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Full text of "Old manors in the colony of Maryland : first-second series"

OLD MANORS IN THE 

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BUSHWOOD.ON THE WICOMICO. 

A PART OF 

ST. CLEMENT »S MANOR 



Through the Courtesy of 
Mrs .Edmund Plowden Jenkins 



OLD MANORS ^ 



IN THE 



COLONY OF MARYLAND 



BY 



ANNIE LEAKIN SIOUSSAT 



FIRST SERIES 



ON THE POTOMAC 



Copyright, 1911 

BY 

Annie Leakin Sioussat 



Z^t £ot& (S»afttmore (pune 

DAI;TIMORE, MD., U. 8. A. 



51085 



13557Sf 



To 

Dr. William Hand Browne, 

Emeritus Professor in the Johns Hopkins University, 

whose fine work as editor of the Maryland Archives has made 

historic research a pleasure to the student. 




GEORGE CALVERT , KNIGHT^ 
BARON BALTIMORE 
OP BALTIMORE IN IRELAND. 



FOREWORD 

It has been thought well to put into booklet shape an illustrated 
lecture on the Early Manors of Maryland. This little sketch was 
given for the first time about seven years ago, in a course connected 
with " Field Days in History," carried on at the Woman's College 
(now Goucher) through the patriotic energies of Dr. and Mrs. 
Bibbins; while at the Jamestown Exposition color-photographs of the 
manors formed part of the fine exhibit made by Mrs. William Reed for 
the Maryland Society of the Colonial Dames of America. It was last 
given in May, a year ago, under the auspices of the Maryland Society 
of the Colonial Dames of America, with the kind co-operation of Mrs. 
William H. Whitridge and Mrs. Charles Ellet Rieman, to assist 
toward equipping a room in the Hospital for the Women of Maryland, 
as a memorial to Margaret Brent — one of the foremost women in the 
early colony. To this memorial it has been a sincere pleasure to con- 
tribute in ever so slight a degree by these views, which have aliEorded 
many happy da^'s in the making, have been the occasion of many friend- 
ships in the dear Southern Maryland region, where so much hospitality 
has been shown, and, it is hoped, may fulfil yet another mission in 
familiarizing the women of Maryland with their birthright and heri- 
tage. 

Annie Leakin Sioussat, 
Chairman of Committee on Historic Research, 

Maryland Society of the Colonial Dames of America. 



These sketches are to appear in three series, which may be bound 
together if desired. 

The Manors on the Potomac and its Tributaries. 
The Manors on the Patuxent and its Tributaries. 
The Manors on the Patapsco and its Tributaries. 







CECILIUS CALVERT 
2nd LORD BALTIMORE 




ANNE ARUNDELL, 
WIPE OP CECILIUS CALVERT, 
AND OF THE NOBLE PAMILY 
OP ARUNDELLS OP WARDOUR. 



Photograph 
presented to the author 
by the Dowager Lady Arundel ]J 



OLD MANORS IN THE COLONY OF MARYLAND 
First Series 

ON THE POTOMAC 

In the family of Sir George Calvert, Knight, created by James 1. 
Baron Baltimore, of Baltimore in Ireland, and in the group of friends 
and relations intimately associated with him and with his son, appear 
the dramatis personcB of early Maryland, the individuals who link the 
history of the colony to that of the England which was its mother. 
Similarly, in the manors of Maryland, the princely grants of land 
which these relatives and friends of the Lord Proprietary received at 
his hand, we find the reappearance of one of the oldest of English 
social institutions. To tell something of the distribution, the situation 
and the history of these Maryland manors, and something of the lives 
of their owners, will be the purpose of these brief sketches, as we pass 
from the bustle of these modern days back to the simpler and more 
romantic years of the Stuarts and the Baltimores. 

The negotiations by which Sir George Calvert sought his charter 
were well-nigh concluded before his death ; but the document, through 
some mysterious caution on the part of Mr. Attorney-General Noyes, 
failed to pass the Great Seal until after his demise. Cecilius, his son 
and heir, inherited not merely the grant, but the good-will of King 
Charles I., with the name of the new region, Mary-Land, chosen by 
the King in honor of the fair young Queen, Henrietta Maria, who 
was so soon to come upon troublous times. 

Hardly less grievous than their Queen's were the experiences of some 
of the women of the colony in its very early days. Of that unknown 
one of whom one of the Jesuit Fathers wrote, we have this testimonial : 
" A noble matron also has died, who, coming with the first settlers 




12 



OLD WARDOUR CASTLE, 
defended by 
LADY BLANCHE ARUNDELL 
against the Parliamentarians 
in 1643. I 



into the colony, with more than woman's courage, bore all difficulties 
and inconveniences. She was given to much prayer, and most anxious 
for the salvation of her neighbors ... a perfect example of right 
management as well in herself as in her domestic concerns . . . she 
was fond of our society while living, and a benefactor of it when dying 
... of blessed memory with all, for her notable examples, especially 
of charity to the sick, as well as of other virtues." 

That provision for settlement of the land had long loomed large 
in the mind of the Statesman Baron, is shown in the fact that, as early 
as his visit to Virginia, 1629-30 (where, although he had been among 
the first in the Virginia companies and a member of their Council, 
he could not be allowed to remain, by reason of his late change of 
faith to that of the Church of Rome), he had, with one of the Arun- 
dells, made application to the Attorney-General for a grant of land 
south of the James River, within the " boundries of Carolana, to be 
peopled and planted by them with permission to erect Courts." 

Whether the Arundell in question was Thomas, Baron of Wardour, 
Count of the Holy Roman Empire, or Thomas, Earl of Norfolk, 
cannot here be settled; either would have represented the Roman 
Catholic gentry, who were then looking for a country where they 
might enjoy the full freedom which Englishmen had always held 
as their ideal. Lord Arundell of Wardour had lately given his daugh- 
ter, our gentle Lady Anne, to be the bride of Cecilius, son and heir 
of Lord Baltimore, and the beautiful old Castle of Wardour sheltered 
him for many days, when by reason of his very great outlays he 
would otherwise have " lacked dyett " for himself, his retinue and his 
family. Wardour Castle was indeed the cradle of the Maryland 
Colony. Within its halls were many of the conferences held with 
Father Blount and others who were vitally interested in the condition 
of England of that day. Always a center of Catholicism and a shelter 
for those who had to seek homes elsewhere, it had given to the Church 
a home for learning, protection for the religious, preservation to the 
records, and its Maryland children rise up to-day and call it blessed. 
The death of Lord Arundell of Wardour occurred so near these nego- 

13 



tiations that the records are not clear. When them was associated 
Father Blount, Provincial of the English Society of Jesus, who rep- 
resented the families of Norfolk, Howard and Warwick. 

Lord Baltimore, with his chaplains, had made careful exploration 
of the country north of the James and on both sides of the Chesapeake, 
where they reported to the Provincial, " the land was pleasant to look 
upon, and fitted to be the homes of a happy people," a prophecy well 
fulfilled, as we can testify in our day and generation, in this, our fair 
land. 

