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Am Historical Skbtoh of
THE CITY OF SALEM,
AHD THB TOWNS OV
MARBLEHEAD, PEABODY, BEVERLY, DANVERS,
WENHAM, MANCHESTER, TOPSFIELD,
C. H. Webber and W. S. Nevins.
TT iT .USTRATgD*
Henry L. Williams.
A. A. SMITH & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS.
BOSTON:— LEE & SHEPARD.
^^ '3^37,?, S
OEC 3 1992
Entered according to Act of Congreis in the year 1877t by
G. H. WBBBBB AMB W. S. KEVINS,
in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
8ALSK PBB88: F. W. PUTNAM A CO.,
vanced in life, find pleasure in retracing steps, lead-
ing back to the days of their youth, reviving recol-
lections and associations ever dear, at the same time
affording valuable information concerning their ances-
try. We make no special claims to originality of ma-
terial. On the contrary, we acknowledge our indebt-
edness, for most of the facts embodied in this work,
to the antiquarians, living and dead, from the Rev.
John Fiske, and the Rev. John Higginson, down to
the present. We have searched the voluminous collec-
tions and writings of these painstaking recorders of
the past and endeavored to present, in a popular shape,
such portions of them as are of the greatest interest
at the present time. Limited space precludes the pub-
lication of very much more which is of deep interest.
With more time and space the book could have been
made better. Such as it is we submit it to the public^
asking only that all should bear in mind that
<< Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see,
Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shaU be.**
PREFACE . • * ix
SETTLEMENT OF SALEM .... 1-23
SALEM, FAST AND PRESENT
Chapter I 23-56
Chapter II • 57-79
Chapter III 80-113
Chapter IV 118-143
Chap kr V 148-178
Chapter VI 178-208
Chapter VU 209-288
DANYERS AND PEABODT • . • 289-261
TOPSFIELD AND MIDDLETON • . 800>803
SETTLEMENT OF SALEM.
A BBSITLT of THB BBFOSMAHON.— THB FEEUMa TOWARDS Bno-
LAND.— A DlSAGRBBMENT AT PLTMOUTH. — SBTTLBMBNT AT
Capb Ann.— Rbmoval to Naumkbao.— Mr. Ltford departs.
—Grant of Massachusetts Bat.— Endioott Eleotbd
Governor; arrives in America.- Dissent between thb
Planters and the Followers of Endicott.— Arrival of
hlooinson, 8kblton and others.— establishment of a
Church.— The Covenant.— John and Samuel Browne
DRIVEN FROM SALBM. — ARRIVAL OF WiNTHROF. — HiS RE-
MOVAL TO Charlestown.— Salem ceases to be the Capi-
tal OF THE CoLONT<— Division of the Town.
t|tHE settlement of New England was one of the
'I' results of the Reformation. Those hardy
I Puritans who first landed on these shores
(^ were Protestant dissenters, driven hither by
religious persecution. To them this wilderness, with
all its terrors, was the long desired refuge from the
tyranny of the Established Church. They did not
come for gain, nor for ease and comfort, though
there were some adventurers who followed in their
train thinking to enrich themselves. New England
was, indeed, a wilderness into which every man
must go with a sturdy self reliance and hew a
path for himself, if he would have one. Those
who came for gain and found it not, as many did,
soon grew disheartened and returned to England ;
while those who were driven to seek these shores
by obnoxious forms of worship, surmounted all
obstacles and built for themselves homes in the
2 OLD NAUlfKSAa.
wilderness, — homes since grown to be great cities
of commerce and manufactures, and to be seats
of learning, wealth and refinement. They did not
come here because of unjust laws or tyrannical
rulers ; they did not come with hatred toward the
mother country ; on the contrary, they entertained
the kindest feelings toward her and all her people
and rulers. While they could not support nor res-
pect the enforced forms of worship then existing in
that country, they grieved at the intolerance and cor-
ruptions. They loved old England at all times and
under all circumstances. They were loyal to the
flag. When departing from Holland for America
they declined to sail under the Dutch flag and
hoisted the flag of their native land. They could
say with Cowper : —
<* England, with all thy fttolta I love thee •till,—
In religious matters those who came to Salem
differed somewhat iVrom those who established them-
selves at Plymouth. The former were not true sep-
aratists f^om the Church of England ; they were
dissenters from its corruptions, its intolerance, and
its formula only. In the words of the ministers at
Salem, to John and Samuel Brown in 1629, they
separated ^^not from the Church of England, but
from its corruptions." ^^We came away," said
they, ^' from the common prayer and ceremonies in
our native land ; in this place of liberty we cannot,
we will not, use them." On the other hand, the
people who settled at Plymouth were separatists.
SETTLEMENT Ot 8ALBH. 8
A few years after the settlemeDt at Fl3nnoath a
namber of persons led by Rev. John Lyford, dis-
satisfied with the extreme separation of the Colony
and Church from the English Church, removed to
Nantasket, near the entrance to Boston harbor,
where they mode a temporary settlement, and the
next yedr (1625) removed again, this time to Cape
Ann. Here they attempted to plant a farming, fish-
ing and trading colony, and being joined by Mr.
Lyford, and Roger Conant, the former was made
preaclicr and the latter " governor." When Conant
arrived at Cape Ann, which must have been some
time in the fall of 1625, he found the affairs in an
unsatisfactory state. The fishing had turned out
unprofitable and there was much insubordination.
He was unable to revive the interest, and in the fall
of 1626 the settlement broke up, a portion of the
people returning to England. Conant, it appears,
had sailed up along the shores of the Cape as far
as the mouth of the Naumkeag river during the
summer of that year, and marked it as one evidently
suitable as a ''receptacle for such as upon the
account of religion would be willing to begin a for-
eign plantation in this part of the world." Conant
was a man of vigor and courage, and he succeeded
on his return in breathing enough of his own spirit
into those of the settlers who had not already re-
turned, to induce them to follow him to Naumkeag ;
there to lay the foundation of a colony destined to
plant the spirit of Puritanism so deeply and so
firmly that amid the changes of two hundred and
fifty years it still bears its impress.
4 OLD NAUMKEAQ.
Rev. Mr. White of Dorchester, England, who had
been largely instrumental in planting the Cape Ann
colony, felt grieved to learn that it must be aban-
doned, and in response to Conant's suggestion that
a settlement might be effected at Naumkeag, wrote
him that if he, John Balch, John Woodbury and
Peter Palft-y, would "stay at Naumkeag and give
timely notice thereof, he would provide a patent for
them and send them whatever they should write for,
either men, provisions or goods to trade with the In-
dians." We are not to understand from this letter
of White's that only three men accompanied Conant
to Naumkeag from Cape Ann. He alluded to these,
doubtless, because of their prominence in the colony,
or, perhaps, because Conant had made particular
mention of them in his letter to Mr. White. The
number who came hence from Cape Ann was about
twenty-five, or one-half of the settlement there.
Aside from the women and children there were
Roger Conant, Humphrey Woodbury, John Lyford,
John Woodbury, John Balch, Peter Palfry, Walter
Knight, William Allen, Thomas Gray, John Tylly,
Thomas Gardner, Richard Norman and Son, William
Trask, and William Jeifry. They left Capo Ann in
September or October, 1626, taking with them all of
their household goods and effects, and implements
of husbandry. Their large frame house which was
located a little to the westward of the site of the
present city of Gloucester, on what is now known
as " Stage Fort," they left standing. It was subse-
quently taken down and removed to Salem. Conant
and his followers are thought to have landed from
BBTTLEHENT OF 8ALEH. 5
the South River, not far A*om the foot of Elm or
Central streets as now laid oat.
The majority of the party are supposed to have
settled along the line of the present Essex street,
near the site of the present First Church, and ex-
tending towards Newbury street. Hardly had the
first settlement been effected at Naumkeag, and
preparations made for permanently abiding there,
when dissatisfaction was manifested by some of the
settlers. They were dissatisfied with the location,
and with the prospects for the future, and they also
professed a dread of interference from the Indians.
The desire to remove was heightened by the pro-
posal of Mr. Lyford that they follow him to Vir-
ginia, whither he was to go at once. Several
announced a determination to accept the offer.
Had Conant consented to go with them, every
member of the little wilderness settlement would
have readily departed. But he would not go him-
self, and strongly urged the others to remain, de-
claring, that "they might go if they wished, and
though all of them should forsake j^im, he should
wait the providence of God in that place, not
doubting that if they departed he should have more
company." Again the reasoning of Conant pre-
vailed and Lyford was obliged to depart unac-
companied. He died shortly after arriving at the
The mother country began to give increased
attention to the infant colony at Naumkeag, and
the prospects for the future were indeed cheering.
In order that a better understanding might exist
6 OLD NAUMKBAa.
between the settlers and the company in England,
John Woodbury was dispatched thither in the latter
part of 1627, ^^to explain their condition to those
interested in their prosperity." He remained some
six months, and his mission appears to have been
successfhL In the month of March, 1628, the
council of Plymouth for New England, '' disregard-
ing a former grant of a large district on Charles
River," conveyed to Sir Henry Roswell, Sir John
Young, Thomas Southcoato, John Humphreys, John
Endicott and Simon Whitcomb, ^^The soil then
denominated Massachusetts Bay," which was de-
scribed as lying '^ between three miles to the north-
ward of Menimack River, and three miles to the
southward of Charles River, and in length within
the described breadth, from the Atlantic Ocean to
the South Sea."
This document bore date of March 19, 1628.
Most of the grantees were from the vicinity of Dor-
chester. Through the active efforts of White they
soon associated with themselves Sir Richard Sal-
tonstall, John^Winthrop, Isaac Johnson, Matthew
Cradock, Increase Nowell, Thomas Gk>flre, Richard
Bellingham, Theophilus Eaton, William Pynchon
and several others, ''of whom nearly all," says Ban-
croft, ''united religious zeal with a capacity for
vigorous action." Cradock was acting as Governor
of the company, and Goffe, deputy governor. Roger
Conant was the recognized agent at Naumkeag, but
the company, though recognizing his ability and
his great service in the past, thought best to select
one of their own number to be the actual governor of
SETTLBMBNT OF 8ALBM. 7
fhe colony, and therefore chose John Endicott,
whom Gov. Bradford pronoanced ''a worthy gen-
tleman." Endicott was a thorough nonconformist ;
a man of great moral courage, benevolence and
firmness. The new Governor and his worthy wife,
together with a few others, set sail for their new
home, June 20, 1628, and arrived in Salem harbor
on September 6, of the same year. There has been
much controversy in the past as to whether Endi-
cott is entitled to the honor of being the first Gov-
ernor of Massachusetts. The question has never
been settled ; the difibrence seems to consist mainly
in the meaning of the title. During Endicott's
term, the meetings of the company were held in
England, while under Winthrop they were held in
Endicott sent back a " good report" of the new
country, which induced others to join the plantation
over which he had been appointed Governor, so that
the number of inhabitants was now between fifty
and sixty. But harmony did not long abide with
them ; before the close of the year 1628, dissensions
arose between the first settlers, or followers of
Conant, and their successors, or those who came
over with Endicott. The former did not like being
superseded and governed by those who had joined
them after they had braved the dangers of making
a settlement. The sale of the colony by the Dor-
chester proprietors to the Massachusetts Corpora-
tion, also contributed to the dissent. Still another
cause, was the dispute over the propriety of tobacco
growing. The first settlers desired to grow the
weed ; the new-comers, deeming it iiijurioua to health
and morals, objected, except for the purposes of
medicine. The wnat of food and places of abode,
tc^etlier with " disastrous sickness," were added
causes of embannsament to the colony. Jealousy,
induced, beyood doubt, by the differences of opin-
ion, was the true cause of the ill-feeling. At times,
it was bitter, and party spirit must have reached
the height of these later days. Conant complained
even that he and his followers were accouuted
little better than slaves. The remark does not,
from all the facts, appear to have been fully jus-
tificd. However, these differences of opiuiou wci'e,
to all outward appearances, soon harmonized. At
a General Court, convened by Endicott in tlie fol-
lowing June, all "united in an. effort to promote
the common good." It vros at this meeting that
the name Salem (meaning peace) was substituted
for that of Naumkeag. White, in hia "Planter's
Plea," tells us that it waa done " upon a fair ground,
in remembrance of a peace settled upon a confer-
ence at a general meeting between them and their
neighbors, after expectance of some dangerous jar."
Signs of this social eruption were discernible, how-
ever, for some years after.
The company at London was very thoughtful of
the infant colony during this time. Cradock, its
governor, wrote au encouraging letter to Endicott,
in which he sent the cheering news that the company
were about to send over "two or three miniEtcrs,
WanA one hundred head of cattle;" that they had
^'bought one ship and hired two more," and desired
SETTLEMENT OF SALEM. 9
Mr. Endicott to secure houses for the occupancy of
the emigrants ; and ^'fish, timber, sturgeon, sasapa-
rilla, sumac, silk-grass and beaver for a return
cargo." In this letter, Cradock advised that the
settlers be allowed to cultivate tobacco for a short
time longer. The promise of re-enforcements and
provisions was faithfully kept. On the fourth day
of March, 1629, the King confirmed the grant of
Massachusetts by the Plymouth Council for New
England, which had been made during the previous
year. The charter which thus received the royal
assent, and which constituted a body politic by the
name of the '^ Governor and Colony of the Massa-
chusetts Bay in New England," was cherished for
more than a half-century as a most precious boon.
It was the constitution of a new republic. The
charter was granted in March ; and in April the new
embarkation was well advanced. The departure for
Salem took place on the sixteenth day of the same
month. The number of persons who embarked was
about two hundred ; of whom about sixty were
females — married and unmarried — and twenty-six
They took with them one hundred and forty head
of cattle, besides food, arras, clothing, and tools.
There were four ministers in the company. Two of
them — Higginson and Skelton — were men of more
than ordinary rank, and they were destined to play
no unimportant part in the history 6f the new world.
They had been selected for this mission by the home
company which recognized the importance of relig-
ious instruction to a people whose professed object
10 OLD NAUMKEAQ.
in seeking these new homes was the propagating of
a free gospel. Francis Higginson was a graduate
of St. John's College, Cambridge ; Samuel Skelton
was from Clare Hall, Cambridge. Both were men
of high standing, of brilliant parts. Both were in
full sympathy with the colonists, who had preceded
them to these shores or were now to accompany
The company was under a contract with Higgin-
son by which they stipulated to pay him £30 to pur-
chase the necessary apparel for the voyage ; £10 for
books, and a free passage for himself and family.
His salary was to be £30, besides '^firewood and
diet." This for three years ; at the end of that time
he was to have one hundred acres of land, and an
additional hundred at the end of the seventh year.
He was also to have ^Hhe milk of two cows and
half the increase of their calves, the company to
have the other half and the cows at the end of
The emigrants arrived at Salem in the latter part
of June. Of Salem, at this time, Higginson writes :
^^When we came first to Naimkeck, now called Salem,
we found about half a score houses built, and a large
house newly built for the governor, and we found also
abundance of corn planted by them, excellent good
and well liking." This house, " newly built," was
undoubtedly Conant's old Cape Ann house which
had been taken down and moved to Salem. Some
highly interesting correspondence passed between
the home company and Mr. Higginson during the
year. The letters from the company sound like
SETTLEMENT OF SALEM. 11
advice from a watchfal parent to an absent son.
In one letter idleness, is discountenanced: ^*Noe
idle drone (is to) be permitted to live among us."
Justice is urged in this spirit : "Wee hartely pray
you to admit of all complaints that shall be made
to you, or any of you that are of the councell, be
the complaints never so meane, and pass it not
slightly over but seriously examine the truth of the
business." For the inculcation of good morals,
"Wee pray you to make some good lawes for the
punishment of swearers, whereof it is to be feared
too many arc adictcd." The colony is advised to
suppress intemperance by endeavoring " though
there bee much strong water sent for sale, so to
order it as that salvages may not for our lucre sake
bee induced to excessive use, or rather abuse of it,
and by punishing those " who shall become drunck.
Allusion is also made in this letter to the growing
of tobacco ; and it urges that " noe tobacco bee
planted unless it bee some small qu an title for mere
necessitie and for phisick for preservacon of their
healths, and that the same bee taken privately by
ancient men and none others." The advice and in-
structions contained in this and other letters of
which we have given but brief abstracts, laid the
foundation of that high social and moral standard
of life which became a marked characteristic of the
people of the colony.
The twentieth day of July following the arrival
of the new emigrants was set apart for holding a
town meeting ; or, in the language of the age, as " a
solemn day of humiliation, for choj-ce of a pastor
12 OLD NAUMKEAG.
and teacher for Salem." The meeting was opened
with prayer and preaching, after which the vote
was taken '* by each one writing in a note the name
of his choice." This was the origin of the use of
the ballot in this country, ^ Skelton was thus chosen
pastor, and Higginson, teacher. Having made
choice of these, the sixth day of August was
designated for the completion of the church organi-
zation. On that day deacons and ruling elders
were chosen. Thus was fully constituted the First
Church at Salem, and the ^^ first Protestant Cliurch
in America^ on the principle of the independence
of each religious community." No liturgy was
used ; unnecessary ceremonies were rejected, and
^' the simplicity of Calvin was reduced to a still
The "confession of faith and covenant" adopted
by the church on that day, was undoubtedly the work
of the pious Higginson. It has been a question
whether there was, in addition to this, a " test creed
or sectarian articles of faith," which all were required
to sign before being admitted to membership. The
question is one which it. would not be well to discuss
in these pages. The evidence on either side is so
voluminous as to preclude it if there were not other
reasons. Careful examination of this evidence leads
to a belief that the signing of the covenant alone
constituted membership, coupled, of course, with
good moral character. This covenant was probably
the briefest church covenant the world has ever seen.
1 Bancroft, vol. I, p. 271.
SBTTLBICENT OF SALEM. 13
It is all in one sentence, and, short as is that sen-
tence, it seems to contain sufficient for the founda-
tion of a church. It reads :
** We covenant with the Lord, and one with
another, and do bind ourselves in the presence
OF God, to walk together in all His ways, ac-
cording AS He is pleased to reveal Himself unto
us, IN His blessed word of truth : "
The late Rev. Charles W. Upham, one of the
worthy successors of Skelton in the pastorate of this
church, in his rededicatory address in 1867, said:
^^It comprises in a condensed shape and surpassing
simplicity, beauty and force of phrase, the piety,
obedience and faith of servants of the Lord, and the
freedom of every individual mind, with the love that
ought to bind all believers, of every shade of doc-
trine, every form of worship, and every variety of
denomination, into one body and one communion of
Spirit." Was not the doctrine embodied in this
covenant, written two hundred and forty-eight years
ago, far in advance of a large part of tiic civilized
world of the present age? And is it not a most
remarkable fact, that the first church organized in
America, should rest on foundations which gener-
ation after generation, during a wonderfully pro-
gressive period, should be unable to improve? Any
thing further than this, would have been in direct
antagonism with the known views of Higginson and
Skelton, and most of the other settlers. Their
theology was the great law of right. Their re-
ligion was the religion of the Golden Rule. The
bible was their only recourse for the conduct of life.
14 OLD NAUMKEA^G.
The transcript of the first two pages of the old
Church book, seems woitliy of a place in this work,
and is given as published in the '^ Essex Institute
Bulletin," Vol. I, for 1856. The portion in small
capitals, is the original covenant of 1629 ; that in
Roman, is the portion added in 1636, when the
covenant was renewed; and that in italic, is the
portion added in 1660, when it was again renewed.
Gather my Saints together unto me that have made a Cove'
nant toith me by aacrifyce. Psa. 50 : 5.
Wee whose names are undenoritten, members of the prea^
ent Church of Christ in Salem^ having found by sad experi-
ence how dangerous it is to sitt loose to the Covenant wee
make with our Ood : and how apt wee are to wander into by
patheSf even to the loosing of our first aimes in entring into
Church fellowship : Doe therefore^ solemnly in the presence
of the Etemall Ood, both for our own comforts, and those
which shall or maye be joyned unto us, renewe that Church
Covenant we find this Church bound unto at their first begin-
ning, viz, : That wk covenant with tub Lord and one
WITH an other; and dob byndb ourselves in thb
PRESENCE OF GOD, TO WALKE TOGETHER IN ALL HIS WAIES,
ACCORDING AS HB IS PLEASED TO REVEALB HIMSELF UNTO
US IN HIS Blessed word of truth. Aiid doe more
explicitely in the name and fearc of God, profess and
protest to walke as folio weth through the power and
grace of our Lord Jesus.
1. First wee avowe the Lord to be our God, and our-
selves his people, in the truth and simplicitie of our
2. Wee give ourselves to the Lord Jesus Christ, and to
the word of his grace, for the teaching, ruleing and sanc-
tiiycing of us in matters of worship and conversation;
rcsolvcing to cleave to him alone for life and gloric ; and
oppose all contrarie wayes, connons and constitutions of
men in his worship.
SETTLEMENT OF SALEM. 15
8. Wee promise to walke with onr brethren and sisters
in this Congregation with all watch fullness and tender-
ness, avoyding all Jelousies, snspitions, baclcbytings, cen-
snrings, provoakings, secrete risings of spirit against
them ; but in all offences to follow the rule of the Lord
Jesus, and to beare and forbeare, give and forgive as he
hath taught us.
4. In publick or private we will willingly doe nothing
to the ofence of the Church, but will be willing to take
advise for ourselves and ours as occasion shalbe pre-
5. Wee will not in the Congregation be forward eyther
to shew oure owne gifts or parts in speaking or scrupling,
or there discover the fay lings of oure brethren and sis-
ters, butt atend an orderly cale there unto ; knowing how
much the Lord may be dishonoured, and his Gospell In the
professions of it, sleighted, by our distempers, and weak-
nesses in publyck.
6. Wee bynd our selves to studdy the advancement of
the Gospell in all truth and peace, both in regard of those
that are within, or without, noe waye sleighting our sister
Churches, but uselng thcire counsell as need shalbe : nor
laying a stumbling block before any, noe not the Indians,
whose good we desire to promote, and soe to converse, as
wee may avoyd the verrye appearance of evill.
7. Wee hearby promise to carrye our selves in all law-
ftil obedience to those that are over us, in church or com-
mon weale, knowing how well pleasing it will be to the
Lord, that they should have incourageroent in theire
places by our not grcivcing thoryre spirites through our
8. Wee resolve to approve ourselves to the Lord in our
perticular calings, shunning ydlenes as the bane of any
state, nor will we deale hardly, or oppresslngly with any,
wherein we are the Lord's stewards; alsoe promysing
to our best abilitie
9. To teach our children and servants, the knowledge
of God and his will, that they may serve him also ; and
16 OLD NAUHKBAG.
all this, not by any strength of our owne, but by the Lord
Christ, whose bloud we desire may sprinckle this our cove-
nant made in his name.
Thi8 Covenant was renewed by the Church on a solemne
day of Humiliation, Gofl moenth, 1660. ]Vhen also consid-
ering the power of Temptation amongst us by reason of ye
Quaker^ doctrine to the leavening of some in the place where
we are and endangering of others, doe see cause to remember
the Admonition of our Saviour Christ to his diciples ; Math.
16, — Take heed and beware of ye leaven of the doctrine of
the Pharisees ; and doe judge soe farre as we understand it
yt ye Quakers* doctrine is as bad or worse than that of the
Pharisees; Therefore we doe covenant by the help of Jesus
Christ to take heed and beware of the leaven of the doctrine
of the Quakers.
The simple form of worship established by the
church was not acquiesced in by some at Salem.
There were those who, though opposed to State
censorship and to the intolerance and the corrup-
tions of the Established Church did, nevertheless,
believe in the liturgy and the common prayer.
They were ably led by John and Samuel Browne,
who gathered all the dissenters from the First
Church and " upheld the common prayer worship."
The strife between the factions was of short du-
ration. In a few weeks, the Brownes were re-
manded back to England as ''factious and evil-
conditioned men." This action was sustained on
the ground that '' the success of the colony would
be endangered by a breach of its unit}^" that
the co-existence of the liberty of the colonists with
prelacy was not possible. Tlie supporters of the
liturgy reasoned that in a land where *' liberty
SETTLEMENT OF 8ALBM. 17
of conscience and freedom of worship" was the
paramount object, tJiey ought to be allowed to wor-
ship with freedom.
^' Their plea was reproved as sedition, and their
worship was forbidden as a mutiny." This may
have been sound reasoning and consistency in 1629,
but it would hardly be deemed to be such in the
latter half of the nineteenth century.
" For ylrtne's self maj too mnoh zeal be had.
The worst of madmen is a saint run mad."
The Brownes, on their return to England, spread
^^ scandalous stories" regarding the sermons and
other utterances of the ministers and others in the
church here. But, fortunately, the ship which car-
ried them back, bore also letters from those newly
arrived here assuring friends in England of the
beauties of the new land, and its freedom from
the persecutions of the English Church. These let-
ters were published and widely circulated. Their in-
fluence was magical. Hundreds of the persecuted
expressed a desire to join the freedom-enjoying pil-
grims in America.
The failure of other colonies did not dampen their
ardor. Others had gone for gain and failed ; they
would go only for purity of religion, and they
would know no failure. To them, death in the
wilds of the new world, enjoying freedom to wor-
ship God according to the dictates of conscience,
was preferable to any life in the old, worshipping
after the formula of another.
Realizing that large numbers were to obey this
18 OLD NAUlfKSAG.
impulse and emigrate to Massachusetts, Cradock,
the governor of the company, who had ever mani-
fested a deep interest in the infant colony, at a,
meeting on July 28, 1629, moved ^^ the transfer of
the plantation to those that should inhabit there/'
On the twenty-sixth of the following month, John
Winthrop, Isaac Johnson, Thomas Dudley, Richard
Saltonstall, and eight others, '' men of large for-
tunes and liberal culture," solemnly agreed that if
the court would transfer to them the entire govern-
ment and the charter of the colony, before the close
of September, they would go and dwell in New Eng-
land. Three days later, on a vote being taken ^^ by
a show of hands," it appeared that the request was
granted, and it was ordered ^^ that the government
and patent be settled in New England ;" so that the
place of meeting of the company should be there,
instead of in London. It was ostensibly a com-r
mercial operation; but it was actually the first
step toward the formation of a fhture powerful and
independent commonwealth. John Winthrop was
chosen governor of the colony for one year. Hum-
phrey was chosen deputy, and several assistants
were selected. Humphrey resigning before the de-
parture, Thomas Dudley was made his successor.
Winthrop and his seven hundred followers, in
eleven ships, sailed from England on March 29,
1630. They arrived off Salem on June 10. *' They
were," says Bancroft, '' a community of believers,
professing themselves to be fellow-members of
Christ ; not a school of philosophers, proclaiming
universal toleration and inviting associates without
SKTTLEMBirr OF 8ALSH. 19
regard to creed/' Love of freedom of conscience
and the forms of civil and religious liberty, which
to them were as precious as their lives, and ^' rev-
erence for their faith," were the incentives which
moved them to cross the stormy Atlantic to new
and untried shores, leaving their homes and their
kindred three thousand miles behind. But they
went gladly, hopefully ; and not until they arrived
at Salem, where they found the people poorly con-
ditioned, suffering for want of food, clothing and
shelter, and from diseases, did their zeal abate.
More than eighty of the Salem plantation had died
during the winter. Higginson, himself, lay at
death's door. Those who were able thronged to
the shore to meet the new-comers and beg for
food. Such a greeting did not favorably impress
Winthrop and his companions with Salem as a
place of settlement ; therefore, he and a number of
others sailed into Boston harbor and up the Mystic
river for a few miles.^ On their return, Winthrop
recommended a point about three miles up this
river as one suitable for a settlement. Not all of
the party were pleased with the location selected.
Some remained in Salem, while others followed
Winthrop, and, landing at Gharlestown, scattered
to Watertown, Maiden and Lynn. Winthrop re-
mained at Gharlestown, whither he removed the seat
of government from Salem, much to the regret of
the people of the latter place. They had hoped to
make Salem the metropolis — ^^the source of trade,
1 Bancroft, toI. I, p. 880.
20 OLD NAUMKBAG.
wealth, law and influence," — and the transfer of
the seat of government deeply touched their pride.
But feeling that the public welfare demanded the
sacrifice they ^'waived all for the gi*eater public
benefit, and bowed in submission and continued
their efforts to advance the common weal."
The removal of the capital from Salem did not
check its growth, which continued slowly but surely
until in 1637 it numbered nearly a thousand inhabi-
tants. It was a miniature republic, where the people
met on a common level, and, consulting together on
the public good, made their own laws and chose
their own ministers, and elders, and teachers.
They did not aslc the assent of the King to any of
their acts. They did not recognize him in any way
as their ruler. Feeling themselves to be a free
people, they governed themselves accordingly. So
it may be said that the settlement of Salem, as a
permanent town, was fully assured as early as the
beginning of the year 1640. And its history fi*om
that day forth has been emblematic of its name —
Salem, or peace. Few cities or towns in the country,
dating their origin as eai*ly as Salem, have been
so little stirred by Indian depredations, or wars, or
social revolutions. Only once, on the occasion of
the terrible witchcraft delusion, has Salem's peace
been disturbed, and then it was short and sharp
like some horrid nightmare.
The territory comprised in the town of Salem at
this time was much greater than at present. It in-
cluded all of the present city of Salem, and the
towns of Marblehead, Beverly, Manchester, Wen-
SETTLEMENT OF SALEM. 21
bam, Danvers, Peabodj, and part of Middleton and
Topsfield. These various towns were detached as
follows : Wenham, May 10, 1643 ; Manchester, May
14, 1645; Marblehead, May 2, 1649; Topsfield,
Oct. 18, 1660; Beverly, Oct. 14, 1668 ; Middleton,
Jane 20, 1728 ; Danvers, June 16, 1757. The last
named was subsequently divided into Danvers and
South Danvers, and then the name of the latter was
changed to Feabody.
H ilii§ ^
■"*"" iLilSl' "
^^Mf JbI -i
SALEM— PAST AND PRESENT.
PBBSKNT GBNESAL DBSOHIFnON^THR LANDnTQ PlJLOB OF CO*
NAKT.— South Ritbr.— Thb Fibst Whartbs.— Prbsbntand
Fast Modb of Tbavbluno.— Swbet's Coyb.— Thb Second
Mill in Salbm.— Thb First Custom House.— Thb First
Fourth of Jult Celbdration in America.— Washington
Stkert.— Tub Marston Building.— The Henfield House.—
The Home of Francis IIigginson and of Roger Williams.
-The BIothbr of Churches.- The House where Washing-
ton was entrrtainrd.— The First Town House.- The Sec-
ond Town House, whbrb Witches were tried.- Tub Third
Town AND Court House.- Scenes of Thrilling Interest.
Tub Hawthorne Town Pump,— The last Town and Court
House.— Washington's Visit to Salem.- Citt Hall.— Thb
CiTT GoTERNMENT.— Mayors of Salem.— Abstract from
AlAYOR Williams' Address.
GRAND old town. ADcient streets, ancient
buildings, ancient family names, and a linger-
ing of ancient customs. A commercial and
literary city on Massachusetts .Bay, in the
south-easterly section of Essex county, sixteen miles
north-east of Boston. Its people more like the solid
people of old England than can elsewhere be found
on the western continent. The topographical forma-
tion of its principal portion a narrow peninsula, not
half a mile in width at its widest part, extending in
a north-easterly direction out toward the sea, and
terminating in two headlands^ divided by Collins'
Cove. On its northerly side North river, dividing
^The eastern of these headlands is "Salem Neck/' and the west-
ern is the territory oyer which Bridge street extends to Beverly.
North Sulem from the city proper. On its soutberly
aide South river, dividing the city proper from South
Salem. Such is the general deBCription of Salem.
Surprising to say, no complete history of this
ancient town haa yet been written. The material,
however, for one is safely stored in its public in-
stitutions, waiting to bo worked into syBtctnntic
form by tlie first writer of ability who shall consider
it worth his while to undertalve the task. Our ob-
ject is merely that of relating such matters of in-
terest, to visitors or residents, as present themselves
upon the surface, hoping to create a greater interest
in the many beauties of nature and of art with
which Salem is favored, and thereby lay the founda-
tion for a more elaborate histoiy at, as we trust, no
far distant day.
At the Eastern Railway depot, near the dividing
lino between South Salem and Salom proper, we
meet our reader friends. With them we purpose to
stroll about the city so as to utilize our time in
the most economical , manner. As we proceed wa
desire to call their attention briefly to portions of
tho history of its past, refer to the lives of some of
Salem's many distinguished sons, both native and
adopted, and point out the places of interest, and
show the wonderful changes produced by time and
the energies of man.
Begardiug the landing place of Koger Conant
and his companions, when they forsook Cape Ann
in 1G26 and came to this place, there has been some
contliclion of opinion. Some writers have claimed
that Conant came Dp the north shore, kept well in
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 25
near the land, and entered what is now Beverly har-
bor; that he landed on a metamorphic rock lying
just west of the Salem end of Beverly bridge. The
best authorities, among whom is Wm. F. Upham,
Esq., of this city, claim that the landing was made
on the northern side of South river, some two or
three hundred rods east of the depot, near what is
now the foot of Elm street. Mr. Upham has de-
voted much time and labor in his researches of these
matters, relying more upon the evidence of records
than upon fanciful theories, and his view is almost
Conant and his companions were styled planters,
and are supposed, therefore, to have been cultiva-
tors of the soil. It is certain, however, that some of
them were fishermen and some mechanics. Ten
years previous to their landing a distemper had
raged among the Indians and had greatly depopu-
lated this region, so that the planters had little to
fear from the few remaining Indians whose lives
had been spared. They, therefore, as their numbers
increased, spread out over the vast territory sur-
rounding them, waiting for occupancy and posses-
"These men who sought this far-off nook and
corner of the world, crossing a tempestuous and
dangerous ocean and landing on the shores of a
wilderness, leaving everything however dear and
valuable behind, came to have a country and a social
system for themselves and of themselves alone.
Their resolve was inexorable, not to suffer dissent,
or any discordant element, to get foothold among
26 OLD NAUMKBAa.
them. They had sacrificed all to find and to make
a country for themselves, and they meant to keep it
to themselves. They had gone out of everybody
else's way and they did not mean to let anybody
else come into their way. These men did not un-
derstand the great truth which Hugh Peters preached
to Parliament. 'Why/ said he, 'cannot Christians
differ and yet be friends ? All children should be
fed, though they have different faces and shapes ;
unity, not uniformity, is the Christian word.'" The
only consistent or solid foundation on which a Re-
public, or a clmrch, can be built is an absolute level,
with no enclosures and no exclusions.
From copies of court papers, in a communication
by Wm» P. Upham, Esq., to the "Essex Institute
Historical Collections," Vol. 8, we learn that the first
settlement after the arrival of Endicott was in what
is now Washington street and its neighborhood.
South river originally extended up to and around
old Castle Hill, which can be seen from the south-
ern end of the depot. It was a beautiful stream,
bordered on each side of its winding course by
wooded shores. On its placid waters, even where
the depot now stands, have reposed the many noted
ships of the golden past, mastered by navigators
whose records make glorious the history of our
early commerce. Also on its waters have rested
those ships in which were transported across the
briny billows the richest products of the Indies, to
make glad the hearts of the many whose interests
were connected therewith. Their successes made
Salem what she has been in the past, and largely
'N.R. R >««engt»r
LOCA.TION OP TUB FIRST SETTLEMENT.
(SEE PAGES 6 AND 26).
28 OLD KADMKBAG.
what she is at the present time. South river bears
hardly a semblance of its original form when it
was unobstructed by the long wharves which have
nearly severed it in twain, or the more recent "fill-
ings in" which have succeeded in destroying its
beauty. What is left of the upper part of this
stream, near Castle Hill, is now known as the Mill
Pond. Its ebb and flow are through a conduit run-
ning in a north-easterly direction, under Mill and
Washington streets, and the south-eastern portion
of the Eastern Eailroad property, to what is left
of the lower portion of the old river.
The first wharves were built on the northern bank
of South river, and as late as 1760, nearly a cen-
tury and a half from the first landing, there were
but eleven in all. Two of these were constructed at
the foot of School-house lane (now Washington
street), on a portion of the spot now occupied by
the centre of the stone depot ; a third was about
where the centre of the Arringtx)n building (oppo-
site the depot) now is ; a fourth, midway between
. School-house lane and Town landing (now Lafay-
ette street) ; a fifth was at the Town landing, and
four others between that point and Burying-point
lane (now Liberty street). A few rods below this
was the tenth wharf, while the eleventh was at the
foot of Turner's lane (now Turner street). The
most of these wharves are in existence to-day, but
the land has been so filled in between them that
they now form the shore- wall to little more than
the course of the old channel of the river. These
facts all tend to show that the early commerce of
SALEM — PAST AND PRESEIIT. 29
Salem was carried on in the Ticinity of Washington
street. The old Soath river at this point, has been
supplanted by the railroad, and the white-winged
wards of old ocean by the giants of steam, that now
hourly deposit their burdens of life and treasure
upon the site of two of the most noted wharves of
the days gone by.
The Eastern Railroad was opened in 1838, and
extended only from Salem to Boston. Many of our
readers may remember the old wooden depot built
over the water on one of the wharves which occu-
pied the site of the present Eastern depot; also
its cupola, and its bell which was rung at the
approach of each train by the eccentric old " Corpo-
ral " Pitman, who declared that he could " always
tell when any one else was ringing that bell, by
its sound." Among other things related of the
^' Corporal," the most amusing is the attempt that
he once made to lift himself in a basket.
The old depot was a dai*k, dingy affair, whose
walls and timbers when taken down were blackened
by the soot from the wood-burning engines. In
striking contrast with the old depot is the present
substantial stone edifice,^ with its enlarged dimen-
sions and increased accommodations.
Previous to 1838 lumbering stage coaches, or pri-
vate vehicles, were the only conveyances by land
from this place. Travellers are now provided with
gorgeous palace and drawing-room cars, furnished
with velvet-cushioned reclining chairs and couches,
— ■ III . _ _■ I I I I -*
1 See page 22.
80 OLD NAUMKBAG.
dressing and dining rooms, and everything apper-
taining to comfort. By coach it took at least three
hours to travel over an old-fashioned road from
Salem to Boston, but now
** Yon may ride in an hour or two if you willf
From Halibut Point ^ to Beacon HiU,>
Witli tlie sea beside you all the way,
Through the pleiisant places that skirt the bay;
All this yon watch idly, and more by f)ar
From the cushioned seat of a railway car.
But in days of witchcraft it was not so;—
City bonnd travellers had to go
Horseback over a blind, rough road,
Or as part of a Jolting wagon load
Of garden-produce and household goods,
Crossing the fords, half lost in the woods.
By wolves and red-skins frightened all day,
And the roar of lions, some histories say.
If a craft for Boston were setting sail,
Very few of a passage would fail
Who had trading to do in the three-hilled town;
For they might return ere the sun was down."*
The following is a well-drawn picture of the ac-
commodations afforded travellers in the early part
of the present century :
'' The carriages were old, and the shackling and
much of the harness made of ropes. One pair of
horses carried us eighteen miles. We generally
reached our resting place for the night, if no acci-
dent intervened, at ten o'clock, and after a frugal
supper, went to bed with a notice that we should be
called at three, next morning — which generally
proved to be half-past two. Then whether it snowed
> Cape Ann. * Boston. * Peggy Bligb's Voyage.
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 81
or rained, the traveller must rise and make ready
by the help of a horn-lantern and a farthing candle^
and proceed on his way, over bad roads, — sometimes
with a driver showing no doubtful symptoms of
drunkenness, which good-hearted passengers never
failed to improve at every stopping place, by urging
upon him tlie comfort of another glass of toddy.
Thus we travelled eighteen miles a stage, sometimes
obliged to get out and help the coachman lift the
coach out of a quagmire or rut, and arrived at New
York after a week's hard travelling, wondering at
the ease as well as the expedition with which our
journey was effected."
The entire land occupied for and about the East-
ern depot is " made land ;" as is also Creek street,
west of the depot, so named because of supplanting
a creek there situated, which extended from the
river about where the Eastern Railway freight depot
BOW stands on Mill street, westwardly to near the
corner of Summer and Chestnut streets. It was
early known as Sweet's cove, subsequently as Ruck's
creek, taking its name from the owners of the land
upon the north of it.
To the south of this creek and south-west of the
depot are four acres of land, which, in 1630, were
laid out to Samuel Skelton, first pastor of the First
Church. To the south of Skel ton's land is other
land which was early known as " Governor's Field,"
in rememberance of which Endicott street is now
named. The Governor's Field and a portion of
Skclton's land afterwards came into the possession
of John Pickering.
On the northern side of Mill street, almost di-
TUE rUBSBNT FIUST CUUIlua.
SALEM — PAST AKD PRESENT. 88
rectly over the conduit, stands the round-house of
the Eastern Railroad. The site it occupies is that
of the second mill built in Salem. The history of
the building of this mill* furnishes us with the his-
tory of the "made land."
About the middle of the seventeenth century, Wal-
ter Price and others, for the better "grindage" of
corn, were granted the privilege of building a new
grist mill on the banks of South river. The site
selected was where the railroad round-house is, from
which spot the old "city mills'* were removed at the
time of building the conduit. John and Jonathan
Pickering, sons of the John Pickering previously
spoken of, carried on the business of ship-building
above this point on their father's land. They ob-
jected to the mill as " damming up the channel or
river below their land, and hindering them from
coming up by water to said land, or improving it for
a building place for vessels." Pickering, on this
complaint, brought action against the Mill Com-
pany. At the same time the company brought
action against Pickering for " damage to them by
pulling up the stakes that the mill-wright had set
down for placing the mill, and throwing part of
their timber into the river by night, and endeavoring
after the mill was set down to turn it into the chan-
nel by night to their great damage," etc. These
actions were tried together and resulted in the jury
finding for the proprietors of the mill. The mill
was therefore built, and the ship-building trans-
ferred to the creek, where quite a village of ship-
wrights gathered and formed what was known as
Ruck's villflge. Tlie ci'cctioii of tliis mill reaiiUcd
ill tlie Imililing of n new I'oiiil to Uliivhlelicad, over
tjoiitli i-ivei'. It conipi'iseil wlitit is now Siiiniuoi',
Iligb, Itlilt, and Lafayette sti-ccts. Freviona to tbia
time tho vond to lIiLvljlcliead passed around on the
weatcni side of Soutb river (now Mill popd) and so
over Forest river. In 1G86 a liiglnvay was laid ftom
the hend of Norman's Lane (now Nonnan street,
north-west of the dopot) across the erect to the mill.
This, together with that portion which extends to
Lafayette street, is now Mill street. A bridge was
built across the creek, and W. P. IJphain, Eaq.,
Bays : " the tradition is, thtit vessels were bnilt on
the Cove (or creek) as far np as the npper end of
Ci-eek street, and that the bridge was a swing bridge
that they could pass oat into the river."
The first building which seems to have been used
Custom llonsu was situated on South river, near
the bead of tliis creek. This building was knovra
as tbe " Port House." The site is now covered by
the north-western portion of tbe Eastern Railroad
property. Tlie "French house," situated on tUe
corner of Gedncy court, was bnilt in 1645 and suc-
ceeded tbe "Fort House." It is said to have been
occupied ua a Custom [louse for thirty-four years.
FelL saj's : " For a long period, it was usual for col-
lectors of the customs here to transact their business
where tbey resided. Tliis gave riae to a common
remark of our sea-captains, ' we do not know where
to find the custom bonae on our return.'"
On tbe South river, where the depot now stands,
le first assembling of bouts, or canoes, in Salem
SALEM — PAST AND PRE ENT. 85
took place in4G36. All canoes on the northerly
sule of the town were ordered to be brought " to a
point opposite the common landing place of the
North river, by George Harris* house ; those on the
south side to be brought before the ' Fort House/
on the South river, at the same time, then and there
to be viewed by a board of surveyors, consisting of
J. Holgrave, Peter Palfray, R. Waterman, Roger
Conant and P. Veren, or a majority of them." It
was decided that no canoe should be used (under
a penalty of forty shillings) except such as should
be allowed and sealed by the above board of sur-
veyors. It was also publicly proclaimed that if
any should neglect or refuse to bring their canoes
to the above appointed places at the time specified
for examination, they should forfeit and pay the
sum of ten shillings.
The exclusion at that early day of many forms of
amusements being carried to such a degree, the
people gladly obeyed the summons for a gathering
and made it, no doubt, a gala-day for Salem. Hon.
C. W. Upham says : — "A light, graceful and most
picturesque fleet swarmed from all directions to the
appointed rendezvous. The harbor glittered with the
flashing paddles, and was the scene of swift races
and rival feats of skill, displaying manly strength
and agility." This, the first regatta in Salem harbor,
must have been an aquatic spectacle of rare gayety
and beauty. It occurred on the fourth of July.
It may, therefore, be considered the first fourth of
July Celebration in America.
These canoes were "dug-outs" made of "whole
pine trees about two foot nnd a imlf over and twenty
foet long," Tliey were used for tninsporting pas-
sengers to North and South Sulcm, before the tliiys
of bridges, and in thena they somelimes went fowl-
ing " two leagues to sea."
That portion of Washington street which extends
east of the depot into South Salem, is the most re-
cent of tlie made territory in this vicinity. So re-
cent was the change, that but for the future it might
remain unmentioned by us. Tije row of wooden
buildings, including the Arrington Building, on the
eastern side of Washington street, originally ex-
tended from the north-eastern corner of the depot to
Front street, about on a line with the outer edge of
the present bricic walk, on the eastern side of the
depot. These buildings were moved back to their
present position, when Washington street waa es-
teuded, in 1873. This great improvement created
a. new route for the South Salem Branch of the Horse
Railroad, which originally passed through Front to
Lafayette street, and over the bridge. On Wash-
ington street opposite the south-eastern corner of
the depot, stands Flint's building, occupied by the
Ist District Court (Judge J. B. F. Osgood), in the
second story, and by the Salem Mechanic Infantry,
Co. K, of the Sth Mass. Kogt., as an armory, in
the third story. Previous to the establishment of
District Courts, local oiTendcra were tried before
Judge J, G. Waters of the Police Court (now abol-
ished), at the Police Station on Front street.
Washington street, from the depot to North river,
is a broad thoroughfare extending up an elevation
8AXEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 87
of some 80 feet, to where it crosses Essex street,
the main street of the city; thence running on a
level about 900 feet, it falls again, but more abruptly,
to about the grade of the railroad. Under the ele-
vated portions of this street is the Eastern Railroad
tunnel, built in 1889, and at that time considered a
great accomplishment and wonder. This tunnel
was originally lighted by apertures, at intervals in
the centre of Washington street. These apertures
were surrounded by iron railings with a street-lamp
over each. The smoke arising so suddenly from
these places, frightened the horses passing upon the
street, and caused some damage. They were accor-
dingly first boarded over, and finally more securely
covered, and the railings removed. The tunnel now
is totally dark, excepting the light which it receives
from the entrances, which is of no benefit to trains
passing through. Although a double track extends
from Boston to Ipswich on the Eastern road, yet
this tunnel has never been enlarged nor altered from
its original construction. Two sots of rails, how-
ever, to avoid some switching, are laid through it —
one for the main road, the other for the Lawrence
Washington street is next, if not fully equal, to
Essex street, in business importance. On it are sit-
uated the Post-office, District Court, two Savings
Banks, all the National Banks but two, several mer-
cantile and lawyers' offices, and numerous stores and
dwellings. It contains more of the principal mod-
ern buildings than any street in the city. Among
these might be named. City Hall, Eastern Railroad
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 89
depot, Asiatic Building, Flint's Building, Ilolyoke
Building, Northej's Building, First Church Build-
ing, Price's Block, and the Stone Court House (front-
ing on Federal street).
Washington street in the early days was known
as School-house lane. It extended from North to
South rivers where these two bodies of water came
nearest together. It was selected as the proper
place for the beginning of the settlement, doubtless
on account of the favorable means of defence against
the Indians, here provided. Both North and South
rivers, as well as the before-mentioned creek, could
be easily guarded from this point, as also the eighth
of a mile of land between the creek and North
Our reader visitors in passing up Washington
street from the depot, will be strongly impressed
with the irregular appearance of the four corners
at the junction of Essex and Washington streets.
