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Old and Middle English Readee 










All rights reserved 

Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1886, by 


in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Copyright, 1893, 

'JUN9 ms 

NflriuootJ iPw$5S: 

J. S. Gushing & Co. — Berwick & Smith. 

Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

Dedicated to 




Through whose wise Policy 

The Liberality of the State has been applied 

to foster 

Scientific Research and thorough Culture 

for the Benefit of 

The American Republic 


The Wider Republic of Letters 






Of Old English xxiii 

Of Middle English xxv 

I. Of C^dmon's Hymn xxvi 

II. Of Baeda's Death-Song xxvii 

III. Of Verses from the Ruthwell Cross .... xxviii 

IV. Of a Riddle yyx 

V. Of the Genesis xxxi 

VI. Op the Judith xxxii 

VII. Of a Legal Document xxxiv 

VIII. Of the Preface to Cura Pastoralis xxxv 

IX. Of Alfred's Account of C^dmon xxxviii 

X. Of the ^thelstan xl 

XI. Of Matthew, Chap. XXVIII xliii 

XII. Of John, Chap. XXI xlv 

XIII. Of the Jacob and Esau xlvi 

XIV. Of the Samson , xlvii 

XV. Of the Later Saxon Chronicle xlviii 

XVI. Op the Poem a Morale xlix 

XVII. Of a Homily on the Lord's Day li 

XVIII. Of the Orrmulum li 

XIX. Op On God Ureisun op ure Lepdi liii 

XX. Op \>e Wohunge of ure Lauerd liii 

XXI. Op the Genesis and Exodus liv 




XXII. Of Incipit de Mulierb Samaritana liv 

XXIII. Of a Homily on the Miracle at Cana . . . . Iv 

XXIV. Of the Legend op Gregory Iv 

XXV. Of the Havelok Ivi 

XXVI. Of the Cursor Mundi Ivi 

XXVII. Of Richard Rolle de Hampole Ivii 

XXVIII. Of Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt Iviii 

XXIX. Of 'Patience' lix 

XXX. Of the Destruction of Troy Ix 

XXXI. Of Barbour's Bruce Ixi 

XXXII. Of Sir Fyrumbras Ixii 

XXXIII. Of the Craft of Deyng Ixii 

XXXIV. Of .John Lydgate's Guy of Warwick Ixiii 



I. CasDMON's Hymn 1 

II. Baeda's Death-Song 1 

III. Verses from the Cross at Ruthwell 2 

IV. A Riddle 4 

V. From the Genesis 6 

VI. From the Judith 8 

VII. Specimen of a Legal Document, a.d. 805-810 

(806?) 11 

VIII. Alfred's Preface to Gregory's Cura Pastoralis . 13 

IX. Baeda's Account of C^dmon in King ^Elfred's 

Translation 17 

X. -^thelstan (a Poem from the Saxon Chronicle) . 20 

XI. Matthew, Chap. XXVIII 22 

XII. John, Chap. XXI 28 

XIII. Jacob and Esau 39 

XIV. Samson 42 

XV. From the Later Saxon Chronicle 45 




XVI. PoEMA Morale 49 

XVII. A Homily on the Lord's Day 59 

XVIII. From the Orrmulum 63 

XIX. On God Ureisdn of ure Lefdi 69 

XX. From ]?e Wohunge op ure Lauerd 75 

XXI. From Genesis and Exodus 76 

XXII. Incipit de Muliere Samaritana 78 

XXIII. A Homily on the Miracle at Cana 81 

XXIV. From the Legend of Gregory 83 

XXV. From the Havelok 85 

XXVI. From the Cursor Mundi 91 

XXVII. From Eichard Eolle de Hampole 95 

XXVIII. From Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt .... 97 

XXIX. From 'Patience' 101 

XXX. From the Destruction of Troy 104 

XXXI. The Beginning of the V. Book of Barbour's 

Bruce 107 

XXXII. From Sir Fyrumbras Ill 

XXXIII. From the Craft of Deyng 112 

XXXIV. From John Lydgate's Guy of Warwick .... 114 

GLOSSAEY 117-292 

Abbreviations 293 

Signs and Signification of Types 295 


This book is primarily an attempt to provide for the 
learner in Old and Middle English helps similar to those 
which have been furnished in the best Greek and Latin 

Among the recent "Keaders" in this field it is one of a 
new type, or perhaps better, it is a reversion with the modi- 
fications of late research to the primitive type represented 
by works like Kask's Praxis, Thorpe's Analecta, March's 
Reader, or Corson's Hand-hook. It is based on Professor 
Znpitza's Alt- und Mittelenglisches tfhungshuch zum Gebrauche 
bei Uhiversitdts-vorlesungen. Like its original it is emphati- 
cally an Exercise Book. Like that it is concise but com- 
prehensive. Unlike its original, in order to meet the 
requirements of English-speaking teachers and pupils, it 
is supplied with illustrative etymologies, cognate words, 
phonological equations, necessary historical and literary 
introductions, and bibliographical references. All these put 
together cannot make up for the loss of the German pro- 
fessor's lectures, but they suggest the points he covers, and 
may make it possible for others to arrive at the same goal 
with him, and with the added pleasure of having done the 
work for themselves. 

The book is of a new type in its appeal to scholars of 
the most diverse views. 


Eor the philologist and devotee of phonology it has some 
of the results and the method of the new school of Com- 
parative Philology in Germany and England, and it has 
them in concrete examples and condensed form for the 
initiation of beginners. The time has come to make Old 
English available for those of English speech as the nat- 
ural point of departure for the study of Comparative Phi- 
lology. We have not been unmindful of the words of 
Rask : * — 

"The Anglo-Saxon is the only old Teutonic tongue which we can 
be said to possess entire ; it is, therefore, for the sake of grammatical, 
but more especially of etymological illustration, of the highest moment 
to us [Scandinavians]. But this circumstance renders it still more 
necessary to German scholars ; to them Anglo-Saxon is almost what 
the Icelandic is to those of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. But it 
is to the English philologist that the Anglo-Saxon, as being his old 
national tongue, is of the greatest moment. To him it is precisely 
what Icelandic is to the modern Scandinavian and Latin to the Ital- 
ians. Even Dr. Johnson was aware of this." 

For one interested only in the history of the English 
language this collection of specimens, representing the 
chief dialects, and the chronological arrangement of the 
selections reveal the changes of seven hundred years. 

For the mere literary student the selections offer mate- 
rial for a brief comparative study of literature. The evolu- 
tion of both poetry and prose is suggested. The specimens 
make a short introductory course, so chosen as in the main 
to omit the greater works, and yet to prepare for those, 
which should be taken up severally, like Beowulf^ those of 
Cynewulf, and of Chaucer. They may give a sufficient 
linguistic knowledge for one to unlock the literature of the 

* Erasmus Rask, Gram, of A. S. Tongue^ with a Praxis, trans, by 
Thorpe, Copenhagen, 1830, pref. 

PREFACE. xiii 

entire period. The introductions are in part designed to 
correlate the extracts and to relate them to literary history. 
For the practical teacher and hurried pupil, who know 
that they must have at least the elements of Old English to 
understand the Modern, here is a book which in the space 
ordinarily given to Old English alone connects the Old 
through the necessary link of Middle English to the Modern 
tongue. While in the practical course now under contem- 
plation the contents of the etymological brackets and 
parentheses of the Glossary would be little used, their 
presence would be suggestive ; and even the little use 
might prepare the elementary student to profit by the ety- 
mological dictionaries of Skeat and Kluge, or by the etymo- 
logical portions of our modern dictionaries, like the New 
English Dictionary. In the vein of the practical man 
may not we in the universities, extending the remark to 
them all which Thorpe made of Oxford, still say, — 

"whence it may be hoped that the study of our ancient mother-tongue 
may find its way, as an essential branch of English education, into our 
higher schools, and thus tend to the formation of a style more impres- 
sive and more truly English than is to be found in many literary pro- 
ductions of the present and very many of the last century." * 

The names of Thorpe and other distinguished path-finders 
in Old English, already mentioned, remind me of my indebt- 
edness to a long line of worthies, extending from the un- 
known and unsung scribes of our Mss. to most distinguished 
scholars of the present day in Germany and England. The 
long listt of authorities used, containing, I am happy to 

* B. Thorpe, Analecta Saxonica, new ed. 1846, pref . 

t In order to save space, and because the specific references to 
authorities are inserted at the point in the work where they will be 
most available for the pupil, the list is not printed. 


say, an occasional American name, impresses me with the 
volume of my debt. My obligation is enhanced by the 
value of services rendered to me, beginning with my instruc- 
tion under Professors Wiilker and Zupitza. My heart-felt 
thanks are given to Professor Zupitza for his cordial per- 
mission to use his Alt- und Mittelenglisches Ubungsbuch* in 
any way I saw fit. Professor Zupitza is in no way responsi- 
ble for the gilding with which I have overlaid his pure gold. 

I am glad to have this occasion to acknowledge the many 
kindnesses of Professor Skeat, and in particular his send- 
ing to me the advanced sheets of his Principles of English 
Etymology. Likewise I am obliged to Professor T. Northcote 
Toller for advanced sheets of the Bosworth and Toller A.S. 
Dictionary, and to Mr. Israel Gollancz for the use in Selec- 
tion IV of his advanced sheets of his edition of the Exeter 
Book. 1 owe a similar debt to G. H. Balg, Ph.D., in respect 
to his Comparative Glossary of Gothic, and to T. Gregory 
Foster, Ph.D., for his Judith. I appreciate deeply Mr. 
Henry Bradley's few valuable suggestions and counsel, 
and also the good words of Dr. Furnivall. When the work 
and myself suffered delay through an accident, I cannot 
forget the encouragement I received from the friendly 
interest of (among other Oxford men) Professors Earle, 
Rhys, Napier, Dr. Wright, and Messrs. Morfill and Wink- 
field. Furthermore, without the British Museum and the 
well-known courtesies of its authorities and attendants, my 
work could hardly have been accomplished. 

Mr. 0. L. Triggs, M.A., my friend and former pupil, now 
of the University of Chicago, has earned my gratitude in 
many ways. He is wholly responsible for the chapter on 

* The 4th ed. has been used with the omission of the four selections 
added to the 3d ed. 


Versification, and is to be credited very largely for the his- 
torical introductions in ME. 

Last, and by no means least, I must pay hearty tribute to 
the devoted clerical service of my wife, Clara Taylor. She 
alphabetized the Glossary, transcribed much of the copy, 
verified references, and assisted in proof-reading. The 
printer and I owe much to her fair hand. 

May not the imperfections of my work prevent Messrs. 
Macmillan & Co., through whose interest in higher English 
studies this publication has been undertaken, from receiv- 
ing the support of the public for the book ! 

GEORGE E. Maclean. 

Univbbsitt op Minnesota, 
Sept. 25, 1893. 


[For abbreviations, signs, etc., see the end of the book, pp. 293-295.] 

The belief that many teachers have not enjoyed full opportuni- 
ties in the field of OE. and ME. and their cognates, and the regard 
that one should always have to make plain the path for earnest 
pupils, to say nothing of the apparent complexity and condensed 
form of the book, have led to the following perhaps too detailed 

In using the Reader, many teachers may take it for beginners. 
They wish to dispense with Primers, considering that the pupils in 
Old English are apt to be mature and to have a degree of linguistic 
discipline. Even " Readers " are only tolerated as necessary evils 
until the scholar can be prepared to go to the unabridged original 

Such teaclrers will do well to assign the selections in the follow- 
ing order, proceeding from the Late WS. to Early WS., then to the 
dialects and from prose to poetry : XIIT, XIV (using also the LWS. 
Gospels in XI and XII, basing upon them exercises in OE. compo- 
sition), IX, VIII, VII, the OE. dialects in XI and XII, I to VI, X. 
The transition to ME. may be made in XI, XII, and XV. In the 
distinctively ME. XVI to XXXIV one can hardly do better than 
to follow them, with such curtailment as time may require, in the 
chronological order in which they stand. X and XVI are difficult. 
As literal transcripts of single Mss., they are intended, with their 
variants printed in the introduction, to offer the advanced student 
opportunity for practice in textual criticism. 

In other cases the well-known accuracy and excellence of Pro- 
fessor Zupitza's texts have made it unnecessary to print variants 
except when there are disputed and difficult readings. In VIII 
and IX, however, every variant is given to enable the student to 



get exactly the forms of the important EWS. Mss., Hatton and 
Tanner. Occasionally, in other selections, a scribe's change in a 
Ms. is noted in the interest of accuracy. 

The " Notes " of the ordinary Reader are reduced to a minimum 
and the convenience of the learner met by giving in the glossary 
an idiom, a special reference to the passage or to the grammar. 
The few notes deemed necessary are incorporated in their proper 
place in the special introductions. 

The glossary in every possible way uses, with the greatest brevity 
practicable, the genetic method. The title-words when OE. are 
the normal and earlier WS. forms, followed by the variants due to 
chronological and dialectal* differences, and succeeded in turn by 
the ME. forms followed in their Early, Middle, and Late periods, 
often to the point of the evolution of the Modern English. The 
New English derivative,! even if it is obsolete, appears, if not 
earlier, among the meanings of the word in its appropriate place, 
first, midway, or last, according to its sense. Particularly are 
Shaksperian or Spenserian forms or senses noted. The relation- 
ship of OE., ME., and NE. is further presented, as it were, in 
alto-rilievo by the typographical devices % of the glossary (for sig- 
nification of types used, see the end of the boob, p. 295). 

The oblique cases in the declension and parts in the conjugation 
actually occurring in the Reader or calling for sp«;ial attention 
(these often with citations) are generally included among the 
forms. These forms, followed by a detailed grammatical classifica- 
tion § according to the system now adopted so uniformly in the 

* The prefixed Nh. Merc, or K. before an OE. form does not always 
mean that the form is exclusively Nh. Merc, or K, Often it simply 
indicates that the form occurs in this book only in a Nh. Merc, or K. 
selection. In a few words the antique and interesting forms of the 
Epinal Glossary are cited. 

t Until the New Eng. Diet, or a similar work with full citations is 
completed, often it cannot be certainly known whether a word is an 
obsolete New Eng. word or simply a Middle Eng. one that never really 
survived into New Eng., i.e. into the XVIth cent. 

X Our thanks are due to the skill and patience of the printers, 
Messrs. J. S. Gushing & Co. 

§ As a rule, the classification of the declensions, conjugations, and 
of the genders refers only to the OE., and sometimes only to the WS. 


Braune Sammlung Kurzer Grammatiken Germanischer Dialekte, 
Sievers' Gram, of OE. being one of the series, and in Dr. Joseph 
Wright's Primers, fit the glossary conveniently to serve for ordi- 
nary grammatical purposes. If these helps are not sufficient for 
a beginner or for one preparing for examinations by himself, the 
abundant references to the Sievers or Sievers-Cook Grammar will 
supply every need for OE., and make it possible to work out the 
ME. For those desiring one grammar covering the OE., ME., and 
NE., the old standard. Dr. Morris' Historical Outlines of Eng. Acci- 
dence, Macmillan & Co., with some emendations by a teacher, might 
be available. The most recent and satisfactory English work for 
the whole field, Mr. Henry Sweet's New English Gram., Vol. I., 
abridged as a Short Historical Gram, and even as a Primer, made 
it seem unnecessary, in connection with the several grammatical 
helps in the Reader just enumerated, to include an outline of 
grammar in our introduction.* 

The glossary is Janus-faced, looking backward from OE. to 
primitive forms as well as forward from OE. to present ones. 

The etymologies indicated in the most condensed way in the 
brackets following the classification of the words enable one to 
trace them to their original roots and sometimes meanings. " WT.," 
"only T." or the extension to "I.-E." may be suggestive as to the 
vocabulary of the period named and of the people's history and 
thought. In the main, the etymologies are the well-accepted mod- 
ern ones, resting on phonological demonstrations and historical 
verification. In uncertain etymologies, none is given, or to test the 
student, there is offered, with a query, a supposed possible tradi- 
tional or recent theoretical etymology and oftentimes an alterna- 
tive, especially when called for by the books of reference used.f 

The ME. words have a generic classification, and are easily recognized 
by the type used or by the ME. prefixed {e.g. ME. av.) or by the nota- 
tions, sh. (substantive), w. (standing alone) (= weak verb). 

* For Hist, of Eng. Lang., cf. Champney's, Macmillan & Co., 1893 ; 
Kluge, Paul's Grundriss, I. 780; new ed. of Lounsbury announced. 

t The author only submits these for consideration, and in no way 
commits himself to them {e.g. under ce/re, Hempl's a 4- huri, Mod. 
Lang. N., November, 1889, Acad. Nos. 1024, p. 564, 1045, p. 472, or 
Sk. 259; far better & -\- feore, v. "ever" in New Eng. Diet.). The 
student is warned against the temptation, which the author is aware, 


Sometimes simple phonological equations, sometimes recondite 
ones, are worked out, and again nothing but the material for 
phonological problems is found. The design is to furnish exam- 
ples to the student and to teach him to solve them.* Here aids in 
the way of references to authorities abound, wherein the same 
problem is done in detail, or the law set forth or discussed. Many 
of these references are for advanced students. Constant refer- 
ence, however, has been made to Professor Skeat's Principles of 
Eng. Etymology as the only late general book in English compass- 
ing the entire field. 

Some material with which to confirm the etymologies, and for 
practice in phonological problems, or for practical use in acquiring 
OE. when one knows some of the related languages, and vice versa, 
appears in the parentheses containing illustrative cognate words 
from related languages. For the benefit of the many prepared in 
them, Greek and Latin are given as the most convenient illustra- 
tion of the pre-Teutonic pointing to the Indo-European. But 
chiefly the correspondences are selected from the Teutonic branch 
of the Indo-European family of languages. Generally, when found, 
a representative from each of the three sub-divisions (Gothic, Old 
Norse (Icelandic), and West Teutonic) of the Teutonic branch is 
recorded. Naturally there will be a number of the closely related 
cognates in West Teutonic, composed as it is of OE., Old Frisian, 
Old Saxon, sometimes called Old Low German, Old Dutch, and 
Old High German. In the parenthesis Middle High German and 
Modern German succeed OHG. to illustrate parallel OE., ME., 
and NE., and to complete the bridge for the modern student 
between German and English. 

The beginner naturally will omit the bracketed and parentheti- 
cal etymological matter. His eye will pass rapidly from the form 

despite his utmost care, has in some cases overcome him (cf , * cwiman 
under cuman), to follow any authority whatsoever, without thinking 
out every step after him. 

* A concise and practical help is Mayhew, Synopsis of OE. Pho- 
nology, Clarendon Press, 1891. I might have omitted the phonological 
part of my work, if it had not been far advanced before Mr. Mayhew' s 
book reached me. The advantage, however, of having the phonologi- 
cal equations in connection with texts and glossary is self-evident. 


and classification of the word wanted, at or near the beginning of 
each article, to the meanings which stand at the end of the article, 
unless an idiom, citation of a difficult passage, a compound, or a 
verbal sb. is appended. 

Verbal substantives, indeed, as a rule, are to be sought under 
their verbs. 

The meanings, which may be called for, are roughly arranged 
in the order of the development of their senses. 

The references at the beginning of each special introduction are 
generally to popular and accessible works. Morley = Morley, 
Heury, English Writers, Cassell &Co., 1887-90 ; Brink = Bernhard 
ten Brink, Hist, of Early Eng. Lit., trans, by H. M. Kennedy, H. 
Holt & Co., 1883; EE. T. = Early Eng. Text Society' s publications ; 
Brooke, EE. Lit. = Stopford Brooke, Early Eng. Lit., Macmillan 
& Co., 1893 ; Korting, Grund. = Korting, Gustav, Grundriss zur 
Geschichte d. Eng. Lit., Miinster, 1887; Wiilker, Grund. = Wiilker, 
Richard, Grundriss zur Geschichte d. Angelsdchsischen Litteratur, 
Leipzig, 1885. 



— yea able to expreffe any hard conceit whatso- 
euer with great dexterity ; waighty in waighty 
matters^ merry in merry, braue in braue. . . . 
— but fure to neglect the beginnings of fuch an 
excellent tongue, will bring vpon vs the foule 
difgrace not onely of ignorance, which hath 
beene afore touched ; but of extreme ingratitude 
toward our famous ancestors, who left vs fo 
many, fo goodly monuments in this their old 
Dialect recorded.^ 

Professor Zupitza, in the first edition of the text of this Reader 
(Wien, 1874), has the honour of being one of the first of modern 
scholars t to reintroduce the correct and historic use of the term ' Old 
English' in place of ' Anglo-Saxon.' Anglo-Saxon, as a name for the 
language of the Teutonic inhabitants of Britain from their settlement 
there in the Vth cent, until about 1122, is a " modern antiquity." 
From the earliest times the language was known as ' English ' ; c/. 
in our text, on englisc VIII, 17, 18, 74, 75, 101, also p. 39 ; englisc 
gewnt VIII, 68, 72; in engliscgereorde IX, 7; " onn ennglisshe 
spaeche" XVIII, 14, and 93 "Hss ennglisshe boc" ; "^esne englissce 
lai" XIX, 167. At the time of the revival of English studies in the 

* William L'Isle, Divers Ancient Monuments in the Saxon Tongue : 
London, 1638. 

t In England at about the same time Henry Sweet advocates " Old 
English," Trans, of Phil. Soc. 1873-1874, Hist, of Eng. Sounds, 1874, 
pp. 157-161. 



XVIth and XVIIth centuries we find " our ancient English Tongue," 
"ancient Saxon" (Wiilker, Orund. 10), or simply "Saxon." Not 
until the beginning of the XVIIIth cent, did "Anglo-Saxon" appear 
in use for the language, and then it was in the Latin titles of Hickes 
and Somner. The word was not current in this sense in English until 
this century. In 1826, Bosworth still gives the term as an alternative 
in the title of his Grammar of the Primitive English or Anglo-Saxon 
Language. Despite the fact that modern tradition and such eminent 
authorities as Grein,* Wiilker,! SkeatJ (in part), and March § have 
lent their sanction to "Anglo-Saxon" as against "Old English," the 
use of the latter term has spread rapiclly. Sound historical, philologi- 
cal, and practical reasons assure its early and complete victory. 
" Anglo-Saxon" will remain in its original usage as a political name, 
and "Old English" as a linguistic term. 

In the history of the language and literature we have consistently 
three major periods. (1) Old Eng., Vllth cent, to c. 1154 (c/. Introd. 
XV, 2, Earle, A.S. Lit. 247). (2) Middle Eng., c. 1154 to c. 1509. 
(3) New or Modern Eng., c. 1509 to the present. These major periods 
may be subdivided into minor periods by the addition of Early, Middle, 
or Late, e.g., Early Old Eng. (EOE.), etc. For this scheme of periods || 
wrought out and applied briefly to the language and literature in a little 
reference-work which might well be supplementary to the present one, 
see Chart of Eng. Lit., ed. by MacLean, pub. by Macmillan & Co. 

A specimen of language or literature must be classified not only 
chronologically, but also locally. We are compelled to recognize dia- 
lects (c/. Sk. ch. IV). In OE. the principal dialects are (1) the 
Anglian group, which includes the Northumbrian in the north and 

* Grein's reply to Z., Anglia (1878), I, 1-5. 

t Wulker, Alt. Eng. [for ME. from 1250-1500] Lesebuch (1874), 

t The usage in his Etymological Diet. ; cf . Principles of Eng. Ety- 
mol. I, 22 n., 40, 43, Anglo-Saxon = dialect of Wessex before the 

§ Trans. Am. Philol. Ass. IV, 97 ; cf ' Anglo-Saxon ' Cent. Diet. In 
favour of OE. v., among m.iny, Trautmann, Anglia, III, 583, Sievers- 
Cook, OE. Gram., Freeman, Norman Conq. I, 529-542, Sweet in note 
above, Bradley (Stratmann), Middle Eng. Diet.; cf 'English' in the 
Philol. Soc.'s New Eng. Diet, and also 'Anglo-Saxon' (Dr. Murray). 

II For a similar terminology, v. Sweet's New Eng. Grammar, cf. 
Professor Garnett, Mod. Lang. Notes, June, 1890. 


the Mercian in central and particularly east central England, (2) the 
West Saxon in the west and south, and (3) the Kentish in the south- 
east. In Middle Eng. the continuations of these dialects are known re- 
spectively as Northern, West Midland, East Midland (to which modern 
standard Eng. is most closely related), Southern, and Kentish. 


1. A general history of the period from 1100 to 1500 is given by 
A. Brandl, Eng. Lit. Geschichte, Paul's Grundriss der Germ. Philolo- 
gie, II, Abschnitt VIII, pp. 610-718. For the ME. dialects v. Sk. 
§§ 24-30 ; Sweet, Hist, of Eng. Sounds, 154, or, more concisely. New 
Eng. Gram. ; for ME. orthography, Sounds, 156. For the development 
of ME. prose v. Earl, Hist, of Eng. Prose, 395-423 ; Craik, Eng. Prose, 
Introd. by Ker, 10-18. 

2. After the introduction of Christianity in the Vlth century, the 
Norman Conquest is the most momentous event in the history of the 
English language and literature. The Norman-French dialect became 
at once the language of fashion and of power. The romance spirit 
and heroic measure of the Song of Roland * which Taillefer, the jon- 
gleur, struck up as the barons went into battle at Hastings, entered 
into the English speech. Rime, rhythm, and assonance assumed their 
place beside accent and alliteration. The foreign monks, Lanfranc, 
Anselm, Osberne, Hugo, and Robert de Melun introduced a new 
religious literature. A new science was created by Athelard. Flor- 
ence, Simeon, William, and Geoffrey renewed the writing of history. 
Meanwhile there was no pause in the English mind. Wandering glee- 
men kept alive the songs and ballads of the people. Prose survived 
in the Chronicle till 1154. Homilies, which maintained the charac- 
teristic English moral sentiment, date from the Xllth century. The 
Moral Ode was written about 1170. The Proverbs of Alfred were 
compiled about 1200. The Orrmulum (1200) is almost entirely Eng- 
lish. Layamon (1150-1210), while drawing from a French source, 
wrote his Brut in the language of the people and with the purpose and 
in the measure of Caedmon's paraphrases. In 1258 a government 
proclamation was put forth in English as well as in French. In 1266 

* La Chanson de Poland, par L6on Gautier : an English trans, 
into iambic and anapsestic metre by J. O'Hagan, Lond. 1883. The 
orig. metre is decasyllabic, with assonance or vowel rime. 


an English writ was issued, summoning the commons to sit by the 
side of barons and ecclesiastics in the parliament of the realm. By 
the middle of the XlVth century the Norman speech had nearly died 
out in England. The victories of Edward III. (Crecy, 1346 ; Poitiers, 
1356) had awakened the people to national self-consciousness and 
pride. In 1386 it was complained that the children of grammar 
schools knew no more French than their left heel. In 1362 an act 
was passed by which English was made the language of law pleadings. 
In the Bomance of King Alexander, and especially in the works of 
Robert of Brunne (1272-1340) of the East Midland district, the 
"King's English" had begun to rise into form. It conquered Lon- 
don, Cambridge, and Oxford. Wiclif (1324-1384), Langland (1332- 
?1395), the author of the Pearl (c. 1330-1400), and Gower (1325-1408) 
helped to give it permanent shape. The poems of Chaucer (? 1340- 
1400) are the literary result, the consummate flower, of two great 
nationalities. Finally, Lydgate (c. 1370-1450), the most popular poet 
of his time, following his master Chaucer, but much more modem in 
language, by making the new speech the possession of all, made 
possible the splendid style of the Renaissance and of the Reformation. 

Vllth cent., Nh. Ms., c. 737. Text, p. 1. 

1. Brooke, EE. Lit. ch. XV ; Morley, II, 71-116 ; Brink, 39-46, 
App, A ; Bright, Early Eng. Ch. Hist.^ 284-288 ; EE. T., No. 83, Oldest 
Eng. Texts, ed. by H. Sweet, p. 148, also see No. 95, Miller's OE. Baeda, 
p. xvii ; Zupitza, tfber den h. Cddmons in Zeitschrift f. Deutsclies Alt. 
XXII, 210 ; Stephen's Diet. Nat. Biog. VIII, 197, art. by H. Bradley, 
also Acad. No. 829, p. 197, of the name Csedmon, vs. Morley, Cook 
(^Mod. Lang. Ass. Am. VI, 9); Wulker, Grund. 117-120. 

2. Of Caedmon, the "Father of English Song," the first record is 
the account of Baeda {cf. Selection IX). He dictated the Hymn at 
the abbey of "Whitby about 670. His work is a type of the new spirit 
called into life from the people by Christianity. According to Baeda, 
Csedmon' s poetry was in the style of hymns, embracing epic and 
didactic biblical matter. It is not probable that any of his writings, 
in anything like their original form, are extant, except the Hymn. 
For the WS. version see Selection IX. Baeda gives a Latin prose ver- 
sion {Hist. Eccl. IV, 24 = 23 Ms. No.): nunc laudare debemus aucto- 
rem regni caelestis, potentiam creatoris et consiliam illius, facta patris 


gloriae, quomodo ille, cum sit aeternus deus, omnium miraculorum 
auctor exstitit ; qui primo filiis hominum caelum pro culmine tecti, 
dehinc terram custos humani generis omnipotens creavit. Baeda adds : 
hie est sensus, non autem ordo ipse verborum quae dormieus ille cane- 
bat : neque enim possunt carmina, quamvis optime composita, ex alia 
in aliam linguam ad verbum sine detrimento sui decoris ac dignitatis 

3. In the Ms. the hymn is crowded into three lines and is unpunc- 
tuated. The fourth line of the Ms., beginning "primo," etc., is in the 
same hand. 1. — The Ms. has the a in hergan over an under-dotted 
= expunged e. 3. — uundra partitive gen. after huaes ; huaes gen. 
after or. 4. — Note the number of appositives in the hymn, e.g. , 
dryctin with he ; Ms. yc in dryctin from in. 7. — Ms. first d in 
middun- from n. 9. — Ms. fold^ =foldu, Nh. ace. sg., = WS. foldan 
(276, N. 2; 186; 128, N.). 


?735. Nh. Ms. IXth cent. Text, p. 2. 

1. Brooke, EE. Lit. 339, 344-351 ; Morley, II, 140-157 ; Brink, 34- 
37 ; Bright, EE. Ch. Hist.^ 335-338, 447-450 ; EE. T. No. 83, Oldest 
Eng. Texts, ed. Sweet, 149 ; for Baeda' s life see Diet. Nat. Biog. ; 
Teuffel ed. Schwabe, Gesch. Bom. Lit. p. 1305 ; Mayor and Lumby's 
Bedae Hist. Eccl. Ill, IV, pp. 1-16 (Ebert's account), and see Ebert's 
list of biographies, p. 200 ; Baeda's works, idem., p. 171 ; for the story 
of the Ms. besides Hattemer, v. Gesch. d. Bihl. von St. Gallen von 
Weidmann, St. Gallen, 1841, p. 236 ; Wtilker, Ginind. pp. 144, 146. 

2. Baeda, "the Venerable," the "Father of English Learning," was 
born at Wearmouth in 673. He was educated * first .at Wearmouth 
under Abbot Benedict, and afterwards at Jarrow under Ceolfrid. The 
man is revealed in his words, "I ever found it sweet to learn, or 
to teach, or to write." t His whole life was spent in the quiet of 
Jarrow ; here he died on the eve of Ascension Day, May 25, 735. f 

* On the education of an A.S. boy v. Turner''s Hist, of the A.S. 
Bk. VII, ch. 2, and v. ^Ifric's Colloquium. 

t "Semper aut discere, aut docere, aut scribere, dulce habui." 
Hist. Eccl. V, 24. 

X Lingard, ^.*S^. Ch. II, 196 ; Bright, p. 335 ; but cf. Mayor and 
Lumby, p. 401. 


Cuthbert, the abbot of Jarrow and a pupil of Baeda's, in a letter to a 
fellow-student, describing as an eye-witness his master's death, incor- 
porates in OE. the Death-song. In the introductory sentence Cuth- 
bert writes : amonebat et in nostra quoque lingua, ut erat doctus in 
nostris carminibus, dicens de terribili exitu animarum e corpore. 
After the song he. adds: quod ita latine sonat: "ante necessarium 
exitum prudentior quam opus fuerit nemo existit, ad cogitandum vide- 
licet antequam hinc profiscatur anima, quid boni vel mali egerit, 
qualiter post exitum judicanda fuerit." (Mayor and Lumby, p. 177 ; 
c/. p. 403 for Eng. copies of the song in Mss. of the Xlllth and XlVth 
cents. ) 

3. 2. — Ms. thar with / inserted ; Mm dat. of object of interest = 
possessor ; sie opt. to express futurity, impers. construction = "he will 
need." 3. — Ms. hin ionge. 4. — gastae dat. after doemid. 5. — Ms. 
uueorthe, opt. (361) of weorSan. 


Not later than the middle of the Vlllth cent. Nh. Text, pp. 2-4. 

1. Brooke, EE. Lit. 336-339 ; Morley, II, 174-175, 237-243 ; Old- 
est Eng. Texts, EE.T. p. 125 ; of the cross, v. Anderson, Scotland in 
Early Christ. Times, 2d Series (1881), pp. 232-245; Stephens, Bunic 
Monuments, III, 436-439, 467 ; of Dream of the Eood, v. Ebert, Kon. 
Sdch. Gesell. d. Wiss. phil.-hist. Klasse, 1884, 81-93 ; Wiilker, Grund. 
134-140, 513. 

2. The verses marked a) are carved in runes upon a stone cross at 
Ruthwell, near Annan, Dumfriesshire. The cross is 17 ft. 6 in. in 
height, 24 in. by 19 in. at the base, tapering to 15 in. and 11^ at the 
top. Upon tl>e raised margins of the narrow faces are the runes. 
Within the panels framed by the margins are vines, with animals, 
flowers, and fruit. The broad faces have similar margins and panels, 
but with Latin inscriptions in Roman capitals and with bas-reliefs 
of Christ and others. 

The monument stood in the church at Ruthwell for centuries, but 
the General Assembly of the Kirk, in July, 1642, passed an order for 
its destruction as idolatrous. This order seems to have been but par- 
tially and reluctantly carried out in 1644. It lay broken in the manse 
garden until its re-erection in 1802 by the parish minister, Duncan. 
It now stands in the church behind the pulpit, having been declared 
a monument in 1887 under the Ancient Monument Act. 


Sweet holds that the inscription is a portion of the epilogue to the 
Mene, preserved entire in the Vercelli Ms., and consequently is the 
work of Cynewulf. That the verses are by Cynewulf was the opinion 
of Dietrich and Ten Brink, and the subjective character of the lines 
renders it not improbable. Ebert denies, however, that the Dream 
of the Bood is by Cynewulf. Stephens read one indistinct runic frag- 
ment Kadmon m(Bfaum]>o^ and interpreted it ' Csedmon me made,' 
which, if correct (but v. Cook, Mod. Lang. Notes, Mar. 1890, p. 154), 
may refer to the sculptor. Miss Stokes (Early Christ. Art in Ireland 
(1887), pp. 123-126), arguing from the style of art, dates the cross 
as late as the Xlth cent. But see a sufficient reply by Mr. Bradley 
(Acad. No. 833) and G. F. Browne (Acad. No. 834). Mr. Bradley 
almost anticipates and answers Prof. Cook's (Acad. No. 930) sugges- 
tion on linguistic grounds of a date as late as the Lindisfarne Gos. 
(c. 950). 

The interpretation of the fragmentary inscription is made easy by 
the use of the corresponding verses 6). These in a WS. form are 
from the Dream of the Bood, a poem attributed to Cynewulf (Brooke, 
EE. Lit. 437-443; Brink, 53; Zeitsch. f. D. Alt. Anzeiger, 60-69), 
preserved in the Vercelli book of the early part of the Xlth century 
(Morley, II, 194-198 ; Wtilker, Grund. 237). The title indicates the 
plan of the poem. In a dream, to the poet, oppressed with sin, 
appeared a wondrous tree, circled with light and adorned with gold 
and gems. Changing, it is seen covered with a crimson robe of blood. 
At last the wood spoke and told how the hero stripped himself and 
climbed the gallows when he would set mankind free. If Cynevnilf 
wrote this poem, his conversion might be dated, as Ten Brink suggests, 
from this vision. 

3. Verse 1. — a) geredce, prt., = on-geredce, v. ongierwan; on ace. 
motion, " onto," cf. 3 a) with dat. place where ; galgu cf Note I, 9 ; 
gistiga inf. = WS. gestigan (363. 1), likewise bug(a-n), 2 a) hcBlda(n} 
= WS. hyldan, bismceradu cf. 3 a) cwomu, apocope of n in prt. pi. 
contrary to Siev. (364, N. ; 186), but 4a) alegdun without apocope; 
hug (a ic ni dars)te Sweet fr, earlier editors supplies where runes are 
gone, save last e and part of a preceding letter ; b) hwce^re, Ebert 
notes as not Cynewulfian the repetition of this cj. 9 times in this short 
poem, whereas it occurs but once in Elene. Verse 2 a) ahof (?, indis- 
tinct before ic riicnce Stephens). mi]> = WS. mid, with instr. dat., 
cf. 3 a, 4 a, v. Miller, Baeda^s Eccles. Hist. Introd. xliv, xlvii ; bis- 
temid cf. -id II, 5. 3 a) f = cross, hnag(ic)? Sw. 



c. the middle of the Vlllth cent., WS. with traces of Anglian, Ms. c. the 
year 1000. Text, pp. 4-5. 

1. Brooke, EE. Lit. 134, 142-143, 371-378; Morley, II, 206-235, 
194-205; Brink, 51-59, 386, App. B; XVI in Exeter Book; Herzfeld, 
Die Rathsel d. Exeter' huches u. ihr Vei'fasser, Berlin, 1890; Korting, 
Grund. 48; Siev., Beitr. XIII, 1; Wulker, Grund. 165-170, 514, 147- 
164; Gollancz, Introd. to Christ. 

2. The literature which goes by the name of Cynewulf is still a 
matter of dispute. Cynewulf probably belonged to a guild of north- 
ern gleemen. He was a reader and writer of Latin, and knew Greek. 
It is highly probable that early in life he wrote the riddles attributed 
to him by earlier authorities. His authorship of them has been dis- 
puted or doubted (Trautmann, Anglia, Bdd. VI, VII; Ramhorst, 
Gedicht v. Andreas, etc., Berlin, 1885; Korting; Morley) with the 
effect to strengthen the evidence for Cynewulf (Anglia, X, 390, 564 ; 
Wiilker, K. JS. Ges. d. Wiss., phil.-hist. Kl. 1888, p. 211 ; Henry 
Bradley, Acad. No. 829, pp. 197, 198 ; Herzfeld). Concerning the 
predecessors in Latin of Cynewulf, v. Ebert, K. S. Ges. phil.-hist. Kl. 
1877, p. 20, pas. Ebert declares that no occidental nation has taken 
so great delight as the A.S., in the Vlllth cent., in the play of wit 
and fantasy which we call a riddle. Z. shows {D. Lit. Zsch. 1884, 
p. 872) that Prehn was wrong in seeking a Latin orig. for every riddle. 
The majority have their source in popular tradition. Of the riddles 
eighty -nine are extant, each being a complete poem. The ordinary 
answer to the present riddle is the "badger" (Dietrich, HaupVs Zts. 
XI, 465). The personification is carried through with noteworthy suc- 
cess. Brooke well says, " It is in these short poems — in this sympa- 
thetic treatment of the beasts of the wood, ... in this transference 
to them of human passions — that the English poetry of animals 
begins." One might see also anticipations of fable, allegory, and 
morality play. 

3. In the Ms. this riddle nearly covers a page, and is written con- 
tinuously, as if it were prose. Ond is always abbreviated (=7). 
The same is tnie in selections V and VI. 2. — Ms. swist for swift. 
3. — me dat. with force of possessive, " on my back." 4. — swylre sice 
= cj., " likewise on my cheeks"; swe on is Grein's and Z.'s emenda- 
tion (sustained also by the rarity of comparisons in EOE. poetry) for 
Ms. sweon, Ett(muller) suggested swine; 07i, Thorpe swyne; hUorum 


Ett. for Ms. leorum. 6. — grene Ett. for Ms. grenne; me . . . loUod, 
cf. 1. 11, the correlative and antithetical him . . . witod, and note the 
strophic effect gained by the epiphora. 9. — bold Thorpe for Ms. blod. 
11, — witod' — the first mark of punctuation in the Ms. 15. — bidan for 
Ms. biddan. 21. — dune Grein for Ms, dum, Gollancz says the u is due 
to the change of some other letter, and suggests the reading dumb, 
Thorpe suggested dim. 24. — gif se Thorpe for Ms. gifre. 29. — la^ge- 
winnum Ms. error for Idtfgewinnan f Z. In this riddle we have a 
remarkable number of airai, \i-ybfj,eva, in this case compounds not 
found elsewhere (Herzfeld), 1. 10 geogu^cndsl, 1. 13 f^rhtmdd, 1. 17 
fetSemund, 1. 23 wcelhwelp, 1. 24 nitSscea\>a, 1. 26 gegnpcetf, 1. 29 IdtSge- 


Vlllth cent., WS. with traces of Anglian, Ms. Xth cent. Text, pp. 5-8. 

1. Brooke, EE. Lit. ch. XVI ; Morley, II, 81-116 ; Brink, 40-44, 
App. A ; Earle, A.S. Lit. 14, 21 ; of sources, Vulg. Gen. ch. XXII, 
Ebert, Gesch. d. Lit. d. Mittelalters, 2d ed. (1889), I, 113, 118, Anglia, 
V, 124-133, Honncher, Anglia, VII, 469-496, VIII, 41-84 ; Wiilker, 
Grund. 120-134. 

2. The authorship of the poetical paraphrase of Genesis has been 
ascribed to Csedmon. The utmost that can be said with certainty is 
that what Sievers calls Genesis A, and Brink the Elder Genesis, is of 
the Csedmonian school. Genesis B (11. 235-370, 421-851, v. Brooke, 
ch. XVII), containing the story of the fall of the angels and of man, is 
related to the Heliand (= Saviour), an Old-Saxon poem of the ninth 
century. Mr. Bradley suggests the possibility that the Heliand may 
have been founded on the orig. songs of Caedmon {Acad. No. 829, 
p. 197 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. VIII, 199). Genesis A closes with the his- 
tory of Abraham. For the Anglo-Saxon full of faith, the history and 
the poem culminate in the story of the sacrifice of Isaac. With this 
pathetic narrative, so told as to show that the Anglo-Saxon was not 
without dramatic powers, the Genesis A ends. Of ME. mystery plays 
on the same subject, see Mod. Lang. Notes, April, 1890. 

3. 2849. — gewit, "set out," as often with the infin. of a vb. of 
motion, feran. 2850. — Idstas lecgan = "to make tracks" = "jour- 
ney," lecgan infin. with gewit. 2851. — Isaac, Ms. always isMc, as also 
in selection XIII. 2854. — hricg, "ridge," "back," for Ms. hrincg, 
"ring," an emendation enforced by the context; hean = hea(h)an, v. 
heah. 2860. — frean, gen. sg., for Ms. frea. 2861. — his waldend (for 


waldende, Thorpe) is preferable to hces [v. hoes'] waldendes, Bouter- 
wek's emendation, which Kolbing (Germ. XX, p. 363) thinks worthy of 
consideration ; waldend = WS, wealdend. 2876. — ord drcemde, " arose 
the spear-point of the third day" is Brooke's poetical translation, 
referring to the " first gold edge of the sun as it emerges from the 
sea, like the triangular top of a glittering spear." 2877. — hea contr. 
of hea{h)e. 2878. — aldor = WS. ealdor, cf. in same " kenning " VI, 
124. 2890. — torht, Z. queries if it should not be torhtum. 2898. — 
hean^ v. note on 2854. 2899. — stowe supplied by Bouterwek. 2906- 
2907. — fyre nencan moeges dreore probably a corrupt text ; the emen- 
dations fall into two classes : (1) those changing fyre to the ace. /?/>, 
Bouterwek's fyr gesencan (or dsencan), "quench the fire," requires 
the least textual change, Z.'s query, fyr besprengan, best befits the 
sense of the passage; (2) those changing dreore to the ace. di'eor, 
Grein suggests fyre sengan . . . dreor, " with fire singe his son's 
blood," Kolbing (Germ. XX, 363) proposes on fyre sencan . . . dreor, 
Korner fijre swelgan ( = swallow) or sellan . . . dreor. Metrical ob- 
jections lie against the readings in (2). Dietrich defends the Ms. 
reading as a strong archaic usage, fyre dat. of the end of the motion 
implied in sencan {HaupVs Zts. XIII, 131). A literal translation full 
of vividness and in sympathy with (1), and Dietrich would be "cause 
the fire to sink [down] with his kinsman's (son's) gore." 2913. — 
Not sleah \>u as in the Ms. 2915. — an, v. unnan. 2920. — leofre 
better leofra (Grein). 2931. — onhread (v. * onhreodan) found only 
here, and its inferred sense led Thorpe to propose onread, " reddened," 
Dietrich (Zs. X, 337), on, prp. with byrne-, read with next 1. 2932. — 
reccendne va. of recendne, Grein. 2934. — sceWa supplied by Grein, 
sW and oer, cf. B6owulf mr and sic! 1. 2500 ; for verbal correspondences 
with other poems v. Mod. Lang. Notes, June, 1890. 


? Beginning of IXth cent., WS. with traces of Anglian, Ms. c. beginning 
Xlthcent. Text, pp. 8-11. 

1. Brooke, EE. Lit. 332-336 ; Morley, II, 180-192 ; Brink, 46-47 ; 
trans, by Garnett (1889) ; ed. 2 by Cook, 1889 ; Foster, Quell, u. 
Forsch. LXXI, studies in metre, lang., and style; Wiilker, Grund. 

2. The Judith originally must have numbered about 1400 lines, 
divided into 12 cantos. Only 349^ lines, 13| lines more than the last 
three cantos, are preserved in the unique Ms. with the Beowulf. The 


author is not known. Dates of the composition of the poem given by 
distinguished scholars vary from the close of the Vllth cent. (Stephens, 
Hammerich, Ebert) to the opening of the Xlth cent. (Groth, Kluge, 
Luick, V. Beitr. IX, 422 pas. and XI). Professor C(ook) assigns the 
date as about 856. This and several accompanying ' ingenious con- 
jectures ' are ably controverted by F(oster) (Quell, u. Forsch. LXXI, 
5-9), though he confirms Professor C.'s theory that the piece is nearer 
to the school of Cynewulf than to that of Csedmon. F. in turn sug- 
gests the years 915 to 918 and a Mercian origin. In the light of all 
the arguments up to the present time, one may still venture, with 
Brink (p. 50), to place the probable date near the close of the ' great 
and really productive period (between the years 650 and c. 825) of 
OE. religious poetry ' which arose among the Angles. 

A comparison of our verses with their source (v. Vulg., cf. Eng. 
Apocrypha, Judith, chs. XIII-XV) will show the art and originality 
by which a pious Hebrew narrative was transformed into a Teutonic 
' dramatic epic' 

The Jewish heroine, a rich widow, is changed into a Christian 
' wise ' and ' radiant virgin.' To save her country and her chastity 
as well, in a tragic tent-scene, she beheaded the ' heathen hound ' 
Holofernes. With the passing of his soul to hell, canto X ends. 
Our selection, fit XI of the Ms., tells of the return of Judith and her 
maid with the head of Holofernes to their city Bethulia, of the exhor- 
tation to the burghers by the sight of the head as a token of victory 
to arm and sally forth, and of the attack at the dawn upon the 

3. 123. — ludith, I here prob. = front g (g, j, i, NE. y), but alliterates 
with back g, cf. 1. 132, 127. — H follows on, 1. 129, as Sw(eet) notes. 
128. — Cf. Note V, 2878. 132.— The only " expanded line " in fit XI, 
though there are 65 J such 11. in the rest of the poem. 144. — ludithe 
Ms., better ludith G(rein). 149. — R(ieger), followed by Sw. and C, 
transposes these two half-verses ; hyrig is always monosyllabic, Beitr. 
X, 478; faran for gdn?, Z. 150. —/or/ffo/i Ms. from forl^ten. 155.— 
gecycSed, the unsyncopated form is Anglian, cf. 1. 167 dreted, Beitr. X, 
459 j?as. 158. — 16 leane well supplied by Z. 160. — hdlige for metrical 
purposes syncopate i as generally in cases of middle unprotected 
vowels after a long radical syllable. This is, however, not sufficient 
ground for changing the Ms. as C. has done. Syncopate thus, 1. 179 
hcet^enes, 1. 195 eoioere, 1. 203 hdligan. 162-166. — folc . . . geonge: to 
appreciate the poetic powers of the author (1) cf. his prosaic orig. At 
concurrerunt ad earn omnes, a minimo usque ad maximum, (2) note 


the 'intensification expressed by the heaping of words in the same 
cases and tenses,' F., (3) the tone-colour, (4) the harmony, (5) the 
rimes, (6) the use of the same alliterating letter in 11. 164, 165. 
165. — Hodnes Thw(aites) for Ms, \>eo^nes ; \>eodnes mcegcS, 'maid of the 
(people's) prince' (i.e. God), one of the many fitting and apparently 
original (for many of them are not found elsewhere) synonyms or 
"kennings" used by our poet. The fitness of this particular "ken- 
ning" for Judith, enforced by the immediate context about the people, 
is enhanced by reference to 1. 91 ];>earlm6d Hoden gumena, ' stout 
hearted prince of men,' a "kenning" for God in a daring antithesis 
to the same words, 1. 6Q, applied to Holofernes, cf. also 1. 208 \)eod- 
guman, ' of the people,' a ' ' kenning ' ' for retainers, soldiers, with the 
same root as Hoden. 173. — \>(jes hereivdetian Mafod^ cf. 1. 126, epical 
repetition. 179. — starian better than Ms. staridS, Thw. 180. — Holo- 
fernus alliterates without change to Olofernus as li., Ett., Sw. ; un- 
accented as always in Judith, cf. 1. 228. 190. — arfoest cyning one of 
the six "kennings" for God the Father not in other poems, F. 
197. — hafatS unsyncopated is Anglian, Beitr. X, 471. 200. — stdpon 
with chief stress ? F., cf. 1. 212. 201. — gesWas, cf. L. com-es, ' official 
attendants, retainers ' (v. Earle's Land Chart., Introd. Ixv-lxxv) ; sige 
supplied by Ett. 206. — walde, Ang\\a,n. 209. — ac, eac? G. 217.— 
cescplegan, "kenning" found only here, and perhaps used with a grim 
sense of humour. 227. — stdpon epical repetition, cf. 11. 200, 212. 
234. — ricne G., better than rice Ms. 


805-810 (806*?). Kentish. Text, pp. 11-13. 

1. Morley, II, 272, 322 ; Brink, 71 ; Earle, A.S. Lit. 167-168, Land 
Charters, Introd. ; EE. T. No. 83, OE. T. ed. Sweet, 421-460, text 443 ; 
Turner, Hist. II, ch. IV, Appen. iv ; of drinks and cookery. III, Bk. 
VII, ch. IV ; Lingard, II, 63-71 ; for the hist, devel. of early Eng. 
prose V. Earle, Eng. Prose, 371-404, and Craik, Eng. Prose, I, Introd. 
by Ker; for collections of charters cf. Kemble's (1839-48), Thorpe's 
(1865), n.459; Birch's (1885); for laws, cf. R. Schmid, Die Gesetze 
d. A.S. (1858); Thorpe, Ancient Laws (1840) ; Kemble, The Saxons 
in England (1849); Adams, Essays in A.S. Law; Stubbs, Selfct 

* Cf Hadden and Stubbs, Councils, III, 559, 667, 568. 


Charters and Const. Hist. Eng. ; Cook, Extracts A. S. Law ; Wal- 
ker, Grund. 399-401. 

2. Charters and laws are among the oldest monuments of English 
prose (y. Earle, Eng. Prose, p. 371). Under ^thelberht, King of 
Kent, the first Eng. code was formulated (c. 600), but the orig. is 
not extant. In Wessex our first code falls in the reign of Ine (c. 690). 
The Mercian laws (the orig. lost) were codified under Offa. Alfred's 
important code was made c. 890. The earliest genuine charters date 
from the end of the Vllth cent. They are written in Latin, with a 
few names in English. Our specimen is one of the first charters 
wholly in English. An ealdorman and his wife, for religious consider- 
ations, give to the cathedral in Canterbury land at Stanstead, Kent. 
Wnlfred the archbishop, the party of the second part, engages that 
mass shall be said yearly for their souls, that doles shall be given, and 
a feast kept. He gives specific and interesting directions for the per- 
formance of the aforesaid things. 

3. 1. — t = sign of the cross ; the long and loose sentence, with its 
legal pleonasms, anticipates the beginning of Eng. prose. 9. — Expunge 
one mon, Z. ; a desirable grammatical correction ; but does not the 
Ms., keeping the second mow, give us the tautology of everyday 
speech? 22. — det K. = WS. J^set, cj. 28. — ciricican read cirican. 

c. 893. EWS. Text, pp. 13-16. 

1. Morley, II, 264-294 ; Brink, 67-83 ; Green's Short Eng. Hist. 
80-84 ; Earle, A. 8. Lit. 186-206 ; Life by R. Pauli, trans, by Thorpe 
(Bohn's Lib.); Greg. Past. Care, Sw. in EE. T. Nos. 45, 50 ; for EWS. 
phonology and gram. v. Sw. xxi-xlii and Altwestsdchsische Gram. 
Cosijn, Haag (1888) (D. Lit. Z. Nr. 3, 1884); Wiilker, Grund. 387- 
415, esp. 401-403. 

2. "Alfred found Learning dead | And he restored it, 1 
Education neglected | And he revived it, | The laws power- 
less I And he gave them force, | The Church debased | And 
HE raised it, I The Land ravaged by a fearful Enemy | From 
which he delivered it. I Alfred's Name will live as long | 
As mankind shall respect the Past. | " This inscription on the 
base of his statue, erected in 1877 at Wantage, his birth-place, ex- 
presses the judgment of history upon the man. The great Anglian 
poetic era having closed, Alfred inaugurated in Wessex the first great 
epoch of Eng. prose (cf. Eng. Prose, Earle, 374-376; Craik, Introd.). 


Pope Gregory the Great (d. 604, cf. St. Gregory's day, Mar. 12th), 
who sent Augustine, the first archbishop of Canterbury, as a mission- 
ary to England, was considered the apostle of English Christianity 
and culture. From the beginning his works were influential upon 
the literature. His Liber Regulm PastoraMs, "a golden little book," 
brought by Augustine to England (v. VIII, 91), became in many lands 
"the standard of life and doctrine for bishops" (L. ed. by Bramley, 
R. H., 1874; cf. Gregory the Great (1879) in ''Fathers for Eng. 
Headers^''). These facts help us to understand why the Christian 
vElfred made the translation of the Pastoral Care one of the books 
in his Educational Library. We may enter into the feelings which 
caused him to fall (in verse, indeed, 2^ fall!) into a poetic strain at 
the close of his preface {v. VIII, 91-106). 

The preface is a letter of JElfred to his bishops, designed to accom- 
pany each copy of the Pastoral Care, which he meant to send to every 
bishopric in his kingdom. The letter is one of the few original pro- 
ductions of the king and is preserved in Mss. that his eyes may have 
rested upon. It is of the utmost value for linguistic, biographical, and 
historical purposes : — 

'* And hereof me thinkes I heare already the learned King Alfred thus 
expojtulating and complaining: . . . Haue I tranjlated with my owne 
hand the godly Pastorall of Saint Gregory, with many his learned Homi- 
lies ; yea the whole Bible it /elfe ; haue I Jent copies of them to all my 
Churches, with many MancuJJes of gold, for the helpe and iucouragement 
of my Pajtors, and injtruction of my people ; that all Jhould be lojt, all 
forgot, all grow out of knowledge and remembrance? that my Englijh in 
England, neede to be Englijhed ; and my tranjlation tranjlated ; while few 
now, and Jhortly perhaps none, Jhall be able to doe it? What negligence, 
what ingratitude is this ? What may be added more to griue a Saint ? " 

— L'lSl.E, Ancient Monvmcnts, p. 20. 

3. t =; cross. DECS, e^c, superscription = address of this (H(at- 
ton) Ms.) particular copy. 1. — Wdrferti in smaller letters in space 
orig. left for the address, e.g., U(niv. Libr. Cam.) Ms. has Wulfsige. 
2. — hate anacoluthon ; through amiability the informal 1 pers. sup- 
plants the official and formal 3 pers. hdted (= L. jubet salvere) 1. 1. 
6. — H. Ms. on fSam dagiim after folces but in another hand, though 
unnoted by Sw. and Br(ight). 7. — hiersumedon C(orpus Chr. Cam.) 
Ms., hyr- H., but y as oft. in hand of Xlth cent, in erasure in wh. 
orig. EWS. le (41 ; 33, 2 ; cf 22 N.) stood, as traces in other places 
show, likewise cf 1. 14 hie, 1. 38 ieldran, etc. ; her- Sw., Br. ; insert hu 
bef. hie Mss. C, J(unius' transcript). 9. — e5eZ, oetSel, J. 13. — don 


[= don'] bef. sc, C, J., and H., another hand ?, not in U. ; scoldon, 
without palatalization and with orig. force, ' owed.' 15. — swce to swa 
H. Ms., likewise 11. 20, 49, 50, 56, 59, 62, 77, 80, 81, 87. 30. —Read 
hcefdon with C, J., instead of lufodon IL, Sw., Br., wh. is scribe's 
error fr. lufodon above? 31. — tfd gemunde, after the first paragraph 
( = introduction) following the greeting and beginning (1. 2, me com 
. . . on gemynd) similarly to the others, the paragraphs are marked off 
by the repeated tid gemunde, 11. 44, 52, 70, The repetition preserves 
the unity of the composition and the atmosphere of pathetic appeal to 
historical associations. If the simple, unaffected, conversational style 
of this early specimen of Eng. prose may not wholly disarm adverse 
criticism, it must be admitted that the preface has, what De Quincey 
thought a late and rare merit in prose, a happy use of paragraphs. 
34. — gefyldce H., -da C, J., Sw., Br. 36. — ongiotan H. rarer (38) for 
ongietan (75, 3) C, J., cf. 1. 37 ge^iode for ge\>eode^ cf. 1. 52. 40. — giet 
'still,' in OE. temporal sense. 46. — eallos H. on in erasure, ealla after 
hefullan C, J., ealla he fullan Sw., Br. 47. — nanne later to ncenne H., 
Sw., Br. 53. — ebrisc- to ebreisc later hand H., ebreisc- J., U., Sw., Br. 
54. — creacas later hand to greccas H. 58. — odrce cristnoe to o^re cristna 
H., o'(Sra cristena C, J., Sw., Br. 59. — betre with ellipsis of 2d part of 
the comparison as still NE. ; low why change of num. ? 1. 24, }jw. 
60. — sumce to sume H., sume C, U., siima J., Sw., Br. 62. — gedon C, 
U., ge don H., J., ge d6n Sw. (i.e. with abrupt change of person, 2 pers. 
prn. with opt.), loe don Br. (meets the diflBculty of change of person, 
but simply outrages all the Mss.). The construction geddn, inf. with 
magon, fits the succession of similar constructions and in the immedi- 
ate context the use of mwgen, cf. gecndwan mcegen, 1. 66 bemcegen, 
and the sense, taking the clauses parenthetically, put Z.'s reading 
beyond doubt. 70. — 16 hieran hade ddn 'to take a higher order (rank).' 
71. — otSfeallen C, J. 84. — L. indicatorium aestel festuca (in hand of 
Xllth cent, on margin of C.)» cf. Glossary, doubtless as the L. shows 
cestel = book-mark ; mancessa for the value and a table of money v. 
Lingard, II, 428-445. 86. — do opt. 3 sg., doe J. 90. — o^e hwd otire 
[hoc'] bi write, lit. ' or some one may write thereby a second [book] ' 
= ' or some one may be making another copy.' 91-106. — " Curious 
doggerel," Sw. While the verses are mechanical they prove Alfred's 
poetic aspiration and the knowledge and admiration by his age of 
the native poesy of an earlier period. 97. — hord not appositive with 
snyttro as Sw. but with ryhtspell as Korner ; Gregory's C. P. as a 
matter of fact was a 'hoard' from his other books. 101. — min gen. 
after worda. 



Between 888 and 893?; WS. with Anglian (Merc. ?) influence, Xth Cent. 
Text, pp. 17-20. 

1. Cf. Introd. to II; Earle, A.S. Lit. 204 ; Teuffel, § 500. 3 ; Ebert, 
I, 597 ; Korting, Grund. §55 ; Bright, Early Eng. Church Hist. 282-288; 
for the Latin (Lib. IV, cap. xxiv = Ms. xxiii) ed. in modern form, v. 
Bedce Hist. Ecd. Ill, IV, Mayor and Lumby (Camb. 1879), pp. 141- 
144; Holder (Freiburg, 1882), 208-210; Moberly (Ox. 1869), 268- 
270 ; trans., Giles (Bohn, 1847), Gidley (Ox. and L. 1870) ; OE. Ver- 
sion, ed. Thomas Miller, EE. T. Nos. 95, 96 (1890-91). 

2. Baeda wrote in all forty-five treatises in Latin, which, together, 
form a nearly complete encyclopaedia of knowledge up to his time. 
His great work was the Ecclesiastical Hist, of the Eng. Nation. He 
comprehends the period between Caesar's invasion of Britain and the 
year 731. The earlier period to 597 is derived from Orosius, Gildas, 
and the life of St. Germanus. The latter part is authorized by docu- 
ments and verbal reports from his pupils and bishops. 

The OE. version does not name -^Elfred as its author, but unbroken 
tradition from the time of ^Ifric {Horn. St. Greg., Thorpe, II, 116), 
c. 994, ascribes it to him. Miller attempts to show from the linguistic 
forms, and especially from the prepositional usages, that the arche- 
typal Ms. was Mercian. The version was made by a Latin scholar, 
who often sacrificed English idioms to his Latin original (A. Schmidt, 
Dissertation, Berlin, 1889). The scholar or scholars may have been 
Mercians acting under orders from the King. 

3. 1. — \fysse Mss. C(orpus Chr. Cam.) 0(xford, Corpus Chr.) U(niv. 
Library Cam.), ^eosse Ms. B(odley, Tanner 10, the best of the 5 Mss., 
and genr. followed in our text), synderlice but syndriglice B. 4. — be- 
lumpon -en B., -on in era.snreO. 6, — scop-tr. sceop-TJ. 7. — geglmngde 
B., geglengende C, geglen(c)de O., geglencde U. 13. — froin m. . . . mon 
= Baeda's L. non ab hominibus neque per hominem, from Vulg., A. V. 
Gal. I, 1, cf. Goth, ni af mannam nih halrh mannan. 15. — gefuUumed 
B. 18. — his \>d cefcestan tungan, ace. instead of dat. through influ. L. 
orig.: religiosam ejus linguam decebant, Sw. ; gedeofanade B. 20. — \>e 
he wees gelyfedre yldo, ' that he was of advanced age ' ; gelyfdre ylde 
B. he om. B. 22. — intingan C, possibly the orig. text for L. " eum 
esset Isetitise causa decretum," ? for intinga, nom., cf. L. Mss. wh. 
om. "decretum," leaving " causa " in the nom. ; Sw. thinks the nom. 
came fr. the translator's error in taking the abl. "causa" for the nom. 
22. — sceolde(n) O., sceoldon C, -an U., sealde B. 23. — for forscome B. 


27. — scipene B. 29. — onslepte B. 31. — nemndeB.; Ceadmann C. 
32. — ondswarede B., U. 33. — \>eossum B. 34. — nciht om. B., wW hine 
B., WJ0U. 35. — meom. B. 36. — l^a before 1st ciooe& B. 37. — frumsceaft 
'first creation' antithetical to edsceaft the second or 'new creation,' 
Grein. 40. — we om. B. ; jpcere B., \>ara O., U. ; endehyrd(ji)es 0., -nesse 
B., C, U., by this word (to say nothing of the explicit \>dfers ond )>a word 
1. 39) doubtless suggested by the " ordo" of the clause following the 
hymn in the L. " Hie est sensus, non autem ordo ipse verborum," the 
translator emphasizes the fact that he does not translate the hymn from 
the L., but inserts the OE. original as then current. The currency 
may be inferred from the number of OE. copies of the hymn found 
in blank spaces of the L. Mss. of the Hist. {v. the list, Miller, p. xxi). 
The direct relation of the WS. version to the Nh. orig., c/. Selection I, 
was confirmed by Professor Napier's discovery {Mod. Lang. Notes, 
May, 1889) of a LWS. copy with ylda [= Nh. celda'] in place of eor^an 
1. 45. 41. — mi we C, U., (we) O., read without we as B., L(ondon, Otho 
B., XI) and Nh. ; sculan, prs. 1st pers. pi., not adhortative form of im- 
per. (362). 42. — metodes mihte C, O., U. 43. — ^oera for weorc O., U. 
44. — dryhten and 1. 47, O., Sw. ; or B., dor(d) O., ord C, U. ; astealde C, 
c/. Nh. 45. — gesceopO.,^w,,gescopV. 52. — g^ode to?/r3es, dat. instead 
of gen. after wyrdes by influ. of L. here and elsewhere (Eng. Studien, 
XV, 159), the un-Eng. construction or a reminiscence of the colloca- 
tion in the L. " verba Deo digni " may account for godes wordes songes 
B. 53. — iwwg'ere/a??- 'steward of the manor'; se om. B. 54. — eal- 
dormon here simply ' magistrate,' ' superior ' ; he ... he hine 1. 56, the 
common loose use of the same prn. in one or more successive clauses 
referring to different persons. 66. — B. J?a for \xjet ; het for heht C, O,, U. 
57. — him andweardum = L. viris prsesentibus, prop, a locative. 
58. — ]^>(Et for \)mtte B. 60. — H 'tuces him eallum gesegen imitation of L. 
visumque est omnibus, =* it seemed to them all,' whence 1. 61 wcere in opt. 
61. — hit for him B. 66. — morgenne B. 70. — ctnforlete B. ; munuchad B. 
IS.-— het C.,0. , v. Ib.—gemyngadeO. 76.—o(SercendeC.,JJ. n.-\>dom. 
B. 78. — wreotanB. 81. — boocB. 83. — hdlgan gewrites canones bdca, 
c. b. possibly a critic's addition to separate Csedmon's poems from 
others, but probably a twofold OE. expression for the single L. one 
^ sacrce scripturce'' like the two words, 1. 97, betynde ond geendade for 
the one L. ' conclusit,' this is the well-known usage of early NE. trans- 
lators, e.g. the " dissemble nor cloak," " assemble and meet together " 
oith.Q Prayer Book. 88. — wiitesB.; heofonlicanC.,0.,\]. 89. — god- 
cundan B., C. 90. — in for on B. 91.— gymde C, O., U. 96.— in for on 
B. 96. — welmeB.,L. wylme (y in ersiSureO.) C.,0.,\J. 97. — cendeB. 



938, WS. Xth cent. Text, pp. 20-21. 

1. Morley, II, 292-294 ; Brink, 90-92 ; Brooke, E. E. Lit. 132 ; 

Thorpe, A.S. Chron. 1,200-208; Earle, Two Sax. Chrons. 112-115; 
cf. ed. by Plummer (1889), 58-62; v. iEtlielstan, Diet. Nat. Biog. ; 
Turner, Hist. bk. VI, cli. II ; Green, Conquest of Eng. p. 254 ; trans- 
lations. Freeman, OE. Hist., Brink; Tennyson from a prose version by 
his son; Garnett cf. Judith; Korting, p. 35; Wiilker, Grund. 339-342. 

2. The song of ^thelstan's Victory or of the Battle of Brunanburh 
in the midst of the dry prose entries of this period of the Chronicle 
is an unexpected flash of genuine poesy, though it gleams in part by 
the reflection of the departed age of the national epic. The WS. King 
-(Ethelstan, who reigned from 925-941, and his brother Edmund (1. 5), 
aided by Mercians (1. 48), maintained the supremacy of Wessex by 
defeating, in "that great and famous battle at Brunanburh,"* the 
combined forces of the Nh. Danes and of the Scotch (Irish). The 
former were under Anlaf (= ON. 6lafr, 'Olaf ') (1. 51), one of their 
princes (1. 65) exiled to Ireland, and the latter under their aged leader, 
Constantine (11. 76, 77). The fugitives rowed away * over deep water ' 
(= a sea) to seek " Difelin " (? = Dublin). The history, the descrip- 
tions, and the names favour the location of Brunanburh on the west- 
ern coast, and not in Northumberland. The authorities, with few 
exceptions, from Ingulf (v. Turner, II, p. 182 n.) to Holderness, a 
loyal antiquary {Battle of Brunanburh., 1888), turn to Northumber- 
land. But Birch {Cartularium Sax. II, p. viii) says "Brunanburh 
is, with little doubt, a poetical alliterative synonym for 'Bruninga- 
feld,' " a name in a document of King ^thelstan dated 938, ' in which 
year the Angles gained the victory at a place called Bruningafeld.' t 
The place is pasture-land, once belonging to Taunton. Birch sug- 
gests, therefore, that Broomfield, five miles north of Taunton, near 
the mouth of the river Parret, may well be the site of Brunanburh. 
"The Parret would be an attractive creek for the Dublin Vikings 

*L. Ms. "F." (Xllth cent.) of the Chronicle: illud magnum et 
famosum bellum in Brunanbyri. 

t DCCCCXXXVIII, in quo anno bellum factum est in loco qui 
bruningafeld dicitur, ubi Anglis victoria data est de cselo. Birch, II, 
437. The orig. numbering of the Chron. (Plummer, p. 37 n.) places 
the battle in 938. 


crossing the Irish channel." It was a point of attack by Danes 
in 845. 

3. This song was preserved in five out of the seven Mss. of the 
Chronicle, and the other two Mss. have indications of a possible 
knowledge of the song (Plummer, 58 n.). We possess but four Mss. 
of the poem, the fifth we have in Wheloc's ed. of the Ms, (Otho B XI) 
destroyed with the exception of three leaves in the Cottonian fire of 
1731. The following variants of the four Mss. given in full, with the 
exception of differences in the use of accents and of \> and fJ, will give 
the advanced student an opportunity for practice in making a critical 
text. The beginner will find the Glossary with its references to this 
selection sufficient for his purposes. 

A .= Corpus Christi Coll. (Cam.) Ms. CLXXIII, "the Parker Ms." 
given in our text even with the circumflex accents of one hand and 
the acute accents of another. This is the " Winchester Chronicle," 
so called from its probable origin there. Some (Sw.) believe a part 
of it to be contemporary with Alfred. It is probably a transcript 
made at Canterbury (Earle, Plummer) . It extends from the inva- 
sion of J. C. to 1070. 

B = Cottonian, Tiberius A vi Ms., " the Canterbury Chron.," so called 
because it belonged to the monastery of St. Augustine there. It is 
probably from the latter part of the Xth cent. It extends from the 
incarnation to 977. 

C = Cott. Tib. B i Ms., "the Abingdon Chron.," named from its 
probable origin at that monastery, apparently written in the same 
hand to 1046. It extends from the invasion of J. C. to 1066. 

D = Cott. Tib. B iv Ms., " the Worcester Chron.," was probably writ- 
ten there in one hand to 1016. It extends from the incarnation to 
1079. For Ms. E v. selection XV. 

After VII another I erased A, VII-CD, VIII B. 1. — ae^estan B ; 
cing BC. 2. — drihten BCD. 3. — beag- B, -gyfa C. 6. — ealdor- 
lagne C; tyr D. 7. — geslogan B; sake B, secce D. 8. — swurda 
C; ecggum B. 9. — embe BC ; brunnanburh BC and by another 
hand A. 10. — bordweall BC, heordweal D ; clufon C. 11. — heowon 
C; lina B, -linda (from -linga D) CD. 12. — hamera D, o in part 
wormeaten B ; lafum BCD. 13. — eaforan B, aforan C, eoforan D; 
eadweardaes D. 15. — fram BCD; -magum B. 16. — hie B. 17. — 
gehwane B. 18. — ealgodan B, gealgodon C. 20. — heted D; crun- 
gon BCD. 21. — scotta leode BCD. 22. — scyp- C. 23. — feollon D. 
24. — daennede from dsenede another hand f A, dennade BC, den- 


node D. 25. — secga swate BCD. 26. — upp BC. 30. — candel BCD. 
32. _ f seo B, o\> seo C, o 5 se D. 33. — s^tle D. 34. — manig B, monig 
CD. 35. — garum f orgrunden B. 36. — giiman BCD ; norSerne BC, 
nor})8erne D. 37. — scyld BCD; sceoten BD. 38. — swylce BD ; 
scyttisc BCD. 39. — wigges BC ; rssd D. 40. — westsexe B, 7 wes- 
sexe C. 41. — andlangne BC, 7 langne D. 42. — eored cystum BCD. 
43. — legdon BC, Isegdon D. 44. — -Seodon C. 45. — heowon C ; heora 
D ; flyman BD, flymon C. 47. — my eel /or mylen D; scearpum BCD. 
49. — heardes /or he eardes BCD; hand- BCD. 50. — nanum from 
namum C. 51, — bara tSe for \>3d BC, ^?Bra )>e D. 52. — ear for sera 
BCD. 53. — libes C. 54. — gesohtan B, gesohton CD. 55. — f age D ; 
feohte D. 56. — lagon BCD. 57.— 'SgemB. 58. — chiingas B, cingas 

C, cyningas D ; geonge BC, iunga D, 59. — aswefde C. 60. — swylce 
D; seofone B, VII C. 62.-7 unrim C; herges BCD. 63. — scotta 
BCD. 64. — geflymed BCD. 65. — brego BCD. 66. — neade CD ; 
gebffidedBCD. 67. — staefne D. 68.— lytle BCD ; werode C. 69.— 
Great D; cnear on BCD. 69-71. — flot to fealene om. in D. 70. — 
cing B, cining C. 71. — fealone BC. 72. — generode CD. 73. — swylce 
BD. 76. — constantinusBCD. 77. — hal hylde D ; rinc BCD. 78.- 
hryman D. 79. — meccea B, meca C, mecga D. 80. — her /or he BC ; 
maga BC. 82. — on his folcstede C. 83, — forslegen B, beslegen C, 
beslaegen D ; sace B, s^cge D. 84. — forlset D. 86. — wundum for- 
grunden BCD. 87. — geongne BCD. 88. — gylpan BCD. 89. — fex 
BC, 90. — bill BCD ; geslyhtes B, geslihtes CD, 91, — inwitta BC, 
iiiwuda D. 92, — J^e BD. 93. — hyra CD ; -leafum D. 94. — hlihhan 
BC, hlybban D ; l^orftan BD. 95. — hie B, hi CD ; beado BCD. 
96. — wurdan B, wurdon CD. 98. — over culbod (by another hand?) 
\ cumbel A, cumbol /or culbod BCD ; gehnastes BCD. 99, — mittunge 

D. 102. — hie B, j^e hi D. 104. — eaforan B, aforan C ; plegodon CD. 
105. — gewiton CD ; hym C ; ]> in nor)>men above the line {by another 
hand?) A, nor'Smenn BC. 106. — negled cnearrum C, dseg gled onga- 
rum D ; ngegled from negled another hand A. 107. — dreori C ; da- 
ro«a B, dare)>a CD. 108. — dynges B, dyniges D. 109. — ofe(r) 
deopne D. 110. — dyflen B, dyflin C, dyflig D; secean B. 111.-7 
above the line by another hand A, om. BCD ; ira B, yra CD. 113. — 
swylce BD; gebro-Sor BD, bro^or C. 114. — bege D; setsomne BC, 
set runne D. 115. — cing : B, cing C ; ea^Seling D. 116, — sohtan B, 
117, — westseaxna BD, wessexena C, 118. — wigges BC ; first e in 
hremige over an under-dotted (= expunged) a A. 119. — leton C, Iseton 
D : hym behindon C, 120. — hrae another hand to hrsew A, hraw B, 
hra CD ; bryttigean B, brittigan C, brittinga D. 121. — salowig BCD. 



122. — hrefn C. 123.— hyrnet D. 124. — bone BCD; haso B, hasu 
CD ; wadan D. 126. — seses from seres D. 127. — cu-S heafoc D. 
128. — grege D. 181.— }pys BC, l^isne D; eglande B, iglande CD. 
132.— sefre BCD; gyta BC, gita D. 133. — afy lied B. 134 — >ys- 
sum BCD. 135. — swurdes C. 136. — secggea> B. 138. — sy»an B. 
139. — sexan B, sexe C. 140. — upp BC ; becomon CD. 141. — brade 
BCD. 142. — bretene C, britene D; sohton CD. 144. — wealas 
BCD ; ofercomon CD. 145. — arhwsete D. 146. — begeaton BCD. 


Xth to XlVth cent. Nh., Merc, LWS., ME. Kentish and East Midland. 
Text, pp. 22-27. 

1. Specific references will be found scattered through § 2 ; Kor- 
ting, §§ 127, 142 ; Wulker, Grund. pp. 495-497. 

2. The debt of the English language, and indeed of the Teutonic 
tongues, to versions of the Christian Scriptures from the time of the 
Gothic Bible in the IVth cent, is well known. Perhaps the poetical 
paraphrases, like the Genesis^ Selection V, were the earliest anticipa- 
tion of biblical translations in England. Naturally the Psalter (c/. the 
Merc, interlinear Cott. Vespasian A i) followed the Christian epics early 
in the IXth cent. In the next cent, came glosses interlinear in the 
Latin text. These tended to emancipate themselves and to become 
consecutive. Finally about the year 1000, " Bible translations became 
a feature of the time" (Earle, Eng. Prose, 380-383), We have ^1- 
fric's {cf. XIII, XIV) elegant and free rendering of portions of the 
Old Testament and, by unknown hands, the faithful and first (not 
counting Baeda's lost St. John) Eng. version of the Gospels. Prof. 
Skeat thinks that these Gospels were not much circulated, but it is 
noteworthy that we have them in ME. copies 150 years after their 
origin, and all told in six Mss. from different localities. The first 
Eng. version of the whole Bible was made from the Vulgate, often- 
times with too close rendering of the Latin, by Wiclif and his friends 
about the time when Chaucer was writing The Canterbury Tales. 
Wiclif's own work at least appears in the Gospels, which bear hints of 
his native Yorkshire though they approximate, even before John Pur- 
vey's revision of 1388, the East Midland from which ' standard ' Eng- 
glish was to spring. Wiclif, through Purvey and his successors, con- 
tributed directly, especially in the matter of th,e vocabulary, to the 
version of 1611 (A.V.). In view of the influence of the A.V., if 


Spenser had lived in the XlXth cent, he might have added the name 
of Wiclif when he wrote, 

"Dan Chaucer, well of English undefyled." 

In the text (1) Nero D iv = the Lindisfarne Ms., also called the 
Durham Book. The story of this Ms., almost as famous as the Book 
of Kells for its caligraphy, illuminations, and binding, is told up to his 
time by the glossarist in the colophon (v. Text, p. 39 ; Westwood, 
Facsimiles of Mss. , plates 12, 13, p. 34, also Palceographia Sacra Pic- 
toria ; Anderson, Scotland in Early Christ. Times, p. 149). The Latin 
text was copied by Eadfrith, bishop of Lindisfarne, 698-721. The 
interlinear Nh. gloss was made c. 950, probably near Durham by Al- 
dred, a priest, ^^thelwald, one of the artists employed upon the 
cover, succeeded Eadfrith in the see of Lindisfarne in 721 (Sk., pre/, 
to Mark, xi). 

(2) Rushworth = Ms. which John Rushworth, deputy clerk to the 
House of Commons during the Long Parliament, presented to the 
Bodley Lib, The Latin was written (in the Vlllth century ?) by a 
scribe who gives his name as Mac-regol and Macreguil. The OE, gloss 
is by two persons, as the colophon at the end of John shows: " De 
min briiche [= WS, briican] gibidde fore owun "Se '5as boc gloesde. 
fsermen tSaem preoste set harawuda. [= Harewood in the West Riding 
of Yorkshire] haefe nu boc awritne bruc a mi's willa symle mi^S so^um 
gileofa sibb is eghwsem leosost [first 's' not certain, = seolost?, Z.]." 
Sk. says {pref. St. John xiii-xiv, cf. Mark xii): " Examination proves 
that the two portions of the gloss are contemporary, and owe their 
differences to the different nativity of their writers. Farman glossed 
St, Matthew and commenced Mark, but suddenly stopped with 'sat,' 
in the middle of ii. 15 v. . . . The Lindisfarne gloss came to the 
knowledge of Farman when he had reached the end of Matt., and he 
began using it for Mark, till, tired of mere transcription, he stopped in 
the middle of a verse and left Owun to finish it. . . . The monastery 
of Harewood was near enough the Mercian border to include inmates 
from Mercia as well as Northern. Farman was of Mercian and Owun 
of Nh. extraction." In any event, the Matt, is substantially Merc, as 
the other Gospels {cf. XII) are Nh,, and both from the latter half of the 
Xth cent, (Svensson, Om .^praket i den f'orra {merciska) delen af Bush- 
worth-handskriften, I, Ljudlara, Goteborg, 1883 ; Brown, E. M., Diss.y 
Die Sprache d. B. Glossen zum Ev. Matt. u. d. Mercische Dialekt, 
Gottingen, 1890 ; Z, review in Archiv, bd, 85, 1st heft, of Otten's The 
Lang, of the B., etc., cf. Eng. Studien, XVI, 86). 


(3) Bodl. 441 = LWS. Ms. of about the year 1000, in the Bodley 
Library. In some sense this is the most important of the six Mss. of 
the Gospels, because the Royal Ms. (Bibl. Reg. I, A XIV, Brit. Mus.) 
was copied from it, whence the Hatton 38 (Bodl. Lib.) was taken. 
The Corpus 140 (Camb.), written by an ^Ifric at Bath before 1006, 
and Otho C I, perhaps related to Malmesbury, are coeval with Bodl. 
441. The Camb. (Univ. Lib. li, 2, 11) Ms. of c. 1050 came from 
Bishop Leofric's library at Exeter (c/. Exeter Book, Selec. IV). 

(4) Hatton 38 = Early ME. and Kentish Ms. (Bodley Lib.) of the 
Xllth cent. (Reimann, Die Sprache d. Mittelkentischen Evangelien, 
Berlin, 1883 ; for full description of the six Mss. v. Sk. The Gospels, 
etc., Mark, pref. v-x). Prof. Skeat indicates the pedigree of these six 
Mss. as follows : — 

Grig. Ms., lost. 

Corpus 140 Bodl. 441 Otho C 1 Camb. Univ. 


Hatton 38 

He concludes that the above represent an OE. version of the Gospels, 
made from a Latin text distinct from that of the Lindisfarne and 
Rushworth Mss. and independent of their Nh. and Merc, glosses 
(Matt. 1887, pre/. X). 

(5) Wycliffe = Late ME., approximately East Midland, in the 
earlier or Wiclif's (1380?), as distinguished from Purvey's (1388), 
version. Ms. (Corpus Oxf. 4) perhaps written before 1420 (Forshall 
and Madden, ed. I, pref. li). See Champney's Hist, of English (1893), 
ch. XIX of Early 'Standard' English; Craik's Eng. Prose, I, 27; 
Earle, Eng. Prose, 401. • 


Xth to XlVth cent., Nh., LWS., ME. Kentish, and East Midland. Text, 

pp. 28-39. 

1. See Introd. XL 

2. In this selection as distinguished from XI, we have in Rush- 
worth a Nh, gloss (somewhat later than that of Nero D IV) instead 
of a Merc, one, and for LWS. Ms Otho C 1 is substituted for its coeval 
Bodl. 441 (v. Introd. XI, 2). Otho C 1 suffered in the fire of 1731, and 
now begins at Mark vii. 22. It grows more perfect, especially in the 


latter part of John, On the Wycliffe text from a Ms. of c. 1400, v. 
Matzner, Alteng. Sjyrachproben, I, 2d Abt., 243. 

3. Nero D IV. 4 v. — vce for vceri, opt. v. icesan. 14 v. — dvsidi 
not found elsewhere, and a mystery to scholars until Mr. Henry Brad- 
ley, when his attention was drawn to it, made a conjecture which is 
almost a self-evident solution and one confirmed by discussion (Acad. 
Jan. 28, 1893, p. 83, March 4, 1893, p. 200, March. 11, 1893, p. 223). 
dvsidi = dii sitSi for ltSrid]du sitSi, 'third time,' the correct rendering, 
instead of dcegi, of the L. tertio. dvsidi may have arisen from da siSi, 
the corrector's note in the first (glossed ?) codex written over "Sridda 
dcegi, and unintentionally copied dusidi by the scribe of Nero D IV. 
This is not a violent supposition as a and u in Mss. are very nearly 
alike, and scribes did not always remember to cross &. The alterna- 
tive that du may have been original in the dialect of the corrector is 
supported by analogies in Rushworth. In the Nh. portions -u is often 
found for WS. -an, not only in sbs. but even in adjectives,, tSone 
strongu. One may add in favour of Mr. Bradley's argument that in 
our Ms. the pointing before and after • dvs . . . dcegi • and the position 
of the words prove them to be a marginal note, as was recognized as 
early as the ed. by the Surtees Soc. XLVIII, p. 170. Also the variants 
for thridde day in the AViclif Mss. may not be without weight. The 
oldest Ms. (in Forshall) reads thridde tyme, tyme is in four Mss., 
tyme or dai in six other Mss., tyme in Purvey (Matzner). For colo- 
phon to Nero D IV v. Text, p. 39, and for one to Rushworth v. 
Introd. XI, 2 (2). 

c. 997. LWS. Ms. latter half of Xlth cent. Text, pp. 39-42. 

1. Morley, II, 310-314; Brink, 105-110; Earle, A.S. Lit. 207- 
224 ; Dietrich, Zeits. fur d. Hist. Theol. 1855 and 1856 ; Korting, 
§ 61 ; of ^Ifric's personality, Wiilker, Grund. 452-456, of his works, 

2. Abbot ^Ifric (c. 955 to c. 1020) was a truly cultured priest, the 
fruit of the revival of letters begun by Alfred and of the monastic 
reformation wrought by Dunstan, ^.Ithelwold, and Oswold; a Chris- 
tian scholar like vEthelwold in his zeal for teaching, and like Baeda 
in his love of learning; a theologian who strove to keep his church 
true to its spiritual faith. He even became a factor in the Reforma- 


tion of the XVIth century.* He was a writer without great creative 
powers, but with the gift of assimilating ideas. His works are classic 
in their purity of language. They represent the perfection of our 
speech as an inflected language. He is, in point of style, the Addison 
of OE. literature. 

His writings include a double cycle of Homilies for the Christian 
year; a Latin-English Grammar and Glossary; Colloquium^ ed. by 
7l^]lfric Bata ; a translation of Alcuin's Interrogationes and of Baeda's 
Be Temporibus ; Lives of Saints ; a translation of parts of the Pen- 
tateuch and an abridgement of Joshua and Judges (XIY) ; Vita 
yEthelwoldi ; Letters and Tracts. ^Ifric's preface to Gen. is addressed 
to his patron, the ealdorman JEthelmser, by whose request iElfric had 
undertaken the translation. He did not wish to do the work, and 
thought it inexpedient to circulate, among the unlearned, portions of 
the history, e.g.., concerning polygamy, ^thelmaer replied that it 
would be necessary only to translate to the narrative of Isaac (ch. 
xxv) "for \>km h6 sum 6t5er man ^6 hsefde awend fram tsaace \>k 
boc 6^ ende." Our selection, then, probably illustrates a piece of 
prose by an unknown author, incorporated by vElfric in his version. 

3. 14. — and he ytt lustlice marked example of the use of and to 
represent rel. prn. of the orig. L. quibus libenter vescitur (Germ. XIII, 
91). 52. — fcBtnisse Thwaites' emendation for Mss. fcest. 78. — dne 
hletsunga ace. sg. (255. 1) L. Num unam, inquit, tantum benedic- 
tionem habcs, pater? 


? 994-1000. LWS. Ms., latter half of Xlth cent. Text, pp. 42-45. 

1. Cf. Introd. XIII, 1 ; Craik, Eng. Prose, 10. 

2. ^Ifric, after he became abbot (1005), in his Introduction to the 
Old Testament addressed to Sigweard at East Heolon [in Mercia], 
alludes to his translation of the Book of Judges ("on }?8ere Engliscan 
b^c be ic 4wende "). It is an epitome of the Book of Judges rhetori- 

* Archb. Parker encouraged the publication, in 1566 or 1567, of 
vElfric's Horn. (Thorpe, II, 262) : A Testimonie of Antiquitie, shewing 
the auncient fayth in the Church of England touching the sacrament 
of the body and bJoude of the Lord here publikely preached and also 
receaued in the Saxons tyme., ahoue 600. yeares agoe. 


cally written, supplied with an introduction and conclusion, and in- 
tended to be an historical homily. Indeed, in the ascription at the 
end it is called a 'cwide,' ' discourse,' the very word ^Ifric uses of 
his forty homilies. In style, in its allusions to English heroes, Alfred, 
^thelstan (t>^ wi^S Anlaf gefeaht), and Eadgar, and in its semi-metri- 
cal alliteration, it is like JKlfric's Lives of the Saints. Grein (Anglia, 
II, 141) arranged the homily in long lines, e.g. (Text, 11. 1-4) : — 

240. An man wses eardigende on Israhela J>6ode, 
Manue geh&ten, of >gere mseg^e Dan : 
his wif W3BS untymende and hig wunedon biitan cilde. 
Him com }>a gangende to godes engel — 

3. 1, — wees eardigende the periphrastic conjugation is not foreign 
to T. tongues (Korner). 3. — him . . . td ' to them,' post-positive prp. 
due orig. to av. character of the prp. 82. — drincan simple infin. to 
express the purpose of an action. 73. — let ]>d swd Grein supplies 
fetian Fhilistea ealdras fr. L. Misitque ilia ad principes Philisthino- 
rum, but as oft. ellipsis of heon with Icetan {v. Glossary). 

c. 1154. ME. Midland. Text, pp. 45-47. 

1. Brink, 143-145 ; Earle, A.S. Lit. 169-185 ; Two Sax. Chrons. 
xliii-li, Eng. Prose, 394 ; Craik, Eng. Prose, I, 6-9 ; Wiilker, Grund. 
p. 447. 

2. Ms. E (c/. Introd. X, 3, for Mss. A, B, C, D) is the "Peterborough 
Chron.," for in all probability it was written in that place after the 
abbey's destruction by fire in 1116. This Chron. extends from the 
incarnation to 1154, but it appears to be in one hand to 1122, about 
the exact date for the close of OE. After that different hands take 
up the pen on the last and pathetic pages in which OE. merges into 
ME. The entry for the year 1137, probably made later, sets forth the 
miseries of the reign of Stephen. 

3. 2. — for, cj., = L. enim, etenim, less often = L. quia, quod, 
this cj. appearing for the first time is one of the most palpable charac- 
teristics of the language of the continuation of the Chron. from 1132- 
1154 (Earle); cf for, 11. 3, 14, 22. 32.— Lo/ and Grim, evidently 
an ironical name for an instrument of torture, a beam and shackles 
for the neck (Earle); cf "the devil on the neck" of Hen. Vlllth's 



c. 1170, Southwestern, Ms. c. 1200. Text, pp. 49-59. 

1. Morley, III, 352; Brink, 153-156; Brandl (Paul's Grund.), II, 
p. 616, §§ 12, 13 ; O. Eng. Horn. EE. T. No. 34, p. vi, 159, ed. by 
Morris; Z. in Anglia, I, 5-38 ; Korting, Grund. § 76. 

2. "The so-called Poema Morale is one of the oldest and in mani- 
fold ways one of the most interesting works of ME. lit.," says Prof. Z. 

The Poema is found in a collection of religious homilies. For the 
first time we meet with the accent and rime principles of a foreign 
language. The form of verse is that common to monastic Latin. In 
contents the poem is a sermon, simple and poetic, and "remarkably 
free from mediseval superstitions" (Morris). 

Homiletic writing (Morley, III, 350-352 ; IV, 140, 141 ; Brink, 
290, 291), true to the deep moral emotion of the English people {v. 
Hunt, Ethic. Teaching in OE. Lit. Introd.), forms a large part of 
ME. literature. As the liturgy of the mass was in Latin, little under- 
stood by the people, sermons in the vernacular by prominent men 
were permitted to be read for purposes of instruction. This practice 
gave rise, in the OE. period, to such collections of homilies as the 
Blickling and those of ^Ifric and Wulfstan. 

3. The apparent periods at the middle and end of the verses are 
the metrical pointings of the Ms. 8. — bute still the OE. force 
'except,' 'unless God be merciful to me.' 20. — ceie stent man v. 
stondan. 37. — afurst v. fierst. 90. — rede v. reed. 104. — c/. Matt. 
XX. 16 ; xxii. 14. 116. — otSer v. awfSor. 168. — nanme = nan me orig. 
pL, cf. 1. 37 nanman, 'no one.' 214. — higunne, 3 sg. opt. prt., v. 
heginnan, primary sense ' open operations,' ' strive for.' 248. — nauene 
V. ne, ' neither the river Avon nor the Stour.' Because of the names of 
these streams Lewin suggests the possibility that the home of the poet 
was in northern Wiltshire. The same names, however, are applied 
to different rivers. 305. — c/. Matt. xxii. 37-40. 319. — serueden the 
only AF. derivative noticeable in XVI.* 343. — under hulde ( = helde, 
cf. rime with felde) ' under slope,' v. nv^er-helde. 362. — martres 
cheole ' marten's throat-piece ' (fur of). 

* Sturmfels, Anglia, VIII, 205. In Xllth and first half of Xlllth 
cent, but few AF. words or derivatives appear. Einenkel, Anglia, V, 
91 ff., shows that the number of AF. words depends upon the position 
of the author, and not upon the material he uses. 


4. Mss. and variants according to Prof. Z. {Anglia, I, 5-38). 

D = Digby Ms. A. 4, Bodl. Ox., according to the palaeography written 

at the beginning of the Xlllth cent, and according to the linguistic 

forms Kentish. This Ms. differs from all others in giving short 11. 
E = Egerton Ms. 613 foil. 7-12. 
e = Egerton Ms. 613 foil. 64-70, from which our text. Same Ms. as 

above, but by another hand on the boundaries of the Xllth and 

Xlllth cents. 
J = Jesus Coll. Ox. Ms. Morris says it is a copy of about 1246-50. 
L = Lambeth Ms. 487. Wanley dates it in time of Richard I, Morris 

thinks it earlier. 
T = Trinity Coll. Cam. Ms. Wanley dates it about the time of 

Henry II or Richard I. Morris says it is younger than L but older 

than J. Its date is about 1200, Z. 

The six Mss. fall into two groups. One = Z, embraces D and T. 
The second = Y, embraces E, e, J, and L. Theoretical Mss. in ( ) 


orig. Ms. 







22.— \>er for her >e E, \>et the others. 23. —Don E, Dod J, Do the 
others ; ec E, ech D, al T, he L, om. J ; 3e for he LT, hi D both times. 
40. —he /or he hit DEJ, he his L, hes T. 42. — his eitte E for >e hi 
send E. 43. — )^arf he E. 44. —hi for it hym E. 45. —of 3efe ne 
of 3elde the others except E. 67. — Eal se for He alse E, Al suo on 
DT, pe poure J. 70. — manke the others. 75. — ouer the others. 
79, _ wet J>enke"S and hwet do« the others except E. 81. biloken is 
the others except E. 88. — ei^er for aihwar D JLT. 103. — swikele E. 
121. — benne/or ]?e ende T, se ende D, ende the others. 122. — wite 
DEL, 3ieue T, om. J for lende the others. 126. — "Se b. a. h.for ]>e bit 
and be3it ET, \>e biet and bit L, bet bit and bete {emended to bote) 
D, >at bit ore J. 136. — bidde (recche D) ic the others. 141. — second^ 


]petfor Mt ET, ba hit L, J^et hit D, heo hit J. 144. — imeng loith a 
hook on the g E, imaingd D, imengd T, meind L, meynd J. 151. — wawe 
for wane T, wene L, wope D, pine E, godnesse J. 154. — ^is for bet 
is DEJ, is L. 159. — men the others except E. 168. — non D, nan 
man the others. 171. — Ac E, Ec L, Ech D, Elch T (the line om. J). 
177. — po be nabbed god E, pa be habbe^ doules were L in essential 
harmony with the others. 189. — for the others {om. J). 222. — elches 
wurldes ELT, al bes worldes J, alle werlde D. 233. — chele "Sinchet 
E, chele him bunchet the others. 238. — 'Si for be ho L, hi the others. 
262. — sette Ee/o?' set at DJT ; for ber . . . beode L has benne he hit 
herde bode. 267. — 3ysceres weren E. 282. — ison E, iseon DJ, 
isien T (L ends with 270). 290. — Bute bat E, Swo bet DT, Ase bat J. 
306. — eal /or alse ET, as J, Swo D. 318. — Ne were E, Nere the 
others. 334.— he ne E. 343. — nu^er helde E. 345. — narewei E, 
narewe wei (wey J, pa?^ T) the others. 358. — Ech efter DJT (Ech 
om. also in E); hi dude E, he dude DJT. 384. — In Hue boc hi sullen 
D, And on lyues bee {from beo?) J, On him he sullen ec T. 


Before 1200, Southwestern. Text, pp. 59-63. 

1. OE. Homilies^ EE. T. No. 34, p. 41, ed. by Morris, 1st Series, 
Nos. 29, 34 ; 2d Series, No. 53. 

2. The homily is one of an incomplete series of discourses for the 
Christian year. The legend of the descent of the Apostle Paul and 
Archangel Michael into hell lends interest to the sermon. Allusions 
to the legend appear in the Blickling Homilies (c. 970 ; p. 42, Morris' 
ed.) and later in verse in the Old English Miscellany, p. 147. 

3. 2. — fredome 'privilege,' cf freedom of a city. 39. — gnejefS 
his read gnajexi heore f Z. 40. — herninde gleden cf. XVI, 218 similar 
phrase. 56. — longe dringan ' drink deeply,' Z., not firingan ' op- 
press,' as Morris. 68. — \>unres sleje 'clap of thunder,' Morris' happy 
suggestion for Ms. wunres liche. 


c. 1200, East Midland, near the northern border. Text, pp. 63-69. 

1. Morley, III, 232-235 ; Brink, 193-196 ; Brandl, Paul's Grund. 
IT, 625, § 23 ; Korting, Grund. § 72 ; Ormulum, ed. by White and 
Holt, 1878, Ox. 


2. Orrm (= Worm), probably of Danish descent, was a monk of 
the order of St. Augustine. At the desire of his brother Walter, he 
prepared a series of homilies in verse, extending from the Annuncia- 
tion into the Acts. There are extant over 20,000 lines of his ser- 
mons, with 242 texfe. The sources are Baeda, Gregory, and Isidore 
(Eng. Stud. VI, 1). The Scandinavian elements are marked (Brate, 
Beitr. X, 580 ff.). There is almost no French influence. The work is of 
little literary worth, but is of the greatest linguistic value. Orrm, with 
zeal like that of the modern spelling-reformer and phonetician, used 
devices to indicate quantity, etc. In addition to numerous accents, 
he doubled consonants to show, according to Brate, a) chiefly, that a 
preceding vowel in a closed syllable was short ; b) an OE. gemination 
or long consonant ; c) the combination jj, ww^ perhaps lY, uu ; 
d) between two vowels in some cases perhaps the length of the first 
vowel. In the Ms. the paragraphs and sections are carefully marked 
off, and the metrical pointing is full. In the White and Holt ed. Ixxix, 
it was noted that " two forms of the letter g have been used by Ormin, 
one apparently to express the hard, strong [gutt. stopped consonant, 
as in godd, 1. 4] sound, the other the soft sound [gutt. and palatal 
spirant, in the former case adding an h, 1. 39, tejsl of that letter." 
It remained for Prof. Napier to discover (Acad. Mar, 15, 1890) that 
there was a third form of the g to express the sound dzh, as in seggejin, 
1. 55. A more accurately printed text of the Orrmulum is needed ; 
V. facsimile page prepared by Prof. Napier for the London Philolog. 
Soc. 1892. 

3. 5. — Amminadap illustrates the symbolic interpretation of Heb. 
names, cf. A.V., Song of Sol. vi, 12, margin 'willing people.' 
24. — Cf. St. Augustine, de consensu Evangelistarum., lib. I, c. 7 : Has 
Domini sanctas quadrigas. Baedse, Com. in Cant. Cantic. VI: quo- 
modo si Unas quadrigas concordi quatuor equorum videas, velocitate 
ad cursum paratas. 59. — Cf. ^Ifric, Horn. II, 578 : SotHice Salo- 
mon is gereht, Gesihsum . . . He hcefde getdcnunge ures Hoelendes 
Cristes. QS.— Cf. A.V. 1 Chron. xxii. 9. 15.— Cf. Baedse, Com. in 
Cant. Cantic. VI : Quod autem quadrigas Aminadab proecones novi 
testamenti cognominat, vocabulo Aminadab Dominum Salvatorem 
significat. 15559. — Followed in Ms. by two expunged 11., " annd 
mineteress s^tenn hser to wharrfenn be33re sillferr," 11. 15560-61, on 
the margin. 15567.* — Followed by two expunged 11., "annd oferr- 
warrp \>2&x i J^e flor unnriddli3 l>e33re bordess," 



c. 1210, Southwestern. Text, pp. 69-74. 

1. OE. Homilies, EE. T. No. 34, p. 191, ed. by Morris ; Brandl, 
Paul's Grund. II, 617, § 13. 

2. This " Englisc lai " shows the influence of the Poema Morale 
and of the new Latin poetry. It is a type of that large class of 
mediseval literature which was inspired by an enthusiastic and chiv- 
alrous devotion to the mother of the Lord. Hymns to the Virgin 
formed the largest part of the mediseval hymnals. By the side of the 
Te Deum was heard a Te Virginem laudamus. Mary was made the 
mediatrix, as Christ the mediator, of all divine grace {v. Trench, Med. 
Ch. Hist. 418, and Schaff, Hist, of Chr. Church IV, sect. 96, p. 420). 
The, poem, moreover, is a genuine love-song, and in such names as. 
'soul's light' and 'heart's bliss' the language of gallantry and devo- 
tion are blended in the manner of the minnesingers. 

3. 5. — soule f. dat. sg. 48. — techen Morris for Ms. tegen. 
163. — After this verse a verse is wanting. The scribe put it on the 
margin, where there are traces from which it may be inferred that the 
last two words were " ine eadmodnesse," 


c. 1210, West Midland. Text, pp. 75, 70. 

1. Brink, 203, 204; Brandl, Paul's Grund. II, 618, § 15; OE. 
Homilies, EE. T. No. 34, 283, ed. by Morris. 

2. This is a part of one of four well-known lyrical prayers in prose, 
resting upon French-Latin sources (Brandl). It breathes the tender- 
est love of a feminine soul for the divine bridegroom. It seems rea- 
sonable to believe that here we have an early "authoress" in Eng. 
lit., as has been urged by Einenkel (Anglia, V, 265). She may have 
been one of the three sisters for whom the Ancren Biwle was written 
(Einenkel). Cf. Anc. Biw. part VIII, J. Morton, Lond. 1853. 

3. 22. — dereinedes Morris' emendation for Ms. deren \ nedes, prt., 
2d pers. in -es (c/. EE. T. No. 34, li) v. dereinen ; wi^ like for wiht- 
liche ? Z., 'valiantly,' v. wiht, aj. 



c. 1250, Southeast Midland, Ms. c. 1300. Text, pp. 76-78. 

1. Morley, III, 328-330 ; Brink, 197, 198 ; Brandl, Paul's Grund. 
II, 623, § 21 ; in EE. T. No. 7, p. 37, ed. by Morris ; Korting, Gh-und. 
§ 73 ; Fritzsche, Anglia, V. 43-90 ; Anglia, VI, Anz. I, 1-32 ; Warton- 
Hazlitt, II, 28, 35. 

2. " Ut of latin ^is song is dragen on engleis speche, . . . Wid 
londes speche and wordes smale " (11. 13, 18). It is an attempt to 
provide the laity with the story of the biblical Gen. and Ex. After 
the Bible the chief source was the Historia Scholastica (1169-1175) 
of Petrus Comestor, followed so closely that ordinarily we have a 
period in ME. where there is a capital in the Latin. Lines 1281 
to 1336 correspond to ch. LVIII in Comestor. Compared with the 
OE. Genesis {cf. V), this piece lacks in poetic power. We feel .that 
the very language of the Xlllth cent, is inferior in poetic strength 
to the OE. 

3. 1295. — fiat dune is s&en on lit. "on the down his sides." 
L. orig. in vertice montium. The post-positive on is common in this 
poem, cf. 1325, 1341, and with dune 644 " so ^e flod flet de dunes on." 
Dune is oft. synonymous with M, cf. 1293, 587 "Ouer ilk dune, and 
ouer ilc hil." Cf 1303 "tSo dunes fot." 1297. — auter representa- 
tive of the relatively sparse AF. derivatives. The Romance element, 
according to Fritzsche's count, in Gen. and Ex. is 85 sbs., 11 verbs, 
and 5 adjs. 1316. — The euphemisms, cf. 1318, for dying befit the 
character and circumstances ; he^en fr. Scand. cf. 1337 fSefien. Hilmer 
counts 34 words fr. Scand. in the entire poem. 

c. 1250, Southwest Midland, Ms. late Xlllth cent. Text, pp. 78-81. 

1. An Old English Miscellany, EE. T. No. 49, p. 84, ed. by Morris ; 
Brandl, Paul's Grund. II. 619, § 16. 

2. This poem is cooler in tone and more worldly in its characters 
than XIX or XX. It may be taken as the first step toward the great 
epic school of Gloucester (Brandl) . 

3. 7. — neyhleyhte Morris' emendation for Ms. neylehyte. 
IZ. — weiweri Z.'s emendation for Ms. loeri wet 



Before 1300, Kentish. Text, pp. 81-83. 

1. An Old English Miscellany, EE. T. No. 49, p. 29, ed. by Morris. 

2. This homily is one of five old Kentish Sermons found with their 
French originals, the sermons of Maurice de Sully. The dialect shows 
more archaic forms than the date would indicate. At the same time 
the vocabulary is composite, and points clearly to the Norman influ- 
ence in the south. 

3. 6. — at over unexpunged To in Ms. 29. — wat ' until,' a Kentish 
prepositional use, v. hwd. 53. — si f. (= OE. sio for seo) character- 
istic of Kentish. 


Before 1300, North Midland, Ms. c. 1300, Vernon Ms. c. 1380. 
Text, pp. 83-85. 

1. Brink, 265 ; Schulz, ed. Konisberg, 1876 ; Horstmann, Herrig's 
Archiv, LV, 407-438. 

2. Gregory is one of the few pearls in ME. literature. It is on the 
borderland between the religious and secular epic. Probably its source 
is French (c/. Gaston Paris, Litt. Fr. 1888, p. 212). Cf. the Latin 
legend of St. Gregory in cap. 81 of Gesta Bomanorum {v. Eng. ver- 
sion, EE. T. 250-263, 489). A lord of Aquitaine violates his sister. 
The child is placed in a cradle, and set afloat on the sea. He is found 
by fishermen, and named Gregory by the abbot. He is unwittingly 
married to his mother. He does penance for seventeen years. He 
becomes pope at Rome, In her old age his mother goes to Rome to 
make confession, and discovers that she is absolved by her own son. 
Sir Walter Scott said, " St. Gregory's story is more horrible than 
that of (Edipus." It is a relief to know that the story is wholly 

The versification is elaborate. In each verse there are two half- 
lines with four beats each. Four verses are bound into one strophe. 
The first as well as the last half -lines rime. Often alliteration binds 
phrases or half-verses. 

3. 3. — Submission to God's will is one of the notes of piety per- 
vading the poem, which is purely romantic in its manners and morals. 
9. — er lijt, eic, cf. 15, epic style in noting time. 



c. 1280, East Midland (? Lincolnshire) , Ms. c. end Xlllth cent. Text, 
pp. 85-90. 

1. Brink, 180-182, 232-234 ; Morley, III, 264-276 ; Brand!, Paul's 
Gruncl II, 644, § 52 ; The Lay of Havelok, EE. T. extra, No. IV, ed. 
Skeat; Korting, Grund. §88; Z. in Anglia, I, 468, Zs. f. D. Alt. XIX, 
124 ; Anglia, XIII, 186 ; Stratmann, Eng. Studien, I, 423. 

2. Havelok is a romance for the common people. It is simple and 
not without a sense of humour. Its bluntness amounts at times to 
grotesqueness. It embodies an ancient legend. The ME. version has 
probably been derived from the same source as the Anglo-Norman 
Le Lai de Aveloc (first part of Xllth cent., ed. T. Wright for Caxton 
Soc. 1850) and the abridged account by Geffrei Gaimar (1141-51), 
from which the ME. differs widely (Skeat). The French versions are 
from an AS. source (G. Paris, Litt. Franqaise, §68). Skeat concludes 
that the tradition is British or Welsh, but the story is thoroughly 
English. The legend became localized. At 1. 744 we are told that 
Grimsby is named after Grim, the foster-father of Havelok. The seal 
of Grimsby, possibly as ancient as our Ms., contains figures of Grim, 
Havelok, and Goldborough, his bride. In 2820 verses 160 different 
Romance words have been counted. 

3. 9. — wicteste v. wiht, perhaps aj. use of sb. and not fr. Scand. 
X^ng. Studien, XIII, 380). 10. — A favourite expression of this and 
other poets, c/. 11. 26, 88. It comprehended in their idea the qualifica- 
tions required in a knight and hero (Madden) . 15. — her for er, v. cer, h 
oft. prefixed, cf. 1. 30 holde = olde. 31. — dreng uniformly in the poem 
of those between the rank of baron and thane, ' military vassal ' (Mad- 
den) ; ]myn for Ms. kayn, a prov. pronunciation ? 33. — wyues for 
Ms. wydues. 66. — olpere Gamett's emend, for Ms. here. 92. — knawe 
supplied by Skeat. 130. — Lit. ' do them off where it should be agree- 
able to her,' i.e., keep men at a distance as she pleased (Skeat). 


c. 1300, Northern, Ms. XlVth cent. Text, pp. 91-94. 

1. Brink, 285-289 ; Morley, IV, 121-137 ; Brandl, Paul's Grund. 
II, 649, §60 ; Cursor Mundi, EE. T. Nos. 57, 59, 62, 66, 68, 99, 101, 
ed. Morris (sources by Haenish, and Mss., and dialects by Hupe, No. 
101); Korting, Griiml. § \Z'o. 


2. By the XlVth cent, there was a revival of literature in the 
North. Cursor Mundi appealed to a popular taste which gave audi- 
ence earlier to Csedmon's paraphrases and to ^Ifric's Lives of the 
Saints, to the contemporary riming sermons of the monks, and later 
to the Morality Plays. In view of such a taste the scribe of the 
GiJttingen Ms. opens the prologue with 

" \>m is \>e, best boke of alle 
l>e cours of \>q werlde men dos hit calle." 

The poem presents from a religious standpoint, in a vast plan of about 
24,000 lines, the history of the world. 

*' Cursor o werld men aght it call, 
For almast it overrennes all." 

The most attractive homilies and legends are interwoven with the 
Bible story. Dr. Hupe suggests (§ 70) that the Cursor was composed 
between 1254-90, and argues that the author was "John of Lindber3e " 
(§ 71), a Lincolnshire man who lived near the borders of Yorkshire. 
Hupe has more specific conclusions than his evidence justifies (Morris, 
pref. EE. T. No. 99 ; Eng. Studien, XV, 427 ; Angl. XIII, MitteiL 
133). The author places himself among "pastors," and even Hupe 
admits that Ms. E. (our text) is Northern (Scotch) (p. 130*), though 
he asserts it is a copy from a Midland Ms. 

3. 1. — aiquare — OE. ceghwoer, the characteristic Northern forms, 
many of which survive in the Scotch of to-day, make this piece a par- 
ticularly interesting study. Cf. qu, 1. 25 quat, 1. 113 siquare; among 
others notice Northern forms, many fr. Scand., 11. 5 purchaisid, 
12 hraHli, hefte, 24 forglopnid, 84 higu)pe (= higan) Ms. in sinagoge 
spel higu\>e (cf. Dr. J. A. H. Murray's Dialect of the Southern Coun- 
ties of Scotland, 1868, Phil. Soc). 16. — tu = \>u, \> after s sometimes, 
especially in East Midland cf. Orrmulum, becomes t, as after t and d. 
59. — do loai, ' stop ! ' one of the many colloquialisms. 


c. 1330, Northern, Ms. c. 1440. Text, pp. 95, 96. 

1. Brink, 291-297 ; Morley, IV, 263-270 ; Brandl, Paul's Grund. 
II, 651, § 61 ; EE. T. No. 20, p. 8, ed. Perry ; Matzner, Sprachpr. I, 2d 
Abt. 126 ; Korting, Grund. § 138 ; Kolbing, Eng. Studien, III, 406. 


2. Rolle, known as the Hermit, was born at Thornton, directly- 
west of York. He studied theology at Oxford. Soon after the age 
of nineteen he clothed himself in a hermit's garment made from his 
sister's gowns. He wandered through the northern counties, a preacher 
of repentance. He wrote for the "unlered and lewed folke." The 
legend runs that he healed the sick, and cast out devils (r/. EE. T. 
xv-xxxiii). He died at Hampole in 1349. His earliest writings, 
probably, were the Frose Treatises. His Commentary on the Psalter 
from the Latin of Petrus Lombardus was made about 1330, at the 
request of a pious nun. His rank as a poet rests on the Pricke of 
Conscience (ed. Morris, 1863), the last religious poem of importance' 
before the Vision of Piers Ploioman. His northern seriousness, 
weight, and austerity certainly were not without influence upon 
Wiclif, born in Yorkshire in 1324 (Brandl). This selection illus- 
trates in prose the didactic literature prepared " for the love of Inglis 
lede of Ingland" and the dialect, "langage o northrin lede J^at can 
non oi^er englis rede," taken up in poetry in the preceding selection. 

3. 1. — neuer ydill the representations of our author here are based 
upon Pliny, Nat. Hist. XI, 10 (Matzner). 18. —C/. Aristotle, Hist. 
Anim. IX', 40 : rois i^aipov<ri irepl toO /a^Xitos t6t€ fidxovrai fidXiara. 
23, 24. — or . . . lyttill strike out ? as Kolbing suggests, perhaps a scribe's 
repetition from the line below. 33. — Cf. Aristotle, Hist. Anim. IX, 
7, 8. 48. — strucyo or storke there is an error of the author in con- 
founding the struthio camelus of the Cursores with the stork, prob. 
Ciconia alba, a bird of passage, of the very different order Grallatores 
(Matzner) . 

1340, Kentish, author's Ms. Text, pp. 97-100. 

1. Brink, 283-284; Morley, IV, 271-272; Brandl, Paul's Grund. 

II, 633, § 34 ; EE. T. No. 23, pp. 87, 191, 238, ed. by Morris ; Korting, 
Grund. § 137 ; Facsimiles of Mss. Bond and Thompson, 1873-83, 

III, pi. 197 ; Zur Laut- und Flexions-lehre des Mittelkentischen, Kon- 
rath, Archiv, Bd. 88, Heft 1 ; Characteristics of Southern Dialect, 
Morris, pp. 1-lxx, and Outlines of Kentish Gram. (a.d. 1327-1340), 
pp. Ixxiii-lxxxv ; Biilbring, Gesch. d. Ablaute, p. 27. 

2. Dan Michel of Northgate in Kent was a brother from St. Augus- 
tine's monastery at Canterbury. Contemporary with Richard Rolle, 
he wrote Ayenbite of Inwyt ( = the again biting of the inner wit = Be- 
morse of Conscience). It is a translation of the French Somme des 


Vices et des Vertues, written in 1279 by Frfere Lorens for Philip II 
of France, and hence sometimes called Somme le Boi. Caxton 
printed a version under the title The Book Byal^ or the Book for a 
Kyng. The book is a treatise on morals, based on an exposition of 
the ten commandments, the twelve articles of the creed, the seven peti- 
tions of the Lord's prayer, the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, and the 
seven heads and the ten horns of the beast in Revelation. An occa- 
sional story of a saint is inserted. There is a strong vein of allegory. 
It is one of the most important linguistic works in the century. It is 
of additional interest because of its probable connection with the 
sources of Chaucer's Persones Tale {cf. Dr. Klaeber, Das Bild bei 
Chaucer, pp. 337, 339; Morris' pref.). 

3. 1. — zo\>e the numerous z'^ characteristic of the southern pronun- 
ciation ; noblesse at once the Romance element is noticeable. Danker 
counts in the Ayenbite 345 sbs., 148 vbs., and 98 ajs. and avs. 
24. — Ms. to wayny(e) Stratmann's emend, wayuye, towayuye Varn- 
hagen. 105. — adreynct v. ddrencan, Morris' emend. Ms. adreyct. 


Latter half XlVth cent., West Midland (? Lancashire) , Ms. end XlVth 
cent. Text, pp. 101-103. 

1. Brink, 336, 337, 350, 351 ; Morley, IV, 144 ; Brandl, Paul's 
Grund. II, 663, § 74 ; Pearl, Introd., ed. by Gollancz, 1891 ; EE. T. 
No. 1, p. 94, ed. Morris ; Korting, Grund. § 105 c ; Trautmann, Anglia, 
I, 134. 

2. For about two centuries the Norman forms of verse dominated 
the poetry of England. But by the middle of the XlVth cent., in the 
West Midlands, where the Old English spirit and poesy longest sur- 
vived, an old school of poets using the archaic alliteration made them- 
selves felt. Csedmon, Cynewulf, Langland, the unknown ' Gawayne- 
poet,' represent a succession of Anglians. The ' Gawayne-poet ' 
marks a transition from Langland to Chaucer. The Saxon spirit and 
alliterative verse blend with Romance subjects and measures. The 
author of Patience gains his name from Sir Gawayne and the Green 
Knight, an epic from the Arthurian cycle, anticipating the Spenserian 
romance. The Pearl is a more lyric strain. Uttering plaints for 
his dead child, his 'Marguerite' or 'Pearl,' the author naturally 
touches the ideas of purity and patience. These ideas are illustrated 
in detail in Cleanness and in Patience. The last-named poem, 


perhaps the writer's masterpiece, is a paraphrase of the Book of 
Jonahs and seeks to enforce the lesson, "Be bold and be patient, in 
pain and in joy." The poet has a dry humour. 

3. 61. — Canto II begins here, preceded by 60 lines, an introduc- 
tion to the poem. Kaluza {Eng. Studien, XVI) calls attention to the 
strophes of the poem, 22 in all, of (2 x 12 =) 24 verses each. The 
multiple 12 appears in canto I of 60 11., and is indicated in our text, cf. 
72-84, 96-108, 120-132, 144-156. 62. — Ms. watj, perhaps for ivacs, 
c and t written so nearly alike (Skeat, Acad. 945, p. 409 ; Gollancz, 
pref. xii) . Is it a ' scribal mannerism ' or a diacritical mark to denote 
the shifting at this period in West Midland of the s in was from the 
voiceless to the voice sound ? 77. — typped ? < OE. *top or Ic. typpa; 
schrewes, the shrew-mouse, was considered venomous, hence = villain. 
137. — This description of the storm at sea displays the poet's descrip- 
tive power, his delight in nature in its wilder moods, and his mastery 
of 'tone-colour' (cf. Gollancz, trans. Pearl, p. xxx). 141. — lorastel 
Wtilker emend, wrastelt. 143. — busched v. busche, probably Skeat's 
ref. is just to similar reflexive in " bask " < Scand. *bakask 'bake 
oneself,' or ♦ &a&asA; ' bathe oneself,' Z. 152. — colde Morria' emend, for 
Ms, clolde. 


c. 1400, West Midland, Ms. c. middle XVth cent. Text, pp. 104-107. 

1. Morley, VI, 120-121 ; EE. T. Nos. 39, 56, ed. by Panton and 
Donaldson ; Korting, Grund. § 110. 

2. This "stately poem" is a translation, "though not a continuous 
one," from Guido de Colonna's Hystoria Troiana, a prose romance 
compiled in 1287 from Benoit de Sainte-More's Boman de Troie 
(c. 1160, G. Paris, Litt. Fran^aise, § 45), based on Dares' and Dictys* 
Histories of Troy. The French Boman and Guide's Latin version were 
the chief sources from which the Middle Ages derived their ideas of 
Troy and the Grecian heroes, who from that time were adopted into 
Romance in common with Arthur, Gawain, and Oliver. Chaucer 
sometimes made use of the legend ; Lydgate translated from it in c. 
1420 ; Caxton translated a French version and a part of Guido's ver- 
sion in 1474, printed under the title Becuyel of the histories of Troy ; 
and from Caxton and Chaucer Shakspere probably derived Troilus 
and Cressida. The English XlVth cent, version consists of 14,044 
alliterative lines, in a dialect either Northern, copied by a West-Mid- 
land scribe, or West Midland, with an infusion of Northern words. 


The author is not known (c/. Anglia, I, 1878, Der Dichter Huchown 
und seine Werke ; Morley, VI, 237-242). 

3. The " Prologue " may be analyzed : 11. 1-4, Invocation ; 5-26, 
half-forgotten deeds and true stories of old a source of solace ; 27-77, 
the poet's subject and authorities ; 78-end, the fidelity to history of 
this poem. AS.—othiripl, still in use. 60.— Dares modern ed. (c/. 
Daretis Phrygii de Excido Troiae Historia, Dederich, Bonn, 1835); 
Dates = Dictes (cf. Dictys Gretensis . . . Belli Troiani lihri sex, 
Dederich, Bonn, 1833). 


1375 to 1378, Northern (Scotch), Ms. 1487. Text, pp. 107-110. 

1. Morley, VI, 1-44 ; Brandl, Paul's Grund. II, 665, §76 ; EE. T. 
XI, XXI, XXIX, LV, ed. by Skeat ; Korting, Qrund. § 119 ; Matz- 
ner, Sprachprob. I, p. 371. 

2. The Bruce is the work of John Barbour (died 1395), who is 
described as the Archdeacon of Aberdeen in 1357. He was a warm- 
hearted scholar with a sturdy love of freedom. His work, on account of 
its celebration of national independence, may be said to be the begin- 
ning of Scotch literature (v. Lyndesay^s Works, EE. T. Nos. 11, 19, 35, 
37, 47, with a sketch of Scotch poetry up to the time of Lyndesay by 
T. Nichol) . It is a narrative poem, at once a chronicle and a chival- 
rous romance, consisting of more than 13,000 lines, which recount the 
life and adventures of Scotland's favourite king, Robert Bruce, the hero 
of Bannockburn. " The highest tribute to the merits of Barbour is to 
be found in the fact that Sir Walter Scott not only studied the poem 
closely, but borrowed from it" (Skeat, cf. The Lord of the Isles, 
Gastle Dangerous, Tales of a Grandfather). 

3. Near the end of Bk. IV the king sends to Carrick, Cuthbert, a 
spy, who is to make a signal-fire when it is safe for the king to land 
there. Bk. V opens with a description of the Spring (a.d. 1307) and 
the night expedition of the king to Carrick, then held by Sir Henry 
Percy. Cuthbert had not lighted the signal-fire, which the king sup- 
posed he saw. Cuthbert warned them upon their landing. Sir Edward 
Bruce urges that they go forward. They noiselessly enter the town, 
slaying all except one Macdowell and the castle garrison. 24. — in till 
ane "in one direction" (Skeat), v. an. 76. — heritage Turnbury 
Castle had belonged to Bruce's mother, the Countess of Carrick 



c. 1380, Southern with Northern, Ms. ?end XlVth cent. Text, pp. 111-112. 

1. Morley, VI, 68-73 ; Brandl, Paul's Gruiid. II, 659, § 70 ; EE. T. 
No. XXXIV, Extra, ed. by Heritage ; Korting, § 94 ; Biilbring, Quell, 
u. Forsch. 63 heft, p. 60 ; Carsten's Zur Dialekt-hestimmung , Kiel, 
Diss. 1884, cf. Anglia, VII, Anz. 4. 

2. Sir Fyrumhras ( = Fier-en-bras = OF. Fier-a-bras < ? L. fera 
brachia, ' savage or strong arms ') was one of the most popular of the 
romances growing out of the exploits of Charlemagne and his twelve 
peers. The glorification of the King had its origin in France, but 
reproductions of the French originals (G. Paris, Litt. Fr. § 24) are 
found among many European nations. Fierabras is a Saracen giant, 
who, being overpowered by Oliver in fight, is baptized and enters the 
service of Charles. The real action of the poem, however, centres in 
the knights, Roland and Oliver, and in Floripas, the strong-minded 
daughter of Emir. The date attributed (11. 304, 305) to the story is 
three years before the battle of Roncesvalles, 778. In England the 
romance attained to the highest degree of popularity. There are two 
English versions, ours and the Sowdone of Bahylone (EE. T. No. 
XXXVIII, Ex.). It was one of the first romances printed by Caxton, 
who translated the work, in 1485, from a French novel, under the 
title Lyf of the Noble and Crysten Prynce Charles the Grete (in Brit. 
Mus., reprint EE. T. Nos. XXXVI, XXXVII, Ex.). The selection, 
from the Ashmole Ms. Fyrumhras, takes up the story at the capture 
of Oliver by the Saracens. The dialect is southern, but with a mix- 
ture of northern forms. The author was possibly a clergyman resid- 
ing at Exeter. The hero, Fierabras, has been made the subject of 
song by Franz Schubert {Opera, 1823) and of painting by Dor6 {Fier- 
abras, par Mary Lafon, Paris, 1857). 

3. 1109. — Mantrible, celebrated bridge alluded to in Don Quix- 
ote (Bk. I, IV, ch. XXII). 1114. — Egremoygne 'Aigremont.' 
1123. — Mahoun < OF. Mahon, ' Mohammed.' 1159. — hrojt of lyues 
dawe, common fig., 'killed.' 


c. 1450, Northern (Scotch). Text, pp. 112-114. 

1. Bound with Ratis Having, EE. T. No. 43, ed. by Lumby ; 
Brandl, Paul's Grund. II, 713, § 133, 


2. This is the introduction to one of a number of religious treatises 
belonging to the early period of Scottish literature. The language as 
yet varied but little from the Northern dialect in England, with which 
it had been identical before the War of Independence. The dialect is 
" Louthiane Inglis," or Lowland Scotch of the XVth cent. (Dr. J. A. H. 
Murray). The scarcity of specimens of Scottish prose of so early date 
lends especial interest to this selection. The 'Art of Dying,' by its 
praise of death and its presentation of the remedies for the tempta- 
tions of the dying, teaches us how "to resaue thankfully the pane 
of ded." 

3. 11. —After sais Ms. is mare preciouxe and worthy, prob. scribal 
error fr. 1. 13. 15. — man Ms., but read men f 29. — conforme for Ms. 

c. 1423?, East Midland, Ms. 1st half XVth cent. Text, pp. 114-115. 

1. Zur Liter aturgeschichte des Guy von Warwick, In trod, and Text, 
J. Zupitza, Wien, 1873 ; Brandl, Paul's Grund. II, 687, § 103 ; Kor- 
ting, § 89 ; Kolbing, Germ. I. For Lydgate's life and works v. 
J. Schick, Introd. to Temple of Glas, EE. T. No. LX, Extra ; Morley, 
VI, 101-121 ; Brandl, Paul's Grund. II, 686, § 101. 

2. John Lydgate, a monk of Bury St. Edmunds, was born about 
1371, at Lydgate, in Suffolk. He was educated in the monastery and 
at Oxford and in " dyvers londys." He was a priest in 1397. Chaucer 
was his friend and master. His age called him " that approbate poet." 
For a century he was counted by his successors, with Chaucer and 
Gower, in the triumvirate of letters. The last certain date yet found 
(Anglia, III, 532) connected with his life is Oct. 2, 1446. Probably 
he died soon after. Among his more prominent writings are the 
Chorl and Bird, the Temple of Glas, the Assemble of Gods, the 
Storie of Thebes, which was intended as a continuation of Chaucer's 
unfinished Canterbury Tales, the Troy e- Book, and the Falls of Princes. 
His Minor Poems (some spurious) were edited by Halliwell for the 
Percy Society. Guy of Warwick, containing 592 11. (Schick, civ) is 
a translation from the chronicle of Girardus Cornubiensis, though the 
story is English, and associated with the days of King ^thelstan. 
There are five other English versions extant (v. Guy Bomances, EE. T. 
Nos. XXV, XXVI, XLII, XLIX, LIX, Extra, ed. by J. Zupitza). 
The romance of Guy and Colbrand, the scene of which is laid at 


Winchester before the English and Danish armies, and the story of 
Guy's hermitage, from which the selection is taken, are the best of 
the poem. 

In point of language, Lydgate stands on the modern side of the 
mediaeval period. Voluminous in his writings and popular with the 
people, he made current the literary language of Chaucer. " If 
Chaucer's coin was of greater weight for deeper learning, Lydgate' s 
were of a more refined standard for purer language, so that one might 
mistake him for a modern poet" (Fuller). 

3. In the Ms. the beginning of a strophe is marked off by a 
large brilliantly illuminated letter. The sense does not always con- 
clude with the eight 11. of the strophe. The rimes are ababbcbc 
(Z. EE. T. pre/. 645-649). 60. 3. — gati, v. -ginnan^ auxiliary use, 
not to be translated. 4. — o/, ' out of,' primary sense, denoting source. 
61. 8. — Harley Ms. "He should neuer were o\>ev garnamente Til 
crist ihesu [sic] of mercye and pytee Here in this eor>e have for his 
soule sent." 


By Oscar L. Triggs, M.A. 

The history of English metres may be divided into three periods, 
following the natural linguistic divisions of Old, Middle, and New 
English. During the Old-English period to about 1154, the native 
principles of stress and alliteration prevailed. In the Middle-English 
period, from 1154 to about 1509, were developed the foreign measures, 
— the septenar, the riming couplet of four measures, the "Alexan- 
drine " of six measures, and the five-measure line. The New-English 
period, from 1509, is marked by the development of blank- verse and 
the heroic couplet, and by the introduction of various classical and 
other foreign metres. 


[In the following chapters, primary stress is denoted by the acute 
accent ('), secondary stress by the grave accent (^), the metrical 
pause by a period (•)» ^ long syllable by the macron (-), a short syl- 
lable by the breve (^), an unstressed syllable by a cross (x), resolved 
stress by a line written below (^), rime by full-faced type ; numerals 
refer to selection and line, " to first half-line, ^ to second half-line.] 


1. Old-English poetry is written in long and ungrouped (or stichic) 
lines, similar to New-English blank verse. It was copied by the scribes 
continuously like prose, a point separating the lines or half-lines as 
in Selection X. 

2. Every normal line consists of two half-lines (or hemistichs) 
separated by a pause (or caesura) and united by rime (alliteration) . 

mSotodes mSahte • ond his in6dge))anc, IX, 42. 

* Consult Englische Metrik, von Dr. J. Schipper, I. Bonn, 1881. 



3. The essential principles of Old-English versification are stress 
and rime ; these give unity to the line and mark its logically and 
rhetorically significant elements. 


4. The normal half-line has two metrical measures (or feet). 

m6otodes | mSahte. IX, 42 \ 

(a) An expanded half-line consists of three measures. Cf. V. 2854-8, 

siinu mid | sw6ordes | 6cge • ond )>onne | sw6artan | Uge. 
l^ofes I lie for | bsernan • ond me | l&c be | bSodan. V. 2857-8. 

Expanded lines are used to emphasize the narrative or to express 
dignity or lyrical movement. In the expanded lines of Judith (Foster : 
Quell, u. Forsch. Heft 71, pp. 37-39) the whole story is dramatically 
told, the rest of the poem being epic in description of details. 

5. The measure is a portion of the line containing one primary 
stress ; in its simplest form it consists of two parts, the stressed part 
(or arsis) and the unstressed part (or thesis). Two measures, varied 
in structure, complete the half-line. 

Type* A, normal form ix \^ x 6ce drihten. IX, 44 ». ^ x | j: x 

Type B, normal form x j: | x j: Hn&genb6arn. V,2851». x ^ j x ^ 

TypeCnormalformsl^^^l-^^ f geg^n h^fdon. VI 140b. ,^|,, 

^^ I X ^ I v5 x I on folcstMe. X, 82. x ^ | v:; x 

(a) Other forms are employed, as a measure with the arsis only, 
and one with an arsis, a secondary stressed syllable and a thesis. 

Type D, normal forms { ^ I ^ -" >< {'^"^ f^'^^^^S^-, ^'^S^S'. s^l. 

I ^ I ^ x 1 I 6arn seftan hwit. X, 125. ^ | ^ x i 

Type E, normal form i^ x \ i 6ndl6ngne daeg. X, 41. j: i x | j: 

6. The arsis generally consists of a long syllable or the equivalent 
of a long syllable, A short syllable, followed by one so light as to 
admit of syncopation, produces the metrical equivalent of a long sylla- 
ble ; this is called resolved stress. 

* For purposes of exposition the types as established by Sievers 
(P. u. B. Beitrdge, X and XII) are adopted. 


long syllable, sw6ordes 6cgum. X, 135. ^ x | ^ x 

resolved stress, I ff^^^^^J'^^^f- Z'^^^H'/ '-^ ^ ' "T " 
I f oremaerue bleed. VI, 122 K ^x i x | ^ 

(a) A long syllable is one which contains a long vowel or diph- 
thong, or a short vowel followed by two consonants. A short syllable 
is one which contains a short vowel or diphthong followed by a single 

(&) In compensation for juxtaposition of stress, the second stress 
in Type C may be a short syllable. 

(c) The arsis is usually the root syllable of the word. 

7. The thesis is made up of a varying number of unstressed sylla- 
bles, either long or short. 

fysan to fore. V, 2860 a. ^ u _ | ^ u 

abrsegd l>a mid >y Mile. V, 2931 *. xj:_u_|^x 

(a) The lighter syllables are usually the word-endings and particles. 

8. One or more unstressed syllables may occur before the struct- 
ural half-line ; these constitute the anacrusis. Anacrusis is gener- 
ally made use of in the first half -line. 

geslogon aet ssecce. X, 7. x ^ x x | j: x 


9. Alliteration, one form of rime, is the employment of the same 
consonants or consonantal groups (st, sp, sc, alliterating each with 
itself only), or of the same or different vowel sounds, at the beginning 
of certain stressed syllables of a line. 

Alliteration is a principle common to all Teutonic literatures. In 
Beowulf and in the poems of Cynewulf and his school, the alliterative 
principles of Old-English literature are preserved in the purest form. 
The older poetry was composed to be sung or recited with musical 
accompaniment. The alliterative measure lends itself to the purpose 
for which music and poetry are associated. Its tonality is consonantal 
rather than vocalic. Its form is received from the innermost genera- 
tive power of language itself, since its fundamental principle is accord- 
ance of word and verse accentuation. For a modern use of the 
principle compare the musical recitations in the dramas of Richard 
Wagner, and for a poetry consonantal in its tone-quality compare the 
works of Robert Browning (v. AM Vogler) . Much of modern allitera- 
tion is purely mechanical. In Milton's L'' Allegro there is a happy use 


of the principle. Swinburne has a marvellous command of conso- 
nantal rime. 

10. The normal line has three alliterative syllables, two in the first 
half-line and one, the chief stress, in the second half-line. 

heofon to hrofe • halig scyppend. IX, 46. 

(a) The first half-line may have but one alliterative syllable, either 
the first or second stressed syllable, the alliteration marking the 
stronger stress. 

6ce drihten • gfefter t6ode. IX, 48. 

swilce baer 6ac se froda • mid fl6ame com. X, 73, 74. 

(b) As a rule, in the second half -line the first syllable with primary 
stress is alliterated. 

(c) Occasionally a line has two alliterative syllables in the second 
half-line and one in the first. 

of 'Saere ginnan by rig • hyre togSanes g&n. VI, 149. 

(d) Double alliteration occurs in specially emphatic lines. The 
emphasis is often strengthened by the use of the secondary alliterating 
letter as the chief letter in the following line. 

nor^manna br6gu • n6de geb6ded. X, 65, 66. 

cyninga wiildor • J>8et gecy^ed w6ar^. 

geond woruld wide • l>set eow ys iviildorblsed. VI, 155, 156. 

11. In expanded lines * the additional stressed syllable is frequently 
alliterated. In the second half-line the alliteration marks the second 

gyrde graegan sw6orde • cy Sde ]?8et him gasta w6ardes. V, 2865. 

12. Other forms of rime,t commonly medial, were used as inciden- 
tal ornamentation. Perfect rime is of two kinds : 

(a) Masculine (or monosyllabic) rime is the correspondence of the 

vowels and following consonants or consonantal groups of single 

syllables. ^ ^ ^^ 

geard . weard. IX, 47. 

cyning • sebeling. X, 115. 

* On the subject of "Expanded line," consult Judith in Quell, u. 
Forsch. Strassburg, 1892. T. Greg. Foster, p. 33. 

t Cf. Die Geschichte des Beimes im Altgermanischen^ Kluge, P. u. 
B. Beitrdge, IX, X. 


(b) Feminine (or polysyllabic) rime is the correspondence in poly- 
syllabic measures of the riming vowels and the following syllable or 


gufSe : ufSe. VI, 123. 
fergan : nergan. IV, 13. 

13. Imperfect rime is of various kinds. The chief forms are : 

(a) When the vowels of the riming syllables are dissimilar, but the 
following consonants or consonantal groups are identical. 

gefeohte : gerihte. VI, 202. 
earn : georn. VI, 210. 

(6) When the riming vowels are identical or similar and the follow- 
ing consonants or consonantal groups are dissimilar ; this constitutes 


legdun : )>eodum. X, 43, 44. 

>rungon : iirnon. VI, 164. 

14. Other characteristics of Old-English poetry are the use of 
special compounds, as beahgifa, X, 3, randwiggendra, VI, 188 ; and 
of synonyms and parallelisms, as the different phrases for the Creator 
in CcBdmon's Hymn and the repetition of the thought of slaughter in 


15. By the invasions of the Danes the learning and poetic culture 
of the Anglian kingdoms were in large measure destroyed, and the 
literary centre was transferred to the West-Saxons. Late Old-English 
(the Xth and Xlth cents.) is a period of prose and metrical decline. 
The ancient art forms were broken up, on the one hand, by the loss 
of the alliterative principle and by the introduction of csBsural (or 
leonine) rime (c/. poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, year, 1036 ; the 
rime develops in Proverbs of Alfred, in Layamon's metres, and in King 
Horn), and, on the other hand, by transformation into a sort of rhyth- 
mic, alliterative prose. Many of ^Ifric's works are written in long, 
rhythmical lines of four accents ; alliteration is loosely applied. 
Grein (Anglia, II, 147) arranges Samson, XIV, in long lines. 

* Assonance is the form of rime in the Norman epic, the Chanson 
de Boland. 


An man waes 6ardigende • on Israhela >eode. 

Mdnne gehaten • of dsere mseg-Se D&n. 

his wif waes untymende • and hig wunedon butan cilde. 

him com >a gangende • to godes engel. 

and cwse'S • ISset hi sc^oldon habban stinu him gemaene. 


16. Throughout the ME. period two systems of versification were 
in use, the native English alliterative forms, somewhat modified, and 
preserved chiefly in the north and west (see Patience^ XXIX, and 
Destruction of Troy, XXX, and c/. in New English the use of the 
accentual principle in Cristdbel by Coleridge), and the more common 
forms imitated from Latin and French models. From the mediaeval 
Latin church-hymns was copied the verse of seven measures, known 
as the septenar, first used in Poema Morale before 1200, becoming 
later the popular ballad metre (c/. Chevy Chase and modern hymns 
in "common metre"). From the French source were derived three 
forms : (a) the riming couplet of four measures to each line (allied 
to the native English short-line couplet of two, three, or four accents 
to each line, as in King Horn), which was first employed in a metrical 
paraphrase of the Lord's Prayer before 1200, and was popular during 
the Xlllth cent. (c/. Genesis and Exodus, Havelok, Cursor 3Iundi, 
Bruce, etc.), and was used by Chaucer in Boke of the Duchesse and 
House of Fame, by Gower in Confessio Amantis, etc. ; (6) the line of 
six measures (" Alexandrine "), which was first used in the beginning 
of the Xlllth cent, in conjunction with other forms and by Robert de 
Brunne in the second part of his Chronicle (finished 1338) ; (c) the line 
of five measures, which was adopted by Chaucer* first in Compleynt 
to Pitee (1370-1372) and in riming couplets in Legend of Good Women 
(1385) and first used without rime by the Earl of Surrey in translation 
of the second and fourth books of the ^neid (pub. 1557), becoming 
the characteristic metre of English poetry. 

"The tetrameter and pentameter, which require a full breath but 
do not exhaust it, constitute the entire body of the chief poetry of 
energetic nations ; the hexameter, which fully exhausts the breath, is 
only used by nations whose pleasure was in repose." —Buskin. 

* Schipper thinks the source of the five-measure line may be found 
in two XlVth cent. English poems, where it seems to occur in union 
with other forms; but cf Ten Brink, Chaucer's Sprache, pp. 173-175. 



Poema Morale introduces the new rhythms. The accentuated meas- 
ure of the native forms is retained, but the stress loses its logical 
significance, and the unstressed syllables gain in importance and are 
more limited in use. The new measure follows the accentual principles 
of the mediaeval Latin and French poetry, approximating the quanti- 
tative forms of classical versification. The strophe is a characteristic 
development of this period, arising from foreign influence. 

17. Type A: Septenary Poema Morale, XVI. Two long lines, 
joined by final rime, form a strophe which generally completes a 
sentence. The normal line (always regular in Orrmulum, XVIII) has 
seven stressed syllables with regularly alternating thesis, a final un- 
stressed syllable, caesura after the fourth stress, formed after the 
model of the antique iambic septenarius, or catalectic tetrameter. 

and f&le sunge d^dejdo • J>e m6 of Mnchet nuj?e. 10. 
(a) Both half-lines may have a final unstressed syllable. 

Ic waelde more J^annejc dude • mi wit ah to ben more. 2. 

(&) Any measure may consist of an arsis only. 

fch sem 61der >6n ich w6s. 1». 
mi hit m6 mislichet. IS*'. 
Ne hopie no m§,n to muchel. 24». 
\)^r hi ser s6owen. 22^. 

(c) Any measure may have a thesis of two syllables. 

J)e ^e 6hte wile h6alden w61. 65a. 
\>e hit n6 mei don na m&re. 128''. 
Ne b6o >e 16oure J>6ne J^e siilf . 29*. 
J>uder we scolde s6nde. 61^. 

(d) The Orrmulum, XVIII, follows the Latin model with exactness, 
and is without rime. In Sir Fyrumhras, XXXII, csesural rime is 
employed, ah ah. 

18. Type B : Tetrameter, Havelok, XXV. The normal line con- 
sists of four measures of two syllables each, alternating thesis and 
arsis, the lines riming in couplets a «, sometimes a a a a. There is 
occasional alliteration (c/. Boke of the Duchesse, 1369, Chaucer). 

he King was hoten Al>elw61d. 

of word, of w6pne he was bold. 106, 107. 


(a) There is usually a final unstressed syllable. 

he w&s Jje wicteste mdn at n6de 
)jat l^iirte riden on ani st6de. 9, 10. 

(h) Any measure may consist of an arsis only. 

herknet to me gode m6n. 1. 
knict bondeman and sw^in, 32. 

(c) Any measure may have a thesis of two syllables. 

he mMe hem lurken and crfipen in wros. 68. 

(d) In The Legend of Gregory, XXIV, eight lines form a strophe, 


(1) abababab. 1-4. 

(2) ababacac. 5-8. 
{^) abab cb c b. 33-36. 
(Jt) abab c dc d. 49-52. 
(5) aaaababa. 61-64. 

19. Type C: ^^ Alexandrine,^^ De Muliere Samaritana, XXII. 
The poem is a union of septenar and " Alexandrine" forms. Lines 
5, 6, 9-18, 25-28, 39, 40, 43, 44, 49-54, 57, 58, 63, 64, G6, 67, 70-72, 
74, 75 are "Alexandrines," each line having six measures of one to 
three syllables each, as in the previous type, with caesura after the 
third measure (c/. Fifine at the Fair, Browning), 

also heo w6ren agon • l)e_ap6stles ^vervychone. 
I6su at ore wfi,lle • r^stejiim s6olf alone. 11, 12. 

y6f me drynke wymmon • he s6yde myd mylde mtij>e. 

l>eo wymmon him onswfirede • al so to mon vnkii^e. 17, 18. 

(a) Each form is coupled by final rime only with itself (except 
lines 65, 6Q ; 67, 68; 72, 73). 

and vrnen vt of )je blireuh • myd wel miichel )>rynge. 

and comen to I§su J>&r he s6t • and bfeden his bl6ssynge. 72, 73. 

20. On God JJreisun of Ure Lefdi, XIX, is interesting as an illus- 
tration of the struggle between the native and foreign systems of 
versification. The poem is a mixture of alliteration and rime, of the 
alliterating long line of four or a less number of accents, the septenar, 
and " Alexandrine." Observe the following couplets : 


Cristes milde moder • seynte M&rie. 
mines liues l6ome • mi 16oue I6fdi. 1, 2. 

Ich 6uh wiirtSie ^e • mid dile mine mihte. 

and singge Jje lofsong • bi dale and by nihte. 7, 8. 

j>u ert mire soule liht • and mine h§orte bllsse. 
mi lif and mi tohope • min hSale mid iwisse. 5, 6. 

mtirie drSame'S Angles • biuoren \>m onsgne. 
pl6ie« and sw6ie« • and singe-S bitw6onen. 27, 28. 

l^er blowe'S inne bllsse • blostmen hwite^nd r6ade. 
t)6r ham n6uer ne m6i • snou ne uorst iwrSden. 37, 38. 

]p^T ne schtilen heo n6uer • k&rien ne swinken. 

ne w6open ne miirnen • ne hSlle stanches stlnchen. 43, 44. 

ne m6i non h6orte Jj^nchen • ne no wiht arSchen. 
ne no mti^ imSlen • ne no tunge t^chen. 47, 48. 

swu^e w611 ham like^S • biuoren )j6 to bSonne. 

vor heo nSuer ne beo'S s6ad • H u6ir to is6onne. 29, 30. 

vor heo nSuer n6 beo'5 s6ad • \>i ueir to is^onne 

vor heo nSuer ne beo'5 s6ad • \)i u6ir to iseonne. 

21. Type D: Pentameter, Guy of Warwick, XXXIV. Eight rim- 
ing lines with five measures of one to three syllables each, as in pre- 
vious types, form the strophe, riming ah ahh ch c {cf. The Monk^s 
Tale, Chaucer). 

This thyng confirmed • by promys ful roi&ll. 

p^sed the boundys • and siibbarbys of the toun. 

At a cros • that stood feer from the w&ll. 

ful devoutly • the pilgrym kn^lith doun. 

to sStte a syde • &11 susp6cy6un : 

my lord quod h^ • of f6ith withouten bl&me. 

your lyge m^n • of humble aff^ccyoun. 

Guy of W&rwyk • trSwly is my name. 1-8. 

(a) Observe that lines of five measures occur in XIX (cf. 20), 
resulting from the union of forms. 


22. The dominant rime throughout the period is final or end-rime. 
This form of rime was rarely employed in Old-English poetry, and its 
dominance in Middle English is due to foreign influences. 

Perfect rime : masculine, set : let, XIX, 55, 56 ; dai : lai, XIX, 
166, 167 ; told : old, XXI, 1283, 1284 ; — feminine, lore : more, 
XVI, 1, 2 ; kinges : ringes, XIX, 33, 34 ; kesten : festen, XXV, 
81, 82 ; werien : derien, XVI, 333, 334. Imperfect rime : {a) childe 
: selde, XVI, 45, 46 ; J^aere : were, XVI, 99, 100 ; hunger : aeonger, 
XVI, 321, 322 ; lesten : nusten, XVI, 383, 384 ; (6) >anke : marke, 
XVI, 69, 70 ; lichet : swikeff, XVI, 13, 14 ; rym : f^^n, XXV, 21, 
22 ; yeme : quene, XXV, 182, 183. 





Zs. fur d. alt. 22, 214. Facsimiles of Ancient Mss., Part IX., ed. by 
E, A. Bond and E. M. Thompson (London, 1879, for the Palaeogr. 
Soc), Plate 140. Ms. in the Cambridge University Library, Kk 5, 
16 fol. 128. 