In the two years which elapsed from the draughting of the charter 
to the date of the pilgrimage to Maryland, my Lord Baltimore had 
made his longer journey, leaving his son and heir, Cecil (so baptized, 
but confirmed as Cecilius), to take up the burden and to perfect the 
preparation for the life over seas. 

It was to a young man of twenty-six years that this heritage came — 
this superb grant of from ten to twelve millions of acres, exclusive of 
the waterways; and the notable document drawn by the father, by 
which such unusual privileges were secured to the colony, was left to 
the interpretation of the son, who, luckily for us, had even wider and 
broader outlook for the future than those who preceded him. 

It was a day when the old men dreamed dreams and the young men 
saw visions, and in the new world toward which men turned such 
eager, wistful faces, the institutions of old England were to be trans- 
planted. The Proprietary had the charter right of re-establishing in 
America the feudal system, which had been gradually broken up in 
England, and by an unusual assertion of the royal prerogative on the 
part of Charles I., Baltimore was granted the right to erect manors 
and manorial courts in Maryland, a right which the statute " Quia 
Emptores " prevented the nobles from enjoying in the old country. 
" This great land-law, marking an epoch in the constitutional history 
of England, enacted in 1290, was virtually set aside by Charles I., 
after an interval of three and a half centuries, and the privilege denied 
the great feudal barons of England was bestowed in all its fulness 
upon the young Irish peer." 

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15 



The dream of the older men, set forth in the application to the 
Attorney General for a grant south of the James, " upon which courts 
might be erected," was thus fulfilled, while the visions of the young 
men in this age of adventure were to be realized in the grants of land, 
which would aid them to carve out their fortunes from the virgin 
forests of the new colony and would also carry with them dignity and 
power, to the owners and heads of these small principalities. 

The land system instituted by Lord Baltimore, we are told by 
Wilhelm, tended to reproduce, in Maryland, not the England of the 
Stuarts, but the England of the time of King John and the Great 
Charter; but curiously enough, the Province made as rapid strides 
in a decade as England had made in a century. He traces, too, an 
analogjs very interesting, between the Proprietary, the lords of 
manors, and the freeholders, on the one hand, and the King, the 
Barons and the gentry on the other. The Indians, slaves, and re- 
demptioners may be compared to the villeins and serfs, and the free- 
men of the counties and " St. Marie's Citie " to the free inhabitants of 
the cities and free boroughs. The geographical subdivision of the land 
into counties, hundreds and manors, and subsequently into parishes 
and towns — nay, even into cities with their charters — bore a striking 
resemblance to similar institutions in England, Nor would it be 
difficult to trace a resemblance between the colonial Assembly of 
Maryland, composed of one house and limited almost entirely to land- 
holders, and the imperfect Parliaments of King John and his son 
Henry HI. The exemption of the inhabitants of the Province 
from imperial taxation and from the judicial administration of Eng- 
land also tended to make the institutional and constitutional history of 
Maryland develop in a direction parallel with that of England. 

The English manor-house of the feudal period (and indeed of to-day) 
is a very simple form of dwelling, and has not the sumptuous elegance 
either of castle or of hall. Nathaniel Hone, in The Manor and 
Manorial Records, says : " A quadrangle with buildings on all 
four sides ; but the central court . . . into which all the windows look 
from sunless rooms. The only exception is the hall window, which 

i6 



has a southern outlook. The hall was heated by a brazier in the center, 
and the smoke went out at a louvre in the roof. There was one gloomy 
parlor, with a fire-place in it, opening out of the hall. The rest of 
the quadrangle was taken up with kitchen, porter's lodge, cellar, and 
stable. Upstairs, one long dormitory." The furniture was scanty: 
a table made of boards laid upon trestles from whence " to lay the 
table," removed when not in use, some forms or stools, a long bench 
stuffed with straw, a few chairs of wood, chests for linen and other 
household stuff. 

The Solar had its windows toward the south and furnished a private 
chamber for the lord. A winding stair of stone, in many cases exterior 
to the building, led to the dormitory, in rude divisions. In the rear, 
grouped round a courtyard, were the granaries, cattle sheds, dairy, 
dove-cotes and other necessary edifices. 

At no great distance stood the village, made up of homesteads of 
tenantry, houses of the better class nearly like that of the manor lord, 
each in its own toft, or plot of ground, with a croft or meadow land 
adjacent. These arrangements show the relation of the lord to the 
village community; namely, that although exercising jurisdiction over 
the same, he forms the center of the composite whole. 

After many vicissitudes, on St. Cecilia's day, Nov. 2, 1633, 
the Maryland Pilgrims made ready to depart. There were two 
sections, the first hundred and twenty-eight, who were willing to take 
the oaths of allegiance, supremacy and abjuration, but who, for a 
technical reason, omitted that formality, and were pursued by the 
London Searcher Watkins, whose warrant is still preserved with the 
" haste, haste post-haste " on three sides of the paper, and the hour 
at which the post rider had passed every station between London and 
Gravesend. These finally reached their first port and dropped anchor 
at the Isle of Wight, to take up the ninety-two Roman Catholics with 
their priests, who declined these oaths, and the twenty gentlemen, 
some of them certainly with their wives; and we are thus enabled to 
get a very fair view of that passenger list, which has been the subject 
of much investigation. 

17 



We cannot in this brief sketch follow them through the manifold 
experiences of their voyage of four months, which have been so well 
given in Father White's " Relatio." 

The instructions of Lord Baltimore had been most specific. They 
were to hold their services on board as quietly as possible. His Lord- 
ship had charged each one to notify him what could be found out 
about the plots which had so nearly overturned his schemes at the last 
moment. They were to stop at Accomack and take up someone who 
could give them " some good information of the Bay of Chesapeake 
and the Pattawomeck River, and some light of a fitt place in his 
LoPP= country to sette downe on," to be healthful and fruitful, easily 
fortified and convenient for trade both with English and savages. 
Upon landing they were to administer to the colonists the oath to " his 
Ma'ie ," " they are to plant nothing until the future corn crop is 
assured." Their military muster was imperative and salt-making was 
a necessity. 

They were fortunate in that their pilot. Captain Henry Fleete, 
who had been taken into captivity by the Indians in one of the Vir- 
ginia massacres, had established an entente cordiale with the dififerent 
tribes, who were lined up along the river shore, having been notified 
by their fleet-footed runners of the approach of these " great canowes," 
whose men " were like the leaves of the forest." 