They never formed a perfect square, as Essex street
above and below this point was formerly two dis-
tinct streets. Washington street was originally
four rods in width its entire length. But when
the railroad tunnel was constructed in 1839, this
street from Essex street to the depot, was widened
on the eastern side, and took in the gore of land on
which Brown & Rust's brick store and the '* Hen-
licld house" stood, and the land on which stood a
three-story building, known as the Marston building,
together with a nan^ow lane bounding these estates
on the east, and running from Essex to Front streets.
The outside edge of the present sidewalk on the
40 OLD NAUMKBAG.
eastern side of the tunnel, marks very nearly the
original eastern line of Washington street.
The old " State House" formerl}*^ occupied the site
of Brown & Rust's store. It was located fronting
Essex street, and facing the present Stearns' Build-
ing. The Henfield House, supposed to have been
built in 1650, stood south of the brick store. It
was formerly the residence of Sergeant Hilliard
Veren. Wm. P. Upham, Esq., locates it as " east
of where the tunnel is now, and 65 feet south of
the cap-stone." Veren was one of the early set-
tlers, and was the first collector of this port, of
whom we have any knowledge. He was elected to
that office by the legislature in 1663.
The Marston building stood nearly opposite the
present western terminus of Front street. It was
occupied in part, within the memory of the oldest
inhabitant, by the late Samuel R. Hodges as a West
India Goods store, and subsequently by Merritt <&
Ashby. Mr. David Merritt, the senior member of
this firm, was the founder of the express and trans-
portation business in this city, which since his de-
cease has been carried on by his son David. For
more than half a century father and son have suc-
cessively served the public in a most acceptable and
faithful manner. The upper part of the Marston
building was used by the late Daniel Hammond, for
the purpose of cleaning gum copal, large quantities
of which were transported from Zanzibar and the
west-coast of Africa by the late N. L. Rogers and
Brothers and -Robert Brookhouse.
On the eastern side of the narrow lane above al-
8ALEM — ^PAST AND PRESENT. 41
luded to, now the eastern side of Washington street,
was the home of the Rev. Francis Higginson.
Higginson's house stood on the land now covered
by the south-eastern portion of the Asiatic Building.
Its front was towards the South river. Higginson
died in 1630, just one year after his arrival at
Naumkeag. Afterwards Roger Williams occupied
the house and resided there when acting as the
assistant of the Rev. Samuel Skelton. It was here,
and at this time, that he first promulgated his liberal
The Lawrence distillery, afterward used by Mr.
David Merritt as a stable, stood fifty yeai's ago on
the corner of Washington and Front streets, where
the Lawrence block now stands. On land partly
covered by the Asiatic Building, was a building oc-
cupied for many years as a restaurant, by the famous
*' Jameson." Between this place and the First Church
edifice, stood the house of the old fire engine "Alert."
The "Alert" was one of the oldest fire engines in
On the comer of Washington and Essex streets,
the edifice of the First Church stands. It is the
mother of all the churches, not only in Salem, but of
this immediate neighborhood. Though not the first
body of assembled worshippers, it was the first
church regularly organized in America. It was es-
tablishepl in 1629. Since then there have been four
church buildings, all situated on the site of the
present edifice. The frame of the first meeting-
house, now preserved as a relic of the past, stands
in the rear of Flummer Hall in a good state of
42 OLD NAUMKEAQ.
preservation. We will visit it as we pass through
that portion of the city. The First Church, during
the 248 years of its existence, has been blessed with
pastors nearly all of whom have been leaders in the
denomination. As a proof of this it is only neces-
saiy to mention the names of such divines as Fran-
cis and John Higginson, Samuel Skelton, Eoger
Williams, Hugh Peters, Nicholas Noyes, Geo. Cur-
wen, Samuel Fiske, John Sparhawk, Thos. Barnard,
John Prince, Chas. W. Upham, Thos. T. Stone, Geo.
W. Briggs, James T. Ilewes, and the present pastor,
Fielder Israel. The present edifice was built in
1826, at a cost of $18,125. In 1874 extensive al-
terations were made in it. The whole interior, as
well as the exterior, of the building was remodelled
and beautified. The stores under the church on
Essex street were enlarged and modernized, and are
to-day occupied by Mr. John P. Peabody, one of our
most successful dry and fancy goods dealers, and
Mr. Daniel Low. Accommodations on Washington
street were made for the National Exchange Bank.
The entire building was reconstructed in a manner
to make the comer where it stands, architecturally
beautiful. We have presented a fine picture of this
building for the inspection of our readers.
On the western side of Washington street, about
where Dr. Fiske's house now stands, stood the two-
story brick house of Joshua Ward, in which George
Washington was entertained for the night, when on
his northern visit in 1789. At an exhibition of an-
tique articles, given at Plummer Hall, December,
1875, Mrs. E. Putnam exhibited the plate from
8ALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 43
which Washington dined, and Mr. B. G. Manning
exhibited the damask drapery, from the hangings on
the bed in which he slept at that time. The same
drapery ornamented the bed occupied by General
Lafayette, when he visited Salem a few years earlier.
From the fact that Washington stopped in this place,
the name of this street from Essex street, south, was
afterwards changed to Washington street. Its orig-
inal name, that of School-house lane, had long since
been discarded, and it had been known as Town-
A little to the North of the site of the Ward
house, on what is now the south-eastern portion of Dr.
Morse's estate, stood the first Town House of which
we have any record. Felt locates it " on the west side
of Washington street, several rods south of Essex
street." The date of the building of this edifice,
which was of the early style of architecture, is not
now known. The records show, however, that it
needed repairs in 1655. It is probable 'tliat the ses-
sions of the Quarterly Courts were held here in 1G36,
and if so, the King's arms were affixed by order of
the General Court, to the wood- work over the judges'
bench, as the insignia of royal authority over the
Commonwealth. This hall was the ancient place for
municipal and judicial assemblages ; cases were tried
here before the Court that were quite common in
those days, but which would now be deemed absurd.
For instance : — men were arraigned for wearing long
hair and great boots, and women for wearing large
sleeves, lace, tiffany, and such things as were prohib-
ited by the Puritan rulers. Baptists and Quakers
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 45
were obliged to defend themselves before the bar of
justice, for absence from worship in the Congrega;-
tional meeting-house. Scolding women and profane
men were sentenced to have their tongues placed in
dcfb sticks, or have a three-fold ducking. Other
transgressors wore doomed for a period to be confined
in cages, or fastened in stocks in public places, and
lovers even were fined for showing signs of their
love, without the consent of their parents.
The second Town House was "set up by the prison"
in 1674. Ex-Mayor Williams, in his admirable ad-
dress at the dedication of the City Hall extension, in
1876, locates this spot as "south-west of the First
Meeting House," which would be, as near as we can
learn, just south of Hilliard Veren's house. The
prison was afterwards removed to near the site of the
first Town House, and, in 1677, the second Town
House was moved from the above described site to
the north, about in the middle of School, now
Washington street, nearest perhaps to the western
side and north-west of the present City Hall, nearly
in front of the Brookhouse estate. The upper part
was fitted up a few years later for judicial purposes.
In 1702 the Queen's arm, in honor of the "Good
Queen Anne," who had ascended to the throne, was
placed over the seat of justice. This building was
noted for the anxious discussions within it, of the
questions of servile obedience to the commissioners
of the profligate Charles II ; of surrendering our re-
vered charter and submitting to the tyrannical rule
of Sir Edmund Andros, the Governor General of
New England under James II. Also as the place
where iunoocnt victims of delusion wero cliai-gciJ
with the crime of witchcraft, and a number of tlicm
sentenced to siitrer the extietue penalty of the Ifiw.
"Seldom" eays Felt, "can description a, either of
political or judicial character, be drawn in bolder
relief of tiiith, than tbosc wliich veritably apply to
this ancient edi&ce. Credible tradition relates that
the building connected with such prominent events,
stood over twenty years after its successor was
erected. The lower part of it served for a school,
while the floor of the old court room above was mostly
talcen up, except where the scats of the Judges and
juries were located. Here the boys would sometimcB
collect before master came, and play over the scene,
ouce acted theie in dread reality, of tiying witcbea."
The tbiixl Town and Court House, was erected
about 17^0, on li^scx street, nest to, and west of
tlio First Cburdi budding. Tlic second story was
useil for Judicial, and the lower for municipal pur-
poses. It was also used as a place of exchange,
where men collected and transacted business. " It
had a long bench in front," says Felt, "which seldom
wanted occupants when people wore abroad." Here
the events of the day were talked over, public
questions discusseil, and not unlikely scandal re-
tailed. A recital of all the scenes whicli occurred
in this building would be of tlie most thrilling inter-
est. Here the Stamp Act, was denounced ; the
a<ldrcas, issued by tlie Alassachusctts Legislature
rallying the colonies to resist parliamentary taxa-
tion, was justillcd; intcrrerenco with the right of
ti'iol by jury iu the admii'olty court, aud the military
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 47
despotism of the British soldiers in the Province,
were censured. Here too, did the patriot sons of
1770, resolve neither to import nor purchase goods
subject to crown duties ; decision in favor of the
ilrst Continental Congress was hero made by the
House of Representatives, in 1774, and our propor-
tion of its delegates designated for the most efficient
resistance to Britisli encroachments ; the wrong of
closing the port of Boston, and the need which its
oppressed inhabitants had for sympathetic aid and
relief, were eloquently discussed. It was in this
building that the legislature of Massachusetts con-
vened, and where in order to finish the preparations
for the overthrow of British rule in America, they
frustrated the design of Governor Gage of declaring
their dissolution. They locked their chamber door,
thus preventing the Governor's secretary from deliv-
ering his message. On the seventh day of October,
1774, contrary to the proclamation of the Governor,
the sturdy patriots fonned themselves here, into a
provincial congress, John Hancock being chosen
chairman, to regulate the disordered state of the
colonies. They then adjourned to Concord, where
they won imperishable renown.
When the General Court was transferred from
Boston to Salem this Town House, in which its ses-
sions were held, was called the ** State House," by
which name we have previously referred to it, so that
this memorable building was at the same time used
as the Town House, the Court House and the State
House. It was painted (white), a rarity in those
days, and was supplied with a bell in the cupola.
48 OLD NAUMKEAG.
In 1774, it had a very narrow escape from a great
fire which occun*ed in Salem.
On the edge of the old sidewalk, west of this
building and where the eastern wall of the present
Eastern Railroad tunnel now is, stood the ''old Town
Pump," immortalized by our great literary genius,
Nathaniel Hawthorne, in his quaint sketch entitled
"A Rill From the Town Pump," commencing : —
<*Noon by the north clock I Noon by the east I High
noon, too, by these hot sunbeams, which full scarcely
aslope, upon my head, and almost make the water bubble
and smoke under my nose."
At times, when the Town Houses were being re-
paired, or were torn down to be supplanted by new
ones, the public business was transacted in some
one of the meeting-houses. From 1774 to 1778, the
public meetings were held in the First Church meet-
ing-house, and many of the most interesting matters
relating to the Revolution, were there discussed, and
many important resolutions passed. In 1785 we
leam that the public business was transacted at
Joshua Ward's store, in the basement of the building
in which Washington stopped four years later.
Standing at the junction of Essex and Washington
streets, and looking to the north, we can see the
parapet marking the northern end of the tunnel. In
front of this parapet, in the middle of Washington
street, where Federal street crosses it, the fourth
and last combined Town and Court House was
located. It occupied the site of an old brick school-
house, from which this street took its original name
of School-house lane. This Town and Court House
a/LLEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 49
stood with its front towards Essex street, and its
west side facing the site of the present Tabernacle
Church. It was erected in 1786, and the name of
that portion of Washington street, north of Essex,
was soon after changed to Court street. This build-
ing was two stories high, 62 feet long and 36^ feet
wide. It cost $7,145.^ Its walls were of brick, and
upon its roof was a cupola. On its front or soutliern
end was a balustrade, opening into the second story,
and supported by Tuscan pillars. Under the balus-
trade were wide stone steps which led through a door
into the lower hall. This hall was used for public
assemblies, and for the exercising of military com-
panies. On the east side of the hall were several
offices. The court room was in the second story, and
the '* Massachusetts Magazine" of 1790, remarked
of it: ''The court hall is said to be the best con-
structed room, for the holding of courts, of any in
the Commonwealth." The architecture of this build-
ing was very much admired. It was the work of
Mr. Samuel Mclntire of this city. From the bal-
ustrade above mentioned, Washington was presented
to a congregated mass of our people when, in 1789,
he visited this city. Here many a kindling eye first
caught the glance of his form, which enshrined
those noble excellences of head and heart, that
largely contributed to free our soil from mighty in-
vaders, and lay the foundation of our national free-
dom and fame.
1 Half of this amoant was paid by the coanty, and the other half
by the town.
^PW Iji'^Ki; ;ii^T| ,
PRESENT CODBT HOUSE.
8ALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 51
Washington's visit was long remembered by our
fathers as one of the happiest with which they were
ever favored. So recent was the victorious struggle
for liberty, in which this man had acted so noble a
part, that the people were overwhelmed with joy at
his presence, and he saw them under the most favor-
able circumstances. The greatest endeavors were
made to pay him deserved homage. He was pre-
sented to the selectmen, on Main street (now Essex),
where, in the presence of a great multitude, composed
of the military, the civic bodies, and the school chil-
dren, their Quaker chairman, William Northey, with
his hat on, took him by the hand and said : ^'Friend
Washington, we are glad to see thee, and, in behalf
of the inhabitants, bid thee welcome to Salem ."
Washington made a strong and pertinent reply,
closing as follows : — " From your own industry and
enterprise you have everything to hope, that deserv-
ing men and good citizens can expect. May your
navigation and commerce, your industry in all its
applications, be rewarded ; your happiness here, be
as perfect as belongs to the lot of humanity, and
your eternal felicity be complete."
When the present Town Hall was built in Derby
square, in 1817, the town disposed of its share in
the fourth Town and Court House to the^county, for
$1823.10. The lower story was then made fire-proof
for the preservation of judicial papers, and the court
room was made more commodious. For this im-
provement the county expended $6,071.28. This
old Court House stood until 1839, when it was taken
down to make room for the passage of the railroad.
52 OLD NAUMKEAO.
The railroad corporation allowed the county for the
demolition of this edifice, $3,300.
The City Hall, on the east side of Washington
street, on land formerly of Josiah Orne, was erected
in 1838, and the expense defrayed from Salem's por-
tion of the surplus revenue, in the United States'
Treasury. This revenue, which had accumulated to
the amount of $40,000,000, was distributed among all
the towns and cities of the country, in i^roportion
to the number of their inhabitants. Salem received
for her share $33,843.40. The City Hall has brick
sides with a granite front, and is two stories high.
It was originally G8 feet long, 41 J feet high, and 32
feet wide, and cost $23,000. Under the administra-
tion of Mayor Williams in 1876, it was enlarged to
double its original length, and a fire-proof vault
provided, for the preservation of valuable papers.
The offices were changed about, and all the depart-
ments of the city government accommodated under
its roof, which had never before been the case.
The city was incorporated, March 23, 1836, and
on the 9 th of May following, in the Tabernacle
Church, the city government was organized. Hon.
Leverett Saltonstall was the first Mayor, and served
two terms. Near the close of his second term, on
the evening of May 31, 1838, City Hall was first oc-
cupied. Since then our city councils, noted for the
high moral standing and culture of their members,
have regularly met therein and discussed and acted
npon the local questions of the hour. They have
been led in succession by the ability and wisdom
of Leverett Saltonstall, Stephen C. Phillips, Stephen
SALEM — FAST AND PRESENT. 58
P. Webb, Joseph S. Cabot, Nathaniel Silsbee, jr.,
David Pingree, Chas. W. Upham, Ashael Hunting-
ton, Joseph Andrews, Wm. S. Messervy, Stephen
G. Wheatland, Joseph B. F. Osgood, David Roberts,
Wm. Cogswell, Nathaniel Brown, Samuel Calley,
Henry L. Williams, and Henry K. Oliver. Of these
gentlemen, several won more than mere mayoralty
distinction. Saltonstall was a State Senator, mem-
ber of Congress, and author of "A Historical Sketch
of Haverhill." Phillips served in both branches of
the Legislature, was a member of Congress, and, in
1848-9, was the Free-soil candidate for governor.
Upham served in both branches of the legislature,
was President of the State Senate, a member of
Congress, and as author of "Salem Witchcraft,"
"Life of Timothy Pickering," and other valuable
works, gained a world-wide reputation. Hunting-
ton was clerk of Courts in Essex county, for many
years. Cogswell served during the entire recent
war, was a brigadier general, and was with Gen.
Sherman in his great march from Atlanta to the sea.
Oliver was adjutant general 1844-48. Subsequently
was State Treasurer under Gov. Andrew, was Mayor
of Lawrence, Chief of the State Bureau of Labor,
Labor Reform Candidate for Governor, and agent
of the State Board of Education. He is also
widely known as author of many musical composi-
tions, and was a member of the board of judges at
the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876.
Among the other mayors were men of marked ability,
whose disinclination only, prevented them from oc-
cupying positions of higher honors.
OLD NOBTH CUUBCH.
8ALEM — TAWt AND PRESEHT. 55
The address on the occasion of the dedication of
the City Hall extension was delivered by His Honor,
the Mayor, Henry L. Williams. From it we copy
the following, showing the progress Salem has made
since the hall was first erected : —
*^The population of our city has increased, since
this hall was built thirty-eight years ago, from
15,000 to 26,000; the valuation of taxable prop-
erty from $8,000,000 to $26,000,000 ; receipts by
the treasurer, from $63,000 to $800,000 ; payments,
from $66,000 to $805,000 ; items, in number, paid
by the treasurer during the year, from 654 to
7,008 ; tax levied $44,000 to $452,000 ; interest,
from $1700 to $92,000. City debt, $37,000 at
commencement of city government to $1,267,000
at the present time.
The commercial character of our city, it is true,
has changed essentially from what it was thirty-eight
years ago. The time was when Salem stood sixth
in rank among the commercial places in America.
Thirty-eight years ago Salem ships floated on every
sea, and brought to our wharves the products of
every clime ; this being their home and where many
of them were built, their repairs and their outfits,
gave to the sea-side of Salem a business-like appear-
For a long series of years the East India trade
was carried on from here to a greater extent than
from any other port in the Unit^ States. Now has
come the change. The building of the railroad and
the telegraph, has swept from the smallest ports in
our country, to its great commercial centres, the for-
eign trade that they formerly enjoyed.
This change has caused an almost entire disap-
pearance from our harbor of Salem ships, but we
have, in their place, an important provincial and
coastwise traflSc, employing, as will be seen by the
56 OLD trAOHKKAO.
following facta obtained fiom tbe Citstom House
i-ecorda, about double the louuage of tLii-ty-eight
Ill 1838, tbore arrived at Salem, fi-om foreign and
coastwiBG ports, vessels menaiiring about 120,000
tous. Id tbe year ending April, 1872, tliere arrived
249,216 tons, and last year (sinee tbe cbange in tlie
Beciprocity Treaty) only 160,098 tons ; the number
of vessels falUiig o(f from 1812, in tbe ycur ending
April, 1872, to 1197 vesaels in tba year 1875,—
about one -third pai't."
Tbe present city council is composed of six alder-
men and twenty-four common conncilmen. Tbe
school committee consists of eigliteen regularly
elected members, and Mayot' and president of the
common council, cx-ofQcio. The former meets semi-
monthly and tbe latter monthly. Henry M. Meek,
City Clerk, and Henry J. Cross, City Treasurer,
have held these otflces for many years with great
ci-edit to themselves and to the city. William Mans-
field, tbe veteran City Messenger, now eighty years
of age, has held bis present otflce ever since Salem
became a city, a period of over forty years, and,
until the summer of 1876, never missed a meeting
of either branch of the city goveininent. He occu-
pied a similar position under tlie old town organiziv-
tion for a number of years.
Hugh Peters and Roger Williams.— The Great Tavern.—
Social Evening Club.— Count Ruhford.— Kirwan's Li-
brary.— Watch-houses AND Watchmen.— Homes of Pick-
man. Derby, Notes and Sharpe.- The Oliver Mansion.—
Bridget Bishop.- Judge White.— Lyceum Hall.— First
Residence of Gov. Endicott.— Daniel Eppes.— An His-
toric Circle.— Free Schools.— Tabernacle Chorch.
tftUE lot of land south of City Hall comprising
' I ' the north-eastern corner of Washington street,
I and now occupied by the Stearns' building,
(j^ was originally owned bj' Hugh Peters.
Hugh Peters was a clergyman, politician and au-
thor. After imprisonment for non-conformity in
England, he sailed for America, where he arrived in
October, 1635. In December, 1636, he succeeded
Roger Williams as pastor of the First Church in
Salem. Roger Williams having become a non-
conformist minister left the mother country four
years prior to Peters, and in April, 1631, was chosen
assistant to Rev. Mr. Skelton, the first minister of
the First Church in Salem. Williams asserted at
once his religious views of toleration, the indepen-
dence of conscience of the civil magistrates, and
the separation of Church and State. For this he
was obliged, in a few months thereafter, to remove
to Pl3^mouth. In 1633, however, he returned to
Salem, and became the successor of Skelton. His
" new and dangerous opinions against the authority
of magistrates,' being asserted as then thought too
^«n»4«iMai3» nut xjoriruc ^^iiAryrmoL woki jhs .onuifi-
.^sm vuU; jaiuks nut niang^tr jitt ^saiffiSBai ixaat
'^tnK: 'S). iasuL. -voea l^mtr ji»is^ TTiiR^
^0ir3i9r t^ '^laoin^AiiL sue 5»nmaiT as«9B&. jmc
jtt^ 3<i»r ji:^ ViesL 1ft ^0Bic 32 FiTgaiiic itf^ ~jA jib
yt^v^gerif 'xl i^ut loodft uT its tf^anriiPr, tChdcfiK^ Goss.,
8ALEH — PAST AND PRESENT. 59
probable that Mr. Peters' valuable services would
be permanently needed there. Mr. 6ott was there-
fore ordered to dispose of his property here. The
estate on the north-eastern corner of Essex and
Washington streets, where the Steams' building is,
was sold to Mr. John Orne, a carpenter, with the
understanding that should Peters return he could
repurchase the estate on the repayment '*of all
charges of buildings or otherways bestowed upon
the said land." The original deed by wfiioh it
was transferred to Orne is still in existence, bdi it
does not conclusively show whether or not there
was any building upon this estate. The supposition
of the best authorities is, that a house of the most
commanding, beautiful, and artistic style was built
there under the direction, if not the personal over-
sight, of Peters himself; that Orne the carpenter
was employed to build it ; that it may have been fin-
ished, and possibly occupied by Peters, but not paid
for, in consequence of the suddenness of his call to
the service of the colony, as one of its agents to
look after its interests in London.
Peters never returned to this country, as after the
restoration he was committed to the Tower, and in-
dicted for high treason, as having been concerned
in the death of King Charles I. He was afterwards
tried and convicted of the charge, and was executed
in London, October 16, 1660. His private character
has been the subject of much discussion both in
England and America. He was charged by his en-
emies with gross immorality, and the most bitter
epithets were applied to him by Bishops Burnet,
THE KUFirs CHOATK IIOUSK.
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 61
Kenneth and others, but probably they were largely
influenced bj' prejudice.
Orne sold the estate purchased of Peters to Wal-
ter Price, in 1659. At this time it is certain that a
fine building was standing upon it. It was built
before the line of Essex street had been adjusted,
and stood out on what is now Essex street, as far as
the curb-stone. The heirs of Walter Price sold it,
in 1727, to Mr. John Pratt who occupied it for
many years as a tavern. It was quite noted in the
eighteenth century as "the Great Tavern with many
Peaks." It was also at one time called the *'Ship
Tavern." This building, and the site which it oc-
cupied, might well be called the birthplace of litera-
ture and science in Salem, as on this spot and in that
building the "Social Library" was organized, in 17G0.
This was the first institution formed in this place for
a higher intellectual culture, and the diifusion through
this community of a taste for literature and science.
No place within our city limits could have been
more appropriate than a spot owned by Hugh Peters,
and the structure probably erected, and perhaps oc-
cupied by him. He was one of the most highly ed-
ucated persons among the early emigrants, and he
was a zealous promoter of popular intelligence. He
took an active part in bringing our Harvard College
into existence, and made great, though unavailing
cflbrts to have it established in Salem. By some of
our local antiquarians it is believed that this verita-
ble building, of which we have been speaking, was
designed for a college by him.
"Roger Williams and Hugh Peters," says the
62 OLD MAUMKKAG.
Hon. Charles W. Upham, ^^ more perhaps tiian maj
others that can be named, were of the kind to set
men thinking, to start speculations and enquiries
that would call forth the exercise of mental faculties,
and of a nature to retain their hold upon the general
interest, and be transmitted as a permanent social
Uncommonly inquisitive minds given to experi-
ments and enterprises in science, art, and literature,
is a noted feature in the character of our people of
Salem to-day. The presence of persons of marked
impressiveness of mental traits among the first set-
tlers and their associates is, of course, the primal
and general cause to which results of this sort are
to be traced.
There was in existence in Salem, about the middle
of the eighteenth century, a '^ Social Evening Club,"
designed to promote literature and philosophy. It
had among its members such men as Benj. Lynde
and Nathaniel Ropes, both Justices of the Supreme
Court of the Province, the former, as his father had
been, its Chief Justice ; Wm. Brown, Judge of the
Superior Court ; Andrew Oliver, Judge of the Court
of Common Pleas ; the Rev. Wm. McGilchrist, of
the Episcopal Church ; the Rev. Thomas Barnard,
of the First Church, and Edward Augustus Hol3'oke,
then a young physician, and others of Salem's most
eminent, cultivated and intellectual citizens.
The members of this Club, together with some
others, met' at ''the Great Tavern with many
Peaks," on the evening of March 81, 1760, for the
purpose of '' founding in the town of Salem, a hand-
SALElf-^PAdT AND PRESENT. 63
some library of valuable books, apprehending the
same may be of very considerable use and benefit,
under proper regulation." A subscription was started
and a round sum obtained. The Rev. Jeremiah
Condy, a Baptist minister, of Boston, who was about
to visit England was employed to purchase the books.
On their arrival, 415 volumes in all, the ''Social
Library " was put in operation. It was incorporated
in 1797, and it may well be regarded as the founda-
tion of all the institutions and agencies established
in this place for the promotion of high intellectual
culture. It is quite evident that an interest in phil*
osophical enquiries was a characteristic of the peo-
ple of Salem, at the time of the formation of this
library. A taste for literature and knowledge, a
zeal in the prosecution of scientific studies, was im-
parted to the community, of which we can distinctly
trace the imprints and monuments through all our
In 1766 there was a lad of thirteen years of age
in Salem, apprenticed to John Appleton. Appleton
kept a retail variety store, on the south side of
Essex street, east of the Barton-square Church es-
tate, on the lot now owned by Dr. George Choate.
This lad had only such advantages of education as
a country school district afforded in the town of
Woburn, where he was born. But he had early
manifested a taste for mechanical and philosophical
amusements. Here, in Salem, he found an atmos-
phere congenial to his original passion, and under
the influence of the intellectual energies put in op-
eration by the men who established the old '' Social
OP UECHASli) HALL.
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 65
Library/' he was stimulated to exercise and exhibit
his genius. He persistently strove for the attain-
ment of a full knowledge of philosophy, and attracted
much attention by novel and successful experiments
in mechanics and chemistry. By a singular succes-
sion of circumstances he was drawn into military
life in the service of the mother country, and arose
to the high distinction of count, physicist and states-
man. This boy's name was Benjamin Thompson,
known in history as Sir Benjamin Thompson Rum-
ford, but more popularly known as Count Rumford.
Another item of interest might be mentioned in
connection with the birth of literature and science
in Salem. During the revolutionary war the valu-
able scientific library of the distinguished philoso-
pher Richard Kirwan, LL.D., of Dublin, was cap-
tured in the British Channel on its way to Ireland,
by a Beverly privateer. Owing to the liberal and en-
lightened views of Andrew and John Cabot, owners
of the privateer, this library was sold at auction at
a very low rate, to an association of gentlemen,
among whom were Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Hamil-
ton, Rev. Joseph Willard and Dr. Joshua Fisher of
Beverly, and Reverends Thos. Barnard, John Prince
and Dr. Edward A. Holyoke, of Salem. The Social
Library with this formed the nucleus of the Salem
Athenaeum Library, which we will visit when in our
stroll we arrive at its present locality.
The "Great Tavern" estate finally came into the
possession of Mrs. Ruth Jeffrey, a daughter of Mr.
John Pratt, who sold it at auction in 1791 to Col.
Benj. Pickman, Dr. William Stearns, and M^jor
66 OLD NAUMXEAG.
Jonathan Waldo. They immediately covered the
premises with the building now standing there,^
known as the Steams' block.
West of the northern end of the site of the
Steams' block, in the middle of what is now Wash-
ington street, a watch-house^ at one time stood. It
was built in the beginning of the eighteenth century.
The first bellman was then the only watchman '' to
walk ye towne, Arom ten o'clock till break of day."
The top of this watch-house was ornamented with a
carved image of a soldier in full uniform and armed.
The watchman in those days in his perambula«
tions, was required to call out, every now and then,
*' all's well," together with the hour of the night and
the state of the weather. This custom was dispensed
with about the year 1817. The watch-house, above
alluded to, was not the first in Salem, as from '' Felt's
Annals" we learn that it was voted by the town, June
16, 1712, that the old watch-house should be used
for a writing-school.
The first meeting-house which was used for vari-
ous purposes in conducting the affairs of the settle-
ment, was doubtless used as the first watch-house.
Under date of December, 1640, the records of the
General Court, say: — ''Salem meeting-house is
allowed for their watch-house." With the trees all
cleared Arom the land south of this meeting-house,
as far as what is now known as the Mill Pond, sig-
nals could be readily seen from Castle Hill, south
> Essex Institnte Hist CoU., Vol. 9, 8d Fart, p. 7.
* This old watcb-house stands in the rear of the old grammar
■chool-boiise. See p. 76.
SALEM — ^PAST AND PRESENT. 67
of the pond ; this hill was no doabt so called, be-
cause of its being occupied as an outer lookout and
station. Approaching danger by land or sea could be
instantly made known from its summit, when every
man seizing his gun could have hurried to the meet-
ing-house, and made it a garrison. The meeting-
house was, of all others, the place for a watch-house.
While we are in this locality it might be well to
state, for the information of the present members
of the Salem Cadets, that one of the old armo-
ries of this venerable organization was in the sec-
ond story of a building, which stood where Feck's
building fronts on Washington street. It was over
an apothecary store kept by the late B. F. Browne.
North of Feck's building, on the southern corner
of Washington and Lynde streets, stands a brick
house. It was built in 1764, by the Hon. Benjamin
Fickman, who left it to his son, Clark Gayton Fick-
man, an active member of one of our first fire engine
companies. In this house Ellas Haskett Derby
lived when he was amassing his riches. Its site was
previously occupied by a large wooden house, owned
by the Rev. Nicholas Noyes, who was extremely
violent in the witch trials of 1692.
The house of Elder Samuel Sharpe, commander
of the first fort erected in Salem, stood on the
north corner of Washington and Lynde streets. A
house of ancient architecture was removed from this
site a few years ago. It had seven gables, and was
one of the many claimed as the subject of Haw-
thorne's famous story: "The House of Seven Ga-
bles." Hawthorne's '* House of Seven Gables" is,
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 69
undoubtedly, the old house standing at the foot of
On the southern comer of Washington and Church
streets, where Dr. S. M. Gate now resides, stood
the " Oliver Mansion." It was owned and occupied
in the seventeenth century, by Edward Bishop, who
married Bridget Oliver, widow of Thomas Oliver.
Bridget Bishop was the only person tried at the
first session of the new Court of Oyer and Termi-
ner, which convened here the first of June, 1692.
She was the first victim to suffer death by the witch-
At the time of her trial she was dragged from
the "Oliver Mansion'' by the back way into Prison-
lane, now St. Peter street ; thence up Essex street,
to the Court House, the appalling spectacle being
made as conspicuous as possible. Cotton Mather
says : ''There was one strange thing with which the
Court was newly entertained. As this woman was
under a guard passing by the great and spacious
meeting-house, she gave a look towards the house ;
immediately a demon invisibly entering the meeting-
house, tore down a part of it ; so that though there
was no person to be seen there, yet the people at the
noise, running in, found a board which was strongly
fastened with several nails, transported into another
quarter of the house."
The street at the time of her passing through it,
was probably thronged by an excited crowd, and
some of them may have clambered upon any eleva-
ted position to get a sight of the prisoner. The
church windows were high, and some one may have
A bouil to ctJMb vpoB,
tktmamt. LKre^ble as it sa j aeoi, 11^ of
Matlier ipeaks was braiiglit im as erideaee at tka
trial, and was regarded as wc^^tj and eofiasrra
proof of Bribers guilt. This was tte iHist ii^nr-
taat erideoee pcodooed j^aissi tins poor
yet she was eoodeanied bj tlie Cooit, aad
coted OB tlie lOth of June. Hbn. Chaa. W. Uphaii,
anthor of •^Salem ¥ntciicnlt,* lired ob tlie site of
the ^OliTer MansJon," wiien settled as lainjatrr
orer the First Chordi.
The centre oi what is known as the Hoboa hlodc
is s portion ci the re^dence of the late Jodge
Daniel Appleton White. Judge White was bom in
liethoen, June 7, 1776, and was the tenth Jodge of
IVobate for Essex county. He was a member of
the Ifassachosetts Senate and ci Congress. He
came to Salem in 1817, was one of the founders of
the Theolc^cal School at Cambridge ; was president
of the Essex Historical Society and of the Salem
Athensam, and also the first presidents ci the Essex
Institute and Salem Lyceum.
Just around the comer of Washington and Church
streets, east of Dr. Cate's residence, on a portion of
the Oliver estate, stands Lyceum Hall. It was built
near the close of the year 1830. Its exterior is un-
pretentious. Its auditorium is small and plain, but
for lectures, readings, and such entertainments it is
most convenient. The hall is semi-circular in form,
the rows of seats rising one above the other on an
angle of about thirty-five d^rees. This building is
the property of the Salem Lyceum, an institution es*
rSSSBNT KOBTH CHUUCH.
(M> PAOB va.)
72 OLD NAUMKEAO.
tablished for the purpose of mutual instruction and
select entertainments, by means of lectures, debates,
etc. A fine course of lectures is delivered in this
hall each year. The Lyceum was established January
18, 1830, and incorporated on March 4th, of the same
year. Lyceum hall was first opened on the evening
of January 19, 1831. The Rev. Brown Emerson
dedicated it by prayer, and Stephen C. Phillips de^
livered the introductory lecture. No undertaking
of any kind of associated enterpnse in this place,
has been more successful than this Lyceum. The
Hon. George B. Loring is now its president.
The first residence of Governor Endicott in Amer-
ica, stood just north of the northern corner of
Washington and Church streets. This building was
styled in Endicott's day '^a large wooden frame
house." It was originally built at Cape Ann, for
Hoger Conant. After Endicott's arrival at Naum-
keag, it was ^^ shook and brought hither." It was
two stories high, and the style of its architecture
was essentially Gothic, the prevailing style of archi-
tecture of that day. It is said, that portions of this
veritable dwelling-house of Roger Conant and Gov-
ernor Endicott, were contained in the building that
stood on this corner, until recently moved a little
to the east. Daniel Eppes, Esq., a distinguished
school-master of the seventeenth century, resided on
this same corner from 1675 to the time of his death,
which occurred in 1721. What is now Church street
was then called Eppcs lane. After Mr. Eppes' death
a Scotchman, by the name of Somerville, opened
a public house here, and had for his sign an ^^ Indian
SALBH — ^PA9T AND PRESENT. 78
King." His place was at one time called the ^' Ship
Tavern/' but it was not the noted tavern of that
name. Benjamin Coates sacceeded Somerville, and
in 1773 Mr. Jonathan Webb succeeded Coates. Za-
dock Buffington, a captain of one of our military
companies in 1781, and a tavern keeper, succeeded
Webb. A building removed from this spot but a
few years ago, and known as the ''Newhall Tavern,"
would lead us to infer that the early dwelling place
of our first governor was long associated with the
scenes of entertainment for man and beast.
The locality of Washington street from the south-
em end of the Asiatic building to the northern cor-
ner of Church street, is rich in matters of historical
interest. By carefully reviewing the scenes and
events which we have thus far noted, it will be per-
ceived that, standing midway between these two
points and from this centre describing a circle with
a radius not greater than 150 feet, within it is found
the nucleus of Salem's history, together with much
that relates to the entire nation. For instance: —
We have the locality of the first settlement ; the site
of the home of Roger Williams, the birthplace of
civil and religious liberty ; the home of Hugh Pe-
ters, the birthplace of literature and science in Sa-
lem ; the grounds of the First meeting-house where
the first church was organized, and where the use of
the ballot was inaugurated in America ; the spots on
which stood the first, second, and third Town and
Court Houses, in which occurred the early persecu-
tions, the witchcraft trials and the stirring scenes in-
cidental to the Revolution ; the homes of Governor
74 OLD NAUHKBAQ.
Endicott, Francis Higginson, Samuel Sharpe, Hll-
liard Veren, Bridget Bishop, and in later years of
Hon. Charles Wentworth Upham ; also the site of
the '' Hawthorne town pump," the first prison and
the early watch-house, together with much more that
we have previously alluded to. The homes of Roger
Conant, John Woodbury, Peter Palfray and others,
not yet mentioned because they are not on Wash-
ington street, come within the radius of this circle,
of which our present City Hall forms the hub. The
seat of our town and city governments has, for 250
years, clung with wonderful tenacity to this spot
which is hallowed by so many historical trials and
triumphs. Here has the soil been pressed by the
feet of every native and adopted son of Salem,
fi*om the days of the early settlers to the present
time; here the Puritans raised their earnest pray-
ers to God, beseeching him to bless and protect
their little band of wanderers in a strange land ;
fi*om here, in 1775, ascended the supplications to
heaven ft'om the patriot sons of Salem, that they
might be freed from the tyranny of the mother land
and possess a country all their own ; here have the
praises and the rejoicings been freely indulged in
by the men of later years who have enjoyed the
great blessings of peace and prosperity, the fruits
of the early hardships and trials.
By extending the circle to a radius of a quarter of
a mile, the material to be found within it will supply
nearly every link to the historical chain connecting
the days of Roger Conant with the present time.
Here, among other things which we shall mention
8ALBM-— PAST AKD PRESENT. 75
during the continaance of our stroll, have been wit-
nessed the public expressions of homage paid to our
most noted visitors from time to time. In addition
to Washington and Lafayette, might be mentioned
Presidents Mnnroe, Jackson, J. Q. Adams, Polk
and Grant ; and other national celebrities including
Alexander Hamilton, Henry Clay, Chas. C. Pinck-
ney, David Humphreys (an aid to Washington in
the Revolution), Gen. William Eaton (noted for his
military achievements against the Bashaw of Trip-
oli) ; also foreign dignitaries, as Sir Edmund Andros,
Marquis de Casteleux, Count Castiglioni, Duke de
la Rochefoucault Liancourt, the Prince of Wales,
the Duke of Alexis, and others who might be men-
tioned, from all parts of the globe. The most of
these people were received as became their rank or
station, while some of them made but a flying visit
and their reception was meagre. It certainly seems
as if it would be impossible to find, anywhere in this
country, another spot so small around which linger
BO many hallowed memories.
Some writers have claimed that ^*the first free
school in the land, if not in the world, was estab-
lished at Salem," while other writers have positively
declared that the first free school in our republic was
founded in 1621, and located in Virginia. A list of
subscribers to a school of this kind has been found
on the last leaf of the first volume of Boston ^* Rec-
ords.'' It is dated 1636. This date is prior to that
of the first free school in Salem. According to this,
Boston has the honor of establishing the second
free school in the republic, and the first in the Mas-
(8BB PiQE IM.)
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 77
sftohasetts Colony. The second in this colony was
established at Salem, in accordance with the follow*
ing order, passed in September, 1641 : —
** Ordered that a note be published on next Leo-
ture day, that such as have children to be kept at
Bchoole, would bring in their names, and what they
will give for one whole year ; and also that if anie
poor bodie hath children, or a childe, to be put to
Bchoole, and is not able to pay for their schoolings
that the towne will pay it by rate.''
The writer has found no evidence of the exact lo-
cation of this school, but has seen it stated that it
was upon the Endicott farm, situated in what is
now Peabody. The third ^ free school in the colony
was established at Ipswich in 1642.
On the east side of Washington street, north of
Federal street, wi^i the Grammar school-house. It
was erected in 1785, and was used for many years
for school purposes. It is still standing, and is now
occupied as a cabinet shop' by H. W. Thurston.
Previous to the erection of this building, the Gram-
mar school was in the brick school-house which was
torn down the same year to make room for the
fourth Town and Court House. In this brick school-
house the books of the Social Libraiy were at one
North of Governor Endicott's house, was the lot
of the Rev. George Burdett. It is described in the
original grant as the *'Rock beyond Mr. Endicott's
house." This term ''Rock" doubtless referred to
1 Felt's ''Annals.'*
— — — — ^■•-Ji-^— J
■ i# ik> Bonsilla (•■ k«
tf He r<B af an iUIIM b ■
TfcaTriMiMili r^ihiwi|.iMyiili« ■ iliiiiiiw if
Mdlkai^isarorikeoU chnk, aal adald
Ihe ymir niail Flike, nd «thtt oAeom Tlvr*
I of Oc aia*rt fcu w uu, vadi Bot ■•
H to edM fk -nM Cknk <ir CWkt i> Sdo.-
Itoint toHS or avnidm after Ito acfMntiim.
■H bdi ia ITSi, nd ataod oa the aile of what M
SALEM — PAST AKD FRESXNT. 79
now the King block, on Essex street. This honse
was destroyed in the ** great fire of 1774." The
second hoase was built on the site of the present
building, and was modelled after Mr. Whitfield's
chapel in London. Hence it took its present name
Tabernacle, and the name '* Third Church" went
into disuse without any formal action or change in
the church organization.
The present edifice was erected in 1854, and dedi-
cated December 1 , of the same year. It cost $21,400.
It is 115 feet long and 68 feet wide. The spire
rises to a height of 180 feet. In 1868 an addition
was made to the edifice in the form of a transept, by
removing an old brick chapel, which stood in the
rear of it, and which was built in 1819. This tran-
sept cost $11,200. It contains accommodations for
the Sabbath School, and for social and religions
meetings. Here also the meetings of the Essex
Congregational Club are held, where are read and
discussed by the clergy and laymen, valuable and
interesting papers tending to promote the general
interest of Congregationalism. This edifice, as en-
larged, is one of the most commodious in the State.
Among the noted clergymen settled over this
church were Samuel Worcester, D.D., his son Sam-
uel M. Worcester, D.D., and Elias Cornelius, D.D.
At the present time (December, 1877) the Taber-
nacle society has no settled pastor.
JAYIKG stroOcd in m northerij dtrectioa aboai
waom m portaoo €€ the duuneter of thebutgcr
y^ emit prerioQsI J mentioiied^ we will pi o c eed
MB best we can witiiin the remainder of this ortncolar
apaee, and note the remaining objecta of interest.
Our ooone wiD be throogh or into the following
streets: — Federal, North, Ljnde, Sewall, Essex,
Cambridge, Chestnut, Broad, Summer, Norman^
and Front, through D»bj square, Fmirr, Coitral,
Charter, Ebn, Essex, Union, H^bot, Newburj, to
the Common; thenoe up Essex, down St. Fi^o",
throogh Federal and Bridge streets to the North
Before proceeding farther, let us take one Tiew of
that portion erf" North rirer stretdied out before us to
thencMth. The Indians called this* ^Nahnm Keike*
rirer. It was then broad and beautiful, extending
from Bass riyer far up into what la now the limits of
8ALBH — PAST AND PRESENT. 81
Peabody. Its waters were pure and andefiled by
the refuse of tanneries, and were unobstructed by
the many innovations which now line their course.
Conspicuous among these encroachments in both
directions, is the ''made land" occupied by the
railroads. The tide originally flowed up very near
to the entrance of the tunnel.
''Nahum Keike," or Naumkeag, as modern orthog-
raphers write it, was claimed by Cotton Mather and
John White, both Puritan divines, " to be rather He-
brew than Indian, and by interpretation the bosom
of consolation, Nahum signifying comfort and Keike
signifying a haven." The "Planters Plea," a paper
printed in London, 1630, claimed by reason of this
interpretation, that the Indians here anciently had
some knowledge of the Jews.
The first highways were along the banks of the
North and South rivers. Derby, Front, Mill and
Margin streets, mark the general course of the first
highway along the South river. The highway along
the bank of the North river, from what is now Bos-
ton street to the present Beverly bridge, was discon-
tinued about the year 1766, when Federal street was
laid out and accepted. Federal street was so called
as a sign of the united feeling for such a street, be-
tween the parties for and against the discontinuance
of the eight-feet way on the bank of North river.
That portion from North to Boston streets is through
what was the last remaining part of the old forest.
From Washington to North street was formerly
known as Marlboro' street; from Washington to
St. Peter street as County street.
SALEM — ^PA8T AKD PBXSENT. 88
At the Janction of Washington and Federal
streets, on the north-western comer, stands the
first Court House ereoted by the county for its ex-
clusive use. It is constructed of well wrought
granite, is 105 feet long, 55 feet wide, and is two
stories high. It was built in 1849, and until 1864
was used for all court trials and county purposes.
The old court room is now occupied by the Probate
Court (Judge George F. Choate). In the other
parts of the building may be found the offices of the
Registry of Deeds, County Commissioners, County
Treasurer, and Clerk of Courts. In the office of
the latter official may be seen all the old county
records covering a period of more than 250 years.
None of them, however, will attract such close at-
tention from the stranger as the old witch papers.
Here are the original warrants on which those poor
victims of Parris's revenge and Puritan superstition
were arrested, tried and executed. The time may
come when nothing short of such positive jsvidence
as these papers, will make the people believe that
the witchcraft delusion ever had an existence. The
witch-pins that were produced at the trials of the so-
called witches, and with which, it was in evidence,
they had tormented their victims, may be seen in
this office. An hour or more might be profitably
spent here by the visitor in examining these evi-
dences of the superstitious errors of the past.
The Court House, now in use by the Superior
Courts of Essex county, stands on the north side
of Federal street within the same enclosure and
next westerly to the granite Court House above
ni^ ygker tkw Ous P. Loni
C. EMfieott of Ike Sspiaw Cont^ wi liKoli F.
Bri^m, Oier JKlkeof Ike
A fev rods west of Ike Comt Houses
Cknck. Tkis ckBi«k vas fiwiBed ly
oflea led bj Moustcfs of Ike
tioa tmm otker dlies. Ia 1804 accessMMfes «> Ike
■nber of Ike Baptists, a^ Ike lack of a eoATeiH
icBt place fior wonkip, led to Ike erection of a saaaU
boose sear Ike site of Ike preaeat koaae of v^iifskip.
Tbe cbmch was legulariy eoostitBled oa Moadaj,
Deeembcr 24, 18M, and muabeied sixtees sessbeis
at its fomiatioo. A aocie^ was ineorporated ia Ike
SALEH — ^PA9T ANB PRESElTr. 85
The first house was soon unable to accommodate
the increased congregations, so that within a year
from the time it was opened another edifice was
planned. The new house was dedicated January 1,
1806, the old house being valued at that time ^at
$2200. The cost of the new house, with improve-
ments afterwards made and other land purchased
for the front on Federal street, was nearly $30,000.
In 1868 this building was thoroughly remodelled at
a cost of about $20,000. A chapel had been pre-
viously built, in 1856, at a cost of about $10,000,
to which parlors and other conveniences were added
later, at a cost of $1200. On the night of October
81, 1877, the chapel and a part of the church were
burned, the whole edifice suffeiing great damage
from smoke and water, rendering thorough renova-
The ministers of the church from its foundation
have been as follows : — Rev. Lucius BoUes, D.D. ;
Rev. Rufus Babcock, D.D. ; Rev. John Wayland ;
Rev. T. D. Anderson, D.D. ; Rev. R. C. Mills, D.D.
The present pastor is the Rev. George E. Merrill,
who was settled here February 1, 1877.
