Skip to main content

Full text of "The Old Testament student"

See other formats



>♦ V 

' ■ /I * 


\i^ -.(i^'l; 

Hihi-itvu uf 

.X^» ^f,j 







v:k% ^^. 



\u^j wva^j 



*-t>^// ^*v y/r.^.l 

*^ -/ ^ ./j: i'*^ 




Old Testament 


(^^\j^ Ju>Wwi^\aX ^ubburWw^Wt. 

WILLIAM R. HAEPEE, Ph. D., Editor. 


September, 1888— June, 1889. 

Q Venton Patterson Publishing Qo. 

28 Cooper Uoton, New Yokk. P. O. Box 1858. 

London Agency : Triibner & Co., 57 and 59 Ludgate Hill. 


Table of Contents, 


















A New Feature.— "Word-Studies."— The Summer Schools.— The Talmud and 
the New Testament.— Bible Study compared with Bible Listening- and Bible 

Reading- 1- 3 

Webeb on the Esch atoloqt of the Talmud. Prof. Oenrge B. Stevens, D.D.. 4- 6 
Old Testament Word-Studies: "Man and Woman." Rev. P.A.Norclell,D.D. 6- 10 
The LiTERAHy Study of the Bible: Its Methods and Purposes Illus- 

TR.iTED m A Criticism of the Book or Amos. Wm. E. Chancellor 10- 19 

Apocaltpses of Moses. Professor M. S. Terry, S. T.D 19- 23 

Cheyne's COM.-tfENTARY ON THE PsALMS. Prof. Edward L. Curtis, Ph. D 33-25 

Old Testament Notes and Notices 26, 37 

Book Notices: 

The Inspired Word 38 

Correspondence School or Hebrkw 29 

Current Old Testament Literature 30 

THE XEW TKSTA.nEXX Sl'PPLiEMEXT: Studies on the Life of 
THE Christ. 

1. The Ministry of John 31- 34 

2. The Preparation of the Christ 34- 36 

3. Beginning in Galilee 36-38 

4. The Galilean Ministry: the Period of Public Favor 38-40 

I. Editorial: 

The Miracle of the Word.- A Devout Spirit.— Talmudic Ideas and Symbols in 
the New Testament. — The Principle of Accommodation. — The Use of Contrast 

in Prophetic Teaching.— The Point of View 41- 44 

n. Weber ON THE Eschatology of THE Talmud. II. Prof. Oeorge B.Stevens, D.D. 45-49 

III. Old Test-Ament Word-studies: 2. Constituent Parts of Mak. Bev. P. A. 

Nordell.D.D ^. 49-54 

IV. PiEPEN-BRiNG's Old Testament Theology. J. B. Reynolds, B. D 54-56 

V. The Assyrian King, Asurbanipal. Dean A, WalHer, B. A 57-63 

VI. Synopses of Important Articles: 

The Muslim's Faith.— The Hjgher Criticism in its Theological Bearings.- The 
Characteristics of Hebrew Pqetry.- The Unchangeable Word.— A Revised Text 
of the Hebrew Bible.— Views of the Babylonians concerning Life after Beath. 63- 66 
VII. Book Notices: . — . -^ - 

Swete's Septuagint.— Abraham: his Life and Times.— Solomon: his Life and 

Times.— The People's Bible.— Elijah : his Life and Times 67-69 

VIII. Correspondence School op Hebrew 70 

IX. Current Old Testament Literature 71 

X. THE XEW TESTAMEXT SPPPIiEMEKT: Studies on the Life op 
the Christ. 
6. Beginnings of Opposition 73-74 

6. The First Conflicts 74-76 

7. New Methods 76-78 

8. False Reports 78- 80 

iv TuK Old Testament Student. 

I. Editorial: 

The O.T. and the Gospels.— The Egypt Explorailoii Fund.— More Bible Teach- 
ers Wiuitfd.— College Bible Study.— The True Spirit of Bible Study.— Supe- 
riority of the New Testament to the Talmud 81-84 

n. Webeh ON THE EscH.VTOLOOv OF THE Talmud. III. Pruf.Oein-geB. Stevtns.D.D. 85-88 

in. The Stoiiv or Samson. Rev. Oajryc Datia Bimrdman, D. D 88-96 

IV. The Assyrian King, ASuBBANiPAL. II. Dean A. Walker, B. A 96-101 

V. Old Testame.nt Word-studies: 3. Moral Good. Rtv. P. A. Nordell, D. D.... 101-105 

VI. Manly's UiBLiCAL Doctrine OF Inspiration. Prof . Charles Rufug Brown 105-107 

Vn. Synopses of Important Articles: 

Two Discussions of Job Iii:SJ-:;T.— The Pentateucbal Story of Creation.— Idea 

of O. T. Priesthood fulflllcd in the N. T 108,108 

Vin. BOOK N(yicES: 

Yale Lectures on the Sunday-School 110 

IX. Current Old Testa.ment Litehatuhe Ill 

X. THE .\KW TESTAMEXT srPI'CEMEXT: Stcdibs ON the Life OF 
the Christ. 
9. Parables of the Kingdom 113-lU 

10. Deeds of Power 114-116 

11. Advance and Retreat 116-118 

12. The Hourof Decision 119,120 

I. Editorial: 

Bible Students In the Pews.— The Pastor as a Teacher.— The New Testament 
Interpretation of the O. T.— The Anonymous Literature of Israel and its 

SignlBcance.— Redemption, the Keynote of the O. T 121-123 

II. The New Testament as Intebpreter op the Old Testament. Prof. Crawford, 

H.Tiiu.D.D ; 124-133 

in. The Septuaoint. Prof. Oeorae H. Schudde, Ph. D 134-140 

IV. Wkber o.N THE Eschatology of the Talmud. IV. Prof.OeorgeB.Stevent.D.D. 140-143 

V. Old Tkstamknt Word-studies: 4. Moral Evil. Rev. P. A. Nordell, D. D 143-147 

VI. Old TESTA.MENT Notes AND Notices 148 

VII. Book Notices: 

Palestine in the time of Christ.— Humphrey's Sacred History 149,150 

VIII. Correspondence School of Hebrew 151 

IX. Current Old Testament Literatuke 152 

X. THE XEW TESTAMEXT SlPPIiEMEXT: Studies on the Lite 
of the Cfieist. 

13. Journeys on the Borders 153,154 

14. The Welcome Confession and the Unwelcome Teaching 154-136 

15. The Tnuisflguration of Jesus 166-158 

16. The Training of the Twelve 158-lBO 

I. Editorial: 

The Point of View.- Prof. Edwards' Reasons for Hebrew Study.— The Human 
and Divine in the Bible distinguished.— Kedemption, the Keynote of Ancient 

RellKioiis.— Recent lliblical Literature 161-163 

II. The Be.iiuno of New Testament Statements up6n the Authorship of Old 

Testament Hooks. I^-<if. Oeorye B. Stevens, D.D 164-170 

III. Tiele on Bahvlonian-.^ssyrian Culture. I. /Jet). .4. S. Carrier 170-176 

IV. Old Testamknt Word-studies: 5. Divine Law. Rev. P. A. Nordell, D. D 176-180 

V. Jeremiah's Temperament. Pmf. Wm. O. Ballantine 181-1S3— 

VI. A Visit TO ZiN.iiRLI. Rnhcrt Francis Harper, Ph D 183,184 

Vn. Synopses of Import.\nt Articles: 

The Interpretation of the Book of Job.— The Resurrection in the Pentateuch. 
— EIIJHli the Tishblte a Gentile.— The Rise and Decline of Idolatry.— The Two 
Isaiahs, the real and the imaginary 185-188 

Table of Contents. v 

Vin. Book Notices; 

Hovey's Biblical Esohatology.— Pressense's Ancient World and Christianity.— 
Schaff'8 History of the Christian Church, Vol. VI.— Gelkie's Holy Land and 

the Bible 189,190 

IX. Correspondence Schooi. of Hebrew 191 

X. COKRENT Old Testament Literature 193 

of the Christ. 

17. Review of the Galilean Ministry 193,194 

18. Perea 194-196 

19. Into the Shadow of Death 196-198 

30. Jerusalem 198-300 



An Attitude of Conciliation.— The Old Testament more than a National Liter- 
ature. — Prof, .-^tevens' Letter. — An *' American Institute of Sacred Scripture." 
—The Pentateuchal Discussion.- A Review of Theories relating to Old Testa- 
ment Quotations in the New Testament 201-206 

II. The New Testament as a GniDE to the Interpretation or the Old 

Testament. President Alvah Hovey, D.D 307-313 

III. TiELE ON Babylonian-Assyrian Culture. II. Rev. A. S. Can-ier 314-219 

IT. Old Testament Word-studies: 6. Theocratic Functionaries. Rev. P. A. 

Nordell. D.D 220-334 

V. Report of the Princepal of Schools op the American Institute of 

Hebrew ( 1888) 224-228 

VI. Report of the Treasubeb of the American Institute of Hebrew 229,230 

vn. Book Notices: 

BlaUrie's Books of Samuel.— Stearns' Old Testament Introduction 231 

vni. Current Old Testament Literature 333 

OF THE Christ. 

21. A Day of Controversy 233,234 

22. Continued Controversies 235,336 

23. The Future 237-239 

24. The Traitor 239,340 


I. Editorial: 

Biblicnl Key-words.— The Bible compared with other Literature.— Construct- 
ive Study.— Necessity of Patience in investigating the Scriptures.— The Higher 
Critics 241-243 

II. The Schools of THE Sons OF the Prophets. Prof . Ira M. Price, Ph. D 244-249 

III. The Babylonian IRtar-Epic. James A. Craig, Ph. D 349-256 

IV. Old Testament Word-studies: 7. Sacrifice and Worship. Rev. P. A. 

Nordcll.D.D 257-261 

V. The Targums. Pruf. George H. Schodde, Ph. D 262-866 

VI. Tiele ON Babylonian-Assyrian Culture. III. Rev. A. S. Carrier 266-270 

vn. Old Testament Notes and Notices 270 

VIII. Book Notices: 

Wellhausen's History of Israel.— A Concordance of the Septuagint.— A Handy 

Edition of the Bible 271 

IX. Current Old Testa.ment Literature. 272 

X. THE 1«EW TESTAMENT SlTPPtEMEIST : Studies on the Life 
OF the Christ. 

25. The Last Supper 273-275 

26. Gethsemane 275-377 

27. Tbe Arrest and Condemnation of Jesus 377, 278 

28. Jesus before Pilate * 278-380 

vi The Ou) Testament Student. 


I. EDiTOBur.: 

Tbe Kerelatlon of God at Sinai.— Kecent interest in Bible-study among Pas- 
tors.— An American Institute of Sacred Literature 281-283 

II. The Religious Ideas op the Book of Auob. Rev. E. E. Atkinson 28(-290 

III. Tikle OS BAByLONiAN-AsSYRiAN CCLTCRE. IV. Rev. A. S. Carrier 280-296 

IV. Old Testament Wobd-stcdies : 8. Idols asd Ikaoes. Rev. P. A. Nordell, 

D.D 296-301 

V. Old Testament Notbs and Notices: 

The Pharoah and tlie Date of tlie Exodus.- Hebrew Parchments containiDK 
parts of the Old Testament.— Biblical Instruction at Haverford College.— Old 
Testament Study In the Universities of Germany and Switzerland during the 

present winter 302-306 

VI. Synopses of Important Articles: 

Classic and Semitic Ethics.- Assyrian and Hebrew Chronology.- The Civiliza- 
tion and RellgioDB of Central America and Peru 306,307 

VII. Book Notices: 

Scriptures Hebrew and Christian.— The Hallowing of Criticism.- Future Pro- 
bation Examined.— The Psalms in Verse 308-310 

VIII. Correspondence School of Hebrew 311 

IX. Current Old Testame.vt Literature 312 

OF TBE Christ. 

29. The Crucifixion 313-315 

30. Burial and Resurrection of Jesus 315-317 

81. The Last Instructions 317-319 

32. Review of the Later Period 319,320 


I. Editorial: 

Majesty of the Bible.— A New Journal, The Old and New Testament Student. 
—The Hebrew Summer Schools.— The Law of Perspective in Biblical Inves- 
tigation 321-334 

II. Proportion AND Method IN Old Testament Study. Prof.J.F.McCurdy,D.D. 325-331 

III. The Figur.itive Element in Job. I. Mr. John S. Zelie 332-335 

IV. Tiele ON Badylonian-Assyrian Culture. V. Rev. A. S. Carrier 335-341 

V. Old Testament Word-btudies: 9. Angels, Demons, Etc. Rev. P. A. NordeU, 

D.D 341-345 

VI. Old Testament Notes and Notices : 

A Memory Formula for Palestine.— Egypt Exploration Fund.— A Western 

Summer School 346 

Vn. Synopses of Important Articles: 

The Egyptian Nile as a Civllizor.— Origin and Structure of the Book of 

Judges.— Does the Nirvana of Buddha imply Immortality ? 347,348 

vni. Book Notices: 

A Commentary on Genesis and E.vodus 349 

IX. Current Old Testament Literature 350 

OF THE Christ. 