Their landing was made upon one of the Heron Islands, named 
without delay St. Clement's, where their thanksgiving Mass for 
deliverance from the perils of the deep was said and the formal 
occupation of the territory taken. It was soon seen that the capacity 
of the island was far too small for their purposes, and Fleete conveyed 
them up the beautiful sheet of water, known to us now as the St. 
Mary's River, to the town of the Yeocomicoes, with its witchetts, one 
of which was speedily taken for a chapel, its cornfields, and the nearby 
hunting grounds, where for generations they and their forefathers had 
dwelt. The voyagers were received with much dignity and caution by 
the Werowance; " I will not bid you go, neither will I bid you stay," 
said the chief, but under the shadows of the old mulberry tree, 

i8 



tradition says, the treaty was made by which Augusta Carolana, that 
first thirty miles of territory, was purchased with the axes and hoes, 
beads and cloth, of the ventures made by Sir Richard Lechford, the 
Eures and others, who had thus taken stock in the infant enterprise. 

The laying-out of the town under the shelter of the double line of 
fortifications, St. Inigoe's Fort for the water and St. Mary's for the 
land, was their first care, and extreme caution was observed as to 
any expeditions made, beyond these military cordons, until the Yeo- 
comicoes had fulfilled their bargain and remained with their suc- 
cessors while the corn crop was harvested, and until their women had 
taught to the housewives the mysteries of their preparation of " pone 
and omine " and had then folded their tents for the beginning of that 
pathetic journey which takes them out of our ken. 

The instructions of 1636, some two years after the landing, had set 
forth : " And we do . . . authorize you that every two thousand 
acres . . . so to be passed ... be erected and created into a mannor. 
. . . And we do hereby further authorize you that you cause to be 
granted unto every of the said Adventurers within every of their said 
manors respectively, ... a Court Barron and Court Leet, to be from 
time to time held. . . ." 

The conditions of plantation with regard to the taking up of land 
were fully complied with, from the colonist who only transported 
himself and wife, to those who brought in from twentv-eight to forty 
settlers. But there were many other things to contemplate before 
men reached the period of manors and manorial courts. 

The good ship the Ark, with her convoy the Dove, brought only 
a very few of those who would naturally have taken up the thousand 
acres. Perhaps the first land in bulk was 40CX) acres laid out on St. 
Greorge's for Captain Henry Fleete, as we have seen, a pioneer in 
these virgin forests, and was probably the reward for his services ren- 
dered. But the succeeding arrivals, Gerrards, Brents, Snows, Evelyns, 
were the beginnings of a goodly company who, about 1639, availed 
themselves of these privileges; and while the "conditions" provided 
that any man who produced the requisite number of settlers and regis- 

19 




^0-'-'--^ 




CALVERT'S REST. 

ON CALVERT ^S BAY. 

ST. GABRIEL'S MANOR. 



The home of 
The Hon. William Calvert, 

Son and Heir of 
Governor Leonard Calvert 



tered the oaths that were necessary might take up manor land with 
Court Baron and Court Leet, naturally those nearest the Lord Pro- 
prietary were the first to be served, and we see kith and kin, with per- 
sonal friends and those who had served his Lordship in one capacity or 
another, among the first manor lords. 

The whole of St. Mary's County, lying south of Trinity, now 
Smith's Creek, was laid out for the Governor, Leonard Calvert, in 
1639, with the right of Court Baron and Court Leet. There were 
three manors, St. Michael's, St. Gabriel's and Trinity Manor, and 
it was on the manor of St. Gabriel, on the 7th of March, 1656, " by 
the steward of the manor, that one Martin Kirke took of the lady of 
the manor in full court, Margaret Brent, by delivry of the said 
steward, by the rod, according to the custom of said manor, one 
Messuage, lying in the said manor, and the said Kirke having done 
his fealty was thereby admitted tenant." 

Some of these tenants on these three manors had then been so careless 
as to fall behindhand for three years' rent, and they owed each as much 
as six barrels of corn and twelve capons for this period ; and when 
the lady of the manor, Margaret Brent, as the Governor's Executrix, 
pointed out that through their part in the rebellion against the Lord 
Proprietary they had forfeited their holdings, the court confirmed her 
decision, the first and only instance in the colony of forfeiture for 
rebellion. 

On the arrival of the Hon. William Calvert, only son and heir of 
the Governor, Leonard Calvert, he succeeded to a portion of St. 
Gabriel's, known as Calvert's Rest on Calvert's Bay, and his home 
is still standing, from which many of the proclamations relating to 
the colony were issued by him, as its Secretary; and it was probably 
in its adjacent waters that he was " unfortunately drowned." The 
date of the building of Calvert's Rest was visible in the brick gable 
end until repeated applications of a fine and substantial pink wash 
effectually obliterated it. 

Coming up from Point Lookout, on the opposite side of Trinity 
(now Smith's Creek) from Trinity Manor, was St. Elizabeth's 




ST. ELIZABETH'S MANOR. 
JUTLAND 



22 



Manor, which contained two thousand acres, and of which the Jutland 
estate, with its quaint old house, is the survival. It was granted to 
Thomas Cornwallis in 1639, and in after years became the early home 
in Maryland of the Hon. William Bladen, member of the House, 
clerk of the Council and the first " Public Printer of the Province." 
Then comes St, Inigoe's Manor, as to which the old record 
reads, " lying on the east side of St. Georges River, commonly called 
St. Maries River, containing and laid out for two thousand acres, and 
St. Georges Island on the other side, of one thousand acres, the whole 
forming St. Inigoes Manor." R. F. Thomas Copley brought in 
servants for which he received twenty-eight thousand five hundred 
acres of land. It is supposed that Thomas Copley and the R. F. 
Philip Fisher were identical. He was known as Thomas Copley, the 
land agent for the Society of Jesus; and of these grants, three thousand 
one hundred acres were issued for St. Inigoe's, and four thousand for 
St. Thomas' Manor. Grants were made out to Father Ferdinando 
Pulton ; but when, in crossing the river, he was accidentally shot, they 
were assigned to Mr. Cuthbert Fenwick and later to R. F. Starkey. 
The beautiful little manor house, with its chateau-like roof, with the 
picturesque windmill at the end of the point, was one of the most 
striking features of that lovely landscape. But the all-devouring 
waters swallowed up the windmill, and the all-devouring flames con- 
sumed the old manor house, and it is with the greatest appreciation 
that the possession of this rare sketch of its departed glories is here 
acknowledged to the courtesy of the late and lamented Father 
Fullerton. But before the manor house was built, the fort on the 
manor had served the purpose of keeping watch and ward upon the 
water-front. Just a few years after the landing, every barque that 
sailed up to " Fort Point " had to pay tribute in ammunition to that 
stronghold, and must ride at anchor for two whole tides, both coming 
and going, under the lee of the fort. 

Among the relics saved by the care of the Jesuit Fathers are the 
ancient cannon — murtherers, they were called — some of them of 
Spanish make, so the story goes. One is at Annapolis on the State 

23 




^1^ 



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I 1 



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ST.INIGOE'S MANOR. 

ON THE ST. MARY'S, 

ST.INIGOE'S CREEK. 



House green, and two may be found at Georgetown College, which 
has also the beautiful old claw- and ball-foot council table, with George 
Calvert's cutlass and leather scabbard. 