On the southern comer of North and Lynde
streets stands the stately residence of Judge Lord,
of the Supreme Court. It was built by the late
Capt. Charles Ward. The original North Church
meeting-house previously occupied this site. In its
latter days it was used as a carpet factory, and also
as a ward-room. Much of the old church timber is
contained in Judge Lord's house. This land was
purchased for a meeting-house lot, February 14,
86 OLD NAUMKSAG.
1772. There were forty-three associates in the pur-
chase, including John Nutting the former owner of
the estate. On the 3d of March following, the pur-
chasers met at the Town Hall and organized as
*>Th6 proprietors of the North meeting-house.*'
The house was erected that same year, the founda-
tion being laid on the 11th of May.
It was first occupied on the 23d of August, al-
though then not quite completed. Early in October
the bell arrived from London. The spire was raised
on the 19th of the same month. It was in this house
on February 26, 1775, that the Rev. Thomas Bar-
nard dismissed his congregation when informed of
the approach of Col. Leslie and his command. The
house fronted on Lynde street and was occupied
until 1836, when the stone edifice, now standing on
Essex street, was dedicated.^ The corner-stone of
the new house was laid May 16, 1835.
The beautiful Lynde street with its fine gardens,
grass plots and handsome dwellings, is laid over
what was formerly a swamp. On the east side of
this street stands the Salem residence of the late
EuAis Choate, LL.D., now occupied by the Hon.
Wm. D. Northend. Mr. Choate was a native of
Essex, Massachusetts, but made his home in Salem
for many years. He was an eminent lawyer and
orator, and after the death of Mr. Webster was the
acknowledged leader of the Massachusetts bar.
Lynde street takes its name from Benjamin Lynde,
Chief Justice of Massachusetts in 1729. He took
^ See page lOS.
88 OLD NADMKBAG.
the oath of attorney in 1701, previous to which date
there was, among the Puritans, a decided antipathy
to lawyers. He owned the land here at one time,
and on what was known by the Lynde family as the
Arbor lot, was erected the first fort in Naurokeag.
This fort stood about where the Wesleyan Methodist
Chapel is on Sewall street. It was, in all proba-
bility, built by Conant and his associates in 1626.
Tradition informs us that the first town-meetings or
gatherings of the people were held in this fort ; also
that Governor Endicott and his Council were accus-
tomed to assemble there. A palisade was doubtless
built in this vicinity, to which, in times of attack,
the women and children fled for protection. By
good authorities this palisade is supposed to have
included the entire square now formed by Essex,
Washington, Norman and Crombie streets.
The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel was built by Rev.
J. Fillmore in 1823. It was occupied but a short
time as a church, until 1872, when it was purchased
and refitted by a new society from the Lafayette
Methodist Episcopal Church. It then received the
name of '' Wesley Chapel." It was re-dedicated in
May, 1872. Its pastors have been the Rev. Joshua
Gill, and the Rev. W. J. Hambleton. The present
pastor is Rev. W. H. Meredith.
That portion of Essex street from Washington to
North streets was paved about 1773 ; it was the first
street paved in Salem, and was called ^^ Old Paved
street." It is probably the only portion of Essex
street that was regularly laid out. Nearly the whole
length of ''Old Paved street" was swept by fire in
8ALBH — PAST AND PBE8BNT. 89
1774, when "Dr. Whitaker's meeting-house,^ the
custom-house, eight dwellings, fourteen stores, shops
and barns, besides sheds, and other out houses,"
were destroyed. This portion of Essex street is
laid over what was originally a swamp, which ex-
tended north beyond Lynde street. The general
line of Essex street was formed by chance. Lots of
one acre each extending from the river's bank, were
granted to the early settlers. The course of this
street marks the rear line of these lots from South
river below Washington street and from North river
above North street. This accounts for its crooked-
ness. It was at one time called "King street," and
afterwards "Main street."
On the south side of that portion which was
called "Old Paved street," stands the Barton-square
Church edifice. It was built in 1824, mainly through
the efforts of Stephen 0. Phillips, Willard Peele,
E. Hersey Derby, George Nichols, and Nathaniel
West, jr., who desired to call to Salem the Rev.
Henry Colman, then a pastor in Hingham, Mass.
The estimatied cost of the building and land was
$25,500. In 1843 the vestry was altered and en-
larged, and in 1855 the meeting-house was entirely
remodelled. Its pastors have been the Rev. Henry
Colman, Rev. James W. Thompson, and the Rev.
Augustus M. Haskell. The present pastor is the
Rev. George Batchelor.
Mechanic Hall, the principal hall in the city, oc-
cupies the western corner of Essex and Crombie
> Tabernacle Church.
8ALEH — ^PAST AND PRESENT. 91
streets. It has a fine stage, and a capacity for seat-
ing 1093 people. It was built in 1839, and was
altered and improved in 1870. It is the property
of the Mechanic Hall Corporation, formed in 1839.
Howard Hall is situated in the basement of this
building ; also the Salem Charitable Mechanic Asso-
ciation, organized in 1817, incorporated 1822.
East of this hall, on Crombie street, is the Crom-
bie street Orthodox meeting-house. It is built of
brick, was erected in 1828, and was first used as a
theatre* Aaron J. Phillips, from the Chatham
Garden Theatre, N. Y., was the lessee. For the
prize poem at the opening, $50 were awarded. The
first play acted in the Salem Theatre was Inchbald's
comedy, "Wives as they Were." For want of suffi-
cient patronage the theatre was sold in 1832 for a
house of worship to the congregation of the Rev.
William Williams. The present pastor is the Rev.
The first brick house in Salem was built on the
eastern corner of Essex and Crombie streets in 1707.
It belonged to Mr. BeoJ. Marston. It is said to-
have been pulled down because his wife thought it
damp and injurious to health, a fact which created
a strong prejudice here for a time against brick
houses. This edifice had free-stone capitals for its
front corners, and was an elegant mansion for its
day. The Crombie tavern afterward occupied this
site. It is now occupied by W. C. Packard & Co.'s
On the western corner of Essex and North streets,
stands what is generally known at the present time
as " The Old Witch-House.*' By some it is known
92 OLD NAUMKBAa.
as the ^^Curwen House/' Our local antiquarians
have more fittingly teimed it the '^ Roger Williams
House/' they having concluded, ftrom the best proofs
in existence, that it is the identical house in which
Roger Williams lived when exiled by an order of
the General Council in 1635, and in which he per-
sisted in preaching his doctrines during the fall of
that year, and fVom whence he fled in January, 1636,
to become the founder of the State of Rhode Island.
The house has undergone several transformations.
It is shown, on page 68, as it was in the eighteenth
century. The date of the erection of this house is
not known. Felt says '' it was built by Capt, George
Corwin in 1642." This is now known to be incorrect,
as George Corwin came to Salem in 1638, was Cap-
tain of a company of cavalry, and lived on Wash-
ington street, near the corner of Norman street,
until 1660, in the house which, in 1692, was occu-
pied by his grandson, the sheriff.
There are early town documents in existence
proving that the estate on the corner of North and
Essex streets, was owned by Roger Williams, and
that the house which stood upon it in 1640, had been
occupied by him. It appears that this estate after-
wards came into the possession of Capt. Richard
Davenport'^ The Commoner's Records show that
Capt. Davenport owned another house. It stood
prior to 1661, on that part of the Williams estate
which in 1721 was called ^Uhe garden." This latter
house stood at some distance from Essex street, and
was the one occupied by Davenport, when, with En-
dicott, he cut the cross from the King's colors, be-
cause as they declared, "it savored of popery." In
8ALBM — PAST AND PBESEMT. 93
] 644 Davenport removed to Boston and took com-
mand of the first defence raised upon Castle Island
(now Fort Independence), Boston harbor. He was
killed by lightning while serving at his post July
15, ^1665, aged 60 years. The whole country
mourned the loss of this veteran soldier.
In 1674 the administrators of Davenport's estate
conveyed the Roger Williams house, and the two
acres of land adjoining, one hundred and sixty feet
in width and extending to the North river, to Jona-
than Corwin, Esq., who occupied it for many years.
Corwin was one of the judges in the witchcraft tri-
als, and tradition handed down through the Curwen
family, has it that private examinations of individ-
uals charged with witchcraft, or perhaps grand jury
proceedings, were carried on in one of the apart-
ments of this house.
In the seventeenth century this edifice was one of
the most tasteful in Salem. It has undergone sev-
eral transformations since then, yet a portion of it
still looks like the production of a by-gone age.
Felt says, ^*It was the premises of a noted robbery
in 1684." The scenes which have made this build-
ing, among others, so attractive to visitors from
abroad were enacted near the close of the seven-
teenth century, and constitute the most 'tragic epi-
sode in the history of Salem, or, in fact, of the
entire country. They are known as the "Witch-
craft Delusion." I This episode has attracted uni-
> For farther particulars of this tragedy than are given in tliia
book, see *' Salem Witchcraft,'' 2 Vols., 8to, 1867, by Chas. W. Upham.
94 OLD NAUMKEAG.
versal attention since the date of its occurrence, and
will ever make Salem notable throughout the world.
It is a chapter of the most deplorable events ; so
indelibly are they impressed upon the pages of his-
tory that they can never be erased. Yet this fearful
experience was not without its beneficial effects. It
has taught the world that under peculiar circum-
stances and more particularly of public excitements,
even intelligent people may become the most de-
luded. Also that superstition and religious fanat-
icism may bring many an innocent victim to an
The solemn gloomy turn imparted to the first set-
tlers, by reason of the persecutions in the old
world, together with the trials and privations expe-
rienced in this, was naturally enough transmitted to
their children. These children were reared in a
wilderness where neither civilization nor cultivation
prevailed, and where wild beasts and Indians, roam-
ing at large, were especial objects of fear. They
suffered in mind a want of confidence and compas-
sion, which gave rise to feelings of both horror and
hostility. Added to this there were disturbances
among them of a political nature, and there were no
means of speedy communication between the scat-
tered villages. Hostile privateers were on the sea
coast, and almost every person in public ofiSce was
the victim of jealousies, animosities, and discontent.
It was likewise an age of superstition.
Books had been printed in England on the subject
of witchcraft. Some of them, no doubt, had reaohed
here. Under the general gloomy state of affairs it
96 OLD NAUHKEAO.
had become to be quite a general belief, that Satan
was at large and was working successfully in the
colony ; that some of the colonists even, had entered
into a compact with him, pledged to a furtherance
of his cause. If such persons were females they
were termed ^^ witches ;'' if males, they were called
^* wizards/' When suspected they were made the
special objects of persecution. The entire people,
in their religious zeal and depressed public spirits,
considered them in the light of persons who had
transferred their allegiance and worship from Gk>d
to the devil.
The people of Salem were not alone in the belief
that witchcraft was a crime, and could bo detected,
and that when detected the witch, or wizard, should
be punished. As early as 1648, our General Court
considered seriously the method adopted in the old
country for the discovery of witches, so that they
might apply it to a case, to which their attention
had then already been called. Previous to the great
development of the delusion here, various individuals
belonging to other parts of the colony had been
tried for the offence. Some of them had been ex-
Salem witchcraft commenced during the month of
February, 1692, at the house of the Rev. Samuel
Farris, in that part of the original town, which is
now Danvers. The daughter of Mr. Parris and his
niece, Abigail Williams, aged nine and twelve years
respectively, began to act ^' in a strange and unusual
manner." They would utter loud and piteous cries,
creep into holes, hide under benches, and put them-
8ALEM — PAST AND PRESEKT. 97
selves into odd postures. The physicians pro-
nounced them bewitched, and all the ministers were
invited to meet at Mr. Parris' house, and unite with
him in solemn religious services. As the interest in
their actions increased, they became more violent,
and accused Tituba, a South American slave in the
Parris family, of having bewitched them. Mr. Par-
ris beat Tituba and compelled her to acknowledge
herself guilty. These children next complained of
Sarah Goode and Sarah Osborne, and then of two
other women of excellent character, Corey and
Nurse. All were thrown into prison. John, Tituba's
husband, for his own safety, accused others. The
demon was thus let loose in the midst of the people,
but it was the demon of superstition rather than the
demon of witchery. Says Thatcher on this subject,
" So violent was the popular prejudice against every
appearance of witchcraft, that it was deemed meri-
torious to denounce all that gave the least reason for
suspicion. Eveiy child and every gossip was pre-
pared to recognize a witch, and no one could be
certain of personal safety. As the infatuation in-
creased, many of the most reputable females, and
several males also, were apprehended and committed
to prison. There is good reason to believe that, in
some instances, the vicious and abandoned availed
themselves of gratifying their corrupt passions, of
envy, malice and revenge." Sad indeed was the
delusion, and shocking the extent to which the be-
wildered imaginations and excited passions of the
people hurried them on to deeds for which they are
now visited with unmeasured reproach.
98 OLD NAUlCKEAa.
The following is a list of those who lost their lives
as witches, or wizards, by the hand of the execa-
tioner : —
Eev. Gro. Burroughs, of Wells, Maine ; Wilmot Rbbd,
of Marblehead ; Margakkt Scot, of Rowley; Susanna
Martin, of Amesbury; Elizadktu Howb, of Ipswich;
Sarah Wildks and Mary Estus, of TopsAeld ; Samurl
Wardwkll, Martha Curuikh, and Mary Parkrr, of An-
dover ; John rROCTOR, Gro. Jacobs, sen., John Wii.lard,
Sarah Goodr, Ukukcca Ni)rsk» Giles Couby and Martha
Corey, of Salem Village; Ann Pudeatbr, Bridgbt
Bishop, and Alice Parker, of Salem.
Corey was pressed to death, because he refused
to speak, knowing that speech would avail him
nothing. His tongue was pressed out of his mouth,
but was forced in again by the sheriff with his cane.
About 150 persons in all were accused of witchcraft,
including nine children, varying from 5 to 14 years.
Various were the accusations brought against
them, such as having familiarity with ^Hhe black-
man," who it was claimed was ever by their side
whispering in their ear; holding dayB of hellish
fasts and thanksgivings; eating red bread and
drinking blood ; transforming themselves and their
victims into various forms ; signing contracts with
Satan ; entering his employ, and yielding to his
commands; afflicting others by pinching, pricking
with pins, striking, etc., when many miles distant;
and divers other accusations that would be laughed
to scorn at the present day. All matters of afflic-
tion or of discord among the people, such as a con-
troversy respecting the settlement of a minister,
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 99
which had for a time been going on ; also the death
of some of the most influential of the citizens, were
attributed to Satanic influences. With such inflam-
mable matter, in an age of superstition, the result
is not to be wondered at.
Cotton Mather, one of the most learned ministers
of that time led in the preaching to the people of
sermons designed to inflame rather than abate the
panic. He adopted the doctrine of demons, and
was exceedingly energetic in endeavoring to spread
the delusion into other parts of the colony. To him
is largely ascribed the extent of this calamity. It
is questionable with some writers as to whether he
did not largely impose upon the superstitions of the
people, for some "Jesuitical purpose." In these days
of charity, we are rather inclined to think that he led,
only because he was looked up to in this as in other
things as a leader, and that instead of calmly and rea-
sonably investigating the accusations made, he fell
in with the others and supported and increased their
importance, by well-laid arguments and discussions.
On the simplest and the most absurd evidence people
of most exemplary christian character were put on
trial, and, unless they could prove themselves not to
be in league with Satan, they were sentenced to
Innocence was a diflScult thing to prove under the
excited state of the people, magistrates and the
clergy. Nothing that the poor accused persons
could say, or do, would be taken as other than the
exercise of powers bestowed on them by the evil
one. Among other foolish and harsh measures to test
100 OLD NAUMKBAG.
witches, was to take the accused to a river or pond,
and throw them in. If they swam they were pro-
nounced witches and treated as such ; if they could
not swim they would suffer the danger of being
drowned. The most effectual way to escape accusa-
tion, was to become an accuser, and the number of
"witches," and "wizards," rapidly increased. "From
March to August, 1692," writes Dr. Bentley, "was
the most distressing time Salem ever knew: busi-
ness was interrupted, the town deserted, terror was
in every countenance, and distress in every heart.
Every place was the subject of some direful tale, fear
haunted every street, melancholy dwelt in silence
in every place after the sun retired. The population
was diminished, business could not for some time
recover its former channels, and the innocent suf-
fered with the guilty. But as soon as the judges
ceased to condemn, the people ceased to accuse.
Terror at the violence and the guilt of the proceed-
iugs, succeeded instantly to the conviction of blind
zeal, and what every man had encouraged, all now
professed to abhor. Every expression of sorrow
was found in Salem. The church erased all the ig-
nominy they had attached to the dead, by recording
a most humble acknowledgment of their error. But
a diminished population, the injury done to religion,
and the distress of the aggrieved, were seen and felt
with the greatest sorrow."
When the authorities were convinced of their er-
ror, the Governor ordered all those accused and not
tried, to be discharged. The Salem prison was full
of them. Such a "Jail Delivery" was never known
102 OLD NAUICKBAG.
before or since in New England. The witchcraft
delusion was, at the best, a most unhappy affair, but
as Hon. Joseph Story has said, '* We may lament
the errors of the times which led to these persecu-
tions, but surely our ancestors had no special reasons
for shame, in a belief which had the universal sanc-
tion of their own and all former ages, which counted
in its train, philosophers as well as enthusiasts;
which was graced by the learning of prelates, as
well as by the countenance of kings ; which the law
supported by its mandates, and the purest judges
felt no compunctions in enforcing." Much as we
might desire to expunge this record, no history of
Salem, of the state, of the country, or of the world,
would be complete without its narration.
A little to the west of the Roger Williams house,
stands the present fine edifice of the North Church.
The house was first finished plain, but in 1847 it
received its present ornamentation under the direc-
tion of the late Francis Peabody. Its entire cost,
including the land it occupies, was $30,000. Among
its eminent clergymen were the Rev. Thos. Barnard,
D.D., son of the Rev. Thomas, of tlie First Church ;
Rev. John E. Abbott, Rev. John Brazier, Rev. Oc-
tavius B. Frothingham and Rev. Charles B. Lowe.
The present pastor is the Rev. E. B. Willson. The
100th anniversaiy of "Leslie's retreat" was com-
memorated in this church on the 26th of February,
1875. Addresses were delivered by Mayor Wil-
liams and the Rev. E. B. Willson, and a scholarly
oration delivered by the Hon. George B. Loring.
The event was one of unusual interest. The 50th
8ALBM — TA.BT AND PRESENT. 108
anniversary of the same event was observed, in
1825, in the old North meeting-house.
A few rods west of the North Church, is the resi-
dence of Dr. George B. Loring. Dr. Loring is a
noted politician, an eminent scholar, and a fine ora-
tor. He is a native of North Andover, though long
a resident of Salem. He has been a member of
the State Legislature, was president of the State
Senate for three or four years, and is our present
representative in Congress.
About opposite Dr. Loring*s, on Essex street,
stands the New Jerusalem Church edifice. This
house was dedicated April 18, 1872. The property
cost $17,000. The first convert to the faith of this
church in Salem, is believed to have been Major Jo-
seph Hiller, who was appointed Collector of the port
of Salem, under Washington's administration. Ma-
jor Hiller died in 1814. His portrait hangs in the
Custom House. The first meeting for worship was
held in 1840, at the house of Mrs. Burleigh, corner
of Lynde and Washington streets. There were pres-
ent but four persons. In the 3'ear 1844, Rev. O. P.
Hiller, a grandson of Major Hiller, came to Salem,
and preached in Lyceum Hall on the evening of July
24th, to about four hundred people.
In 1862, Rev. T. B. Hayward was invited to come
to Salem, by the few people then interested in the
" Heavenly Doctrines." As the result of his labors
the " Salem Society of the New Jerusalem Church,"
consisting of thirteen member^, was organized by
him January 25, 1863. Mr. Hayward left the next
3'ear. Among his successors were the Rev. Abiel
104 OLD NAUMKBAO.
Silver, Rev. L. 6. Jordan, and the present pastor,
Rev. A. F. Frost. The society now has thirty-four
members, with a Sabbath School of forty children,
the usual Sabbath congregation being about sixty.
On the site of the New Jerusalem Church a tavern
with the sign of an eagle was kept in 1794, by Jacob
Bacon. This building was removed and is now
standing in Botts' court.
Thomas Putnam was the first clerk of Salem Vil-
lage. His town residence was on the north side of
Essex street. Its front embraced the western part
of the present North Church grounds, and extended
to a point just beyond the head of Cambridge street.
Thomas Putnam possessed a large property by in-
heritance, took an active part in military, ecclesi-
astical, and municipal affairs. He was the grand-
father of the famous Revolutionary General, Israel
The South Church edifice occupies the eastern
corner of Cambridge and Chestnut streets. It was
built in 1804. Its dimensions are 66 by 80 feet,
with a spire 166 feet high. The building and land
it occupies cost $23,819.78. The church at its first
erection, was sadly destitute of modern elegancies
and conveniences. There is no record of any heat-
ing apparatus until 1812, when a brick Russian
stove was used. In 1860 the interior of the church
was remodelled and various repairs made at a cost
of nearly $7000.
As before stated the Tabernacle Church society
was formed by members who seceded from the First
Church. In 1774 another difiSculty arose in the se-
SALEir — ^PAST Airo PRBSEMT. 105
ceding society, over a question of church govern-
ment, during which controversy their house of wor-
ship was burned ^ and the church was rent assunder.
The minority formed the nucleus of the church and
society now worshipping in the South Church. Their
first place of worship was in what was known as the
*' Assembly Building," which occupied the land back
of tlie present church, where the chapel now stands.
It was first occupied, December 18, 1774, and then
contained twentj'-eight wall pews and twenty-eiglit
floor pews. Since the separation of the Tabernacle
society, the South parish has had only four settled
pastors, viz.: — Rev. Daniel Hopkins, D.D., Rev.
Brown Emerson, D.D., Rev. Israel E. Dwinell, D.D.,
and the present pastor. Rev. Edward S. At wood.
In the seventeenth century the lot upon which the
South Church stands, was used as a brick yard.
Opposite the South Church, on the south-eastern
corner of Chestnut and Cambridge streets, stands
the Hamilton Hall building. Tiiis hall was built
during the Revolutionary war period, by an associa-
tion of wealthy gentlemen, for assemblies. Like the
old building above mentioned, it was at one time
called the Assembly building.
Chestnut street is the finest street in Salem. It
is shaded with stately elms, and on either side are
rows of elegant mansions, occupied mostly by the
descendants of our early merchant princes.
House No. 18 Broad street was built by John
Pickering in 1650. It is known as the Pickering
> See page 89.
106 OLD NAUMKBAQ.
house. Timothy Pickering, LL. D., soldier and
statesman, occupied this liouse. It has always re-
mained in the family, and is to-day the residence of
John Pickering, broker.
Timothy Pickering was one of the most remarka-
ble of Salem men. He was born here July 17, 1745,
and died January 29, 1829. Admitted to the bar in
1768, he became the cliampion and leader of tlie
patriots of Essex county. He wrote and delivered
the address of the people of Salem to Gov. Gage in
1774, on the occasion of the Boston port bill. He
was the colonel in command of the troops who op-
posed the first armed resistance to the British troops,
February 26, 1775, at North bridge, and prevented
their crossing to seize the cannon concealed in North
Salem. He was a Judge of the Court of Common
Pleas, for Essex county, and solo Judge of the
Maritime Court, for the middle district. In the fall
of 1776, with his regiment of 700 men, he joined
Washington in N. J. He was made adjutant-gen-
eral of the army in 1777, and took part in the battles
of Brandywine and Germantown. He was made a
member of the board of war in November of the
same year; and succeeded Gen. Greene as quarter-
master-general in 1780. After the war he removed
to Philadelphia. In 1786 he was sent to adjust a
controversy between various claimants of the Wyo-
ming settlement. During this trouble he was way-
laid by a band of disguised persons near Wilkesbarre,
Pa., and he was imprisoned, ill-treated, and his life
was threatened. When he re-appeared to his family,
twenty days later, he was so changed by his suffer-
108 OLD NAUHKEAO.
ings that bis children did not recognize him. In
1787 he was the delegate of Luzerne county, to the
Pennsylvania Convention for considering the United
States' Constitution, and zealously favored its adop-
tion. He afterwards filled the national offices of
post-master general, secretary of war, and secretary
of state. He retired from office poor, and settled
in a log-hut on some wild lands in Pennsylvania.
He finally returned to Salem, and was subsequently
made Chief Justice of Essex county Court of Com-
mon Pleas, was a United States senator ; member
of the board of war of Massachusetts, during the
war of 1812-15, and later a member of Congress.
He was one of the leaders of the Federal party in
the United States, a talented writer, a brave and
patriotic soldier, apd an impartial, able and ener-
getic public officer.
Nearly opposite the Pickering house, on the south-
ern corner of Broad and Summer streets, stands
one of the handsomest public buildings in our city.
It is the State Normal School building, a fine brick
structure of three stories, the style of architecture
being modest yet ver}^ tasty. This school was es-
tablished by the State, with the liberal co-operation
of the city of Salem and the Eastern Railway Com-
pany. Its purpose is that of fitting female school
teachers for their work. It has had three princi-
pals: — Richard Edwards, Alpheus Crosby, and the
present principal Daniel B. Hagar, all of whom have
met with great success. Under the present man-
agement, during the past twelve years the institution
has become the largest and the acknowledged best
BALEU — PAST AND PRESENT. 109
Normal School in the Commonwealth. The first
class was received in September, 1854, since which
time 1970 ladies have been members of the school.
Nine hundred have graduated. The instruction is
based on the common-sense idea of that which is
practical, the aim being rather to teach how to learn
than to teach any special branch, though all common
English branches are taught, and some of the higher
studies may be pursued. The school generally has
on an average about 225 pupils.
West of the above building stands the Salem
High-School building. It is a very modest struc-
ture, yet one that very well answers its purpose.
This school is under the charge of J. W. Perkins.
It graduates a large number of ladies and gentlemen
every year. Between the High and the Normal
School buildings is a little brick school-house which
was used many years ago.
The first grammar school in Salem was established
in 1637. In 1699 there were but twenty scholars.
The Rev. John Fisk was the first teacher, and Mr.
Oliver Carlton the last teacher of this school in its
separate identity. It was called successively the
Grammar School, the Latin and the Fisk. An
English High School for boys was founded in 1827
and located in the Latin-School building ; it was
subsequently named the Bowditch School. Gen.
Henry K. Oliver was the first, and Mr. Albert G.
Boyden the last, teacher of the Boys' High School.
In 1845 the High School for girls was established.
It was called the Saltonstall School. Its first loca-
tion was in a school-house which stood on the south
110 OLD NAUMKEA.Q.
side of Federal street, just west of Washington
street ; next in Franklin building ; then in Lynde
place. Mr. Edward Jocelj^n and Mr. Moses P.
Chase were its first and last teachers. A good his-
tory of the several other schools of Salem can be
found in the Heport of the School Superintendent,
A. D. Small, for 1875.
The grammar schools and their principals in Sa-
lem, to-day are as follows: — Bentley (for girls),
Hannah £. Choate ; Bowditch, Frank L. Smith ;
Holly street, Owen B. Stone ; Phillips (for boys),
Edwin R. Bigelow ; Pickering, Wm. P. Hayward.
There are also twelve primary schools and five aux-
iliary schools, including the evening, and Free Hand
and Mechanical drawing schools. In 1697 the in-
come from rent of Baker's Island, the two Misery
Islands, and Beverly Ferry, was applied to assist in
the support of the grammar school in Salem, in ad-
dition to twelve shillings each, paid by the scholars.
Directly in the rear of the Normal and High
School buildings, is the Broad street burying ground.
This was commenced about 1655 and was called
burying hill. Among the many buried here is
Capt. George Corwin, the sheriff of Salem in the
witchcraft days, who when Giles Corey's tongue was
pressed from his mouth, forced it back again with
his cane. For the part which he, by virtue of his
office, was obliged to take in executing the law upon
those condemned for witchcraft, he was severely
persecuted by the friends of the deceased, and at
the time of his death (1696) so great was the excite-
ment against him, that his friends were unable for a
8ALEU — PAST AND PRESEKT. Ill
time to carry his body to the family tomb, and his
remains were kept buried in the cellar of his house
until the excitement had subsided. Hutcliinson's
History of Massachusetts mentions him as being in
the expedition against Canada, under Sir William
Fhipps, in 1660.
The northern corner of Chestnut and Summer
streets, was used by John Mason from 1661 to 1687,
for making bricks, and afterwards by Isaac Stearns
for the same purpose. This brick 3'ard was situated
near the head of Ruck's creek.^ What was known
as Ruck's Village 2 was situated between Norman
and Creek streets, and east of Summer street. Tra-
dition has it that vessels were built as far up as
Chestnut street and launched into the creek.
*■ See page 81. * See page 84.
aiTB or wn-LiAu gbax's gaedbh.
HOMB OF Skelton.— Town Hall Ain> Market.~Monroe*8 Visit.
—Old Derbt Mansion.—Brownb Familt.— Derby Family.—
CoNANT^s House.— Woodbury E8tate.--Ship Tavbrw.— Man-
sion House.— Pa LFRAYHoMBSTBAD.-i- Kino's ArmTavern.^
Destruction of Tea.— Sun Tavbhn.- Essex House.- Wil-
liam Gray.— Salem Newspapers, past and present.— Post
Offices.— Early Custom Houses.- Salem Athen;bum.—
American Association for the Advancement of Sciencb.—
Charter Street Burying Ground.— Old Corduroy Road.—
Early Commerce.— Salem Hospital.— Cathouo Churches.
[|E now pass through Norman street, cross
Washington, and enter Front street. The
dwelling house of the Rev. Mr. Skelton, first
pastor of the First Church, stood about where
the police station now stands. Samuel Skelton was
the personal friend and early spiritual guide of
Governor Endicott, who experienced religious con-
viction under his preaching in the old country.
Town Hall stands in the middle of Derby square,
north of Front street. It was built in 1816-17. It
is 100 feet long, 40 feet wide, two stories high and
cost about $12,000. It was first publicly used upon
the occasion of President Monroe's visit to Salem,
July 8, 1817. Here he was introduced to our princi-
pal men, and to the ladies and gentlemen assembled.
On the northern wall, inside this hall, directly over
the rostrum, may to-day be seen a large carved me-
dallion head of George Washington, executed by
Mr. Samuel Mclnture of Salem, from an original
114 OLD NAUHKEAO.
design made by him from life, when Gen. Washing-
ton visited Salem. It is said to be a most admirable
likeness. This hall, for legitimate municipal pur-
poses, was abandoned when Salem became incorpo-
rated as a city, March 23, 1836. The basement and
first floor of this building are occupied for a City
Market, and the square below it, and between it and
Front street, is sometimes called ^^ Market square,"
because the country teams with their produce for
sale assemble here. Nearly every Saturday after-
noon and evening, a hundred and fifty or more mar-
ket teams are gathered in and about this place,
presenting a lively and interesting sight. The sur-
roundings of the Town Hall, are hotels, billiard
halls, dining and liquor saloons. The old hall in
the second story retains much of its original look,
and is used for local political rallies, temperance
meetings, and like gatherings where economy is
The land occupied by Derby square was comprised
in the fine estate of Elias Haskett Derby, the noted
merchant. This estate was laid out into fine walks
and gardens, and extended from Essex street to a
terrace which overhung the river. The mansion
upon it, which Mr. Derby completed and occupied
but a few months before his death, was one of the
most elegant in the town. It was built in 1799, was
of wood, three stories in height, and cost $80,000.
It was enriched by a conservatory and a large and
valuable library. It occupied the site of the three-
story mansard roof house built by the Hon. Samuel
Browne, the former owner of the land.
8ALEH — ^PAST AND PRESENT. 115
Hon. Samnel Browne was born in 1669 : was the
first town treasurer, a representative to tlie General
Court, Judge of the Superior Court, colonel of the
Salem regiment, and the greatest merchant of his
day in the county of Essex. His estate included
the whole of the present Derby square with land
both east and west of it. He died in 1731, leaving
his house to his son Samuel. Samuel died in 1742,
leaving this house to his son William. William also
purchased of his cousin, William Burnett Browne, a
house on the site of the Bowker Block, afterwards
known as the " Sun Tavern." The Browne family
was very large and was one of the most respected
and influential of all the Salem families previous
to the Revolutionary war. They then showed de-
cided preferences for the cause of England, and
were reckoned among the stanchest loyalists in
The above mentioned William was a grandson of
Governor Burnett. He was many years a represen-
tative of Salem ; was one of the seventeen rescin-
ders in 1768; a colonel of the Essex militia; a
Judge of the Superior Court to 1774. During the
Revolutionary war he was banished from Salem as
a dangerous tory. He took refuge in Boston, and
went to England in March, 1776, when the King's
troops left Boston. During the course of the war
his whole estate was confiscated. The house east
of the site of Hale's building was afterwards pur-
chased by Elias Haskett Derby. His was the only
property confiscated in Salem. Browne was Gover-
nor of Bermuda in 1781-90.
8ALBlf — ^PAST AND PBB8BNT. 117
that of the old Spartan. **Find them if you can I
take them if you canl they will never be surren*
His widow lived to found the Derby Academy,
at Hingham; his eldest son, Richard, was an ar>
dent patriot, and another of his sons, John Derby,
was an owner of the ship Ck>lambia, which on her
second voyage discovered the Columbia river. John
Derby also carried to England the first news of the
battle of Lexington, and at the close of the war
brought home from France, the first news of peace.
While most of the rich men of Massachusetts clung
to the mother country at the commencement of the
war, none of the Derby name followed their example.
Elias Haskett Derby, Jr., known during the Rev-
olutionary war as General Derby, was a son of the
great merchant, and one of the founders of the East
India trade. He was the first importer of Merino
sheep, and began the manufacture of American
broadcloth during the war of 1812. Ezekiel Hersey
Derby, another son, built, owned, and occupied as
his winter residence, the western portion of the
building now known as '^Maynes" block, on Essex
street, directly opposite Derby square. He owned
the larger portion of ^' South-fields," now South Sa-
lem, and what is now known as the Lafayette House,
was his summer residence. A third Elias Haskett
Derby, the son of E. Haskett, jr., studied law with
Daniel Webster, was president of the Old Colony
Railroad, a writer for the leading magazines of the
day, was active in promoting the commercial inter-
ests of Boston, and an earnest and zealous advocate
8BAL OF THE MASaACUUSKTTS BAY
(MM PAOB B.)
SALEM — ^PAST AND FRE8EMT. 119
of the construction of iron-clads during the late
civil war. Maynes' block is supposed to cover the
spot on which, in 1626, Roger Conant erected the
first house in Salem.
The house of John Woodbury, one of the Old
Planters, stood just west of Maynes' block, and
about opposite Hale's building. Capt. George Cor-
win, father of Jonathan, purchased the Woodbury
estate in 1660, and erected thereon a <^fine man-
sion." It seems as probable that this was the
building in which the witchcraft examinations were
made, as it is that they took place in the Roger Wil-
liams house. Corwin died in 1685, leaving the
mansion and a large fortune to his widow and chil-
dren, judge Jonathan Corwin^ was the adminis-
trator of his affairs and principal heir. It is not
unlikely that the judge during the next seven years,
changed his residence from the Roger Williams
house, to the "fine mansion" left by his father,
leaving the former dwelling-house to his own chil-
dren. This would have made his residence "near to
the court house," as the records declare.
Previous to 1692, John Gedney kept what he
called the "Ship Tavern." It was situated on the
spot now occupied by the West block. John Stacy
was his successor. In 1693 Francis Ellis was al-
lowed to keep the " Ship Tavern," and he was suc-
ceeded by Henry Sharpe from Boston. This tavern
was the most noted in Salem of the seventeenth
century. It was torn down about 1740.
> See page 98.
120 OLD NAUMKKAG.
On the site of the noted «^Ship Tavern/' John
Turner, Esq., built a very fine mansion in 1748.
Judge Andrew Oliver bought it of Turner, and
Capt. Nathaniel West bought it of Oliver. In
1838 it was leased as a tavern, and first opened in
that year on the occasion of the visit of President
Andrew Jackson to Salem. It was called the Man-
sion House, and was destroyed by fire about twenty
Between the West block, nearly opposite Central
street, and the head of St. Peter street, was the
homestead of Peter Palfray, another of the ^^Old
Planters." This land afterwards became the prop-
erty of the Browne family, a noted family in the
early history of Salem. Since 1675, or thereabout,
this vicinity has been noted for its public houses.
We find that various writers have, from time to
time, mentioned the following taverns as having
occupied this spot : Mr. Stacy's tavern, Mr. Pratt's
tavern, Mr. Goodhue's tavern, Mr. Robinson's tav-
ern, BenJ. Webb's tavern, the King's Arm tavern,
the Sun tavern, the Essex Coffee House, the Lafay-
ette Coffee House, and now the Essex House. From
the manner in which their location and order of es-
tablishment has been given, it is hard to present any
farther information as correctly as we would wish,
but the following cannot be far from the real facts.
East of the ^^Ship Tavern," between where the
present West block and the present Essex House
is, William Browne, Esq., in 1652, built a fine man-
sion. During the Dutch wars a vast sum in New
England shillings was hidden in one of the chim-
8ALEH — ^PAST AND PRBSBKr. 121
neys. It was found in 1730, when Col. Benjamin
Browne was married. About 1770, William Good-
hue occupied this mansion as a tavern. It was
called the '' King's Arm Tavern." At the commence-
ment of the war feeling against the mother country,
the name of this tavern was changed to the ^^ Sun
Tavern." Samuel Robinson succeeded Groodhue, and
Benjamin Webb succeeded Robinson. Webb was
succeeded by his son, Jonathan, who continued here
until the estate was purchased by William Gray, the
merchant. Mr. Gray had the "Sun Tavern" taken
down about 1800, to accommodate his new brick
house. After Mr. Gray moved to his new mansion,
the "Sun Tavern" was removed to his old mansion
which occupied the site of the present Bowker block.
In 1768 the merchants and traders of Salem met at
the "King's Arm Tavern," and voted unanimously
that during the year 1769 they would not purchase
or import any goods from Great Britain, except coal,
salt and such articles necessary for the fisheries, nor
would they ever again import any tea, glass, paper,
or painters' colors, until the acts imposing duties on
these colonies were repealed. These duties created
great dissatisfaction among the people of this and
other ports, and the feeling was made manifest in
various ways. In 1774 a small cask of tea sent from
Boston, was seized and burned in School street.
Tea was, however, smuggled into the town, and used
in secret. David Mason had the charge of two chests
smuggled in by a colored man. He delivered them
over to the boys, who took them to the Common
and made a bonfire of them. On the 18th of July,
122 OLD NATTMKSAO.
1776, the feeling was so bitter against the crown
that the king's arms, and every sign with any resem-
blance of it, whether of lion and crown, or of pestle,
mortar and crown, etc., together with every sign that
belonged to a tory, were taken down, and a general
conflagration made of them in King street.
In 1774 a tavern called the ^^ Salem Coffee House"
was opened near the St. Peter's Church. The tav-
ern at this time known as the *' Ship Tavern," was
on the corner of Washington and Church streets, as
mentioned on page 73. In 1814 Prince Stetson occu-
pied the elegant mansion of William Gray. It was
then called the ^' Esdex Coffee House." Lafayette
stopped here when he made his last visit to Salem,
and the name of the house was changed to that of
the '* Lafayette Coffee House." About 1842 it was
called the Essex House, and it retains that name
to-day. The building has been enlarged and altered
f^om its original appearance. The eastern wing
of this building was formerly Mr. Gray's stable.
Among our illustrations will be found a little row
of buildings, including ^^ Cousins' Bee Hive," which
cover the site of William Gray's garden, on the
corner of Essex and St. Peter streets.
William Gray was one of Salem's eminent mer-
chants. He was born in Lynn, Massachusetts, June,
1750. He was early apprenticed to a merchant in
Salem, and was afterwards in the employ of Capt.
Bichard Derby. Beginning business for himself, he
amassed great wealth, having at one time more than
sixty sail of square-rigged vessels on the ocean,
The French Revolution created strong differences
124 OLD NAUMKEAO.
of political feelings in this country. * The Repub-
licans favored the Revolution, and were called Jao-
obins. The Federalists opposed it. When the
excesses of the revolutionists had thrown a degree
of odium upon their supporters here, the Republi-
cans were stigmatized by their opponents as Demo-
crats. They adopted the faame, and have since held
it as the emblem of their advocacy of the people's
rights. The Federalists, losing the popularity of
their name, afterwards adopted the name of Republi-
cans. William Gray belonged to the latter party,
and served as State Senator. In 1808 he took sides
with Jefferson, that ^^ the embargo act was a consti-
tutional measure." For this the Federalists opposed
him so bitterly, that he removed to Boston in 1809.
He was made Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
the following year. It might be of interest to state
that political feeling in those days ran exceedingly
high, and appeared in the pulpit as well as the press.
In 1811 the parties in Salem were so opposed to
each other, that it took two days and a half to fill
the more important town offices.
The newspaper offices of Salem are all situated
on Essex street, within a short distance of each
other. The '^ Salem Gazette " is the oldest paper in
the city, and ranks among the oldest in the country.
It was first published as the ^^ Salem Mercury,"
October 14, 1786, by John Dabney and Thomas C.
Gushing. It took the name of ^^ Salem Gazette"
January 5, 1790, and was first issued as a semi-
weekly, June 3, 1794, and has continued as such to
the present time. It is published every Tuesday
SALEM — ^PAST AMD FRBSEITT. 125
and Friday morning. Its publishers have been
John Dabney, Thomas C. Gushing, William Carlton,
Caleb Cushing, Ferdinand Andrews, Caleb Foote
and William Browne, jr. Caleb Foote and N. A.
Horton are its present publishers. They also print
the ^^ Essex County Mercury," started as the ^* Salem
Mercury," June 8, 1831. It is made up wholly of
the general reading matter of the Gazette, and
is published every Wednesday. The Gazette has
always decidedly manifested the principles of the
Federalist and, its offsprings, the Whig and present
Bepublican parties. Its office is in Hale's building.
Several weekly papers of short duration, were
published in Salem previous to the publication of
the present Gazette, the first by Samuel Hall, in
1768. In 1781, "The Salem Gazette and General
Advertiser," was published by a woman named
The "Salem Register" was first published May
12, 1800, by William Carlton, as "The Impartial
Register." It was next called "The Salem Impar-
tial Register ;" subsequently "The Salem Register ;"
later "The Essex Register," and then again "The
Salem Register," which name it retains to-day. On
the death of Mr. Carlton the paper was continued
in the interests of his widow, Elizabeth Carlton,
until her death, when it was "published for the pro-
prietors." Haven Poole and Warwick Palfray, jr.,
next became owners of the paper. Mr. Poole died
in 1811, and Mr. Palfra}' was sole proprietor until
1835. John Chapman then became associated with
him. Mr. Palfray died in 1838, when his son,
126 OLD NAUMKBAO.
Charles W. Falfray, became his successor. Mr.
Chapman died in 1873. Mr. Eben N. Walton suc-
ceeded him, and Messrs. Falfray & Walton are the
present publishers. It is a fact worthy of note that
all of the previous publishers of the Register, ^* died
in the harness." Charles W. Falfray is a lineal de-
scendant of Feter Fain*ay. His father, Warwick,
Jr., was a member of the first three common councils
of the city, a representative, and a state senator.
The Register is published every Monday and Thurs-
day morning, at 193 Essex street, corner of Central
street. It has been associated in politics with the
old Republican, Whig, and the present Republican
The "Salem Observer" was first published January
6, 1823, by William and Stephen B. Ives. January 1,
1837, George W. Fease was admitted into the part-
nership. Stephen B. Ives withdrew from the firm in
1844. William Ives withdrew a few years ago, and
Horace S. Traill associated himself with Mr. Fease.
A year or two ago, Francis A. Fielding, a son-in-
law of the senior member, was admitted into the
firm, which now bears the name of Fease, Traill <&
Fielding. Gilbert L. Streeter, Esq., has for several
years been associated with the paper as its chief
editor. The Observer is supposed to be neutral in
politics, but it has always shown unmistakable signs
of a strong republican tendency. It is published
every Saturday from its ofiSce in the Stearns' build-
ing, corner of Washington and Essex streets.
The "Salem Fost and County Advertiser" was first
published January 1, 1873, by Charles H. Webber
8AUSU — PAST AND PRESENT. 127
and Frederick B. Browning, as the "Salem City
Post." Mr. Browning retired after a service of six
weeks. Mr. Webber continued the publication alone
until the close of that year, when he dropped the
word " City'' from the name of the paper, and added
the name of "County Advertiser," because of its
extensive county circulation, and associated with
him his brother, Putnam Webber, under the firm
title of Webber Brothers. Putnam Webber retired
from the paper in May, 1875. Since then C. H.
Webber has been its editor and proprietor, with
assistance from Wintield S. Nevins and William D.
Dennis. The Post is published every Wednesday
morning fi*om Hale's building, 223 Essex street.
In politics it is independently Democratic.
"Peabody's Fireside Favorite" is a literary paper,
published monthly by John P. Peabody from his
store under the First Church. It was established
in 1868 as "The Hoop Skirt," and was then cir-
culated gratuitously as an advertising sheet. It
was afterwards increased to double its proportions,
changed flrom a folio to a quarto form and made a
"Conrad's Pavilion" and "The Trades' Bulletin,"
are advertising sheets circulated gratuitously. The
former, established about 1869, is published at Con-
rad's Pavilion, opposite the Essex house, and the
latter, established in 1877, at Hutchinson's printing
office, corner of Washington and Essex streets. A
large number of other papers of various kinds, and
for a variety of purposes, have been published in
Salem from time to time. The most successful of
128 OLD NAUHKBAO.
them lived but a few years. The following are the
names of some of the papers now extinct : —
The Essex Gazette 176S-75.
The Salem Gazette and Newbury and
Marblehead Advertiser 1774.
The American Gazette or Constitu-
tional Journal 1776.
The Salem Chronicle and Essex Adver-
The Salem Gazette 1781-^5.
Weekly Visitant 1806.
The Friend 1807.
The Fool 1808.
The Barber Shop 1809.
Salem Courier 1828.
The Hive 1828-9.
Ladies Miscellany 1829.
The Commercial Advertiser .... 1832-41.
Salem Advertiser '. 1841-9.
Saturday Evening Bulletin . • . • 1833.
The Land Mark 1834-6.
The Lighthouse 1835.
Essex County Democrat 1838.
The Harrisonian 1840.
The Whig 1840.
The Locomotive 1842-8.
Voice around the Jail 1848.
Essex County Reformer ...... 1844.
The Salem Advocate 1866-61.
The Essex Statesman ....*. 1868-8.
The Whirlwind 1869-70.
Hale's building previously spoken of, stands next
east of the First Church edifice. It is four stories
high, has an iron front, painted white, and is one of
the finest business buildings in the city. In the
130 OLD NAUMKBAQ.
rear of Hale's building stands an ancient bouse tbat
formerly occupied its site. This bouse was built by
Col. William Browne in 1763, for his mother ; later it
was sold to, and occupied by, Mr. Samuel Gray, mer-
chant. To accommodate the building of this house
a very old house was torn down, in which at one
time the post-office was located, kept by Lydia Hill
and Molly Gill. Before the post-office, ^^ the notable
Abigail Allen" kept school in this house. It is
evident that a post-office was established in Salem
as early as 1693, when a general office was estab-
lished in Boston. The postage from Boston to Sa-
lem was four pence. Postmen were then employed
to carry letters from place to place. Among the
most notable of the postmen was John Noble, who
rode between Boston and Portsmouth. The article
in which he used to carry letters is deposited in the
Portsmouth Athenseum. ^^It is made of tin, and is
only four inches wide, four inches high, and ten
inches long; about double the size of a common
cartridge box." What a contrast between the facil-
ities of the present da}'. The post-offices in Salem
during the past century have been located as follows :
1775 at what is now 100 Washington street; 1779
at what is now 290 Essex street ; 1792 at the corner
of Essex and Washington streets ; 1800 at the cor-
ner of Essex and Central streets ; 1801 at the foot
of Central street, where Phoenix building now is ;
next at what is now the Bowker-place ; 1815 in the
Franklin building; 1817 at the corner of Washing-
ton and Essex streets ; 1818 at the corner of Essex
and St. Peter streets; in 1830 at the East India
8ALBM — ^PAST AND PRB8BMT. 181
Marine building, where it remained until removed
to its present position iii the Asiatic building. Gen.
