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Am Historical Skbtoh of 







C. H. Webber and W. S. Nevins. 



Henry L. Williams. 




^^ '3^37,?, S 

OEC 3 1992 

Entered according to Act of Congreis in the year 1877t by 

in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



vanced in life, find pleasure in retracing steps, lead- 
ing back to the days of their youth, reviving recol- 
lections and associations ever dear, at the same time 
affording valuable information concerning their ances- 
try. We make no special claims to originality of ma- 
terial. On the contrary, we acknowledge our indebt- 
edness, for most of the facts embodied in this work, 
to the antiquarians, living and dead, from the Rev. 
John Fiske, and the Rev. John Higginson, down to 
the present. We have searched the voluminous collec- 
tions and writings of these painstaking recorders of 
the past and endeavored to present, in a popular shape, 
such portions of them as are of the greatest interest 
at the present time. Limited space precludes the pub- 
lication of very much more which is of deep interest. 
With more time and space the book could have been 
made better. Such as it is we submit it to the public^ 
asking only that all should bear in mind that 

<< Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, 
Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shaU be.** 




PREFACE . • * ix 


Chapter I 23-56 

Chapter II • 57-79 

Chapter III 80-113 

Chapter IV 118-143 

Chap kr V 148-178 

Chapter VI 178-208 

Chapter VU 209-288 

DANYERS AND PEABODT • . • 289-261 


BEVERLY 275-289 


WENHAM 297-299 





Capb Ann.— Rbmoval to Naumkbao.— Mr. Ltford departs. 
—Grant of Massachusetts Bat.— Endioott Eleotbd 
Governor; arrives in America.- Dissent between thb 
Planters and the Followers of Endicott.— Arrival of 
hlooinson, 8kblton and others.— establishment of a 
Church.— The Covenant.— John and Samuel Browne 

MOVAL TO Charlestown.— Salem ceases to be the Capi- 
tal OF THE CoLONT<— Division of the Town. 

t|tHE settlement of New England was one of the 
'I' results of the Reformation. Those hardy 
I Puritans who first landed on these shores 
(^ were Protestant dissenters, driven hither by 
religious persecution. To them this wilderness, with 
all its terrors, was the long desired refuge from the 
tyranny of the Established Church. They did not 
come for gain, nor for ease and comfort, though 
there were some adventurers who followed in their 
train thinking to enrich themselves. New England 
was, indeed, a wilderness into which every man 
must go with a sturdy self reliance and hew a 
path for himself, if he would have one. Those 
who came for gain and found it not, as many did, 
soon grew disheartened and returned to England ; 
while those who were driven to seek these shores 
by obnoxious forms of worship, surmounted all 
obstacles and built for themselves homes in the 


wilderness, — homes since grown to be great cities 
of commerce and manufactures, and to be seats 
of learning, wealth and refinement. They did not 
come here because of unjust laws or tyrannical 
rulers ; they did not come with hatred toward the 
mother country ; on the contrary, they entertained 
the kindest feelings toward her and all her people 
and rulers. While they could not support nor res- 
pect the enforced forms of worship then existing in 
that country, they grieved at the intolerance and cor- 
ruptions. They loved old England at all times and 
under all circumstances. They were loyal to the 
flag. When departing from Holland for America 
they declined to sail under the Dutch flag and 
hoisted the flag of their native land. They could 
say with Cowper : — 

<* England, with all thy fttolta I love thee •till,— 
My Country." 

In religious matters those who came to Salem 
differed somewhat iVrom those who established them- 
selves at Plymouth. The former were not true sep- 
aratists f^om the Church of England ; they were 
dissenters from its corruptions, its intolerance, and 
its formula only. In the words of the ministers at 
Salem, to John and Samuel Brown in 1629, they 
separated ^^not from the Church of England, but 
from its corruptions." ^^We came away," said 
they, ^' from the common prayer and ceremonies in 
our native land ; in this place of liberty we cannot, 
we will not, use them." On the other hand, the 
people who settled at Plymouth were separatists. 


A few years after the settlemeDt at Fl3nnoath a 
namber of persons led by Rev. John Lyford, dis- 
satisfied with the extreme separation of the Colony 
and Church from the English Church, removed to 
Nantasket, near the entrance to Boston harbor, 
where they mode a temporary settlement, and the 
next yedr (1625) removed again, this time to Cape 
Ann. Here they attempted to plant a farming, fish- 
ing and trading colony, and being joined by Mr. 
Lyford, and Roger Conant, the former was made 
preaclicr and the latter " governor." When Conant 
arrived at Cape Ann, which must have been some 
time in the fall of 1625, he found the affairs in an 
unsatisfactory state. The fishing had turned out 
unprofitable and there was much insubordination. 
He was unable to revive the interest, and in the fall 
of 1626 the settlement broke up, a portion of the 
people returning to England. Conant, it appears, 
had sailed up along the shores of the Cape as far 
as the mouth of the Naumkeag river during the 
summer of that year, and marked it as one evidently 
suitable as a ''receptacle for such as upon the 
account of religion would be willing to begin a for- 
eign plantation in this part of the world." Conant 
was a man of vigor and courage, and he succeeded 
on his return in breathing enough of his own spirit 
into those of the settlers who had not already re- 
turned, to induce them to follow him to Naumkeag ; 
there to lay the foundation of a colony destined to 
plant the spirit of Puritanism so deeply and so 
firmly that amid the changes of two hundred and 
fifty years it still bears its impress. 


Rev. Mr. White of Dorchester, England, who had 
been largely instrumental in planting the Cape Ann 
colony, felt grieved to learn that it must be aban- 
doned, and in response to Conant's suggestion that 
a settlement might be effected at Naumkeag, wrote 
him that if he, John Balch, John Woodbury and 
Peter Palft-y, would "stay at Naumkeag and give 
timely notice thereof, he would provide a patent for 
them and send them whatever they should write for, 
either men, provisions or goods to trade with the In- 
dians." We are not to understand from this letter 
of White's that only three men accompanied Conant 
to Naumkeag from Cape Ann. He alluded to these, 
doubtless, because of their prominence in the colony, 
or, perhaps, because Conant had made particular 
mention of them in his letter to Mr. White. The 
number who came hence from Cape Ann was about 
twenty-five, or one-half of the settlement there. 
Aside from the women and children there were 
Roger Conant, Humphrey Woodbury, John Lyford, 
John Woodbury, John Balch, Peter Palfry, Walter 
Knight, William Allen, Thomas Gray, John Tylly, 
Thomas Gardner, Richard Norman and Son, William 
Trask, and William Jeifry. They left Capo Ann in 
September or October, 1626, taking with them all of 
their household goods and effects, and implements 
of husbandry. Their large frame house which was 
located a little to the westward of the site of the 
present city of Gloucester, on what is now known 
as " Stage Fort," they left standing. It was subse- 
quently taken down and removed to Salem. Conant 
and his followers are thought to have landed from 


the South River, not far A*om the foot of Elm or 
Central streets as now laid oat. 

The majority of the party are supposed to have 
settled along the line of the present Essex street, 
near the site of the present First Church, and ex- 
tending towards Newbury street. Hardly had the 
first settlement been effected at Naumkeag, and 
preparations made for permanently abiding there, 
when dissatisfaction was manifested by some of the 
settlers. They were dissatisfied with the location, 
and with the prospects for the future, and they also 
professed a dread of interference from the Indians. 

The desire to remove was heightened by the pro- 
posal of Mr. Lyford that they follow him to Vir- 
ginia, whither he was to go at once. Several 
announced a determination to accept the offer. 
Had Conant consented to go with them, every 
member of the little wilderness settlement would 
have readily departed. But he would not go him- 
self, and strongly urged the others to remain, de- 
claring, that "they might go if they wished, and 
though all of them should forsake j^im, he should 
wait the providence of God in that place, not 
doubting that if they departed he should have more 
company." Again the reasoning of Conant pre- 
vailed and Lyford was obliged to depart unac- 
companied. He died shortly after arriving at the 
Virginia settlement. 

The mother country began to give increased 
attention to the infant colony at Naumkeag, and 
the prospects for the future were indeed cheering. 
In order that a better understanding might exist 


between the settlers and the company in England, 
John Woodbury was dispatched thither in the latter 
part of 1627, ^^to explain their condition to those 
interested in their prosperity." He remained some 
six months, and his mission appears to have been 
successfhL In the month of March, 1628, the 
council of Plymouth for New England, '' disregard- 
ing a former grant of a large district on Charles 
River," conveyed to Sir Henry Roswell, Sir John 
Young, Thomas Southcoato, John Humphreys, John 
Endicott and Simon Whitcomb, ^^The soil then 
denominated Massachusetts Bay," which was de- 
scribed as lying '^ between three miles to the north- 
ward of Menimack River, and three miles to the 
southward of Charles River, and in length within 
the described breadth, from the Atlantic Ocean to 
the South Sea." 

This document bore date of March 19, 1628. 
Most of the grantees were from the vicinity of Dor- 
chester. Through the active efforts of White they 
soon associated with themselves Sir Richard Sal- 
tonstall, John^Winthrop, Isaac Johnson, Matthew 
Cradock, Increase Nowell, Thomas Gk>flre, Richard 
Bellingham, Theophilus Eaton, William Pynchon 
and several others, ''of whom nearly all," says Ban- 
croft, ''united religious zeal with a capacity for 
vigorous action." Cradock was acting as Governor 
of the company, and Goffe, deputy governor. Roger 
Conant was the recognized agent at Naumkeag, but 
the company, though recognizing his ability and 
his great service in the past, thought best to select 
one of their own number to be the actual governor of 


fhe colony, and therefore chose John Endicott, 
whom Gov. Bradford pronoanced ''a worthy gen- 
tleman." Endicott was a thorough nonconformist ; 
a man of great moral courage, benevolence and 
firmness. The new Governor and his worthy wife, 
together with a few others, set sail for their new 
home, June 20, 1628, and arrived in Salem harbor 
on September 6, of the same year. There has been 
much controversy in the past as to whether Endi- 
cott is entitled to the honor of being the first Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts. The question has never 
been settled ; the difibrence seems to consist mainly 
in the meaning of the title. During Endicott's 
term, the meetings of the company were held in 
England, while under Winthrop they were held in 

Endicott sent back a " good report" of the new 
country, which induced others to join the plantation 
over which he had been appointed Governor, so that 
the number of inhabitants was now between fifty 
and sixty. But harmony did not long abide with 
them ; before the close of the year 1628, dissensions 
arose between the first settlers, or followers of 
Conant, and their successors, or those who came 
over with Endicott. The former did not like being 
superseded and governed by those who had joined 
them after they had braved the dangers of making 
a settlement. The sale of the colony by the Dor- 
chester proprietors to the Massachusetts Corpora- 
tion, also contributed to the dissent. Still another 
cause, was the dispute over the propriety of tobacco 
growing. The first settlers desired to grow the 

weed ; the new-comers, deeming it iiijurioua to health 
and morals, objected, except for the purposes of 
medicine. The wnat of food and places of abode, 
tc^etlier with " disastrous sickness," were added 
causes of embannsament to the colony. Jealousy, 
induced, beyood doubt, by the differences of opin- 
ion, was the true cause of the ill-feeling. At times, 
it was bitter, and party spirit must have reached 
the height of these later days. Conant complained 
even that he and his followers were accouuted 
little better than slaves. The remark does not, 
from all the facts, appear to have been fully jus- 
tificd. However, these differences of opiuiou wci'e, 
to all outward appearances, soon harmonized. At 
a General Court, convened by Endicott in tlie fol- 
lowing June, all "united in an. effort to promote 
the common good." It vros at this meeting that 
the name Salem (meaning peace) was substituted 
for that of Naumkeag. White, in hia "Planter's 
Plea," tells us that it waa done " upon a fair ground, 
in remembrance of a peace settled upon a confer- 
ence at a general meeting between them and their 
neighbors, after expectance of some dangerous jar." 
Signs of this social eruption were discernible, how- 
ever, for some years after. 

The company at London was very thoughtful of 
the infant colony during this time. Cradock, its 
governor, wrote au encouraging letter to Endicott, 
in which he sent the cheering news that the company 
were about to send over "two or three miniEtcrs, 
WanA one hundred head of cattle;" that they had 
^'bought one ship and hired two more," and desired 


Mr. Endicott to secure houses for the occupancy of 
the emigrants ; and ^'fish, timber, sturgeon, sasapa- 
rilla, sumac, silk-grass and beaver for a return 
cargo." In this letter, Cradock advised that the 
settlers be allowed to cultivate tobacco for a short 
time longer. The promise of re-enforcements and 
provisions was faithfully kept. On the fourth day 
of March, 1629, the King confirmed the grant of 
Massachusetts by the Plymouth Council for New 
England, which had been made during the previous 
year. The charter which thus received the royal 
assent, and which constituted a body politic by the 
name of the '^ Governor and Colony of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay in New England," was cherished for 
more than a half-century as a most precious boon. 
It was the constitution of a new republic. The 
charter was granted in March ; and in April the new 
embarkation was well advanced. The departure for 
Salem took place on the sixteenth day of the same 
month. The number of persons who embarked was 
about two hundred ; of whom about sixty were 
females — married and unmarried — and twenty-six 

They took with them one hundred and forty head 
of cattle, besides food, arras, clothing, and tools. 
There were four ministers in the company. Two of 
them — Higginson and Skelton — were men of more 
than ordinary rank, and they were destined to play 
no unimportant part in the history 6f the new world. 
They had been selected for this mission by the home 
company which recognized the importance of relig- 
ious instruction to a people whose professed object 


in seeking these new homes was the propagating of 
a free gospel. Francis Higginson was a graduate 
of St. John's College, Cambridge ; Samuel Skelton 
was from Clare Hall, Cambridge. Both were men 
of high standing, of brilliant parts. Both were in 
full sympathy with the colonists, who had preceded 
them to these shores or were now to accompany 

The company was under a contract with Higgin- 
son by which they stipulated to pay him £30 to pur- 
chase the necessary apparel for the voyage ; £10 for 
books, and a free passage for himself and family. 
His salary was to be £30, besides '^firewood and 
diet." This for three years ; at the end of that time 
he was to have one hundred acres of land, and an 
additional hundred at the end of the seventh year. 
He was also to have ^Hhe milk of two cows and 
half the increase of their calves, the company to 
have the other half and the cows at the end of 
the year." 

The emigrants arrived at Salem in the latter part 
of June. Of Salem, at this time, Higginson writes : 
^^When we came first to Naimkeck, now called Salem, 
we found about half a score houses built, and a large 
house newly built for the governor, and we found also 
abundance of corn planted by them, excellent good 
and well liking." This house, " newly built," was 
undoubtedly Conant's old Cape Ann house which 
had been taken down and moved to Salem. Some 
highly interesting correspondence passed between 
the home company and Mr. Higginson during the 
year. The letters from the company sound like 


advice from a watchfal parent to an absent son. 
In one letter idleness, is discountenanced: ^*Noe 
idle drone (is to) be permitted to live among us." 
Justice is urged in this spirit : "Wee hartely pray 
you to admit of all complaints that shall be made 
to you, or any of you that are of the councell, be 
the complaints never so meane, and pass it not 
slightly over but seriously examine the truth of the 
business." For the inculcation of good morals, 
"Wee pray you to make some good lawes for the 
punishment of swearers, whereof it is to be feared 
too many arc adictcd." The colony is advised to 
suppress intemperance by endeavoring " though 
there bee much strong water sent for sale, so to 
order it as that salvages may not for our lucre sake 
bee induced to excessive use, or rather abuse of it, 
and by punishing those " who shall become drunck. 
Allusion is also made in this letter to the growing 
of tobacco ; and it urges that " noe tobacco bee 
planted unless it bee some small qu an title for mere 
necessitie and for phisick for preservacon of their 
healths, and that the same bee taken privately by 
ancient men and none others." The advice and in- 
structions contained in this and other letters of 
which we have given but brief abstracts, laid the 
foundation of that high social and moral standard 
of life which became a marked characteristic of the 
people of the colony. 

The twentieth day of July following the arrival 
of the new emigrants was set apart for holding a 
town meeting ; or, in the language of the age, as " a 
solemn day of humiliation, for choj-ce of a pastor 


and teacher for Salem." The meeting was opened 
with prayer and preaching, after which the vote 
was taken '* by each one writing in a note the name 
of his choice." This was the origin of the use of 
the ballot in this country, ^ Skelton was thus chosen 
pastor, and Higginson, teacher. Having made 
choice of these, the sixth day of August was 
designated for the completion of the church organi- 
zation. On that day deacons and ruling elders 
were chosen. Thus was fully constituted the First 
Church at Salem, and the ^^ first Protestant Cliurch 
in America^ on the principle of the independence 
of each religious community." No liturgy was 
used ; unnecessary ceremonies were rejected, and 
^' the simplicity of Calvin was reduced to a still 
plainer standard." 

The "confession of faith and covenant" adopted 
by the church on that day, was undoubtedly the work 
of the pious Higginson. It has been a question 
whether there was, in addition to this, a " test creed 
or sectarian articles of faith," which all were required 
to sign before being admitted to membership. The 
question is one which it. would not be well to discuss 
in these pages. The evidence on either side is so 
voluminous as to preclude it if there were not other 
reasons. Careful examination of this evidence leads 
to a belief that the signing of the covenant alone 
constituted membership, coupled, of course, with 
good moral character. This covenant was probably 
the briefest church covenant the world has ever seen. 

1 Bancroft, vol. I, p. 271. 


It is all in one sentence, and, short as is that sen- 
tence, it seems to contain sufficient for the founda- 
tion of a church. It reads : 

** We covenant with the Lord, and one with 
another, and do bind ourselves in the presence 
OF God, to walk together in all His ways, ac- 
cording AS He is pleased to reveal Himself unto 
us, IN His blessed word of truth : " 

The late Rev. Charles W. Upham, one of the 
worthy successors of Skelton in the pastorate of this 
church, in his rededicatory address in 1867, said: 
^^It comprises in a condensed shape and surpassing 
simplicity, beauty and force of phrase, the piety, 
obedience and faith of servants of the Lord, and the 
freedom of every individual mind, with the love that 
ought to bind all believers, of every shade of doc- 
trine, every form of worship, and every variety of 
denomination, into one body and one communion of 
Spirit." Was not the doctrine embodied in this 
covenant, written two hundred and forty-eight years 
ago, far in advance of a large part of tiic civilized 
world of the present age? And is it not a most 
remarkable fact, that the first church organized in 
America, should rest on foundations which gener- 
ation after generation, during a wonderfully pro- 
gressive period, should be unable to improve? Any 
thing further than this, would have been in direct 
antagonism with the known views of Higginson and 
Skelton, and most of the other settlers. Their 
theology was the great law of right. Their re- 
ligion was the religion of the Golden Rule. The 
bible was their only recourse for the conduct of life. 


The transcript of the first two pages of the old 
Church book, seems woitliy of a place in this work, 
and is given as published in the '^ Essex Institute 
Bulletin," Vol. I, for 1856. The portion in small 
capitals, is the original covenant of 1629 ; that in 
Roman, is the portion added in 1636, when the 
covenant was renewed; and that in italic, is the 
portion added in 1660, when it was again renewed. 

Gather my Saints together unto me that have made a Cove' 
nant toith me by aacrifyce. Psa. 50 : 5. 

Wee whose names are undenoritten, members of the prea^ 
ent Church of Christ in Salem^ having found by sad experi- 
ence how dangerous it is to sitt loose to the Covenant wee 
make with our Ood : and how apt wee are to wander into by 
patheSf even to the loosing of our first aimes in entring into 
Church fellowship : Doe therefore^ solemnly in the presence 
of the Etemall Ood, both for our own comforts, and those 
which shall or maye be joyned unto us, renewe that Church 
Covenant we find this Church bound unto at their first begin- 
ning, viz, : That wk covenant with tub Lord and one 
WITH an other; and dob byndb ourselves in thb 


US IN HIS Blessed word of truth. Aiid doe more 
explicitely in the name and fearc of God, profess and 
protest to walke as folio weth through the power and 
grace of our Lord Jesus. 

1. First wee avowe the Lord to be our God, and our- 
selves his people, in the truth and simplicitie of our 

2. Wee give ourselves to the Lord Jesus Christ, and to 
the word of his grace, for the teaching, ruleing and sanc- 
tiiycing of us in matters of worship and conversation; 
rcsolvcing to cleave to him alone for life and gloric ; and 
oppose all contrarie wayes, connons and constitutions of 
men in his worship. 


8. Wee promise to walke with onr brethren and sisters 
in this Congregation with all watch fullness and tender- 
ness, avoyding all Jelousies, snspitions, baclcbytings, cen- 
snrings, provoakings, secrete risings of spirit against 
them ; but in all offences to follow the rule of the Lord 
Jesus, and to beare and forbeare, give and forgive as he 
hath taught us. 

4. In publick or private we will willingly doe nothing 
to the ofence of the Church, but will be willing to take 
advise for ourselves and ours as occasion shalbe pre- 

5. Wee will not in the Congregation be forward eyther 
to shew oure owne gifts or parts in speaking or scrupling, 
or there discover the fay lings of oure brethren and sis- 
ters, butt atend an orderly cale there unto ; knowing how 
much the Lord may be dishonoured, and his Gospell In the 
professions of it, sleighted, by our distempers, and weak- 
nesses in publyck. 

6. Wee bynd our selves to studdy the advancement of 
the Gospell in all truth and peace, both in regard of those 
that are within, or without, noe waye sleighting our sister 
Churches, but uselng thcire counsell as need shalbe : nor 
laying a stumbling block before any, noe not the Indians, 
whose good we desire to promote, and soe to converse, as 
wee may avoyd the verrye appearance of evill. 

7. Wee hearby promise to carrye our selves in all law- 
ftil obedience to those that are over us, in church or com- 
mon weale, knowing how well pleasing it will be to the 
Lord, that they should have incourageroent in theire 
places by our not grcivcing thoryre spirites through our 

8. Wee resolve to approve ourselves to the Lord in our 
perticular calings, shunning ydlenes as the bane of any 
state, nor will we deale hardly, or oppresslngly with any, 
wherein we are the Lord's stewards; alsoe promysing 
to our best abilitie 

9. To teach our children and servants, the knowledge 
of God and his will, that they may serve him also ; and 


all this, not by any strength of our owne, but by the Lord 
Christ, whose bloud we desire may sprinckle this our cove- 
nant made in his name. 

Thi8 Covenant was renewed by the Church on a solemne 
day of Humiliation, Gofl moenth, 1660. ]Vhen also consid- 
ering the power of Temptation amongst us by reason of ye 
Quaker^ doctrine to the leavening of some in the place where 
we are and endangering of others, doe see cause to remember 
the Admonition of our Saviour Christ to his diciples ; Math. 
16, — Take heed and beware of ye leaven of the doctrine of 
the Pharisees ; and doe judge soe farre as we understand it 
yt ye Quakers* doctrine is as bad or worse than that of the 
Pharisees; Therefore we doe covenant by the help of Jesus 
Christ to take heed and beware of the leaven of the doctrine 
of the Quakers. 

The simple form of worship established by the 
church was not acquiesced in by some at Salem. 
There were those who, though opposed to State 
censorship and to the intolerance and the corrup- 
tions of the Established Church did, nevertheless, 
believe in the liturgy and the common prayer. 
They were ably led by John and Samuel Browne, 
who gathered all the dissenters from the First 
Church and " upheld the common prayer worship." 
The strife between the factions was of short du- 
ration. In a few weeks, the Brownes were re- 
manded back to England as ''factious and evil- 
conditioned men." This action was sustained on 
the ground that '' the success of the colony would 
be endangered by a breach of its unit}^" that 
the co-existence of the liberty of the colonists with 
prelacy was not possible. Tlie supporters of the 
liturgy reasoned that in a land where *' liberty 


of conscience and freedom of worship" was the 
paramount object, tJiey ought to be allowed to wor- 
ship with freedom. 

^' Their plea was reproved as sedition, and their 
worship was forbidden as a mutiny." This may 
have been sound reasoning and consistency in 1629, 
but it would hardly be deemed to be such in the 
latter half of the nineteenth century. 

" For ylrtne's self maj too mnoh zeal be had. 
The worst of madmen is a saint run mad." 

The Brownes, on their return to England, spread 
^^ scandalous stories" regarding the sermons and 
other utterances of the ministers and others in the 
church here. But, fortunately, the ship which car- 
ried them back, bore also letters from those newly 
arrived here assuring friends in England of the 
beauties of the new land, and its freedom from 
the persecutions of the English Church. These let- 
ters were published and widely circulated. Their in- 
fluence was magical. Hundreds of the persecuted 
expressed a desire to join the freedom-enjoying pil- 
grims in America. 

The failure of other colonies did not dampen their 
ardor. Others had gone for gain and failed ; they 
would go only for purity of religion, and they 
would know no failure. To them, death in the 
wilds of the new world, enjoying freedom to wor- 
ship God according to the dictates of conscience, 
was preferable to any life in the old, worshipping 
after the formula of another. 

Realizing that large numbers were to obey this 


impulse and emigrate to Massachusetts, Cradock, 
the governor of the company, who had ever mani- 
fested a deep interest in the infant colony, at a, 
meeting on July 28, 1629, moved ^^ the transfer of 
the plantation to those that should inhabit there/' 
On the twenty-sixth of the following month, John 
Winthrop, Isaac Johnson, Thomas Dudley, Richard 
Saltonstall, and eight others, '' men of large for- 
tunes and liberal culture," solemnly agreed that if 
the court would transfer to them the entire govern- 
ment and the charter of the colony, before the close 
of September, they would go and dwell in New Eng- 
land. Three days later, on a vote being taken ^^ by 
a show of hands," it appeared that the request was 
granted, and it was ordered ^^ that the government 
and patent be settled in New England ;" so that the 
place of meeting of the company should be there, 
instead of in London. It was ostensibly a com-r 
mercial operation; but it was actually the first 
step toward the formation of a fhture powerful and 
independent commonwealth. John Winthrop was 
chosen governor of the colony for one year. Hum- 
phrey was chosen deputy, and several assistants 
were selected. Humphrey resigning before the de- 
parture, Thomas Dudley was made his successor. 

Winthrop and his seven hundred followers, in 
eleven ships, sailed from England on March 29, 
1630. They arrived off Salem on June 10. *' They 
were," says Bancroft, '' a community of believers, 
professing themselves to be fellow-members of 
Christ ; not a school of philosophers, proclaiming 
universal toleration and inviting associates without 


regard to creed/' Love of freedom of conscience 
and the forms of civil and religious liberty, which 
to them were as precious as their lives, and ^' rev- 
erence for their faith," were the incentives which 
moved them to cross the stormy Atlantic to new 
and untried shores, leaving their homes and their 
kindred three thousand miles behind. But they 
went gladly, hopefully ; and not until they arrived 
at Salem, where they found the people poorly con- 
ditioned, suffering for want of food, clothing and 
shelter, and from diseases, did their zeal abate. 
More than eighty of the Salem plantation had died 
during the winter. Higginson, himself, lay at 
death's door. Those who were able thronged to 
the shore to meet the new-comers and beg for 
food. Such a greeting did not favorably impress 
Winthrop and his companions with Salem as a 
place of settlement ; therefore, he and a number of 
others sailed into Boston harbor and up the Mystic 
river for a few miles.^ On their return, Winthrop 
recommended a point about three miles up this 
river as one suitable for a settlement. Not all of 
the party were pleased with the location selected. 
Some remained in Salem, while others followed 
Winthrop, and, landing at Gharlestown, scattered 
to Watertown, Maiden and Lynn. Winthrop re- 
mained at Gharlestown, whither he removed the seat 
of government from Salem, much to the regret of 
the people of the latter place. They had hoped to 
make Salem the metropolis — ^^the source of trade, 

1 Bancroft, toI. I, p. 880. 


wealth, law and influence," — and the transfer of 
the seat of government deeply touched their pride. 
But feeling that the public welfare demanded the 
sacrifice they ^'waived all for the gi*eater public 
benefit, and bowed in submission and continued 
their efforts to advance the common weal." 

The removal of the capital from Salem did not 
check its growth, which continued slowly but surely 
until in 1637 it numbered nearly a thousand inhabi- 
tants. It was a miniature republic, where the people 
met on a common level, and, consulting together on 
the public good, made their own laws and chose 
their own ministers, and elders, and teachers. 
They did not aslc the assent of the King to any of 
their acts. They did not recognize him in any way 
as their ruler. Feeling themselves to be a free 
people, they governed themselves accordingly. So 
it may be said that the settlement of Salem, as a 
permanent town, was fully assured as early as the 
beginning of the year 1640. And its history fi*om 
that day forth has been emblematic of its name — 
Salem, or peace. Few cities or towns in the country, 
dating their origin as eai*ly as Salem, have been 
so little stirred by Indian depredations, or wars, or 
social revolutions. Only once, on the occasion of 
the terrible witchcraft delusion, has Salem's peace 
been disturbed, and then it was short and sharp 
like some horrid nightmare. 

The territory comprised in the town of Salem at 
this time was much greater than at present. It in- 
cluded all of the present city of Salem, and the 
towns of Marblehead, Beverly, Manchester, Wen- 


bam, Danvers, Peabodj, and part of Middleton and 
Topsfield. These various towns were detached as 
follows : Wenham, May 10, 1643 ; Manchester, May 
14, 1645; Marblehead, May 2, 1649; Topsfield, 
Oct. 18, 1660; Beverly, Oct. 14, 1668 ; Middleton, 
Jane 20, 1728 ; Danvers, June 16, 1757. The last 
named was subsequently divided into Danvers and 
South Danvers, and then the name of the latter was 
changed to Feabody. 





H ilii§ ^ 



?11 i 



■"*"" iLilSl' " 


^ i 

^^Mf JbI -i 








■ ^ 




NAKT.— South Ritbr.— Thb Fibst Whartbs.— Prbsbntand 
Fast Modb of Tbavbluno.— Swbet's Coyb.— Thb Second 
Mill in Salbm.— Thb First Custom House.— Thb First 
Fourth of Jult Celbdration in America.— Washington 
Stkert.— Tub Marston Building.— The Henfield House.— 
The Home of Francis IIigginson and of Roger Williams. 
-The BIothbr of Churches.- The House where Washing- 
ton was entrrtainrd.— The First Town House.- The Sec- 
ond Town House, whbrb Witches were tried.- Tub Third 
Town AND Court House.- Scenes of Thrilling Interest. 
Tub Hawthorne Town Pump,— The last Town and Court 
House.— Washington's Visit to Salem.- Citt Hall.— Thb 
CiTT GoTERNMENT.— Mayors of Salem.— Abstract from 
AlAYOR Williams' Address. 

GRAND old town. ADcient streets, ancient 
buildings, ancient family names, and a linger- 
ing of ancient customs. A commercial and 
literary city on Massachusetts .Bay, in the 
south-easterly section of Essex county, sixteen miles 
north-east of Boston. Its people more like the solid 
people of old England than can elsewhere be found 
on the western continent. The topographical forma- 
tion of its principal portion a narrow peninsula, not 
half a mile in width at its widest part, extending in 
a north-easterly direction out toward the sea, and 
terminating in two headlands^ divided by Collins' 
Cove. On its northerly side North river, dividing 

^The eastern of these headlands is "Salem Neck/' and the west- 
ern is the territory oyer which Bridge street extends to Beverly. 


24 c 

North Sulem from the city proper. On its soutberly 
aide South river, dividing the city proper from South 
Salem. Such is the general deBCription of Salem. 

Surprising to say, no complete history of this 
ancient town haa yet been written. The material, 
however, for one is safely stored in its public in- 
stitutions, waiting to bo worked into syBtctnntic 
form by tlie first writer of ability who shall consider 
it worth his while to undertalve the task. Our ob- 
ject is merely that of relating such matters of in- 
terest, to visitors or residents, as present themselves 
upon the surface, hoping to create a greater interest 
in the many beauties of nature and of art with 
which Salem is favored, and thereby lay the founda- 
tion for a more elaborate histoiy at, as we trust, no 
far distant day. 

At the Eastern Railway depot, near the dividing 
lino between South Salem and Salom proper, we 
meet our reader friends. With them we purpose to 
stroll about the city so as to utilize our time in 
the most economical , manner. As we proceed wa 
desire to call their attention briefly to portions of 
tho history of its past, refer to the lives of some of 
Salem's many distinguished sons, both native and 
adopted, and point out the places of interest, and 
show the wonderful changes produced by time and 
the energies of man. 

Begardiug the landing place of Koger Conant 
and his companions, when they forsook Cape Ann 
in 1G26 and came to this place, there has been some 
contliclion of opinion. Some writers have claimed 
that Conant came Dp the north shore, kept well in 


near the land, and entered what is now Beverly har- 
bor; that he landed on a metamorphic rock lying 
just west of the Salem end of Beverly bridge. The 
best authorities, among whom is Wm. F. Upham, 
Esq., of this city, claim that the landing was made 
on the northern side of South river, some two or 
three hundred rods east of the depot, near what is 
now the foot of Elm street. Mr. Upham has de- 
voted much time and labor in his researches of these 
matters, relying more upon the evidence of records 
than upon fanciful theories, and his view is almost 
universally accepted. 

Conant and his companions were styled planters, 
and are supposed, therefore, to have been cultiva- 
tors of the soil. It is certain, however, that some of 
them were fishermen and some mechanics. Ten 
years previous to their landing a distemper had 
raged among the Indians and had greatly depopu- 
lated this region, so that the planters had little to 
fear from the few remaining Indians whose lives 
had been spared. They, therefore, as their numbers 
increased, spread out over the vast territory sur- 
rounding them, waiting for occupancy and posses- 

"These men who sought this far-off nook and 
corner of the world, crossing a tempestuous and 
dangerous ocean and landing on the shores of a 
wilderness, leaving everything however dear and 
valuable behind, came to have a country and a social 
system for themselves and of themselves alone. 
Their resolve was inexorable, not to suffer dissent, 
or any discordant element, to get foothold among 


them. They had sacrificed all to find and to make 
a country for themselves, and they meant to keep it 
to themselves. They had gone out of everybody 
else's way and they did not mean to let anybody 
else come into their way. These men did not un- 
derstand the great truth which Hugh Peters preached 
to Parliament. 'Why/ said he, 'cannot Christians 
differ and yet be friends ? All children should be 
fed, though they have different faces and shapes ; 
unity, not uniformity, is the Christian word.'" The 
only consistent or solid foundation on which a Re- 
public, or a clmrch, can be built is an absolute level, 
with no enclosures and no exclusions. 

From copies of court papers, in a communication 
by Wm» P. Upham, Esq., to the "Essex Institute 
Historical Collections," Vol. 8, we learn that the first 
settlement after the arrival of Endicott was in what 
is now Washington street and its neighborhood. 

South river originally extended up to and around 
old Castle Hill, which can be seen from the south- 
ern end of the depot. It was a beautiful stream, 
bordered on each side of its winding course by 
wooded shores. On its placid waters, even where 
the depot now stands, have reposed the many noted 
ships of the golden past, mastered by navigators 
whose records make glorious the history of our 
early commerce. Also on its waters have rested 
those ships in which were transported across the 
briny billows the richest products of the Indies, to 
make glad the hearts of the many whose interests 
were connected therewith. Their successes made 
Salem what she has been in the past, and largely 

'N.R. R >««engt»r 

Station ■ 




(SEE PAGES 6 AND 26). 


what she is at the present time. South river bears 
hardly a semblance of its original form when it 
was unobstructed by the long wharves which have 
nearly severed it in twain, or the more recent "fill- 
ings in" which have succeeded in destroying its 
beauty. What is left of the upper part of this 
stream, near Castle Hill, is now known as the Mill 
Pond. Its ebb and flow are through a conduit run- 
ning in a north-easterly direction, under Mill and 
Washington streets, and the south-eastern portion 
of the Eastern Eailroad property, to what is left 
of the lower portion of the old river. 

The first wharves were built on the northern bank 
of South river, and as late as 1760, nearly a cen- 
tury and a half from the first landing, there were 
but eleven in all. Two of these were constructed at 
the foot of School-house lane (now Washington 
street), on a portion of the spot now occupied by 
the centre of the stone depot ; a third was about 
where the centre of the Arringtx)n building (oppo- 
site the depot) now is ; a fourth, midway between 
. School-house lane and Town landing (now Lafay- 
ette street) ; a fifth was at the Town landing, and 
four others between that point and Burying-point 
lane (now Liberty street). A few rods below this 
was the tenth wharf, while the eleventh was at the 
foot of Turner's lane (now Turner street). The 
most of these wharves are in existence to-day, but 
the land has been so filled in between them that 
they now form the shore- wall to little more than 
the course of the old channel of the river. These 
facts all tend to show that the early commerce of 


Salem was carried on in the Ticinity of Washington 
street. The old Soath river at this point, has been 
supplanted by the railroad, and the white-winged 
wards of old ocean by the giants of steam, that now 
hourly deposit their burdens of life and treasure 
upon the site of two of the most noted wharves of 
the days gone by. 

The Eastern Railroad was opened in 1838, and 
extended only from Salem to Boston. Many of our 
readers may remember the old wooden depot built 
over the water on one of the wharves which occu- 
pied the site of the present Eastern depot; also 
its cupola, and its bell which was rung at the 
approach of each train by the eccentric old " Corpo- 
ral " Pitman, who declared that he could " always 
tell when any one else was ringing that bell, by 
its sound." Among other things related of the 
^' Corporal," the most amusing is the attempt that 
he once made to lift himself in a basket. 

The old depot was a dai*k, dingy affair, whose 
walls and timbers when taken down were blackened 
by the soot from the wood-burning engines. In 
striking contrast with the old depot is the present 
substantial stone edifice,^ with its enlarged dimen- 
sions and increased accommodations. 

Previous to 1838 lumbering stage coaches, or pri- 
vate vehicles, were the only conveyances by land 
from this place. Travellers are now provided with 
gorgeous palace and drawing-room cars, furnished 
with velvet-cushioned reclining chairs and couches, 

— ■ III . _ _■ I I I I -* 

1 See page 22. 


dressing and dining rooms, and everything apper- 
taining to comfort. By coach it took at least three 
hours to travel over an old-fashioned road from 
Salem to Boston, but now 

** Yon may ride in an hour or two if you willf 
From Halibut Point ^ to Beacon HiU,> 
Witli tlie sea beside you all the way, 
Through the pleiisant places that skirt the bay; 

All this yon watch idly, and more by f)ar 

From the cushioned seat of a railway car. 

But in days of witchcraft it was not so;— 

City bonnd travellers had to go 

Horseback over a blind, rough road, 

Or as part of a Jolting wagon load 

Of garden-produce and household goods, 

Crossing the fords, half lost in the woods. 

By wolves and red-skins frightened all day, 

And the roar of lions, some histories say. 

If a craft for Boston were setting sail, 

Very few of a passage would fail 

Who had trading to do in the three-hilled town; 

For they might return ere the sun was down."* 

The following is a well-drawn picture of the ac- 
commodations afforded travellers in the early part 
of the present century : 

'' The carriages were old, and the shackling and 
much of the harness made of ropes. One pair of 
horses carried us eighteen miles. We generally 
reached our resting place for the night, if no acci- 
dent intervened, at ten o'clock, and after a frugal 
supper, went to bed with a notice that we should be 
called at three, next morning — which generally 
proved to be half-past two. Then whether it snowed 

> Cape Ann. * Boston. * Peggy Bligb's Voyage. 


or rained, the traveller must rise and make ready 
by the help of a horn-lantern and a farthing candle^ 
and proceed on his way, over bad roads, — sometimes 
with a driver showing no doubtful symptoms of 
drunkenness, which good-hearted passengers never 
failed to improve at every stopping place, by urging 
upon him tlie comfort of another glass of toddy. 
Thus we travelled eighteen miles a stage, sometimes 
obliged to get out and help the coachman lift the 
coach out of a quagmire or rut, and arrived at New 
York after a week's hard travelling, wondering at 
the ease as well as the expedition with which our 
journey was effected." 

The entire land occupied for and about the East- 
ern depot is " made land ;" as is also Creek street, 
west of the depot, so named because of supplanting 
a creek there situated, which extended from the 
river about where the Eastern Railway freight depot 
BOW stands on Mill street, westwardly to near the 
corner of Summer and Chestnut streets. It was 
early known as Sweet's cove, subsequently as Ruck's 
creek, taking its name from the owners of the land 
upon the north of it. 

To the south of this creek and south-west of the 
depot are four acres of land, which, in 1630, were 
laid out to Samuel Skelton, first pastor of the First 
Church. To the south of Skel ton's land is other 
land which was early known as " Governor's Field," 
in rememberance of which Endicott street is now 
named. The Governor's Field and a portion of 
Skclton's land afterwards came into the possession 
of John Pickering. 

On the northern side of Mill street, almost di- 



rectly over the conduit, stands the round-house of 
the Eastern Railroad. The site it occupies is that 
of the second mill built in Salem. The history of 
the building of this mill* furnishes us with the his- 
tory of the "made land." 

About the middle of the seventeenth century, Wal- 
ter Price and others, for the better "grindage" of 
corn, were granted the privilege of building a new 
grist mill on the banks of South river. The site 
selected was where the railroad round-house is, from 
which spot the old "city mills'* were removed at the 
time of building the conduit. John and Jonathan 
Pickering, sons of the John Pickering previously 
spoken of, carried on the business of ship-building 
above this point on their father's land. They ob- 
jected to the mill as " damming up the channel or 
river below their land, and hindering them from 
coming up by water to said land, or improving it for 
a building place for vessels." Pickering, on this 
complaint, brought action against the Mill Com- 
pany. At the same time the company brought 
action against Pickering for " damage to them by 
pulling up the stakes that the mill-wright had set 
down for placing the mill, and throwing part of 
their timber into the river by night, and endeavoring 
after the mill was set down to turn it into the chan- 
nel by night to their great damage," etc. These 
actions were tried together and resulted in the jury 
finding for the proprietors of the mill. The mill 
was therefore built, and the ship-building trans- 
ferred to the creek, where quite a village of ship- 
wrights gathered and formed what was known as 


Ruck's villflge. Tlie ci'cctioii of tliis mill reaiiUcd 
ill tlie Imililing of n new I'oiiil to Uliivhlelicad, over 
tjoiitli i-ivei'. It conipi'iseil wlitit is now Siiiniuoi', 
Iligb, Itlilt, and Lafayette sti-ccts. Freviona to tbia 
time tho vond to lIiLvljlcliead passed around on the 
weatcni side of Soutb river (now Mill popd) and so 
over Forest river. In 1G86 a liiglnvay was laid ftom 
the hend of Norman's Lane (now Nonnan street, 
north-west of the dopot) across the erect to the mill. 
This, together with that portion which extends to 
Lafayette street, is now Mill street. A bridge was 
built across the creek, and W. P. IJphain, Eaq., 
Bays : " the tradition is, thtit vessels were bnilt on 
the Cove (or creek) as far np as the npper end of 
Ci-eek street, and that the bridge was a swing bridge 
that they could pass oat into the river." 
The first building which seems to have been used 
Custom llonsu was situated on South river, near 
the bead of tliis creek. This building was knovra 
as tbe " Port House." The site is now covered by 
the north-western portion of tbe Eastern Railroad 
property. Tlie "French house," situated on tUe 
corner of Gedncy court, was bnilt in 1645 and suc- 
ceeded tbe "Fort House." It is said to have been 
occupied ua a Custom [louse for thirty-four years. 
FelL saj's : " For a long period, it was usual for col- 
lectors of the customs here to transact their business 
where tbey resided. Tliis gave riae to a common 
remark of our sea-captains, ' we do not know where 
to find the custom bonae on our return.'" 

On tbe South river, where the depot now stands, 
le first assembling of bouts, or canoes, in Salem 


took place in4G36. All canoes on the northerly 
sule of the town were ordered to be brought " to a 
point opposite the common landing place of the 
North river, by George Harris* house ; those on the 
south side to be brought before the ' Fort House/ 
on the South river, at the same time, then and there 
to be viewed by a board of surveyors, consisting of 
J. Holgrave, Peter Palfray, R. Waterman, Roger 
Conant and P. Veren, or a majority of them." It 
was decided that no canoe should be used (under 
a penalty of forty shillings) except such as should 
be allowed and sealed by the above board of sur- 
veyors. It was also publicly proclaimed that if 
any should neglect or refuse to bring their canoes 
to the above appointed places at the time specified 
for examination, they should forfeit and pay the 
sum of ten shillings. 

The exclusion at that early day of many forms of 
amusements being carried to such a degree, the 
people gladly obeyed the summons for a gathering 
and made it, no doubt, a gala-day for Salem. Hon. 
C. W. Upham says : — "A light, graceful and most 
picturesque fleet swarmed from all directions to the 
appointed rendezvous. The harbor glittered with the 
flashing paddles, and was the scene of swift races 
and rival feats of skill, displaying manly strength 
and agility." This, the first regatta in Salem harbor, 
must have been an aquatic spectacle of rare gayety 
and beauty. It occurred on the fourth of July. 
It may, therefore, be considered the first fourth of 
July Celebration in America. 

These canoes were "dug-outs" made of "whole 


pine trees about two foot nnd a imlf over and twenty 
foet long," Tliey were used for tninsporting pas- 
sengers to North and South Sulcm, before the tliiys 
of bridges, and in thena they somelimes went fowl- 
ing " two leagues to sea." 

That portion of Washington street which extends 
east of the depot into South Salem, is the most re- 
cent of tlie made territory in this vicinity. So re- 
cent was the change, that but for the future it might 
remain unmentioned by us. Tije row of wooden 
buildings, including the Arrington Building, on the 
eastern side of Washington street, originally ex- 
tended from the north-eastern corner of the depot to 
Front street, about on a line with the outer edge of 
the present bricic walk, on the eastern side of the 
depot. These buildings were moved back to their 
present position, when Washington street waa es- 
teuded, in 1873. This great improvement created 
a. new route for the South Salem Branch of the Horse 
Railroad, which originally passed through Front to 
Lafayette street, and over the bridge. On Wash- 
ington street opposite the south-eastern corner of 
the depot, stands Flint's building, occupied by the 
Ist District Court (Judge J. B. F. Osgood), in the 
second story, and by the Salem Mechanic Infantry, 
Co. K, of the Sth Mass. Kogt., as an armory, in 
the third story. Previous to the establishment of 
District Courts, local oiTendcra were tried before 
Judge J, G. Waters of the Police Court (now abol- 
ished), at the Police Station on Front street. 

Washington street, from the depot to North river, 
is a broad thoroughfare extending up an elevation 


of some 80 feet, to where it crosses Essex street, 
the main street of the city; thence running on a 
level about 900 feet, it falls again, but more abruptly, 
to about the grade of the railroad. Under the ele- 
vated portions of this street is the Eastern Railroad 
tunnel, built in 1889, and at that time considered a 

* _ 

great accomplishment and wonder. This tunnel 
was originally lighted by apertures, at intervals in 
the centre of Washington street. These apertures 
were surrounded by iron railings with a street-lamp 
over each. The smoke arising so suddenly from 
these places, frightened the horses passing upon the 
street, and caused some damage. They were accor- 
dingly first boarded over, and finally more securely 
covered, and the railings removed. The tunnel now 
is totally dark, excepting the light which it receives 
from the entrances, which is of no benefit to trains 
passing through. Although a double track extends 
from Boston to Ipswich on the Eastern road, yet 
this tunnel has never been enlarged nor altered from 
its original construction. Two sots of rails, how- 
ever, to avoid some switching, are laid through it — 
one for the main road, the other for the Lawrence 

Washington street is next, if not fully equal, to 
Essex street, in business importance. On it are sit- 
uated the Post-office, District Court, two Savings 
Banks, all the National Banks but two, several mer- 
cantile and lawyers' offices, and numerous stores and 
dwellings. It contains more of the principal mod- 
ern buildings than any street in the city. Among 
these might be named. City Hall, Eastern Railroad 


depot, Asiatic Building, Flint's Building, Ilolyoke 
Building, Northej's Building, First Church Build- 
ing, Price's Block, and the Stone Court House (front- 
ing on Federal street). 

Washington street in the early days was known 
as School-house lane. It extended from North to 
South rivers where these two bodies of water came 
nearest together. It was selected as the proper 
place for the beginning of the settlement, doubtless 
on account of the favorable means of defence against 
the Indians, here provided. Both North and South 
rivers, as well as the before-mentioned creek, could 
be easily guarded from this point, as also the eighth 
of a mile of land between the creek and North 

Our reader visitors in passing up Washington 
street from the depot, will be strongly impressed 
with the irregular appearance of the four corners 
at the junction of Essex and Washington streets. 
They never formed a perfect square, as Essex street 
above and below this point was formerly two dis- 
tinct streets. Washington street was originally 
four rods in width its entire length. But when 
the railroad tunnel was constructed in 1839, this 
street from Essex street to the depot, was widened 
on the eastern side, and took in the gore of land on 
which Brown & Rust's brick store and the '* Hen- 
licld house" stood, and the land on which stood a 
three-story building, known as the Marston building, 
together with a nan^ow lane bounding these estates 
on the east, and running from Essex to Front streets. 
The outside edge of the present sidewalk on the 


eastern side of the tunnel, marks very nearly the 
original eastern line of Washington street. 

The old " State House" formerl}*^ occupied the site 
of Brown & Rust's store. It was located fronting 
Essex street, and facing the present Stearns' Build- 
ing. The Henfield House, supposed to have been 
built in 1650, stood south of the brick store. It 
was formerly the residence of Sergeant Hilliard 
Veren. Wm. P. Upham, Esq., locates it as " east 
of where the tunnel is now, and 65 feet south of 
the cap-stone." Veren was one of the early set- 
tlers, and was the first collector of this port, of 
whom we have any knowledge. He was elected to 
that office by the legislature in 1663. 

