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Full text of "Old plans of Cambridge, 1574-1798, by Richard Lyne, George Braun, John Hamond, Thomas Fuller, David Loggan and William Custance"

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geJ^^ealogy collection 


3 1833 00721 5509 



1574 TO 1798 






J. WILLIS CLARK, M.A., Hon. D.Litt. (Oxford), 


AND I <• ! 










In the list of plans forming Tart II of the work, the reproduction of 
the more perfect central slieet of Hamond's Plan should be number 4, 
and the succeeding plans should be renumbered 5, 6, 7, and 8 





■ s^- 











THE reproductions of the Six Old Plans of Cam- 
bridge which are contained in the Portfolio were 
announced in May 1909 as to be issued with accom- 
panying description by the late Mr J. W. Clark, 
Registrary of the University. The death of Mr Clark 
and the interruption of the War have caused a long 
delay in the completion of the work as originally de- 

At the time of his death Mr Clark had written and 
corrected for the press the descriptions of the plans of 
Lyne and Braunius, but had only brought his account 
of Hamond's plan, which is the most interesting and 
valuable of the series, as far as the description of the 
site of Pembroke Hall and the adjoining grounds. 
I have made no alterations in his work, except by 
adding a few notes distinguished by enclosing brackets, 
and have endeavoured, as far as was possible, to con- 
tinue it on the lines therein indicated. 

It is greatly to be regretted that Mr Clark did not 
live to complete the design which had been the labour 
and delight of his last years. The account which he 
has given in the Architectuj-al History (I, Introduction, 
pp. ci — civ) of Hamond's plan indicates the importance 
which he attached to it, though when that work was 
written, he was unaware of the existence of the ex- 
tremely interesting central Sheet which came to him 
from the collection of the late Mr J. E. Foster and is 
now in the Bodleian Library. The issue of these plans 


was to be the corollary of Mr Clark's great Archi- 
tectural Histo)'y of Cambridge ( 1 886), and no other man 
had the title or the capacity to attempt what he fore- 
shadowed in that work. 

Since 1909 death has also removed Professor 
McKenny Hughes and Sir William Hope, who had 
done much to illustrate the history and antiquities of 
Cambrldcre and whose assistance in their several de- 
partments of knowledge would have been invaluable 
in continuing Mr Clark's work. 

Professor Marr has very kindly furnished for the 
Introduction the section on the Geology of Cambridge, 
and for valuable assistance in other matters I am in- 
debted to the Reverend Dr Stokes, Mr G. J. Gray 
and Mr George Goode, M.i\.., of the University 
Library. I also gratefully record the great interest 
shown by the late Mr Robert Bowes in the beginning 
and continuation of the work, and the patience with 
which he submitted to the long delay in its publication. 
To his friendly help I owe only less than to Mr Clark 
himself. My part has been one of labour, but also of 
pleasure and love. 


February 17, 19c l 


For permission to photograph Hamond's Plan in the 
Bodleian Library (the only known complete copy, from 
which our reproduction is taken), we are indebted to 
the late E. W. B. Nicholson, M.A., Bodley's Librarian. 
Our thanks are also due to the Syndics of the Cam- 
bridge University Press, the Council of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society, and Messrs. Macmillan&Co., Ltd., 
for the loan of illustrations from various publications, 
which are reproduced in the text of this work. Last 
but not least, we wish to acknowleds^e the courtesv and 
patience shown by the University Press and the care 
taken by their staff in connection with a work which 
commenced some fourteen years ago. 


14 March 1921 














III. PLAN BY JOHN HAMOND, 1592 .... 23 



V. SURVEY BY DAVID LOGGAN, 1688 . . .136 

INDEX 152 



I. The bird's-eye view drawn by Richard Lyne in 1574, to illustrate 
the History of the University by Dr John Keys, or Caius, which was 
published in that year. The view is 16J inches high by ii| inches 
II. The bird's-eye view from George Braun's Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 
1575, as it appears in Jansson's Urbiion Septentrior.aliufn Eurcps 
TabulcE, Amsterdam, n.d. 

III. The plan by John Hamond, of Clare Hall, dated 22 February, 1592. 
This is a bird's-eye view in nine sheets, drawn after a careful survey, 
made by Hamond himself. This plan is 3 feet io| inches high by 
2 feet io| inches wide. It is accompanied by a reproduction of the 
more perfect central sheet (No. 9) and a key plan to the several 

IV. The bird's-eye view annexed to the History of the University of 
Camhidge, by Thomas Fuller, dated 1634. This view is 13 J inches 
high by io| inches wide. 

V. The survey made by David Loggan for his Cantabrigia Ilhtstrata, 
and dated 1688, in two sheets. This survey is 15^ inches high by 
2o| inches wide. 
VI. The survey made by William Custance, Cambridge, and published 

for him 21 May, 1798. 
VII. A key-plan, based on the Ordnance Survey, to show the changes 
which have taken place since the above ancient plans were drawn. 



The river, which beneath the Castle Hill, divides Cam- 
bridge into a northern and a southern town, is formed by the 
confluence of two principal streams v/hich unite about three 
miles above the town, beyond the village of Trumpington. The 
eastern of these tributaries comes from sources near Newport, 
in Essex : the western has its main spring at Ashvveli, in 
Hertfordshire. A third branch joins the united stream just 
above the weir at Trumpington and rises at Bourn in Cam- 
bridgeshire. Within the borough limits a fourth affluent, called 
the Binn Brook, falls into the river, on its western side, a 
short distance above the Great Bridge. Except by small boats 
the river was never navigable beyond the mill-weirs above 
Queens' College and at Newnham. 

The ancient nam.e of the river was Grante," or Granta. 
Grante is the name given to it by Felix of Crovvland (715 — 
730) in his Life of St Gutldac. The suffixed e represents the 
Anglo-Saxon cd, or c, meaning "v/ater." In the Anglo-Saxon 
version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History (a translation made 
before 900) the river is called "Granta stream." Bede, writing 
of the year 6-ji, describes the site of the town as "a desolate 
little city," and calls it Grantaceestir. The first mention of the 
place after the town came into being is in the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, under the year 875, and it was then known as 
Grantebr}-cgc. The bridge was, no doubt, a wooden structure 
and had evidently come into existence between Gji and 875^ 

In deeds of the later middle ages the name given to the 
river is often "the Rce," or "the Ee," and in and after 1372 it 

' In a paper on Tke Foul and Bridge of Cambridge, C. A.S. Proc. and Comm. 
xiv. pp. 126—139 (A. Gray), reasons are given for supposing that OfTa, king of 
Mercia (758 — 796), was the builder of the bridge. 


appears as "the Cante^" : but "Granta" also continued in use. 
With slight variations in spelling Grantebrige was in sole use 
as the town's name until 1 142, and it was partially used until 
1400. The earliest instances of the use of the name Cantebrig 
occur in the latter part of the twelfth century. The modern 
spelling, Cambridge, with euphonic change of nt to vi, does 
not occur in documents until after 1400. Cam, as the river's 
name, does not appear until about 1600-. 

The plans of Lyne and Hamond show the course of the 
river from points somewhat above the two mills near Queens' 
College and that at Newnham. These mills were of very 
ancient origin. At the time of the Domesday Survey Cam- 
bridge had two mills — one belonging to the Abbot of Ely, the 
other to Count Alan, a Breton follower of the Conqueror. 
Picot, the sheriff, had also erected three mills, but it seems that 
at least one of them was destroyed by the King's order on the 
ground that it interfered with some other one^ It is likely that 
Picot's mill, or mills, occupied the site of that which afterwards 
was known as the King's Mill: in the reign of Henry II the 
Sheriff of Cambridgeshire accounted at the royal exchequer for 
a mill. The Abbot's Mill became the Bishop's ]\Iill after 1 109, 
when the abbacy of Ely was converted into a bishopric. In 
the Survey of the Town, made in 1278, there is mention of 
three mills — the King's, the Bishop's, and a third belonging to 
Sir William de Mortimer. The last was evidently the mill 
at Newnham, for it was subject to tithe to Grantchester parish, 
in which parish part of it is contained at the present day*. In 
process of time the three mills were acquired by the burgesses, 

^ "Cante" rimes with "Universitie" in some verses of Lydgate printed in 
Mullinger's The University of Cambridge, i. Appendix A, p. 636. 

' In his monograph, The Place Names of Cambridgeshire, C.A. S. 8vo. Pub- 
lications, xxxvi., and in a later article, C. A. S. Tree, and Co/nm. xiv. pp. iii — 
112, the late Professor Skeat has given the fullest account of the changes which 
the names of the town and river have undergone. 

3 Dr Stokes in his Communication on The Old Mills of Cambridge (C. A.S. 
Proc. and Coinin. xiv. p. 182) following a suggestion of Professor Maitland, 
TiT.vnship and Borough, p. 150, thinks that Picot only erected a third mill, in 
addition to the other two: but the plurals aiiferiint and destritiint in the passage 
from Domesday Book make this interpretation untenable. 

* Stokes, as above, p. 184. 


and the King's and Bishop's Mills, which adjoined one another, 
at last were contained under one roof, and are so represented 
in the plans of Lyne and Hamond, who mark the combined 
buildings as the King's Mill. Newnham Mill belonged to the 
Mortimer family, who held the manor of Newnham, and from 
them it passed to Gonvile Hall and was afterwards leased to 
the Town authorities^ 

At the present day the water is brought to the mills by 
two cuts which are drawn from the upper river at the south 
end of Sheep's Green, It is unknown when these cuts were 
made, but undoubtedly they are of great antiquity. Their 
banks are considerably higher than the surface of Sheep's 
Green, at which low level are to be seen many old channels, 
which represent the natural courses of the river: Hamond's plan 
shows several of them. In Coe Fen, which lies on the eastern 
side of the cut leading to the King's Mill, Lyne marks the Vicar's 
Brook, which came from Trumpington Ford, at the first mile- 
stone on the London Road, and joined the river, as it still does, 
opposite what is called Robinson Crusoe's Island. About the 
year 1610 a channel was cut from this brook, along which the 
water was carried to the King's Ditch at the crossing of 
Trumpington Street and Mill Lane. In the same year in 
which Lyne's plan was made (1574X Dr Feme, Master of Peter- 
house, writing to Lord Burghley, advocated this diversion as a 
means of scouring the ditch". 

Below the Mill Pit of the King's Mill both Lyne and Hamond 
sliow that the river followed its present course. But there are 
clear indications in both plans that this course, in great part, 
was not the only, nor indeed the natural one. The present 
straightened channel and the steepness of its banks on the 
eastern side are demonstrative of artificial adaptation. If the 

^ The history' of the mills is extremely obscure. Even the exhaustive evidence 
given by Dr Stokes in the work just cited fails to throw much light on their 
origin, ownership and subsequent transferences. The Mortimers were connected 
with the Zouche family, and there was a Zouche's Mill — whether or not to be 
identified with Newnham .Mill is not clear. There seem to have been two mills 
at Newnham, or perhaps only two mill-wheels, as Hamond's plan indicates. 
Lyne's plan in an eccentric way shows a mill on the Grantchester bank extending 
only half-way across the cut. * See pp. 7, 3. 


river pursued its natural course, as it still does in times of 
exceptional flood, it would spread itself over the ground be- 
tween its present western bank and the road which leads from 
Newnham to Westminster College. These grounds are still 
in parts v'ery little raised above the river surface, and there is 
historical evidence that, before they were converted into College 
gardens, their level was considerably lower than it is to-day'. 
Of the older courses of the river the two plans furnish 
valuable evidence. Half-way between the Mill Pit at Newnham 
and that which is below the King's ?ilill Hamond shows an 
island, and hereabouts, at a point in the northern bank, both 
plans show a branch of the river which passes under the 
western of the two Small Bridges, and, skirting the western side 
of Queens' College over-river grounds, joins the present river 
course opposite Bodley's Building in King's College. It is now 
an insignificant and stagnant trench, but it was a considerable 
waterway in 1474, when the Town granted to Queens' College 
the land which is now the P'ellows' Garden. In the conveyance 
the ground is described as lying between the common river 
coming down from the King's and Bishop's Mills and the river 
running down from Newnham Mill": moreover the mayor and 
bailiffs reserved to themselves the right of coming in boats along 
either river. At the same time the College undertook to widen 
the river on the eastern side of this ground, so that it should be 
51 feet in breadth, which is its present width. That this 
eastern branch of the river existed in early times is probable^: 
but an inspection of the Ordnance map at once suggests that, 
in its present width and direction, this branch is an artificial 
prolongation of the channel above the King's Mill*. 

' Evidence of the raising of these grounds is collected in The Dual Or{gi7i of 
the Tcrj.n 0/ Cambridge, C.A.S. Quarto Publications, 190S, pp. 18—20 (A. Gray). 

^ Cooper, Annals, v. p. 266. 

•■' In 1396 we read of the existence of two bridges, known as Small Bridges, 
one of which was in the position of the present bridge, at the end of Silver Street, 
the other spanning the stream which crossed the road near the house which is 
now called the Granary. They were wooden structures, and the latter of them, 
as shown by Lyne and Ilamond, was unprotected by a hand-rail. 

* In 1756, when the foundation of the Essex building of Queens' College was 
being prepared, the kerb of a well was discovered within the eastern arm of the 
river, and two feet below its bed. 


There is evidence that all the colleges between Queens' and 
St John's have been built on ground which has been artificially 
raised, and that, before the erection of the second court of 
Queens' College, no attempt was made to build on the eastern 
bank^ A deed of the middle of the thirteenth century con- 
cerning a tenement in Mill Street, near the present site of 
Clare College, mentions that it was 220 feet distant from a 
trench (JossatumY-. As the distance from I\Iill Street to the river 
was about 400 feet this fossatuni was clearly not the main 
channel, but 180 feet east of it. Doubtless it was the trench 
which was discovered in 1889, when the Latham building of 
Trinity Hall was builtl 

A continuation of this trench, no doubt, is to be found in 
the channel, shown by Lyne and Hamond, which was the 
eastern boundary of the island called Garret Hostel Green. 
Lyne makes it branch from the main river at a point behind 
Clare Hall. Hamond places its divergence just above Garret 
Hostel Bridge. The Ditch was navigable, for in the fourteenth 
century there were several hithes on its eastern side, and the 
modification of it which was granted to ^Michaelhouse was for 
tlie purpose of bringing merchandise to the College. Hamond 
marks the northern outlet of the Ditch at a point nearly corre- 
sponding to the north-west corner of Trinity College Library: 
but at an earlier date it was further north and near the kitchen 
garden of the IMaster of Trinity College\ 

In the days of Lyne and Hamond the grounds on the 
western side of the river, between Queens' College Garden and 
the New Court of St John's College, retained the swampy 
character which they had from the earliest times in the history 
of the Town. Though there was no lock on Jesus Green the 
"shelves" which were an obstruction to navigation in the reign 
of Elizabeth (I 578)', probably held up the water to something 

* See the ver)- valuable Communication by Professor Hughes on Superficial 
Deposits tinder Cambridge, C.A.S. Proc. and Comm. xi. pp. 393 — 423. 

* See The Friary of St Kadegiind, Cainbridgc (A. Gray), C.A.S. 8vo. Pub- 
lications, 1S9S, charter 1S7 on p. no. 

' Maiden, History of Trinity Hall, pp. 23, 14. 

* Arch. Hist. ii. pp. 405— 409. ' Cooper, Atmals, ii. 366. 


like its present level. No houses existed near this western 
bank, and no hithes were placed on it: before the College 
bridges were built no bridge crossed the main river between 
Queens' College and the Great Bridge. Garret fiostel Bridge 
is shown in Lyne's plan (1574), and is first mentioned in 1520^ 
Lyne shows it as a wooden bridge with a double rail, and it 
merely connects the eastern bank with Garret Hostel Green : 
a plank bridge crosses the main stream between the Green 
and the western bank. Evidence of the original swampy nature 
of the ground is seen in the large pond, or lake, which Hamond 
shows in the over-river grounds of King's College, and in the 
numerous fish ponds which cover the site of the New Court of 
St John's College. 

It may be noticed that in Hamond's plan the college 
grounds on the eastern bank are all fenced next the river by 
walls, mostly embattled. The only break in their continuity is 
at the Town ground near Garret Hostel Bridge. The need for 
such walls is not apparent at the present day. But their object 
is explained by a provision in the Act of Parliament of 1703 
for improving the navigation of the Cam. Therein it is enacted 
that as of necessity barges and lighters m.ust be haled against 
the stream by men or horses it should be law-ful for the water- 
men to go without hindrance on the lands near the riverl 
Though the hithes behind the colleges had disappeared before 
Hamond's time there was still a large river traffic with the 
mills. Loggan's view of St John's College shows several barges 
proceeding up stream, and one of them is towed by a man on 
the eastern bank. The walls in the plans of Lyne and Hamond 
approach the waterside so closely that the haling-way must 
have been narrow, and it was altogether interrupted by the 
buildings at Queens' College which stand on the brink of the 
river. In Ackerman's view of Clare Hall (181 5) a string of 
barges is being drawn up stream by a man and horse who are 
in the middle of the river. 

^ Cooper, Annals, i. 304. ^ Ibid. iv. 62. 



[For more detailed accounts of the Castle and Roman 
castrum the reader is referred to the Communications in C. A.S. 
Proceedings by Professor Hughes, On the Castle Hill, viii. 
pp. 173 — 212; by Sir William Hope, The Norman Origin of 
Cambridge Castle, xi. pp. 324 — 345; and by myself, On the 
Watercourse called Cambridge, ix, pp. 61 — "z^: also to Pro- 
fessor C. C. Babington's Ancient Cambridgeshire, C. A.S. 8vo. 
Publications, xx. 1883, and to articles by Professor Hughes, 
The Castle Hill, 2ir\d by myself. The Coffin Stone of Etheldreda, 
in Fasciculus J. IV. Clark Dicatus, 1909, pp. 240 — 264. These 
works are referred to under their titles in the footnotes to this 
section. A. G.] 

The Castle mound and the earthworks adjoining it were 
constructed on a natural promontory which forms the end of 
a terrace reaching from Girton College and the Observatory 
and abuts on the river near the Great Bridge. This promontory 
consists of chalk overlying a thick bed of gault. At its end the 
chalk was cut away to form a steeper scarp, and the material 
was thrown up on the top to form the mounds 

Cambridge, as its name implies, was the Town of the I^ridge, 
not the Town of the Castle. The reason is obvious. There is 
evidence of the existence of the Bridge in Saxon times : the 
Castle was the erection of the Normans. 

l^ut before the Saxon town came into existence there was 
undoubtedly a Roman castrum near the river and presumably 
on its northern bank. Bede- calls the place Grantaca:stir, 
and the Anglo-Saxon translation of his Ecclesiastical History 
(written in the ninthcentury)saysthatitwas"by Grantastream." 
The same translation describes the site in 689 as " a ruined 
Chester," clearly impl}'ing its Roman origin. Both Bede and 
his translator tell us that it was walled with masonry. Portions 

* Professor Hughes clearly explains the natuial and artificial features of the 
Castle Hill in his Coniiminicatiun, C.A.S. Proc. and Comni. viii. pp. 173 — 175. 
- Ecclesiastical History, iv. ly. 


of a wall, consisting of Roman bricks, flints and ragstone, were 
discovered in 1804 "near the turnpike gate leading to Hunting- 
don," i.e. near the point where the Histon Road diverges from 
the Huntingdon Road^ The castriun was perhaps a walled 
town rather than a military camp. There can be little doubt 
that the Castle site was contained in it, though it did not occupy 
the whole of it. The raised terrace in Magdalene College 
grounds, though mainly of much later construction, very likely 
occupies the position of the southern rampart, and the earth- 
work visible on Mount Pleasant seems to be part of the valhun 
on the western side of the castnnn. The Roman road leading 
to Huntingdon, which was the western boundary of the 
Conqueror's Castle, thus ran through the Roman camp, dividing 
it into two nearly equal halvesl 

This is hardly the place to discuss the various theories which 
have been advanced as to the character and dimensions of the 
Roman camp and the existence of a pre-Roman stronghold on 
the site. Nor need anything be said about a Saxon fortress which 
some have supposed to have existed on the site of the Norman 
Castle. Some timbered structure may possibly have stood there 
before the Conquest : that it did exist there is no particle of 
evidence, historical or material, to show^. 

Castles, the name and the things, were introduced by the 
Normans. hX Cambridge both Castle and Bridge were con- 
trolled bv the Kino's officer, the sheriff, and were maintained 
by taxes, called castle- ward and pontage, which were levied 

' See the account of these and other supposed Roman remains in the Castle 
area quoted by Professor Hughes in his Communication already cited, p. 1S9. 

' In llamond's plan the bank on Mount Pleasant is indicated. Sir W. Hope, 
in C..\.S. Proc. and Co»i7)i., ut supra, gives a_suggested plan of the Castle and 
Roman camp. The camp occupied a somewhat steep slope, rising from 32 feet 
al>ove Ordnance Level at the crossing of Castle Street and Chesterton Lane to 
70 feet where the northern rampart crossed the Huntingdon Road. 

' The late Professor Hughes strongly maintained that a Saxon fortress, which 
he called a biirh, existed on the Castle mound in the ninth and following cen- 
turies. He relied on a theory, since discredited, of Mr G. T. Clark in his Medi-jal 
Mil-.taiy Architecture in Englami that the biirhs erected in the reign of Edward 
the F.lder were of the nature of castles. The evidence collected by Sir W. Hope 
is conclusive that a burh was not a fortress but a fortified town. Mr Allcroft in 
his Earthwork in England, p. 3S1, draws attention to the com{)lete absence of 
any tiaces in England of fortresses which can be ascribed to early Saxon times. 


not on the townsmen but on particular estates in the district. 
It has often been remarked, as a feature that looks more primi- 
tive than the Conquest, that the Castle is not situated within 
the limits of the borough, but is contained in the parish of 
Chesterton, But no inference as to the existence of a pre- 
Norman castle can be drawn from the circumstance. The ex- 
clusion of the castle from the borough was a Norman arrange- 
ment, of which other examples are seen at York, Colchester 
and Norwich. In the Castle and its maintenance the townsmen 
had no part or lot. Clearly its purpose was not to defend but 
to over-awe the town. 

According to Orderic the Conqueror planted castles at 
Cambridge, Lincoln and Huntingdon in 1068. In the Domes- 
day Survey it is stated that the first of the ten wards into which 
the town was divided was reckoned as two in the Confessor's 
time, but that 27 houses in it were destroyed to make the Castle. 
Similar destructions for the same object are recorded in the 
Survey at other towns\ Evidently the Castle was new and did 
not take the place of an earlier fortress. 

"Cambridge Castle," says Sir W. Hope, "was originally a 
good and complete example of a mount-and-bailey castle. The 
mount still exists to a height of about 40 feet above the 
bailey... and is of the same dimensions as in many others of the 
King's fortresses, having a diameter at the top of about 100 feet 
and probably twice as much across the base. The area of the 
bailey was apparently between three and four acres, which again 
is a characteristic size of King William's castles. The bailey 
was wholly on the north side of Castle Street, from which it 
was entered, and the gate-house, so unfortunately destro\-ed 
in 1840, no doubt occupied the site of the early Norman one," 

" Early Norman castles," says the same writer, " did not 
consist of earthworks merely, but were defended by lines of 
timber palisading along the crests of the banks and by a strong 
wooden citadel on the top of the mount, which was also con- 
nected by palisading with the defences of the bailey. Such 
newly thrown up banks and mounts were not at first capable 

* Sir W, Hope, CA.S. Proc. and Coi/im. xi. pp. 334, 335. 


of carrying the weight of walls and works of masonry. But 
there was nothing to hinder stone buildings being set up in the 


Whatever the Norman Castle at Cambridge may have been, 
it would seem that its building was not completed in the 
Conqueror's reign. The Liber Elieusis^ states that after the 
repulse of his first attack on the Isle of Ely, in 1070, King 
William retired to the Castle of Cambridge, which had been 
built two years earlier, and perhaps was so far completed that 
he lodged in it. But though Henry III stayed at Cambridge 
in 1 267, the L ibcr Memorandoriwi'' of Barnwell Priory expressly 
mentions that Edward I was the first king who took up his 
quarters there, in 1293, and the same authority records that 
that king " began the Castle of Cambridge," apparently about 
1283'. In the latter year the King caused a perambulation to 
be made of the bounds of the castrum. The jurors of the shire 
who made the perambulation claimed for the King the whole 
area of the Roman camp, as well as the part between it and 
the river: but it would seem that the King only asserted his 
right to the Castle and its precincts. 

The buildings, whether those of William or of Edward, 
can hardly have been of a very substantial kind, for in 1367 
Edward III issued a commission to enquire into the many 
defects and dilapidations of the walls and towers. In 1441 it 
was reported that "the old hall and a chamber next to it v/ere 
in a state of ruin and wholly unroofed." In 1590, two years 
before the date of Hamond's plan, it was described as "an old 
ruined and decayed palace or castle" and "only used for keeping 
prisoners in some of the vaults*." Hamond, in a note on the 
third sheet of his plan, says "The Castle, though now ruinous, 
shows clear evidence of royal magnificence." 

Lyne's presentment of the Castle is conventional. Hamond's 
view is probably more accurate, but unfortunately the sheet of 
his plan which contains the Castle is badly blurred, and the 
mount is not recognisable, though the ditch beneath it is clearly 

' Ed. O. J. Stewart, i. p. 107. 

» Ed. J. W. Clark, p. 1-27. ^ Ibid., p. 167. 

♦ Professor Hughes in C.A.S. Proc. and Comm., viii. p. 197. 


shown. In the centre of the bailey is a building of some size 
which was, perhaps, the hall. Two walls connect it with the 
ends of the ditch. The ramparts of the bailey are defended 
with a wall on all sides. 

Loggan's plan of 1688, which is in close agreement with 
that of distance of 1798, shows the alterations which were 
made by the Parliament in 1643. The central building has 
disappeared. To the north of the site which it occupied is seen 
a large block, which served as barracks. There is a large 
bastion at the north-eastern corner of the bailey, and smaller 
ones at the north-west and south-east. Under the eastern ram- 
part is a ditch, which is not in Hamond's plan. Except on the 
side next the street the ramparts are lined with trees. In 
Custance's plan no trees are shown and in their place a terrace 
is marked, which, no doubt, was a platform for guns. In 1647 
the Houses of Parliament ordered that the new works raised 
about the Castle since 1643 should be "slighted and reduced 
to the same condition they were in before the War," 

Bowtell, the antiquary, made a plan and sections of the 
Castle fortifications as they appeared in 1785. The sole relic 
of the old buildings was the gatehouse. He shows the ramparts 
and bastions raised in 1643, and states that the height of the 
former " from the bottom of the fosse, in a diagonal direction, 
was full sixteen }-ards: the diameter of them, as measured from 
the base line from the start of the rise on both sides, was "jo feet : 
their perpendicular height from the level of the surface on which 
they were raised was 17 feet 6 inches." The brick building 
which had served as a barrack was occupied "partly as a Bride- 
well for petty offenders, partly as a habitation for the keeper 
of the Castle, till the year 1S06, when a new prison was built 
with a convenient residence for the governour." In Bowtell's 
plan the old barrack stands on the edge of the northern rampart, 
occupying in part the platform made for guns in 1643. ^'^ served 
as the County gaol, the Borough gaol being situated next the 
Town Hall, in the street now called Union Street. The new 
Shire Hall was opened in 1S42, about which time the old gate- 
house was destroyed. 

An engraving, made by Buck in 1730, shows the gatehouse 


and mound as seen from the north-east. On the north-east 
side of the mound it shows a ring of trees surrounding a hollow, 
which, Bowtell says, was called "the Gallows Hole." Here- 
abouts Loggan's plan marks a gallows. The hollow in which 
the gallows was erected was part of a fosse which protected 
the mound on its northern side. This fosse was filled in when 
the foundations of the new prison were laid about 1802. At 
that time the surface of the bailey was levelled and reduced in 
height by four to ten feet. The materials, consisting largely of 
ruins of the Castle and of domestic buildings, were thrown into 
the fosse on the northern and eastern sides of the bailey. 



The statement is made in the Chronicle of Barnwell Priory^ 
that in the year 1 267, at the time of the rising in the Isle of Ely, 
King Henry III came to Cambridge with a large army and 
then "caused gates to be built and ditches to be made encircling 
the town." From this !t has been inferred in numerous books 
about Cambridge that the King's Ditch was then first con- 
structed, and it is generally supposed that it took its name 
from Henry III. There is no warrant for this view of the 
matter. The Ditch did not take its name from Henry III or 
any particular King of England. It was called the King's 
Ditch because, like the river, which was similarly described as 
" the King's water," it was not controlled by the townsmen 
and belonged to the seignory of the Crown-. As we have seen 
already (p. xv) there was another King's Ditch at Cambridge 
on the eastern side of the river and reaching from the back 
of King's College to the neighbourhood of the Library at 
Trinity College, which certainly was not made by Henry III, 
but had an origin earlier than his reign: and there was yet a 
third King's Ditch on the northern side of the river of which we 
shall presently have to speak. Both these latter watercourses 
were navigable, as the better known Ditch never was. 

The statement in the Liber Menioraiidoruvi of Barnwell 
can only be accepted in the sense that King Henry III repaired 
and restored gates and ditches already existing. The gates in 
question came to be known as Barnwell Gates, near St Andrew's 
church, and Trumpington Gates, near St Botolph's, Deeds 
belonging to early years of the thirteenth centurv- refer to both 
these gates as then existing, and the church of St Peter (now 
Little St Mary) was known as St Peter's Outside Trumpington 

' Libir i^Iiinoratidoriim (Clark), p. 122. 

* "It may be much doubted whether the walls, ditches, streets and open 
spaces of the borough were held by the burgesses. They were still the king's 
walls, ditches and streets, and he who encroached upon them committed a pur- 
presture against the king." Pollock and Maitland, History 0/ English Law, i. 
P- 635. 

H. £ 


Gates long before 1267. Similarly the Ditch on the southern 
side of the town was clearly in existence in 1215 : for in that 
year King John ordered pa}'ment to be made out of the Ex- 
chequer for expenses incurred by the townsmen in enclosing 
the town. Moreover the /bssaliau of Cambridge is mentioned 
in a King's writ of 1250', 

It is indeed not unlikely that the making of the King's Ditch 
is to be referred to a time immeasurably earlier than the thir- 
teenth century, and that its original design was not the defence 
of Cambridge town, which perhaps had not come into being 
when the Ditch was first made. It is not an unreasonable con- 
jecture that it originally served the same purpose as the great 
Dykes — the Fleam Dyke, the Devil's Ditch and the two Brant 
Ditches, all of which have their fosses on the south-western 
side, and were evidently constructed to bar the open chalk lands 
of eastern Cambridgeshire and Norfolk from enemies advancing 
from the southern Midlands. The river passage beneath the 
Castle Hill was a weakness in these defences, since it furnished 
a line of attack in the rear of the more southerly of them. This 
is not the place to discuss this hypothesis : but a fact which 
may be taken as giving it some support is that in the twelfth 
and earlier centuries there existed another fosse which can have 
had no significance except as barring the river passage. It 
began near the site of St John's College Library and skirting 
the north side of All Saints' churchyard joined the King's Ditch 
where it passed along Park Street. In this position a trench 
could have been no defence to the town and therefore was 
presumably older than the settlement on the southern side of 
the river. As the King's Ditch left the two parishes of Little 
St Mary and St Andrew — both fairly populated in the thir- 
teenth century — without any defence on the southern and 
eastern sides of the town, it is a natural inference that it was 
made before those parishes formed a part of the inhabited 

The course of the King's Ditch is clearly traced in the 
plans of Lyne and Hamond. Except where it was crossed by 

' Priory of St KaJc-giittii (OrO-y), p. 34, ;w/^. 


roads it is shown as an open watercourse. But in Lyne's plan 
it begins where Luttburne Lane (Free School Lane) joins 
Dowdivers Lane (Pembroke Street), and Hamond represents 
that, at least above ground, it did not reach westward as far 
as Trumpington Gates, though he shows its continuation in Mill 
Lane as far as the river. Evidently the section of the Ditch 
between the Gates and Luttburne Lane was covered in before 
Lyne's da}' ( 1 574) and houses were built over it in the triangular 
space between Botolph Lane and Pembroke Streets From 
Luttburne Lane the Ditch was carried along the northern side 
of Pembroke Street, forming the southern boundary of the 
grounds of the Austin Friars. Then diverging from the street 
it crossed Slaughter Lane (Corn Exchange Street), where it 
traversed the Fair Yard (St Andrew's Hill), and passing 
through open grounds along what is now Tibb's Row and 
skirting the northern side of St Andrew's churchyard, reached 
Barnwell Gates. Thence it passed along the north side of Walls 
Lane (Hobson Street), traversed the close of the Grey Friars, 
and crossed Jesus Lane in a culvert which \va.s discovered in 
1S94 and still exists-. Thence it took the line of the present 

* In C.A.S. Comm. and Proc. xi. there is an excellent paper by Mr T. D. 
Atkinson, On a Survey of the King's Ditch made in i62g, with a contemporary 
surveyor's di.\c:ram. The diagram represents the Ditch as beginning at Pembroke 
Hall, for it was there that the water from Trumpington Ford was brought into it 
in 1610. The surveyor states that the fall of the Ditch between Pembroke Hall 
and its outlet op[K)5ite Magdalene College was fifteen feet : but it is unlikely that 
in Mill l.aiie the Ditch was of that depth. In his Communication Mr Atkinson 
s.iys that the Ditch "ran up" Mill Lane and "ran down ' Pembroke Lane, which 
is. an accura'.e statement as regards the course of the trench, but clearly does not 
ap;>ly to the water. The survey of 1629 was right in making the Ditch begin in 
Pembroke I-anc, for there its level was highest. The water from Trumpington 
Kurd at present is carried along either side of Trumpington Street. On the one 
side it is discharged into the Mill Pool above Queens' College, on the other at 
the Electric Works opposite Magdalene College. Formerly there was a single 
channel which flowed in the middle of the street : but by " stanks" at the crossing 
of Trumpington Street with Mill I^ane and Pembroke Street it seems that it was 
diverted in either direction. Before the water from Trumpington Ford was intro- 
duced into the Ditch it would seem that such flow as there was was supplied by 
the surface water of the low ground through which the Ditch passed. 

" C.A.S. Comm. and Proc. ix. p. 33, On a Bridge over the Kiii^s Ditch 
(.\tkinson). At the angle formed by Hobson Street and King Street there was a 
chain bridge known as Wall> Lane Bridge. 



Park Street, skirtinc^ the grounds of Jesus College until it 
reached the point where Park Street turns southwards towards 
Midsummer Common, and discharged itself in the river nearly 
opposite the Pepysian Library of Magdalene College. There 
is no record of the dates when the various sections of the Ditch 
were covered in. In Loggan's plan there is no indication of it 
in Hobson Street and in the part between Thompson's Lane 
and the river. 

As a defence of the town the Ditch was totally inadequate. 
Only a few months after it was repaired, in 1267, the insurgents 
from the Isle of Ely assaulted the town, fording the Ditch and 
burning the Gates. A deed of the latter part of the thirteenth 
century describes a tenement in St Botolph's parish as situated 
next Trumpington Gates^ and the church of St Peter, until it 
was re-dedicated, about 1349, to St Mary, in order to distinguish 
it from St Peter's church near the Castle, was known as 
St Peter's Outside Trumpington Gates. But neither of the town 
Gates is mentioned as existing after 1 267, and it is to be doubted 
whether they were ever re-constructed. Dr Caius mentions that 
within his recollection a post existed marking the position of 
Barnwell Gates, and the accounts of the Town Treasurer in 
14SS — 9 mention a "vowght," or vault, at St Andrew's stulpes-. 
"Stulp" was the name for a boundary post, and Stow mentions 
"stulpes" as existing at the boundary of Bridge Ward Within, 
next London Bridge. Presumably the "stulpes " were not a 
part of the original Gates. The "vowght" was clearly the arched 
passage through which the Ditch was carried under the street 
near St Andrew's church. 

The Ditch fell into disrepair almost immediately after 1267. 
In February of the following year the King decided that it 
should be cleansed and kept open "as of old time it was used^" 
which is evidence that it was not then newly constructed. The 
Ditch being the King's, the Town authorities held themselves 
under no obligation to repair and cleanse it, unless the King 
issued a writ compelling them to do so. In 127S, when the 

' Stokes, Outside Triiinpingtcn Gates, pp. 2, 3. 

' See a letter (A. Gray) in the Cambridge Chronicle, Oct. 26, 1894. 

* Cooper, A finals, i. p. 51. 


King issued a commission to enquire into Crown rights and 
revenues in Cambridge, they reported that the Ditch was neg- 
lected and that individuals had made encroachments on its 
banks. As the receptacle of the common filth of the town it 
became a nuisance and constant source of epidemic. It was 
hurriedly cleansed in 1348, when the town was menaced by the 
invasion of the Black Deaths In the border of Lyne's plan 
allusion is made to Dr Perne's project (1574) of purging it by 
bringing into it the water from Trumpington Ford: but the pro- 
posal was not adopted until 16 10, and the surveyor's report in 
1629 shows that even this expedient was not effectual owing 
to the inequality of the level of the Ditch and the consequent 
deposit of sediment. 