George H. Fierson is post-master.
Central street was early known as Hanover street ;
subsequently as Market street. The market-house
was at one time on this thoroughfare. It was built
in 1793. Its location was described that same year,
by the late Col. Benjamin Pickman,^ as follows:
"Opposite to the tavern kept by Capt. Benjamin
Webb,^ and on the water, at about 800 yai'ds from
Webb's tavern, due south, is a market begun ; the
subscribers forty. The market was raised on the
24th October, 1793."
The market-house was a wooden building, later
known as Concert-Hall building, situated on the site
of the present Phoenix building. It was de8tro3'ed
in the great " Front street" fire of 1844.
In 1 789 the Custom House was on the eastern side
of Central street. It stood where the First National,
and the Mercantile banks now are. Major Joseph
Hillcr was the collector. In 1805, Col. William R,
Lee was collector, and the Custom House was re-
moved to the "Central building" now standing on the
western corner of Essex and Central streets. The
eagle and shield which ornamented this Custom
House building remains to-daj', and may be seen on
the Central street side. The books of the Social and
Philosophical libraries, and of the Salem Athenseum,
were at one time deposited in this building.
1 «« Essex Hist. Col.," Vol. 6, 1864, p. 109.
sSnn Tavern, see p. 121.
132 OLD NAUMKlBAa.
The Salem Athenaeum was incorporated in 1810.
Its books at the present time numbering 16,000 vol-
umes, are deposited in Plummer Hall. The present
board of officers of this institution are, president,
William Mack ; treasurer, Henry J. Cross ; clerk of
the Corporation, Henry Wheatland ; librarian, Eliz-
abeth H. Smith.
The American Association for tlie Advancement
of Science, of which Prof. F. W, Putnam, of Cam-
bridge (formerly of Salem), is permanent secretary,
has its headquarters in the Mercantile Bank build-
ing, where its library and other valuable publica-
tions are kept.
The foot of Central street is somewhat noted as a
hay-market. The farmers for years past, from the
neighboring towns, have gathered hero with their
loads of hay for sale.
On the southern side of Charter street is the
oldest buryiug-ground in Salem. It was occupied
before 1637. Among others buried here, are Ilil-
liard Veren, Martha, wife of Giles Corey, Richard
Derby, Warwick Palfray, Hon. Benjamin Lynde,
Hon. William Browne, Simon Forrester and Deliv-.
erance Parkman. The oldest inscription that can
be deciphered is dated 1650.
Liberty street, which extends from Essex to Derby
streets, on the east side of the burying-ground, was
called in 1770, Burying-point lane. Felt says : ^'In
1799 Neptune and Liberty streets were paved."
Neptune was that portion of Charter from Derby to
Elm streets. Charter street then extended only from
Liberty to Central. It is also an old paved street.
134 OLD NAUMKBAO.
That portion of Derby street from Central street
to Fabens' wharf was formerly Fish street ; that por-
tion from Fabens' wharf to Union street was Water
street. Fish and Water streets, and the eastern end
of Front street, once formed a corduroy road, built
along the shore. The land has all been filled in
above it. A cove extended in where the Phoenix
building is to about the middle of the square in
front of it. Fabens* wharf was where William Gray
carried on his commercial business. The present
office of the Messrs. Fabens^ is the same as occupied
by Mr. Gray, and the furniture is that, which was
used by him when recognized as one of the princely
merchants of Salem. These merchants were spoken
of by Nathaniel Hawthorne, in his famous romance,
the "Scarlet Letter," as "old King Derby, old Billy
Gray, old Simon Forrester, and many another mag-
nate in his day, whose powdered head, however, was
"scarcely in the tomb, before his mountain-pile of
wealth began to dwindle." In these early days,
when heavy drays lumbered over the cobble-stones
of Charter, Liberty and Derby streets, cargoes of
tea were disposed of on Essex street — several, some-
times, in a week ; merchants from New York and
Philadelphia came here to buy ; five India-men com-
ing up the harbor in a day was no rare sight, and
yet one which would set the whole town on tip-toe
for the owners' signals, for greetings after a long
voyage, for the stones of foreign lands, for the un-
> Since the above was written tlie Messrs. Fabens have removed
8ALVM — PAST AND PRESEITT. 185
folding of odd little ventures and curious presents ;
these scenes with the more heroic incidents of ship-
wreck, piracy and war, make the past of Salem a
The commercial history of Salem is yet to be
written. The task is not ours. Suffice for us to note
that from the earliest times, we were of necessity a
maritime people, and no town has contributed so
much to the business and social pre-eminence of
Boston and New York, or won so many high hon-
ors upon the billows, as Salem. Our seamen have
traversed every ocean and glorified the name of
Salem by their deeds of daring and generous hero-
ism. Many an island and sunken rock in our harbor
have been the instruments of midnight shipwrecks,
and sent many a hard}^ sailor to a watery grave even
in sight of his home. Our merchants have gathered
in the fruits of all climates, the wealth of every land.
In the Revolutionary struggle Salem had large
interests on the ocean. Still she hesitated not at
the risk. In March, 1775, she was the first to unfold
the old " pine tree " standard of liberty to the ej'^es
of the enemy. The schooner "Hannah" of Beverly
was the first commissioned privateer of the revolu-
tion. The ship «' Grand Turk" in 1786, was the
first from New England — and perhaps the first from
America — to double the Cape for Canton. The first
American ship to import a cargo of tea, and the first
to show the " stars and stripes " on the coast of Su-
matra and Jamaica, was from Salem. " Cleopatra's
barge," a Salem ship termed ** a fioating palace,"
because of her '* beauty, luxury and magnificence,"
186 OLD NAUMKEAO.
excited wonder even in Genoa. The first Salem
vessel that circumnavigated the globe was the ship
"Minerva," owned by Clifford Crowninshield and
Nathaniel West. The Madagascar, Zanzibar and
Sumatra trades, as well as that on the west coast of
Africa, commenced in Salem.
That portion of Charter street from Liberty to
Elm streets, was formerly known as Vine street.
The Salem Hospital is situated on its southern side.
This institution was organized April 7, 1873. The
need of it had long been felt. Its medical staff is
composed of the allopathist physicians of Salem.
It was founded on a fund contributed by John Ber-
tram and others of Salem. Mr. Bertram is to-day
one of the oldest and most successful merchants of
this city, and the only one of the old merchants of
Salem who now makes his headquarters here.
South-east of the Salem Hos[)ital, on Derby street,
stands the noted warehouses of Capt. Joseph Pea-
body, in which his immense amount of imported
silks were stored awaiting a market.
East of the hospital, at the foot of Walnut
street, and fronting Charter street, stands the Church
of the Immaculate Conception (Roman Catholic).
There are two Catholic churches and societies in
Salem whose histories are so intimately connected
that it is better to present them together here. A
third society, the French, is mentioned elsewhere.
Some say that mass was first offered in the Court
House, by Rev. John Thayer, and others that it
was offered by the Abbe de la Poterie, in a small
house on the site of the Franklin building. In
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 187
either case it mast have been at the close of the
last century that the first mass was celebrated in
Salem. Catholic services were held in Salem, in
the early part of the present century, at private resi-
dences. These early services were doubtless held
under the guidance of priests who travelled from
Boston to the Penobscot river, holding meetings at
the latter place with the Indians. It is said that
the Right Rev. Bishop De Cheverus, then of Boston,
used to walk from that city to Salem to perform his
missionary work here. About 1810, Simon Forres-
ter, an Irishman by birth, and one of Salem's most
successful merchants, deeded through the Marble-
head Bank to the Catholics of Salem, in the bishop's
name, the land on the northern corner of Mall and
Bridge streets, for the purpose of building a church
edifice thereon, with the proviso that it should be
held by the Catholics for religious purposes forever.
This land was the western end of an estate owned
by him, which extended from Brown to Bridge
streets. In 1820 a small wooden structure was
erected, and the church was styled the St. Mary's.
In 1837 or 8, a Sabbath School was organized, and
the basement of the building was put in order for its
accommodation. At this time there were not over
150 Catholics attending church in this city, and the
number included those in the adjacent towns of
Beverly, Peabody, Danvers, Ipswich, etc. In each
of these towns there is now a Catholic church.
About 1842, the house was enlarged, and two
wings with galleries were added, and the first Cath-
olic (or parochial) school in this city was established.
SALEM— PAST AND PRBSElTr. ISd
It was taught in the basement of this building for
two years by Mr. Daniel O'Donnell, one of our oldest
adopted citizens. The school nambered 105 pupils
— male and female. The pastors of St. Mary's
Church were Reverend Fathers Mahoney, Wiley
(a convert from Protestantism), Brady, Strain,
O'Flaherty and Conway,
During the pastorate of Father Conway, the Cath-
olics increased in such numbers that the old St.
Mary's building could not accommodate them. Land
was therefore purchased on the north side of Fed-
eral street, between Dean and Boston streets, and
about 1849, the present St. James' Church edifice
was built, and this upper parish organized. Father
Conway was assisted by the Rev. Father Shahan,
and the St. Mary's Church was continued until the
building of the present Church of the Immaculate
Conception, about 1857. Tliis advancement was
prosecuted through the indefatigable zeal of Father
Conway, who died before its completion. The pas-
tors of the St. James' Church have been Reverend
Fathers Shahan and Daly. The present pastor
is Rev. J. J. Gray. The Rev. Father Hartney, who
died quite suddenly when on a visit to Worcester,
and the present. Rev. William Halley, have been
the only pastors of the Church of the Immaculate
Conception. The old St. Mary's church building,
which had for several years remained unoccupied,
was recently demolished.
During the Revolutionary period, the feeling in
this part of the country was as strong against the
Catholics, or Irish people, as it had previously been
140 OLD NAUHKEAa.
against the Qaakers, with this exception, that a law
prevented the citizens from harboring a Quaker,
while a strong prejudice against the Irish people,
operated against their finding proper boarding houses
or homes. With the advent of railroads, came the
great increase of ^Hhe foreign element," as the
Irishmen were termed, their strong, hardy, physical
natures being most essential in the construction of
the road-beds. The Irish people now form a large
and useful portion of our great community.
Where Elm street and the foot of Charter street
is was formerly a cove. The water flowed nearly up
to Essex street. On the eastern side of Elm street
was a noted ship-yard. From here to Hardy street,
ship-building was can-ied on quite extensively fi*om
1692 to 1700. Ship-building was commenced in
Salem very soon after its settlement. In 1686 a
ship of 120 tons burthen was built on the Marblehead
side of Salem harbor. She went to the West Indies
in 1638, with a cargo of dry fish and strong liquors,
and returned after seven months with a cargo of
cotton, tobacco and negroes. These negroes were
the first slaves imported at Salem f^om that quar-
ter, of which there is any record. From 1685 to
1690 Richard Hollingsworth had built ships on the
''Neck," so called, near what is now the Rowell
house. Ships were also built on North river, at
the upper end of Goodhue street. Ebenezer Mann
built at this place from 1788 to 1800, six ships, fif-
teen brigs, two barques and eighteen schooners,
ranging from 50 to 214 tons ; and Christopher Tur-
ner built at the same place six ships, seven brigs
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 141
and five schooners, ranging from 78 to 296 tons,
making fifty-nine vessels in all built on what is now
Goodhue street near Frye's mills. Hawkes' ship-
yard was next easterly to Derby wharf. Briggs'
yard was where Clark's wood wharf now is in South
Salem. Jenks' yard was a little nearer Lafayette
street. In these latter yards, from 1791 to 1843,
there were sixty-one vessels built in all, ranging
from 96 to 426 tons. The ship "Grand Turk" was
built and launched next east of the store occupied
by Isaac P. Foster, on Derby street, and her bow-
sprit projected over the street. The ship "George,"
one of the most noted and successful Salem ships,
was built at Briggs' yard by an association of car-
penters. She was modeled by Christopher Turner,
and was set up for a privateer, but before comple-
tion was purchased by Capt. Joseph Peabody for
the merchant service, and named for his son George,
who now lives on the corner of Mall and Brown
streets, on the estate formerly owned and occupied
by John Forrester, the merchant, and son of Simon.
These ship-yards were long noted for the many fine
specimens of naval architecture constructed therein
and sent to all parts of the globe. The frigate
" Essex," mounting thirty-two guns, was built by
Enos Briggs, on the south side of Winter Island,
about where the United States lightkeeper's cottage
J^IBTHPLAOS OT NATHANISL HAWTHOBlfB. — 8KBT0R OF HA1f«
THORNS.— SAILORS' BBTHBL.— CALVARY BAPTIST CHURCH.—
Salem Marins Sooiktt.— Mh^tart of Salem, past and
PRESENT.— Gen. Lander.— Salem Common.— Early Modes
OF Punishment.— East Church.— Birthplace of Nathaniel
Bowditch.— Sketch of Bowditch.— Ann Pudeator.— Capt.
Joseph White.- Plummer Hall.— Essex Institute.— Dr.
Wheatland.— Miss Caroline Plummer.— Essex South Dis-
trict Medical Society.— Dr. Reed.— Birthplace of Wil-
liam HiCKUNO Prescott.- Capt. Joseph Peabodt.— Old
First Meeting House.— Col. Francis Peabody.— Gov . Brad-
street.— America's First Poet.— Bowkbr Block — Judob
Ouybr.— East India Marine Hall.— Pickman House.—
St. Peter's Chuhch.- Philip English.— Central Baptist
Church.— Jutting Upper Story House.— County Jail.—
Howard Street Burying Ground.— Old Jail.— Unitersa-
UST Church.— Fire Department.- North Bridge.— Lbslxs's
UST east of Elm street, at 21 Union street, is the
birthplace of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Salem's
great literary genius. Union street is an hum-
ble thoroughfare extending from Essex to
Derby streets. The buildings upon it are mostly
common-place wooden houses. No. 21 is distin-
guished from the rest by a slight tinge of the pic-
turesque. It is a weather-beaten structure, built
at least a century ago ; two stories high with a
gambrel roof and one monstrous chimney in the
tniddle almost as large as a wooden cupola. The
front door is in the centre, and opens into a little
entry-way with a square room on each side and a
steep, narrow stairway to the rooms above. The
144 OLD KAUMKEAO.
house is very low-studded. We present a fine pic-
ture of it elsewhere ; also a picture of the room in
which Hawthorne was born. It was in the north-
east corner, a small room with an open fire-place
for a wood fire. Whatever the place might have
been in Hawthorne's infancy it certainly is not
very attractive now, the surroundings being bare
and forbidding. Hawthorne was born in this house
July 4, 1804, and four years later, on the death of
his father in the West Indies, his mother went to
live with her father, Mr. Manning, at No. 10 Her-
bert street. In this latter place Hawthorne's boy-
hood and much of his manhood was spent. Herbert
street is next east of Union street, and the Manning
mansion is directly in the rear of 21 Union street,
so that the back-yards of the two houses used to
join. Herbert street is a much more picturesque
street than its neighbor, as it preserves much of the
old Salem architecture — queer and quaint enough
now, for all the ancient, weather-beaten, gambrel-
roofed and gabled-houses have seen far better days.
The. old Manning house is a great roomy structure,
but black and dilapidated now, comfortable as it
must have been when the young author lived there
with his grandfather and his widowed mother. Mr.
Richard G. Manning, of Salem, has an interest-
ing memento of Hawthorne — his cousin — in the
shape of a pane of glass in which Hawthorne cut,
with a diamond ring, his name and the date on which
he wrote it. Mr. Manning found this in one of the
windows of his grandfather's house and removed it
for safe keeping. Hawthorne's works rank among
8ALEH — ^PAST AND PRESENT. 145
the highest in American literature. His ''Scarlet
Letter," a powerfQl romance of early New England
life, in the introduction of which he gave a graphic
and satirical sketch of the decayed old Salem Cus-
tom House and its venerable inmates, greatly en-
hanced his reputation. Among his other popular
works might be mentioned "Twice Told Tales,"
Mosses from an Old Manse," " The House of Seven
Gables," *' The Blithedale Romance," " Tangle wood
Tales," "The Marble Faun," etc. He served as
weigher and ganger at the Boston Custom House in
1841, and was surveyor of the Port of Salem, 1846-
50. He lived quite a while at Concord, Mass., and
died at Plymouth, N. H., 1864.
Nearly opposite the Hawthorne house on Herbert
street, is an old chapel known as " The Bethel." It
was built in the commercial days of Salem for the
accommodation of the sailors at this port. A few
years ago it was purchased by the Catholics, and is
to-day used exclusively by the French residents as
a place of worship. Its present pastor is the Rev.
At the head of Herbert street, fronting on Essex,
is the Calvary Baptist Church edifice. This church
was organized in October, 1870, by ninety members
who had received dismissal from the Central Bap-
tist Church. Their purpose was the formation of a
new church, the distinctive characteristics of which
were, that the house of God should be free to all
without the sale or letting of pews ; or the granting
to a worldly proprietorship a vote on any interest
pertaining to the church. This church was " recog-
146 OLD NAUlOnAO.
nized/* March 7, ISTl, by appropriate services in
Mechanic Hall. Here the church worshipped until
February, 187d| when it removed to the Bethel on
Herbert street. During that year the present house
was built on land presented to the society by Mrs.
John Dwyer. It was dedicated November 17. The
cost of the building was $10,000. March 17, 1874,
the church became a corporate body under tlie Gen-
eral Statutes of Massachusetts. Its pastors have
been Rev. S. Hartwell Pratt and Rev. D. Henry
Taylor. Rev. Wm. A. Keese, is the present pastor.
Rev. E. B. Andrews, now president of Denison
University, Ohio, officiated over this church during
the darkest period of its history, though never its
pastor, and won the respect, gratitude and love of
all its members.
On the eastern comer of Newbury and Essex
streets, stands the Franklin building, bequeathed to
the Salem Marine Society by Thomas Perkins, mer*
chant, together with a fund of $15,000. The Salem
Marine Society was instituted 1766. Incorporated,
1772. It is composed of masters and owners of
vessels. Its object is to improve navigation on our
coast, and relieve the poor among its members, and
the families of those who need such assistance.
The Franklin building has three times been de«
stroyed by fire and as often rebuilt. The armories
of the Salem Independent Cadets and of the Salem
Light Infantry, Co. K, 8th Mass. Regt., occupy its
third story. The history of the military of Salem
from the earliest days would be one of great interest.
We shall attempt but a brief mention.
BALEH — ^PAST AND PRESENT. 147
For nearly a centaiy and a half A*om the days of
Endicott, the services of our soldiers were engaged
Against the hostile tribes of Indians that inhabited
the territory of the present New England states.
The monotony of the early style of warfare was
sometimes varied in struggles with the Dutch, or the
French, who were leagued with the Indians to destroy
the English. Every man who could carry a gun was
liable at a moment's notice to be called into service.
In 1635, as a means of having musket balls abun-
dant, they were allowed to pass current among the
people; each ball passed for a farthing. In 1645
the boys from ten to sixteen years of age were ex-
ercised with small guns and half pikes, and also
with bows and arrows, thus providing for emergen-
cies in case there should be a scarcity of powder.
The Revolutionary war found our people experi-
enced in scenes of armed hostility, and they sprang to
the call of liberty with alacrity and courage. Com-
panies of minute-men and sea-board defenders were
organized, and 800 men under Col. Pickering marched
for the scenes of Bunker Hill, from Salem, but ar-
rived too late to be of service. Benjamin Pierce of
Salem was killed by the British at the battle of Lex-
ington. A few from Salem were in the engagement
at Bunker Hill, among whom was Lieut. Benjamin
West, killed in the trenches while bravely defending
his post. On nearly every field of battle in this war,
Salem was represented by patriots tried and true.
In 1725 Salem had five companies of foot, one of
horse, besides the men at the fort. The first regi-
ment was mustered here under William Brown, in
148 OLD NAUMKBAO.
1774. This regiment was in the interest of His
Majesty. Later it was enlisted in the cause of Amer-
ican liberty, under the command of Timothy Picker-
ing. The first uniformed company appeared in 1776.
Joseph Sprague was captain, and Joseph Hiller,
lieutenant. They wore ^^a short green coat with
gold trimming, cap of black beaver with ostrich
feather and similar tiimming ; under dress white with
black gaiters, and ruffles over the hands." This
company soon disbanded. The Cadet Company was
formed in 1786, Stephen Abbot, commander. Tliey
at first turned out in a uniform of scarlet and white.
Its present commander is Lieut. Col. Samuel Dalton.
John Page commanded a company here in 1786,
uniformed in ^'rifle-coats and overalls." In 1787
Zadock Bufllngton commanded an artillery company.
The uniform was scarlet and black. At this time
there was an entire regiment of soldiers in Salem,
known as the ''Salem Regiment." The Light In-
fantry was formed in 1805. Its first commander was
Capt. John Saunders. Its present commander la
Capt. Jonathan Osborne. The Mechanic Light In-
fantry was formed in 1807. Its first commander was
Capt. Perlcy Putnam. Its present commander is
Capt. James Leonard. Among the other Salem
companies of the past, worthy of mention here, were
the Essex Hussars, Essex Guards, the City Guards,
and the Salem Artillery. Salem furnished in the
late war of the Rebellion about 8200 men for the
army and navy, 230 of whom were killed or died.
Conspicuous among the martyrs of the late war was
Gen. Frederick W. Lander, born in Salem December
17^ IMS* AMMhejhtwwmtiwtmilMt tor
Uff low of fldvcBtore, md ikin ia boIj
teportaat ca^plonlkMM ictom the ■ ■'■tiM«^i He
abo Mflde sonrqrs to dcConHae the pnetieafailttf of
* laflfwd footo to the FiMiie. He aftcnrad mt-
ifWftd the greet Ofcrlead vegoa route. WhQe es-
geced fai tUe letter wofk, fat 1858, hie pertf of
eerenljr men were itfecked bj the Fkh-ITte Tniliene,
wbooi thejr repoleed. In the ciTfl wer Gea. Leader
wee irst emplojred on importeat eecret mierione la
the eoothem etetee ; he then eerred ee a Tolnnteer
eid on 6en« IfoClellen's eteff, end pertidpeted with
greet credit in the ceptiire of Fhilippt, and in the
tiettle cf Bidi Uoantein* Hearing of the dieeeter
et Belize BlofT, be hastened to £dwerd*s Ferry, which
lie held with a ein^e compmnj of aharpshootere, hot
wee eererelj wounded in the leg. January 5, 1862,
at Hancock, be repulsed a greatly superior Confed-
erate force, which besieged the town. He particu-
larly distinguished himself by a brilliant dash upon
the enemy at Blooming Gap the next month, for
which he received a special letter of thanlcs from
tlie secretary of war. Increasing ill-health, largely
occasioned by his wound, compelled him to apply for
temporary relief from military duty, but while pre-
paring an attack on the enemy in March, 1862, he
died suddenly of congestion of the lungs. In 1860,
Gen. Lander was married to Miss Davenport, the
distinguished actress. Louisa X^ander of Salem, the
celebrated sculptor, is a sister to the general.
The Salem Common, situated north and north-east
8ALEH — PAST AKD PBE8SKT. 151
of the Franklin bailding, has something of a his<»
tory. It was early known as the town swamp, and
Essex street was on the edge of the swamp. The
land on the north-west and western parts of the
swamp was all that was of valae then. Col. John
Higginson's estate occupied the site of the Franklin
building. The Rev. John Higgtnson had an estate
on the north of the swamp. Previous to 1714 there
were occasional disputes between the cottagers and
the commoners as to their rights to the swamp.
These disputes were settled in November of that
year, and it was voted by the commoners that the
** spot where the trainings are generally kept before
Nathaniel Higginson's house, shall be forever as a
training field for the use of Salem." From an arti«
cle by the late Benjamin F. Browne, regarding this
spot,^ we ieam that at the beginning of the present
century the Common was unenclosed, and horses,
cattle, ducks, geese, hens and stray pigs had ilree
range upon it. There were five small ponds here
and several hillocks. The largest of these ponds
was called Flag pond ; the others were Southwick's^
Mason's, Cheever's and Lang's ponds. A school*
house stood then near the south edge of the Com-
mon, nearly opposite Mrs. George West's present
house on Forrester street. Near the school-house
were the artillery gun-house and the engine-house.
In 1803 a bathing-house was erected south of the
Common, and what is now Forrester street was
called Bath street. On the east and north of the
* EsMz Inst. Hist Coll., VoL It* p. S.
152 OLD MAUMKBAG.
ComnKm were tan-yards, bark-mills, rope-walks and
bake-shops. At abont this period, Gen. Gideon
Foster, with other influential gentlemen, undertook
to instil new life into the militia of Salem, which
had been for some years in a disorganized state
and destitute of officers. There were then six com-
panies in town. Elias Haskett Derby was elected
colonel in command of them, and they were other-
wise well officered. The reorganization of the mil-
itia led to the levelling of the Common and the filling
up of the ponds, etc. The required amount of money
was raised by subscription and the work was com-
pleted in the spring of 1801. The whole was en-
closed with a railing of oak, and on each side of the
walks a row of poplar trees were planted. Fifteen
years later, however, these trees were supplanted by
elms. The Common was then called Washington
square, which is its proper name to-day.
Among the early modes of punishment in Salem
we find that criminals were tied to whipping-posts,
and received upon their bare backs a certain number
of lashes with a raw-hide, ^^ well laid on ;" others
were compelled to sit in stocks a certain number of
hours, or stand with their neck and wrists fastened
in a pillory, before the public gaze. These whip-
ping-posts, stocks and pillories, in the last century,
were situated on the Common ; they were afterwards
removed to the rear of the Court House, at the north-
ern end of Washington street. Felt says the last
-time the pillory was used here was in 1801, in front
of the Court House. The criminal also had one of
his ears cropped for forgery.
8ALB1I — TJlST and PRESENT. 153
In 1769, Thomas Row and Robert Wood, for giv-
ing information against a vessel in our harbor to
His Majesty's officers, were seized and carried to a
tree, which was termed tlie " Liberty tree," on the
Common, and there tarred and feathered. They were
then set in a cart, with the word " Informer," pla-
carded upon their breast and back, and led through
the streets, preceded by a crowd. A live goose was
also repeatedly thrown at them. At the end of
Main street, the throng opened to the right and left
and bade them leave the town. They went to Bos-
ton and complained of the treatment to the Crown
officers, who petitioned the Governor to bring the
Salem rioters to justice.
Just north-east of the Common on Brown street,
stands the fine Second Church edifice. From its lo-
cation it is properly known as the East Church. It
is the oldest branch, within Salem limits, of the First
Church, and was organized in 1718. Its first edi-
fice was situated on the corner of Essex and Hardy
streets, and there was a parish line, which cannot now
be determined, dividing the people of the two soci-
eties territorially. The first three ministers were of
the Calvinistic type ; the sermon at the ordination
of the first minister being preached by the famous
Cotton Mather, of Boston, the most noted of early
New England divines. In 1785, under the lead of
the then junior pastor. Rev. William Bentley, this
church appears to have become unanimously Unita-
rian, and was undoubtedly the first church in Amer-
ica to assume that doctrinal ground. The present
church edifice was dedicated January 1, 1846, when it
8ALEH — PAST AND PRESENT. 155
was regarded as the finest specimen of church archi-
tecture in the state. In its history of one hundred
and fifty-six years, it has had but seven pastors,
with an average pastorate of over twenty-two years.
They were as follows: — Robert Staunton, William
Jennison, James Diman, William Bentley, James
Flint, and Dexter Clapp. Rev. Samuel C. Beane is
the present pastor. Bentley was minister, politician
and scholar. For many years he edited the " Essex
(now Salem) Register," when it championed the
cause of the old Republican, or Democratic party.
He also wrote a historical sketch of Salem, in the
" Historical Collections," Vol. VI. He was born in
Boston, 1759, and died in Salem, 1819.
Just north-west of the East Cluirch edifice stands
the house in which Nathaniel Bowditch was born.
It was moved to the rear, a few years since, on what
is known as Kimball Court, to make room for the
Kimball house, which now occupies its former site.
The house is of a commanding style of architecture,
with massive pillars extending from a large piazza
up to the roof. Situated, as the building now is,
in such a retired spot, many residents of Salem
even, are ignorant of its existence.
Nathaniel Bowditch, the great mathematician and
astronomer, was born in Salem, March 26, 1773.
During the Revolution, while but a child, his parents
removed to Peabody. He died in Boston, March
IG, 1838. The poverty of his parents occasioned
his withdrawal from school at the age of ten years,
and after an apprenticeship in a ship-chandler's shop
until he was twenty-one, he spent nine years in a
156 OLD NAUMKEAQ.
seafaring life, attaining tlie rank of master. He
was president of the Marine Insurance Company
in this city from 1804 to 1823, when he became
actuary of the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insu-
rance Company, in Boston. By his extraordinary
genius and industry, he made great acquisitions in
knowledge, mastered many languages, and did more
for the reputation of his country among men of sci-
ence abroad, than has been done by any other man,
except, perhaps. Dr. Franklin. While engaged as a
supercargo in 1800, he published his well known
"Practical Navigator," stiil a standard work of
great utility and value. His fame as a man of sci-
ence will principally rest on his Commentary on
the Mecanique Celeste of La Place, of which he made
the first entire translation. He contributed many
valuable papers to "The Memoirs of the American
Academy," and an article on modern astronomy to
Vol. 20, " North American Review." At his death
he was a member of the principal scientific societies
of Europe. He twice had a seat in the executive
council of Massachusetts. His eldest son, Nathan-
iel Ingersol Bowditch, also a native of Salem, was
a conveyancer and historical writer. This son was
noted for accuracy and thoroughness. A proof of
his industry is found, among other things, in his
fifty-five folio volumes of land titles, containing
nearly 80,000 pages, together with plans and maps.
Newbury street, in the witchcraft days, was known
as Salem street. Ann Pudeator, one of the victims
of that terrible delusion, lived then on the corner of
this and Essex streets, opposite the Franklin build-
SALEM — PAST AND PHESENT. 157
ing. Samuel Pickwick, in his deposition against
this woman supposed that while coming up Salem
street he saw Mistress Fudeator one evening sailing
through the air to her house. Ann Putnam clenched
the story by asserting, under oath, that Ann Pud-
eator told her that she did fly by a man in the night
into her house. In spite of her supernatural powers,
as testified by them, this poor woman could not fly
from her cruel fate.
On the northern side of Essex street just west of
Newbur}' street, is the house in which Capt. Joseph
White lived and died. Capt. White was the victim
of the Kuapp and Crowninshield tragedy. William
Gedney, a high sheriff of Essex county, lived in
the house which preceded the White house.
We have now arrived at Piummcr Hall, the quarters
of the Essex Institute, the most eminent institution
in tiie county of Essex. The Essex Institute is
favorably known throughout the scientific world. It
was formed by the union of the Essex Historical and
the Essex Natural History societies. The former
of these societies was organized in June, 1821. The
venerable and learned Dr. E. Augustus Holyokc,
then near his one hundredth birthday, was its first
The latter of these societies was organized in
December, 1833 ; Dr. A. Nichols, of Dan vers, was
its first president.
Tiie union was effected in January, 1848, when
the Institute was organized. It consists of three
departments : — the Historical, having for its object
the collection and preservation of whatever relates
158 OLD NAUMKEAQ.
to the geography, antiquities, civil and ecclesiastical
history of Essex county in Massachusetts; the
Natural History, for the formation of a cabinet of
natural productions in general, and more particularly
of those of the county, and for a library of standard
vrorks on the natural sciences; the Horticultural,
for promoting a taste for the cultivation of choice
fruits and flowers, and also for collecting works on
horticulture and agriculture in connection with the
The library contains about 28,000 volumes, com-
prising numerous files of newspapers, public docu-
ments, local histories, etc. ; also the transactions or
collections of various historical, agricultural, scien-
tific and other societies ; besides many valuable
works illustrative of the natural sciences ; several
thousand pamphlets (exclusive of duplicates), polit-
ical, historical, educational, etc., unbound, arranged
according to subjects. These have principally been
obtained by donations or exchanges.
The scientific collections have been placed in the
East India Marine Hall, and in a number of the
classes of the animal kingdom, the collections are
inferior to but one or two others in the country.
The section of ethnology contains about 1400 spec-
imens illustrating the habits, costumes, war and do-
mestic implements of the various races and nations.
Among the manuscripts there are a very large num-
ber relating to our early civil and ecclesiastical
history. In the section of fine arts there are several
hundred portraits, paintings and engravings, many
of which are of great historical value. In the de-
SALEM — ^PAST AMD PRESEin'. 159
parttncnt of Natural History are large numbers of
geological specimens, minerals, fossils, etc.
In addition to the stated quarterly and regular
monthly meetings, field-meetings are held by the
Institute, during the summer months, at such times
and places as may be agreed upon. Usually six of
these meetings are held each season in different
places in the county, as circumstances may decide.
They have thus far been held in nearly every town
in the county. The forenoon is devoted to rambling
in the woods and fields, or on the beach, in quest of
nature's treasures, or visiting some old historic or
antiquarian relic. In the afternoon the attendants
assemble in some church, town hall, or school-house,
and after a collation discuss the subjects presented
to notice during the day. The public are invited to
be present and to participate on these occasions.
The meetings are very popular and largely attended.
Of late the excursions have been extended to other
parts of the country. Saratoga, the White Moun-
tains, and the Hoosac Tunnel have been visited by
the Institute excursionists, b}' rail, and the Isles of
Shoals and Pl^'^mouth, by water. Lectures on the
natural sciences and other subjects have been given
by the society, and two publications, "The Bulletin
of the Essex Institute," and ** The Historical Col-
lections of the Essex Institute," are issued under
the direction of a publishing committee. The presi-
dents of the Institute have been Daniel A. White,
Asahel Huntington and Francis Peabody. The
present oflScers are Dr. Henry Wheatland, president,
Capt. George M. Whipple, secretary, and William
F. Upham, Esq., librarian.
160 OLD NAUMKEAQ.
Dr^ Wheatland has never practised medicine, but
has given great attention to historical and scientific
investigations. He graduated at Harvard Univer-
sity, 1832, is an original member of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science, is a
founder of the Essex county Natural History Soci-
ety, and of the Essex Institute ; he is also vice-
president of the Peabody Academy of Science, and
clerk of the Athenaeum. He stands pre-eminent
among the antiquarians of Essex county.
In 1854, Miss Caroline Piummer bequeathed to
the Salem Athenaeum $30,000, to be expended in the
erection of a suitable building to contain the library
of that institution. Piummer Hall was erected from
the proceeds of her legacy. An agreement was made
between the Athenaeum and the Institute, whereby
both societies were enabled to occupy it. It is also
the headquarters and contains the library of the
Essex southern district Medical Society. The li-
brary contains about 1,500 volumes. Of this society
Dr. Amos H. Johnson is the president. Piummer
Hall is the seat of letters and science in Essex
The great-grandfather of Nathaniel Bowditch
formerly occupied a house on the site of Piummer
Hall. Subsequently Hon. Nathan Reed built and
occupied a town residence here. Dr. Reed, as he was
sometimes called, originated the building of the
*' Dauvers iron works." He was also the '* actual
inventor ^ of the first steamboat with paddle wheels
in American waters." The trial trip of this boat
^Essex Hist. CoU., Vol. 1, p. 184.
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 161
which took place in 1789, was from the Danvers iron
works to Beverly. On board were the Governor
of the Commonwealth and other distinguished men.
William Hickling Frescott, the historian, was
born, May 4, 1776, in the Reed house. Later Capt.
Joseph Peabody removed to it from the Grafton
house opposite, and lived there till his death, which
occurred in 1844. Rev. Robert Staunton, the first
minister in the East parish, former!}' occupied the
Grafton house. Capt. Joseph Feabody, born in
Middleton, 1757, was one of the most eminent mer-
chants of his day, caiTying on a commerce that en-
circled the globe, and making the port of Salem the
point of arrival and departure of his richly laden
In the rear of Flummer Hall stands the little old
" First Church " building, snatched from decay by
the antiquarians of the Essex institute, and next
westerly of Flummer Hall is the mansion of the late
Francis Feabody, son of Capt. Joseph. Hon. Charles
W. Upham, in his " Memoir of Francis Feabody,"
read before the Institute, July 18, 1868, speaks of
Mr. Feabody, and of the old First Church building,
as follows :
'* His enterprise and liberality, stimulated by the
lively interest he felt in our local annals and antiq-
uities, and his reverence for the memory of the first
settlers of this place took effect in one great service,
never to be forgotten in the historical department of
the Essex Institute. It is a matter of record, that,
in 1670, the meeting-house of the First Church was
superseded by a new one, and that the old building,
consisting of two parts, one erected in 1634, the
AT. VBTXB'B CHURCH.
8ALBM — ^PA8T AND FRESBHT. 168
other an enlargement made in 1639, was thereafter
used for various purposes, and ultimately removed
from its original site. Tradition, supported by a
strong array of certificates from certain individuals
who had enjoyed favorable opportunities of receiving
information on the subject, and which had long been
current, pointed to a building owned by Mr. David
Nichols, standing on the premises in the rear of the
tanneries under the brow of Witch hill, as the origi-
nal part of the primitive meeting-house that was
erected in 1 634. It was precisely of the same length,
breadth and height, consisting of a single room,
with plastered walls and ceiling, and a garret. It
had been used for some time as a lumber room, but
was in a state of decay that would not long have
allowed of its being serviceable even in that way.
The story was, that at an early period it had been
occupied as a wayfarer's inn, a stopping place on
the onginal road from Salem to Lynn ; also the only
one then travelled between the interior and Mar-
blehead. If it was the veritable meeting-house, it
had, as we know, been used still earlier in its im-
mediate history, as a school-house. The subject was
investigated by the Essex Institute. Mr. Nichols
presented the building, and the Salem Athenaeum
gave a site for it, where it now stands, in the rear
of Plummer Hall. Colonel (Francis) Peabody, who
with the late George A. Ward, had taken a leading
interest in the matter, offered to assume the entire
expense of the operation of removal and reconstruc-
With careful .workmen Mr. Peabody directed and
superintended the process of taking it to pieces, and
moving it to its present location. This original meet-
ing-house was twenty feet in length, seventeen in
width, and twelve in the height of its posts. It stood
with its front on what is now Essex street. It had a
164 OLD NAUlfKBA^G.
gallery over the door at this end. The minister's seat
lYos against the southern wall, opposite the door.
The people sat on benches, possibly at first upon logs.
When it was enlarged an additional gallery was con-
structed, the door was changed to the western side
and the pulpit placed opposite to it, on the eastern
side, with an aisle five feet wide leading from one to
the other. The women sat on the left of this aisle,
as entering the door, and the men upon the right.
The deacons and elders sat near the minister. The
galleries were occupied by leading persons.
The absence of any evidence of a gallery, in the
building found under the brow of Witch hill, caused
a doubt in the minds of some as to whether this was
the original First meeting-house. The plaster and
mortar that covered the walls and beams was such
as was used only in very early times. Upon picking
it off mortices were found which demonstrated the
existence and position of the gallery. There were
other marks that proved to a certainty that this was
the veritable First Church building, and no new rev-
elation in science was ever hailed with more genuine
delight than this discovery. This building is pre-
served in as nearly its original condition as possible.
The weather boarding and roof have been renewed,
but the frame-work and the floor remain. The room
of this building is to-day filled with relics of old
times. On its walls arc pictures of events and men
important in the history of this old town and our
country. A good portrait of Thomas Paine may
here be seen. The first musical instrument, perhaps,
made in America is also here. This old building,
8ALEH — PAST AND PRESENT. ^ 165
standing upon grounds contiguous to Col. Francis
Peabody's garden, may fittingly be cherished as the
monument of this active and enterprising man.
Mr. Peabody was bom in Salem, December 7,
1801. He was a man of extraordinary activity and
mobility of temperament, and his mind had a natural
tendency to scientific and mechanical operations.
Among other things he built the paper mills and the
linseed oil mills in Middleton, and the Lead works
in South Salem, and was active in promoting the
formation of the Salem Lyceum, and the Harmony
Grove corporation. He was colonel of the 1st
Begiment, Ist Brigade, 2d Division, Massachusetts
militia, and it was probably owing to his energy and
zeal in the service, that the famous muster and sham
fight, well remembered by our older citizens, took
place near Tapley's brook, in what was then Dan-
vers, on the 6th of October, 1826. Five regiments
of infantry — one each from Beverly and Marble-
head — one regiment, and a battalion of ai;tillery
and a battalion of cavalry took part. It was the
last great affair of the kind under the old military
system, when the whole male population, with lim-
ited exceptions, within the age, was enrolled and
mustered. Col. Peabody was the first to introduce
the S3'stem of miscellaneous courses of public lec-
tures on scientific and literary subjects, which has
since been developed into one of the most efldcient
agents in advancing the intelligence and general
civilization of the people of this country. The
Bradstreet mansion, torn down in 1750, occupied
the site of Francis Peabody's mansion. The vener-
166 OLD HAUUKSAG.
able Governor Simon Bradstreet died here on the
27th of March, 1697. His first wife Anne, the
daughter of Governor Thomas Dudley, wrote the
first book of poems published in America.
On the site of the Bowker block, Hon. William
Browne built a house in 1698. He bequeathed it to
his son William, who married Governor Burnet's
daughter. He left it to his son William Burnet
Browne, who sold it to his cousin William Browne,
the banished loyalist. When this estate was con-
fiscated Browne's mother took it for a debt from her
son, and afterwards sold it to William Gray, the
Judge Andrew Oliver, Judge of the Court of
Common Pleas for Essex County, before the Revolu-
tion, and a tory during the Revolution, lived (1793)
on the western corner of Liberty and Essex streets.
His father Andrew Oliver was a colonial statesman,
subservient to the Crown, and in 1765, when ap-
pointed distributor of stamps in Boston, was hung
in effigy on the '^ Liberty Tree," by the citizens, and
compelled to resign.
Nearly opposite the head of St. Peter street, on
Essex street, is the East India Marine Hall, in which
is located the East Lidia Marine Museum. Tiiis
museum is filled with natural and artificial curiosi-
ties, interesting and beautiful. This institution
was organized in 1799, and incorporated March 3,
1801. One of its objects was to form a museum
of curiosities, particularly such as are to be found
beyond the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn. Its
members consisted of such masters and supercargoes
8ALSM — ^PAST AND PRESENT. 167
of vessels as had doubled either of the above capes.
The museum is now united with that of the Feabod j
Academy of Science, an institution founded in 1867
through the munificence of George Feabody, the
London banker. He donated $140,000 for that pur-
pose ; $40,000 of this amount to purchase the East
India Marine Hall, and to properly fit up the same,
the $100,000 to serve as a permanent fund, the in*
terest on which is to be used for the '' advancement
of science and useful knowledge in the county of
Essex." Among the most interesting of the curios-
ities in the museum is a wooden-ball cut in two
and carved on the inside with a representation of
heaven and hell. In the one-half of the ball is
Satan and his numerous imps about him, performing
all sorts of antics, while in the other half is the
**King of Kings" surrounded by his host of winged
angels glorifying the Lord. By the aid of a power-
M microscope every feature of the various figures
are seen to be perfect. The size of the ball is not
larger than two and a half inches in diameter. The
carving is supposed to be the work of a monk of
the sixteenth century. It is one of the most remark-
able works of art in the known world. Thousands
of dollars have been offered for it, but it cannot be
Next west of the East India Marine Hall, is
the Fickman house. It is now owned by Mrs. Le
Masters, who has erected some stores in front of it^
on a line with the street, and concealed the old house
from view. The Fickman house was built in .1750
by Beniamin Fickman, Esq. Fickman represented
168 OLD NAUKKBAG.
Salem in the General Court in 1744 ; was one of the
committee of war for carrying on the siege of Lou-
isburg in 1745; was Judge of the Superior Court,
1756, and colonel of the Salem regiment at the
same time. He died 1773, leaving this house to his
eldest son, Benjamin, who thought the colonies had
not sufficient grounds to revolt against the mother
country, so went to England in 1775. He returned
in 1785 and was afterwards made town treasurer.
On the site of the Pickman house Henry Bartholo-
mew built a residence soon after the settlement.
St. Peter street was formerly known as Prison
lane. On the corner of St. Peter and Brown streets,
is situated the stone edifice of the St. Peter's Epis-
copal Church. Religious services of the Church of
England, from which this parish sprung, were held
in Salem at a very early date. The first edifice of
the society was erected here in 1733. The land was
given to the parish by Philip English, a gentleman
who in the time of the witchcraft delusion, was with
his wife among the number of the accused.
Mr. English was a warm adherent of the Church
of England, and asserted publicly that the charter
of the colony had been violated in various ways by
the colonial government, and that there was no
religious toleration to be had under it as construed
by the authorities; he was himself a churchman
and desired toleration for the church, and felt that
he could not obtain it. He adhered to the church
with great pertinacity, and as late as 1725 (says
Felt) was imprisoned in Salem jail, for refusing to
pay a tax for the support of the East Congregational
8ALEM-^PA8T AND PRESENT. 169
Society. He was then in his 75th year. The law
releasing churchmen from paying a tax for the sup-
port of Congregationalism was not passed until 1732.
During the Revolutionary war, St. Petei-'s Church
was brought into a very low and disorganized condi-
tion, and the house of worship was closed for awhile.
The proprietors finally assembled and petitioned
William Wetmore, Esq., a justice of the peace,
for a warrant to call a meeting at which the proper
ofilcers were chosen, and Mr. Steward, the teacher
of the grammar school, was engaged to read prayers
and sermons. It was also voted to do what they
could towards repairing the church, which had suf-
fered many depredations from the angry violence of
its opposers, over six hundred panes of glass having
been broken, besides other injuries. Under the
ministry of Mr. Carlyle the parish was much blessed.
By his untiring efforts it was raised from the low
condition in which he found it, to a position of com-
parative prosperity. Mr. Carlyle was a son-in-law
of Simon Forrester.
The rectors of St. Peter's Church have been
as follows: — Rev. Charles Brockwell, A.M. ; Rev.
William McGilchrist; Rev. Nathaniel Fisher ; Rev.
Thomas Carlyle ; Rev. Thomas W. Coit ; Right
Rev. Alexander Viets Griswold ; Rev. John Apthorp
Vaughan ; Rev. Charles Mason ; Rev. William Rouse
Babcock ; Rev. George Leeds ; Rev. William Raw-
lins Pickman ; Rev. James Oliver Scripture ; Rev.
£. M. Gushee. The present rector is Rev. Charles
Five or six rods north of St. Peter's Church is the
edifice of tlie Centnil liapllst CUiu-ch. It was first
called tlie "Second Bii|itist Cluivdi of Siilein," It
wnu organized in Juminry, 183G, mid wita llieii com-
posed of " olevoH brolUcrs niul Uvoiiy-oiie sistera,'*
nlio weie disiniiiHed ri-oin tlio First Diiplist CburcU
for the pui-pose or orgniiizing a Beconil uliiiruh. Tlie
present building was dedicated in June of llie same
year. About 18C7 the house v/ns icmodcllcd, and in
the spring of 1877, it was ruiscd and a cliapel built
in llie basement. Mr, George Leonard was tlie first
pastor and tenulier. His Buccesaors liave been —
Robert E, Paltison, Cjriia P. Gioveauor, Joseph
Baiivard, D.D., Benjamin Brieijy, William H. Eaton,
D.D., Daniel D. Winn, S. Ilaitwell Piatl and David
Weston, D,D. Tlie present pastor is the Rev. W,
U. tl. Mai'sti.
Noi'tli of tlie Central Baptist raeeting-honse, oa
the east side of St. Peter street, stands a house
which is one of tlie few remaining specimens of tho
"jutting upper stories." It is two stories high, the
upper etory looking like a cap dropped down npoa
the lower story. There are many of the old-time
residences elill to he Tound in Salem, and a stran-
ger who has any interest in such monuments of tha
post, will find opportunity to utilize a whole day
quite agreeably in examining them under direction
of a competent guide.
At the foot of St. Peter street is situated the stone
prison, or county Jail. It is on Imposing structure
built here in 1813 by the county. With the large
brick house for the keeper it cost $80,000. The pres-
ent keeper of this Jail is "Capt." John D. Cross, ft
SALEM — ^PAST AND PRESENT. 171
man peculiarly adapted to the position, kind to those
deserving of Icindness, and strict and severe with
those who forfeit all claims to compassion.