The Marston building stood nearly opposite the 
present western terminus of Front street. It was 
occupied in part, within the memory of the oldest 
inhabitant, by the late Samuel R. Hodges as a West 
India Goods store, and subsequently by Merritt <& 
Ashby. Mr. David Merritt, the senior member of 
this firm, was the founder of the express and trans- 
portation business in this city, which since his de- 
cease has been carried on by his son David. For 
more than half a century father and son have suc- 
cessively served the public in a most acceptable and 
faithful manner. The upper part of the Marston 
building was used by the late Daniel Hammond, for 
the purpose of cleaning gum copal, large quantities 
of which were transported from Zanzibar and the 
west-coast of Africa by the late N. L. Rogers and 
Brothers and -Robert Brookhouse. 

On the eastern side of the narrow lane above al- 


luded to, now the eastern side of Washington street, 
was the home of the Rev. Francis Higginson. 
Higginson's house stood on the land now covered 
by the south-eastern portion of the Asiatic Building. 
Its front was towards the South river. Higginson 
died in 1630, just one year after his arrival at 
Naumkeag. Afterwards Roger Williams occupied 
the house and resided there when acting as the 
assistant of the Rev. Samuel Skelton. It was here, 
and at this time, that he first promulgated his liberal 
religious doctrines. 

The Lawrence distillery, afterward used by Mr. 
David Merritt as a stable, stood fifty yeai's ago on 
the corner of Washington and Front streets, where 
the Lawrence block now stands. On land partly 
covered by the Asiatic Building, was a building oc- 
cupied for many years as a restaurant, by the famous 
*' Jameson." Between this place and the First Church 
edifice, stood the house of the old fire engine "Alert." 
The "Alert" was one of the oldest fire engines in 
this city. 

On the comer of Washington and Essex streets, 
the edifice of the First Church stands. It is the 
mother of all the churches, not only in Salem, but of 
this immediate neighborhood. Though not the first 
body of assembled worshippers, it was the first 
church regularly organized in America. It was es- 
tablishepl in 1629. Since then there have been four 
church buildings, all situated on the site of the 
present edifice. The frame of the first meeting- 
house, now preserved as a relic of the past, stands 
in the rear of Flummer Hall in a good state of 


preservation. We will visit it as we pass through 
that portion of the city. The First Church, during 
the 248 years of its existence, has been blessed with 
pastors nearly all of whom have been leaders in the 
denomination. As a proof of this it is only neces- 
saiy to mention the names of such divines as Fran- 
cis and John Higginson, Samuel Skelton, Eoger 
Williams, Hugh Peters, Nicholas Noyes, Geo. Cur- 
wen, Samuel Fiske, John Sparhawk, Thos. Barnard, 
John Prince, Chas. W. Upham, Thos. T. Stone, Geo. 
W. Briggs, James T. Ilewes, and the present pastor, 
Fielder Israel. The present edifice was built in 
1826, at a cost of $18,125. In 1874 extensive al- 
terations were made in it. The whole interior, as 
well as the exterior, of the building was remodelled 
and beautified. The stores under the church on 
Essex street were enlarged and modernized, and are 
to-day occupied by Mr. John P. Peabody, one of our 
most successful dry and fancy goods dealers, and 
Mr. Daniel Low. Accommodations on Washington 
street were made for the National Exchange Bank. 
The entire building was reconstructed in a manner 
to make the comer where it stands, architecturally 
beautiful. We have presented a fine picture of this 
building for the inspection of our readers. 

On the western side of Washington street, about 
where Dr. Fiske's house now stands, stood the two- 
story brick house of Joshua Ward, in which George 
Washington was entertained for the night, when on 
his northern visit in 1789. At an exhibition of an- 
tique articles, given at Plummer Hall, December, 
1875, Mrs. E. Putnam exhibited the plate from 


which Washington dined, and Mr. B. G. Manning 
exhibited the damask drapery, from the hangings on 
the bed in which he slept at that time. The same 
drapery ornamented the bed occupied by General 
Lafayette, when he visited Salem a few years earlier. 
From the fact that Washington stopped in this place, 
the name of this street from Essex street, south, was 
afterwards changed to Washington street. Its orig- 
inal name, that of School-house lane, had long since 
been discarded, and it had been known as Town- 
house lane. 

A little to the North of the site of the Ward 
house, on what is now the south-eastern portion of Dr. 
Morse's estate, stood the first Town House of which 
we have any record. Felt locates it " on the west side 
of Washington street, several rods south of Essex 
street." The date of the building of this edifice, 
which was of the early style of architecture, is not 
now known. The records show, however, that it 
needed repairs in 1655. It is probable 'tliat the ses- 
sions of the Quarterly Courts were held here in 1G36, 
and if so, the King's arms were affixed by order of 
the General Court, to the wood- work over the judges' 
bench, as the insignia of royal authority over the 
Commonwealth. This hall was the ancient place for 
municipal and judicial assemblages ; cases were tried 
here before the Court that were quite common in 
those days, but which would now be deemed absurd. 
For instance : — men were arraigned for wearing long 
hair and great boots, and women for wearing large 
sleeves, lace, tiffany, and such things as were prohib- 
ited by the Puritan rulers. Baptists and Quakers 



were obliged to defend themselves before the bar of 
justice, for absence from worship in the Congrega;- 
tional meeting-house. Scolding women and profane 
men were sentenced to have their tongues placed in 
dcfb sticks, or have a three-fold ducking. Other 
transgressors wore doomed for a period to be confined 
in cages, or fastened in stocks in public places, and 
lovers even were fined for showing signs of their 
love, without the consent of their parents. 

The second Town House was "set up by the prison" 
in 1674. Ex-Mayor Williams, in his admirable ad- 
dress at the dedication of the City Hall extension, in 
1876, locates this spot as "south-west of the First 
Meeting House," which would be, as near as we can 
learn, just south of Hilliard Veren's house. The 
prison was afterwards removed to near the site of the 
first Town House, and, in 1677, the second Town 
House was moved from the above described site to 
the north, about in the middle of School, now 
Washington street, nearest perhaps to the western 
side and north-west of the present City Hall, nearly 
in front of the Brookhouse estate. The upper part 
was fitted up a few years later for judicial purposes. 
In 1702 the Queen's arm, in honor of the "Good 
Queen Anne," who had ascended to the throne, was 
placed over the seat of justice. This building was 
noted for the anxious discussions within it, of the 
questions of servile obedience to the commissioners 
of the profligate Charles II ; of surrendering our re- 
vered charter and submitting to the tyrannical rule 
of Sir Edmund Andros, the Governor General of 
New England under James II. Also as the place 



where iunoocnt victims of delusion wero cliai-gciJ 
with the crime of witchcraft, and a number of tlicm 
sentenced to siitrer the extietue penalty of the Ifiw. 
"Seldom" eays Felt, "can description a, either of 
political or judicial character, be drawn in bolder 
relief of tiiith, than tbosc wliich veritably apply to 
this ancient edi&ce. Credible tradition relates that 
the building connected with such prominent events, 
stood over twenty years after its successor was 
erected. The lower part of it served for a school, 
while the floor of the old court room above was mostly 
talcen up, except where the scats of the Judges and 
juries were located. Here the boys would sometimcB 
collect before master came, and play over the scene, 
ouce acted theie in dread reality, of tiying witcbea." 
The tbiixl Town and Court House, was erected 
about 17^0, on li^scx street, nest to, and west of 
tlio First Cburdi budding. Tlic second story was 
useil for Judicial, and the lower for municipal pur- 
poses. It was also used as a place of exchange, 
where men collected and transacted business. " It 
had a long bench in front," says Felt, "which seldom 
wanted occupants when people wore abroad." Here 
the events of the day were talked over, public 
questions discusseil, and not unlikely scandal re- 
tailed. A recital of all the scenes whicli occurred 
in this building would be of tlie most thrilling inter- 
est. Here the Stamp Act, was denounced ; the 
a<ldrcas, issued by tlie Alassachusctts Legislature 
rallying the colonies to resist parliamentary taxa- 
tion, was justillcd; intcrrerenco with the right of 
ti'iol by jury iu the admii'olty court, aud the military 


despotism of the British soldiers in the Province, 
were censured. Here too, did the patriot sons of 
1770, resolve neither to import nor purchase goods 
subject to crown duties ; decision in favor of the 
ilrst Continental Congress was hero made by the 
House of Representatives, in 1774, and our propor- 
tion of its delegates designated for the most efficient 
resistance to Britisli encroachments ; the wrong of 
closing the port of Boston, and the need which its 
oppressed inhabitants had for sympathetic aid and 
relief, were eloquently discussed. It was in this 
building that the legislature of Massachusetts con- 
vened, and where in order to finish the preparations 
for the overthrow of British rule in America, they 
frustrated the design of Governor Gage of declaring 
their dissolution. They locked their chamber door, 
thus preventing the Governor's secretary from deliv- 
ering his message. On the seventh day of October, 
1774, contrary to the proclamation of the Governor, 
the sturdy patriots fonned themselves here, into a 
provincial congress, John Hancock being chosen 
chairman, to regulate the disordered state of the 
colonies. They then adjourned to Concord, where 
they won imperishable renown. 

When the General Court was transferred from 
Boston to Salem this Town House, in which its ses- 
sions were held, was called the ** State House," by 
which name we have previously referred to it, so that 
this memorable building was at the same time used 
as the Town House, the Court House and the State 
House. It was painted (white), a rarity in those 
days, and was supplied with a bell in the cupola. 


In 1774, it had a very narrow escape from a great 
fire which occun*ed in Salem. 

On the edge of the old sidewalk, west of this 
building and where the eastern wall of the present 
Eastern Railroad tunnel now is, stood the ''old Town 
Pump," immortalized by our great literary genius, 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, in his quaint sketch entitled 
"A Rill From the Town Pump," commencing : — 

<*Noon by the north clock I Noon by the east I High 
noon, too, by these hot sunbeams, which full scarcely 
aslope, upon my head, and almost make the water bubble 
and smoke under my nose." 

At times, when the Town Houses were being re- 
paired, or were torn down to be supplanted by new 
ones, the public business was transacted in some 
one of the meeting-houses. From 1774 to 1778, the 
public meetings were held in the First Church meet- 
ing-house, and many of the most interesting matters 
relating to the Revolution, were there discussed, and 
many important resolutions passed. In 1785 we 
leam that the public business was transacted at 
Joshua Ward's store, in the basement of the building 
in which Washington stopped four years later. 

Standing at the junction of Essex and Washington 
streets, and looking to the north, we can see the 
parapet marking the northern end of the tunnel. In 
front of this parapet, in the middle of Washington 
street, where Federal street crosses it, the fourth 
and last combined Town and Court House was 
located. It occupied the site of an old brick school- 
house, from which this street took its original name 
of School-house lane. This Town and Court House 


stood with its front towards Essex street, and its 
west side facing the site of the present Tabernacle 
Church. It was erected in 1786, and the name of 
that portion of Washington street, north of Essex, 
was soon after changed to Court street. This build- 
ing was two stories high, 62 feet long and 36^ feet 
wide. It cost $7,145.^ Its walls were of brick, and 
upon its roof was a cupola. On its front or soutliern 
end was a balustrade, opening into the second story, 
and supported by Tuscan pillars. Under the balus- 
trade were wide stone steps which led through a door 
into the lower hall. This hall was used for public 
assemblies, and for the exercising of military com- 
panies. On the east side of the hall were several 
offices. The court room was in the second story, and 
the '* Massachusetts Magazine" of 1790, remarked 
of it: ''The court hall is said to be the best con- 
structed room, for the holding of courts, of any in 
the Commonwealth." The architecture of this build- 
ing was very much admired. It was the work of 
Mr. Samuel Mclntire of this city. From the bal- 
ustrade above mentioned, Washington was presented 
to a congregated mass of our people when, in 1789, 
he visited this city. Here many a kindling eye first 
caught the glance of his form, which enshrined 
those noble excellences of head and heart, that 
largely contributed to free our soil from mighty in- 
vaders, and lay the foundation of our national free- 
dom and fame. 

1 Half of this amoant was paid by the coanty, and the other half 
by the town. 

^PW Iji'^Ki; ;ii^T| , 

|ffi!^iii;iii. , 




Washington's visit was long remembered by our 
fathers as one of the happiest with which they were 
ever favored. So recent was the victorious struggle 
for liberty, in which this man had acted so noble a 
part, that the people were overwhelmed with joy at 
his presence, and he saw them under the most favor- 
able circumstances. The greatest endeavors were 
made to pay him deserved homage. He was pre- 
sented to the selectmen, on Main street (now Essex), 
where, in the presence of a great multitude, composed 
of the military, the civic bodies, and the school chil- 
dren, their Quaker chairman, William Northey, with 
his hat on, took him by the hand and said : ^'Friend 
Washington, we are glad to see thee, and, in behalf 
of the inhabitants, bid thee welcome to Salem ." 

Washington made a strong and pertinent reply, 
closing as follows : — " From your own industry and 
enterprise you have everything to hope, that deserv- 
ing men and good citizens can expect. May your 
navigation and commerce, your industry in all its 
applications, be rewarded ; your happiness here, be 
as perfect as belongs to the lot of humanity, and 
your eternal felicity be complete." 

When the present Town Hall was built in Derby 
square, in 1817, the town disposed of its share in 
the fourth Town and Court House to the^county, for 
$1823.10. The lower story was then made fire-proof 
for the preservation of judicial papers, and the court 
room was made more commodious. For this im- 
provement the county expended $6,071.28. This 
old Court House stood until 1839, when it was taken 
down to make room for the passage of the railroad. 


The railroad corporation allowed the county for the 
demolition of this edifice, $3,300. 

The City Hall, on the east side of Washington 
street, on land formerly of Josiah Orne, was erected 
in 1838, and the expense defrayed from Salem's por- 
tion of the surplus revenue, in the United States' 
Treasury. This revenue, which had accumulated to 
the amount of $40,000,000, was distributed among all 
the towns and cities of the country, in i^roportion 
to the number of their inhabitants. Salem received 
for her share $33,843.40. The City Hall has brick 
sides with a granite front, and is two stories high. 
It was originally G8 feet long, 41 J feet high, and 32 
feet wide, and cost $23,000. Under the administra- 
tion of Mayor Williams in 1876, it was enlarged to 
double its original length, and a fire-proof vault 
provided, for the preservation of valuable papers. 
The offices were changed about, and all the depart- 
ments of the city government accommodated under 
its roof, which had never before been the case. 

The city was incorporated, March 23, 1836, and 
on the 9 th of May following, in the Tabernacle 
Church, the city government was organized. Hon. 
Leverett Saltonstall was the first Mayor, and served 
two terms. Near the close of his second term, on 
the evening of May 31, 1838, City Hall was first oc- 
cupied. Since then our city councils, noted for the 
high moral standing and culture of their members, 
have regularly met therein and discussed and acted 
npon the local questions of the hour. They have 
been led in succession by the ability and wisdom 
of Leverett Saltonstall, Stephen C. Phillips, Stephen 


P. Webb, Joseph S. Cabot, Nathaniel Silsbee, jr., 
David Pingree, Chas. W. Upham, Ashael Hunting- 
ton, Joseph Andrews, Wm. S. Messervy, Stephen 
G. Wheatland, Joseph B. F. Osgood, David Roberts, 
Wm. Cogswell, Nathaniel Brown, Samuel Calley, 
Henry L. Williams, and Henry K. Oliver. Of these 
gentlemen, several won more than mere mayoralty 
distinction. Saltonstall was a State Senator, mem- 
ber of Congress, and author of "A Historical Sketch 
of Haverhill." Phillips served in both branches of 
the Legislature, was a member of Congress, and, in 
1848-9, was the Free-soil candidate for governor. 
Upham served in both branches of the legislature, 
was President of the State Senate, a member of 
Congress, and as author of "Salem Witchcraft," 
"Life of Timothy Pickering," and other valuable 
works, gained a world-wide reputation. Hunting- 
ton was clerk of Courts in Essex county, for many 
years. Cogswell served during the entire recent 
war, was a brigadier general, and was with Gen. 
Sherman in his great march from Atlanta to the sea. 
Oliver was adjutant general 1844-48. Subsequently 
was State Treasurer under Gov. Andrew, was Mayor 
of Lawrence, Chief of the State Bureau of Labor, 
Labor Reform Candidate for Governor, and agent 
of the State Board of Education. He is also 
widely known as author of many musical composi- 
tions, and was a member of the board of judges at 
the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876. 
Among the other mayors were men of marked ability, 
whose disinclination only, prevented them from oc- 
cupying positions of higher honors. 



The address on the occasion of the dedication of 
the City Hall extension was delivered by His Honor, 
the Mayor, Henry L. Williams. From it we copy 
the following, showing the progress Salem has made 
since the hall was first erected : — 

*^The population of our city has increased, since 
this hall was built thirty-eight years ago, from 
15,000 to 26,000; the valuation of taxable prop- 
erty from $8,000,000 to $26,000,000 ; receipts by 
the treasurer, from $63,000 to $800,000 ; payments, 
from $66,000 to $805,000 ; items, in number, paid 
by the treasurer during the year, from 654 to 
7,008 ; tax levied $44,000 to $452,000 ; interest, 
from $1700 to $92,000. City debt, $37,000 at 
commencement of city government to $1,267,000 
at the present time. 

The commercial character of our city, it is true, 
has changed essentially from what it was thirty-eight 
years ago. The time was when Salem stood sixth 
in rank among the commercial places in America. 
Thirty-eight years ago Salem ships floated on every 
sea, and brought to our wharves the products of 
every clime ; this being their home and where many 
of them were built, their repairs and their outfits, 
gave to the sea-side of Salem a business-like appear- 

For a long series of years the East India trade 
was carried on from here to a greater extent than 
from any other port in the Unit^ States. Now has 
come the change. The building of the railroad and 
the telegraph, has swept from the smallest ports in 
our country, to its great commercial centres, the for- 
eign trade that they formerly enjoyed. 

This change has caused an almost entire disap- 
pearance from our harbor of Salem ships, but we 
have, in their place, an important provincial and 
coastwise traflSc, employing, as will be seen by the 


following facta obtained fiom tbe Citstom House 
i-ecorda, about double the louuage of tLii-ty-eight 
yeais ago. 

Ill 1838, tbore arrived at Salem, fi-om foreign and 
coastwiBG ports, vessels menaiiring about 120,000 
tous. Id tbe year ending April, 1872, tliere arrived 
249,216 tons, and last year (sinee tbe cbange in tlie 
Beciprocity Treaty) only 160,098 tons ; the number 
of vessels falUiig o(f from 1812, in tbe ycur ending 
April, 1872, to 1197 vesaels in tba year 1875,— 
about one -third pai't." 

Tbe present city council is composed of six alder- 
men and twenty-four common conncilmen. Tbe 
school committee consists of eigliteen regularly 
elected members, and Mayot' and president of the 
common council, cx-ofQcio. The former meets semi- 
monthly and tbe latter monthly. Henry M. Meek, 
City Clerk, and Henry J. Cross, City Treasurer, 
have held these otflces for many years with great 
ci-edit to themselves and to the city. William Mans- 
field, tbe veteran City Messenger, now eighty years 
of age, has held bis present otflce ever since Salem 
became a city, a period of over forty years, and, 
until the summer of 1876, never missed a meeting 
of either branch of the city goveininent. He occu- 
pied a similar position under tlie old town organiziv- 
tion for a number of years. 


Hugh Peters and Roger Williams.— The Great Tavern.— 
Social Evening Club.— Count Ruhford.— Kirwan's Li- 
brary.— Watch-houses AND Watchmen.— Homes of Pick- 
man. Derby, Notes and Sharpe.- The Oliver Mansion.— 
Bridget Bishop.- Judge White.— Lyceum Hall.— First 
Residence of Gov. Endicott.— Daniel Eppes.— An His- 
toric Circle.— Free Schools.— Tabernacle Chorch. 

tftUE lot of land south of City Hall comprising 
' I ' the north-eastern corner of Washington street, 
I and now occupied by the Stearns' building, 
(j^ was originally owned bj' Hugh Peters. 

Hugh Peters was a clergyman, politician and au- 
thor. After imprisonment for non-conformity in 
England, he sailed for America, where he arrived in 
October, 1635. In December, 1636, he succeeded 
Roger Williams as pastor of the First Church in 
Salem. Roger Williams having become a non- 
conformist minister left the mother country four 
years prior to Peters, and in April, 1631, was chosen 
assistant to Rev. Mr. Skelton, the first minister of 
the First Church in Salem. Williams asserted at 
once his religious views of toleration, the indepen- 
dence of conscience of the civil magistrates, and 
the separation of Church and State. For this he 
was obliged, in a few months thereafter, to remove 
to Pl3^mouth. In 1633, however, he returned to 
Salem, and became the successor of Skelton. His 
" new and dangerous opinions against the authority 
of magistrates,' being asserted as then thought too 


^«n»4«iMai3» nut xjoriruc ^^iiAryrmoL woki jhs .onuifi- 
.^sm vuU; jaiuks nut niang^tr jitt ^saiffiSBai ixaat 
'^tnK: 'S). iasuL. -voea l^mtr ji»is^ TTiiR^ 

^0ir3i9r t^ '^laoin^AiiL sue 5»nmaiT as«9B&. jmc 

jtt^ 3<i»r ji:^ ViesL 1ft ^0Bic 32 FiTgaiiic itf^ ~jA jib 
yt^v^gerif 'xl i^ut loodft uT its tf^anriiPr, tChdcfiK^ Goss., 


probable that Mr. Peters' valuable services would 
be permanently needed there. Mr. 6ott was there- 
fore ordered to dispose of his property here. The 
estate on the north-eastern corner of Essex and 
Washington streets, where the Steams' building is, 
was sold to Mr. John Orne, a carpenter, with the 
understanding that should Peters return he could 
repurchase the estate on the repayment '*of all 
charges of buildings or otherways bestowed upon 
the said land." The original deed by wfiioh it 
was transferred to Orne is still in existence, bdi it 
does not conclusively show whether or not there 
was any building upon this estate. The supposition 
of the best authorities is, that a house of the most 
commanding, beautiful, and artistic style was built 
there under the direction, if not the personal over- 
sight, of Peters himself; that Orne the carpenter 
was employed to build it ; that it may have been fin- 
ished, and possibly occupied by Peters, but not paid 
for, in consequence of the suddenness of his call to 
the service of the colony, as one of its agents to 
look after its interests in London. 

Peters never returned to this country, as after the 
restoration he was committed to the Tower, and in- 
dicted for high treason, as having been concerned 
in the death of King Charles I. He was afterwards 
tried and convicted of the charge, and was executed 
in London, October 16, 1660. His private character 
has been the subject of much discussion both in 
England and America. He was charged by his en- 
emies with gross immorality, and the most bitter 
epithets were applied to him by Bishops Burnet, 













PAOB 80.) 


Kenneth and others, but probably they were largely 
influenced bj' prejudice. 

Orne sold the estate purchased of Peters to Wal- 
ter Price, in 1659. At this time it is certain that a 
fine building was standing upon it. It was built 
before the line of Essex street had been adjusted, 
and stood out on what is now Essex street, as far as 
the curb-stone. The heirs of Walter Price sold it, 
in 1727, to Mr. John Pratt who occupied it for 
many years as a tavern. It was quite noted in the 
eighteenth century as "the Great Tavern with many 
Peaks." It was also at one time called the *'Ship 
Tavern." This building, and the site which it oc- 
cupied, might well be called the birthplace of litera- 
ture and science in Salem, as on this spot and in that 
building the "Social Library" was organized, in 17G0. 
This was the first institution formed in this place for 
a higher intellectual culture, and the diifusion through 
this community of a taste for literature and science. 
No place within our city limits could have been 
more appropriate than a spot owned by Hugh Peters, 
and the structure probably erected, and perhaps oc- 
cupied by him. He was one of the most highly ed- 
ucated persons among the early emigrants, and he 
was a zealous promoter of popular intelligence. He 
took an active part in bringing our Harvard College 
into existence, and made great, though unavailing 
cflbrts to have it established in Salem. By some of 
our local antiquarians it is believed that this verita- 
ble building, of which we have been speaking, was 
designed for a college by him. 

"Roger Williams and Hugh Peters," says the 


Hon. Charles W. Upham, ^^ more perhaps tiian maj 
others that can be named, were of the kind to set 
men thinking, to start speculations and enquiries 
that would call forth the exercise of mental faculties, 
and of a nature to retain their hold upon the general 
interest, and be transmitted as a permanent social 

Uncommonly inquisitive minds given to experi- 
ments and enterprises in science, art, and literature, 
is a noted feature in the character of our people of 
Salem to-day. The presence of persons of marked 
impressiveness of mental traits among the first set- 
tlers and their associates is, of course, the primal 
and general cause to which results of this sort are 
to be traced. 

There was in existence in Salem, about the middle 
of the eighteenth century, a '^ Social Evening Club," 
designed to promote literature and philosophy. It 
had among its members such men as Benj. Lynde 
and Nathaniel Ropes, both Justices of the Supreme 
Court of the Province, the former, as his father had 
been, its Chief Justice ; Wm. Brown, Judge of the 
Superior Court ; Andrew Oliver, Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas ; the Rev. Wm. McGilchrist, of 
the Episcopal Church ; the Rev. Thomas Barnard, 
of the First Church, and Edward Augustus Hol3'oke, 
then a young physician, and others of Salem's most 
eminent, cultivated and intellectual citizens. 

The members of this Club, together with some 
others, met' at ''the Great Tavern with many 
Peaks," on the evening of March 81, 1760, for the 
purpose of '' founding in the town of Salem, a hand- 


some library of valuable books, apprehending the 
same may be of very considerable use and benefit, 
under proper regulation." A subscription was started 
and a round sum obtained. The Rev. Jeremiah 
Condy, a Baptist minister, of Boston, who was about 
to visit England was employed to purchase the books. 
On their arrival, 415 volumes in all, the ''Social 
Library " was put in operation. It was incorporated 
in 1797, and it may well be regarded as the founda- 
tion of all the institutions and agencies established 
in this place for the promotion of high intellectual 
culture. It is quite evident that an interest in phil* 
osophical enquiries was a characteristic of the peo- 
ple of Salem, at the time of the formation of this 
library. A taste for literature and knowledge, a 
zeal in the prosecution of scientific studies, was im- 
parted to the community, of which we can distinctly 
trace the imprints and monuments through all our 
subsequent history. 

In 1766 there was a lad of thirteen years of age 
in Salem, apprenticed to John Appleton. Appleton 
kept a retail variety store, on the south side of 
Essex street, east of the Barton-square Church es- 
tate, on the lot now owned by Dr. George Choate. 
This lad had only such advantages of education as 
a country school district afforded in the town of 
Woburn, where he was born. But he had early 
manifested a taste for mechanical and philosophical 
amusements. Here, in Salem, he found an atmos- 
phere congenial to his original passion, and under 
the influence of the intellectual energies put in op- 
eration by the men who established the old '' Social 



Library/' he was stimulated to exercise and exhibit 
his genius. He persistently strove for the attain- 
ment of a full knowledge of philosophy, and attracted 
much attention by novel and successful experiments 
in mechanics and chemistry. By a singular succes- 
sion of circumstances he was drawn into military 
life in the service of the mother country, and arose 
to the high distinction of count, physicist and states- 
man. This boy's name was Benjamin Thompson, 
known in history as Sir Benjamin Thompson Rum- 
ford, but more popularly known as Count Rumford. 

Another item of interest might be mentioned in 
connection with the birth of literature and science 
in Salem. During the revolutionary war the valu- 
able scientific library of the distinguished philoso- 
pher Richard Kirwan, LL.D., of Dublin, was cap- 
tured in the British Channel on its way to Ireland, 
by a Beverly privateer. Owing to the liberal and en- 
lightened views of Andrew and John Cabot, owners 
of the privateer, this library was sold at auction at 
a very low rate, to an association of gentlemen, 
among whom were Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Hamil- 
ton, Rev. Joseph Willard and Dr. Joshua Fisher of 
Beverly, and Reverends Thos. Barnard, John Prince 
and Dr. Edward A. Holyoke, of Salem. The Social 
Library with this formed the nucleus of the Salem 
Athenaeum Library, which we will visit when in our 
stroll we arrive at its present locality. 

The "Great Tavern" estate finally came into the 
possession of Mrs. Ruth Jeffrey, a daughter of Mr. 
John Pratt, who sold it at auction in 1791 to Col. 
Benj. Pickman, Dr. William Stearns, and M^jor 


Jonathan Waldo. They immediately covered the 
premises with the building now standing there,^ 
known as the Steams' block. 

West of the northern end of the site of the 
Steams' block, in the middle of what is now Wash- 
ington street, a watch-house^ at one time stood. It 
was built in the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
The first bellman was then the only watchman '' to 
walk ye towne, Arom ten o'clock till break of day." 
The top of this watch-house was ornamented with a 
carved image of a soldier in full uniform and armed. 

The watchman in those days in his perambula« 
tions, was required to call out, every now and then, 
*' all's well," together with the hour of the night and 
the state of the weather. This custom was dispensed 
with about the year 1817. The watch-house, above 
alluded to, was not the first in Salem, as from '' Felt's 
Annals" we learn that it was voted by the town, June 
16, 1712, that the old watch-house should be used 
for a writing-school. 

The first meeting-house which was used for vari- 
ous purposes in conducting the affairs of the settle- 
ment, was doubtless used as the first watch-house. 
Under date of December, 1640, the records of the 
General Court, say: — ''Salem meeting-house is 
allowed for their watch-house." With the trees all 
cleared Arom the land south of this meeting-house, 
as far as what is now known as the Mill Pond, sig- 
nals could be readily seen from Castle Hill, south 

> Essex Institnte Hist CoU., Vol. 9, 8d Fart, p. 7. 
* This old watcb-house stands in the rear of the old grammar 
■chool-boiise. See p. 76. 


of the pond ; this hill was no doabt so called, be- 
cause of its being occupied as an outer lookout and 
station. Approaching danger by land or sea could be 
instantly made known from its summit, when every 
man seizing his gun could have hurried to the meet- 
ing-house, and made it a garrison. The meeting- 
house was, of all others, the place for a watch-house. 

While we are in this locality it might be well to 
state, for the information of the present members 
of the Salem Cadets, that one of the old armo- 
ries of this venerable organization was in the sec- 
ond story of a building, which stood where Feck's 
building fronts on Washington street. It was over 
an apothecary store kept by the late B. F. Browne. 

North of Feck's building, on the southern corner 
of Washington and Lynde streets, stands a brick 
house. It was built in 1764, by the Hon. Benjamin 
Fickman, who left it to his son, Clark Gayton Fick- 
man, an active member of one of our first fire engine 
companies. In this house Ellas Haskett Derby 
lived when he was amassing his riches. Its site was 
previously occupied by a large wooden house, owned 
by the Rev. Nicholas Noyes, who was extremely 
violent in the witch trials of 1692. 

The house of Elder Samuel Sharpe, commander 
of the first fort erected in Salem, stood on the 
north corner of Washington and Lynde streets. A 
house of ancient architecture was removed from this 
site a few years ago. It had seven gables, and was 
one of the many claimed as the subject of Haw- 
thorne's famous story: "The House of Seven Ga- 
bles." Hawthorne's '* House of Seven Gables" is, 


undoubtedly, the old house standing at the foot of 
Turner street. 

On the southern comer of Washington and Church 
streets, where Dr. S. M. Gate now resides, stood 
the " Oliver Mansion." It was owned and occupied 
in the seventeenth century, by Edward Bishop, who 
married Bridget Oliver, widow of Thomas Oliver. 
Bridget Bishop was the only person tried at the 
first session of the new Court of Oyer and Termi- 
ner, which convened here the first of June, 1692. 
She was the first victim to suffer death by the witch- 
craft delusion. 

At the time of her trial she was dragged from 
the "Oliver Mansion'' by the back way into Prison- 
lane, now St. Peter street ; thence up Essex street, 
to the Court House, the appalling spectacle being 
made as conspicuous as possible. Cotton Mather 
says : ''There was one strange thing with which the 
Court was newly entertained. As this woman was 
under a guard passing by the great and spacious 
meeting-house, she gave a look towards the house ; 
immediately a demon invisibly entering the meeting- 
house, tore down a part of it ; so that though there 
was no person to be seen there, yet the people at the 
noise, running in, found a board which was strongly 
fastened with several nails, transported into another 
quarter of the house." 

The street at the time of her passing through it, 
was probably thronged by an excited crowd, and 
some of them may have clambered upon any eleva- 
ted position to get a sight of the prisoner. The 
church windows were high, and some one may have 


A bouil to ctJMb vpoB, 
tktmamt. LKre^ble as it sa j aeoi, 11^ of 
Matlier ipeaks was braiiglit im as erideaee at tka 
trial, and was regarded as wc^^tj and eofiasrra 
proof of Bribers guilt. This was tte iHist ii^nr- 
taat erideoee pcodooed j^aissi tins poor 
yet she was eoodeanied bj tlie Cooit, aad 
coted OB tlie lOth of June. Hbn. Chaa. W. Uphaii, 
anthor of •^Salem ¥ntciicnlt,* lired ob tlie site of 
the ^OliTer MansJon," wiien settled as lainjatrr 
orer the First Chordi. 

The centre oi what is known as the Hoboa hlodc 
is s portion ci the re^dence of the late Jodge 
Daniel Appleton White. Judge White was bom in 
liethoen, June 7, 1776, and was the tenth Jodge of 
IVobate for Essex county. He was a member of 
the Ifassachosetts Senate and ci Congress. He 
came to Salem in 1817, was one of the founders of 
the Theolc^cal School at Cambridge ; was president 
of the Essex Historical Society and of the Salem 
Athensam, and also the first presidents ci the Essex 
Institute and Salem Lyceum. 

Just around the comer of Washington and Church 
streets, east of Dr. Cate's residence, on a portion of 
the Oliver estate, stands Lyceum Hall. It was built 
near the close of the year 1830. Its exterior is un- 
pretentious. Its auditorium is small and plain, but 
for lectures, readings, and such entertainments it is 
most convenient. The hall is semi-circular in form, 
the rows of seats rising one above the other on an 
angle of about thirty-five d^rees. This building is 
the property of the Salem Lyceum, an institution es* 


(M> PAOB va.) 


tablished for the purpose of mutual instruction and 
select entertainments, by means of lectures, debates, 
etc. A fine course of lectures is delivered in this 
hall each year. The Lyceum was established January 
18, 1830, and incorporated on March 4th, of the same 
year. Lyceum hall was first opened on the evening 
of January 19, 1831. The Rev. Brown Emerson 
dedicated it by prayer, and Stephen C. Phillips de^ 
livered the introductory lecture. No undertaking 
of any kind of associated enterpnse in this place, 
has been more successful than this Lyceum. The 
Hon. George B. Loring is now its president. 

The first residence of Governor Endicott in Amer- 
ica, stood just north of the northern corner of 
Washington and Church streets. This building was 
styled in Endicott's day '^a large wooden frame 
house." It was originally built at Cape Ann, for 
Hoger Conant. After Endicott's arrival at Naum- 
keag, it was ^^ shook and brought hither." It was 
two stories high, and the style of its architecture 
was essentially Gothic, the prevailing style of archi- 
tecture of that day. It is said, that portions of this 
veritable dwelling-house of Roger Conant and Gov- 
ernor Endicott, were contained in the building that 
stood on this corner, until recently moved a little 
to the east. Daniel Eppes, Esq., a distinguished 
school-master of the seventeenth century, resided on 
this same corner from 1675 to the time of his death, 
which occurred in 1721. What is now Church street 
was then called Eppcs lane. After Mr. Eppes' death 
a Scotchman, by the name of Somerville, opened 
a public house here, and had for his sign an ^^ Indian 


King." His place was at one time called the ^' Ship 
Tavern/' but it was not the noted tavern of that 
name. Benjamin Coates sacceeded Somerville, and 
in 1773 Mr. Jonathan Webb succeeded Coates. Za- 
dock Buffington, a captain of one of our military 
companies in 1781, and a tavern keeper, succeeded 
Webb. A building removed from this spot but a 
few years ago, and known as the ''Newhall Tavern," 
would lead us to infer that the early dwelling place 
of our first governor was long associated with the 
scenes of entertainment for man and beast. 

The locality of Washington street from the south- 
em end of the Asiatic building to the northern cor- 
ner of Church street, is rich in matters of historical 
interest. By carefully reviewing the scenes and 
events which we have thus far noted, it will be per- 
ceived that, standing midway between these two 
points and from this centre describing a circle with 
a radius not greater than 150 feet, within it is found 
the nucleus of Salem's history, together with much 
that relates to the entire nation. For instance: — 
We have the locality of the first settlement ; the site 
of the home of Roger Williams, the birthplace of 
civil and religious liberty ; the home of Hugh Pe- 
ters, the birthplace of literature and science in Sa- 
lem ; the grounds of the First meeting-house where 
the first church was organized, and where the use of 
the ballot was inaugurated in America ; the spots on 
which stood the first, second, and third Town and 
Court Houses, in which occurred the early persecu- 
tions, the witchcraft trials and the stirring scenes in- 
cidental to the Revolution ; the homes of Governor 


Endicott, Francis Higginson, Samuel Sharpe, Hll- 
liard Veren, Bridget Bishop, and in later years of 
Hon. Charles Wentworth Upham ; also the site of 
the '' Hawthorne town pump," the first prison and 
the early watch-house, together with much more that 
we have previously alluded to. The homes of Roger 
Conant, John Woodbury, Peter Palfray and others, 
not yet mentioned because they are not on Wash- 
ington street, come within the radius of this circle, 
of which our present City Hall forms the hub. The 
seat of our town and city governments has, for 250 
years, clung with wonderful tenacity to this spot 
which is hallowed by so many historical trials and 
triumphs. Here has the soil been pressed by the 
feet of every native and adopted son of Salem, 
fi*om the days of the early settlers to the present 
time; here the Puritans raised their earnest pray- 
ers to God, beseeching him to bless and protect 
their little band of wanderers in a strange land ; 
fi*om here, in 1775, ascended the supplications to 
heaven ft'om the patriot sons of Salem, that they 
might be freed from the tyranny of the mother land 
and possess a country all their own ; here have the 
praises and the rejoicings been freely indulged in 
by the men of later years who have enjoyed the 
great blessings of peace and prosperity, the fruits 
of the early hardships and trials. 

By extending the circle to a radius of a quarter of 
a mile, the material to be found within it will supply 
nearly every link to the historical chain connecting 
the days of Roger Conant with the present time. 
Here, among other things which we shall mention 


during the continaance of our stroll, have been wit- 
nessed the public expressions of homage paid to our 
most noted visitors from time to time. In addition 
to Washington and Lafayette, might be mentioned 
Presidents Mnnroe, Jackson, J. Q. Adams, Polk 
and Grant ; and other national celebrities including 
Alexander Hamilton, Henry Clay, Chas. C. Pinck- 
ney, David Humphreys (an aid to Washington in 
the Revolution), Gen. William Eaton (noted for his 
military achievements against the Bashaw of Trip- 
oli) ; also foreign dignitaries, as Sir Edmund Andros, 
Marquis de Casteleux, Count Castiglioni, Duke de 
la Rochefoucault Liancourt, the Prince of Wales, 
the Duke of Alexis, and others who might be men- 
tioned, from all parts of the globe. The most of 
these people were received as became their rank or 
station, while some of them made but a flying visit 
and their reception was meagre. It certainly seems 
as if it would be impossible to find, anywhere in this 
country, another spot so small around which linger 
BO many hallowed memories. 

Some writers have claimed that ^*the first free 
school in the land, if not in the world, was estab- 
lished at Salem," while other writers have positively 
declared that the first free school in our republic was 
founded in 1621, and located in Virginia. A list of 
subscribers to a school of this kind has been found 
on the last leaf of the first volume of Boston ^* Rec- 
ords.'' It is dated 1636. This date is prior to that 
of the first free school in Salem. According to this, 
Boston has the honor of establishing the second 
free school in the republic, and the first in the Mas- 







(8BB PiQE IM.) 


sftohasetts Colony. The second in this colony was 
established at Salem, in accordance with the follow* 
ing order, passed in September, 1641 : — 

** Ordered that a note be published on next Leo- 
ture day, that such as have children to be kept at 
Bchoole, would bring in their names, and what they 
will give for one whole year ; and also that if anie 
poor bodie hath children, or a childe, to be put to 
Bchoole, and is not able to pay for their schoolings 
that the towne will pay it by rate.'' 

The writer has found no evidence of the exact lo- 
cation of this school, but has seen it stated that it 
was upon the Endicott farm, situated in what is 
now Peabody. The third ^ free school in the colony 
was established at Ipswich in 1642. 

On the east side of Washington street, north of 
Federal street, wi^i the Grammar school-house. It 
was erected in 1785, and was used for many years 
for school purposes. It is still standing, and is now 
occupied as a cabinet shop' by H. W. Thurston. 
Previous to the erection of this building, the Gram- 
mar school was in the brick school-house which was 
torn down the same year to make room for the 
fourth Town and Court House. In this brick school- 
house the books of the Social Libraiy were at one 
time deposited. 

North of Governor Endicott's house, was the lot 
of the Rev. George Burdett. It is described in the 
original grant as the *'Rock beyond Mr. Endicott's 
house." This term ''Rock" doubtless referred to 

1 Felt's ''Annals.'* 


— — — — ^■•-Ji-^— J 



■ i# ik> Bonsilla (•■ k« 

tf He r<B af an iUIIM b ■ 

TfcaTriMiMili r^ihiwi|.iMyiili« ■ iliiiiiiw if 

Mdlkai^isarorikeoU chnk, aal adald 
Ihe ymir niail Flike, nd «thtt oAeom Tlvr* 

I of Oc aia*rt fcu w uu, vadi Bot ■• 

H to edM fk -nM Cknk <ir CWkt i> Sdo.- 

Itoint toHS or avnidm after Ito acfMntiim. 

■H bdi ia ITSi, nd ataod oa the aile of what M 


now the King block, on Essex street. This honse 
was destroyed in the ** great fire of 1774." The 
second hoase was built on the site of the present 
building, and was modelled after Mr. Whitfield's 
chapel in London. Hence it took its present name 
Tabernacle, and the name '* Third Church" went 
into disuse without any formal action or change in 
the church organization. 

The present edifice was erected in 1854, and dedi- 
cated December 1 , of the same year. It cost $21,400. 
It is 115 feet long and 68 feet wide. The spire 
rises to a height of 180 feet. In 1868 an addition 
was made to the edifice in the form of a transept, by 
removing an old brick chapel, which stood in the 
rear of it, and which was built in 1819. This tran- 
sept cost $11,200. It contains accommodations for 
the Sabbath School, and for social and religions 
meetings. Here also the meetings of the Essex 
Congregational Club are held, where are read and 
discussed by the clergy and laymen, valuable and 
interesting papers tending to promote the general 
interest of Congregationalism. This edifice, as en- 
larged, is one of the most commodious in the State. 

Among the noted clergymen settled over this 
church were Samuel Worcester, D.D., his son Sam- 
uel M. Worcester, D.D., and Elias Cornelius, D.D. 
At the present time (December, 1877) the Taber- 
nacle society has no settled pastor. 


JAYIKG stroOcd in m northerij dtrectioa aboai 
waom m portaoo €€ the duuneter of thebutgcr 
y^ emit prerioQsI J mentioiied^ we will pi o c eed 
MB best we can witiiin the remainder of this ortncolar 
apaee, and note the remaining objecta of interest. 
Our ooone wiD be throogh or into the following 
streets: — Federal, North, Ljnde, Sewall, Essex, 
Cambridge, Chestnut, Broad, Summer, Norman^ 
and Front, through D»bj square, Fmirr, Coitral, 
Charter, Ebn, Essex, Union, H^bot, Newburj, to 
the Common; thenoe up Essex, down St. Fi^o", 
throogh Federal and Bridge streets to the North 

Before proceeding farther, let us take one Tiew of 
that portion erf" North rirer stretdied out before us to 
thencMth. The Indians called this* ^Nahnm Keike* 
rirer. It was then broad and beautiful, extending 
from Bass riyer far up into what la now the limits of 


Peabody. Its waters were pure and andefiled by 
the refuse of tanneries, and were unobstructed by 
the many innovations which now line their course. 
Conspicuous among these encroachments in both 
directions, is the ''made land" occupied by the 
railroads. The tide originally flowed up very near 
to the entrance of the tunnel. 

''Nahum Keike," or Naumkeag, as modern orthog- 
raphers write it, was claimed by Cotton Mather and 
John White, both Puritan divines, " to be rather He- 
brew than Indian, and by interpretation the bosom 
of consolation, Nahum signifying comfort and Keike 
signifying a haven." The "Planters Plea," a paper 
printed in London, 1630, claimed by reason of this 
interpretation, that the Indians here anciently had 
some knowledge of the Jews. 

The first highways were along the banks of the 
North and South rivers. Derby, Front, Mill and 
Margin streets, mark the general course of the first 
highway along the South river. The highway along 
the bank of the North river, from what is now Bos- 
ton street to the present Beverly bridge, was discon- 
tinued about the year 1766, when Federal street was 
laid out and accepted. Federal street was so called 
as a sign of the united feeling for such a street, be- 
tween the parties for and against the discontinuance 
of the eight-feet way on the bank of North river. 
That portion from North to Boston streets is through 
what was the last remaining part of the old forest. 
From Washington to North street was formerly 
known as Marlboro' street; from Washington to 
St. Peter street as County street. 


At the Janction of Washington and Federal 
streets, on the north-western comer, stands the 
first Court House ereoted by the county for its ex- 
clusive use. It is constructed of well wrought 
granite, is 105 feet long, 55 feet wide, and is two 
stories high. It was built in 1849, and until 1864 
was used for all court trials and county purposes. 
The old court room is now occupied by the Probate 
Court (Judge George F. Choate). In the other 
parts of the building may be found the offices of the 
Registry of Deeds, County Commissioners, County 
Treasurer, and Clerk of Courts. In the office of 
the latter official may be seen all the old county 
records covering a period of more than 250 years. 
None of them, however, will attract such close at- 
tention from the stranger as the old witch papers. 
Here are the original warrants on which those poor 
victims of Parris's revenge and Puritan superstition 
were arrested, tried and executed. The time may 
come when nothing short of such positive jsvidence 
as these papers, will make the people believe that 
the witchcraft delusion ever had an existence. The 
witch-pins that were produced at the trials of the so- 
called witches, and with which, it was in evidence, 
they had tormented their victims, may be seen in 
this office. An hour or more might be profitably 
spent here by the visitor in examining these evi- 
dences of the superstitious errors of the past. 

The Court House, now in use by the Superior 
Courts of Essex county, stands on the north side 
of Federal street within the same enclosure and 
next westerly to the granite Court House above 


ni^ ygker tkw Ous P. Loni 
C. EMfieott of Ike Sspiaw Cont^ wi liKoli F. 
Bri^m, Oier JKlkeof Ike 

A fev rods west of Ike Comt Houses 

Cknck. Tkis ckBi«k vas fiwiBed ly 


79a, to 

oflea led bj Moustcfs of Ike 
tioa tmm otker dlies. Ia 1804 accessMMfes «> Ike 
■nber of Ike Baptists, a^ Ike lack of a eoATeiH 
icBt place fior wonkip, led to Ike erection of a saaaU 
boose sear Ike site of Ike preaeat koaae of v^iifskip. 
Tbe cbmch was legulariy eoostitBled oa Moadaj, 
Deeembcr 24, 18M, and muabeied sixtees sessbeis 
at its fomiatioo. A aocie^ was ineorporated ia Ike 


The first house was soon unable to accommodate 
the increased congregations, so that within a year 
from the time it was opened another edifice was 
planned. The new house was dedicated January 1, 
1806, the old house being valued at that time ^at 
$2200. The cost of the new house, with improve- 
ments afterwards made and other land purchased 
for the front on Federal street, was nearly $30,000. 
In 1868 this building was thoroughly remodelled at 
a cost of about $20,000. A chapel had been pre- 
viously built, in 1856, at a cost of about $10,000, 
to which parlors and other conveniences were added 
later, at a cost of $1200. On the night of October 
81, 1877, the chapel and a part of the church were 
burned, the whole edifice suffeiing great damage 
from smoke and water, rendering thorough renova- 
tion neces8ar3^ 

The ministers of the church from its foundation 
have been as follows : — Rev. Lucius BoUes, D.D. ; 
Rev. Rufus Babcock, D.D. ; Rev. John Wayland ; 
Rev. T. D. Anderson, D.D. ; Rev. R. C. Mills, D.D. 
The present pastor is the Rev. George E. Merrill, 
who was settled here February 1, 1877. 

On the southern comer of North and Lynde 
streets stands the stately residence of Judge Lord, 
of the Supreme Court. It was built by the late 
Capt. Charles Ward. The original North Church 
meeting-house previously occupied this site. In its 
latter days it was used as a carpet factory, and also 
as a ward-room. Much of the old church timber is 
contained in Judge Lord's house. This land was 
purchased for a meeting-house lot, February 14, 


1772. There were forty-three associates in the pur- 
chase, including John Nutting the former owner of 
the estate. On the 3d of March following, the pur- 
chasers met at the Town Hall and organized as 
*>Th6 proprietors of the North meeting-house.*' 
The house was erected that same year, the founda- 
tion being laid on the 11th of May. 

It was first occupied on the 23d of August, al- 
though then not quite completed. Early in October 
the bell arrived from London. The spire was raised 
on the 19th of the same month. It was in this house 
on February 26, 1775, that the Rev. Thomas Bar- 
nard dismissed his congregation when informed of 
the approach of Col. Leslie and his command. The 
house fronted on Lynde street and was occupied 
until 1836, when the stone edifice, now standing on 
Essex street, was dedicated.^ The corner-stone of 
the new house was laid May 16, 1835. 