The Ditch, in the parts where it is traceable, followed the 
line of natural depressions extending from Pembroke College 
to its outlet. As its original purpose was defence it was ill 
adapted for drainage and, until 16 10, there were no means of 
flushing it. The late Professor Hughes was of opinion that in 
early times it was fed by surface water from the marshy ground 
of St Thomas' Leys, near Downing College. 

On the northern side of the river there was another ditch, 
which in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was also known 
as the King's Ditch and sometimes by the curious name of 
Cambrigge, or "the Cambridge watercourse"." It is not shown 
in Fuller's, or Hamond's plan, and at the place where it crossed 
Magdalene Street Lyne marks a grating in the road, and in 
the lower right hand corner explains the letter T with which 
he designates it as " the iron grating where formerly was the 
bridge called Canteber from (King) Canteber, whence the name 
Cantcbrigia." About the year 1278 when King Edward I was 
enquiring into the boundaries of the Castle.the jurors appointed 
to make the survey described this watercourse as " the old 
fossatum," and, as they passed through it in their perambulation, 
it was apparently then nearly dry. In the same reign the 
Barnwell chronicler reports that an aged palmer-pilgrim said 

' Cooper, Annals, i. p. loo. 
* Arch. Hist., ii. pp. 355—357. 


that he remembered that "ships" came up it almost to St Giles' 

church. This watercourse, in part at least artificial, began at j 

the Binn Brook, near the School of Pythagoras, and joined the j 

river at a little distance eastward of the Pepysian Library of 1 

Magdalene College. Its purpose was clearly to guard the river | 

passage at the ford or bridge, and its construction may perhaps j 

be referred to times before the Norman Conquests j 

* For accounts of the Cambridge Watercourse see C.A.S. Comvi. and Proc. \ 

ix.pp.6i — 76, The IVatercotirse called Cambridge (A.Gray), and xv. pp. 178 — 191, 
Excavations at Magdalene College (F. G. Walker). 


O O O .-' 



— - I— "n 

Univ, Arms Hotel 

R. C. Church 












The town of Cambridge lies upon a line which, on the 
whole, separates the resistant chalk on the south-east from the 
soft clay on the north-west, and accordingly we find relatively 
high chalk-hills to the east of the town, and the low-lying 
fenland occupying the site of the clay-lands to the north and 
north-west. There is hjwever a tract of high ground occupied 
by chalk and other rocks to the south-west and west. The 
town, therefore, is situated on the first place where high ground 
occurs on either side of the river as we approach from the sea. 
This in itself might well determine the position of an important 
settlement. Furthermore, as the river can cut its bed more 
readily in the soft clay than in the more resistant chalk, the 
navigable tract is confined to that portion of the stream which 
has run for some time over the former deposit, and the town 
originated at the head of this navigable expanse of the river. 
It is a commonplace in geography that in the case of a large 
number of rivers two important towns occur: — one, the port, 
at the river-mouth, and the other at the head of the navigable 

It should be noticed also that w^hen a river has eroded its 
channel to such an extent as to possess a sluggish course, the 
stream tends to meander. This the Cam has done in the 
vicinity of Cambridge, and the town is situated in the loop 
formed by the most important of these meanders, which forms 
an arc between Coe Fen and Barnwell, with the middle of the 
bend at Magdalene Bridge. A town thus situated could readily 
be protected by stockade, earthwork, or ditch carried along 
the chord of the arc. 

Another important point about the site is that the old town 
was built upon gravel, w-hich furnishes a dry site, above the 
land liable to be flooded, and yields a ready supply of water 
from shallow wells. 

It is improbable that all these conditions were in the minds 
of those who first established themselves upon this site, but 


they may well have been factors in the growth of the settle- 
ment into a place of importance. 

When we turn to the consideration of the geological con- 
ditions of the area occupied by the town itself, we find that 
the subject is not so simple. 

Four distinct geological formations appear in the area re- 
presented upon the maps. The oldest of these is the gault-clay 
of the Cretaceous Period, which underlies the superficial 
deposits everywhere except upon the Castle Hill. On the 
gault which forms the base of that hill is a patch of chalk also 
of Cretaceous age, being part of an outlying mass separated 
from the main mass of chalk to the east by the gault of the 
Cam valley. Resting upon the gault over a considerable part 
of the area are superficial deposits, namely the gravels of 
comparatively recent geological date, which also occur in 
patches on the chalk of the Castle Hill, and lastly, the alluvium 
or modern flood-deposits of the river forming a belt along the 

The gault-clay appears at the surface (i.e. underneath the 
soil and subsoil) in a strip of ground extending northward 
from the south end of Parker's Piece to Midsummer Common, 
but elsewhere on the right bank of the river, this clay is hidden 
by superficial deposits of gravel and alluvium, both laid down 
by the river, the former at a somewhat remote period, the 
latter more recently. 

On the left bank the conditions are different. The gravel 
forms a very narrow strip north-west of Magdalene Bridge, 
and the older (Cretaceous) deposits appear at the surface higher 
up the hill. The high ground of Castle Hill is determined by 
the resistant chalk capped by gravel, while the gault-clay 
comes to the surface lower down the hill in Castle Street, but 
owing to the steep slope of the valley-side at this place, the 
ground is suitable for habitation. 

It would appear, therefore, that the two sites suitable for 
occupation at an early period were the gravelly tract occupying 
the higher parts of generally low-l\'ing ground of the loop on 
the east side of the river, and the high ground on which Castle 


Street is now situated, extending from Magdalene Bridge to 
the hill-top at Castle End, and bounded by lower ground 
everywhere except to the north-west. 

Each of these sites was suitable for protection. That on 
the left bank is at the end of a promontory of high ground in 
direct communication with an elevated country lying westward 
and south-westward. 

The promontory ends eastward at the river, and could 
readily be protected by earthworks across it about the position 
of the Castle. 

That on the right bank as already seen was partly sur- 
rounded by the river-loop and only required protection by 
works along the chord of the arc. 

The geological conditions on the left bank are, as we have 
seen, comparatively simple. Those of the tract occupied by 
the town east of the river are more complex, and require 
further consideration. 

These conditions have been very fully described by the 
late Professor Hughes in a paper read before the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society ^ Much of the following account is 
largely based upon the contents of that paper. 

The area east of the river represented on the maps is 
occupied by three geological formations, running in a general 
north and south direction, the newest being on the western 
side. On the east is the strip of gault-clay already mentioned 
as extending from Parker's Piece to Midsummer Common. 

Parker's Piece and Christ's Pieces are situated upon this 
ground, and further north it occupies part of Butt's Green. 
This clay-tract is damp low-lying ground, clearly unsuited for 

Its western margin starts near the south-western corner of 
Gonville Place, and extends along the south-west side of 
Parker's Piece, parallel to and a very short distance from 
Regent Street and St Andrew's Street, to the east end of 
Christ's Lane. It then bends round to take a more north- 

* T. McK. Hughes, "Superficial Deposits under Cambridge," Proc. Cantb. 
ArJiq. Soc, xi. (1907), p. 393. 


easterly direction across King Street to Butt's Green and 
finally to the river. 

To the west of this is the area occupied by gravel, which 
is undoubtedly responsible for the site of the populous part of 
the ancient town. 

Most of this area is relatively high, but there are local 
variations of some importance, to which reference will presently 
be made. 

To the west and north of the gravel-covered area is the 
narrow strip of river-alluvium, lying at a low level, largely liable 
to floods in former times, and without modification, unsuitable 
for habitation. Parts of it are now relatively dry owing to 
artificial raising to which attention will be presently directed, 
and also no doubt owing to artificial changes in the river 
course which lay along the alluvial flat in channels different 
from that at present occupied, as shown by the Master of Jesus 
in a paper in the Proceedings of the Cambridge A ntiquaria7i 

On either side of the Cam the alluvial flat is bounded by 
lines running generally parallel to the river and at no great 
distance from it. From Sheep's Green to Magdalene Bridge, 
the river lies near the eastern side of the alluvium, but near the 
bridge the stream crosses the belt, and flows along its northern 
side to a point near the north-eastern limit of the maps. 

The line separating gravel from alluvium on the right bank 
of the Cam differs on the Geological Survey Map and on the 
plan accompanying Professor Hughes' paper, being drawn 
further from the river in the latter. This is no doubt due to the 
frequent opportunities afforded to the Professor of examining 
excavations formed after the publication of the Survey map, for 
much of the higher ground mapped as gravel by the Surveyors 
is shown to consist of made-ground overlying the alluvium. 

The alluvial tract and the lowest part of the ground occupied 
by gravel, which passes under the alluvium, was in its natural 
condition unsuitable for buildings, and the ancient town did 

^ A. Gray, "On the Watercourse called Cambridge in relation to the river 
Cam and Cambridge Castle," Free. Camb. Antiq. Soc. ix. (1896], p. 6i. 


not encroach upon it. It was later utilised for the erection of 
monastic and collegiate buildings, and, as shown by Professor 
Hughes, the ground was extensively raised artificially for the 

We may turn now to the further consideration of the 
gravelly tract which was chosen for the early settlement on 
the east side of the river. 

The classification of the gravels according to age is fraught 
with difficulty. This however does not concern us. It is im- 
portant to note that the deposits grouped under the title of 
gravel vary in composition and degree of coarseness, the 
coarser gravel being sometimes replaced by fine sands and 
loams. The sands and loams would be more readily washed 
away than the gravels, giving rise to lower ground, and the 
loams would hold up the water, forming marshy tracts. 

Recent excavations in the grounds of the New Museums 
(Downing Site) showed the occurrence of much loam in the 
" gravels " of this place. Accordingly we find relatively low 
ground here which was in recent times of a swampy nature, 
and a depression extends from it past the Post Office to the 
river west of Jesus College. In Professor Hughes' plan, alluvium 
is represented as occupying the part of this valley towards the 
river, west of Jesus College. Along part of this valley the 
King's Ditch was cut. Professor Hughes suggests that "it is 
probable that the spur of gravel on which the ancient town 
was built was not quite continuous at the same level but that 
there was lower ground between the churches of St Peter (now 
St Mary the Less) and St Bene't along which the King's 
Ditch was taken without the necessity of making any con- 
siderable excavation except close to St Peter's^" 

To the east of the little valley extending from the Downing 
site to the river is higher ground occupied by gravel, which 
separates the valley from the low ground of gault-clay on 
which the Pieces stand. This gravelly tract extends from the 
eastern corner of Lensfield Road along Regent Street past 
Emmanuel College. 

^ Hughes, loc. cit. p. 411. 



On the western side of the valley is another gravel tract, 
again of moderately elevated ground. This tract is of high 
importance to us. North of the low ground occupied by the 
western end of the King's Ditch it extends northward between 
the little valley on the east and the Cam on the west as far as 
Magdalene Bridge. On the comparatively high and dry ground 
of this tract ancient Cambridge east of the river was built. 

The geology and physical features of that part of the old 
town which lay upon the western side of the river have already 
been considered. It only remains to state that the portion of 
the maps which represented the ground on the west side of the 
Cam on the site of the Backs and further westward is occupied 
by alluvium over the greater part of the College grounds, but 
that an important gravel terrace rises behind the alluvium, 
extending from Magdalene Bridge to Newnham, widening out 
in a southerly direction. A similar terrace is seen on the 
Chesterton bank oppositeMidsummerCommon. Theseterraces 
give rise to habitable ground, but this was outside the bound- 
aries of ancient Cambridge, and has only recently been built 
upon, along the greater part of its length, though the village 
of Newnhami no doubt owes its position to the gravel terrace, 
as do the villages of Barnwell and Chesterton to the terraces 
lower down the river. 

Cambridge itself probably originated as a similar village 
or villages, but owing to the physical and geological conditions 
briefly outlined above, outstripped its neighbours, and grew 
by degrees into the important town which it has become. 



a. The University 

The arms of the University are figured by Lyne and by 
Hamond. The former's figure is blurred and incorrect; and 
the latter omits the book from 
the middle of the cross. They 
were granted to the Universit}' 
by Robert Cooke, Clarencieux 
King of Arms, 2 June, 1573 
(fig. i). They are: gules, on a 
cross ermine betzveen four lions 
passant gardant or, a book gules. 

b. The Town 

I. Arms of University, 1573'. 

In the plans of Lyne and 
Hamond the arms of the Uni- 
versity are balanced by those 
of the Town. In Lyne's plan 
they appear beneath the word 
OPPIDI; in Hamond's beneath the words /^z/r^/^'j- Canteb. In 
both plans the shield is charged with a tall castellated building 
of polygonal form flanked by two circular towers, apparently 
intended to represent Cambridge Castle; but, according to 
a grant of arms, crest, and supporters made to the Town by 
Robert Cooke, Clarencieux King of Arms, 7 June, 1575, the 
device in question was understood to represent a bridge, the 
device shown on the early seals of the Town and the Mayor- 
alty (figs. 2, 3)-. In the words of the grant "they haue not 
only vsed in the same seale the portraiture of a Bridg but also 

' This shield, and the others whicli occur in our text, are borrowed (unless 
otherwise stated) from a paper by W. H. St John Hope, M.A., in Camb. Atit. 
Soc. Proc. and Cofiitn. vol. viii. (N.S. ii.), no. xxxv. pp. 107 — 133. 

'■' These figures are borrowed from a paper by T. D. Atkinson, Esq., in Catnb. 
Ant. Soc. Proc. a7zd Comrn. vol. x. (N.S. iv. no. XLII. pp. 124, 127). 


made shew therof in coollers being no perfect armes in such 
place and tyme as by the magistrates of the said Towne and 
Borough was thought most mete and convenient." Cooke 
accordingly proceeds to grant to them : " Gules a B^-idg, in 
chcif a Jiowcrdcluce gold betiveii two Roses sihier on a point 
wane thre Boatcs sables, A nd to the crcast vppon the heahne on 
a wreath gold and gules on a inoicnt vert a Bridg siluer vian- 
teled gules doblcd siluer the amies supported by two Neptune's 
horses the vpper part gules the nether part proper finned gold as, 
more play nly appeareth'^ depicted in the viargent'-l' 

Fig. 2. Common Seal, i4'23. 

Fig. 3. Mayor's Seal, in use 1352. 

These arms are shown on Speed's plan, 1610, Loggan's 
1688, and Custance's 1798, but without the supporters and 
ti^e crest. This latter, intended for a bridge, is obviously de- 
rived from the castle on the plans of Lyne and Hamond. 

' Thi.N word is conjectural. In the grant it is written "apped." 

' From the original grant, for the loan of which I have to thank W. P. 

.'Spalding. Esq., Mayor of Cambridge, and J. E. L. Whitehead, M.A., Town Clerk. 

The is printed at length in Cooper, Annals, ii. 330. 




This plan of Cambridge, so far as I have been able 
to discover, is the earliest in existence. It is signed 
and dated in the left hand lower corner, Ric'' Lvne 
SCULPSIT. A" Dx\i 1574. The Dictionary of National 
Biography (s.v.) states that Lyne was one of the en- 
gravers employed by Archbishop Parker ; and on a 
genealogical chart engraved by him for Alexander 
Neville's tract De Fiiroribus Noifolcensiiwi Ketto Dnce, 
1 575, he describes himself as "servant {serzms) to Arch- 
bishop Parker." I cannot, however, find any authority 
for the statement, often made, that our plan was drawn 
and engraved at Parker's expense'. I admit, of course, 
the presence of Parker's arms upon it. 

We find it occasionally bound up with a copy of the 
IIist07'ia Cantebrigicnsis AcadcniicE, by John Caius", first 
published in 1574; but a careful study of that work has 
not revealed the slightest reference to the plan, and I 
therefore see no reason for believing that it was specially 
drawn to illustrate it. 

The plan is a bird's eye view, i6|- inches high by 
1 1-'- inches wide, includinof an ornam^ental border which 
encircles the whole plan. The spectator is supposed 
to be standing at the south end of the town. At the 
top, bottom and sides of the plan, the ornamental border 
is interrupted by a label, on which the points of the 

' Gough, British Tcpc^^rapJiy, i. 20S, note. 

• For instance, in llic University Library, Cambridge, and in the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford. 

H. I 


compass are written : septentrio, meridies, oriexs, 
occiDENS; and at the top, separated by the word sep- 
TENTRio, are two scrolls bearing respectively the words 
OPPiDVM and cantebrigi.e. In the right upper corner, 
occupying a space of about 4^- inches long, by 6 j; inches 
wide, including an ornamental border enriched with 
wreaths of fruit and flowers, is a descriptive note on 
Cambridge which I proceed to translate : 

Cambridge, a very famous city, called Cairgrant from the river 
which flows beside it, was styled Cantebrigia from Cantaber, a noble 
Spaniard, the first founder of the University rather than of the City ; 
Grauntecestre by the Saxons ; and in times now past Grantebrige. 
The river, retaining to the present day its ancient nanie, prolongs 
a very lengthy course to the sea, with curving banks that sweep from 
south to north. The city, immortalising the name and memory- of the 
Founder, preserves a University dignity which is even more illustrious 
than that of old. 

History records that it was formerly surrounded by a wall, which 
was destroyed, together with the ancient appearance of the city, in 
the wars with the Picts, the Saxons, and the Danes. Henr}' the 
Third, King of England, about the year of our Lord 1265, fortified 
Cambridge with a ditch and gates. He was at that time defending 
himself here against the depredations and raids of outlaws who were 
holding the Isle of Ely. He would then have girt it about with a 
wall once more, had not Gilbert, Earl of Clare, occupied London in 
his absence, so that he was compelled to take steps to avert a fresh 
disaster. Some trace of this Ditch, which from that period got the 
name of King's Ditch, is to be seen upon this map. So that which 
was in the first instance provided with the deepest and broadest ex- 
cavations for the delimitation and defence of the city, is now found 
convenient for the cleansing of dirt from the streets^ and for washing 
filth into the Granta. If the men of Cambridge would unite their 
resources, and cause the brook which runs by Trumpington P'ord to 
wash this Ditch, no city would be more elegant than Cambridge; and 
the remembrance of such an achievement would not only be grateful 
to posterity, but agreeable and advantageous to themselves. 

It is worth noting that Andrew Perne, D.D., Master 
of Peterhouse, and Vice Chancellor, wrote a letter to 


Lord Burghley dated 21 November in this year on the 
subject of the f)lague. After ascribing the prevalence 
of it at Cambridge partly to infection, partly to "the 
corruption of the King's dytch," he proceeds to make 
the same suggestion as the writer of the above para- 
graph : 

I do send to your honor a brief note of such as have died of the 
plage in Cambridge hitherto, with a mappe of Cambridge, the which 
I did first make principally for this cause, to shewe howe the water 
that Cometh from Shelford to Trumpingtonford and from thence nowe 
doth passe to y^ Mylles in Cambridge, as appearith by a blewe line 
drawne in the said mappe to Trumpingtonford (withowte any como- 
ditie) might be conveighed...into the King's Ditch, the which waie as 
appearith by a red lyne drawne from the said Trumpingtonford to the 
King's Ditch, for the perpetual scouringe of the same, the which 
would be a singuler benefite for the healthsomnes both of the Uni- 
versitie and of the Towne, besides other comodities that might arise 
thereby \ 

It would be interesting to know whether the para- 
graph on the plan was inserted with the intention of 
supporting this particular scheme ; and if so, whether 
Dr Perne, or Archbishop Parker, or both, were re- 
sponsible for it. A supply of wholesome water was not 
brought to Cambridge until 16 10'. 

At a little distance to the left of this tablet are the 
royal arms, France and England quarterly, encircled by 
the garter and surmounted by a crown. Beneath are the 
arms of Archbishop Parker, separating the words I\L\t. 
Cant. 1 he presence of these arms upon the map gives 
colour to the view that Lyne was specially connected 
with the archbishop. 

In the left lower corner above the author's name and 
date, as already noticed, are the arms of the University 

^ Cooper, A/Dia/s, ii. 323. • Ibid. iii. 36. 

I 2 


and the Town. These are described in the Introduc- 

In the right lower corner are two Hsts of Hostels : 
the one for students in Arts, the other for students in 

HosPiTiA Arcistarum 

A Kinges Hall 

B Michaell howse 

C Physwicke Ostell 

D Gregorye Ostell 

E Garett Ostell 

F S' Marie Ostell 

G S' Austines Ostell' 

H Bernarde Ostell 

I S' Thomas Ostell 

K Buttolph Ostell 


L Ouins Inn 

M Paules Inn'- 

N Clemens Ostell 

O Trinitie Ostell 

P S' iNicholas Ostell 

Q Burden Ostell 
R Domus Pythagoras 
S D S'^ Bedcx 

T Crates ferrea ubi olim pons Canteber a Cantebro, 
unde Cantebrioria. 


' The letter of reference for this hostel has been omitted on the plan, perhaps 
intentionally. It stood on the S. side of King's College, and was fitted up as a 
pensionary in 1574. 

"^ Dr Caius describes St Paul's Inn as "not far from St Michael's Church, 
towards the north, facing the market place." 


These Hostels are all included in the list given by 
DrCaius, except King-'s Hall and Michael House, which 
were not Hostels but Colleges and had been included 
in Trinity College by Henry VI H. Those included 
in his list, but omitted on the plan, are the Hostels of 
S. Margaret and S. Catherine, Tyler's Inn, Harleston 
Inn, God'"^ House, and Rudd's Hostel. The three first 
had been included in Trinity College before the plan 
was drawn ; the omission of Harleston Inn, an important 
Hostel near the Great Bridge, is not easy to explain ; 
God's House had been absorbed in Christ's Colleo^e ; 
and for Rudd's Hostel, now part of the Castle Inn, 
opposite to Emmanuel College, there was no room on 
the plan\ 

Professor Willis, who had studied Lyne's plan with 
great care, wrote of it as follows : 

"This plan is drawn without reference to scale, pro- 
portion, or relative position of buildings, and therefore 
requires to be employed with great distrust and caution, 
as may easily be shown by comparing King's College 
Chapel, S. Mary's Church, Queens' College, or any other 
of the buildings that have not been altered since it was 
drawn, with their real proportion and position, 

"The representations of buildings in plans of this 
description, at this early period, are never to be trusted 
as exhibiting either the exact proportions, or the exact 
portraits, of the structures. They are conventional 
figures with a slight resemblance. The best mode of 
understanding them is to compare some of the figures 
with the actual remains. Thus, the flank of King's 
College Chapel between the turrets is drawn as high 

* On the subjects of Hostels see Arch. Hist. i. pp. xix— xxviii, where a full 
list of them is given. 


as it is long, whereas, actually, the length is to the 
height as three to one. Again, the height of the angle- 
turrets, as there drawn, is to their breadth as six to 
one, whereas it is in reality as eight to one. Moreover, 
ten windows are shown instead of twelve. And yet this 
part of the plan evidently assumes to be more of a 
portrait than the rest. All the quadrangles of the colleges 
are drawn as perfectly rectangular, and the buildings 
that compose them have the windows dotted in in rows, 
in a 'quincunx' order, with little gablets above, all alike, 
and with no indications of the large windows of hall or 
chapel, with the sole exceptions of Trinity College and 
King's College. Even the old quadrangle of King's 
College is square, and its north side extends behind 
the Schools in a range of chambers. In reality, how- 
ever, this court was of an irregular figure, and the north 
side was occupied by a low hall and offices. Here and 
there a College gateway is indicated ; as, for example, 
of Christ's College, Jesus College, and Trinity College. 
The stair-turret of Peterhouse is greatly exaggerated. 
Trinity College, from the straggling, unfinished posi- 
tion of its ranges of chambers has led to an attempt to 
show their position more minutely, and also that of the 
chapel, but in a manner exceedingly perplexing. 

"The parish churches are similarly all represented 
in a conventional form; and are all alike, except Great 
S. Mary's, which, being the principal church, is roughly 
portrayed. ^Moreover, there is an attempt to give a 
circular form to the Round Church. Both coHefjes and 
churches, however, are drawn on a larger scale than that 
employed for the plan of the town ; and thus occupy 
more space, and approach more closely together, than 
they do in reality. The outskirts of the town, on the 


other hand, are drawn on a contracted scale, for the sake 
of crowding in details\" 

Notwithstanding these defects the plan is still a 
valuable record. It gives the ancient names of many 
streets, lanes, and places ; and, in the case of buildings, 
is occasionally useful as a witness of their existence, 
though it cannot be trusted for their extent or dimen- 

It is neither necessary nor desirable to describe such 
a plan as this with the minuteness required for some 
of the others, as for instance, for that of Hamond. On 
the other hand there are many points in it to which I 
wish to draw attention — if only eis an introduction to the 
rest of the series. The River and the Castle have been 
described already in the Introduction; and, further, I 
intend to defer most of my references to the history of 
particular structures until I reach the better illustrations 
of them furnished by Hamond. Nevertheless, I feel 
that I should not be treating this venerable relic of the 
sixteenth century with due respect if I did not conduct 
my reader throus^h it, as if he were a stranger visitine 
the town ; and, as it is intended to be looked at from 
the lower or southern end of Cambridge, let us begin 
with the thoroughfare which even then was called Triun- 
pini:^to}i Strcafe. On our right is Spittle ende, a name 
derived from a Lazar House, termed " Hospital of 
S. Anthony and S. Eligius," which faced the modern 
Scroope Terrace. North of the buildings of this Hospital 
we see the word Chanons written beside a small enclosure 
surrounded by a wall. Within this enclosure is a small 
chapel-like building, facing the street. This enclosure 
is evidently the close popularly known as " Chanons 

^ Arch. Hist. i. p. xcviii. 


Close," and the building is intended to represent the 
House and Chapel of the White Canons of S. Gilbert 
of Sempringham, who were established here in 1290'. 
Part of Addenbrooke's Hospital now occupies this site. 
Eastward of Chanons Close is Sioinecrofte, to which 
the author of the plan draws attention by the picture 
of a boar-pig, but Dr Stokes derives the name from 
Peter Swyn, who appears in the Hundred Rolls as the 
owner of a messuage in this neio^hbourhood. For the 
houses between Chanons Close and Pembroke Hall, in- 
cluding S. Thomas' Hostel (I), I will refer my readers 
to Dr Stokes. Eastward of the Hostel is the open 
pasture called from it S' ThoDias Lecse. 

Penb^'oke hall is represented conventionally. East- 
ward of the quadrangle is a small piece of ground ex- 
tending as far as a lane entered over a stile from the 
thoroughfare north of the College. This is the lane 
called Vcnclla versus le Swine croft now absorbed in 
Pembroke College. Eastward of it is a large enclosure. 
on the north side of which is a strip lettered Pascall 
close. On the east of the ground trees are shown, with 
a building probably intended to represent a pigeon- 
house. Pascal Close, or Pascal Yard, beloneed to a 
charity in Great S. Mary's Church, and its leases were 
charged with the obligation of providing a candle there 
from Easter to the eve of the Ascension. It did not 
become the property of Pembroke till 1833. The 
orchard to the south side of it, an acre in extent, was 
bought by the Foundress in 1363'. 

^ I- or my knowledge of this part of Cambridge I am indebted to my friend 
Dr Stokes, who in his OittsiJe the Tnanpington Gates (Camb. Ant. Soc. 8vo. 
Publ. Xo. xi.iv) has thrown a flood of light on many topographical difhcuhies. 
For the White Canons and Spital End, see Chapters Vll, viii. 

- Arch. Hist. i. pp. 122, 124, 125. 


On the west side of Trumpington Street is Petcr- 
Jioiusc. It is represented conventionally, like Pembroke 
College, with a complete quadrangle, though the east 
side was never built. The houses between the College 
and the street may be taken to represent the original 
hostels, which were not pulled down till i632\ The 
preposterous size of the Master's tower has been already 
noticed. His garden is shown extending as far as the 
door opening into the through-passage at the west end 
of the Hall. Note the stile by which the ground west 
of the College is entered, and the wall next the fen. 
North of Peterhouse is a buildincf intended for the 
church of S. Mary the Less". It stands in a large en- 
closure with entrances at the N. W. and S. E. corners. 
The latter entrance existed until 1 734. We shall return 
to Peterhouse when describing Hamond's plan, Sheet 7. 

North of S.Mary'sChurch is a thoroughfare intended 
for Little S. Mary's Lane, though drawn of about the 
same width as ?vlill Lane which succeeds it; and beyond 
the latter is the block of houses of which the University 
Press now forms part, drawn of an absurdly small size. 
North of these is the street (now called Silver Street) 
leading to the bridge. 

Proceeding along Trumpington Street, on the east 
side, we have first ButtolpJi Ostcll\ originally a hostel 
for students in Arts, but since 1466 leased by Pembroke 
College as a pensionary. It was separated by Penny 
farthing lane from the churchyard of 6". Bnttolph — be- 
yond which wxitPcrnardc OsUlP, Benett Coll. or Corpus 
Christi College, and the parish Church of S. Benett. 

* Arch. Hist. i. p]>. 31. 32. 

" Historical details respecting the parish churches are deferred till we reach 
Hamond's more accurate representations of them. 
' Arch. Hist. i. p. xxv. 


Behind these buildings is Luttbiirne lane (now Free- 
School Lane) closed by a stile at its north end. On the 
east side of this lane is a piece of ground of irregular 
shape, bounded on the south by the King's Ditch. Part 
of it is lettered Augustine frier's, and a large quadrangle 
is shown, which may be intended for that of the Friars, 

On the opposite, or west side of Trumpington Street 
are several large houses, behind which is a quadrangle 
lettered Katherine hall. South of this, at the corner of 
Mill streate, is a plot of garden ground, which represents 
the original site of Queens' College. Opposite Katherine 
hall'^x^ the two quadrangles of Queens' College, but no 
attempt has been made to indicate their relative size. 
The towers of the gate of entrance are shown. Beyond. 
to the north, is the site of the Carmelites or White 
Friers, extending to Cholis lane. From Queens' College 
we regain Trumpington Street by walking along Plott 
and Nuts la7ie, usually termed King's Lane. 

King's College, as it appeared at the end of the 
sixteenth century, will be described when we come to 
Hamond's plan; as regards Lyne's we will merely point 
out the confusion into which he has fallen by placing 
the chapel far too near the southern limit of the site. 
This done, so little space was left to him that the bridge, 
which ought to have been nearly in the middle of the 
river bank between Cholis Lane and Clare College, is 
close to the lane; and it obviously must carry with it 
the ground planted with trees on the left bank, which 
was part of King's College grounds, but is treated by 
Lyne as thoucrh it belono^ed to Oueens' Colleofe. 

Opposite to King's College is S' Edivard's Church, 
with the narrow S. Edward's Lane to the south of it, 
represented as a broad thoroughfare. If we pass along 


it, we reach first the block of houses which stood east- 
ward of the church, and were not entirely removed till 
1874 ; and secondly, the Pease uiarkett. If, instead 
of entering this, we turn to the left, we presently reach 
Market Wai-de, and the Market Cross. Lyne has 
preserved to us the appearance of this 
ancient cross, which was altered in 1 587. /Tfi 

Mr Atkinson, whose enlargement of 
Lyne's figure we reproduce, tells us that 

the cross "was raised on a flio^ht of stone 

^ I — - _j 

steps, and was protected by a lead- 
covered roof, supported by columns probably of wood." 
When the roof was removed the cross was left intact, 
as shown by Hamond, Sheet 9. The following extracts 
from the Town Treasurer's accounts illustrating the 
changes are here noted. 

1564. Expenses. To y*^ Painter for payntinge y'^ market Crosse, 

xv^ iiij*^. 
To y^ Plomer for mendinge y® leads about y^ 

crosse, iiij^ 
1569- », For xxiiij''. of leade, xv". of soder, and ij bushels 

of coles occupied about the market crosse, xj'. 
^5^7- )i For takinge y^ leade of y^ crosse and for carryinge 

the same, and for watchinge it the night before 

it was taken downe, and for takinge downe the 

tymber, iij^ iiij^^. 
A'tiYi/>/s. Of Thomas Metcalf for y*^ old wood of the crosse, 


From J/arket IVarde we enter the Market Jiill, or 
Market Place'-". The market, with the adjoining church 
of S. Mary the Great, are better shown by Hamond, 
Sheet 9. We will therefore say no more about them in 
this place. 

' Atkinson's Camiridi^e, p. 66; Cooper, Annals, ii. pp. 20S, 244, 450. 
^ Alilennan Newton writes of "the Hill against the Rose tavern." Diary, ^.loi. 
[C.A.S. 8vo. Publications, xxni.] 


Opposite to the church, on the west side o'i HcigJie 
Warde, or Trumpington Street, is Vniversitie sb'eei, 
made by Abp Parker in 1574, to provide direct access 
for the University from the Schools (here lettered Comon 
Schols) to Great S. Mary's Church, then used by the 
Senate on days of public ceremonial. Behind the Schools 
Quadrangle, is the Old Court of King's College very 
erroneously drawn (as Professor Willis has pointed out 
in the extract quoted above); and north of University 
Street is 5' Marie Ostcll (F), a hostel for arts-students 
close to Gonville and Caius College. 

In front of the Schools a thoroughfare is shown, to 
which Lyne assigns no name ; but, as it was of great 
antiquity, and is frequently mentioned in medieval deeds 
and conveyances, it must be briefly described. 

This thoroughfare, called School Street, or Scole lanes, opened 
into the main street of the town nearly opposite to the middle of the 
southern division of the burial-ground of Great S. Mary's Church. 
From this point the street extended westward to the south corner of 
the Schools, now the University Library, but in such a direction that 
had it been prolonged farther westward, it would have run under the 
south wall of the Schools. It turned, however, at a right angle, and 
extended northward, under the front wall of the Schools, to the Gate 
of Honour of Gonville and Caius College, which, as it was built 
expressly at the north termination of the street, serves as a landmark. 
It must be remembered that the modern front of the University 
Library is twenty feet in advance of the ancient front, and therefore 
covers the site of School Street. The portion of the present Senate 
House Passage which extends from the Gate of Honour to High 
Street, had no existence till the Senate House was built (1722 — 30) 
the site being occupied by S. Mary's Hostel. The western end of this 
passage, however, is of great antiquity, but has no specific name, being 
sometimes called the "lane under the garden of Gonville Hall," and 
sometimes "School lane," as a continuation of the other branches. 
These lanes, taken together, formed a zigzag communication from 
Trinity Hall to Great S. Mary's Church. The branch in front of the 
Schools was termed "North School Street"; that which joined the 


High Street, "East School Street" or "Glomery Lane," and in the 
seventeenth century it had acquired the name of S. Mary Lane^ 

On Lyne's plan the word Henney is written along 
the western prolongation of School Street. This word, 
of unknown signification, was applied to the district in 
which Trinity Hall is situated. There was also a lane, 
called Henney Lane, which bisected the site of Gonville 
Hall from east to west, and was prolonged across the 
site of Trinity Hall to the river. Gonville Hall absorbed 
in 1498 the portion in which it was interested; and Trinity 
Hall did the same by the rest in 1545. But I cannot 
help thinking that I.yne had this lane in mind when he 
wrote the word Henney where we see it on his plan. 

North of this lane some buildings are drawn which 
are marked in the plan as Caius and Gimzvell Colled^e. 
They are disposed round three courts, but the repre- 
sentation is entirely erroneous, and a tower-like structure 
which seems to be intended for the Gate of Honour, 
has wandered eastward to a point above the letter F. 

West of King's College and Gonville Hall is Mill 
strcaie, an important thoroughfare before Henry the 
Sixth bought the enlarged site for King's College; but, 
when Lyne's plan was drawn the street consisted, as now, 
of two fragments, the one opposite Queens' College, and 
the other in the district we are describing. The name 
is usually written Milne Street, from the King's Mill 
and Hishop's Mill, to which it provided direct access. 
When the number of lanes which led down to the river, 
and the number of hythes along its banks are considered, 
the importance of such a street will be recognised'. 

' Arch. Hist. i. .^iS. The description is by Professor Willis. 
' These lanes and hythes will be explained below as part of our descripiion of 
King's College (Il.imund's plan, sheet 9). 


Clare Hall and Trinitie Hall are shown as three 
quadrangles of almost equal size, with no distinctive 

Proceeding northwards along Mill Street we turn at 
rio-ht angles into Findcsihier lane, more usually called 
S. Michael's Lane or Trinity Lane, with Trinity College 
on our left. Ly ne's view of it is curious, and we will return 
to it in connection with Hamond's wonderful represen- 
tation of the great court as it was arranged before 
Dr Nevile's alterations. 

We will next consider the district, roughly triangular, 
of which the apex is at the junction oi Heighe IVaj-de and 
Brido-e strcatc, and the base is formed by Shcrers lane 
and Shoomakcr lane. The greater part of this district is 
shown as sparsely populated, with large tracts of garden- 
ground in the central portion. The buildings, with very 
few exceptions, are of litde interest, and those few are 
all on the east side of High Street. We have, first, 
S. Michael's Church, and next to it Burden or Borden 
Hostel (O), a law-students' hostel belonging to Clare 
Hall, as Clare College was then called. At some distance 
north of this, opposite to Trinity College Chapel, is the 
church of Allialowes in Indaismo, or All Saints in the 
Jewry. An attempt has been made to show the tower, 
and the through-passage by which it was pierced. The 
extent of the Jewry, or Jews' Quarter, is undetermined. 