Nu scylun hergan hefaenricaes uard, 
metudses maecti end his modgidanc, 
uerc uuldurfadur, sue he uundra gihuaes, 
eel dryctin, or astelidse. 
6 he aerist scop aelda barnum 
heben til hrofe, haleg scepen : 
tha middungeard moncynnses uard, 
eci dryctin, sefter tiadae 
firum, fold"", frea allmectig. 
primo cantauit Caedmon istud carmen. 

* See Alfred's version under IX., p. 18. 



Denkmale des mittelalters gesammelt und herausgegeben von H. Hat- 
temer I. (St. Gallen, 1844), p. 3. Venerabilis Bedae Historiae eccl. 
libri III. IV. edd. John E. B. Mayor and J. R. Lumby (Cambridge, 
1878), p. 177. In the text, J. A. H. Murray's facsimile of the St 
Galler Ms. is used. 


Fore there neidfaerae naenig ni uuiurthit 
thoncsnotturra, than him tharf sie 
to ymbhycggannae aer his hiniongae, 
huaet his gastae godaes ae^htha yflaes 
aefter deothdaege doemid uueorthae. 



Hickes' Thesaurus (Icl. Gram. p. 4, Plate IV.). Gordon's: Itinerarium 
septentrionale (London, 1726), Plate 57. Plate LV in: Vetusta Monu- 
menta, quae ad rerum Britannicarum memoriam conservandam so- 
cietas antiquariorum Londini sumptu suo edenda curavit. Vol. II. 
(London, 1789). Duncan's Narrative in the Archaeologia Scotica 
(Edinburgh, 1833), Vol. IV. p. 313. G. Stephens' : The Old Northern 
Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England, I. (1866-67), 405. 
Cf. Kemble in the Archaeologia Britannica (London, 1840), XXVIII. 
327, XXX. 31, and Dietrich : De cruce Ruthwellensi (Marburg, 1865). 
The verses belong to the poem of the Holy Cross in Grein's : Biblioth. 
der ags. poesie, 2, 143. 

a) — transliterations of the Runic characters. 


a) geredae hinse god almechttig 
J)a he walde on galgu gistiga 
raodig fore allae men 


b) V. 39 ongyrede hine ])A geong haeletS, Jjset waes god selmihtig, 

Strang ond stif5m6d : gestdh h^ on gealgan h^anne 
m6dig on manlgra gesyhSe, J?d h6 wolde mancyn lysan. 
bifode ic, ]>d m6 se beorn ymbclypte : ne dorste ic 
hwaiSre biio-an t6 eorSau. 



a) ic riicnas kyninc 
heafunaes hlafard 
haelda ic ni darstse 

bismseradu unket men ba aet gadre 
ic waes mi}) blodse bistemid 
bigoten of 

b) V. 44 r6d waes ic ar^red, dh6f ic ricne cyning, 

heofona hldford : hyldan me ne dorste. 
48 bysmeredon hie unc butu aet gaedere . eall ic waes mid 
bl6de best^med, 
begoten of j^aes guman sidan. 

a) t Crist waes on rodi 
hweprae fer fusae 
fearran cwomu 
aej)]7ilae til aniim 

ic f'aet al biheald 

sare ic waes mij> sorgum gidroefid 

hnag * 

b) V. 56 Crist waes on r6de. 
hwaet5ere ])^r fdse feorran cw6man 

t6 f dm ae^elinge : ic faet eall beh^old. 
sare ic waes mid (sorgum) gedr^fed, hnag ic hwaet^re 
\>Am secgum id handa. 

a) mi]) strelnm giwundad 

alegdun hiae hinae limwoerignae 
gistoddun him aet his licass heafdum 
bihealdun hiae \>er heafun 


b) V. 62 eall ic waes mid str^lum forwundod. 

dledon hie f)^r limw^rigne, gest6don him set his lices 

beh^oldou hie t$^r heofenes dryhten. 



No. 16 in Grein's : Bibl. 2, 376, cf. Schipper Germ. 19, 334. 

Hals is min hwit ond h^afod fealo, 
sidan sw^ some ; swift ic 6om on t^])e, 
beadowaepen bere ; m6 on bsece standaS 
h6r, swylce sw6 on hl^orum ; hlifiatS tii 
6 ^aran ofer ^agum ; ordum ic steppe 
in grene grass, m^ bi6 gyrn witod, 
gif mec onh&le An onfiudeS 
wselgrim wiga, paer ic wic buge, 
bold, mid bearnum, ond ic bide paer 

10 mid geogu^cn6sle, hwonne gaest cume 
t6 durum minum : him bij? d^atS witod. 
for])on ic sceal of 6Sle eaforan mine 
forhtm6d fergan, fl^ame nergan, 
gif M m^ aef terweard ealles weor})e^ : 

15 hine beraS br^ost. ic his bidan ne dear 
r6]?es on geriiman (nele past rfed teale) , 
ac ic sceal fromlice f^pemundum 
purh st^apne beorg straete wyrcan. 
^a]7e ic maeg freora feorh genergan, 

20 gif ic m^gburge m6t mine gel^dan 
on d^golne weg ])urh diine l^yrel 
sw^se ond gesibbe : ic m^ sij^fau ne pearf 


waelhwelpes wig wiht onsittan. 
gif se niSsceaj^a nearwe stige 
25 m6 on swape sece]>, ne t6s8ele]? him 
on fdm gegnpaj^e gii|7gem6tes, 
si})J)an ic furh hylles hr6f geraece 
ond J)urh h^st hrino hildepilum 
lat5gewinnum, ]?dm ]>e ic longe fl^ah. 



Bouterwek's : Csed. I. 108. Grein's : Bibl. I. 74. Ms. at Oxford, 
Jun. 11, p. 137. 

2845 pd ]?8es rinces se rica ongan 

cyning costigan, cunnode georne, 

hwilc faes seSelinges ellen wfere, 

stiSum wordum, sprsec him stefne t6 : 

' gewit fii ofestlice, Abraham, f^ran, 
2850 Idstas lecgan ond ])6 Ifede mid 

]?in dgen beam : pii scealt Isddc m^ 

onsecgan, sunu Sinne, S3'lf 16 tibre. 

siSSan fii gestigest st^ape ddne, 

hricg fses h^an landes, ]>^ ic ])6 heonon get^ce, 
2855 lip finum dgnum f6tum : }?&r f>u scealt dd gegaerwan, 

b^lf yr, bearne j^inura ond bl6tan sylt 

sunu mid sweordes ecge ond j^onne sweartan lige 

l^ofes lie forbsernan ond m^ Idc beb^odan.* 
Ne forsaet h6 \>y sitSe, ac s6na ongann 
2860 fysan t6 f6re : him waes fr^an engla 

word ondrvsne ond his waldend 14of . 


J}d se ^adga Abraham sine 

nihtreste ofgeaf : nalles nergendes 

haese wit5hogode, ac hine se hdlga wer 
2865 gyrde graegan sweorde, cy6de, fset him gdsta weardes 

egesa on breostum wunode. ongan p4 his esolas baetan 

gamolferhS goldes brytta, heht hine geonge tw^gen 

men mid si6ian : m&g wses his dgen J^ridda 

ond h^ feorSa sylf. ]7d he Ms gewat 
2870 from his dgenum hofe Isddc l^dan, 

beam unweaxen, swd him behead metod. 

efste ])A, swiSe ond onette 

forts foldwege, swd him frea t^hte 

wegas ofer w^sten, 68 faet wuldortorht 
2875 dseges j^riddan up ofer d^op waeter 

ord draemde. ])4 se ^adega wer 

geseah hlifigan h^a dune, 

swd him saegde kr swegles aldor. 

t54 Abraham spraec t6 his ombihtum : 
2880 ' rincas mine, restate incit 

h6r on pissum wicum : wit eft cumatS, 

sit5San wit aerende uncer twega 

gdstcyninge dgifen habbaf5.' 

Gewdt him pd se aet5eling ond his dgen sunu 
2885 t6 ]7aes gemearces, ])e him metod taehte, 

wadan ofer wealdas : wudu baer sunu, 

faeder fyr ond sweord. tSd paes fricgean ongann 

wer wintrum geong wordum Abraham : 

' wit h^r fyr ond sweord, frea min, habba^ : 
2890 hw&r is psdt tiber, J^aet fu torht gode 

t6 Ipam brynegielde bringan J^encest?' 

Abraham maSelode (haefde on an gehogod, 

faet he ged^ede, swd hine drihten h^t) : 

' him past s6t5cyning sylfa findetS, 
2895 moncynnes weard, sw4 him gemet J)incetS.' 
Gestdh J)4 stiShydig st^ape ddne 


dp mid his eaforau, swa him se ^ca bebead, 
])8et h6 on hr6fe gest6d h^an landes, 
on J>fere st6we, J)6 him se stranga t6, 

2900 wferfsest metod, wordum t^hte. 
ongan ]>A M hladan, deled weccan 
ond gefeterode f^t ond honda 
bearne sinum ond ]>k on hk\ dh6f 
fsddc geongne ond ])k fedre gegrap 

2905 sweord be gehiltum : wolde his sunu cwellan 
folmum sinum, fyre sencan 
maeges dr^ore. ]>^ metodes t5egn 
ufan, engla sum, Abraham hlude 
stefne cygde. M stille gebad 

2910 ares spraece ond fdm engle oncwsetS. 
him ]>^ ofstum t6 ufan of roderum 
wuldorgdst godes wordum maelde : 
' Abraham l^ofa, ne sleah })in agen beam, 
ac j^ii cwicue dbregd cniht of dde, 

2915 eaforan l^inne : him an wuldres god. 
mago Ebrea, J)ii medum scealt 
f»urh Jjses hdlgan hand heofoncyninges, 
s6t5um sigorl^anum, selfa onf6n, 
ginfsestum gifum : f 6 wile gdsta weard 

2920 lissum gyldan, pset j^e waes l^ofre his 

sibb ond hyldo, J)onne })in sylfes beam.* 

Ad st6d onfeled. hsefde Abrahame 
metod money nnes, maege L6thes, 
br^ost geblissad, ]>k M him his beam forgeaf 

2925 Isddc cwicne. Sd se ^adega bewldt 

rinc ofer exle ond him faer rom geseah 
unfeor Jjanon aenne standan, 
br66or Arones, brembrum faestne. 
|)one Abraham genam ond hine on M dh6f 
i 2930 6festum miclum for his dgen beam : 

dbraegd pk mid ]>y bille, brynegield onhread, 


reccendne weg, rommes bl6de, 
onbleot |7aet Idc gode, ssegde leana fane 
ond ealra ])ara sseltia, fe h6 him sit5 ond aer, 
2935 gifena drihteD, forgifen haefde. 



Grein's : Bibl. I. 123. Ms. in the Brit. Mus., Vitell. A XV, fol. 202>- 

Haefde t5d gefohten forem^rne blfed 

Iiidith aet giiSe, sw^ hyre god iit5e, 

swegles ealdor, ])6 hyre sigores onl^ah. 
125 ])^ s^o suotere msegS snude gebr6hte 

jiaes herewasSan h^afod swd bl6dig 

on 'S^m faetelse, ))e hyre foregenga, 

bUchl6or ides, hyra begea nest 

S^awura geSungen ))yder on laedde, 
130 ond hit ffi swd heolfrig hyre on hond agea/ 

hige&oncolve hdm t6 berenne 

Judith, gingran sinre. 6odon "6^ gegnum |)anonne 

|?d idesa hA ellenj^riste, 

66 psQt hie bec6mon, collenferhtJe 
135 eadhreSige ni8egt5, iit of 6dm herige, 

])set hie sweotollice geseon mihten 

])^re wlitegan byrig weallas blican 

B^thiiliam. hie 6a b^ahhrodene 

f66eldste forS onettan, 
140 66 hie gl9edm6de gegdn haefdon 

t6 6dm wealgate. wiggend sfeton, 

weras, waeccende : wearde heoldon 

130, Letters in the text in italics are now wanting wholly, or in part, in 
the Ms. 


in Sam faestenne, swA Mm folce ^r 

ge6morm6dum Iiidith beb^ad, 
145 searot5oncol msegS, ]?d h^o on siS gewdt. 

ides ellenr6f wses Sd eft cumen 

leof t6 l^odum ond Sd lungre h^t, 

gleawhydig wif, giimena sumne 

of t^aere ginnan b3'rig hyre t6gednes gdn 
150 ond hi 6fostlice in forlsetan 

Jjurh Sees wealles geat ond f'set word acwaetS 

to Sam sigefolce : ' ic eow secgan maeg 

))oncwyrSe ping, faet g^ ne }>yrfen leng 

murnan on mode : ^ow ys metod bliSe, 
155 cyninga wuldor. }'set gecySed wearS 

geond woruld wide, fset eow ys wuldorbl^d 

torhtlic t6weard ond tir gifeSe 

fdra laeSSa t6 l^ane, |?e ge lange drugon.' 
p4 wurdon bliSe burhsittende, 
160 sySSan hi gehyrdon, hu seo hdlige sprsec 

ofer h^anne weall : here wses on lustum. 

wis faes faestengeates folc onette, 

weras, wif somod, woruum ond heapum, 

Sreatum ond Srymmum frungon ond urnon 
165 ongedn Sd p^odnes maegS Jjiisendmaelum, 

ealde g6 geonge : feghwylcum wearS 

men on Saere medobyrig mod areted, 

sySSan hie ongedton, paet waes Iiidith cumen 

eft t6 ^Sle, ond Sa ofostlice 
170 hie mid 6aSmedum in forleton. 

pd s^o gleawe het golde gefraetewod 

hyre Sinenne ))ancolm6de 

]>8ss herewaeSan heafod onwriSan 

ond hyt id behSe blodig aetywan 
175 pkm burhl^odum, hu hyre aet beaduwe gesp^ow 

spraec SA s^o aeSele t6 eallum ]>Am folce : 

'h^r ge magon sweotole, siger6fe haeleS, 


l6oda rfeswan, on (Saes IdSestan, 
haeSenes heaSorinces,h^afod starian, 

180 H61ofernus unlyfigendes, 

]>^ lis monna maest mor^ra gefremede, 
sdrra sorga, ond ]>8et swj^^or gyt 
yean wolde : ac him ne li^e god 
lengran lifes, pset h^ mid l&tSSum lis 

185 eglan m6ste. ic him ealdor 6S]?rong 

]7urh godes fultum. mi ic gumena gehwsene 
])yssa bm'gl^oda biddan wylle, 
randwiggendra, paet ge recene ^ow 
fysan t6 gefeohte : sySt^an frymt5a god, 

190 drfsest cyning, 6astan sende 

Mohtne l^oman, berat5 linde fort5, 
bord, for breostum ond byrnhomas, 
scire helmas in sceat5ena gemong 
fyllan folctogan fdgum sweordum, 

195 f^ge frumgdras. fynd syndon ^owere 
gedemed t6 deaSe, ond g6 d6m dgon, 
tir, set tohtan, swd ^ow getdenod hafaS 
mihtig dryhten jnirh mine /iand.' 

pd wear6 snelra werod sniide gregearewod, 

200 c^nra, t6 campe : st6pon cyner6fe 

secgas ond gesiSas, b^ron sigej)iifas, 
f 6ron t6 gefeohte fort5 on gerihte 
hseletS under helmum of ^kre hdljgan byrig 
on t^set dsegred sylf : dynedan scildas, 

205 hhide hlummon. pses se hlanca gefeah 
wulf in walde ond se wanna hrefn, 
waelgifre fugel (westan b^gen, 
fset him t5d J^^odguman p6hton tiliau 
fylle on f&gum), ac him fleah on Idst 

210 earn setes georn lirigfeSera, 
salowigpdda, sang hildeleoS 
hyrnednebba. st6pon heatSorincas, 

VII. DOCUMENT, A.D. 805-810. \l 

beornas, t6 beadowe bordum beSealite, 

hwealfum lindum, ]){i 8e hwile ^r 
215 elS^odigra edwit }>oledon, 

hseSenra hosp : him j^set hearde wearS 

set (Sdm sescplegan eallum forgolden, 

Assjrium, sy65aii Ebr^as 

under giiSfanum gegdn haefdon 
220 t6 (5dm fyrdwicum. hie "6^ fromliee 

16ton for5 fl^ogan fldna sciiras, 

hildenkdnin of hornbogan, 

str&las stedehearde : st3'rmdon hlude 

grame giiSfrecan, gdras sendon 
225 in heardra gemang. hseleS w&ron yrre 

landbiiende 145um cynne. 

st6pon styrnm6de stercedferhtSe, 

wrehton uns6fte ealdgeniSlan 

medow^rige : mundum brugdon 
230 scealcas of scedt^um scirm^led swyrd 

ecgum gecoste, sl6gon eornoste 

Assiria oretmsecgas 

ui^hyegende, ndnne ne sparedon 

]>2ss herefolees, h^anne n6 ricne, 
235 cwicera manna, ])e hie ofercuman mihton. 


A.D. 805-810 (806?). 

Facsimiles of Ancient Charters in the British Museum (1873). Original 
Cotton Ms., Augustus II. 79. 

t Ic Osuulf, aldormonn mid godes gaefe, ond 
Beorn^ryS, min gemecca, sella^ to Cantuarabyrg to 
Cristescirican ^aet lond set Stanhamstede .XX. swu- 

12 VII. DOCUMENT, A.B. 805-810. 

luncga gode allmehtgiim ond Sere halgon gesomnimcgfe 
5 fore hyhte ond fore aedleane t^ses aecau ond "Saes 
towardon lifes ond ,fore uncerra saula hela ond uncerra 
bearna ond mid ^micelre eamiiodnisse biddaS, 'Sset wit 
moten bioii on (5em gemanon, 'be Saer godes t5iowas 
siondan ond Sa menn, '6a 'Saer hlafordas waeron, ond 

10 (5ara monna, (5e hiora lond to (Saere cirican saldon, ond 
t^aettae mon unce tide yrab tuaelfraonaS mou geuueor- 
•Siae on godcundum godum ond aec on aelmessan, suae 
mon hiora doeS. 

Ic 'Sonne Vulfred, mid godes gaefe arc epi s. oas 

15 forecuaedenan uuord fulliae ond bebeode, Saet mon ymb 
tuaelfmonaS hiora tid boega Sus geuueorSiae to anes 
daeges to Osuulfes tide ge mid godcundum godum ge mid 
aelmessan ge aec mid higna suesendum. Sonne bebeode 
ic, Saet mon Sas Sing selle ymb tuaelfmonaS of Liminum, 

20 Se Sis forecuaedene lond to limpeS, of Saem ilcan londe 
set Stanhamstede : .CXX. huaetenra hlafa ond .XXX. 
clenfiT o^iTd an hriSer dugunde ond .IIII. sc^p ond tua 
flicca ond .V. goes ond .X. hennfuglas ond .X. pund 
caeses, gif hit fuguldaeg sie ; gif hit Sonne festendaeg 

25 sie, selle mon uu^ge caesa ond fisces ond butran oyid 
aegera, Saet mon begeotan maege ; oyid .XXX. ombra 
godes uuelesces aloS, Set limpeS to .XV. mittum, ond mit- 
tan fulne huniges oSSa tu^gen uuines, su^ hwaeder suae 
mon Sonne begeotan maege. ond of higna gem^num godu?>i 

SO Saer aet ham mon geselle .CXX. gesuflra hlafa to aelmes- 
san for hiora saula, suae mon aet hlaforda tidum doeS. 
ond Sas forecu^denan su^senda all agefe mon S^m 
reogolwarde, ond he brytni^, swai higum maest red sie 
ond Saem sawlu??i soelest. aec mon Saet weax agaefe to 

35 ciricican ond hiora sawlum nytt gedoe, Se hit man fore 
doeS. aec ic bebeode minum aefterfylgendum, Se Saet 
lond h^bben aet Burnan, Saet hiae simle ymb .XII. monaS 
foran to Saere tide gegeorwien tenhund hlafa ond swae 


feola sufla, ond (5^t mon gedele to aelmessiin aet Sere 
40 tide fore mine sawle ond Osuulfes ond BeornSrySe aet 
Cristescirican, ond him se reogol\Veord on byrg gebeode 
foran to, hwonne sio tid sie. aec ic bidde higon, 'Sette hie 
Sas godcuudan god gedon aet 'Sere tide fore hiora saw- 
lum, Saet ^ghwilc messepriost gesinge fore Osuulfes sawle 
45 twa messan, twa fore BeornSrySe sawle, ond aeghwilc 
diacon arede twa passione fore his sawle, twa fore hire, 
ond ^ghwilc godes Slow gesinge twa fiftig fore his sawle, 
twa fore hire, Saette ge fore uueorolde sien geblitsade 
mid Sem weoroldcundum godum ond hiora saula mid Sem 
r>0 godcundum godum. aec ic biddo, higon, Saet ge me 
gemynen aet Sere tide mid suilce godcunde gode, suilce 
iow cynlic Synce, ic Se Sas gesettnesse sette gehueder ge 
for higna lufon ge Seara saula, Se haer beforan hiora 
namon auuriteue siondon. VALETE IN DOMINO. 



King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregorj'^'s Pastoral Care ed. by 
Henry Sweet, London, 1871, p. 3. The text follows chiefly the Hat- 
ton Ms. 20, formerly 88, in Oxford. Corpus Chr. Coll. Carabr. 12. 
Junius' transcript in Oxford of the almost entirely burned Cott. 
Tib. B XL Trinity Coll. C, R 5. 22 (from 1. 81). University Libr. 
Cambr. li 2, 4. 


Alfred kyninghdteS gr^tan WferferS biscep his wordum 
luflice ond fr^ondlice ond S6 cySan hdte, Saet m6 c6m 
swiSe oft on gemynd, hwelce wiotan iii w^ron giond 
Angelcynn fegSer g6 godcundra hdda g6 woruldcundra, 


5 ond hii gesaeliglica tida S4 waeron giond Angelcynn, ond 
hii 84 kyningas, t)^ (Sone onwald hsefdon Sses folces, gode 
ond his serendwrecum hiersumedon, ond hie feg^er g6 
liiora sibbe g^ hiora siodo g6 hiora onweald innanbordes 
gehioldon ond 6ac lit liiora ^Sel rymdon, ond hii him 6d 
10 sp^ow ^gSer g6 mid wige g6 mid wisd6me ; ond ^ac (5a 
godcundan hddas, hii giorne hie waeron ^g6er ge ymb lare 
g^ ymb liornunga g6 ymb ealle S4 5iowotd6mas, ^^ hie 
gode scoldon, ond hii man litanbordes wisd6m ond Ure 
hieder on lond s6hte, ond hii w6 hie mi sceoldon lite 

15 begietan, gif w^ hie habban sceoldon. swae claene hio 
wses 6Sfeallenn on Angelcynne, t^aet swiSe f^awa waeron 
behionan Humbre, tS6 hiora S^ninga ciiSen understondan on 
englisc ocSt^e furSum 4n ^rendgewrit of Isedene on englisc 
dreccean ; ond ic w^ne, t5aette n6ht monige begiondan Hnm- 

20 bre n^ren. sw& f^awa hiora waeron, t5a3t ic furSum dnne 
dnl^pue ne mseg ge^encean besii8an Temese, t5d Sd ic t6 
rice f^ng. gode selmihtegum sie Sonc, Ssette w6 mi ^nigne 
onstal habbaS Idr^owa ; ond forSon ic M bebiode, Saet 
M d6, swfe ic geliefe, t^aet M wille, 'Saet Sd t56 tiissa 

25 woruldSinga t6 S^m gesemetige, sw^ t5ii oftost maege, 
t5aet M t$one wisd6m, t56 'S^ god sealde, t5^r tS^r M hiene 
befaestan maege, befaeste. ge8enc, hwelc witu lis ^d bec6- 
mon for ^isse worulde, ^d Sd we hit n6hwaeSer n^ selfe 
ne lufodon n6 eac 65rum monnum ne l^fdon : t5one naman 

30 dnne w6 liaefdon, 8aette w6 cristne w^ren, ond swiSe 
f^awe 8d t56awas. M ic 84 •8is call gemunde, Sd gemunde 
ic 6ac, hii ic geseah, ^r8^mSe hit eall forhergod w^re 
ond forbaerned, hii '84 ciricean giond eall Angelcynn 
st6don mdt^ma ond b6ca gefyldae, ond ^ac micel menigeo 

35 godes ^iowa, ond '84 swi8e lytle fiorme 84ra b6ca wiston, 
for^^m8e hie hiora n4n wuht ongiotan ne meahton, for- 
•8^m8e hie n^ron on hiora agen getSiode dwritene ; 
swelce hie cw^den : ' lire ieldran, ^84 '8e S4s st6wa ^r 
hioldon, hie lufodon wisd6m, ond ^urh t5one hie bege4ton 


40 welan ond lis l^fdon. h^r mon mseg gi^t gesion hiora 
swaeS, ac we him ne cunnon aefterspyrigean ' ; ond 
forSfem w4 habbatJ nd fegSer forlaeten g6 tSone welan 
g6 6one wisd6m. forSfemSe w6 noldon t6 t5fem spore mid 
lire m6de onliitan. '84 ic M t5is eall gemunde, t5d wundrade 

45 ic swiSe swi6e tS^ra g6dena wiotona, Se gid w^ron giond 
Angelcynn ond '54 b^c eallae befullan geliornod hsefdon, 
5set hie hiora Sd ndnne dael noldon on hiora %en get5iode 
wendan. ac ic 5d s6na eft m^ selfum andwyrde ond cwseS : 
hie ne w^ndon, 'Ssette aefre menn sceolden sw^ reccel^ase 

50 weorSan ond sio Idr swae 66feallan. for 'S^re wilnunga 
hie hit forl^ton ond woldon, (^aet h6r Sy mdra wlsd6m on 
londe w^re, 'Sy we ma geS^oda ciiSon. 'S4 gemunde ic, hti 
sio k wses ^rest on ebriscgeSiode funden, ond eft, "6^ 
hie Cr^acas geliornodon, S4 wendon hie hie on hiora dgen 

55 geSiode ealle ond 6ac ealle 6(Sre b^c ; ond eft Laedenware 
sw^ same, si58an hie hie geliornodon, hie hie wendon 
ealla 5urh wise wealhstodas on hiora dgen ge^iode. ond 
^ac ealla 65r8e cristnse Sloda sumne d^\ hiora on hiora 
dgen geSiode wendon. forSy m^ t5yncS betre, gif iow sw^ 

60 5ynct5, cSset w6 6ac sumae b^c, 5d ^e niedbeSearfosta sien 
eallum monnum t6 wiotonne, t5aet w6 Sd on 5aet geSiode 
wenden, t56 w6 ealle gecndwan maegen (ond ged6n sw& 
w6 swi^e 6a^e magon mid godes fultume, gif w6 'Sd 
stilnesse habbatJ), 'Saette eall sio gioguS, 5^ mi is on 

65 Angelcynne, friora monna, t5dra ^e 6d sp6da haebben, 
•Saet hie S^m befeolan maegen, sien t6 liornunga 6Sfaeste, 
t5d hwile ^e hie t6 ndnre 6Serre note ne maegen, 6S 5one 
first, 'Se hie wel cunnen englisc gewrit dr^dan : laere mon 
si55an furSur on laedengeSiode, '84 8e mon furSor l^ran 

70 wille ond t6 hieran hdde d6n wille. t5d ic t5d gemunde, hii 
sio Idr laedenge^iodes ^r 'Sissum dfeallen waes giond An- 
gelcynn, ond 'S^ah monige ciiSon englisc gewrit draedan, 
t5d ongan ic ongemang 6Srum mislicum ond manigfealdum 
bisgum 'Sisses kynerices "64 b6c wendan on englisc, tS^ is 


75 genemned on Iseden Pastor alls ond on englisc Hierde- 
b6c, hwilum word be worde, hwilum andgit of andgiete, 
sw^ swfe ic hie geliornode aet Plegmunde, minum aerce- 
biscepe, ond set Assere, minum biscepe, ond set Grim- 
bolde, minum msesseprioste, ond set I6hanne, minum 

80 msesseprioste. siMan ic hie Sa geliornod hsefde, sw^ sw& 
ic hie forst6d, ond sw^ ic hie andgitfullicost dreccean 
raeahte, ic hie on englisc dwende ; ond to aelcum biscepst61e 
on minum rice wille dne onsendan, ond on jfelcre biS dn 
sestel, s6 bit5 on fiftegum mancessa. ond ic bebiode on 

85 godes naman, Sset ndn mon Sone sestel from 6fere b^c ne 
d6 n6 'Sd b6c from t^&m mynstre : uncii8, hii longe t5fer 
swfe gel^rede biscepas sien, sw& sw& nu (gode tSonc !) 
wel hw&r siendon, fort5y ic wolde, 'Saette hie ealneg set 
•S&re st6we w&ren, buton se biscep hie mid him habban 

90 wille oStSe hio hw&r t6 l^ne sie oStSe hwd 66re bi write. 

pis ferendgewrit Xgustinus 

ofer sealtne s^ siiSan br6hte 

iegbiiendum, sw^ hit ^rfore 

ddihtode dryhtnes cempa, 
95 R6me pdpa. ryhtspell monig 

Greg6rius gl6awm6d gindw6d 

^urh sefan snyttro, searot5onca hord ; . 

forS^m h6 monnc3'nnes msest gestriende 

rodra wearde, R6mwara betest, 
100 monna m6dwelegost, m&rSum gefr^gost. 

sit5t5an min on englisc JElfred kyning 

dwende worda gehwelc ond m^ his writerum 

sende sii6 ond noii5, heht him swelcra md 

brengan bi S^re bisene, Sset h^ his biscepum 
105 sendan meahte, for^&m hi his sume t^orfton, 

^d 5e Isedenspr&ce l&ste ciiSon. 

IX. BtEdavs account of C^DMON. 17 



Historiae ecclesiasticae gentis Anglorum libri quinque a venerabili 
Beda presbytero script!, ab augustissimo veterum Anglosaxonum 
rege Alvredo examinati eiusque paraphrasi saxonica eleganter expli- 
cati ed. A. Wheloc (Cantabr. 1643), p. 327. Historiae ecclesiasticae 
gentis Anglorum libri quinque etc. cura et studio Johannis Smith 
(Cantabr. 1722), p. 596. Ms. of the Bodleiana (Tanner 10), upon 
which the present text is based. Ms. of the Corpus Chr. Coll., 
Cambridge (41). Ms. of the Brit. Mus., London (Cotton. Otho B 
XI, for the most part burned). Ms. of the Corpus Chr. Coll., 
Oxford (279). Ms. of the University Library, Cambridge (Kk 

In ^ysse abbudissan mynstre wses sum br66or synder- 
lice mid godcundre gife gem^red ond geweorSad, forpon 
h^ gewunade gerisenlice leo6 wyrcan, ])^ Se t6 fefsestnisse 
ond t6 drfaestnisse belumpon, swd t^sette, swd hwset sw4 
5 h6 of godcundum stafum ])urh b6ceras geleornode, ]?aet h^ 
setter medmiclum fiece in scopgereorde mid )?d m^stan 
sw^tnisse ond inbryrdnisse geglengde ond in engliscge- 
reorde wel geworht foY]> br6hte ; ond for his l^ofsongum 
monigra monna m6d oft t6 worulde forhogdnisse ond t6 

10 gep^odnisse })ses heofonlican lifes onbaernde w^ron. ond 
^ac swelce monige 6Sre sefter him in Ongel])^ode ongunnon 
fefaeste l^otS wyrcan, ac n&nig hw£eSre him })aet. gelice 
d6n meahte, for)7on h^ nales from monnum n6 ])urh mon 
gel&red wses, ])8et h^ J>one leotScrasft leornade, ac M waes 

15 godcundlice gefultumod ond ]>urh godes gife ]?one song- 

craeft onf^ng, ond h6 forSon n^fre n6ht l^asunge n^ idles 

Mo]?es wyrcan meahte, ac efne fd dn, ]>^ 'Se t6 jfefaestnesse 

belumpon ond his ]>^ ^faestan tungan gedafenade singan. 

Waes h^, se mon, in weoruldhdde geseted 6S ])A tide, 

20 ]?6 h6 waes gelyfedre yldo, ond h^ n&fre n&nig l^o'S geleor- 


nade. ond he forpon oft in gebeorscipe, j^onne j'aer waes 
blisse intinga ged^med, paet lieo ealle sceolden purh ende- 
byrdnesse be liearpan singan, ]?onue h6 geseah ]>^ hearpan 
him n^alecan, ponne drds h6 for scome from ])^m symble 

25 ond hdm ^ode t6 his hiise. ]>k he ]?8et ])d sumre tide dyde, 
))aet h6 forMt ]>aet hus j^aes geb^orscipes ond lit waes 
gongende t6 n^ata scypene, fdra heord him waes )?^re 
neahte beboden, ])6. h6 Sd );&r in gelimplice tide his leomu 
on reste gesette ond onslfepte, ]^d st6d him sum mou aet 

30 J>urh swefn ond hine hdlette ond gr^tte ond hine be his 
noman nemde : ' Cedmon, sing m6 hwaethwugu.' ])^ 
ondswarode h6 ond cwaeS : ' ne con ic n6ht singan, ond 
ic for|)on of j^yssum gebeorscipe lit code ond hider gewdt, 
forf>on ic ndht singan ne cii6e.' eft h^ cwaeS, s^ t^e mid 

35 him sprecende waes : ' hwaet5re ]ni m6 meaht singan/ 
cwae6 he : ' hwaet sceal ic singan ? ' cwae$ h^ : ' sing m^ 

pd h6 Sd ])ds andsware onf^ng, pd ongon h^ s6na singan 
in herenesse godes scyppendes ])d fers ond ])d word, J^^ 

40 he ndifre ne gehyrde, p^ra endebyrdnes )>is is : 

* ' nu sculan herigean heofonrices weard, 
meotodes meahte ond his m6dge])anc, 
weorc wuldorfaeder, swd he wundra gehwaes, 
ece drihten, 6r onstealde. 

45 he ^rest sce6p eorSan bearnum 
heofon t6 hr6fe, hdlig scyppend : 
)>d middangeard money nnes weard, 
ece drihten, aefter teode 
firum, foldan, frea aelmihtig.' 

50 pd drds he from ]>^m shepe ond eal, ]>i ]>e he sh'epende 
song, faeste in gemynde haefde ond 'p^m wordum s6na 
monig word in |>aet ilce gemet gode wyr'Ses eonges t6 

*See I. Ccedmon's Hymn. 


gej7^odde. ]>si c6m h^ on morgenne t6 paem tuDger^fan, s6 
pe hib ealdormon waes, ssegde him, hwylce gife he onf^ng, 

55 ond h6 hiue s6na t6 paere abbudissan gelsedde oud hh-e 
fset cySde ond saegde. ])^ heht h6o gesomnian ealle \>k 
gelferedestan men ond ]?^ leorneras ond him andweardum 
h6t secgan j^aet swefn ond j^set 16oS singan, fsette ealra 
heora d6me gecoren w^re, hwset oSSe hvvonon j^set cumen 

60 w&re. fd waes him eallum gesegen, swd swd hit waes, faet 
him waere from drihtne sylfum heofonlic gifu forgifen. 
])d rehton heo him ond saegdon sum hdlig spell ond god- 
cundre 14re word, bebudon him ])A, gif h6 meahte, faet h6 
in swinsunge l^opsonges j^aet gehwj'rfde. 'Sd h6 '8d haefde 

65 ])6, wisan onfongue, ]m code he hdm to his hiise ond cwom 
eft on morgen ond ])j betstan l^ot5e geglenged him dsong 
ond dgeaf, )?aet him beboden waes. 

D4 ongan seo abbudisse clyppan ond lufigean fd godes 
gife in paem men, ond heo hine J>4 monade ond lasrde, faet 

70 h6 woruldhdd forlete ond munuchdde onf^nge. ond h6 
]?aet wel pafode, ond h6o hine in ]?aet mynster onf^ng mid 
his g6dum ond hine gejj^odde t6 gesomnunge fdra godes 
})6owa ond heht hine laeran paet getael J^aes hdlgan staeres 
ond spelles. ond h6 eal, |)4 h6 in gehyrnesse geleornian 

75 meahte, mid hine gemyndgade ond, sw4 swd claene n^ten, 
eodorcende in pset sw^ teste 16oS gehwerfde. ond his song 
ond his leotS w&ron swd wynsumu t6 gehyranne, faette pd 
seolfan his Idreowas aet his mu6e writon ond leornodon. 
song h6 aerest be middangeardes gesceape ond bi fruman 

80 moncynnes ond eal paet st^r Genesis (]>aet is s^o ^reste 
Moyses b6c), ond eft bi Atgonge Israhela folces of 
^gypta londe ond bi ingonge paes gehdtlandes ond bi 
68rum monegum spellum paes hdlgan gewrites canones 
b6ca ond bi Cristes menniscnesse ond bi his ])r6wunge 

85 ond bi his lipdstignesse in heofonas ond bi faes hdlgan 
gdstes cyme ond pdra apostola Idre ond eft bi ] aem ege 
paes t6weardan d6mes oud bi fyrhtu paes tintreglican 


wites ond bi swetnesse j^aes heofonlecan rices he monig 
leo6 geworhte, ond swelce eac oSer monig be j^sem god- 

90 cundum fremsumnessum ond d6mum he geworhte. on 
eallum fferh he geornlice g^mde, ])3et he men dtuge from 
synna lufan ond mdndaeda ond t6 lufau ond t6 geornful- 
nesse dwehte g6dra daeda. forj^on h6 waes, se mon, swij^e 
aefsest ond regoUecum feodscipum ^at5ra6dlice under- 

95 ])6oded, ond wi6 }>8em, ])A fte on 6'5re wisan d6n woldon, 
h6 waes mid welme miceh-e ellenw6dnisse onbserned ; ond 
h^ fort^on faegre ende his lif betynde ond geendade. 




The text is based on Corpus Christi Coll. (Cambridge) Ms. CLXXIII. 
In the British Museum : Cott. Tib. A VI; Cott. Tib. B I ; Cott. Tib. B 
IV. Thorpe: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (London 1861), I. 200. John 
Earle: Two of the Saxon Chronicles, p. 112. Grein's Bibliothek der 
ags. poesie ed. Wiilker I. 374. 

An. DCCCC. XXXVII. HeraeJ^elstan cyning. eorla dryhten. 
beorna beahgifa. 7 his bro]?or edc. ^eadmund ae)>eling. ealdor- 
langne tir. geslogon aet saecce. sweorda ecgum. ymbe brnn- 
anburh. ^''bordweal clufan. heowan heapolinde. hamora lafan. 
afaran eadweardes. swahim geaej^ele waes. ^^from cneomaegum. 
Icet hi aet campe oft. wi}) laj^ra gehwaene. land ealgodon. hord 
7 hdmas. ^ettend crungun. sceotta leoda. 7 scipflotan. faege 
feollan. feld dsennede. ^secgas hwate. siS|>an sunne lip. on mor- 
gen tid. maere tungol. glad ofer grundas. ^godes condel beorht. 
eces drihtnes. o6 sio ae|7ele gesceaft. sah to setle. paer laeg 
secg maenig. ^garum ageted. guma nor|)erna. ofer scild scoten. 
swilce scittisc edc. werig wigessaed. '^wesseaxe f6rt5. ondlongne 


daeg. eorod cistum. on last legdun. la})um jjeodum. "^'heowan 
here fleman. hindan fearle. mecum mylen scearpan. myrce 
ne wyrndon. he eardes hondplegan. ^h^elej^a nanum. ]>aQ mid 
anlafe. ofer sera gebland. on lides bosme. land gesohtun. 
^■'faege to gefeobte. fife laegun. 6n fam campstede. cyninges 
giunge. sweordum aswefede. ^swilce seofeue eac. eorlas an- 
lafes. unrim hedges, flotan 7 sceotta. j^ser geflemed wearS. 
^norSmannabregu. nedegebeded. to lides stefne. litle weorode. 
cread cnea ren flot. ^"cyning ut gewat. 6n fealene flod. feorh 
generede. swilce J'aer eac se froda. mid fleame com. ^^on his 
cy]5pe nort5. costontinus. h4r hilde ring, hreman ne |7orfte. 
maecan gemanan. ^he waes his maega sceard. f reonda gefylled. 
6n folcstede. beslagen aet saecce. 7 his sunu forlet. ^6n wael- 
stowe. wundun fergrunden. giungne aet gu^e. gelpan ne 
porfte. beorn blanden feax. %il geslehtes. eald inwidda. ne 
anlaf ]>y ma. mid heora herelafum. hlehhan ne porftun. ^^pcet 
heo beadu weorca. beteran wurdun. 6n campstede. culbod 
gehnades. gar mittinge. ^°*'gumena gemotes, wsepen gewrixles. 
I^aes hi dnwaelfelda. wip eadweardes. afaran plegodan. ^^gewi- 
tan him ]>a norpmen. naegled cnearrum. dreorig daraSa laf. 
6n dinges mere, ofer deop waeter. "°difehn secan. 7 eft hira 
land, aewisc mode, swilce ]>& gebrol>er. begeu aetsamne. ^^cyn- 
ing 7 aej^eling. cy|>)>e sohton. wesseaxena land, wiges hremige. 
letan himbehindan. ^^hraebryttian. saluwigpadan.j^one swear- 
tan hraefn. hyrned nebban. 7 J^ane hasewan padan. ^^earn 
aeftan hwit. aeses brucan. graedigne gu6haf6c. 7 j^aet graege 
deor. wulf 6n wealde. ^^ne wearS wael mare. 6n j^is eiglande. 
aefer gieta. folces gefylled. bef oran ]>issum. ^sweordes ecgum. 
I^aes ]>e us secgaS b^c. ealde uSwitan. si]?]?an eastan hider. 
engle 7 seaxe. ^%p becoman. ofer brad brimu. br3'tene sohtan. 
wlance wigsmifas. weealles ofercoman. ^''^eorlas arhwate. eard 



The Gospel according to Saint Matthew in Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian 
The Holy Bible in the Earliest English Versions made from the Latin 

Oxford, 1850, 

Nero D IV. 

efern uut "Siu o&S'e 'Sa gelihte^ in forma doeg cuom 

iVespere autem sabbati, quae lucescit in prima sabbati, uenit 

^iu magdalenesca 7 o'Sero to geseanne \>(et byrgenn 7 heonu 

maria raagdalenae et altera maria uidere sepulchrum, ^^tecce 

eor^ hroernisse geworden waes micil engel for^on drihtnes astag 
terrae motus factus est magnus ; angelus enim domini descendit 
of heofnum 7 geneolecde eft awaslte ^one stan 7 gesastt ofer 
de caelo et accedens reuoluit lapidem et sedebat super 

hia waes for'Son megwlit his suae leht 7 

eum ^erat enim aspectus eius, sicut fulgor, et 

wede his sua sna fore ego ofS^e fyrihto uut his alegd weron 

uestimentum eius, sicut nix. *prae timore autem eius exteriti sunt 
"Sa haldendo 7 aworden weron suelce for deado ondswarede uut "Se engel 
custodes et facti sunt, uelut mortui. ^ respondens autem angelus 
CHOC'S ^aem wifum nallas gie ondrede iuh ic wat for'Son \>cette ISe haelend 
dixit mulieribus : ' nolite timere uos ; scio enim, quod lesum, 

se "Se ahongen waes gie soecas ne is he'r aras for^on suae cue^ 
qui crucifixus est, quaeritis. ^non est hie ; surrexit enim, sicut dixit, 
cymmas gesea^ ]>cEt styd otftSe ^iu stou ^er asetted waes drihten 7 hrae'Se 
uenite, uidete locum, ubi positus erat dominus. 'et cito 

code cuoSas 'Segnum his U^tte he aras 7 heonu foreliora^ iwih in 

eunte dicite discipulis eius, quia surrexit, "et ecce praecedit uos in 


' on efenne J>a haes reste dagas l>aem )>e in lihte in forma daeg aefter reste 
daeg cwom maria niagdalenisca 7 o>er maria to sceawenne j^a byrgenne ^ 7 
henu eorl> styrennis gewar^ micelu ajngel forl^on dryhtnes astag of heo- 
funum 7 to gangende awaslede jjone {from l^ofi) stan 7 gesett on ))Eem ^waes 
J?a his onseone swa leget 7 M'aeda o'S'de raegl his hwit swa snau * for his aegsa 
honne afirde werun l?a weardas 7 geworden swa deade ^andswarade >a se 
engel cwaej? to J^aem wifum ne forhtige eow ic wat forl'on \>oet git haelend 
jjone ]?e hongen waes gesoeca)> ^nis he her forj^on J?e he aras swa he cwae)? 
cumaj? 7 geseoj? J^a stowe l^ser aseted waes dryhten "7 hrsebe ganga> sascga)? 
discipulas his Ixct he aras from deade 7 henu beforan gas)? eow in galilea 



Versions (edd. Kemble and Hardwick), Cambridge (1858), pp. 226-231. 
Vulgate by John Wycliffe and his Followers edd. Forshall and Madden, 
IV. 83. 

Bodl. 441. 

iSo^lice }>ara restedasges sefene, se 
he onlyhte on bam forman restedaege, 
com seo magdalenisce Maria and seo 
ojjer Maria, baet hig woldon geseon )>a 
byrgene. ^and basr wear]? geworden 
micel eorbbif ung ; witodlice dryhtnes 
engel astah of heofonan and genea- 
laehte and awylte bone stan and saet 
baer onuppan. ^ hys ansyn waes, swylce 
ligit, and hys reaf sw^a hwite, swa 
snaw. ^witodlice ba weardas waeron 
afyrlite and waeron gewordene, swylce 
hig deade waeron. ^"Sa andswarode se 
engel and saede bani wif on : * ne on- 
draede ge eow ; ic wat witodlice, beet 
ge secea^ bone hselynd, bone be on 
rode ahangen waes. 

^nys he her; he aras so Slice, swa 
swa he saede. cuma'S and geseo'S ba 
stowe, be se haelynd waes on aled. 
" 7 farab hraedlice and saecgea^ 
hys leorningcnyhtum, baet he aras, 

Hatton 38. 

1 Sodlice bam restesdaiges efene, se 
be onlihte on bam forme restedayge, 
com syo magdalenissca Marie 7 syo 
o'Ser Marie, baet hyo wolden gesyen 
ba byrigenne. ^ 7 baer war^ gewor- 
"Sen mychel eordbefiunge ; witodhce 
drihtenes gengel astah of heofene 
7 geneahlacte aend awelte banne stan 
7 saet baer onuppon. ^ hys ansiene 
waes, swylce leyt, 7 hys reaf swa 

hwit, swa snaw. 

witodlice ba 

weardes waeren afyrhte 7 waeron 
gewor'Sene, swylce hyo deade waeren. 
^'Sa andswerede se aengel 7 sayde 
bam wif on : * ne ondraede ge eow ; 
ic wat witodlice, baet ge seche'S 
banne haelend, bane be on roden 
ahangen waes. 

^nis he her; he aras gewislice, swa 
swa he saeigde. cume^ 7 geseo^ ba 
stowe, be se haelend waes on aleigd. 
' 7 fare's raedlice 7 cumed 7 segge^ 
hys leorningcnihten, baet he aras, " 7 


iForsothe in the euenyng of the saboth {or haliday), that schyneth in 
the firste day of the woke, Marie Mawdeleyn cam and another Marie for 
to se the sepulcre. '-^and, lo, ther was maad a greet erthe mouyng; 
forsoth the aungel of the lord cam doun fro heuene and comynge to 
turnide awey the stoon and sat theron. ^sothli his lokyng was, as leyt, 
and his clothis, as snow. ^ f orsothe for drede of him the keperis ben afferid, 
and thei ben maad, as deede men. ^f orsothe the aungel answeringe seide 
to the wymmen : 'nyle 3e drede; for i woot, that 3e seken Ihesu, that is 
crucified, ^he is not here; sothli he roos, as he seide. come 3e and seeth 
the place, where the lord was putt, '^and 3e goynge sone seie to his disciplis 
and to Petre, for he hath risun, " and, lo, he schal go bifore 30U in to 


Nero D IV. 
galilea ^er hine ge gesea^ (about four letters erased in the Ms.) c^e gesea 
galilaeam : ibi eum uidebitis." 
niagon heonu fore ic cue^ ocJ^e aer ic saegde iuh 7 eodun hreconlice 

ecce praedixi uobis.' ^et exierunt cito 

from byrgenne mi^ ege 7 mi^ micle glsednise iornende beada 
de monumento cum timore et magno gaudio currentes nmi- 

o3tJe saegca ^egnum his 7 heonu haelend togaegnes arn "Saem cue^ 
tiare discipulis eius. ®et ecce icsus occurrit illis dicens : 

wosa'S gie hal "Sa uut geneolecdon 7 gehealdon foet his 7 
'hauete.' ill^ autem accesserunt et tenuerunt pedes eius et 

wor'Sadun hine ^a cue's to "Saem tSe haelend nalla^ gie ondreda gaa^ 
adorauerunt eum. ^^ tunc ait illis iesus : ' nolite timere . ite, 
saecgas bro^rum minum \>cBtiQ hea gse in gaeliornise ^er mec hia gesea^ 
nuntiate fratribus meis, ut eant in galilaeam ; ibi me uidebunt.' 
^a ilco miS ^y eodon heonu summe of "Saem haldendum cwomun in 
11 quae cum abissent, ecce quidam de custodibus uenerunt in 

^a ceastra 7 saegdon ^'aem aldor monnum sacerda • alle "Sa ^e 

ciuitatem et nuntiauerunt principibus sacerdotum omnia, quae 

geworden weron 7 gesomnad mi's aeldrum ^aehtung genumen waes 

facta fuerant. 12 et congregati cum senioribus consilium accepto 

feh monigfald saldon ^aem cempum cue^ende cuo^a^ gie \>cBtte 

pecuniam copiosam dederunt militibus ^^ dicentes : ' dicite, quia 
tSegnas . his on naeht cuomun 7 forstelun o&^e stelende weron hine us 
" discipuli eius nocte uenerunt et f urati sunt eum nobis 

*slependum 7 gif 'Sis gehered bi^ bi^ from ^en groefa we 

dormientibus." ^^ et, si hoc auditum fuerit a praeside, nos 

^ser ge hine geseo> henu swa ic f oresaegde ^ 7 hiae eodun hral>e of byrgenne 
mi's egsa 7 mi's gefea micel eornende secgan discpl. his ^ 7 henu haslend 
quom heom ongaegn cwgej^ende beo)? hale hiae >a stopen for]? 7 genomen his 
foet 7 gebedun to him ^^ \>a, cwae)? heom to se haelend ne ondrede]> inc ah gsej> 
saecgajj bro]>rum minum ])cet hiae gangan in galilea ^asr hie (so) me geseo]? 
11 >a hi l>a awaeg eodun henu sume >ara wearda cwomun in casstre 7 
saegdun ba aldur sacerdum eall ]>cet J>e \>2sy gedden werun 12 7 \^\^ gesom- 
nade mi^ ^aem aeldrum gej>8ehtunge in eoden onfengon feoh genyhtsum 
saldun {ufrom e. a.1) J^aem kempum ^^ cwae>ende s£ecgal> )?aet his discipl. on 
naeht cwomun 7 forstaelen hinae us slepende 1* 7 g^f \KBt gehoered biS 
* Two letters rubbed out. 



Bodl. 441. 

"and so Slice he cym^ beforan eow 
on Galileam : ]>aer ge hyne geseolS." 
nu ic secge eow.' ^])a, ferdon hig 
hraedlice fram }?aere byrgene mid ege 
and mid myclum gefean and urnon 
and cy 5don hyt hys leorningcnyhton. 
'•* and ef ne ]>a com se hajlynd ongean 
hig and cwae'S : * hale wese ge/ hig 
genealaehton and genamon hys fet 
and to hym geea'Smeddon. ^'^ 'Sa 
cwaeb se haelynd to him : 'neondraede 
ge eow . fara^ and cy^a'S minum 
gebroJ?rum, J?aet hig faron on Gali- 
leam : J?aer hig geseo'S me,' 
^i^a >a hig ferdon, J?a comun sume 
)>a weardas on >a cestre and cyjjdun 
>aera sacerda ealdrun ealle \>ix Hng, 
he ]>aer gewordene waerun. ^^ -g^ ge- 
samnudun l^a ealdras hig and worh- 
tun gemot and sealdun j?am l^egenun 
mice! f eoh and cwaedun : i^ ( secgeaj?, 
J'aet hys leorningcnihtas comun nihtys 
and forstaglan hyne, }>a we slepun.' 
•* and, gyf se dema Hs geaxa'S, we 

Hatton 38. 

so'blice he Gym's beforan eow on 
Galileam : ]?aer ge hine geseo^." nu 
ich segge eow.' 8}>a ferden hyo 
rasdlice fram >are byrigenne mid eige 
7 mid mychele gefean 7 urnen aend 
kydden hyt hys leorningcnihten. 
9 7 ef ne >a com se haelend ongean 
hyo 7 cwffi^ : ' hale wese ge.' hyo 
geneohlahten 7 genamen hys fet 
7 to him geeadmededon. '^^ ^a cwaeS 
se haslend to heom : ' ne ondrasde ge 
eow . fare's 7 ky^e'5 mine gebro'Sre, 
j?aet hyo f aran on Galilea : hser hyo 
geseo^ me.' 

11 'Sa hyo ferdon, J>a comen sume ha 
weardes on \>a. ceastre 7 kyddan 
hare sacerda ealdren ealle ha [ha] 
hing, he haer gewor'Sene waBren. 12 ha 
gesamnode ha ealdres hyo 7 worh- 
ten gemot 7 sealden ham heignen 
mychel f eoh 7 cwas'Sen : i^ ' segge'5, 
haet hys leorningcnihtes coman nyh- 
tas 7 forstaelen hyne, ha we slepen.' 
14 asnd, gyf se dema his geaxo'S, we 


Galilee : there 3e schulen se him." lo, i haue bifore seid to 30U.' ^ and 
Marie Mawdeleyn and another Marie wenten out soone fro the buryel with 
drede and greet ioye rennynge for to telle his disciplis. ^ and, lo, Ihesus ran 
a3ens hem seyinge : ' heil 36.' forsothe thei camen to and heelden his feet 
and worschipiden him. i^thanne Ihesus seith to hem: *nyle 3e drede. go 
3e, telle 3e to my britheren, that thei go in to Galilee : there thei schulen se 
me.* lithe whiche whanne thei hadden gon, loo, summe of the keperis camen 
in to the cytee and tolden to the princes of prestis alle thingis, that weren 
don. 12 and thei gedrid togidre with the eldere men a counceil takun 3aue 
to the kny3tis plenteuous money i^ seyinge: 'seie 36, for "his disciplis 
camen by ni3te and ban stolen him vs slepinge." 1* and, if this be herd 


Nero D IV. 

getrewa^ him 7 sacleaso iwih we gedoe^ soS hia gefoen haefdon 
suadebimus ei et secures uos faciemus.' i^at illi accepta 

feh dedon suae weron gelaered 7 gemersad waes word "Sis 

pecunia fecerunt, sicut erant docti. et diuulgatum est uerbum istud 
mi^ iudeum * ©"S^ "Sone longe daege aellef ne "Sonne ^egnas 

apud iudaeos usque in hodiernum diem, i^undecim autem discipuli 

foerdon in geliornise in mor ^er gesette "Saem se haelend 7 

abierunt in galilaeam in montem, ubi constituerat illis iesus, I'et 
gesegon hine wor^adun sume "Sonne getwiedon 7 geneolecende 

uidentes eum adorauerunt. quidam autem dubitauerunt. ^^ et accedens 
'Se haslend spreccend waes to him cuoe'Sende asald is me alle maehto 

iesus locutus est eis dicens : 'data est mihi omnes potestas 
in heofne 7 in eor'So gaa'S for'Son lajra'S alle cynno oi^e haedno 
in caelo et in terra, i^euntes ergo docete omnes gentes 
fulwvandet hia in noma fadores 7 sunu 7 halges gastes laerende 
baptizantes eos in nomine patris et fill et spiritu sancti ^odocentes 
hia halda alle ^a "Se sua huelc ic bebead iuh 7 heonu ic iuh 
eos seruare omnia, quaecumque mandaui uobis : et ecce ego uobis- 

mi'5 am allum dagum o^S^ to endunge woruldes sie so'S otS^e so'Slice 
cum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem saeculi.' amen. 

godspell sef ter mathevs | saegde ofitie asaegd is 

euangelium secundum mattheum explicit. 

from geroefe we getsece}' o^e scyaj> him 7 orsorge eow gedoal? {from 
gedoe)?) 1^ 7 hi^ onfengon I'aem feo dydun swa hiae w^erun gelserde 7 ge- 
maered waes word ]>is miS iudeum o)> Msne ondwardan daeg i^^a enlefan 
(autem disc, without a gloss) his >a eodun (in gal. without a gloss] on dune 
Jjaer gesaette aer heom se haelend i^ 7 geseonde hine to him bedun sume 
jjonne tweodun ^^ 7 heom to gangende se haelend spraec to heom cwae^ende 
gesald is me aeghwilc maeht on heofune 7 on eor)?e ^^gae}? forjjon nu laereb 
alle "Seode dyppende hiae in noman fseder 7 sunu 7 l^ass halgan gastes 
2^ laerende hiae to healdene call swa hwaet swa ic bebead {one eow erased) 
eow 7 henu ic mid eow eam ealle dagas o'S to ende weorulde endej> so>lice 
ende]? so]? ende}> farman (man with a rune) preost {with an abbreviation 
of the Lat. presbyter) }?as boc ^us gleosede dimittet ei dominus omnia 
peccata sua si fieri potest apud deum 

* About four letters erased. t fulwande icith v above the line. 

X mathes with v above the line. 



Bodl. 441. 

laera^ hyne and gedoS eow sorh- 
lease.' ^^^a onfengun hig J?aes feos and 
djdun, eallswa hig gelaerede waerun. 
and >is word waes gewidmaersud mid 
ludeum o'S Hsne andwerdan daeg, 
i^'jja ferdun J?a cndlufun leorning- 
cnihtas on J^one munt, j^aer se haelynd 
liim dihte, i" and hyne t>aer gesawun 
and hi to him geea'Smeddun : witud- 
lice sume hig tvveonedon. ^^ ^a genea- 
laehte se haelynd and spraec to him 
]?as Hng and >us cwasb : ' me is geseald 
aelc anweald on heof onan and on eor- 
}>an. i^faraj' witudlice and laera^ 
ealle }>eoda and fulligea'S hig on 
naman faeder and suna and j^aes hal- 
gan gastes 20 and laera^, >aet hig 
healdun ealle >a Hng, >e ic eow be- 
head ; and ie beo mid eow ealle 
dagas ob worulde geendunge.' amen. 

Hatton 38. 

laere'S hyne 7 gedo^ eow sohrlease.' 
1^ "Sa onfengen hyo >as feos 7 dyden, 
ealswa hyo gelaerde waeren. 7 >is 
word waes gewidmaersod mid ludeam 
o'S^ )>isne andwearden dayg. ^^ ]>a 
ferden l^a endlefan leorningcnihtes 
on Jjanne munt, l^aer se haslend heom 
dihte, 1'^ 7 hine >aer geseagen 7 hyo to 
hym geeadmedoden : witodlice sume 
hyo tweonoden. i^"Sa geneohlacte 
se haelend aend spraec to heom ]?as 
Hng 7 J?us cwae^ : * me ys geseald aelch 
anweald on heofena 7 on eor^an. 
fare^ witodlice 7 laered ealle Kode 
7 fullie^ hyo on naman feeder 7 
sune 7 j^as halgen gaste. ^ 7 laered, 
l^aet hyo healden ealle J^a \>mg, J^e 
ich eow behead ; 7 ich beo mid eow 
ealle dages o^^e worulde aendenge.' 


of the presedent (o?- iustise), we schulen conceile him and make 30U sikir.' 
1^ and the money takun thei diden, as thei weren tau3t. and this word is 
pupplissid at the lewis til in to this day. ^''forsothe enleuene disciplis 
wenten in to Galilee in to an hil, where Ihesus hadde ordeyned to hem, 
1'^ and thei seynge him worschipiden : sothli summe of hem doutiden. 
18 and Ihesus comynge to spak to hem seyinge : ' al power is 3ouun to 
me in heuene and in erthe. ^^ therfore 30 goynge teche alle folkis criste- 
nynge hem in the name of the fadir and of the sone and of the hooly 
gost 20 techinge hem for to kepe alle thingis, what euere thingis i haue 
c'omaundid to 30U ; and, lo, i am with 30U in alle dayes til the endyng of 
the world/ 



The Gospel according to St. John in Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian 

The Holy Bible, etc., edd. Forshall 

Nero D IV. 

aefter ^a*aedeavde hine eftersona se hselend to sae olSfSe aet tiberiades sae 
1 Postea manif estauit se iterum iesus ad mare tiberiadis, 

eatdeavde vvt 'Svs o^e svae veron aedgeadre simon petrus 7 se "Segn 
manif estauit autem sic. -erant simul simon petrus et thomas, 

se^e is acvoeden on grecisc 7 se ^egn scSe vaes of Saem tvvne t 
qui dicitur didymus, et nathanahel, qui erat a cana 

on gali. X meg'S 7 svnv zab. .i, iacob. 7 ioh. 7 odro tvoge of 
galilaeae, et filii zebedaei et alii ex 

liis ^egnvm cvoe'S him simon petrus ic gae fisciga o&tTe cvoedon 

discipulis eius duo. ^ dicit eis simon petrus : * uado piscari.' dicunt 
him ve cvmas ec 'See mi^ d^e ve vallas ec "Sec mi^S 7 eodun 7 
ei : *uenimus et nos tecum.' et exierunt et 

astigon dStSe § in \>cet scip 7 "Saer naeht noht gifengon o&Se ar morgen 
ascenderunt in nauem et ilia nocte nihil praenderunt. * mane 
ocSfie arlice "Sa mi'S^y \>cet avar^ stdd se haelend on ^aem var^e hvetSreli 

autem iam facto stetit iesus in litore, non 

d^^e svae'Saeh ne ongetton ^a "Segnas \>oette se haelend vae cvoe^ 

tamen cognouerunt discipuli, quia iesus est. " dicit 

for^on him t(> se haelend cnsehtas ahne o^cTe hve'Ser mett dSfSe 
ergo eis iesus : ' pueri, numquid pulmentarium 


I aer "Son aeteowde him eftersona aet sae tiberiades sae 1 aeteowde wutudl. 
^us 2 werun somen simon petrus 7 ^e "Segn se 'Se wses cweden didimus 7 "Se 
^egn se 'Se waes from tune on galilea 7 suno ** zebedes 7 o'Sre of "Segnum 
his twoege ^ cwae'S him simon petrus ic gae fisciga cwedun him we cumas 7 
we fulturaa'S ^e 7 eodun 7 astigun in }pcBt scip 7 ^aer naeht noht on 
gefengun *ar morgen ^a wutudl. awar^ stod "Se haelend on "Saem wor'Se 
hweSre o&S'e neh ne ongetun 'Segnas f or'Son "Se haelend waes ^ cwae'S f or'Son 
him 'Se haelend cnaehtas ahne hwaet metett habbas gee ondsworadun him 

* After ^a a letter blotted out. t The second v above the line. 

X Here and later the period is used often as a sign of abbreviation. 

§ 7 ast. o^e over runt of exierunt and et, but nothing over ascenderunt. 

II ne over non erased. Tf The second sae over the ma of manif estauit. 
** Or sunu? ft Thus to Prof Z. the 31s. appears to read. 


Versions ed. W. W. Skeat, Cambridge 1878, pp. 180-188. 
amd Madden IV. 295. 

Otlio 1 C. Hatton 38. 

lEft aefter >an se haelend hyne ^Eft aefter )>an se haelend hine 

geswutelude >us set "Saere tiberia- swutolode l^us aet >are tiberiadissan 

discan sse. ^ Simon Fetrus 7 Thomas, sae. ^ Simon Petrus 7 Thomas, J?e ys 

J?e ys gecweden gelicost, waeron gecwae^en gelicust, waeren aetgaedere 

aetgaBdere 7 Nathanael, se waes of 7 Nathanael, se waes of Ghana Ga- 

Chana Galil(^^, 7 Zebedeus suna 7 lile'e, 7 Zebedeus sunu 7 o^re tvvega 

oJ?re twegen ])asra leorningcnihta. }>areleorningcnihta. ^'Sacwae'S Simon 

3 ^a cwae^ Simon Petrus to him : Petrus to heom : * ic wille gan on 

* ic wylle gan on fixo'S.' ))a cwaedon fisso'S.' ^a cwaeSen hye to hym : ' 7 
hi to him : ' 7 we wylla'S gan mid we willed gan mi^ J^e.' 7 hye geoden 
]>e' 7 hi eodon lit 7 eodon on scip ut 7 geoden on scip 7 ne fengen nan 
7 ne f engon nan Hng on "Saere nihte. \>\ng on >>are nihte. * witodlice on 

* witodlice on aernemergen se haelend aernemorgen se haelend stod on J>am 
stod on \>sim. strande : ne gecneowon strande : ne gecneowen J?eh \>Si leor- 
>eh l>a leorningcnihtas, >8et hyt se ningcnihtes, J^aet hit se haelend waes. 
haelend waes. 

s ^a cw8e"S se haelend to him : ' cna- ^ '5a cwae'S se haelend to heom : ' cna- 
pan, cwe}?e ge, hasbbe ge suf ol ? ' pen, cwe'Se ge, hasbbe ge sufel ? ' 
hig7 swaredonhim 7 cwaedon: 'nese.' hye andswereden hym 7 cwae^en : 


1 Af tirward Ihesu eft schewide him to his disciplis at the see of Tybe- 
rias, sothli he schewide thus. ^ ther weren togidere Symount Petre and 
Thomas, that is seid Didymus, and Nathanael, that was of the Cane of 
Galilee, and the sones of Zebedee and tweye othere of his disciplis. 
^Symount Petre seith to hem: 'i go for to fysche.* thei seyn to him: 

* an we comen with thee.' and thei 3eden out and sti3eden in to a boot, 
and in that ni3t thei token nothing. * f orsoth the morwe maad Ihesu stood 
in the brynke ; nethelees the disciplis knewen not, for it was Ihesu. 
^ therf ore Ihesu seith to hem : ' children, wher 3e han ony soupynge 

so xii. JOHN, ciiAt^. xxt 

Nero D IV. 

habbas ge giondveardon him naesi eve's him sendas on "Sses 

habetis ? ' responderunt ei : * non.' ^ (jjxit eis : * mittite in d^- 
scippes svi^re half Yoet nett dS^e segna 7 gie gimoetas sendon for'Son 
teram nauigii rete et inuenietis.' miserunt ergo 

gee ne maehton Ycst getea fore menigo "Sara fiscana 

etiam non ualebant illud trahere a multitudine piscium. 

cvae"S for^on ^e "Segn "Sone Ivfade se haelend petre 'Se hlaferd 

'' dicit ergo discipulus ille, quem diligebat iesus, petro : ' dominus 

is simon petrus miSSy geherde petrus \>cetiQ ^e hlaferd veri 
est/ simon petrus, cum audisset, quia dominus est, 

\Keti cyrtil oW5e ymbsalde hine vaes f or'Son nacod 7 sende hine on s§ 
tunicam succincxit se (erat enim nudus) et misit se in mare. 

otSri vut "Segnas on scip diS^e on. roving otSfSe cvdmon naervn for'Son 
^ alii autem discipuli nauigio uenerunt (non enim 

fearr of^e from eor^v ah svelce elno * tvv hvnd drogvn dSHe ge- 
longe erant t a terra, sed quasi cubitis ducentis) trahentes 
tvgvn ^ara fisca segni JjcEftec&tfemiS^y J vvt ofstigvn on eortJv 

rete piscium. ^ ut ergo descenderunt in terram, 

gesegon gloedi asettedo veron 7 done fisc ofersetted 7 \^cet laf 

uiderunt prunas positas et piscem superpositum et panem. 


(non without a gloss) ^ cwas'S him sendes on ^a swiSra halfe 'Saes scipes nett 
7 ge gimoetas cwae'Sdan wutudl. ^erh alle naeht (lab. without a gloss) noht 
gimoetun we in worde wutudl. "Sine sendun we sendun for^on nett 7 swi'Se 
ne wallah ge ^aet gitea fore menigo tSara fiscana "^ cwae'S f or'Son § ^e 
"Segn he ^onne tufa's "Soii haelend drihten is simon petrus mi'SSy giherde 
Kc/te hlafard is "Sone cyrtel ymbsalde hine waes for'Son nacod 7 sende 
hine on sae ^ o'Sre wutudl. "Segnas in scipe comon ne for^on feor wass from 
eorSo ah swelce elna tu hund tugun o^e trogun 'Sget nett ^ara fiscana 
'•> \>itft\.Q wutudl. of astigun on eor^o gisegun gloede asetede 7 'Sone fisc ofer- 

* elno yrom elni. 

t Over erant is no uaeron, as Prof. Skeat prints it, hut the glossarist seems 
to indicate by two points under non and over erant, that the gloss over the Jirst 
serves also for the latter. 

X oStfe mi^'Sy on the margin without a re.ference. 

§ Thus is for here to be expanded, not fore. 



Otho 1 C. 

'' he cwaeS to him : ' laeta'S \>2&t nett 
on ]'a swiSran healfe )?aes rewettes, 7 
ge gemeta'S.' hi leton witotlice 7 
lie mihton hit ateon for "Saera fixa 
inenigeu. " witodlice se leorningcniht, 
be se haelend luf ode, cwae]? to Petre : 
' liit ys drihten.' j^a Petrus gehyrde, 
bffit hit drihten wjes, i^a dyde he on 
liis tunecan 7 begyrde hine (witodlice 
he waes ser nacod) 7 scet innan see. 
8 "Sa cSre leorningcnihtas reowon 
I'arto (hi waeron unfeor fram lande, 
swylce hit waere twa hund elna) 7 
tugon hyra fiscnett. ^ i^a hig on land 
eodun, hi gesawon licgan gleda 7 

Hatton 38. 

' naese.' ^ he cwaeS to heom : ^ legge'S 
^jaet net on J^am swi^eran healfe }>aes 
reowettes, 7 ge gemeteS.' hyo leten 
witodlice 7 ne mihten hyt ateon for 
\>2i fisxe raanige. ' witodlice se leor- 
ningcniht, \>e se haelend lufede, cwae'S 
to Petere : * hyt ys drihten.' '5a Peter 
gehyrde, haet hyt drihten waes, i>a 
dyde he on his tunica 7 begyrde hine 
(witodlice he waes ser nakod) 7 sceat 
inan |ja sae. ^ "Sa ol^re leorningcnihtas 
reowen l^aerto (hye waeren unfeor 
fram lande, swylch hyt waere twa 
hund elnan) 7 tugen heora fiscnet. ^ ba 
hy on land eoden, hyo seagen liggen 


thing ? * thei answeriden : 'nay,' ^ he seide to hem : 'send 3e the nett in to 
the ri3t half of the rowyng, and 36 schulen fynde.' therfore thei senten 
the nett, and now thei my3ten not drawe it for multitude of fyschis. 
* therfore thilke disciple, whom Ihesu louede, seide to Petre : ' it is the 
lord.' Symount Petre, whanne he hadde herd, for it was the lord, girte him 
with a coote (sothli he was nakid) and sente him into the see. ^ sothli 
othere disciplis camen by boot (for thei weren not fer fro the lond, but as 
two hundrid cubitis) drawynge the nett of fischis. ^ therfore, as thei camen 
doun in to the lond, thei sy3en colis put and a fysch put aboue and breed. 

32 Xlt JOHN, CHAP. XXI. 

Nero B IV. 

cv^^ him se haelend bora's o3tfe bringa'5 of '5aem fiscum Na ilco ge 
i'^ dicit eis iesus : ' adferte de piscibus, quos pren- 

ginomvn o^e gif engon nv astag simon petrus 7 drog ocitie )pcef nett 

distis nunc' ^^ ascendit simon petrus et traxit rete 

on eor^e fvll miS miclvni dStJe of miclvm fisc. fiscum hvnteantig 

in terram plenum * magnis piscibus centum 

7 fiftig ^riim o^Se Sreo 7 miS^y micla voeron na^s jxi-f nett 
quinquaginta tribus, et, cum tanti essent, non est 

tobroccen o&Se div segni tosliten eve's him se haelend cym^S hriorda'S 
scissum rete. i^^icit eis iesus: ' uenite, pran- 

oStTe eatas o&5e 7 ne gidarste aenig monn ^ara hlingindi o'd^e "Sara raestendra 
dete.' et nemo audebat discumbentium 

gifraegna o^e frasiga bine ^v hvaed arS vistvn gere \Hette hlaf ^rd vere. 
interrogare eum : * tu quis es? ' scientes, quia dominus esset.f 

7 cvom se haelend 7 onfeng \xBt laf 7 sill's o^e salde him 7 
^^et uenit iesus et accepit panem et dat eis et 

"Sone fisc gelic otStfe aedgeadre "Sis 'Sa -Sridda J daegi dvsidi ^ridda daegi 
piscem similiter. i^hoc iam tertio 

aetevwdaesehaslendocf^evaessetevwed sinvm ambehtvm mi'S^y aras 

manifestatus est iesus . discipulis, cum surrexisset 

from deadvm mi^y vvF gihriordadon § cvoe'S to simoni petri 

a mortuis. i^cum ergo prandissent, dicit simoni petro 

se haelend simon iohannis Ivfaestv mec svi^vr from "Sissvm o&S'e ^isra 

iesus : * simon iohannis, diligis me plus his ? ' 


settun 7 ^on hlaf I'^cwae^ him ^e haelend beora'S o&Se brenga^ of Saem 
fiscum "Sa ilco ge ginomon nv ^ astag symon petrus 7 trog "Saet nett on 
eort?o full micelra fiscana swelce hundteantig 7 fiftig 7 ^rim ot^e Srio 7 
miiS^y micle weren ne is tobrocen ]}0£t nett i^ cvvae'S haelend cuma^ riordiga'^ 
7 naenig mon ne darste of "Segnum gifregna bine ^v hwaet arS wistun gcre 
\>(jette drihten were i^ 7 com "Se haelend 7 onfeng "Sone hlaf 7 salde him 7 fisc 
gilice 1^ ^is ^y (^oi^er iam) ^irda daege geteowed waes ^e haelend ^egnum 
his mi^^y arisa^ from deo'Sa i^mi'SSy for'Son giriordadun cwae'S simon 
petre "Se haelend simon iohannis lufastu mec swi'Sor ^issum cwse^ him gee 

*iVof plenam. J From "Sirdda. 

t iVof est. § Over mi'S. vvt gi- is "Sa hiae him vervn gifse 



Otho 1 C. 

fisc i><Br on fyr 7 hlaf . ^'^ '5a cwaj'S se 
liaelend to him : ' bringaS l^a fixas, j^e 
ge nu gefengon.' ^^ Simon Petrus 
code lipp 7 teh his net on land mi- 
culra fixa full, haera waes hundteontig 
7 }>reo 7 fiftig, and, |)a hyra swa fela 
waes, naes haet nett tobrocen. i^-^a 
cwae'S se haelend to him : * gaS hider 
7 e'ta'5.' and nan l>aera, \>e ^ar saet, 
ne dorste hine axsian, liwaet he vvaere. 
hi wiston, J?aet hit waes drihten. 
1^ and se haelend com 7 nam hlaf 7 
cc fisc 7 sealde him. 

14 on >yson waes se haelend jiriwa 
geswutelud his leorningcnihton, "Sa 
he aras of dea'Se. i^ ^a hi seton, >>a 
cwae}> se haelend to Symone Petre: 
* Simon lohannis, lufast \>\i me 
swi'Sor, l^aenne ^as 1 ' he cwae'S to 
himr'gea, drihten. >u wast, }>£et ic 
l^e lufige.' he cwae^ to him : * heald 

Hatton 38. 

gleden 7 fix haer on fasre 7 hlaf. "^^ \>a. 
cwaeS se haelend to hcom : 'bringe^ 
l^a fixas, J^e ge nu gef engen.' ^^ Symon 
Petrus geode upp 7 teah hys nett to 
lande mid culre fixa full, l)aer wes 
hundteontig 7 Jreo 7 fiftig, aend, J^a 
heora swa fela waes, naes l^aet nyt 
tobroken. ^^ j,a cwae'5 se haelend to 
hcom : * ga'S hider 7 aete^.' 7 nan 
}>are, l>e l>aer saet, ne durste hine 
axien, hwaet he waere. hye wisten, 
\>cet hit was drihtan. ^^ 7 se haelend 
com 7 nam hlaf 7 eac fixe 7 sealde 

14 on Hssan waes se haelend >reowa 
geswutoled hys leomingcnihtan, J^a 
he aras of dea'Se. ^^^a hye aeten, J?a 
cwae'5 se haelend to Symone Petre : 
• Symon lohannis, luf est )>u me swu)?- 
ra, )?anne >as ? ' he cwae'5 to him : ' gea, 
drihten. )?u wast, J^aet ic J>e lufie.' he 
cwae^ to him : ' heald mine lamb.' 


1"^ Ihesu seith to hym : ' brynge 3e of the fischis, whiche 3e han taken 
now.' 11 Symount Petre sti3ede vp and drow3 the nett in to the lond ful 
of grete fischis an hundrid fyfti and thre, and, whanne thei weren so 
greete, the nett is not brokun. 12 Ihesu seith to hem : * come 30, ete 36.' 
and no man of the sittinge at mete durste axe him : ' who art thou ? ' 
witinge, for it is the lord, i^ and Ihesu cam and took breed and 3af to 
hem and the fysch also, i* now this thridde day Ihesu is schewid to his 
disciplis, whanne he hadde rise a3en fro deed men. i^ therfore, whanne 
thei hadden etyn, Ihesu seith to Symount Petre : ' Symount of lohn, louest 
thou me more, than thes don ? ' he seith to hym : * 3he, lord, thou wost, 


Nero D IV. 

cve^ him to gee drihten "Sv vast \xBtte ic Ivfo "Sec cverS him 
dicit ei : ' etiam, domine. tu scis, quia amo te.' dicit ei : 

foed dStie lombor mino cve^ him eftersona simon iohannis Ivfastv 
' pasce agnos meos.' i^ dicit ei iterum : ' simon iohannis, diligis 
mec cveS him to gee drihten "Sv vast hcefte ic Ivfa "Sec cvoeS 
me?' ait illi : 'etiam, domine. tu scis, quia amo te/ dicit 
him to gehala o^^e foed lomboro mino Sast arvn '5a so'Sfaesta menu 

ei : * pasce agnos meos.' 

eve's him 'Sridda simon iohannis Ivfastv mec givnrotsade dScSe vnrot 
1^ dicit ei tertio : ' simon iohannis, amas me? ' contristatus 
vaes petrus for^on eve's liim 'Sridda Ivfastv mec cveS him to 
est petrus, quia dixit ei tertio: 'amas me?' dicit ei: 
drihten ^v alle o&tfe alii ^v ^'i vast wast "Sv vast JxKfte ic lufa "Sec 
* domine, tu omnia scis : tu scis, quia amo te.' 

cve^ him foed o&&e gilesva oWie scipo mmo so^lice so^ is ]>cet ic cve'Si 
dicit ei : ' pasce ones meas. ^^ amen, amen dico 

'Se mi^^y vere givngra "Sv valdes "Sec gigyrde ofiiSe 7 15v valdes geonga 
^ tibi : cum esses iunior, cingebas te et ambulabas, 

• hvidir "Sv valdes miS% vvt 'Sv bist gevintrad ^v a'Senes ^ino 
ubi uolebas; cum autem senueris, extendes manus 

hondo 7 oSer 'Sec gyrde'S 7 ^ec laedes 'Siddir * dvnvilt "Sis 

tuas, et alius te cinget et ducet, quo non uis.' i^hoc 

vvt cvoe^ tall te ot^^e becnade ofhvelc. dea^e gebrehtnad o5:5e givvldrad 
autem dixit significans, qua morte clarificaturus 


drihten ^u wast \>cBtie ic lufade ^ec cwae^ him foed lombor mine ^^ cwaeiShim 
eftersona simon iohannis lufast tu mec cwae'S him gee drihten "Sv wast 
Saette ic lufo ^ec cwae'S him foed lombor mine i^ cwaeS him eftersona simon 
iohannis lufas mec giunrotsad wass (petrus witlwut a gloss) for^on cwae'S 
liim "Se "Sirda luf astu mec 7 cwae'S him drihten 'Su alle wast \>mtie ic lufa "Sec 
cwae'S him feod (one letter erased before e) scip mine i^ so'S soiSlice ic cweSo 
'Se mi^Sy were gingra "Su waldes gyrda 'Sec 7 ^u waldes gonga hwider ^v 
waldes mi'S^y so'Slice 'Su bist giwin a^ene honda "Sine 7 o'Ser "Sec gyrdeS 7 
"Su laedes 'Sider ne "Sv wylt i^'Sas wutudl. cwaetS gibecnade of hwelcum 

* h before ^id., it cannot well mean hiddir, as Skeat takes it. Prof. Z. 
thinks the glossarist would translate by hvidir, the word just used for ubi, but 
he changed his mind and forgot to strike out the h. 



Otho 1 C. 

mine lamb.' ^^ he cwae'S eft to him : 
* Simon lohannis, luf ast "Su me 1 ' he 
cwae^ to him : ' gea, drihten. \>u wast, 
J^aet ic 'Se lufige.' ^a cwaej? he to him : 
'heald mine lamb.' I'he cwae'S 
]>riddan si'Se to him : * Simon lohan- 
nis, lufast )pu me ? ' ^a waes Petrus 
sarig, forj^am j?e he cwae^ J^riddan 
siSe to him : * lufast \>vl me 1 * and 
he cwae'S to him : * drihten, )?u wast 
ealle Hng : ]pu wast, ]pset ic ^e lufige.' 
(Na cwae^ he to him : ' heald mine 
seep. 1*^ BO'S ic secge J?e : ^a }>u gingra 
waere, ]?u gyrdest >e 7 eodyst, j^aer 'Su 
woldyst ; witodlice, >onne Jju ealdast, 
\>u strecst >>ine handa, 7 o^er ]:e gyrt 
7 laet, >yder J^e «u nelt.' i^ >aet he 
saede witudlice 7 tacnude, hwylcon 
(leSe he wolde god geswutelian. and, 

Hatton 38. 

16 he cwae^ to him eft : * Symon 
lohannis, lufast \>vi me 1 ' he cwae^ 
to hym : ' gea, drihtan. )>u wast, J^aet 
ich >e lufie.' "Sa cwae^ he to him : 

* heald mine lamb.' ^^ he cwae^ l?ridde 
si^e to hira : * Symon lohannis, luf est 
>u me ? ' "Sa wses Petrus sarig, forj^an 
be he sasgde J^ridde si^e to him : 

* luf est H me ? ' aend he cwa^'S : ' drih- 
ten, )?u wast ealle Hng : J?u wast, 
baet ic l^e lufie.' ]>a cwae^ he to hym : 
' heald mine seep. ^^ BO'S ic segge }>e : 
>a \>\i gingre waere, jju gertest J^e 7 
eodest, J^aer J^u woldest ; witodliche, 
>onne J?u ealdest, \>u strecst \>mQ 
hande, 7 ojjer J?e gyrt 7 laet, l^ider J?e 
]?u nelt.' I9j,aet he sayde witodliche 
7 tacnede, hwilche dede he wolde 
god swutelien. aend, >a he l^aet sayde, 


for i loue thee.' Ihesu seith to him : 'feede thou my lambren.' i^ eft he 
seith to hym : ' Symount of lohn, louest thou me 1 ' and he seith to him ; 
* 3he, lord, thou wost, for i loue thee.' he seith to him : ' feede thou my 
lambren.' i" he seith to him the thridde tyme : * Symount of lohn, louest 
thou me 1 ' Petre is sori, for he seith to him the thridde tyme: 'louest 
thou me ? ' and he seith to him : * lord, thou wost alle thingis : thou wost, 
for i loue thee.' Ihesu seith to him : * feede thou my scheep. i^ treuli, treuli 
i seie to thee : * whanne thou were 3ongere, thou girdedist thee and wan- 
dridest, where thou woldist ; sothli, whanne thou schalt wexe eldere, thou 
schalt holde forth thin hondis, and anothir schal girde thee and leede thee, 
whidir thou wolt not.' ^^ sothli he seide tliis tiling signyfyinge, by what 
deeth he was to glorifiynge god. and, whanne he hadde seid thes thingis, 



Nero D IV. 

vere god 7 '5is mi'S'Sy gicve'5 *' cveS him to gesoec mec 
esset deum. et, hoc cum dixisset, dicit ei: ' sequere me.' 

ymbcerdet ot^e petrusgisaeh "Sone ilea ambeh o&^e "Segn "Sone Ivfade 
2^conuersus petrus uidit ilium discipulum, quern diligebat 

se haelend fylgendi otftJe se'Se ec girgesti in "Saer faerm. on his 

iesus, sequentem, qui et recubuit in cena super pectus 
brest 7 cve^S drihten hvaed is ^e se'Se selles "Sec "Siosne 
eius et dixit: 'domine, quis est, qui tradit te ? ' ^i^^jj^. 
for^on mi'S^y gisaeli petrvs eve's ^aem haelende drihten 'Ses donne o^tSe 
ergo cum uidisset petrus, dicit iesu: 'dornine, hie autem 

hvaad'Sisis eve^ him to se haelend "^vs dSt!e svso bine ie villo gevvni otJ^e 

quid 1 ' 22 dicit ei iesus : ' sic eum uolo manere, 

]pcette he gewvniga o'S Ke< ic eymo hvaed is ^e bi % o'StSe hvaet is ^ec ^£es 

donee ueniam. quid ad te 1 

"Sv mec sdec o&Se fylig f "Sv me f oerde vvl, oStSe for Son ^is vord 
tu me sequere.' ^ag^iuit ergo sermo iste 

bitvien "Saem bro'Srvm f or^on o^e ];>cette "Se ambeht o&^e se "Segn no deadige 
inter § f ratres, quia discipulus ille non 

odtSe nere dead 7 ne eve^S him se haelend ne bi^ dead oStfe ah 
moritur, et non dixit ei iesus : ' non moritur,' sed . 

■SysTF o&^e svae hine ic villo vvniga o'S \)cet ic cymo hvaet is 'Se bi 'Sy o^tSe 
' sic eum uolo manere, donee uenio. quid ad te ? ' 

"Ses is "Se "Segn se^e \>cet ey^nise getrymme^ of Ssem o&^e from 
24 hie est discipulus, qui testimonium perhibet de his 


deo'Se giberhtnad were god 7 'Sis mi'S'Sy cwas^ ewae^ him gisoecas mec 
2^ gieerde petrus gisaeh ^on ilea ^egn 'Sone lufade 'Se haelend 7 lufade se ^e 
7 gireste in 'Saer (over cena) ofer breostum his 7 cwse^ drihten hwaet is 
'Se'Se sole's ^ec 2i^iosne for'Son mi'SSy gisaeh petrus ewae'S 'Se haelend 
drihten "Ses wut. hwaet 22cwae'S him ^e haelend ge ic hine willo giwuniga oS 
■Scfit ic cymo hwget is to 'Se 'Su mec fylges 23eode forSon word 'Sis bitwih 
bro'Srum for'Son 'Segnas oS'^e embeht he o'SSe 'Sa ne deodige ne cwae^ "Se 
haelend ne bi^ deod ah swa hine ie willo wunige oS "Saet ie cyme hwaet is 
(ad without a gloss) 'Se 24 'Sis is "Se Segn se "Se ^a ey^nisse gitryme'S of 'Ssem 7 

* A letter erased. § ^ fade from in bt/ the glossarist. 

t c before ymb. erased. Tf Two letters erased before "Svs. 

X i in fylig above the line. 


Othx) 1 C. Ration 38. 

I^a he >aet saed6, J?a cwaeS he to him : J>a cwae'S he to hym; 'felge me.' 

'fyligme.' '-^^ SaPetrushinebewende, ^ogaPeter hine bewente, t>a geseah 

]pa, geseh he, I'aet se leorningeniht he, ]?8et se leorningcniht hym felgede, 

him fylide, ]f>e se haelend lufode, se i>e se haelend lufede se J>e hlenede 

)>e hlinode on gebeorscype ofer his on gebeorscipes ofer hys breoste 7 

breost 7 cwae^ : ' drihten, hwaet ys, se cwae^: * drihten, hwaet ys se, >e J?e 

^e belaswS ? ' ^i witodlice, >a Petrus belewe^ ? ' ^i witodliche, J>a Petrus 

hysne geseh, 'Sa cwae^ he to \>am Hsne geseah, J^a cwae^ he to jsam 

haelende : * drihten, hwaet seel tSes ? * haelende : * drihten, hwaet seel J>es ? ' 

22 ^a cwae)> se haelend to him ; * ic 22 ■ga cwae^ se haelend to hym : * ich 
wylle, t>8et he wunige }jus, o^ ic wille, \>cet he wunige J^us, o^^e ich 
cume. hwaet to 'Se 1 fylig bu me.' cume. hwaet to J^e ? felge \>\i me.' 

23 witodlice 'Seos spaec com lit ge- 23 witodliche l?eos spraece com ut 
mang broj^rum, j^aet se leorning- geonmang |jam bro^ren, j?aet se leor- 
cniht ne swylt, 7 ne cwae)? se haelend ningcniht ne swelt, 7 ne cwae^ se 
to him : * ne swylt he,' ac : ' hus ic haelend to hym ; ' ne swelt he,' ac : 
wylle, >aet he wunige, o'S ic cume. ' l>us ich wille, )>aet wunie, o'S^e ich 
hwaet to l>e ? ' 24'gig yg gg leorning- cume. hwaet to Jjc ? ' 24^518 jg gg 


he seith to him: 'sue thou me.' 2opetre conuertid sy3 thilke disciple, 
whom Ihesu louede, and which restide in the souper on his brest, and he 
seide to hym : * lord, who is it, that schal bitraye thee 1 ' 21 therf ore, 
whanne Petre hadde seyn this disciple, he seith to Ihesu : * lord, what for- 
sothe this ? ' 22 Ihesu seith to him : * so i wole him dwelle, til i come, what 
to thee ? sue thou me.' 23 therfore this word wente out among britheren, 
for thilke disciple deyeth not. and Ihesu seide not to him, for he deieth 
not, but : * so i wole him dwelle, til i come, what to thee 1 ' 2* this is 



Nero D IV. 

'Sisvm 7 avrat Sas o^fSe 'Sa 7 ve wvtvn \>cBttG sd^ is cySnis 

et scribsit haec, et scimus, quia uerum est testimonium 

his sint vvt ec o'Sro menigo "Sa ^e worht se haelend "Saeh 

eius. 25gujit autem et alia multa, qu^ fecit iesus, quae 

^asie avritten anlapvmo^&e^erhsyndrigi o^eanvnga o3tfe ancvmmum ni* 
si scribantur per singula, nee 

doemo ic )KBti\ middan. maegi bifoa ^a ilco 'Sa'Se to avrittenni sint 
ipsum arbitror mundum capere eos, qui scribendi sunt, 

boc'c soSlice 
libros. amen. 

asaegd is o3t?e \)CEt boo sefter iohannem 

explicit liber secundum iohanen. 


wrat "Sas ilco 7 we wutun J^ce^te soS is cy Suisse his ^ sindun wutl. 7 o 5re 
monige 'Sa "Se worhte 'Se haelend "Sa "Se her {somewhat higher than "Se and se) 
se awriten leofum ne dom ic "Saette middengeord onfoe "Sa "Sa "Se awritne 
sindun boec ende (over finit) 

Oiho 1 C. 

cniht, J?e cyS gewitnysse be byson 7 
wrat J>as ^ing, and we witon, J^aet 
his gewitnys ys so'S. 25 witodlice o)?re 
manega Hng synt, >>e se haelend 
worhte : gif 'Sa ealle awritene waeron, 
ic wene, ne mihte Ks middaneard 
ealle ^a bee befon. amen. 

Hatton 38. 

leorningcniht, \>e cyS gewitnesse be 
Hsen 7 wrat l>as t>ing, 7 we witen, 
)>aet his witnesse is s&S. ^^ witodlice 
o'Sre manega )>ing sendde, )>e se 
haelend worhte : gyf l>a ealle ge- 
writene be heom sylfe waeren, ac 
syo werld beclyppen ne mihten J>a 
writeres, l>e hit writen scolden on 
boken. i 


thilke disciple, that berith witnessing of thes thingis and wroot thes thingis, 
and we witen, for his witnessing is trewe. '^^ f orsothe there ben and manye 
?there syngnes {or myraclis), that Ihesu dide, whiche if thei ben writun 
by eche by hem silue, i deme neither the world him silf to mowe take tho 
bookis, that ben to be writun. 

nifrom ne. 


At ths end of the Ms. Nero D IV is written in the hand of the glossarist: 
t EadfriS biscob {from biscop) lindisfearnensis aecclesiae he Sis bos avrat 
«Bt frvma gode 7 sancte cv^berhte 7 allvra 'Saam halgvm gimaenelice Sa "Se 
in eolonde sint. 7 E'Silvald lindisfearneolondinga bisc. hit vta gi^ryde 7 
gibelde sva lie vel cvS^. 7 billfri^ se oncr(2 he gismio^ade ^a gihrino ^a ^e 
vtan on sint 7 hit gihrinade raiS golde 7 mi^ gimmum ^c miS svvlfre (the 
second v over the line) ofergylded faeonleas feh : 7 Aldred (ic erased before 
Aid. On the margin, in the same hand, appears : aelf redi natvs aldredvs vocor : 
bonae mvlieris [over .i. tilvv., which means, probably, til wif, not tilwin] filivs 
cximivs loqvor) presbyter indignvs et misserimvs mi's godes fvltvmm^ 7 
sancti cvSberhtes hit ofergldesade on englisc. 7 hine gihamadi mi^S ^aem 
Sriim daelvm. Mathevs dsl gode 7 sancte cv'Sberhti. Marcvs dsel Saera bisc. 
.7 Ivcas dael ^aem hiorode 7 aehtv (v. above the line) ora seolfres mi^ to 
inlade : 7 sci. ioh. dael for hine seolfne (.i. fore his savle above the line) 
7 feover ora seolfres mi^ gode 7 sancti cv^bercti. ]>cettQ he hasbbe ondfong 
"Serb godes milsae on heofnvm. seel 7 sibb on eor'So for'Sgeong 7 gi^yngo 
visddra 7 snyttro 'Serb sancti cvSberhtes earnvnga : t Eadfri^. ocSilvald. 
billfri'S. aldred. hoc evangelarivm deo et cvSberhto constrvxervnt vel 


Heptateuchus, Liber Job et Evangelium Nicodemi; Anglo-Saxonice, 
ed. Eduardus Thwaites. ^Ifric's Genesis, Chap. XXVII (Grein's: 
Bibl. der ags. prosa, I. QQ). In orthography the text follows the 
Oxford Ms., Laud 509, fol. 18. Claud. B IV, f ol. 42, in the Brit. Museum. 

^Dd Isddc ealdode and his ^agan ffstrodon, faet h6 ne 
mihte ndn ])ing- ges^on, fd clypode h^ Esau, bis yldran 
suDu, ^and cwaeS t6 him: '|)d gesihst, j^set ic ealdige, and 
ic ndt, hwaenne mine dagas dgdne beo]?. ^nim J)in gesceot, 
5 j^inne cocur and pinne bogan and gang lit and, J>onne ]m 
^nig ])ing begite, ])3es pe fii w6ne, ]?iet m6 lycige, ^bring 
m6, pset ic etc and ic \>^ bl^tsige, ^r ])km j^e ic swelte.* 
^t5d Rebecca ))8et gehirde and Esau iit dgdn waes, ^)jd 
cwset5 heo t6 Idcobe, hire suna : ' ic gehirde, ] set ]nn 


10 faeder cwseS t6 Esauwe, J^inum breper: ^' bring me of 
J)inum huntoJ)e, J^set ic bl^tsige ])e beforan drihtne, ser ic 
swelte.' ^sunu min, hlyste minre Idre : ^far t6 t^sere heorde 
and bring me twd ]?d betstan tyccenu, J^aet ic macige mete 
]?inum faeder Ji^r of, and M ytt lustlice. ^°J)onne fii J)d in 

15 bringst, M ytt and bl^tsaj> ])6, ^r h^ swelte.' ^^t5d cw8et5 
h6 t6 hire : ' pA w4st, J^aet Esau, min br66ur, ys riih, 
and ic 6om sm^pe. ^^gif min faeder m6 handla|> and m6 
gecnaewS, ic ondr^de, })aet M w^ne, |?set ic hine wylle 
beswican, and J^aet h6 wirige m^, naes nd bletsige.' ^^'Sd 

20 cwaaS s6o m6dor t6 him : ' sunu min, sig s6o wirignys 
ofer m6 ! d6, swd ic }'6 secge : far and bring ])i fing, ])e 
ic l^^ b6ad.' 

"H6 f(6rde fd and br6hte and sealde hit hys m^der, and 
heo hit gearwode, swd h^o wiste, J^aet his faeder licode. 

25 ^^and h6o scrj^dde Jacob mid J?4m d^orwurpustan reafe, 
]>e h^o aet hdm mid hire haefde, ^^and bef^old his hand a 
mid J?&ra tyccena fellum, and his swiiran, ykr he nacod 
waes, h^o bef^old. ^'^aud heo sealde him fone mete, ]>e 
h^o s6a]?, and hldf, and h6 br6hte faet his faeder ^^and 

30 cwae^ : ' faeder min ! ' h6 andswarode and cwasS : ' hwaet 
eart ])ii, sunu min?' ^^and lacob cwaeS : ' ic ^om Esau, 
]nn frumcenneda sunu. ic dyde, swd J^ii mi bebude. dris 
upp and site and et of minum huntoSe, faet ])ii m^ blet- 
sige.' '•'eft Isddc cwaeS t6 his suna : ' sunu min, hii mihtest 

35 ])i\ hit swd hraedlice findan? ' ])a andswarode he and cwaeS : 
' hit waes godes willa, J^aet m6 hraedlice ongedn c6m, faet 
ic wolde.' ^^and Tsddc cwae6 : ' gd hider near, j^aet ic 
aethrine ]nn, sunu min, and fandige, hwae^er ])u sig min 
sunu Esau fe ne sig.' ^^h6 ^ode t6 ]>im faeder, and IsMc 

40 cwaetS, J)d |)d h^ hyne gegrdpod haefde : ' witodlice s6o 
stemn ys lacobes stefn, and ]>A handa synd Esauwes 
handa.' ^and h4 ne gecn^ow hine, for ])Am ]?d riiwan 
handa w^ron, swilce faes yldran br6)>ur. he hyne bl^tsode 
])i ^^aud cwae^ : ' eart pii Esau, min sunu? ' and he cwaeS : 


45 ' h4, Mof, ic hit ^om.' ^])i cwseS he : ' bring md mete of 
l^inum hunto^e, fset ic ]>^ bl^tsige.' Jid h^ J^one mete br6hte, 
h6 br6hte him 6ac win. ]>i h6 hagfde gedruncen, -^]:d cwse^ 
he t6 him: ' sunu min, gang hider and cysse me.' ^he 
n^aleahte and cyste bine. s6na swd he hyne onget, he 

50 bl^tsode hine and cwaeS : ' mi ys mines suna stenc, swilce 
faes landes stenc, ]>e drihten bletsode. ^^sylle ])^ god of 
heofenes d^awe and of eorSan f&tnisse and micehi3-sse 
hw^tes and wines, ^and j/^owion l^e eall folc, and geead- 
m^dun J)^ ealle m^gSa. b^o fii ))inra br6}?ra hlaford, and 

55 sin ]4nre m6dar suna gebiged beforan ]>^. s6 fe f^ wirige, 
si h^ dwiriged, and, s6 ]>e ])6 bl^tsige, si he mid bl^tsunge 

^Un6a]7e Isddc geendode fds spra^ce, S4 lacob lit ^ode, 
])d c6m Esau of huntoj^e ^^and br6hte in gesodenne mete 

60 and cwseS •t6 his faeder : ' dris, feeder min, and et of jnnes 
suna huntoJ)e, ])8et ]ni m6 bl^tsige.' ^-(54 cwseS Isddc : 
' hwset eart })ii? ' h6 andwirde and cwaeS : 'ic 6om Esau.* 
^fd dforhtode Isddc micelre forhtnisse and wundrode un- 
gemetlice swij^e and cwaeS : ' hw^et waes, se ]?e m^ ^r 

65 br6hte of hunto|?e, and ic aet ]>kY of, aer fii c6me, and ic 
hine bletsode, and he byp gebl6tsod ? ' ^M Esau his fseder 
spr^ca gehirde, ]?d weartS h^ swi])e sdrig and ge6morm6d 
and cwseS : ' f seder min, bl^tsa ^ac m6.' ^pd, cwseS he: 
' ]nn br65or c6m fdcenlice and nam pine bletsunga.' ^and 

70 h^ cwseS ^ac : ' rihte ys lie genemned Idcob, mi h6 beswdc 
me : ser he aetbr^d m6 mine frumcennedan, and mi 6pre 
sipe he forstael mine bletsunga.' eft he cwaeS t6 pdm 
feeder: ' cwist pii, ne h^olde piim^ ndne bl6tsunge?' ^6d 
andswarode Isddc and cwseS : ' ic gesette hine pe t6 

75 hldforde, and ealle pine gebr6pru b6ot5 under his p^ow- 
d6me ; ic sealde him micelnisse hwsetes and wines : hwset 
maeg ic leng d6n ? ' ^ 6d cwaetS Esau t6 him : ' Id f aeder, 
hsefdest pii git dne bletsunga? ic bidde p6, pset pii m6 
bl^tsige.' t5d h6 swipe w6op. ^^pd wearS Isddc sdrig and 


80 cw8et5 to him : ' bletsige ])6 god on eor]?an faetnysse and 
of heofenes deawe.' 

''^S6j'lice Esau dscimode lacob for J^aere bletsunge, fe 
his faeder hine bl^tsode, and ]'6hte t6 ofsleanne Idcob, 
his br6]5ur. ^5d cj'dde man ])8et Rebeccan, heora meder. 

85 fd h^t h^o feccan hire sunu and cwaeS id him : ' Esau, 
fin br6|?ur, S6 J^encp t6 ofsleanne. ^sunu min, hl3'ste 
minra worda : dris and far t6 Labane, minum br66er, on 
Aram '"and wuna mid him sume hwile, 6)) fines br6j>ur 
yrre geswice, *^and 6\> faet h^ forgite ])k fing, ]?e fii him 

90 dydest ; and ic sende sy]>f an sefter ]:6 and hate p^ feccan 
hider : hwi sceal ic b^on bed^led segSer minra sunena on 
anum daese ? ' 



From ^Ifric's Book of Judges (Chaps. XIII-XVI). Ms. at Oxford, 
Laud 509, fol. 111. (Grein's : Bibl. der ags. prosa, I. 259. Heptateu- 
chus, Liber Job, etc., ed. Eduardus Thwaites, Oxford, 

[Chap.] xin 2 j^jj man waes eardigende on Israhela f^ode Manue 
gehdten of '5&re m^g^e Dan : his wif waes untymende, 
and hig wunedon biitan cilde. ^him c6m fd gangende t6 
godes engel and cwaet5, tSaet hi sceoldon habban sunu him 
5 gem^ne : ^*'s6 bit5 gode hdlig fram his cildhdde, and 
man ne m6t hine efsian ot5^e besciran ; "^^ne h^ ealu ne 
drince naefre oJ?J>e win n6 ndht fiiles ne Siege ; ^^for ]?dm 
fe h^ ongintS t6 dlysenne his folc, Israhela f^ode, of 
Philist^a f^owte.' 
10 ^^H^o dcende fd sunu, swd swd hyre sfede se engel, and 
h^t hine Samson, and h^ swiSe w^oxs, and god hine 

* Thwaites places v. 4 before 5 a. 


bl^tsode, ^and godes gdst waes on him. ^^^*aud h6 
wear6 ])4 mihtig on micelre strengSe, swd l^aet M gelaehte 
dne l^on be wege, ])e bine dbitan wolde, ^and t6br{fed hi 

15 t6 sticcum, swilce h6 tot^re sum ^aSehc ticcen. ^'^^h^ 
begann pd t6 winnenne wiS 'S4 Philisteos and heora fela 
ofsl6h and 16 sceame tiicode, ]>6ah ]>e hig an weald haefdon 
ofer his l^ode. ^S4 f^rdon |)d Philistei forS aefter Sam- 
sone ^*^"and h6ton his l^ode, faet hi hine dgedfon t6 

20 hira anwealde, |>8et hig wrecan mihton heora t^onraeddenne 
mid tintregiim on him. ^^hig t5d hine gebundon mid 
twdm baestenum rdpum and hine gelaeddon t6 J^dm folce. 
^*and ^d Philist^iscan faes faegnodon swi^e, urnon him 
t6gednes ealle hlydende, woldon hine tintregian for 

25 heora t^onr^dene. 'S4 t6br^d Samson begen his earmas, 
tSaet ))d rdpas t6burston, J?e h6 mid gebunden waes. ^^and 
h6 gelaehte ^4 s6na sumes assan cinbdn, ]>e h6 tS^r funde, 
and gefeaht wiS hig and ofsl6h dn jmsend mid paes assan 
cinbdne ^®and cwaetS t6 him sylfum : ' ic ofsl6h witodlice 

30 dn piisend wera mid ]>aes assan cinbdne.' ^*h6 wearS ])4 
swi6e off'yrst for ^dm wundorlican siege and baed J>one 
heofonlican god, faet h6 him dsende drincan ; for J)dm pe 
on 'Sfere n^awiste naes ndn waeterscipe. -^^Sd arn of fdm 
cimbdne of dnum t68 waeter, and Samson ]>d dranc and 

35 his drihtene ]?ancode. 

Nii, gif hwd wundrle, hii hit gewurSan mihte, ]?aet Sam- 
son se stranga swd ofsl^an mihte dn jjiisend manna mid 
paes assan cimbdne, fonne secge se mann, hii ]>set gewur- 
•San mihte, ])aet god him sende fd waeter of faes assan t^S. 

40 nis ]ns ndn gedwimor n6 ndn dwollic sagu, ac s^o ealde 
gesetniss ys eall swd trumlic, swd swd se h^lend s^de on 
his hdlgan godspelle, ])8et dn staef ne biS n6 dn strica 
dw^ged of iS^re ealdan gesetnisse, })aet hi ne b^on 
gefyllede. gif hwd ^ises ne gelyfS, h6 ys ungel^afulic. 

45 ^^i lifter j^isum h4 f(^rde t6 Philist^a lande in t6 dnre 
birig on heora anwealde Gaza gehdten. -and hi J?aes 


fsegoodon, besetton ]>i faet hiis, ]>^ h6 inne wunude, wol- 
don hine geniman, mid fdm J?e he ut eode on ^rnemergen, 
and hine ofsl6an. ^hwset, t5d Samson heora syrwunga 

50 undergeat and drds on midre nihte t6 middes his feondum 
and genam Sd burhgatu and gebaer on his hricge mid l)dm 
postum, swd swd hi belocene w^ron, lip t6 dnre diine t6 
ufeweardum ]>^m cnolle and ^ode him sw4 orsorh of 
heora gesihfum. 

55 ^Hine beswdc swd f^ah sit5^an dn wif Dalila gehdten 
of ]>dm h^^enan folce, swd ])8et h6 hire s^de })urh hire 
swicd6m bep^ht, on hwdm his strengS wses and ' his 
wundorliee miht. ^t5d hfefSenan Philistei beh^ton hire 
sceattas, wit5 ])dm pe h^o beswice Samson |)one strangan. 

60 ®t5d dhsode heo hine georne mid hire 6l8ecunge, on hwdm 
his miht w^re. ''and h^ hire andwirde : ' gif ic b^o 
gebunden mid seofon rdpum of sinum geworhte, s6na ic 
b^o gewyld.' ^Saet swicole wif }>d begeat J)d seofon rdpas, 
and h6 furh syrwunge swd weartS gebunden. ^and him 

65 mann cydde, past J?^r c6mon his find : ]?d t6br8ec h^ s6na 
J)d rdpas, swd swd hefelprsedas, and J'set wif nyste, on 
hwdm his miht waes. "h6 wearS eft gebunden mid eallni- 
wum rdpum, ^and h6 )>d t6br8ec, swd swd ]>d 6tSre. ^^h^o 
beswdc hine swd p^ah, ^^]>sdi h^ hire sfede set n^xtan : ' ic 

70 6om gode gehdlgod fram minum cildhdde, and ic naes 
n&fre geefsod ne n&fre bescoren, and, gif ic b^o besco- 
ren, ])onne b^o ic unmihtig 66rum mannum gelic* ^^and 
h^o l^t ])d swd. 

^^H^o })d on sumum dsege, .]?d ]?d h^ on sl&pe laeg, 

75 forcearf his seofan loccas ^'^and awrehte hine siS})an : 'Sd 
waes he swd unmihtig, swd swd 66re men. ^^and fd 
Philistei gef^ngon hine s6na, swd swd h6o hine belfewde, 
and gel^ddon hine aweg, and h^o haefde t5one sceatt, swd 
swd him gewearS. hi ]>d hine dblendon and gebundenne 

80 l^ddon on heardum racet^agum hdm t6 heora birig and 
on cwearterne belucou 16 langre firste, h^ton hine grindan 


set hira handcwyrne. ^^k w^oxon his loccas and his 
miht eft on him. ^and fd Philistei full bliSe w&ron, 
pancodon heora gode Dagon gehdten, swilce h% purh his 

85 fultum heora f^ond gewildon. ^t5d Philistei \k micele 
fyrme geworhton and gesamnodon hi on sumre iipfl6rii. 
ealle J)d heafodmen and 6ac swilce wimmen, fr^o ftisend 
manna, on micelre blisse ; and, ])d fd hig bliSust w^ron, 
}>d b^don hig same, pset Samson m6ste him macian sum 

90 gamen, and hine man s6na gefette mid swit51icre wdfunge, 
and h^ton hine standan betwux twdm st^nenum swerum : 
^on S4m twdm swerum st6d J^set hiis eall geworht. ^and 
Samson ^d plegode swi^e him setforan ^and gelaehte pd 
sweras raid swiSKcre mihte ^and sl6h hi t6g8edere, paet hi 

95 s6na t6burston ; and })8et hiis \k df^oll eall )?8et folc t6 
d^a^e and Samson forS mid, swd pset h6 micele md on 
his d^atSe dcwealde, ^oniie he aer cucu dyde. 



At the year 1137 (Laud 636 fol. 89 a), the edition of B. Thorpe, I. 382, 
Earle, 261. 

MCXXXVII. Dis gaere for ]?e k. Steph. ofer sse to Nor- 
mandi and ther wes underfangen, for fi S hi uuepden, t5 he 
sculde ben alsuic, alse the com wes, and for he hadde get his 
tresor, ac he todeld it and scatered sotlice. micel hadde 
5 Henri k. gadered gold and syluer, and na god ne dide me for 
his saule thar of. }>a \q king S. to Englal. com, J>a macod he 
his gadering aet Oxeneford, and par he nam pe b. Roger 
of Sereberi and Alex. b. of Lincol and te canceler Roger, 
hise neues, and dide selle in prisuu, til hi iafen up here 


10 castles, fa the suikes undergaeton, 6 he milde man was 
and softe and god and na iustise ne dide, pa diden hi 
alle wunder. hi hadden him manred maked and athes 
suoren, ac hi nan treuthe ne heolden : alle he waeron 
forsworen and here treothes forloren ; for aeuric riceman 

15 his castles makede and agaenes him heolden and fylden 
]>e land fill of castles, hi sueneten suySe pe uureccemen 
of ]?e land mid castelweorces. ]>& pe castles uuaren maked, 
fa fylden hi mid deoules and yuele men. }>a namen hi fa 
men, ]>e hi wenden, t5 ani god hefden, bathe be nihtes 

20 and be daeies, carlmen and wimmen, and diden heom in 
prisun and pined heom efter gold and syluer untellendlice 
pining ; for ne uuseren naeure nan martyrs swa pined, 
alse hi waeron. me henged up bi the fet and smoked heom 
mid ful smoke, me henged bi the fumbes other bi the 

25 hefed and hengen bryniges on her fet. me dide cnotted 
strenges abuton here haeued and uurythen it, S it gaede to 
fe haernes. hi diden heom in quarterne, far nadres and 
snakes and pades waeron inne, and drapen heom swa. 
same hi diden in crucethus, f5 is, in an c^ste, fat was 

30 scort and narea and undep, and dide scaerpe stanes fer 
inne and frengde fe man faer inne, '5 him braecon alle fe 
limes, in mani of fe castles waeron Lof and Grim ; tJ 
waeron rachenteges, 6 twa ofer thre men hadden onoh to 
baeron onne. fat was sua maced, S is, faestned to an 

35 beom, and diden an scaerp iren abuton fa mannes frote 
and his hals, S he ne myhte no wider wardes ne sitten ne 
lien ne slepen, oc baeron al S iren. mani fusen hi drapen 
mid hungaer. i ne can ne i ne mai tellen alle f e wunder ne 
alle fe pines, t5 hi diden wreccemen on fis land, and "5 

40 lastede fa .XIX. wintre, wile Stephne was king, and 
aeure it was uuerse and uuerse. hi laeiden gaeildes on the 
tunes aeureumwile and clepeden it tenserie. fa fe uurecce- 
men ne hadden nammore to gyuen, fa raeueden hi and 
brendon alle the tunes, ^ wel ])u myhtes faren al a daeis 


45 fare, sculdest thu neure finden man in tune sittende ne 
land tiled. )?a was corn dsere and flee anu caese and 
butere ; for nan ne waes o ]>e land, wreccemen sturuen of 
hungser, sume ieden on selmes, ]>e waren sum wile rice- 
men, sume flugen ut of lande. wes nseure gset mare 

50 wreccehed on land, ne nseure hethenmen werse ne diden, 
pan hi dideu. 




From the Egerton Ms. 613 (belonging to the close of the 12th or open- 
ing of the 13th century), fol. 64, here for the first time printed entire. 
Cf. Digby Ms. A 4 in Anglia I. 5, and III. 32; Egerton Ms. 613, fol. 7 
in Furnivall's Early English Poems (1862) p. 22, and in Morris' Old 
English Homilies I. 288, and 175. Jesus College, Oxford, Ms. in 
Morris' Old English Miscellany p. 68. Lambeth Ms. 487 in Morris' 
Old E. Horn. I. 159. Trinity College, Cambridge, Ms. in Morris' Old 
E. Horn. II. 220. H. Lewin, in Halle, 1881, attempted to make a 
critical text. 

Ich aem elder ]?en ich wes. a wintre and alore. 

Ic waelde more J>anne ic dude, mi wit ah to ben more. 

Wei lange ic habbe child ibeon, a weorde end * ech adede. 

peh ic beo awintre eald. tu 3yng i eom a rede. 
5 Vn nut lif ic habb ilsed. end 3yet me HncS ic lede. 

panne ic me bi ]?enche. wel sore ic me adrede. 

Mest al >at ic habbe ydon. ys idelnesse and chilce. 

Wel late ic habbe me bi >oht. bute me god do milce. 

Fele ydele word ic habbe iqueden. sy'S'Sen ic speke cul>e. 
10 And fale 3unge dede idd. >e me of Hnchet nu)je. 

Al to lome ic habbe agult. a weorche end ec a worde. 

Al to muchel ic habbe ispend. to litel yield an horde. 

Mest al >et me licede aer. nu hit me mis lichet. 

pe mychel fol3e> his ywil. him sulfne he bi swike^. 
15 Ich mihte habbe bet idon. hadde ic >o y selbe. 

Nu ic wolde ac ic ne mei. for elde ne for unhel^e. 

Ylde me is bi stolen on. fer ic hit a wyste. 

* As usual, italics denote expanded abbreviations. 


Ne mihte ic i seon be fore me. for smeche ne for miste. 
-^rwe we beo)> to done god. end to yfele al to >riste. 
20 more aeie stent man of manne. >anne hym do of crista. 
* \^e wel ne de)? ]>e hwile he mei. wel oft hit hym scael ruwen. 
J)8enne hy mowen sculen end ripen. >er hi a3r seowen. 
Don ec to gode wet 30 mu3e. J^a hwile 36 bu^ alife. 
ne hopie no man to muchel to childe ne to wife. 
25 pe him selue for 3ut for wife. otSer for childe. 

he sceal cume an uuele stede bute him god beo milde. 
Send aech sum god bi foren \\\m. )>e hwile he mei to heuene. 

betere is an elmesse bi fore. i>enne beon aefter seouene. 
Ne beo J?e leoure Kne ^e sulf . \>\ maei ne ^i ma3e. 
30 sot is "Se is o'Sres mannes freond. betere }>ene his a3e. 
Ne hopie wif to hire were, ne wer to his wife. 

beo for him sulue aeurich man. |>e hwile he beo alme. 
Wis is l^e him sulf ne bi JjencS. J>e hwile he m(5te libbe. 
for sone wulle'5 hine for 3ite ^e fremde end \>e sibbe. 
35 pe w^l ne de^ J^e hwile he mei. ne sceal he hwenne he wolde. 
manies mannes sare jswinch. habbe'5 oft un holde. 
Ne scolde nanman don afurst. ne slawen wel to done. 

for maniman bi hate's wel. J>e hit for 3itet sone. 
pe man ^e siker wule beon to habbe godes blisse. 
40 do wel him sulf \>q hwile he mei. "Sen haue^ he mid iwisse. 

pes riche men wene^ beo siker. Jjurh walle end l)urc]i di'che. 
he deS his a sikere stede. H sent to heueneriche. 

For "Ser ne ^ierf beon of dred. of fure ne of }>eoue. 

l>er ne mei hi bi nime. tSe la'Se ne ^e leoue. 
45 par ne hasrf he habbe kare of wyfe ne of childe. 

louder we sendet end sulf bere^. to lite end to selde. 

pider we scolden dra3an end don. wel oft end wel 3elome. 

For }>er ne sceal me us naht bi nime. mid wrancwise dome. 

pider Ave scolden 3eorne dra3en. wolde 3e me ileue. 
50 for "Sere ne mei hit bi nimen eow J^e king ne se ireue. 

pet betste ]>et we hedde. )>uder we scolde sende. 

for ]>er we hit mihte finde eft. end habbe bute ende. 

He ^e her de^ eni god. for habbe godes are. 

eal he hit sceal finde "Ser. end hundred fealde mare. 
55 pe "Se ehte wile healden wel. >e hwile he mei his wealden. 

* In I. 21, and the following similarly advanced lines, the first letter is 


3iue his for godes luue. >enne deS he his wel ihealden. 
Vre IS winch end ure tilSe. is 6ft iwuned to swinden. 

ac 'Set we do^S for godes luue. eft we hit sculen a finden. 
Ne sceal nan uuel beon un boht. ne nan god un for 3olde. 
00 uuel we do5 eal to michel. end god lesse >enne we scolde. 
pe "Se mest de^ nu to gode. end 'Se l^e lest to la'Se. 

ffiiSer to litel end to michel sceal "Sinche eft him bat5e. 
per me sceal ure weorkes we3en. be foren heue kinge. 

end 3ieuen us ure swinches lien ajfter ure earninge. 
65 Eure elc man mid )jan 'Se haue^ mei bigge heueriche. 

J?e "Se mare hef'S end ^e l>e lesse. ba'Se mei iliche. 
Eal se mid his penie. se %e o^er mid his punde. 

J-et his 'S wunderlukeste ware. '5e aeniman ajure f unde. 
And >e ^e mare ne mei don. mid his god i |>anke. 
70 eal se wel se ^Se haue'S goldes feale marke. 

And 6ft god kan mare hanc "San 'Se him 3iuet lesse. 

eal his weorkes end his weies is milce end rihtwisnesse. 
Lite lac is gode leof. '5e cume^ 6f gode iwille. 

end e^lete muchel 3iue ^enne "Se heorte is ille. 
75 Heuene end eor^e he oue sih'S. his e3en beo^S swo brihte. 

Sunne. mone. dei. end fur. bi'S Jjustre to 3eanes his lihte. 
Ms hi?rt naht for hole, ni hiid. swa michel bi'S his mihte. 

nis hit na swa durne id6n. ne aswa l>ustre nihte. 
He' wat hwet de^S. end ^enchet. ealle quike wihte. 
80 nis na hlauord swilc se is crist. na king swilch ure drihte. 
Heouene end eor'Se. end eal J^et is. biloken in his hande. 

he deS eal \>et his wille is. a wetere and a lande. 
He rnakede fisces in 'Se se'. end fu3eles in ^e lufte. 

he wit end wealde^ ealle 'Sing, end he scop ealle 36 sceafte 
85 He is ord abuten orde. end ende abuten ende. 

he ane is aeure enelche stede. wende ber \>u wende. 
He is buuen us end bi neo'Sen. bi foren end bi liinde. 

\>e "Se godes wille dcS. eiSer he mei hi'm finde. 
Elche rune he' ihur^. end he wat ealle dede. 
90 he 'Surh sih^ ealches mannes "Sane, whet sceal us to rede. 
We'Se breke'S godes lie'se. end gultet swa ilome. 

hwet scule we seggen o'Ser don. aet ^e muchele dome, 
pa ^a luueden unriht. end uuel li'f ledde. 

hwet scule hi segge o^er d6n. 'Ser engles beo^ of dredde. 
95 Hwet scule we beren bi foren. mid hwan scule we cweman. 

we ^^e naeure god ne duden. ^e heuenliche de'raen. 


J^er scule beon deofles swa uele. 'Se wulleS us for wre3en. 

nabbed hi naming for 3yte. of eal \)et hi ise3en. 
Eal )pet we mis dude her, hit wulle^ cu^e j^asre. 
100 buten we habbe hit ibe't. ^e hwile we her we're. 
Eal hi habbet an heore iwrite. \)et we mis dude here. 

l^eh we' hi nuste ne ni se3en. hi we'ren ure I'uere. 
Hwet seulen horlinges do, ];>e swikene J^e for sworene. 
wi swa fele beo5 icluped. swa fewe beo'S icorene. 
105 Wi hwi were hi bi 31'te. to hwan were hi I'borene. 

jje scule beon to die^e idemd. end eure ma for lorene. 
Elch man sceal him "Ser bi clupien. end ech sceal him demen. 

his a3e weorc end his i^anc. to witnesse he sceal temen. 
Ne mei him naman eal swa wel demen ne swa rihte. 
110 for nan ni cnawaS him swa wel bute ane drihte. 
Elc man wat him sulf betst, his weorch end his iwille. 

he "Se lest wat he sei^ (5fte mest, 'Se' Se hit wat eal. is stille. 
Ni's nan witnesse eal se muchel. se mannes a3e heorte. 

hwa se segge \>et he' beo hal. him. self wat betst his smeorte. 
115 Elc man sceal him sulf demen, to die'Se. o'Ser to li'ue, 

}>e witnesse of his weorc, to o^er 'Sis, him sceal dri'ue. 
Eal ^et eure elc man hafS ido, su'S'Se he com to manne, 

swilc hit si aboc jwriten, he sceal i^enche "Senne. 
Ac drihte ne dem^ nanne man, sefter his bi gi'nninge. 
120 ac al his li'f sceal beo swich. se bu'S his endinge. 

Ac 3if he ende is uuel, eal hit is uuel. end god 31'f god is )>enne. 

god 3yue \>et ure ende beo god, end wit \>et he' us lenne, 
pe man l>e nele d<> na god, ne neure god Iff Iseden. 
aer dieS end dom cume, aet his dure, he mei sare a dreden. 
125 pet he ne mu3e "Senne bidde are for hit iti't I'lome, 

"Si he is wis Se beot end beat, end bit be foren dome, 
penne dea^ is aet his dure, wel late he biddeS are. 
wel late he leteS uuel weorc. ^e hit ne mei don na mare. 
*(Sunn)e l(et) l>(e end) \>(u naht) hi Jeanne )>(u)s ne miht d(on 
na ma)re, 
130 for \>i h(e is s)o(t) \>e swa abit to habbe go(de)s (a)re. 
peh whe'Ser we hit I'leueiS wel. for drihte sulf hit sede. 

a whilche time se eure ^e man of "^Jinchet his mis dedc. 
OtJer later o^er ra^e milce he sceal imeten, 

ac "Se \>e naf^ naht ibet. wel muchel he sceal beten. 

* That which is not clearly legible is in parentheses. 


135 Maniman sal's, hwa rect> of pine. '5e sceal habbe ende. 
ne bidde na bet beo i lusd. a domes del of bende. 
Lutel wat he hwe't is pine, end litel he icnawe^. 

hwilc hete is "Ser saule wune'S. hu biter winde >er blawe'S. 
Hedde he ibeon Ser anne dei. o^Ser twa bare tide. 
140 nolde he for ael middan card. "Se "Sridde \>eTe abide. 
J?et habbet ised }pQ come 'Sanne. \>et wiste mid iwisse. 

uuel is pinie seoue 3er. for seouenihtes blisse. 
End ure blisse \>q ende haf^. for endeliese pine. 

betere is wori weter i drunke. >ene atter i meng mid wine. 
145 Swunes brede is swutSe swete. swa is of wilde deore. 
ac al to dure he hi bi3'S. "Se 3if'S ]>er fore is sweore. 
Ful wambe mei lihtliche speken. of hunger end festen. 

swa mei of pine J^e naht nat. hil pine sceal alesten. 
Hedde his a fanded sume stunde. he wolde eal segge otJer. 
150 * e'Slete him were wif end child, suster. end feder end broSer. 
Eure he wolde inne wa her. end inne wawe wunien. 

wi'S ^an J>e mihte helle pine bi fleon end bi scunien. 
EtSlete him were eal woruld wele. end eal eordliche blisse. 
for to ^e muchele murcSe cume. "Sis murh'Se mid iwisse. 
155 Ich wulle nu cumen eft to ^e dome. >e ich eow of sede. 
on l^e deie end set J^e dome, us helpe crist end rede, 
per we ma3en beon e^e of dredde. end herde us adrede. 

jjer elch sceal seon him bi foren. his word end ec his dede. 
Eal sceal beon "Ser "Senne cvcS. \>et man lu3en her end stelen. 
160 eal sceal beon ^er un wri3en. ]pet men wri3en her end helen. 
We sculen ealre manne lif icnawe. eal swa ure a3en. 

Ser sculen eueninges beon ];>e he^e end la3en. 
Ne sceal ]peh nan scamian ^er. ne "Searf he hi/w adrede, 
3if him her of Hnc^ his gult. end bet his mis dede. 
165 For heom ne scamet ne gramet. ^e scule beon ibore3e. 

ac >e o'Sre habbet scame end grame end o'Ser fele sor3e. 
pe dom sceal sone beon idon. ni lest he nawiht lange. 

ne sceal hi7M nanme mene ^er of strenc'Se ne of wrange. 
pa sculen habbe herdne ddm. Jjc here were hearde. 
170 J>e uuele heolde wrecche men. end uuele la3he arerde. 
End e'fter )^>et he hauet i don. seal '5er beon i demed. 

* AJler 150 two lines wanting, which read in the Egerton Ms., Furnivall 
uses : Al he wolde o>erluker don and oJ?erluker J>enchae | 3anne he bi 
J?ouhte on helle fur \>e nowiht ne mai aquenche. 


bliSe mei he ^enne beon. j^e god haf^ wel icwemed. 
Eaelle Sa j^e isprungen beo^S of adam end of eue. 
ealle hi sculen 'Suder cume. for so'Se we hit ileue. 
175 pa iSe habbe^ wel idon. efter heore mihte. 

to heuenriche scule faren for^ mid ure drihte. 
pa "Se nabbetJ god iddn. end ^er inne beo'S ifunde. 

hi sculen falle swi^e ra^e in to helle grunde. 
per hi wunie sculen a end buten ende. 
180 ne brec^ neure eft crist helle dure, for lese hi of bende. 
Nis na sellich "Seh heom beo wa. end heo7?i beo un letJe. 

sceal neure crist "Solie dieS. for lese heom of die'Se. 
Enes drihte helle brec. his frund he' ut brohte. 

him sulf he Wede die's for heom. wel deore he us bohte. 
185 Nolde hit ma3he do for mei. ne suster for broker, 
nolde hit sune do for feder. ne nama?i for o'Ser. 
Vre ealre hlauerd for his ^reles. ipined we's arode. 

ure bendes he un band, end bohte us mid his blode. 
We 3iue5 un eSe fo his luue. asticche of vre briede. 
190 ne "Senche we naht );)et he sceal deme quike end diede. 
Muchele luue he us cudde. Wolde we }pet under stande. 

\>et ure aeldrene mis dude, we' habbet uuel en hande. 
Diets com on Hs middel eard. "Surh be ealde deofles ande. 
end sunne. end sor3e. end iswinch. a wetere end alande. 
195 Vres formes federes gult. we abigget alle. 

eal his of spring efter him. en hearme is bifealle. 
purst. end hunger chule. end he'te. eche. end eal un hel^e. 

"Surh die'5 com in Sis midden eard. end o^er un isel^e. 
Nere man elles died, ne sic. ne nan un sele. 
200 ac mihten libben geure ma. ablisse end on hele. 
Lutel i^enc'5 maniman. hu muchel wes >e sunne. 

for hwan ealle 'Solie'S die's. J?e come/i of >e cunne. 
Heore sunne end ure a3en. sare us mei of ^inche. 
for sunne we' libbe^ alle lie'r. asor3en end aswinche. 
205 SiS'Se god nam sa michele wre'che for ane mis dede. 

we )>e swa muchel end oft mis do's. mu3en us eaSe a drede 
Adam end his of spring, for ane bare sunne. 

wes fele hundred wintre. an helle pine, end a unwunne. 
End \>B. Se lede'S heore li'f. mid un riht end wrange. 
210 buten hit godes milce do scule beo 'Ser wel lange. 

Godes wisdom is wel muchel. end eal swa is his mihte 


end nis his milce nawhiht lesse. ac bi Ses ilke wihte. 
Mare he ane mei for 3iuen. "Senne eal folc gulte cunne. 

deofel mihte habbe milce. 3if he hit bigunne. 
215 pe ^e godes milce sechtS. jwis he mei his finde. 

ac helle king is are lies. wi5 "Sa >e he mei binde. 
pe "Se de'S his wille mest (he) hauet$ (wurst) m(ede.) 

his bastJ sceal beo weallende pich. his bed. burnende glede. 
Wurse he de^ his gode wines. Jjenne his fuUe feonde. 
220 god sculde ealle godes frund. a wi^ swiche freonde. 
Neure an helle ic ne com. ne cume ic ^er ne recche. 

"Seh ich aeches woruld wele. Ser inne mihte fecche. 
peh ich wuUe seggen eow. \>et wise men us sede. 

end aboke hi hit write. >er me mei hit rede. 
225 Ich hit wuUe segge Mm. \>e him sulf hit nusten. 

end warnie heom wi5 heora unfreme. 3if hi me wulle hlusten. 

Under standee nu to me. 3edi men end earme. 

ich wule telle of helle pine, end warnie eow wi^ hearme. 
On helle is hunger end ^urst. uuele twa ifere. 
230 J)as pine ^olie'5 \>a \)e were mete ni^inges here, 
per is wanunge end wop. efter eche strete. 

hi fare^ fram hete to chele. fraw chele to hete. 
penne hi beoS in "Se hete. >e chelecheiS blisse. 

I^enne hi cumeS eft to chele. of hete hi habbe'S misse. 
235 JEi^er heom die^S wa inoh. nabbet hy nane lisse. 

nuten whe^er him detS wurs mid nane jwisse. 
Hi walke'S eure end seche^ reste. ac hi ne mu3en imete. 

for \>i "Si nolden hwile hi mihten heore sunne bete. 
Hi seche^ reste ^er nan nis. H ne mu3en hi finde. 
240 aC walke'S weri up end dun. se weter de^ mid winde. 
pis beo^ ba ^e were her. a tSanke unstede feste. 

end to gode be he'ten aht. end nolde hit ileste. 
pa \>e god weorc bi gunne. end ful endien hit nolde. 

nu weren her. end nu'Se "Ser. end nuste hwet hi wolde. 
245 pere is pich 15e aure wealS. jper scule ba^ie inne. 

J>a Jje ledde uuel lif. in feoht end in iginne. 
per is fur "Se is hundred fealde hattre 'Sen ure. 

ne mei hit cwenche salt weter. nauene striem ne sture. 
pis IS \)et fur i5e eure burn^. ne mei hit nawhit cwenche. 
250 her inne beo^ J'e wes to leof. wrecche men to swenche. 
pa 'Se were swichele men. end ful of uuele wrenche. 


\>a, ^e ne mihte uuel don, end leof wes to "Senche. 
pe luuede reauing end stale, hordom end drunke. 

end a. on 'Ses deofles weorc. bliSeliche swunche. 
255 pa '^e were swa lease. \>et me hi ne mihte ileue. 

med 3eorne domes men. end wrancwise ireue. 
pe o^res mannes wif wes lief, his a3en e'Slete. 

\)e "Se sune3ude muchel adrunken end en ete. 
pe wrecche be nam his ehte. end leide hes en horde. 
260 Jje lute let of godes bi bode, end of godes worde. 
End te his a3en nolde 3iuen. Jjer he iseh |>e neode. 

ne nolde ihuren godes sande. J^er he sette his beode. 
pa "Se wes oSres mannes ^ing. leoure J^enne hit scolde. 

end weren eal to gredi t)f seoluer end of golde. 
265 End l?a ^e untruwnesse dude )>am ^e hi ahte beon holde. 

end leten "Set hi scdlden don. end dude het hi wolde. 
pa ^e witteres of 'Sis woruldes ehte. 

end dude \>et te la'Se gast heom tihte end to tehte. 
End ealle l>a "Sen eni wise deoflen her iquenide. 
270 ]ja beo^ nu mid him an helle fordon end fordemde. 
Bute l^a be of ^ufte sare heore mis dede. 

end gunne heore gultes beten end betere lif laede. 
per beo^ neddren end snaken. euete end frute. 

ba tere'S. end frete'S. \>e uuele speke. |?e ni^ fulle. end te prute. 
275 Neure sunne 'Ser ne scinS. ne mone ne steorre. 

ber is muchel godes hate, end muchel godes eorre. 
-^ure "Ser is uuel smech. "Susternesse end eie. 

nis ISer neure o^er liht. ^ene be swierte leie. 
per ligget ladliche fund, in strange rakete3e. 
280 \>et beo'5 \>a. "Se were mid gode on heuene wel he3e. 
per beo^S ateliche fund, end eisliche wihte. 

bas scule >a wrecche i fon. \>e sune3ede ^urh sihte. 
per is "Se la^e sathanas. end belzebud se ealde. 

ea^e hi mu3en beo of dred. \>e hine scule bi healde. 
285 Ne mei nan heorte hit i^enche. ne tunge ne can telle. 

hu muchel pine na hu uele sunden inne helle. 
Wi'5 ba pine ^e ]?er beo'S. nelle ich eow naht leo3en. 

nis hit bute gamen end gleo. eal \>et man mei he'r dreo3en. 
End 3ut ne de^ heom naht sa wa. m 'Sa la^e bende. 
290 \)et hi witetS \>et heore pine sceal neure habbe ende. 
par beo1S ba heuene men. }pe wsere la3e liese. 

>e nes naht of godes bi bode, ne of godes he'?e. 



Uuele cristene men. hi beoS heore ifere. 
>a Se heore cristen dom. uuele heolde here. 
295 3ut hi beo5 a wurse stede. on Sere helle grunde. 

ne sculen hi neure cumen lit. for marke ne for puude. 
Ne mei heom natSer helpen \)er. ibede ne elmesse. 

for nis natSer inne helle. are ne for 3iuenesse. 
Sculde him ech man "Se hwile he' mu3e of 'Sas helle pine. 
300 end werni ech his freond {?er wi^ swa ich habbe mine, 
pa 'Se sculden heom ne cunne. ich heom wulle teche. 

ich kan beon 3ief ich sceal. lichame end sawle leche. 
Lete we \>et god for but. ealle raanne cunne. 

end do we ])et he us het. end sculde we us wi^ sunne. 
305 Luuie we god mid ure heorte. end mid al ure mihte. 
end ure e'mcristen eal us sulf. swa us lerde drihte. 
Eal \)et me raet end eal Ipet me sing^S. bi fore godes borde. 
* Eeal hit hanget end bi halt, bi 'Sisse twam worde. 
alle godes la3e he ful'S. "Se niwe end 'Sa ealde. 
310 J?e "Se "Sas twa luue haf^, end wel hi wule healde. 

Ac hi beo^ wunder earueS healde. swa dfte gulte^ ealle. 
For hit is Strang to stande lange. end liht is to fealle. 
Aac drihte crist he 3iue us streng'Se. stande \>et we mote. 
end of ealle ure gultes unne us cume to bote. 

315 We' wilnie^ e'fter woruld we'le. 'Se lange ne mei leste. 
end legged eal ure iswinch. on 'Sin3e unstede feste. 
Swunche we for godes luue. healf ]pet we do^S for aehte. 
ne be'o we naht swa of bicherd. ne sa uuele bi kehte. 
3if we serueden gode swa we do^ ermi'nges. 
320 mare we' hedden en he'uene. 'Senne eorles he'r end k'mges. 

Ne mu3en hi werien heom witS chele. wiS l>urste ne wi^ hunger. 

ne wi'S ulde. ne wi'S dea^e. J^e uldre ne ^e 3eonger. 
Ac 'Ser nis hunger ne 'Surst. ne die^. ne unhel^e ne elde. 
of }>isse riche we ^enche'S dfte. end of }?ere to selde. 
325 We scolden ealle us bi^enche dfte. end wel ilome. 

hwet we beo^ to whan we scule. end df hwan we come. 
Hu litle hwi'le we beo^ he'r. hu lange elles hware. 
hwet we mu3e habben he'r. end hwet finde >ere. 
3ief we were wise men. ISis we' scolde Senche. 
330 bute we' wurSe us I'wer. 'Seos woruld wule us for drenche. 
Mest ealle men he 3iue'S drinche. df ane deofles scenche. 
he sceal him cunne sculde we'l. 3if he hine nele screnche. 

* 308, 309, the illuminator misplaced the E. 


Mid ealmihti3es godes luue. ute we us bi werien. 

wit$ 'Sises vvrecches woreldes luue. \>el he msi^e us derien, 
335 Mid festen selmes end ibede. werie we us wi5 sunne. 

* Mid Sa wepne ^e god haueS. bi 3iten man cunne. 
Lete we i^e brade stret. end ^ene wei bene. 

J?e let >e^ ni3e^e del to helle of manne. end ma ich wene. 
Ga we "Sene naerewne wei. end ^ene wei grene. 
340 "Ser fortS fare's litel folc. ac hit is feir end scene, 
pe brade stret is ure iwill. "Se is us latS to forlaete. 
>a Se eal fol3e'5 his iwill. fare^ bi "Susse strete. 
Hi mu3en lihtliche gan mid ^ere under hulde. 
"Surh ane godliese wude into ane bare felde. 
345 pe naerewei is godes hese. tSer for 5 fare^ wei fie we. 

}pet beoS "Sa "Se heo/« sculde'S 3eorne wi'S aeche un "Seawe. 
t (p)as ga'S unie'Se 3eanes Se cliue. a3ean K' hea3e huUe. 
"Sas lete'S eal heore a3en will, for godes hese to fulle. 
(G)a we alle I'ene wei. for he us wule bringe. 
350 mid te feawe feire men. be foren heuen kinge. 
per is ealre murh'Se mest. mid englene sange. 

"Se is a }>usend wintre 'Ser. ne "SinCS him naht to lange. 
pe "Se lest liaue^. haf^ swa michel i>et he ne bit namare. 
\>e ^a blisse for "Sas for let hit him mei reowe sare. 
355 Ne mei nan uuel ne na wane beon inne godes riche. 
^eh l>er beo'S wununges fele. aech ©"Ser uniliche. 
Sume ^er habbe'S lesse murh'Se. end sume habbe'S mare. 

aef ter "San \)e dude her. efter ^an ]pet he swanc sare. 
Ne sceal ^er beon ne bried ne win. ne ©"Ser cunnes este. 
360 god ane sceal beo eche lif. end blisse. end eche reste. 
Ne sceal 'Ser beo fah ne graei. ne kuning ne ermine. 

ne aquierne. ne martres cheole. ne beuer ne sabellne. 
Ne sceal 'Ser beo sciet ne scrud. ne woruld wele nane. 
eal jje murh'Se )>e me us bi hat. al hit sceal beo god ane. 
365 Ne mei na murh^e. beo swa muchel. se is godes sihte. 
(H)e IS so^ sunne end briht. end dei a buten nihte. 
(H)e is aelches godes ful. nis him na wi^ uten. 
na god nis him wane l^e wunie^ him abuten. 
per is wele abute gane. end reste abuten swinche. 
370 l^e mei end nele 'Sider cume. sare hit him sceal of 'Sinche. 
J per is blisse a buten tre3e. and lif a buten dea>e 

* 336, M in Mid black. t The letters in parentheses are blotted out. 

J The conclusion after I. 370 is from the Egerton Ms., which Furnivall uses. 


he eure scuUen wunien her. bli^e muwen ben e>e 
per is 3eo3e^e bute ulde. and hele a buten vn hel^e 

nis her so (re) we ne sor. ne neure nan vn sealhe 
375 per me seal drihte sulf i seon. swa he is mid iwisse 

he one mai and seal al beo. engle and manne blisse 
And tSeh ne beod heore e3e naht. alle iliche brihte 

"Si nabbed hi nouht iliche. alle of godes lihte 
On hisse (liue) hi neren nout. alle of one mihte 
380 ne her ne scullen hi habben god. alle bi one 3ihte 
po scullen more of him seon. he luuede him her more 

and more ienawen and iwiten. his mihte and his ore 
On him hi scullen finden alhat man mai to lesten 

hali boc hi senile i seon. al hat hi her nusten 
385 Crist seal one beon inou. alle his durlinges 

he one is muchele mare and betere. hanne alle ohere hinges 
Inoh he haued he hine haue^S. he alle hing wealded 

of him to sene nis no sed. wel hem* is he hine bi healde'S 
God is so mere and swa muchel. in his godcunnesse 
390 \>at al \>at is. and al hat wes is wurse. henne he and lesse 
Ne mai it neure no man oher segge mid iwisse 

hu muchele murh^e habbet ho. he beod inne godes blisse. 

lo here blisse us bringe god. he rixlet abuten ende 
henne he vre soule vn bint, of licames bende 
395 Crist 3yue us leden her swilc lif. and habben her swilc ende 
hat we moten huder come, wanne we henne wende. Amen. 


Richard Morris, Old English Homilies. First Series, 41. Ms. in London, 
Lambeth Ms. 487, fol. 15. 


Leofemen, 3ef $e lusten wulet5 and 3ewilleliche hit 
understonden, we eow wuUeS suteliche seggen of fa fre- 
dome, pe limped to |>aii deie, ]>e is iclepeS sunedeio sune- 

* From him. 


dei is ihaten ]jes lauerdes dei and ec ])e dei of blisse and 
5 of lisse and of alle irest. on J)on deie pa engles of heofene 
ham iblissieS, forSi fe J^a erming saulen habbetS rest of 
heore pine, gif hwa wule witen, hwa erest biwon reste 
J)am wrecche saule, to sope ic eow segge, fet wes sancte 
Paul ]>e apostel and Milihal pe archangeL heo tweien 

10 eoden et sume time in to helle, alswa heom drihten het, 
for to lokien, hu hit J>er ferde. Mihhal eode biforen and 
Paul com efter, and pa scawede Mihhal to sancte Paul pa 
wrecche sunfulle, pe per were wuniende. per efter he him 
sceawede he3e treon eisliche beorninde etforen helle3ete, 

15 and uppon pan treon he him sceawede pe wrecche saulen 
ahonge, summe bi pa fet, summe bi pa honden, summe bi 
pe tunge, summe bi pe e3en, summe bi pe hefede, summe 
bi per heorte. seodSan he him sceaude an ouen oii berninde 
fure : he warp ut of him seofe leies, uwilcan of seolcut5re 

20 heowe, pe alle weren eateliche to bilhaldene and muchele 
strengre, pen eani ping, to polien ; and per wiSinnen 
weren swiSe feole saule ahonge. 3ette he him sceawede 
ane welle of fure, and alle hire stremes urnen fur berninde, 
and pa welle biwisten .XII. meisterdeoflen, swilc ha 

25 weren kinges, to pineu per wi^innen pa earming saulen, 
pe forgult weren: and heore a3ene pine neure nere pe 
lesse, pah heo meistres weren. efter pon he him sceawede 
pe sea of helle, and innan pan sea weren .VII. bittere 
upe. pe forme wes snaw, pat oSer is, pet pridde fur, pet 

30 feorSe blod, pe fifte neddren, pe siste smorSer, pe seofepe 
ful stunch. heo wes wurse to polien, penne efreni of alle 
pa otSre pine, innan pan ilke sea weren unaneomned deor, 
summe fet^erfotetd, summe al bute fet, and heore e3en 
weren al swilc, swa fur, and heore epem scean, swa de(5 

35 pe leit amonge punre. pas ilke nefre ne swiken ne dei ne 
niht to brekene pa erming licome of pa ilea men, pe on 
pisse Hue her hare scrift enden nalden. summe of pan 
monne sare wepeS, summe, swa deor, lude remeS, summe 


J)er graninde sike^, summe f er reowliche giie3e^ his a3ene 

40 tunge, summe ])er wepeS, and alle heore teres beo6 ber- 
niiide gleden glidende ouer heore a3ene nebbe ; and swiSe 
reowHche Home 3ei3eS and 3eorne bisechet5, J>at me ham 
ibure3e from pam uuele pinan. of paspman speked Daiiid, 
]>e halie wite3e, and ])us sei6 : ' miserere nostri, domine, 

45 quia penas inferni sustinere non x>ossumus lauerd, haue 
merci of us, fort5on pa pinen of helle, we ham ne ma3en 

Seo^pan he him sceawede ane stude inne middewarSe 
helle, and biforen pam ilke stude weren seofen cluster- 

50 lokan, par neh ne mihte nan liuiende mon gan for pan 
ufele bret5e, and per wiSinna he him sceawede gan on aid 
mon, pet .IIII. deoflen ledden abuten. pa escade Paul to 
Mihhal, hwet pe aide mon were, pa cwe^ Mihhal hehangel : 
' he wes an biscop on eo^re line, pe nefre nalde Cristes 

55 la3en lokien ne halden : ofter he walde anuppon his un- 
derlinges mid wohe motien and longe dringan, penne 
he walde salmes singen oSer eani o^er god don.' 
herefter iseh Paul, hwer .III. deoflen ledden an meiden 
swiSe unbisor3eliche, and 3eorne escade to Mihhal, hwi 

60 me heo swa ledde. pa cwet5 Mihhal : ' heo wes an meiden 
on 0(5er line, pet wel wiste hire licome in alle clenesse, ah 
heo nalde nefre nan o6er god don. elmes3eorn nes heo 
nefre, ah prud heo wes swiSe and modi and li3ere and 
swikel and wreSful and ontf ul ; and for tSi heo biS wuni- 

65 ende inne pisse pine.' 

Nu bigon Paul to wepen wunderliche, and Mihhal 
hehengel per weop for^ mid him. pa com ure drihten of 
heueneriche to heom on punres sle3e and pus cwet5 : ' a, 
hwi wepest pu, Paul?' Paul him onswerde : ' lauerS, ic 

70 biwepe pas monifolde pine, ^e ic her in helle iseo.' pa 
cweS ure lauerd : ' a, hwi nalden heo witen mine la3e, pe 
hwile heo weren en eoiiSe ? ' pa seide Paul him mildeliche 
to3eines : ' louerd, nu ic bidde pe, 3ef pin wille is, pet pu 



heora 3efe rest, la, hwure pen sunnedei, a j^et cume domes 

75 del.' J)a cwet5 drihteii to him : ' Paul, wel ic wat, liwer ic 
sceal milcien. ic lieom wuUe milcien, fe weren efterward 
mine milce, fa hwile heo on line weren.' fa wes sancte 
Paul swi^e wa and abeh him redliche to his lauerdes fet 
and onhalsien hine gon mid fas ilke weord, fe 3e ma3en 

80 iheren. ' lauerd,' he cweS fa, ' nu ic fe bidde for fine 
kinedome and for fine engles and for fine muchele milce 
and for alle fine weorkes and for alle fine hale3en and ec 
fine icorene, fat fu heom milcie fes fe redfer, fet ic to 
heom com, and reste 3efe fen sunnedei, a fet cume fin 

85 heh domes dei.' fa onswerede him drihten mildere 
steuene : ' aris nu, Paul ; aris. ic ham 3eue reste, alswa 
f u ibeden hauest, from non on saterdei, a fa cume moue- 
deis lihting, fet efre forS to domes dei.* 

Nu, leofe bre^re, ^e habbeS iher5, hwa erest biwon 

90 reste fam forgulte saule. nu bicume^ hit f erf ore to 
uwilche cristene monne mucheles fe mare to hali3en and 
to wurSien f enne dei, f e is icleped sunnedei ; for of 
fam deie ure lauerd seolf seiS : ' dies dominicus est dies 
leticie et requiei sunnedei is dei of blisse and of alle 

95 ireste. non facietur in ea aliquid, nisi detim orare, man- 
dwcare et hihere cum pace et leticia ne beo in hire nafing 
iwrat bute chirche bisocnie and beode to Criste and 
eoten and drinken mid griSe and mid gledscipe. sicut 
dicitur : ^ pax in terra, pax in celo, pax inter homines* 
100 for swa is iset: ' grit5 on eort5e and gritS on hefene and 
grits bitwenen uwilc cristene monne.' eft ure lauerd seolf 
seit : ' maledictus homo,, qui non custodit sabatum 
amansed beo fe mon, fe sunnedei nulle iloken.' and for 
fi, leofemen, uwilc sunnedei is to locan, alswa esterdei, 
105 for heo is mune3ing of his halie ariste from detSe to line 
and mune3eing of fam hali gast, fe he sende in his 
apostles on fon dei, fe is icleped witsunnedei. ec we 
understonde5, fet on sunnedei drihten cumeS to demene 
al moncun. 