33. The Land and the People 3i>l-aM 

84. The Christ 351.a« 

36. TheOospels 355-358 

36. Course and Chronology of the Life of the Christ 359.360 


I. Editorial: 

Prophecy the predominating element in the Old Testament.— The perma 
nently helpful character of Prophecy.— The revelation of God In Prophecy.— 
A Criticism of "The Religious Ideas of Amos." 381-363 

II. The Formal Element IN Poetry. Prof. E. 11. Johnson, D.D 3(it-386 

Table of Contents. vii 



IV. The Figurative Element in Job. II. Mr. John S. Zelie 368-370 

V. A Plea for Septuagint Studt. Rev. L. W. Batten 371, 373 

VI. Old Testament Word-studies: 10. Time and Eternity. Bev. P. A. Nordell, 

D. D 373-377 

VII. The Song of Deborah. Judges V. Prof. Thomas Hill Rich 377-381 

Vin. Old Testament Notes and Notices: 

A New Professor.— A Notable Visitor.— The American Exploring Expedition. 

—The Publications of the Palestine Exploration Fund 882 

IX. Synopses of Important Articles: 

The Prophecy of the Virgin Mother.— Immoralities of Old Testament Heroes. 
—Lost Writings cited in the Old Testament.— Old Testament Criticism in the 
Light of New Testament Quotations.— The Idea of God in Amos.— The Mes- 
sianic Element in the Book of Job 383-386 

X. Book Notices: 

Media, Babylonia and Persia.— The Ten Commandments.— Biblical Antiqui- 
ties.- Future Punishment.— Buddhism.— EUiott's Old Testament Prophecy... 387-392 

XI. Current Old Testament Literature 393 

OF THE Christ. 

37. The Plan and Methods of Jesus 394,395 

38. Jesus and the Old Testament 396,397 

39. Jesus and His Times 397-399 

40. Jesusthe Christ 399,400 

^T^E •:-OLD •:'TES^jP3njEp-:- studep.-^ 

Vol. VIII. SEPTEMBER, 1888. No. i. 

With the present volume a new feature begins, viz., the New- 
Testament studies contained in the "Supplement." In undertaking 
this new department, The STUDENT does not in any sense lose sight of 
its original purpose. The simple fact is that the advocacy of the 
inductive method of Bible-study is as much a part of the work of THE 
Student as is the advocacy of the study of the Old Testament. In 
furtherance, therefore, of this kind of Bible-study, the New Testament 
lessons are furnished. The interest already manifested in them is 
sufficient ground for the feeling that no mistake has been made in 
this new departure. 

We trust that our readers will not pass by the "Word-Studies" 
of Dr. Nordell as seeming too critical. They have been prepared for 
those whose study of the Bible is restricted to the English translation. 
They are, however, studies, and will scarcely be appreciated if given 
only a reading. Similar "studies" on groups of important words will 
be published in successive numbers of The Student. Shall they not 
have the attention they deserve .■' 

The eighth year of the Hebrew Summer Schools is rapidly near- 
ing its close. The sessions of 1888 have, taken together, greatly sur- 
passed those of any preceding year. The early date of the New 
England School (May 22~June 14) interfered to some extent with the 
attendance ; for at that time the colleges were still in session. But the 
Philadelphia School was much larger and better than ever before, while 
the attendance at Chautauqua was three times as large as during any 


2 The Old Testajlent Student. 

preceding summer. The Chicago School is at this writing just 
opening with over one hundred students. The change of the South- 
ern School from the University of Virginia to Atlanta, Ga., was for 
this year very unfortunate. The announcement of the change was 
made so late as to injure greatly the efficiency of the School. But that 
the change was, everything considered, a wise one, no one acquainted 
with the facts will deny. The average attendance at the five North- 
ern Schools has been sixty. 

It has always been one of the embarrassments of New Testament 
study that we have so little contemporary literature. Excepting the 
writings of the New Testament, our Christian literature, speaking 
broadly, does not date back beyond the second century. How inter- 
esting it would be if a learned Jew had written an account of Jesus' 
life, or if some Greek historian had given us a narrative of the spread 
of Christianity in Asia Minor and Greece. Such literature would 
doubtless throw a valuable light upon many New Testament state- 
ments and give us interesting information at some points which the 
New Testament does not supply. Wc have no such literature. The 
cultured heathen world did not consider Jesus and his religion suffi- 
ciently important to occupy their minds with its study or their pens 
with a description of it. 

We are not left wholly ignorant, however, of the thought-environ- 
ment of the New Testament as it existed in the Jewish world. The 
Talmudic literature, which covers a period of several centuries, includ- 
ing the New Testament times, contains the current religious thought 
to which the New Testament writers had been accustomed and from 
which their convictions and prejudices, which only gradually wore 
away, were formed. It has been felt in recent years that special inter- 
est and importance attach to this literature as forming a kind of back- 
ground to the New Testament and aiding in a knowledge of some of 
its expressions and especially of some of the conceptions of the early 
disciples which Jesus had to labor gradually to correct. Among 
recent works on the Talmud, that of Weber {Die LcJircn des Talvnid) 
deservedly holds high rank. We present to the readers of THE STU- 
DENT a series of four articles upon "The Eschatology of the Talmud" 
prepared by Professor Stevens and based upon Weber's researches. 
It is believed that, while they will .show how much is crude and fanci- 
ful in Jewish theology, they will at the same time disclose the roots 
of some of the ideas which meet us in the New Testament, and par- 


ticularly that they will make it clear why the early disciples could 
not understand the spiritual mission and kingdom of Jesus, or bring 
themselves to believe that he would suffer death. The articles which 
follow in subsequent numbers will bear especially upon these points. 

'Ql^'LY.-listcning ! There is much of it. It is of value ; it is better 
than nothing. It is easy ; many enjoy it. We find it in our churches, 
in our Sunday-schools, in our schools and colleges. Some imagine it 
to be 'Qlhle-sttidy; some even so call it. But the mistake is great. 
The sad fact is that, in the case of many who so deceive themselves, 
'&\h\e-stiidy is becoming a thing unknown, well-nigh a thing impossi- 
ble. Wihle-listening has become a bane. Who will measure the evil 
it has done.' Who, the evil it is doing.' 

Wih\e-readi/ig/ There is very considerable of this. It is of more 
value than Bihle-/is tening. It may not be as easy ; it may not be as 
enjoyable ; but it is more profitable. And yet, how profitable is it ? 
Are we not satisfying ourselves with the less .' Are we not neglect- 
ing larger possibilities ? Have we not, in many directions and in 
many cases, much Bihle-rt-adino- that is called Bihle-sti/d}' f that is 
really thought to be such .' The evil is not in the reading of the Bible ; 
it is in the fact that we do not call things by their right names. 

BWA^- study! There is very little. Many who talk about it have 
never met with it, or have not recognized it. What is it .' The way 
to find out is not to study a definition, but to become acquainted in 
experience with the fact. When one can clearly distinguish, in one's 
own practice, between BWA^-listening, BxhXe^-rcadiyig, and BxhX^-stiidy, 
then probably one has begun to become acquainted with the last. 

Bible-study stands in direct relation to Bible-listening and 
Bible-reading. It fits one to do either with profit, with intelligence 
and Christian judgment. It prepares the congregation to listen to 
expository preaching, the Sunday-school scholar to consider the les- 
son in company with the teacher with interest and independence of 
thought. Especially, it prepares the scholar and student in our insti- 
tutions of learning for proper Bible-listening and Bible-reading 
throughout life. How often we sacrifice the lasting good to the appa- 
rent edification of the moment! Shall we do less B\h\^-listening ■a.v\&. 
less Bx^oXe.-reading that we may do more B\\:)\ii- study? Shall we do 
more Bible-study that we may listen and read the better and the 
longer t 


By Prof. George B. Stevens, D. D., 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 



Death cornea to the wicked as the penalty of sin ; in the case of the righteous, 
it comes, in God's plan, when his life is complete, his sins all atoned for and his 
soul ready for its reward. As the owner of a Dg-tree knows when the figs are 
ripe for the harvest, so the Holy One knows when to gather the souls of the 
righteous to Himself. The wicked are caught away by the Angel of Death, but 
the righteous are removed by the kiss of God. So died the patriarchs. 

The soul departs reluctantly from the body except in the case of those who 
are removed by the kiss of God. Respecting tlie place of departed souls, the 
representations lack definiteness and vary greatly in detaUs. All souls, at death, 
go to Sheol ; those of the righteous at length find rest and peace ; those of the 
wicked wander aimlessly and find no resting-place. Even the souls of the good 
long, for a time, for the bodies left behind and frequently return to the grave 
where they lie, but, at leugtli, they ascend direct to God, and dwell among the 
heavenly hosts near His throne. The souls of the wicked continue to wander in 
Sheol, and to hover about the body until it is consumed and finally find their 
dwelling-place in Sheol, or, according to others, in hell. A class of those who 
are " undetermined " at death is recognized, whose fortunes and final fate are 
not followed beyond their descent direct to Sheol. 

Two classes of angels— composed of three groups each — go forth from the 
throne of God to meet the souls of the dying. " "When a righteous man dies three 
bands of angels go forth to meet him with the greeting of peace. When a wicked 
man dies, three bands go forth and announce to him that there is no peace for 
him and that he must go to the place of the uncircumcised." 

Great significance attaches to the time of death. To die at the beginning of 
the day of atonement or Sabbath is auspicious ; at the close, ominous. The 
attending circumstances and location of the disease are also significant ; a red 
face, an upturned countenance, a disease of the lower parts of the body are good 
signs ; a pale countenance, to die amid the weeping of friends or with the face 
turned toward the wall are evil omens. 

To the body there remains, for a time, a partial consciousness after death. 
The bodies of the righteous and of the intermediate class— the morally '• uudeter- 

» The series of articles of wliioh this Is the first, consists of a free translation and condensa- 
tion of the fourth part of Weber's Die Lrhren dcs Tnlmml, Leipzig, 1880. The effort has been 
to embody ttic essential points of the author's discussion. The fact that nn epitome is attempted 
renders it necessary for me to express the writer's thoutrhts larg-i'ly '" my own lanffuajre, instead 
of presenting a mere translation. The parts which are literal and continuous translation are 
enclosed in quotation marks.— G. B. S. 

Weber on the Eschatology of the Talmxtd. 5 

mined " — rest in peace ; those of the wicked find no peace. They quickly dis- 
solve, while the bodies of the good last until " an hour before the resurrection." 

The dead lead a shadowy existence but can communicate with each other 
and even with the living. " The connection of the soul with the body and this 
earthly mode of existence is more highly prized and more strongly held in the con- 
sciousness of Judaism, than the hope of a union of the soul with God. Even the 
souls of the righteous depart only gradually from the body ; those of others are 
ever seeking it again. In this is reflected the uncertainty of salvation after 
death. He who is not certain of heaven, holds fast to the earth. Entrance into 
heaven is certain but for few. The majority are not yet ripe for heaven at their 
death, and yet they are not absolutely excluded from it. Hence we are referred 
to an intermediate state, a stage between death and eternal life which ministers 
to the final completion." 


Only the righteous go direct at death to God in heaven. The late Jewish 
theology divides Sheol into two parts (Gehinnom and the lower paradise), or even 
into seven. The Talmud does not distinguish Sheol from Gehinnom. Hence 
between Sheol and Paradise lies an impassable gulf. The older representation 
knows only Gehinnom for the wicked and the garden of Eden for the good. In the 
Mediaeval theology the separation is but by a wall, and heU is a fore-court through 
which even the righteous must pass in entering Paradise. 

The name Gehinnom, according to Kimchi, is derived from the valley of Hin- 
nom, near Jerusalem, where refuse was thrown and where fires were kept burn- 
ing. The fires of Gehiiuiom either purify or destroy, — the former in the case of 
Israelites, the latter in the case of the heathen. For the circumcised, Gehinnom 
is purgatorial. No true Israelite shall finally fail of salvation. Many, however, 
enter into life and peace only after long and severe suffering. Among these are 
mentioned, those who perished in the wilderness, Korah's company, Esau and 
Manasseh who, it is said, secretly secured entrance into heaven, contrary to the 
command of the angels, through a hole or breach. This is a mode of expressing 
the thought that he entered, not as a just man at death, but only after the full 
endurance of the pains of hell. These pains are represented as fire which con- 
tinues to torment the guilty for varying periods. The duration is usually set at 
six months or a year. Intercession of the righteous for the wicked is recognized. 
The award of rewards and penalties is adjusted to the relative proportion of 
obedience and transgression of the law. Where transgressions preponderate, they 
must be duly atoned for by suffering. 