Not only did the Assembly use St. Inigoe's for some of their sessions, 
but proclamations were issued from it, and among the bulletins posted 
upon its walls one reads thus: " Upon the discharge of three guns, 
every householder shall answer it, and every housekeeper inhabiting 
St. Michaels Hundred between St. Inegoes Creek and Trinity Creek 
shall immediately upon the knowledge thereof carry his women and 
children to St. Innegoes Ffort, there to abide one month." These pre- 
cautions were soon justified, for, on the appearance of " Sixteen 
strange Indians " in the settlement (possibly one of the early raids of 
the Susquehannocks), the wife and child of one of the colonists had 
been " murthered," and he makes his appeal: "Since that blood 
cryeth to Heaven for vengeance, yr Petitioner hereby throweth him- 
self, together with the blood of his murthered wife and child, att your 
feete, craving justice — which blood he humbly begs of the Just Judge 
of Heaven and Earth, never to remove from your souls nor the souls 
of your childrens children until it be satisfied." Signed, Thos. Alcock. 

The farms which belong to this manor are known the world over 
for their rich cultivation, and are still among the best lands in the 
neighborhood, although the glory has departed. 

As the years went on, the white-winged ships sailed across the 
Atlantic, carrying the products and " rarities," sometimes the great 
trunks of cedar trees, sometimes rather strange beasts. Of one pro- 
jected consignment, the Governor writes: " the lyon I had for you is 
dead," while redbirds, rattlesnakes and other queer cargoes travelled 
over the sea with the constant correspondence which kept his Lordship 
in touch with his possessions in Mary-land. 

The early letters of Father Thomas, alias Andrew White, of 
Thomas Copley and Thomas Cornwallis, who, with Jerome Haw- 
ley, had been appointed as the commissioners to aid the 3'oung 
Governor, give us our only glimpses of these first five j'ears. And 
the ships brought back with them company after company of men of 

25 




CORNWALLIS » S 

CROSS MANOR HOUSE. 

Through the courtesy of 

Mrs. Charles Grayson, 

the present owner. 



all sorts and conditions, usually of the better class of the English, 
and not infrequently from the old nobility. The Jerninghams are 
examples of this. They came in as servants to one of the adventurers, 
but, in an account of a Roman Catholic emigration to Spanish 
Louisiana before its cession, Dr. Jerningham modestly mentions to 
the Spanish dignitary that they are themselves connected with some of 
the best of the titled families in England, and proof is given ; and 
this was only one instance out of many. 

After one of these arrivals. Father White writes to Lord Baltimore : 
" Now, my Lord, in the inteerim heere is Captayne George Evelyn, 
who wishes much happiness, to your LoPp and the place. He shewelh 
us a draught of our Province divided into counties, baronies, lord- 
ships, etc." And so, in 1637, the Manor of Evelynton, in the Barony 
of St. Mary's, is taken up. It is said that this included the well- 
known resort of Piney Point, and from this patent to his Lordship's 
cousin was given one of the few grants, made by Thomas Greene, 
Governor, only ten years later, after the death of Governor Calvert, 
in 1647. 

Meanwhile, as one comes up the St. Mary's River from Point Look- 
out, in the laying-out of manors, the lands of dignitaries next appear. 
The Hon. Thomas Cornwallis, one of the most striking figures of his 
day, toop up two thousand acres, which he called " Cornwalleys " Cross 
Manor. Apparently he did not bring his wife to the colony, as did 
Mr. Thomas Greene and Mr. Jerome Hawley. Captain Cornwallis 
writes to Lord Baltimore in 1638 in regard to his coadjutor, who is 
accused of an undue bias toward the Virginia Plantation : " Well ' 
may the discharging of the office hee hath undertaken invite him 
sometimes to Look toward Virginia but certainly not with prejudice 
to Maryland from whens he receives the greatest conforts that the 
world affords him — both from sowle and bodie — the one from the 
church, the other from his wife, who by her comportment in these 
difficult afifayres of her husband's hath manifested as much virtue 
and discretion as can be expected from the sex she owes [oh! cruel 
Cornwallis!] whose industrious housewifery hath so adorned this 

27 



desert that should his discouragements force him to withdraw himself 
and hir, it would not a little eclipse the Glory of Maryland." 

Mr. Hawley did not live long to enjoy his perquisites in the two 
colonies, but he had laid off for him two manors, St. Jerome's and 
St. Helen's, which his stepson, Sir William Courtenay, arranged to 
have secured to himself after the death of his mother, Mrs. Elinor 
Hawley. 

Captain Cornwallis was probably the wealthiest man in the colony. 
Within a few months after the landing he had erected, in 1635, a 
town water-mill, the property containing nine acres. The lines of 
the old dam are still visible, and upon its completion he set about 
building a brick house, " to put my head in," which stands to-day 
with its stack of beautiful old chimneys, its fine proportions still show- 
ing the lines of the original building. Time, of course, has brought 
changes, but there is little question that it is the oldest house now 
standing built about this period. 

The inventory of his losses in Ingle's raid shows a magnificent 
estate for that day: cattle, plate, household linen, hangings, furni- 
ture, with personal effects of great value. 

" Cornwalleys " Cross Manor is the last of these divisions, bringing 
us to the town land, of which the holdings were naturally much smaller. 
Across St, Inigoe's Creek is the beautiful estate of " Rose Croft," 
which contained the Wolstenholme House, popularly known as the 
" Collector's." The house was a capacious frame building, with 
brick gables and, until recent years, double-roofed and triangularly- 
capped dormer windows, finished with handsomely carved wood- 
work ornamenting both ceilings and side walls. " It stands to-day " 
(Mr. Thomas wrote in 1900), " the only monument of its time, and 
furnishes a handsome and interesting specimen of the style of archi- 
tecture and interior embellishment of that day. It occupies the 
summit of the high, bold bluff at the juncture of Saint Inigoe's Creek 
with the river, and commands an extensive and picturesque view of 
both land and water, embracing in its sweep, Saint George's Island, 

28 








ROSE CROFT. 

A FAMOUS SEAT OF 

HOSPITALITY ON THE 

ST.INIGOE'S CREEK. 



the broad Potomac, and the dim, mountain-like lines of the distant 
Virginia shore." 

The old " domestical " chapel in the background, the quaint tiling 
of the porches, the superb old box-trees, shown in the accompanying 
sketch, have perished in the flames which consumed the entire prop- 
erty, not long after this photograph was taken. And it can live now 
only in the memory of those to whom it was dear, and in the pages 
of Kennedy's work, " Rob of the Bowl," the best historical novel that 
tells of those days. 

In the la3ing-out of the town lands Greene's Rest comes next, 
afterwards called St. Anne's. This was allotted to one of the Pro- 
prietary connection, who succeeded Leonard Calvert as second 
Governor of the Province of Maryland. 

His loyalty cost him dearly, for later, in proclaiming King Charles 
II., he roused the ire of those who had not the courage to stand by 
King Charles I., and the proclamation in Maryland by Governor 
Greene was certainly the first banner flung out for that apparently 
hopeless cause. His family has notable in the colony. His children 
were godsons of Leonard Calvert, and one was called for him — 
Leonard. Their history is most interesting. 