110 We a3en J^ene sunnedei swij?eliche wel to wurj^ien and 
on alle clenesse to locan ; for heo hafS mid hire preo 
wurdliche mihte, J?e 36 iheren majen. Set forme mihte 
is, fet heo on eorSe 3euet5 reste to alle eorSe })relles, 
wepmen and wifmen, of heore J^relweorkes. fet o6er 

115 mihte is on heouene ; for ]?i J?a engles heom rested mare, 
])enn on sum oSer dei. I^et j^ridde mihte is, pet fa erming 
saule habbetS ireste inne helle of heore muchele pine, 
hwa efre fenne ilokie wel fene sunnedei o6er fa oSre 
halie da3es, fe mon beot in chirche to lokien, swa fe 

120 sunnedei, beo heo dal neominde of heofeneriches blisse 
mid fan feder and mid fan sunne and mid fan halie gast 
a buten ende. amen, quod ipse prestare dignetur, qui 
uiuit et regnat deus per omnia secula seculorum. amen. 



The Ormulum with the Notes and Glossary of Dr. R. M. White ed. by 
Rev. Robert Holt, Oxford, 1878. Ms. in Oxford, Jun. 1. 


A {Pre/ace). 

piss boc iss nemmnedd Orrmulum, 

forrfi fatt Orrm itt wrohhte, 
annd itt iss wrohht off quaffrigan, 

off goddspellbokess fowwre, 
off quaffrigan Amminadab, 

off Cristess goddspellbokess ; 
forr Crist ma33 furrh Amminadap 

rihlit full wel ben bitacnedd ; 
forr Crist toe daef o rodetre 

all wiff hiss fuUe wille ; 


annd forr|?i patt Amminadab 

o latin spseche iss nemmnedd 
o latin boc spontaneus 

annd onn ennglisshe spseche 
15 fatt weppmann, j^att summ dede doj) 

wif]7 all hiss fuUe wille, 
forrpi ma33 Crist full wel ben jmrrh 

Amminadab bitacnedd ; 
forr Crist toe dsQp o rodetre 
20 all w\])]> hiss fulle wille. 

]>att wa33n iss nemmnedd qua}>})rigan, 

J^att hafel*}) fowwre wheless, 
annd goddspell iss j^att wa33n, forrpi 

l>att itt iss fowwre bokess, 
25 annd goddspell iss lesusess wa33n, 

J>att ga]) o fowwre wheless, 
forr))i ))att itt iss sett o boc 

furrh fowwre goddspellwrihhtess. 
annd lesuss iss Amminadab, 
30 swa summ ice hafe shaewedd, 
forr )>att he swallt o rodetre 

all wi]?J? hiss fulle wille. 
annd goddspell forr patt illke ping 

iss currus Salomoniss, 
35 forr patt itt i piss middellserd 

purrh goddspellwrihhtess fowwre 
wa33nepp sop Crist fra land to land, 

purrh Cristess lerninngcnihhtess, 
purrh patt te33 i piss middellaerd 
40 flittenn annd farenn wide 

fra land to land, fra burrh to burrh 

to spellenn to pe lede 
off sop Crist annd off crisstenndom 

annd off pe rihhte laefe 
45 annd off patt lif , patt ledep]) menu 


upp inntill heffness blisse. 
purrh swillc ]>e^^ berenn haelennd Crist, 

alls iff ]>ess karrte wserenn 
off wheless fowwre, forr ]?att all 
50 goddspelless liall3he lare 
iss, alls ice haf e shsewedd 3UW, 

o fowwre goddspellbokess ; 
annd forrjii ma33 goddspell full wel 

ben Sdlemanness karrte, 
55 ])iss iss to seggenn openuli3, 

J)e laferrd Cristess karrte, 
forr lesu Crist allmahhti3 godd, 

]?att alle shaffte wrohhte, 
iss wiss fatt sope Salemann, 
60 ]7att sette gri|)]:' onn er])e 

bitwenenn godd annd menn, ])urrh |)att 

he 3aff hiss lif o rode 
to lesenn mannkinn f urrh hiss dae]? 

lit off fe defless walde ; 
65 annd forr))i ma33 so}> Crist ben wel 

furrh Salemann bitacnedd, 
forr Salomon iss onn ennglissh 

fatt mann, fatt sop sahhtnesse 
annd trigg annd trowwe gri}))> annd fri])]> 
70 re^^se])]) bitwenenn lede 

annd foll3he)?]) itt wipj> all hiss mahlit 

])UYvh fohht, ]mrrh word, J)nrrh dede. 
all ])uss iss ]>att hall3he goddspell, 

patt iss o fowwre bokess, 
75 nemmnedd Amminadabess wa33n 

annd Salemanness karrte, 
forr ])att itt wa33nej7]? Crist till menn 

])urrh fowwre goddspellwrihhtess, 
rihht alls iff itt waere ])att wa33n, 
80 fatt ga]> o fowwre wheless. 


annd tuss iss Crist Amminadab 

J?urrh gastli3 witt 3ehatenn, 
forr patt he toe o rode dae]> 

wi]?}> all hiss fulle wille ; 
85 annd Salomon he nemmnedd iss, 

swa summ ice hafe shaewedd, 
forr J^att he sette gri}?]? annd frip]» 

bitwenenn heffne annd erpe, 
bitwenenn godd annd menn, furrh fatt 
90 ]7att he toe dae]? o rode 

to lesenn mannkinn })urrh hiss dse|) 

ut off |>e defless walde. 
annd all jmss jnss ennglisshe boe 

iss Orrmulum 3ehatenn 
95 inn qua])]?rigan Amminadab, 

inn currum Salomonis. 
annd of goddspell ice wile 3uw 

3et suram del mare shaewenn : 
3et wile ice shaewenn 3uw, forrwhi 
100 goddspell iss goddspell nemmnedd, 
annd ee ice wile shaewenn 3uw, 

hu mikell sawle sellpe 
annd sawle berrhless nnnderrfo]? 

att goddspell all J>att lede, 
105 ))att foll3he|)]> goddspell pwerrt lit wel 

))urrh fohht, furrh word, furrli dede. 

B (II, 187). 

Secundum Johannem XXIIII. 

Prope erat pasca ludeorum et ascendit lesus lerosolimam et invenit in 
templo vendentes oves et boves et columbas. 

Affterr j^att tatt te laferrd Crist 
l)e waterr haffde wharrfedd 



15540 till will i Cana Galile 

]>urrh hiss goddcunnde mahhte, 
J)8eraffterr, alls uss 8633]? goddspell, 

f6r he wipp hise posstless 
inntill an oferr tun, patt wass 
15545 Cafarrnaum 3ebatenn, 

annd sannte Mar3e, hiss moderr, comm 

wi]>]> himm inntill j^att chesstre, 
annd hise brepre comenn ec 

wi])]> himm annd wip}? hiss moderr. 
15550 annd taer bilaef pe laferrd ta 

•w\])]> hemm, ace nawihht lannge, 
forr ]>SLtt iudisskenn passkeda33 

l^a shollde cumenn newenn, 
annd Crist f6r pa till 3errsal8em, 
15555 swa summ ]>e goddspell ki)?el)|), 
annd he fand i j^e temmple j^aer 

well fele menn, )?att saldenn 
}78erinne ba))e nowwt annd shep, 

annd ta, fatt saldenn cullfress ; 
15560 annd menn att bordess saetenn pser 

w\]>]> sillferr forr to lenenn. 
annd Crist himm wrohhte an swepe paer, 

all alls itt waere off wi)?))ess, 
annd draf hemm alle samenn lit 
15565 annd nowwt annd sowwfess alle, 
annd all he warrp lit i pe flor 

l>e bordess annd te sillferr, 
annd affterr Jiatt he se33de puss 

till pa, patt saldenn cullfress : 
15570 ' gap till annd berepp hepenn lit 

whattlike pise pingess. 
ne birrp 3UW nohht min faderr hus 

till chepinngbope turrnenn.' 
annd hise lerninngcnihhtess paer 


15575 l^ohbtcHn annd unnderrstodenn, 
J)att taer wass filledd ta J^urrh himm 

annd inn hiss hall3he dede 
))att, tatt te sallmewrihhte se33|> 
upponn hiss hall3he sallme : 
1 5580 ' hat lufe towarrd godess bus 
me bite]>]7 i min herrte.* 
annd sume off ])a iudisskenn menn, 

]>SLtt herrdenn, whatt he se33de, 
annd S8e3henn, whatt he dide j^ser, 
15585 himm 38efenn sware annd se33denn ; 
' whatt tdkenn shaewesst tu till uss, 

fatt dost tuss l^ise dedess ? ' 
annd ure laferrd lesu Crist 

hemm 3aff anndswere annd se33de : 
15590 ' unnbinde}?]? all })iss temmple, annd ice 
itt i ]>re da3hess 1-63386.' 
annd ta lufiewess 3aefenn himm 

anndswere onn38en annd se33denn : 
' fowwerti3 winnterr 3edenn for}? 
15595 annd 3et taertekenn sexe, 

ser pann ]7iss temmple mihhte ben 
fuUwrohht annd all fuUforJ^edd*, 
annd tu darrst 3ellpenn, |?att tu mihht 
itt i pre da3hess re33senn?' 
15600 annd lesu Crist ne se33de nohht 
J)att word off ]>e:^sre temmple, 
ace off hiss bodi3 temmple he space, 

annd te33 itt nohht ne wisstenn. 
annd affterr j^att te laferrd Crist 
15605 wass risenn upp off dsepe, 

pe posstless J^ohhtenn off l^iss word, 

annd ta pe;^$ unnderrstodenn, 
l^att te33re laferrd haffde se33d 
}>att word all off himm sellfenn, 


15610 off patt he wollde |)olena daej7 
forr all mannkinne nede, 
annd tatt he wollde risenn upp 

])e )>ridde da33 off daejje. 
annd Crist wass o ]>e passkeda33 
15615 i 3errsalaemess chesstre 

annd wrohhte j^ser biforr J^e folic 

well fele miccle tacness, 
annd fele off }>a, fatt S8e3henn ]7aer 
]m tacness, fatt he wrohhte, 
15620 bigunnenn sone anan onn himm 
to lefenn annd to trowwenn ; 
ace lesu Crist ne let himm nohht 

]?ohhwhe]:>pre i l7e33re walde, 
forr l?att he cnew hemm alle wel 
15625 annd alle ]'e33re fohhtess, 

annd forr jjatt himm nass rihht nan ned, 

)?att ani3 mann himm shoUde 
ohht shaewenn off all ))att, tatt wass 
all daerne i mannes herrte ; 
15630 forr all, ]?att wass inn iwhillc mann, 
he sahh annd cnew annd cuj^e. 
her ende]?)) nu fiss goddspell fuss 
annd uss birrj? itt f urrhsekenu 
to lokenn, whatt itt laerefj? uss 
15635 off ure sawle nede. 


Richard Morris, Old English Homilies. First Series: p. 191. Ms., 
Cotton Ms. Nero A XIV, 120 b. 

Cristes milde moder, seynte Marie, 
mines Hues leome, mi leoue lefdi, 


to pe ich buwe and mine kneon ich beie, 

and al min heorte blod to tie ich offrie. 
5 })u ert mire soule liht and mine heorte blisse, 

mi lif and mi tohope, min heale mid iwisse. 

ich ouh wurSie 6e mid alle mine mihte 

and singge |?e lofsong bi daie and bi nihte ; 

vor ])u me hauest iholpen a ueole kunne wise 
10 and ibrouht of helle in to paradise : 

ich hit fonkie t5e, mi leoue lefdi, 

and J^onkie wulle, ])e hwule t$et ich liuie. 
Alle cristene men owen don 6e wurschipe 

and singen t5e lofsong mid swuSe muchele gledschipe ; 
15 vor «u ham hauest alesed of deoflene honde 

and isend mid blisse to englene londe. 

wel owe we ])e luuien, mi swete lefdi, 

wel owen we uor })ine luue ure heorte beien : 

]>\i ert briht and blisful ouer alle wummen, 
20 and god t5u ert and gode leof ouer alle wepmen. 

alle meidene were wurSeS ])e one ; 

vor ])u ert hore blostme biuoren godes trone. 

nis no wummon iboreu, petlSe beo iliche, 

ne non fer nis pin eming wiSinne heoueriche. 
25 heih is ])i kinestol onuppe cherubine 

biuoren 1S'me leoue sune wiSinnen seraphine. 

murie dreamet5 engles biuoren p'm onsene, 

pleiet5 and sweie6 and singeS bitweonen. 

swut5e wel ham liket5 biuoren ]?e to beonne ; 
30 vor heo neuer ne beotS sead pi ueir to iseonne. 
pine blisse ne mei no wiht understonden ; 

vor al is godes riche anunder J>ine honden. 

alle l^ine ureondes pu makest riche kinges, 

])U ham 3iuest kinescrud, beies and gold ringes ; 
35 J)u 3iuest eche reste ful of swete blisse, 
.eixeM eiayr 
24, efning to he read euning ? Ms. apparently/ evning. 


per ^e neiire dea6 ne com ne herm ne sorinesse : 
]?er bio wets inne blisse blostmen hwite and reade, 
per ham neuer ne mei snou ne uorst iwreden, 
per ne mei non ualuwen, uor per is eche sumer, 

40 ue non liuiinde ping woe per nis ne 3eomer. 
per heo schulen resten, pe her t5e dots wurschipe, 
3if heo 3emeS hore lif cleane urom alle queadschipe. 
per ne schulen heo neuer karien ne swinken 
ne weopen ne murnen ne helle stenches stinken. 

45 per me schal ham steoren mid guldene chelle 
and schenchen ham eche lif mid englene wille. 
ne mei non heorte penchen ne no wiht arechen 
ne no niu6 imelen ne no tunge techen, 
hu muchel god tSu 3eirkest wiSinne paradise 

50 ham, pet swinkeS dei and niht i (Sine seruise. 
al pin hird is ischrud mid hwite ciclatune, 
and alle heo beotS ikruned mid guldene krune. 
heo beotS so read, so rose, so hwit, so pe lilie, 
and euer more heo beo6 gled and singetS puruhut murie. 

55 mid brihte 3imstones hore krune is al biset, 

and al heo dotS, pet ham likeS, so pet no ping ham ne let. 
pi leoue sune is hore king, and pu ert hore kwene. 
ne beotS heo neuer idreaued mid winde ne mid reine : 
mid ham is euer more dei wiSute nihte, 

60 song witSute seoruwe and sib wiSute uihte. 

mid ham is muruhtSe moniuold wiSute teone and treie, 
gleobeames and gome inouh, lines wil and eche pleie. 
pereuore, leoue lefdi, long hit punchetS us wrecchen, 
vort pu of pisse erme Hue to Se suluen us fecche : 

65 we ne muwen neuer habben fulle gledschipe, 
er we to l)e suluen kumen to pine heie wurschipe. 

Swete godes moder, softe meiden and wel icoren, 
pin iliche neuer nes ne neuermore ne wur6 iboren : 
moder pu ert and meiden cleane of alle laste, 

70 puruhtut hei and holi in englene reste. 


al engleue were and alle holie ping 

siggeS and singet5, );et tu ert Hues welsprung, 

and heo siggetS alle, }?et 'Se ne wonteS neuer ore, 

ne no mon, pet 6e wurt5et5, ne mei neuer beon uorloren. 

75 pu ert mire soule wiSute leasunge 
efter J>ine leoue suue leouest aire pinge. 
al is pe heouene ful of pine blisse, 
and so is al pes middeleard of pine mildheortnesse. 
so muchel is pi milce and pin edmodnesse, 

80 pet no mon, pet Se 3eorne bit, of helpe ne mei missen : 
ilch mon, pet to pe bisihS, pu 3iuest milce and ore, 
pauh he t5e habbe swuSe agult and idreaued sore, 
pereuore ich t5e bidde, holi heouene kwene, 
pet tu, 3if pi wille is, ihere mine bene. 

85 Ich Se bidde, lefdi, uor pere gretunge, 

pet Gabriel Se brouhte urom ure lieouen kinge, 
and ek ich Se biseche uor lesu Cristes blode, 
pet for ure note was isched o Sere rode ; 
vor Se muchele seoruwe. Set was o Sine mode, 

90 po pu et Se deaSe him biuore stode, 

pet tu me makie cleane wiSuten and eke wiSinnen, 
so pet me ne schende none kunnes sunne. 
pene loSe deouel and alle kunnes dweoluhSe 
aulem urom me ueor awei mid hore fule fulSe. 

95 Mi leoue lif, urom pine luue ne schal me no ping 
vor o Se is al ilong mi lif and eke min heale. 
vor pine luue i swinke and sike wel ilome, 
vor pine luue ich ham ibrouht in to peoudome, 
vor pine luue ich uorsoc al, j^et me leof was, 
100 and 3ef Se al mi suluen : looue lif, ipench pu pes. 

pet ich Se wreSede sume siSe, hit me reoweS sore : 
vor Cristes fif wunden Su 3if me milce and ore. 
3if pu milce nauest of me, pet ich wot wel 3eorne, 
pet ine helle pine swelten ich schal and beornen. 


105 fill wel ]m me iseie, pauh ])u stille were, 

liwar ich was and hwat i dude, pauh |)U me uorbere : 
3if ]m heuedest wreche inumen of mine luSernesse, 
iwis ich heuede al uorloren paradises blisse. 
fu hauest ^et forboren me nor ))ine godnesse, 

110 and nu ich hopie habben fuUe uor3iuenesse. 
ne wene ich nenre uallen in to helle pine, 
hwon ich am to ^e ikiimen and am Sin owune hine : 
]nn ich am and wule beon nu and euer more ; 
vor o ^e is al mi lif ilong and o godes ore. 

115 Mi leoue swete lefdi, to j^e me longeS swut5e : 
bute ich habbe pine help, ne beo ich neuer bliSe. 
ich l^e bidde, ]>et tu kume to mine uor^siSe 
and nomeUche peonne f»ine luue kut5e : 
auouh mine soule, hwon ich of }nsse Hue uare, 

120 and ischild me urom seoruwe and from eche deat)es karco 
3 if ]m wult, Set ich if5eo, gode 3eme nim to me ; 
vor wel ne wurS me neuer, bute hit beo ])uruh Se. 
mid swuj^e luSere lasten mi soule is ])uruhbunden : 
ne mei no |)ing so wel, so ]m, healen mine wunden. 

125 to fe one is al mi trust efter |nne leoue sune : 
vor is holie nome of mine line 3if me hme. 
ne ]>o\e pn ])ene unwine, ]>et he me arine, 
ne |>et he me drawe in to helle pine, 
nim nu 3eme to me, so me best a beo, 6e beo ; 

130 vor l^in is ))e wurchipe, 3if ich wrecche wel ifeo. 
]ni ne uorsakest nenne mon nor his luSernesse, 
3if he is to bote 3eruh and bit J^e uor3iuenesse. 
pu miht lihtliche, 3if ]>u wult, al mi sor aleggen 
and muchele bet biseon to me, J^en ich kunne siggen. 

135 ])u miht for3elden lihtliche mine gretunge, 

al mi swine and mi sor and mine kneouwunge. 

Ine me nis no ]?ing feier on to biseonne 
ne no }?ing, |?et beo wurSe biuoren |?e to beonne ; 


})ereuoi'e ich ])e bidde, fet ]?u me wassche and schrude 

140 })uruh pine muchele milce, pet spert so swuSe wide, 
nis hit t5e no wurSscipe, pet pe deouel me todrawe : 
3if pu wult hit itSauien, iwis he wule t^urchut fawe ; 
vor he nolde neuere, pet pu hefedest wurSschipe, 
ne no mon, pet pe wurSeS, pet he hedde gledschipe. 

145 pu hit wost ful 3eorne, pet pe deouel hateS me 
and nomeliche pereuore, pet ich wurSie pe. 
pereuore ich pe bidde, pet pu me wite and werie, 
pet pe deouel me ne drecche ne dweolSe me ne derie. 
so pu dest and so pu schalt uor t5ire mildheortnesse : 

150 pu schalt me a ueir dol of heoueriche bUsse. 

3if ich habbe muchel ibroken, muchel ich wulle beten 
and do mine schrifte and pe ueire greten. 

pe hwule pet ich habbe mi lif and mine heale, 
vrom Sire seruise ne schal me no ping deale : 

155 biuoren pine note ich wulle liggen and greden, 
vort ich habbe uor3iuenesse of mine misdeden. 
mi lif is pin, mi luue is pin, mine heorte blod is pin, 
and, 3if ich der seggen, mi leoue leafdi, pu ert min. 
Alle wurSschipe haue pu on heouene and ec on eor^e, 

160 and alle gledschipe haue pu, al so pu ert wurSe. 
nu ich pe biseche ine Cristes cherite, 
pet pu pine blescinge and pine luue 3iue me : 
3eme mine licame ine clenenesse . . . 

God almihti unne me vor his mildheortnesse, 

165 pet ich mote pe iseo in Sire heie blisse : 

and alle mine ureondmen pe bet beo nu to dai, 
pet ich habbe isungen pe 'Sesne englissce lai. 
and nu ich pe biseche vor Sire holinesse, 
pet pu bringe pene munuch to pire glednesse, 

170 pet funde Sesne song bi Se, mi looue leafdi, 
Cristes milde moder, seinte Marie, amen. 

139 Ms. wasshce. 163 At least one line omitted, probably ending : 'ine 




Old English Homilies ed. Morris I. 283. Ms. in the Brit. Museum, 
Cotton Tit. D 18, fol. 132 r. a. 

A, hu schal i nu Hue ? for nu deies mi lef for me upo 
])e deore rode, henges dun his heaued and sendes his 
sawle. bote ne ])inche ham nawt 3et, fat he is fulpinet, 
ne J)at rewfule deade bodi nulen ha nawt fritSie, bringen 
5 for6 Longis : wiS pat brade scharpe spere he juries his 
side, cleues tat herte, and cumes flowinde ut of fat wide 
wunde fe blod, fat me bohte, fe water, fat te world 
wesch of sake and of sunne. a swete lesu, fu oppnes me 
fin herte for to cnawe witerliche and in to reden trewe 

10 luue lettres ; for fer i mai openlich seo, hu muchel fu me 
luuedes. wi5 wrange schuldi fe min heorte wearnen, siSen 
fat tu bohtes herte for herte. lauedi, moder and meiden, 
fu stod here ful neh and seh al fis sorhe vpo fi deore- 
wurSe sune, was wiSinne martird i fi moderliche herte, 

15 fat seh tocleue his heorte wiS fe speres ord. bote, lafdi, 
for fe ioie, fat tu hefdes of his ariste fe fridde dai fer 
after, leue me vnderstonde ])i dol and herteli to felen sum 
hwat of fe sorhe, fat tu fa hefdes, and helpe fe to wepe, 
fat i wis him and wiS fe muhe i min ariste o domes dai 

20 giadien and wy6 3U beon i blisse, fat he me swa bitter- 
liche wis his blod bohte. lesu, swete lesu, fus tu faht for 
me a3aines mine sawle fan : fu me dereinedes wiS like 
and makedes of me wrecche fi leofmon and spuse. broht 
tu haues me fra fe world to bur of fi burSe, steked me i 

25 chaumbre : i mai fer f e swa sweteli kissen and cluppeu 
and of fi luue haue gastli likinge. a swete lesu, mi Hues 
luue, wis fi blod fu haucs me boht, and fram fe world fu 
haues me broht. bote nu mai i seggen wiS f e salmewrihte : 


' quid retrihuam domino pro omnibus^ que retribuit michif 
30 lauerd, hwat mai i 3elde pe for al, }>at tu haues 3iuen me ? ' 
hwat mai i ))ole for ])e for al, ]mt tu ])olecles for me ? ah 
me bihoueS, |)at tu beo eat5 to paie : a wrecche bodi and 
a wac bere ich ouer eort5e and tat, swuch as hit is, haue 
3iuen and 3iue wile to ]>i seruise : mi bodi henge wiS ]n 
35 bodi neiled o rode sperred querfaste wiSinne fowr wahes, 
and henge i wile wiS |^e and neauer mare of mi rode 
cume, til fat i deie. for penne schal i lepen fra rode in 
to reste, fra wa to wele and to eche blisse. 



Ed. Morris, p. 37. 
Ms. in Cambridge, Corpus Chr. Coll. 444, fol, 25. 

Iff losephus ne lege^ me, 

i5or quiles he wunede in Bersabe, 

so was Ysaaces eld told 

XX. and fiwe winter old. 

1285 t5o herde Abraham steuene fro gode, 
newe tiding and selku(5 bode : 
' tac t5in sune Ysaac in bond 
and far wiS him to siShinges lond, 
and Sor '5u salt him offren me 

1290 on an hil, t5or ic sal taunen Se.' 
fro Bersabe iurnes two 
was "Sat lond, t5at he bed him to, 
and Morie, men seiS, was t5at hil, 
(5at god him tawnede in his wil. 

1295 men seiS, 5at dune is siSen on 
was mad temple Salamou 


and 5e auter mad on ^at stede, 

t^or Abraham 6e offraiide dede. 

Abraham was buxum o rigt : 
1300 hise weie he tok sone bi nigt. 

t5e 6ride day he sag tSe stede, 

t$e god him witen in herte dede. 

t5an he cam dun to t5o dunes fot, 

non of his men fortSere ne mot 
1305 but Ysaac, is dere childe : 

he bar 'Se wude witS herte milde ; 

and Abraham t5e fier and t5e swerd bar. 

•go wurg Se child witter and war, 

•Sat Sor sal offrende ben don, 
1310 oc ne wiste he, quat ne quor on. 

' fader,' quat3 he, ' quar sal ben taken 

t5e offrende, 'Sat Su wilt maken? ' 

quat Abraham : ' god sal bisen, 

quor of Se ofrende sal ben. 
1315 sellik Su art on werde cumen, 

sellic Su salt ben heSen numen ; 

wiSuten long throwing and figt 

god wile Se taken of werlde nigt 

and of Se seluen holocaustum hauen. 
1320 Sane it him. Sat he it wulde crauen.' 

Ysaac was redi mildelike, 

quan Sat he it wiste, witterlike. 

oc Abraham it wulde wel : 

quat so god bad, Swerted he it neuer a del. 
1325 Ysaac was leid Sat auter on, 

so men sulden holocaust don, 

and Abraham Sat swerd ut drog 

and was redi to slon him nuge, 

1318 ^for nigt we should read ligt ? ' Morris. 1331 frigti to be striken 
out, or to be supplanted bij swi^e or somctli'uuj like it ? 


oc an angel it him forbed 
1330 and barg te child fro Se dead. 

t5o wur^ Abraham frigti fagen, 

for Ysaac bileaf unslagen. 

biaften bak, as he nam kep, 

faste in "Sornes he sag a sep, 
1335 Sat an angel Sor inne dede : 

it was brent on Ysaac stede. 

and, or Abraham Set5en for, 

god him Sor bi him seluen swor, 

'8at he sal michil his kinde maken 
1340 and t5at lond hem to honde taken : 

good selt5he sal him cumen on, 

for he t5is dede wulde don. 

he wente bliSe and fagen agen, 

to Bersabe he gunne teen. 
1345 Sarra was fagen in kindes wune, 

Sat hire bilef Sat dere sune. 


R. Morris : An Old English Miscellany, London 1872, p. 84. Ms. in 
Oxford, Jesus Coll. I Arch. I, 29, fol. 178 (251). 

po lesu Crist an eor))e was, mylde weren his dede : 
alle heo beo}) on boke i wry ten, pat me may heom rede. 
]>o he to monne wes iboren of pare swete Marie 
and wes to ful elde icumen, he venk to prechie. 
5 a Intel tefor pe tj-me, pat he wolde dep polye, 
he neylehyte to one bureh, pat hatte Samarie. 

Al so he piderward sumping nej'hleyhte, 
he sende his apostles byvoren and het heom and tauhte, 


heore in and heore bileuynge grey]?i ])at lieo schulde : 
10 heo duden heore louerdes hestes, ase ]?eines beolde. 
al so heo weren agon, ]>e apostles evervychone, 
lesus at ore walle reste him seolf al one. 

Ase lie per reste, ase weiweri were, 
])ar com gon o wymmon al one buten iv^re : 
15 ase heo wes er iwuned, heo com myd hire st^ne, 
and lesus to |)are wymmon bigon his Jmrst to mene. 
' yef me drynke, wymmon,' he seyde myd mylde mupe. 
J^eo wymmon him onswerede, al so to mon vnku};e : 
' hwat artu, pat drynke me byst? J>u ^inchest of lude- 
londe : 
20 ne mostu drynke vnderfo none of myne honde.* 

po seyde lesu Crist : ' wymmon, if ]>n vnderst6de, 
hwo hit is, pat drynke byd, ] u woldest beon of oper mode, 
pu woldest bidde, pat he pe yeue drynke, pat ilast euere : 
pe pat ene drynkep per of, ne schal him purste neuere.' 
25 ' Louerd,' po seyde pe wymmon, ' yef me par of to 
pat ich ne purve more to pisse welle swynke.' 
heo nuste, hwat heo mende ; heo wes of wytte poure : 
heo nuste noht, pat heo spek of pan holy gostes froure. 
' Sete ddun,' quep lesu Crist, ' wymmon, pine stene : 
30 go and clepe pine were, and cumep hider ymene.' 

'- i nabbe,' heo seyde, ' nenne were : ich am my seolf al 

nabbe ich of wepmonne nones kunnes ymone.' 

' Wei pu seyst,' quap lesu Crist, ' w4re pat pu nauest 
nenne : 
fyue pu hauest are pisse iheued, and yet pu hauest enne, 
35 and, pe pat pu nupe hauest and heuedest summe prowe, 
he is an oper wyues were more, pan pin owe.' 

' Louerd,' heo seyde, 'hwat art pu? ich wot myd 
pat pu me hauest sop iseyd of alle wordes pisse ; 


])i of one finge sey me i redynesse. 
40 bitwene fis twam volke me punchej? a wundernesse. 
For alle ]>eo men, ])at wunye]? in Samaryes tune, 
alle heo biddef heom to gode anvppe }>isse dune, 
and alle pilke, pat beo)? wipinne Iherusal^me, 
nohwere, bute in pe temple, ne wenep god iqu^me.' 
45 ' Ilef me, wymmon,' qua]? lesu Crist, ' and Jrnr of beo 
))at schal cume l^e ilke day, and nv he is neyh honde, 
J)at, ne beo neuer j^e mon in so feorre londe, 
if he myd swete Jjouhtes bif , J)at he ne bip vnderstonde, 
J)ah he nouper ne beo anvppe |)isse dune 
50 ne in pe heye temple of lerusalemes tune. 

Ye nuten, hwat ye biddef>, pat of gode nabbep im6ne ; 
for al eure bileue is on stokke oper on stone : 
ac ]>eo, pat god iknowep, heo wyten myd iwisse, 
pat hele is icume to monne of folke iudaysse.' 
55 ' Louerd,' heo seyde, ' nv quiddep men, pat cumen is 
pe king, pat wurp and nupen is and euer yete was. 
hwenne he cumep, he wyle vs alle ryhtleche ; 
for he nule ne he ne con nenne mon bipeche.' 

' Ich hit am,' quap lesu Crist, ' pat wip pe holde speehe, 
60 pat Messyas am icleped and am pes worldes leche.' 
mid pon comen from pe bureh pe apostles euervych6ne 
and wundrede, pat lesu wolde speke wip pare wymmon 
Ah, peyh heom puhte wunder, no ping heo ne seyde. 
ac pe wymmon anon hire stene adun leyde 
65 and orn to pare bureh anon and dude heom to vnder- 
of one mihtye wihte, pat cumen is to londe. 
T6 alle, pat heo myhte iseon oper ymete, 
heo gradde and seyde : * ich habbe iseye pane sope pro- 

XXm. A HOMILY. 81 

ich wene wel, )?at hit beo Crist, of hwam ]>e prophete 


* * * 

70 ])urh lesu Cristes milce and fureh his wyssynge 
monye per byleuede on pe heye kinge 
and vrnen vt of ]>e bureuh myd wel muchel )>rynge 
and comen to lesu, |)ar he set, and beden his blessynge. 
po byleuede pat folk mucheles ]?e more 

75 for his mylde speche and for his mylde lore, 
and |)us was pes bureuh ared vt of helle sore 
and byleuede on almihty god nupe and euer more. 


R. Morris: An Old English Miscellany, London 1872, p. 29. Ms. at 
Oxford, Laud 477, p. 130. 

Dominica secunda post octavam Epiphanie. sermo euan. 

Nuptie facte sunt in Chana GaliUe^ et erat mater lesu 
ibi. vocatus est autem lesus ad nuptias et discipuli eius. 
pet holi godspel of to day us telp, pet a bredale was imaked 
ine po londe of lerusalem in ane cite, pat was ieleped 
5 Cane, in pa time, pat godes sune yede in erpe flesliche. 
a*} pa bredale was ure leuedi, seinte Marie, and ure louerd, 
lesus Crist, and hise deciples. so iuel auenture, pet wyn 
failede at pise bredale. po seide ure leuedi, seinte Marie, 
to here sune : 'hi ne habbet no wyn.' and ure louerd 
10 answerde and sede to hire : ' wat belongeth hit to me 
oper to pe, wyman?' uu ne dorste hi namore sigge, ure 
lauedi ; hac hye spac to po serganz, pet seruede of po 

XXII 69, Pruhahly more than a line wanting. 


wyne, and hem se3'de : ' al, ])et he hot yu do, so do)>.* 
and ure louerd clepede ])e serganz and seyde to hem : 

15 ' folvellet,' ha seyde, ' pos 3'dres/ J>et is to sigge, ]?os 
er66s ofer })os faten, 'of watere ' ; for per were .VI. 
ydres of stone, pet ware iclepede bapieres, wer ))0 Gius 
hem wesse for clenesse and for religiuu, ase pe custome 
was ine ])0 time. ])o serganz uuluelden ])o faten of watere, 

20 and hasteliche was iwent into wyne bie po wille of ure 
louerde. po seide ure lord to ])0 serganz : ' moveth to 
gidere and bereth to Architriclin,' pat was se, pet ferst 
was iserued. and, al so he hedde idrunke of pise wyne, 
pet ure louerd hedde imaked of pe watere (ha niste nocht 

25 pe miracle, ac po serganz wel hit wiste, pet hedde pet 
water ibrocht) , po seide Architriclin to po bredgume : 
' oper men,' seyde he, ' dop forp pet beste wj-n, pet hi 
habbep, ferst at here bredale, and pu hest ido pe con- 
trarie, pet pu hest ihialde pet beste wyn wat nu.* pis was 

30 pe commencement of po miracles of ure loruerde, ])et he 
made flesliche in erpe, and po beleuede on him his deci- 
ples. i ne sigge nacht, pet hi ne hedden per before ine 
him beliaue, ac fore pe miracle, pet hi seghe, was here 
beliaue pe more istrengped. 

35 Nu ye habbep iherd pe miracle, nu iherep pe signefiance. 
pet water bitockned se euele christeneman. for, al so pet 
water is natureliche schald and akelp alle po, pet hit 
drinkep, so is se euele christeman chald of po luue of 
gode for po euele werkes, pet hi dop ; ase so is lecherie, 

40 spusbreche, roberie, manslechtes, husberners, bakbiteres 
and alle opre euele deden, purch wyche pinkes man 
ofserueth pet fer of helle, ase godes oghe mudh hit seid. 
and alle po signefied pet water, pet purch yemere werkes 
oper purch yemer iwil liesed po blisce of heuene. pet wyn, 

45 pat is naturelliche hot ine him selue and anhet alle po, 
pet hit drinked, betokned alle po, pet bied anh^^t of pe 
luue of ure lorde. nu, lordinges, ure lord, god almichti. 


J>at liwylem in one stede and ine one time flesliche makede 
of watere wyn, yet habbe}> mani time maked of watere 

50 wyn gostliche. wanne he furch his grace maked of fo 
euele manne good man, of j^e orgeilus iimble, of ]>e lechur 
chaste, of ]>e ni))inge large and of alle o|n'e folies uertues : 
so ha maket of po watere wyn. |)is his si signefiance of ];e 

55 Nu loke euerich man toward him seluen, yef he is win, 
]>et is to siggen, yef he is anheet of ])0 luue of gode, ofer 
yef he is water, fet is, yef ]m art chold of godes luue. yef 
}?u art euel man, besech ure lorde, ]?et he do ine pe his 
uertu, ]?et ha ])e wende of euele into gode, and ])et he do 

60 ])Q do swiche werkes, ])et |>u mote habbe ]-o blisce of 
henene. quod nobis prestare dignetur . . . 



Die englische Gregorlegende nach dem Auchinleck Ms. herausgegeben 
von Fritz Schulz (Konigsberg in Pr. 1876) p. 25. The supplements 
in parentheses in hnes 43-45, and 63-64, are from the Vernon Ms.; 
cf. Herrig's Archiv LV, 427. 

Now lete we Hs leuedi be, and telle we, hou \>e child was founde. 

listene}> now alle to me : y wot, it sanke noujt to \>e grounde. 

al, J>at god wil haue, don >an schal be : ri3t as his moder him hadde 

\>e winde him drof fer in j^e se, swibe f er in Hike stounde. 
5 To fischers weren out ysent, l>at breberen were bo}>e, y wene : 
out of an abbay bai weren ysent wib nettes and wi\> ores kene 
to lache fische to J>at couent : \>e monkes )>ai l'0U3t to queme. 
hat day was hem no grace ylent for stormes, bat were so breme. 
Erlich in a morning, er li3t com of be day, 
10 bai seye a bot cum waiueing wib be child, bat in be cradel lay. 
to line god him wald bring (his wille in lond wrou3t be ay !) : 


>e fischers rairi gun sing, and |>ider J?ai tok \>e ri3t way. 

pe tonne anon to hem )jai nome, l^at was swi|>e wele ywrou3t : 
J>ai no rou3t, whider \>e bot ycom, J^at j^e tonn ]?ider brou3t. 
15 to rist ri3t as 3ede \>e mone, her risen stormes gret aloft : 

to lache fische hadde ]?ai no tome : to toun to nim was al her >ou3t 

Fast )>ai drowen to ]pe lond wi}? ores gode ymade of tre. 
for stormes wald J^ai noHng wond : drenched wende >ai wele to be. 
babot com opon l?e strond, J>e fischers 3if he mi3t se : 
20 also god sent his sond, bat child schuld ysaued be. 

pe abot, bat was bider sent, biheld \>e tonne, was made of tre : 
ber on were his ey3en ylent. anon seyd bat abot fre : 
' whare haue 36 Hs tonne yhent, and what may ber in be ? 
no sey3e y neuer swiche a present in fischers bot in be se.' 
25 pe fischers answerd bobe yliche, to be abot bai speken anon : 
' bi be king of heuen riche, our binges be ber in ydon.' 
bat child ban bigan to scriche wib steuen, as it were a grome : 
be fischers were adrad of wreche : bai nist, what bai mi3t done, 
pabot bad wibouten WOU3 vndo be tonne, bat he ber say : 
30 be fischers were radi anou3 to don his wille bat ich day. 
a clob of silk babot vp drou3, bat on be childes cradel lay : 
bo lai bat litel child and I0U3 opon babot wib ey3en gray. 

pabot held vp bobe his bond wib hert gode to Crist ywent 
and seyd : * lord, y bank bi sond, bat bou me hast 30uen and lent.' 
35 of yuori tables long babot fond ber in pressent : 

ber to he gan sone fong and sey3e, what ber was writen and dent. 

pabot bad be fischers bobe ten mark and be cradel take 
and bad, bai schuld nou3t be wrob, for bat litel childes sake, 
bo was bat siluer alle her owe : be tresore to hem bai gun take, 
40 anon bai were alle biknowe, hou bai fond bat litel knape. 

pat o fischer was riche of wele and hadde halle of lim and ston. 
bat ober was pouer and had children fele : gold no siluer hadde he 

babot toke [him] wib him to here ten marke, [whon he wente hom, 
heore counseil wel forte hele vndur foote so stille, as ston. 
45 pat obur mon he bitauhte forte 3eme] be litel grome 

and bad him telle for non au3t, in what maner he was ycome, 
bot sigge his doubter bat ich nau3t to here bat child for god aboue 
and bid be abot, 3if he mau3t, cristen him for godes loue. 

He tok bat child wibouten hete and bar it hom wibouten wrake, 
50 a wiman had he sone ygete him to here cristen to make, 
when be fisclier yeten hadde, no wold he no lenger late : 


to J>abot sone he ladde and fond him redi atte gate. 

pabot wist J^er of anou3 : it no was him noHng loK 
\>e fischer ban \>e child for> drou3 wib salt and wi^ \>e crismeclo^. 
55 ' mi douhter sent 30U Hs child to cristen it, wi>outen o>.' 
>abot I0U3, bat was milde, and wib hem to chirche he gob- 

pabot was cleped Gregorij : ber be child his name he toke. 
prest and clerk stode ber bi wib tapers li3t and holy boke. 
and be child feir and sleye he cristned in be salt flod, 
60 and sebben baren it vp an hey3e, offred it to be holy rod. 

pabot dede, so he schold, be clob he tok wele to hold 
[and be fo]ur mark of gold and be tables, bat ich of told, 
[be child was ful milde of] mode, in clobe fast bai gun him fold, 
[be fisschere was trewe] and god, be child he tok wele to hold. 


The Lay of Havelok, the Dane, ed. by the Rev. Walter W. Skeat, Lon- 
don, 1868, p. 1. Ms. at Oxford, Laud Ms. 108, fol. 204 r. 

Herknet to me, gode men, 

wiues, maydnes and alle men, 

of a tale, |)at ich you wile telle, 

wo so it wile here and ]>er to duelle. 
5 ]>e tale is of Hauelok imaked : 

wil he was litel, he yede ful naked. 

Hauelok was a ful god gome, 

he was ful god in eueri trome, 

he was pe wicteste man at nede, 
10 l^at jiurte riden on ani stede ; 

fat ye mowen nou yhere, 

and pe tale ye mowen ylere. 

at the beginning of vre tale 

fil me a cuppe of ful god ale, 
15 and wile drinken, her y spelle. 


])at Crist vs shilde alle fro helle. 

Krist late vs heuere so for to do,. 

))at we moten comen him to ; 

and, wit pat it mote ben so, 
20 benedicamus domino. 

here y schal biginnen a rym, 

Krist us yeue wel god fyn. 

the rym is maked of Hauelok, 

a stalworpi man in a flok : 
25 he was fe stalworj^este man at nede, 

]>at may riden on ani stede. 
It was a king bi aredawes, 

that in his time gode lawes 

dede maken an ful wel holden. 
30 hym louede yung, him louede holde, 

erl and barun, dreng and fayn, 

knict, bondeman and swain, 

wyiies, maydnes, prestes and clerkes, 

and al for hise gode werkes. 
35 he louede god with al his micth 

and holi kirke and soth ant ricth. 

ricthwise men he louede alle 

and oueral made hem forto calle. 

wreieres and wrobberes made he falle 
40 and hated hem, so man dotli galle. 

vtlawes and theues made he bynde 

alle, l^at he micthe fynde, 

and heye hengen on galwe tre : 

for hem ne yede gold ne fe. 

45 in ])at time a man, })at bore 


of red gold upon hijs bac 
in a male with or blac, 

* Madden supplies I. 46 : wel fyfty pundes (pund, Skeat), y wotTi, or more. 



ne funde he non, pat him misseyde 
50 ne with iuele on him hond leyde. 

fanne micthe chapmen fare 

))uruth Englond wit here ware 

and baldehke beye and sellen : 

oueral, per he wilen dwellen, 
55 in gode burwes and fer fram 

ne fundeu he non, ]?at dede hem sham, 

fat he ne weren sone to sorwe brouth 

an pouere maked and browt to nouth. 

])anne was Engelond at hayse : 
60 michel was svich a king to preyse, 

pat held so Englond in grith : 

Krist of heuene was him with. 

he was Engelondes blome. 

was non so bold lond to Rome, 
65 pat durste upon his bringhe 

hunger ne opere wicke pinghe. 

hwan he felede hise foos, 

he made hem lurken and crepen in wros : 

pe hidden hem alle and helden hem stilie 
70 and diden al his herte wille. 

ricth he louede of alle pinge, 

to wronge micht him no man bringe 

ne for siluer ne for gold : 

so was he his soule hold. 
75 to pe faderles was he rath : 

wo so dede hem wrong or lath, 

were it clerc or were it knicth, 

he dede hem sone to hauen ricth ; 

and, wo so dide widuen wrong, 
80 were he neure knicth so strong, 

pat he ne made him sone kesten 

in feteres and ful faste festen ; 

and, wo so dide mavdne shame 


of hire bodi or broiith in blame, 
85 bute it were bi hire wille, 

he made him sone of limes spille. 
he was te beste knith at nede, 
fat heuere micthe riden on stede 
or wepne wagge or folc vt lede. 
90 of knith ne hauede he neuere drede, 

])at he ne spiong forth, so sparke of glede. 
and lete him knawe of hise handdede, 
hw he coufe with wepne spede. 
and oper he refte him hors or wede 
95 or made him sone handes sprede 
and : ' louerd, merci ' loude grede. 
he was large and nowicth gnede : 
hauede he non so god brede 
ne on his bord non so god shrede, 

100 }7at he ne wolde porwit fede 
poure, pat on fote yede, 
forto hauen of him pe mede, 
J?at for vs wolde on rode blede, 
Crist, pat al kan wisse and rede, 

105 pat euere woneth in ani pede. 

pe king was hoten Apelwold : 
of word, of wepne he was bold, 
in Engeland was ueure knicth, 
pat betere hel pe loud to ricth. 

110 of his bodi ne hauede he e3T, 
bute a mayden swi] e fayr, 
fat was so yung, pat sho ne coupe 
gon on fote ne speke wit moupe. 
pan him tok an iuel strong, 

115 pat he wel wiste and underfong, 
patliis deth was comen him on, 
and seyde : ' Crist, wat shal y don ? 
louerd, wat shal me to rede ? 



i woth ful wel, ich haue mi mede : 
120 w shal nou mi douliter fare? 

of hire haue ich michel kare ; 

sho is mikel in mi pouth, 

of me self is me rith nowt. 

no selcouth is, fou me be wo : 
125 sho ne kan speke ne sho kan go. 

yif scho couj^e on horse ride 

and a thousande men bi hire syde 

and sho were comen intil helde 

and Engelond sho coupe welde 
130 and don hem of, par hire were queme, 

an hire bodi coupe yeme : 

ne wolde me neuere iuele like, 

pou ich were in heueneriche.' 

Quanne he hauede pis pleinte maked^ 
135 per after stronglike quaked, 

he sende writes sone onon 

after his erles euerich on 

and after hise baruns riche and poure 

fro Rokesburw al into Douere, 
140 pat he shulden comen swipe 

til him, pat was ful vnblipe, 

to pat stede, per he lay 

in harde bondes nicth and day. 

he was so faste wit yuel fest, 
145 pat he ne mouthe hauen no rest. 

he ne mouthe no mete hete, 

ne he ne mouchte no lype gete 

ne non, of his iuel pat coupe red : 

of him ne was nouth, buten ded. 
150 Alle, pat pe writes herden, 

sorful an sori til him ferden : 

he wrungen hondes and wepen sore 

and yerne prey den Cristes hore, 


Ipat he wolde turnen him 
155 vt of fat 3'uel, J>at was so grim. 

panne he weren comen alle 

bifor fe king into the halle 

at Winchestre, per he lay, 

' welcome,' he seyde, ' be ye ay : 
160 ful michel pank kan y yow, 

that ye aren comen to me now.' 
Quanne he weren alle set 

and pe king aueden igret, 

he greten and gouleden and gouen nem ille, 
165 and he bad hem alle ben stille 

and seyde : ' pat greting helpeth noiith, 

for al to dede am ich brouth. 
, bute, nov ye sen, pat i shal deye, 

nou ich wille you alle preye 
170 of mi douther, pat shal be 

yure leuedi after me : 

wo may yemen hire so longe, 

bopen hire and Engelonde, 

til pat she be wman of helde 
175 and pat she mowe yemen and welde?' 

he ansuereden and seyden anon 

bi Crist and bi seint Ion, 

pat perl Godrigh of Cornwayle 

was trewe man wituten faile, 
180 wis man of red, wis man of dede, 

and men haueden of him mikel drede : 

' he may hire alper beste 3'eme, 

til pat she mowe wel ben quene.* 




Cursor Mundi, A Northumbrian Poem of the XIV Century, ed. R. 
Morris (London 1874 ff.), pp. 1122 and 1595. Ms. Cotton Vesp. A 
III; Ms. of the College of Physicians in Edinburgh, which the text 
follows in orthography ; Fairfax 14 in the Bodl. Ms. theol. 107 at 
Gottingen ; Ms. R 3. 8 of Trinity College, Cambr. 

Saulus so3te aiquare and J^rette 

al ]>e cristin, he wi]> mette. 

of prince of prestis gat he leue, 

and ))areon purchaisid he a breue 
5 for to sek ba]:e up ande dune : 

if he mo3te finde in ani tun 

cristin man, he suld paim lede 

to lurselem, to prisun bede. 

als he wente ]ms to seke and aske 
10 tilwarde a tune, that hi3t Damaske, 

pe fir of heuin liauis him stund 

and bra]^eli befte unto ]?e grunde : 

blindfelde he was. als he sua lai, 

he herde a steuin |7us til him sai : 
15 ' Saul, Saul, ]m sai me nu, 

quarfore on me sua werrais tu ? ' 

' ande quat ertu, lauerd sua unsene?* 

' bot ic hat lesus Nazarene, 

pat tu werrais al, fat tu mai. 
20 bot vndirstande, fat i pe sai : 

it es to ])e oute ouir mi3te 

ogain ]?i stranger for to fi3te.' 

Saul him quoke, sua was he rad, 

forglopnid, in his mode al mad. 
25 ' sai me fan, lauerd, quat i sal do. 

J)i wil wil i do redi, loo.' 


* rise up and gange, )>e tun es nere : 

quat tu sal do, J^are saltu lere.' 

pe folc war ferde, pat wif him ferde : 

30 na man fai sa3, quat sum fai herde. 
of Saul herde fai wel fe steuin, 
bot no3te of ])at, ))at com fra heuin. 
blinde he ras up, als he mo3te, 
fat forwij? ]mn was blind in po3te. 

35 his eien opin bal>e hauid he, 

and ])03 a smitte mo3te he no3t se. 
al bUnd his men to tune him ledde, 
and III daiis liuid he ]?are unfed : 
nou]?er he ne ete fa III dais time, 

40 na he ne iwis mo3t se a stime. 
wi|>in ])ai III ni3te and fre daiis 
mikil he lerd, als sum men sais, 
of spelling, fat he sifin spac ; 
for of preching hauid he na make. 

45 In tune of Damnaske fat tim was 
a cristin, hi3te Ananias, 
to quam ur lauerd saide in si3te : 
'ga til a strete, fat suagat hi3te. 
in fat hus,' saide he, ' saltu finde 

50 Saul of TarL "are liggand blinde, 
liggand laid his heuid dune 
ai ifinlie in orisune.' 
Ananias him fan ansuerde : 
' lauerd,' he saide, ' ofte haue i herde 

53 of prisuning tel and of pine, 

fat he hauls wro3te to santis fine, 
and pouste hauls to do faim scam, 
til al, fat calls on fi name.' 
' do wai,' he saide, ' it nis no3te sua ; 

60 bot, fare i bid fe gange, fu ga. 
f u ga til him : he es me lele, 



and of mi chesing he es uessele 

for to knaw mi name and here 

bafe bifore king ande kaiser. 
65 baptizing ]7U sal liim bede, 

bot of ]>i lare hauis he na nede : 

his maistir of lare i selue sal be. 

and mikil sal he thole for me, 

himselue to pole parte of ]mt pine, 
70 ])at he did are to santis mine.' 
Ananias S03te sone J^at inne, 

and forsaide Saul he fand farein. 

and, quen he laide on him his hende, 

' Saul,' he saide, ' he me hauis sende, 
75 lesu, pat him kid to pe 

bi wai, to do pe for to se, 

wipin and oute to haue pi si3te 

and haue pe hali gastis mi3te.' 

scalis fel fra his eien awai, 
80 and hauid his si3te forpe fra pat dai. 

and, quen he hauid his baptim tane, 

he ete and dranke and couerid onane, 

to cristin men, als i 3U tel, 

in sinagoge bigan to spel, 
85 and pus sone pan wex he cup 

wip godis wordis of his mup. 

al, pat him herde, him wonderit on. 

ilkane saide : ' na es no3t gion 

he, pat we sa3 pis ender dai 
90 gain lesu name sua fast werrai? 

and parfore come he to pis tun 

at fotte pe cristin to prisune.' 
Saul him couerid in an stunde, 

pe iuwis fast gan he confunde 
95 and bad paim alle to lete and liste, 

pare was no god, bot lesu Criste. 


sa faste ]?e iuwis he wipstode, 
pat sare he mengit j^aim in mode, 
quarefore it was, pai toke |)aii' rede 

100 deriili sone do him to dede. 
pair redis parfor gan pal run 
w\p pe kepers of pat tune 
nichte or dai to waite pe time, 
quen pai mo3te come to mur])ir him. 

105 pe mair pan dide pe tune be gett, 
bot Paul it wist, pat he was ])rett, 
and in a lepe men lete him dune 
out ouir pe wallis of pe tune : 
wipoutin ani wonde or wemme 

110 he went him pan to Jerusalem, 
to pe apostlis he him bede, 
bot pai sumdel for him war drede 
and wende no3te giet in J)at siquare, 
pat sikirlic he cristin ware. 

115 bot Barnabas tipand paim talde 
and mad paim of his bunte balde, 
talde, hu Crist wip him gan mete 
and til him spac walcande bi strete, 
and hu he ne blenkid for na blame 

120 in Damaske to spel ur lauerdis nam. 





English Prose Treatises of R. R. de H. ed. by George G. Perry, London 
1866, p. 8, cf. Matzner, Altenglische sprachproben, 2, 126. Thornton 
Ms. (Lincoln Cathedral Library, A 5.2), fol. 194 r. 


The bee has thre kyndis. ane es, J^at scho es neuer 
ydill and scho es noghte with thaym, pat will noghte 
wyrke, bot castys thaym owte and puttes thaym awa3'e. 
a nothire es, ]>at, when scho Ayes, scho takes erthe in hyr 
5 fette, pat scho be noghte lyghtly ouerheghede in the 
ayere of wynde. the thyrde es, that scho kepes clene and 
brj'ghte hire wyngez. thus ryghtwyse men, ])at lufes god, 
are neuer in ydyllnes ; for owthyre pa}' ere in trauayle 
pray and or thynkande or redande or othere gude doande 

10 or withtakand ydill men and schewand thaym worthj^ to 
be put fra pe ryste of heuen, for pay will noghte trauayle 
here, pay take erpe, pat es, pay halde ])am selfe vile and 
erthel}", that thay be noghte blawen with pe wynde of 
vanyte and of pryde. thay kepe thaire wynges clene, that 

15 es, pe twa commandementes of chary te pay fulfill in gud 
coney ens, and thay hafe othyre vertus vnblendyde with 
]?e fylthe of syn and vnclene luste. 

Arestotill sais, pat pe bees are feghtande agaynes hym, 
pat will drawe paire hony fra tliaym : swa sulde we do 

20 agaynes deuells, pat afforces tham to reue fra vs pe hony 
of poure lyfe and of grace, for many are, ]^at neuer kane 
halde pe ordyre of lufe agaynes paire frendys sybbe or 
fremede, bot outhire pay lufe paym ouer mekill or thay 
lufe pam ouer lyttill settand thaire thoghte vnryghtwysely 

25 on thaym, or pay luf thaym ouer lyttill, yf );ay doo noghte 


all, as fey wolde till ]?ani. swylke kane noghte fyghte for 
thaire hony, for thy pe deuelle turnes it to wormes and 
makes peire saules ofte sythes full bitter in angwys and 
tene and besynes of vayne thoghtes and oper wrechidnes ; 

30 for thay are so heuy in erthely frenchype, pat fay may 
noghte flee in till fe lufe of lesu Criste, in fe wylke fay 
moghte wele forgaa fe lufe of all creaturs lyfande in 
erthe ; whare fore accordandly Arystotill sais, fat some 
fowheles are of gude fl3'ghyng, fat passes fra a lande to a 

35 nothire, some are of ill flyghynge for heuynes of body 
and, for faire neste es noghte ferre fra fe erthe. thus es 
it of thaym, fat turnes fam to godes seruys. some are of 
gude flyeghynge, for thay flye fra erthe to heuen and 
rystes thaym thare in thoghte and are fedde in delite of 

40 goddes lufe and has thoghte of na lufe of fe worlde. 
some are, fat kan noghte flyghe fra fis lande, bot in ];e 
waye late theyre herte ryste and delyttes faym in sere 
lufes of men and women, als fay come and gaa, nowe ane 
and nowe a nothire ; and in lesu Criste f a}^ kan fynde 

45 na swettnes, or, if fay any tym fele oghte, it es swa 
lyttill and swa schorte for othire thoghtes, fat are in 
thaym, fat it brynges thaym till na stabylnes ; or fay are 
tyke till a fowle, fat es callede strucyo or storke, fat has 
wenges, and it may noghte flye for charge of body : swa 

50 fay hafe vndirstandynge and fastes and wakes and 
semes haly to mens syghte, bot thay may noghte flye to 
lufe and contemplacyone of god : fay are so chargede 
wyth othyre afFecc3'ons and othire vanytes. — Explicit. 




Ed. by Richard Morris, London 1866, pp. 87, 191 and 238. Ms. in the 
Brit. Museum, Arundel 37, fol. 26r, 59 and 74. 


pe zofe noblesse com}> of ])e gentyle herte. vorzo))e non 
herte ne is gentyl, bote he louie god : ])anne ])er ue is non 
noblesse, bote to serui god an louye, ne vyleynye, bote 
ine l^e contrarie, fet is, god to wre]n and to do zenne. 
5 non ne ys ari3t gentyl ne noble of ]7e gentilesse of fe 
bodye ; vor ase to f e bodye alle we bye)) children of one 
moder, fet is, of erfe and of wose, huer of we nome alle 
uless and blod : of ]>o zide non ne is ari3t gentil ne vri. 
ac oure ri3te uader is k} ng of heuene, fet made fet body 

10 of ]>e erj)e and ssop ])e zaule to his anlycnesse an to his 
fourme. an, al ase hit is of fe uader ulesslich, fet mochel 
is bli};e, huanne his children him bye)) ylych, al zuo hit is 
of oure uader gostlich, ))et be wry tinges an be his zondes 
ne let na3t ous to somon}^ and bidde, \-et we zette payne 

15 to b}' him ilicli ; and )5eruore he ous zente his blissede 
zone lesu Crist in to er)7e uor to brenge ous ]>e zo))e 
uorbisne, huer by we bye)> yssape to his ymage and to 
his uayrhede, ase bye)? )^o, ))et wonye)) ine his he3e cite of 
heuene {pet bye)) ))e angles and ))e hal3en of paradis), 

20 huer ech is ))e more he3 and pe more noble, pe more pro- 
preliche ))et he ber)) ))e ilke uayre ymage ; and ))eruore ]>e 
holy man ine ))ise wordle de)) al his herte and al his payne 
to knawe god and louye and of hire herte alle zenne to 
wayuye. vor, ]>e more ]>et ]>e herte is clene and l^e uayrer, 

25 zuo moche he yzy3)) ))e face of lesu Crist pe more open- 
liche, and, ))e more ))et he his yzy3)) openliche, ):e more he 
him loue)) ))e stranglaker, ) e more he him likne)? propre- 


liche : and pet is pe zo]?e noblesse, J>et make]? ous godes 
zones, and peruore zayp ri3t wel saynd Ion J>e apostel, 

30 nor panne we ssolle b}' godes children, and we ssoUe by 
him 3'lich propreliche, huanne we him ssolle yzy, ase 
he ys, openliche. pet ssel by ine his bl3'sse, huanne we 
ssolle by ine parade's ; uor hyer ne Z3'p non onwry3e pe 
uayrhede of god, bote ase hit by ine ane ssewere, ase 

35 zayp sainte Panel ; vor panne we him ssolle yzy face to 
face clyerh'che. 

pe zope noblesse panne of man begynp hj'er be grace 
and be uertue and is uolueld ine blysse. pise noblesse 
makep pe holy gost ine herte, ])et he clenzep ine clennesse 

40 and aly3t ine zopnesse and uoluelp ine charite. pise byep 
pe pri greteste guodes, pet god yefp pe angles, ase zayp 
saint Denys, huer by hy bj'ep yliche to hare sseppere. and 
pus workep pe holy gost ine pe herten of guode men be 
grace and be uertue, huer by hy byep ymad to pe ymage 

45 and to pe anlycnesse of god, ase hit may b\^ ine pise lyue. 
uor he his arerep zuo ine god and his beclepp zuo ine his 
loue, pet. al hare wyl and al hare onderstondinge is, pet is 
. . . pet is hare bepenchinge, pet is ywent ine god, pis loue 
and pis wylnynge, pet ioynep and onep zuo pe herte to 

50 god, pet he ne may oper ping wylny, oper, panne god 
wyle (uor hi ne habbep betuene god and ham bote onlepi 
wyl) ; and panne to pe 3'mage and to pe anliknesse of 
god, ase me may habbe in er];e ; and pet is pe gratteste 
noblesse and pe he3este gentilesse, pet me may to hopye 

55 and cliue. 

A god, hou hy b3'ep uer uram pise he3nesse, po pet 
makep ham zuo qua3'nte of pe ilke poure noblesse, pet hi 
habbep of hare moder, pe erpe, pet berp and nor3'ssep 
azewel pe hogges, ase hy dep pe kinges. and hy ham 

GO yelpep of hare gentylete, uor pet hy wenep by of gentile 
woze, and pe ilke kenrede Iw conne ri3t wel telle, and pe 

48, About twenti/ letters erased. 



o|7re zyde hy ne loke]) 11113 1, huer of ham comp pe zofe 
noblesse and pe gentil kenrede. liy ssolden loki to hare 
zof e uorbysne lesu Crist, fet mest louede and worssipede 

65 his moder, Jeanne eure dede eny ofer man, and alneway, 
huanne me him zede : ' sire, pi moder and ]?i cosyn fe 
aksef,' he ansuerede : ' huo ys my moder, and huo bye]? 
myne cosynes? huo pet de]> ]e wyl of myne uader of 
heiiene, he is my broker and my zoster and my moder.' 

70 vor pis is pe noble zyde and pe gentyl kende, per of comp 
and wext ine herte zope blisse, ase of pe opren ydele 
noblesse wext prede and ydele blisse. 

Of uertue of merci. 

Efterward per wes a poure man, ase me zayp, pet hedde 
ane cou, and yhyerde zigge of his preste ine his pre- 

75 chinge, pet god zede ine his spelle, pet god wolde yelde 
anhondreduald al, pet me yeauc uor him. pe guode man 
mid pe rede of his wyue yeaf his cou to his preste, pet 
wes riche. pe prest his nom blepeliche and liise zente to 
pe opren, pet he hedde. po hit com to eueu, pe guode 

80 mannes cou com to his house, ase hi wes ywoned, and 
ledde mid hare alle pe prestes ken al to an hondred. po 
pe guode man yse3 pet, he p03te, pet pet wes pet word of 
pe godspelle, pet he hedde yyolde ; and him hi weren 
yloked beuore his bissoppe aye pane prest. pise uorbisne 

85 ssewep wel, pet merci is guod chapuare ; uor hi dep wexe 
pe timliche guodes. 


Me ret ine Hues of holy uaderes, pet an hoi}' man 
tealde, hou he com to by monek, and zede, hou pet he hedde 
yby ane payenes zone, pet wes a prest to pe momenettes ; 
90 and, po he wes a child, on time he yede into pe temple 
mid his uader priueliche. per he yze3 ane gratne dyeuel, 
pet zet ope ane uyealdinde stole, and al his ma3'ne aboute 


him. per com on of ]>g princes and leat to him. fo he him 

aksede, fe ilke, pet zet ine pe stole, huannes he com, and 

95 he ansuerede, pet he com uram ane londe, huer he hedde 

arered and ymad manye werren and manye vi3 tinges, zuo 

pet moche uolk weren yssla3e and moche blod per yssed. 

pe mayster him acsede, ine hou moche time he hedde pet 

ydo, and he ansuerede : ' ine pritti da3es.' he him zede : 

100 ' ine zuo moche time hest zuo lite ydo?' po he het, pet 

ha wer ri3t wel ybeate and euele ydra3e. efter pan com 

anoper, pet alsuo to him leat, ase pe uerste. pe mayster 

him acsede, huannes ha com. he ansuerede, pet he com 

uram pe ze, huer he hedde ymad manye tempestes, uele 

105 ssipes tobroke and moche uolk adreynct. pe maister 

acsede : ' ine hou long time ? ' he ansuerede : ' ine tuenti 

da3es.' he zayde : ' ine zuo moche time hest zuo lite 

ydo?' efterward com pe pridde, pet ansuerede, pet he com 

uram ane cite, huer he hedde yby at ane bredale, and 

110 per he hedde arered and ymad cheastes and strifs, zuo 

pet moche uolk per were ysla3e, and per to he hedde 

ysla3e pane hosebounde. pe maister him acsede, hou 

long time he zette pet uor to done, he ansuerede, pet ine 

ten da3es. po he het, pet he were wel ybyate, uor pet he 

115 hedde zuo longe abide pet to done wipoute more, ate 

lasten com an oper touore pe prince, and to him he bea3. 

and he him acsede : ' huannes comst pou?' he ansuerede, 

pet he com uram pe ermitage, huer he hedde 3'by uourti 

yer uor to uondi ane monek of fornicacion, pet is pe 

120 zenne of lecherie, ' and zuo moche ich habbe ydo, pet 

ine pise ny3t ich hine habbe ouercome and ydo him ualle 

in to pe zenne.' po Ihip op pe mayster and him keste 

and beclepte and dede pe coroune ope his heued an dede 

him zitte bezide him, and to him zede, pet he hedde 

125 grat ping ydo and grat prowesse. po zayde pe guode 

man, pet, huanne he hedde pet yhyerd and pet yzo3e, 

he p03te, pet hit were grat ping to by monek ; and be po 

encheysoun he becom monek. 




Early English Alliterative Poems ed. by R, Morris, London, 2nd Edi- 
tion, 1869, p. 91. Ms. in Brit. Mus., Nero A X, fol. 83. 

Hit bitydde sum tyme in J?e termes of lude, 
lonas ioyned watz fer inne ientyle prophete : 
goddes glam to hym glod, )>at hym vnglad made, 
with a roghlych rurd rowned in his ere. 

65 ' rys radly,' he says, ' and rayke forth euen : 
nym Ipe way to Nynyue wythouten o]7er speche 
and in pat cete my sa3es sogh alle aboute, 
|)at in fat place at f e poynt i put in ]>i hert ; 
for iwysse hit arn so wykke, |)at in ))at won dowellez, 

70 and her malys is so much, i may not abide, 
bot venge me on her vilanye and venym bilyue. 
now swe3e me fider swyftly and say me J>is arende.' 

When fat steuen watz stynt, fat stowned his mynde, 
al he wrathed in his wyt, aijd wyferly he f03t : 

75 ' if i bowe to his bode and bryng hem f is tale 
and i be nummen in Nuniue, my n3'es begynes. 
he telles me, fose traytoures arn typped schrewes : 
if i com wyth pose tyfynges, fay ta me bylyue, 
pynez me in a prysoun, put me in stokkes, 

80 wryfe me in a warlok, wrast out myn y3en. 
fis is a meruayl message a man for to preche 
amouge enmyes so mony and mansed fendes, 
bot if my gaynlych god such gref to me wolde 
for desert of sum sake, fat i slayn were. 

85 at alle peryles,* quod f e prophete, ' i aproche hit no nerre. 
i wyl me sum of er waye, fat he ne wayte after : 

62, watz : Morris gives each 3 according to the Ms., but the text gives 3 
^r z according to the force of the character. 


i schal tee iu to Tarce and tary pere a whjle, 
and ly3tly, when i am lest, he letes me alone.' 
penne he ryses radly and raykes bilyue, 
90 lonas, toward port laph ay ianglande for tene, 
fat he nolde J^ole for no ]>yng non of }70se pynes : 
fa3 Ipe fader, fat hym formed, were fale of his hele, 
' oure syre syttes, he says, ' on sege so hy3e 
in his glowande glorye and gloumbes ful lyttel, 
95 ])a3 i be nummen in Nuniue and naked dispoyled, 
on rode rwly torent with rybaudes mony.' 
}ms he passes to fat port his passage to seche : 
fyndes he a fayr schyp to fe fare redy, 
maches h3-m with ]>e maryneres, makes her paye 

100 for to towe hym in to Tarce, as tyd as fay my3t. 
then he tron on fo tres, and fay her tramme rucheu, 
cachen vp fe crossayl, cables fay fasten, 
wi3t at fe wyndas we3en her ankres, 
sprude spak to fe sprete fe spare bawe lyne, 

105 gederen to fe gyde ropes, fe grete clof falles, 

thay layden in on ladde borde and f e lofe wynnes. 
fe blyfe breje at her bjik fe bosum he fyndes, 
he swenges me fys swete schip swefte fro fe hauen. 
Watz neuer so ioyful a lue, as lonas watz fenne, 

110 fat fe daunger of dry3tyn so derfly ascaped : 

he wende wel, fat fat wy3, fat al fe world planted, 
hade no ma3t in fat mere no man forto greue. 
lo f e wytles wrechche, for he wolde no3t suffer, 
now hatz he put hym in plyt of peril wel more. 

115 hit watz a wenyng vnwar, fat welt in his mynde, 
fa3 he were so3t fro Samarj^e, fat god se3 no fyrre : 
3ise, he blusched ful brode, fat burde hym by sure ; 
fat ofte kyd hym fe carpe, fat kyng sayde, 
dyngne Dauid on des, fat demed fis speche 

120 in a psalme, fat he set fe sauter withinne : 
' o folez in folk, felez of er whyle 


and viiderstondcs vmbe stounde, 1 113 30 be stape fole : 

hope 36, pat he heres not, pat eres alle made? 

hit may not be, pat he is blynde, pat bigged vche y3e.' 

125 bot he dredes no dynt, pat dotes for elde, 

for he watz fer in pe flod foundande to Tarce ; 
bot i trow, ful tyd ouertan pat he were, 
so pat schomely to schort he schote of his ame. 
for pe welder of wyt, pat wot alle pynges, 

130 pat ay wakes and waytes, at wylle hatz he sly3tes. 
he calde on pat ilk crafte, he carf with his hondes : 
pay wakened wel pe wropeloker, for wropely he cleped : 
' Ewrus and Aquiloun, pat on est sittes, 
blowes bope at my bode vpon bio watteres.' 

135 penne watz no torn per bytwene his tale and her dede : 
so ba3'n wer pay bope two his bone for to wyrk. 
anon out of pe norp est pe noys bigynes : 
when bope brepes con bio we vpon bio watteres, 
ro3 rakkes per ros with rudnyng anvnder, 

140 pe see sou3ed ful sore, gret selly to here, 

pe wyndes on pe wonne water so wrastel togeder, 
pat pe wawes ful wode waltered so hi3e 
and efte busched to pe abyme, pat breed fysches, 
durst nowhere for ro3 arest at pe bothem. 

145 when pe breth and pe brok and pe bote metten, 
hit watz a ioyles gyn, pat lonas watz inne ; 
for hit reled on roun vpon pe ro3e ypes. 
pe bur ber to hit baft, pat braste alle her gere, 
pen hurled on a hepe pe helme and pe sterne, 

150 furst tomurte mony rop and pe mast after. 

pe sayl sweyed on pe see, penne suppe bihoued 
pe coge of pe colde water, and penne pe cry ryses. 
3et coruen pay pe cordes and kest al per oute : 
mony ladde per forth lep to laue and to kest, 

155 scopen out pe scapel water, pat fayn scape wolde : 
for, be monnes lode neuer so luper, pe lyf is ay swete. 




The • Gest Hystoriale ' of the Destruction of Troy ed. by the Rev. Geo. 
A, Pan ton, and David Donaldson, London, 1869 and 1874, p. 1. Ms. 
in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow. 


Maistur in mageste, maker of alle, 

endles and on, euer to last, 

now, god, of Jn grace grauut me ])i helpe 

and wysshe me with wyt ] is werke for to ende. 
o off aunters, ben olde, of aunsetris nobill 

and slydyn vppon slilepe by slomer^ng of age, 

of stithe men in stoure, strongest in armes 

and wisest in wer to wale in lior tyme, 

]>at ben drepit with detli, and j-ere day paste, 
10 and most out of mynd for ];ere mecull age, 

sothe stories ben stoken vp and straught out of mynde 

and swolowet into swym by swif tenes of yeres 

for new, J^at ben now next at our bond, 

breuyt into bokis for boldyng of hertis, 
15 on lusti to loke with lightnes of wille 

cheuyt throughe chaunce and chaungyng of peopuU, 

sum tru for to traist triet in ]>e ende, 

sum feynit o fere and ay false vnder. 

yche wegh, as he will, warys his t^^me 
20 and has lykyug to lerne, }?at hym list after, 

but olde stories of stithe, pat astate helde, 

may be solas to sum, j^at it segh neuer, 

be writyng of wees, j^at wist it in dede, 

with sight for to serche of hom, j^at suet after, 
25 to ken all the crafte, how pe case felle, 

by lokyng of letturs, ]iat lefte were of olde. 


Now of Troy forto telle is 1113^1 entent enjn, 
of the stoure and pe stiyffe, when it distroyet was 
]7of fele yeres ben faren, syn f e fight endid, 

30 and it meuyt out of mynd, myn hit i thinke, 
alss wise men haue writen the wordes before, 
left it in latyn for lernyng of vs. 
but sum poyetes full prist, j^at put hom ])erto, 
with fablis and falshed fayned j^ere speche 

35 and made more of pat mater, pan hom maister were : 
sum lokyt ouer litle and lympit of the sothe. 
amonges pat menye (to myn hym be nome) 
Homer was holden haithill of dedis, 
qwiles his dayes enduret, derrist of other, 

40 pat with the Grekys was gret and of Grice comyn : 
he feynet myche fals, was neuer before wroght, 
and turnet pe truth : trust ye non other ! 
of his trifuls to telle i haue no tome nowe 
ne of his fey nit fare, pat he fore with, 

45 how goddis foght in the filde, folke as pai were, 
and other errours vnable, ])at after were knowen, 
that poyetis of prise have preuyt vntrew : 
Ouyde and othir, ]'at onest were ay, 
Virgille );e virtuus verrit for nobill, 

50 thes dampned his dedys and for dull holdyn. 
but pe truth for to telle and pe text euyn 
of pat fight, how it felle in a few yeres, 
pat was clauly compilet with a clerk wise, 
on Gydo, a gome, pat graidly hade soght, 

55 and wist all pe werks by weghes he hade, * 
that bothe were in batell, while the batell last, 
and euper sawte and assembly see with pere een. 
thai wrote all pe werkis wroght at pat tyme 
in letturs of pere langage, as pai lernede hade. 

60 Dares and Dytes were dul}^ pere nara}^ : 
Dites full dere was dew to the Grekys, 


a lede of j^at lond and logede horn with ; 
the tother was a tulke out of Troy selfe, 
Dares, fat duly the dedys behelde. 

65 aither breuyt in a boke on fere best wise, 
that sithen at a site somyn were founden, 
after at Atthenes, as aunter befell ; 
the whiche bokis barely bothe, as fai were, 
a Eomayn ouerraght and right horn hym seluyn, 

70 that Cornelius was cald to his kynde name, 
he translated it into latyn for likyng to here, 
but he shope it so short, fat no shalke might 
haue knowlage, by course how fe case felle ; 
for he brought it so breff and so bare leuyt, 

75 fat no lede might have likyng to loke ferappon, 
till fis Gydo it gate, as hym grace felle, 
and declaret it more clere and on clene wise, 
in this shall faithfully be founden to the fer ende 
all fe dedis by dene, as fai done were, 

80 how f e groundis first grew (and f e grete hate) 
bothe of torfer and tene, fat horn tide aftur. 
and here fynde shall ye f aire of f e felle peopuU, 
what kyngis fere come of costis aboute, 
of dukes full doughty and of derffe erles, 

85 that assemblid to f e citie fat sawte to defend ; 

of f e Grekys, fat were gedret, how gret was f e nowmber, 
how mony knightis fere come and kyngis enarmede, 
and what dukis thedur droghe for dedis of were, 
what shippes fere were shene and shalkis within, 

90 bothe *of barges and buernes, fat broght were fro Grese, 
and all the batels on bent fe buernes betwene, 
what duke fat was dede throughe dyntis of bond, 
who fallen was in fylde and how it fore after, 
bothe of truse and trayne f e truthe shalt f u here 

95 and all the ferlies, fat fell vnto the ferre ende. 
fro this prologe i passe and part me f erwith : 


frayne will i fer and fraist of ]?ere werkis, 
meue to my mater and make here an ende. 
Explicit Prologue. 



The Edition of Prof. Skeat, I. (London, 1870), 105. Cambridge Ms. 
(St. John's College, of the date, 1487) fol. 34 ; Edinburgh Ms. (of the 
date, 1489); Hart's Edition, 1616, The text has \> in place of Skeat's 
th in italics, for y in the Ms. 

pis wes in were, qulien vyntir tyde 

vith his blastis hydwiss to byde 

wes ourdriffin and byrdis smale, 

as thristill and };e nychtingale, 
5 begouth rycht meraly to syng 

and for to mak in ]?air synging 

syndry notis and soundis sere 

and melody plesande to here ; 
^ and ]>e treis begouth to ma 

10 burgeonys and brycht blwmys alsua 

to vyn ])e heliug of far hevede, 

fat vikkit vyntir had fame revede, 

and all gressis begouth to spryng : 

in to fat tyme f e nobill king 
15 vith his flot and a few men3e 

(thre hundiT, i trow, fai mycht weill be) 

wes to f e se furth of Arane 

a litill forrow fe evyn gane. 

fai rowit fast with all far mycht, 
20 till fat apon fame fell fe nycht, 

fat it wox myrk on gret manere, 


swa fat fai wist nocht, quhar ]>sii were 
for ]?ai na nedill had na stane, 
bot rowit alwayis in till ane 

25 stemmand alwayis apon fe fyre, 
fat fai saw byroand licht and schire. 
it wes bot auentur, fat fame led, 
and fai in schort tym swa fame sped, 
fat at fe fyre arivit fai, 

30 and went to land but mair delay, 
and Cuthbert, fat has seyn fe fyre, 
wes full of angir and of ire, 
for he durst nocht do it avay, 
and he wes alsua doutand ay, 

35 fat his lord suld pass f e se ; 
f arfor fair cummyng vatit he 
and met fame at fair ariving. 
he wes weill soyne brocht to f e king, 
fat sperit at hym, how he had done, 

40 and he with sair hert tald him sone, 
how fat he faud nane weill willand, 
bot all war fais, fat euir he fand, 
and at f e lord ]?e Persy 
with neir thre hundreth in cumpany 

45 wes in f e castell far besyde 
fulfillit of dispit and pride, 
bot mair, fan twa part, of his rout 
war herbreit in fe toune f arout, 
' and dispisis 30W mair, sehir king, 

50 fan men may dispiss ony thing.' 
fan said f e kyng in full gret ire : 
' tratour, quhy maid f ou on ]:e fyre ? * 
' a schir,' he said, ' sa god me se, 
fat fyre wes neuir maid on for me, 

55 na or f is nycht i wist it nocht, 
bot.( fra i wist it, weill i thocht, 


)}at 3he and lialy 30ur men3he 

in liy suld put 30W to ])q se. 

for])i i com to meit 30W her 
60 to tell peralis, j^at may aper.* 

Ipe king wes of his spek angry 

and askit his preue men in hy, 

quhat at, pame thoucht, wes best to do. 

schir Eduard ferst ansuerd ]jar to, 
65 his brofir, j^at wes so hardy, 

and said : ' i say 30W sekirly, 

far sail na peralis, pat may be, 

dryve me eftsonis to pe se : 

myne auenture heir tak will i, 
70 quhepir it be eisfull or angry.' 

' bropir,' he said, ' sen |)ou vill sa, 

it is gud, ]>at we sammyn ta 

disess or ese, pyne or play, 

eftir as god will vs purvay. 
75 and, sen men sais, ]?at pe Persy 

myne heritage will occupy, 

and his men3e sa neir vs lyis, 

pat vs dispisis mony viss, 

ga we wenge sum of ]>e dispit, 
80 and pat we may haf don als tit ; 

for pai ly trastly but dreding 

of vs and of our heir cummyng. 

and, pouch we slepand slew thaim all, 

repreif vs parof na man sail ; 
85 for veriour na fors suld ma, 

quhepir he mycht ourcum his fa 

throu strynth or throu sutelte, 

bot at gud fath ay haldin be.' 

Quhen pis wes said, pai went pare way, 
90 and till pe toun soyn cumin ar thai 

sa preuely bot noyss making. 


pat nane persauit }>air cummyng, 
]?ai scalit throu pe toune in hy 
and brak vp dures sturdely 
95 and slew all, pat pai mycht ourtak ; 
and pai, pat na defens mycht mak, 
full pitwisly couth rair and cry, 
and pai slew pame dispitwisly, 
as pai, pat war in to gud will 

100 to wenge pe angir and pe ill, 

pat pai and pairis had to paim vrocht : 
pai with so felloun will paim socht, 
pat pai slew pame euirilkane 
outtak Makdowall hym allane, 

105 pat eschapit throu gret slicht 

and throu pe myrknes of pe nycht. 

In pe castell pe lorde Persy 
herd weill pe noyis and pe cry ; 
sa did pe men, pat within wer, 

110 and full effraytly gat pair ger : 
but off paim wes nane sa hardy, 
pat euir ischyt fourth to pe cry. 
in sic afray pai baid pat nycht 
till on pe morn, pat day wes licht, 

115 and pan cesit in to party 

pe noyis, slauchtir and pe cry. 
the king gert be departit pen 
all haill pe reif amang his men 
and duelt all still pair dais thre. 

120 sic hansell to pe folk gaf he 
richt in pe first begynnyng 
newly at his ariwyng. 




Sir Ferumbras edited by Sidney J. Herrtage (London, 1879), p. 42. Ms. 
in Oxford, Ashmole 33, fol. 15 r. 

Tome we a3en in tour sawes and speke we atte frome 
1105 of erld Olyuer and his felawes, )>at Sarazyns habbej? ynome. 

>e Sarazyns prykya> f aste away, as harde as >ay may hye, 

and ledej? wij? hymen bat riche pray, >e flour of chyualarye. 

by hilles and roches swy]>e horrible on hur cors My wente, 

and, er >ay come to Mantrible, neuere Hy ne astente. 
1110 ouer )?e brigge J?ay gunne ride, j^at was ful huge of lengthe, 

in >e cite ^at ny3t to abyde, to kep hem \>er in strengthe. 

wij? hure prisouns bay comen in, bat were ytake be chaunce : 

be dra3tbrigge was drawe vp after hem for drede of be host of 

sone bay ryse vpon be morwe, and to Egremoygne bay toke be 
way : 
1115 god kepe be prisouns out of sorwe, for earful bay were bat day, 

wanne bay come to be castel 3ate, hure homes bay blewe f aste ; 

be porter alredi was ber ate and let hym in an haste, 
pe heghe amerel, sir Balan, bat was on his halle an he3, 

faste byder banne he ran^ wanne he hymen come yse3, 
1120 and wib hem al so sir Lamazour, a kyng of hebene londe, 

and, wan bay comen doun of be tour, after tydyngges bay gunne 
to fonde. 
Bruillant, be kyng of Mountmirree, of is stede him li3te adoun, 

ban amyral banne saluede hee in be name of sire Mahoun. 

be amyral of hym axeth sone, wat tydynge bay had ybro3t : 
1125 ' tel bou hem me ri3t anone, and for no byng hele bou no3t. 

haue 3e taken duk Roland and Olyuer, his felawe, 

and wyb Charlis fo3t wyb hand and hys dobbepers aslawe? * 
* Nay,' seyb he, * by seynt Mahoun, it is no3t, as 3e sayn. 

we bub discomfyt and sleyn adoun wib be kyng Charlemayn; 
1130 and by sone, sir Fyrumbras, bat fau3t with a kny3t of Fraunce, 

be name ne know y no3t, wat he was, ac bar is betid a chaunce, 

bat Fyrumbras by him ys ouercome, as bay fo3te in felde, 

and to cristendom hab him nome and to Charlis kyng is 3elde.' 


Wan )je amyral ha)> iherd J?e kyng, in sowenyng gan he falle, 
] 135 ac, wan he awok of his so3nyng, loude he gan to calle 

and wrong ys hondes and saide : * alas, ys my sone ynome ? 
my ioye ys lost for Fyrumbras : wat man is he bicome 1 

Alas, what sorwe ha> he don, l^at was so hardy and wi3t, 
>at he was encombred so for on to yeld him to such a kny3t ? 
1140 V. hundred y saw a3en him gon, and he slow alle in fi3t, 
and now ys he take among is fon : ylost ys al my mi3t. 
and, if he is turnd to cristene lay, alas, banne is hit wors : 
leuere me were, by my fay, he were todrawe wy}> hors.' 
pe amyral saide >anne a3eyn : • tel me, what is \>e kny3t, 
1145 >at was so mi3ty man of mayn to ouercome my sone in fi3t 1 ' 
Bruyllant saide : * so mot y J^ryue, l^es moste man in si3t, 
l>at stent ibounde among hem vyue her byfore 30W ri3t.' 

' Aha,' qua]? he, * is ]>es ]pe }>ef ? >e deuel him mote forgna3e, 
bat ouercom my sone, }?at was me lef, and bro3t him to is lawe ! 
1150 by Mahoun, hat is my god in pref, ne schal y no3t be fa we, 
er y sen him haue mischef, anhanged and todrawe.' 

Wan \>a.y herd him >rete Hs, >e Frenschemen, >ar l>ay stode, 
Olyuer saide : ' help, lesus, J^at bo3test ous wii> \>y blode ! 
and, felawes,' he saide, * confortia]? 30W wel, and for no3t, )?at 
may befalle, 
1155 J>at non of ous is name ne tel, auysyej? 30W wel with alle. 
for, wiste >e ameral sykerly, of J>e do)>)>epers >at we ware, 
for al ]>e gold in cristenty non of ous wolde he spare, 
bat we ne scholde to debe gon, be hangid and todrawe, 
ouber be demembrid euerechoun and bro3t of lyues dawe.* 


Ratis Raving and Other Moral and Religious Pieces ed. by J. Rawson 
Lumby, London, 1870, p. 1. Ms. in the University Library at Cambr., 
Kk 1, 5, fol. 1. 

Sen the passage of this vrechit warlde, the quhilk is 
callit dede, semys harde perelus ande rycht liorreble to 
mon}' men alanerly for the wnknawlage, at thai have 


thare of, tharfore this lytill tret}^, the quhilk is callyt 
5 ^ The craft of deyng,' is to be notyde and scharply coii- 
sederyt to thaim, that are put in the fechtinge of dede ; 
for to ])aim ande to al vthire folk it may awaill rycht 
mekle till have a gude ende, the quhilk makis a werk per- 
fyte, as the ewill end wndois al gud werk before wrocht. 

10 the fyrst chepture of this trety begynnys of the com- 
mendacioune of dede. fore ded, as hal}^ wryt sais, is 
maist terreble of al thing, that may be thocht. ande, in sa 
mekle as the saull is mare precious and worthy, than the 
body, in sa mekle is the ded of it mare perulus and 

15 doutable to be tholyt. ande the ded of synfuU man but 
sufficiant repentans is euer ill, as the dede of gude men, 
how soding or terreble at euer it be, is gude and precious 
before gode. for the dede of gude men is nocht ellis, bot 
the pasing of personis, retwrnynge fra banasynge, offput- 

20 yng of a full hevy byrdinge, end of all seknes, eschevyng 
of perellys, the terme of all ill, the brekinge of al bandy s, 
the payment of naturell det, the agan cumynge to the 
kynde lande ande the entering to perpetuall ioy and wel- 
fare, and tharfor the day of ded o neide men is better, 

25 than the da}' of thar byrthe. and sa thai, that ar all weill 
schrewyne and deis in the faithe ande sacramentis of haly 
kyrk, how wyolently at euer thai dee, thai suld nocht 
dreid thare ded. fore he, that valde weill de, suld giaidly 
dee and conforme his wyll to the wyll of gode ; for, sen 

30 vs behwys all de o neid and we wat nojer the tyme nor 
the sted, we suld resaue it giaidly, that god and nature has 
ordanyt, and gruclie nocht thar wyth, sen it may nocht 
be eschewyt. for god, at ordanyt ded, ordanyt it fore the 
best, ande he is mare besy fore our gud, than we our self 

35 can ore may be, sen we ar his creaturys and handewerkis. 
and tharfore al men, that wald weill de, suld leir to de, 
the quhilk is nocht ellys, bot to have hart and thocht euer 
to god and ay be reddy to resaue the ded but ony mur- 


mwr, as he, that baide the cumyne of his frend, and this 
50 is the craft, that al kynd of man suld be besye to study 
in, that is to say, to have his lyf, how velthye or pure 
that it be, takyne in paciens [that gode sendis]. 



litzungsberichte der Phil.-Hist. cl. der Kais. Academie der Wiss. 
(Berlin), LXXIV. p. 661, which uses Laud 683, at Oxford. The 
text uses, besides the above, Harley 7333, Lansdowne 699 and Trin- 
ity Coll. Cambr., R. 3. 21. 

59. This thyng confermed by promys ful roiall 
passed the boundys and subbarbys of the toun. 
at a cros, that stood feer from the wall, 

ful devoutly the pilgrym knelith doun 
5 to sette a syde all suspecyoun : 

' m}" lord,' quod he, 'of feith withouten blame, 
your lyge man of humble affeccyoun ; 
Guy of Warwyk trewly is my name.' 

60. The kyng astoned gan chaunge cher and face 
and in maner gan wepyn for gladnesse 

and al attonys he gan hym to enbrace 
in bothe his armes of royall gentylnesse 
5 with offte kyssyng of feithfuU kyndenesse, 
with grete profifres on the tother syde 
of gold, of tresour and of gret rychesse, 
withinne his palejs yif he wolde abyde. 

61. Alle thes profres meekly he forsook 
and to the kynges royall mageste 

hym recomaundyng anoon his weie he took, 
at his departyng this avouli maad he 


with pitous wepyng knelyng on his kue 
vn to the kyng in full humble entent : 
' duryng my lyf, it may noon other bee, 
schall i neuer doon of this garnement.' 

62. At ther departyng was but smal langage : 
sweem of ther speche made interupcyoun. 
the kyng goth hom, GCiy took his vyage 
toward Warwyk, his castell and his toun, 

no man of hymhauyngsuspecyoun, 
where day be day Felyce, his trewe wyf, 
fedde poore folk of greet devocyoun 
to praie for hir and for hir lordys lyf 

63. Thrittene in noumbre, myn auctour write th so. 
Guy at his corny ng forgrowe in his vysage, 

thre daies space he was oon of tho, 

that took almesse, with humble and louh corage : 

thankyng the contesse in haste took his viage. 

nat fer fro Warwyk, the cronycle doth expresse, 

of aventure kam to an hermytage, 

where he fond on d welly ng in wyldirnesse. 

64. To hym he drouh besechyng hym of grace 
for a tyme to holde there soiour. 

the same hermyte withinne a lytel space 
by deth is passed the fyn of his labour ; 
afifter whos day Guy was his successour 
space of too 3'eer by grace of Cryst lesu 
dauntyng his flessh by penaunce and rigour, 
ay more and more encresyng in vertu. 


[For abbreviations and explanations see the end of the book.] 

a, ME. intrj.^ [cry of sudden emo- 
tion^ cf. ic. ae] (OF. a <L. ah, 
Gk. a) ahf 

a V. dn, 69", of, or.. 

d, ME. a, o, 00, av., [<*dw 
(174. 3) not <gfe, law] (cf. Gk. 
del, Goth, aiw, OS. OHG. eo, 
MHG. G. ie, je) Ever, always; 
AYE (<Ic. ei, Sk. 425 a). 

d-, intens. pref. (121), (Goth, us-, 
OS. or-, a-, OHG. G. ur-, er-) 
orig. out, away. 

aac V. ac. 

abbay, s6., [<AF. abbeie, Sk. II. 
48. 1, <eccl. L. abbat-ia <abbat- 
em, V. abot] abbey. 

abbudisse, wf.., [<eccl. L. ab- 
bad-issa, /. < abbat-em, v. abot] 
ABBESS (<AF. Sk. II. 48. 1). 

a-beh v. dbugan. 

d-bidan, ME. abide, abyde, 3 sg. 
prs. ind. a bit (359. 3), ME. pp. 
abide, s. 1, abide, await, expect, 

a-biggen v. dbycgan. 

d-bitan, ME. abite, s. 1, bite (to 
death), devour XIV. 14. 

d-blendan, prt. 2)1. dblendon 
XIV. 79, ME. sg. ablende, iv. 1. 
Ifac. <blind] (cf OHG. blen- 
ten, MHG. G. blenden, NE. 
blend t ) make blind. 

abot, sh. (10), [<eccl. L. abbat- 
em, ace, <Gk. djSjSds <Aram. 
abba, father, Sk. II. 302 ; A. V. 
Rom. viii. 15] abbot. 

aboute v. onbAtan. 

above v. abufan. 

d-bregdan ,j)ri.dbraegdV.2931, 

ME. abreide, s. 3. D (389), re- 
move, withdraw quickly, draw 
(sword), brandish. 

a-bufaii, ME. above, av. prp., 
[=on-f-bufan] above, over. 

d-bAgan, ME. abu3e, abouwe, prt. 
abeh, s. 2, bow (one'^s self). 

a-buten, abuton v. onb6taii. 

d-bycgan, ME. abiggen, w. 1 C, 
buy (off), pay, atone, a6yet. 

a-byde v. dbidan. 

abyine, sb., [< OF. abime <ML. 
supl. *abissimus < L. abyssus < 
Gr. d^va-a-os, without bottom, < 
d-p7'iv.-\- ^va-ads, depth'] abysm^, 
abyss, Sk. II. 260. 

ac, ah, ME. ac, ace, hac, ah, ach, 
?aac, cj., (Goth, ak, OS. ac, OHG. 
oh) but; ahne, interr. particle, 
not ? why f 

accordandly, av., [<0F. acor- 
dant-, (<ML. accordan(t-)s, 
prs. ptc, < accordare, Agree, < L. 
ad, to, + cord- st. of cor, heart) 
+ ly < li c e] accordantly, accord- 

d-c6ian, ME. akele, ic. 1, [<cele, 
<oriq. St. coll-, v. col, cool, 
(■/. c'eald] (cf G. ab-kuhlen) 

COOL off. 

d-cennan, prt. dcende; ME. 

akenne, w.l, beget, bear (child). 
acsen ?-. dscian. 
d-cweafan, prt. dcwaeS" ; pp. Nh. 

dcvoeden, ME. aque'Sen, s. 6, 

say (out), declare, name. 
d-cwellan, prt. dcwealde ; ME. 

acwelle, w. 1 C, (OHG. arqvel- 

len) kill (off). 





d-cwencan, ME. aquenche, il\ 1, 

dc-weorna, ME. aquierne, i«m., 
[dc, 00^,+?] (c/. Ic. ikorni, 
OHG. eihhorn, G. eichhorn) 
squirrel, -skin. 

dd, ME. ad, od, smw., [<T. aid-o- 
<N/*aidh, burn., cf. Gk. al^-os, fire, 
L. aed-es, orig. fire-place., tem- 
ple'] (OHG. eit, glow) funeral-pile. 

dff, ME. ath, o^, sm., [<T. ai)jo-z, 
Sk. 71.3] (Goth, aib-s. Ic. eiS-r, 

05. 6th, OHG. eid, MHG. eit, 
G. eid) oath, Sk. 42. 

d-lSTennan, ME. athenne, ui. 1 (400 
N. 1,2; 401.1), [<*l5aniijaii 
(89.2; 228; 177), <:N/ten, c/. Gk. 
Telv-€Lp] (Goth. uf-)5anjan, cf. Ic. 
})enja, OHG. MHG. den (n) en, 
G. dehnen) stretch out. 

d-dihtian, prt. ddihtode; ME. 
adihten, pp. adi3t, w.2, [di fa- 
tan] compose, write. 

a-drad v. ondrsedan. 

a-dreden v. ondrgfedan. 

d-drencan, ME. adrenche, pp. 
adreynct, w. 1, drown. 

a-dun r. dAn. 

gfe, ME. e, sf (269 N. 3), [<T.aiwi- 
(173.2; 174 N. 2)] (wo« G\i. alcbv 
<alf:d}v, L. aevum, Age, Gotli. 
aiw-s ; OS. 6o, OHG. 6wa, MHG. 

6, 6we, G. ehe) law (of God), 

sfec V. 6ac. 

afece V. 6ce. 

aech V. selc. 

aed-eavde t?. setyivan. 

aed-geadre v. geador. 

aeafele, aej>>lle, ME. allele, abel, 
ha)?el, haithill, aj., [<T. *at)ali- 
(50 N.2), of good famihj, <*a}pal, 
race ; cf OHG. adal] (OS. eMi, 
G. edel) noble, excellent, famous; 
ME. sb., man, knight. 

seS'eling, eaffeling, ME. abeling, 
sm., [<T. *abuUng (50 N. 2)] 
noble, prince, distinguished man. 

sfeffm, eaCm (150.1), ME. e}>em, 
sm., [I.-E. *etmo-s, cf Skt. 
atman] (OS. d^om, OHG. atum, 
MHG. G. atem) breath. 

aed-lean v. edlean. 

sedre, av. (315), (OHG. atar, OS. 
adro) promptly. 

£e-fa;st, aj., pious. 

se-faestniss, sf, piety, religion IX. 3. 

sefen, Merc.efeUjNh.efern, ME. 
even, evyn,s?im. (247 c; 23 7 N.2), 
(c/. OS. abhand, OHG. aband, 
G. abend, Sk. 163) even, evening. 

sefen-tid, ME, eventid, sf, even- 

eefuung, ME. evenyng, sf, [< 
£&fnian, w.'2, <8efeii] evening. 

gefre, ME. sevre, efre, evre, evere, 
hevere, ever, evir, av., [?<d + 
byre, sm., time, ?or Sk. 259] 
always, ever; in compos. ME. 
evre elc (<8felc), sevric, aevrich, 
everich, evereich, everi >eKer/; 
ME. evere(i)cho(u)n, everuy- 
chone, evirilkane > every one ; 
ME. sevreumwile XV. 42, from 
time to time ; ME. evrema, ever- 
more > evermore. 

aeftan, av. , [< o f + supl. -ta -f- n-] 
(Goth, aftaiia) from behind, 
behind, aft. 

aefter, Merc, efter, ME. sefter, 
affterr, affter, after, aftur, efter, 
eftir, I. av., [^comp. form <of 
= ae f 4- 1 e r] {cf Gk. dircaripu, 
/wTTHER OFF ; Goth. aftra, OS. 
aftar) after, later. II. prp. with 
dat.,after (pursuit), along (local), 
for (cans, expressing purpose or 
consequence) ; with ace. after 
(temporal), according to; sof- 
ter >aii (337 N. 1), >er after, 
hereafter, there-; affter )>att(tatt), 
afterwards; sefter 'San }?e, efter 
han \>et, efter bet, even as ; eftir 
as god will, even as God will. 

aefter- fylgend, M. (286), [<prs. 
ptc. of fylg an] FOLLOwer, suc- 
cessor VII. 36. 

aefter-sona, eftersona, Nh. 
XII. 16, av., soon after, again. 

aefter-spyrigean, w.l, [<spor] 
follow (foot-steps) VIII. 41. 

aefter-weard, ME. efterward, af- 
tirward, aj.av., l-wea.rd<prt. 
St. in weorijan, Sk. p. 262, 




lit. turned to^ (Goth. -wair]j-s, 
Ic. .ver6-r, OHG. -wert ; cf. G. 
-warts)] afterward, latter, late, 
behind ; with w e o r af a ii or 
beon, ben, come behind, be 
behind, pursue IV. 14. 

sfeg, pi. segru, gen. pi. segera 
Vll. 2(5 (290 N. 1), ME. ei, sn. 
(290), [<T.*aijoz-(*ajjoz-)J (c/. 
Gk. (^bu, <*ufiov, L. ovum ; OS. 
OHG. MHG. G. ei, Ic. egg >NE., 
Sk. 339 ; 434) egg. 

jegl3'er v. seghwaeaCer. 

segera v. seg. 

seg-hwd, eghwA, dat. 6g- 
hw«em,7:>ni., [=*£e + ge-, <d + 
(347 and N. 1)] (OHG. iogi- 
hwer) Every one; geg-hwaes, 
(/en. used as av., altogether, 

seg-hwaeaCer, gegiS er, ME. sei'Ser, 
ei6er, aither, eu^er, prn. (347), 
[v. «ghwd] e/YAer, Sk. 395, 
— Each of two, both; segaCer 
ge . . . g6, ME. seiner (eraser, 
eu>er) . . . end, as well . . . 
as also, both . . . and VIII. 4, 7. 

seg-hwger, ME. ailiwar, aiquare, 
av. (321 N. 2), [v. seghwd] 

seg-liwilc, ge g h w y 1 c, 7:>r?^. (347), 
[v. sfegh-wA] Every, Each, who- 

aegsa v. egesa. 

aeht, ME. sehte, ehte, echte, eitte, 
au3t, sf. (269), [cf. st. of 
A g a n] possessiotis, property, 
riches, goods, money ; for non 
au3t, at no x>rice. 

aehtu V. eahta. 

aeiafer v. seghwaeSfer. 

aeie v. ege. 

ael V. eall. 

selc, ME. selch, elc, elch, helch, aech, 
ech, ealch, ilch, yche, uche, prn. 
(347),[<d+ge + lic(43N.4)] 
(OFris. elk, OHG. eogilih, MHG. 
iegelich, G. jeglich) each, Sk. 
354; 395; ME. ilkane, [=ilk + 
ane, v. dii] each one, i/koni. 

aBlde V. ielde. 

aeldrene v. eald. 

aeldrum v. eald. 

geled, xME. eld, sm. (244), [pp. of 

selau, kindle'] (OS. 61d, Ic. eld-r) 
aellefne v. endlulun. 
aelmes-georn, ME. elmes3eorn 

XVll. 02, aj., [v. ael m esse] 

aelmesse, ME. elmesse, almessc, 

selmes, wf, [<eccl. L. *alimosina 

<LL. ekemosyna <Gk. iXer/uLt- 

avvrj, orig. pity, Sk. 401] alms, 

Sk. 323. 7 ; 358. 
aem v. 6oin. 
aend v. ond. 
gfene, ME. ene, enes, av. (331), 

[<dn]o/7ce(<f/en.Sk.259; 350); 

ME. attonys, at once. 
aeiigel v. engel. 
senig, ME. aini, eni, eani, eny, 

ani3, ani, any, o\\y,prn. (348. 1), 

[<dn + -ig, ^^. 105^; 256] 

(OS. enig, OHG. einig, MHG. 

eineg, G. einig) any (otie) ; 

genig monn, ME. seniman, 

any one. 
ger, ME. ser, er, her, ar, or, are. 

I. av. (323), [<T. comj^. *airiz;, 
Goth, diris] (OS. er, Ic. ar, OHG. 
MHG. 6r, G. eher) ere, (ore, or, 
SJiak.), sooner, earlier, before. 

II. prp. with dat., before. III. cj. 
[fuller, se r SP gfe in (J* e] icith opt., 
sometimes ind., before. 

aera-gebland v. eargebloiid. 

aerce-biscep, ME. archebisliop, 
sm., [<LL. archi- <Gk. dpxi.-, 
chief -\- his ceT>, Sk. 401] arch- 

ger-dagas, ME. aredawes, sm. pi, 
former days, olden times. 

gferende, ME. arende, sn. (248), 
[= T. *^r-und-jo-, Sk. 209 ; 229, 
^<prs. ptc, cf Skt. Var, go] 
(OS. drundi, Ic. eyrendi) errand, 
message, care. 

gferend-gewrit, sn., letter, (writ- 
ten) message VIII, 91. 

gferend-wreca, wm., [r/. wrecan, 
utter] messenger, ambassador. 

gferest, Nh. gferist, ME. erest, aj., 
av. (313; 328), [supl. of gfer, 




= T. *airisto-] ^rsx, at firsr, 

sfer-fore, av., before, Bxnlier. 

gfe-rist, ME. ariste, sf. (266 N. 2 ; 
267 b; 269 N.4), [cf. risan] 
(c/. Goth, ur-rists, OHG. ur-rist) 
arising, resurrection. 

gfer-lice, Nil. drlice, ME. erlich, 
av., [prop. <*dr, positive of 
se r, cf. Ic. drliga] ear/y. 

£er-morgen, Nh. drmorgen, 
ME. armorwe, sm., early morn- 
^ ing. 

gferne-mergen, -morgen (on 
seriie-, XII. verse 4; ME. on 
ernemar3en, on arnemorwe, in 
the early morning^, sm., [prob. a 
degenerate /orm < se rm o rg en] 

ferwe v. earh. 

gfes, ME, es, ees, sn., [<T. *8es- 
-so- < T. V ^t : et, V. e ta n ; cf. 
L. esus for *ed-to-, pp. of edere] 
(OHG. MHG. ds, G. aas) carrion 
X. 126, corpse. 

aesc-plega, wni., [aesc, ash, Sk. 
SSO, (Ic. ask-r, OHG. asc, G. 
esche)] play of spears, battle 
VI. 217. 

sestel, VIII. 84, 85, sm., [<rolk-L. 
astula, tablet, < L. hastula, pi'op. 
little spear] (Olr. astal) book- 
mark, Z.; ?tablet (for index?), 
(ML. indicatorium=8estel in 
^lfric''s Gram.). 

aet, (51 N.) ME. aet, et, at, att. 
I. ao., [T., sense nearly =t6, but 
orig. without sense of motion] 
(L. ad, Sk. 117, Goth. 08. Ic. at, 
OHG. az) at, hither, near, thither, 
up. II. prp. with dat., {of rest) 
at, near, in, with; (of motion, 
origin) of, from, to, toward; 
(temporal) at, at the time of 
on; (caus.) at, by; rarely with 
ace, to, unto, into. ME. atte, 
ate = at be. III. ME. at, cj., rel. 
prn., (cf. Ic.) at (North.) = that; 
quhat at, what ; how ... at ever, 
. . so ever XXXIII. 17. IV. ME. 
Scand. influ. with inf. for to, (cf. 
ado = at do). 

get V. etan. 

set, ME. aete, ete, sm.f, [etan] 

(OS. dt, OHG. kz) food, prey 

VI. 210. 
aet-b redan, prt. sg. aetbrsed 

XIII. 71, s.3i>(3b9N.), [breg- 
dan] take away. 

aet-eava v. aetyvvan. 

aet-eawan v. aetyvvan. 

aet-eovvan v. aetywan. 

aet-euwa v. aetywan. 

aeteff v. etan. 

aet-foran, ME. etforen, I. av., 
before (-hand) . II. prp. with dat., 

aet-gadere, aet-gaedere v. geador. 

aet-geadre v. geador. 

aet-hrinan, ME. atrine, s.\, with 
gen., feel of XIII. 38. 

aeththa v. oafSfe. 

8e»ile V. aeiS'ele. 

aet-sainne, aet-sonine v. somen. 

aetywan, aeteavvan, aeteo- 
w^an, Nh. aeteava, aeteuw^a; 
pri. aetywde, aet6ovvde, Nh. 
aedeavde XII. Nero 1, eatd- 
eavde XII. Nero 1, aeteuwde 
XII. Nero 14, w. 1 C (408. 2), 
[<6age] (Goth. at-Augjan) 
show, manifest. 

aevre v. sefre. 

aevreum-wile v. gfefre. 

aevric(h) v. sfefre. 

sfewisc-mod, aj., [<sfew^+-lsc 
eth. suff?, V. afe] (cf. Goth, in 
un-aiwisks) disgraced in mind, 
ashamed X. 112. 

d-fseran, Merc, dferan, Afi- 
ran? ME. aferen, affere ; pp 
ME. afferid, NE. afeard, w. 1 
make afraid. 

a-fanded, afandian v. dfondian 

afara v. eafora. 

A-feallan, p7't. dfeoll, pp 
dfeallen, s. red. ^ (396), fa// 
-of, decay VIII. 71, fell (crus/i) 

XIV. 95. 

aifeecyon, affeccyoun, sb., 
[<0F. affection <L. a£fecti6(n-) 
< afficere, ad-ficere, influence, 
lit. do to, <facere, do] affect/on, 
bent, love. 




afferid v. dfseran. 

afforce, w., [<0r. aforcer, for- 
Tjfy, mixed with efforcer, es-, < 
ML. ex-fortiare<fortia, strength 
<L. iortis, strong^ force, afforcei. 

affter, affterr v. aefter. 

A-findan, ME. afinden, s.3^ (386 
N. 2) , find out, get. 

a-firde, ?for df6rde, v. ^Mran. 

A- flyman, ME. avleme, w. 1, put 
to FT^jght. 

d-fon, ME. avon, imper. avouh, 
s. red. A (395 ; 367), receive. 

d-fondian, afaudiau, ME. 
afandien, w. 2, try, tempt. 

afora v. eafora. 

d-forhtian, prt. Aforhtode, w. 
2, [forhtigan] he AvvjaGwred 
XIII. 63. 

a-fray, effray, s6., [=AF. 
affray, aftrei, Sk. II. 21 ; 80, 
effrai <effrayer (OF. esfreer)? 
<ML. *ex-fridare, disturb, <fri- 
dum <T. (OHG. fridu G. friede) 
= peace'] terror, {affray j, fray, 
Sk. II. 43). 

aftur V. aefter. 

d-fyrhted, ^L dfyrh te XI. Bod., 
Hat. 4. ME. afrijt, pp., [for- 
htigan] affright(ed),8iL. 201. i. 

d-gaefe v. dgiefan. 

a-3aines v. ongegn. 

dgan, ME. a3en, owen, owe, NE. 
owe ; prs. sg. d h, ME. all, ouh, 
pi. Ago n, ME. a3en, owen, owe ; 
prt. dhte, ME. ahte, l^E. ought ; 
old pp. (aj.) dgen (378), ME. 
a3en, a3e, oghe, owun, owe, NE. 
own ; prt.-prs. s. 1 (420. 2), [T. 
V aig, pre T. V aik, cf. Skt. V 1q] 
(Goth. *^igan, Ic. eiga, OS. 6gan, 
OHG. eigan) possess, have, own 
(<dgnian Sk. 260), owe 
(Shak.) Sk. 338; with inf., 
ouGHit, must; pp.-aj., own. 

d-gdn, pp. dgdn XIII. 4, ME. 
agon, NE. agone, ago ; -mi (430), 
go (away), pass (out, away). 

a-gan, agane, agaenes, agaynes 
V. ongegn. 

age, sb., [-- AF. age <aage, eage, 
Sk. II. pp. 72, 215, 216, <0F. 

edage <ML. *8etaticum < L. setat- 
em, ace, <0L. sevi-tatem, ace, 
<8evum, an age, cf. d, sfe] age, 
Sk. II. 54. 1 ; 133 ; p. 192. N. 1. 

a3e, asen v. dgan. 

a-3ean v. ongegn. 

a-gefe v. dgiefan. 

dgen, V. 2851, aj., [dgan] own. 

a-gen, asen, asens v. ongegn. 

d-g6tan, pp. dgeted, lo.l, wound 
X. 35. 

ass V. ai. 

d-gi(e)fan, dgefan, dgaefan, 
prt. dgeaf, dgedfon (391 
N.2); ^p.dgifen; ME. a3iven, 
s. 5, giye (up), deliver, restore, 
render IX. 67. 

d-gyltan, ME. agulten ; pp. 
agult, w. 1, sin, offend. 

ah V. ac, dgan. 

a-ha, ME. intrj., \_v. a+] (G. aha) 

a-hebban, prt. ah 6f III. 2h; pp. 
ahafen, ME. ahebbe, s.6 (372 ; 
392.4), [hebban=T. *hafjon 
(89. 1; 228), T. Vhaf^Vqap, 
take hold of, Sk. 191; 112] 
(T. haf jo 1. sg. = L. capio, I take ; 
cf. Goth, hafjan, OS. hebbian, 
OHG. heffan, MHG. heben ; G. 
erheben) raise up, heave. 

ahne v. ac. 

a-hon, prt. aheng; pp. d hang- 
en, ahongen, ME. ahonge, 
s. red. A (373; 395), han^ (up), 

a-hreddan, ME. aredde ; pp. 
ahreded, ME. ared, w. 1, 
[= T. *hra«jon (89. 1 ; 228), T. 

V hra'5 = pre T. V krath, cf. Skt. 

V ^rath, let go] (0 Fris. hredda, 
OHG. MHG. retten ; G. er-retten) 
snatch from, rescue, (cf. rid). 

a-hrinan, ME. arine, s. 1 (382), 

dhsian v. dscian. 
aht V. dwiht. 
ahte V. dgan. 
ai, ay, a33, av., [<Ic. ei, ey, Sk. 

425 a ; cf. d] ay, aye, ^ver. 
ai-hwar v. sfeghwsfer. 
ai-quare v. tfeghwgfer. 




aise, hayse, ese, s5., [<Ar. else, 
Sk. 11.26, OF. aise, <ML. *asia] 
ease, quietness, pleasure. 

aither v. seghwaeffer. 

a-kel> V. acelan. 

akseii V. dscian. 

al V. call, 

alaue v. dn. 

alas, ME. intrj., [<AF. alias < OF. 
ha ! ^-'las < L. lassus, weary, Sk. 
II. p. 236] a/as ! 

aid V. eald. 

aldor V. ealdor. 

ale V. ealu. 

d-lecgan, ME. aleggen ; prt. 
dlegde (401.1), dlede (214. 
3) ; pp. dlegd (402), dl6d, 
ME. aleigd, w. 1, lay down, 
— out, — away, III. 4 a, b. 

a-lese v. dlysan. 

a-lesten = a lesten. 

a-life, alive v. lif. 

all V. eall. 

alls V. ealswd. 

alne-way v. ealneg. 

ales' V. ealu. 

aloft, ME. av., [<Ic. k, = on, 
+ lopt, ace, lopti, dat., = lyf t] 

alone v. an. 

al-redi, ME. av., [r8edi3] already. 

als, alse, also v. ealswd. 

alsuic V. eall and swelc. 

alswa V. ealswd. 

al]?er v. eall. 

aUvays v. ealneg. 

d-lyhtan, ME. aly3te, w.\, (OHG. 
ar-liuhtan, MHG. er-liuhten, G. 

d-lysan, K. al^san, ME. alesen, 
w. 1, (Goth, us-lausjan, OS. alo- 
sian, G. erlosen) let loose, re- 

al-zuo V. ealsw^d. 

am V. 6om. 

a-inang v. gemong. 

d-mdnsumian, cf. mdnsu- 
mnng, ^(trie's Horn., 1.370, 
ME. amansien, manse, w. 2, 
[<*mdnsuin, familiar, inti- 
mate, ? < St. in g e m gfe n e] ex- 
communicate, curse. 

ambeht v. ombiht. 

anie, sh., [< AF. esme, supposition, 
<vb. esmer <L. ses-timare, Ksti- 
Mate, Sk. II. 151] aim. 

ameral, amerel, amyral, sb., 
[< (AF. admiral) OF. amiral, 
?<ML. a(d)rairalis, <Arab. 
amir, ruler, + al-, (of) the^ 
EMIR, sultan, commander, (ad- 
miral) . 

a-mong(e), -es v. gemong. 

an V. on, ond, unnan. 

an, ME. an, ane, on, one, oon, o, 
a, mini, s., but meaning 'alone,'' 
w. (324. 1), ME. also indef art., 
[<T. ainoz, preT. oinos, cf. Gk. 
oij/is] (cf. L. unus ; Goth, ain-s, 
Ic. einn, OS. 6n, G. ein) one, a, 
an, certain one, alone, Sk. p. 56, 
only ; he ane, he alone ; on Gydo, 
a certain Gydo; ME. ore=: 
an re, dat. f. sg.; ME. anne, 
enne^anne, senne, ace. m. 
sg.; ME. in till ane, continu- 
ously XXXI. 24 ; ME. al one, 
all ane, > alone, >alanerly, av., 

an-an v. on. 

ancor, ME. anker, pi. ankres, sm., 
[<L. ancora<Gk. AyKvpa, also 
hook, ASGle, Sk. 401] anchor. 

dn-ciimmum, av., [+ ?dat. pi. of 
cum a, coMer] one by one (L. 
per singula, XII. Nero 25). 

and V. ond. 

and- V. on-, ond-. 

ande v. ond, onda. 

ane v. dn.. 

angel, aungel, pi. angles, sb., 
[< AF. angele < eccl. L. angelus 
<Gk., V. engel, Sk. II. 22] 

Angel- V. Ongel-. 

angir, sh., [<Ic. angr, grief, - T. 
*ang-ro-, Sk. 217, <n/ angh, com- 
press ; cf. L. angor, compression'] 
affliction, trouble, vexation, in- 
dignation, anger. 

angry, ME. aj., [< angir+ y] angry, 
sorrowful, vexatious. 

angwys, sb., [<AF. anguisse, Sk. 
11. pp. 39, 78, 215, <L. angustise, 




a strait; cf. angir] anguish , Sk. 
11. 92, Asxiety. 

an-hange, pp. anhanged, to., [mixed 
imth ME. anhon, s. •?;&., v. hon- 
gian, h6n] hang (up), an- 

an-hete v. onhsfetan. 

an-hondred- v. hundred-. 

anker v. ancor. 

an-lapum v. anlepe. 

an-lepe, dnlepig, ME. onlepi, 
nj., single, solitary; Nh., ? 
anlapuni (329), one by one. 

an-lik-, anlyk- v. onlic-. 

annd v. ond. 

an-on v. on. 

an-other v. an and ^l^fer. 

a-nou3 v. genoh. 

an-siene v. onsien. 

an-syn, ansyne v. onsien. 

an-suer-, answer- v. ondswar- 

ant V. ond. 

an-under v. under. 

anunga, av., [an + -unga (318)] 
entirely, altogether. 

an-uppe, -vippan, -on v. on. 

an-Aveald v. on^veald. 

aper, w., [<Ar. aper-, st. of prs. 
siihj. apere <aparoir <L. ad-f 
parere] appear. 

ap-on V. 6p. 

apostol, postol, ME. apostel, 
posstell, pi. apostles, apostlis, 
posstless, sm., [<eccl. L. apos- 
tolus < Gr. aTrdcTToXos, lit. one sent 
forth; cf. missionary <L. mit- 
tere, send^ (AF. apostle, Sk. II. 
22) apostle. 

aproche, w., [<AF. aproce, prs. 
sg. of aprochier < ML. appro- 
piare < L. ad, to, -1- propius, comp. 
of prope, near, Sk. II. 72 ; 154] 

a-quenche v. acwencan. 

aquierne v. aeweorna. 

ar V. eom. 

dr, ME. are, ore, hore, sf (252b), 
[=T. *aizo-; cf. L. aes, money,? 
Skt. \/ is, desii-e^ (Ic. sera, 08. 
OHG. 6ra, MHG. ere, G. ehre) 
honour, mercy, compassion. 

ar, sm. (273), [=:T. *airu-;? cf 

Skt. V ir, go'\ (Goth. &ira-s, Ic. 

drr, OS. 6ru) messenger V. 2910. 
dr, ME, ore, sf, [< V ar : er : ro : rS, 

pushl (cf. Gk. i-p€-Tfx6s, L. re- 

mus ; Ic. ar) oar. 
d-rsfecau, ME. arechen, w. 1 C 

(407 and N. 3), [=T. *raikjon 

(89. 1 ; 228)] (OHG. erreihhen, 

G. erreichen) reach (to), attain, 

d-rsfedan, K. are dan VII. 46, 

ME. areden, lo. 1, read (out). 
d-r£&man, w.l, raise, arise V. 2876. 
d-rsferan, ME. arere, w.l, [- T. 

*raizjon (181. 2), caws. <r is an] 

(Goth, ur-rdisjan, Ic. reisa > 

raise) rear up, erect III. 2 b ; 

ME. Ia3he ar., give, werren ar., 

arch-angel, sh., [<eccl. L., cf 

aerce-, v. angel] archangel. 
arSP, are v. eom. 
d-reccean, ME. arecchen, w.l C 

(407 di), put forth, explain, trans- 
late VIII. 19. 
a-red v. dhreddan. 
are-dawes v. sferdagas. 
are-lies v. drleas. 
aren v. eom. 
arest, w., [<Ar. arester <ML. 

arrestare <L. ad, ^o, -f re- stare, 

BTxy hack, >rest\'] arrest, stop, 

d-retan, -io. 1, [=T. *r6tian (94 a; 

177) <r6t, aj., glad] gladden 

VI. 167. 
dr-faest, aj., gracious VI. 190. 
ar-faestniss, s/., virtue IX. 4. 
dr-hwaet, aj. , [= T. *hwato-, 

sharp^ swift^ (Ic. hvat-r, OS. 

hwat) (honour-keen), valiant 

X. 145. 
a-rist V. riht. 
a-rinen v. dhrinan. 
d-risan, ME. arisen; prt. dras, 

s. I, arise. 
arive, prt. arivit, w., [<AF. ari- 

ver < ML. *arribare < *arripare 

<L. ad, ^0, 4-ripa, hank, Sk. II. 

154] land, disembark, arrive, Sk. 

II. 47 ; 64. 1. 




ariving, ariwyng, vb.-sb., [< arive] I 

{arriving) landing, arrival. 
ar-leas, ME. arelies, aj., (Jionour- 

less, Sk. 242) merciless. 
arm v. earm. 
armes, s6., [AF, armes, pi.., <L. 

arma, lit. fittings, cf. earm, sm.] 

arms, weapons. 
arn v. eom, eornan. 
art V. eom. 
arun v. eom. 
as V. ealswa. 
^-saegd V. asecgan. 
a-sald V. asellan. 
aseapen v. escapen. 
dscian, ah si an (209; N. 1;2), 

axsian XII. Otlio 12, ME. 

axien, escen, aksen, acsen, aske, 

axe ; j)rt. d h s o d e, ME. escade, 

aksede, acsede, askit, w.2, [<T. 

aiskojon] (cf. Skt. V ish, OS. 6sc6n, 

OHG. eiscon, MHG. G. h-eis- 

chen) ask, seek. 
d-scunian, pr«. tlscunode, ME. 

asclionne, i<). 2, [<on- = ond-, 

jp?r/., + scunian] shun, hate 

XIII. 82. 
ase V. ealswa. 
a-secgan, pp. asaegd, w. 3 (415), 

say out; pp., all told XI., XII. 

Nero (end). 
a-sellan, pp. Nh. a said XI. Nero 

18, w.l C (407 a), deliver. 
a-sendan, w. 1, send forth XIV. 

d-settan, pp. ase ted, Nh. also 

asetted XI. Nero 6 (402), 

10. 1, set (down), lay away. 
a-side v. side, 
d-singan, prt. dsong, pi. 

dsungon, s.SA, sing (out), 

recite IX. 66. 
aske V. dseian. 
d-slean, ME. aslee ; pp. dslagen 

(392.2), ME. aslawe, s.6, (G. 

erschlagen) strike, slay. 
assa (10), ME, asse, wm., [? through 

C, cf. Olr. assan <L. asinus; 

cf. esol] ass. 
assemble, w., [<AF. assembler 

<L. assimulare, compare, ML. 

= bring together, < L. ad-, to, 

simul, together, Sk. II. p. 229] 

assembly, sh., [<AF. assemblee 

</. jip. of assembler, v. assem- 
ble] assembly. 
astate, sb., [< AF. estat <L. status] 

STxnding, rank, estate, Sk. II. 

54 ; 163. 
d-stellan, ])7't. dstealde, Nh. 

dstelidse I, 4, w.l 0(407 a), 

[v. onstellan] esTxblish, set 

a-stente v. astyntan. 
d-stigan, ME. asti3e, astye ; prt. 

dstdg, dstah (214.1), ME. 

astah ; |)/. dstigon, -un, s. 1, 

go foruiard, — up, — down. 
astone, astunien, astoun, w., 

[?<0F. estoner <ML. *exto- 

nare for L. at-(ad-)tonare, lit. 

Tiiusder at'] astonish, Sk. 11.92, 

astound, astonyi. 
d-styntan, ME. astente, ME. prt. 

asteiite, lo. 1, make a halt, cease. 
d-swebban, pp. dswefed (401), 

1(7.1, [<swefn] put to sleep, 

kill X. 59. 
at V. 8Bt. 

ateliche v. eatollic. 
d-teon, prt. sg. dteah (223), pi. 

dtugon (234 c), 8. contr. 2 

(367), draw away IX. 91,eDuca«e. 
atli V. 'A^. 
dtor, (139; 230), ME. atter, sn. 

(244), [<T. ait-ro-(m), T. ait-, 

poisonous ulcer, — pre T. old-, 

cf. Gk. oISos, sv;elling~\ (Ic. eitr, 

OHG. eitar, MHG. G. eiter) 

poison, atter (Sc). 
att, atte v. aet. 
atter v. dtor. 
att-onys v. sfene. 
d-tuge V. dteon. 
auctour, sb., [<(Ar. autour) L. 

auctor < augere, cause to groic] 

author, voucher. 
au3t V. seht. 
aungel v. angel, 
aunsetre, sb., [<AF. auncestre 

<L. ante-cessor <pp. of ante-, 

before, -\- cedere, go] forerunner, 

(ancestor) . 





auiiter v. aventure. 

auter, sb., [<0F. auter (AF. alter) 
<L. altare <altus, high^ altar, 
Sk. 11. 22; 49. 3. 

a-vaile, awaill, to., [<AF. a- (L. 
ad-, to) + OF. valer, he ofvAL,ue, 
< L. valere, be strong^ be of use, 

a-vari5" v. dweorljan. 

a-vay v. weg. 

aveden v. habban. 

a-venture, aventur, aunter, s6., 
[=AF. aventure < ML. a(d) Ven- 
tura, lit. a thing about to happen., 
<fut. ptc. act. of L. ad-venire, 
coMe to'] incident, chance, occur- 
rence. Accident, adventure, Sk, 
II. 58. 1; ME. of av., Accidentally. 

a-vlenie v. dfly^man. 

a-vouh, sb., l<vb. avouen <0F. 
avouer <ML. *ad-votare <L. 
votum, vow] voAv, avow]. 

a-vouh V. afon. 

a-vrat v. awritan. 

a-vysyen, w., [<AF. aviser<ML. 
advisare <advisum, n.pp. view, 
<L. ad, to, -f- videre, see] observe, 
guard, consider, advise, Sk. II. 

*a-wacan, ME. awaken ; prt. 
aw 6c, ME. a wok, s. 6 (392 
N. 1), [= on- -f *wacan, v. 
waecnian] awake, come to 
one^s self 

a-wsfegan, w.l, [v. prt. o/wegan] 
annul XIV. 43. 

a-wael- v. dwyl-. 

a-wai, a-way v. weg. 

awaill V. availe. 

awafor, dffor, ME. ou^er, o^er, 
o]?er, other, owthyre, outhere, 
or, ore, l.prn. (346), [<d-liw se- 
ller (222 N. 1)] Kifher, one of 
two. II. ME. cj., or, (repeated) 
Either . . . or, out her], other 

a-weccan, prt. and pp. pi. 
aAvehte, ME. awecche, w.l C 
(407 a), [cans. <*wacan] tr., 
AWAKE, incite IX. 93. 

a-w^eg, aw^ei v. weg. 

a-w^elte v. awyltan. 

d-wendan, prt. aw^ende, ME. 

awende, w. 1, translate VIII. 82. 
d-weoriaPan, prt. Nh. A war 9" 

(158. 1), dvarlSr XII. Nero 4; 

pj). dworden (234b), s.SC, 

become, happen. 
awey v. weg. 
a-wiht, ME. aht, ohht, oghte, prn. 

(6 N. 1 ; 344), [<d, Bver, + 

wiht, Sk. 395] (OS. eowilit, 

O Fris. awet, OHG. eowiht) 

aught, anything. 
a-wirigan, pp. aw^iriged, w.l, 

accurse Xlll. 56, Sk. 201.4. 
a-wreccan, ?ME. awrecche ; prt. 

awrehte XIV. 75, u\ 1 C, 

[LWS. for -weccan (407 N.3)] 


a-writan, Nh. (infl. inf.) a vr it- 
ten ni XII. Nero 25 (363.1), 
ME. awrite ; prt. Nh. av^rat; 
i?p. awriten, duuritenVII. 
54, Ml. dvritteu XII. Nero 25, 
s. 1, write out. 

a-wyltan, Nh. aw^aDlta XI. 
Nero 2, ME. awelten, w. 1, 
[=*weoltian (100), caus. 
<prt. of wealtan] (cf. Goth, 
waltjan, OHG. MHG. welzen, 
G. walzen) roll atcay. 

a-w^ylwan, Merc, a wail wan; 
prt. awylede, Merc, awae- 
lede XI. Rush. 2, w. 1 C (408. 
l«wdN. 5), [<weallan] (cf. 
L. volvere, Goth, af-walwjan) 
7'oll away. 

a-w^yten, ME. vb., prt. awyste XVI. 
17, [<ei-, intens. pre f + wit SLn, 
prt.-prs. ] perceive. 

axe V. ascian. 

axien v. dscian. 

dxsian v. dscian. 

ay V. ai. 

a-ye v. ongegn. 

ayere, sb., [<AF. aier, OF. air 
<L. aer <Gk. dijp] air. 

aze V. ealswd. 

ba V. begen. 
bud V. biddan. 

ba9'e, ba>e, loathe, bo>e, 





bothe, aj.,prn., [?<ba+ >a, pi. 
fffse, Scaiid. injlu. cf. Ic. baf)ir, 
Sk. 416] (OS. b66ia, OHG. MHG. 
G. beide) both, baith, Sc. 

baQ-ian, ME. ba«ie, w.2, [<b8ei5'] 
(Ic. ba«a, OHG. badon, MHG. 
(t. baden) bathe. 

bajc, Merc, bee, ME. bac, bak, 
sn., (Ic. OS. bak, OFris. bek) 

hvex\ V. biddan. 

bjedan, 2W- gebseded, w. 1, 
[/«c. <biddan] (Goth, baid- 
jan, Ic. beiSa, OS. b6djan, OHG. 
beiten) compel. 

bfea", ME. b8e^ sn. (240), [<T. 
ba-)?o-(m), T. V ba : be <pre T. 
Vbhe, make warm by washinc/?] 
(Ic. ba'S, OS. bab, OHG. MHG. 
G. bad) bath. 

bsedon v. biddan. 

h'M, ME. bal, sn., [<T. *b£elo-(m), 
rf. Skt. bhala, lustre, Gk. 0a\6-s, 
shining] (Ic. bal) Jire, funeral- 
pile V . 290'^, bale (poet.). 

bafel-fyr, .sn., bale-fire, fire of the 
funeral-pile V. 2850. 

b^ep, ME. bare, a). (204), [<I.-E. 
bhos6-s, denuded, Sk. ;jo7, ?(/. 
Skt. V blias, shine] (Ic. berr, OS. 
OHG. bar, G. bar) bare, naked, 
mere, unadorned ; twa bare tide, 
barely two hours ; for ane bare 
sunne, merely for one sin. 

bf«r-lice, ME. barely, av., barely, 
plainly, openly. 

biernan, ME. brenne (infiu. Ic. 
brenna), ^?t. brende, pp. brent, 
II}. \, prop, tr., [= Goth, brann- 
jan(80N.2; 70 N. 2; 170; 228); 
caus. <prt. of beornan] (G. 
brennen) burn. 

baeron v. beran. 

bsesten, ME.?, aj., [<baest, bast, 
+-en] made of bast, basten, (rf 

b^tan, ?o. 1, [<prt. o/ bitan] 
(Ic. beita >bait) bridle V. 2866. 

baft V. beseftan. 

baide v. bidan. 

bak V. bgee. 

bak-bitere, sb., backbiter. 

balde v. beald. 
balde-like v. bealdlice. 

banasynge, sb., [vb.-sb. <ME. 
banysen <0F. st. baniss-, banir 
< ML. bannire ?< Frankish 
*baimjaii, Sk. II. 173, <T. ban, 
proclamation, ban ; ?cf Skt. 
s/bhan, .speak] banishment. 

band v. bond. 

baptim, sb., [<Ar. baptesme < 
LL. baptisma <Gk. ^dirTLa-tia, 
Sk. II. 276. 8, <^aTrTi^€LP, dip] 

baptise, baptize, iv., [<Ar. bap- 
tize <LL. baptizare <Gk. ; r. 
baptim] baptize; ME. vb.-sb. 

bar V. beran. 

barely v. ba^rliee. 

barg V. beorgan. 

barge, sb., [<Ar. barge <ML. 
barga (LL. barca)] barge, Sk. 
II. 52.2. 

barn v. beam. 

barun, sb., [<AF. baroun, orig. 
ace. o/ber <ML. baro(n-), man] 
baron, Sk. II. 52. 1. 

bdt, ME. bot, boot, bote, sm., 
[first found in OE. >Ic. batr] 
(Du. G. boot) boat, Sk. p. 54. 

batell, batel, sb., [<AF. bataile 
(OF. bataille) <LL. battalia, 
soldiers'' fighting exercises, Sk. 
II. 138; p. 230, <battere <L. 
batuere, beat] (cf. beado) 
battle, Sk. 11.^7. 122. 

bathe, ba>e v. haiSe. 

baj?iere, si)., [baljian] water-pot. 

bawe-lyne, sb., [?<Scand., cf. '?Ic. 
bog-lina, Sk. p. 458 and N.] bow- 

bayn, aj., [<Ic. beinn, straight, 
direct] ready, bain (dial.). 

be V. b6on, bi. 

be-, pref, [<bi] orig. about, 
around, by. 

beado, gen. beaduTve, bead- 
owe," sf. (260) , [=: T. *ba^-wo- 
(104 N.'2), pre T. bhatu-, cf L. 
batuere, beat] (poet.) batt/V'. 

beado-wgepen, sn. (243), (bat- 
ile-) weapon IV. 3. 




beado-weorc, beadu-, sn., 
liA'rTle-(tvork) X. 95. 

be-seftan, ME. biafteii, baft, ay., 
pr2). with (laL, ["^bi-f] behind, 
baft] (or nautical) . 

bea3 v. btigan. 

b6ag- V. b6ah-. 

beah, (214. 1) b6ag, ME. pi. 
beies, sm.^ [<prt. of b6gaii] 
ring {ornament or money). 

bfeah-gifa, -gyfA, beag-, wm., 
rimj-giver, king X. 2. 

bfeah-hroden, «j., \^pp. <hr6od- 
aii, S.2, adorn] adorned with 
rings VI. 138. 

beald, ME. bold, b£flde, aj., [= T. 
bal-J>o- (80; 202.2)] (c/. Goth, 
balba-ba, av., Ic. bald-or>BALD- 
er; OS. OHG. bald, G. bald, soon) 
bold, Sk. 253 c, brave ; make 
bakle, convince XXVI. 116. 

beald-lice, ME. baldelike, av., 
(OS. baldlico, OHG. baldlicho) 

beam, ME. beom, s?n., [=^WT. 
bau-mo-, Sk. 214 ; ?<T. *ba(g)w- 
mo- <*ba(h)wm6-=:I.-E.*bhaq- 
mo-, not found'] (cf. Goth, bagm-s, 
Ic. ba'5m-r ; OS. bom, Du. boom 
> BOOM, OHG. G. baum) tree, 

beam, barn, ME. barn, bern, 
sn. (239 b), [=T. bar-no, old 
ptc. (79) Sk. 221 ; 173, <prt. of 
beran] (Goth. Ic. OS. OHG. 
MHG. barn) child, barn (Shak.), 
bairn, Sc. 

beatan, ME. beats, byate; prt. 
beot, ME. bet; pp. geb§at- 
en, ME. ybeate, ybyate, s. red. 5 
(39()b), [<T. Vbaut] (Ic. bauta, 
OHG. bozzan, MHG. bozen) 

be-b6odan, bebiodan; 2)rt. sg. 
b e b e a d, p/. b e b u d o n ; pp. 
bebodeii, s.2, with dat., bid, 
command XIII. 32, entrust to, 

be-bod, pi. bebodu, ME. bibode, 
sn., \<.pp. o/bebeodan] com- 

bee V. b6c. 

be-cerran, ME. bicherren, w. 1, 
[?;. gecyrran] betray. 

be-cleopian, ME. biclupien, w. 2, 

be-clyppan, ME. beclyppen, be- 
cleppe; prt. beclypte (405. 
2), ME. beclepte, w.\, embrace 
(XXVIII. 46, for F. embraser, 
'-set on fire,'' confounded with 
embrasser, '•embrace''). 

b6cnia, ' Nh. ; WS. beacnian, 
blecn(j)an (99); prt. b6c- 
nade XII. Nero 19; ME. bek- 
nen, tc\ 2, [<beacnian (163) 
<beacen, beacon, =:T. bauk- 
no-, sign, Sk. 221] (Ic. bakna, 
OS. boknian, OHG. bouhnen) 
beckon, signify. 

be-cuman, ME. bicumen, become; 
prt. sg. bec6in, ME. becom ; 
pi. becdinou, -an, ME. bi- 
come, s. 4 (390 N. 2), come to, 
arrive, go, befall, happen, be 
becoming, befit; ME. also become. 

bed, gen. beddes (225. 1), sn. 
(247 b), [=T. badjo-, Sk. 209; 
192, orig. a place dugout?] (Goth, 
badi, Ic. be«-r, m., OS. bed, OHG. 
betti, G. bett, Sk. 60, cf, beet, 
garden-bed) bed. 

bed V. b6odan. 

be-dsfelan, ME. bidden, w. 1, de- 

bede v. beodan. 

beden v. biddan. 

bedu (Cura Past., 399, 31, for 
iacinre bede), ME. beode, sf., 
[<biddan] (Goth, bida, <)S. 
beda, OHG. beta, bita, G. bitte) 
prayer = beadt (>bead). 

bee v. beo. 

be-faestan, w. 1, make fast, en- 
trust, apply VIII. 27. 

be-fealdan, ME, bifolde ; prt. be- 
feold, s. red. B, enfold, cover 
XIII. 26. 

be-feallan, ME. befalle ; prt. ME. 
befell ; pp. ME. bifealle, s. red. B, 
(G. befallen, please) befall, fall 
to, happen. 

be-feolan, older *befeolhan; 
prt. sg. befealh, pi. be- 




fulgon and befgelon; pp. 

befolen, s. 3 J5, also 4 (8rt7 
N.2), [=rT. bifelhan (81; 218), 
entrust, T. V felh <pre T. pelk] 
(c/. Goth, filhan, hide; OHG. 
bifelhan, -felan, MHG. bevelhen, 
-velen, G. befehlen, command) 
with dat., entrust, dedicate (one- 
self) VIII. 6Q. 

heffe?,pp. befte, w., strike; ?beff, 
pp. beft, Sc. 

be-fleon, ME, bifleon, s. cant. 2 
(373), flee away, escape (with 

be-f6n, Nh. b if 6 a XII. Nero 25, 
ME. bifon, s. red.A(S61), grasp, 
surround, contain. 

befor, Ep. bebr, ME. bever, sm., 
[< T. bebru-z, broww aquatic 
animal, <I.-E. bhe-bhr-ii-s, red. 
of V bher, broww] (cf Skt. babh- 
rii-s ; L. fiber, Ic. bjorr, OHG. 
bibar, MHG. G. biber) beaver, 
fur of — . 

be-foran, b if or an, ME. beforen, 
biforen, bivoren,byvoren, before, 
bifore, byfore, bivore, bevore, 
bifor, I. av., before, (local) in 
front, etc., (temporal) earlier, etc. 

II. prp. dat. ace, before. 
befte V. beffe. 

be-fiillan, av., [full + -an] fully 

VIII. 40. 
b6gen, m., bd, /., b6, b6tu, n., 

ME. beien, bo ; gen. begea, K. 

bcega, num. (324 N.l), [<T. 

bo- <I.-E.bho-] (cf Skt. u-bhau, 

Gk. &ix-(pu}, L. am-bo ; Goth, bai) 


be-geotan, bi-; pp. begot en 

III. 2b, bi- III. 2a, s. 2 (384), 
[<T. Vgeut (64) < : pre T. V ghud 
> L. \/ fud in fundere, found] 
(Goth, giutan, OHG. giozan ; G. 
begiessen) pour out. 

be-gietan, begitan, begeot- 
an, ME. bi3iten ; prt. sg. be- 
geat, pi. begeaton; pp. 
ME. bi3iten, bi3ite, s. 5, get, 
obtain VIII. 15, plunder, beget. 

be-ginnan, ME. biginnen, begyn- 
nen, bigynne, begyn ; prt. sg. 

begann, ME. bigon, bigan, pi. 
ME. bigunnenn, bigunne, be- 
gouth, corrupt form fr. anal, of 
gan to can, couth, s. 3 A, begin ; 
with inf. often periphrastic. ME. 
bigmninge, beginning, begj'n- 
nyng, vb.-sb., beginning. 

be-giondan, ME. be3eonden, be- 
3onden, pj-p. with dat., [only 
Eng.; -geond + -an (338 N. 5)] 
beyond VIII. .19. 

be-gyrdan, ME. bigirden ; prt. 
begyrde, w.l, begird. 

be-hatan, ME. biliaten, 3 sg. prs. 
ind. ME. biliat; behet- 
on, ME. beheten, s. red. A (3(37. 
2), dat., promise, vow. 

b^hac, sf, [<beacen v. bec- 
nia] sign VI. 174. 

be-healdan, bihealdan, Merc. 
bihaldan; ME. bihealde, bi- 
haklen, biholde ; ijsg. prs. ind. 
ME. bihalt; prt. beheold. 
Ml. bih6ald, ME. biheld, be- 
lielde, s. red. B, (G. behalten) 
hold BY, behold, observe, gaze on, 
watch; intr., hold to, with bi, 
rest upon. 

be-hindan, behindon, ME. 
bihinde, av., prp. dat., behind. 

be-hionan, prp. dat., [heonon] 
on this side o/ VIII. 17. 

be-h6fian, ME. bihove, ^sg. prs 
ind. ME. behwys ; prt. ME. bi- 
hoved, W.2, [<*beh6f, advan- 
tage, <h6f, prt. of h ebb an, 
s. 6, heave] me. genr. ace. of the 
pers., need, be necessary, be- 

be-hwys v. beh6fian. 

beien v. blgan. 

beies v. beah. 

be-lsewan, ME. belewen ; prt. 
hel^wde, ic.l, (Goth, l^wjan 
<lew, occasion) betray. 

be-leve, byleve ; prt. belevede, by- 
levede, w., [geliefan] believe. 

be-Iiave, bileve, sb., [geleafa] 

be-lifan, ME. bilifen, bilive ; prt. 
sg. ME. bilffif, bileaf XXI. 1332, 
bilef, s.l (382), [<T. Vlib <pre 




T. Vllp, cleave; cf. Gk. X^tt-os, 
fat^ Xiir-apetv, persist] (Goth, 
bileiban, OHG. biliban, MHG. 
bliben, G. bleiben) remain. 

be-limpaa; belumpon, 
s. 3 A^ concern., pertain {with 
t6) IX. 4. 

be-longen, m, [gelong] (MDu. 
belanghen) belong {with to). 

be-l<icaii, ME. biluke; prt. pi. 
belucon, pp. belocen, ME. 
biloken, s.2 (885), [<T. V Iftk, pre 
T. mg; cf. Skt. raj, break] (Goth, 
ga-lukan, OHG. liihhan, MUG. 
luchen) shut up., fasten together 
(lock up) XIV. 52, louk (dial.). 

ben V. beon. 

b6ii, ME. bene, sf. (269), [<T. 
boni-, (91 a)] (Ic. bsen = *bcBn) 
prayer., bene^, uooxj" (<Ic. bon). 

bead, ME. bend, bende, pi. ME. 
bendes, dat. pi. bende, smf. (258 
N. 4; 204; 266 N. 2), [<pr«. of 
bin dan, Sk. 175] (Goth, bandi, 
OS. bendi) fetter, band, bond, 
bend (Spen., naut.). 

bene, ME. ay., XVI. 337, {Jesus 
Coll. MS., grene, green), pleas- 
ant, bein, bene, been, bien, all Sc. 

be-neo9'an, ME. bineoSen (321), 
[<nij?er, netik^/*, <I.-E. vb. 
particle ni, down] (OS. nithana, 
OHG. nidana, cf. G. hie-nieden) 
prp. dat., beneath. 

be-niinan, ME. binimen, binime ; 
prt. ME. benam, s. 4 (390), gen. 
instr., take away, bereave, rob. 

bent, sb., [<beonet, only in 
proper names, e.g. Be one t- 
leah, Bentley] {cf. OS. binut, 
OHG. binuz, MHG. bhiz, G. 
binse, bentgrass), field. 

b6o, ME. bee, ivf (278 N.), [<T. 
\/*bi ?<\/bhI, V. blfian ; c/. Skt. 
VbhT, fear] (Ic. b5^, OHG. bia, 
G. dial, beie ; cf. biene) bee. 

beod, ME. beod, sm., [beodan] 
(Goth. bm)>-s, Ic. bi65-r, OS. 
Mod, OHG. biot) table. 

b§odan, Nh. b6ada, ME. beden, 
bede ; 3 sg. prs. ind. ME. beot ; 
prt. sg. b6ad, ME. bed, bede, 

s. 2 (384), dat., [<T. Vbeud 
(64) < : pre T. V bhudh ; cf Gk. 
V TTvd, orig. *(pvd, irvd-i<Tdai, learn 
by inquiry, Skt. V budh, orig. 
*bhudh, be awake, cf. BuDDHa] 
(Goth, ana-biudan, OHG.biotan, 
MHG. G. bieten) bid, command, 
direct, announce, offer, give, sup- 
ply ; refl. appear ; oft. inf. to be 
supplied fr. context: J>e ic >e 
bead (bringan) XIII. 22; 
-Sat he bed him to (gon) XXI. 

beode v. bedu. 

beoin V. beam. 

beon, bion, cf. 6oni, wesan, 
ME. beon, ben, beo, be, bee, 
by; prs. sg. 1 pers., beo, ME. 
beo; 2 pers. bist, ME. bist, 
best; 3 pers. hiff, bi>, by>, 
ME. bi«, bi>, buS; pi. beoff, 
beoJ>, ME. beo'S, beo>, beod, 
bub, huS, bye)?, bied, ben, be ; 
prs. opt. b6o, ME. beo, be, by, 
> be ; imper. sg. 2 pers. b 6 o > 
be ; pp. ME. ibeon, yby, >been., 
-mi, defec. (427. 2), [<T. *bi- 
(3)on (114) <: v'bhu, become, Sk. 
122] {cf Skt. v/bhu, L. fu-isse, 
have been , Gk. (p^-ea-dai, OS. 1 pers. 
bium, OHG. MHG. G. bin) be 
{oft. FLtnre implication). 

beora v. beran. 

beorg, ME. ber3, sm., [<T. bergo-z 
(53. 2) < pre T. *bhergho- ; cf 
Skt. prs. ptc. brihant, lofty] (OS. 
berg, OHG. G. berg> (ice)-BERG) 
barrow, Sk. 381; 404 ; mound, hill. 

beorgan, ME. bergen, ber3e, ber- 
wen ; prt. sg. bearh, ME. barg; 
pp. ME. iborese, s. 3 C (388), 
[<T. Vberg (53. 2) lay away for 
safe keeping] (Goth, bairgan, OS. 
gi-bergan, OHG. bergan, MHG. 
G. bergen) keep, protect, save. 

beorht, ME. briht, bricht, bryght, 
brychte, aj., [<T.berh-to-z (53.2) 
Sk. 253. b ; cf. Skt. v/bhraj, shine] 
(Goth, bairht-s, OHG. OS. beraht, 
MHG. berht, G. Al-brecht, Al- 
bert) bright, clear, beaming, 
plain, pure. 




beorn, ME.buern, sm., [?<bera, 
a BEAR, c/. Ic. bjorn, bear] (poeL) 
hero 111. 1 b, man. 

beoriian, ME. beornen, bernen, 
buriien, by rne ; prt. sg. barn 
(38GN. 2), born,pZ. burnon; 
pp. b u r n e n, s.SA (38t>) , prop, 
iiitr., [= -b r i n n a n (in compos. 
on-) (179.1; 79 N. 2), T.Vbrin, 
yive light] (Goth. OS. OHG. 
brinnan, Ic. brinna, MHG. G. 
dial, brinnen) burn. 

beot XVI. 126, v. beodan? Z. 
Kgerton MS. 613, ed. by Furni- 
vall, and Trinity AlJS. Cam. in 
Morris' OE. Horn. II. read: >e 
bit and be3it, ' who j)rays and ob- 
tains.'' Digby MS. A 4 in Anglia 
I. 5 : l>et bit and bete, amended 
to bote, who prays and amends. 

be-psfecan, ME. bipeche; pp. be- 
psfeht, w.\ C (407 a), deceive 
XIV. 57. 

beran, Nh. beora, ME. bseron, 
beren, bere ; iwt. sg. baer, ME, 
bar, ber, bore; pi. bsferon, 
ME. baren ; pp. ME. iboren, s. 4 
(370; 390), [<T. V ber <Nf bher, 
Sk. 99] (c/. Gk. 0^/)-etj/, L. fer-re ; 
Goth, bairan, Sk. 143, Ic. bera, 
OS. OHG. beran, cf. MHG. ge- 
bern, G. gebaren) carry., bear., 
Sk. 135, bring, — forward, bear 
(child), support. 

bernen v. beornan. 

berrhless, sb., [<beorgan] sal- 
vation XVIII. 103. 

berstan, ME. bersten, breste ; 
prt. sg. baerst, ME. braste ; pi. 
biirston ; pp. borsten, .s. 3Z) 
(389 and N.), [=*brestan (79 
N. 2) <T. V*brest, cf. v'bhrest 
in O Ir. brissim, I break] (OS. 
OHG. brestan, MHG. bresten, 
G. bersten) burst, Sk. p. 407, 
BREAK to pieces, rend asnnder. 

be-sciran, pp. bescoren, 8.4 
(390) , [< V sker, h€2c to pieces, Sk. 
276 ; cf. Gk. KeLpeLP^ (Ic. skera, 
OHG. Ibisceran, MHG. beschern, 
G. bischeren) shear, pp. beshorn 
XIV. 71. 