The joys of Paradise are the reward of the righteous for his obedience. Here 
his salvation becomes complete. Paradise is described by many sensuous represen- 
tations. It has seven names, one of which is " bundle of lives" (1 Sam. 25:29), 
because there the good are united. In Paradise God takes men into fellowship 
with Him and they devote themselves to His praise. They see His face and are 
nearer to Him than the angels. God mingles in their joys, even leading them in 
the dance. 

The glory of Paradise is painted in glowing colors. It has two portals over 
which stand sixty myriads of holy angels. They welcome the righteous, placing 

6 The Old Testament Student. 

upon bim shining robes, crowns and pearls. They lead him to places made beau- 
tiful by brooks and flowers. To each is given a tent according to the degree of 
his glory. For each there flow four streams, one of milk, one of wine, one of 
beilsam, and one of honey. Over eacli tent winds a golden grape-vine covered 
with pearls. Under each tent stands a table filled with precious stones. Sixty 
angels bid each just one enjoy what Paradise affords. 

There are all manner of fruit-bearing trees— 800,000 m number — growing in 
Paradise, and in ever>' part sing myriads of sweet-voiced angels. In the midst is 
the tree of life whose branches cover all the place. Many other details are added. 
The description is of scenes of luxury and sensuous beauty. There are degrees 
of glory proportioned to the wortliiness of the righteous. In one place seven 
orders of the just are named. The first includes those who have seen the Shechi- 
nah. Of them is the saying true : The just shall see His face. 

The dimensions of Paradise are carefully calculated. It would appear from 
one of these computations that Pai'adise is sixty times as large as the world, and 
that the world is but as a pot-lid in size when compared with the extent of hell. 
So far as the inner relations between Paradise and hell are concerned, it is said 
"the tears of the righteous cool the pains of hell, and that the inhabitants of the 
latter region unite with those of Paradise in common praise to God. Both worlds 
are, therefore, in spite of their opposition, in relation to each other until, at 
length, the final separation occurs." 


By Key. P. A. Noudell, D. D., 

New London, Conn. 

In complying wth the editor's request to prepare a series of word-studies for 
The Old Testa3ient Student, it may not be out of place to indicate at the 
outset the ground which they are intended to cover. As it has been planned that 
they shall extend through the ten numbers of the current year, it has been deemed 
best to gather certain prominent words of kindred meaning into groups, and to 
consider, as far as possible, one group in each successive issue. The following 
arrangement has been adopted, not as ideally perfect, but as perhaps the most 
feasible under the circumstances : — 1. Man aud Woman; 2. Constituent parts of 
Man ; 3. Moral Good ; 4. Moral Evil ; 5. Divine Law ; 6. Theocratic Function- 
aries; 7. Sacrifice and Worship ; 8. Idols and Images ; 9. Supernatural Created 
Beings ; 10. Time and Eternity. There are, of course, hundreds of words pro- 
foundly interesting, whether considered in themselves or in their- relations, which 
are excluded by this plan. Nevertheless, in the selection made necessary by the 
limits of tlie discussion, it is hoped that there will be occasion for a consider- 
ation of not a few of the most important words in the language. Lack of 
space, furthermore, forbids the adequate discussion of many words that must here 
be dismissed in a few sentences. 

Hebrew is singularly rich in words which stand for the concept Man. While 

Old Testameht Wokd-studies. 7 

English possesses only this one term, and while Greek, Latin and German have 
at least two each {avi/p and avdpuTTo;, vir and homo, Mann and Mensch), Hebrew 
has at least five, several of them being in constant use. 

A u 

'Ish — 'Ishshah. 

'Ish is derived from 'usli to be strong. In the early periods of the lan- 
guage it seems to have been destitute of a regular plural, since 'is him is not 
found until the later writers, and even then it seems to have obtained only a rare 
recognition, and exclusively in poetry — Ps. 141:4; Prov. 8:4 ; Isa. 53:3. The ety- 
mology of 'ish shows that it contemplates man as an embodiment of strength, 
courage, braveiy and all manly qualities. In this respect it is the opposite of the 
common name for woman, 'ishshah, a designation which in itself expresses 
her relation of dependence. This word cannot be derived from the same root as 
'ish, the first sh being clearly an assimilated u, so that, as Delitzsch points out 
in the new American edition of his Commentary on the Psalms, vol. I., p. 196, 
the name for woman is really a contraction of 'insha, meanmg the weak and 
tender one. This again is derived from the verb 'iinash, Assyr. anasu to he 
weak. It appears, then, that while these terms are commonly used to designate 
the relation of sex, yet 'ishshah is not a mere feminine form of 'ish,a"man- 
ess," as many of the commentators on Gen. 2:23 interpret it. The signification 
and use of these words repose, not on the fact of sex itself, but on a recognition of 
the distinguishing quality of each sex, — physical strength iu the man, weakness 
and dependence in the woman. 

The Rabbins might, of course, be expected to state this relation in their char- 
acteristic way. R. Joshua, being asked to explain why the man at his biiih 
turned his face downward, while the woman turned hers upwards, replied : " The 
man looks toward the place from which he came at his creation (the earth); but 
the woman up to the place from which she was created (the man)." Another 
curious rabbinical fancy evolved from the words themselves is mentioned by Levy 
(Neii-hebr. und cludd. Worterbuch), to the effect that so long as man and woman 
remained virtuous, the Deity abides with them ; but when they cease to be vii'tu- 
ous, fire consumes them. This alludes to the name Jahve in its usual contracted 
form n'l the first letter of which occurs in JJ,'>{< (man), and the last in HCN 
(woman) ; when these letters are removed there is left in each case only the 
letters ^H , the common word for fire, in which "man" and "woman," so 
to speak, disappear. 


The writer of Gen. 2:7 connects the name of the first man with the material 
out of which he was made : " The Lord God formed ' a d h a m of the dust of the 
' " d h a m a h ." The majority of lexicographers and commentators follow this deri- 
vation. Others, notably Gesenius, incline to connect it with the verb 'adham 
to be red, and discover in this a reference to the complexion or color of the primi- 
tive man. Still others endeavor to cormect these views, and conjecture that the 
name refers to the color of the earth from which man was made. Josephus 
(Antiq. I., 1,2) in speaking of the creation of the first man explains his name: 
" This man was called Adam, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one that is 
red, because he was formed out of red earth compounded together ; for of that 
kind is virgin and true earth." The derivation from '"dhamah seems on the 
whole to be the most probable. 

8 TuE Old Testament Student. 

Ha 'a (lb a 111, then, contemplates man from the side of his eartlily nature. 
He is the earth-begotton, the autochthon. The word became also a designation 
of generic man {Gen. 6:1 ), but not, as Ewald and other commentators hold, of men 
" as they usually are, the world, the present corrupted, earthly-minded ones, in 
opposition to the Divine life. Cf. Job 31:33; Hos. 6:7, « kug/ioc.^' (Ewald on 
Psalms.) ' A d h a ni is used both with and without the ailicle, not arbitrarily, but 
with a distinction which is noted by Wellhausen : "Another circumstance shows 
Q to be posterior to E. The first man is called here not Ha- Adam as in JE, but 
always Adam, without the article (.5:1-5), a difference which Kuenen pertinently 
compares with that between 6 Xpiar6r and Xpiaro;. But in Q itself (Gen. 1) the 
first man is only the generic man ; if in .spite of this he is called simply Adam 
(Gen. 5), as if it were his proper name, the only way to account for this is to sup- 
pose a reminiscence of Gen. 2,3, though here the personification does not as yet 
extend to the name." {Prohgom., p. 309.) 


.i\jiother word of this group is "nosh which appears to be derived from the 
root 'an ash to be weak, tender, frail. Etymologically it is related to 
'ishshah ('inshah), which also denotes the loeafc and /r«i7 one, and of which it 
is the true masculine. It emphasizes just the opposite quality from that empha- 
sized by 'ish, contemplating the life of man as feeble and evanescent: "As for 
'"nosh, his days are as grass; as a flower of the field so he flourisheth," Ps. 103: 
15. Ewald holds that "this word is formed in intentional opposition to "loSh 
Ood, as its contrasted idea. Both words have been presers'ed in the most various 
Semitic languages (thougli singularly not in Ethiopic). What Semitic nation 
originated this expression of the two contrasted ideas— o/ God as the absolutely 
poiverful, and of man, matched with God, as the absolutely weak ? It can scarcely 
have been Israel, because ' " n n s h became almost obsolete in Hebrew, as also in 
Arabic. The history of these two words, therefore, takes us to a primeval people 
far to the north. The writer of Gen. 4:6 retained a correct feeling of the origin of 
these ideas." [Hist, of Israel, vol. I., p. 264.) 


The verb gabh ar to he strong or high, gives an interesting series of deriva- 
tives in which the prevailing idea is that of pre-eminent strength, heroism, or 
authority. Gebher, occurring altogetlier sixty-four times, is found in prose 
only ten times, always in the plural except Deut. 22:5. It is, therefore, essen- 
tially a poetic designation of man, sometimes used in this general sense, as in Ps. 
34:8(9), "Blessed is the man (h agjioljher) that trusteth in him,"' but more com- 
monly with reference to his strength and courage, qualities which made David a 
gebher "raised on high" (2 Sam. 23:1), and which Job(3S:3)was told to exhibit 
when God commanded him to gird up liis loins " like a g G b h 6 r . " Even when the 
thouglit of liis mortality is presented, as in Job 14:10, the choice of tliis term implies 
a feeling of surprise that man, so richly endowed with power, should waste away 
and die. The feminine of ggbhcr is g'bh6rgth,a woman who exercises 
authority over other women, iience a mistress. Gen. 6:4; Ps. 123:2, etc. Isaiah 
(47:5,7) makes it descriptive of Babylon that proudly called herself mistress of the 

This conception of man is presented still more emphatically in the adjective 

Old Testament Word-studies. 9 

gibbor mighty, which is generally used absolutely to denote one who is con- 
spicuous for power, daring, and heroic achievement. Nimrod began to be a 
gibbor in the earth, the founder of the first world-empire (Gen. 10:8-12). Go- 
liath was the gibbor of the Philistines (1 Sam. 17:51). Saul and Jonathan were 
gib b o ri m ; in fact the plural, both in prose and poetry, is a favorite designation 
of mighty men of valor and war. The adjective is closely related to the abstract 
substantive g'bhurah, which denotes personal power, not latent, but in its 
fullest activity, — power that passes over into the might of dominion. The gibbor, 
then, is really, by deeds of personal prowess, or by reason of his wisdom or wealth, 
a master of men, just as the g'blii riih is the mistress. The latter word, how- 
ever, soon passed into an exclusively technical sense, being applied to the queen- 
mother (1 Kgs. 1-5:3; Jer. 13:18), who seems to have exercised a commanding 
influence in political affairs, and even over the king himself, who bows himself 
before her and sets her on a throne at his right hand (1 Kgs. 2:19). " The high 
rank of the queen-mother seems to be a relic of the primitive age in which the 
relationship of the mother was of such vast importance (Accadians, Etrascans, 
Finns, etc.). The political value of the position is strikingly shown in the author- 
ity usurped for six years in Judah by the bold Athaliah. The mention of the 
mothers of kings seems connected with their high rank in the social system as 
queen-mothers. It is singular that Ahaz is one of the only two kings of Judah 
whose mothers are not mentioned in the historical books. Perhaps his mother 
died before arriving at the dignity of queen-mother. Compare also jSIic. 7:6 
(' against her mother-m-law ')." Cheyne's Isaiah, 4th ed., p. 47. 

G'bhir, which is the masculine of g'bhirah, and which occurs only in 
Gen. 27:29,37, denoted one who exercised lordship over his brethren by the right 
of primogeniture. 


M'tbim, an archaic form occurring chiefly in poetry and always in the 
plural, is sometimes written defectively, m'thim (Deut. 2:34,) but more gener- 
ally m'thim. Its derivation is from miithah, -which does not occur in He- 
brew, but means to stretch, extend, whence it passes into the substantive form 
with the meaning of one stretched out to the full stature of man, i. e. full-grown. 
The Ethiopia met and the Assyrian m u t have passed from the general mean- 
ing man to that of a married man, husband. The Coptic mat means a sol- 
dier. M'tbim is never common gender in the sense of tlie peo-ple, but always 
men, almost invariably associated with the thought of fewness, impotence, 
dependence, and hence with an implied feeling of contempt. 

^ ^ - A - - 

Na'ar, Bachur, Zaqen. 