The beautiful Lynde street with its fine gardens, 
grass plots and handsome dwellings, is laid over 
what was formerly a swamp. On the east side of 
this street stands the Salem residence of the late 
EuAis Choate, LL.D., now occupied by the Hon. 
Wm. D. Northend. Mr. Choate was a native of 
Essex, Massachusetts, but made his home in Salem 
for many years. He was an eminent lawyer and 
orator, and after the death of Mr. Webster was the 
acknowledged leader of the Massachusetts bar. 

Lynde street takes its name from Benjamin Lynde, 
Chief Justice of Massachusetts in 1729. He took 

^ See page lOS. 


the oath of attorney in 1701, previous to which date 
there was, among the Puritans, a decided antipathy 
to lawyers. He owned the land here at one time, 
and on what was known by the Lynde family as the 
Arbor lot, was erected the first fort in Naurokeag. 
This fort stood about where the Wesleyan Methodist 
Chapel is on Sewall street. It was, in all proba- 
bility, built by Conant and his associates in 1626. 
Tradition informs us that the first town-meetings or 
gatherings of the people were held in this fort ; also 
that Governor Endicott and his Council were accus- 
tomed to assemble there. A palisade was doubtless 
built in this vicinity, to which, in times of attack, 
the women and children fled for protection. By 
good authorities this palisade is supposed to have 
included the entire square now formed by Essex, 
Washington, Norman and Crombie streets. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel was built by Rev. 
J. Fillmore in 1823. It was occupied but a short 
time as a church, until 1872, when it was purchased 
and refitted by a new society from the Lafayette 
Methodist Episcopal Church. It then received the 
name of '' Wesley Chapel." It was re-dedicated in 
May, 1872. Its pastors have been the Rev. Joshua 
Gill, and the Rev. W. J. Hambleton. The present 
pastor is Rev. W. H. Meredith. 

That portion of Essex street from Washington to 
North streets was paved about 1773 ; it was the first 
street paved in Salem, and was called ^^ Old Paved 
street." It is probably the only portion of Essex 
street that was regularly laid out. Nearly the whole 
length of ''Old Paved street" was swept by fire in 


1774, when "Dr. Whitaker's meeting-house,^ the 
custom-house, eight dwellings, fourteen stores, shops 
and barns, besides sheds, and other out houses," 
were destroyed. This portion of Essex street is 
laid over what was originally a swamp, which ex- 
tended north beyond Lynde street. The general 
line of Essex street was formed by chance. Lots of 
one acre each extending from the river's bank, were 
granted to the early settlers. The course of this 
street marks the rear line of these lots from South 
river below Washington street and from North river 
above North street. This accounts for its crooked- 
ness. It was at one time called "King street," and 
afterwards "Main street." 

On the south side of that portion which was 
called "Old Paved street," stands the Barton-square 
Church edifice. It was built in 1824, mainly through 
the efforts of Stephen 0. Phillips, Willard Peele, 
E. Hersey Derby, George Nichols, and Nathaniel 
West, jr., who desired to call to Salem the Rev. 
Henry Colman, then a pastor in Hingham, Mass. 
The estimatied cost of the building and land was 
$25,500. In 1843 the vestry was altered and en- 
larged, and in 1855 the meeting-house was entirely 
remodelled. Its pastors have been the Rev. Henry 
Colman, Rev. James W. Thompson, and the Rev. 
Augustus M. Haskell. The present pastor is the 
Rev. George Batchelor. 

Mechanic Hall, the principal hall in the city, oc- 
cupies the western corner of Essex and Crombie 

> Tabernacle Church. 


streets. It has a fine stage, and a capacity for seat- 
ing 1093 people. It was built in 1839, and was 
altered and improved in 1870. It is the property 
of the Mechanic Hall Corporation, formed in 1839. 
Howard Hall is situated in the basement of this 
building ; also the Salem Charitable Mechanic Asso- 
ciation, organized in 1817, incorporated 1822. 

East of this hall, on Crombie street, is the Crom- 
bie street Orthodox meeting-house. It is built of 
brick, was erected in 1828, and was first used as a 
theatre* Aaron J. Phillips, from the Chatham 
Garden Theatre, N. Y., was the lessee. For the 
prize poem at the opening, $50 were awarded. The 
first play acted in the Salem Theatre was Inchbald's 
comedy, "Wives as they Were." For want of suffi- 
cient patronage the theatre was sold in 1832 for a 
house of worship to the congregation of the Rev. 
William Williams. The present pastor is the Rev. 
Hugh Elder. 

The first brick house in Salem was built on the 
eastern corner of Essex and Crombie streets in 1707. 
It belonged to Mr. BeoJ. Marston. It is said to- 
have been pulled down because his wife thought it 
damp and injurious to health, a fact which created 
a strong prejudice here for a time against brick 
houses. This edifice had free-stone capitals for its 
front corners, and was an elegant mansion for its 
day. The Crombie tavern afterward occupied this 
site. It is now occupied by W. C. Packard & Co.'s 
furniture warerooms. 

On the western corner of Essex and North streets, 
stands what is generally known at the present time 
as " The Old Witch-House.*' By some it is known 


as the ^^Curwen House/' Our local antiquarians 
have more fittingly teimed it the '^ Roger Williams 
House/' they having concluded, ftrom the best proofs 
in existence, that it is the identical house in which 
Roger Williams lived when exiled by an order of 
the General Council in 1635, and in which he per- 
sisted in preaching his doctrines during the fall of 
that year, and fVom whence he fled in January, 1636, 
to become the founder of the State of Rhode Island. 
The house has undergone several transformations. 
It is shown, on page 68, as it was in the eighteenth 
century. The date of the erection of this house is 
not known. Felt says '' it was built by Capt, George 
Corwin in 1642." This is now known to be incorrect, 
as George Corwin came to Salem in 1638, was Cap- 
tain of a company of cavalry, and lived on Wash- 
ington street, near the corner of Norman street, 
until 1660, in the house which, in 1692, was occu- 
pied by his grandson, the sheriff. 

There are early town documents in existence 
proving that the estate on the corner of North and 
Essex streets, was owned by Roger Williams, and 
that the house which stood upon it in 1640, had been 
occupied by him. It appears that this estate after- 
wards came into the possession of Capt. Richard 
Davenport'^ The Commoner's Records show that 
Capt. Davenport owned another house. It stood 
prior to 1661, on that part of the Williams estate 
which in 1721 was called ^Uhe garden." This latter 
house stood at some distance from Essex street, and 
was the one occupied by Davenport, when, with En- 
dicott, he cut the cross from the King's colors, be- 
cause as they declared, "it savored of popery." In 


] 644 Davenport removed to Boston and took com- 
mand of the first defence raised upon Castle Island 
(now Fort Independence), Boston harbor. He was 
killed by lightning while serving at his post July 
15, ^1665, aged 60 years. The whole country 
mourned the loss of this veteran soldier. 

In 1674 the administrators of Davenport's estate 
conveyed the Roger Williams house, and the two 
acres of land adjoining, one hundred and sixty feet 
in width and extending to the North river, to Jona- 
than Corwin, Esq., who occupied it for many years. 
Corwin was one of the judges in the witchcraft tri- 
als, and tradition handed down through the Curwen 
family, has it that private examinations of individ- 
uals charged with witchcraft, or perhaps grand jury 
proceedings, were carried on in one of the apart- 
ments of this house. 

In the seventeenth century this edifice was one of 
the most tasteful in Salem. It has undergone sev- 
eral transformations since then, yet a portion of it 
still looks like the production of a by-gone age. 
Felt says, ^*It was the premises of a noted robbery 
in 1684." The scenes which have made this build- 
ing, among others, so attractive to visitors from 
abroad were enacted near the close of the seven- 
teenth century, and constitute the most 'tragic epi- 
sode in the history of Salem, or, in fact, of the 
entire country. They are known as the "Witch- 
craft Delusion." I This episode has attracted uni- 

> For farther particulars of this tragedy than are given in tliia 
book, see *' Salem Witchcraft,'' 2 Vols., 8to, 1867, by Chas. W. Upham. 


versal attention since the date of its occurrence, and 
will ever make Salem notable throughout the world. 
It is a chapter of the most deplorable events ; so 
indelibly are they impressed upon the pages of his- 
tory that they can never be erased. Yet this fearful 
experience was not without its beneficial effects. It 
has taught the world that under peculiar circum- 
stances and more particularly of public excitements, 
even intelligent people may become the most de- 
luded. Also that superstition and religious fanat- 
icism may bring many an innocent victim to an 
untimely death. 

The solemn gloomy turn imparted to the first set- 
tlers, by reason of the persecutions in the old 
world, together with the trials and privations expe- 
rienced in this, was naturally enough transmitted to 
their children. These children were reared in a 
wilderness where neither civilization nor cultivation 
prevailed, and where wild beasts and Indians, roam- 
ing at large, were especial objects of fear. They 
suffered in mind a want of confidence and compas- 
sion, which gave rise to feelings of both horror and 
hostility. Added to this there were disturbances 
among them of a political nature, and there were no 
means of speedy communication between the scat- 
tered villages. Hostile privateers were on the sea 
coast, and almost every person in public ofiSce was 
the victim of jealousies, animosities, and discontent. 
It was likewise an age of superstition. 

Books had been printed in England on the subject 
of witchcraft. Some of them, no doubt, had reaohed 
here. Under the general gloomy state of affairs it 


had become to be quite a general belief, that Satan 
was at large and was working successfully in the 
colony ; that some of the colonists even, had entered 
into a compact with him, pledged to a furtherance 
of his cause. If such persons were females they 
were termed ^^ witches ;'' if males, they were called 
^* wizards/' When suspected they were made the 
special objects of persecution. The entire people, 
in their religious zeal and depressed public spirits, 
considered them in the light of persons who had 
transferred their allegiance and worship from Gk>d 
to the devil. 

The people of Salem were not alone in the belief 
that witchcraft was a crime, and could bo detected, 
and that when detected the witch, or wizard, should 
be punished. As early as 1648, our General Court 
considered seriously the method adopted in the old 
country for the discovery of witches, so that they 
might apply it to a case, to which their attention 
had then already been called. Previous to the great 
development of the delusion here, various individuals 
belonging to other parts of the colony had been 
tried for the offence. Some of them had been ex- 

Salem witchcraft commenced during the month of 
February, 1692, at the house of the Rev. Samuel 
Farris, in that part of the original town, which is 
now Danvers. The daughter of Mr. Parris and his 
niece, Abigail Williams, aged nine and twelve years 
respectively, began to act ^' in a strange and unusual 
manner." They would utter loud and piteous cries, 
creep into holes, hide under benches, and put them- 


selves into odd postures. The physicians pro- 
nounced them bewitched, and all the ministers were 
invited to meet at Mr. Parris' house, and unite with 
him in solemn religious services. As the interest in 
their actions increased, they became more violent, 
and accused Tituba, a South American slave in the 
Parris family, of having bewitched them. Mr. Par- 
ris beat Tituba and compelled her to acknowledge 
herself guilty. These children next complained of 
Sarah Goode and Sarah Osborne, and then of two 
other women of excellent character, Corey and 
Nurse. All were thrown into prison. John, Tituba's 
husband, for his own safety, accused others. The 
demon was thus let loose in the midst of the people, 
but it was the demon of superstition rather than the 
demon of witchery. Says Thatcher on this subject, 
" So violent was the popular prejudice against every 
appearance of witchcraft, that it was deemed meri- 
torious to denounce all that gave the least reason for 
suspicion. Eveiy child and every gossip was pre- 
pared to recognize a witch, and no one could be 
certain of personal safety. As the infatuation in- 
creased, many of the most reputable females, and 
several males also, were apprehended and committed 
to prison. There is good reason to believe that, in 
some instances, the vicious and abandoned availed 
themselves of gratifying their corrupt passions, of 
envy, malice and revenge." Sad indeed was the 
delusion, and shocking the extent to which the be- 
wildered imaginations and excited passions of the 
people hurried them on to deeds for which they are 
now visited with unmeasured reproach. 


The following is a list of those who lost their lives 
as witches, or wizards, by the hand of the execa- 
tioner : — 

Eev. Gro. Burroughs, of Wells, Maine ; Wilmot Rbbd, 
of Marblehead ; Margakkt Scot, of Rowley; Susanna 
Martin, of Amesbury; Elizadktu Howb, of Ipswich; 
Sarah Wildks and Mary Estus, of TopsAeld ; Samurl 
Wardwkll, Martha Curuikh, and Mary Parkrr, of An- 
dover ; John rROCTOR, Gro. Jacobs, sen., John Wii.lard, 
Sarah Goodr, Ukukcca Ni)rsk» Giles Couby and Martha 
Corey, of Salem Village; Ann Pudeatbr, Bridgbt 
Bishop, and Alice Parker, of Salem. 

Corey was pressed to death, because he refused 
to speak, knowing that speech would avail him 
nothing. His tongue was pressed out of his mouth, 
but was forced in again by the sheriff with his cane. 
About 150 persons in all were accused of witchcraft, 
including nine children, varying from 5 to 14 years. 

Various were the accusations brought against 
them, such as having familiarity with ^Hhe black- 
man," who it was claimed was ever by their side 
whispering in their ear; holding dayB of hellish 
fasts and thanksgivings; eating red bread and 
drinking blood ; transforming themselves and their 
victims into various forms ; signing contracts with 
Satan ; entering his employ, and yielding to his 
commands; afflicting others by pinching, pricking 
with pins, striking, etc., when many miles distant; 
and divers other accusations that would be laughed 
to scorn at the present day. All matters of afflic- 
tion or of discord among the people, such as a con- 
troversy respecting the settlement of a minister, 


which had for a time been going on ; also the death 
of some of the most influential of the citizens, were 
attributed to Satanic influences. With such inflam- 
mable matter, in an age of superstition, the result 
is not to be wondered at. 

Cotton Mather, one of the most learned ministers 
of that time led in the preaching to the people of 
sermons designed to inflame rather than abate the 
panic. He adopted the doctrine of demons, and 
was exceedingly energetic in endeavoring to spread 
the delusion into other parts of the colony. To him 
is largely ascribed the extent of this calamity. It 
is questionable with some writers as to whether he 
did not largely impose upon the superstitions of the 
people, for some "Jesuitical purpose." In these days 
of charity, we are rather inclined to think that he led, 
only because he was looked up to in this as in other 
things as a leader, and that instead of calmly and rea- 
sonably investigating the accusations made, he fell 
in with the others and supported and increased their 
importance, by well-laid arguments and discussions. 
On the simplest and the most absurd evidence people 
of most exemplary christian character were put on 
trial, and, unless they could prove themselves not to 
be in league with Satan, they were sentenced to 

Innocence was a diflScult thing to prove under the 
excited state of the people, magistrates and the 
clergy. Nothing that the poor accused persons 
could say, or do, would be taken as other than the 
exercise of powers bestowed on them by the evil 
one. Among other foolish and harsh measures to test 


witches, was to take the accused to a river or pond, 
and throw them in. If they swam they were pro- 
nounced witches and treated as such ; if they could 
not swim they would suffer the danger of being 
drowned. The most effectual way to escape accusa- 
tion, was to become an accuser, and the number of 
"witches," and "wizards," rapidly increased. "From 
March to August, 1692," writes Dr. Bentley, "was 
the most distressing time Salem ever knew: busi- 
ness was interrupted, the town deserted, terror was 
in every countenance, and distress in every heart. 
Every place was the subject of some direful tale, fear 
haunted every street, melancholy dwelt in silence 
in every place after the sun retired. The population 
was diminished, business could not for some time 
recover its former channels, and the innocent suf- 
fered with the guilty. But as soon as the judges 
ceased to condemn, the people ceased to accuse. 
Terror at the violence and the guilt of the proceed- 
iugs, succeeded instantly to the conviction of blind 
zeal, and what every man had encouraged, all now 
professed to abhor. Every expression of sorrow 
was found in Salem. The church erased all the ig- 
nominy they had attached to the dead, by recording 
a most humble acknowledgment of their error. But 
a diminished population, the injury done to religion, 
and the distress of the aggrieved, were seen and felt 
with the greatest sorrow." 

When the authorities were convinced of their er- 
ror, the Governor ordered all those accused and not 
tried, to be discharged. The Salem prison was full 
of them. Such a "Jail Delivery" was never known 


before or since in New England. The witchcraft 
delusion was, at the best, a most unhappy affair, but 
as Hon. Joseph Story has said, '* We may lament 
the errors of the times which led to these persecu- 
tions, but surely our ancestors had no special reasons 
for shame, in a belief which had the universal sanc- 
tion of their own and all former ages, which counted 
in its train, philosophers as well as enthusiasts; 
which was graced by the learning of prelates, as 
well as by the countenance of kings ; which the law 
supported by its mandates, and the purest judges 
felt no compunctions in enforcing." Much as we 
might desire to expunge this record, no history of 
Salem, of the state, of the country, or of the world, 
would be complete without its narration. 

A little to the west of the Roger Williams house, 
stands the present fine edifice of the North Church. 
The house was first finished plain, but in 1847 it 
received its present ornamentation under the direc- 
tion of the late Francis Peabody. Its entire cost, 
including the land it occupies, was $30,000. Among 
its eminent clergymen were the Rev. Thos. Barnard, 
D.D., son of the Rev. Thomas, of tlie First Church ; 
Rev. John E. Abbott, Rev. John Brazier, Rev. Oc- 
tavius B. Frothingham and Rev. Charles B. Lowe. 
The present pastor is the Rev. E. B. Willson. The 
100th anniversaiy of "Leslie's retreat" was com- 
memorated in this church on the 26th of February, 
1875. Addresses were delivered by Mayor Wil- 
liams and the Rev. E. B. Willson, and a scholarly 
oration delivered by the Hon. George B. Loring. 
The event was one of unusual interest. The 50th 


anniversary of the same event was observed, in 
1825, in the old North meeting-house. 

A few rods west of the North Church, is the resi- 
dence of Dr. George B. Loring. Dr. Loring is a 
noted politician, an eminent scholar, and a fine ora- 
tor. He is a native of North Andover, though long 
a resident of Salem. He has been a member of 
the State Legislature, was president of the State 
Senate for three or four years, and is our present 
representative in Congress. 

About opposite Dr. Loring*s, on Essex street, 
stands the New Jerusalem Church edifice. This 
house was dedicated April 18, 1872. The property 
cost $17,000. The first convert to the faith of this 
church in Salem, is believed to have been Major Jo- 
seph Hiller, who was appointed Collector of the port 
of Salem, under Washington's administration. Ma- 
jor Hiller died in 1814. His portrait hangs in the 
Custom House. The first meeting for worship was 
held in 1840, at the house of Mrs. Burleigh, corner 
of Lynde and Washington streets. There were pres- 
ent but four persons. In the 3'ear 1844, Rev. O. P. 
Hiller, a grandson of Major Hiller, came to Salem, 
and preached in Lyceum Hall on the evening of July 
24th, to about four hundred people. 

In 1862, Rev. T. B. Hayward was invited to come 
to Salem, by the few people then interested in the 
" Heavenly Doctrines." As the result of his labors 
the " Salem Society of the New Jerusalem Church," 
consisting of thirteen member^, was organized by 
him January 25, 1863. Mr. Hayward left the next 
3'ear. Among his successors were the Rev. Abiel 


Silver, Rev. L. 6. Jordan, and the present pastor, 
Rev. A. F. Frost. The society now has thirty-four 
members, with a Sabbath School of forty children, 
the usual Sabbath congregation being about sixty. 

On the site of the New Jerusalem Church a tavern 
with the sign of an eagle was kept in 1794, by Jacob 
Bacon. This building was removed and is now 
standing in Botts' court. 

Thomas Putnam was the first clerk of Salem Vil- 
lage. His town residence was on the north side of 
Essex street. Its front embraced the western part 
of the present North Church grounds, and extended 
to a point just beyond the head of Cambridge street. 
Thomas Putnam possessed a large property by in- 
heritance, took an active part in military, ecclesi- 
astical, and municipal affairs. He was the grand- 
father of the famous Revolutionary General, Israel 

The South Church edifice occupies the eastern 
corner of Cambridge and Chestnut streets. It was 
built in 1804. Its dimensions are 66 by 80 feet, 
with a spire 166 feet high. The building and land 
it occupies cost $23,819.78. The church at its first 
erection, was sadly destitute of modern elegancies 
and conveniences. There is no record of any heat- 
ing apparatus until 1812, when a brick Russian 
stove was used. In 1860 the interior of the church 
was remodelled and various repairs made at a cost 
of nearly $7000. 

As before stated the Tabernacle Church society 
was formed by members who seceded from the First 
Church. In 1774 another difiSculty arose in the se- 

SALEir — ^PAST Airo PRBSEMT. 105 

ceding society, over a question of church govern- 
ment, during which controversy their house of wor- 
ship was burned ^ and the church was rent assunder. 
The minority formed the nucleus of the church and 
society now worshipping in the South Church. Their 
first place of worship was in what was known as the 
*' Assembly Building," which occupied the land back 
of tlie present church, where the chapel now stands. 
It was first occupied, December 18, 1774, and then 
contained twentj'-eight wall pews and twenty-eiglit 
floor pews. Since the separation of the Tabernacle 
society, the South parish has had only four settled 
pastors, viz.: — Rev. Daniel Hopkins, D.D., Rev. 
Brown Emerson, D.D., Rev. Israel E. Dwinell, D.D., 
and the present pastor. Rev. Edward S. At wood. 
In the seventeenth century the lot upon which the 
South Church stands, was used as a brick yard. 

Opposite the South Church, on the south-eastern 
corner of Chestnut and Cambridge streets, stands 
the Hamilton Hall building. Tiiis hall was built 
during the Revolutionary war period, by an associa- 
tion of wealthy gentlemen, for assemblies. Like the 
old building above mentioned, it was at one time 
called the Assembly building. 

Chestnut street is the finest street in Salem. It 
is shaded with stately elms, and on either side are 
rows of elegant mansions, occupied mostly by the 
descendants of our early merchant princes. 

House No. 18 Broad street was built by John 
Pickering in 1650. It is known as the Pickering 

> See page 89. 


house. Timothy Pickering, LL. D., soldier and 
statesman, occupied this liouse. It has always re- 
mained in the family, and is to-day the residence of 
John Pickering, broker. 

Timothy Pickering was one of the most remarka- 
ble of Salem men. He was born here July 17, 1745, 
and died January 29, 1829. Admitted to the bar in 
1768, he became the cliampion and leader of tlie 
patriots of Essex county. He wrote and delivered 
the address of the people of Salem to Gov. Gage in 
1774, on the occasion of the Boston port bill. He 
was the colonel in command of the troops who op- 
posed the first armed resistance to the British troops, 
February 26, 1775, at North bridge, and prevented 
their crossing to seize the cannon concealed in North 
Salem. He was a Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, for Essex county, and solo Judge of the 
Maritime Court, for the middle district. In the fall 
of 1776, with his regiment of 700 men, he joined 
Washington in N. J. He was made adjutant-gen- 
eral of the army in 1777, and took part in the battles 
of Brandywine and Germantown. He was made a 
member of the board of war in November of the 
same year; and succeeded Gen. Greene as quarter- 
master-general in 1780. After the war he removed 
to Philadelphia. In 1786 he was sent to adjust a 
controversy between various claimants of the Wyo- 
ming settlement. During this trouble he was way- 
laid by a band of disguised persons near Wilkesbarre, 
Pa., and he was imprisoned, ill-treated, and his life 
was threatened. When he re-appeared to his family, 
twenty days later, he was so changed by his suffer- 


(an PAOB 




ings that bis children did not recognize him. In 
1787 he was the delegate of Luzerne county, to the 
Pennsylvania Convention for considering the United 
States' Constitution, and zealously favored its adop- 
tion. He afterwards filled the national offices of 
post-master general, secretary of war, and secretary 
of state. He retired from office poor, and settled 
in a log-hut on some wild lands in Pennsylvania. 
He finally returned to Salem, and was subsequently 
made Chief Justice of Essex county Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, was a United States senator ; member 
of the board of war of Massachusetts, during the 
war of 1812-15, and later a member of Congress. 
He was one of the leaders of the Federal party in 
the United States, a talented writer, a brave and 
patriotic soldier, apd an impartial, able and ener- 
getic public officer. 

Nearly opposite the Pickering house, on the south- 
ern corner of Broad and Summer streets, stands 
one of the handsomest public buildings in our city. 
It is the State Normal School building, a fine brick 
structure of three stories, the style of architecture 
being modest yet ver}^ tasty. This school was es- 
tablished by the State, with the liberal co-operation 
of the city of Salem and the Eastern Railway Com- 
pany. Its purpose is that of fitting female school 
teachers for their work. It has had three princi- 
pals: — Richard Edwards, Alpheus Crosby, and the 
present principal Daniel B. Hagar, all of whom have 
met with great success. Under the present man- 
agement, during the past twelve years the institution 
has become the largest and the acknowledged best 


Normal School in the Commonwealth. The first 
class was received in September, 1854, since which 
time 1970 ladies have been members of the school. 
Nine hundred have graduated. The instruction is 
based on the common-sense idea of that which is 
practical, the aim being rather to teach how to learn 
than to teach any special branch, though all common 
English branches are taught, and some of the higher 
studies may be pursued. The school generally has 
on an average about 225 pupils. 

West of the above building stands the Salem 
High-School building. It is a very modest struc- 
ture, yet one that very well answers its purpose. 
This school is under the charge of J. W. Perkins. 
It graduates a large number of ladies and gentlemen 
every year. Between the High and the Normal 
School buildings is a little brick school-house which 
was used many years ago. 

The first grammar school in Salem was established 
in 1637. In 1699 there were but twenty scholars. 
The Rev. John Fisk was the first teacher, and Mr. 
Oliver Carlton the last teacher of this school in its 
separate identity. It was called successively the 
Grammar School, the Latin and the Fisk. An 
English High School for boys was founded in 1827 
and located in the Latin-School building ; it was 
subsequently named the Bowditch School. Gen. 
Henry K. Oliver was the first, and Mr. Albert G. 
Boyden the last, teacher of the Boys' High School. 
In 1845 the High School for girls was established. 
It was called the Saltonstall School. Its first loca- 
tion was in a school-house which stood on the south 


side of Federal street, just west of Washington 
street ; next in Franklin building ; then in Lynde 
place. Mr. Edward Jocelj^n and Mr. Moses P. 
Chase were its first and last teachers. A good his- 
tory of the several other schools of Salem can be 
found in the Heport of the School Superintendent, 
A. D. Small, for 1875. 

The grammar schools and their principals in Sa- 
lem, to-day are as follows: — Bentley (for girls), 
Hannah £. Choate ; Bowditch, Frank L. Smith ; 
Holly street, Owen B. Stone ; Phillips (for boys), 
Edwin R. Bigelow ; Pickering, Wm. P. Hayward. 
There are also twelve primary schools and five aux- 
iliary schools, including the evening, and Free Hand 
and Mechanical drawing schools. In 1697 the in- 
come from rent of Baker's Island, the two Misery 
Islands, and Beverly Ferry, was applied to assist in 
the support of the grammar school in Salem, in ad- 
dition to twelve shillings each, paid by the scholars. 

Directly in the rear of the Normal and High 
School buildings, is the Broad street burying ground. 
This was commenced about 1655 and was called 
burying hill. Among the many buried here is 
Capt. George Corwin, the sheriff of Salem in the 
witchcraft days, who when Giles Corey's tongue was 
pressed from his mouth, forced it back again with 
his cane. For the part which he, by virtue of his 
office, was obliged to take in executing the law upon 
those condemned for witchcraft, he was severely 
persecuted by the friends of the deceased, and at 
the time of his death (1696) so great was the excite- 
ment against him, that his friends were unable for a 


time to carry his body to the family tomb, and his 
remains were kept buried in the cellar of his house 
until the excitement had subsided. Hutcliinson's 
History of Massachusetts mentions him as being in 
the expedition against Canada, under Sir William 
Fhipps, in 1660. 

The northern corner of Chestnut and Summer 
streets, was used by John Mason from 1661 to 1687, 
for making bricks, and afterwards by Isaac Stearns 
for the same purpose. This brick 3'ard was situated 
near the head of Ruck's creek.^ What was known 
as Ruck's Village 2 was situated between Norman 
and Creek streets, and east of Summer street. Tra- 
dition has it that vessels were built as far up as 
Chestnut street and launched into the creek. 

*■ See page 81. * See page 84. 


aiTB or wn-LiAu gbax's gaedbh. 


HOMB OF Skelton.— Town Hall Ain> Market.~Monroe*8 Visit. 
—Old Derbt Mansion.—Brownb Familt.— Derby Family.— 
CoNANT^s House.— Woodbury E8tate.--Ship Tavbrw.— Man- 
sion House.— Pa LFRAYHoMBSTBAD.-i- Kino's ArmTavern.^ 
Destruction of Tea.— Sun Tavbhn.- Essex House.- Wil- 
liam Gray.— Salem Newspapers, past and present.— Post 
Offices.— Early Custom Houses.- Salem Athen;bum.— 
American Association for the Advancement of Sciencb.— 
Charter Street Burying Ground.— Old Corduroy Road.— 
Early Commerce.— Salem Hospital.— Cathouo Churches. 

[|E now pass through Norman street, cross 
Washington, and enter Front street. The 
dwelling house of the Rev. Mr. Skelton, first 
pastor of the First Church, stood about where 
the police station now stands. Samuel Skelton was 
the personal friend and early spiritual guide of 
Governor Endicott, who experienced religious con- 
viction under his preaching in the old country. 

Town Hall stands in the middle of Derby square, 
north of Front street. It was built in 1816-17. It 
is 100 feet long, 40 feet wide, two stories high and 
cost about $12,000. It was first publicly used upon 
the occasion of President Monroe's visit to Salem, 
July 8, 1817. Here he was introduced to our princi- 
pal men, and to the ladies and gentlemen assembled. 
On the northern wall, inside this hall, directly over 
the rostrum, may to-day be seen a large carved me- 
dallion head of George Washington, executed by 
Mr. Samuel Mclnture of Salem, from an original 



design made by him from life, when Gen. Washing- 
ton visited Salem. It is said to be a most admirable 
likeness. This hall, for legitimate municipal pur- 
poses, was abandoned when Salem became incorpo- 
rated as a city, March 23, 1836. The basement and 
first floor of this building are occupied for a City 
Market, and the square below it, and between it and 
Front street, is sometimes called ^^ Market square," 
because the country teams with their produce for 
sale assemble here. Nearly every Saturday after- 
noon and evening, a hundred and fifty or more mar- 
ket teams are gathered in and about this place, 
presenting a lively and interesting sight. The sur- 
roundings of the Town Hall, are hotels, billiard 
halls, dining and liquor saloons. The old hall in 
the second story retains much of its original look, 
and is used for local political rallies, temperance 
meetings, and like gatherings where economy is 

The land occupied by Derby square was comprised 
in the fine estate of Elias Haskett Derby, the noted 
merchant. This estate was laid out into fine walks 
and gardens, and extended from Essex street to a 
terrace which overhung the river. The mansion 
upon it, which Mr. Derby completed and occupied 
but a few months before his death, was one of the 
most elegant in the town. It was built in 1799, was 
of wood, three stories in height, and cost $80,000. 
It was enriched by a conservatory and a large and 
valuable library. It occupied the site of the three- 
story mansard roof house built by the Hon. Samuel 
Browne, the former owner of the land. 


Hon. Samnel Browne was born in 1669 : was the 
first town treasurer, a representative to tlie General 
Court, Judge of the Superior Court, colonel of the 
Salem regiment, and the greatest merchant of his 
day in the county of Essex. His estate included 
the whole of the present Derby square with land 
both east and west of it. He died in 1731, leaving 
his house to his son Samuel. Samuel died in 1742, 
leaving this house to his son William. William also 
purchased of his cousin, William Burnett Browne, a 
house on the site of the Bowker Block, afterwards 
known as the " Sun Tavern." The Browne family 
was very large and was one of the most respected 
and influential of all the Salem families previous 
to the Revolutionary war. They then showed de- 
cided preferences for the cause of England, and 
were reckoned among the stanchest loyalists in 

The above mentioned William was a grandson of 
Governor Burnett. He was many years a represen- 
tative of Salem ; was one of the seventeen rescin- 
ders in 1768; a colonel of the Essex militia; a 
Judge of the Superior Court to 1774. During the 
Revolutionary war he was banished from Salem as 
a dangerous tory. He took refuge in Boston, and 
went to England in March, 1776, when the King's 
troops left Boston. During the course of the war 
his whole estate was confiscated. The house east 
of the site of Hale's building was afterwards pur- 
chased by Elias Haskett Derby. His was the only 
property confiscated in Salem. Browne was Gover- 
nor of Bermuda in 1781-90. 


8ALBlf — ^PAST AND PBB8BNT. 117 

that of the old Spartan. **Find them if you can I 
take them if you canl they will never be surren* 

His widow lived to found the Derby Academy, 
at Hingham; his eldest son, Richard, was an ar> 
dent patriot, and another of his sons, John Derby, 
was an owner of the ship Ck>lambia, which on her 
second voyage discovered the Columbia river. John 
Derby also carried to England the first news of the 
battle of Lexington, and at the close of the war 
brought home from France, the first news of peace. 
While most of the rich men of Massachusetts clung 
to the mother country at the commencement of the 
war, none of the Derby name followed their example. 

Elias Haskett Derby, Jr., known during the Rev- 
olutionary war as General Derby, was a son of the 
great merchant, and one of the founders of the East 
India trade. He was the first importer of Merino 
sheep, and began the manufacture of American 
broadcloth during the war of 1812. Ezekiel Hersey 
Derby, another son, built, owned, and occupied as 
his winter residence, the western portion of the 
building now known as '^Maynes" block, on Essex 
street, directly opposite Derby square. He owned 
the larger portion of ^' South-fields," now South Sa- 
lem, and what is now known as the Lafayette House, 
was his summer residence. A third Elias Haskett 
Derby, the son of E. Haskett, jr., studied law with 
Daniel Webster, was president of the Old Colony 
Railroad, a writer for the leading magazines of the 
day, was active in promoting the commercial inter- 
ests of Boston, and an earnest and zealous advocate 
















of the construction of iron-clads during the late 
civil war. Maynes' block is supposed to cover the 
spot on which, in 1626, Roger Conant erected the 
first house in Salem. 

The house of John Woodbury, one of the Old 
Planters, stood just west of Maynes' block, and 
about opposite Hale's building. Capt. George Cor- 
win, father of Jonathan, purchased the Woodbury 
estate in 1660, and erected thereon a <^fine man- 
sion." It seems as probable that this was the 
building in which the witchcraft examinations were 
made, as it is that they took place in the Roger Wil- 
liams house. Corwin died in 1685, leaving the 
mansion and a large fortune to his widow and chil- 
dren, judge Jonathan Corwin^ was the adminis- 
trator of his affairs and principal heir. It is not 
unlikely that the judge during the next seven years, 
changed his residence from the Roger Williams 
house, to the "fine mansion" left by his father, 
leaving the former dwelling-house to his own chil- 
dren. This would have made his residence "near to 
the court house," as the records declare. 

Previous to 1692, John Gedney kept what he 
called the "Ship Tavern." It was situated on the 
spot now occupied by the West block. John Stacy 
was his successor. In 1693 Francis Ellis was al- 
lowed to keep the " Ship Tavern," and he was suc- 
ceeded by Henry Sharpe from Boston. This tavern 
was the most noted in Salem of the seventeenth 
century. It was torn down about 1740. 

> See page 98. 


On the site of the noted «^Ship Tavern/' John 
Turner, Esq., built a very fine mansion in 1748. 
Judge Andrew Oliver bought it of Turner, and 
Capt. Nathaniel West bought it of Oliver. In 
1838 it was leased as a tavern, and first opened in 
that year on the occasion of the visit of President 
Andrew Jackson to Salem. It was called the Man- 
sion House, and was destroyed by fire about twenty 
years ago. 

Between the West block, nearly opposite Central 
street, and the head of St. Peter street, was the 
homestead of Peter Palfray, another of the ^^Old 
Planters." This land afterwards became the prop- 
erty of the Browne family, a noted family in the 
early history of Salem. Since 1675, or thereabout, 
this vicinity has been noted for its public houses. 
We find that various writers have, from time to 
time, mentioned the following taverns as having 
occupied this spot : Mr. Stacy's tavern, Mr. Pratt's 
tavern, Mr. Goodhue's tavern, Mr. Robinson's tav- 
ern, BenJ. Webb's tavern, the King's Arm tavern, 
the Sun tavern, the Essex Coffee House, the Lafay- 
ette Coffee House, and now the Essex House. From 
the manner in which their location and order of es- 
tablishment has been given, it is hard to present any 
farther information as correctly as we would wish, 
but the following cannot be far from the real facts. 

East of the ^^Ship Tavern," between where the 
present West block and the present Essex House 
is, William Browne, Esq., in 1652, built a fine man- 
sion. During the Dutch wars a vast sum in New 
England shillings was hidden in one of the chim- 


neys. It was found in 1730, when Col. Benjamin 
Browne was married. About 1770, William Good- 
hue occupied this mansion as a tavern. It was 
called the '' King's Arm Tavern." At the commence- 
ment of the war feeling against the mother country, 
the name of this tavern was changed to the ^^ Sun 
Tavern." Samuel Robinson succeeded Groodhue, and 
Benjamin Webb succeeded Robinson. Webb was 
succeeded by his son, Jonathan, who continued here 
until the estate was purchased by William Gray, the 
merchant. Mr. Gray had the "Sun Tavern" taken 
down about 1800, to accommodate his new brick 
house. After Mr. Gray moved to his new mansion, 
the "Sun Tavern" was removed to his old mansion 
which occupied the site of the present Bowker block. 
In 1768 the merchants and traders of Salem met at 
the "King's Arm Tavern," and voted unanimously 
that during the year 1769 they would not purchase 
or import any goods from Great Britain, except coal, 
salt and such articles necessary for the fisheries, nor 
would they ever again import any tea, glass, paper, 
or painters' colors, until the acts imposing duties on 
these colonies were repealed. These duties created 
great dissatisfaction among the people of this and 
other ports, and the feeling was made manifest in 
various ways. In 1774 a small cask of tea sent from 
Boston, was seized and burned in School street. 
Tea was, however, smuggled into the town, and used 
in secret. David Mason had the charge of two chests 
smuggled in by a colored man. He delivered them 
over to the boys, who took them to the Common 
and made a bonfire of them. On the 18th of July, 


1776, the feeling was so bitter against the crown 
that the king's arms, and every sign with any resem- 
blance of it, whether of lion and crown, or of pestle, 
mortar and crown, etc., together with every sign that 
belonged to a tory, were taken down, and a general 
conflagration made of them in King street. 

In 1774 a tavern called the ^^ Salem Coffee House" 
was opened near the St. Peter's Church. The tav- 
ern at this time known as the *' Ship Tavern," was 
on the corner of Washington and Church streets, as 
mentioned on page 73. In 1814 Prince Stetson occu- 
pied the elegant mansion of William Gray. It was 
then called the ^' Esdex Coffee House." Lafayette 
stopped here when he made his last visit to Salem, 
and the name of the house was changed to that of 
the '* Lafayette Coffee House." About 1842 it was 
called the Essex House, and it retains that name 
to-day. The building has been enlarged and altered 
f^om its original appearance. The eastern wing 
of this building was formerly Mr. Gray's stable. 
Among our illustrations will be found a little row 
of buildings, including ^^ Cousins' Bee Hive," which 
cover the site of William Gray's garden, on the 
corner of Essex and St. Peter streets. 

William Gray was one of Salem's eminent mer- 
chants. He was born in Lynn, Massachusetts, June, 
1750. He was early apprenticed to a merchant in 
Salem, and was afterwards in the employ of Capt. 
Bichard Derby. Beginning business for himself, he 
amassed great wealth, having at one time more than 
sixty sail of square-rigged vessels on the ocean, 
The French Revolution created strong differences 


of political feelings in this country. * The Repub- 
licans favored the Revolution, and were called Jao- 
obins. The Federalists opposed it. When the 
excesses of the revolutionists had thrown a degree 
of odium upon their supporters here, the Republi- 
cans were stigmatized by their opponents as Demo- 
crats. They adopted the faame, and have since held 
it as the emblem of their advocacy of the people's 
rights. The Federalists, losing the popularity of 
their name, afterwards adopted the name of Republi- 
cans. William Gray belonged to the latter party, 
and served as State Senator. In 1808 he took sides 
with Jefferson, that ^^ the embargo act was a consti- 
tutional measure." For this the Federalists opposed 
him so bitterly, that he removed to Boston in 1809. 
He was made Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts 
the following year. It might be of interest to state 
that political feeling in those days ran exceedingly 
high, and appeared in the pulpit as well as the press. 
In 1811 the parties in Salem were so opposed to 
each other, that it took two days and a half to fill 
the more important town offices. 

The newspaper offices of Salem are all situated 
on Essex street, within a short distance of each 
other. The '^ Salem Gazette " is the oldest paper in 
the city, and ranks among the oldest in the country. 
It was first published as the ^^ Salem Mercury," 
October 14, 1786, by John Dabney and Thomas C. 
Gushing. It took the name of ^^ Salem Gazette" 
January 5, 1790, and was first issued as a semi- 
weekly, June 3, 1794, and has continued as such to 
the present time. It is published every Tuesday 


and Friday morning. Its publishers have been 
John Dabney, Thomas C. Gushing, William Carlton, 
Caleb Cushing, Ferdinand Andrews, Caleb Foote 
and William Browne, jr. Caleb Foote and N. A. 
Horton are its present publishers. They also print 
the ^^ Essex County Mercury," started as the ^* Salem 
Mercury," June 8, 1831. It is made up wholly of 
the general reading matter of the Gazette, and 
is published every Wednesday. The Gazette has 
always decidedly manifested the principles of the 
Federalist and, its offsprings, the Whig and present 
Bepublican parties. Its office is in Hale's building. 

Several weekly papers of short duration, were 
published in Salem previous to the publication of 
the present Gazette, the first by Samuel Hall, in 
1768. In 1781, "The Salem Gazette and General 
Advertiser," was published by a woman named 
Mary Crouch. 

The "Salem Register" was first published May 
12, 1800, by William Carlton, as "The Impartial 
Register." It was next called "The Salem Impar- 
tial Register ;" subsequently "The Salem Register ;" 
later "The Essex Register," and then again "The 
Salem Register," which name it retains to-day. On 
the death of Mr. Carlton the paper was continued 
in the interests of his widow, Elizabeth Carlton, 
until her death, when it was "published for the pro- 
prietors." Haven Poole and Warwick Palfray, jr., 
next became owners of the paper. Mr. Poole died 
in 1811, and Mr. Palfra}' was sole proprietor until 
1835. John Chapman then became associated with 
him. Mr. Palfray died in 1838, when his son, 


Charles W. Falfray, became his successor. Mr. 
Chapman died in 1873. Mr. Eben N. Walton suc- 
ceeded him, and Messrs. Falfray & Walton are the 
present publishers. It is a fact worthy of note that 
all of the previous publishers of the Register, ^* died 
in the harness." Charles W. Falfray is a lineal de- 
scendant of Feter Fain*ay. His father, Warwick, 
Jr., was a member of the first three common councils 
of the city, a representative, and a state senator. 
The Register is published every Monday and Thurs- 
day morning, at 193 Essex street, corner of Central 
street. It has been associated in politics with the 
old Republican, Whig, and the present Republican 

The "Salem Observer" was first published January 
6, 1823, by William and Stephen B. Ives. January 1, 
1837, George W. Fease was admitted into the part- 
nership. Stephen B. Ives withdrew from the firm in 
1844. William Ives withdrew a few years ago, and 
Horace S. Traill associated himself with Mr. Fease. 
A year or two ago, Francis A. Fielding, a son-in- 
law of the senior member, was admitted into the 
firm, which now bears the name of Fease, Traill <& 
Fielding. Gilbert L. Streeter, Esq., has for several 
years been associated with the paper as its chief 
editor. The Observer is supposed to be neutral in 
politics, but it has always shown unmistakable signs 
of a strong republican tendency. It is published 
every Saturday from its ofiSce in the Stearns' build- 
ing, corner of Washington and Essex streets. 

The "Salem Fost and County Advertiser" was first 
published January 1, 1873, by Charles H. Webber 


and Frederick B. Browning, as the "Salem City 
Post." Mr. Browning retired after a service of six 
weeks. Mr. Webber continued the publication alone 
until the close of that year, when he dropped the 
word " City'' from the name of the paper, and added 
the name of "County Advertiser," because of its 
extensive county circulation, and associated with 
him his brother, Putnam Webber, under the firm 
title of Webber Brothers. Putnam Webber retired 
from the paper in May, 1875. Since then C. H. 
Webber has been its editor and proprietor, with 
assistance from Wintield S. Nevins and William D. 
Dennis. The Post is published every Wednesday 
morning fi*om Hale's building, 223 Essex street. 
In politics it is independently Democratic. 

"Peabody's Fireside Favorite" is a literary paper, 
published monthly by John P. Peabody from his 
store under the First Church. It was established 
in 1868 as "The Hoop Skirt," and was then cir- 
culated gratuitously as an advertising sheet. It 
was afterwards increased to double its proportions, 
changed flrom a folio to a quarto form and made a 
subscription paper. 

"Conrad's Pavilion" and "The Trades' Bulletin," 
are advertising sheets circulated gratuitously. The 
former, established about 1869, is published at Con- 
rad's Pavilion, opposite the Essex house, and the 
latter, established in 1877, at Hutchinson's printing 
office, corner of Washington and Essex streets. A 
large number of other papers of various kinds, and 
for a variety of purposes, have been published in 
Salem from time to time. The most successful of 


them lived but a few years. The following are the 
names of some of the papers now extinct : — 

The Essex Gazette 176S-75. 

The Salem Gazette and Newbury and 

Marblehead Advertiser 1774. 

The American Gazette or Constitu- 
tional Journal 1776. 

The Salem Chronicle and Essex Adver- 
tiser 1786. 

The Salem Gazette 1781-^5. 

Weekly Visitant 1806. 

The Friend 1807. 

The Fool 1808. 

The Barber Shop 1809. 

Salem Courier 1828. 

The Hive 1828-9. 

Ladies Miscellany 1829. 

The Commercial Advertiser .... 1832-41. 

Salem Advertiser '. 1841-9. 

Saturday Evening Bulletin . • . • 1833. 

The Land Mark 1834-6. 

The Lighthouse 1835. 

Essex County Democrat 1838. 

The Harrisonian 1840. 

The Whig 1840. 

The Locomotive 1842-8. 

Voice around the Jail 1848. 

Essex County Reformer ...... 1844. 

The Salem Advocate 1866-61. 

The Essex Statesman ....*. 1868-8. 

The Whirlwind 1869-70. 

Hale's building previously spoken of, stands next 
east of the First Church edifice. It is four stories 
high, has an iron front, painted white, and is one of 
the finest business buildings in the city. In the 


rear of Hale's building stands an ancient bouse tbat 
formerly occupied its site. This bouse was built by 
Col. William Browne in 1763, for his mother ; later it 
was sold to, and occupied by, Mr. Samuel Gray, mer- 
chant. To accommodate the building of this house 
a very old house was torn down, in which at one 
time the post-office was located, kept by Lydia Hill 
and Molly Gill. Before the post-office, ^^ the notable 
Abigail Allen" kept school in this house. It is 
evident that a post-office was established in Salem 
as early as 1693, when a general office was estab- 
lished in Boston. The postage from Boston to Sa- 
lem was four pence. Postmen were then employed 
to carry letters from place to place. Among the 
most notable of the postmen was John Noble, who 
rode between Boston and Portsmouth. The article 
in which he used to carry letters is deposited in the 
Portsmouth Athenseum. ^^It is made of tin, and is 
only four inches wide, four inches high, and ten 
inches long; about double the size of a common 
cartridge box." What a contrast between the facil- 
ities of the present da}'. The post-offices in Salem 
during the past century have been located as follows : 
1775 at what is now 100 Washington street; 1779 
at what is now 290 Essex street ; 1792 at the corner 
of Essex and Washington streets ; 1800 at the cor- 
ner of Essex and Central streets ; 1801 at the foot 
of Central street, where Phoenix building now is ; 
next at what is now the Bowker-place ; 1815 in the 
Franklin building; 1817 at the corner of Washing- 
ton and Essex streets ; 1818 at the corner of Essex 
and St. Peter streets; in 1830 at the East India 


Marine building, where it remained until removed 
to its present position iii the Asiatic building. Gen. 
George H. Fierson is post-master. 

Central street was early known as Hanover street ; 
subsequently as Market street. The market-house 
was at one time on this thoroughfare. It was built 
in 1793. Its location was described that same year, 
by the late Col. Benjamin Pickman,^ as follows: 
"Opposite to the tavern kept by Capt. Benjamin 
Webb,^ and on the water, at about 800 yai'ds from 
Webb's tavern, due south, is a market begun ; the 
subscribers forty. The market was raised on the 
24th October, 1793." 

The market-house was a wooden building, later 
known as Concert-Hall building, situated on the site 
of the present Phoenix building. It was de8tro3'ed 
in the great " Front street" fire of 1844. 

In 1 789 the Custom House was on the eastern side 
of Central street. It stood where the First National, 
and the Mercantile banks now are. Major Joseph 
Hillcr was the collector. In 1805, Col. William R, 
Lee was collector, and the Custom House was re- 
moved to the "Central building" now standing on the 
western corner of Essex and Central streets. The 
eagle and shield which ornamented this Custom 
House building remains to-daj', and may be seen on 
the Central street side. The books of the Social and 
Philosophical libraries, and of the Salem Athenseum, 
were at one time deposited in this building. 

1 «« Essex Hist. Col.," Vol. 6, 1864, p. 109. 
sSnn Tavern, see p. 121. 