*be-scunian, ME. biscunien, w.2, 

be-secan, ME. bisechen, beseche ; 

jyrt. bes6hte, w. 1 C (407a), 

be-s6ou, ME. biseon, bisen ; 3 sg. 

prs. ind. ME. bisihtJ, s. cont. 5 

(367), see, look about, — to, 

be-settan, ME. bisette ; pi^t. b e- 

sette (401.2); pp. ME. biset, 

w. 1, set round, beset, occupy, 

be-sI6au, pp. beslagen (392.2), 

besliegen, beslegen, s. 

cont. 6 (367), rob, cut o/ X. 83. 
be-spreugan, ME. bisprengen, 

w. 1, [^caus. <springan] (G. 

besprengen) 6espRiNKZe, be- 

best V. g6d. 
be-stelan, ME. bistelen ; pp. ME. 

bistolen, s. 4, steal away, — on. 
be-steinan, bisteman; pp. be- 

st6med III. 2 b, bistemid 

III.2a, to. 1, [<st^am, steam] 

bedeic, bewet. 
be-sfiljan, prp., dat., south of 

VIII. 21. 
be-swican, ME. biswiken ; prt. sg. 

b e s w d c, pi. beswicon ; pp. 

beswicen, s. 1, beguile XIV. 

55, deceive XIII. 19. 
besy V. bysig. 
be-syde, bezide, ME. av., prp., 

[<be, pi'p. 6/, + s id an, dat, 

side, Sk. 346] beside. 
besynes v. bisignis. 
bet v. wel. 
be-tsfecan, ME. biteche ; prt. ME. 

bitauhte, w. 1 C (407 a), shotc, 

commit (to), beteachi. 
betan, ME. beten, bete ; 3 sg. prs. 

ind. ME. bet ; pp. ME. ibet, ^^\ 1, 

[<b6t] (OS. botian, OHG. 

buozzen, G. biissen) make bet- 

rer, (a)mend, beeti, expiate. 
betera, betere v. g6d, Avel. 
bet(e)st V. g<3d, wel. 
be-J»eccan, ME. bi)?ecchen ; pp. 

beS-eaht, ro. 1 C (407 a), 

[= T. )>ak-jon < T. V ^ak < : V teg ; 




c/. L. teg-ere] (Ic. J^ekja, OHG, 
decchan, G. ODu. decken>DECK, 
O Fris. dekka, thatch) cover, 
screen (thatch, Sk. 890 and 
N. 1). 

be-J?encan, ME. bij?enche, 3 sg. 
pi's. ind. ME. bi^encS ; prt. ME. 
bibouhte ; pp. ME. biJ?oht, w.lC 
(407 a), bethink, consider, care 
for, reflect; ME. bebenchinge, 
vb.-sb., deliberation, reflection, 

betid V. bitiden. 

betoken v. bitacneiin. 

betre v. g6d, wel. 

be-tweonum, Nh, bitvien, ME. 
bitweoneii, bitwenen, "bitwenenn, 
bitwene, betwene, betuene, be- 
twen, prp. dat. ace, av., [<be, 
p?p. + tweonurn, dat. pA. of 
*t\veon {cf *tweon, ace. < 
j(7Z. *tw6ne=rOS. twene, OHG. 
MHG. zw6ne, G. zween) <T. 
twih- + S2tff. -na, (222. 2 ; 329) 
orig. distrib. twain {cf. Goth, 
tweihnai, L. bini;] between. 

be-twux, ME. betwix,prj9. dat. ace. 
(329) , [<b e,prp. + *t w e o x u m 
= *twiscuin (71 ; 209) 
of *twlsc (OS. twisk, OHG. 
zwisk), Two/oZcZ, <T. twi-skjo-; 
-sc, -isc— -/sA] (OFris. bitwi- 
skum) betwixt, Sk. 341. 

be-tynan, prt. betynde, w.\, 
[<t6n] enclose, close (up) IX. 

bever v. befor. 

be-wendan, ME. bewenden ; prt. 
bewende, ME. bewente, w. 1, 
turn round. 

be-wepan, ME. biwepeii,, 
make lamentation, be weep. 

be-werian, ME. biwerien, vj. 1, 

be-witan, ME. biwiten, witen ; 
prt. ME. biwiste, wiste, prt.-prs. 
s. 1, watch over, have charge of. 

be-wlitan, prt. bewlat, s. 1, 
[T. Vwllt; cf Ic. lita <*wlita, 
spy'] look round V. 2925. 

beye v. bycgan. 

be-zide v. besyde. 

bi, big, bi, be, ME. bi, by, bie, 
I. av., [?<T. *ambi <pre T. 
ambhi-, orig. meaning aBout ; cf 
Gk. dfi(f>l, L. ambi-] (Goth, bi, 
OS. bl, OHG. bi, bi, G. bei) by, 
at hand, accordingly, off; II. ptp. 
dat., by, (local) near, at, on, upon, 
along, with; (cans.) by, through; 
of (with pass.) ; to (be h ear- 
pan IX. 23) ; according to (bi 
a-gfere bisene VIII. 104, bi 
one 3ihte XVI. 380) ; along (bi 
str6te XVI. 342); for (word 
be worde VIII, 76). 

bi- V. be-. 

bidan, ME. bide, byde ; prt. bdd, 
ME. baide, pi. bid on; pp. 
gebiden, s. 1 (382), gen. ace, 
[= T. bi'Son, wait with confidence ; 
Pc/.Vi/ibiddan] (Goth.beidaii, 
OHG. bitan) bide, wait, remain, 

biddan, ME. bidden, bidde, bid, 
ME. ind. prs. sg. 2. byst, 3. byd, 
bi)?, \)\i',prt. sg. baed, ME. bad, 
pi. bsedon, Merc, bedun, 
ME. beden ; jcip. gebeden, ME. 
ibeden, s. 5 (367; 391. 3), [<T. 
V bi'S < pre T. V bheidh : bhidh, 
trust ; ?(f. Gk. V -jrid, orig. *0i^, 
ireldeiv, persuade, L. f idere, trust] 
(Goth, bidjan, OS. biddian, Ic. 
bi«ja, OHG. bittan, MHG. G. 
bitten) ask, pray (ethical dat.), 

biiac V. beon. 

bie V. bi. 

bied V. beon. 

bi-eode, ME. bieode, defec. vh. 
(430), I went round = took pains. 

biiian, ME. bivien, vj.2, [<T.\/bib 
<v/bhi, fear; orig. red. prs. in 
-ai- >appar. T. st. ai-, to. 3 (416 
N. 5)] (OS.bibon, Ic. bifa, OHG. 
bib^n, MHG. biben, G. beben) 
tremble III. 1 b. 

bi-foran v. beforan. 

bigan (31 N.), pp. gebiged, 
ME. beien, bien, v. 1, \^caus. 
< b 6 g a n] (Goth. *b4ugjan , Ic. 
beygja, OHG. bougen, MHG. 
bougen, G. beugen) cause to 




BOW, humble XIII. 55 • bay 

bi3(5 V. bycgan. 

bigge V. bycgan. 

bigge, to., [<Scand., cf. Ic. byggja 
<bua, dwell; v. biigau, dwell] 
BuiZ(Z, big(g), Sc. 

biglnninge v. beginnau. 

bi-3ite v. begietan. 

bi-hald, biheld v. behealdan. 

bi-kecchen, w., pp. pi. bikehte 
XVI. 818, [cachen] ensnare. 

bi-knowe, ME. av., [gecndwan] 
confessedly (beknowi, vb.). 

bi-leve v. beliave. 

bi-levyiige, s&., [bi + libban 
+ suf. -ung] means o/ living. 

bill, sk, (OS. bil, OHG. bill, MHG. 
bil, pickaxe, G. bille, hatchet) 
sword (two-edged broad-)., bill. 

bill-, bil-gesleht, -gesliht, 
-geslyht, sw., [si 6 an] stoorri- 
clashing, battle X. 90. 

bi-lyve v. lif. 

bindan, ME. binde, bynde ; 
band, bond, pi. bundon; 
pp. gebunden, ME. ibounde, 
s.3^(367;386), [<T. Vbin'5, pre 
T. bhendh, Sk. 122 ; 119 ; 99 ; cf. 
Skt.Vbandh] (Goth. OS. bindan, 
Ic. binda, OHG. biiitan, MHG. 
G. binden) bind., Sk. 378, chain., 

biriels v. byrgels. 

birig V. burh. 

birr>, prt. birrde, burde, w. impers. 
with dat. , [<b y r e 9", 3 j)rs. ind.., 
<byrian, pertain., <byre, 
event] (cf. Ic. byrja, OS. (gi)- 
burian) beseem., be becoming; 
burde hym, it behoved him., he 
ought XXIX. 117. 

biscop, biscep, biscob, ME. 
biscop, bissopp, sm.., [<LL. epis- 
copus < Gk. ^7rt-<r/co7ros, lit. over- 
seer] bishop, Sk. jop. 352, 439. 

biscop-, biscep-st61, sm., bishop- 
ric VIII. 82. 

bisen v. bysen. 

bisgu V. bysgu. 

blsignis, ME. besynes, sf, [<by- 
sig -f nis] business, trouble. 

bi-smerian, bysmerian, Nh. 
hisina&ria,, bysinere- 
don, iSli. bisinaeradu III. 

2 a, w. 2, [<bi-snier, snm., 
insult, cf. smeoru, grease, T. 
V smer, smear] (cf. MHG. be- 
smirwen) mock, blasptheme. 

bi-socnie, sb., [s6can] petition, 
visiting, going XVII. 97. 

bit V. biddan. 

bi-tacnenn, betoknen, bitocknen, 
ic, [tacnian] signify, betoken. 

bitan, ME. biten ; prt. sg. bat, 
pi. biton; pp. biten, s.l 
(382), [<T. N/bIt < : V bheid, split, 
Sk. 122 ; 117] (cf Skt. Vbhid, di- 
vide, L. findere, L. V *fid, cleave ; 
Goth, beitan, OS. bitan, Ic. bita, 
OHG. bizzan, MHG. bizen, G. 
beissen) bite, consume. 

bi-tauhte v. betsecan. 

bi}> V. beon, biddan. 

bi-J>oht V. bej>encan. 

bi->ouhte v. be)>cncan. 

bi-tiden, bityde ; prt. bitydde ; pp. 
betid, w., [tid] betide, befall, 

bi-traye, w., [<be -{■ OF. trair <L. 
tradere [trans -f dare], give over] 

bitter, ME. biter, bitter, a}., [<T. 
bit-ro- <x>p. o/" bitan, Sk. 251] 
(cf Goth, baitr-s ; Ic. bitr, OS. 
OHG. bittar, MHG. G. bitter) 
bitter, cutting, awful. 

bitter-lice, ME. bitterliche, av., 

bi-tvien v. betweonum. 

bi-twih, jj?7). (329), [<T. st. tw!h 
<twi, Tv,-ofold ; cf pref twi-, 
bet\v6onum, t we gen] be- 


bi-winnen, prt. biwon, ME. s. 3, 

[win nan] obtain, win. 
bi-wiste v. bewitan. 
blac-hleor, «;., [blac- (> bleak) 

<prt. of blican] fair- cheeked. 
blaec, ME. blac, a}. (294 N. 1), 

[<T.blak-o-, Sk. 243; 122 ; 111,? 

cf Gk. c(>\4y-eLv, L. flag-rare, 
I burn] black. 
I blsbd, ME. blead, sm., [= WT. 




blada-, orig. u- St., v. bldwan] 
(OHG. blat, breath) BhAst, suc- 
cess, glory VI. 122. 

blgfest, ME. blast, sm., [<*bl«fe- 
san (OHG. bldsan, G. blasen) 
blow; v. bldwan] blast, wind, 

bhime, sb., [=AF. blame <vb. 
blamer (OF. blasmer) <LL. 
blasphemare <Gk. ^Xaa-^Tj/xeiv, 
speak iW] blame. 

blanden-feax, -fex, aj., [<i5p. of 
blond an, s. red. A (395), 
BLEND, + feax, hair, faxf (rf. 
Fairfax, Halifax), <T. fahso- 
(82) (OS. OHG. fahs, Ic. fax)] 
grizzly-haired, old X. 89. 

blawan, ME. blawe, blowe ; prt. 
bleow, pi. ME. blewe ; p)P- 
blaAven, ME. blawen, blowen, 
s. red. B (396 d), [< T. \f bla 
(ble)=pre T. V bhla, Sk. 122, 
cf. L. fliire] (OHG. blahan) blow, 
puff up. 

bledan, ME.blede, w.l, [<*bl6- 
dian (94 a; 177) <bl6dj 
(OFris. bleda, OHG. bluotan, 
MHG. G. bluten) bleed. 

blencan, ME. blenke ; prt. ME. 
Wenkit, w.l, [?caus. <*blin- 
can; ?v. b lie an] (Ic. blek- 
kja) blench, shrink. 

ble>e-liche v. bliafelice. 

bletsigan, ME. bletsen, blessen, 
blisse; prt. bl6tsode; pp. 
gebl6tsod, ME. blissed, ic. 2, 
[=*bl6dsian (94 a; 198.4) 
<bl6d, proj'). purify a place by 
BLOOD, Sk. 196] bless. 

bletsung, ME. blescinge, bles- 
synge, sf, [vb.-sb. < bletsi- 
gan] blessing. 

blewe V. blawan. 

blican, s. 1 (382), [<T. V blik 

= \1 *bhlTg ; cf. pre T. V bhleg : 

; blilog ; cf. Gk. (f>\^yeiv, burn, L. 

[ fulg-ere, shine'] (OS. blikan, 

I OHG. blihhan (in compos.), 

MHG. blichen, G. bleichen, 

vjhiten) glitter, shine. 

hUfSe, ME. bliSe, bli>e, bly>e, aj. 
(299; 302 N.), (Goth, bleih-s. Tc. 

bli«.r, OS. blithi, OHG. MHG. 
blide) blithe, merry, friendly, 

bliffe-lice, ME. bli^eliche, ble^e- 
liche, av., blithely, kindly, gladly. 

bliffs, (202.7) bliss, ME. blisse, 
blisce, bliss, blysse, sf. (258.2), 
[=*bliiSr-s-jd- <bii9"e, Sk. 
230 b ; 342] (OS. blidsea) bliss, 
Sk. 454 a, joy, blessedness, pleas- 
ure, entertainment. 

bliffsian, (202. 7) blitsian, 
blissian; pp. geblitsad, 
geblissad, w. 2, [<bli9'e 
-[■vb. suf. s-ian, (411 N.)] rejoice. 

blind, ME. blind, blinde, blynde, 
aj., [<T.blindo-, Sk.243] (Goth, 
blind-s, Ic. blind-r, OS. blind, 
OHG. MHG. blint, G. blind) 
blind, Sk. 378. 

blind-felde v. geblindfellian. 

blis-ful, aj., [bliiers] blissful, 

blisse V. bus's, bletsigan. 

blissian v. bliffsian. 

bio, aj., [Scand., cf. Ic. blar] (cf 
L. flavus, yellow, OHG. blao 
(blaw- St.), G. blau, F. bleu 
>blue) livid, leaden-coloured, 
blae, Sc. 

bl6d, ME. blod, dat. blode, sn., 
[<T. bio So- (m)] (Goth. bl6>, 
Ic. bl6«, OS. blod, OHG. MHG. 
bluot, G. blut) blood. 

bl6dig, ME. blodi, aj., [<bl6d 
-t--ig] (Ic. bl65ig-r, OS. blodag, 
OHG. bluotac, MHG. bluotec, 
G. blutig) bloody. 

bl6nia, ME. blome, pi. blwmys, 
wm., [<T. blo-mo(n-), Sk. 210, 
<T. Vblo, V. bl6wan] (Goth, 
bloma, OS. blomo, Ic. blomi, 
OHG. bluoma,/., G. blume) bloom 
(of metal, OE. sense), ME. blos- 
som, FLOwer, the best. 

bl6stnia, ME. blostme, blosme, 
wm., [? = bl6-s-t-man-, Sk. 
236, V. bl6wan, or <T.\/*bl6s, 
pre T. bhl5s, cf. L. fl6r-is = 
*fl6s-is, gen. of flos] blossom, 
FLOioer, the best. 

bl6tan, prt. bl6ot, s. red. B (396), 




[==T. bloton] (Goth, blotan, Ic. 
biota, OHG. bluozan) sacrifice. 
Jcill (for a sacrifice) V. 2850. 

bl6wan, MP^. blowen, s. red. B 
(396), [<T. V bio, bloom-] (cf. m 
OS. blojan, OHG.bluojan, MHG. 
bliiejen, G. bliihen) blow, bloom. 

blowe V. bla\vaii. 

blusche V. blysean. 

bUvinys v. bl6nia. 

blynde v. blind. 

blysean, ME. blusche, w. 1, [c/. 
blysa, icm., torcK] shine forth, 
glance (blush). 

blysse v. blip's. 

bly>e V. bliffe. 

boc, ME. hoc, bok, book, boke ; 
pi. b6c, Nh. bdec, ME. bokess, 
bokes, bookis, 31. um. /., Nh. n. 
(283 ; 284 N. 1), [<T. *boks, sg. 
'■a letter,'' pi. icriting, letter'] (Ic. 
OS. cf Goth., bok, OHG. buoh, 
MHG. buoch, G. buch) 600^, 
writing. Scripture; a boke, on 
boke <on b6cum. 

bocere, ME. bocere, ,sm. (248), 
[= T. *bok-iir-jo-z, lit. '■booker,^ 
Sk. 230] (cf Goth, bokarei-s) 
scribe IX. 5. 

bod, ME. bode, sn., l<pp. of 
beodan] (cf. G. ge-bot) com- 
mand, message = bode]. 

bodig, Ep. bod^i^bodaei, 
ME. bodi3, bodi, body, dat. 
bodye, sn., (cf OHG. botah, v. 
G. bauch in Kl'\ ) body, trunk. 

bcega V. b6gen. • 

boga, ME. bo3e, bowe, vjm., l<pp. 
0/ bAgan] bow. 

bo3te V. bycgan. 

bohte V. bycgan. 

bold, ME. bold, sn., [=botl 
(183; 196.2), duelling, Sk.228h, 
V. bugan, divell] (cf Ic. boi < 
*bo51) BuiLDiJi^, house IV. 0. 

bold V. beald. 

bolde, IV., [< beald Ian, be bold, 
<beald] embolden, encourage. 

boldyng, vb.-sb., [< bolde] encour- 

bond, band, sb., [=rOE. *bond, 
cf. OS. band, Ic, band, <prt. of 

blndan] bond, Sk. 168, band, 
chain, fetter, pain. 

boude-man, sb., [<bonda, 
householder, cf. Ic. bondi, prop, 
prs. ptc. contr. (buende) v. 
bugan, dwell] bondman =p)eas- 
ant, prop, villein. 

bone, sb., [< Scand., = Ic. bon, 
Sk. 419] (ben) boon] = peti- 

book V. bok. 

boot V. bat. 

bord, ME. bord, sn., [<T. bor- 
1So-(m), plank] (Goth, fotu- 
baurd, footstool, Ic. OS. bord, 
MHG. *(i. bort) board, table, 
shield \l. 102, 213, mmver. 

bord-weall, sm., wall of shields, 
phalanx, line of battle X. 10. 

bore V. beran. 

b6soin, ME. bosum, sm., [WT. ] 
(OS. bosm, OHG. buosam, MHG. 
buosen, G. busen) bosom, hold 
X. 53, bay XXIX. 107. 

b6t, ME. bote, sf., [<prt. T. *bot- 
<*batan<T.v'bat, utility] (Goth. 
OS. bota, OHG. buoza, MHG. 
buoze, G. biisse) advantage—. 
boot], amendment, reparation; 
Clime to bote of, do penance for 
XVI. 314. 

bot(e) V. bat, b6tan. 

bothe V. baaCe. 

bo>e(n) V. baScTe. 

botni, ME. bothem, sm., [<T. 
*bu-5-mo-, Sk. 214, *bu'cino-, pro 
T. bhudhno-, ?f/. Gk. irvdii-qv 
(—*(()vd-), L. fundus (*fudnus)j 
(cf Ic. botn ; OS. bodom, OHG. 
bodam, MHG. bodem, G. boden) 
bottom, ground. 

bounde, sb. , [— AF. bounde < ML. 
bodina, butina] bound, pi. bound- 
ary = territory. 

bowe V. bugan. 

brad, ME. brad, brod, aj. (307 N.), 
[<OHZ?/T.brai«o-] (, 
Ic. brei'S-r, OHG. MHG. G. breit) 
broad, Sk. 287 ; 300 ; 301. 

br^de, ME. brode, av., widely. 

brgfede, ME. brede, wf.?, [<bra'- 
dan, vx 1, roast] (OHG. brdti . 




MHG. brdte ; r/. G. braten, 

BRAWN =: boar'' s flesh) roast-flesh. 
brgeS", ME. bre6', breK breth, brej>e, 

sm., (cf. OHG. bradam, MHG. 

bradem, vapour, G. brodem, 

fume) breath, odour XVII, 51, 

imnd, storm. 
braste v. berstan. 
bra}>eli, au., [<Scand., cf. Ic. 

braSliga] violently XXVI. 12, 

braithly, Sc. 
bread, ME. bried, breed, sn. (290 

N.3), [<T. *brau-«oz- <prt. of 

breowan, s.2, brew, Sk. 177; 

223 c; 230 a] (Ic. brant?, OS. 

brod, OHG. MHG. brot, G. brot) 

brecan, ME. breken ; prt. brsec, 

ME. brec, brak, p/. brsecon, 

ME.braecon; pp. brocen, ME. 

ibroken, brokun, s. 4 (390), 

[<T.\/brek <pre T. bhreg, Sk. 

122 ; 111 ; cf L. fra(ii)gere, perf 

freg-i] (Goth, brikaii, Sk. 143, 

OS. brekan, OHG. brehlian, G. 

brechen, Sk. 65) break, also intr., 

break (forth). 
bred-ale v. brydealo. 
bredan, ME. breede, 3 sg. prs. ind. 

breed, w. 1, [=*br6d-ian < 

br6d, Sk. 196, brood, <T. 

Vbr5, t«an)i] (OHG. bruoten, 

MHG. brueten, G. bruten, Sk. 

158) nourish, breed, brood, 

brede v. brgede. 
bred-guine u. brydguma. 
breiar V. brselff. 
br^lSer v. broS'or. 
breiafre v. br69'or. 
breed v. bread. 
Tn-efF, aj., [<0F. bref <L. brevis] 

(Gk. Ppax^s, short) brief. 
bregdan, ME. breiden ; jjrt. 

braegd, p>^' brugdon; pp. 

brogden, s. S D (389 N.), 

[<T. Vbregt?, move to aiid fro'\ 

(Ic. bregma, OS. bregdan, OHG. 

brettan) pull, draw (sword) VI. 

229, braid \ = start. 
brego (106.2), bregu, sm. (271), 

(cf. Ic. bragr) (poet.) prince. 

brekiiige, vb.-sb., [brecan] 

brember, ME. brembre, sm., (cf. 
brein(b)el, dim. <form seen 
in ME. brame, bramble) thorn, 
pi. brambles V. 2928. 

breme, ME. breme, aj. (299), OE. 
famous; ME. glorious, valiant, 
wild, violent. 
\ brendon v. bsernan. 

brengan, -en, -e v. bringan. 

brent v. baernan. 

breost, Nh. br6st XII. Nero 20, 
ME. brest, sn. m., ?/., usually pi., 
(Ic. brjost, OS. briost ; cf. Goth, 
brnsts, /. pi., OHG. MHG. G. 
brnst, / V. Kl.) breast. 

breth v. hvik'S. 

brej?, brejje v. brseS". 

brejjeren v. brol^or. 

brej>re v. broQ'or. 

breve, sb., [<Ar. bref <L. brevis 
(libellus), breve, n., short writ- 
ing, Sk. II. 145. 2; 161; 182] 
writ, commission, brief, Sk. II. 
62. 4. 

breve, ic, [<ML. breviare <L. 
brevis, brief] write dovm, enter, 

bricht V. beorht. 

bridd, (Nh. bird) ME. brid, bird, 
byrd, sm., lonly Eng.] the young 
of birds, bird, Sk. 353. 

bried v. br6ad. 

brigge v. brycg. 

briht v. beorht. 

brim, ME. brim, sn. (241), 
[?<*briinnian, s.t-6.>brem- 
nian, ic. 1, roar, <T. Vbrem, 
buzz, hum, <pre T. Vbhrem, cf. 
L, frem-ere, grmi'l'\ (Ic. brim, 
surf) sea X. 142, wave, brimi. 

bringan, brengan VIII. 104 
(407 N. 7), ME. bringen, brenge, 
bringhe, brynge, bring, bryng ; 
prt. br6hte (67), ME. brohte, 
brouhte, bro3t, brou3t, brought ; 
jyp. broht, ME. ibrocht, ybro3t, 
ibrouht, brolit, broght, brocht, 
browt, brouth, vj. 1 C (407 a), 
\_specifically T. worcl] (Goth, 
briggan, OS. brengian, OHG. 




bringan, MHG. G. bringen) 
bring ^ carry ^ present; br. breff, 
shorten; ut br., set free. 

britheren ?;. br69'or. 

broc, ME. brok, sm., [<WT. 
broka-, ?c/. remotely., brecan] 
(OHG. bruoh, MHG, bmoch, G. 
brucli, ynarsli) brook. 

brocht V. bringan. 

brode v. brade. 

broSfor, broQ'ur, ME. broker, 
broiler, broHr; dat. breffer; 
pi. ME. bre'Sre, brej^re, bre>eren, 
britheren, M. -r, um. m. (285), 
[common I.-E. ; =: T. bro)jar < 
orig. I.-E. bhrat6(r-), Sk. 122; 
125 ; 126 ; 227] (Skt. bhratar, 
Gk. (ppdrrjp (political), L. frilter, 
Goth, brobar, OS. brothar, OHG. 
bruodar, MHG. bruoder, G. brii- 
der, Sk. 160) brother. 

broghte v. bringan. 

bro3t V. bringan. 

broht, brohte v. bringan. 

brokun v. brecan. 

brou3t V. bringan. 

brouhte, brouth v. bringan. 

browt V. bringan. 

br6can (Nh. bruche = br6ce), 
ME. bruken; p7't. breac, pZ. 
brucon; pp. brocen, s. 2 
(385), with gen., [<T. V bruk 
= V bhrug, enjoy; cf. L. frui 
(= *frugw-i) > by pp. and AF. 
FRvit, Sk. 122] {cf. Goth, briik- 
jan, OS. brukan, OHG. briihhan, 
MHG. briichen, G. brauchen) 
use, enjoy = brooki , Sk. 46 ; 51. 5. 

brugdon v. bregdan. 

brycht v. beorht. 

brycg, ME. brigge, sf (268. 1), 
[<*b r u g-j d- (95 ; 228) Sk. 209] 
(cf Ic. bryggja, pier; OHG. 
brucka, MHG. G. briicke) bridge, 
Sk. 890 ; 324, brig, Sc. 

bryghte v. beorht. 

bryht v. beorht. 

bryd-ealo, gen. dat. -ealoff; ME. 
bredale, M. n. (281.2), [bryd, 
.sf, <T. bruiSi-z (96 a), onh/ T. 
as also wif] (Goth, brulj-s, 
daughter-in-law, Ic. briiS-r, OS. 

briid, OHG. MHG. brut, G. 
braut, Sk. 162; 200, betrothed) 
vjedding-feast, bridal] , Sk. 895. 

bryd-guma, ME. bredgume, wm., 
bridegroom (cf Ic. gromr, lad). 

bryne-gield, sn., [bryne< 
*burni- (263) v. baernan, 
b e o r n a n] ^i^ix^t-offering V. 

bryng(e) v. bringan. 

brynige v. byrne. 

brynk, dat. brynke, sb., [<Scand. 
or Low G. ; cf. Dan. brink] (Ic. 
brekka == *brenka, slope, G. dial. 
brink < Low G., grassy hillock) 
brink, shore. 

Bryten, ME. Britene, sf, [ = WT. 
*Brituna ; cf. Brettas (<L. 
Brittannia < Brittanni) the Brit- 
ons, <C.] Britain. 

brytnian, ME. britnen, ?c. 2, [< 
brytta4--n- <prt. of br6o- 
tan, s. 2, break] (cf. Ic. brotna, 
be broken) distribute VII. 33. 

brytta, wm., [=T. *brutjo(n-), 
V. brytnjan] (Ic. bryti, stew- 
ard) (poet.) distributor V. 2867. 

bryttigean, bryttian, brit- 
tigan, ME. britte, brutte, i/7.2, 
[<brytta] (Ic. brytja, chop 
up) divide, rend asunder X. 120, 

buSP, bu}> V. b6on. 

buern v. beorn. 

bufan, ME. buven, av., prp. dat. 
ace, [be + ufan (110)] above. 

bugan (buan); prt. bude; pp. 
gebiin, w. and s. red. (396 N. 2), 
[<T. \/bQ, dwell, <pre T. Vbhti, 
BE, become, grow ; cf. Skt. Vbhu, 
become, Gk. (pv-eip, produce, L. 
fu-i, I was] (Goth, bauan, OHG. 
buan, G. bauen, Build) dwell. 

b6gan, ME. buwen, bowe ; prt. 
b6ah, ME. bea3, pi. bngon; 
pp. bogen, s. 2 (385), [<T. 
V btig <pre T. V bhftq ; cf. (ablaut) 
L. fug-ere, also Gk. (pevy-eiv, flee] 
(Goth, biugan, OHG. biogan, 
MHG. G. biegen) (intr.) bow, 
bend, flee. 

buggen V. bycgan. 




bunte, s6., [<AF. bounte, OF. 
bonteit < L. , ace. , boiiitat-em] 
goodness., qood disposition., 
bounty], Sk. 11.87.2; 182. 

bur, s6., [<Scaiid., cf. Ic. byrr] 
wind, storm. 

b6r, ME. bur, sm., [<T. "bu-ro-, 
8k. 217, <b6an, v. b6gan] 
(Ic. bur, OS. OHG. MHG. bur, 
G. bauer, cage) house., chamber., 

burde v. birr>. 

buriaPe V. byrthe. 

burgeon, sh., [< OF. burjon] sprout, 
hud., burgeon, pi. XXXI. 10. 

burh, (214. 1) burg, ME. burrh, 
bureh, bureuh, burw ; gen. dat. 
sg. byrg (284 N. 1, 2), Sk. 185, 
byrig, birlg, burge, 
/., [y. beorg or beorgan? 
Sk. 175] (Goth, baiirg-s, Ic. 
borg, OS. OHG. burug, MPIG. 
burc, G. burg) fortified place, 
town, borough, burg. 

burh-geat, pZ. burh gat u XIV. 
51, ME. burh3at, sn., town-gate. 

burh-leode, burgl6ode VI. 
187, sm. pi. (264), (G. burg- 
leute) citizens. 

burh-sittende, (305), \_prs. 
ptc. < sit tan] citizens VI. 159. 

Burne, ME. Burne, Bourne?, wf.. 
Bourn (e) . 

burnen v. beornan. 

burw V. burh. 

buryel v. byrgels. 

busche, w., [<Scand., cf. Ic. buask 
<bua (bAan), dwell, + sik, ace. 
of refl,. prn. oneself] prepare 
oneself, repair to, hasten, busk, 

butan, bliton, K. bfito, ME. 
buten, bute, but, bote, bot, I. av. , 
[be + utan (110)] only {at first 
with, then without negation). 
II. prp. dat. ace. outside of, with- 
out, out of, except. III. cj., with 
opt., unless, but ; withind., except 
that, save that; without vb., ex- 

butre, ME, butere, wf, [<L. *biit'- 
rum < Gk. fiovrvpov, Sk. 401] 

(O Fris. butera, late OHG. butra, 
G. butter, Sk. 62) butter VII. 25. 

b6-tu V. begen + twegen (324 
N. 1). 

buven v. bufan. 

buwe V. biigan. 

buxuin, ME. aj., [<*b6h-sum, 
Sk. 242, <bugan, boic] (G. bieg- 
S2im.) flexible, obedient=buxonr\. 

by V. beon, bi. 

byegan, ME. buggen, biggen, bigge, 
bi3en, beye; prt. bohte, ME. 
bohte, bo3te ; pp. b o h t, ic. 1 C 
(407a), (only in Goth, bugjan, 
OS. buggian) buy, Sk. 339 ; 376. 

byd V. biddan. 

byde v. bidan. 

bydene, ME. av., together, at once 
= bedeeni. 

I>y9', byej> V. b6on. 

byleve v. beleve. 

bylyve v. lif. 

bynde v. bindan. 

byrd v. bridd. 

byrafen, ME. birj^ene, byrdinge, 
sf (258. 1), [<pp. of beran, 
Sk. 173] (OS. burthinnia, OHG. 
burdiu, burthin, MHG. burden ; 
cf. without -n suf. Goth. baur)?ei, 
Ic. byr«-r, OHG. burdi, G. burde) 
load, burthen, burden, Sk. 342. 

byrgels, ME. biriels, buryel, sm., 
[<byrgan, bury, + suf. -els, 
Sk. 220; 231, <pp. of beor- 
gan] tomb =buri all, Sk. 358. 

l>yrgen, byrgenn XL Nero 1, 
(Nh. also n.?) byrigen, ME. 
burien, sf, [y. byrgels] tomb. 

byrig v. burh. 

byrne, ME. brynige = Ic. brynja, 
lof, [<T. brunjo(n-) (95; 179), 
?cf O It. bruinde, breast] (Goth, 
brunjo, breast-plate, OHG. 
brunja, MHG. G. briinne) coat 
of mail. 

byrnen v. beornan. 

byrn-hom, sm., (cf. lic-homa) 
corselet (covering) VI. 192. 

byrthe, bur^e, sb., [<T. (ga-) 
burH-, cf ge-byr-d (267 b)?, 
Sk. 103 ; 224a, v. pp. o/ beran, 
influ. Ic. burSr] (cf Goth, ga- 




baurbs, OS. giburd, OHG. giburt, 
MHG. G. geburt) birth. 

bysen, bisen, ME. bisne, s/., 
[<prt. o/beodaii + suff. (s)ni-] 
(Ic. bysn ; cf. OS. aii-busn, Goth, 
ana-busn-s) command, copyYlll. 
104; example, byzen {dial.). 

bysgu, bisgu, ME. bisie, s/., 
[<bysig+«^s- suff. -u] occu- 
pation, labour. 

bysig, ME. bisi, busi, besy, besye, 
«;., (Du. bezig) busy, Sk. 256. 

byst V. biddan. 

cable, s&., [<AF. cable <ML. 
caplum <L. capere, take hold of] 
cable, Sk. II. 54.1. 

cachen, w., [<0F. cachier, Picard 
form, Sk. II. 140, <ML. caciare 
< L. captare, freq. <pp. o/ capere, 
take] catch. 

cgfese, ME. csese, chese, sm., [<L, 
caseus, Sk. 400] (cf WS. cyse 
(75. 2)=:WT. *k8esjo-, G. kase) 
cheese, Sk. 325. 

caeste v. cest. 

calls, calle v. ceallian. 

cam V. cuman. 

camp, ME. camp, S7n.?, [< T. 
*kampo-, ?not < L. campus, 
field, cf Ic. kapp, lit. zeal] 
(O Fris. kamp, OHG. camp, 
MHG. G. kampf) fight, battle. 

camp-stede, sm., (G. kampf-statte) 

can V. cunnan. 

canceler, sb., [=AF., chanceler, 
<ML. cancellarius, orig. one at 
the latticed railing between the 
suitors and judge, <L. cancelli, 
latticed railing (>chancef)] chan- 
ce/for, Sk. II. 82. 

candel v. condel. 

canon, sm., [< L. < Gk. KavJjv, 
Sk. 401, carpenter^s rule'] canon 
(canonical IX. 83). 

Cantwara-burg, Cantuara-, 
M. um.f (284), borough o/ Kent- 
is^ men ?, Canterbury. 

carf V. ceorfan. 
car-ful V. cearful. 

carl-man, pi. carlmen, M. um. m. 

(281), [infiu. Scand., = Ic. karl-, 

in compos, 'male-,'' 'he-''] (OE. 

ceorl, common freeman, churl) 

7nale XV. 20. 
carpe, sb., [<Scand., cf Ic. karp, 

bragging] speech, carp]. 
case, sb., [<AF. cas, Sk. II. 53. 

2 ; 163, < L. casus] cnxnce = 

case (Spen.). 
castel, ME. castel, castell, sn. later 

m., [<L. castellum (10), Vulg. 

village] castle, Sk. 400, XV. 10. 
castel-3ate, sb., [geat] castle- 
castel-weorc, sb., XV. 17, pi. 

castle-works, work on castles, 

Sk. 340. 
casten, caste, kesten, kest, ic, 

[<Scand.; cf Ic. kasta] cast. 
ceald, ME. chald, scliakl, cold, 

chold, aj., [<T. kal-'56-, old pp., 

(80) Sk. 167; 253 c ; 108, < : pre T. 

Vgel, cf. L. gel-u, frost, Brug. 

430] (Goth, kald-s, Ic. kald-r, 

OS. kald, G. kalt) cold. 
ceallian, ME. calle, cal ; prt. ME. 

calde, pp. callit, callyt, callede, 

cald, w. 2, [<T. kallo-, = I.-E. 

*golso-, Brug. 585. 3,? cf Skt. 

Vgar, sing, Gk. ynp-veiv, L. gar- 

rire = *gar-s-Tre, chatter (cf 

Gxnnulous) ; ME. Scand. infiu., 

Ic. kalla, ?Sk. 413 N.] (OFris. 

kella, speak, OHG. challon) 

c^ap, ME.chep,sw., [<T.*kaupo-] 

(O Fris. kdp, OS. kop, OHG. MHG. 

kouf, G. kauf ; cf. L. caupo(n-) 

huckster, Sk. 400; 164) tradr, 

price, bargain, cheap]. 
ceap-monn, ME. chapman, pi. 

-menn, ME. chapmen, 

m., merchant, chapman]. 
cear-ful, ME. earful, aj., [cearu] 

grieving, anxious, careful]. 
cearian, ME. karien, ir. 2, [< 

cearuj (Goth, karon, OS. 

OHG. karon, lament) care, be 




cearu (105 N. 2), ME. kare, sf. 
(253), [<T. karo-, inward la- 
ment] {not L. cura ; Goth, kara, 
OHG. chara, lament, cf. G. kar- 
freitag, ^Good Friday'') sorrow^ 

ceast, ME. cheaste, cheste, cs/., 
(cf. appar. ceas, OFris. kdse, 
OHG. kosa, <L. causa, cause, 
jurid.) strife. 

ceaster, Merc, caester, cester, 
ME. chestre, chesstre, sf. (252 
N. 1 ; 254), [<L.pZ. castra, camp, 
(75. 1) Sk. 398] city (-Chester, 
-caster, -cester). 

ceinpa,keinpa, ME.kempe,to?w., 
[<cainp] (Ic. OFris. kempa, 
cf Ic. kappe, G. kampe) fighter 
= CHAMPION, kemp Sc, soldier. 

c6ne, ME. kene, aj. (299), [<T. 
kon-jo-, vb.aj., v. cunnan, lit. 
one that can know] (Ic. kcenn, 
OHG. chuoni, MHG. kuen, G. 
kuhn) hold; ME: also sharp, 

cennan, ME. kenne, ken, w. 1, 
[<T. kannjon; fac, <cann v. 
cunnan] (Goth, kannjan, G. 
kennen, -ksow) make known, 
acKsowledge, explain ; ME. also 
KNO?/7, perceive. 

ceole, ME. cheole, wf (278), [=T. 
*kelo(n-) (109 a)] {cf. Skt. gala, 
L. gula, OHG. chela, MHG. kele, 
G. kehle) throat. 

ceorfan, ME. kerve ; prt. sg. 
cearf, ME. carf, pi. curfon, 
ME. corven ; pp. corf en, s. 3(7 
(388), [<T. Vkert) (79 a) notch'] 
{cf Gk. ypd<t>-€iv, Sk. 108; 122, 
scratch, write, MHG. kerben, G. 
kerben, w., notch) cut, carve, 

ceosan, ME. cheosen, chese ; pp. 
gecoren (234 a; 306), ME. 
icoren, s. 2 (384), [<T. Vkeus: 
kus, pre T. V gus, taste, cf Skt. 
Vjush, select, enjoy, Gk. yeveiv 
= *7ei5(r-etj', taste, as L. gus-t-are 
>Gus«, Sk. 110; 153. 7; 155] 
(Goth, kiusan, Ic. kjosa, OS. 
kiosan, OHG, chiosan, MHG. 

G. kiesen) prove, test, choose, 
Sk.pp. 171 N., 354 N.l. 

c6pan, ME. kepe, kep, w. I, 
[=T. *k6pjon (94); ??c6ap, 
Sk. 179. 7, Beitr. VIII. 537] keep, 
hold, guard. 

cese, w., [<AF. cesser <L. ces- 
sare, freq. <pp. o/cedere >cede, 
yield] cease, Sk, II. 61 b, leave. 

cest, cist, ME. cseste, cheste, 
chiste, sf, [< L. cista < Gk. 
KiffTv, Sk, 401] (Ic. OHG, kista, 
MHG. G. kiste) chest. 

cete V. cite. 

chald V. ceald. 

chap-nrien v. ceapmonn. 

chap-vare, chaffare, sh., [ceap 
+ faru] traffic, wares, chaffer}. 

charge, sb., [<vb.] load, charge, 
Sk. II, 24 ; 52. 2, 

charge, ic, [<Ar. charger < ML. 
carricare <L, carrus, car, <C. 
cf Ir. carr, cart, Sk. II. 168"' 
load, charge. 

charite, chary te, cherite, sb., [< 
AF. charite, Sk. II. 144 d, <L. 
ace. caritat-em <carus, dear] 
love, charity, Sk. II. 52. 1. 

chaste, ME. a}., [= AF, <L. cas- 
tas, Sk. II, i99, 4] chaste. 

chaumbre, sb., [< AF. chaumbre, 
chambre, Sk. II. 10 ; 145. 1 ; 157, 
< ML, camera < L. camera, vault, 
<Gk. Ka/xdpa, anything with a 
vaulted roof; ?< V kam, bend] 
chamber, Sk. II. 47 ; 54. 3 ; 82. 5. 

chaunce, sb., [<AF. chaunce, OF. 
cheance <ML. cadentia, Sk. II, 
151, a falling, esp. of dice, <prs. 
ptc. of L. cadere, fall] chance, 
Sk. II. 82. 2 ; 90, fortune, mishap, 

chaunge, w., [<AF. chaunger 
<ML. cambiare, Sk. II. 156, 
<LL. cambire] change, Sk. 54. 3, 

chaungyng, vb.-sb., changing. 

cheaste v. ceast. 

chele V. ciele. 

chelle V. cielle. 

cheole v. ceole. 

chep V. c^ap. 




chepinng-bo>e, sb., [<ceap- 
ung, 6 wsmess, + Scand., cf. Ic, 
buo, dwelling, Beitr. X. 85, v. 
biianj CHAFFeri^G-booth, mar- 
ket-booth XVIII. 15573. 

chepture, sb., [<A¥. chapitre, 
capitle <L. capitulum, dim., 
<capit-, St. o/ caput, head, Sk. 
11. 160] chapter, Sk. II. 48. 

Cher, sb., [<Ar. chere<ML. cara 
?< Gk. Kdpa, head] face, counte- 
nance, mien = cheert . 

cherite v. charite. 

chesing, vb.-sb., [<c6osan] 

chesstre v. ceaster. 

cheven, w., [<0F. chevir, come 
to an end, <chef, head^ <ML. 
capum, ace, cf. L. caput, head] 
reach an end, succeed, chieve^. 

chilce, sb., [<cild + -s, cf (258. 
2)] childishness XVI. 7. 

child V. cild. 

rhirche v. cirice. 

(•hold V. ceald. 

Christ- V. crist-. 

chule V. ciele. 

chyvalarye, sb., [<AF. cheval- 
erie < ML. caballerius, rider, < 
L. caballus, nag, Sk, II. 156] 
chiya/ry, Sk. II. 132; 63; 44, 
knights of Christendom. 

ciclatun,s&., [<AF.sicl^atun<ML. 
cycladem, ace, <L. cyclada, ace, 
< Gk. KVKXds, mantle, < kvkXos, 
round, > cycle; ?also cf Arab, 
siqlat, fijie cloth] costly fabric, 
{round) mantle (cf. ciRcuLtzr) 
XIX. 51, cic/atouni. 

ciele, cyle, ME. cliele, cliule, sm. 
(263), [=:T. *kali-z (75. 1), v. 
ceald] chin, Sk. 325, =colcZ. 

cielle, cylle, wf, or cyll, ME. 
clielle, sf (258), [orig. sm., cf 
Ic.kyllir, m., <L. cuUeus, leather 
bottle, infill, cyll, ?<T. = OHG. 
chella, V. Kl. G. kelle, ladle] ves- 
sel, censer XIX. 45. 

cild, ME. child, dat. childe; pi. 
cild, cildru (290 N. 2), ME. 
children >NE., sn., (?cf Goth. kil- 
\>ei,womb)chi/d, Sk.287; 323; 382. 

cild-had, ME. childhad, childhod, 
sm., childhood. 

cin-ban, cimban (187 N.), sn. 
(239.1b), [<cin, chin, in com- 
pos, older meaning ' cheek' (Goth, 
kinnus, Ic. kinn, cf. Skt. h&nu-s, 
jaw, Gk. 7^ws, also '■hatcheVs 
edge,' L. gena, Sk. 110; 208) 
+ b a n < T. baino- , bone, Sk, 1 56] 
(OHG. chinnebein, G. kinnbein) 
jaw-bone, Sk. 293. 

cine- V. cyne-= 

cing, cining v. cyning. 

cirice, ME. kirke, chirche, kyrk, 
wf, [?<Goth. *kyreika<L. Gk. 
KvpiaK-fj, f lit. belonging to a 
lord, < Kvpios, lord, eccl. the Lord 
(Christ), (cf. Kvpos, might) <v'ku, 
swell] church, kirk, Sk. 325; 390. 

cite, site, citee, cete, citie, sb., 
[^AF. cite <L. civita(t-)s < 
civis, citizen, Sk. II. pp. 205, 
232] city. 

clAfS, ME. c\6\>, cloth, sm., (OFris. 
klath, Du. kleed, MHG. kleit, 
G. kleid) cloth, clothes, cover, 
sail XXIX. 105. 

clsene, cl6ne, ME. cleane, clene, 
aj., [<T. *klaini-] (OS. kl6ni, 
6 Fris. kl^n, OHG. chleini, 
MHG. klein(e), also little, G. 
klein, small) clean, pure, chaste, 
fine, bright. 

clgfene, ME. clene, av. (315), clean, 

clsfen-lice, ME. clanly, av., cleanly, 

cleanness, ME. clenenesse, clen- 
nesse, clenesse, sf, cleanness. 

cls&nsian, ME. clenze, ic. 2, [fac. 
WT. klainison, T. *-izojon, r. 
clsfene, «;. -f-s- (185.2 b) Sk. 
263] cleanse. 

cleane v. clsene. 

clene v. clsene. 

cl6ofan, ME. eleven ; prt. sg. 
deaf, pi. clufon; pp. clo- 
fen, s. 2 (384), [<T. V kleub 
(64) <T. : N/klftb < Vgltlbh, cf 
Gk. y\v(p-€iv, engrave, >GhYPtic, 
?L. glub-ere (= *glubh-) peel, Sk. 
108; 122] (Ic. kljiifa, OS. klio- 





ban, OHG. chlioban, MHG. G. 
klieben) cleave^ split. 

cleopian (109b), clypian, ME. 
clupien, clepen, clepe ; prt. cly- 
p o d e, ME. clepede, clepecl ; pp. 
ME. icluped, icleped, iclepe'S, 
cleped, yc/ep''c/ (Milton), w. 2, 
[T. *klip6jon] call, — out, name, 

clere, ME. av.^ [<AF. aj., cler 
<L. clarus] clearly — c I ear\. 

cleric, clerc, ME. clerk, clere, 
siti.^ [<eccl. L. clericus <Gk. 
KXrjpiKds <k\t7pos, a lot, Sk. 401] 
CLERGyman, scholar, parish- 
clerk, clerk, Sk. 381. 

cler-liche, clyerlyche, av., clearly. 

eleven v. cleofan. 

clif, ME. clif, dat. clive, sn. (241), 
[?<;>/). *clifen, Sk. 176, v. 
clive] (Ic. OS. klif, OHG. 
kleb) cliff. 

clive, s., [=*cllfan (^ffcli- 
fan) adhere (382), Scand. iri/?M., 
cf. Ic. klifa, CLiwB, <T. Vklif, 
kl!b, CLEAVE to'] (OS. bikllban, 
adhere, also OHG. chliban >caus. 
G. kleiben, glue) CLimB. 

cloJ> V. claS". 

cloth V. claS". 

cl6stor-loc, ME. pi. clusterlokan, 
sn. (239 b), [<clAstor, lock, 
barrier, prison, < ML. claustrum 
<L. genl. pi. clustra,, 
<pp. of claudere, cLose + loc 
<pp. o/16can, s. 2 (385), lock, 
Sk. 177] barrier, CLOi8TERt = m- 
CLOswre XVII. 49. 

clyer-liche v. clerliche. 

clypian v. cleopian. 

clyppan, ME. cluppen, clippe ; 
prt. clypte (405.1,2), w. 1, 
embrace, clip (Shak.). 

cnaeht v. cniht. 

cnapa, ME. knape, wm., (cf. Ic. 
knapi, OS. knapo, OHG. knappo, 
MHG. G. knappe, all = squire, 
attendant) boy, young man, 
KNAVEf, ?Sk. 348. 

cnawe v. gecnavvan. 

cnear, cnearr, sm., [<Scand., 
cf. Ic. knorr] ship X. 69 ; (used 

for the galleys of the North- 

cn6o-mgfeg, sm. (240), [v. cno-sl 
in geogutf-] KiNsm«w. 

cn6ow, cneo, ME. kneo, kne ; 
pi. ME. kneon, sn. (250. 2), [com- 
mon I.-E. ; <T. knew-o- (174. 1) 
Sk. 211 ; 103, <I.-E. infl. gnew- 
<gnu-, cf. Skt. janu, Gk. 'ybw, 
L. genu] (Goth, kniu, Ic. kne, 
OS. knio, OHG. kniu, MHG. G. 
knie) knee, Sk. 355. 

cneowung, ME. kneouwunge, 
sf, \yb.-sb. <cn6o\vian < 
cneow] kneeling, entreating. 

cnew V. gecndvt^an. 

cniht (101), Merc, cneht, Nh. 
cnaeht, ME. knight, knict, 
knicth, knith, kny3t, sm., \_prob. 
WT.,?=*cyniht, Sk. 223b; 
T. Vken (83) < V gen, beget] 
(OHG. cneht, MHG. G. knecht) 
boy, youth, servant; ME. = 
knight, soldier. 

cnoU, ME. knoll, sm., (cf. Welsh 
cnol, MHG. knolle, clod, as G. 
knollen) top, summit XIV. 53, 

cnotten, w., [<cnotta, wm., 
knot] knot ; pp. = aj. knotted 
XV. 25. 

cocur, ME. coker, sm., [<T. 
*kokro- > ML. cucurum > OF. 
cuivre > quiver] (OHG. choh- 
har, MHG. kocher, G. kocher) 


coge, cogge, sb., [injlu. Du. or 

Scand. <0r. coque <ML. conche 

< L. concha, a shell] (MDu. 

kogghe, Ic. kuggr) ship, cock 

(-boat), cogi. 
col, ME. cole, S7i. (239.1b), [<T. 

kolo-, burning coal; ?cf. Skt. 

Vjval, blaze, Sk. 114] (Ic. kol ; 

OHG. Choi, MHG. kol, cf G. 

kohle, /.) coal. 
cold V. ceald. 
collen-ferhac, aj., [collen, pp. 

<*c(v*r)ellaii, s.3 5(387N.3), 

swell -{-ferhtf, spirit, v. feorh] 

inspirited VI. 134. 
com, c6m v. cuman. 




comaunde, pp. comaundid, w., 
[< OF. comander < ML. com- 
mandare<L. con-, io«^/i+ man- 
dare, commit., intrust] command. 

come, comen, comm v. cuman. 

commandement, s&., [< AF. co- 
maundement < ML, Command- 
amentum < commandare < L. 
com- intens. -\- man-dare, com- 
mit., <manus, hand., + dare, give] 

commencemient, s&., [<AF. co- 
mence-ment < comencer, begin, 

< ML. *cominitiare < L. com-, 
m^ens., + initiare, lynriate, <in- 
itium, a beginning, <in-, in, -f- 
Tre, go] commencement. 

commendacioune, sb., [<0F. 
-cion < L. commendatio(n-) < 
pp. of com-mendare, intrnst to] 

comoii, comuu v. cuman. 

compile, ^o., [< AF. com-piler] 
compile, ivrite. 

con V. ginnan, cunuan. 

conceile, u\, [<AF. conseiller < 
conseil, sb., <L. consilium, de- 
liberation, < con-sulere, con- 
sult] counsel, Sk. II. 69; 77.2. 

concyens, sb., [<AF. conscience 

< L. con-scientia] conscience, 
Sk. II. 06. 

condel, can del, ME. candele, 
candle, sf. (258.1), [<L. can- 
dela, 8k.* 82 ; 400, <candere, be 
iiahite] candle, sun X. 30. 

couferme, w., [<0F. confermer 
<L. con-firmare <firmus, firm] 

conforme, lo., [<0F. conformer < 
L. con-formare,/asAion, < forma, 
form] conform. 

confortien, ic, [<AF. conforter 

< ML. con-f ortare, strengthen, 
<L. fortis, strong] strengthen, 
encourage, comfort, Sk. II. 67. 

confunde, w., [<0F. confondre 
<L. con-fundere, pour out to- 
gether, cowfuse] confound XXVI. 
94, disconcert. 

conne v. cunnan. 

consedere, w., [<AF. considerer 

<L. con-siderare, inspect, ?orig. 
the stars, < sider-, st. of sidus, 
star] consider, Sk. II. p. 95 a?id 

contemplacyone, sb., [<0F. con- 
templacion <L. contemplation- 
em, ace, <pp. of con-templari 
<templum, lit. mark out a tem- 
ple] contemplation. 

contesse, sb. f, [<Ar. contesse 
<0F. conte, comte, -f /. suff. 
-esse, <ML. comitem, ace, a 
count, in L. companion, <com, 
cum, \nith] countess, Sk. II. 69 ; 

contrarle, aj., [<AF. contrMe, 
Sk. II. 66 ; 90, < L. contrarius 
< contra, against, -\- -arius] con- 

converte, w., [<0F. convertir <L. 
con-vertere] turn round, convert, 
Sk. II. 40. 

coot, dat. coote, sb., [<AF. cote 
<ML. cota, tunic, <T. *kotto-, 
cf. OS. cott, OHG. chozzo, G. 
kotze, coarse cloth] coat, Sk. IL 

corage, sb., [<AF. corage <ML. 
*coraticum < L. cor, heart, 
4- -aticum] courage, Sk. II. 75. 1 : 

eorde, sb., [< AF. corde < ML. 
corda<L. chorda > chord, <Gk. 
XopH, gut-string] cord. 

corn, sn., [<T. korno-, a single 
GRAIN, KERNfeZ, Sk. 108; 221, < 
I.-E. gfno- <: Vger-, grind; cf. L. 
granum] (Goth, kaurn, Ic. OS. 
korn, OHG. chorn, MHG. korn) 

corn, GRAIN. 

coroune, krune, Sk. II. 69, sb., 

[<AF. coroune, corone, Sk. II. 

45; 145.5; 153, <L. coronam, 

ace, v/kur, cvnve] CIc. kruna) 

cors V. course, 
corven v. ceorfan. 
coste, sb., [<AF. coste<ML. L. 

costa, rib, ML. = coast] coast, 

border = region. 
costigan, u\ 2, [ceosan] {cf. L. 

gustare, taste ; OS. OHG. coston, 




MHG. G. kosten, test by tasting, 

G. - taste) try, put to the proof, 

V. 2840. 
cosyn, sb., [<AF. cosin <ML. 

cosinus <L. con-sobrinus, prop. 

child of a mother'' s sister, <soror, 

siHter, 4- -inus] cousin, Sk. II. 29 ; 

74.3, kinsman. 
oou V. c6. 
counceil, counseil, sb., [v. conceile, 

Sk. II. p. 230] counsel. 
course, cors, sb., [<AF. cours, 

(ML. corsu) <L. cursus <pp. of 

currere, riui] course, running. 
couth V. ginnan. 
couthe V. cunnan. 
cou}>e V. cunnan. 
coveiit, sb., [<Ar. cuvent, cf. 

Covent Garden, <eccl. L., L. 

conventus, assembly, <pp. o/con- 

venire, come together'] convent. 
cover, to., [?<0F. (re-)covrer <L. 

(re-)cuperare ; cf. ML. cupera- 

mentum, acquisition'] recover. 
cradol, ME. cradel, sm., (< ?C. 

Sk. 412] cradle. 
craeft, ME. craft, crafte, sm., [<T. 

kraf-to-z, strength, Sk. 223 b] 

(Ic. krapt-r, OS. craft, OHG. 

chraft, MHG. G. kraft) strength, 

art, knowledge, craft. 
craet, ME. karrte, sn., [?=*c8ert 

??<C. Sk. 412] (Welsh cart, Ir. 

cairt, ME. influ. Ic. kartr) cart. 
crafian, ME. craven, w. 2., (?< 

Scand., cf. Ic. krefja) crave, 

Creacas VIII. 54, sm. pi., \_for 

Cr^cas (58 N.) = Gr6cas, 

Gr6c, sg., <L. Graecus, sb.aj., 

<Gk. TpaiKds, a Greek] Greeks. 
creacl v. cr6dan. 
creature, creatur, sb., [<Ar. 

creatur, Sk. II. p. 114, <LL. 

creatura <pp. of creare, older 

cer-, create] creature. 
cr6opan, ME. crepen, s. 2 (384), 

[<T. V*kreup (64) :*krup] (Ic. 

krjiipa, O Fris. kriapa, cf. OHG. 

chriochan, crawl, MHG. G. 

kriechen) creep. 
cringan, prt. pi. c r u n g o n X. 20, 

s. 3 A (386), fall, (cringe?, Sk. 
148; 338). 

crisine-clojj, sb., [< c r i s m a, AF. 
cresme, <eccl. L. chrisma <Gk. 
Xpta-fia, unguent, Sk. II. 276. 8] 
chrisom-cloth, 07'ig., ? white cloth 
tied round the head of the 
anointed child. 

cristen, ME. cristen, cristin, chris- 
ten, aj., [<eccl. L. christianus, 
Sk. 401, = Gk. xpt(maj'6s <x/3icr- 
t6s, Cnm^T=i the anointed] chris- 
ten^, CHRISTIAN, Sk. II. 93 ; ME. 
cristen, sb., cristen-man, chris- 
tene-man, criste-man, a chris- 

cristen-d6in, ME. cristendom, 
cristenndom, sm., christian 
faith XVI. 294, Christendom. 

cristenty, sb., [<AF. cristient^ 
(OF. cristientet) <eccl. L. chris- 
tianitat-em, ace, v. cristen] 
CHRISTIANITY, Sk. II. 93, chrls- 

Cristes-cir ice, ME . Cristeschirche ? 
wf., Chr/stchurch,= Canterbury 
Cathedral VII. 3. 

eristnian, ME. cristene, cristen, 
w.2, \_fac. <cristen] christen. 

cr6h?, pi. croos XXIII. 16, sb., 
[cr6g, CROCK, Sk. 412 (OHG. 
chruog, MHG. kruoc, G. krug)] 

cronycle, sb., [<AF. cronicle < 
cronike, Sk. IL 111, (OF. cro- 
nique) < ML. chronica <Gk. xpo- 
vi.Kd<xp(ivos, time] chronicle, Sk. 
II. 93 ; m. 

cr6os V. cr6h. 

cros, sb., [< Scand., cf Ic. kross 
(OF. crois) < L. cruc-em, ace. ; 
V. OE. gealga, r6d] (Ir. and 
prov. cros) cross. 

cros-sayl, sb., cross-sail, mizzen 

crucet-hus, sb., [<L. sb. = pp. of 
cruciare, torment, <crux, cross] 
house of torment, (a short, nar- 
rovj and shalloio chest) XV. 29. 

crucifie, ic, [<AF. crucifier <LL. 
cruci-flgere, fix on a cross] cru- 
cify, Sk. n. 78.1. 




*crudaii, ME. crude, croude ; prt. 
cr6adX. 69, s. 2 (384-5), Sk. 
152 ; 177, (M Du. kruiden) crowd, 
press, hurry. 

cry, s&., [<Ar, cri, crie, <vh.'\ 
cry, Sk. II. 64. 1. 

cryen, cry, w., [< AF. cryer, crier, 
oMer cridar, cf. It. gridare, <L. 
quirltare] cry. 

c6, ME. cou, pi. ME. ken, M. um.f. 
(284 N. 1, 2), [<T. ko- = I.-E. 
ace. g6m<gow-, Sk. pp. 120, 122, 
cf. m. and /., Skt. gam ; cf. Gk. 
/SoiJs, St. j8o/r-, L. bos, St. bov-] 
(Ic. kyr, ace. kii, OS. ko, OHG. 
chuo, MHO. kuo, G. kuh, Sk. p. 
110) cow, Sk. 46 ; 161 ; 188. 

cubit, sh., [<L. cubitum < cubare, 
lie, Sk. p. 442] cubit. 

cucu V. cwic. 

cudde V. cyafan. 

ctSS, ME. cu«, cuK aj., [= T. 
kun->o- (185. 2) = I.-E. gn-to-, 
V. cunnan, Sk, 253 a] (Goth. 
kunj)-s, OS. ciitli, G. kund) 
visown, familiar y couth i. 

culd'e V. cunnan. 

culufre, ME. cullfre, vf, [??<L. 
columba, Sk. 400] dove, culver 

cuman, Merc, cyman, Nh. 
cyma, cymma, ME. cumen, 
cumenn, kumen, comen, cumme, 
cume, come, cum ; prt. cwom, 
cvom, cuoni, quoin, c6ni, 
ME. com, comm, cam, kam, 
come, pi. cw6raun, cw6- 
mon, cw6man, cv6inon, 
cu6inun, cw6inu, c6mon, 
cdmun, ME. comen, comenn, 
come, camen ; pp. cumen, ME. 
(i)cume(n), ikumen, (y)come(n), 
cumin, comyn, cummen, comun, 
s. 4 (390 N. 2) Sk. 144, [= *c w 1- 
man (69) < T. kwemon < T. 
V kwem — pre T. V gwem for 
V*gem, Sk. 114, cf. Skt. gam, 
go, Gk. ^alpcLP = *yf:€fij€iv, go, 
L. venire = *gwemire] (Goth, 
qiman, Ic. koma, OS. cuman, 
OHG. queman, MHG. komen, 
G. kommen) come. 

cuinbol-gehuad or -gehnast 

(267aN. 1; 232c), sn., [cum- 
bol, banner, gehnad, conflict, 
cf. gehnsegan, w. 1, press 
down, <hnigan] battle X. 

cumpany, sb., [< AF. cumpainnie, 
compaignie < ML. *compania, 
*compagna < L. com-, together, 
+ panis, bread] company, Sk. II. 

cummyng, comyng, cumyne, 
vb.-sb., [cuman] coming. 

cun V. cyn. 

cunnan, ME. kunnen, cunne, 
kunne ; can, con (65), 
ME. con, kon, can, kan, NE. 
can, pi. cunnon, ME. kunnen, 
cunne, kunne, conne, kane, kan, 
NE. can; prt. cASfe (185.2) 
Sk. 346; 75, c6af?, ME. ku«e, 
cujje, coube, NE. could, Sk. 342 ; 
354, p>rt.-prs. s. 3 (422. 5), [<T. 
kunnon, st. kann-, allied to 
V kne : kno, v. gecnawan, 
< V gen, wsow, Sk. 108 ; I.-E. 
1. prs. *gn-na-mi, Kl.] (Goth. 
OS. kunnan, Ic. kunna, OHG. 
chunnan, MHG. kunnen, G. 
konnen) K^oio=can^, cowt, un- 
derstand, (later) be able, can. 

cunne v. cyn. 

cunnian, ME. cunne; prt. cun- 
node, u\2, [<cunnan] (Goth, 
ga-kunnan, read, consider; OS. 
gi-kunnon) try, test V. 2846, 
co/it, Sc. cun. 

cuom V. cuman. 

cuppe, ME. cuppe, wf, [<ML. 
cuppa <L. ctipa, cask, Sk. 400] 

custome, sb., [< AF. custume 
<ML. custuma <type *consue- 
tumina, pi., <L. con-suetudin- 
em, ace, Sk. II. 153] custom. 

cu)> V. cAiS". 

cu)>e V. cunnan. 

cv'om V. cuman. 

cwacian, ME. quaken ; prt. cwa- 
code, ME. quaked and quoke, 
Sc. quok, w. 2, ME. also s. 6, 




cweartern, ME. quarterne, s«., 
l?Jiyb. <ML. quartarium, quar- 
Tern,+ seru, sn. place'] prison 
XIV. 81. 

cweffan, Nh. c woe Iff a (156), 
cvei3ra,cue9'a, cuosaCa, Merc. 
cw8e>an, ME. que'Sen; prt. 
cwaftff, Nh. cvaelS", cv^d, 
eves', cueS, cvoeac, cuaeS, 
ME. ewe's, que)), quaj>, quatS, 
quat, quod, NE. quoth, quod], 
pL cwgfedun (234 b) Sk. 133, 
cw^sedon, Nh. cvcfedon, 
cw^edun, ME. cwseSen ; pp. 
cw^eden, gecw^eden, ME. 
iqueden, gecwse'Sen, s. 5, (391) 
Sk. 146, [<T. kwei>on] (Goth. 
qi)>an, Ic. kve^a, OS. que'San, 
OHG. quedan, MHG. queden) 
say, call, cwist )?6 or cwej>e 
g6 in questions suggests neg. 
answer, ie. = L. num, -ne; (c/. 

cwellan, ME. cwellen, quelle ; 
prt. ewe aide, w. 1 C (407 a), 
[=*cwalljan (228 ; 177) caus. 
<prt. o/ cwelan, s. 4 (390), 
die, <T.N/kwel <\/gwei, Sk. 114 ; 
192 /3] (Ic. kvelja, OHG. quellen, 
MHG. queln, G. qualen, torture) 
kill, {quell). 

cweman, ME. cweman, queme, 
j9p. ME. icwemed, w. 1, [ge- 
c w 6 m e] satisfy, please. 

cw6n, ME. kwene, queue, sf. (269), 
[r^*cw6ni- (68 N. 1 ; 94 b) 
<T. kw£eni-<I.-E. gweni-, Sk. 
114 ; 207] (Goth. q6ns, Ic. kvan, 
OS. qudn; cf. cwene, wf., > 
quean, Gk. yvp-^, Goth, qino, Ic. 
kona, OS. OHG. quena) woman, 
esp. the noble lady, queen, Sk. 

cwencan, ME. cwenche, quenche, 
w. 1, [=*cwanclan (89. 1; 
177) caus. <prt. of cw^lncaii, 
s. 3 A (386), vanish, Sk. 148; 
175] quench, Sk. 325. 

cwic (71), cucu (172 N.), ME. 
quik, aj. (303), [=T. *kwikw- < 
T. kwiwo- < V gwi w, live, cf. Skt. 
jlvds, Gk. pLos, life, Sk. 103 b ; 

114; 245] (cf. L. vivus = *gwivus, 
Goth, qius; Ic. kvik-r, OHG. 
quec (chec), MHG. kec, G. keck, 
pert) quick = living, alive. 

cwiddian, ME. quidde ; prt. 
cw^iddode, w.2, [cf. cw^ido, 
sm. (263), speech, <cwe3'aii] 

cwist v. cw^eSPan. 

cwoeiafa V. cweiJan. 

cwom V. cuman. 

cw6mu(n) v. cuman. 

cydde v. cyiSPan. 

cyfSan, ME. kySen, kil^en, kij^enn, 
cu5e, ku'Se ; prt. cy'Sde, 
cydde (405. 3),' ME. cudde, 
kydde, kid, kyd, u\ 1 (403), 
[<T. kunMon (96 a; 177) Sk. 
191. 6, V. c6S] (OS. kii^ian, 
OHG. chunden, MHG. kunden, 
MHG. G. kunden) make KNOi^n, 
announce VIII. 2, shov:, k/theh 

cyarS?, ME. kit>>e, sf (255. 3), 
[=*cAaP-i-J>a- (96 a), Sk. 197; 
223 a, <cii!af] (OHG. chundida, 
MHG. kunde) acQvxmtance, kith, 
native land, home. 

cySniss, cyiSFnis, cySfnisse, 
sf, \_abs. <cii9'] testimony. 

cygan (31 N.), prt. cygde (408.3), 
w. 1 (409), [= ciegan (97 ; 99) 
<*c6agan (410 N.) <WT. 
*kaujan (63; 176)] call. 

cyme, ME. kime, sm. (263), 
[<*cumi- (95) < cuman] 
(Goth, qums, OS. kumi, OHG. 
chumi) coMing, ad\v.^t. 

cym(m)a v. cuman. 

cyn, ME. cun, kun ; gen. cyn- 
nes, ME. cunnes, kunnes; Nh. 
pi. cynno, sn. (246), [<WT. 
kunnja- (95 ; 228) < T. kun-jo-, 
(I.-E. gn- jo-) Sk. 194 ; 209 ; 103 a ; 
108, < T. V kun : ken < V gen, be- 
gef] {cf Gk. '^^v-os ; L. gen-ius, 
GENIUS, Goth, kuni, Ic. kyn, 
OS. kunni, OHG. chunni, MHG. 
kunne) kin, Sk. 287(1), Kixd, 

cynd, ME. kinde, kynde, kende, 
kynd, sfn. (269 N. 4; 267 b, 
N. 4), [=*cundi- <T. V kun, 




V. cynde] kind, Sk. 378, na- 

ture, 'SAtive quality XXVII. 1, 

race XXI. 13:J9. 
cynde, ME. kynde, aj., [=r*cund-, 

cf. aj.suff. -cund <T. Vkun, v. 

cyn,-{- pp. suff. -d-] sxtural, in- 
born = kind f. 
cyne-d6in, ME. kinedom, sm., 

[cyne-, in compos., Kisgly, < 

cyn, cf. cyning] KAscfdom, 

cyne-rice, kynerice, MP], kine- 

riche, sn. (246), vii-sgdom. 
cyne-r6f, aj., [r6f, v. sige-] 

royally {very) brave VI. 200. 
cyne-scr6d? ME. kinescrud, sn., 

royal robe. 
cyne-st6I, ME. kinestol, sm.,royal 

stool = throne. 
cyning, kyning, kyninc, cin 

ing, cing, ME. kyng, king, 

sm., [prob. < c y n -^^ patronymic 

suff. -ing, lit. belonging to a 

kin,? i.e. of noble kin, Sk 108; 

241 a ; an old T. word] (Ic. 

konung-r, OS. kuning, OFris. 

kining, OHG. chuning, cf chu- 

nig, MHG. kunic, G. kouig) king. 
cyn-Iic, aj., Jilting. 
cyrtel, cyrtil, ME. kirtel, sm., 

Nh.also n.f [?<Ic. kyrtill <L. 

curtus, short'] kirtle, tunic. 
cyssan, ME. kissen, kysse, kesse ; 

prt. cyste (405. 1, 2), ME. 

keste, w. 1, [=:T. kussion (95; 

177) Sk. 194 a] (Ic. kyssa, OS. 

kussian, OHG. chussen, MHG. 

G. kussen) kiss, ME. kyssyng, 

vb.-sb. kissing. 
cytee v. cite. 


dsed, ME. dede {cf. 269 N. 5), sf 

(269), [<T. d^Sil (91), Sk. 224 c, 

< T. V dee : do, -y. d 6 n, + pp. suff. 

-d-] (Goth. ga-d6b-s, Ic. ddS, OS. 

dad, OHG. MHG. G. tat) deed, 

Sk. 48 ; 163; 313. 
daeg, ME. daei, daj, da33, da3h, 

dai, day, dei; pi. da gas, ME. 

da3es, da3hess, dseies, dayes. 

I daiis, dais; dat. pi. dagum, 
I ME. dawe (bro3t of lyves dawe 
skilled XXXII. 1159), sm. 
(240), [<T.dago- (49) <*5agoz 
— I.-E. dhoghos <: V*dhegh, cf. 
Skt. Vdah, burn] (Goth, dag-s, 
Ic. dag-r, OS. dag, OHG. MHG. 
tac, G. tag) day, Sk. p. 304; 
323.3, 376, t6 dseg(e) (237 
N.2) > to-day. 

daeg-red (57 N.2), ME. daired, 
sn., [=*dseg-r6ad] {cf OHG. 
tagarod) Dxwn. 

dgfel, ME. del, dal, dol, sm. (266), 
[<T. dai-li- (90), -lo- >ddl 
>dole] (Goth, dail-s, OS. del, 
OHG. MHG. G. teil) part, por- 
tion =deati, Sk. 390; sura del, 
very; never a del, not in the 

dselan, ME. deale, tv. 1, [=*da- 
lian (403; 90; 177 b) <dal v. 
dee I] (Goth, dailjan, OS.d^lian, 
OHG. MHG. G. teilen) deaf, di- 
vide, part, distribute to. 

daennede v. dennian. 

dsere v. deore. 

daerne v. dyrne. 

dae> v. deals'. 

dainpne, w. , [< OF. dampner, 
damner < L. damnare < dam- 
num, damage, Jine] damn, con- 


dar V. durran. 

daraij (105), darelff, daroaf, 

sm. (245), [Ic. darra5-r, OHG. 
tart, a T. icord > ML. dardus > 
AF. dart > dart] L. telum, dart. 

darrst v. durran. 

darstae, darste v. durran. 

daunger, sb., [<AF. dangler, 
p7'ob. <ML. dominiarium <L. 
dominium, eminent domain, < 
dominus, lord] power, jurisdic- 
tion = danger^ . 

daunte, lo., [<AF. danter, Sk. II. 
145. 5 , 157, <L. domitare, freq. 
<pp. of domare, tame] tame, 
S7ibdue = daunts, Sk. II. 82.3. 

dawe, day(e) v. daeg. 

de V. deien. 

d6ad, Nh. also d6od, ME. dead^ 




died, ded, deed, dede, aj., [<T. 
dau-'So- (68), <-t>o-, I.-E. -to-, 
w. pp. form < s. vb. T, V dau, v. 
deien, 8k. 263 c ; p. 154] (Goth, 
ddub-s, Ic. dau'6'-r, OS. dod, 
OHG. MHG. tot, G. tot) dead. 

deiia", deU, Nh. decaf (273 N. 1), 
Merc, dead, ME. deaS, dea^, 
dead, die 5, de^S, dae]?, deeth, 
deK deth, ded, dede, sm. (273), 
[<T. vb. abs. dau-^u-, Sk. 225, 
V. d6ad] (Goth, ddu^-us, OS. 
doS, OHG. tod, MHG. tot, G. 
tod, Sk. 60) death. 

deaff-dtfig, Nh. dfeothd^g, ME. 
deethday, sm.., day of death. 

deadiga, d6odiga Nh., w. 2, 
[dead] die. 

deale v. dselan. 

dear v. durrau. 

dearf, Nh., ME. derf, derff, a/., 
[<prt. of deorfan, .s. S C 
(388), laboiir] (Ic. djarf-r, OS. 
derhi) bold. 

deaw, ME. dew, deu, S7n. n. (250. 
1), [<T. dauwo- (63), Sk. 211, 
pre T. dhawo-, ?cf. Skt. V dhSv, 
flow^ (Ic. dogg, cf. Eris. dawe, 
dat. sg.; OHG. MHG. ton, G. 
tau) dew XIII. 52. 

deciple v. disciple. 

declare, w., [<AF. declarer <L. 
declarare < de, from, + clarus, 
cleak] make clear, explain 
= declared, Sk. II. 54.4. 

dede v. dgfed, d6ad, deaS", d6n. 

deiac V. don. 

deafe V. deaS". 

dee V. deien. 

deed v. dead. 

deeth v. deaS*. 

defel V. deofol. 

defend, w., [<AF. defendre <L., 
V. defens] fend of, defend, Sk. 
II. 58.1. 

defens, sb., [<AF. defense <LL. 
defensa<79p. o/ de-f endere, beat 
off] defence. 

degol IV. 21 (97 N.), ME. disel, 
aj., [=T. *daug-ilo- (99; 63): 
*daugolo- (128. 3)] (OHG. tou- 
gal) secret. 

dei V. daeg. 

deien, deie, deye, de, dee, w., 
[<Scand. <T. Vdau, v. d6ad; 
Ic. deyja, s. vb.] (cf. Goth. 
*diwan, s., OS. doian, OHG. 
MHG. touwen) die, Sk. 426 b, 
Sc. dee. 

del V. dsel. 

delay, sb., [= AF. < delayer, f6., 
<ML. dilatare, lit. dilate, <L. 
di-latus, borne apart] delay, Sk. 
II. 79. 

delite, sb., [< AF. delit < deliter, 
V. delytte] delight, Sk. II. 64. 3 ; 

delytte, ic, [<AF. deliter <L. de- 
lectare, freq., <delicere, allure] 

dema, ME. deme, lom., [deman] 

deman, Nh. doe in a, d6nia?, 
ME. demen, deme ; pr^. demde 
(404), ME. denied ; pp. doe mid 
II. 5, gedemed, ME. idemed, 
idemd, w.\ (409), [<T. domion 
(403), Sk. 196, <d6m] (Goth, 
domjan, Ic. doema, OS. a-domian, 
OHG. tuomen, MHG. tuemen) 
deem, Sk. 72, judge, doom, ex- 
pound, adjudge. 

demembre, w., [<ML. demem- 
brare <L. de-^nv. + membrum, 
member; cf. AF. des-membre] 
Dismember, dememberi. 

dennian, prt. dennade, den- 
node, W.2, [?<denn, sn. den] 
hide, become hidden, only X. 24, 
cf. ME. dennien, e.g. Morris 
Spec, I. xii. 36, hide, dwell; 
Ett. : become slippery? Wiilker, 
Grein (Baskervill & Harrison), 
become firm, smooth, slippery?; 
other's: dynnan, din, resound. 

dente, pj). dent, ic, [for indenten?, 
<0F. endenter < ML. in-dentare 
<den(t-)s, TOOTH ; influ. dynten, 
strike] dent, indent. 

d^odiga V. deadiga. 

d^off V. d^HfS. 

deofol, ME. deofel, deovel, de- 
vell(e), dyevel, devel, gen. ME. 
deofles, dovles, defless • pi. ME. 




deofles, deovles, deoflen, gen. 
deoflene, sm. n., [<eccl. L. diabo- 
lus (114. 2) Sk. 401, < Gk. 816.^0- 
Xos, orig. slanderer., <did-, across, 
+ ^dXXetv, throw'] (Goth, diabaii- 
lus, OS. diubal, OHG. tiuval, 
MHG. tiuvel, G. teufel) devi/. 

d6op, ME. dep, aj., [<WT. deupo-, 
(64) Sk. 243, <T. : V dtip, dip, < 
v'dhub, Sk. 120] (Goth, diup-s, 
OS. diop, OHG. tiuf, MHG. G. 
tief, Sk. 63) deep. 

deor, ME. deor, der, sn. (239 b), 
[< T. deuzso- (64 ; 181. 2) = 
I.-E. dheuso- < : V dhus, breath] 
(Goth, dius, gen. diuzis, cf. Ic. 
dyr; OS. dior, OHG. tior, MHG. 
G. tier, Sk. 165) animal (wild), 

d§ore, dyre (100), ME. deore, 
dsere, dere, supl. derrist, aj. 
(298), [<T. *deurjo- (64), Sk. 
246] (cf. Ic. dyrr; OS. diuri, OHG. 
tiuri, MHG. tiure, G. teuer) dear, 
beloved, of great value. 

d6ore, ME. deore, dure, av., dearly. 

deor-wurS", d6or\vurl5'e, ME. 
deorewur5e,«j., [-wyrS'e] dear, 

deoth- v. d^aaf-. 

deovel v. d6ofol. 

depart, to., [<AF. departir <L. 
dis- (apart) + partire, vwide, 
<par(t-)s, part] part, Distrib- 
ute = departs, ME. departyng, 
vb.-sb. Division, parting — depart- 

der V. durran. 

dere v. deore. 

dereinen, w., [< AF. dereiner, 
<ML. de-rationare, justify, esp. 
by arms, <-rationare, contend in 
law, <L. ration-em, ace, reason, 
Sk. II. 29] defend one'^s cause, 
vindicate a claim, deraigni, de- 

derf V. dearf. 

derfly, ME. av., [dearf] boldly. 

derian, ME. derie, iv. 1 (400), 
[=*darjan (228) <daru, sf. 
injury] injure. 

derne v. dyrne. 

dernli, ME. av., [<derne-f 

-lice] secretly. 
derrist v. d^ore. 

des, sb., [<0r. deis, AF. dois, 
Sk. II. p. 208, high table, <ML. 
discus, table, in'L.^DiSH, discus, 
<Gk. SiaKos, DISK, qitoit] dais. 

desert, sb., [<AF. deserte <2)p. 
of deservir, deserve, < L. deser- 
vire, serve diligently, ML. = de- 
serve] desert, recompense. 

dest v. d6ii. 

det, sb., [< AF. dette < ML. debita 
<L. debitum, n. pp. of debere, 
oive, < de-,from, -f habere, have] 
debt, Sk. 2). 324. 

deth V. d§a9f. 

de]> V. deaS". 

devel V. d6ofol. 

devocyoun, sb., [<AF. devocioun. 

Sk. 11. 

1, <L. dev6tio(n-) 

<2}p. ofde-,fro7n, -vovere, yoic] 

devoutly, ME. av., [<ME. devout 
<0F. devot <L. devotus, demoted, 
pp. of de-vovere, vow, -f ly] de- 

dew, ME. aj., [< OF. deu < ML./or 
L. debitus, owed, pp. of debere, 
v. det] due, by right XXX. 61. 

deye v. deien. 

deyng, vb.-sb., [deien] dying. 

dfacon, ME. diakne [= AF. diacne, 
Sk. II. 22], dekne, sm., [<eccl. 
L. diaconus < Gk. bidKovos, orig. 
servant, Sk. 401] deacon. 

die, ME. dich, diche, sm., later f., 
[<T. diko-, a channel DiGGed] 
(Ic. dik-i, OS. dik, fish pond as 
MHG. tich, G. teich ; Du. dijk, 
bank) ditch, Sk.^?. 62, dike. 
i dide V. don. 

died V. dead. 

diel5 V. deaaf, d6n. 

dihtan, ME. di3te, to. 1, [<L. die- 
tare, repeat, Dictate, Sk. 400] 
set in order, ordain, dighti. 

dinges, X. 108, MS. Cott. Tib. A, 
VI dynges ; MS. Cott. Tib. B, 
IVdyniges, ?gen.<dyn, sm. 
(247), [-jo- St., V. dynnan] 
din; ''noisy sea,^^ Guest, 




?Thorpe, Earle, Toller; Ett., 
^^dungy, dingy = miry sea, cf. 
Virg. Aen. 5. 333. 

disciple, deciple, sb., [= AF. disci- 
ple, Sk. II. 64, 1, < L. discipulus, 
lear7ier'] disciple. 

discipul, sm., [<L., v. disciple, 
Sk. 400 ; II. 22, OE. genr. leor- 
nungcniht] disciple. 

discoinfyten, pp. discomfyt, w., 
[< OF. pp. desconfit < ML. dis- 
confectus <L. dis- priv -^qow- 
ficere, finish., <facere, make] 
discomfit., defeat. 

disess, s6., [< AF. *disese, disease, 
dis-, apart, + aise] disquiet., dis- 
tress, grief, diseased . 

dispise, dispiss, w., [<AF de- 
spiser, Sk. II. 64. 2, <pp. of 
despire <L. de-spicere, lit. look 
down upon, <specere, look at] 

dispit, sb; [<AF. despit <L. pjo. 
despectus, v. dispise] despite, 
spite, Sk. II. 64. 3 ; 43. 

dispitwisly, dispitously, ME. av., 
[<0F. despitous, v. dispit, +ly] 
DEspitEFvU/, angrily, dispit- 

dispoyle, ic, [<AF. despoiller, 
Sk. II. 86, <L. de-spoliare, rob, 
<spolium, hide, spoils] strip, 
undress, despoil]. 

distroye, w., [<AF. destruire, Sk. 
II. 81), <L. de-struere, pull down, 
<struere, pile up, cowstruc*] 

dcfeS' V. d6n. 

doeg Nh. = d6gor {poet.), sn. 
(289 and N. 2), [<T. *«6goz-(-s- 
?/br -n-), c/. dseg] (c/. ODan. 
doegn, Ic. ddegr) day. 

d(jema v. deinan. 

Dofere, ME. Douere, wf, Dover. 

dohtor, ME. douhter, douther, 
M. urn. f (285), [common I.-E. 
ioord,<'Y. duh-tar (232b) <I.-E. 
*dhugh + t6r (dhugat^r) cf Gk. 
evydrrjp; Brug. 552, Sk. 119; 
227 c] (Goth, dauhtar, Ic. dotter, 
OS. dohtar, OHG. tohtar, MHG. 
tohter, G. tochter) daughter. 

dol V. dsfel. 

dol, sb., [<0F. dol, AF. duel, 
<ML. *dolium <dol-ere, feel 
pain] pain, grief, dole (poet.). 

d6m, ME. dom, sm. (238), [<T. 
do-mo-, Sk. 119; 214, <d6n] 
(cf. Gk. 6^-fjt,ts, laiv ; Goth, dom-s, 
Ic. dom-r, OS. dom, OHG. MHG. 
tuom, G. -turn) doom, judgment, 
sentence, opinion, glory VI. 196 ; 
d6mes daeg, ME. domes del 
(dai), doomsday; ME. domes 
man, judge. 

d<3in V. deman. 

d6ii, ME. don, doon, done, do, 
doo ; prs. ind. sg. 2, d6st, ME. 
dest, dost, 3. d<jeaf (Merc, doiar, 
?scribe's error), d^'S, ME. de^S, 
de\), die]5, do's, dol>, doth ; imper. 
Merc. d6a ; prt., dide, dyde, 
pi. dydun, dedon, ME. dide, 
dyde, dede, dude, did; pp. ddn 
(68), Merc, gedcfen, ME. idon, 
ydon, ido, ydo, don, done, -mi 
(red.) (429), [< esp. WT. V do : 
dge <pre T. Vdho : dhe, cf. Skt. 
Vdha, Gk. ri-d-n-fjn, ?L. perf fe-ci, 
Sk. 160; 119] (OS. don, OHG. 
MHG. tuon, G. tun, Sk. 6Q) do, 
make, cause, put ; in place of a 
verb ; periphrastic, de^ ihealden ; 
d6n from, remove from; do 
to dede, put to death ; don afurst, 
delay , do for to se, cause to see ; 
don milce, be merciful ; don jus- 
tise, punish; don oi = doff, put 
(take) off, — aicay ; d<3n on 
= don, put on . 

done^afone v. s6. 

donne v. J>onne. 

dorste v. durran. 

dote, w., (ODu. doten, Du. dut- 
ten, to nap, Ic. dotta, nod with 
sleep) dote. 

do»e-pers, sb. pi, [<0r. douze 
pairs (AF. pers),<L.duo-decem, 
TWEZve, -Fpar (-em, ace) equal] 
T^yElve peers (cf. Charlemagne 
I romance), douzepere]. 
; Douere v. Dofere. 
I doughty V. dyhtig. 

doubter V, dohtor. 




doun V. dun. 

doutable, ME. aj., [<doute] /ea)'- 
fal, redoubtable^ doubtable^. 

(loute, prt. doutide, ?o., [<AF. du- 
ter, Sk. 11. 87. 1 ; 150, <L. dubi- 
tare, cf. dubius, wavering^ <duo, 
TWO, + -bi-] /ear, doubt^ Sk. 11. 
98 ; 93. 

(iouther v. dohtor. 

(lovles V. deofol. 

(lovvellen v. dwellan, 

(li-gfedan (only in compos., v. on- 
drtfedan), ME. drede, dreid, 
drede, s. red. A (395), ME. w. 
Sk. 139, (cf. OS. ant-dradan, 
OHG. in-tratan, MHG. in-trdten) 
dread ; cf. ofdrsfedd. 

draf V. drifan. 

di-agan, ME. dra3an, dra3en, 
drawe, draw;p?*^. dr6g, trdg, 
ME. drog, droii3, drouh, drow3, 
drogh, drew ; pp. dragen, ME. 
ydra3e, drawe, s.6 (392), [<T. 
Vdrag, also bear'] (Goth. OS. 
dragan, Ic. draga, OHG. tra- 
gan, bear, as MHG. G. tragen) 
draw, Sk. 338 ; 383, — up, drag 
along, hurry; drawe fra, take 
away; euele ydra3e, badly treated 
XXVIII. 101 (too literal for F. 
orig. malmener). 

draat-brigge, sb., draw-bridge. 

dranke v. drincan. 

drapen v. drepan. 

dreamen v. dr6man. 

dreaven v. dr6fan. 

dreccan, ME. drecchen ; prt. 
drehte, 10.1 0(407 aa>i(^N.3), 
vex, plague, d retch]. 

drede, ME. sb., [<ME. vb. drede, 
V. drgfedan] dread. 

drede v. ofdrsedd. 

dreding, sh., [< dree dan] /ear. 

drefan, Nh. d r ce fa, ME. dreaven; 
pp. gedr6fed, gidrcefid, 
ME. idreaved, w. 1, [=*dr6- 
fian (94; 177) <T. Vdrob (192. 
2) confuse ; cf drof, aj. muddy, 
troubled] (Goth, drobjan, OS. 
drobian, OHG. triioben, MHG. 
triieben, G. triiben) trouble, dis- 
turb, dreyei. 

dreld v. drsedan. 

dreman, ME. dreamen, lo. 1, 
[<dream, sm. (239) jo^, (99)] 
(OS. dromian) make jubilee, re- 
joice (cf. dream] not = vision). 

drencan, ME, drenche ; prt. 
drencte, w. 1, [^caus. < prt. 
of drincan] (Goth, dragkjan, 
Ic. drekkja, OHG. trenchen, G. 
tranken) give to drink, drown 
= drench], Sk. 192 a. 

dreng, ME. dreng, sm., [<Scand., 
Ic. dreng-r, valiant man, bache- 
lor] man, vassal, dreng]. 

dr^ogan, ME. dreo3en ; prt. pi. 
drugon, s. 2 (384), (Goth, 
driugan, do military service) en- 
dure, suffer, dree, Sc. 

dreor, smn., \_— T. dreuzo- (64 ; 
181.2) that dripping, v. dreo- 
8 an, s. 2 (384), fall] (cf Ic. 
dreyri ; OS. dror, MHG. tror) 
gore, blood. 

dr6orig, dr^ori, ME. dreri, ah, 
[<dr6or+ig, Sk. 177; 357] 
(Ic. dreyrig-r, OS. drorag, MHG. 
troric, gory ; cf : G. traurig) sad 
= dreary]. 

drepan, ME. drepe ; ME. 
drapen ; pp. drepen, once dro- 
pen (391 N. 1), ME. drepit, s. 5, 
ME. also w. (391), (Ic. drepa, 
OHG. treffan, MHG. G. treffen) 
hit, beat, kill XV. 28. 

drifan, ME. drifen, drive, dryve ; 
prt. ME. draf, drof, s. 1 (382), 
[< T. s.vb.^i drib, move quickly] 
(Goth, dreiban, Ic. drifa, hasten, 
OS. driban, OHG. triban, MHG. 
triben, G. treiben, Sk. 153. (3) 

drihtan, -e, -en, -on v. dryhten. 

drinca, ME. drynke, imn., [< 
drincan] drink. 

drincan, ME. dringan, drinken, 
drinche, drynke ; pri. s^. dr a n c, 
ME. dranke ; pp. gedruncen, 
ME. idrunke, s. 3 A (380), [com- 
mon s. T. vb., but not in non-T. ; 
pre T. V p6, drink, cf L. potare, 
not in T.] (Goth, drigkan, Ic. 
drekka, OS. drinkan, OHG. trin- 

(1 reef a 



clian, MHG. G. trinken, Sk. 15o. 
5) drink ; inf. with a sen dan 
XIV. 32, with ME. yeve, bidde. 

drcfefa V. dr6fan. 

drof y. drlfan. 

drog, drogh v. dragan. 

drou3, drow, drows v. dragan. 

druncen, ME. drunken, drunke, 
s??,., (c/. Goth, drugkanei, /., < 
pp.) drunkenness., DiiiNKi/igr. 

dryhten, dryctin, drihten, 
ME, drihtan, drihton, drihten, 
dry3tyn, drihte, sm., [ = T. druh- 
tino- (95); <dryht, sf. (269), 
host., <prt. o/dr6ogan] (Ic. 
drottinn, OS. drohtin, OHG. 
truhtin, MHG. truhten) lord., 
Lord, drighti. 

drynke v. drinca, drincan. 

dryve v. drifan. 

dude V. d6n. 

duelle V. dwellan. 

dugan, ME. du3en, dowen ; prs. 
d6ah, i>Z. dugon ; prt. dohte, 
prt.-prs. S.2 (421), [<T. \/dug, 
be good] (Goth. *dugan, Ic. duga, 
OS. dugan, OHG. tugan, MHG. 
tugen, G. taugen) avail, be good, 
— Jit; dugunde, prs. ptc. K., 
full grown? VII. 22; dow}] cf 
' this will do.'' 

duk, duke, sb., [<AF. due, Sk. 
II. 78. 2, <L. due-em, ace, leader] 
leader =duke] (A.V. Gen. xxxvi. 

dull V. *dwol. 

duly, ME. av., [<dew+ly] duly. 

dun, ME. dune, s/., [<0T., Kl.s, 
cf Olr. dun, Sk. 379; 412] (Du. 
duin, N Fris. dun ; not OC. place- 
names in L. dOn-um, t6n) hill, 
down (dun, dune), of d^ne, 
dat., adun, ME. a dune, dune, 
a dun, dun, adoun, doun, av., 
adown, down, downwards. 

dure V. d6ore. 

durling v. dyrling. 

durne v. dyrne. 

durran?, ME. durren ; prs. ind. 
sg. 1. dear, ME. dar, der, >NE. 
dare, 2. dearst, ME. darrst, 
jjl. durron ; prt. dorste, 

Nh. darstae, darste, ME. 

dorste, durste, durst >NE. durst; 
prt.-prs. s. S G (422. 7), [<T. 
durz- (56 ; 234 a) < : v/ dhys, cf. 
Skt. >/ dharsh, Gk. dapadv, be 
bold, Sk. 357; 119] (Goth, ga- 
daiirsan, OS. gi-durran, OHG. 
turran, MHG. turren) dare, 
ME. also {infill. J>urfan) need. 
duru, ME. dure, sf (274 N.l, 2), 
[<T. dur-<I.-E. dhur-:dhwer- 
Sk. \\Q;orig.dual? (274. N. 2)] 
{cf. Gk. dvpa, L. fores, pi., Goth, 
daiirons, pi., Ic. dyrr, pjl., OS. 
dura, OHG. turi, MHG. G. tur) 


duryng, prp., [<prs. ptc. o/dure, 
to last, dure't] during. 

dvnvilt^afu ne wilt XII. Nero 

dvsidi XI [. 14 Nero. ? Appar. 
word calling attention to the re- 
peated and corrected ffridda 
daegi. Prof. Skeat calls dvs. 
. . . daegi a marginal reading. 
It is in the hand of the original 
scribe, cf Notes. 

dwellan, ME. dwellen, dowellen, 
dwelle, duelle, dwell ; ^jrt. 
d we aide, ME. duelt, vj. 1 C 
(407a, N. 1), [=*dw«ljan, 
caus. <prt. of *dwelan, s. 4 
(390 N.l) pp. gedwolen, per- 
verse, T. V dwal, V. dwol, Sk. 
192 iS] (Ic. dvelja, tarry, cf OS. 
bidwelian,^mo?e>'; OHG. twaljan, 
MHG. twellen, hinder) tr., de- 
ceive, hinder, prevent ; intr. ME. 
stay, linger, remain, dwell. 

dweoluhlSre XIX. 93, dweolSe, s&., 
\_abs. <dwol] {cf Goth, dwa- 
lil>a, foolishness) error. 

*dw^ol {in compos.), *dyll, ME. 
dull, aj., [<T. Vdwal, by-form 
of T. >/ dul < : V dhwel : dhul, 
deluded, cf Skt. V dhvj* : dhur, 
deceive] (Goth, dwal-s, OS. dol, 
OHG. MHG. tol, G. toll, mad) 
foolish, dull. 

dwol-lic, aj., foolish, stupid. 

dyde v. d6n. 

dyevel v, d6ofoI. 




dyhtig, ME. doughty, aj., [<abs. 
sb. (cf. MHG. tuht, /., fitness) 
<dugan + ig, (95) Sk. 256] 
(MHG. tiihtic, G. tiichtig) fit, 

dyngne, aj., [<0r. digne <L. 
dignus] worthy. 

dynnan, ME. dinien ; prt. dynede, 
w. 1, [=*dunjaii <T. V dun 
(*dwan), cf. Skt. Vdhvan, roar] 
(Ic. dynja, 7'attle down {e.g. hail), 
OS. dunian, rumble) din, resound. 

dynt, ME. dynt, sm. (266), 
[=*dunti- (95)] (Ic. dynt-r) 
blow, dint = denti, Sk. 377; 390. 

dyppan, ME. duppen, dippen, 
w. 1, [=*dupjan (95; 228) 
<T. s/dtip, cf. d6op] dip. 

dyrling, ME. durling, sm., [< 
dyre (v. d^ore) + dim. suff. 
-1-ing, Sk. 203] darling. 

dyrne, derne(159. 1), ME. durne, 
derne, daerne. I. aj. (299), [ = 
*dearnja- (98 a; 177) < T. 
dar-ni- (79 b ; 302 N.) Brug. II. 
95] (OS. derni, OFris. dern, 
OHG. tarni, cf G. tarn-kappe, 
magic cap) secret, hidden, dern]. 
II. av., secretly. 

ff, Selecs. XV. XVI. = ME. «at, 

iS- V. >-. 

15'aehtung v. ]>eahtung. 
ijanc V. ]?onc. 
Sfaniie v. J^onon. 
tSe V. \>e- 
tSe V. >u. 
ffec V. >u. 

•SafSen, ME. av., [<Scand., = Ic. 
)?e^an, >a'San, cf. ]>onon] 


Uen = are en. 
ffene v. s6. 
tfeos V. J>es. 
Iffer V. Jjsfer. 
ffere v. s6. 
iSferh w. >urh. 
aCes u. s6. 

ffierf V. >urfan. 

iafin V. }>u. 

ariow V. ]>6ow. 

ffirda i). >ridda. 

afire V. >6. 

ffis, XVI. 154, = 'Sis = Ijetis. 

aCis- V. J>es. 

aCiu V. se. 

aCor V. se. 

aruder V. ]>ider. 

aCus ?;. ]?us. 

aCusse V. J>es. 

afust- V. }>^st-. 

aCv V. )>ii. 

afvs V. J?U8. 

afys- V. J>es. 


eac, sec, ^c, 6c, ME. ec, ek, ech, 
eke, av., [?<av. = sb. ace, cf. 
t6 ^acan v. 6aca, or<T. auk 
= l.-E. particles *au + *ge, cf Gk. 
a5, again, ye, indeed] (Goth. Ic. 
auk, OS. ok, OHG. ouh, MHG. 
ouch, G. auch) also, likewise, 
eke (poet.). 

6aca, ME. eke, wm., [<6acaii, 
V. yean] increase, ekei ; to 
6acan, ME. tekenn, besides, 

eaS", ME. aj., [not <aise] (= OE. 
6 a 9"-, Ic. au^-, in compos., cf. 
§aare, yac e, OS. 65i, OHG. odi) 
easy, eath, Sc. 

^aafe, ME. ea^e, e^e, e]je, av., 
easily, eath, Sc. 

feaafe-lic, ME. ebeli, cij.-, easy, in- 
significant, harmless XIV. 15. 

feaff-m^du, MPl seSmeden, sf. 
sg.? or n. pi., [<6aS'-m6d, 
aj., humble (94; ? 255. 3) < 
m6d] reverence, joy VI. 170. 

feaaf-mod-lice, ME. se'Smodliche, 
av., humbly. 

6aar-m6dniss, ME. ead-, edmod- 
nesse, sf, humility. 

6ad-hr6afig, a'}., [- T. au«o- (63) 
< lost s. red. B vb. (396 b, N. 2, 
6aden, pp., granted), (Ic. au^-r, 




OS. 6d, c/. OHG. alod, lit. all 
property^ i.e. allomal estate, free- 
hold, cf. Ed -win, etc.) riches, + 
hr6» + ig [=: T. *hr5«i-, fame, 
(267 a ; 94 ; 60) < T. V hro < : V kar, 
cf. Skt. Vkir, commend'] (Goth. 
hr6J?eig-s, Ic. hroSugr ; cf. OHG. 
Hruod-, Kuod- in Kud-oZ/, lio- 
hert, etc.) triumphant] happy, 
triumphant VI. 135. 

6adig, 6 ad eg, ME, edi, 3edi, aj., 
[y. ead-hreafig] (Goth, ^u- 
dag-s, Ic. au5ig-r, OS. odag, 
OHG. otag) rich, happy, blessed 
V. 2862. 

eafora, afora, afara, eofora, 
wm., [=T. *afur6(n-)(10o. N.2) 
<T. *afar, xvter, cf. Goth, afar, 
A-Tterward] (OS. aharo) poster- 
ity, successor, child. 

6age, Merc. 6ge, ME. 636, eie, ey3e, 
y3e, ee, wn. (276), [< common T. 
aug6(ii-) (63)] (Goth, augo, Ic. 
auga, OS. oga, OHG. ouga, MHG. 
ouge, G. auge) eye, Sk. p. 58 ; 

eahta, Nh. aehtu, ME. eighte, 
num. (325), [common I.-E., T. 
ahto, ahtau (82) I.-E. okto, ok- 
tou, dual form,] (Skt. ashta,-tau, 
Gk. 6KT<h, L. oct5, Olr. ocht, 
Sk. 112, Goth, ahtau, Ic. &tta, 
OS. OHG. ahto, MHG. ahte, G. 
acht) eight. 

eal V. eall. 

ealch V. sfelc. 

eald, ME. eald, aid, old, hold ; 
comp. ieldra (307), yldra, 
Merc. Nh. seldra, ME. uldre, 
seldre, eldere, elder >NE. elder, 
a}. (295), [<WT. al-da, <I.-E. 
-to- pp., lit. grown up, cf. Goth, 
alan, grow up, L. alere, nourish, 
Sk. p. 154] (c/. L. al-tus, high; 
OS. aid, G. alt) old, Sk. 382 ; 6 re 
ieldran, ME. ure seldrene, our 

eald-geni9'la, wm., [y. niaf-full; 
Sk. 220] ancient foe VI. 228. 

ealdian, ealdigan, ME. eal- 
dien, elde ; prt. eald ode, w. 2, 
[eald] grow old, eldI. 

ealdor, aldor V. 2878, ME. 
alder, sm., [<eald-{- -or, sb. 

suff.] ELDER XI. Bodl. 12, chief, 
prince, lord VI. 124. 

ealdor, sn., [<T. al-'Sro-, Sk. 228 b, 
abs. <Val, grow up, v. eald, 
+ I.-E. -tro-] (Ic. aldr, OS. aldar, 
G. alter) age, life. 

ealdor-lang, -long, aj., life-long. 

ealdor-mon, Nh. aldormonn 
VII. 1, ME. alderman, 
(281), [ealdor, chief] prince, 
chief magistrate {civil and mili- 
tary, of a shire till CnuVs reign, 
V. eorl) alderman. 

ealdor-sdcerd, Merc. aldur-XI. 
Rush. 11, sm., chief priest. 

ealgian, prt. pi. ealgodon X. 
18, W.2, defend. 

eall, eal, ail, ME. eall, eal, esell, 
sell, sel, all, al; gen. pi. ealra 
(295 N. 2), ME. ealre, aire, alj^er, 
s. aj. (291 N.), [common T. <st. 
alio-, ? = *al-no-, orig. ptc. form.., 
<\/al, grow up, Brug. II. iSQ, v. 
eald, cf. alan, s. 6 (392), 
nourish, aspref, <T. ala- <n/o1, 
cf Welsh oil] (Goth, all-s, Ic. 
all-r, OS. al, alia, OHG. MHG. 
al, G. all) all, Sk. 382, whole, 

eall, ME. eal, al, alle, av., [prop, 
n. ace. of eall, aj.] all, entirely, 
quite ; ME. al one = alone ; al j^at 
tu mai, all you can XXVI. 19. 

ealles, av., [gen. n. of eall (319)] 

eall-niwe, aj. (297 N. 1), all-new^ 
entirely — XIV. 67. 

eal-meahtig, allmehtig VII. 4 
(151.3; 97a«c?N.),allmectig 
I. 9, gelmihteg VIII. 22, sel- 
mihtig III. lb, almechttig 
III. 1 a, ME. ealmihti3, allmahh- 
ti3, almichti, almihti, almihty, 
aj., almighty. 

ealneg VIII. 88=:ealne weg 
(172 N.), ME. alneway, alwayis, 
av., [Sk. 258] alway, always. 

ea-lond, Nh. 6olond Xll-i?. 39, 
sn., [§a, sf. (259 N.), water, ea, 
{dial.), = WT. *au (111), *ahu 




a74.2) <T. *aliw6=I.-E. *dqwa, 
c/. L. aqua, water, Goth, ahwa, 
Brug. 99, (c/. Ghels-ea, etc.) + 
lond; c/. ieg-land>] is/and. 

eal-swA, eallswA, ME. ealswa, 
alswa, alsua. also, alsuo, alzuo, 
ealse, alse, ase, aze, als, alls, 
alss, as, I. av., afso, Sk. 355, 
just so^ so, perhaps. II. cj., as, 
Sk, 354, just as, when, as if; 
ME. ase to, as to. 

ealii (105), ealo; gen. dat., 
ealoST, aloSf, ME. ale, M. n. 
(281.2), [<T. *alu(b-), Beitr. 
IX. 368] (c/. Ic. 51, OS. alo-fat, 
ale-vat) ale, Sk. 388. 

earn v. 6oin. 

earn, ME. eom, em, sm., [ = 
*6alidm = WT. *auhaim (63; 
62) prop, maternal uncle., as 
OFris. 6m, ?c/. Goth, awo, 
grandmother, L. avun-culus, 
JBeitr. XIII. 447] (G. oheim) 
uNcZe, earn, Sc. (c/. Ames). 

eani v. senig. 

eard, ME. erd, sm.. (273), [ = T.*ar- 
"Su- (79 b) <N/ar, eauI, = plow] 
(OS. ard, dwelling place, OHG. 
art, a plowing) land (native). 

eai*di(g)an, ME. erdien, w.2, [< 
eard] dwell. 

6are, ME. ere, wn. (280; 276 N.2), 
[common I.-E. ; <T. aus6(n-), 
auz6(n-) (63; 181.2) Sk. 164; 
357] {cf. Gk. o5s <*o5(ros, L. auris 
= *ausis ; Goth, auso, Ic. eyra, 
OS. OHG. ora, G. ohr) ear. 

6ar-geblond, aera- {gen. pi., = 
6ara-) X. 52, sn., [ear, m., 
sea,+ geblond ?). blandeii-] 
mingling of the sea, billowy 

earh, ME. pi., serwe, aj., [<only 
T. argo- (79b), vile] (Ic. arg-r, 
OHG. arg, avaricious, G. arg, 
bad) slothful, cowardly. 

earm, ME. earm, erm, aj. (307), 
[owZ?/T.,<T. armo- (79 b)] (Goth, 
arm- s, Ic. arm-r, OS. OHG. MHG. 
G. arm) poor, tor etched. 

earm, ME. arm, sm. (239. 1), 
[< common T. armo-z (79 b) < 

I.-E. rmo-s, Brag. 306] (c/. L. 
armus* fore-shoulder ; Goth, 
arm-s, Ic. arm-r, OS. arm, OHG. 
MHG. G. arm) arm. 

earming v. ierming. 

earn, ME. arn, ern, sm., [<T. 
arnii-z, 2orig. the bird (79 b) 
Sk. 221] (cf Gk. 6pvt.$, bird; 
Ic. dm, OHG. MHG. am, G. 
Arn- in Arn-old, orig. = eagle- 
guardian; cf. G. aar) eagle; earn, 
ern {poet.). 

earnung, ME. earninge, sf., [vb.-sb. 
<earnlan, w. 2, earn, < T. 
*azn63on <sb. *az-n6-, Brug. 582, 
T. >/ as, do field-labour'] (OHG. 
arnunga) earning. 

eart v. eom, 

€ast, ME. est, on est, av. (314), 
[2 orig. faster (OS. ostar); 

< T. aus-to- cf. I.-E. *aus-os, 
dawn, L. aurora = *aus5s-a and 
Gk. -qibs, dawn, Skt. V ush, burn] 
east, eastward. 

6astan, ME. esten, av. (321), 
[< T. aus-to-no] from the east. 

6aster-daeg, ME. esterdei, sm., 
[< *EAstre, V. 6ast, Nh. 
Eostrae <T. Aus-t-ro (n-) , 
Brug. 580, = : Skt. usra, davm, 
a goddess of spring, orig. of 
dawn] easter-day. 

eatas v. etan. 

eatd-eavde v. aetywan. 

eatol-lic (105. N. 2), ME. eate- 
lich, atelich, aj., {cf Ic. atall, L. 
od-ium, hatred) horrible, cruel. 

eaxl, LWS. exl, ME. axle, sf, 
[<T. ahsl6-=I.-E. *aksla, cf L. 
axilla, arm-pit, ala, wing] (Ic, 6x1, 
OHG. ahsala, G. achsel) shoul- 

ebrisc-geSfiode, sn., [ = ebre 
+ -isc <LL. L. Hebrfeus <Gk. 

< Aram. <Heb,] Hebrew tongue 
VIII. 53. 

ec V. 6ae. 

ece, ME. eche, sm. (263), [=*aci- 

(89) <acan, s. 6 (392)] acAe, 

Sk. p. 354. 
6ce, 6ci I. 4, sece VII. 5, ME. 

eche, aj., [^contr. for T. *aiwok- 




jo-, c/. L. aevura, xge, Goth. 
ajuk-(du|>s), Eternity, v. d] Eter- 

ecg, ecgg, ME. egge, sf. (258), 
[= T. agjo- (89. 1 ; 228) = I.-E. 
*ak-ja-, pointed, cf. Gk. dds, 
point, as L. acies, Sk. 192 j8; 
209] (Ic. egg, OS. eggia, OHG. 
ekka, MHG. G. ecke) edge, Sk. 
339, sword (poet.). 

ech V. gelc, §ac. 

eche V. ece, ece. 

echte V. geht. 

ed-, prefix, (Goth, id-, Ic. iiS-, 
OHG. ita-, it-, MHG. ite-, it-, 
?cf. EDDv) back, again, = L. re-. 

eiafe V. eaSTe. 

mel, CRfSel, ME. e\>e\, sm., [< 
common T. < st. ob- < : a>-, v. 
aeiffele] (Ic. 65al, OS. 6m, 
OHG. uodal) ancestral land, 
patrimony, native land, domain 
VIII. 9, ethe/t 

ed-16an, K. sedl^an, ME. edlen, 
sn., retribution, reward. 

e9'-lete, ME. aj., [v. eaiSe and 
Itetan] easily left, worthless, 

ed-modnesse v. eatSTinddniss. 

ed-wit, ME. edwit, sn., [wit an] 
(Goth, idweit, OHG. it(a)wiz) 
reproach, scorn. 

een v. 6age. 

efen v. sfefen. 

efen-cristen, LOE. and EME., 
also emcristen (193. 2), aj., and 
sb., [<efen, aj., Sk. 252, com- 
mon T. ehno-, et'e/;, + oris ten] 
(O Fris. ivinkerstena, OHG. 
ebanchristani, MHG. ebenkris- 
ten, but G. mitchrist) fellow- 
cHRisTiAN, even-christian (Shak.). 

6fern v. sfefen. 

efete, ME. evete, newte, wf., eft, 
newt {—an ewt, Sk. pp. 216; 
372; 374). 

effray v. afray. 

effraytly, ME. av., [<]f^.,v. afray, 
+ ly] in terror. 

eflftei* V. aefter. 

efne, ME. evene, even, evyn, av., 
[=T. *ehno- <aj., v. efen- 

cristen] even, exactly, equally, 
straightaway), just, likewise. 

efning, evening, eming, sb., [< 
Scand., cf. Ic. jafningi, v. efen- 
cristen] (c/. efen-I-ing) 
equal, a ' match. ' 

efre/y. gfefre. 

efreiii, ME. aj., [=efre-eni, v. 
£ef r e, senig] (ever) any XVII. 31. 

efsian, ME. evesien; pp. geef- 
sod, m2, [<efes, sf (93) Sk. 
230b, eaves'^ clip round, cut the 
hair XIV. 6. 

efstan, ME. eftin (v. Anglia I. 31), 
prt. efste, w. 1, [<ofo8t 
(93. 1)] hasten. 

eft, ME. eft, efte, av., [<T.*aft- 
iz, comp.fV. seftan, of] (OS. 
O Fris. eft) again, AFrerwards, 
eftV, eft s6na, s6na eft, 
ME. eftsone, eftsonis, again, 
soon XFTer, at once, eftsoon^, 

efter, eftir v. aefter. 

ege, ME. eige, eie, 8eie, sm., (263), 
[= T. *agi-z, ?for *agiz- (89. 1 ; 
263 N. 4; 182 b) <*agez- (288 
N. 1 ; 128. 1 ; 133 b) ?but orig. i- 
st., Brug. II. 132, Rem. 2, <T. 
>/*ag, cf. Goth, un-agands, prs. 
ptc. not fearing^ (Goth, agis, cf. 
Ic. agi > awe) fear, terror, awe. 

ese V. 6age. 

egesa, egsa, Merc, segsa, ME. 
e3ese, eise, wm., [<ege] (OS. 
OHG. egiso) (state of) fear, ter- 
ror, AWE. 

eges-lic, ME. eislich, aj., horrible. 

eges-lic-e, ME. eisliche XVII. 14, 
av., horribly. 

egh-, ^gh- v. sfegli-. 

eglan, ME. eilen, w. 1 (405 K), 
[<egle, aj., troublesome, <T. 
*agljo-, ?c/. ege, Sk. 192. 1 ; 
251] (Goth, (us-)agljan) trouble, 
ail, Sk. 338 ; 388. 

6g-land V. iegland. 

ego. Nil. XL Nero 4, = ege C^or 
= Goth. *agei in un-agei, fear- 

ehte v. sfeht. 

ei-Sfer v. sfeghwaelSer. 




eie V. 6age, ege. 

eig-land v. legland. 

eis-fuU, ME. aj., [aise] easeful, 
soothing XXXI. 70. 

eis-liche v. egeslice. 

eitte V. gfeht. 

ek(e) V. 6ac. 

elch V. gfelc. 

eld, elde v. ieldu. 

elder (e) v. eald. 

el-iy6odig, VI. 215, v. e]J>6odig. 

ellen, ME. elne, sn., [<T.*aljano- 
(m) (89. 1; 228; 177)] (Goth, 
aljan, zeal, cf. Ic. eljan, sf. ; OS. 
OHG. ellan, MHG. ellen) {poet.) 
courage, strength, virtue V, 2847. 

ellen-r6f, aj., [r6f v. sige-] 
courageously strong VI. 146. 

ellen->riste, aj. , courageously 
hold, heroic VI. 133. 

ellen-w6dness, sf., [y. w6d] 
zeal IX. 96. 

elles, ME. elles, ellis, ellys, av. 
(319), {gen. sg. n. <aj. {cf. Goth, 
aljis, other) <pronom. st. I.-E. 
*aljo-, cf. Gk. dXXos=*(5[\jos, and 
L. alius, other, Sk. 192 a; 259] 
(0 Fris. ellis, OHG. alles, cf. L. 
alias, old gen.?, alias) lit. of 
other, e/se ; elles hware > else- 

elmes-, elmesse v. aelm-. 

ein, ME. elne, elle, sf, [< T. 
*alino, I.-E. olSna, cf Gk. (aXivti 
and L. ulna, forearm, elbow, Sk. 
192 a; 346] (Goth, aleina, ?for 
*alina, Ic. alin, oln, OHG. elina, 
MHG. elne, elle, G. elle) {orig. 
distance measured by the fore- 
arm) ell. 

el->6odig, ME. elJ>eodi, aj., [<WT. 
eli- (89 K 1) <T. aljo-, v. elles] 
(Goth, alja-, pref , other ; cf. 
OHG. eli-lenti, of another land, 
AL,ien, >G. elend, wretched) lit. 
of another people, foreign. 

em V. 6om. 

em-, pref before labials for en-. 

embe v. ymbe. 

embeht v. ombiht. 

em-cristen v. efencristen. 

emlng v. efning. 

en V. on. 

en-, pref, [=AF. OF. en-<L. in] 
IN, iMo, Sk. II. 58. 3. 

en-arme, w., [<0F. enarmer, v. 
armes] equip with arms, enarmt. 

en-brace, w. , [< AF. enbracer 
<ML. im-brachiare, take in the 
arms, <pl. ofL. brachium, arm] 
embrace, Sk. II. 54. 1. 

en-cheysoun, sb., [<AF. enche- 
soun ( < OF. en-cheoir, lit. to 
fall ix) influ. OF. acheson<L. 
oc-casion-em, ace, lit. a falling 
in the way of] occasion, cause, 
encheason (Spen.). 

en-combre, w., [<AF. en-com- 
brer < ML. in-combrare < ML. 
combrus, barricade, ?<L. cum- 
ulus, heap] encumber, Sk. II. 

en-erese, w. , [< AF. encresc-, 
St. of encrescerai, fut. of encres- 
tre <L. in-crescere, grow upon] 

end V. endian, ond. 

ende, ME. ende, end, sm. (246), 
[< common T. an*5-jo- = pre-T. 
antjo- cf. Skt. dnta-s, Sk. 192. 1 ; 
209] (Goth, andei-s, Ic. endi-r, 
OS. endi, OHG. enti, MHG. G. 
ende) end. 

ende-byrdnes, -ness, sf, [-byrd- 
nes<byrde, aj.,'of high rank, 
BORN, <beran] succession, or- 
der; J>urh endebyrdnesse, 
in turn IX. 22. 

ende-16as, ME. endelies, endles, 
aj., (OS. endilos, G. endlos) 
endless, everlasting. 

ender-dai, )>is e-, XXVI. 89, ME. 
av. , [ender-, aj. comp. , = Ic. endr, 
av., formerly, = T. *and-iz, 
co7np. , av. , cf. Goth, andiz- (uh) , 
cj. , else, V. ond-] this day last 
past, recently. 

endian, ME. enden, ende, end, 
w. 2, [<ende] end, finish, cease, 
en dung, ME. asiidenge, end- 
inge, endyng, sf, \yb. -sb.] 

endlufun, endleofen, Merc. 
enlefan, Nh. aellefue, ME. 




endleofan, endlefan, enlevene, 
num. (326), [< common T. ain- 
lif- + -u n, ? anal, -un in T. 
*tehun, v. t6n (198 N.2; 62; 
104), lit. ONE-, neft {over)] 
(Gotli.*&inlif, OS. 611eban, OHG. 
einlif, MHG. eilf, G. elf) eleven. 

endure, w., [<AF. endurer< 
L. in-durare, indurate, < dur-us, 
hard] endure, last. 

ene, enes v. gfene. 

engel, Merc, aengel, ME. engel, 
sengel, ME. pi. engles, gen. en- 
gle and englene, sm., [<WT. 
engilo- (OS. engil) earlier amgilo- 
prob. < Goth, aggilus < Gk. (5t77e- 
Xos, messenger, or ?<eccl. L. 
about 4th cent., Sk. 401, v. angel] 


Engle, nom. pi. sm. (264), [=T. 
Angli-, (>L. Angli, Jirst in 
Tacitus) V. Ongel-] Angles 
(<L,), the English. 

englisc, ME. englissc, ennglissh, 
a;., [< Engle, Sk. 192^; 257] 
English VIII. 68. 

englisc-gereorde, sn., [c/. reord] 
English language. 

eni V. sfenig. 

eiilefan v. endlufun. 

enlevene v. endlufun. 

en- my, enemy, s6., [<AF. enemi 
< L. in-imicus, lit. viafriend, Sk. 
II. 145. 3] enemy. 

en-tent, s&. , [ < OF. entente < L. 
intentus <pp. of in-, towards, 
tendere, st7'etch] intent, purpose, 

entering, vb.-sb., [<AF. entrer, 
intr. vb., enter, <L. intrare, tr. 
and intr. cf. inter between] enter- 

eny v. gfenig. 

6ode, ME. eode, defec, w. prt. 
only, (396 N. I; 430), [?=*i (j) o- 
(114) (-1- -de 10. prt. suf.) = 
Goth, iddja = *ija, Brug. 142, 
for *ija < I.-E. *!j-ai, ong. 1 pers. 
(middle) perfect, <\/ei, go (v. 
gan), 6 o- = L. perf. ii, = *ii-i 
= Skt. middle *iy6, cf. act. 3 
sg., iyaya, Collitz in Am. Jour. 

Phil. IX. 42 /. or in Bezzb. 
Beitr. XVII. 237. ? ? < I.-E. 
augment 6 + aor. *-je ; Brug. 61, 
Douse, p. 188, Kl. in Quellen u. 
Forsch. XXXII. 124] went. 

eodorcan, oiaCercan; ptc. prs. 
eodorcende, w. 1, [<ed- 
roc, sm., a chewing again, 
< T. V ruk < V riig, envctate, cf. L. 
ru-minare < *rug-] (c/. G. raus- 
pern, hawk) -Rvminate. 

eolS're v. 63'er. 

6o-lond V. 6aIond. 

eom V. 6ani. 

6om, cf. b^on, wesan, Merc. 
earn, Nh. am (43 N. 2), ME. 
eom, sem, em (Ic. em) am, ham, 
>am; 2 sg. eart [<T. *ar-> 
(a)] ME. ert, art >ar^; ME. 
with pron. ertu, artu; Z sg. is, 
y s, ME. is, ys, iss, his, es, > is ; 
pi. sind, synd, sint, synt, 
sinduu, -on, syndon, sien- 
don (107. 2), siondon, 
siondan, Nh. also arun [3 
pers. = Ic. eru = T. *ar-run (|>)], 
ME. sunden, sendde, aren, arn, 
are, ere, ar>a/'e; opt. sg. sie, 
si, sig, Nh. se, ME. si, pi. 
si en, sin, -mi, defec. (427. 1) 
used in prs. ind. and opt. with 
b6on and -wesan, \_{'^influ. 
b § o m. ) < T. im. < *imm, Brug. 
582. Kem. 2, < I.-E. 6s-mi <\/ es, 
cf. Skt. dsmi, L. *(e)sum, Gk. 
d-ixl, (*^o--)] be. 

eorff-bifung, ME. eor-Sbefunge, 
eorSbefiunge XI. Hat. 2, sf, 
[<biflan] (cf G. erd-beben) 

eorafe, ME. eor^e, eorbe, erbe, 
erthe, wf (276 N. 2 ; 278), [com- 
mon T.] (cf. Goth, airba, Ic. 
jorfJ; OS. ertha, OHG. erda, 
MHG. G. erde) earth; erthe 
movyng, -shakyng, earth-quake. 

eorS'-lirdernisse, Nh. XL Nero 2, 
/., [<hrder-an, hr6ran, w. 1, 
move (OS. hrorian, G. rtihren)] 

eor9'-lic, ME. eordlich, erthely, 
aj., earthly. 




eorff-styrennis, Merc. XI. R. 2, 

«/-5 [styrian, 40. 1, st/r] earth- 

eorl, ME. eorl, erl, erld, sm. (239. 
1), (OS. eri, man, so early 
{'poet.) OE. ; as title, Scand. 
influ., Ic. earl) nobleman {as 
opp. to churl), earl, Sk. p. 

eornan, lor nan, ME. eornen, 
renne ; prt. arn, ME. orn, ran, 
pi. urn on, ME. urnen, s. Z A 
(886), [= common T. rinnon, 
move on rapidly (79. 1 ; 179. 1), 
<I.-E. *rinw-, Brug. 180] (Goth, 
rinnan, Ic, rinna, OS. OHG. rin- 
nan, MHG. G. rinnen) Jloic, run, 
Sk. 858. 

eoi-noste, av., {cf. G., aj., ernst, 
serious) earnestly. 

6orod-cyst, -cist, sf., [6o-rod 
= eoh, horse, (222.2) + rdd 
(43 N. 4), niDing v. ridan, 
-fey St, V. c6osan {cf. Ic. 
kost-r, condition)^ troop {of 

eorre v. yrre. 

eor]?e v. eorlje. 

eoten v. etan. 

^ow, eower v. g6. 

er V. h^r, tkv. 

ere v. 6are, eom. 

erest v. sferest. 

erl, erld v. eorl. 

er-lich v. serlice. 

erm v. earm. 

erming v. ierming. 

ermine, sh., [<AF. ermyne, her- 
mine, Sk. II. 91 ; 69. 4, ?<OHG. 
liarmin, a;., <harmo, an ermine ; 
cf. OE. liearma, '^ field-mouse, 
G. liermelin] ermine. 

ermitage v. hermytage. 

erninge v. earnung. 

errour, sh., [ < OF. errour<L. 
error-em, ace, <errare, vmndpr, 
<*ers-, cf Goth, alrz-jan, lead 
astray, G. irren, err] error. 

ert V. eom. 

erthe, er>e v. eorsafe. 

ertu V. 6om. 

es V. eom, he. 

escapen, ascapen, eschape, scape ; 
prt. eschapit, w., [<AF. es- 
caper, eschaper; cf. ML. esca- 
pium, flight"^, = ex cappa, out of 
one^s cape^ escape, scape, Sk. 
II. p. 62. 

escen v. dscian. 

escheve, eschewe, w., [<AF. es- 
chuer, OF. eschever < T. ; cf. 
OHG. sciuhen, be afraid of, 
< *sciuh, MHG. schiech, G. 
scheu, shy] avoid, eschew, Sk. 
II. 78. 2. 

eschevyng, vb.-sb., eschewing, 

ese V. aise. 

esol, sm. , [ < T. asilu-z (1< n) < L. 
asinus, cf. ass a] (Goth, asil- 
us, OS. OHG. esil, MHG. G. 
esel) ASS {cf. easel <Du.). 

§st, ME. este, smf (269), [<T. 
an-s-ti- (94 c) Brug. II. 100 p. 
308, Beitr. IX. 154. v. unnan] 
(Goth, anst-s, Ic. dst, OS. 
OHG. anst, cf MHG. G. gunst = 
*ge-unst) favour, grace, dainty 
XVI. 359. 

ester v. faster. 

etan, Nh. eat a (160.3), ME. 
seten, eoten, ete, hete ; 3 sg. 
ytt (202. 4a) ; prt. set (391 N. 
3) ME. ete; pi. ^ton, ME. 
aeten ; pp. eten, ME. yeten, 
etyn, s. 5 (891), [common I.-E. ; 
<T. VSt <VM, Sk. 117; 267, 
cf. Skt. V ad, Gk. eSei;/, L. edere] 
(Goth, itan, Ic. eta, OS. etan, 
OHG. ezzan, MHG. ezzen, G. 
essen) eat. 

ete V. efet. 

et-foren v. setforan. 

e\>e V. €atfe. 

e]>em v. seUm. 

eure v. g^. 

eu->er v. seghwaesaCer. 

evel(e) v. yfel(e). 

even v. sfefen, efne. 

evening v. efning. 

even-tid v. sefentid. 

evenyng v. s&fuung. 




ever, evere v. sfefre. 

ever-eich v. sfefre. 

ever-i v. sfefre. 

ever-uych, ever-ych v. sfefre. 

evete v. efete. 

evre v. sfefre. 

evyii V. efiie, sefen. 

ewill V. yfel. 

exl V. eaxl. 

expresse, w., [<0F. expresser < 

pp. of L. ex-primere, press out^ 

express, relate. 
eyaen v. cage, 
eyr, sb., [<AF. lieres (OF. eir), 

Sk. II. 148, <L. heres] heir, 

Sk. II. 91 ; 80 ; 94. 


fable, pZ. fablis, sh., [<AF. fable 
<L. fabula, Sk. II. 156, <fa-ri, 
speak, cf. Skt. V blia, shine^ fable, 

face, sh., [< AF. face, Sk. II. 
p. 207, <L. facies] face, Sk. II. 
54. 1. 

fAeeii-lice, av., [ = T. faikno- (62 ; 
138; 141), (Ic. feikn, omen, OS. 
f6kn, OHG. feihan)] deceit- 

fdcon-leas, aj., deceit/ess, genuine. 

faec, sn., (OHG. fah, division, wall, 
MHG. vach, G. fach, compart- 
ment) space, — of time, interval 
IX. 6. 

fieder, ME. feeder, feder, fader, fa- 
derr, vader, fadir; gen. faeder, 
Nh. f adores, ME. feeder, fader, 
faderr, federes, M.-r, m. (285), 
[common I.-E. ; < T. fa«er- < 
I.-E. pater = ?pa-t6r, Brug. 109 ; 
530, Sk. 121 ; 88 ; 126 ; 127 ; 227] 
(Skt. pitr = patr, Gk. Trarvp, L. 
pater, Goth. OS. fadar, Ic. fa'Mr, 
OHG. fatar, MHG. G. vater) 
father, Sk. 343. 

faeder-l^as, ME. faderles, aj., 

Mge, ME. fese, aj., [ = T. faigi-] 
(Ic. feig-r, OS. f6gi, OHG. feigi, 
MHG. veige, G. feige, cowardly) 

fated X. 23, VI. 195, dying VI. 
209, dead, fay and fey, Sc. 

faegen, ME. fagen, fayn, fawen, 
fawe, aj. with gen., [=T. fagiiio-, 
orig. pp. form, Sk. 252, cf. 
gef6on] (Ic. feginn, OS. fa- 
gan, fagin) glad, fain, Sk. 

fseger, ME. feier, feir, fayr, vayr, 
veir, aj. (296 N. 1, 2), [<T. 
fag-ro- (14) < T. Vfag < V pok join, 
fit, Brug. II. 74, p. 187," Sk. 
251] (Goth, fagr-s, suitable, Ic. 
fagr, OS. OHG. fagar, cf G. 
fegen, to scour, fiigen, to join) 
fair, Sk. 338; fseger, n., ME. 
veir, beauty. 

fsegere, ME. veire, faire, feier, av., 
fairly, beautifully, well. 

*f8eger-hdd, ME. vayrhed, sm., 

fsegnian, fagnian, ME. fainen, 
fawnen (Scand. influ., Ic. fagna, 
Sk. 436, > fawn ) ; prt. f ae g n o d e, 
^w.2, [<f»gen, Sk. 260] (Goth, 
faginon) rejoice, fain\. 

fsfele, ME. fale, aj., true; dear, 
good; were fale of XXIX. 92, 
should be good for?, responsible 
for? (Germ. XX. 368). 

fsferan, ME. fere, w. 1, [<f2fer, 
sm., fear, orig. v^i^ils of'way- 
FAJiing, V. far an] (OS. fdran 
and OHG. faren, lie in icait) 
frighten = fear (Shak.). 

fsere v. fyr. 

fgfer-lic, ME. ferli, aj., fearful, 
sudden, ferly (prov.), \oonderful ; 
ME., sb., wonder, exploit. 

faerm v. feorm. 

faest, ME. fast, fest, aj., [?<T. 
*fastu- = I.-E. *pazdu-, ?<pa-, 
pref, + zdu ? cf v/ sed in s i t- 
tan K1.5] (Ic. fast-r, OS. fast, 
cf OHG. festi, MHG. vest, G. 
fest) fast, firm, fixed. 

faestan, ME. festen, faste; pp., 
ME. fest, w. 1 (405. 4), [< faest 
(89 N. 1)] (Ic. festa, OS. fes- 
tian, OHG. festan) make fast, 
fasten ; f ae s t a n ^ [infiu. above, 
<T. vb. fast-] fasf. 




faeste, ME. faste, fast, av., [< 
f ae s t] fast = firmly, and = 
quickly, hard, very [< Scand. 
influ., Ic. fast, av. hard]. 

fsesten, Merc, f est en, ME. festen, 
sn. (247 c), [<faest] fastness 
VI. 143; [y. fsestan^J fast. 

faesten-dseg, K. festen- VII. 24, 
ME. vestenda3, sm., fast-day. 

faesten-geat, sn. , fortress-gate VI. 

faestnian, ME. feestnien, w. 2, 
[<f8est (411 N.) Sk. 260] (OS. 
fastnon, OHG. festinon, MHG. 
festenen, G. festnen) fasten, 

faet, ME. fat; pi. fatu (240; 
134b), ME. faten, sn., [<T. 
fato- (14 ; 15) = pre T. *podo-, 
'^that containing, <T. Vfat, hold 
together'] (Ic. OS. fat, OHG. faz, 
MHG. vaz, G. fass, Du. vat 
>vat, Sk. 349; p. 488) vessel, 
fat (cf. A. v., Mark xii. 1), mt. 

fsetels, ME. fetles, fetless, Orm, 
sm. (244), [<faet+-els] vessel, 
sack VI. 127. 

Mtniss, -nyss, ME. fatnesse, 
sf., [<fset(t), aj., prop, contr. 
<pp. *f£feted {cf. OHG. feizzit, 
G. feist) <T. faito, faf, + -niss] 
fatness, fertility XIII. 52. 

fdg V. fah. 

fAh, (ge)f A, wm. (277 N. 2), ME. 
fa, foo, pi., ME. fan, fon, fais, 
foos, aj. (295), [=T. faiho-, 
<T. s/faih, cf. Goth, faih, n. 
deception, < : pre T. V piq, injure, 
cheat; Brug. 458] (OHG. gi-f6h, 
MHG. ge-v6ch) hostile, sh., foe. 