On the eastern side of the jail is the Howard-
street bur3'ing-ground. This was first laid ont In
the early part of the present centnry. A plan of it
was first exhibited in 1801. A part of it was re-
served for colored people, and another part for
A little to the south-west of the county jail, is
the present residence of Abner C. Goodell, jr., Reg-
ister of the Court of Probate, president of the Naum-
keag Street Railway, one of the vice-presidents of the
Essex Institute, a trustee of the Peabody Academy
of Science, and an antiquarian of some note. His
house has undergone several enlargements and
great alterations, more especially the western half.
It was formerly the county jail, and was built by
the county in 1684. Its dimensions then were '* thir-
teen feet stud, and twenty feet, square, accommo-
dated with a yard.'* This was the jail in which vic-
tims of the witchcraft delusion were incarcerated,
and where Giles Corey was pressed to death, plead-
ing in his agony that more weight might be put
upon him. That portion of Federal street, upon
which it is situated, was then called County street,
and extended from what is now St. Peter to Wash-
ington streets. The first record of imprisonment
that we find, was that of Margaret Payne (or Page),
who was ordered, in 1G43, ^' to be sent to the Boston
goal as a lazy, idle, loitering person.*'
On Rust street, a short street leading from Fed-
172 OLD NAUMKBAQ.
eral to Bridge streets, is the meeting-honse of the
Universalist Church. The earlier records of this
society have unfortuDately been lost ; hence outside
sources of information have been sought. It is a no-
ticeable fact, that not one of the Salem newspapers
of that period made the slightest allusion to the lay-
ing of the corner-stone of the church edifice, which
occurred August 17, 1808. It indicates, perhaps, the
strength of religious prejudice in the earlier times.
The house was dedicated in June, 1809. The build-
ing externally remained as it was first built, until
quite recently, when it was architecturally improved.
We present a cut of its original appearance. The first
religious service in the interest of the doctrine of
Universalism in this city was held by appointment in
the old Court House, in the fall of 1804. This meet-
ing was followed by others at Nathaniel Frothing-
ham's house, different clergymen preaching ; among
them, Reverends John Murray, Thomas Barnes,
Thomas Jones, Ilosca Ballon and Edward Turner.
The church, a distinct organization from the society,
was formed in 1810, and then consisted of about
forty members. The pastors of this church have
been as follows : — Reverends Edward Turner, Hosea
Ballon, Joshua Flagg, Barzilliar Streeter, Seth Stet-
son, Lemuel Willis, Matthew Hale Smith, Linus S.
Everett, Eben Fisher, Sumner Ellis, and Williard
Spaulding. The present pastor is Rev. Edwin C.
Bolles, Ph. D. Dr. BoUes is one of the most emi-
nent scholars and preachers in the denomination.
Few clergymen surpass him in grace and bcautj' of
oratory. His scientific attainments are also of a
174 OLD NAUMKCAQ.
very high order, excelling in some branches. His
ft'esh and fervid style of preaching is calculated to
South of the Universalist Church, on Church
street, is the house of the steam-fire engines of the
city. The fire department of Salem is one of the
most efficient in the State. It consists of two
steamers, six hose carriages and one iioolc and ladder
truck. The apparatus is manned by volunteer fire-
men, competent and skilled. The Wenliam water
works, which supply the city with a never-failing
quantity of water, are equal to the best in the country.
Passing through Bridge street to the west fmrn
the Universalist Church, over what was formerly the
North river beach, we anive at the historic North
bridge. Here we complete the historic circle of a
quarter of a mile radius, in which we have thus far
strolled. This bridge was the scene of the bloodless
yet determined fight between the patriots of Salem
and the King's troops, in 1775. It is known in
history as *^ Leslie's retreat."
Capt. David Mason, from instructions of a com«
mittee appointed by the Provincial Congress, had
privately committed to the care of John Foster, on
the north side of the river, seventeen cannon for
the pur^iose of having them fitted with carriages.
The original house in which Foster lived at that
time is still standing on North street, next north of
the corner of Franklin street. The shop in which
the cannon were mounted stood on the corner.
Information of what was going on in Salem was
communicated to Gov. Gage in Boston, some say by
SALEM — ^PA8T AND PRESENT. 175
a "journc3-iTian," or an "old countryman/' in Fos-
ter's employ, while others think that it was a citi-
zen by the name of Sargent, or else the yonng tory
law3'er from Ipswich by the name of Samuel Porter.
Col. Leslie, with 800 of the King's troops, was at
once dispatched from Castle Island, to capture the
ordnance. Leslie and his force aiTived by water off
Marblehead, at about noon on Sunday, February 26.
The people of Marblehead soon suspected that
Salem was their destination, and several persons,
among them Maj. John Pedrick, hastened hither to
give the alarm. The people of Salem were mostly
attend hig church. The meetings were dismissed, the
bells were rung, the drums were beaten, alarm guns
were tired, and the inhabitants were soon gathered
in large numbers at the principal points of interest,
discussing the wisest course to pursue. Some pi*o-
ceeded to what was then a bridge crossing South
river, at Mill street, the ouly means then of crossing
the stream, and tore the bridge to pieces as best they
could. The British on their arrival at this point
were delayed until they could repair it. Samuel
Porter, the lawyer from Ipswich, intimated to Les-
lie that the cannon were concealed at North Salem.
The troops hastened thither, but at North bridge
found determined opposition. The draw of the
bridge was hoisted, and Col. Timothy Pickering with
forty armed militia, whose numbers were constantly
increasing, were prepared to resist any further ap-
proach. Exasperated at this interruption, Leslie
finally ordered a captain to face his company to-
wards the m^n assembled on the opposite shore, and
176 OLD NAUMKBAG.
fire at Ihrm. Capt. John Folt, it is said, warned
Leslie that should his men fire, not a man of them
would leave Salem alive. Leslie perceiving by the
determined appearance of the little band of patriots,
that it would not b^ best to resort to such extreme
measures, next endeavored to get his men across
the stream by means of gondolas and fishing boats.
The citizens at once strove to defeat this movement,
which was effectually done by scuttling the boats as
rapidly as possible, or casting them adrift. While
matters were fast tending to a disastrous conflict,
tlie Rev. Thomas Barnard of the North Church, at-
tempted to conciliate matters. He finally succeeded
in compromising the affair, by obtaining Pickering's
consent to allow Leslie to cross the bridge and pro-
ceed thirty rods beyond, on the promise that he
would then countermarch his force and return to
Boston. The news of the invasion had reached the
surrounding towns, and as the royal troops left
Salem a company from Danvers had arrived to lend
assistance to our people. Thus ended the first armed
resistance to British rule in America, at which, but
for Capt. Felt and Thomas Barnard, would doubt-
less have been shed the first blood of the Revolution.
North bridge was built about the 3'ear 1744. It
was owned by James Lindall and other proprietors
of North Fields. The entire length of the cause-
way and bridge was 8G0 feet, and it was only eighteen
feet wide. It had a draw at the middle which was
at least eighteen feet long. Such is the description
of the bridge as it was first constructed, and as it
remained when the ti'ouble occurred with Leslie and
8ALIEH — ^PA8T AND PRBSBHT. 177
his men. It was styled in the early days ^* the great
bridge." Its construction was considered a great
undertaking at the period of its commencement.
The town required that our inhabitants should liave
free passage over and under it, and that it should be
kept in good repair by the owners, or forfeited to
the town. The conditions were not kept, and it was
forfeited in 1755. A new company was allowed to
take it, but in 1789, it again passed into the posses*
sion of the town, this time by mutual consent. When
Leslie complained at being stopped on the King's
highway, a b3'stander rejoined that it was not the
King's highway ; that it belonged to the proprietors
of North Fields. We present a picture of this
bridge as it is to-day. The causeway has been ex-
tended to the draw, and both causeway and draw
have been greatly improved and widened. A flag-
staff erected here marks the spot of the bloodless
The Ixptaxs— Dred of Maublf.head and of Salksl— Indian
Village.— North Salem.— its Early Days.— Concealixo
THE CANNON.— ORNE'8 POINT.— COLD SFRINOS.— LIBERTY HiLL.
— ORNK-8TREBT CEMETERY.— CATHOLIC CEMETERY.— HAU)10NT
Grove Cemetery.— Town Briiksb.— Tanning.- Gallows, or
Witch, Hill.— Hanging ok the Witches.- Giles Corky.—
Highland Avenue — Floating nRiDOR.— Great Pasture.—
Quaker Mebting-Housk.- Pkrsecui'Ion of the Quakers.
— NoNANiUM Hall.— Negro Colony.— "King BIumford."
— nupFUM*s Corner.— Seamen's Orphan and Children's
Friend Society.— The Naumkeag Street Railway.— South
Salem.- South Bridge— Derby Farm.— LAFAYKrrE-sniEKT
Methodist Episcofal Church.— Naumkeag Mills.— Forest
River Lead Mills.— Oil Works.— Marine Uailwav.— Citt
Orphan Asylum.- Union Bridge.
t|tHE early settlers found this country inlmbitcd
'I' by Indians, n people so called, because tliis
I country, when first discovered, was supposed
(^ to be II part of India. Tliese Indians were
divided into nations, each of which consisted of
many tribes. Each tribe was governed by a sachem,
king, or a sagamore.
The Naumkeag Indians inhabited this portion of
the country. They belonged to the Pawtucket na-
tion, which held dominion over the territory nortli of
Boston as far as the Fiscataqua river. Tliere were
as many as six other Indian nations in New England.
The Tarran tines who inhabited the eastern part of
Maine, and ttie Pequots who occupied Connecticut,
were ever at war with some of the other nations.
They were the Goths and Vandals of aboriginal New
England. Gookin, in the *^ Massachusetts Historical
180 OLD KAUMKEAQ.
Collections," has enumerated 18,000 warriors in five
nations. If the remaining nations were as populous,
there must have been in tlie vicinit3' of 25,000 war*
riors and at least 100,000 Indians in New Knglaud.
The sachem of tlie Pawtucket nation was Nana-
pashemet, or ''New Moon." He was one of the
greatest sachems in New England. In the spring
of 1G16 the Tarrantines were in some way provoljed
by the otlier Indians, and in retaliation tliey carried
their revenge to an extent scarcely paralleled in the
history of human warfare. ''They killed the great
Basliaba of tlie Penobscot, murdered his women and
children, and overran tlie whole county from Penob*
scot to the Blue hills. Their death-word was ' cram 1
cram! — kill! kill'" So many thousands on thou-
sands did the Tarrantines slaughter, that Ferdinand
Gorges, who sold to Massachusetts, for 1,250 pounds,
his rights to the province of Maine, said it was
"horrible to be spoken of." In 1617 a desolating
sickness — either a plague, the small pox, or fever—
raged among the Indians here, so that the 8000 war-
riors which the Pawtuckets numbered when John
Smith visited this coast, were reduced to a few hun-
dreds at the coming of Conant. Still the vengeance
Of the Tarrantines was unsatiated, and they hunted
for the lives of the few sagamores who remained.
Nanapashemet survived the great sickness, but only
to be killed in 1G19 by the Tarrantines. His widow,
known as Squaw Sachem, was left with three sons,
all of whom became sagamores. Squaw Sachism
lived after the death of her husband at what is now
North Salem, and married. Webbacowet, tho great
8ALEM-^PA8T ASt PRESENT. 181
physician of her nation. She died in 1667, being
then old and blind. The Rev. Jolin Higginson, son
of Francis Higginson, testified of these people as
" To ye best of my remembrance when I came oner
witli my father to this place, being then about thirteen
years old, there was in these parts a widow woman,
called Squaw Sachem, who had three sons, Sagamore
John, kept at Mistick, Sagamore James, at Saugust,
and Sngamore George, here at Namnkeke. Whether
he was actual Sachem here, I cannot say, for he was
young then, about my age* and I think there was an
elder man y' was at least his guardian. But y* In-
dian towno of Wigwams was on y* North side of y*
North river not farre from Simoudes, and y" l)otli y*
North and South side of that river was called Naum*
Sagamore John (Wonohaqnaham) gave the whites
permission to settle at Chnrlestown, and he was
known as a chief "of gentle and good disposition."
Sagamore James (Montowampate) was not so favor-
ably inclined towards the whites, yet, he was obliged
quite often to seek their aid against his people's
enemy, the Tarrantines. Sagamore George (Wene-
poj'kin — pronounced with an accent and a lingering
on the third syllable, We-ne-pawwe-kin) was the
youngest son of the great sachem. There was also
a daughter, Yawata, called by the settlers Abigail.
Both of the eldest sons died in 1633, and George
became sagamore of Saugus (Lynn), and Mystic
(Chelsea), as well as of Naumkeag. On the death
of hts mother he became the sachem of all that piart
182 OLD KAUUKBAa.
of Massachusetts which is north and east of Charles
river. He was also called George Riimncy Marsh,
and Sagamore George No-Nose. He was taken
prisoner in the Wampanoag war in 1G76, and died
in 1684. He left one son, Manatahqua, and three
daughters — Cicely (Petaghuncksq), Little Walnut or
Sarah (Wuttaquattinusk) and Susanna (Petagoona-
quail). These daughters are said to liavc been very
beautiful, and were tlie belles of the forest.
Manatahqua, the son, had two sons, David (Kunk-
shamoosliaw) ond Samuel (Wuttannoh, which means
staff). The family of Sagamore George, after the
Wampanoag war, went to Wameset, or Chelmsford,
now Lowell, and settled near Fawtucket fulls. In
1684 the Marblehead people obtained a deed of their
town from the widow of George, " Joane Ahawa3'et,"
and her relatives. Ahuwayet died in 1685. The
people of Salem in 1G86 obtained a deed of their
town, which was signed by the relatives of Saga-
more George, as follows : — David Nonnuphanohow,
Samuel Wuttaannoh, John Tontohqunne, Cicely Peta-
ghuncksq, Thomas Vsqueakusscnnum, alias *^ Cap-
tain Tom," James Quannophkownatt, alias Rumney
Marsh, Israel Quannophkownatt, Joane Quannoph-
kownatt, Yawata, and Wattawtinnusk. Yawata,
among these signers, was the daughter of the great
sachem, Nanapashemet, and widow of John Gon-
sumog and sister of Sagamore George. The pro-
curing of the deeds of these lands from the Indians
was considered a matter of great importance, as the
people were suspicious that under James, the Crown
Agents would pay little regard to titles that did not
8ALBM — PAST AND FRfCSBMT. 188
rest on some clear and unimpeachable evidence.
When Sir Andros in 1689, asked Higginson whether
New England was the King's territor3% he received
the reply : ** It belongs to the colonists who hold it
by just occupation and purchase from the Indians"
The deed of Salem cost £20.
The Indian village, at North Salem, was in the vicin-
ity of what is now Mason street. The Indian houses,
called wigwams, were rude structures made of poles
set around in the shape of a cone, and covered with
bark or mats ; their weapons were bows, arrows and
tomahawks; their money was shells gathered on
the beaches, and their clothing was beaver, deer, or
seal skins. The}* had but few arts and only such as
were requisite for their subsistence. They usually
buried their dead on the sides of hills next the sun.
The manner in which the early settlers were re-
ceived at Naumkeng by the Indians is shown by the
testimony of William Dixey, of Beverly, as follows : —
** I came here to the place now called Salem, New
England, in June, 1 629. The Indians bid us welcome
and showed themselves very glad that we came to
dwell among them, and I understand they had kindly
entertained the English that came over hither before
we came and the Indians and English had afield in
common fenced in together ; and the Indians tied to
shelter themselves under the English, oft-times sa3'-
ing they were afraid of their enemy Indians in the
country. In particular I remember sometime after
we arrived the Agawam Indians complained to Mr.
Endicott that they were afraid of other Indians called,
as I take it, Tarran tines. Hugh Browne was sent
with others in a boat to Agawam for the Indians'
184 OLD NAUMKEAa.
release, and at other times we gave onr neighbor
Indians protection from tlicir enemy Indians.
Taken upon oath, this 16th February, 1680. Be-
North Salem, or North Fields as it was early called,
was owned by private individuals. Gradually streets
were laid out and accepted, and the whole finally
became a public portion of the city. A few 3'ears
ago North street was a very narrow street bordered
on eacli side with 8tatel3' elms, whose branches meet-
ing above the centre of the street, formed in summer
a very delightful shade. Under the administration
of AIa3'or Cogswell the street was greatly widened
and the trees taken down.
The settlers had farms at North Salem at an early
date, and here in the vicinity of the ancient ^^Towne
of wigwams," the pleasant instance of fraternity
between tlie Indians and whites was no doubt ex-
hibited. This part of our city still preserves in a
degree its old rural aspect, and there is still many
a quiet woodland scene within its limits to remind
us of its ancient uses, and of the people who roamed
over its surface. The cannon which Leslie was or-
dered to seize were quickly hid in the forest here,
on hearing of the approach of the King's troops.
There were at least twelve of them in all, some say
seventeen. Some of them were conveyed to the
neigliborliood of BufiTum's hill, so called at that time,
T^hich '^ Westward of North 8ti*eet, near the present
186 OLD MAUMKEAG.
residence of Gen. Devcrenx. Some were buried in
a gravel pit near tlie mills in Danvcrs, while others
were sent in the vicinity of Cold Springs, or Orne's
point, at the foot of Orne street. At Orne's point,
Charles A. Ropes, Esq., owns and occupies one of
the finest estates in the city. Cold Springs is one of
the most charming spots in our environs, and a fa-
miliar retreat for the lover of the beautiful in nature.
Above Cold Springs is Liberty hill, the property of
the city of Salem. To the east of it are Orne's
woods, and to the westward of it are Leavitt's
woods, a patch of fine oaks surrounded by a smooth-
shaven field. Beyond Orne's woods is Kernwood,
the beautiful and sightly estate formerly owned by
Col. Francis Peabod}^ but purchased a few years
ftgo by General Horace Binney Sargent, of Boston,
a soldier of our recent war. Kern wood occupies
what was formerly known as Horse Pasture point.
Near the head of Orne street, and extending to
the north, is Orne-street cemetery. This cemetery
consists of an old part and a new. The '^ old bury-
ing-ground" was purchased by the town for a burial
place in 1807. It is that part of the present ceme-
tery situated on Orne street. It contained about
two and a half acres. In 1864 the city purchased a
part of the Putnam estate, and the following year
set it apart as an addition to the **old burying-
ground." It now contains in all about eight and a
half acres. In 1872 a lot containing 8000 square
feet was set apart as a soldiers' lot, for the burial of
such soldiers as Phil. H. Sheridan, Post 84, Grand
Army of the Bepublio, of Salem, may designata.
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 187
To the north-west of Oi*ne-street cemetery is the
Catholic cemetery. This burying-groimcl was pur*
chased 1)y Father Conway, during iiis pastorate in
Salem. It was sold to his parishioners in lots or
single graves. Those who purchased lots were given
a deed signed by the bishop. Fathers Conway and
Hartney are buried here side by side. They were
both held in the highest esteem by their people, and
were followed to their graves by an unusually large
number of mournera. An appropriate monument
has been erected above their remains.
The principal cemetery in Salem is the Harmony
Grove cemetery. It is situated in what is known
as Carltonville, in the north-western portion of the
city. It covers an area of sixty-five acres, the
north-western portion of which extends into tlie ad«
Joining town of Peabody. In its natural scenery,
and in the beauty of its sculptured decorations, this
grove ranks among the finest enclosures for the rest-
ing plnce of the departed in New England. It was
established about 1840, the propiietors having been
made a corporate body in that year. Its project
was first started by a few gentlemen who desired to
found a new burial place in Salem, in consequence
of the crowded state of the old grave3'ards about
the city, and who also desired to combine the beauties
of natural scenery, witli cultivated tastes, in the ar-
rangement of a now cemetery. Tlie first meeting
in behalf of the enterprise was held in 1837 in L3'-
ceum Hall, at the sugi^estion of Mr. William H.
Foster. It was there decided that a public meeting
of the friends of the enterprise should be held. A
188 OLD MAUMKBAa.
oommitUo was aIso chosen to examine different
looalUtoa. This conimilteo unanimously reported in
(kvor of wimt it Harmony Git>ve, wliicli was tlien
known as ^^ Quaker pasture.** In 1839 Alexander
Wadswortlu of Boston, was employed to make a top-
ogittphioal plan of the grounds, and la3* them out in
walks and a\^nues« Tiie cemetery was consecrated on
Sunday, June 14, 1840. It was a most beautiful day,
clear, calm and Wiglit, seeming typical of the grand
and i^eneefid mission and destiny of the grove. The
services woit) most im|K>sing. Prayers were made
by the He\\ Brown Emerson, of Salem, ami the Rct.
Charles C. Sewall, of l>an\*ers« The address was
deU^^^nHl by the Hon. Daniel A. White, and original
hjk mns^ by tlie Rev. James Flint, D.D., NathanM
Iam\1, jr., and William Wallace Morlaml, were sni^.
Itie o^le was read by the Rer« Mr. Wayland, and the
mu^ waa umkr the din^Hioa of Mr. Jacob Hood.
TW» natund RMtiialioa of the ground see»s pecs-
llar^V a^laplt^l for the imq^ose to vhkli it was ooia*
aiKtabKl> and combines hills and dales, ciag^ rocks,
iMOSsy iMls> sbKp dedivitks, and krel plains, be>
akWs an innnmevable Twety of inees^ Fhibdhly a
Sfk^vunen of i^v^Mnr kind of tv«e in New England May
U^Rwnd WH^InllieUmnic^esof wlne^in the
lii^jrs 4>t snaMntr, ki%a wrnads of fenlkurad
aliNts^wteill UmptiteaiaJ airwilk a Mask
ni> art <tMi kailaliK ulalt the ai|ainiek kap fbaa
Km^ li> Uwlb w^b nok one to Mukrst Ikeaa or to vite
tdiMfe aftskt. At tie eatstatn entetnce^ en tibt Safaon
aiJk «^ tdi^ <eawtiKT« k a ttts^k axidh aai gifcan ly
^ sMaew ^d«er viadk tvvntt anl ticoQps
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 189
which adds to it a romantic and at the same time a
venerable and ancient appearance. On the riglit of
the entrance, as the visitor enters, is a winding path
which leads across a rustic bridge and over a running
broolc, to tlie residence of tlie superintendent of the
grounds, which is a most picturesque cottage. Al-
most directly in front of the gate is the principal
thoroughfare, called Highland avenue. On the right
of this avenue is a piece of sculpture representing a
lion and a lamb, side by side, the lion, with his noble
head resting on his paws, apparently in slumber,
while the little white lamb — emblem of innocence — -
lies peacefully and calmly by his side. On this av-
enue is the receiving tomb, and many of the finest
lots in the grove. There are those which have no
sculptured marble to render them noticeable, as well
as those on which wealth has lavished monuments
and carved slabs. Many have been rendered beau-
tiful by the presence of cultivated flowers. Some of
these lots, in which beloved relatives and friends
have been tenderly laid to rest, are hardly distin-
guishable from rich gardens. Among the many ob-
jects of interest in this cemetery, is the beautiful
marble column, surmounted by a bust of Washing-
ton, erected to the memory of Jesse Smith, the last
survivor of Washington's body-guard. Among the
many remains that lie buried here might be men-
tioned those of Dudley Leavitt Fickman, one of Sa-
lem's old merchants ; Rev. William Bentley ; Rev.
Timothy Flint ; Rev. James Flint ; George Peabody,
the London banker and philanthropist ; Lieut. Col.
Henry Merritt, of the late civil war, and many other
190 OLD NAUMKE1.0.
heroes, martyrs, noblemen and noblewomen, from
all walks of life. On Highland avenue, near the
entrance to the grove from the Salem side, is sit-
uated the soldiers' lot, set apart for the burial
place of tlie soldiers, the same as the one spoken of
in the Orne-street cemetery. The picturesqneness
of Harmony Grove is remarkable in an area no
larger than that covered, and the possession in our
midst of such a beautiful '* city of the dead," where
our citizens ma}'^ visit at any time and view the
beauties of nature and of art, and at tlie same mo-
ment meditate upon the common lot of all that are
of the flesh, is due to the foresight and taste of such
men as William H. Foster, Francis Peabody, J. S.
Cabot, Stephen C. Phillips, Abel L. Peirson, John
C. Lee, George Wheatland, William Sutton, Picker-
ing Dodge and Fitch Poole, the most of whom have
departed from earthly scenes and joined the hosts of
immortality. * %
North river originally flowed in all its purity along
the southern border of this grove, and the whole
must have proved a most delightful haunt of the In-
dians. The river now is but a dark and murky
stream, and is the only blot upon the otherwise
charming localit}'. A creek from North river, below
this point, originally flowed in and across what is
now the hollow in Boston street. The highway in
the seventeenth century had the general course of
this street, and led across a bridge at the hollow,
known as town bridge. This bridge was built in
IG-kO soon after our settlement. In 1G4G it was
taken down and a causeway built instead. In the
8ALBM — PAST AND PRESENT. 191
days of the bridge there was a pond and a salt marsh
on the south side of Boston street, made by the flow-
ing in of the o'eek under tlie bridge.
In tliis vicinit}' to-day are the noted tanneries and
currying shops of Salem. Nine Iiundred thousand
dollars are invested here in this business, and some
eight hundred men find constant employment at
it. The business of tanning, or the *' making of
leatlier" would, as a wliole, come properly under the
title of leather, which is a chemical combination
of skin with the astringent principle of oak or hem«
lock bark, etc., or tannic acid; the tanneries of
Salem using principally hemlock bark. Leather
is an article which is now in constant demand,
and it seems as if we should hardlj' know what
to do without it, as it enters into the construction
of a large portion of our clothing, and of various
engines and machinery ; also supplies harnesses for
our horses, linings for our carriages, and covers for
our books. It is an article peculiarly adapted to
the various purposes to which it is applied, and the
art of its manufacture probably became known in
an undeveloped form in the earliest period of man's
history. As an article of clothing, skins are, ao«
cording to Scripture, a direct gift to man from Godf
as we read in Oeiieaia^ 3: 21 : **Unto Adam also
and his wife did the Lord God make coats of skins
and clothed them." When skins are first taken
from animals they seem well adapted for clothing,
as they are tough, flexible and elastic, but they
shrink in drying, and become stiff and hard ; water
will then penetrate them» and when exposed to
192 OLD HAUICKKAO.
moisture they become putrid and offensive. Bat if
the skin be separated from the fleshy and fatty mat-
ters, and then l>e put into a solution of certain vege-
tables containing tannin, the skin separates the
whole of the tannin from the liquid, and l)ecome8
bard, insoluble in water, almost impenetrable by it,
and incapable of putrefaction. This operation is
called tanning. The cuiTying operation, which sub-
sequently occurs, renders the leather pliable and
No description of tanning, however perfect, would
give the reader that clear idea of the process that a
few hours or a day spent among the tanneries would.
If any readers desire to know more of the business
which is the leading industry of both Salem and
Peabody, they will do well to visit one or two of the
many large tanneries here and see with their own
ej'cs how they " make leather."
The greater portion of the territory of Salem is
unsettled, and lies south-west of the city proper.
It consists of several hills and a large area occu-
pied only as pasture land. The hill situated farthest
to the north and west is known as Gallows or Witch
hill. It is Just south of Boston street and west of
the site of the old town bridge. The settlement
has gradually crept up its northern side and is fast
tending to occupy its very crown. This hill is his-
torically noted for its familiarity with those terrible
scenes of the past, which, like the fancied blood
stains upon the hands of Lady Macbeth, continue to
haunt the mind. Here on this eminence which over^
looks the country and the ocean for miles, eighi-
8ALEU — ^PAST AND PBESBNT. 193
teen of the supposed " witches," in that never-to-be
forgotten summer of 1692, were hung. Bridget
Bishop was here executed on June 10th, Rebecca
Nurse, Sarah Goode and three others, on July 19th,
and the Rev. George Burroughs, John Proctor, John
Willard and one other, just one month later. The
last scene of this kind was on September 9th, when
Martha Corey, wife of Giles Corey, Alice Parker, Ann
Pudeator and five others were executed. It has by
some been supposed that George Jacobs, senior, was
among the number that met death on this hill ; but
there is a tradition among his descendants that he
was hung on an oak tree on his own farm, near the
iron factory on Water's river in Danvers ; and they
also show an ancient grave near his house, in which
they assert that his remains were laid. Burroughs,
Proctor, Willard and one other, were paraded through
the streets in a cart, before being taken to the place
of execution. Burroughs was a minister who had
been called from Wells, Maine, in 1680, to preach at
Salem Village, now Danvers. Before he was exe«
cuted he addressed the spectators of the appalling
scene, declaring his innocence, and praying in such
a heart-touching manner that many were afiected to
tears. Cotton Mather who was present, perceiving
the efifect of Burroughs' d3'ing words upon those
assembled, comforted them by declaring that he had
but suffered his Just reward and that no wrong had
been done him.
In 1659 Giles Corey lived in a house which stood
eight rods north-west from the north corner of Fed«
eral and Boston streets. He owned this and an ad** i
• .— • • • -
8ALEU — PAST AND PBESENT. 195
Jacent house and two or three acres of land. About
ten 3*ears previous to the witchcraft days, Mr. Corey
disposed of his real estate here and moved to Dan-
vers, where he lived when accused of being a wizard.
Highland avenue, running from Boston street in
a south-westerly direction, was formerly known as
the Salem turnpike, or the road to Boston. It was
opened for travel in 1803, and crosses Floating
bridge pond, in Lynn, just outside the Salem limits.
This pond is crossed by a bridge which floats on the
water, and is 456 feet long. Until within a few
3'ears a toll was demanded from the travellers on
this road. The toll-house still stands about mid-
way between Boston street and the bridge. A large
portion of the lands on the eastern side of High-
land avenue are known as the *'Great Pasture," and
are owned by the "Great Pasture Company," of
which the Hon. Caleb Foote Is president.
The meeting-house of the Society of Friends in
Salem, is a brick edifice which occupies the corner
of Pine and Warren streets. It was built about the
year 1831. It is presumable that the first meeting-
house of the Quakers was built about the year 1658,
when the present society was formed. Tradition
says it was a farm-house, and stood, within the re-
membrance of some living, on the north side of Es-
sex street, between Dean and Boston streets, and
bore evidence of great antiquity. ' The site is now
the burial ground of the society. Salem is historic
in the persecution of the Quakers. These persecu-
tions commenced in the year 1656, when severe laws
were passed to prevent the increase of this denoml-
196 OLD NAUMKSAO.
nation, and the wife of Lawrence Soutliwick was
arraigned for absence from worship. The following
year, after the minister had closed his sermon to the
people, two Quakers attempted to address them.
These Quakers were seized and sent to Boston,
where they were flogged and imprisoned. Lawrence
Southwick for having entertained these men in Sa«
lem, was also imprisoned. A year or two later the
General Court passed severe laws against Quakers,
forbidding any one to admit them to their houses
under a penalty of forty shillings an hour. They
were ranked with atheists, and called '' wicked sin*
ners." Their lands, cattle, corn and domestic fur«
niture were taken from them, and they were thrown
into prison for refusing to pay a parish tax for tlie
support of a gospel which was not in accordance
with their honest convictions ; also for refusing to
perform military duty, an avocation contrary to the
teachings of their religion. Some were fined. In
1659 Daniel and Provided Southwick, for refusing to
pay their fines, were ordered to be sold as slaves to any
of the English living in Virginia or Barbadoes. Quite
a number were banished on pain of death. Hannah
Phelps was admonished, Wm. King was sentenced
to be whipped and later was banished ; Margaret
Smith and Mary Trask were put in prison for attend-
ing the trial of some Quakers in Boston, who were
hung, and Edward Wharton for asserting that they
were unjustly hung, was both whipped and fined.
In 1661 Josiah Southwick, who was banished in
1659, returned to Massachusetts without leave. Ho
was at once seized, stripped to the girdle, tied to
8ALBK — ^PA8T AND FBBSBMT. 197'
the rear of a cart and flogged through the streets of
three or four towns. He then returned to Salem
and remained. These are but a few of the many
miseries to which the Quakers were subjected, and
the methods of punishment which resulted from the
incorrect views of religious liberty in the early days.
In November, 1661, the General Court voted to
comply with a letter from the King, which required
the cessation of proceedings against the Quakers,
and to '^ send such of them as are apprehended over
to England for trial." Still the persecutions con-
tinued, while the Friends increased so rapidly that
several days of fasting and prayer were held here
and elsewhere, 'Hhat the spiritual plague might
proceed no farther." Thomas Maule, one of the
most famous Quakers of Salem, published a book in
1 680, entitled " Truth Held Forth." For this, Maule
was indicted, and the book oi*dercd by the General
Court to be searched for and seized. He afterward
published another book, "Persecutors Mauled," in
which he stated that he had five times been impris-
oned, that thrice his goods had been taken from him,
and that he had suffered other abuses, among which
was a flogging, in 1669, for sajing that Mr. Higgin-
son " preached lies," and that his instruction was the
"doctrine of devils." John Burton in 1661 was
brought before the court and fined for some lack of
obedience to the Orthodox church, whereupon he
told the justices that tliey were "robbers and de-
stroyers of the widows and the fatherless," that
their priests "divined for money," and that their
worship was '^ not the worship of God." Being com-
198 OLD NAUMKXAO.
manded to be silent, he commanded the Coart to be
Bilent and continued speaking, whereupon he was
ordered to the stoclcs. Religious idiosyncrasies pre^
vailed to such an extent, that in 1662 the wife of
Robert Wilson went through the streets of Salem
with no clothes on, *^as a sign," so she declared,
'* of the spiritual nakedness of town and colony."
For this conduct she was uncovered to the waist,
tied to the rear of a cart and flogged through one
of the public streets. In 1663 Mr. Higginson, in a
letter to the legislature, declared Salem to be a ^^ nest
of Quakers," and entreated *'y' ye hon'd court will
please to consider what course may be taken for y*
dissolueing of y* Quaker meetings here." The per-
secutions of the Quakers continued to a greater or
less degree until 1728, when it was enacted that
Anabaptists and Friends be exempt from taxation
for the support of Congregational ministera. In
1757 a law was passed exempting the Friends from
military musters. The Society of Friends in Salem,
though never comprising more than a dozen or fifteen
families has still lived. Its present membership is
very small and may be summed up in five or six
family names, the direct descendants of the origina-
tors in 1658.
Nonantum hall occupies a site on Warren street.
Just a little to the south-west from the Friends' meet-
ing-house. It takes its name from the Nonantum
Indians, a tribe of the Massachusetts nation which
inhabited the territory south and west of Boston.
This hall was purchased a few years since by the
Young Men's Catholic Temperance Society, who now
r200 dLi^ KAt^ifitBAa. ' "^
occupy it as their regular place of meeting. This
society was organized October 19, 1857. There are
some five or six other temperance organizations in
Salem, but this is tlie only one among them that
owns a hall. Besides temperance societies in this
city there are the Masons, Odd Fellows, Grand Army
of the Republic, Hibernians, Knights of Pythias,
Christian Associations, Young Men's Union, the
Fraternity, Oratorio, etc.
In the vicinity of Nonantum Hall, on the old turn«
pike, in the latter part of the eighteenth and the
early part of the nineteenth centuries, quite a colony
of negroes lived. This locality was the scene of
frequent rows and drunkenness. One negro more
noted than the rest, a big, burly, powerful fellow,
named Mumford, was styled by the people of his
day as ''King Mumford."
The northern corner of Boston and Essex streets
was popularly known in the early days as ''Buffum's
corner," from the fact that Robert Buffum, who died
in 1669, owned a homestead here. The long distance
from this point to Salem neck, suggested the old
Salem phrase, '' From Neck gate to Buifum's cor«
Federal street from Boston to St. Peter streets, is
ranked among the fine streets of Salem. It is lined
on both sides with many elegant mansions and shady
trees. On this street is the St. James' Catholic
Church, of which we have previously spoken.^
The last matter of particular interest in the wes*
■ .- -- ■ . II _ ■ ._ I
1 See pa^e 138.
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 201
tern part of the city, is the asylum of the Seamen's
Orphan and Children's Friend Society, Mrs. Thorn-
dilce Proctor, president. It is situated at the foot
of Carpenter street, which leads from Federal street
to the North river, and is occupied b3' children under
the raatronage of Miss Maggie H. Barrows. This
societ}' was organized February 25, 1839, for the
purpose of '* improving the condition of such chil.
dren as are in indigent circumstances and unprovided
for." In 1844 it adopted its present name, at which
time the asyhim was purchased for $1500, by Robert
Brookhouse, merchant, and generously presented to
Proceeding from Carpenter to Essex streets, we
can there take a horse car and enjoy a short ride to
Central street, from which we will stroll into South
Salem. This horse railway is known as the Naum-
keag Street RailwH3\ It extends from *' the square"
in Peabody, to the head of Elliot street in Beverly,
a distance of about four miles. It is owned by the
Salem and South Danvers Horse Railroad Company,
Benj. AV. Russell, president. This company was
incorporated March 1, 1861. The road was leased
in 1874, to the Naumkeag Street Railway Company
(A. C. Goodell, jr., president), for a period of thirty
years. The latter company was organized as a cor-
poration, March 1, 1875. The first rails for the
building of this road were laid on Monday morning,
April 27, 1863, from the corner of Washington and
Essex streets towards Peabody.
South Salem was originally a peninsula of land
bounded on the north and west by South river, and
202 OLD KADHKEAO.
on the east by Salem harbor. It is now connected
with the city proper by the Washington street ex-
tension and South and Union bridges. South bridge
was erected in 1805. It was built at the expense of
Ezckiel H. Derby and others. The project was con-
sidered a foolish and extravagant one at the time, on
the ground that South Salem would never be of any
great use to the city. Mr. Derby had purchased
much of the land, and had erected there, as his sum-
mer residence, what is now known as the '^ Lafayette
House." The shores of South Salem were most
beautiful, and the groves and shady nooks suggested
for it the poetical* name of '* Lover's Retreat." This
portion of our city has no great ancient history, ex-
cept such as relates to its shipbuilding, previously
mentioned. It is the most recently settled of all
our territory. It has, within the past fifteen or
twenty years, gi'own so wonderfully as to rank now
as one of the finest portions of the city. Lafayette
street is a broad and beautiful thoroughfare, adorned
on each side with a large number of magnificent
mansions. The estate of Mr. Derby, familiarly
known as the Derby farm, was purchased a few 3'ears
Ago by Messrs. James F. Almy, Charles S. Clark,
Nathaniel Wiggin, and others, and cut up into streets
and house-lots, which added largely to the taxable
property of the city. South bridge was accepted
by the town in 1810; rebuilt in 1812 at the town's
expense. It opened a new way to Marblehead and
Lynn. Lafa3'ette street is a few feet east of the
location of the old road, which was but a narrow
way, traces of which can yet be distinctly seen in-
8ALB21 — PAST AND PBESB19T. 208
sido some of the lots on the western side of the
street. This street is named in honor of Gen. La-
fa3'ette, who passed tlirough it from Lynn to Salem,
wlien on his second visit here in 1824.
The Lafayette Methodist Episcopal Church is
situated on Lafayette street, at the corner of Har«
bor street. It was organized in 1821, and in 1823
a chapel (the Wesley chapel) was erected in Sewall
street. This chapel not having been deeded to the
church, but to the Rev. Mr. Fillmore, the pastor,
difficulties arose and the society became torn and
distracted. For j'ears this condition of affairs was
endured, but in 1840 a change ensued. Rev. N. S.
Spnulding became pastor of the church. During his
pastorate a new house of worship in Union street was
erected, which was continued until 1851, when a new
and larger house was deemed necessary. The present
house was therefore built, and on January 5, 1853,
was dedicated. The churcli in Beverly, and also
the Wesley-Chapel Church of Salem, were founded
by this parish. The pastors of the Lafayette street
Church have been Revs. Jesse Fillmore, Joseph B.
Brown, Jefferson Hamilton, S. C. Macreading, Aaron
Wait, J. W. Downing, 8. G. Hiler, Mr. Bradlee, N.
S. Spaulding, Z. A. Merrill, David K. Merrill, Hor-
ace Moulton, Phineas Crandall, David AVinslow,
John W. Perkins, Luman Boyden, A. D. Merrill,
Daniel Richards, John A. Adams, Austin F. Her-
ricic, John H. Mansfield, Edward A. Manning,
Gershom F. Cox, Loranus Crowell, S. F. Chase, D.
Dorchester, J. S. AVhcdon. The present pastor is
George L. Collyer. During the pastorate of Mr.
SALBM-*PAST AMD PRESENT. 205
Cox the Methodist pastorate was increased to three
years' duration throughout the denomination. Pre-
vious to that time the pastorate was of onl}** two
The Naumkeag Steam Cotton factory, the Forest
Kiver Lead mills, the Oil works, the Salem Marine
Railway, the Atlantic Car works, and also the City
Orphan Asylum, are situated in South Salem.
The Naumkeag Cotton factory was incorporated
in 1839. The building of the mills began in June,
1845, on Harbor street, on what was known as Stage
point. It lirst began to card in January, 1847, and
to weave in the following February. It then had in
operation 29,696 spindles and 642 looms, with an
engine of 400 horse power. It emplo3'ed 600 oper-
atives, to whom it paid in woges 810,000 a month.
It mauuractured 5,000,000 yards of cotton cloths in
a year. It now employ's 73,594 spindles, 1438 looms
and a capital of $1,200,000. An attempt was made
to operate here in the manufacture of cotton cloths
as early as Januar3% 1826. At tliis time cotton
goods made in Beverly were quite popular, and
voters in Salem petitioned for the flats in and adja-
cent to Collins and Cat coves ; also land in the vicin-
ity of Bridge street, Salem Neck and Wintcxr Island,
for the purpose of erecting the mills. Joseph Story
had petitioned the General Court for a modification
of the laws on manufactures, and the above enter-
prise was entered upon with great energy and zeal.
It met, however, with great opposition, which finally
compelled the stockholders to vote a discontinuance
of the enterprise, much to the injury no doubt, of
the business prospects of Salem.
206 OLD KAUHUAG.
On the site of the Naumkeag mills, the Salem
Lead Company, incorporated February 7, 1824, com*
menced work in 1826. The enterprise was unsuc-
cessful, and in 1835 the establishment was sold at
a great loss. The factory was used for the manufac-
ture of India rubber, and for a few years Salem took
the lead in the manufacture of iiibber goods. The
factory was sold again in 1841. In 1826 Francis
Peabody established lead works on the eastern sido
of Lafayette street, near the present residence of
George Chase, Esq. Ho also established the present
Forest River Lead mills, on the Forest river road
between Salem and Marblehead. The two concerns
were sold in 1843 to the present owners of the latter,
who discontinued the former. The present Forest
River Lead Company was incorporated in 1846. It
manufactures white lead and sheet lead.
A sperm-oil and candle manufactory was com-
menced by Caleb Smith in 1835 to manufacture
sperm oil from its crude state. It is now occupied
by the Seccomb Oil Manufacturing Company at the
foot of Harbor street. It manufactures lubricating
and curriers' oil.
Just west of the oil factory is the Salem Marine
Railway, the first in the country. Tiie model was
brought from Scotland by Thomas Gardner, in the
ship ^^ Commerce." The first attempt to take up a
vessel was unsuccessful. The vessel was the ^^ Pan-
ther" of Boston, Captain Austin. She fell over and
became a total wreck.
The Atlantic Car works were started a few years
ago, but continued only a short time. During their
8ALEH — PAST AND PRE8EKT. 207
continuance they manufactured some of the finest
cars that were ever put upon rails.
The City Orphan Asylum was established in 1866,
by the late Thomas Looby. It was situated just
east of the northern entrance of the tunnel, on the
corner of Bridge and Washington streets. It was
originally called the " Looby Asylum." The build-
ing occupied was removed from east of Plummet
Hall to make room for the Tucker Daland mansion,
now the residence of the family of the late Dr. Ben-
jamin Cox. This building being found insufficiently
large to accommodate the demand for admittance,
the fine estate of George Peabodj' Russell, on the
eastern side of Lafayette street, between Lagrange
street and Lafayette place, was purchased, and the
present large brick building erected thereon, for the
express benefit of orphan children and indigent old
ladies. It is supported by the liberal donations of
the public, and it is under the direction of the three
Sisters of Charity, of whom Sister Moncgean is
Castle hill, in South Salem, is supposed by some
to be the place where Nanapashemet fortified him-
self against the Tarrantines, and where he was
Union bridge crosses South river at Union street
near the Naumkeag Cotton mills. It was built in
1847. The causeway at the northern end of this
bridge was formerly known as Jeggles Island. It
was allowed by the town in 1726-7 to become the
foundation of the present Union wharf.
Debut Stbsst.— Derby Wrabf.— Custom House.— Old La-
dies* Home.— Old Men's Home. — Mabblehbad Fekbt.—
House OF Seven Gables.— Philip English.- Febbt Lanb.
— Bevbblt Tebby. — Plantbb's Marsh. — WrNTHUOP»s Ab-
bival. — Ababella Johnson. — Fotteb's Field. — Fibst
Mills in Salem.— Bbidob Stbeet.— Cab Shops, Jute mill,
Lead Mill and Gas Houses.— Essex Railboad.— Penn-
sylvania PiBB AND Phillip's Whabp. — Stephen C. Phil-
lips. — Salem Neck. — Early Fisurkmbn. — City Alms-
bouse.— Pkst Houses.— WiNTEB Island.— Blub Anchob
Tavebn. — Pibates. — Eably Fobtifications and Block
Houses. — U. S. Fbioate ** Essex." — Old Muster Gbound. —
Plummer Farm School. — Juniper Point and the Willows.
— JuNiPEB House. — Bakeb's, Lowell, and otiibb Islands.
— Navt of Salem in the Revolution.— Gbowth of Salbm
Population, etc., dubino the past Cbntuby.— Exd of oub
[fE now return to the northern side of the river
and stroll down Derby street. This street,
|[^ in the commercial days of Salem, was the
great street of the city; but with the de-
parture of our maritime glories its greatness van-
ished. The remains of several of the fine mansions,
once occupied by some of our princely merchants of
the past, may still be seen on this street.
Just east of Union bridge is Derby wharf, a long
whai*f extending far out into the harbor. This wharf
was commenced by Capt. Richard Derby, and from
time to time extended by his children to its present
At the head of Derby wharf, on the eastern corner
of Orange street and facing the harbor, is the pres-
210 OLD KAUHKEAO.
ent Custom House.^ It is of brick and was built in
1819 by order of Congress. The dimensions of this
building (when built) were :— length, forty-eight feet,
width, forty feet, two stories and a half high, with
a high basement and a storehouse attached which is
twenty-eight by seventy feet. A broad flight of
stone steps leads from the street to the offices in
the first story above the basement. There is a
cupola on the roof of the building from which the
flag is displayed. A fine carved eagle ornaments
the front. Hawthorne has rendered this ancient
Custom House classical, in his amusing preface to
the ^^ Scarlet Letter," as Charles Lamb immortalized
the South Sea House in his essays. The Custom
House occupies the site of a wooden house in which
George Crowninshield lived. This house had a cu-
pola, surmounted by an image representing a man
looking through a spy-glass.
The Custom Houses of Salem have occupied vaii-
ous places from time to time. We have spoken of
the first two^ and of two others on Central street.^
As to some other locations of it we learn that it
once stood near where the old Neck gate was, at the
junction of Fort Avenue and the road leading to the
Almshouse; at another time it was in ^^Blaney's
building," at about 154 Washington street ; again it
was near the premises of 261 Essex street.^ In 1776
it was on the corner of Essex and North streets. It
was afterwards in Central street, then on Essex
ia6epage28. •SeepaceSi. *a6epagel81. «6eepaf»S0.
8ALSM — ^PA8T A2n> PRESENT. 211
street opposite where the Essex Institute is, then
on tlie corner of Newbury and Essex streets, then
on Central street again, and from there removed
to its present position. Capt. Charles H. Odell is
the present collector.
George Crowninsliicld was the father of Benjamin
W. Crowninshield, who occupied the brick house on
Derby street now used for the Old Ladles' Home.
