;ί Λί 5z« Κλτί/ιεντοζ κοΰ κηνόνεζ έκ- 
ηληΰιαδτικοί των άγιων άποότόλων. But the name of Clement does 
not appear in this document, and is probably an error of the copyist who 
transferred it from the Apost. Constitutions, an abridgement of which is 
found in the same codex. Johann Wilhelm Bickell, like his friend Vilmar, 
was an eΛ^angclical Lutheran high-churchman. lie savs : (Preface, p. %iii.) : 
" Obgleich dem Glauben der evangelischen Kirche in icelcher ick gcboren 
bin aus voller Ueberzeugung zugetTian, icdss icli mich dock von alter Par- 
teilichkeit gegen die catholische KircJie fret. Ebenso ist mir nichts mehr 


directed attention to the close resemblance between this 
book and the appendix to Barnabas and the Seventh Book 
of the Pseudo-Clementine Apostolical Constitutions, and 
significantly hinted at its possible relationship to the Didache^ 
then not yet discovered.* 

The Greek text was again published with improvements 
and various readings from a Sjriac MS. ])v the learned 
Orientalist, Paul de Lagarde (1856), f bj Cardinal Pitra 

verhasst ols das Bestrehcn, die Geschichte nach einem im Voraiis gehildeten 
System zu construiren." His son, Georg Biekell, is a convert to the Roman 
Catholic church, and Professor in the University of Innsbruck. He finds 
in the Oidache the germs of purgatory and the sacrifice of the mass. See 
Ch. XXXIII. on the Lit. 

* Ibid., p. 65, note 18, and p. 96, note 14. This conjecture is worth quot- 
ing as it has since been substantially verified, as well as the later conjecture 
of Krawutzcky. '* Ob die Didachen der Apostel, " says Biekell, p. 96, '' deren 
hereits Eusebius gedenM, mit unserer Schrift {Apost. Kirchenordnung) iden- 
tischsiud, bleibt ebenso ungewiss als die Frage ob darunter die Apost. Const, in 
ihrer ursprunglicJien Gestnlt, oder in einem Ausgiige zu verstehen seien. JIan 
Tconnte allcnfi ills fur die erstcre Ansicht geltend machen, dass der Ausdruck 
Didaelte in unserer Kirchenordnung C. 5 vorkommt {vergl. auch Ap. Gesch. 
ii. 42 und Bnrnab. c. 18) ; ferner dass in der Stelle des Eusebius unmittelbar 
tor den Didachen der Apostel der Brief des Barnabas erwahnt u'ird, der mit 
dem ersten Theil unserer Kirchenordnung grosse Aehnlicheit hat; dass der 
Umfang icelchen die Didache der Apostel nach Nicephorus haben soil (200 
Stichen oder Zeilen), welcher zu den Apost. Const, gar nicht passt, mit der 
Grosse unserer Kirchenordnung icohl ilbcrdnstimmen durfte; encllich dass 
nebenden Didachen in einem Oxforder gricchischen Manuscript (s. oben S. 66 
iVbi. 18) die Didaskalie des Clemens als hiervon verschieden erwahnt wird, 
unter der Didaskalie des Clemens aber recht wohl die sechs ersten Bucher der 
Apost. Const, verstanden seyn konnen, welche auch in den morgenldndischen 
Sammlungen wben unserer Kirchenordnung als die durch Clemens besorgte 
Didaskalie der Ajiostel aufgenommen ist. Dieses alles sind indessen keine 
sichere Argumente, da der Inhalt dieser Didache bei keinem der eruahnten 
Sehriftsteller naher angegeben ist, Gegen die Identitat der ericahnten Di- 
dache tirul unserer Kirchenordnung knnn der Umstand angefuhrt werden, 
dass gerade der wichtigste Theil der letzteren, abgesehen von der Einleitting, 
nicht in Didachen oder Lehren, sondern in eigenfUchen Geboten or Verord- 
nungen der Apostel besteht ; so wie daxs die Stelle aus den ' doctrinis 
apostolorum' in der Schrift ' de aleatoribus' (s. oben S. 66 Λ^οΙ. 18) zwar 
nicht in den Apost. Const., aber auch nicht in unserer Kirchenordnung 

f Reliquce juris ecclesiastici anfiguissimce Syriace. Lips. 1856. Rell• 
iqiue juris ecclesiastici Chrcece. Lips. 1856 (pp. 77-86> 


(1864),* by Hilgenfeld (1866 and 1884), f bj Bryennios 
(1883), ί and by Harnack (1884). § 

The same book was issued in tbe Mempbitic dialect, with 
an English translation by Henry Tattani (Archdeacon of Bed- 
ford), in 1848, from a MS. procured in Egypt by the Duke of 
Northumberland, Λvhich is beautifully written in Coptic and 
Arabic, || and again in the Thebaic dialect of Egypt by 
Lagarde (1883). 1 

In this interesting document jDortions of the first six chap- 
ters of the Didache are literally put into the mouth of the 
several Apostles who are introduced in a sort of dramatic dia- 
logue as speakers after the fashion of the legend of the Apos- 
tles' Creed. John, with his charisma of theological insight, 

* Juris ecclesiastiei Grcecoi'um historia et monumenta. Tom. i. Roraae 
1864 (pp. 75-86). Pitra used in addition to the Vienna MS. a Cod. Ottobon- 
iensis gr. in the Vatican Library, dating from the fourteenth century, 
abridged and entitled ίηιτομή όρων των άγιων άτΐοότϋλων κα^ολικηζ 
παραδύ(}εωζ. It presents the same passages and omissions as the SjTiac MS. 
used by Lagarde. " Epitome " is therefore an improper title for the whole. 

f Norum Testamentum extra canonem receptum, ed. i., Fasc. ir., pp. 93- 
106; ed. altera, aucta et emend. Lips. 1884, Fasc. iv., 111-131, under the 
title Duct} Vice vel Judicium Petri. Hilgenfeld still defends the identity of 
these documents, instead of identifying the Duce Vice with the Didache. 

X In his ed. of the Did. § 5' under the title ^Ετΐιτοηή. 

§ In his Die Lehre cler zwolf Apostel, pp. 225-?87. He had previously (in 
the second ed. of Barnabas, 1878) directed attention to a new Greek MS. dis- 
covered by 0. von Gebhardt in the Synodical Library at Moscow, which con- 
tains chs. iv.-xiv. H. de Romestin has reprinted Hamack's text (pp. 29-33) 
We give it below with an English version as Doc. V. 

II The Apostolical Coristitutions, or Canons of the Apostles in Coptic. 
With an English Translation. London (printed for the Oriental Translation 
Fund), 1848. 214 pages. The first book, pp. 1-30, corresponds to the Di- 
dache. The dialect of the original is the Memphitic of Lower Egypt. But 
it is itself a translation from the Sahidic or Thebaic version, which was made 
directly if rom the Greek. Tattam had in his possession a defective Sahidic 
MS. with which he compared the Memphitic. See below, Doc. VI. 

1[ ^(jijiMaca. Gotting. 1883. The Thebaic MS. is from the year 1006, and 
is in the British Museum (Orient. 1320). Lightfoot had directed attention to 
it in his Appendix to S. Clement of Home, Lond. 1877, pp. 466-468. " It is," 
he says, "of large 4to or small folio size, M-ritten on parchment, and was re- 
cently acquired from Sir C. A. Murray's collection. It consists of two parts, 
apparently in the same handwriting, but with separate paginations. At the 
end is the date . . . the year 722 of Diocletian, or a.d. 1006." 


takes the lead in moral precepts ; Peter, witli the cliarisma of 
government, lays down the ecclesiastical laws. A curious 
featm-e is that Martha and Mary are likewise introduced as 
speakers, though only with a few enigmatic words, \vhich seem 
to refer to the exclusion of deaconesses from all j^art in the 
distribution of the elements of the Lord's Supper. '- Peter aud 
Cephas are distinguished as two persons.f Bartholomew and 
Nathanael are also distinguished ; but only one James is men- 
tioned ; while Matthias, who was elected in the place of Judas, 
is omitted, and Paul is ignored, although in the AjDostolical 
Constitutions he figures as one of the speakers. The in- 
troductory salutation is taken from the Epistle of Barnabas, 
cap. i. 

The last 17 canons (from 14-30) hsive nothing to do with 
the Didache, and contain directions about the qualifications of 
Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons, Headers, Widows and Deacon- 
esses, and the duties of the laity, which evidently presuppose 
a more developed stage of ecclesiastical organization than the 
one of the Didache. There is also an approach to clerical celib- 
acy. Peter (who was himself married) says of the Bishop 
(can. 16) : " It is good if he be unmarried ; if not, he should be 
the husband of one wife (comp. 1 Tim. iii. 2) ; a man of learn- 
ing and capable of expounding the Scripture ; if unlearned, he 
should be meek and full of charity to all," Peter concludes 
the colloquy with the exhortation: "This, my brethren, we 
request you, not as if we had authority to compel any one, but 
because we haA-e a charge from the Lord to keep the com- 
mandments, nothing taking from, or adding to them, in the 
name of our Lord, to whom be the glory forever. Amen." 

According to the careful investigation of Harnack, this 

* Gan. 26 in Harnack (p. 236), can. SO and 31 in Bickell (p. 130). See 
Bickell's note. Harnack (p. 215, note) is disposed to derive this feature from 
the apocryphal Gospel of the Eg^yptians, and refers to the Coptic book 
"Pistis Sophia," where the Lord converse- with Mary (namely, Mary Magda- 
lene, who is identified with the sister of Martha). 

f Clement of Alexandria (Euseb. i. 12) likewise distinguished Cephas 
whom Paul censured at Antioch (Gal. ii. 11), from the Apostle Peter (to 
save his character), but made him one of the seveaty disciples. See Zahn, 
Supjplem. Clem. , p. 68 sq. 


Apostolical Church Order is a mechanical and unskilful com- 
pilation from four or five older documents, the Oidache, the 
Epistle of Barnabas, and two other writings, one from the end 
of the second, the other from the beginning of the third cent- 
ury. The compiler added the fictitious dress and distributed 
the matter among the different Apostles. Harnack assigns 
the composition to Egypt, at the beginning of the fourth cent- 
ury before the establishment of the imperial church, and sev- 
eral decades before the Apostolical Constitutions.* 



The Apostolical Constitutions. 

A SECOND expansion of the Didache^ far more important and 
successful than the Ecclesiastical Canons^ is the seventh Book 
of the Pseudo-Clementine Apostolical Constitutions and Canons, 
from the beginning or middle of the fourth century, f 

* L. c, p. 218. He gives as an argument that the terra ίπαρχίαι in the 
ecclesiastical sense is not used before a.d. 300. Bickell assigns the Canons 
to the beginning of the third century, Hilgenfeld and Lagarde, who identify 
it with the D^icb Vice or Judicium Petri, to the end of the second (H. 
wrongly to Asia Minor, an account of the prominence given to John), Bol» 
mer to a still earlier date (160), but Pitra, Krawutzeky, and Bryennios to 
the fourth century, Pitra as late as c. 381. 

f Ed. princeps in Greek by Francis Turrian, Venice, 15G3, and of the Latin 
interpretation by Bovius, Venice, 1563; then in Greek and Latinby Cotelier, 
Paires Apost. ; also in Mansi's Concilia; Harduin's Cone; Migne's Patrol. 
tom. i. 509 sqq. (a reprint of Cotelier, Gr. and Lat.i Best critical editions 
of the Greek text only by Ueltzen ( Rostock, 1853 ), and Paul de Lagarde 
(Lipsiae et Londoni, 1862). English translation by William Whiston (a 
.very able and learned, but eccentric divine and mathematician, professor at 
Cambridge, expelled for Arianism,d. 1742), in "Primitive Christianity re- 
vived," London, 1T12, second vol. ( The Constitutions of the Apoalles, hy 
Clement, Greek and English). In a third volume he tried to prove that these 
Constitutions "are the most sacred of the canonical books of the New Test." 
His translation, as amended by James Donaldson, is published in Clark's 
" Ante-Nieene Library," vol. xvii. (Edinb. 1870). The seA-enth Book from cli. 
.' i.-xxxii., which runs parallel with the Did., has also been reprinted by 
I Bryennios in his Prolegomena (j; Έ' , 6ΐλ. Λζ'-ΐ'', from Ueltzen's text ), and by 
' Harnack (pp. 178-192, from Lagarde's text, with comparative critical notes). 


This work, consisting of eiglit books, is a complete manual 
of catechetical instruction, public worship, and church discip- 
line for the use of the clergy. It is, as to its form, a literary 
fiction, and professes to be a bequest of all the Apostles, handed 
down through the Roman Bishop Clement, the pupil of Paul 
and successor to Peter.* It begins with the words: "The 
Apostles and Elders to all who among the nations have be- 
lieved in the Lord Jesus Christ. Grace and peace from Al- 
mighty God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, be multiplied 
unto you in the acknowledgment of Him." In the eighth book 
the individual Apostles are introduced by name with their 
ordinances ;t while in the other books they speak as a body. 
It has long since been proven to be pseudo-Apostolical, and 
hence has no authority ; but as an historical document it is very 
important and valuable. It is a mirror of the moral and 
religious condition of the Church in the third and fourth 
centuries.:}: It abounds in repetitions and Scripture quotations 
often arbitrarily selected. The tone is very pious and churchly. 
The style is diffuse and contrasts unfavorably with the terse 
sententiousness of the Didache. 

The Constitutions consist of three parts, which are mechani- 
cally thrown together by the compiler of the last part. 

So also in Doe. VII. of this book. For the literature on the Apost. Const, 
and Can. see Church History ii. 183 sqq. 

* The first editors, Turrian and Bovius, had no doubt of its Apostolic origin, 
and Whiston even believed that Christ himself had given these instructions 
during the forty days between the resurrection and ascension. But Baronius 
pronounced the Constitutions apocryphal, or at all events interpolated, and 
Daille {De Pseudepigraphis Apostolicis s Libris octo Constit. Ap. apoc- 
ryph. libri Hi. Harderv. 1 653 ) proved the forgery, which, however, must 
not be judged according to the modern standard of literary honesty. See 
Bickell, i. 69 sq. 

f In the order given vi. 14 : Peter and Andrew ; James and John, sons of 
Zebedee; Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew; James the son 
of AlphiBus, and Lebbaeus ( Thaddaeus); Simon the Canaaean and Matthias; 
James the Brother of the Lord and Bishop of Jerusalem; and Paul, the 
teacher of the Gentiles, the chosen vessel. The order is the same as in Matt. 
X. 2, except that Matthias is sxibstituted for Judas Iscariot, and .James the 
Brother of the Lord, and Paul are added. 

X Von Drey and Krawutzcky call the first part of the seventh book a 


1. The fii'st six books are often mentioned under the sep- 
arate name of Didascalia or Catholic Didascalia.^ Thej exist 
separately in Svriac, ^thiopic aud Arabic MSS., and conclude 
with a doxology and Amen. The first book contains a system 
of morals for the laity ; the second the duties of the clergy, 
Bishops, Priests and Deacons ; the third treats of widows, of 
Baptism and Ordination ; the fourth, of the care of orphans, of 
charity to the poor, of the duties of parents and children, of 
servants and masters ; the fifth, of the imitation of Christ in 
suffering, of Stephen the first martyr, of fasts and feasts and 
the great passover week ; the sixth, of schisms and heresies, of 
matrimony and celibacy, of the ritual laws and observances. 

2. The seventh book, of which we shall speak presently, re- 
peats the principles and maxims of Christian morality, treats 
of ordinations, and gives long forms of prayer. 

3. The eighth book treats of spiritual gifts and ordinations, 
of first fruits and tithes, and contains a number of liturgical 
prayers. At the close are added 85 Apostolical Canons ; the 
last of them gives a list of the canonical books of the Old 
and New Testaments including two Epistles of Clement of 
Eome, and " the Constitutions dedicated to you the Bishops 
by me Clement, in eight books." This is the first reference to 
the compilation. 

The work is evidently a gradual growth of traditions and 
usages of the first three centuries. It originated in Syria, at 
all events in the East (for Peter and Eome are not made promi- 
nent), and assumed its present collected shape in the beginning 
of the fourth century, or during the Nicene age. The first six 
books agree in many passages with the larger Greek recension 
of the Ignatian Epistles.f Archbishop Ussher suggested that 
the two compilations are the product of the same autlior. Dr. 
Harnack, the latest investigator of the intricate question, takes 
the same view, and by a critical analysis and comparison comes 
to the conclusion that Pseudo-Clement, alias Pseudo-Ignatius, 
was a Eusebian, a semi-Arian and rather worldly-minded, anti- 

*Ini. l;ii. 39; vi. 14, 18. 

f Bickell gives a list of resemblances in his Geschichte des Kirchenrechts, 
i. 58 sq. See also Zahn, Ignatius von Aniiochien, p. 144 sqq. 


ascetic Bishop of Syria, a friend of the Emperor Constantius, 
between o-iO and 360, that he enlarged and adapted the Dldas- 
calia of the third, and the Didache of the second century, as well 
as the Ignatian Epistles, to his own views of morals, worship 
and discipline, and clothed them with Apostolic authority.* 

The Apostolical Constitutions were condemned by the Trul- 
lan Synod (Concilium Quinisextum), A.D. 692, because of 
heretical (semi-Arian) interpolations, but the 85 Canons of the 
Apostles were sanctioned as genuine and valid. Patriarch 
Photius, of Constantinople, the most learned divine of the 
ninth century, mentions this censure but passes a more favor- 
able judgment. f The book continued to be highly esteemed 
and used in the Oriental churches as the chief basis for ecclesi- 
astical legislation, but was little known in the West, which 
acknowledged only 50 of the Apostolical Canons.:}: The Con- 
stitutions were for the ancient Greek church what the Decretals 
of Pseudo-Isidor became for the Roman church in the dark 

We must now consider more particularly the relation of the 
Constitutions to the Didaclie. This is confined to the first 32 
chapters of the seventh book. Here the Didache is embodied i 
almost word for word, but with significant omissions, altera- 
tions and additions, which betray a later age. The agreement, 
as far as it goes, is a strong support for the purity of our text 
of the Didache. 

The moral part of the Didache (I.-VI.) is almost wholly 
retained, but interwoven with Scripture passages and examples. 
The right to baptize (Ch. YII.) is confined to the clergy, and 
the act surrounded with additions of holy oil and perfume. 
Long prayers and confessions are put into the mouth of the 
catechumens, and a close line of distinction is drawn between 
two parts of public worship, one for the catechumens, and one 

* See his book on the Didache, pp. 246-268. Holtzmann accepts this 
result, but Zahn and Funk dissent, though differing again among them- 
selves. Zahn charges Pseudo-Ignatius with semi-Arianism (herein agreeing 
with Harnack), Funk with AppoUinarianism. 

t Bibliotli. cod. 112, 113. 

i See Biekell, I. c. i., 71-86. 


for the baptized. The eucharistic prayers of Chs. IX. and X. 
are greatly enlarged, and a full liturgical service is substituted 
for the free prayers of the Prophets. The phrase " after being 
filled " (X. 1), which refers to the Agape in connection with the 
■ Eucharist, is changed into " after participation " in the sacra- 
mental elements. The chapters on the wandering Apostles and 
inspired Prophets (XI. and XII.) are entirely omitted. Pres- 
byters are inserted between the Bishops and Deacons (XV.) as 
a separate order, and Bishops are no more local officers, but 
diocesans and successors of the Apostles. In the eschatalogi- 
cal chapter (XVI.) a general resurrection is substituted for the 
particular resurrection of the saints. The Bishops are desig- 
nated "Chief Priests,'' the Presbyters ''Priests" (ίερειή, the 
Deacons ''Levites;" tithes are exacted in support of the 
clergy ; the clergy are separated from the laity, and the whole 
Jewish hierarchy is reproduced on Christian soil. In short, 
the Constitutions are an adaptation of the simple post- Apostolic 
Christianity of the Didache to the sacerdotal and hierarchical 
ecclesiasticism of the Nicene age. 

The Didache was thus superseded by a more complete and 
timely Church Manual, and disappeared. As soon as it was 
redisco\^ered, scholars recognized it with great delight as the 
source of the Seventh Book of the Apostolical Constitution. 

But there was one dissenting voice from an unexpected 
quarter. Two years before the publication of the JDidaclie, a 
Eoman Catholic scholar, Dr. Krawutzcky, of Breslau, had 
made an ingenious attempt to reconstruct, from the Seventh 
Book of the Constitutions, the Apostolic Church Order, and 
the Epistle of Barnabas, an older and simpler document which 
is mentioned by Eufinus and Jerome under the title, " The 
Two Ways," or "The Judgment of Peter." His restoration 
turns out to agree essentially with the first or catechetical part 
of the Didache^ and does great credit to his critical sagacity.* 

* " Ueber das altMrchliche Unterrichtshuch 'Die zwei Wege ode?• die Ent- 
seheidung des Peii'us,'" in the Tubingen " Theolog. Quartalschrift " (Rom. 
Cath.) for 1882. Heft ΠΙ pp. 359-445. The restoration of what he regards 
as the original text is given from p. 433-445. Harnack states the results of 
Krawutzcky (he always inadvertently omits the c of his name), and calls his 


But since ttie discoveiy he refuses to acknowledge the result. 
He is not satisfied with the theology of the Didache^ because 
it does not come up to the orthodox churchman ship of Peter, 
and he assigns it, as we have already seen, to an Ebionitizing 
source, c. a. d. 200.* He assumes that the author of the Oidache^ 
besides the Old Testament and the apocryphal Gospel accord- 
ing to the Hebrews, made use of Barnabas, and especially of a 
much better book on " The Two Ways,'' which Avas issued under 
the high authority of Peter (hence also called " The Judgment 
of Peter ") and which was quoted as Scripture by Clement of 
Alexandria, but is now lost. The Didache had also a polemi- 
cal reference to the " Second Ordinances of the Apostles " con- 
cerning the establishment of the eucharistic sacrifice. The 
Latin fragment of the Doctrhia Apostoloruin is probably a dif- 
ferent recension of the Didache, likewise based upon " The Two 
Ways," with the use of Barnabas. 

But this is an airy hypothesis. Until that mysterious 
"Judgment of Peter" is found by some future Bryennios, it is 
safe to belie\^e that the " Teaching of the Twelve Apostles," 
now happily recovered from the dust of ages, is or includes 
that very book on " The Two Ways " or " The Judgment of 
Peter," spoken of by Rufinus and Jerome ; and that it is the 
book which Clement of Alexandria quoted as Scripture, which 
was placed among the New Testament Apocrypha by Eusebius, 
which was used in orthodox churches as a manual of catecheti- 
cal instruction at the time of Athanasius, and Avhich was 
enlarged, adapted and superseded by the Syrian compilation 
of the Apostolical Constitutions, wherein it has been laid 
imbedded until, in 1883, it was brought to light in its original 
simplicity and integrity. 

essay '*a critical masterpiece such as there are but few in the history of lite- 
raiy criticism " (p. 208). Brown (in the second ed. of H. and B. ) gives the 
restoration in English as " a brilliant example of legitimate and successful 
higher criticism," and indicates by distinct type the divergences from the 
actual Teaching, pp. Ixix.-lxxiv. Neither Harnack nor Brown could antici- 
pate the second paper of Krawutzcky. 

* See his essay in the same Ti'ibingen Quarterly for 1884, No. IV. 547- 
606, which we have noticed on p. 23 sq. , and p. 86. 



Lessons of the Didache. 

The Didache has no more authority than any other post- 
Apostolic writing. The truths it contains and the duties it 
enjoins are independently known to us from the Scriptures, 
and are binding upon us as revelations of Christ and his 
Apostles. It is not free from superstitious notions and 
mechanical practices which are foreign to Apostolic wisdom 
and freedom. Its value is historical and historical only, but 
this is very considerable, and exceeds that of any known post- 
Apostolic document. It touches upon a greater variety of 
topics than any of the Apostolic Fathers, so-called, and gives 
us a clearer insight into the condition of the Church in the 
transition period between A. d. 70 and 150. 

The following is a summary of the lessons of the Didache as 
regards the state of Christianity in that part of the East Λvhere 
the author resided. 

1. Catechetical instruction was required as a preparation 
for church membership. 

2. That instruction was chiefly moral and practical, and 
based upon the Decalogue and the Sermon on the Mount. 
No doubt, it included also the main facts in the life of Christ ; 
for the document assumes throughout faith in Chi-ist as our 
Lord and Saviour, and repeatedly refers to his Gospel. 

3. The moral code was of the highest order, far above that 
of any other religion or school of philosophy. It was summed 
up in the two royal commandments of supreme love to God 
and \oYe to our neighbor, as explained by the teaching and 
example of Christ. It emphasized purity, gentleness, humility, 
and charity. The superior morality of Christianity in theory 
and practice carried in it the guarantee of its ultimate victory. 

4 Baptism was the rite of initiation into chui'ch member- 
ship, and was usually administered by trine immersion in a 
river (in imitation of Christ's Baptism in the Jordan), but 
with a margin for freedom as to the quality of water and the 
mode of its application ; and threefold aspersion of the head 


was allowed as legitimate Baptism in case of scarcity of 
the element. Fasting before the act was required, but no 
oil, salt, or exorcism, or any other material or ceremony is 

5. The Eucharist was celebrated every Lord's Day in con- 
nection with the Agape (as at Corinth in the time of Paul), 
and consisted of a fraternal meal, thanksgivings and free 
prayers for the temporal and spiritual mercies of God in 
Christ. It was regarded as the Christian sacrifice of thanks- 
giving to be offered everywhere and to the end of time, accord- 
ing to the prophecy of Malachi. 

6. There were no other sacraments but these two. At least 
none is even hinted at. 

7. The Lord's Prayer with the doxology was repeated three ί 
times a day. This, together with the Eucharistic prayers, 
constituted the primitive liturgy ; but freedom was given to 
the Prophets to pray from the heart in public worship. 

8. The first day of the week was celebrated as the Lord's 
Day (in commemoration of his resurrection), by public worship 
and the Eucharist ; and Wednesday and Friday were observed 
as days of fasting (in commemoration of the Passion). 

9. The Church at large was extended and governed by 
travelling Apostles for Evangelists), who carried the Gospel to 
unknown parts, and by Prophets either itinerant or stationary, 
who instructed, comforted and revived the converts; while 
the local congregations were governed by Bishops (or Presby- 
ters) and Deacons, elected and supported by the Christian 

10. Most of the books of the New Testament, especially the 
Gospel of Matthew, were more or less known, and their authority 
recognized, but there was as yet no settled canon of the Script- 
ures, and the quotations and reminiscences were more from 
Hying teaching than from written books. 

11. Outside of the Gospel tradition nothing of any impor- 
tance was known concerning Christ and the Apostles. The 
Didache mentions only one extra-canonical sentence, of un- 
certain authorship (I. 6.), possibly a reported saying of our 
Lord, but it adds nothing of consequence to the twenty-three 


sentences which tradition ascribes to Him.* As Bishop Light- 
foot says, " All the evangelical matter, so far as we can trace 
it, is found witbin tlie four corners of our canonical Gospels." 

12. Christians are to live in prayerful expectation of the glori- 
ous coming of Christ and to keej) themselves always in readi- 
ness for it. 

These lessons are important, and yet very meagre when com- 
pared with the overflowing fulness and unfathomable depth of 
the real teaching of Christ through the Apostles in our Gospels 
and Epistles. Genius does not often propagate itself : So- 
crates, Plato, Alexander the Great, Charlemagne, Luther, Cal- 
vin, Shakespeare, Cromwell, Goethe, left no successors. Periods 
of great excitement and creative power are followed by periods 
of repose or declina The intellectual inferiority of the Apos- 
tolic Fathers, even Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp, need not 
surprise us. The Apostles' spirit and temper are there, but 
the Apostolic genius and inspiration are gone. The post- 
Apostolic writings are only a faint echo of the Gospels and 
Epistles, the last rays of the setting sun of a glorious day. 
The Church had to descend from the Tabor heights of trans- 
figuration to the plain of every-day life and conflict. 

The Oidache makes no exception. It adds — and this is its 
best lesson — one more irrefutable argument for the infinite 
superiority of the New Testament over all ecclesiastical litera- 
ture, — a superiority which can only be rationally explained 
by the fact of Divine inspiration. 


The Oidache Literature. 

The literature on the Oidache^ considering the short time 
which has elapsed since its first publication in December, 1883, 

* These have been collected by Fabricius, Grabe, Anger, Westcott, and in 
my Church Hist, (revised ed.) λ•ο1. i. 102-167. The only one of real im- 
portance and great beauty, is guaranteed as authentic by the authority of 
St. Paul, Acts XX. 35. 


or we may say (as far as actual knowledge in tlie "West is con- 
cerned) since February, 1884, is unusually large. Germany, 
England, and America have run a race of honorable rivalry in 
editions, translations, and comments, and given proof of the 
solidarity of the republic of Christian letters from the distant 
East to the limits of the West. The Didache has travelled 
in its mission on the wings of the printing-press from the 
Jerusalem Monastery, ^' έττϊ το τίρμα τήζ δύσεω;," to the 
extreme end of the West, as Clement of Rome, in a far 
narrower sense, says of Paul's journeys. 

I furnished, a few months ago, for the second edition of Drs. 
Hitchcock and Brown, a Digest of the Didache LiteratiLre which 
covers thirteen pages (65-77). The list I now offer is partly 
abridged, ^Dartly enlarged, and differently arranged, I have 
omitted the articles in weekly newspapers, which are too nu- 
merous to mention, and mostly short, ephemeral and inaccessible 
(though some of them are of exceptional interest, as notably 
those in the London " Guardian" and the New York ''Inde- 
pendent ") ; but I have added, on the other hand, a number of 
important titles which have reached me only within the last 
weeks, after the greater part of this monograph, was in type. 
The principal works have been referred to already in the pre- 
ceding chapters, but it will be convenient for the reader to 
have them all collected here with a summary of their contents. 
The list does not pretend to be complete, but it is far more 
complete than any yet published. 

L— Editio Princeps, Constantinople. 

Bryennios, Philotheos (Metropolitan of Nieomedia and D. D. from 
Edinbui-gh University, 1884): Αιδαχτ] \ τών | δωδίκα Λτΐούτο- 
\oov I tu τον ΐεροΰολνιιιηκον χειρογράφου ( rvv πρώτον Ικδιβο- 
uevi) \ μίτά ηρολεχομένων χαί ΰημειώόεωΐ' | . . . νπύ \ Φίλο- 
S'eov Bpvevvior) \ μΐ/Γροπολίτην Νικομτ/δείαζ. \ ίν Κωνΰταντι- 
νοτΐόλει Ι 1883. (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, /ro?» the Jerusalem 
manuscript, now published for the first time, tvith Prolegomena and Notes, 
together u'ith a collation and unpublished part of the Synopsis of the 
Old Testament by John Chrysostom, from the same manuscript. By 
Philotheos Bryennios, Metropolitan of Nicomedia. Constantinople, 


printed by S. I. Boutyra, 1883. The title page has also a motto from Clemens 
Alex., Strom, lib. vi. p. 647 : "We must not ignorantly condemn what is 
said on account of him who says it . . . but we must examine it to see 
if it keep by the truth," ει τηζ αλτ/Βειαζ εχεται. 

This is a careful transcript (Λvith a few textual emendations) of the 
Jerusalem MS., the onlj^ one known to exist, and never copied since. It is 
therefore the parent of all other editions. There can be no doubt of its ac- 
curacy. Br. is an expert in reading old Greek MSS., and thoroughly at 
home in biblical and patristic literature. Seldom has an ediiio princeps 
of any book appeared with such thorough preparation and such a just esti- 
mate of its value. The work contains 149 pages Prolegomena and 55 pages 
text with notes, to which are added indexes and corrigenda (pp. 57-75). The 
first part of the Prolegomena is devoted to the Didache itself ; the second 
part contains corrections and additions to the Epistles of Clemens Rom. and 
Barnabas, Chrysostom's Synopsis of the Old Testament, and other matter 
from the Jerusalem (Constantinopolitan) MS. Br. assigns the Did. to a 
Jewish convert, a.d. 120-160 {much too late), illustrates it by ample quotations 
from Scripture and early ecclesiastical writers, and discusses its relation to 
Barnabas, Ilermas, the Ecclesiastical Canons, and the Apostolical Constitu- 
tions. He covers nearly the whole groimd, answering many questions and 
raising new ones. In a conversation with Prof. Edmund A. Grosvenor, οΐ 
Robert College, Constantinople, published in the New York " Independent" 
for Oct. 16, 1884, Bryennios expressed his view on the A^alue of the Teaching 
to the effect that the first six chapters, which enforce duties and prohibit 
sins and crimes, must be regarded as coming from the Lord through the 
Apostles, and therefore as binding, but that the last ten chapters, which con- 
sist mainly of liturgical and ecclesiastical ordinances, " have no authority 
whatever, except so far as the writer happens to be correct in his injunc- 
tions." How far he was correct in these injunctions, the Bishop says we con- 
not know. He went on to say : "Christ did not formulate a system. He 
gave only a faith ; and the Apostles did hardly more." . . . "There is 
all the difference between the two parts, of inspiration on the one side, and 
of human compilation and contrivance on the other." 

Comp. an article of Bryexnios, τΐερϊ riji /Ιιδαχηζ r. δώδ. απαότ. in 
the Έκκληΰζαΰτϊκή ViA^/Sfza, Constant. 1884, 10 {22) νυεμ. p. 51''-57'' ; a 
brief letter in the " Andover Review " for June, 18S4, pp. 662-6G3 ; and his 
autobiographical sketch at the close of this book. Also Prof. Edmund A. 
GrOSVenor : An interview ivith Bislwp Bryennios, in the " Andover Review " 
for Nov. 1884, pp. 515-516, and his sketch of Br. in the "Century Monthly 
Magazine," N.York, for May, 1885, pp. 167-171 ; Philip Schaff: Philofheos 
Bryennios in "The Independent" for April 16, 1885, and in "Harper's 
Weekly" for April 25, 1885. 

Bapheides, Philaretos (successor of Bryennios as Professor in the 
Patriarchal Seminary at Chalce) : a review of the ed. of Bryennios in the 
ΈΗκλΐ?ϋια()Γΐ}{ή Άλή3εια, Constant., Jan. ^, 1884. 

He is inclined to date the Bid. at about the year 100. This I learn from 
the " Theol. Literaturzeitung " for Feb. 23, 1884 (No. IV. fol. 104). 

the didache literatuke. 143 

11. — German Editions, Translations, and Discussions. 

Bestmann, Dr. H. J. : Geschichte der christUchen Sitte. Theil. II. 
Nordlingen, 1885, pp. 136-153. 

The Did. was written at Antioch soon after the destruction of Jerusalem 
and issued as a church programme by the Jewish-Christian (Petrine) party 
with the view to gain the Gentile-Christian (Pauline) party (comp. Gal. ii.) 
to their conservatism, but was answered by the Hellenic brethren in the Epis- 
tle of Barnabas with a vigorous protest against Judaism, yet with an ap- 
pended Irenicum in matters of practical morality. {Geistreich, but not 
sfMihaltig.)— In a, notice of Harnack, in Luthardt's " Theol. Literaturblatt " 
for Jan. 8, 1885 (col. 53-55), Bestmann denies that the Bid. favors an ascetic 
tendency which ultimately produced the monastic system "The yoke of 
the Lord" (vi. 2) is not celibacy, as Ha. holds, but the ceremonial law. 

BiCKELL, Georg (Dr. and Prof, in the R. Cath. University of Innsbruck) : 
Die neiientdeckte "Lehre der Apostel" und die Liturgie. In the " Zeitschrift 
fiir Kathol. Theologie." Innsbruck, 1884, Jahrgang VIII. Heft II. pp. 400-412. 

Dr. B. (a convert to the Roman Cath. Church) regards the Didache as the 
source of the " Apostolic Church Order " (first edited in Greek by his father 
who was a Protestant), and of the seventh book of the ' ' Apost. Constitu- 
tions," and puts it at the beginning of the second century, if not earlier. He 
finds in it the doctrine of purgatory (Ch. I. , 5 ; comp. Matt. v. 26), of the dis- 
tinction between good works commanded and good works recommended 
(Ch. VI 2), and of the sacrifice of the mass (Chs. IX.. X., XIV.). In his 
article Liturgie, in the R. C. • ' Real-Encyclopasdie der Christl. Alterthixmer," 
ed. by F. X. Kraus, Freiburg i. B. 1885, p. 310 sqq., Bickell assigns the 
Did. to the end of the first century. It is not yet touched by Pauline and 
Johannoan ideas (?), and is the source of Barnabas. The eucharistic prayers 
agree closely with the eulogia? of the Jewish Paschal Ritual, and enable us 
to reconstruct the liturgy as it stood between the founding of the Church and 
the age of Justin Martyr. The thankgivings in Chs. IX. and X. give the old- 
est forms of the ante-communion and post-communion prayers. 

BiELENSTEiN, Pastor Dr. Α.: Warum enthalt die /I i δ αχή των S ώ- 
δε η a απυΰτόλων nichts Lehi-Jiaftcs? Riga (Russia), 1885. Reprinted 
from the " Mitthnlungen nnd Nachrichtcn fur die Evnng. Kirclie in Buss- 
land" for Feb. and March, 1885. 8 pp. Reviewed by Dr. Th. Zahn in 
Luthardt's " Theolog. Literaturblatt," Leipzig, for April 3, 1885, col. 123 sq. 

I know this brochure only from the brief notice of Zahn, who agrees with 
its answer to the question why the Did. contains no doctrines. It is on ac- 
count of its fragmentary character and immediate practical object in cate- 
chetical instruction. The words ταντα ηάντα τΐροεχπόντ^ζ in vii. 1 refer 
to a brief address, introductory to the baptismal act, not to a long preced- 
ing instruction. The first six chapters point to the negative and positive 
baptismal vow (the άιΐυταγΊ} and 6νντα.γη), which was no dotibt connected 
with Baptism from the beginning. 

BoNWETSCH, G. N. (Trof. in Dorpat): Die PropJietie im apost. iind nach 
apost. Zeit alter, in hnthixrai's "Zeitschrift," Leipz., 1884, Heft VIII. pp 
408-423; Heft IX. 460 sqq. 


He puts the Didache between 100 and 125, and explains the prophetic office. 

Cassel, Paul: Xotice in "Sunem," No. 25, 1884. 

Priedberg, Dr. EMiL(Prof. ui'LG\^z\g,Si\xi\iOY oi Lehrbuch deskatJiolischen 
una etangelischenKirclxenrecMs, seed. ed. Leipz. 1884): Die cilteste Ordnumj 
der christlichen Kirche, in the " Zeitsehrift filr Kirchenrecht," xix. 4 (1884), 
pp. 408-425. (I could not procure this essay, which is probably important.) 

FuxK, F. X. (Dr. and E. Cath. Prof, of Ch. Hist, in Tubingen): Die Doc- 
trina Apodolorum. In the " Theol. Quartalschrift," Tubingen, 1884, No. 
III. pp. 381-402. 

Grernian translation and discussion. F. assigns the Did. to the first cent- 
ury and before Barnabas, and regards it as the oldest post-Apostoiic book. 
He traces it to Egypt. In the same Quarterly for 1885, No. I. pp. 159-167, 
Dr. Funk criticizes the editions of Hilgenfeld, Wiinsche, and Harnack. 
He rejects Hilgenfeld's view of the Montanistic bias of the Did. He main- 
tains against Harnack the priority of the Did. over Barn, and Hernias, 
denies the identity of Pseudo-Clement and Pseudo-Ignatius, and the semi- 
Arianism of the Apost. Const., and charges Ha. with several blunders which 
show ''cine gam auffallcnde Fliichtigkeii" (p. 167). He says nothing about 
Krawutzcky's second paper in the same Quarterly. See below. 

Hi-RNACK, Adolf (Dr. and Prof, of Church History in Giessen) : Die Lehre 
der zwolf Apostel iiebst Untersuchungen zur dltesten Geschichte der Kirchen- 
verfasmng und des Kirchenrechts (including an appendix by Oscar von Geb- 
hardt). In "Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristl. 
Literatur," herausgeg. von Oscar von Gebhardt und Ad. Harnack. Band 
II. Heft I., 1884 (July). Leipzig (J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung^. 

The G-r. text and Germ, trans, with notes, pages 70 ; Prolegomena, pages 
294. The most elaborate work on the Didache. The author directed early 
attention to it in Germany, and gave a translation of Chaps. VII.-XVI. in the 
"Theol. Literaturzeitung " for February 3, 1881. He maintains that the 
Did. was composed in Egypt between a.d. 120 and 165 ; that the author 
made use of Barnabas and Hermas : that one and the same writer interpolated 
the Apostolical Conslitidions and the Ignatian Epistles, so that Pseudo- 
Clement and Pseudo-Ignatius are identical; and that this literary forger was 
a Syrian bishop of the semi-Arian party during the reign of Constantius. 
Comp. also "Theol. Literaturzeitung" ix. (1884) 2, 44; Π, 49-5•"); 14, 343- 
344; and Harnack's letter on the baptismal question in the New York " In- 
dependent'^ for February 19, 1885, and printed in this book on p. 50. 

HiLGEXFELD, Adolf (Dr. and Prof, in Jena): Novum Test, extra canonem 
rercptum. Fasc. iv. ed. ii. atwta et emendata. Lips. (T. 0. Weigel) 1884, 
pp. 87-121. 

The Greek text with critical notes and conjectural readings The same vol- 
ume contains the fragments of the Gospel according to the Hebrews, the 
Preaching and Acts of Peter and Paul, the Apocalypse of Peter, the Didascalia 
Apost., the 7>?/rp Vice or Jvdicimn Petri. Htloenfeld wrote also a notice oi 
the Didachem his " Zeitsehrift fiir wissenschaftl. Theologie," Leipzig, 1884, 
pp. 366-371. a more elaborate one in the samcporiorlical for 1885, Erstes Heft, 
pp. 73-102. He regards the Did. as a link between the Ep. of Barnabas (c. xviii. 


-sx.) and the seventh book of the Apost. Const, (i.-xxi.), and assumes that it is 
in its present shape a later adaptation of the original doctrine of the Ikxa• 
Vice to the use of Montanism after the middle of the second century. He 
defends this view at length against Harnack, who maintains the unity and 
integrity of thb treatise (see his notice of Hilgenfeld in the "Theol. Lit. 
Ztg." for 1884, No. 14, col. 342). 

HoLTZMANN, H. (Dr. and Prof, in Strassburg): Die Didache nnd ihre lie- 
ienformen, in the " Jahrbiicher fiir Protest. Theologie" (Leipzig) for 1885, 
Heft L pp. 1Γ)4-167. 

A critical discussion of the relation of the Didache to Barnabas, Hermas, 
the Ecclesiastical Canons of the Αρ., and the seventh Book of the Apost. 
Constitutions. H. accepts Harnaek's view of the identity of Pseudo-Ignatius 
and Pseudo-Clement, who was a semi-Arian clergyman and made use of the 
Didache and the Ecclesiast. Canons, but he differs from him as regards the 
relation of the Didache to the cognate documents. He regards the Didache 
and Barnabas as two co-ordinate recensions of the allegory of the Two Ways 
or the Judicium Petri, which is lost. He also briefly reviewed Harnaek's 
book, very favorably, in the "Deutsche Literaturzeitung," Berlin, Oct. 4, 
1884, p. 14.j2, but without adding anything oew. 

Krawuizcky, Adam (Dr. and Kom. Cath. Subregens in Breslau): TJeler die 
sog. Zwolfapostdlehre, ihre hauptsachlichsten Quellen und ihre erste Auf- 
nahme, in the " Theol. Quartalsehrift," Tubingen, 1884, No. IV., pp. 547-606. 

Kr. derives the Didache from the Gospel of the Hebrews, from the Duce 
Vice or Judicium Petri (Rufinus. Ιλ Symb. Apost. c. xxxviii., and Jerome, De 
viris ill. c. 1.), from the Ep. of Barnabas (chs. xviii.-xx.), and the Pastor of 
Hermas, and assigns it to an Ebionite heretic at the close of the second cent- 
ury. This novel view, if proven, would materially diminish the value of the 
Didache. In a previous article in the same Quarterly (1882, No. III., pp. 
433-445)^ Dr. Kr. had made a critical attempt to reconstruct, from the 
Apost. Church Order, the Seventh Book of the Apost. Constitutions, and 
the Ep. of Barnabas, the lost book. Judicium Petri, but declines now to 
accept the Didache as this original, although the results of his sagacious 
restoration agree substantially with the Didache as since published. He 
thinks that the seventh book of the Ap. Const, and the Latin Doctrina 
Apost., a fragment of which was published by von Gebhardt, were rectifica- 
tions of the Diditche. 

Langen, Joseph (Dr. and Old Catholic Professor in Bonn): Das dlteste 
christliche Kirchenluch, in von Sybel's " Historische Zeitschrift," Munchen 
and Leipzig, 1885, Zweites Heft, pp. 193-214. 

The most important discovery since that of the Philosophumena in 1842. 
'Bryennios has already finally disposed of several questions and suggested 
others. The Didache presupposes a state of the Church in the first century 
rather than in the second. It is older than the Ecclesiast. Canons, older than 
Hermas, older than Barnabas (written during the reign of Nerva), and pro- 
ceeded probably from the Jewish Christian Church of Jerusalem about a.d. 
90, for the promotion of missions among the heathen. (I had reached 
similar conclusions before I saw this short but judicious paper of Dr. 



I^ngen, who is well known by his IliMory of the Rrrnian C'hvyrch, to Leo I., 
1881, and from Leo I, to Nicoliifs I., 1885, 2 vols. ; his History of the Trin- 
itarian (Jontrfjvnrsi/ , between the Greek and Latin churches, 1876, etc.) 

LiPSic's, Richard Aopxbert (Dr. and Prof, of Theol. in Jena): (1) A re- 
view of J}ryennir>s' ed. in the "Deutsche Literaturzeitung," wl. by M. 
Rodiger, lierlin. Jahrgang V. No. 40 (Oct. 4, 1884j, p. 1440-'ol. 

The Did. goes fur back to the first half of the second century, but is prob- 
ably a composite production. The recension of the Two Ways is older than 
any hitherti* known. The euchari.stic .SfiCtion is " groHficntknlH uroM." but 
the baptismal direction alK>ut pouring water instead of immersion excites 
suspicion as a later interfx^lation, (No reason is give-n.) L. regrets that 
Uryennios did not use Lagarde's (A. of the Syrian διί^ίχΰκαλία, which seems 
to be the basis of the first six lx>oks of the Apost. Const. 

(2) In his more recent notice of llarmick's book, in Zamcke's " Liter. Cen- 
tralblatt," Jan. 24, 188ϋ, No. V. (signed Ψ), Lipsius agrees with Ilarnack in 
his view of the age between 140-105, but douV>ts the P^gyptian origin, and 
denies the uw; of the Gospel of John in the eucharistic prayers. The " vine 
of David " (ix. 2). has nothing to do with John xv. 1, but is the Church con- 
secrated by the blood of the Syn of David ( " die durrh dan BundeH-Iilut das 
iJavidHHohnas gawcAkte Ιχκλη^ίία"). He incidentally rejects Krawutzckj's 
recent hyp^jthesis as quit/; unfortunate <" ψιη,ζ untjlYu-Mich "). 

(3) In a notice of Zahn's Hfuppl. (Jlara. in the same paper. No. VIII. (Feb. 
14, 1885, p. 23^5), Lipsius agrees with Zahn against Ilarnack, that the Did is 
independent of Barnabas, but supposes that both drew from an older source, 
an unknown catechetical book on the Two Ways He thinks that the Did. 
will long occupy the attention of scholars, 

•LfTHAKi/r, C. K. (Dr. and Prof, of 'I'hw;!. in Leipzig): " Zeitschrift fQr 
kirchliche Wissen.sf.-haft und kirchliches Leben." Leipzig, 1884. Heft III., 
1.39-141, Rijprint of the Greek text. 

NmscuL, J,: Review of liryenniits in " Lit. Handweisi;r" (R. C), Mainz, 
1884 No. 13. 

Peterse.n (Pastor in Rellingen) : Die, Lehr.", der zico'f Aposfel. Mit- 
tJieMunfjen ^tcr dan Jumdsdmfllichm Fund df,H Metropolitan Pldlotheo» 
liryanrdoH und liamarkurifjen zu damnaO/an. Fleasburg, 1884, 15 pages. 

Wu.vscHK, Auo. (Lif•. Dr.): Lahre dar zirMf ApoxtA. Nach dar Ausgahe 
dan Metropolitan Philothaon Bryannim. Mil liaifil^iunff den Urtaxtan, nebst 
Einleilvny und Nolan ian Daulnehe T/hertrfif/en. J>cipzig (Otto Schulze), 
1884, 34 pages. The si;cond edition of the same year is slightly improved, 
but not enlarged. 

Zaii.v, Tiip:od. (Prof, of Thef>l. in I>langeni: ForHchynejen zur (Janchichte 
denN. 'J'.lichan Kanonx und dar nllMreM. lAt. Erlangen (Deichert), 1884, 
Theil III. ( Hupplementum. CJlementinnm.\ pp. 278-319. Cornf). also his review 
of Hamack's work in Luthardt's " Theologisi;hes Litiiraturblatt," Nos. 26 
and 2H, Leipzig, June 27 and July 11, 1884. 

Dr. Zahn, one of the best patristic scholars of the age, assigns to the Did. 
its histiiric position in the [)r>st-A[)OstoIir• literature as f>riginating in Kgypt 
between a.d. 80-130. In the review of Ilarnack (which is unjustly unfavor- 


able), he siiggests several plausible emendations of the text and explains 
difficult passages(as the ηνΰτήβίον koouihov, ch. xi.), in substantial agree- 
ment with Bryennios against Harnack. 

ZocKLER, 0. (Dr. and Prof, of Theol. in Greifswald): Die L. der 12 Ap. 
In his "Evang. Kirchenzeitung," Greifswald, 1884, Nos. 18 and 33. 

III. — English Editions, Translations, and Discussions. 

Addis, W. E. : notice of sevei-al editions of the Did. (by Bryennios, 
Wiinsche, Harnack, Farrar, Hitchcock and Brown, and Hilgenfeld), in 
"The Dublin Review" (Rom. Cath.) for Oct. 1884, pp. 442-450. 

A. speaks enthusiastically of the interest and importance of this discovery. 
He prefers the Did. " tc all other remains of the age which followed that of 
the Apostles." It is marvellously complete, and gives a perfectly accurate 
picture of the ecclesiastical discipline and constitution of the first half of 
the second century. It is a compendium of Apostolic teaching, a " Sunnna " 
accepted by Christians in a.d. 140, but repi'esents a state of things which had 
died out in the greater part of the Church, It was probably written in Egypt. 
It may be compared to the cathedral of St. Magnus in the capital of the Ork- 
neys, which witnesses at this day the survival of the Norman architecture 
in that remote district long after it had ceased in England. The reviewer 
speaks highly of Harnack's book (he seems not to have seen Bryiennios'), and 
of Farrar's translation. 

De Romestin, H., M.A. (Incumbent of Freeland, and Rural Dean): The 
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (JiS. τ. δώδ. Άτί). The GreeTc Text with 
Introduction, Translation, Notes, and Illustratite Passages. Parker & Co., 
Oxford and London, 1884 (Oct.), 118 pages. 

A very neat and handy little book for the use of s-tudents (in uniform style 
with Heurtley's De Fide et Symbolo, Waterland's Athannsian Creed, The 
Canons of the Church, St, Gregory's Pastoral Rule, etc.). It contains, after a 
brief introduction, the illustrative passages from Scripture, Barnabas, Her- 
mas, the Ecclesiastical Canons, and Apostolical Constitutions, the Didarhc, 
in Greek and English Avith a few notes, and an index of the most noticeable 
words and phrases which occur in the Did. The writer has mostly used 
Bryennios and Harnack, but puts the book much earlier. '• It may well be 
the oldest Christian writing after the books of the New Testament, perhaps 
even earlier than most of them" (p. 6). As to the locality, he hesitates be- 
tween Asia Minor and Egypt. 

Farrar, Dr. Frederic W. (Archdeacon of Westminster): The Teaching 
of the Apofttlt's. In " The Contemporary Review" for May, 1884 (London), 
pp. 698-706. Two articles by the same in "The Expositor," ed. by Rev. 
Samuel Cox, London (Hodder and Stoughton), May, 1884, pp. 374-392, and 
August, 1884, pp. 81-91, 

In "The Cont. Rev.," Dr. Farrar gives a translation with brief notes. In 
the first article of "The Expos,," he discusses the character and age of the 
DidacJie, which he assigns to about a.d. 100, prior to the Ep. of Barnabas 
and the Pastor of Hermas. In the second article, he treats of the bearing of 


"The Teaching" on the Canon, .and shows that the author was. like James, 
much inilucnccd by the Sapiential literature of the Hebrews, that he certainly 
knew the Gospel of Matthew, probably also Luke, and possibly some other 
writings of the New Testament, as Konians and Thessalonians, though there 
is no positive evidence that he was acquainted either with Paul or John. 
"The object of the writer," he concludes (p. 89), "was very limited, and it 
he wrote either as a member of some small community or in some remote 
district, it is quite possible that Gospels and Epistles which were current in 
Italy, Egypt, and in Asia Minor, might not yet have fallen into his hands. 
The dissemination of all the sacred books was perhaps less rapid than λνβ 
sometimes imagine, and we have abundant evidence that some of them only 
won their way slowly into general recognition." 

Gordon, Alexander: Teaching of the Ticelve Apostles, in the "Modem 
Review " for July, 1884, pp. 446-480, with a postscript in the Oct. No. pp. 

The AtS. τ. Άτϊοογ. spoken of by Athanasius must have been a much 
shorter treatise answering to the measurement of Nieephorus, but was 
probably the basis of the Jerusalem MS. of Leo. The gerjB of the \vork is the 
third Pentecostal sermon of Peter, Acts, ii. 40-42: "Be ye saved from this 
crooked [crookecbiess is used by Barnabas of the Way of Death] generation. 
Then they that received his word were baptized . . . And they were steadfastly 
adhering to the teaching of the Apostlcs,^^ etc. The Did. is younger than 
the Barnabas Ep. proper, but older than the Barnabas Appendix on the Two 
Ways (chs. xvii.-xx.); younger than Hermas, who is opposed to a stated 
maintenance of the Prophets, while the Didachographer "with his shrewd 
sense " corrects him. The Didache then is a compilation which Gordon thus 
stratifies: " First comes the Two Ways antithesis, in its simplest form, as 
in the Epitome; on the one hand, the two-fold precept, Love God and thy 
neighbor, this being the finger-post of the Way of Life ; on the other hand, 
a negative rendering of the golden rule. Do not to another what thou 
wouldst not wish for thyself, this being the finger-post of the Way of Death. 
Secondly comes, from the Sermon on the Mount, and from the Shepherd as 
corrected, a commentary on the Way of Life. Thirdly, the parallel with the 
Epitome is resumed, in the Λvords : ' Now a second commandment of the teach- 
ing; ' and it is remarkable that what the Epitome gives as its expanded com- 
ment on the negative precept, is here presented as an alternative Version of the 
Way of Life. Fourthly, yet another of comment on the Way of Life is given, 
containing the rules about education and slaves, etc., unknown to the Epit- 
ome ; at the close is a marked sign of late workmanship, t ν k κ κ λ i} 6 i a 
for ' in church.' Lastly comes an account of the Way of .Death, the proto- 
type of that in the Barnabas appendix, unless we prefer to consider it as 
derived by both Teaching and Appendix from a common document." The 
second part oi• " the churchmanship section " is likewise a compilation, but 
older than the Apost. Const. Λvith some traces of Western and probably of 
Ebionitic origin. It will be seen from thi.s abstract that Gordon some- 
what anticipated the views of Krawutzcky's second paper. 

Hayman, Rev. H., D D. (R. C), in the " Dublin Review," No. XXV. Jan., 


1885, pp. 91-106. He divides the Did., like Hilgeufeld (without naming 
him), in two parts at Ch. VII., but assigns it to the region of Thessalonica, 
where the Epistles to the Thessalonians were known. 

II., E. L. [Rev. Edward Lee Hicks, Rector of Tenny Compton, late 
Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College, Oxford]: Art. in the " Guard- 
ian " for June 3oth, 1884. 

An ehiborate comparison, sentence by sentence, of the Didache with Bar- 
nabas, showing his inferiority in clearness of thought, vigor of language, 
and lucidity of arrangement, and his indebtedness to the Bidaclie as the 
earlier document. 

LiGHTFOOT, J. B. (Bishop of Durham), a brief but suggestive notice in a 
paper on Residts of recent Historical and Topographical Research upon the 
Old and New Testament Scriptures, read at the Carlisle Church Congress, 
Sept. -Oct., 1884. Published in the "Official Report," pp. 230-233, and 
reprinted as revised in " The Expositor," Jan., 1885, pp. 1-11. 

He dates the Didache " with most English and some German critics, some- 
where between a.d. 80-110," and assigns it, "with some probability," to 
Alexandria. He says : "Its interest and importance have far exceeded our 
highest expectations . . . Its chief value consists in the light it throws on the 
condition of the infant church. Remembering that the whole work occupies 
a little more than six octavo pages, we are surprised at the amount of 
testimony — certainly much more than we had any right to expect — which it 
bears to the Canon of the New Testament." 

Plummer, Rev. Alfred, D.D. (Master of University College, Durham), in 
"The Churchman," London, for July, 1884, pp. 274, 27.1 

A valuable note showing the connection of the Did. with the writings of 
St. John. 

Robertson, Rev. Α., in the "Durham University Journal," for February, 
1884, gave the first notice of the Did. in England. 

Spence, Canon (Vicar of S. Pancras, London): The Teaching of the 
Twelve Apostles ; ^ ι ^ a χ η τώνδώδεκα^Αττυΰτόλων. A 
translation icith Notes and Excursus llhistrative of the " Teaching," and 
the Greek Text. London (James Nisbet & Co.), 1885, pp. 183. 

Translation with notes first, the Greek text at the end. Nine Excursuses 
on the early history of the Did., the source and authorship (which is as- 
cribed, p. 95, to Bishop Symeon of Jerusalem, the successor of James), its 
testimony to the Canon, the Apostles, Prophets, Bishops and Deacons, and a 
timely sermon on "The Old Paths," preached, June 22, 1881, by the Canon 
in St. Paul's Cathedral. He calls the Did. " A writing immeasurably infe- 
rior in heart-moving eloquence to the Epistle of St. James, and yet full of 
beauty and dignity," which " possesses a charm peculiarly its own, giving 
us a unique picture of the Christian society of the first days, with its special 
dangers and sublime hopes and sacramental safeguards, with its leaders and 
teachers still sharing in those spiritual gifts which . . . had not yet exhausted 
their divine influence " (p. 100). 

Taylor, Rev. C. : A lately discovered document, 2:)ossibli/ of tlic first cent- 
ury, entitled " The Teaching of the Tlcelve Apostles, with illustrations 


from the Talmud. Two Lectures delivered (not yet published) at the Royal 
Institution, London, after Easter, 1885. 

v., E. [Edmund Venables, Canon of Lincoln Cathedral] : The Teach- 
ings of the Apostles, iW The, British Quarterly Review " for April, IbSo, 
London (Hodder and Stoughton), pp. 333-8'Γ0. 

An elaborate review of Bryennios, Hilgenfeld, Harnaek, Wunsche, De 
Romestin, Spenee, and Lightfoot, concurring in Lightfoot's conclusions as 
to the value, character, time and place of composition. He regards (p. 
3G9) ihe Did. as "the most remarkable addition to our knowledge of the 
sub-Apostolic age made since the publication of the editio princejjs of St. 
Clement in 1G33, the value of which cannot be too highly estimated. If its 
revelations are startling and unexpected, such as are calculated to disturb pre- 
conceived views on some points of considerable importance, it all the more 
deserves, and we are sure will receive, patient investigation and unprejudiced 
consideration from all who deserve the name of theologians and scholars. If 
it should turn out that it will compel us to give up some cherished con- 
victions and accept some unwelcome conclusions, we may be thankful to be 
delivered from error, even at the cost of some pain. The^ull^earing ofjthe 
discovery is as yet by no means fully appreciated. Much has yet to be done 
in studying it in connection with the remains of the contemporary Christian 
literature, scanty and fragmentary, alas! but still most precious." The 
author thinks that the Did. was written by a Jewish Christian of the milder 
and more conciliatory type, prcbably a Hellenist, possibly in Egypt, before 
I the close of the first century. It is older than Barnabas and Hermas. The 
original source of all may have been an oral tradition on the Tivo Ways, 
used in catechetical instruction, quoted from memory. (This reminds one 
of Gieseler's Traditions-Eypothese for the solution of the Synoptical Gospel 

"Westminster Review" (ultra-liberal) for .Ian., 1885, pp. 206-209. 

A brief notice of several books on the Did., Avhich the writer thinks is very 
much over-estimated. It is " a sort of church catechism, intensely Jewish." 
The doctrine of the Two Ways is traced to "the duplex organization of the 
human brain " and the dualism of Ormazd and Ahriman. "Jesus of Xaz- 
areth was ever harping (sic!) on the same Jewish theme." The ''golden 
rule had long been the property of mankind before Christians were heard of" 
(but only in its negutive form). 

WoRD.swoRTH, John (Prof, of Theol. at Oxford): CJirisiinii Life, Ritual, 
and Discipline at the Close of the first Century. In "The Guardian," Lon- 
don, March 19, 1884. Supplement. 

J. W. gives a summary of the contents of each chapter, with a version of 
the more important passages, and brief notes. He assigns the book to the 
last years of the first century or the beginning of the second, and suggests 
"some church of Greece or Macedonia " (Corinth, or Athens, or Philippic 
as the place of composition. — Several articles by various Anglican writers 
appeared on the Did. in subsequent numbers of the "Guardian" for 
1884. Among these must be mentioned those of Dr. Sadler (June 4th) and 
E. L. H. (June 25th). See H. 


■ Brief notices by anonymous writers iu " The Church Quarterly Review" 
(London) for April, 1884, pp. 213-217; in "The Foreign Church Chroni- 
cle and Review" (Rivingtons, London), for June 3, 1884, pp. 92-98 and 
112-116 (translation and notice) ; by Boase in the " The Academy," April 19, 
1884; Prof. Stokes in " The Contemp. Rev.," April, 18S4; May, 1885; etc. 

lY.— American Editions and Works. 

Brtennios Manuscript, Three pages of the, reproduced hy Photography 
for the Johns Hojjkins Univers-ity, Baltimore. Publication Agency of the 
Johns Hopkins L^niversity, April, ls85. 