The Salem Athenaeum was incorporated in 1810. 
Its books at the present time numbering 16,000 vol- 
umes, are deposited in Plummer Hall. The present 
board of officers of this institution are, president, 
William Mack ; treasurer, Henry J. Cross ; clerk of 
the Corporation, Henry Wheatland ; librarian, Eliz- 
abeth H. Smith. 

The American Association for tlie Advancement 
of Science, of which Prof. F. W, Putnam, of Cam- 
bridge (formerly of Salem), is permanent secretary, 
has its headquarters in the Mercantile Bank build- 
ing, where its library and other valuable publica- 
tions are kept. 

The foot of Central street is somewhat noted as a 
hay-market. The farmers for years past, from the 
neighboring towns, have gathered hero with their 
loads of hay for sale. 

On the southern side of Charter street is the 
oldest buryiug-ground in Salem. It was occupied 
before 1637. Among others buried here, are Ilil- 
liard Veren, Martha, wife of Giles Corey, Richard 
Derby, Warwick Palfray, Hon. Benjamin Lynde, 
Hon. William Browne, Simon Forrester and Deliv-. 
erance Parkman. The oldest inscription that can 
be deciphered is dated 1650. 

Liberty street, which extends from Essex to Derby 
streets, on the east side of the burying-ground, was 
called in 1770, Burying-point lane. Felt says : ^'In 
1799 Neptune and Liberty streets were paved." 
Neptune was that portion of Charter from Derby to 
Elm streets. Charter street then extended only from 
Liberty to Central. It is also an old paved street. 


That portion of Derby street from Central street 
to Fabens' wharf was formerly Fish street ; that por- 
tion from Fabens' wharf to Union street was Water 
street. Fish and Water streets, and the eastern end 
of Front street, once formed a corduroy road, built 
along the shore. The land has all been filled in 
above it. A cove extended in where the Phoenix 
building is to about the middle of the square in 
front of it. Fabens* wharf was where William Gray 
carried on his commercial business. The present 
office of the Messrs. Fabens^ is the same as occupied 
by Mr. Gray, and the furniture is that, which was 
used by him when recognized as one of the princely 
merchants of Salem. These merchants were spoken 
of by Nathaniel Hawthorne, in his famous romance, 
the "Scarlet Letter," as "old King Derby, old Billy 
Gray, old Simon Forrester, and many another mag- 
nate in his day, whose powdered head, however, was 
"scarcely in the tomb, before his mountain-pile of 
wealth began to dwindle." In these early days, 
when heavy drays lumbered over the cobble-stones 
of Charter, Liberty and Derby streets, cargoes of 
tea were disposed of on Essex street — several, some- 
times, in a week ; merchants from New York and 
Philadelphia came here to buy ; five India-men com- 
ing up the harbor in a day was no rare sight, and 
yet one which would set the whole town on tip-toe 
for the owners' signals, for greetings after a long 
voyage, for the stones of foreign lands, for the un- 

> Since the above was written tlie Messrs. Fabens have removed 
to Boston. 


folding of odd little ventures and curious presents ; 
these scenes with the more heroic incidents of ship- 
wreck, piracy and war, make the past of Salem a 
dramatic picture. 

The commercial history of Salem is yet to be 
written. The task is not ours. Suffice for us to note 
that from the earliest times, we were of necessity a 
maritime people, and no town has contributed so 
much to the business and social pre-eminence of 
Boston and New York, or won so many high hon- 
ors upon the billows, as Salem. Our seamen have 
traversed every ocean and glorified the name of 
Salem by their deeds of daring and generous hero- 
ism. Many an island and sunken rock in our harbor 
have been the instruments of midnight shipwrecks, 
and sent many a hard}^ sailor to a watery grave even 
in sight of his home. Our merchants have gathered 
in the fruits of all climates, the wealth of every land. 

In the Revolutionary struggle Salem had large 
interests on the ocean. Still she hesitated not at 
the risk. In March, 1775, she was the first to unfold 
the old " pine tree " standard of liberty to the ej'^es 
of the enemy. The schooner "Hannah" of Beverly 
was the first commissioned privateer of the revolu- 
tion. The ship «' Grand Turk" in 1786, was the 
first from New England — and perhaps the first from 
America — to double the Cape for Canton. The first 
American ship to import a cargo of tea, and the first 
to show the " stars and stripes " on the coast of Su- 
matra and Jamaica, was from Salem. " Cleopatra's 
barge," a Salem ship termed ** a fioating palace," 
because of her '* beauty, luxury and magnificence," 


excited wonder even in Genoa. The first Salem 
vessel that circumnavigated the globe was the ship 
"Minerva," owned by Clifford Crowninshield and 
Nathaniel West. The Madagascar, Zanzibar and 
Sumatra trades, as well as that on the west coast of 
Africa, commenced in Salem. 

That portion of Charter street from Liberty to 
Elm streets, was formerly known as Vine street. 
The Salem Hospital is situated on its southern side. 
This institution was organized April 7, 1873. The 
need of it had long been felt. Its medical staff is 
composed of the allopathist physicians of Salem. 
It was founded on a fund contributed by John Ber- 
tram and others of Salem. Mr. Bertram is to-day 
one of the oldest and most successful merchants of 
this city, and the only one of the old merchants of 
Salem who now makes his headquarters here. 

South-east of the Salem Hos[)ital, on Derby street, 
stands the noted warehouses of Capt. Joseph Pea- 
body, in which his immense amount of imported 
silks were stored awaiting a market. 

East of the hospital, at the foot of Walnut 
street, and fronting Charter street, stands the Church 
of the Immaculate Conception (Roman Catholic). 
There are two Catholic churches and societies in 
Salem whose histories are so intimately connected 
that it is better to present them together here. A 
third society, the French, is mentioned elsewhere. 
Some say that mass was first offered in the Court 
House, by Rev. John Thayer, and others that it 
was offered by the Abbe de la Poterie, in a small 
house on the site of the Franklin building. In 


either case it mast have been at the close of the 
last century that the first mass was celebrated in 
Salem. Catholic services were held in Salem, in 
the early part of the present century, at private resi- 
dences. These early services were doubtless held 
under the guidance of priests who travelled from 
Boston to the Penobscot river, holding meetings at 
the latter place with the Indians. It is said that 
the Right Rev. Bishop De Cheverus, then of Boston, 
used to walk from that city to Salem to perform his 
missionary work here. About 1810, Simon Forres- 
ter, an Irishman by birth, and one of Salem's most 
successful merchants, deeded through the Marble- 
head Bank to the Catholics of Salem, in the bishop's 
name, the land on the northern corner of Mall and 
Bridge streets, for the purpose of building a church 
edifice thereon, with the proviso that it should be 
held by the Catholics for religious purposes forever. 
This land was the western end of an estate owned 
by him, which extended from Brown to Bridge 
streets. In 1820 a small wooden structure was 
erected, and the church was styled the St. Mary's. 
In 1837 or 8, a Sabbath School was organized, and 
the basement of the building was put in order for its 
accommodation. At this time there were not over 
150 Catholics attending church in this city, and the 
number included those in the adjacent towns of 
Beverly, Peabody, Danvers, Ipswich, etc. In each 
of these towns there is now a Catholic church. 

About 1842, the house was enlarged, and two 
wings with galleries were added, and the first Cath- 
olic (or parochial) school in this city was established. 


It was taught in the basement of this building for 
two years by Mr. Daniel O'Donnell, one of our oldest 
adopted citizens. The school nambered 105 pupils 
— male and female. The pastors of St. Mary's 
Church were Reverend Fathers Mahoney, Wiley 
(a convert from Protestantism), Brady, Strain, 
O'Flaherty and Conway, 

During the pastorate of Father Conway, the Cath- 
olics increased in such numbers that the old St. 
Mary's building could not accommodate them. Land 
was therefore purchased on the north side of Fed- 
eral street, between Dean and Boston streets, and 
about 1849, the present St. James' Church edifice 
was built, and this upper parish organized. Father 
Conway was assisted by the Rev. Father Shahan, 
and the St. Mary's Church was continued until the 
building of the present Church of the Immaculate 
Conception, about 1857. Tliis advancement was 
prosecuted through the indefatigable zeal of Father 
Conway, who died before its completion. The pas- 
tors of the St. James' Church have been Reverend 
Fathers Shahan and Daly. The present pastor 
is Rev. J. J. Gray. The Rev. Father Hartney, who 
died quite suddenly when on a visit to Worcester, 
and the present. Rev. William Halley, have been 
the only pastors of the Church of the Immaculate 
Conception. The old St. Mary's church building, 
which had for several years remained unoccupied, 
was recently demolished. 

During the Revolutionary period, the feeling in 
this part of the country was as strong against the 
Catholics, or Irish people, as it had previously been 


against the Qaakers, with this exception, that a law 
prevented the citizens from harboring a Quaker, 
while a strong prejudice against the Irish people, 
operated against their finding proper boarding houses 
or homes. With the advent of railroads, came the 
great increase of ^Hhe foreign element," as the 
Irishmen were termed, their strong, hardy, physical 
natures being most essential in the construction of 
the road-beds. The Irish people now form a large 
and useful portion of our great community. 

Where Elm street and the foot of Charter street 
is was formerly a cove. The water flowed nearly up 
to Essex street. On the eastern side of Elm street 
was a noted ship-yard. From here to Hardy street, 
ship-building was can-ied on quite extensively fi*om 
1692 to 1700. Ship-building was commenced in 
Salem very soon after its settlement. In 1686 a 
ship of 120 tons burthen was built on the Marblehead 
side of Salem harbor. She went to the West Indies 
in 1638, with a cargo of dry fish and strong liquors, 
and returned after seven months with a cargo of 
cotton, tobacco and negroes. These negroes were 
the first slaves imported at Salem f^om that quar- 
ter, of which there is any record. From 1685 to 
1690 Richard Hollingsworth had built ships on the 
''Neck," so called, near what is now the Rowell 
house. Ships were also built on North river, at 
the upper end of Goodhue street. Ebenezer Mann 
built at this place from 1788 to 1800, six ships, fif- 
teen brigs, two barques and eighteen schooners, 
ranging from 50 to 214 tons ; and Christopher Tur- 
ner built at the same place six ships, seven brigs 


and five schooners, ranging from 78 to 296 tons, 
making fifty-nine vessels in all built on what is now 
Goodhue street near Frye's mills. Hawkes' ship- 
yard was next easterly to Derby wharf. Briggs' 
yard was where Clark's wood wharf now is in South 
Salem. Jenks' yard was a little nearer Lafayette 
street. In these latter yards, from 1791 to 1843, 
there were sixty-one vessels built in all, ranging 
from 96 to 426 tons. The ship "Grand Turk" was 
built and launched next east of the store occupied 
by Isaac P. Foster, on Derby street, and her bow- 
sprit projected over the street. The ship "George," 
one of the most noted and successful Salem ships, 
was built at Briggs' yard by an association of car- 
penters. She was modeled by Christopher Turner, 
and was set up for a privateer, but before comple- 
tion was purchased by Capt. Joseph Peabody for 
the merchant service, and named for his son George, 
who now lives on the corner of Mall and Brown 
streets, on the estate formerly owned and occupied 
by John Forrester, the merchant, and son of Simon. 
These ship-yards were long noted for the many fine 
specimens of naval architecture constructed therein 
and sent to all parts of the globe. The frigate 
" Essex," mounting thirty-two guns, was built by 
Enos Briggs, on the south side of Winter Island, 
about where the United States lightkeeper's cottage 
now stands. 



Salem Marins Sooiktt.— Mh^tart of Salem, past and 
PRESENT.— Gen. Lander.— Salem Common.— Early Modes 
OF Punishment.— East Church.— Birthplace of Nathaniel 
Bowditch.— Sketch of Bowditch.— Ann Pudeator.— Capt. 
Joseph White.- Plummer Hall.— Essex Institute.— Dr. 
Wheatland.— Miss Caroline Plummer.— Essex South Dis- 
trict Medical Society.— Dr. Reed.— Birthplace of Wil- 
liam HiCKUNO Prescott.- Capt. Joseph Peabodt.— Old 
First Meeting House.— Col. Francis Peabody.— Gov . Brad- 
street.— America's First Poet.— Bowkbr Block — Judob 
Ouybr.— East India Marine Hall.— Pickman House.— 
St. Peter's Chuhch.- Philip English.— Central Baptist 
Church.— Jutting Upper Story House.— County Jail.— 
Howard Street Burying Ground.— Old Jail.— Unitersa- 
UST Church.— Fire Department.- North Bridge.— Lbslxs's 

UST east of Elm street, at 21 Union street, is the 
birthplace of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Salem's 
great literary genius. Union street is an hum- 
ble thoroughfare extending from Essex to 
Derby streets. The buildings upon it are mostly 
common-place wooden houses. No. 21 is distin- 
guished from the rest by a slight tinge of the pic- 
turesque. It is a weather-beaten structure, built 
at least a century ago ; two stories high with a 
gambrel roof and one monstrous chimney in the 
tniddle almost as large as a wooden cupola. The 
front door is in the centre, and opens into a little 
entry-way with a square room on each side and a 
steep, narrow stairway to the rooms above. The 



house is very low-studded. We present a fine pic- 
ture of it elsewhere ; also a picture of the room in 
which Hawthorne was born. It was in the north- 
east corner, a small room with an open fire-place 
for a wood fire. Whatever the place might have 
been in Hawthorne's infancy it certainly is not 
very attractive now, the surroundings being bare 
and forbidding. Hawthorne was born in this house 
July 4, 1804, and four years later, on the death of 
his father in the West Indies, his mother went to 
live with her father, Mr. Manning, at No. 10 Her- 
bert street. In this latter place Hawthorne's boy- 
hood and much of his manhood was spent. Herbert 
street is next east of Union street, and the Manning 
mansion is directly in the rear of 21 Union street, 
so that the back-yards of the two houses used to 
join. Herbert street is a much more picturesque 
street than its neighbor, as it preserves much of the 
old Salem architecture — queer and quaint enough 
now, for all the ancient, weather-beaten, gambrel- 
roofed and gabled-houses have seen far better days. 
The. old Manning house is a great roomy structure, 
but black and dilapidated now, comfortable as it 
must have been when the young author lived there 
with his grandfather and his widowed mother. Mr. 
Richard G. Manning, of Salem, has an interest- 
ing memento of Hawthorne — his cousin — in the 
shape of a pane of glass in which Hawthorne cut, 
with a diamond ring, his name and the date on which 
he wrote it. Mr. Manning found this in one of the 
windows of his grandfather's house and removed it 
for safe keeping. Hawthorne's works rank among 


the highest in American literature. His ''Scarlet 
Letter," a powerfQl romance of early New England 
life, in the introduction of which he gave a graphic 
and satirical sketch of the decayed old Salem Cus- 
tom House and its venerable inmates, greatly en- 
hanced his reputation. Among his other popular 
works might be mentioned "Twice Told Tales," 
Mosses from an Old Manse," " The House of Seven 
Gables," *' The Blithedale Romance," " Tangle wood 
Tales," "The Marble Faun," etc. He served as 
weigher and ganger at the Boston Custom House in 
1841, and was surveyor of the Port of Salem, 1846- 
50. He lived quite a while at Concord, Mass., and 
died at Plymouth, N. H., 1864. 

Nearly opposite the Hawthorne house on Herbert 
street, is an old chapel known as " The Bethel." It 
was built in the commercial days of Salem for the 
accommodation of the sailors at this port. A few 
years ago it was purchased by the Catholics, and is 
to-day used exclusively by the French residents as 
a place of worship. Its present pastor is the Rev. 
George Talbot. 

At the head of Herbert street, fronting on Essex, 
is the Calvary Baptist Church edifice. This church 
was organized in October, 1870, by ninety members 
who had received dismissal from the Central Bap- 
tist Church. Their purpose was the formation of a 
new church, the distinctive characteristics of which 
were, that the house of God should be free to all 
without the sale or letting of pews ; or the granting 
to a worldly proprietorship a vote on any interest 
pertaining to the church. This church was " recog- 

146 OLD NAUlOnAO. 

nized/* March 7, ISTl, by appropriate services in 
Mechanic Hall. Here the church worshipped until 
February, 187d| when it removed to the Bethel on 
Herbert street. During that year the present house 
was built on land presented to the society by Mrs. 
John Dwyer. It was dedicated November 17. The 
cost of the building was $10,000. March 17, 1874, 
the church became a corporate body under tlie Gen- 
eral Statutes of Massachusetts. Its pastors have 
been Rev. S. Hartwell Pratt and Rev. D. Henry 
Taylor. Rev. Wm. A. Keese, is the present pastor. 
Rev. E. B. Andrews, now president of Denison 
University, Ohio, officiated over this church during 
the darkest period of its history, though never its 
pastor, and won the respect, gratitude and love of 
all its members. 

On the eastern comer of Newbury and Essex 
streets, stands the Franklin building, bequeathed to 
the Salem Marine Society by Thomas Perkins, mer* 
chant, together with a fund of $15,000. The Salem 
Marine Society was instituted 1766. Incorporated, 
1772. It is composed of masters and owners of 
vessels. Its object is to improve navigation on our 
coast, and relieve the poor among its members, and 
the families of those who need such assistance. 
The Franklin building has three times been de« 
stroyed by fire and as often rebuilt. The armories 
of the Salem Independent Cadets and of the Salem 
Light Infantry, Co. K, 8th Mass. Regt., occupy its 
third story. The history of the military of Salem 
from the earliest days would be one of great interest. 
We shall attempt but a brief mention. 


For nearly a centaiy and a half A*om the days of 
Endicott, the services of our soldiers were engaged 
Against the hostile tribes of Indians that inhabited 
the territory of the present New England states. 
The monotony of the early style of warfare was 
sometimes varied in struggles with the Dutch, or the 
French, who were leagued with the Indians to destroy 
the English. Every man who could carry a gun was 
liable at a moment's notice to be called into service. 
In 1635, as a means of having musket balls abun- 
dant, they were allowed to pass current among the 
people; each ball passed for a farthing. In 1645 
the boys from ten to sixteen years of age were ex- 
ercised with small guns and half pikes, and also 
with bows and arrows, thus providing for emergen- 
cies in case there should be a scarcity of powder. 

The Revolutionary war found our people experi- 
enced in scenes of armed hostility, and they sprang to 
the call of liberty with alacrity and courage. Com- 
panies of minute-men and sea-board defenders were 
organized, and 800 men under Col. Pickering marched 
for the scenes of Bunker Hill, from Salem, but ar- 
rived too late to be of service. Benjamin Pierce of 
Salem was killed by the British at the battle of Lex- 
ington. A few from Salem were in the engagement 
at Bunker Hill, among whom was Lieut. Benjamin 
West, killed in the trenches while bravely defending 
his post. On nearly every field of battle in this war, 
Salem was represented by patriots tried and true. 
In 1725 Salem had five companies of foot, one of 
horse, besides the men at the fort. The first regi- 
ment was mustered here under William Brown, in 


1774. This regiment was in the interest of His 
Majesty. Later it was enlisted in the cause of Amer- 
ican liberty, under the command of Timothy Picker- 
ing. The first uniformed company appeared in 1776. 
Joseph Sprague was captain, and Joseph Hiller, 
lieutenant. They wore ^^a short green coat with 
gold trimming, cap of black beaver with ostrich 
feather and similar tiimming ; under dress white with 
black gaiters, and ruffles over the hands." This 
company soon disbanded. The Cadet Company was 
formed in 1786, Stephen Abbot, commander. Tliey 
at first turned out in a uniform of scarlet and white. 
Its present commander is Lieut. Col. Samuel Dalton. 
John Page commanded a company here in 1786, 
uniformed in ^'rifle-coats and overalls." In 1787 
Zadock Bufllngton commanded an artillery company. 
The uniform was scarlet and black. At this time 
there was an entire regiment of soldiers in Salem, 
known as the ''Salem Regiment." The Light In- 
fantry was formed in 1805. Its first commander was 
Capt. John Saunders. Its present commander la 
Capt. Jonathan Osborne. The Mechanic Light In- 
fantry was formed in 1807. Its first commander was 
Capt. Perlcy Putnam. Its present commander is 
Capt. James Leonard. Among the other Salem 
companies of the past, worthy of mention here, were 
the Essex Hussars, Essex Guards, the City Guards, 
and the Salem Artillery. Salem furnished in the 
late war of the Rebellion about 8200 men for the 
army and navy, 230 of whom were killed or died. 

Conspicuous among the martyrs of the late war was 
Gen. Frederick W. Lander, born in Salem December 


17^ IMS* AMMhejhtwwmtiwtmilMt tor 
Uff low of fldvcBtore, md ikin ia boIj 
BoitadfedcMlc _ 
teportaat ca^plonlkMM ictom the ■ ■'■tiM«^i He 
abo Mflde sonrqrs to dcConHae the pnetieafailttf of 
* laflfwd footo to the FiMiie. He aftcnrad mt- 
ifWftd the greet Ofcrlead vegoa route. WhQe es- 
geced fai tUe letter wofk, fat 1858, hie pertf of 
eerenljr men were itfecked bj the Fkh-ITte Tniliene, 
wbooi thejr repoleed. In the ciTfl wer Gea. Leader 
wee irst emplojred on importeat eecret mierione la 
the eoothem etetee ; he then eerred ee a Tolnnteer 
eid on 6en« IfoClellen's eteff, end pertidpeted with 
greet credit in the ceptiire of Fhilippt, and in the 
tiettle cf Bidi Uoantein* Hearing of the dieeeter 
et Belize BlofT, be hastened to £dwerd*s Ferry, which 
lie held with a ein^e compmnj of aharpshootere, hot 
wee eererelj wounded in the leg. January 5, 1862, 
at Hancock, be repulsed a greatly superior Confed- 
erate force, which besieged the town. He particu- 
larly distinguished himself by a brilliant dash upon 
the enemy at Blooming Gap the next month, for 
which he received a special letter of thanlcs from 
tlie secretary of war. Increasing ill-health, largely 
occasioned by his wound, compelled him to apply for 
temporary relief from military duty, but while pre- 
paring an attack on the enemy in March, 1862, he 
died suddenly of congestion of the lungs. In 1860, 
Gen. Lander was married to Miss Davenport, the 
distinguished actress. Louisa X^ander of Salem, the 
celebrated sculptor, is a sister to the general. 
The Salem Common, situated north and north-east 


of the Franklin bailding, has something of a his<» 
tory. It was early known as the town swamp, and 
Essex street was on the edge of the swamp. The 
land on the north-west and western parts of the 
swamp was all that was of valae then. Col. John 
Higginson's estate occupied the site of the Franklin 
building. The Rev. John Higgtnson had an estate 
on the north of the swamp. Previous to 1714 there 
were occasional disputes between the cottagers and 
the commoners as to their rights to the swamp. 
These disputes were settled in November of that 
year, and it was voted by the commoners that the 
** spot where the trainings are generally kept before 
Nathaniel Higginson's house, shall be forever as a 
training field for the use of Salem." From an arti« 
cle by the late Benjamin F. Browne, regarding this 
spot,^ we ieam that at the beginning of the present 
century the Common was unenclosed, and horses, 
cattle, ducks, geese, hens and stray pigs had ilree 
range upon it. There were five small ponds here 
and several hillocks. The largest of these ponds 
was called Flag pond ; the others were Southwick's^ 
Mason's, Cheever's and Lang's ponds. A school* 
house stood then near the south edge of the Com- 
mon, nearly opposite Mrs. George West's present 
house on Forrester street. Near the school-house 
were the artillery gun-house and the engine-house. 
In 1803 a bathing-house was erected south of the 
Common, and what is now Forrester street was 
called Bath street. On the east and north of the 

* EsMz Inst. Hist Coll., VoL It* p. S. 


ComnKm were tan-yards, bark-mills, rope-walks and 
bake-shops. At abont this period, Gen. Gideon 
Foster, with other influential gentlemen, undertook 
to instil new life into the militia of Salem, which 
had been for some years in a disorganized state 
and destitute of officers. There were then six com- 
panies in town. Elias Haskett Derby was elected 
colonel in command of them, and they were other- 
wise well officered. The reorganization of the mil- 
itia led to the levelling of the Common and the filling 
up of the ponds, etc. The required amount of money 
was raised by subscription and the work was com- 
pleted in the spring of 1801. The whole was en- 
closed with a railing of oak, and on each side of the 
walks a row of poplar trees were planted. Fifteen 
years later, however, these trees were supplanted by 
elms. The Common was then called Washington 
square, which is its proper name to-day. 

Among the early modes of punishment in Salem 
we find that criminals were tied to whipping-posts, 
and received upon their bare backs a certain number 
of lashes with a raw-hide, ^^ well laid on ;" others 
were compelled to sit in stocks a certain number of 
hours, or stand with their neck and wrists fastened 
in a pillory, before the public gaze. These whip- 
ping-posts, stocks and pillories, in the last century, 
were situated on the Common ; they were afterwards 
removed to the rear of the Court House, at the north- 
ern end of Washington street. Felt says the last 
-time the pillory was used here was in 1801, in front 
of the Court House. The criminal also had one of 
his ears cropped for forgery. 

8ALB1I — TJlST and PRESENT. 153 

In 1769, Thomas Row and Robert Wood, for giv- 
ing information against a vessel in our harbor to 
His Majesty's officers, were seized and carried to a 
tree, which was termed tlie " Liberty tree," on the 
Common, and there tarred and feathered. They were 
then set in a cart, with the word " Informer," pla- 
carded upon their breast and back, and led through 
the streets, preceded by a crowd. A live goose was 
also repeatedly thrown at them. At the end of 
Main street, the throng opened to the right and left 
and bade them leave the town. They went to Bos- 
ton and complained of the treatment to the Crown 
officers, who petitioned the Governor to bring the 
Salem rioters to justice. 

Just north-east of the Common on Brown street, 
stands the fine Second Church edifice. From its lo- 
cation it is properly known as the East Church. It 
is the oldest branch, within Salem limits, of the First 
Church, and was organized in 1718. Its first edi- 
fice was situated on the corner of Essex and Hardy 
streets, and there was a parish line, which cannot now 
be determined, dividing the people of the two soci- 
eties territorially. The first three ministers were of 
the Calvinistic type ; the sermon at the ordination 
of the first minister being preached by the famous 
Cotton Mather, of Boston, the most noted of early 
New England divines. In 1785, under the lead of 
the then junior pastor. Rev. William Bentley, this 
church appears to have become unanimously Unita- 
rian, and was undoubtedly the first church in Amer- 
ica to assume that doctrinal ground. The present 
church edifice was dedicated January 1, 1846, when it 


was regarded as the finest specimen of church archi- 
tecture in the state. In its history of one hundred 
and fifty-six years, it has had but seven pastors, 
with an average pastorate of over twenty-two years. 
They were as follows: — Robert Staunton, William 
Jennison, James Diman, William Bentley, James 
Flint, and Dexter Clapp. Rev. Samuel C. Beane is 
the present pastor. Bentley was minister, politician 
and scholar. For many years he edited the " Essex 
(now Salem) Register," when it championed the 
cause of the old Republican, or Democratic party. 
He also wrote a historical sketch of Salem, in the 
" Historical Collections," Vol. VI. He was born in 
Boston, 1759, and died in Salem, 1819. 

Just north-west of the East Cluirch edifice stands 
the house in which Nathaniel Bowditch was born. 
It was moved to the rear, a few years since, on what 
is known as Kimball Court, to make room for the 
Kimball house, which now occupies its former site. 
The house is of a commanding style of architecture, 
with massive pillars extending from a large piazza 
up to the roof. Situated, as the building now is, 
in such a retired spot, many residents of Salem 
even, are ignorant of its existence. 

Nathaniel Bowditch, the great mathematician and 
astronomer, was born in Salem, March 26, 1773. 
During the Revolution, while but a child, his parents 
removed to Peabody. He died in Boston, March 
IG, 1838. The poverty of his parents occasioned 
his withdrawal from school at the age of ten years, 
and after an apprenticeship in a ship-chandler's shop 
until he was twenty-one, he spent nine years in a 


seafaring life, attaining tlie rank of master. He 
was president of the Marine Insurance Company 
in this city from 1804 to 1823, when he became 
actuary of the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insu- 
rance Company, in Boston. By his extraordinary 
genius and industry, he made great acquisitions in 
knowledge, mastered many languages, and did more 
for the reputation of his country among men of sci- 
ence abroad, than has been done by any other man, 
except, perhaps. Dr. Franklin. While engaged as a 
supercargo in 1800, he published his well known 
"Practical Navigator," stiil a standard work of 
great utility and value. His fame as a man of sci- 
ence will principally rest on his Commentary on 
the Mecanique Celeste of La Place, of which he made 
the first entire translation. He contributed many 
valuable papers to "The Memoirs of the American 
Academy," and an article on modern astronomy to 
Vol. 20, " North American Review." At his death 
he was a member of the principal scientific societies 
of Europe. He twice had a seat in the executive 
council of Massachusetts. His eldest son, Nathan- 
iel Ingersol Bowditch, also a native of Salem, was 
a conveyancer and historical writer. This son was 
noted for accuracy and thoroughness. A proof of 
his industry is found, among other things, in his 
fifty-five folio volumes of land titles, containing 
nearly 80,000 pages, together with plans and maps. 
Newbury street, in the witchcraft days, was known 
as Salem street. Ann Pudeator, one of the victims 
of that terrible delusion, lived then on the corner of 
this and Essex streets, opposite the Franklin build- 


ing. Samuel Pickwick, in his deposition against 
this woman supposed that while coming up Salem 
street he saw Mistress Fudeator one evening sailing 
through the air to her house. Ann Putnam clenched 
the story by asserting, under oath, that Ann Pud- 
eator told her that she did fly by a man in the night 
into her house. In spite of her supernatural powers, 
as testified by them, this poor woman could not fly 
from her cruel fate. 

On the northern side of Essex street just west of 
Newbur}' street, is the house in which Capt. Joseph 
White lived and died. Capt. White was the victim 
of the Kuapp and Crowninshield tragedy. William 
Gedney, a high sheriff of Essex county, lived in 
the house which preceded the White house. 

We have now arrived at Piummcr Hall, the quarters 
of the Essex Institute, the most eminent institution 
in tiie county of Essex. The Essex Institute is 
favorably known throughout the scientific world. It 
was formed by the union of the Essex Historical and 
the Essex Natural History societies. The former 
of these societies was organized in June, 1821. The 
venerable and learned Dr. E. Augustus Holyokc, 
then near his one hundredth birthday, was its first 

The latter of these societies was organized in 
December, 1833 ; Dr. A. Nichols, of Dan vers, was 
its first president. 

Tiie union was effected in January, 1848, when 
the Institute was organized. It consists of three 
departments : — the Historical, having for its object 
the collection and preservation of whatever relates 


to the geography, antiquities, civil and ecclesiastical 
history of Essex county in Massachusetts; the 
Natural History, for the formation of a cabinet of 
natural productions in general, and more particularly 
of those of the county, and for a library of standard 
vrorks on the natural sciences; the Horticultural, 
for promoting a taste for the cultivation of choice 
fruits and flowers, and also for collecting works on 
horticulture and agriculture in connection with the 
general library. 

The library contains about 28,000 volumes, com- 
prising numerous files of newspapers, public docu- 
ments, local histories, etc. ; also the transactions or 
collections of various historical, agricultural, scien- 
tific and other societies ; besides many valuable 
works illustrative of the natural sciences ; several 
thousand pamphlets (exclusive of duplicates), polit- 
ical, historical, educational, etc., unbound, arranged 
according to subjects. These have principally been 
obtained by donations or exchanges. 

The scientific collections have been placed in the 
East India Marine Hall, and in a number of the 
classes of the animal kingdom, the collections are 
inferior to but one or two others in the country. 
The section of ethnology contains about 1400 spec- 
imens illustrating the habits, costumes, war and do- 
mestic implements of the various races and nations. 
Among the manuscripts there are a very large num- 
ber relating to our early civil and ecclesiastical 
history. In the section of fine arts there are several 
hundred portraits, paintings and engravings, many 
of which are of great historical value. In the de- 


parttncnt of Natural History are large numbers of 
geological specimens, minerals, fossils, etc. 

In addition to the stated quarterly and regular 
monthly meetings, field-meetings are held by the 
Institute, during the summer months, at such times 
and places as may be agreed upon. Usually six of 
these meetings are held each season in different 
places in the county, as circumstances may decide. 
They have thus far been held in nearly every town 
in the county. The forenoon is devoted to rambling 
in the woods and fields, or on the beach, in quest of 
nature's treasures, or visiting some old historic or 
antiquarian relic. In the afternoon the attendants 
assemble in some church, town hall, or school-house, 
and after a collation discuss the subjects presented 
to notice during the day. The public are invited to 
be present and to participate on these occasions. 
The meetings are very popular and largely attended. 
Of late the excursions have been extended to other 
parts of the country. Saratoga, the White Moun- 
tains, and the Hoosac Tunnel have been visited by 
the Institute excursionists, b}' rail, and the Isles of 
Shoals and Pl^'^mouth, by water. Lectures on the 
natural sciences and other subjects have been given 
by the society, and two publications, "The Bulletin 
of the Essex Institute," and ** The Historical Col- 
lections of the Essex Institute," are issued under 
the direction of a publishing committee. The presi- 
dents of the Institute have been Daniel A. White, 
Asahel Huntington and Francis Peabody. The 
present oflScers are Dr. Henry Wheatland, president, 
Capt. George M. Whipple, secretary, and William 
F. Upham, Esq., librarian. 



Dr^ Wheatland has never practised medicine, but 
has given great attention to historical and scientific 
investigations. He graduated at Harvard Univer- 
sity, 1832, is an original member of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, is a 
founder of the Essex county Natural History Soci- 
ety, and of the Essex Institute ; he is also vice- 
president of the Peabody Academy of Science, and 
clerk of the Athenaeum. He stands pre-eminent 
among the antiquarians of Essex county. 

In 1854, Miss Caroline Piummer bequeathed to 
the Salem Athenaeum $30,000, to be expended in the 
erection of a suitable building to contain the library 
of that institution. Piummer Hall was erected from 
the proceeds of her legacy. An agreement was made 
between the Athenaeum and the Institute, whereby 
both societies were enabled to occupy it. It is also 
the headquarters and contains the library of the 
Essex southern district Medical Society. The li- 
brary contains about 1,500 volumes. Of this society 
Dr. Amos H. Johnson is the president. Piummer 
Hall is the seat of letters and science in Essex 

The great-grandfather of Nathaniel Bowditch 
formerly occupied a house on the site of Piummer 
Hall. Subsequently Hon. Nathan Reed built and 
occupied a town residence here. Dr. Reed, as he was 
sometimes called, originated the building of the 
*' Dauvers iron works." He was also the '* actual 
inventor ^ of the first steamboat with paddle wheels 
in American waters." The trial trip of this boat 

^Essex Hist. CoU., Vol. 1, p. 184. 


which took place in 1789, was from the Danvers iron 
works to Beverly. On board were the Governor 
of the Commonwealth and other distinguished men. 

William Hickling Frescott, the historian, was 
born, May 4, 1776, in the Reed house. Later Capt. 
Joseph Peabody removed to it from the Grafton 
house opposite, and lived there till his death, which 
occurred in 1844. Rev. Robert Staunton, the first 
minister in the East parish, former!}' occupied the 
Grafton house. Capt. Joseph Feabody, born in 
Middleton, 1757, was one of the most eminent mer- 
chants of his day, caiTying on a commerce that en- 
circled the globe, and making the port of Salem the 
point of arrival and departure of his richly laden 

In the rear of Flummer Hall stands the little old 
" First Church " building, snatched from decay by 
the antiquarians of the Essex institute, and next 
westerly of Flummer Hall is the mansion of the late 
Francis Feabody, son of Capt. Joseph. Hon. Charles 
W. Upham, in his " Memoir of Francis Feabody," 
read before the Institute, July 18, 1868, speaks of 
Mr. Feabody, and of the old First Church building, 
as follows : 

'* His enterprise and liberality, stimulated by the 
lively interest he felt in our local annals and antiq- 
uities, and his reverence for the memory of the first 
settlers of this place took effect in one great service, 
never to be forgotten in the historical department of 
the Essex Institute. It is a matter of record, that, 
in 1670, the meeting-house of the First Church was 
superseded by a new one, and that the old building, 
consisting of two parts, one erected in 1634, the 




















other an enlargement made in 1639, was thereafter 
used for various purposes, and ultimately removed 
from its original site. Tradition, supported by a 
strong array of certificates from certain individuals 
who had enjoyed favorable opportunities of receiving 
information on the subject, and which had long been 
current, pointed to a building owned by Mr. David 
Nichols, standing on the premises in the rear of the 
tanneries under the brow of Witch hill, as the origi- 
nal part of the primitive meeting-house that was 
erected in 1 634. It was precisely of the same length, 
breadth and height, consisting of a single room, 
with plastered walls and ceiling, and a garret. It 
had been used for some time as a lumber room, but 
was in a state of decay that would not long have 
allowed of its being serviceable even in that way. 
The story was, that at an early period it had been 
occupied as a wayfarer's inn, a stopping place on 
the onginal road from Salem to Lynn ; also the only 
one then travelled between the interior and Mar- 
blehead. If it was the veritable meeting-house, it 
had, as we know, been used still earlier in its im- 
mediate history, as a school-house. The subject was 
investigated by the Essex Institute. Mr. Nichols 
presented the building, and the Salem Athenaeum 
gave a site for it, where it now stands, in the rear 
of Plummer Hall. Colonel (Francis) Peabody, who 
with the late George A. Ward, had taken a leading 
interest in the matter, offered to assume the entire 
expense of the operation of removal and reconstruc- 

With careful .workmen Mr. Peabody directed and 
superintended the process of taking it to pieces, and 
moving it to its present location. This original meet- 
ing-house was twenty feet in length, seventeen in 
width, and twelve in the height of its posts. It stood 
with its front on what is now Essex street. It had a 

164 OLD NAUlfKBA^G. 

gallery over the door at this end. The minister's seat 
lYos against the southern wall, opposite the door. 
The people sat on benches, possibly at first upon logs. 
When it was enlarged an additional gallery was con- 
structed, the door was changed to the western side 
and the pulpit placed opposite to it, on the eastern 
side, with an aisle five feet wide leading from one to 
the other. The women sat on the left of this aisle, 
as entering the door, and the men upon the right. 
The deacons and elders sat near the minister. The 
galleries were occupied by leading persons. 

The absence of any evidence of a gallery, in the 
building found under the brow of Witch hill, caused 
a doubt in the minds of some as to whether this was 
the original First meeting-house. The plaster and 
mortar that covered the walls and beams was such 
as was used only in very early times. Upon picking 
it off mortices were found which demonstrated the 
existence and position of the gallery. There were 
other marks that proved to a certainty that this was 
the veritable First Church building, and no new rev- 
elation in science was ever hailed with more genuine 
delight than this discovery. This building is pre- 
served in as nearly its original condition as possible. 
The weather boarding and roof have been renewed, 
but the frame-work and the floor remain. The room 
of this building is to-day filled with relics of old 
times. On its walls arc pictures of events and men 
important in the history of this old town and our 
country. A good portrait of Thomas Paine may 
here be seen. The first musical instrument, perhaps, 
made in America is also here. This old building, 


standing upon grounds contiguous to Col. Francis 
Peabody's garden, may fittingly be cherished as the 
monument of this active and enterprising man. 

Mr. Peabody was bom in Salem, December 7, 
1801. He was a man of extraordinary activity and 
mobility of temperament, and his mind had a natural 
tendency to scientific and mechanical operations. 
Among other things he built the paper mills and the 
linseed oil mills in Middleton, and the Lead works 
in South Salem, and was active in promoting the 
formation of the Salem Lyceum, and the Harmony 
Grove corporation. He was colonel of the 1st 
Begiment, Ist Brigade, 2d Division, Massachusetts 
militia, and it was probably owing to his energy and 
zeal in the service, that the famous muster and sham 
fight, well remembered by our older citizens, took 
place near Tapley's brook, in what was then Dan- 
vers, on the 6th of October, 1826. Five regiments 
of infantry — one each from Beverly and Marble- 
head — one regiment, and a battalion of ai;tillery 
and a battalion of cavalry took part. It was the 
last great affair of the kind under the old military 
system, when the whole male population, with lim- 
ited exceptions, within the age, was enrolled and 
mustered. Col. Peabody was the first to introduce 
the S3'stem of miscellaneous courses of public lec- 
tures on scientific and literary subjects, which has 
since been developed into one of the most efldcient 
agents in advancing the intelligence and general 
civilization of the people of this country. The 
Bradstreet mansion, torn down in 1750, occupied 
the site of Francis Peabody's mansion. The vener- 


able Governor Simon Bradstreet died here on the 
27th of March, 1697. His first wife Anne, the 
daughter of Governor Thomas Dudley, wrote the 
first book of poems published in America. 

On the site of the Bowker block, Hon. William 
Browne built a house in 1698. He bequeathed it to 
his son William, who married Governor Burnet's 
daughter. He left it to his son William Burnet 
Browne, who sold it to his cousin William Browne, 
the banished loyalist. When this estate was con- 
fiscated Browne's mother took it for a debt from her 
son, and afterwards sold it to William Gray, the 

Judge Andrew Oliver, Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas for Essex County, before the Revolu- 
tion, and a tory during the Revolution, lived (1793) 
on the western corner of Liberty and Essex streets. 
His father Andrew Oliver was a colonial statesman, 
subservient to the Crown, and in 1765, when ap- 
pointed distributor of stamps in Boston, was hung 
in effigy on the '^ Liberty Tree," by the citizens, and 
compelled to resign. 

Nearly opposite the head of St. Peter street, on 
Essex street, is the East India Marine Hall, in which 
is located the East Lidia Marine Museum. Tiiis 
museum is filled with natural and artificial curiosi- 
ties, interesting and beautiful. This institution 
was organized in 1799, and incorporated March 3, 
1801. One of its objects was to form a museum 
of curiosities, particularly such as are to be found 
beyond the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn. Its 
members consisted of such masters and supercargoes 


of vessels as had doubled either of the above capes. 
The museum is now united with that of the Feabod j 
Academy of Science, an institution founded in 1867 
through the munificence of George Feabody, the 
London banker. He donated $140,000 for that pur- 
pose ; $40,000 of this amount to purchase the East 
India Marine Hall, and to properly fit up the same, 
the $100,000 to serve as a permanent fund, the in* 
terest on which is to be used for the '' advancement 
of science and useful knowledge in the county of 
Essex." Among the most interesting of the curios- 
ities in the museum is a wooden-ball cut in two 
and carved on the inside with a representation of 
heaven and hell. In the one-half of the ball is 
Satan and his numerous imps about him, performing 
all sorts of antics, while in the other half is the 
**King of Kings" surrounded by his host of winged 
angels glorifying the Lord. By the aid of a power- 
M microscope every feature of the various figures 
are seen to be perfect. The size of the ball is not 
larger than two and a half inches in diameter. The 
carving is supposed to be the work of a monk of 
the sixteenth century. It is one of the most remark- 
able works of art in the known world. Thousands 
of dollars have been offered for it, but it cannot be 

Next west of the East India Marine Hall, is 
the Fickman house. It is now owned by Mrs. Le 
Masters, who has erected some stores in front of it^ 
on a line with the street, and concealed the old house 
from view. The Fickman house was built in .1750 
by Beniamin Fickman, Esq. Fickman represented 


Salem in the General Court in 1744 ; was one of the 
committee of war for carrying on the siege of Lou- 
isburg in 1745; was Judge of the Superior Court, 
1756, and colonel of the Salem regiment at the 
same time. He died 1773, leaving this house to his 
eldest son, Benjamin, who thought the colonies had 
not sufficient grounds to revolt against the mother 
country, so went to England in 1775. He returned 
in 1785 and was afterwards made town treasurer. 
On the site of the Pickman house Henry Bartholo- 
mew built a residence soon after the settlement. 

St. Peter street was formerly known as Prison 
lane. On the corner of St. Peter and Brown streets, 
is situated the stone edifice of the St. Peter's Epis- 
copal Church. Religious services of the Church of 
England, from which this parish sprung, were held 
in Salem at a very early date. The first edifice of 
the society was erected here in 1733. The land was 
given to the parish by Philip English, a gentleman 
who in the time of the witchcraft delusion, was with 
his wife among the number of the accused. 

Mr. English was a warm adherent of the Church 
of England, and asserted publicly that the charter 
of the colony had been violated in various ways by 
the colonial government, and that there was no 
religious toleration to be had under it as construed 
by the authorities; he was himself a churchman 
and desired toleration for the church, and felt that 
he could not obtain it. He adhered to the church 
with great pertinacity, and as late as 1725 (says 
Felt) was imprisoned in Salem jail, for refusing to 
pay a tax for the support of the East Congregational 


Society. He was then in his 75th year. The law 
releasing churchmen from paying a tax for the sup- 
port of Congregationalism was not passed until 1732. 
During the Revolutionary war, St. Petei-'s Church 
was brought into a very low and disorganized condi- 
tion, and the house of worship was closed for awhile. 
The proprietors finally assembled and petitioned 
William Wetmore, Esq., a justice of the peace, 
for a warrant to call a meeting at which the proper 
ofilcers were chosen, and Mr. Steward, the teacher 
of the grammar school, was engaged to read prayers 
and sermons. It was also voted to do what they 
could towards repairing the church, which had suf- 
fered many depredations from the angry violence of 
its opposers, over six hundred panes of glass having 
been broken, besides other injuries. Under the 
ministry of Mr. Carlyle the parish was much blessed. 
By his untiring efforts it was raised from the low 
condition in which he found it, to a position of com- 
parative prosperity. Mr. Carlyle was a son-in-law 
of Simon Forrester. 

The rectors of St. Peter's Church have been 
as follows: — Rev. Charles Brockwell, A.M. ; Rev. 
William McGilchrist; Rev. Nathaniel Fisher ; Rev. 
Thomas Carlyle ; Rev. Thomas W. Coit ; Right 
Rev. Alexander Viets Griswold ; Rev. John Apthorp 
Vaughan ; Rev. Charles Mason ; Rev. William Rouse 
Babcock ; Rev. George Leeds ; Rev. William Raw- 
lins Pickman ; Rev. James Oliver Scripture ; Rev. 
£. M. Gushee. The present rector is Rev. Charles 
Arey, D.D. 

Five or six rods north of St. Peter's Church is the 



edifice of tlie Centnil liapllst CUiu-ch. It was first 
called tlie "Second Bii|itist Cluivdi of Siilein," It 
wnu organized in Juminry, 183G, mid wita llieii com- 
posed of " olevoH brolUcrs niul Uvoiiy-oiie sistera,'* 
nlio weie disiniiiHed ri-oin tlio First Diiplist CburcU 
for the pui-pose or orgniiizing a Beconil uliiiruh. Tlie 
present building was dedicated in June of llie same 
year. About 18C7 the house v/ns icmodcllcd, and in 
the spring of 1877, it was ruiscd and a cliapel built 
in llie basement. Mr, George Leonard was tlie first 
pastor and tenulier. His Buccesaors liave been — 
Robert E, Paltison, Cjriia P. Gioveauor, Joseph 
Baiivard, D.D., Benjamin Brieijy, William H. Eaton, 
D.D., Daniel D. Winn, S. Ilaitwell Piatl and David 
Weston, D,D. Tlie present pastor is the Rev. W, 
U. tl. Mai'sti. 

Noi'tli of tlie Central Baptist raeeting-honse, oa 
the east side of St. Peter street, stands a house 
which is one of tlie few remaining specimens of tho 
"jutting upper stories." It is two stories high, the 
upper etory looking like a cap dropped down npoa 
the lower story. There are many of the old-time 
residences elill to he Tound in Salem, and a stran- 
ger who has any interest in such monuments of tha 
post, will find opportunity to utilize a whole day 
quite agreeably in examining them under direction 
of a competent guide. 

At the foot of St. Peter street is situated the stone 
prison, or county Jail. It is on Imposing structure 
built here in 1813 by the county. With the large 
brick house for the keeper it cost $80,000. The pres- 
ent keeper of this Jail is "Capt." John D. Cross, ft 


man peculiarly adapted to the position, kind to those 
deserving of Icindness, and strict and severe with 
those who forfeit all claims to compassion. 

On the eastern side of the jail is the Howard- 
street bur3'ing-ground. This was first laid ont In 
the early part of the present centnry. A plan of it 
was first exhibited in 1801. A part of it was re- 
served for colored people, and another part for 

A little to the south-west of the county jail, is 
the present residence of Abner C. Goodell, jr., Reg- 
ister of the Court of Probate, president of the Naum- 
keag Street Railway, one of the vice-presidents of the 
Essex Institute, a trustee of the Peabody Academy 
of Science, and an antiquarian of some note. His 
house has undergone several enlargements and 
great alterations, more especially the western half. 
It was formerly the county jail, and was built by 
the county in 1684. Its dimensions then were '* thir- 
teen feet stud, and twenty feet, square, accommo- 
dated with a yard.'* This was the jail in which vic- 
tims of the witchcraft delusion were incarcerated, 
and where Giles Corey was pressed to death, plead- 
ing in his agony that more weight might be put 
upon him. That portion of Federal street, upon 
which it is situated, was then called County street, 
and extended from what is now St. Peter to Wash- 
ington streets. The first record of imprisonment 
that we find, was that of Margaret Payne (or Page), 
who was ordered, in 1G43, ^' to be sent to the Boston 
goal as a lazy, idle, loitering person.*' 

On Rust street, a short street leading from Fed- 


eral to Bridge streets, is the meeting-honse of the 
Universalist Church. The earlier records of this 
society have unfortuDately been lost ; hence outside 
sources of information have been sought. It is a no- 
ticeable fact, that not one of the Salem newspapers 
of that period made the slightest allusion to the lay- 
ing of the corner-stone of the church edifice, which 
occurred August 17, 1808. It indicates, perhaps, the 
strength of religious prejudice in the earlier times. 
The house was dedicated in June, 1809. The build- 
ing externally remained as it was first built, until 
quite recently, when it was architecturally improved. 
We present a cut of its original appearance. The first 
religious service in the interest of the doctrine of 
Universalism in this city was held by appointment in 
the old Court House, in the fall of 1804. This meet- 
ing was followed by others at Nathaniel Frothing- 
ham's house, different clergymen preaching ; among 
them, Reverends John Murray, Thomas Barnes, 
Thomas Jones, Ilosca Ballon and Edward Turner. 
The church, a distinct organization from the society, 
was formed in 1810, and then consisted of about 
forty members. The pastors of this church have 
been as follows : — Reverends Edward Turner, Hosea 
Ballon, Joshua Flagg, Barzilliar Streeter, Seth Stet- 
son, Lemuel Willis, Matthew Hale Smith, Linus S. 
Everett, Eben Fisher, Sumner Ellis, and Williard 
Spaulding. The present pastor is Rev. Edwin C. 
Bolles, Ph. D. Dr. BoUes is one of the most emi- 
nent scholars and preachers in the denomination. 
Few clergymen surpass him in grace and bcautj' of 
oratory. His scientific attainments are also of a 


very high order, excelling in some branches. His 
ft'esh and fervid style of preaching is calculated to 
popularize science. 