He is said to have married a sister of Governor Calvert; certain 
it is that the grouping of the property about this region was that of 
a family circle, Philip Calvert, Chancellor, occupying the plantation 
known as " Chancellor's Point," of especial historical interest, since 
the landing of the Maryland Pilgrims was made just here. 

Then came the allotments of town land for the Brents, brothers 
and sisters, Giles, Fulke, Margaret and Mary. The land of the sisters, 
called at one time, " The Sisters' Freehold," lay between " Greene's 
Rest," " Brent's Forge " and the " White House," the residence of 
Deputy Governor Giles Brent, sometime treasurer of the colony. 
These stately sisters require far more room than we can here afford 
them, though it is possible to show how mistaken is the estimate com- 
monly held of Mrs. Margaret's conduct on many trying occasions. 
Kinswomen of Lord Baltimore, they enjoyed the firm friendship of 

30 



the family, and, as relatives, attended the last hours of Leonard 
Calvert, Margaret receiving his nuncupative will and, as next of 
kin, administering on his estate. Their residence in St. Mary's was 
an establishment of great elegance. It was called St. Thomas, in their 
patent, and the house erected on a portion of what was known as St. 
Mary's Forest, containing 70^ acres, a special grant from Lord 
Baltimore to the sisters. It was surrounded by a beautiful grove of 
ancient oaks, and here these distinguished women dispensed a generous 
hospitality to the gentlefolk of their day and generation. 

Upon Mistress Margaret Brent fell the burden of responsibility 
and anxiety left by Governor Leonard Calvert. It became her duty 
to dispose of all his worldly goods, to care for the interests of his chil- 
dren, who were then in England — probably under the oversight of 
Lord Baltimore. At that time, this task subjected her to slander and de- 
traction ; while in later years a mythical environment has been created, 
and she has been made to do duty as the first woman lawyer and the 
pioneer advocate of woman's suffrage. She has been made party to a 
love afifair with Governor Leonard Calvert; she has been contracted 
in a betrothal (at the mature age of sixty) to a man whom she probably 
never saw ! But, notwithstanding these perversions of fancy, the real 
woman stands out as one who conducted the colony through a desperate 
strait with courage, ability and patience rarely equalled. 

Women have defended their homes and children, but rarely has it 
been given to a woman to take the charge of a colonial government 
upon her own slender shoulders. 

In the rebellion which had preceded and probably hastened the 
death of Leonard Calvert, it had been necessary to enlist troops for 
the defense of the government. There was a question of how the 
sinews of war should be furnished, and Governor Calvert had pledged 
his cattle, indeed the credit of the entire Province, for the provision 
of this fund. 

In her capacity as administratrix she went on her even way ; as long 
as she had corn, she paid the troops in that commodity, when that 
gave out she supplied them with cattle, thus averting the most serious 

31 



mutiny with which the Province had ever been threatened. She saw 
with clear vision that the interests of Leonard Calvert's family, and 
indeed those of the Lord Proprietary, could only be properly adminis- 
tered through her personal transaction of the business left her. And 
so, upon the 2ist of January, 1647, she came before the House and 
requested that she should have a vote as his Lopp' sole attorney ; 
namely, as possessing his power of attorney. For this she was received 
" for recovery of rights under the estate and taking care of its preser- 
vation, but not further." Her request, that she should have a vote 
for herself and voice also, simply meant that she refused to appear by 
proxy. 

When Governor Greene, unmindful of the fact that he owed his 
office to the testimony of the Brents, denied her this, she protested 
against all the proceedings of this present Assembly. She received, 
however, the acknowledgment of the Assembly, when they assured 
Lord Baltimore that she had done more in the matter of the mutiny 
than " any other man." This, however, did not save her from the 
censure of the Lord Proprietary, who was most harsh in his denuncia- 
tion of her policy, so that she left the colony, making her home among 
a little colony of Marylanders, who settled in Lancaster County, 
Virginia. 

She has left, however, a notable figure on our canvas ; the adminis- 
trator and guardian of the Governor's children and estate, the repre- 
sentative of Lord Baltimore's interests in the troublous times, the pro- 
tector of her brother Giles' family and fortune during his absences 
over seas, an ardent and devoted daughter of the " Holy Romane 
Catholique Church," she needs no fictitious setting to be, perhaps, the 
most notable of our women in the Colony of Maryland. 

We have traced the lines of the manors from Point Lookout up the 
St. Mary's River into St. Inigoe's Creek. Going up still further, 
to St. Mary's Bay, we find St. John's Manor, first patented to 
Secretary Lewger, afterwards in possession of Charles, 3rd Lord 
Baltimore, lying on St. John's Creek; while on one side of the Bay is 
West St. Mary's, laid out for the Proprietary, and on the other East 

32 







PORTO BELLO. 
THE HOME OF 
WILLIAM HEBB,R,N. 

Through the courtesy of 

Mrs.Alpheus Hyatt, 
the present owner. 



St. Mary's Manor, in which Margaret Brent had authorized Thomas 
Copley to receive all rents and profits of certain tenements and lands, 
which, after his bitter controversy with the Jesuit Fathers, did not 
endear her to his Lordship. 

On the Manor of West St. Mary's, and its most important sur- 
vival to-day, is Porto Bello, which gives a wonderful view of the 
country round about. It is a quaint old colonial dwelling, a fine old 
stack of brick chimneys, in which is found one of the best speci- 
mens of a penthouse, of such ample dimensions, extending into the 
cellar, as might shelter tw^o or three fugitives. It stands at Bacon's 
Wharf to-day, as a connecting-link with the expedition against 
Carthagena and the enlistment of three colonial midshipmen, in the 
English Navy, who, on their safe return to their homes, in memory of 
the campaign, bestowed, in the case of William Hebb, on his division 
of West St. Mary's, the name of the battle in which they had all 
fought so valiantly, Porto Bello; his neighbor, Edwin Coade, 
recalled in his plantation the title Carthagena, against which the 
English expedition had been directed, while Lawrence Washington 
gave to his home on the Potomac the name of Mt. Vernon, after 
Admiral Vernon, who had been their commander of the fleet; and 
though tradition has been, as usual, elusive, yet these facts have been 
verified through the Hon. James Walter Thomas (whose researches 
have been so far-reaching) in a correspondence relating to this episode 
which Hopewell Hebb, Esq., of St. Mary's had exhibited to him 
by his grandfather, William Hebb, of the Royal Americans. 

KENT FORT MANOR 

Kent Island had been one of the strategic points in Lord Bal- 
timore's settlement. The contest for it with William Claiborne 
(who had been commissioned as Commander of the Island with 
license to trade with the Indians only a few months before 
Lord Baltimore received permission to occupy territory which neces- 
sarily included this small but very important point) absorbs much time 
and space in the first instructions and correspondence of the officials. 