Only 125 copies were printed. Preface by President D. C. Gilraan, three 
pages of photographs procured by Rev. Charles R. Hale, D.D., Baltimore, 
through official letters of introduction to the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Jan. 
31, 1885, and three pages of explanation by Prof. J. Rendel Harris. The 
photographs include parts of Barnabt.s and Clement, the beginning of the 
Did., catalogue of Old Testament Books, and last page of the Jerusalem MS. 
Prof. Harris states that he has verified by calculation the scribe's statement 
that the proper number of the Indiction is 9 in the first nine months of the 
year 1056, and that the eleventh of June was a Tuesday in that year. 

Craven, Rev. Dr. E. R. (of Newark, N. J.): article in 'Journal of Chris- 
tian Philosophy." See " Teaching." etc. 

Fitzgerald, J. : Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. New York (John B. 
Alden), 1884. 

The Greek text and English translation, and an introductory nots of two 
pages, dated April 2, 1884. 

Gardiner, Dr. Frederic (Prof, in the Berkely Divinity School, Middle- 
town, Ct.), and Mr. C. C. Camp: The recently discoOcred Apostolic Manuscript. 

A translation, published first in the New York " Churchman," March 29, 
1884, and separately as a pamphlet, New York (James Pott & Co), 1S84 (26 
small pages). 

Hall, E. Edwin: Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. In " The New Eng- 
lander," vol. vii. July, 1884, pp. 544-560. 

A Comparison with the Coptic Canons, as translated in Bunsen's Hippolytus 
and his Age, vol. ii. 

Hall, Isaac H., and Napier, John T. : Translation in "Sunday School 
Times," Philadelphia, 1884, April 5 and 12. 

The translation (as Dr. H. Clay Trumbull, ed. of the "S S. Times." in- 
formed me by letter, April 16, 1885) is the joint production of the two gentle- 
men named; each having taken one-half, and both going over the whole 
together. See also Dr. Hall's art. in the " Journal of Christian Philosophy," 
quoted sub "Teaching ;'' and his review of Hitchcock and Brown, and 
Spence in the " Independent," for April 16, 1885. 

Hitchcock, Roswell D., and Brown, Francis (Drs. and Professors in 
Union Theol. Seminary, New York), ^ιδ. τ. δώδ. Άτι. Teaching of the 
Twelve Apostles. Recently discovered and published by Philotheos Bryennios, 
Metropolitan of Nicomedia. Edited with a Translation, Introduction, and 


Notes. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1884. Pages vi. 37. A new 
edition revised and greatly enlarged. N. Y. 1885. exv. and 85 pages. 

The first edition was issued a few days after the arrival of the first copy of 
the edition of Bryennios from Constantinople, via Leipzig, and had the un- 
precedented sale of nearly eight thousand copies in a few Vnonths. It was, 
however, prepared, as the writers say, " in great haste (March 17-35), in order 
to give speedy circulation to Bryennios' great discovery." The new edition 
was published March 25, 1885, with learned Prolegomena by Prof. Brown, 
(cxv. pages), a revision of the translation, pp. 2-29, by both editors, and 
valuable explanatory notes by Prof. Hitchcock, pp. 31-61, to which is 
added an Appendix by Prof. Schaff, pp. 65-77. Among the special feat- 
ures the editors (Preface, p. iv) point out the discussions on the integrity 
of the text, the relations between the Did. and kindred documents, with 
translations of these and of Krawutzcky's reproduction of "the Two 
Ways," on the peculiarities of the Greek Codex, the printed texts, and the 
recent literature. Dr. Hitchcock has also paid special attention to the 
vocabulary of the Did. as compared with that of the New Testament and 
the Septuagint. 

Lincoln, Hejian (Prof, in Newton Theolog. Institution, Mass.): a notice 
in the " Bibliotheca Sacra" (now published at Oberlin, Ohio, formerly at 
Andover) for July, 1P84, pp. 590-594. 

Long Prof. J. C. : Sources of the Teaching, in the "Baptist Quarterly," 
July-Sept.. 1884. 

Puts the Did. as late as or later than the impost. Const., i. e. in the fourth 
century. Impossible. 

PoTWiN, Lemuel S. (Prof, in Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio): The 
Vocahidary of the " Teaching of the Apostles." In the " Bibliotheca Sacra," 
for Oct., 1884, pp. 803-S17. 

P. gives an alphabetical list of the words of the Did. that are not found 
in the N. T., with explanatoiy notes and refei-ences, compares the vocabulary 
of the Did. with that of Barnabas, and concludes that the last chapters of 
B. are a confused amplification of the first five chapters of the Did. 

Schaff, Philip: The Oldest Church Manual, etc. New York, May, 1885. 
See note at the end of this chapter. 

Starbuck, Rev. C. C, and Smyth, Prof. Egbert C, D.D. (Prof, of 
Church History in Andover Theol. Seminary): Teaching cf the Twelve 
Apostles. Translation and Synopsis of the Introduction of Bryennios. lu 
the " Andover ReAiew" for April, 1884. 

This article appeared almost simultaneously with the edition of Profs. Hitch- 
cock and Brown, and likewise had a very large circulation. 

Smyth, Egbert C. : BajMsm in the " Teaching" and in early Christian 
Art. In the " Andover Review" for May, 1884, pp. 533-547. 

Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. Text and Translation together with 
Critical and Illustrative Papers by Eminent Scholars. Reproduced from 
" The Journal of Christian Philosophy." New York (ed. and publ. by J. A. 
Paine, 30 Bible House), April, 1884. 84 pages. 

Contents: Gr. text and trsl. by S. Stanhope Orris ; Genuineness, Priority, 


Source and Value of the Teaching, by J. Rendel Harris; Phraseology by 
Isaac H. Hali, ; Comments by Elijah R. Graven. 

V. — French Editions and Discussions. 

Boxet-Maurt, Gaston (Prof, in the Faculte de Theologie Protestante in 
Paris): La doctrine des douze apotres, Paris (Fischbaeher, 33 rue de Seine) 
1884, 36 pages. 

A good French translation with critical and historical notes, first published 
in the " Critique philosophique " and " Critique religieuse." Assigns the book 
to Egypt between 160 and 190, and agrees with Hilgenfeld that it has a Mon- 
tanistie coloring. He sums up the result on page 36 as follows: " C'cstainsi 
que nous nous representons les destinees de ce petit litre qui, des son appari- 
tion, a ete salve par les acclamations des exegetes et des historiens, comme un 
temoin venerable de V^glise du second siecle. . . . Pour nous, d'accord avec 
Mgr. Bryennios, et MM. Harnack et Hilgenfeld, nous conservons a la 
DidacM tine place d'Jionneur entre le pasteur d'Hermas et les Ilomelics Clem- 
entines. Elle nous offre, en son ensemble, un monument authentique de ce 
cJiristinnism essenticUement moral, qui eclate dans des J^vangiles syiwptique^ 
et s'etait conserve an scin des judeo — Chretiens d'^gyptte et de Palestine." 

Duchesne, Abbe Louis, notice in "Bulletin Critique," Paris, 1884, Nos. 
5, 17, 19. Massebieau says: " un court et bon article." 

Massebieau, L. (Prof, in the Faculty of Protest. Theol. in Paris): L'en- 
seignement des douze apotres, Paris (Ernest Leroux), 1884, 36 pages [from 
"Revue de I'Hist. des Religions," Sept.-Oct., 1884]. Also: Communica- 
tions s^ι,r la Didache, in " Temoignage " of 7 fevrier, 1885. 

He briefly but ably discusses the contents of the Did. and assigns it to 
Rome at the end of the first century (p. 35). He well states the relation be- 
tween the Did. and Barnabas (p. 16): " L'epUre de Barnahas qu'on situe en 
genercdalafin du premier decle contient dans ses chapitres XVII.-XXI. 
une description des deux votes, relativement courte, et qui colnc.'de presque en- 
tierment avec des passages de notre premiere partie. On a conteste, il est vrai 
fauthenticite de ces derhiers chapitres de I'epttre, mais les temoignages de 
Clement d'Alexandrie et d'Origene sont suffisamment rassurants a cet egard. 
Id, dans la description de la premiere voie I'ordre que nous connaissons est 
bouleverse. On dirait que les phrases se suecedent au hasard. Ainsi les 
passages relatifs a la deuxieme table de la loi sontjetts loin les uns des autres 
sans qu'un puissc savoir po^irquoi. 11 est impossible d'admcttre que Vau- 
teur de la Didache, pour realiser quelques parties de son plan si regulier, ait 
glane ζο, et Id dans ces chapitres de Barnabas quelques phrases ou parties de 
phrases si etrangemcnt disposees. On comprend, au contraire, que I'auteur 
de i'epttre de Barnabas desirant apres tant d'cdlegories donncr quelques lemons 
de morcde pratique y et passant ainsi comme il le dit a une autre sorte d''enseigne- 
ment, presse d'ailleiirs d'en fi?iir, se soil serve delambeaux d^in autre ecrit 
qui lui restaient dans la me moire et les ait miles a sa prose comme Us lui ve- 
naient a I'espiit." 


Mathieau, S. : Les origines de I'episcopat, in the " Revue de theologie," 
Montauban, July-Sept., 1884. 

Mexegoz, E. : Several articles in the Lutheran journal, '• Le Temoignage," 
Paris, 1884, 23 fevrier (une decouverte importante) ; 1 mars {les origines de 
I'episcopat) ; 8 mars {les parasites dans Teglisc primitive) ; 15 m&rs{le cJiemin 
de la vie) ; 29 mars {les clioses finales) ; 5 jouillet {t'ftgape) ; 1885, 3 Janvier 
{une nouvelle etude sur la Didache) ; 28 mars {Le caractere de la Did.); 4 
avril {La doctrine relig. de la Did.) ; 11 avril (La Did. et I'interpretation du 
iV. T.) ; 18 avril {La date de la Did.) ; 25 avril {Les indices de la haute 
antiquite de la Did.). M. assigns the Z)i(Z. to 80-100. The first six chapters 
are not a manual of religious instruction, but a liturgical exhortation to lead 
a Christian life addressed to proselytes at the moment of their Baptism. 
"Ce qn'on a pris pour un resume de la religion chretienne, n'est autre chose 
qiC une exhortation a mener une me digne du chretien, adressee au proselyte 
ctu moment du hapteme." Mars 28, 1885, p. 100. In this way Menegoz ex- 
plains the absence of dogmatic instruction. 

MuEALT, E. DE. : Uenseignement des doiizes aputres, in "Revue de theologie 
et de philosophic" for May, 1884, pp. 278-291. 

Reville, Jeax: Une importante decouverte, in "La Rennaissance," for 
Febr. 29, 1884. 

Sabatier, Paul {ancien eleve de la Faculte de theologie protestante de 
Paris, pasteur ά Veglise Saint Nicolas a Strasbourg, Alsace) : La Didache, 
in the " figlise libre,"1884, Nos. 11-18. The same: /Ιιδαχΐ) των ι β' άτΐαϋ- 
τύλων. La Didache ou V enseignement des douze apotres. Texte grec re- 
trouve par Mgr. Philotheos Bryennios, metropolitain de Nicomedie puhlie 
pour la premiere fois en France avec un commentaire et des 7iotes. Paris 
(libr. Fischbacher), 1885. 165 pages. 

Unfortunately 1 did not receive this book till to-day (May 9), after this 
Ch. was already set in type. But I can add the table of contents and state 
the result of a cursory inspection. I. Introduction, bibliography, and the 
Greek text of the Did. for the first time reprinted in France. II. French 
translation of the Did. III. Eight historical and critical studies on the 
Catechetical section, on Baptism, on Fasting and Prayer, on the Eucharist, 
on the Spiritual Gifts and ecclesiastical OflBees, on Deacons and Bishops, on 
the last things, on the Date and Origin of the Did. Sab. assigns it to Syria 
and to the middle of the first century: "■Nous n'Jiesitons pas a fair remonter 
la Did. an milieu du premier siecle, avant les grandes courses missionaires de 
Paid" The author is well acquainted with the literature on the subject, 
but was misinformed that the Didac/ie vras telegraphed to America (p. 5). 
The book is the most important contribution in the French language. He 
informs me by letter, April 27, 1885, that a new edition is already called for. 
It is remarkable that the Protestants of France are far ahead of their Roman 
Catholic countrymen in the interest they have taken in this discovery, and 
that the principal works on the Did. have proceeded from the new Protestant 
Theological School of Paris. 


YI. — Edition's and Discussions m Dutch, Norwegian, 
Danish, and Sayedish. 

Bkrggrex, J. E. : Om den nyligen aterfunna slcriften, " i>e tolf aposl- 
larnes Idra." In "Teologisk Tidsskrift gnindad af A. F. Beckman, etc. 
Upsala, 1884, Tredje Haftet, pp. 200-206. 
A Swedish translation of the Did. with a brief introduction. 

Caspari, C. p. (Dr. and Prof, of Theology in Christiania) : Den aeldste 
Eirclieordning, m " Luthersk Ugeskrift," Lordag, June 14 and 21, 1884, 
Kos. 24 and 25. A Norwegian journal of the Lutheran Church. 

Translation and Notes. Dr. C, well known by his antiquarian researches 
on the baptismal creeds, etc., asserts the priority of the Did. over the Ep. of 
Barnabas, and regards it as a Judijeo-Christian (but not Ebionite) productiou 
of Palestine, written before a.d. 120, probably before 100. He notes the 
silence respecting doctrines, in which respect the Did. resembles the Epistle 
of James. The Did. is literally built upon the Gospel of Matthew. 

Helteg, Fr. : Fra Eirkens Oldtid. In "Dansk Kirketidende," 1884, 
Nos. 24 and 2o. 

Danish translation and Notes. H. dates the Did. from about time of 
Justin Martyr. 

Paulssex, a. S. : Et igenfundct Skrift fra Eirkens dld.ste Tider. In 
"Theologisk Tidsskrift for den danske Folkekirke." B. I. H. 4 pp. oT6- 
589. Kobenhavn, 1884. 

A translation with notes. Paulssen holds that the Did. is older than Bar- 
nabas, and was written shortly after the Apostolic period, at all events in 
the first half of the 2d eentuiy. Paulssen uses the silence of Chap. VII. 
respecting the Apostles' Creed as an argument against the Grundtvigian 
theory that the Apostles' Creed as well as the Lord's Prayer was taught by 
the Lord himself, and that their reception, along with Baptism, constitute 
the condition of salvation. 

Prins, J. J.: Bryennios /Ιΐδ. τ. δ. ατί. Ε codiee Hierosolymitano, nunc 
Constantinopolitano, nvpperrime primzim edita. In usum studiosce juventa- 
tis repetit. Ludg. Bat. (E. J. Brill), 1S84, 16 pages. 

RoKDAM, Thomas: Den apostoliske Troesbekjen. In " Theol. Tids. f. d. 
danske Folkekirke." Kobenhavn. B. II. H. 1, pp. 127-130. 

Varming, C. : De tolv apostles Icerdom. Et skrift fra det andet Eristelige 
arhundrede, ocersat. Kobenhavn. 1884, 35 pages. 

" Theologisk Tidsskrift for den ev. luth. Kirke i Norge" (Christiania), New 
Series, X., 1834, I. Greek text, reprinted from Bryennios. 

Note on the Facsimiles in this Work. 

The fac-similes of the Jerusalem MS. on pp. 6 and 7, and the' picture of the 
Jerusalem Monastery facing the first chapter, were obtained for the author 
by influential friends in Constantinople last summer, but not without dif- 
ficulty. A few extracts from a letter dated Constantinople, July 1, 1884, 
will interest the reader. 


" When Dr. W. informed me of your desire to have a photograph of the 
first and last pages of the JiSaxv, and consulted me as to the means of 
accomplishing it, I was very doubtfid of snccess. It was concluded, how- 
ever, that Dr. W., accompanied by an English clerical friend well known 
for his interest in the Greeks, should visit the Monastery of the Jerusalem 
Patriarchate in Stamboul, and. if possible, obtain the permission for me to 
come privately, at some convenient time, and take the photograph. 

" They went and were courteously received, and it was agreed that I 
should go at 10 o'clcxk on Thursday. I went accompanied only by one of 
our Senior Class, a Greek. We were politely received, and, after some delay, 
escorted to the Library. The representative of the Jerusalem Patriarch (the 
Archimandrite Poly carp) asked the Librarian for the MS., and, taking it in 
his hands, turned to the first page of the last leaf, put a piece of white paper 
imder it, and, with another piece of white paper, covered the preceding page, 
and then said to me. ■ Xow it is re;idy for you to copy.' I asked, ' T^Tiy have 
you chosen this page rather than some other?' Ee replied, ' Because this is 
the most important page of the book. It contains the subscription of the 
copyist and the date at which it was finished.' I looked at it and read: 
' Finished in the month of June — year 6564, by the hand of Leon, the notary 
and sinner.' I asked what the upper portion (five and a half lines) was. I 
was told they were the concluding lines of the TeacJdng. I saw and 
deciphered the last words, eppoJoSe εί5 τελοζ έν vnouovrj Ίτ/6ον Χμι- 
ότυν. Ι was not familiar with the Teaching. I had no copy of it, and had 
never had the book in my hands more than an hour, and that more for a 
cursory examination of the Introductory and Historical Xotes of Bryennios 
than anything else. So I was quite ready to believe the statement ; besides, 
I had no reason whatever for disbelieving or being suspicious after once the 
permission had been given for me to take a copy. 1 asked, ' What is this 
below the .suoscription and date (the lower two-thirds of the page ) ? ' I was told 
it was some addition in the form of a note or comment from the same hand. 
There was an evident disinclination to allow me to handle or examine the 
MS., which I understood simply as the usual jealousy in guarding such 
treasures. I had a definite object before me : the securing of a photograph. 
The room was dark. Objection was made to taking the MS. out of the room. 
I finally succeeded in getting it into the vestibule just otitside the door, 
where the light from a window would fall upon it. A young Deacon was 
told to hold it before my instrument, which I had unpacked and set up, but 
I induced them to allow him to place it on the sill of a window opening into 
an inner room, and fasten it with a piece of string, which I furnished from 
my pocket, to the iron gratings This was all done without my having 
touched the precious volume with my hands. 

" I exposed my plates in duplicate (in case of accident), enveloped my dark 
slide in its covering, and then for the first time, my work being finished, I 
took hold of the book, untied its fastenings, and carefully carried it into the 
inner room and with thanks placed it in the hands of the Librarian. I had 
been intending all the time to ask the favor of a half-hour's perusal of the 
MS. after mv work was finished : but overhearing a remark of one of the 


aged monks present, I had a beuevolent impulse. I said to them, I have one 
plate more with me which 1 would like to place at vour service in case there 
is anything which you would like to have photographed. They were greatly 
pleased, and said they had for a long time wished for a view of their premises. 
So I found a window in a neighboring house from which I got a nice view. 
Then I hurried off to take the steamer for home. Friday I developed my 
plates, printed off a proof or two, and left them to soak in the water over 
night. Saturday Dr. W. was anxious to get his letter off to you, so I took 
the two proofs out of the water, hastily dried them and gave them to him to 
send to you with my eompUments, and simply telling him what I was told 
as to the contents of the page copied. . . . During the week I printed off 
two or three more copies, and sent one of them to the English friend who 
accompanied Dr. W. in his visit to the Monastery. Aiier a week had 
elapsed he wrote me a note that he was sorry to be unable to find upon the 
page any portion of the ' Tea^hing.^ This startled me and set me to work 
investigating the matter. I found upon examining the Greek edition of the 
διδαχ?/ published here last year that the subscription and the genealogical 
addition on the lower part of the page were there given on the last page of 
the Introduction, but no mention was made anywhere of the five and a half 
Unes at the top, and that strictly speaking there was no part of the διδαχ?} 
in the photographic copy. I informed Dr. W. of my disappointment in this 
and of my intention at my earliest convenience to try again. This was on 
Friday. I had examinations to attend to until this morning, Tuesday; so 
this morning I took an early start accompanied by an associate. Prof. Gros- 
venor, and went again to the Library with some little misgiving, but full of 
hope that by means of a conciliatory present of several copies of nice photo- 
graphs of the Library and School such a friendly footing would be gained 
that I could get just what I wanted, and what that was I knew pretty well, 
because I had in the last four days read and pretty well digested the 
' Teaching.' 

*' We were, I may say, cordially received by the Librarian, but when the 
Superior came in I saw by his countenance that trouble was in store for us. 
To make a long story short, nearly an hour's argument, remonstrance and 
entreaty failed to make any impression upon him. He would not allow a 
page of the ' Teaching ' to be copied. His argument, so far as he argued, 
was that what I had already ica-s a pirt of the 'Teaching,' that it was the 
essential part, the proof of its genuineness, etc. etc. After long discussion 
I came away not at all settled in my mind as to the exact reasons for the 
refusal. The election of a Patriarch of Constantinople is to take place next 
week. The Archbishop Philotheos (Bryennios) is a prominent candidate. I 
have an impression that these Jerusalem people are not of his party. Many 
other theories have presented themselves to my mind. One thing I am quite 
convinced of. that in promising the permission to photograph there was no 
intention to give any other than the page selected, and had I insisted on 
examining for myself and copying some other page than the one offered, the 
volume would have quickly been put back into its drawer and we should 
have got nothing. As it is, we have the last page but one of the rxdume in 


which the βίδα χ}} is found and a fair specimen of the chirography and style 
of the whole work, called in Europe ' T/ie Jerusulem Manuxcript,' but which 
these monks now for the sake of justifying their position call the διδίχχή, 
although it contains 7 treatises and on 120 pages of vellum, of which the 
' Teaching' only fills four. . . . 

" I shall, after some time, trj' and bring some other influences to bear upon 
our monastic friends, and if possible will yet try to get what you want. In 
the meantime please accept my personal salutations, and the assurance of 
my readiness to oblige you in any way in my power. 

" P. S. — You will be perhaps interested in the View of the Library. The 
monks are standing in front of the Library, and in the doorway (rather 
deeply shaded by the trunk of the tree) may be seen the Librarian holding 
the MS. in his hand. The large building in the background is a magnificent 
building just erected for the Greek National School through the munificence 
of some rich patriotic Greeks of this city. In the picture the monks are 

looking towards the Golden Horn and Pera, i. e., to the X. E." 

* * * 

I afterwards (August, 1884) secured a photograph of the page which con- 
tains the first four lines of the Didaehe. The same photographs were sub- 
sequently (Jan. 31, 1885) obtained by Rev. Dr. Hale. See above, p. 151. 


I. The Didache. Greek and English, with Comments. 
II. A Latin Fragment of the Didache. With a Critical Essay, 

III. The Epistle of Barnabas. Greek and English. 

IV. The Shepherd of Hermas. Greek and English. 

V. The Apostolical Church Order. Greek and English. 
VI. The Apostolical Church Order from the Coptic. English Version. 
VII. The Seventh Book of the Apostolical Constitutions. Greek and 
A Letter and Communication from Metropolitan Brtennios 



With Explanatory Notes. 

The Greek text is an exact reprint of the editio prmceps 
of Bryennios. The textual emendations and conjectures are 
given in the notes. The Jerusalem MS. has no divisions into 
chapters and verses. Br jennios has divided the book judiciously 
into sixteen chapters. The divisions into verses or lines 
differ in \'arious editions. Instead of adding to the confusion, 
I have adopted the convenient versicular arrangement of Prof. 
Harnack, which is followed also by Krawutzcky and De 
Romestin, and is likely to prevail I have added the chapter 
headings, textual emendations, and Scripture references. 

The explanatory foot-notes should be used in connection 
with the preceding discussions. It is but just to say in 
advance, that most of the Biblical and Patristic parallels which 
haA^e since been quoted from book to book (often without the 
least acknowledgment) were already pointed out by the 
learned discoverer and first editor, who was thoroughly 
equipped for his task. 

The different writers are quoted with the following ab- 
breviations : 

Br. = Br^'ennios. (Greek.) 
Ha. = Harnack. (German.) 
Hi. = Hilgenfeld. Do. 
W. = Wunsche. Do. 

Z. = Zahn. Do. 

Fa. = Farrar. (English). 

R = De Romestin. Do. 

Sp. = Spence. Do. 

J. W. = John Wordsworth. Do. 
Fi. = Fitzgerald. (American.) 

G. = Gardiner. Do. 

H. & B. = Hitchcock & Brown. Do. 
Η & X. = Hall & Napier. Do. 



Ο. = Orris. (American.) 

St = Starbuck. Do. 

B.-M. = Bonet-Maury. (French.) 

Ma. = Massebieau, Do. 

Sa. = Sabatier. Do. 

Ca. = Caspari. (IsOrwegian.) 

For the titles see Lit. in Ch. XXXIIL 




Αιδαχη Κυρίου δια τών The Teaching of the Lord 

δωδε7ία αποστολών τοιζ ε'Β-- by the Twelve Apostles to 

νεσιν. the Gentiles. 

Κεφ. a'. Chap. L 

The Two Wats. The Wat of Life. 

1. Όδοϊ δυο είσί, μία τηζ 1. There are two Ways, one 

Notes to Chapter I. 

The Title. — The larger title is probably the original one, the shorter an 
abridgment. The clause to ίΛβ G^f?^ί^7έ's, indicates the Jewish Christian origin. 
The writer means to give the teaching of the Lord himself in his Gospel, 
at least in the first six chapters, which repeat substantially the Sermon 
on the Mount. In subsequent quotations the title is still more abridged by 
the omission of Tirehe, for the sake of convenience, or in justice to Paul 
(who, however, is not by that designation excluded from the Apostolate 
any more than in Acts vi. 2 ; i Cor. xv. 5 ; Rev. xxi. 14). The title is 
derived from Acts ii. 42 {?}dav δέ προΰκαρτερονντεζ τ -η διδ αχ^ τ ών 
άτίοδ τύλων χαί τ^ κοινωνία, rrj χλάΰει του αρτον και ταΐζ 
ττροόενχαιζ), and Matt, xxviii. 19 (μαΒρτενόατε -πάντα τα ε 3^ ν η). 
The book is called by Athanasius (^. i^esi. 39): διδαχή καλονπενη 
τών ατίοόόλων (the so-called D. of the Apostles ; implying that it 
is not strictly apostolical or canonical, but ecclesiastical only and apocryphal) ; 
by Nicephonis (Stirhometria) : δ t δ a χτ) τών άτΐοότόλων: but by 
Eusebius with a slight difference (ff. £'. iii. 25) : τών άκ o6 τ όλων αϊ 
λεχόιιενατ δ ι δ α χ α ί (the so-called Doctrines of the Αρ.) and by Pseudo- 
Cypi'ian (De Aleatoribus) : Doctrines Apostolorum. Rufinus mentions like- 
wise a Doctrina ApostoJorum among the ecclesiastical books, and one called 
I)ucB Vice or Judicium Petri, which is probably identical with the first 
six chapters, or may be a still earlier lost document of similar character. 
See Ch. X. p. 18 sq. and Ch. XXX. 

Ver. 1 and 2. Scripture parallels on the Two Ways : Matt. vii. 13, 14 ; 


8,ωηζ και μία τον θάνατον of Life and oue of Death;"- 

διαφορά 6h πολλή μεταξύ τών but there is a great difference 

δύο όδών^ between the two Ways. 

2. Ή μεν ούν οδοζ τήζ 8,ωήζ 2. Kow the Way of Life is 

εστίν αντη- πρώτον, αγα- this : First, Thou shalt love 

πήσειζ τον Θεόν τον ποίησαν- God who made thee ; sec- 

' Jer. xxi. 8. Comp. Deut. xxx. 15, 16, 19; Matt. vii. 13, 14. 

Deut. XXX. 19; Jer. xxi. 8., 2 Pet. ii. 2. Post-Apostolic parallels : Ep. Bar- 
nabae, ch. xvii: "There are, two Waysol teaching and authority, the Way of 
Light and the Way of Darkness ; hut there is a great difference between the two 
Ways." Ch. xix. : ''Now the Way of Light is this . . . thou shalt love Him 
who made thee . . . thou shalt love thy neighbor above thy souL" Pastor 
Hermae, Mand. vi. 1, 2 : " The way of righteousness is straight, but that 
of unrighteousness is crooked . . . There are two angels with a man, one 
of righteousness, and the other of iniquity." The Testaments of the Twelve 
Patriarchs, a Jewish Christian book (ed. Migne, in "Patrol. Gr." ii. col. 
1120): " God gave to the children of men two Ways ... of good and evil" 
{δ V ο ΰδονζ εδοοκεν ό 2ευζ τοΐζ νΐυιζ αν^ρώττων, δτ'>ο διαβούλια 
και δυο Λράςειζ, και δνο τόηονζ και δυο τέλ?] . . ΰδυΐ δύυ, κα- 
λόν και κακόν). Apost. Church Order, cap iv. : "John said, ' There are 
tii'o Ways, one of life and one of death,'" etc. Apost. Constitutions, vii. 
1 (ed. L'eltzen, p. 160 ; Lagarde, p. 197): " We say, There are two Ways, 
one of Life and one of Death, ; but there is no comparison between the 
two, for the difference is great, or rather they are entirely separate ; and the 
Way of Life is that of nature, but the Way of Death was afterwards intro- 
duced, as it is not according to the mind of God but from the scheme of the 
adA-ersary." Thie pseudo-Clementine Homilies, v. 7 (Dressel's ed. p. 177), 
likewise speak of two Ways, the broad Way of the lost and the narrow Way 
of the saved {ή τών άπολλνμένων υδύζ πλατεία καΐ όιιαλωτατη . . . ή 
δε τών ϋωζοιιένων ότεντ) ιιέν και τραχεία), with evident reference to 
Matt. vii. 13, 14. Clement of Alexandria {Strom. \. 5) says: "The Gos- 
pel [Matt. vii. 13, 14J proposes two Ways, as do likewise the Apostles [prob- 
ably the DidacJie], and all the Prophets (Jer. xxi. 8). They call the one 
naiTow and circumscribed {ΰτενήν και τε^λιμιιένην), which is hemmed in 
according to the commandments and prohibitions, and the opposite one, 
which leads to destruction, broad and roomj (τιλατεΐαν και ενρίχωρυν), 
open to pleasures and wrath." (Strom.v. 5, in Migne's ed. ii. col. 54). 

2. Thou shalt love God who made thee.} Barnabas and the Apost. Ch. Or- 
der add the important clause : " Thou shalt glorify Him who redeemed thee 
from death." The omission is no trace of Ebionitic hostility to the doctrine 
of the atonement (Krawutzcky), but due to the priority and greater simplic- 
ity of the X)iVZ. So is also the omission of "from thy whole heart." (Ap. 
Ch. Ord.) 

2. And all things.] The negative form of the golden rule. So also in 



τά σε ' δεΐ)τερον, τον ττλΐ]- 
σίον σον ώζ σεαυτον• τταν- 
τα δε οσα εάν ^ελησ^^ι? μη γί- 
νεσΒαΙ σοι, 7ΐαι σν αλλφ μη 

3. Τούτων δε τών λόγων ?; 
διδαχή εστίν αντη ' Ευλο- 
γείτε τούζ ηαταρωμενονζ 
νμιν Jial τΐροσενχεσΒε νπερ 
τών εχθρών νμών, νηστεύετε 
δε νηερ τών διωηοντων νμάζ' 
τΐοια γαρ χαριζ, εαν αγαπάτε 
τονζ αγατΐώνταζ νμάζ ^ ονχι 
7ίαι τα ε'Βν?/ το αντο ποιου - 
σιν • νμειζ ot αγαπάτε τονζ 
μισοννταζ νμάζ και ονχ εξετε 

4. Απέχον τών σαρκικών 
και σωματικώιν'^ επι^νμιών. 

ondly, thy neighbor as thy- 
self ;'' and all things whatso- 
ever thou wonldst not have 
done to thee, neither do thou 
to another." 

3. Now the teaching of 
these [two] words [of the 
Lord] is this : Blessthose who 
curse you, and pray for your 
enemies," and fast for those 
who persecute you ; for what 
thank is there if ye love those 
who loYe you? Do not even 
the Gentiles the same ? '^ But 
love ye those who hate you, 
and ye shall not have an 

4. Abstain from fleshly and 
bodily [worldly]'' lusts. If 

^Matt. xxii. 37, 39. ''Comp. Matt. vii. 12; Luke vi. 31. 

«^Comp. Matt. v. 48; Luke vi. 27, 28. "Comp. Matt. τ. 46; Luke vi. 32. 
' 1 Pet. ii. 11. 

* Ηοόμιηων, Br. W. F. H. & B. Sp. Sa. ; but ϋωματικών is retained by 
Hi. Ha. R. 

Const. Ap. vii. 1 ; in Tobit iv. 15 ; in the Talmud (as coming from tlie 
renowned Hillcl : "Do not to thy neighbor what is disagreeable to thee") ; 
in Buddhist and Chinese ethics, and among the Stoics {''quod UM fieri non 
vis, alteri ne feceris"). Matthew (vii. 12) and Luke (vi. 31) give the posi- 
tive form, which is much stronger. There is a great difference between 
doing no harm and doing good. The former is consistent with extreme sel- 

3. Fast for them. '\ A post-scriptural addition, which may be as innocent 
as prayer for our enemies, or may contain the germ of a doctrinal error. 
Spence : " Probably an oral tradition of the Master's -words." Ha. quotes a 
parallel passage of iinknown authorship from Origen, Horn, in Lev. x. : 
" Invenimus in quodam libello ah apostolis dictum: ' Beatiis est qui etiam 
jejunat pro eo ut alat pau])ere.m.' " Epiphanius (Hcer. Ixx. 11) quotes from 
the Apost. Constitutions : "When they (the Jews) feast, ye shall fast and 
mourn for them." 

3. Ye shall not liave an enemy.'] fjove conquers enmity and turns even foes 
into friends. A beautiful sentiment. A similar idea in 1 Pet. iii. 13. Sp, 
again conjectures here an oral tradition of Christ's sayings. 



Εάν τιζ ύοι δώ ράπισμα είζ 
την δεζιάν σιαγόνα, στρεψον 
αντώ ηαϊ την άλλ7]%', ηαϊ έ'σΐ] 
τελειοζ • εάν αγγαρενσΐ} σε 
τιζ μίλιον εν, νπαγε μετ' αυ- 
τού δνο' εάν apt] τιζ το ίμα~ 
ηόν σον, δόζ αντώ και τον 
χιτώνα• εαν Aapij τιζ απο 
σον το σόν, μη απαιτεί• ουδέ 
γάρ δννασαι. 

5. Παντϊ τώ αίτούντί σε δί- 
δον, και μτι απαιτεν πασι γαρ 
^ελει δίδοσΒαι ο πατ?}ρ εκ 
των ιδίων χαρισμάτων. Μα- 
καριοζ 6 διδονζ κατά την εν- 

any one give thee a ])low on 
the right cheek turn to him 
the other also/ and thou 
shalt be perfect." If any one 
press thee to go with him one 
mile, go with him two ; ° if 
any one take away thy cloak, 
give him also thy tunic ; '' if 
any one take from thee what 
is thine, ask it not back,*" 
as indeed thou canst not. 

5. Give to every one that 
asketh thee, and ask not 
back,'' for the Father wills 
that from our own blessings 
we should give to all. Blessed 

'Matt. V. 39; Luke vi. 29. 

= Matt. V. 41. 

"Luke V. 30 ; Comp. Matt. 


"Comp. Matt. v. 48; xix. 21. 
" Matt. V. 40 ; Luke vi. 29. 
'Luke vi. 30. 

4. 6ωΐίθίτΐΉ.ών.'\ So the MS. Br.: τό χεζρόχραφοτ έχει όωματι- 
Η ω ν, ο ουδέν διαφέρει τονΰαρκικών. He adopts κοΰ/αικών, 
worldly, and quotes 1 Pet. ii. 11 {απέχεΰ^αι των ΰαρηικών έτΐΐΒν- 
μιών) •,Ύα. ϋ. 12 {τάζ xoduixd ζ ίττιΒυμίαζ) ; 2 Clem, ad Cor. xvii. 
{από τών κ ο 6 μι κ ώ ν επιθυμιών); Const. Αρ. Const, νϋ. 2. 

τέλειος.] Comp. Ch. vi. 2; χ. 5; xvi. 2. Probably with reference 
to Matt. V. 48; xix. 21. The germ of the doctrine of perfection, as distinct 
from ordinary virtue. 

αχχαρενω.'] A word of Persian origin, which occurs Matt. v. 41 : xxvii. 32; 
Mark, xv. 21. It is the technical term for pressing men and beasts into pub- 
lic sei-vice for transmission of royal messages and for military purposes — a 
matter very obnoxious to the Jews. The E. V. translates it compel. 

ίηάτιον . . . χιτώνα.] The Did. follows here the more natural order 
of Luke vi. 29: "From Him that taketh away thy cloke [the outer gar- 
ment, mantle], withhold not thy coat [the inner garment, tunic] also;" while 
Matt. V. 40, reads : "If any one . . . take away thy coat, let him have thy 
cloke also. " 

ονδεχσρ δυναδαι.] "Thou canst not even do so," if thou wouldest, 
because a Christian ought not to use force, or go to law before Qentile 
courts. 1 Cor. vi. 1. As a statement of the mere fact that forcible resist- 
ance to a stronger one is useless, it would be trivial. Ha suggests unnec- 
essarily a different reading: καίτΐερ δυνάμενο?. The clause is omitted in 
Const. Ap. vii. 2. 



τολην • α^ώηζ γαρ έΰτιν • 
ουαι TOO Χαμβανοντι • ει μαν 
γαρ χρείαν έχων λαμβάνει 
τιζ, α^ώοζ ε'σταΐ' 6 ot μι) 
χρείαν έχων δώσει oijo^v, ίνα- 
ri* έλαβε καϊ είί τί^ εν 
συνοχι] δε γενόμενο? έζετασ- 
^ησεται ηερϊ ων εηραζε, και 
ουκ έζελενσεται ε'κειΒεν μίχρις 
ου αποδώ τον εβχατον ηο- 

is he that gives according to 
the commandment, for he is 
guiltless. Woe to him that 
receives ; for if any one re- 
ceives, having need, he shall 
be guiltless, but he that has 
not need shall give account, 
why he received and for 
what purpose, and coming 
into distress he shall be 
strictly examined concern- 
ing his deeds, and he shall 
not come out thence till 
he have paid the last far- 

Ίνα τι. Hi. .Ha. 

'Matt. V. 26. 

5. Blessed is he, etc.] Conip. Acts xx. 35: " It is more blessed to give than 
to receive." Hermas {3Iand. ii.): " Give to all, for God wishes his gifts to 
be shared by all" {πάόιν δίδον πάόιν γαρ ο 3εο5 δίδοό^αι ^έλει 
ίκ των ίδιων δωρηηάτων). Quoted by Br,; see Funk's Prtir. Ap. i. 390. 

According to Ike commandment. '\ of the Lord. Comp, Matt. v. 7, 42; 
Rom. xii. 8. 

ά^φοζ], ^mpunished, innocent (from a priv. and ^ωή, penalty)', only 
tvice in theN. T. Matt, xxvii. 4 (anioc αΒφυν, where, however, Westcott 
and Hort read a?/ia δίκαιον) and ver. 24, where Pilate says, "I am 
innocent of the blood of this righteous man." Also in the Sept., Deut. 
xxvii. 25; Jer. χχλ•1. 15; Hermas, Mand. i.: ΰ ovv διδονζ αΒφυζ έΰτιν. 
The Αρ. Ch. Ο. omits it. 

Woe to 7dm that receives.] Alms without needing them. 2 Thess. iii. 
10: "If any one will not work, neither let liim eat." Ap. Const, iv. 3: 
" Woe to those who have, and who receive in hypocrisy, or are able to 
support themselves, and Avish to receive from others; for both of them shall 
give account to the Lord God in the day of judgment." 

Till lie JiMve paid the last farthing.'] Farthing {κoδβάvτ?Jζ=g^ιadrans, 
i. e. a quarter of an ass) is the smallest denomination of coin and indicates 
that the debt will be exacted to the last balance. This passage, like Matt. 
V. 26, on which it is based, has been interpreted by Roman Catholics as 
referring to the future state and containing the germ of the doctrine of pur- 
gatory (as afterwards developed by Augustin and Pope Gregory I.). Mat- 
thew has prison (φνλακή) for distress, ΰννοχή, which occurs Luke, 
xxi. 25; 2 Cor. i. 1, and may here mean impHsonment. H. and Br. : "under 
confinement;" H. and N. : "Into straits (confinement);" Sp. : "in sore 


6. Αλλα jcai περί τούτον ot* 6. But concerning this also 
εί'ρηται• ίδρωτατω \ η ελει/- it bath been said, " Let thine 
μοσύί'η gov tii ταζ χεϊράς σον, alms sweat (drop like sweat) 
μέχριζΧ αν γνώί τίνι όώ;. into thy hands till tbou know 

to whom thou shouldst give." 

Κεφ. β'. Chap. II. 

The Second Great Commakdment. 
Warning Against Gross Sins. 

1. Δεντερα δε εντολή τηζ 1. And the second com- 
διδαχηό• mandment of the Teaching 

is : 

*8ή, (truly), -Br., &c. f ίόμωύατω, Br. Ha. H. & Ji. Sp. ; Ίδρυΰάτω, Hi. 
X μέχμιζ. Β., &c., or μεχμι, so long as, until. 

6. ίδρωτάΓω.] An error of the scribe. Br. corrects ίδρωίίίνΓΟ!' (from 
ίδρόω, to sweat, to perspire). Hi. conjectures Ίδρνόάτω (from ιδρύω, to 
settle, to fi.v^, and explains (p. 104): '■^GoUocet misericordia tua stipera in 
manihus tiiis." Contrary to είζ. Zahn proposes μτ) δραχ^ητω, " nicld soil 
[mit der Fmcst) gepaeJct (und festgehalten) iverden dein Almosen in deinen 
Handen bis du iceisst, ivem du geben sollst.'^ This would give the opposite 
sense and encourage promiscuous almsgiving, but the emendation is forced 
and inconsistent with είζ. The verb ίδρόω is classical, and the noun ΐδραόζ, 
siveat, occurs Luke xxii. 44. Potwin suggests ίερωτάτη, sacrosancta, to 
get out of " the sweat " and toil of the sentence. 

Let thine alms drop like sweat into thy hand.] The meaning is, keep your 
money in your hands, until it makes them sweat. A curious passage quoted 
as Scripture (s/'pi/rai), from oral tradition, or an unknown apocryphal 
book, or some living Prophet. A similar sentence, however, occurs in Ec- 
clesiasticus, xii. 1-6 (taV εν Ttoifji, χνώ3τ τίνι ποιεΐζ, κ. r. Α.). Assum- 
ing the reading of the MS. as amended by Br., the sentence is a Avarning 
against indiscriminate and injudicious almsgiving, and shows that the 
author of the Did. did not understand the commands of the Sermon on 
the Mount in a strictly literal sense ; otherwise he would contradict what he 
said in the preceding lines. The Ap. Const, (vii. 2) omit the passage. 
The abuse of promiscuous charity by idlers and impostors led to the practice 
of giving alms through the bishop, who would inquire into the merits of 
each case. See the note of Br. who quotes a passage from Justin M. to this 


Notes on Chapter II. 

This chapter is an expansion of the commandments of the second table of 
the Decalogue with reference to prevailing heathen vices. It contains 
twenty-five points of warning. The first ten refer to the commandments o£ 
the second table, the rest mostly to sins of the tongue, especially to those 
against charity. (Ha. and R.) In the specification of the commandments 
the author seems to have had Rom. xiii. 9 before him : " For this. Thou 


2. Ov φονεύσει?, ου μοιχεύ- 2. Thou shalt not kill.* 

σειζ, ου ηαιδοψ^ορησειζ, ου Thou shalt not commit adul- 

πομνεΰσειζ, ου ηλέψειζ, ού μα- tery;" thou shalt not corrupt 

γεύσεις, ου φαρμακευσεις boys; thou shalt not commit 

ου φονεύσει? τέκνον εν φΒο- fornication. Thou shalt not 

■Ex. XX. 13. "Ex. XX. 14. 

shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou 
shalt not covet, and if there be any other commandment, it is summed up 
in this word, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." 

2. ov παιδοφ3ορ}}ΰειζ.'\ παιδυψ^ορέω, to seduce hoys, to commit pcede- 
rasty, is not used in the N. T., nor in the Sept., but by Barnabas. Justin 
M., Ap. Const., Clement of Alex, (quoted by Bryennios), and in classical 
writers. An unnatural and revolting vice very prevalent among the heathen, 
even among the best classes in Greece, but severely condemned by the Mosaic 
law, as an abomination punishable with death, Lev. xviii. 22 ; xx. 13, and 
by Paul, Kom. i. 27 ; 1 Cor. vi. 9 ; 1 Tim. i. 10 ("abusers of themselves with 
men "). 

ov τΐορνενΰειζ.] Fornication and concubinage were not considered sin- 
ful among the heathen. Adultery was condemned, but only as an interfer- 
ence with the rights of a freeman. 

ov μαχενόειζ, κ. τ. λ.] The practice of magic and enchantments is con- 
demned, Ex. xxii. 18 ; Lev. xix. 26 ; xx. 6 ; Deut. xxin. 11, 12 ; Gal. v. 20 ; 
eomp. Rev. ix. 21 ; xviii. 23 ; xxi. 8 ; xxii. 15. The verb μαχεύω is used 
Acts viii. 9; ιιαχεύχ or may I'a, Acts viii. 11 ; /ia';ro? in the sense of sorcerer. 
Acts xiii. 6, 8. φαρίίακεΰω is classical and used in the Sept. The N. T. 
has the nouns φαρμαχεία and φαρμακύζ. 

Thou shalt not procure abortion, nor shalt thou Mil the neiv-born child.] 
Against the fearful crime of infanticide in all its forms Christianity raised 
its indignant protest through Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Lactantius, and 
synodical legislation. A council of Ancyra, 314 (can. xxi. ; see Fulton's 
Judex Can. p. 209) imposes ten years' penance upon women who " commit 
fornication and destroy that which they have conceiA^ed, or who are employed 
in making drugs for abortion." The exposure of poor or sickly children by 
parents was very general and was approved, for the public interest, eΛ"en by 
Plato, Aristotle, and Seneca. Gibbon says {Decline and Fall, ch. xliv.): 
"The Roman Empire was stained with the blood of infants, till such mur- 
ders were included, by Valentinian and his colleagues, in the letter and 
spirit of the Cornelian law. The lessons of jurisprudence and Christianity 
had been inefiBcient to eradicate this inhuman practice, till their gentle 
influence was fortified by the terrors of capital punishment." See ray 
Church Hist. ii. 360 ; iii. 114. For χενντ/Βεντα in the MS. Br. sub- 
stitutes γεννη^έν {conceived, begotten, corap. Matt. i. 20). He quotes a 
parallel passage from the apocryphal book of Wisdom xii. 5 "the unmerci- 
ful murderers of their children" {τέκνων φονε'αζ ανελεημυναί). φΒορά 
in the sense of abortion occurs in Barnabas, Clement of Alex., and Ap. Const. 



pa, ουδέ γεννηθέντα* αποη- 
τενεΐς. Ουκ επιθυμήσει? τα 
τού πλησίον. 

3. Ου}ί επιορπήσειζ, ου ψευ- 
δομαρτυρησεις, ον κακολογή- 
σειζ, ου μνησίκακη σειζ. 

4. Ουκ ε'σ>] διγνωμων ουδέ 
δίγλωσσο; • παγιζ yap θα- 
νάτου η διγλωσσία. 

5. Ουκ εσται 6 λόγο? σου 

steal.'' Thou slialt not use 
witchcraft ; thou shalt not 
practice sorcery. Thou shalt 
not procure abortion, nor 
shalt thou kill the new-born 
child. Thou shalt not covet 
thy neighbor's goods.'' 

3. Thou shalt not forswear 
thyself. "^ Thou shalt not 
bear false witness.'^ Thou 
shalt not speak evil ; thou 
shalt not bear malice. 

4. Thou shalt not be 
double-minded nor double- 
tongued ; for duplicity of 
tongue is a snare of death. 

5. Thy speech shall not be 

° Ex. XX. 15. 
■^ Matt. V. 33. 

"Ex. XX. 17. 
" Ex. XX. 16. 

■γεννη^ίν, Β. Hi. Ha. W. H. & B. Sp. 

3. ov χακολογήΰειζ, χ. τ. λ.] Fa,: thou shalt not speak evil, nor cher- 
ish a grudge. H. and B. : ''Thou shalt not revile, thou shalt not he revengeful." 
κακολογέω occurs repeatedly in the Sept, and the N. T. ; Ηνηόιχακέοΰ, to 
remember past injuries, is classic and used in the Sept. for different He- 
brew words (see Troinmius), but not in the N. T. Br. andSp. quote a parallel 
from the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Zabulon, 8) : " My children, 
be ye devoid of malice {άμνηόίκακοι) and love one another, and do not each 
of you be careful to mark your brother's badness {xauiav), for this breaks 
up unity and scatters to the winds all idea of kinship, and harasses the soul, 
for the malicious man (μνηΰίκακοζ) has no bowels of compassion." Sp. 
remarks: "The special features which distinguished the sect of the Xaza- 
renes, gentleness, benevolence, kindness, characterize both these early Chris- 
tian writings " (the Old. and the Testaments of the 12 Patr.). 

4. ovH td^ διχν.] δίχνα:μων{δίχνω/ιοζ)&ηάδίχλω6όοζ{δίχλωττοζ) 
are classic, the latter in the primary linguistic sense {bilingual; hence 
δι'^λωΰδοζ as a noun, an interpreter). The former is not biblical, but 
δίχλοοόΰυζ in the moral sense {deceitful, speaking one thing and meaning 
another) occurs in the Sept., Prov. xi. 13 ; Sirach v. 9, 14 ; χχΛ -iii. 13, and 
δίλυχοζ (double-tongued) in 1 Tim. iii. 8. 

διχλωόΰία.] Not found in the dictionaries, classical or biblical, but 
easily coined from the ad.iective. Barn, uses it ch. xix. 7. 

5. μεμεότωμένυζ πράςει.] Fa. : filed vnth fact. St. : filled with deed. 



ipsvSifi, ού ηενοζ, αλλά μεμεσ- 
τωμενοζ πραζει. 

6. Ονκ ε'σ7] ττλεονεκτηζ ονδε 
αρπαξ ούδε νποκριτηζ ονδε 
κακοη^ηζ ονδε νπερηφανοζ. 
Ον λήή•\} βο^Λην πονηράν κα- 
τά τον ττληα'ιον Gov. 

7. Ον μιαήύειζ τΐαντα αν- 
^ρωτΐον, αλλά ονζ μεν ελέγ- 
ξεις, ττερι δε ών προσενξΐ}, 
ονζ δε άγαπησειζ ύπερ την 
χρνχην σον. 

Κεφ. γ . 
1. Τεκνον μον, φεύγε απο 

false, nor Tain, but fulfilled 
by deed. 

G. Thou shalt not be cov- 
etous, nor rapacious, nor a 
hypocrite, nor malignant, 
nor haughty. Thou shalt 
not take evil counsel against 
thy neighbor. 

7. Thou shalt not hate 
any one, but some thou shalt 
rebuke'' and for some thou 
shalt pray, and some thou 
shalt love above thine own 
soul (or, life). 

Chap. III. 

Waenino against Lighter Sins. 

1. My child, flee from every 

Lev. xix 17. 

R. : filled hy deed. Ha.: erfWt mit That. Comp. Acts, ii. IS {χλενκονζ 
^ιεμεΰτωαένοι); Rom. xv. 14 {ιιεό^υί άγα3ω6ννηζ) ; Jas. iii. 17 {ΰοφία 
μεότή ίλέονζ). For the sentiment comp. Matt, xxiii. 3 ; 1 John, iii. 18 ; 
Jas. i. 23. 

6. αρπαξ.] R. : an extortioner. In Matt. vii. 15 the false Prophets are 
called λύκοι ίχρτίαχεζ. In 1 Cor. v. 10, 11 πλεονέκτηΖ — αρπαξ. Br. 
compares also Clemens Rom. 1 Cor, xxxv. 

νπερτ}φαΐΌζ] Pa.: overiceeuing. Sp. : proud. It occurs Luke i. 51; 
Rom. i. 30 ; 2 Tim. iii. 2 ; Jas. iv. 6 ; 1 Pet. v. ο ; and the noun, ύπερη- 
φανία in Mark vii. 22. 

ov λήτρ-ζ}, κ. r. Λ.] The same warning in Barn. xix. 3. 

7. ov ηιόήΰειζ πάντα.] A common Hebraism tor ονδείζ. no one. An 
indication of the Hebrew origin of the writer. Barn. xix. 11 changed this 
sentence into είζ τέλοζ μιΰήόειζ τον πονηρΰν (Satan, the evil one, is 
meant ; otherwise it would be unchristian). Comp. Jude 23 : " On some 
have mercy who are in doubt (or, while they dispute with you) : and some 
save, snatching them out of the fire ; and on some haA-e mercy with fear." 

υπέρ τι/ν φνχήΐ' όον]. Ή. and Β., Ο.: above thy life. Η. and Ν. : more 
tJian thij own life. Not : for thy soul's good. Barn. xix. 5 : αχαπήόειζ 
τον πληόίον 6ου υπέρ την ψνχην όον. For the idea comp. Phil. ii. 30 
("hazarding his life" for others) ; Rev. xii. 11 ("they loved not their life 
even unto death"). 

Notes on Chapter III. 

Ch. III. contains as it were a second Decalogue against more refined sins 


παντοζ τΐονηροΰ και ano παν- eyil, and from every thing 

το•, ομοίου αυτοΰ. that is like unto it.* 

2. Μη γίνου οργϊλοζ'* οδΐ]- 2. Be not prone to anger, 
γεΐ yap η οργή πρόζ τον φό- for anger leadeth to murder; 
vov • μ7]δΙ 8,ηλωτι)ζ μηδέ ερισ- nor given to party spirit, nor 
TiHOb μηδέ θυμικοί ' εκ γαρ contentious, nor quick-tem- 
τοΰτων απάντων φόνοι γεν- pered (or, passionate) ; for 
νώνται. from all these things mur- 
ders are generated. 

3. Τεκνον μου, μη γίνου 3. My child, be not lust- 

* όργιλυζ, Br. ^Comp. 1 Thess. v. 22. 

and passions of the heart which lead to the grosser sins of deed, as anger to 
murder, lust to adultery, superstition to idolatry, lying to theft. Herein is 
seen the superiority of the gospel ethics over the law. For the idea com- 
pare Matt. V. 28 ; 2 Pet. ii. 14 ; Jas. i.l4, 15. 

1. The affectionate address, " my child," occurs ίΪΛ'β times in this ch.. and 
again once in ch. iv., and " children " in eh. v. Used in the same spiritual 
sense in the Proverbs (i. 8, 15 ; ii. 1, etc.), in Sirach (ii. 1 ; iii. 1, 14 ; iv. 1, 
23, etc.), and in the N. T. (Gal. iv. 19 ; 1 John, ii. 1, 12 ; iii. 7, etc.). See the 
note of Br. 

από τταντόζ όμοιου avruv.] Br. and others naturally refer to 1 Thess. 
V. 22, ίίττό παντοζ εί'δονζ 7Τον?/ροΰ άτιέχεδΒε, " abstaiii from ev&ry form 
(or, appearance) of evil." It is probably a reminiscence. 

2. given to party spirit.] Fa.: a Jiot partisan. H. and Br., Π. and X., St., 
0. : jealous. Sp : a fanatic, ζι^λωτήζ, zealous, in the good sense, 1 Cor. xiv. 
12. ζ7]λωΓαι τον νόμου, zealots in behalf of the Jewish law and institu- 
tions. Acts, xxi. 20 ; xxii. 3 The party of the Zealots, called Ζ})λωταί, arose 
during the bloody Jewish war, and under the pretext of zeal for the law com- 
mitted the greatest crimes. Josephus often mentions them in Bell. Jiul. 
Spence thinks that the Did. warns against sympathizing with these brave 
but mistaken patriots ; but this would put the composition before a.d. 70. 

εριότικόζ and Βνμικόζ are classical, but not biblical. 

3. αιόχρολόχυζ.] Η. and Β., andF. : foid-mouthed; Sp. : a coarse talker ; 
0.: of f Old speech ; G. : filthy speaker. Br. quotes Col. iii. 8 (αΐόχρολογία, 
shameful speaking), and Eph. v. 4 {αίόχρύτηζ, filthiness). The adjective 
occurs neither in the N. T. nor in the Sept., but in ecclesiastical Greek. 

νφΐ^λόφΒαλιιος'] literallY lofty-eyed ; Fa,: a man of high looks ; Or.: one 
wlio casts lewd eyes ; F. : supercilious; H. andN. : of lofty eye; O.: of leer- 
ing eyes ; St.• a greedy gazer ; R. : a lifter up of the eyes {to sin); Sp.: one 
who makes signs with the eyes. The word is not hapaxlegomenon, as Ha. says, 
but occurs once more in the Eccles Canons (9), where Simon says : ur/ 
γίνου αίΰχρηλόγοζ, μηδέ ν-ψηλ ό φ "^ a λ μ οζ . The Αρ. Const, vii. 6 
substitute ΐον it ριφόφ^αλμοζ, casting the eyes ahout, casting leicd glances, 



έττιΒνμΐ^Τί/ζ • 6δΐ]γει γαρ η 
επιΒΐ)μία π ροζ την πορνείαν 
μΐ/δέ αίσχρολογοί μηδέ νψη- 
λοφΒαλμοζ • εκ γαρ τούτων 
απάντων μοιχειαι γεννώνται. 
4. Τέκνον μον, μ?) γίνου 
οίωνοσκοποζ ' επειδή όδ?/γεΐ 
εϊί τ?) ν εϊδωλολατρίαν'* μι/δε 
επαοιδοζ μ?^δε μαΒ?/ματικόζ 
μηδέ περικα^αίρων^ μηδέ ίιέλε 
αυτά βλέπειν • εκ γαρ τού- 
των απάντων ειδωλολατρία^ 
γεννάται . 

δ. Τεκνον μου, μ?) γίνου 
ψευστηζ ' επειδή οδηγεί το 
ψεύσμα είζ τήν κλοπ7]ν • μτγδέ 

ful, for lust leadetli to forni- 
cation ; neither be a filthy 
talker, nor an eager gazer, for 
from all these are generated 

4. My child, be not an 
observer of birds [for divi- 
nation] for it leads to idol- 
atry ; nor a charmer (en- 
chanter), nor an astrologer, 
nor a purifier (a user of puri- 
fications or expiations), nor 
be thou willing to look on 
those things ; for from all 
these is generated idolatry. 

5. My child, be not a liar, 
for lying leads to theft ; nor 
avaricious, nor vainglorious, 

* είδωλολατρε/αν, Br. Hi. W. Sp. f είδωλολατρεια, Β. Hi. W. Sp. 

leering, Comp. 2 Pet. ii. 14 : "having eyes full of adultery." Br. quotes 
also two parallel passages from the Testaments of the Tweh-e Patriarchs. 
Potwin : " Perhaps the exhortation has women chiefly in mind, and con- 
demns the opposite of modest, downcast looks." Sirach χχλΊ. 9 (12) . 
■πορνεία γνναυίϋζ εν μετεωριΰμυϊζ υφΒαλμών και ίν τυϊζ βλεψά- 
ροιζ αντηζ γνωό^ήΰεται. 

4. οιωνοόκότίοζ.'] = οίωηότήζ (from οΐωνύζ, α large bird), an augur 
who foretells from the flight and cries of birds {Vogelschauer). H. and 
B., and Sp. : an omen-icatclicr ; Π. and N. : an observer of omens; Fa.: « 
forecaster; St.: a dra^ccr of auguries ; O. : an augur. Classical, but not in 
N. T. The verb appears in the Sept. Lev. xix. 26 {in) υίωνιεΙόΒε), comp. 
Deut. xviii. 10 (ο/ωνιζόμενοζ). Sorcery and enchantments were very com- 
mon among Jews and Gentiles. 

μα^ηματικόζ.'] Used as adjective and noun, a m'xthematician, an astron- 
omer ; in later writers of the second century, an astrologer. So also the 
Latin mathematicus. See quotations in Liddell and Scott, from Sextus Em- 
piricus, Juvenal, Tacitus. 

περΊκα^αίρων.'] Used Deut. xviii. 10, embraces here all kinds of heathen 
sacrifices and lustrations for averting disease. The Apost. Const, vii. 32, 
add to this list other strange terms. See the note of Br. 

5. μ?) χίνην φεύΰΓ?^ζ, κ. τ. λ.] This is the passage quoted by Clement 
of Alex, as "Scripture." See ch. XXVI. p. 115. 

φιλάργ. u. r. λ.] Fa. and Sp. : a lover of money, nor vainglorious. 



φιλάργνροζ μ?]δ^ κενοδοξοζ • 
hi γαρ τοντων απάντων κλο- 
ηαι γεννώνται. 

6. Τέκνον μου, μη γίνου 
γογγυσοζ • έπειδι) οδηγεί είζ 
τ;;κ βλαΰφημίαν ' μηδέ αυ- 
^αδηζ μηδέ πονηροφρων ' εκ 
γαρ τούτων απάντων β\α6- 
φημίαι γεννώνται. 

7. "Ισ^ι δε πραΰζ, ε'πει οι 
πραεϊζ ηΧηρονομη6ου<5ΐ την 
γη ν, 

8. Γίνου μακροΒ^υμοζ και 
ελεήμων και ακακοζ και ησυ- 
χιοζ κα\ αγα^οζ και τρέμων 
τούζ λόγουζ δια παντοζ, ουζ 

9. Ουχ νφωσειζ σεαυτόν 
ονδε δώσεις Trj ψυχί} σου S-pa- 
(Τοζ . Ου 7ίθλλη^η(ΐεται ή φυ- 
χη ΟΌυ μετά υψηλών, αλλά 
μετά δικαίων ιιαϊ ταπεινών 

10. Τά συμβαίνοντα βοι 

for from all these things are 
generated thefts. 

6. My child, be not a mur- 
murer, for it leads to blas- 
phemy ; neither self-willed 
(presumptuous), nor e'sil- 
minded, for from all these 
things are generated blasphe- 

7. But be thou meek, for 
the meek shall inherit the 

8. Be thou long-suffering, 
and merciful, and harmless, 
and quiet, and good, and 
trembling continually at the 
Avord swhich tliou hast heard." 

9. Thou shalt not exalt 
thyself, nor shalt thou give 
audacity (presumption) to thy 
soul. Thy soul shall not be 
joined to the lofty, but with 
the just and lowly shalt thou 

10. The events that befall 

•■' Matt. V. 5. 

'^ Comp. Isa. Ixvi. 2, 5. 

' Comp. Rom. xii. 16. 