Mh, fdg, ME. fah, foh, fow, aj., 
{cf Gk. TToi/f-aos, Brug. 401; 
Goth. f4ih-s, in compos., OHG. 
f§h) coloured, {blood-) stained 
VI. 194, ME. sb. , variegatedfurs. 

faht V. feohtan. 

faile, sb., [< fallen] failure, faul^, 
fail (Shak.). 

fallen, w., [< AF. failllr < ML. 
fallire for L. fallere, '^orig. *sfal- 
nere, deceive, cf Gk. <r(pdXKeLv, 
make to fall, v. feallan] fail. 

faith, feith, fath, fay, sb., [<0F. 
feid (AF. felt, fei >ME. fay) 
< L. fid-es, trust, < fidere, v. 
biddan, Sk. II. 145. 3; 152] 
faith, Sk. II. 80. 

faith-full, feith-, ME. aj., faith- 
ful, true. 

faith-fuUy, ME. av., faithfully. 

fale V. fela, fsele. 

falle V. feallan. 

fals, ME, fals, false, I. aj., [<AF. 
fais, L., 2)p., fals-us < fallere, v. 
fallen] false, Sk. II. 49. 3; 
94. II. sb., [<0E. fals, sn., 
aj., rarely, <L. falsum, n. of 
falsus] falsehood. 

fals-hed, sb., falsehood. 

fan V. fdh. 

fand V. findan. 

fandigan v. fondian. 

faran, ME. faren, farenn, fare, 
vare; prt. f6r, ME. for, fore; 
pp. faren, s. 6(392) Sk. 153:2; 
141, [<T. v/far (50) <N/per : por, 
continued motion, cf. Skt. Vpar, 
bnng across, Gk. iropeieiv, carry, 
L. ex-periri, pass through, ex- 
FE-Rience, Sk. 121] (Goth. OS. 
OHG. faran, Ic. fara, MHG. 
faren, G. fahren) go, journey, 
fare, get on, come to pass, behave. 

faru, ME. fare, sf, [< faran] 
journey, behaviour, = /iaret. 

fath V. faith. 

fau3t V. feohtan. 

fawe V. faegen. 

fay V. faith. 

fayn v. faegen. 

fayne v. feyne. 

fayr v. faeger. 

fe V. feoh. 

fealdan, ME. falden, vyealde ; prt. 
feold, s. red. B (396), [<T. '{ 
N/falb=preT. Vplt, cf Skt. puta, '- 
a fold] (Goth. fal>an, Ic. falda, '; 
OHG. faldan, G. falt-en) fold ; \ 
ME. vyealdinde stol, sb. fald- iv 

feale v. fela. 

feallan, ME. fealle, vallen, falle, 
valle; prt. ffeoll, ME. fell, fel, 
felle; pp. feallen, ME. fallen, 



fend B (396), [<T. Vfal-1 (?1 
< orig. prs. n) = pre T. V phal-n, 
Brug. 214, cf. Skt. Vsphal, stag- 
ger, Gk. a-(pd\\€iv, to FELL, L. 
fallere, v. fallen, Sk. 121 ; 137 ; 
153. 1] (Ic. falla, OS. OHG. fal- 
lan, G. fallen) /a//, fall headlong, 
— out, happen; f. apon, fall 
upon, attack suddenly. 

fealo, Ep. falu, ME. falow, aj. 
(300), [<T. falwo- (80 ; 105 N. 1), 
Sk. 248,= pre T. pal-, cf. L. pall- 
idus, PALLzd, PALe, Gk. 7roX-i6s, 
gray~\ (Ic. fol-r, OS. falu, OHG. 
falo, MHG. val {gen., etc., valw- 
>G. falb) G. fahl) fallow, yellow, 
wan X. 71. 

fealowian, ME. valuwen, w. 2, 
[< fealo] become palg, vnther, 

fear- v. feor-. 

fea(we) (174. 3), -wa VIII. 16, 
20, ME. feaw, fiew, few, aj.prop. 
pi. (301 ; 309 N.), [<T. fauwo-, 
T. \/fau = pre T. Vpau-, cf. L. 
pau-ci, pi, Sk. 121 ; 248] (Goth. 
pi. fawai,Ic. fa-r, OS. fa, f 6 (fdh-), 
OHG. fao, fo (foh-, fow-)) few. 

feccan, ME. fecche, w.lC (407 a), 
[=LWS. <fetian (196. 3), 
FExt, <faet, in compos., sm., 
going, cf tot, Pfaet] fetch, Sk. 
p. 318. 

fechte V. feohtan. 

f^dan, Nh. foe da XII. Nero 15; 
16, feoda XII. R. 17, ME. fede, 
feede; prt. ME. fedde, pp. 
f6ded, f§d, ME. fedd, fedde, 
w. 1, [=:*f6dian (94a; 177), 
V. f6da, wm., food, <T. Vfocl: 
fad < V pat, cf Gk. iraT-eiaOai, 
eat, Sk. 196 ^] (Goth, fodjan, 
Ic. foeSa, OHG. fuotan, MHG. 
vueten ; cf G. sb. f utter, food) 
feed, Sk. 43, Foster. 

feder v. faeder. 

fetfe, sn., [ = *f6'Si- (94c) < 
*fori!af (m) +-i-, V. prt. of 
find an] going IV. 2. 

feafe-ldst, sm., track VI. 139. 

felJe-mund, sf, lit. going-hand, 
fore-foot IV. 17. 

feffer-fotetd XVII. 33, aj., [pp. 
form for OE. aj. fe9'er-f6te, 
V. feower, f6t] (cf OFris. 
fiuwer-foted, Goth, fidur-) four- 

feede v. f6dan. 

feer v. feorr. 

feet V. f6t. 

feghte V. feohtan. 

feh V. feoh. 

feier, feir v. faeger. 

feith V. faith. 

fel (m wael-fel), ME; fel, fell, 
felle, aj., (M Du. fel > OF. fel) 
fell, cruel, keen (in Sc). 

fel V. feallan. 

fela, feola VII. 39 (106 N.), 
ME. feole, veole, fele, vele, feale, 
fale, I. sn. (275), [<T. felu, 
prop. n. aj., <pre T. *felu-=I.-E. 
p61u- (polii-), cf Skt. purii, Gk. 
7ro\6-, V. full] (Goth. OS. OHG. 
filu, MHG. vil, vile, G. viel) 
much. II. aj. with gen., much, 
many. III. av. (317) much, very. 

felan, ME. fele, w. 1, [< WT. 
f olian (94a ; 177) < T. V fol, v. 
folm] (OS. gi-f olian, OFris. 
fela, OHG. fuolan, cf MHG. vue- 
len, G. fuhlen) feel. 

felawe, sb., [ = Ic. f6-lag-i, part- 
ner in a f^ag, f^, (fee) prop- 
erty, lag, a i^xYing together, i.e. 
society] fellow, companion. 

feld, ME. feld, fild, fyld, sm. (272), 
[common WT. < T. *fel)>u-z 
(202. 2), cf folde] (OS. 
OFris. OHG. feld, MHG. velt, 
G. feld) field, Sk. p. 316. 

fele V. fela. 

felede v. fylgan. 

fell, sn., [<T. fello- <pre T. pello- 
= *peln6-, skin, Brug. II. 66, 
cf Gk. wiWa, L. pellis, Sk. 121] 
(cf Goth. Jprutsfill, leprosy, Ic. 
f jail, in compos. ; OS. OHG. fel, 
G. fell) fell, PELL, skin. 

fell, felle v. feallan. 

felle V. fel. 

felloun, ME. aj., [<AF. feloun, 
ace. o/fel. ?c/. fel] felon, cruel. 

fend V. feond. 




tdng V. f6n. 

feo V. feoh. 

feod V. fed an. 

feoh, Nh. feh, ME. feoh, feogh, 
fe; gen. feos (242), dat. f6o, 
S7i., [common l.-E. ; <T. fehu- 
(83; 275) Sk. 208; 50; 121, 
<I.-E. *p6ku, orig. ?domestic 
cattle, cf. Skt. pa^u, L. pecu-sj 
(Goth, faihu, Ic. f6, OS. fehu, 
OHG. fehu, fihu, Sk. 64, MHG. 
vihe, G. vieh) cattle, property, 
money = feet, Sk. 33 ; 335. 

feoht, ME. feoht, figt, fist, fight, 
viht, sf. (254.1), [< feoh tan] 

feohtan, ME. feghte, fiste, fechte, 
fyghte, vi3te ; prt. feaht, ME. 
faht, fau3t, pi. fuhton, ME. 
fo3te, foght ; pp. ME. fo3t, s. 3 
C (388), [only WT. = fehtan 
(83)] (OFris. fiuchta, OHG. 
fehtan. Du. MHG. vechten, G. 
fechten, Sk. 61) fight, Sk. 375. 
ME. vi3tinge, fechtinge, vb.-sb., 

feola, -e v. fela. 

f^oll V. feallan. 

f^ond, ME. feond, fend; pi. 
fynd, find, ME. fund, fendes, 
M.-nd-, um. m. (286), [com- 
mon T. prop. prs. ptc. = *fi(j)- 
ond-jo- (114. 1), cf. f^ogan 
ic. 3 (415), hate, Skt. V ply, hate, 
Sk. 229] (Goth, fijand-s, Ic. 
fjandi, OS. fiond, OHG. flant, 
MHG. viant, G. feind, Sk. 165) 
enemy, fiend, devil. 

f^orlja, ME. feorSe, num. asic. a,}. 
(328), [:=I.-E. *qf-tho-/orqtwr- 
tho-, V. feower, Sk. 253 a] 
(cf. L. quartus=:*ctvar-to-s ; Ic. 
fjorSi, OS. fiortho, OHG. fiordo, 
MHG. vierde, G. vierte) fourth. 

feorh, ME. vor, stow. r242), [<T. 
ferhwu- (79 ; N. 1; 273)] (Goth, 
falrhwus, ivorld, Ic. fjor, OS. 
OHG. ferah, MHG. verch) life. 

feorm, fiorm VIII. 35, fyrm 
XIV. 86, Nh. f£erm XII. Nero 
20, ME. veorme, ferme, sf, 
(cf. feorh; Low L. ferma < 

feorm, (influ. L. finnus, firm, 
firma >AF. ferme, rent) con- 
jointly, >farm) provisions, meal, 
feast, benefit VIII, 35. 

feorr, feor, Nh. fearr, ME. 
feorr, ferr, veor, fer, ver, ferre, 
feer; compar. fyrra, (313) 
ME. fyrre, I. av. (321), [<T. st. 
fer- : for- <pre T. per- : pr, cf 
Skt. pdra-s, remote, Gk. -n-bppw, L. 
porro; cf. for, fore, ME. per-, 
pro-] (Goth, fairra, Ic. fjarri, 
OS. ferr, OHG. verro, MHG. 
verre) far, Sk. 381, at a distance, 
very. II. aj. (313N.), far; ME. 
o fere = afar, to a great degree?, 
Z. (Germ. XX. 368) XXX. 18. 

feorran, Nh. fear ran, ME. 
ferren, av. (321), [<feorr] 
(OS. ferran, MHG. verne, G. 
fern) from far, -afar. 

flower,' ME. four, fowr, fowwre, 
num. (325), [=T. *fe(h)wur 
= I.-E. *qeqf, ?orig. T. *fe(h)- 
wori-z, *fe^w6ri-z, to., *fe'cSur. 
n., cf feffer- (fotetd) = I.-E. 
*qetwer, Brug. 419, Sk. 104, cf 
Skt. chatur, Gk. Tirrap-es, L. 
quattuor] (cf Goth, fidwor, Ic. 
fjogor; OS. fiwar, OHG. fior, 
MHG. G. vier) four, Sk. 355. 

f^owertig, ME. fowwerrtis, 
vourti, num. (326), [-tig, 
DKcad, = T. sb. *tegxi- (beside 
*tehen, v. t6n) <I.-E. *dekm- 
with accented suff. " Fer^ir-r's 
laiv,'' Brug. 244 ; 530, Sk. 127 ; 
128, cf Goth, fidwor-tig-jus, pi., 
as Ic. fjorer teg-er; OS. -tig, 
OHG. -zug, G. -zig] forty. 

fer V. feorr, fyr. 

f6ran, Nh. fdera, ME. ieren; prt. 
f^rde XIII. 23, ic. 1, [cf f6r 
prt. of faran] journey, go. 

ferde v. fgferan. 

fere v. feorr. 

fergan, ferian, ME. ferien,fere; 
prt. ferede (401), w. 1, [orig. 
ca7is. <faran] (Goth, farjan, 
go by ship) carry, bring, (ferry). 

ferli V. fsferlic. 

ferre v. feorr. 




fers, uers IX. 39 var., sn., [<L. 
versus, lit. a turning, Sk. 400, 

p. 438] VERSE. 

ferst V. fyrst. 

fest- V. faest-. 

fet V. f6t. 

feter, fetor, ME. feter, sf., [st. 
fet- : f at-: f6t-, by ablaut, v. 
faet, f6t] (c/, Gk. tt^St?, L. ped- 
ica ; Ic. fjoturr, m., 08. feter, in 
pi. m., OHG. fezzera, /., MHG. 
vezzer, /., G. fesser dial.) fetter. 

fette V. f6t. . 

few V. f6aw. 

feyne, fayne ; prt. fayned, feynet ; 
pp. feynit, w., [<AF. feindre, 
Sk. II, 80, <L. fingere, shape, <L. 
v'fig, mfigura, FiGwre, <\/dhigh, 
touch, knead (dough), Sk. 110] 

fier V. fyr. 

fierst, first, ME. furst, sm. f. 
(266), [<T. fristi- (54. 1 ; 100 a 
179.1)] (OS. frist, /., Ic. frest 
n., OHG. frist, /. n., MHG. vrist, 
/., G. frist) space of time, time 
delay; ME. don a furst, post 

fiewe V. f^aw. 

fif, infl. fife (325), ME. fif, five, 
fyve, vyve, fiwe, num., [com- 
mon T. as all nums. fr. 2 to 10 ; 
<T. fimf (185.1), Sk. 78,=pre- 
T. p6mpe, p6nqe (45. 2 a), Brug. 
419, Sk. 127] (c/. Skt. paiican, 
Gk. irkvr^, L. quinque=*pinque, 
O Ir. coic ; Goth, fimf, Ic. fimm, 
OS. fif, OHG. finf, MHG. viinf, 
G. funf) five, Sk. 44. 

fifta, ME. fifte, num. (328), [=T. 
*fimf-to-, -So-; Sk. pp. 154, 
268] fifth. 

fiftig, fif teg, ME. fifti, fyfti, 
«j-i [-tig, c/. feower-] ftfty ; 
a selection in the Psalms vii. 47. 

fight, figt V. feoht. 

fi3te V. feolitaii. 

fil V. fyllan. 

fild V. feld. 

fillen(n) v. fyllan. 

fin, fyn, sb., [<AF. fin, Sk. II. 
145. 4, <L. fmi^, limit, <findere, 

cleave, < L. V fid, c/. b i t a n] end 

= fine (Siiak.). 

find V. feond. 

findan, ME. finden, finde, fynde; 
prt. sg. and ME. fond, fand, 
funde (386 N. 2); pi. fun- 
don; pp. fund en; ME. fouii- 
den, founde, ifunde, s. 3 A (386), 
[<T. V fenj? (45.2 a)] (Gotli. 
fin>an, Ic. finna, OS. fitlian, 
findan, OHG. findan, MHG. G. 
finden) And, contrive, compose. 

fiorm V. feorm. 

fir V. fyr. 

firas, sm. pi., [c/. feorh] (Ic. 
firar, m. pi., OS. firiiios, in. pi., 
OHG. firiha, m. pi.) {poet.) men 
I. 9. 

first V. fierst, fjTst. 

fisc, fix (205. 3), ME. fix, fixe, 
fisx, fisc, fisch, fyscli, fische, sm. 
(but gen. pi. Nli. also fisc ana 
XII. Nero 6),[< common T. (but 
not I.-E.) fisko-z = pre T. *pis- 
ko-s, cf. L. pisc-is, O Ir. lasc 
= *piasc, Sk. 121; 205] (Gotli. 
fisk-s, Ic. fisk-r, OS. fisc, OHG. 
fisc, MHG. visch, G.fiscli) affsA, 
(collective) fish, Sk. 360. 

fiscere, ME. fisschere, fischer, sm. 
(248) , [ = f i s c + suff. of agent 
-ere = T. -ar-jo-, Sk. 239] (cf 
L. piscarius, offish, fishmonger ; 
OHG. fisc&ri, G. fischer) fisher. 

fiseian, Nh. fisciga XII. Nero 3, 
ME. fisschen, fysche, w. 2, [< 
fisc] fish. 

fisc-nett, ME. fiscnet, -nett, sn., 

five, fivee V. fif. 

fix, fixe V. fisc. 

fixoiar, -a Iff, ME. fisso«, sm., [< 
*fisco- (205. 3) St. 0/ fisc 
-\-abs. suff. of action *-!So==I.-E. 
ptc. suff. -to] (cf. L. piscatus) 
fishing. ^ 

flgfesc, ME. flee XV. 46,. flessch, 
flessh, vless, sn. (267a),. [.^T. 
*flaiski- (cf 288 N. 1,. but v. 
ege)] (Ic. flesk, pork, OS. fl^sc, 
OHG. fleisk, MHG. vleisch, G, 
fleisch) flesh, Sk. 330. 




flsesc-lic, ME. vlesslich, aj., fleshly, 

flgesc-lice, ME. flesliche, av., car- 
nally, fleshly. 

fldn, ME. flon, smf., (cf. fid, wf. 
(278 N.); Ic. fleinn) arrow VI. 
221, flonej. 

fl^am, ME. flem, sm., [=T. flauh- 
mo- (222. 2), v. prt. of fife on] 
(Ic. flaum-r, OHG. floum) flight; 
mid fie a me, FLEEing, flying 
X. 74. 

flee V. flsesc. 

flee V. fleogan. 

flfeman v. flyman. 

flfeogan, ME. flyghe, flye, flee ; 
prt. fleah, pi. flugon; pp. 
flogen, s. 2 (384 N. 1, 2) Sk. 
152, [common T., <T. Vfleug] 
(Goth. *fliugan, Ic. fljiiga, O Fris. 
fliaga, OHG. fliogan, MHG. vlie- 
gen, G. fliegen) fly ; ME. fly(e)gh- 
yng(e), vh.-sh., flying. 

flfeon, ME. fle; prt. flfeah, pi. 
flogen, ME. flugen ; pp. flo- 
gen, s. contr. 2 (373 ; 384 N. 1, 
2) Sk. 152, [<T. *Heu(h)on 
(119. 2), only Goth, kept K Bmg. 
374] (Goth. Hiuhan, Ic. flyja, OS. 
OHG. fliohan, MHG. vliehen, 
fliehen) flee, Sk. 376. 

fless V. flsesc. 

flessch, flessli v. flsfesc. 

flicce, ME. flicche ; jpZ. K. flicca 
VII. 23, sn., (Ic. flikki) flitch. 

flittenn, to., [< Scand., cf. Ic. 
flytja, Sk. 429] remove, hasten, 

flocc, ME. flok, sm., (Ic. flokk-r) 
flock, troop. 

fl6d, ME. flod, smn., [<T. fl6-^5u- 
(273) Sk. 225 c, v. fl6wan] 
(Goth, flod-us, river, Ic. floS, 
OS. flod, OHG. fluot, G. flut) 

fl6r, ME. flor, sfm. (274 N. 1), [< 
T. fl5ru- < pre T. ploru- : plaru-, 
cf Olr. lar=*plar, Sk. 160; 217] 
(Ic. flor, of cow-house, G. flur) 
floor, ground. 

flot, ME. flot, sn., [cf pp. o/fl§o- 
tan, S.2 (384)rLOi(;] swimming. 

on fl6t, ace. X. 69, afloat, on 

the voyage. 
flota, ME. flote, flot, wm., [c/. 
flot] ship, pirate; ME. also 


flour, sh., [<AF. flour, flur, Sk. 
II. 77. 3; 87. 1, <L. fl5s (flor-); 
cf. bl6stma] flower, Sk. II. 
155 ; 93. 

fl6wan, ME. flowen, s. red. B 
(396 c) Sk. 139 c, [<T. V flo =z 
pre T. Vplo, cf. Skt. Vplu, swim, 
FLOAi, and Gk. (Ionic) irXueiv, 
Sk. 121] (cf. Ic. floa, FLOod, 
OHG. flawen, MHG. vloen, G. 
dial, flauen, rinse) flow. 

flugen v. flfeon. 

flye, fly(e)ghyng(e) v. fleogan. 

flyman, fle man, ME. flemen; 
pp. gefl6med, w. 1, [<fly- 
ma, fugitive, <fl6on] (Ic. 
flsema) pitt to flight. 

foeda V. fedan. 

foerde v. feran. 

foght, fo3t V. feohtan. 

fol- v. foil-. 

fol, sb., [<Ar. fol <ML. folium, 
a buffoon, Sk. II. 160, <L. follis, 
wind-bag, cf. pi. folles, pufed 
cheeks] fool, Sk. II. 68 ; 96. 6. 

fole, ME. folc, folk, folic, volk, 
folke, sn.,[= T. folko-, Sk. 240] 
(Ic. folk, OS. folk, OHG. folc, 
G. volk) folk ; pi. people, nation, 
men XXX. 45. 

folc-stede, sm., peopWs dwelling- 
place, battle-place X. 82 (lit. 
'-folk- stead''). 

folc-toga, wjm., [-toga < pp. oj 
tfeon; cf. here-toga, G. 
lierzog, duke'\ leader of the peo- 
ple, prince. 

folde, ME. folde, wf., [=T. *fu]- 
«5(n-)^ < ?*ful5wo- < I.-E. 
*plthwa-, cf. Skt. prthvi, earth, 
prthii-s, broad, Gk. TrXari;-?, 
B'eitr. IX. 193, Brug. 288] (Ic. 
fold, a plain, OS. folda, cf feld) 
earth, foldi. 

fold-weg, sm., road V. 2873, 
(' earth- way''). 

fole (XXIX. 122) V. stape-. 




folgian, ME. fol3en, foll3henn, 
w. 2 (416 N. 6), [WT. and 
Scand., '^supplanting pre T. 
Vseq, V. s6on; cf. fylgan] 
(OS. folgon, OHG. folgSn, MHG. 
volgen, G. folgen) follow. 

folie, s&., [<AF. folie, v. fol] 
folly, Sk. II. 66 ; 44. 

folk, folic V. folc. 

foUshenn v. folgian. 

folm, s/., [felan] {cf. Gk.iraKdti-rj, 
L. palma; OS. pi. folmos, OHG. 
folma) (poet.) hand, palm. 

fon V. fdh. 

f6n, ME. fon, fong; prt. feng, 
ME. feng, venk ; pp. Nh. ge- 
fcfen, contr. s. red. A (367; 395), 
[=:*f6an (115) < *f6han 
(373) <*fanhan (67) < T. 
V fanh, fang (234c),=pre T. 
Vpank, ?<pak, ?cf. L. pangere 
(OL. pacere) fasten, pactus, pp. 
o/ pacisci, agree, >pax (pac-), 
PEAce] (Goth, fdhan, Ic. fd, OS. 
OHG. fahan, MHG. vdhen, van, 
G. fangen) seize, grasp, take, 
catch XII. 3, receive, undertake ; 
t6 rice f. VIII. 22, come to 
the throne. 

fond V. finclan. 

fondlan, fandlgan, ME. fonde, 
vondi, 10.2, [prt. of fin dan] 
(OS. fandon, OHG. fanton, visit, 
as MHG. vanden, G. fahnden, 
inform against) try, tempt, prove ; 
ME. fonde after, seek after; vondi 
of, seek to lead into XXVIII. 

fong V. f6n. 

foo V. fall. 

foote V. f6t. 

fov-^, pref, (Goth, fair-, fra-, faur-, 
Ic. for-, OS. far-, OHG. fir-, 
MHG. G. ver-, Sk. 201). orig. 
berone, genr. ^opposite,'' ^loss,'' 
^destruction,'' intens. 

for2, fore^, ME. for, forr, vor, 
fore, vore ; 1. prp., [orig. ^be- 
yond' <T. fur- = I.-E. pr-, Sk. 
121] (cf. Skt. pra, pura,*roR«^, 
Gk. Trp6, irdpos, L. prse ; Goth, 
faiir, faura, avs., (Ic. fur,fyrir), 

OS. for, fora, OHG. fora, G. vor) 
dat. instr. (ace.) ; local : before, 
in the sight of; temporal : before, 
sooner than ; cans. : for, in spite 
of, instead of, on account of, 
through, FRom, of, by reason of, 
as to, according to; with vb. 
of swearing, begging, etc., for 
the sake of, by; for-}>dni, 
forff^m, for-afon, for-afy, 
ME. for-H, forr-M, for->y, for- 
thy, forr->at, on that account, 
therefore; ME. for-hwi, where- 
fore; ME. vor-zot?e, forsooth, 
— truth; ME. for (before inf. 
with or without) to =in order to ; 
II. cj., therefore, because (Wyc- 
liffe, also = that), in for 9" gem. 
(>dm, >on) loith or without 
}»e, ME. for-tJi >e, forr-H >att, 
for-bi, forr >att, vor J^et, for "b'on, 
(finally only) for, for this (rea- 
son, viz.) that, because that. 

f6r, ME. fore, sf (254), [v. prt. of 
far an] journey. 

foran, ME. foren, av. (321), 
[forS] (OS. forana, OHG. forn, 
G. vorn) feeroRE ; foran t6, 
in advance o/VlI. 38. 

for^-baernan, ME. forbernen ; prt. 
forbaernde, t«. 1, burn w^. 

for^-beodan, ME. forbeden ; 3 sg. 
prs. forbyt, ME. forbut ; prt. 
forb6ad, ME. f orbed, s. 2, 

fori-beran, ME. forberen, vor- 
beren ; prt. sg. 2. ME. vorbere ; 
pp. f or bore n, s. 4, forbear. 

for^-ceorfan, ME. forkerven ; prt. 
fore ear f, s.S C, cut to pieces, 
cut off XIV. 75, forcarvb^. 

for^-deinan, ME. fordemen, w. 1, 

forff, ME. for«, for>, forth, fourth, 
furth, forjjc, av. (321), [ = T. 
*forb <*furt>o <I.-E. *prto, v. 
for2 Sk. 201] (local) 'forth, 
6eFORE, "PO-Rward, hither, out, 
aicay ; (temporal) forth, con- 
tinually; fora? mid forth- 

forSere v. furl^or. 




forS'-geong. ME. vor53ong, sm., 

[gongan] pr'ogress, success, 

foraTon v. furUuni, for. 
for3'-si3', ME. vorSsicN, sm., forth- 

fjoiiuj, departure, death. 
fori-d6n, ME. fordon, -mi {red.), 

undo, ruin, fordo {poet.). 
for'-drencan, ME. fordrenclie, 

10. 1, make drunk. 
fore V. for. 
fore^-bysn, ME. vorbisne, vor- 

bysne, sf., [by sen] example, 

fore^-cweSFan, j)p. K. forecuae- 

den, s. 5, foretell, foresay= de- 
cree, pp. VII. 15 ' the aforesaid.'' 
f ore^-genga, ivm., [gongan] 

fore-Goer = servant (male or 

female) . 
fore-^-liora, Nh., w. 1, (WS. 

l§oran, s. 2 (384 N. 1 ; 403 N. 

1) ic. 1, go) go before. 
fore-^-msfere, aj., v^v.eminent VI. 

fore'-secgan, ME. forsay ; 2Wt. 

f o r e s se g d e ; j9p. ME. f orsaide 

> foresaid, w. 3, mention before 

fore^-sprgec, ME. vorespeche, sf, 

pREface, forespeech^. 
for^-gdn, ME. forgaa, -mi, defec, 

forego, pass bij, renounce. 
fori-glefan, f orgy fan, MPj. 

for3iven ; prt. forgeaf; pp. 

forgifen, s. 6, forgive, lend, 

GIVE V. 2935. 
fori-giefness, ME. for-, voi^ive- 

nesse, sf., forgiveness. 
for^-gleldan, -gyldan, ME. 

f or3elden ; pp. forgo Id en 

VI. 217, s. 3 5, repay. 
for^-gietan, forgitan, ME. 

for3ite, for3ute; pp. ME. for3yte, 

s. 5, (G. vergessen) forget. 
for^-glopnid^ ME. pp. [cf. Ic. 

glupna, look downcast, gloppen, 

Sc] terrified. 
for^-gnagan, ME. forgna3e, s. 6, 

gnawup, tear to pieces. 
for^-grindan ; pp. f o r g r ti n- 

den, s. 'd A, grind up-, destroy. 

for'-growan. ME. forgrowe, s. 
red. B, grow to excess, forgrowi; 
forgrowe in his vysage, dis- 
guised by his oyeroROWN beai'd 
XXXIV. 63. 2. 

fori-3ut V. for-gietan. 

fori-gyltan, ME. forgulte ; j^P- 
ME. forgiilt, 10. 1, make guilty, 
forfeit ; pp. pass, guilty. 

fori-helan, ME. forhele ; pp. ME. 
forhole, s. 4, conceal, forhele^. 

for^-hergian, lo. 2, [<*harjo- 
st. of here] (G. ver-heeren) 
harry, ravage. 

for^-hogdniss, -hogodniss, -hog- 
eness, sf, [<pp. of hogian] 

forhtigan, w. 2, \_v. forht- 
m6d] (Goth, faiirhtjan, 08. 
forahtjan, G. fiirchten) be afraid. 

forht-m6d, aj., [forht, aj. p)'ob. 
orig. pp. of s. T. vb., cf. f yrh- 
tan, w. 1, FRIGHT, (Goth, 
faurht-s, OS. OHG. foraht)] 

forbtniss, sf, [v. forht- 
ni6d] fear. 

for^-lsetan, K. forletan, ME. 
forlsete, forlete (3 sg. prs. ind. 
Kent, fori 6 1, ME. forlet); 2)rt. 
forl6t, .S-. red. A, let go VIII. 
42, leave IX. 26, forsake IX. 70, 
give up, lose; forletl ; in fori., 
let in VI. 150. 

fori-leosan, ME. forleosen, for- 
lesen, vorlesen ; prt. sg. to r- 
leas, pi. forluron ; 2)p. for- 
loren, ME. forloren > forlorn, 
vorloren, s. 2, lose (wholly), 
destroy, forlese] ; treothes fori. J 
p)ledges broken XV. 14. \ 

forma, ME. forme, num. w. aj. 
(328), [<for2 + supl. suff. T. 
-ma -\- n- (314) Sk. 250, cf 
fruma, fyrst] (cf. Gk. irp6- 
fios, L. pri-mus ; OS. formo) 
Fmst, formed, former^. 

forme, fourme, sb., [<AF. forme 
(OF. also fourme) <L. forma] 
form, Sk. II. 70. 3; 94. . 

formen, w., [OF. former <L."for- 
mare < forma] form. 





fornicacion, s&., [<0r. fornica- 
tion (AF. fornicatiun) <eccl. L. 
ace. fornication-em < pp. of f or- 
nicari, fornicate < L, fornix 
(-nic-), a vault., brothel] fornica- 

forrow XXXI. 18, ME. av., 
[<fore'^; cf. Swed. forut] 

fors, force, sb., [< AF. force, Sk. 
II. 70. 3, <ML. <fortia <L. 
forti-s, strong'] force ; nia nafors, 
make no account XXXI. 85. 

fori-sacan, ME. forsake, vorsake; 
prt. fors 6c, ME. vorsoc, for- 
sook, s.Q (392), [<T. v/sak, v. 
sacu] (OS. farsakan, OHG. 
farsachan, MHG. versachen) 
oppose^ refuse., renounce., forsake. 

for'^-saide v. foresecgan. 

foi-i-sittan, ME. forsitten ; prt. 
forsaet, s. 5, neglect; with 
instr., delay V. 2859. 

forsoth(e) v. sdff. 

forst, ME. vorst, sm., [< common 
T. abs. frus-to- (179. 1) cf. pp. of 
freosan, s. 2 (384) FREEze, 
Sk. p. 188 ; p. 243] (OFris. forst, 
Ic. OS. OHG. G. frost) frost. 

for^-stelan, ME. forstelen ; prt. 
forstsel, pi. forstsfelon, 
-an, Nh. -stelun XI. Nero 13, 
ME. -stselen, -stalan, s. 4, steal 
away XIII. 72. 

for2-stondan, ME. forstanden ; 
prt. forst6d, s.6, (OHG. fir- 
stantan, firstan, MHG. verstan, 
G. verstehen) understand VIII. 

for'-swerian, ME, forswerien ; 
pi't. forsAv6r; j^P- O- <^'^^ ME. 
forswore n, s. 0, forswear, 

fort, vort, = for'^-te, = for-to, ME. 
pvp. until ; before injin., to. 

forth, for> v. forS". 

for-J>on V. for, 

for"2-wi>, ME. av., before; forwij? 
ban, beforehand. 

fori-wr6gan, ME. forwre3en, ^<7.1, 
[=-*wr6gian (94a; 177b) 
< T. Vwroh (234 c)] (Goth. 

wrohjan, Ic. rcegja, OS. wrogian, 
OHG. ruogen, MHG. riiegen, G. 
riigen, censure) accuse. 

for^-wundian, ME. forwundien ; 
jop. forwundod, i«. 2, wound 
(fatalhj) III. 4 b, forwoundt 

f6t, ME. fot, foot, vot; j^?. fet 
(133a,b), Merc. Nh. feet, ME. 
fet, feet, fette; dat. pi. f 6 turn, 
ME. fote, foote, (281), 
[common I.-E.; <T. fot- <I.-E. 
pod- : injl. also pod- : ped-, cf 
Skt. Vpad, go, step, Gk. (tEoI. 
TTibs) irovs (ttoS-), L. pes (ped-), 
Brug. 91; 311 and Bern., Sk. 
121 ; 117 ; 187] (cf Goth, fotus ; 
Ic. fot-r, OS. fot, OHG. fuoz, 
MFIG. vuoz, G. fuss, Sk, 55; 
06; 69; 80; cf feter, ?faet) 

fotte, w., [fetian, v. feccan] 


foundande v. fundian, 

founde(n) v. findan. 

four V. feower. 

four me v. forme. 

fourth V. foriy, 

fowhel, fowl V. fugel. 

fow^r V. feower. 

foAVAverr, fow^Avre v. f6ow^er. 

fra, fro, I. prp., [< Scand., = Ic. 
fra, V. from, Sk. 391] from, 
(fro, av.); II. cj., froji (tem- 
poral), since. 

frsetewian, ME. fretien ; pp. ge- 
frsetewod, w. 2 (408 N. 6), 
[<fraet(e)wa, (2G0 and 
N.), ornaments, = T. *fra-ta(h)- 
w5z (43 N. 4), V. *t€oganJ 
(Goth, us-fratwjan, make (ready) 
wise, OS, fratahon) adorn = fret. 

fraist(e), w., [< Scand., = Ic. 
freista; v. frdsiga] try, prove, 

fram v. from. 

frdsiga XII. Nero 12, Nh., w. 2, 
(=WS. frdsian; cf. Goth, frai- 
san, red., tempt, as OS. freson, 
OHG. freison, be in danger) 

frayne v. frignan. 

fre V. fr6o. 




frfea, wm. (277 N. 2), [=*frea(j)a 
<T. frauj6(n-) (119. 1), 7n. /.] 
(Goth, frauja, cf. Ic. Freyr, m., 
Freyja, /. ; OS. froio, OHG. fro, 
m., cf. frouwa, /., G. frau) (poet.) 
lord (esp. God, Christ). 

freinen v. frignan. 

fremede, freiniSfe (202 N. 1), 
ME. fremede, fremde, aj., [ = 
common T. except Scand. *fra- 
maH- <frain] (Goth. frama>s, 
OS. fremithi, OHG. framadi, 
MHG. vremede, G. fremd) for- 
eign, not akin, fremd, Sc. 

fremsumness, ME. fremsomnes, 
sf., [< frem-sum, kind, < 
freme, frim (prov.) <from, 
V. froin-lice] benefit. 

frenchype v. freondscipe. 

freiid V. freond. 

Frensche-men, [<0E. Frenc- 
isc < Franca, a Frank, < 
ML. Francus, tribal name, ?<T., 
cf. franca, wm. spear, Sk. 182 ; 
257] French-men. 

freo (114. 2), frio (38), fri 
(130), ME. fre, vri, aj. (297 
N. 2), [< T., except Scand., 
frijo-, loving, loved, spared, (=pre 
T. priyo-) <T. Vfri, cherish, cf. 
Skt. priyd-s, dear, < Skt. VprT, 
rejoice, please, Sk. 121 ; 246] 
(Goth, freis, OS. OHG. fri, 
MHG. vri, G. frei, Sk. 165) free, 

fr6o-d6m, ME. fredom, sm., free- 

freond, ME. freond, vreond, 
frend; pi. frynd, freond, 
fr6ondas, ME. frund, freond, 
vreondes, frendys, M. -nd, wm. 
(286 and N. 1), [<T. fri(j)ond- 
(114. 1) prop. prs. ptc. < T. V fri, 
V. freo, cf. freogan, w. S 
(415), FREE, Sk. 229] (Goth. 
frij6nd-s, OS. OFris. friund, 
OHG. friunt, MHG. vriunt, G. 
freund) friend, relative. 

fr6ond-lice VIII. 2, ME. frendli, 
av., friendly (way). 

freond-man, vreondman, sb., rel- 

fr6ond-scipe, ME. frenchype, sm. 
(263), [-scipe, abs. suff., lit. 
SHAPE, = WT. ?skipi- (98 K), 
V. scieppan, Sk. 202 ; {cf Ic. 
-skapr ; OS. -skepi, -skipi, O Fris. 
-skip, cf OHG. -scaf (t), MHG. 
-scaft, G. -schaft, Du. -schap 
> -scape)] friendship. 

fretan, ME. f reten, s. 5 (391 N. 3) 
Sk.l46, [ = fori-etan, c/. Goth, 
fra-itan, G. fressan = ver-essen] 
eat up, devour = freti. 

fricgan, fricgean (206.6); pp. 
gefrigen, gefrugen, s. 5 
(391.3), [ = *frigjon, -jo-, only 
prs. (372), <T. Vfrgh <I.-E. 
prSk, cf L. prec-ari, pray] (cf 
OS. fragon, OHG. frdg^n, frdh- 
hen, G. fragen) ask, ascertain. 

frignan, ME. freinen, frayne; prt. 
sg. frasgn, 2>l- frugnon; pp. 
gefrugnen, s. 3 D (389 N.), 
[-n- orig. only prs., <T. Vfreh, 
V. fricgan] (Goth, fraihnan, 
Ic. freigna, OS. frignan) ask, 
explore XXX. 97, frain (prov.). 

friar, ME. fri>K smn. (271), [ = 
orig. T. fri-bu-, Sk. 225 a, <T. 
Vfri, love, cf fr6ond, fr6o] 
(cf. Goth. Friba-reiks, FREDEnc, 
i.e. prince of peace, Ic. fri>-r, 
OS. frithu, OHG. fridu, MHG. 
vride, G. friede) peace, quiet, 

frilSian, ME. fri^ie, w.2, [<friaf] 
(Goth, ga-fribon, reconcile, Ic. 
frrSa, OS. frithon, OHG. ge- 
fridon, cf. G. be-frieden, enclose, 
appease) keep in peace, let rest 
XX. 4. 

frigti, ME. aj., [v. forht-m6d] 
(OHG. iorhtig) fearful, frightyi; 
frigti-fagen, fearful (= very?) 
glad XXI. 1331. 

frio V. freo. 

fri» V. fritf. 

fro V. frd. 

fr6d aj., [ = T. fr5>o-<fra]>- 
(ablaut) cf. Goth, frab-jan, 5. 6, 
understand'] (Goth, frob-s, Ic. 
froSr, OFris, frod, OHG. frot, 
MHG. vruot) wise, old X. 73. 




fr6for, ME. frovre, sf. (255.2), 

(OS. frofra, cf. OHG. fluobara) 

from (65), fram, ME. from, 

vrom, vram, prp.^ [<T. av. 

fram, roRtca/rZ, cf. frd, for^] 

(Goth. Ic. av. fram, vo^ward., 

OS. OHG. fram, MHG. vram) 

{dat. : local., motion away) from ; 

{temporal) from-on — since; 

{cans, ongin) from., (with pass. 

agent) from., {with verbs of 

speaking., etc.) of. 
froine v. fruma. 
from- lice, av., [<«j., from, 

FORward, brave, <T. *framo-, 

cf. for-ma, < for^, cf. Ic. 

fram-r, Forward, G. fromm, 

pious] boldly, quick/y. 
frovre v. fr6for. 
fruma, ME. frome, wm., [<fru-, 

T. av. St., V. from, for^] {cf. 

Goth, frum-s) beginning; ME. 

atte frome, especially XXXII. 

frum-cenned, ME. frumkenned, 

aj., [ = pp.,v. fruma (forma, 

Goth, fruma, aj.), c en nan] 

Finst-begotten ; mine frum- orig. primo- 

genita mea, my vRiMOGEniture, 

"birthright" XIII. 71. 
frum-gar, sm., [fruma +] 

'' PRuiipile,'' chief VI. 195. 
frum-sceaft, ME. frumschaft, 

sf, [v. fruma + gesceaft] 

(Finst) creation. 
frund v. freond. 
frute, s?>., (?Ic. frau(Si, frog) toad 

XVI. 273 {Jesus Ms. Oxford 

and Trinity Ms. {Mori'is), fru- 

den, pi., <frode). 
frymff, ME. frum}>e, sf, [= T. 

*frumiK)- (95; 255. 3) cf 

fruma] beginning. 
fugel, ME. fu3el, fowhel, fowl, 

sm. (245), [onlyT., = T. fuglo-, 

Sk. 218, ??<T. v/flug V. prt. pi. 

o/fleogan, Brug. 277] (Goth. 

fugl-s, Ic. fugl, OS. fugal, OHG. 

fogal, MHG. G. vogel) fowl, Sk. 

323, 14 ; 338 ; 376, = bird. 

fugul-dseg, sm., {fowl-day), day 
when flesh may be eaten VII. 24. 

fii\, ME. ful, aj., [<T. fu-lo-, Sk.251, 
< T. >/ *fti <N/ptl, smell of vjjtre- 
faction, cf. Skt.Vpii, stink, Gk, 
TTvdeiv, make rotten, L. puter, 
Fvtrid, Brug. 59, Sk. 121] (Goth, 
ful-s, Ic. full, OPIG, ful, MHG. 
viil, G. faul, Sk. 75 b ; 161) foul, 
Sk. 46; 323.14. 

fuiaP V. fyUan. 

fuiaPe V. fylfS. 

full, ME. full, ful, I. aj., [< com- 
mon T. aj. fullo-z (55), Sk. 243, 
= I.-E. pl-no-s (In = T. 11, -no- 
pp. suff.) '^Vpl, FILL, Brug. 194; 
II. 66_, Sk. 121] {cf Gk. TrX-fipTjs, 
L. plenus; Goth, full-s, Ic. full-r; 
OS. ful(l), OHG. fol(l), G. voll, 
cf fela) full, comviMe ; II. av., 
full, fully. 

fuUe V. fyllan. 

full-endian, ME. fulendien XVI. 
243, w. 2, (G. voll-enden) end, 

full-for}>enn, w., [c/. for^ian, 
ruRTHcr, V. for IS] comPLEie 
XVIII. B, 15597. 

full-fyllan, ME. fulfillen, fol- 
vellen, vulvellen, volvelle, fulfill, 
w. 1, fill full, fulfil, Sk. 194 a, 

fuUian, iv. 2, /i/ZriL, carry out 
VII. 15. 

fulligean, Nh. fulwvia, ME. 
tulli, folwe, w. 2, [=full+ 
wian (173 N. 3),? <*wihian, 
sanctify, {cf OS. wihian, OHG. 
wihen = *wihjan, G. weihen, 
<T. aj., wiho-, sacred)] baptize. 

full-wyrcan, ME. fullwirrkenn ; 
pp. ME. full-wrohht, w. 1 C, finish 
XVIII. B, 15597. 

fulne V. full. 

fulplnet, ME. pp., [<pinan] 
tortured enough XX. 3. 

fultum, also ME. , sm. , [ = f u 1 1 + 
t6am (43 N. 4), v. tieman] 
help, support. 

fultumlan, pp. gefultumod, 
ic. 2, [<fultum] help sup- 




fulwvande v. fulligean. 
fund V. feond. 
funde V. findan. 

fundian, ME. fomide, w. 2, [cf. 

fus : findan] strive after, 

hasten, fundi. 
fur(e) V. fy^r. 
furlffor, -ur, ME. for^ere, av., 

[<for2, fore (55) + comp. 

stiff. -iJorv. dffer] further. 
fur^'um (55), forSflCon, av., [< 

forSST] even, just, also, indeed. 
furst V. fierst, fyrst. 
furth V. foriy. 
fus, ME. fus, fous, aj., [<T. funso- 

(185. 2) < *funsso- < *funKo-, 

cf. fundian, Brug. 527] (Ic. 

fuss, OS. fiis, OHG. funs) ready, 

willing, eager, fouse]. 
fyfti V. fiftig. 
fyghte V. feolitan. 
fyld V. feld. 
fyiaf, ME. ful«e, fylthe, sf, [ = T. 

*fuU\>d- (96a; 255.3) <f6l, Sk. 

197 ^ ; 223 a] (OS. fulitha, OHG. 

fiilida) filth. 
fi^Igan, fyligan (213 N.), ME. 

filgen, felgen, felen ; prt. 

fylgde, fylide, ME. filgede, 

felgede, felede, ic. 1 {orig. 3; 

416 N. 5), [=folgian (93.2; 

31 and N.)] follow, persecute. 
fyllan, ME. fillenn, fulle, fille ; 

prt. fylde, (405. 1), ME. fylde; 

pp. gefylled (406 and N.), 

gefyld, ME. filledd, w. 1, [< 

full (95 ; 177) Sk. 194a] (Goth. 

fulljan, Ic. fylla, OS. fullian, 

OHG. fullen, MHG. vullen, G. 

fiillen) make full, fill, ful///. 
fyllan, fell an, ME. felle, fulle, 

prt. fylde (405.1); pp. ge- 
fylled, w. 1, [cans. <feall- 

an (80 N. 2 ; 98) Sk. 192^] (Ic. 

fella, OS. fellian, OHG. fellen, 

G. fallen) fell, slay VI. 194. 
fyllo, ME. fulle, /. (279), [ahs. 

orig. -in- st., <full] fill, feast 

VI. 209. 
tyn V. fin. 
fynd V. feond. 
fynde v. findan. 

fyr, ME. fur, fier, fer, fser, fir, 
fyre, sn. (239. 1 b), [common 
WT., <*fu-ir <T. V fu = pre T. 
Vpu, Skt. Vpu, to flame, Sk. 121] 
(Gk.^7ri7p, -^olic TTvip, cf. (poet.) 
Ic. fyre, n., furr, m.; OHG. OS. 
fiur, OHG. vuir, G. feuer, Sk. 
162) fire, Sk. 47 ; 313 ; 314. 

fyrd-wie, n. or /.? [fyrd, sf. 
(269), fare!, army, i.e. militia, 
= G. landwehr, <T.far-«i- (98), 
V. far an, cf. here. (cf. Goth, 
us-farbo, egress; OS. fard, OHG. 
fart, G. fahrt)] camp. 

fyrhto, fyrhtu, fyrihto, ME. 
fri3t, /., [abs. orig. -In- St., 
V. forht-m6d (93.2; 279 N.3)] 
(Goth, faurhtei, OS. OHG. forhta, 
G. furcht) fright, Sk. 353, terror. 

fyrm v. feorm. 

fyrre v. feorr. 

fyrst, ME. furst, fyrst, first, ferst, 
verst,aj. (328), «t7.,[<f or(e) ^ + 
supl. suff. (93; 313) Sk. [193 a] 
(Ic. fyrst-r, OHG. furist, MHG. 
viirst, Fris. f erost ; cf. sbs. 
OS. OHG. furisto, MHG. vurste, 
G. furst, first person = vmnce, 
cf forma, frunia) first. 

fysan, ME. fusen ; prt. fysde, 
w. 1, [<fus (96 b)] make 
ready, hasten. 

fysch V. fisc. 

fysche v. fiscian. 

fyve V. fif. 


gaaS" V. gan. 

gad-, gaed- v. gead-. 

gaede v. ge-eode. 

Saefenn v. giefan. 

gsefu V. giefu. 

gseild V. gield. 

gaeliornise v. gel-. 

gaer v. g^ar. 

gaest, ME. gest, sm., [< common T. 
gasti-z (266), stranger, <pre T. 
ghosti-s, cf. L. hostis, Sk. 105, 
enemy, prop, stranger, Sk. 113; 
224b] (Goth, gast-s, cf Ic. gest-r; 
OS. OHG. MHG. G. gast) stran- 
ger, guest, Sk. 337, enemy, IV. 10, 




gaet V. gi6t. 

gaf, 3af, 3affv. giefan. 

gain V. ongegn. 

gal- V. geal-. 

gain- V. goni-. 

gan V. -ginnan. 

gaa (57 N. 1), ME. gan, gon, gaa, 
ga, go; 1. sg. prs. ind. gd, Nh. 
gsfe, 2. g£est, 3. gjeiaf, K. geS", 
ME. gajj, gob, pi. gdiy, ME. 
gaS, gaa; imper. sg. 2. ga, ME. 
ga, go, pi. 1. ME. ga we, 2. gd 9", 
Nh. gdatST, Merc, gsfej?, ME. 
ga]); pp. pass, gegan, ME. gon, 
goon, gane > NE. gone, -mi, 
defec. (prt. v. 6 ode) (430), 
\_<appar. T. >/*gai, ?=vb. par- 
ticle ga- (v. ge-) -(- >/ i, go, v. 
§ode, cf. fretan] (OS. OFris. 
g&n, OHG. gkn, g^n (1. prs. ind. 
g6in = T. *g4-imi = Gk. elywt), 
MHG. gen, G. gehen) go. 

gane v. wona. 

gange v. gongan. 

3anne v. hwonne. 

gdr, ME. gar, gor, sm., [ = T. 
*gaizo-, -u- (273 N. 4)] (Ic. 
geirr, OS. g6r, OHG. MHG. g6r, 
G. geer) spear (cf. Edgar, gar- 

gar-mitting, s/,, [for -ge-met- 
ing, meeting, <m6tan] bat- 
tle X. 99. 

garnement, sb., [< AF. garne- 
ment <0F. garnir, garnish, <T., 
c/. w e a r n i a n} garment, Sk. II. 
52. 2 ; 45. 

gdst, ME. gast, gost, sm., [=T. 
*gaisto-=preT. *ghoizdo-, Brug. 
596] (OS. ggst, OHG. MHG. G. 
Du. geist, Sk. 157) ghost, Sk. 
337, = spirit, soul. 

gast-cyning, sm., ^spirit-king,^ 
God V. 2883. 

gdst-lie, ME. gastli3, gastli, gost- 
lich, aj., ghostly = spiritual. 

gast-lice, ME. gostliche, av., spirit- 
ually, ghostly^. 

gat V. gietan. 

gate V. geat, gietan. 

3ave(n) v. giefan. 

gayn-lycli, ME. aj., [<Scand., cf. 

Ic. gegn-ligr < gegn, straight, 
V. ongegn] kind, gracious, 

ge-, ME. 3e-, 3!-, i-, y- Sk. 337, e-, 
a-, procliticpref, [< T. ga-] (Goth, 
ga-, Ic. g- {rare), OS. gi-, OFris. 
gi-, ge-, ie-, OHG. ga-, gi-, ge-, 
G. ge-) collectivity, completeness, 

ge-, ME. 3e- 4- ptc. v. uncom- 
pounded verb. 

g6, ME. 3e, 3a, cj., (OS. ge, gie, 
ga) a7id, VI. 166; (gfegffer, 
geliueder) . .ge) 
as well . . . as ,' both . . . and VII. 
52 ; VIII. 7. 

g6 (121 and N.), gee, Nh. gie, 
ME. 36 Sk. 287, 3he, ye ; gen. 
eower, ME. 3ure ; dat. low, 
60W, g§ow, Nh. iuh (332 N. 
2), ME. eow, 3UW, 30U, 30\v, 3U, 
yu, > NE. you; ace. 6owic, 
60W, Nh. iwih, iuh, ME., 
NE. same as dat. ; gen. > poss. 
prn. 6ower (335) >ME. eure, 
30ur, your, ynre > your ; 2.pers. 
prn. pi. (332), [=T. *jiz, ?/r. 
anal. *wiz v. ^/v%, (74 N. 1) cf. 
Goth, jus = pre T. *yu-s, cf. Skt. 
yu-yam, Gk. i;-/>te?s] (Ic. jer, 6r, 
OS. gl, ge, OHG. MHG. ir, G. 
ihr) ye, Sk. 337; 352, you (dat. 
now also nom. pi. sg.). 

g6, gea V. id. 

geador, av., [ = T. * ga'S-ur, cf. 
gsBd, sn. fellowship, G. gatten, 
join, match, ? v. g6d] together, 
Sk. 343 ; set-g seder e (50 N. 2, 
3; 75 N. 1), Nh. get-gadre, 
sed-geadre, ME. set-gsedere, 
set-gadere, also t6-gaedere, 
ME. togidere, togidre, togeder,> 

geadrian, ME. gaderen, gederen, 
gedren, gadere, gedre ; pp. ME. 
gaderid, gedrid, w.'2, \y. gead- 
or] gather, assemble; ME. gad- 
ering, vb.-sb., gathering. 

ge-selSele, aj., hereditary, natural 
X. 14. 

ge-aemetlgian, w. 2, imth gen., 
[<*aemeta, semetta, torn., 




leisure, > empty, Sk. 323. 9] be at 
leisure from VIII. 25. 

gealga, galga (158.2), III. la, 
ME. gal we, torn., [< common T. 
galgo(n-) (80), ?long pole; ap- 
plied for Christian cross] (Goth, 
galga, Ic. galgi, OS. OHG. galgo, 
G. galgen) gallows {pi. used as 
sg.), Sk. 338, cross. 

gealg-treo(w), ME. galwetre, sn. 
(250.2), gallow(s) -tree, cross. 

gealla, Merc, gall a, ME. galle, 
wm., [=T. *galzo(n-) (80), T. 
>/*gal <preT. Vghol, Pyellom?, 
Sk. 105 ; 113 ; 206] (cf. Gk. xoXiy, 
L. fel, Ic. gall, M.,'OS. OHG. 
galla, /., G. galle) gall, Sk. 33. 

3eanes v. ongegn. 

gedr Ep. g^r, ME. gaer, 3er (cf. 
102), yer, yeer, sn., rarely m., 
[< common T. *i£ero-m (75.2), 
orig . spring ? , cf. OBulg. jaru, 
Gk. (Upa, spring, Brug. 118 ; 141] 
(Goth. j6r, Ic. 4r, OS. OHG. jdr, 
G. jahr) year, Sk. 337; 352. 

gearclan, ME. 3eirken, w. 2, [< 
gearo, +'y6. suff. -(e)ciaii 
(411 N.)] prepare. 

gearo, ME. 3eruh ; gen. gea- 
rowes, aj. (300 and N.), [=T. 
*garwo (174. 2) Sk. 248] (Ic. 
gorr, OS. garu, OHG. OS. garo, 
MHG. G. gar) ready, yare (Shak.), 
Sk. 337. 

gearo, gere, av., readily, wholly, 

gearwe, ME. gere, ger, sf. pi., 
[< gearo] gear = preparation, 
dress, equipment. 

gearwian, ME. 3arwen ; prt. 
gearwode; pp. g e g e a r e- 
wod to. 2, prop. 10. 1 C (408. 1, 
N. 2; 409), [<gearwe, Sk. 
212] gear = prepare. 

geat, Merc, get, ME. 3et, 3ate, 
gate, sn. (240 N. 1, 2; 105 N. 1), 
[=*g8et=T. *gato- (75. 1) open- 
ing'] (Ic. OS. Du. gat, hole) gate. 

ge-axian, w. 2, find out (by asking) 
XI. Bod. 14. 

ge-b^acnian, Nh. gibecnia XII. 
R. 19, W.2, [b 6 en la] signify. 

ge-bed, ME. ibede, sn. (241), [cf 
biddan] (G. gebet) prayer. 

ge-beded v. bgedan. 

ge-b6odan, s. 2, proclaim, VII. 41. 

ge-beorgan, ME. ibure3en, s. 3 C, 

ge-beor-scipe, -scype, sm., [< 
b 6 o r, sm. , beer] drinking-bout, 

ge-beran, ME. iberen ; prt. ge- 
baer XIV. 51, s. 4, bear. 

ge-bidan, ME. ibide ; prt., 
gebad V. 2909, s. 1, gen. or 
ace, wait (for). 

ge-biddan, Nh. gibidda, ME. 
ibidde ; prt. pi. Merc, gebe- 
dun, s. 5, oft, reflex, dat., ask, 

ge-bindan, ME, ibinde ; prt. pi. 
gebundon, s. ^ A, bind. 

ge-bliffsian, geblltsian, ME. 
iblissien, u\ 2, make glad, rejoice. 

ge-blind-fellian, Anglia IX. 36, 
279, ME. blindfellen, pp. blind- 
felde >(influ. fold) NE. blind- 
fold, 10.2, [cf. fyllan] strike 
blind XXVI. 13 ; blindfold. 

ge-brehtnia, giberhtnia, Nh. 
w. 2, [cf. beorht] glorify. 

ge-bringan, ME. ibringe ; prt. 
gebr6hte, vj. 1 C (407 a), 

ge-brdffor, gebr6)?er X. 113, 
gtebrdffru, ME. gebro'Sre, 
M.-r, m. pi (285), (G. gebriider) 
brothers, BREXHRew. 

ge-cnawan (c n d wan cf. Haupt's 
Zeitschrift, 9, 407 b), ME. icna- 
wen, icnawe, iknowe, cnawen, 
cnawe, knawe, knowe, knaw ; 
prt. gecn6ow, ME. cnew, 
knew > NE . knew ; pp. g e c n a- 
wen, ME. knowen >NE. known, 
s. red. B (396) Sk. 139, [< T. 

V kno : kne, (allied to T. V kann, 
V. cunnan) <\/gn6, cf Skt. 

V jna, Gk. ye-yvd-a-KCLv, L. (g)no- 
scere, Sk. 103 ; 108] (cf Ic.^knd, 
prs. of prt.-prs., be able, OHG. 
(ir-)chn4an, w.) know, under- 
stand VIII. 62, recoGsize XIII. 




ge-coren v. cfeosan. 

ge-cost, aj., [ = j9p.<co8tigaii] 
tried VI. 231. 

ge-cuinan, ME. ycume ; prt. ME. 
ycom, s. 4, come (to). 

ge-cweiaCan, Nh. gloves' a, ME. 
iqvej'e; prt.Wi. gicveS", s. 5, 
speak, say. 

ge-cw6uian, ME. iqueme ; prt. 
ME.iquemde,to.l, [gecwfeme] 
satisfy, please. 

ge-cw6me, ME. queme, aj., [ = 
T. *kwEemi- (68 N. 1), vb. aj., v. 
cum an] (c/. OHG. bi-qudmi, 
G. be-quem) convENiew^, agree- 

ge-cyndness, ME. kyndenesse, 
sf., [cynde] kindness. 

ge-cyrrau, Nli. gicerra, ME. 
icherran ; p7% Nh. g i c e r d e 
XII. R. 20, w.l,l=T. *ga-karz- 
jon] (OHG. gikerren, MHG. 
kSren, G. kehren) turn (one's 

ge-dsfede v. ge-d6n. 

ge-dsfelan, K. gedelan (151. 1), 
ME. idelen, w. 1, distribute (to 
aelmessan, as alms VII. 39), 

ge-dafenian (50 N. 1), prt. geda- 
fenade IX. 18, w. 2, [<geda- 
fen,pp. (392N.3)<*gedafan 
s. 6, (Goth, gadaban, befall, be- 
fit)^ befit. 

3ede v. ge§ode. 

gedere v. geador. 

gederen v. geadrian. 

3edi V. 6adig. 

ge-dihtan, ME. idihten ; prt. ge- 
dihte, w. 1, compose. 

ge-d6n, ME. idon, pi. prs. ind. 
ged6S XI. verse 14, Merc. 
ged6a>, Nh. ged6e]>; prs. 
opt. gedoe; prt. opt. gedgfede, 
V. 2893, -mi, {red.) (429), do, 
make XI. ve7'se 14, render VII. 43. 

gedren, gedrid v. geadrian. 

ge-durran?, prt. Nh. gidarste 
XII. Nero 12, prt.-prs., s. 3 C 
(422.7), (/are. 

ge-dwimor, ME. idwimor, sn., 
delusion XIV. 40. 

gee V. g^ and id. 

ge-^aS-m6dan, ge6ad-; prt. ge- 

^affmfedde, ME. -medede, 

-me-dode, w. 1, [6al5m6du] 

dat., humble one's celf before 

XIII. 53 ; with t6, worship XI. 

verse 9. 
ge-endian, ME. ienden; ^jr^.geen- 

dode, geendade, w. 2, end ; 

geendung, vb.-sb.f, end. 
ge-6ode, ME. geode, gsede, iede, 

3ede, yede, defec. w. 1 (430), 

went ; for hem ne yede, availed 

them not XXV. 44. 
3ef, g^f V. gief. 
Sef V. giefan. 
3efe V. giefu. 
ge-fea, wm., [cf. prt. o/ gef6on] 

ge-feallan, ME. ifallen, ivalle ; 

prt. ME. ivel, s. red. B, befall. 
3efen v. giefan. 

ge-feoht, ME. ifiht, sn., fight, battle. 
ge-feohtan, prt. gefeaht XIV. 

28, s. 3 C, FIGHT, win VI. 122. 
ge-f&on ; j9r«. gef eah VI. 205 (82), 

pi. gefsegon; pp. gefegen, 

contr. 8.5(391.2), [=-*fe(h)on 

(373; 113)] with gen., rejoice 

ge-fera, ME. ifere, ivere, wm., 

[f 6 r a n] companion , feer^ , 

ge-feterian, ME. ifeterien; prt. 

gefeterode V. 2902, w. 2, 

[feter] fetter, bind. 
ge-fettan, ME. if etten ; pi't. g e- 

fette XIV. 90, w. 1, [fee can] 


ge-fcen v. f6n. 

ge-f6n, ME. if on ; prt. gefeng, 
pi. gef^ngon, Nh. gifen- 
gun, cf XII. Nero, R. 3, contr. 
s. red. A, seize, grasp, catch. 

ge-frgfege, aj., [cf *prt. of fric- 
gan] famous VIII. 100. 

ge-fremman, p7't. ge-fremede 
(401.1), w. 1 (409), l<aj. 
from, V. from lice] accom- 
plish, do, (frame). 

ge-frignan, Nh. glfraegna, 
gifregna, ME, ifreinen, s. 3 
D, ask. 




ge-fyldae v. fyllan. 

ge-fylled, pp., [< fyllan] with 
gen., bereaved X. 81, 133. 

ge-gan v. gdn. 

ge-gaerwan V, 2855, ic. 1, [dial. 
V. gear wi an] prepare. 

ge-gearvvlan, K. gegeorwlan 
VII. 38 (150.3), ME. isearwien, 
?o. 2, prepare, get ready. 

ge-glengan, prt., geglengde 
IX. 7, w. 1, [c/. glenge, sm. pi. 
(264), ornaments'] embellish. 

gegn-paeS", sm. (240 and N. 2), 
[v. on-gegn, paeij 7iot in East 
T. (OFris. pad, path, OHG. 
pfad, MHG. pfat, G. pfad)] 
hostile path. 

gegnuin, av., [cf. on-gegn] for- 
ivard, straight VI. 132. 

ge-grlpan, ME. igripen ; prt. 
gegrap V. 2904, s. 1, [com- 
mon T. v/ gi'ip, pre T. glirib] 
(Goth, greipan, Ic. gripa, OS. 
gripan, OHG. grifan, MHG. 
grifen, G. greifen) gripe = 


ge-gyrdan. Nil. gigyrde XII. 

Nero 18, w. 1, gird. 

ge-hala, XII. Nero 16, scrihe'^s 
error for gehald, v. ge- 

ge-hat-land, sn. , [hdtan] prom- 
ised land IX. 82. 

ge-healdan, Nh. gehalda (158. 
2), ME. ihealden ; prt. ge- 
hiold, Nh. geli6ald, s. red. 
B, hold, keep, guard. 

ge-hieran, gehyran, gehiran 
(97) XIII. 8, Merc. geh6ran, 
Nh. gehera (159.3), gih^ra, 
ME. ihuren, iheren, yhere, 
yhyere, ic. 1, hear. 

gehlerness, gehyrness, sf, 

ge-hilt, sn. (267 a), {cf. Ic. hjalt, 
OHG. hilza, MHG. helze) hilt, 

V. 2905 {pi. of one weapon, as 
oft Shale.). 

ge-hiran v. gehieran. 
ge-hwd, Nil. gihua, I. 3, indef. 
prn. (347), each, with gen. I. 3, 

VI. 186. 

ge-hwaeaCer, K. gehueder, 

indef prn. (347), each of two, 
both' gehueder, 
as well . VII. 52. 

ge-hwsfer, ME. ihwer, uwer, av., 

ge-hwelc VIII. 102, gehwylc, 
ME. iwhillc, uwilc, uwilch, in- 
def prn. (347), eacH ; ME. 
uwilc-an, eacn one XVII. 19. 

ge-hwerfan, gehwyrfan, w. 1, 
[cf hweorfan, s. Z C (388), 
<T. Vhwerf, move to and fro] 
{cf Goth, hwarbon, go about, 
as OHG. warbon) turn round, 
change IX. 76, {cf whirZ, < 
Scand., Sk. 433 ; 440 ; 443). 

ge-hyr v. gehier-. 

3ei3en, w., [< Scand., cf. Ic. geyja, 
s. vb., bark] cry out XVII, 42. 

3eirken v. gearcian. 

ge-laeccan (89 N. 1),ME. ilacchen, 
laclie ; prt. g e 1 ae h t e XIV. 13, 
w. 1 C (407 a), seize, catch, 
latch t 

ge-lgfedan, K. geledan, ME. 
ileden, w. 1, conduct, lead. 

ge-laeran, K. geleran, ME. 
ylere, iv. 1, teach; ME. also 
LEARN, become acquainted with. 

ge-lsered aj., [pp. o/geleferan] 

LEARNED VIII. 87, IX. 57. 

ge-lsestan, ME. ileste, ilaste, 3. 
sg. prs. ind. ME. ilest, ilast, w. 
1, perform, fulfil, hold to, -out, 

ge-lseswian, imper. Nli. glles- 
wa XII. Nero 17 (150.1), w. 2, 
[<lses, sf (260), pasture, = 
lease (prov.), Icesowi] pasture. 

3eld V. gield. 

3elde v. gieldan. 

ge-Ieafa, Nil. g i 1 e o f a, ME . ileave, 
-ilsefe, Isefe, wm., [= common 
WT. abs.=T. *galaubo(n-) (63) 
<:T. Vlub, V. geliefan; cf 
16af, 16of] (OS. gilobo, OHG. 
giloubo, G. glaube) faith, be- 


ge-Ieornian, geliornian VIII. 

56, ME. ilerne, tc. 2, learn, be- 
come acquainted with, study. 




ge-lic, ME, ilich, ylich, ylych, 
iliclie, lyke, aj. with dat., [ = 
common T. aj., < ga-, pi^ef., + 
liko-, lit. having a symmetrical 
body, V. lie] (Goth, galeik-s; Ic. 
gllkr, OHG. galih, MHG.gelich, 
G. gleich) /ike; gelica, ME. 
iliche, w. = sb., like, equal, fel- 
low ; i. of godes lihte XVI. 377, 
878, alike. 

gelice, Nil. gillce, ME, iliche, 
yliche, av., alike, in like manner. 

ge-liefan, gelyfan, ME. ileve ; 
imper. ME. ilef ; p7't. gelyfde, 
10. 1, [=*-leafan (99) < T. 
v/laub : lub (63; 192.2; 381) 
please, approve, Sk. 200] (Goth, 
galdubjan, OS. gilobiaii, OHG. 
gilouben, MHG. gelouben, gloub- 
en, G. glauben) believe. 

ge-liehtan, Nh. gellhta XI. 
Nero l,w.\, [ly-htan] dawn. 

ge-limp-lic, aj., [I imp an] suit- 
able, due IX. 28. 

ge-liornis, gaeliornis Nh., sf., 
lit. going, = Galilee XI. Nero 10, 
16, fr. idea Heb. name = trans- 

Sellpenn v. gielpan. 

ge-16cian, ME. ilokien, iloken, w. 
2, look at, observe, keep. 

ge-16ine, ME.3elome, ilome, lome, 
av., frequently, lomei. 

ge-Iong, ME. ilong, aj., belonging, 
depending, ME. with o, prp., NE. 
along (of) = owing to. 

gelpau V. gielpan. 

ge-lyfan v. geliefan. 

ge-lyfed, aj., [pp. of gelyfan, 
cf 16f, aj.fWeak] weakened, gel. 
yldo, of advanced age IX. 20. 

ge-maca, ME. imake, make, wm., 
[macian] (c/. Ic. maki; OHG. 
gimahho, m., -h, f, OS. gimaco) 
companion, mate (Sk. 329, or 
MDa influ., meet); make^ ; na 
make, not one''s equal. 

ge-msfeded, gemgedd, ME. mad, 
pp., Iprop. pp., more orig. aj.'] 
(c/.Goth. gamaibs, weak, bruised ; 
OS. gem^d, OHG. gameit, MHG. 
gemeit, merry) foolish, mad. 

ge-msfelan, ME. imelen, w. 1, 
speak, talk. 

ge-msene, ME. ymene, I. aj. (302 
N. ) , [ < common T. gamaini-z 
(90) ; ('/. L. communis = *com- 
moini-s] (Goth, gamain-s, OHG, 
gimeini, G. gemein) comMON, 
him gemafene, between them 
XIV. 5 ; II. av., in cowimgn. 

ge-msene-lice, Nh. gim-, av., in 

geman v. gieman. 

ge-mdna, ME. imone, ymone, wm.y 
\_cf. gemtfene] company VII. 
8 ; X. 79. 

ge-mang v. gemong. 

3eme v. gieme. 

3eine(n) v. gleraan. 

ge-meare, sn., \_cf. mearc, sf. 
(254. 1), boundary, (Goth, marka, 
Ic. mork, forest {^border), OS. 
OHG. marca, G. mark, MARcnes, 
cf. L. margo, margiw)] region 
V. 2885. 

ge-mecca, -maecca (89. 1, cf. N.), 
ME. macche, wm. (278 N.), [cf 
gemaca] match =mxte, spouse 
VII. 2. 

gem^rsed v. msfersian. 

ge-met, ME.imet, sn., [<metan, 
s. 5 (391) mefe] MEASure IX. 52 ; 
as aj., meet V. 2895. 

ge-m§tan, Merc, gem ce tan, Nh. 
gimdeta (150. 4), ME. imeten, 
imete, ymete ; prt. gem6tte, 
Nh. gimdete, w. 1, meet, 

ge-mong, gemang VI. 225, ME. 
imong, I. sn., [< WT. Vmang v. 
mengan] crowd, troop VI. 193; 
11. on gemang (OS. an gi- 
mange), ME. geonmang {written 
for on ge-?), later gemong, 
gemang, ME. imong, or 
onmang, amang, among, 
amonge, amonges, amang, prp. 
among, Sk. 379, amongst {gen. 
+ t, Sk. 341). 

ge-m6t, ME. imot, sn., [<T. mo- 
to-] (Ic. OS. mot, MHG. muoz) 
MEETin^, encounter, council., 




ge-munan, ME. imunen ; prs. g e- 
Hi o n, g e m a n, ^Z. g e in u n o n, 

opt. g e in y II e -jprt. g e m u n d e, 
prt.-prs.sA (428.9), [<T.Vmun: 
man < V mn : mon, cf. L, me-min-i, 
V. gemyiid] (Goth, munan, 
mean) ace. or gen., I'eMEMber, 
be Mindful of. 

ge-inynd, ME. imunde, munde, 
mynde, mynd, mind, sfn. (267 b; 
269 and N. 4), [==T. *(ga-) 
munSi-, -H-, < I.-E. *mnti, cf. L. 
mens (menti-), v. ge munan, 
Sk. 224 c] (Goth, gamund-s) 
MEMon/, reMEMftrawce, mind, Sk. 

ge-myndgian, geinyn(e)gian 
(175. 2), ME. imune3en, lo. 2, 
[<gemynd] (OHG. gi-munti- 
gon) reMEMfeer, be mindful of. 

ge-n6a-l8ecan, Nh. gen6ol6ca; 
prf. genfealsfehte, (407 b) Nh. 
geneolecde XI. Nero 2, ME. 
geneahlacte XI. Hat. 2, geneh- 
lahte, geneohlacte, lo. 1 C, draw 
nig ft, -near. 

ge-nergan IV. 19, prt. gene- 
rede, w\ 1, rescue. 

ge-niman, Nh. ginima, ME. 
mhnen; prt. genain, V. 2929, 
pi. gen dm on, Nh. ginom- 
un, -on, Merc. gen6men, 
ME. genamen, s. 4, take, cap- 
ture XIV. 48. 

ge-n6h, ME. inoh, onoh, inouh, 
inou, anou3, aj. s. (291 N.), and 
av. (319), [<gen6g (214.1) 
< common T. ganogo-, cf. 
gene ah, prt.-prs. s. 5 (424.11) 
it suffices^ (Goth, ganoh-s, OS. 
ginog, OHG. ginuog, MHG. 
genuoc(g), G. genug) enough, 
Sk. 201.6; 337; 333. 

gentil, gentyl, aj., [ < AF. gentil, 
Sk. II. 149, <L. genti-lis, lit. 
belonging to the gen(t-)s, clan, 
V gen, beget^ gentle = well-born, 
worthy, {cf genteel Sk. II. 126 ; 
\^Q, gentile). 

gentilesse, sb., [<0F. gentilesse 
< gentil] nobleness, gentilesse^. 

gentylete, sb., [< OF. gentilite < L. 

gentTlita(t-)s, relationship in the 
gen(t-)s, <gentnis, v. gentil] 
nobility, gentility. 

gentylnesse, sb., [< gentil] nobil- 
ity of manners — gentleness = 

ge-numen v. niman. 

ge-nyhtsum, aj., [<genyht, 
sfn. (267b; 269 N.4), abundance, 
= T. *ga-nugti- (95; 31), v. 
gen6h] abundant; much XI. 
R. 12. 

geode V. geeode. 

geoguS", gioguiaf, ME. 3eo3e'Se, 
sf (254.2), [< common T. abs. 
*jugunH- (74; 185 N. 1; 269 
N. 4) = pre T. *jnwnti-, cf L. ju- 
venta, Sk. 352; 229; v. geong] 
(cf. Goth, junda ; OS. jugu'S, 
OHG. jugund, MHG. jugent(d), 
G. jugend) youth. 

geoguff-cndsl, sn., [<T. *kn5ss-lo- 
(= I.-E.*gn6t8t-lo-, Brug. 527) < 
T. V kno, beget, v. c y n. (cf Gk. 
yvcvrbs. Kinsman, Goth. kn6>s ; 
OS. knosal, OHG. chnuosal ; cf 
L. natus = *gna-, son)^ youthful 
race, prooB^y IV. 10. 

gedinor, ME. 3eomer, yemer, aj., 
[not in East T.,=T. *j£em- (74, 
68)] (OS. i&mar, OHG. j^mar, 
n. = sb. > MHG. jimer, G. jam- 
mer, grief) lamentable, sad, mis- 

ge6mor-m6d, aj., sad in mood 
VI. 144. 

geon, gion, ME. gion, prw. , [= 
T. *jono- (74 ; 338 N. 5)] (cf 
Goth, j&in-s, Ic. enn, the ong. 
that, OHG. jenSr, MHG. G. 
jener) yon, Sk. 337; 352,= 

geond, giond, ME. 3ond, prp. 
ace, [ = T. *jon-d (74 ; 338 N. 5), 
V. geon + Zoc. suff.] (cf Goth. 
av. jaind, thither) throughout, 
through, beyond, over, as far as, 
(genr. denotes extension in space) 

ge-ond-^wyrdan?, Nh. prt. pi. 
giondveardon XII. Nero 
5, 10. 1, Asswer. 




geong, giung, iung (74), ME. 
3eong-, 3ung-, yung, 3yng, aj., 
[ < common T. jungo-, ?contr. < 
T. *juwungo- < : pre T. juwenko-, 
cf. Skt. juva9&s, L. juvencus, 
<\/jti, be young] (Goth, juggs 
= *jungs, OS. OHG. G. jung) 
young, \ovthful; compar. gyn- 
gra, gingra (307; 100 N. 1), 
Nh. giungra (157.1), ME. 
gingi-e, 3ongere, 3eonger. 

geouga V. gongan. 

georn, giorn, ME. 3eorn, 3ern, 
aj., [<T. *ger-no- (79 a), ptc. 
suff., <T. Vger<\/gher, demand 
violently, Sk. 113J (Goth.gairn-s 
in compos., Ic. g]arn, OS. OHG. 
MHG. gem) zealous, eager, 
greedy, lo. gen., VI. 210. 

georne, ME. 3eorne, yerne, av., 
[<georn] (G. gern) eagerly, 
zealously, urgently, instantly, 

georn-fullness, ME. 3eomful- 
nesse, sf., zeal IX. 92. 

georn-lice, ME. 3eornliche, av., 
zealously, carefully IX. 91. 

ger V. gearwe. 

3er V. gear. 

ge-rsecan, ME. irechen, w. 1 C 
(407a and N. 3), [= T. *raikjan 
(90; 62; 228)] (OHG. gereihhen, 
extend, G. reichen) reach, Sk. 
325 ; 391. 

ge-raestan, prt. geraeste, Nil. gi- 
raesti XII. Nero 20, gireste 
XII. R. 20, w. 1, rest, recline. 

gere v. gearo, gearwe. 

geredae v. ongierivan. 

ge-r6fa, Merc, ger tie fa XI. R. 
14, Nh. g r tie fa, XI. Nero 14, ME. 
ireve, wm., reeve, prefect, judge, 
fiscal officer of a shire {cf. scir- 
gerefa >sheriff). 

geregne? gerene, Nh.gihrine 
XII. p. 39.4, sn., [?c/. Goth, 
ragin, decree, cf. Skt. Vrac, 
order'] ornament. 

ge-regnian, Nh. gihrinia, w. 
2, [< geregne?] {cf Goth, 
garaginon, give counsel) lit. set 
in order, adorn XII. p. 39, 5. 

ge-reordlan, NH. glrlordia 
XII. R. 15, gihriordia XII. 

Nero 15, w. 2, take food, break- 

ge-rest, ME. irest, ireste, sn.'^y 

geriht, ME. irihte, sn., right, 
din^cTion, fdron t6 ge- 
feohte foriaf on gerihte 
marched straight {right) on to 
battle VI. 202. 

ge-risen-llc, aj., [ger is an, s. 1, 
befit, V. risan] befitting, suit- 
able IX. 3. 

gertiefe v. ger6fa. 

gert v. gierwan. 

ger test v. gyrdan. 

Seruh v. gearo. 

ge-rtima, W7n. , [< r fi m, aj., spa- 
cious, < T. aj. rumo-, ? < V ru, 
break open, cf. L. rus (rur-) 
open country > nvnal, cf. Goth, 
rums, MHG. rum, gerum, G. ge- 
raum] roomy place IV. 16. 

ge-ryman, ME. 3erimeii, irumen, 
w. 1, [ge-ruma] make room, 

ge-ssfenac, ME. yselj?e, i-, sf, hap- 

ge-sgfelig-llc, aj. , happy. 

gesaett v. gesittan. 

gesaette v. gesettan. 

ge-sald V. sellan. 

ge-samnian v. gesomnian. 

ge-sceaft, ME. 3esceafte, shaffte, 
sf 71. (267 N. 2), [= T. skap-ti- 
(75. 1; 232a), v. scieppan] 
(Goth, gaskaft-s, OHG. giscaft) 
creation, creature X. 32. . 

ge-sceap, sn., [<scieppan] 
(OS. giskap ; cf. G. geschopf) 
creation IX. 79. 

ge-sceot, sn., [cf -sc6otan] (G. 
geschoss) weapons {for shoot- 
ing) XIII. 4; {cf SHOorer, U.S.). 

ge-scieppan, -scyppan; prt. 
gesc6p, -sce6p (76. 1), s. 6, 
create, shape. 

ge-scyldan, ME. ischilde, w. 1, 
[scildan] shield. 

gise, ME. 3ise, av., [=16 
+ swa] yes. 




geseah v. geseon. 

ge-seald v. sellan. 

ge-secan, Merc, ge see can, Nh. 
gisdeca XII. R. 19 (150. 4), 
ME. isechen ; prt. gesdhte, w. 
1 C, seek, follow XII. verse 19. 

ge-segen v. seon {or geseon). 

ge-sellan, ME. isellen ; prt. ge- 
se aide, 1(7. 1 Cgive up VII. 30, 

ge-s6on, gesion (38; 40. 3), 
Nh. gesea (166. 2), infl. ge- 
seanne XI. Nero 1, ME. iseon, 
iseo, gesyen, gese, yzy, 2. sg. prs. 
ind. gesihst (222. 1), 3 ME. 
yzy3)>; prt. geseah, geseh, 
Nh. gisseh XII. Nero, R. 20 
(162. 1), ME. iseh, yse3, yzes, 
2. sg. ME. iseie, pi. g e s d \v u n, 
-on, Nh. gis6gun, gesegon, 
ME. gesawen, geseagen, ise3en ; 
pp. gesewen, gesegen, s.5 
contr., see, look at, perceive. 

ge-setniss, gesettness, ME. 
isetnesse, sf., [ge set tan] ordi- 
nance VII. 52, testament XIV. 41. 

gesett V. gesittan. 

ge-settan, ME. isetten ; prt. ge- 
sette, Merc, gesaette XI. R. 
16, w. \,set down, put, lay {down) 
IX. 29, appoint XI. Nero, R. 16. 

ge-sewen v. seon {or geseon). 

ge-sibb, ME. isib, a). (297), akin. 

ge-siac, sm., [<si8f ; cf. anal, ge- 
fera] (Goth. gashi)j(j)a, OS. 
gisiS, OHG. gisind) comrade VI. 

ge-sihl5 XIV. 54, gesyhff III. 
1 b (100 N. 1), ME. isih«e, 
sihte, si3te, syhte, sighte, si3t, 
sight, sf., [=*geseohwiar (100 
N^l ; 83 ; 255. 3) =T. *ga-sehw- 
ibo-, V. s6on] (OHG. gisiht, 
MHG. gesiht, G. gesicht) sight, 
eyes, aspect, vision. 

ge-sihst V. ges§on. 

ge-singan, s. 3 A, sing {in the 
mass) VII. 47. 

ge-slon V. geseon. 

ge-sittan, prt. Nh. gesaett XI. 
Nero 2, Merc, gesett XI. R. 2, 
s. 6, sit {down), possess. 

ge-slean, pi^t. pi. geslogon X. 

7, s. 6 coiitr., win. 

ge-smigfian, Nh. prt. gismioff- 
ade (160), w. 2, [c/. smiar, 
sm., smith, v. smelS'e] (Goth. 
gasmij?6n ; cf. Ic. smiha, OHG. 
smidon, MHG. smiden, G. 
Schmieden) forge, work XII. 
p. 39, 4, smith]. 

ge-soden v. seoSfan. 

ge-scecan v. gesecan. 

ge-somnian (65) XI. Nero, R. 12, 
gesaninian, ME. isomnie, w. 
2, [somen] {cf OS. samnon, 
OHG. samanon, MHG. samen- 
en, cf. G. sammehi) assEMble. 

ge-somnung, gesominnuncg 
VII. 4 (215), ME. isommnunge, 
^f') [gesomnian] assEuhly, 
congregation IX. 72. 

ge-sp6wan, p7^t. gesp6ow, s. 
red. B, pros per, h<i . . . ge- 
speow {impers. icith dat.) how 
she pro^vEned in battle VI. 175. 

ge-stigan, Nh. gistiga, ME. 
isti3en; prt. gestdh, s.\, mount 
III. 1 a, b; climb V. 2853. 

ge-stondan, ME. istonden ; prt. 
g e s 1 5 d, pi. g e s 1 6 d o n, s. 6, 
stand ; Nh. gist6ddun him 
HTAtioned themselves III. 4 a. 

ge-strienan, gestrynan, ME. 
istreonen {cf 100 N. 2), w. 1 
(403), [gestr eon, sn., posses- 
sions] gain, win VIII. 98. 

ge-sufl, aj., [<sufl] appertaining 
to a meal VII. 30. 

ge-swican, ME. iswiken, s. 1, 
cease XIII. 89, fail. 

ge-swinc, ME. iswinch, sn., labour, 

ge-swutelian, ME. isutelien, w. 
2, manifest, glorify. 

ge-syhaf V. gesihiac. 

get V. gi^t. 

set V. geat, gi6t. 

ge-t£fecan, ME. itechen, w. i C, 

ge-tael, ME. itel, sn., [talu] nwn- 
ber, narrative IX. 73 {= L. 
seriem) . 

gete V. geat, gietan. 




gete, pp. gett, to., [<Scand., cf. 
Ic. gaeta] keep^ guard. 

ge-teald v. tellan. 

ge-teoii, Nh. gete a (166.2) XII. 
Nero 6, gitea XII. R. 6, ME. 
iteon ; prt. pi. getugun, s. 2 
contr., drav) out, bring up (cf. 
anal. e-Dvcate). 

ge-J>afian, ME. ilSavien, ic. 2, 

ge-)?eahtung, Merc, gej^sehtung 
(158. 3) XI. II. 12, .<*/., council. 

ge-}>encaii, geiSencean, ME. 
i6>nche, ibenclien ; prt. ge- 
>6hte, w. 1 C, think (of), 
remember, ponder. 

ge-J>eodan, prt. ge}>eodde IX. 53, 
10. 1, [>eod] join. 

ge-J?eode, geS'iode, geac^ode, 
sn., [>6od] language. 

ge-J>eodniss, sf, union; IX. 10 
(= L. appetitus) desire. 

ge->6on, ME. i^'eon, i}?eo ; prt. 
gej>6ah, ME. 1^63; pZ. ge>u- 
gon; pp. ge>ogen, ME. 
ib03en, s. contr. 1 and 2 (383 and 
N.3), [ = T. -Mhon (114. 1; 373) 
= earlier *>inhanan (185 N. 2) 
<T. Vt>enh (45. 2), Brag. 214] 
(Goth. (ga-)l?eilian, OS. githilian, 
OHG. gidihan, MHG. gedihen, 
G. gedeihen) thrive, theei ; ich 
iSeo, Vm doing well. 

ge-J>olian, ME. iSolien, w. 2, 
suffer, endure. 

ge->onc, ME. i'Sanc, i^ank, smn., 


ge->ring, ME. bryng, dat. kynge, 
sn., [J?ringan] throng. 

ge->ungen, pp., [ge>eon (383 
N.3)] fidl-grown, accomplished, 
VI. 129. 

getidan, ME. itiden ; 3 sg. prs. 
ind. itit, w. 1, betide, happen. 

ge-treowan (100 N. 2), getry- 
wan, Nh. getrewa (156.5), 
10. 1 (403), [treowe] trus^, 
believe, persuade (L. suadebi- 
mus) XI. Nero 14. 

ge-tryinman, Nh. gitrymma, 
w. 1 (400 N. 1, 2), [trum, aj., 
firm'] confirm XII. verse 24. 

gett V. gete. 
3ettev. giet. 
ge-tweogan, prt. pi. Nh. ge- 

twiedon XI. Nero 17, iv. 2, 

Doi: bt. 
ge-un-rdtsian, prt. Nh. giun- 

r6tsade XII. Nero 11, pp. Nh. 

giunr6tsad, XII. R. 17, w. 

2, [unr6 t] grieve. 
geve V. giefii. 
seven v. giefan. 
ge-waer (Laud MS. Chronicle 

1095)?, ME. iwer, aj., aware. 
ge-weorSfan, gewurSfaii, ME. 

iwor^e; prt. ge wears', Merc. 

gewar* (158.1) XL R. 2, .s. 

3 C, become, happen, appear; 

impers., swahim gewearS', 

as they had agreed XIV. 79. 
ge-weorlgriaii, geuueoriSian 

VIL 16 (171 N. 1), ME. iwurSien, 

w. 2, celebrate. 
ge-wiht, ME. iwicht, wiht, 3iht, 

sn., [a6s. <wegaii] (G. ge- 

wicht) weight. 
ge-wildan v. gewyldan. 
gewill, rarely ivill, ME. iwill, 

iwil, ywil, will, wil, wyll, wyl, 

sn. (263 N. 3), [< will an] 

will, joy. 
3e-willeliche, [w^illan] ME.av. 

gladly, willingly. 
ge-winn, ME. iwinn, iginn, sn., 

[<winnan] strife. 
ge-w^introd, Nh. givlntrad 

XIL Nero 18, glwin (trad) 

XII. R. 18, aj., [pp., r. winter] 

stricken in years. 
ge-wis-llce, ME. iwisliche, av., 

ge-wiss, ME. iwis, wiss, iwysse, 

mid (myd) iwisse, aj., ME. also 

as av., [=T. wisso- = *wit-to- 

(232 d) ptc. V. wit an (420)] 

(OHG. MHG. G. gewiss) cer- 
tain; certainly, ywisi for ich. 

erroneously ' I wis.'' 
ge-witan, ME. iwiten, prt. -prs. 1, 

know (well). 
ge-wltan, ME. iwiten; prt. ge- 

-w&t IX. 33, pi. gewiton, s. 

1, go, betake one''s self. 

ge- witness 



ge-'ivitness, -nyss, ME. iwit- 
nesse, witnesse ; I. s/. , [ g e- 
witan] witness = testimony. 
II. ME. ■?;&. witnesse [<s6.], w/f- 
ness = bear testimony, >vb.-sb., 
witnessing, witness. 

ge-worht v. wyrcan or gewyr- 

ge-writ, ME. iwrit, sn., writ = 
writing (s) VIII. 68, letter. 

ge-wuldrian, pp. Nh. glvvuld- 
rad XII. Nero 19, to. 2, [wuld- 
or] glorify. 

ge-wunlan, Nh. gewuniga, gi- 
wuniga, gevuni(ga), ME. 
iwunie, iwone ; prt. gewu- 
node, gewunade; pp. g e- 
wunod, ME. iwuned, iwoned, 
ywoned, w. 2, stay, remain, be 
wont IX. 3 ; ME. is iwuned, is 
wont, Sk. 343. 

ge-wiiriafan v. geweorsaPan. 

ge-wyldan, gewildan, ME. 
iwelden, welde > NE. wie/d ; prt. 
gewylde, pi. gewildon 
XIV. 85 ; pp. gewyld, w.\, 
[we aid an] subdue. 

ge-wyrcan, ME. iwerche ; prt. ge- 
worhte, ?o. 1 C, set to work, 
prepare (fyrme) XIV. 86, 
make (l^ofif) IX. 89. 

ge-wyrdan, ME. iwreden, w. 1, 
[<wyrd, sf. (269), fate = weird, 
Sk. 207,=*wordi- (93.2) <pp. 
of w e o r 3" a n] annihilate. 

3he V. g6, id. 

gi- V. ge-. 

gibelde XII. p. 39, Nh. prt. of 
-b61da(n), [Sk. pref to St. 
Matt, in A.S. and Nh., ed. 1887, 
j9. vii, cf. NE. Diet. bield<WS. 
bieldan, Anglian b el dan, 
make bold, <beald] covered, 
Sk., strengthened ? Bos.-ToUer. 

giberht- v. gebreht. 

glcerde v. gecyrran. 

gidarste v. gedurran. 

gldere v. geador. 

giafryde XII. p. 39, prt. of ge- 
J> rye can (Bos.-Toller), w. 1, 
compressed, bound (the book)?; 
Bouterwek, "geSfrya, = L. 

operculo, loculo uel cista instru- 
ere" (to furnish with a cover, 
compartment, or box) ; cf. in 
glosses, L. operire (to cover) 
ge>rya, expilatam (pillaged) 
a > r y i d ; " made it firm, bound 
it,'' S^.pref to St. John's Gos. 
viii. N. 7, who must take giSf- 
ryde = gi9'ryl5'de, Z. 

giffynge, pi. gi'Syngo, Nh. XII. 
p.S9,S7i., [ge>ungen] /iowowr. 

gie V. g6. 

gief, gif, gyf, Merc, g^f, ME. 
3ief, gif, 3if, sef, yif, yef, if, yf, 
iff, cj. with indie, and opt., 
[=T. *jet), ?<: *ja- (cf id), 
= I.-E. pronom. st. jo-, that, 
Brug. 123, + instr. dat. of T. 
*eb5-, condition, doubt^ (cf 
Goth, ja-bai, Ic. if, ef, sb. ife, 
doiibt, OS. ef, of; OEris. gef, ief, 
cf if, ef, OHG. oba, ibu, dat. of 
iba, /. doubt, MHG., G. ob) if, 
Sk. 337, whether. 

glefan (75. 3), ME. 3ieven, gyven, 
3iven, 3yve, 3ive, yive, 3efen, 
3even, yeve ; prt. geaf (75. 1), 
ME. 3ef, 3af, 3aff, yeaf, gaf >NE. 
ga/e, pi. geaf on (75. 2), ME. 
iafen, yeauen, 3sefenn, 3aven, 
3ave, goven ; pp. g i e f e n, Ep. 
gibaen, ME. 3iven, 30ven, 
30vun, s. 5 (391 N. 2), [< common 
T. Vgeb, Sk.l45; 153. 4] (Goth, 
giban, Ic. gefa, OS. geban, OHG. 
geban, MHG. G. geben) giye, 
grant, offer; goven hem ille, 
acted inconsolable, '■'■took on"" 
XXV. 164. 

*giefeaf e, g i f e 3" e, ME. 3eve'Se, aj. 
(299) , [g i e f a n] given, granted 
(by fate), appointed VI. 157. 

giefu (75. 3, N. 3), gifu IX. 2, 
61, K. gaefu, ME. 3efe, 3ive, 
sf. (252), [<T. gebo-] (Goth, 
giba, Ic. gjof, OS. geba, OHG. 
geba, MHG. gebe) gift, grace 
VII. 1. 

gield (75. 3), gild, gyld, ME. 
gaeild, 3eld, sn., [gield an] 
(Goth, gild, OS. geld, sacrifice, 
OHG. MHG. gelt, G. geld. 




money) payment, compensation, 
tax, tribute {dane-geld, cf. 

gieldan (75. 3), gyldan, ME. 

3elde, yelde, yeld, pp. golden, 
ME. yyolde, 3elde, s.SB (387), 
[<T. gel5, 7nake good, pay, re- 
ligious use, = I.-E. gheldh, Brag. 
439] (Goth, in compos, -gildan, 
OS. geldan, OHG. geltan, MHG. 
gelten, G. gelten, be worth) 
pay, requite V. 2920, yie/d, Sk. 
gielpan (75. 3), gylpan, ME. 
3ellpenn, yelpe, s. S B (387), 
[< T. V *gelp, resound, talk loud] 

(cf. IC. gj^lpa = YAP=Sc. YAUP) 

boast, (yelp, Sk. 337). 
gieinan, g 6 in an, gym an, ME. 

3eme(n), yeme(n), w. 1, [ = 
*g e a m i a n (99) < T. V gaum 
(t)3) attention] (Goth, g&umjan, 
behold, Ic. geyina, OS. gomean, 
OHG. goumen, MHG. goumen) 
gen. ace. give heed to, take care 
of, keep, rule, strive after. 

gieme, ME. 3eme, wf, [g i e m a n] 
care, attention. 

glerwan, ME.gere;pr^. gierede 
(173. 2), ME. gert, w. 1 (408. 1 
and N. 1, 2 ; 409), [gearo, aj.] 
prepare, arm, make. 

giet, gyt, git, gi6ta, gyta, 
git a, ME. giet, 3yet, get, gset, 
3ut, 3et, yet, 3ette, yete, av. 
<T. ju+*hit6-, av. ace. n. of T. 
dejn. prn. st. hi-, cf. Goth, und 
hita, till now, v. 16, h6, Hempl 
in Acad. No. 1024, Mod. Lang. 
Notes, Feb., Apr. 1892] (OFris. 
jeta, eta, ita) yet, Sk. 337 ; 352. 

gietan (75.3), gytan, gitan, 
in compos., ME. gete ; prt. ME. 
gat, gate, pp. ME. ygete, s. 5 
(391 N. 2), [<T. Vget<V*ghed 
(ghend), seize, cf. Gk. xavS-ami' 
and L. pre-hend-ere, seize] (cf. 
Goth, bi-gitan, find ; Ic. geta, cf. 
OS. far-getan, as OHG. fir-gezzan, 
MHG. ver-gezzen, G. ver-gessen, 
forget) get, Sk, 337. 

gif, 3ifv. glef. 

3if, V. giefan. 

gif- V. gief-. 

3ifl5' V. giefan. 

gifengun v. gef6n. 

gif re, ME. 3ivre, aj. (298 N.), 
(Ic. gifr) greedy. 

gili^madi(liine), Nh. prt. XII. 
p. 39, 10 [< *g e h a in i a n, w. 2] 
'■'■got for himself a home,'''' viz. 
in the monastery, by means of his 
work, M. Thompson, Sk. pref. 
St. Matt., 1887, p. vii; "com- 
mendare"? (Bouterwek). 

gi-hrinia v. geregnian. 

gihrino v. geregne. 

3ilit V. gewiht. 

gihuses V. gehwd. 

gim(m), ME. 3imm, sm. (264), 
[<L. gemma, orig. bud (69)] 
(OHG. gimma, Ic. gim) gem 
(<AF., Sk.j). 438; 11.32). 

gim-stan, ME. 3imston, sm., 
GEM-sfone, precious-. 

gin, gen. ginnes, aj., [cf. pp. 
glnan s. 1 (382), yawn, <T. 
\lgi<\lghi, open, cf. Gk. xai-i'eij', 
gape, L. hi-are, open, cf Hiatus] 
(Ic. ginn-) wide, spacious, great 
VI. 149. 

gind-wadan, prt. gindvrdd 
VIII. 96, s. 6, [Nh., E WS. g i n d- 
= geond- (74)] wade through, 
wander through. 

gin-fsest, aj., liberal V. 2919. 

gingra, gingre v. geong. 

gingre, wf, [<co?npar. of geong] 

-ginnan m compos., ME. ginne ; 
prt. ME. gan, gon, can, con, pi. 
gunne, gun, gan, s. 3 A (386), 
[= common T. -ginnon, ?open 
by cutting, esp. a victim] (MHG. 
ginnen) gini, begin, ME. can, 
con, oft. mere auxiliary ; fr. influ. 
ME. 'can, con,' couth also gains 
the same sense. 

gio V. iu. 

gio- V. geo-. 

girde v. gyrdan. 

girte V. gyrdan. 

3ise V. gese. 




git, ME. 3it; gen. Incer; dat. 
inc, ace. incit, iiic, p?vz. 2. 
pers. dual (332), [c/. ge ; oblique 
cases <T. inq-] (c/. Goth. *jut, 
Ic. it, MHG. ez) ye tioo, nom., 
YOU two, dat. ace. 

git(a) V. giet. 

gitsere, ME. 3yscere (witteres, 
XVI. 267, = witceres = 3itceres), 
sm., [y. gitsian, w. 2, covet, 
<*gids- (198.4), cf.g&d (249) 
and Goth, gaidw, a want^ miser. 

giu V. ill. 

giung V. geong. 

Gins V. Jue. 

3iv- V. gief-. 

giwin y. gewintrod. 

gladian, ME. gladieii, w. 2, 
[glaed] he glad. 

glfed, ME. gled, aj. (294; 307), 
[<T. gla«o- (50; 294 N. 1) < 
pre T. ghladho-, smooth, cf. L, 
glaber = *ghladhro-, smooth] (Ic. 
gla'S-r, OS. glad- in compos., 
glad, OHG. MHG. glat, bright, 
smooth, G. glatt, smooth) shiti- 
ing, bright, glad. 

glaed-lice, ME. glaidly, av., 

glaed-iu6d, aj., joyous, in glad 
mood VI. 140. 

glaednis, ME. glednesse, glad- 
nesse, sf., gladness. 

glasd-scipe, ME. gledscipe, gled- 
schipe, sm., joy. 

glaidly v. glaedlice. 

glam, sb., [<Scand., cf. Ic. glam, 
tinkling soutid'] noise, cry, call 
XXIX. 63. 

gl§aw (174. 3), ME. gleu, aj. 
(301), [=T. glauwo- (63; 303 
N.)] (Goth. *glaggwus, Ic. 
gloggr, OHG. glau) sagacious, 
skilled VI. 171. 

gleavv-hydig, aj., [-hyd-ig = 
-hygd-ig (214.3) minded, cf. 
ge-hygd, sf (269 N. 4), 
thought, v. hogian] prudent. 

gleaw-mod, aj., of sagacious 

gl6d, Nh. gloed (150.4), ME. 
glede, sf, (269), [=T. *glo-«i- 

(94a) Sk. 1967; 224c, <gl6- 
waii] (Ic. gloS, OS. glod-, 
OHG. MHG. gluot, G. glut) 
GJ.owi7ig coal XII. 9 ; XVII. 41, 
gleed (Longfellow), glede]. 

gled- V. glaed-. 

gleo, Ep. gliu, ME. gleo, sn., 
I'^contr. < *gliujo- (114. 1 ; 250 
N. 3), prop, music, but cf Beitr. 
XIV. 581] ^(?c/. Gk. x^^^U)v, « 
jest; Ic. gly) joy, entertainment, 
music XVI. 288, glee. 

gleo-beam, ME. gleobeam, sm., 
harp, musical instrument XIX. 

glidan, ME. gliden, glide ; prt. 
glad, ME. glod, s. 1 (382), 
Sk. 150 b, [< T. V *giiS < 
?V*(z)ghlI-dh, cf glaed, slid- 
an, Beitr. XIV. 325] (OS. glidan, 
OHG. glitan, MHG. gliten, G. 
gleiten) glide. 

glded V. gled. 

glorifie, glorifye, w., [<Ar, glo- 
rifier < LL. glori-ficare <glori- 
ficus, full of glory, < L. gloria, 
glory, + facere, make] glorify. 

glorye, Sk. II. 44, sb., [< AF. glo- 
rie < L. gloria, ? = *closia, cf 
Gk. kX^os, Buss, slava > Slav, 
Sk. p. 285, L. clu-ere, to hear 
one's self called, < V klQ, hear, v. 
hl6de] glory, Sk. II. 73; 145, 

gloumbe, w., [= glomme, ?< 
Scand., cf. dial. Swed. glomma, 
to stare <glo3i, to glo?o, v. gl6- 
waii, glom, sb. gloom] look 
glum, frown = glum] XXIX. 94, 


gl6wan, ME. glowe, s. red. B (396), 
Sk. 139 c, [<T.Vgl5] (Ic. gloa, 
cf OHG. gluoen, MHG. gluen, 
G. gliihen, w.) glow, beam. 

gnagau, ME. gna3en, s. 6 (392), 
[<T. V*gnag] (OIc. gnaga, Ic. 
naga, OHG. gnagan, MHG. G. na- 
gen) gnag]=gnaw; (cf nag, to 

gnea^", ME. gnede, aj., sparing, 
stingy XXV. 97. 

go V. gdn. 




god, ME. god, godcl, gode, sm., 
[< common T. (unknovm to non- 
T.) gu5o-mr=I.-E. *ghu-t6-m, 
prop. pp. n., <N/*ghu, cf. Skt. 
V liu, to invoke the gods, with 
ablaut Gk. xKf)^^ Ipour^ sacri- 
fice; god = h'^. '^invoked one, 
Kl., ^object of sacrifice, Mayhew] 
(G. guj>, Ic. gu5, n. forms but 
m., OS. god, OHG. got, G. gott) 
God (Mss. without capital). 

g6d, ME. god, good, guod, gud, 
gude, aj. (293; 295 N. 3; 304), 
[< common T. {unknown to non- 
T.) go"So-, ^belonging ^ooETHer, 
fif] (Goth. goKs, Ic. goS-r, OS. 
god, OHG. got, OHG. MHG. 
guot, G. gut) good ; comp. bet- 
ra, be t era (312), [= common 
T. batiz6(n-); ?c/. b6t] (Goth, 
batiza, Ic. betri, OHG. bezziro, 
G. besser) ME. betre, betere, 
better, better; su'pl. bet est, 
betst, ME. betst, best, best; 
g6d, sn., good, goods. 

god-cund, ME. goddcunnd, aj., [cf 
cynde] divine, religious YllL 

god-cund-liee, av., divinely. 

god-cundniss, ME. godcunnesse, 
sf, divinity. Godhead. 

god-leas, ME. godlies, aj., god- 

godness, ME. godnesse, sf, good- 

god-spell, ME. godspell, godd- 
spell, godspel, sn., [as trans, eii- 
a'yyi\iov>Ij. evangelium, Goth, 
aiwaggeljo, good message, L. 
bonum nuntium, Wr.-Wtil. Gl. 
314. 8, Sk. p. 423, rightly schol- 
ars, e.g.,^lfric, Orm made go d- 
= g6d-, but cf. Bright, Mod. 
Lang. N. Apr. 1889, Feb. 1890, 
Ic.guSspjall, OHG. got-spel, God- 
story'] gospel; ME. goddspell- 
bok, Gospel {of Matt., etc.) ; 
ME. goddspell-wrihhte, sb., evan- 
gelist, '■gospel-wright.'' 

gold, and ME., sn., [< common T. 
gol->o- (202. 2), <pre T. ghl-to-, 
orig. pp. suff., < : Vghel, be yel- 

Loto, Sk. 223 c] (Goth. gul>, Ic. 
gull, G. gold) gold. 

*gold-Iiring, ME. goldring, sm., 

gome V. guma. 

gomen, gam en, ME. gamer, 
gome, game, sn., (Ic. OS. OHG. 
gaman, MHG. gamen) game, joy, 
music, sport XIV. 90. 

gomol-ferhar, gamol-, aj., [go- 
mol- {poet) old, Beitr. XII. 
562, CIc. gamall) ; v. feorh] 

gon V. gdn, ginnan. 

gongan (65) , g a n g a n, Nh. g o n- 
ga XII. B. 18, geonga XII. 
Nero 18 (157. 4), ME. gonge, 
gange; prt. geong; ^i9. ge- 
gangen, s. red. B (396 N. 1), 
[<T. Vgang {in East T. sup- 
planted gdn),=:preT. *ghangh] 
(Goth, gaggan, Ic. ganga, OS. 
OHG. gangan, MHG. gangen, 
G. prt. ging, pp. gegangen) go, 
gang, Sc. 

good V. g6d. 

goon V. gan. 

gos, ME. goos ; p?. ges, K. gees 
(150. 4) VII. 23, M. um.f (284), 
[common I.-E. ; T. gans- (66), 
Sk. 377; 346; 187,<L-E.ghan(s), 
Sk. 113; 168] {cf Skt. hansa-s, 
Gk. x'^^-i I^- ans-er = *hanser ; 
Ic. gas, OHG. MHG. G. gans ; cf 
gander, gannet) goose, Sk. 300. 

30st- V. gdst-. 

gou- V. ge. 

goulen, w., [<Scand., cf Ic. gaula, 
to bellow] YAWL, YOWL, icail 
XXV. 164, gowl, Sc. 

goven, 30ven, 3ovun v. giefan. 

grace, sb., [< AF. grace, Sk. II. 
150, <L. gratia, /a yoifr, L. aj. pp. 
form, grat-us, pleasing] {cf Gk. 
xapT6s, welcome, xap-is) grace, 
permission, fortune. 

grsedan, ME. grede ; prt. ME. 
gradde XXII. 68, w. 1, call out, 
cry XXV. 96. 

grsfedig, Ep. grfidig, ME. gredi, 
aj. , [ < T. grsedago- < *gr8edu- 
(grefed, sm. greed) hunger^ cf. 




Skt. Vgardh, be greedy^ (Goth, 
gr6dag-s, Ic. grd^ug-r, OS. grd- 
dag, OHG. gr&tag) greedy, hun- 

grseg, gr§g, ME. graei, gray, aj., 
(Ic. grar, OHG. gr^o, gen. 
grawes, MHG. gr&, G. grau) 
gray; ME. s&., (c/. OF. gris) 
GRAY (fur, clothing). 

graes, ME. gras, gress, sn., [< com- 
mon T. {unknoion to non-T.) 
graso- <T. N/*gra, he GREEn, < : T. 
Vgro, V. gr6wan] (Goth. Ic. 
OS. OHG. MHG. G. gras) grass. 

graid-ly, graij^ly, ME. av., [< 
Scand., cf. Ic. grei^ligr; v. r0edi3] 
(r/. ajs., Goth. garail>s, com- 
manded, MHG. gereit) readiV/, 
zealously, graithly^. 

gram- v. grom-. 

grdnian, ME. granien, w.2, [ = T. 
*grain-ian < : T. Vgri-n, cf. gre n- 
nian, to. 2, grin, as OHG. 
grinan, s. 6] lament, groan. 

grdpian, ME. grapien, gropien, 
w. 2, [<grdp sf, grasp, <prt. 
of gripan, s. 1, gripe < T. 
Vgrlp, seize, ?cf. grab, < Scand.] 
grasp, feel, handle XIII. 40. 

grat V. gr6at. 

graunt, to., [< AF. graunter 
(OF. creanter) <ML. creantare 
= *credentare, assure, < L. cre- 
den(t)-s, prs. ptc. of credere, to 
trust;\ grant, Sk. II. 51. 2, 

gray v. grsfeg. 

great, ME. gret, greet, grat, gratt, 
grete, aj., [< only WT. grauta-] 
(OS. grot, OFris. grkt, OHG. 
MHG. groz, G. gross) great. 

gr6cisc, aj , [t'.Creacas] Greek. 

grede V. grtfedan. 

ftreet V. gi^at. 

gref, sb., [<AF. grief, Sk. II. p. 
42, <L. gravis, Sk. II. p. 242, 
= *garwis, heavy, cf. Gk. papis 
= *yfapvs, Skt. guriis, Goth, 
kaiirus] harm (bodily), grief, 
Sk. II. 84. 

gr6ne, ME. grene, aj. (298), [<T. 
gronio- < *gr5-no- < *gro-jo- 

< T. V gro, V. growan, Sk. 
1967; 252] (Ic. grgBnn = *gr6enn, 
OS. groni, OFris. gr6ne, OHG. 
gruoni, MHG. gruene, G. grun 
Sk. 158) green, Sk. 313. 

gress V. graes and greivis. 

gret(e) v. great. 

gretan, ME. grete; prt. grfette 
(405. 2); pp. ME. igret (cf. 406), 
w. 1, [only WT.] (OS. grotian, 
OFris. gr^ta, OHG. gruozzen, 
MHG. gruezen, G. grtissen, Sk. 
158) greet; ME. gretunge, gre- 
tinge, vb.'Sb., greeting. 

gretan, ME. greten, graten, 
groten ; pi't. ME. gret, OE. to. 1, 
ME. influ. Ic. genr. s. red. A 
(395), (Goth. gr6tan, Ic. gr^ta) 
weep, XXV. 164, greet, Sc; ME. 
greting, vb.-sb. weeping, greet- 
ing, Sc. 

greve, to., [<0F. grever<L. grav- 
a-re, to burden, <L. gravis, cf. 
gref'\ grieve, afflict XXIX. 112. 

grew V. gr6wan. 

grewis,, Edinburgh Ms. for 
gressis XXXI. 13. " 2 he reading 
gressis, i.e. grasses, is very in- 
ferior,^'* Sk. He makes grewis = 
grevis, i.e. groves. Z. with War- 
ton ed. Hazlitt, II. 288, trans. 
grewis ^^ growing things."*^ 

grey>i, to., [< Scand., cf. Ic. grei'Sa, 
V. graidly] prepare XXII. 9. 

griff, ME. griS, gri», grith, sn., 
(Ic. gri^ home, in pi. truce) 
peace, truce, grith^. 

grim, also ME., g'en. grimmes 
(ii95 N. 2), aj., [<T. gremo- 
ablaut <^2iVCi-, v. grom, Sk. 
243] (Ic. grimm-r, G. grimm) 
fierce, severe, grim. 

grindan, ME. grinden, s. Z A 
(386) Sk. 148, [<T. V^grin'S, 
vbs. lost in other T. branches, = 
pre T. ghrendh, ?cf. L. frendere, 
gnash, Brug. 207; 349] grind, 
Sk. 378. 

grith V. griiy. 

gri» V. griff. 

grcefa v. ger6fa. 




grom, gram, ME. gram, aj., 
[< T. gramo- = pre T. ghromo-, 
cf. Gk. xP<^A'os, neighing, xP^f^'-- 
^iiv, neigh, L. fremere, roai', 
V. grim, Pgrindan, Brug. 
433] (Ic. gramr, OHG. MHG. 
G. gram) angry, grum, gram]. 

groma, grama, ME. grame, 
wm., [<grom] (G. gram) 
anger, harm. 

grome, sb., (MDu. grom, Ic. 
gromr) boy, groom. 

gromian, gramian, ME. gra- 
mien, lo. 2, [<grom] (Goth, 
gramjan, Ic. gremja, OHG. 
grem(m)an, G. gramen) make 
angry, grieve. 

ground v. grund. 

gr6wau, ME. growe ; prt. 
greow, ME. grew, s. red. B 
(396), [<T. Vgro, cf. L. s/cre in 
crescere, Beitr. XIII. 312] (Ic. 
groa, OHG. gruoan, MHG. grue- 
]Qx\,grow GREETi) grow, (espec. of 
plants, weaxan, of animals). 

grucchen, gruche, lo., [<0F. 
groucher, grouchier (Picard), im- 
itative orig.'^'\ murmur, grudge ; 
with wyth, he discontented with. 

grund, ME. grund, grunde, 
ground, sm., \<only T. grun'Su-, 
bottom, foundation'] (Goth, grun- 
du- in compos., Ic. gi'unn-r, 
{sea-)bottom, OS. OFris. grund, 
OHG. MHG. grunt, G. grund) 
bottom, ground, Sk. 380. 

3U u. ge. 

gud V. g6d. 

guar, sf, [=T. *gun46- (185.2) 
<V*ghn, hew, Brug. 233;- 225] 
(Ic. gunnr, giiSr, OHG. gund- 
in compos.) {poet.) war, battle. 

guff-fana, wm., [<T. *fano(n-), 
pre T. *pan5-n, cf. L. pannus, 
cloth, patch, pane] (OHG. gund- 
fano > OF. gun-fanon > gox- 
fanonI) banner, gonfalow, Sk. 
II. i). 315. 

guS'-freca, wm., [<aj. free, 
eager, bold, <T. freko-, greedy ; 
freak] (Ic. frekr, greedy, G. 
frech)] warrior. 

guS'-gemdt, sn., battle-wEY.iing , 

giiaf-hafoc, sm., [<T. *habuko- 
(105) ?<T. Vhaf, V. dhebban 
Sk. 240] (Ic. -hauk-r, OS. haboc- 
in compos., OHG. habuh, MHG. 
habich, G. -habich-t) war-hawk 
(Sk. p. 374 N. 2, Scand. influ.). 

gul- V. gyl-. 

guma, ME. gome, wm. (276), [<T. 
gum6(n-) <pre T. *ghmmo(n-), 
cf. L. homo, homin- si. = *gho- 
mon-, cf OL. ace. hemon-em, 
?cf. L. humus, earth, Brug. 223. 
4 ; 241] (Goth, guma, Ic. gumi, 
OS. gumo, OS. OHG. gomo, 
MHG. gome, G. in brautigam 
bride-groom, ?Sk. 395) man, 
HUMAN being, goom], 

gun, gunne v. ginnan. 

3ung V. geong. 

guod V. g6d. 

3ut V. giet. 

3UW V. ge. 

gyde rope, sb., [<0F. *guider 
(guier) GUIDE, <T. v. witan; 
rdp] GVY-rope XXIX. 105. 

3yet V. giet. 

gyf V. gief, 

gyldan v. gieldan. 

gyldeu, ME. gulden, aj. (296 and 
N. 2), [< T. gulMno- (93. 2 and 
N.) Sk. 247, V. gold] (Goth. 
gul>ein-s, OS. OHG. MHG. gul- 
din, G. (Suab.) gulden) goldc//. 

gylpan v. gielpan. 

gylt, ME. gult, sm., [gieldan] 
debt, fault, guilt, Sk. 337, sin. 

gyltan, ME. gulte, w. 1, [<gylt] 
sin, err, guilt]. 

gym an v. gieman. 

gyn, sb., [<AF. en-gin, contriv- 
ance, Sk. II. 43, <L. ingenium, 
GENiws, invention, < pp. of mgig- 
nere, enoEyder, <Vgen, beget] 
engine, i.e. ship XXIX. 146. 

3yng V. geong. 

gyrdan, Nli. gyrda, ME, gurde, 
girde ; 3 sg. prs. ind. gyrdeiflf, 
gyrt; prt. gyrde (405. 4), 
ME. girte, gerte, girdede, xo. 1 
(403), [< T. *gur«ion < : T. gert», 




enclose'] (Ic. gyrc^a, OS. gurdan, i 
OHG. gurten, MHG. G. gurten) 
gird, Sk. 337. 

gyrn, sm.?, [? = gryn (179. 1), 
■lamentation, cf. Ic. grunr, sus- 
picion, OHG. grun, lamentation] 
harm, trouble IV. 6. 

Syscere v. gitsere. 

gyt V. giet. 

gyv-, 3yv- V. giet: 


ha V. h6. 

habban, ME. habben, hafen, 
haven, hafe, have, ave, haf ; 1. 
sg. prs. ind. haebbe, hafu 
(416 N. 1), ME. habbe, habb, 
hafe, have, 2 pers. haefst, ha- 
fast, ME. hest, havest, S pers. 
hseflS (416 N. 1), hafaS?, 
ME. haved, haf^, hefiS, hab, 
hath, has, hatz, hafebb, haveS, 
havet, havis ; pi. li ah ha'S, Nh. 
habb as, loith prn. habbe 
(haebbe) ge, ME. han ; opt. 
haebbe; imper. haf a, Nh. 
haefe ; prt. haefde, ME. haff- 
de, avede, hevede, hefde, hadde, 
hedde, havid, hade, had ; pp. 
ME. iheved, w. 3 (415), [< T. 
*hab(a)jon (10) beside T. st. 
habai-, < orig. I.-E. *khabhej-, 
cf. L. habe-re] (Goth, haban, 
Ic. hafa, OS. hebbian, OHG. ha- 
b6n, MHG. G. haben) have, pos- 
sess, keep, hold, find. 

hac V. ac. 

hdd, ME. had, hod, sm. (273 and 
N. 2), [<T. hai-Su-, appearance, 
= pre T. *qoitu-, cf. Skt. ketii-s, 
brightness (cf hddor, bright, 
G. heiter)] (Goth, h^idus, man- 
ner, OHG, heit, G. -heit, -hood, 
-HEAD, Sk. pp. 57, 218) person, 
rank, order VIII. 11. 

hadde v. habban. 

hsfeffen, Nh. heed en, ME.hae^en, 
heben, hethen, aj. (296), [ < 
liadtf, heath; Sk. 252, cf LL. 
paganus, pagan=villager, < pa- 
gus, village'] (cf Goth, h&ibno. 

sb. /., OS. hfi^in, Ic. hei^inn, 
OHG. heidan, G. heiden-) hea- 
then ; Nh. h ge d n o = WS. h se ij- 

haefe v. habban. 

haefen, haefene, ME. havene, 
haven, s. wf, [cf. haef (open) 
sea, Beitr. X. 561, haaf, haff] 
(Ic. hofn, OHG. hafan, MHG. 
G. hafen) haven. 

hsblan, ME. haelen, healen, helen, 
w. 1, [cans. < hal, Sk. 186] 
(Goth, hdiljan, Ic. heila, OS. 
h§lian, OHG. heilen, MHG. G. 
heilen, Sk. 79 ; 80) hea/, Sk. 48. 

haelda v. hyldan. 

haeleiac, ME. heleS ; worn. pi. hae- 
letf, Mm. (281 N.2), [<T.*ha- 
lubi- (50 N. 2)] (Ic. holSr, OS. 
helith, OHG. helid, G. held) 
(poet.) hero. 

hs^Iend, hselynd, ME.hselennd, 
halend, helend. Mm. -nd- (286) , 
[orig. prs. ptc. o/ hselan] (G. 
heiland) Saviour, Healer. 

hs^lo, K. he la, ME. heale, hele, 
if^f ^dec. s. (279), [= abs. *h d- 
lin- <hal] health, heali, sal- 
vation VII. 6, safety. 

hser, her, ME. har,_her, sn., [< 
T., except Goth., hsero-, ?< oi'ig. 
T. *h«z6-, cf. Bulg. kosa, Brug. 
585.2] (Ic. OS. OHG. MHG. liar, 
G. haar) hair. 

hser V. her. 

haernes,, [?< Scand., cf. Ic. 
hjarni = *hjarsne < : T. *herzn-, 
= I.-E. *kers-n. <N[ker, head, cf. 
Skt. ^irsn-, head, Gk. Kpavlov, 
CYCx^ium, L. cerel3rum = *ceres- 
rum, CERe&rwm, v. horn] (cf. 
OHG. hirni, MHG. hirne, G. 
hirn) brains XV. 27, harns 

hses, ME. hese, heste, sf., [<hA- 
tan, Sk. p. 206] (cf. Goth, hditi-, 
OHG. heiz, G. ge-heiss) hest, 
Sk. 341 (poet.), behest, com- 

hafest, hest, sf, \_for *h « f - s - 1 = 
T. *haif-sti-] (Goth, hdifst-s) 
strife, violence. 




hsfeto, ME. hete, wf. dec. s. (279), 
[=ra&s. *hdtin-<hdt, Sk. p. 
200 ; 210 b] heat. 

haeved v. h§afod. 

haf- V. habban. 

haill V. hdl. 

haithill v. aeafele. 

hal, ME. hal, hoi, lieil, and haill 
(<Scand. influ.> hale, hail), 
aj. (295), [<T. hailo-z = pre T. 
qai-lo-s, Bmg. 439] (Goth, h&ils, 
Ic. heill, OS. h^l, OHG. MHG. 
G. heil, Sk. 71. 1; 80) who/e, 
HALE, Sk. 355 ; 391, HEALthy, 
entire; hdle wese g6, ME. 
heil 3e; hail ! XI. vei^se 9. 

halda, halde v. healdan. 

hdlettan, prt. halette IX. 30, 
10. 1, [<hal+ vb. S2(ff. -(e) t- 
tan] HAIL, greet. 

half y. healf. 

halgian, ME. Iiali3en ; pp. ge- 
halgod, w. 2, [<hdlig] (Ic. 
helga, G. heiligen) hallow., con- 

halig, hdleg; balga, w.; ME. 
hale3, hali3, hali, haly, holi, 
holy, hooly ; liall3he, w. ; aj. 
(293), [=T. hailago- <s6., v. 
hal, hsfel, sn. (288 N. 1)] (Ic. 
heil-agr, OS. h61ag, OHG. heilag, 
G. heilig) hale, iohole, holy, 
Sk. 376. 

halig-daeg, ME. haliday, sm., 
holiday, Sk. 454 c, = holy day, 

h^ligness, ME. holinesse, sf. 
(258.1), [a&s. <hdllg] (OHG. 
heilagnessi) holiness. 

halle V. heall. 

hals V. heals. 

ham V. 6oin, h6. 

hdm, ME. horn, sm., [=T. hai- 
mo-z, orig., village, = 1.-E. *qoi- 
mo-s < : n/ qei, rest, cf. Bulg. 
po-koji, rest, Brug. 84, Sk. 112 ; 
215] (?c/. Gk. KC6/X-77 = */fvV77, 
village, Goth, h&im-s, /., village ; 
Ic.heim-r, OS. h6m, OHG. MHG. 
G. heim) home, dwelling ; ham, 
ME. hom, ace. = av. {cf. anal. 
L. ire domum), home XIV. 80. 

hamor v. homor. 
ban V. habban. 
hand- v. bond-. 

hand-selen, ME. hansell, sf, 
[selen, a giving, < sell an; 
influ. Scand., cf. Ic. handsal, 
legal transfer, anal. L. inanci- 
patio <manus, hand, -f capere, 
to take, Sk. 440] earnest 
{-money), handsel, {ironically) 
first instalment, i.e. defeat XXXI. 

hangen v. hongian. 

bar, ME. hor, aj., [=T. hairo-, 
?<T. V*hai, shi7ie, cf Goth, 
hais, torch, v. had] (Ic. h^rr, 
?0S., OHG. h^r, G. hehr, 
exalted) gray, hoar, Sk. p. 55. 

hard v. heard. 

barde v. bearde. 

hardy, ME. aj., [<AF. hardi < 
OHG., Sk. II. pp. 210, 247, 80 
V. heard] hardy = brave. 

hare v. be. 

hart V. beorte. 

has V. habban. 

baso-pad, basupad, aj., [= T. 
has-wo- (300), ?cf. L. canus = 
*casiius, white; 4-pad, coat, = 
T. *pai«-o, OHG. pheit, Goth, 
p^ida {borrowed woi^d?) ? cf. 
^airri, shepherd'' s coat of skins'] 
gray- coated ; {both elements dec.) 
X. 124. 

haste, sb., [< AF. haste <T., v. 
b gfe s t] (O Fris. hast, Ic. hast-r) 
haste, Sk. II. 54. 2 ; 91 ; 148 ; 

haste-liche, ME. av., hastily. 

bat, ME. hat, hot, comp. hattre, 
aj., [<T. haito- <T. V hit, ? <T. 
>/*hI, heat] {cf Goth. sb. heito, 
fever; Ic. heit-r, OS. OFris. h6t, 
OHG. MHG. heiz, G. heiss) hot. 
Sk. pp. 57, 378. 

hatan, ME. haten, hote, hat, 
hi3te, highte ; 3 sg. prs. ind. 
ME. hot, hi3te; prt. bebt, 
h 6 1, ME. hi3t, highte (> prop. 
NE. hight {poet.)), het ; pp. ge- 
li&ten, ME. 3ehatenn, ihaten, 
hoten ; only relic of medial pass. 




(367. 2) hdtte, ME. hatte prs. 
and prt. sense, s. red. A (394 ; 
395), [<only T. v/hait] (Goth, 
hditan, Ic. heita, OS. hetan, 
OHG. heizan, G. heissen) call, 
name, hid. 

hate V. hete. 

hath V. habhan. 

ha]? V. habban. 

hatian, ME. hatien, hate, w. 2 
(416 N. 5), [<T. *hat-ai- and 
-jo-, <T. Vhat, ? pursue'] (Goth, 
hatjan, hatan, Ic. hata, OS. haton, 
-en, waylay, OHG. hazzon, -6n, 
also pursue, G. hassen) hate. 

hatz V. habban. 

have V. habban. 

haven v. haefen. 

havid V. habban. 

havis V. habban. 

hayse v. aise. 

h6, ME. he, hee, hi, heo, ba, /. 
hye, hi, hy, sho, scho, she, u. 
hit, hyt, ME. hit, it, itt ; gen. 
(poss.) m. n. his, hys, ME. 
his, hiss, hijs, hys, hise, is, ys, 
/. hiere, hire, hyre, ME. 
hire, hyre, here, hare, hore, 
hyr; dat. m. n. him, hym, 
ME, him, hym, himm, /. like 
gen.; ace. m. hiene, hine, 
h y n e, Merc. Nh. h i n se, EME. 
hine, hut soon like dat. ; f. hie, 
hi, heo. Nil. hi a, ME. like 
dat., and his XVI. 55, 66, 215, 
hise, hes XVI. 259, es (>us = 
>u's = )u es XVI. 129), n. like 
nom. Plural nom. hie, heo, 
hig, hi, Nh. hia, hea, K. 
Merc, hi 86, K. hio, ME. hye, 
heo, hyo, hi, hy, ha, })e33 (te33) 
(c/. Ic), }>ey, Jjay, tliay, >ai, thei, 
thai, >e ; gen. (poss.) hi era, 
hira, hyra, heora, hiora, 
ME. here, hare, hore, heore, hure, 
hur, her, hor, )>e33re (te33re), 
]?eire, theyre, )>ere, there, hair, 
thair (thairis = NE. theirs), )?ar, 
thar, thare ; dat. him, heom, 
ME. hym, hem, hemm, heom, 
ham, horn, hymen, >aim, ]?aym, 

thaim, thaym, theym, J^am, tham, 
)?ame, thame ; ace. OE. like nom., 
ME. hi, a7id like dat., also, hes, 
his, es; prn. of 3. pers., orig. dem. 
(334), [ = *he-r (121) <T. pro- 
nom. St. hii, this, = pre T. ki-, 
cf. Gk. i-Kei-vo-s, that one, L. ci-s, 
ci-ter, on this side, Brug. 387, cf. 
ce in L. hi-c=*lio-i-ce, this ; ME. 
and NE. slie, <L-E. st. so- : sa-, 
that, cf. Skt. sa, Goth, so, Ic. sja, 
OE. seo, G. sie ; NE. pi. all cases 
= T. \>a, dem. mxt, = I.-E. to-, 
cf. Gk. t6, n. sg. of def. art., 
latter part of 1j. is-te, Jjset, pi. 
J>a] he, she, it, Sk. 332 ; 458 ; 

heaafo-lind, sf, [ = T. * haj^u-, 
(105 N. 2) war, cf Ic. Ho-Sr, a 
god's name, OHG. hadu-] (//'nd- 
en) loar-shield X. 11. 

hea9^o-rinc, S7n., war-hero, war- 
rior VI. 179, 212. 

heafod, ME. heaved, hseved, hefed, 
heved, hevid; gen. h^afdes, 
sn. (243. 1; 244), [<T. haubo«o- 
=:I.-E. *koupot-,? cf. L. caput,? 
= on^. *cauput, Sk. 112; 223 c] 
(Goth. haubiK Ic. haufub, OS. 
hobid, OHG. houbit, MHG. hou- 
bet, G. haupt) head, Sk. p. 374. 

h6afod-man, ME. hevedman, M. 
um. m., head-man, cxviain. 

heafun v. heofon. 

heage, LWS. (315 N.), ME. heye, 
hije, liyse, av., high. 

h§ah, ME.hea3, heh, {cf 163; 101a) 
he3, hegh, heih, hei3, hey3, hi3, 
hy3, hei, hey, Sk. p. 58 ; 375 ; 333 ; 
gen. h6as (119. 1), to. he an, 
ace. sg. m. heanne=h6ahne 
(222 N. 2, 295 N. 1); comp. 
hiera, hierra (307), aj., 
[<T. hauho-] (Goth, h&uhs, cf. 
Ic. har {for *hauhr); OS. OHG. 
hoh, MHG. G. hoch) high ; an 
he3 (he3e), on high, ahove. 

h6ah-engel, ME.hehengel (=rheh- 
angel), sm., archATHGEL,. 

h^ahness, ME.he3nesse, sf, hight, 
Sk. 342, highness. 




healdan, Nh. halda (158. 2), 

ME. healden, healde, hialde, 

lialden, halde, liolden, holde, 

hold; |);t. hiold, heold,ME. 

lieold, held, heeld, hold, hel ; pp. 

ME, ihialde, halde, haldin, hol- 

den, Sk. p. 158, holdyn, s. red B. 

(396) Sk. 137, [< common T. 

hal-San (80)] (Goth, haldan, Ic. 

halda, G. halten) hold^ possess, 

keep back, guard, keep (a flock) ; 

uvele h., ill-use. 
heale v. hsfelo. 
healen v. hsfelan. 
healf, ME. healf, aj., [< common 

T. halho- (80)] (Goth, halb-s, Ic. 

half-r, OS. half, G. halb) ha/f, 

Sk. 33 ; 382. 
healf, Ep. halb, Nh. half 

(158. 2), ME. half, sf., [= T. /. 

form of aj., Sk. 205] (Goth. 

OHG. halba, Ic. halfa, OS. 

halha) a half, side. 
heall, ME. halle, sf, [<T. *hallo- 

(80), ?cf helan] (Ic. holl, OS. 

halla, Du. MLG. halle, G. halle) 

ha//, large building (cf town- 

ha//, also e.g., " Bracebridge 

heals, hals, ME. hals, sm., [<T. 

halso-, = pre T. *kolso-] {cf L. 

collmn=*colsum, Brug. 571 (cf 

coLLar) ; Goth, hals, Ic. hals, 

OS. OFris. OHG. MHG. G. hals) 

neck, ha/se^ ; cf hawse. 
h6an, ME. heane, hene, aj., (Goth. 

h^un-s, cf OHG. honi ; cf G. 

sb. hohn, scorn) low, base VI. 

h6anne v. h6an, h6ah. 
heap, ME. hep, hepe, sm., [<T. 

*haupo-, Sk.77; 115; 120] (OFris. 

h^p, Du. hoop, OS. hop, OHG. 

hiifo : houf, G. haufe, Sk. 68 ; 

164 ; 03) heap, crowd VI. 163 ; 

(cf forlorn hope <Du.). 
heard, ME. heard, hard, herd, aj. 

(303. N.; 307 ; 309; 311), [<T. 

har5u-z (79 b) = pre T. kortiis, cf. 

Gk. Kparijs, strong, Sk. 121 ; 119; 

p. 154 ; 245] (Goth, hard-us, Ic. 

har5-r, OS. hard, OHG. MHG. 

G. hart) hard, Sk. 313, hardj/ 
= bold VI. 225, strong, v.xB.8h 

hearde, ME. harde, herde, av., 
[<heard (315)] hard, fiercely 
VI. 216, very (much). 

hearin, ME. hearm, herm, sm., 
[= T. *harmo-z (79 b) < pre T. 
*kormo-, ?c/. Skt. V 9ram, be 
weary'] (Ic. harm-r, OS. harm, 
OHG. harm, G. harm) grief, 

hearpe, ME. harpe, wf, [< com- 
mon T. harp6(n-) (79 b)] (Ic. 
harpa, OHG. harpha, MHG. 
harpfe, G. harfe) harp. 

heaved v. heafod. 

h§awan, ME. he wen; prt.'h.ho'w, 
s. red. B. (396) Sk. 139 c, [ < T. 
hauw-, haw- = pre T. qow-, cf. 
Bulg. kov-ati, to hammer, Brug. 
439; 181, Sk. 115] (Ic. hoggva, 
OS. h&wan, OHG. houwan, MHG. 
houwen, G. hauen) hew. 

heben v. heofon. 

hedde v. habban. 

he9"en, he>enii XVIII. 15570, 
ME. av., [<Scand., cf. Ic. helSan, 
cf hider] he nee. 

hee V. he. 

heeld v. healdan. 

hefaen- v. heofon-. 

hefde v. habban. 

hefd" V. habban. 

hefed v. h6afod. 

hefel->r£fed, sm., [<hefel(d), 
h e b e 1 (d) , sm., thread for weav- 
ing, <hebban, s. 6 (392.4), 
HEAVE, -f- T. *jjr8e-5o-, Sk. 223 c, 
V. J>rdwan, s. red. B, throw, 
<T. Vhree, to twist] (Ic. )pTk^T, 
OFris. thrSd, OHG. dr^t, G. 
draht, cf. drehen, turn, twist) 
weaver's thread. 

hefen, heffen v. heofon. 

heflg, ME. hevy, aj., [<hebban, 
cf hef-el-, Sk. 256] (cf Ic. 
hofig-r ; OS. hebig, OHG. hebig) 
heavy, sad. 

hefigness, ME. hevynes,s/., AeaK/- 

hes V. h^ah. 




liogh V. h^ah. 

heh V. h€ah. 

heh-angel, -engel v. heahengol. 

heht V. hdtaii. 

hei, lieili v. heah. 

heil V. hdl. 

heir v. her. 

hel V. healdan. 

hela V. hsfelo. 

helan, ME. helen, hele ; prL pi. 
ME. helen, s. 4 (390), [<T. V*hgl 
=preT. VkSl, concExLing, cover, 
cf. Gk. KoM-KTeiv^ L. celare, Olr. 
celim, / hide'] (OHG. OS. helan, 
MHG. heln, G. hehlen) hide., 
concEAL, cover., heal^. 

helch V. selc. 

held(e) v. healdan. 

helde v. ieldu. 

hele V. hsfelo. 

heling, ME, vb.-sb., [helan] 
coverincj., clothing. 

helian, JVIE, helien, hele, w. 1 
(400 N. 2), [helan] hide, cover. 

hell, ME. helle, sf. (258. 1), [< 
WT. hallja- (228; 89. 1) < T. 
haljo-; ?<T. Vhal : hel, v. he- 
lan, (/. anal, of Hades = '■ Un- 
seen,' Sk. 192 a ; 209] (Goth, 
halja, Ic. hel, gen. heljar, Hel, 
goddess of the dead., OS. hellia, 
OHG. hella, G. hoUe) hell. 

*helle-cyning, ME. helleking,sw2., 
king {prince) of hell. 

helle-duru, ME. helledure, sf. 
{21^), door of hell. 

helle-fyr, ME. hellefur, sn., hell- 

helle-geat, ME. helle3et, sn., hell- 

helle-grund, ME. hellegrund, sm., 
bottom of hell. 

helle-pine, sb.., pain of hell. 

helm, also ME. sm. (239. 1), 
[< common T. hel-mo- < pre T. 
kelmo-, cf Skt. ^arman, shelter., 
???. helan, Sk. 214] (Goth, 
hilm-s, Ic. hjalm-r, OS. OHG. 
MHG. G. helm) helm, helm^^. 

helm a, ME. helme, wm., (Ic. hjalm, 
MLG. helm, Du. helm (stock) 
tiller, >G. helm) helm, rudder. 

help, ME. helpe, help, sf. (n.) 
(252 N. 2), [hel pan] (OS. 
helpa, OHG. lielfa, G. hilfe) 

helpan, ME. helpen, helpe; pp. 
ME. iholpen, s. 3 B (367; 387) 
Sk. 148 c, [< common T. V help] 
(Goth, hilpan, Ic. hjalpa, OS. 
helpan, OHG. helfan, MHG. G. 
helfen) help. 

hem(m) v. he. 

hende v. hond. 

hengen, iv., [< Scand., cf. Ic. 
hengja, iv. tr. cans. < hanga, s. 
intr.; cf. hongian] hang, intr. 
XXV. 43. 

hengen v. h6n. 

henne v. heonon. 

henn-fugol, sm., [henn, sf. < 
WT. only, *hanja-, cf. hana, 
wm., cock, <T. hano(n-) <\/qan, 
sing ; cf L. can-ere, sing, Brug. 
430] hen. 

hentan, ME. henten, hente ; pp. 
ME. yhent, w. 1, {cf Goth, ira- 
hint>an, take captive) seize, take, 
hent (Shak.). 

henu V. heonu. 

heo, heo, v. he. 

heofon, -fun, -fen, Nh. heben, 
heafun, ME. heofen, heoven, 
hefen, heffen, heven, hevin, sm. 
(245), [=T. *hefuno- (106. 1)] 
aZsoheofone, -ene, ME.heo- 
vene, hevene, heffne, wf. {cf. Ic. 
hifinn, OS. hehan, MLG. heven) 

heofon-cyning, ME. heoven-, hev- 
en-, heveking, sm., king of 

heofon-lic, ME. hevenlich, a)., 

heofon-rice, Nh. hefaenrici, 
ME. heofene-, hevene-, heven-, 
heove-, heveriche, sn., heavenly 
reALM, kingdom of heaven. 

heold V. hold. 

h§old V. healdan. 

heolfrig, aj., [heo If or- (81) 
{blood from a wound) -(- ig] 

heom V. h6. 




heonon, ME. henne, hens, contr. 
of gen. liennes, >NE. hence, Sk. 
:J5C, av. (321), [■rr*hinona<T. 
pronom. hi; cf. h6] (OS. hinana, 
OHG. hiniian, MHG. G. liinnen) 
hence, hen {prov.). 

heonii XI. Xero 7, henu XI. R. 
7, Merc. Nh. intrj., behold. 

lieora, heore v. he. 

heord, ME. herde, .<</•., [<T. her- 
t5o- (70. 1) < pre T. kerdha-, 
Brug. 538] {cf. Skt. 9&rdha-s, 
troop; Goth, hairda, Ic. hjor.N, 
OhG. herta, MHG. herte, G. 
(LG. influ.) herde) keeping, cus- 
tody IX. 27, herd. 

heorte, ME. heorte, herte, herrte, 
hert, hart, wf. (278), [< com- 
mon T. hert-e(n-) : -o(n-), n. 
(79. 1 ; 280) < I.-E. kerd- : krd-, 
Brug. 375, Sk.p. 110; 112; 2*06] 
(cf Gk. Kap8-ta, L. cor (cord-), 
Sk. 392, cf conmal; Goth, 
hairto, n. as Ic. hjarta, OS. 
herta, OHG. herza, G. herz) heart. 

heorte-blod, sb., heart-blood. 

heoven v. heofon. 

heoveiie k^vene, sb., heaven''s 

heovv, hiw (73. 2), ME. heow, 
hew,, sn. (250 N. 3), [= *hiuw- 
ja- <T. *hiwjo-, Sk. 209] (Goth, 
hiw-i) form, appearance, colour, 
hue, Sk. 355 ; 384. 

heowon v. heawan. 

'liepe V. heap. 

hor V. gfer, he. 

her, K. hser, ME. her, er, here, 
hyer, heh', av., \<T.pronom. hi- 
+ locative snf. -r, v. h6, as 
hwsfer <h\vd] (Goth. Ic. OS. 
Mr, OHG. hiar, MHG. G. hier) 
here, uithtr; ME. her efter > 
hereafter; K. hgfer beforan, 
ME. her bifcre, before, above 
VII. 53. 

her V. hsfer. 

h6ra v. hieran. 

herd v. heard, hieran. 

herde v. hearde. 

here, ME, here, gen. her(i)ges, 
sm. (246; 247 N. 2), [=*h£fcri 

(89. 1 ; 228) < common T. harjo- 
< pre T. V qar, icar] (cf Goth, 
harjis, Qn. as Ic. lierr; OS. heri, 
OHG. hari, heri, MHG. here, 
G. heer) army — an invading, 
iiAnrying army, cf. fyrd-wic, 
midtitude VI. 161. 

here v. h§, h€r, hieran. 

here-beorgian. Chronicle, Earle, 
p. 175, rem. 8, ME. her-ber3en, 
herbre ; pp. herbreit, w. 2, [< 
Scand. or Du.? cf MLG. Du. 
herbergen, Ic. her-bergja <sb. 
her-bergi, a camp, lodging ; cf 
here, beorgan] (OHG. lieri- 
bergon, MHG. G. herbergen) 
provide a lodging place, harbour, 
Sk. pp. 406, 478. 

here-flema, -fly-ma, icm., 
[fleam] FLBKing (warrior) X. 

here-fole, sn., army VI. 234. 

here-laf, sf., reinnant of an army 
X. 93. 

hereness, sf, \\\e,Tisin] praise. 

here- wsfeSJa, lom., [yv t^fS ix, hunt- 
er, cf. MHG. weide-man, G. 
weid-mann] chieftain VI. 126, 

hergan v. herian. 

herge-, herige- v. here. 

herian, herigean, lierigan, hergan, 
ME . herien, herie ; prt. h e r e d e, 
w.\,\_= T. *hazjo- (89. 1 ; 181. 2 ; 
176; 400 N. 1; 398.1) = pre 
T. kas-, cf L. carmen = *cas- 
men, song, OL. casmena, a 
muse, cf CHARw] (Gotli. hazjan, 
cf. OHG. heren) praise, herryi. 

heritage, sb., [<AF. heritage < 
OF. lieriter, inherit, <LL. he- 
reditare < LL. heres (liered-) 
heir] heritage, i7iiiERnance. 

herknen v. hiercnian. 

herm v. hearm. 

hermytage, ermitage, sb., [<AF, 
hermitage <hermite, v. hermyte] 

hermyte, sb., [<AF. hermite < 
ML. heremita < LL. eremita < 
Gk. ipT]ixiTr]s, des('rt-dv:eller'\ her- 
mit, EREMITE (<LL., poe^). 




herrde v. hieran. 

her(r)te, hert v. heorte. 

herteli, ME. av., [heorte] Aearf- 
i/y {as < hearty -\-/y), heartly]. 

hes V. he. 

hese V. hgfes. 

hest V. habban. 

hest V. hsfest. 

heste V. hs&s. 

het, het v. hatan. 

hete, ME. hete, hate, sm. (orig. n. 
263 N. 4, 288 N. 1, but v. Brug. 
II. 132 Rem. 2), [< T. *hatiz, 
?=pre T. *kodos, cf. hat i an] 
(Goth, hatis, n. st. hatisa-, Sk. 
230a, Ic. hatr, n. OS. heti, OHG. 
MHG. haz, G. hass) hate. 

hete V. etaii, hsfeto. 

hetend, hettend, M.-nd-, m. 
(286), [prs.ptc. <hatian(416 
N. 5)] enemy (HAxer). 

hethen v. hsfel^Cen. 

he)>enii v. heffen. 

heve- V. heofon-. 

heved v. heafod. 

hevede v. habban. 

heven v. heofon. 

hevere v. sefre. 

hevid V. h6afod. 

hevin v. heofon. 

hevy V. hefig. 

hey, heye v. heah. 

heyse v, b6ah. 

hi, hia, hiae v. h6. 

hidden v. hydan. 

hider, hieder, ME. hider, av. 
(321 ; 322), [< pronom. st. hi-, 
V. h^, + ?comp. suff. -der] {cf. 
L. citra, on this side,' Goth, 
hidre, Ic. he'Sra) hither, Sk. 343. 

hiene v. h6. 

hiera v. he. 

hiera v. h6ah. 

hieran, hyran. Mi. hera 
(159.3), Merc, hcferan, (150. 
4), ME. heren, here; prt. ME. 
herde, Sk. 454 a, herrde, herd ; 
pp. Merc, gehcered, Nh. ge- 
tter ed, ME. ilierd, iherS, 
yhyerd, herd, herde, w. 1 (403), 
[<*heaz-io- (99) < common 
T.hauzio-(181.2)<preT. *kous- 

ejo- (398.1) Sk. 357] (Goth, 
h&usjan, Ic. heyra, OS. horian, 
OHG. horen, MHG. G. horeii) 

*hiercnian, hyrcnian, ME. 
herknen, to. 2, [<*hearcian> 
ME. herke > hark ( = WT.; cf. 
O Fris. h^rkia, G. horchen) < 
hieran, Sk. 261] hearken. 

hierde-b6c, M. f (283), [=:*he- 
ordjo- (100 ; 248), HERDsman, 
<heord] shepHEHD-book VIll. 

hierra v. h6ah. 

hiersumian, h6r-, hyr-, ME. 
hersumien, w. 2, with dat., [<«;*., 
hier-sum, obedient, < hie- 
ran] (OHG. horsamon) hearA:- 
en to, obey VIII. 7. 

hi3 V. heah. 

higa, pi. K. higon, gen. higna 
(277N. l),?(;TO.,[<T.*hT-wo(n-), 
cf. hi-red, hine, sb.'] (Goth, 
lieiwa-frduja, master of the 
house) member of a household, 
pi, VII. 33, 53, brethren. 

hige- V. hyge-. 

higian, ME. hye, w.2, [?<T. *hT- 
= pre T. ki-, cf. Gk. Ki-etp, go, 
L. ci-tare (<ci-ere), cause to go, 
ci^e] hasten, hie, Sk. 376. 

hist V. hatan. 

hijs V. he. 

hil V. hyll. 

hilde-l^oS*, sn., [< hi Id, sf 
(258. 2), battle {poet.)] battle-- 
song VI. 211. 

hilde-nsedre, wf, battle-adder = 
arrow VI. 222. 

hilde-pil, sm., [< L. pTl-um, n., 
TEstLe, lit. pounder, heavy javelin 
of Boman infantry, > pile, Sk. 
p. 437, T. changed meaning and 
gender, cf. Ic. pila, OHG. MHG. 
pfil, G. pfeil, arrow] battle-jav- 
elin, arrow. 

hilde-rinc, sm., battle-hero, war- 
rior, -ring = -rinc in three 
other 3ISS. X. 77. 

hill V. hyll. 

him V. he. 

hinse v. he. 




hindan, av. (321), [c/. hinder, 
aj., a/rER, heon-on] (Goth, 
hindana, OHG. hintana, G, hin- 
teu) from behind, in the rear X. 

hine, sh., [<Nh. pi. hine, cf. 
(277 N. 1) hina = hiwna=: 
hiwena, gen. pi. of hl-wan, 
higa {v. hired) = one of the 
household] domestic, servant ; 
hind, Sk. 344 ; 378. 

hine v. h6. 

hin-gong, Nh. hiniong, sm., 
[heonon, gongan] hence- 
going,^departiire — death II. 3, 

hio, hiora v. he. 

hira v. Iras. 

hird V. hired. 

hire xi. h6. 

hired, Nh. hiorod, ME. hird, 
sm., [<*hiw-rgfed (43 N. 4; 
174 N. 6 ; 57 N. 2) < T. *hiwo-, 
house, 2cf. L. civ-is, citizen, v. 
higa, hine, sh.] {cf. Goth. 
heiwa-fr&,uja, master of the 
house, OS. hlwa, /. wife, OHG. 
hiwo, m. husband, Ic. hjun,, 
married couple ; G. hei-rat, mar- 
riage, lit. care of a house) house- 
hold, family, brotherhood XII. 
i9. 39. 

his V. eom. 

his, hise v. h6. 

hit V. he. 

hiadan, ME. Ihaden, laden, s. 6 
(392) Sk. 141b, [<T. N/hla«=: 
N/*kladh] (cf. Goth, af-hlaban, 
Ic. hla'Sa, OS. OHG. hiadan, G. 
laden) fade, Sk. 332, pile up, 


hlsefdige, ME. Ihevedi, levedi, 
lavedi, lefdi, leafdi, lafdi ; gen. 
hlffefdigean, -gan, wf, [ = 
*hldford-ig-e? f. < hlA- 
ford; ??hldf-dige, loaf- 
kneader, Sk. p. 186] lady, Sk.jop. 
360, 374, mistress of a house, 
sovereign (as of Virgin Mary 
and Queen). 

hidf, Nh. Idf, ME. Ihaf, lof, sm. 
(Nh. also n.?), [< common T. 
hlaibo-, earlier term for b r § a d] 

(Goth. hlS,if-s, gen. hl^ibis, Ic. 
hleif-r, OHG. hleib, MHG. leip, 
G. laib) /oaf, Sk. 332 ; 42 ; 205, 

hldford, Nh. hldfard, hldf- 
aerd, hldferd, ME. hlavord, 
hlaverd, laferrd, laverd, laverft, 
loverd, lorverd, lord, lorde, sm., 
[<*hldf-weard, /oaf-^vxYiDen 
(43 N. 4; 173 N. 3; 51; 43. 2b)] 
/ord, Sk. pp. 303, 360, 374, 426. 

hidfording (Wulfstan, 298. 7), 
ME. lording, sm., [< h 1 a f o r d + 
aj. suff. -ing = belonging to] 
lording, sir. 

hlanc, ME. lone, aj., lank VI. 205. 

hleapan, ME. Iheape, lepen ; prt. 
hie op, ME, Ihip, lep, s. red. B 
(396) Sk. 139 c, [< common esp. 
T. V hlaup] (Goth, us-hlaupan, 
Ic. hlaupa, OS. a-hl6pan, OHG. 
hlauffan, loufan, MHG. loufen, 
G. laufen, Sk. 164; 63) run, leap, 
Sk. p. 360 ; 49. 

hleonian (109 b), hlinian, 
h I i n g a n, ME. hlenien, lenien, 
w. 2 intr. (416 N. 5), [<T. hli- 
n- < T. V hli, = Vkli : klai, Hse 
slantingly, Sk. 112] (cf. Gk. k\L- 
v€Lv, L. in-clinare, to incLixE ; 
OS. hlinon, OHG. hlinSn, MHG. 
linen, G. lehnen) lean, Sk. p. 

360, ?'f!CLINE. 

hl^or, ME. leor, ler, sn., [<T. 
*hleuro- (64)] (Ic. hlyr, OS. 
hlior, hlier, hleor, MDu. lier) 
cheek IV. 4 /eert. 

hlid, ME. lid, pi. liddes, sn., (cf. 
hlidan, s. 1 (382), cover ; Ic. 
hliS, OHG. lit) lid, eye-lid. 

hliehhan,hlehhan, hlihhan, 
hlyhhan, ME. Ihe33e, la3he, 
laghe; prf. hl6h, ME. I0U3, s. 
6 (372 ; 392. 4) Sk. 141 c, [ = 
*hleahhan (98) < T. Vhlah 
(82 ; 228) < onomat.] (Goth, 
hlahjan, Ic. hlseja = *hlah-ja, 
OS. hlah(i)an, OHG. hlahhan, 
cf. G. lachen, w.) laugh, Sk. 375 ; 
332 ; 333, -at, rejoice. 

hllfian, hlifigan, w. 2, toicer 
V. 2877, be prominent IV. 4. 




hlihhan v. hliehhan. 

hlimnian, prt. pi. hi u mm on 
VI. 205, s. ^A (386), resound, 

hlingendi v. hleonian. 

hlinode v. hleonian. 

hlude, ME. lude, loude, ar., [<«;. 
hl6d, loud., lit. heard, <T. {not 
in ET.) *hlu-56-z, Sk. p. 150 ; 
253 c, p>p. form < pre T. klu-to-s 
<\/klu: kleu, hear, cf. Skt. 9111- 
tSi-s,hearD, Gk. K\vT6s,renov:neT>, 
as L. in-clutus, Sk. 112; 269, v. 
glorye] (OS. hliido, OHG. liluto, 
MHG. lute, G. laut) hud, Sk. 
p. 360 ; 46. 

hlydan, j)7't. hlydde, w. 1, [< 
hlud] be LOUD, make a loud 
noise, shout XIV. 24. 

hlystan, ME. hlusten, lusten, 
liste, w. 1, [<sb. hlyst <T. 
*hlu-s-t-i, hearing, <T. Vhlu-s, 
< V klu-s (rf. Skt. ^rushti, hea7'- 
ing) <\fkiu, v. hlude, Sk. 
268 ; 270] (Ic. hlusta) list, listen 
to (ivith gen. and dat.) ; ME. 
list-ene XXIV. 2 (c/. OE. hlys- 
nan) > list-en, Sk.j3p.360, 276, 
283, 381. 

hnigan, prt. hnag, hndh, s. 1 
(382), [<T. s/*lmTg(w) <pre 
T. N/*knigh (*kniq?), ?cf. L. co- 
nivere (nic-are, nic-tare) wink, 
(cowNive)] (Goth. Imeiwan, Ic. 
hnlga, OHG. nigan, G. neigen) 
hoto (down) III. 3. 

hceran v. hieran. 

hof, sn., [<T. *hofo- (45.3) = 
pre T. *kupho-] (Ic. hof, temple, 
OS. OHG. MHG. G. hof) house 
{palace), court {-yard). 

hog, pi. hogges, sh., hog. 

hogian, ME. howe ; pp. geho- 
god, w. 2, cf. hycgan w. 
3 (415 ; 416 N. 3), [= T. *hogo- 
jo-<T. v/hug (45.3), think, > 
*huggjan (45. 3; 228; 216) 
>hycgan, cf. Goth, hugjan, 
Brug. 439; 552 Bern. 2, Bezzb. 

■ Beitr. XVII. 320] (OHG. hogan) 
think, how^ . 

hold, ME. hold, lieold, aj., [<T. 

hul-J>o- (202. 2) = relation be- 
tu-een lord and vassal, the one 
^'•gracious,'''' the other "irwe"] 
(Goth. hulM, Ic. holl-r, OS. 
OHG. G. hold) friendly, faithful, 


hold V. eald. 
hold(e) v. healdan. 
holi V. halig. 

holo-caust, holocaustum, sh., 
[<L. holo-caustum <Gk. okh- 
Ko.v<rrov, whole-burnt {ofering)^ 
holocaust XXI. 1319, 1326. 

holy V. halig. 

hom V. he, ham, hwa. 

homer, homer, ham or, ME. 
hamer, sm. (245), [<T.hamuro-, 
?orig. stone, cf. Bulg. kameni, 
stone, Ic. hamarr, hammer, crag, 
rock^ (OS. hamur, OHG. hamar, 
MHG. hamer, G. hammer) 

hon, ME. hon, hangen ; prt. 
heng, ME. heng ; pp. hon- 
gen, hangen, s. red. A, 
contr. tr. (373; 395) Sk. 161, 
[=*h6-an (115)=*h6han 
(218) = T. *hahan (67; 45. 5) 
< T. V hanh < V *kanq] (Goth, 
h&han, tr., Ic. hanga, intr., OHG. 
h&han, tr., MHG. h^hen, tr. and 
intr., G. hangan, intr., ME. awd 
NE. mix forms of hon, s. tr. 
with forms of hongjan, w. 
intr.) hang, crucify. 

hond, hand, ME. hand; pi. 
honda, handa, Nh. h<5ndo 
(124. 1), ME. honde, hande, 
hond, liondes, handes, hondis, 
hende ; dat. pZ. ME. honden, sf 
(274 andl^.l), [<only T. handu-] 
(Goth, handu-s, Ic. hond, OS. 
hand, OHG. MHG. hant, G. 
hand) hand. 

hond-cwyrn, hand-, sf. (274 
N.l), [cwyrn<cweorn (100; 
79. la) <T. kwernu-, Sk. 114; 
221] (Goth, qairnu-s, Ic. kvern, 
OS. OFris. quern, (/. OHG. 
chwirna, quirn, MHG. kiirne) 
quern, hand-mill {in contrast u\ 
ass-) XIV. 82. 




hond-dsfed, ME. handdede, s/., 

deed, exploit XXV. 92. 
hond-ge-weorc, ME. handewerk, 

sn., (OS. handgiwerk) hand-i- 

work, Sk. 337 ; 395. 
hondlian, handlian, ME. 

handlen, w. 2, [ freg. <liond, 

Sk. 262] (Ic. hondla, OHG. 

hantalon, MHG, handeln, G. 

handeln, trade) handle, feel 

XIII. 17. 
hond-plega, wm., hand-play, hand- 
to-hand encounter X. 49. 
hondred v. hundred, 
hongian, ME. hangen, hange, w;. 

2, OE. intr. [<h6ii] hang. 
hony V. hunig. 
hooly V. hdlig. 
hopian, ME. hopie, hopye, hope, 

to. 2, [= T. *hop6n, ?= *huqon, 

cf. hyht] (MLG. hopen, I)u. 

hopen, lioopen, MHG. G. hoffen, 

Sk. 63) hope. 
hor V. he. 
hord, ME. hord, sn. later m., 

[<T. huzSo- (45.3; 181.2) = 

pre T. kuzdli6=:*kudz-dho-, that 

wh. is HiDDen, Brug. 469. 5 ; 536, 

?cf. L. custodi-a, cvsTody ; cf. 

hydan, hus] (Goth, huzd, Ic. 

hodd, OS. hord, OHG. MHG. 