34 



13557SV- 

When Captain Evelyn came out, in 1636, under the wing of Cloberr\' 
and Co., Claiborne's business firm. Governor Calvert, in obedience to 
his brother's instructions, secured his friendship and loyalty, and, after 
all efforts to treat with the Kentish men had failed, he was appointed 
in Claiborne's place as Commander of the Isle. Not very long after, 
a commission was issued for a Court Leet upon the island, but it was 
by a stretch of authority on the part of the Governor, as there had been 
as yet no manor laid out. Captain Evelyn did not tarry long in the 
Province, and the only manor he ever owned was that of Evelynton 
in the Barony of St. Mary's, that classic spot known to our forefathers 
as a " watering place," Piney Point, where testimony can be rendered 
by present-day pilgrims that the plagues of Pharaoh sink into insignifi- 
cance before the swarms of mosquitoes which there abound. 

Among those who were to receive a special welcome at the hands 
of the authorities, both from Lord Baltimore, who was still sojourning 
in the beautiful old Wardour Castle (from which all these earliest 
grants for Marjdand are made), and Leonard Calvert on this side the 
water, were the Brents, descended from the noble house of Richard, 
Lord of Cosington (Manor) in Somerset, and Eleanor, daughter of 
Edward Reed, Lord of Turburie and Willen (Manor). 

Out of one of the patriarchal families embracing Fulke, Richard, 
Giles, William, Edward, George, Margaret, Mary, Katharine, 
Elizabeth, Eleanor, Jane, Anne, we can trace only five who came into 
the colony — Giles, Fulke, George, Margaret, Mary — although there 
is some reason to believe that Katharine Brent intermarried with the 
distinguished Greenes, and Anne, the youngest, we believe to have 
been the bride whom Leonard Calvert went home in 1643 to wed. 
Certain it is that the sixty acres of town land next the Governor were 
laid out for Mr, Giles Brent in October, 1639, and in January of the 
same year (old style) is registered the survey for " Gyles Brent 
Gentleman Treasurer of the Council looo acres lying together as near 
Kent Fort as may be, and 1000 more when he shall desire it." Made 
Commander of Kent, from this time forward he comes second only 
to Leonard Calvert himself, and in the eighteen months from April, 

35 



1 643) to October, 1644, while Calvert was absent, Giles Brent was 
acting Governor. No mention is made of the coming of his wife with 
him, and whether Mary Fitzherbert was his daughter or his wife 
remains uncertain to this day. 

In the letter from the missions, the earliest mention made, and that 
in the case of the conversion of the Indian chief Maquacomen, and the 
hospitality proffered by him, the writer says: " Nor was the Queen 
inferior to her husband in benevolence to her guest (R. F. White), 
for with her own hands (which thing the wife of our Treasurer also 
does willingly) she is accustomed to prepare meat for him and to bake 
bread with no less care than labor." Giles Brent, Gentleman, found 
himself out of touch with my Lord Baltimore after the Jesuit 
troubles. So, later, he removed to Virginia, where he has many 
descendants. 

But the most important manor, perhaps, was that laid out for Dr. 
Thomas Gerrard, who had been an early arrival in the Province, in 
the year 1638. No time was lost in the survey made for him of 
the one thousand acres, including St. Clement's Island, and immedi- 
ately afterward was given the patent for St. Clement's Manor. 

Among the first of the manor lands to be laid off, it is notable as the 
only one to yield testimony as to the methods of their government. 
It is also remarkable as including the first landing-place of the Pil- 
grims, St. Clement's, now Blackiston's Island, lying on the Potomac, 
an emerald in a setting of sapphires. It was long supposed that St. 
Clement's had vanished, but through the valiant efforts of Mr. 
Thomas, in the search of the old records, is has been proven that it is 
still preserved to us. 

It is also unique, in that, being himself a staunch member of the 
Roman Catholic Church, Gerrard erected for his wife, Susanna Snow, 
a " Protestant Catholic," a little church where his manor tenants, also 
Protestant, worshiped. A glebe was also given by the Lord of St. 
Clement's Manor, and in 1696 the Council ordered the vestry of King 
and Queen Parish " to have the bounds settled to the one hundred acres 
of land given to the church by Thomas Gerrard." 

36 



Just where the original manor house stood, it is difficult to say, 
unless indeed it was that part called Brambly, and as this was 
the place of residence of both Dr. Gerrard and his son, and was also 
the name of the Gerrard homestead in England, it is very probable 
that just here was the center of influence from which this superb estate 
of eleven thousand four hundred acres was governed. 

In many cases the provisions for holding a Court Baron and a Court 
Leet are mentioned, but, although many must have been kept, this is 
the only record that remains to us in its entiret}^ 

At the opening of the Leet, so called from the old German " leute," 
or people, the steward, who was also the judge, having taken his place, 
the bailiff made proclamation " Oyez ! Oyez ! Oyez ! " and commanded 
all to draw near and answer to their names, upon " pain and perill." 
A jury was empanelled from the residents of the manor between the 
ages of twelve and sixty who were present. The Statute i8 Edw. II. 
names the following persons as proper to be investigated at a Leet: 
" Such as have double measure and buy by the great and sell by the 
less. . . . Such as haunt tavern and no man knoweth whereon they 
do live. . . . Such as sleep by day and watch by night, and fare well 
and have nothing." It also fixed the price of bread and ale, and set its 
hands on butchers that sold " corrupt vitual." The game laws also 
came under its supervision; but whether it dealt with the King of 
Chaptico for killing a wild sow and taking her pigs, and " raising a 
stock of them " ; or whether the lord of the manor himself was dealt 
with, because he had not provided a pair of stocks, pillory and 
ducking stools, or whether the entertainment of Benjamin Hayman 
and Cybill, his wife, brought John Mansell into trouble: certain it 
is that a more unusual chronicle cannot be found. 

But perhaps the chief historical interest of St. Clement's Manor 
would center to-day about the beautiful old estate of "Bushwood," 
and the description written by Mrs, Edmond Plowden Jenkins tells 
us: "the columns which gave the front the stately aspect peculiar 
to the great mansions of the colonial period, fell to ruin many years 
ago." In an ancient manuscript, the property of Mrs. Plowden, 

37 



formerly of Bushwood, it is shown that Thomas Gerrard, Esquire, 
grants to Robert Slye, his son-in-law, one thousand acres of land, 
known as Bushwood, in consideration of a mortgage, two barrels of 
Indian corn, and twenty pounds sterling. The approach to the 
mansion, was through a park of magnificent primeval forest trees, 
which was kept intact until the middle of the nineteenth century. At 
the back of the house there were terraces, which sloped down to the 
Wicomico River, one of Potomac's many beautiful tributaries. 

There are still indications of the old English garden, with its clipped 
box walks, and not so very long ago there were still traces of the 
" maze " which also formed part of the garden. 