6. γόγγνΰυζ^ Post-classical, but in Apost. Const, vii. 7. Br. quotes 
Jude ver. 16, "these are murmurers" {γοχγνόταί) ; Phil. ii. 14, "do all 
things without murmurings" (χωρϊξ χογχνβμων). 

αύ^άδηζ.] Occurs in Titus i. 7; and 2 Pet ii. 10: τολιιηταί, αν^άδειζ, 
δόξαζ ov τρέμονβιν, βλαόφηι,ιονντεζ. 

7. τΐρανζ, Η. Γ. Λ.] Almost literally from Matt. v. 5. Br. quotes also 
Col. iii. 12 {βνδνβαΰ^ε—τΐραύτητα) ; Eph. iv. 32 ; 1 Thess. v. 14, 15 ; Her- 
mas, Ma7id. v. 

8. τ pi μ ω v.'\ Isa. Ixvi. 2 (Sept.), τρέμηΐ'τα τυνζ λόχονζ μον. 

9. ^ράόοζ'] presumption , overboldncss. Classical and in the Sept. The 
N. T. has Βάρόο?, courage, once, in Acts xxviii. 15. Aristotle {Nicomach. 
Ethics, Bk. iii. ch. 7) distinguishes between the coward (δειλοί), the rash 
man [^pciovs), and the brave man (ανδρείος) ; the last holds the mean be- 
tween the two extremes and is neither desponding nor precipitate, but tran- 
quil before action, and full of spirit in action. 

10. τα ΰνμβαίν.,κ. τ. A.J Comp. Heb. xii. 7-11 . Sirachii. 4: "What- 


Ενεργήματα ώζ aya^d προσ- thee thou shalt accept as good, 
δέξ{}, εΐδώζ οτι ατερ Θεού knowing that nothing hap- 
ουδεν γίνεται. pens without God. 

Κεφ. δ'. Chap. IV. 

Sundry Warnings and Exhortations. 

1. Τεκνον μου, τον λαλοϋν- 1. My child, thou shalt re- 
τόζ σοι τον λόγον τον Θεού member night and day him 
μνη^ηστ} νν^τόζ Jiai ήμέραζ, that speaks to thee the word 
τιμησειζ δε αυτόν ωζ Κνριον • of God," and thou shalt honor 
Ό^εν γαρ rj κνρίότ?]ζ λαλείται, him as the Lord, for where 
έηεΐ Κνριόζ ε'στιν. the Lordship is sjwken of, 

there is the Lord. 

2. ^ΕηΖητηβειζ δε xaS^ ημε- 2. And thou shalt seek out 

'Comp. Heb. xiii. 7, 

ever is brought upon thee take cheerfully." Clement of Ales, describes the 
Christian Gnostic (philosopher) as a man "who takes everything for good, 
though it may seem evil, and who is not disturbed by anything that hap- 
pens " {Strom, vii. 13, 13). Quoted by Br. 

arep] without, apart from. A poetic word used by Homer and Pindar 
(arF.p Ζηνόζ, tcithout Zeus, i. e., without Ms will) ; also occurring twice in 
the Κ Τ. (Luke xxii. 6, 35), and in 2 Mace. xii. 15. 

Notes to Chapter ΙΛ^. 

This chapter enjoins duties on Christians as members of the Church. 

1. Ί7ιοη sJiali remember .] Comp. Heb. xiii. 7: " Remember them that had 
the rule over you; who spake unto you the word of God." The rulers are all 
the church oiiicei"s. Apostles, Prophets, Teachers, Bishops and Deacons 
(comp. XI. 3, 4; XV. 2). 

Honor him as tJic Lord.] Comp. XI. 2; Matt. x. 40-42; Gal. iv. 14: "Ye 
received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus." 

κνριοη/ζ'] variously rendered, Lordship (R,, St., Ha.: Ilerrschaft); the 
glory of the Lord (G., Sp., W.); that which pertaineth to the Lord (H. and 
B.); lordly ride (H. and N.); sovereignty of the Lord (0.). The word is not 
classical, but occurs, without the article, four times in the N. T. (Eph. i. 21 ; 
Col. i. 16; Jude 8; 2 Pet. ii. 10), and is always rendered dominion in the 
R. V. The Ap. Const, vii. 9 gives an explanatory substitute: "Where is 
the teaching concerning God (r) περί Βεαιί διδαόιαχλ/ίχ), there God is pres- 
ent." It refers to Christ, his person, word and work, as "the Lord of 
glory," Jas. ii. 1, and gives a hint of the Christology which underlies the Lid. 

2. Thou i^halt seek out, etc.] A strong sense of the communion of saints 
pervades this treatise. "Saints" is used in the N. T. sense for all believers. 
So also X. 6, " if any one be holy." 

Rest upon tlicir icords.] H. and B. : refreshed hy. So also Ha. : dass dv 


par τα πρόσωπα tg5f άγιων, day by day the faces of the 
ίνα έπαναπαήζ* τοΊζ λόγοιζ saints, that thou mayest rest 
αυτών. upon their words. 

3. Ov πo^ησειζ\ σχίσμα, 3. Thou shalt not desire 
ειρηνενσειζ Se μαχομενονζ • (make) division, but shalt 
ηρινείς δικατ'ωζ, ου λήψι^ προ- make peace between those 
σωπον έλεγΒ,αι έπι παραπτώ- at strife. Thou shalt judge 
μασιν. Justly ; thou shalt not re- 
spect a person (or, show par- 
tiality) in rebuking for trans- 

4. Ov διψνχησειζ, πότερον 4. Thoushaltnot be double- 
ε'σται η ου. minded (doubtfulin thy mind) 

whether it shall be or not.^ 

^Comp. Sir. i. 28 ; James i. 8 ; iv. 8. 
'^ kit avail avTQ, Br. Sp. Sa.; ίτΐαναπα-ηζ, Ha, Hi. 

f ποιήΰειζ, Ha. Hi. The reading of the Jems. MS. is retained by W. R. 
Sp. Sa. 

durch ihre Gesprdche (?) erquickt tverdest. Br. reads έττανατΓανι;^, Hi. and 
Ha. έπαναπα^ζ, to conform to the corresponding passage in Ap. Const. 
vii. 9. αναπαύω, to give rest, to refresh, occurs 12 times in the N. T. ; 
ίτΐαντΐανομαι, to rest upon, only twice, Luke x. 6; Rom. ii. 17. 

3. ov π:ο3?}6ειζ όχϊΰμα.] So the MS. Hi., Ha., and Z. adopt ηυιήόειζ, 
which is easier and sustained by the parallel passages in Barnabas (six.) 
and Ap. Const, vii. 10. τΐο3έω is classical and Hellenistic, but does not 
occur in the N. T., which has ετΐίπο^έω 9 times, and ίπιτΐό^ηόιζ twice, 
έΛίτΐόΒητοζ once, ana έτητίο^ια once, όχίόμα is used here in the same 
sense as 1 Cor. i. 10 and si. 18, of parties or factions within the church. 

είρι/ι^ενω.] Here transitive, to makepeace, as also in Clemens Rom., and 
in 1 Mace. λ'ϊ. 60. In the N. T. it is intransitive, to have peace, or to be at 
peace (in 4 places). 

4. SnJ}vxj}oF.ii] be of two minds (F., Fa., R.); waver in soul (St.); hesitate 
(H. and B., Sp.); be undecided (Ά. and N.); doubt m thy heart (G.). The 
verb occurs in Clement of Rome, Barnabas, Hernias, and Cyril of Alex. ; 
the adj. δίφνχοζ in Philo and James. The warning refers not to the 
Divine judgment (Ha. : Ziceifle nicht, oh Gottes Gericht kommen wird 
Oder nichf), but to doubtfulness in prayer. Br. compares Siraeh i. 28: μ?} 
ττροόέλΒ-ζΐζ, αντω (τφ 5εω) εν καρβία δι66^, and James i. 8: άν?}ρ 
δίφνχοζ άκατάΰτατοζ εν τΐάόαιζ ναϊζ υδοΐζ avrov. Comp. also Jas. 
iv. 8; Matt. xxi. 22; 1 John v. 14, 15. Ap. Const, vii. 11 correctly under- 
stand it: ov διφνχήΰειζ tv προόενχρ dov. Br. quotes also Hermas, who 
says {3Iand. ix. on Prayer) : "Remove doubt from thyself, and doubt not to 
ask anything from God. Neither say within thyself, How can I ask and re- 


5. Μη γίνου π ροζ μβν το 5. Be not one that stretches 
λαβείν εΊίτείνων ταζ χείραζ, out his hands for receiving, 
ττροζ δε το δούναι σνστΐών. but draws them in for giv- 

6. ^Edv ε'χ)]ζ, δια τών χει- G. If thou hast [anything], 
ρών σον δώσεις λντρωσιν thou shalt give with thy 
αμαρτιών σον. hands a ransom for thy sins.'' 

7. Ov διστάσεις δούναι ov- 7. Thou shalt not hesitate 

"Ecclus. iv. yl. "Comp. Dan. iv. 27; Tobit iv. 10, 11. 

eeive from the Lord, seeing that I have coiiimitted so many sius against 
Him? Reason not thus with thyself, but turn unto the Lord with thy whole 
heart and ask from Him, nothing doubting, and thou shalt know his great 
compassion, that He Λνϋΐ not abandon thee, but will fulfil the request of thy 
soul. For He is not as men who bear malice, but He himself is without 
malice, and has compassion on his work." 

5. A graphic description of generous liberality, a quotation from Sirach iv. 
31 : Mr) ίότω ή χειρ όον ίκτεταμένη είζ το λαβείν και εν τω άπυδι- 
δοναι όννεόταλμένη. For βνόηών {όυΰηάω, to draio together, to con- 
tract, in Plato, Aristotle, Lucian, etc., but not in Sept. nor in N. T.) the 
Ap. Const, vii. 11 substitute 6ν6τέλλων, in partial conformity to Sirach. 
Active charity and self-denying generosity is made a very prominent virtue 
in the Did., as it was among the primitive Christians notwithstanding their 
genera] poverty. Different renderings: Fa. and Sp. : one who stretches out 
his hands to receive and clenches them tight for giving. H. and N. : a 
stretcher forth . . . to receive, and a drawer back to give. R. : one that 
stretcheth out, but shutteth them close. F. : one who holds open the hands to 
receive but clinched toward giving. St.: extending . . . contracting. 
Gr. : stretch out, draw bach. 

6. If thou hast, etc.] May be understood of the meritoriousness and aton- 
ing efficacy of almsgiving as an equivalent (λντρυν, ransom). This error 
crept very early into the church, but has, like most errors, an element of 
truth which gives it power and tenacity. Br. quotes several parallel pas- 
sages. Comp. Prov. xvi. 6: " By mercy and truth iniquity is purged;" Dan. 
iv. 37 (in Sept. iv. 24) where Daniel counsels King Nebuchadnezzar: " Break 
off thy sius by righteousness and thine iniquities by showing mercy to the 
poor." Tobit iv. 10: Ιλεημοΰύνη in θάνατον ρϋεται xai ουκ έά είόελ- 
^εΐν είζ τύ ΰκύτηζ. 11: δώρον γάρ dyaSov ίόην ελεημοόύνη ττάόι 
τοίζ Ttotovoiv αυτήν ενώπιον τον ι'φϊβτον. Testaments of the Twelve 
Patriarchs (Zabulon, 8): "In proportion as a man is pitiful towards his 
neighbor will the Lord be pitiful towards him" {odov χα ρ dv ανΒρωποζ 
όπλαχ χν ιζεται είζ τον nXijoiov, τοόυντον Κνριοζ είζ αυτόν). 

7. Nor in giving shalt thou murmur.'] Comp. 2 Cor. ix. 7: " God loveth a 
cheerful giver." 1 Pet. iv. 9: "Use hospitality one to another without 


dt διδούζ γογγύσειζ- γνώσ};ι to give, nor in giving shalt 

γάβ τίς εστίν η* τον μισθού thou murmur, for thou shalt 

κάλος άντατΐοδότΐμ. know who is the good recom- 

penser of the reward. 

8. OvH αποστρας)ήσνι τόν_ 8. Thou shalt not turn 
ενδεόμενον, σνχκοινωνησειζ away him that needeth, but 
δε ηάντα τω άδελψώ σου και shalt share all things with thy 
Of κ ερεΐς ίδια είναι- ει γαρ εν brother, and shalt not say 
τώ αΒανάτω κοινωνοί έστε, that they are thine own;* 
ποσώ μάλλον εν τοΐζ BvipoH^ for if you are fellow-sharers 

in that which is imperisha- 
ble (immortal), how much 
more in perishable (mortal) 
things ? " 

9. Ουκ αρεΐζ τι}ν χεΐρά σου 9. Thou shalt not take 

" Acts, iv. 32. " Comp. Rom. xv. 27. 

* 6, Br. et al. 

murmuring." Fa. deems it probable that the Didachographer had read the 
first Ep. of Peter. 

8. Thou shalt not turn away, etc.] This points to the community of goods, 
which was introduced at Jerusalem in the pentecostal fervor of brotherly 
love, but passed away with the growth and changed circumstances of the 
church ; at least we find it in no other congregation. The Agape remained 
for a while as a reminder of that state. The Acts in describing it uses in 
part the same words (i v. 32): "And the multitude of them that believed 
were of one heart and soul : and not one of them said that aught of the 
things which he possessed was his own {ϊδιον είναι), but they had all things 

If you are felloiD-sharers] Or, partakers, partners, joint participart?. In 
Rom. XV, 27 the Gentiles are represented ais debtors to the Jews for the 
spiritual gifts received from them. The idea is the same, but Ttvevjuanua 
and ΰαρκίκά are used for ά^άνατυν and ^νητά. For ά^άνατοζ, which 
is classical and Hellenistic, the N. T. uses αψ^αρτοζ (in 7 places, e. g., 
1 Pet. iii. 4 ; 1 Tim. i. 17). It has also the substantives αφ3αρΰία 
(8 times), and α^αναΰία (3 times). 

9. From their youth up, etc.] Christian family nurture enjoined, Eph. vi. 
4: " Nurture your children in the chastening and admonition of the Lord." 
It is said of Timothy that from childhood {από ββέφονζ, from a haht) he 
knew the sacred writings, 1 Tim. iii. 15. Clement of Rome (Ep. to the Cor. 
xxi.): " Let your children be sharers in true Christian training." Hernias 
{Vis. 1.3): " Fail not to rebuke thy children, for I know that if they shall 
repent with all their heart, they shall be written in the book of life, together 



ano τον viov gov ή απο τηζ 
^νχατροζ ffov, αλλά απο νε- 
ότΐ]τοί διδαξειί τον φόβον 
τον Θεού. 

10. OvH έπιτάξειζ δονλω 
σον η παιδίσ^ιη, τοΐζ έηι τον 
αντον θεον ελπίζονσιν, εν 
ππιρία σον, μήποτε ον μη φο- 
βη^ησονται τον fV αμψο- 
τέροιζ Θεόν ον yap έρχεται 
κατά πρόσωπον καλέσαι, 
αλλ' scfi ονζ το πνεύμα ήτοί- 

11. Τμειζ δε δονλοτ* ύπο- 
ταχήσεσΒε τοΐζ κνρίοιζ ι}μών\ 

away thy hand from thy son or 
from thy daughter, but from 
[their] youth up thou shalt 
teach [them] the fear of God. 

10. Thou shalt not in thy 
bitterness lay commands on 
thy man-servant (bondman), 
or thy maid-servant (bond- 
Avoman), who hope in the 
same God, lest they should 
not fear Him Avho is God over 
[you] both ; ■' for He comes 
not to call [men] according 
to the outward appearance 
(condition), but [he comes] 
on those whom the Spirit has 

11. But ye, bondmen, shall 
be subject to our (your) mas- 

» Comp. Eph. vi. 9 (Col. iv. 1). 
* oi δονλοΐ, Br. Ha. Hi. Sa. f vu(3v, Br. &c. 

with the saints." (Quoted by Br.) The .Jews and Christians were far ahead 
of the cultivated heathen in religious knowledge and intelligence. 

10, 11. The same view of slavery as that taken Eph. vi. 5-9; Tit. ii. 9; 
the Ep. to Philemon, and 1 Pet. ii. 18. It is not forbidden by the Apostles, 
but regulated, moderated, and put in the way of ultimate abolition by the 
working of the Christian spirit of love and brotherhood infused into the mas- 
ter and slave. Br. quotes Ignatius J.d Polyc. iv. (in Funk's ed. i. 248): " Do 
not despise either male or female slaves, yet neither let them be puffed up, 
but rather let them submit themselves the more for the glory of God that 
they may win a better liberty from God. Let them not desire to be set free 
at public cost [at the expense of the church], lest they be found slaves to 
their own lusts." This is, however, not to be understood as prohibiting 
emancipation at private expense, which was at all times encouraged by the 
church and regarded as a meritorious deed. Sec Church History, I. 444 
sqq. ; II. 347 sqq. 

10. Whom the Spirit has prepared.'] A clear allusion to the work of the 
Spirit in the human heart. Comp. Rom. viii. 29, 30. The only other place 
where the Holy Spirit is mentioned is in the baptismal formula, ch. VII. 

11. Br. corrects ημών of the MS. to iJyUiaj', which is accepted by most 



cu? τνπω Θεού ev αίσχυνί] }ίαϊ 

12. Μισησειζ πάσαν vnc- 
κρισιν 7ΐαϊ πάν ο μη αρεστον 
τώ Κιψίορ. 

13. Ον μη εγκαταλίπι^ς εν- 
τολάζ Κυρίου, φυλάξεις δε ά 
παρέλαβες, μήτε προστι^εϊζ 

ι 1 

μήτε αφαιρων. 

14. ^Εν έκκληαία έζομολο- 
γήο)) τα παραπτώματα αου, 
παϊ ον προΰελευίΐτ} έπι προ- 
σευχην σον εν σννειδησει πο- 

Αντη έστϊν ή οδός τήζζωής. 
Κεφ. ε . 

1. Η δε του Βανατον όδοζ 
εστίν αντη• πρώτον πάντων 

ters as to the image of God 
in reverence (modesty) and 

12. Thou shalt hate all hy- 
pocrisy, and everything that 
is not pleasing to the" Lord. 

13. Thou shalt not forsake 
the commandments of the 
Lord, but thou shalt keep 
what thou hast received, nei- 
ther adding [thereto] nor 
taking away [therefrom].'' 

14. In the congregation (in 
church) thou shalt confess 
thy transgressions,'' and thou 
shalt not come to thy prayer 
(or, place of prayer) with an 
evil conscience. 

This is the way of life. 

Chap. V. 

The Wat of Death. 

1. But the way of death is 

* Comp. Eph. vi. 5 (Col. iii. 22). " Deut. xii. 32. <^ Corap. James v. 16. 

13. Neither adding nor taking aicay.} Deut. iv. 2: "Ye shall not add 
unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish aught from 
it." Comp. Deut. xii. 32; Prov. xxx. 6; Rev. xxii. 18, 19. 

14. In the congregation thou shalt confcfis.'] The earliest mention of public 
confession of sins, after that in Jas. v. 16: "Confess your sins one to 
another." In ch. XIV. 1, confession is required before partaking of the 

επι προϋευχήν.'] May be prayer, or the hoxise of prayer (Acts xvi. 13). 
όυνείδηΰιζ πονηρά is probably a reminiscence of Heb. x. 22. 

Notes to Chapter V. 

Chapter V. describes the Way of Death by a catalogue of sins, which faith- 
fully reflects the horrible immorality of heathenism in the Roman empire, 
and is coniirmed by Seneca, Tacitus, and other serious classics. Comp. the 
summaries in Rom. i. 18-32, and Apoc. xxii. 15. The chapter agrees almost 
verbatim with the 20th chapter of Barnabas, and has a parallel in Hernias, 
Mand. viii. Eight words in it are not found in the N. T. 

1. άλα^ην εία. or άλα^ονία occurs in Jas. iv. 16, vauntings (R. V.), and 



πονηρά iff τι ηαϊ ΐίαταραζ μεσ- 
τή' qjovoi, μοιχεΐαι, ί'πιΒν- 
μίαί, πορνεΐαι, κλοπαί, είδω- 
λολίντρίαι*, μαγείαι, φαρμα- 
jtiai \ άρπαγαί, τρενδομαρτν- 
ρίίχι, ιχηοαρίσειζ, διπλοκαρ- 
δία, δόλοζ, νπερ7]φανία, 
κακία, αν^άδεια, πλεονεξία, 
αισχρολογία, ξι^λοτνπία, ^ρα- 
σύτηζ, νψοζ, αλαζονεία. 

2. Αιώκται αχαΒών, μι- 
σονντεί αλ/^Βειαν, αχαπώντε; 
ψεύδοζ, ου γινοοσκοντεζ μισ- 
3όν δικαιοσύνη^, ου κολλώ- 
μενοι αχαΒώ ουδέ κρίσει δι- 
καία, αγρυπνονντεζ ουκ είζ 
το αγαΒόν, αλν είζ το πονη- 
ρόν ών μαρκάν πραντηζ ηα\ 
υπομονή^ μάταια αγαπωντεζ, 
διωκοντες ανταπόδομα, ουκ 
ελεοϋντεζ πτωχόν, ου πονούν- 
τες επι καταπονονμεί^ω, ου 
γινώσκοντεζ τον ποιησαντα 
αύτοΰζ, φονεΐζ τέκνων, φΒο- 
ρεΐζ πλάσματοζ θεού, απο- 

* είδοολολατρειαι, Br. Hi. W. Η. & Β. 
\ φαρπακεΊαι, Br. Hi. W. Η. & Β. 

First of all it is evil and 
full of curse ; murders, adul- 
teries, lusts, fornications, 
thefts, idolatries, witchcrafts, 
sorceries, robberies, false-wit- 
uessings, hypocrisies, double- 
hearteduess, deceit, pride, 
wickedness, self-will, covet- 
ousness, filthy-talking, jeal- 
ousy, presumption, haughti- 
ness, boastfulness. 

2. Persecutors of the good, 
hating truth, loving a lie," not 
knowing the reward of right- 
eousness, not cleaving to that 
Avhich is good nor to right- 
eous judgment, watchful not 
for that which is good but for 
that which is evil ; far from 
whom is meekness and endu- 
rance, loving vanity, seeking 
after reward, not pitying the 
j)Oor, not toiling with him 
who is vexed with toil, not 
knowing Him that made 
them, murderers of children, 

" Comp. Rev. xxii. 15 

άλαζηνία την βίον, vainglory of life (R. V.), in 1 John ii. 16 ; άλαζών, 
boastful, in Rom. i. 30 ; 3 Tim. iii. 3. 

2. αχαττώντεζ τΙ)ενδοζ.] Perhaps from Rev. xxii. 15: φίλων παΐ τΐοιων 
■φενδοζ, loving and making a lie. 

Ηολλώιιενοι αχαΒω] Probably from Rom. xii. 9: κολλώμενοι τω 
αχα^ω, cleaving to that which is good. . 

πανΒαμάρτητοι~\ Pa. : sinners in all respects ; H. and N. : utter sinners ; 
Sp. : sinners in everything; H. and B.: universal sinners. The word is 
found only in Barnabas (xx.), and in Ap. Const, vii. 18; and navBcxnap- 
τωλοζ in Clemens. 2 Cor. xviii. : "For I myself too, being an utter sinner 
and not yet escaped from temptation, but being still amidst the engines of 
the devil, do my diligence to follow after righteousness" (see Lightfoot, 
Appendix to S. Clement of Rome, pp. 337 and 389). 



στρεφόμενοι τον έχ'δεόμενον^ destroyers of the handiwork 
καταπονούντες τον ^λιβόμε- of God, turning away from 
vov, πλουσίων παραηλητοι, the needy, vexing the af- 
πενητων άνομοι κριταί, παν- flicted, advocates of the rich, 
'^αμάρτητον ρυσ^είητε, τεκ- lawless judges of the poor, 
va, απο τούτων απάντων. wholly sinful. 

May ye, children, be deliv- 
ered from all these. 

Κεφ. ς. Chap. VI. 

Wakning against False Teachers 


1. "Opa μη τι? σε πλανήσΐ] 1. Take heed that no one 
από ταντηζ τήζ οδού τής δι- lead thee astray from this way 
δαχτ}^, επεϊ* παρεητοζ Θεού of teaching, since he teacheth 
σε διδάσκει. thee apart from God. 

2. El μεν yap δννασαι βασ- 2. For if indeed thou art 

* ίπειδή, Hi. 

Notes to Chapter VI. 

1. From this loay of teaching.] Barnabas xviii. 1 ; υδοί δύο ειόΐ 
δ ιδ αχηζ. 

τΐαρεκτόζ 5εον\ R. ; not according to God. τΐιχρεκτόζ is not classical, 
but occurs three times in the N. T. 

3. The whole yoke of the Lord.] Matt. xi. 29: "Take ray yoke {τύν 
ζυχϋν μον) upon you . . . my yoke is easy and my burden is light." In the 
Council of Jerusalem, a.d. 50. Peter said, Acts xv. 10, 11, in oppositiou to 
the strict Jewish party : " "Why tempt ye God, that ye should put a yoke 
(^vyov) upon the neck of the disciples, which neither our fathers nor we 
were able to bear {βαϋτάΰαι)? But we believe that we shall be saA^ed 
through the grace of the Lord Jesus, in like manner as they [the Gentiles]." 
This was the principle of Paul. But a Jewish-Christian reaction took place 
a year or two afterwards at Antioch under the authority of James of Jeru- 
salem, and even Peter and Barnabas were carried away by the over-conser- 
vative current (Gal. ii. 12). Hence the temporary breach between Paul and 
Peter, and the bold remonstrance of the former in the presence of the con- 
gregation, which consisted of Jewish and Gentile converts. It must have 
been a most serious crisis when the two greatest Apostles in the midst of their 
career of usefulness stood face to face against each other, and Paul charged 
Peter with hypocrisy for denying, by his timid conduct in Antioch, the 
doctrine he had proclaimed a year before at Jerusalem. It foreshadowed the 
antagonism between the conservative and progressive, the legalistic and 
evangelical tendencies which run through church history; it was typical 


τάσαι ολοι^ τον ζνγον του able to bear the whole yoke 
Κυρίου, τελειοζ εσψ ει δ^ ου of the Lord thou shalt be 
δυνασαι, ο δύνΐ] τούτο τιοίει. perfect ; but if thou art uot 

able, do what thou canst. 

of the conflict between Catholicism and Protestantism. The \vriter of the 
Didache evidently belonged to the Jewish-Christian party, and in this again 
to James rather than Peter. James stood at the head of the right wing on 
the very border of what was afterwards called the Ebionitic heresy, yet dif- 
fering from it in spirit and aim. Peter occupied a position in the centre 
between James and Paul. By "the whole yoke of the Lord," the Did. 
means, no doubt, the ceremonial law which Peter had pronounced unbear- 
able, but which James and his sympathizers seem to have borne to the end of 
their lives from habit and reverence for their ancestral traditions. But the 
Did. shows here a mild and tolerant spirit. The whole yoke is not 
required, but only as much as one is able to bear. No reflection is cast upon 
those who cannot bear it. 

Ha. has here a long note trying to show that the Didache means by 
the whole yoke the counsels of perfection or the requirements of monastic 
asceticism, especially celibacy. But celibacy is nowhere mentioned in the 
Did. and its over-estimate had no root in the Old Testament where the family 
occupies a much higher place. All the leaders of the theocracy, the jiatri- 
archs, Moses, Aaron, Samuel, David, and several of the Prophets were married 
men. So was St. Peter. The contempt of marriage was of heathen origin 
and connected with the dualistie theory held by all the Gnostic sects. Paul 
denounces it as a doctrine of demons, 1 Tim. iv. 1, 2. 

Thou shalt be 'perfect. 1 Matt, xix. 21 [ει '^έ'λεχΛ τελειοζ είναι). This 
passage was Λ'ery early made the basis of the doctrine of perfection and of a 
distinction between a lower morality for the masses and a higher morality 
for the elect few who renounce property and marriage for the sake of Christ, 
and thus literally follow him. This higher morality acquired a correspond- 
ingly higher merit. It is the foundation of the practice of the orthodox 
Ascetics who abstained from flesh, wine, and marriage for their own good 
without denouncing them, and of the heretical Enkratites ( 'E;'wpa:rf??, 
Έχκρατΐται) who based their abstinence on the essential impurity of the 
things renounced. In the Nicene age the ascetic tendency assumed an 
organized form in the system of monasticism, which swept with irresistible 
moral force over the whole Catholic church. East and West, and found 
enthusiastic advocates among the greatest of the fathers; as Athanasius and 
Chrysostora, Jerome and Augustin. How far the Didachographer favored 
this higher morality does not appear from his book; but from a reference to 
the community of goods, IV. 8, we may infer that he included voluntary 
poverty in his ideal of perfection. James of Jerusalem is described by 
Hegesippus, an orthodox Jewish Christian from the middle of the second 
century, as a saint of the Nazarite and Essenic type. See Church History, 
i. 276 sq. ; ii. 742 sqq. 

If fhoti art not able, etc.] Coinp. Matt. xix. 11: "All men cannot receive 


3. Περί δε τηζ βρώβεωζ, ο 3. And as regards food, 
δϋναααι βαστασον an 6 δε bear what thou canst, bnt 
τον είδωλο^ύτου λίαν πρόσ- against idol-offerings be ex- 

this saying:, but they to whom it is given;" 1 Cor. vii. 7: " Each man hath 
his own gift from God, one after this manner, and another after that." 

3. As regards food.'] The Levitical law concerning clean and unclean 
meats. Peter clung to that distinction till he was taught a more liberal 
view by the revelation at Joppa (Acts x.). The Council of Jerusalem adopted 
a compromise between the Jewish and Hellenic Christians and prohibited 
meat which had been offered to the gods {άπέχεΰ^αι είδωλοΒντων) and 
was contaminated with idolatry (Acts xv. 20,. 29). The synodieal letter was 
written by James and begins with χαίραιν (ver. 23), like his Epistle (1. 1). 
To this decree the Did. refers and puts upon it a strict construction, like 
John, Apoc. ii. 14, 20 (where the eating of idol offerings is associated with 
foi-nication) ; while Paul takes a more liberal view and puts the abstinence 
from such meat on the law of expediency and regard for the conscience of 
weaker brethren, 1 Cor. viii. 4-13; x. 18, 19, 28, 29; comp. Rom. xiv. 20 sq. 
The same prohibition was, however, repeated by writers of the second 
century, e. g. Justin Martyr {Dial. c. Tryph. Jud. c. xxxiv. and xxxv.), and 
by the Council of Gangra (in the second canon), and in the sixty-third of the 
Apost. Canons (see Pulton's Index Can. pp. 101 and 223). The Greek church 
regards the decree of Jerusalem as binding for all time. The Latin church 
followed Paul. 

Dead gods.] Comp. 1 Cor. viii. 4. Br. quotes from the so-called second Ep. 
of Clement to the Cor. c, iii. : ήμεΐζ oi ζώντεζ τοϊζ ν ε κ ρ οΐ ζ ^ εοιζ 
ον ^νομεν καΙ ον ηροόΗννοϋι.ίεν αντοΊζ,&ηά from the Ερ. toDiognetus, 
e. ii., where the idol gods are called κωφά, τυφλά, αφνχα, avaio^jjra, 
ακίνητα (deaf, blind, lifeless, destitute of feeling, incapable of motion.) 

Here closes the catechetical section. It is purely ethical and practical. 
But religious instruction necessarily is also historical and dogmatical. It 
cannot be supposed that this was altogether omitted. How could catechu- 
mens be expected to believe in Christ as their Lord and Saviour without 
some knowledge of his person and work, his life, death and resurrection? 
The Didache imjjlies such additional teaching by its frequent references to 
the Gospel and the commandments of the Lord from which nothing should 
be taken away (IV. 13), and by its allusion to the preparatory work of the 
Holy Spirit in the heart (IV. 10 1. Much was added by the regular teachers 
who preached to the catechumens "the word of God "and the '• Lordship" 
of Christ (IV. 1), and by the saints whose faces they should seek day by day 
(IV. 2). But the moral instraction in the fundamental dtities of the Chris- 
tian was of immediate and primary importance. Very often the preparation 
for Baptism was even much shorter than here, as in the case of the pente- 
costal converts (Acts ii.), of the Eunuch (eh. viii.), of Cornelius (ch. x.l, and 
of the jailer at Philippi (xvi. 31). Instruction is supposed to continue 
after Baptism in the bosom of the Church, Λvhich is a training-school for 


εχε- λατρεία yap εστί Βεών ceedinglv on thy guard, for 
νεκρών. it is a service of dead gods. 

Κεφ. ζ'. Chap. VII. 


1. Περί δε τού βάπτισμα- 1. Now concerning bap- 

τοζ^ ούτω βαπτίσατε- ταύτα tism, baptize thus: Having 

πάντα προειπήντεζ, βαπτί- first taught all these things, 

σατε είζ το όνομα τού Πατρόζ baj^tize ye into the name of 

Notes to Chapter VII. 

In the first six chapters the Catechumen was addressed as "my child." 
Chs. VII.-XVI. are addressed to the church members and congregations. 
Hence the plural, ye (βαπτίΰατε VII. 1 ; corap. νμών, VIII 1; προΰεύ- 
χε65ε, VIII. 3 ; ενχαρίΰτητε, IX. 1 ; Χ. 1 ; vuixi, XI. 1, 4 ; κλάΰατε, 
XIV. 1 ; χειροτονήΰατε, XV. 1, γρηγορείτε, ΧΛ^. 1, etc.). Baptism is 
first treated of because it is the solemn introduction of the convert into the 
privileges and duties of church membership. Comp. on this chapter the 
previous discussions, pp. 29 sqq. 

■περί δέ ] δε and ταΰτα πάντα ττροειτίόντεζ show the connection with 
the preceding catechetical instruction which terminates in Baptism. In 
the case of infant-Baptism, which is not contemplated in the Did., instruc- 
tion follows and looks to confirmation as its aim. 

ταντα ττάντα ττροειπόντεζ] Fa.: having taught all that goest hefore. 
St. and R. : Jutting said {taught) beforehand all these things. H. and N.: 
having first said all these things. Sp. : haviiig fird rehearsed allthese things. 
H. and B. : heiving first uttered. A free rendering would be : e/fter the pre- 
ceding instruction in all these things. It is referred to the first sis chapters, 
except by Bielenstein, who understands by it a baptismal address. 

βαπτίόατε'] Ήο special officer is mentioned ; any Christian, it seems, 
could baptize at that time. Jesus himself never baptized (.lohn iv. 2), Paul 
only in exceptional cases (1 Cor. i, 14-17). Justin Mart, mentions no par- 
ticular baptizer, but Ignatius (Ad Smyrn. viii. 2) represents Baptism as a 
prerogative of the Bishop, or at least as requiring his presence : " It is not 
lawful without the Bishop either to baptize or to celebrate the .\gape; but 
whatsoever he shall approve of, that is also pleasing to God, so that every- 
thing that is done may be secure and valid." 

iii TO ΰνυμα. κ. τ. Λ.] into (not ii, as in the A. V.) the name, i. e. into 
communion and covenant relationship with the revealed persons of the Holy 
Trinity. The Did. gives the precise baptismal formula, Matt, xxviii. 19. 
One of the exact quotations. Tht first proof of the use of this formula. It 
includes belief in the divinity of Christ and the Holy Spirit, as co-ordinated 
with the Father. In ver. 3 the article before the divine names is omitted by 
carelessness. Baptism in the name of Jesus only, is not mentioned ; nor is 


κίχ\ τοΰ Γίον nai τον ayiov the Father, and of the Son, 

Πνεύματος εν νδατι Β,ώντι. and of the Holy Ghost, in 

living water. 

2. Έάν δε μη εχι^ζ νδωρ 2. And if thou hast not 
8,ώΐ', hi; άλλο νδωρ βάπτισον living water, baptize into 
ει δ' ov δννασαι εν ίρνχρώ, other water ; and if thou 
εν ^ερμώ. canst not in cold, then in 

warm (water). 

3. Εάν δε αμφότερα μη 3. But if thou hast neither, 

the threefold repetition, but this must be inferred from rpk in ver. 3. Ter- 
tullian, Adv. Prax. xxvi. : "Nee semel, sed ter, ad singula nomiiia in p.'rso- 
nas siiiffulas tinguimur.^' 

εν νδατι ζοοντι'\ Comp. John iv. 10, 11 ; vii•. 38. Living water is fresh, 
clean water in motion, i. e., river-water or spring- water, as distinct from 
stagnant water. Br. : ύ'δωρ ζών λέγει το άρτι από τον φρέατυζ ην- 
τληι,ιί yov, το ύηόχνιον, το ηρόόφατον και παρόν. Ha. would eon- 
fine iking water to river-water, and translates flicssendes Wasser. The 
preference of the ante-Nicene Church was for Baptism in a running stream, 
as the Jordan, the Nile, the Tiber ; the baptized standing, undressed, knee- 
deep or waist-deep in the water, while the baptizer on the shore, slightly 
clothed, dipped the candidate's head under the water and helped him out of 
the river. See the illustrations from the Catacombs, p. 38 sqq. The prefer- 
ence for river- Baptism was based on the tyjaical baptism of Christ in the Jor- 
dan, and continued till the age of Constantine, when special Baptisteries 
were built with different apartments and other conveniences, for both sexes 
and all seasons of the year. With the decline of adult-Baptism and the 
general introduction of infant-Baptism in Christianized Europe the Baptist- 
eries were no more needed and gave way to baptismal fonts in the churches. 

2. tii αλλί) νδωμ'\ Br.: in) πρόόφατον μεν και νεαρόν,-φνχρυν δε'. 
Cold water in pools, reservoirs, cisterns, baths. In Galilee the lake was 
most conΛ-enient. In and around Jerusalem the Kidron is dry during the 
summer, but there are large pools (Bethesda, Hezekiah, the upper and loΛver 
Gihon) ; and almost every house has a cistern filled with rain-water. The 
same choice is given by Tertullian, Be Bapt. iv. : "Nulla distinctio est, 
mari quU an stagno, flumine anfonte, lacu an alveo diluatur." 

tv ^ερμω] Warm water does not so well symbolize the refreshing, re- 
generating agency of the Holy Spirit as cold water, but it was permitted in 
cases of sickness, in cold climates, and inclement seasons. The sacrament 
was then probably administered at home or in public baths. Br.: εϊτε δι'' 
αό3ένειαν κ:\ί αρρωότίαν τον ΰώματοζ, εϊτε και δια τήΐ' ώραν τον 
ϊτονζ, βίχττττ^ην εν Βερ^ιφ ήτοι χλιαρω. Then he quotes from Gregory 
of Nyssa, who says that all kinds of water are good for Baptism, provided 
there is faith on the part of the baptized and the blessing of the baptizer. 
Farrar infers that the writer lived in a cold region. 

3. But if thou hast neither] i. e. neither living water nor other water (cold 


εχι;}ζ, εκχεον ειζ την κεφαλήν pour [water] thrice upon 

τρ\ζ νδωρ εις όνομα Πατρόζ the head iu the name of the 

και Γίον και αγίου Πνεύμα- Father, and of the Son, and 

τος. of the Holy Ghost. 

or warm) in sufficient quantity for immersion. So J. λ\.. Fa., R., Ma. (en 
quantite siiffisante), and others. Immersion must be meant in all ^jrevious 
modes, else there would be no difference between them and the last. So 
also Br. : ίάν μήτε ■φνχρόν πήτε ^ίβμύν νδωμ 'ίχ^ζ ίκανύν ί'ζ τύ βάπ- 
τιΰαια, but he adds as an additional condition the necessity of Baptism {και 
άνάχκη ίπιΰτ-ρ τυν βαπτίύμ,ατυζ), and confines the permission of pour- 
ing to cases of severe sickness {in perieulo mortia), or what is called clinical 
Baptism, referring to Tertullian and Cyprian. Fa. assents. But the Did. 
mentions only the scarcity of water, not the state of the candidate. The 
restriction to cases of sickness, and the disqualification for the priesthood of 
persons baptized by aspersion on the death-bed, seem to date from the third 
century. Cyprian (2oO) had to refute existing doubts on the validity of chni- 
eal Baptism. The doubts, however, were not based so much on the defective 
mode, but on the suspicion of the sincerity of motive. 

εκχευν, κ. τ. λ.] The first instance of Baptism by pouring or aspersion, 
and that without the least doubt of its validity. A remarkable passage, 
which has elicited much discussion and controversy. B. Maury (p. 29) : 
" Voila le plus ancien example dv. baptemc par aspersion, sans que le moindre 
doute soit eleve sur sa validite." Harn. : " Wir haben liicr das dlteste Zeug- 
niss fur die Zulassung der Aspersionstaufc ; besonders icicTitig ist, dass der 
Verf. audi nicht das geringste ScJtwanken iiber Hire Gultigl-cit verrath. Die 
Zeugnisse fur ein frilhes Vorhovimen der Aspersion waren bislang enticeder, 
was ihre Znt {so die biUlUchen Darstellungeu der Aspersion ; s. Kraus, Roma 
Sotter. 2. Aufl. 8. 311/.), oder was ihre Beiceiskraft {Tcrt. dcpainit. 6; de 
hapt. 12) betrifft, nirJtt genugend siehere ; jetzt ist ein Zireifel nicht mehr 
moglich. Aber die Bedenken uber ihre voile Gijltigleit mogcn in wanchen 
Landeskirehen uralt gcioesen sein ; dock kavn man sicli auf Euseb. H. E. vi. 
43, 14, 15, filr dieselben mir mit Zuruckhaltung berufen ; dagegen auf Cypr. 
ep. 69, 12-14, und auf die Praxis des Orients. JJnserem Verf. ist die Aus- 
sprechunn der dreiJieiligen Namen die Hauptsache und desshalb audi die drei- 
mcdige Aspersion.'''' Farrar : "In this permission of (trine) affusion our 
[Church of England] rubric is anticipated by eighteen centuries. The allu- 
sion, however, seems to be to private baptisms in perieulo mortis. Infant- 
Baptism is not here contemplated." 

ίί'5 την κεφαλ?}ν] The application of water to the head, as the seat of 
intelligence, is absolutely essential and the chief part of Baptism ; but the 
wetting of other parts of the body is not indispensable. 

τριζ] Trine immersion in the name of tlie three persons of the Trinity is 
the universal rule in the Eastern churches. In the West single immersion 
•was practiced for a while in Spain, and sanctioned by Pope Gregory I. ; but the 
Roman Rituals prescribe trine immersion and trine affusion. See Ch. XVII. 


4. Προ ot του βαητίσματοζ 4. But before Baptism let 

προνηστενσατω 6 βαπτίδ,ων the baptizer and the bap- 

nai 6 βαπτι8,όμ€νοζ* και ει tized fast, and any others 

τίνες άλλοι δύνανται- κελεύ- who can ; but thou shalt 

εις\ δε νηστενσαι τον βαπτι- command the baptized to fast 

ζόμενον προ μιάζ /} δύο. for one or two days before. 

Κεφ. η. Chap. V^III. 

Peayek and Fasting. 

1. Ai δε νηστεΐαι υμών μ?) 1. Let not your fasts be 
εστωααν μετά των νποκρι- with the hypocrites/ for they 
τών νηστενουσι γαρ δεντέ fast on the second and fifth 

" Cornp. Matt. vi. 10. 
* oi βαπτιζόβενοι, Hi. \κελεν6ειζ, Br. Hi. Sa. &c. 

4. Pasting before Baptism was the general practice in the ante-Nicene 
age, as we learn from Justin M. and TertuUian. In the Ap. Const, τϋ. 22, 
it is enforced by the fasting of Christ after Baptism, which He did not need 
himself, but by which He set us an example. The fasting of the baptizers 
probably soon went out of use, and is not mentioned in the Ap. Const. It 
indicates the early age of the Did. and the family feeling of the community 
from which it proceeded. 

■Η.ελεύειζ\ Br. νΒ^άακελενόειζ. Ha. retains the reading of the MS. in the 
text, but translates gehiete. The command goes beyond the N. T., and is 
one of the " commandments of men." It was probably based on Matt. xvii. 
21 (text rec); Mark ix. 29: "This kind goeth not out save by prayer and 
fasting." There is no trace of exorcism in the Did., but it was connected 
with Baptism in the second century. The rule of fasting is still observed in 
the East in cases of adult Baptism, which are very rare. In England, down 
to the time of the Reformation, the candidates for Confirmation and the 
Bishop were required to fast before the ceremony. 

Notes to Chapter VIII. 
1. μετά των υποκριτών] in common, or together with those of the hypo- 
crites, i. e., the Pharisees, as in ver. 2 (not the Jews generally, as Ha. deems 
probable). Comp. Matt. vi. 16 : "When ye fast, be not as the hypocrites, 
of a sad countenance." In Luke xviii. 12, the Pharisee in the Temple 
boasts: " I fast twice in the week." This is the only allusion to Jews in the 
Did., which differs on the one hand from the anti-Jewish violence of Bar- 
nabas, and on the other from the Judaizing sympathy of the Ebionites. 
Christ opposes the spirit of hypocritical and ostentatious fasting, but 
gives no direction as to days. The Did. opposes the Jewish fast days, and 
replaces them by two other fast days. Christian Judaism versus Mosaic 
Judaism. Another indication of the early date and Jewish origin of the 


fia Σαββάτων και πί^μτττψ day of the week; but ye 

νμεΐζ δε ν?/στενσατε τετράδα shall fast on the fourth day, 

Jiai παραΰηενην. and the preparation day 


2. Μηδέ προσεύχεστε ώζ οι 2. Keither pray ye as the 

νποκριταί, αλλ' ώ? εκέλενσεν hypocrites, " but as the Lord 

6 Κνριοζ εν τώ εναγγελίω commanded in His Gospel, so 

αντού όντως προσενχεσΒε• pray ye: "Our Father, who 

° Corap. Matt. vi. 5. 

Did. Stated fasting soon became a general custom of the Catholic church. 
See the passages of Barnabas, of Hermas, TertuUiau, Clement of Alex., 
Origen, Epiphanius, quoted by Br. and Ha. Origen says (Homil. x. in 
Levit.) : " Habemus quariam et sextam septimance dies, quihus solemniter 

The Jewish fasts were fixed on Monday and Thursday of the week in com- 
memoration of Moses' ascent to, and descent from, Mt. Sinai ; the Christian 
fasts on Wednesday (rerpa•?, feria quarta) and Friday {τταραόκενή, 
paraiiceve, feria sexta) as the days of the Betrayal and Crucifixion of the 
Lord, with reference to Matt. ix. 15: "When the bridegroom shall be 
taken away from them, then they will fast." They were called ότάόειζ, 
dies stationum, semijejunia. Wednesday dropped gradually out of use as a 
fast day. After the Council of Elvira, 305, Saturday came to be observed in 
the West. 

These days of fasting, together with the joyous Lord's Day, mentioned in 
Ch. XIV., determine the Christian week The death and resurrection of our 
Lord were the controlling idea of Christian life and Christian worship. But 
no allusion is made in the Did. to the annual festivals and the ecclesiastical 
year, which was developed gradually from the same central facts. 

TtapaoycEvi']'] the Jewish designation of Friday, on which preparations were 
made for the proper observance of the Sabbath. Matt, sxvii. 63; Mark xv. 
42; Luke xxiii. 54; John xix. 14, 31, 42. It was also called προβάββατον 
(Sabbath eve), Judith viii. 6 ; Mark xv. 42. The name is retained in the Greek 
liturgies and in the Latin office for Good Friday, Feria sexta in Parasceve. 

2. As the Lord commanded in His Gosjiel.] A distinct reference to St. 
Matthew. The oldest testimony to its existence and use. 

Our Father, etc.] The first quotation of the Lord's Prayer, and the first 
testimony to its use as a form in daily devotion. The text is taken from 
Matthew vi. 5-13 (not from the shorter form of Luke), with three unimpor- 
tant diifercnces unsupported by MS. authority, viz.: 1) tv τώ ονρανώ for 
the favorite plural of Matthew ; 2) the omission of the article before ;'?;?, 
and 3) την οφειλήν for the plural τά υφεΐλι'μιατα. The other differ- 
ences are textual. The Did. sustains the textus receptus : 1) in έλΒέτω for 
i/lSaroj, 2) in a φι ε μ εν {we forgive) instead of άφήκαιιεν (we have for- 
given, which is supported by χ, *, Β, Ζ, Origen, and preferred by Tischend., 



Πάτερ ημών ο εν τω ονρανω, 
(χγΐίχσ^ήτω το όνομα σου, ελ- 
Βετω η βασιλεία σον, γεννη- 
Βητω* το Βελ?/μά σον ώί εν 
ονρανώ και εττι yy^. τον αρ- 
τον ημών τον έπιονσιον δοζ 
ημιν σήμερον, ηαϊ άφεζ ήμίν 
την οφειλήν ημών ώζ και η- 
μείς αφίεμεν τοϊζ οφείλεται? 
ημών, και μη εισενέχκ)]? ήμάζ 
εις πειρασμον, άλλα ρνβαι 
ημάς ατΐο τού πονηρού' οτι 
σον εστίν ή δνναμις και ή 
δόζα εις τους αιώνας. 

3. Τρϊς τής ημέρας οντω 

art in heaven, hallowed be 
Thy Name. Thy Kingdom 
come. Thy will be done, as 
in heaven, so on earth. Give 
US this day our daily (need- 
ful) bread. And forgive us 
our debt as we also forgive 
our debtors. And bring us 
not into temptation, but de- 
liver us from the evil one (or, 
from evil). For Thine is the 
power and the glory for 

3. Pray thus thrice a day. 

» Matt. vi. 9-13. 

* γενιβήτω, Br. Hi, W. &c. 

Westc. and Hort, and the E. R.) ; and 3) in the insertion oi the doxology, 
though only in part, the βLx6ιλεLa and the άμην being omitted. Gregory 
of Nyssa (as quoted by Tisehend. and Hort) has the same form, υτι αντφ ή 
δννίχμιζ και ?} δο:α. 

The doxology is absent from the oldest MS. and other authorities, and 
dame into the text from liturgical and devotional use, as we can clearly see 
here. Dr. Hort says: "There can be little doubt that the doxology origi- 
nated in liturgical use in Syria, and was then adopted into the Greek and 
Syriac-Syrian texts of the N. T. It was probably derived ultimately from 
1 Chron. xxix. 11 (Heb.), but, it may be, through the medium of some con- 
temporary Jewish usage : the people's response to prayers in the temple is 
said to have been, ' Blessed be the name of the glory of his kingdom for 
ever and ever.'" [Notes on Select EracKugs, p. 9.) The doxology varies as 
to length and wording in different texts and liturgies, until from the time 
of Chrysostom it assumed its traditional form, but in the Latin and Angli- 
can services the shorter form without the doxology is still alternately used 
with the other. 

3. Thrice a day.] Indicates the beginning of Christian regularity and 
formalism in devotion, in imitation of the Jewish hours of prayer, Dan. 
vi. 10 (comp. Ps. Iv. 17) ; Acts ii. 1, 15; iii. 1; x. 9. Tertullian (De Orat. 
XXV. and D^Jejun. x.) derives from these passages the duty to pray at the 
third, sixth and ninth hour (i. e. morning, noon, and afternoon or evening), 
in addition to the ordinary pi-ayers at sunrise and bed-time which need no 
admonition. He supposes (De Orat. x.) that these devotions include the 
Lord's Prayer [prcemissa legitima et ordinaria oratione quasi fitndamento). 
See the note of Ha., p. 37, and the ample quotations of Br. p. 31-33. 


Κεφ. 5'. Chap. IX. 

The Agape and the Eucharist. 

1. Περϊ δε τήζ ενχαριβτίαζ, 1. IS'ow as regards the Eu- 
ourcj* ευχαριύτηΰατε. charist (the Thank-ofPering), 

* οϋτωζ, Β. &c. 

Notes to Chapter IX. 

Chs. IX. and X. contain three eueharistic prayers, the oldest known 
Christian prayers after those in the N. T., with the exception, perhaps, of 
the intercessory prayer of the Roman church, which is found at the close of 
the Clementine Epistle to the Corinthians in the complete copy of the Jeru- 
salem MS. (edited by Bryennios, 1875; see Church History, ii. 228). They 
furnish, together witli the Lord's Prayer, the elements of a primitive liturgy, 
and deserve the careful attention of liturgical scholars. They correspond to 
the Jewish Passover eulogiiB. They are very remarkable for their brevity, 
simplicity, and high-toned spirituality, but also for the absence of any allu- 
sion to the atoning sacrifice of Christ, except perhaps in the mystic meaning 
of " the mite of David " and the broken bread. Not even the words of institu- 
tion, " This is My body," " This is My blood," are mentioned, much less is 
any theory of the real presence intimated or implied. The prayers are too 
low for the sacrament, and yet too high for an ordinary meal. But we must 
remember: 1) The brief and fragmentary character of this section, and the 
express reference to the extemjjoraneous effusions of the Prophets which were 
to follow and to supplement the liturgical forms (X. 7): 2) the designation 
of the Eucharist as a sacrifice foretold by the Prophets, to be celebrated 
every Lord's Day (XIV. 3), after a public confession of sin and a reconcilia- 
tion of brethren at strife (XIV. 1, 2); and, 3) the Johannean phraseology 
and tone of these prayers, which we have previously pointed out (p. 89 sq.). 
If we read such exjiressions as " spiritual food and drink" (X. 3), "eternal 
life" (IX. 3; X. 3 , " perfect her in Thy love" (X. 5), in the light of Christ's 
mysterious discourse after the feeding of the five thousand, and of his Sacer- 
dotal Prayer, and take them in their full Johannean meaning, there can bene 
doubt that the author believed in the atonement for sin by the sacrifice of our 
Lord, of which the Eucharist is the perpetual memorial. B. M. : " Ccs jyri- 
eres respire un rif sentiment de gratitude pour Dieu et de solidarite avee toua 
les memhrcs de V ICglise, disperses aux quatrc vents du del." He likewise 
points to the striking resemblance of these prayers to the Sacerdotal Prayer, 
but derives them from oral tradition rather than from the fourth Gospel. 

1. ενχαριδτία] In the N. T. : thankfulness, or thanksgiving, especially 
also before a meal. The verbs ενχαριΰτέω and ενλογέω are used by our 
Saviour in blessing the bread and the cup at the Last Supper, Matt. xxvi. 
27; Luke, xxii. 17, 19; 1 Cor. xi. 24. Hence in post-Apostolic and Patris- 
tic writers Eucharist was the technical term for the Lord's Supper as a 
sacrifice of thanksgiving for all the gifts of God, especially for the redemp- 
tion of Christ. It was usually applied to the whole act of celebration, with 
or without the Agape, but sometimes also to the consecrated elements, by 


give thanks after this man- 
2. Πρώτον περί τον πότη- 2. First for the cup: 
ρίον. Ευχάριστου μέν σοι, "We give thanks to Thee, 
πάτερ ημών, ύπίρ τηζ άγίαζ our Father, for the holy vine 
αμπέλου Αίχβϊδ τον παιδόζ of David Thy servant, which 
σον, 7)ζ ε'γνωρισαζ ημιν δια thou hast made known to us 

Ignatius, Justin M., Ireneeus, and others. Here it includes the Agape. See 
the notes of Br., and Suicer, Thcsaur. sub ευλογία. Β. Maury (p. 31): 
" L'eucharistie est pour notre autcur, a lafois un repas fraternel {car elle est 
jointe a Vagapc), une action cle graces pour le hienfait cle la revelation de 
Jesus pour les fruits de la terre et une oblation des cceurs purifie et reconcilies, 
comme etant le sacrifice le plus agreable a Dieu. " 

2. First for the cup ] For the order see Luke xxii. 17-19 ; 1 Cor. x, 16. 
In ver. 5 (" let no one eat or drink ") the usual order is implied. 
, v7Tlf3 Γ?7? cxyiai άμηέλον /Japi'd] A peculiar expression. It may 
mean the Christian church, as the true theocracy, the Lord's vineyard ; comp. 
Ps. Ixxx. 15 : " the vineyard which thy right hand hath planted;" Isa. v. 1 
sqq. ; Jer. ii. 21 ; xii. 10. But it is probably a mystic name of Christ, sug- 
gested by the parable of the Vine, John xv. 1: " I am the true vine ;" comp. 
i's. Ixxs. 8 : "Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt ;" and Matt. xxvi. 29: 
•• this fruit of the vine." This interpretation vrould imply a reference to the 
atoning blood. Clement of Alexandria (Quis dives scdvus, 29), uses the same 
expression, probably in view of this passage and with reference to the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's Supper. " This (Jesus)," he says. " who poured out for 
us the wine of the vine of David, that is to say, His blood" (ouroS 6 τύν 
αΐνον, το αίμα τηζ ά μτί έλον τη ζ ^ α βίδ, έκχεαζ ήμ/ν), Br. quotes 
also another passage from the same author (PcBdagogrie i. 5) : " For the 
vine produces wine as the Word produces blood, and both drink for the 
health of men ; the wine, for the body, the blood for the spirit" {φέρει yap 
oivov ή αμηελοζ ώζ αΐ/ια ό λόχοζ, αμφω δ^ άν^τρώτκ^ις τίοτόν είζ 
ΰωτηρίαν, ό uiv οΐνοζ τω όωματι, το δε αίμα τω πνεύματί). The 
vine was a favorite symbol of Christ with the early Christians and is often 
found in the pictures of the Catacombs. 

Thy servant] παΐζ means both son and servant, and is used of Christ by 
St. Peter four times in Acts iii. 13, 28 ; iv. 27, 30 ; with reference to the 
servant of Jehovah (nin^ nny) in Isaiah xlii. 1 (quoted by Matt. xii. 18). 

An indication of the antiquity of the Did. and probably also of a knowl- 
edge of Acts (but not of Ebionitism ; for Christ is called the Son of God in 
the baptismal formula, VII. 1, and indirectly in XVI, 4, see note there). The 
designation was a liturgical form. In the prayer of the Roman church in 
the first Ep. of Clemens, eh. lix. (recovered by Br. in 1875), Christ is three 
times called τταΐζ and Ttaii ηναττημένη?. Polycarp used it twice in his 
last prayer, according to the Martyr. Polyc. c. xiv. (Funk, P. Aps. i. 298), 
namely, δ του άχαηητοϋ καΙ εύλοχητον τίαιδόζ 6ον Ιηόοϋ Χριΰ^ 


b/aov τον παιδός σον σοι η through Jesus, Thy servant: 
δοΒ,α €ΐζ τονζ αίώναζ. to Thee be the glory for 


3. Περϊ δΐ τον ηλάσματοΖ' 3. Aud for the broken 

bread : 
Ενχαριστονμέν σοι, Πάτερ " We give thanks to Thee, 
ημών, vTtsp τήζ Β,ωήζ και γνώ- our Father, for the life and 
σεωζ, ι)ζ εγνωρισαζ ημΐν δια knowledge which Thou hast 
Ιησού τον παιδοζ σον σοι τ} made known to us through 
δοζα ει? τον? αιώνας. Jesus, Thy servant: to Thee 

be the glory for ever. 

4. "Πσπερ ήν τούτο* κλάσ- 4. "As this broken bread 
μα διεσπορπισμενον επάνω was scattered upon the moun- 
τών ορέων και σνναχ^εν tains and gathered together 
έγένετο εν, οντω σνναχ^ητω became one, so let Thy 
σον η εκκλησία απο τών πε- church be gathered together 

* τό inserted after τοντο hj v. Gebh. Ha. Z. 

rov, and δια αγαπητού όου τταιδόζ. It is retained several times in the 
prayers of the Apost. Const, viii. 5, 14, 39, 40, 41. 

3. κλάόμ,α] A fragment (from κλάοο, to break), the broken bread of the 
Agape and the Eucharist. The noun (in the plural) is so used in the accounts 
of the miraculous feeding (Matt. xiv. 20 : Marli vi. 43; viii. 19, 20 ; John 
vi. 12, 13), and the verb κλάδαι τόν αρτον, of the Agape and the Lord's 
Supper (Matt xxvi. 26 ; Mark xiv. 23 ; Luke xsii. 19 ; Acts ii. 46; xx. 7, 
11 ; 1 Cor. x. 16). Metaphorically, it designates the body of Christ, as 
broken really on the cross and tj-pically in the Eucharist, 1 Cor. xi. 24: τό 
6ώμα το νπίρ νμών κλ ώ m ε ν ον (tex. ree. and in margin of R. V.). 
"The breaking of bread" {ή κλάΰιζ του αμτον) was an apostolic term for 
the Agape and the Lord's Supper combined, Acts ii. 42. 

4. Scattered (in grains) vpon the mountains, or, liills.'] Entirely inapplic- 
able to Egypt, and hence omitted in the Egyptian prayer quoted below, but 
quite appropriate in a hilly country like Syria and Palestine, where the Did. 

Gathered together, hecame one.'\ The idea was probably suggested by 1 
Cor. X. 17, where Paul, with reference to the communion, says : " \\'e, who 
are many, are one bread, one body: for we all partake of the one bread." 
Irenaeus {Adv. Hcer. iv. 18, 5) speaks of "the bread which is produced from 
the eeirth (αΛό τηζ γηζ αρτοζ), when it receives the invocation of God, is 
no longer common bread, but the Eucharist, consisting of two realities, 
earthly and heavenly." 

Let Thy church be gathered together into Thy kingdom.'] An important 
distinction between the Ικκληβία and the βαΰιλΕΪα, which occurs again in 
the third prayer, X. o. The Church is a training-school for the kingdom 


ρατων τί/ζ γηζ είί την σην βα- from the ends of the earth 

σιλείαν ότι σον εστίν η δόξα into Thy kingdom, for Thine 

καϊηδνναμιζ δια Ιησού 1ζ.μισ- is the glory and the power 

τον elb τονζ αίώναζ. through Jesus Christ for 


5. Μ7]δειί δε φαγετω μΐ]δε δ. But let no one eat or 

πιέτω αττο τνζ ενχαμιστίαζ driuk of your Eucharist, ex- 

νμών, αλλ' o{ βαπτισ^εντεζ cept those baptized into the 

είζ όνομα Kvpiov και γαρ name of the Lord ; for as re- 

ττερι τοντον ειρηκεν ο Κύ- gards this also the Lord has 

of God. The Church is manifold and will pass away with its various organi- 
zations; the kingdom is one and will last forever, now as a kingdom of 
grace, then as a kingdom of glory. This distinction was obscured in the 
Roman church, which identifies herself with the church catholic, and the 
chiu-ch with the kingdom. It was measurably restored by the Protestant 
distinction between the visible and invisible church. The difference is very 
apparent in the parables which illustrate the kingdom, and in such passages 
as "to them (to the poor in spirit, to the children) belongs the kingdom of 
heaven; " " to enter the kingdom " (Matt. v. 3; xviii. 8, 4; Mark, x. 14; John, 
iii.' 5), or "the kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness 
and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost " (Rom. xiv. 17). In such eases it 
would be improper to substitute " the church."' It is significant that Christ 
uses ίκκληΰία only twice (in Matthew and nowhere else), but βαΰιλεύχ (with 
των ουρανών or τον Stov) twenty-three times in Matthew alone. The 
eschatological aim of this jsrayer is remarkable and was suggested by Matt, 
xxvi. 29, and 1 Cor. xi. 2G (" till He come"). "Es ist," says Ha., " der JtiJch- 
sten BeacMung werth, dass der Verfasser im AhendmaM cine eschatologische 
Allegoric gcfvnden hat, die \iins\ sonst nirgends legegnet." 