Hebrew employs several terms descriptive of man from the point of age, and 
while they are in some instances quite loosely applied, yet the distinction 
between them may be determined at least approximately. Na'ar occurs over 
two hundred times, and is variously rendered child, lad, young man, and ser- 
vant. The derivation is uncertain, but is given in Gesen. Lex. as from na'ar 
to growl, roar, after the manner of young lions ; hence the utterance oi any kind 
of harsh sound from the throat. The word na'ar is therefore supposed to allude 
to the roughness, or harshness, of the voice at the transition from youth to puberty. 
In actual usage the term covers the whole period of early life between birth and 
the age of twenty years, or even more. 

10 The Old Tbstajient Student. 

Throughout the Pentateuch we encounter the singular fact that the feminine 
form of this word is written nii'ara, while the k'ri directs it to be read 
nS'arah, as in its other occurrences in the Old Testament. The explanation 
probably is that in the earlier usage the word n a ' a r was regarded as common 
gender, like the Greek n-aif, and that the distinctive feminine form was a later 

Bach il r denotes a young man in the flrs£ maturity of his manly powers. It 
presents the thought of a figure more than ordinarily beautiful, i. e. of a dwice 
young man, from b a c h a r to dioose out, select, with the associated idea of delight- 
ing in the object or person thus selected. Saul, being in the full development of 
his young manhood and presenting a distinguished appearance among his fellows, 
was a bachur (1 Sam. 9:2) fit to be chosen king of the nation. Sometimes it 
stands in connection with b'th uluth " young man and maidens"' (Ps. 168:12), 
and points especially to those of a marriageable age. The same thought is im- 
plied in the address of Boaz to Ruth (3:10) " thou followest not young men." 

Zaqen, on the contrary, describes a man who has passed considerably 
beyond the meridian of life, and may properly be called old. and therefore enti- 
tled to the respect and veneration due to the experience and wisdom of age. The 
zaqen was so called from zaqaii a beard. He was, literally, the bearded one. 
All the nations of Western Asia seem to have attached a profound significance to 
the beard as the distinguishing symbol of manhood. The beard was a sacred ob- 
ject by which solemn oaths were sworn, and to insult it was the utmost indignity 
that could be inflicted on a man. The same feeling survives to-day. See 
" beard," Smith's Bib. Diet. Where the constitution of society was essentially 
patriarchal, the term zaqen speedily passed from a designation of superior 
age to that of superior social or political rank. The z ' q a n i m elders, were 
not only among the Hebrews, but among the neighboring peoples, representatives 
invested with legislative and judicial functions. 




By Wm. E. Chancellou, 

Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. 

The night of the Dark Age was far spent ; the day was at hand. Its dawn 
heralded a time more glorious than had ever been known before. The peoples of 
Europe, spmng from the hordes of barbarians that had swept from distant Asia 
over the steppes of Russia, through the high valleys and mountain-passes of the 
central lands of the continent and down upon the golden plains of France and 
sunny Italy, wlio had for long centuries given themselves to war in battle and siege, 
to peopling and trausfoi-ming the wildernesses and to creating great and distinct 
nationalities, at length had finished their coarser tasks and could turn to the herit- 
age left by former days and by former generations of men safe-treasured from the 
ravages of time. The light which then shone forth blinded men's eyes at first by 

A Criticism of the Book of Amos. 11 

reason of its strange brightness. There was then discovered a book known to but 
few before, and yet a book very old and very powerful. In three centuries it had 
placed its representatives on the imperial throne of the Caesars and in six made 
Kome again mistress of the world. Its ministers had marshalled Christendom 
against the fierce multitude of the followers of the false prophet, and had dictated 
to the haughtiest potentates of Europe. Nevertheless, in those days men had not 
known the Bible, and its greater work was yet to come. With nothuig in it revo- 
lutionary, it was to cause greater revolutions than were yet written in history ; 
calm in tone and speaking with authority, it was to rouse to fever heat and to 
overthrow great dominions. 

The Bible is no ordinary product of the human mind and the human heart. 
For some reason men have been tremendously interested in it. There have been 
martyrs for its truths. It has dii-ected history for centuries. Its earlier writings 
record the story of that force which inaugurated the world-movement of Chris- 
tianity. No man whosoever, infidel, non-believer, or of the faith, but admits 
willtagly or necessarily that in this book there is something that has made it 
essentially different from all other books. This truth we are now beginning to 
realize. The last fifty years have witnessed a change in the attitude toward the 
Bible. We are beginning now to look at the Bible in other than the devotional 
light, to study it as an historical force, as a causative power in the record of pro- 
gress. Our thought concerning the Bible is tending to become critical, scientific, 
philosopliical — in a word, literary. This means that we are taking the Bible 
purely on its own merits, and are seeking to know what it intrinsically is. 

History is the record of deeds ; literature, the embodiment of life. We have 
both in the Bible. The study of history gives knowledge ; that of literature 
instructs in wisdom. The critical study of the Scriptures will prove that they 
embody life, and are, therefore, literature in the truest sense of the word. Every 
good result that follows from the study of other literature wUl follow in greater 
or less degree from the study of this. It will broaden our sympathies, and this 
more perhaps than in the study of any other literature ; for the Bible contains 
— it is well worthy of noting — the best remains of the literary products of the 
Semitic peoples. Therefore in studying it we are studying the constitution of 
the Semitic mind, the qualities, traits and peculiarities of the Semitic genius. 
Were this the only result of a literary study of the Bible there would still be in it 
reason enough for its pursuit. 

Of this Semitic race the Hebrews, few as they were in numbers, have done 
more than any other division to change the constitution of society, more, indeed, 
than any other division of all mankind. Why this has been so the literary stu- 
dent must earnestly inquh-e. His first step is to find out where and how the 
Hebrews differed from the peoples all about them. Only thus can he arrive at that 
philosophical understanding of their literature which he desires. Only thus can he 
know why the Hebrews wrought a greater work for mankind than the Egyptians, 
the Assyrians or the Greeks, who were their contemporaries. He soon begins to 
realize that this was largely because the Hebrews cared for the matter rather 
than the manner, and at their best were lovers of the works of Jehovah rather 
than of those of man. 

One result of the study of the Bible as literature is that at once the Hebrew 
authors cease to be abstractions and become realities. We feel the man in what 
is said, and realize that the Hebrews lived and died as other men live and die, 

12 The Old Testament Student. 

thought and did as other men think and do, and wrote out of their separate and 
individual existences. At once we are directed to the personality of each writer. 
Here a wide and fruitful field is opened to us. There are Isaiah and Jeremiah, 
Paul, John, and many others of marked individuality. We may well question 
whether any single literature has represented among its authors so many and 
various classes and conditions of men as has this. Is it objected that the New 
Testament writers employed the Greek tongue V This is true; but it is also true 
that their writings are essentially the products of Hebrew minds expressed 
through the Greek medium. It would seem as though the Greek language, with 
its nice exactness of philosophical terms, had been expressly prepared to meet 
those wants of the New Testament teachers which the Hebrew tongue could not 
satisfy; for in it abstract ideas can scarcely be represented at all. The two lan- 
guages, Greek and Hebrew, served as complements one to another in the revela- 
tion of God to man. The Bible is, then, the product of the Hebrew character, 
the legacy of the Jews to the generations of the Gentiles who were to follow and 
reap where they had sown. If literature is that written expression of thought 
which lives, surely the Bible, more than any other literature, deserves this name. 

The literary study of the Bible has yet deeper aims than these. Just as it is 
a purpose in all literary study to find so far as possible what are the writer's con- 
ceptions of the great ends of man, so here we seek to learn what the Hebrew 
believes to be the problems of humanity. In doing this we do not pass without 
the sphere of true literary work. It is our duty as students of life to search for 
what is spiritual and profouTid everywhere. We must know the secrets of the 
soul of man in every race and in every age. What a revelation is here for the 
students of the Bible ! As we pursue this line of investigation we find tliat the 
Hebrews had a distinct and characteristic theory of life. This is in particular 
revealed in what is known as their " wisdom " or " gnomic " literature, in which 
are classed such books as Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. This theory of life is that 
men should be good and honest and pure because it is wise to be so. "The/ooJ 
hath said in his heart, There is no God."* Tliis may be placing morality on the 
lower level of expediency; but no one would be unwilling to admit that it were 
better on that than on none. If we look, however, a little deeper into this theory 
of life, we shall see in it a truly spiritual significance. '■ Wisdom is the principal 
thing; therefore get wisdom : yea, with all thou hast gotten get understanding. "t 
And what is this wisdom, this understanding V The Book of Job answers : " Be- 
hold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom ; and to depart from evil is undei-stand- 
ing.'\t The Hebrew believed that the one essential is to stand right before God. 
Upon that theory of life sixty generations have been unable to make advance. 

Hebrew history and literature deal, as do no other history and literature so 
markedly, with the individual man. They are essentially biographical or autobi- 
ographical in their spirit. Beside, therefore, the value of tlie study of the Bible 
as a means of training the mind, there is in it that other and greater reason for its 
pursuit, in tliat it trains the man. 

There is yet another reason why the literary study of the Bible is desirable. 
As we have it the book is an English classic, the English classic. It contains 
the finest Saxon element and the purest idiom of all the books in our language. It 
is the product of the growth of the English people in literature. As Macaulay 

■Ps. 14:1. +Prov. 4:7. * Job 28:28. 

A Criticism of the Book of Amos. 13 

said, " the person who professes to be a critic of the delicacies of the English 
tongue ought to have the Bible at his finger's ends." And if the English Bible be 
the standard book in our literature, every one who seeks true literary culture 
should be conversant with it. Nearly all the great masters of our language have 
been earnest literary students of the English Scriptures, especially of the grander 
portions of the Old Testament. Our Bible is something more than a transla- 
tion, a version of writings in Hebrew and Greek. It has in it the true spirit of 
the Anglo-Saxon genius. The mingling of the thoughts of those true Orientals, 
the Hebrews, with our thoughts has greatly enlarged and broadened our spirit in 
years past. The very style of Hebrew literature is of value to ours, giving it life, 
vigor and coloring. Our tendency is to be didactic, cold-blooded. This the 
ancient literature of the Bible, with its rendering into English of marvelous 
rhythm, grace and fire, helps greatly to counteract. 

How should the literary study of the Bible be pursued ? I shall endeavor to 
answer this question by illustration in a criticism of the book of one of the 
" minor prophets." First, however, I desire to note a few principles such as are 
applicable in general to all other literary study. At the outset we should 
endeavor to cast aside, hard as this maybe in such study as concerns the Bible, all 
preconceptions. Only thus shall we be able to see clearly just what the book con- 
tains, no more, no less. With this accomplished so far as possible, our next step 
is to note in what relation the facts gathered stand to such other facts, not theo- 
ries, as may have formed a part of our general knowledge of this class of subjects. 
We do this to be able to understand the times of the writer. In all study of his- 
tory we must judge the actors in its scenes, not by modern standards, but by 
those of their own age. Otherwise our judgment will be neither impartial nor 
likely to stand the test of time, for every decade in such case would change in 
greater or less degi-ee the standards of historical criticism. Thirdly, we should 
search for the man in the writings. And thus when, fourthly, we have considered 
the literary expression of his thought, we shall be .able to state in something like 
the judicial manner our conclusion concerning the writer and his work, and shall 
have learned his historical significance. This is our end. 

In the spirit, then, of the literary student, I ask your attention to a criticism 
of the Book of the Prophet Amos. 

It was in the reigns of Uzziah of Judah, and of Jeroboam of Israel, two years 
before the earthquake, that the laborer of Tekoa, a little village south of Bethle- 
hem, received the first revelation from God. The date of his mission may, there- 
fore, be placed in the twelfth year of Uzziah and the tAventy-flfth of .Jeroboam,* 
and according to one system of chronology, in the year 808 B. C.,t and to another, 
in the year 762 B. C.j: The watching of the flocks was not the only work of the 
humble laborer, he was also wont in time of the sycamore figs to go down into 
the valleys to gather and dress them.? This acrid fruit had to be cut open, and 
to be exposed to the sun to sweeten. From such environment as this, Amos went 
forth to do God's bidding before his sinful brethren. Surely he must have had a 
calling to this work, as he himself declared, else he could never have left his 
flocks, and have gone to those of Israel who were living in the midst of sin, and 
have preached before them in the very seats of their wickedness so earnestly and 
so courageously ! 

*Ch.l:l. t Smith. t Geikie. § Ch. 7:14,15. 