In the interior of the house, the walls and ceiling of the drawing- 
room are panelled in hard wood. In one of the two carved, shell- 
shaped alcoves, is a secret chamber, which tradition says was used 
as a place of concealment in troublous times. 

There are still outlines of the ancient mantel, now replaced by a 
modern marble piece, with a blank space about it, where not very long 
ago there was a quaint panel painting of Virginia Water, in the park 
of Windsor Castle. 

The staircase of solid mahogany, still in perfect condition, an 
exceedingly quaint device, without either posts or rails, has been 
painted white. It is, however, a handsome and artistic piece of wood 
carving, attributed to Bowen, one of the many " King's prison- 
ers " transported to Maryland. At the top of the stairway, occupying 
the center of the house, on the second story, is a fine hall. It was here 
that the lawgivers of Maryland sat in council. It was here also, at a 
later date, that the secret plottings for Fendall's rebellion were held. 
Thomas Gerrard, strange to relate, was the friend and ally of Fendall, 
and it was from this hall that the schemers proclaimed their independ- 
ence of Lord Baltimore. From this point, also, Fendall issued his 
famous proclamation as Governor of the little Republic of Maryland. 

These transactions cost the lord of the manor his property, his 
residence in Maryland, and his political disfranchisement. The 

38 



order of confiscation and banishment was dismissed, but Maryland had 
lost its charm for him, and he removed to Virginia, where he died. 

Among the many beautiful estates lying about St. Clement's 
Manor and near Bushwood, must be mentioned Bashford Manor, 
originally belonging to Dr. Gerrard, as early as 1 650. Upon it is 
the subdivision of Bachelor's Hope, with its quaint and attractive 
hunting lodge, its curious roof, the beautiful old bricks which 
shade into purple and green tinges, giving a curious effect of vitrified 
tiling. It possesses perhaps the only specimen of what was frequently 
found in the old English manor house, an outside staircase. This 
leads to a gallery on the interior upon which face the upper living 
and sleeping rooms. From the gallery one looks down upon the hall, 
where the spoils of the chase were brought in, where the dogs 
wandered in and out and the deer lay, and where the boon companions 
gathered after the day's sport was done. Belonging first to Sir 
Thomas Notley, then to Colonel Benjamin Rozier, who married 
Anne Sewall, Lady Baltimore's daughter, few places have probably 
seen more good cheer than Bachelor's Hope. 

After the sale of the manor by Governor Notley to Lord 
Baltimore, the lodge came into possession of Mr. Joshua Doyne. 
The manor house, like Bushwood, overlooked the Wicomico and had 
some very beautiful interior carving; but it was burned a few years 
ago. 

In the days when my Lady Baltimore's home was at Notley Hall, 
with its yellow brick mansion and underground passage from cellar 
to river, Mrs. Doyne, with many of the surrounding gentlefolk, came 
and went over the Old Manor Road in a round of visits; and it was 
while they were enjoying these social delights that my lady had a 
petition from the wife of one of the colonists in behalf of her hus- 
band, who had used " reproachful and contumacious words " against 
Lord Baltimore. She was in a very vituperative frame of mind, 
taking great umbrage that she was not more successful in her under- 
taking to obtain his pardon. 

Another estate which possesses the distinction — too rare, alas, in this 

39 




STAIRCASE AT BUSHWOOD 




BASHPORD MANOR. 

BACHELOR'S HOPE„ 

Through the courtesy of 

Mr.& Mr S.Truman Sling luff, 

the present owners 



day of restless change — of having descent from the original patentees 
to its present owner, is Deep Falls, in which a perfect restoration in the 
most minute detail has been made by the Hon. James Walter Thomas. 

Erected about 1745 by Major William Thomas, it is a large double 
two-story building, with brick gables to the first story and a fine 
stack of chimneys at each end of the house — indeed the whole width 
of the house is covered by this beautiful treatment of a generally 
homely feature. The hall is a large, well-finished square room. On 
one side is a parlor, on the other a dining-room, separated by a partition 
consisting of a series of folding doors. In the rear is a long passage 
running at right angles, which opens to the back porch by a door 
immediately opposite the front door and archway between hall and 
passage. The stairway with carved sides, maple and rosewood, inlaid 
with ivory, is in this passage ; and the balustrade extends round the cor- 
ridors above. 

The approach to the house is by an avenue of fine trees, with the 
old-fashioned cedars back of them. In the rear are the terraces which 
give the name to the estate. 

A quaint garden lies at the base, and the whole tends to reproduce 
for us the stately fashion of the past. The hospitality of the owners 
of this fine estate is manorial in its elegance and cordiality, and one 
rejoices to find this perfect survival of the manor house as it once 
existed. 

The glimpses which we have thus had of the earliest manor life and 
records have covered the region of the Potomac, and the first grants, 
from 1634 to 1645. Our next series will deal with the manor houses 
and lands on the Patuxent. 



42 




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43 



[Extracts from the Chronicle: of Colonial Maryland.] 
RECORDS OF THE 

COURT LEET AND COURT BARON 

OF ST. Clement's manor, 1659-72 

St ClementsI a Court Leet & Court Baron of Thomas Gerard 
Manour J Esqr there held on Thursday the xxviith of Octo- 
ber 1659 by Jno Ryves gent Steward there. 

Constable: Richard ffoster Sworne. 

Resiants: Arthur Delahay; Robte Cooper. Seth Tinsley: Willm at 
Robte Coles: Jno Gee Jno Green Benjamin Hamon Jno Mattant. 

FFREHOldrs : Robte Sly gent : Willm Barton gent : Robte Cole : Luke 
Gardiner: Barthollomew Phillips: Christopher Carnall: Jno Nor- 
man: Jno Goldsmith. 

Leaseholders: Thomas Jackson: Rowland Mace: Jno Shankes: 
Richard ffoster : Samuell Harris : John Mansell : Edward Turner : 
ffrancis Sutton with Jno Tennison. 

Jury and ^ Jno Mansell 

J Bartholl: Phillips 



Homages 



Jno Shankes 
Jno Gee 
Edward Turner 
Seth Tinslev 



- Sworne 



Jno Tennison 
Jno Goldsmith 
Jno Mattant 
Sam: Harris 
Jno Norman 
xofer Carnall 



- Sworne 



Ordt Act Sam : Wee the aboue named Jurors doe prsent to the 
Harris Court that wee finde how about the 3d day of 

octobr 1659 that: 

Jmprimis wee prsent that about the 3d of October 1659 that 
Samuell Harris broke the peace wth a Stick and that there was 



44 



bloudshed comitted by Samuell Harris on the body of John 
Mansell for wch hee is fined 40I tob wch is remitted de gratia 
dni. 

Wee doe find that Samuell Harris hath a license fro' the 
Gou'nor & wee conceive him not fitt to be prsented. 
Ordr Agt Robte Jtem wee prsent Robert Cole for marking one of 
Cole the Lord of the Mannors hoggs for wch hee is 

fined 2000I Tobco affered to loool. 