From the ends of the earth.] Comp. X. 5, "from the four winds." Matt, 
xxiv. 31: "they [the angels] shall gather together His elect frona the four 
winds, from one end of heaven to the other." 

5. Except those baptized.] The communion is for baptized believers, and 
for them only. Baptism is the sacramental sign and seal of regeneration and 
conversion ; the Loi'd's Supper is the sacrament of sanctification and growth 
in spiritual life. Justin Martyr (Apol. I. e. Ixvi.) says: "This food is 
called among us the Eucharist (ειίχαριΰΓία), of which no one is allowed to 
partake but he who believes that the things which are taught by us are true, 
and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins 
and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has delivered. For 
not as common bread and common drink (ώζ κοινον άρτον ουδέ κανόν 
TtouLx) do we receive these [elements]." In the second century the divine 
service was sharply divided into two parts, the service of the catechumens 
(missa catechumenorum) and the service of the faithful {missn fidelium). 
Hence the Ap. Const., vii. 25, lay great stress on the exclusion of unbe- 
lievers from the Eucharist. 


pior Μη δώτε το αγιον τοΐζ said: ''Give not that which 
7ίνσί. is holy to the clogs." "" ■ 

Κεφ. {. Chap. X. ^ 

Post-Communion Prayer. 

1. Μετά δε το εμπλησ^ήναι 1. Xow after being filled, 
οντωζ ευχαριστήσατε- give thanks after this manner: 

" Matt. vii. 6. 

Give not, etc. j A justifiable application of the warning of Christ, Matt. 
vii. 6. Ha. aptly quotes Tertullian, De Prcescr., xli., who says of the services 
of the heretics that they throw " sanctum canihus ctporcis margaritas." 

A remarkable parallel prayer to the thanksgiΛ'iπg for the bread, to which 
Dr. Swainson first called attention, and which is quoted also by De Romes- 
tin (p. 100), is found in Pseudo-Athanasius De Virginitate, s. De Ascesi, § 13 
(Athan. Opera ed. Migne. iv. 366, in Tom. xxviii. of his "Patrol. Gr."). 
Here the virgin is directed " όταν xarsdS'yi ίττΐ τηζ τρατΐέζηζ και ερχ^ 
κλάόαι τον άρτον . . ενχαριότονόα λέγε, εύχαριΰτονμέν dot, Πά- 
τερ ημών, νπέρ τηζ άγίαζ άναότάόεωζ 6ον, δια γάρ ^Ιηΰον 
τον π αι δ ό ζ 6 ον ε γ ν ώ ρι6 αζ if μι ν αν την, κα ι κα2 ωζ ό 
άρτο ζ ου το ζ δζεΰχίορπιόμένοζ ντΐηρχεν ό έ τι ά ν ω ταύτηζ 
τηζ τραπέζηζ και όνναχΒεΙζ e γ έ ν ετ ο εν, οντωζ kit ιό υ ν αχ - 
^ ήτ ω 6 ον ή ε κκλη όία α re ό των τιεράτων τηζ γ η ζ ει ζ 
τήν β αΰ ιΧ είαν όον, ότι ΰον εότίν ή δϋναμιζ και η 
δ όία είζ τον ζ αϊ ώ ν αζ. άίΐήν." The words επάνω των ορέων, 
" upon the hills," so inapplicable to Egypt, are omitted after διεόκορπιόΜέ- 


Notes to Chapter X. 

Ch. X. contains the post-coramunion prayer. Like all similar prayers of 
later times, it consists of two parts, thanksgiving and intercession. It fol- 
lows in this respect Jewish precedent. The prayer after drinking the Hallel 
cup at the Passover reads thus : " Blessed be Thou, Lord our God, King 
of the world, for the Aine and the fruit of the vine, and for the harvest of 
the field, and for the glorious, good and roomy land which Thou didst give 
to our fathers in Thy good pleasure, that they might eat of its fruit and be 
satisfied by its bounty. Have mercy, Ο Lord our God, upon us and upon 
Israel, Thy people, and upon Jenisalem, Thy city [and upon Thine altar 
and Thy temple ; and build Jerusalem, the holy city, speedily in our days, 
and bring us thither and make us rejoice in her, that we may eat of her fruit 
and be satisfied with her bounty, and praise Thee in holiness and purity ; 
and refresh us on this festive day of unleavened bread] : for Thou, Lord, 
art good and doest good to all [so shall we thank Thee for the land and for 
the fruit of the vine]. Blessed be Thou, Lord, for the land and its fruits, 
forever. Amen." The bracketed sentences seem to presuppose the second 
destruction of Jerusalem, and are omitted in an Oxford MS. of the twelfth 
century. See G. Bickell, Messr, unci Pascha, Mainz, 1872, and the Innsbruck 
" Zeitschrift fur kath. Theol." 1880, 90-112. 

1. μετά δε το ίμπλ?/ΰ2}/ναι] Changed by the Αρ. Const, into μετά 



2. Ευχαριστούμεν σοι, Πά- 
τερ άγιε, νπερ τον άγίον ονο- 
ματόζ ffov, ον κατεσκηνωσαζ 
εν ταΐζ καρδ'ιαιζ νμών * και 
νπίρ τήζ γνώσεωζ καϊ πίστε- 
ωζ και α^ανασιαζ, ΐ)ζ εγνωρι- 
Οαζ ημιν δια Ιηαού τον παι- 
(50? σον σοϊ η δοΒ,α εΐζ τονζ 
α ιών α ζ. 

3. 2ν, δέσποτα παντοκρά- 
τορ, ε'κτισαζ τα πάντα ένεκεν 
τοΰ ονοματοζ σον, τροφήν τε 
ηα\ ποτόν εδωκαζ τοΐζ αν^ρώ- 
ποιζ ει? απολανσιν ινα σοι 
ενχαριστησωσιν, ημιν δε έχα- 
ρίσω πνενματικ?^ν τροφην και 

2. " We tliank Tliee, Holy 
Father, for Thy holy Name, 
wliich Thou hast caused to 
dwell (tabernacle) in our 
hearts, and for the knowledge 
and faith and immortality 
which Thou hast made known 
to us through Jesus Thy 
Servant, to Thee be the glory 
for ever. 

3. "Thou, 0, Almighty 
Sovereign, didst make all 
things for Thy Name's sake; 
Thou gavest food and drink 
to men for enjoyment that 
they might give thanks to 
Thee : but to us Thou didst 

* ημών, Br. &e. 

μετάληφιν, after partaking of the communion. But the Did. must mean 
a regular meal, the Agape then still being connected with the sacramental 
celebration, as in the church at Corinth (1 Cor. xr. 20-22) ; it was separated 
in the time of the younger Pliny and Justin Martyr. John (vi. 12) uses the 
phrase ώ? St ίν^ηλήό^ηΰαν, "when they were filled," of the feeding of 
the five thousand. 

2. Holy Father^ The same address in the Sacerdotal Prayer, John xvii. 
11, but nowhere else. God is next addressed as " Almighty Sovereign " (ver. 
3) and last as "Lord," (ver. 8.) These terms correspond, as Ha. points out, 
to the three divisions of the prayer : 1) thanks for the revelation and 
redemption through Christ, 2) thanks for the creation and spiritual food 
and drink and eternal life through Christ, 3) intercession for the elnu-ch of 
God. A similar division in Justin M. Apol., i. LXV. 

Caused ίο dwell] χαταΰκηνόω, to pitch tent, to encamp, has here the 
transitive sense as in the Sept. Ps. xxii. 2 ; 2 Chr. vi. 2. The simple verb 
is a favorite term of St. John, who uses it intransitively with reference to 
the Shekina, the indwelling of Jehovah in the Holy of Holies ; comp. John 
i, 14 ίΰκήνωόεν Iv ι'μύν) ; Apoc. xxi. 8 {ΰκηνώόαι μετ άντών). 

3. AlmigMy Sovereign} or Buler. παντοκράτωρ, in the Sept., often in 
the Apoc, and in 2 Cor. vi. 18 (in a quotation from the Sept.). Introduced 
into the Apostles' Creed: πιότεύω είζ 3εο> παντοκράτορα, Credo in 
Deum Patrem omnipotentem. On δεόπότηζ see the note of Hitchcock, p. 


τίοτον nai 2,οοην αίώνιον δια freely give spiritual food 
τον παιδόζ σον. and drink and eternal life 

through Thy servant. 

4. Προ πάντων ενχαρΐ(Τ- 4. "Before all things we 
τονμέν σοι οτι δννατόζ ii give thanks to Thee that 
σν \• η δόζα εΐζ τον? αίώναζ. Thou art mighty ; to Thee 

be the glory for ever. 

5. ΜνησΒητι, κύριε, ττ/ζ εκ- 5. "Remember, Ο Lord, 
7ίλησΊαζ σον τον ρνσασ^αι Thy Church to deliver her 
avTj)v άπο τταντοζ novrjpov from all evil and to perfect 
και τελειώσαι ιχύτην εν Trj her in Thy love ; and gather 
ayanij σον, και σύναξον αν- her together from the four 
την από των τεσσάρων ανέ- winds, '' sanctified for Thy 
μων την άγιασ^εΐσαν ει? την kingdom which Thou didst 
σ?}ν βασιλείαν, ην ητοίμασαζ prepare for her ; for Thine 

" Matt. xxiv. 31. 
* 6οί, substituted for 6ύ by Br. Hi. Z. 6oi inserted after 6ύ by Ha. 

Spiritual food and drink, etc.~\ A spiritual conceiition of the Eucharist 
based on the Lord's discourse on the bread of life, John vi. 35 sqq. Ignatius 
and Justin Martyr first suggested a strongly realistic conception, which ter- 
minated at last in the dogma of transubstantiation. Ignatius {Ad Ephes. 
XX.) calls the Eucharist a medicine of immortality {φαρ^ιακον ά^αναβίαζ) 
and an antidote against death. Justin M. speaks of a change {μεταβηλι}) 
of the elements. But the African and Alexandrian fathers favored a spirit- 
ual conception till the time of Augustin, who was the chief authority for 
that view (afterwards advocated by Ratramnus and Berengar, but forced 
to give way to transubstantiation). 

DdUver her from every evil] Comp. John xvii. 15, and Matt. vi. 13 {pvdat 
ή/ίίάζ άτίό τον τΐονηρυΰ). 

5. T(iXei(£6ai αυτήν kv τ^ άχάπ^ όον.] Α peculiarly Johannean 
expression. Comp. John xvii. 23 (ίνα ωόιν τετελίίωμένοι είζ εν) ; 1 
Johnii. 5; y) αχάπη τον 3εοΰ τετελειωται); iv. 12-18(7/ τελεία αγάτίη). 

την άγιαό^εΐϋαΐ'] sanctified by the sacrifice of Christ ; comp. John xvii. 
19: ύηέρ αντών εγώ άχιάζω εααντόν, 'ίνα ώόι και άντοί ήγιαόμένοχ 
εν αλητεία, and Heb. χ. 10: ήγταόηένοι tiUihv δια τΐ}ζ ττροΰφοράζ τον 
ΰώβατοζ Ί}/6υν Χριότον εφοίμαξ. Ha. inserts a comma after άχιαΰ^εΐ- 
dav, and connects είζ την 6ήν βαό. with the verb ΰνναξον. Br. omits 
the comma and explains : " sanctified in order to inherit the kingdom." So 
also B. M. : " elle qui a ete sanctifiee en vue de ton royaume que tu lui a pre- 
pare." Sa. : " apres V avoir sanctifiee, pour ton royaume," etc. 

Which Thou didst prepare for her.] This includes the doctrine of fore- 
ordination. Comp. Matt. xxv. 34, κληρονομήβατε την ήτυιμαόμένην 


cuvTtj- oTi σον εστίν η δννα- is tlie power and the glory 

μιζ iiai η δόξα εΐζ τονζ αίώ- for ever. 


6. ΈλΒέτω χάριζ και τταρελ- 6. "Let grace come, and 

Βετω ό ΐίόσμοζ οντοί. 'ίΐζ let this world pass away. * 

dvva f τώ Βεφ * Ααβίδ. Ει Hosanna to the God (Son) of 

τιζ αγιόζ εστίν, ερχεσΒω' ει David. If any one is holy 

τιζ ουκ εστί, μετανοείτω' μα- let him come, if any one is 

pavaSa'. Αμήν. not holy let him rejDent. Ma- 

ranatha.^ Amen." 

» Comp. 1 Cor. vii. 31. " 1 Cor xvi. 23. 

*'α6αννά, Br Hi. Ha. W. 

^νίφ, Br. Hi. W. H. & B. Sp., but Ha. R. retain 3εο5. 

νμΐν βαόιλείαν από κατά βολτ/ζ κύΰμον. On the distinction between 
the church and the kingdom see note on IX. 4. 

6. Let grace come, etc.] Or, to retain the paronomasia : "Let grace ap- 
pear, and let the world disappear." Comp. 1 Cor. vii. 31: " the fashion of 
this world passeth away." ίλΒέτω χά pii must be explained in the eschata- 
logical sense of the grace of the second coming ; comp. 1 Pet. i. 18 {την 
χάριν tv αποκαλύψει Urjoov Xp.) ; and Apoc. xxii. 17,20. Hence the 
conjecture of Potwin, Χριότόί for χάριζ, is unnecessary. The opposite anti- 
millennarian tendency and the mighty missionary impulse of the Church led 
afterwards to pray for the delay of the end of the word, as Tertullian, con- 
trary to his own millennarian views, records in ^poi. c. xxxix. : " oraiims 
pro mora finis." See Ha., p. 35. 

To the God of David.'] A strong testimony for the author's belief in the 
divinity of Christ, to whom it must refer in connection with his coming 
here spoken of. It may be traced back to our Lord's interpretation of 
the Messianic Ps. ex. 1 ("The Lord said unto my Lord") in Matt. xxii. 
42-46. Br. and Hi. conjecture τω ν'ιω, for τφ^εω, to conform the pas- 
sage to Matt. xxi. 9, 15 : "Hosanna to the Son of David." But Ha. de- 
fends the reading of the MS. with six arguments. There arose an early 
prejudice against the designation of Christ as David's Son ; Barnabas calls 
it an " error of the sinners," and substitutes for it " the Lord of David." It 
is much easier to account for the change of 3£ω into ν'ιω than vice versa. 

Let Mm repent.] Here, according to liturgical usage, would be the place 
for the communion ; but as this was indicated at the close of the preceding 
prayers (IX. 5), we must understand this as an invitation to catechumens and 
unbelievers to join the Church. There was at the time not yet a strict sep- 
aration of the two parts of the service, the missa catecliumenoriim and the 
missa fidelium, as in the third century. In some American churches it is 
customary to exhort the non-communicants after the communion to repent 
and to unite with God's people. Br. explains: " Let the saints come to meet 
the Lord. As many as are unbelievers, and not yet washed in the laver of 


7. Τοΐζ δε προφηταιζ επι- 7. But permit the Prophets 
τρεττετε ενχαριστειν o<ra Βέ- to give thunks as much as [in 
λονσιν. what words] they wish. 

Κεφ. ιοί. Chap. XI. 

Apostles and Prophets. 

1. "0? av ούν ελΒ^ων διδάξ)^ 1. WhosoeA'er then comes 

grace, or who have fallen away, let them repent. May the Lord come and 

his kingdom." Ha. : "Das έρχέΰΒω bezieht sich auf den Zutritt zu der ver- 
sanimelten, auf ihren Uerrn wartenden Gemeinde ; an die spdtere, dhnlich 
lautende Formel in Bezug auf den Zutritt zum Genuss der heil. Speise, ist 
nicht sudenken." 

Muran-atha'\ Aramaean (ΠΠΧ ρ^), i- ^-, ^^e Lord cometh (κύριοζ έρχε- 
ται) ; comp. 1 Cor. xvi. 22, where the same word occurs, and Apoc. xxii. 20: 
"Amen : come, Lord Jesus" (ερχυν, κνριε Ίηβον). The word was a re- 
minder of the second coming, perhaps " a mysterious pass-word of the early 
Christians " (Bisping). Harnack: "Man beacMe, ivie dieses uralte, dra- 
matisch aufgehaute Stossgebet (vota suspirantia, sagt Tertullian) die Gemeinde 
schliessHch in den Moment der Wiederktinft Christi versetzt ; so lebendig war 
die Hoffnung auf die Ndhe derselben.'" Sabatier: "Xe cri de Maranatha 
annonce la venue du Seigneur, non dans les especes consacrecs, mais son retour 
glorieux sur les nuees du del." Field (in his Otium Norvicense, Pars tertia, 
a criticism of the Revised N. Ϊ., 1881, p. 110), renders the Syriac Moran 
elho: "Our Lord came," or rather "Our Lord is come" (not " cometh "), since 
the Syriac verb represents either ?/Λ3£ (Jude, ver. 14), or ηκει (Luke sv. 27; 
1 John V. 20). "Accordingly Theodoret and Schol. Cod. 7, explain the 
word to mean ό πνριοζ ηλ^εν; Schol. Cod. 19, ό κύριοζ παρίχγέχονεν ; 
and Schol. Cod. 46, ό κύριοζ ημών ηκίΐ." 

7. Permit the Prophets.^ The whole congregation is addresser! as having 
control over this matter. The liberty of extemporaneous prayer combined 
with liturgical forms. First, full liberty for all to pray in public meeting, 1 
Cor. xiv. 29, 31 ; then restriction of liberty to the prophets, as here ; at last 
prohibition of free prayer. Justin Martyr, whom Br. aptly quotes, accords 
the same freedom to the presiding minister, or bishop {Apol. i. Ixvii) : 
" "When our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the 
President {6 προεδτώζ) in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings 
according to his ability {ο6η δύνα/ηζ αύτώ)." The people were to respond, 
"Amen." Clement of Rome, like Paul, warns the Corinthians against dis- 
order and confu.sion. Ad. Cor. cap. xli. : "Let each of you, brethren, in his 
own order give thanks unto God (ir τώ ίδίω τάνιιατι εύχαριδτείτω τω 
Βεώ). maintaining a good conscience and not transgressing the appointed rule 
of his service (ro κ ώριβμένον τηζ λειτονρχίαζ avrov Tio.vova\\mt 
acting with all seemliness." Ha. : " Li der Did. gelten die Propheten als die 
Virtuosen des Gebets." 

Notes to Chapter XI. 

Here begins the directory of discipline and the officers of the Church, 
Chs. Xl.-XIII., and Ch. XV. See the general discussion, pp. 62 sqq. 



νμάζ ταύτα πάντα τα ττροει- 
ρημένα, δέζασ^ε αυτόν 

2. Εάν dh αντόζ ό διδασ- 
7ίων (ΐτραφεϊζ διδαΟΉη αλλην 
διδαχην είζ το καταλνσαι, μη 
αυτού ακονσητε' είζ δε το 
ηροσΒειναι διηαιο^υνην 7ίαι 
γνώσιν Κυρίου, δέζασ^ε αυ- 
τόν ω? Κύριο ν. 

3. Περί δε των αποστολών 
}ίαι προφητών κατά το δόγμα 
του ευαγγελίου ουτωζ ποι- 

4. Πάζ δε απόστολοι ερχό- 
μενο? πρόζ νμάζ δεχ^ητω ώζ 

and teaches you all the 
things aforesaid, receive him. 

2. But if the teacher him- 
self being perverted teaches 
another teaching to the de- 
struction [of this], hear him 
not, but if [he teach] to the 
increase of righteousness and 
the knowledge of the Lord, 
receive him as the Lord. 

3. Now with regard to the 
Apostles and Prophets, ac- 
cording to the decree (com- 
mand) of the gospel, so do ye. 

4. Let every Apostle that 
Cometh to you be received as 
the Lord."" 

^^Matt. X. 40. 

2. Hear Mm not.] 2 John 10 : "If any one cometh unto you, and bringeth 
not this teaching, receive him not into your house." 

Beceive Jiim as the Lord.] Matt. x. 40: " He that receiveth you receiveth 
me, and he that receivetli me receiveth Him that sent me." John xiii. 20. 
Br. quotes also Ignatius, Ad. Eph. vi. 

3. Apostles and. Prophets] The first order of ministers whose field is the 
world. They have their commission directly from the Lord : while Bishops 
and Deacons are elected by the congregation, XV. 1. 

The decree of the Gospel.] The directions of Christ in sending out the 
Twelve and the Seventy, Matt. x. 5-12 ; Luke ix. 1-6 ; x. 4-21. δόγμα in 
the sense of decree, ordinance, as in Luke ii. 1 ; Acts xvi. 4 ; xvii. 7 ; Eph. 
ii. 15. 

4. Apostle.] In a wider and secondary sense ; as in Acts xiv. 4, 14 : 
Kom. xvi. 7 ; 1 Cor. xv. 5, 7; 1 ii. 6. A wandering evangelist or 
itinerant preacher who carries the Gospel to the unconverted, and is there- 
fore not allowed to remain in one place. See the description of this class of 
ministers in Euseb. H. E. iii. 37, quoted on p. 68. Hermas uses the 
term likewise in the wider sense and speaks of forty Apostles and Teachers, 
Simil. ix. 15, 16, 17, 25 ; Vis. iii. 5. The Did. cannot mean the original 
Twelve and Paul, for to them the restriction of ver. 5 would not apply 
(Paul sojourned three years in Ephesus, and eighteen months, and again three 
months in Corinth). It is a second and weaker generation. An indication 
that the book was written after a.d. 70. According to Mommsen, in Corpus 
Inscript. Lot., Tom. ix. num. 648 (Berol. 1883), the -Jews used the term 
" Apostle ■' till the sixth century for a special class of officials. This is con- 


5. Ου* μένει δε ήμεραν μι- 5. But he shall not remain 
αν, εάν δε ij χρεία, ηαι την [longer than] one day ; and, 
αλλην, ιρειζ δε εάν μείνι;ι, if need be, another [day] 
-φενδοηροφητηζ εστίν. also ; but if he remain three 

[days] he is a false prophet. 

6. Έζερχόμενοζ δε 6 άπόσ- 6. And when the Apostle 
τολοζ μ7]δεν λαμβανετω ει μ?} departeth, let him take noth- 
άρτον εωζ ού ανλισΒψ εάν δε ing except bread [enough] 
άρχνριον αίτΐ}, φευδοπροψή- till he reach his lodging 
T/;? εστί. (night-quarters). But if he 

ask for money, he is a false 

7. Και πάντα ηροφήτην \a- 7. And every prophet who 
'λούντα εν πνευματι ου πείρα- speaks in the spirit 3"e shall 

* ov, om. Hi.; ov μενεϊ δε ει μη, Ha.; οΰ, with μενέτω: "when he 
makes a stay, let Mm do it for one day (only)," Zahn. 

firmed by the Theodosian Code (Lib. xvi. Tit. viii., Lex 14), which speaks 
of Jewish Presbyters and those " quos ipsi Apostolus vocant." 

5. Not longer than one day.] The Jerus. MS. is here evidently defective. 
Hi. omits ov, Ha. inserts ει μή (comp. XII. 2), Ζ. changes ov into ov and 
supplies μενέτω {where he makes a stay, let him stay only for a day). 

Three days.] Two or three da\'s of hospitality are granted to every way- 
faring Christian brother, XII. 2, but to an Apostle only one or two days. 
This restriction indicates a frequent abuse of the Apostolic or Evangelistic 
office for purposes of gain. Lucian's historical novel Peregrinus Proteus, 
in which he ridicules both the Cynic philosophy and the Christian religion, 
furnishes a commentary. 

A false Prophet.'] Here equivalent for false Apostle. False Apostles are 
mentioned 2 Cor. xi. 13; Rev. ii. 2, 20; false Prophets, Matt. vii. 15; xxiv. 
11; Mark xiii. 22; Luke vi. 26 ; 2 Pet. ii. 1; 1 John iv. 1. Ha. quotes Ter- 
tullian Oe Prceser. iv. : " Qui pseudo-prophstce sunt, nisi falsi prcedica- 
tores ? Qui pseudo-apostoli nisi adulteri evangelisatores ? " 

Hermas, in the Eleventh Commandment, draws from experience an inter- 
esting comparison between true and false Prophets. The true Prophet, he 
says, is "gentle, quiet, humble, and abstains from all wickedness and from 
the vain desire of this world, and makes himself the poorest of all men;" 
while the false Prophet "exalts himself, is hasty, shameless, talkative, and 
takes hire for his prophecy. " Comp. the notes of Ha. and the art. of Bon- 
wetsch, Die Prophetic im apost. und nach apost. Zcitaltcr, quoted p. 143. 

6. Comp. Matt. x. 9, 10 ; Mark vi. 8; Luke ix. 3. 

7. Speaks in {the) spirit.] tv πνευματι, without the article, in distinction 
from εν voi] that is in ecstasy, or in a highly exalted state of mind when it 
is the organ of the Holy Spirit. 1 Cor. xii. 3; xiv. 2; Rev. i. 10; iv, 2. 



σετε ονδε διακρινεΐτε• τΐάΰα 
γα ft αμαρτία άψε'^η^εται^ αυ- 
τή όέ ή αμαρτία ουκ αφεΒ?/- 

8. Ον ηάζ δε 6 λαλών εν 
πνεΰματι ττροφητηζ εστίν, 
αλλ εαν εχΐ] τον? τροπουζ Κυ- 
ρίου. Ατΐο ούν των τροττων 
γνωα^ηβεται 6 ιρευδοπροφη- 
τηζ και 6 προφ7]τΐ]ζ. 

9. Κα\ πάζ 7τροφ7]τηζ ο ρι- 
ζών* τραπεζαν εν πνεΰματι 
ου φαγεται aw αυτηζ, ειοε 
μ7]γε ψ ευδ οπ ροφητηζ ε'ο'τί. 

10. Πάζ δί 7ΐ ροψητηζ διδαβ- 
κων τ?}ν αλι/Βειαν, ει α δι- 
δάσκει ον ποιεί, ψευδοπροφη- 
τηζ εστί. 

11. Πάζ δε προφΐ}τηζ δεδο- 
κιμασμενο? αλ?/Βιι^όζ ποιών \ 
ει? μυστηριον ηοσμικον \ έκ- 

not try nor proye ; for every 
sin shall be forgiven, but this 
sin shall not be forgiven. 

8. Not every one that 
speaks in the spirit is a Pro- 
phet, but only if he has the 
behavior (the ways) of the 
Lord. By their behavior 
then shall the false prophet 
and the [true] Prophet be 

9. And no Prophet that or- 
ders a table in the spirit eats 
of it [himself], unless he is a 
false prophet. 

10. And every Prophet who 
teaches the truth if he does 
not practice what he teaches, 
is a false projiliet. 

11. And every approved, 
genuine Prophet, who makes 
assemblies for a worldly mys- 

* όμιζοον, Br. et al. \ μΐ'ών, Hi. 

\τίο6μικών, Hi., κϋΰβίον, Petersen ; τΐοιώι^ μυότ. κοόιι. είζ kuuX. Τα. 

This sin shall not be forgiven.] Matt. xii. 31 : " Every sin and blasphemy- 
shall be forgiven unto men ; but the blasphemy against the Spirit shall not 
be forgiven." 

8. Conformity to the Lord's example is the criterion of a true Prophet. 
"By their fruits ye shall know them." Comp. Matt. vii. 15-23. 

9. Order a table. 1 A love-feast ordered in ecstasy. A strange fact not men- 
tioned elsewhere. The true Prophet will not profane a sacred ordinance 
to personal uses by making a meal of the Eucharist. Gordon proposes a 
different reading, ύ ρέζων, "who is offering." ρέζω is a rare poetic word 
occurring in Homer and Hesiod, in the sense to perform a sacrifice. 

11. ποΰμικόν.'] Belonging to this world (in a local, not in a moral sense), 
mundane, worldly ox earthly, as opposed to lit ov pa viov, heavenly ; comp. 
Heb. ix. 1, Avhere the tabernacle is called r<3 αγιην κοΰμικόν, the sanctu- 
ary of this world, as distinct from the sanctuary in heaven. In Rabbinical 
Hebrew it was used as a substantive. 

τΐοτών εϋ uvortjfjiov κοό/ιικόΐ' Ικκλΐ^όια?.] The most difficult passage 
in the Did. and not yet satisfactorily explained. Br. admits that it is 



7ΐλ7]σίαζ, μη διδάσκων δ& ποι- terj [?], but does not teach 
eir όσα αντόζ ποιεί, ov upi' [others] to do what he him- 
^7]σεται έφ' υμών μετά Θεού self does, shall not bo judged 

obscure and indistinct ((>;ίθΓ£Ζί'οϊ' και άόαφεζ), and proposes his explanation 
with diffidence (p. 44). τίυιών seems to require an object; ίκκλΊ]βίαί may 
be the plural accusative depending on ποιών, or the singular genitive 
depending on μυόΐήριυν. The earthly mystery may be the Church itself 
in this world, as the Gospel is called a mystery (Rom. xvi. 25, 26). For 
the absence of the article in the latter case, eorap. Heb. ii. 12 {'v μεΰω 
έκκλ.) and 3 John 6. — Different renderings: Fa.: who makes assemblies 
for a Tnystery of this tcorld. H. and B. : acting with a mew to the mystery 
of the church on earth. St. : dealing with reference to the mystery of the 
church hire below. H. and N. : working into tlie m,ystery of tlie church in 
the world. 0. : with a view to the xuorld-mystery of the church. Sp. : icho 
summons assemblies for the purpose of showing an earthly mystery. W. : der 
Versammlungen zu einem Geheimniss vor der Welt macht. Ha. : der im 
Hinblick auf das irdische G-eheimniss der Kirche handelt. Z. : wenn er eine 
symbolische Handlung weltichcr Art voUzieht. Kr. : icenn er in Bczug auf 
die Ehc die etwas Weltliches und doch in der Kirche (nach Eph. V. 32) etwas 
Geheimniss oolles ist, fur seine Person starke Binge leistct {durch Verheira- 
thiing und WiederverJieirathung). B.-M.: exergant son corps {?) en vue du 
mystere terrcstre de Veglise {sans imposer aux autres ses pratiques ascetiques). 
Sa. : travaillant au mystere terrestre de I'eglisc. Hi. changes the reading 
ποιών into /ινών, and κοίίμικόν into κοσμικών, " initians in mysterium 
secularium ecclesias " (with reference to the Gnostic and Montanistic distinc- 
tion between psychical or secular, and pneumatic or spiritual churches, but 
has found no response. Petersen (p. 8) proposes κοόηιον. chaste, in oppo- 
sition to the unchaste mysteries of the heathen; likewise without response. 

Interpretations: (1) Br., Z., Fa., R., Sp. : symbolical actions like those of 
Isaiah (xx. 2, 4), Jeremiah (xix. 1; xxvii. 2; xxviii. 10), Ezekiel (iv. 12-v. 3), 
Hosea (i. 2 sqq.), Agabus (Acts xi. 28; xxi. 11). Br.: ίκκληόιάζαον τον 
λαόν ειζ το έττιδεΐςαι αντφ ερχον όνμβολικόν ό αντόζ ίβχάζεται 
επΙ παρακλήόει και νουΒεβ/α των πιοτών. The Prophet would at 
times perform a striking and exciting symbolic action, like the old Prophets; 
but in all these dramatic shows there was grave danger of vanity and impo- 
sition for the sake of gain. Hence the author, while permitting such excep- 
tional exhibitions, guards against abuse by insisting that the Prophet should 
receive no pay, and not teach others to perform like acts. (2) Ha. : absti- 
nence from marriage. He refers to Eph. v. 32, Ignatius, Ad Polyc. v., and 
TortuUian, Be Monog., xi., which recommend celibacy as being more consist- 
ent with a perfect Cliiistian than marriage. But this is far-fetched, and by 
the great mystery Paul does not mean celibacy, but marriage or rather the 
union of Christ with his church. Besides celibacy needed no apology in view 
of the ascetic tendency which set in very early in opposition to the bottom- 
less sexual depravity of the heathen world. (3) Krawutzcky (in his second 
article, I. c, p. 581, note) takes the very opposite view, that the Bid. allows 


γαρ έχει την κρίσιν ώσαν- by you ; for lie has liis juclg- 
τωζ γαρ εποίησαν και οι αρ- ment with God (or, his jndg- 
χαΐοι προφήται. ment is in the hands of God); 

for so did also the ancient 


12. "0? δ^ αν είπκ) εν ττνεν- 12. But whosoever says in 

μάτι' Αόζ μοι αργύρια η %τε- the sj^irit : Give me money 

ρά τίνα, ουκ ακούσεσ^ε αν- or any other thing, ye shall 

τού• εάν δε περί άλλων νσ- not listen to him ; but if he 

the Prophets to marry and even to remarry, after the example of some of the 
Hebrew Prophets, provided only they do not teach others to imitate their ex- 
ample. He refers to the case of Hos. i. 2 ; iii. 1 ; but this marriage to an 
adulteress is probably to be understood figuratively. (4) E. B. Birks (in 
" The Guardian" for June 11, 1884): " making garniture of a church for a 
sacramental celebration." Prophets may make shrines or altars for the cele- 
bration of the Eucharist so long as they do not encourage others in set- 
ting up separate conventicles. (5) Hicks in " The Guardian," approved by 
E. \^enables in "The British Quart. Rev." for May, 1885 (p. 353): calling 
assemblies of the church for the jiurpose of revealing future events in the 
world's history, as were foretold by Agabus (Acts xi. 28), or impending 
judgments on the enemies of the church. Such predictions might provoke 
disloyalty to the civil government. This gives very good sense. (6) Gordon : 
" doing with an eye to the church's mystery in the world," i.e., the hidden 
potency of the Kingdom of God on earth. (7) Sabatier identifies the mys- 
tery of the Church with the mystery of the Gospel, Eph. vi 19, and contrasts 
it with the mystery of iniquity, 2 Thess. ii. 7. " Annoncev VEvangile, c'est 
hater la venue des temps, c'est aider le mystere terrestre dc I'Eglise" (eomp. 
Apoc. X. 7 : " then is finished the mystery of God, according to the good 
tidings which he declared to his servants the prophets"). — I venture, modestly, 
to suggest two more interpretations. (8) "The earthly mystery of the 
church" is the sacrament or the sacrifice of the Eucharist, which in the 
Greek church is emphatically called μνότήβίον (comp. Eph. v. 32). This 
might be supported by the connection with "the ordering a table" just 
spoken of (XI 9), and with Chs. IX. and X. and XIV. , all of which treat of 
the Eucharistic sacrifice ; but it does not suit the last clause of the verse. (9) 
The observance of the ceremonial law, or the bearing of the whole yoke ; 
comp. VI. 2 and the note there. Upon the whole, however, the interpreta- 
tion of Br. is, perhaps, the least objectionable, and next to it that of Hicks. 
The ancient Prophets] of the Old Testament. Symbolic actions are re- 
ported of several of thera, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea. The reference 
to the Hebrew Prophets is natural, and it is necessary if we assign the Did. 
to the first century. Ha. and Hi., who date it from the middle of the second 
century, understand the early Christian Prophets, as Agabus, the daughters 
of Philip, Judas, Silas. Quadratus. But they could hardly be called αρχαίοι 
even then without distinguishing them from the still older Hebrew Prophets. 



τερούντων εΓπ}^ δούναι, μη- bid you to give for others that 
δεϊζ αυτόν κρινέτω. lack, let no one judge him. 

Κεφ. ιβ'. 

1. Πάζ δε 6 ερχομενοζ εν 
ονόματι Κυρίου δεχΒί/τω, 
έπειτα δε δοκιμαΰαντεζ αυ- 
τόν γνω^εσΒε, σύνεσιν γαρ 
"Χέζεται *, δεζιάν και αρίΘτε- 

2. Ει μεν παρόδιόζ εστίν 6 
ερχόμενο?, βοηΒεϊτε αυτώ 
όσον δύνασθε• ου μένει δε 
πρόζ νμάζ ει μι) δύο η τρεϊζ 
■ήμεραζ, εαν ij αναχπη. 

3. Ει δε Βελει πρόζ ύμάζ αα- 
^ήσαί\, τεχνίτηζ ών, εργα- 
Β,εβ^ω jtai ψαγετω. 

Chap. ΧΙΙ. 

Receiving Disciples. 

1. Let every one that comes 
in the name of the Lord be 
received, and then proving 
him ye shall know him ; for 
ye shall have understanding 
right and left. 

2. If indeed he who comes 
is a wayfarer, help him as 
much as ye can ; but he shall 
not remain with you longer 
than two or three days, unless 
there be necessity. 

3. If he wishes to settle 
among you, being a crafts- 
man (artisan), let him work 
and eat (earn his living by 

* Είετε, Br. &e. 

\yia'^i6ai. Ha, Hi. Z. 

Notes to Chapter XII. 

1. Every one] who professes Christ. Hospitality is to be exercised to all 
without distinction, but not to the extent of encoxiraging idleness. Every 
one who can must work. Corap. 3 Thess iii. 10-12. 

Ye shall knoio, etc.] Ye shall know the difference between right and wrong, 
between true and false Christianity. The Ap. Const, vii. 28 jiaraphrase the 
passage: " Ye are, able to know the right hand from the left and to dis- 
tinguish false teachers from true teachers." Br. refers to 2 Cor. vi. 7 (" by 
the armor of righteousness on the righth and and the left ") ; 3 Tim. ii. 7 (" the 
Lord shall give thee understanding in all things "). Ha. takes ΰύνεΰι ν e'^ere 
as a parenthesis. 

3. παρόδιυζ.] Post-classical for TrcxpoSirjji, traveller. Tht» Sept. has 
ττάβυδυζ, 3 Kings xii. 4 (which in classical Greek means entrance, side- 
entraitce). Paul uses iv τΐαρόδω, by the loeiy, 1 Cor. xvi. 7. The .Jews, hav- 
ing no country of their own, and being engaged in merchandise were great 
travellers, and so were the Jewish Christians (as Aquila and Priscilla, whom 
we find in Rome, Corinth, and Epliesus, Acts xvi. 3-5 ; xviii. 2!. This 
habit tended to strengthen the ties of brotherhood and to promote catholicity. 

3. Let him ivork, etc.] 2 Thess. iii. 10. "If any will not work, neither 


4. El ot- ovK έχει τεχν?ρ^^ 4. But if he has not handi- 
κατά την αννεαιν νμών προ- craft (trade), provide accord- 
νοι/σατε, πώ? μη αργόζ μεΒ' ing to your understanding 
νμών 8,ήσεται χριστιανόζ. that no Christian shall live 

5. Ei δ^ ου Βέλει ούτω ποι- idle among you. 

ειν, χριστέμπορος εστίν προ- 5. And if he will not act 
σίχετε από των τοιούτων. thns he is a Christ-trafficker. 

Beware of such. 

Κεφ. ly. Chap. XIII. 

Treatment of Prophets. 

1. Πάζ δε προφηττ^ζ αλη^ι- 1. But every true Prophet 

νόζ, Βέλων 7iaSi)a(xi* π ροζ who wishes to settle among 

νμάζ, οίζιόζ εστί τήζ τροφήζ you is worthy of his food (or, 

αυτόν. support). 

* ηα^ίόαι, Ha. Hi. Z. 

let him eat." Paul set the noblest example of self-support, working at his 
own trade at night after preaching the gospel during the day. The early 
Christians were mostly of the lower classes, artisans, freedmen, slaves. 
Society, like a house, is built and regenerated from the bottom upwards, not 
from the top downwards. Ha. : ' ' Wie nachdrUcJclich tcird die PflicJit der 
Arbeit eingcscJidrft, imd ziigleich die Solidaritat oiler Oemeinderjlieder ! " 

A Ckristian.l The name only once in the Did. It arose among the Gentiles 
in Antioch between 40 and 50, Acts xi. 26, and occurs again xxvi. 28, and 
1 Pet iv. 16. The usual designations among the Christians were, "dis- 
ciples," "believers," "brethren," "saints." The last is used in the same 
genei-al sense in Did. IV. 2. 

χριότέμτΐοβοζ.] A C/irist-trafficker, Christ-monger, i. e., one who makes 
gain out of his Christian profession (comp. 1 Tim. vi. 5); a new word, but 
expressive and used afterwards by Pseudo-Ignatius and Pseudo-Clement. 
Barnabas (eh. x.) warns against selfish idlers who sponge upon Christian 
charity. Ignatius {Ad Eph. vii.) speaks of men " whose practice is to carry 
about the name (of Christ) in Avicked guile," whom we must shun " as wild 
beasts." Polycarp ( J.(Z Phil, vi.) warns the Philippians against those "who 
bear the name of the Lord in hypocrisy." Hermas {Mand. xi.) 
describes an itinerant charlatan who demands the first place in the assembly, 
lives in great luxury, and refuses to jirophesy except for payment in advance. 
Lucian's Peregrinus Proteus is such an impostor λυΙιο deceived the simple- 
hearted Christians. That race will never die out in this world. 

Notes to Chapter XIII. 

1. Every Prophet wTio wishes to settle among you.] There were two classes 
of Prophets, itinerant and stationary or local ; while the Apostles were only 
itinerants (XI. o). 

Worthy of his food] or support, maintenance, no more and no less. The 


2. 'Πσαύτωζ διδάσκαλος a- 2. Likewise a true Teacher 
λη^ινόζ εστίν αξιοζ nai αν- is himself worthy, like the 
τόζ ωσπερ 6 εργάτηζ τήζ τρο- workman, of his food." 

<^7/s avTov 

3. Πάσαν ovv απαρχην 3. Therefore thou shalt 
γεννημάτων \ηνοΰ και άλω- take and give all the first- 
νοζ βοών τε 7ΐαϊ προβάτων fruit of the produce of the 
λαβών δώσειζ την \απαρχην'\^ wine-press and thrcshing- 
τοιζ προφηταιζ' αυτοί γαρ floor, of oxen and sheep, to 
εϊσιν oi αρχιερεϊζ υμών. the Prophets ; for they are 

your chief-priests. 

*umit r, άτΐίχρχ. Br. et aZ. =Matt. x. 10. 

princijile and duty of ministei-ial support are laid down by Christ, Matt. s. 
10 ; Luke x. 7, and by Paul 1 Cor. ix. 7, 9, 13, 14 ; 1 Tim, τ. 18. 

2. Likewise a true Teacher.^ Prophets and Teachers are associated in 
Actsxiii. 1, distinguished in 1 Cor. xii. 28, 29; Eph. iv. 11. Paul cails him- 
self "an Apostle and Teacher" of the Gentiles, 1 Tim. ii. 7; 2 Tim. i. 11. 
Rulers (7/Koi7i£j'Gz) and Teachers are identified in Heb. xiii. 7, 17. See 
the note of Ha. , p. 50 sq. 

All the first-fruits.] According to the provisions of the Mosaic law, Ex. 
xxii. 29 ; Num. xviii. 12 ; Deut. xviii. 3, 4 ; Ez. xliv. 30 ; Neh. x. 35-37. 
See Smith's or Schafif's Bible Diet. sub. First-fruits. The law prescribed also 
tithes, i. e. the tenth of all produce, as well as of flocks and cattle ; they 
belong to .Jehovah and were paid to the Levites as the reward for their 
service, who were again ordered to devote a tenth of these receipts to the 
maintenance of the high-priest (Num. xviii. 21-28). The tithe is not men- 
tioned in the Did., but the Ap. Const. \ni. 29 add after the first-fruits : 
"Thou shalt give the tenth of thy increase to the orphan, and to the widow, 
and to the poor and to the stranger." 

For they are your chief priests.] In theN. T. άρχιερενζ is u.sed (1) of 

the Jewish high-priest (''^"'?Π \\β^., ό ίερενζ ό μέχαζ). Matt. xxvi. 3, 
62, 63,65, etc.; (2) of Christ, the true and eternal high-priest, in the 
Ep. to the Hebrews (ii. 17 ; iii. 1, etc.) ; (3) in the plural, of the members of 
the Sanhedrin, and of the heads of the twenty-four classes of priests (Matt. ii. 
4, etc.). The N. T. teaches the universal priestliood of all believers (2 Pet. 
ii. 9; Rev. i. 6), but not a special priesthood of ministers in distinction from 
the laity. This passage gives the first intimation of the sacerdotal vieAV of the 
ministry, but the author confines it to the Prophets, and probably uses the 
word in a figurative or spiritual sense. The idea crept early and easily from 
the synagogue into the church, first by way of comparison and soon after in 
a realistic sense. About the same time (between a.d. 90 and 100) Bishop 
Clement of Rome {Ad Cor. ch. xl.) significantly compared the Christian 
ministry to the Aaronic priesthood and made a distinction between the 


4. ^Edv δί: μη εχτ^τε -ηροφη- 4. But if ye have no Pro- 
r/;j', δότε τοΐζ πτωχοΊζ' phet, give to the poor. 

5. Εάν σιτίαν ποιί}?, τ?}ν 5. If tliou preparest bread, 
απαρχ?}ν λαβών δός κατά τηχ^ take the first fruit and give 
εντολή ν according to the command- 

6. Ήσαντωζ 7ίεράμιον οι- 6. Likewise when thou 
vov η ελαίου άνοίξαζ, την opencst a jar of wine or of 
άπαρχην λαβών δοζ τοϊζ προ- oil, 'take the first-fruit and 
φηταιζ. give to the Prophets. 

7. Αργυρίου δε ηαϊ ίματισ- 7. And of silver, and rai- 
μοΰ και παντοζ κτηματοζ λα- ment, and every possession, 
βών την ατταρχην ώζ αν σοι take the first-fruit, as may 
δοΒ,ϊ)^ (Jo? κατά την εντολην. seem good to thee, and give 

according to the command- 

clergy and laity. The passage has been declared an interpolation, but with- 
out any good reason. The next distinct trace of this idea we find in a letter 
of Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus, about a.d. 190, to Victor, Bishop of Rome, 
as preserved by Eusebius (v. 34). Polycrates calls St. John "a priest who 
wore the sacerdotal plate" (ίερεύζ το πέταλον περφορικόί). Comp. Glmrcli 
Hist. ii. 216 ; and i. 431. After the close of the second century all the 
Bishops and Presbyters were called priests {ίερεϊζ, sacerdotes), and the 
Bishop sometimes TiigTi-'priest {άρχτρενζ, summus sacerclos, pontifex maxi- 
mus). Tertullian uses the terms {De Bapt. vii. ; De Pud. i. ; De Exiiort. 
Cast.), but as a Montanist he protested against a priestly order and 
asserted the universal priesthood of all believers. Cyprian is the chief cham- 
pion of sacerdotal episcopacy in the Ante-Nicene age. In the Ap. Const. 
the hierarchical and sacerdotal system is fully developed. I will only quote 
one passage (ii. 25) : " The Bishops are your high-priests, as the Presbyters 
are your priests, and your present Deacons instead of your Levites ; so are 
also your readers, your singers, your porters, your deaconesses, your widows, 
your virgins, and your orphans ; but He who is above all these is the High 
Priest." The sacerdotal view prevailed in all Christendom till the time of 
the Reformation, which returned to the primiti^^e idea of the universal priest- 
hood of believers. See Church Hist. ii. 127, and 150 sq., and Lightfoot, Ex- 
curs, on the Christian Ministry in Com. on PMlippians, p. 253 sqq. 

If ye hate no Prophet.'] There were therefore congregations without 
Prophets, but not without Bishops and Deacons (XV. 1). In the absence of 
the former the latter were to teach. The Did. marks the transition period 
from the Apostles and Prophets who were passing away, to the Bishops and 
Presbyters who began to take their place. 

όιτίαν.'] όιτία means in Byzantine Greek hatch or baking of bread. (See 


Κεφ. ιδ'. Chap. ΧΙΛ^ 

The Loud's Day and the Sacrifice. 

1. Κατά ηνριαηην de Kvpi- 1. And on the Lord's Day 

ov σνναχΒίντεζ κλάσατε άρ- of the Lord'' come together, 

τον και ευχαριστήσατε προ- and break bread, and give 

σεξομολογησάμενοι^ τα πα- thanks, having before con- 

"Rev. i. 10. 

* TtfjoEzou. V. Gebhardt, Hi. Ha. [in the notes but not in the text] Z. 

Sophocles, Gr. Lex., p. 990.) In classical Greek όιτία is the plural of 
ΰιτίον, and means grain or food. 

XoTES TO Chapter XIV. 

This chapter interrupts the connection and should precede Ch. IX. But 
the writer, before proceeding to the local officers of the Church, inserts here 
a direction concerning the Lord's Day observance and public worship which 
is to be conducted chiefly by the Prophets (comp. X. 7). Perhaps the more 
immediate association in his mind was the priest (XIII. 3) and the sacrifice 
(XIV. 1); for the ideas of priest, altar, and sacrifice are inseparable, Avhether 
they be used in the realistic or in the figurative sense. 

1. On the Lord's Day of the Lord.'\ The first use of κνριακή as a noun, 
but with the pleonastic addition τον κυρίου. St. John (Rev, i. 10) uses it 
first as an adjective, κυριαηή ηιιέρα, Dominica dies. The resurrection of 
Christ, his appearance to the di.sciples, and the pentecostal outpouring of 
the Holy Spirit, all of which took place on the first day of the week, are 
the basis of the Christian Sunday. Its observance in the Apostolic age 
may be inferred from Acts xx. 7; 1 Cor. xvi. 2; Rev. i. 10. The Did. 
gives us the first post-Apostolic testimony for Sunday as a day of public 
worship. Pliny (Letter to Trajan, x. 97) caUs it "the stated day," on 
which the Christians in Bithynia assembled before daylight, to sing hymns 
to Christ as a God, and to bind themselves by a sacramentum. Bar- 
nabas (Ep. XV.) calls it " the eighth " day, in opposition to the Jewish Sab- 
bath. Ignatius {Ad Ilagnes. ix.) calls it κνριακτ}, likewise in opposition to 
the Jewish observance (ιχηκέτι ΰίχββατίζοντεζ, αλλά κατά κυριακήν 
ζώντεζ). Justin Martyr : " the day called Sunday "(;/ την Ήλιου λεγο- 
μένη ημέρα, Apol. i. Ixvii.), on which the Christians hold their common 
assembly, because it is the first day of creation and the day on which 
Jesus Christ their Saviour rose from the dead. 

Break bread and give thanks.'] Designation of the Agape and Eucharist. 
Acts ii. 46 : xx. 7, 11 ; 1 Cor. x. 16. This was the regular Lord's Day ser- 
vice, connected no doubt with Scripture reading, praying, singing, exhorta- 
tion, according to Old Testament precedent. Ha.: '' Es ist von hochster 
Bedeutttng fur die Geschichte des Cultus, dass der Verfasser der Did. fur 
den Sonntagsgottesdienst lediglich die Feier des Ahendmahls nach vorher- 
gegangener Exhomologese vorschreibt." 

προΰεζομολοχηϋάμενοι] having confessed in addition to, or in connec- 


ραπτώματα νμών, οπωζ na- fessed your transgressions/ 
Bapa η Βνσία ημών t]. tliat your sacrifice may be 

2. Πάζ de βχων τ?}ι^* αμφι- 2. Let no one wlio has a 
βολίαν μετά τον εταίρου atj- dispute with his fellow come 
τον μη σννελ^έτω νμΐν εωζ together with you until they 

''Comp. James v. 16. 

* τΐΐ'(ϊ, von Gebhardt, Ha. Z. 

tion with, thanksgiving; but this verb occurs nowhere else and is probably a 
writing error for ττροεξομ, having before confessed. This emendation was 
suggested by von Geb. and is adopted by Ha. in the notes, though not in the 
text. First confession of sin, then thanksgiving. Confession is here en- 
joined as a regular part of public worship, and is also enforced IV. 1 4 (t 7' 
Ικκληβία t'conoXoyijoy τα τΐαβαητωματά όον). Comp. Jas. ν 16. In 
the Ap. Const, vii. 30 the confession of sin in connection with the Eucharist 
is omitted. 

That yotir sacrifice may be pure.] Svo/a (from 3νω, to Icillancl offer as 
sacrifice) is often used tropically of spiritual sacrifices of praise and self-con- 
secration, Rom. xii. 1 (Βνΰίαν ζώΰαν) : 1 Pet. η5{πνενμαΓίΗαζ ^voiaS); 
Phil. ii. 17 (2υΰία και λειτον^χία τηζ τΐίότεωζ); Heb. xiii. 15 {άναφέ- 
βωμεν Svoi'av άίνέΰεωζ διατταντόζ τω ^εω.) The Eucharist, as thp 
name indicates, was regarded as a feast of thanksgiving for all the mercies 
of God, temporal and spiritual, especially for the redemption, and as a 
sacrifice of renewed consecration of the whole congregation to Christ in re- 
turn for his self-sacrifice for our sins. The elements of bread and wine were 
tokens and types of the gifts of nature and the gifts of grace with reference 
to the'broken body and shed blood. They were presented as a thank-offering 
by the members of the congregation, and the remnants were given to the 
poor. In these gifts the Christian people yielded themselves as a priestly 
race to God, the giver of all good. Justin Martyr, Oial. c. Tryph. Jud. c. 
cxvii. : " Accordingly God, anticipating all the sacrifices which we offer 
through this name, and which Jesus the Christ enjoined us to offer, i. e., in the 
Eucharist of the bread and the cup, and which are presented by Christians in 
all places throughout the world, bears witness that they are well-pleasing to 
Him." In his account of the celebration of the Eucharist, A^wl. i. Ixv., Jus- 
tin M. says: " When the President (the Bishop) has given thanks^ and all the 
people have expressed their assent [by saying ^wicn], those who are called by 
us ' Deacons ' give to each of those present to partake of the bread and wine 
mixed with water over which the thanksgiving was pronounced, and to 
those who are absent they carry away a portion (Ixvi.). And this food is 
called among us * Eucharist,' of which no one is allowed to partake but those 
who believe that the things we teach are true, and who have been washed 
with the washing for the remission of sins and who are living as Christ has 

2. Until they are reconciled.'] According to the direction of Christ, Matt 


ού διαλλαγώσιν, ίνα μη κοι- are reconciled, that your sac- 

νω^ΐ\ η Β^νσία ?}κών *. rifice may not be defiled.* 

3. AvT?] γάβ εστίν ή ρηΒεΐ- 3. For this is that which 

σα υπό Κνρίον Έν παντι was spoken by the Lord : '^ In 

τοπω και χρόνω ττροσφερειν every place and time offer me 

* νμών, Br. &c. •'' Comp. Matt. v. 23, 24. 

V. 23, 24. Reconciliation among men is a necessary prerequisite of a worthy 
communion which celebrates the reconciliation between God and man 
through the atoning sacrifice of Christ. This is implied here. Br. com- 
pares Irenjeus, Adv. Hcer. iv. 18, 1. 

May not he defiled] Br. quotes Matt. xv. 11-20 ; Mark vii. 15-23; Acts 
X. 15, 21, 28 ; Heb. ix. 13. Justin M. says (Apol. i. Ixvi.) : . . . " So we, who 
through the name of Jesus have believed as one man in God the Maker of 
all, have been stripped, through the name of his first-begotten Son, of the 
filthy garments, that is of our sins ; and being vehemently inflamed by the 
word of his calling, we are the true high-priestly race of God, as even God 
himself bears witness, saying, that in every place among the Gentiles sacri- 
fices are presented to Him well pleasing and pure (Mai. i. 10-12.) Now God 
receives sacrifices from no one, except through his priests." 

3. Spoken by the Lord.] κύριοζ seems to refer to Christ, just mentioned 
in ver. 1, and implies that the writer believed in the pre-existence of 
Christ who spoke through the Prophets ; comp. 1 Pet. i. 10, 11. (An argu- 
ment against the charge of Ebionism.) The distinction made by Gordon 
that the Did. uses κύριοζ without the article of God, and ό κνριυζ of Christ 
is untenable ; see the title διδαχή κνρίον. 

In every place.] A free quotation of Mai. i. 11, 14 (Sept.). The only 
quotation from the canonical books of the 0. T. except that in XVI. 7 from 
Zech. xiv. 5. See above, Ch. XXIV. 78 sqq. 

The passage of Malachi was generally understood in the ancient church to 
be a prophecy of the eucharistic sacrifice. Justin M. refers to it frequently, 
Apol. i. Ixvi. ; J)i(d. c. TrypJi. Jud. c. xxviii. ; xli. ; cxvi. ; exvii. ; so also 
Irena3us Adv. Hcer. iv. 17, 5, 6 ; 18, 1, 4 ; Clement of Alex. Strom, v. 14, 
136; TertuUian, Adv. Jud. v. ; Adv. Marc. iii. 22. The " Second Ordinances 
of the Apostles ■" {δρ.ντεραι των "Άποΰτ. διατάξετε) spoken of in the sec- 
ond Irenaius Fragment (ed. Stieren i. 854, and ed. Harvey ii. 500), probably 
refer to the Eucharistic sacrifice as the new sacrifice of the New Covenant 
{νέα προόφορα iv τ^ κχχιν-ζ) διοί^ήκτ;)), in the place of the old sacrifices 
which ceased with the destruction of the Temple. Br. thinks it not unlikely 
{ίΐηδεν ani^avov)th2it these second Apostolic Ordinances are identical 
with our Did. This is at least far more probable than the opposite conject- 
ure of Krawutzcky that the Did. was written in Ebionitic opposition to 
those Ordinances on account of the omission of νέα. See above p. 24. 
note. Bickeil, on the contrary, finds here the germ of the Roman mass, and 
R. Catholic controversialists constantly appeal to the same passage of Mala- 
chi in proof of that institution. But the Did. plainly means only a thank- 


μοι Βνσίαν καΒαραν οτι a pure sacrifice, for I am a 

βίχσιλενζ μέγαζ ειμί, λέγει great King, saitli the Lord, 

Kvpioiy ηαϊ το ονρμά μου and my name is wonderful 

Βανμαστον ε'ν τοίζ ε'Βνεσι. among the Gentiles."* 

Κεφ. ιε . Chap. XV. 

Bishops and Deacon8. 

1. Χειροτονήσατε ovv εαν- 1. Elect therefore for your- 
τοΐζ επισκότΓονς και διακόνονζ selves Bishoi^s and Deacons 

» Mai. i, 11, 14. 

offering by the whole congregation. The idea of the Lord's Supper as an 

actual though unbloody repetition of the atoning sacrifice on the cross by the 

hands of the priest, came in later in the third century, at the time of Cyprian, 

in connection with the sacerdotal conception of the ministry, and the literal 

interpretation of the altar, Heb. xiii. 10. The truth underlying the Greek 

and Roman mass (for in this respect the two churches are entirely agreed) is 

the commemoration and renewed application of the one all-sufficient sacrifice ι 

on the cross in the Lord's Supper. On the gradual development of the 

idea of the Eucharistic sacrifice see Churcli History, vol. ii. 245 sq. and iii. 

503 sqq. 

Notes to Chapter XV. 

This chapter treats of the local or stated and permanent ministers of the 
gospel. It is separated from the chapters on the Apostles and Prophets 
(XL-XIII.), but connected with them by the eucharistic sacrifice on the 
Lord's Day as the chief part of Christian worship (XIV.). The congregations 
could not rely on the occasional services of these itinerant Teachers, who 
gradually passed away, together with the extraordinary gifts. Comp. above 
Ch. XII., p. 73 sqq. 

1. χειμοτονι'/ϋατε.] The Greek verb means in classical writers to stretch 
out the]iand{xEiiS), ox to vote for hy show of hands ; then to elect, to appoint. 
So in Acts siv. 23 ; 2 Cor. viii. 19 ; and here. Ignatius uses it in the same 
sense, e. g., Ail Philad. x. 1 (ed. Zahn, p. 80 : τΐρέπον ίότίν νι.ιΐν, ώζ in- 
κληόία Βευν, χειροτυνηβαι διάκονον (ίζ το ττρεόβεΰόαι ίκεΐ Βεοΰ 
ττρεΰβείαν) ; comp. Ad Smyrn. xi. 2 ; Ad Polyc. vii. 2. The congrega- 
tional officers, and even the Bishops and Popes were elected and supported 
by the people during the first centuries ; but aftei-ward? the Priests of the 
diocese monopolized the election of the Diocesan, and the college of Cardi- 
nals the election of the Pope. In later ecclesiastical Greek, χειροτονέω 
means to ordain, Ap. Const, viii. 4, 5, and Ap. Can. i.: "Let a Bishop be 
ordained [χετρητονείό^ω] by two or three Bishops," and Ap. Can. ii.: 
"Let a Presbyter or Deacon, and the other Clergy, be ordained by one 
Bishop." Hence the Ap. Const, in the parallel passage vii, 31 substitute 
ηροχηρίραό^ε for χίΐροτονήΰατε. 

ίττιόπόπονζ.] Used in the same sense as ττρεόβύτίροΊ, who for this rea- 
son are omitted, as in the Pastoral Epistles (1 Tim. iii. 8-13, and Phil. i. 1). 


αζίονζ του Κυρίου, αν δρα ζ worthy of the Lord, men 

πραεΐζ jtai αφιλαργνρουζ και meek, and not lovers of 

αλιβεϊζ και δεδοκιμασμίνου?• money, and truthful, and ap- 

υμιν γαρ λειτουργοΰσι και proved; for they too minister 

αυτοϊ την λειτουργίαν τών to you the ministry of the 

προφητών και διδασκάλων. Prophets and Teachers. 

2. Μη ούν νπερίδητε αύ- 2. Therefore despise them 
τούζ• αυτοϊ γάρ είσιν οι τε- not, for they are those that 
τιμημένοι υμών μετά τών are the honored [men] among 
■προφητών και διδασκάλων. you with the Prophets and 


3. Ελέγχετε δε αλλήλους μη 3. And reprove one another 
iV οργί} αλλ' εν είρήνί], ώς not in wrath, but in peace, 
έχετε fV τω ει]αγγελίω• και as ye have [it] in the gos- 
παντι άστοχούντι κατά του pel ; and with every one that 
ετέρου^ μηδεϊζ λαλείτω μηδέ transgresses against another 
παρ^ υμών άκουέτω* έ'ωζ ου let no one speak, nor let him 
μετανοήσΐ}. hear [a word] from you un- 
til he reiDents. 