President Monroe, when visiting Salem, in 1817,
stopped over night in this latter house. Gen. Mil-
ler afterwards occupied it, and in 1860 it was pur-
chased by Robert Brookhouse, Esq., and donated to
the '^Association for the Relief of Aged and Desti-
tute Women." This association was incorporated
the same ^'^ear. Benjamin H. Silsbce, Esq., is pres-
ident. Miss Mary E. Deacon is matron.
The house on the corner of Derby and Turner
streets is now occupied as the *' Salem Old Men's
Home." Tills house was built b}' Penn Townsend,
and occupied many years by Hon. J. G. Watera,
also by the late William Gavett. The "Home" was
the gift of John Bertram, Esq., by whose munifi-
cence it is endowed. It was incorporated April 10,
1877. A board of trustees, consisting of thirteen
gentlemen, and a superintendent and matron, are
chosen annually. The following article from the
by-laws denotes the objects of the institution : —
** Artiolk 9. No person shnll be ndmittcci into the Home
but those of good moral character and habits, who have
resided in Snlem for not less than ten years immediately
preceding their application for admission, and are not less
than sixty years of age, unless by a vote of the Trustees,
212 OLD NAUMKBAOw
not less than nine members of the Board being present
and voting nnanimonsly."
Of the present officers John Bertram is president,
Joseph A. Goldthwait, superintendent, and Mrs.
Before the opening of the Lafayette street road to
Marblehead, tlie means of reaching this town were
by feny. The landing of tlie Marblehead ferry
was at the foot of Tuiiier street, on the Salem side,
and at Haskell's cove, a little to the west of Naugus
bead on the Marblehead side, in close proximity to
the old Darby fort. This ferry was hired b}' Philip
English in 1G99, for three years, and after him Capt.
John Galley, of Marblehead, had it for ten years.
The fare was twopence for Salem people, and for
others ^^ whatever the Court of Sessions should ap-
point." Callcy*s boat was fitted to carry horses
and carriages. When Marblehead was incorporated,
Salem reserved to herself the right of the ferry and
the appointment of the ferr3'-men. The first ferry-
man was George Wright, who was appointed as early
as 1637. Richard Ingersoll was forr3'-roan after
Wright ; and Ingersoll, together with John Howai*d,
built, in 1G62, the house now standing at the foot
of Turner street, on the right-hand side and nearest
This house is known as the '* House of the Seven
Gables," and was the subject of Hawthorne's stoiy
with that title. It retains its great fireplace with
its iron back, and much more of its original antiq-
uity. It is still in the possession of the Ingersoll
SALEM — PAST AND PBESEKT. 218
family. Hawthorne was a iVequent visitor to the
Ingersoll mansion in his younger days, when he
was living on Herbert street. Another of his fine
sketches, ^^ The Grandfather's Chair,'' had its origin
here. One day Hawthorne was in this house talking
with the old lady, *' Susie" Ingersoll, when she re-
marked to him: ''this is the house of the seven
gables." '* Seven gables, seven gables," reiterated
Hawthorne, at once thrown into deep thought,
'' that's Just what I want." Not long after, his book
bearing that title was produced. The stoiy was
written witli the evident design of wreaking his
vengeance on certain Salem people who were not
pleasing to him. The second story originated in a
similar manner : Hawthorne was passing an evening
in the great old-fashioned parlor of this same house
with the Ingersoll family. Mrs. Ingersoll said to
him, "Why don't you write something Nat.?" "I
haven't any thing to write about," Hawtliorne re-
plied. "Write about tliat old chair," continued the
old lady, pointing to an old chair which had been
handed down from her English ancestors. Haw-
thorne at once sought the history of the chair, and
together with fiction produced the story of "The
Grandfather's Chair." The two gables on the back
of the house have been removed because of decay.
Otherwise the house presents the same exterior as
in the days of Hawthorne. As to the interior, that
presents the same general appearance as when built
more than two hundred years ago. Of course paint,
paper, carpets, etc., have enlivened it somewhat.
Philip English, of whom we have once or twice
pRvioasI; spoken, lired neftr tJbc beaiJ of wlot U oam
Engluli Btteet. T«o varraAU vetc ttsaeti for bim
in ibe witdicraft times, clMTpog Lim with being s
" ■izftrd." On the Mcowl wiurant he was secnred.
BU wife Uarjr wa« also Sicciucid of being » " witch."
TmSlioD among her deaeendBiita has it that Mrs.
EnglUh wa3 first lockol np in a chamber in tbe tav-
ern, "Cat and Wlwel," which was sitnateil jost east
of Um VinA Cliarefa, ami th-ere through the cracks of
thfl loor heard tbe esamioAtioa, ia the room below,
of olhcn Bceoscd like herself. Ur. and Urs. Bag.
lirii wete aent to Boston, ami there imiinsoiwd to-
getikCr Dine weeks. From this prison they mside
their escape to New York, about Augnst 6, 1692,
where they remained until the witchcraft escitemeut
was over, anil llica retiirneU.
Tbe oUl Beadle's tavern, somewhat noted ia the
pest, stood on Essex atreet about opposite the head
of Ftcaannt street.
The origiual rond to what is now Beverly bridge,
bad tbe general course of Pleasant sad Bri^ige
streets. It was but a cart-pstb, and much of tbe
land on both sides of tlK entire course was swampy.
It was called tlie "road to tbe ferry," or "Ferry
lane." Tlist portion of ib« old road which is now
Bridge street, with its extension to Wintei* street, is
one of the finest streets in Uie city. Winter street,
a shoit but broad and besiitifiil street, leading frum
Bridge street at the hen>l of Nortbey street, to the
Common, has snpcrsedeil Pleasant street as the pojv
ular course to Beverly. Tbe Beverly ferry had its
landing on the Salem side, near the iialem end of
SALEM — FAST AND PRESENT. 215
the present bridge, and on the Beverly side abont
opposite Cox's court, between Quiner's and Preston's
wharves. A little of the original look of the old
landing on the Beverly side, still remains. This
ferry was established December 26, 1636, when it
<* Agreed that John Stone shall keepe a ferry to
begin this day, betwixt his house upon the north
point (Salem), and Cape Ann side (Beverly), and
shall give diligent attendance thereupon during the
space of three years, unless he shall give Just occa-
sion to the contraiy, and in consideration thereof
he is to have twopence for a stranger and one penny
from an inhabitant. Moreover the said John Stone
doth agree to provide a convenient boat for the said
purpose, betwixt this and the first month next com-
ing after the date hereof.''
In 1 639 William Dixey succeeded John Stone at
the feriy, and was required to " keep an horse boat,**
imd to receive as fares 'twopence a piece from
strangers, one penny a piece from towne dwellers,
sixpence a piece for mares, horses and other great
beasts, and twopence a piece for goats, calves and
The land on the eastern side of the northern ex-
tremity of Bridge street was formerly known as
"Planter's marsh," and here the "Old Planters" are
supposed to have cut the thatch with which they used
to thatch the roofs of their houses. It is doubtless
owing in part to the above fact, that some writerd
have inferred that the first landing place at Naum*
keag was in this localityi and that the first bouses
216 OLD NAUMKBAa.
were here bailt. Their farther ground for this belief
18 the acconnt of the arrival of Gov. Winthrop at
Nanmlceag, talcen from Winthrop'a Journal. He
states that after a long passage, from the 29th of
March, to June 12,^ he saw Salem as the port of
destination, and reached an anchorage inside of
Bdker^s Island. He came in the ship Eagle, or, as
she was named on this voyage, the Arabella, in honor
of Lady Arabella Johnson, daughter of the Earl of
Lincoln, wlio was among the passengers in her.
Three other ships, the Ambrose, Jewel and Talbot,
arrived a few hours after her, and seven others were
on the passage hither. Soon after the Arabella had
come to anchor, Winthrop came ashore and took
Endicott, Slcelton and Leavitt on board the ship.
The question, therefore, arose as to whether these
latter gentlemen were taken from Beverly bridge
point, from Salem neck point, or from a more dis-
tant point in Salem harbor. After a few hours,
Winthrop, Endicott, Skclton and Leavitt, with son^
of the lady passengers and others, returned to the
shore, and Winthrop's Journal further states :
*^At night we returned to our ship, but some of
the women stayed behind. In the mean time (while
at the settlement) most of our people (on board of
the ship) went on shore upon the land of Cape Ann,
(Beverly) which lay very near us, and gathered store
of fine strawberries."
The next day was Sunday, and on Monday morn-
ing the Arabella was ^^ warped into the harbor"
1 June 10, on page 18, refers to Uieir tightiog the ooatt.
SALEM — ^PAST AND PRESENT. 217
Whatever view may bo taken of "Wintlirop's move-
ments, it can afford very little evidence regarding
the exact location of Conant's landing-place, as
nearly four years had elapsed since Conant came to
Naumkeag, and nearly two 3'ears since Endicott's
nn'ival. Besides, the settlers had scattered into
various localities, — Salem Neck had buildings upon
it, and Conant with otliers liad removed to Beverly.
Lady Arabella Johnson died soon after her arrival
at Naumkeag. She was buried in what was known
08 Potter's field, situated near the Planter's marsh.
The Rev. Francis Iligginson, who died the same year,
was doubtless buried at the same place. Potter's
field was probably the first ground used by the early
settlers for their dead. Its exact location is not
known to the writer. The venerable Dr. Holyoke
was accustomed to say that the grave of Arabella
Johnson was denoted by a brick monument. Some
believe this burial-place to have been at the foot of
Arabella street, while others locate it in the vicinity
of Planter's street, where it is claimed a sandy ridge
formerly extended from the upland into the marsh.
The vicinit3'^ of Northey and Winter streets was
early occupied by tanneries, and on the bank of
North river, near the foot of Northey street, stood
a wind-mill used for the grinding of bark. Rope-
making and tanning were among the principal early
manufacturing interests of Salem. Only one of the
long, quauit looking rope-walks, so common in the
past, remains to-da}'. It is Chisholm's line and
twine factor}', situated in South Salem.
The whole of Bridge Btreeti north of Pleasajit
i iii B cl ^lttibecalaigdybiultiqw aaJ i^Mu i ed dr-
iagtfe pail tveatj-ire jean. The Eistcni Riilnail
cau- titapm are talaahtil oa the eastcni nile of titts
fltfeel LetTeen Lalhrop aikd Oigood streets. Thej
caBf4ar s Isi^gie nnMl>cr of ir oikuicji . These sbofn
ne awntd s»i1 opomted bj the Esstem Railroad
oorporatkNi. West of tise car siaop*, at the foot of
Bomside street, is the Salem Jote factoij. The
Salem Lead woikB are sitaaie^l at the foot of Saos-
ders street. The Salem Gas Li^t eompanj has tvo
booses, ooe at the foot of Xorthej street, and a iiev
hoose sitoated oo the iiorth-eastero pmnt of the iM
Flantei^a marUi. Tlie Salem Lead companj- was is-
ecnxxjraied in Februarr, 18C8. Benjamin U. Silsbee
is president. It manofactures vbite leail, lea&l pipe,
etc. The S^lem Gas Liglit company was organized
in April, 18^, and 8n]>p!ies tlie greater portioo of
the city vith ligbt. William H. Jelly is president.
The Ei^scx Bail road crosses Briilgc street under-
seatb a wooden bridge near the bea«l of Webb street,
and nins |iarallel with Webb street to Pbillifis* wharf
aiwl Pennsylrania pier. Both of these wliarres are
situated at the foot of Derby street, in the most
easterly part of the city. An extensive coal bosi-
iiess is carried on here, where coal is landed Iixnii
the ships, and sent by rail to inland towns.
Phillips' wharf, latterly- the prindpal wharf in Sa-
lem, was built and owned by Stephen Claren^km
Phillips,* merchant and philanthropist, wlio was
bom in Salem in 1801, and lost b3' the burning of
8ALEBI — PAST AKD PRESENT. 219
"The Montreal/* on the river St. Lawrence. He
was one of the oarl3' movers in the building of the
Salcin and Lowell Raih-oad. This wharf is now
owned by his son, Williard P. Phillips, merchant
and politician, who leased it, about the year 1871,
for twenty years, to the above railroad.
Pennsylvania pier was built in September, 1873,
by the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron com-
pany. It is next east of Phillips' wharf, and extends
south-easterly into the harbor two thousand feet, or
nearly half waj'' across the harbor. There are six-
teen feet of water at low tide, at the end of this
pier. The company employ in their business, be-
tween Philadelphia and Salem, a line ol' iron steam-
ers, of from 1550 lo 1650 tons capacity. They are
fine ships of about two hundred and fifty feet in
length, and run nith great rcgularit}*. Ninety thou-
sand tons of coal were landed here during the year
ending December 1, 1877, eighty- five thousand of
which were sent into the country by rail. The first
cargo of coal landed at this pier was by the steamer
**WiHiamsport," on the 29th of March, 1875. Near
the extremity of the wharf is a large building used
for the storage of coal. This building is known as
the '* Pockets." It is two hundred feet long, nearly
half as wide and fifty feet high, and is supplied with
steam apparatus for the hoisting of coal. This com-
pany employs on this pier about sixty men, daily.
AVc have now traversed the city from Liberty hill
to Forest river, and to Neck gate from Bn Hum's
corner. We will now complete our stroll with a
view of Salem Neck, which is an irregular point of
laod lying below the town, and extending one mile
220 OLD MAU1IKKA6.
in a north-easterlj^ direction. The Neck was occu-
pied by some of our earliest inhabitants at a place
called Watertown, on the ^' point of rocks," and
also at Abbot's cove. In 1637 lots were granted
here for buihlings and tlie iisliing trade. Quite an
extensive fishing business was tlien carried on. The
^' point of rocks" is now inehided in the ^^Rowell
farm," which is on the riglit hand of the road as yoa
enter u|)on the Neck. Ricliard Ilollingsworth, a
noted ship-carpenter, owned land near the ^^ point
of rocks," about 1G77. The Hawthorne family af-
terward owned this land, and their liouse is still
standing on the eastern part of Rowell's farm. On
*'*' Roaclie's point," to the left as 3'ou enter upon the
Neck, stands the City almshouse. It is a substan-
tial brick structure, two hundred feet in length, with
two wings about fifty feet wide, and a projection
forty feet wide, half of which projection extends
beyond the wings. The house is five stories high in
front and foiu* stories in the rear. It has two hos-
pitals and one chapel. It was built in 18 IG. The
town*s land, which was early used for pasturage,
was united with the almshouse, and a fine farm pix>-
vided which has ever since been worked by the in-
mates of the house, and so aided its support. The
first provision made for the poor of Salem of which
we have any knowledge, was the hiring of a house
in 1G98 for their accommodation. In 1719 a build-
ing expressly built for the poor, stood opposite the
north-easterly corner of the Broad-street cemetery.
Overseers of tlie poor were first chosen in 1750. In
1771 a new almshouse was built on the north-east-
erly part of the Common. The present almshouse,
SALEM — PAST AND PRESENT. 221
at the Neck, was reacl}'^ for occupancy November 80,
181G. Paul Upton was the first keeper of it ; George
Far well is the present keeper.
The almslionse occupies the site of a pest-house
which was built in 1747. This [.esthouse in 1799
had been discontinued and another one built on the
north-east point of tlie Neck, on what is now known
as tlie AVillows. It was burned down some 3*ears
since. The present pest-house stands on the hill
at the left of Fort avenue, and near to the alms-
Winter Island lies a little to the southeast of the
Neck, and is connected with it by a narrow causeway
which was built as early as 1C67. Previous to the
building of this causeway there was a good passnge
for vessels between the Island and the Neck. AVin-
ter Island and Salem Neck were, in Ihe early days,
especial!}' devoted to the Ashing business and to ship*
building. Quite a village of fishermen occupied tlie
island, which with the ilsh flakes, presses and fish
houses, presented quite a livelj' appearance. So nu-
merous were the people here in 1679, tliat John Clif-
ford was licensed to keep a victualling house for their
convenience. "This," says Felt, *'mny have been
the origin of the *Old BUic Anchor tavern,' famed
in traditionary story." In 1C84 several merchnnts
were allowed to build wharves here, and in 1698 tiio
island had streets on it, laid out and properly
named, among tiiem was. Fish street. It has from
tlie earliest dn3-s been looked upon as a place pecu-
liarly adapted for defence against the enemy, either
by laud or wdter. From the settlement of the
eALEU — ^PA8T AND PRESEIVT. 228
Conntrj to 1724, the early commerce was subject to
pirac3% and the people at home aiino3-ecl by the Iii-
cliaiis, to the southward and northward especially.
English pirates came boldly upon our coast as early
as 1G32, and continued to plunder till 1705. The
Algcrine and Tunisian pirates disturbed our com-
merce in the English Channel for several 3'ears from
1G40, while the French and Spanish vessels being,
or assuming to be, privateers, caused our people
trouble from 1G80 to 1725. Between 1689 and 1711
the French almost destroyed the fishing fleet of Sa-
lem. AVhilst all our vessels went more or less armed
for defence upon the ocean, our people took good care
in fortifying themselves at home.
The first fort, as previously stated, was built near
Washington street. The second was built in 1029,
at Naugus head, Marblchead side, and was named
Darby fort. It was provided with large cannon and
a cannoneer. The next fort was commenced 011
Winter Island in 1043, but not finished until nearly
twelve years afterwards. Guns were allowed to be
taken from the island in 1641, to be used by Cnpt.
Cakebread^ in his cruise against the Turks. This
shows that there were means of defence here before
the building of the fort. In 1GG7, during the prog-
ress of the Dutch war, our people became alarmed
at a threatened visit of the Dutch fleet which had
ravaged Virginia, and great guns were ordered to
the Winter Island fort, with all speed. In 1073
England bad declared war for the second time
> One Mitlioritsr gires fbis name M ** BraidoilM***
224 OtD KAUUKEAO.
against Holland, and through fear again of the Dutch
fleet, the ahovo fort was refitted. Leatlier cannon
were used about this time to frighten the Indians.
Tlie3' were light and could be easily dragged tiu'ough
the forests, and to the Indians presented as formid-
able an appearance as the more deadly ordnance.
In 1G77 the people of Salem were greatly distressed
bj** reason of the Dutch war. Sixty-one families,
numbering 295 persons, together with others from
different towns, were relieved by donations from the
people of Ireland. About a century and a half
later our people had an opportunity to return the
kindness. In 1G90 the Winter Island fort was re-
paired, block-houses built, and breastworks were
thrown up at the Juniper, the AVillows, and on the
hill. In 1G99 the AVinter Island fort was called Fort
William. In 170G two block-houses were erected
near the entrance to the Neck, and supplied with
several guns. A stockade was also built of about
200 feet in length, and the Neck was intended, quite
likely, as a place for retreat in case of an Indian
attack upon the town. In 1714 Fort William was
equipped with twenty guns. In 1742 breastworks,
and a platform for sixteen guns, were erected on
the eastern high hill. In 1775 Gen. Henry Lee,
commanding the north-eastern division of the coun-
try, came to Salem, and with Jonathan Pcele, mer-
chant of this place, selected this hill as the place to
erect a formidable fort. It was called Fort Lee.
Barracks were also built at Juniper point. In 1787
there were three forts here known as Forts AVilliam,
Lee and Juniper. In 1794| while our relations with
8ALEU— ^PA8T ANI> PRESENT. 225
France were threatened with rupture, the selectmen
of Salem ceded to the United States, the land where
the old fort stood on AVinter Island, and as much
more on the Neck and Island as might be needed
for fortifications. In 1796 Fort AVilliara was re-
paired by the government, and in 17i)9 its name was
clianged, by order of the secretary of war, to Fort
Pickering. In 1814 these forts were rebuilt under
the direction of Maj. Gen. Amos Hovey, and Gen.
David Putnam. Forts Lee and Pickering were again
rebuilt during our recent war.
The United States frigate " Essex," built in 1799
on Winter Island, as stated on page 141, holds a
prominent position in the list of noted American
ships. Slic was the patriotic offering to the service
of the country, from tlie then small seaport of Salem.
She was built by order of Congress, but paid for
voluntarily by subscriptions from the inhabitants of
Salem. AVilliam Gray and Elias Haskett Derby
headed the subscription paper with $10,000 each.
She was of 850 tons burthen, and with one complete
set of sails cost the subscribers $75,473.59. Her
armament was provided by the government. Her
total cost when ready for service with twelve months-
provisions, was $154,687.77. Her keel was laid
April 13, 1799 ; she was launched on September
doth following. The advertisement for the wood to
build her, read :
" True lovers of the liberty of your country^ step
forth and give your assistance in building the frigate
to oppose French insolence and piracy"
226 OLD KAUMKBAO.
£no9 Briggs, her builder, built in Snlem fifty-one
vessels iu all, of 11,500 tons. He died in 1819,
aged 73, highly respected for his mechanical skill,
his industrious example and his useful life. The
Essex was the first United States ship to carry
our flag around the Cape of Good Hope and Cape
Horn ; was the first to capture an armed prize in
the war of Great Britain, and when compelled at
last to surrender to a superior force, made a pro-
tracted and unequal conflict in Valparaiso ba3^ Few
Ehips in the United States service, with so short a
career, have ever been blessed with such a galaxy
of commanders — Preble, Barron, Bainbridge, De-
catur, Stewart, Cox, Campbell, Smith, and last but
not least Porter, father of Admiral Porter. Admi-
ral Farragut, of New Orleans fame, received his
first wounds on her deck as a midshipman. After
her capture she was entered upon the list of English
ships, and in 1833 was used as a convict ship at
Kingston, Jamaica. She was finally sold at auction
at Somerset House, in 1837.
For many years previous to the last war, AVinter
Island was used each fall as the muster ground of
the militia of Essex county, when the brigade muster
system was in vogue. It is now occupied by the
Plummer Farm School of Beform for boys. This
school was founded by the munificent bequest of
Miss Caroline Plummer. It is a school for the in-
struction, employment and reformation of Juvenile
ofibndcrs in the city of Salem. The amount of the
bequest was $25,000. The fund by judicious man-
agement is yeai'ly increased. It is under the charge
8ALBM — ^FAST AND FRESENT. 227
of n board of ten trustees, cbosen for a term of years
by tbe Ma3*or aiul Aldermen. It was incorporated
b}' an act of the Legislature in 1855. The school
went into operation September 23, 1870. William I.
Bowditch is now president, and Gilbert L. Streeter,
Salem Neck is now considered the principal sum-
mer retreat of the community of Salem, Pcabody
and Beverly. Salem and Lowell people occupy Ju-
niper point, with a lively and handsome village of
summer residences. Through their good taste and
the enterprise of the city government under Ma^'or
Williams* administration, in making the AVillows
estceedingly attractive and improving the avenue
thereto, together with the Naumkeag Railway com«
pan}^ which has established a branch road to the
Willows for summer travel, the Neck has been con-
verted, from pasturage land, into one of the iinest
summer retreats on our coast. It had been more or
less of a retreat for private parties for some years,
but there was neither private nor public shelter for
them, save perhaps the old farm house at the fork
of tlie roads to the Willows, Juniper and Winter
Island. This house was built about the close of
the seventeenth, or the beginning of the eighteenth
century, on a farm purchased here by Col. John
Higginson, grandson of Rev. Francis, and son of
Rev. John Higginson. It was afterwards owned by
Capt. Benjamin Ives, then by Capt. Richard Derby,
who leased a point on AVinter Island, in 1755, for a
wharf and warehouse. Capt. Allen next occupied
the farm, lYhich included a large portion of the
228 OLD NAUUKBAG.
Juniper. It was long known as the ^' Allen farm/'
It has since been occupied by Aaron Welch and
others still living. It has recently been renovated
and is. now a public house, known as the ^'Juniper
In 1855-6 a few Boston clerks began to camp
during their vacations at Juniper point; finally
some of the Lowell people, driven from Marbleliead
Neck by disagreement with tlie proprietors llierCi
sought our Juniper and erected a cottage or two.
They were followed by others, until the point began
to develop itself into a watering-place for residents.
In 1873 D. B. Gardner, jr., bought the "Allen farm"
of the Dustin heirs, of Peubody, and laid it out
into streets, and fine house-lots which are for sale.
There are now some fifly or more fine cottages hero,
and the number increases yearly. The Willows, a
point ^ to the north-west of the Juniper, and from
which an English man-of-war was cannonaded,^ next
began to be looked upon in the favorable light which
is now attached to it. A pavilion, pagodas, fountains,
new roads and eating-houses were built, and every-
thing of an attractive nature about it improved.
On pleasant summer days thousands of people come
here to enjoy the cooling breezes, and to listen to
the music from the baud which is often employed to
add to the enjoyment. Steamboats, yachts and row
boats are always at hand to accommodate parties or
individuals. A long wharf, known as steamboat
wharf, has been built from what was early known as
^Formerly known AB Hospital-point • *S«e Beverly.
fllALEU-^PAST AND PRESENT. 229
Watch-house point, so called from the block, or
watch-house which stood here as late as 1758, and
from which when new, our people watclied for pirates
and other enemies who frequented our coast. From
this point a fine view is obtained of the coast, from
Marblehead Neck on the right, to Gloucester harbor
on the left, with its indentures of harbors, coves
and creeks ; also the great bay spread out in front,
and dotted with its many islands.
Baker*s Island was so called as early as 1630, at
which time tiio most of these islands were covered
witli forest trees. Baker's Island is the largest of .
tlie group ; it contains fifty-five acres, and is distant
about four miles easterly from AVatch-iiousc iX)int.
After being long appropriated for pasturage, this
island was selected, in 1797, as the location for a
lighthouse. The two lights niglitly displayed here
were first shown on January 3, 1798. Lowell Island
is the next largest, and contains nine acres. It
has a large hotel on it built by the Lowell people
some yeai*s ago, for a summer retreat. In 1655 it
was granted by the General Court to Governor En-
dicott and his heirs. Its proper name was Cotta
Island, the name being derived A*om that of its
owners. Tliis name was afterwards contracted to
•'Cat" Island, by which name it was long known.
A small-pox hospital erected here by tlie Marblehead
people, was burned in 1774 by a mob. House Is-
land, so named because of a rock on it whicii looks
like a building, contains five acres, and is the next ;
largest to Lowell Island. The other islands arc
known as Eagle, Ram, Coney, Tinker's, two Goose-
8ALBM-— PAST AND PRE8BKT. 231
berries and the two Miseries, the whole forming a
naturnl breakwater which protects tlie main land.
The Gooseberries, Ram and Tiniier*s islands are all
that now remain as the property of Salem.
Having now completed our stroll over the most
interesting portion of old Naumkeag, let us be
sealed and rest ourselves inside the pagoda on
Wateh-liouse point. Here, as we scan the grand old
ocean spread out before us as a miglity field of blue,
and drink in the beauty of the present scene, let ns
imngine ourselves transported back to the days
when the coming of pirates, or of Uie Dutch fleet,
or of Kuglish men-of-war, was watched from this
same point, — wlien tlie coming and going of tlie
fishing vessels and tlie merchant ships made the bay
white with fleeting sails.
AVith the fishing business began the prosperity
of Salem, and it is to such men as the Rev. Hugh
Peters and Mr. George Corwin, merchant of Salem,
that we are chiefly indebted for the success which
has crowned this source of our prosperity.
The fisheries, also, raised up a class of hardy^ sea-
men, which the Revolutionary war developed into
a race of the boldest, most adventurous and skilful
sea-kings that the world has ever known. By them
Salem was enabled to meet the mistress of the ocean
on her own element, and dispute her supremacy.
The Revolutionary war laid the foundations of
nearly all the great fortunes of our merchant princes,
and increased the population of the town from 4000,
at the beginning of the war, to 8000 at the close.
The wai* was immensely populai*, i^nd was entered
2S2 OLD NAUHKBAO.
into with a heart}*^ goodwill by all classes of people.
Privateering was made the leading business of tlie
town ; even the clergymen regarded it with favor,
especially the Rev. Dr. Whitaker, who was directly
interested in several privateers, and was frequently
seen on the wharf, mixing with the crowd of mer-
chants, sea captains, and other persons concerned
in navigation, conversing on the events of the day.
The people of the neighboring towns came flock-
ing into Salem to go privateering. As an instance
of the alacrity with which the privateers were
manned, more than 100 men signed the articles of
the Grand Turk, within three days after the notices
were posted. The town was full of sailors ; every
street swarmed with them, rolling and rollicking
along, with their pockets full of money (hard
monc30i singing songs, chewing tobacco, smoking
cigars, drinking at all the public houses, playing
tricks upon the country-men, and especially upon
the countr3'-women who brought berries into town
to sell ; in any street could be seen sailors trying
to navigate with horses, chaises and carts. But all
this was in good nature ; there was no quarrelling,
no thieving, no rowdyism.
The Sun tavern was the great resort of the offi-
cers of the privateers. This was their headquarters ;
here they met to discuss the news, to pla}" cards,
and to drink, for all drank in those days, and at
nearly all gatherings a well filled punch bowl was
an indispensable ariicle.
Every vessel, that could sail tolerably well, was
taken up for a privateer. The late Capt. Joseph
8ALKM — ^PA8T AND PBESEIVT. 238
Wliite was standing ono clay, at the commencement
of the war, on ilio Long wharf, in conversation
with one of the Cabot brothers of Beverl3', recount-
ing tlio wrongs he had suffered from tlic Britisli, by
the capture of Mu*ee of his vessels, and now he said
he would have revenge and retrieve his fortune by
going a privateering, and he proposed to Mr. Cabot
to buy a vessel with him and fit her out for a priva-
teer. It was agreed between them to do so. Mr.
"Wliitc bought of Elias Ilaskett Derby a sloop, called
the *'Comc along Patt3'," which had been employed
in the West India trade, and had been commanded
by Capt. James' Chcever. Mr. AVhite gave her the
name of "Revenge," and fitted her out with ten
guns and a crew of fiftj' men, and went in her him-
self as commander. Tliis was tlie first privateer
that sailed from Salem in the Ilcvolutionary war.
The nav3' of Salem, in this war, consisted of 2G7
vessels, privateers and letters of marque, viz. :
70 ships moniitlng 121G gans, and manned by 3048 men.
100 brigs " lipO «« " " " 3300 "
CO schooners «* 652 " " " «« 1056 ««
22 sloops " 17C " " ** " 628 "
2G7 vessels " 8044 " " " " 9132 "
There were several vessels whose number of guns
was unknown, and several more whose number of
men was unknown, and it was found that in general
the average number of men to a gun was between
three and four, and it was nearer to four than it was
to three. But tiuee men to a gun is assumed in
284 * OLD NAUUKEAO.
the above so as to be on the safer side. The num-
ber of men given, huge as it seems to be, is reallj'
less than the Irue number. Besides, there are men-
tioned in an ohl insurance boolc of this period seve-
ral letters of marque as being insured, and of wiiieh
no particulars are given, and they are omitted from
this account, which would, without doubt, bring
the number of seamen that sailed during this war
out of the ports of Salem and Beverly fully up
In addition to the 2G7 vessels mentioned above,
there were a number of shallops, or small boats,
armed with swivels, which cruised in the bay and
captured British vessels bound into Boston with
military stores for the army there. There was the
Dolphin, a two-masted sail boat, which was built in
the cove that existed formerly at the foot of Cen-
tral street, where the Phoenix building now stands.
This boat belonged to Jouathan Peele, who built a
long hatch on her, armed her with twelve swivels,
six on a side. She would often go out in the morn-
ing and before night return, bringing in a prize.
As the wharf accommodations were very limited
in Salem at that time, the prize-vessels were an<
chored in the harbor, and there would often bo a
large fleet, reaching from Naugus head to Throg-
In 177U, Capt. William Gray learning that a
British privateer was 13'ing off our harbor, em-
barked on board an armed schooner with a com-
pany of volunteers and went in pursuit of her, cap-
tured her and brought her into port* Many other
8ALEU — PAST AKD PRESENT. 235
daring and worthy exploits of this kind occurred in
the early da^'S within sight or lienring of the people
of Salcin. On March 3, 1776, a naval bnttlc was
witnessed, from the church steeples and hills, be-
tween a British man-of-war and four privateers.
The former outsailed the latter and so escaped.
The private armed vessels of Salem during the
war of 1812 were as follows : —
8 8hips mounting 54 guns, and manned by 805 men.
8 brl«rs "
24 schooners ••
4 sloops "
2 launches "
5 boats nrmrd
41 180 2103
The above made an aggregate of 3405 tons. Of
the whole number of square-rigged privateers CG
per cent, were captured. The sloops that sailed
from Salem were remarkably successful as a class,
and a smaller percentage of them were captured
than any other, whilst they were found as fully ef-
fective as an3' other class and could keep the sea as
well. None of the schooners distinguished them-
selves except the Fame, Dart and Dolphin, and
these were all built before the war. The Fame was
especially effective. She and the Dart were lost by
getting ashore in the Bay of Fundy.
The naval warfare Avhich is here represented as
from Salem, was performed equally by the citizens
of Dan vers, Beverly, Marblehcad and Salem. These
foiu* towns displayed great zeal in this contest, and
286 OLD NAUUKKAQ.
contributed all tho ofllcers nnci a large portion of the
crews of the privateers. While all of our naval
commanders were distinguished for their braver}',
prowess, good seamanship, noble and daring acts of
generosit}', and for tlieir kindness to prisoners, 3*et
there were some, that seemed to stand out from all
the rest, and might be spoken of as distinguished
without injustice to the others; thus, Dan vers had
her Foster, Page and Endicott ; l\[arblcliead had her
Mugford, Tucker and Cole; Beverly had Daniel
Adams, one of nature's noble men, Jolin Tittle, Is-
rael Thorndike, William Woodbury, and *'lhe noto-
rious" Hugh Hill ; Salem had John Fiske, Jonathan
Haraden, William Gvi\}\ the bold John Revell, John
Derbj', Joseph Waters, David Ropes, Nathaniel
West, Simon Forrester, the brave Thomas Simmons
and his equally brave Lieut. Joseph Peabody, James
Barr of remarkable energy, Samuel Ingersoll, and
A detailed history of Salem on the ocean, both in
war and peace, would be most interesting.
The brig Amazon, which sailed for Marseilles,
August 20, 1829, was the first vessel to leave the
port of Salem without liquor on board.
The population of Salem, at the commencement
of the Revolutionary war, was 5337 ; in the war
of 1812, it was about 10,000; in. 1840, it was
15,082; in 1860,22,252 and in 1875,25,958. By
the census taken in 1875 the valuation of Salem
was $20,312,272, of which $11,988,027 was personal
propert}'. The annual value of tho productions
was $8,699,427. There were 3883 dwellings and
8ALEM--PAST AND PRESENT. 287
6923 families. The leading professions Tvero rep-
resented by foi'tj'-onc lawyers, thirtj'-two clergymen
and twenty-four physicians. The principal indus-
tries gave employment to about 800 curriers, 338
cotton factory operatives, 328 shoemakers and 230
In addition to the distinguished individuals of
Salem of whom Me have spoken, might be men-
tioned Rev. Peter Tlialcher, Hon. Stephen Sewall,
Gen. John Glover, Hon. Benjamin Goodliue, Hon.
George Cabot, John Pickering, LL.D., Charles Dex-
ter Cleveland, LL.D., John Goodhue Treadwell,
M. D., Gen. John Fiske, Nehemiah Adams, D. D.,
Benjamin Pierce, LL.D., Charles Davis Jackson,
D. D., Charles Grafton Pnge, M. D., Frederick
Townsend Ward, Francis Calley Gra}^ Benjamin
Pierce, Josiah Willard Gibbs, LL.D., Henr3' Felt
Baker, William Frederick Poole, Maria S. Cummins,
Charles Timothy Brooks, Jones Verj*, William Wet-
more Storj'', Samuel Johnson, Jonathan Mitchell
Sewall, Joseph Orne, Johanna Quiner, John Rogers
and J. Harvey Young.
In I ho early days, the various portions of Salem
had their distinctive names, some of which still hang
about these localities, for instance : the vicinity of
Creek, Norman and Summer streets was *' Knocker's
hole;" the vicinity of the jail was "Button-hole;"
the hollow in Bostoij street was "Blubber-holler;"
beyond the hollow, in the vicinity of the "Big tree,"
was " Johnn^'-cake ; " around the wharves was " Wop-
ping ; " the western portion of Mason street was
288 OLD NAUMKE^Q.
"Paradise" and tlie eastern portion of Forrester
street was ** Gutter-lane."
Grace Cliurch (Episcopal), which we omitted to
mention in its proper place, was built in 1858 ; con-
secrated in 1859. It is a Gothic structure, situated
on P2ssex street, nearly' opposite Monroe street. Its
rectors have been Rev. George D. Wildes, D.D., and
Rev. Joseph Kidder. Its present rector is Rev.
James P. Franks.
In closing our sketch of Salem we are conscious
that we have omitted to mention many things that
are of great interest. Volumes might be written
concerning other matters that we have mercl}' al-
luded to. Salem is one of the most interesting
cities in the state, and there are few pleasanter
places in New England for a residence. It is built
largcl}' of wood, but contains many substantial
stone and brick buildings. While a large number
or its structures and its streets are modern and ele-
gant, there are sulllcient vestiges of by-gone gene-
rations and dc|)arted styles of architecture to give
it a peculiar character. With the exception of a
few localities through which the tide of commercial
activity flows during the bnsier hours of the day, it
unites the quiet of the country with the conven-
iences of city life. The man of leisure and of taste
may find here the charms of polished societies, li-
braries and scientific collections to aid his mental
culture, and the most agreeable scenery' in the envi-
rons to gladden his eyes when he goes for'ih to take
DANVERS AND PEABODY,
ATTUACTIVK DniVK. — HANVKHSronT. — GnANTS TO KlCDICOTT,
Skklton, and IIumphhkv. — Si'iTB RitiDCB.— Tub Plains.—
CiiuitcfiES. — Tub Rerkrvoir. — Pbarody iNsnTi.'TK, and
OTIIBR PUBIJG nUILDlNOS- — Tub STATE ASYLUM FOR TUB
Insank. — Dan VERS Historically and Statistically Con-
SIDKUKD. — PURLIC RlKN. — PARRIS IIoUSK. — VICTIMS OF
Witchcraft. — Collins House. — Pkacody. — Mrs. Rich-
ardson. — PorrKRiKS. — Pearody Square. — Siiillares
Homestead.— George Pearodv: his early Home and His-
TORY. — Hell Tayern and Monu.ment. — Eliza Wharton.-
Tearody Institute.- Sutton IIeferencb Library.- Pea-
body Historically and Statistically Considbred.- Ship
KocK.— Uetukn to Salem.
NE of the most iittrnctivc country drives in the
vicinity of tlie city is through Danvers and
Pcabodj'. Passing tluough North street over
the Nortli bridge, with Beverlj* and the long
bridge and llie railroad bridge on the right, while
the North river with its numerous tanneries stretches
away to Pcabody and Harmony Grove on the left,
we cross the eastern end of Peabody and enter the
town of Danvers in that section known as Danvers-
port. Vessels reach this villnge by way of Bass
river, bringing coal for the use of the rolling mills,
which form the principal industry of the place. One
who has never witnessed the process of working iron
may prolitablj' pass an hour within these mills.*
We are now on a point of land of more than or-
dinai'y historic interest. It extends between two
240 OLD NAUVKEAG.
indentures of water ancieutl^* known as Water's and
Crane rivers. Here once live<l Governor Endicott.
The honor of being the first landliolder in Danvers
is genernlly conceded to Endicott. He establislied
himself liere in 1G30, on a grant of land comprising
about tlu'ce liundred acres, described as ^'a neck of
laud lying about tlu-ec m3'les from Salem, called in
the Indian tongue, Wuhquamesehock^*' situated be-
tween the inlets of the sea, now known as Water's
river on the south, and Crane river on the north,
*' bounding westerly b}' the maiue land." "On a
beautiful eminence between these rivers," said Proc-
tor, in his centennial address at Danvers, on June
16, 1852, " Captain Endicott, who as acting governor,
was chief magistrate of the colony previous to the
arrival of Wiuthrop in 1G30, established his resi-
dence." For more than two hundred vears the old
mansion remained in the Endicott famil}*. From
liere Endicott, so it is related, used to go to Boston
in his shallop to attend the sessions of the govern-
ment, after it was moved thither. In front of this
mansion, some sixty rods, stands the renowned En-
dicott pear tree, celebrated more for the time it has
borne than for the fruit it bears. Champions of this
tree claim that it is the oldest cultivated fruit tree
in New England, it having been brought here from
Crossing the stream formerly known as Crane river,
we enter Danversport village. This is on another
"neck of laud," and is situated between Crane river
on the south, and Pouter's river on the north, and
^^ bounding westerly/' alsoi by the "moiiie land."
DANTERS and PEiABODT. 241
This is the land granted to Samuel Skelton of the
First Church, about the time that Endicott received
his grant of the adjoining territory. It contained
two hundred acres. This section was known for
many years as Skel ton's Neck, subsequently as New
Mills, and now as Danversport.
Speaking of early grants, perhaps this is the
most appropriate place to mention still another to
one of the Old Planters, John Humphrey. His grant
was in the westerly part of the town, that portion
now comprised in Peabody, and near Humphrey's
pond, on the line between Peabody and Lynnfield.
In the midst of this pond is an island whereon the
early settlers had a fort, into which they could retreat
in case of attacks by the Indians.
Driving on through the Port a short distance we
bear to the right and cross Spite bridge which
spans Porter's river. This bridge derives its name
from the fact of its having been built by the Dan-
vers farmers "out of spite" to the owners of Bev-
erly bridge, when the latter was a toll-bridge and
tolls were exhorbitant. Continuing along this road
a short distance, we turn to the left and drive
past the Danvers riding park, where gentlemen
speed their trotters, and pedestrians speed them-
selves, and where the Essex County Agricultural
Society occasionally holds its annual fair. Or, in-
stead of pursuing the above course, we might turn
to the left, at the Danversport church, and proceed
to the Plains over the old county road and through
the thickly settled portion of the town. This would
take us past the Catholic, Unitarian and Universa-
242 OLD NAUlfKBAO.
list churches, and, under the latter, Gothic hall.
Wo now enter the principal settlement of Danvers,
known as the "Plains," containing post-office, stores,
hotels, depots, newspaper office — "The Mirror," —
and other establishments usually found in a thriving
Danvers has several pretty villages, as attractive as
any in Essex county, with their broad, level streets,
lined with fine houses and shaded by noble oaks and
elms. The town is supplied with pure water from
Middleton Pond. The reservoir is located upon
Hawthorne hill, one of the highest in the town, thus
assuring a good force of water. Even the farmers
make use of this abundant supply when in dry
seasons their crops begin to wither on the hillsides.
The bounty of the late George Peabody has pro-
vided the town with a handsome public edifice known
as the Peabody Institute. This building, situated
at the " Plains," contains a fine hall and a library of
8,350 volumes. It is surrounded by a park which,
in summer, is at once beautiful and fragrant with its
thousands of flowers. Near by we notice the pretty
town hall, in front of which stands a fine soldiers'
monument. Here too, is the commodious station on
the Lawrence branch of the Eastern Railroad.
Returning to the main street (Maple) we bear
to the left, pass the large Congregational Church,
and cross the Newburyport branch of the Boston
and Maine Railway; thence proceeding along this
road for about a mile, and crossing the Newburyport
turnpike, we arrive at the base of Hawthorne hill,
whereon stands the State Lunatic Asylum. This is
244" - OLD lanHKRAQ.
the largest building in Essex connty and one of the
largest in New England. Hawthorne hill is one of
the most elevated in town, and this building is visi-
ble for miles and miles across the country and far
out to sea. The winding road leading to the summit
is as smooth as a gravelled road can be. The slopes
are nicely graded and turfed, while around the build-
ing at the top of the hill arc beautiful flower-gardens.
The area owned by the State is 197^ acres, and the
extreme elevation is 257 feet above sea level. There
are ten sections in the main group, connected by
fire-proof corridors. Each of these sections is, in it-
self, a large building. The structure is four stories
in height and is built of brick in the domestic Gothic
style of architecture. The administration building
is sixty feet in width and ninety-seven feet in length.
Immediately in the rear of this, is another building
180 feet long and sixty feet wide. P^xtending out-
ward from these buildings, are three more on either
side, each 147 feet long by sixty-four feet in width,
each successive building on a side falling back of
the preceding flfty feet, more or less. Lying ob-
liquely to these buildings, and connected with them,
are the two extreme sections, each 117 feet long and
fifty-six feet wide. The distance from the extreme
points of the two buildings most remote from each
other, is, in a straight line, 1180 feet. These two
extreme wings are for the more excited patients.
The interior is finished in superb style, the ceilings
and walls being richly frescoed. Nothing that inge-
nuity could suggest, or money procure, for the com-
fort and convenience of the unhapp}'^ inmates has
DAl^YERS AND PEABODT. 245
been omitted. The asylum is calculated to ac-
commodate about 500 patients. Ascending the
tower, on the southerly side, we find ourselves more
than a hundred yards above sea level. At our feet
repose the numerous villages of Danvers, Peabody,
Lynnfield, Wenham and Middleton, while in the dis-
tance we see Salem, Beverly, Cape Ann, Marblehead,
Baker's and Lowell islands, Lynn, Topsfield and
Our view of Danvers Is perfect. We see here at
a glance a thriving town that has grown rich from
market-gardening, brick-making, and the manufac-
ture of shoes. There are rising 140 farms with 295
farmers ; also 101 brickmakers, 522 shoemakers and
335 common laborers. The orcliarding exceeds that
of any other town in Essex county ; 20,000 apple-
trees alone are cultivated for their fruit. To this
we may add a yearly crop of onions amounting to
14,000 bushels, and other garden produce in propor-
tion. The annual manufacture of bricks often
reaches four, and sometimes five millions. Good
clay for this purpose is abundant. The gathering
of peat from the meadows, for fuel, is also an ex-
tensive business; and then there are flourishing
carpet-manufactories and iron-works.
Thirteen hundred families, consisting of 6024
persons, dwelling in 1014 houses, make up the sum
total of population. The valuation of the town is
$3,341,100 and the productions during the year 1874
amounted to $2,488,522. Danvers was incorporated
as a town on June IG, 1757, and is said to have de-
rived its name from Sir Danvers Osborn, an English
nobleman, and at one time a Governor of New York.
tU OLD 11A.TIUKUS.
On December 31, 1C38, it was "agreed and voted
(by the people of Salem), that there should be a
village granted to Mr. Fliillips and his company,
upon Buch conditiona as the seven men appointed for
the town aOaira should agree." This nas the origin
of the name " Salem village," so long applied to the
settlement in Danvers. In 1671, the people of
this village were released from parish charge to the
Firat Cbui'oh. Tliey still kept up woi-ship, Uoivever,
Eomelimcs by means of laymen, and again by regular
preachers. Rev. James Bagley was first pastor of the
church and began bis labors on October 28, 1671.
He was succeeded by Rev. George Burroughs who
was subsequently eiiecuted for witchcraft. The first
meeting-house stood very near the site of the present
ediUce on what was then known as "Watch-house
bill." On the 23d of October, by a. vote of Salem, the
"village" and the "middle precinct" were, "with
the consent of the legislature," allowed to become a
separate town. The General Court refused to sanc-
tion the vote because it would increase the number
of representatives, but constituted them a district
instead of a town, tha act of incorpoiation dating
January 28, 1762. The name Danvera was given
the new district at this time. The subject of making
it a separate town was brought before the legislature
again, before long, and, on June 16, 1757, the act
incorporating the town of Danvers as a separate
municipality was passed. On May 18, 1855, the
town was divided iuto Danvers and South Danvers.
South Danvers was given the name of Pcabody on
April 13, 1868.
The first town meetiug was held on March 4,
DANTERS AND PEABODT. 247
1752, in the meeting-house of the north parish. The
order for this meeting began thus: ''These may
notify the inhabitants of Salem alious Dan vers, eta J*
Daniel Eppes, Esq., was moderator, Daniel Eppes,
jr., clerk, and James Prince, treasurer. Daniel
Eppes, jr., Capt. Samuel Flint and Deacon Cornelius
Tarbell were chosen selectmen. Among the names
of the other officers chosen at that first meeting
were many so familiar to the old town at the pres-
ent time, — such as Putnam, Preston, Derby, An-
drews, Proctor and others. The population at this
time was about 500 and the number of houses 140.
Speaking of the first settlers of these two towns,
Hon. Charles W. Upham says : ^ "Their descendants
remain in large numbers on the same area to-day.