Jtem wee prsent Luke Gardyner for catching two wild hoggs & 
not restouring the one halfe to the Lord of the Mannof whch he 
ought to haue done & for his contempt therein is fined 2000I 
Tobco altered to 200I of Tobco. 

Jtem wee prsent that Cove Mace about Easter last 1659 came 
to the house of John Shancks one of the Lord of the Mannors 
tenants being bloudy & said that Robin Coox & his wife were both 
vpon him & the said John Shancks desired John Gee to goe wth 
him to Clove Maces house & when they the sd John Shancks & 
John Gee came to the said Cloves his house in the night & knocked 
att the dore asking how they did what they replyed then the sd 
John Shancks & John Gee haue forgotten But the sd John Shancks 
asked her to come to her husband & shee replyed that hee had 
abused Robin & her and the said John Shancks gott her consent to 
come the next morning & Robin vp to bee freinds wth her husband 
& as John Schanks taketh shee fell downe on her knees to be freinds 
wth her sd husband but hee would not bee freinds wth her but the 
next night following they were freinds and Bartholomew Phillipps 
saith that shee related before that her husband threatened to beate 
her & said if hee did shee would cutt his throat or poyson him or 
make him away & said if ever Jo: Hart should come in agayne shee 
would gett John to bee revenged on him & beate him & hee beared 
the said William Asiter say tht shee dranke healths to the Con- 
fusion of her husband and said she would shooe her horse round 
& hee the said Bartholomew Phillips heard the said Robin say if 
ever hee left the house Cloves should never goe wth a whole face. 

45 



Jt is ordered that this businesse bee tranferred to the next County 

Cort according to Law. 

Also wee present John Mansell fore entertajning Beniamyn 

Hamon & Cybill his wife as Jnmates Jt is therefore ordered that 

the sd Mansell doe either remove his Jnmate or give security to 

save the pish (parish) harmless by the next Coit vnder payne of 

loool Tobcor. 

Also we prsent Samuell Harris for the same and the same order is 

on him that is on John Mansell. 

Also wee present the Freeholders that have made default in their 

appearing to forfeit lool Tobco apeice. 

Wee doe further prsent that our Bounds are at this prsent unpfect 

& very obscure. Wherefore wth the consent of the Lord of the 

Mannor Wee doe order that every man's land shall bee bounded 

marked and layed out betweene this & the next Cort by the present 

Jury wth the assistance of the Lord vpon payne of 200I Tobco for 

every man that shall make default. 
St. Clements ^ At a Court Leet & Cort Baron of Thorns Gerard 

Mannor J ^^ Esqr there held on thursday the 26th of Aprill 

1660 by John Ryves Steward there 
Constable Richard ffoster. 
Resiants Robert Cowx William Roswell John Gee John Green 

Beniamin Hamon. 
Freeholders : Robert Sly gent Will'm Barton gent Robt Cole Luke 

Gardiner Christopher Carnall John Norman John Goldsmith. 
Leaseholders Thorn's Jackson Richard ffoster Samuell Norris John 

Mansfeild Edward Turner John Shancks Arthur Delahy Clove 

Mace John Tennison 



Jury and ^ Christopher Carnall 
Homage J John Tennison 
John Gee 
Edward Turner 
Beniamin Hamon 
John Greene 

46 



Richard Smith 
John Norman 
John Love 
George Harris 
Willm Roswell 
Walter Bartlett 



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Jt is ordered that this businesse bee tranferred to the next County 
Cort according to Law. 

Also wee present John Mansell fore entertaining Beniamyn 
Hamon & Cybill his wife as Jnmates Jt is therefore ordered that 
the sd Mansell doe either remove his Jnmate or give security to 
save the pish (parish) harmless by the next Co" vnder payne of 
loool Tobcor. 

Also we prsent Samuell Harris for the same and the same order is 
on him that is on John Mansell. 

Also wee present the Freeholders that have made default in their 
appearing to forfeit lool Tobco apeice. 

Wee doe further prsent that our Bounds are at this prsent unpfect 
& very obscure. Wherefore wth the consent of the Lord of the 
Mannor Wee doe order that every man's land shall bee bounded 
marked and layed out betweene this & the next Cort by the present 
Jury wth the assistance of the Lord vpon payne of 200' Tobco for 
every man that shall make default. 
St. Clements ^ At a Court Leet & Cort Baron of Thoms Gerard 
Mannor J Esqr there held on thursday the 26th of Aprill 

1660 by John Ryves Steward there 
Constable Richard ffoster. 
Resiants Robert Cowx William Roswell John Gee John Green 

Beniamin Hamon. 
Freeholders: Robert Sly gent Will'm Barton gent Robt Cole Luke 

Gardiner Christopher Carnall John Norman John Goldsmith. 
Leaseholders Thom's Jackson Richard ffoster Samuell Norris John 
Mansfeild Edward Turner John Shancks Arthur Delahy Clove 
Mace John Tennison 
Jury and "i Christopher Carnall 
Homage J John Tennison 
John Gee 
Edward Turner 
Beniamin Hamon 
John Greene 

46 



Richard Smith 
John Norman 
John Love 
George Harris 
Willm Roswell 
Walter Bartlett 





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Wee the above named Jurors doe prsent to the Cort Luke Gardiner 
for not doeing his Fealty to the Lord of the Mannor Jt is ordered 
therefore that he is fined loool of Tobcoe. 

Wee prsent fower Jndians, vizt 

for breakinge into the Lord of the Mannors orchard whereof three 
them were taken & one ran away & they are fyned 20 arms length of 
Roneoke. 

We prsent also two Jndian boys for being taken wth hoggs flesh & 
running away fro' it & they are fined 40 arms length. 

Wee prsent also a Cheptico Jndian for entringe into Edward Tur- 
ners house & stealinge a shirt fro' thence & hee is fined 20 arms length 
if he can be knowne. 

Wee prsent also Wickocomacoe Jndians for takeinge away Chris- 
totopher Carnalls Cannowe fro' his landing & they are fyned 20 
arms length if they bee found. 

Wee prsent also the King of Cheptico for killing a wild sow & 
took her piggs & raysed a stock of them referred to the hoble Gounor. 

Wee concieve that Jndians ought not to keepe hoggs for vnder 
prtence of them they may destroy all the hoggs belonginge to the 
Mannor & therefore they ought to bee warned now to destroy them 
else to bee fyned att the next Court. Referred to the hoble the 
Gou'nor. 

We reduce Luke Gardiners fyne to 50I of Tobcoe 

Wee am'ce the fower Jndians to 50 arms Length of Roneoke & the 
Jndian that had his gun taken fro' him to bee restored agayne to the 
owner thereof 

The Jndian boys wee am'ce 40 arms Length of Roneoke as they 
are above am'ced 

Wee am'ce the Cheptico Jndian for stealing Edward Turners shirt 
to 20 arms length of Roneoke • 

Wee am'ce also Wickocomacoe Jndians for takeinge away Christo- 
pher Carnalls Cannowe to 20 arms Length of Roneoke 



48