Opposite to the Jewry is S^ Johns Collcdge, and an 
attempt has evidently been made to portray it with some 
approach to accuracy. The towers of the gate of en- 
trance are roughly indicated ; and the small court at the 
south-west corner of the principal court, begun 1528', 
is also shown. We also see the Master's garden, and the 

^ Arch. Hist. ii. ■246. 


wooden bridge leading to the walks beyond the river. 
Note the a\enue of trees beyond the bridge. The 
College is, however, far better drawn by Hamond, 
Sheet 9. 

From S. John's College we will enter Bi-idge streate 
or Bridge IWxrdc, and cross the Great Bridge. On the 
right, after passing the bridge, is Magdalen Co/ledge, 
shown as a complete quadrangle. Note the attempt to 
indicate the gate of entrance by a break in the roof of 
the range of chambers next to the street. Opposite 
Magdalene Colleoe an unbroken row of houses is shown 
— which is more or less correct. In this part of Cam- 
bridge there are still many old houses, which may well 
have been in existence when our plan was drawn. 
Behind them is the Norman dwelling-house known at 
this day, as in ancient times, by the absurd name of 
House of Pythagoras (R), part of which is still standing. 
Note in the street, opposite the thoroughfare now called 
Northampton Street, an iron grating (T) which in 1574 
marked a water course called "Cambridge" — for which 
seethe Introduction (p. xxvii). Proceeding northward, we 
come to S' Giles Church at the corner of what is now a 
road leading to Chesterton, but in 1574 it narrowed to a 
mere track ; and nearly opposite to it is S^ Pelers Church, 
drawn with some accuracy with a tower and spire. Be- 
yond S. Peter's are the words Parochia omiiiinn sancto- 
rum adCastniin to preserve the memory of the destroyed 
church of All Saints by the Castle; and on the east side 
of the street is a delineation of the Castcll, the archi- 
tectural history of which has been already sketched in 
the Introduction. 

Returning to the Great Bridge, and crossing it, we 
see on the left an open space, as now, which was doubt- 


less used as a wharf. On the same side, further to the 
south, is S' Clemeyis Church; and close to it is Cleine7is 
Ostell {^), a law-students' hostel. At a distance from 
S. Clement's which is singularly at variance with the 
true distance, is the church lettered S* Piilcher, i.e. 
S. Sepulchre's, or, the Round Church. Note the very 
small number of houses on this side of the street, as 
contrasted with the other. Behind them is The Ki7iges 
diche, beyond which again is the common called Green- 
croft, indicated by the presence of some sheep feeding. 

We will next turn to the left down lesiis La7ie. Note 
the paucity of houses, here limited to a single row, with 
gardens, on the left hand, before the College is reached. 
This College is drawn with more than usual correctness, 
at some distance from the highway, with an entrance 
gateway, a complete quadrangle, and a central tower on 
a building which we know to be the chapel, but which 
on the plan looks like a row of chambers. 

On the south side of Jesus Lane, occupying the angle 
between the lane and the main street, is the large en- 
closure lettered Gray Friers, which in 1574 was still the 
property of Trinity College. Beyond it there is nothing 
but open common, indicated by cattle grazing, with the 
exception of two or three houses next the lane, and a 
large building with three gables each surmounted by 
a cross, which is intended for the manor-house of 
S. Radegund. Note the words Barnwell caivscy applied 
to the prolongation of Jesus Lane. 

Let us walk down Jesus Lane, till we reach the open- 
ing of Walks lane, now called King Street, and then, 
turning to the right, walk along it. Soon after turning 
the corner we come to what is called Christes Colledo;e 
ivalke, protected at each end by a stile. This is the walk 


which still exists under the wall of Christ's College 
Fellows' Garden. Beyond the walk is a very interesting 
representation of a fragment of a cultiira, two strips of 
arable ground, on which ripe corn is growing. Con- 
tinuing our walk along Walks lane we pass under the 
wall of Christ's College Orchard, cross the King's Ditch 
by a bridge, and so reach the main street, which seems 
to have been still called Bridge Street in this place. 
Turning southward, we pass Triniiie Churche on the 
right, and presently x^2.z\\ y' gate to Barnewell, at the 
corner o{ Peti-curie. Barnwell Gate was made by Henry 
the Third as part of his fortifications of the town; Caius 
affirms that no trace of it remained in his time, but a 
single wooden post marked its site. As we stand at the 
gate we have on the left the fa9ade of Christ's College, 
with a pretentious gate-tower ornamented with a shield 
and supporters — intended evidently for the Lady Mar- 
garet's arms. On the right is S. Andrew's Church. 
Here we enter Pi^eachers strcate and Preachers Warde, 
so called from the Dominicans or Friars Preachers, 
whose house, lettered j5*/^^/^^y"rzVrj-, was presently turned 
into Emmanuel College. 

From the Black Friars we can follow Doudiicers 
lane, now called Downing Street and Pembroke Street, 
till we reach the corner of the Aicgicstme friers, now the 
Museums. The ground is bounded on the east by a 
street called Slaughter lane, or more commonly " Fair 
Yard lane\" from the Fare yarde at the end of it. 
Seventy years since the yard was termed Hog Hill, or 
the Hoo-market; and the lane Slauc^hter house lane. 

^ Arch. Hist. iii. 147. where .1 lease from the Corporation of Cambridge, dated 
28 March, 1783, is quoted. 




This plan first appears in the second book of the folio 
collection of maps entitled Civitates Orbis Terrarujn, 
by George Braun, or Bruin, and Francis Hogenburg, 
published at Cologne between 1572 and i6o6\ The 
plan is without date, but a description of Cambridge ' 
printed on the back, contained in a letter addressed to 
Braun by William Soon, is dated from Cologne, 20 May, 
1575. William Soon, or Zoon, was educated at Cam- 
bridge, where he proceeded B.A. in 1546 — 7, and M.A. 
in 1549. He was Professor of Civil Law 1561 — 63. 
Subsequently he settled at Cologne, where he acted as 
assistant to Abraham Ortelius, the famous geographer^ 
He tells us in this letter that he had been asked by 
Braun to give him some particulars about Cambridge. 
This he proceeds to do in a style of hyberbolic lau- 
dation, seasoned with the usual exaggeration about 
Cantaber and other mythological personages. It is true 
that he does not specially commend the plan before us 
to his correspondent; but it is inconceivable that he 
should not have seen the document respecting which he 
was asked to write a letter; and more inconceivable still 
that, having seen it, he should have allowed a single 

^ There is no date on the title pa<;e, but the licence to print granted by the 
Emperor Maximilian II, is dated from Ratisbon, -24 August, 1576; and George 
Braun's own preface from Cologne, 1572. 

- Cooper, Athfiu?, i. 350. 

PLAN OF 1575 19 

word of his own to appear in connection with it. On the 
supposition that he left Cambridge in 1563, he could not 
have entirely forgotten the place in 1 2 years. 

The plan is 13J inches high by i 7|- inches wide. It is 
therefore about one-third larger than Lyne's plan, but, 
so far as the buildings are concerned, this difference is 
apparent rather than real. They are of nearly the same 
size in the two plans, the additional space being giv^en 
to the environs of the town, on which sheep, oxen, and 
horses, are grazing. Like Lyne's plan, it is a bird's-eye 
sketch; but the spectator is supposed to be standing on 
the west side of Cambridge instead of on the south side ; 
so that the buildings are drawn from a different point of 
view. There is, however, so close a general resemblance 
between the two plans, that it seems not unlikely that 
they may have been draw^n by the same person; or, if 
this explanation be not admitted, the later plan has been 
copied from the earlier with much ingenuity so as to 
produce an appearance of novelty, without the intro- 
duction of any new facts, or a more accurate delineation 
of buildings. In fact, the buildings shown by Lyne have 
been turned round, and details, similar to his, introduced 
into the facades which front the spectator from the altered 
l)oint of view. Let us examine the colleges in order. 

A I Peterhouse the quadrangle is now^ viewed from 
the west; the Master's tower is further exacrgrerated, and 
the space which Lyne shows on the west, beyond the 
churchyard, is taken to mean a broad entrance to the 
College, with a corresponding door inserted under the 
west gable of the north range. Pembroke Hall is un- 
altered. Bene't College is provided with an imaginary 
central door in an equally imaginary west front, at the 
north end of which is a tower, due apparently to a con- 

20 PLAN OF 1575 

fusion with Bene't Church. At Queens' College the two 
towers of the gate of entrance are shown, as is also the 
square tower in the middle of the south range ; and 
the door in the west range, accessible from the bridge, 
is correctly drawn: but the name White Friers has got 
transferred, from the right position, given by Lyne, to 
the western quadrangle. In both plans King's College 
Chapel has lofty gables instead of pinnacles on the top 
of its towers, of which there are two instead of four; 
and the old quadrangle of the College is shown as ex- 
tending beyond the north side of the Schools' Quad- 
rangle. Braun, however, develops a quadrangle abutting 
against the east and west ends of the chapel on the north 
side, having evidently misunderstood the description in 
the Will of King Henry the Sixth, or perhaps having 
only heard a legend of its provisions. It results, how- 
ever, from this new arrangement that the belfry and the 
Fellows' garden are placed correctly, or nearly so, with 
reference to the chapel. At Clare Hall and Trinity Hall 
no change has been attempted. Gonville and Caius 
College evidently offered considerable difficulty to the 
transformer, and he cannot be congratulated on what he 
has done. He has reduced Gonville Hall (lettered G2171- 
well) to one or at most to two ranges of building; and 
what I took to be the Gate of Honour in the former 
place has wandered still farther east, and now stands in 
a corner of the court with a door at the bottom, like a 
French staircase-tower. The buildings of Trinity Col- 
lege are jumbled together in inextricable confusion. At 
S. John's College the gate of entrance assumes con- 
siderable prominence ; but the west range of the quad- 
rangle is incorrectly drawn, as are the small kitchen-court 
and the garden, which were shown with fair correctness 

PLAN OF 1575 21 

by Lyne. Magdalene College presents a strange appear- 
ance. Lyne had drawn a slight indication of what might 
be a gate of entrance in the middle of the west range. 
This the draftsman employed by Braun has developed 
into a circular tower, external to the quadrangle. At Jesus 
College no new features have been introduced, but 
prominence is given to the absurd inaccuracies of Lyne, 
especially in regard to the gables which crown the two 
towers. At Christ's College Lyne's attempt to show a 
rectangular gate of entrance ornamented with heraldic 
devices, has been vulgarised into a hideous circular 

This plan is copied exactly, so far as the streets and 
buildings are concerned, in a work entitled Illiistri- 
oriim principumque Urbhun Septentrionaliiwi E^cropcE 
iabul(T ; Avistelodanii, ex officina Joannis Jansso}iii, un- 
fortunately without date. The description at the back 
of the plan is composed of that by Lyne quoted above, 
with the letter of William Soon appended to it. This 
letter is introduced by the following lines: 

Ut vero, mi Lector, accuratissima hujus Urbis et Academije 
dcscriptio te minime fallat, earn ex sequentibus Guilielmi {sic) Sooni 
doctissimi (}uondam scriptoris et professoris ad Georgium Bruinum 
d.uis liiteris facili negotio haurire potes, quce sic habent. 

'I'he only differences between the two plans are to 
be found in the ornamentation. In both Lyne's list of 
Hostels and other buildings reappears in the right upper 
corner, on a tablet enclosed in an elaborate border, 
but with the items numbered i — 19, instead of being 
lettered A — T; and in the left upper corner, on a larger 
tablet, encircled with a more elaborate border, enriched 
with bunches of fruit and flowers, is a summary descrip- 
tion of Cambridge, little more than a tide, obviously 

22 PLAN OF 1575 

taken from that of Lyne. It may be translated as 
follows : 

Cambridge, a city of great distinction in right wealthy England, 
derived its name from Cantaber, founder of the University. It was 
called Cairgrant from the river Granta which flows hard by ; the 
Saxons named it Grauntecestre ; and in former times it was styled 

Above this tablet are the Ruyal arms, surmounted by 
the crown, and encircled by the garter, exactly copied, 
but on a larger scale, from those of Lyne's plan. In what 
may be called Jansson's edition of Braun's plan, the 
motto Honi soit qui mal y pcnse is omitted. 

In the right lower corner of Braun's edition we see a 
gentleman conversing with a lady, and a second gentle- 
man advancing towards them. I n Jansson's edition these 
figures have been removed. 

Such a plan as this is of no authority whatever as 
a topographical record, and we have only reproduced it 
as a curiosity which, from its date, has obtained a place 
among the plans of Cambridge. 

We have used, for our reproduction, a copy of 
Jansson's edition. 



Only one complete copy of this most important plan 
is known to be in existence. It is preserved in the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford, but, oddly enough, it was not 
noticed by any antiquary previous to the late Professor 
Willis, whose attention was drawn to it accidentally, 
when enquiring in the library for the survey of Oxford 
by Ralph Agas\ The two plans were included in the 
collections of Thomas Hearne, which came to the Library 
in i755,among the other bequests of Richard Rawlinson, 
D.C.L. Hearne had received them from Thomas Baker 
in 1725, as shown by the following entry in one of his 
Common-Place Books: 

On the 16'^ of March, 1725, I rec'' from Cambridge two old Maps 
(great Rarities and Curiosities) one of Oxford, the other of Cambridge, 
being both given me by my learned Friend the Reverend M"" Thomas 
IJaker, Bach, of Div. of S' John's College in Cambridge. They are in 
a shattered condition. That of O.xford was done by Ralph Agas". 

These valuable plans "were some few years ago" 
(writes Mr Macray) "carefully mounted on canvas, on 
a wooden frame, and covered with elass'" — so that 
further injury is impossible. They hang opposite to each 
other, in the Selden Library, one on each side of the 
great west window. 

^ Arch. Hist. i. Introduction, pp. ci — civ. 

' This valuable extract kindly communicated to me by my friend Falconer 
Madan, M.A. 

* Annals 0/ the Bodleian Library, ed. 1, p. 474. 


Some years ago my friend J. E. Foster, M.A., of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, found among his father's 
antiquarian collections a copy of the central sheet of this 
plan, in first-rate condition. As this sheet is perhaps the 
most valuable portion of the whole plan, and happens 
to be rather seriously damaged in what may be called 
the Hearne-Baker copy, it has been reproduced here in 
addition to the nine sheets of that copy. As my friend 
has most kindly given it to me, I should like to take 
this opportunity of tendering to him my most grateful 
thanks for so valuable a gift, as I did when I repro- 
duced the sheet in my edition of Loggan's Cantabrigia 
Ilhistrata \ 

It is to me quite inexplicable that a plan so large, 
and so interesting to a large number of persons, should 
now be represented by, practically, a single copy. Where 
are the others? and where are the plates from which it 
was printed ? It has been suggested to me that possibly 
a number of copies may be lying forgotten in a corner 
of some College Library; and at my request some of my 
friends, librarians in their respective colleges, have made 
diligent search, but, hitherto, I regret to say, without 

Hamond's plan measures 3 feet lof inches in length, 
by 2 feet 10^ inches in depth. It was originally printed 
in nine separate pieces, each about fifteen inches wide 
by twelve inches high, numbered in the margin for 
the guidance of the person who was to mount them on 
canvas. The figures i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, can still be plainly 
distinguished ; but 7 has perished. The pieces are 
numbered from left to right, beginning with the left 
upper corner, and proceeding round the outer margin, 

\} This sheet was presented by Mr Clark to the Bodleian Library.] 


so that the central piece would have been the ninth. 
A careful examination has failed to discover any figure 
upon this piece; and it is possible that its position may 
have been thought to be as well indicated by leaving 
it blank as by marking it. The plan is washed over 
with a brown tint, with the exception of the streets and 
open spaces, which are usually left white, and the roofs, 
some of which are rudely coloured red. The buildings 
are shown in perspective, to the scale of 120 feet to the 
inch, extremely well delineated after the manner of a 
bird's-eye view, the spectator being supposed to be 
placed on the south side of the town ; and the ground 
upon which they stand is most carefully laid down to 
scale, due proportion being observed between the town 
and the environs. The streets, colleges, and churches 
are lettered; and the houses in the town are drawn with 
the same detail as the colleges. 

It is lettered at the top, in the middle of the second 
sheet, in large capitals, CxA.NTEBRIGI A. Below this 
word are the royal arms, France and England quarterly, 
encircled by the garter, and surmounted by the crown. 
On the left, under the words SIGEBERTVS REX, 
are the arms of East Anglia — three crowns, two and one 
— each surmounted by crosses ; and on the right, under 
the words B\'RGYS CANTEB., the castle which we 
have seen already in Lyne's Plan, apparently intended 
to represent the arms of the Town. 

In the right upper corner, on Sheet 3, in a frame 
surrounded by an ornamental border, is the following 
description of the castle: 

Castrum quod hodie ruinosum vestigia regalis magnificentia3 
expressa monstrat, baud dubie opus erat sub rege Gulielmo primo 
inceptum perfectumque. Legimus enim in libro vocato Do.mesdav 


priuatorum sedificia xxvij vt locus vacuus castri constructioni regali 
fieret: per ea tempora fuisse demolita. 

I append a translation of these sentences: 

The castle, which, though now ruinous, shows unmistakeable evi- 
dence of royal magnificence, was without doubt begun and finished 
in the reign of King William the First. For we read in the book called 
Domesday that 27 private houses were pulled down about that time 
in order that an open space might be provided for the royal building 
of a castle. 

Below this, on Sheet 4, surrounded by a similar 
frame, is a short history of the Town of Cambridge. 
It is a good deal damaged by damp, and here and there 
whole words have disappeared, but the restoration of 
the original text would not, I imagine, be difficult. Such 
a task, however, to judge by what can be easily read, 
would hardly be worth the time involved; I shall not 
therefore attempt it. 

In the right lower corner, on Sheet 5, on an orna- 
mental tablet, flanked by columns, and surmounted by 
a pediment, is the following important inscription : 

Habes in hac charta (Spectator candide) nouam Cantebrigine 
descriptionem, quam per scalas mensuram multo quam antehac 
accuratius examinatam ad veros situs reduximus. Tu vero qua es 
humanitate equi bonique consulas. Interim fruere et bene vale: 
CantebrigiK ex aula Clarensi die 22 mensis februarii 1592. Johannes 

It may be translated as follows : 

Thou shalt find in this plan (Impartial spectator) a new delinea- 
tion of Cambridge which we have reduced to the true sites -by means 
of measurements tested with far greater accuracy than heretofore. 
I pray thee, therefore, of thy courtesy, to be impartial and kind. Mean- 
while may pleasure and good health be thine. From Clare Hall at 
Cambridge on the twenty-second day of February, 1592. John 


Beneath this tablet is a second, containing an 
elaborate scale, divided into Stadium, Par tic cb {Pe7'ticcz), 
Passus, Vi}t(T, Pedes. 

Who was John Hamond ? Nothing appears to be 
known about him. A John Hamond, of Clare Hall, pro- 
ceeded B.A. 1575 — 6, M.A. 1579, but the identification 
of him with the author of the plan must remain un- 

Beyond this frame, quite in the corner of the plan, 
between the river and the outer margin, is an engraved 
shield of arms, qziarterly, i and 4, 2 ba7^s and a chief 
indented (Hare) 2 and 3 gy7'07iny of tiuelve (Bassing- 
bourn). These are the arms of Robert Hare the 
antiquary, second son to Sir Nicholas Hare, Master of 
the Rolls, and Catherine, daughter of Sir John Bassing- 
bourn. To his liberality, industry, and skill the University 
owes the volumes (now in the Registry) into which he 
caused to be transcribed a long series of documents 
relating to the history, rights, and privileges of the 
University and Town. He was thanked by the Public 
Orator for his benefactions in 1590 and again in 1591 — 
the year before our plan was engraved\ Does not the 
presence of this shield, without inscription, or other 
method of drawing the attention of the public to it, give 
the idea of an hnprimatiir} May it not imply that Hare 
approved the plan, and possibly defrayed its cost.'* 

At the bottom of the plan (right hand corner of 
Sheet 6) the following important words may still be 
deciphered : 

Augustin Ryther et Petrus Muser sculpserunt. 
[Augustin Ryther was associated with Christopher 
Saxton in engraving the maps of English counties 

J Endownunts, ed. 1904, p. 575. 


published by the latter in 1579. He also engraved a 
map in L. W3.genQr's A/arzners A/invr, 1 5SS,and eleven 
maps and title in Expcditionis Hispanoriun hi Angliam 
vera descriptio, by Petruccio Ubaldino, London, 1588. 
A translation of the latter work, made for A, Rytter, 
was "to be solde at the shop of A Rytter, being a little 
from Leaden Hall next to the signe of the Tower" 
(1590): it contains engraved title and arms and is dedi- 
cated by Rytter to Lord Charles Howard'. Of Peter 
Muser nothing is known.] 

In the left lower corner (Sheet 7), on a tablet 
surrounded by an ornamental border, is a short history 
of the University of Cambridge, making a pendant to 
the similar history of the Town on Sheet 3, already 
described. The middle and lower parts of this tablet 
have been seriously damaged by damp; but, to judge by 
what has been preserved, the world has not lost much. 
The author begins by referring the origin of the Uni- 
versity, as well as of the Town, to the mythical Cantaber, 
son-in-law to Gurguntius, King of Britain, who reigned 
375 B.C. The University so founded acquired great 
celebrity, but in process of time, in consequence of a 
scries of misfortunes, a fresh start became necessary. 
In this extremity Sigebert, King of the East Angles, 
took the matter in hand, and restored the pristine pros- 
perity. W^e should perhaps rejoice that the rest of the 
story is unintelligible. The names of Felix, Alured, and 
Pope Honorius emerge from the ruins of the text, but 
no connected narrative is possible. 

In the left upper corner of the plan, occupying the 
whole of the first Sheet, is a list of the Colleges, 
Houses, or Halls of Scholars, with a summary notice 

[' Information supiilied by Mr G. J. Gray.] 


in each case of the Founder, and the date of founda- 
tion. The arms of these educational bodies form a 
border to the sheet. 

I shall translate the whole of Hamond's list, and 
reproduce the arms from the paper by my friend 
W. H. St John Hope, M.A., On the Arnioi-ial Ensigns 
of the University and Colleges of Canihndge, which he 
read before the Cambridge Antiquarian Society in 
1892', as the shields figured by Hamond are frequently 
damaged by damp, or are slightly incorrect. I have also 
to thank Mr Hope for adding the arms of Michael House, 
King's Hall, Clare Hall, and God's House. The numbers 
prefixed to the paragraphs are those of Hamond. It 
will be noticed that if the sheet be divided by an ima- 
ginary line extending from top to bottom, even numbers 
are on the left, uneven on the right. 

Hamond's list, though it begins with the Public 
Schools, is headed : 

Colleges, Houses, or Halls of Scholars, endowed with property 
and rents, in number one and twenty, enumerated in the exact order 
of their foundation, though at the present time, owing to amalgama- 
tion of foundations, they have been reduced to sixteen. 

I. Public Schools were arranged and built from ancient times 
whereof no record has been preserved. But the new and splendid 
i-difice thereof, in form like a College quadrangle, which we behold 
to-day, is recorded to have been partly built at the cost of the Uni- 
versity after the year of our Lord 1 136 ; partly to have been extended 
by subscription, out of donations gathered together from several pious 
benefactors. Of these the most important were William Thorpe, 
Ixjrd Chief Justice of England in the reign of King Henry the 
Fourth, and the year of Our Lord 1400; and Thomas Rotherham, 
Archbishop of York, in the reign of King Edward the Fourth, and 
the year 1476". 

* C. A. S. /Vv<. and Connn. viii. 107 — 133. The paper was read i6th 
November, 189:. 

"^ This passage is full of mistakes. The earliest mention of "our great schools 
in School Street" is in 1347 {Arch. Hist. iii. 10). The foundation is said to 


The arms of the University have been already de- 
scribed in the Introduction. 

2. College or House of S. Peter, founded by Hugh de Balsham, 
Bishop of Ely, in the reign of King Henry the Third, and the year 
of Our Lord, 12 ^g\ 

The arms here figured are those traditionally as- 
signed to the Founder, ^^/^, thi-ee pallets gides (fig. i), 
and were used by the College as its third shield. 

The arms now borne by the College (fourth shield) 
in accordance with a grant by Robert Cooke, Claren- 
cieux, in 1572, show four pallets instead of three, and 
are within a bordure of the see of Ely, gules semy of 
gold crozuns (fig. 2)-. 

3. College or House of S. Michael the Archangel, founded by 
Hervey de Stanton, Canon of York and Wells, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, in the reign of King Edward the Second, and the year 
of Our Lord, 1324', It is now incorporated with Trinity College. 

have been laid by Sir Robert Thorpe, Master of Pembroke Hall 1347 — 64, and 
Lord Chancellor 1371. He died suddenly 29 June, 1372, leaving his estates to 
his executors, one of whom, Richard de Treton, Master of Corpus Christi College 
1376 — 1377, gave 40 marks to the University. Subsecjuently, the work of building 
the Schools appears to have been carried on at the expense of Sir William Thorpe, 
brother to Sir Robert, for in 139S (?o June) the University agreed with his 
executors that exequies should be said for the repose of the souls of Sir William 
and his wife. Lady Grace, because they (the executors) "had caused to be built 
Divinity Schools, with a Chapel for the souls of the aforesaid William and Grace 
his wife" {Arch. Hist. iii. 10, 11). Our writer confounds this William Thorpe 
wth another William Thorpe who was Chief-Justice of the King's bench, and 
disgraced for bribery 1350. 

The east side of the quadrangle was completed by Archbishop Rotherham in 
or about 1475, in which year the University caused his name to be entered among 
its principal benefactors because he had "completed the Schools, together with a 
new Library over them " (Arch. Hist. iii. 15). 

' This date is wrong. Balsham removed his scholars from the Hospital of 
S.John to two Hostels near the Church of S. Peter, 31 March, 1284; and his 
removal was confinned by Letters Patent of King Edward the P'irst, 28 May, 

• Hope, ut supra, p. 112. 

' The College was solemnly opened by the Founder 27 Sept. 1324. Arch. 
Hist. i. xxxviii. 



The arms are those commonly assigned to Hervey 

de Stanton : vaii- and a cantoji giiles (fig. 3). 

4. College or Hall of the University, founded by Richard Badew, 
Chancellor of the University, in the reign of Edward the Second, and 
the year of Our Lord, 1326^ It is now incorporated with Clare Hall. 

Third shield of Peterhouse. 

Fig. 1. Fourth shield of Peter- 
house, 1572. 

The arms are those assigned to Richard de Badew, 
three ca(^/es on a bend cotised (fig, 4). 


Fig. 3. Arms o[ Michael House. Fig. 4. Arms of University Hall. 

■ Rich, de Badew declared the House open, 15 July, 1326. Ibid. i. xl. 



5. College or Hall of the King, founded by King Edward the 
Third, in the year of Our Lord, 1337^ It is now incorporated in 
Trinity College founded by King Henry the Eighth. 

The arms shown by Hamond are those of England 
within a compony border (fig. 5), but there is no proof 
that they were ever borne by King's Hall. 

Fig. 5. Arms of King's Hall. 

Fig. 6. Arms of Clare Hall. 

6. College or Hall of Clare, founded by Dame Elizabeth de 
Burgo, Countess of Clare, University Hall aforesaid \vith its revenues 
being included in her foundation, in the reign of Edward the Third, 
and the year of Our Lord, 1340-. 

The shield is almost obliterated, but there can be 
no doubt that it bore the arms of Clare Hall, namely, 
those of the Foundress, which also appear on the first 
seal of the College. They are those of Clare, impaling 
Burgh, within a black bordure se7ny of tears (fig. 6)^ 

^ The Charter of Edward III is dated 7 Oct. 1337. Ibid. i. xli. 

2 Walter de Thaxted, Master of the " House of the University in Cambridge'' 
made over to the Lady Clare and her heirs for ever the advowson of the House, 
5 April, 1 340. Wardale, Clare College, 1899, p. 3. 

' Hope, ut stipra, p. 114. 



7. College or Hall of Dame Marie de Valence, or of Pembroke 
founded by Marie de Valence, a French lady, widow of Audomar Earl 
of Pembroke, in the reign of Edward the Third, in the year of Our 
Lord, 1347'. 

Mr Hope writes of this shield (fig. 7) : "It consists 
of the arms of the Foundress, as shown on her seal, 
without any difference. These arms are derived from 
those of De Valence, marshalled with those of S. Paul 
by the curious process known as dimidiation. This early 
method of combining the arms of husband and wife was 

I'i/,- 7. Arms of Pembroke Hall. 

Fig. 8. Arms of Corpus Christi 

accomplished by halving or dimidiating the two shields 
vertically, and joining the dexter half of one to the 
sinister half of the other. In practice a litde more than 
the half of each shield was sometimes shown, as in the 
e.xample under notice, when two of the three pallets and 
three of the five points of the label in the S. Paul arms 
are given'." 

' The royal license fur ihe foundation is dated 24 Dec. 1347. Arc/i. HUt. 
i. xlii. 

^ Hope, ut su/ira, p. 11 4. 



8. College of Corpus Christi and S. Mary the Virgin, or of 
S. Benedict, founded by brethren of the Gild of Corpus Christi, 
and of the Gild of S. Mary the Virgin, in the reign of King Edward 
the Third, and about the year of Our Lord, 1347 ^ 

This shield is much damaged in Hamond's plan. The 
arms were granted to the College by Robert Cooke, 
Clarencieiix in 1570, and are : quarterly i and ^ gules a 
pelican in her piety silver {or the Gild of Corpus Christi ; 

Fig. 9. 
Arms of Trinity Hall, ancient. 

Fig. 10. 
Arms of Trinity Hall, 1575. 

2 a7id 3 azure three silver lily-flowers for the Gild of Our 
Lady (fig. S)=. 

9. College or Hall of the Holy Trinity begun by a Prior of Ely 
in order that he might lodge therein his monks sent thither for pur- 
poses of study ^. Afterwards it was founded and endowed by William 
Bateman, Bishop of Norw^ich, in the reign of King Edward the Third, 
in the year of Our Lord, 1347'*. 

* This date is correct. See History of Corpus Christi College, by H. P. Stokes, 
LL.D. 189S, Chapter I. - Hope, ut supra, p. 117. 

' This hostel was bought by John de Crawden, Prior i3:!i— 41, and sold to 
Bp. Bateman for /'400 in or about 1350. Arch. Hist. i. -210. 

* The Bishop's charter of foundation is dated 15 January, 1349 — 50, but he may 
well have been making preparations in 1347. Arch. Hist, ut supra; Trinity Hall, 
by H. E. .Maiden, Chapter I. 


The arms shown by Hamond are those of the 
Founder, Bishop Bateman : sable a crescent ermi7ic 
within a bordure cng7'ailed silver (fig. 9). In 1575 
these interesting arms were set aside by Robert Cooke, 
Clarencieux, who granted to the College a crest, and 
altered the ancient ettgrailed silver bordure to a plain 
bordure ermine (fig. io)\ 

10. College or Hall of Goneville, founded by Edmund Gonevile 
{sic), Rector of Terington in the County of Norfolk, in the reign of 
King Edward the Third, and the year of Our Lord, 134S. It is now 
incorporated in the College of Goneville and Caius. 

License of foundation was granted to Gonville by 
Edward the Third, 28 January, 1347 — 48. The College 
had no arms of its own, but used those of the Founder 
until the re-foundation by Dr Caius. These are shown 
by Hamond: silver a chevro7i bctiveen tivo coitple-closes 
indented sable with three gold scallops on the chevron. 
These arms are shown in the dexter half of the shield 
of Gonville and Caius College (fig. 20)". 

11. College of God's House, first founded by William Bingham, 
Rector of the Church of S. John Zachary, London, within the pro- 
cincl of the present King's College, in the reign of King Henry the 
Sixth, in the year of Our Lord, 1442. It was founded for the second 
lime by the same King Henry the Sixth in Preachers' Street, opposite 
to the Church of S. Andrew, in the 24th year of his reign, and the 
year of Our Lord, 1445. It is now incorporated in Christ's College*. 

The College had no arms, but Hamond shows a 
shield bearing arms intended for those of Bingham, 
namel)' : gold a /ess gules charged zvith three silver 

' Hope, ;// i;//rj, p, 115. 

' Hope, «/ J.v/ra, pp. 115, 177. 

" Bingham founded God's House on its first site in or about 1439; ^"<^ 't ''^' 
ceived a royal charter as a College, 9 Feb. 1441 — 42. The new site in Preachers' 
Street was cont"irmed to liim by Letters Patent, 26 Aug. 1446. 



water-buckets (fig. n); but Mr Hope points out that 
there is no evidence that these were borne by him'. 

12. College of S. Mary and S. Nicholas, called the Royal College, 
founded by King Henry the Sixth about the year of Our Lord, 1443- 

"The royal foundation of King's College on its first 
establishment in 1 441, so far as we at present know, had 
neither arms nor seal. On its enlargement, in 1443, the 
splendid silver seal, which is still in use, was engraved. 

Fig. II. Arms of God's House. 

It had in base a shield of great interest, which may be 
blazoned as: Sable, a mitre pierced by a crosier between 
two lily flowers proper ; a chief per pale aziire with a 
fleur-de-lis of Frajice, and gules a lion of England 
(fig. 12). 

"This beautiful composition contains quite an epi- 
tome of the history of the college ; the lilies of Our Lady, 
and the mitre and crosier of St Nicholas, denote the 
patron saints in whose honour it was founded, while the 
royal patronage is shown by the chief derived from the 
royal arms 

^ Hope, lit supra, p. ii8. 



"By letters patent dated January ist, 1448—9, 
Henry VI authorised his two colleges at Cambridge 

and Eton to bear arms The Cambridge grant 

authorises an entirely new shield. The royal chief of 
the first arms is retained, but the lilies and the mitre 
and crosier give place to three silver roses, and the arms 
of Kinci-'s College now are: Sable, tJirec roses ardent ; 
a chief per pale azure witk a fleiir-de-lis of France, and 
gules a lion of Englaiid" (fig. 13)^ 

I'ig. \1. 
Kirst Shield of King's College. 

Second Shield of King's College. 

Hamond figures the second of these two shields; but, 
unfortunately, his drawing is much damaged by damp. 

13. College of S. Margaret and S. Bernard, commonly called 
Queens' College, founded by Margaret Queen of England, daughter 
of Rene King of Sicily and Jerusalem, wife of King Henry the Sixth, 
during the reign of that King, in the year of Our Lord, 144S. 

The arms shown by Hamond are those of Margaret 
of Anjou, with six quarterings, described as follows by 

• Hope, ut supra, p. fi8. 



Robert Cooke, Clarencieux, in 1575: '' Qiiarterly : the 
Jirsi quarter harry of eight argetit arid gules (tor Hun- 
gary) ; the second asur semy fiower-de-litcis gold a label 
of three points aigent (for Naples); the third argent a 
crosse batune bctwen foisjcr crosses golde (for Jerusalem); 
the fourth asur semy flower-de-hicis golde a bo7^der gules 
(for Anjou); the fifte asur two lucis iiidorced semy crosse 
crosselets golde (for Bar) ; the sixt golde on a bend thre 
egles displaide argent (for Lorraine)" (iig. 14)'. 

Fig. 14. Arras of Queens' College 
first Shield. 

Fig. 15- 
Arms of S. Catharine's College. 

14. College or Hall of S. Catharine, founded by Robert Woode- 
larke, doctor of Divinity, Chancellor of the University, and Provost of 
King's College, in the reign of King Edward the Fourth, in the year 
of Our Lord, 1473'. 

1 Hope, ut supra, p. 120. Hist, of the Queens' College of S. Margaret and 
S. Bernard, by W. G. Searle, M.A., p. 36. 

' Robert Woodelarke was Provost of King's College, 1452 — 1479; ^"^ Chan- 
cellor of the University in 1459, 1460, and 1462. He made the first purchase for 
the site of his intended College in 1459 ! tiut the outbreak of civil war compelled 
him to lay aside his plan for some years, and he did not obtain his charter till 
15 Edward IV, 16 Aug. 1475. Arch. Hist. i. Ixvii. 


"Robert Wodelarke's 'college or hall of S. Kathc- 
rine the virgin' seems always to have borne for its arms: 
gules.aKathcrinc wheel goId(^g. 15). No grant, however, 
exists for this shield, and we have no earlier authority 
for it than the Catalogus of 1572. At the Visitation of 
1684 it was noted to 'have been auncientlie borne and 
used by the Master and Fellows of the said House.' In 
his Sphere of Gentry, Sylvanus Morgan gives the field 
of the shield as sable instead of gules, perhaps from 

Fig. 16. 
Arms of Jesus College, 1575. 

Fig. 17. Arms of Christ's College 
and S. John's College. 

analogy with the arms of the founder's college of King's. 
but the red for the virgin martyr seems more fitting'.' 

15. College of Jesu and S. Radegund, founded by John Alcock, 
Bishop of Ely, in the reign of King Henry the Seventh, and in the 
year of Our Lord, 1497. 