Perhaps it would be safe to say that in no district
of our cbunty have old families been so numerously
preserved. Very many now occupy lands which their
first American ancestors cleared."
This town has furnished three members of Con«
gress, all of whom became men of note. They were
Samuel Holton, Nathan Reed and Daniel P. King.
It has given to the military service of the country
such men as General Israel Putnam, General Gideon
Foster and General Moses Porter : and in the wars of
the revolution, of 1812, that with Mexico in 1846, and
in the late civil war, Danvers did her whole duty, both
in the number of men and in the quality. Samuel
Holton was a man of extensive public service. Bom
1 Essex Inst. Hist. CoU., Vol. 10, p. 1.
in Danvers in 173G, Le soon became a doctor or medi-
cine. At the age of titirty, be was elected a reprc-
Bcntstive to the General Coiiit. In 1776 he woa
mnde major of the first regiment iu Essex county ;
then elected to a seat in the Provincial Congress at
Watertowii ; Jndge of tlie Court of Common Pleas ;
Justice of the Court of General Sessions, and Chief
Justice of the same ; delegate to assist in framing
the Confederation ; delegate to a convention to frame
a State constitution ; representative in Congress and
President of Coogresa ; iiresidential eleetor twice,
and finutly Judge of Piobuto for Essex county. i
Israel Putnam's history is too well kuotvn to neces-
sitate any eicteuded sketch of it here. lie was cele-
brated for quickness of decision, rapidity of execu-
tion and undaunted courage. He was horn in an old
house near tbo foot of Hawthorne bill on Ibe New-
bnryport turnpike. Here he lived until the age of
tweuty-one when be married and moved to Connec-
ticut. When the news of the battle of Lexington
reached bim be was ploughing. Turuing loose his
horses, he took bis coat from a tree where it hung
and went to join the array, serving first at Bunker
Hill, where be was second in command. He con-
tinued tbi-ougbout the war one of the first generals.
Having tarried thus long to recount the history of
the old town, we will now descend on the side
opposite to timt wbicli we ascended, and taking
the Peabody road start on our return ; but do not
UitoTf at Danver*, p, 188.
DAMVERS AND PEABODT. 249
think that we have yet seen all there is to be seen
in the town. A short drive finds us at a spot known
the world over — a spot whicli will last as long as a
printed page or tradition shall preserve any record of
the past. It is no less than the site of the old Parris
house, where the Rev. Samuel Parris, fourth pastor
of the First Church in Danvers, once lived. Here on
this spot, in the family of Mr. Parris, Salem witch-
craft had its birth. Bancroft says that the origin
of this strange delusion was in a desire on the part of
Parris to wreak vengeance on certain of his people,
between whom and himself there existed a bitter
feud. This delusion has been discussed elsewhere
in this work and need not be extended here. Among
the victims who had a home in Danvers were Rev.
George Burroughs, Giles Corey and wife, John Proc-
tor and wife, Rebecca Nurse, George Jacobs, Sarah
Goode, and John Willard. Giles Corey's residence
was near the crossing of the Salem and Lowell
and Newburyport and Boston Railroads, about 300
feet west of the crossing and close to the track of
the Salem and Lowell road, on the south side.
The estate is now owned by Benjamin Taylor. The
vestiges of the cellar are still visible. Giles Corey
lived previously^ for some time, in the toion of Salem;
he sold his house there and built his farm-house in
Danvers, which was 20 feet long, 15 feet wide and 8
Still continuing on down this road through a
»C. W. Upham.
DANTEBS AND FEABODT. 251
pleasant farming community and throngh the village
of Tapley ville, we notice many gambrel-roof houses,
unusual for a newly-built village. But these houses
were not built here ; they were moved hence from
Salem for the occupancy of the people employed in
the Tapleyville carpet factories. We cross the up-
per part of Crane river at this point ; on the right,
Just beyond the river, is the site of the Rebecca
Nurse house, another landmark to remind us of the
superstitious folly of our Puritanic ancestry. Re-
becca lived here when she was charged with witch-
craft, and from here she was dragged to Salem, tried,
condemned, sentenced and executed.
A little further along the road so rich with land-
marks of the past, we find the old Parris house
itself, the identical house in which Rev. Mr. Parris
lived when he accused his Indian servant Tituba of
being a witch, and *' cruelly treated her." The old
house — now thoroughly weather-beaten and evidently
nearly ready to "tumble down" — is used for the
storage of sage. Just beyond here, on the right, is
the historic Collins house, used by Gen. Gage as a
headquarters and ** summer residence," about 1774,
when he was Governor of Massachusetts. It is as
grand and imposing to-day as in the days when its
halls resounded with the clanking of the arms of
brilliantly uniformed officers of "His Majesty's
army," and the gardens and lawns surrounding are
even more beautiful. " This house," says Hanson's
history of Danvers, " was built by Robert Hooper,
and subsequently owned by Judge Collins." It is
now occupied as a summer residence by Mr. Francis
Peabody, of Salem.
252 OLD NAUMKBAG.
Leaving the Collins house, we continue our jour-
ney along this i*oad and soon enter the town of
Peabody. The eminence on our right is Pleasant
hill, formerly known as *^Hog" hill. There is one
road extending the entire length and terminating on
the north-westerly end, so that those who go must
return by the same route. On the very top of this
hill is a homestead, now owned by Captain Charles
Endicott of Salem, the nearest living descendant of
Governor Endicott. Another beautiful and roman-
tic place along the road, which we drive, is the Rogers
estate, which stands back from the road on the right
some distance, and is reached by a drive shaded by
The next point worthy of note is the spot where
a Mrs. Richardson once lived, and where she estab-
lished the first bakery ever known in these parts.
Her house stood on the left of this road, and the
spot is marked only by a rude heap of bricks. Here
the good old lady baked her bread and then drove
to Salem where she sold it. It is related by her de-
scendants, that, in 1775, she witnessed the burning
of Charlestown from the top of Buxton's hill, the
highest land in town and which lies to the right of
Andover street. Continuing down this street to the
*' Pine tree," we turn to the right into Central street.
The country through which we have been driving is
entirely a farming section of the town. We now
enter the village, a veiy pretty one by the way, with
many elegant residences and fine streets.
Time was, when, on either side of Central street,
were numerous potteries for the manufacture of
earthenware, familiarly known as Dan vers china,
DAM VERS AMD PEABODT. 253
but there is only one manufactory of thd kind now
remaining here, and it is tlie only one in the town.
Central street leads ns past the town house, on
Stevens street, to Peabody square. Here we have
the depot of the Lawrence branch of the East-
ern Railway, the South Reading Railway, and the
Salem and Lowell road. Here too is the South
Church which occupies the same spot as did the first
church ever built in the town. This is the fourth
edifice that has been erected here: one was torn
down because of old age, another burned, and still
another was sold to the Methodists and moved to
Washington street. Here is the post ofllce, the
hotel, tlie newspaper offices — "Press" and "Re-
porter," the former edited by C. D. Howard, and the
latter by S. C. Bancroft — the local court, the police
station, and shops and stores such as are found in
all prosperous villages.
Driving directly across the square into Foster
street, we notice to the right, on Chestnut street,
the large newly-built Catholic church, and between
the church and square on Lowell street, the hand-
some brick building for the accommodation of a large
portion of the fire department. Here, in this square,
near the site of the depot, stood, about 1630, the
first mill ever erected in this country.
Continuing along Foster street to its Junction with
Washington street, we follow the latter up the hill,
past the S. C. Bancroft engine house and as far as
the Shillaber homestead, the birthplace of B. P.
Shillaber, Esq. (Mrs. Partington). This is very
near to the line between Lynn and Peabody, and we
254 OLD NAUMKBAQ.
will retrace our steps, leaving Foster street on the
lefb, and following Washington street until we come
to a two-story yellow house standing on the northerly
side of the street. This house was the birthplace
and early home of George Feabody, the banker and
George Peabody was bom here on the 18th day
of February, 1 795. He began commercial life in the
grocery store of Capt. Sylvester Proctor, in 1807,
being at the time only eleven years of age. He
remained there until 1810, and then went to Thetford,
Vt., where he remained for about a year, when he
became a clerk in the store of his brother, David
Peabody, in Newbury port. In a short time the
great fire broke up David's business, and George
was again out of work. In 1812, he accompanied
his uncle. Gen. John Peabody, to Georgetown, D.C.,
where the two conducted business for two 3'ears. At
the age of nineteen, George took the entire manage-
ment of the business of Mr. Elisha Riggs, a wealthy
merchant of Georgetown, becoming junior partner.
The house* was removed to Baltimore in 1815, and
subsequently branches established in Philadelphia
and New York. Mr. Riggs retiring and being suc-
ceeded by Samuel Eiggs, the firm became Peabody,
Riggs & Co. During these years George Peabody
was supporting his widowed mother and orphan
brothers and sisters. He made several voyages to
Europe, and finally sailed for London on February
1, 1837, where he resided during the remainder of
his life engaged in banking, and amassed a princely
fortune. He returned to this country only twice, in
256 OLD NAUMKEAG.
1857 and in 18G6. After iiis death his mortal re*
mains were sent home to be laid at rest in native soil.
As he was a great accumulator so he was a gen-
erous distributor, giving awa}' more, probably, than
any other man who ever lived in the world. Among
his larger donations was the sum of $2,500,000 to the
poor of London, $2,000,000 to the southern educa-
tional fund, $1,400,000 to the Baltimore Literary In*
stitute, $200,000 to the Peabody Institute, Peabody^
$150,000 each, to Harvard College, Yale College,
and the Peabody Academy of Science in Salem, and
$100,000 to found the Peabody Institute, Danvers.
Besides these vast sums he gave awa}' hundreds of
thousands of dollars — some publicly and much pri«
vately. So great a philanthropist and benefactor was
he, that both England and the United States united
in giving him an imposing public funeral. England
sent home his remains in her greatest war-ship —
the mighty " Monarch " — and this country accom-
panied it with its great naval vessel, the *' Plymouth,"
and sent two iron-clads to Portland to receive them.
The body was landed at Portland amid imposing
ceremonies, and from there taken to Salem and in-
terred in Harmony Grove with such ceremonies of
respect as only a native town, a native common-
wealth, and a native country, united, could pay to
the memory of an honored son.
Having tarried so long to recount the virtues and
noble deeds of this great philanthropist, we must
huny on to the terminus of Washington street where
it intersects Main street. At this point stands the
monument erected by the citizens of Danvers, to the
DANTERS AND PEABODT. 257
memory of the men of Danvers who fell at Lexing-
ton and Concord, numbering one-sixth of all who
fell on the American side on that memorable day.
The monument is built of hewn stone, 22 feet high
and 7 feet broad at the base. It was completed in
1837 at an Expense of about $1,000.
It is related how thejr assembled on this spot on
the morning of the 19th of April, 1775, and, bid-
ding their loved ones farewell, went forth to battle
in defence of their liberties — those liberties which
their ancestors braved the hardships of the wilder-
ness to secure. They marched over the road to
Lexington, a distance of fifteen miles, in four hours,
under the lead of Gen. Gideon Foster, then a cap-
On the easterly comer of these streets stood, many
years ago, a famous old building known as Bell
Tavern, made memorable by many events which
transpired within its walls, but perhaps more than
all else from having been at one time the abiding
place of Elizabeth Whitman, better known as *' Eliza
Wharton," from a book written by ** Hannah Web-
ster" (Mrs. Foster), in which Miss Whitman's strange
career was distinctly outlined. With all her faults
she was a woman who bore every burden, whether
self-imposed or otherwise, with the fortitude of a
heroine. This Bell Tavern was then on the great
thoroughfare from the east and north to Boston.
The old signboard promised '' entertainment for man
and beast." The tavern was b, sort of English
coffee-house where the news was related and public
affairs of grave importance discussed, and where
public events were celebrated.
258 OLD NAUMKBAG.
' Very near bore is the Feabody Institute, estab-
lished and maintained on a fund of $200,000 donated
by George Feabody. It was founded in 1857. The
building is two stories in height, built of brick, with
very little outward ornamentation. On the first
floor is located the library of nearly 16,000 volumeS}
with accommodations for many thousands additional.
In this room is the painting of Queen Yictoriai
painted on a sheet of gold, the colors being burned
in. It was *' the gift of Her Majesty to Mr. George
Feabody," having been presented in person, and in
turn presented to the Institute by Mr. Feabody.
Two large gold snuff-boxes of unique design and
skilful workmanship, also donated by Mr. Feabody,
adorn this room. On the second floor is a large
lecture hall, fluished and furnished in superb style,
and capable of seating about a thousand people.
The wall at the rear of the platform is adorned by a
life-size painting of Mr. Feabody, which is pro-
nounced to be an admirable likeness of the man.
In the rear of this hall is the *' Sutton Reference
Library," founded in 1869, by Mrs. Eliza Sutton, as
a memorial to her son, Eben Dale Sutton, who died
in his youth. This library is composed strictly of
reference books, and contains some 950 volumes.
The room has probably no superior in the libraries
of this country for richness of finish. A likeness
of the youth, in memory of whom the devoted
mother founded the library, adorns the south side
of the room. The large brick dwelling on the oppo*
site side of the street is the residence of Mrs. Sut-
ton, the benefactress to whom the town is entitled
for this invaluable addition to the Institute.
DANYERS AND PEABODT, 259
. Before proceeding farther we shall find it advan-
tageous to glance at the town in a statistical point
of view. Feabody is a town of 8066 inhabitants^
1720 voters, 1300 dwellings, and 1821 families. It
is a thriving place, the manufacture of leather being
the principal industry. About 1750, Joseph South-
jwick commenced the business of tanning In tubs or
half-hogsheads, since which time it has grown to
. There are in the town 864 curriers and 198 tan-
yard laborers, besides 183 morocco dressers, and 200
jBhoemakers. The manufactories are mainly along
the banks of North river, on the borders of, and ex-
tending into, Salem. But the figures here given
relate solely to so much of the business as lies wholly
within Feabody. There are thirty-five establish-
ments for the manufacture of leather, in which is
invested a capital of $837,740, producing, annually,
goods to the value of $3,086,613, and $60,000 addi-
jtional of morocco. The manufacture of skivers
sheep-skins, linings and shoe-soles gives an addi-
tional product of about $200,000, making a total
of $3,346,613. Forty-three engines, with a total of
2187 horse-power, supply the motive power of this
settlement of leather factories.
. Besides these manufactories there are extensive
glue manufacturing establishments, slaughter-houses,
and the like. Farming is another extensive and
profitable pursuit, in which some 350 persons are
The total valuation of the town is $6,181,350, and
the annual value of the productions is $4,738,310.
B£LL TA.rEBH AND UONUIIENT.
(SKB FAQB SSI. J
DAK VERS AND PEABODT. 261
The figures hero given appear abundantly sufficient
to substantiate the statement, that Peabody is pecul-
iarly a thriving town.
About the only natural curiosity in town is '' Ship
Rock" on the line of the South Reading Branch Rail-
way, and which may be seen high up on the hill to
the right soon after passing Peabody village. It is
reputed to be the largest boulder standing above the
earth in New England. Its length is forty feet,
breadth thirty, and thickness twenty. It resembles
the hull of a ship and bears marks of the glacial
period. The rock is now the property of the Essex
For all puiposes, save that of municipal govern-
ment, Peabody is part and parcel of Salem, being
but an extension of that city, and being also closely
connected with it in all matters of business. The
two places are connected by the branch railroads
elsewhere mentioned, and also by the street railway,
which runs from Peabody square through Salem to
There is very little more for us to see in this town,
and limited space precludes more extended state-
ments of past and present. So we turn our steps
towards home by way of Main street, Peabody,
passing on the way the old cemetery where a rude
stone marks the grave of " Eliza Wharton ;" thence
down Boston street in Salem and through Essex
street to the heart of the city.
8BPARATBD FROM 8 ALEM.— POPULATION AND VALnAT[ON.F- HOW
UBACHBD.—TOPOGRAPHT.— Industries.— Extent of Fish*
SRIBS. — PEODUGT of FARMS AND MANUFACTORIES. — ABBOT
Hall. — Patriotism. — MuoFORD, Gloyer and Gerrt.—
Crooked streets.— As a Summer Resort.— The Heck.
—Landmarks.— Skipper Ireson.— Great Fire in 1877.
Not far away we saw the port,
The strange, old-fashioned, silent town,
The light-house, the dismantled foyt,
The wooden houses, quaint and brown.
The windows, rattling in their Arames,
The ocean roaring up the beach.
The gusty blast, the bickering flames,
All mingled with our speech.
tItHITS sang the poet Longfellow, in 1849, of old
>|' Mai'blehead, that grand old town, whose reo-
I ord for sturdy patriotism, unflinching courage
(^ and true nobility, will last so long as history
itself; so long as her rocks and sea shall remain
and clouds and sunshine deck them with their
thousands of varying colors. In a work of this
kind it would be utterly useless to attempt a por-
trayal of her record which should be commensurate
with its deserts. It is to be hoped that some of
her many own gifted sons will one day perform that
task. The history of our country, and especially
of this Commonwealth is full of the work of the
men of Marblehead, and it only needs to be sifted
out and arranged to give her such a memorial as
she deserves. Our recoixL must necessarily be brief.
It can only mention the important events.
Marblehead was detached from Salem, of which
it formed a part, on May 2, 1649. It contained,
at that time, 44 families. At the present time,
there are 1881 families, with 7677 inhabitants,
dwelling in 1219 houses. The valuation of the
town is $4,058,610, and the value of the produc*
tions amounts to over one and a half million dollars
annually. A pleasant ride of about four miles due
south from Salem, lands the visitor in the very
heart of the town. If it is desired to reach it
from Boston, it may be done in a ride of sixteen
miles, by changing cars at Lynn, and passing
through the delightful town of Swampscott. There
are two distinct parts to the town. The main por-
tion, or the village, lies at the head of a small arm
of the sea which makes into the land about half a
mile, and also extends around to the north, separate
ing the harbor from Salem harbor. To the south,
and Just across the harbor, lies the high peninsula
known as Marblehead, or "Great" Neck. The Neck
is devoted exclusively to summer resorts, many fine
cottages being erected there, and also two small, but
good hotels. The rural section of the town extends
due south-west about three miles to Swampscott
line Marblehead harbor is one of the deepest on
the Atlantic coast, but is poorly protected. The pur-
suits of the people are shoe-manufacturing, market
S64 OLD VAjnaauLO.
gardening and fishing. Formerly, the last named,
now the smallest, was the most extensive of the
three pursuits. It was, in fact, almost the sole
business of the inhabitants. But, as in Manchester
and other towns, it is now a mere trifle. Just pre-
vious to the breaking out of the war of the Revolu-
tion, the fisheries were extensive. Marblehead ves-
sels were known in almost every harbor, and its sail
whitened nearly every sea. The daring of its sea-
men was world-renowned. And as late as 1837, even,
there were 55 vessels belonging to the port engaged
in this pursuit, the total tonnage being 4603. The
cod -fish caught that year amounted to 49,403 quin-
tals; the mackerel to 243 barrels. Five hundred
sturdy men were employed in this business. The
same year the town manufactured over one million
pairs of shoes, employing nearly 1 200 operatives. At
the present time, it has but two vessels in the coast-
wise trade, and 14 engaged in the fisheries. There
are in the town but 116 fishermen and 46 mariners.
There are several extensive shoe manufactories, and
the productions in this line greatly exceed those of
1837. But owing to the extensive use of machinery
there are fewer persons employed, being now not
much above eleven hundred. There are only about
180 farmers and farm-laborers, but the productions of
these farms are very extensive, and in quality equal
any thing taken into Boston markets. As many as
24,000 bushels of onions are grown here in one sea-
son, together with 5769 bushels of carrots, 3830
bushels of turnips, and 1800 bushels of beets. The
seed-farm of Hon. James J. H. Gregory, just outside
of the village, is one of the finest in this section.
No visitor to the town should fail to see it.
There are two National banks and one Savings
bank ; a high school and several intermediates and
primaries ; a good newspaper — " The Messenger" —
and eight churches. The school-houses, like many
other buildings of the town, are old and weather-
beaten, and in many instances inadequate to their
mission. Through the bequest of a generous native
of the town — Benjamin Abbot — a beautiful public
building has been erected on Marblehead Common.
Mr. Abbot's bequest amounted to over $100,000;
and the hall cost $75,000. The sum of $20,000 was
set apart for a library and reading room. Abbot
hall was dedicated on Wednesday, Dec. 12, 1877,
the oration on the occasion being delivered by Hon .
Edward Avery of Boston.
Marblehead, like Salem, may have been slow at
times. It never moved in any matter of improve-
ment until after nearly all its sister towns. Often
it was at '* swords points" with Salem or some
neighboring town. But when the call of duty came ;
when any sister municipality was in danger, or in
trouble ; when the country called : no town could so
quickly forget all differences; none more readily
respond to the call.
*• Never yet to Hebrew fleer
A clearer voice of daty came.''
<^ The old town is and always was loyal to the
core." In the war for American Independence, in
the war of 1812-14, and in our late civil strife, she
266 OLD MADHKXAO.
poured out her best blood, and none better ever
coursed through the veins of men. Her sons knew
not fear, whether on the field of battle, or riding the
tempest-tossed sea^ or in the civil strife. They re-
sponded to the call of each alike. When, in 1861,
the first call for troops came, Marblehead received
her notice late in the afternoon. At 8 o'clock on
the following morning, before another man had pat
in his appearance, one of her three companies was
in Faneuil Hall, Boston, ready to proceed to the
front. The other two arrived an hoar later. When
the war for independence was over, it appeared that
Marblehead had dwindled from a tonnage of 12,000
to 1,500 ; fVom 1,200 votes to less than 500 ! There
were five hundred widows and more than one thou-
sand orphans ! Such in brief is the story of the old
town's devotion to the country and the cause of free-
dom. She has given to that country many men
whose names are inseparably linked wiCh the bright-
est pages of its history, and whose memory neither
would willingly let die.
Among the earliest was Capt. James Mugford, the
captor of the British powder-ship in Massachusetts
bay, on May 17, 1776, and who was killed on the same
day while returning home. The citizens never forgot
him, and on May 17, 1876, dedicated to his memory,
and the memory of those who fought with him, a
monument worthy of such a deed. This monument
stands at the junction of Essex and Pleasant streets.
The address of the occasion was delivered by tlie
Hon. Geo. B. Loring of Salem, who, in his eloquent
peroration, said :
'^ How true has this town, the birth-place of Mug-
ford, been to his example and to all her heroic tra-
ditions. The faithful performance of her duty in the
war of the revolution has been an incentive to suc-
ceeding heroism in great critical events wliicli have
followed. It was the sons of revolutionary sires whom
Glover led, who manned the frigate Constitution and
added the names of Prince, and Russell, and Co well,
to the bright constellation which already shone for
her in our heavens. From Marblehead a fleet of pri-
vateers, organized as an arm of the navy of the
United States, sailed forth and swept the high seas.
She impoverished herself for this second war, and
when it closed she could count her illustrious dead
by the hundreds. History has recorded to your
everlasting honor that the men of Marblehead were
the first to reach Boston in April, 1861, on their way
to defend the capital of the republic. It was a
Marblehead man, who, catching the first sound of
danger to the flag, left his work but half performed,
and arming himself for still bloodier scenes, rallied
his men and rushed to the conflict.'^
Glover was a brigadier general in the American
army during the Revolution. He led the line in
Washington's famous ^* crossing of the Delaware,"
and conducted Burgoyne's army through New Eng-
land after its surrender. Elbridge Gerry was a mem-
ber of the Continental Congress, a signer of the
Declaration of Independence, Vice-President of the
United States, and Governor of Massachusetts.
Among others of equal merit, if less famous, were
Azor Orne, Edwaixl A. Holyolce, Isaac Story, Joseph
Story, LL.D., Rev. Samuel Sewall, John Gallison,
and Samuel Hooper. There is a solid common sense
about the old Marbleheaders ; their own sound intel-
ligence speaks for itself wherever they go.
Of course the ancient Marblelieaders did some
qneer things in the earlier days, as did the inhab-
itants of other towns. No doubt it was perfectly
proper to fine John Gatchell ten shillings, in 1637,
for building on town land, and doubtless his hair
needed a barber's attention or the town would not
have voted, as the records show it did, that one-half
of the fine be abated ^' in case he should cutt off his
long har off his head." As Salem had its witchcraft
delusion so Marblehead had a small-pox fright*
and, in the seventeenth century, when the contagion
raged there, the law regulating the size of dogs was
enforced. All dogs above or below the regulation
size were killed from fear that they would carry the
contagion. Honesty was secured by requiring the
trustees of an appropriation to deposit the money
in one chest with two different locks and keys, the
chest to be left in charge of one trustee and the keys
to be held by the other two, and the chest not to be
opened except in the presence of all three. This
was an old ^' notion'' but it would not be a bad law
to have all over the country even in these modern
One of the curiosities of the village is its crooked,
meandering streets. The stranger can never tell
where he will '* turn up " when he starts into a street.
The town was evidently settled without regard to
streets or boundaiy lines, each settler locating on
some ledge or rise of ground wherever he pleased.
Some houses stand north and south, othera east and
west, and so on through all the points of the com-
pass. One writer says that this incongruity of set*
270 OLD MAUMKSAO.
tlement arose Arom the main streets running along
the vallej's, of which there ai*e six or seven, and the
houses having been built on the rising ground on
either side. To those who have never seen the
town we can only describe it by remarking that it
has very much such an appearance as we are told
a town has after a shaking up by a first class earth-
quake. Ten thousand ^' streaks " of lightning would
hardly make such devious windings. However, the
town records make no mention of either calamity,
so it is to be presumed that neither ever happened.
Much has been said about the *' brogue " of a genu-
ine Marbleheader, but there is very little of it to be
Marblehead has had but few poets. This is singu-
lar, when one remembers how much there is to in-
spire in her rocky shores, and romantic history, and
picturesque town. It has, however, been well em-
balmed in history by America's best poets. Long-
fellow wrote ^^Fire of Driftwood" here on tlie beach
near old fort Sewall. Lucy Larcom wrote '^ Han-
nah Binding Shoes" in Marblehead. All remember
it, where Hannah is '' sitting, stitching in a mourn-
ful mood." Holmes and Whittier have also immor-
talized it in their matchleas verse. Hawthorne's
*^ Foot-prints on the Sands" had its birtli here.
As a Summer resort, Marblehead has no superior
on the New England coast. Its bold and rocky shores
projecting fai* out into the open sea ; its cool, pure
and invigorating air ; its beautiful country ; its solid
roads, and its quiet, peaceful ways: all tend to
make it a ** perfect paradise" for such as seek
genuine rest and recreation. And those who visit
the place, thongh containing among their number
many of the wealthy and cultured, come for this pur-
pose and not for show. The three hotels — the Atlan-
tic and Samoset on the Neck, and the Clifton House,
near the Swampscott line, are fashioned much after
the old town itself, and partake of its ways. They
are neither grand nor gaudy; but they are solid,
substantial and comfortable. The Clifton, which
has long been under the direction of Mr. B. P.
Ware, jr., is one of the oldest established houses
on the coast. The private cottages are none of
them showy. In fact, aside from a few newly built
ones, there are none such as Swampscott or Cape
Ann can show. But there are none more pleasant
or comfortable. The residences of Mr. D. B. Bick-
ford and Hon. J. J. H. Gregory on the northeastern
shore are among the handsomest ; also those of the
Crownihgshields near by, and of Mrs. Kimball, and
Mrs. Gordon, and Hon. W. D. Northend, on the Neck,
Marblehead, like Salem, is rich in landmarks of
the past. It would require a volume of itself to
describe these and give their history. There is
the Mugford monument on Pleasant street near the
Eastern depot ; the soldiers and sailors monument
on Mugford street ; the old North Church, rich in
historic associations, built partly of granite from the
ledge on which it stands ; St. Michael's (Episcopal)
Church, built in 1714, and still in a good state of
preservation, and serving the Episcopalians of Mar«
blehead as a place of worship ; and whose second
pastor, the Rev. David Mosson, isubsequently mov-
ing tb VirgintEi hid the distingniriild hbnor ctf
97S OLC KATOEXIO.
nanying Ur. Georgo W&shington and Mrs. Mnrtlia
Ciiatis; the town house, buill in 1728, on the G]>ot
where the "gaol and cage" once stood; the old
pomler house, with its interesting histoiy and fas-
cinating romnnce ; parson Bninaid's old residence,
built in 1720; tlie bouse in nhich Elbiitlge Gerr;
v&a boro ; the birth-place and early horae of Judge
Story ; the early home of good old pai'son Holyoke,
vho leFt Marldebeod to take charge of Harvard Col-
lege, and wiu fresh laurela ) the old bnriiil ground,
with ita (]uaiat tombstones bearing the oddest of
inscriptions, and tlie humble niouument which tells
to the stranger, the story of the teiiible gale and
shipwreck of September 19, 1846, when C5 sons of
JInrblehead found a watery grave, leaving 43 widows
and 155 fatUcrless children. Then there is thefamoua
old Lee house, built by Hon. Jeremiah Lee in 1758,
at a cost of £10,000. It was maguiflccutly fur-
nished, and it is related that large numbers of slaves
were kept constantly employed burnishing its oak
and brass. Here Washington was received when he
Tisited New England, after the Bevolutionary war;
here, too, Lafayette received the attentions of hun-
dreds of admirers. But the glory has departed from
the old mansion, and, like nearly all of our American
landmarks, it has been leased "for lucre's sake,"
being now occupied by banking institutions. Where
Marblehead will entertain presidents and princes
when they shall come again, no one can tell. But
after all, is there any need of borrowing trouble
about it, considering how small probability there la
of presidents or i>rince8 ever agaia visiLing tha
tomi? ■ . . r
Let VLB not forget, among all this recounting of
grandeur, the home of the humble Benjamin Ireson.
A ^^ much abused" man was Skipper Ireson. Even
the poet Whittier did him injustice (unintentional
of course) in his ballad about the shipwreck. But
fortunately for the good old skipper, the people of
Marblehead have resented every attempt to cast re-
proach on his fair name. They indignantly deny
that he deserted a sinking ship, and maintain that,
on the contrary, the crew, while the skipper was
asleep below, set sail for home and then heaped all
the blame on him. But there is another side to the
story. The defenders of the crew maintain that the
men misunderatood Ireson's reasons for not allow-
ing them to go to the rescue of the sinking ship*
His reasons were, that it would be sure death to
make the attempt, thus imperilling the lives and
property under his charge. Doubtless both skipper
and men meant right, and if they erred it was an
error of head and not of heart. Ireson was, how-
ever, tarred and feathereil and conveyed out of
town. So, too, we must not neglect the fishing
wharves, once busy places, but now very much de-
serted. Tucker's wharf, with its picturesque steps
and precipitous banks adjoining, should not be
Towering above all these links in the chain which
unites the history of the past with the present, and
doubtless will unite all with the eternity of the
future; far above all these humble monuments of
our modest ancestor, and marking the royal onward
march of progress, is that noble pile of masonry on
yonder hill — Abbot IIiill. Through tbe miBta of
the early morning, or the haze of Uie noonday, or
the fuint glimmering of tLe deepening twilight, the
tQni'iuer, fiu' out on the ocean, beholds its tall " spire
whose silent flnger points to heaven," and knows,
better tliau any ligbt-hoiiee can tell him, tbat he is
uearing the ragged const of old Marblehead. But
here let the record of the good old town rest until
time nnd space, and ability born of the devotion of
a. native, shall give it ils iilace in history.
Since the preparation of the Marblchend portion
of this book, the town has been visited by a terribly
destructive Qre. For a. time it seemed tbat the
whole uuurse of the town nould be changed, ao
that the desoriptive portion of this article wonld
have to be rewritten. But iu a few months, It
became plainly evident tLat the recovery from the
blow would be rapid, and that the prosperity of the
place would be only tcmpararily cbei^lied. It seemed
advisable, therefore, to lfa\e this sketch as first-
This fii'e broke out about two o'clock on the
morning of Monday, June 23, 1877, in the rear of the
Marbleliead Hotel, on Pleasant street. It quickly
extended to the south anil cast, burning over some
eight acres of the business portion of the village,'
and destroying seventy buildings and nearly every
shoe mauufactory in to\vn. A thousand persona
ivero thrown out of employment ; hundreds were
rendered homeless. The loss amounted to between
four and five hundred thousand dollars, and tbe in-
surance to something below three hundred thousand.
Location. — Ftrst Ssttlers. — Bbterlt Bridge. — EASTBior
Railroad and Stage Coaches. — First Houses. — Ryal
Side.— Postal Cektrbs.— Namb of Town. — Indian Vil-
lage.- Early Town Officers. — First Cotton Mill.—
H1LI.S. — Browne's Folly. — Fine Views. — Streets.-
Ponds. — Water Works. — Churches. — Forts. — Muddt
Brook Massacre.— Canada Expedition.- A Narrow Es-
cape.- The Revolution. — At PACK on Beverly. — Hugh
Hill.— Female Rioters.— Commerce and Manufacturies.
— Past and Present Policy. — Town Halls.— Fire Depart-
ment, Militia, etc.
,EVERLY lies to the north of Salem, from
which it is separated by Beverly harbor. It
is bounded on the south by Beverly and Salem
harbors, on the north by Wenham, on the east
by Manchester and Wenham Neck, and on the
west by the Essex Branch river and Danvers. It
is eighteen miles from Boston, on the Eastern Rail-
road. It has a hilly surface, and much rocky and
unproductive land, although there is a great deal
of valuable and fertile soil. From some of the
hills in the town beautiful prospects may be ob-
tained of the surrounding country. It was first
settled by the removal of John and William Wood-
bury, with others of the companions of Roger Co-
nan t, from the south or Salem side to the north
or "Cape Ann side" of the harbor. Conant and
John Balch, with others, came soon after^ about
276 OLD NAUMKKAO.
the year 1630. Nearly one hundred adult male
persons bearing the name of Woodbury, or Wood-
berry, are found in the "Beverly Directory" of
1877, and about a dozen in the " Salem Directory.**
It is at the present day, one of the principal family
names in this town. The names of Conant and
Balch are nearly extinct in both places. Many of
the bearers of these ancient names are direct descen-
dants of these first settlers, though not all.
Beverly is now connected with Salem by a great
bridge which is 1484 feet long and 34 feet wide. The
act for incorporating the proprietors of this bridge
was passed in 1787. It is built on ninety -three
wooden piers of oak timber, driven into the mud.
It has a draw for vessels. Tlie first pier of this
bridge was driven in May, 1788. The proprietors
were authorized to receive toll for seventy years from
that date. The term expired in 1858, and the bridge
is now a free bridge, and belongs to the Common-
wealth. The main pipe of the Wenham water
works, through which the city of Salem receives its
water, extends along the western side of this bridge
on independent piers. Further to the west is the
great railroad bridge, over which the trains of the
Eastern Railroad make frequent passages, holding
speedy communication between Boston and the va-
rious points to the east. Previous to the advent of
the railroad a fine line of stages was run from Bev-
erly to Boston, and many are the amusing stories
told of incidents connected therewith, and of the
amusement furnished gratuitously to the passen-
gers, by Woodbury Page and others of the Jovial
drivers, who, when not cracking their whips, were
cracking well-timed jokes.
One of the first houses in this town is supposed
to liave been at Woodbury's point, in that part of
the town now known as the ^* Cove." It was a large
double house, constructed for defence, and called the
garrison house. A settlement by an Ellingwood
(probably Ralph) was among the earliest, on what
was formerly known as Ellingwood's point, directly
opposite the Salem side, but better known to day as
Webber's point. The land about here has been in
the possession of the EUingwoods, and their descen-
dants, the Webbers, for nearly two hundred and
In 1668 the settlement was incorporated as a dis-
tinct township by the name of Beverly, and in 1753,
"Ryall side," a piece of territory lying between
Dan vers and Beverly, was annexed to Beverly.
The territory of the town is nearly seven miles in
length, and three and a half in width at its greatest
extent. It has three postal centres, viz., Beverly,
North Beverly, and Beverly Farms. The most
thickly settled portion lies next to Salem, and is
supported largely by its boot and shoe manufacto-
ries, which employ a large number of the inhabitants,
both male and female. North Beverly is devoted
largely to farming interests, whilst Beverly Farms,
or West Beach, as it is now commonly called, is
given up almost entirely to summer residents, from
Boston and elsewhere. They have erected here
many princel}*^ mansions, and own most beautiful
estates, which have made it one of the pleasgntest
278 OLD NADMKEAO.
and most desirable sea-shore villages on the coast.
West Beach commands a fine view of Massachusetts
bay, with its many islands lying about the entrance
of Beverly, Salem, Lynn and Boston harbors. It is
favored with invigorating sea breezes, delightful
drives, and beautiful inland scenery. All in all,
there is not a more naturally attractive town in the
Commonwealth, to the brief sojourner, than this an-
cient town, as there is not one unattractive locality
in all its territory.
In 1671 Roger Conant, then an old man of 80
years, petitioned the General Court for an alteration
of the name of the town, to that of Budleigh, the
name of the place in England from whence he came.
His petition was based on the ground that, being
'^ but a small place it hath called on us the constant
nicls-name of beggarly." But "the umble desire
and request was not granted," the Court replying
that the magistrates could see no cause to alter the
A formal deed of this town was given by the In-
dians, on the payment of £6, 6s., 8d. It is believed
that previous to the whites settling here, Beverly
was the location of quite an Indian village.
The first town-meeting was held November 23,
1668, when Capt. Tiiomas LoLlirop, AVilliam Dixcy,
William Dodge, sen., John West and Paul Thorn-
dike, were chosen selectmen. The first cotton-mill
in America was established in Beverly, in the year
1788. It was built of brick, and located at North
Beverly, near " Baker's corner," at the junction of
the Birch-plaiu and Ipswich roads. A periodical of
the day, describing this factory, says: — "Aii ex-
periment made with a complete set of machines for
carding and spinning cotton, met with the warmest
expectations of the proprietors/' This establish-
ment was visited by Gen. Washington, on his tour
through the country in 1789,
The principal eminences in Beverly are Browne,
Brimble, Cue, Snake, Prospect, Christian and Bald
hills. Browne hill, in North Beverly, received its
name from Hon. William Browne, a wealthy gentle-
man of Salem. He was the son of Samuel and
Abigail Browne, and was born in 1709, and died in
1763. About 1750 he erected a splendid mansion
on the summit of this hill, which he called '^Browne
Hall," but which was popularly termed "Browne's
Folly." "This building consisted of two wings,
two stories high, connected by a spacious hall, the
whole presenting a front of seventy feet. The floor
of the hall was painted in imitation of mosaic, and
springing from the wall was a commodious circular
gallery. Adjacent to the house was a building occu-
pied solely by the domestics, all of whom were blacks.
The dwelling was finished in the most thorough and
costly manner, and was furnished in a style cor-
responding with the wealth of the owner. This hall
was the scene of many magnificent entertainments,
and on one occasion an ox was roasted whole and
served up to a numerous dinner party." After
Browne's decease, Capt. Richard Derby ^ became
owner of the estate. It was subsequently purchased
^See page lie.
280 OLD XAUMKKAO.
by WiUiam Barley, and the mansion disposed of in
parts to several pnrchasers. A beautiftil Yiew is
obtained from this hill, of the towns of Wenham,
Hamilton, Topsfield, Danvers and Marblehead, the
city of Salem, and the waters of Massachusetts Bay.
A prospect of nearly eqnal beauty is afforded from
Cherry hill, while the picturesque view from Web-
ber's point, is unsurpassed by any water prospect in
The harbor of Beverly is very safe and commo-
dious, and presented a lively appearance when the
fishing business was the principal industry of the
town. The streets of Beverly are of good width
and generally ornamented with shade trees.
Some of tlie ancient streets are decidedly crooked,
and there is a tradition that tlie street from Wood-
bury's point at the cove, to the head of Bass river,
where a settlement was very early made, was laid
out in the following manner : — A heifer was driven
from the point to the latter place around the shore,
which was the only way then travclleil, and there
left. The animal not liking her new abode, set out
immediately to return through the woods. She
arrived at the point before her driver, who was no
doubt much surprised at seeing her, and would in all
probability have pronounced her bewitched had the
affair occurred some fifty years later. Her path
was traced and it subsequently became a road of
communication between the two places. This par-
ticular road has not been much improved since then.
The principal pond within the limits of Beverly
is Beaver pond, situated about two hundred rods
south of Wenham line and about half a mile from
Brimble hill. It is a beautiful pond, covering
twenty-one acres. One hundred and seven acres of
Wenham lake lies within the limits of Beverly. It
measures in all three hundred and twenty acres,
and is thirty-four feet higher than the flow of the
tide at the head of Bass river. Its waters are
pumped into a reservoir of the "Wenham water
works," on "Chipman's" hill, which supplies both
Salem and Beverly with an abundance of good water.
From the settlement of Beverly to 1649 its inhab-
itants worshipped with the First Church in Salem.
They were then granted the privilege of conducting
a place of worship of their own. The first meeting-
house was erected in 1656 on the site of the pres-
ent Old South meeting-house at the corner of Cabot
and Hale streets, and near the old burying-ground,
which then occupied the land just back of the pres-
ent Baptist meeting-house, and extended from Hale
street to the northern side of the Armory building.
This burying-ground was contracted a few years
ago, when Abbott street was cut through it, by re-
moving the remains to the present enclosure on the
north side of the new street. The first minister
of the first church was the Rev. John Hale, who
officiated until his death, a period of thirty-six
years. The second church was incorporated bj' act
of the General Court in 1713, at North Beverly,
The other churches in town have been formed since
the beginning of the present century in the follow-
ing order: First Baptist, on Cabot street; Third
Congregational, on Dane street; Second Baptist,
288 OLD HAtnOdBAO.
at the Farms; Foarth Congregational, at North
Beverly (now extinct) ; Washington-street Congre-
gational, on Washington street; Universalist, on
Thorndilce street; St. Peter's Episcopal, on Bow
street; Methodist, on Railroad avenue, and the
Catholic, on Cabot street.
Military defence was early found necessary in this
town, both against savages and other foes. Beverly
was always foremost in enterprises displaying patri-
otism or requiring courage. From the settlement
of the town to the close of the Revolutionary war
there was hardly an expedition against the Indians
or French, or a battle of any moment against the
British, in which the town was not represented. In
the war of the Revolution, and of 1812, her priva-
teers and men were very active on the ocean. In
the Mexican war she was represented, and in the
recent war of the Rebellion she gave freely of her
blood and treasures, that the nation might live.
At an early period in the history of this town a
family by the name of Foster was carried away by
the Indians. They were taken to Canada, and it
was seven years before they regained their freedom
Beverly participated in the general consternation
occasioned by ^^ King Philip's war," and built forts
and otherwise prepared for defence. One fort was
built near the first meeting-house, probably on the
hill in the rear of the Briscoe school-house. An-
other was built at Mackerel cove, and a third near
what is now Dodge's gi'ist mill. In this war, a
company composed of the sons of some of the
best families In Essex county, and known as 'Hhe
flower of Essex," was commanded by Capt. Thomas
Lathrop of this town. While acting as convoy to
wagon loads of wheat being brought from Deerfield
to Hadley, they were surprised by the Indians at
Muddy Brook, in South Deerfield and Capt. Lathrop
and almost his entire company were slaughtered.
In 1690 Capt. William Rayment commanded a
company from Beverly in the unsuccessful expedi-
tion under Sir William Phipps, against Canada.
This expedition cost the single province of Massa-
chusetts about $50,000, together with many of her
young men by a malignant fever. It was a sad
blow to our province.
In one of the early French wars a merchantman
from Beverly was captured and carried to the West
India Islands. The captain was allowed to return
to Beverly for money to ransom himself and crew,
leaving one of his men, by the name of Hill, as
hostage, under the threat that after a specified day,
if the money was not received, all food should be
withheld from the prisoner. The captain was de-
la^-ed about eight or nine days beyond the specified
time ; the threat was put into execution, and Hill
was nearly dead from starvation when the captain
arrived. He slowly recovered, and lived many years
to relate his experience, but always with tears in
At the first outbreak of the Revolution, the town
proceeded with moderation and yet firmness. Henry
Herrick was cliosen as delegate to the convention in
Boston called for the purpose of consulting and
^;-^^!^BSHpM^^^MJI jjJ jll^^^^K^^ffl
advising on the state of the province. He was
charged by the people to abstain from any act of
disrespect to Parliament, or disloyalty to the King,
yet to maintain a firm but prudent opposition to all
In the autumn of 1775 a Beverly privateer was
chased into the harbor by a British man-of-war,
Nautilis, of twenty guns. The privateer grounded
on the fiats. It being ebb-tide the Nautilus came
to anchor outside the bar and opened fire on the
town. The citizens of Beverly with their rifles,
from behind a breastwork of rocks on Washington
street beach, together with a battery from the Salem
"Willows," returned the compliment so spitefully
that the man-of-war was obliged to cut her cable
and put to sea.
In this war Capt. Hugh Hill was among our noted
privateersmen. While sailing with an English en-
sign at mast-head as a decoy, he was boarded by the
captain of a British man-of-war. The latter, un-
suspicious of the true character of Hill, remarked
that he was "in search of that notorious Hugh
Hill." Hill replied that he was on the lookout for
the same individual. A few days later Hill was
better prepared for an encounter and again falling
in with the man-of-war, he ran up the American flag.
An engagement ensued, and Hill, victorious, had
the pleasure of introducing himself to his old visi-
tor, as the man he had been looking for.
In 1777 there was a riotous proceeding in town,
occasioned by the refusal of the merchants here to
sell their West India conunodities at the stated
286 OLD NAUMKBAQ.
prices, because of a recent depreciation in the cnr-
rency. Tlie ladies of Beverly were the principal riot-
ers ; about sixty of them, led by one lad}' who bore
a musket, and attended by two ox-carts, marched
down Cabot and Bartlett streets to the wharves,
where a quantity of sugar was stored. Here they
were opposed by the foreman of the warehouse.
Nothing daunted, they seized him by the hair —
which was false — and tore it from his head, and
then, reinforced by men, demolished the gates with
axes and loaded their carts with two hogsheads of
sugar. This proceeding brought the merchants to
terms and amicable negotiations were entered into.
Beverly in the early days carried on quite an ex-
tensive foreign trade, and many ships belonging to
William Gray and otlier Salem merchants were un-
loaded here. From 1789 to about the commence-
ment of the last war the cod-fishery was prosecuted
here with great success and large pecuniary profit.
It was prostrated for a time by the embargo, and
again interrupted by the war of 1812. In 1787
Beverly employed in the various trades sixty-nine
vessels, with 408 men. In 1843 there were seventy-
eight vessels, with between four and five hundred
men. About one-half of these were engaged in the
fisheries. The manufactures of Beverly at this lat-
ter date amounted annually in value to only about
$120,000, on a capital of about $40,000, which fur-
nished emplo3*ment to nearly 500 persons. Tan-
ning and the manufacture of pottery were among
the early industries in North Beverly. Beverly tan-
neries were long since discontinued, but a pottery
establisbment is now carried on in the lower part of
the town. The fishing business has given way to
that of making shoes, and the locality of the depot,
instead of the wharves, is the busy paii; of the town*
The natural advantages of Beverly for the prose-
cution of commerce and manufactures are not sur-
passed by any coast town in tlie Commonwealth.
Thirty-four years ago, the Rev. Edwin M. Stone
wrote, concerning the people of Beverly :
** They have never been eager to engage in extrav-
agant speculations, by which many make unsuccess-
ful *' haste to be rich,' but have been contented with
a safe and sure business, affording moilerate and
uniform profits. Hence they have experienced few
of those embarrassments by wliich the prosperity of
many places have been seriously affected, while they
have built up for themselves a sound and honorable
Except as regards individual cases, the above
could not be well said to-day. Since his writing, a
public policy has been pursued which, though it may
not liave been wholly unwise as regards the future,
yet, so far as it will be of profit to those now liv-
ing, is to be deplored. Added to the extravagances
which were universal throughout the country during
the recent paper money period, Beverly continues a
system of unequal taxation which bears heavily
upon the bone and sinew portion of her inhabitants,
blocking the wheels of progress and keeping pros-
perity, like a will-of-the-wisp, continually before
their eyes and alike distant from their grasp. Aside
from this unfortunate departure from their otherwise
commendable spirit, the people of Beverly are char-
288 OLD KAUMKBAO.
acterized for industry, prudence, sobriety and love
The town hall, and Odd Fellows' hall, on Cabot
street ; Biiseoe school-house, the powder house and
the Common, on Essex street ; and the cemetery, on
Hale street, are among the other matters of interest
in Beverly not previously mentioned.