South of the Universalist Church, on Church 
street, is the house of the steam-fire engines of the 
city. The fire department of Salem is one of the 
most efficient in the State. It consists of two 
steamers, six hose carriages and one iioolc and ladder 
truck. The apparatus is manned by volunteer fire- 
men, competent and skilled. The Wenliam water 
works, which supply the city with a never-failing 
quantity of water, are equal to the best in the country. 

Passing through Bridge street to the west fmrn 
the Universalist Church, over what was formerly the 
North river beach, we anive at the historic North 
bridge. Here we complete the historic circle of a 
quarter of a mile radius, in which we have thus far 
strolled. This bridge was the scene of the bloodless 
yet determined fight between the patriots of Salem 
and the King's troops, in 1775. It is known in 
history as *^ Leslie's retreat." 

Capt. David Mason, from instructions of a com« 
mittee appointed by the Provincial Congress, had 
privately committed to the care of John Foster, on 
the north side of the river, seventeen cannon for 
the pur^iose of having them fitted with carriages. 
The original house in which Foster lived at that 
time is still standing on North street, next north of 
the corner of Franklin street. The shop in which 
the cannon were mounted stood on the corner. 

Information of what was going on in Salem was 
communicated to Gov. Gage in Boston, some say by 


a "journc3-iTian," or an "old countryman/' in Fos- 
ter's employ, while others think that it was a citi- 
zen by the name of Sargent, or else the yonng tory 
law3'er from Ipswich by the name of Samuel Porter. 
Col. Leslie, with 800 of the King's troops, was at 
once dispatched from Castle Island, to capture the 
ordnance. Leslie and his force aiTived by water off 
Marblehead, at about noon on Sunday, February 26. 
The people of Marblehead soon suspected that 
Salem was their destination, and several persons, 
among them Maj. John Pedrick, hastened hither to 
give the alarm. The people of Salem were mostly 
attend hig church. The meetings were dismissed, the 
bells were rung, the drums were beaten, alarm guns 
were tired, and the inhabitants were soon gathered 
in large numbers at the principal points of interest, 
discussing the wisest course to pursue. Some pi*o- 
ceeded to what was then a bridge crossing South 
river, at Mill street, the ouly means then of crossing 
the stream, and tore the bridge to pieces as best they 
could. The British on their arrival at this point 
were delayed until they could repair it. Samuel 
Porter, the lawyer from Ipswich, intimated to Les- 
lie that the cannon were concealed at North Salem. 
The troops hastened thither, but at North bridge 
found determined opposition. The draw of the 
bridge was hoisted, and Col. Timothy Pickering with 
forty armed militia, whose numbers were constantly 
increasing, were prepared to resist any further ap- 
proach. Exasperated at this interruption, Leslie 
finally ordered a captain to face his company to- 
wards the m^n assembled on the opposite shore, and 


fire at Ihrm. Capt. John Folt, it is said, warned 
Leslie that should his men fire, not a man of them 
would leave Salem alive. Leslie perceiving by the 
determined appearance of the little band of patriots, 
that it would not b^ best to resort to such extreme 
measures, next endeavored to get his men across 
the stream by means of gondolas and fishing boats. 
The citizens at once strove to defeat this movement, 
which was effectually done by scuttling the boats as 
rapidly as possible, or casting them adrift. While 
matters were fast tending to a disastrous conflict, 
tlie Rev. Thomas Barnard of the North Church, at- 
tempted to conciliate matters. He finally succeeded 
in compromising the affair, by obtaining Pickering's 
consent to allow Leslie to cross the bridge and pro- 
ceed thirty rods beyond, on the promise that he 
would then countermarch his force and return to 
Boston. The news of the invasion had reached the 
surrounding towns, and as the royal troops left 
Salem a company from Danvers had arrived to lend 
assistance to our people. Thus ended the first armed 
resistance to British rule in America, at which, but 
for Capt. Felt and Thomas Barnard, would doubt- 
less have been shed the first blood of the Revolution. 
North bridge was built about the 3'ear 1744. It 
was owned by James Lindall and other proprietors 
of North Fields. The entire length of the cause- 
way and bridge was 8G0 feet, and it was only eighteen 
feet wide. It had a draw at the middle which was 
at least eighteen feet long. Such is the description 
of the bridge as it was first constructed, and as it 
remained when the ti'ouble occurred with Leslie and 


his men. It was styled in the early days ^* the great 
bridge." Its construction was considered a great 
undertaking at the period of its commencement. 
The town required that our inhabitants should liave 
free passage over and under it, and that it should be 
kept in good repair by the owners, or forfeited to 
the town. The conditions were not kept, and it was 
forfeited in 1755. A new company was allowed to 
take it, but in 1789, it again passed into the posses* 
sion of the town, this time by mutual consent. When 
Leslie complained at being stopped on the King's 
highway, a b3'stander rejoined that it was not the 
King's highway ; that it belonged to the proprietors 
of North Fields. We present a picture of this 
bridge as it is to-day. The causeway has been ex- 
tended to the draw, and both causeway and draw 
have been greatly improved and widened. A flag- 
staff erected here marks the spot of the bloodless 


The Ixptaxs— Dred of Maublf.head and of Salksl— Indian 
Village.— North Salem.— its Early Days.— Concealixo 


Grove Cemetery.— Town Briiksb.— Tanning.- Gallows, or 
Witch, Hill.— Hanging ok the Witches.- Giles Corky.— 
Highland Avenue — Floating nRiDOR.— Great Pasture.— 
Quaker Mebting-Housk.- Pkrsecui'Ion of the Quakers. 

— NoNANiUM Hall.— Negro Colony.— "King BIumford." 

— nupFUM*s Corner.— Seamen's Orphan and Children's 
Friend Society.— The Naumkeag Street Railway.— South 
Salem.- South Bridge— Derby Farm.— LAFAYKrrE-sniEKT 
Methodist Episcofal Church.— Naumkeag Mills.— Forest 
River Lead Mills.— Oil Works.— Marine Uailwav.— Citt 
Orphan Asylum.- Union Bridge. 

t|tHE early settlers found this country inlmbitcd 
'I' by Indians, n people so called, because tliis 
I country, when first discovered, was supposed 
(^ to be II part of India. Tliese Indians were 
divided into nations, each of which consisted of 
many tribes. Each tribe was governed by a sachem, 
king, or a sagamore. 

The Naumkeag Indians inhabited this portion of 
the country. They belonged to the Pawtucket na- 
tion, which held dominion over the territory nortli of 
Boston as far as the Fiscataqua river. Tliere were 
as many as six other Indian nations in New England. 
The Tarran tines who inhabited the eastern part of 
Maine, and ttie Pequots who occupied Connecticut, 
were ever at war with some of the other nations. 
They were the Goths and Vandals of aboriginal New 
England. Gookin, in the *^ Massachusetts Historical 


Collections," has enumerated 18,000 warriors in five 
nations. If the remaining nations were as populous, 
there must have been in tlie vicinit3' of 25,000 war* 
riors and at least 100,000 Indians in New Knglaud. 
The sachem of tlie Pawtucket nation was Nana- 
pashemet, or ''New Moon." He was one of the 
greatest sachems in New England. In the spring 
of 1G16 the Tarrantines were in some way provoljed 
by the otlier Indians, and in retaliation tliey carried 
their revenge to an extent scarcely paralleled in the 
history of human warfare. ''They killed the great 
Basliaba of tlie Penobscot, murdered his women and 
children, and overran tlie whole county from Penob* 
scot to the Blue hills. Their death-word was ' cram 1 
cram! — kill! kill'" So many thousands on thou- 
sands did the Tarrantines slaughter, that Ferdinand 
Gorges, who sold to Massachusetts, for 1,250 pounds, 
his rights to the province of Maine, said it was 
"horrible to be spoken of." In 1617 a desolating 
sickness — either a plague, the small pox, or fever— 
raged among the Indians here, so that the 8000 war- 
riors which the Pawtuckets numbered when John 
Smith visited this coast, were reduced to a few hun- 
dreds at the coming of Conant. Still the vengeance 
Of the Tarrantines was unsatiated, and they hunted 
for the lives of the few sagamores who remained. 
Nanapashemet survived the great sickness, but only 
to be killed in 1G19 by the Tarrantines. His widow, 
known as Squaw Sachem, was left with three sons, 
all of whom became sagamores. Squaw Sachism 
lived after the death of her husband at what is now 
North Salem, and married. Webbacowet, tho great 


physician of her nation. She died in 1667, being 
then old and blind. The Rev. Jolin Higginson, son 
of Francis Higginson, testified of these people as 
follows : 

" To ye best of my remembrance when I came oner 
witli my father to this place, being then about thirteen 
years old, there was in these parts a widow woman, 
called Squaw Sachem, who had three sons, Sagamore 
John, kept at Mistick, Sagamore James, at Saugust, 
and Sngamore George, here at Namnkeke. Whether 
he was actual Sachem here, I cannot say, for he was 
young then, about my age* and I think there was an 
elder man y' was at least his guardian. But y* In- 
dian towno of Wigwams was on y* North side of y* 
North river not farre from Simoudes, and y" l)otli y* 
North and South side of that river was called Naum* 

Sagamore John (Wonohaqnaham) gave the whites 
permission to settle at Chnrlestown, and he was 
known as a chief "of gentle and good disposition." 
Sagamore James (Montowampate) was not so favor- 
ably inclined towards the whites, yet, he was obliged 
quite often to seek their aid against his people's 
enemy, the Tarrantines. Sagamore George (Wene- 
poj'kin — pronounced with an accent and a lingering 
on the third syllable, We-ne-pawwe-kin) was the 
youngest son of the great sachem. There was also 
a daughter, Yawata, called by the settlers Abigail. 
Both of the eldest sons died in 1633, and George 
became sagamore of Saugus (Lynn), and Mystic 
(Chelsea), as well as of Naumkeag. On the death 
of hts mother he became the sachem of all that piart 


of Massachusetts which is north and east of Charles 
river. He was also called George Riimncy Marsh, 
and Sagamore George No-Nose. He was taken 
prisoner in the Wampanoag war in 1G76, and died 
in 1684. He left one son, Manatahqua, and three 
daughters — Cicely (Petaghuncksq), Little Walnut or 
Sarah (Wuttaquattinusk) and Susanna (Petagoona- 
quail). These daughters are said to liavc been very 
beautiful, and were tlie belles of the forest. 

Manatahqua, the son, had two sons, David (Kunk- 
shamoosliaw) ond Samuel (Wuttannoh, which means 
staff). The family of Sagamore George, after the 
Wampanoag war, went to Wameset, or Chelmsford, 
now Lowell, and settled near Fawtucket fulls. In 
1684 the Marblehead people obtained a deed of their 
town from the widow of George, " Joane Ahawa3'et," 
and her relatives. Ahuwayet died in 1685. The 
people of Salem in 1G86 obtained a deed of their 
town, which was signed by the relatives of Saga- 
more George, as follows : — David Nonnuphanohow, 
Samuel Wuttaannoh, John Tontohqunne, Cicely Peta- 
ghuncksq, Thomas Vsqueakusscnnum, alias *^ Cap- 
tain Tom," James Quannophkownatt, alias Rumney 
Marsh, Israel Quannophkownatt, Joane Quannoph- 
kownatt, Yawata, and Wattawtinnusk. Yawata, 
among these signers, was the daughter of the great 
sachem, Nanapashemet, and widow of John Gon- 
sumog and sister of Sagamore George. The pro- 
curing of the deeds of these lands from the Indians 
was considered a matter of great importance, as the 
people were suspicious that under James, the Crown 
Agents would pay little regard to titles that did not 


rest on some clear and unimpeachable evidence. 
When Sir Andros in 1689, asked Higginson whether 
New England was the King's territor3% he received 
the reply : ** It belongs to the colonists who hold it 
by just occupation and purchase from the Indians" 
The deed of Salem cost £20. 

The Indian village, at North Salem, was in the vicin- 
ity of what is now Mason street. The Indian houses, 
called wigwams, were rude structures made of poles 
set around in the shape of a cone, and covered with 
bark or mats ; their weapons were bows, arrows and 
tomahawks; their money was shells gathered on 
the beaches, and their clothing was beaver, deer, or 
seal skins. The}* had but few arts and only such as 
were requisite for their subsistence. They usually 
buried their dead on the sides of hills next the sun. 

The manner in which the early settlers were re- 
ceived at Naumkeng by the Indians is shown by the 
testimony of William Dixey, of Beverly, as follows : — 

** I came here to the place now called Salem, New 
England, in June, 1 629. The Indians bid us welcome 
and showed themselves very glad that we came to 
dwell among them, and I understand they had kindly 
entertained the English that came over hither before 
we came and the Indians and English had afield in 
common fenced in together ; and the Indians tied to 
shelter themselves under the English, oft-times sa3'- 
ing they were afraid of their enemy Indians in the 
country. In particular I remember sometime after 
we arrived the Agawam Indians complained to Mr. 
Endicott that they were afraid of other Indians called, 
as I take it, Tarran tines. Hugh Browne was sent 
with others in a boat to Agawam for the Indians' 


release, and at other times we gave onr neighbor 
Indians protection from tlicir enemy Indians. 

Taken upon oath, this 16th February, 1680. Be- 

William Brown, 

Babtuole^lew Gedmkt, 


North Salem, or North Fields as it was early called, 
was owned by private individuals. Gradually streets 
were laid out and accepted, and the whole finally 
became a public portion of the city. A few 3'ears 
ago North street was a very narrow street bordered 
on eacli side with 8tatel3' elms, whose branches meet- 
ing above the centre of the street, formed in summer 
a very delightful shade. Under the administration 


of AIa3'or Cogswell the street was greatly widened 
and the trees taken down. 

The settlers had farms at North Salem at an early 
date, and here in the vicinity of the ancient ^^Towne 
of wigwams," the pleasant instance of fraternity 
between tlie Indians and whites was no doubt ex- 
hibited. This part of our city still preserves in a 
degree its old rural aspect, and there is still many 
a quiet woodland scene within its limits to remind 
us of its ancient uses, and of the people who roamed 
over its surface. The cannon which Leslie was or- 
dered to seize were quickly hid in the forest here, 
on hearing of the approach of the King's troops. 
There were at least twelve of them in all, some say 
seventeen. Some of them were conveyed to the 
neigliborliood of BufiTum's hill, so called at that time, 
T^hich '^ Westward of North 8ti*eet, near the present 


residence of Gen. Devcrenx. Some were buried in 
a gravel pit near tlie mills in Danvcrs, while others 
were sent in the vicinity of Cold Springs, or Orne's 
point, at the foot of Orne street. At Orne's point, 
Charles A. Ropes, Esq., owns and occupies one of 
the finest estates in the city. Cold Springs is one of 
the most charming spots in our environs, and a fa- 
miliar retreat for the lover of the beautiful in nature. 
Above Cold Springs is Liberty hill, the property of 
the city of Salem. To the east of it are Orne's 
woods, and to the westward of it are Leavitt's 
woods, a patch of fine oaks surrounded by a smooth- 
shaven field. Beyond Orne's woods is Kernwood, 
the beautiful and sightly estate formerly owned by 
Col. Francis Peabod}^ but purchased a few years 
ftgo by General Horace Binney Sargent, of Boston, 
a soldier of our recent war. Kern wood occupies 
what was formerly known as Horse Pasture point. 
Near the head of Orne street, and extending to 
the north, is Orne-street cemetery. This cemetery 
consists of an old part and a new. The '^ old bury- 
ing-ground" was purchased by the town for a burial 
place in 1807. It is that part of the present ceme- 
tery situated on Orne street. It contained about 
two and a half acres. In 1864 the city purchased a 
part of the Putnam estate, and the following year 
set it apart as an addition to the **old burying- 
ground." It now contains in all about eight and a 
half acres. In 1872 a lot containing 8000 square 
feet was set apart as a soldiers' lot, for the burial of 
such soldiers as Phil. H. Sheridan, Post 84, Grand 
Army of the Bepublio, of Salem, may designata. 


To the north-west of Oi*ne-street cemetery is the 
Catholic cemetery. This burying-groimcl was pur* 
chased 1)y Father Conway, during iiis pastorate in 
Salem. It was sold to his parishioners in lots or 
single graves. Those who purchased lots were given 
a deed signed by the bishop. Fathers Conway and 
Hartney are buried here side by side. They were 
both held in the highest esteem by their people, and 
were followed to their graves by an unusually large 
number of mournera. An appropriate monument 
has been erected above their remains. 

The principal cemetery in Salem is the Harmony 
Grove cemetery. It is situated in what is known 
as Carltonville, in the north-western portion of the 
city. It covers an area of sixty-five acres, the 
north-western portion of which extends into tlie ad« 
Joining town of Peabody. In its natural scenery, 
and in the beauty of its sculptured decorations, this 
grove ranks among the finest enclosures for the rest- 
ing plnce of the departed in New England. It was 
established about 1840, the propiietors having been 
made a corporate body in that year. Its project 
was first started by a few gentlemen who desired to 
found a new burial place in Salem, in consequence 
of the crowded state of the old grave3'ards about 
the city, and who also desired to combine the beauties 
of natural scenery, witli cultivated tastes, in the ar- 
rangement of a now cemetery. Tlie first meeting 
in behalf of the enterprise was held in 1837 in L3'- 
ceum Hall, at the sugi^estion of Mr. William H. 
Foster. It was there decided that a public meeting 
of the friends of the enterprise should be held. A 


oommitUo was aIso chosen to examine different 
looalUtoa. This conimilteo unanimously reported in 
(kvor of wimt it Harmony Git>ve, wliicli was tlien 
known as ^^ Quaker pasture.** In 1839 Alexander 
Wadswortlu of Boston, was employed to make a top- 
ogittphioal plan of the grounds, and la3* them out in 
walks and a\^nues« Tiie cemetery was consecrated on 
Sunday, June 14, 1840. It was a most beautiful day, 
clear, calm and Wiglit, seeming typical of the grand 
and i^eneefid mission and destiny of the grove. The 
services woit) most im|K>sing. Prayers were made 
by the He\\ Brown Emerson, of Salem, ami the Rct. 
Charles C. Sewall, of l>an\*ers« The address was 
deU^^^nHl by the Hon. Daniel A. White, and original 
hjk mns^ by tlie Rev. James Flint, D.D., NathanM 
Iam\1, jr., and William Wallace Morlaml, were sni^. 
Itie o^le was read by the Rer« Mr. Wayland, and the 
mu^ waa umkr the din^Hioa of Mr. Jacob Hood. 
TW» natund RMtiialioa of the ground see»s pecs- 
llar^V a^laplt^l for the imq^ose to vhkli it was ooia* 
aiKtabKl> and combines hills and dales, ciag^ rocks, 
iMOSsy iMls> sbKp dedivitks, and krel plains, be> 
akWs an innnmevable Twety of inees^ Fhibdhly a 
Sfk^vunen of i^v^Mnr kind of tv«e in New England May 
U^Rwnd WH^InllieUmnic^esof wlne^in the 
lii^jrs 4>t snaMntr, ki%a wrnads of fenlkurad 
aliNts^wteill UmptiteaiaJ airwilk a Mask 
ni> art <tMi kailaliK ulalt the ai|ainiek kap fbaa 
Km^ li> Uwlb w^b nok one to Mukrst Ikeaa or to vite 
tdiMfe aftskt. At tie eatstatn entetnce^ en tibt Safaon 
aiJk «^ tdi^ <eawtiKT« k a ttts^k axidh aai gifcan ly 
^ sMaew ^d«er viadk tvvntt anl ticoQps 


which adds to it a romantic and at the same time a 
venerable and ancient appearance. On the riglit of 
the entrance, as the visitor enters, is a winding path 
which leads across a rustic bridge and over a running 
broolc, to tlie residence of tlie superintendent of the 
grounds, which is a most picturesque cottage. Al- 
most directly in front of the gate is the principal 
thoroughfare, called Highland avenue. On the right 
of this avenue is a piece of sculpture representing a 
lion and a lamb, side by side, the lion, with his noble 
head resting on his paws, apparently in slumber, 
while the little white lamb — emblem of innocence — - 
lies peacefully and calmly by his side. On this av- 
enue is the receiving tomb, and many of the finest 
lots in the grove. There are those which have no 
sculptured marble to render them noticeable, as well 
as those on which wealth has lavished monuments 
and carved slabs. Many have been rendered beau- 
tiful by the presence of cultivated flowers. Some of 
these lots, in which beloved relatives and friends 
have been tenderly laid to rest, are hardly distin- 
guishable from rich gardens. Among the many ob- 
jects of interest in this cemetery, is the beautiful 
marble column, surmounted by a bust of Washing- 
ton, erected to the memory of Jesse Smith, the last 
survivor of Washington's body-guard. Among the 
many remains that lie buried here might be men- 
tioned those of Dudley Leavitt Fickman, one of Sa- 
lem's old merchants ; Rev. William Bentley ; Rev. 
Timothy Flint ; Rev. James Flint ; George Peabody, 
the London banker and philanthropist ; Lieut. Col. 
Henry Merritt, of the late civil war, and many other 

190 OLD NAUMKE1.0. 

heroes, martyrs, noblemen and noblewomen, from 
all walks of life. On Highland avenue, near the 
entrance to the grove from the Salem side, is sit- 
uated the soldiers' lot, set apart for the burial 
place of tlie soldiers, the same as the one spoken of 
in the Orne-street cemetery. The picturesqneness 
of Harmony Grove is remarkable in an area no 
larger than that covered, and the possession in our 
midst of such a beautiful '* city of the dead," where 
our citizens ma}'^ visit at any time and view the 
beauties of nature and of art, and at tlie same mo- 
ment meditate upon the common lot of all that are 
of the flesh, is due to the foresight and taste of such 
men as William H. Foster, Francis Peabody, J. S. 
Cabot, Stephen C. Phillips, Abel L. Peirson, John 
C. Lee, George Wheatland, William Sutton, Picker- 
ing Dodge and Fitch Poole, the most of whom have 
departed from earthly scenes and joined the hosts of 
immortality. * % 

North river originally flowed in all its purity along 
the southern border of this grove, and the whole 
must have proved a most delightful haunt of the In- 
dians. The river now is but a dark and murky 
stream, and is the only blot upon the otherwise 
charming localit}'. A creek from North river, below 
this point, originally flowed in and across what is 
now the hollow in Boston street. The highway in 
the seventeenth century had the general course of 
this street, and led across a bridge at the hollow, 
known as town bridge. This bridge was built in 
IG-kO soon after our settlement. In 1G4G it was 
taken down and a causeway built instead. In the 


days of the bridge there was a pond and a salt marsh 
on the south side of Boston street, made by the flow- 
ing in of the o'eek under tlie bridge. 

In tliis vicinit}' to-day are the noted tanneries and 
currying shops of Salem. Nine Iiundred thousand 
dollars are invested here in this business, and some 
eight hundred men find constant employment at 
it. The business of tanning, or the *' making of 
leatlier" would, as a wliole, come properly under the 
title of leather, which is a chemical combination 
of skin with the astringent principle of oak or hem« 
lock bark, etc., or tannic acid; the tanneries of 
Salem using principally hemlock bark. Leather 
is an article which is now in constant demand, 
and it seems as if we should hardlj' know what 
to do without it, as it enters into the construction 
of a large portion of our clothing, and of various 
engines and machinery ; also supplies harnesses for 
our horses, linings for our carriages, and covers for 
our books. It is an article peculiarly adapted to 
the various purposes to which it is applied, and the 
art of its manufacture probably became known in 
an undeveloped form in the earliest period of man's 
history. As an article of clothing, skins are, ao« 
cording to Scripture, a direct gift to man from Godf 
as we read in Oeiieaia^ 3: 21 : **Unto Adam also 
and his wife did the Lord God make coats of skins 
and clothed them." When skins are first taken 
from animals they seem well adapted for clothing, 
as they are tough, flexible and elastic, but they 
shrink in drying, and become stiff and hard ; water 
will then penetrate them» and when exposed to 


moisture they become putrid and offensive. Bat if 
the skin be separated from the fleshy and fatty mat- 
ters, and then l>e put into a solution of certain vege- 
tables containing tannin, the skin separates the 
whole of the tannin from the liquid, and l)ecome8 
bard, insoluble in water, almost impenetrable by it, 
and incapable of putrefaction. This operation is 
called tanning. The cuiTying operation, which sub- 
sequently occurs, renders the leather pliable and 
more water-proof. 

No description of tanning, however perfect, would 
give the reader that clear idea of the process that a 
few hours or a day spent among the tanneries would. 
If any readers desire to know more of the business 
which is the leading industry of both Salem and 
Peabody, they will do well to visit one or two of the 
many large tanneries here and see with their own 
ej'cs how they " make leather." 

The greater portion of the territory of Salem is 
unsettled, and lies south-west of the city proper. 
It consists of several hills and a large area occu- 
pied only as pasture land. The hill situated farthest 
to the north and west is known as Gallows or Witch 
hill. It is Just south of Boston street and west of 
the site of the old town bridge. The settlement 
has gradually crept up its northern side and is fast 
tending to occupy its very crown. This hill is his- 
torically noted for its familiarity with those terrible 
scenes of the past, which, like the fancied blood 
stains upon the hands of Lady Macbeth, continue to 
haunt the mind. Here on this eminence which over^ 
looks the country and the ocean for miles, eighi- 


teen of the supposed " witches," in that never-to-be 
forgotten summer of 1692, were hung. Bridget 
Bishop was here executed on June 10th, Rebecca 
Nurse, Sarah Goode and three others, on July 19th, 
and the Rev. George Burroughs, John Proctor, John 
Willard and one other, just one month later. The 
last scene of this kind was on September 9th, when 
Martha Corey, wife of Giles Corey, Alice Parker, Ann 
Pudeator and five others were executed. It has by 
some been supposed that George Jacobs, senior, was 
among the number that met death on this hill ; but 
there is a tradition among his descendants that he 
was hung on an oak tree on his own farm, near the 
iron factory on Water's river in Danvers ; and they 
also show an ancient grave near his house, in which 
they assert that his remains were laid. Burroughs, 
Proctor, Willard and one other, were paraded through 
the streets in a cart, before being taken to the place 
of execution. Burroughs was a minister who had 
been called from Wells, Maine, in 1680, to preach at 
Salem Village, now Danvers. Before he was exe« 
cuted he addressed the spectators of the appalling 
scene, declaring his innocence, and praying in such 
a heart-touching manner that many were afiected to 
tears. Cotton Mather who was present, perceiving 
the efifect of Burroughs' d3'ing words upon those 
assembled, comforted them by declaring that he had 
but suffered his Just reward and that no wrong had 
been done him. 

In 1659 Giles Corey lived in a house which stood 
eight rods north-west from the north corner of Fed« 
eral and Boston streets. He owned this and an ad** i 

• .— • • • - 



Jacent house and two or three acres of land. About 
ten 3*ears previous to the witchcraft days, Mr. Corey 
disposed of his real estate here and moved to Dan- 
vers, where he lived when accused of being a wizard. 

Highland avenue, running from Boston street in 
a south-westerly direction, was formerly known as 
the Salem turnpike, or the road to Boston. It was 
opened for travel in 1803, and crosses Floating 
bridge pond, in Lynn, just outside the Salem limits. 
This pond is crossed by a bridge which floats on the 
water, and is 456 feet long. Until within a few 
3'ears a toll was demanded from the travellers on 
this road. The toll-house still stands about mid- 
way between Boston street and the bridge. A large 
portion of the lands on the eastern side of High- 
land avenue are known as the *'Great Pasture," and 
are owned by the "Great Pasture Company," of 
which the Hon. Caleb Foote Is president. 

The meeting-house of the Society of Friends in 
Salem, is a brick edifice which occupies the corner 
of Pine and Warren streets. It was built about the 
year 1831. It is presumable that the first meeting- 
house of the Quakers was built about the year 1658, 
when the present society was formed. Tradition 
says it was a farm-house, and stood, within the re- 
membrance of some living, on the north side of Es- 
sex street, between Dean and Boston streets, and 
bore evidence of great antiquity. ' The site is now 
the burial ground of the society. Salem is historic 
in the persecution of the Quakers. These persecu- 
tions commenced in the year 1656, when severe laws 
were passed to prevent the increase of this denoml- 


nation, and the wife of Lawrence Soutliwick was 
arraigned for absence from worship. The following 
year, after the minister had closed his sermon to the 
people, two Quakers attempted to address them. 
These Quakers were seized and sent to Boston, 
where they were flogged and imprisoned. Lawrence 
Southwick for having entertained these men in Sa« 
lem, was also imprisoned. A year or two later the 
General Court passed severe laws against Quakers, 
forbidding any one to admit them to their houses 
under a penalty of forty shillings an hour. They 
were ranked with atheists, and called '' wicked sin* 
ners." Their lands, cattle, corn and domestic fur« 
niture were taken from them, and they were thrown 
into prison for refusing to pay a parish tax for tlie 
support of a gospel which was not in accordance 
with their honest convictions ; also for refusing to 
perform military duty, an avocation contrary to the 
teachings of their religion. Some were fined. In 
1659 Daniel and Provided Southwick, for refusing to 
pay their fines, were ordered to be sold as slaves to any 
of the English living in Virginia or Barbadoes. Quite 
a number were banished on pain of death. Hannah 
Phelps was admonished, Wm. King was sentenced 
to be whipped and later was banished ; Margaret 
Smith and Mary Trask were put in prison for attend- 
ing the trial of some Quakers in Boston, who were 
hung, and Edward Wharton for asserting that they 
were unjustly hung, was both whipped and fined. 
In 1661 Josiah Southwick, who was banished in 
1659, returned to Massachusetts without leave. Ho 
was at once seized, stripped to the girdle, tied to 


the rear of a cart and flogged through the streets of 
three or four towns. He then returned to Salem 
and remained. These are but a few of the many 
miseries to which the Quakers were subjected, and 
the methods of punishment which resulted from the 
incorrect views of religious liberty in the early days. 
In November, 1661, the General Court voted to 
comply with a letter from the King, which required 
the cessation of proceedings against the Quakers, 
and to '^ send such of them as are apprehended over 
to England for trial." Still the persecutions con- 
tinued, while the Friends increased so rapidly that 
several days of fasting and prayer were held here 
and elsewhere, 'Hhat the spiritual plague might 
proceed no farther." Thomas Maule, one of the 
most famous Quakers of Salem, published a book in 
1 680, entitled " Truth Held Forth." For this, Maule 
was indicted, and the book oi*dercd by the General 
Court to be searched for and seized. He afterward 


published another book, "Persecutors Mauled," in 
which he stated that he had five times been impris- 
oned, that thrice his goods had been taken from him, 
and that he had suffered other abuses, among which 
was a flogging, in 1669, for sajing that Mr. Higgin- 
son " preached lies," and that his instruction was the 
"doctrine of devils." John Burton in 1661 was 
brought before the court and fined for some lack of 
obedience to the Orthodox church, whereupon he 
told the justices that tliey were "robbers and de- 
stroyers of the widows and the fatherless," that 
their priests "divined for money," and that their 
worship was '^ not the worship of God." Being com- 


manded to be silent, he commanded the Coart to be 
Bilent and continued speaking, whereupon he was 
ordered to the stoclcs. Religious idiosyncrasies pre^ 
vailed to such an extent, that in 1662 the wife of 
Robert Wilson went through the streets of Salem 
with no clothes on, *^as a sign," so she declared, 
'* of the spiritual nakedness of town and colony." 
For this conduct she was uncovered to the waist, 
tied to the rear of a cart and flogged through one 
of the public streets. In 1663 Mr. Higginson, in a 
letter to the legislature, declared Salem to be a ^^ nest 
of Quakers," and entreated *'y' ye hon'd court will 
please to consider what course may be taken for y* 
dissolueing of y* Quaker meetings here." The per- 
secutions of the Quakers continued to a greater or 
less degree until 1728, when it was enacted that 
Anabaptists and Friends be exempt from taxation 
for the support of Congregational ministera. In 
1757 a law was passed exempting the Friends from 
military musters. The Society of Friends in Salem, 
though never comprising more than a dozen or fifteen 
families has still lived. Its present membership is 
very small and may be summed up in five or six 
family names, the direct descendants of the origina- 
tors in 1658. 

Nonantum hall occupies a site on Warren street. 
Just a little to the south-west from the Friends' meet- 
ing-house. It takes its name from the Nonantum 
Indians, a tribe of the Massachusetts nation which 
inhabited the territory south and west of Boston. 
This hall was purchased a few years since by the 
Young Men's Catholic Temperance Society, who now 

r200 dLi^ KAt^ifitBAa. ' "^ 

occupy it as their regular place of meeting. This 
society was organized October 19, 1857. There are 
some five or six other temperance organizations in 
Salem, but this is tlie only one among them that 
owns a hall. Besides temperance societies in this 
city there are the Masons, Odd Fellows, Grand Army 
of the Republic, Hibernians, Knights of Pythias, 
Christian Associations, Young Men's Union, the 
Fraternity, Oratorio, etc. 

In the vicinity of Nonantum Hall, on the old turn« 
pike, in the latter part of the eighteenth and the 
early part of the nineteenth centuries, quite a colony 
of negroes lived. This locality was the scene of 
frequent rows and drunkenness. One negro more 
noted than the rest, a big, burly, powerful fellow, 
named Mumford, was styled by the people of his 
day as ''King Mumford." 

The northern corner of Boston and Essex streets 
was popularly known in the early days as ''Buffum's 
corner," from the fact that Robert Buffum, who died 
in 1669, owned a homestead here. The long distance 
from this point to Salem neck, suggested the old 
Salem phrase, '' From Neck gate to Buifum's cor« 

Federal street from Boston to St. Peter streets, is 
ranked among the fine streets of Salem. It is lined 
on both sides with many elegant mansions and shady 
trees. On this street is the St. James' Catholic 
Church, of which we have previously spoken.^ 

The last matter of particular interest in the wes* 
■ .- -- ■ . II _ ■ ._ I 

1 See pa^e 138. 


tern part of the city, is the asylum of the Seamen's 
Orphan and Children's Friend Society, Mrs. Thorn- 
dilce Proctor, president. It is situated at the foot 
of Carpenter street, which leads from Federal street 
to the North river, and is occupied b3' children under 
the raatronage of Miss Maggie H. Barrows. This 
societ}' was organized February 25, 1839, for the 
purpose of '* improving the condition of such chil. 
dren as are in indigent circumstances and unprovided 
for." In 1844 it adopted its present name, at which 
time the asyhim was purchased for $1500, by Robert 
Brookhouse, merchant, and generously presented to 
the societ}'. 

Proceeding from Carpenter to Essex streets, we 
can there take a horse car and enjoy a short ride to 
Central street, from which we will stroll into South 
Salem. This horse railway is known as the Naum- 
keag Street RailwH3\ It extends from *' the square" 
in Peabody, to the head of Elliot street in Beverly, 
a distance of about four miles. It is owned by the 
Salem and South Danvers Horse Railroad Company, 
Benj. AV. Russell, president. This company was 
incorporated March 1, 1861. The road was leased 
in 1874, to the Naumkeag Street Railway Company 
(A. C. Goodell, jr., president), for a period of thirty 
years. The latter company was organized as a cor- 
poration, March 1, 1875. The first rails for the 
building of this road were laid on Monday morning, 
April 27, 1863, from the corner of Washington and 
Essex streets towards Peabody. 

South Salem was originally a peninsula of land 
bounded on the north and west by South river, and 


on the east by Salem harbor. It is now connected 
with the city proper by the Washington street ex- 
tension and South and Union bridges. South bridge 
was erected in 1805. It was built at the expense of 
Ezckiel H. Derby and others. The project was con- 
sidered a foolish and extravagant one at the time, on 
the ground that South Salem would never be of any 
great use to the city. Mr. Derby had purchased 
much of the land, and had erected there, as his sum- 
mer residence, what is now known as the '^ Lafayette 
House." The shores of South Salem were most 
beautiful, and the groves and shady nooks suggested 
for it the poetical* name of '* Lover's Retreat." This 
portion of our city has no great ancient history, ex- 
cept such as relates to its shipbuilding, previously 
mentioned. It is the most recently settled of all 
our territory. It has, within the past fifteen or 
twenty years, gi'own so wonderfully as to rank now 
as one of the finest portions of the city. Lafayette 
street is a broad and beautiful thoroughfare, adorned 
on each side with a large number of magnificent 
mansions. The estate of Mr. Derby, familiarly 
known as the Derby farm, was purchased a few 3'ears 
Ago by Messrs. James F. Almy, Charles S. Clark, 
Nathaniel Wiggin, and others, and cut up into streets 
and house-lots, which added largely to the taxable 
property of the city. South bridge was accepted 
by the town in 1810; rebuilt in 1812 at the town's 
expense. It opened a new way to Marblehead and 
Lynn. Lafa3'ette street is a few feet east of the 
location of the old road, which was but a narrow 
way, traces of which can yet be distinctly seen in- 

8ALB21 — PAST AND PBESB19T. 208 

sido some of the lots on the western side of the 
street. This street is named in honor of Gen. La- 
fa3'ette, who passed tlirough it from Lynn to Salem, 
wlien on his second visit here in 1824. 

The Lafayette Methodist Episcopal Church is 
situated on Lafayette street, at the corner of Har« 
bor street. It was organized in 1821, and in 1823 
a chapel (the Wesley chapel) was erected in Sewall 
street. This chapel not having been deeded to the 
church, but to the Rev. Mr. Fillmore, the pastor, 
difficulties arose and the society became torn and 
distracted. For j'ears this condition of affairs was 
endured, but in 1840 a change ensued. Rev. N. S. 
Spnulding became pastor of the church. During his 
pastorate a new house of worship in Union street was 
erected, which was continued until 1851, when a new 
and larger house was deemed necessary. The present 
house was therefore built, and on January 5, 1853, 
was dedicated. The churcli in Beverly, and also 
the Wesley-Chapel Church of Salem, were founded 
by this parish. The pastors of the Lafayette street 
Church have been Revs. Jesse Fillmore, Joseph B. 
Brown, Jefferson Hamilton, S. C. Macreading, Aaron 
Wait, J. W. Downing, 8. G. Hiler, Mr. Bradlee, N. 
S. Spaulding, Z. A. Merrill, David K. Merrill, Hor- 
ace Moulton, Phineas Crandall, David AVinslow, 
John W. Perkins, Luman Boyden, A. D. Merrill, 
Daniel Richards, John A. Adams, Austin F. Her- 
ricic, John H. Mansfield, Edward A. Manning, 
Gershom F. Cox, Loranus Crowell, S. F. Chase, D. 
Dorchester, J. S. AVhcdon. The present pastor is 
George L. Collyer. During the pastorate of Mr. 


Cox the Methodist pastorate was increased to three 
years' duration throughout the denomination. Pre- 
vious to that time the pastorate was of onl}** two 
years' duration. 

The Naumkeag Steam Cotton factory, the Forest 
Kiver Lead mills, the Oil works, the Salem Marine 
Railway, the Atlantic Car works, and also the City 
Orphan Asylum, are situated in South Salem. 

The Naumkeag Cotton factory was incorporated 
in 1839. The building of the mills began in June, 
1845, on Harbor street, on what was known as Stage 
point. It lirst began to card in January, 1847, and 
to weave in the following February. It then had in 
operation 29,696 spindles and 642 looms, with an 
engine of 400 horse power. It emplo3'ed 600 oper- 
atives, to whom it paid in woges 810,000 a month. 
It mauuractured 5,000,000 yards of cotton cloths in 
a year. It now employ's 73,594 spindles, 1438 looms 
and a capital of $1,200,000. An attempt was made 
to operate here in the manufacture of cotton cloths 
as early as Januar3% 1826. At tliis time cotton 
goods made in Beverly were quite popular, and 
voters in Salem petitioned for the flats in and adja- 
cent to Collins and Cat coves ; also land in the vicin- 
ity of Bridge street, Salem Neck and Wintcxr Island, 
for the purpose of erecting the mills. Joseph Story 
had petitioned the General Court for a modification 
of the laws on manufactures, and the above enter- 
prise was entered upon with great energy and zeal. 
It met, however, with great opposition, which finally 
compelled the stockholders to vote a discontinuance 
of the enterprise, much to the injury no doubt, of 
the business prospects of Salem. 


On the site of the Naumkeag mills, the Salem 
Lead Company, incorporated February 7, 1824, com* 
menced work in 1826. The enterprise was unsuc- 
cessful, and in 1835 the establishment was sold at 
a great loss. The factory was used for the manufac- 
ture of India rubber, and for a few years Salem took 
the lead in the manufacture of iiibber goods. The 
factory was sold again in 1841. In 1826 Francis 
Peabody established lead works on the eastern sido 
of Lafayette street, near the present residence of 
George Chase, Esq. Ho also established the present 
Forest River Lead mills, on the Forest river road 
between Salem and Marblehead. The two concerns 
were sold in 1843 to the present owners of the latter, 
who discontinued the former. The present Forest 
River Lead Company was incorporated in 1846. It 
manufactures white lead and sheet lead. 

A sperm-oil and candle manufactory was com- 
menced by Caleb Smith in 1835 to manufacture 
sperm oil from its crude state. It is now occupied 
by the Seccomb Oil Manufacturing Company at the 
foot of Harbor street. It manufactures lubricating 
and curriers' oil. 

Just west of the oil factory is the Salem Marine 
Railway, the first in the country. Tiie model was 
brought from Scotland by Thomas Gardner, in the 
ship ^^ Commerce." The first attempt to take up a 
vessel was unsuccessful. The vessel was the ^^ Pan- 
ther" of Boston, Captain Austin. She fell over and 
became a total wreck. 

The Atlantic Car works were started a few years 
ago, but continued only a short time. During their 


continuance they manufactured some of the finest 
cars that were ever put upon rails. 

The City Orphan Asylum was established in 1866, 
by the late Thomas Looby. It was situated just 
east of the northern entrance of the tunnel, on the 
corner of Bridge and Washington streets. It was 
originally called the " Looby Asylum." The build- 
ing occupied was removed from east of Plummet 
Hall to make room for the Tucker Daland mansion, 
now the residence of the family of the late Dr. Ben- 
jamin Cox. This building being found insufficiently 
large to accommodate the demand for admittance, 
the fine estate of George Peabodj' Russell, on the 
eastern side of Lafayette street, between Lagrange 
street and Lafayette place, was purchased, and the 
present large brick building erected thereon, for the 
express benefit of orphan children and indigent old 
ladies. It is supported by the liberal donations of 
the public, and it is under the direction of the three 
Sisters of Charity, of whom Sister Moncgean is 

Castle hill, in South Salem, is supposed by some 
to be the place where Nanapashemet fortified him- 
self against the Tarrantines, and where he was 
finally killed. 

Union bridge crosses South river at Union street 
near the Naumkeag Cotton mills. It was built in 
1847. The causeway at the northern end of this 
bridge was formerly known as Jeggles Island. It 
was allowed by the town in 1726-7 to become the 
foundation of the present Union wharf. 


Debut Stbsst.— Derby Wrabf.— Custom House.— Old La- 
dies* Home.— Old Men's Home. — Mabblehbad Fekbt.— 
House OF Seven Gables.— Philip English.- Febbt Lanb. 
— Bevbblt Tebby. — Plantbb's Marsh. — WrNTHUOP»s Ab- 
bival. — Ababella Johnson. — Fotteb's Field. — Fibst 
Mills in Salem.— Bbidob Stbeet.— Cab Shops, Jute mill, 
Lead Mill and Gas Houses.— Essex Railboad.— Penn- 
sylvania PiBB AND Phillip's Whabp. — Stephen C. Phil- 
lips. — Salem Neck. — Early Fisurkmbn. — City Alms- 
bouse.— Pkst Houses.— WiNTEB Island.— Blub Anchob 
Tavebn. — Pibates. — Eably Fobtifications and Block 
Houses. — U. S. Fbioate ** Essex." — Old Muster Gbound. — 
Plummer Farm School. — Juniper Point and the Willows. 
— JuNiPEB House. — Bakeb's, Lowell, and otiibb Islands. 
— Navt of Salem in the Revolution.— Gbowth of Salbm 
Population, etc., dubino the past Cbntuby.— Exd of oub 

[fE now return to the northern side of the river 
and stroll down Derby street. This street, 
|[^ in the commercial days of Salem, was the 
great street of the city; but with the de- 
parture of our maritime glories its greatness van- 
ished. The remains of several of the fine mansions, 
once occupied by some of our princely merchants of 
the past, may still be seen on this street. 

Just east of Union bridge is Derby wharf, a long 
whai*f extending far out into the harbor. This wharf 
was commenced by Capt. Richard Derby, and from 
time to time extended by his children to its present 

At the head of Derby wharf, on the eastern corner 
of Orange street and facing the harbor, is the pres- 



ent Custom House.^ It is of brick and was built in 
1819 by order of Congress. The dimensions of this 
building (when built) were :— length, forty-eight feet, 
width, forty feet, two stories and a half high, with 
a high basement and a storehouse attached which is 
twenty-eight by seventy feet. A broad flight of 
stone steps leads from the street to the offices in 
the first story above the basement. There is a 
cupola on the roof of the building from which the 
flag is displayed. A fine carved eagle ornaments 
the front. Hawthorne has rendered this ancient 
Custom House classical, in his amusing preface to 
the ^^ Scarlet Letter," as Charles Lamb immortalized 
the South Sea House in his essays. The Custom 
House occupies the site of a wooden house in which 
George Crowninshield lived. This house had a cu- 
pola, surmounted by an image representing a man 
looking through a spy-glass. 

The Custom Houses of Salem have occupied vaii- 
ous places from time to time. We have spoken of 
the first two^ and of two others on Central street.^ 
As to some other locations of it we learn that it 
once stood near where the old Neck gate was, at the 
junction of Fort Avenue and the road leading to the 
Almshouse; at another time it was in ^^Blaney's 
building," at about 154 Washington street ; again it 
was near the premises of 261 Essex street.^ In 1776 
it was on the corner of Essex and North streets. It 
was afterwards in Central street, then on Essex 

ia6epage28. •SeepaceSi. *a6epagel81. «6eepaf»S0. 

8ALSM — ^PA8T A2n> PRESENT. 211 

street opposite where the Essex Institute is, then 
on tlie corner of Newbury and Essex streets, then 
on Central street again, and from there removed 
to its present position. Capt. Charles H. Odell is 
the present collector. 

George Crowninsliicld was the father of Benjamin 
W. Crowninshield, who occupied the brick house on 
Derby street now used for the Old Ladles' Home. 
President Monroe, when visiting Salem, in 1817, 
stopped over night in this latter house. Gen. Mil- 
ler afterwards occupied it, and in 1860 it was pur- 
chased by Robert Brookhouse, Esq., and donated to 
the '^Association for the Relief of Aged and Desti- 
tute Women." This association was incorporated 
the same ^'^ear. Benjamin H. Silsbce, Esq., is pres- 
ident. Miss Mary E. Deacon is matron. 

The house on the corner of Derby and Turner 
streets is now occupied as the *' Salem Old Men's 
Home." Tills house was built b}' Penn Townsend, 
and occupied many years by Hon. J. G. Watera, 
also by the late William Gavett. The "Home" was 
the gift of John Bertram, Esq., by whose munifi- 
cence it is endowed. It was incorporated April 10, 
1877. A board of trustees, consisting of thirteen 
gentlemen, and a superintendent and matron, are 
chosen annually. The following article from the 
by-laws denotes the objects of the institution : — 

** Artiolk 9. No person shnll be ndmittcci into the Home 
but those of good moral character and habits, who have 
resided in Snlem for not less than ten years immediately 
preceding their application for admission, and are not less 
than sixty years of age, unless by a vote of the Trustees, 


not less than nine members of the Board being present 
and voting nnanimonsly." 

Of the present officers John Bertram is president, 
Joseph A. Goldthwait, superintendent, and Mrs. 
Goldthwait, matron. 

Before the opening of the Lafayette street road to 
Marblehead, tlie means of reaching this town were 
by feny. The landing of tlie Marblehead ferry 
was at the foot of Tuiiier street, on the Salem side, 
and at Haskell's cove, a little to the west of Naugus 
bead on the Marblehead side, in close proximity to 
the old Darby fort. This ferry was hired b}' Philip 
English in 1G99, for three years, and after him Capt. 
John Galley, of Marblehead, had it for ten years. 
The fare was twopence for Salem people, and for 
others ^^ whatever the Court of Sessions should ap- 
point." Callcy*s boat was fitted to carry horses 
and carriages. When Marblehead was incorporated, 
Salem reserved to herself the right of the ferry and 
the appointment of the ferr3'-men. The first ferry- 
man was George Wright, who was appointed as early 
as 1637. Richard Ingersoll was forr3'-roan after 
Wright ; and Ingersoll, together with John Howai*d, 
built, in 1G62, the house now standing at the foot 
of Turner street, on the right-hand side and nearest 
the water. 