* άηονέό^ω, Hi. Z. 

The Didachographer and Clement of Rome furnish the last instances of the 
promiscuous use of these two terms which originally signified one and the 
same office. They wrote in the short period of transition from the Presby- 
tero-Episcopate to the distinctive Episcopate. A few years later, in the 
Ignatian Epistles, the two officers are clearly distinct, although the Bishop of 
Ignatius is not yet a diocesan of a number of churches (as in IreniBus, Ter- 
tuUian, and Cyprian), but simply the head of the college of Presbyters and 
Deacons of one congregation. 

αφιλαρχύίίουζ ] Comp. 1. Tim. iii. 4. Love of money and love of 
power were the besetting sins of the clergy from the beginning, in strong 
contrast with the example and teaching of the Apostles. 

τήν λειτουργίαν τών τίροφητών και di8cx6 κάλων.'] The Apostles and 
Prophets were passing away or not always present, and the Bishops and 
Deacons gradually took their place. The qualifications and the duties are 
essentially the same (comp. XI. 11 ; XIII. 1, 2). Hence Paul requires the 
Bishop to be "apt to teach" {διδακτικόζ), 1 Tim. iii. 2 ; 2 Tim. ii. 24, 
This is inconsistent with the idea of a purely administrative and financial 
function of the primitive Bishops, as advocated by Hatch and Harnack. 

2. This ver. likewise implies the gradual transition then going on from the 
extraordinary offices of inspired Apostles and Prophets to the ordinary Bish- 
ops and Presbyters who inherited the dignity of the former, but were liable 
at first to be despised as compared with the former. Hence the warning. 

oi τετιμημενοι] used as a noun, tJiose held m Tionor. 


4. Τάς δί: ενχας υμών ηαι 4. But so clo your prayers 

τ«ς ελεημοσνναζ και πάσας and alms and all your actions 

τάζ πράξειζ οντωζ ποιήσατε as ye have [it] in the gospel 

ώζ έχετε εν τώ εναγγελίω τον of our Lord. 
Kvpiov ημών. 

Κεφ. ιζ. Chap. XVI. 

Watchfulness and the Coming op 

1. Γρηγορείτε νπε ρ της Β,ω- 1 . Watch over your life ; let 

ής υμών οι λύχνοι ν μών μη not your lamps be quenched 

σβεσ^ητωσαν, ηαϊ αϊ οσψύες and let not your loins be un- 

νμών μη εκλνεσ^ωσαν, άλλα loosed/ but be ye ready; for 

γίνεστε έτοιμοι' ου γάρ οιδα- ye know not the hour in 

τε την ωραν εν r) ο Κύριος which our Lord comes. ^ 
ημών έρχεται, 

a Luke χϋ. 35. ^ Matt. xxv. 13. 

Notes to Chaptek XVI. 

This chapter is a very proper conclusion of the Church Manual. It looks 
to the end of the present world and the glorious coming of Christ, and ex- 
horts to watchfulness in view of that event for which Christians should 
always keep themselves in readiness whether it may happen sooner or later. 
The chapter is a summary of the eschatological discourses of our Lord in the 
Synoptical Gospels, especially Matt. xxiv. It might Yvaxe been written before 
the destruction of the old theocracy but for the fact that all the specific 
references to Jerusalem and the Temple are omitted, as if that part of the 
Lord's prophecy had already been fulfilled. Comp. here Matt. xxiv. 43-44 ; 
Luke xii. 35 ; 1 Thess. iv. 15-18; 2 Thess. ii. 1-12; 2 Tim. iii. 1-7; Jas. 
V. 7-11; 2 Pet. iii., Jude, and the Apocalypse. 

WatcJi.^ γρηγοβέοΰ is often used in the N. T. with reference to the sec- 
ond coming, Matt. xxiv. 42, 43 ; xxv. 13, etc. νττέρ τηζ ζωηζ, comp. Heb. 
xiii. 17: " They watch in behalf of your souls as they that shall give ac- 
count " 

Let not your lamps be quenclied, eic] A reminiscence from Luke xii. 35: 
έύτωβοίν ν u ώ ν αϊ υ 6 φύε ζ τίεριεζωόμέναι, Jiai οί λύχνοι (the 
plural occurs only in Luke, Matthew has λαμτίάδεζ, xxv. 1, 3, 4, 7, 8) 
καιό/ιενοι. Comp. also Bph. vi. 14: "having girded your loins with 

For ye know not the hour-l From Matt. xxiv. 42, γ ρηγ ο ρεΐτ ε ονν, 
ΟΤΙ ουκ οΐδατε τιοία. ημέρα 6 κύριοζύμών έρχεται. Comp. 
Matt. XXV. 13: ούκ οΐδατε την ηιιέραν ονδέ την ωραν. Ha. notes 
a similar mixture of texts of Luke and Matthew in Tatian's Diatessaron. 
See Zahn's Forschungen zur Gesch. cles neutestam. Kanons. i. (1881) p. 200. 


2. Πυκνώζ δε συναχ^ήσεσ- 2. But be ye frequently 
3ε ζητούντεζ τα. ανήκοντα gathered together, seeking 
ταιζ ψνχαΐζ νμών. ου γαρ the things that are profitable 
ωφελήσει νμάζ 6 πάζ χρόνοό for your souls ; for the whole 
τί)ζ πίστεωζ νμών εάν μη εν time of your faith shall not 
τώ έσχάτω καιρώ τελειω^ήτε. profit you except in the last 

season ye be found perfect. 

3. ^Ev γαρ ταΐς έσχάταιζ 3, For in the last days the 
ήμίραιζ τΐλιβυν^ήσονται οι false prophets and destroyers 
ψενδοπροψήται και οι ψΒο- shall be multiplied, and the 
ρεϊζ και στραφήβονται τα sheep shall be turned into 
■πρόβατα εΐζ λνκουζ και ή wolves, and loye shall be 
αγάπη βτραψήσεται εΐζ μισοί, turned into hate. 

4. Λυζανούσηζ γαρ τήζ 4. For when lawlessness 
ανομίαζ μισήσονσιν αλλι/λονζ increases, the} shall hate and 
και διώΒ,ουσι και παραδω- persecute, and deliver up one 
σουσι, και τότε φανήσεται ο another; and then shall ap- 
ιιοσμοπλάνος ώζ υιός Θεον και pear the world-deceiver as 

2. Be ye frequently gathered together.'] Barnabas ch. iv. 9: "Let us take 
\ι&&(}ί{7ΐρυ6έχωμεν, as Ha. and Hi. read with the Lat. version) m the last 
days, for tlui whole (past) time of our faith ιοίΙΙ profit us nothing {υνδέ ν 
ώφελήΰει ό τΐάζ χμόνοζ τηζ τΐιότεωζ r' /μών) unless now in this wicked 
time {ev τω άνόιιοο κατρώ) we also withstand the coming scandals as be- 
cometh the sons of God." See other references in Br. and Ha. 

3. In the last days] between the first and second coming of our liord, be- 
tween the αιών οντοζ and the αιών uiXXcov. Among the Jews it meant 
the last days of the ίχίώχ οντυζ, before the coming of the Messiah. The 
phrase is often used in the N. T., and is connected with the expectation oi 
the speedy end of the world, tv ίόχάταιΖ ήμέμαιζ. Acts ii. 17. 2 Tim. 
iii. 1; Jas. v. 3 ; also επ^ εόχάτων (έΰχάτον) των ήμερων, Heb. i. 1; 2 
Pet. iii. 8; tv καιρώ έόχατω 1 Pet. i. 5; εν Ιόχατω χρόνω, Jude 18; 
kit'' εόχάτων των χρόνων, 1 Pet. i. 20; εόχάτη ημέρα, 1 John ii. 6, and 
τά τέλη των αιώνων, 1 Cor. χ. 11. Barnabas iv. 9 uses t κ ταΐζ ίόχάταιζ 

3. The false prophets.] Matt. xxiv. 11 : " many false Prophets shall rise 
auvl shall lead many astray." φ^ορε1<, destroyers, coi'rujjtcrs, used in v. 2 ; 
comp. 2 Pet. ii. 12 : "they shall in their destroying {tv τ^Ι φ3ορα αντών) 
surely be destroyed {φ^αρήόονται)." 

Tilt' sJieep shall he turned into tcolves, etc.] Even some of the believers will 
fall away under the terrible temptations and trials of the last days. 

4. W7i('7i lawlessness increases.] Matt. xxiv. 12: "because lawlessness 
shall be multiplied (δια τυ πλ?γΒνν5ηναι την άνομίανλ'ύίί^ love of many 
shall wax cold." 

6 κοΰμοτΐλάνυί] the icorld-deceicer, i. e. the antichrist, "the man of 


ποιήσει σημεία και τέρατα, Son of God, and shall do 

«tt'i ?} γη παραδοΒησεται είζ signs and wonders/ and the 

χείρας αντον, και ποιήσει earth shall be delivered into 

αθέμιτα a ουδέποτε γεγονεν his hands, and he shall com- 

εξ αϊώνοζ. mit iniquities which have 

never yet come to pass from 
the beginning of the world. 

5. τότε ηξει ή κτίσιζ* των 5. And then shall the race 

ανΒρωπων είζ την πνρωσιν of men come into the fire of 

τής δοκιμασίας και σκανδα- trial, and many shall be 

λισ^ήσονται πολλοί κα\ απο- offended and shall perish ; 

λούνται, οι δε νπομείναντες but they who endure in their 

εν τ// πίστει αυτών σω^ήσον- faith shall be saved under the 

ται νπ' \ αυτού τον jiaTaSl- curse itself [?]. 

"Comp. Matt. xxiv. 24. 
*Hpi6i<i, Hi \άπ^ Hi. Z. 

sin, the son of perdition, he that opposeth and exalteth himself against all 
that is called God or that is worshipped ; so that he sitteth in the temple of 
God, setting himself forth as God," 2 The.?s.'ii. 8, 4; "the lawless one," 
ver. 8. The word is new, but coined from Rev. xii. 9 : ό πλανών την 
οίκονμένην, "the deceiA'er of the whole world" (said of Satan), and 
2 John ver. 7: υ πλάνυζ Jiai άντϊχριΰτοζ, "the deceiver and the anti- 
christ." It occurs again in Ap. Const, vii. 32 : και τύτε φανΐ]όεται 6 κυό- 

ώς νίϋζ 5 ε Ον.] Ha. : als tcdre er Gottcs Sohn. Comp. 2 Thess. ii. 4 : "he 
sitteth in the temple of God, setting himself forth as God" (υτι εότιν 2ε- 
όζ). The expression implies, by contrast, that Christ is truly, what his 
antagonist pretends to be, the Son of God. Antichrist was regarded as the 
Christ of hell, as the devil is the god of hell. 

5. The fiTe oftricW] not purgatory in the future world, but a probatory fire 
of trial or testing in this world ; for the wi-iter speaks of men then living. 
Comp. 1 Pet. iv. 12 : "Brethren, think it not strange concerning the fiery 
trial among you, which cometh upon you to prove you " {rij iv vuiv πνρω- 
6ει ττβόί πειραΰϋΐΰν ύμιν yiro/udvff). 

They who have endured in their faith shall he saved.] Matt. x. 22 ; "he 
that endurethito the end the same shall be saved." Also Matt, xxiv, 13. 

ύπ^ αντον τον κατα^έματοζ.] The most difficult passage next to " the 
cosmic mystery" in XI. 11. κaτά'2ε^a — ηατανά^εμα, curse. It is 
adopted by Tischendorf, W. and H., and the Revisers in Rev. xxii. 3 (with 
{< " A, B, P) ; comp. Zeeh. xiv. 13, Sept., υνκ εόται ανά^ε/,ια ΐτι. Vari- 
ous interpretations and renderings : 

(1) Under (or, from tinder) the curse itself, namely the accursed world-de- 


G. Καϊ τότε φανησεται τα 0. And tlien shall appear 
σημεηχ τήζ αληΒείαζ' πρώτον tlie signs of the truth : first 

ceiver ; comp. Matt. xiii. 14, "the abomination of desolation " (ro βδελνχ- 
ua r?/5 ^ρτ/μή6ε(υζ). The saints will suffer from the tyrannical persecution 
and temptation of Antichrist, but will be delivered at last from his power. 
This suits the context. The radical Homeric meaning of ύπό is under, from 
under, especially after the verbs Ιρνε63αι, άρπάζειν, μύεόΒαι, rescuing 
from under another's power, or out of danger. See Liddell and Scott, sub 
vTto, No. I. Fa. : under the very curse. H. and N. : from under the curse 

(2) By the rnrse himself, i. e., by Christ who is called a curse, or who is 
cursed by his enemies. So Br. {τον Χριΰτύν ΐόωζ λέχει, ΰν κατανα- 
Βεηατίόυνόιν οι 6Ηανδαλΐ65?/(}όιιενοι εν αύτω), and Ha. {von dem 
Verflucliten sel'st), with reference to 1 Cor. xii. 3 : "no man speaking in 
the Spirit of God saith, ' Jesus is anathema ' {ανάΒεμα "Ίηϋυνζ), and to the 
maledicere Christo, which JeΛ\•s and heathen tried to extort from the Chris- 
tians (Pliny's E2i. ad Traj., and Martyr. Polyc. ix. 3 : λοιδΰρηόον τον 
Χριότύν. So also St.: " hy him the curse," and Spence : They will be 
saved " thiOugh Him whom they have been so sorely tempted to revile and 
curse, and who, in terrible irony is here called ' the very curse ;'" but he 
translates, inconsistently ; " under the very curse." 

(3) £ tt' αντον του κάτω ^έ ματ υ ζ {ηχονν επί τηζ χήζ), a 
textual correction which Br. proposes. in his notes as an alternative, but 
which he has given up in a letter to Ha. in favor of the first explanation 
{χατά^Εβα λέχει . . . r) τον κοΰμοπλάνον, η την Βε/αν 7ίαΒόλυν 
αρά ν). 

(4) απ' instead of ύπ', from the ew'se itself. A conjecture of Hi. and Z. 

(5) From this curse. This would require το7;τον instead oi αντον. So 
H. and B. in the first ed., but in the second ed. : from tinder even this curse, 
ΛVhich H. explains : "from under the curse just described, the riot of in- 
iquity.'' B. M. and Sa. de cette malediction. 

(6) " They jvho endure in their faith shall be preserved beneath the very 
curse," that is, the trial when it is at its uttermost. So Prof. Orris (of 
Princeton) in the N. Y. " Independent" for May 7, 1885. But ύω^ηόονται 
must have the same meaning as in the parallel passages Matt. x. 23 and 
xxiv. 13. 

(7) Krawutzeky (in his second essay, I. c. p. 582): "under the Temple 
Mount doomed to destruction. The Ebionites still turned in prayer towards 
the Temple." Very far-fetched. 

(6) And then shalLappear the signs of the trittlt.] Matt. xxiv. 3 : "what 
shall be the sign of thy presence (ro όίμιεΐον τηζ 6ηζ τίαρονόίαζ) and of 
the end of the world ?" Ver. 30 : " Then shall appear the sign of the Son 
of man in heaven." The " truth " is here either Christ himself (comp. John 
xlv. 6 (Ενώ είμι ή άλ?}2εια}, or the truth as believed by the Christians 
concerning the second coming. The three signs are peculiar to the Did., 
but were derived from Matt. xxiv. 30. 31. 


σημεΊον έηπετασεωζ * εν ου- the sign of oiDening in heaven; 

ρανώ, είτα σημείον φωνής then the sign of the voice of 

σαλπιγγοζ, και το τρίτον the trumpet ; and the third, 

ανάστασιζ νεκρών the resurrection of the dead. 

* ίπιφάόεωζ, Potivin. 

First the sign of an opening in Iieaven'] ί-κπέταΰιΐ, does not occur in the 
N. T. nor in the Sept., but in Plutarch in the sense of a spreading out, an 
expansion {ίΐονα εκηετάννυμι, to spread out, e. g., a sail). So here. It 
means an unrolling or an opening in heaven through which Christ with his 
saints and angels shall descend. It is a preparatory phenomenon in the 
skies. The shining glory of the parousia precedes the personal parousia. 
Comp. Matt. iii. 16 (at the Baptism of Christ "the heavens were opened, 
ηνεωχ^ηϋαν) ; Eev, xix. 11 (" I saw the heaven opened, ηνεφχμένον). 
Η. and Β. : α/< opening in heamn. Sa. : les cieux s'ouvriront. Other inter- 
pretations : 

(1) The expansion of the sign of the cross, that is of Christ himself with 
outstretched arms as on the cross. So the Fathers explained " the sign of 
the Son of man in heaven," mentioned in Matt. xxiv. 30. But the Lord's 
personal appearance is mentioned last, in ver. 8. 

(2) The sign of the flying forth (Fa.), or a soaring forth (Sp.). This ren- 
dering implies the derivation of ίκπέταόιζ from ίχπέτοιίίχι or ίππέ- 
ταααι, to fly out, or, aicay (in Aristotle and Euripides). Br. and Fa. refer 
it to the άρτίαγή of the then living saints " who shall be caught up in the 
clouds to meet the Lord in the air," 1 Thess. iv. 17. Fa. : " This seems to 
be the nearest approach to a quotation from St. Paul, though the order of 
events appears to be different " ["?]. But in this case it would be better to 
understand here the ai^gcls who are sent out to gather the elect from one end 
of heaven to the other, Matt. xxiv. 31; comp. Rev. xiv. 6: "I saw another 
angel flying in raid heaA-en (ττετό/ίίενον tv ηεόουρανήίΐατϊ). 

(3) Useless textual eriiendations by Potwin : ίπιφάόεωζ {ίττίφαόιζ — 
ετίΐφάνεια, a becoming visible, a display); and by Hayman : ίκπτώϋεωζ 
(εκητωΰιζ, a fcdling out, breaking forth), with reference to the falling of 
the stars from heaven, Mark xiii. 25; Matt. xxiv. 29 (oi άότέρεζ ττεόονν- 
ται αττύ τον ον ρανον). 

7. The sign of the voice of tJie trumpet.] Matt. xxiv. 31: "He shall send 
forth his angels μετά ϋάλτηχχοζ φωννζ μεχάλτ^ζ, with a great sound of a 
trumpet," or, "a trumpet of great sound" (W. and Hort put φωΐ'ηζ on the 
margin); 1 Cor. xv. 52 : "in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump (εν 
rfj εόχάττ;} ΰάλτηνγι) ; for the trumpet shall sound {ϋαλπίϋει γάρ), and 
the dead shall be raised incorruptible ; " 1 Thess. iv. 16 : " The Lord himself 
shall descend froru heaven, with a shout (iv χελεϋόμίχτι), with the voice 
of the archangel, and with the trump of God (kv όάλπιχγι 3εον)." 

The resurrection of the dead.] The Did. seems to make the resurrection 
precede the parousia; while Matthew, xxiv. 30, 31, reverses the order. But 
it cannot be supposed that the author conflicts with his favorite Gospel, and 


7. Ου πάντων δε, αλλ' &?; 7. Not, hoAverer, of all, 
ερρέΒη- "Ηξει 6 Κνριοζ και but as was said, " The Lord 
ττάντες οι άγιοι μετ^ αυτού. shall come, and all the saints 

with him." " 

8. Τότε οψεται 6 ΐίόσμοζ τον 8. Then shall the world 
Κυριον έρχομενον έπανω τών see the Lord coming upon 
νεφελών του ουρανού- the clouds of heaven.'' 

■ "Zech. xiv. 5. b Matt. xxiv. 30. 

Paul affords the solution of the apparent discrepancy by presenting the 
events as simultaneous or nearly so, "in a moment," "in the twinkling of 
an eye," 1 Cor. xv. 52. 

7. Not, however, of all the dead.] Comp. Rev. xs. 4^6 : "This is the first 
resurrection." Paul teaches, 1 Thess. iv. 17, that "the dead in Christ shall 
rise first : then we that are alive, that are left, shall together with them be 
caught up in tlie clouds, to meet the Lord in the air; " 1 Cor. xv. 23 : " Each 
in his own order ; Christ the first-fruits ; then they that are Christ's, at his 
coming; then cometh the end." He also teaches " a resurrection both of the 
just and the unjust," Acts xxiv. 13. . So does Christ himself,^ John v. 29 
(comp. Dan. xii. 2; Matt. xxv. 32, 33, 41, 46). Probably the Did. means a 
first resurrection preceding the millennium to be followed by a general 
resurrection after the millennium; but as he says nothing on either the mil- 
lennium or a general resurrection, we haA^e no right to commit him to a 
particular theory; his silence might as well be construed in favor of the 
annihilation of the wicked. Barnabas, however, Papias, Justin Martyr, 
Irenasus and TertuUian were pronounced Chil lasts. See Church History, ii_ 
615 sqq. and Neander, i. 650-654 (Boston ed.). 

Ihe Lord vill come and all the saints icith Mm.'] Literal Scripture quota- 
lion (caS kppe^rf) from Zach. xiv, 5. 

Then shall the world see the Lord.] Matt. xxiv. 30: ΰ φ or τ a ι τόν νίΰν 
του άν^ρώτΐον ίτΐί τ c3 ν νεφελών τον ονρανον. Comp. ΧΛ'ΐ. 
27; xxvi, 64 (ερχόμενον ί-πί των νεφελών τον ονρανυν). 
Justin Μ., Dial. c. Tryph. cxx. uses ετίάνω, like the Did.: ηροβδοκάται 
πάλιν τταρέϋΒαι ίηάνω τών νεφελών "Ίι/όονζ. 

Here the curtain falls, the world ends, eternity begins. 


A Latin Fragment of the Dodrina Aposiohrum. 

This fragment, mentioned in CL XXIX., was discovered 
bj Dr. Oscar von Gebliardt, and published in Dr. Harnack's 
book, p. 277 sq. We present it here with the references to 
the Didache^ the Epistle of Barnabas, and the Shepherd of Her- 
mas on the margin. 


Vice dute sunt in seculo, vitce 
et mortis, lucis et tenebrarum. 

In his constitiiti sunt Angeli 
duo, unus asquitatis, alter in- 

Distantia autem magna est 
duarum viarum. 

Via ergo vitoi hcec est: Primb 
diliges Deum aeternum, qui te 
fecit. Secundb proximum tuum, 
ut te ipsum. Omne autem, 
quod tibi non vis fieri, alii ne 

Interpretatio autem liorum 
verhoriLin hcec est: non moecha- 
heris, non homicidium fades, 
non falsum testimonium dices, 
non puerum violaveris, nonfor- 
nicaveris . . . nen medicamenta 
mala fades: non ocddes filium 
in ahortum, nee natum sucddes. 
Non concupisces quidquam de re 
proximi tui. Non perjurabis. 

There are two ways in the [dul i. i.] 

[Ep. Bar. 


Maud. ΛΊ.] 

H- 2.] 

world, (one) of life and (one) 
of death, (one) of light and 
(one) of darkness. 

In them two angels are 
stationed, the one of equity, 
the ether of iniquity. 

But there is a greed difference Wi'i. 1. 1.] 
hetween the two ways. 

Now the way of life is this: 
First, thou shalt love the eternal 
God who made thee. Secondly, 
thy neighbour as thyself. But 
all things whatsoever thou would- 
est not should he done to thee, do 
not thou to another. 

Now the interpretation of these 
words is this: thou shalt not co^m- 
mit adultery, thou shalt not corn- 
nfiit homicide, thou shalt not hear 
false witness, thou shalt not 
corrupt hoys, thou shalt not com- 
mit fornication . . . thou shalt 
not mix poisons: thou shalt not 
hill children hy abortion, nor 
those just horn. Thou shalt not [ii. 3.] 

[I. 3.] 
LII. 2.] 


Non male loqueris. Non eris covet anything of thy neiglibour's 

memor malar urn fadorum. Non goods. Thou shalt not forswear 

[II. 4.] ^γ{^ duplex in consilium dan- thyself Thou shalt not revile. 

dum^ neque hilinguis ; tendicu- Thou shalt not cherish the mem- 

Lii. 5.] lum enim mortis est lingua. Non ory of evil deeds. Thou shalt 

erit verhum tuum vacuum nee not be false in giving counsel^ 

[II. 6.] m.endax. Non eris cupidus nee nor double-tongued ; for such a 

avarus^ nee rapax, nee adulator^ tongue is a snare of death. Thou 

nee. . . . shalt not be vain nor false in 

thy speech. Thou slialt not be 
covetous^ nor extortionate^ nor 
rapacious^ nor servile^ nor. . . . 

Cmtera in Codice desiderantur. (The rest in the MS. is want- 


A Critical Estimate of this Latin Fragment. 

[The Rev. Dr. B. B. Warfield, Professor in the Western Theological Seminary, Alle- 
gheny, Penn., kindly places iit my disposal the following critical discussion of this Latin 
Diddche Fragment. He arrives independently at conclusions somewhat similar to those 
advocated by Dr. Holtzmann. I give the essay in full, and let it speak for itself.— P. S.] 

The very modest way in which Dr. von Gebhardt expresses himself when 
pointing out the value of the fragment of a Latin translation of the Didache 
which he discovered, has perhaps prevented its real importance from being 
noted. " It is at once clear," he says, " that an old Latin translation must 
be of high value not only for the text criticism of the Αιδαρ}, but also for 
the discussion of the integrity of that form of it which has been transmitted 
by the Constantinopolitan MS. But that it may be successfully turned to 
account, the translation should be complete, or, at least, should cover the 
greater part of the work. A fragment of such narrow extent as the one that 
we have ought to be used only with great circumspection. " * He immediately 
adds that, nevertheless, it is impossible not to draw certain general conclu- 
sions from it. Among these general conclusions is one, perfectly simple in 
itself, while the corollaries that flow from it are such as. to constitute this 
little fragment the key of the whole question of the origin, anticjuity and 
value of the text of the Didache as given to us in the 'Constantinopolitan 
Codex. I shall try to point out very briefly how this happens. 

It has been plain to every one from the beginning that the central prob- 
lem concerning the Didache is its relation to the Epistle of Barnabas. 
Scholars have been all along divided on the question as to whether Barnabas 
originated the matter which was afterwards worked up into so neatly 

* Harnack, p. 278. 


ordered a treatise, or blunderingly borrowed it from the Didache. Only a 
few of the most discerning spirits — Drs. Lightfoot and Holtzmann, especi- 
ally—saw that on the one hand Barnabas bears all the marks of a copier, and ; 
on the other the Didnche fails to furnish the matter which he borrowed ; 
and therefore felt bound to assume that they both borrowed their common 
matter from a third source. In tliis state of the controversy the Latin frag- 
ment coHies in and lays before us a recension of the Didaclie text, of the 
type of the quotations in Barnabas. Only two theories are possible with re- 
gard to it : it may be a copy of the Bryennios Didache conformed to Barna- 
bas ; or it may be the representatiΛ^e of that form of the Didache from which 
Barnabas' quotations are taken. 

The first of these theories appears to me exceedingly unlikely. All the proof 
(which seems not only adequate, but irresistible) that Barnabas is not here 
its own original is against it. There is no ajjpearance of reworking visible in 
the fragment itself. There are several indications that Barnabas has borrowed 
from just such a text as this presents — one instance of which (of equal sig- 
nificance with the one that " E. L. H." gives from II. 4) must suflBce for an 
illustration here : The Latin fragment reads near the beginning : "la his ; 

constituti sunt Angeli duo, unus aBquitatis, alter iniquitatis." Barnabas, \/j,f 
quite after his fashion elsewhere, develops this into the long statement that 
" over one way are stationed light-bringing angels of God, over the other the 
angels of Satan; and he indeed is Lord from eternities even to eternities, but 
the other, prince of the present time of iniquity." It is very difficult to be- 
lieve that the Latin phrase could have been made from this ; but it is quite | 
after Barnabas' habit to multiply the angels, describe their character by 
their masters, and then off at the end of an awkwardly added sentence drop 
a hint of the neglected ' iniquitatis.' More important, however, than any 
of these considerations is the fact that the most characteristic point in the 
old Latin fragment — the omission of the passage from I. 8 {ευλοχείτε) 
through II. 1 — is common not only to it and Barnabas, but also to the 
Apostolical Canons, and, indeed, in part, to all the documents representing the 
Didaclie, eicept the Bryennios MS. That this omission, moreover, was not 
a conscious one with the framer of the Canons is clear from the sequence of 
the apostolic names. As it is certain, then, that the Canons are here simply 
following their copy there is no reason to doubt that Barnabas is doing 
so too, and equally none that the Latin fragment is doing so too. Apart 
from this reasoning, it would be very unlikely that a copyist or translator, 
reproducing a text like that of Bryennios' MS., and adding to it here 
and there from Barnabas, should omit a long passage merely because it 
was not found in such a fragmentary compound as that given in Barnabas. 
It becomes, then, very highly probable that the Latin fragment is a 
representative of the type of Didache text from which Barnabas borrowed. 

The following collation probably includes all the variations which may 
be attributed to the Greek text that underlay the Latin version : 

Title: Latin omits /ΙΩ,/ΙΕΚΑ with Eusebius, Athanasius, Anastasius, 
Nicephonis, and all known witnesses. 

Latin omits the second title. 

222 DOCUMENT π. 

I. 1. Latin inserts in seculo against all known authorit'L-s. Cf., however, 
Lactantius, Epist. div. instit. c. lix. "Duas esse humano} viiw vias;" also 
Όίνίη. Instit. vi. 3. " Duae sunt viaB .... per quas humanam vitam 
progredi necesse est." 

Latin apparently omits nla before τηζ and before τον. If so, it is against 
all witnesses. 

Latin inserts " lueis et tenehrarum " with Barnabas, cf. Lactantius (Har- 
nack, p. 286); against Constitutions and Canons. 

Latin inserts a long sentence beginning, ''In his—" with Barnabas and 
Hermas, cf. Lactantius (do. p. 285); against Constitutions and Canons. 

Latin apparently omits ιιεταξύ with Barnabas ; against Canons. 

I. 2. Latin inserts (sternum after "Deum ; " against all known witnesses. 
L 3 sq. Latin omits from ρ.νλοχεΊτε to Π. 1, inclusive with Barnabas, 

Canons, and partly. Constitutions ; against (in part) Hermas, Clems. Alex, 
and Constitutions. Lactantius (do. p. 285.) also apparently omits. Note: 
all witnesses apparently omit latter part of L 5. 

Π. 2. Latin transposes ov φονενόειζ and υύ μοιχεύΰειζ against all wit- 

Latin misplaces oi) φεν8ομαρτυρήόειζ of II. 3, against all. 

II. 5. Latin reverses order of ψενδήζ and πενύξ with all witnesses extant 
(Constitutions, Canons). 

Latin omits αλλά μεμεδτωμένοζ τι βάζει with all (Constitutions, Canons). 

II. 6. Latin inserts cvpidus (cf. iii. 3) against all. 

In estimating the meaning of this collation, it is important to remember 
that the Latin is a version, and may present more variations than tlie under- 
lying Greek would. Furthermore, we must neglect all obvious clerical 
errors that may have affected but a single document. 

A careful examination of all the various readings between the old Latin 
fragment and the corresponding parts of Bryennios' codex not only con- 
firms this conclusion, but enables us to state it more broadly, thus : We 
have two well-marked recensions of the Didaehe text, — the one represented 
by the old Latin, Barnabas, and the Canons, and the other by the Bryennios 
MS. and the Apostolical Constitutions. We need no longer ask doubtingly 
with Bishop Lightfoot : " May not both Barnabas and the Doctrine derive 
the matter which they have in common from a third source ? "' Recogniz- 
ing them as representing variant recensions of a common work, we simply 
seek the original form of that work. 

We proceed but a single step when we aifirm, next, that the recension repre- 
sented by the Latin translation is probably the older form of the Didaehe text. 
This is a priori likely: if the Latin represents a form of text which was al- 
ready used by Barnabas, — the date of which can scarcely be brought lower 
than A.D. 106, — it is only barely possible to put another Christian text 
still behind it ; and not at all likely that such a text as that represented in the 
Bryennios recension could be back of it. The meagre historical hints that 
are in our hands point to the same conclusion: the Latin form of text 
was already in circulation when Barnabas was written (ad. 106), while the 
other recension is first met with in Hermas, which after Dr. Hort's dis- 


covery of its connection with Theodotion's Daniel, must be placed in the 
second half of the second century. There is more of importance in this his- 
torical argument than appears at first sight. For Hernias apparently quotes 
not from a text wholly like that of the Bryennios MS., but from one interme- 
diate between the two recensions. At Ilandate vi. 2, the angel clause at the 
opening of the Didache (which is peculiar to the Latin recension) is quoted: 
while at Mandate ii. 4-6 the alms-giving clause in Didache L 5 (which is 
peculiar to the Bryennios recension) is quoted. We apparently see here the 
Bryennios recension in the act of formation. There is even reason to suspect 
that the actual Bryennios text is later in form than that which underlies any 
of the ancient reworkings — even than that used in the Apostolical Constitu- 
tions. Clement of Alexandria {Frag, ex Nicetm. Catena in Mat. v. 43. Cf. 
also Paed. iii. 12) may have used either the transitional form that Hermas used, 
or the more settled form extracted by the Apostolical Constitutions, which 
presents still some variations from that of the Bryennios MS. Some instances 
of these Harnack gives at p. 210, — where the Constitutions and Canons agree 
against Bryennios; a marked instance (see v. Gebhardt in Harnack, p. 280) 
concerns this early portion in which the Latin is pi'eserved. These readings 
prove either that the Constitutions used the Canons, or that they were found- 
ed on a text of the Didache slightly differing from that of Bryennios, in the 
direction of the Canons. The latter appears more probable ; and if this be so 
we again actually see the Didache text growing from the form represented 
by the recension given in the liatin, Barnabas, and the Canons, through that 
which underlies Hermas, to that which underlies the Constitutions, on to that 
which is given in the Bryennios MS. It must be observed that this does not 
prove that the type of Didache given in the Constantinople MS. is later than 
the Apostolical Constitutions themselves. It only suggests that the MS. of the 
Didache used by the compiler of these Constitutions was of a somewhat 
earlier type than that which the scribe Leon copied. The recension to which 
both belong, on the testimony of Clement of Alexandria and Hermas, must 
be as old as the first decade or two of the second half of the second century. 

It will be observed that we are thus far in substantial agreement with Dr. 
Holtzmann, who writes: •' It seems to me that Barnabas and the Didache 
should be coordinated Barnabas as the older but more carelessly and arbi- 
trarily made, the Didache as the probably later but at all events much more 
exact recension of the allegory of the two ways " (p. 155). I differ with 
Holtzmann only in considering the type of text that underlies Barnabas not 
only the older, but also the more exact representation of the Didache — in 
fact, the original text from which the Bryennios type of text was devel- 
oped. Whereas he says, "Among the still unknown and unnamed must 
the common root of Barnabas and the Didache be sought" (p. 159), I think 
that it is found, by the aid of the Latin fragment, in the recension that un- 
derlies Barnabas, the Canons, and it may be added Lactantius. This is in 
itself a reasonable supposition: when two types of one text are discoverable, 
and one appears older than the other, the natural supposition is that they are 
genealogically connected. There are no valid internal objections to this sup- 
position : so far as the Latin text carries us, the most marked difference 

224 DOCUMENT 11. 

between the two recensions consists in additions in the Bryennios type to the 
title, and especially a long addition in the body of the document. Dr. v. 
Gebhardt suggests that this passage may have been accidentally omitted 
from the exemplar of the Latin translation : and points out that it may have 
been about two pages long, and thus may have been all on one leaf. But he 
himself points out also that it is not likely to have been all on one leaf. And 
in the course of this paper I have pointed out reasons for supposing it was in- 
serted rather by the other recension. It may be added that Dr. v. Gebhardt's 
explanation becomes still more unlikely if we suppose that I. 5 was a still 
later insertion. 

There are some internal hints in the Bryennios document itself that these 
additions are additions to the original form of that text ; e. g., II. 1 is very 
awkward ; both of the commandments given in I. 2, concerning our duty to 
God and our neighbor, had been developed in the immediately succeeding 
context. Must we not suspect that the passage from ευλογείτε, I. 3, hav- 
ing been inserted, a new start was needed, and this ill-fitting phrase was in- 
vented to take the place at the head of the list of prohibitions in II. 2 sq, 
which the opening sentence of I. 3 originally occujued ? Again, if the 
development of the Bryennios text through Hermas and the Apostolical Con- 
stitutions, traced above, is judged to be rightly read, the genealogical affilia- 
tion of this text to the Latin type is proved. The fact that the Latin text 
is fuller in 1. 1 than that of the Constantinopolitan Codex is not fatal to this 
finding: the general rule that the shorter reading is the more original, is not 
without exceptions. 

If on these grounds we assume that the original Didache is represented 
by the Latin version, we may trace its propagation through a twofold trans- 
mission. One appears in Barnabas, and later in the Canons, the author of 
which knew also Barnabas (the opening sentence is taken from the opening 
sentence of Barnabas ; and an occasional reading, such as the insertion of 
Tiai δοξάϋειζ τόν λντρωόάμενόν 6ε εκ Βανάτου in Ι. 2 is common to 
Barnabas and the Canons against Bryennios and the Latin) and still later in 
Lactantius, — gathering something, no doubt, to itself on the way. It may 
be called the Gentile recension, and seems to have been in circulation chiefly 
in Egypt and the West. The other aj^pears half -formed in Hermas, in Clem- 
ent of Alexandria, in the Apostolical Constitutions, and is preserved in 
the Constantinopolitan Manuscript, and may be called the Jewish-Chris- 
tian recension. Its origin (which like some other Jewish-Christian books, 
notably the Gospel according to the Hebrews, presupposes and is based on a 
Catholic original) belongs to the middle of the second century, and its com- 
plete development, as we have it in our Didndie, to a time probably anterior 
to Clement of Alexandria. A great deal of its almost Ebionitic tone may 
have been acquired in this process of growth : as its completion cannot be 
placed earlier than Hermas, its last interpolator may have engrafted some 
Montanistic traits. I am anxious, however, that what I have just said shall 
not be misunderstood : the differences between the two recensions are wholly 
textual, — and the latest form, as given in the Bryennios MS., is not much 
further removed from the original than say Codex D of the Gospels from 


Codex B. The scope of the original is preserved intact through fhe whole 
transmission ; as is shown by the two facts, (1) that Barnabas (iv. 9) already 
knows the end as well as the beginning, and (3) the disposition of the matter 
is artistic and neat. But though the Bidaclic is never so altered as to cease 
to be substantially the Diduche, it ap'pears in two well-marked textual forms. 

Some support may be gained for this fron^ the fact that the Church writers 
who mention the DidacUe sometimes mention it in the plural. This is true 
of Eusebiug, Anastasius of Sinai, and Nieephorus Callistus. The signifi- 
cance of this is increased by the coupling by Anastasius of Περίοδοι and 
Διδαχαι των αττοότ'ολων. We all know what the plural περίοδοι im- 
ports. It is barely possible that the Syriae "Teaching of the Apostles,'' 
published by Cureton, may also be included in this plural.* 

The reconstruction of the original text of the Didache is comparatively 
easy for the short section where we have the Latin version. We have only 
to correct it by the preponderance of the other documents of its class: e.g., 
omit in secido in I. 1 and ceternum in I. 2, correct the order of prohibi- 
tions in II. 2 sq., insert the appropriate words omitted in its lacuna, and 
omit cupidus at the end. When it fails us, we are in more diflSculty. All 
words found in both recensions may be accepted as certainly parts of the 
original. This will give us the kernel ; but not the whole document. And 
this was Krawutzcky's error in 1882. It is the same error that leads some 
students of the Synoptic Gospels to lay stress on the Triple Tradition as the 
whole original tradition. We can indeed be sure that this common matter 
was part of the original; but we can be equally sure that it was not all. So 
far as the matter extracted in Barnabas, the Canons, and Lactantius, goes, 
we are justified in adding this to the common matter as part of the original. 
The alflliatioiis of the Latin fragment teach us this. When it fails, there is 
nothing for us but to• piOvisionally accept the other Recension as a eonaipt 
but substantial text. Here, too, we must keep in mind that the differences 
between the recensions scarcely rise above the ground of textual criticism ; 
and it is only a question of purity of text that we are dealing with. We 
have the Didache competently exact in the latest text. 

The bearing of this discussion on the value of the document given to us 
by Bryennios is obvious. It lowers its value for those who believed that it 
Λvas in this exact form the basis of Barnabas' quotations. It immensely 
raises its value for those— perhaps the majority of critics — who believed it to 
have been made out of Barnabas. It prevents us from using it as it lies in 
the Constantinopolitan Codex as a purely first-century document, and warns 
us that it has elements and details that have crept in during the second cent- 
ury, possibly even somewhat late in it. But it vindicates for its general 
substance a first-century origin, and enables us to reconstruct the first-cent- 
ury form of text in a not inconsiderable portion. 

* Concerning this book, see Gordon in the ' Modern Review,' July, 1884. 


The Greek text of tlie Epistle of Barnabas lias an appendix 
of four cliapters not found in the old Latin version, and re- 
garded by some as spurious. Three of these chapters (XVII.- 
XX.) contain similar sentences to those found in the first five 
chapters of the Didache. They were either unskilfully and 
illogically compiled from it. or drawn from a still older com- 
mon source, but cannot be original. Besides, there is a brief 
eschatological passage in Ch. IV. which resembles one in the 
sixteenth chapter of the Didache. 

The Epistle of Barnabas was probably written by a Hellen- \ 
istic Jew of Alexandria, belonging to the school of St. Paul, j 
at the end of the first or early in the second century. See 1 
Church History^ ii. 671 sqq., and the books there quoted. 

In the G-reek text I have compared Hilgenfeld {Barnahce 
Epistula integrum Greece iterum edidit^ ed. altera emendata^ Lips. 
1877), Funk {Opera Patr. Αρ., Tubing, vol. i. 1878), and the 
second ed, of von Gebhardt and Harnack (Lips. 1878). They 
have all used the readings of the Sinaitic MS. discovered by 
Tischendorf (1859, published 1862), and of the Jerusalem MS. 
discovered by Bryennios, 1875, and furnished by him to Hil- 
genfeld. The references to the Didache are marked on the out- 
side margin, and the corresponding words are spaced in the 
Greek, and italicized in the English column. 

IV. Aid προσέχω μεν εν Ch. iv. — "Wherefore let us J^H^f-^ 

τ ai ζ εσχαταις i) με ft a ι ζ. give heed in the last days : 

ο V δ ε V γαρ ωφελήσει for the tDhole time of our life [xvi. 2.] 

η μάζ ο 7t ά ζ χ ρ ο ν ο ζ τής and faith will profit us 7ioth- 

ζωήζ ημών και τήζ τΐ i σ - iny if now tw the lawless 

τεωζ,έάν μη νυν εν τω ^iVwe, and impending offences 

αν ο μ ω καιρώ ηαι τοιζ we do not resist as befitteth 

μέλλονσζ σκανόαλοιζ, ωζ πρε- sons of God. 
πει νιοιζ ^εον, αντιστωμεν. 

XVIII. Μεταβώμεν δε και Ch. xviii. — But let us pass 



επι ετεραν γνώβιν κ(χι δι- 
[1. 1.] δίχχην Τ) δ ο ι δ ν ο ε i σι δι- 
δαχήζ ηα\ εξονσίαζ' τ; re τον 
φωτόζ και η τον σκοτονζ. 
{ΐΛ.^δ ι α φ ο ρ ά δε π ολ\η τ ώ ν 
δυο οδών• iq/ /)? με ν γαρ 
είΘΊ τεταγμένοι φωταγωγοί 
άγγελοι τον Βεον-, εφ τ/ζ δε 
άγγελοι τον σατανά' (2) και 6 
μεν εστί κνριοζ απ' αιώνων 
και είζ τονζ αϊώναζ, ό δε άρ- 
χων καιρού τον ννν τήζ ανο- 

[1. 3.] XIX. Η ο ν ν ο δ ο ζ τον 
φωτόζ εστίν αντη• εάν 
τιζ ^ελων όδόν όδενειν έπι τον 
ώρισμενον τόπον σκενσΐ] τοΐζ 
έ'ργοιζ αντον. εστίν ούν η 
δοΒεΐσα ήμίν γνώσιζ τον πε- 
ριπατειν εν αντί] τοιαύτη. {2) 
Αγαπησειζ τον σε π ο ι- 
7] σ α ν τ α , φοβη'^ησ)} τον σε 
πλασαντα, δοζασειζ τον σε 
λντ ρωσ α μεν ον εκ θάνατον. 

ε'σγι άπλονζ ττ\ καρδία και 

πλονσιοζ τω πνενματι, ον 

κολληΒ7/σ)^ μετά των πορενο- 

[1. 1.] μένων ενόδώ Β• α ν α τ ο ν. 

[ΐν. 13.] μι ff η (3 ε ιζ πάν ο ο ν κ 

εστίν α ρ ε σ τ ο ν τ ώ ^ ε ώ, 

μ ι σ η σ ε ι ζ πάσαν νπ ο- 
ι \ > 
[IV. \%\κ ρ ι σ ι ν • ο ν μη εγ κ α - 

τ αλ ι π 7] ζ ε ν τ ολά ζ κ ν - 
[III. 0.] Ρ ί ο ν . (3) ο ν χ νφ ω σ ε ι ζ 

σεαντον, ε'ση δε ταπεινο- 

φρων κατά πάντα, ονκ αρειζ 
[II. 6.] επ\ σεαντον δόξαν. ο ν λη- 

φ y β ονλη ν π ο ν η ρ α ν 

over to another knowledge 
and teaching. There are tivo 
ways of teaching and of au- 
thority, one of light and one 
of darkness. Aiid there is a 
great difference hetiveen the 
ttvo ivays. For over one are ' 
set light-bearing angels of 
God, but over the other, } 
angels of Satan. And the 
one is Lord from eternity 
and to eternity, but the other 
is prince of the present time ' 
of lawlessness. 

Ch. xix. — Tlie wayofW^^i, 
then, is this : if any one de- 
sires to go to the appointed 
place, let him be zealous in 
liis works. The knowledge 
then which is given to us in 
walking in this (way) is such 
as this : Thou shalt love him 
luho made thee, thou shalt fear 
him who fashioned thee, thou 
shalt glorify him that ran- 
somed thee from death. 

Thou shalt be simple in 
heart and rich in spirit ; thou 
shalt not cleave to those that 
walk in {the) way of death. 
Thou shalt hate everything 
which is not pleasing to God, 
thou shalt hate every hypoc- 
risy ; thou shalt by no means 
forsake the Lord's command- 
mods. Thou shalt not exalt 
thyself, but shalt be humble 
in all things ; thou shalt not 
take glory to thyself. Thou 
shalt not take evil counsel 



κατά τον π λ i] σ iov σ ου. 
ου δ ω σ ετζ τ rj ψ ν χ rj 
(J ου 3 ρ α σ ο ζ . 

(4) Of πορνενσειζ, ου 
μο ιχευ σ ε ιζ , ου παι- 
δοψ^ορτΊσειζ. ου μη σου 
6 λόγοζ τον Βεον εζελ^rf εν 
ακαθαρσία τινών. 

ου λ ή ψ rf πρόσωπον 
έ\ε γ Β, α ι τινά ε π ι πα - 
ράπτω ματ ι. ε'σ η πραΰζ, 
ε σ ί] ή σ ν χ ι ο ξ ^ ε σ ^ τρέ- 
μων του? λό γ ου ζ , ουζ 
η κ ου σ αζ . ου μνησικα- 
ηη σ ε ιζ τω αδελφώ σου. 
(5) ου μη διψυχησειζ, 
πότερον ε στα ι η ου. ου 
μη λαβ)]ζ επι ματαίω το ονο- 
μα κυρίου, αγαπήσει? τ ο τ' 
π λ 7] σ ίο ν σου υ π ε ρ τ η *^ 
φ ν χη ν σου. 

ου φονευσειζ τ ε κ ν ον 
σον εν φ Β ο ρ ά , ουδέ 
πάλιν γ ε ν ν η ^ ε ν α ν ε - 
λ ε ι ζ . ο υ μη ά ρ η ζ τ ?} ν 
χ ει ρ α σου α π ο του 
νιου σ ο υ η α π ο τ ή ζ ^ υ- 
γ α τ ρ ο ζ σου, α Α Α α α π ο 
τ ή ζ νεότητοζ διδάξεις 
φό β ο ν κυρίου. 

(6) ου μ?) γ ε ν η ε π ιΒ υ - 
μ ώ ν τα του πλησίον 
σον, ο ν μ?] γεν)] π Α ε- 
ον ε 7ίτηζ, ο νδέ κ ολλ η Β η- 
ση εκ ψ ν> χη ζ σον μετά 
ν ψ η λ ώ ν , άλλα μετά 
ταπεινών και δικαίων 

against thy neighhor ; thou 
shalt not permit overholdness 
to thy soul. 

Tliou shalt not commit for- [H- 2.] 
nication ; thou shalt not com- 
mit adultery ; thou shalt not 
corrupt logs. Not from thee 
shall the word of God go 
forth with the impurity of 

Thou shalt not respect per- [iv. 3.] 
sons in convicting any one 
for a transgressio7i. Thou [in. 7, a] 
shalt be meek, thou shalt be 
gentle, thou shalt tremble at 
the words which thou hast 
heard. Thou shalt not be re- pi. 3.] 
vengeful against thy broth- 
er. Thoii shalt not hesitate [iv. 4.] 
lohether it shall be or not. 
Thou shalt not take in vain 
the name of the Lord. Thou [H• 7.] 
shalt love thy neighbor above 
thy life (or, soul.) 

Thou shalt not slay a child [ii. 2.] 
by abortion, nor again shalt 
thou destroy the neiv-born 
child. Thou shalt by no \w. 9.] 
means taTce off thy hand from j ^ 
thy son, or from thy daugh- \ 
ter, but from youth thou 
shalt teach {them) the fear of 
ths Lord. 

Thou shalt by no means be [H• 2.] 
lusting after the things of 
thy neighbor, thou shalt by [ii• 6.] 
no means be rapacious, nor [in. 9.] 
shalt thou from thy soul 
cleave to (the) high, but tvith 
the lowly and righteous shalt 


[III. 10 ] av αστ pa φη σ x) . τα σ ν μ- thou consort. The events that 

βαίνοντα σον ενεργή- befall thee shall thou accept 

ματ a ώ ζ a y a ^ a π po σ - as good, knowing that nothing 

δέζτ}, ει δ ω ς ο τι άνευ occurs without the will of 

Β^εον ονδεν γίνεται. (7) God. 

[II. 4.] ο V7i εσ rf δ ιγ ν ω μων ου - Thou shall not le douhle- 

δ ε δίγλωσσο ζ• π αγι ς ?ninded nor double-tongued, 

γαρ θανάτου ε στ ι ν ή for α snare of death is the 

[IV. 11.] διγλωσσία, υποταγή- double tongue. Thou shalt 

σ Ί} ην ρ ίοιζ ω ζ τ υ π ω Β ε- obey rulers as an image of 

ov εν αϊ σ χν V r} και φό- God in modesty and fear. 

[IV. 10.] β CO- ov μη έπιτ ά ξ ι^ς Thou slialt by no means lay 

δ ονλω σ ov ή π αιδ ί σ κ 7] thy hand in bitterness upon 

σον εν πικρία τ οι ζ επι thy bondman or bondmaid, 

τον αντον ^ εό ν ελπ ί- u'ho hoi^e in the same God, 

Β,ονσ ι , μή π οτ ε ο ν φ ο - lest they perchance shall not 

β i]B ώ σ ι τον ε π' α μ φ ο - fear the God who is over 

τ έ ρ oi ζ ^ ε ο ν • ότι r /λΒ ε ν (you) both ; because he came 

ov κατά πρόσωπον κ a- not to call men according to 

λεσ aiy αλλ^ εφ' ονζ τό appearance, but those icliom 

πνεύμα ή τ oi μ ασ ε . the Spirit made ready. 

[IV. 8.] (8) κοινωνήσει ζ εν Thou shalt share in all 

πάσι τω πλησίον σον jiai things with thyi\e\g\ihox,a7id 

ovn ε ρε ι ζ ίδια είναι- shall not say they are thine 

ει γ a ρ ε V τω a φ Β ά ρ τ ω own ; for if ye are fartners 

κοινωνοί ε σ τ ε y π ο σ ω in that which is incorrupti- 

μ αλλ ο V εν τ οι ζ φ ^ α ρ - ble, how much more in the 

τ oi ζ . ονκ βσ?; προγλωσσοζ- corruptible {things) 9 Thou 

παγιζ γαρ στόμα θάνατον, shalt not be hasty of tongue, 

όσον δννασαι νπερ τήζ φνχτ/ζ for (the) mouth is a suare of 

[TV 5.] σον άγνενσειζ. (9) μ ή γ ί- death. As much as thou 

V ov π p6 ζ μεν το λα- canst thou shalt make purifi- 

βειν εκτ είν ων τ άζ χει- cationfor thy soul. JBe not 

ρ οί ζ y π po ζ δε το δούναι one loho stretches out his 

σ νσ π ώ V . hands for receiving, but draws 

them in for giving. 

αγαπησειζ ωζ κόρην τον Thou shalt love as the apple 

liy.i.] οφθαλμού σον πάντα τον of thine eye every one that 

λαλ ο V V τ a σ ο ι τον λο - speaketh to thee the word of 

γον τον κν pi ο v. (10) the Lord. Thou shalt re- 



μν η σ ^η σ r\ η με ρ α ν ji ρ ί- 
σ ε οο ζ τ) μ έ ρ α ζ και ν ν it - 
τ 6 ζ και έ kS^ ητ η σ ει ζ , 
ΐί α^^ ε Η ά (Τ τ η ν ή με ρ α ν 
τα προ σωτΐα τών αγίων. 
η δια λόγου κοπιών και πορ- 
ενόμενοζ είζ το ηαρακαΧεοαι 
και μελετών είζ το σώΰαι ψν- 
χην τώ λόγω, η δια τών 
χειρών Gov ε ρ γ α σ tj είζ 
λ ν τ ρ ο ν αμαρτιών ff ου. 
(11) ου δ ι στ ά α ε ιζ δού- 
ναι, ο υ δ t δ ι δ ο ύ ζ γ ο γ - 
γ υ C) ε ι ζ • γ ν ω ff tj δε, τ ίζ ο 
τ ού μ Iff Β ου καλ ο ζ αντα - 
7ΐ ο δ 6 τ η ζ . φ υλ α ξ ε ι ζ α 
7t α ρ έλ α β ε ζ , μήτε π ρ ο σ- 
τ ιΒ ει ζ μήτε α φ αι ρ ώ ν . 
είζ τέλοζ μιffησειζ τον πονη- 
ρον. 7ί ρ ι ν ε ΐ ζ δ ι καί- 
ω ζ. (1 ν). ου π ο ιη ff ειζ 
ff χ ί ff μ α • ε ί ρη ν ευ ff ε ι ζ 
δε μ αχο μ έ ν ου ζ ffυvaγa- 

έ ζ ο μολ ογ7] ff Ί] ε π ι ά - 
μα ρτ ί α ff ου . ου π ρ ο ff - 
η Β, ε ιζ έ πι π ρ ο ff ε υ χη ν 
εν ffυvειδ^]ffει π ο ν η - 
ρ ά . 

αυτί] ε ffτ ι ν ή ο δ ο ζ του 

XX. Η δε τοΰ μέλανοζ 
ο δ 6 ζ ff κολιά ε ff τ ι και 
κ α τ ά ρα ζ με ff τ ή. 6δ ό ζ 
γ α ρ ε ff τ ι θανάτου αιω- 
νίου μετά τιμωρίαζ, εν ή εffτ^ 
τα απολλϋντα την ΐΐ^υχτ^ν αυ- 
τών είδωλολατρεία, 
^paffΰτ?/ζ, υ φ οζ δ υν ά - 

member the day of judgment 
night and day, and thoiL slialt [iv. 2.] 
seek out every day tlie faces of 
the saints, either by Avord 
laboring, and going for the 
purpose exhorting, and medi- 
tating how to save (thy) soul 
by the word, or by thy hands [iv. 6.] 
thoK shalt work for a ransom 
for thy sins. Thou shalt not iv.7.] 
hesitate to give, nor tohen giv- 
ing shalt thou murmur ; l)ut 
thou shalt know who is the 
good disj^enser of the recom- 
pense. Thou shalt keep what [iv. i3.] 
thou hast received, neither 
adding to it nor taking from 
it. To the end thou shalt 
hate the evil one the (devil). 
Thou shalt judge righteous- 

Thou shalt not make i?/-[iv. 3.] 
vision, hut shalt make peace, 
bringing together those who 
are at strife. 

Thou shalt make confession [iv. i4.] 
of thy sins. Thou shalt not 
approach to prayer luith an 
evil conscience. 

This is the way of light. 

Ch. XX. — But the ivay o/[v. i.] 
darkness is crooked andy%?i 
of curse. For it is a way of 
eternal death, with punish- 
ment, in which the things 
which destroy their (men's) 
soul ; idolatry, overholdness, 
haughtiness of power, hy- 



μ ε ω ζ , υποκρισία, δ ι - 
πλο καρδία, μοιχεία, 
φ ό ν ο ζ , αρπάγη, ν η ε ρη- 
ψ α ν ία , παράβασιζ, δ ο - 
λ ο ζ , κακία, αν Β άδεια, 
φαρμακεία, μαγεία, 
πλεονεξία, αφοβία Βεον• 
[Χ.2.](2) δ ι ώ JiT α ι των αγα- 
θών, μισονντεζ α λ η - 
Β εια ν , αγαπώ ντε? ψ ε ύ- 
δ οζ , ο ν γ ι ν ω ϋ κ ο ν τ ε ζ 
μ ισ Β υ ν δΐ7ίαιοσύν7/ζ, 
ο ν 7ίθλλωμενοι αγαΒώ, 
ο ν 7ί ρί σ ε ι δίκαια, χηργ 
και ορψανώ ου προσέχοντεζ, 
αγρνπνονντεζ ο ν κ ε ΐ ζ 
φόβον Βεον, αλλ' επϊ το 
ττονηρον, ώ ν μακράν 
και πόρρω π ρ α ϋ τ η ζ και 
ν η ο μ ο ν ή , αγαπώντεζ 
μάταια, διωκοντεζ 

αν Τ α π ο Ο Ο μ α , ουκ ε Α ε- 
ο ν ν τ ε ζ π τ ω χ Ο ν , ο ν 
ττονονντε? ε π ι κ α τ α - 
πόνο ν με ν ω, ενχερει, επι 
καταλαλ ια, ο ν γ ι ν ω ff κο ν- 
τεζ τονποιηΰαντα α ν- 
το ν ζ , φ ον ε ΐ ζ τέκνων, 
φ Β ο ρε ι ζ πλασματοζ 

Βεον, αποστρεφο με- 
ν οι τον ε ν δ ε ο με ν ον , 
καταπονονντεζ τον 
Βλιβομενον, πλον σ ί ων 
παρακλητοι, πενήτων 
άνομοι κ ρ ιτ α ι , π αν - 
^ α μ α ρτ ητ οι . 

pocrisy, duplicity, adultery, 
murder, roUbery, arrogance, 
transgression, craft, vice, 
self-ivill, sorcery, magic, 
greed, no fear of God ; 7;?;•- 
secutors of {the) good, hating 
truth, loving falsehoods, not 
knowing the reiuard of right- 
eousness, not cleaving to [that 
ivhich is) good {and) not to 
righteous judgment, not giv- 
ing heed to widow and or- 
phan, on the watch not for 
fear of God, hut for evil; far 
and distant from whom are 
meekness and patience ; lov- 
ing vanities, pursuing re- 
venge, having no pity on the 
poor, not laboring for one in 
distress ; expert in evil speak- 
ing ; not hnowing him that 
' made them, murderers of chil- 
dren, destroyers of God's im- 
age, turning away from the 
needy, oppressing the afflicted, 
advocates of the rich, lawless 
judges of the poor, tvholly 



"The Shepherd of Hermas" (o Ποιμψ^, Hermce Pastor) is ii 
guide of Christian morality in the shape of an allegory or 
romance, and was once exceedingly popular in the Church, but 
is to mxost modern readers tedious and insipid. It is divided 
into Visions^ Mandates or Commandments^ and Similitudes. 

The book presents two parallels to the first and second 
chaj)ters of the Didache^ with some features resembling Bar- 

The date of Hermas is between 100 and 150, at all events 
later than that of the Didache^ and Barnabas, especially if he 
used Theodotion's Version of Daniel, which belongs to about 
the middle of the second century."^ (See Church History^ ii. 
678-692. The statements on 688 concerning the date need 

The Greek text is taken from von Gebbardt and Harnack's 
Patr. Ap. iii. 72 sq. and 98; compared with Funk iPatr. Ap. 
i. 390 and 412), and Hilgenfeld {Pastor Eermm, ed. ii. 1881). 

* Prof. J. Rendel Harris, of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, in a 
note ■ ' On the angelology of Hennas " in the University Circular, April, 
1884, p. 75, observed a connection between the obscure passage of Hermas, 
Vision iv. 2, 4, and Dan. vi. 22 (23) ; whereupon Dr. Hort, of Cambridge, in the 
same Circular, Dec 1884, p. 23, showed that Hermas in the passage referred 
to followed not the Septuagint but Theodotion's version of Daniel, as may 
be seen from the following comparison : 

Hermas, Vis. iv. 2, 4. j Theodotion, Dan. vi. 22. 
^la τούτο ό κνριοζ 6 Sficis βου ατίεότει- 
ατΐέότειλεν τον άχ-\χεν τον αχχελον 
γελάν αντοΰ τον ίττϊ αντον και ενέψραίεν 
των θηρίων 'όντα, αν ; τα ότόματα των λε- 
τόονοι,ιά ίϋτιν Θεγρί, \ όντων ηαί ονκ kXv- 
[emend. Harris Sf^'/az] μήναντό με 
και ενέφραξεν το 
ότοίΐα αντον, 'ίνα βή 
όε λνμάνρ. 

See Harnack's notice in the " Theolog. Literaturzeituug," 1885, No. VI., 
col. 146. 