The present arms (fig. i6), which are those of the 
Founder within a bordure of the see of Ely, were 
granted, with a crest, by Cooke in 1575. They were 

^ Hope, ut supra, p. 123. 


blazoned in the letters patent as: silver a f esse bettiuce7i 
thre cocks heads razed sable co7nbed and wailed a border 
gttles seniy crowns golde'^. 

These arms are usually drawn, as by Hamond, with 
a mitre on the fess, a practice for which there is no 
proper authority. 

16. College of Christ, founded by the Lady Margaret Countess 
of Richmond and Derby, mother of King Henry the Seventh, during 
the reign of the said King, in the year of Our Lord, 1 505, God's House 
before mentioned being included in her foundation. 

1 7. College of S. John the Evangelist, founded by the executors of 
the Lady Margaret aforesaid in the reign of King Henry the Eighth, 
and the year of Our Lord, 1509, a House of Canons Regular or 
Brethren of the Hospital of S. John the Evangelist having been in- 
cluded in her foundation. 

The two Colleges have always borne the same arms, 
namely, those of their Foundress : France viodern and 
England q^iarterly with a bordnre compony silver and 
aznre (fig. 17)". 

18. College of S. Mary Magdalene or Buckingham was begun to be 
built by Henry Duke of Buckingham ; but the buildings, the con- 
struction of which had been interrupted, were almost finished by the 
Abbots of Ely, Ramsey and "Walden. Finally Thomas Audeley, Baron 
of Walden, and Chancellor of England, founded and endowed a 
College there under the title of S. Mary Magdalene in the reign of 
King Henry the Eighth, in the year of Our Lord, 1542^ 

No arms of Buckino;ham Colleq:e are known. 
The arms of Magdalene College are those of its 
Founder, to whom they were granted in 1 53S : (jnar/erly, 

^ Hope, nt supra, p. 124. 

^ Hope, ut supra, p. 125. 

' Hamond reproduces in this passage a tradition preserved by Dr Caius (Hist. 
Caniab. AcaJ. p. 77). This Duke of Buckingham was beheadcil by Richard the 
Third in I483. Audley's charter is dated 3 April, 1542. Arc/i. Hist. i. Ixxvii. ; 
"• 359-362- 


per pale indented, gold and azure, in the 2nd a^id yd 
quarters an eagle displayed gold ; over all on a bend 
azure a fret betzueeii two martlets gold (fig. i8)\ 

19. College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity founded by 
King Henry the Eighth, in the year of Our Lord, 1546. The House 
of S. Micliacl and King's Hall above mentioned together with their 
revenues having been included in his newly founded College in the 
year of Our Lord, 1546. 

The arms of Trinity College are: silver a chevron 
bctiveen three roses gules ; on a chief of the last, a lion 
passant gardant befiueen two books gold (fig. 19)'. 

I"ig. iS. Arms of Magdalene College. Fig. 19. Arms of Trinity College. 

20. College of Goneville and Caius, founded by John Caius, doctor 
of McdiciiK', formerly Fellow of Goneville Hall, in the reign of Queen 
Mary, in the year of Our Lord, 1557, Goneville Hall aforesaid with its 
revenues having been included in his foundation. 

The arms of Gonville, described above No. lo, are 
here impaled with those of Caius (fig. 20), which were 
granted to him by Laurence Dalton, Norroy King of 
Arms, in 1560. These arms are described in the 
grant as : 

' Hope, ttt supra, p. 126. 



Golde, semyd with flowre gentle in the myddle of the cheyfe, 
sengrene resting uppon the heades of ij serpentes in pale, their tayles 
knytte together, all in proper colour, restinge uppon a square marble 
stone vert, betwene their brestes a book sable, garnished gewles, 
buckles gold... betokening by the boke, learning ; by the ij serpentes 
resting upon the square marble stone, wisdome with grace founded 
and stayed upon vertues stable stone ; by sengrene and flower gentil, 
immortalite y' never shall fade. 

Hamond omits the bordure compony silver and sable 
which was added to the shield by Robert Cooke, Claren- 
cieux, in 1575'. 

Arms of Gonville and 
Caius College. 

Fig. 21. Arms of Emmanuel 

21. Emmanuel College, founded by Sir Walter Mildmay, Coun- 
cillor to Queen Elizabeth and Chancellor of her Exchequer, in the 
reign of that Queen, in the year of Our Lord, 1584, on a site formerly 
of the Friars Preachers. 

"The arms borne by Emmanuel College are: silver 
a lion ranipajit azure, holding in his dexter paw a 
wreath of laurel vert, and tuith a scroll issning from 
his 7no2ith with the ivord E M M A N U E L (fig. 2 1 ). These 

' Hope, ut supra, p. 177. 


arms were granted to the college in 1588, four years 
after its foundation, by Cooke, Clarencieux. They are 
derived from the arms of the founder, who bore silver 
three lions rampant azio'c^y 

Hamond omits the scroll. 

I will proceed, in the next place, to describe 
Hamond's plan in detail, beginning, as in the case of 
Lyne's plan, at the south end of the Town' (Sheet 7). 

On the east side of Trompyngton Strete, as in Lyne, 
are the words Spitel Ende, at the south end of an en- 
closure measuring, by Hamond's scale, about 340 feet 
from north to south, by 100 feet from east to west. At 
its southern end is the Spital, or Hospital of S. Anthony 
and S. Eligius, a building in two wings with a garden 
behind it, exactly as it is shown in the plan of Custance 
(1798). A lane at the northern end of the enclosure, 
which existed in 1 798, led to arable land eastward. Next 
to this is Chanons close''; after which is a succession of 
houses and gardens, some of them of considerable 
extent, and lastly, at the corner of T7'07npymgto7i Strete 
and Dowe dyers La7ie, is Pembroke Hall. 

In order to make the topography of this College 
and its immediate neighbourhood as clear as possible, 
I have here reproduced a facsimile of Hamond, on a 
somewhat slightly reduced scale, which was made for 
the Architectural History (fig. 22). 

When the Foundress began to acquire the site, she 

* Hope, ut supra, p. 128. 

' For the topography of this part of Cambridge consult Outside the Trum- 
pington GaUs, by Rev. H. P. Stokes, LL.D. (Camb. Ant. Soc. 8yo. Publ. No. 
XLIV., 1908). 

[3 Of this close Fuller in his History (ed. Prickett and Wright, p. 46) writes: 
"White Canons, almost over against Peter House, where now a brick wall and an 
inn with the sign of the Moon." The wall is shown in the plan, but there is no 
indication of an inn.] 



purchased, 14 September, 1346, from Herveyde Stanton, 
Rector of Elm, and probably a nephew of the Founder 
of Michael House, a messuage described in the convey- 
ance as "between a Hostel of the University on the one 
part, and the King's Ditch belonging to the Town of 
Cambridge on the other; one head abutting on the 
King's High way, and the other on a lane which leads 
to Swinecroft\" The King's Ditch has been already 
described in the Introduction. It will be noticed that 
the name, as used in 1346, applies to the road beside 


Fig. 22, Pembroke Hall, reduced from Hamond's plan. 

the Ditch, as well as to the Ditch itself. The eastern 
abuttal of Stanton's messuage is the narrow lane, leading 
from the road by the Ditch, otherwise Dowe dyers Lane, 
to the open space south of Pembroke Hall orchai'de, and 
east of the houses between the Hall and Chanons close. 
When the conveyance was drawn this northern portion 
of the common land was called Siviiiccroft, a name which 
in Lyne is restricted to the southern portion. The part 
which is lettered on our plan S. Thomas lees, is evidently 

1 Arch. Hist. i. p. in. 


intended to represent pasture, which extends eastward as 
far as Preachers Strecte, while the ground to the south, 
behind CJianons close, and behind the houses between 
it and Spite/ ende, is laid out in strips of arable, a few 
running north and south, but the greater part running 
east and west\ The whole of this ground was part of 
Ford Field. 

East of the lane leading to Swinecroft is (i) an 
enclosure next the street divided by fences into several 
plots, with houses. The whole represents Paschal Yard, 
which was leased to Pembroke Hall in 1609 and bought 
by them in 1S33"; (2) a larger enclosure planted with 
trees. This is the acre of meadow bought by the Found- 
ress 4 April, 1363, for use as an orchard. In the south- 
west corner of this ground is an enclosure which may 
be intended for the Tennis court referred to in some 
extracts from College Accounts made by Dr Matthew 
Wren : 

1564. Boards to make a tenyse court (;^i. o. o.). 

Lyne shows a large pigeon house in the middle of 
this orchard. 

The southern abuttal of Stanton's messuage is a 
building called University Hostel. It does not appear 
that this was used for the accommodation of students 
like the other Hostels; nor is its name recorded in any 
of the lists of Hostels. The Foundress bought it from 
the University, 1 1 December, 1351 ; and, possibly, part 
of it was used for her quadrangle. However this may 
be, it was certainly rebuilt in I579^ and was probably 

* Maitland, Tcncuship and Borough, pp. ii: — Ii6. Professor Maitland notes 
that these Lees had once been ploughed in selions, and that they may be seen 
to this day, east of the avenue of Downing College. Ibid. p. 115, note 3. 

* Arch. IJist. i. p. 125. 

3 In the MS. history of the Masters of the College by Dr Matthew Wren, 
preserved at Pembroke, is the following passage. The annalist is recording the 


then used as a pensionary. It was pulled down, at least, 
in part, in 1659, when Sir Robert Hitcham's building, 
on the south side of the second court, was begun. 

Hamond shows the primitive quadrangle of Pem- 
broke Hall, and adjoining it on the south, a second and 
smaller quadrangle, which may, I think, be identified 
with University Hostel, as the extract quoted in the 
note below says expressly that " it was rebuilt on the 
same site." 

These two pieces of ground were succeeded by three 
others; Cosyn's Place; ground belonging to a chantry 
in the Church of S. Mary the Less; and Bolton's or 
Knapton's Place. These may, perhaps, be indicated by 
the three strips south of the building which I have 
ventured to identify with University Hostel. South 
of them again was S. Thomas' Hostel, acquired from 
S. John's College in 145 1, which I identify with the 
large building set back from Tro^iipyngtou sti^ete with 
two wings on both its east and west sides, and an 
orchard behind, stretching back as far as the Lees, where 
a large barn-like building is shown. This Hostel was for 
students of Arts, and was governed, like the rest of those 
institutions, by an interior and exterior Principal. It was 
attached to the College, to which it paid rent in the 
same manner as Physwick Hostel to Gonville and Caius, 
or S. Bernard's Hostel to Corpus Christi. It was sup- 
pressed at about the same time as some others (after 
1526), and then let partly as separate tenements, partly 
reserved for College use\ 

For the identification of the houses which intervened 

good deeds of Wm. Fulke (1578—89): "Anno 1579, ipso Authore, a-'dificiuin 
illud extruitur quod codem loco situm cum sit, etiamnum appellanius Ilospitivnn 
Universitatis huicque operi ipse Custos viginti libras confeit; reliquum onus 
Collegio imponitur." 

^ Arch. Hist. i. p. 124. 


between what I have suggested for S. Thomas' Hostel 
and Chanons close we have but few data. The most in- 
teresting appear to have been (i) a house tenanted by 
a family named Swyn, who, according to Dr Stokes, 
gave their name to the neighbouring croft; and (2) Pater- 
noster Hostel, owned by John Paternoster, who flourished 
in the middle of the thirteenth century'. 

We now cross the street and follow it on its w^estern 
side to Peterhouse. The area which now comprises part 
of Scroope Terrace, S. Peter's Terrace, the grounds 
of Scroope House and of Grove Lodge and the New 
Fellows' Garden of Peterhouse is represented by Hamond 
as a meadow, without divisions or house-enclosures. It 
is fenced from the road and on the side next Peterhouse, 
and it extends as far as the brook which is the eastern 
boundary of Coe Pen. Lyne's plan shows that this land 
lay in pasture in his time, and it seems to have been 
reckoned as a part of "Coe Fen Leys": but, as the 
terriers of Barnwell Field show, it had once been divided 
into arable strips, or "selions"." l^he southern part of 
it, called Mortimer's dole, belonged to the manor of 
Newnham and was granted by Lady Ann Scroope to 
Gonville Hall, about 1501. The northern part, con- 
sisting of seven acres, was called Inglis Croft, otherwise 
Volye Croft, and lay next the wall of Peterhouse Grove. 
This part belonged to the White Canons, whose house 
faced it on the opposite side of Trumpington Street. It 
was acquired by Peterhouse in 1569^ 

Peter Howse backcside & "wa/kes (see fig. 23) is the 
name given by Hamond to the ground now occupied by 

1 Dr Stokes, ut stifra, Chapter VI. and the Index. 
^ Maitland, Tr.tmship and Borough, pp. 109 — ill. 
' Walker, History 0/ Peterhouse, p. 11. 


the College Grove and the Fitzwilliam IVIuseum. This 
ground, extending as far as Coe Fen, had been arable 
in the thirteenth century \ The southern half of it was 
called Wynwick's croft, after a fourteenth century tenant. 
The northern half was surrendered to the Collecre in 

(Peter JCcujfc ""^m/^ 

^'g- 23. Peterhouse, reduced from Hamond's Map of Cambridge, 1=92. 

1307 by the Friars of the Sack, tos:ether with the stone 

manse on it which they occupied. Hamond represents i 

the whole of this Backside as enclosed by a wall: it was i 

built in 1 501 and still exists along the western boundary j 

^ Anh. Hist. IV, Peterhouse, fig. i and Maitland, ut supra, p. in. ' 


and along the southern boundary as far as the site of 
the Fitzwilliain Museum. The Backside is bordered 
on all sides, except the southern, by trees and shrubs, 
and a row of houses parts it from Trumpington Street'. 
About the middle of the western side the Tennis Court 
is shown. The Fellows' Garden, which once was the 
Master's Garden, Is surrounded by a wall and planted 
with trees, and lies to the south of the range con- 
taining the Hall and Combination Room, but does not 
reach as far as the street: a passage, fenced at either 
end, leads from the street to the Garden. At the west 
end of the Hall we distinguish the door at the southern 
end of the screens passage: it opens on a small yard, 
through which the Garden and the Backside were ap- 
proached. In the position of the present Gisborne 
Court there are a kitchen court and cook's garden with 
offices disposed about them. 

In the southern range of the principal quadrangle, 
facing the Garden, the Hall is indicated by three large 
windows, and at its south-eastern end is shown the 
Master's turret, by which the upper floor of the Lodge 
was reached. The quadrangle is surrounded by ranges 
of chambers, except on the eastern side, where a wall, 
removed in 162S, separates it from the outer court. 
The northern range is prolonged in this outer court as 
far as to the houses facing the street, but the southern 
range ends a few feet short of them. In 1590 — i the 
College had begun, at this end of the southern range, 
the Library, for which Dr Perne made provision in his 
will; but it was not completed until 1594 — 5. Hamond, 

^ The old houses which fronted Trumpington Street before the Fitzwilliam 
Museum was built are shown in Ackermann's view of the front of Pembroke. The 
two next adjoining the east end of the Library range appear in Storer's illustration 
(fig. 4 in the Arch. Hist. i. p. 5), published 1827 — 9. 

H. 4 


however, shows, perhaps in anticipation, the block con- 
taining Perne's Library. 

At the eastern end of the Library, extending from 
it at riofht angles southwards, Hamond shows a small 
building, and opposite to it and reaching as far as the 
northern range is a long range fronting the street. The 
two buildings are connected at their southern end by a 
wall. When Bishop Balsham transferred his scholars 
from the Hospital of S. John to the Peterhouse site 
he housed them in two "hostels," next the church of 
S. Peter without Trumpington Gate (Little S. Mary's), 
and assigned the church for their use. During the 
Mastership of Dr Matthew Wren two important ad- 
ditions to the Colleo'c buildinofs were made. In 1628 — 
32 a new Chapel was built, and in 1633 the building 
containing Dr Perne's Library was prolonged to the 
street. These additions necessitated the removal of the 
range fronting the street and of the small block opposite 
to it and next Dr Perne's Library. In these buildings 
were contained "the Great" and "the Little Hostel." 
The Little Hostel, in 1626, contained seven chambers. 
As it was not destroyed until after the Chapel was 
completed it evidently stood clear of it. The Great 
Hostel seems to have stood on or near the site of the 
addition made to the Library in 1633 and contained ten 
chambers^ These may have been the actual hostels 
in which Balsham established his scholars in 12S4. 
Hamond gives a more accurate representation of the 
street front than is attempted by Lyne. A door is 
shown near the southern end, opening on the street. 

The principal entrance of the College was near the 
western end of the northern range, where Hamond 

* Walker, Histary of Piterhouse, p. 20. 


marks a door, which on the outer side opened on the 
churchyard of Little S. Mary. At Corpus also the 
approach to the College was through a churchyard. In 
the western range there is another door, approached 
by a lane which was the western boundary of Little 
S. Mary's churchyard. 

Of the church of Lite I S. Marie, which served the 
College as its Chapel until 162S, the plan shows the 
large east window, a truncated tower at the north-west 
angle, and on the southern side the vestry and the 
gallery connecting the church with the northern range 
of the College\ The northern limit of the churchyard 
is Little S. Mary's Lane, which is marked, but not 
named, in the plan, An enclosed pasture field, con- 
taining no buildings, occupies the space at the west 
end of the churchyard and reaches to the fen. At the 
western end of Little S. Mary's Lane, and between it 
and Mill Lane, are some important-looking buildings 
disposed about a quadrangle, the use and ownership of 
which are not known. 

Between Little S. Mary's Lane and Mill Lane 
Hamond shows a square close containing two build- 
ings — one flanking Little S. Mary's Lane, the other 
at the corner of Mill Lane and Trumpington Street, 
immediately opposite Pembroke gate. These buildings, 
which do not look important, represent what remained 
in 1592 of the manor-house which was called Cotton 
Hall, from its owners, the Cottons, a family well known 
in the town and county from the fifteenth century on- 
wards. At an earlier period the so-called manor, which 
was extensive both in the borough and the shire, had 

^ Arch. Hist. i. p. 23. Fig. 23, p. 48, does not reproduce the details of the 
plan quite accurately. 


belonged to the Cayly family and was known as Caylys. 
About the year 1529 the farmhouse of Cotton Hall was 
decayed and had fallen down, and the site was unin- 
habited'. The manor afterwards passed into the hands 
of Dr Harvey, Master of Trinity Hall, who bequeathed 
it to his College in 15S4. A house which stood on this 
site and is described as an "old brick mansion" is 
mentioned by Lysons" as having been pulled down, 
probably in the eighteenth century. 

Mill Lane, which on either side is flanked by de- 
tached houses and gardens, conducts us to The Kynges 
myll, which is represented as spanning the eastern 
branch of the river' (Sheet 8). The lane is skirted on 
its northern side by the King's Ditch, which is crossed by 
two foot-bridges. The Ditch, as an open watercourse, 
crosses Mill strete, which here is not continuous with 
the loneer street of the same name which lav between 
Queens' College and S. Catharine's Hall. Between Mill 
Street and the river there is a row of small houses. 

The area bounded south and north by Mill Lane 
and Silver Street is shown crowded with houses, court- 
yards and gardens. One of the houses which face 
Trumpington Street was the Cardinal's Cap, an inn 
famous in the early years of the seventeenth century : 
it stood on part of the site of the University Press^ 

We may, for the present, leave unnoticed Queens' 
Colleee and the buildings which border Silver Street 
on its north side and proceed to the bridge at its western 

* Cooper, Annals, ii. p. 39 note. 
^ Cambridgeshire, p. 144. 

' In earlier, as well as later times, there were two Mills, known as the King s 
and the Bishop's Mill: but from the days of Queen Elizabeth they stood under one 
roof, and are so shown by Ilamond. 

* Arch. Hist. iii. p. 135. 


end, where we cross the united courses of the river as 
it comes from the two mills. The bridge, if we may 
trust Lyne and Hamond, w\is a railed bridge of planks, 
without arch or piers \ The smaller bridge, near the 
Hermitage, was not even railed. The southern side 
of Sih^er Street, where is now the Anchor Inn and boat- 
house, was, in Hamond's day, open to the Mill Pool. 
Above the King's Mill stretches Sheep's Green, on 
which grazing sheep are figured. Beyond the bridge, 
in Hamond's plan, as in Lyne's, all appearance of a 
road ends, and traffic found its way over an open green 
to the second of the two bridges, w^hich together were 
known as Small Bridges. This second bridge crossed 
a considerable branch of the river, which came from 
Newnham Mill, and survives in an attenuated form as 
the ditch which bounds Queens' Grove on its western 
side. Near this bridge from a very early date had 
existed a Hermitage, which was the property of the 
townsmen. To the Hermitage was annexed a chapel, 
licensed in 1396 for the celebration of divine service". 
The hermit was permitted to take toll from passengers 
and was required to repair the bridge and the road 
leading to Barton. He had a garden and was allowed 
to use the willows growing in it and along the causeway 
for the repair of the bridge and of the road, which was 
often reported to be slippery and dangerous. In 1547 
the Corporation agreed to sell the Hermitage and chapel, 
but they were apparently in existence in 1 549^ Hamond 
shows a small island — the same which still exists — near 
the bridge and the modern dwelling-house called The 

' This bridge was destroyed by Cromwell in 1642. Its successor was protected 
by open railings, and was so narrow as to admit of the passage of only one vehicle 
at a time: see it represented in a cut in W'lhon' ^ ^Vi;f'iorddi7ia Cantabrigiig, p. 135. 

^ Cooper, Annals, i. p. 143. ^ Ibid. ii. p. 44. 


Hermitage. It is covered with willows and contains a 
small building which may possibly be the Hermitage 
or the chapel. 

Skirting the western branch of the river we find our 
way over the swampy green to Newenham niylL The 
mill was parcel of the great Mortimer estate, which 
passed to Gonville Hall by gift of Lady Ann Scroope, 
as has been already mentioned (p. 47). On the western 
slope, beyond the mill, roads and scattered houses begin 
to reappear. In the plan we see the beginnings of the 
Barton Road ; also the field tracks now represented by 
Malting Lane, Newnham Walk, Sidgwick Avenue and, 
crossing these, a field-road, anciently known as Long 
Balke or Mill Path Way, which exists in Ridley Hall 
Road, but in the rest of its course was obliterated when 
the open fields were enclosed in 1S02. But we miss 
Queens' Road, the road on the " Backs" behind Queens' 
and King's: in the low-lying ground which it traverses 
there was no road in Hamond's day. On the higher 
ground, west of Long Balke, we see arable land laid out 
in selion strips, and north of the road now called West 
Road, anciently Frosshelake ("Frog-pond") Way, the 
arable descends the slope and occupies the space now 
filled by the Fellows' Garden of King's College \ Other- 
wise the whole of the land on either side of what is now 
Queens' Road lies in pasture. Horses graze in the 
higher ground, cattle in the swampy parts near the 
Queens' ditch : and there are no houses. The arable 
was part of Carme Field, one of the open fields of the 
Town, which took its name from the Carmelite house 

^ The Prospect of Cambridge /rem the West prefixed to Loggan's Cantabrigia 
Jllustrata gives an excellent view of the arable fields on either side of Grange Road 
(see p. 137). Long Balke is shown in Custance's map of 179S. 


which stood at Nevvnham until 1290 when the friars 
transferred themselves to a new site between Queens' 
and King's. 

Queens' Grove (fig. 24 on p. 60) or "pond-yard," as 
it used to be called, is shown thickly planted with trees 
and practically insulated by the river, the Queens' 
College ditch and a watercourse which bounded it on 
the southern side, towards the Small Bridges. It is con- 
nected with the College by two bridges, one in the 
position of the present bridge, the other leading to the 
Fellows' Garden. There is a third bridge over the water- 
course on the southern side of the Grove. The plan 
shows a building inside the Grove and facing this third 
bridge. It was the brewhouse and stables. The middle 
part of the Grove, which was the Fellows' Fruit Garden, 
is enclosed with a wooden fence. Outside it is another 
fence, nearer the watercourses and roughly parallel with 
the ditch. 

Continuing along the western side of the river we 
next arrive at two enclosed paddocks belonging to 
King's College (Sheets 8 and 9). They are parted by 
a walk which leads from a bridge to the town pasture. 
The bridge is the old bridge of King's, occupying the 
position laid down for it by Henry VI in his plan of the 
College, further north than the present bridge. The 
structure seen in Hamond's plan was removed soon 
after i 595, and its place was successively taken by two 
other bridges before the present one was begun in 1818. 
■ A note contained in the old Field Book of the western 
fields of Cambridge tells that the two paddocks had 
been part of the Town pasture, called Long Meadow, 
before they were acquired by Henry V\\ The smaller, 

' " Longe medow or longe grene is withowt the Kynge college and all is y* 


southern close is represented in the plan as planted 
with trees and bounded on two sides by a trench 
drawn from the river. In the seventeenth century it 
was known as " the pondyard," as it contained a large 
pond, in which was an island. On the island a building 
is shown in the plan, which was a pigeon-house, built 
originall) in l449^ It is a large structure showing on 
its eastern side two doors and a window, and does not 
bear much resemblance to a modern pigeon-house. But 
pigeon-houses were important features of medieval 
colleges, and the Architectural History' shows that 
they w^ere often large and had glazed windows. The 
northern close, called by Hamond Kynges college backe 
sides, was used in the sixteenth century as pasture for 
the College horses. The northern part of it, known 
as Butt Close, was acquired by Clare College after a 
memorable controversy with King's, in 1638, when the 
society of the former college was reconstructing its 
buildincfs on a new site^ 

We are reminded of the great alterations which 
have taken place in the appearance of " the Backs " 
since 1592 when we find in the plan that the town 
pasture, called Long Meadow, extends to the river bank, 
opposite Trinity College. In 1592 this was the only 
place between the Small Bridges and the Great Bridge 
where the common land of the townsmen reached to 
the river. Trinity College obtained this land by ex- 
change with the Town in 16 13*. Previously the only 

orchard wherein thir dovehouse standethe and all thir other grete close being boethe 
witliowt thir brydge tow.^rds y<= feeldes and was part of longe medow or longe grene 
before the college had yt purchased from y= towne of Cambridge by y<= Kynge thir 
founder." The Field Book further tells us that tlie King's College close was once 
called "Thousand willows." 

' Arch. Hist. i. p. m. '•' Ibid. i. p. 511 and iii. pp. 593—3. 

3 Ibid. i. pp. 8S — 9:. ■* Ibid. ii. p. 407. 


passage from the College to the western bank was by 
Garret Hostel Bridge, which belonged to the Town and 
is first heard of in 1520'. This bridge, which Hamond 
has depicted with much care, had been built in 1591, a 
year before his plan was made. 

Just above the bridge the plan shows a channel 
branching from the river at the north-west angle of 
Trinity Hall Garden and rejoining it at a point near 
the northern end of the site of Trinity Library. This 
was known as the King's Ditch, and the island between 
it and the main channel of the river was Garret Hostel 
Green. Before 1550 the ditch was a navigable branch 
of the river, and two hithes were on its eastern bank. 
In 1605 — 6 it had become inconsiderable and was then 
vaulted and covered over-. The greater part of Garret 
Hostel Green was acquired from the Town by the College 
at the same time as it obtained the paddock on the 
western side of the river. Where Garret Hostel Lane 
crossed the ditch Hamond marks a bridge. Lyne in his 
plan shows another bridge further north, connecting 
the island with the eastern bank : Hamond ignores it, 
though the Trinity Bursar's accounts in 1598 — 9 show 
that it existed then and was known as " the bridge by 
the backhouse^" 

The rectangular trenches which at present bound 
the Trinity paddocks on the south and west sides had 
no existence in 1592 ; but the portion of the Town field 
which was next the river was divided from the rest of 
Long Green by a winding brook. This brook was a 
continuation of the watercourse which bounded King's 
Meadow and Butt Close on their western side, and in 

^ Cooper, Annals, i. p. 304. 

"^ Arch. Hist. ii. p. 639. On the subject of this Ditch see the Introduction, 
p. XV. ' Ibid. ii. p. 636. 


Hamond's plan it is in turn continued in the water- 
course parting the Wilderness from the Meadow of S. ] 
John's College^ (Sheet 2). I 
The Wilderness is not shown in Hamond's plan. In j 
his time it formed part of the common Field of the Town, | 
known as Carmefield ; it was acquired by S. John's \ 
about 1 6 10. The Meadow, called by Hamond S.J lions \ 
Walkes, is represented as bounded by straight water- \ 
courses on its south and west sides and on the north by | 
the Bin Brook. It is connected with the eastern bank I 
of the river by a wooden bridge of three openings, i 
probably the same bridge which is shown in Loggan's j 
view. An avenue of trees is shown by Hamond, be- j 
ginning near this bridge and leading to another bridge i 
which crosses the watercourse at the western end of the j 
Meadow. Parallel with this avenue is a double row of \ 
trees linino- the banks of a ditch, which bes^ins at the 
Bin Brook above the present weir and discharges in the | 
river, opposite the Library of S. John's College. This | 
was called the S. John's ditch and was covered in when j 
the New Court was built in 1825 — 31, and at the same j 
time the trees were cut down. In Hamond's plan the ! 
area between the ditch and the Bin Brook is divided j 
by a double row of trees into western and eastern por- j 
tions : the former contains six ponds, from which circum- | 
stance it was called "the pondyards"": the latter was j 
leased by the college to townsmen and by a bridge i 
across the Bin Brook was entered from Fisher's Lane, I 
which in 1 592, as now, was the only place on the western j 
bank occupied by dwelling-houses. The banks of the \ 

' On the subject of the watercourses at the Backs of the Colleges see Arthur 
Gray, The IVa.'ercourse called Cavibrid^e in C.A.S. Comm. and F roc. ix. pp. 61 — 77 
and The Dual Origiti 0/ the Tou<n of Cambridge (C.A.S. Quarto Publications, 
1908). 2 Arch. Hist. ii. p. 735. 


Bin Brook are lined with trees, and on its northern side, 
near the river, are some scattered buildings. Behind 
them is pasture reaching to the "School of Pythagoras." 
The so-called School of Pythagoras is carefully re- 
produced in the plan and shows an upper and lower 
window in the eastern gable and three in the upper part 
of the southern wall. With the adjoining house, now 
called Merton Hall, it stands in a close which is skirted 
by the lane now known as Northampton Street, formerly 
Merton Hall Lane or Bell Lane. By a carelessness 
rare in Hamond the name Pithagoras Howse has got 
transferred in his plan to a dose and buildings on the 
opposite side of Northampton Street, where is nowWest- 
minster College and where formerly was the Grange 
of S. John's\ In the plan (Sheet 3) the Grange is repre- 
sented as consistinof of two domestic buildino-s and a 
very large barn, near which a pigeon-house is seen with 
a pigeon flying towards it. At the western end of the 
Grange, and separated from it by a passage, is a house 
with two enclosures, one of them an orchard. This part 
is called in the Field Books Muscroft or Mewscroft, no 
doubt from a pigeon-house or " mews " contained in it. 
Beyond it is the road now called Lady Margaret's Road, 
and northwards, along the Madingley Road, stretches 
the open Field, called Grithowe Field^ 

* Hamond is probably the earliest authority for the application of the name of 
Pythagoras to a house in Cambridge. In Lydgate's Verses on the Foundation of 
the University of Cambridge (Mullinger, The University of Cambridge, i. Ap- 
pendix A) Anaximander and Anaxngoras are said to have taught in its schools. 
There is no ground for supposing that tradition connected Pythagoras with the 
Grange. Grange Road takes its name from St John's Grange. 

^ Grit-howe, i.e. Gravil Hill, wiiich is near the Observatory. Lady Margaret 
Road, though it has only been laid out in recent years, is in fact part of a very 
ancient road, called Barton Way from the circumstance that it was the direct road 
from Barton to the Castle. It started at a spring, allied Chalkwell, near the Castle, 
crossed the fields, where its hedgerows are still traceable on the University Rille 
Range, and joined the Barton Road at the Town boundary. 



Having completed our tour of the Backs of the 
Colleges we may now return to the Small Bridges, near 
Queens', andresume our survey from thatpoint(Sheet8). 

Fig. ■24. Queens' College, reduced from Hamond's map of Cambridge, 1593. 

QHC7ies college {^g. 2 4)has changed so little in appearance 
since the time of Hamond that we have in it an excellent 
illustration of the fidelity of his methods contrasted with 
the conventional rendering of Lyne. The lower end of 


Silver Street, anciently called Smallbridges Street, is 
shown by Hamond notasthestraightthoroughfareof uni- 
form width which appears in Lyne s plan : it is the same 
picturesquely curving street, narrowing as it approaches 
the bridge, which is to be seen to-day, and the southern 
range of Queens' College adapts itself to the bend by 
an angle in its outline, formed at Erasmus' tower, where 
the principal and cloister courts join. The tower itself, 
the windows on the garret floor, the tall chimneystacks, 
are all distinctly shown; and so, in the front to Queens' 
Lane, are the Gate Tower, the'eastern end of the Chapel, 
and the turret between the Chapel and the Gate. In 
the principal court we see the oriel of the Hall, the 
louvre and vane on the Hall roof, three windows of the 
Chapel, a low window in the ante-chapel, the door of 
the passage next it, and the rails which surround the 
grassplot in the middle of the quadrangle^ In the court 
beyond the Hall we recognise the cloister on three sides : 
but we miss the oriels in the President's Gallery and at 
the north-west angle of the court. In the middle of the 
court is a single tree, possibly the same which is shown 
in Loggan's view of 1688. The south cloister walk is 
accurately shown as not attached to a range of buildings. 
Beyond it, towards Silver Street, where the Essex 
building now stands, there is an irregularly planned 
annexe to the court, which is open to the river at its 
south-west corner. Walnut Tree Court, on the northern 
side of the Chapel, does not figure in the plan : the eastern 
range there was not erected until 1 6 1 6 — 18. The greater 
part of this court, and of the President's Garden, next 
the river, as well as all the ground that lies to the north 

f, * The rails had disappearLcl before 16SS, when Loggan made his drawing. 

t ArcA. Hist. ii. p. 53. 




of them as far as Cholles Lane, which parted it from' 
King's College, was the site of the house and grounds' 
of the Carmelite Friars, which were bought by the! 
College in 1544. In Hamond's plan the whole of this 
ground on the northern side of the College is divided 
into four square plots approximately equal in size, and 
all of them, except the site of Walnut Tree Court, laid 
out as gardens. This arrangement was unchanged until 
the extension of Walnut Tree Court in 1885. 

Before we return to the High Street we will proceed 
a little further along Queens' Lane to the place on its 
eastern side where H amend marks S. Catkermes Hall 
(fig. 24 on p. 60). It should be borne in mind that the 
acquisition by this College of the site which enabled it 
to extend eastward to Trumpington Street and southward 
to Silver Street was very gradual, and that in the six- \ 
teenth century the College was limited to two very small I 
quadrangles, which were entered from Queens' Lane, i 
The buildings comprised in these quadrangles have long 
since disappeared, and Hamond's plan gives us the only 
view of them which is more than conventional. The 
tiny entrance court has no building on its western side, 
but is parted from Queens' Lane by a wall, in which 
there is a low door. On its other sides it is enclosed by 
buildings : those on the north and south sides are pro- 
longed eastward beyond the court, and in the northern 
prolongation is contained the Chapel, which is marked \ 
by a large window in the eastern gable. The position 1 
of the Hall, in the northern half of the building which j 

fronts the entrance from Queens' Lane, is clearly in- ' 


^ The reproduction of Hamond's plan in the Architectural History (Fig. 24, j 

above) is vague and inaccurate in details. It shows a building in the entrance j 

court, facing Queens' Lane, and omits the conspicuous marks which serve to j 

identify the positions of the Hall and Chapel. j 


dicated by a singrle large window and by the door of 
the screens passage, seen in the plan on its eastern side. 
South of the entrance court, and larger than it, is shown 
the interior court, contained by ranges on three sides, 
and on the south side separated by a wall from a garden 
which lies opposite to Queens' and belonged to that 
College. This garden contains a tennis court. The 
buildings arranged round a quadrangle and lyino- 
between this garden and the corner of Queens' Lane 
and Silver Street were almshouses belonging to Queens' 
College and were leased from the College by the Uni- 
versity in 1654 as a Printing House'. The large 
buildings on the opposite side of Silver Street and 
facing the south-east angle of Queens' College were 
those of the Black Lion Inn. 

The western side of Trumpington Street, between 
Silver Street and the lane called by Hamond Plott & 
N2its Lane, is occupied by a continuous row of houses, 
some with yards attached to them. Here were several 
inns, The Three Horseshoes, The White Swan, The 
George (which once belonged to Hobson, the carrier) 
and The Black Bull, which still occupies its old site. 
Adjoining The Black Bull, northwards, was The White 
Horse, which had a narrow front to the street and 
a more extended one to Plott and Nuts Lane. This 
inn, removed in 1S23, was famous in the reign of 
Henry VH I as the meeting-place of the early Reformers, 
or "Heretics," as they were styled, and it was chosen 
for the purpose as it could be entered privately from 
the Backs by a door in the lane'. On the south side of 
Plott and Nuts Lane, where it joins Queens' Lane, 

^ Arch. Hist. iii. pp. 133, 134. 