This house is known as the '* House of the Seven 
Gables," and was the subject of Hawthorne's stoiy 
with that title. It retains its great fireplace with 
its iron back, and much more of its original antiq- 
uity. It is still in the possession of the Ingersoll 


family. Hawthorne was a iVequent visitor to the 
Ingersoll mansion in his younger days, when he 
was living on Herbert street. Another of his fine 
sketches, ^^ The Grandfather's Chair,'' had its origin 
here. One day Hawthorne was in this house talking 
with the old lady, *' Susie" Ingersoll, when she re- 
marked to him: ''this is the house of the seven 
gables." '* Seven gables, seven gables," reiterated 
Hawthorne, at once thrown into deep thought, 
'' that's Just what I want." Not long after, his book 
bearing that title was produced. The stoiy was 
written witli the evident design of wreaking his 
vengeance on certain Salem people who were not 
pleasing to him. The second story originated in a 
similar manner : Hawthorne was passing an evening 
in the great old-fashioned parlor of this same house 
with the Ingersoll family. Mrs. Ingersoll said to 
him, "Why don't you write something Nat.?" "I 
haven't any thing to write about," Hawtliorne re- 
plied. "Write about tliat old chair," continued the 
old lady, pointing to an old chair which had been 
handed down from her English ancestors. Haw- 
thorne at once sought the history of the chair, and 
together with fiction produced the story of "The 
Grandfather's Chair." The two gables on the back 
of the house have been removed because of decay. 
Otherwise the house presents the same exterior as 
in the days of Hawthorne. As to the interior, that 
presents the same general appearance as when built 
more than two hundred years ago. Of course paint, 
paper, carpets, etc., have enlivened it somewhat. 
Philip English, of whom we have once or twice 


pRvioasI; spoken, lired neftr tJbc beaiJ of wlot U oam 
Engluli Btteet. T«o varraAU vetc ttsaeti for bim 
in ibe witdicraft times, clMTpog Lim with being s 
" ■izftrd." On the Mcowl wiurant he was secnred. 
BU wife Uarjr wa« also Sicciucid of being » " witch." 
TmSlioD among her deaeendBiita has it that Mrs. 
EnglUh wa3 first lockol np in a chamber in tbe tav- 
ern, "Cat and Wlwel," which was sitnateil jost east 
of Um VinA Cliarefa, ami th-ere through the cracks of 
thfl loor heard tbe esamioAtioa, ia the room below, 
of olhcn Bceoscd like herself. Ur. and Urs. Bag. 
lirii wete aent to Boston, ami there imiinsoiwd to- 
getikCr Dine weeks. From this prison they mside 
their escape to New York, about Augnst 6, 1692, 
where they remained until the witchcraft escitemeut 
was over, anil llica retiirneU. 

Tbe oUl Beadle's tavern, somewhat noted ia the 
pest, stood on Essex atreet about opposite the head 
of Ftcaannt street. 

The origiual rond to what is now Beverly bridge, 
bad tbe general course of Pleasant sad Bri^ige 
streets. It was but a cart-pstb, and much of tbe 
land on both sides of tlK entire course was swampy. 
It was called tlie "road to tbe ferry," or "Ferry 
lane." Tlist portion of ib« old road which is now 
Bridge street, with its extension to Wintei* street, is 
one of the finest streets in Uie city. Winter street, 
a shoit but broad and besiitifiil street, leading frum 
Bridge street at the hen>l of Nortbey street, to the 
Common, has snpcrsedeil Pleasant street as the pojv 
ular course to Beverly. Tbe Beverly ferry had its 
landing on the Salem side, near the iialem end of 


the present bridge, and on the Beverly side abont 
opposite Cox's court, between Quiner's and Preston's 
wharves. A little of the original look of the old 
landing on the Beverly side, still remains. This 
ferry was established December 26, 1636, when it 
was: — 

<* Agreed that John Stone shall keepe a ferry to 
begin this day, betwixt his house upon the north 
point (Salem), and Cape Ann side (Beverly), and 
shall give diligent attendance thereupon during the 
space of three years, unless he shall give Just occa- 
sion to the contraiy, and in consideration thereof 
he is to have twopence for a stranger and one penny 
from an inhabitant. Moreover the said John Stone 
doth agree to provide a convenient boat for the said 
purpose, betwixt this and the first month next com- 
ing after the date hereof.'' 

In 1 639 William Dixey succeeded John Stone at 
the feriy, and was required to " keep an horse boat,** 
imd to receive as fares 'twopence a piece from 
strangers, one penny a piece from towne dwellers, 
sixpence a piece for mares, horses and other great 
beasts, and twopence a piece for goats, calves and 

The land on the eastern side of the northern ex- 
tremity of Bridge street was formerly known as 
"Planter's marsh," and here the "Old Planters" are 
supposed to have cut the thatch with which they used 
to thatch the roofs of their houses. It is doubtless 
owing in part to the above fact, that some writerd 
have inferred that the first landing place at Naum* 
keag was in this localityi and that the first bouses 


were here bailt. Their farther ground for this belief 
18 the acconnt of the arrival of Gov. Winthrop at 
Nanmlceag, talcen from Winthrop'a Journal. He 
states that after a long passage, from the 29th of 
March, to June 12,^ he saw Salem as the port of 
destination, and reached an anchorage inside of 
Bdker^s Island. He came in the ship Eagle, or, as 
she was named on this voyage, the Arabella, in honor 
of Lady Arabella Johnson, daughter of the Earl of 
Lincoln, wlio was among the passengers in her. 
Three other ships, the Ambrose, Jewel and Talbot, 
arrived a few hours after her, and seven others were 
on the passage hither. Soon after the Arabella had 
come to anchor, Winthrop came ashore and took 
Endicott, Slcelton and Leavitt on board the ship. 
The question, therefore, arose as to whether these 
latter gentlemen were taken from Beverly bridge 
point, from Salem neck point, or from a more dis- 
tant point in Salem harbor. After a few hours, 
Winthrop, Endicott, Skclton and Leavitt, with son^ 
of the lady passengers and others, returned to the 
shore, and Winthrop's Journal further states : 

*^At night we returned to our ship, but some of 
the women stayed behind. In the mean time (while 
at the settlement) most of our people (on board of 
the ship) went on shore upon the land of Cape Ann, 
(Beverly) which lay very near us, and gathered store 
of fine strawberries." 

The next day was Sunday, and on Monday morn- 
ing the Arabella was ^^ warped into the harbor" 

1 June 10, on page 18, refers to Uieir tightiog the ooatt. 


Whatever view may bo taken of "Wintlirop's move- 
ments, it can afford very little evidence regarding 
the exact location of Conant's landing-place, as 
nearly four years had elapsed since Conant came to 
Naumkeag, and nearly two 3'ears since Endicott's 
nn'ival. Besides, the settlers had scattered into 
various localities, — Salem Neck had buildings upon 
it, and Conant with otliers liad removed to Beverly. 

Lady Arabella Johnson died soon after her arrival 
at Naumkeag. She was buried in what was known 
08 Potter's field, situated near the Planter's marsh. 
The Rev. Francis Iligginson, who died the same year, 
was doubtless buried at the same place. Potter's 
field was probably the first ground used by the early 
settlers for their dead. Its exact location is not 
known to the writer. The venerable Dr. Holyoke 
was accustomed to say that the grave of Arabella 
Johnson was denoted by a brick monument. Some 
believe this burial-place to have been at the foot of 
Arabella street, while others locate it in the vicinity 
of Planter's street, where it is claimed a sandy ridge 
formerly extended from the upland into the marsh. 

The vicinit3'^ of Northey and Winter streets was 
early occupied by tanneries, and on the bank of 
North river, near the foot of Northey street, stood 
a wind-mill used for the grinding of bark. Rope- 
making and tanning were among the principal early 
manufacturing interests of Salem. Only one of the 
long, quauit looking rope-walks, so common in the 
past, remains to-da}'. It is Chisholm's line and 
twine factor}', situated in South Salem. 

The whole of Bridge Btreeti north of Pleasajit 


i iii B cl ^lttibecalaigdybiultiqw aaJ i^Mu i ed dr- 
iagtfe pail tveatj-ire jean. The Eistcni Riilnail 
cau- titapm are talaahtil oa the eastcni nile of titts 
fltfeel LetTeen Lalhrop aikd Oigood streets. Thej 
caBf4ar s Isi^gie nnMl>cr of ir oikuicji . These sbofn 
ne awntd s»i1 opomted bj the Esstem Railroad 
oorporatkNi. West of tise car siaop*, at the foot of 
Bomside street, is the Salem Jote factoij. The 
Salem Lead woikB are sitaaie^l at the foot of Saos- 
ders street. The Salem Gas Li^t eompanj has tvo 
booses, ooe at the foot of Xorthej street, and a iiev 
hoose sitoated oo the iiorth-eastero pmnt of the iM 
Flantei^a marUi. Tlie Salem Lead companj- was is- 
ecnxxjraied in Februarr, 18C8. Benjamin U. Silsbee 
is president. It manofactures vbite leail, lea&l pipe, 
etc. The S^lem Gas Liglit company was organized 
in April, 18^, and 8n]>p!ies tlie greater portioo of 
the city vith ligbt. William H. Jelly is president. 

The Ei^scx Bail road crosses Briilgc street under- 
seatb a wooden bridge near the bea«l of Webb street, 
and nins |iarallel with Webb street to Pbillifis* wharf 
aiwl Pennsylrania pier. Both of these wliarres are 
situated at the foot of Derby street, in the most 
easterly part of the city. An extensive coal bosi- 
iiess is carried on here, where coal is landed Iixnii 
the ships, and sent by rail to inland towns. 

Phillips' wharf, latterly- the prindpal wharf in Sa- 
lem, was built and owned by Stephen Claren^km 
Phillips,* merchant and philanthropist, wlio was 
bom in Salem in 1801, and lost b3' the burning of 


"The Montreal/* on the river St. Lawrence. He 
was one of the oarl3' movers in the building of the 
Salcin and Lowell Raih-oad. This wharf is now 
owned by his son, Williard P. Phillips, merchant 
and politician, who leased it, about the year 1871, 
for twenty years, to the above railroad. 

Pennsylvania pier was built in September, 1873, 
by the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron com- 
pany. It is next east of Phillips' wharf, and extends 
south-easterly into the harbor two thousand feet, or 
nearly half waj'' across the harbor. There are six- 
teen feet of water at low tide, at the end of this 
pier. The company employ in their business, be- 
tween Philadelphia and Salem, a line ol' iron steam- 
ers, of from 1550 lo 1650 tons capacity. They are 
fine ships of about two hundred and fifty feet in 
length, and run nith great rcgularit}*. Ninety thou- 
sand tons of coal were landed here during the year 
ending December 1, 1877, eighty- five thousand of 
which were sent into the country by rail. The first 
cargo of coal landed at this pier was by the steamer 
**WiHiamsport," on the 29th of March, 1875. Near 
the extremity of the wharf is a large building used 
for the storage of coal. This building is known as 
the '* Pockets." It is two hundred feet long, nearly 
half as wide and fifty feet high, and is supplied with 
steam apparatus for the hoisting of coal. This com- 
pany employs on this pier about sixty men, daily. 

AVc have now traversed the city from Liberty hill 
to Forest river, and to Neck gate from Bn Hum's 
corner. We will now complete our stroll with a 
view of Salem Neck, which is an irregular point of 
laod lying below the town, and extending one mile 


in a north-easterlj^ direction. The Neck was occu- 
pied by some of our earliest inhabitants at a place 
called Watertown, on the ^' point of rocks," and 
also at Abbot's cove. In 1637 lots were granted 
here for buihlings and tlie iisliing trade. Quite an 
extensive fishing business was tlien carried on. The 
^' point of rocks" is now inehided in the ^^Rowell 
farm," which is on the riglit hand of the road as yoa 
enter u|)on the Neck. Ricliard Ilollingsworth, a 
noted ship-carpenter, owned land near the ^^ point 
of rocks," about 1G77. The Hawthorne family af- 
terward owned this land, and their liouse is still 
standing on the eastern part of Rowell's farm. On 
*'*' Roaclie's point," to the left as 3'ou enter upon the 
Neck, stands the City almshouse. It is a substan- 
tial brick structure, two hundred feet in length, with 
two wings about fifty feet wide, and a projection 
forty feet wide, half of which projection extends 
beyond the wings. The house is five stories high in 
front and foiu* stories in the rear. It has two hos- 
pitals and one chapel. It was built in 18 IG. The 
town*s land, which was early used for pasturage, 
was united with the almshouse, and a fine farm pix>- 
vided which has ever since been worked by the in- 
mates of the house, and so aided its support. The 
first provision made for the poor of Salem of which 
we have any knowledge, was the hiring of a house 
in 1G98 for their accommodation. In 1719 a build- 
ing expressly built for the poor, stood opposite the 
north-easterly corner of the Broad-street cemetery. 
Overseers of tlie poor were first chosen in 1750. In 
1771 a new almshouse was built on the north-east- 
erly part of the Common. The present almshouse, 


at the Neck, was reacl}'^ for occupancy November 80, 
181G. Paul Upton was the first keeper of it ; George 
Far well is the present keeper. 

The almslionse occupies the site of a pest-house 
which was built in 1747. This [.esthouse in 1799 
had been discontinued and another one built on the 
north-east point of tlie Neck, on what is now known 
as tlie AVillows. It was burned down some 3*ears 
since. The present pest-house stands on the hill 
at the left of Fort avenue, and near to the alms- 

Winter Island lies a little to the southeast of the 
Neck, and is connected with it by a narrow causeway 
which was built as early as 1C67. Previous to the 
building of this causeway there was a good passnge 
for vessels between the Island and the Neck. AVin- 
ter Island and Salem Neck were, in Ihe early days, 
especial!}' devoted to the Ashing business and to ship* 
building. Quite a village of fishermen occupied tlie 
island, which with the ilsh flakes, presses and fish 
houses, presented quite a livelj' appearance. So nu- 
merous were the people here in 1679, tliat John Clif- 
ford was licensed to keep a victualling house for their 
convenience. "This," says Felt, *'mny have been 
the origin of the *Old BUic Anchor tavern,' famed 
in traditionary story." In 1C84 several merchnnts 
were allowed to build wharves here, and in 1698 tiio 
island had streets on it, laid out and properly 
named, among tiiem was. Fish street. It has from 
tlie earliest dn3-s been looked upon as a place pecu- 
liarly adapted for defence against the enemy, either 
by laud or wdter. From the settlement of the 


Conntrj to 1724, the early commerce was subject to 
pirac3% and the people at home aiino3-ecl by the Iii- 
cliaiis, to the southward and northward especially. 
English pirates came boldly upon our coast as early 
as 1G32, and continued to plunder till 1705. The 
Algcrine and Tunisian pirates disturbed our com- 
merce in the English Channel for several 3'ears from 
1G40, while the French and Spanish vessels being, 
or assuming to be, privateers, caused our people 
trouble from 1G80 to 1725. Between 1689 and 1711 
the French almost destroyed the fishing fleet of Sa- 
lem. AVhilst all our vessels went more or less armed 
for defence upon the ocean, our people took good care 
in fortifying themselves at home. 

The first fort, as previously stated, was built near 
Washington street. The second was built in 1029, 
at Naugus head, Marblchead side, and was named 
Darby fort. It was provided with large cannon and 
a cannoneer. The next fort was commenced 011 
Winter Island in 1043, but not finished until nearly 
twelve years afterwards. Guns were allowed to be 
taken from the island in 1641, to be used by Cnpt. 
Cakebread^ in his cruise against the Turks. This 
shows that there were means of defence here before 
the building of the fort. In 1GG7, during the prog- 
ress of the Dutch war, our people became alarmed 
at a threatened visit of the Dutch fleet which had 
ravaged Virginia, and great guns were ordered to 
the Winter Island fort, with all speed. In 1073 
England bad declared war for the second time 

> One Mitlioritsr gires fbis name M ** BraidoilM*** 


against Holland, and through fear again of the Dutch 
fleet, the ahovo fort was refitted. Leatlier cannon 
were used about this time to frighten the Indians. 
Tlie3' were light and could be easily dragged tiu'ough 
the forests, and to the Indians presented as formid- 
able an appearance as the more deadly ordnance. 
In 1G77 the people of Salem were greatly distressed 
bj** reason of the Dutch war. Sixty-one families, 
numbering 295 persons, together with others from 
different towns, were relieved by donations from the 
people of Ireland. About a century and a half 
later our people had an opportunity to return the 
kindness. In 1G90 the Winter Island fort was re- 
paired, block-houses built, and breastworks were 
thrown up at the Juniper, the AVillows, and on the 
hill. In 1G99 the AVinter Island fort was called Fort 
William. In 170G two block-houses were erected 
near the entrance to the Neck, and supplied with 
several guns. A stockade was also built of about 
200 feet in length, and the Neck was intended, quite 
likely, as a place for retreat in case of an Indian 
attack upon the town. In 1714 Fort William was 
equipped with twenty guns. In 1742 breastworks, 
and a platform for sixteen guns, were erected on 
the eastern high hill. In 1775 Gen. Henry Lee, 
commanding the north-eastern division of the coun- 
try, came to Salem, and with Jonathan Pcele, mer- 
chant of this place, selected this hill as the place to 
erect a formidable fort. It was called Fort Lee. 
Barracks were also built at Juniper point. In 1787 
there were three forts here known as Forts AVilliam, 
Lee and Juniper. In 1794| while our relations with 


France were threatened with rupture, the selectmen 
of Salem ceded to the United States, the land where 
the old fort stood on AVinter Island, and as much 
more on the Neck and Island as might be needed 
for fortifications. In 1796 Fort AVilliara was re- 
paired by the government, and in 17i)9 its name was 
clianged, by order of the secretary of war, to Fort 
Pickering. In 1814 these forts were rebuilt under 
the direction of Maj. Gen. Amos Hovey, and Gen. 
David Putnam. Forts Lee and Pickering were again 
rebuilt during our recent war. 

The United States frigate " Essex," built in 1799 
on Winter Island, as stated on page 141, holds a 
prominent position in the list of noted American 
ships. Slic was the patriotic offering to the service 
of the country, from tlie then small seaport of Salem. 
She was built by order of Congress, but paid for 
voluntarily by subscriptions from the inhabitants of 
Salem. AVilliam Gray and Elias Haskett Derby 
headed the subscription paper with $10,000 each. 
She was of 850 tons burthen, and with one complete 
set of sails cost the subscribers $75,473.59. Her 
armament was provided by the government. Her 
total cost when ready for service with twelve months- 
provisions, was $154,687.77. Her keel was laid 
April 13, 1799 ; she was launched on September 
doth following. The advertisement for the wood to 
build her, read : 

" True lovers of the liberty of your country^ step 
forth and give your assistance in building the frigate 
to oppose French insolence and piracy" 



£no9 Briggs, her builder, built in Snlem fifty-one 
vessels iu all, of 11,500 tons. He died in 1819, 
aged 73, highly respected for his mechanical skill, 
his industrious example and his useful life. The 
Essex was the first United States ship to carry 
our flag around the Cape of Good Hope and Cape 
Horn ; was the first to capture an armed prize in 
the war of Great Britain, and when compelled at 
last to surrender to a superior force, made a pro- 
tracted and unequal conflict in Valparaiso ba3^ Few 
Ehips in the United States service, with so short a 
career, have ever been blessed with such a galaxy 
of commanders — Preble, Barron, Bainbridge, De- 
catur, Stewart, Cox, Campbell, Smith, and last but 
not least Porter, father of Admiral Porter. Admi- 
ral Farragut, of New Orleans fame, received his 
first wounds on her deck as a midshipman. After 
her capture she was entered upon the list of English 
ships, and in 1833 was used as a convict ship at 
Kingston, Jamaica. She was finally sold at auction 
at Somerset House, in 1837. 

For many years previous to the last war, AVinter 
Island was used each fall as the muster ground of 
the militia of Essex county, when the brigade muster 
system was in vogue. It is now occupied by the 
Plummer Farm School of Beform for boys. This 
school was founded by the munificent bequest of 
Miss Caroline Plummer. It is a school for the in- 
struction, employment and reformation of Juvenile 
ofibndcrs in the city of Salem. The amount of the 
bequest was $25,000. The fund by judicious man- 
agement is yeai'ly increased. It is under the charge 


of n board of ten trustees, cbosen for a term of years 
by tbe Ma3*or aiul Aldermen. It was incorporated 
b}' an act of the Legislature in 1855. The school 
went into operation September 23, 1870. William I. 
Bowditch is now president, and Gilbert L. Streeter, 

Salem Neck is now considered the principal sum- 
mer retreat of the community of Salem, Pcabody 
and Beverly. Salem and Lowell people occupy Ju- 
niper point, with a lively and handsome village of 
summer residences. Through their good taste and 
the enterprise of the city government under Ma^'or 
Williams* administration, in making the AVillows 
estceedingly attractive and improving the avenue 
thereto, together with the Naumkeag Railway com« 
pan}^ which has established a branch road to the 
Willows for summer travel, the Neck has been con- 
verted, from pasturage land, into one of the iinest 
summer retreats on our coast. It had been more or 
less of a retreat for private parties for some years, 
but there was neither private nor public shelter for 
them, save perhaps the old farm house at the fork 
of tlie roads to the Willows, Juniper and Winter 
Island. This house was built about the close of 
the seventeenth, or the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, on a farm purchased here by Col. John 
Higginson, grandson of Rev. Francis, and son of 
Rev. John Higginson. It was afterwards owned by 
Capt. Benjamin Ives, then by Capt. Richard Derby, 
who leased a point on AVinter Island, in 1755, for a 
wharf and warehouse. Capt. Allen next occupied 
the farm, lYhich included a large portion of the 


Juniper. It was long known as the ^' Allen farm/' 
It has since been occupied by Aaron Welch and 
others still living. It has recently been renovated 
and is. now a public house, known as the ^'Juniper 

In 1855-6 a few Boston clerks began to camp 
during their vacations at Juniper point; finally 
some of the Lowell people, driven from Marbleliead 
Neck by disagreement with tlie proprietors llierCi 
sought our Juniper and erected a cottage or two. 
They were followed by others, until the point began 
to develop itself into a watering-place for residents. 
In 1873 D. B. Gardner, jr., bought the "Allen farm" 
of the Dustin heirs, of Peubody, and laid it out 
into streets, and fine house-lots which are for sale. 
There are now some fifly or more fine cottages hero, 
and the number increases yearly. The Willows, a 
point ^ to the north-west of the Juniper, and from 
which an English man-of-war was cannonaded,^ next 
began to be looked upon in the favorable light which 
is now attached to it. A pavilion, pagodas, fountains, 
new roads and eating-houses were built, and every- 
thing of an attractive nature about it improved. 
On pleasant summer days thousands of people come 
here to enjoy the cooling breezes, and to listen to 
the music from the baud which is often employed to 
add to the enjoyment. Steamboats, yachts and row 
boats are always at hand to accommodate parties or 
individuals. A long wharf, known as steamboat 
wharf, has been built from what was early known as 

^Formerly known AB Hospital-point • *S«e Beverly. 


Watch-house point, so called from the block, or 
watch-house which stood here as late as 1758, and 
from which when new, our people watclied for pirates 
and other enemies who frequented our coast. From 
this point a fine view is obtained of the coast, from 
Marblehead Neck on the right, to Gloucester harbor 
on the left, with its indentures of harbors, coves 
and creeks ; also the great bay spread out in front, 
and dotted with its many islands. 

Baker*s Island was so called as early as 1630, at 
which time tiio most of these islands were covered 
witli forest trees. Baker's Island is the largest of . 
tlie group ; it contains fifty-five acres, and is distant 
about four miles easterly from AVatch-iiousc iX)int. 
After being long appropriated for pasturage, this 
island was selected, in 1797, as the location for a 
lighthouse. The two lights niglitly displayed here 
were first shown on January 3, 1798. Lowell Island 
is the next largest, and contains nine acres. It 
has a large hotel on it built by the Lowell people 
some yeai*s ago, for a summer retreat. In 1655 it 
was granted by the General Court to Governor En- 
dicott and his heirs. Its proper name was Cotta 
Island, the name being derived A*om that of its 
owners. Tliis name was afterwards contracted to 
•'Cat" Island, by which name it was long known. 
A small-pox hospital erected here by tlie Marblehead 
people, was burned in 1774 by a mob. House Is- 
land, so named because of a rock on it whicii looks 
like a building, contains five acres, and is the next ; 
largest to Lowell Island. The other islands arc 
known as Eagle, Ram, Coney, Tinker's, two Goose- 


berries and the two Miseries, the whole forming a 
naturnl breakwater which protects tlie main land. 
The Gooseberries, Ram and Tiniier*s islands are all 
that now remain as the property of Salem. 

Having now completed our stroll over the most 
interesting portion of old Naumkeag, let us be 
sealed and rest ourselves inside the pagoda on 
Wateh-liouse point. Here, as we scan the grand old 
ocean spread out before us as a miglity field of blue, 
and drink in the beauty of the present scene, let ns 
imngine ourselves transported back to the days 
when the coming of pirates, or of Uie Dutch fleet, 
or of Kuglish men-of-war, was watched from this 
same point, — wlien tlie coming and going of tlie 
fishing vessels and tlie merchant ships made the bay 
white with fleeting sails. 

AVith the fishing business began the prosperity 
of Salem, and it is to such men as the Rev. Hugh 
Peters and Mr. George Corwin, merchant of Salem, 
that we are chiefly indebted for the success which 
has crowned this source of our prosperity. 

The fisheries, also, raised up a class of hardy^ sea- 
men, which the Revolutionary war developed into 
a race of the boldest, most adventurous and skilful 
sea-kings that the world has ever known. By them 
Salem was enabled to meet the mistress of the ocean 
on her own element, and dispute her supremacy. 

The Revolutionary war laid the foundations of 
nearly all the great fortunes of our merchant princes, 
and increased the population of the town from 4000, 
at the beginning of the war, to 8000 at the close. 
The wai* was immensely populai*, i^nd was entered 


into with a heart}*^ goodwill by all classes of people. 
Privateering was made the leading business of tlie 
town ; even the clergymen regarded it with favor, 
especially the Rev. Dr. Whitaker, who was directly 
interested in several privateers, and was frequently 
seen on the wharf, mixing with the crowd of mer- 
chants, sea captains, and other persons concerned 
in navigation, conversing on the events of the day. 

The people of the neighboring towns came flock- 
ing into Salem to go privateering. As an instance 
of the alacrity with which the privateers were 
manned, more than 100 men signed the articles of 
the Grand Turk, within three days after the notices 
were posted. The town was full of sailors ; every 
street swarmed with them, rolling and rollicking 
along, with their pockets full of money (hard 
monc30i singing songs, chewing tobacco, smoking 
cigars, drinking at all the public houses, playing 
tricks upon the country-men, and especially upon 
the countr3'-women who brought berries into town 
to sell ; in any street could be seen sailors trying 
to navigate with horses, chaises and carts. But all 
this was in good nature ; there was no quarrelling, 
no thieving, no rowdyism. 

The Sun tavern was the great resort of the offi- 
cers of the privateers. This was their headquarters ; 
here they met to discuss the news, to pla}" cards, 
and to drink, for all drank in those days, and at 
nearly all gatherings a well filled punch bowl was 
an indispensable ariicle. 

Every vessel, that could sail tolerably well, was 
taken up for a privateer. The late Capt. Joseph 


Wliite was standing ono clay, at the commencement 
of the war, on ilio Long wharf, in conversation 
with one of the Cabot brothers of Beverl3', recount- 
ing tlio wrongs he had suffered from tlic Britisli, by 
the capture of Mu*ee of his vessels, and now he said 
he would have revenge and retrieve his fortune by 
going a privateering, and he proposed to Mr. Cabot 
to buy a vessel with him and fit her out for a priva- 
teer. It was agreed between them to do so. Mr. 
"Wliitc bought of Elias Ilaskett Derby a sloop, called 
the *'Comc along Patt3'," which had been employed 
in the West India trade, and had been commanded 
by Capt. James' Chcever. Mr. AVhite gave her the 
name of "Revenge," and fitted her out with ten 
guns and a crew of fiftj' men, and went in her him- 
self as commander. Tliis was tlie first privateer 
that sailed from Salem in the Ilcvolutionary war. 

The nav3' of Salem, in this war, consisted of 2G7 
vessels, privateers and letters of marque, viz. : 

70 ships moniitlng 121G gans, and manned by 3048 men. 
100 brigs " lipO «« " " " 3300 " 

CO schooners «* 652 " " " «« 1056 «« 

22 sloops " 17C " " ** " 628 " 

2G7 vessels " 8044 " " " " 9132 " 

There were several vessels whose number of guns 
was unknown, and several more whose number of 
men was unknown, and it was found that in general 
the average number of men to a gun was between 
three and four, and it was nearer to four than it was 
to three. But tiuee men to a gun is assumed in 


the above so as to be on the safer side. The num- 
ber of men given, huge as it seems to be, is reallj' 
less than the Irue number. Besides, there are men- 
tioned in an ohl insurance boolc of this period seve- 
ral letters of marque as being insured, and of wiiieh 
no particulars are given, and they are omitted from 
this account, which would, without doubt, bring 
the number of seamen that sailed during this war 
out of the ports of Salem and Beverly fully up 
to 10,000. 

In addition to the 2G7 vessels mentioned above, 
there were a number of shallops, or small boats, 
armed with swivels, which cruised in the bay and 
captured British vessels bound into Boston with 
military stores for the army there. There was the 
Dolphin, a two-masted sail boat, which was built in 
the cove that existed formerly at the foot of Cen- 
tral street, where the Phoenix building now stands. 
This boat belonged to Jouathan Peele, who built a 
long hatch on her, armed her with twelve swivels, 
six on a side. She would often go out in the morn- 
ing and before night return, bringing in a prize. 

As the wharf accommodations were very limited 
in Salem at that time, the prize-vessels were an< 
chored in the harbor, and there would often bo a 
large fleet, reaching from Naugus head to Throg- 
morton's cove. 

In 177U, Capt. William Gray learning that a 
British privateer was 13'ing off our harbor, em- 
barked on board an armed schooner with a com- 
pany of volunteers and went in pursuit of her, cap- 
tured her and brought her into port* Many other 


daring and worthy exploits of this kind occurred in 
the early da^'S within sight or lienring of the people 
of Salcin. On March 3, 1776, a naval bnttlc was 
witnessed, from the church steeples and hills, be- 
tween a British man-of-war and four privateers. 
The former outsailed the latter and so escaped. 

The private armed vessels of Salem during the 
war of 1812 were as follows : — 

8 8hips mounting 54 guns, and manned by 805 men. 

8 brl«rs " 




24 schooners •• 




4 sloops " 




2 launches " 




5 boats nrmrd 
with muskets 



41 180 2103 

The above made an aggregate of 3405 tons. Of 
the whole number of square-rigged privateers CG 
per cent, were captured. The sloops that sailed 
from Salem were remarkably successful as a class, 
and a smaller percentage of them were captured 
than any other, whilst they were found as fully ef- 
fective as an3' other class and could keep the sea as 
well. None of the schooners distinguished them- 
selves except the Fame, Dart and Dolphin, and 
these were all built before the war. The Fame was 
especially effective. She and the Dart were lost by 
getting ashore in the Bay of Fundy. 

The naval warfare Avhich is here represented as 
from Salem, was performed equally by the citizens 
of Dan vers, Beverly, Marblehcad and Salem. These 
foiu* towns displayed great zeal in this contest, and 


contributed all tho ofllcers nnci a large portion of the 
crews of the privateers. While all of our naval 
commanders were distinguished for their braver}', 
prowess, good seamanship, noble and daring acts of 
generosit}', and for tlieir kindness to prisoners, 3*et 
there were some, that seemed to stand out from all 
the rest, and might be spoken of as distinguished 
without injustice to the others; thus, Dan vers had 
her Foster, Page and Endicott ; l\[arblcliead had her 
Mugford, Tucker and Cole; Beverly had Daniel 
Adams, one of nature's noble men, Jolin Tittle, Is- 
rael Thorndike, William Woodbury, and *'lhe noto- 
rious" Hugh Hill ; Salem had John Fiske, Jonathan 
Haraden, William Gvi\}\ the bold John Revell, John 
Derbj', Joseph Waters, David Ropes, Nathaniel 
West, Simon Forrester, the brave Thomas Simmons 
and his equally brave Lieut. Joseph Peabody, James 
Barr of remarkable energy, Samuel Ingersoll, and 
Thomas Perkins. 

A detailed history of Salem on the ocean, both in 
war and peace, would be most interesting. 

The brig Amazon, which sailed for Marseilles, 
August 20, 1829, was the first vessel to leave the 
port of Salem without liquor on board. 

The population of Salem, at the commencement 
of the Revolutionary war, was 5337 ; in the war 
of 1812, it was about 10,000; in. 1840, it was 
15,082; in 1860,22,252 and in 1875,25,958. By 
the census taken in 1875 the valuation of Salem 
was $20,312,272, of which $11,988,027 was personal 
propert}'. The annual value of tho productions 
was $8,699,427. There were 3883 dwellings and 


6923 families. The leading professions Tvero rep- 
resented by foi'tj'-onc lawyers, thirtj'-two clergymen 
and twenty-four physicians. The principal indus- 
tries gave employment to about 800 curriers, 338 
cotton factory operatives, 328 shoemakers and 230 
tan-3'ard laborers. 

In addition to the distinguished individuals of 
Salem of whom Me have spoken, might be men- 
tioned Rev. Peter Tlialcher, Hon. Stephen Sewall, 
Gen. John Glover, Hon. Benjamin Goodliue, Hon. 
George Cabot, John Pickering, LL.D., Charles Dex- 
ter Cleveland, LL.D., John Goodhue Treadwell, 
M. D., Gen. John Fiske, Nehemiah Adams, D. D., 
Benjamin Pierce, LL.D., Charles Davis Jackson, 
D. D., Charles Grafton Pnge, M. D., Frederick 
Townsend Ward, Francis Calley Gra}^ Benjamin 
Pierce, Josiah Willard Gibbs, LL.D., Henr3' Felt 
Baker, William Frederick Poole, Maria S. Cummins, 
Charles Timothy Brooks, Jones Verj*, William Wet- 
more Storj'', Samuel Johnson, Jonathan Mitchell 
Sewall, Joseph Orne, Johanna Quiner, John Rogers 
and J. Harvey Young. 

In I ho early days, the various portions of Salem 
had their distinctive names, some of which still hang 
about these localities, for instance : the vicinity of 
Creek, Norman and Summer streets was *' Knocker's 
hole;" the vicinity of the jail was "Button-hole;" 
the hollow in Bostoij street was "Blubber-holler;" 
beyond the hollow, in the vicinity of the "Big tree," 
was " Johnn^'-cake ; " around the wharves was " Wop- 
ping ; " the western portion of Mason street was 


"Paradise" and tlie eastern portion of Forrester 
street was ** Gutter-lane." 

Grace Cliurch (Episcopal), which we omitted to 
mention in its proper place, was built in 1858 ; con- 
secrated in 1859. It is a Gothic structure, situated 
on P2ssex street, nearly' opposite Monroe street. Its 
rectors have been Rev. George D. Wildes, D.D., and 
Rev. Joseph Kidder. Its present rector is Rev. 
James P. Franks. 

In closing our sketch of Salem we are conscious 
that we have omitted to mention many things that 
are of great interest. Volumes might be written 
concerning other matters that we have mercl}' al- 
luded to. Salem is one of the most interesting 
cities in the state, and there are few pleasanter 
places in New England for a residence. It is built 
largcl}' of wood, but contains many substantial 
stone and brick buildings. While a large number 
or its structures and its streets are modern and ele- 
gant, there are sulllcient vestiges of by-gone gene- 
rations and dc|)arted styles of architecture to give 
it a peculiar character. With the exception of a 
few localities through which the tide of commercial 
activity flows during the bnsier hours of the day, it 
unites the quiet of the country with the conven- 
iences of city life. The man of leisure and of taste 
may find here the charms of polished societies, li- 
braries and scientific collections to aid his mental 
culture, and the most agreeable scenery' in the envi- 
rons to gladden his eyes when he goes for'ih to take 
the air. 



Skklton, and IIumphhkv. — Si'iTB RitiDCB.— Tub Plains.— 
CiiuitcfiES. — Tub Rerkrvoir. — Pbarody iNsnTi.'TK, and 


Insank. — Dan VERS Historically and Statistically Con- 


Witchcraft. — Collins House. — Pkacody. — Mrs. Rich- 
ardson. — PorrKRiKS. — Pearody Square. — Siiillares 
Homestead.— George Pearodv: his early Home and His- 
TORY. — Hell Tayern and Monu.ment. — Eliza Wharton.- 
Tearody Institute.- Sutton IIeferencb Library.- Pea- 
body Historically and Statistically Considbred.- Ship 
KocK.— Uetukn to Salem. 

NE of the most iittrnctivc country drives in the 
vicinity of tlie city is through Danvers and 
Pcabodj'. Passing tluough North street over 
the Nortli bridge, with Beverlj* and the long 
bridge and llie railroad bridge on the right, while 
the North river with its numerous tanneries stretches 
away to Pcabody and Harmony Grove on the left, 
we cross the eastern end of Peabody and enter the 
town of Danvers in that section known as Danvers- 
port. Vessels reach this villnge by way of Bass 
river, bringing coal for the use of the rolling mills, 
which form the principal industry of the place. One 
who has never witnessed the process of working iron 
may prolitablj' pass an hour within these mills.* 

We are now on a point of land of more than or- 
dinai'y historic interest. It extends between two 



indentures of water ancieutl^* known as Water's and 
Crane rivers. Here once live<l Governor Endicott. 
The honor of being the first landliolder in Danvers 
is genernlly conceded to Endicott. He establislied 
himself liere in 1G30, on a grant of land comprising 
about tlu'ce liundred acres, described as ^'a neck of 
laud lying about tlu-ec m3'les from Salem, called in 
the Indian tongue, Wuhquamesehock^*' situated be- 
tween the inlets of the sea, now known as Water's 
river on the south, and Crane river on the north, 
*' bounding westerly b}' the maiue land." "On a 
beautiful eminence between these rivers," said Proc- 
tor, in his centennial address at Danvers, on June 
16, 1852, " Captain Endicott, who as acting governor, 
was chief magistrate of the colony previous to the 
arrival of Wiuthrop in 1G30, established his resi- 
dence." For more than two hundred vears the old 
mansion remained in the Endicott famil}*. From 
liere Endicott, so it is related, used to go to Boston 
in his shallop to attend the sessions of the govern- 
ment, after it was moved thither. In front of this 
mansion, some sixty rods, stands the renowned En- 
dicott pear tree, celebrated more for the time it has 
borne than for the fruit it bears. Champions of this 
tree claim that it is the oldest cultivated fruit tree 
in New England, it having been brought here from 
old England. 

Crossing the stream formerly known as Crane river, 
we enter Danversport village. This is on another 
"neck of laud," and is situated between Crane river 
on the south, and Pouter's river on the north, and 
^^ bounding westerly/' alsoi by the "moiiie land." 


This is the land granted to Samuel Skelton of the 
First Church, about the time that Endicott received 
his grant of the adjoining territory. It contained 
two hundred acres. This section was known for 
many years as Skel ton's Neck, subsequently as New 
Mills, and now as Danversport. 

Speaking of early grants, perhaps this is the 
most appropriate place to mention still another to 
one of the Old Planters, John Humphrey. His grant 
was in the westerly part of the town, that portion 
now comprised in Peabody, and near Humphrey's 
pond, on the line between Peabody and Lynnfield. 
In the midst of this pond is an island whereon the 
early settlers had a fort, into which they could retreat 
in case of attacks by the Indians. 

Driving on through the Port a short distance we 
bear to the right and cross Spite bridge which 
spans Porter's river. This bridge derives its name 
from the fact of its having been built by the Dan- 
vers farmers "out of spite" to the owners of Bev- 
erly bridge, when the latter was a toll-bridge and 
tolls were exhorbitant. Continuing along this road 
a short distance, we turn to the left and drive 
past the Danvers riding park, where gentlemen 
speed their trotters, and pedestrians speed them- 
selves, and where the Essex County Agricultural 
Society occasionally holds its annual fair. Or, in- 
stead of pursuing the above course, we might turn 
to the left, at the Danversport church, and proceed 
to the Plains over the old county road and through 
the thickly settled portion of the town. This would 
take us past the Catholic, Unitarian and Universa- 


list churches, and, under the latter, Gothic hall. 
Wo now enter the principal settlement of Danvers, 
known as the "Plains," containing post-office, stores, 
hotels, depots, newspaper office — "The Mirror," — 
and other establishments usually found in a thriving 
country village. 

Danvers has several pretty villages, as attractive as 
any in Essex county, with their broad, level streets, 
lined with fine houses and shaded by noble oaks and 
elms. The town is supplied with pure water from 
Middleton Pond. The reservoir is located upon 
Hawthorne hill, one of the highest in the town, thus 
assuring a good force of water. Even the farmers 
make use of this abundant supply when in dry 
seasons their crops begin to wither on the hillsides. 

The bounty of the late George Peabody has pro- 
vided the town with a handsome public edifice known 
as the Peabody Institute. This building, situated 
at the " Plains," contains a fine hall and a library of 
8,350 volumes. It is surrounded by a park which, 
in summer, is at once beautiful and fragrant with its 
thousands of flowers. Near by we notice the pretty 
town hall, in front of which stands a fine soldiers' 
monument. Here too, is the commodious station on 
the Lawrence branch of the Eastern Railroad. 

Returning to the main street (Maple) we bear 
to the left, pass the large Congregational Church, 
and cross the Newburyport branch of the Boston 
and Maine Railway; thence proceeding along this 
road for about a mile, and crossing the Newburyport 
turnpike, we arrive at the base of Hawthorne hill, 
whereon stands the State Lunatic Asylum. This is 

244" - OLD lanHKRAQ. 

the largest building in Essex connty and one of the 
largest in New England. Hawthorne hill is one of 
the most elevated in town, and this building is visi- 
ble for miles and miles across the country and far 
out to sea. The winding road leading to the summit 
is as smooth as a gravelled road can be. The slopes 
are nicely graded and turfed, while around the build- 
ing at the top of the hill arc beautiful flower-gardens. 
The area owned by the State is 197^ acres, and the 
extreme elevation is 257 feet above sea level. There 
are ten sections in the main group, connected by 
fire-proof corridors. Each of these sections is, in it- 
self, a large building. The structure is four stories 
in height and is built of brick in the domestic Gothic 
style of architecture. The administration building 
is sixty feet in width and ninety-seven feet in length. 
Immediately in the rear of this, is another building 
180 feet long and sixty feet wide. P^xtending out- 
ward from these buildings, are three more on either 
side, each 147 feet long by sixty-four feet in width, 
each successive building on a side falling back of 
the preceding flfty feet, more or less. Lying ob- 
liquely to these buildings, and connected with them, 
are the two extreme sections, each 117 feet long and 
fifty-six feet wide. The distance from the extreme 
points of the two buildings most remote from each 
other, is, in a straight line, 1180 feet. These two 
extreme wings are for the more excited patients. 
The interior is finished in superb style, the ceilings 
and walls being richly frescoed. Nothing that inge- 
nuity could suggest, or money procure, for the com- 
fort and convenience of the unhapp}'^ inmates has 


been omitted. The asylum is calculated to ac- 
commodate about 500 patients. Ascending the 
tower, on the southerly side, we find ourselves more 
than a hundred yards above sea level. At our feet 
repose the numerous villages of Danvers, Peabody, 
Lynnfield, Wenham and Middleton, while in the dis- 
tance we see Salem, Beverly, Cape Ann, Marblehead, 
Baker's and Lowell islands, Lynn, Topsfield and 
other places. 

Our view of Danvers Is perfect. We see here at 
a glance a thriving town that has grown rich from 
market-gardening, brick-making, and the manufac- 
ture of shoes. There are rising 140 farms with 295 
farmers ; also 101 brickmakers, 522 shoemakers and 
335 common laborers. The orcliarding exceeds that 
of any other town in Essex county ; 20,000 apple- 
trees alone are cultivated for their fruit. To this 
we may add a yearly crop of onions amounting to 
14,000 bushels, and other garden produce in propor- 
tion. The annual manufacture of bricks often 
reaches four, and sometimes five millions. Good 
clay for this purpose is abundant. The gathering 
of peat from the meadows, for fuel, is also an ex- 
tensive business; and then there are flourishing 
carpet-manufactories and iron-works. 

Thirteen hundred families, consisting of 6024 
persons, dwelling in 1014 houses, make up the sum 
total of population. The valuation of the town is 
$3,341,100 and the productions during the year 1874 
amounted to $2,488,522. Danvers was incorporated 
as a town on June IG, 1757, and is said to have de- 
rived its name from Sir Danvers Osborn, an English 
nobleman, and at one time a Governor of New York. 


On December 31, 1C38, it was "agreed and voted 
(by the people of Salem), that there should be a 
village granted to Mr. Fliillips and his company, 
upon Buch conditiona as the seven men appointed for 
the town aOaira should agree." This nas the origin 
of the name " Salem village," so long applied to the 
settlement in Danvers. In 1671, the people of 
this village were released from parish charge to the 
Firat Cbui'oh. Tliey still kept up woi-ship, Uoivever, 
Eomelimcs by means of laymen, and again by regular 
preachers. Rev. James Bagley was first pastor of the 
church and began bis labors on October 28, 1671. 
He was succeeded by Rev. George Burroughs who 
was subsequently eiiecuted for witchcraft. The first 
meeting-house stood very near the site of the present 
ediUce on what was then known as "Watch-house 
bill." On the 23d of October, by a. vote of Salem, the 
"village" and the "middle precinct" were, "with 
the consent of the legislature," allowed to become a 
separate town. The General Court refused to sanc- 
tion the vote because it would increase the number 
of representatives, but constituted them a district 
instead of a town, tha act of incorpoiation dating 
January 28, 1762. The name Danvera was given 
the new district at this time. The subject of making 
it a separate town was brought before the legislature 
again, before long, and, on June 16, 1757, the act 
incorporating the town of Danvers as a separate 
municipality was passed. On May 18, 1855, the 
town was divided iuto Danvers and South Danvers. 
South Danvers was given the name of Pcabody on 
April 13, 1868. 

The first town meetiug was held on March 4, 


1752, in the meeting-house of the north parish. The 
order for this meeting began thus: ''These may 
notify the inhabitants of Salem alious Dan vers, eta J* 
Daniel Eppes, Esq., was moderator, Daniel Eppes, 
jr., clerk, and James Prince, treasurer. Daniel 
Eppes, jr., Capt. Samuel Flint and Deacon Cornelius 
Tarbell were chosen selectmen. Among the names 
of the other officers chosen at that first meeting 
were many so familiar to the old town at the pres- 
ent time, — such as Putnam, Preston, Derby, An- 
drews, Proctor and others. The population at this 
time was about 500 and the number of houses 140. 

Speaking of the first settlers of these two towns, 
Hon. Charles W. Upham says : ^ "Their descendants 
remain in large numbers on the same area to-day. 
Perhaps it would be safe to say that in no district 
of our cbunty have old families been so numerously 
preserved. Very many now occupy lands which their 
first American ancestors cleared." 

This town has furnished three members of Con« 
gress, all of whom became men of note. They were 
Samuel Holton, Nathan Reed and Daniel P. King. 
It has given to the military service of the country 
such men as General Israel Putnam, General Gideon 
Foster and General Moses Porter : and in the wars of 
the revolution, of 1812, that with Mexico in 1846, and 
in the late civil war, Danvers did her whole duty, both 
in the number of men and in the quality. Samuel 
Holton was a man of extensive public service. Bom 

1 Essex Inst. Hist. CoU., Vol. 10, p. 1. 


in Danvers in 173G, Le soon became a doctor or medi- 
cine. At the age of titirty, be was elected a reprc- 
Bcntstive to the General Coiiit. In 1776 he woa 
mnde major of the first regiment iu Essex county ; 
then elected to a seat in the Provincial Congress at 
Watertowii ; Jndge of tlie Court of Common Pleas ; 
Justice of the Court of General Sessions, and Chief 
Justice of the same ; delegate to assist in framing 
the Confederation ; delegate to a convention to frame 
a State constitution ; representative in Congress and 
President of Coogresa ; iiresidential eleetor twice, 
and finutly Judge of Piobuto for Essex county. i 
Israel Putnam's history is too well kuotvn to neces- 
sitate any eicteuded sketch of it here. lie was cele- 
brated for quickness of decision, rapidity of execu- 
tion and undaunted courage. He was horn in an old 
house near tbo foot of Hawthorne bill on Ibe New- 
bnryport turnpike. Here he lived until the age of 
tweuty-one when be married and moved to Connec- 
ticut. When the news of the battle of Lexington 
reached bim be was ploughing. Turuing loose his 
horses, he took bis coat from a tree where it hung 
and went to join the array, serving first at Bunker 
Hill, where be was second in command. He con- 
tinued tbi-ougbout the war one of the first generals. 
Having tarried thus long to recount the history of 
the old town, we will now descend on the side 
opposite to timt wbicli we ascended, and taking 
the Peabody road start on our return ; but do not 

UitoTf at Danver*, p, 188. 


think that we have yet seen all there is to be seen 
in the town. A short drive finds us at a spot known 
the world over — a spot whicli will last as long as a 
printed page or tradition shall preserve any record of 
the past. It is no less than the site of the old Parris 
house, where the Rev. Samuel Parris, fourth pastor 
of the First Church in Danvers, once lived. Here on 
this spot, in the family of Mr. Parris, Salem witch- 
craft had its birth. Bancroft says that the origin 
of this strange delusion was in a desire on the part of 
Parris to wreak vengeance on certain of his people, 
between whom and himself there existed a bitter 
feud. This delusion has been discussed elsewhere 
in this work and need not be extended here. Among 
the victims who had a home in Danvers were Rev. 
George Burroughs, Giles Corey and wife, John Proc- 
tor and wife, Rebecca Nurse, George Jacobs, Sarah 
Goode, and John Willard. Giles Corey's residence 
was near the crossing of the Salem and Lowell 
and Newburyport and Boston Railroads, about 300 
feet west of the crossing and close to the track of 
the Salem and Lowell road, on the south side. 
The estate is now owned by Benjamin Taylor. The 
vestiges of the cellar are still visible. Giles Corey 
lived previously^ for some time, in the toion of Salem; 
he sold his house there and built his farm-house in 
Danvers, which was 20 feet long, 15 feet wide and 8 
feet stud.i 

Still continuing on down this road through a 

»C. W. Upham. 


pleasant farming community and throngh the village 
of Tapley ville, we notice many gambrel-roof houses, 
unusual for a newly-built village. But these houses 
were not built here ; they were moved hence from 
Salem for the occupancy of the people employed in 
the Tapleyville carpet factories. We cross the up- 
per part of Crane river at this point ; on the right, 
Just beyond the river, is the site of the Rebecca 
Nurse house, another landmark to remind us of the 
superstitious folly of our Puritanic ancestry. Re- 
becca lived here when she was charged with witch- 
craft, and from here she was dragged to Salem, tried, 
condemned, sentenced and executed. 