In 1798 the old town hall was built by Obadiah
Groce, of Salem, at a cost of $2,000 to accommo-
date the Grammar school. It was furnished with a
bell, and was used for all town purposes. It was
removed a little to the north, on the edge of the
Common, a few years ago, to make room for its suc-
cessor, the present Briscoe school building. Pre-
vious to the building of the old hall, town-meetings
were held in the First meeting-house. This hall
was named Briscoe hall in honor of Robert Briscoe,
who held the various offices of selectman, assessor,
treasurer and representative ft'om 1690 to 1726.
In 1841 the preseut town hall was purchased of
the heirs of Mr. Israel Thorndike, one of the most
eminent and successful merchants in New England.
This building was built as a private residence for
Mr. Andrew Cabot, and occupied by him. It was
afterwards occupied by Mr. Thorndike. When pur-
chased by the town it was altered into a town hall,
and was first opened for public use, October 26,
1841, with appropriate services and an address by
the Hon. Bobert Bantoul, lawyer and statesman,
the pride of Beverly and an honor to the land which
gave him birth. A year or two ago the town hall
was increased to almost double its original propor-
tions, and a fine assembly room added above, known
Beverly has a fine fire department, consisting of
five hose carriages, one steam fire engine and two
hand engines ; also a good military company, the
Beverly Light Infantry, Company E, 8th Regiment
Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. This company
was organized about 1815. William Thorndike was
the first commander. Charles L. Dodge is the pres-
ent commander. Several companies were organized
in Beverly previous to this one, and at one time
there were three here, which, united with the Man-
chester companies, formed what was known as the
** Beverly regiment."
There is also in the town a bank of discount, an
insurance company, a public library, a lyceum and
a farmer's club, a well graded system of public
schools, embracing an excellent high school, a Post
of the G. A. R., a Masonic and Odd Fellows' lodge,
and a weekly journal — "The Beverly Citizen" (John
B. Cressy, publisher). The number of enlistments
for the late war was 988, and about a hundred of
these lost their lives in the service of their country.
While there is much in the natural attractions in
this town to delight the lovers of the beautiful,
there is little to gratify the lovers of the marvellous.
There are no gloomy caverns nor murderous-looking
glens; no fortune teller, or veritable ghost asso-
ciated with the history of Beverly ; only the anec-
dote of the skipper who made signals of distress
because short of beans, has yet appeared to give
edat to the annals of mj'stery or tradition.
A PLBASANT DmVB FROM SALBM.— LOCATION.— Hi 8TOBT.— POF-
ULAB SiniMBR Resort.— West Manchester and its SuimicB
Visitors.— SiMoiNo Beach.— Elegant Residences.— Maq-
NOUA, Rafe's Chasm and Norman's Woe.
NOTHER pleasant drive in the vicinity of the
city, and one still within the limits of old
Naumkeag, is to Manchester. Passing out
over the long bridge and through Beverly,
Pride's Crossing and Beverly Farms to Manchester,
the roads all the way are hard and level, lined either
with noble farm-houses or lovely sea-side cottages —
genuine ^^ mansions by the sea," — which are sur-
rounded by large and neatly kept Idwns, and gar-
dens fragi'ant with their thousands of bright flowers.
The ocean rolls almost at our very feet, throughout
the greater portion of the journey. Manchester is
really the first of the '* cape towns," the others being
Gloucester, Rockport and Essex. It lies eight miles
north-east of Salem, and twenty-five miles from Bos-
ton on the Gloucester branch of the Eastern Rail-
way. There are two stations, Manchester and West
Manchester. The locality was once known as Jef-
frys' Creek, so named in honor of William Jeffrys,
its fiist settler. The principal stream of water in
the town still bears his name.
Manchester was set off from Salem, on May 14,
1645, and derives its present name from the Duke
of Manchester. For many years it was an impor-
tant fishing port but that industry has declined or
been transferred to Gloucester. The principal pur-
suit at the present day is the manufacture of cabinet
furniture, in which Manchester has no superior, and
few equals. There are some thirteen establish-
ments for this purpose, though, of late years, during
the business depression, few of them have run at
their full capacity, and several have been entirely
closed. The total productions of these manufac-
tories is about $100,000 annually. There is also
one tannery at the village, while in the surrounding
^country several productive farms are utilized for
market-gardening purposes. The population of the
town in 1875, was 1560 persons, divided among
418 families, dwelling in 835 houses. There are
three churches, Congregational, Baptist and Catho-
lic, eight schools, two hotels, together with numer-
ous stores and minor business places. The entire
town comprises only 4310 acres of land, and the
total valuation is $1,800,000. The average annual
value of the products is $223,000.
The populaiity of the place at the present day
arises mainly from its adaptability for a summer
dwelling place, for many wealthy families of Boston,
New York, etc. The " best families," and the ranks
of the '' distinguished men " of New England, are
well represented here every season. Their cottages,
surrounded by lawns, and gardens, and forests of
shrubbery, interspersed with gravelled walks and
drive- ways, are superb. None more beautiful can
be found in New England. Most of them border on
tlie slioro, tlmiigli some are locnted on the opposite
Biiic of tlie " Blioie-TOftd ," in tlie midst of ileliglitf\il
oak groves, or on llie high bhifTa which overlook the
town nud the bay with its green islitnda. The drives
around town arc clinrming. Tlio ehore itself is an
alternation of bandy benclics and rocky blnlTs, allbrd-
ing prime facilities for bathing, boating and fleliing.
Driving down tJirongli West Manclicster we pass
the cosy summer residence of Rev. C. A. Bnrtol,
D.D., pastor of the West Clinrch, Boston, and one
of tlie most eminent divines in New Engl&nd. This
venerable minister is renowned for his bospitality,
often entertaining entire church parties at his place.
Near by are also tlie handsome i-esidences of B. G.
Boardman, Dana Boardmnn, N. B. & I ansfi eld, Walter
Cabot, Messrs. Ilowe, Abbott, Stevens, and olbera.
A little faillier on avo the residenees of Dr. O. S.
Fowler, E. E. Rice, J. "\V. Merrill, at Gale's point;
F. II. Morgan and Cnpt. A. W. Smilli near by. In the
locality known by the strange cognomen of "Belly-
Ache cove," is the magnificent Ilemenway estate.
Abonltheonly curiosity of llie place is the "sing-
ing beach," n beach which at times, when pressed by
tlie foot or struck by nn incoming wave, sends forth
a musical sound. When pressed by tlie foot, the note
is sbrill and clear; whon etiiick by the sen it is soft
and sweet. Such plicnomenon is very rare ; we read
of its counterpart ns existing only on tba coast of
Scotland, and one or two other places.
Hiigli Miller, in his " Crnise of the Betsey ; or, A
Summer Itamble among Ihe Hebrides," p. 75, de-
scribes a phenomenon similar to the beach in Man-
'*! was turning aside this sand of the Oolite, so
curiously reduced to its original state, and marking
how nearly the recent shells that lay imbedded in it
resembled the extinct ones that had lain in it so
long before, when I became aware of a peculiar
sound that it yielded to the tread, as my companions
paced over it. I struck it obliquely with my foot,
where the surface lay dry and incoherent in the
sun, and the sound elicited was a shrill, sonorous
note, somewhat resembling that produced by waxed
thread, when tightened between the teeth and the
hand and tipped by the nail of the forefinger. I
walked over it, striking it obliquely at each step,
and with every blow the shrill note was repeated.
My companions joined me ; and we performed a con-
cert, in which, if we could boast of but little variety
in the tones produced, we might at least challenge
all Europe for an instrument of the kind which pro-
Driving from the village towards this beach, we
pass the splendid summer homes of James T. Fields,
Esq., the distinguished author, lecturer and pub-
lisher ; Hon. Richard H. Dana, Jr., an eminent law-
yer, poet and scholar ; of J. B. Booth, the tragedian,
and one of the proprietors of the Boston Theatre ;
Russell Sturgis, a successful merchant and ex-Fresi-
dent of the Boston Young Men's Christian Associa-
tion ; also L. N. Tappan, Mr. John Gilbert, Dr. J.
A. Brown, Mrs. Bowers, Joseph Sawyer, Rev. A. J.
Gordon, Rev. E. P. Tenney (novelist), Joseph Proc-
tor, Mrs. Towne of Philadelphia, and many others
equally attractive, but whose owners, perhaps, are
not so well known. Beyond these, toward Glouces-
ter, we pass the elegant cottage home of Isaac West
of New Orleans ; also of Caleb Curtis, T. Jefferson
294 OLD NAUliKEAa.
Coolidge and his father Joseph Coolidge. The visitor
will find free access to the grounds aroand many of
the residences, provided he conducts himself prop-
erly ; and words fail to express the delightfulness of
the drives within some of the enclosures. The shore
as seen from Salem harbor is studded with trees,
from out which, here and there, peep these summer
residences, presenting to the beholder a quiet and
retired spot for resort after a day of busy turmoil.
Three miles fUrther on down the shore, is a section
of the city of Gloucester known as Magnolia, also
a popular resort for Boston people during the sum-
mer months as well as many camping parties, includ-
ing, about the middle of every August, the Salem
Cadets, one of the finest military organizations in
the State. The place does not come properly under
the head of Naumkeag, but few people would
drive to Manchester without ^Haking in" Magnolia
also. It is the most romantic locality on the whole
Cape. Dense forests, covering an alternation of
swamps and rocky hills, are interspersed with fields
and pastures and dotted by cottages. In these
swamps grow the celebrated flower, known as Mag-
nolia. This may often be found grown to a height
of ten feet, having a large white flower, of the
sweetest and most delicious odor. Steamers fi*om
Boston and Salem touch here occasionally in sum-
mer. Several small but attractive hotels and a few
private residences, mostly of recent construction
constitute the ''settlement" at present, but should
it continue to grow during the next five years as it
has during the past three, it will become a good-
296 OLD NAUMKSAG.
Here is the famous Rafe's chasm, a channel in the
solid rocks of the shore nearly a hundred feet deep,
into which every sea runs with terrible force, leaping
far up the sides and falling back again, to be drawn
outward with great rapidity. In a storm the noise
from this chasm sounds like heavy artillery in
an engagement. Here, too, is the famous reef of
Norman's Woe, whereon the schooner Hesperus was
wrecked many years ago. The event has been im-
mortalized by Longfellow in his poem entitled,
" Wreck of the Hesperus.'*
*< And fiist ttirough the midnigbt dark and drear,
Through the whlstliog sleet and snow.
Like a sheeted ghost, the yessel swept
Tow'rds the reef of Norman's Woe.
Her rattling shrouds all sheathed in ice,
With the masts went by the board;
Like a yessel of glass, she stoye and sank,
Ho I ho I the breakers roared.
Such was the wreck of the Hesperus,
In the miduight aud the snow I
Christ saye us all from a death like this,
On the reef of Norman's Woe.**
The shore is one solid mass of rock, of a reddish
hue, all the way to Gloucester, a distance of some
three miles. The bluffs often rise to a height of a
hundred feet, against which the sea dashes with ter-
rific force at all times, while in a storm it thunders
against the solid rocks with a deafening roar, send-
ing the milk-white spray far above the highest, and
creating a perfect sea of foam.
"These restless surges eat away the shores
Of earth's old couUnent; the fertile plain
Welters iu shallows, headlands crumble down,
And the tide drifts the sea-sands in the streets
Of the drowned city."
Whb!? Inoorpobatvd.— Thb Churohvs and thsir OsoAirazA-
TioN.— HcroH Pbtbrs and Rbv. John Fisk.— Population
AND Industries. — Beauties op Nature. •*- Asburt Grove. —
Essex Branoh Railroad. — Opinion or a Natite Historian.
titllE town of Wenham, once a portion of Salem,
'I' was incorporated as an independent muntci-
I pality and given its present name (from
(j^ Wenham, Suffolk county, England), on May
10,, 1643. Previous to that time, it had been known
as " Enon " or " Salem village." It is the oldest of
the several towns detached from the original terri-
tory of Naumkeag. The first preaching in the place
was by Hugh Peters, about 1636. His text was :
**At Enon, near Salira, because there was much
water there." The First Church was formed on
October 8, 1644, with Rev. John Fisk as pastor.
Mr. Fisk was something of a local historian, and the
journals and parish books kept by him, constitute
the most valuable records which we now have of the
early settlement at Naumkeag.
There are, at present, two churches in the town :
a Congregational and a Baptist, — the latter at
Wenham Neck. Farming forms the principal in-
dustry, 106 persons being engaged in the pursuit,
and 71 in that of shoemaking. The town has a
298 OLD NAUMKBAO.
population of 911, divided among 219 families, re-
siding in 186 dwelling-liouses. Tlie census of 1875
places the valuation at $526,350, and the annual
value of the products at $98,807.
It is a most delightful country town, and the sur-
face is but rarely broken by hills and valleys. The
fields and woods are interspersed with several lovely
sheets of water. There is Wenham lake, the source
of the water supply of Salem and Beverly. This
is one of the most beautiful lakes in eastern Mas-
sachusetts. Its water is as pure as any known in
the State, and the ice cut here in winter has no su-
perior. Then there are Idlewood lake, Cedar pond,
and Muddy pond in the northern part of the town,
and Coy's pond in the southern part. Ipswich river
touches the northern boundary, while Miles riA'er,
the outlet of Wenham lake, runs through the south-
Wenham has become quite a summer resort for
residents of Salem and Boston, while on its borders,
in the adjoining town of Hamilton, lies Asbury
Grove, used by the Methodists as a camp- meeting
ground, Hundreds of people live on the grounds
during the entire summer, some coming as early as
May and remaining until into October. There are
several hundred pretty residences here, and about
forty society tents. Among the residences are some
of the finest in town, costing several thousands of
dollars. A branch of the Eastern Railway runs
from Wenham depot to the grove, and numerous
trains are run over it during '* Camp-meeting Week."
Idlewood, on the borders of Idlewood lake, is a
favorite pio-nic ground for parties from Salem and
other neighboring towns.
Wenham is connected with Salem and Boston by
the Eastern Railway, and also with the east ; while a
branch track rans to Essex, a ship-building town,
five miles distant. This road was built by the town
of Essex and opened in 1872, and purchased by
the Eastern Railroad company in 1874, for $95,000.
It never has paid expenses.
The town is well described in Allen's " History
of Wenham : "
** Nature has not given us, as a town, any remark-
able advantages of situation. Our streams are too
small to be of much use for manufacturing purposes.
Our inland position debars us from the sea. We
have no stores of mineral wealth to be dug from the
bowels of the earth ; but industry, energy and econ-
omy arc admirable substitutes for these gifts of
nature, and may more than compensate for her de-
ficiencies. Without anything specially grand or ro-
mantic in the way of scenery, Wenham possesses
many of the elements of a charming country resi-
dence. It has a fertile soil and a healthful position.
The houses and farms present a general appearance
of neatness and comfort. In every direction are
good roads and pleasant drives; while our grace-
fully-rounded hills and crystal lakes present scenery
of a beauty and loveliness rarely equalled."
TOPSFIELD AND MIDDLETON.
T0P8FIELD.— Sbttuembnt avd Chttrohes. — Its Part in thb
Witchcraft Dblusion.— Original Settlers. — Promimbmt
Men.— Population. — Valuation and other Statistics.—
Midoleton. — Topography. — Industries. — History. —
Population, Valuation and Products.
tit HE town of Topsfield is the most northerly
' I ' portion of the territory originally comprised in
I Naumkeag. It was settled by people from
(j^ Salem and Ipswich, in 1639, and was incorpo-
rated as a separate town on October 18, 1650. The
Indian name of the place was '' Shenewemedy."
"When it belonged to Naumkeag, it was known as
the " New Meadows." The name Topsfield is de-
rived from a parish in England, bearing that name.
The first church was organized in 1663, with Rev.
Thomas Gilbert as pastor. It is still sustained,
and, until the formation of the Methodist church, in
1830, was the only religious organization in town.
It is now of the Congregational order.
Mary Estes and Sarah Wildes of this place, were
executed as victims of tlie witchcraft delusion in
1692, and Abigail Ilobbs was condemned to death
on a like charge but was subsequently pardoned.
In early times, bears and wolves infested the town,-
and it was threatened with Indian attacks, which
led to the construction of a fort or garrison-house,
TOPSFIBLD AND HIDDLETOK. 801
but history does not record that it was ever brought
into requisition. Among the men recorded as origi-
nal settlers or owners of Topsfield, we find Samuel
Symonds, John Endicott, Simon Bradstreet, Zac-
cheus Gould, Francis Peabody, William Towne,
Thomas Perkins, John Wildes, Nathaniel Porter
and Abraham Redington. Among the distinguished
men who hailed from the town, were Nathaniel Pea-
body, a statesman, physician and soldier; Jacob
Kimball, a music composer and the author of '^Rural
Harmony" ; Daniel Breck, an able jurist and a mem-
ber of Congress; Elisha Huntington, Lieutenant-
governor of the State, and mayor of Lowell for eight
years ; and Elisha L. Cleveland, D.D., an eminent
divine. Topsfield was also the birthplace of the
father of Joseph Smith, the celebrated Mormon
The town has a population of 1221 persons, di-
vided among 284 families, in 220 dwellings. There
are 162 farmers, and 138 shoemakers, showing that
the industry of the town is nearly equally divided
between these pursuits. Its valuation by the cen-
sus of 1875 was $770,370, and the annual produc-
tions amounted to $335,387. The surface of the
town, like most other Essex county ** back towns,"
is diversified with hills and valleys, streams and
ponds. The geological formation is sienite and
greenstone. Such rare plants as the '^Painted-
cup" (Castillia), and the "Turk's-cap" lily (Li-
liam-Surperbum), are found here.
MiDDLETON is an agricultural and shoe manufac-
turing town, lying to the west of Topsfield and next
802 OLD NAUHKBAG.
north of Danvers. It is connected with Salem and
Boston by the Lawrence branch llailroad. Like
Topsfield, it is a diversity of hills and valleys,
streams and ponds. That beautiAil stream of water
known as Ipswich river, borders it on the south and
east. The principal sheet of water is Middleton
pond, covering about 100 acres, from which Dan-
vers draws its water supply. The leading industries
are farming and the manufacture of shoes.
The history of the town is uneventful. It was
first settled in the westerly part, by Bray Wilkins and
John Gingell, his brother-in-law, in 1660. Thomas
Fuller, a Woburn blacksmith, followed them three
years later and settled on Pierce's brook, and about
the same time William Nichols and William Hobbs
settled on Nichols' brook.
A church was formed and a minister ordained, on
November 26, 1729. The first pastor was Rev.
Andrew Peters. There is only one church society
in town (Congregational). The town was incorpo-
rated on June 20, 1728, and undoubtedly derives
its name from its locality. The population of the
town is 1092 ; families, 233 ; dwellings, 190. The
valuation is $491,246, according to the census of
1875, and the value of the products for the year
1874 was $367,164. There are 102 farmers and 105
shoemakers, besides men of various other trades
Abbott, Stephen, 148.
AcAdemy of Science^ lOO, 187.
Adams, J. Q., 76.
Alexis, Dnke, 75.
Allen, Abiffail, 130.
Allen, William, 4.
Almy, J. F.,203.
Amer. Asso. Adv. Science, 183.
Andrews, Joseph, 53.
Anderson, Rev. T. D., 86.
Annals of Salem, Felt's, 66, 77.
Appleton, John. 68.
Arabella, Lady, 216, 217.
Arabella street, 217.
Arrington bnildine, 86.
Asintic building, 30, 41.
Assembly building, 105.
Athenienm, Salem, 70, 160.
Athensenm Library, 65.
Atlantic Car Works, 205, 206.
Atwood, Rev. E. S., 106.
Babcock, Rev. Ruftis, 86.
Bacon, Jacob, 104.
Baker's Island, 110, 216, 229.
Batch, John, 4.
Ballot, origin of, 12.
Ballou, Hosea, 172.
Baptists, persecuted, 48.
Baptist ministers. 63, 85.
Barnard, T., 42. 62, 65, 176.
Barnard, Thos. 2d., 86, 102.
Bartlioiemew, Henry, 168.
Barton S<|Unre Church, 68, 80.
Bass River, 80.
Batchelor, George, 89.
Bath street, 151.
Beadle's Tavern, 208, 214.
Bontley, William, 100. 189.
Bertram, John, 136. 211.
Beverly Brifige, 81.
Bi»<hop, Bridget, 60, 74. 103.
" Biubbor HoUow,'^ 237.
Blue Anchor Tavern, 221.
Bolles, E. C, 86, 172.
Boston Street, 81, 190, 200.
Bott's Court, 104.
Bowditch, N., 156, 160.
Bowditch, N. I., 156.
Bowker Block, KSO.
Boyden, Albert G., 109.
Bradptrcet, Simon, 166-6.
Brick house, the first, 91.
Bridge Street. 214, 217.
Briggs, Geo. W, 42.
Briggs, Enos, 226.
Brigham. L. F., 84.
Broad Street, 106.
Broad Street Cemetery, 110.
Brookhonse, R., 40, 45. 201, 211.
Browne, Benjamin, 121.
Brown, B. F., 67, 151.
Browne, John and Samuel, 2,
Brown, Nathaniel, 53.
Brown, Samuel. 114.
Brown, W.,e2, 120, 132, 147, 168.
Browne. William, Jr., 125, 130.
Brown, William Burnett, 116.
Bufflnton, Z., 73, 148.
Buffum's Corner, 200, 219.
Buffum's Hill, 184.
Bulletin. Newspaper, 127.
Bunker Hill, 147.
Burdett, George. 77, 78.
Burleigh, Mrs., 103.
Burton, John, 197.
Burroughs, George, 103.
Burving Point Lane, 28.
Butler, Benjamin F., 84.
"Button Hole," 237.
Cnbot, A. and J., 66, 233.
Cabot, Joseph S., 53. 100.
Cadets, Salem, 67, 146, 148.
Calley, Samuel, 53.
Calvary Baptist Church, 146.
Car Shops, E. R. R , 218.
Cape Ann, 8, 4, 10, 24, 72.
Capital removed tr. Salem, 19.
Carlton, Oilier, lOO,
OarUun, Wllliiim. llS.
cm lilaud, »0.
CtiBTenia, BIoIidii. im.
Qioste, Qounta, <Kt.
(MuMle, Qbo. F.. S3.
Choata. Biinia, (HI, Si, B
CIh]', lleai7, IS.
Olwiunlra>B Barge. 131.
Clark of Courta. Si.
Clerk Df Sitlein Village, IIM.
VlUranl. Jolin, Ml.
Clnb, Social Evoiiinft, m.
Coal bii>lncM, 113, SIB.
CoataB, BB'JninIn, T.l.
Cognwell, Williani, Bi.
Oolmnn, tleiiry, B9,
Coll. Eases Iiial. lilsl.. 88.
Collectors urHHlani, 10, 103.
flolllna Core, 1:1.
Cum man. Snluin, 111.
Cou.lx. Jeramliili, 03.
CoiigruftatiDniil Club, TO.
Congnus, tT.TU, 171.
Cun&nct Willi ITIgglnBon, 10.
CoDuil, Rorer.S, 4, S, & T, I, W,
M, K, U,^. 71. M, IIB, ill,
CoumoTCfl or Salem, H, LB.
CDmnoa. Silem, ISO.
OuiBiiianiltirx. Nuvul, 13S.
Ciuirail'a fa (II Ion. IJ7.
Conwiiy, Bev. J.. IHU, ISI.
Connly Cnniiiilesionen, 83.
Coiinlf Street. 171.
Cnrwin, a., 42. M. no, IIB, tSl.
Court Street, U.
Coollne' Bee Hlfe, m.
Cuveoant of Pli-at Vb., It-U.
Creek Strcot. ai, 31.
Ciuaa, Ihiiiry ,[..Bil, 131.
Crombie Sti-eet Ctaunih, 91.
CroeljT, Al|)heua. IIM.
CronoTi, Miu- ■"
DeU or Snlam, U.
Ilennii. W. D., 117.
Derbr AcnUemr. 117.
Derby, Elliirt Ilaaktut, B7, 111,
lt2, as. «».
Derby, Eliaa IlaakeU. tr., 117.
Derby, Kliiu llarkeil, &, 117.
Derby rflinrf, lOO.
Derby Street, Bl, 100.
DuiBivui, Uen., ISO.
UlnUDter*. 1, 10.
DIMIiigulaheil man, m.
IJwyer, Jobn, im.
Enalern R. R . 31, t3, M, tl, a,
EiiBt Cbiiruli, lU.
But Iii'liii Uiivlne balldloc.
Eiiillcotl. .lohn.a, 7. H. 0, W,
74, »l, 117,110,117, Ml.
Kndluott, William C, Bk
BngllshChorch.l, 1, S, Ifl.lT.
BDKtlih, Ftafllp, les.iis, %a.
BpiiBopal Qlinrch, <B.
■ppei Lanft, Tl.
Bup«i, Dnnlpl. 71.
Sasu OoITho Hoiihq, KO, IB.
Suen ttlatcrlonl Bocicly. 10.
Baaax Uduhi, UO. 131, 1S7.
Biaoi, tnnn nr, SR.
BstOK, FrlKKto. Ul, WB,
Xtvsx R. 11., 118.
Saaex Streot, ST, Bn, ID, 51, H,
01. BS.gn, 01,01, 103,117.
BipreH buglnoM, to.
Felt, .r. IS., t<L Gfl, T7, 131, ISt.
relt, John, 1741.
I^irrr to UflveriT, 114.
FefTT to M«rblehc«d, IIS.
neldlng, r. A., mi.
ruimimi. J..S8, KM.
rire Engine, tlie llrKt, 41.
r!rttCliurc-.b,(i,ll.»l. 31, 41,48,
IT, 18.78,104, 1M, 101.
Fl»lie. fiiiiuiiel,41, 78.
F)rs[ hoiiBV, 110.
Flint's SuiltliliK, 36. 30.
Flouting IlrldRe, IDS.
Foole, Giileb. m, lt».
Fort, the first. 88.
Toreat HiTer. 910.
TortB Lea and Juninar, SU.
Tort PinkerlnKi n9.
TorroBter, Simon. 131
ToTreatdr, John, 141.
Pmnklin Bitlldlur, 141, IK.
ri-onlStreet, ai, 8i, urf.
Troat, A.F.. 104.
TiTe'a Ullla, 141.
Giurfl. Gen., 4T, 100.
Gonornl Court, 8.
Gill. Uollf, 130.
GooillllIU etrcDl, iJo, 141.
Grnmninr Sislioolg, T7, 100.
Grant, V. 8., ».
GriT, Thomoa, 4.
Gninil Anny, IBS.
Grnnil Turk, I3S, 111, 131,
Graj, J.J., 130.
Giay, Snmnei, 130.
Grent Pnetui-e, 106.
Qrjat Ta»o™. flliM, eS.
Honr, Danlsl B., 1
Hair Id bo worn «!■„._„.
Halo's Ballding, 117. ISO.
DHjo B ugiiuing, 117, Iw^
Ha Hey, Wllllnni, vH.
Hnmlltoo. Alexander, TS.
Haiiillton. taim ot, OB.
Hamilton Hnll. 109,
Ilanconh, John. 47.
" Unnnah," Frirntocr, US.
Harrnrd College, 01.
Harbor, Salem, 140. IIK.
Ilnrinony Urovo, lOS, 187.
Herbei t Street, 144.
HIgglnaon, Colonel. HT.
41, 4S,74, llT.aiT.
Hlgblnnd Avenue, IK
Itlgh School. 100.
High Strcot. .34.
unier, /ose|,h. 103, 13
ITillor. O. r., 103.
mil, Ljilia, ISO.
Uiatoriv Ulnsle, TS,
Hlatorical Soeketj, Kasex, TO.
Bolt oke. E. A., &, DO. isf.
Iliilfinnwortli, K., KO.
IloljoEe UuiliJiiis, ft).
HoTMn, N. A., m
Inilius fi. at, as, 39, BS, go, SI,
U7, ITO, lUJ, S3. S34.
bTrutiy, SuleiD Uecbanlc, X.
ingenttU, Wuud, 313.
Im , h. B. Jr., U.
JaekioD, Anilrew. T
Jefffy, rira. Il__._. __.
Jeffry, Wllltnm, i.
Jerusalem diorch, 103.
Joulyn, Ell ward. 110.
Jolmaad, A. H.. ISO.
jDDllier, !£1. Ktl, 338.
Slog Street, «V.
•■ Knocket's Bole," 237.
Laruyclte Ilaiiio. 117.
I^ratelU 8tr»et. £8, H, SO, 211.
I.«adar,r. W, Ita.
Lead inUa, Forest TL, i<&. SOS.
l«Bd Ullla, Snlani, SOG, £18.
IiSctureB. flrj^t, 105.
Lee. W. R.. IHI.
Legislature or Unas., K.
Leslie, Cul., aO, 102, 110, 101, 17t,
Latten treia Compkiij lo HiK-
l.lUnir Ilill, ISLIIB.
Liberty Street, aS, UL
Liberty Tree. I5S.
Liiurur uHhl by IlrawBM, 10.
Long Wharf, m.
Looljy. Tbomaai £07.
Luring. George B., 11, 1D3, 109.
Luta laid out, 8a.
L01T, Dnniel, ti.
Lowell IbLuiU. ^9.
UonDlDg Uanaion, lU.
Mnnniag, R. C, 13. Id.
llnDBOeTd William. BS.
. lUl, I
on Bui I
Harl-lchead Ncek, ISO.
Margin Street, 81.
UarTDB Had way, !<U, aoo.
Uariae Sueiety, Salem, lU.
Market Square, SO.
Mar ~ "
Matber, IJcttou, 00, 81, 00, ISS,
Uaule, Tbomas, 101.
Uislnlire, Snmuel. US.
kU-tJilcbiist. WLIIiiiin, (S.
tlci-hniiie tlall, IH. INL lU.
Uechanlc tiirnntry, 113.
Uedlcal Society, ISO.
Meek Henry M.,Efl.
I, 111, 171.
WKtarr, i«, vso, im, in, tM.
Hill CompRnr, PclcM, SI.
Mills, R. C.. S.
Hill Pond, w,m.
Mill Street, SI, U, Bl.
mnerTB, the Ship, 138.
Ulsery IsUnd, 110.
Hooroe, Judu, TB, 111, 111.
RnatMket. BettlemeDl nt, S,
Natural Hlat, Society, IBl, 160.
Maligna Hend. 311, m, Hi.
Hit; or Bntam ""
ir&TT or SAlem
Megro Cnloay, MO.
em (1811), SU.
I, Sib. no, tst.
Kbit Jerosalein Church, 103.
North Brldn, iM, 114-177.
North Church, H, 71, BO. KM.
North Field*. 178, 177, IM.
Notth BiTor, ■a, SB, BO, BB,
North Snlom, 88. IN.
Nnrth SCroot. SI, 174.
Northcnd. W. D.. Bl,38.
Hottliey Sti'eet, 117.
NorUie; , Willinm, Bl.
Nnrae, Reheocs, 01, IM.
Nattlug, John, 88.
Obeerrer. Nenepaper, IM.
dllTBr, Bridget. 89.
Oliver. Ileai7 K., tX. 100.
OliTOr HooelDD, SO, TO.
Ollrer, Thonuta. 80.
OrgnnliinHoTi or City, B9.
Fuse. John, 148.
Palfray, C. W., IM.
Psimiy. Peter, 4, S.1, 74, IH), 1S8.
FnllViiy. Warwick, 118, ISl.
" ParaillBe," MS. ■
Parker, AJtcs, 183.
Parkmnn. Uellveranoe, Iftl.
Fnrrta, Samael, 96.
Pnrtiea In pobtioa, 114.
Payne, MarEaret, 171.
PeaUody. FnmclB, 101, ISO, 101,
Peabody, George, 101, IBS.
Peabody, Town of, Bl, 77, 81,
Peahody, John P., 43. 137.
Pealjoiiy, Joseph, 138, lU, 181.
Penao, GeorireW., 116.
Peok-a OnlliflnB, 87.
Pedrlck, John. 175.
Peele. J.. 134, 181.
Pennaylinnia Pier, 118,118.
Perkins, J. W., 100.
Peters, H., 18,49. 87,78.18,3)1.
Phillips. S. CM, M. IS, 100, MS.
PlckeiftiK, John. SI, BS, 108.
Pickering. JouaUian, 88.
Pickering, Tlniotlry^ 108.
I'lckmnn, llo»l., 60,81,181, MT.
I'Ickninii, D. L., 18U.
Plckman Uonae, 181.
Pkkniek, aainnel, 1ST.
Pierce, BenJ., 147.
Pierson. G. H., 131.
FIngree, Darld, S3.
Pina, witch, 83.
Flrafee, 180, 3M, 331.
Pitman, Corporal, 39.
Pleaeaut street. 1
ir Hall, 41, 49, lU,
tli Colony, l, S, ST.
Porter, StUnoel, IIS.
Poet. Newspaper, IM.
PnUera yi«l<). SIT.
Prewott. Vf. It., Ml.
PHoe, wmter, S3, 61.
Priiuw, John, tt, OS.
Pump, UawtUorne, M, Ti>
PurltiDB, 1, «, 74.
Putmaa, Ann, 157.
Putnam, F. Vf.. m.
Putoaia, Israel, IM.
PutnaiD, ThoiuHa, IM.
Bee<l, Nathaa, 100.
Regiiltii. Drat. SS.
lluvoliiUnn. Wnr of. 48, HI, tS3.
» ItuTautfo," 8lil]i. SJ3.
Uolilnson, Saiaoel, ISl.
in Coltea House, ISt.
BaltDiiBtnll, T^veratt, Ca.
ftnrgBUt, II. B., IW.
Solioiil bouaes. Itl.
Sohaol-bonae Lane, 18, 13.
SoluMil, Brat free, 79.
SiKilillDK wumen. IS,
BeainaA O. un J C. F. Snc., m.
Settlement, lociility or Ibe Aral,
S, «i, 37, m, 7a.
ShiuiHs, Eliler Samuel, 07, Tl.
Slinrpe, Uoiiry, IIS.
Sherman, E.J, 81.
Sbip-bullOiiii, 31, UO.
Sbtp TaTem, <!, 71, 110, 110
Sllaliee, Nathaniel Jr., Bt.
^mitli. U. H., 17e.
BwiiA Library , HI, OS, 63, 01. 111.
HomurvllWa iiulil'lo hauae. 71.
«aii(h Itlrer.S,2l.!S, 30, 28,81,
So II th Siile'm , il , id, SOI , 117, 3U.
South Churi:)), 70, 104.
Suulh wicks. Qimkera, ISO.
Sd nth Bridge, 117,201.
Simrlmwk, Jolin, 43.
BLiniHue, Joaeiih, 118.
Slauor, John, llU.
StnU lion Be, 40, 47.
aumii out ileimuuceil, 4fl.
I uf Salem, SS, S38.
Story, Joaeiih, SI.
Bt. Jamea* Church. ISO, MO.
St. Alary's Churvb, in, IIS.
St. PelBr-a Church, 1», 10».
etreeter, Q. L., IM, Hf.
Street Railway, no, 171,301,
Summer Street, 31.
Bun TsTern, 131.
Tabernacle Cb., 49, N, 78, lOS.
Taiinerletl Bl', IBl', 317.
Thayer, John, 138.
Theatre, Salem, 01.
Tliiiil thiirch. 78.
Tliamas, B. F., 81.
Thonipsan. C. P., St.
Thomiuon. J. W.,89.
Tliroinnortou Cave, 331.
TnliHCca vrowlnB, 7, 11.
Toworor London, SO.
Town laudlai, ^
TDirn HMI, Bl, SB, 9D, 113.
Toirn HoDien, a~S, IS, TT.
Trail. H. B., IW.
TralnlBjt Fidtl. IBl.
Truk, William, t.
Tnnnel, B. R. R.. ST, IW, IS.
Tnrner, ChrrBtoplier, 140.
Tiirnor. Jnbn, ISO.
Turnn Street, IS, BU.
Vnlon atMge. SOT.
Union SlTwt. I«.
ITpbam, C, W., IS, U, 43, W, O,
tTpb'iTn', W. P-, IS, M, t4, 40.
Tnliiiillon nr Snlcm, W.
Veren, lllllni'U, 40, 4fi, 74, Ui.
Wslc», I'rlnco of, Tfl.
W niton, E. N., IM.
Wanl, Joahn*. 41, 48.
WHBhlngton, Genrn, 4S, 4S, 71.
Waabington Stns^ 28, ST, SB,
41. 4S, 48, IB. M, OS, M. n, 17.
Wwhliwton SqiisTS, 101.
Watch- lioiiae, M.
Watch-houae Point, StO, m.
Webiter, Dud lei, 84, SO, UT.
Wo6ley C'tinpcl, SS. WS.
We»t, benjamin, 147.
We It, Natlinniel, ISO.
WMmore, William, 180.
Whatras, llrat. K.
WhontlniKl, Stephen S.,U.
WliFitLlnii'l. H., in. ISO, lOO.
Whipple, Georga M., ISS.
h. IBI, t
Whlhiliar. I>r.. .
WIDIsniB, A1>Ignll. OS.
l^8. 7», 78. (B.
Will^on, E. II., 103.
41, or, 01,
Whilor Slr«Gt. SI 4.
Witch houae, 01.
Wilehenin. SO, 48, S8, 71^ 71, M,
III, 101, 114.
Wooilbiirj, tinmpnroj, a.
WoD-lliiirr, John, 4, 0, 14, HO.
Wooilbnry, Willlnni. 1S«.
WomI, Robert, IAS.
Woreefter, SaiDuel U., 70^
Wright, Qeorte, 111.
DAHVEHB AND PEABODT.
Carpet l^clnrica. SSI.
Corer, Giles. 140.
Crane BIcer, S40.
I>uiTera|i«rt, lit, Ul.
EniUcOtt, Cbarles, 181.
Xnillaolt, John. 940.
Eppei, Daniel, HT.
PIre Department, ISS.
Firrt Chnrch, Dan rare. MB.
First Chnrch of Salem, 141.
tioode, Sii'iili, 149.
Hlatorlcal, Dam era, UtMT.
Uiiitorlcal, Peabodj, ISB.
Hooper, Bobert, 251.
Holton, Samuel, 347.
Humphrey's Pond. 241.
Humphrey, John, 241.
Incorporation of Danyera, and
South Danyers, 246.
King, Daniel P., 247.
Lexington, March to, 257.
lifiddleton Pond, 243.
Monument in Danyers, 242.
Monument in Peabody, 256.
Names, early, 247.
Newspapers, 242, 53.
Nurse, Itebecca, 249.
Old Planters, 241.
Osborn, Sir Danyers, 246.
Parris, Rey. Samuel, 249, 51.
Peabody, Francis, 251.
Peabody, George, 242, 54-6, 58.
Peabody Inst,, Dan vers, 242.
Peabody Inst., Peabody, 258.
Pear Tree Endicott, 240.
Pleasant Hill, 252.
Population of Danyers, 245.
Population of Peabody, 259.
Porter, Moses, 247.
Portei-'B Biyer, 241.
Proctor, John, 249.
Putnam, Israel, 247, 248.
Railroads. 242, 249, 268.
Kccd, Nathan, 217.
Ricliardson, Mrs., 252.
Riding Parle, 241.
* Reseryoir, 242.
Rock Ship, 201.
Rodgers estate, 252.
Salem Village, 240.
Settlers, tiie first, 240.
Shillaber Homestead. 253.
Skelton, Rey. Samuel, 241.
Spite BridgQ, 241.
Statistical, Dan vers, 245.
Statistical, Peabody, 259.
Sutton, Eben Dale. 258.
Sutton Library, 258.
Town Meeting, First, 246.
Upham, C. W., 247.
Victoria, Queen, 258.
Wharton, Eliza, 257, 61.
Water's River, 240.
Abbot Benjamin, 265.
Abbot Uall, 205, 274,
Barnard, Thomas, 272.
Clifton House, 271.
Pireof 1877, 274.
Fisheries, 203, 204.
Gale of 1840, 272.
Gallison, John, 207.
Getclicll. John, 207.
Gerry, Elbridgc, 207, 272.
Glover, General, 207.
Gregory, J. J. H., 204, 271.
Holyoke, Edward, 272.
Ilolyoke. Edward A., 207.
Ireson, Benjamin, 278.
Lee House, 272.
Loring, George B., 200.
MoBSon. David, 271.
Mugfoi*d, James, 200, 271.
Neck, 263, 271.
North Church, 271.
Orne, Azor, 207.
Powder HousOi 273.
8t. Hichnel's Chnrch, 271.
Bewnll, Snmnel, 267.
Shoe AJanul'actories, 264.
Small pox, 269.
Story, Isaac, 267.
Story, Joseph, 267, 272.
Summer Besort, 270.
Town Hall, 272.
Tucker's Wharf, 278.
Ware, B. P. Jr., 271.
Washington, George, 272.
Balch, John, 275.
Beverly Brifl/j^c, 276.
Browne, William, 279.
Burly, Wiliam, 280.
Conant. Boger, 275, 278.
Cotton Mill, 278.
Derby, Kichard, 276.
Dodge, G. L., 289.
Eastern B. B., 276.
Eilinwood, B., 277.
Gray, William. 286.
Groce, Obadian, 288.
ITale, John, 281.
Hill, Hugh, 285.
House, first, 277.
Indians, 278, 283.
Military, 282, 289.
Name of Town, 278.
Ponds and Lake, 280.
Postal centres, 277.
Bantonl, B., 288.
Bevohitionary War, 283.
Byall Side, 277.
School houses, 288.
Thomdike, Israel, 288.
Town Offlcers, 278.
West Beach, 278.
Wenham W. W., 276.
Woodbury, John, 275.
Woodbury, WilUam, 275.
Bartol, Ber. C. A., 292.
Booth, J. B., 293.
Hesperus, Wreck of, 296.
Jcffry Creek, 200.
Jemry, WiUiam, 200.
Norman's Woe, 296.
Bafe's Chasm, 296;
Singing Beach, 202.
Summer Besidenoei, 201-3.
Aabnrj Grova, tl
TOPSFIELD AND MIDDLETON.
Brack, DbdIbI, 30t.
ClBvoInntl. E. T. , SOI.
Cburch in UliiillElon. Htn,
Cliui'Ebiu in ToiMUeLd, DOO.
KnaiuiU. John. 301.
GaUB, Mury, SfU.
FulliH', Thomas, 301.
Huatinston, EliehB, 301.
liiduatrlea In Middloton, S
Hid or Mlddlulou, 3
COIN SIIVEE& SILVER PLATED WAMS.
A Fine Stock, at Ve^ Low Pricot.
GAII BASKITS, ETEBIIIIES, OAITESS, FICELI lAIS,
SUTTEB SISSES, 8Y51JF FITOBEBS, ETC.
Iiini, Porti, Smon, uuei, KdI Piiti, ctniuni Tim, Etc.
SPECTACLES AND EYE GUSSES.
WATOH ft J10WXX.RT RHFAlBnTa A BFBOIAUrY.
at a> X2« biu SlrMt, Salui.
The Globe Gas Light Company,
Olce, 54 lilbr street, Ctr.Wtttr stmt
ata. B. LORINO, Fraaldent.
PBLutW BOMMEr, Treaanrar.
Fbbpk. a. Krowm, ) f.
JOHH A. Flktcubu, I
CONTRACTORS FOR LIGHTING STREETS.
Uonnikclunn uid D»Ieri Id
ThiB Company is Prepared to Oontraot to
LIGHT THE STREETS OF CITIES JTOIHS
The App&ratoB MteA b; tbe Company conalib of n Cflindar-
thapeil tniik placed upon llie onUlda of (be lanlei-n, a oonnectiog
lube, nnd a burner or giu KOuemlar, all of wliicb can be Btlacbeil to
Worcester, Uast. Fonlnnd, Unlne. Norwicb, Conn.
Newlon, " Lew Is) on, ■' DsnbiirT, ••
Hyde Pnrk, '| Auliurn, " ITlic*. New Toit
Wal^rtoirn, " ]IuRtnrlon,Tennan(. Watertotin, "
Newbury nort, " B«in]D>lan, " Coboea, "
GloumwEor. " Morrisville, " Cinciimall, OlilD.
Kew D«iU'oi'd, '' Kenr Ilnven, Coun. Diivennort, Iowa.
I.yim. " Wiilcrbury, " llock Island. III.
Tuiiiitoii, " Mun llrllaiu, ■• San JUH, UuliRunia.
Bangor, Maine. New London, "
Ana over £00 otlier places.
DRY AND FANCY GOODS.
172 ESSEX STREET,
ODB STORE cNMoplai tlie be«t baiiiiui locatkn Ib S«l*m,and by
cueful alMDtlon idiI low uiicai, wa hops t« nuuit ■ (WnnniuBoa
of lite patranaie bo llberallf beuoired lo toe ptu.
French and American Clocltt, Speolacies, Eye Glastet, &c,
BTAHDAKD QOODS AT TBS Z.OWXBT rXXOBS,
J. "W". & J. S. MOULTON,
PflOTOGBAPBEBS, PDBLISHEES, AND HUE AET DEAIEBS,
BeapectAjUy announce as among tbelr latest novelties a
new series of SAI.EU VIEWS for tlie Stereoscope, com-
prlaiug recent views of all the public Buildings, Streeu,
Cliurtlieit, Old Houses, and places of blatorlcal interest.
As this makuB tLe lOth series of Salem Views we liave
taken, we uau guarantee our patrons tliat our past exper-
ience lioa been a great aUvaiitugc to us, and tliat this
Eerlcs will excel all our previous efforts. Price yi.OO per
dozen, 10 cents each. All orders by mall promptly tilled
at onr retail Salesroom, Mo. 2i2i Essex Street. A FULL
LINE OF FltAMES, C1IU0M08, I'ASSRI'AHTOUTS, 4c.,
AT LOWEST rillCES. ALL STYLES OF FIIAMES
MADE TO OltDER AT OUR PliOTOGItAPlI GALLERY,
No 20G ESSEX ST. WE MAKE KVEliYTlIINQ PER-
TAINING TO THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ART. LAND-
SCAPE AND SCIENTIFIC Photography A SPECIALTY.
Thankful Tor the kind patronage of tbe public in the
put, we respectfully ask for a continuance of the same.
J. AV. A J. S- M:OiriL.TO]V,
soa ft a«3 i.a bsskx STHBinT, sajlem, uabb.
(FORHERLT JE88B SMITH),
AND DEALBB IN
American and Foreign Watches, Watch Furniture,
FREKCH AND AMERICAN CLOCES,
— ALSO —
Speotaoles, Eye Glasses, Thennometers, Eto.
234 ESSEX ST., CORNER WASHINGTON,
Fartioular attention to Fine Watoh Bepairinie.
Standard Time ascertained hy Transit obserrations.
THE SALEM POST
Essex County Advertiser,
i feeUy Fanuly Newspaper, Mel to
Literature, Folitios and local and general matters
Adrertisements inserted at rectsonable rates,
SUBSGBIPTION $2.00 A TEAR.
PUBLISHED AT 224 ESSEX STREET,
S.A. Xj !£: im: .
GREEN HOUSE AND BEDDING PLANTS
OF SVERT VARIKTT.
CDT FLOWERS, BOUQUETS, k FLOEiL OESIGIS
OF EVEBT DESCRIPTION.
SALB GREEN HOUSES,
CROMJBrE: STRSSX, QAJUm^^.
Gf—n HouM and
6ard«nt in North Sal«m
BLACK DRESS GOODS,
Silks, Cashmeres, Alpacas, &c., &c.
THX BB8T STOCK OF
IB' THfl Ul'i'y.
TBIMHnras, BUTTONS, HOSIEST, GLOVES,
lAOES, AND LAOE GOODS.
MILLINERY, CORSETS, SKIRTS, &c.
The Iiorgeat Stook.
The Iiighteat Store.
The Lowest Trioes.
The Best Treatment.
JOHN" F. FEABOr>Y,
227 & 229 ESSEX 8TKEET, SALEH.
,^H^M^ ^ ^^^
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