' C.A.S. Comrn. and Free. iii. pp. 407—409, On the site of the White Horse, 
or ^Germany'' (G. F. Browne). 



Fig. 25. Part of Hamond's Map, i J92. 


stood another inn, The Boreshede. Nearly opposite 
this inn is S. Austin's Hostel, which survived as " the 
Pentionary" of King's College at least as late as i644\ 
It is identified by the door in its northern wall, giving 
access to the College. Beyond it, in Queens' Lane, is 
seen a tennis court which belonged to King's College 
and was pulled down, as it seems, in 1594'. North of 
the Carmelite site another lane, called Whitefreer Lane, 
otherwise Cholles Lane or Water Lane, which was not 
continuous with Plott and Nuts Lane, led to the water- 
side, and on the river bank in medieval times was a 
hithe, called Cholleshithe. This lane remained as a 
public thoroughfare so late as 1823. The strip of orchard 
ground on its southern side was purchased from the 
Carmelites by King's College in 1535. 

Beyond Whitefreer Lane and the houses which 
stand on the north side of Plott and Nuts Lane Hamond 
(fig. 25) shows a huge area, without any marks of 
cultivation and unoccupied by any considerable buildings, 
except on the High Street boundary. It is the site pur- 
chased by the Founder for King's College and designed 
for its Great Court. Loggan calls it Chappel Yard. 
Lyne and Hamond have no name for it. The only 
King's College known to them was the court, on the 
northern side of the Chapel, which, after Gibbs' building 
was erected in 1724, was called the Old Court, and is 
now incorporated in the University Library. 

On the north side of Chapel Yard Hamond has 

' Arch. Hist. i. pp. 344, 511 note and p. 554. In 1449 "^^is hostel was described 
as consisting ol " certain newly built tenements lying together." Dr Caius mentions 
in his History that within his momor)- it was occupied l.'V students. In 1579 King's 
College had ''chambers in the tenise court": Hamond shows a building at the 
south-east corner of the tennis court, but not in it. 

* Ibid. i. pp. 554, 555. 

"• 5 


drawn Kyngcs college chapel I with remarkable fidelity to 
scale' and general appearance : it has suffered no material j 
chancre since his time'. Besides the Chapel we may 
note the following features : ( i ) the belfry, a detached 
wooden structure, supported by struts, standing a few 
yards distant from the west end of the Chapel ; it was 
removed in 1739: (2) the wall surrounding the College 
grounds, eastward of the river, on all sides, not excepting 
the river bank; this was a feature of the Founder's de- 
sio-n: (3) the bridge, a structure with wooden piers and 
handrails, built in the position intended by the Founder ; 
in the river, just above it, are two small islands covered 
with trees: (4) three enclosed spaces, next the river, of; 
which the middle one is lettered in Loggan's plan 
Bowling Green: (5) a few unimportant buildings on the : 
river bank and on the southern boundary: (6) an arched ; 
gate of entrance at the end of Queens' Lane, which was | 
called Friars' Gate, and a building adjoining it, which was ; 
the stable^: (7) four bastions in the eastern wall, some- ' 
what resembling the towers with which the Founder 
intended the wall to be crested and embattled : (S) an 
entrance to the Chapel Yard, between the two middle 
bastions; there is no gate, nor any walk approaching it 
either from the High Street or the Chapel Yard: it 
gave access to the latter from the Provost's Lodge and 
the Conducts' Court. \ 

1 As nearly as the small scale of Hamond's design admits of measurement, he 
represents the length of the church as 300 feet and the breadth as 60 feet, the angle ; 
turrets in both cases being included; the actual measurements are 315 and 67. 

^ Remark under the easternmost window on the south side the roof line and 
abutments of the domestic building which in the Founder's plan was to have stoou 
in that position. 

* I'he gate, which was destroyed when the Wilkins building was put up i" 
1814, is seen in a view of Queens' l.ane in Dyer's Uiii-jcrsity and Collc^is of C<; ■•/.■• 
briJge, ii. p. 167. The same view (1814) shows an ancient house on the site of the 
tennis court. ■ 


Between the eastern wall of the Chapel Yard and 
the High Street, which was much narrower in 1592 
than at present, there is a triangular space occupied by- 
houses. At the base of it, which is the northern side, 
there is a narrow lane, anciently known as Glomery 
Lane, afterwards as School Street, which, from a point 
nearly opposite S. Mary's Passage, leads to the south- 
eastern corner of the Schools. Between this lane and 
the opening in the eastern wall of the Chapel Yard was 
the Provost's Lodge, which had a small garden at the 
north-east end of the Chapel. Some houses stood 
between the Lodge and the High Street, which were the 
property of the College and were sold to the University 
in i76g\ 

In Hamond's view of the Old Court we may dis- 
tinguish : (i) the Gate Tower, carried up no higher than 
the roof of the adjoining range : (2) the Hall, in the 
north-east corner, projecting eastward beyond the court, 
: so as to overlap the north range of the Schools quad- 

I rangle, a narrow passage intervening ; at the western 

i end there is a low porch, and on the roof there is a 

I louvre and weathercock ; the unsubstantial character of 
! the building is shown by its roof, which is not of lead, 

j as are the other roofs of the court : (3) a passage almost 
I hidden in the plan by one of the angle-turrets of the 
[. Chapel ; it was called Cow Lane and was the exit from 
I the court in the direction of the Chapel: (4) a turret at 
|. the south-west angle of the court'. 

[ Behind the Old Court is the Comoii Schole (see 

I fig. 25 on p. 64) showing the large Entrance Gate, 

^ ^ For a history and description of the old Provost's Lodge, which was pulled 

R down in 1828, see Arch. Hist. i. pp. 540 — 548. 

|r; * A ground plan of the Old Court is given in Arch. Hist. i. p. 322 and interior 

t and exterior views, ibid. tigs. 5, 6, 7. 



which was erected by Archbishop Rotheram, about the 
year 1470, and was removed to Madingley Hall in 1758. 
The Gate, which, as usual, was not in the centre of the 
range in which it stood, fronts University Sirete. This 
street, later known as Regent's Walk, leads to the High 
Street, which it joins opposite S. Mary's church, and 
was made in 1574 at the expense of Matthew Parker, 
archbishop of Canterbury. Hamond distinctly shows 
the embattled walls which Parker built on each side of 
the street at the end near the Schools Gate\ The 
houses on both sides of the street at its High Street 
end remained in the occupation of private persons until 
they were removed about the years 1720 — 4, at which 
time the Senate House quadrangle was laid out". The 
eastern end . of the street was about twenty-five feet 
nearer to the tower of S. Mary's church than the iron 
railings which now bound this quadrangle. 

In the north-west corner of the Schools quadrangle, 
in Hamond's plan, we recognise the staircase turret 
shown in Loggan's view. The staircase led to a door, 
still existinor in what is now the Catalos^ue Room of 
the Library and was formerly the New Chapel and, 
later, the Regent House, of the University^ Hamond 
shows a door in the northern range of the quadrangle 
by which the Divinity School was entered. He gives 
no indication of the Schools Tower, as it was called, 
which, in Loggan's view, stands in the eastern range 
between Rotheram's Gate and the southern range\ 
North of the Divinity School is a vacant plot, belong- 

^ Arch. Hist. iii. p. 39. 

^ Ibid. iii. pp. 43, 48. See fig;. 25 on p. 64 supra. 

^ Stokes, The Chaplains and Chapel of the University cf Cambridge, C.A.S. 
8vo Publications, xli. p. 58. 

•♦ Arch. Hist. iii. fig. 4, opposite pp. 10, 11, and the ground plan of the original 
arrangement of the Schools Quadrangle, ibid. fig. 5, p. 16. 


ing to King's College and entered from the Old 
Court. Here once stood the School of S. Margaret, 
a theological school which in 1396 belonged to Michael- 

The old arrangement of the Schools and the streets 
adjoining them will be best understood by reference to 
fig. 26 (p. 70). The name, School Street, was applied 
both to the passage, already mentioned, leading from the 
southern end of the front of the Schools to the Hioh 
Street, and to a lane which ran at riofht angles to it 
along the front of the Schools. Sometimes the two 
were spoken of as School Lanes: sometimes they were 
distinguished as East School Street and North School 
Street ; and the former was also known as S. Mary's 
Lane. Many Schools had once occupied sites in these 
two lanes, though all, except the Common School, had 
disappeared in Hamond's time. In East School Street 
the houses on either side at the High Street end be- 
longed to King's College, and were sold to the University 
between 1757 and 1769. On the southern side, at the 
corner of East and North School Streets, where 
Hamond's plan shows the Lodge of the Provost of 
King's, there stood in 1440 a School called "Arte scole"," 
and on the opposite side of East School Street were 
two undesignated Schools. At the southern end of 
North School Street, where the garden of the Provost 
of King's College is shown in Hamond's plan, there 
formerly stood the Glomery Hall, or Grammar School, 
perhaps the most ancient of all the Schools. The eastern 
gable of King's Chapel occupies a part of its site. On 
the east side of North School Street, opposite the north 
end of the Schools, is a house with a large garden 

^ Arch. Hist. ii. p. 416 note. 2 /^^_ jji^ p_ ,_ 





C L A K E 

Fig. 16. Plan of the Schools, etc., about 1575. 


attached to it. In the sixteenth century it belonged to 
Dr William Butts, physician to Henry VIII, and in 
1525 he leased the garden with a stable to Nicholas 
Speryng, who was one of the official University printers 
and stationers. 

Until 1730 the eastern part of the present Senate 
House Passage, from the Gate of Honour to Senate 
House Hill, did not exist. The ground between 
University Street and the boundary of Caius College 
was acquired by the University in 1673. At that time it 
was occupied by dwelling-houses, of which the principal 
was the New Inn, or New Angel Inn, which stood on 
the site of the Senate House: further to the south was 
another Inn, called the Green Dragon\ The New Inn 
is apparendy the building which in Hamond's plan is 
distinguished by its long yard. Behind it was garden 
ground, which extended as far as North School Street 
and was purchased from Corpus by the University at 
the time when it also acquired the New Inn. This had 
formerly been the garden of a hostel, called S. Mary's 
Hostel, and when Dr Caius bought the site of Caius 
Court he covenanted that he would not open any 
windows in the gable of his new building, abutting on 
the garden". 

The Gate of Honour derived its name from the 
circumstance that it stood at the end of North School 
Street, leading directly to the Schools. Between North 
School Street and Alill strete (now Trinity Hall Lane) 
Hamond (fig. 25, p. 64) marks a lane which he, as also 
Lyne, calls Hcnney, parting the Old Court of King's 
College from the garden of the IMaster of Caius College. 

1 History of a Site in Senate Hcntze Yard, by J. W. Clark and J. E. Foster, 
C.A.S. Comm. and Proc. xiii. p. 120. Arch. Hist. iii. p. 40. 
" Arch. Hist. i. p. 163. 


This lane occupies the position of the western portion 
of Senate House Passage. Until University Street was 
made, the ordinary way of getting from S. Mary's church 
to Mill Street was by the two School Streets and Henney. 
On the western side of Mill Street there was once 
another lane, also called Henney, which led to the river 
bank. The two portions of Henney were not continuous, 
the western one passing through the ground now occu- 
pied by the Tutor's house and kitchen of Trinity Hall, 
so that the Mill Street ends of the two Hennevs were 
105 feet apart\ The western Henney was acquired by 
Trinity Hall in 1545, when the College enclosed it and 
made a new lane to the river side, the still existing 
Garret Hostel Lane. Garret Hostel Lane is marked 
but not named by Hamond. 

The portion of Mill Street which is now called 
Trinity Hall Lane is a prolongation of the Mill Street 
which is now Queens' Lane : the intervening part was 
enclosed when King's College was founded. Where 
the principal court of Trinity Hall projects beyond the 
street front of the Entrance Court the street makes a 
short bend eastwards, and in the angle formed by the 
juncture of the two courts Hamond marks a triangular 
space, enclosed by a fence, exactly as at the present 
day-. Mill Street ended at the Gate of Michaelhouse, 
where it met Find silver la7ie (now Trinity Lane), 

Hamond's delineation of Cla}'e Hall (fig, 25, p, 64) 
is particularly interesting, for not only have the buildings 

' Prior to 1498 the western Henney was continued on the eastern side of Mill 
Street, through Gonvile Hall, as far as Trinity Street, which it reached opposite to 
S. Michael's church. Sometimes it was called School Lane, sometimes "the lane 
under the garden of Gonvile Hall." Arch. Hht. i. p. 319. The lane which 
Han^ond and Lyne call Henney was not a part of this lane. 

- This space was the "little garden" made by Dr Jowett, Tutor of Trinity Hall, 
al)out 1793: see the epigram thereon. Arch. Hist. i. p. 228, note 1. 


; which he shows completely disappeared, but the very 

; site of the quadrangle was changed when the College 

I was reconstructed, between 163S and 1715. The 

1 eastern range, which in Hamond's time was flush with 

; the street and continuous, indeed contiguous, with the 

I front of the Entrance Court of Trinity Hall, was set 

i back 70 feet to the west between 163S and 1641, and 

I on the western side of the College the garden ground 

[ next the river was reduced in its length to about the 

• same extent. The north and south porches of King's 

f College Chapel stand exactly on the line of the part of 

i Mill Street w^hich was enclosed by Henry VI in the 

I grounds of his College, and the street in front of Clare 

f Hall was closed at its southern end by a wall which 

\ was a prolongation of the external side of the southern 

I range of Clare Hall. Consequently this range was most 

j inconveniently near the western part of King's College 

1- Chapel. Between the north porch and the wall which 

I blocked the street there was a passage, fourteen feet 

[5 wide, which gave access to a piece of ground extending, 

fc between the Chapel on one side and the Old Court and 

H the Law School on the other, as far as the wall of the 

y Provost's garden. Through a gate, between the garden 

I wall and the corner of the Law School, the East School 


t Street was reached. This was the most direct route 


I from the Old Court to the High Street in 1592. In 

f 1637 the two Colleges consented to remove the incon- 

i. venience of the proximity of their buildings. Clare 

I agreed to lease to King's the ground in front of the 

» southern part of its new eastern range, and received in 

I exchanofe from Kinc^'s the Butt Close on the western 

I side of the river, as has been mentioned on p. 56. The 

I ranges on the western and northern sides of the quad- 


rangle of Clare were rebuilt, or remodelled, between 
the years 1523 — 35, after a fire, in 1521, which destroyed 
the Master's Lodge and the Treasury. The other 
buildings shown in Hamond's plan are possibly those 
of the original College: they are distinguished from the 
newer ranges by their tall chimneys. We proceed to 
notice some of the principal features in the plan'. 

The eastern entrance from the street is by a simple 
arch, with a side door. As in other colleges of fourteenth 
century foundation there is no gate-tower. A hedge 
separates the plot in the middle of the quadrangle from 
the walks. In the north-east corner is the Chapel, dis- 
tinguished by windows larger than the others in the 
same range. It shows no eastern gable next the street, 
from which it was parted by intervening chambers in 
the eastern ranee. Above the door are small windows 
and a chimney on the roof, showing that there were 
chambers above the ante-Chapel'. A very narrow 
passage, as at the present time, separates the northern 
range from Trinity Hall. It has no apparent entrance 
from the street, and did not lead to the Kitchen, as it 
now does, for in 1 592 the Kitchen was in the south-western 
corner of the quadrangle. Facing the gate, a broad, 
stepped gable containing windows of unusual width 
marks the Master's Lodge, which is between the Hall 
and the north-west angle of the quadrangle. At the 
back of the Lodge there is a small garden belonging to 
the Master: a portion of the Lodge projects into it. On 
the side next the court the Hall shows an oriel and 

• The reduced reproduction of Ilamond's plan of Clare College and Trinity 
Hall, given in Arch. Hist. i. p. 8;, is unfortunately very inaccurate. In Arch. 
Hist. vol. iv. there is a reduced copy of an ancient plan of the old buildings of 
Clare College (fig. 2). 

2 Cole's sketch of the old Chapel, dated 1742, reproduced in Arch. Hist. i. 
p. 83, shows that there were chambers above the Chapel throughout its length. 


three tall windows. A door at its southern end marks 
the position o( the screens. Beyond them is a passage, 
between walls, conducting to a green which extends to 
the river and contains two outhouses. A very large 
tree grows near the river bank. The Kitchen is evi- 
dently in the south-west corner of the court, and a small 
yard on its western side is apparently the Kitchen yard. 
The rest of the ground between the College and the 
river is occupied by the Fellows' garden, or, as 
Loggan calls it, the Bowling Green, a walled rectangle 
planted with trees. An embattled wall is carried along 
the river bank and is continued behind Trinity Hall as 
far as Garret Hostel Bridge, and a similar wall parts 
the grounds of King's and Clare'. There is no bridge, 
for Clare did not acquire the grounds beyond the river 
until 1637^ 

Trinity Hall, as shown in Hamond's plan, presents 
an appearance very different from the conventional 
representation of it given by Lyne. Instead of the two 
courts, equal in size, which are shown by Lyne, in 
Hamond's plan we see four courts, very different in size 
and appearance. The only entrance from Mill Street 
is by an archway set near the southern end of the front 
of the quadrangle next Clare College, now the New 
Court : on its northern side is a smaller postern door'. 

^ The wall next the river was put up in the mastership of William Wj-mbill, 
circa 1421, Arch. Hist. i. p. 78. 

* There is a gocxl drawing of the old buildings and grounds of Clare, made by 
a member of the College, Kdmund Prideaux, in 17 14. It is figured in Cambridge 
Described and ILintratcd (Atkinson and Clark), p. 304, and in the History of Clare 
College (Wardale). The date shows that it was executed from memor>- or an older 
drawing. The only points in which it differs from Hamond's plan are that it places 
the gate rather nearer to the northern end of the front of the College and shows 
three storeys in the eastern range— the highest a garret floor— and only two windows, 
besides the oriel, in the eastern wall of the Hall. 

3 After the erection of the new buildings in 1873 the arched gate was removed 


On its southern side this entrance quadrangle is bounded 
by a wall separating it from the back lane of Clare 
College. The southern part of the western side is also 
closed by a wall, in which there is a door opening on 
the small Master's Court : the Master's Court is now 
mainly occupied by an extension of the Lodge. The 
rest of the western side is occupied by a wing of the 
Lodge. Next this wing, in the northern range, we see 
the Chapel, distinguished by three windows and a 
cupola on the roof at its western end: this last had dis- 
appeared when Loggan's view was taken. 

At the eastern end of the Chapel is a passage leading 
to the principal court, in the middle of which something 
resembling a tree in a box is figured \ Here we dis- 
tinguish the Hall at the southern end of the western 
range. Hamond shows four windows, that at the 
dais end being larger than the others. Loggan's view 
shows only three, of equal size. On the roof is seen a 
louvre or bell-turret. At the northern end of the Hall 
is the door of the screens. Beyond the Hall is the 
Garden or Library Court, flanked on the south by 
the gallery of the Lodge, on the north by the Library 

The small Master's Court is almost completely sur- 
rounded by wings of the Lodge. That on the southern 
side, next Clare, is said to have been the Hostel of the 
Monks of Ely, which was the first acquisition of the 
Founder for the housing of his scholars'. Between the 

to the back entrance of the College in Garret Hostel Lane, and the postern door 
was set up in the kitchen yard. 

1 Loge;an's view shows a lir-tree in this court. It was planted in the seven- 
teenth century {Anh. Hist. i. p. 216, note 3). 

- For a description of the Monks' Buildinf^ as it appeared in the eighteenth 
century sec IVarreiis Book, p. 67, edited by Sir A. W. \V. Dale, Fellow of Trinity 
Hall, 191 1. Warren says that in his time it had no chimneys; Hamond shows a 


On its southern side this entrance quadrangle is bounded 
by a wall separating it from the back lane of Clare 
College. The southern part of the western side is also 
closed by a wall, in which there is a door opening on 
the small Master's Court : the Master's Court is now 
mainly occupied by an extension of the Lodge. The 
rest of the western side is occupied by a wing of the 
Lodge. Next this wing, in the northern range, we see 
the Chapel, distinguished by three windows and a 
cupola on the roof at its western end : this last had dis- 
appeared when Loggan's view was taken. 

At the eastern end of the Chapel is a passage leading 
to the principal court, in the middle of which something 
resembling a tree in a box is figuredS Here we dis- 
tinguish the Hall at the southern end of the western 
range. Hamond shows four windows, that at the 
dais end beins^ larger than the others. Lofrcran's view 
shows only three, of equal size. On the roof is seen a 
louvre or bell-turret. At the northern end of the Hall 
is the door of the screens. Beyond the Hall is the 
Garden or Library Court, flanked on the south by 
the gallery of the Lodge, on the north by the Library 

The small Master's Court is almost completely sur- 
rounded by wings of the Lodge. That on the southern 
side, next Clare, is said to have been the Hostel of the 
Monks of Ely, which was the first acquisition of the 
Founder for the housing- of his scholars*. Between the 


to the back entrance of the College in Garret Hostel Lane, and the postern door 
was set up in the kitchen yard. 

' Log£jan's view shows a fir-tree in this court. It was planted in the seven- 
teenth century (Anh. Hist. i. p. iiG, note 3). 

- For a description of the Monks' Buikiinf; as it appeared in the eighteenth 
century see IVarretis Book, p. 67, edited by Sir A. W. W. Dale, Fellow of Trinity 
Hall, 191 1. Warren says that in his time it had no chimneys; Ilamond shows a 



Master's Court and the river is the Fellows' Garden, 
and, separated from it by a wall, is a plot of nearly equal 
dimensions, which in a plan of 1731 is called the Back- 
side. This latter is parted by a wall on its northern side 
from the King's Ditch, described in the Introduction 
(p. xv), which branches from the river at a point just 
above Garret Hostel Bridge. Lyne places its beginning 
much nearer to Clare College and shows a foot-bridge 
connecting the Town land behind Trinity Hall with the 
island called Garret Hostel Green. Between the College 
and Garret Hostel Lane are shown two wardens of which 
the smaller and western one belonged to the Master : 
the other was the Fellows' Fruit Garden. 

Hamond desio^nates the two courts of Gonvile and 
Caius College, as Dr Caius did, respectively Cams 
% college and Gonmil hall (fig. 25 on p. 64). The entrances 
t to the combined colleges are three : ( i ) the original gate 
% of Gonvile Hall in Find silver lane (now Trinity Lane), 
\ (2) the Gate of Honour in Caius Court, facing North 
t School Street, and (3) the Gate of Humility, set in a 
I wall opposite the southern part of S. Michael's church. 
I From the last a passage, walled on either side, conducts 
I to the Gate of Virtue (or Wisdom) which is the principal 
I entrance to Caius Court. 

I At the date of Hamond's plan the eastern portion 

I of the present Senate House Passage did not exist 
\ (p. 71). Between the New Angel Inn, w^hich occupied 
\ the site of the Senate House, and the passage approach- 
I ing the Gate of Virtue from the High Street Hamond 
X shows several dwelling houses fronting the street. The 
; largest, which encloses a small courtyard, may be the 

! single chimney. In Loggan's view it has a dovecote on the roof in place of the 
I chimney. 


house called in deeds le Lambe, on the site of which 
once stood a Stone House belonging to the Prior of I 
Anglesey. North of this house and occupying the space 1 
between the Gate of Humility and the Gate of Virtue! 
was a tenement called the King's Arms or Arma Regia. j 
This, says Dr Caius, was once the residence of John 1 
Sibert, or Siberch, the University Printer (1521 — 2)\ i 
The site of the former house was acquired by the 
College in 1 782, of the latter in 1 564. They had on their 
western side a garden which was parted from them by 
a wall, built by Dr Caius in 1565, and belonged to the 
President of the College. The rest of the area com- • 
prised between Henney (i.e. the lane so called by ' 
Hamond), Mill Street, Find silver Lane and the High 
Street was the property of the College in 1592. But 
the houses fronting the High Street, between the Gate ' 
of Humility and Find silver Lane, remained in private j 
occupation until the erection of the Legge and Perse 
buildings on their site in 16 17 and 1619. Between 
these houses and Gonvile Hall was a garden which, 
until 1 868, was the Fellows' garden. Until that date 
it was enclosed within the walls shown in Hamond's 

The tower of the Gate of Virtue, with its neigh- 
bouring turret, is represented by Hamond with a fair 
degree of accuracy. In Caius Court we see railings 
bordering the walks: they were put up in 1583 and re- , 
moved before Loggan's view was drawn*. Near the 
western end of the chapel is shown a curious sundial, 
which was the work of Theodore Haveus^ The Chapel 

* Caius, Atttia!s, 1569, translated in Arch. Hist. i. p. 161. For Siberch see 
R. Bowes, University Printers^ p. 286 and G. J. Gray, Earlier Cambridge Stationers 
and Bookbinders, p. 54. 

' Arch. Hist. i. p. 184. =» Ibid. i. p. 182. 


and Its bell-tower, the latter marked by horizontal bands 
of masonry, are seen on the northern side of the quad- 
rangle. The Chapel shows three windows on the south 
side, and a large one in the eastern gable. At its west 
end is the arch of the passage leading to Gonvile Court. 
The rooms above and beyond the passage were part of 
the Lodge and are distinguished by dormer windows, 
as Loggan also shows. Hamond, not quite accurately, 
represents Caius Court as considerably broader from 
east to west than Gonvile Court, and he sets the western 
range of the former somewhat farther to the west than 
the corresponding range in Gonvile Court: they are in 
L reality in the same line. His object is apparently to 
;;: display the Master's turret on the western side of the 
:.' Lodge. Between the western ranges of the two quad- 
P rangles and Mill Street is the large garden of the Lodge. 
Si At the north-western corner of Gonvile Court is the 
I; Kitchen court. By an unusual arrangement the Kitchen 
i was set transverse to the Hall in a building which reached 
I Mill Street. 

ft In Gonejiilc hall we see a hedge surrounding the 

I centre plot. The Library and the Hall, in the western 
\ range, have no visible features to distinguish them from 
I ordinary chambers. In the northern range is seen the 
\ arched gateway, opening on Find silver Lane, which 
% served Gonvile Hall as its principal entrance before the 
I alterations of Dr Caius: it was closed in 1754. The 
I northern range has a large stepped gable next the 
f Fellows' garden. In the middle of the quadrangle a pump 
\ is conspicuous: it was put up in 1578^ 
f Nothing is more interesting or more graphically 

j presented in Hamond's plan than the view which he 

{ ^ Arch. Hist. i. p. 183. 


Fig. 7j. Part of Hamonci's Map of Cambridge, made in 1592, 


I has given us of Trinily College in 1592, and which is 
[ here reproduced in fig. 27 \ The College was founded 
■ in 1546. In the forty-six years which had since elapsed 
\ only a small part of the existing buildings of the Great 
I Court had been completed, and it is unnecessary to say 
[ that Nevile's Court had not been begun. K great 
; clearance had been made of the buildings which occu- 
f pied the middle space of the Great Court, but portions 
[ of the colleges and hostels which occupied the site before 
1 1546 still survived in the lateral ranges and in other 
\ parts. It happens that Hamond's plan was made at a 
j time when there was a cessation in the building opera- 
tions. The works so far finished had mainly been 
carried out between 1554 and 1564. The most recent 
had been completed about the year 1584. The comple- 
\ tion of the Great Court and the reduction of its plan to 
I that which we see to-day were due to Thomas Nevile, 
I who became Master in 1593. 

j The great area comprised in the College, as it existed 

! in Hamond's day, may be conveniently divided into 
! four sections, divided from one another by streets and 
! lanes which were closed when the Great Court was 
! begun. These grounds were almost entirely occupied by 
j ancient colleges and hostels at the date of the foundation 
I of the College. Before that time they were traversed 
I by three streets: (i) a lane which was a continuation of 
j Find silver Lane and led to a hithe on the King's Ditch, 
j called Flaxhithe : (2) Foul Lane which, beginning where 
j the Queen's Gate now stands, ran northwards to the 
j Gate Tower of King's Hall (King Edward's Tower) 

' ^ The reproduction of Hamond's plan which is placed opposite pp. 402, 403 

! of the second volume of the Arch. Hist., having been made from the injured copy 
I in the Bodleian Lil>rary, is defective in details, especially in the south-west corner 

I near the Queen's gate. 


1 H. 6 


which formerly stood at a middle point between the 
Great Gate and the door of the Lodge: {3) King's Hall 
Lane, or King's Childer Lane, which, crossing the last- 
named, ran in a winding course from a point a few feet 
south of the Great Gate to a point on the river bank 
where the King's Ditch rejoined the main channel of 
the river. 

The first, or southern of these four areas, contained 
two hostels, viz. Garret (or S. Gerard's) Hostel and 
Ovyng's Inn (otherwise S. Hugh's Hostel). It was 
bounded by Garret Hostel Lane, Mill Street, Flaxhithe 
Lane and the King's Ditch. The Bishop's Hostel and 
half the site of the New (or King's) Court are situated 
in it. 

The second, or western, comprised Michaelhouse 
and S. Gregory's (or Newmarket) Hostel, and was 
bounded by Flaxhithe Lane, Foul Lane, King's Hall 
Lane and the King's Ditch. It contained the site of the 
south-western part of the Great Coutu and the greater 
part of Nevile's court. 

The third, or eastern, contained Physwick Hostel, 
S. Katherine's Hostel, S. Margaret's Hostel and Tyled 
Hostel, as well as a block of buildingfs belonofine to 
King's Hall. It was bounded by Find silver Lane, 
private houses fronting the High Street, King's Hall 
Lane and Foul Lane. Here is now the south-eastern 
part of the Great Court. 

The fourth, or northern, contained the remainder 
of King's Hall and covered all the ground to the north 
of King's Hall Lane. 

It should be remembered that Garret Hostel Green, 
which was parted from the College ground by the King's 
Ditch, was in 1592 the property of the Town. 


In the first of these four areas we see in the plan 
two buildings, very near and parallel to each other, one 
of them at the end of Mill Street and looking eastwards 
along Find silver Lane, the other behind it. The former 
is apparently in contact with the range of Trinity Great 
Court which fronts Find silver Lane, but the latter 
seems not to be in line with the range which contains 
the Hall and Lodge of Trinity, but to be withdrawn 
somewhat west of it. As the buildins^ in Mill Street has 
no door on the street side, it would seem that access to 
the buildings was obtained from the Great Court. To- 
gether these buildings seem to have formed "the new 
hostell," which in 1576 was fitted up to contain eight 
chambers : previously the College had let it as a private 
house. Evidently "the new hostell" is to be identified 
with Ovyng's Inn, which is marked by Lyne in this 
position and, according to Dr Caius, was a hostel for 
jurists, opposite the western postern of Gonvile Hall\ 
As late as 1578 it was still known as "Hovynes Inne." 
Garret Hostel stood next Ovyngs' Inn and nearer to 
Trinity Hall : in Lyne's plan it is made to adjoin Ovyng's 
Inn on one side and Garret Hostel Lane on the other'. 
Hamond shows a short wall connecting the two parallel 
buildings at their southern ends. Garret Hostel had 
probably disappeared before Hamond's day, for there is 
no mention of it after 1585 : but the name survived and 
seems to have been applied to "the new hostell" as late 

1 Arch. Hist. ii. pp. 551, 552. Dr Caius records in his Amiah, p. 13 (ed. Venn, 
C.A.S. Svo. Publications, 1904), that in 1521 the men of Gerard's or Garret Hostel 
and of Ovyng's Inn niade an assault on the postern gate of Gonvile Hall and the 
j buttery which adjoined it. 

I 2 It should be observed that Garret Hostel Lane only came into existence in 

! »545> when the Hostel itself was resumed into the possession of Michaelhouse, of 

which it was previously a dependance. Flaxhithe Lane was enclosed in 1306, about 
the time when Ovyng'.-> Inn was established. 



as 1644. "The new hostell" was pulled down in 1662, 
being then ruinous, and its site was taken for Bishop's 
Hostel. Behind it Hamond shows enclosed ground, to 
which entrance was given through an arched gate in 
the corner next Garret Hostel Lane, and which reached 
to the King's Ditch. 

Before 1546 the second area was entirely occupied 
by the buildings and grounds of Michaelhouse, including 
its dependent hostel of S. Gregory'. Presumably the 
western end of the south range and the whole of the 
western range of the Great Court, so much of it as is 
shown by Hamond, excepting the southern end of the 
Lodge, which was built in 1554, w^ere surviving portions 
of Michaelhouse. The Gate Tower of Michaelhouse, 
which Lyne's plan of 1574 shows fronting Mill Street, 
has disappeared. We hear of its walling up in 1552 ; 
probably this means that the space of the archway was 
converted into chambers. Hamond shows a door in 
the position of the old Gate, at the end of Mill Street. 
The buildings along Find silver Lane, as far as Phys- 
wick Hostel, are low and featureless. Apparently they 
had only one upper floor and it had garret windows. 
All this range was swept away by Nevile in the altera- 
tions of 1594 — 7, w^hen the Queen's gate was erected. 

^ The northern part of S. Gregory's Hostel stood on the site of Crouched Hall. 
The site was acquired for Michaelhouse in 1337. A Crouched Hostel which stood 
on part of the site of the Schools was acquired by the University in 1432 for the 
erection of the new Schools. Probably the students migrated to the Michaelhouse 
ground when they were displaced from their former quarters. Lyne puts the letter 
D on the northern part of the western range of the Great Court, indicating that 
that was the position of S. Gregory's Hostel. Fuller says that it stood where in 
his day was Trinity College dove-cote. From Arc/i. Hist. li. p. 636, we learn that 
in 1555 the dokc-cote was next the Master's garden and a bridge which crossed the 
King's Ditch. This bridge is not marked by Lyne or Hamond, but the latter 
shows a small structure in the Masters garden, close to the Ditch, which may have 
been a dove-cote. 


The range on the western side of the Great Court 
is more interesting. In 1592 it was only carried as far 
northwards as the present entrance hall of the Lodge, 
and, except the part of the Lodge shown by Hamond, 
all the buildings appear to have been in existence before 
1546. It would seem that the southern and western 
ranges did not join at the angle between Mill Street 
and Find silver Lane, the western range being set 
further to the west than the end of the southern range, so 
as to leave a passage to Ovyng's Inn and Garret Hostel. 
At the south-west angle of the Great Court Loggan's 
print, made about 16S8, shows a staircase turret, which 
is entered by a door on the north side. In Hamond's 
i plan there is a turret which is evidently to be identified 

• with this; it is not however at the angle but stands a 
[ little distance from it, in the western range. It is clear 
; that the position which Hamond gives it is no mistake 

• in drawing, for he puts the door on the south side, and 

1 between the turret and the angle he shows a portion of 

i the western range with a window on the upper floor. 

I It is therefore evident that when Nevile, between 1594 

I and 1597, rebuilt the southern side of the Great Court 

^ he set back the western part of the range on that side 

f for a few feet northwards. Before this alteration the 

I southern ranges of Michaelhouseand Physwick's Hostel 

I followed the curving line of Find silver Lane. Nevile 

I ingeniously contrived to straighten the line so as to give 

t the Great Court the rectangular form which it now 

*: presents, and at the same time to retain the old turret, 

I altering the position of its door, so that it stood exactly 
j at the angle of the court. As a result of this change 
■ Trinity (or Find silver) Lane, which in Hamond's day 
; was of uniform width, is now considerably widened at 


its western end. The Lodge of the Master of Michael- 
house was no doubt placed, as other Lodges, at the dais 
end of the Hall, and consequently at the southern end 
of the western range. The turret is of the pattern of 
the stair-turrets annexed to the Master's Lodge in all 
the colleges built before 1400^ The Lodge of the 
Master of Michaelhouse, or at least its principal rooms, 
was probably confined to the upper floor and had the 
Fellows' Parlour under it and next to the Hall. Hamond 
shows the door which presumably admitted to the 

Beyond the door just mentioned the plan shows us 
a lofty oriel window, the embattled crest of which reaches 
somewhat higher than the eaves of the roof. This, or 
a similar oriel in the same place, is drawn in the Scheme, 
dated about 1595, for laying out the Great Court, re- 
ferred to in note i below. In this Scheme, which was 
not carried out, the Hall, Buttery and Kitchen are left 
in the original positions which they occupied as parts of 
Michaelhouse : the screens are at the northern end of 
the Hall, with the Buttery next it and the Kitchen 
beyond. This was clearly the arrangement in Hamond's 
time, for he shows the door of the screens passage and 
the chimney stack of the Kitchen beyond the Hall 
northwards. When the western range was prolonged 
northwards by the extension of the Master's Lodge 
{circa i6co) a new Hall was built, north of the old one, on 
the site of the old screens, Buttery and Kitchen, which 

^ This turret was destroyed by Essex between 1770 and 1775 [Arch. Hist. ii. 
p. 496). The Scheme {circa 1595) for laying out the Great Court, which is repro- 
duced in Arch. Hist, ii., between pp. 464, 465, shows that at that time it was 
intended to make the Great Court an exact rectanijle, strongly contrasting with the 
asymmetrical lines of the old ranges, shown by Hamond. Mr T. D. Atkinson in 
C-A.S. Proc. and Cot/tm. viii. pp. 234 — 242 has given a description of the Hall of 
Michaelhouse with a diagram of its ground -plan. 