14 The Old Testament STxmENr. 

The prophet boldly, fearlessly proclaims the truth. Uje high in the land 
" sold the righteous for silver and the needy for a pair of shoes.*'* At their feasts 
they reclined upon garments taken in pawn from the poor.t and therein violated 
the Mosaic law which required articles of raiment to be restored at the even. J 
They took exactions of wheat from the poor, and accepted bribes.? They wished 
for the quick passage of the new moons and sabbaths that they might not be long 
kept from trade. They sold at high prices and with false measures. The rich 
begrudged the poor even the refuse of the wheat. || 

" Quid non mortalia peotora cogis, 
Aurl sacra famce?" 

Injustice and oppression were rife in the land. The poor were trodden under 
foot, and the wealthy lived utterly apart from the Lord. It was a " sinful king- 
dom. "H Tlie riches gained in foreign wars and by trade and oppression provided 
luxuries for the higher classes. These had their winter and their summer houses 
in which were all the delights of wealth.** Their residences were often of hewn At their feasts was the music of viols, and there they reclined upon 
couches of ivory. Women as well as men were given to drinking of wine.JJ 
Such was tlie life of the rich : from it we know what must have been that of the 
poor whom they oppressed. 

The darkest part of the picture is yet to be revealed. At Bethel and Gilgal 
they offered their worship to .lehovah, a worship simply of form. Their feasts 
and solemn assemblies, their burnt offerings and sacrifices were all alike evU in 
the eyes of tlie Lord. Priests and king had profaned the holy places. There 
was a general turning aside to other gods. The very ceremonies in the temples 
were made the cover for the worst social evils.?? Religious formalism could 
descend no further. The fire on the altar had burnt out. Faith was dead. 

One more fact is needed to complete this portrayal of the times. Israel had 
now become a military despotism. The king seated on the throne was the great- 
est of the rulers of his line. lie had conquered Damascus and all Syria to the 
river Euphrates. At this time also the dominion of Uzziah of Judah e.xtended 
over Edom and Arabia Petraja from the gulf of Elah to the river of Egypt. Thus 
Judah and Israel together were now even more powerful than the united nation 
had been in the days of David, the great king. But outward prosperity does not 
insiue the permanence of nations : and this truth Amos must preach. The les- 
son of Israel is that of many another people. No nation can long endure that is 
not true to high principles, to its best instincts, to its message from God whether 
written on tables of stone or in the hearts of men. History is full of warnings 
to the peoples of earth, and no warning is more terrible than the downfall of 


How will the peasant, now to exercise the functions of a prophet, go about his 
task ¥ Despite his humble lot he is no unlettered man. From various references 
in the prophecy we see clearly that he is familiar with Hebrew history and the 
Mosaic law. He has been out in the world of natiue, and has seen all the mighty 
manifestations of God's presence and power. He has often slept, no doubt, under 
the open vault of heaven and watched the on-going of the stars. He has heard 
the voice of Jehovah in the thunder, and seen His agency in the rain and the 

♦Ch.2:6. +Ch. 2:8. J Eiod. 22:28. 8 Ch. 5:U,13. .1 Ch. 8:.5--. lCh.9:8. 

•Ch.3:15. ttCh.5:ll. »Ch.4:l. 88 Ch8.4:4; 5:21-23; 7:U; .5:18. 

A Criticism of the Book of Amos. 15 

■wind. His mind is full of the imagery of outdoor life, and the illustrations which 
he uses are drawn from the sheep-fold and the vine-dresser's hut. He comes 
with fresh ardor to his task, with a heart not hardened by long acquaintance with 
evil. He is a man sent forth from nature by the God Whose own nature is. 

How far the record of the mission of Amos is made up of single discourses, 
delivered at short intervals, and each brief and pointed, as accords with the temper 
of the Hebrew mind, it is now of course impossible to determine. We find the 
prophecy readily divisible into two distinct portions : chs. 1-6, which consist of 
weighty discourses, and chs. 7-9, which are simple narratives of visions. 

The first part of the earlier division consists of annunciations of terrible 
judgments upon the nations. With great tact those people roundabout the Hebrew 
nations are denounced first, then the southern kingdom of Judah and finally 
Israel itself. These judgments are cast into the form of a poem, magnificent 
and awful, through which rumbles the suUen note of the refrain, " Thus saiththe 
Lord : For three transgressions, yea, for four, I wUl not turn away the punish- 
ment thereof."* Damascus, Gaza, Tyre, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Judah, Israel, 
upon each and upon all Jehovah will visit the punishment due their sins. The 
Lord God, who brought Israel up out of the land of Egypt and destroyed the 
Amorite, " strong as the oaks,""t from before him, who led him in the wilderness, 
and gave him Canaan for his possession. He, the Omnipotent, will "press Israel 
in his place as a cart presseth that is full of sheaves."! In that day, Amos 
declares, in the words of the earlier prophet, Joel, " The Lord shall roar from 
Zion, and utter his voice from -Jerusalem."? Because the nations had warred 
against the Hebrew^s, and had " cast off all pity,"|| and because Judah and Israel 
had forgotten Jehovah, therefore will He destroy them all. 

And now that he has declared his mission, Amos asks how he could fail to 
prophesy what God had spoken unto him. He sees the evil in the land, the 
tumults " upon the mountains of Samaria " and " the oppression in the midst 
thereof. "U "Because of these God will smite the land, and the few remaining 
from the dead He will carry away into captivity. Upon all the guilty, women as 
well as men, priests as well as laymen, will Jehovah visit His wrath. Shall not 
He who brought famine into the land, and withheld the rain from one portion 
and granted it to another, who caused mildew to blight the crops and the palmer- 
worm to devour their vineyards and orchards, who sent pestilence into the midst 
of the people and who saved others as brands " plucked out of the burning,"** shall 
not He " that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, and declareth unto 
man what is his thought, that maketh the morning darkness and treadeth upon 
the high places of the earth," " the Lord, the God of hosts,"tt be able to perform 
this His word ? Only as " ye seek the Lord, shall ye live, "It the preacher proclaims 
to Israel. " Seek good and not evil, that ye may Uve : and so the Lord, the God 
of hosts shall be with you, as ye say. Hate the evil, and love the good, and 
establish judgment in the gate : it may be that the Lord, the God of hosts wall 
be gracious unto the remnant of Joseph. "|§ If they will not obey nor turn aside 
from destruction, Amos proclaims that wailing shall be heard in the streets, and 
the people be carried away captive beyond Damascus. The land is doomed, only 
a few shall remain alive, and the country shall be desolate. And yet of what 

*Ch.l:3,ete. tCh.3:9. * Ch. 3:13. § Joel 3:16; ch. 1:2. ilCh.l:ll. H Ch. 3:9. 
♦•Ch.4:9. -HCh. 4:13. « Ch. 5:B. §8Ch.5:14. 

16 The Old Testament Student. 

avail this preaching ? asks the prophet. " Shall horses run upon the rock ? Will 
one plow there with oxen ? "* The nation is hardened ; and can know God no 

We note in this portion of the prophecy a depreciation of sacrifices. This is 
the first indication of the new dispensation when the Son of God should be offered 
up as the complete sacrifice for the race. Only in the light of the Old Testament 
can we hope to see something of the full meaning of tlie crucifixion on Calvary. 
That was the culmination of the Jewish ritual, the finishing of the work of the 
Hebrews for the race, begun when Abram was called out of Ur of the Chaldees. 

With the closing of the sixth chapter the record of the preaching of Amos 
ceases. He has found that his work has been in vain. There now comes before 
him a series of visions which disclose in broad outlines the future of the Hebrew 
people, especially of the kingdom of Israel. These visions are five in number. 
The first four differ from the last in that they teach in allegory, while the fifth is 
a direct manifestation of the Lord himself. Succeeding these visions is the prom- 
ise to the faithful. 

The first and second visions, of the locusts devouring "the latter growth 
after the king's mowing," and of the fire from the great deep that ■' would have 
eaten up the land,'"t show God's mercy in that he saves Jacob at the prayer of 
Amos because " he is small. '"t The lessons of the third and fourth make known 
the approaching end of the national life. The nation tried by the plumb-line is 
found desers'ing of destruction.? As to a basket of summer fruit, to Israel the 
end is near.y 

Between the nai'ratives of the third and fourth visions there is told an inci- 
dent by which we may learn something of the times. Because of his fearless 
preaching Amos has aroused the fear and hatred of Amaziah, "the priest of 
Beth-el. '''i Amaziah seeks to stir up King Jeroboam by saying that the bold 
peasant is engaged in conspiracy against the throne. To the priest's command to 
flee out of Israel into Judah Amos replies that it is the Lord's errand on which 
he has come, and closes by renewing his prophecy of evil for the priest and his 
family, and of captivity for Israel. It is tlie old story, how the wicked are self- 
convicted wlien they stand in the presence or hear the message of the good. 

After the fourth vision, already commented upon, follows that terrible pre- 
diction, " Behold the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in 
the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing of the 
words of the Lord. And they shall wander from sea to sea. and from llie north 
even to the east; they run to and fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not 
find it."** 

In the fifth vision the doom of Jehovah is come upon the land. In every 
quarter of heaven, earth and hell will the Lord set his " eyes upon them for evil 
and not for good."tt "Behold, the eyes of the Lord God are upon the sinful 
kingdom, and I will destroy it from off the face of the earth; saving tliat I will 
not utterly destroy the house of Jacob, saith the Lord. For, lo, I will command, 
and 1 will sift the house of Israel among all the nations, like as corn is sifted in a 
sieve, yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth. ":Jt The promise comes, 
however, not to Israel, but to despised Judah. The hut of David is to become a 

•Ch. 6:12. tCh. 7:1. t Ch. 7:5. « Ch. 7:7. 1 Ch. 8:1. ICh. 7:10scq. 

•• Ch. 8:11-13. tt Ch. 9:4. « Ch. 9:8, seq. 

A Criticism of the Book of Amos. 17 

noble palace, builded " as in the days of old."* Only the Judiean portion of the 
race is to dwell again in Palestine. For them shall seed-time, vintage, harvest 
follow in quick succession. "Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that the 
plowman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes him that soweth 
seed ; and the mountains shall drop sweet wine, and all the hills shall melt."t In 
the southern kingdom, in the dynasty of David gathers all the hope of the coming 
blessed rule. The dark cloud of the prophecy is here at length lit up with the 
rays of the divine promise. 

The purification of the Hebrew nation was to result in tlie greatest glory and 
the greatest good to mankind.! The remnant of this people, lifted away from 
their evil surroundings and preserving in their darkest days the hope of the Mes- 
siah, was at length to help toward the salvation of the race through Jesus the 

Thus did the herdman of Tekoa preach to those in Israel who had forgotten 
the Lord. His language was tlie perfect medium for his thought. Two words 
may describe his style in general— strong, vivid. The bold outlines of his thought 
are filled in with the brightest colors. The prophecy is poetry almost entirely. It 
is characterized generally by parallelism of thought. " Come to Beth-el, and 
transgress ; to Gilgal, and multiply transgression."? " Publish ye in the palaces 
at Ashdod, and in the palaces in the land of Egypt, and say. Assemble yourselves 
upon the mountains of Samaria, and behold what great tumults are therein, and 
what oppressions in the midst thereof."|| A very large proportion of Hebrew 
prophecy was delivered as poetry, and a poetic character marked all prophetic 
oratory. In the use of form and of imagery, as well as in the constitution of his 
mind, Amos was quite as much the poet as the prophet. 

In the study of Amos there now remains but one further matter to consider 
— his historical significance. Amos is one of the few prophets of the northern 
kingdom whose writings we have. Withm its borders Elijah had already proph- 
esied and Elisha lived his godly life. The kingdom, the proud portion of the 
Hebrew nation, had warred against Judah, and to all appearances had cast away 
its share in the divine promises. The best of its people had long since departed 
into the southern kingdom, where they might join in the true worship of Jehovah 
still offered in His sanctuary at Jerusalem. The nation was no longer spiritually 
descended from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. They had abandoned their hope. 
Suddenly from Judah comes the prophet with his message to repent. He stands 
for two things in Jewish history : First, the truth that the division into Israel 
and Judah is one that can be healed only on the spiritual side : there must be a 
union of purpose. It is no mere geographical boundary chat holds them apart : 
it is rather the plumbline of Jehovah, who tests the heart. Second, Amos stands 
foretelling a doom that must come for all disobedience to Almighty God. He 
has sought to persuade the sinful to turn back from the downward journey : yet 
if they will not turn back, he can do nothing further than announce the judgment. 
He has preached earnestly, he has predicted not without hope. Man can do no 
more than this. By its very nature sin involves and necessitates its own terrible 

We have seen in Amos a tjrpe of the true prophet of Jehovah. "We have also 
seen in him something of the prophet's mission, and in his writing certain of the 

'Ch. 9:11. tCh. 9:13. t Ch. 9:13. § Ch. 4:4. ICh. 3:9. 