LXX. Dan. vi. 22. 
ΰέβωκέν με ό S^eoS 
ατΐυ των λεόντων. 



^Εντολή β' . ^Εργάζου το 
αγαθόν και εΉ των κοπών 
ΟΌν ών ο ^εοζ δίδωΰίν ffoi, 
TCaGiv ύύτερονμένοιζ δίδον 
άπλώζ, μη διΰταζων, τίνι 
δώζ η τίνι μή δώζ. ΠάΟΊν δί- 
mdache βον π ά σ IV γαρ ό S' ε ό ς 

Ι. ο.] ', ' , 

δ ί δ Ο ff Β^ α ι Β ελ ε ι εκ των 
ιδίων δ ω ρ ΐγ μ α τ ω ν. 
5. Οι ού ν Χαμβανον- 
τ ε ζ αποδωΰονσιν 

λ ό γ ο ν τω Β ε ώ δ ι α τ ί 
ε Χ α β ο ν και ε ί ζ τι' 
οι μεν γαρ Χ α μ β ά - 
νοντεζ ΒΧιβομενοι ον 
δικασΒηϋ'ονται, οι δ ε 
εν νποκρίσει Χ α μ β α- 
ν ον τ ε ζ τ ίΰ ου IV δ ί- 
κΐ^ ν . 6. Ό ο ύ ν δ ι δ ο ν ζ 
α Β ώ ό ζ εστίν' ώ? yap 
έ'Χαβεν η αρά του κυρίου τι) ν 
διακονίαν τελεία ι, απΧώ? 
αύτην έτεΧεοεν, μηδέν δια- 
κρίνων, τίνι δω η μ?} δω. 

ΕντοΧη η. ΤΕοταπαί, φημί, 
κνριε, είσϊν αϊ ηονηρίαι αψ 
ών δει με έγκρατεΰεαΒαι ,• 
"Ακουε^ φησίν, από μοιχείαζ 
[Π. 2!^q..] jiai πορνείαζ, άπο μεΒύσμα- 
[V. 1.] τος ανομίας [Lat.: a potu ini- 
quo], άπο τρυφήζ πονηρά?, 
από εδεσμάτων ποΧΧών και 
ποΧυτεΧείαζ πλούτου Jiai ηαυ- 
χήσεωζ και ύφηλοφροσυνηζ 
Ηαϊ ΰπερηφανίαζ, και απο 
■φεΰσματοζ ΐία\ καταΧαλίαζ 
και ύποκρίσεωζ, μνι^σικακίαζ 
και πάσηζ βΧασφημίαζ. 

Commandment Π. 4-6. — 
Do good, and from thy labors, 
which God giveth thee, give 
in simplicity to all that are in 
need, not doubting to whom 
thou shouldst give and to 
whom thou shouldst not give. 
Give to all ; for God willeth 
that things should he given 
to all fi'om his own gifts. 
5. Those then, that receive 
shall give an account to God, 
why they received and for 
what 'purpose ; for those that 
receive in distress shall not 
he condemned ; hut those who 
receive in hAjyocrisy shall pay 
a penalty. 

G. He then that giveth is 
guiltless; for as he received 
from the Lord the ministry to 
fulfil, so he fulfilled it in 
simplicity, making no dis- 
tinction to whom he should 
give or not give. 

Commandment VIII. 3-5. 
— "How many, Master," 
I said, " are the sins from 
which we should abstain?" 
"Listen," he said; "from 
adultery and fornication, 
from lawlessness of drunken- 
ness, from evil luxuriousness, 
from many meats, from ex- 
travagance of wealtli, and 
boasting, and haughtiness, 
and arrogance, and falsehood, 
and evil-speaking, and hypoc- 
risy, from revengef ulness and 
every blasphemy. 




_η^-- ^d'jiz:^ j.f>i 

' /^ , 2. i σ 



4. Ταντα τα έργα πάντων 
πον7]ρότατα είσιν εν τη ζωή 
των ανθρώπων. Απο τού- 
των ούν των έργων δει εγ- 
κρατενεσΒαι τον δονλον τον 
^εον• ό γαρ μη έγκρατεν- 
ομενοζ απο τούτων ου δύνα- 
ται (ί,ηααι τω Βεώ. Α7ίονε 
ονν και τα ακολούθα τούτων. 
5. Έτι γαρ, φήμί, πνριε, 
πονηρά ε'ργα εστί ,• Και γε 
πολλά, φησίν, εστίν, αψ ων 
δει τον δονλον τον Β'εον εγ- 
κρατεύεσ^αι • ηλέμμα, ψεν- 
δοζ, αποατερηΰΐζ, ψενδ ομαρ- 
τ ν ρ ί α , πλεονεξία, ε π ι - 
^νμια πονηρά, άπατη, 
κενοδοζία, αλαζονεία 
real offa τούτοι? ομοιά ειΘίν. 

4. '' These deeds are the 
worst of all in the life of man. 
From these deeds, then, the 
servant of God must abstain. 
For he who abstain eth not 
from these things, cannot live 
unto God. Hear now, also, 
the things that attend these." 
5. " Are there then. Master," 
said I, "otlier evil deeds?" 
"^Yea, truly, " said he, 
''many there are from which 
the servant of God must re- 
frain : theft, lying, fraud, 
false-witness, covetoustiess, [Did. v. i.] 
evil desires, deceit, vain- 
glory-, 2)retence, and what- 
ever things are like these." 





Comp. Ch. XXX. 

This document must not be confounded witli tlie Apostolical 
Constitutions (see Doc. VII.)» ι^οί" witli the Apostolical Canons 
appended to them, although it is closely related to both. It is 
the Apostolical Constitution or Canon Law of the Christians of 
Egypt, and is still in use among them. We give it here as an 
interesting link between the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles and 
the Pseudo-Clementine Apostolical Constitutions. 

The Grreek text is taken from the latest edition by Harnack 
(pp. 225-237), who adopts Lagarde's division into 30 canons de- 
rived from the Thebaic MS. The older editions have 20 canons. 
I have compared the texts of Joh. Wilhelm Bickell ( Geschichte 
des Kirchenrechts, Giessen, 1843, Erster Band, pp. 107-132, from 
the Vienna MS., with a German translation under the title 
Apostolische Kirchenordnung)^ and of Adolf Hilgenfeld {Novum 
Testamentum extra canonem receptum^ ed. altera et emendata, Lip- 
siae, 1881, Fasc. iv. 111-120, under the title ai διαταγαϊ ai 
δια Κλημεντοζ icixl κανόνεζ έκη\ηαιαατιηο\ των αγίων 
αποστολών, The Ordinances through Clement and the Ecclesias- 
tical Canons of the Holy Apostles^ which he identifies with the 
Du(E Vice vel Judicium Petri). I have given the princijDal 
variations in foot-notes, and added a number of explanatory 
remarks. The editions of Lagarde {Reliquiae juris ecclesiastici 
antiquissimce^ 1856), and of Cardinal Pitra {Juris ecclesiastici 
hist, monumenta., Tom. i. Romas, 1864) have been used by 
Harnack and Hilgenfeld. 

The title in the Latin translation of the ^thiopic text by 
Ludolf {Comm. in Hist. Aeth. p. 314, as quoted by Bickell and 
Hilgenfeld) reads : " Isti {sunt) canones patrum apostolorum, quos 
constiluerunt ad ordinandam ecclesiam christianamr In the Cod. 
Ottobon. ssec. xiv. first compared by Pitra, the document is 


abridged and called εττιταμτ} ορών τών αγίων αποστόλων 
jiaBo/Viui}? παραδόσεως^ Epitome of the Definitions of the 
Holy Apostles. In the defective Moscow MS. discovered bj O. 
vonGebhardt and published in the second edition of his and 
Harnack's Ep. of Barnabas (1878, p. xxix. sq.) the title reads : 
διατάζεις τών άγιων αποστολών, Ordinances of the Holy 

The Egyptian text of the document was made known first by 
Tattam (in the Memphitic dialect of Lower Egypt), London, 
1844, and then by Lagarde (in the Thebaic dialect of Upper 
Egypt) in his " JEgyptiaca,'' Gottingai, 1883. The ^thiopic 
version, edited in JEthiopic and Latin by W. Fell, Lips. 1881, 
seems to have been made from the Thebaic. The next docu- 
ment gives the Egyptian version from Tattam. 




Χαίρετε, νιοι nai ^νγατε- Greeting, sons and daugh- 

ρες, εν ονόματι nvpiov Ιησού tors, in the name of the Lord 

Χριστού, Ιωάννΐ]ζ και Ματ- Jesus Christ. John and 

^αΐοζ και Πέτρος και ^Ανδρέας Matthew and Peter and An- 

nai Φίλιππος nai Έίμων και drew and Pliilip, and Simon 

Ιάκωβος κα\ ΝαΒαναηλ Jtai and James and Nathanael 

Θωμάς και Κηφάς και Βαρ^ο- and Thomas and Cephas ' and 

λομαίος jiai Ιούδας Ιακώ- Bartholomew^ and Judas of 

βον. James. ' 

■ Falsely distinguished from Peter, who is mentioned as the third Apostle. 
Clement of Alex, (in Eusebius, H. Ecd. i. 12) distinguishes the Cephas of 
Gal. ii. 11 from Peter, but counts him among the Seventy Disciples. 

"^ Falsely distinguished from Nathanael (John, i. 46 ; xxi. 2), mentioned 

^ Judas tlie brother of James, see Luke, vi. 16; Acts.i. 13. Only one James 
is mentioned, and no distinction is made between the brother of .John and 
the son of Alphaeus. Matthias, who was elected in the place of the Traitor, is 
omitted. Paul is ignored. But owing to the imaginary Cephas and Bar- 
tholomew there are twelve Apostles. This erroneous and incomplete list 
was perhaps afterwards added. 



1. Κατά JieXsvffiv τον κυρί- 
ου ημών 'Ιησού Χρίστου τού 
σωτήροζ συνα5>ροισΒεντων 
ημών^ ΐία^ωζ διέταξεν — προ* 
τον ' Μέλλετε 7ίληρούσ^αι 
ταζ επαρχίας καταλογίσα- 
σ'^αι τόπον αριΒμονζ, επί- 
σκοπων αζίαζ, πρεσβυτέρων 
εδραζ, διακόνων παρεδρείαζ, 
αναγνωστών νουνεχίαζ, χη- 
ρών ανεγκλησίαζ και Οσα 
δεοι προζ ^εμελίωσιν εκκλη- 
σίας ^ ί'να τύπον τών επουρα- 
νίων εΐδοτες φυλάσσωνται 
απο παντός άστοχήματος, εΐ- 
δοτες ΟΤΙ λογον νφεΒ,ουσιν εν 
Ttj μεγάλη ι) μέρα της κρίσεως 
περι ων ακονσαντες ονκ εφν- 
λαζαν — και έκέλευσεν ημάς 
εκπέμφασ^αι τούς λόγους εις 
ολην την οίκουμένην • 

1. Since we have assembled 
at a command of our Lord 
Jesus Christ the Saviour, ac- 
cording as he appointed — be- 
fore the [injunction]: Ye are 
to assign districts,' to deter- 
mine the numbers of places, 
the dignities of bishops, the 
seats of presbyters, the at- 
tendance (or, assistance) of 
deacons, the office (discre- 
tion) of readers, the blame- 
lessness of widows, ° and 
whatever be needful for 
founding a church, in order 
that, knowing the type of the 
heavenly [order],' they may 
keep themselves from every 
fault, knowing that they 
must render account at the 
great day of judgment for 
the things which they heard 
and did not keep — and as he 
commanded us to send forth 
the words into all the world. 

' ηληρόω, to appoint to an oiRee hy lot, to allot, assign. In ecclesias- 
tical usage also to ordain. ίπαρχία, the government of an έπαρχος 
{ prcefectus) or the district governed by him, the Έ,ονα&τι promncia. The prov- 
inces Avere subdivided chiefly for fiscal, commercial and judicial purposes 
into smaller districts, called conventus, jurisdictiones. 

' Bickell reads ανεκκλτ/ΰιηζ, and translates: " die Entfeniung der Witt- 
wen von kircldichen Verrichtungen." dvEHnXijoia is not mentioned in the 
dictionaries, \i\xti\ie&a]e:Q,ti\e\s άνεκκλΐ/ΰίαΰτοζ, excluded from the church. 
Suicer, Thes. i. 332, explains it αλλότριο? τηζ Ικκληβία'ί, alienus ah ecclesia. 
I followed the reading of Lag. Ha. Hlg. ανεχκλτ/ΰία, llamelessness. Pitra 
suggests παρακλή6ετ<;, 

" The ecclesiastical or terrestrial hierarchy was regarded as a reflection and 
copy of the celestial hierarchy of angelic orders, — an idea carried out most 
fully in the writings of Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita and adopted by Thomas 
Aquinas and the mediaeval schoolmen. See Church History, vol. iv. 597 

* Hilgenfeld puts προ * * * εφνλαίαν in parentheses. 



2. εδοΒεν ovv ημΐν π ροζ 
νπόμνησιν τ?/? αδελφοτητοζ 
ιιαι νονΒεαίαν εκαατω ωί ο 
jivpLO? απεκάλυψε jiara το 
θέλημα τον Β^εού δια πνενμα- 
τοζ άγ'ίον μνησ^είσι λόγου 
έντείλασ^αι νμιν. 

3. Ιωάνί'7]ζ είπεν ' άνδρεζ 
αδελφοί, εΐδότεζ οτι λοχον 
νφέζομεν περϊ τώτ- διατεταγ- 
μένων ημΊν ειζ ενοζ πρόσωπον 
μη λαμβανωμεν, αλλ' εαν τι? 
δοκτι τι* ασυμφερον λέγειν, j• 
αντιλεγέσΒω αυτώ. 

έδοΒ,ε δε ττάσι πρώτον Ιω- 
6 δ οι 

αννην ειπείν. 
'I'S 4. "Ίωάννηζ είπεν 

δυο ε i σ ί , μία τ ή ζ 8, ω- 
ΐ] ζ , κ βϊ μία τ ο ύ S' α ν α- 
τού, διαφορά δε πολλή 
με τ α ζ υ τ ώ ν δυο 6 δ ώ ν • 
η μεν ούν\6δ6ζτής Β,ω- 
ή ζ εστίν α ν τ 7] ' πρώ- 
τον αγαπήσεις τον Β ε- 
ο ν τον ποιησάντά σε 
ε'ξ όλ7]ζ τήζ 7ίαρδιάς σου και 
δοξασειζ τον λυτρωσάμενόν 
σε εκ Βανατου, ητιζ εστίν εν- 
]ζ.]τολη πρώτη. δεύτερον•^ 
αγαπήσει? τον πλησίον 
σου ωζ εαυτόν, ητιζ εστίν 
ε'ντολ?} δευτέρα, εν oh όλος 6 

2. Therefore it seemed 
good to us, for a reminding 
of the brotherhood and a 
warning to each, as the Lord 
revealed it according to the 
will of God through the Holy 
Spirit, remembering the word 
[the command of the Lord] 
to enjoin it upon you. 

3. John said : My brethren, 
knowing that we shall render 
account for the things as- 
signed to us, let ns each not 
regard the person of any one 
(not be partial to any one), 
but if any think it fitting to 
gainsay let him gainsay. ' 

ΝοΛΥ it seemed good to all 
that John should speak first. 

4. John said: TJiere are 
two loays, one of life and one 
of death, but there is a great 
difference betiveen the tico 
ivays ; for the iiHiy of life is 
this : First, thou shall love 
the God ivho made thee, with 
all thy heart, and shalt glori- 
fy him that ransomed thee 
from death, AA'hich is (the) 
first commandment. Second- 
ly, thou shalt love tliy neigh- 
hor as thyself, which is (the) 
second commandment: upon 
which hang all the law, and 
the prophets. 

^ Ludolf : Et si quis dixerit quod non decet (dicere), objurget cum eo quod 
dixit id quod bonum non est. 

* Hlg. omits τι. f BickeJl (B.), Hlg. ϋυμφέρυν άντιλέγειν. 

Χ Β. Hlg. yaft. § Β. δευτέρα. 



νομοζ κρεμαται 7iai οι προ- 

5. Ματ^αΐοζ είπεν πάντα 
όθααν*μη'ίίελΊ^ζ\ σοι 
γίνεσ^αι,Χ μηδέ Ο" t) § 
αλλ ω 7t ο ι η σ \] ζ . \ τ οΰ - 
των δετών λόγων την 
διδαχή ν είπε, αδελφέ 

6. Πίτροζ είπεν ο ν φο- 
νεύσει?, ον μ ο ι χ ε ν - 
σεις, ον πορνεύσεις, 
ον^ παιδοφ'^ορήσειζ, 
ου κλεψ ε ι ζ , ονμαγεΰ- 
σ ε ι ζ , ουφαρμακενσειζ, 
ο ν φονεύσεις τέΐίνον εν 
φ Β ο ρ α ο ν δ ε *'^' γ εν ν η - 
Βεν\\ αποκτενεΐς, ουκ^Ί 
έπι'Βυμησεις τ ά τον 
πλησίον• ο ν Ji επίορκη- 
σεις, ο ν ψενδομαρτν- 
ρ?^ σ ε ι ς , ο ν κ α κολ ογ η- 
σεις, ο ν δ ε μνησικαΐίή- 
σεις, ο ν η εσ η δίγνωμος 
ο ν δ ε δίγλωσσος' π α γι ς 
γαρ Β α ν ά τ ον εστίν η 
διγλωσσία, ονκ εσται 
ο λόγος σον κενός, ονδε 
ψευδής- ονκ ε'σ η πλε ο - 
ν ε κ τ η ς ονδε α ρ π α ξ 
ονδε υποκριτής ονδε 
κακοήΒΐ]ςονδε υπερή- 
φανος, ot;§§ λη ip 1^ β ου - 
λ η ν π ο ν η ρ α ν κατά του 
πλησίον σον ο ν μ ι σ ή - 

5. Matthew said : Alli^'] 
things whatsoever thou wilt 
not have hefall thee, thou to 
another shalt not do. Now 
of these words tell tlie teach- 
ing, brother Peter. 

6. Peter said : Thou shalt ["• 2.] 
not kill ; thou shalt not com- 
init adultery ; thou shalt not 
commit fornication; thou 
shalt not pollute a youth; thou 
shalt not steal ; thou shalt not 

he a sorcerer ; thou shalt not 
use enchantments; thou shalt 
not slay a child hy ahortiori, 
nor Tcill ivhat is born; thou 
shalt not covet any thing that 
is thy neighoor^s ; thou shall 
not hear false ivitness ; thou [3.] 
shalt not speah evil ; thou 
shalt not hear malice ; thou [4.] 
slialt not he double-minded 
nor double-tongued, for a 
snare of death is duplicity of 
tongue. Thy speecli shall not [■"^•^ 
be emi)ty. nor false; thou shalt t^•] 
not be covetous, nor rapacious, 
nor a hypocrite,nor malicious, 
nor timiglity, nor taJce evil 
counsel agaitist thy neighbor; 
thou shalt not hate any man, 
but some thou shalt reprove. 

* B. Hlg. omit. 

X B. Hlg. yevsoSaj. 

II B. Hlg. τίοιήΰειζ. 

** β. ον. 

XX Β. Hlg. omit clauses ονκ 

f Hlg. θέλειζ. 
% Β. 6 ν μηδέ. 

^ Β. Hlg. omit clauses οι)*** ιιαγεύδειζ. 
ff Β. χεννΐ/Βέν *** αττηκτενεϊ?. 
** ίπιορκήΰειζ. §§ Β. Hlg. ονδε. 



σ ε ι ζ πάντα άν^ροοτΐον, 
α λλ^ ο ν ζ μ t ν ελέγξει ζ, 
ουζ δε ελεήσεις, περί ών δ έ 
ηροσεΰζτι, ο ν ς δε αγα- 
πήσεις ύ π ε ρ την 7p νχη ν 
[ΠΙ. 1.] 7. Ανδρέας είπεν τέκνον 
μο ν , φεύγε α π ο παν- 
τός πονηρού και από 
παντός ομοίου αυτού. 

[8.] β η γίνου ο ργ ιλος ' ο ο η - 
γ ε Ί γαρ ή ο ρ γ ?/ προς 
τον* φ ο ν ο ν ' εστί γαρ 
δαιμόνιον αρρενικον 6 ^υμός. 

[2.] μ ι) γίνου 8, η λ ωτ if ς μΐ] δ t 
έ ρ ι σ τ ικο ς μηδέ ^ υ μώ- 
δ η ς \ • εκ γαρ τούτων 
φόνος γεννάται. 

[3] 8. Φίλιππος είπεν τ έ ιι ν ον 
μο υ , Ί μη γίνου ε' π ι Β' υ - 
μητ η ς ' οδηγεί γαρ ή 
ε π ιΒ υ μία προς την π ο ρ- 
V ε ία ν και έλκει τους ανθρώ- 
πους προς έαυτιρ'. εστί γαρ 
Βΐ]λυκόν δαιμόνιον ι) επιθυ- 
μία, § και 6 μεν μετ' οργής, ό 
δζ μεθ^ ηδονής απόλλυσι τοχ>ς 
είσερχομένους\ είς^ αυτήν.** 
οδός δε πον7]ρού πνεύματος 
αμαρτία ψυχής, και όταν 
βραχείαν εισδυσιν σχή εν 
αντώ, πλατύνει αυτι)ν και 
άγει έπϊ πάντα τα κακά την 

and some thou sliult pity; and 
for some thou slialt pray, and 
some tliou shalt love more than 
thine own soul. 

7. Andrew said : Ily ch ild, 
flee from all evil, and from 
everything like it. Be not in- 
clined to anger, for anger 
leads to murder ; for Avrath 
is a male demon.' Become 
not a zealot, nor contentious, 
nor 2)assionate j for from 
these things murder is engen- 

8. Philip said : My child, 
he not lustful; for lust leadeth 
to fornication, and drawetli 
men to herself. For lust is a 
female demon, and the one 
ruins with anger, the 
other with lust, those that 
receive them." Noav (the)- 
way of an evil spirit is the 
sin of the soul ; and if it 
(the evil spirit) has only a 
narrow entrance within him, 
it widens the way and leads 
that soul to all bad things, 
and does not permit the man 

' Lud. : instar cacadcemonis. Biekell : ein mdnnUcJier Damon. 
" Lud. : Cacodcemo7i seductor est. Nam cum diabolus iram cum lihidine 
conjimgit, interitus ceternus sequitur eum qui illud admittit. 

* B. Hlg. omit. 

X B. Hlg. omit. 

II B. Hlg. είόδεχομενυυζ. 

*"" Β. Hlg. αιτα. 

f Β. Hlg. ^νμαντικός. 
g Β. Hlg. rrji ίπιΒνμίαζ. 
1[ B. Hlg. omit. 



ψνχτ^ν εκεινην και ονκ εα οια- 
βλέψαι τον αν^ροοποχ'' και 
ίδεϊν την αλη^ειαν. ό ^νμόζ 
νμών μέτρον εχετω και εν 
βραχεί διαβτηματι αντον ηνι- 
οχεϊτε και ανακρούετε, ίνα μη 
έμβαλλη νμάζ είζ ε'ργον πονη- 
ρόν. S -νμόζ yap και ηδονή 
πονηρά έη\ πολύ* παραμέ- 
νοντα κατά επίτααιν δαιμό- 
νια γίνεται, jtai όταν έπι- 
τρΙφ[} αυτοΐζ 6 άν^ρωποζ, οί- 
δαίνονοΊν έν τ\\ ψνχι) αυτού 
και γίνονται μεϊΒ,ονεζ ' και 
απαγουύιν αυτόν ειζ έργα 
άδικα και επιγελώσιν αυτώ 
και f ήδονται έπϊ τ// απώλεια 
τού άνθρωπου. \ 

9. Έίμοον ετπεν • τ ε κ ν ο ν , 
μ ή γίνου α ί σ χ ρ ολ ο γ ο ζ 
μ 7] δ ε υ ip ηλ 6 φ ^ α λ μ ο ζ . 
εκ γαρ τούτων μοι- 
χεία^ γ ε ν ν α τ α ι .\\ 

10. ^ΐάκωβοί είπεν . τ ε κ- 
V ο ν μ ο υ ,^ μτ] γίνου 
οΐωνοσκόποζ, επειδή** 
οδηγεί ει ζ\\ την ε ιδ ω- 
λ ολατ ρε ί αν , μηδέ έπ α- 
οιδό ζ μηδέ 'μα ^ η μα- 
τ ικ 6 ζ μηδέ πε ρ ι κ α 3^ α ί- 
ρων μηδέ 3έλε αυτα\\ 
ιδεί ν μηδέ ακουειν.^'^ εκ 

to look clearly and see the 
truth.' Let your wrath be 
restrained, and after a short 
interval, bridle and check it, 
that it may not hurl you into 
e\ul deeds. For wrath aud 
evil desire, if they be suffered 
long to remain, become de- / 
mons by reinforcement. And ' 
Avhenever man yields himself . 
to them, they swell up in his ! ή 
soul and grow larger and lead '' 
him into unrighteous deeds, 
and deride him, and rejoice [ 
at the destruction of men. ! 

9. Simon said: Child, be[S.] 
not foul-mouthed, nor lofty- 
eyed. ; for of these things come 

10. James said : Child, he [4.] 
not an omen-watcher, sitice it 
leadeth to idolatry, nor a 
charmer, nor an astrologer, 
nor a purifier, nor le luilling 

to look upon nor hear these 
things; for from all these 
idolatries are hegotten. 


' The Coptic Constitution : " He (the demon) will take with him all other 
evil spirits ; he will go to that soul and will not leave the man to meditate 
at all, lest he should see the truth." 

" B. Hlg. ίπιηοΧύ. 

X Β. Hlg. των ανΒρωτΐων. 

II Β. Hlg. γίνονται. 

"* Β. εηεί δή. 

XX Β. αίιτάζ. 

f Hlg. omits. 
§ Β. Hlg. ηοιχεΐαι. 
Τ Β. Hlg. omit, 
•f-f- Β. Hlg. ηρόζ. 
g§ Β. Hlg. είδέναι. 



γαρ τ ο ν τω r απάντων 
είάωλολατρείαι γεν- 

[5.] 11. NaSava?}X ειπεν τεκ- 
vovj μη γίνου ψ ευ σ τ 7] ζ , 
ε 7ΐ ε ι δ η οδηγεί το tp ευ - 
σ μα έπϊ την ηΧοπ η ν ^ 
μηδέ φ ιλ ά ργ υ ρ οζ μ?] δ ε 
κενόδοζοζ. εκ γαρ 
τούτων απάντων κλο- 
παϊ γεννώνται.* 

[6.] τ έ κν ο ν , μ?/ γίνου γ ο γ- 
γυοΌζ, επειδή άγει π ροζ 
την βΧαβφημίαν^ μηδέ 
α υ^ αδ ηζ μ 7] δ ε π ο ν 7] - 
ρο φ ρ ων . εκ γαρ τού- 
των απάντων β λα σ φη - 

^γ^-^ μ ί α ι γεννώνται, iff θ ι 
δε π ρα ΰ ζ , ε π ε ϊ^ π ρ α ε ι ζ 
κλ 7] ρ ο ν ο μ 7] ff ο υ ff ι^ την 

[8.] βαύιλείαν τών ουρανών, γ ί- 
V ο ν μακροΒυμοζ, ελε- 
ήμων, εΐρ7]νοποιόζ, κα^α- 
ροζ τη καροια απο παντοζ 
κακού, ά 7ΐ α 7ΐ ο ζ Jiai ή ff ύ - 
χι οζ , α γ α ^ 6 ζ και φυ - 
λα00ων και τρέμων του ζ 
λο γ ο υ ζ ο ύζ η κ ο υ ff α ζ ' 

[9.] ο υ χ ύφ ω ff ειζ ff ε αυ τ 6 ν 
ουδέ δ 00 ff ε ιζ την ψ υ- 
χη ν^ ff ο υ\\ μετά υψη- 
λών, άλλα μετά δ πι αι- 
ών και ταπεινών άνα- 
στρα φη ff τι . τ ά δ ε ff υ μ- 

J1. Nathaniel said: Child, 
ie not a liar, since lying leads 
to theft, nor avaricious, nor 
vainglorious; for of all these 
things thefts are begotten. 

[Judas said] : Child, he not 
a murmurer, since it leadeth 
to Masphemg, 7ior self-ioilled, 
nor evil-minded ; for of all 
these things blasphemies are 
begotten. But he meeh, since 
the meeh shall inherit the 
kingdom of heaven. Be long- 
suffering, merciful, jjeace- 
mahing, pure in heart from 
every evil, guileless and 
gentle, good, and keeping and 
trembling at the words ichicli 
thou hast heard ; thou shalt 
not exalt thyself, nor permit 
over-boldness to thy soul, nor 
cleave with thy soul to [the) 
high, butivith {the) righteous 
and lowly thou shalt consort. 

* H]g. inserts "Ίονδαζ είπε. Β. observes that these words were unques- 
tionably omitted in the original Greek MS. merely by accident, and so lie 
inserts "Judas sprach" iu his translation. 

f Hlg. επειδή. 

X Β. Hlg. κληρονομοϋόι. 

§ Hlg. τ^ ψυχρ. 

I Hlg. inserts Op χΰυζ υνδε HoXX>/Si}(5rj rrj ipVYJ^ dov. 



βαίνοντα G ο ι εν ε ρ y ?/ - 
ματα ώζ αγα^ά προσ- 
δ έ ζ 7] , ε ί δ ώ ζ ο τ ι α τ ε ρ 
Β^ ε ο ν ουδέν γίνεται. 

12. Θωμάζ ετπεν τ ε κ ν ο ν, 
τονλαλούντα σοι τον 
λ ο χ ο ν τον S' ε ο ν και παρ- 
αίτιον σοι γινομενον τήζ 
ζωί/ζ και δοντα σοι την εν 
κνρίω σφραγίδα αγαπησειζ 
ώζ κορ7]ν οφθαλμού σον, 
μν η σ Βη σ ri δε α ν τ ο ν 
ν ν κτ α και η με ραν , τ ι - 
μη σ ε ιζ α ν τ ό ν ώ ζ τον 
κ ν ρ ι ο ν. ο S- ε ν γαρ η 
κνριοτηζ λαλείται, ε- 
κεί κ ν ρ ι ο ζ εστίν, ε' κ - 
8,η τ η σ ε ι ζ δε το ττ ρ 6 - 
σωπον αντον κα^^ η μεραν 
και τον? λοιπονζ α γ ί ον ζ , 
ίνα έπανατίανστ} τ οι ζ 
λογ οις αντών 7ίθλλωμενοζ* 
γαρ αγίοιζ άγιασΒ77ση. τι- 
μησειζ δε f αντον, jtaS' ο δν- 
νατοζ ει, εκ τον ιδρώτοζ σον 
και εκ τον πονον των χειρών 
σον. ει γαρ ο κνριοζ οι αν- 
τον 7]ξίωσεν σοι δοΒήναι 
π ν ε ν μ ατ ι κη ν τ ρ ο ψη ν 
και π ο τ ό ν jt α ϊ 8, ω η ν 
aicuviov, σ ν οφεΐΑειζ 
π ολ ν μάλλον την 

φΒαρτηνκαι π ρο σ κ αι- 
ρον προσφερειν τρο- 
φ Τ) ν ' α ξ ι ο ζ γαρ ο ερ- 
γάτης τον μ ι σ Β ο ν α ν- 

TJie events that hefall thee [lo.i 
thou shalt accept as good, 
knowing that without God 
nothing occurs. 

12. Thomas said : Child, [τν. i.] 
Jiim that speaketh to thee the 
word of God, and becometh 
to thee an author of life, and 
hath given thee the seal in 
the Lord, tliou shalt love as 
the apple of thine eye, and 
thoushaU remember him 7iight 
and dag, thou shalt honor 
hi^n as the Lord ; for where 
that which pertaineth to the 
Lord is spoken,^ there is the 
Lord. And thou shalt seek p.] 
out his face daily and the rest 
of the saints, that thou may- 
est he refreshed hy their 
words : for by cleaving to 
saints thon shaltbe sanctified. 
Thou shall honor him, as far λ 
as thou art able, — from thy 
sweat and from the labor of ' 
thy hands. For if the Lord 
through him saw fit that 
spirit ucd food and drink and 
eternal life be given thee, 
thou oughtest inuch more the 
perishable and transient food; 
for the laborer is worthy of his 
hire, and a threshing ox thou 
shalt not muzzle, and no one 
planteth a vine and eateth 
not its fruit. 

^ Ludolf : uhi memorant diviatem. 
verkundigt wird. 

Bickell : woher die Snchc des Herrn 

* B. inserts gjS αγιοζ. 

\ B. omits δε. 


τον, yiai βούν αλοώντα ου 
φιμωΰειζ, και ουδειζ φυτεύει 
αμπελώνα και εκ τ ού καρπού 
αυτού ουκ εσ^ίει. 

[3•] 13. Κηφάζ ετπεν* ο υ π οι- 13. Cephas said: Thou 

η σ ε ι ζ σχίσματα. ει- slialt not make clivismis, hut 

ρηνε V σ ει ζ δε μα χ ο- shalt makepeace between those 

με r ο ν ζ . κρίνει? δι- who contend; thou shalt judge 

Ha ίω ς . ου Xijtpij π ρό - justly ; thou shalt not respect 

σωπον\ ε\εγζαι\ τι- persons in rcjrroving for a 

νά% επι παραπτωματι. transgression. For \vealtli 

ου γαρ ισχύει πλούτοζ παρά does not ayail with the Lord; 

κυρίφ• ου γαρ aSla || προ- for dignity does not predis- 

κρίνει ουδέ 7{άλλοζ ωφελεί, pose, nor beauty aid, but there 

αλλ ίσότηζ εστί πάντων παρ! is equality of all with him. 

\\:\αυτώ. εν προσευχί} σου μη In thy prayer ^7^ ο w shnlt not 

δι•>ρυχή σ Ί)ζ π 6 τ ε ρ ov ε σ- hesitate, whether it shall he or 

[5.] τ ai η oij . μη γίνου not ; he not {one u^lto) for re- 

π p6 ζ μεν το λαβείν ceiving stretches out tlte 

ε κτ ε ίν ων τ ά ζ χειραζ, hands, hut for giving draws 

π ροζ δε το δ ού ναι σ υ σ- them in. If thou hast [any- 

[6.] π ώ V . εάν εχί]ζ^ διά thing) by thy hands thou 

τ ώ V χειρών σον, δ ώ- shalt give ransom for thy 

σ ε ι ζ λύτρωσιν τ ών sins; thou shalt not hesitate 

[7.] αμαρτιών σου. ου δ ι σ - to give, nor ivhen giving 

τάσεις δούναι** ουδέ shalt thou mur7nur ; for 

δ ιδ ού ζ γογγυσειζ' thou shalt know, who is the 

γ V ώ σ r\ γάρ τίζ έστιν good disjjenser of the recom- 

6 τ ού μ ισ Β ού 7t αλο ς p)ense. Thou shalt not turn 

18.] a V τ a π ο δ 6 τ ?γ ζ. ουκ aivay from a needy one, but 

απ ο σ τ ρ a φη ση ε ν δ ε ό - thou shall share in all things 

με V ο V , σ υ γ κ ο ι ν ω ν η - with thy brother, and shalt 

σ εις j[^ δε π άν τ a\l τ ώ not say they are thine otvn; 

αδ ελ φώ σου και ουκ for if ye are partners in that 

ε ρ εις ι δια είναι- ει which is imperishable, 7iow 

* Ha. fzVizj/(a typogr. error). f B. Hlg. insert τζνά. 

X Β. έλέχ'ξαζ. % Β. Hlg. omit, 

II Β. αξ/ας. •|Τ Β. έχεις. 

** Β. Hlg. διδόναι. ft Β. Hlg. omit dvy. 

JJ Β. Hlg. απάντων. 


γαρ εν τω a B^ a ν ά τ ω imich more in the corruptible 
71 ο IV ων 01 ε (3 τ € , π ο σ ω* th ings. ' 
μάλλον εν τ ο7 ζ 3 ν η - 

τ οΐζ .\ 

^ This last clause " for if," etc. , is not found either in the Apostolical Con- 
stihitions, or in Barnabas. Here the parallel ceases between the Did. and 
i\i% Apostolical Church Order. The remaining 17 sections of the Doc. are 
therefore omitted. But as a curiosity the strange scene described in chaps. 
xxix.-xxxi. is here inserted : 

xxix. John said: Ye have forgotten, brethren, that when the Master 
asked for the bread and the wine and blessed them and said: " This is my 
body and my blood," he did not allow these (women) to meet with us. 

XXX. Martha said : On Mary's account, because he saw her smile. 

xxxi. Maiy said: I did not laugh. For he said to as formerly as he was 
teaching, that the weak should be strengthened through the strong. 

The meaning of the speech of the Λvomen is, that Martha supposed Mary 
to be smiling because John's words might imply that women were to be kept 
from all participation in the Lord's Supper, whereas he really meant merely 
to deny their right to dispense the elements, which right had been claimed 
for deaconesses. 

* B. πύΰον f B. Hlg φ^αρτοίζ. 



From The Apostolical Constitutions, or Canons of the Apostles in 
Coptic. With an English translation hy Henry Tattani, LL.D., 
D.D., F.R.S., Archdeacon of Bedford. London: Printed for 
the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. 
1848. 214 and xv. pages. 

The work is called, in Coptic and Arabic, The " Canons of 
onr Holy Fathers the Apostles," and is divided into seven 
books. It is derived from the same sources as the Apostolical 
Constitutions, but is probably older. The MS. of the Coptic 
and Arabic text is a beautifully written quarto volume, and 
was procured by the Duke of Northumberland. It is said to 
be the only copy known in Egyj^t. The Coptic text is in the 
Memphitic or Bahiric dialect of Lower Egypt. It is not made 
directly from the Greek, but from an older version in the The- 
baic or Sahidic dialect of Upper Egypt. Tattam purchased a 
copy of the greater part of the Sahidic original in Egypt, and 
collated it with the Memphitic, " with which it perfectly agrees." 
(Preface, p. xiv.) He lent it to Lagarde, who gave a full ac- 
count of it in his Reliquice juris eccles. ant., p. ix. sq. This Sa- 
hidic MS. is now in the British Museum, where its class mark 
is Orient. 440. Another Sahidic MS., written A.D. 1006, has 
recently been acquired from Sir C. A. Murray's collection by 
the British Museum, and is marked Orient. 1320. 

The two versions are compared by Lightfoot, Appendix to 
S. Clement of Rome, 1877, pp. 273 (note), and 466 sqq. See 
also his remarks on the dialects of Egypt in Scrivener's Intro- 
duction to the Criticism of the N. T., p. 365 sqq. (3d ed.). 

The Coptic Constitutions contain the Pseudo-Clementine 
Ordinances concerning the ordination of Bishops, Presbyters, 
Deacons, the appointment of Readers, Subdeacons, Widows, 
Yirgins, the administration of the Sacraments, the First-fruits 
and Tithes, etc. I give here only the first Book, which cor- 
responds to the Greek "Apostolic Church Order." 



These are the Canons of our Fathers the Holy Apostles of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, which they appointed in the Churches. 

Eejoice, our sons and daughters, in the name of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, said John and Matthew, and Peter, and Andrew, 
Philip and Simon, James and Nathanael, Thomas and Cephas, 
Bartholomew, and Judas the brother of James. 

1. According to the command of our Lord Jesus Christ, our 
Saviour,* that we should assemble together, he enjoined us, 
saying (whereas we had not yet divided the countries among us). 
Ye shall divide them among you so that each one may take his 
place according to your number. 

Ajipoint the orders for Bishops, stations for Presbyters, and 
continual service for Deacons : prudent persons for readers, and 
blameless for widows ; f and appoint all other things by which 
it is meet the foundation of the Church should be established, 
that by them may be known the type of the things in heaven, 
that they may keep themselves from every spot. And they 
should know that they shall give account to God in the great 
day of judgment for all the things which they have heard and 
have not kept. 

And He commanded us to make known these words in all the 

2. It also appeared to us, that each one of us should speak as 
the Lord hath given him grace, according to the will of God 
the Father, by the Holy Spirit, making remembrance of His 
words, that we may command them to you. They will be 
remembered, and the fraternal teaching. 

3. John said, ''Men and brethren, we know that we shall 
give account for those things which we hear, and for those 
things which have been commanded us. Let not any one of us 
accept the person of his friend. But if any one should hear 

* Our Saviour, in the Sahidic, which corrects the Memphitic. 

f " Let not a widow be talien into the number under threescore years old 
— well-reported of for good works ; if she have brought up children, if she 
have lodged strangers, if she have washed the saints' feet, if she have re- 
lieved the aifiicted, if she liaA'e diligently followed every good work." — 1 Tim. 
V. 9, 10. 


his friend speak of those things whicli are not profitable, let 
him restrain him, saying, "what thou sayest is not good." It 
therefore ])leascd them that John should speak first. 

4. John said, " There are two ways, one is the way of life, and 
the other is the way of death ; and there is much difference in 
these two ways. But the way of life is this, Thou shalt loye * 
the Lord thy God with all thy heart, who created thee, aud thou 
shalt glorify him who redeemed thee from death ; for this is the 
first commandment. 

"But the second is this. Thou shalt loye thy neighbour as 
thyself. On these two commandments hang the law and the 
Prophets. '' 

5. Matthew said, "Every thing that thou wouldest not should 
be done to thee, that do not thou also to another ; that is, what 
thou hatest do not to another. But thou, Peter my brother, 
teach them these things." 

6. Peter said, " Thou shalt not kill ; thou shalt not commit 
adultery ; thou shalt not commit fornication ; thou shalt not 
pollute a youth ; thou shalt not steal ; thou shalt not be a sor- 
cerer ; thou shalt not use divination ; thou shalt not cause a 
woman to miscarry, neither if she hatli brought forth a child 
shalt thou kill it. Thou shalt not covet any thing that is thy 
neighbour's : thou shalt not bear false witness : thou shalt not 
speak evil of any one, neither shalt thou think evil. Thou shalt 
not be double-minded, neither shalt thou be double-tongued, 
for a double tongue is a snare of death. Thy speech shall not 
be vain, neither tending to a lie. Thou shalt not be covetous, 
neither rapacious ; nor a hypocrite, nor of an evil heart, nor 
proud. Thou shalt not speak an evil word against thy neigh- 
bour. Thou shalt not hate any man, but thou shalt reprove 
some, and shalt have mercy upon others. Thou shalt pray for 
some, and shalt love others as thy own soul." 

7. Andrew said, "My son, flee from all evil, and hate all evil. 
Be not angry, because anger leads to murder, for anger is an evil 
demon. Be not emulous, neither be contentious, nor quarrel- 
some, for envy proceeds from these." 

8. Philip said, "My son, be not of. unlawful desires, because 
desire leads to fornication, drawing men to it involuntarily: for 
lust is a demon, f For if the evil spirit of anger is united with 

* The Sahidic is correct, thou shalt love. f Arabic, Satan. 


that of sensuality, tliey destroy those who shall receive them. 
And the way of the evil spirit is the sin of the soul. For when 
he sees a little quiet entering in he will make the way broad ; 
and he will take with him all other evil spirits : he will go to 
that soul, and will not leave the man to meditate at all, lest he 
should see the truth. Let a restraint be put to your anger, and 
curb it with not a little care, that you may cast it behind you, 
lest it should precipitate you into some evil deed. For wrath 
and evil desire, if they are suffered always remaining, are demons. 
And when they have dominion over a man they chauge him in 
soul, that he may be prepared for a great deed : and when they 
have led him into unrighteous acts, they deride him, and will 
rejoice in the destruction of that man." 

9. Simon said, "My son, be not the utterer of an evil ex- 
pression, nor of obscenity, neither be thou haughty, for of these 
things come adulteries." 

10. James said, " My son, be not a diviner, for divination 
leads to idolatry ; neither be thou an enchanter, nor an astrolo- 
ger, nor a magician, nor an idolater ; * neither teach them nor 
hear them ; for from these things proceeds idolatry." 

11. Nathanael said, " My son, be not a liar, because a false- 
hood leads to blasj^hemy. Neither be thou a lover of silver nor 
a lover of vain glory, for from these thefts arise." 

" My son, be not a murmurer, because repining leads a man to 
blasphemy. Be thou not harsh, nor a thinker of evil, for of all 
these things contentions are begotten. But be thou meek, for 
the meek shall inherit the earth. And be thou also merciful, 
peaceable, compassionate, cleansed in thy heart from all evil. 
Be thou sincere, gentle, good ; trembling at the words of God 
which thou hast heard, and do thou keep them. Do not exalt 
thyself, neither shalt thou give thy heart to pride, but thou 
shalt increase more and more with the just and humble. Every 
evil which cometh upon thee receive as good, knowing that 
nothing shall come upon thee but from God." 

12. Thomas said, " My son, he who declares to thee the 
words of God, and hath been the cause of life to thee, and hath 
given the holy seal to thee which is in the Lord, thou shalt love 
him as the apple of thine eyes, and remember him by night and 

* The Sahidic has, one that bewitcheth. 


day : thou shalt honour him as of the Lord : for in tliat place 
in which the word of power is, there is the Lord ; and thou 
shalt seek his face daily ; him, and those who remain of the 
saints, that thou mayest rest thee on their words : for he who is 
united to the saints shall be holy. Thou shalt honour him ac- 
cording to thy power, by the sweat * of thy brow, and by the 
labour of thy hands : for if the Lord hath made thee meet that 
he might impart to thee spiritual food, and spiritual drink, and 
eternal life, by him ; it becomes thee also the more, that thou 
shouldest impart to him the food which perishes and is tempo- 
ral ; for the labourer is worthy of his hire. For it is written, 
Thou shalt not muzzle the ox treading out the corn : neither 
does any one plant a vineyard and not eat of the fruit thereof." 

13. Cephas said, " Thou shalt not make schisms : thou 
shalt reconcile in peace those who contend with one another. 
Judge in righteousness without accepting of persons. Eeprove 
him who hath sinned, for his sin. Suffer not wealth to prevail 
before God, neither justify the unworthy, for beauty profiteth 
not; but righteous judgment before all. Doubt notf in thy 
prayer, thinking whether what thou hast asked of him will be 
or not. Let it not indeed be that when thou receivest thou 
stretchest out thine hand, but when thou shouldest give thou 
drawest thy hand to thee. But if thou hast at hand J thou 
shalt give for tlie redemption of thy sins. Thou shalt not 
doubt, thou shalt give ; neither when thou hast given shalt thou 
murmur, knowing this reward is of God. Thou shalt not turn 
away from the needy, but shalt communicate with the needy in 
all things : Thou shalt not say these things are mine alone. If 
ye communicate with one another of those things which are in- 
corruptible, how much rather should ye not do it in those things 
which are corruptible ? " 

14. Bartholomew said, '' I beseech you, my Brethren, while 
you have time, and he who asks remains with you, (and) you are 
able to do good to them, do not fail in any thing to any one, 
which you have the power to do. 

" For the day of the Lord draweth nigh, in which every thing 

* Coptic is literally, thy siveat. 

f Literally, be not of a double heart. 

X Literally, of thy hands, or from the labours of thy hands. 

25.1: DOCUMENT Λα. 

that is seen shall be dissolved, and the wicked shall be destroyed 
with it, for the Lord cometh, and his reward is with him. 

"Be ye lawgivers to your own selves ; be ye teachers to your- 
selves alone, as God hath taught you. Thou shalt keep those 
things which thou hast received, thou shalt not take from them, 
neither shalt thou add to them." 

15. Peter said, " Men and brethren, all the remaining pre- 
cepts of the holy scriptures are sufficient to teach you ; but let 
us declare them to those to whom we have been commanded." 
Then it pleased them all that Peter should speak, 

16. Peter said, "If there should be a place having a few 
faithful men in it, before the multitude increase, who shall be 
able to make a dedication to pious uses for the Bishop to the 
extent of twelve men, let them write to the churches round 
about them, informing them of the place in which the multi- 
tude of the faithful (assemble and) are established. 

" That three chosen men in that j)lace may come, that they 
may examine with diligence him who is worthy of this grade. 
If one of the people who hath a good reputation, being guiltless, 
without anger, a lover of the poor, prudent, wise, not given to 
wine, not a fornicator, not coA'etous,* not a contemner, not par- 
tial, f and the like of these things. 

"If he have not a wife it is a good thing ; but if he have 
mamed a wife, having children, let him abide with her, con- 
tinuing stedfast in every doctrine, able to explain the Scriptures 
well ; but if he be ignorant of literature let him be meek : let 
him abound in love towards every man, lest they should accuse 
the Bishop in any aifair, and he should be at all culpable." 

17. John said, " If the Bishop whom they shall appoint hath 
attended to the knowledge and patience of the love of God with 
those with him, let liim ordain two Presbyters when he has 
examined them." 

18. And all answered, not two, but three, because there are 
twenty-four Presbyters — twelve on the right hand, and twelve 
on the left. J 

* Literally, not a lover of the larger portion. 

f Literally, not an accepter of persons. 

X Rev. iv. 4. — Και κνκλό^εν τον θρόνου έρανοι εϊκοόι και τέόόα- 
ρεζ • και ετΐι τούζ ^ρόνονζ είδαν rovi εϊκοόι καΐ τεόόαραζ τΐρεόβν- 
τερονζ κα^ημένουζ, τίεριβεβλ-ημένονζ εν ιματίοιζ λενκοΐζ • και εόχον 
ετΐι τάζ κεφαλάζ αυτών ότεφάνουζ χρνΰοΰζ. 


John said, ''You have rightly recalled these things to remem- 
brance, my brethren ; for when those on tlie right hand have 
received the censers from the hands of the angels, they present 
them before the Lord.* But those on the left hand shall be 
sustained by the multitude of angels, f But it behoves the 
Presbyters that they should be in the world, after the manner 
of old men, removing far off, that they should not touch a 
woman, bemg charitable (and) lovers of the brethren : that they 
should not accept persons, being partakers of the holy mysteries 
with the Bishop, assisting in all things, collecting the multitude 
together, that they may love their Shepherd. And the Pres- 
byters on the right hand have the care of those who labour at 
the altar, that they should honour those who are worthy of all 
honour, and rebuke those who merit their rebuke. The Pres- 
byters on the left hand shall have the care of the people, that 
they may be upright, that no one may be disturbed. And they 
shall instruct them that they should be in all subjection. But 
when they have instructed one, answering contumaciously, J 
those within the altar should be of one heart, and one mind, 
that they may receive the reward of that honour according to 
its desert. And all the rest shall fear lest they should deviate, 
and one of them should become changed like one wasting away,§ 
and all should be brought into captivity." 

19. James said, "The Reader shall be appointed after he has 
been fully proved ; || bridling his tongue, not a drunkard, not a 
derider in his speech, but decorous in his appearance ; obedient, 
being the first to congregate on the Lord's-day ; a servant know- 
ing what is meet for him, that he may fulfil the work of pub- 
lishing the Gospel. For he who fills the ears of others with his 
doctrines, it becomes him the more that he should be a faithful 
workman before God." 

20. Matthew said, " Let the Deacons be appointed by three 
testifying to their life. For it is written, ' By the mouth of 

* Rev. V. 8. — Kal oi είκοόιτέΰόαρεζ πρεΰβντεβοι επεδον ενώπιον τον 
άρνι'ον,εχοντεζ επαβτοζ . . . . φιάλαζ χρνόάζ, χεμούόαζ ^υβίαβάτων, 
αϊ εΐόιν αϊ τΐροΰενχαΐ των αγίων . 

\ This passage is obscure. 

Χ The Coptic words are rendered in Arabic by, with modesty, respect. 

§0r, and one of them shoidd become a hypocrite like one wasting away 
with a gangrene. 

II Or, after he has been proved by a great tried. 


two or three witnesses shall every word be established.' Let 
them be proved in every service, all the people bearing witness 
to them, that they have resided with one wife, have brought up 
their children well, being humble, prudent, meek, sober, quiet ;* 
not vehement, nor murmurers ; not double-tongued, nor wrath- 
ful, for wrath destroyeth the wise ; nor hypocrites. They shall 
not afflict the poor, neither shall they accept the person of the 
rich ; they shall not be drinkers of much wine, being ready to 
act in every good service in secret. Cheerful in their habita- 
tions, constraining the brethren who have, that they should ojjen 
their hand to give. And they also being givers, the goods being 
in common, that the peojole may honour them with all honour, 
and all fear, beseeching with great earnestness those who walk 
in dissimulation. And some they should teach, and some they 
should rebuke, but the rest they should prohibit. But let those 
who despise, and the contumelious, be cast out, knowing that 
all men who are vehement, or slanderers, fight against Christ." 

21. Cephas said, "Let three widows be appointed; two, that 
they may give their whole attention to prayer for every one 
who is in temptations, and that they may render thanks to him 
whom they follow. But the other one should be left constantly 
with the women who are tried in sickness, ministering well ; 
watching and telling to the Presbyters the things which take 
place. Not a lover of filthy lucre ; not given to drink ; that she 
may be able to watch, that she may minister in the night. And 
if another one desires to help to do good works, let her do so 
according to the pleasure of her heart ; for these are the good 
things which the Lord first commanded." 

22. Andrew said, " Let the Deacons be doers of good works, 
drawing near by day and night in every place. They must not 
exalt themselves above the poor ; neither must they accept the 
persons of the rich. They shall know the afflicted, that they 
may give to him out of their store of provisions ; constraining 
those who are able for good works to gather them in, attending 
to the words of our master, ' I was an hungered, and ye gave me 
meat.' For those who have ministered without sin, gain for 
themselves much confidence." 

23. Philip said, " Let the laymen obey tlie decrees which have 
been delivered to them for the laity, being in subjection to those 

* Is rendered by the Arabic, guides. 


who serve at the iiltar. Let every one jilease God in the place 
to which he hath been appointed. They should not love hostility 
to one another. They should not envy for the situation which 
is appointed for each one ; but let every one abide in the calling 
to which he hath been called of God. Let not any one inquire 
after the offence of his neighbour,* in his course on which he has 
entered, for the angels exceed not the command of the Lord." 

24. Andrew said, " It is a good thing to appoint women to be 
made Deaconesses." 

25. Peter said, " We have first to a^Dpoint this concerning the 
Eucharist, and the body and blood of the Lord : we will (then) 
make known the thing diligently." 

26. John said, " Have you forgotten, my brethren, in the 
day that our Master took the bread and the cup he blessed them, 
saying, ' This is my body and my blood ? ' You have seen that 
he gave no place for the women, that they might help with 
them. (Martha answered for Mary because he saw her laugh- 
ing : Mary said, ' I laughed not.' ) For he said to us, teaching, 
that the weak shall be liberated by the strong." 

27. Cephas said, " Some say it becomes the women to pray 
standing, and that they should not cast themselves doAvn upon 
the earth." 

28. James said, "We shall be able to appoint women for a 
service, besides this service only, that they assist the indigent." 

29. Philip said, "Brethren, concerning the gift, he who 
labours gathers for himself a good treasure ; but he who collects 
for himself a good treasure, collects riches for himself in the 
kingdom of heaven. He shall be reputed a workman of God, 
continuing for ever." 

30. Peter said, " Brethren, the authority is not of one, by 
constraint, but as we were commanded by the Lord. 

" I pray you that you keep the commandments of God, not 
taking any thing from them, nor adding to them ; in the name 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, whose is the glory for ever. Amen. 

The first book of the Canons of our Fathers the Apostles is 
finished, which are in the hands of Clemens ; and this is the 
second book, in the peace of God. Amen. 

* The margin has by a later hand, instead of Ms friend, his neighbour, 
according to the Sahidic. 


The Seventli Book of the Apostolical Constitutions of Pseudo- 
Clement of Rome, Chs. I.-XXXIL, is an enlargement of the 
Didache^ adapted to the state of the Eastern Church in the 
first half of the fourth century. The Greek text is from the 
edition of GuiL. XJELTZElsr {Constitutiones Aposiolicce, Suerini et 
Rostochii, 1853, p. 160-173), which is also reprinted by Bry- 
ennios (in his Proleg. p. λζ'-ν'). I compared with it the edi- 
tion of P. A. DE Lagarde {Const. Apost., Lips, et Londini, 
1862, p. 197-212), and marked his readings in brackets and in 
foot-notes. The translation is by Whiston, revised by Jamciy 
Donaldson, LL.D. (in Clark's " Ante-Nicene Library," vol. 
XVIL, 1870), and slightly changed here. I have noted the 
passages borrowed from the Didache on the margin, and dis- 
tinguished them by spaced type in the Greek column, by ital- 
ics in the English column. 

Cap. I. — Τον νομοΒετονΜω- 
σέωζ ειρηηοτοζ τοί? Ι^ραηλί- 
τοίΐζ Ιδού, δέδωΐία προ πρό- 
σωπον νμών Τΐ/ν οδό ν τήζ 
8,ωήζ και την οδον τον θανά- 
του, ΐίαι έπιφέροντοζ'Έηλεξαι 
την ζωην, ίνα 8,ήσί;\ζ (Deut. 
XXX. 19) • και τον προφητον 
Ηλία λεγοντοζ τώ λαώ Έωζ 
ποτέ χωλανειτε επ^ αμφοτέ- 
ραιζ ταιζ ίγνναιζ νμών ,• ει 
Θεοί εστί Κνριοζ, πορεύεστε 
οπίσω αντον (1 Reg. xviii. 21) • 
είκοτωζ έλεγε jial ο Κνριοζ Ιη~ 
σονζ Ονδεϊζ δύναται δνσι Jiv- 
ρίοιζ δονλενειν • η yap τον 
ενα μισήσει και τον έτερον 
αγαπήσει, η ενόί αν^εΒ,εται 

Ch. L— The lawgiver Mo- 
ses said to the Israelites, '^Be- 
hold, I have set before your 
face the way of life and the 
way of death ; " ' and added, 
"Choose life, that thou may- 
est live." " Elijah the proph- 
et also said to the people: 
"How long will j'ou halt 
on both your legs ? If the 
Lord be God, follow Him."^ 
The Lord Jesus also said 
justly: ''No one can serve 
two masters : for either he 
will hate the one, and love 
the other; or else he will hold 
to the one, and despise the 
other." ' AYe also, following 

^ Deut. XXX. 15. ^ Deut. xxx. 19. ^ 1 Kings xWii. 21. * Matt. vi. 24. 


και τον ετέρου καταφρονήσει 
(Matt. vi. 24) • αναγκαίωζ και 
ήμειζ, επόμενοι τώ διδασκαλφ 
Χριστώ, οζ έστι σωτήρ πάν- 
των, ανθρώπων, μάλιστα πι- 
[Did.i.\.'\ 0τών, q)aμεv ώζ δυο οδοί 
ει σ ί , μία τ ή ζ 8,ωή ζ , και 
μία τον 3^ αν α τ ον . Ον- 
δεμίαν δε σνγκρισιν εχουσι 
π ροζ εαντάζ {πολύ yap το 
δ ιά φο ρ ον ), μάλλον δε παν- 
τη κεχωρισ μεναι τνγχανονσι• 
και φνσπίή μεν έστιν ή τήζ 
ζωήζ όδοζ, έπείσακτοζ δε η 
τον θάνατον, ον τον κατά 
γνωμην θεού νπαρζαντοζ, 
αλλά τον εξ έπιβονλήί τον 

[1. 2.] Cap. II. — Πρώτη ο ν ν 
τνγχανει ή ο δ ο ζ τ ή ζ 
8,ωηζ• και ε'στιν αντη, 
ην καϊ ο νομό? διαχορενει 
(Deut. τί.)^ αγαπάν Κ νρ Ι- 
ο ν τον Θ ε 6 ν εξ οληζ τήζ 
διανοίαζ * 7ίαι εξ ολι^ζ τήζ 
ψνχήζ τον ενα 7(α\ μόνον, 
παρ ον αλλοζ ονκ εστίν, 

[Ι. 2.] κ iy ζ τον πλησίον ω ζ 
εαυτόν. Και πάν, 6 μ?/ 
3^ ελε ιζ γενεσΒαι σοι, 
και σ ν τ ον τ ο α λλ φ ο ν 
ποιήσειζ{οί. Luc. vi. 31) • f 

\ι..ζ.\ενλογειτε τ ο ν ζ κ α τ α - 

our teacher Christ, " who is 
the Saviour of all men, espe- 
cially of those that believe," ' 
are obliged to say that there 
are tivo icays — the one of life, 
the other of death ; but there 
is no comparison between 
the two, for they are very 
different, or rather entirely 
separate; and the Avay of life 
is that of nature, but the way 
of death was afterwards intro- 
duced, — it not being accord- 
ing to the mind of God, but 
from the snares of the adver- 
sary. - 

Ch. II. — Νοιυ thefirdioay 
is that of life ; and is this, 
which the law also does ap- 
point : "To love the Lord 
God with all thy mind, and 
with all thy soul, who is the 
one and only God, besides 
whom there is no other ; " ^ 
" and thy neighhonr as thy- 
self .'^ ^ "And whatsoever 
thou woiildest not should he 
doyie to thee, that do not thou 
to another. ^^ ^ "Bless them 
thai curse you ; ji?m?/ for 
them that despitefully use 

' 1 Tim. iv. 10. 

* The Greek words properly mean: " Introduced was the way of death; 
not of that death which exists according to the mind of God, but that 
which has arisen from the plots of the adversary." 

=• Deut. vi. 5; Mark xii. 32. " Lev. xix. 18. " Tob. iv. 16. 

*Lagarde omits r?;? διανοίαζ. 

f Lagarde adds: rour' εότιν'ϋ όύ ιιιΰεΐζ, αλλω ου τΐοιήόειζ. 


ρωμενονζ ν μ ά ζ , προσ- 
εύχεστε ν 7ΐ ε ρ τ ώ ν 
έπηρεα^,οντων ν μ ά ζ , 
αγαττάτε τουζ εχ^ρονζ υμών. 
ΤΊο ί α γ ά ρ ύ μι ν χ α ρ ι ζ , 
εανφιλεΐτε*τονζ φ ι - 
λ ο ν ν τ α ζ νμάζ • ji αϊ γ ά ρ 
[7ίαϊ\ οίέ^νικοϊ τούτο 
π οι ο ν σ IV ' ν μεϊ ζ δε φ ι- 
λεΐτε τουζ μι σ ον ν τ α ζ 
νμάζ π α ι ε χ^ ρ6 ν ού χ 
εζετε' Ου μισι^σειζ γαρ, 
φηΰί, πάντα άν^ρωπον, ουκ 
Αίγυπτιον, ουκ Ίδουμαίον 
(cf.Deut. xxiii. 7), απαντεζ γάρ 
εΐοί του Θεού ε'ργα. Φεύ- 
γετε δε ου ταζ φυσειζ, 
άλλα ταζ γνοομαζ των πο- 
νι^ρών. Ι Α π ε χ ο ν τ ώ ν 
σαρκικών και κοσμι- 
κών επιθυμιών. Εάν 
τ ί ζ σοι δ ώ ράπισμα [ε ιζ 
τ 7] ν δεζιαν σιαγονα'\, 
σ τ ρειρ ον αυ τ ω και την 
άλλί] ν • ου φαυληζ ουστγζ 
τι)ζ αμυνί^ζ, άλλα τιμιωτεραζ 
τηζ ανεξικακίαζ ' λέγει γαρ ο 
Ααβ'ίδ Ει ανταπεδωκα τοίζ 
αντατΐοδιδούσί μοι κακά (Ps. 
τϋ. 5) . Εάν α γ γ α ρε υ σ 1} 
σε τ 15 μ. ίλιο ν [ ? ν], υ π α - 
γ ε μ ε τ αυτού όνο, Jiai 
τώ ^ελοντί σοι κρι^ήναι κ α ι 
τον χιτώνα σου Χ α - 
β ε ι ν, ά φ ε ζ α ν τ ω και 

you'' ' " Love your en- 
emies ; for what thanks is it 
if ye love those that love 
you ? for even the Gentiles 
do the same" ^ "But do 
ye love those that hate you, 
and ye shall have no enemy." 
For says He, "Thou slialt 
not hate any man ; no, not 
an Egyptian, nor an Edom- 
ite ; " ^ for they are all the 
workmanship of God. Avoid 
not the i^ersons, but the sen- 
timents, of the wicked. 
'■^Ahstain from fleshly and [1.4.] 
ivorldly lusts."* "If any 
one gives thee a stroke on 
thy right cheek, turn to him 
the other also. " * Not that 
revenge is evil, but that pa- 
tience is more honourable. 
For David says, "If I have 
made returns to them that 
repaid me evil." " " If any [1.4.] 
07ie iiupress thee to go one 
mile, go with him twain." ' 
And, " He that will sue thee 
at the law, and take away 
thy coat, let him have thy 
cloak also." * "And from 
him til at taketh thy goods, 
require them, not again." ' 
"Give to him that asketh^•^•^ 
tliee, and from him that 
would borrow of thee do not 

' Matt. V. 44. 
^ 1 Pet. ii. 11. 
' Matt. V. 41. 