■ were previously interposed inconveniently between the 
|: Lodge and the Hall. A new Buttery and Kitchen, 
[! with the Parlour above them, were at the same time 
ji made out of the old Hall. The oriel was spared as an 
!• architectural feature, though it ceased to serve its 
[; original use, and, as the range to which it belonged was 
I heightened by the addition of a gnrret floor, it no longer 
^ reached to the roof. It is shown in Loggan's view and 
I in a Perspective View of the Great Court which was 
^ drawn in 1740. It was destroyed in 1771, when this 
I part of the range was reconstructed by Essex. 
I On the roof of the old Pi all Hamond shows a louvre. 

I In the eastern wall are four windows, besides the oriel. 
i Though the Hall was only 52 feet in length, which is 
; about the length of the ancient Halls of Peterhouse 
j and Pembroke, and little more than half the width of 
i the present Hall, it might very well accommodate the 
I small society of Michaelhouse. At the time when Nevile 
I began his alterations (1604) it is said that it was almost 
I ruinous through extreme old age\ 
I At the angle between the Lodge and the northern 

I range containing King Edward's Tower Hamond shows 
! the Master's stair-turret. The range, together with the 
turret, was removed about 1600, when Nevile's altera- 
tions of the Great Court were carried out. It was built 
in 1554 — 5- tHe southern wall having formed part of an 
older building, probably belonging to King's Hall: the 
northern wall was apparently of timber. Here was 
situated the Master's Hall. The desigrn in buildinjj the 
range was evidently to retain King Edward's Tower. 
Though in Hamond's plan of the Great Court there are 
no walks or grass plots, Nevile's intention when he built 

^ //rf/5. I/isf. ii. p. 475. 


the Queen's Gate Tower (1597) was evidently to make 
a walk between the two Towers, which directly face 
each other. The present walk between them follows 
the line of Foul Lane. 

At the north-west end of the Lodge Hamond shows 
two long buildings, not in continuous line, extending to 
the King's Ditch. That which is next the Lodge was 
the Master's gallery and was erected in 1554^ Below 
it a passage with an arched doorwa}^ gave communica- 
tion between the garden-grounds lying to the north and 
south. The use of the further building is uncertain : in 
Loggan's view a ladder placed against one of its upper 
windows suggests that in 16S8 it was used as a store- 
house. The Lodge garden, which in 1592 was larger 
by the area which later was included in the Great Court, 
is separated, on its northern side, from the Bowling 
Green by a w^all which w^as put up in 1568". Here it 
may be observed that the grounds of Trinity, from the 
north-west corner of Ga:ret Hostel garden to the end 
of the Bowling Green, next S. John's bridge, were fenced 
continuously on the side next the King's Ditch and the 
river by an embattled wall. The part of the garden 
which is nearest the Lodge is laid out with a large 
flower-bed, divided into four by cross walks. At the 
north-west corner of the garden is a small building which 
was probably a summer-house'. Beyond this there is a 
triangular space of open ground bounded on two of its 
sides by the King's Ditch and the river. This plot, 
anciently called Millstones Hill, was acquired by the 

1 Arch. Hist. p. 622. The Master's gallery was destroyed after the year iSoo. 
- IbiJ. ii. p. 635. 

* Loggan shows a building in this position. It was built in 1684 — 5 and was 
the Master's Summer House (Arch. Hist. ii. p. 647). 


College from the Town in or before the year 1546 — 7. 
Part of it is the site of the present Library'. 

We now come to the third area, comprising the 
south-eastern parts of the College and some adjacent 
houses. Foul Lane, which was the western boundary 
of this area, was enclosed when the College was founded 
and does not appear in Hamond's plan : but Or Caius 
says that it began at the Queen's Gate of the Great 
Court and joined King's Childer Lane at King Edward's 
Tower. The Queen's Gate and the range containing 
it were built in 1544 — 97 : the position of the Gate is 
marked in Hamond's plan by a door opposite the 
Kitchen court of Gonvile Hall. East of this door is a 
building which is distinguished from the long, uniform 
i range of Michaelhouse by the absence of garrets. In 
j this position Lyne shows a Gate Tower in his plan and 
\ indicates that it belonged to Physwick Hostel. This 
I hostel was perhaps the only one which had a collegiate 
I Gate Tower. Of all the hostels it was probably the 
[ most important in the sixteenth century. It had a Hall 
\l and a garden which occupied the site of an older hostel, 
I called S. Margaret's, and, according to Fuller, it had 
I many fair chambers. It became the property of Gonvile 
I Hall, and was used by that college as a sort of colony 
I for the overflow of its students. It is described in 1476 
* as then newly built, and it was a flourishing institution 
I at the date when it was acquired by Trinity". 
I In Find silver Lane, east of Physwick Hostel, 

\ Hamond shows a tenement, consistine of a house and 
I annexe with a garden which is possibly the property 
! which in deeds of the fifteenth century is called /e 
\ MigJiell Augell, and, as its name implies, once belonged 

i 1 Arch. Hist. ii. p. 407. « /bid. ii. pp. 415— 4 17. 


to Michaelhouse. U was otherwise known as S. Kathe- 
rine's, or ''the Gramer Hostel." Beyond this tenement 
and near the High Street there are three houses, varying 
in size, among which we must place the almshouses, three 
in number, founded in 1 463 by Reginald Ely. They were 
purchased by Trinity College and removed in 1864, 
when new almshouses were erected in St Paul's Road. 
The site is occupied by lecture rooms of Trinity College^ 

Between Find silver Lane and the Great Gate 
Hamond places a row of eight dwelling houses, several 
of which have courts and annexes behind them. Those 
which are nearest to Find silver Lane never became the 
property of Trinity. One house, near the middle of the 
row, occupied the position of Tyled Hostel, which was 
acquired by King's Hall in 1449. In the ground behind 
these houses we see some garden plots and three large 
enclosures planted with trees. The largest belonged to 
the Mighell Angell tenement: the other two, at the date 
of the foundation of Trinity, were leased to King's Hall. 
Near the middle of these grounds Hamond shows a 
tennis court, approached from the Great Court through 
a gate and by a passage parallel with Find silver Lane. 
On the northern side of the Mighell Angell ground and 
projecting westwards into the Great Court there is a 
range of chambers in three floors. It belonged to King's 
Hall and was probably erected about 1 490. As no doors 
are to be seen in the plan it was evidently entered from 
the north. It was constructed of timber and was re- 
moved by Nevile in I599^ 

Hamond's presentation of the Great Gate is not a 
travesty, such as Lyne's, but in the main is conventional. 
It is precisely similar to his drawings of the Gate Towers 

^ Arch. Hist. ii. p. 4 19. ^ Ibid. ii. p. 476. 


of Queens' and S. John's, except that it shows a smaller 
side door next the large one : in each case he puts a 
single broad window, instead of two, above the arch and 
omits the niche. The Great Gate was begun in 15 iS 
and partially completed in 1535 : it was heightened in 
1598 and adorned with sculptures and canopies in 
1 6 14 — 15. When first constructed it was isolated from 
the other buildings of King's Hall and was not the 
entrance to a quadrangle. The short range next it on 
the south was begun in 1556: it overlapped the timber 
range just mentioned and was not in contact with it. 
The ranore between the Gate and the Chanel was finished 
about 1584. 

Like Loggan, Hamond shows an embattled wall on 
either side of the approach to the Gate. That on the 
northern side is continued along- the High Street as far 
as the boundary of S. John's. It encloses a garden, 
larger than the present grass-plot, and two bays of the 
Chapel project into it : Loggan more accurately shows 
three. Hamond is unusually inaccurate in his drawing 
of the Chapel. There are actually twelve bays, of which 
one, where the eastern range abuts on the Chapel, has 
no window. Hamond places a window in the vacant bay 
and shows only eight windows in the south wall of the 

Inside the Gate there is shown a tree, growingf in 
a box, like that in the principal quadrangle of Trinity 
Hall. The buildings which present themselves near the 
Gate are as yet quite fortuitously disposed. Some of 
them are old buildings belonging to King's Hall : others 
are new creations. On the left the timber range of 

^ The external length of the Chapel is correctly shown by Hamond as about 
200 feet. 


King's Hall, already mentioned, projects awkwardly 
half-way into what is now the Great Court. Facing the j 
Gate is the short extension of the western range of 1 
Michaelhouse containing the Kitchen and a portion of 
the Lodge. At right angles to this is the range con- 
taining King Edward's Tower. Its line, if produced, 
would bring it exactly to the arch of the Great Gate, a 
calamitous result which was obviated by the total re- 
moval of the range by Nevile in 1600, when the Tower 
was re-erected at the west end of the Chapel. Hamond's 
picture of it differs curiously both from the existing 
Tower and from what may be gathered of its appear- 
ance from the Bursar's accounts of King's Hall. From 
these accounts we learn that it had angle turrets, as the 
existing structure has, and that it was occupied as 
chambers. Hamond shows neither turrets nor windows 
and gives the Tower a curious domical cap, evidently 
of lead. 

We may next proceed to the fourth area of the 
College, viz. that which lay north of King's Hall Lane, 
which, it will be remembered, ran from near the Great 
Gate to King Edward's Gate in its original position. 
The plan — if plan it can be called — of King's Hall was 
extraordinarily irregular, and the anomalies which made 
it unlike any of the ancient colleges render it difhcult 
to explain its arrangements without the aid of a ground 
plan such as is admirably supplied in Mr Caroe's mono- 
graph' on the King's Hostel and that which is here 
produced (fig. 28) from the Architectiiral History. 
The feature of an outer as well as an inner Gate of 
Entrance is one of the unexplained anomalies". King 

1 C. A.S. Quarto Publications (1909), A7w/j Hostel, Trinity College, Cambridge. 
' The relation of the Great Gate to the rest of King's Hall is inexplicable 




ScAi£ or fee T. 

Fig. 28. Ground plan of Kinj^'s Hall ; as determined by Professor Willis. The existing buildings 
of Trinity College are indicated by a doited line. 


Edward's Tower (1426 — 37), the building of which 
preceded that of the Great Gate by nearly a century, 
fronted King's Hall Lane but did not form a part of 
the older buildings, which stood considerably to the 
north of it. Between the Tower and the Chapel Hamond 
shows a ranee which has three staircase entries and the 
unusual number of four storeys. It was built at the 
same time as the Tower and is an extension of the 
western rans^e of the cloister court of Kinor's Hall. It 
was destroyed by Nevile about the year 1600, when the 
Tower was transferred to its present position at the west 
end of the Chapel. This, as well as the adjoining 
western cloister range, contained chambers allotted to 
the Master of King's Hall^ 

Of the small quadrangle of King's Hall Hamond 
shows that the western and northern ranges were still 
in existence in 1592, as well as the northern half of the 
eastern range. The other parts had been destroyed, 
before 1555, to make room for the Chapel. The western 
range, excepting a small portion on the site of which 
King Edward's Tower was re-erected, still exists, and 
has recently (1905 — 6) been restored to something like 
its ancient form by Mr Caroe. It was built at different 
dates between 1375 and 14 18. The southern end was 
occupied on the upper floors by the Master: the northern 
end consisted of chambers. Of the northern range only 

except on the hypothesis that, before the dissolution of Kind's Hall, some develop- 
ment of its buildings was in contemplation which involved the clo.^ing of King's 
Hall Lane and the removal of King Edward's Tower. Its situation with regard to 
either was otherwise almost impossibly inconvenient. The position given to King's 
Hall Chapel {1463— 99), external to the court and independent of it, and the 
erection of the timber range (1490) on the southern side of King's Hall Lane, give 
some likelihood to the suggestion. 

^ Arch. Hist. ii. p. 444. The Statutes given to Trinity in 1552, at which time 
the new Master's Lodge had not been built, assigned to the Master all the build- 
ings situated round the cloister of King's Hall (ibid. p. 460). 

PLAN BY JOHN HAMOND, 1592 .- 95 

the roof is visible in Hamond's pkin. It contained the 
Library and was built 14 16 — 22 \ On the western side 
of the quadrangle Hamond shows a cloister walk with 
six arches: this was constructed about the same time as 
the Library. Neither Hamond nor Lyne shows the 
cloister walk which existed on the northern side. The 
northrTn end of the eastern range, which was built 
between 1386 and 1395, contained the Kitchen. This 
I eastern part and the Library were destroyed, as ruinous, 
j in 1 694-. 

[ The Bowling Green, which is overlooked from the 

[ restored western range of King's Hall quadrangle, was 
\ made in 1648. In Hamond's plan the space which it 
j occupies was laid out as a garden with flower-beds and 
i trees, and there is no green for bowls. It had been the 
I gardenof King's Hall. In the middle of it both Hamond 
1 and Lyne mark a curious structure which was probably 
I a dove-cote. It had apparendy ceased to exist when 
j- Loggan made his view. Hereabouts was the Colum- 
\ barium of Kine's HalP. There is a o-arden house at the 
I north-west corner of the garden, on the river bank. 

! Having completed our survey of Trinity we now 

J pass to 5. /o/ifi's college (fig. 27 on p. 80). It is parted 
I: from Trinity by a lane, the property of S. John's, which 
I- is entered from the street through an arch and leads to 
I the Kitchen and to the river. The arch is set at the 

i^ 1 I.yne's view of this range shows five windows on the upper floor and a larger 

I one in the western gable. Of the last no trace was found in Mr Caroe's restoration. 
I In this place Mr Caroe places ordinary chambers, and it seems that the Library did 
\ not extend to the Bowling Green gable. 

\ 2 The southern end of the eastern range was occupied by the Buttery, and the 

\ southern range by the Hall and Parlour. The Chapel of King's Hall, standing 
I between the eastern range and the street, partly on the site of the present Chapel, 

was built between 1463 and 1469. All these buildings had been removed before 

Hamond's lime. 

^ Caroe, King's Hostel, p. 7 ; Arch. Hist. ii. pp. 441 and 460. 


extremity of an embattled wall which continues the 
similar wall parting the ground at the east end of thei 
Chapel of Trinity from the street. The street in front; 
of the two colleges was widened on both sides in the ! 
course of last century \ On the northern side of S. John's | 
Hamond shows another lane conducting from the Hio-h ■ 
Street to a quay on the river bank. It was called j 
S. John's Lane and, like the other, was entered from 
the street through an arch. It was acquired by the 
College from the Town and closed in 1863-. Along the 
\vhole front of the College, fencing the sidewalk from 
the road, Hamond shows a line of rails, with taller posts 
at the ends and at the opening opposite the Gate. 
Similar rails are to be seen in Loggan's views of other 
colleges^ but no other example is shown by Hamond. 
Before we consider the main buildino-s of the Colleo-e 

o o 

we may notice a house which, in Hamond's plan, stands 
on the opposite side of the street at the north-western 
corner of All Saints' churchyard. The ground on which 
it is situated had formerly been the cemetery of the 
Hospital of S. John^ and became the property of the 
College. About the year 1588 it was converted into a 
Pensionary, i.e. chambers for the occupation of students 
who were not on the foundation of the Colleee. Its 
use for this purpose ended about the close of the 
eighteenth century*. 

^ There is a graphic description of the street between the gates of the two 
colleges in The Riot at the Great Gate of Trinity College, ibio—ibu (J. W. Clark, 
C.A.S. Octavo Publications, xliii. 1906). 

2 Arch. Hist. ii. p. 235. ' Ibid. iii. pp. 295, 296. 

* See the passage cited from Baker's History of Saint John's College in The 
Dual Origin 0/ the Tovin of Carnbridi^e, p. 21 note (Gray, C.A.S. Quarto Publi- 
cations, i. 1 90S). 

' There is a view of the old houses occupying the site of the Pensionary (now 
the Divinity Schools) in Old Cambridge (Redfern), plate XXlil. 


The Gate Tower is represented by Hamond in much 
the same way as the Great Gate of Trinity College. 
The south-western corner turret is surmounted by a tall 
cross, which was taken down in the seventeenth century, 
at the time of the Civil War'. The ranges north and 
south of the Gate show no conspicuous difference from 
their appearance in Loggan's view, A walk leads from 
I the Gate to the Hall screens, and the grass plots on 

[ either side are fenced with rails'. Near the north-west 

; angle of the Court is seen the oriel of the Hall. Between 

I it and the corner Hamond, inaccurately, places two 

! windov/s, one above the other : in actual fact the oriel 

; was at the northern end of the Hall range, and the 

I Parlour, which was at the dais end of the Hall, was 

! lighted only from the north. Equally incorrecdy 

I Hamond shows three windows, instead of two, in the 

I eastern wall of the Hall. Only the roofs of the north 
j and south ranges are shown'. The east window of the 
; Chapel is seen between, and recessed behind, the eastern 
I range and the eastern gable of a building which stands 
r on the northern side of the Chapel and looks as though 
[■ it was contiguous with it: there was actually an inter- 
l vening space of eleven feet. This building was a part 
j of the Hospital of S. John. It has been called the 
I Infirmary, but it is more likely that it was originally a 
I chapel. It was fitted up as chambers in 1585, and 
I destroyed in 1862'. In Loggan's view a covered passage 

? 1 Arc/t. Hist. ii. p. 316 (quotation from Baker). 

§ '^ The rails had been removed when Loggan's view was taken. 

\ 3 The axis of the Chapel is not due east to west, but considerably inclined 

j; north and south. Hamond, not quite accurately, represents the front of the College 

I as facing due east. The Chapol of S. John's College is the only chapel which in 

[ his plan does not exhibit its southern face. 

* Loggan shows windows on three floors in the gable of the so-called Infirmary 
a-s well as in the e;xstern range: Ilamond in both cases shows only two; but Arch. 
H. 1 


is shown at the east end of the Chapel, giving com- 
munication between this building and the Entrance 
Court. In Hamond's day this had no existence, and the 
only entrance to the building was in S. John's Lane. 

Beyond the screens we see a passage with a tennis 
court on its northern side, and on the southern side a 
small quadrangle, which was built about 1526 and re- 
moved about 1 60 1, when the Second Court was being 
built. In the northern range of this quadrangle was the 
Master's gallery. The Lodge was between the northern 
end of the Hall and the Chapel and, except through the 
Hall, there was no interior communication between it 
and the gallery. A wing of the Lodge extends west- 
ward from the dais end of the Hall, and at its western 
end we see the Master's turret. Beyond this end of the 
Lodge is the Master's garden and an extensive orchard 
reaching to the river bank. Between the orchard and 
the Bowling Green of Trinity is a rectangular piece of 
open ground, which is now occupied by the southern parts 
of the second and third courts. A large house with ad- 
joining smaller buildings stands on t?ie river bank. Next 
to the house is the bridge, Hamond's drawing of which 
shows that it was a wooden structure, and so it is pic- 
tured by Loggan. It is barred by an arched gate of 
timber at the eastern end. S. John's, Queens' and 
King's were the only colleges which possessed bridges 
in the sixteenth century, as they alone had grounds on 
both sides of the river. 

In the space which is bounded by S. John's Lane, 
Bridge Street and the river Hamond shows a multitude 
of houses without any noticeable feature. Some are 

Hist. ii. p. 247 shows that there were tliree storeys. Lo£^ga.n's view agrees with 
Hamond in showiiiij only one chimney, w hich was at the western end. 


disposed about four-sided courts, others are ranged along 
alleys which run from Bridge Street to the river. At 
the end of S. John's Lane we see a masted "keel" and 
a small boat moored to the bank, and near it the arm of 
a crane projecting over the water. It is noteworthy that 
in his view of S. John's College Loggan shows a string 
of barges which are being towed by a man in a row-boat, 
a covered "tilt" hauling timber and poled up stream by 
two men, and another barge towed from the bank. 
Above the bridge were several stathes, one of which, on 
the northern bank, still exists at the end of the lane 
which in medieval times, as now, was called Fisher's 
Lane, Just at this point Lyne shows a fishing-boat, in 
mid-stream, draofg'ino' a net. 

Hamond gives little indication of the appearance of 
the Great Briggc ; it is evidently made of timber, has 
wooden railings with high posts, and seemingly has two 
piers in the stream. Sailing and row-boats are moored 
to the south bank below it. 

There are no noteworthy features on the western 

side of Magdalene Street until we come to the church of 

6". Peter (Sheet 3). It has a nave, a western tower and 

spire, a porch near the western end of the south wall, 

three windows in the same wall and a small door near 

• its eastern end, and an eastern window. In 1742, when 

;. Cole described the church, there was a chancel and a 

; south aisle, neither of which appears in Hamond's view. 

\ Beyond the churchyard is S. Peter's Lane, leading to 

I the open ground called Pound Green, which was 

I reckoned as part of the Western Field of Cambridge 

I and took its name from a pound, which existed on the 

i "Western side of the lane so lately as 1909. This Green 

J is represented as descending the slope of the hill to a 


point in Northampton Street near the School of Pytha-' 
goras. On its western side Hamond indicates a bank,' 
which is still to be seen on the road called Mount 
Pleasant and was the vallum of the presumably Roman 
camp\ I 

Opposite the Castle the road, which at this point is 
now known as Castle Street, widens into a roughly 
square area in which the plan shows two small fenced 
courts with attached buildings. Pound Green reaches 
to this area and is not divided from it by any fence or 
hedge. Further on the road narrows and then widens 
again into a very large parallelogram, in which Hamond 
has written All Sainctes at the Castell. The old church 
of All Saints, which had been disused since the four- 
teenth century, seems to have totally disappeared before 
Hamond made his plan'. The enclosure which was 
formerly the grave-yard and is now a nurser}'' garden is 
shown with a large barn-like building in the middle of 
it: this was "the great barn nigh unto the stone crosse 
in Huntingdon Way" which is often mentioned in six- 
teenth century deeds of S. John's College. South of it 
is a close walled on all sides and containing no building. 
Houses, gardens and a large plantation of trees occupy 
the space contained between Shelly Row and Mount 
Pleasant. This part is called in the Field Books Hare 
Hill or Hore Hill. 

On the verge of the plan Hamond marks the bank 

^ In the middle of Pound Green Loggan marks a watering place for cattle, 
planted round with trees. It is shown also in Custance's plan of 1798. In the 
sixteenth century terrier of Cambridge Field it is called Chalkwell. Hamond does 
not mark it. 

^ Lyne marks the site as Parcchia omtiiit'n saiictarurn ad Castrum and puts a 
large house on the road front of the old churchyard. In Fuller's plan of Cambridge 
(1634) there is a fanciful representation of the ruins of the church, showing what 
looks like a tower at its eastern end. 


which formed the northern rampart of the ancient camp 
and is now seen next the road called Pleasant Row. 
Just beyond the place where the bank reaches the 
Huntingdon Road he shows a mound on which there 
is a platform of two steps surmounted by a structure of 
enigmatical appearance. It stands at the point where 
the boundary of the town of Cambridge and the parish 
of Chesterton crosses the Huntingdon Road. Probably 
it is the High Cross, or Stone Cross, mentioned in a 
terrier of Cambridge Field (date 1572) as standing at 
the Castle End\ If this identification is correct we may 
conjecture that the cross is the same as that mentioned 
by Dr Caius" : " Close to the Castle is a market cross, 
constructed of solid stone, on the northern side of the 
Castle. It is called the market cross from the circum- 
stance that there is a constant tradition that about it 
the market of the old town was formerly held." If the 
tradition to which Dr Caius refers is to be trusted we 
may assume that "the market of the old town" was held 
in the wide parallelogram, above mentioned, between 
All Saints' church and the north-west angle of the Castle 

From the northern extremity of the town we will 
now retrace our steps, taking the left-hand or eastern 
side of the streets which lead us back to our starting 
point at the King's Ditch, next Pembroke. 

We first pass a large piece of arable ground which 

^ " Huntington waye beginneth at y^ hye stone Cross at \* Castle end." It is 
otherwise called Stoupencrowche (stooping cross) and described as "a lyttle stomped 
Crosse," implying that it was dilapidated in the sixteenth century. 

^ Historia CaiiUbrigictisis Acade//iii£ (ed. 1574), p. 9. Lyne's plan does not 
include the parts north of the Castle. 

3 On the subject of the cross and the old market see T/'te Dual Origin of the 
Town of Cam iridic (C.A.S. Quarto Publications, 190S, p. 9) and Dr Stokes' paper 
on Wayside Crosses iti Cambridge (C.A.S. Proc. and Coinm. xx. pp. 23 — 25). 


IS not parted from the road by a fence. The furrows i 

run north and south, and at either end are transverse 3 

headlands. In the southern headland there is depicted i 

a man ploughing with a team of four oxen and a horse, j 

This croft was the property of the Scholars of Merton j 

and was known as the Sale, or Sale Piece. It was in- j 

eluded in the borough of Cambridge and reckoned as 1 

an oudying part of Cambridge Field. The Castle and • 

the land extending from the Sale northwards along the i 

eastern side of Huntingdon Road w^ere, and still remain, j 

in Chesterton parish. On the eastern side of the Castle | 

the plan shows a long grass strip, on which sheep are j 

grazing, and beyond it a wide stretch of arable land, in j 

furlong strips, which was part of Chesterton Field. I 

On the south side of the Sale Hamond marks The \ 

Castell, the history of which is given in the Introduction. I 

In the middle of the bailey stands the Keep. As Lyne's | 

presentation of it is purely fanciful, and it had alto- j 

gether disappeared when Fuller wrote his History, it is \ 

unfortunate that Hamond's plan is too much blurred by : 

wear to afford any but the roughest idea of its appear- \ 

ance, and nothing is shown of the Casde mound. The ; 
walls of the Keep enclose a rectangular court, measuring 

about 100x85 feet, which seems to be laid out as a ! 

garden, and has nothing to give acastellated appearance. i 

A building a little to the east of the Keep is pretty \ 

certainly the Shire House, which Loggan marks in this j 

position : Cole says that it was of the reign of Elizabeth. I 

The Gate House is to be seen, not very distinctly, next i 

the street', and from it an embatded wall is carried to j 

' Until 1802 the Gate House served as the County Gaol. In Le Keux's \ 
Memorials of Cambridge, vol. 2, there are pictures of it as ic appeared in 1773 and 
in 1S42, the former reproduced from Grose's Antiquities. 


the north-west angle of the bailey and then along the 
bank on its northern and eastern sides. There is a lower 
wall on the crown of the slope that descends to the fosse 
on the southern side. Two curtain walls connect the 
Keep severally with the ends of the southern wall. The 
fosse on the southern side serves as a roadway leading 
to the grass land on the eastern side of the Castle. A 

Fig. 29. Magdalene College, from Hamond's map of Cambridge, 1592. 

turret stands at the middle point of the north wall of 
the bailey. The two large bastions in the eastern de- 
fences, shown in Loggan's plan, of course do not appear 
in Hamond's: they were constructed in 1643. 

In the crowded houses which front the street between 
the Castle and Chesterton Lane there is no special 


feature to remark. The church of .S". Giles has a laro^e 


eastern window, four windows in the southern wall, a 
porch at the south-west end, and a small transept, near 
the east end of the north wall, which Cole, describing 
the church in 1742, calls a "north cross aisle." In the 
churchyard, next the street, is a small structure which 
was a wooden bell-house. The roadway of Chesterton 
Lane ends at the borough boundary, and beyond its 
end are the pasture and arable land of Chesterton Field. 
On the southern side of the lane is S. Giles' Rectory 
Farmhouse, built on three sides of a court and planted 
round with trees. Hamond does not mark the grating, 
referred to on p. xxvii of the Introduction, which Lyne's 
plan shows at the junction of Magdalene Street with 
Northampton Street and Chesterton Lane. 

The quadrangle of Magdalene college in Hamond's 
plan has its present appearance (see fig. 29). Hall and 
Chapel are both shown, and on the roof of the former is a 
bell-turret: it was put up in 15S6. The passage at the 
west end of the Chapel gave communication, as it does 
still, with the Master's garden and orchard. The house 
adjoining the quadrangle on the north was an inn called 
the Star. The door of the screens passage is shown 
opening on a square enclosure, now the second court. 
Beyond it the Orchard is seen lined with trees on all 
its sides. The raised terrace is not shown by Hamond 
or by Loggan in his plan and view. In its place Hamond 
has a plot of ground which appears to be a vegetable 
garden. Beyond this on the verge of the sheet 
we may remark an enclosure containing several fish- 
ponds. It was the "pond yard" of Magdalene and 
formerly of Buckingham College : the ponds were actu- 
ally filled up six years before the date of Hamond's plan. 


A lane extends along the south wall of the College, 
which was known as Kymbalton's (afterwards Salmon's) 
Lane. Between it and the river is a group of buildings, 
the property of Jesus College, which in the reign of 
Henry VIII were leased as a brewery to a certain 
Francis van Home, and were still so used in Fuller's 

On the south side of the Bridge (Sheet 4) the open 
space of the Quay Side is seen, and beyond it is a block of 
closely packed houses which is bounded on the southern 
side by a lane formerly called Harlcston's (now Thomp- 
son's) Lane. A branch of this lane, called Little Harles- 
ton's Lane, turns north to the river bank, and at its river 
\i end is a piece of open ground. Hereabouts was the 
I ancient Harleston's Inn, a hostel of jurists\ In a quad- 
fi rangle on the eastern side of Little Harlcston's Lane and 
■^ in the building's which reach from it to the river-side we 
I probably recognise the actual hostel. The door of the 
I quadrangle opens on a passage which is an eastward 
I continuation of the larq;er Harleston's Lane and leads 
I to a footbridge crossing the Kymges diche. The King's 
f Ditch here is the northern end of the Ditch which begins 
\ at the Mills above Queens' College. The footbridge 
\ conducts to a laro^e close which Loooan calls The Master 
; of S^ lohns Coll. Dove hons and Jish p07ids. Hamond 
j marks a number of ponds in it. This close on its eastern 
I side is parted from Jesus Green by another watercourse, 
I where Park Parade now stands. 

I The church of S. Clcr/ient, as it is shown by Hamond, 

j has neither tower nor chancel, and the eastern gable 

' * Dr Caius, quoted in Arch. Hist. i. p. xxvi, says that Harleston's Inn was 

situated on the river bank, not far from the east end of the bridge, at the lower end 
of Harleston's Lane: according to Richard Parker it was close to the King's Ditch. 


contains no window. It has a south aisle, and, as at 
present, the entrance is by a door, without a porch, near 
the western end of the aisled Eastwards, beyond the 
churchyard, are enclosures planted with trees : one of 
them contains a dove-house. A large garden, be- 
longing and opposite to a house in Thompson's Lane, 
occupied part of these grounds until 191 1. Neither 
S. Clement's Passage nor Portugal Place existed in 
Hamond's day. 

On the south side of the churchyard and next the 
street the buildings arranged about a courtyard appear 
to be those of S. Clement's Hostel, a hostel of jurists, 
mentioned by Dr Caius'. Next to the hostel eastwards 
was the vicarage of S. Clement's. 

The church of S. Sepulchre (Sheet 9) is shown with 
less accuracy than we are accustomed to expect from 
Hamond. There is nothing in his drawing of it to 
indicate that the upper storey of the round part is of 
less diameter than the lower. Only one of the two rows 
of lights in the upper part is exhibited. As Hamond 
has drawn it the nave looks like a polygonal structure, 
but, in fact, before the alterations of 1841, the lower part 
was circular, the upper polygonal. He show^s four sides 
of the polygon, though only three could possibly be in 
view at one time, and pilasters which seem to be carried 
uninterruptedly from the ground to the roof and end in 
pinnacles instead of the battlements which existed prior 
to 1 84 1. The windows in either storey are large and 
represent the fifteenth century insertions which were 

' The tower had "vanished quite away," some time before 1616 (Gray, The 
Priory of S. KaJegtnid, p. 28 note). In Cole's time the bells were hung in a wooden 
belfry on the north-west side of the clmrchyard. 

^ Richard Chevin, burgess and baker, in his will dated 155Q, states that he 
occupied the house w hich w as formerly Clement Hostel. Cooper, Annals, ii. p. 151. 


removed when the church was " restored " in modern 
Norman character. The odd perspective of the chancel 
is due to an attempt to show more of the round nave than 
is possible. There is a wall, with no visible entrance, 
between the church and the street, and the churchyard 
is contained by a palisade. 

We will now return alon^; S. John's Street and, 

passing the already-mentioned Pensionary of S. John's, 

we arrive at All Halowcs in tlie Izcry — so called because 

it was situated in the old Jews' quarter. The plan shows 

the nave of the church with an aisle on the southern 

. side, a north porch, the chancel and a western battle- 

- mented tower which stands wholly within the church- 

1' yard and not on the side-walk of the street, as it did 

I until 1864, when church and tower were destroyed. 

I The chancel existing at that time was a structure of 

[ brick, built in 1726, the old chancel shown by Hamond 

% having become ruinous. The churchyard is entered by 

I an opening in its w^all next the Pensionary and there is 

I another opening at the eastern end of the churchyard, 

I next to a lane, leading to Bridge Street, known as 

I Dolphin Lane, which took its name from the Dolphin, 

I one of the principal inns of Cambridge in the sixteenth 

i century. This inn stood on the site of the larger of the 

I two Master's courts of Trinity, with a front to Bridge 

s Street, and may be recognised in the plan. The branches 

^ of All Saints' Passage which now enclose the churchyard 

\ on two sides did not exist in 1592. 

'* Nextthe churchyard and oppositethe gate of Trinity 

I is the Sun Inn, distinguished in the plan by its court- 

j yard. In the houses which front the street on this side 

I the only thing to detain us until we reach the church of 

i 5". Michael is a somewhat large courtyard, with buildings 


irregularly placed round it and a very narrow frontage 
to Trinity Street. Perhaps it represents Burden's 
Hostel, a hostel of jurists, which is described by Fuller 
as " near the back gate of the Rose Tavern, opening 
against Caius College." Green Street, which is marked 
and named in Loggan's plan of 168S, had no existence 
in 1592. There was then no public way between the 
High Street and Conduit (i.e. Sidney) Street until the 
Market Place was reached. Between these two streets 
there was a very large square piece of open ground, 
with rows of trees on three of its sides, to which the 
only access seems to have been through the courtyards 
of the adjoining houses. 

Hamond's representation of S. Michael's church 
shows a tower with a rather lofty spire. The latter, 
which has now disappeared, was in fact, and as Lyne 
shows it, a small timber structure. Hamond shows 
a north porch and a south aisle extending to the full 
length of the church. Except on the street side the 
churchyard is encompassed with houses. Rose Crescent 
does not exist, but long courtyards reach on the one side 
from the High Street, on the other from Market Hill, 
and are only separated at their extremities by a single 

At the corner of the High Street, facing S. Mary's 
church, where are now the premises of Messrs Bowes 
and Bowes, we remark a large and conspicuous house 
with windows of exceptional size. Early in the seven- 
teenth century the church rates for this house were paid 
by William Scarlett, bookseller, and John Crane, apothe- 
cary, the latter of whom (d. 1654) was the founder of 
the Charity for Sick Scholars'. This house is in Sherers 

* Information supplied by the late Mr Robert Bowes. 


Lane, of which Shocmakey' Lajie is a continuation. In 
these two lanes were some of the chief inns of Cambridge. 
A house near the north-west corner of Hamond'sJ/^r/^t'/f 
Hill, distinguished in the plan by three arches of en- 
trance, windows in four storeys and a long courtyard 
behind it, was the Rose Tavern, the yard of which is 
now represented by Rose Crescent. Here, Full jr says, 
formerly stood S. Paul's Inn, a jurists' hostel. A tall 
house, which in the plan appears behind the steeple of 
Trinity church, was probably another famous inn, the 
Angel. In Shoemaker Lane a house which presents a 
double gable to the lane seems to be the Black Bear, 
part of the courtyard of which has been converted into 
Market Passacfe. 

The last-named inn faces Trinity c/iirck, which has 
a tall spire, a porch on the south side, a south aisle, 
above which the clerestory of the nave appears, and a 
chancel. Hamond does not show the transepts, both of 
which existed in his day. A curious detail in the plan 
is the pump-handle attached to the churchyard wall at 
its north-eastern corner. A pump is shown in the same 
place in Ackerman's view of 1S15 and in Le Keux's of 
1842. From it Cundit, or Conduit, Street, as the street, 
now Sidney Street, was called as early as the thirteenth 
century, derived its name^ 

We will now return to the Hiorh Street and to Great 
6". Ma7'ies, Hamond's picture of which is particularly 
interesting. In 1592 the tower was not finished. The 

^ In the Barnwell Liber MemoraiiJorurrt, p. •:Si^, a messuage in Trinity r'.-iri>h 
is described as ^.v olposiio k Ctiii.iuit. The name, Conduit Street, may possibly be 
derived from a pump which existed in the wall of the Grey Friars, in Sidney Street 
(Arck. Hut. ii. p. 478 note). But as the Conduit of the Lif:-r Memorandorum 
existed in the thirteenth century it could not have been derived from the Grey 
Friars' conduit which was not made until 1327. 


belfr)' stage was begun in 1593 and not completed until ; 
i6o8^ Hamond's view of the tower is nevertheless a \ 
particularly accurate representation of it in its present 1 
appearance. The corner buttresses, the belfry windows, j 
the battlementsand pinnaclesare shown with exceptional I 
fidelity. He evidently made use of a builder's drawing, '• 
and the church accounts of 1591 show that paste-board ! 
collecting cards, with plans, or "platforms of the steple," j 
existed and were paid for in that year-. The rest of the '• 
church is drawn with equal attention to detail. On the i 
south side we see an aisle with a porch in the position i 
of the present one^ the still existing turret between the I 
two easternmost bays, and a door near the eastern end. ! 
The wall of the aisle has battlements : that of the nave j 
has pinnacles as well as battlements. The churchyard ; 
is entered at the south-west and north-east ends, j 
Houses border it on the eastern and part of the southern | 
side: they were removed in 1849. There were also two 
houses built against the west end of the church, one on 
either side of the principal door : H amond does not show 

We must now consider the plan of the Market, 
which in 1592 was smaller and more scattered than it 
is now. Fig. 30 (from Atkinson-Clark, Cambridge 
Described and Illustrated) which should be compared 
with Hamond's plan (fig. 25, p. 64) gives the clearest 
indication of its old and modern arrangement. The 


^ Atkinson and Clark, Cambi-iJ^e Described and Illustrated, p. 147 note. 