18 The Old Testament Student. 

characteristics of Hebrew poetry, as for example its parallelism and free use of 
imagery. Similar results would have followed from the study of other books in 
the Bible. 

The literary study of the Bible gains for the book our mental respect, and 
once understood intellectually its message will be better obeyed by men's hearts 
spiritually. TIius we are prepared to meet those misguided attempts of the age 
which, criticising the Bible superficially and finding what seem to be flaws therein, 
are doing no slight harm to the progress of the truth in the hearts of weaker men. 
Further, the literary study of the Scriptures is one of the effective means for put- 
ting a check upon the proving of theories by te.xts taken here and there \vithout 
relation to their setting. It will train as can no other in the grasping of the 
argument. This accomplished, the Bible ceases to be a collection of verses, and 
becomes an organic series of writings that may be fully understood only by know- 
ing the relations of the part to the whole. Such must be the beneficent results of 
BibUcal criticism. Assuming nothing, it proves more than does any other method 
of gaining the truths of the Scriptures. While it trains intellectually it teaches 
spiritually ; for this examination of the Bible is sure to promote the great ends of 
the individual Christian life. 

By the Uterary study of the Bible we come into the closest companionship 
with some of the best and greatest men of all times. To understand them we 
must enter into sympathy with their thoughts and motives, and once sympathizing 
with them their influence upon us must begin to be felt. We think of these early 
preachers and doers of God's word too little as friends. The critical study of the 
Scriptures arouses an interest both personal and friendly in those heroes of Bible- 
hterature who fought with spiritual weapons " striving against sin." Therefore, 
for the young, whose habits of mind and purposes of heart are most easily influ- 
enced, is such study especially desirable. 

Again, by the literary study of the Bible we are brought to understand the 
Messiali of history better than in any other way. It has been said that the Golden 
Age of the Jews lay not in the past but in the future, when the Messiah should 
come; so to-day the Golden Age of the Christian lies not in the past, but in the 
future, when again the second time Jesus the Christ shall appear in the fulness of 
imknown days, in the final and perfect finishing of God's work among men. Toward 
that day the world is looking. As students of history we should know the Jewish 
conceptions of the Messiah and the early Christian memories of Ilim, and should 
see how the picture grows upon the canvas touch by touch, Une by line, till Jesus 
himself gave it life. The devotional study of the Scriptures is not enougli ; the 
literary study is not enough. They should be united ; thus will our study, giving 
knowledge of Him, for whom and by whom the Scriptures are, tend to become 
complete. Such it can never be in this world of Time. And yet whatever assists 
us in knowledge of Him shoiUd be earnestly sought out and encouraged. With- 
out a certain measure of knowledge concerning Jesus, the Son of Man and the 
Son of God, we can never hope to understand in even the barest outlines the vast 
movements of history. 

The mission of the Bible is not ended ; it cannot end in Time. Because of 
all the length and breadth and height of this Book, because of its sweetness and 
its grandeur, because of its message so terrible in its truth and so comforting in 
its love, because of its work in literature, in government, in the individual life, 
because of its close union with human destiny, therefore, were it well worth our 

APOCAiiYPSES OF Moses. 19 

while to open its pages more often and to read more closely therein. The Bible 
can never be outgrown by man. It is the Book not of Death but of Life. As the 
river seen in prophet's vision issuing out of the sanctuary of God was a healmg 
flood and a life-giving stream, upon the banks whereof grew trees with fruit for 
meat and with leaf for medicine,* so the Bible sent forth from the Almighty 
brings healing and life whithersoever it cometh. 


By Professor M. S. Terry, S. T. D., 

Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, 111. 

Among the numerous revelations made to Moses, we find in Exodus 3 and 6, 
in connection with the divine call and commission of Israel's great leader, a two- 
fold apocalyptic word of Jahveh, which accords with the almost imiform habit 
of this style of revelation to repeat itself under different symbols, or from differ- 
ent points of view. The hypothesis of different authors is less probable and con- 
vincing than the view which maintains tliat these closely related passages are 
designed and essential features of the biblical revelation, and, like the repetition 
of Pharaoh's dreams, serve to enhance the certainty and importance of the things 
which they make known. The first of these revelations came to Moses in the 
desert, when he led his flocks among the solitary valleys of the Horeb moun- 
tains. The angel of Jahveh appeared to him under the impressive symbol 
of a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush, and though the bush kept burning 
it was not at all consumed.! Moses recognized it as a great and marvelous 
vision, and drew nigh to behold more clearly. Thereupon the word of God spoke 
to him out of the bush, and was as follows : {Exod. 3:4-22): 

4, 5. Moses, Moses, draw not thou hither near, 
PuU ofi thy sandals from upon thy feet. 
For holy ground is the place where thou standest. 

6. I am thy father's God, 

The God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob. 

7. I've seen, I've seen my people's woe in Egypt, 
And heard their cry because of their oppressors, 
For I have known their pains. 

8. And I go down to snatch them out of Egypt's hand. 
And bring from that land to a good broad land, 
Unto a land that flows with milk and honey. 
Unto the Canaanite's and Hittite's place. 

And of the xVmorite, and Perizzite, 
The Hivite also and the Jebusite. 

•Ezek. -iTil-lS. 

t The meaning of this sign is best seen in the fact that the burning judgments of God never 
destroy anything that is pure and good, so that his people need never fear them. The oppres- 
sions of Egypt could not consume Israel: the wrath of Pharaoh cannot harm Moses; God's 
people are imperishable. And this thought is prominent in all subsequent revelations. God 
Almighty is a consuming fire. He burns what is perishable; but "the remnant according to the 
election of grace" are never to be consumed. The burnings of judgment only purify and make 
them more conspicuous and wonderful. 

20 The Old Testament Stttdent. 

9. Now, lo, the cry of Israel's sons comes to me, 

And I liave also seen the sore oppression, 

"With which the Egyptians are oppressing them. 
10. And now come, I will thee to Pharaoh send, 

And bring my people, Israel's sons, from Egypt. 
12. Surely I will be \\-ith thee, 

And this for thee the sign that I have sent thee. 

When thou the people bringest forth from Egypt, 

Ye shall upon this mountain worship God. 

14. I AM the One who evek is ; 
Thus say thou to the sons of Israel, 
I AM has sent me unto you. 

15. Jahveh, your fathers' God, 

The God of Abraham, God of Isaac and God of Jacob has sent me unto you, 
This is my name unto eternity, 
This my memorial for generations. 

16. Go thou and gather Israel's aged men. 
And thou shalt say unto them : 

Jahveh, your fathers" God, appeared to me. 
The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, saying, 
I have been carefully observing you. 
And that which has been done to you in Egj'pt. 

17. And I say I will bring you up from Egypt's woe, 
Unto the Canaanite's and Ilittite's land. 

And of the Amorite, and Perizzite, 

The Hivite also and the Jebusite, 

Unto a land that flows with milk and honey. 

18. And they will listen to thy voice. 

And thou shalt come. 

Thou and the elders of Israel unto the King of Egypt, 

And ye shall say unto him : 

Jaliveh, the Hebrews' God, has met with us, 

And now, let us, we pray thee, go 

A three days' journey in the wilderness. 

And unto Jahveh our God sacrifice. 

19. And I know Egypt's King wiU not give you to go, 
Kot even by a mighty hand. 

20. And I will send my hand, and Egypt smite, 
With all my wonders which I do therein, 
And afterwards he will send you away. 

21. And I will give this people favor in the eyes of Egypt, 
And it shall come to pass that when ye go, 

Ye shall not go forth empty ; 

22. But let each woman of her neighbor ask, 
And of her who is dwelling in her house. 
Vessels of silver and of gold, and clothes. 

And ye shall put them on your sons and daughters. 
And ye shall spoil the Egyptians. 

After this revelation Moses was instructed to employ certain miraculous 
signs to convince the obdurate king ; and after vainly seeking to escape the burden 
of his heavenly commission, he returned to his father-in-law, obtained his consent 
to leave Midian, and forthwith returned to Egypt, and, with Aaron, his brother, 

Apocalypses of Moses. 21 

went into the presence of Pharaoh and asked that Israel might go Into the wilder- 
ness to sacrifice unto Jahveh, their God. The request only seemed to enrage the 
king, and bring heavier oppression upon the Israelites, so that the officers of 
Israel censured Moses and Aaron for their interference, and charged them with 
adding to the miseries of the enslaved people. Thereupon Moses again sought 
the presence of Jahveh, and poured out before him a bitter complaint, alleging 
that his mission to Pharaoh had only intensified the oppressions of Israel. Then 
Jahveh again spoke unto him : (Exod. 6:1-8). 

1. Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh ; 
For with a strong hand he will send them forth, 
And by a strong hand diive them from his land. 

2. I AM Jahveh. 

3. But I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, in El-Shaddai, 
And my name Jahveh I was not known to them. 

4. And I confirmed my covenant with them. 
To give to them the land of Canaan, 

The land of their sojoumings, where they dwelt. 

5. Also I've heard the cry of Israel's sons. 
Whom the Egyptians keep in servitude, 
And I have kept my covenant in mind. 

6. Say therefore unto Israel, I am Jahveh ; 

And I will bring you forth from Egypt's toils, 
And from their bondage vrill deliver you. 
And will redeem you with an arm stretched out, 
And with great judgments. 

7. And I will take you to me for a people. 
And I will be unto you for a God, 

And ye shall know that I am Jahveh your God, 
Who bringeth you from Egypt's burdens forth. 

8. And I will cause you to come to the land, 
Which I have lifted up my hand to give 
To Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob, 
And I vrtll give it you for a possession, — 
I AM Jahveh. 

Moses again pleaded, as in Ch. 4:1-10, that he was not a fluent speaker, and 
therefore an unsuitable person to address Pharaoh; whereupon we have the 
further oracle of ch. 7:1-5. 

1. See, I have made thee God to Pharaoh, 

And Aaron, thy brother, shall thy prophet be. 

2. Thou shalt speak all which I commanded thee, 
And Aaron thy brother shall to Pharaoh speak. 
And he will send the sons of Israel from his land ; 

3. And I will harden Pharaoh's heart. 

And multiply my signs and miracles in Egypt's land. 

4. And Pharaoh will not hearken imto you. 
And against Egypt I wUl give my hand. 
And bring my hosts, my people, Israel's sons, 
Forth out of Egypt's land, with judgments great. 

5. Then will the Egyptians know that I am Jahveh, 
When over Egypt I stretch out my hand. 

And bring the sons of Israel from their midst. 

22 The Old Testament Student. 

These apocalyptic words were soon followed by Jahveh's great and terrible 
judgments upon the land of Egypt and her idolatries. Nowhere in all literature 
is there to be found such a sublime exhibition of Jahveh's power over the forces 
of nature and the superstitions of men. The ten plagues were preceded by the 
ominous sign of Aaron's rod. It was changed into a dragon in the presence of 
the king, and when his magicians by means of their enchantments wrought a 
similar miracle ; " Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods " (7:12). Here was a 
signal triumph in the realm of Egyptian superstition, prophetic of the final result 
of the conflict between the God of Israel and the idolatries of that land. 

After this preliminary sign the ten plagues follow in rapid succession. First 
the waters of the sacred Nile, and all the waters of Egypt were turned into 
blood; then came the plagues of frogs, lice, flies, murrain, boils, hail, locusts, 
darkness and the death of all the lirst-bom of Egypt. They grew more and more 
intense and destructive until, at last, from every dwelling in Egypt rose the bitter 
wail, such as had never been known. 

These great and terrible judgments were immediately followed by the tri- 
umphant departure of Israel from the land of their bondage and the thrall of their 
enemies, in a final spasm of rage the obdurate king of Egypt pursued the people 
of Jahveh, aud was overwhelmed by the waters of the Red Sea. This miracle of 
judgment was a kind of epilogue to the sublime drama of the ten plagues, as the 
sign of the rod was a kind of prologue. The one opened and the other closed a 
series of the most signal judgments that ever visited a land and its people. And 
the song of Moses (ch. 15:1-18) which Israel sang on the further shore of that sea, 
after they had seen " the salvation of Jahveh" (ch. 14:13, cf. verse 31), was an 
appropriate chorus with which to close this marvelous tragedy. 

This great and terrible day of Jahveh upon the land of Egypt could not fail 
to supply imagery for future apocalyptic descriptions of divine judgments and 
triumphs. Israel's exode, and the song of triumph by the sea were evidently in 
the mind of the author of the New Testament Apocalypse, when he wrote of the 
glassy sea mingled with fire, aud the victorious multitude standing by it with 
the hai-ps of God, and singing the song of Moses and of the Lamb (Rev. 1.5:2,3). The 
woes, also, of the seven trumpets and the seven last plagues are depicted in 
imagery derived mainly from the narrative of the Egyptian plagues. 