A little further along the road so rich with land- 
marks of the past, we find the old Parris house 
itself, the identical house in which Rev. Mr. Parris 
lived when he accused his Indian servant Tituba of 
being a witch, and *' cruelly treated her." The old 
house — now thoroughly weather-beaten and evidently 
nearly ready to "tumble down" — is used for the 
storage of sage. Just beyond here, on the right, is 
the historic Collins house, used by Gen. Gage as a 
headquarters and ** summer residence," about 1774, 
when he was Governor of Massachusetts. It is as 
grand and imposing to-day as in the days when its 
halls resounded with the clanking of the arms of 
brilliantly uniformed officers of "His Majesty's 
army," and the gardens and lawns surrounding are 
even more beautiful. " This house," says Hanson's 
history of Danvers, " was built by Robert Hooper, 
and subsequently owned by Judge Collins." It is 
now occupied as a summer residence by Mr. Francis 
Peabody, of Salem. 


Leaving the Collins house, we continue our jour- 
ney along this i*oad and soon enter the town of 
Peabody. The eminence on our right is Pleasant 
hill, formerly known as *^Hog" hill. There is one 
road extending the entire length and terminating on 
the north-westerly end, so that those who go must 
return by the same route. On the very top of this 
hill is a homestead, now owned by Captain Charles 
Endicott of Salem, the nearest living descendant of 
Governor Endicott. Another beautiful and roman- 
tic place along the road, which we drive, is the Rogers 
estate, which stands back from the road on the right 
some distance, and is reached by a drive shaded by 
noble elms. 

The next point worthy of note is the spot where 
a Mrs. Richardson once lived, and where she estab- 
lished the first bakery ever known in these parts. 
Her house stood on the left of this road, and the 
spot is marked only by a rude heap of bricks. Here 
the good old lady baked her bread and then drove 
to Salem where she sold it. It is related by her de- 
scendants, that, in 1775, she witnessed the burning 
of Charlestown from the top of Buxton's hill, the 
highest land in town and which lies to the right of 
Andover street. Continuing down this street to the 
*' Pine tree," we turn to the right into Central street. 
The country through which we have been driving is 
entirely a farming section of the town. We now 
enter the village, a veiy pretty one by the way, with 
many elegant residences and fine streets. 

Time was, when, on either side of Central street, 
were numerous potteries for the manufacture of 
earthenware, familiarly known as Dan vers china, 


but there is only one manufactory of thd kind now 
remaining here, and it is tlie only one in the town. 
Central street leads ns past the town house, on 
Stevens street, to Peabody square. Here we have 
the depot of the Lawrence branch of the East- 
ern Railway, the South Reading Railway, and the 
Salem and Lowell road. Here too is the South 
Church which occupies the same spot as did the first 
church ever built in the town. This is the fourth 
edifice that has been erected here: one was torn 
down because of old age, another burned, and still 
another was sold to the Methodists and moved to 
Washington street. Here is the post ofllce, the 
hotel, tlie newspaper offices — "Press" and "Re- 
porter," the former edited by C. D. Howard, and the 
latter by S. C. Bancroft — the local court, the police 
station, and shops and stores such as are found in 
all prosperous villages. 

Driving directly across the square into Foster 
street, we notice to the right, on Chestnut street, 
the large newly-built Catholic church, and between 
the church and square on Lowell street, the hand- 
some brick building for the accommodation of a large 
portion of the fire department. Here, in this square, 
near the site of the depot, stood, about 1630, the 
first mill ever erected in this country. 

Continuing along Foster street to its Junction with 
Washington street, we follow the latter up the hill, 
past the S. C. Bancroft engine house and as far as 
the Shillaber homestead, the birthplace of B. P. 
Shillaber, Esq. (Mrs. Partington). This is very 
near to the line between Lynn and Peabody, and we 


will retrace our steps, leaving Foster street on the 
lefb, and following Washington street until we come 
to a two-story yellow house standing on the northerly 
side of the street. This house was the birthplace 
and early home of George Feabody, the banker and 

George Peabody was bom here on the 18th day 
of February, 1 795. He began commercial life in the 
grocery store of Capt. Sylvester Proctor, in 1807, 
being at the time only eleven years of age. He 
remained there until 1810, and then went to Thetford, 
Vt., where he remained for about a year, when he 
became a clerk in the store of his brother, David 
Peabody, in Newbury port. In a short time the 
great fire broke up David's business, and George 
was again out of work. In 1812, he accompanied 
his uncle. Gen. John Peabody, to Georgetown, D.C., 
where the two conducted business for two 3'ears. At 
the age of nineteen, George took the entire manage- 
ment of the business of Mr. Elisha Riggs, a wealthy 
merchant of Georgetown, becoming junior partner. 
The house* was removed to Baltimore in 1815, and 
subsequently branches established in Philadelphia 
and New York. Mr. Riggs retiring and being suc- 
ceeded by Samuel Eiggs, the firm became Peabody, 
Riggs & Co. During these years George Peabody 
was supporting his widowed mother and orphan 
brothers and sisters. He made several voyages to 
Europe, and finally sailed for London on February 
1, 1837, where he resided during the remainder of 
his life engaged in banking, and amassed a princely 
fortune. He returned to this country only twice, in 


1857 and in 18G6. After iiis death his mortal re* 
mains were sent home to be laid at rest in native soil. 

As he was a great accumulator so he was a gen- 
erous distributor, giving awa}' more, probably, than 
any other man who ever lived in the world. Among 
his larger donations was the sum of $2,500,000 to the 
poor of London, $2,000,000 to the southern educa- 
tional fund, $1,400,000 to the Baltimore Literary In* 
stitute, $200,000 to the Peabody Institute, Peabody^ 
$150,000 each, to Harvard College, Yale College, 
and the Peabody Academy of Science in Salem, and 
$100,000 to found the Peabody Institute, Danvers. 
Besides these vast sums he gave awa}' hundreds of 
thousands of dollars — some publicly and much pri« 
vately. So great a philanthropist and benefactor was 
he, that both England and the United States united 
in giving him an imposing public funeral. England 
sent home his remains in her greatest war-ship — 
the mighty " Monarch " — and this country accom- 
panied it with its great naval vessel, the *' Plymouth," 
and sent two iron-clads to Portland to receive them. 
The body was landed at Portland amid imposing 
ceremonies, and from there taken to Salem and in- 
terred in Harmony Grove with such ceremonies of 
respect as only a native town, a native common- 
wealth, and a native country, united, could pay to 
the memory of an honored son. 

Having tarried so long to recount the virtues and 
noble deeds of this great philanthropist, we must 
huny on to the terminus of Washington street where 
it intersects Main street. At this point stands the 
monument erected by the citizens of Danvers, to the 


memory of the men of Danvers who fell at Lexing- 
ton and Concord, numbering one-sixth of all who 
fell on the American side on that memorable day. 
The monument is built of hewn stone, 22 feet high 
and 7 feet broad at the base. It was completed in 
1837 at an Expense of about $1,000. 

It is related how thejr assembled on this spot on 
the morning of the 19th of April, 1775, and, bid- 
ding their loved ones farewell, went forth to battle 
in defence of their liberties — those liberties which 
their ancestors braved the hardships of the wilder- 
ness to secure. They marched over the road to 
Lexington, a distance of fifteen miles, in four hours, 
under the lead of Gen. Gideon Foster, then a cap- 

On the easterly comer of these streets stood, many 
years ago, a famous old building known as Bell 
Tavern, made memorable by many events which 
transpired within its walls, but perhaps more than 
all else from having been at one time the abiding 
place of Elizabeth Whitman, better known as *' Eliza 
Wharton," from a book written by ** Hannah Web- 
ster" (Mrs. Foster), in which Miss Whitman's strange 
career was distinctly outlined. With all her faults 
she was a woman who bore every burden, whether 
self-imposed or otherwise, with the fortitude of a 
heroine. This Bell Tavern was then on the great 
thoroughfare from the east and north to Boston. 
The old signboard promised '' entertainment for man 
and beast." The tavern was b, sort of English 
coffee-house where the news was related and public 
affairs of grave importance discussed, and where 
public events were celebrated. 


' Very near bore is the Feabody Institute, estab- 
lished and maintained on a fund of $200,000 donated 
by George Feabody. It was founded in 1857. The 
building is two stories in height, built of brick, with 
very little outward ornamentation. On the first 
floor is located the library of nearly 16,000 volumeS} 
with accommodations for many thousands additional. 
In this room is the painting of Queen Yictoriai 
painted on a sheet of gold, the colors being burned 
in. It was *' the gift of Her Majesty to Mr. George 
Feabody," having been presented in person, and in 
turn presented to the Institute by Mr. Feabody. 
Two large gold snuff-boxes of unique design and 
skilful workmanship, also donated by Mr. Feabody, 
adorn this room. On the second floor is a large 
lecture hall, fluished and furnished in superb style, 
and capable of seating about a thousand people. 
The wall at the rear of the platform is adorned by a 
life-size painting of Mr. Feabody, which is pro- 
nounced to be an admirable likeness of the man. 

In the rear of this hall is the *' Sutton Reference 
Library," founded in 1869, by Mrs. Eliza Sutton, as 
a memorial to her son, Eben Dale Sutton, who died 
in his youth. This library is composed strictly of 
reference books, and contains some 950 volumes. 
The room has probably no superior in the libraries 
of this country for richness of finish. A likeness 
of the youth, in memory of whom the devoted 
mother founded the library, adorns the south side 
of the room. The large brick dwelling on the oppo* 
site side of the street is the residence of Mrs. Sut- 
ton, the benefactress to whom the town is entitled 
for this invaluable addition to the Institute. 


. Before proceeding farther we shall find it advan- 
tageous to glance at the town in a statistical point 
of view. Feabody is a town of 8066 inhabitants^ 
1720 voters, 1300 dwellings, and 1821 families. It 
is a thriving place, the manufacture of leather being 
the principal industry. About 1750, Joseph South- 
jwick commenced the business of tanning In tubs or 
half-hogsheads, since which time it has grown to 
gigantic proportions. 

. There are in the town 864 curriers and 198 tan- 
yard laborers, besides 183 morocco dressers, and 200 
jBhoemakers. The manufactories are mainly along 
the banks of North river, on the borders of, and ex- 
tending into, Salem. But the figures here given 
relate solely to so much of the business as lies wholly 
within Feabody. There are thirty-five establish- 
ments for the manufacture of leather, in which is 
invested a capital of $837,740, producing, annually, 
goods to the value of $3,086,613, and $60,000 addi- 
jtional of morocco. The manufacture of skivers 
sheep-skins, linings and shoe-soles gives an addi- 
tional product of about $200,000, making a total 
of $3,346,613. Forty-three engines, with a total of 
2187 horse-power, supply the motive power of this 
settlement of leather factories. 
. Besides these manufactories there are extensive 
glue manufacturing establishments, slaughter-houses, 
and the like. Farming is another extensive and 
profitable pursuit, in which some 350 persons are 

The total valuation of the town is $6,181,350, and 
the annual value of the productions is $4,738,310. 




The figures hero given appear abundantly sufficient 
to substantiate the statement, that Peabody is pecul- 
iarly a thriving town. 

About the only natural curiosity in town is '' Ship 
Rock" on the line of the South Reading Branch Rail- 
way, and which may be seen high up on the hill to 
the right soon after passing Peabody village. It is 
reputed to be the largest boulder standing above the 
earth in New England. Its length is forty feet, 
breadth thirty, and thickness twenty. It resembles 
the hull of a ship and bears marks of the glacial 
period. The rock is now the property of the Essex 

For all puiposes, save that of municipal govern- 
ment, Peabody is part and parcel of Salem, being 
but an extension of that city, and being also closely 
connected with it in all matters of business. The 
two places are connected by the branch railroads 
elsewhere mentioned, and also by the street railway, 
which runs from Peabody square through Salem to 

There is very little more for us to see in this town, 
and limited space precludes more extended state- 
ments of past and present. So we turn our steps 
towards home by way of Main street, Peabody, 
passing on the way the old cemetery where a rude 
stone marks the grave of " Eliza Wharton ;" thence 
down Boston street in Salem and through Essex 
street to the heart of the city. 



UBACHBD.—TOPOGRAPHT.— Industries.— Extent of Fish* 


Hall. — Patriotism. — MuoFORD, Gloyer and Gerrt.— 
Crooked streets.— As a Summer Resort.— The Heck. 
—Landmarks.— Skipper Ireson.— Great Fire in 1877. 

Not far away we saw the port, 
The strange, old-fashioned, silent town, 

The light-house, the dismantled foyt, 
The wooden houses, quaint and brown. 

The windows, rattling in their Arames, 

The ocean roaring up the beach. 
The gusty blast, the bickering flames, 

All mingled with our speech. 

tItHITS sang the poet Longfellow, in 1849, of old 
>|' Mai'blehead, that grand old town, whose reo- 
I ord for sturdy patriotism, unflinching courage 
(^ and true nobility, will last so long as history 
itself; so long as her rocks and sea shall remain 
and clouds and sunshine deck them with their 
thousands of varying colors. In a work of this 
kind it would be utterly useless to attempt a por- 
trayal of her record which should be commensurate 
with its deserts. It is to be hoped that some of 
her many own gifted sons will one day perform that 
task. The history of our country, and especially 



of this Commonwealth is full of the work of the 
men of Marblehead, and it only needs to be sifted 
out and arranged to give her such a memorial as 
she deserves. Our recoixL must necessarily be brief. 
It can only mention the important events. 

Marblehead was detached from Salem, of which 
it formed a part, on May 2, 1649. It contained, 
at that time, 44 families. At the present time, 
there are 1881 families, with 7677 inhabitants, 
dwelling in 1219 houses. The valuation of the 
town is $4,058,610, and the value of the produc* 
tions amounts to over one and a half million dollars 
annually. A pleasant ride of about four miles due 
south from Salem, lands the visitor in the very 
heart of the town. If it is desired to reach it 
from Boston, it may be done in a ride of sixteen 
miles, by changing cars at Lynn, and passing 
through the delightful town of Swampscott. There 
are two distinct parts to the town. The main por- 
tion, or the village, lies at the head of a small arm 
of the sea which makes into the land about half a 
mile, and also extends around to the north, separate 
ing the harbor from Salem harbor. To the south, 
and Just across the harbor, lies the high peninsula 
known as Marblehead, or "Great" Neck. The Neck 
is devoted exclusively to summer resorts, many fine 
cottages being erected there, and also two small, but 
good hotels. The rural section of the town extends 
due south-west about three miles to Swampscott 
line Marblehead harbor is one of the deepest on 
the Atlantic coast, but is poorly protected. The pur- 
suits of the people are shoe-manufacturing, market 

S64 OLD VAjnaauLO. 

gardening and fishing. Formerly, the last named, 
now the smallest, was the most extensive of the 
three pursuits. It was, in fact, almost the sole 
business of the inhabitants. But, as in Manchester 
and other towns, it is now a mere trifle. Just pre- 
vious to the breaking out of the war of the Revolu- 
tion, the fisheries were extensive. Marblehead ves- 
sels were known in almost every harbor, and its sail 
whitened nearly every sea. The daring of its sea- 
men was world-renowned. And as late as 1837, even, 
there were 55 vessels belonging to the port engaged 
in this pursuit, the total tonnage being 4603. The 
cod -fish caught that year amounted to 49,403 quin- 
tals; the mackerel to 243 barrels. Five hundred 
sturdy men were employed in this business. The 
same year the town manufactured over one million 
pairs of shoes, employing nearly 1 200 operatives. At 
the present time, it has but two vessels in the coast- 
wise trade, and 14 engaged in the fisheries. There 
are in the town but 116 fishermen and 46 mariners. 
There are several extensive shoe manufactories, and 
the productions in this line greatly exceed those of 
1837. But owing to the extensive use of machinery 
there are fewer persons employed, being now not 
much above eleven hundred. There are only about 
180 farmers and farm-laborers, but the productions of 
these farms are very extensive, and in quality equal 
any thing taken into Boston markets. As many as 
24,000 bushels of onions are grown here in one sea- 
son, together with 5769 bushels of carrots, 3830 
bushels of turnips, and 1800 bushels of beets. The 
seed-farm of Hon. James J. H. Gregory, just outside 


of the village, is one of the finest in this section. 
No visitor to the town should fail to see it. 

There are two National banks and one Savings 
bank ; a high school and several intermediates and 
primaries ; a good newspaper — " The Messenger" — 
and eight churches. The school-houses, like many 
other buildings of the town, are old and weather- 
beaten, and in many instances inadequate to their 
mission. Through the bequest of a generous native 
of the town — Benjamin Abbot — a beautiful public 
building has been erected on Marblehead Common. 
Mr. Abbot's bequest amounted to over $100,000; 
and the hall cost $75,000. The sum of $20,000 was 
set apart for a library and reading room. Abbot 
hall was dedicated on Wednesday, Dec. 12, 1877, 
the oration on the occasion being delivered by Hon . 
Edward Avery of Boston. 

Marblehead, like Salem, may have been slow at 
times. It never moved in any matter of improve- 
ment until after nearly all its sister towns. Often 
it was at '* swords points" with Salem or some 
neighboring town. But when the call of duty came ; 
when any sister municipality was in danger, or in 
trouble ; when the country called : no town could so 
quickly forget all differences; none more readily 
respond to the call. 

*• Never yet to Hebrew fleer 
A clearer voice of daty came.'' 

<^ The old town is and always was loyal to the 
core." In the war for American Independence, in 
the war of 1812-14, and in our late civil strife, she 


poured out her best blood, and none better ever 
coursed through the veins of men. Her sons knew 
not fear, whether on the field of battle, or riding the 
tempest-tossed sea^ or in the civil strife. They re- 
sponded to the call of each alike. When, in 1861, 
the first call for troops came, Marblehead received 
her notice late in the afternoon. At 8 o'clock on 
the following morning, before another man had pat 
in his appearance, one of her three companies was 
in Faneuil Hall, Boston, ready to proceed to the 
front. The other two arrived an hoar later. When 
the war for independence was over, it appeared that 
Marblehead had dwindled from a tonnage of 12,000 
to 1,500 ; fVom 1,200 votes to less than 500 ! There 
were five hundred widows and more than one thou- 
sand orphans ! Such in brief is the story of the old 
town's devotion to the country and the cause of free- 
dom. She has given to that country many men 
whose names are inseparably linked wiCh the bright- 
est pages of its history, and whose memory neither 
would willingly let die. 

Among the earliest was Capt. James Mugford, the 
captor of the British powder-ship in Massachusetts 
bay, on May 17, 1776, and who was killed on the same 
day while returning home. The citizens never forgot 
him, and on May 17, 1876, dedicated to his memory, 
and the memory of those who fought with him, a 
monument worthy of such a deed. This monument 
stands at the junction of Essex and Pleasant streets. 
The address of the occasion was delivered by tlie 
Hon. Geo. B. Loring of Salem, who, in his eloquent 
peroration, said : 


'^ How true has this town, the birth-place of Mug- 
ford, been to his example and to all her heroic tra- 
ditions. The faithful performance of her duty in the 
war of the revolution has been an incentive to suc- 
ceeding heroism in great critical events wliicli have 
followed. It was the sons of revolutionary sires whom 
Glover led, who manned the frigate Constitution and 
added the names of Prince, and Russell, and Co well, 
to the bright constellation which already shone for 
her in our heavens. From Marblehead a fleet of pri- 
vateers, organized as an arm of the navy of the 
United States, sailed forth and swept the high seas. 
She impoverished herself for this second war, and 
when it closed she could count her illustrious dead 
by the hundreds. History has recorded to your 
everlasting honor that the men of Marblehead were 
the first to reach Boston in April, 1861, on their way 
to defend the capital of the republic. It was a 
Marblehead man, who, catching the first sound of 
danger to the flag, left his work but half performed, 
and arming himself for still bloodier scenes, rallied 
his men and rushed to the conflict.'^ 

Glover was a brigadier general in the American 
army during the Revolution. He led the line in 
Washington's famous ^* crossing of the Delaware," 
and conducted Burgoyne's army through New Eng- 
land after its surrender. Elbridge Gerry was a mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, Vice-President of the 
United States, and Governor of Massachusetts. 
Among others of equal merit, if less famous, were 
Azor Orne, Edwaixl A. Holyolce, Isaac Story, Joseph 
Story, LL.D., Rev. Samuel Sewall, John Gallison, 
and Samuel Hooper. There is a solid common sense 
about the old Marbleheaders ; their own sound intel- 
ligence speaks for itself wherever they go. 


Of course the ancient Marblelieaders did some 
qneer things in the earlier days, as did the inhab- 
itants of other towns. No doubt it was perfectly 
proper to fine John Gatchell ten shillings, in 1637, 
for building on town land, and doubtless his hair 
needed a barber's attention or the town would not 
have voted, as the records show it did, that one-half 
of the fine be abated ^' in case he should cutt off his 
long har off his head." As Salem had its witchcraft 
delusion so Marblehead had a small-pox fright* 
and, in the seventeenth century, when the contagion 
raged there, the law regulating the size of dogs was 
enforced. All dogs above or below the regulation 
size were killed from fear that they would carry the 
contagion. Honesty was secured by requiring the 
trustees of an appropriation to deposit the money 
in one chest with two different locks and keys, the 
chest to be left in charge of one trustee and the keys 
to be held by the other two, and the chest not to be 
opened except in the presence of all three. This 
was an old ^' notion'' but it would not be a bad law 
to have all over the country even in these modern 

One of the curiosities of the village is its crooked, 
meandering streets. The stranger can never tell 
where he will '* turn up " when he starts into a street. 
The town was evidently settled without regard to 
streets or boundaiy lines, each settler locating on 
some ledge or rise of ground wherever he pleased. 
Some houses stand north and south, othera east and 
west, and so on through all the points of the com- 
pass. One writer says that this incongruity of set* 


tlement arose Arom the main streets running along 
the vallej's, of which there ai*e six or seven, and the 
houses having been built on the rising ground on 
either side. To those who have never seen the 
town we can only describe it by remarking that it 
has very much such an appearance as we are told 
a town has after a shaking up by a first class earth- 
quake. Ten thousand ^' streaks " of lightning would 
hardly make such devious windings. However, the 
town records make no mention of either calamity, 
so it is to be presumed that neither ever happened. 
Much has been said about the *' brogue " of a genu- 
ine Marbleheader, but there is very little of it to be 
heard now. 

Marblehead has had but few poets. This is singu- 
lar, when one remembers how much there is to in- 
spire in her rocky shores, and romantic history, and 
picturesque town. It has, however, been well em- 
balmed in history by America's best poets. Long- 
fellow wrote ^^Fire of Driftwood" here on tlie beach 
near old fort Sewall. Lucy Larcom wrote '^ Han- 
nah Binding Shoes" in Marblehead. All remember 
it, where Hannah is '' sitting, stitching in a mourn- 
ful mood." Holmes and Whittier have also immor- 
talized it in their matchleas verse. Hawthorne's 
*^ Foot-prints on the Sands" had its birtli here. 

As a Summer resort, Marblehead has no superior 
on the New England coast. Its bold and rocky shores 
projecting fai* out into the open sea ; its cool, pure 
and invigorating air ; its beautiful country ; its solid 
roads, and its quiet, peaceful ways: all tend to 
make it a ** perfect paradise" for such as seek 

MABSLBRVlb. 271 

genuine rest and recreation. And those who visit 
the place, thongh containing among their number 
many of the wealthy and cultured, come for this pur- 
pose and not for show. The three hotels — the Atlan- 
tic and Samoset on the Neck, and the Clifton House, 
near the Swampscott line, are fashioned much after 
the old town itself, and partake of its ways. They 
are neither grand nor gaudy; but they are solid, 
substantial and comfortable. The Clifton, which 
has long been under the direction of Mr. B. P. 
Ware, jr., is one of the oldest established houses 
on the coast. The private cottages are none of 
them showy. In fact, aside from a few newly built 
ones, there are none such as Swampscott or Cape 
Ann can show. But there are none more pleasant 
or comfortable. The residences of Mr. D. B. Bick- 
ford and Hon. J. J. H. Gregory on the northeastern 
shore are among the handsomest ; also those of the 
Crownihgshields near by, and of Mrs. Kimball, and 
Mrs. Gordon, and Hon. W. D. Northend, on the Neck, 
Marblehead, like Salem, is rich in landmarks of 
the past. It would require a volume of itself to 
describe these and give their history. There is 
the Mugford monument on Pleasant street near the 
Eastern depot ; the soldiers and sailors monument 
on Mugford street ; the old North Church, rich in 
historic associations, built partly of granite from the 
ledge on which it stands ; St. Michael's (Episcopal) 
Church, built in 1714, and still in a good state of 
preservation, and serving the Episcopalians of Mar« 
blehead as a place of worship ; and whose second 
pastor, the Rev. David Mosson, isubsequently mov- 
ing tb VirgintEi hid the distingniriild hbnor ctf 


nanying Ur. Georgo W&shington and Mrs. Mnrtlia 
Ciiatis; the town house, buill in 1728, on the G]>ot 
where the "gaol and cage" once stood; the old 
pomler house, with its interesting histoiy and fas- 
cinating romnnce ; parson Bninaid's old residence, 
built in 1720; tlie bouse in nhich Elbiitlge Gerr; 
v&a boro ; the birth-place and early horae of Judge 
Story ; the early home of good old pai'son Holyoke, 
vho leFt Marldebeod to take charge of Harvard Col- 
lege, and wiu fresh laurela ) the old bnriiil ground, 
with ita (]uaiat tombstones bearing the oddest of 
inscriptions, and tlie humble niouument which tells 
to the stranger, the story of the teiiible gale and 
shipwreck of September 19, 1846, when C5 sons of 
JInrblehead found a watery grave, leaving 43 widows 
and 155 fatUcrless children. Then there is thefamoua 
old Lee house, built by Hon. Jeremiah Lee in 1758, 
at a cost of £10,000. It was maguiflccutly fur- 
nished, and it is related that large numbers of slaves 
were kept constantly employed burnishing its oak 
and brass. Here Washington was received when he 
Tisited New England, after the Bevolutionary war; 
here, too, Lafayette received the attentions of hun- 
dreds of admirers. But the glory has departed from 
the old mansion, and, like nearly all of our American 
landmarks, it has been leased "for lucre's sake," 
being now occupied by banking institutions. Where 
Marblehead will entertain presidents and princes 
when they shall come again, no one can tell. But 
after all, is there any need of borrowing trouble 
about it, considering how small probability there la 
of presidents or i>rince8 ever agaia visiLing tha 
tomi? ■ . . r 


Let VLB not forget, among all this recounting of 
grandeur, the home of the humble Benjamin Ireson. 
A ^^ much abused" man was Skipper Ireson. Even 
the poet Whittier did him injustice (unintentional 
of course) in his ballad about the shipwreck. But 
fortunately for the good old skipper, the people of 
Marblehead have resented every attempt to cast re- 
proach on his fair name. They indignantly deny 
that he deserted a sinking ship, and maintain that, 
on the contrary, the crew, while the skipper was 
asleep below, set sail for home and then heaped all 
the blame on him. But there is another side to the 
story. The defenders of the crew maintain that the 
men misunderatood Ireson's reasons for not allow- 
ing them to go to the rescue of the sinking ship* 
His reasons were, that it would be sure death to 
make the attempt, thus imperilling the lives and 
property under his charge. Doubtless both skipper 
and men meant right, and if they erred it was an 
error of head and not of heart. Ireson was, how- 
ever, tarred and feathereil and conveyed out of 
town. So, too, we must not neglect the fishing 
wharves, once busy places, but now very much de- 
serted. Tucker's wharf, with its picturesque steps 
and precipitous banks adjoining, should not be 

Towering above all these links in the chain which 
unites the history of the past with the present, and 
doubtless will unite all with the eternity of the 
future; far above all these humble monuments of 
our modest ancestor, and marking the royal onward 
march of progress, is that noble pile of masonry on 


yonder hill — Abbot IIiill. Through tbe miBta of 
the early morning, or the haze of Uie noonday, or 
the fuint glimmering of tLe deepening twilight, the 
tQni'iuer, fiu' out on the ocean, beholds its tall " spire 
whose silent flnger points to heaven," and knows, 
better tliau any ligbt-hoiiee can tell him, tbat he is 
uearing the ragged const of old Marblehead. But 
here let the record of the good old town rest until 
time nnd space, and ability born of the devotion of 
a. native, shall give it ils iilace in history. 

Since the preparation of the Marblchend portion 
of this book, the town has been visited by a terribly 
destructive Qre. For a. time it seemed tbat the 
whole uuurse of the town nould be changed, ao 
that the desoriptive portion of this article wonld 
have to be rewritten. But iu a few months, It 
became plainly evident tLat the recovery from the 
blow would be rapid, and that the prosperity of the 
place would be only tcmpararily cbei^lied. It seemed 
advisable, therefore, to lfa\e this sketch as first- 

This fii'e broke out about two o'clock on the 
morning of Monday, June 23, 1877, in the rear of the 
Marbleliead Hotel, on Pleasant street. It quickly 
extended to the south anil cast, burning over some 
eight acres of the business portion of the village,' 
and destroying seventy buildings and nearly every 
shoe mauufactory in to\vn. A thousand persona 
ivero thrown out of employment ; hundreds were 
rendered homeless. The loss amounted to between 
four and five hundred thousand dollars, and tbe in- 
surance to something below three hundred thousand. 


Location. — Ftrst Ssttlers. — Bbterlt Bridge. — EASTBior 
Railroad and Stage Coaches. — First Houses. — Ryal 
Side.— Postal Cektrbs.— Namb of Town. — Indian Vil- 
lage.- Early Town Officers. — First Cotton Mill.— 
H1LI.S. — Browne's Folly. — Fine Views. — Streets.- 
Ponds. — Water Works. — Churches. — Forts. — Muddt 
Brook Massacre.— Canada Expedition.- A Narrow Es- 
cape.- The Revolution. — At PACK on Beverly. — Hugh 
Hill.— Female Rioters.— Commerce and Manufacturies. 
— Past and Present Policy. — Town Halls.— Fire Depart- 
ment, Militia, etc. 

,EVERLY lies to the north of Salem, from 
which it is separated by Beverly harbor. It 
is bounded on the south by Beverly and Salem 
harbors, on the north by Wenham, on the east 
by Manchester and Wenham Neck, and on the 
west by the Essex Branch river and Danvers. It 
is eighteen miles from Boston, on the Eastern Rail- 
road. It has a hilly surface, and much rocky and 
unproductive land, although there is a great deal 
of valuable and fertile soil. From some of the 
hills in the town beautiful prospects may be ob- 
tained of the surrounding country. It was first 
settled by the removal of John and William Wood- 
bury, with others of the companions of Roger Co- 
nan t, from the south or Salem side to the north 
or "Cape Ann side" of the harbor. Conant and 
John Balch, with others, came soon after^ about 



the year 1630. Nearly one hundred adult male 
persons bearing the name of Woodbury, or Wood- 
berry, are found in the "Beverly Directory" of 
1877, and about a dozen in the " Salem Directory.** 
It is at the present day, one of the principal family 
names in this town. The names of Conant and 
Balch are nearly extinct in both places. Many of 
the bearers of these ancient names are direct descen- 
dants of these first settlers, though not all. 

Beverly is now connected with Salem by a great 
bridge which is 1484 feet long and 34 feet wide. The 
act for incorporating the proprietors of this bridge 
was passed in 1787. It is built on ninety -three 
wooden piers of oak timber, driven into the mud. 
It has a draw for vessels. Tlie first pier of this 
bridge was driven in May, 1788. The proprietors 
were authorized to receive toll for seventy years from 
that date. The term expired in 1858, and the bridge 
is now a free bridge, and belongs to the Common- 
wealth. The main pipe of the Wenham water 
works, through which the city of Salem receives its 
water, extends along the western side of this bridge 
on independent piers. Further to the west is the 
great railroad bridge, over which the trains of the 
Eastern Railroad make frequent passages, holding 
speedy communication between Boston and the va- 
rious points to the east. Previous to the advent of 
the railroad a fine line of stages was run from Bev- 
erly to Boston, and many are the amusing stories 
told of incidents connected therewith, and of the 
amusement furnished gratuitously to the passen- 
gers, by Woodbury Page and others of the Jovial 


drivers, who, when not cracking their whips, were 
cracking well-timed jokes. 

One of the first houses in this town is supposed 
to liave been at Woodbury's point, in that part of 
the town now known as the ^* Cove." It was a large 
double house, constructed for defence, and called the 
garrison house. A settlement by an Ellingwood 
(probably Ralph) was among the earliest, on what 
was formerly known as Ellingwood's point, directly 
opposite the Salem side, but better known to day as 
Webber's point. The land about here has been in 
the possession of the EUingwoods, and their descen- 
dants, the Webbers, for nearly two hundred and 
fifty years. 

In 1668 the settlement was incorporated as a dis- 
tinct township by the name of Beverly, and in 1753, 
"Ryall side," a piece of territory lying between 
Dan vers and Beverly, was annexed to Beverly. 

The territory of the town is nearly seven miles in 
length, and three and a half in width at its greatest 
extent. It has three postal centres, viz., Beverly, 
North Beverly, and Beverly Farms. The most 
thickly settled portion lies next to Salem, and is 
supported largely by its boot and shoe manufacto- 
ries, which employ a large number of the inhabitants, 
both male and female. North Beverly is devoted 
largely to farming interests, whilst Beverly Farms, 
or West Beach, as it is now commonly called, is 
given up almost entirely to summer residents, from 
Boston and elsewhere. They have erected here 
many princel}*^ mansions, and own most beautiful 
estates, which have made it one of the pleasgntest 


and most desirable sea-shore villages on the coast. 
West Beach commands a fine view of Massachusetts 
bay, with its many islands lying about the entrance 
of Beverly, Salem, Lynn and Boston harbors. It is 
favored with invigorating sea breezes, delightful 
drives, and beautiful inland scenery. All in all, 
there is not a more naturally attractive town in the 
Commonwealth, to the brief sojourner, than this an- 
cient town, as there is not one unattractive locality 
in all its territory. 

In 1671 Roger Conant, then an old man of 80 
years, petitioned the General Court for an alteration 
of the name of the town, to that of Budleigh, the 
name of the place in England from whence he came. 
His petition was based on the ground that, being 
'^ but a small place it hath called on us the constant 
nicls-name of beggarly." But "the umble desire 
and request was not granted," the Court replying 
that the magistrates could see no cause to alter the 

A formal deed of this town was given by the In- 
dians, on the payment of £6, 6s., 8d. It is believed 
that previous to the whites settling here, Beverly 
was the location of quite an Indian village. 

The first town-meeting was held November 23, 
1668, when Capt. Tiiomas LoLlirop, AVilliam Dixcy, 
William Dodge, sen., John West and Paul Thorn- 
dike, were chosen selectmen. The first cotton-mill 
in America was established in Beverly, in the year 
1788. It was built of brick, and located at North 
Beverly, near " Baker's corner," at the junction of 
the Birch-plaiu and Ipswich roads. A periodical of 



the day, describing this factory, says: — "Aii ex- 
periment made with a complete set of machines for 
carding and spinning cotton, met with the warmest 
expectations of the proprietors/' This establish- 
ment was visited by Gen. Washington, on his tour 
through the country in 1789, 

The principal eminences in Beverly are Browne, 
Brimble, Cue, Snake, Prospect, Christian and Bald 
hills. Browne hill, in North Beverly, received its 
name from Hon. William Browne, a wealthy gentle- 
man of Salem. He was the son of Samuel and 
Abigail Browne, and was born in 1709, and died in 
1763. About 1750 he erected a splendid mansion 
on the summit of this hill, which he called '^Browne 
Hall," but which was popularly termed "Browne's 
Folly." "This building consisted of two wings, 
two stories high, connected by a spacious hall, the 
whole presenting a front of seventy feet. The floor 
of the hall was painted in imitation of mosaic, and 
springing from the wall was a commodious circular 
gallery. Adjacent to the house was a building occu- 
pied solely by the domestics, all of whom were blacks. 
The dwelling was finished in the most thorough and 
costly manner, and was furnished in a style cor- 
responding with the wealth of the owner. This hall 
was the scene of many magnificent entertainments, 
and on one occasion an ox was roasted whole and 
served up to a numerous dinner party." After 
Browne's decease, Capt. Richard Derby ^ became 
owner of the estate. It was subsequently purchased 

^See page lie. 


by WiUiam Barley, and the mansion disposed of in 
parts to several pnrchasers. A beautiftil Yiew is 
obtained from this hill, of the towns of Wenham, 
Hamilton, Topsfield, Danvers and Marblehead, the 
city of Salem, and the waters of Massachusetts Bay. 
A prospect of nearly eqnal beauty is afforded from 
Cherry hill, while the picturesque view from Web- 
ber's point, is unsurpassed by any water prospect in 
this vicinity. 

The harbor of Beverly is very safe and commo- 
dious, and presented a lively appearance when the 
fishing business was the principal industry of the 
town. The streets of Beverly are of good width 
and generally ornamented with shade trees. 

Some of tlie ancient streets are decidedly crooked, 
and there is a tradition that tlie street from Wood- 
bury's point at the cove, to the head of Bass river, 
where a settlement was very early made, was laid 
out in the following manner : — A heifer was driven 
from the point to the latter place around the shore, 
which was the only way then travclleil, and there 
left. The animal not liking her new abode, set out 
immediately to return through the woods. She 
arrived at the point before her driver, who was no 
doubt much surprised at seeing her, and would in all 
probability have pronounced her bewitched had the 
affair occurred some fifty years later. Her path 
was traced and it subsequently became a road of 
communication between the two places. This par- 
ticular road has not been much improved since then. 

The principal pond within the limits of Beverly 
is Beaver pond, situated about two hundred rods 


south of Wenham line and about half a mile from 
Brimble hill. It is a beautiful pond, covering 
twenty-one acres. One hundred and seven acres of 
Wenham lake lies within the limits of Beverly. It 
measures in all three hundred and twenty acres, 
and is thirty-four feet higher than the flow of the 
tide at the head of Bass river. Its waters are 
pumped into a reservoir of the "Wenham water 
works," on "Chipman's" hill, which supplies both 
Salem and Beverly with an abundance of good water. 
From the settlement of Beverly to 1649 its inhab- 
itants worshipped with the First Church in Salem. 
They were then granted the privilege of conducting 
a place of worship of their own. The first meeting- 
house was erected in 1656 on the site of the pres- 
ent Old South meeting-house at the corner of Cabot 
and Hale streets, and near the old burying-ground, 
which then occupied the land just back of the pres- 
ent Baptist meeting-house, and extended from Hale 
street to the northern side of the Armory building. 
This burying-ground was contracted a few years 
ago, when Abbott street was cut through it, by re- 
moving the remains to the present enclosure on the 
north side of the new street. The first minister 
of the first church was the Rev. John Hale, who 
officiated until his death, a period of thirty-six 
years. The second church was incorporated bj' act 
of the General Court in 1713, at North Beverly, 
The other churches in town have been formed since 
the beginning of the present century in the follow- 
ing order: First Baptist, on Cabot street; Third 
Congregational, on Dane street; Second Baptist, 

288 OLD HAtnOdBAO. 

at the Farms; Foarth Congregational, at North 
Beverly (now extinct) ; Washington-street Congre- 
gational, on Washington street; Universalist, on 
Thorndilce street; St. Peter's Episcopal, on Bow 
street; Methodist, on Railroad avenue, and the 
Catholic, on Cabot street. 

Military defence was early found necessary in this 
town, both against savages and other foes. Beverly 
was always foremost in enterprises displaying patri- 
otism or requiring courage. From the settlement 
of the town to the close of the Revolutionary war 
there was hardly an expedition against the Indians 
or French, or a battle of any moment against the 
British, in which the town was not represented. In 
the war of the Revolution, and of 1812, her priva- 
teers and men were very active on the ocean. In 
the Mexican war she was represented, and in the 
recent war of the Rebellion she gave freely of her 
blood and treasures, that the nation might live. 

At an early period in the history of this town a 
family by the name of Foster was carried away by 
the Indians. They were taken to Canada, and it 
was seven years before they regained their freedom 
and returned. 

Beverly participated in the general consternation 
occasioned by ^^ King Philip's war," and built forts 
and otherwise prepared for defence. One fort was 
built near the first meeting-house, probably on the 
hill in the rear of the Briscoe school-house. An- 
other was built at Mackerel cove, and a third near 
what is now Dodge's gi'ist mill. In this war, a 
company composed of the sons of some of the 


best families In Essex county, and known as 'Hhe 
flower of Essex," was commanded by Capt. Thomas 
Lathrop of this town. While acting as convoy to 
wagon loads of wheat being brought from Deerfield 
to Hadley, they were surprised by the Indians at 
Muddy Brook, in South Deerfield and Capt. Lathrop 
and almost his entire company were slaughtered. 

In 1690 Capt. William Rayment commanded a 
company from Beverly in the unsuccessful expedi- 
tion under Sir William Phipps, against Canada. 
This expedition cost the single province of Massa- 
chusetts about $50,000, together with many of her 
young men by a malignant fever. It was a sad 
blow to our province. 

In one of the early French wars a merchantman 
from Beverly was captured and carried to the West 
India Islands. The captain was allowed to return 
to Beverly for money to ransom himself and crew, 
leaving one of his men, by the name of Hill, as 
hostage, under the threat that after a specified day, 
if the money was not received, all food should be 
withheld from the prisoner. The captain was de- 
la^-ed about eight or nine days beyond the specified 
time ; the threat was put into execution, and Hill 
was nearly dead from starvation when the captain 
arrived. He slowly recovered, and lived many years 
to relate his experience, but always with tears in 
his eyes. 

At the first outbreak of the Revolution, the town 
proceeded with moderation and yet firmness. Henry 
Herrick was cliosen as delegate to the convention in 
Boston called for the purpose of consulting and 

— ' 



• i_j 



^;-^^!^BSHpM^^^MJI jjJ jll^^^^K^^ffl 









r — 



advising on the state of the province. He was 
charged by the people to abstain from any act of 
disrespect to Parliament, or disloyalty to the King, 
yet to maintain a firm but prudent opposition to all 
unconstitutional measures. 

In the autumn of 1775 a Beverly privateer was 
chased into the harbor by a British man-of-war, 
Nautilis, of twenty guns. The privateer grounded 
on the fiats. It being ebb-tide the Nautilus came 
to anchor outside the bar and opened fire on the 
town. The citizens of Beverly with their rifles, 
from behind a breastwork of rocks on Washington 
street beach, together with a battery from the Salem 
"Willows," returned the compliment so spitefully 
that the man-of-war was obliged to cut her cable 
and put to sea. 

In this war Capt. Hugh Hill was among our noted 
privateersmen. While sailing with an English en- 
sign at mast-head as a decoy, he was boarded by the 
captain of a British man-of-war. The latter, un- 
suspicious of the true character of Hill, remarked 
that he was "in search of that notorious Hugh 
Hill." Hill replied that he was on the lookout for 
the same individual. A few days later Hill was 
better prepared for an encounter and again falling 
in with the man-of-war, he ran up the American flag. 
An engagement ensued, and Hill, victorious, had 
the pleasure of introducing himself to his old visi- 
tor, as the man he had been looking for. 

In 1777 there was a riotous proceeding in town, 
occasioned by the refusal of the merchants here to 
sell their West India conunodities at the stated 


prices, because of a recent depreciation in the cnr- 
rency. Tlie ladies of Beverly were the principal riot- 
ers ; about sixty of them, led by one lad}' who bore 
a musket, and attended by two ox-carts, marched 
down Cabot and Bartlett streets to the wharves, 
where a quantity of sugar was stored. Here they 
were opposed by the foreman of the warehouse. 
Nothing daunted, they seized him by the hair — 
which was false — and tore it from his head, and 
then, reinforced by men, demolished the gates with 
axes and loaded their carts with two hogsheads of 
sugar. This proceeding brought the merchants to 
terms and amicable negotiations were entered into. 
Beverly in the early days carried on quite an ex- 
tensive foreign trade, and many ships belonging to 
William Gray and otlier Salem merchants were un- 
loaded here. From 1789 to about the commence- 
ment of the last war the cod-fishery was prosecuted 
here with great success and large pecuniary profit. 
It was prostrated for a time by the embargo, and 
again interrupted by the war of 1812. In 1787 
Beverly employed in the various trades sixty-nine 
vessels, with 408 men. In 1843 there were seventy- 
eight vessels, with between four and five hundred 
men. About one-half of these were engaged in the 
fisheries. The manufactures of Beverly at this lat- 
ter date amounted annually in value to only about 
$120,000, on a capital of about $40,000, which fur- 
nished emplo3*ment to nearly 500 persons. Tan- 
ning and the manufacture of pottery were among 
the early industries in North Beverly. Beverly tan- 
neries were long since discontinued, but a pottery 


establisbment is now carried on in the lower part of 
the town. The fishing business has given way to 
that of making shoes, and the locality of the depot, 
instead of the wharves, is the busy paii; of the town* 
The natural advantages of Beverly for the prose- 
cution of commerce and manufactures are not sur- 
passed by any coast town in tlie Commonwealth. 
Thirty-four years ago, the Rev. Edwin M. Stone 
wrote, concerning the people of Beverly : 

** They have never been eager to engage in extrav- 
agant speculations, by which many make unsuccess- 
ful *' haste to be rich,' but have been contented with 
a safe and sure business, affording moilerate and 
uniform profits. Hence they have experienced few 
of those embarrassments by wliich the prosperity of 
many places have been seriously affected, while they 
have built up for themselves a sound and honorable 

Except as regards individual cases, the above 
could not be well said to-day. Since his writing, a 
public policy has been pursued which, though it may 
not liave been wholly unwise as regards the future, 
yet, so far as it will be of profit to those now liv- 
ing, is to be deplored. Added to the extravagances 
which were universal throughout the country during 
the recent paper money period, Beverly continues a 
system of unequal taxation which bears heavily 
upon the bone and sinew portion of her inhabitants, 
blocking the wheels of progress and keeping pros- 
perity, like a will-of-the-wisp, continually before 
their eyes and alike distant from their grasp. Aside 
from this unfortunate departure from their otherwise 
commendable spirit, the people of Beverly are char- 


acterized for industry, prudence, sobriety and love 
of order. 

The town hall, and Odd Fellows' hall, on Cabot 
street ; Biiseoe school-house, the powder house and 
the Common, on Essex street ; and the cemetery, on 
Hale street, are among the other matters of interest 
in Beverly not previously mentioned. 

In 1798 the old town hall was built by Obadiah 
Groce, of Salem, at a cost of $2,000 to accommo- 
date the Grammar school. It was furnished with a 
bell, and was used for all town purposes. It was 
removed a little to the north, on the edge of the 
Common, a few years ago, to make room for its suc- 
cessor, the present Briscoe school building. Pre- 
vious to the building of the old hall, town-meetings 
were held in the First meeting-house. This hall 
was named Briscoe hall in honor of Robert Briscoe, 
who held the various offices of selectman, assessor, 
treasurer and representative ft'om 1690 to 1726. 
In 1841 the preseut town hall was purchased of 
the heirs of Mr. Israel Thorndike, one of the most 
eminent and successful merchants in New England. 
This building was built as a private residence for 
Mr. Andrew Cabot, and occupied by him. It was 
afterwards occupied by Mr. Thorndike. When pur- 
chased by the town it was altered into a town hall, 
and was first opened for public use, October 26, 
1841, with appropriate services and an address by 
the Hon. Bobert Bantoul, lawyer and statesman, 
the pride of Beverly and an honor to the land which 
gave him birth. A year or two ago the town hall 
was increased to almost double its original propor- 


tions, and a fine assembly room added above, known 

Beverly has a fine fire department, consisting of 
five hose carriages, one steam fire engine and two 
hand engines ; also a good military company, the 
Beverly Light Infantry, Company E, 8th Regiment 
Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. This company 
was organized about 1815. William Thorndike was 
the first commander. Charles L. Dodge is the pres- 
ent commander. Several companies were organized 
in Beverly previous to this one, and at one time 
there were three here, which, united with the Man- 
chester companies, formed what was known as the 
** Beverly regiment." 

There is also in the town a bank of discount, an 
insurance company, a public library, a lyceum and 
a farmer's club, a well graded system of public 
schools, embracing an excellent high school, a Post 
of the G. A. R., a Masonic and Odd Fellows' lodge, 
and a weekly journal — "The Beverly Citizen" (John 
B. Cressy, publisher). The number of enlistments 
for the late war was 988, and about a hundred of 
these lost their lives in the service of their country. 