* J. E. Foster, Church-wardens' Accounts of S. Mary the Great, Cambridge 
^C.A.S. 8vo. Publications, xxxv.) anno 1591, "Item paid for iij paste bords to 
make iij platformes of the Steple when we did gather for yt at the commensement, 
iij"*": anno 1593 "Item paid to a paynter for drawing of a plotform of St. maries 
Steple upon velarn parchement for my Lord arche bysshop of Caunterhurie, xviij^.' 

^ The existing porch was built in 18SS. 

* G. J. Gray in C.A.S. /Vvr. and Com?n. xiii. pp. 235 — 250. 

\Corn Market 

Vnt "ortft end/ 


& Butter 

(Guildhall of 1782 
[(Upper floor) 
[Snire Ho,,,, 0/ 1747 

{Prison and Tannert' Hall 
[Part of Guildhall of 178a 
;e destro'jed. 

J9th. Century. 

■I'stlng privats hous99 of 
nous dates. 
\ ..Houses de:^troyed. 

Yig. 30. Plan of the Markets and Municipal Buildings. 


present Market Square was laid out, after afire, in 1849. 
Previous to that year the Market consisted of three 
main parts — the same which are named by Hamond 
Market Hill, Market IVarde and Pease market. A 
rectangular block of houses occupied the western part 
of the present Market Square. It was parted from the 
houses at the east end of S. Mary's churchyard by a 
narrow street called Smith's Row or Pump Lane, the 
latter name being derived from a pump which is shown 
in Lyne's plan. The houses in Pump Lane (or Warwick 
Street, as it was afterwards called) were removed in 
1850. Between the southern end of this street and the 
Pease Market Hamond places the Market Cross, raised 
on a platform. It is without the domical covering shown 
by Ly ne (see p. 1 1 ). The accounts of the Town treasurers 
for 1586 — 7 show that the covering was removed in 
that year^ 

Of the houses on the eastern side of Market Hill the 
only one which needs remark is that which stands at 
the corner, next Petty Cury. This was the house of the 
Veysy family, and was rebuilt by John Veysy, a wealthy 
grocer, in 1538. It contained three elaborately adorned 
fireplaces of clunch^ one of which is now in the Museum 
of Archaeology, the others at Madingley Hall and in the 
Librarian's room at the Free Library, Cambridge. It 
is said that this house, before it was rebuilt by John 
Veysy, was occupied by Peter Cheke, University bedel 
and father of Sir John Cheke*. 

' Cooper, Anna!s, ii. p. 450. 

' One of the fireplaces bears the monogram and trade mark of John Veysy 
(Atkinson and Clark, Cambridge Described and Illustrated, p. 77). The trade mark 
is almost identical with that of Nicholas Speryng, well known as a stationer of the 
University and an acquaintance of Erasmus. (See C.A.S. Proc. and Comm. xiii. 
p. 130, Clark and J. E. Foster.) In a deed of 1525 the house is conveyed to 
Henry Veysy and Peter Cheke, and among the witnesses to the document is 

j PLAN BY JOHN HAMOND, 1592 113 

j On the southern side of Market Ward, on the ground 

I which is now occupied by the front part of the Guildhall 

I and adjoining shops, Mamond places six parallel struc- 

{ tures lying north and south. The three which are nearest 

! to Petty Cury were the Shambles. Two of them were 
putupini552^ The adjoining street, now called Guild- 

l hall Street, was formerly known as Butchers' Row. On 

f the inner wall of the easternmost row Hamond marks 

f a pump. This was probably " the fountain in the 

I market," for the making of which the Corporation gave 

^ twenty shillings in 1567. A "fountain" existed in the 

J Market as early as 1429'. 

i On the western side of the three Shambles just 

i described, and parallel with them, is a taller building, the 

' upper floor of which is supported by live arches. This 

[• is perhaps "the chamber over the shambles," with stalls 

[ below, which in 1632 was assigned by the Corporation 

'; for the use of the tanners, when the old Tanners' Hall, 

\ which stood near it at the corner of the Pease Market, 

t was converted into a house of correction for theTolbooth 

I prisoners^ Before that year the Town prison was con- 

: tained in the small house in the Pease Market which 

', adjoined the old Tanners' Hall. It was granted to the 

1 townsmen, to serve as a gaol, in 1224 by Henry HI, 

' and had previously been the dwelling of the Jew, 

I Benjamin^ The Tolbooth, or Town Hall, is the 

■ ordinary-looking building, distinguished by its high 

I chimney, which lies transverse to the Shambles at their 


i Nicholas Speryng. For an account of the house see the passage above referred to 

1 in Cambridge Desiribcd and Jllustrnlcd a.nd C.A.S. Proc. and Conim. vii. p. 93. 

^ Cooper, Annals, ii. p. 63 : each of the two butchers' houses contained fourteen 

standings. Loggan indicates tlie position of the Shambles by two parallelograms of 

dotted lines. 
; 2 /^;V/. i. p. I So and ii. p. -231. ^ Ibid. iii. p. z-^S. * Ibid. i. p. 39. 

! H. s 


southern end. The long building in the Pease Market, 
next to Wheeler Street, is evidently the Corn Chamber, 
which has only recently disappeared. 

In Pety Curie there were many inns, of which the 
Lion yet survives and the Falcon and the Wrestlers be- 
long to recent recollection. I n the plan (Sheet 6) we may 
recognise their long yards. In the open ground which 
lies behind them and extends to S/aicg/ilei' Lmie (Corn 
Exchange Street) there is a long footway, fenced by a 
palisade on either hand, which conducts towards the 
King's Ditch : it coincides in direction with the lane now 
called Tibbs Row. The Ditch crosses Slaughter Lane 
at the northern end of the Fair Yard (S. Andrew's Hill). 
It skirts thewestern boundaryof S. Andrew'schurchyard 
and reaches S. Andrew's Street at Barnwell Gate. The 
Gate, near which one post existed in the time of Dr 
Caius, had entirely disappeared before 1592. Of the 
church of S. Andrew the tower, nave, south aisle and 
chancel are shown. 

Returning to the Pease Market we remark that 
S. Edwards church has passages enclosing it on three 
sides, as at present. Opposite the east end of the church 
an insulated block of low buildinos stands in the Pease 
Market: they were removed between 1840 and 1874. 
The tower of the church is crested with battlements 
and has a low spire. The south aisle has battlements 
and a porch, but no east window. The clerestory of the 
nave shows above the aisle. The unimportant-looking 
house shown at the south-west corner of the Pease 
Market is traditionally said to have been the residence 
of Thomas Hobson, the celebrated carrier, who died in 
1 63 1, It has lately been removed and a hosier's shop 
now occupies the site. Hobson's stables are said to 



have occupied the ground on the western side of the 

South of the Pease Market is the area included by 
Little Butcher Row (Wheeler Street), Luthborne Lane 
(Free School Lane), Dowe dyers Lane (Pembroke 
Street) and Slaughter Lane (Corn Exchange Street) 



Fig. 3r. Site of t!ie Augustine Friars, reduced from Hamond's map of 
Cambridge, 1592. 

(Sheet 6). In this we see a large space of ground marked 
in the plan Augustine freeis : it is enclosed within walls 
and on three sides planted with trees in line. At the 

' Cooper, Annals, iii. p. 137 (.[uoting from Bowtell's MSS) : but Hobson alsO 
owned, and perhaps lived at, the George Inn in Trunipington Street : see p. 63. 


north-west corner of this ground Hamond shows a 
building fronting LtttJiboy-ne lane and the east end of 
S. Bene't's church. A smaller buildinof abuts on its 
southern end and forms a wing of a small quadrangle. 
The larger building appears to be that which Cole, 
writing in 1746, believed to be the Refectory of the 
Austin Friars. In his MSS. he has a roueh drawino; of 
it, taken from a window in Corpus^ Probably these 
buildings stood on the western and southern sides of 
the conventual quadrangle. Lyne's plan of 1574 shows 
a complete quadrangle with a front to the Pease Market. 
Hamond's plan is unfortunately indistinct in this place. 
Fig. 31 gives a rough indication of its principal features. 
Next we shall take a survey of the area contained 
between Bene't Street, LtUhborne lane, the High Street 
and the part of Doive dyers lane which is now called 
Pembroke Street. At the corner of the two first-named 
streets stands 5". Benets chirck, the graveyard of which 
on its northern and eastern sides is enclosed by a wall 
and entered through a porch capped by a pentice roof. 
This porch served also as the outer gate of Corpus which 
originally could only be approached through the church- 
yard. Without any attempt to distinguish the Saxon 
features of the church Hamond shows the tower, capped 
by a steeple and cross, the nave, the south aisle and 
south porch. Adjoining the aisle we see the gallery 
connecting it with Corpus and the arched passage below 
it. At the south-east corner of the churchyard, next to 
Corpus, is a stile, by which the church could be ap- 
proached from Luthborne Lane. Prior to 1579 the part 
of the gallery which adjoins the chancel contained two 
chapels, on the ground and upper floor respectively, 

^ Arch. Hist. iii. p. 130 (fig. i) and pp. 150, 151. 


which belono-ed to the Colleoe. That on the s^round 
floor had a door which opened on the chancel. 

Corpus Xp~i col/egc\ as ah-eady mentioned, was 
entered from Bene't Street through the churchyard: but 
in 1500 a small piece of ground, separated from the 
churchyard by a wall, was ceded by the parish to the 
College as a passage to its inner gate. The building in 
three storeys, seen at the south-west corner of the church- 
yard, was the Rectory house, which had been purchased 
and converted into college chambers in 157S". The 
new Hall, erected in 1S23, has taken the place of the 
Kitchen, Buttery and Library of Hamond's day: other- 
wise the quadrangle shown by him has seen little 
structural alteration since 1592. In the southern range 
two tall chimneys rise above the roof of the Master's 
Lodge. Beyond the Lodge we see two windows of the 
Hall, and another chimney, near the western end of the 
range, marks the position of the Kitchen. South of the 
Old Court, and abutting on its southern range between 
the Hall and the Lodge, we remark the ^Master's gallery. 
Between it and Luthborne lane is the Master's garden. 
At the end of the gallery and opposite the Hall is the 
Chapel, showing an eastern window and three windows 
in the southern wall. The Chapel was newly built in 
Hamond's time (1579 — 84). Near the western end of 
the Chapel a chimney distinguishes the Pensionary, 
which had once been a tennis court. Hamond repre- 
sents it as overlapping at its eastern end the northern 
wall of the Chapel. The court contained on three sides 
by the Hall, the Master's gallery, and the Chapel and 

* Figure 3 in the Arch. Hist. i. p. 247, being drawn from the blurred copy of 
Hamond's plan, is so defective that it seems unnecessary to reproduce it in the 
text above. 

^ ArcJi. Hist. i. p. -249. 


Pensionary is divided into three parts by walls runnino- 
north and south : it was entirely swept away when the 
New Court was built (1S23— 27). The tree-planted 
ground between the Chapel and S. Botolph's Lane was 
the Fellows'garden'. Next the churchyard of S. Botolph 
is the Tennis court, entered from the north. 

Between the Pensionary and the High Street stood 
S. Bernard's Hostel. This Hostel was acquired from 
Queens' College by Corpus in 1534', and was converted 
into an inn, called the Dolphin, distinct, of course, from 
the inn so named in Bridge Street. Hamond shows a 
quadrangle enclosed by buildings on all its sides in this 
position. Part of the northern building seems to be a 
Hall with a screens passage leading to a small second 
court on its northern side^ 

The tower of 5. Botolplis church is represented by 
Hamond as standing entirely within the churchyard and 
not abutting, as it now does, on the street. The other 
parts of this church that are shown are the south porch 
and aisle, the roof and clerestory of the nave and the 
chancel with a window above the chancel arch. 

On the southern side of the churchyard is Peyiie 
farthmg lane, now S. Botolph's Lane, which is parted 
from Dozve dyers lane by a narrow strip of houses. Next 
the High Street, where the strip is broadest, the plan 
has a small quadrangle and a garden behind it arranged 

^ Caius, in his Annals (ed. Venn, p. 5), says that the orchard, or Fellows' garden, 
occupied the site of the original Gonvile Hall, or Hall of the Annunciation, and 
that the ancient wails surrounding the Hall remained in his time, with two "ates 
opening, one into Luthborne Lane, the other into the churchyard of S. Botolph. 
The gates do not appear in Hamond's plan. 

^ Stokes, History of Corpus Ckristi College, p. 8. 

3 Caius in his History (ed. 1574, p. 47) says that Bernard Hostel "on its 
eastern side adjoined Corpus Christi College." Fuller is mistaken in writing that 
"it was situate where now the Master's garden of Benet College." 


in symmetrical flower beds. A small building with a 
rather large window in its southern face projects into 
the quadrangle near its north-western corner: it looks 
like a miniature Hall. In Lyne's plan the buildings on 
this site are labelled Buitolph Ostell. According to 
Dr Caius this hostel lay between Pembroke College 
and S. Botolph's church, but on the northern side of 
Penie Farthing Lane. When the hostel ceased to exist, 
before 1496, it was leased by Pembroke College as a 
dwelling house. Fuller says that in his time some 
colleofiate character was retained in the buildins:^ 

Our perambulation of the town has now brought us 
back to the point near which we began, the gate of 
Pembroke College. Under Hamond's guidance we will 
now take a survey of the eastern quarters, lying for the 
most part outside the King's Ditch and consequently 
beyond the limits of primitive Cambridge. We begin 
with Doive dyers lane, or Pembroke Street (Sheet 6). 

On the left-hand side of this lane, beyond Luthborne 
Lane, we come to a triangular plot of ground, bounded 
by the lane, the King's Ditch and Slaughter Lane, 
which in the eighteenth century was known as the 
Tainter Yard'. At its southern end Slaughter Lane 
broadens into a space which in Lyne's plan is called Fare 
Yard and in Loggan's The hogge Market. Further, on 
the same side of the lane, there are three tenements with 
buildings on them. That at the corner next Preachers' 
Street was the Hanoringr Burbolt. The Bird Bolt Inn 
occupied the site of the Norwich Union oflices. The 
ground behind these tenements from Slaughter Lane 
to S. Andrew's church is entirely occupied by closes and 
gardens, and in this region Lyne pictures grazing cows. 

' Arch. Hist. i. p. xxv. ^ /^/^_ jjj^ p_ j^g^ 


On the right-hand side of Dowe dyers lane, beyond 
Pascall close, there are no houses until we come to 
Preachers Shxte (S. Andrew's Street). On this side 
the lane is parted by a long wall from S. Thomas lees, 
here represented as undivided pasture. 

Turning into Preachers Strete Csf JVarde, which in 
its continuation beyond the town was called Hadstock 
Way, and proceeding southwards along its western side 
we have on our rioht two enclosures, the first containing 
a small building near the corner of the street and a much 
larger barn-like one in the middle space, the other con- 
taining a variety of buildings, of which those which front 
the street represent the still-existing Castle Inn, which. 
Cole says, was in his time "almost the first house in 
entering Cambridge from the Gog- Magog Hills." With- 
in the memory of Dr Caius the site of this inn was 
occupied by Rudd's Hostel. Of all the hostels then 
existing it was perhaps the most ancient, for in 1284 
i'. was granted by the founder of Peterhouse to S. John's 
Hospital to compensate it for the loss of S. Peter's 
church and the hostels adjoining it'. The site afterwards 
passed to Corpus Christi College and still belongs to it. 
Beyond this the wall fencing S. Thomas' Lees begins 
again and continues to the margin of the plan, which is 
near the entrance of Downins: Colleee. 

On the opposite side of the road the plan scarcely 
reaches to Parker's Piece, but shows near the maro-in 


an expanse of open field, bounded on its northern side 
by a very long wall v/hich reaches to the road v.-hich was 
formerly called Hinton Way and is now represented in 
this part by Parker Street and Park Side. This open 
ground was part of Middle Field and in Hamond's plan 

* Arch. Hist. i. p. xxviii. 


is apparently shown as grassland, though in a more 
ancient day it had been tilled. It is now occupied by 
the houses and gardens of Park Terrace, the University 
Arms Hotel and the Theatre. Between this ground 
and the smaller garden of Emmanuel the plan shows 
two closes with houses on the street front. 

Fig. 32. Emmanuel College, reduced from Hamond's Map of Cambridge, 1592. 

At the edge of his plan of 1574 Lyne marks the 
close of the Blacke friejs, with a few buildings on it, 
where now^ the northern part of Emmanuel College 
stands. Emanuel College was founded in 1584. and 
Hamond shows that, eight years later, each of the two 


quadrangles of which it originally consisted was com- 
pleted on three sides (fig. 32). The entrance to the 
Collesfe was throufjh a door set in a wall next Emmanuel 
Street. At the western end of the range which fronts 
this door Hamond shows the large windows of the Hall, 
which has a louvre at the eastern end of its roof. 
Eastward of the Hall in the same range is the Master's 
Lodge. In the eastern range of the entrance court the 
Chapel (now the Library) is distinguished by its windows 
in the eastern wall. In the inner court we see two doors 
in the Hall range, one at the screens, the other beyond 
the dais end of the Hall, where a passage leads to the 
entrance court. The inner court, like the other, has 
ranges on three sides only and on its eastern side is 
parted from Emaiinel college walkes by a wall. These 
walks, which contain a large rectangular pond, are 
surrounded on all sides by walls, and between them and 
Emmanuel Street are the gardens of the Master and of 
the Fellows, From the western ranges of the two courts 
three short buildings project towards Preachers' Street, 
so as to form two diminutive courts open on the side 
next the street. It may be noted that of the buildings 
shown by Hamond the only surviving parts are the 
Kitchen, the Library and, with much alteration, the Hall. 
The Kitchen was a part of the buildings of the Black 

Behind the grounds of Emmanuel College the plan 
shows the open ground of Christ's Pieces, which formerly 
was known as Clayhanger or Clay Angles. In Lyne's and 
Loggan's plans this is represented as cornland, divided, 
as usual, into selion strips, though Hamond gives no 
indication of them. There are waybalks bounding it 
on the north and south — now represented by Milton's 


Walk and Emmanuel Road, and a third track traverses 
it from the end of Emmanuel Street to Waiics lane, 
now King Street. An open channel, which is the outlet 
of the pond in the Emmanuel grounds, is carried along 
the side of Emmanuel Road and also along the side of 
Christ's Pieces next Walles Lane\ 

The street leading from Preachers' Street to Christ's 
Pieces has no name in Hamond's plan, but in deeds of 
his time is called "the Ouene'shighwaye leading towards 
Barnwell," or "the Comon lane leading by the wall of 
Black Fryers." At the two ends of the street on its 
northern side houses were already built in Lyne's time, 
but the intermediate part was then skirted by a fence 
or wall. Where the wall stood a row of houses of uniform 
height and appearance had grown up when Hamond 
made his plan. They are manifestly the still-existing 
row of old houses, which can thus be dated between 
1574 and 1592, and it is evidence of Hamond's minute 
fidelity that there is the same number of ancient windows 
in their upper story (thirteen) as are shown in his picture 
of them. They served as the Pensionary of Emmanuel 

The low house at the north corner of Preachers' 
Street and Emmanuel Street, showing a door and only 
two windows, was leased by Emmanuel in 1586 to 
Ralph Symons, the builder whose work in the Great 

^ At the junction of Walles Lane and Jesus Lane the water passed under the 
road through a culvert and -.vas then carried along an open ditch, which divided 
the grounds of Jesus from Midsummer Common, to the river. The watercourse is 
shown in Loggan's plan and it is depicted at the point where it crossed Jesus Lane 
in a print of J. K. Baldrey, dated 1805. 

2 Dr Stokes, in his Outside the Barmvell Gate, C.A.S. 8%-o Publications, p. 30, 
says that this range was built by Ralph Symnons. Mr Shuckburgh, History of 
Emmanuel College, p. 57, thinks that the house in Preachers' Street occupied by 
Dr Chaderton was "a kind of dependence''' of Emmanuel College. 


Court of Trinity and in the second court of S. John's 
is so well known. He was in that year employed in 
building Emmanuel College. Next beyond Symons' j 
house, in Preachers' Street, the plan shows buildings I 
arranged on four sides of a small court with a earden I 
behind it. They are either the buildings of S. Nicholas' j 
Hostel or they occupied its site'. This was a hostel of • 
jurists, and the buildings were granted to Emmanuel in 
1585, for the purpose of constructing out of it a house 
for Dr Chaderton, the first Master of the Coller^e, but , 
whether on the same spot or in the College is not clear. 
In any case Dr Chaderton seems to have occupied the ■ 
Hostel buildings before the Lodge was completed". ! 
The tenement adjoining the Hostel on the north was • 
called the Antelope, and another, near the corner of | 
Christ's Lane, was a property known as the Vine. ' 

Chrystes college is presented by Hamond at an angle j 
of vision which does not give much idea of its appear- I 
ance. The Gate Tower, the front of which, towards the 1 
street, is exhibited bv Lyne with unusual reorard for de- 
tail, is seen in Hamond's plan from the side of the court 
and has no features to distinguish it except its corner tur- 
rets. The College consists of a single quadrangle. At its 

1 There was another St Nicholas' Hostel in Mill Street, which was absorbed 
in King's College. Probably when it was destroyed the students removed to 
Preachers' Street, as those of God's House did. In Arch. Hist. i. p. xxvii, it is 
stated that the Hostel was at the corner of Emmanuel Street and St Andrew's 
Street, but this is not quite accurate. The property assigned by Emmanuel , 
College to Ralph Symons, as is shown by abutments in the lease, was at the i 
corner, and the abutments of St Nicholas' Hostel, as described in the convey- 
ance to the College, are inconsistent with a corner position. In Lyne's plan the 
hostel is not the comer house, but next to it northwards. (See Stokes, Outside tke 
Bannvell Gate,'pp. ii, 22, and the interesting plan, dated 1635, of the Vine Estate 
between Christ's and Emmanuel Colleges.) Mr Shuckburgh, in his History of 
Emmanuel College, p. ?ii, says that the site of the Hostel is occupied by 62 and 
63 St Andrew's Street. 

' Arch. hist. ii. p. 693, note z. 


south-east corner we see the bell-turret over the Hall, 
and in the north-east corner two windows of the Chapel. 
Between the court and Christ's Lane is a small garden 
and next it is a kitchen court with buildings on all sides 
but the west. Eastward of the court are two gardens 
parted by a walled walk leading from the screens to 
Chrystcs college garden, a lawn lined by trees on all sides 
but the north. Beyond the garden a large orchard 
reaches to Walks lane (King Street): in its north-east 
corner is a tennis court. The area contained between 
the College grounds, Hobson Street and King Street 
is divided into a number of fields and orchards. Small 
houses front the former street near the corner of King 
Street and are continued along the western side of the 
latter street. The King's Ditch skirts Hobson Street 
on the northern side. 

Opposite the end of Christ's Lane and next S. 
Andrew's churchyard the plan shows buildings ranged 
about a court, WMth a yard behind it reaching to the 
King's Ditch. Here was the inn called the Brazen 
George, which was acquired by Christ's College, and 
about the year 1636 was used by the College to house 
an overflow of its students^ The modern Alexandra 
Street seems to represent the inn-yard. 

Beyond Barnwell Gate both sides of Sidney Street 
are occupied by continuous rows of houses. Those on 
the eastern side have courts reachino- to the Kine's 
Ditch. The Ditch passes under the end of Sussex Street 
and reappears in the grounds now occupied by Sidney 
Sussex College, through which it passes to Jesus Lane. 

^ History of Christ's Colh-^e (Peile), p. 42. Fuller (ed. Prickett and Wright, 
p. 59) is mi.-itaken in identifying; St Nicholas' Hostel with the Brazen George. See 
Stokes, Outside the Bamiucll Gate, p. i\. 


Opposite the east end of Trinity church Hamond shows 
buildings surrounding a four-sided court, with another 
court of three sides next to it eastwards. In this 
position Lyne marks Trinity Hostel, a jurists' hostel 
which was occupied by scholars until 1540. 

The building of Sidney Sussex College did not begin 
until 1595, and in 159^, when Hamond'splan was made, 
the site was the property of Trinity, to which college 
the buildings and grounds of the Franciscans, or Grey 
Friars, were granted after the Dissolution. The accounts 
of the bursars of Trinity College show that enormous 
quantities of materials from "the Friars" were employed 
in the building of the Great Court during the years 


The precincts of the Gray freer s in Hamond's 
plan (fig. 33) are surrounded by walls on all sides. 
The few buildings contained in them are next Sussex 
Street and Sidney Street. The remaining space is open 
pasture or orchard ground. At the south-west corner 
are some cottages, or offices, which extend in one 
direction along Sussex Street and in another for about 
170 feet along Sidney Street. These buildings form 
two sides of an irregular court, the eastern end of which 
is filled by a dwelling-house, which has a wing projecting 
eastwards, and overlooks a small garden. The northern 
side of the court is principally occupied by a more im- 
portant-looking building, which in its southern wall 
shows a door and windows in two storeys : there is also 
a single large window in its eastern gable. It lies out- 
side the present precincts of the College, and it is not 
known what uses it served in the conventual house. 
From the eastern end of this buildine another buildine 
extends northwards, parallel with Sidney Street. This 


seems to have been the Refectory of the Franciscans. 
It was the only part of the conventual buildings which 
was incorporated in the College and it was convertL-d 
into a Chapel. This Chapel was destroyed in 1776. 
The Chapel then erected in its place occupies a position 

Fig. 33. Site of the Grey Friars, reduced from Hamond^s Map of Cambridge, 1592. 

slightly different from the old one. From the north- 
eastern end of this building a high battlemented wall 
extends northwards, parting two gardens from the open 
ground on the east. Between the gardens is a long 


building reaching to Sidney Street. To the northern 
garden there is a gate of entrance in the wall next the 
street. Near the north-western end of the same wall 
there is a similar gate giving admission to a close which 
does not quite reach as far as the corner of Jesus Lane. 
It is unlikely that any of these buildings survive in the 
existing College\ 

There is no very noteworthy feature in the houses 
oi Bridge Sir etc between the end of Jesus Lane and the 
road junction at S. Sepulchre's church. The second 
house on the eastern side of the street in the plan was 
the Hoop Inn, which was destroyed in 191 2. It has a 
large yard with a back gate opening on Jesus Lane: 
a gate and passage still exist in this position. 

In JJiesus lane we find scattered houses facing the 
Grey Friars' wall. Park Street, or Garlick Fair Lane, 
as it was formerly called, did not exist in 1592. In its 
place we see the King's Ditch, here crossed by numerous 
foot-bridges. Further down Jesus Lane, and nearly 
opposite Jesus College, we come to a row of small 
cottages, apparently those which stood at the western 
end of All Saints' church and were removed in 1898 to 
make room for the Clergy Training School. Next them 
is a very large house with wings which give it the form 
of an H. It is the same house — the largest single house 
in his plan — which Lyne shows. It was the Radegund 
Manor House, belonging to Jesus College, which was 
built about 1555 and destroyed in 183 1". 

Jhcs2(s college (Sheet 5) is shown in wide, open 
grounds, the eastern part of which, marked in the plan as 

* Arch. Hist. ii. pp. 726 — 730. 

^ The Manor House is pictured in The Priory of Saint Radegund, Catnbridge 
(Gray), opposite p. 48. 


Jhestis college iihilkes and g7'oncs, is bounded on the north 
and west by wide belts of trees, and on the east side by 
the already mentioned ditch coming from Christ's Pieces. 
On its north side the grove is parted from the Common, 
as at present, by a ditch which branches from the King's 
Ditch at the point where Park Street turns from a 
northerly to an easterly direction. The walks are 
divided by walls from the ground occupied by the 
Collesfe buildinofs. 

The gate-tower, the drawing of which is blurred in 
the plan, is approached from Jesus Lane, as at present, 
by a long passage between walls. On the western side 
of the passage is the Fellows' Garden, a narrow strip 
of the same width as the College range which stands 
west of the gate-tower. A similar narrow strip on the 
other side of the passage is the Master's garden, of the 
same width as the south front of the Lodore: in 
Hamond's time the Lodge did not extend into the 
southern range of the cloister court. The plan shows 
the whole of the southern front of the College, ending 
in the Chapel, which has a large eastern window in place 
of the present triplet of lancets, which were substituted 
for it in 1S47. ^ he tower is surmounted by a vane. In 
the walls of the cloister walks Hamond, no doubt in- 
accurately, puts a large number of small and narrow 
openings instead of the square windows which are shown 
in Loggan's print. The eastern gable of the Hall roof 
shows above the eastern rancre. This rancre extends 

o o 

northwards for a short distance beyond the Hall and 
the western range is similarly prolonged by a building 
which contained the Kitchen. Between the prolonga- 
tions is the Kitchen court. There is no rancre on the 
northern side of the entrance court: the ranee in this 



position was put up between 1638 and 1641. In the 
plan there is a small building where the western part of 
this range now stands. Behind it is the Cook's garden, 
which is not arranged in the formal plan shown in 
Loggan's print. 

In the houses fronting the part of IValles Lane 
which is roughly parallel with Jesus Lane nothing is 
clearly distinguishable in the plan. Three almshouses, 
nearly facing the end of the present Malcolm Street, 
were the property of Matthew Stokys, Registrary of the 
University from 1558 to 1591, and by his will, dated 
1590, were conveyed, with other messuages, to the 
University, with the condition that they should be 
maintained as University almshouses for six "sole 
women." They were removed in iS6i\ 

Beyond the college grounds Jesus Lane changes its 
name to Baj-newell cawsey. Here we come out on open, 
houseless land. The village of Barnwell is not included 
in the plan. In the broad part of the road, opposite 
Midsummer Common, Hamond marks a rectangular 
area. About here the cattle market was held". 

* C.A.S. Proc. and Cot/irn. xii. pp. 144 — 247. , 

' Cooper, An f mis, ii. p. 347. 

PLAN OF 1634 


This bird's-eye view, which at the top is inscribed 
CANTAB RIGI A qiialis extitit A 71710 Dni 1634, is 
prefixed to most copies of Thomas Fuller's History of 
the Ufiiversify of Cambridge since the Cojiqiiest. This 
book was first printed in 1655 : in the text Fuller speaks 
of "this present year 1655." The view, therefore, was 
not drawn with the design of illustrating the History, 
nor does it appear by whom or with what purpose it 
was made. According to his own statement Fuller was 
resident at Cambridge for seventeen years. As he was 
admitted at Queens' College in 1621 this would imply 
that he left the University in 1 638 : but he held a Dorset- 
shire living from 1634. In the right-hand bottom corner 
is the shield of Baptist Noel, third viscount Camden 
(161 1 — 82), who is described on a scroll beneath it as 
the Maecenas of " T.F.," no doubt the author. In the 
right-hand top corner is a table enclosed in an ornamental 
border and containing a list of colleges, churches and 
other buildings corresponding to capital letters and 
Roman numerals which mark their situations in the 
view. In the view itself only the names Bridgc^'Strcete 
and TrHmpingto7i'-Styeete occur. As in the case of 
Lyne's and Hamond's plans the town is supposed to be 
viewed from the south. There is no scale of measurement. 

132 PLAN OF 1634 

As evidence of the appearance of the town and its 
principal buildings Fuller's view has little merit. It 
has neither the fidelity nor the minute delineation of 
Hamond's plan. It is somewhat smaller than Lyne's 
plan (13^ by io\ inches) which in some respects it re- 
sembles: but it has none of the varied, if imaginative, 
picturesqucness of Lyne's presentation of the town. 
Excepting Trinity and S. John's Colleges, King's 
College Chapel and a few of the churches there is hardly 
an attempt to represent the actual appearance of 
buildings: and all individuality is lost in the formal rows 
of houses, each like its neighbour and each presenting 
a gable end to the street, which are shown in the main 
thoroughfares. In college ranges which run north and 
south no details are shown: consequently College Halls 
are omitted and all eastern Gate-towers. 

The only importance of Fuller's view is its repre- 
sentation of the changes effected since the date of 
Hamond's plan (1592). The following may be noted in 
University buildings : the date given is in each case that 
of the completion of the work. 

At Peterhouse the southern (1595) and the northern 
(1632) ranges are continued as far as the street, and 
the old hostels which occupied the site of part of the 
extensions are removed. The plan shows the Chapel 
(1632) but does not indicate the cloisters at its western 
end (1633). The College is entered from Trumpington 
Street by a single door placed in a wall under a pentice 

At Pembroke Hall the western portion of the north 
range of the second court is shown : it was probably 
built at the beginning of the reign of Charles l\ 

1 j4rc/i. Hist. i. 145. 

''■" PLAN OF 1634 133 

At Queens' Collec^e the view does not show the 
range in Walnut Tree Court, completed in 16 19. A 
covered bridge connects the second court with the west 
bank of the river: there is no record of the date of its 

At King's College the view shows the stone bridge, 
built in 1627, the first college bridge of stone : it actually 
had two arches, but the view shows three. 

The rebuilding of Clare Hall began in 1635 : the 
buildings shown in the view are the old ones. 

At Caius College there is a suggestion of the Perse 
(16 1 7) and Legge (1619) buildings, but the whole plan 
of the College is hopelessly inaccurate. 

At Trinity College the Great Court, which was drawn 
by Hamond in its transitional stage, is represented in 
the quadrangular arrangement given to it by Nevile, 
with the Queen's (1597) and King Edward's (1600) 
Towers in their present positions. The fountain 
{160 1 — 2) is marked. The southern wall of the Chapel 
is represented as containing an upper and lower tier of 
windows. The eastern part of the north and south 
ranges of Nevile's court (completed in 1614) is repre- 
sented with a cloister beneath : a wall closes the court 
on the western side. The ditch forminof the eastern 
boundary of Garret Hostel Green is filled up (1605 — 6). 
The bridge crossing the river has been constructed 
(161 1 — 2), and a walk lined with trees leads from it 
westwards across what are now the Paddocks. Next 
the bridge, on the eastern bank, the tennis court (161 1) 
is shown. 

At S. John's College the second court is shown 
complete on all its sides (1602). Of the third court the 
Library range (1624) is seen, much out of its true posi- 

134 PLAN OF 1634 

tion. On the western bank of the river, next the ditch 
dividing S. John's Meadow from the Trinity Paddocks, 
is a tennis court (1602 — 3). 

At Corpus Christi College the only novelty since 
Hamond's plan is a lane separating the college from 
S. Botolph's churchyard. It led to S. Botolph's parish 
workhouse and was called Workhouse Lane. 

Sidney Sussex College (founded in 1594) had no 
existence when Hamond drew his plan. Fuller's plan 
represents two courts as complete, each with an entrance 
door next the street. There are no noticeable features 
in the buildings. 

Fuller's representation of Emmanuel College is 
purely grotesque. Here and at Jesus, Christ's, Magda- 
lene, Trinity Hall and St Catharine's there were no 
changes in the buildings between 1592 and 1634. A 
noticeable feature in the s^rounds of Magrdalene College 
is the watercourse anciently known as Cambrigge, which 
i; marked as a narrow channel at the foot of the bank 
in the College garden : a broader channel connects it 
with the river, which it joins opposite the outlet of the 
King's Ditch on the southern bank. Neither Hamond 
nor Lyne shows this watercourse, though the latter 
marks the grating where it passed under Magdalene 

Among features in the town the following are shown 
in Fuller's view. 

The Grammar School of Dr Perse in Free School 
Lane and his almshouses fronting the King's Ditch in 
Pembroke Lane: both were founded in 161 5. The 

^ A deed of 1 596 shows that the watercourse, styled therein k Kynges Ditche, 
was then in existence on the northern side of Magdalene College. Arch. Hist, ii. 
P- 355. 

PLAN OF 1634 .. 135 

representation of the almshouses as a three-sided court 
is purely fanciful. 

A conduit marked in the Market Place: it was built 
in 1614 at the charges of the Town and University. 

Hobson's Workhouse, established in 162S, a notice- 
able building at the verge of the plan, on the western 
side of St Andrew's Street. 