The student of prophecy should give thoughtful attention to the biblical con- 
ception of .judgment, which is so strikingly illusti-ated in the plagues of Egypt. 
To conceive " the day of Jahveh," and his execution of judgment as a formal 
assize, in which the sovereign Ruler aud Judge sits to hear testimony, and pro- 
nounce decisions of merit and demerit, of right and wrong, serves only the pur- 
poses of metaphor or simile. Jahveh might have been represented as thus sitting 
in judgment upon the idolatries and cruelties of the Egyptians. Pharaoh and all 
his guilty associates in the oppression of Israel were brought to the bar of God ; 
they stood before the judgment seat of Jahveh, and received just recompense for 
their deeds. But evidently all this imagery of throne, and bar, and judgment 
seat, and trial, and sentence, is but the drapery of human conceptions of judg- 
ment. The essential thought is that God condemns and punishes his enemies, 
and causes his people to triumph. j\jid whether the visitation comes in the form 
of a flood that drowns the world, or in fire and brimstone such as destroyed the 
wicked cities of the plain, or in such plagues as blighted Egypt, it is in every case 

Cheyi^e's Commentary on the Psalms. 23 

a coming of God to judgment ; or, if one prefer the other form of statement, a 
bringing of both the just and the unjust before the tribunal of the Most High. 
What further results are effected in individuals in the world of spirits, to what 
conditions the souls of those who are cut oif from earthly life by the judgments of 
God are consigned, and what may be the possible changes of life and modes of 
thought and action in the unseen world,— these and all related questions are left 
in mystery. Only the great truths that the wicked shall surely be punished and 
the righteous be gloriously rewarded are clearly made known to us by the revela- 
tions of God. 


By PBor. Edward L. Curtis, Ph. D., 

Mccormick Theol. Seminary, Chicago, 111. 

A volume by Dr. Cheyne is always welcome. By one famUiar with his writ- 
ing, its leading characteristics can be stated almost before its pages are opened. 
Its English will be choice, adorned with neat and happy phrases. A delightful 
literary aroma will pervade the whole, showing that the author is no dry-as-dust 
student, but one who holds fellowship and communion not only with commentators 
and theologians, but also with poets and philosophers, the greatest and the best 
minds. Exact and painstaking scholarship will be exhibited. Originality also and 
freshness of view, with, however, no disregard of the opinions of others. The 
most recent productions of biblical scholars of England, America, Germany, and 
France, as well as the old standards, will be made, by citation and reference, to 
illuminate the sacred text. And above all there will be a spirit of candor, fair- 
ness, and better still of devout spirituality and reverence, seen on every page. 
All of these characteristics we expected to find in this latest work of Dr. Cheyne, 
and we have not been disappointed. It is worthy to be placed alongside of his 
commentary on Isaiah. As in that, the student will find here also one of the best 
endeavors to compare Hebrew religious thought and feeling, as illustrated in the 
text, with that of other people. This indeed is a striking feature of Dr. Cheyne's 
work. While there has been no end of writers who have illustrated the sacred 
text by oriental customs and manners, he proceeds a step further and endeavors 
to show constant parallels between biblical expression and thought and those of 
other people. This doubtless will be offensive to some— those holding the fash- 
ion of endeavoring to exalt the Jewish religion by degrading the religions of all 
other people. But this is wrong, and defeats its purpose, as men are learning from 
the science of comparative religion. Kevealed religion is not rendered less lus- 
trous, less unique, less the one true religion of supernatural origin, by granting 
parallel elements in other religions. Xay, its lustre by such a setting is rather 
enhanced. This then is the most noteworthy feature of Dr. Cheyne's commenta- 
ries. Often here he will appear to carry this too far and find mythic allusions 

* The Book of Psaxms, or The Praises of Israel. A new translation, with commentary. 
By the ECF. T. K. Cheyne, M. A., D, D. Jjondon: Kegan Paul, Trench dc Co. New York: Thos. 
Whittaker & Co. 

24 The Old Testament Stxtdent. 

in the sacred songs which many will not allow ; but it must be remembered that, 
rightly understood, the basis of revealed religion may be called natural, that there 
was a development upward, with many accommodations to the notions and feel- 
ings of natural religion. The Old Testament contmually exhibits tliis fact. 

In reference to Dr. Cheyne's position ou the date of the Fsalms, it may be 
said that, while he gives no special discussion of this point on each Psalm, and 
perhaps rightly, for how impossible it is to fix their chronology with exactness, 
he places them as a whole late in Israel's history. He regards Ewald's view that 
there are eleven Davidic psalms the most conservative at present tenable. At 
this we demur. The bloom of Israel's poetic literature we still place in the age of 
the shepherd king. Wliy not? Was not the religious air pure enough to inspire 
the Psalmist's praises of Israel's God before the luxurj' and idolatry from an out- 
side world came in through the material development in the age of Solomon and 
subsequently V Possibly the worship of the Hebrews may have been irregular. 
Jehovah also may have been conceived of as primarily a national God. But we 
cannot yet be convinced tliat at the start of the Hebrew monarchy inspired bards 
did not SLug. Religious fervor then must have been intense. 

Turning now to Dr. Ciieyne's view of the Messianic Psalms, we find much to 
commend. In regard to the second, he opines that it refers not to any historical 
king regarded as typically Messianic, but to the ideal or Messianic King himself. 
Psalm 110, he says, may perhaps have the same reference. Psalm 45, on the other 
hand, did not have an original Messianic reference, although on such a theory it 
may have been presen'ed in the Psalter. This we regard correct. " Psalm 22 is 
most probably a description under the form of a dramatic monologue of the ideal 
Israelite, called by a kindred writer ' the covenant of the people ' and ' the light 
the nations' (Isa. 13:7), who shall rise out of the provisional church-nation, and 
identifying himself with it, lead it on to spiritual victory." This explanation we 
also favor. 

When we turn to De. Cheyne's translations and textual criticism, we cannot 
find so much to commend as in the other features of his commentary. In the 
first place his translations are often far from felicitous, and we think him prone 
to find too many corruptions of the text and to suggest too readily that words and 
phrases have dropped out. Our present Massoretic text, it is true, is not faultless; 
but great conservatism is necessary in making emendations lest the last state be 
worse than the first. To illustrate, we present his rendering of Psalm 23:1-4 : 

1. Jehovah is my shepherd; I want for nothing. 

2. In pastures of young grass he couches me ; 
to reposeful waters he gently guides me ; 
my soul he dotli restore. 

3. He leads me along in right ti'acks, 
because of his name ; 

4. Should I even walk in a ravine of Hades gloom, 
I will fear no evil. 

[No unseen foe shall luirt me,] 
for thou wilt be with me ; 
thy club and shepherd's staff 
they will comfort me. 

We cannot agree that the structure of this artistic poem demands the addi- 
tion made in v. 4. Hebrew poetry possesses much of its life, beauty and vigor, 
because it refuses to be measured off with the regularity of a Chinese garden plat. 

Chbtke's Commentary on the Psalms. 25 

Dr. Cheyne carries his subjective criticism too far. We <ire told that in 
Psabn 24, vs. 7-10 are a fragment of another Psalm. The reason for all this is 
thus stated : " The Psalm as it stands is divisible into two parts, the connection 
of which at any rate is not obvious. The God of vs. 1-6 is the God of the infinitely 
great and the infinitely small, the God vcho made the earth and all that is in it, 
and yet does not disdaui to be called my God ; the God of vs. 7-10 is a victorious 
war-God. The religion of the first part is inward and moral ; the religion of the 
second, so far as it can be characterized at all, is not in harmony with that of the 
first." To all this it is suflicient to reply that the consciousness of the Christian 
church, in their use of this Psakn as one for so many ages, proves that its concep- 
tions are harmonious. " The infinitely great God " and " the infinitely small 
God " can well be a victorious war-God, and why should not a poet of Israel have 
had sufiicieat poetic genius to compose this Psalm, so beautifully adapted with 
these two ideas imited to be sung at the bringing of the ark from the house of 
Obed-edom to Jerusalem. {See Delitzsch in loco.) 

In form this commentary resembles Perowne's. It is equally happy in 
arrangement, and while we should not rank it as high, if one desires a commentary 
which shall combine all needful elements in itself, containing both suggestions 
practical for homiletical purposes, and critical exegesis, we rank it higher if one 
desires a purely critical commentary on the Psalms ; for while from its brevity it 
may often appear fragmentary, we believe in this respect it has no superior in 
English. Still a just conservatism warns one to be on guard against too radical 
views. Dr. Cheyne is not always a safe guide. One feels the lack also of a crit- 
ical introduction to the Psalter. This matter is almost entirely wanting, being 
probably reserved for another volume ; we hope that it may soon appear. 


Another Jewish periodical " The New Jewish Quarterly" is announced from 
London. Its editors are J. Abraliams and C. J. Montefiore. It mil give prom- 
inence to articles on biblical subjects. The list of contributors embraces emi- 
nent biblical critics both Jewish and Christian. The prospects for the establish- 
ment of such a journal are thought to be excellent. 

At Johns Hopkins University next year Hebrew will be offered in the under- 
graduate courses for the first time. WhUe the Semitic Seminary has made the 
Hebrew O. T. the center of its work in the post-graduate department, it has now 
been decided to give opportunity earlier in the course for any students, intending 
to enter theological seminaries, and others, to take up Hebrew. The new course 
will be known as group VIH. and the time given to the new studies will be dis- 
tributed as follows : first year, oriental history, one hour ; second year, Hebrew, 
two hours ; third year, Hebrew, three hours, per week. This new departure is 
one heartily to be commended. 

At a recent meeting of the Victoria Institute, Dr. Post of Beyrout read a 
paper giving the results of nearly twenty-five years' botanical research in Syria 
and Palestine. It was especially interesting to the Bible student. The discus- 
sion disclosed the completeness of Dr. Post's labors in this field and drew atten- 
tion to the importance and value of the special identification of those plants 
alluded to in the Bible for biblical interpretation and apologetics. Although 
many have written on the botany of Sjria during the last three hundred years, 
yet but four works have been regarded as of real value and but one as containing 
to any considerable extent the results of exact modern inquuy. 

Dr. Edward Konig, extraordinary professor at Leipzig, and well known in 
America too as an opponent of the central thesis of the Wellhausen school, has 
recently received from the theological faculty of the university of Erlangen 
causa honoris the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He has richly merited the 

The well known conservative commentator, John Carl Friedrich Keil, died 
on the fifth of May. He was borne in 1807. For twenty-five years he was profes- 
sor at Dorpat, in the German-Russian provinces. Since 1859 he has been living at 
Leipzig engaged exclusively in literary work, of which he did an immense amount. 
The greater number of his commentaries and Old Testament works have been 
translated into English. 

A cable despatch announces the death of the Rev. John William Burgon, 
D. D., Dean of Chichester. He was an eminent biblical scholar and critic though 
extremely conservative. His w'ork was done principally on the Xew Testament 
and his vehement attack on the Revision will be remembered. 

Notes and Notices. 27 

Professor Dr. John Bachmann, of the University of Rostock, died recently 
at the age of fifty-sLx. He had for many years been the only Old Testament man 
in connection with a German university who refused to accept the analysis of the 
Pentateuch as a fixed fact of literary criticism. His influence as a teacher and 
writer was never great, Rostock being the smallest university in Germany, and 
Bachmann, though exceedingly conscientious and painstaking, having done little 
literary work, and a part of that being in the department of hymnology. There 
is not now at any of the German universities a single Old Testament professor 
who accepts the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch in the traditional sense of 
the word. 



This book is a collection of addresses delivered in Philadelphia by eminent 
men of many religious denominations in defence of " the plenary inspiration of 
the Scriptures.'" It does not afford material for the discussion of the problem of 
inspiration, nor does it claim to enter upon such a discussion except from one 
point of view. The writers have all one case to argue. Every lecture reaches 
one foregone conclusion. They are not investigating, but attacking. You breathe 
the air of theological controversy. Hard words are used ; hard blows are given. 
A spirit so partisan, so aggressive, must sometimes be bitter, rash, even foolish 
and blind. It would not be difficult to give examples of all these qualities in the 
pages before us. Really this is not the spirit in which to approach a question so 
broad, so intricate, so delicate, as this of Inspiration. The book will convince 
nobody who needs to be convinced. It does not attract the inquirer, the honest 

This is not saying that there is not some excellent material here. In col- 
lected addresses of this kind you expect inequality, and good things find them- 
selves often in poor company. The strongest paper is that by Howard Osgood on 
" The Witness of Jesus." The sweetest and most catholic is that by Wayland 
Hoyt on "Questions concerning Inspiration." We must express unqualified 
astonishment at the paper of Dr. G. S. Bishop, in which not only is the strict \'iew 
of mechanical inspiration defended, but even the Hebrew vowel points are claimed 
as inspired. Alas ! that in these days there should be such blind leaders of the 

We rejoice in the growing interest in this matter of the inspiration of Script- 
ure. It is the burning question of the day to wliich all other biblical investiga- 
tions are either tributary or dependent. But this book will feed the flame, not 
allay it. Its cry of " no quarter " will only provoke the response of " no surren- 
der." A spirit of gentleness and candor, of broad, honest, reverent inquiry and 
investigation, a judgment which is willing to wait till all the facts are in, these 
we crave. From whatever quarter they come we will hail with gladness their 
advent as encouraging the hope that the final solution of these fundamental prob- 
lems is at hand. 