While there is much in the natural attractions in 
this town to delight the lovers of the beautiful, 
there is little to gratify the lovers of the marvellous. 
There are no gloomy caverns nor murderous-looking 
glens; no fortune teller, or veritable ghost asso- 
ciated with the history of Beverly ; only the anec- 
dote of the skipper who made signals of distress 
because short of beans, has yet appeared to give 
edat to the annals of mj'stery or tradition. 



ULAB SiniMBR Resort.— West Manchester and its SuimicB 
Visitors.— SiMoiNo Beach.— Elegant Residences.— Maq- 
NOUA, Rafe's Chasm and Norman's Woe. 

NOTHER pleasant drive in the vicinity of the 
city, and one still within the limits of old 
Naumkeag, is to Manchester. Passing out 
over the long bridge and through Beverly, 
Pride's Crossing and Beverly Farms to Manchester, 
the roads all the way are hard and level, lined either 
with noble farm-houses or lovely sea-side cottages — 
genuine ^^ mansions by the sea," — which are sur- 
rounded by large and neatly kept Idwns, and gar- 
dens fragi'ant with their thousands of bright flowers. 
The ocean rolls almost at our very feet, throughout 
the greater portion of the journey. Manchester is 
really the first of the '* cape towns," the others being 
Gloucester, Rockport and Essex. It lies eight miles 
north-east of Salem, and twenty-five miles from Bos- 
ton on the Gloucester branch of the Eastern Rail- 
way. There are two stations, Manchester and West 
Manchester. The locality was once known as Jef- 
frys' Creek, so named in honor of William Jeffrys, 
its fiist settler. The principal stream of water in 
the town still bears his name. 

Manchester was set off from Salem, on May 14, 
1645, and derives its present name from the Duke 



of Manchester. For many years it was an impor- 
tant fishing port but that industry has declined or 
been transferred to Gloucester. The principal pur- 
suit at the present day is the manufacture of cabinet 
furniture, in which Manchester has no superior, and 
few equals. There are some thirteen establish- 
ments for this purpose, though, of late years, during 
the business depression, few of them have run at 
their full capacity, and several have been entirely 
closed. The total productions of these manufac- 
tories is about $100,000 annually. There is also 
one tannery at the village, while in the surrounding 
^country several productive farms are utilized for 
market-gardening purposes. The population of the 
town in 1875, was 1560 persons, divided among 
418 families, dwelling in 835 houses. There are 
three churches, Congregational, Baptist and Catho- 
lic, eight schools, two hotels, together with numer- 
ous stores and minor business places. The entire 
town comprises only 4310 acres of land, and the 
total valuation is $1,800,000. The average annual 
value of the products is $223,000. 

The populaiity of the place at the present day 
arises mainly from its adaptability for a summer 
dwelling place, for many wealthy families of Boston, 
New York, etc. The " best families," and the ranks 
of the '' distinguished men " of New England, are 
well represented here every season. Their cottages, 
surrounded by lawns, and gardens, and forests of 
shrubbery, interspersed with gravelled walks and 
drive- ways, are superb. None more beautiful can 
be found in New England. Most of them border on 



tlie slioro, tlmiigli some are locnted on the opposite 
Biiic of tlie " Blioie-TOftd ," in tlie midst of ileliglitf\il 
oak groves, or on llie high bhifTa which overlook the 
town nud the bay with its green islitnda. The drives 
around town arc clinrming. Tlio ehore itself is an 
alternation of bandy benclics and rocky blnlTs, allbrd- 
ing prime facilities for bathing, boating and fleliing. 

Driving down tJirongli West Manclicster we pass 
the cosy summer residence of Rev. C. A. Bnrtol, 
D.D., pastor of the West Clinrch, Boston, and one 
of tlie most eminent divines in New Engl&nd. This 
venerable minister is renowned for his bospitality, 
often entertaining entire church parties at his place. 

Near by are also tlie handsome i-esidences of B. G. 
Boardman, Dana Boardmnn, N. B. & I ansfi eld, Walter 
Cabot, Messrs. Ilowe, Abbott, Stevens, and olbera. 

A little faillier on avo the residenees of Dr. O. S. 
Fowler, E. E. Rice, J. "\V. Merrill, at Gale's point; 
F. II. Morgan and Cnpt. A. W. Smilli near by. In the 
locality known by the strange cognomen of "Belly- 
Ache cove," is the magnificent Ilemenway estate. 

Abonltheonly curiosity of llie place is the "sing- 
ing beach," n beach which at times, when pressed by 
tlie foot or struck by nn incoming wave, sends forth 
a musical sound. When pressed by tlie foot, the note 
is sbrill and clear; whon etiiick by the sen it is soft 
and sweet. Such plicnomenon is very rare ; we read 
of its counterpart ns existing only on tba coast of 
Scotland, and one or two other places. 

Hiigli Miller, in his " Crnise of the Betsey ; or, A 
Summer Itamble among Ihe Hebrides," p. 75, de- 
scribes a phenomenon similar to the beach in Man- 


'*! was turning aside this sand of the Oolite, so 
curiously reduced to its original state, and marking 
how nearly the recent shells that lay imbedded in it 
resembled the extinct ones that had lain in it so 
long before, when I became aware of a peculiar 
sound that it yielded to the tread, as my companions 
paced over it. I struck it obliquely with my foot, 
where the surface lay dry and incoherent in the 
sun, and the sound elicited was a shrill, sonorous 
note, somewhat resembling that produced by waxed 
thread, when tightened between the teeth and the 
hand and tipped by the nail of the forefinger. I 
walked over it, striking it obliquely at each step, 
and with every blow the shrill note was repeated. 
My companions joined me ; and we performed a con- 
cert, in which, if we could boast of but little variety 
in the tones produced, we might at least challenge 
all Europe for an instrument of the kind which pro- 
duced them.'' 

Driving from the village towards this beach, we 
pass the splendid summer homes of James T. Fields, 
Esq., the distinguished author, lecturer and pub- 
lisher ; Hon. Richard H. Dana, Jr., an eminent law- 
yer, poet and scholar ; of J. B. Booth, the tragedian, 
and one of the proprietors of the Boston Theatre ; 
Russell Sturgis, a successful merchant and ex-Fresi- 
dent of the Boston Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion ; also L. N. Tappan, Mr. John Gilbert, Dr. J. 
A. Brown, Mrs. Bowers, Joseph Sawyer, Rev. A. J. 
Gordon, Rev. E. P. Tenney (novelist), Joseph Proc- 
tor, Mrs. Towne of Philadelphia, and many others 
equally attractive, but whose owners, perhaps, are 
not so well known. Beyond these, toward Glouces- 
ter, we pass the elegant cottage home of Isaac West 
of New Orleans ; also of Caleb Curtis, T. Jefferson 

294 OLD NAUliKEAa. 

Coolidge and his father Joseph Coolidge. The visitor 
will find free access to the grounds aroand many of 
the residences, provided he conducts himself prop- 
erly ; and words fail to express the delightfulness of 
the drives within some of the enclosures. The shore 
as seen from Salem harbor is studded with trees, 
from out which, here and there, peep these summer 
residences, presenting to the beholder a quiet and 
retired spot for resort after a day of busy turmoil. 
Three miles fUrther on down the shore, is a section 
of the city of Gloucester known as Magnolia, also 
a popular resort for Boston people during the sum- 
mer months as well as many camping parties, includ- 
ing, about the middle of every August, the Salem 
Cadets, one of the finest military organizations in 
the State. The place does not come properly under 
the head of Naumkeag, but few people would 
drive to Manchester without ^Haking in" Magnolia 
also. It is the most romantic locality on the whole 
Cape. Dense forests, covering an alternation of 
swamps and rocky hills, are interspersed with fields 
and pastures and dotted by cottages. In these 
swamps grow the celebrated flower, known as Mag- 
nolia. This may often be found grown to a height 
of ten feet, having a large white flower, of the 
sweetest and most delicious odor. Steamers fi*om 
Boston and Salem touch here occasionally in sum- 
mer. Several small but attractive hotels and a few 
private residences, mostly of recent construction 
constitute the ''settlement" at present, but should 
it continue to grow during the next five years as it 
has during the past three, it will become a good- 
sized village. 


Here is the famous Rafe's chasm, a channel in the 
solid rocks of the shore nearly a hundred feet deep, 
into which every sea runs with terrible force, leaping 
far up the sides and falling back again, to be drawn 
outward with great rapidity. In a storm the noise 
from this chasm sounds like heavy artillery in 
an engagement. Here, too, is the famous reef of 
Norman's Woe, whereon the schooner Hesperus was 
wrecked many years ago. The event has been im- 
mortalized by Longfellow in his poem entitled, 
" Wreck of the Hesperus.'* 

*< And fiist ttirough the midnigbt dark and drear, 
Through the whlstliog sleet and snow. 
Like a sheeted ghost, the yessel swept 
Tow'rds the reef of Norman's Woe. 

Her rattling shrouds all sheathed in ice, 

With the masts went by the board; 
Like a yessel of glass, she stoye and sank, 

Ho I ho I the breakers roared. 

Such was the wreck of the Hesperus, 

In the miduight aud the snow I 
Christ saye us all from a death like this, 

On the reef of Norman's Woe.** 

The shore is one solid mass of rock, of a reddish 
hue, all the way to Gloucester, a distance of some 
three miles. The bluffs often rise to a height of a 
hundred feet, against which the sea dashes with ter- 
rific force at all times, while in a storm it thunders 
against the solid rocks with a deafening roar, send- 
ing the milk-white spray far above the highest, and 
creating a perfect sea of foam. 

"These restless surges eat away the shores 
Of earth's old couUnent; the fertile plain 
Welters iu shallows, headlands crumble down, 
And the tide drifts the sea-sands in the streets 
Of the drowned city." 


Whb!? Inoorpobatvd.— Thb Churohvs and thsir OsoAirazA- 
TioN.— HcroH Pbtbrs and Rbv. John Fisk.— Population 
AND Industries. — Beauties op Nature. •*- Asburt Grove. — 
Essex Branoh Railroad. — Opinion or a Natite Historian. 

titllE town of Wenham, once a portion of Salem, 
'I' was incorporated as an independent muntci- 
I pality and given its present name (from 
(j^ Wenham, Suffolk county, England), on May 
10,, 1643. Previous to that time, it had been known 
as " Enon " or " Salem village." It is the oldest of 
the several towns detached from the original terri- 
tory of Naumkeag. The first preaching in the place 
was by Hugh Peters, about 1636. His text was : 
**At Enon, near Salira, because there was much 
water there." The First Church was formed on 
October 8, 1644, with Rev. John Fisk as pastor. 
Mr. Fisk was something of a local historian, and the 
journals and parish books kept by him, constitute 
the most valuable records which we now have of the 
early settlement at Naumkeag. 

There are, at present, two churches in the town : 
a Congregational and a Baptist, — the latter at 
Wenham Neck. Farming forms the principal in- 
dustry, 106 persons being engaged in the pursuit, 
and 71 in that of shoemaking. The town has a 
18* (297) 


population of 911, divided among 219 families, re- 
siding in 186 dwelling-liouses. Tlie census of 1875 
places the valuation at $526,350, and the annual 
value of the products at $98,807. 

It is a most delightful country town, and the sur- 
face is but rarely broken by hills and valleys. The 
fields and woods are interspersed with several lovely 
sheets of water. There is Wenham lake, the source 
of the water supply of Salem and Beverly. This 
is one of the most beautiful lakes in eastern Mas- 
sachusetts. Its water is as pure as any known in 
the State, and the ice cut here in winter has no su- 
perior. Then there are Idlewood lake, Cedar pond, 
and Muddy pond in the northern part of the town, 
and Coy's pond in the southern part. Ipswich river 
touches the northern boundary, while Miles riA'er, 
the outlet of Wenham lake, runs through the south- 
ern section. 

Wenham has become quite a summer resort for 
residents of Salem and Boston, while on its borders, 
in the adjoining town of Hamilton, lies Asbury 
Grove, used by the Methodists as a camp- meeting 
ground, Hundreds of people live on the grounds 
during the entire summer, some coming as early as 
May and remaining until into October. There are 
several hundred pretty residences here, and about 
forty society tents. Among the residences are some 
of the finest in town, costing several thousands of 
dollars. A branch of the Eastern Railway runs 
from Wenham depot to the grove, and numerous 
trains are run over it during '* Camp-meeting Week." 

Idlewood, on the borders of Idlewood lake, is a 


favorite pio-nic ground for parties from Salem and 
other neighboring towns. 

Wenham is connected with Salem and Boston by 
the Eastern Railway, and also with the east ; while a 
branch track rans to Essex, a ship-building town, 
five miles distant. This road was built by the town 
of Essex and opened in 1872, and purchased by 
the Eastern Railroad company in 1874, for $95,000. 
It never has paid expenses. 

The town is well described in Allen's " History 
of Wenham : " 

** Nature has not given us, as a town, any remark- 
able advantages of situation. Our streams are too 
small to be of much use for manufacturing purposes. 
Our inland position debars us from the sea. We 
have no stores of mineral wealth to be dug from the 
bowels of the earth ; but industry, energy and econ- 
omy arc admirable substitutes for these gifts of 
nature, and may more than compensate for her de- 
ficiencies. Without anything specially grand or ro- 
mantic in the way of scenery, Wenham possesses 
many of the elements of a charming country resi- 
dence. It has a fertile soil and a healthful position. 
The houses and farms present a general appearance 
of neatness and comfort. In every direction are 
good roads and pleasant drives; while our grace- 
fully-rounded hills and crystal lakes present scenery 
of a beauty and loveliness rarely equalled." 


T0P8FIELD.— Sbttuembnt avd Chttrohes. — Its Part in thb 
Witchcraft Dblusion.— Original Settlers. — Promimbmt 
Men.— Population. — Valuation and other Statistics.— 
Midoleton. — Topography. — Industries. — History. — 
Population, Valuation and Products. 

tit HE town of Topsfield is the most northerly 
' I ' portion of the territory originally comprised in 
I Naumkeag. It was settled by people from 
(j^ Salem and Ipswich, in 1639, and was incorpo- 
rated as a separate town on October 18, 1650. The 
Indian name of the place was '' Shenewemedy." 
"When it belonged to Naumkeag, it was known as 
the " New Meadows." The name Topsfield is de- 
rived from a parish in England, bearing that name. 
The first church was organized in 1663, with Rev. 
Thomas Gilbert as pastor. It is still sustained, 
and, until the formation of the Methodist church, in 
1830, was the only religious organization in town. 
It is now of the Congregational order. 

Mary Estes and Sarah Wildes of this place, were 
executed as victims of tlie witchcraft delusion in 
1692, and Abigail Ilobbs was condemned to death 
on a like charge but was subsequently pardoned. 
In early times, bears and wolves infested the town,- 
and it was threatened with Indian attacks, which 
led to the construction of a fort or garrison-house, 


but history does not record that it was ever brought 
into requisition. Among the men recorded as origi- 
nal settlers or owners of Topsfield, we find Samuel 
Symonds, John Endicott, Simon Bradstreet, Zac- 
cheus Gould, Francis Peabody, William Towne, 
Thomas Perkins, John Wildes, Nathaniel Porter 
and Abraham Redington. Among the distinguished 
men who hailed from the town, were Nathaniel Pea- 
body, a statesman, physician and soldier; Jacob 
Kimball, a music composer and the author of '^Rural 
Harmony" ; Daniel Breck, an able jurist and a mem- 
ber of Congress; Elisha Huntington, Lieutenant- 
governor of the State, and mayor of Lowell for eight 
years ; and Elisha L. Cleveland, D.D., an eminent 
divine. Topsfield was also the birthplace of the 
father of Joseph Smith, the celebrated Mormon 

The town has a population of 1221 persons, di- 
vided among 284 families, in 220 dwellings. There 
are 162 farmers, and 138 shoemakers, showing that 
the industry of the town is nearly equally divided 
between these pursuits. Its valuation by the cen- 
sus of 1875 was $770,370, and the annual produc- 
tions amounted to $335,387. The surface of the 
town, like most other Essex county ** back towns," 
is diversified with hills and valleys, streams and 
ponds. The geological formation is sienite and 
greenstone. Such rare plants as the '^Painted- 
cup" (Castillia), and the "Turk's-cap" lily (Li- 
liam-Surperbum), are found here. 

MiDDLETON is an agricultural and shoe manufac- 
turing town, lying to the west of Topsfield and next 


north of Danvers. It is connected with Salem and 
Boston by the Lawrence branch llailroad. Like 
Topsfield, it is a diversity of hills and valleys, 
streams and ponds. That beautiAil stream of water 
known as Ipswich river, borders it on the south and 
east. The principal sheet of water is Middleton 
pond, covering about 100 acres, from which Dan- 
vers draws its water supply. The leading industries 
are farming and the manufacture of shoes. 

The history of the town is uneventful. It was 
first settled in the westerly part, by Bray Wilkins and 
John Gingell, his brother-in-law, in 1660. Thomas 
Fuller, a Woburn blacksmith, followed them three 
years later and settled on Pierce's brook, and about 
the same time William Nichols and William Hobbs 
settled on Nichols' brook. 

A church was formed and a minister ordained, on 
November 26, 1729. The first pastor was Rev. 
Andrew Peters. There is only one church society 
in town (Congregational). The town was incorpo- 
rated on June 20, 1728, and undoubtedly derives 
its name from its locality. The population of the 
town is 1092 ; families, 233 ; dwellings, 190. The 
valuation is $491,246, according to the census of 
1875, and the value of the products for the year 
1874 was $367,164. There are 102 farmers and 105 
shoemakers, besides men of various other trades 
and professions. 




Abbott, Stephen, 148. 
AcAdemy of Science^ lOO, 187. 
Adams, J. Q., 76. 
Africa, 40. 
Alexis, Dnke, 75. 
Allen, Abiffail, 130. 
Allen, William, 4. 
Almshouse, 220. 
Almy, J. F.,203. 

Amer. Asso. Adv. Science, 183. 
Andrews, Joseph, 53. 
Anderson, Rev. T. D., 86. 
Annals of Salem, Felt's, 66, 77. 
Appleton, John. 68. 
Arabella, Lady, 216, 217. 
Arabella street, 217. 
Arrington bnildine, 86. 
Asintic building, 30, 41. 
Assembly building, 105. 
Athenienm, Salem, 70, 160. 
Athensenm Library, 65. 
Atlantic Car Works, 205, 206. 
Atwood, Rev. E. S., 106. 

Babcock, Rev. Ruftis, 86. 
Bacon, Jacob, 104. 
Baker's Island, 110, 216, 229. 
Batch, John, 4. 
Ballot, origin of, 12. 
Ballou, Hosea, 172. 
Banks, 131. 

Baptists, persecuted, 48. 
Baptist ministers. 63, 85. 
Barnard, T., 42. 62, 65, 176. 
Barnard, Thos. 2d., 86, 102. 
Bartlioiemew, Henry, 168. 
Barton S<|Unre Church, 68, 80. 
Bass River, 80. 
Batchelor, George, 89. 
Bath street, 151. 
Beadle's Tavern, 208, 214. 
Bontley, William, 100. 189. 
Bertram, John, 136. 211. 
Beverly, 21,05,201,203,216,217. 
Beverly Brifige, 81. 
Bi»<hop, Bridget, 60, 74. 103. 
" Biubbor HoUow,'^ 237. 

Blue Anchor Tavern, 221. 
Bolles, E. C, 86, 172. 
Boston Street, 81, 190, 200. 
Bott's Court, 104. 
Bowditch, N., 156, 160. 
Bowditch, N. I., 156. 
Bowker Block, KSO. 
Boyden, Albert G., 109. 
Bradptrcet, Simon, 166-6. 
Brick house, the first, 91. 
Bridge Street. 214, 217. 
Briggs, Geo. W, 42. 
Briggs, Enos, 226. 
Brigham. L. F., 84. 
Broad Street, 106. 
Broad Street Cemetery, 110. 
Brookhonse, R., 40, 45. 201, 211. 
Browne, Benjamin, 121. 
Brown, B. F., 67, 151. 
Browne, John and Samuel, 2, 

16, 17. 
Brown, Nathaniel, 53. 
Brown, Samuel. 114. 
Brown, W.,e2, 120, 132, 147, 168. 
Browne. William, Jr., 125, 130. 
Brown, William Burnett, 116. 
Bufflnton, Z., 73, 148. 
Buffum's Corner, 200, 219. 
Buffum's Hill, 184. 
Bulletin. Newspaper, 127. 
Bunker Hill, 147. 
Burdett, George. 77, 78. 
Burleigh, Mrs., 103. 
Burton, John, 197. 
Burroughs, George, 103. 
Burving Point Lane, 28. 
Butler, Benjamin F., 84. 
"Button Hole," 237. 

Cnbot, A. and J., 66, 233. 
Cabot, Joseph S., 53. 100. 
Cadets, Salem, 67, 146, 148. 
Calcnttn, 116. 
Calley, Samuel, 53. 
Calvary Baptist Church, 146. 
Car Shops, E. R. R , 218. 
Cape Ann, 8, 4, 10, 24, 72. 
Capital removed tr. Salem, 19. 

Carlton, Oilier, lOO, 
OarUun, Wllliiim. llS. 'HI. 

cm lilaud, »0. 

CtiBTenia, BIoIidii. im. 
Qioste, Qounta, <Kt. 
(MuMle, Qbo. F.. S3. 
Choata. Biinia, (HI, Si, B 

CIh]', lleai7, IS. 
Olwiunlra>B Barge. 131. 
Clark of Courta. Si. 
Clerk Df Sitlein Village, IIM. 
VlUranl. Jolin, Ml. 
Clnb, Social Evoiiinft, m. 
Coal bii>lncM, 113, SIB. 
CoataB, BB'JninIn, T.l. 
Cognwell, Williani, Bi. 
Oolmnn, tleiiry, B9, 
Coll. Eases Iiial. lilsl.. 88. 
Collectors urHHlani, 10, 103. 
flolllna Core, 1:1. 
Cum man. Snluin, 111. 
Cou.lx. Jeramliili, 03. 
CoiigruftatiDniil Club, TO. 
Congnus, tT.TU, 171. 
Cun&nct Willi ITIgglnBon, 10. 
CoDuil, Rorer.S, 4, S, & T, I, W, 

M, K, U,^. 71. M, IIB, ill, 
CoumoTCfl or Salem, H, LB. 
CDmnoa. Silem, ISO. 
OuiBiiianiltirx. Nuvul, 13S. 
Caniieitlliill, l«l. 
Ciuirail'a fa (II Ion. IJ7. 
Conwiiy, Bev. J.. IHU, ISI. 
CMtonVnElory, «Ofl. 
Connly Cnniiiilesionen, 83. 
CoantfTi'Diuurei', 83. 
Coiinlf Street. 171. 
Oorejr.ailea.eT, ISd. 

Cnrwin, a., 42. M. no, IIB, tSl. 


I mtna 

Court Street, U. 

Coollne' Bee Hlfe, m. 
Cuveoant of Pli-at Vb., It-U. 
Creek Strcot. ai, 31. 
Ciuaa, Ihiiiry ,[..Bil, 131. 
Crombie Sti-eet Ctaunih, 91. 
CroeljT, Al|)heua. IIM. 
CronoTi, Miu- ■" 

ill! Ills 


u lion 

DeU or Snlam, U. 

Uteda. 181. 

Ilennii. W. D., 117. 

Derbr AcnUemr. 117. 

Derby, Elliirt Ilaaktut, B7, 111, 

lt2, as. «». 
Derby, Eliaa IlaakeU. tr., 117. 
Derby, Kliiu llarkeil, &, 117. 
Derby, Mi'B.B.M.,llT. 

Derby rflinrf, lOO. 
Derby Street, Bl, 100. 
DuiBivui, Uen., ISO. 
UlnUDter*. 1, 10. 
DIMIiigulaheil man, m. 
Dlxav, Wmiiun,UB. 
IJwyer, Jobn, im. 

Enalern R. R . 31, t3, M, tl, a, 

EiiBt Cbiiruli, lU. 

But Iii'liii Uiivlne balldloc. 

Eiiillcotl. .lohn.a, 7. H. 0, W, 

74, »l, 117,110,117, Ml. 
Kndluott, William C, Bk 

BngllshChorch.l, 1, S, Ifl.lT. 

BDKtlih, Ftafllp, les.iis, %a. 

BpiiBopal Qlinrch, <B. 

■ppei Lanft, Tl. 

Bup«i, Dnnlpl. 71. 

Sasu OoITho Hoiihq, KO, IB. 

Suen ttlatcrlonl Bocicly. 10. 

Baaax Uduhi, UO. 131, 1S7. 

Biaoi, tnnn nr, SR. 

BstOK, FrlKKto. Ul, WB, 

Xtvsx R. 11., 118. 

Saaex Streot, ST, Bn, ID, 51, H, 

01., 01,01, 103,117. 
BipreH buglnoM, to. 

Felt, .r. IS., t<L Gfl, T7, 131, ISt. 
relt, John, 1741. 
I^irrr to UflveriT, 114. 
FefTT to M«rblehc«d, IIS. 
neldlng, r. A., mi. 
ruimimi. J..S8, KM. 
rire Engine, tlie llrKt, 41. 
r!rttCliurc-.b,(i,ll.»l. 31, 41,48, 
IT, 18.78,104, 1M, 101. 




or, 31. 

Fl»lie. fiiiiuiiel,41, 78. 
F)rs[ hoiiBV, 110. 
Flint's SuiltliliK, 36. 30. 
Flouting IlrldRe, IDS. 
Foole, Giileb. m, lt». 
Fort, the first. 88. 
Toreat HiTer. 910. 
TortB Lea and Juninar, SU. 
Tort PinkerlnKi n9. 


TorroBter, Simon. 131 
ToTreatdr, John, 141. 


Pmnklin Bitlldlur, 141, IK. 
ri-onlStreet, ai, 8i, urf. 
Troat, A.F.. 104. 
TiTe'a Ullla, 141. 

Giurfl. Gen., 4T, 100. 

Gonornl Court, 8. 

GIJu"jo»l'ium si'.' 
Gill. Uollf, 130. 

GooillllIU etrcDl, iJo, 141. 

Grnmninr Sislioolg, T7, 100. 

Grant, V. 8., ». 

GriT, Thomoa, 4. 


Gninil Anny, IBS. 

Grnnil Turk, I3S, 111, 131, 

Graj, J.J., 130. 

Giay, Snmnei, 130. 

Grent Pnetui-e, 106. 

Qrjat Ta»o™. flliM, eS. 

Honr, Danlsl B., 1 

Hair Id bo worn «!■„._„. 
Halo's Ballding, 117. ISO. 

Iiort, 43. 
DHjo B ugiiuing, 117, Iw^ 
Ha Hey, Wllllnni, vH. 
Hnmlltoo. Alexander, TS. 
Haiiillton. taim ot, OB. 
Hamilton Hnll. 109, 
llnniinond. Dnnlel,4D. 
Ilanconh, John. 47. 
" Unnnah," Frirntocr, US. 
Harrnrd College, 01. 
Harbor, Salem, 140. IIK. 
Ilnrinony Urovo, lOS, 187. 

Herbei t Street, 144. 
HIgglnaon, Colonel. HT. 
41, 4S,74, llT.aiT. 

Hlgblnnd Avenue, IK 
Itlgh School. 100. 
High Strcot. .34. 
Iliiclinays, IPioflret.B 
unier, /ose|,h. 103, 13 
ITillor. O. r., 103. 
mil, Ljilia, ISO. 
Uiatoriv Ulnsle, TS, 

Hlatorical Soeketj, Kasex, TO. 
Bolt oke. E. A., &, DO. isf. 
Iliilfinnwortli, K., KO. 
IloljoEe UuiliJiiis, ft). 
HoTMn, N. A., m 
Hol^iIlnKSileiD, IM. 


kgaloU, 111. 
Inilius fi. at, as, 39, BS, go, SI, 

U7, ITO, lUJ, S3. S34. 
bTrutiy, SuleiD Uecbanlc, X. 

ingenttU, Wuud, 313. 

Im , h. B. Jr., U. 
JaekioD, Anilrew. T 

Jail. 1< 

Jefffy, rira. Il__._. __. 
Jeffry, Wllltnm, i. 
Jelly, W-HtSIS. 
Jerusalem diorch, 103. 
Joulyn, Ell ward. 110. 
Jolmaad, A. H.. ISO. 
jDDllier, !£1. Ktl, 338. 

Slog Street, «V. 

K»«PI<. 1.^7; 

•■ Knocket's Bole," 237. 

Laruyclte Ilaiiio. 117. 
I^ratelU 8tr»et. £8, H, SO, 211. 
I.«adar,r. W, Ita. 
LuiilluE )jla<:eofCoiiaiil.4,M. 
Lead inUa, Forest TL, i<&. SOS. 
l«Bd Ullla, Snlani, SOG, £18. 
IiSctureB. flrj^t, 105. 
Lee, llenry.ail, 
Lee. W. R.. IHI. 
Legislature or Unas., K. 
Leslie, Cul., aO, 102, 110, 101, 17t, 

m,iM. '' 

Latten treia Compkiij lo HiK- 

einson, IIHI. 
l.lUnir Ilill, ISLIIB. 
Liberty Street, aS, UL 
Liberty Tree. I5S. 

Liiurur uHhl by IlrawBM, 10. 

Long Wharf, m. 

Looljy. Tbomaai £07. 


Luring. George B., 11, 1D3, 109. 

Luta laid out, 8a. 

L01T, Dnniel, ti. 

Lowell IbLuiU. ^9. 

UonDlDg Uanaion, lU. 
Mnnniag, R. C, 13. Id. 
llnDBOeTd William. BS. 


. lUl, I 

on Bui I 


Harl-lchead Ncek, ISO. 
Margin Street, 81. 
UarTDB Had way, !<U, aoo. 
Uariae Sueiety, Salem, lU. 
HarkeMiousc. ISl. 
Market Square, SO. 

Mnreb, pfuDtera'aiG. 
Mar ~ " 

llaaoD, J( 

UBSOQiltlu», .cl. 

Matber, IJcttou, 00, 81, 00, ISS, 


Uaule, Tbomas, 101. 
Uislnlire, Snmuel. US. 
kU-tJilcbiist. WLIIiiiin, (S. 
tlci-hniiie tlall, IH. INL lU. 
Uechanlc tiirnntry, 113. 
Uedlcal Society, ISO. 
Meek Henry M.,Efl. 

I, 111, 171. 

WKtarr, i«, vso, im, in, tM. 
Hill CompRnr, PclcM, SI. 
Mills, R. C.. S. 
Hill Pond, w,m. 
Mill Street, SI, U, Bl. 
mnerTB, the Ship, 138. 
Ulsery IsUnd, 110. 
Hooroe, Judu, TB, 111, 111. 

RnatMket. BettlemeDl nt, S, 
Natural Hlat, Society, IBl, 160. 
Maligna Hend. 311, m, Hi. 


Hit; or Bntam "" 
ir&TT or SAlem 
Kenk, SbImii.SI 
Megro Cnloay, MO. 

em (1811), SU. 
I, Sib. no, tst. 

Kbit Jerosalein Church, 103. 

North Brldn, iM, 114-177. 
North Church, H, 71, BO. KM. 
North Field*. 178, 177, IM. 
Notth BiTor, ■a, SB, BO, BB, 

North Snlom, 88. IN. 
Nnrth SCroot. SI, 174. 
Northcnd. W. D.. Bl,38. 
Hottliey Sti'eet, 117. 
NorUie; , Willinm, Bl. 
NojBs, Nloholne,a7. 
Nnrae, Reheocs, 01, IM. 
Nattlug, John, 88. 

Obeerrer. Nenepaper, IM. 

dllTBr, Bridget. 89. 
Oliver. Ileai7 K., tX. 100. 
OliTOr HooelDD, SO, TO. 
Ollrer, Thonuta. 80. 
OrgnnliinHoTi or City, B9. 

Fuse. John, 148. 
Palfray, C. W., IM. 
Psimiy. Peter, 4, S.1, 74, IH), 1S8. 
FnllViiy. Warwick, 118, ISl. 
" ParaillBe," MS. ■ 
Parker, AJtcs, 183. 
Parkmnn. Uellveranoe, Iftl. 
Fnrrta, Samael, 96. 
Pnrtiea In pobtioa, 114. 
Payne, MarEaret, 171. 
PeaUody. FnmclB, 101, ISO, 101, 

Peabody, George, 101, IBS. 
Peabody, Town of, Bl, 77, 81, 

lu, in. 

Peahody, John P., 43. 137. 

Pealjoiiy, Joseph, 138, lU, 181. 
Penao, GeorireW., 116. 
Peok-a OnlliflnB, 87. 
Pedrlck, John. 175. 
Peele. J.. 134, 181. 
Pennaylinnia Pier, 118,118. 
Perkins, J. W., 100. 
Pest-hoiiee, 311. 
Peters, H., 18,49. 87,78.18,3)1. 
Phillips. S. CM, M. IS, 100, MS. 

'■.'!!!)!!?? '" 

PlckeiftiK, John. SI, BS, 108. 
Pickering. JouaUian, 88. 
Pickering, Tlniotlry^ 108. 
I'lckmnn, llo»l., 60,81,181, MT. 
I'Ickninii, D. L., 18U. 
Plckman Uonae, 181. 
Pkkniek, aainnel, 1ST. 
Pierce, BenJ., 147. 
Pierson. G. H., 131. 
Plllarlee. IE!. 
FIngree, Darld, S3. 
Pina, witch, 83. 
Flrafee, 180, 3M, 331. 
Pitman, Corporal, 39. 

Pleaeaut street. 1 

ir Hall, 41, 49, lU, 
tli Colony, l, S, ST. 

Porter, StUnoel, IIS. 

Poet. Newspaper, IM. 
Pouan. 13a. 
PnUera yi«l<). SIT. 
Pratt, Jobn.aijOlt. 
Prewott. Vf. It., Ml. 
PHoe, wmter, S3, 61. 
Priiuw, John, tt, OS. 

Pump, UawtUorne, M, Ti> 
PurltiDB, 1, «, 74. 
Putmaa, Ann, 157. 
Putnam, F. Vf.. m. 
Putoaia, Israel, IM. 
PutnaiD, ThoiuHa, IM. 
PyDOhou WiUUm.e. 

BebeJllan.Waror, IW. 
Bee<l, Nathaa, 100. 
Regiiltii. Drat. SS. 
lluvoliiUnn. Wnr of. 48, HI, tS3. 
» ItuTautfo," 8lil]i. SJ3. 
Bolierta. Uuvia.OH. 
Uolilnson, Saiaoel, ISl. 

- uIukP, 

in Coltea House, ISt. 

BaltDiiBtnll, T^veratt, Ca. 
ftnrgBUt, II. B., IW. 
Solioiil bouaes. Itl. 
Sohaol-bonae Lane, 18, 13. 
SoluMil, Brat free, 79. 
SiKilillDK wumen. IS, 
BeainaA O. un J C. F. Snc., m. 
Settlement, lociility or Ibe Aral, 

S, «i, 37, m, 7a. 
ShiuiHs, Eliler Samuel, 07, Tl. 
Slinrpe, Uoiiry, IIS. 
Sherman, E.J, 81. 
Sbip-bullOiiii, 31, UO. 

Sbtp TaTem, <!, 71, 110, 110 
BlekneaaatSalem, IS. 
Sllaliee, Nathaniel Jr., Bt. 

^mitli. U. H., 17e. 
BwiiA Library , HI, OS, 63, 01. 111. 

HomurvllWa iiulil'lo hauae. 71. 
«aii(h Itlrer.S,2l.!S, 30, 28,81, 

So II th Siile'm , il , id, SOI , 117, 3U. 
South Churi:)), 70, 104. 
Suulh wicks. Qimkera, ISO. 
Sd nth Bridge, 117,201. 
Simrlmwk, Jolin, 43. 
BLiniHue, Joaeiih, 118. 
Slauor, John, llU. 

StnU lion Be, 40, 47. 
aumii out ileimuuceil, 4fl. 
I uf Salem, SS, S38. 

Stwika, lU. 
Story, Joaeiih, SI. 
Bt. Jamea* Church. ISO, MO. 
St. Alary's Churvb, in, IIS. 
St. PelBr-a Church, 1», 10». 
etreeter, Q. L., IM, Hf. 
Street Railway, no, 171,301, 
Story, Jaaeph.WS. 
Summer Street, 31. 
Bun TsTern, 131. 
Swamp. ISI. 

Tabernacle Cb., 49, N, 78, lOS. 

Taiinerletl Bl', IBl', 317. 
Temporanue, II. 
Thayer, John, 138. 

Theatre, Salem, 01. 
Tliiiil thiirch. 78. 
Tliamas, B. F., 81. 
Thonipsan. C. P., St. 
Thomiuon. J. W.,89. 
Tliroinnortou Cave, 331. 
Titiiliu. 87. 

TnliHCca vrowlnB, 7, 11. 
Tnpom'niihv, 23. 
Toiisaehl. 31. 
Toworor London, SO. 

Town laudlai, ^ 

TDirn HMI, Bl, SB, 9D, 113. 

Toirn HoDien, a~S, IS, TT. 

Trail. H. B., IW. 

TralnlBjt Fidtl. IBl. 

Truk, William, t. 

Tnnnel, B. R. R.. ST, IW, IS. 

Tnrner, ChrrBtoplier, 140. 

Tiirnor. Jnbn, ISO. 

Turnn Street, IS, BU. 

Tnmplke. lis. 

TyTly.John, 4, 

Vnlon atMge. SOT. 

Union SlTwt. I«. 

ITpbam, C, W., IS, U, 43, W, O, 

tTpb'iTn', W. P-, IS, M, t4, 40. 
Tnliiiillon nr Snlcm, W. 
Veren, lllllni'U, 40, 4fi, 74, Ui. 

Wslc», I'rlnco of, Tfl. 
W niton, E. N., IM. 
Wanl, Joahn*. 41, 48. 
WHBhlngton, Genrn, 4S, 4S, 71. 
Waabington Stns^ 28, ST, SB, 
41. 4S, 48, IB. M, OS, M. n, 17. 
Wwhliwton SqiisTS, 101. 
Watch- lioiiae, M. 
Watch-houae Point, StO, m. 

Webiter, Dud lei, 84, SO, UT. 

Wo6ley C'tinpcl, SS. WS. 
We»t, benjamin, 147. 
We It, Natlinniel, ISO. 
WMmore, William, 180. 
Whatras, llrat. K. 
WhontlniKl, Stephen S.,U. 
WliFitLlnii'l. H., in. ISO, lOO. 
Whlpulni-poBlB, ira. 
Whipple, Georga M., ISS. 
Wliite.DnnlelA,7a, ISS.K 
While. Joir- 

h. IBI, t 

Whlhiliar. I>r.. . 

Wlllnnl, JDoFpli 

WIDIsniB, A1>Ignll. OS. 


WMIiiimfi, Roger, 

l^8. 7», 78. (B. 
Will^on, E. II., 103. 


41, or, 01, 

" Wlllom 

John, 1<». 




Whilor Slr«Gt. SI 4. 

Witch houae, 01. 

Wilehenin. SO, 48, S8, 71^ 71, M, 

III, 101, 114. 


Wooilbiirj, tinmpnroj, a. 
WoD-lliiirr, John, 4, 0, 14, HO. 
Wooilbnry, Willlnni. 1S«. 
WomI, Robert, IAS. 
Woreefter, SaiDuel U., 70^ 
Wright, Qeorte, 111. 


Carpet l^clnrica. SSI. 

Corer, Giles. 140. 
Crane BIcer, S40. 

I>uiTera|i«rt, lit, Ul. 

EniUcOtt, Cbarles, 181. 
Xnillaolt, John. 940. 
Eppei, Daniel, HT. 

PIre Department, ISS. 
Firrt Chnrch, Dan rare. MB. 
First Chnrch of Salem, 141. 
FoBler, <jlldeon,ltT,8T. 

tioode, Sii'iili, 149. 

Hlatorlcal, Dam era, UtMT. 
Uiiitorlcal, Peabodj, ISB. 



Hooper, Bobert, 251. 
Holton, Samuel, 347. 
Humphrey's Pond. 241. 
Humphrey, John, 241. 

Incorporation of Danyera, and 
South Danyers, 246. 

King, Daniel P., 247. 

Lexington, March to, 257. 

lifiddleton Pond, 243. 
Monument in Danyers, 242. 
Monument in Peabody, 256. 

Names, early, 247. 
Newspapers, 242, 53. 
Nurse, Itebecca, 249. 

Old Planters, 241. 
Osborn, Sir Danyers, 246. 

Parris, Rey. Samuel, 249, 51. 
Peabody, Francis, 251. 
Peabody, George, 242, 54-6, 58. 
Peabody Inst,, Dan vers, 242. 
Peabody Inst., Peabody, 258. 
Pear Tree Endicott, 240. 
Plains, 211. 
Pleasant Hill, 252. 
Population of Danyers, 245. 
Population of Peabody, 259. 
Porter, Moses, 247. 
Portei-'B Biyer, 241. 

Potteriea, 252. 
Proctor, John, 249. 
Putnam, Israel, 247, 248. 

Railroads. 242, 249, 268. 
Kccd, Nathan, 217. 
Ricliardson, Mrs., 252. 
Riding Parle, 241. 
* Reseryoir, 242. 
Rock Ship, 201. 
Rodgers estate, 252. 

Salem Village, 240. 
Settlers, tiie first, 240. 
Shillaber Homestead. 253. 
Skelton, Rey. Samuel, 241. 
Spite BridgQ, 241. 
Statistical, Dan vers, 245. 
Statistical, Peabody, 259. 
Sutton, Eben Dale. 258. 
Sutton Library, 258. 

Tanneries, 259. 
Taployyille, 251. 
Tituba, 251. 
Town Meeting, First, 246. 

Upham, C. W., 247. 

Victoria, Queen, 258. 

Wharton, Eliza, 257, 61. 
Water's River, 240. 
Willard, 249. 


Abbot Benjamin, 265. 
Abbot Uall, 205, 274, 

Barnard, Thomas, 272. 

Cemeteiy, 273. 
Cowell, 267. 
Clifton House, 271. 
Churches, 205. 

Farming, 204. 
Pireof 1877, 274. 
Fisheries, 203, 204. 

Gale of 1840, 272. 
Gallison, John, 207. 
Getclicll. John, 207. 
Gerry, Elbridgc, 207, 272. 
Glover, General, 207. 
Gregory, J. J. H., 204, 271. 

Harbor, 203. 
Holyoke, Edward, 272. 
Ilolyoke. Edward A., 207. 
Hotels, 271. 

Incorporation, 203. 
Ireson, Benjamin, 278. 

Lafayette, 272. 
Lee House, 272. 
Loring, George B., 200. 

MoBSon. David, 271. 
Mugfoi*d, James, 200, 271. 

Neck, 263, 271. 
North Church, 271. 

Orne, Azor, 207. 



Patrlotieni, 265. 
Poets, 270. 
PopiUation, 268. 
Powder HousOi 273. 
Prince, 267. 

Bussell, 267. 

8t. Hichnel's Chnrch, 271. 
Schools, 265. 
Bewnll, Snmnel, 267. 
Shoe AJanul'actories, 264. 
Small pox, 269. 

Story, Isaac, 267. 
Story, Joseph, 267, 272. 
Streets, 269. 
Summer Besort, 270. 

Town Hall, 272. 
Topography, 263. 
Tucker's Wharf, 278. 

Valuation, 268. 

Ware, B. P. Jr., 271. 
Washington, George, 272. 


Balch, John, 275. 
Beverly Brifl/j^c, 276. 
Browne, William, 279. 
Burly, Wiliam, 280. 

Conant. Boger, 275, 278. 
Cotton Mill, 278. 
Churches, 281. 
Commerce, 286. 

Deed, 278. 

Derby, Kichard, 276. 

Dodge, G. L., 289. 

Eastern B. B., 276. 
Eilinwood, B., 277. 

Farms, 277. 
Fire Department, 

Gray, William. 286. 
Groce, Obadian, 288. 

ITale, John, 281. 
Halls, 288. 
Harbor, 280. 
Hill, Hugh, 285. 
Hills, 270-80. 
House, first, 277. 

Indians, 278, 283. 
Industries, 277. 

Military, 282, 289. 

Name of Town, 278. 
Nautilus, 286. 

Ponds and Lake, 280. 
Postal centres, 277. 
Privateers, 285. 

Bantonl, B., 288. 
Bevohitionary War, 283. 
Biot, 285. 
Byall Side, 277. 

School houses, 288. 
Stages, 276. 
Streets, 280. 

Taxation, 287. 
Thomdike, Israel, 288. 
Topography, 275. 
Town Offlcers, 278. 

Webbers, 277. 
West Beach, 278. 
Wenham W. W., 276. 
Woodbury, John, 275. 
Woodbury, WilUam, 275. 

Bartol, Ber. C. A., 292. 
Booth, J. B., 293. 

Furniture, 291. 

Hesperus, Wreck of, 296. 

Jcffry Creek, 200. 
Jemry, WiUiam, 200. 


Magnolia, 294. 

Norman's Woe, 296. 

Population, 291. 

Bafe's Chasm, 296; 

Singing Beach, 202. 
Summer Besidenoei, 201-3. 

Aabnrj Grova, tl 
Clinrchsi, SOT. 


rotora, Iliigli.nal. 




Brack, DbdIbI, 30t. 

ClBvoInntl. E. T. , SOI. 
Cburch in UliiillElon. Htn, 
Cliui'Ebiu in ToiMUeLd, DOO. 

KnaiuiU. John. 301. 
GaUB, Mury, SfU. 

FulliH', Thomas, 301. 

Huatinston, EliehB, 301. 
liiduatrlea In Middloton, S 
Hid or Mlddlulou, 3 

Fine Jew^elry. 


A Fine Stock, at Ve^ Low Pricot. 


Iiini, Porti, Smon, uuei, KdI Piiti, ctniuni Tim, Etc. 


at a> X2« biu SlrMt, Salui. 

The Globe Gas Light Company, 

Olce, 54 lilbr street, Ctr.Wtttr stmt 


ata. B. LORINO, Fraaldent. 

PBLutW BOMMEr, Treaanrar. 
Fbbpk. a. Krowm, ) f. 
JOHH A. Flktcubu, I 


Uonnikclunn uid D»Ieri Id 

ThiB Company is Prepared to Oontraot to 


The App&ratoB MteA b; tbe Company conalib of n Cflindar- 
thapeil tniik placed upon llie onUlda of (be lanlei-n, a oonnectiog 
lube, nnd a burner or giu KOuemlar, all of wliicb can be Btlacbeil to 

Worcester, Uast. Fonlnnd, Unlne. Norwicb, Conn. 

Newlon, " Lew Is) on, ■' DsnbiirT, •• 

Hyde Pnrk, '| Auliurn, " ITlic*. New Toit 

Wal^rtoirn, " ]IuRtnrlon,Tennan(. Watertotin, " 

Newbury nort, " B«in]D>lan, " Coboea, " 

GloumwEor. " Morrisville, " Cinciimall, OlilD. 

Kew D«iU'oi'd, '' Kenr Ilnven, Coun. Diivennort, Iowa. 

I.yim. " Wiilcrbury, " llock Island. III. 

Tuiiiitoii, " Mun llrllaiu, ■• San JUH, UuliRunia. 

Bangor, Maine. New London, " 

Ana over £00 otlier places. 

COKI£K8S>Om:i>£1NOE: 80r.tC!ITB£D. 


Frank Cousins' 



ODB STORE cNMoplai tlie be«t baiiiiui locatkn Ib S«l*m,and by 
cueful alMDtlon idiI low uiicai, wa hops t« nuuit ■ (WnnniuBoa 
of lite patranaie bo llberallf beuoired lo toe ptu. 

French and American Clocltt, Speolacies, Eye Glastet, &c, 


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BeapectAjUy announce as among tbelr latest novelties a 
new series of SAI.EU VIEWS for tlie Stereoscope, com- 
prlaiug recent views of all the public Buildings, Streeu, 
Cliurtlieit, Old Houses, and places of blatorlcal interest. 
As this makuB tLe lOth series of Salem Views we liave 
taken, we uau guarantee our patrons tliat our past exper- 
ience lioa been a great aUvaiitugc to us, and tliat this 
Eerlcs will excel all our previous efforts. Price yi.OO per 
dozen, 10 cents each. All orders by mall promptly tilled 
at onr retail Salesroom, Mo. 2i2i Essex Street. A FULL 
Thankful Tor the kind patronage of tbe public in the 
put, we respectfully ask for a continuance of the same. 

J. AV. A J. S- M:OiriL.TO]V, 

soa ft a«3 i.a bsskx STHBinT, sajlem, uabb. 




American and Foreign Watches, Watch Furniture, 

Gentlemen's Jewelry, 


— ALSO — 

Speotaoles, Eye Glasses, Thennometers, Eto. 


Fartioular attention to Fine Watoh Bepairinie. 

Standard Time ascertained hy Transit obserrations. 


— AMD- 

Essex County Advertiser, 

i feeUy Fanuly Newspaper, Mel to 

Literature, Folitios and local and general matters 

of interest. 

Adrertisements inserted at rectsonable rates, 



S.A. Xj !£: im: . 









Gf—n HouM and 
6ard«nt in North Sal«m 



Silks, Cashmeres, Alpacas, &c., &c. 



IB' THfl Ul'i'y. 





The Iiorgeat Stook. 

The Iiighteat Store. 

The Lowest Trioes. 

The Best Treatment. 


227 & 229 ESSEX 8TKEET, SALEH. 

,^H^M^ ^ ^^^ 


This preservation photocopy was made at BookLab, Inc., 

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is Weyerhaeuser Cougar Opaque Natural, 

which exceeds ANSI Standard