The channel in Trumpington Street, made in 1610 
for bringing water from the Nine Wells at Shelford to 
cleanse the King's Ditch. In Loggan's plan (1688), as 
in Fuller's, it does not skirt the road, but divides it into 
two unequal parts of which the eastern and narrower 
was appropriated to foot passengers. The King's 
Ditch, which it joins at the end of Mill Lane, crosses 
Trumpington Street as an open channel, without any- 
thing of the nature of a bridge or culvert\ 

^ For the origin of the scheme for scouring the King's Ditch with the water 
from Shelford, see pp. 2, 3. "The plan was Edward Wright's, who was M.A. of 
Caius College and the best mathematician of his day : he also gave Sir Hufh 
Myddclton the plan of his New River," Cambridge Portfolio, p. 312. In Loe-^an's 
view of Pembroke College the channel is boarded on the side next the College and 
the foot-way is higher than the carriage-way. Gunning, Reminiscences, i. p. 293, 
gives an account of the inconvenience .and accidents resulting from the channel in 
its old position. The present double channel, next the kerb on either side, was 
made about 1794. 



For the life and work of David Loggan whose plan of 
Cambridcre has next to be described the reader is re- 
ferred to Mr J. W. Clark's Introduction to the Archi- 
tectural History of the University of Cambridge (vol. i. 
pp. cvii — cxiv)\ and to the Reproductio7i of Loggan s 
Plans, edited ivith a Life of Loggan, Introdiiction and 
Historical and descriptive notes by J. W. Clark (1905). 

The work in which the plan is contained was pub- 
lished in 1690 and is entitled: 

nium Celeberrimae istius Universitatis Collegiorum, 
Aularum, Bibliothecae Academicae, Scholarum Publi- 
carum, Sacelli Coll: Regalis, necnon Totius Oppidi 
Ichnographia, Deliniatore et Sculptore Dav: Loggan 
Utriusque Academiae Calcographo. Ouam Proprijs 
Sumptibus Typis Mandavit et Impressit Cantabrigiae." 

Of the plan Mr Clark writes: 

" The plan of Cambridge which forms part of 
Loggan's Cantabrigia Ilhistrata is lettered : N'O VA ET 
ICHNOGRAPHIA. AN"". 1688. In the left lower 
corner are the words: Dav. Loggan Delin. et Sculp. 

' Mr Clark's article on David Loggan in the Dictionary of National Bioip-aphy 
adds some useful facts and in particular cites evidence for fixing the dates when 
some of the views of Cambridge colleges were drawn. The earliest to which a 
date can be assigned seems to be that of Catharine Hall, in 1676, the latest that of 
Magdalene College, in i6S3. 

PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, r688 137 

cu7n Privil. S.R.M. 1688. It is dedicated to Francis 
Turner, D.D., Master of S. John's College (1670 — 79) 
and Bishop of Ely (1684 — 91), in an inscription which 
states that the plan had been begun when he was Vice- 
Chancellor, and finished when he was Bishop. As Dr 
Turner was Vice-Chancellor 1678 — 9, Loggan must 
have been engaged for ten years in the preparation of it. 
It is an original survey, 15J inches high, by 2oi- inches 
wide, on a scale of about 300 feet to one inch. Though 
the scale is small, it is so accurately drawn, and so clearly 
engraved, as to be of the greatest service in determining 
the changes which had been effected in the interval of 
nearly a century which had elapsed since Hamond's plan 
was drawn." 

The plan is preceded in the volume by a plate con- 
taining two Prospects of Cambridge, the one taken from 
the east, the other from the west. The point of view 
in either case is too distant from the town to allow of 
more than a panoramic eflect in which prominent 
buildingrs are exhibited in relief. But the foreground 
of either Prospect gives a lively picture of rural life in 
suburban Cambridge. 

Of the views of University and College buildings 
contained in Loggan's book it is superfluous to speak. 
For the discussion of them the reader is referred to the 
Archifectural History, passim. Here no further mention 
need be made of them than such as is needed to explain 
details in the plan. 

In the century between the date of Hamond's plan 
(1592) and that of Loggan (16SS) the population of the 
town had only slightly increased. In 1587 the number 
of inhabitants "out of the colleges" was stated to be 
4990, and even as late as 1749 it had only increased 


to 6131. The number of houses in the latter year 
was i636\ The number of University residents had 
probably declined'. Little was done during the century 
ending 16SS in extending the domestic buildings of the 
colleges, and such growth as there was in the housing 
of the townsfolk was purely intensive. Some of the 
open spaces in the more central parts of the town were 
built upon, but the common fields surrounding the old 
house area remained unoccupied, and no new suburbs 
grew up along the main roads leading out of the town. 

A striking picture of the essentially agricultural 
character of large tracts which are now covered with 
the streets and houses of the town is furnished by the 
two engraved Prospects of Cambridge, mentioned above. 
That which exhibits the town from the east is taken 
from the neighbourhood of Christ's Pieces, In the fore- 
ground it shows a bare tract of arable land on which a 
shepherd sits, with his dog, in charge of a flock which 
grazes on the balks and stubble : three horsemen and a 
pedestrian, with two greyhounds, are returning from the 
hunt and are carrying home hares : other horsemen 
traverse a road which divides the field. The Prospect 
from the west is taken from near S. John's College 
Cricket Field. The nearer foreground is a field, where 
a man is reaping corn with a sickle: as it is cut it is 
fastened in shocks by men and women and loaded on a 
waggon : a carter with a waggon drawn by two horses 
carries off a load along a field road. Beyond this road the 
corn is still high and tv/o reapers are engaged in cutting it. 

If, as in the tours round the town which we have 

^ Cooper, Annals, ii. p. 435 and iv. p. ■274. 

^ 7^he University of Camhriuge (Epochs of Church History), by J. Bass 
MuUinger, p. 166: see also the interesting chart, representing the number of B.A. 
degrees conferred, at the end of the book. 

PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, 1688 139 

taken under the guidance of Lyne and Hamond, we 

begin with Loggan's plan where the Cojiduii /itads\.2inds 

I at the junction of Lensfield Road with the TrumDin2:;ton 

I Road, the rural character of Cambridge, outside its old 

! bounds, at once declares itself. On our rig-ht is the 
j t> 

modern Lensfield Road, un-named by Loggan but once 

called Deepway, which parted the inhabited town from 

j the open field, called Fordfield. On either hand it is 

I bordered by ditches and a double row of trees\ Neither 

I along this road nor along the Hills Road where Parker s 

j Peice fronts it is there any sign of habitation. Between 

! Spittle ho2ise end and Pembroke College a continuous 

row of houses occupies the eastern side of Triimpington 

Street, including the Canons' Close which in Hamond's 

i time was a bare field. But behind the Spittle house and 

t reaching to St Andreivs Street is an expanse of open 

I ground marked as The Alarsh. At the south-east corner 

i of it is a square plot of arable land : but the Marsh, which 

I in Hamond's plan is shown in furlong strips, was evi- 

j dently pasture in 1 6SS: and so it remained until Downing 

! College was created and the townsmen's lammas riq^hts 

' were extinguished. The Lease, otherwise known as 

j S. Thomas' Leys, in Loggan's plan does not occupy the 

I whole area assigned to it by Hamond. A portion of it 

j is enclosed as Peuibroke peice", and on the south side of 

\ this is a square plot surrounded by trees. The narrow 

' lane which bounded the inner court of Pembroke Colleo-e 
; *--' 

; ^ A branch of the New River, as the Tnimpington cunduit was called, was 

• made from Sfittlc house <r//^ early in the 17th century. It supplied the runnels in 

; S. Andrew's Street and the baths of Emmanuel and Christ's, and was the work of 

■ "Mr Frost, Manciple of Emmanuel College." Atkinson-Clark, Cavtbridge De- 
'\ scribed, p. 69, note. 

' ^ Though Loggan calls this plot Pembroke peice it belonged to Peterhouse and 

, was acquired by rembroke College in separate parcels in JS54 and 1861; Arch. 

■ Hist. i. pp. 127 — 128. 

140 PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, i6S8 

on its east side, and in Hamond's day gave access to 
St Thomas' Leys from Pembroke Street, was closed in 
1620, and in place of it a new passage was made in 
1688, which is the present Tennis Court Road'. 

The water-channel in Trumpington Street is repre- 
sented, as in Fuller's plan, as dividing the street into 
two unequal parts, of which the broader is on the western 
side and served as the carriage way. Opposite the site 
of the Fitzwilliam ?^Iuseum it is lined by a row of trees 
growing in the middle of the road. Between the Lodge 
of the Masterof PeterhouseandtheChapel of Pembroke 
Colleore a branch of it runs east to the Fellows' garden 
where it supplies a " waterwork " and bath, and then, 
turning at a right angle continues under the north and 
south ranges of the inner court and thence across Pem- 
broke Street into the King's Ditch. At the point of 
juncture the King's Ditch appears as an open water- 
course and so continues past The hogge Market (the old 
Corn Exchange) along Tibbs Row and the west side 
of S. Andrew's church. Along Walls Lane (Hobson 
Street) its course is not shown in the plan. As it is here 
marked as an open channel in Fuller's plan we may 
perhaps conclude that this part of it was covered in at 
some time between 1634 and 168S. From its entrance 
into Sidney Coll. Close to its outlet in the river it remained 
in Loggan's time an open watercourse. 

At Pembroke College the chief alterations shown in 
the plan are Wren's chapel, built in 1663 — 5, and the 
eastward extensions of the north and south ranges of 
the inner court, carried out in 1659 and 1670. 

On the opposite side of Trumpington Street there 

' In Logman's plan the road only extends half-way to LensfieM Road. The 
tennis court which gave its name to it was in tlie grounds of Pembroke College, 
near the bowling green, and is marked 39 in the plan. 

PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, 1688 141 

is nothing in the plan which calls for remark until we 
reach the street which Lo";2:an calls Queens Coll. Lane, 
now Silver Street. Queens' College in his plan presents 
the same general appearance as it did in Hamond's day : 
but Catharine Hall had been almost completely rebuilt 
since the date of Fuller's plan. The two small courts 
shown in Hamond's plan have disappeared, and in place 
of them Loggan shows a single large court of four sides, 
the western range of which extends for some distance 
beyond the court northwards. This extension, forming 
one side of what was called Dr Gostlin's court, was 
erected between 1634 and 1636. Next it was a passage, 
beloncrino^ to the Black Bull Inn, which reached from 
Trumpington Street to Queens' Lane. Of the buildings 
indicated by Loggan in the principal court the Hall and 
Butteries were finished in 1675, the Master's Lodge in 
1676 and the western range, containing a Gate fronting 
Queens' Lane, in 1679. The Chapel and the Ramsden 
building facing it are set down in Loggan's plan, and 
both are shown in his view of the College (date 1676): 
but these parts were not built until the next century. 
In the view the eastern range is represented as of the 
same character as the other ranges of the court but as 
containing two storeys only and including a Gate of 
Entrance from Trumpington Street. This was an im- 
portant feature, and it was evidently contemplated that 
it should be seen from Trumpington Street and serve 
as the principal entrance to the College. In Loggan's 
plan a row of houses intervenes between it and the street : 
they were pulled down in 1 754, when there was a design 
for completing this side of the quadrangle with a Library 
in front\ Between Catharine Hall and King's College 

^ The rebuilding of the College beg.\ii in 1674, and wa-s mainly carried out by 
the exertions of Dr Eachard, who became Maiter in the following year. It is 

142 PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, 1688 

we note that Plott and Nuts Lane has changed its name 
to King's Lane. It is still the narrow and winding street 
shown in Hamond's plan, and lies to the south of the 
modern King's Lane, which in its present course was 
laid out in 1 87 1\ Cholles, or White Friars', Lane, which 
connected Queens' Lane with the river bank, is shown, 
but not named, by Loggan. 

Loggan's plan gives no suggestion of change in the 
appearance of King's College. But on the v/estern side 
of the river the northern half of the piece of ground 
called by Hamond Kynges College backe sides, and 
otherwise known as Bull Close, has become Clare Hall 
Meadow. The exchange by which Clare College ac- 
quired it was effected in 1638. 

The whole of the present court qi..JIla7'e Hall, as 
shown by Loggan, v/as built after the date of Fuller's 
plan. The east and south ranges and the bridge were 
completed before the outbreak of the Civil War (1642). 
The work was resumed in 1662, and the stonework of 
the southern part of the river front was finished in 1 669. 
These were all the present buildings which were in 
existence in 1688. Loggan in his plan, as well as in his 
view of the College, shows a quadrangle complete on 
all its sides : but below the view he states that the 
northern part of the west range was not finished when 
the view was made, but was represented as it was in- 
tended to be finished. It was actually built between 
1705 and 1707. The north range, containing the Hall, 

reasonable to suppose that an architect's plan of tiie whole work was in existence 
when Loijgan made his view. Mr Clark in his Introduction to the Architectural 
History (p. cxii) makes it clear that the view of Catharine Ilall was made in 1676, 
and not about 168S, as stated under the reproduction of it in the Architectural 
History. In 1676 Loggan engraved Wren's design for the Library at Trinity 
College. His view of Clare Hall must also have been drawn fioni an architect's 
design, since some of the buildings which he shows had not been erected at the 
date of the publication of his Cantabngia Illustrata. ^ Arch. Hist. i. p. 349. 

PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, 1688 143 

Kitchen and Butteries, was erected between 16S3 and 

Go7ievill and Cajus College, the representation of 
which in Fuller's plan is fantastic, had been increased 
since Hamond's time by the addition of the Perse 
(161 7) and Legge (1619) buildings. The Gate of 
Virtue is approached from Trinity Street by an 
avenue lined with trees. The piece of ground south of 
the avenue is occupied, as in 1592, by dwelling-houses, 
and the site was not acquired by the College until i 782. 

At Trinity Colledge the Great Court appears in the 
plan in the arrangement given to it by Nevile and 
practically unchanged at the present day. Noticeable 
in both the plan and view of the College is the small 
four-sided court between King Edward's Tower and 
the lane which divides Trinity from S. John's College, 
Fuller's plan gives no indication of it. This was sub- 
stantially the original court of King's Hall and Loggan 
in his view styles it Hospitiwn Regis. The east and 
north sides of it were pulled down in 1694, being then 
described as ruinous. Between the still existing western 
range of this court and the river Loggan marks the 
Bowling Green, which was laid out in 1646. Nevile's 
Court, which was incomplete when F'uller's plan was 
made, is shown with the extensions of the north and 
south ranges, erected between 1676 and 16S1, and the 
Library, which was in building at the same time. 
Bishop's Hostel, built in 1671, is shown by Loggan in 
the situation occupied in Hamond's time by the two 
hostels once known as Ovyng's Inn and Garret Hostel. 
There was no entrance to Bishop's Hostel from Trinity 
Hall Lane, and the gate, called Nevile's Gate, which 
now fronts the lane, stood in 16SS at the western end 

144 PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, 1688 

of the avenue in the Paddocks\ Westward of Bishop's 
Hostel various college offices form an irregfular court. 
Between it and the river Looroan shows a rectano-ular 

00 o 

plot, bounded on its northern side by an avenue of trees 
continuing that which is in the Paddocks. 

At St Johns Colledge Loggan shows the third court 
completed on its southern and western sides, the latter 
range extending beyond the court as far as the bridge: 
this work was carried out between 1669 and 1671, The 
bridge shown in the plan and in the view is the wooden 
bridge which is shown in Hamond's plan": it was re- 
moved in 1696, when the present bridge of stone was 
begun. Beyond the river St Johns Coll. Meadoiu has 
much the same appearance as is given to it by Hamond : 
but the six ponds shown by Hamond in the ground 
marked by Loggan as St Johns fish ponds have be- 
come seventeen in Loggan's plan and nineteen in his 
view. Next the outlet of the Binn Brook there is a 
building of some size, which appears to have been let 
as a warehouse. The Meadow is surrounded on all sides 
by watercourses, but that which bounds it on the west 
is not, at least on the surface, continuous with the ditch 
which parts T^-inity Coll. Meadoiv from the common 
ground of the Town which Loggan calls Trinity Coll. 
Peice. The narrow strip of ground which lies betv/een 
this Trinity ditch and St Johns Walkes (now the Wilder- 
ness) at the date of Loggan's plan belonged to the 
Town^ The Bowling Green on the northern side of 
the Walks was made in 16 10 — 1 1. 

^ Arch. Hist. ii. pp. 643, 644. The iron gates at the end of the avenue were 
brought from Horseheath in 1733. 2 Jhid. ii, p. 276 and fig. 12. 

'^ On the S. John's and Trinity College ditches and their relation to the river 
Cam see C.A.S. Proc. and Comm. ix. p. 76, On the Watercourse called Cambridge, 
by Arthur Gray. 

PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, 1688 145 

Here it may be remarked that all along the western 
side of the river the arable land is seen to extend as far 
as the road at the Backs of the Colleofes. The Binn 
Brook crosses the road as an open stream. From the 
Binn Brook northwards, along the Madingley Road and 
on the slope towards the Castle, all the open ground is 
pasture, as it was in Hamond's time. 

Nothing calls for remark in the dwelling-houses in 
Bridge Street or in the parts of the town which lie north 
of the river. At the Castle we notice that the Gatehouse 
is marked as The Prison. According to the writers of 
Le Keux's Memorials of CaDilwidgx (1842) it continued 
to be used as the County jail "until, very recently, the 
modern building was erected\" Custance in his plan of 
1 798 places the County Bridewell on the site of a large 
building which figures in Loggan's plan near the northern 
ramparts of the Castle. A building which Loggan marks 
on the eastern side of the Castle enclosure was the 
Shire Ho7ise. Like the County prison it was contained 
in Chesterton parish and was therefore outside the 
borough limits-. The gallows on the lower slope of the 
Castle mound is shown and is conspicuous in Loggan's 
Prospect of Cambridge from the east. Outside the 
Castle bounds there is a wide stretch of arable held 
reaching along the Huntingdon Road in one direction 
and towards Chesterton in another. 

Returning towards the centre of the town and taking 
the eastern side of the High Street we notice that 
Green Street has come into existence and that houses 

^ A woodcut, taken in iS'37, in the MeinoriaiS of Cambridge, vol. ii. shows the 
Gatehovise in a ruinous state. 

2 This Shire House was destroyed in i 747 when a new Shire House was erected 
above the shambles in the Market Place. (Car/:5riJi;e Discnbcd and Illustrated 
by Clark and Atkinson, p. 89.) 

H. 10 

146 PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, 1688 

are closely packed on either side of it, where Hamond 
marks a large square of unoccupied ground. It took its 
name from Oliver Green, M.D., of Caius College, and 
the Annalist of that college, writing of the year 16 14, 
states that the street had been then recently built on 
his estate'. A yard, opening from it, which now gives 
access to the rear of the premises of Messrs Macintosh 
in Market Hill, was the back entrance to the Angel Inn. 

In The Chief Market and in front of The Toimi 
HallX.yNO rectangles marked with dotted lines represent 
the shambles. x\bove them a new Sessions House, 
supported on pillars, was erected in i 747 and the open 
space of the Market was thereby reduced'. Near this 
Loggan places The Town Prison. The Market conduit 
and cross are both indicated. The conduit, supplied 
with water from the New River brought from Shelford 
Nine Wells, was made in 1614. The cross was not the 
old structure shown by Hamond, but a new one, put up 
in 1664 and described as an Ionic pillar surmounted by 
a gilt orb and cross: it was destroyed in 17861 

In St Bennett's street, nearly opposite the door of 
the church, Loggan marks The Post house. This was 
the Eagle and Child Inn (now the Eagle Hotel). The 
original Post-house seems to have been the Devil's 
Tavern, which occupied part of the site of the Senate 
House: the first London coach ran from it in 1653'. 

Loggan's plan shows no noteworthy change at 
Corpus College or in the open grounds which had once 

» Venn, Ajinals of GonvilU and Caius CoNe^e {C.A.S. 8vo. Publications, 1904), 

P- '34- 

2 Cambridge Described and Illustrated, pp. 89, 90. The shambles were removed 

from under the Town Hall about 1S35. 

3 Ibid. p. 67. 

* The Cavibridge Portfolio, p. 203. 

PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, 1688 147 

belonged to the Augustinian PViars and were afterwards 
to become the Old Botanical Garden. 

Approaching the town from the side of Parkers 
Peice the new features shown in the plan at Eniaimel 
College are the Brick Building (1632 — 4), the Chapel 
and Cloister (166S — ^^) and the Bath in the Fellows' 
Garden. The last was in existence in 161 2. It was 
supplied with water from the Conduit-head, which was 
brought in an open channel along the present Lensfield 
Road and S. Andrew's Street, and thence carried 
through the garden at the south-west end of the College 
and by a vault under the Brick Building'. It might 
appear from the plan that the main entrance to the 
College was from S. Andrew's Street, but the view 
shows that the College was parted from the street by 
a wall in which there is only a small door, opening on 
the little Bungay court at the north-west corner of the 
College. The principal entrance was still in Emmanuel 

At Christ Colledge the Fellows' Building, finished in 
1642, is shown. Loggan's plan represents the street 
front of the principal court as reaching to Christs Coll. 
Lmie. In his view the southern end of this range is 
shown as a low building, external to the court and lighted 
by a single window placed under the eaves : its site is 
now occupied by an extension of the Library. Projectino- 
eastward from the Kitchen are two parallel buildings, 
of which one borders on Christ's Lane: they appear to 
have been timber structures, put up about the year 161 3 
and sometimes called Rats' Hall". In the Fellows' 
Garden Loggan marks a Tennis Court and Bowling 
Green, the latter of which is first mentioned in 16S6. 

^ Arch. Hist. ii. p. 696. "^ Ibid. p. 701. 

148 PLAN OF D. LOGGAN, 1688 

The Bath is not shown in the plan. Near the lane now 
called Sussex Street, but formerly known as Little 
Walls Lane, we recognise the large yard of the existing 
inn called the True Blue, with its back entrance in 
Walls Lane (Hobson Street): on its southern side the 
plan of Custance (1798) marks the London Waggon 
Inn. At Sidney Sussex CoUedge there is nothing in the 
plan to claim attention. 

At Jesus Col/edge the tree shown in the plan in the 
middle of the entrance court was a walnut tree, first 
mentioned in 15S9. The range on the north side of 
this court was built between 1636 and 1641. On the 
western side of the Fellows' Garden a Bowling Green, 
first mentioned in 1 630, is shown. A watercourse derived 
from the King's Ditch encloses two sides of the Cook's 
garden which is shown to the north of the entrance court. 

With the exception of some tenements facing the 
Fellows' Garden of Jesus College the whole of the area 
betwec.i the front of the College and Walls Lane 
(King's Street) is occupied by the Radegund IManor 
House and its grounds. Near the southern end of 
Walls Lane Loggan marks a pound : it was the pound 
of the eastern or Barnwell Fields.. The almshouses 
which the plan shows near to this were established in 
1647 by the will of Elizabeth Knight for two widows and 
four maids, whence the adjoining road has derived its 
name of Maids' Causeway, formerly Barnwell Causeway'. 

1 The site is described in an indenture of 1648 as "that piece of waste ground 
lying in a triangle at a place called Jesus Lane End, between the highway kading 
from Jesus Lane towards Barnwell on the one part, and the way leading from 
Walls Lane towards Barnwell on the other part, and the then lately erected breast- 
work on the third part." A bank which Custance marks in the middle of Barnwell 
Causeway is perhaps the remains of the breastwork. In 1657, when the Corpora- 
tion leased the triangle to the executor of Elizabeth Knight, it is recorded that an 
old pound had formerly stood there. Cooper, Amtals, iii. pp. 41^. 4i3- 



The Survey of Cambridge by William Custance needs 
little description. It is styled /l Nciu Plan of the 
Unive7'sity and Toivii of Canib^'idge to the Present Year, 
lygS. Notes beneath the lower margin inform us that 
it was surveyed by and published for William Custance, 
Cambridge, May 21st, 1798, and engraved by J. Russell, 
Grays' Inn Road, London. Custance was a surveyor 
and builder who lived in Chesterton parish. In 1814 he 
rebuilt the houses called Crossing's Place which stood 
on the site of the Waterhouse building of Pembroke 
Hall. His dealingfs in buildino- sites broucrht him into 
frequent relations with Mr C. Pemberton, a Cambridge 
solicitor, whose house, now called Grove Lodge, is 
specially distinguished in the plan, and was perhaps 
built by Custance. 

The plan measures i/f by I3:f inches. On the left- 
hand side is an ill-drawn shield of the Town arms, 
granted by Robert Cooke, Clarencieux, in 1575 : and 
on the opposite side the shield of the University. 

The plan is chiefly interesting as illustrating the 
topography of Cambridge just before the great changes 
in Town and University which began in the early years 
of the nineteenth century. The open fields surrounding 
the town were enclosed between 1802 and 1S07. Before 
that time the limits of the inhabited town-area were the 
same as in the reign of Elizabeth, and with the exception 


150 PLAN OF W. CUSTANCE, 1798 

of the Senate House no important additions had been 
made to the buildings of the University and colleges 
since Loeean's views were made. The srround that was 
to be occupied by Downing College w^as still The Leys, 
which reached to Bird Bolt Lane (Downing Street)^ 
at S. John's College Rickman's buildings had not dis- 
placed the old fish ponds : King's and Corpus colleges 
had no fronts to the main street. Peterhouse and 
Emmanuel colleo^es are on the outermost verore of the 
town : on the side of Chesterton there are no houses 
beyond the grounds of Magdalene, and none towards 
Barnwell beyond Jesus College. Some old street names 
survive, and there are several inns which have since 
disappeared — the Sun opposite Trinity Gate, the Rose 
tavern and the Angel in the Market, the Black Bear, 
where is now Market Passage, and the Cardinal's Cap, 
opposite Pembroke Hall. The Market is the old 
irregularly shaped and scattered Market shown in the 
plans of Lyne and Hamond : the eastern limb of it is the 
Co7'n Market, the part in front of the Shire Hall is the 
Garden Market, otherwise known as Green Hill, and 
there is, besides, the outlying Beast Market which was 
once known as the Pair Yard or Hoy' Hill. 

The marks of novelty are few. Nonconformity has 
erected meeting'-houses near the end of S. Andrew's 
Street for the Anabaptists and Independents : the 
windows of the latter were broken by an anti-Jacobin 
mob in 1792. Near them, and behind Hobson's Work- 
house, is the Town Jail, which was built in 1790, taking 

^ Tlie Act of Parliament for extinguishing common rights on S. Thomas' Leys 
and buiUling Downing College thereon was passed in iSoi. The tnsl design was 
to build it on a piece of ground called Doll's Close, facing Midsummer Common, 
where the houses on Maids' Causeway now stand. In the Act of liloi Tennis Court 
Road was set out as a private way: it was made public in 182 1. 

PLAN OF W. CUSTANCE, 1798 151 

the place of the old prison adjoining the Town Hall. 
The County Bridezvell was still in the Castle precincts, 
but the Shire Hall, which in Loggan's plan is shown 
near it, is marked by distance as facing the south end 
of the Corn Market, and in front of the Town Hall: it 
was built there in 1747 and removed to the Castle site 
in 1842. The Post Ojjlcc was in a yard between the 
Sun Inn and Sidney Street, or as it was then called, 
Bridge Street : early in the nineteenth century it was 
removed to Green Street. The King's Ditch is marked 
throughout its course. A curiosity in the plan is a square 
marked in the middle of Magdalene Street, which is 
described as the Scite of the Old Bridge. It is rather to 
the south of the grating which Lyne shows in his plan 
as the position of Cambridge Bridge, and as it is not 
marked in any of the plans after 1 5 74 it is to be presumed 
that the g/: -^ing had disappeared long before the time 
of Custance. His plan also marks a watercourse v/hich 
begins at the south end of Fisher's Lane, reaches 
Magdalene Street at a place some distance south of the 
" Old Bridge," is carried down the street as far as the 
gate of Magdalene College, then crosses the entrance 
court to its north-east corner and passing through the 
Fellows' Garden reaches Chesterton Lane. The turn- 
pike gate which Custance marks at the boundary of 
Chesterton parish was removed in 1S52: there were 
other turnpikes at the same boundary on the roads to 
Huntinedon and Cottenham. 


All Saints' church by the Castle, 15, 100 

in the Jewry, 14, 107 

Andrew's (S.) church, 17, 114 
Angel inn, 146 

(New), 71 

Antelope (the), 1 2^ 

Augustine Friars, 10, 17, 115-6 

Austin's (S.) Hostel, 65 

Baker, Thomas, 2^ 
Barnwell Causeway, 16, 130 

Gates, XXV, 17, 114 

Barton Way, 59 u. 

Benet College, see Corpus Christi 

Benet's (S.) church, 9, 11 6- 17 
Bernard's (S.) Hostel, 9, 118 
Binn brook, 145 
Black Bear inn, 109 
Black Friars, 17, 121 
Black Lion inn, 6^ 
Bolton's Place, 46 
Boresheacl inn, 65 
Botolph's (S.) church, irS 

Hostel, 9, iiS 

Bowtell, XX, xxi 

Braun, G., 18 

Brazen George inn, 125 

Bridges: Great, 96; Small, 53; Garret 

Hostel, xiv, 57 
Bridge Street (or Ward), 15 
Burden (Borden) Hostel, 14, loS 
Butt Close, 56, 73 
Butts, Dr, 71 

Caius, Dr, i 

Caius College, see Gonvillc and Caius 

Cambridge watercourse, xxvi, 15, 134 
Camden, Viscount, 131 
Canons', 7-8, 43 
Cantebrig, ix 
Cardinal's Cap inn, 52 
Carme Field, 54 
Carmelites, see White Fiiars 
Castle, the, xvi-xxi, xxx, 15, 102-3, 145 
Castle inn, 120 
Castle Street, 100 

Catherine's (S.) Hall, 10,38-9,62-3, 141 
Cattle Market, 130 
Chalkwell, 59 w., 100 «. 


Cheke, Peter, 1 12 

Cholies Lane, Cholle^hithe, 10, 65 

Christ'sCoUege, 16-7, 21,40, 124-5, 147 

Clare Hall, 14, 32, 72-5, 133, 142 

Clark, J. Willis, v 

Clayhanger, Clayangles, 122 

Clement's (S.) church, 16, 105 

Hostel, 16, 105 

Coe Fen Leys, 47 
Conduit Head, 147 

in Market, see Fountain 

Street, 109 n. 

Corpus Christi College, 19, 32, 
Cosyn's Place, 46 

Cotton Hall, 51-2 
Crane, Jo!m, 108 
Crouched Hostel, 84 n. 
Cullicra, 17 
Custance, William, 149 

Devil's tavern, 146 

Ditch: the King's or Town, xxii-xxvii, 
xxxiii, 52, 125, 135; near Magdalene 
College, xxii, xxvi, 15, 134; near 
Trinity College, xv, 57, 77, 100 

Dolphin inn in Bridge Street, 107 ; in 
High Street, 118 

Dowdivers Lane, 17, 44, 119-20 

Dykes of E. Cambs., xxiii 

Edward's (S.) church, 10, 1 14 

Ee, the river, ix 

Ely Hostel, 76 

Ely (Reginald), almshouses of, 90 

Emmanuel College, 42-3, 121-3, '34» 


Emmanuel Lane, 123 

Fair Yard, 17, 1 14 

Findsilver Lane, 14, 85 

Fisher's Lane, 58, 99 

Fishponds, 58, 104, 10;, 144 

Flaxhithe, 8^ 

Foster, J. P"., 24 

Foul Lane, 81, 89 

Fountain in the Marketplace, 113, 135, 

Frosshelake Way, 54 
Fuller, Thomas, 131 

Gallows, 144 



Garret Hostel, 83 

Green. 57 

Lane, 72 

Giles' (S.), church, 15, lor 
Glomery Hall, 69 

Lane, 67 

God's House, 35 

Gonville and Caius College, 13, 20, 35, 

41-2, 47. 77-9' 133. '43 
Grange Road, 59 
Granta river, ix 
Grantacacstir, xvi 
Grantebrycge, ix 
Gray Friars, 16, 1-26-8 
Greencroft, 16 
Green Dragon inn, 7 1 
Green Street, 145-6 
Gregory's (S.) Hc/stel, 84 «. 
Grithowe Field, 59 

Hamond, John, 27 

Hare (Hore) Hill, 100 

Hare, Robert, 2^ 

Harleston's Inn and Lane, 105 

Heaine, Thomas, 23 

Henney, 13, 71-2 

Hermitage, 53-4 

High Cross, loi 

High Ward, 12 

Hobson, Thomas, 114, 135 

Hog ^Larket, 140 

Hoop inn, 128 

Hostels, list of, 4-5 

Inglis Croft, 47 

Jesus College, 16, 21, 39, 128 

Lane, 16, 128-30, 148 

John's (S.) College, 14,20,40, 58, 94-7, 

Grange, 59 

Hospital, 97 

Lane, 96 

Katherine's (S.) Hostel, 90 

King's Arms, 78 

King's College, 10, 20, 36, 55, 65-7, 

95-S. 133 

Hall, 32, 92-5, 143 

Lane (King's Childer Lane), 


Knight's almshouses, 148 
Kymbalton's Lane, 105 

Lambe, le, 78 

Lease, the, see S. Thomas Leys 
Lensfield Road, 139 
Loggan, David, 136-7 
London Waggon inn, 148 

Long Balk, 54 

Long Meadow, Long Green, 55-6 

Luthborne Lane, io 

Lyne, Richard, i 

Magdalene College, 15, 2t, 40-1, 104 
Margaret (S.): Hostel, 89; School of, 69 
Market, 11, 1 10-3, [46 

the Old, loi 

Cross, II, 112, 146 

Marsh, the, 139 

Mary (S.) the Great, church of, 109-10 

the Less, church of, 9, 51 

Hostel of, 12, 71 

Lane, 69 

Michaelhouse, 30-1, 84-7 
Michael's (S.) church, 108 
Mighell Angell, le, 89-90 

Mill, Bishop's and King's, x-xi, 52 

Mortimer's, or Newnham, x-xi, 54 

Lane, 52 

Street, 13, 72 

Millstones Hill, 88 
Mortimer's Dole, 47 
Muscroft (Mewscrofc), 59 

New inn, 71 

Nicholas' (S.) Hostel, 124 

Ovyng's inn, 83 

Parker, Archbishop, i, 5, 12, 68 

Pascall Close, 8, 45 

Paul's (S.) inn, 109 

Pease Market, 11 

Pembroke Hall, 8, 32, 43-6, 132, 140 

Pennyfarthing Lane, 9, 118 

Perne, Dr, xxvi, 2-3 

Perse School and almshouses, 134-5 

Peterhouse, 9, 19, 30-1, 47-5 '> '3'^ 

Peter's (S.) church, 15, 99 

Petty Cury, 17, 114 

Physwick Hostel, 89 

Plott and Nuts Lane, 10, 6^, 142 

Post House, 146 

Pounds, 99, 148 

Pound Green, 99 

Preachers' Street or Ward, 17, 120 

Printing House, ')3 

Prison: County, 145; Town, 113, 146 

Pump Lane, ii 2 

Pythagoras, House of, 15, 59 w. 

Queens' College, xii tr, 10, 20, 37, 55, 

60-2, 133 
almshouses, 63 

Radegund Manor House, 128, 148 
Ree, the, x 



Regent's Walk, 68 

River, old courses of, xi-xiii 

Rose tavern, 109 

Round church, see S. Sepulchre's 

Rudd's Hostel, 120 

Ryther, Augustine, 27 

Sale Piece, ro2 
Scarlett, William, 108 
Schools, the, 12, 2<)fi., 67-70 

Streets, 12, 69-70 

Scroope, Lady Ann, 47, 54 
Senate House, 68 

Passage, 71 

Sepulchre, church of S., 16, 106-7 
Shambles, the, 1 13 

Sheep's Green, 53 

Sherers Lane, 14, 108-9 

Shire House, 145 

Shoemaker Lane, 14, 108-9 

Siberch (Sibert), John, 78 ^ 

Sidney Sussex College, 126-8, X34 

Slaughter Lane, 17, IJ4 

Smiths' Row, 1 12 

Soon, William, 18 

Speryng, Nicholas, 71, 112 

Spittle End, 7, 43 

Star inn, 104 

Stokys' almshouses, 130 

Sun inn, 107 

Swinecroft, 8, 44 

Swyn family, 47 

Symons, Ralph, 123 

Tanners' Hall, 113 
Tennis Court Road, J40 
Thomas (S.) Hostel, 46 

Leys, 44, 120, 139 

Thorpe, Sir Robert and Sir William, 

29 «. 
Tolbooth, 113 
Trinitv church, 17, 109 

College, 42, 57-8, 80-95, 133, 


Hall, 14, 34, 75-7 

Hostel, 126 

True Blue inn, 148 
Trampinqton Ford, xi, 2-3, 140 
Turner, Dr Francis, 137 
Tyled Hostel, 90 

University Hall, 31 

Hostel, 45 

Street, 12, 68 

Veysy family, 112 
Vine, the, 124 
Volye Croft, 47 

Wales (Walls) Lane, 16-7, 65, 125, 

Whitefreer Lane, 65 
White Friars, 10, 20, 54 
White Horse inn, 63 
Willis, Professor, 5, 12 
Workhouse Lane, 134 
W)Tiwick's Croft, 48 




^ / 5 , / 7