G. hort) hoard, treasure ; leggen 

an (en) horde, save, lay up 

XVI. 12. 
hor-dom, sh., [?<Scand. <T. hor-, 

?c/. L. car-US, dear, O Ir. car-a, 

friend'\ (Ic. hor-domr, OFris. 

hord 6m) whoredom, Sk. 355. 
hore V. dr, h6. 
horling, sh., [c/. hor-dom] (OHG. 

huorlinc) fornicator. 
horn, also ME. sm., [<T. hor-no-, 

<Vkr:ker, v. haernes, Sk. 112; 

221] \cf. Gk. K^p-as, L. cor-nu ; 

Goth, haiim, Ic. G. horn) horn. 
horn-boga, wm,., (Ic. horn-bogi), 

bow of horn or bent bow VI. 222. 
horrible, horreble, ME. aj., [<AF. 

horrible < L. horri-bilis < hor- 

rere, to bristle, tremble at] 

horrible, terrible. j 

hors, ME. hors, sn., [< T. *hrosso- 1 

(179. 1) ; I.-E. term for 'horse' 
= *ekwo- > T. *ehwo-, cf. Skt. 
a^va, Gk. I'ttttos, L. equus, OE. 
eoh, sm. (242) (poet.)] (Ic. 
hross, m., OS. hors, hros, OHG. 
hros, n. MHG. ros, G. ross, n.) 
horse, Sk.p. 50 N. 1. 

hose-bounde v. husbunda. 

hosp, sm., reproach, scornYI. 21<). 

host, sb., [<AF. host, ost, <ML. 
hostis, sg. army, < L. hostis, 
stranger, enemy, pi. the enemy 
>ML. sense, Sk. II. p. 39 ; 72. 2, 
V. g{»st] host, Sk. II. 91 ; 148, 

hot V. hat. 

hot, hoten v. hatan. 

hou, how V. hwd. 

hra V. hraw. 

hraiaPe, hraeiafe (315 N.), ME; 
raSe ; co7np. hraUor, ME. 
raber, redj?er, av., (Ic. hratt, cf. 
hraSr, aj., OHG. hrado) quickly, 
(rathe poet.) ; Qomp., more 
quickly, earlier = rather. 

hrge V. hraw. 

hrsed-lice, Merc. hrelJlice, 
ME. redliche, rsedlice, radly, 
av., quickly, soon XIII. 35. 
rathiyi, Sk. 332. 

hrsefn (49), href n, Ep. hraebn, 
ME. raven, reven, sm., [<T. 
*hrab-no-, Sk. 221, ?<s/:*krep, 
to make a noise, cf. L. crepare, 
to rattle] (Ic. hrafn, OHG. 
hraban, rabo, hram, MHG. rabe, 
ram, G. rabe, OE. hraeinn 
(186 N.; 193.2)) rai^en, Sk. 332 ; 
349 ; 386. 

hrsegl, Merc, hregl, Nh. raegl 
XI. R. 3, ME. rail, sn., [<T. 
*hrag-lo- Sk. 218] (OFris. 
hreil, OS. OHG. hregil) dress, 
rain (cf. night-rail, Sk. 332; 

hrdw, hrgew^, hra (174.3), 
hrse, sn. (250 N. 2), [hrdw < 
T. *hraiwo-, hrsew <*hrdi 
< T. *hraiwi- (62 ; 118 ; 173. 2 ; 
174. 3), ^orig. -os- (288 N. 1)] 
(Goth, hrdiw in compos., Ic. 
hr£e, OS. OHG. hr^o) corpse. 




hre- V. hrae-. 

hrecon-lice v. recenlice. 

hrefn v. hraefn. 

hreinan, hryman, vj. 1, [< T. 

*hromjon, cf. 08. hrom, OHG. 

hruom, sm., fame] (cf. G. riih- 

men) boast, — of rejoice at, 

with gen. dat. instr. 
hreinig, aj. (296), [<hream v. 

hre man] boasting, exultant 

X. 118. 
hreowan, ME. reowe, ruwen, s. 

2 (384 N. 2) inipers., [<only T. 

>/*hreu: *hrfl] (08. hreuwan, 

OHG. hriuwan, MHG. riuwen, 

cf G. w. reuen) make sorry, 

grieve = rue. 
*hreow-ful, ME. rewful, aj., 

hr6ow-lice, ME. reowliche rwly, 

av., miserably, pitiably, rulyi. 
hricg V. hrycg. 
hriffer, hriijer, hreogPer, 

ME. reoJ?er, re^er, ru)?er, sn. 

(289), [= T. *hrin1Soz-] (O Fris. 

hrither, OHG. hrind, pi. hrindir, 

cf G. rind >rinder-pest) horned 

cattle, ox VII. 22, rother (prov.). 
*hrieinan, hre man, hryman, 

ME. remen, w. 1, [<hr6am, 

sw., outcry] cry out, reem 

hrinan, ME. rinen, s. 1 (382), 

with ace. gen. dat., (OS. OHG. 

hrinan) toiich, attack IV. 28. 
hrin(c)g, ME. ring, sm. (239.1), 

[<T. hringo-, also assembly, 

(45. 2 a) < pre T. *qrengho-, cf. 

OBulg. kra"gu] (Ic. hring-r, OS. 

OHG. bring, G. ring) ring. 
hriordaiy v. reordian. 
hrof, ME. rof, sm., (O Fris. hrof, 

Ic, hrof, boat-shed, Du. D. 

roef) roof, top, summit. 
hrycg, hricg, ME. rig, rug, sm. 

(247), [?<T. *hrugjo- (93 N.; 

216) Sk. 209, or ?< *hrugi-z, 

Beitr. XIV. 183] (Ic. hrygg-r, 

OHG. hrucki, MHG. riicke, G. 

riicken) back (ridge, Sk. 332 ; 

339 ; 390, = rig ; cf. Burns : rigs 

o' barley). 

hryman v. hreman. 

hu V. hwa. 

hu- V. h\v-. 

huannes v. hwonon. 

huer V. hwser. 

huge, ME. aj., [< AF. a-huge, 
HIGH, ?<L. ad, at, + AF. hoge, 
= HOw, <T.] huge, Sk. II. 68; 
91 ; 172. 

hull V. hyll. 

humble, umble, ME. aj., [<AF. 
hum(b)le, Sk. II. 74. 2; 148; 
157; p). 229, < L. humilis < hu- 
mus, the ground] humble, Sk. 
II. 91. 

*Humber, dat. Humbre VIII. 
17, ME. Humbre, sf (elsewhere 
also Humbre, nom. wf), 

hund, ME. hund, num. n. (326; 
327), [< T. hun«6-m = I.-E. 
kmto-m, for ?*de-km-t6-, ten- 
tenth, V. ten, cf Goth, taihun- 
(TEN-) tfihund (tenth), L. cen- 
tum = *de-cen-t-um, Brug. 224, 
Sk. 104] (cf Gk. e-Kar-bv ; Goth. 
*hund, OHG. hunt) hundred. 

hundred, ME. hondred, hundreth 
(Scan.), hundrid, hundir, num. 
n. (327), [hund + red = prop. 
collective sb., -red, < T. Vrab, 
count, not -rsfeden, Sk. p. 220] 
(Ic. hund-ra"(5, OS. hundarod, 
MHG. hunterit, G. hunde-rt) 

hundred-feald(e). an-hondred- 
vald, ME.aj. (330), [<T.-falSo- 
num. suff., cf Gk. -irXdaios = 
*Trd\Tios, Sk. 121] a hundred- 
fold, Sk. 242. 

hund-t^ontig, Nh. hun(d)- 
1 6 an tig, num. n., [-t eon- 
tig, V. ten, cf -t6ne in fif- 
tene, e«c.;-tig I'.feowertig] 
(cf. Goth, taihun-t^hund) hund- 

hund-twelftig, num. n , hundred 
and TWEnty, (the great hundred). 

hungor, ME. hungser XV. 38, 
hunger, sm., [<o- st. <T. hung- 
ru- < hunh- (233 ; 273) Sk. p. 
237] (Goth, huh-ru-s (*hunh- 




ru-s), Ic. hung-r, OS. hunger, 
OS. OHG. hungar, MHG. G. 
hunger) hunger^ famine. 

hunig, ME. hony, sn., [<T. *hu- 
na(n)go- Sk. 240] (Ic. hunang, 
OS. honeg, OHG. honag, honang, 
G. honig) honey. 

huntoS", ME. honteb, sm., \_abs., 
cf. hunt-ian, to hunt., cf. 
Goth. pp. fra-hunbans, captive., 
V. hen tan] hunt^ = game 
XIII. 11. 

hiio V. hwa. 

hur, hure v. h6. 

hurlen, hurle, w., [contr. <freq. 
hurtle <AF. hurter (>hurt), 
thrust, + E. -le, Sk. 262 ; II. 
p. 243] hur/. 

huru, ME. hure, hwure XVII. 74, 
av., (Swed. huru) at least. 

h6s, ME. hus, hous, sw., [<T. 
huso-m, ? = *husso- = *hub-to- 
< T. n/ huts, V. hydan, hord, 
cf. Gk. Kcvdos, L. curia, Bezzb. 
Beitr. XVII. 313] (Goth, gud- 
hus, God's house, Ic. OS. OHG. 
MHG. hiis, G. haus) house, Sk. 
46 ; 313. 

hus-berner, sh., house-burner, in- 
cendiary XXIII. 40. 

h6s-buuda, ME. husbonde, hose- 
bounde, wm., [<hus + contr. 
of prs. ptc. b<iende<b6an, 
V. b6gan, Scand. injlu. cf. Ic. 
hiis-bondi, =: lit. house-dweller, 
ie. -holder, cf Sk. 420; 446; 
454 b] master of a house, hus- 

hv- V. hw-. 

h\v V. hwd. 

hwd, ME. hwa, hwo, hue, who, 
wo; n. hwaet, Nh. huaet, 
h V ae t, h V ae d, ME. hwat, hwet, 
what, whet, whatt, quat, wet, 
wat; gen. hwaes, ME. hwes, 
hwas, whos ; dat. hwdm, 
hwsem, ME. hwam, quam, 
whom, hom, with prep, also 
(341 N.) hwan, hwon, ME. 
also whan; ace. m. hwone 
(65 N. 2), hwane, ME. like 
dat., n. like nom. ; instr. w. hii 

(172 N.), ME. hu, hw, w XXV. 
120, hou, > NE. how, hwi, 
hwy, ME. hwi > NE. why, 
ME. quhy ; prn. ; I. interr. 
(341), [<*hwa-r (121; 182) 
<T. hwa-z, T. hwa- : hwe- <I.-E. 
qo-:qe-, Brug. 419; hwae-t, 
with n. suffix -t < I.-E. -d, cf L. 
qui-d, quo-d, Sk. 104; 117; 431] 
{cf Gk, 7r6- ( = Ionic ko-) -repos, 
wHich of the two?, rl-s, L. qui-s, 
Goth, hwas, Ic. *hvar, hva-t, 
n., OS. hu6, huat, n., OHG. hwer, 
G. wer) who? Sk. p. 54; 336, 
what? hwaet cart >6 XIII. 
30, Nh. hvaed arar, ME. hwat 
artu, quat ertu, who art thou? 
huaet g6daes, II.4, = (L. quid 
boni) what good. — II. indef 
(343), any one, some one, swd 
hwa swd (345), ME. with 
ever(e), so, sum, bet, at, etc., 
whosoever, etc. — III. hwaet, 
n. as av. or intrj. what, why, 
lo ! — IV. ME. what, wat, aj., 
what (kind of) ? — V. ME. wat 
= prp., until. 

hwaeffer, Nh. hvefirer, K. 
hwaeder, ME. whe-Ser, quhe- 
thir, wher, prn. s. aj. decl. ; I. 
interr. (342), [c/. st. hwd + 
-ly e r- = I.-E., comp. suf. -tero, 
cf 6-»er, Sk.254] (Gk. 7r6-Te/3os 
= Ionic k6- = *Kfo-, L. u-ter 
(*cuter < *qvoter, inform comp. 
of quis), Goth, hwa-thar, Ic. 
hv^-rr (contr.), OS. hwethar, 
OHG. hwedar, G. cjs. weder, 
neither, ent-weder, either) whic^ 
of the two ? whether ?. II. indef 
(343; 345) swse hw. swse, 
wHJchever. III. cj. interr., 
whether (=L. utrum, num) ; 
hwaeSPer . . .\>h XIII. 38, 39, 
ME. quhethir ... or, whether 
. . . or, whether. 

hw^aeSfere, hwael^re, Nh. hw^e- 
J>raeIII. 3 a, hvea^re, hwe- 
saCre, ME. bohh whebbre, beh 
whe'Ser, av., cj., [<hwae(3rer] 
However, yet, whether. 

hwaenne v. hwonne. 




hwser, hwdr, ME. hwer, liwar, 
huer, hware, qiihar, quar, quor, 
whare, where, wer, av. (321), 
\<h.\\ k ^ local suff. -r] (Goth, 
hwar, Ic. hvar, OS. hwar, OHG. 
wa, war, *hwar, G. wo) interr.^ 
where? wnEnce XXI. 1311, 
XXIV. 23 ; mdef. anywhere^ 
wel h wafer VIII. 88, every- 
where; ME. in compos.^ huer- 
of, huer-by, quor-on, quar-on, 
whar-fore, quar-fore, no-where, 
> whereof^ etc. 

hwset V. hwa. 

hwsete, ME. whete, sm., [< T. 
h wait-jo- < T. V hwait : hwit, v. 
hwit] (Goth, hwdit-ei-s, Ic. 
hveiti, OS. hw6ti, OHG. hweizi, 
MHG. weitze, cf. G. weizen) 
wheat XIII. 53. 

hwseten, K. husfeten VII. 21, 
ME. hueten, aj., [=T. *hwait- 
T-no-] (MDu. weiten, MHG. 
weizin) wh eaten. 

hw^et-h^vugu, prn. indef. n. in- 
decl. (314), [cf. instr. o/ hwd] 
something IX. 31. 

hwaet-lice, ME. whattlike, av., 
[<hwset, aj. (293; 294 N. 1), 
active^ quick}/. 

h^van v. hAva. 

hwan V. hwonne. 

hwat v. hwa. 

hwealf, aj., [= T. *hwalbo-<T. 
vb. V *hwalb : *hwelf, arch, < 
I.-E. \/*qelp (qelq?)] (cf. Ic. sb. 
hvalf and Gk. ndXir-os, bosom, 
OHG. welben=*hwalbjan, G. ge- 
w61b-t, vaulted) concave VI. 214. 

hwearfian, ME. wharrfenn, w. 2, 
[ = T. * h warb- < : T. V h werb, cf 
prt. of h XV eor tan, s. 3C(72; 
388), turn] (Goth, hwarbon, 
OHG.warb6n=*h\varb6n) ^^(r;^, 
change ; ME. tr. convert. 

hweffer v. hw^aeS'er. 

hw^eSfre v. hwa^afere. 

hwelc, hwylc, hw^ilc, Nh. 
hvelc, ME. hwilc, hwilch, 
quhilk, whilch, which, wych, 
wylk, prn. s. aj. decl. (342), 
Icontr, < *bwilik < T. hwe-liko-. 

(43 N. 4) Sk. 395, v. hwa, 
gelic] (cf. L. qua-lis; Goth, 
hwi-leik-s, Ic. hvi-lik-r, OS. hwi- 
lik, OHG. weirh(h), wie-lili, 
MHG. welich, welch, G. welch- 
(er)) ; I. interr., which, Sk. 354 ; 
325, WHO, wHAf (sort of) (whilk, 
Sc.) ; II. relat., ME., oft pre- 
ceded by be, the, which ; III. 
indef. (343), any (one) ; in com- 
pos. (345), which-ever, -so-ever. 

hwenne v. hwonne. 

hweol, ME. whel, sn., [= T. 
*hwegwl6-, cf. h w 6 o h I, 
hw6owol <T. *hwehwlo-, 
?< red. V qer, qel, roll, cf. Skt, 
chakr^-s, Gk. KvXietv, roll, Gk. 

KVkXoS = ?*KfiK\0S, > CYCLK, 

Brug. 427 c] (Ic. cf. hjol, hvel, 
M Du. wiel) wheef. 

hwer V. hwser. 

hw^et V. hwa. 

hwe)?rae v. hwaelffere. 

hwi V. hwa. 

hwider, Nh. hvidir, ME. whi- 
der, whidir, av., l<st. o/h wd+ 
-d e r, comp. suf., v. h i d e r] (cf. 
Goth. Iiwa-dr6) whither, Sk. 343. 

h\vil, ME. hwile, hwule, while, 
whyle, qwile, quile, wile, wil, 
sf, [< T. hwllo-, lit. ? resting 
time, 'icf. L. qui-es rest, qui-e- 
tus, QLiei, Sk. 73 ; 80 ; 115 ; 218] 
(Goth, hweila, Ic. hvil, place of 
rest, bed, OS. hwila, hwil, OHG. 
hwil, wile, G. weile, Sk. 159) 
whi/e, Sk. 44, time (space of) ; 
>a hwile >e, ace, ME. (ba, 
-Se, be) hwile (be, bet), iSor 
qiiiles, qwiles as gen. m., as long 
as, whilst, Sk. 341, as; hwi- 
lum, dat. pi., ME. hwylem, 
whilom, Sk. 396 (poet.), at times, 
sometimes, once; hwilum. . . 
hw., at one time, at another 
VIII. 76 ; ME. ober whyle, some- 

hwilc, hwilch, v. hwelc, 

hwit, ME. hwit, wit, with, aj.. 
[< T. hwlt-o-, < v'kwid, kw!t, cf 
Skt. V 9vit, to shine, Brug. 397] 
(Goth, hweit-s, Ic. hvit-r, OS. 




hwit, OHG. MHG.wiz, G. weiss, 
Sk. 61) white, Sk. 243. 

hwita sunuan daeg, Laud MS. 
Chronicle 1067, ME. wit-sunne- 
dei XVII. 107, sm., (Ic. livita 
sunnu-dagr) Whitsunday, Sk. 
454b, Pentecost =peiitecost- 
en<L. < Gk. = fiftieth (day) 
after the Passover or Easter. 

hwo V. hwd. 

hwon V. h\vd. 

hwonne (65 N. 2), hwanne, 
hwainne, ME. hwenne, 
liuanne, hwon, hwan, quanne, 
whanne, wanne, 3anne, wenne, 
whon, when, quhen, quan, quen, 
wan, av., cj., [<st. o/hwa (341 
N.)] (Goth, hwan, OS. hwan, 
OHG. MHG. wanne, G. wann) 
when, since, as, at some time. 

hwonon, ME. huannes, av. (321), 
[hwonne] (OS. hwanan, OHG. 
hwanana, MHG. G. wannen 
(poet.)) whence, Sk. 356. 

hw^ule V. hwil. 

hwure v. huru. 

hwylc V. hw^elc. 

hwylem v. hwil. 

hy, sb., [hlgian] haste, hiei. 

hy V. he. 

hydan, ME. huden, hide ; prt. 
hydde, ME. hidde ; pp. ME. 
ihud (ni hud = ne ihud), lo. 1, 
[= *h6d-ian (96; 177) < T. 
VhM <Vktldh, cf. Gk. Kcijd-eip, v. 
hord, h6s] hide, Sk. 47. 

hydwiss, ME. aj., [<AF. hidous 
<hisdous, Sk. II. 64.6, ?<ML. 
hispidosus, intens. < L. hispidus, 
rough, bristly, cf. horrible, Sk. 
II. 154] hideous. 

hye V. higian. 

hyer v. her. 

hy3e v. h6ah. 

hyge->oncol, hige-, aj., [hyge, 
sm. (263), mi7id, = *h.ugi-, v. 
hogian; v. J>onc] reflecting, 
wise VI. 131. 

hyht, ME. hiht, sm. (266), \_abs.? 
=T. *hugti-, Brug. 552 Rem. 
2, cf. hogian, ho pi an] 
(OHG. huht, sense) Hore. 

hyldan, Nh. hselda, ME. helden, 
IV. 1, [<aj. heald, bent down^ 
(Ic. halla, to lean sideways, hella, 
pour, OS. in compos, heldian, 
OHG. heldan) incline, bend, bow 
(one's self) III. 2 a, b ; heef 
(nautical) = hee/df. 

hyldo, orig. wf (279 and N. 1), 
[abs. <hold] (cf Ic. hylli, OS. 
OHG. huldi, MHG. liulde, G. 
huld) favour, grace V. 2921. 

hyll, ME. hull, hill, hil, sm., later 
f (247), [=*hul-ja-, orig.-i- 
(265 ; 266), Sk. 209, < : v/qel, to 
rise up, Brug. 208, 265, cf. L. 
ex-cel-1-ere, to raise up, cxcel] 
(cf. L. coll-is, L. cul-men, top, 
cf. cvLminate, coi^umn) hill, Sk, 

hym, hymen v. h6. 

hyne v. he. 

hyr, hyra, hyre v. he. 

hyrned-neb, aj. , \_pp. o/ h y r n a n 
<horn] HORN-&ea^•ed (i.e. with 
a hooked beak) VI. 212. 

hys v. h6. 

hyt V. he. 


i, abbr. = L. id est, that is XII. 

Nero 2. 
i V. in, ic. 

i- V. ge- or verb without ge-. 
id, gea-(74), Nh. gee, ge, ME. 

3e, 3a, 3he, av., [<T. *i8e](Goth. 

ja, Ic. OHG. OS. ik, OHG. MHG. 

G. ja) yea. 
iafen v. giefan. 
ibede v. gebed. 
ibeden v. biddan. 
ibeon v. b6on. 
ibet v. betan. 
iborese v. beorgan. 
iboren v. beran. 
ibounde v. bindan. 
ibrocht v. bringan. 
ibrolcen v. breean. 
ibrouht v. bringan. 
iburesen v. gebeorgan. 
ic, ME. ic, ice, ich, i, y ; gen, 

(poss. (335)) min, ME. min, 

myn, mi, my, mine, myne (dat. 




sg. of poss. in /., mire); dat. 
me, ME. me >NE. me, Sk. 43 ; 
ace. mec, me, ME. me, prn. of 
1. pers. sg. (332), [= WT. ik = 
I.-E. *eg, cf T. *eka = I.-E. 
*eg(h)o, Brug. III. 439, 446, 442, 
Sk. Ill; m6 dat. = *me-r (121), 
m 6 ace. < m e-c = T. mi-k] (cf. 
Gk. ijib, iy<I}v, L. ego ; Goth, ik, 
Ic. ek, OS. OFris. ik, OHG. ih, 
MHG. G. ich; dat. cf. Gk. fiol, 
iixoi, acc. fxi, L. mihl, ace. me, 
Goth. dat. mis, acc. mik, Ic. 
m6r, acc. mik, OHG. MHG. G. 
dat. mir, OHG. acc. mih, MHG. 
G. acc. mi-ch) /, Sk. 328 ; min, 
poss. s. a), decl. {SS6), mine, my ; 
icffe, rd. (340) /who. 

ich V. ic, ylca. 

icleped, -09" v. cleopian. 

icluped V. cleopian. 

icnawen v. gecnawan. 

icoren v. ceosan. 

idel, gen. idles, ME. ydel, ydill, 
af. (144a, b), [<T. *ii5'-o-lo, 
(128.3) Sk. 251, empty, ?orig. 
shining, clear, < V idh : aidh, 
Brug. 318, V. ad, cf. Exner] 
(OS. idal, OHG. ital, MHG. itel, 
G. eitel, Sk. 60) empty, vain, 
idle, Sk. 44. 

idelness, ME. idelnesse, ydillnes, 
sf, \_ahs. <idel] (OFris. idel- 
nisse, OHG. italnissa) idleness, 

idem(e)d v. d6man. 

ides, sf. (255.2), ^orig. 1- to a- 
deel. (254.2 ; 269 N. 4)] {cf Ic. 
dis (Noreen 137, Rem. 2); OS. 
idis, OHG. itis) {poet.) woman, 

iiaravieii v. gel>afian. 

iffeo V. geJ>eon. 

iS'olien v. ge)>olian. 

ido V. don. 

idon V. d6n. 

idrunke v. drincan. 

iede v. geeode. 

leg-buend, sh.prs.ptc.decl. (286), 
[y. ieg-land, bugan] {cf. Ic. 
eybiii) island-dweller, islander 
VIII. 93. 

leg-land, 6g-, 6ig-, ig-, ME. 

iland, sn., [ie-g, lit. belonging 
to water, (99) <*6a-g (Hi) 
<T. *ag(w)-j6- (258 N. 4) v. 
e a-1 o n d] (Ic. ey, gen. ey-jar, 
OHG. -ouwa, G. aue, meadow) 
island, Sk. 359 ; 395. 

ielde, Nh. aelde,, [ieldu] 
{poet.) men. 

ieldra v. eald. 

ieldu, yldo, yld, K. eld, held, 
ME. ylde, ulde, elde, helde, eld, 
orig. wf, indec. or s. (279 and N. 
1. 2), [< oHg. *ealdin- < 
eald, Sk. 198; 210] (OS. eldl, 
OHG. eltl) (old) age, eld {poet.). 

ierming, earming, ME. er- 
ming, earming, sm., [earm, aj."] 
poor creature; ME. also a)., poor. 

if, iff, v. gief. 

ifere v. gefera. 

ifunde v. findan. 

iginne v. gewinn. 

igland v. iegland. 

igret V. gretan. 

ihaten v. hatan. 

ihealden v. gehealdan. 

iherd, iherS" v. hieran. 

Iheved v. habban. 

ihialde v. healdan. 

iholpen v. helpan. 

ihud V. hydan. 

ihuren v. gehieran. 

iknowen v. gecndwan. 

ilaed v. leedan. 

ilast V. gels^stan. 

ilea V. ylca. 

ilch V. selc. 

ilef V. geliefau. 

ileve V. geliefan, 

iliche V. gelice. 

ilkane v. selc. 

ilke V. ylca. 

ille, ill, ME. aj., also as av. and 
sb., [<Scand. cf. Ic. ill-r, ?=*yflr, 
Sk. 437, V. yfel, or ?<OIr. isel, 
low, Noreen 208, rem. 2] ///, 


illke V. ylca. 
iloklen v. gelocian. 
ilonie V. gelome 
ilong V. gelong. 




image, ymage, sb., [< AF. image, 
Sk. II. p. 213, <L. im-ago (iin- 
agin-) < L. V im, in imitari, im- 
itate] image^ Sk. II. 63 ; 90. 

imelen v. gemgfelan. 

Inieugd V. inengan. 

iiueten v. geinetan. 

imone v. gemana. 

in, ME. in, inn, ine, i ; I. prp. loith 
dat. instr. ace, [common T. in] 
(c/. Gk. id, iv',L.O Ir. in, Goth, 
in, Ic. i, OS. G. in) in, Sk. p. 71, 
into, ox, to (in tour = in to our) 
XXXII. 1104 ; ME. in til, inntill, 
intill, into, to; II. av., in, with- 
in ; in sa mekle as, in as much as. 

in (gen. innes), ME. in, inne, sn., 
[<av., in(n), cf. influ. Ic. inni, 
sb.'] room, chamber, dwelling 
= inn^. 

in-bryrdniss v. onbryrdness. 

inc, iiicit v. git. 

in-gong, ME. in3ong, sm., [< 
gongan] (Ic. inn-gang-r, G. 
eingang) entrance, ingangi. 

in-Idd, sf.. Introduction, induc- 
tion? XII. p. 39, 13 (Sk. pre/. 
St. Jn's. Gos. IX. N. 3). 

iii-lihtan, Merc. iv. 1, [cf. on- 
11 eh tan] dawn. 

inn V. in. 

innan, inne, ME. innan, innen, 
inne, I. av. (321; 314), [<in] 
(Goth. (OHG.) inn-ana, av. and 
prp. gen., Ic. (OS.) inn-an, av. 
and prp. gen., G. innen; inne 
= Goth. OHG. inna, OS. OHG. 
MHG. G. inne) within, Sk. 346, 
inside, in, II. prp. gen. dat., in ; 
ace, into. 

innan-bordes, av., [prp. with 
gen. of bord] within (their) 
BORDers VIII. 8, at home (con- 
trast abroad). 

inne v. in. 

inoli V. genoli. 

inou, inouh v. gen6h. 

interupcyoun, sb., [<AF. inter- 
rupcion, OF. inter-rupt-ion < L. 
inter-rupt-io (n-) < inter-rupt-us 
pp. of inter-&eiM;eew-rump-ere to 
break] interruption. 

intill V. in. 

in-tinga, wm., [?? = *in-}->inga, 

inner a fair. Sweet, Anglia III. 

152] cause, (IX. 22, L. laetitiae 

causa decretum but OE. nom. 

for abl.). 
in-widda, inwitta, wm., [< 

inwid, aj., malign] adversary, 

enemy X. 91. 
iornan v. eornan. 
iow V. ge. 

iqueden v. cwel^an. 
iqueme v. gecweman. 
Iras, Yras, Hiras, s. pi.', [<Ir. 

Eire, Erin, Erin] the Irish. 
ire, sb., [<Ar. ire, Sk. II. 64.4, 

<L. Ira] ire, hate. 
iren, ME. iren, sn., [ = older is en 

<isern<T. *isarno- ; ??<is, 

Sk. 357 ; 219] (Goth, eisarn, Ic. 

OS. OHG., Isarn, OHG. Isan, 

MHG. isen, G. eisen) iron, Sk. 

44 ; 159. 
irest, ireste v. gerest. 
ireve v. gerefa. 
is, ME. is, sn., [< 07ily T. iso- 

< ?? T. V IS, ?to shine] (Ic. iss, 

OHG. MHG. is, G. eis) ice, Sk. 

44 ; 356 ; p. 300. 
is V. he. 
is, iss V. 6om. 
ische, prt. ischyt XXXI. 112, w., 

[<AF. issue, sb., <0F. issu, pp. 

of issir<L. ex-ire go out of] 

isched v. sceadan. 
ischilden v. gescyldan. 
] ischrud v. scrydan. 
I ised V. seegan. 
ise3e(n) v. geseon, seon. 
iseh V. geseon, seon. 
iseid V. seegan. 
iseie v. ges6on, seon. 
iselj>e V. ges£el9'. 
iseo V. ges6on, seon. 
iset V. seegan. 
iseyd v. seegan. 
iseye v. geseon, seon. 
I ispend v. spendan. 
isprungen v. springan. 
iswinch v. geswinc. 
I it, itt V. he. 




i>ank V. ge)>onc. 

i>enchen v. ge^encan. 

iJ>eo V. ge}?eon. 

i>in-lic XXVI. 52, ME. aj., [< 

Scand,, c/. Ic, i'Sinn] diligent^ 

itit V. getidan. 
16 (74), giti VIII. 45, gi6, au., 

(c/. prop. L. *jum, L. jam ; Goth. 

ju, OS. OHG. gid, iu) already^ 

once., formerly. 
Iii(16as,, [<L., cf. Jue] Jews. 
iuh V. ge. 
iung V. geong. 
ivel V. gefeallan, yfel. 
ivere v. gefera. 
Ivvent V. wendan. 
iwer V. gewaer. 
Iwhillc V. gehwelc. 
iwih V. ge. 
iwill V. gewill. 
iwis, iwisse v. gewiss. 
iwoned v. gewunian. 
iwrat V. wyrcaii. 
Iwreden v. gewyrdan. 
iwryten ^?.writaii. 
iwuned v. gewunian. 
Iwysse V. gewiss. 

jangle, w., [< OF. iangler, <OLG., 
<ononiat.'}'] (Du. jangelen, im- 
portune, freq. <ODu. jancken, 
yelp., Sk. 262) jangle., chatter. 

jentyle, ME. aj., [<L. genti-lis, 
V. gentil] Gentile, heathen. 

joye, ifoie, "joy, s6., [<AF. ioie 
■= OF. joie, < ML. gaudia, /. 
orig. n. pi. of L. gaudium, Sk. 
II. 149; 145. 8; 152] Joy, Sk. 
II. 86. 

joy-ful, ME. aj., joyful. 

joy-les, ME. aj., joyless. 

joyne, w., [= AF. ioind-re, OF. 
jungre < L. ju-n-g-ere < V jug, 
bind; cf yoke, Sk. II. 158 ; 86. 
1 ; p. 214] join, enjoin (< en- 

j-swinch V. geswinc. 

tfue, pi. Gius, Ju>ewess, lewis, 

juwis, sb., [<AF. Geu, Sk. II. 
83, O' juis, jeus, <L. ludseus, 
sg. <Gk. 'lovdahs, inhabitant of 
JvDJEA, <Heb.=JuDAH {Jacob's 
son) lit. celebrated'] Jew, Sk. 
II. 301 ; judaysse, judisskeiin, 
Jewish ; Jude-lond, Jud.ea. 

jurne, sb., [< OF. iornee < ML. 
jornata=:diurnata<L. diur-nus, 
belonging to the day, cf. L. diur- 
nalis, DiuRxaZ, cf. journal, Sk. 
II. 152 ; 70. 4] a day'^s icork or 
travel =journeyi. 

justise, sb., [=AF. iustise XV. 11, 
= OF. iustice < L. justitia, < 
Justus, just, Sk. II. 74. 2 ; 110] 
justice, {in ML. and Eng. sense 
also = ) judge. 


kaiser, sb., [ = OHG. <L. Caesar] 
(Goth, kaisar, cf OE. c&sere 
(248), Ic. keisari; OHG. keisar, 
MHG. keiser, G. kaiser) emperor^ 
I kaiser <i<G.). 
j kam V. cuman. 
I kan, kane v. cunnan. 
i kare v. cearu. 
karien v. cearian. 
j karrte v. craBt. 
I kempa v. ceinpa. 
j ken V. c6, cennan. 
I ken- V. cyn-. 
kende v. cynd. 
kene v. c6ne. 

ken-rede, sb., [<cyn + -r2eden, 
Sk. 202] kindred, Sk. j>p. 370, 
403, 496. 
kep, sb.f [cepan] keep\, Sk. 
199. 7, keeping, care; k. nam, 
gave heed, looked round XXI. 
kep, kepe v. c6pan. 
kepere, keper, sb., [c6pan] 

kesse v. cyssan. 
kest, kesten v. casten. 
kid V. eyijan. 
j kinde v. cynd. 
; kliie- V. cyne-. 





king V. cyning. 

kirke v. cirice. 

kissen v. cyssan. 

kij'enn v. cyffan. 

knape v. cnapa. 

kiiaw, knawe v. gecndwan. 

kne V. C1160W. 

knele, kiielen, w., [= cneolen, 
prob. LG. injlu.?, v. cneow, 
Sk. 262; ?417 ; 433] (MLG. kn6- 
len, MDu. knielen) knee/. 

kneou v. cneow. 

knict, knicth, knight v. cniht. 

knith V. cniht. 

knowen v. gecnawan. 

knowlage, sb., [<sL 0/ knowen, 
-j-suff. -lage {influ. -age) <-laclie 
<-leche <-leke <Scand., c/. Ic. 
-leiki ; c/. wed-ldc, loedLOCK, 
Sk. 202] knowledge, Sk. 454 c; 
455 ; 327. 

knyst V. cniht. 

kon V. cunnan. 

krune v. coroune. 

krune, 2^P' ikruned, lo., [v. sb.] 

kuffe V. cunnan, cy-ffan. 

kun V. cyn. 

kuning, sb., [<Ar. conyng, OF. 
connin, cf. AF. conil < ML. ca- 
niculus <L. cunicul-us, Sk. II. 
pp. 124, 140] (cf. G. kanin-chen) 
cony, coney (skin) -fur. 

kunne v. cunnan. 

kwene v. cw6n. 

ky- V. cy-. 

kyd, kydde v. cytSan. 

kyndenesse v. gecyndness. 

kyng V. cyning. 

kyrk v^ cirice. 


la, ME. la, lo, loo, intrj., [imit.?'] 

to ! Sk. 42. 
labour, sb., [= AF. labour <L. 

laborem, ace. , < labor] labour, 

Sk. II. 54. 1. 
Idc, ME. lac, sn. /., [?<:>} in 

lician or ?<T. laiko-, a leap 

for joy, cf. l&can, i'ed. (395) 

jump^ (Goth, l&ik-s, a dance, Ic. 
leik-r, play, OHG. MHG. leich, 
play, song) present, offering, sac- 
rifice, lake (prov.), lark (prov.), 
Sk. p. 219. 

lache V. gelaeccan. 

Idd, ME. lode, sf, [<T. *lai«o-, 
cf prt. of lia^-an, v. lid, Sk. 
176] (Ic. lei 5) way, journey, 
course, life; cf lif-lad, ME. 
liMode, [Sk. 202; 395] liveli- 
hood, fr. confusion with liveli- 
hood = liveliness, cf. lodef (-star). 

ladde, sb., [?<C., cf Ir. lath, 
Sk. 411] lad. 

ladde v. Isedan. 

ladde-borde, sb., XXIX. 106 
[unique ME.] ?larboard. 

l^ff, ME. la«, lath, lo-S, lol>, I. aj., 
[<T. lai>o-, grievous] (Ic. \eih-r, 
G. leid, Sk. 157) painful, hate- 
ful, hostile, loath, Sk. 42, loath- 
some; II. sn., harm, ivrong. 

lalS'-gewinna, wm., [winnan] 
loathed opponent, enemy IV. 

Ia9'-lic, ME. ladlich, aj., hateful, 
loathsome, loathly. 

Igfece, ME. leche, sm. (248), [= T. 
*l8ek-jo-, Sk. 209] (Goth. 16keis, 
OHG. lahhi) physician = leech, 
Sk. 325. 

Is^dan, ME. Iseden, Isede, leden, 
leede, lede, 3 sg. prs. ind. Isfet, 
Nil. Is^des, ME. let, prt. 
Igfedde, ME. ledde, ladde, led, 
pp. ME. Used, w.l, [=*lAd- 
ian, fac.,v. lad, Sk. pp. 206, 
155] (Ic. lei«a, OS. Indian, OHG. 
leitan, MHG. G. leiten) lead, 
guide ; bring VI. 129. 

laeden, ME. leden, sn., [<L. Lati- 
num < Latium, v. Latin] Latin, 
= (the) language = leddent . 

IsBden-geffiode, sn., Latin laii- 

laeden-sprgfec, sf, Latin speech. 

Laeden-ware,pZ. m.,[c/. war i en, 
V. weard] LatiNcS, Bomans, 
VIII. 55. 

ima, ME. le««e, la>l>e, abs. /., 
[IdSf] injury, humiliation. 




Igfefan, ME. leve ; prt. Isfefde, 
ME. lefte, levyt ; pp. ME. left, 
lefte, w. 1, [=*laf-iaii, Sk. 
195/3, V. laf, bje-lifan] (c/. 
Goth, bi-laibjan, OS. I§b6n, re- 
main) leave Sk. 48, — behind 
VIII. 40, — over. 

Isefe V. gel^afa. 

laeg V. licgan. 

laeiden v. lecgan. 

Isfen, ME. lene, lane, lone, sf. 
orig. n. (267 a), [=*lah-ni-, 
V. prt. o/leon, ^0LEN(^<:Vleik, 
leave; cf. L. linqu-ere, Sk. 176] 
(Ic. Ian, OHG. l^han, w., MHG. 
G. lehen, fief) loan, t6 Isfene 
sie, may he len^ VIII. 90. 

Is^nan, ME. lenenn, lene ; prt. 
Isende, ME. lende ; pp. ME. 
ylent, lent, w. 1, [<lgen, Sk. 
195 jS] lend, Sk. 344, let (out). 

l£&ran, K. leran, ME. Iserenn, 
lere, leir ; prt. Isferde, ME. 
lerde, lerd, pp. gelsfered, pi. 
gel£fer(e)de, w. 1, [<T. Vlais, 
cause to know, cf. Idr] (Goth, 
l&isjan, OS. 16ria'n, OHG. 16ran, 
G. lehren) teach, advise, sum- 
mon, leari ; ME. also learti. 

Isestan, ME. lesten, leste, lasten, 
last; prt. Isfeste, ME. lastede, 
last, w.l, [<last] (Goth. IMst- 
jan, follow, G. leisten, folloic 
out, perform) orig. follow in the 
track of, last, remain. 

Igfeste V. lytel. 

Itet, w. lata, ME. late, aj. (294), 
[= T. lat-, < pre T. aj. < : V led, 
V. Isfetan, Brug. 109 d; 315] 
(cf. L. lassus, pp., = *lad-tus, 
weary ; Goth, lat-s, slothful, Ic. 
lat-r, OS. lat, OHG. laz, G. lass) 
slow, late; supl. (314) latost, 
ME. latest, latst, last, last; ate 
lasten > at last. 

Isbtan, ME. letenn, lete, late, 3 sg. 
prs. ind. let ; prt. leort (394), 
16t, ME. let, s. red. A (395) Sk. 
137, [< T. V Iset = pre T. V led : 
lod, Brug. 315] (Goth, letan, Ic. 
l&ta, G. lassen) let, permit, leave, 
give up; h6o let J>a swa 

XIV. 73, she let the matter rest 
there; Id^ta'S >aet nett XII. 
Otho 6, let down the net; lute 
let of, cared little for XVI. 260 ; 
lete (and liste) be still XXVI. 95. 

Idf, ME. lave, sf, [cf prt. of 
*lifan, V. belifan] (Goth. 
Idiba, OS. leha) i.E\ving, re- 
mainder, rest, lave, Sc. ; d a- 
raSS'a laf, weapons'' L.Js,Ayings 
= survivors of the battle X. 107 ; 
poet, with gen. of implement 
making the weapon, e.g. ha- 
inora laf = sicordX. 12. 

lafdi V. hlgefdige. 

laferrd v. hlaford. 

lafian, ME. lave, w. 2, [ME. also 
influ. OF. laver < L. lavare, 
wasli] (OHG. lahon, G. laben, 
refresh), pour forth (layei, cf. 
lavish), bail (a boat) XXIX. 154. 

Ia3, louh, w. pi. Ia3en, ME. aj., 
[?<Scand., cf. Ic. Ikgr, v. prt. of 
licgan, Sk. 416] (OFris. Ug, 
M Du.laegh)/o»v, Sk.436, humble. 

laae-lies, ME. aj., [<Scand., cf. 
Ic. log-lauss, V. lagu] lawless, 

lagu, ME. Ia3e, la3he, lawe, sf., 
[< Scand., cf Ic. log, n. pi., law, 
Ic.lag, order, v. prt. o/ licgan, 
Sk. 174; 383] (cf L. lex (leg-)) 
law, faith. 

lai, sb., [=AF. lai, ?<C. cf Welsh 
Hals, Sk. II. 168] (??16off) lay, 
Sk. II. 79 ; 94, poem. 

lai V. licgan. 

lalde V. lecgan. 

lamb, lainbren v. lomb. 

land V. lond. ♦ 

langage, sb., [= AY. langage < 
ML. *lingua-ticum < Imgua (OL. 
dingua), tongue, Sk. II. 150 ; 
151] language, Sk. II. 51; 93. 

lange v. longe. 

lar, ME. lare, lore, sf. (252 K 4), 
[= T. *laiso-, cf Goth. Idis, prt.- 
prs., I know, I have found out, 
lit. passed through, <T. Vlais : lis, 
<70?, Sk. 176; 357] (OS. OHG. 
lore, knowledge, insight, counsel. 




Idreow, ME. larew, lar)jeu, sm. 
(260 N.l), [*<ldr+af6ow (43 
N. 4)] teacher. 

large, ME. «j., [=:AF. large <L. 
largus] liberal, generous, (— 
large], e.g., heart). 

last, sh., [<Scand., cf. Ic. lostr = 
Goth. *lah-stus, cf. lean = 
*lah-on, s. 6 (111; 392. 2), 
blame (OHG. lah-an)] (c/. G. 
lastert)/a?iZ^ last.] 

Idst, sm., [=T. *lais-to- < : T. Vlis, 
V. Idr] (ME. last, lest, NE. last, 
Goth, laist-s, OHG. MHG. leist, 
cf. G. leisten (shoe-) last) foot- 
print, step; lastas lecgan, 
journey, cf. '-make tracks,"" V. 
2850; on Idst, on track of = 
behind, after VI. 209; leg- 
dun, hung on the rear of K. 43. 

lasten v. Isfestan and laet. 

late, ME. late, av., [<lset] late, 

lath V. l&ff. 

latiaii, ME. late, w. 2, [<l8et] 
delay = late], let = hinder. 

latin, latyn, aj., [=AF. OF. latin 
<L. Latinus (Latinum, Latin 
language) belonging to Latium] 

lave V. lafian. 

lavedi v. hlgfefdige. 

laverd, -9 v. hldford. 

lawe V. lagu. 

lay, sb., [<0F. lai <L.lex (leg-), 
LAAv] creed, lay]. 

lay V. licgan. 

layden v. lecgan. 

16af, ME. leve, sf, [<T. *laubo-, 
T. \l laub : lub, pleasing, = pre T. 
v/lubh, desire, cfttJu. lubens, li- 
bens, willing, glad; v. 16 of] 
(c/. Ic. lof, MHG. loube, G. ur- 
laub) leaye, permission. 

leafdi v. hlgfefdige. 

16an, ME. lien, sn., [<T. lau-no-, 
< T. V lau, ?< : pre T. V lu, gain ; 
cf. L. lu-crum. Lucre] (Goth. 
I'&un, Ic. laun, OS. OHG. MHG. 
Ion, G. lohn) reward. 

leap, ME. lepe, sm., (Ic. laup-r) 
basket, leap (prov.). 

16a8, ME. leas, aj., [st. in 16as, 
prt. of leos-an] (Goth, l&us, 
G. los) free (from), loose 
(<Scand.), false; {-less, Sk. 
177; 242). 

16asuug, ME. leasunge, leasinge, 
sf, [=vb.-sb. < leasian < 
leas, Sk. 177] leasing, false- 
hood, fiction IX. 16. 

leat V. lAtan. 

lecgan, ME. leggen, leye ; prt. 
legde (401. 1), laegde, ME. 
Iseide, leide, leyde, laide, layde, 
laid ; pp. ME. yield, leid, w. 1, 
[=nag-jan (216) caus. of 
licgan, cf. prt. laeg, *lag, 
Sk. 174; 192 a] (Goth, lagjan, 
Ic. leggja, OS. leggian, G. legen) 
lay, Sk. 339, place; layden in 
XXIX. 106, pushed off?. 

leche V. Isfece. 

lecherie, sb., [=AF. lecherie < 
OF. lecher, to lick, < T., cf. 
OS. leccon <T. prs. st. *ligg6- 
<*lign6- <I.-E. *ligh-na-, Brug. 
214 ; 541, V ligh, cf Gk. Xlxvos, 
dainty, Xeixetv, to lick] lechery. 

lechur, sb., [cf. lecherie] /ec^er. 

led, lede v. 16od. 

leden v. Igfedan. 

leede v. Isedan. 

lef V. 16of. 

lefan, lyfan, lifan, ME. lefenn, 
leven, leve ; prt. lefde, lifde, 
w. 1, [= *16afian <16af] 
(Goth. *l&ubjan in ga-1., cf. G. 
g-lauben, 6eLiEVE, er-lauben, 
permit) leave — give leave to, 
grant, let, &eLiEVE. 

lefdi V. hlsfefdige. 

left y. lifefan. 

leg, llg (31 N.), ME. lei, leie, sm. 
(266), [<*16agl- <T. *laugi- 
< : T. Vluh (99; 63; 233), v. 
leoht] (Ic. leygr, cf G. lohe) 
flame, lay], Lowt (<Scand.) Sc. 

legde V. lecgan. 

legen v. leogan. 

l§get (Merc), lyget, ligit, 
ligyt, Nh. leht, ME. legt, 
leit, leyt, sn. m. (247 c; pi. 264), 
[16g] lAGWining, lait. 




leggen v. lecgan. 

leid V. lec'<>an. 

leie V. 16g. 

leir V. Igferan. 

leit i\ leget. 

lele, ME. aj., [< AF. leal, OF. 
leial, <L. leg-al-em, legal, Sk. 
II. 26; 18; 80; 81] /ea/, /oya/, true. 

lendan, ME. lenden, lende ; jjp. 
ME. ylent, ml, [<lond] /and, 
«rme, remain. 

lenenn v. l^^nan. 

lenode v. hleonian. 

leng r. loiige. 

leasts, ME. lengthe, s/., [<T. 
*lang-i-h6-; abs. <long] (Ic. 
Ieng5 <langr) length. 

lenger v. longe. 

lengra v. long. 

lent V. Is&nan. 

16o, gen. 16 on, ME. leo, le, wf. 
m. (277 N. 2), [<L. leo, leon- 
st. < Gk. \iu}p, Beitr. XII. 207 ; 
XIII. 384] (Ic. leo) lion (<Ar. 
Sk. 403), LiONess. 

16od, ME. leod, led, lede, pi. 
16ode (261; 264), sm., [<T. 
*leu1Si- < : V ludli, gt'ow] (G. pi. 
leiite) sg. man, (poet.) prince, 
pi. people. 

leod, ME. leode, lede, sf., [c/. 
above] folk, people. 

leoij, ME. leo-S, le«, sn., [=T. 
*leutho-] (Goth. *liul>, OHG. liod, 
G. lied) lay, (cf. Tacitus, 'car- 
mina antiqua,' Germ. 2). 

l^oaP-craeft, sm., song-craft, art of 

leo9'-song, sm., poem, lay. 

leof, ME. leof, lief, lef, lof, loof, 
iujl. leove, loove; comp. 16of- 
ra, ME. leovre, levere ; supl. 
l^ofost (309), ME. leovest, 
aj. , [< T. leubo-, < V leubh : lubh, 
desire, pleasure, cf. L. lub-et, it 
pleases, v. 16af] (Goth, liuf-s, 
gen. liub-is, Ic. Ijiif-r, OS. liof, 
OHG. liob, G. iieb) dear, be- 
Loved, //eft ; sb. , sweetheart, 
leman (Shak.) = ME. leof-mon ; 
pi. leofemeii, dearly bei.o\ed 

l^ogan, ME. leo3en, legen ; x>rt. 
l§ag; jo?. lugon, ME. Iu3en ; 
pp. logen, .S-. 2 (384) Sk. 152, 
[<:T. Vlug] (Goth, liugan, Ic. 
Ijiiga, OS. liogan, G. liigen) lie, 
Sk. 33 ; 376, tell a lik. 

l^ogere, ME. Ii3ere, sm., [< liog- 
an] (Ic. Ijiigari, OHG. lugindri, 
MHG. liigenseri, G. liigner) liar. 

leoht, ME. liht, ligt, li3t, sn., 
[ = T. leuh-t- < V leuk : luk, be 
bright, cf. Skt. V inch, shine, 
Gk. \€vk6s, white, L. IQx, st. 
luc-, lumen = *luc-men, luna = 
*liic-na, moon, Sk. 104 ; 115 ; 
223 b] {cf Goth. liuh-a}>, G. 
licht, Sk. 65) light, Sk. 33. 

16oht, ME. Ii3t, licht, aj., [c/*. sb., 
Sk. 253 b] (OS. OHG. lioht, G. 
licht) light, clear. 

l^ohte, ME. lihte, licht, av.,clearly. 

16oina, ME. leoine, leme, «•?»., 
1= T. *leuh-m6n (222. 2), v. 
16oht] (cf. L. lumen, Goth, 
lauhmuni, i^ightning) i.ight, ray 
of — , radiance VI. 191. 

leoniu V. lim. 

leornere, sm., \_cf. leornian] 
scholar, learner. 

leornian, liornian, ME. leme, 
w. 2, [leor-n-ian <T. V lis, go, 
Sk. 357, cf Goth. *lisn6n <p>p. 
*lisans, prt.-prs. lais, / know, 
Sk.p. 277] (OHG. lirnen, lernen, 
G. lernen) learn. 

leorning, liornung VIII. 12, 
ME. lernynge, sf (255.1), [abs. 
<leornian, Sk. 241b] learn- 
ing, sttidy. 

leorning-cniht, -cnyht (101), 
ME. lerninmgcnihht XVIII. 38, 
sm., disciple; (knight of learning). 

16osan i7i compos., ME. liese, 
lese, lose ; prt 16 as, ME. les, 
leste ; pi. luron; pp. lor en, 
ME. also lest, lost, ylost, s. 2 
(384 N. lb), [<T. Vleus : lus, 
lose, become loose, V Itl, loose 
cf Gk. Xi^-cij', LOOSE, L. so-lu-tus, 
pp.'] (Goth, liusan, in compos., 
G. ver-lieren) lose, /eeset, de- 
stroy ; ME. lest, LOST. 




leove, leovre v. 16of. 

lep ?'. hleapan. 

lepe V. leap. 

lepen r. hleapan. 

lerd, ierde v. leeran. 

lere r. l^eran. 

lerne r. leornian. 

lerniiiiig- v. leoriiing-. 

lesau (Merc), lysan, ME. lusen, 

- lesenn, lese, pp. ME. lusd, w. 1, 
[ = *16as-ian, v. l§as] (Goth. 
lt\us-jan, Ic. leysa, G. losen) 
LOOSE, set free. 

lesse, lest v. lytel. 

lest V. leosan. 

lesteii V. Isestan and lystan. 

let V. Itfedan, Isetan, lettan. 

lete r. Isetan. 

lettan, ME. letten, lette ; S' sg. 
prs. ind. let; pH. lette. w. 1 
(400 N. lb), [ = *lat-jan, caus. 
<laet, Sk. 192a] (Goth, latjan, 
OS. lettian, OHG. lezjan, MHG. 
letzen, G. letzen, refresh) delay, 
hinder = let (Shak.). 

lettre, lettur, s?>., [ = AF. lettre 
<L. littera {pi. epistle), ?cf. L. 
pp. litus <linere, to besmear] 
letter, writing {s). 

leve V. leaf, lefan. 

leve V. l§of. 

levedl V. hlgefdige. 

levere v. leof. 

levj^t V. lefefan. 

leyde v. lecgan. 

leyt V. leget. 

Ihip V. hleapan. 

libban, lifian (416 N. 2) lif- 
gan, ME. libben, libbe, livien, 
live, lyfe ; 3 sg. prs. ind. 
llofal5; prt. lifde, lifode 
(416 N. 2), ME. livid, m 8 (415), 
[<T. Vlib (228), remain, V lip, 
cleave, cf. Isefan] (Goth, liban, 
Ic. lifa (also) remain, OS. lib- 
bian, OHG. Ieb6n, G. leben) //Ve. 

lie, ME. lie, lik, lich, sn., [=T. 
llko-m, V. gelie] (Goth, leik, 
Ic. OS. lik, OHG. lih, G. leiche) 
bodi/, corpse, (lich-gate) likei. 

Ilea in compos., ME.liche, imn., 
[<lic] form. 

lic-ame v. lichoma. 

licgan, ME. liggen, lien XV. 37, 
lie, ly ; 2^tc. prs. ME. liynge, lig- 
gand ; prt. laeg, ME. lai, lay, 
pi. Igfegiin, Idgon, s. 5 (391. 
3 N. 6),[=*liggan <T. *lig- 
jon, < T. V leg < V legh, cf L. 
lec-tus, bed, Gk. X^x-os? ^6^» Sk. 
113] (Goth, ligan, Ic. liggja, G. 
liegen) lie, Sk. 339, recline. 

liche V. lica. 

lic-hoina, ME. lichame, licame, 
licome, wm., [=:lik-hanian-, 
lit. body-covering] (Ic. likami 
(Noreen 234), OS. likhamo, OHG. 
lihhamo, cf. G. leichnam) body 
(esp. in contrast icith soul). 

licht V. leoht, 16ohte. 

lician, lycigan, ME. licen, 
liken, like, lyke ; prt. lie ode, 
ME. licede, w. 2, also impers. 
withdat., [?<lic] (cf. OS. llkon, 
Goth, leikan, Ic. iika, OHG. 
MHG. lichen) please, like 
(Shak.) ; vb.-sb. ME. likinge, 
likyng, lykyng, >liking, pleasure. 

licome v. lichoma. 

lid, sn., [US' an, go, s. 1 (382)] 
(Ic. lis (poet.)) vessel, ship. 

liafs, liss (202. 7), ME. lisse, sf. 
(258.2), [aj. liare = *lin9'jo-, 
gentle, soft, lithe, Sk. 346, <T. 
Vlen, be pliant; cf. L. lentus, 
pliant, len-i-s, gentle, G. ge- 
lind] mildness, ease, rest, favour, 

lief V. leof 

lien V. lean, licgan. 

liese V. leosan. 

lif, ME. lif, lyf, gen. ME. lives, 
lyves, sn., [ = T. libo-m, cf. lib- 
ban, belifan] (Ic. lif, OS, 
lif, lib, OHG. lib, lip, G. leib, in 
compos.; e.g., -rente, annuity) 
life ; on lif e, ME. on live, alife, 
alive >a//Ve; be life, ME. bi 
live, bilyve, bylyve, blive, with 
life, lively, quickly, belive, Sc. 

lifan V. lefan. 

lifgan V. libban. 

lilt V. lyft. 

llg V. leg. 




lisere v. 16ogere. 

liggen V. liogan. 

ligit V. leget. 

ligt, list, liht V. 16oht. 

liht, leoht (84 N. 1), ME. liht, 

aj.^ [<T. linh-to-, Sk. 25o, = 

pre T. lengh-, cf. Gk. ^Xax«5s, 

small, Brug. 552, L. levis, orig. 

levis <*lenhvis?] (Goth, leiht-s, 

Ic. 16tt-r, G. leicht) light, not 

lihtan, ME. Ii3te ; prt. ME. Ii3te, 

w. 1, [<liht] light, lit. make 

light, i.e. less heavy (for a horse), 

lihtiiig V. lyhtan. 
liht-lice, ME. lihtliche, lyatly, 

lyghtly, av., [liht] lightly, 

lihtnesse, lightnes, sb., [<liht] 

lightness, joyfulness. 
like V. lie, liciaii. 
liknen, w., [<Scand.; cf. ge-lic, 

Sk. 260; 418 b] //yee/7. 
lilie, ME. lilie, wf, [<L. lilia, pZ. 

of lilimn = Gk. \eipLov, Sk. 402] 

(OHG. lilia, OS. lilli) ////. 
liin, ME. lim ; pi. limu, leomu 

(241), ME. limes, sn., (cf. Ic. 

limr, m.) limb, Sk. 350. 
lim, ME. lim, sm., [<T. *limo-, 

<pre T. Vli, smear, Sk. 214, cf. 

L. limus, mud, liners, daub^ 

(Ic. OHG. lim, G. leim) lime, 

glue, mortar. 
*Liminas, Lemynge in Kent? VII. 

limpan, ME. limpen, s. 3^(386), 

(OHG. limphan, meet together) 

belong to, happen, come upon, 

pertain (with t6), limpi. 
lim-werig, Nh. liinwcerig III. 

4 a, aj., limb-weary = dead. 
Lin-col XV. 8, v. Lindeyln. 
lind, ME. linde, sf, [?c/. liffe, 

V. liafs] (Ic. lind, G. linde) 
lindi (line-grove, Shak.), lime, 
Sk. 344 ; 345 ; 378, linden-shield 

VI. 191. 

Liind-cyln, ME. Lined, sf, Lincoln. 
liindisfearn-^olonding, Nh., sm., 
a Lindisfarne islander. 

liofaff V. libban. 
Horn- V. leorn-. 

liss (258. 2), lisse v. lilffs. 

list V. lystan. 

liste, listene v. hlystan. 

lite, litel v. lytel. 

litill V. lytel. 

live, lives v. lif. 

live, livien v. libban. 

liynge v. liogan. 

lo V. Id. 

loc, ME. lock;j)Z. loccas, sm., 
[<T. lukko- (227) = T. *lugg6- 
= I.-E. *lug-n6- < v' lug, bend, 
Gk. \vyos, p)Uant twig, Brug. 
534; 541. 5; II. p. 147] (Ic. 
lokk-r, OS. locka, OHG. loc, pi. 
Iqccha, G. locke) lock (of hair). 

Idcian, ME. lokien, locan, lokenn, 
loki, loke, j9r«. ME. lokede, lokyt, 
w. 2 (411), lorig. <WT. lokai- 
= *logai-] (OS. locon, OHG. 
luog^n, G. lugen) look, Sk. p. 64, 
glance, look on at, gaze at, look 
to, observe, guard, him hi weren 
yloked XXVIII. 83, cf orig. F. 
6 li furent ajugiees, loere looked 
upon as his; ME. sb. lokyng, 
appearance = looking^. 

lode V. lad. 

loif V. laar. 

Lof V. leof. 

lofe, sb., [?<ODu. loef, appar. 
oar used in steering"] (Swed. 
lof) /oo/t, luff XXIX. 106. 

lof-song, sm., [lof, sn., praise, 
<T. Vlub, cf leof, 16af] (Ic. 
lof, G. lob) song of praise, hymn. 

lege, w., [ AF. loger < OF. sb. loge, 
<ML. laubia, portico, (lobby), 
<OHG. louba, roof lit. lattice- 
work of branches] lodge, Sk. II. 
156 ; QQ ; 93, sojourn. 

loke, lokien v. 16cian. 

lokyng V. 16cian. 

lomb, lamb, lombor (290 
K 1), ME. lomb, lamb; pi. 
lombru (290), ME. lambren, 
M., -OS-, n., lonly T.] (Goth. 
Ic. OHG. lamb, G. lamm, Sk. 
230 a ; 350) lamb. 

lome V. gel6me. 




loud (05), land, sn., [only T., 
Sk. 205 ; 377] (Goth. Ic. G. land) 
/and, ground XIII. 51, earth. 

lond-biiende, prs. ptc, [b 6 g a n, 
dwell] land-dweller, native VI. 

long, lang, aj., [< T. lango-] 
(Goth. lagg-s=*lang-s (of time), 
Ic. laiig-r, G. lang ; cf. L. longus) 
hng ; comp. lengra (310; 307). 

longe, lange, ME. longe, lange, 
lannge, av., long ; comp. leng, 
ME. lenger, longer, farther. 

longian, ME. longen, w. 2, impers. 
with ace. of pers., [?<long] 
(OS. langon, cf. G. ver-langen) 
/ong (for). 

Longis, l?invented < L. lancea 
(Gk. '\6yxv) lance] Longius 
XX. 5, centurion who pierced 
Jesus^ side, cf. Golden Legend. 

loo V. Id. 

loove V. leof. 

lord V. hlaford. 

lore V. Idr. 

lorverd v. hlaford. 

lost V. leosan. 

loth V. lalff. 

lo> V. idac. 

loude V. hl6de. 

lou3 V. hliehhan. 

louh V. Ia3. 

love V. lufe, lufian. 

loverd v. hldford. 

lovie, lovye v. lufian. 

lude V. hlude. 

luiaCer, lud'ernesse v. lyfSre. 

lufe (279 N. 1) icf, and lufu 
(55; 253) sf, ME. lufe, luve, 
love, [<T. Vlub; cf. l§of] 
(Goth. *lub6, cf OHG. liubi, 
MHG. G. liebe) love, Sk. p. 71. 

lufian, lufigan, lufigean, 
ME. luvien, lufe, lovie, lovye, 
love; prt. lufode, lufade, 
lufede, ME, luvede, lovede, 
IV. 2, [<T. Vluh, V. leof] loye. 
luf-lice, ME. loveliche, av., lov- 
ingly VIII. 2, = /0Ke//t. 
luft V. lyft. 
Iu3en V. leogan. 
lune, sh., [<Scand. ; Ic. logn, a 

calm] repose XIX. 120 ; fun 
(dial.), lown, Sc. 

lungre, av., [<:T. Vlinh, v. liht] 
(cf OHG. aj., lungar) quickly, 
at once ; (cf. lung) . 

lurken, w., [?<Scand., cf. Swed. 
lurka <lura, Sk. 201] lurk. 

lusd V. 16san. 

lust, sm., [=T. abs., Sk. 225 b] 
(cf. Goth, lustu-s, Ic. lyst, /., 
OS. OHG. MHG. G. lust, /.) de- 
sire, pleasure, joy, onlustum, 
joyful, VI. 101, /wsft. 

lusten V. hlystan. 

lusti, ME. aj., [<lust] (G. lustig) 
pleasant, = lusty (Spen). 

lust-lice, av., ivith pleasure XIII. 

Mtan, ME. luten, loute, prt. l§at, 
ME. leat, s. 2 (385), [<T. \/*lut, 
hide one''s self, stoop] (Ic. luta) 
bend (down), bow (to), lout 
(Spen.), Sk. 40. 

lute, lutel V. lytel. 

luve V. lufe. 

luvien v. lufian. 

ly V. licgan. 

lyclgan v. lician. 

lyffre, ME. lufJer, lu>er, aj., [=T. 
*leu>ri- ?< \1 *leuth; cf. Gk. i-\evd- 
epos, free] (cf. G. * lieder-lich) 
bad, wicked, wretched, lither, Sc. ; 
ME. lu'Sernesse, sb., wickedness, 

lye V. licgan. 

lyf V. lif 

lyfe V. libban. 

lyft, ME. luft, sm. (200 andN. 2), 
/. (269 and N. 4), n. (207 N. 2), 
[=*lufti- < only T. luftu-] 
(Goth, luftus, Ic. lopt (cf. aLOFT), 
OS. OHG. MHG. luft) air, lift, Sc. 

lyge-man, sb., [< AF. lige, cf 
ML. ligius, <MHG. ledic, free, 
>G. ledig] liegeman. 

lyget V. l§get. 

lyghtly, lystly v. lihtlice. 

lyhtan, ME. lihten, lo. 1, [<a/. 
leoht] (Goth, liuhtjan, OS. 
liohtian, OHG. MHG. liuhten, 
G. leuchten) shine, dawn, light ; 
ME. liht-ing, dawn. 




lyk- V. lie-, 
lyke V. gelic. 

lynipe, x>rt. lympit, w.^ (LG. lum- 
1)611, MHG. limphen) limp ; 1. of 
XXX. 36, limp from, fail of. 

lysan v. 16san. 

lystan, ME. liste, lesten, 3 sg. prs. 
list, 10. 1, [<lust, Sk. 194/3] 
(cf. Goth, luston ; Ic. lysta, OS. 
lustian, OHG. lustjaii, G. liisten) 
impers. with ace. of pers. and 
gen. of thing, please, list, ME. 
with to, after, lust (after), desire. 

lytel, litel, ME. lite'l, Intel, lyt- 
tel, lyttill, litill, lytill, litle, lute, 
lite, infl. litle (296 N. 1), a)., av., 
[<T. *lut+] (cf. Goth, ieitils, 
Ic. litill ; OS. luttil, OHG. luz- 
zil) little; comp., Igfessa, ME. 
lesse [nr *l8es-ra (180) < T. 
*laisizon, cf. Goth, lasiws, weak] 
less; supl. Igfest (312), Igfesff, 
ME. lest, > least. 

ly>e, sl>., [cf. liiJs] mitigation 
XXV. 147. 

lyv^e, lyves v. lif. 

ma, nid v. micel. 

ina, niaad v. macian. 

inachen, mache, w., [cf. ge- 
maca] match, mate. 

macian, macigan, ME. ma- 
kien, maken, make, mak, ma ; 
prt. mac ode, ME. macod, 
makede, made, mad, maad, 
maid; pp. macod, ME. ima- 
ked, maked, ymad, mad, maad, 
made, maid, lo. 2, [< WT. ma- 
kojan (50 N. 1 ; 411) <T. v/mak, 
Jit, MATCH, cf gemaca] (OS. 
macon, OHG. maclion, MHG. 
G. machen) make, prepare, build, 
bring forth(h\irgeonjs,\Awmys), 
do (miracles, manred XV. 12), 
hold (gadering XV. 6), makes 
her paye, satisfies, pays; imth 
inf. with or without for to, make 
= cause; m. on (a fyre), make 
= kindle. 

mad V. gemsfeded. 

made v. macian. 

ma)5'elian, ME. mabelien, lo. 2 
{poet.), [< maeiJel, council 
(Goth. maH, market)] (Goth, 
majjljan, cf Ic. maela, G. ver- 
mahlen, marry) harangue, speak. 

mad'um (142), ME. pi. ma6mes, 
madmes (202 N. 3), sm. (244), 
(Goth. m§,i)3ms, Ic. *mei5m, OS. 
m^(Som, gift) treasure, jewel 
VIII. 34. 

maecti v. meaht. 

msfeg, ME, maei, mei ; pi. m se- 
gas, mdgas (57 N. 3; 240), 
sm., (Goth, megs, son-in-law, 
Ic. mdg-r, brother-, son-, father- 
in-law, OS. OHG. m4g, G. 
maget) kinsman, mayf, = son 
V. 2907. 

mseg-burh, gen. -burge (284 

maegden, ME. meiden, mayden, 
meide, dat. sg. maydne ; nom. 
pi. maydnes, gen. meidene, S7i., 
[=*magadino- (50 N. 2), 
<ms&Sff -\-fem^ (?dim. Sk. 203) 
siiff. orig. -Ina (Gk. -iwa, L. 
-ina)] (OHG. magatin) maiden, 
Sk. 226 ; 338, maid, virgin. 

maegiy, pi. maegff (284 N. 1), 
M.f., [= maeg-e-ff, <T., except 
Scand., *mag-a-^-, /., cf. m ag-o] 
(Goth. maga>-s, OS. inagath, 
OHG. magad, G. magd, maid- 
servant) virgin, maid, Sk. 226, 
looman (poet.). 

mgfegiac, Nh. megSC, ME. ma33)?e, 
sf, [<mffeg; lit. collection of 
msegas] kindred, tribe, race. 

msegen, Merc, megen, ME. mayn, 
sn., [v. *maganj (Ic. OS. 
OHG. megin) strength, main, 
Sk. 338. 

msfegester, ME. meister, maister, 
mayster, maistur, maistir, pi. 
msegestras, ME. meistres, 
sm., [< L. mag-is-ter, double 
comp., < \l mag, great; ME. 
forms injlu. OF. maistre, Sk. 
II. p. 213, Quell, u. Forsch. 64. 
15; 185;215]/wasfer. 




meeg-wlite, Nh. m6gwlit (263 1 
N. 5), sm., [cf. w lit an, s. 1 
(382), look; lit. family-look'] 
(Goth, wlit-s, OS. wlit-i, Ic. lit-r, 
colour') appearance. 

maeht v. iiieaht. 

maehte v. niagan. 

iiiaei V. inseg. 

nieelan, ME. mele ; prt. mselde, 
w. 1, [^iiiseiaflan (202 N. 2), 
cf. maSfelian] talk., speak. 

ni^naii, ME. mene, mane, mone, 
?c. 1, [<WT. mainjan, cf. Skt. 
N/man, think] (OS. m6nian, OHG. 
meinan, MHG. G. meinen) mean, 
tell, MEstion; complain, moan, 

maenig v. inonig. 

niseraii, pp. gemsered, it'. 1, 
[cans., <m8ere] (Goth. m6r- 
jan, OS. mdrian, OHG. m^reri, 
MHG. msereii) make known, 
make famous. 

mgfera', sf, [^rm^fer-afu (255.3), 
<mgere] (Goth. m6ri]?a) /awe, 
glorious deed. 

msere, ME. mere, aj., [=T. 
mserjo-z < *mgeri-z (91) J (cf. 
Gk. -fxupos, iyx^(J'l'-iJ-^pos, spear- 
renoimed, Vladi-mir < Russ. ; 
Goth. *m6rs, OHG. mari ; cf 
G. mar-chen, tale) famous, glo- 

nisersian, pp. gemafersad, Nh. 
gemersed, w. 2, [<in8fere 
+ -sian (411 N.) Sk. 263] make 
knoicn, — famous. 

niaesse, K. in esse, ME. messe, 
masse, wf, XBomance L. messa 
<eccl. L. missa, /. pp. <mittere, 
send away. Quell u. Forsch. 64. 
72-3; 79-82; 90-93; ?"ite, 
missa est," go, disMisserZ, Sk. 
p. 436] mass, (Christ-mas). 

msesse-preost, -priost, K. 
inesse-priost, sm., mass- 
priest = FUEsbyrer. 

maest, ME. mast, S7n., [<T. *mas- 
to-z <preT. *mazdo-s, ?cf. L. 
malus for *mado-s, Brug. 596 ; 
369] (Ic. mast-r, G. mast) mast 
(of a ship), bough. 

nicest V. inicel. 

*niagan, ME. mu3heiin, mowe ; 
prs. sg. 1, 3 pers., niaeg, ME. 
ma33, mat, mei, may, >^E.may, 
sg. 2 pers., ineaht, nilht, 
ME. miht, mihht, mai, pi. m a- 
gon, ME. ma3en, mu3en, mu3e, 
mu3henn, muwen(n), moweii, 
may, opt. maege, Nh. niapgi, 
ME. ma3e, mu3e, muhe ; prt. 
meahte, myahte, inihte, 
Nh. maehte, ME. mihte, 
michte, mylite, my3te, mihhte, 
micthe, mo3te, mouhte, mouchte, 
mouthe, moghte, micht, mi3t, 
my3t, mycht, might, mau3t, prt.- 
prs., s. 5 (424), [<T. Vmag, have 
power, < pre T. V magh, ?c/. 
micel] (Goth. OS. OHG. ma- 
gan, Ic. mega, G. mogen) be 
able, (can) ; be fit VIII. 67. 

magdalenisc, -esc, aj., [<eccl. 
L. Magdalene ( + -i s c) < Gk. 
Ma'fbaX'qv'f], f. (Mary of M.) 
< Ma75a\d, (a town) < Heb. 
migdal, tower] Magdalene, of 

mage, ME. ma3e, ma3he, wf, 
[c/. msfeg] kinswoman, may,Sc. 

mageste, sb., [=AF. majeste, 
Sk. II. 48. 1, <L. majestat-em, 
ace, greatness, <majus (*maj-os), 
camp., <magnus < : V mag, great] 

niago, sm. (271 and N.), [<T. 
magu-, boy, servant, ?<*nia- 
gan] (Goth, magus, Ic. mog-r; 
cf C. proper names, Mac-) son, 
man (strong). 

mast V. meaht. 

niaht, niahht(e) v. iheaht. 

mai V. magan. 

maid v. macian. 

mair, sb., [< AF. maire < ML. 
major < L. major, greater, comp. 
of magnus, cf. major] mayor, 
Sk. II. 80; 158. 

mair v. micel. 

maist V. micel. 

maister = mester, mister, sb., [< 
AF. meistier, mister, < L. min- 
isterium, o;ffice^ trade, L. < minor- 




(*minos-) comp. less, <L. Vmin, 
small] need, want ; {cf. mystery 
( = handicraft) plays) ; ]?an horn 
m. were XXX. 35 (Germ. XX. 
368) than it was necessary they 

maister, maistir, maistur v. 

make v. gemaca. 

make, -en v. maeian. 

maker, sb., [maeian] maker. 

male, sb., [=Ar. OF. male < ML. 
mala (Ir. mala, OHG. malha)] 
wallet, portmanteau, bag = mail]. 

malys, sb., [< AF. malice < L. 
malitia <malus, bad] badness 
= malice], Sk. II. 49. 1. 

man v. mon. 

mdn-dgfed, ME. mandede, sf., 
[mdn < T. *mai-no-z = I.-E. 
*mol-no-s, cf. Lith. mainas, 
barter, v. gemgfene, Brug. II. 
p. 147, (OS. m6n, OHG. mein, un- 
lawful ; Ic. mein, hurt)] evil deed. 

maneg v. monig. 

maner, sb., [<AF. manere, OF. 
maniere = ML. maneria, habit, 
( = L. mami- + -arius) <manus, 
hand] manner, Sk. II. 47, kind, 

manig v. monig. 

manlie v. moncus. 

manred v. monrgeden. 

manse v. dmansumian. 

many v. monig. 

mara v. mieel. 

marc, pi. marc, ME. mark, pi. 
mark, dat. marke, sf, (Goth, 
marka, cf. Ic. movk, forest {natu- 
ral border); OS. OHG. marca, G. 
mark ; cf. L. margo, (margin-) 
> MARGIN) boundary = mark = 
march (< AF.), Sk. 325; II. 52. 2. 

mare, mare v. micel. 

mark, marke v. marc. 

martre, sb., [<0F. martre<ML. 
martus, *marturis < T.] (cf. 
m ears', Ic. morSr, gen. mar- 
^ar, OHG. G. marder) marten. 

martyr, sm., [<eccl. L. martyr, 
<Gk. jxdp-Tvp, witness ; cf. L. me- 
mor-ia, weMOR?/] martyr^ Sk. 401. 

*martyrian {cf martyrung), 

ME. martren, pp. ME. martird, 
w., [< martyr] martyr. 

marynere, sb., [<AF. mariner, 
OF. marinier, L. marinus, aj., 
of the sea, < mare, sea] mariner. 

mater, sb., [<AF. matere, <L. 
ma-ter-ia < V ma, uExsure] mat- 
ter, Sk. II. 47; 48. 1, material, 

mau3t V. magan. 

mawan, ME. mowen, s. red. B 
(396) , Sk. 139 c, [ WT. V ma : me] 
{cf Gk. d-Atai', reap, L. me-t-ere, 
reap; OHG. majan, G. mahen) 

may v. magan. 

mayden v. maegden. 

mayn v. maegen. 

mayne, men3e, men3he, sb., [< 
AF. meyne, meignee, meisnee, 

< ML. maisnada < *mansionata 

< L. mansio(n-), a staying, 
lodging-place, (mansion)] house- 
hold {of servants), retinue, meiny 
(Shak., Lear, II. iv. 35) (MENiaZ). 

mayster v. msegester. 

me, me v. ic, mon. 

meaht, mi lit, (98 N) Nh. msect, 
Merc. ]Sh. maeht, ME. milite, 
mi3te, mahht, malihte, ma3t, 
mycht, micth, mi3t ; pi. Nh. 
maehto, maecti (269 N. 2), 
sf (261; 269), [<T. mah-ti-, 
abs., < *magan, Sk. 224b] 
(Goth, maht-s, Ic. m^tt-r for 
maht-r, OHG. maht, G. mac'ht) 
might, Sk. 334, power, property. 

meahte v. *magan.' 

meahtig, mihtig, ME. mihty, 
mi3ty, aj., [<T. mahti-go-, v. 
meaht, Sk. 256] (Goth, mah- 
teig-s, OS. OHG. mahtig, G. 
machtig) mighty. 

mec V. ic. 

indce (91 N), ME. meche, sm. 
(248), [<T. mgekio-] (Goth. 
ace. sg. m^ki, Ic. mgeki-r, OS. 
maki) sword. 

mecuU V. micel. 

mfed, ME. mede, sf, [<T. mizSo-, 
cf. meord (181), <pre T. miz- 



dha-, Brug. 538; 596] (c/. Gk. 

fxi(r66$, wages, Goth, niizdo, OS. 

m6da, OHG. meta, G. miete) 

meed, reicard. 
meder v. in6dor. 
med-3eorn, aj., venal, {meed- 


nied-uiicel, aj. (296 and N. 1), 
[mid-] moderate, short (mid- 

medo-burh, dat. -byrig VI. 167, 
31. iim.f. (284 and N. 1) [< com- 
mon I.-E. *medhu-] (Skt. 
madhu, honey, sweet drink, Gk. 
fx4dv, intoxicating drink, Ic. 
mj65-r, OHG. metu, G. met) 

medo-w6rig, aj., mead-weary = 
drunken VI. 229. 

meekly, ME. av., [cf. Ic. mjuk- 
liga, soft, ME. meoc, aj., Sk. 427] 
(cf. Goth. *muks) meekly. 

megi^f V. msfega". 

meg-wlit V. mgegwlite. 

mei V. mgeg, *magaii. 

meiden v. maegden. 

meister-deovel, pi. -deoflen, sh., 
master-devil, chief-. 

meistres v. mgegester. 

meit V. metan. 

mekel, mekill v. micel. 

melody, sh., [< AF. melodye < 
LL. melodia = Gk. fxeX-cpdia, a 
singing (ode), Sk. II. p. 68] 
melSdy, song. 

men, mene v. mon. 

mene v. mgfenan. 

mengan, ME. mengen, menge, prt. 
ME. mengit ; pp. ME. imengd, 
imaingd, meind, meynd, w. 1, 
[v. gemong] (Ic. menga, Du. 
G. mengen) MiNG?e, mix, ming 

menae v. mayne. 

lueiiig V. monig. 

menigeo, menigeu, menigu, 
meiiigo, maenigu, mseni- 
geo, mengu, ME. maenige, 
manige, menye, sf, dec. sg. 
or indec. (279 and N. 3), [abs. 
< monig] (Goth, managei, G. 
menge) multitude, many (s6.). 

menn v. men. 

menuiscness, sf, [menn -|- is c 

4--ness] humanity, incarna- 
tion IX. 84. 

menye v. menigeo. 

meotod v. metod. 

meraly v. murge. 

merci, sb., [=AF. merci <0F. 
mercit<ML. merces (merced-), 
gratuity, pity, = L. merces, pay, 
reward, Sk. II. 145. 3 ; p. 207] 
mercy, Sk. II. 59. 4 ; 94. 

mere, sm. (orig. n. 261), [<T. 
mari- <Nfmar, ?die, Sk. 192. 1] 
(cf. L. mare, Goth, marei; Ic. 
mar-r, OS. meri, OHG. mari, 
MHG. mer, G. meer) sea, lake, 

mere v. msfere. 

mervayl message XXIX. 81 
(Germ. XX. 368), [< OF. mer- 
veil <L. mirabilis, marvel^, aj., 
Sk. II. 145. 3 ; 156, AF. message 
<ML. missaticum < missus, pp. 
of mittere, to send] marvelous 
message, Sk. II. pp. 12, 90. 

messe v. maesse. 

messe-priost v. maesse-. 

mest V. micel. 

m6tan, ME. mete, meit ; prt. 
mette, ME. mette, met, w. 1, 
[= *m6t-ian<(ge)-m6t, Sk. 
196/3, 199.5] (Goth. *m6tjan, 
OS. mot-ian, Ic. maeta) meet 
with, find, encounter. (ME. 
with ace. or wib). 

mete, Nh. mett (263 N. 5), ME. 
mete, s>n. (263 and N. 3), [<T. 
mat-i-, Sk. 192; 207] (Goth, 
mat-s, OS. meti, Ic. mat-r, OHG. 
maz) food, mess, a meal, meat, 
Sk. 313. 

mete-niffing, sb., [<ni3'ing, 
villain, nithingi, <nSJ>, envy] 
(Ic. matniSing-r) (food-) meat- 
niggard XVI. 230. 

metod (106. 1), metud, meo- 
tod, sm. (245), [lit. MEXsurer; 
niet-an, to mete] (OS. metod, 
Ic. mjotuSr) (poet.) Ordainer, 

meven, meve, move; prt. mevyt. 




w., [<AF. movers OF. movoir 
<L. movere, Sk. II. 85 ; 145. 5] 
moi/e, Sk. II. 08. 1, vanish; mov- 
yng, vb.-sb.., moving. 

mi V. ic. 

micel, micul, my eel (31 N.), 
Nh. micil; gen. miceles, 
micles (296 N.), miecles, 
ME. mikel {infl. miccle), inikil, 
mikell, mecuU, mekel, mekill, 
michel, mychel, michil, inuchel, 
mochel, mekle, I. aj., [< T. 
*niik-i-lo- < V meg : mag, great, 
Sk. 251] (Gk. /. /x€7-d\->7, Goth. 
mik-i-1-s, OS. mikil, MHG. mi- 
chel) great, much, mick/e, Sc. 
II. n. = av., MUCH, very. III. ME. 
miche, moche, myche, much, 
aj. and av., [without suff. -lo-, 
Scand. influ., cf. Ic. av. mjok] 
(Gk. fjL^y-as, great) much. IV, av. 
(319) instr., micle, miccle, 
ME. muchele, with comp., also 
gen. ME. mucheles, (by) much, 
very. V. mar a, ME. mare, 
more, mar, mair, comp. aj. (312), 
[=T. *maizo- with comp. suff. -iz, 
cf. Goth, mdiza <*majiza, cf. L. 
major] (OS. OHG. m6ro, MHG. 
m6re, G. mehr, Sk. 157) more 
{prop, of size), greater. VI. ma, 
ME. ma, mo, (312 N.), av. 
(323), (c/. L. mag-is =:*mag-ius; 
Goth. mS,is) more {prop, of mim- 
6er)/wo, /woe(Shak.). VII. maest, 
ME. mest, most, maist, suprl. 
aj., av., (Goth. m&,ist-s, G. meist) 
greatest, most; ME. mest al = 
almost all. 

micelness, sf, abundance XIII. 
76, greatness = mick/eness'\. 

miche v. micel. 

micht, micth(e) v. magan, 

mid, Nh. Merc. miiS, mi}>, ME. 
mid, myd ; I. av., II. prp. with 
dat. instr. ace. IX. 6, [= T. miS, 
mi Si, av.,=:preT. miti, meti] {cf. 
Gk. yLerd ; Goth. mi]?, Ic. me^, OS. 
mid, OHG. MHG. G. mit) with 
{association, company, in NE. 
only in midwife); mid J^am 

>e, Nh. miffffy, when, since; 
ME. mid bon, lohen, now. 

mid, iiiidd, also ME., I. aj. (297 ; 
314), [<T. mi«-jo-=I.-E. medh- 
jo-, Sk. 246] (Gk. fi^aaos ( = 
*fx^6-jos), L. med-ius, n. med- 
ium, a MEDimn, Goth, midjis, 
Ic. miSr, G. only mit-tag, etc.) 
mid {in compos.), middle; on 
mid re nihte, at mid-night. 
11. sb. n., middle, to middes, 
in the midst of, also = av. 

middan-eard, ME. middaneard, 
middeneard, sm., [v. m.-geard 
(214 N. 5) iiiji^i. eard] earth, 
middle-earth (Shak.). 

middaii-geard, Nh. middun- 
geard, middengeord, sm., 
[<T. garSo-, inclosure, yard] 
(Goth, midjun-gard-s, Ic. mi'S- 
gartS-r, OHG. mittangart) earth, 
{lit. midyard, between heaven 
and hell). 

middel-eard, middellaerd, sb., {cf. 
OS. middilgard) earth. 

midde-weard, ME. middewar'S, 

■ aj; midward^ ; inne middewarSe 
helle, in the middle of hell XVII. 

mi3t, mi3te v. magan, meaht. 

mihht(e), iniht(e) v. magan, 

mihtig V. meahtig. 

mikel(l) v. micel. * 

milce V. milds. 

milcien v. mildsian. 

milde, ME. milde, mylde, mild, 
aj., [<T. mil«i-] (Goth. *mild-s, 
OS. mildi, OHG. milti, G. mild) 
mild, Sk. 382, friendly, benign, 

milde-lice, ME. mildelice, milde- 
liche, av., mildly, gently. 

mild-heortness, -nis, ME. mild- 
heortnesse, sf, kindheartedness, 

milds, milts (198.4), Nh. ace. 
milsae, ME. milce, sf, [-j6- 
(258. 2), V. milde] mercy, 

mUdsian, miltsian (198.4), ME. 




milcien, ?o. 2 rinth dat., [v. 
milde, (411 N.)J hemerciful to. 

min V. ic. 

mind v. geniynd. 

miracle, myracle, s6., [< AF. 
miracle, Sk. II. 68; 145. 8, <L. 
ml-raculum {that which causes 
to wonder) <L. mira-rl, to won- 
der at, <L. ml-rus, wonderful, 
<Vsm!, SMi?e, xconder, Sk. II. 
199. 1] miracle. 

mire v. ic. 

iiiiri V. murge. 

mischef, sft., [< AF. mes-chief, 
meschef, Sk. II. 60. 3 ; AF. mes- 
<L. minus, less; AF. chief <L. 
cap-ut, head] mischief, harm. 

mis-dged, ME. misdede, sf. (269), 
[mis-, amiss, icrong <?T.\/mih, 
shun, conceal; cf. Goth, missa- 
= *mih-t6, old ptc. lit. concealed, 
r/.missan, miss, Sk.201] (Goth, 
missa-d^bs, OS, Ic. mis-, OHG. 
missa-, G. misse-tat) misdeed. 

mis-d6n, ME. misdon ; prt. ME. 
misdude, -mi (429), [v. mis- 
dsfed] misdo, do amiss. 

mis-lie, ME. mislich, aj., [i?. mis- 
in mis-dsed] various, diverse. 

mis-Iician, MIL mislichen, w. 2 
dat., displease = mislike] . 

miss (Lives of Saints, 504, 271), 
ME. misse, s/.?, [cf. mis- in 
mis-dsed] want, fault, miss. 

missan, ME. missen, mys, prt. 
miste, w. 1 gen. dat., [<miss] 
(Ic. missa, fail to hit, OHG. 
MHG. G. missen) miss. 

mis-seyen, w., [mis- in miis- 
dgfed; secgan] speak ill, re- 
vile, missay (Spen.). 

mist, sm., [< T. Vmih <N/migh, 
sprinkle, cf. L. ming-ere, Sk. 
235, Brug. 35] {cf Gk. d-fx-lx-^v, 
Goth, maih-s-tu-s, dif^zgr, OHG. 
MHG. G. mist (=*mih-st) dung) 
mist, gloom. 

mitta, wm., [<T. \/mgt <Vmgd: 
mod, MiiAf^ure ; cf. L. mod-ius, 
a peck] {cf. Goth, mit-a-h-s, G. 
metze) a dry ME\9>ure, bushel, 
= two ombras VII. 27. 

moche, mochel v. micel. 

m6d, MP>. mod, mode, sn., [<T. 

I mo"5o-, high spirit, agitation, 
Sk. 223 c] (Goth, moj-s, wrath, 
j Ic. mo^-r, vjrath, moodiness, OS. 
! mod, OHG. MHG. miiot, sense, 
I G. mut, courage) mood, Sk. 45, 
mind, heart, courage. 

m6d-ge>anc, Mi. -gidanc, srn., 
secret thought, counsel (=Beda;'s 
j L. consilium, IX. 42) I. 2. 

m6dig, ME. mody, aj., [<m6d] 
courageous, noble-minded, arro- 
gant, moodyi. 

m6dor, modur, ME. moder, 
moderr ; gen. modur, Merc. 
mtfeder, dat. meder, M.-um. 
f. (285), [=T. mo-far <I.-E. ma- 
ler,? <\/ma, ME^e out?, or make?, 
Brug. 101, Sk. 126; 127; 129; 160; 
227 b] (Doric Gk. tid-r-qp, Attic 
fi-qr-np, L. ma-ter, Ic. m6-"Ser, G. 
mutter) mother. Sk. 343. 

modor-lic, ME. moderlich, aj., 
motherly, :i\TVAxnal. 

mod-weleg, aj., rich in mental 
gifts VIII. 100. 

moghte, mo3t(e) v. magan. 

momenette, sb., [OF. mahumet, 
also Mahomet, < Arabic Mu- 
hammed, the praisecV] idol, maw- 

men (225. 1), man, mann 
(227), ME. mon, man, mann; 
dat. sg. nien, meiin; j)/. 
men, menn, ME. men, menn, 
mene, gen. monna, manna, 
dat. monnum, ME. manne, 
monne, I. M. um. m. (281), 
[<T. mann- <I.-E. manu-, per- 
son, Brug. 180, <?>/man, think'] 
(Skt. manu- >Manu, cf. Goth, 
manna ; Ic. ma'5-r, G. mann) 
man, Sk. 313, vassal ; jil. people ; 
cumen to manne, grow up. 
II. indef. prn., also ME. mon, 
man, me {genr. with sg.), one. 

m<5na, ME. mone, wm., [T. *mS- 
non- (68) <mSno-, m., < ?*\im^\ 
MEAstire, Sk. 167J {cf. Skt. mas 
(=*iiiens-) moon, month, Gk. 
fi-^v, L. mens-is, month, Gk.fx'^vrT, 




Goth. m6na, Ic. mani, OS. OHG. 
mano, cf. G. mon-d, Sk. 80) moon, 
Sk. 45. 

m<5nan-daeg, ME. monedei, sm., 
[m6nan, gen. of mdna, cf. 
L. lunse dies] Monday, Sk. 346 ; 
395 ; 457 ; 455. 

monay v. iiionei. 

moncus, monces, mances, 
pi. moncessas, ME. manke, 
sm., (ML. mancus, OHG. man- 
cusa) mancus, = ^ pound or 
thirty pence (cf JElfric's Gram. : 
Fif penegas geiriaciga> 
senne scillingc and XXX 
penega senne mancus). 

mon-cyn, mancyn, ME. raon- 
cun, mancunn, mannkinn, sn., 
mankind (for mankind). 

monei, money, monay, sb., [ = AF. 
moneie < L. mon-eta, uomtor, 
surname of Juno, whose temple 
at Home became the moneta, 
MINT, Sk. 193/3] money. 

monek v. munuc. 

monian, ME. monien, mone, w.2, 
[< n/ mon : men, think, v. ge- 
munan] (cf. L. mon-ere ; OS. 
OHG. manon, G. mahnen) ad- 
nomsh, exhort. 

inonig, manig, maneg, mae- 
nig (LWS. 65 N. 2), menig, 
ME. moni, mony, mani, many, 
aj. (291 N.; 296), (Goth, manags, 
OS. OHG. manag, Sk. 256, G. 
manch) many, much. 

monig-feald, manig-, -fa Id, 
ME. monifold, -void, aj., num. 
(330), (Goth, manag-falb-s, OS. 
manag-fald, G. mannig-falt) 
manifold, Sk. 33 ; 242. 

monkes v. munuc. 

monn- v. mon-. 

inon-rseden, man-, ME. manred, 
sf (258. 1), homage, manred f. 

mon-slyht, ME. manslecht, sm. 
(266), [<T.*slah-ti-, ij. sl§an] j 
(cf OS. manslahta) murder, 
manslaughter (< Scand., Ic. 
sld-tr, Sk. 228 c), manslaughti. \ 

m6r, ME. mor, sm., [<T. *moro-, 
?< T. V *m6r : mar, v. mere] i 

(OS. mor, Du. moer, LG. mor 
> G. moor) moor, mountain (a 
high moor). 

morlffor, ME. mor>er, snm., [< T. 
*mor-)>-'ro-, intentional secret kill- 
ing, (cf mora? = I.-E. *mr-t6-, 
G. mord) < V mar, die, Brug! 285, 
Sk. 118 ; 228 a] (cf L. mor(t-)s, 
death, Goth. maur|>-r) murder 
(= earlier murther), Sk. 323. 5; 
342, torment. 

more v. micel. 

morgen, ge7i. (244) morge(n)- 
nes, ME. mor3en, morn, morwe, 
sm., l<esp.T.*moTg-e-no-, first 
half of the day, = I.-E. *mrken6-, 
?< : V merk, dusky, Sk. 221 N.] 
(Goth, maiirg-in-s, Ic. morgunn, 
OS. OHG. morgan, MHG. G. 
morgen) morn=morrow (Shak.) 
Sk. 338, morning; t6 mor- 
gen (ne) > to-morrow. 

morgen-tid, ME. more3etid, sf 
(269), morning-tide, -time. 

morn v. morgen. 

morning, sb., [< morwen-ing, < 
morgen-|-s6. sziff. -ing] dawn, 

most V. micel. 

*m6tan, ME. moten, mote ; prs. 
sg. mot, ME. mot, 2 pers. 
m6st, ME. most, (mostu = 
most \m); pi. m6ton, ME. 
moten, mote; opt. m6te, ME. 
mote; prt. m6ste, ME. moste, 
>must (also used for prs.), prt.- 
prs. 6 (425), (Goth, ga-motan, 
have room, — place, OS. motan, 
be obliged, G. miissen, he obliged) 
be allowed, may, mote^, have 
opportunity, must. 

m6tian, ME. motien, mote, w. 2, 
[<(ge-)m6t] cite to a meet- 
ing, moot, discuss, dispute. 

mouchte v. inagan. 

mouhte, mouthe v. magan. 

mou> V. muar. 

move, movyng r. meven. 

mowen v. *magan, mdwan. 

much, muchel v. micel. 

muS", ME. muS, mudh, mub, 
mou>, sm. (239. 1. a), [=*muni5' 




(185. 2) < T. munj)0-, Sk. 75 ; 
346] (Goth, munb-s, OS. mu5, Ic. 
munn-r, mu5-r, OHG. G. mund) 
mouthy Sk. 46. 

muse, inu3en v. magan. 

inuhe V. magan. 

multitude, s6,, [=:AF. <L. mul- 
titudo(-din-) < multus, many'] 

mund, ME. mounde, s/., (?c/. 
L. manus ; OS. Ic. mund, G. 
mund, protection) {poet.) hand, 

mune3(e)ing v. mynegung. 

munt, ME. mount, sm., [< Folk-L. 
*monte <L. montem, ace. (70), 
Sk. 400] mount, Sk. 380, moun- 

munuc, ME. munuch, monek ; pi. 
monkes, sm., [< Folk-L. monicus 
(70) < LL. monachus < eccl. Gk. 
/Ltoj/ax^s, = Gk. aj. solitary, < Gk. 
fxdvos, alone, prefix mono-, Sk. 
379 ; 401] monk. 

munuc-had, sm., monkhood, mon- 
astic orders IX. 70. 

murcffe v. myrhlSF. 

murge, ME. murie, miri, av., also 
ME. meraly [<a/., lit. lasting a 
short time, <I.-E. *mrgh-u-, cf. 
Gk. ^pax-v-s, short, Brug. II. 
p. 317] merry, ME. also meraly 
> merrily. 

murmwr, w., [< OF. murmur-er, 
<L. mur-miir-are, rustle, roar, 
mur-, red. onomat.?] (Gk. /uop- 
fjLtjp-eiv, roar and boil (of water), 
cf. OHG. murmurdn, ?0E. 
mure i an, G. murren) mur- 
mur, grumble. 

murnan, ME, murnen; prt. 
mearn a?ifZmurnde (389 N.), 
s. 3 D (389 ; 55) (cf Goth, maiir- 
nan, be anxious, OS. mornian, 
m onion, Ic. morna, OHG. mor- 
n^n) mourn. 

mur}>ir v. iiiyrffrian. 

muruh9'e v. inyrhff. 

muwen v. inagan. 

my V. ie. 

myche, inyehel v. micel. 

mycht V. ineaht. 

myeht v. magan. 

myd V. mid. 

my3te, inyhte v. magan. 

mylde v. milde. 

mylen-seearp, aj., [mylen- < 
Folk-L. mulTna < LL. molina, 
mill <Jj. mola, mill, mill-stone, 
MEAL, <molere, grind, <Vmal : 
mol, grind, Sk. 193/3; 346; 400] 
mill-stone (whetstone?) -sharp, 
(cf. L. lima = mylenstan 
offffe feol (> file) Wright- 
Wulker, 273. 1 ; 430, 28) grou7id 
sharp X. 47. 

myn v. ie. 

myn, w., [< Scand., cf. Ic. minna 

< minni, min^, cf. myne, v. 
mynegung] bring to umd 
(of), remmd, ME^tion XXX. 

mynd, mynde v. gemynd. 

myne v. ic. 

mynegung, ME. mune3ing, mune- 
3eing, sf, [<mynegian, w.2, 
rcMiJid, < m y n e, sm., st. *muni-, 
MiNd, love, (cf. MiNNE-sin^er); 
V. ge-munan] rcMEubrance, 

mynster, ME. munster, sn., [< 
Gallo-rom. *mon'sterjo- ?or < 
Folk-L. *monisterium < (70) 
eccl. L. monaster-ium, Sk. 193 /3 ; 
401, Quell, u. Forsch. 64. 39; 
244 ; 251, (monasteria, orig. cells 
in which monks dicelt alone, then 

MONASTER!/, thcU ChUTCh of « 

MONASTER?/, e.g. West-minster) 

< Gk. fiovaaT-fipiov < /xopaari^s, < 
eccl. Gk. = MONK < fxSvos, alone] 
minster, monaster^. 

myracle v. miracle. 

myrce, ME. myrk, aj., (OS. mirki, 

Ic. myrk-r) mirk, murky. 
Myrce, s. pi. (264 and N.), [cf. 

marc] MEncians. 
myrsaCrian (in compos.), ME. mur- 

Hr, 10.2, [morS'or] murder. 
myrhiaf, ME. murh^e, murcSe, 

muruh'Se, sf, [abs. < murge, 

Sk. 223 a] joy, mirth. 
myrknes, sb., [< myrce] mur- 

kiness, murkness\. 




n- V. ne. 

na, n6, ME. na, no, I. av., [ = 
ne + A] (cf. Goth. n6, Ic. n-ei 
>nay, Sk. 425 a, (Zess emphatic 
than no, G. nie)) no, Sk. 42, /;a, 
Sc, never, not; na J>y Ises, 
ME. nethelees> naM/ess (poet.), 
nevertheless. II. ME. (ttj. and cj., 
also nor, na . . . na, no . . . no, 
neither . . . nor. 

na V. ndn. 

nabban, ME. nabbe, w. 3 (415), 
[ = (110) ne habban] not to 
have; ME. navest, hast not, 
naf 5, HAS not. 

nacht V. ndwiht. 

nacod, ME. nakod, naked, nakid, 
a}., Iprop. pp. nac-od {= I.-E. 
*nogot6-) <T. Vnak, strip, cf. 
ME. nake, to strip, < \l nog] (cf. L. 
nu-dus) <*no(g)wedo-s, nude, 
Sk. 114; 133; 253 c; 392; Brag. 
432 c, Goth. naqa)7-s ; Ic. nakt-r, 
OHG. nacchot, G. nackt) naked. 

naSTer v. ndhwaeiS'er. 

nsfedl, ME. nedle, nedill, sf. (254. 
1), [<T. *nse-Slo- (202. 3), lit. 
implement to sew, V ne, sew, 
cf L. ne-re, Gk. veiv, to spin, 
Sk. 228 e] (Goth. n6Ha, Ic. n&l, 
Noreen 54; 176, OS. nMla, OHG. 
nadala, G. nadel, Sk. 163) needle, 
Sk. 48, magnetic — . 

ngfedre, ME. nadre, neddre, wf 
(278), [=T. *nse-«ro-n-, Sk. 
228 b] (cf Goth, nadr-s, 7n., Ic. 
na'Sr, m. ; na'^Sra, OS. nddra, 
OHG. n^tara, G. natter) snake, 
adder (confusion of art., a nad- 
der >an adder, Sk. 201 ; 346). 

ngfefre, ME. nsevre, nevre, nefre, 
nevere, neaver, never, nevir, av., 
[ = ne gefre] (Goth, ni aiw) 

naeglan, ME. neilen, id. 1, [< 
naegl, sm., a nail, finger — , 
toe — , or a spike, so T. nah-lo- 
(234 c), hut I.-E. nokh-16-, nail, 
finger — , toe — , claw, etc., orig. 
meaning; cf. Gk. gon. 6-vvx-o^i 
L. ungu-is, Brag. 553. 5] nail. 

naegled-cuearr, sm., nailed vessel, 
— galley X. 106. 

naeht v. neaht. 

i ns^nig, indef. prn., [< ne -j 
! 86 nig] not any, none. 

nsferen v. naes. 

naerew v. nearo. 
' nseron, -un v. naes. 

naes, ME. nass, nes, ne wass, ne 
wes ; pi. neerun, neeron, 
ME. neren, nere ; opt. nee re, 
ME. nere, pi. nseren, mi-, prt. 
(427 N. 4), [<ne waes (172 
N.)] was not; be nes naht of, 
ivho cared not for XVI. 292. 

nsBs V. nalles. 

naesi v. nese. 

naevre v. nsefre. 

nafd* v. nabban. 

nast, naht v. navviht. 

nd-hwaesaPer, ndhwaeiSfer, 

nsLwfSer, naijor, ME. nou- 
J?er, natSer, no>er, nor, I. pr)i. 
(348. 2), neither. II. cj., nor, 
Sk. 456, nother (prov.); n6- 
hwaeSJer n6 . . . n6, ME. 
nou^er (naiSer) ne . , . ne (na), 
no] er . . . nor, neither . . . nor. 

nd-hw£er, ME. nohwere, nowhere, 
av. (321 N. 2), nowhere. 

naked, nakid v. nacod. 

nalde v. nyllan. 

nallas, -9' v. nyllan. 

nalles, nales, nalses, naes, 
av.,l<ne ealles, ^e/i. o/eall 
(319)] not at all. 

nam, nama, name v. noma. 

nammore = na more, no more, 
nothing more. 

nan, wi. nsenne, nanne; 
ME. nan, na, non, no, nane, 
none, noon, ace. sg. m. nanne, 
nenne, indef. prn. (348. 2), [< 
ne -f an] none, Sk. p. 56, no, no 
one ; as a}. VIII. 47 ; as sb. with 
gen. VI. 233; ndn ]>ing, ME. 
naming, noting, no)?yng, nothing, 

nareu v. nearo. 

nat V. nawiht. 

nat, ndt v. nytan. 

na>ing v. ndn. 




nature, s&., [ = AF. nature < L. 
iiiitura = *gna-tu-ra <pp. of na- 
sci, he horn, <>/gna, he horii] 
nature, Sk. II. 54. 1 ; p. 128. 

naturell, ME. «j., [<()F. naturel, 
AF. natural, <L. naturalis, lit., 
pertaining to nature'] natural. 

naturelliciie, natureliclie, «y., 
[liyh., naturell + liche <lice] 

nau3t V. neaht. 

naut V. nawiht. 

navene v. n6. 

navest v. nabban. 

iia-wiht, nduht (71; 172 N.), 
n6ht, n^ht, ME. nawiht, 
nawihht, nowiht, nawhiht, na- 
wliit, nowictli, nouht, nou3t, 
nolit, noliht, no3t, nocht, nalit, 
nacht, na3t, nouth, nout, nowt, 
naut, nawt, no3te, noglite, not, 
nat, I. indef.prn. (348. 2), (OS. 
OHG. n6o-wiht, G. niclit) naught, 
Sk. pp. 377, 426, nought. II. as 
sh. with gen. nothing VIII. 36. 
IX. 16. III. av. not, not at all. 

nay, av., [< Scand.; cf. Ic. n-ei, 
V. nd] nay, Sk. 425 a. 

ne, Sk. p. 216, Nh. ni, ME. ne, 
av., (Gk. vr]-, L. ne-, Goth, ni), 
not, wet. ne oft. coalesces with 
following word, in which case 
the e o/ne a7id initial consonant 
(w or h) of following iwrd are 
lost: V. nabban, nalles, 
naes, nis, nyllan, nytan; 
nicnawaS' v. gecnawan, 
nilest V. gels^stan, nise3en 
V. ges6on. 

ne, ME. ne, cj., [ne] (L. ne, that 
not, lest; cf. Goth, nih = ni-uh 
(L. ne-que), cf. G. noch, nor) 
and not, nor; ne . . . n§, ME. 
ne . . . ne, neither . . . nor; oft. 
coalesces with a word heginning 
with vowel, navene = ne Avene, 
ni hud = ne ihud (<hydan). 

n§ad, n^ad- v. nled, nied-. 

neah, ME. neh, neyh, ny3 ; comp. 
near [< WT. na(h)or (112; 
313 ; 323)] ME. nerre, nere, neir, 
near, oft. like NE. without comp. 

meaning, > near = nearer ; supl. 
next, ME. next, > next, aj. 
and av. (prp. with dat.) [< WT. 
nahwo-, T. nseh-wo- (57. 2 d) 
Sk. 248] (Goth. av. n6hw, Ic. 
na, aj. in compos., OS. OHG. 
nkh, aj. and av., G. nah, aj.., 
nahe, av., nach, prp.) nigh, Sk. 
375; 333, near, Sk. 49 (comp. 
form, positive sense); ME. neyh 
honde, close at hand, near-hand, 
Sc, aet next an, at last. 

n6ah-l£ecan, n^alecan (222 
N. 1), ME. ney(h)lechen; prt. 
n6al£&hte (232) -leahte, 
MI], neyhleyhte, neylehyte, to. 1 
(407. b), with dat., [-Igfecan v. 
Idc, orig. idea, motion, leap] 
draio nigh. 

neaht, niht (98 N.), Nh. Merc. 
na;lit, ME. nau3t, niht, ni3t, 
nigt, nyht, ny3t, nycht, nicth, 
nichte ; pi. niht, cf. NE. /o?t- 
night, pi. ME. ni3te, I. M. um. 
(fails), f. (284 N. 1), [< T. 
naht- <I.-E. noqt-, Sk. 224 b; 
834] (cf Gk. vi)^ (vvKT-); L. nox, 
gen. noct-is, Goth, naht-s, Ic. 
nott, OS. OHG. naht, G. nacht) 
night. II. nihtes, gen. sg. or 
av. (284 N. 1 ; 820), hy night. 

*neahte-gale, nihtegale, Ep. 
nectaegalae, ME. nychtingale, 
icf, [neahte, hy night, 
+ *gale, singer, < gal an, 
sing] (OS. nahtigala, OHG. 
nahtagala, G. nachtigall), night- 
ingale, Sk. 347. 

*neaht-rest, nihtrest V. 2863, 
sf, night's rest. 

neal- v. n^ahl-. 

n6ar v. n6ah. 

nearo, ME. nareu, narew, naerew ; 
gen. nearwes (300), nea- 
ro w e s, aj., [< T. *narwo- , 
Sk. 248] (OS. naru) narrow, 
Sk. 33. 

n6at, ME. net, sn., [cf. neat, 
prt. o/ n6otan, enjoy, use, Sk. 
177] (Ic. naut) coio, ox, heast, 

neaver v. nsfefre. 




n6a-wist, ME. neweste, sf. (269), 
[<neah + 'wist, being, cf. 
wesan] (Goth, wist-s, being, 
Ic. n^-vist and OHG. ii4h-wist, 
presence) sEjoHbourhood, re- 
gion XIV. 33. 

neb, nebb, sn. (247 b), [< T. 
s-nab-jo- < V snap, ?snap] (Ic. 
nef, gen. pi. nefja, nose, Du. 
neb, c/. Fris. Du. snavel, mouth, 
OHG. snabul, G. sch-nab-el) nib 
= beak, face, neb (Shak.). 

neddre v. nsfedre. 

nede v. nied. 

nedill v. ns^dl. 

nefa, ME. neve, lom., [<nefan-, 
<T. nom. sg. *n6f6d, kinsraan, 
I.-E. n6p5t] ((/. Gk. d-P€\f/-L6s, 
cousin, L. nepos (nepot-), grand- 
son, > AF. nevn > nephew, orig. 
grandson, A. V. 1 Tim. v. 4, Ic. 
nefi, G. neffe) nephew. 

nef re v. ngfefre. 

neh, XII. R. 4, = ne hwesaCre?. 

neh V. n^ah. 

neid v. nied. 

neide v. niedig. 

n6id-faeraB v. niedfaru. 

neiae, prt. nei3ede, w., [cf. ge- 
n6hw-ian, v. n6ah] (Goth. 
n6hwjan, cf. G. nahen) be nigh 
to, draio nea?*, nighi. 

nellen v. naeglan. 

neir v. neah. 

neither, ME. prn., cj., [=ne + 
either, Sk. p. 210, v. gfeghwae- 
iaCer] neither. 

nele, nelle v. nyllan. 

nelt V. nyllan. 

nemnan, ME. nemnen, nemm- 
nenn, prt. nemnde, nemde 
(405. 5), pp. genemned, ME. 
nemmnedd, w.\, [<nanian-, 
St. of noma] (Goth, namnjan, 
OS. nemnjan, OHG. nemnan, 
G. nennen) name. 

nenne v. nan. 

neode v. nied. 

neoinen v. niinan. 

nere v. naes, neah. 

nergan, prt. nerede (401. 1), 
w. 1 (409 and N. 1), [<T. naz- 

jon (175. 2), cans., cf. ge-nes- 
an, s. 5, recover, <T. V nes, cf. 
Skt. V nas, approach affection- 
ately, Brug. 581] (Goth, nasjan, 
OS. nerian, OHG. nerjan, G. 
nahren, nourish) save ; prs. ptc. 
nergend (286), saviour. 

nerre v. neah. 

nes V. naes. 

nese, Nh. nee si, ME. nsese, av., 
[?<ne+swa, as t/ NE. */7es, 
opposite o/gese >/es] no. 

nest, ME. nest, neste, sn., [WT. 
< T. *nezto- = pre T. nizdo-, 
?=ni-sed6- < V sed, sit, lit. 
^Ether SETTlement, Brug. 690 ; 
596] (L. nidus = *nizdus, G, 
nest) nest. 

nest, sn., [< T. V nes, cf. ge- 
nesan v. nergan] (cf. Gk. 
v6a-Tos, a return home, < : Gk. 
V vea ; Ic. nest, OHG. wega-nest, 
viaticum) provisions (orig. for 
ajour)iey), livelihood. 

net, nett, ME. net, nett, nyt, 
sn. (247. b), [<T. natjo-, Sk. 
192 a ; 209] (Ic. OS. net, OHG. 
nezzi, G. iietz, Sk. 61) net, Sk. 
p. 71. 

n6ten, sn. (243. 1 ; 244), [n6at] 
cattle, animal. 

ne-the-lees v. na. 

neve v. nefa. 

never, -vir, -vre v. nsfefre. 

newe v. niwe. 

newly v. niwlfce. 

neyh v. neah. 

ney(h)-leehen v. neahlebcan. 

n^xt, next v. neah. 

ni V. ne, n6. 

niehte, nicth v. neaht. 

ni-enawaiac v. (ne) gecnawan. 

niff-fuU, ME. niSfull, a)., [niS", 
sm., < T. *nT|30-, envy, nithe\] 

niff-hycgende, a}., \^prs. ptc. of 
hycgan, cf. hogian] evil- 
scheming VI. 233. 

niafing, ME. niMng, sm., [<nii5'] 
(Ic. niSing-r, villain) niggard; 

niff-sceaiafa, icm., malignant foe. 




nied (99), n6d, nead, ME. 

nede, neode, ned, neid, sf. (269), 
[<T. nau-«i-, -M-, ?<T. \/nau, 
N Arrow, Sk. 224 c] (Goth, n&ub-s, 
Ic. nau«-r, OS. nod, OHG. MHG. 
G. not, Sk. 200) need, necessity. 

nied-be>earf, aj., [v. prs. sg. of 
Jjurfan] necessary. 

nied-faru, Nh. n6idfaru; dat. 
neid faerae II. 1, sf., necessary 
journey, death. 

*niedig, cf. unniedig Cura P. 
51, 25, ME. nedi, neide, aj., needy. 

nigod'a, ME. ni3e'Se, w. aj. num. 
ord. (328), [= *nigon-a'a < 
T. *niwun-'Sa-n- <I.-E. *newn- 
to-, Beitr. XIII. 504, XIV. 582, 
Brug. 152 ; III. 173, Sk. 253 a, 
338; 376] (Goth, niunda, Ic. 
niundi, OS. nigundo, OHG. 
niunto, G. neunte) ninth. 

nigt, nist v. neaht. 

niht V. neaht. 

ni-lest V. (ne-) gelsestan. 

niman, ME. nimen, neomen, 
nyme, nim; prt. sg. nom, nam, 
ME. nom, nam, pi. ndmon 
(LWS. 390 N. 2), n6mon, 
ME. namen, nome ; pp. ge- 
nu men, ME. inumen, ynonie, 
nummen, nome, s. 4 (390 N. 2), 
[<T. nemon (69) <v/nem, allot, 
cf. Gk. vificLv, deal out, Brug. 
238, Sk. 377] (Goth, niman, Ic. 
nema, OHG. neman, G. nehmen) 
take, capture, receive, keep (nim 
= steal, Shak.'s Corporal N.); 
ME. {with ellipsis of i>e wai and 
with or without eth. dat.) betake 
one'^s self. 

nis, nys = ne is, -ys, is not. 

ni-sesen v. (ne-) ges6on. 

nist, nlste v. nytan. 

nixing v. niifiPing. 

niwe (73. 2), n6owe, ME. niwe, 
newe, new, I. aj. (297 N. 1), 
[< T. niu-jo- < I.-E. n6u-jo-, 
?< : nfl, NOW, Sk. 246] {cf Gk. 
v^-os = *v4f-os, L. nov-us, Goth, 
niu-ji-s, Ic. ny r ; OS. OHG. niu- 
wi, G. neu) new, Sk. 384 ; 355. 
II. >niw-an, neow-an, ME. 

newenn, av., newly, recently, 

niw-lice, ME. newly, av., newly, 

no V. nd, ndn. 
noble, nobill, ME. aj., [=AF. < 

L. no-bilis, OL. gno-bilis, well 

KNOW7W, < V gno, KNOIO, Sk. II. 

199. 8] noble, Sk. II. p. 69 ; 72. 1. 
noblesse, sh., [< OF. noblesse, 

= ML, nobilitia < aj., v. noble] 

nobiliTY, noblesse. 
nocht V. nawiht. 
noght, no3t, noste v. nawiht. 
nohht, n6ht, noht v. nawiht. 
nd-hwaeffer v. nahwaeiSer. 
no-hw^ere v. nahw^gfer. 
noise, noys, noyis, sb., [=AF. 

noise, noyse, OF. nose, noxe, 

noce, strife, noise, Sk. II. 86. 

1] noise; noyssmaking, noise, 

( — making.) 
nolde v. nyllan. 
nom V. niman. 
noma, nam a (65), Sk. 377, ME. 

nome, name, nam, wm., [<T. 

namon- ; Sk. 216, with va. com- 
mon I.-E.] {cf. Gk. 6-vo/xa, L. 

nomen>AF. noun >noun, Sk. 

392 ; Goth, namo, Ic. nafn = 

namn, OS. OHG. namo, 

name, Sk. 313. 
nome v. niman. 
nome-Iiehe, ME. av., [<noma] 

especially, namely. 
non, noon v. nan. 
n6n, ME. non, sm., [< L. nona 

(hora), NiNi/i {Jwur)'], (Ic. OS. 

non) smth hour, 3 p. m. ; {noon 

=mid-day, when the hour of the 

NONes {eccl.) was changed, Sk. 

38 N. 2; 400). 
nor V. n&hwsB'Ser. 
norS", ME. nor>, av. (314), l=acc. 

or locative, common T.] (OS. 

n6r«, cf sb. OHG. G., >F. nord) 

north, northward. 
noraC-^ast, ME. northest, av. ME. 

also sb., north-east. 
norff-erne, ME. nor^erne, aj., 

(OHG.nord-ronI, Sk.252) north- 




Norff-mann, pi. Noriafmenn, 

M. urn. (281) (rf. Ic. Nor^'-ma'Sr ; 

OHG, Nord-raan) Northman, 

norysse, w., [< AF, noris-, st. of 

ptc. of norir < L. nutrlre, suckle, 

nurse] nourish, Sk. II. 92. 
not v. nawiht. 
note, pi. notis, sb., [=AF. <L. 

n6-ta, mark, sign, < : V gn5, 

know] note, tone. 
note, pp. notyde, w., [< AF. noter 

< L. notare < nota, v. note] note 
= mark, notice. 

no)?er v. n&hwa&'Sev. 

no-thin<>-, no}>ing v. nan. 

no-thire v. 6tfer. 

notu, ME. note, sf, [<not-en 
pp. of n^otan, enjoy, wse] use, 
employment, = note (prov.) ; t6 
ndnre . . . naegen, cannot be 
set to any other employment 
VIII. 67. 

nou v. n6. 

noumbre, nowmber, sh., [ = AF. 

< OF. nombre < L. num-erus, cf 
Gk. vbixosy law, voixbs, district, 
<vifxeiv, deal out, v. niinan, 
Sk. II. 145. 6] number, Sk, II. 
pp. 69, 106. 

nouth V, nawiht. 

nouJ>er v. nahwaelJer. 

nov V. nd. 

now, nowe v. n6. 

no-where v. nahwser. 

no-w^icth V. nawiht. 

no-w^iderw^ardes, ME. av., [nd- 

hwaeafer + 'Weardes (319) 

V. 8efter\veard] no whither. 
no-w^iht V. na-wiht. 
nowmber v. noumbre. 
now^t V. nawiht. 
nowwt, sb., [< Scand. ; Ic. naut, 

V. n6at] cow, ox, neat, nouf, 

noyis, noys, noyss v. noise. 
nil, ME. nu, nou, now, nowe, 

I. av., [common I.-E. nO.] (Gk. 

vv > vvv, cf. L. nun-c ; Goth. Ic. 

OS. OHG. nu, G. nu, > nun) 

now. II. c;., now (that), since; 

nu J>a, nu)>a, ME. nu^e, 

nujje, nu)>en. now then, now, ME. 

j nuge [<nu gen, now again, 

I or Orm's nu33u = nu ge6? v. 

i 16] already. 

nu9'e V. n6. 

nulJer-helde, sb., [< niffor, 
downwards, '>cf. hylde, x^f. 
slope, V. hyldan] slope, va. 
XVI. 343. 

nuge V. n6. 

nule, nulle v. nyllan. 

nuinmen v. niman. 

nuste, nuten v. nytan. 

nu>e(n) v. nu. 

nycht v. neaht. 

nj^e, pi. nyes, sb., [< 01 . enui, 
>F. ennui, AF. esnui, Sk. II. 
89. 1, Olt. inodio <L. (est mihi) 
in odio, lit., it is to me in hatred] 
trouble, assoYance, noyt. 

ny3 V. neah. 

nyst V. neaht. 

nyllan, nellan, Nh. nalla, 
ME. nullen, nellen; 1 and?iprs. 
sg. ind. nel(l)e, ME. nule, 
nulle, nele, nelle, pi. nulen ; 
2 prs. sg. ind. n e 1 1 ; imper. pi. 
Nh. nallad", nallas, ME. 
nyle 36 ; prt. n o 1 d e, Nh. 
nalde, ME. nolde, nalde, -mi 
(428 N. 2), [=ne wlUan (110; 
172 N.)] L.nolo( = ne volo) wish 
not, vfill not. nill (Spen.), Sk. 
p. 216. 

nym v. nlman. 

nys V. nis. 

nyste v. nytan. 

nyt V. net. 

nytan, ME, nuten ; 1 and 3 prs. 
sg. ind. ndt, ME. nat, pi. ME. 
nuten; prt. nyste, ME. nuste, 
niste,pZ. ME. nusten, nuste, nist, 
prt. -prs. (420. 1), [=:ne wltan 
(110; 172 N.)] know not, ob- 
serve not. 

nytt, ME. nut, aj. (297), [<T. 
nut-jo-, <T. Vnut, get something 
for one''s use; cf neotan, s. 2 
(884), enjoy] (Goth, un-nuts, 
OHG. nuzzi, G. ntitze) useful. 



o V. &n, of, on. ^ 

oc, cj., [<Scand., = Ic. ok] and, 
hilt also. 

occupy, w., [<0F. occuper<L. 
oc-cupare <ob4-capere, lit., lay 
hold on'] possess, occupy. 

69, Nh. 69"9', ME. o55, o-S5e, 
I. prp. with ace. (rarely dat.), 
[<un-% Sk. p. 217] MMil. II. cj. 
(=615 >aet, ME. a Jjet, a J>a), 

offfSe, K. off 15 a, Nh. geffffa, 
aeththa, cj., (cf. Goth. ai}>^au 
= ib, but, + h&u, zw that case, 
(Tuovgh), OHG. eddo, G. ode-r) 

offer r. awffor. 

6ffer, Nh. 6der, ME. oSer, eo'Ser, 
o)>er, o)>eiT, other, o>ir, othyr, 
ojjur, othere, uthire, aj. always s. 
(291 N.), num. (338), [<*oii- 
ffer (185; 66)=*aii-ffer (65) 
< T. anbero-z < I.-E. aii-teros, 
the one of two, <aii + comp. 
suf. -ter-os, cf. Gk, -rep-os, L. 
-ter, Sk. 74 c ; 168 ; 87; 129 ; 254] 
(cf. L. al-ter, ?*anther; Goth. 
an-J^ar, Ic. annarr, OS. dSar, 
OHG. andar, G. ander) other, 
Sk. 45; 377, second; ME. a 
nothire, the tother, = an othire, 
another >another ; tliet (=that) 
other, another; noon (non) other, 
none other. 

offereende v. eodorcan. 

6ffer-lice, ME. o^erlike, comp. 
oberluker, av., (Goth, anj^ar- 
leiko) otherwise. 

6ff-f8estan, ptp. dfffaest (405.4), 
w. 1 (fasten to), commit to, set 
to VIII. G6. 

off-feallan, s. red. B, fall off, de- 
cline VIII. 16, 50. 

6ff->rmgan, prt. 6ff)>rong, s. 3 
A, dat. of pers. ace. of thing, 
deprive of. 

of, ME. of, oft", I. prp. with dat., 
[<T. ab-a (51; 1301, < I.-E. 
ap-6, Sk. 121] (cf Gk. Air-t, L. 
ab=*ap; Goth. Ic. OS. af, OHG. 

aba, G. ab) (oriy. sense, lit. de- 
parture from a fixed point) of, 
out of , from ; at?)r. ME. a, o; 
e.g., a-dun (v. dun), o neide 
men. II. av., off, Sk. 349; 390 ; 
458, away. 

of V. oft. 

of-drsfedd, ME. ofdred, drede, pi. 
ofdredde, pp., WS. ME. lo. 1 
(395 N. 2), affrighted, adread^ 

ofen, ME. oven, sm., [<*uf-no 
< T. *uhw-no = I.-E. *uqno-, 
Brug. 419, Douse, p. 80; Sk. 
221] (cf^ Skt. ukha, pot, cf Gk. 
ixv6s=*vKv6s, Stove, Goth, aiihns; 
Ic. ofn, ogn, G. ofen) oven, 

ofer, ME. over, ovir, I. prp. with 
dat. ace., [< T. uber (25. 1), 
<I.-E. uper(i), Sk. 121; p. 217] 
(cf Skt. upari, above, Gk. vir4p, 
vireip = *vTr4pj, L. s-uper ; Goth, 
ufar, OS. obar, OHG.ubar, MHG. 
G. iiber; v. ufan, Ap) over, 
above, beyond ; ME. over all, all 
over, everywhere. II. av., before 
aj. and av., over, too much. 

ofer-cuman, ME. overcome, oilr- 
cum ; pr^. sg. ME. overcom ; 
pi. oferc6nion; pp. ME. over- 
come, s. 4 (390 N. 2), overcome. 

ofer-drifan, ME. ourdrive, pp. 
ME. our drlffen, s. 1 (382), drive 
over, pass over, overcome, sur- 

ofer-glcesia, Nh.; prt. Nh. ofer- 
glcesade, w. 2, [< ML. glos- 
sare <LL. glossa, a word need- 
ing explanation, <Gk. yXCba-ara, 
tongue'] (cf. Ic. glosa) gloss XII. 
p. 39, — above, i.e. write the gloss 
above, Sk. pref St. John. 

ofer-gyldan, ME. overgilde, w. 1, 
[=(45. 3; 93. 2) *guld-ian, v. 
gold] overgild. 

ofer-higian, ME. overheghe ; pp. 
ME. overheghed, w. 2, overpower, 
overturn XXVII. 5. 

ofer-reccan, MP], overrecche ; j^rt- 
oferreahte (232 b), ME. 
over-raght, ic. 1 C (407 a), trans- 




ofer-seon, ME. overseon ; 3 sg. 

prs. ind. ME. oversih^, s. cont. 5 

(391. 2), look over, oversee. 
ofer-settan, ME. oversette ; prt. 

ofersette (401. 2), pp. ofer- 

seted (402), Nh. oferset- 

ted, w. 1, set over, lay. 
ofer-weorpan, ME. oferrwerr- 

penn; prt. ME. oferrwarrp {v. 

Notes), va. XVIII. 15567, s.SC 

(388), overthrow. 
ofest V. ofost. 
ofest-lice v. ofost-. 
ottv. of. 
of-ferenda (>one offerendan, 

Corpus a Camh. MS. 201. p. 2), 

ME. offrande, offrende, ofrende, 

torn., [=eccl. L. offerenda, fut. 

pass. ptc. of L. offere, bear 

before, v. offrlan] offering. 
ofT-putyng, s&., [<putte] putting 

ofFraiide, olfrende v. offerenda. 
offrian, ME, offrien, offren, offre, 

w. 2, [<L. of-f erre < ob-, toward, 

-I- ferre, bear, Sk. 349 ; 362. 4 ; 

400] offer, sacrifice. 
ofite V. oft. 
of-glefan, prt. ofgeaf (75. 1) 

s. 5 (391), give up. 
ofost, ofest, ME. oveste, sf 

(269), [<of + est (43 N. 4) 

<*6sti- (185) <*onsti-<T. 

ansti-, cf. Goth, ansts, grace, cf. 

unnan] haste, dat. pi. of- 

stuin, = ofestum, in haste 

V. 2911. 
ofost-lice, ofest-, av., hastily. 
ofrende v. offerenda. 
of-serve, w., [va. o/ de-serve < OF. 

deservir < L. de-servire, serve 

devotedly, cf. servus, slave, < 

Vser, protect'] desERVE. 
of-sl§an, prt. ofsl6h (214. 1), 

s. cont. 6 (367; 392. 2), s/ay 

(off), kill. 
of-spring, ME. ofspring, sm., 

[s p r i n g a n] offspring. 
of-stigan, prt. pi. ofstigun 

(364.2), s. 1 (382), descend. 
ofstam V. ofost. 
oft, ME. oft, of, ofte, offte, comp. 

of tor, ME. ofter; supl. of- 
tost, av., \_?<case of supl. aj. 
<st. ill ofer] {cf Goth, ufta; 
OS. Ic. oft; cf. OHG. ofto; G. 
oft, Sk. 61) (orig., now, poet.) 
oft, Sk. 313, = (ME. + -e(n)) 

ofte-sythes, ME. av., [siS", gen. 
of (320)] oftentimes. 

of->yncan, ME. ofHnche, of- 
c>inche ; prt. of)>uhte, ME. 
of^fte, w. 1 C (407 a), {orig. 
impers. with dat. of pers. and 
gen. of thing) cause regret, re- 
pent ; ME. he of binchet> hit and 
hit ofMnclie}) him. 

of-)>yrst, ME. of))urst, abirst ; pp., 
[(406; 405, 4) v. ]>yrstan] 
athirstXlV. 31. 

ogain V. ongegn. 

oghe V. agan. 

oghte, ohht v. dwiht. 

6-l8ecung, cf. ME. olhnunge, sf, 
[<6-leccan {40Tb), treat gen- 
tly, caress, leccan, moisten, 
cf. G. aj. leek, i^EXKy] flattery. 

old v. eald. 

om-l)iht, Nh. ambeht, ambeh, 
embeht, sm., [?<T. (cf Goth, 
andbahts, OHG. ambaht,G. amt, 
office)? < L. ambactus < C? 
amb- (L. amb-), around, -f Vag, 
go, Kl., vassal of a Gallic knight, 
in Caesar, B. G., VI. 15] servant, 
vassal (cf. AMBAss«dor <0r.). 

ombor, pi. ombras, sm., [< 
WT. ambor, ?<Eolk-L. ambra. 
Quell, u. Forsch. 64. 187 ; 345, 
< L. amphora, < Gk. dfxcpopeh, 
AMPHORa, <afji(pi-, on both sides, 
-\- (f)opevs, BEARer] (cf. OS. 6m- 
bar, OHG. eimbar, G. eimer) 
pail, a liquid measure = a half 
mitta VII. 26; dry measure 
= 4 bushels. 

on, an (65 N. 2), ME. on, onn, 
onne, an, on, o, a, I. prp. dat. 
instr. ace, (Gk. avd, L. an-, e.g. 
an-helare, draua breath up, pant, 
Goth. OHG. ana, OS. an, G. an) 
on, Sk. pp. 71, 340, 401, upon, 
onto, over, ix, ix^o; on ge- 




8 y h ac e, before the eyes, b i 15 o n, 
is worth ; o n-u p p a n, ME. 

onuppon, anuppan, onuppe, 
anuppe, upon, over; an-under, 
under; on dn, ME, anan, 
anon, anoon, onon, onane, anone, 
lit. mto one, Sk. p. 56, >anon = 
once for all, at once (A. V., 
Matt. xiii. 20). II. av., on, in. 

on^-, pref (198 N. 1) v. oud^-, un^-. 

on V. dn. 

on-£&lan, ME. anelen; pp. on- 
seled, w. 1, kindle, fire, (an- 
neal) Sk. p. 214. 

on-baernan (79 N. 2), pp. pi. 
o n b se r n d e, in Jj. accensi IX. 
10, w. 1, Inflame. 

on^-bindan, un-, ME. unbinden, 
unnbindenn, 3 sg. prs. ind. ME. 
unbint ; prt. ME. unband, s.SA 
(386), unbind, set free, destroy. 

on-bl6tan, prt. onbleot V. 
2933, (396), offer. 

on-bryrdness, inbryrdness, 
sf, [on-bryrd, pp. of on- 
bryrdan, excite, < brord, 
point, <T. *bruz«o- < I.-E. 
*bhrzdho-, Brug. 595] devotion, 
feeling, = L. compunctione IX. 

on-b6tan, a-biitan, ME. abu- 
ton, abuten, aboute, I. pip. with 
dat. ace, about. II. av., about, 

oncra, Nh. oncrae XII. p. 39, 
ME. ancre, wm., [<ML. *an- 
choreta < eccl. L. anachoreta, 
hermit, <Gk. ava-xf^PW^I^'^^vd, 
hack, x^P^^^i io withdraw'] an- 
choret (<F.), anchor (Sliak. 
Hamlet, III. 2.229). 

on^-cweS'an, prt. oncwaeac, s. 5 
(391), ANswjer. 

ond, and, Nh. end, ME. and, 
send, end, annd, ant, ande, an, 
cj., [< : I.-E. *nthd] (c/. Skt. 
dtlia, also OS. ^ndi, OHG. unta, 
unti, G. und) and, also (in Gls. 
and Wiclif). 

ond-2-, and2-, (on^-), pref, [=T. 
*an'(Sa-] (c/. Skt. anti, over 
Against, Gk. avri. Against, L. 

ante, before, these =T. *an'5i-; 
Goth, and, prp., Along, anda-, 
OHG. MHG. G. accented ant-, 
unaccented ent-, Sk. p. 217) 
orig. counter, Against. 

onda, ME. ande, wm., [<\/an, 
breathe, blow, cf. Gk. diz-e/xos, 
wind, L. an-imus, mind] (OHG. 
anto, anado, cf. Ic. ande, breath, 
spirit) indignation, envy. 

onder- v. under-. 

ond^-fong, sm., [onf6n] (G. 
emp- (= ent-) fang) reception, 
taking up. 

ond^-giet, and-, -git, sn., [on- 
gietan] understanding, sense. 

ond^-glet-ful-lice, and-, -git-, 
av., intelligibly VIII. 81. 

ond^-long, andlang, aj., (Ic. 
endlang-r, G. entlang) ail-Along, 

on^-drsfedan, adrs^dan, Merc. 
ondredan. Nil. ondr6da, 
ondr^de, ME. adrede, drede, 
dreid, s. red. A (395 and N. 2), 
with or without refl. dat., ace. or 
gen. of object, dread, fear ; ME. 
pp. adrad, frightened, be adr-, be 
afraid, cf. ofdrsfedd. 

on-dry sne, af, {cf. ondr^sn, 
/ear, =T. *ondrosni-, *ondr6t-s- 
ni-, < : o n d r sfe d-a n] dre Ar)/«7, 
awe-inspiring V. 2861. 

ond^-swarian, andsAvarian, 
Nh. ondswaria, ME. and- 
swerien, onswerien, answere, 
ansuere ; prt. ondswarode, 
andswarode, andswa- 
rade (412 N. 1), ondswa- 
rede, andswarede, Nh. 
ondsworade, ME. andswe- 
rede, onswerede, onswerde, an- 
swerde, ansuerede, answeride, 
ansuerde, answerd, ansuerd, w. 
2, [<onds\varu] answer. 

ond^-STV^aru, andswaru, K. 
and swore, ME. anndswere, 
sf. (253), [swerian, cf. anal. 
L. re-spondere, respond] (cf OS. 
and-s\v6r, vindication, Ic. and- 
svar, n., legal decision) answer., 
Sk. p. 214 ; 344 ; 355. 




ond'-weard, andweard, and- 
werd (43 N. 3), Merc, ond- 
ward, cy., [weard, v. aefter- 

weard] (Goth, and-walrjj-s, 
OHG. -wert, in ajs., >-weitic, 
cf. G. gegeu-wartig) present; 
him andweardum, intheir 
2)resence IX. 57. 

ond^-wyrdan, andwyrdan, 
andwirdan, ME. and war- 
den ; prt. a n d w y r d e, a n d- 
Avlrde, Id. 1, [<word] (c/. 
Goth. sb. anda-waiirdi, G. ant- 
worten) answer. 

one, 10., [<An] (OHG. einon, G. 
einen) make one, vsite, onej. 

onest, ME, aj., [= OF. honeste 
<L. hones-tu-s, full of honour, 
<h6nos, (honor-) repute^ hon- 
ourable, honest. 

onettan, prt. onette VI. 162, 
IV. 1, [<*on-liettan <*-hat- 
jan, V. hdtan (43 N. 4 ; 403 
N. 2, ?<*hatjaii, Acad. Aug. 
29, Sept. 5, '91)] hasten. 

on-findan, s. 3 A (386 N. 1, 2), 
find out, discover. 

oa--f6n, ME. onfon, onfangen ; 
prt. onfeng, ME. onfeng, 
onfeong; pp. onfongen, 
-fang en, s. cont. red. A (395), 
with gen. dat. or ace. (OHG. int- 
fahan, G. emp-fangen) take up, 

on^-gegn, ongedn (214.3) Merc. 
ongaegn, ME. onn38en, a3ein, 
a3eyn, ogain, agen, a3en, a3ean, 
agan, agaenes, agaynes, a3aines, 
aganes, a3ens, aye, 3eanes, gain, 
av. prp. with dat. ace. (OS. an- 
gegin, OHG. ingeghi, ingagan, 
G. en-^-gegen) opposite, toward, 
against, Sk. 341, in return for, 
in comparison with, again, back. 

Ongel->eod, .s/., Angel-cynn, 
-kynn (207 N. 2), sn., the Angle 
(EsGLish) nation, (L. Anglorum 
gens) IX. 11 (in Britain; orig. 
the Angles from Angelnin Schles- 
vng between Flenshorg and the 
Schley) ; Y.^cAand VIH. 4, 5. 

on-geniang v. geinong. 

on^-gierwan, ongyrwan; prt. 
ongyrede (173. 2; 408. 1), 
Nh. ongeredae, w. 1 (409), 
[u n"2-] v^dress, strip III. 1 b. 

on^-gietan, on g iota n, ongl- 
tan, ME. on3iten; prt. on get, 
pi. ongeaton, Nh. ongetun, 
ongetton, s. 5 (391 N. 2) 
perceive, see, feel, recognize XIII. 
49, learn VI. 168. 

on-ginnan (227), 3 sg. prs. ind. 
o ng inld", p7't. ongann, on- 
gan, ongon, pi. onguunon, 
s. 3 A (386) {cf OHG. in-gin- 
nan) begin. 

on-hsele, aj., [prt. of he Ian] 

on-hsfetan, ME. anhete, 3 sg. prs. 
ind. anhet ; pp. ME. anheet, lo. 
1, [v. hsfet-o <hdt] heat (up), 

on-halsien, w. [?<hdl] adjure, 
entreat, halsei. 

*on-hr6odan, prt. onhreadV. 
2931, s. 2 (384), [cf beah- 
hroden] adorn. 

on-16on, prf. onI6ah, s. cont. 1 
(383 N. 4), with dat. pers. gen. of 
thing, [ = T.*lIh-on (373; 114. 1), 
< : V liq, leave, Brug. 64, cf. Gk. 
Xeiir-eiv, L. linqu-ere, leave, cf. 
Goth, leihwan, OHG. lihan, G. 
leihen] lenc?, vouchsafe VI. 124. 

on-lepi V. anl6pe, 

on-licness, ME. anliknesse, an- 

• lycnesse, sf, [<on-lic, aj., v. 
ge-lic] likeness, image, picture. 

on-Ilehtan, onlyhtan, -liht- 
an, ic. 1, dawn = alight^. 

on-l6tan, s.2 (385), incline VIII. 
44, (lout, Spen.). 

onn, onne v. on. 

onoh V. gen6h. 

onon V. on. 

on-secgan, w. 3 (415), vow a 
sacrifice, ofer. 

on-sendan, w. 1 (405. 4; 406), 
send (on) VIII. 83. 

on-sien, (100) ons6on, ansyn, 
Merc, onseone, ME. ansyne, 
ansiene, onsene, sf. (269 N. 4), 
[-s6on <T. siuni-=:*se(h)w-ni- 



(113) <I..E. seqiii-, Brag. 441; 

V. seon] (c/. Goth, siun-s, siGii^, 
G. anseheii) view, sk.h^, face. 

on^-sittan, .s-. 5 (391. 3; 372), 
(Goth, and-sitan, regard, OHG. 
int-sizzen, G. entsetzen) with 
refi. dat.,fearYV. 23. 

on-slaepan, prt. w. (395 N. 2) 
onsltepte IX. 29, -8l6pte, 
s. red. A (395), (Goth, ana- 
slgpaii, OHG. in(t)slafan, G. 
t'n(t).schhifeii) fall asleep. 

on-stal, sm. , [< T. stallo- {stall) , 
< V stal < V sta, STAwd] vs^Titu- 
tion, beginning ^'III. 23. 

on-stellan, prt. oiistealde, w. 
10 (407a), [onstal] (G. an- 
stellen) i\sTi^«ie; 6v onst., 
began IX. 44 (L. oiniiiuin mira- 
c-ulorum auctor exstitit). 

on^-swerien v. ondswarian. 

ont-ful, ME. «j., [on da] envious. 

on-uppan, -e, -on v. on. 

on-weald, onwald (43. 2b), 
anweald, sm., [wealdan] 
(OHG. anawalt, cf G. ge-walt) 
dominion VIII. 6 ; 8 ; XIV. 46. 

on--wreon, |)p. onwrigen, ME. 
unwri3en, onwry3e, s. cont. 1 
and 2 (383), uNCover, reveal; 
pp. Vj^concealed. 

on^-wriffan, s. 1 (382), discover, 

VI. 173, lit. v^wr/fhe. 
on-wry3e v. onAvreon. 
ony V. E^nig. 

oon V. dn. 

op, ope V. 6p. 

open, ME. opin, aj., (Ic. openn, 

OS. opan, OHG. offan, MHG. G. 

offen) open. 
openian, ME. oppne, w. 2, [cans. 

<open, Sk. 260] (Ic. opna, OS. 

opanon, OHG. offanon, G. off- 

nen) open. 
open-lice, ME. openliche, -lich, 

-li3, av., (OS. opan-liko, OHG. 

offanlihho) openly, plainly. 
opon V. <ip. 
or V. awlSFor, ser. 
or-, pref, (Goth, us-, OHG. ur-, 

accented, G. ur- (56)), 'out,' 

^withovT,'' ^original,'' 'initial.'' 

<3r, .s';t.?, {cf. ord) beginning I. 4. 

6ra, wm., i<Scand., cf. Ic. aurar, 
pi. (26. 4), cf. Ic. eyrir, the eighth 
of a mark, <eyr=*auri-, brass, 
Dan. Swed. ore] a Danish coin; 
in 1086 = 20 pence ; 15 oran 
= a pound. 

ord, ME. ord, smn., [<T. *uz5o- 
= I.-E. *udzdh-o-, or ?<*ud + 
dhe-, upraise, v. ut, d6n, Brug. 
536 Bern.; II. 163; Noreen 143; 
208; 257. 4] (Ic. odd-r > oddi, 
triangle, >odd, Sk. 437, OS. ord, 
OHG. ort, G. ort, place) point, 
beginning, tip {of the foot, etc.). 

ordeyne, ordane ; ^3r^. and pp. 
ordanyt, vj., [< AF. ordeiner 
= OF. ordener <L. ordinare, v. 
ordyre] set in order, ordain, Sk. 
II. 80, appoint. 

ordyre, sb., [=:AE. ordre, Sk. II. 
153, OF. ordme <L. ordin- (ordo), 
row, arrangement'] order, Sk. II. 
70. 3, command. 

ore V. an, ar. 

6ret-inaecg, sm., [<*or-hdt (43 
N. 4), &a«?e,+*mag-jo- (216; 
228 N. 1) V. hdtan, mag-o] 

or-geilus, ME. aj., [AF. orgoillus, 
orguyllus = OF. orgueilleus < OF. 
orgvioi, pride, ?<T. ; cf. orgol, 
pride, OHG. ur-gilo, excessively ; 
?v. or- pref] proud, orgulous 
(Shak., Troil. and Cress., prol. 2, 
Sk. II. p. 159). 

origt V. riht. 

orisune v. ureisun. 

orn V. eornan. 

or-sorh, pi. orsorge, aj., care- 
less, with dat., secure {from) 
XIV. 53. 

o)> V. a'iS. 

other, o>er v. 6'Ser, awS'or. 

o>ur V. 6'SeT. 

ou>er V. dwSPor. 

ouh V. dgan. 

ouir V. ofer. 

our- V. ofer-. 

our(e) V. w6. 

our-tak v. overtake. 

ous 'c. w6. 




out(e) V. ut. 

outhire v. awiSor. 

out-tak, ME. prp.^ {.= PP-i ^• 
taken] taken out, except. 

oven V. ofen. 

over, ovir v. ofer. 

over-take, oiirtak, overta, pp. 
over-tan, ME. s.6, [<8cand., v. 
taken] overtake. 

owe(n), owun v. agan. 

owt, owte V. ixt. 

owthyre v. Awffor. 

Oxna-ford, ME. Oxeneford, sm., 
[appar. <oxena, gen. pi. of 
oxa, iC7n. (277 N. 1), ojr,-fford 
(273) = T. for-«u-, T. : V far, v. 
faran, cf. L. portus, port, Gk. 
/36s-7ro/)os, BospnoRifs; OHG. 
MHG. vurt, G. furt, ford] Ox- 

paciens, s&., [< AF. pacience < L. 
patient- ia < st. of prs. ptc. of 
patT, to suffer, Sk. II. 188] pa- 
tience, Sk. II. 54. 1. 

padde, pade, sb., (Ic. padda, Dan. 
MDu. padde) toad, pad, paddock 
(dim. prov.). 

pale, w., [< AF. paier, Sk. II. 
pp. 201, 206, <L. pacare, make 
peace/mZ, vkcify, <pac- (pax), 
peace] satisfy = payi, Sk. II. 79. 

paleys, sh., [<AF. paleis = OF. 
palais, Sk. II. 151, <L. palatium, 
(1) the hill Palatine, (2) ejn- 
peror''s house on it, (5) = ] pa/ace, 
Sk. II. 49. 1 ; 120. 

papa, ME. pope, W7n., [<eccl. L. 
papa < Gk. ira-ira, voc, papa, 
FAther, Sk. p. 57; 401; II. 99] 

paradis, paradys, sh., [ = AF. < 
LL. paradis-ns<Gk. irapd-Seiaos, 
a park < Pers., = ' enclosure,'' 
lit. *" PERI-DIKE," Sk. II. 135; 
287] paradise. 

part, parte, sb., [= AF. <L. par-t- 
(pars), < L. v'par, assign, pre- 
pare] part, Sk. II. 52.2; 151, 

part, to., [<sb.]part. 

party, sb., [< OF. partie < L. 
parti-ta, /. JW- of parti-rT, divide, 
<st. of pars, a part] part = 
party], Sk. II. 52. 2 ; into party, 
in part, partially. 

passage, sh., [AF. OF. < ML. 
passaticum < passare, to pass < 
L. passus, PACE <pp. of pandere, 
stretch, cans, o/pat-ere, be open, 

< L. V pat, spread] passage. 
passe, pass, pas, prt. passed, pp. 

passed, paste, vj., [<AF. passer 
<ML. passare, v. passage] pass, 
surpass; vb.-sb. Y)3ising> passing. 

passion, sf, [< LL. passio(n-), 
a suffering, < passus, pp. of 
patT, to suffer] (OF. passion, 
AF. passiun) passion VII. 46, 
= lesson from the Gospel on the 
passion of Christ (A.V. Acts i. 

passke-da33, sh., [<eccl. L.pascha 
<Gk. wdaxoi < Aram. — 'a pass- 
ing over,' Sk. 401 ; U.^02]Easter- 
day, Pasch-day. 

paye, sb., [<AF. paie, v. paie] 
satisfaction, pay. 

payen, aj. and sb., [<AF. paien, 
Sk. II. pp. 200, 212, <LL. paga- 
num <L. paganus, countryman, 
i.e. belonging to the 'pagus,' 
district; cf. hseijen] pagan, 

payment, sb., [<AF. paie-ment, 
V. paie] payment, Sk. II. 79. 

payne, sb., [ = AF., Sk. IL 96. 4; 
145. 3, OF. peine ( = ML. pena) 
<L. poena; cf. pin] trouble = 
pain], Sk. II. 79; 94. 

penaunce, sb., [= AF., OF. pen- 
ance, peneance <L. pcen-itentia, 

< St. of prs. ptc. of poenitere, 
make rePENT, < poen-ire = pun- 
Ire, puNis^] penance, (peni- 

pending, pening, ME. peni, 
sm., [??Sk. p. 201; 241a] (Ic 
penning-r, OS. pending, OHG. 
pfenning, pfenting, G. pfennig) 
penny, {of silver, copper from 
A.D. 1665; tr. L. denarius). 




peopull, sb., [<AF. people, OF. 
peuple = L. popul-us] a people, 
the people, Sk. II. 85 ; p. 229. 

peral, perell, peril, peryl, sh., 
[AF., OF. peril, Sk. II. p. 229, 
= L. contr. periclum = perlculum, 
trial, exPEiument, risk, st. peri-, 
ti'y, test < \/ per, go through, v. 
laraii] peril, Sk. II. 39 ; 59. 1. 

perelus, perulus, ME, aj., [<AF. 
periluse = OF. perilleus <L. pe- 
riculosus <perTculo-, st. o/ perl- 
culum, + -OS0-, V. peral] perilous. 

perfyte, ME. aj., [<0F. parfite, 
parlit, parfeit < L. per-fectus, 
PP' of per-ficere, complete, lit. 
DO through'] perfect. 

perpetuall, ME. aj., [<AF. per- 
petuele, OF. perpetuel < ML. 
per-petualis, permanent, L. = 
universal, <st. of per-petu-us, 
continuous, per, throughout, + 
petere, go to] perpetual. 

persave, pi't. persavit, w., [<0F. 
percever < L. per-cipere (cap- 
ere), take thoroughly, <Vkap, 
seize] perceive. 

persoiie, ^^ personis, sb., [ = AF. 
= OF. persone < L. per-sona, 
actor's mask, personage, i.e. act- 
or'' s character, part, cf. parson, 
person^, ? < per-son-are, souNd 
through] person, Sk. II. 59. 4, 5. 

pic, ME. pich, sn., [< L. pic-, 
(pix) Sk. 400] (cf Gk. iriaaa = 
*irLK-ya ; Ic. bik, OS. pik, OHG. 
peh, G. pech) pitch. 

pilgrym, sh., [?<OHG. piligrim, 
9th cent., Kl., cf Prov. pelegrin, 
?or < It. pellegrino, Sk. II. 56 ; 
159; 207, <ML, peregrlnus, pil- 
grim, ~L. for stranger, <per-eger, 
traveller, lit. through a land, 
acre] pilgrim. 