= Luke vi. 32; Matt. v. 47. 
" Matt V. 39. 
« Matt. V. 40. 

^ Deut. xxiii. 7. 
" Ps. viii. 5. 
" Luke vi. 30. 

*Lagarde: φιλητε. 

■j-Lagarde: τών κακοήν. 


το ι μ a τ ι ο V, jtaa art ο 
τον αΐροντοζ τα ff α μ?) 
[Ι.5.] ά π α ίτ € ι . Τ ώ α ίτ ο ν ντ ί 
σε δ ι δ ο ν , και από τον ^ε- 
Χοντοζ δανείΰαϋ^αι πάρα ύον 
μη [αποστραφειζ^ αποκλεΙίΤ)]? 
ττ}ν χείρα, δίκαιοζ γαρ αν?/ρ 

[1. 5.] οίκτείρει και κιχρά • π α σ ι 
γαρ Β ελ ε ι δ ίδ ο ff ^ αι 6 
πατήρ ο τον ηΧιον αντον 
αι^ατεΧΛ.ων επι πονι^ρονζ ηαι 
αγα'^ονζ, και τον νετον αν- 
τον βρέχων επι δικαίονζ και 
αδίκονζ. Π α (} ι ν ούν δί- 
καιον δ ι δ ο ν α ι εξ οικεί- 
ων πόνων • Τίμα γαρ, φησί, 
τον Κνριον απο σών δικαίων 
πόνων (Prov. iii. 9) • προτιμί]- 

[II. 2.] 'ΐεον δε τονζ άγίονζ. — Ου 
φ ον ε ν ff ε ι ζ , τοντ εστίν ον 
φΒερεΐζ τον ομοιον σοι αν- 
Βρωπον, διαλνειζ γαρ τα κα- 
λώζ γινόμενα ' ονχώ? παντόζ 
φονον φανλον τνγχανοντοζ, 
άλλα μόνον τον αΒωον, τον δ' 
ενδίκον αρχονσι μονοιζ αφω- 

[II. 2.] ρτ-(3μένον. — Ο ν μοιχέ ν σ ε ιζ, 
διαιρειζγαρτι/ν μίαν σάρκα εΐί 
δνο' Έσονται γαρ, φησίν, οι 
δνο είζ σάρκα μίαν (Gen. ii.24) • 
εν γαρ εισιν ανηρ και γννη τ// 
φνσει, τ}] σνμπνοία, Ttj ενώ- 
σει, τΓ/ διαΒεσει, τω βίω, τω 
τρόπω, κεχωρισμένοι δε είσι 
τω σχηματι και τώ αριθμώ. — 

[II. 2.] ^^ παιδοφ^ορησειζ• 
πάρα φνσιν γαρ το κακόν εκ 

shut thy hand.'' ' For " the 
righteous man is pitiful, and 
lendeth." " For your Fa- 
ther 'Would have you give to 
all, who Himself ''maketh 
His sun to rise on the evil 
and on the good, and send- 
eth His rain on the just and 
on the unjust."^ It is there- 
fore reasonable to give to 
all out of thine own la- 
bours ; " for says He, 
" Honour the Lord out of 
thy righteous labours," * 
but so that the saints be pre- 
ferred.^ " Thou shall not 
Icill ;" that is, thou shalt not 
destroy a man like thyself : 
for thou dissolvest what was 
well made. Not as if all 
killing were wicked, but 
only that of the innocent : 
but the killing which is just 
is reserved to the magisti'ates 
alone. "^ Thou shalt not 
commit adullery :'''' for thou 
dividest one flesh• into two. 
" They two shall be one 
flesh : " " for the husband 
and wife are one in nature, 
in consent, in union, in dis- 
position, and the conduct of 
life ; but they are separated 
in sex and number, '' Tliou 
shalt not comqjt boys:'''' 
for this wickedness is con- 
trary to nature, and arose 

' Matt. V. 43. ' Ps. esii. 5. •' Matt, v. 45. * Prov. iii. 9; Ex. xx , etc. 
' Gal. vi. 10. ° Gen. ii. 34. ' Lev. xviii. 30. 


from Sodom, which was 
therefore entirely consumed 
with fire sent from God. ' 
" Let such an one be accurs- 
ed : and all the people shall 
say. So be it."' " Thou [ii.^-] 

Έοδομων φνεν^ ητιζ ττνρόζ 
^cj /λατοΐ) παρανάλωμα γίγο- 
νεν• επηιαταρατοζ δε ο τοι- 
ούτοι και έρει πάζ ο λαοζ 
Γένοιτο. — Ο ν π ορν ε ν ff ε ι ς • 
Ονκ ε'σται yap, φη^ί, πορνεν- 

ων εν νίοΐζ Ισραήλ (Deut. xxiii. shalt not commit fornica- 

IT). — V κλέψεις• "Αχαρ tion : " for says He, "^ There 

yap κλίφαζ εν τω Ισραήλ εν shall not be a fornicator 

'Ιεριχώ λί^οιζ βλΐβεϊς το ύ Β,ήν among the children of Is- 

ύπεξτ/λ^ε, και Γιεξεΐ κλέψαζ rael.'" "Thou shalt not [u 

και ψενσάμενος εκλιφονόμησε steal:" for Achan, when he 

τού Νεεμάν την λεπραν, και had stolen in Israel at Jeri- 

Ιούδαζ κλεπτών τα των πενη- cho, was stoned to death ; * 

των τον Κνριον τήζ δοΒι^ζ πα- and Gehazi, who stole, and 

ρεδωκεν Ιονδαίοιζ,καϊ μεταμε- told a lie, inherited the lei^- 

λη^εϊζ aπηyξaτo και ελακησε rosy of Naaman ; " and Ju- 

μεσοζ και εζεχΰΒη πάντα τα das, who stole the poor's 

σπλάyχva αυτού, και Ava- money, betrayed the Lord of 

νιας και Έαπφείρα η τούτου glory to the Jews, ^ and re- 

yυvr), 7ίλέφαντες τα ί'δια και pented, and hanged himself, 

πειράσαντεζ το πνεύι.ια Κυ- and burst asunder in the 

ρίου, παραχρήμα αποφασει midst, and all his bowels 

Πέτρου τού συναποστολου 
ημών ε^ανατωΒησαν. — 

Cap. ΙΠ. — Ου μay ε υ- 
σ ε ιζ , ου φαρμακευσειζ' 
Φάρμακου? ydp, φησίν, ου 
περιβιώσετε (Exod. χχϋ. 18). 
— Ου φονεΰσειζ τ ε κν ο ν 
σου εν φ Β ο ρα , ουδέ το 

gushed out ; '' and Ananias, 
and Sapphira his wife, who 
stole their own goods, and 
''tempted the Spirit of the 
Lord," were immediately, at 
the sentence of Peter our 
fellow-apostle, * struck dead.^ 

Ch. Ul.—Thou shalt not [Π.2.] 
2ise magic. Thou shalt not 
use ivitchcraft ; for He says, 
'' Ye shall not suffer a witch 
to live." '" Thou shalt not [ii. 2.] 
slay thy child by causing 

' Gen. xix. ^ Deut. xxvii. ' Deut. xxiii. 17. "* Josh. vii. 

* 2 Kings V. ' John xii. ; Matt xxvii. 5. ' Acts i. 18. 

" The Apostles are assumed to be speaking in the Apostolical Constitutions. 
' Acts V. 5, 10, " Ex. xxii. 18. 


γεννη^ίίν αποκτενεΐς. 
πάν yap το έζεικονισμένον^ 
tbvxrjv λαβον παρά Θεού, φο- 
νευ^εν έκδιηη^ησεται, άδίΐίως 
αναιρεΒεν (cf. Exod. xxi. 23 

[II. 2.] graece). — Ουκ έπ i^ ν μή- 
σ ε ιζ τ ά τον πλησίον 
6 ο ν y'Oiov την γυναίκα η τον 
παιδα η τον βονν η τον αγρον. 

[II. 3.] — Ουκ έπιορηηαειζ• έρ- 
ρη'Βΐ] γαρ μη ομοσαι ολωζ • εί 
όε μηγε, καν εΐ)ορ7ίησ)]ζ, οτι 
έπαινε^ησεται πάς 6 ομνύων 

[ΙΙ.3.] ^'^ οίντώ (Ps. Ixiii. 11). — Ο ν 
φ εν δ ο μα ρ τ ν ρη β ει ς , οτι 
ο βνκοφαντών πένητα παρο- 
ξύνει τον ποιηΘαντα αντόν 
(Prov. xiv. 31). 

ΠΙ. 3.1 Cap. IV. — Ο ν ' κ α κ ολ ο - 
γ ή (3 ε ι ζ • Μη αγάπα γαρ, 
φηβί, κακολογεϊν, ίνα μη 

LU. 3.] εξαρ^ϊ^ζ (Prov. χχ. 13) • ονδ ε 
μ ν η G ι κ α κ η ε ι ζ, οδοί γαρ 
μνησίκακων ειζ Βαν•ατον 

[Π. 4.] (Ρΐ'ον. χϋ. 28 graece). — Ονκ 
ε σ η δίγνωμοζ, ονδ ε 
δίγλωσσο? ' π α γ ι ζ γαρ 
ισχυρά ανδρϊ τά ί'δια χείλι/, 
και ανηρ γλωσσωδ?]? ον 7ία- 
τευΒνν^ησεται έπϊ τήζ γήζ 

[Π. 5] (Prov. vi. 2; Ps. cxl. 11) •ονκ 
ε σ τ α ι 6 λόγο? σ ο υ κ ε- 

ahortion, nor hill that which 
is begotten ; for "eyery thing 
that is shaped, and has re- 
ceived a soul from God, if it 
be slain, shall be avenged, as 
being unjustly destroyed."' 
" Thou shalt not covet the 
things that belong to thy 
neighbour, as his wife, or his 
servant, or his ox, or his 
field." " ΊΊιοη shalt not 
forstvear thyself ; " for it is 
said, " Thou shalt not swear 
at all."' But if that can- 
not be avoided, thou shalt 
swear truly ; for " evei^y one 
that swears by Him shall be 
commended."' " Thou 
shalt not bear false witness; " 
for ''he that falsely accuses 
the needy provokes to anger 
Him that made him." * 

Ch. lY.—Thou shalt not 
speah evil ; for says He, 
" Love not to sijeak evil, 
lest thou beest taken away." 
Nor shalt thou be mindful of 
injuries; for ''the ways of 
those that remember injuries 
are unto death." ^ ThoiL 
shalt not be double-minded 
nor double-tongued; for "a 
man's own lips are a strong 
snare to him," ° and "a 
talkative person shall not be 
prospered upon earth."' 

' Ex. xxi. 23, LXX. 

* Prov. xiv. 31. 
' Ps. cxl. 11. 

' Matt. V. 34. 
" Prov. xii. 28 

=* Ps. Ixiii. 12. 
' Prov. vi. 2. 


vo ζ, ττερϊ τταντοζ γαρ λο- 
γον αργού δώνετε λογον 
(Matt, χϋ. 3G) • ο ν ψ ε ύ ff ly 
^ΑποΧεΐζ γαρ^ ιΙ:?]σί, πανταζ 
τονζ λαλοννταζ το ψενδοξ (Ps. 
ν. 7) . — Ο ν 71 ε (Τ ri πλέον ε- 
κτηζ, ουδεαρπαΒ' Ov- 
al γοίρ, φΊ](^ή'^ ο πλεοι^ε^ίτών 
τον πληοΊον πλεονεζίαν κα- 
κήν (cf. Hab. ii. 9). — Ο ν κ 
i'ff fj ν π ο η ρ ι τ η ζ y ϊνα μη 
το με ροζ σον με τ'' αυτών Βηζ 
,(cf. Matt. xxiv. δ1).— 

Cap. Λ'. — Ο ν κ ε β τ/ κ α - 
η οη^ 7] ζ , ο ν δ ε ν ττ ε ρ // - 
φ α ν ο ζ ' υπερ7]φανοιζ γαρ 
6 Θεοζ αντιτάσσεται (Prov. 
iii. 34 graece). — Ου λΐγψνι πρό- 
σωπον* εν ηρίσει, οτι τον Κυ- 
ρίου ι) ίΐρίσιζ (Deut. i. 17). — 
Ο ν μι σ ij σ ει ς πάντα 
ά ν ^ ρ ω π ο ν . Ε λε γ μ ώ 
ελ ε γ ξ ε ι ζ τον α δ ελφ c ν 
σου ηαϊ ου λι^ψΐ], δι' αυτόν 
άμαρτίαν (Lev. xix. 17), 7ίαϊ 
έλεγχε σοφό ν και αγαπήσει σε 
Prov. ix. 8) . — Φ ε ν γ ε α π 6 
π αν τ ο ζ κακού και από 
π α ν τ ο ζ ομοίου α ν τ ώ • 
"Απεχε γαρ, φησίν, από αδί- 
κον, και τρομοζ ουκ εγγιει σοι 
(Is. liv. 14). — Μη γίι^ου 
ο ργ ίλοζ y μηδέ βασκανοζ, 
μηδέ Β,ηλ ω τ j) ζ, μηδέ μα- 

TJiy speech shall not be vain : 
for " ye shall give an account 
of every idle word."' Thou [π. s] 
shall not tell lies ; for says 
He, "Thou shalt destroy all 
those that speak lies."'" 
Thou shalt not he covetous [ii. c] 
nor rapacious : for says He, 
" AVoe to him that is covet- 
ous towards his neighbour 
with an evil covetousness."^ 
Tho2t shalt not be a hypocrite, 
lest thy " portion be with 
them." " 

Ch. V. — Thou shalt not [π. 6.] 
le ill-natured nor proud: 
for *'God resisteth the 
proud."' "Thou shalt not 
accejjt persons in judg- 
ment ; for the Judgment is 
the Lord's." Thou shalt not ["■-] 
hate any man ; thou shalt 
surely reprove thy brother, 
and not become guilty on 
his account;"" and, "Re- 
prove a wise man, and he 
will love thee."' Escheio [in. i] 
all evil and all that is like 
it: for says He, "Abstain 
from injustice, and trem- 
bling shall not come nigh 
thee."' Be not soon «/i- [πΐ• -i] 
gry, nor spiteful, nor pas- 
sionate, nor furious, nor dar- 
ing, lest thou undergo the 

^ Matt. xii. 36 ; Lev. xix. 11. ^ Ps. v. 6. ' Hab. ii. 9. 

* Matt. xxiv. 51. " 1 Pet. v. 5. " Deut. i. 17 ; Lev. xix. 17. 

^ Prov. ix. 8. * Isa. liv. 14. 

* Lagarde adds δννάότον. 


νικόζ^ μηδ(: ΒραίΤνζ, [i'va] μ?} 
7raB)j5 τα τον Καιν jiai τα τον 
Έαονλ και τά τον Ίωαβ ' οτι 
οΖ μ^ν απεκτεινε τον αδελφόν 
αντον τον "Αβελ δια το πρό- 
κριτον αντον ενρε^ηναι πάρα 
Θεώ 7ίαι δια το προκριΒί/ναι* 
την Βνσίαν αντον ' οζ δε τον 
οΰιονΑαβϊδ έδίωηε νικήσαντα 
\τ6ν'\ Γολιάδ τον ΦιλιστιαΊον, 
Β,ηλώσαζ έπι τϊ] τών χορεν- 
τριών ενφημια • οζ όε τον-= 
δνο βτρατάρχαζ\ ανειλε, τον 
Λβεννήρ τον τον 'Ισραιιλ και 
Άμεβ'ΰ'α τον τον 'Ιούδα — 

[III. 4 ] Cap. Λ'Ι. — Μ ή γ ί ν ον ο ί- 
ωνο^Ηοποζ, οτι οδη- 
γεί τι ρ ο ζ ειδωλολα- 
τρείαν ' Οιωνισμα δε, φ?]- 
ffiv 6 2αμον?/λ, αμαρτία έύτί 
(1 Sam, XV. 23), Jtal Ονκ ε'σται 
οίωνισμοζ εν Ιακώβ, ονδε 
μαντεία εν Ί(Χραήλ (ϊίΓπηι. χχίϋ. 

ριι. 4.] 23) ' ονκ ε β rf ε π α δ ω ν η 
ττερικα^αίρων τον ν ίο ν 
ffov, ον κληδονιειζ, ονδε οίω- 
vw^ijffr\y ονδε ορνεοΰηοπη- 
σεις, ονδε μαΒήση μαθήματα 
ηομηρα • \ ταύτα γαρ άπαντα 
και 6 νομοζ απεΐπε (Lqx. xix. ; 
Deut. xviii.) . — Μη γίνου επι- 
Βνμητήζ 7ίακών, οδηγη'^ήαγ} 
γαρ είζ αμετρίαν αμαρτ?γμα- 

[III. 3.] τ^ο^^• — Ονκ ε'σ τι αισχρό- 
λογ οζ , ονδ ε ριψ ο φ^ αλ- 
μο ζ , ονδε μέΒνσοζ • ε κ γ α. ρ 

fate of Cain, and of Saul, 
and of Joab : for the first of 
these slew his brother Abel, 
because Abel was found to 
be preferred before him with 
God, and becanse Abel's sac- 
rifice was i^referrcd ; ' the 
second persecuted holy Da- 
vid, who had slain Goliah 
the Philistine, being envious 
of the praises of the women 
who danced ; ^ the third 
slew two generals of armies 
— Aimer of Israel, and 
Amasa of Judah. ^ 

Ch. Λ"1. — Be not a diviner, 
for that leads to idolatry; 
for says Samuel, " Divina- 
tion is sin;"' and, ''There 
shall be no divination in 
Jacob, nor soothsaying in 
Israel." ' Thou shalt not 
use enchantments or imrga- 
tions for thy child. Thou 
shall not be a soothsayer nor 
a diviner by great or little 
birds. Nor shalt thou learn 
wicked arts ; for all these 
things has the law forbid- 
den. * Be not one that 
wishes for evil, for thou wilt 
be led into intolerable sins. ' 
TJiou shalt not speak obscene- 
hj, nor cast wanton glances, 
nor be a drunkard ; for from 
such causes arise whoredoms 

' Gen. iv. - 1 Sam. xvii. xviii. * 2 Sam. iii., xx. * 1 Sam. xv. 23. 

' Num. xxiii. 23. « Deut. xviii. 10, 11. ' Lev. xix. 26, 31. 

*Lagarcle: προόδΕχΒτ/ΐ'αι. f Lagarde: ΰτματηλάταζ. 
JLagarde: μάθημα τΐυνηρόν. 


τούτων π ο ρ ν ε ΐ a ι η cxl 
μ ο ι χ ε ΐ ίχ ι γίνονται. — 
Μη γ ίν ον φ ιλα β γ ν βο ζ , 
ίνα μη αντϊ Θεού δονλεν6'ΐ)ζ 
τω μα μονά. — Μ η γίνου 
κεν οδ οζ ο ς , μηδέ μετεωροζ, 
μηδέ υψηλόφρων, εκ γάβ 
τούτων απάντων αλα- 
ε,ονίαι γίνονται' * μν7]- 
σ^ητι του ειπόντοζ Κύβίε, 
ουχ υψω'Βΐ] η καρδία μου, 
ουδέ εμετεωρίσ^Ί]σαν οι οφ- 
θαλμοί μου, ουδέ επορεύθ?]ν 
εν μεγάλοιζ ουδέ εν Βαυμασί- 
οιζ υττερ έμε, ει μη έταπεινο- 
φρονουν (Ps. cxxxi. 1, 2). 

Cap. ΥΊΙ. — Μ?) γίνου 
γογγυαοζ, μνΫ^σ'Βειζ τήζ τι- 
μορίαζ /)? ύπεατηΰαν οι κατα- 
γογγυίΤαντεζ κατά Μωο'εωζ. 
— Mj) ε α ο α υ Β ά δ ηζ , μηδέ 
πονηροφρων, μηδέ ΰκλη- 
ρο7ίαρδιοζ, μΐ]δε Βυμωδηζ, 
μηδέ μιηροψυχοζ, πάντα 
γαρ ταύτα ο δ 7] γ ει π ρο ζ 
βλασφημίαν' i'ff θι δε 
πράο ζ ώζ Μωυαήζ και Αα- 
βίδ, επει ο ί π ρ α εΐ ζ κλ η - 
ρον ο μη σ ου ύ ι γ η ν ( Matt. 
ν. 5).— 

Cap. Λ^ΙΙΙ. — Τ ίν ου μα- 
κρό'θυμοζ' ο γαρ τοιούτοι 
πολύζ εν φπονήύει, επείπερ 
όλιγόψυχοζ ίσχυρώζ ^ άφρων 
(Prov. xiv. 29 graece). — Γίνου 
ελεήμων • μακάριοι γαρ οί 
έλεημονεζ, οτι αυτοί ελεη'Βιμ 

ancl adulteries. Be not a [in. 5.] 
lover of money, lest thou 
" serve mammon instead of 
God."' Be not vainglorious, 
nor haughty, nor high-mind- 
ed. For from all these th ings, 
arrogance \^Did. thefts] does 
spring. Eemember h i ui 
who said : '^ Lord, my heart 
is not haughty, nor mine 
eyes lofty : I have not exer- 
cised myself in great matters, 
nor in things too high for 
me ; but I was hamble."^ 

Ch. VII. — Be not a mur- [iii. 6.] 
murer, remembering the 
punishment which those un- 
derwent who murmured 
against Moses. Be not self- 
willed, be not malicious, be 
not hard-hearted, be not pas- 
sionate, be not mean-si^ir- 
ited ; for all these things lead 
to blasphemy. But be meeh, [I'l• ~•] 
as were Moses and David, ^ 
nnce the meeh shall inherit 
the earth.'''' ^ 

Ch. Λ^ΙΙΙ. — Be slow to [iii. 8.] 
ivrath ; for such an one is 
very prudent, since ''he that 
is hasty of spirit is a very 
fool." ^ Be merciful ; for 
" blessed are the merciful : 
for they shall obtain 

' Matt. vi. 24. 
•* Matt. V. 5. 
*Lagarde: γεννώνται 

■ Ps. cxxxi. 1. 
^ Prov. xiv, 39. 

' Num. xii. 3 ; Ps. cxxxi. 1. 

f Lagarde: ίΰχυρόζ. 


[III. 9.] σονται (Matt. v. 1).—"Εσο 
a Ji a HO ζ , η σ V χ οζ , α γ α - 
^6Sy τρέμων τον ζ λό- 
γο ν ζ τον Θεού. — Ονχ 
νψώσειζ σεαυτόν ώζ 6 φαρι- 
σαιοζ ' οτι πάζ 6 νφών iav- 
τον ταπευ^ωΒ/^σεται, και το 
νψηλόν έν αν^ρωττοιζ βδέλν- 
γμα παρά τω θεώ (Luc. xviii. 

[ΠΙ.9.] 14; xvi. 1δ). — Οΰ δωσειζ 
τι} φν χ rj σ ον θράσος, 
οτι Βρασνζ ανηρ έμπεβειται 
είζ κακά (cf. Pro ν. xiii. 17graece). 
— Ον σνμπορενση μετά αφρό- 
νων, αλλά μετά (Γοφών 7ίαι 
δικαίων [ο σνμπορενομενοζ 
yap σοφοίζ ΟΌφόζ ε'ο'ται, 6 δε 
ΰνμπορενομενοζ άφροβι γνω- 
[III. 10.] σ^ήσεται (Prov. xiii. 20).] — Τά 
σνμβαίνοντά β οι πα'^η 
ενμενώζ δεχον και τάζ ττερι- 
Θτασειζ αλνττωζ, ειδωζ ότι μι- 
6^όζ ηαρά Θεού σοι δο^ησε- 
ται ωζ τώ ΐώβ και τώ Λα- 

[IV. 1.] Cap. IX. — Τον λαλονν- 
τ α σοι τον λόγον τον 
Θεού δόξασε ιζ, μν?] - 
σ Β η σ 7J δε α ν τ ού η μ ε ραζ 
και ννκτοζ, τιμΐ]σεις 
δε αυτόν ουχ ώζ γενεσε- 
ωζ αίτιον, αλλ' ώζ τού εν εί- 
ναί σοι πρόζενον γινομενον ' 

mercy." ' Be sincere, quiet, 
good, '* trembling at the 
loord of God"'' Thou shalt 
not exalt thyself, as did 
the Pharisee ; for " every 
one that exalteth himself 
shall be abased," ^ and 
"that which is of high 
esteem with men is abom- 
ination with God."* TIiou 
shalt not entertain cotifidence 
in thy soul; for "a confi- 
dent man shall fall into mis- 
chief."' Thou shalt not 
go along with the foolish, 
but with the wise and right- 
eous ; for "he that walketh " 
with wise men shall be wise, 
but he that walketh with 
the foolish shall be known."' 
Eeceive the afflictions that 
fall upon thee with an 
even mind, and the chances 
of life without sorrow, 
knowing that a reward shall 
be given to thee by God, as 
was given to Job and to 
Lazarus. " 

Ch. IX. — Thou shalt hon- 
or him that speahs to thee the 
word of God, and he mind- 
ful of him day and night ; 
and thou shalt reverence 
him, not as the author of 
thy birth, but as one that is 
made the occasion of thy 

' Matt. V. 7. ^ Isa. Ixvi. 2. = Luke xviii. 14. 

* Luke xvi. 15. ' Prov. xiii. 17, LXX. 

^ The words from "for he that walketh " to " be known " are omitted in 
one MS., and by Lagarde. ' Prov. xiii. 20. " Job xiii. ; Luke χλ'ϊ. 


ό π ov yap ?/ π ε pi Θεού 
διδ. ασκαΧία, ε κ ε ΐ ο 
Θεός πα ρ εστίν . — Ε ηζη- 
τ η σ ε ιζ κ aS^ η με par το 
πρόοοοπον τ ώ ν αγ ίων , 
ΐν^ έπαναπαΰη τ οι ζ λό- 
γο ι ζ αυτών. — 

Cap. χ. — Ου η ο ιη σ ε ιζ 
σχίσματα η ροζ τουζ άγί- 
ουζ, μνησ^εϊζ τών Κορειτών. 

— Είρ7]νεύσεις μαχό- 
μενους ώς Μωσήζ, σνναλ- 
λάσσων εϊς φιλίαν. — Κρί- 
νε ι ζ δικαίως• του γαρ 
Κυρίου η κρίσις (Deut. i. 1?). 

— Ου λη ψ tj πρόσωπον 
ελ £ γ ζ α ι έπι παράπτω- 
μα τ ι , ώς Ήλίαζ και Μιχαί- 
ας τον Άχαάβ, και Άβδεμέ- 
λεχ 6 ΑΐΒιΌφ τον Έεδεκίαν, 
και NaSav τον Ααβιδ^ και 
Ίωαννηζ τον Ήρωδην. — 

Cap. XI. — μ 77 γίνου 
δ ί ψ υ χ 05 εν προσευχή σου, 
ει ε'σται η ου ' λέγει γαρ ο Κύ- 
ριος έμοϊ Πέτρω έπι της θα- 
λάσσης Όλιγοπιστε, εις τί έδί- 
στασας (Matt. xiv. 31),• — Μ 7} 
γ ίν ον π ρό ς μεν το λα- 
βείν ε κ τείνων την χεί- 
ρα, προς δε το δούναι 
σ υ σ τ έλλων ' 

Cap. XII. — εάν έχεις, 

well-being. For cohere the [iv. 1.2.] 
doctrine concerning God is, 
there God is present. Thou 
shalt every day seek the face 
of the saints, that thou may- 
est acquiesce in their loords. 

Ch. X.—Thou shalt not [iv-S] 
make schisms among the 
saints, but be mindful of 
the followers of Corah.' 
TJiou shalt make peace he- [iv. 3] 
t'ween those that are at vari- 
ance, as Moses did when 
he persuaded them to be 
friends." Tlioii shalt judge [iv. 3.] 
righteously ; for "the judg- 
ment is the Lord's." ^ Thou [iv. 3.] 
shalt not have respect of per- 
sons when thou reprovest for 
sins; but do as Elijah and 
Micaiah did to Ahab, and 
Ebedmelech the Ethiopian 
to Zedechiah, and Nathan to 
David, and John to Herod.' 

Ch. XL — Be not of a \jx- 4] 
doubtful mind in thy prayer, 
whether it shall be granted 
or no. For the Lord said to 
me, Peter, upon the sea: "0 
thou of little faith, where- 
fore didst thou doubt ? " * 
'' Be not thou ready to stretch [iv. 5.] 
out thy hand to receive, and 
to shut it when thou shouldst 
give." " 

Ch. XII.— If thou hast by [iv.e.] 

' Num. xvi. - Ex. ii. 13. ' Deut. i. 17. 

■* 1 Kings xviii. xxi. xxii ; 2 Sam. xii. ; Matt. xiv. 
" Matt. χΐλ'. 31. ° Ecclus. iv. 31. 


δια των χειρών σον δ 6 ζ, 
ίνα epyaffr} ειζ λΰ τ ρ οοσ ιν 
αμαρτιών σον' ελεημο- 
συναιζ γαρ jiai ηίστεσιν 
αποκα^αίρονται άμαρτίαι 

[IV. 7.] (Prov. xvi. 6). Ου διστά- 
σει? δούναι πτωχώ, ουδέ 
δ ι δ ο ν ζ χοχγύσειζ, 
γ ν ω σ rj γαρ τίζ εστίν 6 
τον μισθού αν τ α π οδ ό - 
τ 7] ζ ' Ο ελεών γαρ, ψ^<^ί, 
πτωχόν Κνρίω δανείζει, κατά 
δε το δομα αυτού, οϋτωζ αν- 
ταποδο^ησεται αυτώ (Prov. 

[IV. 8.] XIX. 17). Ουκ απ οσ τ ρ α- 
φή σ ΐ] ε'νδεομενον•* "Ο ? 
φράσσει γαρ, φησί, τα ώτα 
αυτού μ?) είσακούσαι τού δεο- 
μένου, f και αυτόζ επικαλεσε- 
ται και ουκ ε'σται ο εισακοΰων 

[IV. 8.] αυτού (Prov. xxi. 13). Κοι- 
V ω ν 7] σ ε ι ς είζ πάντα τ ώ 
α δ ελ φ ώ σου Ji αϊ ουκ 
ε ρε ι ζ ι δ ι α είναι, ηοινη 
γαρ 7] μεταληψιζ πάρα Θεού 
πάσιν αν^ρωποιζ παρεσκευ- 

[IV. 9.] ασ^η. — Ο ν κ α ρ ει ζ την 
χείρα σον απο τον 
νιο ν σον η απο τ η ζ 
S• νγ ατ ρό ζ σον, αλλά 
από νεότι/τος διδαζειζ 
αντονζ τον φ ο ρ ο ν τον 
Θεού. Παίδενε γάρ, φησί, 
τον νιον σον, ούτω γάρ ε'σται 
σοι ευελπιζ (Prov. xix. 18). — 

the luorTc of thy hands, give, 
that thou mayest labor 
for the redemption of thy 
81718 ; for " by alms and acts 
of faith sins are purged 
away." ' 27^0?;. shalt 7iot 
grudge to give to the poor, 
nor whe7i thou hast given 
shall thou inurrrmr; for thou 
shall hnow who luill repay 
thee thy reward. For says 
he: "He that hath mercy 
on the poor man lendeth to 
the Lord ; according to his 
gift, so shall it be repaid 
him again." ^ ThoTi shall 
not tur7i aivay from him 
that is needy ; for says he : 
" He that stoppeth his ears, 
that he may not hear the cry 
of the needy, himself also 
shall call, and there shall be 
none to hear him,"' Thou 
shall communicate i7i all 
things to thy brother, and 
shall not say [thy goods] are 
thine own; for the common 
participation of the neces- 
saries of life is appointed to 
all men by God. Thou shall 
not take off thine hand from 
thy son or froin thy daugh- 
ter, hut shall teach them the 
fear of God from their 
youth ; for says he : " Cor- 

' Prov. XV. 27 ; xvi. 6. 

- Prov. xix. 17. 

Prov. xxi. 13. 

* Lagarde: ίνδεοίΗΐβνον. 

f Lagarde: άκυνΰαι ίνδευυμένον for είόακονΰαι τον δεομένου. 


Cap. XIII. — Ovx επίτα- 
ξε ι ζ δ ο νλ ω σον η παι- 
δί <j }ί }j τ οι ζ έπι τ ο ν α ν- 
το ν Q ε ό ν πεποι^οοιν 
εν πικρία φ ν χή ς , μή 
ποτέ στεναζωσιν επι σοι ηαϊ 
εβται σοι οργτ) παρά Θεού ' 
και ν μ ε ΐ ί , οι δούλοι, 
νποτάγ7]τε τ ο ι? κν ρ ί - 
ο ι ζ ν μ ώ ν ω ζ τ νπ ο ι ζ * 
Θεού εν π ρ ο σ ο χ rj \ ιιαι 
φοβω, GOs τώ Ί Κνρίω και 
ονκ ανΒρωποιζ. — 

Cap. XIV. — Μ ι σ ή σ ε ιζ 
πάσαν νπο κρίσιν, και 
πάν, ο εάν ί] α ρ ε σ τ 6 ν 
Κνρίω, π ο ι ή σ ετ ς ' ου 
μη ε χ JC α τ α λ ίπ }] ζ ε' ν τ ο - 
λ α ζ Κνρίον, φνλαζειζ 
δε ά παρέλαβε? παρ' αν- 
τοΰ, μήτε προστι^εϊς 
επ' αντοιζ μι^τε αφ α ι ρω ν 
απ' αντών • ον προσ'^ησειζ 
γάρ τοΐζ λογοιζ αντού, ίνα 
μι) έλέγζϊ} σε και φενδηζ γένη 
(Prov. XXX. 6). — Εξομολο- 
γ η σ \] Κνρίω τω Θεώ σον τ ά 
αμαρτήματα σον και 
ονκ ετι προσΒ^?/σειζ έπ' αντοιζ, 
ίνα εν σοι γένΐ]ται πάρα Κν- 
ρίω τω Θεώ σον, οζ ον βονλε- 
ται τον θάνατον τού αμαρτω- 
λού, άλλα τ7]ν μετανοιαν. 

rect thy son, so shall he af- 
ford thee good hope." ' 

Ch. XIII. — Tlioii shalt not [iv. lo.] 
command thy mati-servant, 
or thy maid -servant, who 
trust in the same God, ivith 
bitterness of soul, lest they 
groan against thee, and 
wrath he upon thee from 
God. And, ye servants, [r\'. ii.] 
" he subject to your mas- 
ters,'^ ^ as to the rqoresenta- 
tives of God, with attention 
and fear, * ' as to the Lord, 
and not to men." ' 

Ch. XIV. — Thou shalthate [iv. 12. 13.] 
all hypocrisy ; and lohatso- 
ever is pleasing to the Lord, 
that shalt thou do. By no 
means forsake the commands 
of the Lord. But thou shalt 
observe what things thou 
hast received from Him, 
neither adding to them nor 
taking atoay from them. 
" For thou shalt not add 
unto His words, lest He con- 
vict thee, and thou becomest 
a liar."* Thou shalt con- {iv. ii.] 
fess thy sins unto the Lord 
thy God ; and thou shalt not 
add unto them, that it may 
be well with thee from the 
Lord thy God, who willeth 
not the death of a sinner, 
but his repentance. 

'■ Prov. xix. 18. ^ Eph. vi. 5. = Eph. vi. 7. ' Prov. xxx. 6. 

* Lagarde: τύπω. So in Did. f Lagarde: ίχίόχνν^. So in Did. 

\ Lagarde omits τφ. 


Cap. XV. — Τον πατέρα σον 
και την μητέρα ^εραηεύσειζ 
ώζ αΐτίονζ βοι γενέσεωζ, ίνα 
χένγι μακροχρόνιοζ έπϊ τηζ 
γήζ ήζ Κνριοζ 6 Θεοζ σου δί- 
δωσί σοι (Exod. χχ. 12) • τούζ 
αδελφού? σον ΐίαϊ τονζ σνγγέ- 
νεΐζ σον μη νπερίδΐ]ζ • τονζ 
γαρ οΐΐίείουζ τον σπέρματοζ 
σου ονχ ύπερόψει {Is. Iviii. 7). — 

Cap. XVI. — Τον βασιλέα 
φοβη^ήσ^], εϊδώζ οτι τού Κυ- 
ρίου έστϊν η χειροτονία • τούζ 
αρχονταζ αυτού τιμήσειζ ώ? 
λειτουργού? Θεού, εκδηιοι 
γαρ εισι πάση? αοικιαζ • on 
αποτίσατε τέλο?, φορον jiai 
πάσαν είσφοράν ευγνωμο- 
νώ?. — 

Cap. ΧΥΙΙ. — Ου π ο οσ έ- 
λευση} έπϊ προσευχή ν 
σου εν ημέρα πονηρία? 
σου, πριν αν λυσι^? τ7]ν πι- 
κρίαν σον. — Αϋτη εστ\ν η 
οδο? τη? Β,ωή?, ή? γένοιτο έν- 
τό? ύμά? εύρε^ήναι δια Ιησού 
Χριστού τού Κυρίου ημών. 

Cap. ΧΥΙΙΙ. — Ή δε οδό? 
τού S α ν ά τ ο υ έστϊν έν 
πράζεσι πονηραί? Βεωρουμέ- 
VJJ • εν αντϊι γαρ άγνοια ^ 
θεού, ΐίαϊ πολλών κακών \ 
7ίαϊ ^ολών καϊ ταραχών έπει- 
[V. 1.] σαγωγη, δι' ων φόνοι, μοι- 
χεία ι , πορνεϊαι, έπι- 
ορκίαι, έπι^υμίαι παρα- 

[1\. 14.] 


Ch. XV.— Thou Shalt be 
observant to thy father and 
mother as the causes of thy 
being born, that thou mayest 
live long on the earth "which 
the Lord thy God giveth 
thee. Do not overlook thy 
brethren or thy kinsfolk ; for 
*' thou shalt not overlook 
those nearly related to thee." * 

Ch. XVL— Thou shalt fear 
the king, knowing that his 
appointment is of the Lord. 
His rulers thou shalt honor 
as the ministers of God, for 
they are the revengers of all 
unrighteousness ; to whom 
pay taxes, tribute, and every 
oblation with a willing 

Ch. XXIL—Thou shalt 
not proceed to thy prayer in 
the day of thy wickedness, be- 
fore thou hast laid aside thy 
bitterness. This is the way 
of life, in which may ye be 
found, through Jesus Christ 
our Lord. 

Ch. XΛΊIL — But the way 
of death is known by its 
wicked practices : for there- 
in is the ignorance of God, 
and the introduction of 
many evils, and disorders, 
and disturbances ; whereby 
come murders, adulteries, 
fornications, perjuries, un- 

• Isa. Iviii. 7. 

*Lagarde inserts rou. 

f LagarJe reads merely ttoXXSv 3εών, and omits χακων . . . .rapcyxrTv. 


vo/Aoi, η λ Ο 7C a I , είδωλο- 
λατρεϊαι,μαγίαι, φ a p- 
μ a 7i ε ι a ι , a ρ ττ a γ a ϊ ^ 
φευδο μαρτυρία ι, ύ τΐ ο- 
ιι ρ ί G ε ι ζ , διηλοκαρ- 
δ ί α ι y δ ο λ οζ , υ π ε ρη - 
φ α ν ί α , κακία, α υ 3^ α - 
δ ε ια , πλεονεξία, αισ- 
χρολογία, ζηλοτυπία, 
Βρασύτ?/ζ, ύψι^λοφοο^υν?], 
αλαζονεία, αψοβία, δ ι- 
ω γ μο ζ α γ α 3 ώ ν ^ αλη - 
3 ε ί α ζ ε χ 3- ρ α , φ ε υ δ ο υ ς 
α γ α 7Γ η, άγνοια δ 1 7ΐ α ι - 
ο (3 υ ν η ζ . Οι γαρ τούτων 
ποιηται ου ηολλώνται 
α γ α 3 ω , ουδέ κ ρ ίσ ε ι 
δπί α ί ώ •* αγρυπνον(}ΐν 
ου Η ε ί ζ το α γ α 3 ο ν ^ 
αλλ' ε ι ζ το π ο ν η ρ ο ν • 
ώ ν μ α JC ρ α ν π ρ α ό τη ζ 
και υ 7ΐ ο μ ο ν 7] • μάταια 
αγαπώντεζ, δ ι ώ κ ο ν - 
τ ε ζ α ν τ α π ό δ ο μ α , ουκ 
ελ ε ού ν τ ε ς ττ τ ω χ ό ν, ου 

π ο ν ού ν τ ε ζ ε πι κατ α- 
ϊ 5 ' 

πόνου μένω, ου γ ι ν ω - 
σ κ ο ν τ ε ζ τον ποιηΰαν- 
τα α υ τ ου ζ , φ ο ν ει ζ τέκ- 
νων, φ 3 ο ρ ει ζ πλ α G μα - 
τ ο ζ θεού, αποΰτρεφό- 
μενοι ένδεομενον,\ κα- 
τά π ονούντεζ 3 λι β ό μ ε - 
ν ον , πλουσίων π α ρ ά - 
κλ η τ ο ι , πενήτων υ π ε ρ- 
ο π τ α ι , παν^αμαρτη- 
τ οι . 'Ρυσ^είητε, τ ε κ- 

laAvful lust8, tliefts, idola- 
tries, magic arts, witchcrafts, 
rapines, false-witnesses, hy- 
pocrisies, double-hear tedness, 
deceit, pride, malice, inso- 
lence, covetousness, obscene 
talk, jealousy, co7ifidence, 
haughtiness, arrogance, im- 
pudence, persecution of the 
good, enmity to truth, love of 
lies, ignorance of righteous- 
ness. For they who do such 
things do not adhere to good- [v. 2.] 
ness, or to righteous judg- 
ment : they icatch not for 
good, but for evil; from 
ivhom meekness and jyatience 
are far off, wlio love vain 
things, pursuing after re- 
icard, having no pity on the 
poor, not labouring for him 
that is in misery, nor know- 
ing Him that made them; 
murderers of infants, de- 
stroyers of the workmanship 
of God, that turn aivay from 
the needy, adding affliction 
to the afflicted, the flatterers 
of the rich, the despisers of 
the poor, full of sin. May 
you, children, be delivered 
from all these. 

*LagarcIe: δικαία. 

f Lagarde omits next two words. 


y a , ατΐο τούτων απάν- 
[VI. 1] Cap. XIX. — "Ο β a μη τι? 
ff ε π λ (Χ ν η σ }] από τήζ εν- 
σεβείίχζ' Ουκ έκκλινεϊζ γαρ, 
φησίν, απ' αυτηζ δεξιά η ευώ- 
νυμα \ (Deut. ν. 32); ίνα συνϊ]ζ 
εν πάϋιν οίζ εάν ηρασΰγ\ζ • ου 
γάρ, εάν μη έκτραπ^^ζ ε'ξω 
τί/? ευΒείαζ οδού, δυσσεβή- 

[VI. 3.] Cap. XX.— Περϊ δε βρω- 
μά τ ω ν λέγει σοι 6 Κυριοζ 
Τά αγαΒά τή^ γή^ φάγεσ3ε 
και πάν ηρεαΐ ίδεσΒε ωί λά- 
χανα χλόη? (Is. i. 19; Gren. ix. 3), 
το δε αίμα ε'χίχεεΐί (Dent. χν. 
23) • ου γάρ τά είΰερχομενα 
είζ το στόμα κοινοί τον αν- 
Βρωπον, αλλά τά εκπορευο- 
μενα, λέγω δ?) βλασφημίαι, 
καταλαλιαι jiai ει' τι τοιού- 
τον. 2ύ δε φαγί] τον μυελόν 
τήζ γήζ μετά δικαιοσύνηζ • οτι 
ει τι καλόν, αυτού, και ει' τι 
αγαΒον, αυτού ' σΐτοζ νεανί- 
σκοι? και οίνοζ ευωδιαζων 
παρΒένοιζ (Zacli. ix. 17) * τίζ 
γαρ φαγεται η τίζ πίεται πα- 
ρέξ αυτού \ (Eccl. η. 25 gi'aece) ; 
Παραινεί δέ σοι καϊ 6 σοφοζ 
Εσδραζ λέγων ΠορεΰεσΒε και 
φάγετε λιπάσματα και πίετε 

Ch. XIX. — See that no one 
seduce thee from piety ; for 
says He : " Thou mayst not 
turn aside from it to the 
right hand, or to the left, 
that thou mayst have under- 
standing in all that thou 
doest." ' For if thou dost 
not turn out of the right 
way, thou wilt not be un- 

Ch. XX. — N^oto concerning 
the several sorts of food, the 
Lord says to thee, " Ye shall 
eat the good things of the 
earth ; " " and, " All sorts 
of flesh shall ye eat, as the 
green herb ; " ' l3ut, " Thou 
shalt pour out the blood."* 
For "not those things that 
go into the mouth, but those 
that come out of it, defile a 
man ; "' ^ I mean blasphemies , 
evil- speaking, and if there 
be any other thing of the 
like nature.^ But " do thou 
eat the fat of the land with 
righteousness."' For ''if 
there be anything pleasant, it 
is His ; and if there be 
anything good, it is His. 
Wheat for the young men, 
and wine to cheer the 

• ' Deut. V. 32. 

^Matt. XV. 11. 

"" Isa. i. 19. 
" Mark vii. 22. 

^ Gen. ix. 3. 
' Zech. ix. 17. 

* Deut. XV. 23. 

*Lagarde: πάντων. 

X Lagarde omits from here to end of chapter. 

f Lagarde: άριότερά. 


γλυκασμίχτα καϊ μι) λνπεΐσ^ε 
(Neh. viii. 10). 

Cap. XXI. — Άπ 6 δ t τ ώ ν 
είδωλ.οΒντοον φεύγετε, 
έπ\ τιμϊ^ γαρ δαιμόνων ^νον- 
σι ταύτα,* εφ νβρει δηλαδτ] 
τον μόνον Θεού ' όπωό μη γε- 
ν?^σ^ε κοινωνοί δαιμόνων. 

Cap. XXII. —Π ε ρϊ δε 
βαπτίσματοζ, ω έπίσκο- 
πε η πρεύβντερε, ηδη μεν και 
πρότερον διεταξαμε^α, και 
νύν δε φαμεν οτι οντω 
βαπτίσει ζ , ώζ 6 Κνριοζ 
διεταζατο ημιν λέγων Πορευ- 
Βέντεζ μα^ητενσατε πάντα τα 
ε^ν?], βαπτίΖοντεζ α υ - 
τ ού ζ ε i ζ το όνομα τ ο ύ 
Πατροζ 71 αϊ τον Τιού 
και τ ο ύ α γ ι ο ν Π ν ε ν - 
μ α τ ο ζ , διδασκοντεζ αντονζ 
τηρειν πάντα off α ενετειλαμτ/ν 
νμιν (Matt, xxviii. 19) • τον 
απο(Χτείλαντοζ Πατροζ, τον 
ελ^όντος Χριστού, τού 

μαρτνρηααντοζ Παρακλητον. 
Χρίσειζ δε πρώτον ελαίω 
άγίω, έπειτα βαπτίσει? 
νδατι και [το] τελενταΐον 
σφραγίσει? μνρω • ί'να το μεν 

muids." For "who shall 
eat or who shall drink ■with- 
out Him ? " ' Wise Ezra ' 
does also admonish thee, and 
say : " Go your way, and eat 
the fat, and drink the sweet, 
and be not soiTowful." ' 

Ch. XXI. — But do ye ab- ^γι. 3.] 
stain from things offered to 
idols ; ' for they offer them 
in honor of demons, that is, 
to the dishonor of the one 
God, that ye may not be- 
come partners with demons. 

Ch. XXII. — Now concern- [vii. 1.] 
ioig Baptism, Bisho^i, or 
Presbyter, λυο have already 
given direction, and we now 
say, that tliou shalt so baptize 
as the Lord commanded us, 
saying : "Go ye, and teach 
all nations, baptizing them 
into the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost, teaching them 
to observe all things what- 
soever I have commanded 
you : " ' of the Father who 
sent, of Christ who came, of 
the Comforter who testified. 
But thou shalt beforehand 
anoint the ])erson with holy 
oil, and afterward baptize 
him with water, and in the 
conclusion shalt seal him 
with the ointment ; that the 

' Eccles. ii. 25, LXX. 

^ The words from " Wise Ezra "to " sorrowful " are omitted by Lagarde, 

' Neh. viii. 10. ' 1 Cor. x. 20. ^ Matt, xxviii. 19. 

* Lagarde : αιτά. 


χριύμα μετοχή ?) τον άγιου 
πνεύματος, το δε ύδωρ 
σνμβολον του θανάτου 
το δε μυρον ύφραγϊζ των 
Θνν^ηΐίών. Ει δε μήτε ε λα ι- 
όν Τ} μήτε μυρον, αρ- 
κεί* ύδΰΰρ και π ροζ χρΐσιν 
και η ροζ αψραγϊδα και 
ηροζ ομολογίαν τού αποθα- 
νόντος ήτοι (Τυναποθ^νήσκον- 
[VII. 4] τοζ. Προ δε τού β α π - 
τ ίύ μα τ ο ζ νήστευα ατω 
6 βαπτιΒ,ομενοζ• και 
γαρ ο Κύριοζ πρώτον βαπ- 
τισΒειζ υπό Ιωάννου και εΐζ 
τ?}ν ερημον αυλισθειζ, μετέ- 
πειτα ένήβτευβε τεσσαραηον- 
τα ήμέραζ και τεαααρακοντα 
νύκταζ. Εβαπτίσθΐ] δε και 

1 ι 1 t \ 1 

ενηϋτενβεν ουκ αυτοζ απορν- 
πώσεωζ ή νηστείαζ χρείαν 
έχων ή καΒάρ&εω5 6 τ?] φύ- 
σει καθ ροζ κα\ αγιοζ, αλλ^ ίνα 
και Ιωαννΐ] αΧήθειαν προσ- 
μαρτυρησν^ και ημΐν νπογραμ- 
μον παρασχηται. Ουκοΰν ο 
μεν Κυριοζ ουκ ειζ εαυτού πα- 
θοζ έβαπτίσατο ή θάνατον ή 
άπάστασιν {ουδέποο γαρ ου- 
δέν τούτων εγεγονεί) , aW 
ειζ διαταζιν ετίραν, διο και 
απ έΒ,ουσίαζ μετά το βάπτι- 
σμα νηστεύει ώζ Κυριοζ Ιωάν- 
νου• 6 δε ειζ τον αυτού θα- 
τ^ατον μυούμενοζ προτερον 
οφείλει νηστευσαι και τότε 
βαπτίσασθα.\ {ουγάρδίιιαιον 
τον συvτaq)lvτa κα\ συν αν α- 

anointing with oil may be 
the participation of the 
Holy Spirit, and the water 
the symbol of the death [of 
Christ], and the ointment 
the seal of the covenants. 
But if there be neither oil 
nor ointment, water is suflS- 
cient both for the anointing, 
and for the seal, and for the 
confession of Him that is 
dead, or indeed is dying to- 
gether [with Christ]. ^ But 
befoi'e Baptism, let him that 
is haptized fast ; for even 
the Lord, when He was first 
baptized by John, and abode 
in the wilderness, did after- 
ward fast forty days and 
forty nights. ' But He was 
baptized, and then fasted, 
not having Himself any need 
of cleansing, or of fasting, or 
of purgation, who was by 
nature pure and holy ; but 
that He might testify the 
truth to John, and afford an 
example to us. Wherefore 
our Lord was not baptized in- 
to His own passion, or death, 
or resurrection — for none of 
those things had then hap- 
pened — but for another pur- 
pose. Wherefore He by His 
own authority fasted after 
His Baptism, as being the 
Lord of John. But he who 
is to be initiated into His 

Matt. iii. iv. 

* Lagarde : το. 

\ Lagarde: βαπτιό^^ηναι. 


(Χταντα τταρ^ αντί/ι^ τι) ν ανα- 
(Ττασιν κατηφειν) , ον γαρ κν- 
ριοζ 6 αν^ρωποζ τήζ βιατά- 
<^εωζ τήζ τού σωτήροζ • έπεί- 
ττερ 6 μεν δεσποτηζ, ό δε νπή- 

Cap. XXIIL — ^/ δε νη- 

ύτειαι υμών μ η ε G τ ω- 
σάν μετά τ ώ ν ν π ο - 
κριτών^ ν η σ τ ε ν ο υ σ ι 
γαρ δευτέρα σ α β β ά - 
των και πέμπτη, 
'τ με ι ζ δε η τάζ πέντε 
νγ^βτευΰατε ημέραζ^ η τε- 
τράδα και π α ραΰ κευην • 
οτι τι} μεν τετράδι ή κρίσιζ 
έζήλ^εν η κατά του Κυρίου, 
Ιούδα χρημασιν έπαγγειλα- 
μένου την προδοσίαν • t7}v δε 
παρασκευι^ν, οτι έ'πα^εν 6 Κν- 
ριοζ εν αυτϊ\ πάΒο? το δια 
σταυρού υπό Ποντίου Πιλά- 
του. Το σαββατον μέντοι και 
την κυριακην εορτάΒ,ετε, ότι 
τό μεν δημιουργίαζ έστιν υπό- 
μνημα, η δε αναστασεωζ. "Εκ 
δε μόνον σαββατον ύμίν φυ- 
λακτέον εν ολω τω ένιαυτώ, 
το τήζ τού Κυρίου ταφήζ, όπερ 
νηστευειν προσήκεν, αλλ' ουχ 
εορταξειν • εν όσω γαρ ο δ?^- 
μιουργοζ νπο γήν τυγχάνει, 
ίσχυροτερον τό περί αυτού 
πέν^οζ τήζ κατά την δημιουρ- 
γίαν χαράζ, ότι ό δημιουργόζ 

death ought first to fast, and 
then to be baptized. For it 
is not reasonable that he 
who has been buried [with 
Christ], and is risen again 
with Him, should appear de- 
jected at His very resurrec- 
tion. For man is not lord 
of our Saviour's constitution, 
since one is the Master and 
the other the servant. 

Ch. XXlll.—But let 7iot [viii. i.] 
your fasts be witlt the hypo- 
crites ; for they fast on the 
second and fifth days of the 
week. But do ye either fast 
the entire five days, or on the 
fourth day of the week, and 
on the day of the prepara- 
tion, because on the fourth 
day the condemnation went 
out against the Lord, Judas 
then i^romising to betray ■ 
Him for money ; and you 
must fast on the day of the 
preparation, because on that 
day the Lord suffered the '• 
death of the cross under Pon- 
tius Pilate. But keep the 
Sabbath, and the Lord's day 
festival ; because the former 
is the memorial of the crea- 
tion, and the latter of the 
resurrection. But there is 
one only Sabbath to be ob- 
served by you in the whole 
year, which is that of our 
Lord's burial, on which men 
ought to keep a fast, but not 
a festival. For inasmuch as 


τών εαντον δημιουργημάτων 
ψυσει τβ καϊ αξία τιμιώτεροζ. 

[VIII. 2.] Cap. XXIV. —Ό τ αν δε 

ττροσενχηΰ^ε, μή γίνε- 
στε ώ ζ οι νποηριταί, 
«Άλ' ώ ζ 6 Κ ύ ρι ο ζ η μι ν 
εν τ ώ ε υ α γ γ ελ ί ω δ ι ε - 
τ ά ζ α τ ο , ο ν τ ω π ρ ο ff ε ν - 
χ ε σ Β^ ε ^' Π ά τ ε ρ η μ ώ ν 6 
έν τ ο ϊ ζ ονρανοϊζ, ά γ ί- 
α G Β η τ ω το 6 ν ο μ ά σον 
ελ S ε τ ω ή βασιλεία 
σον• γεν7]Βήτω το Β ε - 
λη μ α σου ώ ζ ε ν ου ρ α ν ώ 
και ε π ϊ τ τ) ς γ η ζ ' τον 
α ρτ ον ημών τ ό ι^ έ η ι - 
ο ν σ ι ο ν δ ο ζ η μ ι ν σή- 
μερον' και α φε ς η μι ν 
τα οφειλή ματ α ημών, ω ί 
και η μ ε ι ζ α φ ι ε μ ε ν τ οι ζ 
οφειλεταιζ ημών' και 
μη είσενεχκηζ -η μ ά ζ εΐζ 
ττειρασμον, άλλα ρ υ - 
σαι ημάζ από τον πο- 
νηρού' ο τ ι σον έ σ τ ι ν 
η βασιλεία * ε ιζ τ ο ν ζ αϊ ώ - 
ν α ζ ' αμην'^ (Matt. vi. 9 sqq.). 
[VIII. 3.] ^ ρ ^ ^ τ τ) ζ τ} μ έ ρ α ζ ο ν τ ω 
προσεύχεστε, προπαρα- 
σκεναΒ,οντεζ εαντονζ αζίουζ 
τηζ νίο'Βεσίαζ τον πατροζ, ίνα 
μη, αναξιωζ νμων αντον πα- 
τέρα καλούντων, ονειδισ^ήτε 

the Creator was then under 
the earth, the sorrow for 
Him is more forcible than 
the Joy for the creation ; for 
the Creator is more honor- 
able by nature aud dignity 
than His own creatures. 

Ch. XXIV. — Νοίϋ, "when 
ye pray, he not yeas the hypo-, 
crites ; " ' lut as the Lord 
has appointed us in the Gos- 
pel, so pray ye : " Our 
Father who art in Heaven, 
hallowed he Thy name ; TJiy 
kingdom come; Thy ivill he 
done, as in Heaven, so on 
earth ; give us this day our 
daily bread ; and forgive us 
our debts [Did. debt], as ive 
forgive our debtors ; and 
lead us not into temptation, 
but deliver iis from evil [or 
the evil One, i.e., the Devil] ; 
for Thine is the kingdom /or 
ever. Amen." "^ Pray thus 
thrice in a day, preparing 
yourselves beforehand, that 
ye may be worthy of the 
adoption of the Father ; lest, 
when you call Him Father 
unworthily, you be re- 
proached by Him, as Israel 
once His first-born son was 
told : "If I be a Father, 
where is my glory ? And if 
I be a Lord, where is my 
fear?"= For the glory of 
fathers is the holiness of 

' Matt. vi. 5. = Matt. vi. 9, etc. 

*Lagarde: καϊ ή δυνα/,ιιζ και ?/ δόςα. 

^ Mai. 1. 6. 


V7t' αντον, ω? και ο ίσρατ/λ ο 
ποτέ πρωτοτοκοζ νίόζ ηκονο'εν 
ΟΤΙ Ει ηατήρ είμι έγοο, πού εσ- 
τίν ΐ] δόξα μοΐ) ^ και ει Κν- 
ριοί ειμί, πού εστίν 6 φόβοζ 
μου (Mai. i. 6) ,• δοΒα γάβ πα- 
τερών οσιότηζ παίδων και 
τιμή δεσποτών οίκετών φό- 
βοζ, ώσπερ ονν το εναντίον 
αδοξία και αναρχία • Δύ 
ν μα•, γαρ, φησί,^ το όνομα, 
μου βλασφημείται εν τοΐζ 
ε'Βνεσι (Is. lii. 5). 

Cap. ΧΧΛ^ — ΓίνεσΒε δε 
πάντοτε ευχάριστοι, ώι πιστοί 
και ευχνώμονεζ δούλοι• περί 
μεν της ευχαριστίας 
οντω λέγοντεζ '^ Ε υ χ α - 
ριστούμέν σοι, πάτερ 
ηβών, ν π ε ρ 8, ωή ζ ή ς 
εγνωρισαζ η μι ν δια 
Ιί] σ ο ύ τ ο ύ π αιδ ο ζ σου, 
δι' ου και τα πάντα έποίησαζ 
και τών όλων προνοείς, όν 
και απέστειλας επϊ σωτηρία 
τΐ\ ημέτερα γενεσΒαι άνΒρω- 
πον, ον και συνεχωρησας πα- 
3εΐν και αποΒανειν, όν κα\ 
αναστησας ευδοκησας δοξά- 
σαι και εκαΒισας εκ δεξιών 
σου, δι' ου και επηγγείλω 
ημιν την αναστασιν τών νε- 
κρών. Έυ δέσποτα παντο- 
κρατορ Θεε αιώνιε, ω σ π ε ρ 
ή ν τούτο διεσκορπι- 
σ μ έ ν ο ν και συναχΒεν 
εγένε τ ο εις άρτος, οντω 
συναγαγέ σου την ε κ- 

their cliildren, and the hon- 
or of masters is the fear of 
their servants, as the con- 
trary is dishonor and con- 
fusion. For says He : 
''Through you my name is 
bhisphemed among the Gen- 

Ch. XXV. — Be ye always 
thankful, as faithful and 
honest servants; and con-U^hS•] 
cerning the euclmristic 
tlumJcsgiviiig say thus : We 
thank Thee, our Father, for 
that life ivhich Thou hast 
made hnoivn to us hy Jesus 
Thy Son, by whom Thou 
madest all things, and takcst 
care of the whole world ; 
Avhom Thou didst send to be- 
come man for our salvation ; 
whom Thou hast permitted 
to suffer and to die ; whom 
Thou hast raised up, and been 
pleased to glorify, and hast 
set Him down on Thy right 
hand ; by whom Thou hast 
promised us the resurrection 
of the dead. Do Thou, 
Lord Almighty, everlasting 
God, so gather together Thy [ix. 4.] 
church from the e?ids of the 
earth into Thy kingdom, as 

' Isa. hi. 5. 