*pin, ME. pine, pyne, sf, [< 
pena, Folk-L, pronunciation of 
L. poena (69), satisfaction, pun- 
ishment < Gk. ttolv/i, PEifalti/, 
Sk. 398; II. 248] (OHG. pina, 
G. pein) torture, pain (<AF., 
Sk. p. 61) pine]. 

piniau, ME. pinie, pinen, pyne ; 

prt. ME. pined, pp. ME. pined, 
ipined, w. 2, [*pin] torment, 
martyr, pine, suffer pain. 
pinung, ME. pining, sf, [yh.-sh. 

< pin Ian] torture, pining. 
pitous, aj., [<AF. pitous, Sk. II. 

p. 203, OF. piteus < ML. pieto- 
sus, viTiful, < pietat- (pietas), 
dutiful conduct, piety] piteous, 
Sk. II. 64. 6. 

pitwisly, av., [< pitous] yo/Veows//. 

place, sb., [=AF. OF. <L. platea 

< Gk. -rrXareia (686s), a broad 
way, Sk. II. 54. 1 ; 151] place. 

plautian, ME. plante ; prt. ME. 
planted, w. 2, [< plant, sn., 
<L. planta, a plant. Quell, u. 
Forsch. 64. 270, Sk. 400] (cf 
L. plantare; Ic. planta, OHG. 
pflanzon, MHG. G. pflanzen) 
plant, Sk. U. 95; 96. 1. 

plega, ME. pleie, play, wm., 
[plegan] (OFris. plega, cus- 
tom) play, pleasure. 

plegan, ME. pleie; j?ri. plegode, 
w. 2 (416 N. 5) prs. s. 5 (391 
N. 1), with gen., [ = WT., ?orig. 
to act affectionately with some 
one] (Ic. plaga, be wont, OS. 
plegan, promise, OHG. pflegan, 
take care of, MHG. G. pflegen, 
cherish), move rapidly, play. 

pleinte, sb., [ = AF. OF. < ML. 
planeta <L. planctus <plangere, 
beat the breast, Sk. II. 80; p. 208] 
complaint, plaint. 

plentevous, ME. aj., [<0F. plen- 
tevous, =ML. *plenitivosus, OF. 
<plentif, plenty, <plente(t) <L. 
plenita(t-)s, FULLness, <L. Vple, 
fill] plenteous. 

plese, w., [=AF.plese, OF. plesir, 
plaisir<L. placere, be pleasing] 
please; prs. ptc. plesande, pleas- 
ing, agreeable. 

pliht, ME. plyt, sm., [plih-t, 
danger, plights, cf. pleah, prt. 
of pleon (391. 2) adventure; 
ME. <0F. plite, pliste < ML. 
*plicita </. of. L. pp. of plicare, 


p.2i4iand^]state. plight =plitef. 




poore V. povere. 

port, ME. port, snin., [<L. por- 
t-u-s <Nlpor, V. far an; ?0E. 
bef. A.D. 500? Sk. 398, cf. Ports- 
mouth, etc.'] port., haven. 

porter, sb., [=AF. OF. portier 
< L. port-arius < por-ta, port = 
portal, < V por, v. port] porter., 

post, also ME. sm., [6e/. 500 <L. 
post-is, Sk. 400] (OHG. pfosto, 
MHG. G. pfoste) post, pillar. 

posstell V. apostol. 

poure V. pure. 

pouste, sb., [=AF. OF. poeste, 
poestet, podestet < L. potes- 
ta(t-)s <potis, able, orig. lord, 
cf. Gk. 7r6(ns, husbaiuT] votver. 

povere, povre, pover, poore, pure, 
ME. aj., [< AF. povre, pover, } 
= 0F, povre, poure, povere <L. 
pauper > pauper] poor, Sk. II. 
68. 1. 

power, sb., [ = AF. power, pouer, 
poer, OF. poer for *poter, inf. 
of It. potere < ML. *potere = L. 
posse, be able] power, Sk. II. 87. 1. 

poyete, pi. poyetis, sb., [<0F. 
poete < Gk. ttoitj-t^s < iroiecv, to 
make; cf anal, scop, sm. poet, 
V. prs. of scieppan, Sk. II. 
276. 24] poet. 

pojmt, sb., [=AF. point < L. 
puuct-um, n. of pp. of pungere, 
PUNCH, Sk. II. 86. 1; 145. 6; 
;). 208; 157] point; at he p. at 
the instant XXIX. 68. 

praie v. preyen. 

pray, sb., [< AF. praye, praie 
= OF. preie < ML. preda = L. 
praeda] prey, Sk. II. 79. 

praye i\ preyen. 

prechie, preche, ic, [<AF. OF. 
precher, Sk. 403 ; 11. 61 a, 3, <L. 
prae-dicare, lit.beFonE, i.e. pub- 
licly, declare^ preach; prechinge, 
preching, vb.-sb. > preaching. 

precious, preciouxe, ME. aj., [< 
AF. precius, OF. precios = prec- 
ieus, F. pr6cieux, <L. preti-osus 
<pretium. price] precious, 

prede v. pryte. 

pref, sb., [< AF. pruf, OF. preuve 
<LL. proba <L. probare, ap- 
PROVE <probo-, St. of probus, 
good] PROOF, test ; in pref, tried? 
'XXXII. 1150. 

pr6ost, ME. prest, sm., [< T. 
*preuster, ?<Folk-L. *prevster 

< *prebister < eccl. L. presbyter 
<Gk. irpea/Sjrepos (LXX.) PRES- 
BYTER, lit. elder, comp. of irpia- 
/Sys, old, Sk. 401, Quell, u. Forsch. 
64. 142, Eng. Stud. XVI. 154] 
(Ic. prest-r, OS. prestre, OHG. 
priestar, MHG. G. priester, AF. 
prestre) priest, Sk. 50. 

presedent, sb., [=0F. president 
<L. praesident-, st. of prs. ptc. 
of prae-sid-ere, Sk. II. 196. 2, 
SIT &eFORE, /aresiDE over, <Vsed, 
sit] governor, president. 

present, sb., [<AF. OF. < pre- 
senter, vb., <L. prae-sentare, to 
place 6eFORE] present, Sk. II. 
39, gift. 

present, ME. a.}, sb., [ = AF. OF. 

< L. praesen(t-)s, prs. ptc. of 
prae-esse, lit. being 6<»fore, in 
sight, < V es, v. e o m] present, 
Sk. II. 39 ; 60. 1. 

prest V. pr6ost. 

preve, pp. brevy t, w. , [< AF. OF. 

prover, Sk. II. 156, <L. probare, 

test ; V. pref] (cf. Ic. prova, OE. 

pr6fian, G. priifen) prove. 

Sk. II. 68. 1 ; 85. 
preve, ME. aj., [<AF. OF. prive 

(F. priv6), 2^P- form, <L. prl- 

vatus, private, i.e. not public^ 

secret, intimate, privy. 
prevely v. priveliche. 
preyen, preye, praye, praie, to., 

[<AF. OF. preier, AF. praier, 

Sk. II. p. 201, <ML. precare < 

L. precari < prec-, pi. prec-es, 

prayers] pray. 
preyse, to., [<AF. OF. preiser, 

Sk. II. 151, < LL. pretiare, 

prize, <pretium, price] praise. 

Sk. II. 80. 
prician, ME. prykye, \n. 2, [< 

prica, sm., point] prick, f<pur, 

ride (Spen.). 




prld3 V. pryte. 

prince, ab., [ = AF. OF., Sk. II. 
G3, p. 202 ; 196. 3, <L. prin-cip- 
em, ace, a PRiNcipaZ person, < 
primo-, St. of primus, viRSt, + 
capere, take] prince, Sk. II. 94 ; 
pr. of prestis, high-priest. 

prise, sb., [<AF. OF. pris, Sk. 
II. 151, OF. preis, <L. pretium] 
price, Sk. II. 64. 2, value ; of p. , 

prise, pp. prist, w., [<0F. priser, 
V. prise, sb.'] prize, Sk. II. 64. 2. 

prisun, prisonn, prisune, prysoun, 
sb., [ = AF. OF. prisun, AF. pris- 
oun, Sk. II. 35 ; 63 ; 110 ; p. 237, 
<L. prensio(n-) cf. pre-hension- 
em, acc.y a seizing, appREHENd- 
ing < pp. of pre-hend-ere, grasp] 
prison, prisoner. 

prisuning, sb., [prisun] imprison- 

prive-liclie, prevely, ME. av., 
[<preve, aj.] privily. 

proffer, pi. proffres, prof res, sb., 
[=AF., Sk. II. 35, <0F. pro- 
ferer, to produce, allege, < L. 
pro-ferre, to bear for^^] proffer. 

prologe, prologue, sb., [<0F. pro- 
logue < L. prologus < Gk. irp6- 
X070S, voRK-word] prologue. 

promys, sb., [<AF. promesse < 
ML. promissa, /. of pp. of L. pro- 
mittere, to send YORth] promise, 
Sk. II. m. 

propliete, sb., [=AF., <LL. pro- 
pheta = Gk. irpo-tpi^-Trj-s, Sk. II. 
276. 24, lit. 6eFORB (public) 
speaker, vnoclaimer, interpreter] 

propre-liclie, ME. av.,[hyb., <AY . 
propre < L. proprius, one's own] 
properly, Sk. II. 66. 

prowesse, .s6., [< AF. pruesse, 
pruesce, OF. prouesse < OF. 
prou, brave, good, cf. prude. 
Sk. II. 152] prowess, Sk. II. 77. 1, 
valiant act. 

pr6t, ME. prut, prud, a}., (Ic. 
pru5-r) proud, Sk. 323. 2"; 340. 

pryliye v. prician. 

prysoun v. prisun. 

pryte, pryde, ME. pryde, pride, 
prede, lof, [<pr6t (96) Sk. 
197/3] (Ic. prySi) /?r/Ve. 

psalme v. sealm. 

pund, ME. pund, sn., [< T., 
(?about second century, Kl.) <L. 
pondo, indec. (70), cf. pondus, 
weight, Sk. 400] (Gotli. OS. Ic. 
pund, OHG. MHG. pfunt, G. 
pfund) pound, Sk. 379; II. 95, 

pupplisse, w., [-isse < OF. -iss- 
< L. -esc-, inceptive suff. by anal, 
with other vbs., Sk. II. 92, <0F. 
publier < L. publicare <piiblicus, 
PUBLIC, <*popul-ic-us < popul-us, 
people] publish. 

purcliaise, lo., [<AF. purchacer, 
OF. porchacier, <0F. pur- (F. 
pour) < L. pro, for, + OF. cha- 
cier, chase, v. cachen] acquire, 
purchase, Sk. II. 75. 2. 

pure, poure, aj., [=:AF. pure, OF. 
pur <L. purus <N/pu, cleanse] 
pure, Sk. 11. pp. 43, 110. 

pure V. povere. 

purvay, w., [< AF. purveier, 
purveer, OF. porveoir < L. pro- 
videre, lit. see FORward, pro- 
vide] purvey, Sk. II. 80. 

putte, put ; prt. puttide, put, pp. 
put, putt, w., (cf. OF. boter) 
push, put. 

pyne v. pin, pinan. 


qu- V. CW-, h\v-. 

quaSf V. cweSfan. 

qual^e r. owacian. 

quain v. liwa. 

quan, quanne r. liwonne. 

quar v. li^vser. 

quarterne v. cweartern. 

quat V. cwegfan, Iiwa. 

qua]> V. cweaCan. 

qua»rigau, sb., [<L. quadrigam, 
ace. sg., four-horse chariot, = L. 
pi. quadrigae (for quadri-jugae 
< quattuor, four, aiid jugum, 
yoke), a FOUR span] quadriga. 




quaynte, ME. aj., [<AF. queiiite, 
OF, cointe < L. co-giiitus, knoww, 
Sk.II. 80; 145.5] knowji, elegant, 
affectedly nice XXVIII. 57 (in 
orig., cil qui se font si cointe de 
cele povre nohlesce),— quaint]'. 

quead-schipe, sb., [< ME. aj., 
quead, bad ; c w e d = *c w se d, 
sw., filth., dung., cf. OHG. quat, 
MHG. G. kot] evil. 

queiiie v. gecweme, cw6inan. 

quen v. hw6nne. 

quene v. cwen. 

quer-faste, ME. av.., [?<LG. quer, 
transverse., > queer., cf. MHG. G. 
quer, v. >werten] transversely 
(Morris) XX. 35. 

que> V. cweffan. 

quhar v. hwser. 

quhen v. hwonne. 

quhethir v. hwaelJer. 

quhilk V. hwelc. 

quhy V. hwa. 

quik V. cwic. 

quiles v. hwil. 

quod V. cweSfan. 

quoke v. cwacian. 

quoin V. cuman. 

quor V. hwger. 

qwiles v. hwil. 


T&c, pi. rakkes, s6., [<Scand., cf. 
Ic. rek, drift, <reka, to drive; 
V. wrgfec, Sk. 440] rack (Sliak., 
Antony, IV. 12. 10), driven va- 

racen-t6ah, raceteag, ME. 
rachentege, rakete3e, ^/., [ = 
racent-, v. racente, wf.., 
chain, cf. Ic. rekendi, OHG. 
rahhinza, + teah, a tie, v. 
teon] chain. 

rad, ME. aj., [<Scand., cf Ic. 
hrseddr] afraid., rad (Sc). 

raSfe v. hraSfe. 

radly v. hraedlice. 

rged, K. red, ME. red, rede, s?m., 
[<r8fedan, s. red.'] (Ic. raS, 
OS. rtid, G. rat) counsel, advice, 

loisdom, good sense, determina- 
tion, plan, benefit, way out, help, 
rede, read (Shak.) ; ME. whet 
sceal us (wat shal me) to rede ? 
what will help us {rne)f swd 
niaest r6d sie, as may be 
most advantageous VII. 83. 

rsedan, ME. rede, s. red. A (394 ; 
395 N. 2), [<T. Vr^d] (Goth. 
*r6dan, Ic. raSa, OS. radan, G. 
raten) advise, rule, care for; 
rede, read (Shak.). 

rsedan, ME. rede, reden, prs. 3 sg. 
ME. rset, ret, w. 1, [< rgfed, 
lit. make a rede, interpret the 
runes] read, Sk. 48 ; p. 492. 

raedis, redi, radi, redy, reddy, ME. 
aj., [cf. Swed. redig, rsfede, 
?< : T. V ri^, RIDE ; lit. prepared 
for a RAID or ume, Sk. 170] (cf 
G. be-reit) ready. 

rsed-lice v. hraedlice. 

raegl v. hraegl. 

raesta v. restaii. 

rgfeswa, wm., [<rge8, sf (260), 
counsel, <T. *r£esswo- (232, d), 
<T. sfrsed, v. r ted an, s. red., 
= I.-E. *redh + twa-] (cf Ic. 
raesir) (poet.) ruler, leader. 

raevedeu v. reafian. 

rair v. rarlan. 

rakkes v. rac. 

ran v. eornan. 

rand- v. rond-. 

rap, ME. rop, sm., [<T. *raipo-, 
Sk. 71. 6] (Goth, r&ip-s in com- 
pos., Ic. reip, G. reif, hoop, etc.) 
rope, Sk. p. 57. 

rdrian, ME. rair, w. 2, (OHG. 
r6r6n, G. rohren) roar, Sk. 42, 
bellow, lament. 

ras V. risan. 

rath, sb., [cf rged] counsellor. 

rayke; w. , [< Scand. , Ic. reika, 
cf. rac i an, run'] wander, go, 
betake oneself; rei'ke, rake 

r§ad, ME. read, red, aj. , [< T. 
rauS-o-z < I.-E. roudho-s < : V rtidh, 
be red, Sk. 119; 243] (cf Gk. 
e-pvd-p6s, L. ruber, Sk. p. 116, 
St. rubro- for *rudhro- ; Goth. 




r&ub-s, Ic. rauS-r, OS. rod, OHG. 
MHG. rot, G. rot, Brug. 83 ; 255, 
Sk. (50) red. 

r^af, ME. ref, reif, sn., [< T. 
raubo- < : V rup, break., cf. L. 
ru(m)p-ere] (Ic. rauf, OHG. 
roub, OS. nod-rof, plunder, G. 
raub, ROBBer?/) booty, garment 
(orig. taken from the slain), 
ROBE (<Ar.). 

reaflan, ME. rseven, reve ; prt. 
ME. rsevede, refte, pp. ME. re- 
vede, 10.2, [r6af] rob (<AF.), 
Sk. II. 66 ; cf. reave, be-reave. 

reaving, sb., [reaf ian] ROBser?/ 
(<AF.), reavery. 

recan, reccaD, ME. recche, 
recke, 3 sg. prs. ind. recj?, prt. 
r6hte, ME. rou3t, w. 1 C 
(407 a, 225 K), [< T. *rokion 
< V rok : rak] (Ic. roekja, OS. 
rokian, OHG. ruohhen, G. ge- 
ruhen, deign, for *ge-ruchen) 
reck, care. 

recall, reccan, ME. reken, w. 1 
C (407 b), [cf r6c (266) = T. 
*rauki-, vapour, reac, pi't. of 
r6ocan, s. 2 (384), < T. 
Vreuk:rtik, smoke, Sk. 177] 
(Ic. reykja, trans., OFris. r6ka; 
cf G. rieclien, s. and rauchen) 
reek, Sk. p. 59, smoke. 

reccan, ME. recchen, ruclien ; prt. 
reahte, rehte, -mj. 1(7 (407 a), 
[< T. *rakjon, cf. racu, sf., 
reckoning, < T. \f rak, collecf] 
(OS. rekkian, OHG. recchen) 
unfold (a tale) IX. 62, put in 
order XXIX. 101, explain, inter- 
I recce-leas, r6cel6aS, ME. reche- 
les, aj., [<*r6c-ia-, cf. r6canj 
care/ess, reck/ess. 
recene, av., [<recen, aj.,ready'\ 
at once, quickly. 
recen-llce, Nh. hreconli'ce, 
ME. rekenli, av., at once, quickly. 
recomaunde, w., [< OF. recom- 
mander < L. re-, again, + L. com- 
mendare, completely commit^ 

red V. rgfed- 

reddy v. raedls. 

rede v. rsed, rsedan. 

reffe, MI]. re>e, aj., savage, fierce, 

redi v. raedia. 

redliche v. hraedlice. 

red]>er v. hva'Se. 

redy v. raedis. 

redyness, sb., [raedi3j readiness. 

refte v. reaflan. 

re33senn, w., [<Scand., Ic. reisa, 
cans, of risa, rise, < T. V ris, 
vertical motion^ (Goth, (ur-) 
ralsjan, f/. rseran = *rdsian, 
REAR, Sk. p. 150; 391; 425 a; 
429) raise, Sk. 435. 

regn, ME. rein, sm. , [< common 
T. reg-no-, Sk. 221] (Goth, rign, 
Ic. regn, OS. resan, G. regen) 
rain, Sk. 338. 

regol-lic, -lee, reogol-, aj., 
[<regol-, sm., <ML. *regula 
<L. regula, rule <0F.] in ac- 
cordance with monastic RULes 
(eccl.) IX. 94. 

rehte v. reccan. 

reif V. reaf. 

rele, w., [hr6oI, a reel for 
vnnding yarn, etc., Sk. p. 361] 
reel, whirl, stagger. 

religiun, sb., [=AF., Sk. II. 29, 
<L. re-ligio(n-), reverence for 
God'] religion. 

remen v. hrlenian. 

renne v. eornan. 

r6odan, pr«. r6ad, s.2 (384 N.l), 
[<T.v'reud:rM, v. r6ad] (Gk. 
ip€vd-€iv, Ic. rj65-a) nEDDen. 

reog- V. reg-. 

reogol-ward, K. -^veord, sm., 
[cf in regol-lic and wear d, 
sm.] lit. ward of rules, provost 
= L. praepositus, eccl. officer 
of a monastery, diRt:ctor (in 
charge of the capitular estates) 
VII. 41. 

reord, ME. rurd, sf, [=*reard 
= *rard (79b; 181.2) < T. 
*raz«5- < I.-E. *rozdha-, Brug. 
596] (Goth, razda, OHG. rarta, 
Ic. rodd, gen. reddar) speech, 
voice, sound. 




reordian, riordigan, Nh. 
hriordia, lo. 2, [<reordJ 

speaks give to eat. 

reowen v. hreowan. 

reow-liche v. hr^owlice. 

repentaus, sh., [= AF. repen- 
tance < ML. *repenitentia <prs. 
ptc. ofvb. <L. re, again, + -poem- 
tere, impers. repent, <0L. poen- 
ire, pvmsh, < poena, Fvmshment] 

repreve, repreif, ic, [<0F. re- 
pruever, AF. repruver, reprover, 
< L. re-probare, disapprove, < 
probare, test, approve, <probus, 
good] reprove ; {cf. reprieve, 8k. 
II. 68. 1; 85). 

resave, w., [<0F. recever, AF. 
receivre, F. recevoir, < L. re- 
cipere [re-, hack, -capere, take']'] 
receive, Sk. II. 81. 2. 

rest, ME. reste, rest, ryste, rist, 
sf., [=:T. ras-ti- <T. Vras, stay, 
dwell] {cf. Goth, rasta, stage of a 
journey, mile, as Ic. rost ; OHG. 
resti, rasta, G. rast) rest, resting- 
place, bed IX. 20. 

restan, Nh. raesta, ME. resten, 
reste, ryste ; pri. reste (405.4), 
ME. reste, ME. restide, w. 1 [< 
rest] (OS. restian, G. rasten) 

reste-daeg, ME. restedaio;, restes- 
daig, sm., day of rest. Sabbath. 

ret V. rgfedan. 

retwrnynge, sb., [vb-sb. <AF. 
re-, back, tourner, Sk. II. 75. 2, 
turn, = L. tornare, turn in a 
lathe, turn, < L. tornus, lathe] 
return (ing). 

reue, reve v. r^aflan. 

rfewett, ME. reowett, s)i., [r6w- 
an] Rowing, ship XII. Otho 6. 

rewful V. hreowful. 

rice. Ml. riici, ME. riche, aj., [cf. 
rice, sn., Sk. Ill] (cf. L. reg- 
ius, REoal ; Goth, reik-s, mighty, 
noble, as OS. riki and OHG. 
rihhi ; G. reich, rich) poicerful, 
in ME. also rich, Sk. 44 ; 325. 

rice, ME. riche, sn. (246), [for 
older rici, <T. rik-j(i, 45.8)o-, 

<T. *rik- = C. rig, nuler, <\/rgg, 
diRECt, cf. Skt. rajan, king, 
RAjah] {cf. L. reg-num ; Goth, 
reiki, G. reich, cf. bishop-ric, 
Sk. 202) REiGw, REaZm. 

ridan, ME. riden, ride, s. 1 (382 
N. 1; Sk. 150), [T. VitS, loco- 
motion] (OHG. ritan, ride (horse- 
back or in a vehicle), Ic. rl5a, 
ride, swing, rock, G. reiten) ride. 

right V. riht. 

rigour, sb., [<0F. rigour, > F. 
rigueur, < L. rigor, Jiarshness, 
> rig-ere, to be stiff, rigid] rigour. 

ri3t V. riht. 

riht (101), ME. riht, ri3t, rihht, 
richt, rigt, rycht, ryht, ryght, 
ricth, rith, I. aj., [(233) Sk. Ill, 
<T. rech-to-z, Sk. 253, prop, old 
ptc, <I.-E. rektos < V reg, diRE.ct] 
{cf. L. rec-tu-s = *reg-tus, pp. 
< reg-ere, keep straight ; Goth, 
raiht-s, Ic. r^tt-r, OS. reht, G. 
recht) right, Sk. 375, straight. 
II. sb., sn., right; on riht, 
ME. origt, ari3t > aright, ME. 
to ricth, to rights. III. rihte, 
riht, ME. rihte, riht, av., right, 
rightly, exactly, straightway, very. 

rihtan (100 N. 1), ME. righte ; 
prt. ME. right, w. 1, [riht] 
right, make — , set right. 

rihte v. riht. 

riht-lsecan, ME. ryhtleche, w. 1 C 
(407 b), [-1 sec an, move quickly] 


riht-spell, ryhtspell, sn., true 

riht-wis, Merc, rehtwls, ME. 

ryghtwys, richthwis, aj., [Sk. 

242, lit. knowing as to right] 

riht-wisness, Merc, relitwis- 

nis, ME. rilitwisnesse, sf. 

[<rihtwis] righteousness. 
rinc, ME. rink, renk, sm. {cf. 

ranc, proiid, strong, rankI" ; 

Ic. rakkr=:*rankr, straight; Ic. 

rekkr = *renkr, in poet, and 

law, OS. rink) {poet.) hero, 

riordigan r reordian. 





ripan (or ripan?, Merc, rio- 

pan, -lo- < short i), ME. ripen, 

s. 1 (382 N. 1 ajid S; Sk. 150), 

risan, ME. risenn, rise, ryse ; prt. 

ras, ME. ras, ros, roos ; pi. 

rison, ME. risen, ryse, ros; 

pp. risen, ME. risenn, risun, 

rise, s. 1 (882; Sk. 150), [< T. 

Vris, vertical motion'] (Goth, ur- 

reisan, Ic. risa, OS. risan, MHG. 

risen, ascend^ fall, cf. G. raise, 

a journey) rise. 
rist V. rest, 
risun v. risan. 
rith V. riht. 
rixlen, iv., [Sk. 262 ; cf. ricsian 

(411) <rice] reigw, 
robbere, ?wrobbere, sb., [<AF. 

robeour, OF. robeor, < ML. 

robator < raubare, ro6, < T., cf. 

reaf] (cf. G. rauber) robber. 
roberie, sb., [ = AF., cf. robbere] 

(cf. G. rauberei) robbery. 
roche, 'sb., [=AF. <ML. rocca, 

cf. It. rocca] (rocc, sm., in 

stAn-rocc, |)eaA:, obelisk) rock. 
r6d, ME. rode, rod, sf. (252 N. 1, 

2), [ = T. *r6«6-] (OS. roda, Ic. 

ro'Sa ; OHG. ruota and G. rute, 

rod, rood (measure) prop, rod, 

Sk. 45, pole, i.e. a gallows) rood, 

Sk. 160, cross. 
rode-treo, ME, rodetre, sn. (250. 

2), cross, rood-treef. 
rodor, gen. rodres, roderes 

(129), sm., (OS. radur) (poet.) 

ro3, rogh v. r6h. 
roiall, royall, ME. aj., [AF. roial, 

Sk. II. p. 26 ; 80, < L. reg-al-is, 

<reg- (rex), king, cf. rice] 

Rokes-burw, prop, sb., [burh] 

rom, romm, ME. ram, sm., 

(OHG. ram) ram. 
R<3ni, ME. Rome, sf, [<L. Roma] 

R6m-ware, pi. m. (263 N. 7) 

l_orig. pi. of waru, people^ cf 

wer] the Romans. 

rond-wiggend, sb. prs. ptc. m. 
(286), [<T. *ran-«o-, randf, 
<I.-E. rom-to- <:>/rem, cease] 
(Ic. rond, OHG. rent, G. rand, 
border) shield-warnor, buckler- 
bearer VI. 188. 

roos V. risan. 

rop V. rdp. 

ros V. risan. 

rose, ME. rose, wf., [< L. rosa, 
Quell, u. Forsch. 64. 149; 280, 
<Gk. 'pbdov, Sk. 401] (Ic. ros, 
OHG. rosa, G. rose, NE. influ. 
F. rose) rose. 

rou3t V. r6can. 

round, roun, ME. aj., [< AF. round, 
OF. roond, Sk. 11. 151, <L. rot- 
undus, ROTUND, < rota, wheel] 
round ; on round > around. 

rout, sb., [<AF. route, rute, OF. 
rote, <ML. rutta <rupta, men 
in broken ranks, <f. pp. of L. 
rumpere, break, Sk. II. 77. 1; 
154] rout, troop. 

r6ving, Nh. , ME. rowyng, vb.-sb., 
[r6wan] ship. 

r6wan, Nh. r6va, ME. rowe ; 
prt. reow, ME. reow, rowit, 
s. red. J5(396; Sk. 139), [<T. 
\/ ro < : V rS : er : ar, push ; cf L. 
re-mus, Gk. iper-fxds, oar] ( Ic. roa, 
MHG. riiejen) row, go by icater. 

rowned v. runian. 

royall v. roiall. 

ruchen v. reccan. 

rudnyng, sb., [<rudnen, ic, < 
Scand., cf. Ic. ro'Sna, become 
RED, V. r 6 o d a n ; -n- cf. REDDen, 
Sk. 260] REDDgN//;^, lightning?. 

rth, gen. r6wes (116), ME. ro3, 
rogh, I. aj. (295 N. 1 ; Sk. 243) 
(OHG. ruh, G. rauh) rough, Sk. 
46 ; 333. II. ME. also as sb. 

*rfih-lic, ME. roghlych, av., 

r6n, ME. rune, sf, [<T. ru-no- 
<\/ru-, buzz; cf. L. ru-mor, ru- 
mour, orig. miirmur] (Goth. 
runa, Ic. run, also rune and 
OHG. runa) secret, mystei'y, 
counsel (secret), rune = a letter 
(< Scand.), roun^. 




r6nian, ME. rowne, run, w. 2, 
[r6n] (G. raunen) talk secretly, 
whisper, roun^, rown^, round 
(Shak.) Sk. 344. 

rurd V. reord. 

r6w- V. rfih. 

ruwen v. hreowan. 

rwly V. hreowlice. 

rybaud, .s5., [<0F. ribaud, AF. 
ribald <1\?] ribald, villain. 

rychesse, sh., [<AF. richesce, OF. 
rich-ese < MHG. riche, cf. rice] 

rycht, ryght v. riht. 

rym, sh., [<0F. rym, ?< L. j 
rhythmus < Gk. pvd/x6s, meas- j 
ured motion'] (MHG. rim, G. 
reim, cf. influ. rim, number) 
rhyme, verse, poetry, rime. 

ryman, ME. rumen, remen, rimen, 
= geryman. 

ryse v. risan. 

ryste v. rest, restan. 

sa V. swA. 

sabeline, sh., [ = OF.<ML. sabell- 
inus, sable-fur, <sabel-um, the 
sable < Russ. soboli, Sk. II. 280] 
(cf MHG. G. zobel) sable, XVI. 

saboth, sb., [<L. (Vulg.) sabba- 
tum < Gk. a-dp^arov < Heb. shab- 
bath, rest, Sk. II. 301] sabbath. 

sacerd (50 N. 5), sin., [in 1th cent. 
<L. sacer-d-6t-em, ace, lit. giver 
of sacred things, < sficer, sacred, 
+ dare, give] (Olr. skcerd) priest, 
(cf sacerdotal). 

sac-I6as, ME. sakles, aj., [< 
sac-u-] guiltLE&s, sackless 

sacrament, sb., [i=AF. <L. sac- 
ra-mentum, {jurid.) sum depos- 
ited in a suit, (milit.) engagement, 
oath, (eccl.) mystery, <s?iCYa-Ye, 
set apart as sacred] sacrament. 

sacu, saku, ME. sake, .s/. (253 
ayid N. 1), [<T. Vsak-o-, < pe- 
culiar to T. V sak, strive, espec. 
in law'] (cf. Goth. sak-j6 ; Ic. 

sok, OS. saka, OHG. sahha ; G. 
sache, thing, cause) strife, liti- 
gation, guilt, sin ; ME. for . . . 
sake, for . . . sake. 

sgfe, ME. se, see, Sk. 300, sea, ze, 
smf. (266 N. 3), [<T. saiwi-, 
(118; 173. 2 ; 174 N. 2)] (Goth, 
s&iw-s, also marsh, Ic. sse-r, OS. 
OHG. s6o, Du. zee, G. see) sea, 
Sk. 301 ; 17, lake. 

saec (89 N. 1), sec, gen. saecce, 
secce, sf (258), [<T. sak-jo; 
cf. sacu] strife. 

saecg- V. secg-. 

saed, ME. sed, sead, aj., [< T. 
sa-'So-, prop, old ptc. in pre T. 
-to-, < V s3,, sxriate, Brug. 109] 
(cf. L. satis, sufficient, > satiare, 
sATe; Goth. saj>s, qen. sad-is, 
full, Ic. sadd-r, OS.' sad, OHG. 
sat, G. satt) ^\riated = sad\. 

sgfede, saegde v. secgan. 

saeshenn v. s6on. 

ssfel, Nh. s§el, ME. sel, sele, smf. 
(266 N. 2), [=:T. *s^i-] (cf. 
Goth. s61ei, goodness, Ic. ssela, 
ge-S£felig, aj., happy, >sill?/, 
Sk. 256) fit time, good fortune, 

s^iaf, ME. sellbe, sel«he, sf, [ssel] 
(OS. sdlSa, OHG. salida ; cf L. 
Fortuna (Grmm. Myth., pjj. 863- 
869)) good fortune, happiness. 

saetenn v. sittan. 

saetern-daeg, saeterdaBg, ME. 
saterdei, sm. (50. 1, N. 2), [< 
saeternes+,< Folk L. Saturn! 
< L. Saturn!- (dies), Saturn's 
day, (Grmm. Myth., pp. 247, 
122-128) Sk. p. 426] (Olr. (dia) 
sathairnn, OFris. saterdei, Du. 
zaterdag) Saturday. 

sag, sa3 v. s6on. 

sagu, ME. sa3e, sawe, sf, [^abs., 
cf. secgan] (Ic. saga>SAGA, 
Sk. 391 ; p. 480, OHG. saga, G. 
sage) saw, say, ^x\ing, story. 

sahh V. seon. 

sahtnyss, ME. sahhtnesse, sf, [abs. 
<aj. sah-t, reconciled, <v'sak, 
strive, litigate ; cf. sacu] recon- 



sai, saide a7id the like v. secgan. 

saint V. sanct. 

sair V. sar. 

sake V. sacu. 

sal V. sculan. 

salde V. sellan. 

sail V. sculan. 

salline-, salme- v. sealm-. 

salowig-pdd, saluwig-, a/., [< 
salu + ig, <T. *salwo- (300), 
SALLOW, (OHG. salo, dusky, > 
F. sale, dirty, Ic. solr, yellow) ; 
V. hasopdd] dark-coated, of 
dusky plumage VI. 211. 

salt V. sealt. 

salt, saltu V. sculan. 

saluen, w., [< OF. salver < L. 
salutare < salut-, st. of salus, 
loish sAFBty to'] salute, salve]. 

sam- V. som-. 

same, ME. aj., [<Scand., cf, Ic. 
sam-r < T. prn. st. samo-, same 
tvith] (cf. ?Gk. ofxds, one and the 
same, L, similis, siuilar, cf. 
same, av., Goth, sama, OHG. 
samo, MHG. sam) same. 

sanct, Nh. sancti <L. gen. XII, 
p. 39, ME. sancte, sainte, seinte, 
seynte, sannte, saint, seint, saynt, 
seynt, saynd, sant, sb. and aj., 
[<L. sanctus, SAcred, pp. < sanc- 
ire, render SAcred; ME. also 
< AF. seint, saint ; cf. sdcerd. 
Quell, u. Forsch. 64. 188; 283] 
SAINT, Sk. 403, holy. 

sande v. sond. 

sang V. song. 

sdr, ME. sar, sair, sor, I. aj., [<T. 
sairo-] (Goth. *sdir-s, Ic. s^r-r, 
OS. OHG. s6r, cf MHG. s6re, 
av., painfully, vein/, > G. sehr, 
Sk. 157, very) painful, sore, Sk. 
42. II. sn., pain, grief, anguish, 
affliction, sore]. 

Sarazyn, sb., [<0F. Sarrazin<L. 
Saracenus, lit. one of the East- 
ern people, < Arab. = eastern, 
sunny, Sk. II. 304 ; 305] Saracen. 

sdre, ME. sare, sore, av., [instr. 
of sar (320)] painfully, sore. 

sarig, ME. sori, aj., '[ = sar + lg| 
>prop. sor-y, Sk. p. 314] sorry. I 

sarigness, ME. sorinesse, sf, 
[<sdrig] sorriness, sadness. 

sat, saten, v. sittan. 

sdul, saule v. sdwol. 

sauter, sb., [<0F. sautier, psaul- 
tier < eccl. L. psalter-ium < Gk. 
xpaXr-qp-Lov, Stringed instrument, 

< xj/aXTifip, a harper, < xJ/dWcLv, 
twitch, Sk. II. 264; 276. 31] 


save, pp. ysaved, w., [ = AF. saver, 
sauver<LL.salvare, make safe, 
<L. salvus, SAFE, Sk. II. 54. 1 ; 
82. 5 . p. 232] save. 

savl V. sdwol. 

saw V. seen. 

sawau, ME. sowen, sogh ; prt. 
s6ow, pi. s6owon, ME. 
seowen,j?. red. B (396 ; Sk. 139), 
[<T. ssej-on <I.-E. V se, sow; 
cf. L. se-vi, prt. of serere, sow, 
se-men, seec?, Brug. 75; 142] 
(Goth, saian, cf Ic. s&, prt. s6ri ; 
OHG. sd(w)an, cf. s^jan, w. G. 
saen, w.) sow, Sk. p. 55. 

saTve V. sagu. 

sdwol, sdul (6 N. 1), Nh. sdvl, 
ME. sawle, saule, soule, zaule, 
saull, sf (255. 2, 174. 3), [<T. 
saiwolo-, Sk. 218] (Goth, sai- 
wala, Ic. sdla, OS. sSola, OHG. 
s61a, G. seele) soul, Sk. 355; 
p. 55. 

sa\vte, sb., [<0F. saut, a leap, 

< L. saltus, a leaping, < salire, 
leap] assault, Sk. II. p. 228, 

say V. secgan, s6on, swa. 

sayl V. segl. 

saynd v. sanct. 

scael V. sculan. 

scaerp v. scearp. 

seal V. sculan. 

scale, prt. scalit XXXI. 93, ic., 
[scalu] (cf Swed. skiala) dis- 
perse, scale (North.), siciLLt. 

scalu, ME. scale, sf, [<T. *skal6-, 
a flake, T. V skal, separate, ?<: 
>i skel, cleave] (OHG. scala, 
MHG. schal, G. schale > shale, 
Sk. 277) scale, Sk. 360, shell. 

scam- V. sceom-. 




scape V. escapen. 

scatereii, prt. scatered XV. 4, w., 
[freq. Sk. 273, < T. V *skat] 
(MDu. scheteren) scatter, (shat- 
ter, Sk. 390), squander. 

sca>el, ME. aj., [c/, sceaiaf-a] 
(Goth, skajjul-s, OHG. scadel) 
harmful, dangerous, scaddle (K.). 

scawien v. sceawian. 

sceacan (76. 1), ME. schake, s. 6 
(392 N. 1, 3; Sk. 140), [<T. 

V *skak, move to and fro'] (Ic. 
skaka, OS. skakan) shake, Sk. 
324; 330, hasten; ME. vb.-sb. 
schakyng, shaking. 

sceddan (7(5. 1), ME. schede, 
ssede; prt. seed (58), ME. 
shedde ; pp. ME. isclied, yssed, 
s. red. A (395; Sk. 139), [< T. 

V skai)> : sk!)? < V *skhait, rf. skhid, 
cut (Sk. 274); cf. Ok. Vx^fetJ', 
split, rf L. scind-ere, split] 
(Goth, sk&idan, OS. skMan, 
OHG. sceidan, G. scheiden) part, 
separate. Late ME. also shed, 
Sk. p. 303. 

sceaiy, ME. shebe, sf, [<T. *skaiSo-,' 
orig. that lohich separates, Sk. 
274, cf. sceadanj (cf Ic. pi. 
skeiSir ; OS. sc6Sia, OHG. sceida, 
G. scheide) sheath. 

seeaffa (76. 1 ; 109), ME. scabe, 
lom., [<V*skath, cf. Gk. d-o-Krjd'ns, 
unscathed] (cf Ic. ska'Se, injury; 
OS. sca"So, OHG. scado, G. 
schade, -n, injury) lit. one who 
does scath, criminal, enemy VI. 

sceal V. sciilan. 

scealc, ME. shalk, shalke, sm., 
(Goth, skalk-s, Ic. skalk-r, ser- 
vant, as also OS. skalk, OHG. 
scalch, G. schalk, wag, cf. sene- 
SHAL, ?7irtrsHAL) scTvaut, man. 

sceainu v. sceomu. 

seean v. scinan. 

sceap (75. 2), scsep, sc§p 
(LWS. 102 N.), Nh. scip, ME. 
shep, scheep, sep, sn., [ = WT. 
skapo- < T. *skSpo-] (OS. scdp, 
OHG. scM, Sk. 63, MHG. schaf, 
G. schaf) sheep, Sk. 33. 

sceard, aj., [< T. skar-So-, old 
ptc, cf. scieran (75. 3), s. 4, 
SHEAR, < V sker, cut, Sk. 276] 
(Ic. skar^-r, OHG. scart) notched, 
robbed of, (cf shard). 

scearp, ME. scserp, scharp, aj., 
[<T. skarpo-, ?<Vskarp, cut, 
Sk. 278 ; 120] (Ic. skarp-r, OS. 
scarp, OHG. scharpf, G. scharf, 
Sk. 63) sharp. 

scearp-liee, ME. scharply, av., 

8c6at, ME. sciet, sm., [<T. skauto-, 
projection, < T. V skaut : sktlt, 
shoot; cf prt. of s ceo tan] 
(Goth. sk4ut-s, the hem, Ic. 
skaut, corner, sheet, Sk. p. 187, 
of a sail, OHG. scoz, G. schoss) 
lap, cover. 

sceatt (75.1), Ep. soaet, sm., 
[lit. contribution, that shot into 
a fund?, <T. : V sktit, shoot ; cf 
so 6 o tan] (Goth, skatt-s, Ic. 
skatt-r, OHG. scaz, G. schoss, 
tax, tribxite ; cf NE. scoT-/r^e, 
Sk. pp. 188, 427) coin, money. 

sceawere, ME. ssewere, sm., [< 
s c e a w-i an] (cf Goth . skugg- 
wa, and Ic. skugg-sja. mirror; 
OHG. scouwA,ri) sj^iy, shower, 
ME. (us2ial.) mirror. 

sceawian, ME. sceawien, scawien, 
shajweiiii, shewe, ssewe, schewe ; 
prt. sceawode, ME.sceawede, 
schewide, sceaude ; pp. ME. sh*- 
wedd, schewid, u'. 2 (411), [<T. 
skauw-<skaw- (73. 1) <v'(s)qou : 
(s)qti, look; cf. L. cavere <*sca- 
vere, take care, Gk. Ko4u}=*KOf€U}, 
I mark, Brug. 81 ; 439] (Goth. 
*skaggw6n, OS. skawon, OHG. 
scouwon, G. schauen) behold, 
ME. (genr.) cause to see=shew, 

seel V. sculan. 

scene (76 N. 3), ME. scench, sm., 
[cf. so en can] goblet. 

seencan (76 N. 3), ME. schenchen, 
w. 1 (405. 2 ; 406), [?caus. < 
sceanca, shank, hollow bone 
used as a faucet?] (Ic. skenkja, 
OHG. scenchen, MHG. schenken, 




G. (ein-)sclienken) pour out, 
skink (prov.). 

scendan (76 N. 3), ME. schenden, 
w. 1 [caus. <scean-d, /., dis- 
grace, = T. abs. ^skam-So-, ptc. 
siiff. = I.-E. -ta-, <\/ skam, Brug. 
214; II. 80, V. sceomu] (OS. 
scendan, OHG. scentan < scant, 
asiiAued, G. schanden) SHAMe, 
injure, insult, ruin, shend^. 

scene v. sciene. 

sceolde V. sculan. 

sceomian, sceamian, ME. sca- 
mian, 10. 2, [<sceoin-u] (Goth, 
skaman (sik), G. (sich) scha- 
men) gen. of cause, he ashamed, 
shame; impers. dat. or ace. of 
pers., gen. of cause, cause shame. 

sceom-lice, ME. schomely, av., 
[sceom-u] shamefully. 

sceomu (76. 1), scorn u, scea- 
mu, scamu, ME, scame, 
shame, scam, sham, sf (253), 
[< T. *skam-o- < V skam, ?cf. 
Vkam, cover oneself, v. lic- 
homa] (Ic. skomm, OS. ska- 
ma, G. scham) shame, Sk. 360, 
disgrace (sham, North.); t6 
sceaine, shamefully XIV. 17. 

sce6p V. scieppan. 

sceop-gereord(e), scop-, sn., 
[reord] poetical language 
IX. 6. 
. sceort, ME. scort, schort, short, 
schorte, aj. (307; 310), [=T. 
*skurto- (76.2) Sk. 243, ?<T. 
\/*skrt, or ??< ML. *ex-curtus, 
L. curtus] (OHG. scurz, cf. G. 
schurz, apron, cf. Ic. skyrta = 
SHIRT, cf SKIRT, Sk. 391 ; 428 ; 
434) short; ME. also av. 

sceotan, ME. shete; prt. sceat, 
scet, LWS. (102), ME. sceat, 
schote ; pp. sceoten, scoten, 
s. 2 (384). [(64) <T. V skeut : 
skut, pre T. V skud, spring forth; 
?cf. Skt. V skund, ju7np] (Goth. 
*skiutan, Ic. skjota, OS. skeotan, 
OHG. sciozan, G. schiessen) 
shoot, rush. 

seep, sc^p V. sceap. 

scepen v. scieppend. 

schakyng v. sceacan. 

schal(t) V. sculan. 

schald V. ceald. 

scharp v. scearp. 

sche- V. see-. 

scheep v. scedp. 

schewe v. sceawian. 

schip V. scip. 

schir V. sire. 

schire v. scire. 

scho V. he. 

scholde V. sculan. 

schomely v. sceomlice. 

schort V. sceort. 

schote V. sceotan. 

schrewe v. screawa. 

schrewyne v. scrlfan. 

schrifte v. scrlft. 

schruden v. scrydan. 

schulen v. sculan. 

schyne v. scinan. 

schyp V. scip. 

sciene, scyne, ME. scene, shene, 
aj., [< (100) sc6one for 
*sceane (63) = T. skau-ni-, 
worth seeing, snowy; cf 
sceawian] (Goth. *skauns, 
OS. skoni, OHG. sconi, G. 
schon) beautiful, fair, sheen, 
Sk. p. 58. 

scieppan, scyppan, ME. schep- 
pen, schapen, pri. sce6p, 
scop, ME. scop, ssop, shope, 
pp. ME. yssape XXVIII. 17, s. 6 
(392. 4; 372; Sk. 141), [< 
*scieppjan (228) < sceap- 
(98 b) <T. scap- (76. 1)] (Goth. 
(ga-)skapjan, Ic. skepja, OS. 
skeppian, OHG. skephen, scaf- 
fan, MHG. G. schaffen) create, 
make (XXVIII. 17, in orig. re- 
formS), shape. 

scieppend, scyppend, Nh. 
scepen, ME. shippend, sm., 
[prop. prs. ptc. of scieppan] 

sciet v. sc^at. 

scild, scyld, sceld, ME. shekl, 
sm. (273), [< T. skil^u-, Sk. 
225] (Goth. skil-«u-s, Ic. skj61d-r, 
OS. skikl, OHG. scilt, MHG. 
schilt, G. schild) shield. 




scildan, ME. shilden, sculden, 
sculde, IV. 1, [scild] (Ic. skil- 
da) shield. 

scinan, ME. scinen, schyne ; prt. 
ME. scean, s. 2 (382; Sk. 150), 
[< T. V ski 4- prs. suff. -no-, < 
V skei, cf. Gk. (XKid, shadow, Brug. 
67. 2b, Bem.2] (Goth, skeinan, 
Ic. skina, OS. skinan, OHG. sci- 
nan, MHG. schinen, G. scheinen, 
Du. schijnen) shine, Sk. 360 ; 
p. 303; p. 61. 

scip, scyp, Nh. scipp, ME. 
shipp, schyp, ssip, sn. (241), 
[<T. skipo-z (288 N. 1; Sk. 
205)] (Goth. Ic. OS. skip, OHG. 
scif, Sk. 63, scef, MHG. schif, 
G. schiff, Du. schip) ship. 

scip V. scedp. 

scip-flota, scyp-, torn., sailor, 

scir, ME. shir, aj., [< T. V ski, 
shine, + suff. -ri- ; v. scinan] 
(Goth, skeir-s, Ic. sklr-r, OS. 
skir(i), G. schier) bright, clear, 
shire (North.), siieerI. 

scire, ME. schire, av., [<scir] 
brightly, clearly. 

scir-msfeled, aj., [scir + pj9. of 
median, mark, <m8el, mea- 
sure, mark, time, ?<Vmg, mea- 
sure,-\-suff. -lo-, (cf. Goth. m^ljan, 
write, G. malen, paint)~\ splen- 
didly marked, — decorated VI. 

scittisc V. scyttisc. 

scorn- V. sceoin-. 

sc6p V. scieppan. 

scop- V. sceop-. 

scopen, w., [< T. V *skap, con- 
tain; ME. scope, sb., <Scand., 
cf. Swed. skopa, MDu. schoepe, 
a scoop'\ (OS. skeppian, Du. 
scheppen, OHG. schepfen, G. 
schopfen), draw {water), scoop, 
Sk. 434 ; 419. 

scort V. sceort. 

Scott, Sceott, ME. Scot, sm., 
Scot, Scotchman. 

scr6ade, ME. shrede, xof, [< 
screadian, to cut, < T. 
V*skrau^:skrii^, cut, v. scr6d; 

Sk. 280] {cf Ic. skrjoSr ; OHG. 
(a-) scrota, rf scrot, G. schrot, 
cut, piece) shred, screed (North., 
Sk. 390). 

screawa, ME. schrewe, lom., 
shrew-mouse ; ME. villain, ras- 
cal, shrew] . 

screncan, ME, screnche, w. 1, 
[< T. V *skrank < V *skrang 
?< V *skrak, be aslant] (OHG. 
screnchen, MHG. schrenken, G. 
schranken, lay across) trip up, 
supplant, deceive. 

scriche, w., [< Scand.] {cf Ic. 
skraekja, skrikja, titter ; OS. scri- 
con, Swed. skrika) screech, Sk. 
434, screal<, shriek, Sk. 418 ; 391, 

scrifan, ME. shriven ; prt. pi. Ep. 
scribun; pp. scrifen, ME. 
schrewyne, s. 1 (382; Sk. 150), 
[< T. V skrib, impose a penalty, 
Hater influ. only of L. scrlbere, 
write, ?? Sk. p. 62 ; p. 438] 
(O Fris. scriva ; cf. Ic. skripta, 
OS. scriban, as G. schreiben, 
write) pre^cRiBE penance, receive 
confessions, shrive. 

serif t, ME. serif t, schrifte, sm. 
also f? [cf pp. of scrifan, 
Sk. p. 185, + swjr. -t-, Sk. p. 241] 
(Ic. skript) shrift. 

scr6d, ME. scrud, M.n. (281. 2), 
[cf scr^ade, Sk. 280] (Ic. 
skrii^ > shroud of a ship, Nor. 
skrud) ^armew^, shroud, Sk. 46. 

scrydan, ME. schrude ; prt. 
scrydde XIII. 25; pp. ME. 
ischrud, w.l, [<scr6d] clothe, 
{shroud) . 

sculan, ME. sculen ; prs. sg. 
sceal, seel, ME. sceal, scael, 
seal, schal, shal, ssel, sal, shall 
(>NE. sha//),s?d\',pl. sculon, 
sceolon (76 N. 2), sculan, 
sceolan, Nh. scylun, ME. 
sculen, scullen, scule, sculle, 
schulen, sullen, ssolle, sull, shall, 
sail; prt. sceolde (76 N. 2), 
seolde, ME. scolde, sculde, 
schulde, schuldi = schulde i < 
ic, shulde, shollde, scholde, 




s(s)olde, sulde, schuld, schold 
(>NE, should), suld, prt.-prs. 
s. 4 (423), [<T. V skul : skal, owe, 
prop, prt., < yJ sqhl : sqhel, c/. L. 
scelus, guilt, Brug. 299; 553.2] 
(Goth. OS. skulan, Ic. prs. skal, 
OHG. scolan, cf. solan, MHG. 
solii (scholn), G. sollen) (prin- 
cipal vb. tr.) owe, he obliged; 
SHALL also, to express fut. and 

8c6r (76. 2), ME. schowr, sm., (cf. 
Goth, skiir-a, /. storin of icind, 
Ic. skur,/.; OS. skiir, OHG. scur, 
MHG. schur, G. schauer) shower, 
Sk. 46. 

scyan Merc, lo. 1 (408. 4 and 
N. 11 ), tempt, persuade XI. R. 14. 

scyld V. scild. 

scylun V. sciilan. 

scypen, ME. shipne, shipun, sf, 
[cf. sceoppa, wm., booth, > 
shop] (G. schuppen <MHG. /. 
< Low G. schup) stable IX. 27, 
shippen (North.), shippon (prov.). 

scyppend v. scieppend. 

scyttisc, scittisc, aj., [<Scot- 
tas, pi., <Folk-L, Sc6tti<LL. 
Scoti, Quel. u. Forsch. 64. 69; 
205; 225-6, Sk.p.272] Scott/sA. 

se V. ssfe, s§on. 

se, se, Nh. (337 N. 2) also fS^, 
f. sio, seo, Nh. also ffiu, ffiv, 
n. >8et; ME. se, )?e, /. syo, si, 
beo, n. hat, tSet, bet, batt, that, 
tatt, finally m. f. n. in all cases 
be, the, te ; gen. m. J^aes, /. 
J>£fere, K. ff§re, Nh. th6re, 
saCser, n. >aes, ME. m. n. bes, 
'Ses, bas, /. bare, bere, 'Sere, ber, 
'Sor; dat. m. n. J»8fem, 9" 6 in, 
}>dm, ME. ban, bon, /. like 
gen.; ace. m. >one, 9" one, /. 
>d, n. >aet, ME. m. bane, bene, 
"Sene, banne, benne, ban, /. ba, 
bo, n. bat, bet ; instr. m. n. S" y, 
>y, ME. bi, "Si, be, thy, in comp. 
>cj. NE. the (more) (G. des-to), 
strengthened form, bes be ; pi. 
nom. ace. J> d, ME. bo, ba, ta, bai, 
beo, tho ; gen. pl.}>^Ta, J>dra, 
ffeara, ME. bare; dat. pi. 

J>£fem, >dm, aCem, ME. bam, 
ban, 1. prn. dem. (337), [%^ = 
WT. se, s6o=rT. *si6 (=Skt. 
sia), <I.-E. pronom. st. so-:sa- 
(Gk. m. 6 = *(ro, f.v = *<rd, cf. 
OL. ace. sum, sam ; Goth. m. sa, 
/. so, Ic. m. sk,f. sii, OS. m. s6); 
>8e-t, etc., Sk. 431, < T. ba-t, 
ba-: be-, < I.-E. pronom. st. to-d,. 
to-:te-, Brug. 351, Sk. 118, (cf 
Gk. n. t6, L. -te, -ta, -tu-d in iste, 
ista, istud, that, Goth. n. bat-a, 
Ic. n. -Sat, G. das, Sk. 61)] the, 
that. II. prn. rel. (340) (with 
and without]}^, MFj. finally only 
bat, that) icho, that. III. ME. 
\)e,the, oft. loses e before a vowel 
and coalesces with following 
word, e.g., berl, babot = be erl, 
be abot. 

s6 V. eom. 

sea V. ssfe. 

sead V. saed. 

seagen v. s6on. 

sealm, ME. salm, sallm, psalme 
but cf aim. XXIX. 120, sm., 
[< L. (Vul^.) psalmus < Gk. 
(LXX) \J/a\[x6s < \f/d\\€Lv, touch 
(harp-strings), Quell, u. Forsch. 
64. 305 ; 198, Sk. p. 440; II. 264] 
vsa/m, Sk. 382. 

sealm-wyrhta, ME. sallme- 
wrihhte, salmewrihte, wm., 
[■wyrh-t-a < (ge-)wyrh-t, 
deed, Sk. p. 245; cf. wyrc-an] 
vsalmist, (lit. vsalmwright, Sk. 

sealt, ME. salt,sn., [< T. sal-to-m, 
cf. W. Aryan sal-] (cf Gk. aXs 
= %(iX$, L. sal ; Ic. salt, OHG. 
MHG. G. salz, Sk. 61) salt. 

sealt, ME. salt, aj., [v. sealt, 
sn., Sk. p. 269] (cf. L. salsus ; 
Ic. salt-r) salt, salted; ME. salt 
flod = baptismal icater, because 
salt was used, salt water, salt- 
water = sea-. 

Searo-burh, ME. Sereberi, M.f, 

searo->onc, sm. , [ = T. *sar-wo- 
(105 N. 1; 249) <: Vser, join ; cf 
Gk. €tp€ip=*^p-j€iv, and L. ser-ere, 




hind together'] (Goth, sarva, pi. 

armour, also OHG. saro) skillful 

THOUGHT, sagacity. 
searo->oricol, a;., [-]>onc+-ol, 

Sk. 251] sagacious. 
Seax, Sex, s?n., Sex a, wm. (264 

and N.), [ = T. *Sahsi- (261 ; 82), 

also T. Sahso(n-) <T. sahso-(m), 

knife, >Seax, sn., short sword, 

< T. V sag < n/ sok : sek, cut, ?cf. 
L. saxum, stone] (Ic. Saxar, wm. 
pL, OHG. Sahso, ivm., MHG. 
Sahse, G. Sachse, NE. < OF. < 
LL, Saxones, pi.) Sxxon. 

secan, s6cean (206. 6), Merc. 
stiecaii, Nh. scfeca (27; 150. 
4) MK. seke, seche, sek; prt. 
s 6 h t e, ME. so3te, socht, > NE. 
sought, Sk. 334; pp. ME. so3t, 
soght, w.lG (407 a), [=*8 6- 
cian (94; 45. 8 ; 177; Sk. 196) 

< T. V sok< V sag ; cf. Doric Gk. 
dy-€oiJ.aL, I lead, show the way, 
L. sagire, track out, Olr. sdigim, 
I aim at] (Goth, sokjan, Ic. 
ssekja = *scekja, OS. sokian, 
OHG. suohhan, Q. suchen, Du. 
zceken) seek, Sk. 199. 5 ; p. 354. 

secg, ME. seg, segge, sm. (246), 
[= T. *saggi- <orig. *sagi-z, 
Beitr. XIV. 188, or ?? = T. *sag- 
jo-z (130 N. ; 216); prop, messen- 
ger, ? cf. secgan] (Ic. segg-r, 
OS. segg) man, hero (poet.). 

secgan, .secgean (206. 6), 
8gecg(e)an (89 N. 1), Nh. 
saegca, ME. seggen, seggenn, 
segge, sigge, zigge, seie, seye, 
saye, sai, say; 3. sg. prs. ind. 
sege» (416 N. 3), ME. sei^, 
se33}>, sey)?, seitli, seid, seit, 
zay)?, sais, says ; prt. s ae g d e, 
ssfede (214. 3), ME. se33de, 
seide, seyde, saide, sayde, said, 
seid, seyd, zayde, sede, zede, 
zeede ; pp. MP], iseid, iseyd, ised, 
iset, to. 3 (415), [ = *sag-(a)jan 
(89. 1 ; 216) <T. *sagai; <I.-E. 
*sokSy-, cf Lith. sakyti] (Ic. 
segja, OS. seggian, OHG. sagen, 
G. sagen, Du. zeggen) say, Sk. 
p. 201 ; p. 341, tell. 

seche v. secan. 

sed V. ssed. 

sede V. secgan. 

see V. ssfe, s6on. 

seel V. ssel. 

seeth V. s6on. 

sefa, wm.y [ = T. *seho(ii-) (109a)] 
(OS. sebo) mind, spirit. 

sefte (94c), later s6fte {orig. 
av.), ME. softe, aj. (299 and 
N. 1), [ = WT. *samft-ja- (185. 
1; 66) ?cf. Goth, samjan, please] 
(OHG. semfti, aj., samfto, av., 
OS. safti, aj., safto, av., MHG. 
senfte, aj. sanfto, av., G. sanft) 
soft, gentle. 

se3 V. seon. 

sege, sb., [=AF. ?< LL. *sedi- 
cum < L. sed-es, seat, < V sSd, 
sit] seat = s/eflre (Shak.) Sk. 
II. 84. 

se33de, seggen, sess)? v. secgan. 

segh, seghe v. seon. 

segl, ME. sayl. sm.n., [<T. *seglo-, 
Sk. 218] (Ic. segl, OS. segel, 
OHG. segal, G. segel) sai/. 

segne, only Nh. segni (segna, 
XII. Nero 6, = WS. segnan), 
ME. seine, -wf, [<Folk-L. *sa. 
gina <L. sagena, <Gk. aay/ivr], 
Quell, u. Forsch. 64. p. 9; 205; 
21(5 ; 251] (OS. segina, OF. seine) 
net, seine (OF. injlu.), sagexe. 

seh V. seon. 

seid, seide, seitf v. secgan. 

seie V. secgan. 

seinte v. sanct. 

seit, seith v. secgan. 

selce V. s6ean. 

seltirly v. sicor. 

seltnes v. seocness. 

sel, K. seel, I. av. comp. (323), 
better. II. ME. sel (y. s61ra), 
aj.. (ajs. Goth. s61-s, Ic. saell, 
OHG. MHG. *sk\ in MHG. sal- 
liohe, fortunately; cf. ssfel-ig 
and G. sel-ig, happy, cf. L. sol- 
lus? and Gk. 8\os, whole) good. 

seldan, ME. seide, av., [orig. dat. 
of *seld, aj. in compos.; cf. 
seldlic, Sk. 259; 396] (cf. 
Goth, silda-, insep. pref; Ic. 




sjaldan, OIIG. seltan, MHG. G. 
selten) seldom. 

seld-cM, selcuar, ME. seolcuN, 
selku6', selcouth, aj., [c/. seld- 
aii] rare, iconderful ; ME. also 
sb., wonder. 

selffhe V. s^liSF. 

seld-lic, sellic, ME. sellich, 
selly, aj., [f/. seld-an] (c/. 
Goth, silda-leiks ; ( )S. seldlik, 
cf. G. selt-sam) rare, strange, 
wonderful; ME. also sb., wonder, 
XXIX.' 140. 

seld-lice, ME. sellic, -lik, av., 
[s eld lie] wonderfully. 

self V. seolf. 

sel-kuS' V. seldciiiar. 

sellaii, syllan (407 N. 2; 80 
N, 2), sillan, ME. sellen ; prt. 
sealde, Ep, saldae, K. Merc. 
Nh. salde, ME. salde, pp. ge- 
seald, Merc, gesald, w. 1 C 
(407a), [=*selljaii (177) =T. 
saljon(on) (89. 1 ; 228) cans. < 
I.-E. *solejono-m, cause to take, 
<: V sel, cf. Gk. iXeiv, inf. aor. 2 
of alp^co, I take, Sk. p. 202)] 
(Goth, saljan, brbig an offering, 

' Ic. selja, OS. sellian, OHG. sel- 
lan) give, — over, sell. 

sel-Iic, sellich, selly v. seldlic. 

sel-lic, -lik v. seldlice. 

sell}>e v. S8dV&. 

selra, sella, aj. comp. (312), 
[sel] better; selest, selost, 
K. scfelest, Nh. seolost, 
supl. best. 

selve V. seolf. 

seme, ic, [c/. seman, conciliate, 
lit. make the same, Scand. injlu., 
cf. Ic. spema = *soema, conform 
to'\ (cf. Goth, samjan, please, Ic. 
sama, beseem) seem. 

sen V. seon, si9'9'an. 

sencan, ME. sencheii, to. 1, [ = 
*soncian (80. 2; 177) cans. 
<prt. o/ sin can] (Goth, sagq- 
jan, OS. bi-senkiaii, G. senken) 
cause to sink, flood V. 2906, 

sendan, ME. senden, sende, send, 
3. sg. prs. ind. sent (also ME.) ; 

prt. sende (405.4), ME. sende, 
sente, zente, sent; pp. sended, 
ME. Isend, ysent, sent, sende, 
w. \, [= T. sanSion (05 ; 89. 2 ; 
177) (I.-E. sonte'jo, 1 pers. sg.) 
caus. <T. *san>, prt. of^sin^on, 
go, travel, Sk. p. 155 ; p. 200 ; 
cf. silS"] (Goth, sandjan, Ic. 
senda, OS, sendian, G. senden) 
send, hurl; s. sawle, gives up 
his ghost XX. 2. 

sent V. sendan. 

seoc, ME. sec, sic, aj., [=T. 
seuko- (64 ; Sk. 243) < : T. V siik, 
weak^ (Goth, siuk-s, Ic. sjiik-r, 
OS. siok, OHG. sioh, G. siech) 
sick (Shak., U. S.)=ill. 

seocness, ME. seknes, sf, [abs. 
< s e o c] sickness. 

seod'an, ME. sel^e ; prt. seaS", 
pi. sudon (234 b); pp. ge- 
soden, s. 2 (384) Sk. 152, 
[= T. seul>on (64) < : T. v/ sub] 
(Ic. sjo'Sa, OHG. siodan, G. sie- 
den, Sk. 165, Du. zieden) seeth, 
Sk. 50 ; p. 155, boil. 

seoSflSran, seo3'J>an v. si9'9'an. 

seofolSa, Sk. p. 154, ME. seofebe, 
num.(S'2S), [<s eofo n] seKewfA. 

seofon, seofan (325 and N.), 
infl. seofone, seofene, ME. 
seofen, seofe, seove, infl. seovene, 
num., l = T. sebun (106. 1; 192. 
2) < sepn for *septu < I.-E. 
septm, Brug. III. 171] (cf Gk. 
iirrd', L. septeni ; Goth, sibun, 
cf. Ic. sjau; OS. sibun, OHG. 
sibun, MHG. siben, G. sieben) 
seyen, Sk. 313; seofon niht, 
ME. seoveniht (gen. -nihtes) 
> sennight, Sk. p. 427; 457. 

seolc, ME. selk, silk, sn., [ = 
sioloc (107. 2, 1; 104) as if<T. 
*siluk-, Sk. 240, (?<Slav., cf 
OSlav. selku, Sk. p. 440; II. 277; 
280; 282) <L. sericum, prop. n. 
aj. < Gk. (TfjpiKbs, silken, < 2^p(es), 
the Skucs, Sk. II. 319, cf. Mongol 
se-reg, s//^] (Ic. silki ; (/. syric, 
sm., <L. (tunica) serica. Quell, 
u. Forsch. 64. 129; 269; 279) s/7^. 

seol-cul^f 17. seldc^9', 




seolf (81), self, sylf (101 N. 2), 
silf, ME. seolf, sulf, self, sellf, 
silf , infi. -Ive, -Iven, prn. s. and w. 
(339), [<onlyT. selbo-] (Goth, 
silb-a, only w., Ic. sjalf-r, OS. 
self, OHG. selb, G. selb, Du. 
zelf) se/f. ME. mi sulven, me 
self, 1 selve, > myself; tSe (|>e) 
sulven (sulf) > thyself ; him 
sulfne (selve, selven, etc.) > 
himself; ourself = ourselves; 
hym selvyn = niEMselyes. 

seolfor, Nh. seolf or, svvlfor, 
ME. seolver, sillferr, silver, syl- 
ver, sn., [=8iolfur, sioliifr 
(107. 2, 1) < common T. *silu- 
bro-, Sk. 190] (Goth, silubr, Ic. 
silfr, OS. silubar, OHG. silbar, 
G. silber, Du. zilver) silver. 

seolost V. selra. 

s6on, ME. seon, sen, seo, se, see, 
zy, imper. pi. ME. seeth ; prt. sg. 
seah (82), ME. sahh, sa3, sag, 
saw, seh, se3, segh, sy3, say, 
sey3e, pi. seegon, ME. S8e'3- 
henn, seagen, sy3en, sayn, seghe, 
seye, sa3, saw, see; j^P- g«8e- 
gen, gesewen (234d; 73. 1), 
ME. iseye, seyn, yzo3e, sen, s. 
cont. 5 (391. 2, 367), Sk. 146, 145, 
[<T. sehwon (373; 218; 113), 
<T. Vsehw <\/seq, cf. L. sequor, 
I follow, as Gk. ^TTo/xai] (Goth, 
salhwan, Ic. sj^, OS. OHG. sehan, 
G. sehen, Sk. 165, Du. zien) see, 
Sk. 50, devise XXXII. 1151. 

seoruAve v. sorh. 

seov- V. seofon. 

seowen v. sawan. 

sep V. sceap. 

sepulere, sb., [= AF. <L. sepul- 
crum, ^o?)i6, <sepul- in sepul-tus, 
pp. o/sepelTre, hia^y^ sepulchre. 

sepche, w., [<AF. sercher = AF., 
OF. cercher < LL. circare, go 
round, < circus, ciRc7e] search. 

sere, ME. aj. av., [< Scand., cf. 
Ic. ser, prop, dat.prn., to oneself 
in compos., e.g., se'r-liga, aparf] 
s.Everal, sY,parately, sere (North.). 

serganz, pi. o/sergant, sh., [<AF. 
serjant, serjeant, Sk. II. pp. 201, 

232, <ML. servient- (s), pj'op. aj. 
— L. prs. ptc. of servire, serve] 
SERVANT, ( = Serjeant = sergeant, 
Sk. II. 59. 5). 

serve, servi, prt. servede, pp. iser- 
ved, ic, [< AF. servir <L. servire, 
cf. servus, slave, <serare, keep'] 

servise, servys, sb., [<AF. ser- 
vice, OF. servise, < L. servitium 
< servire, v. serve] service. 

set V. slttan. 

sej>>en v. siffiafan. 

setl, ME. setel, sn., [<T. *set-lo-, 
Sk. 218, 174, <>/sed, v. slttan] 
(cf Gk. ^5-pa for *(T^8pa, L. sella 
for *sedla, Goth, sitl-s, OHG. 
sezal, MHG. sezzel, G. sessel) 
SEAT, settle; sfgan t6 setle 
(of the sun), set X. 33. 

settan, ME. sette, zette, imper. 
OE. ME. sete; prt. sette 
(401. 2), ME. sette, zette, set ; 
pp. geseted (402), ME. sett, 
set,M7.1,[=settian (45.8; 177) 
= *8 8etjan(89.1;228)<T. caws. 
*satjon(on)=I.-E. *sodejono-m, 
cf. prt. of slttan, Sk. 174] 
(Goth, satjan, Ic. setja, OS. set- 
tian, OHG. sezzen, MHG. G. 
setzen) cause to sit, set, settZc, 
icrite down; waes geseted 
in, belonged to IX. 19; geset- 
tnesse settan, make (this) 
ordinance, testament VII. 52. 

sexe V. six. 

sey, seyd(e) v. secgan. 

seye, seyae, seyn v. seon. 

seyn v. secgan. 

seynt, seynte v. sanct. 

seyst, sey)> v. secgan. 

shaewenn v. sceawian. 

shaffte V. gesceaft. 

shal(l) V. sculan. 

shalke v. scealc. 

sham, shame v. sceomu. 

she V. h6. 

shene v. sclene. 

shep V. sceAp. 

ship V. sclp. 

shlepe V. sleep. 

sho V. b^. 




shollde V. sculan. 

shope V. scieppan. 

short V. sceort. 

shrede v. screade. 

8huld(e) V. sculan. 

si V. se. 

si, si V. eom. 

sib (225. 1), sibb, ME. sib, 
sibbe, sf. (257), [< T. sibjo- 
(228 ; 177) = I.-E. *sebhja- ; cf. 
Skt. sabhy^. Jit for an assembly^ 
<sabha, assemUy~\ (Goth, sibja, 
OS. sibbia, OHG. sippa, G. sippe, 
kin, family ; cf ON. Sif , goddess 
of family and wedlock, Grmm. 
Myth., p. 309) relationship, 
friendship, love, peace, sib^ (but 

sib, sibb, ME. sibb, sybbe, aj. 
(297), [=:T.*sibjo-,c/'. sib, sf.] 
(Goth.*sibjis, OHG. sippi, MHG. 
sippe, cf gos&iF, lit. God-akin) 
related, akin, sib\, sibbe (prov.). 

sic V. sweic, s6oc. 

slcan, ME. siken, sike, s. 1 (382 ; 
Sk. 150), sigh, Sk. 328, sike 

sicor, ME. siker, sikir, I. aj., 
[si cor, only Cura Past. 425. 6, 
?<0S., <Folk-L. securus (69) 
< L. securus < se-(d), apart, 
4- cura, care'] (OS. sicor, -ur, 
OHG. sichur, G. sicher, Du. 
zeker) secure, (sicker, siker, 
Sc). II. av. also ME. siker- 
liche, sicer-lic, sikir-lic, syker-ly, 
sekir-ly, surely (<AF. +-ly). 

side, ME. side, syde, zide, siSe, 
wf, [<T. *siSo(n-) cf Sid, aj., 
wide, Ic. si^r, hanging down] 
(Ic. sI'Sa, OS. si'da, OHG. sita, 
G. seite) side, Sk. p. Q2\ on 
si dan, ME. a syde > aside. 

sido, siodo, (ME. in side-ful, 
sede-, modest) sm. (271), [=T. 
*si«u-z (107. 1), ?cf Gk. ^^os, 
= I.-E. *sedhos, > ethics] (Goth, 
sidu-s, Ic. siSr, OS. sidu, OHG. 
situ, MHG. site, G. sitte) custom 
VIII. 8. 

sI9, ME. si«, sm., [< T. sinbo- 
(185.2) <I.-E. sento-, cf Olr. 

set, way, v. sendan] (Goth, 
sin^-s, Ic. Sinn, OS. si«, OHG. 
sind) going, journey, way, time. 

siff, ME. sith, av. (323), [< T. 
siHz (133 a; 182 a) comp.] (Goth. 
*seib-s, Ic. OS. si5, OHG. sid, 
G. seit, prp., cf since) later, 
sith (Shak.). 

si9'-iafan, sy 15 19? an, ME. seofJ^an, 
seodSan, syS^en, sej^t^en, siSen, 
sithen, siHn, si^'Se, suSSe, syn, 
sen, I. av., [=sitS-, <si3', av., 
+ 15 on, instr. of prn., cf s6, 
(109 N.; 337 N. 1)] (G. seitdem) 
afterwards, since, Sk. 396 ; 356 ; 
456, sith (Shak.), sithent II. cj. 
since, when, after V. 2853 ; ME. 
also adds >at, since that, after 

siUhinges land, for L. (Vulg.) 
' terra visionis ' ; si^Shinge, v&.-sft., 
[<si(g)«hen ?<gesihiaf, Z.] 
vision, land of sight = (Heb.) 
Moriah (A.V., Gen. XXII. 2, cf. 
14) XXI. 1288. 

siS'ian, ME. siMen, w. 2, [<sil5, 
sm.] (OS. siSon, OHG. sindon, 
Ic. sinna) journey, go. 

sle, siendon, sig v. eom. 

slgan, ME. si3en; prt. sdh, s. 1 
(382), [cf sincan] (cf s§on 
=:*sihan, s. 1 (383), sift; OS. 
OHG. sigan Ic. siga) smk, 

sige-folc, sn., [sige ?<T. *sigiz 
(261 ; 263 N. 4) (^but Brug. II. 
132 Rem. 2, orig. i- St., cf ege) 
< T. *segoz (288 N. 1) = I.-E. 
*seghos, overwhelming power 
(Goth, sigis, OS. OHG. sigi, G. 
sieg)] victorious folk. 

sige-r6f, aj., [c/. sige-folc; r6f, 
vigorous (poet.) (OS. rof, ruob)] 
lit. strong for victory, victorious 
VI. 177. 

sige->6f, sm., victorious banner 
VI. 201. 

sigge v. secgan. 

sight V. gesihS". 

signefiance, sb., [= OF. < L. 
sTgnificantia < prs. ptc. signifi- 
can(t-)s, V. signifie] significance. 




signifie, signyfye, i/?., [< AF. signi- 
tier, <L. slgni-tic-iire, shoiu by 
SIGNS < St. of *signi-fex, sign- 
making, < fac-ere, make'] sig- 
nify, mean. 

sigor, sm. (289 N. 1, 2), [c/. sige 
in sige-folc] victory. 

sigor-lean, su., (Goth, sigis-laun, 
G. sieges- {gen.) -lohn) reward 
of victory .1 prize. 

si3t, siste, sihte v. gesihS*. 

sike V. sfcan. 

siker, sikir v. sicor. 

sikeriiche, sikirlic v. sicor. 

silf V. seolf. 

siliaC V. sellan. 

silk V. seolc. 

sillferr, silver v. seolfor. 

silve V. seolf. 

simle, symle, ME, simle, rtu., 
\^for siinble <*siinbel, a). 
(:^15), continual] (OS. simbla, 
()HG. simble) ever. 

sin, poss. prn. (335), [<T. *sino-, 
prop. *sw-ino-?, <st. of lost (in 
OE. OS.) reflex. + T. a), suf. 
ino-?, Brug. III. 451] (Goth, 
sein-s, OS. OHG. sin, G. sem) 
his, her, its, their. 

sinagoge, sh., [<eccl. L. synagoga 
<Gk. cvvaytijyq, assembly, <<tvv-, 
together, + a..-)yij, bringing] 

sincan, ME. sinke ; prt. ME. 
saiike, s. 3 (38G), Sk. 148 b, 
[< T. sinkwon < T. V*seiikw 
(45.2), ?<T. Vs!kw, cf. sigan, 
< pre T. V sig, siq, cf. Skt. V sich, 
prs. siiicdti, pour out, Brug. 442] 
(Goth, sigqan, Ic. sokkva for 
*s6nkva, OS. smcan, OHG. sin- 
chan, G. sinken) sink. 

sind, siudon v. 60111. 

singan, ME. shigeii, siiigge, sing, 
syng, prt. sg. sang, song 
(65), pi. sungon; pp. ME. 
isungen, s. 3 (386; Sk. 148), [< 
T. >/ singw] (Goth, siggwan for 
*singwan, Ic. syngva, OS. OHG. 
singan, MHG. G. singen) sing, 
compose (poetry) IX. 31, etc. 
ME. vb.-sb. synging, singing. 

sint i". eoui. 

sinu, seonu (107.2), ME. sinewe; seonwuni or sinum 

XIV. 62, .s/. (260), [<T.*sin(a)- 
WO-, Sk. 212] (?c/: Skt. snava-s, 
m., *sanava- =T. forms ; Ic. sin, 
OHG. senawa, G. sehne) sinew. 

siodo V. sido. 

siondan v. eom. 

siquare, sb., [?/or si5-quar, <me 
WHERE, cf. sSS", sm.] time 
XXVI. 113. 

sire, syre, sir, schir, sb., [=AF. 
sire, for *se'ior, Sk. II. 144 b, < 
Mlj,,=lord, L. senior, a senior, 
prop. comp. < senex, old] sir, 
sire, Sk. II. 64. 4. 

siste V. sixta. 

site V. cite. 

sithen, si>in v. sil5'3'aii. 

sittan, ME. sitten, sitte, sytte, 
zitte, imper. site; saet, 
ME. set, zet, sat, pi. see ton, 
ME. saetenn, saten, s. 5 (391. 3; 
372; Sk. 146), [=*8itt-jan 
(177) <T. sit-jon (228) <T. Vsit 
< (45. 2) V sSd, Sk. p. 135, com- 
mon I.-E. vb.] (cf Gk. ?.te<r^ai 
(=*<T4d-je<T6ai.), cf. L. sed-ere, 
Goth, sitan, Ic. sitja, OS. sittian, 
OHG. sizzan, MHG. G. sitzen) 
sit, be SEATed. 

six, ME. six, sexe, num. (325), 
[<T.sehs(101; 83) = I.-E.*seks; 
I.rE. ground-form, *sweks, cf, 
Skt. shash, Welsh, chwech, Gk. 
?|, f4^ < %/re^, Brug. III. 170] 
(L. sex, Goth, saihs, Ic. sex, OS. 
OHG. MHG. sehs, G. sechs) six. 

sixta, ME. siste (<Nh., cf 221.2), 
mtm. (328), [inHu. six ; = T. 
*sehs):o-, Sk. 253a, < I.-E. *seks- 
to-, Brug. III. 170] (cf Gk. ^k- 
To-s, L. sex-tu-s, Ic. sctti ; Goth, 
saihsta, ( )S. OHG. sehsto, MHG. 
sehste, G. sechste) sixth, Sk. 
p. 154. 

sl^p, ME. slep, shlepe, sm., [vb.- 
abs. <sl8epan, < WT. V slAp 
(57. 2; Sk. 163; 205 a) < T. 
V slsep (45. 6) < >/ sleb : slab, ?6c 
slack, cf. Bulg. slabii, slack] 



(Goth, slep-s, OS. sl&p, OHG. 
MHG. sl&f, Sk. 63, G. schlaf, 
Du. slaap) sleep ^ Sk. 48. 

slsepan, Merc, sl^pan, Nh. 
slepa, ME. slepen, slepe ; prt. 
slep, Merc. sl6pte, Nh. 
sl6pde, ME. slep, sleap, slepte, 
s. red. ^, Anglian, w. (395 b and 
N. 2; Sk. 139), [<T. V sleep, v. 
slgfep] (Goth, sle'pan, OS. slS^ 
pan, OHG. slafan, MHG. sldfen, 
G. schlaf en) sleep. 

slauchtir, sb., [<Scancl., Ic. slat-r, 
butchers'' meat, Sk. 228 c, <T. 
Vslah, V. slean] slaughter. 

slawian, ME. slawen, w. 2, [< 
sl^w, aj. slow, <T. *slaiwo-z,? 
< I.-E. *lajwos, left, cf. L. leevus, 
left] be SLOW, delay, slow (Shak.). 

sl6an, ME. slen, slon ; imper. 
sleah; prt. sl6h, ME. slow; 
pi. sl6gou (234c), ME. slew; 
pp. slagen, slaegen, ME, 
yssla3e, slayn, sleyn, .s, contr. i) 
(392. 2; 373; 367; Sk. 141), 
[=T. *sla(h)on (111), Sk. 335, 
<T. Vslah (slagj;), smite, <pre 
T. slak] (Goth, slahan, Ic. sl^, 
OS. OHG. slahan, G. schlagen) 
strike, smite, slay. 

siege, ME. slese, sm. (263), [vb.- 
abs. = T. *slagi-z (89) ; t/. s 1 6 a n] 
(Goth, slah-s, Ic. slag-r, OS. 
slegi, G. schlag) blow, dap {of 
thunder) XVII. 68. 

slepe, slepun v. sle^paii. 

sleye, av., [< Scand. < ?T. vl slah, 
cf. sl^an; cf. Ic. sldeg-r, aj., 
sly, Sk. 423 c, LG. slu, aj., >G. 
schlau, aj.'] slyly. 

sleyn, slew v. sl6an. 

slicht, sly3t, sb., [< Scant!., cf. 
Ic- slceg-'S, cunning, Sk. 224 b; 
430, < sldeg-r, cf. sleye] slyness, 
sleight, dexterity, trick, contriv- 

slidan, ME. sliden, slyde ; pp. 
ME. slydyn, s. 1 (382 ; Sk. 150), 
[<T. n/*s1i« <?V*zghlIdh, v. 
glidan, Sk. 119] (MHG. sllten 
> G. {dial.) schlittern, skate) 

sl6gon V. sl6an. 

slomere, w., [< slAmerian? 

{only in Lye's Diet.?); freq. < 
ME. slumen < sl^-ma, wm., 
shorn (North.) <T. V *sia, ?r/. 
Goth, slawan, be silent] (Late 
MHG. slummern, G. schlum- 
mern, Du. sluimeren) slumber, 
Sk. 341 ; 350. 

slomeryng XXX. 6, vb.-sb., [slo- 
mere] slumbering. 

slon, slow V. sl^an. 

slydyn v. slidan. 

slyst V. slicht. 

smael, ME. smal, aj., [<T. smalo-] 
(?c/. Gk. fjL^Xovfor*(rfiT]\ov, small- 
cattle; Goth, smal-s, cf Ic. smali, 
sb., sheep; OS. smal, OHG. 
MHG. smal, G. schmal) thin, 

sinech v. smoca. 

smeffe, ME. smethe, smoJ?e <Nh. 
snicfeffe, aj., [=T. *smanbjo- 
(94 c), cf. Bohemian smant 
> MHG. smant, cream, as G. 
schmant] smooth. 

smeorte, sb., [< T. V *smert < 
\/ smerd, ?stick, bite, ?cf: Gk. 
a-fxepdvds, horrible, L. mordere, 
bite] (MDu. smerte, OHG. 
smerzo, G. schinerz) pain, smart. 

smitta, ME. smitte, wm., [<: 
smltan, s. 1, smite, smear?, 
<T. Vsmit, ?Jling at] (MHG. 
smiz) spot, mite XXVI. 36, = 
smit (prov.) = smite (North.). 

smoca, ME. smoke, Sk. 206, wm., 
also smec, sniyc, ME. smech, 
sm., smeech (So. and West, dial.), 
1<P2X o/sm6ocan, Sk. j). 188, 
< : T. v' smtik <pre T. smtig] (cf 
G. schmauch) smoke, vapour. 

smocian, ME. smoken, w. 2, 
[smoca] smoke, incense. 

smorffer, sb., [<smorian, stifle, 
smore (Sc), Sk. 353, cf MLG. 
MDu. smoren, vb., >G. schmo- 
ren, stevj] suffocating smoke, 

snaca, ME. snake, pi. snaken and 
snakes, wm. (MDu. snake; cf. 
Ic. (poet.) sn&kr : snokr) $nQke. 




snaw, Merc, sndu, Nh. snd, 

ME. snaw, snow, snou, sm. 
(174. 3, 250. 1), [< T. snai-wo-z, 
Sk. 211, /or T. *snaigw6s <I.-E. 
snoigh(w)6-s < common vb. 
\1 snoigh : sneigh : snigh] (c/. Gk. 
ace. vl(p-a (for (TV-) and L. nix, 
ace niv-em=I.-E. s-nighm, Olr. 
snigid, it snows ;, Ic. 
snser, OS. OHG. sneo, MHG. sne, 
G. schnee) snow, Sk. p. 55 ; 355. 

snel, snell, ME. snell, aj., [com- 
mon T. except Goth.] (OS. snel, 
Ic. snjall-r, OHG. MHG. snel(l), 
G. schnell) quick, spirited=sne//i 
(= sharp, Cumb. Sc). 

snoter, ME. snoter, aj. (296 N. 1,2), 
[<T. snut-ro-] (Goth, snutr-s, 
Ic. snotr, OHG. snottar) wise, 

snou, snow v. sndw. 

sn6rle, av., [snu-d-e, <T. Vsnu, 
cf. sn6o\van (396 N. 2), has- 
ten'] (cf. Goth, sniu-mundo, Ic. 
sniia, red. vb., turn, OHG. sliinlg, 
aj., G. schleunig) quickly. 

snyttro, wf., [abs. < snoter] 

so V. swd. 

socht V. s6can. 

sodein, soden, soding, ME. aj., 
[ = AF. sodein, sudein, Sk. II. 
pp. 215, 222, <ML. subit&num 
for L. subitaneum, ace., <pp. 
subitum < sub-, lit. under, 
stealthily, -ire, goj sudden. 

s6'S, ME. so'S, so>, soth, zoth, 
I. aj., [=*sontS (66) < T. 
sanl?o-=I.-E. sonto- <N/es+-ont, 
prs.ptc. suff., being, Sk. 168, 229] 
(cf. Skt. sat /or *sant, L. (prae-) 
sen(t-)s, presENT, sonticus, gen- 
uine, Goth, sunjis; Ic. sann-r 
<*san'5-r, OS. so«, OHG. sand) 
true, sooMt, Sk. 37; 38; 45. 
IL sn., truthi sooth; t6 sdtSe, 

■ dat., ME. to so)?e, in sooth = av. 
III. for s6l5e, dat., ME. for 
soSe, vor zo\>e, forsothe, av., 
> forsooth, cf. sdS'Iice. 

s6af-cyning, sm., true king, God 
V. 2894. 

s6l5-faest, ME. sothfast, aj., truth- 
ful, true, soothfast. 

s63'-lice, ME, so^liche, sodlice, 
sothli, av. (316), m truth, sooth fy. 
Used to trans, various L. cjs., in 
Gls. indicated oft. by the simple 
sotf, so]?. 

soS'nesse, zo]?nesse, sb., truthful- 
ness, soothness^. 

scfeca(n) V. secan. 

soelest V. s61ra. 

softe V. seffce. 

sogh V. sdwan. 

soght V. secan. 

soanyng v. sw6gan. 

so3t, so3te V. s6can. 

sohte V. s6can. 

sojour, sb., [=AF. vb.-sb. < so- 
journer < ML. *sub-, wider (or 
*super-, over?), -diurnare, stay 
long, <L. aj. diur-nus <*dius- 
nus, by day, cf dies, day'] sojourn. 

solas, sb., [=AF., also solaz, Sk. 
II. pp. 203, 207, < L. solatium, 
comfort, < s51atus, pp. of s51ari, 
consoLe] so/ace, Sk. II. 66 ; 120, 

solde V. sculan. 

some, same, av. (315) with swd, 
(Gk. dfjLa < *<xdfia, at the same 
time, cf. Goth. prn. sama, same; 
OS. OHG. sama, MHG. sam, -e) 
similarly, just as. 

somen, XII. U. 2, ME. samenn, 
somyn, sammyn, av., [=T. av. 
saman, cf. some] (Goth, sam- 
ana, Ic. OS. OHG. saman), also 
aet-somne, td-somne (G. 
zu-sammen) together = samet. 

somod, ME. somed, av., [< 
some + -d-] (Goth. sama-K to 
the same place, OS. samad, ?cf. 
OHG. samant, MHG. G. samt) 
together ; (with the force of cj.) 

somony, w., [<0F. somoner = 
AF. somoundre <ML. summo- 
nere <L. sum- (sub-, under, Sk. 
II. 199. 5) -monere, re.MiNd pri- 
vily'] admonish, summon. 

s6na, ME. sone, soone, soyne, 
son, soyn, av. (317), [ = WT. 




san(a) (68), av. suff. -a, <T. 
*s8ein, ^with pre T. av. ending 
-em] (OS. sS,n(a), OFris. son) 
at once., {later) soon, Sk. 38 ; 
45; s6na swa, as soon as. 

sond, ME. sonde, sande, zonde, 
sond, s/., [c/. sen dan] (c/. 
MHG. sant-bote, G. send-bote, 
messenger) sendzw^, message, 
decree, a providence, grace. 

sone V. s6na, sunu. 

song, ME. song, sang, sm., {<prt. 
of singan, Sk. x>- 182; 377] 
(Goth, saggws < *sangws, Ic. 
songr, OS. OHG. G. sang) 

song V. singan. 

song-craeft, sm., song-craft, art 
of poetry. 

soone V. s6na. 

sor V. sar. 

sore V. sdre. 

sor-ful V. sorhfuU. 

sorh (214. 1), sorg, ME. 30136, 
sorhe, sore we, sorwe, seoruwe, 
sf (254; 252 N. 2, 4), [< T. 
s(w?)orgo-] (Goth, saiirga, Ic. 
sorg, OS. OHG. sorga, OHG. 
sworga, G. sorge) sorrow, care. 

sorh-full, ME. sorful, aj., sorrow- 

sorh-16as, ME.?, aj., sorrow/ess, 
free from care, secure XI. Bodl. 

sori V. sdrig. 

sorwe V. sorh. 

soth V. s6(9'. 

sothli V. s6i8riice. 

sot-lice, ME. av., sottish/y = fool- 
ishly XV. 4. 

sott, ME. sot, aj., (OF. sot, Sk. II. 
p. 243, cf. G. zote, obscenity) 
foolish= soft. 

sou3ed V. sw6gan. 

soule V. sawol. 

sound, sh., [< AF. soun, <0F. son 
<L. sonus, Sk. II. 145. (5); 153] 
sound, Sk. II. 77. 2, noise. 

souper, sh., [< AF. soper < T., cf. 
s6pan] supper, Sk. II. 67. 

soupynge v. supan. 

sowenyng v. sw6gan. 

80wwJ>, sb., [< Scand., cf. Ic. sau^r 
<T. Vsau)?, v. prt. of s^off an, 
Grihrn. p. 40] (Goth, sau]j-s, lit. 
SEETHE offering) sheep XVIII. 

soyne v. s6na. 

spac, space v. sprecan. 

space, sb., [<AF. espace, Sk. II. 
p. 146, < L. spatium, lit. that 
which is stretched out, <Vspa, 
span^ space, Sk. II. 54. 1. 

spaeche v. sprsec. 

spak, ME. aj., [< Scand.; Ic. 
spakr, quiet, wise} quick, ready. 

spak V. sprecan. 

spare, sb., [< Scand,, cf. Ic. sparri] 
(Dan. Swed. sparre ; cf. OHG. 
sparro, G. sparren) beam=spar. 

sparian, ME. spare, ic. 2, ^denom. 
<spaer, aj.'] (Ic. spara, OHG. 
sparon, G. sparen) spare, save. 

spearca, ME. sparke, wm. Sk. 206, 
(MDu, sparcke) spark. ■ 

speche v. sprsec. 

sp6d, Merc, spoed, ME. spede, 
sf., [<T. *spo-«i-z (269 ; 94) Sk. 
196; 224c; 129, <sp6-w-an] 
(cf. Skt. sphiti, increase; Dn. 
spoed, haste, OS. spod, OHG. 
MHG. spuot) success, riches, 
means, speed, Sk. pp. 59, 320 
(A.V. Gen. xxiv. 12). 

sp6dan, ME. spede ; prt. s p 6 d d e, 
ME. sped, w?. 1, [s p 6 d] (c/. OHG. 
spuoton, G. sputen) succeed, 
speed, hasten. 

spek V. sprgfec. 

spek, speke v. sprecan. 

spell, also ME., sn., [<T. spelo-, 
prose-tale] (Goth, spill, fable, 
Ic. spjall, OS. spel, OHG. MHG. 
spel(l), cf MHG. bispel, G. 
bei-spiel, example) a saying, 
narrative, story = spell] {cf. 

spellian, ME. spellenn, spelle, 
spel, w. 2, [< spell] (Goth, 
spillon, Ic. spjalla, OHG. (got-) 
spellon, MHG, spellen) tetl, re- 
late, speak, preach, announce 
= spelli ; ME. spelling, vb.-sb., 




spendan, Lives of Saints 500, 200, j 
ME. spenden ; pp. ME. ispend, ; 
10. 1, [< ML. spendere < L. ex-, ! 
out^ -pendere, weigh., Sk. pp. 438, ! 
498] (OHG. spenton <L., about I 
VII. cent.) spend. j 

speow^ V. sp6wan. ! 

spere, ME. spere, sn. (263), [<T. 
sper-, ?-u-?os- (288 ; 247 N. 2 ; | 
261)] (c/. L. sparus, peasants \ 
and hunting-spear., Ic. spjor, 
OS. OIIG. sper, Du. G. speer), j 
spear. \ 

sperit V. spyrian. 

sperren, lo., [<*sparrian, cf. j 
spare] (Ic. sperra, OHG. spar- 
ran, MHG. G. sperren) close., 
bar., spari, sper (Spen.). 

spert V. sprs^dan. 

spillan, ME. spille, lo. 1, [<spil- 
dan] (cf. splld, sm., destruc- 
tion; Ic. spilla, OS. spildian, 
OHG. spildan) destroy, (with of) 
rob, spill (Shak.). 

spor, ME. spor, sn. (239. lb), 
[< T. sporo- < T. V spur < V spr : 
sper, kick, cf. s porn an, s. 3 J9 
(389 N.), tread down, spurn] 
(Ic. OHG. spor, MHG. spor, 
spur, G. spur) trail, foot-track, 
SPOOR (<Du.). 

8p6wan, prt. sp6ow, s. red. B 
(396 c) , [< T. V *spo < V spo : spe, 
cf. Skt. V spha, swell^ thrive, 

sprgee, spr6c, spg&c, (180; Sk. 
353) K. sp6c, ME. sprsece, 
sprece, spseche, speche, spek, sf, 
\_abs. <prt. pi. of sprec-an, 
Sk. 174] (OS. spr&ka, OHG. 
spr&hha, MHG. spr&che, G. 
sprache, Sk. 163) speech, lan- 
guage, address. 

sprsedan, ME. sprede, Psprude, 
3. sg. prs. ind. ME. spert, ic. 1, 
[<T. \1 *sprai'5, cans., < : only T. 
\fsprlh, cf. MHG. spriten, spri- 
den] (OHG. MHG. G. spreiten. 
Nor. spreida, Du. spreiden) 

sprecan, Nh. sprece a, ME, 
speken (cf. 180), speke ; prt. sg. 

spraec, ME. sprsec, sprac, spac, 
space, spak, spek; pi. sprsec- 
on, ME. spsekenn, speken; pp. 
sprecen, s. 5 (391 ; Sk. 146), 
[= WT. vb. < only T. *sprek; 
cf Sk. p. 130??] (Du. spreken, 
OS. sprekan, OHG. sprehhan, 
MHG. G. sprechen) speak, Sk. 

sprede v. spreedan. 

spr§ot, ME. sprete, sm., [< 
spr^otan, s. 2 ('^4), sprout 
<:only T. V sprut] (Du. > G. 
spriet) sprit, pole. 

springan, ME. springen, spryng ; 
prt. sg. sprong, ME. sprong, 
pp. ME. isprungen, s. S A (386 ; 
Sk. 148), [<T. V spring, ?cf 
V spergh in Gk. air^pxea-dai, 
hasten'] (Ic. springa, burst, Du. 
springen, OS. OHG. springan, G. 
springen) spring. 

sprude v. sprgfedan. 

spus-breehe, sb., [liyb., cf. spuse, 
marriage vow, and brecan] 
adultery, spouse-breach^ . 

spuse, sb., [<AF. espuse, Sk. II. 
42; pp. 217, 234, < L. sponsus, 
m. -sa, /., betrothed, pp. of spon- 
dere, promise] spouse, Sk. II. 

spyrian, ME. spere, prt. Mf]. 
sperit, w. 1 (400 N. 1), [<spor] 
(Ic. spyrja, OHG. spurien, G. 
spiiren) trace (a foot-track), in- 
vestigate (<L. by same anal.), 
inquire (with at), spere (North.), 
speer, speir (Sc). 

ssel V. sculan. 

ssepere, s6., [scieppan] (MLG. 
schepper, cf. OHG. scepf&ri. 
MHG. schepfsere, G. schopfer) 

sse-we V. sc§awian. 

ssewere v. sceawere. 

ssip V. scip. 

ssolde. ssolle v. sculan. 

ssop V. scieppan. 

stabylnes, sb., [hyb. <AF. esta- 
ble, aj., Sk. IL 42, (-f- nes = OE. 
abs. suff. -nis) < L. sta-bili-s, 
sfa6/e, <sta-re, stand] stableness. 





staef, ME. staf, pi. staves, sm. 
(240), [<T. stafeo-, ?<Vstabh, 
cf. Lith. st&bas, STAtue, or 
?\/sta-p, bejirm, cf. Skt. sthapay, 
erect, cans, of Skt. V stha, stawc?] 
(Goth, staf-s, rudiment, Ic. staf-r, 
OHG. MHG. stap, G. stab) staff, 
stave <pl. Sk. 390, letter {because 
written on a twig or staff), pi. 
letters = literature IX. 5. 

stgfel-wieraCe, ME. stalworj^e, cf. 
stalworH, aj., [< s t a Iff o 1, foun- 
dation, -\- wieVSe (202 N. 2), 
V. wyr»e; but cf Sk. p. 428??] 
serviceable, valuable, excellent; 
stal worth, stalwart (orig. Sc), 
8k. pp. 262, 368. 

*st8fene, ME. stene, lof?, [=T. 
*stam3o(n-) v. stdn] (OHG. 
steinna, /.) stone pitcher, steen 
= upright urn of baked clay, 
stean (Spen.). 

st£&nen, ME. stonen, aj. (296), 
[<T. *stain-ino-, v. st^n, Sk. 
247] (Goth, stain-ein-s, OFris. 
stonen, OHG. steinin, MHG. G. 
steinen, cf. stein-er-n) (of) stone. 

stsfer, sn., [?<ML. storia <L. his- 
toria < Gk. Icrropia < 'icr-Tojp < 
*i8-TU}p, knowing, < : Gk. V feid, 
cf wit an, Quell, u. Forsch. 
64. 238] (It. OHG. storia, Ir. 
stoir) hisTony, stor!/. 

stalu, ME. stale, sf, [<prt. of 
St elan] (OHG. stala, cf. G. 
dieb-stahl) theft, (stafe = laugh- 
ing-stock, Sha'k.). 

stdn, ME. ston, stoon, stane, sm., 
[< T. staino-z, Sk. 221] (cf Gk. 
crria, ctIov, pebble; Goth, stain-s, 
Sk. 71; 156, Ic. steinn, OS. st6n, 
OHG. MHG. G. stein) stone, 
Sk. 293. 

standan, -de v. stondan. 

Stan-ham-stede, ME.?, sm., Stan- 
stead (in Kent). 

stape (av.) fole XXIX. 122, ME. 
aj., [?<steap + fole <AF. fol 
<ML. follus, V. fol] highly (very) 
Fooi.ish (as demanded by con- 
text, Z.,cf. Ps. xciv. 8; but Morris, 
stape fole =(??) stapeful = Mgf/i?). 

starian, ME. stare, w. 2, [<T. aj. 
staro-, fixed, cf stser-blind, 
O Fris. star-, OHG. stara-, star- 
blind^ (Ic. stara, OHG. star^n, 
G. starren) stare, (cf. hair to 
stare = be stiff; J. C. IV. 3. 

steap, ME. step, aj., [<T.*staupo- 
< : T. V *stfip, project, cf. Ic. 
stiipa, s. 2, project, > caus. 
steypa, overthrow, cf. aj. steyp'Sr, 
steep~\ (0 Fris. st4p) steep, high. 

*stecan, ME. steke, pp. ME. sto- 
ken, s. 5 later 4, [=AVT. vb., 
s. 5, < T. V stik, pre T. V stig, 
pierce, cf. Gk. a-Tc^eiv,=aTly-jeLv, 
prick, (TTly-fxa, STiGwa, L. in- 
stig-are, insTioate] (O Fris. steka, 
OS. stekan, OHG. stechan, MHG. 
G. stechen) prick = stick =steek. 
Sc, fix, fasten; ME. stoken up, 
displaced XXX. 11. 

st6da, ME. stede, wm., [= T. 
*sto5jo(n-) < T. ^sto-'So-, cf. 
st6d, Ic. sto^, OHG. stuota, 
number of horses, stud, orig. 
?(herd in) a staU, esTAblish- 
ment, < : V sta, STAwd, Sk. 224 c ; 
199. 5] STAllion, steed, Sk. 43, 

stede, ME. stede, stude, sted, sm. 
(263), [< T. sta-Si-z < V sta, 
STxnd, Sk. 224 c; pj). 200, 136] 
(Goth. sta}>-s=*stad-s, Ic. statS-r, 
OS. stedi, /. OHG. stat, G. statte) 
place, stead. 

stede-heard, aj., (VI. 223, found 
but this once) steadfast, sure?, 

stefn, stemn (193. 2), ME. 
stevene, steven, stevin, sf, [=T. 
*stebno-] (Goth, stibna, OS. 
stemna, OHG. stimna, MHG. G. 
stimme) voice, steven ( = outcry 
(S-pen.) = (prov.) appointment). 

stefn, staefn, ME. stem (193. 2; 
Sk. 349), sm., [< T. *stamno 
(?<*stabno-, cf staef) <Vsta, 
STAnd'] (Ic. stafn, Ic. OS. stamn, 
OHG. stam, G. stamm, steven) 
stem, stock, prow. 

steked v. stician. 




stelan, ME. stelen ; prt. pi. ME. 
stelen ; pp. ME. stolen, s. 4 (390; 
Sk. 144), [<T. stelon /or ?*ste- 
ron, Beitr. XIII. 460, influ. 
helan, cf. Gk. aTepeiv] (Goth, 
stilan, Ic. stela, OS. OHG. stelan, 
MHG. stein, G. stehlen) steal, 
Sk. 313. 

stemme, to., [<Scand. ; cf. Ic. 
stemma < T. V stam, check'] 
(OHG. MHG. G. stemmen = 
*stamjan) stem, stop. 

steiiin V. stefn. 

stenc, ME. stench (e/. 210. 3), 
stunch, sm. (266), [ = T. *stanki-z, 
<prt. of stincan, Sk. p. 202; 
175; 199] sjnell XIII. 50, fra- 
grance, stench. 

stene v. stsene. 

stent V. stondan. 

steoren v. steran. 

steorfan, ME. sterven ; prt. pi. 
ME. sturven, s. S C (388 ; Sk. 
23; 148), [<WT. Vsterb, ?orig. 
plague one''s self, cf anal. Gk. 
oLKaixSvTes, those who have la- 
boured = the dead] (OS. sterban, 
Du. sterven, OHG. sterban, 
MHG. G. sterben) die (espec. by 
hunger or cold, >stanre). 

steorra, ME. steorre, win., [(79a) 

< I.-E. base ster, ?< : V str, strew] 
(cf Gk. d-ar-Zip, L. Stella <*ster- 
(u)la, OS. OHG. sterro, Du. ster, 
cf. (anal. ni6-na, sun-ne) 
Goth, stair-no, Ic. stjar-na, 
OHG. ster-no, MHG. ster-ne, G. 
ster-n) star. 

steppan, ME. steppe ; prt. stop, 
s. 6 (372; 392.4; Sk. 141), [T. 
V stap, tread on, < V stab, ?sta-p, 
Sk. p. 138] (0 Fris. steppa, cf. 
OHG. stepfen) step, Sk. p. 202, 

st§ran, ME. steoren, w. 1, [ = 
*st6r-jan<st6r, sm., (license, 

< L. (Vulg.) stor-ac-em, ace. < 
Gk. a-Tijp-a^, sTORax, Quell, u. 
Forsch. 64. 153 ; 155] perfume 
with {license, cense. 

sterced-ferhU, aj., [sterced, 
pp. form, <aj. stearc, stark; 

ferh-iy cf. feorh] stout of soul 

VI. 227. 
Sterne, sb., [<Scand.; cf Ic. stj6r-n 

<T. sturo-, rudder =steert] (cf. 

Ic. styri, OE. st6or, OHG. 

stiura, also prop, support, > G. 

steuer, tax ; G. stern < Eng.) 

steering, rtidder, stern. 
Steven, stevne v. stefn. 
sticce, sticche v. stycee. 
sticiau, ME. stiken, steken, w. 2, 

[v. *stecan] (cf OHG. MHG. 

G. stecken = OE. *s tec can) 

stick, stab. 
stiij, ME. stith, aj., (OFris. stith) 

firm, stout, brave. 
stiar-hydig, a}., [ = hygdig (214. 

■^)i cf' ge-hygd, n., mind, v. 

hogian] stout-minded, resolute 

V. 2896. 
stiaf-m6d, aj., stout of mood, brave 

III. 1 b. 
stig, ME. sti3e, stie, sf, [<stig- 

an] (Ic. stig-r, OHG. stig, G. 

steig, cf OHG. stiega, MHG. G. 

stiege, STAirs, STiZe, G. steg, m.) 

stlgan, ME. sti3e ; prt. stah, 

ME. stisede, s. 1 (382), [<T. 

stigon < T. V stig = stiig < V steigh, 

Sk. 116, stride] (cf Skt. v' stigh, 

cf. Gk. a-reixeiv, march, cf. Olr. 

tiag-aim, / march, cf. L. ve-stig- 

inm, footstep, vesTioe; Ic. stiga, 

OS. OHG. stigan, G. steigen, 

Du. stijgen) mount, ascend=$ty 

stille, ME. stille, still, aj. and av., 

[=dec. T. *stiljo- for stilli- < 

orig. T. *stelnu- < : I.-E. *sthelnu, 

cf Skt. sthanu, STxndiiig, im- 

movable](0^. OHG. stilli, MHG. 

stille, G. still) still, quiet. 
stilness, ME. stillnesse, sf, [< 

stille] (OHG. stilnessi) still- 
stime, sb., [?<Scand., ?c/. OSwed. 

stomme, element] particle, ray 

of light XXVI. 40, stime, Sc. 
stincan, ME. stinken, s. 3^4 (386; 

Sk. 148), [ = WT. stinkan, emit 

a pleasant or bad odour] (OHG. 




stiiichan, MHG. G. stinken) give 
an odour, stink. 

stith V. stl'S. 

stocc, ME. stokk, sm., [< T. 
stoko-] (Ic. stokk-r, OHG. MHG. 
stoc, G. stock, Du. stok) stock, 
trunk; pi ME. stokkes, the 
stocks {cf. stock-house, and JEltr. 
Lives of Saints, 142, 387, 402). 

stod V. stondan. 

stoken v. stecan. 

st61, ME. stol, sm., [<T. sto-lo- 
<>/sta, ST And, Sk. 167; 160; 74; 
218] {cf.Gk.ffTTJXr], pillar; Goth, 
stol-s, OS. stol, OHG. MHG. 
stuol, G. stuhl, Du. stoel) seat, 
chair, stoo/. 

stolen V. stelan. 

ston V. stdn. 

stondan, standan, ME. stonden, 
stande ; 3. sg. prs. ind. OE. ME. 
stent; prt. st6d, ME. stod, 
stood, s. 6 (392. 3 ; Sk. 141 ; 135), 
[< T. n/ Stan's, n orig. only in 
prs. , < T. V stab < V sta-t < V stS,, 
stand firm'] (cf. Gk. l-aTd-vai, L. 
sta-re ; Ic. standa, OS. standan, 
OHG. stantan ; cf. < T. V *st£e 
(stai), OS. OHG. MHG. st&n, 
st6n, G. stehen) stand, appear ; 
ME. .me stent seie, / am timid. 

stoon V. stdn. 

st6p V. steppan. 

store, ME. storke, sm., [< T. 
storko-] (Ic. stork-r, OHG. storah, 
store, MHG. G. storch) stork. 

storie, sh. , [< AF. estorie, Sk. II. 
42, <ML. storia v. stsfer] his- 
tory, story ; Sk. II. 73 ; 44. 

storm, also ME., sm., [<T. stor- 
mo-, orig. sturnio-, (45. 3) Sk. 
p. 234, < T. V stur, stir, cf. 
stoure] (Ic. storm-r, OHG. MHG. 
G. Sturm) tempest, storm. 

stoiinde v. stund. 

stoure, sb., [<AF. estur, Sk. II. 

• 42, OF. estour <T., cf. storm] 
(c/. Ic. styrr) commotion, con- 
flict, stour (Spen.). 

8t6w, Nh. st<5u, me: stowe, sf. 
(259), [<T. *st6-wo-, Sk. 212, 
<\/sta, STAwd] (OFris. sto, cf. 

Ic. eld-sto, fire-place; NE. stow, 
vh., stow in prop, names) place. 

stowne V. stune. 

strsel, Nh. str61, ME. stral, sm.f, 
[< WT. stralo- < T. *str£eI6- 
(57. 2 ; 45. 6)] (Du. straal, OS. 
OHG. strdla, /., MHG. str41, G. 
strahl, ray, cf. Ic. strj&l) arrotv. • 

strsfet, ME. strete, stret, sf, [ = 
WT. strdt <LL. .strat-a (via), 
paved way_(yi. 3; 57. 1; Sk. 48 ; 
398) < stratus (c/. stratwwi) pp. 
o/ stern ere <v/ster, strew. Quell, 
u. Forsch. 64. 373] (OS. strdta, 
OHG. strdza, G. strasse) street, 

strand v. strond. 

Strang v. strong. 

strang-laker v. strongllce. 

straught v. streccan. 

stream, ME. striem, strem, sw., 
[< T. strau-mo- < T. V strau, 
T. str- <I.-E. sr-, Brug. 578, 
< V srou : sreu : srti, cf. Skt, V sru, 
flow, Sk. 77, pp. 96, 234] (cf. 
Gk. ^(>}tj=*(rpu}f^, p€ij-fj.a=*a'p€v-, 
O Ir. sruaim, *srou-men ; OS. 
Strom, Du. stroom, OHG.stroum, 
G. Strom) stream, Sk. 49. 

streccan, ME. strecche ; 2. sg.prs. 
ind. strecst; prt. streahte, 
strehte, ME. straughte; pp. 
ME. straught, w. \ C (407 a), 
[<T. V strak, v. aj. s t r ae c, rigid'] 
(Du. strekken, OHG. strecchen, 
MHG. G. strecken) stretch; 
ME. straught out of mynde, 
vanished from memory XXX. 11. 

str61 V. strsel. 

strem v. str§am. 

streng, ME. streng, sm. (266), 
[< T. *strangi- , ?cf. strong, 
Sk. 207; p. 202] (Ic. streng-r, 
Du. streng, OHG. G. Strang) 
rope, string. 

strengiS", ME. streng^e, strenc^e, 
strengthe, strynth, sf. (255. 3), 
labs. < T. *strang-ib5- < aj., v. 
strong, Sk. pp. 202, 150, 241] 
(OHG. strengida) strength, 
power, custody. 

streiigre v. strong. 




strengjjen, pp. istrengbed, w.^ 
[streng3'J strengthen. 

stret, strete v. street. 

strica, ME. strike, streke, lom., 
[<pp. of stric-an, s. \ (382), 
go (strike) <T. v/ strik <pre T. 
V strig, Sk. p. 130] (c/. L. striga, 
windrow^ Goth, strik-s, G. strich, 
Swed. strek > streak) stroke, 
Sk. p. 184,^ tittle XIV. 42. 

striem v. stream. 

strif, stryffe, s&., [<AF. estrif, 
Sk. II. 42, < T. ; cf. G. streben, 
to strive] strife, Sk. II. 64. 1. 

strond, strand, ME. strond, 
strand, sn. (JE\h\ Horn. II. 288), 
(Ic. strond, Du. strand > G. 
strand) strand, shore. 

strong (65; Sk. 377), Strang, 
ME. strong, Strang, aj. (299 N. 1; 
303 N.), (Ic. strang-r, OS. Strang, 
Du. streng, cf. OHG. strengi, 
MHG. strenge, G. streng) strong, 
violent, severe; comp. streng- 
ra, ME. strengre [T. comp. suf. 
-iz-o(n-)] (80. 2; 309; 310), supl. 
ME. strongest, strongest XXX. 7; 
ME. }n stranger, one STRONoer 
tJian thou. 

strong-lice, ME. stronglike, av., 
strongly, very; comp. ME. strang- 

strucyo, sh., [< LL. strutliiS < 
Gk. cTpovdiuiv < crrpovdds, spar- 
row'] (cf. < LL., OE. stryta, 
struta, OHG. striiz, G.strauss) 
OSTRICH (<0F.) XXVn. 48. 

stryffe v. strif. 

strynth v. strengS". 

stude V. stede. 

study, ic, [<AF. estudier, Sk. II. 
42, (F. Studier) < ML. studiare 
< L. studium, zeal] study. 

stunch = OE. *stync? v. stenc. 

stund, ME. stunde, stund, stounde, 
sf (254. 1), [<T. stun55-] (Ic. 
stund, OS. stunda, OHG. stunta, 
MHG. G. stunde, in late MHG. 
first = hour, Du. stond, moment) 
period, short time XXVI. 93, 
stoundi ; ME. umbe st., some- 
times, often. 

stune, stowne, prt. stowned, pp. 
stund, w., [^appar. < AF. estuner, 
Sk. II. 42, estoner <ML. *ex- 
tonare, stun as from THUNcZer] 
stun, Sk. II. 67, stupefy, stound 
(prov.) astound. 

St6r, ME. Sture, Stoure, sf, 
Stour (river). 

sturde-ly, ME. av., [_< aj. OF. 
estourdi, orig. amazed, <pp. of 
estourdir, ?< ML. *ex-torpidire, 
make torpid, Sk. II. 154] stur- 
dily, sternly. 

sture V. st6r. 

sturven v. steorfan. 

stycce, sticce, ME.stucche, stic- 
che, sn. (248), [<T. stok-jo-, cf 
stocc] (Ic. stykke, OS. stukki, 
OHG. stucchi, MHG. stucke, G. 
stuck) piece (stetch\, stitchi). 

styd, Nh., sn., [cf. stede] place. 

styutan in compos, a-, for-, 
ge-, ME. stynte, stinte, pp. ME. 
stynt, 10. 1, Sk. 148, [<aj. 
stunt, stupid, lit. short of wit ; 
Sk. 194, for sense cf. Scand., 
OSwed. stunt, cut short, Ic. 
stuttr, STUNTed] (Ic. stytta = 
*stynta, shorten) stint = stop, 
check ; ME. be stynt, cease. 

styrnian, ME. sturmen ; prt. 
styrmde, w. 1, [<storni] 
(Ic. styrma, OHG. sturmen, G. 
stiirmen) storm, rage VI. 223. 

styrn-in6d, aj. (rare), [<styrne 
<T. *sturn-io-, Sk. 252] stern 
of mood VI. 227. 

sua, suae, v. swd. 

sua-gat, ME. av., [< Scand., cf. 
Ic. sva, = op:, swa, 4- Ic. gata, 
/., way, legate, >gait, Sk, 446, 
cf. Goth, gatwo, G. gasse] thus, 
in such a way. 

subbarb, sh., [< AF. suburbe <L. 
sub-urb-ium <sub, under, urbi-, 
St. o/urbs, town] suburb, Sk. II. 
74. 2; 111. 

successour, sh., [= AF. <L. suc- 
cess-or-em, ace, < successus, pp. 
of sue- (= sub-)cedere, folloio 
close upon, succeed] successor. 

such V. swelc. 




sfiiaf, ME. souJ>, av. (321), [=acc. 
or locative < only T. smi\> (185. 
2; Sk. 75; 253a), ?<T. sun-, 
sun'} (Ic. su-S-r, sunn-r, Du. zuid, 
OHG. sund, MHG. sunt, G. sud) 
south, Sk. 46, southwards. 

sud'an, ME. suben, av. (321), [< 
T. sun]?-ana] (OHG. sundana) 
from the south. 

sufffSe V. sifffS&n. 

sue, ]}rt. suet, w., [<prs. ptc. st. 
of AF. suire (F. suivre) < ML. 
sequere for L. sequT] folloiv, 
pursue = suei, Sk. II. 78. 2. 

su6 V. swd. 

snelce v. swelc. 

suencten v. sweucan. 

sues- V. swges-. 

sufel I', sufl. 

suffer, w., [<AF. soeffrir, suffrir, 
Sk. II. 85 ; 143. 14, (F. souffrir) 
< L. suf- (sub-) ferre, undergo, 
<Vbher, bear] suffer. 

sufficiant, ME. aj., [<AF. suffi- 
cient < L. sufficient- st. ofprs. ptc. 
of suf- (=sub-) ficere (=facere), 
lit. make or put under, suppZ?/] 

sufl, sufol, ME. sufel, sovel, sn., 
[<T. *sup-lo-, Sk. 218, <prt. pi. 
of s6pan] (Ic. sufl, sip, cf. 
OHG. suvil) anything eaten with 
bread, allowance of food, pittance 

suic v. swelc. 

suiUe V. swiiS'e. 

suikes V. swica. 

suilc V. swelc. 

suld, sulde v. sculan. 

sulf V. seolf. 

sum. Nil. summ, ME. sum, 
summ, some, prn. indef. (343), 
[< T. sumo- < I.-E. smm-6- < : 
Vsem; Brug. 227, cf some] 
{cf. Skt. sama-; Goth, sum-s, Ic. 
sum-r, OS. OHG. MHG. sum) 
some one, one, any, a; same 
J>d >veardas, some of the 
guards XI, Bod. 11, ME.' sum 
\\\nbX> somewhat ; ME. sum del, 
very; sum )nug > something = 
in some measure. 

suin(m), ME. cj., [< Scand., cf. 
Swed. Dan. som, Ic. sem] as, so, 
quat sum, what so ever {what- 
somever, dial.). 

sumor, ME. sumer, sm. (273), 
[< T. sum-ro-, -ru-] {cf. Skt. 
sama, year, Ir. sam ; Ic. sumar, 
n., Du. zomer, OHG. sumar, 
MHG. sumer, G, sommer) sum- 

sunden v. 6om. 

suneaen v. syngian. 

sun-full V. synfull. 

sunnan- {gen.) daeg, ME. sunne 
dei, sunedei, sm., [sunne] Sun- 
day, Sk. 346 ; p. 426 ; 457. 

sunne, ME. sunne, wf. (278), [< 
T. sunno(n-), Sk. 222, ?<\/su, 
shine} {cf Goth, sauil, Ic. OE. 
sol, L. sol ; Goth, sunno, OS. 
OHG. sunna, MHG. sunne, G. 
Sonne, Du. zon) sun, Sk. 388 ; 
p. 71, Grmm. Myth. p. 704. 

sunne v. sunu, syn. 

sunu, ME. sune, sunne, sone, Sk. 
p. 71 ; 379, zone ; gen. dat. sg. 
suna, sunu, no7n. ace. pi. 
sun a, sunu, suno, gen. pi. 
suna, sunena, sm. (270), 
[<I.-E. su-nu-s, Brug. II. 106, 
Sk.221, <Vsu, beget, ?cf swin] 
(Skt. sunii-, cf Gk. vl6s = *a-v-i6s, 
Goth, sunu-s, Ic. sun-r, OS. OHG. 
sunu, OHG. MHG. sun, G. sohn, 
Du. zoon) son, Sk. 313 ; 388. 

suoren v. swerian. 

siipan, ME. soupe {also w., <0F. 
souper), s. 2 (385; Sk. 152), [< 
T. V stip, OF. V soup < T.] (Ic. 
siipa, MDu. siipen, cf. OHG. 
siifan, G. saufen) taste, sip, sup ; 
ME. vb.-sb. soupy nge > supping, 
soupynge thing, relish, food. 

suppe, w., [ = *syppan = T. 
*sup-jon <prt. pi. of slip an] 
sip, drink. 

sure, ME. aj., [<AF. seiir, Sk. II. 
p. 207, < L. se-ciirus, careless, 
(secure), <se-, free from, cura, 
care} sure, Sk. II.'83. 3 ; bat burde 
hym by sure, of that he ought to 
have been sure XXIX. 117. 




suspecyoun, sb., [=AF. suspe- 
cioun, Sk. II. 142. 6 c, <L. sus- 
plci6(n-) <su- (=sub, under) 
-spicere (=specere, look) sus- 
pect] suspicion. 

suster V. sweostor. 

suteliche v. sweotole. 

sutelte, sb., [< AF. sotiltee < L. 
subtilita(t-)s < sub-tili-s, fine] 
subtlety Sk. II. 67. 

suylgTe v. swiiflCe. 

svich V. swelc. 

svvlfre V. seolfor. 

swa, swsfe, sva, sud, svefe, 
susfe, swe, sue, ME. swa, 
sua, swo, suo, zuo, so, sa, say, 
se, av. and cj., [<T. ?pronom. 
av. *swa- (121)] (Gotb. swa, Ic. 
sv^, svo, so, OS. OHG. MHG. 
so, G. so) so, Sk. 42 ; 355, as, 
Sk. 354, indeed as; swA hwd 
swd, ME. hwa se, indef. rel.prn. 
(345), whoever; swa J>eah, 
nevertheless; swd . . . swa, 
as ... as ; swsfe . . . swse 
sw^, so ... «s VIII. 87. 

swseff, sn. VIII. 41, swalSTtt (253 
and K 1), ME. swathe, sf., 
(MDu. swade, swath) track, 
footprint, swath. _ 

swsfes, aj., [<T. swae-so-, ?< : I.-E. 
pronom. st. *swo-, *sewo-] (c/. 
Skt. sva, Gk. e6s, L. suus ; Goth. 
sw63, Ic. swdss, OS. OHG. sw^s) 
one''s own, beloved. 

swsfesendu, Kent. su6senda, 
n. pi., [swsfes, cf. Goth. sw6s, 
n., living] provisions VII. 32, 
meals VII. 18. 

swain, sb., [< Scand. < T. swamo-, 
cf. Ic. svemn, boy, = Sweg{e)n 
(6 N. 1)] (OE. swan, herdsman, 
OS. sw6n, OHG. swein) young 
man, servant = swaint. 

swallt v. sw^eltan. 

sware, sb., [< Scand., cf Ic. svara, 
oath, V. OE. ondswaru, 
sw^erjan] answer. 

swdt, ME. swot, swet, sm., 
[< T. swaito- < T. vf swait : swit 
< V swoid : swid, Sk. 117] (cf 
G'k..l5-pdbs,= *o- fid-pus, L. sud-or, 

= *swoid-os, Brug. 170, Ic. 
sveiti; OS. sw^t, OHG. MHG. 
sweiz, G. schweiss) sweat, blood. 

sweart, ME. swiert, aj., [< T. 
swarto- (79b) (??Sk. p. 209) 
<\/ sword, dark, ?cf L. sord-es 
?for *swordes, dirt] (Goth, 
swart-s, Ic. svart-r, OS. swart, 
OHG. MHG. swarz, G. schwarz, 
Du. zwart) swart, black. 

sweem, sb., [< Scand., cf Ic. 
sveim-r, tumult, cf. swima] 
grief (sivea/wt = vertigo, cf. 
■ squeamish). 

swefn, swefen, ME. sweven, 
sn., [<T. sweb-no-, I.-E. *swep- 
no-s < V swep, Brug. 194] (cf. 
Skt. sv&pna-s, Gk. vTr-vos=*<TVTr- 
vos, (hypnotic), L. sop-or, (sop- 
orific), L. somnus = *sopnus ; 
OS. sweban, Ic. svefn) sleep, 

sw^ef te V. swifte. 

swegan, ME. sweie, swe3e, sweye; 
prt. swegde, ME. sweyed, 
w. 1, \_caus. <sw6gan] sound, 
roar, rush, sway. 

swegl, sn., [=T. *swig-lo-(m), 
cf. OS. swigli, aj., shining, clear, 
Goth, swigl-ja, flute-player, v. 
swegan] ether, heaven V. 

swelc, sw^ylc (345), sw^ilc, 
suilc, ME. swilc, swylk, swillc, 
swilch, swich, swiche, suic, svich, 
swuch, such, sic, I. aj. as prn. 
(349; 342), [<swd + llc (43 
N. 4), Sk. p. 428] (Goth, swa- 
leik-s, Ic. slik-r, OS. sulik, OHG. 
sulih, solih, MHG. solich, G. 
solch, Du. zulk) such, Sk. 355 ; 
325, sw^elc . . . hwelc, such 
. . . as. II. reL prn. wh\cn, 
who. III. sw^elce, svelce, 
suelce, sw^ylce (sw^e), 
swilce, ME. swilc, swylch, 
av. (315) and cj., as, so as, 
thus, with opt. as if. 

sweltan, ME. swelten ; 3. sg. prs. 
ind. swylt, swelt; prt. 
swealt; ME. swallt, s. 3 B 
(387), [< T. V swelt] (Goth. 




swiltan, Ic. svelta, starve, OS. 
sweltan, OHG. swelzan, MHG. 
swelzen, burn) die, languish, 
swe/t\ {swelter, suLxr?/). 

swencan, ME. swenken, suen- 
chen, swenche ; prt. swencte 
(405. 2) ME. suencte, w. 1, 
\_caus. of swine an] torment, 

swengan, ME, swenge, w. 1, [caus. 
o/<swingan, swing] swinge, 
heat, SWING. 

sweopu, ME. swepe, s. orig. wf. 
(279), [<T. Vswip (107) : swaip, 
cf. swdpan, red. B, sweep 
(swoop) < V swigw : swaigw, 
swing, Brug. 444] (Ic. svipa) 
whip, scourge XVIII. 15562. 

sw^eora, sw^Ara (71) LWS. 
XIII. 27, ME. sweore, wm., (Ic. 
sviri) neck. 

sweord, swurd LWS. (72), 
swyrd (72 N.), ME. swerd, 
sn., [<onlyT. swer'So-; older 
T. term = h.eoTVi, sn. (271; 106) 
< T. heru- < I.-E. *keru-, spear, 
Brug. 393] (Ic. sver«, OS. swerd, 
OHG. MHG. swert, G. schwert, 
Du. zwaard) sword, Sk. 355; 

sweostor, ME. suster, zoster, 
M:-r, f. (285), [T. swes-t-r (72; 
Sk. 227 c) <I.-E. swes-r-, Brug. 
II. 146] {cf. Skt. sv&sar, L. soror 
= *swes6-r, Goth, swistar, OS. 
swestar, OHG. MHG. swester, 
G. schwester) sister (< Scand. 
influ., Ic. syster, Sk. 355). 

sweotole (315), sw^eotol-lice 
(316), ME. suteliche, av., [< 
sweotol, «j., = T. *switul (71; 
104; 107. 2) cf Lith. svidas] 
clearly, manifestly. 

sweotolian, swutolian, ME. 
swutelien, w. 2, [<aj., v. sweo- 
tole] manifest, reveal. 

swepe V. sweopu. 

swer, ME. sweor, sm., {cf. Skt. 
sv&ru-s, sacrificial stake, {1st 
recorded dial.) G. schwire, stake) 
column XIV. 91, 92. 

sw^erd v. SAveord. 

swerian, ME. swerien, suerien, 
swere ; prt. 8w6r, ME. swor; 
pp. ME. suoren, s. 6 (392. 4 ; 
Sk. 141), l< 07ily T. swar-jon 
(89; Sk. p. 200), T. Vswar, ?be 
answerable for'] (Goth, swaran, 
Ic. sverja, OS. swerian, OHG. 
swerien, MHG. swerjen, G. 
schworen, Du. zweren) swear. 

sw§s- V. swsfes-. 

sw6te, ME. swete, aj. (299), [=T. 
*swotio-, Sk. 158 ; 246, <T.*sw6- 
ti- (302 N.) < orig. T. *sw6t-u- 
< I.-E. swad-ii-, Brug. 104, < 
Vswad, taste good, please] (cf 
Doric Gk. dd-v-s = *a-fd8-vs, L. 
sua-vis, = *swad-w-i-s, > F., = 
SUA?J6, Sk. II. 199. 2, Goth, sut-s; 
Ic. scet-r, OS. swoti, OHG. suozi, 
MHG. sueze, G. siiss, Du. zoet) 
sweet, Sk. 43. 

sw6t-Iice, ME.sweteli, av.,sweetly. 

sw6tniss, ME. swetnesse, swett- 
nes, sf, [abs. < swete -f 
n-es-s, Sk. 232] sweetness, ele- 
gance IX. 7. 

sw^eye v. sw^egan. 

swica, ME. suike, pi. ME. suikes, 
wm., [swican] (Ic. sviki) 

swican, ME. swiken, prt. pi. ME. 
swiken, pp. ME. swiken, s. 1 
(382), [<T. Vswik, go {forth)] 
(Ic. svikja, OS. swican, OHG. 
swichan, MHG. swichen) aban- 
don, cease, fail, deceive, betray. 

swic-d6in, ME. swikedom, sm., 
[<aj. swice, cf. swican, + 
d6m, Sk. 202] (Ic. svikdom-r) 
deceit, treachery XIV. 57. 

swich V. swelc. 

swieol, ME. swikel, swichel, aj., 
[swican] deceitful, treacher- 

swiff, ME. swi}?, aj., [<T. swin^o- 
(185) cf se-swind, Me (233; 
234 b)] (Goth. swint>-s, Ic. 
svinn-r, wise, OS. swi^, MHG. 
swinde, G. (ge-)schwind, swift) 
strong; comp. swiffra, Nh. 
sviffra, ME. swi^Sre, swi'Sere, 
right {hand, side). 




swisaP-e, swyffe, ME. swrSe, 
swi^e, swyj^e, suySe ; swutSe, 
av. , strongly^ quickly, very, much, 
swithe (Sc); comp. swilS'or, 
swygfor, Nil. svil^ur, ME. 
swu^ra, more VI. 182. 

swi9'-lic, aj., strong, excessive, 

swiff-lice, ME. swibeliche, av., 
exceedingly, very. 

swiert v. sweart. 

swift, also MP]., aj., [<T. *swip- 
to-, Sk. 253b, V. sweopu] 

*swifte, ME. swefte, a??., [swift] 

swift-lice, ME. swyftly, av., 

swiftness, ME. swiftenes, sf., 

swik- V. sw^ic-. 

swilc, swillc V. swelc. 

swima, ME. swime, swym, wm., 
[< T. *swTm6(n-), ?orig. T. 
*swTno(n-),c/. swindan] (Ic. 
svimi, OFris. swima, Du. zwijm, 
cf. G. schwindel > swindle, Sk. 
67) dizziness, swoon, forgetful- 
ness XXX. 12, swim]. 

swin, ME. swin, swun, sn., [<T. 
sw-ino-(ra) prop. aj. st. <I.-E. 
su, sow, -f suff. -Tno-, belonging 
to, <n/su, cf. Skt. Vsii, bring 
forth, Brug. 57 ; 37 ; II. 68. 2, 
'?c/. sunu, Sk. p. 230] {cf. L. 
suinus, aj., relating to sows; 
Goth, swein, Ic. sviii, OS. OHG. 
MHG. swin, G. schwein) hog, a 

swine, ME. swine, swink, swincli, 
sm. or n. (=geswinc)?, [< 
swincan] toil, hardship, trou- 
ble, swink (Spen.). 

swincan, ME. swinken, swinke, 
swynke, pi't. sg. ME. swanc, pi. 
ME. swunche, s. S A (386), [< 
T. V*swink, swing, cf swin- 
gan, SWING, but'Dn. zwenken] 
toil, work hard, travel, swink 

swindan, ME. swinden, s. S A 
(386), [?< T. V*swi-nd <T. V *swi, 

decrease (as T. V stand < V sta) 
Kl., cf. OHG. swinan, decrease^ 
(OHG. swintan, MHG. swinden, 
G. schwinden) vanish. 

swinsung, sf, [< sw^lns-ian, 
sound harmoniously, ? = Goth. 
*swignis6n, cf. swignjan, rejoice, 
Kl. in Anglia IV. Anz. p. 18 ; v. 
swegl] tune, melody, rhythm 
IX. 64. 

swi>e V. swiffe. 

sw6gan, ME. swowen, sou3e, 
swoune, so3ne, sowene, s. red. B 
(396c, also w. prs. 372), (Goth. 
ga-sw6gjan, sigh, OS. swogan) 
sound, rustle, sough =swough] , 
swoon (<ME. swo3nen) swoun 
{dial.), swouN(Z (Shak.) souNd 
{dial.) ; ME. so3nyng, sowenyng, 
vb.-sb., > swooning. 

swolowe, 10., [<swelgan, s.SB 
(387), <only T. Vswelh, swelg 
(234 c), Sk. 148; 338] swallow. 

sw^or V. sw^erian. 

swuffe V. swiffe. 

swuluncg K., VII. 3, sn., [ = 
*sulli-Mang (43 N. 4), lit. 
plough-LOSG, sulli, /. (284) 
sullow (prov.), cf. L. sulcus, cf. 
f u r-1 a n g, -u n g* sn., /wrLONG , 
Ang. III. 151] measure of land, 
one p)loughing, 120 acres. 

swun V. swin. 

swiira v. sw6ora. 

sw^urd V. sw^eord. 

swut- V. sweot-. 

swyffe V. swiffe. 

swyftly V. swiftlice. 

swylc, -ce, swylk v. swelc. 

swylt V. sweltan. 

swym V. sw^ima. 

sw^ynke v. swincan. 

swyrd v. sweord. 

sw^yjje V. swiffe. 

sybbe v. sib. 

syde V. side. 

syffffan, -en v. siffJaCan. 

sy3(en) v. s6on. 

syhte V. gesihS". 

sykerly v. sicor. 

sylf V. seolf. 

sylle V. sellan. 




sylver v. seolfor. 

syinbel, ge7i. symbles, sym- 

les, sw., (Ic. sumbl, c/. OS. 

sumble, dat. sg.) banquet. 
symle v. simle. 
syn(n), gen. synne, ME. sunne, 

zenne, syn, sf. (257), [= T.*sun'5I, 

nom. sg., < T. *sun'Sio-, Sk. p. 229, 

< I.-E. sntia, cf. pre T. V sun (c/. 

L. aj.sons, guilty, ?=*s-ont-, prs. 

ptc. suf., lit. real) ?<\/es, be, 

Sk. ^.*170] {cf. Ic. synS; OS. 

sundia, OHG. suntea, MHG. G. 

sunde) sin. 
syn V. sWSan. 
synd V. 6oin. 
synder-lice, ME. sinderliche, av., 

[syndrlg] especially. 
syndon v. eom. 
syndrig, ME. syndry, aj., [< 

sun dor, av., «sunder, < T. 

av. appar. *sun-'5aro-, with comp. 

sw/.=I.-E. -tero, cf. aefter, cf. 

Gk. &T€p, without, ? = I.-E. sn-ter, 

avs. Goth, sundro, Ic. sundr, 

OHG. suntar, MHG. sunder >G. 

sondern, but] (cf. G. sonderlich, 

special) separate, alone, sundry. 
syn-full, ME. synfull, sunfull, aj., 

syng V. singan. 
syngiau, ME. sune3en, prt. ME. 

sunesude, wi. 2, [<syn] (OS. 

sundion, OHG. sunteon, MHG. 

sundigen, G. siindigen) sin. 
syngne, sb., [< AF. signe < L. 

sTgnum] sign, Sk. II. 64. 3. 
synne v. syn. 
syre v. sire, 
syrwung, sf, [<syrw-an, w. 1 

(408. 1), deceive; v. searo- 

> o n c] artifice, plot XIV. 49. 
sytte V. sittan. 


t- after t, d, s v. also ]?-. 
ta V. taken, J>a, se. 

table, sb., [=Ar. < L. tabula, 
plank, Sk. II. 156 ;jo. 229] table, 
Sk. 11. 54. 1 ; tables, tablets. 

tac V. taken. 

tacen, ME. takenn ; pi. tacness, 
sn. (243; 244), [=tdcn (138; 
141) <T. taik-no-, Sk. 221, <T. 
VtTk, tih, <VdIg, dik, show^ {cf 
Gk. deiy-fxa, proof, Goth, t&ikns, 
/. ; Ic. takn, OS. t6kan, OHG. 
zeichan, MHG. G. zeichen, Sk. 
166) token, miracle. 

tacnian, ME. tacnien ; prt. tdc- 
node, tacnude, ME. tac- 
nede; pp. getacnod, w. 2, 
[< tdcen (411)] {cf Goth, 
taiknjan ; Ic. t&kna ; cf. OHG. 
zeihhanen, MHG. zeichenen, G. 
zeichnen, mark) beroKEs, make 
known = token (Shak.), foretell. 

ts^can, ME. techen, tegen, teche ; 
prt. tsfehte, Nh. tahte, ME. 
tauhte, tehte; pp. ME. tau3t, 
w. 1 C (407a), [=*tdcian < 
T. v/ talk, V. tdcen] (cf Gk. 
deiK-vvfjiL, 1 pers. prs., L. dic-ere) 
shoiv, teach, Sk. 325, say. 

taer v. Jjsfer, 

tahte V. tgeean. 

taken, take, tak, ta; imper. tac; 
prt. tok, toe, took, toke ; pp. 
taken, takun, takyne, ytake, 
take, tane, ME. vb. s. 6 (Sk. 
141 ; 429), [<Scand., cf. Ic. taka, 
touch, seize] {cf Goth. t6kan, 
touch) take, touch, seise, stand 
{the shock), give. 

tald V. tellan. 

talu, ME. tale, sf, [= T. talo- 
<only T. V tal, count] {cf. Ic. 
tala ; OHG. zala, MHG. zal, G. 
zahl, number, Du. taal, speech) 
tale, narrative. 

tane v. taken. 

tapor, ME. taper, sm., [??<C., 
Sk. 411, cf Ir. tapar, Skt. Vtap, 
burn] taper. 

tary v. tyrgan. 

tat(t) V. se, J>aet. 

tau3t, tauhte v. teecan. 

taunen, tawnen, prt. tawnede, w., 
(MLG. tonen, MDu. toonen, 
MHG. zounen, ?<*zougenen < 
OHG. zougjan <*az-ougjan, cf. 
aftt-ywan) shoiv. 




te V. se. 

teagor, t6ar (111; Sk. 335), ME. 
ter, sm., [=WT. *tahur < T. 
tah-ro-, Sk. 217, <I.-E. dak-ru, 
Sk. 117, Brug. II. 107] (c/. Gk. 
SdKpv, L. lacru-ma (hACHnymal) 
— OL. dacru-ma, Cornish, dagr ; 
Goth, tagr, Ic. t&r=*tahr-, OHG. 
zahar, c/. MHG. n. pL zahere 
> G. zahre) tear. 

tealde v. tellan. 

teale, teal a, tela (109 b), ay. 
(317), [til] properly t well. 

teche(ii) V. tsbcan. 

tea" V. tdff. 

tee, teen v. teon. 

tefor V. toforan. 

tegen v. tsecan. 

te33(re) (Beitr. X. 60) v. he. 

teh V. t6on. 

tehte V. tgfecan. 

tekenn v. 6aca. 

tellan, ME. tellen, telle, tell, tel ; 
prt. tealde, ME. tealde, talde, 
tolde, tald, told ; pp. teald, ge- 
teald, ME. told, w.lG (407a) 
[ = WT. *talljan = T. tal-jon, 
V. tal-u] (Ic. telja, OS. tellian, 
OHG. zellen, MHG. zeln, G. 
zahlen) count, tell, narrate, speak. 

temen v. tieman. 

Temes {also Temese, wf.), ME. 
Temese, sf., Thames (river) VIII. 

tempeste, s&., [= AF. = ML. 
*tempesta for L. tempesta(t-)s 
< (tempos-, -or-) tempus, time'] 
tempest, Sk. II. 57. 1. 

tempel, ME. temple, temmple, 
sw., [< L. templum, Sk. 402. 1 ; 
II. 57. 1, ME. influ. AF. temple] 

t6n, ME. ten, num. (325), [ = 
*teh-en (113) <I.-E. *d6km, 
Sk. 117; 112, OHG. zehan=I.-E. 
*d6kom, Goth, taihun = I.-E. 
*d6km, ahs. *dekmt, cf. Lith. 
deszimt, cf. I.-E* dkmto-m, 
group often {tens), v. hund, 
Brug. III. 174] {cf. Gk. SiK-a-, 
L. decern, MHG. zehen, G. zehn) 
ten, Sk. p. 58. 

tene v. teona. 

ten-hund, num., ten hundred. 

tenserie XV.42,s6., [=AF.<ML. 
tensaria, /ree6oo«i7i^, orig. 2'- pro- 
tections,'^ < tensare, protect, cf. 
The Academy, July 4, 11, 25, 
1891 ; NE. Diet, with Thorpe 
and others errs in reading the 
MS. ' censerie ' ] " tenserie ' ' = 
special impost. 

*teogan, prt. t^ode, Nh. tfadae 
I. 8, w. 2 (414 N. 1 ; ? 408 N. 
10), [<T. *tehhon (119. 2) <T. 
V *tehw, tegw = I.-E. V *deq, 
arrange, cf. Goth, ga-tewjan < 
t6wa, arrangement, Gk. Setw-vov, 
meal-time, < ^deir-ujov, Brug. 
444 c] {cf. OHG. gizehon, ar- 
range) ordain, make. 

t6on, ME. teen, tee; prt. t6ah 
(223), t61i (101a) LWS., ME. 
teah, pi. tugon (234 c) =T. 
*tugumi, tugun, ME. tugen ; 
pp. tog en, s. cont. 2 (367 ; 373 ; 
384; Sk.l52), [=*t6ohan <T. 
teuhon (119. 2) < T. V teuh : tGh 
< V deuk : dtik, Sk. 117, cf L. 
duc-ere, OL. douk-, V deuk, lead, 
conDuct'] (Goth, tiuhan, OS. 
tiohan, OHG. ziohan, MHG. G. 
Ziehen) pull, draw, tug, move, 

t6ona, ME. teone, tene, ivm., [< 
t6on,=T. *ti(h)on, s. 1 (114.1; 
383) , censure, < T. V tih < : \1 deik, 
show, cf. OL. (Oscan.) deikum 
= dic-ere, say, Brug. 368, v. 
tdcen] (OS. tiono, cf. Ic. tjon, 
loss) teen (Shak.), accusation, 
vexation, injury, grief. 

teon-rseden, -raedden, gen. 
-n(n)e, sf, [t6ona] injury 
XIV. 25. 

teran, ME. teren, s. 4 (390 ; Sk. 
144), [<T. ter<\/der, Sk. 117, 
cf. Gk. b^p-eiv, flay] {cf. Goth, 
ga-tairan, OHG. fir-zeran, G. 
ver-zehren, w., consume) tear, 
Sk. 386. 

teres v. teagor. 

terme, sh., [ = Ar. <L. terminus, 
Sk. II. 153, cf OL. termen, Gk. 




TipfjLuv'] boundary, end, term, Sk. 

II. 59. 4 ; pi., limits, domain. 
terreble, ME. aj., [ = F. terrible 

<L. terr-ibilis < terrere, terrify^ 

text, sh., [=0F. texte < L. tex- 

tuin, fabric, style, text, <pp. of 

texere, weave, < V tekth, form, 

cf Skt. V taksh, cuf] text. 
th- V. >-. 
thai, thaim, thair, thalris, 

tharn v. he. 
thanke v. J>oncian. 
thanne v. J»oiine. 
thar(e) v. he, )>ger. 
tharf V. >earf. 
that V. se, J?aet. 
thay, thaym v. he. 
the V. s6. 
thedur v. J>lder. 
thee V. >6. 
thei V. h6, 
then V. >onne. 
ther, there v. J>£fer. 
there v. 86. 
thes V. y>es. 
theves v. J>feof. 
thilke V. ylca. 
thin V. ><i. 
thing V. Jjing. 
thinke v. ]?encan. 
this V. >es. 
tho V. s6, >d. 
thocht 17. >encan, )>6ht. 
thou V. J>ii. 
thought V. )?yncan. 
thousande r. )>usend. 
thre V. J>rf . 
thridde v. >ridda. 
thristill V. )>rostle. 
thrittene v. >reotyne. 
throu V. J>iirh. 
thus V. l>us. 
thy V. se. 
thyng V. J>ing. 
thyiikande v. )>encan. 
thyrde v. J>ridda. 
tiadae v. t6ogan. 
tlber, sn., (Ic, once, tivor, OHG. 

z6bar, cf. G. unge-ziefer, vermin) 

sacrificial animal, sacrifice. 
ticcen, tyccen, pi. -u, ME. tic- 

chen, sn., [< T. *tigo-, she-goat, 
-\-suff. -ino- as in swlnj (OHG. 
zickin, zicchi, cf MHO. zickelin 
> G. zicke) kid XIV. 15. 

tld, tyd, tit, ME. av., [<Scand., 
cf Ic. titt, n. of ti^r, usual, fre- 
quent, cf tiS, V. tid] quickly, 
tite (prov.); as tyd, als tit, very 
quickly, immediately. 

tid, ME. tide, sf (269), [<T.ti'?5i- 
< T. \1 ti, establish, fix,? <V*d!, 
cf Skt. a-diti, unlimited in space 
and time, = the goddess, ADixi] 
(Ic. tiS, OS. tid, OHG. MHG. 
zit, G. zeit) tide = time, hour, 
feast-day VII. 11. 

tidan, ME. tide, prt. ME. tidde, 
tide, w. 1, [<tid] (Ic. *ti«a) 
happen, betide = tidei. 

tiding V. ti]>ennde. 

tieman, tyman, ME. temen, 
to. 1, [<t6am, sm., offspring, 
family, summoning for warranty, 
= (99; 63) T. tau-mo- <T. *taug- 
m6- = I.-E. *doukm6-, v. : teon, 
s. 2] bring forward as witness 
= cite, bring forth = teem. 

tihte V. tyhtan. 

tU, aj. (294), 1= T. *ti-lo-, T. Vti, 
V. til, av., tilian, ?cf tid] 
(c/. Goth, ga-til-s) fit, good. 

til Nh., ME. till, til, I. av., [< 
Scand., Ic. til, prp., ?acc. of lost 
sb., cf. w. till, scope, G. ziel, aim, 
V. til, aj.] (OFris. til) thither. 
II. prp. till, to, until, into. III. cj. 
{alone or with bat) till. 

tiiar, -ME. tilSe, sf, {_= abs. < 
tilian, Sk. 223] tilth, cultiva- 
tion, crop. 

tilian (109b), ME. tilien, tile; prt. 
tilode; pp. ME. tiled, w. 2, 
[<til, aj.] (Goth, (ga-) tilon, 
as, OS. tilian, attain, OHG. zilon, 
hasten, MHG. zilen, G. zielen) 
aim at, strive, cultivate — till, 
provide (with gen. of thing, dat. 
of pers.) VI. 208. 

til-'warde XXVI. 10, prp., toward. 

tima, ME. time, tyme, tym, tim, 
wm., [<T. *ti-m6(n-), Sk. 216, 
<T. v/tl, V. tid] (Ic. timi and 




Scand. only) time, Sk. 44 ; l>& 
III dais time, during the three 
days XXVI. 39. 

tim-lic, ME. timlicli, aj., time/y, 

tin-treg, sn., tin-trega, ME. 
tintrehe, wm., tornipnt. 

tin-tregian, ME. tintra3en, w. 2, 
[<tintreg] torture XIV. 24. 

tin-treg-lic, aj., excruciating IX. 

tir, tyr, ME. tir, sm., (Ic. tirr, 
OS. tir ; ?cf. (58 N.) OHG. ziari, 
/. abs. < aj. ziari, z6ri, splendid, 
G. zier, ornament) glory. 

tit V. tid. 

tij>ennde, tybynge, tiband, ty- 
dynge (< Du. injlu.), tydyngge, 
tiding, tyding, s&., [< Scand., 
Sk. 229, cf. Ic. tiSindi, n. pi. < 
prs. ptc. *ti^andi <*tl«a, happen, 
V. tid an] (cf. Du. tijding, 
LMHG. zitunge, G. zeitung) 
event, tidings, news. 

to V. twegen. 

t6i, ME. to, tu, te, I. prp. with 
dat. (phrases, gen. ace), [=WT., 
for wh. Ic. til, Goth, du] (cf. 
Gk. enclitic -5e, toward, L. -do 
(OL. endo > in, in), Olr. do, 
Sk. 117; OS. to, Sk. 160, OHG. 
z6, MHG. zuo, G. zu) to, Sk. 21, 
45, at, in, upon, until, with ref- 
erence to, for, by, against, after; 
t6 ffaem, in order (that). 11. av. 
to, too, Sk. 390 ; 458. 

t6S vb.pref, [ = WT., Sk.p. 217] 
(cf. L. dis-, OHG. zar-,* zir-, 
MHG. G. zer-; OS. ti-, O Fris. 
to-, te-, ti-, OHG. za-, ze-, zi-) 

t6'2-berstan, ME. toberste ; prt. pi. 
tdburston, s. 3 D (389), (G. 
zerbersten) burst asunder, break 
— , tear to pieces, toburst^. 

t6--brecan, ME. to-breke ; prt. 
t6braec; pp. tdbrocen, Nh. 
t6broccen, ME. tobroken, 
tobroke, 5. 4 (390), (G. zer- 
brechen) break in pieces, tear 
to pieces, tobreak (A.V, Judges 
ix. 63). 

t6- bregdan, tobredan (214.3), 

ME. tobreiden ; prt. tdbrsed, 

s. 3 D (389 and N.), pull apart 

XIV. 25, rend asunder, XIV. 14. 

j toe V. taken. 

! t6^-cleofan, ME. tocleave, s. 2, 
! cleave asunder. 

t6^-dsfelan, ME. todelen, todealen, 
prt. ME. todeld, w. 1, (G. zer- 
teilen) divide. 

t6aP, ME. tob; dat. sg. tefS, M. 
um. m. (281 and N. 1), [=*tonar 
(66) = T. tan«- : tunb- (65 ; Sk. 
74c, 168; 346; 377)=I.-E. dont-: 
dnt-, Sk. 117, 118, 3r*ed-nt-, 
prs. ptc, <Ved, eat, Brug. 244] 
(cf. Gk. 6doi%, St. 686vT-, L. dens, 
St. dent- ; OS. Du. tand, Goth, 
tunb-us, OHG. zand, MHG. zant, 
G. zahn) tooth, Sk. 38. 

*t6^-dragan, ME. todrawe, pp. 
ME. todrawe, s. 6 (392), draw 

t6'-foran, ME. tovore, tefor, prp., 
before, toforei. 

t6'-g8edere, togeder v. geador. 

t6'-gegnes, t6geanes, Nh. t6- 
g segues, ME. t03eines, to- 
3eanes, I. av. (319), II. jirp. 
with dat. (ace), [cf. ongegn] 
(^egiiQ^) opposite, again St, 
in comparison with. 

toi-gid(e)re v. geador. 

to^-hopa, ME. tohope, wm., 
[ho pi an] (OLG. tohopa, /.) 

tolite, ivf, [<pp. of t6on] expe- 
dition, march, battle VI. 197. 

told(e) V. tellan. 

t6ni, ME. torn, tome, I. aj., [= T. 
tomo-] (Ic. tom-r, OS. tomi, 
OHG. zomi-) empty, unoccupied, 
toom (Sc). II. ME. also sb., 
leisure (time). 

*t6'^-mertan (Bosworth), ME. 
tomurte, prt. ME. tomurte, w. 1, 
cut asunder, tear to pieces, 
break — . 

t6*-niiddes v. mid. 

tonn, tonne v. tunne. 

too V. twegen. 

took V. taken. 




t62-rendan Nh., ME. torende, pp. 
ME. torent, w. 1, [?cf. hriu- 
dan, s. 3 A, thrust] (OFris. 
torenda) rend in pieces. 

tor-fer, s6., [< Scand. ; Ic. tor- 
faera, difficult road., Ic. tor-, sh. 
pref., cf. to--, Skt. dus-, Gk. 5i;s-, 
hard., ill, Goth, tuz-, OHG. zur-, 
faira, cf. far an] hardship., diffi- 
cidty, torferi. 

torht, torht-lic, aj., [== T. 
*torh-t6-, orig.^ pp., = I.-E. 
*drk-t6-s (Skt. drsta-, seen) < 
: \l derk, see ; cf. Gk. d^pK-ofxat 
(poet.), I look, Bmg. 299J (OS. 
torht, OHG. zor(a)ht) bright, 
splendid, radiatit. 

tome V. turniaii. 

t6'--sselau, w. 1, impers. with dat. 
of pers. gen. of thing IV. 25, 
[< s « 1] escape. 

to-'-sIitan, ME. toslyten ; pp. t6- 
sliten, s.\ (382) Sk. 150, [< 
only T. V slit, tear to pieces'] {cf 
G. zerschleissen) slit {up), break 

t6'^-teraii, ME. totere, prt. opt. sg. 
tdt^re XIV. 15, s. 4 (390) 
Sk. 144, tear to pieces, totear 

tother V. 69 er. 

toun V. tiiii. 

tour, sb., [= AF. <L. turris, Sk. 
II. 110; 143. 14; 145. 6; 151] 
(cf. OE. torr, sm., ?5th cent. 
FolkL. *torre(ni) <L. ace. tur- 
rem, f.) tower, Sk. II. 87. 1. 

tour = to our. 

tovore V. toforan. 

towe, w., [?<Scand., = Ic. toga, v. 
pp. of teon] (MLG. togen) tow, 
couDvct, carry XXIX. 100. 

to^-weard, toward (43. 2b), 
ME. toward, I. aj., [v. aefter- 
weard, Sk. p. 262] coming, 
imminent VI. 157, future, toward 
(Shak. also = apt). II. t6- 
weardes, (gen.) ME. to- 
wardes, toward, towarrd, av. 
(319) and prp. with dat., towards, 
toward, to, against. 

traist, trust, 'jr., [< Scand., = Ic. 

treysta <traust, S7i., confidence, 

< T. *trau-s-to- < T. V trfl, cf. 
trust, treowe, Sk. 233; 424] 
(OHG. trosten, G. trosten, com- 
fort) trust, believe. 

traitour, traytour, tratour, sb., 
[ = AF. traitur, OF. ace. traitor 

< L. traditor-em, ace, <tradit-us, 
pp. of tra-dere, surrenDEu, < 
trans-, over, -i- dare, give] traitor, 
Sk. II. 79. 

tramme, sb., [?< Scand.?, cf. 
Swed. dial, tromm, stump] tackle, 
XXIX. 101, {?cf tram (prov.) 
— small bench in dairy, shaft of 
a cart). 

translate, w., [=AF. translater 

< ML. trauslatare < L. trans- 
liitus, used as pp. of trans-ferre, 
THANs/i??'] trans/ate, Sk. II. 54. 1. 

trast-ly, ME. av., [traist] trust- 

tratour v. traitour. 
travayle, sb., [= AF. travaille 

< ML. *trabaculuin < L. trabs, 
beam; cf tra/e] work=travail] , 
Sk. IL 48. 1, = travel]. 

travayle, w., [= AF. travailer; 

< sb.] work = travail\ = travel]. 
trayne, sb., [ = AF. pp. = dragged, 

<vb., OF. trainer, trahiner < 
ML. trahinare, to drag, < L. 
trahere, draw] treachery = train]. 

traytour v. traitour. 

tre V. treow. 

trega, ME. tre3e, treie, wm., [<T, 
trego(n-) <T. v'trSg, be sorrow- 
ful, discouraged, ?<VdrSgh, cf. 
Skt. si dragh, torment] (Goth, 
trigo, /.,_0S. G. trego, Ic. tregi ; 
cf. T. traeg- in ajs. OE. trag, 
OHG. trslgi, G. trage, lazy) grief, 
affliction, pain. 

treo(w), ME. tre, pi. treon, tres, 
treis, sn. (250.2), [<*treuw 
(73. 1; 174. 1) <T. trewo-, Sk. 
211, = I.-E. derw : dorw- (dru-), 
Sk. 117] (cf. Gk. dpOs, oak, o6pv, 
spear; Goth, triu, gen. triwis, 
Ic. OFris. tr6, OS. trio) beam, 
wood, tree, Sk. 50 ; 355 ; ME. pi. 
also deck?, Z., XXIX. 101. 




treowiac, ME. treuthe, treothe, 
truthe, truth, sf., [abs. < 
treowe, Sk. 223 a J (Ic. trygg«, 
OHG. (ga-)triuwida) fidelity, 
faith, truth, troth. 

treowe, ME. trewe, trowwe, tru, 
aj., [< T. treuwo-, (64) Sk. 248, 
-wi-? (pre T. drewo-) < : T. V trG 

< V *drQ, have confidence] (Goth, 
triggw-s, Ic. trygg-r, OS. triuwi, 
OHG. (gi-) triuwi, G. treu) faith- 
ful, true, Sk. 355. 

tr^owian, ME. trowwenn, trow 
w. 2, [< tr6owe] {cf Goth, 
trauan, (trau- = ?T. trow-, Brug. 
179) OS. truon, OHG. triu6n, 
triiln, G. trauen) with gen. or 
dat., ewTRusT, trust, believe, trow 

trlow-lice, ME. treuli, trewly, 
av., faithfully, truly. 

tres V. treow. 

tresor XV. 4, tresour, tresore, sb., 
[=:Ar. tresor, tresour, Sk. II. 
110, < L. thesaur-us < Gk. dr)- 
<rav-p6s, store, hoard, < Ti-drj-fii, 
I place, V. don] treasure, Sk. 
II. 60. 1 ; 92 ; 260. 

trety, sb., [< OF. traite, traicte 

< ML. tracta < L, pp. of trac- 
tare, handle, treat, freq. <tra- 
here, draw] treatise, tractate, 
= treaty\, Sk. II. 61.3. 

treuli V. tr^owlice. 

trewe v. treowe. 

trewly v. treowlice. 

trie, w., [< OF. trier, pick, < ML. 

tritare < trltus, pp. of terere, 

thresh, rub] test, try. 
triful, sb., [=Ar. trufle, trofle, 

mockery, < OF. truffe, jest, 

?TRUFr?e, ?<L. tubera, pi. pro- 

TVBej'ances, TUBe?-] nonsense, 

trigg, aj., [<Scand., Ic. trygg-r, 

V. treowe] faithful, trig 

trine, prt. tron XXIX. 101, ME. 

s. 1, [<Scand., =:Swed. trina, prt. 

tran, Dan. trine, prt. treen] step, 

tr6g V. dragan. 

trome v. truma. 
tron v. trine. 

trone, sb., [=0F. <L. thronus 
< Gk. 6p6vos, seat, < : V dher, cf. 
Skt. V dhar, support, Sk. II. 276. 
10] throne, Sk. II. 72. 1 ; 260. 

trow^ V. treow^ian. 

trow^we V. tr6owe. 

trow^w^enn v. treow^ian. 

tru V. tr6ow^e. 

trunia, MIL trome, torn., [?trum- 
lic] troop. 

trum-lic, aj., firm. 

truse, sb., l?pl.form ins (?<AF. 
trues, sg. trewe, ?<OHG. triuwa, 
Sk. n. 83. 1 N.) < treow, sf 
(259), compact; v. treowe] 

trust, sb., [< Scand., v. traist] (cf 
Goth, tr&usti, covenant; OHG. 
MHG. trost, G. trost, consola- 
tion') trust. 

trust v. traist. 

truthe V. treowSf. 

tu V. to, tw6gen, J>fi. 

tu- V. tw^-. 

tuaelf- V. twelf-. i 

tiician, ME. tuken, touken; prt. * 
t6code, W.2, [intens. <t6on] 
(cf. MLG. tucken, tuck up, 
OHG. zocchon, tear, zukken, 
G. ziicken, twitch, AF. toucher, 
TOUCH, Sk. II. p. 206) afflict, 
tease XIV. 17. 

tugon, -un V. t6on. 

tullce, sb., [< Scand., =Ic. tulk-r, 
interpreter, ?< Lith. tulkas, in- 
terpreter] man. 

tun, Nh. tvvn, ME. tun, toun, 
tune, toune, sm., [— T. tuno-, 
hedge, enclosure, cf. OC. L. influ., 
-dunum, Sk. 117, Brug. 58, e.g., 
Lug-dunum, Lyoss] (Olr. dun, 
fortress, = OC. *drnios, OS. Ic. 
tun, OS. tun and MHG. ziin, G. 
zaun, hedge) enclosure, farm- 
(-stead), town, Sk. 46; ME. to 
toun, home (av.) XXIV. 16. 

tunece, ME. tunice, wf, [< L. 
tiinica, Sk. 402. 2, undergarment 
worn by both sexes] (cf Olr. 
tonachj /.) tunic. 




tunge, ME. tunge, wf. (276), [< 
T. tung-o(n-) : -e(n-) Brug. II. 
113. 1 ; p. 355; Sk. 206] (c/. L. 
lingua = 0L. *dingua, Sk. 117; 
Goth, tuggo, Ic. OS. tunga, OHG. 
zunga, MHG. G. zunge) tongue, 
Sk. p. 328 ; 379. 

t6n-ger§fa, wm., bailiff, IX. 53. 

tungol, sn.m. (243. i; 244), [< 
T. tung-lo (138; 140)] (Goth, 
tuggl, Ic.tungl, OS.tungal, OHG. 
zungal-, in compos.) constella- 
tion, star X. 28. 

tunne, ME. tonne, tonn, wf., (Low 
L., Ir. Ic. OHG. tunna, G. tonne, 
cf. AF. Span. Port, tonel) fun, 

turnian, ME. turnen, turrnenn, 
turne, torne, ME. pp. turnd, w. 2, 
[<Folk-L. tornare <L. tornare, 
turn in a lathe, (ME. also = AF. 
turner, OF. torner, Sk. II. 138, 
<Folk-L. tornare) <tornus, lathe, 
<Gk. rSpvos, = compasses'] turn, 
Sk. II. 75. 2 ; 94. 25, ME. t. of, 
set free. 

tuss V. ]>us. 

twegen, m. (K. t use gen, Nh. 
twcege, tvoge), twa, f.n., 
(tua), t6, 71. (tvv), ME. 
tweien (twega, tweye), twa (to, 
too); gen. twegra, twega, 
clat. twAni, twsem, ME. 
twam, num. (324.2), [twgfem, 
dat. < T. *twaimiz = pre T. 
dwoi-mis ; t w 6 g a, getv. = T. 
*twajje(n) = I.-E. *dwoj-em ; 
til, ?i.=*twa = T. *two <I.-E. 
dwo ; tAva, n., = orig. dual = 
Skt. dve, Brug. 142; 153] (cf 
Skt. dv<t, Gk. dvo, L. duo, Sk. 
117, Goth. tw4i, m., twos, /. 
twa, n., gen. twaddje, Ic. tveir, 
m., gen. tveggja, OS. twene, m. 
two, twa, /., twei, n., OHG. 
zwene, m., zw&, zwo, /., zwei, 
n., G. zwei, Sk. 157, m. f n.) 
twain (<m., Sk. 338), two (<n., 
Sk. 42;383). 

twelf, infl. twelfe, ME. twelf, 
twelve, num. (325), [<T. twa-, 
V. tw6gen, + -lif = -lihi- <T. 

Vlit), V. b el if an, Brug. IIJ. 
175, cf rVleiq, leavc ; lit.? two 
LEFt, i.e. beyond ten, cf Lith. 
dwy-lika, -lika ending of Lith. 
fiums. from \\ to 19, Douse, 
pp. 80-81] (Goth, twalif, Sk. 
p. 200, gen. -Iib6, Ic. tolf, OS. 
twelif, OHG. zwelif, G. zwolf) 

twelf-monaar, K. tuaelf-, ME. 
twelf monK M. m. pi. (281 N.2), 
[< T. mgen5b- (68) < pre T. 
menot-; v. mona, {cf L. men- 
sis; Goth. m6n6>-s, Ic. mana^-r, 
OHG. manod, MHG. manot, G. 
monat)] twelvemonth, year. 

twentig, ME. tuenti, num. (326), 
[ ? = *t w ce m-t 1 g u in-, orig. 
dual (324 N. 1), < WT., cf I.-E. 
*wi-(?)kmt-i, dual, 'two tens,' 
Brug. 177, V. twegen, -tig in 
feowertig] (cf Goth, twai- 
tigjus, Ic. tuttogo ; OS. twentig, 
OHG. zweinzug, MHG, zweinzec, 
zwenzic, G. zwanzig) twenty. 

tweogan, prt. tw^eode (414 
N. 1) w. 2, [<tweo, wm.,— 
WT. twe(h)o (113) <T. twih-, 
Brug. 35 ; 430, < : pre T.\/*dweiq ; 
cf. St. in be-twux] (OS. twe- 
hon, OHG. zwehon, cf G. zwei- 
feln) Dou&^. 

tweonian, ME. tweonien, lo. 2, 
[be-tweonum] DOnbt. 

twoe- V. twe-. 

tyccen v. ticcen. 

tyd V. tid. 

tyding(ge) v. tij?ennde. 

tyhtan, ME.tihten, w. 1, [<tyht, 
sm., training, =T. H\i\i-t\- <prt. 
o/t6on] (MLG. tuchten, MHG. 
ziihten) incite. 

tym, tyme v. tlma. 

typped, ME. aj., [_ = pp. of vb. 
< tip, sb., = MDu. Dan. tip, 
MHG. zipf, tip'] arch; consum- 
mate XXIX. 77. 

tyr V. tir. 

tyrgan, ME. tary, w. 1, [??< 
Vdrgh, V. trega, ?cf Russ. 
dergati, pull; ME. also <AF. 
targer, delay, < ML. freq. *vb. 




<L. tardare, go slowly^ < tardus, 
slow^ tardy~\ (Du. tergeii) vex, 
irritate =^ targe (Sc), ME. also 
= hinder = tarryi. 
tyj>ynge v. tij>ennde. 


> = J>aet, ME. bat (as does 'S in 
Selections XV. XVI.). 

l>a V. >aet, se. 

}>d, Nh. tha, ME. ha, bo, ta, av. 
c/., [<si. m )>ae-t, v. se] thew, 
to^en, ba . . . ba, w;Aew . . . the7i, 
ffd d'd (THEn to/iew) when VIII. 

}>a r. se. 

J>abot = be abot. 

J>sem V. se. 

J^senne v. J^onne. 

)?^r, LWS. >ar, Merc. Nh. >6r, 
Ififfer, ME. bser, -Ser, ber, ther, 
bar, thar, 5or, bor, tser, bair, 
thair, bcere, 'Sere, bere, bare, 
there, thare, ther, av. (321), 
[< St. in J> se-t, v. se, + locative 
suff. -r] (Goth. *b6r, cf. bar ; Ic. 
bar, OS. thar, OHG. MHG. d^r, 
G. in dar-in, therein, da) there, 
where, Tuither, whither, theii ; 
>£fer-t6, }> a r-t 6 >there-to; ME. 
ber-after > there-after; ber-ate 
>there-at ; ber-fore, bar-for(e), 
ther-f ore > Mere/ore {there-far) ; 
ber-fram > therefrom ; 6er-inne, 
bare-in > therein ; bar-of > there- 
of ; bare-on, ther-on > thereon ; 
bar-out > thereout (Sc.) = out- 
side; bor-wit, ber-with, thar- 
wyth > therewith. • 

)>8era, }>gere v. s6. 

|>8erf V. J>urfan. 

)>aet, ffaet, K. fS et, ME. 5at, bet, 
bat, batt, that, tatt ; oft. J>aette, 
K. lafsBttae, afette, Nh. J>aet- 
ti, =}»8et }>e, cj., [< }> ae t, /)r«. , 
V. se] that; oiS >aet, MP], a 
bet, a ba, until ; quan 5at, when. 

)>afian, ME. bavien, bave ; prt. 
}>afode, w. 2, consent to, yield 
to IX. 71. 

)>a3, J>ah v. >eah. 

>ai V. se. 
J>ai, ]>aiin v. h6. 
J>air V. he, Jjser. 
J>am(e) v. h6. 

}>am V. se. 

J>an t). se, ]>onne. 

J>anc V. J?onc. 

]>ane v. se. 

)>anne y. J>onne. 

J^anon v. ]>onoii. 

J>ar t\ he. 

)»ar V. J>£er. 

J>as u. se, J»e8. 

J>att V. se, J>8et. 

}>auh y. J>eah. 

>ay V. s6. 

J>ayn v. )?egn. 

1>6, i5e, J»e, ME. be, the, I. indec. 
dem. , aZone or with a dem. , also 
-rel.prn. (340), [r/. 156, Nh., 
V. se, si. m }>8et] (OS. the, cf. 
OHG. MHG. G. der) xcho, which, 
TiiAt,the, Sk. 458; ]>gera J>e, 
o/ THOse THxt, oft. with sg. vb. ; 
ffe . . . hiora, ichose ; with 
pers. prn. e.g., ic J>e, / who. 
II. = c/., J>e . . . on, wherein, 
whither; J>8es }>e, for tha^ 
THAi, as, since. 

l»e, cj., []>e, prn.] (Goth. \k\i, 
OFris. tha) or; hwaeafer . . . 
J> e, whether . . . or XIII. 38, 39. 

)>6, J>e V. ]>u. 

>eah, a-eah, >6h (101a), Nh. 
ffseh, ME. beh, Seh, bah, ba3, 
bohh, bo3, beyh, bauh, bouh^ 
bouch, bou, bof, though [< 
Scand.] > NE. though, I. av , 
[< T. bau + enclitic -h = pre T. 
-qe, cf. Goth, -uh, L. -que, ?cf. 
St. in j>3dt] (Goth, bauh, Ic. K) 
< *boh, OS. boh, OHG. doh < 
*d6h, MHG. G. doch) though. 
Sk. 333. II. cj. with indie, and 
opt. «Zthough ; cf. swa. 

)>eahtuiig, Nh. d'aehtung, s/., 
[a&s. <>eahtian, v. 2, delib- 
erate, V. prt. of >eiicaii] de- 

J»earf, Nh. tharf, ME. berf, 
larrfe, s/., [<T. barho-, v. >ur- 




fan] (Goth. t>arba, Ic. l^orf, OS. 
larf, OHG. darba) want, need; 
him tharf sie, he may have 
need II. 2. 

J>earf v. ]>urfan. 

>oarle, av., severely, cruelly X. ^6. 

J>6aw, af^aw, ME. j^ew, sm. 
(250. 1), (OS. hau, OHG. dau) 
custom, habit ; pi. morals, man- 
ners, virtue VI. 129 {thew, poet.). 

}>ede V. ]?eod. 

J?ef V. J?eof. 

J>e33(re) i;. he. 

>egn, >egen, ME. )>eogn, l^eign, 
J?ein, J^ayn, sm., [<T. J?eg-no-, 
Sk. 221, =preT. *tek-n6-, <\/tek, 
&e^e^, c/. Gk. t^k-vov, child] (Ic. 
>egn, OS. began, OHG. degan, 
MHG. G. degen, icarrior) ser- 
vant, man, follower, warrior 
(poet.), thane, Sk. 338. 

>egnung, >enung (214. 3), 
J>ening, sf., [<J>egn-ian, 
serve, v. J>egn] service, service- 
book VIII. 17. 

J»eh, >eh v. J>eah. 

J>eign, )>eiii v. J»egii. 

}>eire v. he. 

)>en ?;. J>onne. 

J>en- V. }>egn-. 

>encan, ME. })enchen, ^enche, 
henchse, thinke, thynke ; prt. 
}>6hte, [=*>ahte (45. 5) 
= *l>ancte (67; 232b)] ME. 
J)03te, >olihte, bo3t, >ou3t, thocbt, 
to. 1 C (407a), [=*J»ancian, 
fac, lit. make something appear, 
(89. 2 ; 177) < T. V >ank (c/. 
> o n c) < n/ tong : teng : tng, cf. 
OL. tongere, know, J?yncan, 
Sk. 194 j8, Sk. 118; 111] (Goth. 
)pagkjan = *]>ankjan, Ic. "Sekkja 
(kk < nk) perceive, OS. thenkian, 
OHG. denchen, MHG. G. den- 
ken) think, consider, intend. 

}>ene v. se. 

]>ene, l>enne v. )>onne. 

J?enne =: t-ende = >e ende. 

>eo V. se. 

}>6od, 9iod, ME. J>ede, sf., [<T. 
i>eu«o- (64)=preT. teuta-, Brug. 
67, p. 59] (r/. OL. (Oscan) touto, 

O Jr. ttiath, L. Teuton!, Teu- 
tons ; Goth. l?mda, OHG. thiota; 
cf. OHG. diut-isk, lit. belong- 
ing to the people, G. deutsch 
>DuTC^, Sk. 67) people, nation, 

>eoden, sm., [<>eod] (Goth. 
Hudan-s, OS. thiodan) {poet.) 
lord, king, God VI. 165. 

J^eod-guma, wm. man of the peo- 
ple, soldier VI. 208. 

J>eod-scipe, sm., law, pi. disci- 
pline IX. 94. 

J>6of, ME. \>eoi, bef, dat. beove, 
pi. theves, sm., [<only T. beubo-] 
(Goth. *J?iuf-s, biub-s, Braune 
Goth. Gram. 56 N. 1, Ic. bj6f-r, 
OS. thiof, OHG. diob, MHG, 
diep, G. dieb) thief. 

)>eonne v. ]>onne. 

l>eo(w), l5io(w), ME. bew, sm. 
(250.2), [=*be-u-wo- (73. 1), 
= T. bewo-, = ?*beg-wo-, = I.-E. 
*teq6-, cf. J^eg-n] (Goth, bins, 
nom. pi. biwos, cf. Ic. byr, bond- 
woman, OHG. deo; cf G. die- 
ner) servant. 

]>6ow-d6m, ME. beoudom, sm., 
service, bondage, domination. 

]?eowiaii, ME. beowen, w. 2 (412 
N. 2) with dat., serve XIII. 53. 

)>6owot, dat. J>eowte XIV. 9, 
sw., [<)>eow + sw^. -to-] ser- 
vice, bondage. 

)>6owot-d6in, iSiowot-, sm., 
service {religious) VIII. 12. 

J»er(e) v. J^ser, se. 

>es, 9'es, /. >eo8, Sf^os, n. 
)>is, iS'is, ME. bes, Hs, biss, 
this, bise, /. tSeos ; gen. m. a. 
}>isses, ME. ^ises, /. >isse, 
saPysse, iSFeosse; dat. m. n. 
}>issuin, Jjysum, Jjyson, /. 
J>isse, ME. bissan, bissen, 
bisse, bise, tiusse, ^Ses ? XVI. 
212; ace. m. J>isne, J>ysiie, 
Nh. afiosne, ME. "Sesne, /. 
J?ds, ME. ^as, bas, n. l>is; 
instr. w. J»ys; pi. nom. ace. 
J>ds, aCas, ME. bas, bos, bose, 
bise, bes, thes ; gen. J^issa, 
tS'isra, dat. >issuin, ME. 




^isse, prn. dem. (SSS), [z=}>e-s- 
<T. >e-:}ja-, V. )>aet under s6, 
+ emphatic particle -se, -si, cf. 
Goth, sdi, OHG. s6, behold! cf. 
Gk. ovTo-a-i, this very one (338 
N. 4)] (Ic. J^essi, OFris. this, 
OHG. deser, MHG. diser, G. 
dieser) this. 

J>es V. se. 

}>et V. )>aet, s6. 

>e]>eii, ME. av., [< Scand., = 
O Norse ))e'San, Ic. t^a'San, Beitr. 
X. 60] (cf. >onon) xHExce. 

J>eyh V. >eah. 

>i, '5i, ME. cj., [<)?y, ins^r. o/ 
8 6] on THIS account, THEre/ore. 

>icgan, ME. )>ygge, w. 1 and s. 5 
(391. 3), (Ic. Mggja, OS. thig- 
gian, OHG. thiggen) take (drink, 
food), receive, beg = thigge 
(North. < Scand. injlu.). 

Mder, >yder, Nh. fflddlr, 
ME. bider, -Sider, )>yder, "Suder, 
)>uder, thedur, av. (321), [<o6- 
lique case, form of T. t>a-, 'W- 
>8et, + au. ZocaZ sw^. -'5ra=I.-E. 
-tra] {cf. Skt. tS.-tra, L. ci-tra, 
within, Ic. })a-5ra) thither, Sk. 

>ider-weard, ME. biderward, av., 

l>ilke V. l>ylc, ylca. 

J>in V. J>6. 

]>iiican, )>iiichen v. )?yncan. 

>inen (214. 3), >ignen, sf (258 
N. 2), [<^egnj handmaiden 
VI. 172. 

J>ing, afing, ME. 'Sing, ^5in3, 
bing, thing, bingh, byng, thyng, 
Hnk, sn., [< WT. Hngo- ?< orig. 
T. -OS- sf,, cf. Lombard thinx= 
I.-E. *tenk-os-, appointed time; 
prop, judicial transaction, orig. 
public transaction at an ap- 
pointed day, cf Ic. bing (jurid., 
cf. hus-ting) assembly, cf. Goth, 
beihs, time, = I.-E. *tenkos-, cf. L. 
tempus, time'] (OHG. G. ding) 
thing, affair, deed VI. 153, object, 

}»iod v. J»6od 

)>ios- V. J>es. 

>iow V. J>6ow. 

>is- V. J>es. 

J>o V. )?a s6. 

>of, J>03 17. ])6ah. 

>03t(e) V. )>encaii. 

J?ohh ?;. J>eah. 

Jjohhte V. )?encan. 

]>ohh-wheJ>)?re ^?. hwaesafete. 

}>6ht, ME. bohht, bouht, bou3t, 
bouth, thocht, i>03te, thoghte, 
sm., [=*>anh-t-, Sk. p. 242, 
v.prt. of l>enca,nli thought, Sk. 
334, mind. 

}>6hte V. Jjcncan. 

]70lian, ME. bolien, bolenn, ^Solie, 
bolye, bole, thole; prt. >oIode, 
]>olede, ME. bolede ; pp. ME. 
tholyt, 11?. 2, [< orig. T. *bol-ai- 
(416 N. 5) <pre T. V tol : tel : tU : 
tla, bear, lift, Brug. 287] (cf 
Gk. TXrj-vai., Skt. tul-aya-ti, he 
raises up, L. tul-i, prf. of fen-e, 
carry, tol-lere, lift up (cx-tol), 
pp. -la-tus (=*tla-tus) (e-LAre, 
etc.), tol-erare, TOherate ; Ic. 
bola, OS. tholian, OHG. dolen, 
MHG. doln, > G. ge-dul-d, pa- 
tience, >dul-den) suffer, endure 
VI. 215, bear, thole (prov., Sc). 

J>on V. se, J>onne. 

>onc, 9" one, }>anc, ME. bone, 
"Sane, banc, bank, sm., [<T. 
bank-o-, cf. > en can] (Goth, 
bagk-s, Ic.bokk, OS. thank, will, 
joy, thank, OHG. MHG. danc, 
G. dank, Sk. 62) thovont, heart, 
mind, grace, thank{s) VIII. 22, 87. 

Jjoncian, J^ancian, ME. bon- 
kie, banke, "Sanke, thanke ; prt. 
}>ancode, w. 2, with gen. of 
thing and ^at. ofpers., [< J» o n c] 
(Ic. bakka, OS. thancon, OHG. 
danchon, MHG. G. danken) 

J>oncol-m6d, }>ancol-, aj., [< 
J>onc + T. suff. -lo-, Sk. 251] of 
thoxjGHtful mood, discreet, atten- 
tive VI.* 172. 

l>onc-snoter, Nh. t hones no t- 
tur, comp. thoncsnotturra, 
II. 2, aj.^ icise. 




J^onc-wyrlffe, a/., worthy of 
fhovGHt, memorable VI. 153. 

J>one V. 86. . 

>onne, !5onne (Nh. donne), 
>anne (65 N. 2), LWS. 
>ajnne, fSon (337 N. 1), Nh. 
than II. 2, ME. )>anne, >8enne, 
^Senne, benne, thanne, >eonne, 
bene, ban, 'San, 'Sen, ben, then, 
I. prop, temporal av., [<st. of 
J>aet, +-n(e), v. s6] (c/. Goth, 
ban ; OS. than, -ne, OHG. danne, 
G. dann, av., denn, cj.) then, 
THEre, further. II. cj. then, 
than, as, when, now, thus, hut; 
))onne . . . }>onne, when . . . 

}>onon, ]>anon, J^anoune (321 
N. 1), ME. iSanne, banne, then- 
nes, pro/), local, av. (321), [<st. 
o/ J> ae t, V. s §, + T. sm^s. n-ana, 
cf. >onne] (OHG. dannana, 
MHG. G. dannen)f/ie/7ce, Sk. 356. 

J?or V. J>8er. 

>orfte V. J>urfan. 

)7orn, iJorn, aZso ME., sm., 
[ = * J> o r-n 0-, < on^. T. bor-nu- 
(273); Sk. 221, <pre T. trnu-, 
Sk. 118 cf Slav, trimu, "Skt. 
trna, spire of grass'] (Goth, 
baiirnu-s, Ic. born, OHG. MHG. 
G. dorn, Du. doom, Sk. 69)thorn. 

)>os(e) V. J>es. 

J»ou V. J>ii, J>eah. 

]>ouch V. )>6ah. 

J>oii3t V. }>encan, l>6ht. 

J>ouh V. }»6ah. 

}>ouht, ]>outh V. l?6ht. 

>rgel, ME. ^rel, brell, sm., [< 
Scand., = Ic. braell < T. *br9eh-ilo-, 
?r2inner, cf ivith ablaut and 
gram, change OHG. drigil, cf. 
>rah] thrall, slave. 

)>rag V. J»rAh. 

}>rah, )>rag, ME. >ra3he, browe, 
sf (254. 1), [c/. >rgfel] (^roj9. 
course of) time, (little) while. 

J>re V. J>ri, 

>r6at, ME. Jjrset, bret, sm., [<prt. 
in d-afreotan, s. 2, weary (cf. 
Goth. us-l>riutan) < : T. V brtit, 
press, vex, <\/*trud, Sk. 118, cf. 

L. trud-ere, j9ws^] (Ic. braut, 
trouble) press = crowd VI. 164, 
(cf. threat). 

]>reatian, ME. brete, prt. ME. 
brette, pp. ME. brett, -w. 2, [< 
J>r6at] press, oppress, threaten 
= threat (poet.). 

]>rell V. J^rgfel. 

}>rel-weork, s&., [< Scand., = Ic. 
brael-verk] menial work, 'thrall- 
work' XVII. 114. 

]>rengen, p?t. brengde XV. 31, w., 
[/ac. <>ringan] (Ic. brongva, 
MHG. drengen) press. 

J>r6o V. )>ri. 

>r6o-tyne, ME. thrittene (cf. 225 
N.), 7ium. (325), [< >rl + 
t^ne, i)Z., = -tiene < WT. 
*tiheni- or <*-t6oni < WT. 
*tehuni (113), v. t§n] (cf Ic. 
brett&n, O Eris. threttene ; cf 
OHG. drizen ; G. dreizehn) thir- 
teen, Sk. 353. 

J>rett(e) v. J>reatiaii. 

J»ri, m., l>r6o, w. /., afrio, 
ffr^o, ME. >ri, breo, ]>re, thre; 
dat. Nh. afriim (324 N. 2), 
num. (324. 3), [<T. bri-<I.-E. 
tr-i-; m.=T. *brTz, *brijiz <I.-E, 
*trejes (114. 3) Brug. 67. 2, III. 
167, Sk. 118; w.=T. *briju-, cf. 
Goth. n. brija] (cf. Gk. rpeis = 
*Tp4J€s, L. tres ; Ic. bri-r, wi., OS. 
thrie, OHG. MHG. dri, G. drei, 
Sk. 165) three, Sk. 50. 

>ridda, Nh. fflrda, ME. "Sridde, 
Kidde, thridde, "Sride, thyrde, 
num. (328), [<>ri; = T. *bri«- 
jo(n-) <I.-E. *tritjo- (176 ; 228) 
?tre-t]'o-, Brug. III. 167, Sk. 133] 
(cf Skt. trtiya-s, Gk. rpl-ro-^, 
L. ter-tiu-s ; Goth, bridja, Ic. n. 
bri«ja, OS. thriddio, OHG. dritto, 
MHG. G. dritte) third, Sk. 353. 

J^rlngan, ME. fringe ; prt. pi. 
)>rungOD, s. S A (386; Sk. 
148), [T. Vnhrmhw] (Goth. 
i treihan = *brinhan, Ic. bryngva, 
OS. thringan, OHG. dringan, 
MHG. G. dringen) press (for- 
ward, — upon), THRONG VI. 




>riste, ME. briste, aj., (?cf. L. 

tristis, sad; OS. thristi, Du. 

drist, driest, >G. dreist) bold, 

>ristill V. J^rostle. 
>rl-tig, >rittig (225 N.), ME. 

Mtti, num. (326), [-tig v. 

feower-tigj (c/. Ic. brj&tiu 

<|?rj^tigi; OS. thritig, G. dreis- 

sig) thirty. 
J>riwa, ME. )>reowa, bi"ie, bries, 

av. (317 ; 331), (OS. thriwo, cf. 

O Fris. thrija) THRice, Sk. 259 ; 

356, thr/et 
Jjrostle, ME. thristill, wf., [Sk. 

220, cf. 228 g, cf. ]>rysce > 

thrush] (MHG, trostel ; ?cf. 

ML. turdela=?*trzdela; cf. OS. 

throssela, G. drossel) throstle, 

}>rote (279 N. 4), -u, ME. brote, 

tvf. (279), (OHG. drozza, MHG. 

drozze, cf. Du. stroot. It. strozza 

<HG.) throat. 
J»rou, ]>roiigh v. ]>urh. 
]>rowe u. J>rah. 
J>r6wuiig, ME. Shrowing, sf., [< 

J>r6wian, throe, cf. Sk. p. 187} 

(OHG. druunga) suffering. 
J^rym, gen. )>ryinnies, ME. 

thrum, sm., {cf. truina) troop 

VI. 164. 
J>rynge v. gej>ring. 
>ryve, ME. s. 1, Sk. 150, [<Scand., 

= Ic. bnfa, Sk. 435, seize, cf. 

brifa-sk, seize for oneself = 

thrive] thrive; so mot y bnve, 

as I hope to thrive XXXII. 1146. 
}>u (121 and N.),fSx, tu, ME. 

bu, tu, bou, thou, thu ; gen. 

>iii, 9" in, ME. bin, thin, bine, 

bi, — also poss. inflec. as s. aj. 

(335; 336), [< T. bino- = I.-E. 

*tu-ino-] dat. >e, Nh. 15 i? ME. 

be, thee, "Sire; ace. iSec, J>ec, 

)>6,, thee, pm. 2 pers. 

(332), [<T. btl <I.-E. til, Sk. 

118, p. 108, cf Skt. tu-am] (Gk. 

Doric TiJ >a-v, L. tu, Goth, bu, 

Ic. bu, OS. tliu, OHG. MHG. dii, 

du, G. du, Sk. 161) thou, Sk. 

458 ; 46. 

' >uder V. >ider. 
J>uhte V. l>yncan. 

>uina, Ep. thuma, ME. pi. bumbes, 
I wm., [<T. bumo(n-), prop, thick 
I (finger) < I.-E. tiimon-, sb.-aj., 
cf. Zend, tuma, stout, < V tu-m, 
swell, be thick ; cf L. tum-orem, 
ace, TUMO?'] (OHG. dumo, 
MHG. diime, G. daumen, Du. 
duim ) thumb, Sk. 350 {theme, 
I >unchen v. J>yncaii. 
j )?unor, ME. buner, dat. )>unre 
(148), sm. (245), [<T. bon(o)ro-z 
(70) < : V ten, stretch, sound, cf. 
Gk. t6v-os, cord, TE^sion, xoNeJ 
{cf. L. ton-itrus, Ic. borr, Thor, 
THVR-sdaij; OHG.donar, MHG. 
doner, G. donner) thunder, Sk. 
p. 370. 
l^urfau, prs. sg. 1. 3. J>earf, ME. 
^earf, ISierf, bserf ; pZ. )»urfon, 
opt. >urfe, }>yrfe, ME.burve , 
prt. )>orfte, ME. burte, prt.- 
prs. s. 3 C (422) with gen., [< : T. 
V berf, berb <n/ terp, lack] (Goth, 
baurban, Ic. burfa, OS. thurban, 
have reason or cause, OHG. dur- 
fan, MHG. G. dtirfen, be per- 
mitted) need, want; ME. also 
>urh, Nh. aferh (56 N. 1), ME. 
burh, ^urh, burch, burrh, bureh, 
buruh, throu, tliroughe ; I. prp. 
with ace, [<WT. burh; Kl.^? 
<acc. n. of older aj.?=T. *berh, 
boring , piercing] {cf Goth, bairh, 
OHG. &ev\\, pierced ; OS.thurh, 
OHG. duruh, durh, MHG. G. 
durch) through, Sk. 353 ; 333 {of 
space, time, e.g. IX. 30 during, 
agent, means, instrument), thor- 
ough (Shak.); burrh gastli3 witt 
XVIII. 82, in spiritual sense ; 
burrh swillc XVIII. 47, m such 
a way; burrh batt XVIII. 61, 
in that. II. ME. ??urch-ut, 
buruh-ut, buruhtut, buruth, ar. 
and prp., >throughout. 
*J»urh biiidan, ME. buruhbin- 
den, pp. -bunden s. 3 A, bind 




J>urh-s6can, ME. Kirrhsekenn, 
ic. 1 C (407a), seek through, 
examine XVIII. 15633. 

)>urh-s6on, ME. Surhseon, 3 sg. 
prs. ME. ■5urhsih«, s. 5 (391. 2), 
see through, perceive. 

Jjiirlen v. >yrlian. 

J>urrh V. }>urh. 

Jjurst, ME. burst, "Surst, sm., 
[o-decL, cf. *afurs-ti- (266) 
Sk. 224 b ; 118, < T. burs-, pre T. 
trs, < : V ters, dry, Brug. 299, 
cf. Gk. Tipa-oyLai, I am dry, 
L. torridus = *torsidus, xoRRid] 
(OS. thurst, OHG. MHO. G. 
durst) thirst. 

J>urste V. J>yrstan. 

Jjurte V. Jjurfan. 

)>uruh V. J>urh, 

>us, 9" us, ifi^vs, ME. bus, buss, 
thus, tuss, av., [?< instr. ffys, 
cf. iffes] thus. 

>us = bu his XVI. 129. 

]>(iseiid, ME. busend, busen, thou- 
sande, sn. (327), [T. and Slav.; 
?<T. *bus + hundjo-, *-hundi-, 
?many lumvred, *bus = \n\x- or 
*bui?, cf Skt. tuvi-, much, < pre 
T. *tus-k'Eati, ?a great number, 
myriad ; cf. Skt. -^atl, Gk. -Kdna, 
L. -genti, = HUNDred, Brug. III. 
181 ; 286] (cf Goth, busundi, /. 
once n.?, Ic. bushund, busund, 
myriad, 1200, rarely 1000, OHG. 
diisunt, Sk. 62, G. tausend) thou- 
sand, Sk. 46. 

J^usend-ineelutn, av., [-msfeluni, 
-meat, dat. pi. of ingfel (320), 
MEAswre {point of time), meal, 
= WT. mk\- <T. m£elo- (45. 6) 
appar. < : V me, Mh:asure'\ (cf. 
Goth, m^l, Ic. OHG. mal ; G. 
suff. -mal for OHG. MHG. dat. 
pi. mdlum, malen) by thousands 
VI. 165. 

J>ust- V. J>yst-. 

l>werrt-ut, ME. av., [bwerrt < 
Scand., = Ic. bvert, ace. n. of 
bverr, aj., transverse] through- 
out, thoroughly XV^III. 105. 

>werten, prt. tiwerted XXI. 1324, 
w., [y. bwerrt-ut] thwart, hinder. 

)>y V. se. 
Jjyder v. J>ider. 

)>ylc, ME. bilk, prn. (349), [ = 
J>yllic = >y8lic = )»us + lic, 


>yncan, >incan (31 N.), ME. 

bunchen, 'Sinchen, binchen, 
'Sinche; 3 sg. prs. impers. with 
dat., me finceS", afyncU, 
ME. me bunchetS, buiicheb, 
^inc5, binc"5, binche, bingb, > 
N K. methinks ; prt. ]> u h t e 
(=*J>uiih-te (185 N. 2; 232 b) 
= T. *bun(c)hta), ME. buhte, 
thoucht, thought, w. 1 C(407 a), 
[= T. buncion (95; 177) Sk. 
194 /3, T. V bunk < V tng ; cf. 
> en can] (Goth, bugkjan, Ic. 
bykkja, (kk <nk), OS. thunk- 
ian, OHG. thunken, MHG. 
dunken, G. diinken) seem; im- 
pers. methinks = it seems to me. 

>yng V. ^ing 

Jyynke v. J^encan. 

}>yrel, ME. burl, (cf. NE. nos-tril= 
nose-thrin, Sk. 342 ; 353 ; 454 b) 
sn., [=*>yrliil (218), n. of 
aj. , = WT. *burh-ila-, pierced, 
V. >urh; cf. ajs. OHG. durhil, 
durihil, MHG. diirhel, diirkel] 
opening IV. 21, hole. 

Jjyrfen v. J^urfan. 

]>yrlian, ME. burle, w. 2, [< 
]>yrel] pierce through, bore 
= thirl (prov.) = thrilh, Sk. 
194^; 353; 391, drill (<Du.). 

}>yrstan, ME. burste, w. 1, 
[J>urst] (Ic. byrsta, OHG. 
MHG. dursten, G.dursten)f/?/>sf. 

J»ys- V. )>es. 

Jjysterness, ME. "Susternesse, sf, 
[)>ystre] darkness. 

]>ystre, ME. bustre, aj., [=)>ies- 
tre = >eostre (100 and b) 
LG. vjord; ??cf. MLG. deem- 
ster, OS. thimm <T. V bem < 
Vtem, be dark; cf. G. dammern, 
grow twilight, Skt. tamas, dai'k- 
ness] (cf. OS. thiustri, OFris. 
thiustere, G. duster < LG. ) dark. 

)»ystrian, ME. bustren, ic. 2, 
[)»ystre] become dim XIII. 1. 





uard V. weard, 

uch, uche v. sfelc. 

iSde V. unnan. 

d'S-wita, ME. ubwite, wm., [6ff- 

= *un-5- (185); c/. un-3, Goth. 

unt>a-, vb.pref., away, used once] 

wise man, sage. 
uele V. fela. 
iierc V. weorc. 
uers V. fers. 
ufan, av. (321), [=WT. ofa-na 

(55); < ufe, in ufe-weard] 

(OS. oban, obana, OHG. obana, 

MHG. obene, G. oben) from 

ufel V. yfel. 
ufe-weard, aj., [<T. uba- = I.-E. 

*upo- (Skt. upa), vpon, under 

(cf. Gk. vird, L. s-ub and Goth. 

uf, under) ; v. ofer] higher, 

principal XIV. 63. 
ulde V. ieldu. 
uldre V. eald. 
uless V. flsfesc. 
um V. yinb. 
unible V. humble, 
un^-, negative pre/., [=T. un- < 

I.-E. *n., *nn-, Brug. 227] (Gk. 

d-, di/-,* L. in-, Ic. 6-, OS. OHG. 

MHG. G. un-; cf. ne, not, Sk. 

p. 217), wsed before sb. pp. and 

un"-^-, vb.pref, (cf. ond^-) denotes 

reversal of an action, Sk. p. 217. 
unS pref., [=T. un'S-=I.-E. *nti-, 

cf off] (Goth. OS. und-, OHG. 

unt-) unto, until, Sk. p. 217, up 

uni-able, aj., [-able = AF. OF. 

liable (F. habile) < L. habil-em, 

easy to handle, < habere, HAve] 

awkward, unable. 
un^-a-neomned, ME. aj., [=pp. 

<uemnan] unnamed, innu- 
merable XVII. 32. 
un^-binden (56 N. 1) v. onbindan. 
uni-bi-sorae-liche, ME. av., 

[sorh] carelessly, pitilessly 

XVII. 59. 
un^-blendyde, ME. aj. {pp.) 

[?<Scand. Ic. blanda, red., later 
w. prs. blend,, ?or ME. 
form<prt. o/blondan, red. A 
>b/andf, ?Sk. 192 ^J unmixed, 

uni-bliffe, ME. unblibe, aj. (299), 
sad, unblithe. 

un^-boht, ME. unboht, pp., [byc- 
ganj unbought, unpaid, un- 
atoned for. 

uuc, uncer v. wit. 

un'-clsene, ME. unclene, aj., un- 

un^-cuar, ME. unkub, aj., uncouth 
■= unKvoicn, strange ; u n c u 9, 
used absolutely with following 
indirect question, it is uncertain 
VIII. 86. 

un^-d^op, ME. undep, aj., sot 
deep, low XV. 30. 

under, ME. under, undur, av. and 
pip. with dat. and ace, [<T. 
*undari, I.-E. ndheri = ndh- + 
comp. suff., cf. Zend adairi, Skt. 
adhds, below, adhara-s, the lower, 
Brug. 244, ?L. Inferus] (Goth. 
OS. undar, Ic. undir, OHG. 
untar, MHG. G. unter, M Du. 
ondar) under, below, during; 
ME. also an- (= on) under. 

under-fon, ME. underfo ; prt. 
underfeng, ME. underfong ; 
pp. underfangen, also ME., 
s. red. A, contr. (395 ; 367), take, 
receive, mark. 

under-gietan, -gytan, ME. un- 
dergeten; prt. undergeat, pi. 
undergeeton, ME. undergse- 
ton, s. 5 (391), perceive, under- 

underling, sb., [-1-ing, dim. suff., 
depreciatory, Sk. p. 223] under- 
ling, subject XVII. 55. 

under-stondan, -stand an, ME. 
-stonden, -stonde, -stande, un- 
dirstande, unnderrstanndenn ; 
prt. -st<3d, ME. -stod ; pp. 
-stonden, ME. -stonde, s. 6 
(392. 3), understand, perceive, 
receive ; with to, give heed XVI. 
227 ; beo understonde, be cer- 
tain XXII. 45; vb.-sb. undir- 




standynge, onderstondinge, un- 
under- J>eodan, pp. under- 

J^eoded, w. 1, [ge-J>6odan] 

subjugate., subject IX. 94. 
undir- v. under-, 
un-^-don, ME. undo, wndo, -mi 

(429), undo., loose., destroy. 
undur v. under. 
uni-eaa?e, ME. unieSe, une'Se, un- 

nejje, av., no? easily., with diffi- 
culty., scarcely XIII. 58, unneath 

(Shak. 2 Hen. VI. II., iv. 8). 
uni-fed, aj. {pp.), [fedan] unfed. 
un^-feor, av., {cf. G. unfer-n) no« 

uni-for-3olde, ME. aj. {pp.) 

[for-gieldan] {cf. G. unver- 

golte-n) unrequited. 
un^-fpeinu, ME.unfreme, s/. (268, 

252 N. 4), [=T. *-frami-, cf. aj. 

freme, beneficial., fram, aj. 

FO Rward., v. g e-f r e m m a n] 

un^-geleafulic, aj., [=-ge-16af- 

full+lie, V. geleafa] unbe- 

un^-gelic, ME. unilich, aj., unlike. 
un^-geniet-lice, av., beyond meas- 

wre, exceedingly XIII. 63. 
un^-gerydelice, ME. unnriddli3 

XVIII. 15567*, V. Notes, av., 

uni-gesgfelff, ME. unisel^e, un- 

sealj^e, s/., unhappiness. 
un'-gesene, Oldest Texts, 608 u 

ME. unsene, aj., [ges6on] 

un^-glaed, ME. unglad, aj. (294), 

(Ic. ligia^-r) unhappy. 
uni-hgel9', ME. unhel^e, unhelbe, 

sf., [-hseliaf, = T. *hail-i«6- 

(OHG. heilida), <hdl, Sk. j^p. 

150, 241] sickness, unhealth. 
un-hold, also ME., aj., (G. un- 

hold) unfriendly, mimical. 
uni- V. unge-. 
un^-ieS'e v. uneaS'e. 
unMeffe (99), un§alffe, uny»e, 

ME. unie^e, aj., [eaiJe] no? 

easy, difficult, w/jeath. 
unket V. wit. 

un^-knowlage, wnknawlage, sb., 

uni-ku]? V. unctifS. 

uni-lifigende, unlyfigende, prs. 
ptc, [libban] dead. 

uni-mihtig, ME. unmi3ti, aj., 
[me ah tig] powerless, un- 

unn- V. un-. 

unnan, ME. unnen; prs. sg. 
ann, an, pi. unnon; prt. 
diSe, prt.-prs. s. S A (422) with 
dat. of pers. and gen. of thing, 
[?<T. *unz-non < : T. >/*ans, v. 
6 St] (Ic. unna, OS. OHG. un- 
nan, cf. OHG. gi-unnan, MHG. 
Du. gunnen, G. gonnen) favour, 
grant, give; with inf. let; unne 

unn-riddlis v. ungerydelice. 

un^-nyt, ME. unnut, «j., (G. un- 
niitz) u.'ieless. 

uni-riht, also ME., sn., (G. un- 
recht) wrong, ^justice. 

un^-rihtwis-lice, ME., unryght- 
wysely, av., [rihtwis] un- 

uni-rim, sn., [rim, number, 
(OHG. rim)] (OS. unrim) count- 
less number, host. 

un^-rot, aj., [rot, cheerful^ sad. 

un^-sealj>e v. ungessfelS*. 

un^-sele, ME. aj., [ge-sa&lig, 
fortunate, cf. ssel] unfortunate 
XVI. 199. 

un^-sene v. ungesene. 

un^-slagen, ME. aj. {pp.), [sl6an] 
unslain, alive XXI. 1332. 

un^-s6fte, av., [sefte] roughly 
VI. 228, unsofti. 

uni-stedefest, ME. aj., [stede] 
unsteadfast, transitory XVI. 316. 

un^-tellend-lic, ME. aj., [t el- 
la n] imJescribable XV. 21. 

un^-J»6aw, ME. un^eaw, sm., im- 
morality, sin. 

unMo, ME. prp., (OS. unto, av.) 

un^-treowe, ME. untrew, aj., not 
faithful, untrue. 

nn^-truwnesse, sb., [tr^owe] 
unfaithfulness, untrueness. 




un^-tymende, ME. unteminde, 
prs.ptc, [tie in an] unfruitful, 
barren XIV. 2. 

un^-wser, ME. unwar, aj., unwary, 

un^-weaxen, pp., [we ax an] 

un^-wine, also ME., sm. (262), 

un2-wri3en v. onwreon. 

un^-wunne, sb., [=OHG. un- 
wunna, MHG. unwuniie ; cf. 
wynn, sf. (269), pleasure = 
WT. wunni-, cf. wuna, wine] 
{cf. OS. wunnia, joy, as OHG. 
wumia, -i, MHG. wunne, G. 
wonne) misery XVI. 208. 

6p, upp, ME. upp, up, op, I. av. 
(321), [T. *fippa, ?v. ofer, Sk. 
120] (cf. Goth, iupa, iup; Ic. 
uppi, upp, OS. lip, OHG. MHG. 
uf, G. auf, Sk. 63) up, upward, 
on high. II. upp on, ME. 
uppon, upponn, uppon, upon, 
opon, apon, upo, ope, prp. with 
dat. and ace, > upon, up, on, 

i(]p-astignes, sf, [dstigan] as- 
cension IX. 85. 

6p-fl6r, dat. 6pfl6ra, sf. (274 
N. 1) upper floor, balcony XIV. 

upo, upon, upp V. 6p. 

Are, ure v. we. 

ureisun, orisune, sb., [ = AF. urei- 
zun, oreison <eccl. L. oration- 
em, ace, p7'ayer, L., = oration, 
<orare, speak, <(6r-) 6s, mouth] 
prayer, or/son, Sk. II. 70. 1 ; 

urig'fe'Serii,w.aj., [6 rig-, moist, 
(cf Ic. ur, dew, L. ur-Ina and 
Gk. ovpop, urine, Skt. var, water) ; 
feiarera <fei5'er, sf, feather, 
<T. fe)?ro- <pre T. petra, Sk. 
121 ; 118; 217 b, <V*pet, fly, cf 
Gk. irrepdu = *TreT-€p6v'\ dewr- 
feathered VI. 210. 

urnen, urnon v. eornan. 

<is, us, uss V. we. 

dt, ME. ut, out, owt, oute, owte, 
I. av. (321), [<T. ut, ?/or ut-a. 

= I.-E. M, Sk. 117 ; cf Skt. vb.- 
pref ud-] (Goth. Ic. OS. ut, 
OHG. MHG. uz, G. aus) out, 
Sk. 46, outside, abroad VIII, 9 
(cf out, Shak.); II. 6t of, ME. 
ut of, ut off, out of, owt of, 
prp., > out of. 

iitan. Nil. 6ta, ME, uten, av. 
(321), [6t] (Goth, ut-ana, OHG. 
uz-ana, MHG. uzen, G. aussen) 
idthout, outside, beyond. 

ijtan-bordes, av., [-bord] from 
abroad VIII. 13. 

ute V. witan. 

ute, av., [ut] (Goth. OS. lita, Ic. 
uti, OHG. MHG. lize) out, from 
a foreign land VIII. 14. 

iJt-gong, sm., [gong an] '•out- 
gang,^ exodus IX. 81. 

u]>e V. yiS. 

uthire v. bfSer. 

«it-laga, ME. utlawe, wm., [< 
Scand., =: Ic. ut-lagi, Sk. 420 b; 
V. lagu] outlaw. 

UU- V. w^-. 

uuaeren, uuaren v. wesan. 

uu^ge V. w^gfeg. 

uuel V. yfel. 

uuenden v. w6nan. 

uuerse v. yfel. 

uuiurthit v. w^eorffan. 

uuldur- V. wuldor-. 

uundra v. w^undor. 

uut, uut V. w^itodlice. 

uvele-speke, sb., [yfele; spre- 
can] slanderer. 

uw^er V. gehwsfer. 

uwil(ch), uw^ilcan v. gehwelc. 


V- V. f-, U-, w^-. 

vader v. faeder. 

vae, vses v. w^esan. 

vair V. faeger. 

valde, vallas v. willan. 

valle(n) v. feallan. 

valuw^en v. fealow^ian. 

vanyte, sb., [=Ar. vanite <L. 
vanita-tem, ace. , < vano-, st. of 
vanus, empty] vanity, Sk. II. 
51. 1. 




vare(n) v. faran. 
vatit V. waite. 

vayn, vayne, ME. aj., [< AF. vain, 
veine, empty, Sk. II. p. 200, < L. 
vanus, emptt/] vain, Sk. II. 79. 

vayr, veir v. faeger. 

vele V. fela. 

velthyfl V. wel)>i. 

venge, wenge, w., [<0F. venger, 
Sk. II. 152, < L. vin-dic-are, lay 
legal clairri] avenge, viNDicaie, 
venge (Shak.). 

venk V. fon. 

venym, sb., [<0F. venim, Sk. II. 
153, venin < L. veiienum] poi- 
son, venom. 

veole V. fela. 

veor, ver v. feorr. 

ver, were, sh., [< OF. ver < L. 
ver] (c/. Gk. '4ap = ^pia-ap ; Ic. 
ykv) spring {cf. vernal). 

v6ri V. wesaii. 

veriour v. werriour. 

veron v. wesan. 

verre, pp. verrit XXX. 49, w., 

verste v. fyrst. 

vertu, vertue, sh., [= AF. vertu, 
Sk. II. p. 146 ; 151, < OF. virtud 
<L.virtut-em, manliness, valour 
<viro-, St. o/vir, man'] {healing) 
power, miracle, virtue, Sk. II. 
59. 4 ; 76. 

vertuus, virtuus, aj., [<AF. ver- 
tuous < LL. virtu-osus, full of 
virtue ; v. vertu] virtuous. 

vessele, sb., [= AF., Sk. II. pp. 
207 ; 235, < L. (inscrip.) vas- 
celliim, dm. <vas, dish, (vasum, 
vase)] vesse/, Sk. II. 60. 2. 

viage, vyage, sb., [<AF. veage, 
veiage (OF. voiage) < L. viati- 
cum, provisions for a journey, 
< via, way] journey, vorage, 
Sk. II. 80 ; 86. 1. 

vi3te V. feohtan. 

viht V. feoht. 

vikked v. wicked. 

vilanye, vvleynye, sb., [<AF. 
vilanie, Sk. II. p. 68, (OF. vile- 
nie) < ML. villania, state of a 
farm-servant, < ML, villanus. 

farm-servant, feudal serf = vil- 
lain, <L. villa, /(7nn-s^ead = vi//, 
villa, ?lit. small village (-ville), 
< *vic(u)la < vic-ulus < vicus, 
street, village, v. wic] villainy, 
state of a serf, baseness. 

vile, ME. aj., [<AF. vil, Sk. II. 
145, (4) ; 161, <L. vilis, cheap] 
vile, common. 

violently, wyolently, av., \_cf. AF. 
violenment; hyb. <0F. violent 
(+ ME. -ly) <L. viol-entus < 
*viol-us<vi-s, strength] violently. 

virtuus V. ver-. 

viss V. wise. 

vith V. wifS. 

vless V. flgesc. 

vol- V. full-. 

volk V. folc. 

vondi V. fondian. 

vor(e) V. for. 

vor-bisne, -bysne v. forebysn. 

vorgf V. forlS". 

vorst V. forst. 

vort V. fort. 

vote V. fot. 

vourti V. feow^ertig. 

vpo V. vipo. 

vram v. from. 

vrechit v. w^recca. 

vreond v. fr6ond. 

vri V. fr6o. 

vrocht V. wyrcan. 

vrom V. from. 

vulvellen v. fulfyllan. 

vvt, vvt V. witodlice. 

vyage v. viage. 

vyealdinde v. fealdan. 

vyleynye v. vilanye. 

vyn V. winnan. 

vyntir v. ^vinter. 

vysage, sb., [<AF. vis-age < ML. 
*vis-aticum (It. visaggio) < L. 
visus, a look, vision, < videre, 
see, V. w^itan] visage. 

vyve V. fit. 


w V. hwd. 

wd, ME. wa, wo, I. intrj. and av., 
[< T. wai, pre T. wai, woi, cry 
of pain] {cf. Gk. 6i, L. v^~; 



Goth, wai, Ic. vei, OHG. MHG. 
w6, G, weh) wo ! II. ME. also 
sb., and used as aj., [cf. we a 
= *wdu == T. wai + (w)o- (62 
N. ; 118 N. 1; 250 N. 2) <wa, 
cf. wawa] woe, sorrowful. 
wdc, ME. wac, woe, aj., [< T. 
waiqo- < : T. V wiq, v. wsfepen- 
gewrixle] (Ic, veik-r>wEAK, 
OS. w6k, Du. week ; OHG. weih, 
MHG. G. weich, pliant, soft) 


wacian, ME. wake, w. '2 (416 
N. 5), [y. weccan, cf. prt. 
woe, Goth, wakan, s. 6] (Ic. 
vaka, OS. wakon, OHG.wahh§n, 
MHG. G. wachen) wake, watch, 
Sk. 135 ; 326. 

wadan, ME. wade, s. 6 (392 N.l) 
Sk. 141, [<T. VwaS, stride on, 
espec. in water, < V *w3,dh, cf. L. 
vad-ere, walk] (Ic. vaSa, Du. 
waden, OHG. watan, MHG. 
waten, G. waten, w.) wade, 
trudge, go. 

w^aeccende, ME. wacchende, prs. 
ptc, [< wacian (416 N. 5)] 
watching VI. 142. 

waecnian in aw^aecnian, ME. 
wakene, w. 2 (cf 392 N. 1) intr. 
Sk. 260, [< *w a c a 11, with j)ass. 
-n-, V. wacian] (Goth, ga- 
waknan, Ic. vakna) waken, arise, 
be awakened. 

wsfed, sf., wgfede, Nh. wede 
(150. 1), ME. wede, sn. (248), 
1= T, WEed -\-,that bound, cf. Goth. 
ga-w6dum, prt. pi. of ga-widan, 
s. 5, bind together'] (Ic. vaS, /., 
OS. wadi, n., wad, /., OHG. 
MHG. wat, /., G. archaic, wat) 
garment, weed, Sk. 48. 

waeg, uuseg, ME. weie, sf, [< 
prf.pZ, 0/ wegan] (OS. OHG, 
waga, MHG. wage, G. wage, 
balance) scales, weigh, wey (Eng- 
land, woio = 14 st07ie; a.d. 1430, 
of cheese =22'i pounds) VII. 25. 

w^aegn, ME, wa33n, sm., [< T, 
wag-no-, Sk. 174; 221, < T. 
V wag, < V wogh : wegh, v. prt. of 
wegan] (c/. Gk. 6xo-s=*/:6xos, 

L. veh-iculum (vEHicZe), Olr, 
fe'n ; Ic. vagn, OHG. wagan, G. 
wagen, Du. wagen > waggon, 
Sk, 391 ; 450) wain, waggon. 

wsel, sn. (240), [= T, *walo-, Kl. 
?<\/*wai, ruin, cf. OHG. wuol, 
defeat, wol, /., pestilence] (Ic. 
val-r, OHG. MHG. wai) slaugh- 
ter = sum-total of slain (chosen 
by the WAhkyrs, Grmm. pp. 145, 
400, 417-26, 840, and carried to 
WxLhalla, Grmm. p. 817). 

waelde v. wealdan, 

wsel-feld, sm. (272), (cf. G. wal- 
statt) fiefd of slaughter, battle- 

wael-gifre, aj. (298 N.), greedy 
for slaughter, ravenous VI. 207. 

wael-grimm, aj. (295 N. 2), fierce 
for slaughter, murderous IV. 8. 

wiel-hwelp, sm., [-hw- = T. 
hwelpo-, young of beasts] (Ic. 
hvelp-r, OHG. MHG. welf) 
murderous whelp IV, 23. 

Avael-stow, sf. (259), (cf. G. wal- 
statt) place of slaughter. 

wtepen, ME. wepen, wepne, sn. 
(243; 244), [= T. w«p-no-, 
(141) Sk. 221] (Goth, wepna, n. 
pi., Ic. vapn, OS. wapan, OHG. 
waf(f)an, G. waffe) weapon. 

w^^epen-gew^rixle, sn., [-w r- = T. 
*wreh-slo- (221. 2; 83. 101), 
*wrih- < *wih-, cf. Nh. 
wixla (180), <T. V wiq, give 
way, V. wac, wicke, <V*wig, 
by-form of V wik, cf. Gk. etK-av, 
to yield, L. vic-is, gen., wc-iss- 
itude, vice- pref, cf. OS, OHG, 
wehsal, G. wechsel, exchange] 
weapon-exchange = fight X. 101. 

wsepned-nion, ^v£epInann, 
ME. wepmon, wepman, wepp- 
mann, pi. wepmen, M. um. m. 
(281), (weaponed-man, i.e. male) 

wser, ME, war, aj. (294), [ge- 
waer] GVXRded, cautious, wary, 
ware (A. V. Acts xiv. 6 ; 2 Tim, 
iv, 15 ; Shak,), ware = assured 
XXI, 1308. 

wsdve V. w^esan. 




wser-faest, aj., [<T. wsero- <: 

V wes, cf. wsferon : wesan, 
anal, soff ; cf. L. verus < *wes- 
ro-s] (Goth. *wer-s, Ic. vser-r, 
gentle, OS. wdr, OHG. MHG. 
wdr, G. wahr) true, truthful V. 

wgferon, waeron v. wesan. 

wses V. wesan. 

waeter, Merc, weter, ME. water, 
waterr, weter, watter, S7i. (245) , 
[< WT. wataro- < T. V wat < 

V w5d : wSd : fid, wet, Sk. 117, 
cf. Skt. ud-an, Gk. vd-iop'] (cf. 
Goth, wato, Wfi., Ic. vatn ; OS. 
watar, OHG. wazzar, G. wasser, 
Sk. 61) water, Sk. 383. 

wseter-scipe, sm. (263) Sk. 202, 

body of water (cf. water-scwE 

<Du.) water XIV. 33. 
wAfung, sf, [<waf-ian, wonder 

at, wAver in mind] spectacle, 

pageantry XIV. 90. 
wagge, 10., [< Scand., = Swed. 

wagga; cf. prt. of wegan, Sk. 

429] (cf. "Goth, wagjan, OS. and 

OE. wagian, OHG. wecken 

= *wagjan, G. in be-wegen, 

OHG. wagon > intens. G. wack- 

eln, waggle) wag, Sk. 443; 434. 
wa33nenn, waynye, w., [cf. 

bewsegned, pp., offered, 

V. waegn] 'waggon,' cart'y 

XVIII. 37. 
wdh, wdg, ME. wah, sm. (273), 

[= T. *waiju- =z*wajju-z (175. 2; 

176) m. abs. suff. -ju- = Skt. 

-yu-] (cf. L. viere, to plait, Goth. 

in compos, waddjus, Ic. vegg-r, 

Noreen 246. 1 ; 253. 7 ; Fris. 

wach) (orig. wattled) wall. 
wai V. weg. 
waite, wayte, vat, lo. , [< AF. 

waiter, OF. guaiter, <AF. sb. 

wayte, wATcnman = wait, Sk. 

II. 79; 172, < T., cf OHG. 

wahta, G. wacht, a GUArD, v. 

wac-ian] (OHG. wahten) 

AVATCH ; imth ace. or after, ex- 

X)ect ; wait. 
waive, wayvye, w., [= AF. 

weiver, weyver, Sk. II. 172, 

?< Scand. , = Ic. veifa, w^rate] 
swing about, push aside, put 
away, waive, Sk. II. 80. 

w^ake V. wacian. 

w^akene v. w^aecnian. 

walcande v. w^ealcan. 

w^ald V. w^eald, w^illan. 

wald, sb., [= (i)wald, Scand. 
influ., <ge-w^eald, n. f m., 
<w^ealdan] (Ic. vald, OFris. 
wald, cf. G. ge-walt) power. 

w^aldan v. w^ealdan. 

w^alde V. w^illan. 

wale, w., [< Scand. ; < ME. wale, 
sb., = Ic. val, 71., choice; cf. 
willan] Goth, waljan, Ic. 
velja, G. wahlen) choose, elect, 
discern, find, wale (Sc.) ; wisest 
to wale, the wisest, which were 
to be found XXX. 8. 

w^alkeSf v. w^ealcan. 

w^all V. weall. 

w^allaiaf V. w^illan. 

walle, sb., [<*weall < weal- 
Ian] (OFris. walla, m.) spring, 
WELL = waH (Ches.). 

waltere, prt. waltered, vj., [freq., 
Sk. 262, <ME. walte < weal- 
tan] welter, waiter \, 7'oll. 

w^ambe v. w^omb. 

wan V. hw^onne. 

wandrian, ME. wandre, prt. ME. 
wandride, w. 2, [f7'eq. < pi't. of 
w^lndan, cf. also wen dan, 
Sk. 175] (MHG. G. wandern, 
M Du. wanderen) wander. 

wane v. w^ene and w^ona. 

wdnian, ME. wanen, wonen, to. 2, 
[Kl. ?<wa!] (Ic. veina, OHG. 
weinon, MHG. G. weinen) weep, 
wxil; ME. wanunge, vb.-sb., 

wanna v. w^on. 

w^anne v. hwonne. 

w^ar V. waer. 

war, w^are, w^aren v. wesan. 

w^are v. w^aru. 

warian, ME. warie, ware, w. 2, 
[waer] (Ic. vara, OS. waron) 
take heed, &ewARE, mai7itai7i, 
GUARd, possess; ME. also., use; 
ware (imper.). 




wdrig, ME. wori, a;., [?<vvar, 
seaweed = ware^ dirty. 

warlde v. weorold. 

war-Iok, s&., [?, + loc] fetter; 
ivar/oki = fetterlock. 

^va^p, warrp v. weorpan. 

waru, ME. ware, s/., [= T. 
*waro-, ?< T. v war, GUAud, v. 
waer, ?c/, wyrlSfeJ (Ic. vara, 
Du. waar, G. waare < LG.) 

waruS", Nh. varS", worff, ME. 
warb, sm., [c/. waer, sn.., sea., 
cf. Ic. ver, sea'] (OIIG. warid > 
G. werder, islatid) {sea-) shore ; 
(worth J ^ovth.,= ford = meadow 
by stream, Hereford.). 

was V. w^esan. 

w^ascan (10), ME. wassche ; prt. 
wosc, ME. wesch, pi. w^os- 
con, ME. wesse, s. 6 (392) 
8k. 141, [=T. *vvaskon; Kl. 
?<*wat-sk-, ^7. waeter, ?cf. 
O Ir. usee, wxrer, (wiiisk?/)] 
(Ic. vaska, OHG. wascan, MHG. 
G. waschen, Du. wasschen) wash. 

wase ( Wright -Wiilker Vocab.), ! 
ME. wose, woze, v\f., [influ. ' 
w 6 s, sn., juice, = w a s e < T. 
*waso(n-), moisture'] {cf. Ic. 
veisa, pool ; O Fris. wase, OHG. 
waso, (F. gazon < T.) turf, > 
MHG. wase, G. wasen) ooze, 
slime, mud. 

w^ass V. w^esan. 

wdst, w^at V. witan. 

-wat V. liwa. 

"watz V. w^esan. 

Avawa, ME. wawe, icm., [?< ob- 
lique case of Av6a (118 N. 1), 
V. wa] ((•/. OHG. wewo) woe, 

wawe, sb., [Scand. influ., cf. Ic. 
v&gr; <wseg, sm., <T. w^go- j 
= pre T. wegho-, v. wegaii] j 
(cf Goth, weg-s, OS. w&g, OHG. I 
wag, G. woge) icave, waw (Spen.). | 

w^ay, w^aye v. weg. 

waynye v. w^asanenii. 

wayte v. waite. 

"wayvye v. w^aive. 

wfe (?121), Nh. v6, ME. we; gen. 

also poss. prn. (335; 336) iiser, 
uro, ME. ure, cure, ur, >NE. 
our; dat. lis, ME. us, uss, ous, 
>NE. us; ace. usic, us, ME. 
like dat., prn. 1 pers. pi. (332), 
[<T. wl-(z) <I.-E. wS-, cf, Skt. 
vag-am = I.-E. *we-i- ; rest of 
decl. <us <T. uns- (185. 2) Sk. 
75 c, <I.-E. US-, cf Lesbian Gk. 
&fxfxes <*do-/xe- < I.-E. *n-s-me-, 
sujf. =w. sb. suff., Brug. 233 ; III. 
430, L. nos unrelated] (Goth, 
wei-s, Ic. ver, OS. wi, OHG. 
MHG. G. wir, Du. wij ; dat. ace, 
Goth, uns, unsis, Ic. oss, OS. lis, 
OHG. dat. uns, ace. unsih, G. uns, 
Du. ons) we, Sk. 43 ; fS€w€, we 
loho, (340). 

wealoan, ME. walken, wale, .s. 
red. B (396 a), Sk. 139, [< T. 
V*walk = \/*walg, ?c/. Skt. valg, 
jump along, spring] (OHG. wal- 
chan, strike, to full, as MHG. 
G. walken) roll, loallow = walk 
(Spen.) ; walk = go \_prop. < ME. 
walkien, w., < Scand., cf Ic. 
valka, roll]. 

weald, wald, ME. wald, sm. 
(273), [= T. walbu- = pre T. 
*waltu-, Sk. 225c] (Ic. v6ll-r = 
*valKi-K, field, OS. OHG. wald, 
MHG. walt(d), G. wald) wood 
(-land) VI. 206, xME. also = wold, 
cf ' the weald ' in Kent. 

w^ealdan, wald an (80), ME. 
wealden, wselden, welde, s. red. 
B (390 a) Sk. 139, [<T. wal'Son 
= pre T. *wal-t-&-, ?-t- orig. of 
prs., <V*wal, cf L. val-ere, be 
strong (valjV?, xxidant)] (Goth. 
OS. waldan, Ic. valda, OHG. 
waltan, G. walten, vx) be strong, 
have poirer, have in one''s poicer, 
govern, wikld. 

wealdend, waldend V. 2861, 
M. 7W. (2Si)),[=2)rs.ptc. <weal- 
danj ruler, king. 

Wealh, gen. We ales (218), sm. 
(242), [=T. *Walho- <C., cf. 
L. Volcae, B. G. 7. 7 ; 6. 24, <C., 
a people of Gaul] (OHti. Walh, 
esp. a Roman, as MHG. Walch) 




foreigner^ et'p. Welshman (any 

wealh-stod, sm., interpreter, 
translator VIII. 57. 

weall, ME. wall, sm. (239. 2), 
[=WT. wall-o- < L. vallum, 
Sk. 398, (collective, n. <vallus, 
stake, c/.wdh) rampart, Roman 
fortification of earth surmounted 
O Fris. Du. wal) wall, Sk. 83. 

weallan, ME. weallen, s. red. B 
(39i)a), [<T. *walii-ono-ii (80), 
Brug. 30 J, < V wol : we), turn, 
roll ; cf L. vol-u-ere, roll {re- 
voLue, voL?«6/e)J (c/. Ic. vella ; 
OS. OHG. wallan, MHG. wallen, 
G. wallen, w.) boil, WBLL = »va//t. 

weall-geat, weal-, dat. -gate 
(240 N. 2), sn., wall-gate, city- 
gate VI. 141. 

*wealtaii (cf. Nh. gewaelteno. 
Matt. xvii. 14), ME. walte, prt. 
welt, s. red. Bf (396a), \<only 
T. Vwalt] (Ic. velta, OHG. wal- 
zan, MHG. walzen, G. walzeii, 
vo., roll, WALT2) roll, overturn 
= wait (North.). 

w^eard, Nh. uard, I. 1 (151.3), 
ME. ward, sm., [<T. war-5o-, 
Sk. 223 c, <T. V war, attend to, 
mind, v. ge-wser] (Goth. 
*ward-s, Ic. v6r5-r, OHG. MHG. 
-wart, G. wart, cf. AF. (<T.) 
gardein >) ovxKDian, warden, 
warder = ward IX. 41. 

weard, ME. warde, sf, [=T. 
*war-5o-, v. weard, m.] (OHG. 
warta, MHG. G. warte, look- 
out, watch-tower) GVXKDianship, 
watch = ward VI. 142. 

wearier v. weorffan. 

wearniaii, MP], wearnen, wariiie, 
mixed loith werni (prop. <wyr- 
nan), w. 2, [< T. v/ war, v. 
weard] (Ic. varna, OHG. war- 
non, MHG. warnen, protect, G. 
warnen) bef. wi5, warn, Sk. 383, 

weax, ME. wax, sn., (Ic. vax, 
OS. OHG. MHG. wahs, G. 
wachs) wax, Sk. 330. 

weaxan, ME. wexe, 3 sg. prs. ind. 
wext; prt. w^6ox, w6oxs, 

(orig. (Nh.) wox), ME. wox, 
wex, s. 6, later red. B (392 N. 3) 
Sk. 141, [<T. Vwahs (82) < 

V weks : uks, Sk. 112, cf Skt. 

V vaksh, Gk. ae^av = *d-f^^-eip] 
(Goth, wahsjan, OS. OHG. wah- 
san, G. wachsen) grow, increase, 

I wax, become. 

weccan, ME. wecchen ; prt. 
we(a)hte (232 b), w. 1 C 
(407 a) , [< T. caus. wakjon < 
I.-E. cans. *wogej- < V wog : weg, 
be active, strong. Brag. 402, cf. 
L. veg-etare, arouse, (cf veg- 
etation), awake (cf. vigH), cf. 
wacian] (Goth, (us-)wakjan, 
Ic. vekja, OS. wekkian, OHG. 
wecchen, MHG. G. wecken) 
WAKE up, rouse, incite, bring 
forth, beget, kindle (of fire). 

\vede V. w^ged. 

wee V. wiga. 

weg, JVIerc. waeg, ME. wei, wai, 
way, weie, waye, sm., I. [<T. 
weg-o-z, Sk. 205 a, v. wegan] 
(cf. L. via, OL. (Umbrian) vea 
<*veha <Vvegh; Goth, wisf-s, 
Ic. veg-r, OS. weg, OHG. MHG. 
wee, G. weg) way. II. on w^eg, 
aw eg, Merc, aw^aeg, ME. 
a wei, awey, a wai, away, a waye, 
avay, wai, av., (MHG. en wee 
for in wee) away. 

w^eg, w^eoh, sm., [<T. aj. wiho-, 
sacred, cf. a}s., Goth, weihs, 
OS. OHG. will, MHG. wich 
in G. weih-nachten, Christmas'] 
(OS. wih) sanctuary, altar V. 

w^egan, ME. we3en, s. 5 (391 N. 
1, 6) Sk. 146, [<T. Vweg, carry, 
<\/wegh, move (on), draw, Skt. 
Vvah, vSk. 113, Brug. 177; 151] 
(cf. Gk. 6xos, carriage, L. veh- 
ere ; Goth, (ga-)wigan, Ic. vega, 
OHG. wegan, MHG. wegen, G. 
-wegen, wiegen) carry, move, 
weigh (anchor), Sk. 338; 376. 

w^egh V. wiga. 

wei, w^eie v. Aveg. 




wei-weri XXII. 13, ME. aj., way- 
worn^ {^ way ■weary,'' v. werig, 
cf. sse-wgferlg, ME. sseweri, 
Layamon 4619, sea-weary). 

wel, well, Nh. vel, ME. wel, 
wele, well, welle, weill, av. 
(315 N.), [<T. welo-, prop, 
according to one's will, = I.-E. 
*welo-, cf. Skt. v&ra, wish; v. 
will an] (cf. Goth, waila; Ic. 
vel, OS. wel, OHG. wela, wola, 
MHO. wol, G. wohl) wet/, Sk. 
387, very; wel hwsfer (ge- 
hwgfer) everywhere VIII. 88; 
comp. bet, ME. bet, betere, 
(323), [=T. bati-z, v. betra 
under god^ (OS. bat, bet, OHG. 
MHG. baz, G. basst) = 6ef^er, 
6ef t ; siipl. b e t s t > best, Sk. 340. 

wela, ME. wele, lom., [wel] 
(OS. welo, OHG. wolo, MHG. 
wol, G. wohl) wealth, Sk. 223 a, 
VIII. 40. 42, wea/, prosperity. 

w^elcome v. wileuma. 

welde V. w^eaklan. gewyldan. 

welder, sb., [wealdan] (cf. Ic. 
valdari ; G. waiter ; cf. G. name 
Walther, Walter) ruler, lord. 

welesc, uuelesc VII. 27, (171 
N. 1 ; 97 N. ; 159. 2) , ME. welsch, 
aj., [<WT. walh-isca, Sk. 335; 
257, V. Wealh] (OHG. walhisc, 
Gallic, etc., as MHG. walhisch, 
and G. walsch) Welsh, foreign. 

wel-fare, sh., [faru] welfare. 

well V. w^el. 

welle (159.2), wiell(e) (266), 
wylle, ME. welle, sm. and 
wf, [we all an] spring, foun- 
tain, well. 

w^ell-spryng, ME. welsprung, 
sm., well-spring, source. 

welm, w^ylm, ME. welm, sm., 
[<T. *wal-mi-z <I.-E. wl-mi-s, 
ebullition, cf. Skt. urmis, wave, 
Brag. 306 ; 182, < : V wel, v. 
we all an] (OHG. walm)y?ame, 

w^elt V. w^ealtan. 

welj>i, velthye, ME. aj., [<welbe, 
sb., cf. wela] (MDu. weldich) 

wemme, sb., [<wemmeii, tc., < 
we mm an, to. 1, to defile, < 
wamm, sn.] (cf. Goth, wamm, 
OS. warn, mischief) spot, blem- 
ish, wem^. 

wenan, ME. wenen, wene ; prt. 
weude, ME. wende, w. 1, [< 
wen, ^ope, = *w6ni- (269; 94) 
= WT. wani- (68 N. 1 ) =T. wseni-z 
(45. 6; 46), Kl., ? <: V wen, v. 
w^inej (Goth, w^njan, Ic. vana, 
OS. wanian, OHG. wanen, MHG. 
wsenen, G. wahnen) ween (poet.), 
Sk. 43, suppose, believe, think, 
hope, fear; vb.-sb., ME.wenyng 
> weening, supposition. 

wendan, ME. wenden, wende ; 
prt. wende (405. 4); ME. 
wente, went > NE. went, ME. 
pp. iwent,ywent, to. 1, [ = *wa n- 
dian, Sk. 192a, cans. < win- 
dan] (Goth, wandjan, Ic. 
venda, OS. wendian, OHG. 
wenten = *wantjan, MHG. G. 
wenden) tr., turn, translate 
VIII. 48, convert; intr., turn 
(one''s self), wend (only with 
one''s way) = go. 

w^ene, wane, sb., misfortune, mis- 

weng, wing, wyng, sb., [<Scand., 
(f. Ic. vaeng-r, Swed. Dan. vinge, 
Sk. 443] wing. 

w^enge v. venge. 

wenne v. hw^onne. 

w^ent, w^ente v. w^endan. 

wenyng v. wenan. 

w6op, w^eopen v. w^§pan. 

weorc, Nh. uerc(171 N. 1; 164. 
1), ME. weorc, weork, weorch, 
werk, werke, sn., [=T. werk-o- 
(72; 79. 1), T. vb. V werk: work, 
V werg : worg, Sk. p. 129 and N., 
Brag. 385, cf Gk. ^py-ov < 
^f^py-ov, ERG, ipy-avov, tool, 
ORGa?i] (Ic. verk, OS. OFris. 
werk, OHG. werch, MHG. were, 
G. werk) work, Sk. 381. 

w^eord v. word. 

weorafan, ME. wurcSen, worsen ; 
3 sg. p7'^. ind. weor>eaf, Nh. 
uuiurthit II. 1, (171 N. ; 




199 N. ; 357), ME. wurS, wurb ; 
prt. wearar, ME. wart5, wurt5, 
pi. wurdon (234b); pp. ge- 
worden, ME. gewor'Sen, s. 30 
(388), Sk. 148, [<T. werbon 
(72 ; 79. 1) <T. V werb, become, = 
V wert, turn, c.f. L. vert-ere, turn 
(a-vERT, eic), Brug. 348; hint of 
pre T. meaning in suff. -Aveard 
<same\/] (Goth, wairban, Ic. 
ver^a, OS. werSan, OHG. wer- 
dan, MHG. G. werden, Du. 
worden, cf. Nh. w o r U a (388 N. 
2), NE. worth in ' woe worth the 
day!'' A. V. Ez. xxx. 2), (be 
king) bat wurb, who shall be 
XXII. 56, become. 

weorafian, Nh. worSfiga (156. 
2; 414 N. 2), ME. wurtSien, 
wurbien, wurt'en, wurf^ie ; pp. 
geweoraPad, w. 2, [< aj. 
weorar V. wyriafe] (Goth, 
wairbon, Ic. vir'Sa, OS. (gi-) 
werSon, OHG. werdon, MHG. 
werden) hold worth?/, woiiship, 
honour IX. 2. 

.weorac-lic, ME. wurdlich, aj., 
[wyraCe] worthy, distinguished. 

weoraC-scipe, ME. wurSscipe, 
wurSschipe, wurschipe, wur- 
chipe, sm., [wyrlSe] honour, 

weorod, werod (106. 1), ME. 
were (0 Fris. were, protection), 
sn., [<T. *wer-u-^o-(m), Brug. 
II. 123; p. 393] (OS. werod, 
people) host VI. 199. 

weorold (106. 1), weoruld, 
werld, worold (72), 
woruld, K. uueorold (171 
N. 1), ME. woruld, woreld, 
werld, world, worlde, warlde, 
werlde, wordle, werde, sf. (274 
N. 1, Nh. gen. -es), [ = T. 
wer+al^u-, special T. word; 
V. wer and yldo, Sk. 395] 
(Ic. ver-old, OS. wer-old, an 
age, OHG. wer-alt, MHG. wer- 
elt, werlt, welt, all also = an 
age, G. welt) age, world, Sk. 

weorold-cund, woruldcund, 

ci'j--, [v- god-cund] secular 

VIII. 4, worldly. 
weorold-had, weoruldhdd, 

sm., secular life, layman^s rank 

IX. 19. 

weorold->ing, worn Idling, 

sn., worldly thing, secular affair 
VIII. 25. 

weorold -wela, ME. woruld wele, 
wm., earthly weal^^. 

weorpan, ME. werpen ; prt. 
wearp, ME. warp, warrp, 
s. 3 C (388), Sk. 148, [<T. wer- 
pon (79 a) < T. V werp = werq, 
Brug. 444 a; 463, <pre T. Vwerg, 
cf. Bulg. vriga, / throw'] (Goth, 
wairpan, Ic. verpa, cf varpa, 
w. infill, in NE. warp, OS. wer- 
pan, OHG. werphan, werfan, 
MHG. G, werfen) throw — 

weox, weoxs v. weaxan. 

wepan, ME. wepen, weopen, 
wepyn, wepe; prt. \v6op, ME. 
weop, wep, (396 c), Sk. 
139, [<T. wopion, Sk. 196 j8, 
<w6p] {cf. Goth, wopjan, w. ; 
Ic. cepa, w. ; O Fris. w§pa, OS. 
wopian, OHG. wuofan, red., -en, 
w., MHG, wuofen) cry aloud, 
bewail, weep; ME. wepyng, vb.- 
sb. > weeping. 

wepen v. w^sepen. 

'wep(p)-inan, -mon v. wgfepned- 

wepne v. w^sepen. 

w^er, ME. wer, were, sm., [<T. 
wero-z <I.-E. *wi-r6-s, *wl-r6-s, 
Brug. 34; 35; 272] (cf. Skt. 
vTra-s ; L. vir, O Ir. fer, Goth. 
• wair, Ic. ver-r, OS. OHG. wer) 
man, youth, husband. 

werde v. w^eorold. 

were v. ver, w^er, weorod, 
w^erre, w^esan. 

w^^re, w^eren v. w^esan. 

w^erian, ME. werien, w. 1 (400 
N. 1), (Goth, warjan, foi'iid; 
Ic. verja, OS. werian, OHG. 
werren, werien, MHG. wern, G. 
wehren) check, defend, war^ off, 
(with wi5) protect, weart. 




werig, ME. weri, «/., [?c/. w6- 
rian, w. 2, travel^ <w6s, v. 
wase, Sk. 357; 256] (c/. OS. 
si^-worig, '■way-weary.,'' OHG. 
wuarag, worag, drunken) weary ^ 
Sk. 43. 

werk(e) v. weorc. 

werlde u. weorold. 

werni v. wearnian. 

werod v. weorod. 

w6ron v. wesan. 

werrai, w., [<AF. *werrayer, 
OF. guerreier, < werre] (with 
ace, gain, on) make war upon, 
war ray]. 

werre, were, wer, s&., [=0F. 
werre, Sk. II. 172, guerre <T., 
cf. ML. werra, OHG. werra, a 
quarrel, confusion, cf. G. wirr, 
a}., confused, ?<T. Vwers, con- 
fuse, cf. wyrsa under yfel] 
war, Sk. 383. 

werriour, verioiir, sh., [<AF. 
*werrayour = guerrayour, Sk. 
II. 172, < guerreier, v. werrai] 

werse v. yfel. 

w6run, wes v. wesan. 

wesan, Nh. w^osa, 2 pers. pi. 
imper. wese g6, Nh. wosaff 
gi6; prt. sg. 1 and 3 pers. 
wses, Ep, uuaes, Merc, wes, 
Nh. vaes, ME. was, wass, watz, 
wes, >NE. was ; 2 pers., wsere, 
Nh. were, vere, ME. waere, 
were, >NE. were, ME. was, pi. 
wafer on, Merc. Nh. w^ferun, 
Nh. weron, v6ron, vcferon, 
ME. waeron, weeren, uuseren, 
wserenn, weren, uuaren, wsere, 
were, ware, war, wer; opt. 
wsere, Merc. Nh. were, Nh. 
vere, v6ri, vae XII. Nero 4 
for vsferi, ME. wsere, were, 
ware, s. 5, -mi (427. 3, 391 N. 1) 
Sk. 140, [<T. Vwes <Vwes, 
dwell, cf. Skt. V vas, dwell] (Goth, 
wisan, dwell, Ic. vesa, OS. OHG. 
wesan, MHG. wesen > G. sh. 
wesen, being) he. 

wesch, wesse v. wascan. 

weste V. witan. 

westen, ME. westen, s. n. m. f 
(246), [=WT. w6stinj5- <pre 
T. aj. wastu-, cf. L. vastus > 
AF. wast >a waste, Sk. II. 
22 ; 161 ; 172, OF. vaste, >yast, 
<L.] (OS. wostinnja, sf, OFris. 
wostene, w^st-, OHG. wuostinna, 
cf. wuosti, MHG. wueste, G. 
wiiste) desert, a waste. 

West-seax, Wes-, -sex, sm. 
-sexa, -seaxa, wm. (264 N.), 
West Saxow. 

wet V. hwa. 

w^eter v. waeter. 

wex(e), wext v. weaxan. 

wh- V. hw^-. 

whanne v. hwoune. 

w^hare v. hw^ser. 

w^harrfenn v. hwearfian. 

w^hat, w^hatt v. hwa. 

whatt-like v. hw^ietlice. 

wheffer v. hwaeaCer, hwaeiafere. 

whel V. hweol. 

w^hen V. hwonne. 

wher V. hwaeS'er. 

where v. hwsdv. 

w^het V. hwd. 

whe»re v. hwaeS'ere. 

w^hich(e) v. hw^elc. 

whider, -ir v. hwider. 

whilch V. hwelc. 

w^hom V. hw^a 

when V. hw^onne. 

whos V. hwd. 

whyle V. hwil. 

wi, ME. intj., [v. wA] (MHG. 
wi) WOE ! alas! XVI. 105. 

wic, MP], wik, anomalous, f., [< 
L. vTc-us, village, Sk. 398, )y. 302 
N., <\/wTk, enter, settle] (cf. 
Gk. oIk-os = foiKos, house, Goth, 
weihs, town; as OS. wIc and 
OHG. wich) dwelling, place 
(-wick in prop, names). 

wicke, wykke, ME. aj., [<wi- 
can, s. 1 (382), yield, v. wAc-, 
wrixle in wsepen-] wicked, 

wicked, vikkit, ME. aj., \^as ij 
pp. o/ *wicke(n), lo.; < wicke] 

wict V. wiht. 




wid, ME. wid, aj., (Ic. viSr, OS. 
OFris. wid, OHG. MHG. wit, 
G. weit, Du. wljd) wide. 

wide, ME. wide, av. (315), [< 
wid] widely., far and wide, 

wits, ME. wis, wij>, wi>K with, 
wyj>, wit, wyth, vith, I. prp., 
[<T.* wi\><l.-E.prp. *wi, against, 
cf. Skt. vi-, asunder, L. ve-, e.g. 
ve-sanus, insane] (Ic. viS, OS. 
wi5, V. wyberly) gen., toward; 
dat. ace, opposite, against = with, 
toward, by, along, ME. also (in 
company) with, {with pass.) with 
= by, for. II. with-alle, {for OE. 
mid ealle, i^istr., altogether) 
av., > withal. III. wilj >am 
J)e, ME. wid ^an J^e, wit >at, pro- 
vided that, if XIV. 59, with that. 

IV. wi9'-innan, ME. wiSin- 
nen, wiSinne, within, prp. dat. 
and av., > within. V. wiiff- 
11 tan, ME. wi'Siiten, wi>outi3, 
wiSute, wiSouten, wythouten, 
wituten, prp. dat. and av., > 
without, outside {of). 

wiafafe, ME. wib)?e, wf, [va. of 
w i ac i g > withy < pre T. *wit-, 
willow, cf. Gk. Ir^a, willow, < 
* pi-Ted <\/ wT, plait, Brug. 44] {cf 
Ic. viSja, vi^ ; O Fris. withthe ; 
OHG. wida, willow, as MHG. 
wide, G. weide) with{e), cord. 

w^iaC-hogian, prt. w^iaChogode, 
u\ 2 (416 N. 3), despise, neglect 

V. 2864. 

wi3'-stondan, ME. wibstande, prt. 
ME. wibstode, s. 6 (392. 3), with- 
stand, Sk. p. 218. 

wilj-taken, withtake, ME. v&.s.e, 
Sk. 141, reprove. 

wid-mg^rsian, pp. gewldmgfer- 
sod, -sud, XI. Hat. Bodl. 15, 
w. 2, spread abroad. 

widuwe (71), ME. widewe, widue 
{cf. 156. 4), wydue, pi. ME. 
wydues, dat. widuen, uf., [<T. 
wi-Suw6(n-), Sk. 119 ; 213, <I.-E. 
widh^wa- ?<Vwidh, lack'] {cf 
Skt. vidh§,wa-, L. vidua, /. of 
viduus, bereft of, > void ; Goth. 

widuwo, OS. widowa, OHG. 
wituwa, MHG. witewe, G. witwe) 

wif, ME. wif, wyf, gen. ME. 
wyves, dat. ME. wife, wive, 
wyve, sn,, l<only {except Goth.) 
T. wibo-(m) (239. lb) J (Ic. vif, 
poet., OS. wif, OHG. MHG. wip, 
wib, G. weib) wife = \voman {e.g. 
fish-wife), spouse. 

w^If-mon, wifman, w^imman, 
pi. wimmen (LOE. 193. 2); 
ME. wifman, wymmon, wum- 
mon, wyman, wiman, woman, 
wman, pi. wifmen, wimmen, 
wymmen, wummen, women, > 
NE. women, Sk. 44, M. um. m. 
(281), woman ; Sk. 349 ; 395. 

wig, wigg, ME. wi3, wi, sn., [v. 
w'igend] (Ic. vig, OS. wig) 

wigi., cf. Beitr. X. p. 511, ME. 
wi3e, wy3, wegh, wee, wm. (277), 
[w. wigend] (OHG. wigo) 
warrior; ME. man, being {of 
God), wie as wye and wy (Sc). 

wigend, cf. Beitr. X. p. 511, 
wiggend, but cf (24 N.), 
M. m. (286) , [ = WT. sb . = prs. 
ptc. of *wigan, s. 1, < T. 
V wTh : wig, cf. Goth, weihan, 
fight (234 c), < V wik, strong, 
be bold, cf. L. vTc-T, prt. of vin- 
cere, vanquish] (OS. wigand, 
OHG. MHG. wigant, G. weigand) 

wig-smiiar, sm., [<T. V sm!, work 
artistically in hard substances, 
cf sm^ff'e] (smiiar, cf. Goth. 
^iza-smit>a, w., copper-smith ; 
Ic. smiS-r, worker in metal or 
icood; OHG. smid, MHG. smit, 
G. schmied) {war-smith = ) war- 
rior X. 143. 

wiht, wuht (71), ME. wiht, 
sf n. (267 b, N. 3 ; 269 and N. 4), 
[=T. wih-ti-, Sk. 224b, = I.-E. 
*wek-ti-] (Goth, walhts, Ic. 
vsettr, OS. OHG. wiht, G. wicht) 
thing, being, creature, wight, 
whit, Sk. 336, anything; acc.= 
av.,atall; ndn w^uht, nothing. 




wiht, wi3t, wy3t, wict, supl. 
wictest XXV. 9, ME. aj., [< 
Scand., = Ic. vig-t, jurid. in self- 
defence, orig. n. of vig-r, fit for 
icar, < vig, war, Sk, 481, v. 
wigend] valiant, active, swift, 
wight and wicht (Sc). 

wiht V. gewiht. 

w^il V. hw^il, gewill. 

w^il-cuma, ME. = aj. welcome, 
lom., [v. willa and cuman 
>cuma; lit. will-comer; ME. 
cf. Scand. influ., e.g. Ic. vel-, 
WELL, -kominu, pp.'] (cf. OHG. 
willicomo, aj., villekomen, pp., 
> MHG. willekumen, G. will- 
kommen, aj.) welcome (one). 

wilde, ME. wilde, aj., [=:*wil>- 
jo- (202. 2), pre T. weltjo-, Sk. 
246, ??<willan] (Goth, wil- 
)>ei-s ; cf. Ic. vill-r <*vild-r, OS. 
OHG. wildi, MHG. wilde, G. 
wild) wild, Sk. 382. 

wile V. willan, hwil. 

will V. gewill. 

willa, ME. wille, wm., [<T. wil- 
j6(n-), Sk.210, abs. <willan] 
(Goth, wilja, Ic. vili, OS. willio, 
OHG. willo, MHG. G. wille) de- 
sire, will, Sk. 28, pleasure, joy ; 
at wylle > ai will. 

willan, Nh. walla, valla, prs. 
sg. 1. 3. pers. wille, wylle, 
wile, Nh. 1. w^illo, villo, 
ME. 1. 3. wulle, wule, wole, wile, 
wyle, will, wil, wyl ; 2. pers. 
wilt, wylt, Nh. vilt, ME. 
wult, wolt, vill ; pi. wyllaiy, 
Nh, wallas, vallas, ME. 
wille??, wuUet?, wule-S, wilen, 
will, wil; prt. wolde, Nh. 
walde, valde, ME. wolde, 
wollde, wulde, walde, valde, 
wold, wald, s. -mi (428) prt. w., 
[wille <T.*weljam-, cf Goth, 
wiljdu, pi. wil-ei-ma < orig. -T- 
opt. prt., cf. L. velim, veli-mus, 
suhj. to voio, <T. v/wel <pre T. 
wel, Zeit. f., D. Alterthum XIX. 
p. 157] (Goth, wiljan, Ic. vilja, 
OS. willian, OHG. wellan, wol- 
lan, MHG. G. wollen) will, de- 

sire ; used to exp>ress the future 
and opt.; ME. weill willand, 
prs. ptc, WEi.i.-wishing, of good 
will XXXI. 41. 

wilnian, ME. wilnien, wylny, 
w. 2, [< willian, tc. 2, with 
-n- suf., Sk. 260, < wil Ian] 
wish, {with ace. or efter) liave a 
desire, long for. 

wilnung, ME. wylny nge, sf, [< 
wilnian] desire. 

wiin(iu)an, -en, -on v. wifmon. 

win, K. uuin, ME. wyn, sn., 
[<L. vinum, n., Sk. 898; 44] 
(Goth, wein, Ic. vin, OS. OHG. 
win, m., < Folk-L. vTnus, m. 
MHG. win, m., G. wein) wine, 
Sk. 318 ; 814. 

Win-chestre v. Wintanceaster. 

wind, ME. wind, wynde, winde, 
sm., [<T. winiSo- <I.-E. wento, 
Brug. 614, =j9rs. ptc. *we-nt., 
Sk. 229, <Vwe, blow] (cf Skt. 
vata, L. ventus; Goth, wind-s, 
Ic. vind-r. OHG. MHG. wint, 
OS. G. wind) wind. Sk. 378. 

windan, ME. winde, pp. ME. 
ywounde, s. 3 A (386), Sk. 148, 
l<esp. T. Vwind, roll up, turn] 
(Goth, (bi-)windan, Ic. vinda, 
OS. windan, OHG. wintan, 
MHG. G. winden) wind, twist, 
wrap (up). 

windas, wyndas, XXIX. 103, sb., 
[?<MD. windaes, ?or< Scand., 
= Ic. vind-^ss, also vinde-ass, 
a pole (ass) that can be wound 
round, Sk. 446, v. windan] 
windlass, Sk. 442. 

wine, ME. wine, sm. (262), [<T. 
wini-z < V wen, take delight in ; 
cf L. Venus, Ven?is, Skt. vanas, 
pleasure] (Ic. vin(r), OS. OHG. 
wini, MHG. wine) friend. 

w^ing v. weng. 

winnan, ME. winnen, wynne, 
vyn, s. 3 A (886) Sk. 148, [<T. 
Vwinn, toil hard] (Goth, winnan, 
suffer, Ic. vinna, OS. OHG. win- 
nan, cf G. gewinnen) striiie, 
struggle, fight, ME. = win, ac- 




Wintan-ceaster, ME. Winches- 
tre, s/., Winchester. 

winter, ME. winter, winnterr, 
vyntir, sm. (273 and N. 2, 3), 
[<only T. wintru-, Sk. 217] 
(Goth, wintrus, Ic. vet(t)r, OS. 
OHG. wintar, MHG. G. winter) 
winter, year. 

winter-tide, ME. vyntirtyde, s6., 
[tid] (MHG. winterzit, G. 
-zeit) wintertide {poet.)., winter 

Wiogora-ceaster, ME. Wireces- 
tre, s/., Worcester. 

w^iota V. wita. 

w^iotonne v. w^itan. 

w^irigan, w^yrgan, w^ergan, 
ME. werye, w. 1, [<wearg, 
m., outlaw., <T. Vwerg, choke., 
<Vwergh, cf. d-wyrgan, > 
WORRY = choke., < T. V wurg] 
(Goth, (ga-)wargjan, condemn, 
OS. (gi-)waragean, torture., OHG. 
(for-)wergen) curse. 

wirignys, s/., [w^irigan] curse. 

wis, ME. wis, a/., [<T. wiso-, 
Sk. 243, < *wis-so- < I.-E. *wit- 
to-s < *wTd-to-, cf. L. visus, 
seen, Brug. 527; v&.-aj. <witan] 
(Goth, (ur-) weis, Ic. viss, OS. 
OHG. MHG. wis, -e<OHG. va. 
wise) wise, Sk. 44. 

wis-d6m, Nh. visd6m, ME. 
wisdom, sm., wisdom, Sk. 44. 

wise, ME. wise, wiss, wf., [<T. 
wls6(n-), V. wis] {cf. Ic. o5ru- 
vis, otherwise; OS. OHG. wisa, 
MHG. wise, G. weise) manner, 
wise IX. 95, guise. Sk. 392; 
w. onf., L. "susceptonegotio," 
matter IX. 65. 

w^iss V. gew^iss. 

wlssian, ME. wisse, wysse, wysshe, 
W.2, [<wis; lit. make wise~\ 
{cf. Goth, in compos, weisjan, Ic. 
visa, OS. wisian, OHG. wissan, 
MHG. wisen, w. and s., G. wei- 
sen, s.) direct, guide, wiss (Sc), 
with inf. cause that, let; ME. 
wyssynge, vb.-sb., instruction. 

wisste, w^iste v. witan, bewitan. 

wit, ME, wit; gen. also 

(335-336) uneer, poss. ace. 
sg. fern, unce; dat. unc; ace. 
uncit (Nh. unlcet), unc, 

prn. 1. pers. dual (332), [< {ex- 
cept OHG.) T. wi-t; <w6; 
uncer <T. unk- + I.-E. comp. 
{here of contrast) suf. -ero-, 
Brug. II. pp. 192, 450, III. 436] 
(Goth, wit, Ic. vit, OS. wit) wk 

wit, ME. wit, witt, wyt, wytt, 
sn., [<T. wit-jo-, Sk. 209, abs. 
< witan] (Goth, (un-)witi, 
Ic. vit, OS. (gi-)wit; cf OHG. 
wizzi, n., cf wizzi, /., G. witz) 
intelligence, intellect = wit. 

w^it V. wri'S. 

wita, wiota (109b), ME. wite, 
wm., [<T. *wit-5(n), Sk. 206, 
sb. of agent < witan] (Goth. 
(un-)wita, OHG. wizo) wise 

w^itan, w^ioton, ME. witen, prs. 
sg. 1. 3. pers. w^at, ME. wat, 
wot (> NE. wot), woot, woth, 
2 pers. wdst (232c), Nh. vdst, 
ME. wost, woost; pi. witon, 
Nh. wutun, ME. witen, wy- 
ten, wite«, wat; ME. prs. ptc. 
witinge; prt. wiste, weste, 
Nh. viste, ME. wiste, wisste, 
wist >NE. wist; ME. pp. wist, 
prt.-prs. s. 1 (420), [1. pers. 
wdt <T. wait- (62) < common 
I.-E. *w6ida, as 3. pers. < I.-E. 
*w6ide, 2. pers. <I.-E. w6it-tha, 
pi. < I.-E. *widnt < V woid : wid, 
lit. find, see, cf Skt. v/ vid > veda, 
lit. knowledge, > Veda ; Brug. 
77; 78, Sk.'ll7, cf Gk. oU-a, 
I know, Gk. Id-eXv <*pt8eiv and 
L. vid-ere, see] (Goth. OS. wi- 
tan, Ic. vita, OHG. wizzan, MHG. 
wizzen, G. wissen) know; to 
wit, gerund, A.V. 2 Cor. viii. 1 ; 
weet^, Sk. 390, Spen. F. Q. I. 3, 6. 

witan, ME. witen, wite, 3. sg. 
prs. ind. ME. wit ; opt. wit {for 
wite) XVI. 122, s. 1 (382), [<T. 
wit, watch, punish, <: witan] 
(Goth, weitan in compos., OS. 
witan, reproach, OHG. wizan. 




G. (ver-)weisan, reprove) see, 
observe, keep, care for {v. be- 
witan) ; 1. pers. pi. prs. opt. 
w6ton, 6ton (172 N.), ME. 
ute with 171/.,= F. allons, come! 
let us. 

wite, pi. witu, ME. wite, sn. 
(248), [<T. wit-jo-; <witan] 
(c/". Goth, (id-)weit; Ic. viti, 
OS. witi, UHG. wizi, MHG. 
wize) punishment, penalty, tor- 
ment, wite (Sc). 

witega, ME. wite3e, wm., [<T. 
aj. *witag — w i t i g, knowing, 
> witty ; <witaiij (Ic. vitki, 
wizard, OHG. wiz(z)ago > G. 
weissager injlu. stems of weise, 
WISE, sagen, say) prophet. 

witer, witter, ME. aj., [<Scand., 
= Ic. vitr, Beitr. X. 65, v. 
witan] knowing, certain XXI. 

witer-liche, witterlike, ME. av., 
[< witer ;=Ic. vitrliga, wisely] 
surely, exactly. 

with V. wiiaf, hwit. 

wiJ>J>e V. wiiaflSre. 

witian, pp. witofl IV. 6, 11, 
ME. witien, w. 2, [witan] 

wit-16as (m ge-), ME. wytles, 
aj., wit /ess. 

Avitnesse, -ssing v. gewitness. 

witod-lice, witud-, w^itot-, 
w^ytod-, Nh. wutudlice, 
ahbr. Nero XI. and XII., vvt, 
vut, uut, av., cj., [witian] 
truly, indeed {for L. autem, 
enim, etc.). 

wit-sunnedei v. hwita. 

w^itter V. w^iter, 

witter-lilie \\ witerliche. 

wlitig, -eg VI. 137, ME. wliti, 
(^j'l [<wlite, sm. (263), coun- 
tenance, + aj. suff., < pp. of 
wlitan, .«f. 1, loo'k^ (OS. wlitig) 

wlonc, wlanc, also ME., aj. 
(OS. wlaiie), stately, proud. 

wman v. Avifmon. 

wn- V. un-. 

wo V. hwd, wa, 

woe V. wdc. 

w6d, ME. wod, aj., [<T. woS-o-; 
c/. L. vates, O Ir. f4ith, prophet, 
poet] (Gotli. w6d-s, Ic. 65-r, 
sm., song, OHG. wuot; cf. G. 
wut, /., rage) mad, furious; 
wood (Sliak.). 

Av6gian, ME. wohen, wowen, w.2, 
[< w 6 g 0-, st.ofw6h; lit. bend 
{toward oneself)] woo, Sk. 45. 

w61i, ME. woh, won3, sn. (242), 
[prop. aj. bent, <T. *wanh(w)o- 
(67) = I.-E. *wanko- ; cf. Skt. 
vanch, be crooked, PL. vacillare, 
vac-, Lucr., 3. 503, wcillate] 
(Gotii. aj. (uii-)wahs, OS. w4h) 

woliuuge, vb.-sb., [<w6gian] 

woke V. wucu. 

wolde, wole v. willan. 

w^ollde, wolt V. willan. 

womb, wamb, ME. wambe, 
sf, l<onlyT. wambo-] (Goth. 
OH(j. wamba, Ic. vomb, MHG. 
G. wamme) belly, paunch = 

women v. wifman. 

won V. w^iina. 

wona, ME. wane, gane, icm., 
[<aj. wan, deficient, ?<orig. 
pp. with suff. -ana- < V t\, cf 
Skt. una, lacking, Gk. e^uis, be- 
reaved] (cf. Goth. aj. wans, Ic. 
vanr, OS. OHG. MHG. wan, 
aj., WASting ; cf OE. wan- (cf 
wxs-ton), G. wahn-, neg. p)refs.) 
wane, wx-st; me is wane, I 
WANf, lack. 

w^onde v. w^und. 

w^onder- v. wundr-. 

wondian, wandian, ME.wond, 
w. 2, \<prt. of Avindan; cf. 
wen dan] hesitate, linger. 

w^one, wonie v. wunian. 

w^onn, wann, ME. wonne, aj.. 
dark XXIX. 141 cf bio 138, 
wan, Sk. 383. 

wonten, wante, w., [< Scand., 
= Ic. vanta < vant, n. of aj. 
vanr, Sk. 431, v. wona] want 
= be lacking. 




wonye v. wunian. 
woost, woot V. witan. 

w6p, ME. wop, sni., [<T. wopo-, 
outcry'] (OS. wop, Ic. op, OHG. 
■wuot) wEEPiw^, lamentation. 

word, K. uuord, Nh. vord, 
ME. word, weord, sn. (238), [< 
T. wor5o-m <I.-E. wrdlio-; c/. 
L. verbum < verdh, Brug. 37U, 
Sk. 119] (Goth, waurd, Ic. or ft, 
OS. word, OHG. MHG. G. wort) 
word, saying, thing. 

word" V. wariild'. 

Avorffaduu v. weorljian. 

wordle, woreld v. weorold. 

wori V. wdrig. 

worke v. wyrcan. 

world, worlde v. w^eorold. 

wormes, XXVII. 27, v. w^yrm 

worn, sm., multitude VI. 163. 

worold V. weorold. 

wors V. yfele. 

worssipe, worschipe, prt. wors- 
sipede, worschipide, to., [< 
weorS'scipe] worship. 

w^orthy v. Mvyr'Sis- 

woruld V. w^eorold. 

AvosalgF V. wesan. 

^vose V. wase. 

w^ost V. w^itan. 

w^ot, woth V. witan. 

WOU3 V. woh. 

wox V. w^eaxan. 

w^oze V. w^ase. 

wracu V. wrgfec. 

wr^af, ME. wrob, a;., [<prt. of 
wriffan, Sk. 176] (Ic. reiftr, 
OS. wrgft, OHG. reid as MHG. 
reit, twisted) wroth, Sk.p.55, had. 

wr69'ian in ge-, make wroth, ME. 
wrathe, v:>. 2, [<wrd9'] he 

Avraiaf-Iice, ME. wro}>ely, comp. 
wrobeloker XXIX. 132, av., 
wrath fully. 

wrsec, Me. wreche, wreke, wrake ; 
wracu, ME. wrake, sf. (253 
N.l) [</»t.o/wrecan] (Goth. 
wr&,kja, cf. wraka; OS. wreka, 
OFris. wr6tze, cf. OS. wr&ka, 
OHG. r&hha, MHG. r&che, G. 

rache) persecution, revenge = 
wreak (^hsik.) , pimishment. 

w^rgfeffan in ge-, he wkoth, ME. 
wreSe, wreH, lo. 1 (tho. ME. 
prt. wre-Sede), l<prt. of wrl- 
i5an; cf wrdiaTian] (OS. 
wre'Sian, Ic. rei-fta) make wroth. 

wr^estan, ME. wrast, w. 1, [< 
wrsfest, aj., Jirm,? = *WT^^t 
(232 c) <prt. of writs an, Sk. 
195] (Ic. reista) wrest, bore 
XXIX. 80. 

wrgfestllan ( Wright- Wiilker, Vo- 
cab. 431, 25), ME. wrastel, lo. 2, 
[<wr£estan icith freq. svff. 
-1-, Sk. 262] (MDu. wrastelen) 
wrest/e, Sk. 340. 

wrancw^is v. wrongw^is. 

wraiig (Wulfstan, 298, 20. 1), 
ME. wrang XVI. 168; XX. 11, 
wrong XXV. 72, sn. ?[<Scand., 
cf. Dan . vrang, v. prt. of wrin- 
gan, Z. Anz. f. D. Alt. II. 12] 
(Ic. aj. rang-r, also wry) wrong. 

wreean, ME. wreke, s. 5 (391) 
Sk. 146, [T. V wrek, pursue, 
< V wreg = werg, press ; cf. Skt. 
Vvarj, twist, L. verg-ere, vKRce, 
Gk. Ionic epy-eiv = ^fepy-eiv, 
enclose, Sk. Ill] (Goth, wrikan, 
OS. wrekan, punish, Ic. reka, 
drive, OHG. rehhan, MHG. re- 
chen, G. rachen) wreak, avenge 

wrecca, ME. wrecce, uurecce, 
wrecche, wrechche, wm., ME. 
also aj., [=:WT. *wrekkjo = 
wreekk- < T. wrakjo(n-) (89 
and N. 1 ; 228) Sk. 192 ; 199, 1 ; 
174; 210, <prt. of wreean] 
(OS. wrekkjo, OHG. reecho, as 
MHG. G. recke, orig. foreigner, 
knight-errant, hero) exile, tniser- 
ahle, wretch, Sk. p. 318; : 26 ; 
ME. wrecched, vrechit, XXXIII.' 
1, aj., [as if pp., cf. wicked] 
> wretched. 

w^reccan, prt. pi. w^rehton 
(232b), VI. 228, w. 1 C (407), 
[= LWS. for -wee can (407 
N. 3)] awAKE. 

wrecce-hed XV.oO, 8/>., [<wrec- 
ca 4- h ad] wretchedness. 




vrrecche v. wrecca. 
wreche v. wrgfec. 

wrechidnes, s6., [<wrecched, v. 
wrecca] wretchedness. 

wrelSfe v. wrgel^an. 

wreiaC-ful, ME. aj., [<Nh. ^vrge- 
iffo, /., > wrath, abs. <wrA'S] 

wr6gere ( Wright- Wulker 332. 1), 
ME. wreiere, sm., [v. for- 
wregan] accuser. 

wrenc, ME. wrench, dat. pi. 
ME. wrenche, sm. (266), [<T. 
*w r a n k i- < pre T. V wronk : 
wrenk (wreng), twist with effort, 
V. wringan] (MHG. ranc, G. 
rank) wrench], Sk. 325,= guile ; 
pi. ■= stratagem XVI. 251. 

wreon, ME. wrien, prt. pi. ME. 
wri3en, s. cont. 1 and 2 (373 ; 
383), [=T. *wrI(h)on (114. 1)] 
(OHG. int-rlhan, reveal) cover. 

wre>i V. wrseffan. 

wriijan, ME. uurythen, wry be ; 
prt. pi. wrisaCon, ME. uury- 
then, s. 1 (382) Sk. 150, [<T. 
V wrib, turn] (Ic. rl5a < *vr-, 
OHG. ridan, MHG. riden, Sk. 
73) writhe, Sk. 44, twist, wrap, 
hind, tie together. 

wrisen v. wr6oii. 

wringan, ME. wringen, prt. ME. 
wrong, pi. ME. wrungen, s.3 A 
(386) Sk. 148, [<T.V*wring, 
cf. wrenc] (OHG. ringan, 
MHG. G. ringen) press, wring. 

writ, ME. writ, wryt, sn., [<pp. 
of writan] (Goth, writ-s, 
stroke of a pen, Ic. rit) writ = 
wRiTing, letter, message. 

writan, ME. writen, prt. wrat, 
ME. wrot, wroot; pi. writon, 
ME. write, wrote; pp. writen, 
ME. writen, writun, iwriten, 
iwryten, s. 1 (382) Sk. 150, 
[< only T, V writ, cut, cf. orig. 
cutting of runes] (Ic. rita, OS. 
writan, also tear, cut, OHG. 
rizan, tear, as MHG. rlzen, and 
G. reissen) write, Sk. 355 ; 
wrytinge, writyng, ME. vh.-sh., 
> writing. 

writere, ME. writere, sm., [«s 
agent sb. < writan -}- -ere, 
prop. <writ, sn., -f -ere < 
WT. -ari < T. suff. -arjo-z, 
one having to do with, cf. Ic. 
rit-ari, wm., v. b6c-ere, cf 
Goth, -areis <T. -arjo-z] writer. 

wro, sb., [<Scand.,=: Dan. vraa, 
Swed. vra, Ic. ra=*vra, lit. that 
which is crooked] angle, corner. 

wrobbere, sb. , [ ? == robbere] 
(jurid.) informer XXV. 39. 

w^rocht, w^roght, wroste v. 

wroliht, wrohhte v. wyrcan. 

wrong V. Avrang. 

w^rong V. w^ ringan. 

wrong- wis, wrancwis. ME. aj., 
[<Scand., = wrang + wis, cf. 
rihtwis] (Swed. vrangvis) m«- 
jnst, wrongous (Sc). 

w^root, wrote v. w^ritan. 

wroJ» V. w^raff. 

wrou3t V. wyrcan. 

w^rungen v. w^ringan. 

wryt V. wri,t. 

wrythen, wry>e v. w^riffan. 

w^rytinge v. writan. 

wucu, ME. woke, icf. (279), [< 
T. wiko(n-) (71) ?<\/*wig, v. 
wrixle in w^sepen-] (Goth, 
wiko, Ic. vika, OS. wika, OHG. 
wohha, MHG. G. woche) week. 

wudu, ME. wude, sm. (271 and 
N.), [<T. *wi5u-z (71)] (cf 
Olr. fid <*widu-s, Erug. 34, 
tree; Ic. vi5-r, OHG. witu, 
MHG. wite) wood, forest. 

wuht v. wiht. 

w^ulde v. 'willan. 

wuldor, ME. wulder; gen. wul- 
dres, sn., [?<T. *wul-)>r()- 
(202. 2) ; cf Ic. Ullr, -11- = -1 -, 
name of a god, Grmm., p. 1359, 
L. vul-tus, aspect] (cf Goth, wul- 
bus ; wulbrs, consequence, OHG. 
Woldar- in prop, names) glory. 

wuldor-blsed, sm., glorious fame 
VI. 156. 

wuldor-faeder, Nh. gen. uiil- 
durfadur I. 3, 3I-r, m. Father 
of glory IX. 43. 




wuldor-gdst, sm., glorious spirit. 
wuldor-torht, aj., gloriously 

wule, wiileSf v. willan. 

wulf, ME. wulf, sm. (239. 1 a), 
[I.-E. word; < T. wulfo-z /or 
*wulp- < orig. T. *wulhw- <'I.-E. 
w'lqo-s < : V welq, drag, cf. Skt. 
vi'ka-s, Gk. ^Xx^t"? puU, Brug. 
178; 285; 444 a; 164 nem. ; cf. 
Beitr. XL 560, Sk. 104J {cf. Gk. 
Xi5/co-s <*f\Kfo- ?Brug. 427 c, L. 
lupus = *wiuquus?, Goth, wulfs, 
Ic. ulfr, OS. wulf, OHG. MHG. 
G. wolf) wolf. 

wulle, wuUeiae, wult v. -willan. 

Avuininen, -mon v. wifmon. 

wuna (^Ifric's Gramm. 252. 6 
va.) for older ge-, ME. wune, 
won, wrti., [=:WT. *wona (70) 
< : V wen, V. wine] {cf. Ic. vani, 
OHG. giwona, s/., MHG. wone, 
/., G. gewohnheit) custom, habit, 
wont, ME. also dwelling = wonne 

. (Spen.), place; in kindes wune, 
in nature'' s {a mother''s) manner 
XXI. 1345. 

wund, ME. wunde, wonde, pi. 
wunden, sf (254), [?<T. wun- 
tSo-, abs. with I.-E. suff. -ta; cf. 
pp. 0/ win nan] (Ic. und, OS. 
wunda, OHG. wunta, MHG. G. 
wunde) wound. 

wunder-earve3'-halde XVI. 311, 
aj., [< w u n d o r + earf e iflf e, aj., 
<earfoi5', sn., hardship (Goth. 
arbai)>s, G. arbeit, labour), + 
halde, v. lienl dan] very hard 
to keep. 

wundernesse, sb., [<wundor] 

wundian, ME. wunde ; pp. Nh. 
gi wund ad III. 4 a, ^o. 2, 
[<wund] wound {mortally). 

w^undor, wundra (244) 
IX. 43, Nh. uundral. 3; ME. 
wunder, sn., [<T. wun^-ro-, Sk. 
217] (Ic. undr, OHG. wuntar, 
G. wunder) wonder, miracle, 
ME. pi. also evil deeds XV. 

wundor-lic, ME. supl. wunder- 

lukest XVI. 68, aj., (G. wun- 
derlich) wonderful, rare. 

wundor-lice, ME. wunderliche, 
av., wonderfully, very. 

w^undrian, ME. wundren, won- 
der ; prt. w u n d r o d e, -a d e 
VIII. 44, ME. wundrede, won- 
derit, w. 2 with gen., ME. with 
on, [<w^undorJ wonder {at). 

wunian, wunigan, Nh. vvni- 
ga, wunige, ME. wunien, 
wunyen, wonye, wone ; pri. 
■\v u n o d e, w u n u d e, w u- 
nede, ME. wunede, w. 2 (411), 
[c/. wuna] {cf. Ic. una, also 
rejoice; OS. wonon, OHG. wo- 
ne'n, MHG. wonen, G. wohnen) 
dioell, tarry, abide, live, exist, 
won (Milton). 

wununge, ME. vb.-sb., [<wu- 
nung, s/., < wunian] divell- 
ing, woning (Spen.). 

\vur-chipe v. w^eorQ'scipe. 

wurl5'(e) v. weorffan. 

wurSfe V. wyrgfe. 

w^urlSrieCn) v. weorS'ian. 

wur9'-sc(h)ipe V. weoriyscipe. 

wur-schipe v. weorS'scipe. 

w^urs V. yfelo. 

wurse, wurst(e) v. yfel. 

wut- V. wit-. 

w^ycli V. hw^elc. 

w^ydue v. widuw^e. 

wyf V. wif. 

Avys V. wiga. 

wyltlte V. wicke. 

wyl V. gewill. 

wyl(e) V. willan. 

wyldernesse, sb., [< wild, 
wilder +, sn., wild animals, 
later wildeor (225. 3) as if 
<wiIde + deor, c/. wilde-ne, 
ME. sb., wild place; ??Sk. 395; 
455, V. wilde] wilderness. 

w^ylk V. hw^elc. 

w^yll V. gewyll. 

w^yllaff V. -willan. 

wylle V. willa. 

-wylm V. Avelm. 

w^yln- V. wiln-. 

wyinan, wym(m)on, -en v. 




wyn V. win. 

wyndas v. windas. 

wynde v. wind. 

Avyng V. weng. 

w^j^nnes v. winnan. 

wyn-siim, ME. winsom, aj.^ [< 
wyn(n) + , s/., (269 ; 257 N. 2) 
j)leasure, = T . *wun-jo- (95 ; 228 ; 
177), cf. wona, wine, OS. 
wunnia; -sum (OS. OHG. G. 
-sam) V. some,' Sk. 242] (c/. 
G. wonnesam) winsome, delight- 
ful IX. 77, lovely. 

w^yolently v. vio-. 

wyrcan, ME. wyrke, wyrk, worke; 
prt. worhte, worht XII. 
Nero 25, ME}, wrohhte ; pp. 
ge worht, ME, wrohht, 
wrou3t, wrocht, wroght, vrocht, 
wro3te, iwrat, ywroii3t, >NE. 
wrought, Sk. 353 ; 253 b, to. 1 (7 
(407 a), [1. pers. prs. <^T. 
wurkio, -jo < I.-E. wrg-j6 < 
:>/werg, Bmg. 120; 299, 'w. hut 
prop. s. vb., V. weorc] (Goth, 
waiirk-jan, OHG. wurken, cf. 
OS. wirkian, OHG. G. wirkeii) 
work, do, make, prepare, com- 
pose IX. 3. 

wyrffe, ME. wurSe, aj., [ = 
*weoriaPi- (100) <weor9 < 
T. werbo- (79. 1)] (cf. Goth, 
wairbs, Ic. verSr, OS. werS, 
OHG. werd, G. wert) worthy 
IX. 52, valuable, worth. 

wyriarig (Orosius 256. 11), ME. 
worthy, aj., [wyriffe] (Ic. 
verSug-r, OS. wirSig, OHG. wir- 
dig, MHG. wirdec, G. wiirdig) 

wyrm, ME. worm, sm. (265), 
[=:T. wur-mi-z (95) Sk. 215] 
(cf. (by ablaut) Gk. pd/j-os < 
*ppoixo-, wood-worm, L. vermis; 
Ic. orm-r, Goth, waiirm-s, OS. 
OHG. G. warm) worm, serpent. 

wyrms, ME. wirrsenn, wursum, 
worsum, wormes (KUige), sm., 
(MM. Horn. II. 452) and n. 
(M\i. Grammar, 29. 1), poison, 
foul pus = wirsom (Yorkshire). 

wyrnan, ME. werne ; prt. 

wyrnde, w. 1, gen. and dat. 
of pers., [<wearn, sf denial, 
<T. v/war, v. wearnian] (OS. 
wernian, OHG. warnen) refuse, 

wysshe, wyssynge v. w^issian. 

w^yt V. wit. 

wyten r. witan. 

w^yth, wyj? v. wiiS. 

wy>erly, ME. av., XXIX. 74, 
[<\vi9'er, prp., <T. wiJ>-ro-, 
against (Goth, wibra, Ic. vi5r, 
OHG. widar, MHG. G. wider), 
V. wifS] hostile//, rebellious//. 

wytt v. wit. 

wyv-, wyve v. wif. 


y v. ic. 
y- V. ge-. 

y with ptc. V. simple verb. 
ybro3t v. bringan. 
yby V. b§on. 
ybyate v. beatan. 

yean (31 N.), ME. eken, w. 1 
(407 b), [<T. *aukjon (99; 63) 
<*aukon, red. vb., cf. pp. eacen 
(396 N. 2), <T. v/'auk <Vaug, 
Sk. Ill, cf. Gk. av^dveiv, L. aug- 
ere] (cf Goth, aukan, red. as 
Ic. auka; OS. okian, cf. OHG. 
ouhhon 1= T. *auk6jon) aug- 
7nent, increase, ech(e) (Shak.), 
eke (North.). 

ych, yelite v. selc. 

ycom V. gecunian. 

ydel, ydill v. idel. 

ytf, ME. u)?e. y\>e, sf. (258. 2), 
[=T. *un(N-i5- (96b), < I.-E. 
*imd- < V ud, Brug. 221, v. 
wseter] (cf L. unda; Ic. liS-r, 
unn-r, OS. liSia, OHG. unda) 

ydo(n) V. don. 

ydrase v. dragan. 

ydre, sb., [<L. hydria<Gk. v8-pla 
<Vtld, WET, V. Avaeter] wxjer- 
pot XXIII. 15. 

ye V. ge. 

yeaf, yeave v. giefan. 

j'^ede V. g6eode. 




yeer v. gedr. 

yef V. gief. 

yef, yef > v. giefan. 

yelde v. gieldan. 

yelpe v. gielpan. 

yemen v. gieinan. 

yemer v. ge6nior. 

yer v. ge^r. 

yerne v. georne. 

yet(e) v. gi6t. 

yeten v. etan. 

yeve v. giefan. 

yf V. gief. 

yfel, ME. yfel, yvel, ufel, uvel, 
evel, ivel, ewill, aj. (296 N. 1) 
and sn., [<esp. T. ubilo- (95), 
Sk. 251] (Goth, ubil-s, OS. ubil, 
OHG. ubil, MHG. G. ubel ; cf. 
Ic. illr > ILL, Sk. 391) e//7, 
bad, wickedness, iLLness ; comp. 
wyrsa (312), [<*wiers-sa 
<*wiorsiRo-<T. wirs-izo- (100 ; 
79. 1), V. werre] (Goth, walrsiza) 
ME. werse, wurse, > worse ; sitpl. 
wyrst, [T. supl. suff. -isto-, 
= Gk. -t<rro] (OHG. wirs-isto, 
contr. vfirst) ME. wurst, werst,> 

yfele, ME. yvele, ivele, evele, av., 
badly, ill; comp. wyrs (323) 
(<T. wirs-iz) ME. wurs, wers, 
wors > worse ; supl. wyrst> 

y3e V. eage. 

ygete v. gietan. 

yhent v. hentan. 

yhere v. geliieran. 

yhyerd v. hieran, gehferan. 

yif V. gief. 

ylca, ilea, ME. ilea, ilke, illke, 
ich, prn.w. (339) with se, [=:T. 
*i-liko- < instr. of I.-E. prn. st. 
T, cf. Goth. L. i-s, L. i-dem, + 
lie (43 N. 4), V. ME. it] same, 
ilk (So.) ; ME. Hike, thilke, =: 
^e ilke, the ilke, the same, that, 

yldo, ylde v. ieldu. 

yldra v. eald. 

yleid V. lecgan. 

ylent v. Isenan, lendan. 

ylere v. gelserau. 

yliche v. gelic(e). 

ylost V. I6osan. 

ylyeh v. gelic(e). 

yinad(e) v. macian. 

ymage v. image. 

ymb, yinbe, LWS. em be (95 

N. 2), ME. umbe, um (< Scand., 

= Ic.umb,um, Beitr. X.62),p?7x 

icith ace, [<WT. urabi, Kuhn 

Zeitsch. XXVI. 37] (cf. Skt. 

abhi, Gk. dij.(pl, L. ambi ; OS. 

OHG. uinbi, MHG. umbe, G. 

um) around about, after ; ymb 

tuaelfmonaiS' VII. 11, every 

year ; umbe stounde, from time 

to time, often. 
ymb-cerran, prt. ymbcerde 

XII. Nero 20, w. 1, [geeyrran] 

turn around. 
ymb-clyppan, ME. um(be)clippe, 

prt. ymbclypte III. lb 

(405.2), w. 1, embrace. 
ymb-hycggan II. 3, w. 3 (415), 

consider, cf. uMbethink (Sc). 
ymbsellan, Nh. -sella, prt. Nh. 

ymbsalde, w. 1 C (407a), 

ymene v. gem gene, 
ymete v. gem^tan. 
ymone v. gemana. 
ynome v. niman. 
you, your v. ge. 
yow V. ge. 
yrre, ierre, eorre, ME. eorre, 

aj. (299), [<T. *irsjo- (54. 1; 

45. 2b; 181. 2) < : V ers, cf L. 

errare < *ersare, wander, err] 

(Goth, airzeis, astrai/, so OHG. 

irri, MHG. G. irre ; OS. irri) 

j yrre, ierre, eorre, ME. eorre, 
I sn., [yrre, «j.] (cf Goth. 

airzei, /., deceit) anger. 
ys V. eom, h§. 
yse3 V. geseon. 
ysel>e v. ges£el9'. 
ysent v. sendan. 
yslase v. slean. 
yssape v. scieppan. 
yssed r. sceadan. 
ysslase v. sl6an. 
y>e V. yfS. 




y^t V. etan. 

yu, yure v. ge. 

yuug V. geong. 

yvel V. yfel. 

yvori, sb., [=OPr. evori, AF. 

ivoire, Sk. II. 64. 1 ; 102, <0F. 

ivurie <ML. eboreum, n. < L. 

eboreus, of ivory, <ebor-, st. of 

ebur] ivory. 
ywent v. wendan. 
ywil V. gewill. 
ywoneci v. gewunian. 
y\vounde v. windan. 
ywrouat V. wyrcan. 
yyolde v. gieldan. 
yzo3e v. s6on. 
yzy V. ges§on. 


Z- V. S-. 

zaule V. sawol. 
zayde, zayj» v. secgan. 
ze V. safe. 

zede, zeede v. secgan. 
zenne v. syn. 
zente v. sendan. 
zet V. sittan. 
zette V. settan. 
zigge V. secgan. 
zitte i\ sittan. 
zone V. sunu. 
zoster V. sweostor. 
zuo V. swd. 
zy V. seon. 


abbr abbreviated. 

abs abstract. 

ace accusative. 

AF Anglo-French. 

aj adjective. 

aliit alliteration, alliterative. 

anal analogy, analogous. 

appar apparent, apparently. 

Arab Arabic. 

Aram. Aramaic (N". T. Syriac, v. 

Sk. II. 299), 

A.V Authorized Version (Bible, 


av adverb, 

bef. before. 

Beitr , .Beitrage zur Greschichte d. 

Deutschen Sprache, etc., 
Paul und Brauue, Halle, 

B. G Caesar's de Bello GaUico. 

Bodl Bodleian MS. 

Bos. -Toller . .Bosworth-Toller's Anglo- 
Saxon Dictionary. 

Brug Brugmann's Comparative 

Grammar of the Indo- 
Germanic Languages 

("Wright, Conway, Rouse, 
London, 1888-93). 

Bulg Bulgarian (Old). 

C Celtic. 

caus causal, causative. 

Ches Cheshire (dialect). 

cog cognate. 

coll collectively. 

comp. comparative. 

compos composition. 

contr contract, contracted, con- 

correl correlative. 

Cott Cottonian MS. 

Curab Cumberland (dialect) . 

Dan Danish. 

dat dative. 

dec. declined. 

defec defective. 

dem demonstrative. 

denom denominative. 

dial dialectal. 

dino diminutive. 

distrib distributive. 

Douse Introduction to the Gothic 

of Ultilas, London, 1886. 

Du Dutch. 

eccl ecclesiastical, 

EME, Early Middle English. 

Ep Epinal Glossary. 

esp especially. 

eth ethical. 

Ett Ettmiiller's Lexicon Anglo- 


EWS Early West Saxon, 

F French. 

f feminine. 

fac factitive. 

f req frequentative. 

Fris Frisian. 

G German (New High). 

gen genitive. 

genr generally. 

Gk Greek. 

Gl Gloss. 

Goth Gothic. 

gram grammatical. 

Grmm Grimm's Teutonic Mythol- 
ogy (Stallybrass, London, 

Hat HattonMS. 

Heb Hebrew. 

Hereford. ...Herefordshire (dialect). 

Hom Homilies. 

hyb hybrid. 

Ic Icelandic (Old). 

I,-E Indo-European. 

imper imperative, 

impers impersonal. 

ind indicative. 

indec indeclinable. 

indef indefinite. 

inf infinitive. 

infl inflected. 

influ influence (of). 

insep inseparable. 

instr instrumental. 

intens intensive. 

interr interrogative. 

intr intransitive. 

intrj interjection. 




It Italian. 

J. C Shakspere's Julius Caesar. 

jurid juridical language. 

K Kentish. 

Kl Kluge's Etynaological German 

Dictionary (Davis, London, 

L Latin. 

LG Low Gernaan. 

Line Lincolnshire (dialect). 

lit ..literally. 

Lith Lithuanian. 

LL Late Latin. 

LWS Late West Saxon. 

M Minor (mixed) declension, v. 

Sievers* Gram., §§ 281-290. 

m masculine. 

MDu Middle Dutch. 

ME Middle English. 

Merc Mercian. 

MHG Middle High German. 

-mi verbs in -mi, Sievers' Gram- 
mar, §§ 426-430. 

milit military language. 

ML Middle (medieval) Latin. 

n neuter. 

NE New (modern) English. 

Nh Northumbrian (Old). 

Nor Norwegian. 

North. . ..Northumberland (dialect). 

nam numeral. 

OE Old English. 

OF Old French. 

OFris. ...Old Frisian. 

OHG Old High German. 

Olr Old Irish. 

Olt Old Italian. 

OLG Old Low German. 

onomat. ..onomatopoeia, onomatopoetic. 

OPer8....01d Persian. 

opt. ... ..optative. 

orig original, originally. 

OS Old Saxon. 

pass passive. 

perf pei'f ect. 

pers person. 

pi plural. 

poet poetical. 

Port Portuguese. 

poss. .... .possessive. 

pp preterit participle. 

Pr Provencal (Old) . 

pref prefix. 

pre T pre-Teutonic. 

priv privative. 

prn pronoun. 

prob probably. 

pronora... pronominal. 

prop proper, properly. 

prov provincial. 

prp preposition. 

prs present. 

prt preterit. 

prt.-prs. . . preteritive-present Sievers' 

Grammar, §§ 417-425. 

Ps Psalm. 

ptc participle. 

R liushworth MS. 

-r r stem noun. Sievers', § 285. 

red. A. .. .Reduplicating verb. Class A, 

Sievers", § 395. 
red. B. .. .Reduplicating verb. Class B, 

Sievers', § 396. 

refl rellexive. 

rel relative. 

Russ Russian. 

s strong. 

sb substantive. 

Sc (Lowland) Scotch. 

Scaud. . . . Scandinavian = Old Icelandic. 

Norwegian, Swedish, Dan- 

sg singular. 

Shak Shakspere. 

Sk Skeat's Principles of English 

Etymology, Oxford, 1887-91. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Slav Slavonic. 

Span Spanish. 

Spec Morris' Specimens of Early 


Spen Spenser's Faery Queen. 

st stem. 

suff suffix. 

supl superlative. 

Swed Swedish. 

Syr Syriac. 

T Teutonic. 

Tib Tiberius (Cottonian MS.). 

tr transitive. 

trans translate, translation. 

um umlaut. 

v vide, see. 

va variant. 

vb verb, verbal. 

Vulg Vulgate. 

w weak. 

w. 1 C. ..w. vb.. Class C, Sievers', § 407. 

wh which. 

WS West Saxon. 

WT "West Teutonic. 

Z Zupitza. 


[ ] . . .derivation is indicated within [ ], or reference to cognates given. 

( )... illustrative cognates are indicated within ( ), variations from 
strictly equivalent cognates are preceded by c/. = compare. 

( ) . . . Arabic numerals in ( ) are references to Sievers-Cook Grammar 
of Old English, 2d edition, Ginn & Co., Boston. 

V theoretical I.-E. root, unless the root sign is preceded by a limit- 
ing initial, e.g. T. \/ = Teutonic root. 

* theoretical form assumed upon phonetic principles. The Teu- 
tonic, pre-Teutonic, and Indo-European stems, types, and 
roots for which there is unbroken evidence have no asterisk. 

- between elements of words. 

: between roots indicates a variation, generally by ablaut. 

< from, i.e. derived from, (properly, from the stem of the given 

word) . 

> whence, i.e. from which is derived. 

+ plus, compounded with. 

= equivalent to, i.e. phonetically., or in sense. 

t obsolete, e.g. btend^, under dblendan. 

? before word or phrase = probably or perhaps. 

?? before word or phrase = hardly possible. 


Roman with Arabic numerals = reference to selection and line in the 


I. Boldface- spaced type=OE. words, egr. dbraegd, under 

II. Roman type = ME. and foreign words or proper names, e.g. ME. 
ablende, under dblendan. 

III. Italic type = NE. words, excepting derivatives and cognates (v. IV. 

V. below), e.g. expect, under dbfdan. 

IV. Gothic Italic type = NE. direct derivatives, or, in compounds and 

variants, the direct NE. form of the root or stem, e.g. abide, 
under dbldan ; abysm, under abyme. 
V. SMALL CAPITALS = NE. coguatc forms, e.g. blind, under dblendan. 







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MORALITIES AND INTERLUDES. Specimens of the pre- 
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A History of English Dramatic Literature to the Death of Queen 
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Elizabethan Literature. 

lamo, Cabinet Edition, $1.75. Student's Edition, $1.00. 


From Tottel's Miscellany to Spenser. 

Early Elizabethan Prose. 

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" The Faerie Queene" and its Group. 

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Later Elizabethan and Jacobean Prose. 

The Third Dramatic Period. 

The School of Spenser and the tribe of Ben. 

Milton, Taylor, Clarendon, Browne, Hobbes. 

Caroline Poetry. 

The Fourth Dramatic Period. 

Minor Caroline Prose. 

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the century that begins with Tottel's Miscellany and the birth of Bacon, and closes with the 
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Shakespeare as a Dramatic Artist. 


University Extension Lecturer in Literature of the University of Chicago. 

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— Professor Dowden in the Academy. 


Eighteenth Century Literature. 


Clark Lecturer in English Literature at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
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Poetry after the Restoration. 

Drama after the Restoration. 

Prose after the Restoration. 


Swift and the Deists. 

Defoe and the Essayists. 

The Dawn of Naturalism in Poetry. 
The Novelists. 

Johnson and the Philosophers. 
The Poets of the Decadence. 
The Prose of Decadence. 
Conclusion — Bibliography — Index. 

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An old and middle 
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