* Lagarde omits. 


ji Α.Ί] G I a y a π ο των πε- 
ράτων τ ή ζ γ ή ζ ε ι ζ* σ ?} ν 
β α <j ι\ ε ία ν . "Ετι ευχαρι- 
ΰτούμεν, ττατερ ημών, νπερ 
του τιμίου αΐματοζ It /σον 
Χριστού τον εΊίχνΒίντοζ 
νπερ ημών και τού τιμίου 
(ϊωματοζ) ού 7ίαϊ αντίτυπα 
ταύτα έπιτελού μεν, αυτού δια- 
ταξαμενου ημίν καταγγελλειν 
τον αυτού θάνατον • δι' αυ- 
τού γαρ σοι ηαι η δόξα ε ι ζ 
τ ο ν ζ α ι ω ν α ζ ' αμην/^ 
[IX. 5.] Μ ?; (^ £ ζ 5 δε έσ^ιέτω εξ 
αυτών των αμνι/των, αΚ.- 
λά μονοί οι β ε β α π τ ι- 
σ με ν οι εις τον τού Κυρίου \ 
θάνατον. Ει δε τιζ αμυ?/τοζ 
κρνψαζ εαυτόν μεταλαβη, κρί- 
μα αιωνιον φαγεται, οτι μη 
ων τηζ είζ Χριστόν πίστεωζ 
μετελαβεν ων ου ^έμιζ, είζ τι- 
μορίαν εαυτού • ει δε τιζ 7ίατά 
άγνοιαν μεταλαβοι, τούτον 
τάχιον στοιχειωσαντεζ μυή- 
σατε, οπωζ μ}} 7ίαταφρον?ιτηζ 

[Χ.Ι.] Cap. XXVI. — Μ ε τ ά δε 
Tt}v μετάληψιν ο υ τ ω ζ ε υ - 
χαριστή σατ ε " Ε υ χ α - 
ρ ισ τ ού μεν σοι, 6 Θεόζ jiai 
π α τ Ί] ρ Ιησου του σωτηροζ 

this [corn] was once scat- 
tered, and is now become 
one loaf. We also, our Fa- 
ther, thank Thee for the 
precious blood of Jesus 
Christ, which was shed for 
us, and for His precious 
body, whereof we celebrate 
this representation, as Him- 
self appointed us, " to show 
forth His death.'" For 
through Him glory is to be 
given to Thee for ever. 

Let no one eat of these 
tilings that is not initiated ; 
hut tliose only tvlio have heen 
haptized into the death of 
the Lord. But if any one 
that is not initiated conceal 
himself, and partake of the 
same, he eats eternal judg- 
ment ; * because, being not 
of the faith of Christ, he has 
partaken of such things as it 
is not lawful for him to par- 
take of, to his own punish- 
ment. But if any one is a 
partaker through ignorance, 
instruct him quickly, and 
initiate him, that he may 
not go out and despise you. 

Ch. XXW.— After the 
participation, give tlianlcs in 
this manner: Wethanh thee, 
God, and Father of Jesus 
our Saviour, for Thy holy 

' 1 Cor. xi. 26. 

* Lagarde inserts την. 

■ 1 Cor. xi. 29. 

f Lagarde inserts χριϋτυΰ. 


ήμων, i) π i: ρ τον ayiov 
[ο r 6 μ a τ 6 ζ σον, om. by 
Ueltzen, but in nearly all other 
eds.*] ov κατεσκήνωσαζ 
έ V ή μϊν , και ν π e ρ τ ή ζ 
γ ν 00 (3 ε ω ζ και π ί σ τ ε ω ζ 
και αγαττηζ και α 3^ α ν α - 
ύ ι α ζ ηζ έ'δωηαζ ι) μι ν δια 
Ι?/ (Τον τον τταιδόζ σον. 
2ν δέσποτα παντο- 
η ρ α τ ο ρ , 6 Θεόζ των όλων, 
ο κ τ i σ α ζ τον η ό σ μ ο ν 
και τα εν α ν τ ώ δι' αν- 
τον,Ίιαϊ νομό ν ΐίατεφντενσαζ 
εν\ ταΐζ ψυχαιζ ημών και τα 
π ρ ο ζ μεταΧηψιν π ρ ο - 
εντρέτΐισαζ α ν ^ ρ ώ - 
π ο ι ζ ' ο θεοζ τών αγίοον και 
αμέμπτων πατέρων ημών, 
Αμρααμ και ίσαακ και 1α- 
7ίωβ, τών πιστών δονλων 
σον 6 δννατόζ Θεόζ, 6 πι- 
στοζ και αλη^ινοζ και αφεν- 
δ7]ζ εν ταίζ έπαγγελίαιζ ' 6 
αποστειλαζ επι γης Ιησονν τον 
Χβίστον σον άνθρωποι? σν- 
ναναστραφηναι ωζ άν^ρω- 
πον, Θεον οντά λοχον και 
άν^ρωπον, και την πλαν?γν 
προρριζον ανελειν • αντοζ και 
j^vv δι' αντον μνΊ]σ^ητι 
της αγίας σον ε κκ\η - 
σ ία ς ταντης, ην περιεποιησω 
τω τιμίω αΐματι τον Χριστού 
σον, και ρ ν σ α ι α ν τ η ν 
απ ο παντός π ο ν η ρ ο ν) 
και τελείωσον α ν τ?^ ν 
ένττ\αγάπι;ΐ σον 7ίαι τ^ 
αλητεία σον, και σνναγαγε 

name, whicli Thou hast made 
to inhahit among «.s•; and 
that hnoioJedge, faith, love, 
and immortality which Thou 
hast given us through Thy 
Son Jesus. Thou, Al- 
mighty Lord, the God of the 
universe, ha-H created the 
World, and the things that 
are therein, by Him ; and 
hast planted a law in our 
souls, and heforehand didst 
prejjare things for the con- 
venience of men. God of 
our holy and blameless fa- 
thers, Abraham, and Isaac, 
and Jacob, Thy faithful ser- 
vants ; Thou, God, who art 
j)owerful, faithful, and true, 
and without deceit in Thy 
promises ; who didst send 
upon earth Jesus Thy Christ 
to live with men, as a man, 
when He was God the Word, 
and man, to take away error 
by the roots : do Thou even 
now, through Him, be mind- [x. 5.] 
ful of this Thy holy church, 
which Thou hast purchased 
with the i^recious blood of 
Thy Christ, and delii'er it 
from all evil, and perfect it 
in Tliy love and Thy truth, 
and gather tis all together 
into Thy Mngdom ivhich 
Thou hast prepared. Mar- 
anatha. " Hosanna to the 
Son of David. Blessed be 
He that cometh in the name 

* Lagarde omits 6υυ. 

■f- Lagarde omits. 



of the Lord'"— God the 
Lord, who was manifested to 
us in the flesh. If any one 
he holy, let him draw near ; 
hut if any one he not such, 
let him become such hy re- 
pentance. Permit also to 
your presbyters [Did. to your 
prophets], to give tlianlcs. 

π a V τ a ζ ημάς εις τ ι) ν 

σ ην β ασιλείαν J ην ητ oi- 

μα σ α ς αντην [o'lJr//] , 
[^.^.^Μα ρ α r αΒ ά • ωσαννά 

τω νιώ [Ώϊά. 5εω], /} α β ίδ , 

ευλογημένος 6 ερχόμενος έν 
ονόματι Κυρίου, Θεός Κύριος 
ο επιφανείς ήμΐν εν σαρκί." 
] Ε ι τις άγ ι ο ς, π ρ οσ ε ρ χέ- 
σ^ω • ει δε τις ουκ εσ- 
τί, γιν ι σ ^ ω δια μετα- 
νοίας. Επιτρέπετε δε 
και τοις πρεσβυτέροις [Did. 
προφήταις] υμών ευχάρι- 
στε ι ν . 

Cap. ΧΧΎΙΙ.-Περϊ δε τού Ch. XXVIL-Concerning 

μύρου ούτως ευχαριστήσατε' the ointment give thanks in 

Ευχάριστου μεν σοι, Θεέ δη- this manner: We give Thee 

μιουρχέ των όλων, καϊ υπέρ thanks, Ο God, the Creator 

της^ευωδίας τού μύρου, nai of the whole world, both for 

νττερ του α'^ανατου αιώνος ου the fragrancy of the oint- 

εγνωρισας ημΙν διά Ιησού τού ment, and for the immortal- 

παιδος σου • οτι σού έστιν ι) ity which thou hast made 

δο^^.α jiai η δυναμις εις τους known to us by Thy Son 

^{^^'-^-^-^-ir•: „ Jesus. For Thine is the 

[XI. 1.] ρς ε αν ελΒων ούτως glory and the power for 

ευχαριστ^^^, ^ προσδέζα- ever. Amen. Whosoever 

σ^αι αυτόν ως Χ pi- comes to you, and gives 

στου μα^ητην • εάν δέ αλ- thanks in this manner, re- 

λην διδαχην κηρύσσ,^ ceive him as a disciple of 

Trap' ην υμίν παρέδωηεν ό Christ. But if he preach 

Χρίστος δι' ημών, τω Toio{ncp another doctrine, different 

μη συγχωρείτε εύχαριστεΐν • from that which Christ by 

υβρίζει γαρ ο τοιούτος τον ' " 
Θεό ν, ήπερ δοξάΒ,ει. 

us has delivered to you, such 
an one you must not permit 
to give thanks ; for such an 
one rather aifronts God thnn 

[ΧΠ.1.1 Cap. XXVITL — TJ^? δέ 

glorifies Him, 

ο Ch. XX VIII. _^?^;' ^/^o- 

1 Cor. xvi. 22 ; Matt. xsi. 9; Mark xi, 10. 


^βχομενοζ ττ po ζ d μ ά i , 
δοκιμασθεί:, οι) τ ω (J ε - 
χεσ^^ω' σ ύ ν ε σ ιν γαρ 
ε'γετε, ηαι δύνασθε 
γ ν ώ ν αι^ δ ε ζ ι α ν η α ρ ι- 
στέ ρά ν καϊ διαηρΊναι φεν- 
δοδιδασκάλουζ διδάσκαλων. 
Ελθόντι μεν τ οι τώ διδασκα- 
Acf) εκ ψνχήζ επιχορηγήσατε 
τα δέοντα • τω δε ί^ενδοδιδα- 
σκάλω δώσετε μεν τά\ προζ 
χρείαν, ου παραδεξεσθε δε 
αντού την π\ανην^ ούτε μην 
σνμπροσεύξησθε αυτώ, ίνα 
μι] σνμμιανθήτε αντω. Πα? 
π ροφητ 1] ζ αληθ ι ν ο ζ η 
διδάσκαλοζ ερχόμενο? 

7Γ ροζ νμάζ α Β, ι ο? έστι 
τ ή ζ τροφή? ώ ? εργάτη? 
λόγου διηαιοσυνί]?. 

Cap. XXIX. — Πα σαν άπ- 
α ρ γ^ ή ν γεννημάτων λη- 
νού, αλ ω ν ο? βοών τ ε 
και προβάτων δώσει? 
τοι? ιερευσιν, ινα ευλογτ^^ω- 
σιν αι αποθήκαι τών ταμείων 
σου 7ίαι τα εκφόρια τη? γή? 
σου, και στηριχΒ)]? σίτω Jtai 
οί'νω jcai ε'λαίω, και ανζηθτ\ 
τα βουκολια τών βοών σον 
και τα ποίμνια τώ^' προβάτων 
σον ' πάσαν δεκατην δώσει? 
τω ορφανω και Tr\ χήρα, τ ω 
π τ ω χ ω και τώ προσηλύτω. 
Πάσαν απ α ρχην άρτων 

soever comes to you, let him he 
first examined, and then re- \ 
ceived ; for ye have iinder- 
standing, a7id are ahle to 
know the right hand from 
the left, and to distinguish 
false teachers from true 
teachers. But when a 
teacher comes to you, sup- 
ply him with what he wants 
with all readiness. And 
even when a false teacher 
comes, you shall give him 
for his necessity, but shall 
not receive his error. Nor 
indeed may ye pray together 
with him, lest ye be polluted 
as well as he. Every true [xm. i, 2.] 
Prophet or Teacher that 
comes to you is ivorthy of his 
maintenance, as being a la- 
bourer in the word of right- 
eousness. ' 

Ch. XXIX. — All the first- ixiii. s.] 
fruits of the winepress, the 
threshing-floor, the oxen, and 
the sheep, shalt thou give to 
the i)riests,'•' that thy store- 
houses and garners and the 
products of thy land may be 
blessed, and thou mayst be 
strengthened with corn and 
wine and oil. and the herds 
of thy cattle and flocks of 
thy shee]) may be increased. 
Thou shalt give the tenth of 
thy increase to the orphan, 
and to the widow, and to the 

' Matt. X. 41. 

* Lagarde : διηχνώναι. 

"^ Num. xviii. 
f Lagarde inserts δέοντα. 


[Xiii. 5, 6.] Βερμών, ηε ρ a μία ν ο ι ν ο ν 
η ελαίου η ριέλιτοζ η άκρο- 
δρνων, βταφυΧηζ η των άλ- 
λων τ ι) ν α π α ρ χη ν δ ω - 
LXIII. 7.] 0• e 2 g 2-ozs ιερεύσιν ' αργυ- 
ρίου δε jtai* ιματισ- 
μού 7ί αϊ παντός ητη μα- 
τ οζ τω ορφανω και r/} χήρα. 

[SIV.1.] Cap. XXX.— τ ήν αναστά- 
σιμον τ ο ν Κυρίου ή μ ε - 
ρα ν ^ την η υ ριαηην φα- 
μεν, συνέ^ρχεσ^ε αδιαλεί- 
πτως, εύχα ρι σ τ ού ντ ες 
τω θεώ και εξομολο- 
γούμε ν οι εφ^ ok εύηργε- 
τησεν ημάς of Θεός δια Χρι- 
στού ρυσαμενος αγνοίας, 
πλάνης, δεσμών • όπως 
αμεμπτος y η Βνσ ία 
ν μ ω ν και ευαναφορος Θεώ, 
τω ε ι π ο ν τ ι περί της οίκον- 
μενικής αυτού ε^ικλησίας οτι 
Εν π α ν τ ι τ ο π ω μ ο ι 
ττροσενεχ^ησεται Βυ- 
μίαμα και Βυσία καΒαρα- 
οτι βασιλεύς μέγας ε' γ ω 
ει μι , λέγει Κύριος 
παντοκράτωρ, ΐίαι το ο ν ο- 
μ α μο υ Β αυ μα σ τ 6 ν εν 
τοις ε Β νεσ ι (Mai. i. 11, 14.) 
[XV. 1.] Cap. XXXI. _ Προχειρίσα- 
σΒε δε επισκόπους άξι- 
ους τ ού Κυρίου και 
πρεσβυτέρους και δ ιακό- 

poor, and to the stranger. 
All the first-fruits of thij hot 
h-ead, of thy barrels of wine, 
or oil, or honey, or nuts, or 
grapes, or the firsf-fruits of 
other things, shall thou give 
to the priests; hut those of 
silver and of garments, and 
of all sort of j^ossessions, to 
the orphan and to the 

Ch. XXX.— On the day of 
the resurrection of the Lord, 
that is. the Lord's day, as- 
semble yourselves together, 
without fail, giving thanhs 
to God, and praising Him 
for those mercies God lias 
bestowed upon you through 
Christ, and has delivered 
you from ignorance, error, 
and bondage, that your sac- 
rifice may be unspotted, and 
acceptable to God, ivho has 
said concerning His univer- 
sal church : " In every place 
shall incense and a pure sac- i 
rifice be offered unto me ; for 
/ am a great King, saith 
the Lord Almighty, a7id my \ 
name is luonderful among ■ 
the Gentiles." ' 

Ch. XXXL— Do you first 
ordain Bishops worthy of ilie 
Lord, and Presbyters and 
Deacons, pious men, right- 

'Mal. i. 11, 14. 
* Lagarde : i). 

f Lagarde omits. 


V Ο V ς , άνδρας ενλαβεϊζ, 
δικαίους^ ττ ρ α ε ΐ ζ ^ αφι- 
λαργν ρουζ, φ ιλαλη Β ειζ ^ 
δεδοηιμασμένονζ, όσί- 
ουζ, αττροσωποληπτους, δυνά- 
μενους διδάσκειν τον λόγοι^ 
τής ευσεβείαζ, ορΒοτομούνταζ 
εν τοις τοϋ Κυρίου δόγμασιν, 
'Τμεΐς δε τιμάτε τού- 
τους ως πατέρας, ως κυρίους, 

Γ ' / - - τ τ 

ως ευερχετας, ως του ευ είναι 

Ελέγχετε δε αλλή- 
λους, μη εν ο ρχ rj , αλλ' 
εν μα7ίροΒυμία μετά χρηστό- 
τητας καϊ ειρήνης. Πάν- 
τα τά π ροσ τετ ay/ μένα νμΐν 
υπό τοΰ Κυρίου φυλάξατε. 
Γρηγορείτε υ π ε ρ τής 
8,ω ή ς υμών. "Ε σ τ ω σ α ν 
αίούφυες ύμώνπερι- 
ε8,ωύμέναι και οι λύ- 
χνοι καιομενοι, καϊ 
νμεΐς όμοιοι αν^ρωποις ηροσ- 
δεχομένοις τον κυριον εαυτών 
πότε ήζει, εσπέρας ή πρωί ή 
αλεκτ οροφών ίας ή μεσονυ- 
κτίου ' rj γαρ ωργ ου προσδο- 
ηώσιν, ελευσεται 6 Κύριος, 
και εαν αυτω ανοιςωσι, μα- 
κάριοι οι δούλοι εκείνοι, οτι 
ευρέθησαν γρηγοροΰντες • ότι 
ηεριδ,ωσεται και ανακλινεϊ 
αυτούς καϊ τταρελΒών διακο- 
νήσει αυτοις. Νηφετε ουν 
καϊ προσεύχεστε μη ύπνώ- 
σαι εις )3ανατον' ου γαρ 
ο νήσει υμάς τά πρότερα 
κατορθώματα [Did. ο ηάςχρο- 

OUS, meek, free from the love 
of money, lovers of truth, ap- 
yroved, holy, not acceptors 
of persons, who are able to 
teach the word of piety, and 
rightly dividing the doc- 
trines of the Lord.' γ1^ίΖ[χν. 2.] 
do ye honor such as your fa- 
thers, as your lords, as your 
benefactors, as the causes of 
your well-being. Reprove [xv. 3.] 
ye one another, not in anger, 
but in mildness, with kind- 
ness and peace. Observe all 
things that are commanded 
you by the Lord. Be watch- [xvi. i.] 
fid for your life. " Let 
your loins he girded about, 
and your lights burning, 
and ye like unto men who 
wait for their Lord, when 
He will come, at even, or in 
the morning, or at cock- 
crowing, or at midnight. 
For at what hour they think 
not, the Lord will come ; 
and if they open to Him, 
blessed are those seiwants, 
because they were found 
watching. For He will gird 
Himself, and will make them •, 
to sit down to meat, and 
will come forth and serve 
them." ■ "Watch therefore, 
and pray, that ye do not 
sleep unto death. For your [χλί. ;.•.] 
former good deeds [Did. the 
whole time of your faith], 
will not profit you, if at the 

1 Tim. ii. 15. 

Luke xii. 35 ; Mark xiii. 35, 


νοζ τήζ πί0τεωζ υμών], iav 
εις τα εσ χα τ α ν μ ών 
ατιοπλανη^ήτε τήζ π ι- 
στέ οο ζ τήζ αλ η ^ ο ν ζ . 

[XVI. 3.] Cap. XXXII. —Έν γαρ 
τ αϊζ ε σ χάτ α ιζ ή με ραιζ 
πληΒννΒήσονται οι 

ψευδοπροψήται και οι 
φΒορεΐζ τον λόχου, 7ίαϊ 
ΰτραφηύονται τα πρό- 
βατα ε ι ζ λ ν Η ο ν ζ και ή 
αγάπη είζμΐβ'οζ' π\η - 
^υν^είβηζ γαρ τήζ 

[XVI. ^:\ανομϊαζ, ή:υγηβεται η 
αγάπη των πολλών, μιαή- 
βουβι γαρ αλληλ ου ζ οι 
άνθρωποι και δ ι ω ζ ο υ (Τ ι 

[XVI. ο.] )ίαι προδωσονσι. Και 
τότε φανησεται 6 κ ο - 
αμοπλάνοζ, 6 τήζ αλη- 
^είαζ εχ^ροζ, 6 τον ψενδουζ 
προστατηζ, ον 6 Κνριοζ Ιη• 
αονζ* ανελει τώ πνεΰματι τού 
στοματοζ αυτού 6 δια χειλεων 
αναιρών ασεβή• jiai πολ- 
\οι σκανδαλισ^ησον- 
ται έπ' αυτώ, ο{\ δε ύπο- 
μείναντεζείζ τέλοζ, ούτοι \ 

[XVI. ^.]σ ω^ ή σ ο ντ α ι . Και τό- 
τε φανησεται τ 6'^ σ η - 
μείον τού υιού τού ανθρώ- 
που εν τ ώ ο ν ρ αν ώ, είτα 

\ 'ι ' 

φωνή σαλπιγγοζ εσται 
δι' αρχαγγέλου και μεταξύ 
αν α β ι ω σ ι ζ των κε κ ο ι- 
μη μένων• κα\ τότε ή ζ ει 
[XVI. 7, 8.] ο Κνριοζ και π άντ ε ζ οι 

last part of your life you go 
astray from the true faith 
\^Did. except ye be perfect]. 

Ch. XXXIL— For in the 
last days false proph- 
ets shall he multiplied, and 
such as corrupt the word ; 
and the sheep shall he 
changed into wolves, and love 
into hatred : for through the 
abounding of lawlessness the 
love of many shall wax cold. 
For men shall hate, and per- 
secute, and betray one an- 
other. And then shall ap- 
p)ear the deceiver of the world, 
the enemy of the truth, the 
prince of lies/ whom the 
Lord Jesus '' shall destroy 
with the spirit of His mouth, 
Λvho takes away the wicked 
with his lips ; and many 
shall he offended at Him. 
But they that endure to the 
end, the same shall he saved. 
And then shall appear the 
sign of the Son of man in 
heaven; "" and after ivards 
shall he the voice of a trum- 
pet by the archangel ; ' and 
in that interval shall be the 
revival of those that were 
asleep. And then shall the 
Lord come, and all the saints 
loith Him, with a great con- 
cussion above the clouds. 

' 2 Thess. ii. • 

* Lagarde omits. 
Χ Lagarde : ovroi. 

Isa. xi. 4 ; Matt. xxiv. 

1 Thess. iv. 16. 

f Lagarde : ό δέ ύτίοιχείναί. 
§ Lagarde reads c5 νίοζ. 


άγιοι μ ε τ' a ντο ν εν avff- 
σεισμώ επάνω των ν ε - 
φ ελ ώ ν μετ'' αχχελων δυνά- 
μεων αυτού επΙ Βρόνου βασι- 
λεία?, κατακρΐναι τον κού μο- 
τΐλάνον διάβολον καϊ αποδοΰ- 
ναι εκαστω κατά την πράζιν 
αυτόν. Τότε απελενσονται 
οι μεν ηονηροϊ είζ αίωνιον κο- 
λαύιν, οι δε δίκαιοι πορευσον- 
ται ει? ίί,ωην αίωνιον, κλΐ]ρο- 
νομουντεζ εκείνα, α οφ^αΧμοζ 
ουκ εζόε και ovb ουκ ηκονοε 
και επι καροιαν άνθρωπου 
ουκ ανέβη, α ήτοίμασεν 6 Θεό? 
τοιζ αγατΐωύιν αυτόν [1 Lor. 
ϋ. 9) • και χαρησονται εν tPj 
βασιλεία τοΰ Θεού tij εν Χρι- 
στώ Ιησού. 

The remainder of the Seventh 
Book from ch. 33-49 has no bear- 
ing on the DidacJie and contains 
mostly prayers. 

Avith the angels of His pow- 
er, in the throne of His 
kingdom,' to condemn [the 
devil], the deceiver of the 
world, and to render to 
every one according to his 
deeds. '' Then shall the 
wicked go away into eternal 
punishment, but the right- 
eous shall go into eternal 
life," ^ to inherit those 
things " which eye hath not 
seen, nor ear heard, nor have 
entered into the heart of 
man, such things as God 
hath prepared for them that 
love Him ; " ' and they shall 
rejoice in the kingdom of ( 
God, which is in Christ 

Matt. xvi. 27. 
1 Cor. ii. 9. 

Matt. XXV. 46. 



[After the sketch of the discoverer of the Didache was 
printed (Ch. III., pp. 8 and 9j, I received from him an autobio- 
graphical sketch and letter which I here add, with the trans- 
lation of my friend, Rev. Dr. Howard Crosby, an expert in 
modem as well as ancient Greek.] 

PniLOTHEOS Bryennios, Metropolitan of Nicomedia, born 
in 1833 at Constantinople of very poor parents, was educated 
in his primary learning in the schools of Tataiila. Tataiila or 
Tataula is a suburb of Constantinople, inhabited by ten or 
twelve thousand orthodox Greeks. 

Being poor and lacking the necessary means for an educa- 
tion, he proΛdded these by leading the music and by singing 
in the sacred temple of Saint Demetrius in that quarter, until, 
meeting with preferment and assistance from the then Metro- 
politan of Cyzicus (but afterward Patriarch of Constantinople) 
Joachim, he was admitted into the patriarchal seminary, situ- 
ated not far from Byzantium in the small island of Chalce, and 
now still in a flourishing condition. The seminary is known 
as " The Theological School in Chalce of the Great Church of 
Christ." Here, after the conclusion of his studies, he was or- 
dained deacon, and, having been created " Teacher of the Or- 
thodox Theology" by the said school, he, through the prefer- 
ment again of the Metropolitan of Cyzicus, and at the expense 
of the Greek banker in Constantinople, George Zariphe, was 
sent to Germany at the close of 1856 for a more complete 
training in his studies. He attended chiefly theological and 
philosophical lectures in the Universities of Leipzig, Berlin, 
and Munich. 

In the beginning of 1861 he was summoned to Constanti- 
nople by his superior, Joachim II., who had then lately been 
transferred from the metropolitan see of Cyzicus to the patri- 
archal throne of Constantinople, and was introduced into the 
Theological School of Chalce as Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History, Exegesis, and other studies. In 1863, having been 


ordained a presbyter and having been honored with the hon- 
orary title of "Archimandrite of the oecumenical throne of 
Constantinople," he succeeded, in the mastership and direction 
of the said school, his own teacher, Constantine Ty paid us, who 
resigned the mastership on account of old age. But not long 
afterward, when Joachim 11. was removed from the patriarchal 
throne, he also resigned the mastership, but retained the chair 
of the before-mentioned theological studies. 

In the patriarchate of Gregory VI., he was called to Constan- 
tinople and settled in December of 1867 as master and profes- 
sor of the other great patriarchal school there in the Phanar — 
" The Great School of the Nation," which is the superior Greek 
gymnasium in Constantinople, which was restored shortly after 
the capture of the city under the Patriarch Gennadius Schola- 
rius in the year 1457, and was from that date organized more 
and more perfectly from time to time, and has produced much 
fruit and comfort to the distressed Greek race throughout the 
East. Over this school Bryennios presided seven full years, 
having under him about six hundred youths, \vho by him and 
twelve other professors were taught sacred learning, Greek lit- 
erature-, rhetoric, the elements of philosophy, experimental 
physics, chemistry and natural history, general history, mathe- 
matics, and the Latin, French and Turkish languages. 

In August, 1875, he went a second time to Germany, sent 
by the Holy Synod of Metropolitans and Patriarch, and was 
present at the conference of Old Catholics then being held at 
Bonn, having with him the archimandrite John, professor then 
in the Theological School of Chalce, but now Metropolitan of 
C^sarea in Cappadocia.* In Bonn, where he became acquainted 
with many learned Englishmen and with the leaders of the 
Old Catholics, patriarchal letters brought the news to him that 

[*That remarkable Conference of Old Catholics, Greek and Russian Catho- 
lics, and Anglo-Catholics, was held at Bonn. August 10-16, 1875, under the 
presiding genius and learning of the aged Dr. Dollinger of Munich, to 
adjust, if possible, the Filioque controversy, and agreed on six Theses on the 
eternal procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father alone through the Son, 
in essential harmony with the teaching of St. John of Damascus. See the 
Theses in Schaflf, Creeds of Christendom, τοί. li., 553-554. J 


he liad been chosen Metropolitan of Serrae in Macedonia, and 
ordered liim forthwith to join the assembly in Constantinople. 
So, returning home through Paris and Vienna, and being or- 
dained Metropolitan Bishop of Serrae, he departed for Serrae 
in December, 1875. 

In 1877 he was transferred to the Metropolitan see of Nico- 
media, and continued from October, 1877, to October, 1884, a 
regular member of the patriarchal Synod in Constantinople, 
taking part in its more important questions and affairs. 

In 1880 he went to Bucharest, as Commissioner of the East- 
ern Orthodox Patriarchal and other independent churches, for 
the settlement of the question which had long before arisen 
between the Roumanian Government and the aforesaid churches 
concerning the Greek monasteries that had been plundered 
under the rule of Kouza in Moldavia and Wallachia. And in 
the same yeai he was created Doctor of Theology, by the Na- 
tional University of Greece in Athens, and in 1884 the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh conferred upon him this honorary title. 

Bryennios became known to the West by the publication of 
two remarkable memorials of Christian antiquity : 

(1) " The two Epistles to the Corinthians of our holy father 
Clement, bishop of Rome, from a MS. of the Constantinopolitan 
Phanariot library of the most holy Sepulchre, now first edited 
entire with prolegomena and notes by Philotheos Bryennios, 
Metropolitan of Serrae. Constantinople, 1875." 

(2) " The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, from the Jeru- 
salem MS., now first edited with prolegomena and notes, in 
which is a comparison and unpublished portion from the same 
MS. of the synopsis of the Old Testament by John Chrysos- 
tom, by Philotheos Bryennios, Metropolitan of Mcomedia. 
Constantinople, 1883." 

In 1882 he was instructed by the Holy Synod of Metropoli- 
tans in Constantinople and the Patriarch Joachim III. to answer 
the Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII. concerning Methodius 
and Cyrillus, the Apostles of the Slaves, w^hich also he did by 
writing a series of articles in the theological periodical " Eccle- 
siastical Truth," published in Constantinople. These articles 
were afterwards published with the approbation and at the 


expense of the Holy Synod, and in a separate pan>plilet bearing 
the title, " A Refutation of the Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo 
XITI., by Philotheos Bryennios, Metropolitan of Nicomedia, 
first published in the ' Ecclesiastical Truth,' but now revised 
and with some additions republished with the approbation and 
at the expense of the Holy Synod of the Great Church of 
Christ. Constantinople, 1882." Large octa\^o, pp. 1-174. 

He has also written in different periodicals and in the jour- 
nals of Constantinople many other shorter essays, letters and 
discourses delivered by him at different times. 

There was separately published his " Statement of the Con- 
dition of the Great School of the Nation, 1867-1875, by Phi- 
lotheos Bryennios, Archimandrite and Master of the school. 
Constantinople. ' ' 

There still remains unpublished the MS. of his Ecclesiastical 
History, used continually in many copies by his numerous 

Learned Sir: 

I gladly received your bundle of letters and read all with 
pleasure. In the within you have connectedly what you de- 
sired. Perhaps the items noted are many ; but you can accept 
whatever is worth mention and useful among them, and mark 
out and omit whatever is superfluous and of no use. 

NicoMED. Philotheos. 

Nicomedia Fehy. {%, 1885. 
Rev. Dr. Philip Schaff, New York. 

Φιλο^εοζ Βρνέννιοζ, μιμροπολίτηζ Νπίομηδείαζ, γεννΐ]- 
^ειζ το 1833 εν Κωνσταντινονπολει εκ γονέων πτωχότα- 
των, έζεπαιδεν'^7] την πρωτην εγκυκλιον παίδενΘίν εν 
τοΐζ διδαΟΉαλείοιζ Ταταονλων — s'ffTi δέ τα Ταταονλα η 
Τατανλα προάστειον τήζ Κωνΰταντινοντιολεωζ νπο 10 — 1 ν 
χιΧιάδων ορθοδόξων ελλήνων οίκονμενον. Πτωχός ων 
και των τΐρόζ εκπαίδεναιν αναγκαίων νύ'τερονμενοζ επο- 
ρίζετο ταύτα κανοναρχών και ψάλλων εν τω aυτo^ι 
ιερώ ναώ τον άγιου Α7]μΐ]Τρίον, εωζ ού τνχων τήζ προ- 
στασία? και βοηθείας τον τότε μιμ ροπ ολίτ ον Κνί^ικον, 


vffT^pov dh ηατριαρχον Κωνσταντινονττολεωζ, Ιωακείμ, 
είο'ηχΒη εΐζ το ον μακράν τον Βυζαντίου επϊ τήζ μικράν 
■νήσου Χάλκηζ κείμενον και νυν ετι ακμαΖον πατριαρχι- 
κόν "Σεμινάριον — *' Ή εν Χάλκτ} Β^εολογικη 2χολη τήζ τού 
Χριστού Μεγάλη^ έκκλησίαζ" . Ενταύθα διαπονοζ μετά 
το περαζ των μα^ΐ/ματων εχειροτονη^ΐ], και '^ διδασκαλοζ 
τήζ ορΒοδοξον Βεολογίαζ'' υπό τήζ εΐρημενηζ 'Σχολή3 
αναχορεν3είζ, tPj προστασία jiai αν^ιζ τού μητροποΧίτου 
Κυζίκου, αναλωμασι δε τού εν Κωνσταντινουπολει ελλη- 
νοζ τραπεζίτου Γεωργίου Ζαρίβη είζ Γερμαι^ίαν απεστα- 
Χί] τελευτώντοζ τού 185G πρόζ τελειοτέραν εν τοΐζ μα3//- 
μασι καταρτισιν. Διηκουσε δε Βεολοχικώι^ μάλιστα 7ίαι 
φίΚοσοφικών μαθημάτων εν τοΐζ πανεπιστημίοιζ Αειψίαζ, 
Βερολίνου ηα\ Μονάχου (Munchen). Αρχομένου δε τού 
18G1 προσεκλη^η είζ Κωνσταντινούπολιν ύπο τού προ- 
στάτου αυτού Ιωακείμ τού Β' , αρτίωζ τότε από τήζ μητρο- 
πόλεωζ Κυζίκου είζ τον πατριαρχικόν S^povov Κωνσταν- 
τινουπόλεωζ μετατεΒεντοζ, και είζ την εν Χαλκγ^ Βεολο- 
γικήν "Σχολήν εισάγεται ώζ κα^ηγιμηζ τήζ εκκλησιατπίήζ 
ίστορίαζ, τήζ έξηγητικήζ κα\ άλλων μαθημάτων. Τό 18G3 
χειροτονηΒειζ πρεσβύτεροζ και τω τιμητικω τίτλω τού 
αρχιμανδρϊτου τού οικουμενικού Βρονου Κωνσταντινου- 
πόλεωζ τιμτβείζ, διαδέχεται εν ttj σχολαρχία και διευΒυν- 
σει τήζ ρ7]Βείσΐ]ζ Σχολήζ τον εαυτού διδασίίαλον Κων- 
σταντΊνον τον Τυπάλδον παραιτησαμενον την σχολαρχίαν 
γήρωζ ένεκεν. Αλλά μετ^ ου πολύ εκβλη'ί^εντοζ τού πα- 
τριαρχικού Βρόνου Ιωακείμ τού Β, παρητησατο και 
αυτόζ Tijv σχολαρχίαν, ου μην δε κα\ την εδραν των είρη- 
μενων θεολογικών μαθημάτων. Επϊ πατριάρχου Τρη- 
γορίου τού στ προσκλ?γΒεϊζ είζ Κωνσταντινούπολιν κατεσ- 
τάλη κατά τον Δεκεμβριον τού 18G7 σχολαρχηζ και καθη- 
γητήζ τήζ αυτόθι εν Φαναρίω εύρισκομενηζ έτέραζ μεγάληζ 
πάτρια ρχικήζ Έχολήζ- — ''Μεγάλη τού Γένουζ Σχολή^^ — , 
ητιζ έστϊ τό τελειοτερον εν Κωνσταντινουπολει ελληνικόν 
γυμνασιον, ανακαινισθεισα μικρόν μετά την άλωσιν έπι 
πατριάρχου Γενναδίου τού Έχολαρίου εν ε'τει 1457; και 
εκ τότε έπι τό τελειοτερον εκάστοτε συγ^ιροτουμενη και 
πολλά τώ ταλαιπωρώ των ελλήνων εθνει κατά την Ανα- 
τολήν καρποφορούσα κα\ παραμυθού μένη. Τήζ 'Σχολήζ 
ταϋτηζ προίστη 6 Βρνέννιοζ επτά ολα ετη, έχων ύπ^ αυτφ 


nepi τονζ 600 νεονζ διδασκομένουζ νπ'' αυτού τε jiai ετέ- 
ρων 12 ηα^ηγ7]τών τα ιερά μα^7]ματα, τα έλληνηιά, την 
ρητορικην^ στοιχεία φιλούοψίαζ, ηειραματιηης φυσικής, 
χ7]μείας και φυσικής ιστορίας, γενικην ίστορίαν, μαθηματι- 
κά και τάς γλωσσάς λατινικην, χαλλικΐ^ν και τουρκικ?}ν. 

Κατά τον Λνγουστον τού 1875 ανέβη το δεύτερον εις 
Γερμανιαν αποσταλείς ύτΐο τής εν Κωνσταντιν-ουπόλει περί 
τον 7ΐατριαρχ7]ν ιεράς Έυνοδον των μητροπολιτών, και 
παρέστη τη τηνικαύτα εν Bovrj γενομένη Conference τών 
Πάλαι οκαΒ ολικών, έχων με^ εαυτού τον αρχιμανδρίτην 
Ιωαννην, καθηγ7]τ7)ν τότε τής θεολογικής Σχολής τής 
Χάλκης, νύν δε μητροπολίτην Καισαρείας Καππαδοκίας. 
Εν Bovrj, ένθα γνώριμος έγενετο πολλοίς τών λογίων 
άγγλων και τοις ήγουμένοις τών Παλαιοκαθ ολικών, 
γράμματα πατριαρχικά την αγγελίαν έκόμισαν αύτώ οτι 
μητροπολίτης εξελέγη Σερρών [εν Μακεδονία) και παρε- 
κελευοντο ανυπερθέτως άψασθαι τής εις Κωνσταντινου- 
πολιν αγ ούσης• όθεν και διά Παρισίων και Βιέννης εις τά 
ίδια επανακαμψας και επίσκοπος μιμροπολίτης Έερρών 
χειροτονηθείς, εις Έέρρας απηρεν τον Δεκεμβρ. τού 187δ. 

Το 1877 μετετέθη εις την μητρόπολιν Νικομήδειας και 
διετέλεσεν απο τού Οκτωβρίου τού 1877 — τού Οκτωβρίου 
τού 1884 μέλος τακτικον τής εν Κωνσταντινουπολει πα- 
τριαρχικής 2υνοδου, μετάσχων τών σπουδαιότερων Β,ητ?]- 
ματων και υποθέσεων αυτής. Το 1880 ήλθεν είς Βουκο- 
ρέστιον ώς επίτροπος τών εν Ανατολή ορθοδόξων πατρι- 
αρχικών και λοιπών αυτοκέφαλων εκκλησιών προς διευ- 
θέτησιν τού μεταξύ τής ρουμουνζκής Κυβερνήσεως και τών 
είρημένων εκκλησιών προ πολλού αναφυέντος 8,ητΐ}ματος 
περί τών έπϊ ι^γεμονος Κοΰζα κατά την Μολδαβίαν και 
Βλαχίαν διαρπαγέντων ελληνικών μοναστηριών. Κατά 
το αυτό δε έτος ανηγορευθη υπό τού εν Αθήναις εθνπίού 
τής Ελλάδος πανεπιστημίου διδάκτωρ τής θεολογίας, το δε 
1884 απένειμεν αυτώ τιμητικώς τόν τίτλον τούτον και το 
εν Εδιμβούργω πανεπιστήμιον. 

Ό Βρυέννιος έγένετο γνωστός τη Δνσει διά τής εκδόσεως 
δυο αζιολογωτατων μν7]μείων τής χριστιανικής αρχαι- 
ότητος, άπερ είσϊ 1) " Τού εν άγίοις πατρός ΐ}μών Κλ?}μεν- 
τος έπισίίοπ ου βρώμης α{ δύο προς Κορινθίους επιστολαϊ, 
εκ χειρογράφου τής εν Φαναρίω Κωνσταντινουπόλεως 


βιβλιο^ηηηζ τον παναγίου Τάφου, νυν πρώτον εκδιδόμε- 
ναι πληρειζ μετά προλεγομένων και σημειωσεοον νπο Φιλο- 
Βεου Βρυεννίου μητροπολίτου "Σερρών. Εν Κωνσταντι- 
νουπολει IS^o." 2) " ζΐιδαχη των δαόδε^ία αποστόλων εκ 
του ιερού ολυμιτικοΰ χειρογράφου νϋν πρώτον εκδιδομένη 
μετά προλεγομένων και σημειώσεων, εν oh και τήζ Συν- 
οψεωζ τηζ Π. Δ., τήί υπό Ιωάννου του Χρυσοστόμου, συγ- 
κρίσιζ καϊ μέροζ ανεκδοτον απο του αυτού χειρογράφου, 
υπό ΦιλοΒεον Βρυεννίου μ7]τροπολίτου Νΐ7ίομηδείαζ. Έν 
Κωνσταντινουπόλει 1883." — Το 1882 ανετέΒη αντω υπό 
τήζ εν Κωνσταντινουπόλει ιεράί Συνοδού τών μι^τροπολι- 
τών και του τότε πατριάρχου Ιωακείμ τού Γ απαντήσαι 
πρυζ την εγκΰκΧιον τού πάπα Αεοντοζ τού ΙΓ' περί Με'Βο- 
δίου και Κυρίλλου των αποστολών των Σλαύων, ό και 
€ποίτ-/σε γραψαζ σειράν άρθρων εν τω εν Κωνσταντινου- 
πόλει εκδιδοριενω Βεολογιηω περιοδικω συγγραμματι 
'^ Εκκλησιαστική Αλιβεια.'''' Τα άρΒρα ταύτα εζεδοΒη- 
σαν ύστερον εγκρίσει και δαπανγ] τήζ ιεράζ Συνοδού και 
εν ιδί€ύ φυλλαδίω φεροντι επιγραφην '^Παπα Αεοντοζ ΙΓ 
εγκυκλίου επιστολήζ ελεγχοζ υπό ΦιλοΒεον Βρυεννίου 
μητοοπολίτοη Νπίομηδείαζ, δ?μιοσιεν3ειζ το πρώτον εν τ ή 
'^ Εκκλ. Αλ?]Βεία,^' νύν δε αναΒεωρ7]Βεϊζ καϊ εν μέρει 
διασκευασΒειζ υπ'' αυτού εκδίδοται αύΒιζ εγκρίσει jiai 
δαπανι^ τήζ ιεράζ Συνοδού τήζ τού Χριστού Μεγαληζ 
εκκλησίαζ. Εν Κωνσταντινουπόλει 1882." είζ μεγ. όγ- 
δοον σελ. 1-174. 

Ό αυτοζ εγραψεν εν διαφοροιζ περιοδικοιζ Jiai εν εφη- 
μερίσι τήζ Κωνσταντινουπόλεωζ και πολλάζ άλλαζ βρα- 
χυτέραζ διατριβάζ, επιστολάζ jiai λόγουζ εκφωνηΒένταζ 
νπ^ αυτού κατά διαφορουζ καιρουζ. Ιδία εζεδοΒησαν αϊ 
τούτου " εκΒέσειζ περί τήζ καταστάαεωζ τήζ Μεγάληζ τού 
Γένουζ Σχολήζ 1867-1875, υπό ΦιλοΒέου Βρυεννίου (^ρχι- 
μανδρίτου καϊ σχολάρχου. Εν Κωνσταντινουπόλει.^' 
Ανεκδοτον μένει εισέτι το χειρογραφον τήζ εκ>ίλησιαστι- 
κήζ αυτού ίστορίαζ, φερομενον καϊ νύν ετι εν χερσϊ των 
πολυαρίθμων αυτού μαθητών εν πολλοίζ αντιγραφοιζ. — 


^/λ Λ< At- #t. '>''«/ V τον G«t A<^ Λ^σν M^o/ "Ujy 


( if -» » %'x V . 



The Index goes down to p. 157, and does not include the Greek words, which are arranged 
alphabetically in Chapter XXIV. Neither the Commentary on the Did., nor the Documents 
are indexed. 

Addis, W. E., on editions of Did. , 147. 

Advent of Christ, 75 sqq. 

Afifusion, Baptism by, 33, 41 sqq. ; 

gradual substitute for iinmersion, 

Agape, 57 sqq. 
Alexandria, as place of composition 

of Did. 123. 
Almsgiving, 63 sq. 
Anabaptists, 53. 
Anthropology of the Did. , 25. 
Antichrist, 75 sqq. 
Antioch, as place of DitZ.'s composi- 
tion, 124. 
Apocrypha quoted in Did., 81. 
Apostles, 64 sq., 67 sq. 
Apostolic Preaching, a lost treatise, 

Apostolic Sees, 66. 
Apostolical Church Order, 12, 18, 19, 

21, 127 sqq., and Docs. V. and VI. 
Apostolical Canons. See above. 
Apostolical Constitutions, 21, and 

Doc. Vn. 
Aquinas, Thomas, on Baptism, 44. 
Arrangement of matter, 16. 
Aspersion, Bajitism by, 33, 41 sqq. 
Athanasius, 116. 
Augsburg Confession, on Baptism, 

53, note. 

Bapheides on Baptism, 42 ; review of 
Bryennios' ed. of Did., 142 ; prob- 
able date of Did , 142. 

Baptism, in the Didache, 25, 29 sqq. ; 
formula of, 30; Infant, 31; not a 
clerical function, 35 ; in the Cata- 
combs, 36 sqq. ; in the Baptis- 
mal pictures, 37-40; in the Greek 
Church, 42 ; Syrian mode of, 43 : in 
the Latin Church, 45; in the Angli- 
can church, 45 sqq. ; after the Refor- 
mation, 51 sqq. ; summary of results 
of historical sketch of, 54 sqq. ; how 
the controversy may be settled, 57. 
See Immersion and Afifusion. 

Baptist view, arguments for, 56. 

Barnabas, Epistle of, 3, 12 ; date of, 
121 sq. 

Barnabas and Didache compared, 19, 
20, 21 ; on the canon, 78. See Doc. 

Berggren, J. E., on Did., 154. 

Bestmann, H. J., on Did., 123, 127, 

Bibliography, 140 sqq. 

Bickell, Georg, on Did., 129, 143. 

Bickell, J. W., 11; on Apostolical 
Church Order, 128 sq. 

Bielenstein, Α., on Did., 143. 

Bingham, Joseph, on mode of bap- 
tism, 46. 

Bishops, 64 sqq., 73 sqq.; word ex- 
plained, 74. 

Boase, notice of Did., VA. 

Bonaventura, on Baptism, 44. 

Bonet- Maury, G.,63, l.'O, 123, 153. 

Bonwetsch, 11, 143. 

Brown, Francis, 12; on the quota- 
tions, 88, 91; ed of Did. with Dr. 
Hitchcock, 114, 121, 123, 151. 

Bryennios, Philotheos, dedication to, 
III. ; edition of the Clementine 
Epistles, 2, 4; his discovery of the 
Jerusalem MS., 8; biographical 
sketch of, 8, 9 ; on Baptism, 33 ; his 
edition of the Did., 114, 110, 118, 
121, 141 sq. ; on date of Did., 122; 
autobiographical sketch and letter, 
at the end. 

" Bryennios Manuscript," three re- 
produced pages of, 151. 

Calvin on Baptism, 52. 

Camp, C. C, trans, of Did., 151. 

Canon, N. T., and Did., 78- 

Canons, Apostolical or Ecclesiastical. 
See Apostolical Church Order. 

Caspari, C. P., 120, 122, 154 

Cassel, Paul, notice of Did., 143. 

Catacombs, Pictures of Baptism, il- 
lustrating the Didache, 36 sqq. 



Chiliasmof theDii?., 77. 
Christ, baptism of, 36, 37, 38. 
Christians, solidarity and hospitality 

of primitive, 63, 64. 
Christology, of the Didaclie, 25. 
Chrysostom, 3. 

Church, prayers for, meaning of, 35. 
Church government in Bid.. 62 sqq. 
Chui'ton, 125. 

Citations from the Scriptures, 80 sqq. 
Clement of Alexandria, 114, 121. 
Clement, Pseudo-, 24. 
Clement of Rome, Epistles of, 3, 67, 

Clinical Baptism, 33. 
Codex, Jerusalem. See Jenisalem 

Commandments and the Did., the 

Ten, 81. 
Constantine the Great, 32. 
Constitutions, Apostolic, 12, 133 

sqq. ; seventh book of. Doc. VII. 
Cote, 36. 38, 40. 
Coxe, II. O., 8. 
Craven, E. II., 151, comments on 

Did., 153. 
Credner, 118. 
Cup, at Eucharist, 57. 
Cyprian, on clinical baptism, 33 sq. ; 

on church orders, 66. 
Cyprian, Pseudo-, 117. 

David, holy vine of, 115 {see Com. on 
IX. 2^. 

Deaconesses, 73. 

Deacons, 64 sqq, 73 sqq. 

De Aleatoi-ibus of Pseudo-Cyprian, 

De Romestin, H., 11, 17, 121, 123, 

De Rossi, on Catacomb pictures, 36, 
39, 40. 

Dexter, H. M., quoted, 53. 

Didache (.see Table of Contents at be- 
ginning!, fac-similes of, 4, 6, 7 ; 
publication of, 10-12 ; contradict- 
ory estimates of, 12-14; title of, 14, 
contents of, 16 ; doctrinal outline. 
17 ; its relation to Epistle of Bar- 
nabas, 19, 20 ; to Shepherd of 
Hermas, 21 ; to the Apostolical 
Church Order, 21 ; to the Apostoli- 
cal Constitutions. 21 ; its theology, 
22 ; represents Christianity as a 
holy life, 22; draws from the Bible, 
22 ; yet infinitely below it in tone, 
22, 23; its doctrinal omissions 
mean little, 33 ; its teachings or- 
thodox, 23; not Ebionitic, 33; chief 

doctrinal points, 34 ; liturgical 
part, 36 ; the Christian week, 37 
sq. ; prescribes the Lord's Prayer, 
and fasts, 29; baptismal teaching, 
29 sqq., 120: Eucharistic teachings, 
5Γ sqq ; 121; no separation between 
Agape and Eucharist, f ; on form 
of government and gospel minis- 
ters, 6:5 sqq., 120; and the Canon, 
78 sqq; style and vocabulary, 95 
sqq.; authenticity of, 114 sqq.; 
passed into other books and out of 
sight, 118 ; date, 119 sqq.; place, 
123 sqq; authorship, 125. 

Doctrina Apostolorum, 118. 

Doctrines in Teaching, 22 sqq. 

Dufe Vife, 18 sqq. 

Duchesne, L., notice of Did., 153. 

Ebionitic origin of Did., discussed, 
23, 26, 120. 

Edward VI. immersed, 51. 

Elders, 64 s(jq. 

Elizabeth, Queen, immersed, 51. 

Erasmus, quoted, 51. 

Eschatology, 75 sqq. 121. 

Eucharist, 25, 57 sqq.; prayers in 
Did. , 57, 5^ ; embraced primitively 
the Agape and the Communion 
proper, 58; no allusion to atone- 
ment in Did.^s prayers, 61. 

Eusebius mentions Did., 116. 

Evangelists, 64. 

Exorcism, 35. 

Farrar, P. W. 11, 121, 123, 147. 
Fasting, before Baptism, 34, 35, ; on 

Wednesdays and Fridays, 25, 29. 
Fitzgerald, J., trans, of Did., 151. 
Friday, fasting enjoined on, 25, 28. 
Friedijerg, E., art. on Did., 144. 
Funk, F. X., 3, 4, 5, 11, 121, 123, 

143 sq. 

Gardiner, F. trans, of Did., 151. 
Garrucci, on Catacomb pictures, 36, 

37, 39, 40; on immersion, 44. 
Gebhardt, 0. von, 4, 11; designation 

of MS. 3 ; discovers Latin fragment 

of Did. 119. See Doc. II. 
Glossolalia not m Did., 61, 120. 
Gnosticism not aUuded to in Did., 

God, 24; Ms proA'idence, 25. 
Gordon, Alexander, art. on Did., 148. 
Gospel ace. to the Egyptians, 23 ; 86. 
Gospel aec. to the Hebrews, 86. 
Gospels in Did., 81 sqq. 
Government, ecclesiastical, in Did ,62. 



Grabe, 117. 

Gregory I. on immersion, 44. 

Gregory, Caspar Rene, 10. 

Hale , C. R. . photographs of Did. , 1 51 . 

Hail, E. Edwin, art. on Did., 151. 

Hall, I. H., phraseology of Did., 95 ; 
trans. oiDid., 151 ; phraseology of, 

Harnack, Α., 10, 16, 17, 117, 119, 
128 ; date of Did., 133 ; designa- 
tion of MS., 3, 4 ; on ancient mode 
of Baptism, 49 sqq. ; ecclesiastical 
organization, 63; views on Gospels 
in Did., 86; on the quotations, 
86, 89 ; on authenticity, 114; puts 
Barnabas before Did., 121 ; edi- 
tion of Did., 144. 

Harris, J. R, 116; place of Did.; 
ed. of three pages of MS., 151 ; 
source and value of Did., 153. 

Hatch, Edwin, 11. 

Helveg. Fr., trans, of Did., 155. 

Hernias, Shepherd of, 12, Doc. IV. ; 
parallels with Did., 21 ; relation 
to Did., 122 ; and the Canon, 79. 

Hicks, Ε L., arts, on Did., lil, 149. 

Hilgenfeld, Α., 3, 11, 17, 18, 117 ; 
date of Did., 120, 123 ; designation 
of MS. , 3 ; Montanism in Did. , 72, 
120; Did. after Barnabas, 121 ; Ed. 
of Did., 144. 

Hitchcock, R. D., 12, 121, 123, 151. 

Holtzmann. 11, 16, 17, 128 ; on Did., 
121, 145. 

Holy Spirit, 25. 

Hort, on Herraas, 122. 

Hospitality, 63. 

Ignatius, Epistles (so called), 5, 66, 
122 ; and the Canon, 79. 

Immersion, in living water, 30, 32 ; 
exceptions to the rule, 33 ; in the 
Catacombs and in the ancient 
church, 36 sqq. ; and pouring, his- 
torical sketch of, 41 sqq. ; not gen- 
eral among early Baptists, 53 See 
Baptism and Aspersion. 

Infant Baptism, 31. 

Irenieus, 06, 115, 116, 121. 

James alluded to, 93. 

Jerome, 87, 117. 

Jerusalem as place oiDid.'s composi- 
tion. 124, 

Jerusalem Monastery, 1, library of, 

Jerusalem MS., appearance and con- 
tents, 2 sqq. ; number, 3. 

John, Gospel of, and Did., 91 sq. 

Joseph and Mary, genealogy of, in 
Jei-usalem MS. , 6, 7. 

Judgment, day of, 25. 

Judicium secundum Petrura (or Pe- 
tri), 12, 18, 117. /Sei also Duae Viaj. 

Justin Martyr, 121 ; description of 
Baptism, 30 ; on fasting, 35 ; on 
the right to baptize, 35 ; and the 
Canon, 79. 

Krawutzckv, 11, 23 sq.,86, 89, 115, 

116, 117, 121, 123, 128, 145. 
Kraus, on the Catacombs, 36. 

Lagarde, 115, 129. 

Langen on Did. 121, 123, 145. 

Language of Did., 95 sqq. 

Lay-Baptism, 35 note %. 

Leon, the copyist of the Jerusalem 

MS., 5. 
Lightfoot J. B., 3, 4, 9, 11, 120, 121, 

123 ; outline of opinions, 149. 
Lincoln, Heman, notice of Did., 152. 
Lipsius, 86, 89; on Did., 121, 146. 
Literature, 140 sqq. 
Long, J. C, art, on Did., 152. 
Lord's day, 25, 27, 28 ; Prayer, 25, 29. 
Lord's supper. See Eucharist. 
Lueian, 64, 69, 71. 
Luke, Gospel of, quoted, 88. 
Luthardt, prints Greek text of Did., 


Malaehi quoted, 80. 

Marriott on mode of Baptism, 48. 

Mary of Cassoboli, spurious epistle of, 

4; spurious letter of Ignatius to, 5. 
Massebieau, 16, 121, 123^, 153. 
Mathieau, S. art. on Did., 154. 
Matthew, G-ospel of, quoted, 82. 
Melk, library of, 119. 
Menegoz, E., arts, on Did., 154. 
Millennium, calculations relating to 

fallacious, 76; view of Did., 77. 
Montfaugon, 3. 

Montanism, not in Did., 72, 120. 
Most Holy Sepulchre, Monastery of, 1. 
Muralt, E. de, art. on Did., 154. 

Napier, John T., trans, of Did., 151. 
Neale, John Mason, on Baptism, 42. 
Neander, on ancient mode of Bap- 
tism, 49. 
New Testament in Did., 78 sqq. 
Nicephorus mentions Did., 118. 
Nirschl, Josef, rev. Bryennios, 146. 
Northcote and Brownlow, 36. 
Novatianus, baptized by aspersion, 34. 



Old Testament in Bid. , 78 sqq. 

Origen. 116. 

Orns, S. S. text and transl., 152. 

Papias and the Canon, 79. 

Parker, J. H., 36. 

Passover, Jewish, described, 58 sq., 

contrasted with the Christian 

Agape, 59. 
Pastor Hermae. See Hermas. 
Pastoral Epistles, 65. 
Paul alluded to, 93 sq. 
Paulssen, A. S., trans, of Bid., 155. 
Peter Lombard on Baptism, 41. 
Peter, St., alluded to, 93, 95. 
Peterseii, trans, of Bid., 146. 
Pez, Bernhard, 119. 
Pfaif, fragm. f rom Irenseus, 117. 
Phanar, 1. 
Phraseology of Bid., by I. H. Hall, 

Pitra, J. B., 129. 
Place of compo.sition of Bid , 123. 
Plummer, Α., 11, 89, 149. 
Polycarp, 72, 79. 
Potwin, L. S. , vocabulary of Bid., 95; 

on age, 121, 123, 152. 
Pouring, in Baptism. See Affusion. 
Prayer and Fasting, 29 sqq. 
Prayer-Book on Baptism, 51 sq. 
Presbyter, 64 sqq. ; name explained, 

Prins, J. J., ed. of Bid., 155. 
Procter quoted, 52. 
Prophets, 64, 69 ; the ancient, 70 sq. ; 

false, 69. 
Pseudo-Cyprian, 117. 
Pseudo-Ignatian Epistles, 5. 

Quotations, Scripture, ancj allusions 
in the Bid., 94 sq. 

Ravenna, Council of, on mode of Bap- 
tism, 45. 

Reville, Jean, art. on Bid., 154. 

Robertson, Α., 11, 149. 

Roller, on the Catacombs, 36 : Bap- 
tismal pictures, 37 ; on mode of 
Baptism, 39, 40. 

Roma Sotteranea, by De Rossi, North- 
cote and Brownlow, and Kraus, 36. 

Rordam, T. , art. on Bid., 155. 

Rutinus mentions Duae Vitae, 18, 

Sabatier, Paul, ed. of Bid,, 154. 
Sabbath, 27. 

Sacrifice, the Christian See Euchar- 

Sadler, 123, 125. 

Salmon, 122. 

Schaif, P., ed. of Bid,, 152. 

Schultze, Victor, on Catacombs, 36, 

Scotch Confession, Second, on Bap- 
tism, 53. 
Second coming of Christ, 75 sqq. 
Second Ordinances of the Apostles, 

Septuagint, words common to Bid. 

and, 105 sqq. 
Shepherd of Hermas, 21. 
Sirach quoted, 94. 
Smyth, Egbert C, 12, 152: on the 

Bidache and Baptismal pictures, 

Spence, Canon, 11, 121, 123, 127, 

Spirit, Holy, 25. 
Stanley, Dean, on mode of Baptism, 

47 sq. 
Starbuck, C. C, 12, 152. 
Sunday, 27. 

Svmeon of Jerusalem, conjectured as 
"author of Bid., 127. 

Taylor, C, lectures on Bid., 149. 

Teachers, 64 sqq., 72 sq. 

Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. 
See Didache. 

Tertullian, on Infant Baptism, on 
mode of Baptism, 32, 33 ; on fast- 
ing, 35 ; on the right to baptize, 
35 ; on church order, 66. 

Thanksgiving, 56 sqq. See Eucharist. 

Theology of Bid., 22 sqq. 

Ύιίλαοί Bid , 15. 

Tobit quoted, 94. 

Trinity, 25. 

Two Ways, 18; figure used in Tal- 
mud, 21, and in Xenophon, 21, 
22; Rufinuson, 18. 

Y. [enables], Ε [dmund', 125, 150. 
Varming, C. , trans, of Bid., 155. 
Vocabulary of Bid., 59 sqq. 

Waldenses and the Bid., 119. 

Wall, William, on mode of baptism, 

45. 51. 
Warfield, B. B., 121. See essay on 

Doc. II. 
Watchfulness, 75. 
Wav of darkness, 19. 
Way of death, 2.6. 
Way of life, 26. 
Way of light, 19. 
Week, days of, 127. 



Wednesday, fasting on, 25, 28. 
Westminster Assembly, on Baptism, 

Words not in New Testament, 99 sqq. 
AVordsworth, J., 11, 89, 123, 150. 
World-deceiver, 76. 
Worship, freedom of , in Ό id. 61. 
Wiinsche, Α., text and trans., 11, 146. 

Zahn, Th., 11, 16; Barnabas, integ- 
rity of, later than Did., 121; Her- 
mas, date of, 122; date of, 123; ed. 
οι Bid., 114, 117, 146. 

Zechai-iah quoted, 81. 

Zockler, 0., arts, on Did., 147. 

Zwingli on infant and heathen 
adult salvation, 53. 


C A/