* The Insi'Iked Word: A series of Papers and Addresses delivered at the Bible Inspiration 
Conference, Philadelphia, 1887. New i'ork: A. D. F. Randolph <4 Co., 1888. Price, $1.50. 


The following have become members of the 
Correspondence School in various courses 
during the four months ending August 1st: 
Mr. G. A. Brock, Brighton, Mass.; Prof. G. 
W. Caviness, Battle Creek, Mich.; Mr. A. G. 
Clemlnson, Cambridge, England; Mr. Chas. L. 
Clist, New York City; Kev. James Cosh, Bal- 
main, Sydney, New South Wales; Mr. J. A. 
Eckstorm, Chicago, III,; Mr. Edwin Fairley, 
Sing Sing, N. Y.; Mr. Abram Grove, Toronto, 
Ohio; Rev. A. E. Grover, Covington, Tenn. ; 
Rev. S. O. Hall, Madison, N. C; Rev. T. C. Hall, 
Chicago, 111.; Rev. W. L. Hamersly, Lynch- 
burg, Va. ; Mr. M. A. Hughs, Wellsville, Kans.; 
Mr. Jesse Johnson, Reynoldsburg, Ohio: Mr. 
David F. Kapp, Concord, Pa.; Mr. T. W. 
Kretschmann, Germantown, Pa.; Rev. G. L. 
Locke, Bristol, R. I.; Rev. R. E. McAlpine, 
Nagoya, Japan; Mr. M. F. Moreno, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. ; Miss S. P. Morrison, Bloomington, Ind. ; 
Rev. F. N. Parker, New Orleans, La.; Mr. A. 
M. Paterson, Aylwin, Quebec ; Mr. R. W. Peach, 
Washington, D. C. ; Rev. H. M. Pennlman, 
East Derry, N. H.; Rev. J. W. Presby, Mystic, 
Conn.; Rev. A. W. Reinhard, Forreston, 111.; 
Prof. J. A. Reinhart, Paterson, N. J.; Rev. W. 
H. Schwiering, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa; Rev. H. 
T. Strout, Citronelle, Ala.; Rev. Wm. Stuart, 
Dromore West, County Shgo, Ireland; Rev. L. 
R. Swinney, DeRuyter, N. Y.; Rev. J. G. Tan- 
ner, Rusk, Texas; Rev. W. R. Tratt, Musgrane 
Town, Newfoundland; Miss M.Whitney, New 
York City ; Rev. Jacob Yutzy, SeUnsgrove, Pa.; 
Rev. J. G. Ziegler, Fairview, Pa. 

Our foreign list continues to grow. England, 
Ireland, Japan, Australia and Newfoundland 
will be found among the addresses of new stu- 
dents. The last uamed country has not had 
a representative in the Correspondence School 

The graduates since the last report are as 
follows: Rev. R. C. Armstrong, Corsicana, 
Texas; Rev. T. M. Chalmers, Page Center, 
Iowa; Rev. A. P. Ekman, Stromsburgh, Neb.; 
Rev. C. H. Haggar, TownsvlUe, Queensland, 
Australia; Rev. G. C. Henry, DesMoines, Iowa; 
Rev. A. R. Hewitt, Weedsport, N. Y.; Rev. J. 
van Houte, South Holland, 111.; Rev. J. J. 
Lampe, New York City; Rev. G. L. Locke, 
Bristol, R. I.; Mrs. Decatur Morgan, New Ha- 
ven, Conn.; Rev. J. R. Munro, Antigonish, 
Nova Scotia; Mr. A. A. Quiulan, College 
Mound, Mo.; Miss Cassie Quinlan, Dutton, 
Mich.; Rev. A. A. Von Iffland, Bergerville, 
Quebec; Miss M. Whitney, New York City. 
Four of these completed the Elementary 
Course, six the Intermediate, and Ave the Pro- 

Perfect papers have been received from the 

following, the numerals indicating the num- 
ber received from each : Rev. W. P. Archibald, 
Cavendish, Prince Edward Island,!; Rev. E. 
H. Barnett, D. D., Atlanta, Ga., 1 ; Rev. Henry 
Branch, Ellicott City, Md., 1 ; Rev. T. M. Chal- 
mers, Page Center, Iowa, 1 ; Rev. John Chappie, 
Bradley, England, 3; Rev. Ira D. Darling, 
Sheffield, Pa., 1; Prof. Holmes Dysinger, New- 
berry, S. C, 4; Rev. R. M. Kirby, Potsdam, N. 
Y., 1; Mr. T. W. Kretschmann, Germantown, 
Pa., 1 ; Rev. W. H. Lane, Yarmou thville. Me., 1 ; 
Mr. S. D. Lathrop, Richmond, Mich., 1; Rev. 
J. F. Morgan, Coeyraan's June, N. Y., 2; Mr. 
R. W. Peach, Washington, D. C., 6; Rev. J. F. 
Steele, Anand, India, 2; Rev. J. T. Whitley, 
Elizabeth City, N. C, 2; Miss Maria Whitney, 
New York City, 3. 

Several of the graduates of the present year 
began the courses which they have just com- 
pleted from three to five years ago, one in 
September, 1883. It is not to be supposed, of 
course, that they have kept up the correspond- 
ence work continuously for that time, but 
after having been forced by the pressure of 
other work to suspend it temporarily, they 
have pluckily "resumed" again and again. 
That they feel well repaid for their effort by 
the results obtained is shown by the fact that 
nearly every one has at once enrolled for the 
next course. On the other hand some have 
accomplished very much in a short time. One 
student has completed the Elementary Course 
within two and one-half months from the time 
he began it, but as he had previously given a 
little attention to Hebrew, the first part of the 
course was not entirely new work. Another 
who began absolutely at the beginning and 
after seven months' study finished the Ele- 
mentary Course in July, 1887, took up the In- 
termediate Course in December, completed 
that in less than four months, and is now half 
through the Progressive, doing excellent work 
in all the courses. Both these classes afford 
interesting and encouraging examples of 
what is possible in correspondence work. The 
former proves clearly that industry and per- 
severance in this study will bring really valua- 
ble results even when it is pursued under the 
most unfavorable circumstances. One who 
spent nearly three years in the first course 
says, " My labor in this field is such that I often 
do not return home from my appointments in 
two other towns till twelve at night once, 
twice, and sometimes three times a week, so 
that much of my study has to be done on 
horseback, in the buggy and on the railroad 
train. I would not take two hundred dollars 
and stand where I did just before I began the 
first lesson." 


ami:bica>- axd fokkigx pibluatioxs. 

The Order nf CreatUin: the Cimflict between Oen- 
««(* awl GctiUnni- Uy Gludstoue, Huxley, etc. 
Truth Seeker Co J0.75. 

A Sygtein n1 llililical TtMilogy. By Dr. W. L. 
Ale.xnn(ier. Clark's Foreign Theological Li- 
brary, Etlinburi;. 3 vols t»AO. 

Pic^ent Dm/ Tracts on the JUtjher Criticinni. lly 
Drs. Payne-Smith, Howson, Bruce, etc. $1.00. 

The Namex of God in liotu Scripture: a revela- 
tion of Hfs nature and relationships. By 
Andrew Jukes. N. T.: Whittaker $1..tU. 

Erposiliunt. Vol. 4. By Dr. S. Cox. N. Y.: 
Whittaker $L'.25. 

Tlie Book of Psalms; or. The Praises of Israel: 
a New Translation with a Commentary. By 
Dr.T. K.Chcyno. London: Kegan, Paul&Co. 

Akkadian Getwvns; or. The Influence of Early 
Babylonian Keliglon on the Language and 
Thought of Genesis. By E. G. King, D. D. 
London: Bell. 

Die Lehren de» Talrmulf, quellenmaesslg sys- 
tcmatisch, und gemeinverstaendlich darges- 
tellt. Von Dr. F. Weber. Leipzig: Dorflling. 

The Phildsophii of lieliiiion, on the basis of its 
History. l!y PBelderer. Vol. 3. London: 
Williams Sc Norgate. 

The Book of Job. according to the Revised Ver- 
sion, with commentarj', illustrations and a 
critical introduction. By D. Curry, D. D. 
New York : Phillips & Hunt $2.00. 

Le. Proiihite Joel. Introduction critique, tra- 
duction et commentairo. By A. J. Baum- 
gartner. Paris : Fischbacher lOf . 

Die Psalmen. Hebiaeiseher Text mit ein Kur- 
zen Auslegung. By Heiligstedt and Budde. 
Halle $3-20. 

Einjuehrung in die Heilige Schrift Alien u. 
Xeuen Te^tamenta. By G. Behrmann. Ouet- 
ersloh $1.05. 

Beitrae^/e zur Erklacning des Buches Daniel. 1. 
Heft. Dan. 2-6. By J.Melnhold. Leipzig. $0.60. 

Hiob. By E. Keuss. Braunschweig $0.80. 

The People's Bible. 1 Kns. 15-1 Chron. 9. By J. 
Parker. New York: Funk &Wagnalls. $1.50. 

Je«iu> in the O. T.; or. The Orcat Argument. By 
W. H. Thomson, M. D. New edition. N. Y. : 
Harpers ?200. 

Popular Misconceptions about the first eleven 
chapters of aenejsis and the Moralitv of the O. 
T. By E. Hungerford. London: Bickers* 

The Story of Media. Bahylonia and Persia. By 
Z. A. Ragozin. N. Y.: Putnams $1..50. 

Commcnlariiis in (i/«o8 Judicum et Ruth. By F. 
de Hummelauor. Parisiis f.'i.SO. 

Palestine: Lessons to my class through the 

Land of Promise in the Pathway of our 

Lord. By H.S. Newman. London: Partridge. 


Reiiginn und Mytholngie cleY alien AeyyiAcr. 
Noch den Denkmtclern bearb. 2. Hoelf te. By 
H. Brugsch. Leipzig: Hinrichs. 

Erklaerung der Ocncsis. By A. Pappehorn. 
Paderborn: F. Sohoeningh 7. 

Samuel and Saul: Their lives and times. By 
W. J. Deane. London: Nisbet 28. (id. 


jVoses' Idea of Goil. By E. M. Epstein in Chris- 
tian Quarteilv Keview, .luly, 1S88, 

The Higher Criticism in its ThaiUigical Bear- 
idflx.with special rcferenoo to the Pentateuch 
Question. By Dr. Wm. Kupp in Reformed 
Quar. Ueview, .luly, l.'<88. 

is Monotheism a Primitive Faith J By E. A. 
Allen in American Antiquarian, July, 1888. 

A Newly Discovered Key tn Bil)lical Chronology. 
By J. Schwartz in Bibliotheca Sacra, July, 

The Name of G<sl and the Cuneiform Inserip- 
lions. By Dr. Thos. Laurie. Ibid. 

Schodde'K Book of Jubilees. By Lyon. Ibid. 

Suele's The O. T. in Greek. Ibid. 

freher's Die Lehren des Talmwts. Ibid. 

The Chareicleristics of Hebrew Poetry. By J. H. 
Thomas In Presbj-terlan Quarterly, July, 1888. 

The Vnehangealtle Word. By Dr. T. W. Hooper. 

The Muslim's Faith. By T. H. Patrick in An- 
dover Keview, July, 1888. 

The Vicwn of the Balmlonians concerning lAfe 
after Death. Bv Cyrus Adier. Ibid. 

Creation is Reveldiion. By Thos. Hill in Unita- 
rian Review, July. 1S.S8. 

A RevUed Text of Uie Hebrew Bilile. By A. W. 
Thayer. Ibid. 

The Song of Solomon. By A, H. Moment in The 
Treasury, August. 18W. 

Egyptian Souls and their JVorlels. By Maspero 
In New Princeton Keview, July, 1888. 

The Apejcrypha. Quarterly Review, April, 

La Religion des Anciens Beih]iloniena a son plus 
recent historien, M. Sayce. Par J. Hali5vy in 
Rev. de I'Hislolre des Religions. Mars-Avril, 

Getwn is 41:32. By Dr. Thos. Laurie In Presby- 
terian Review, July, 188-1. 

BcUjylon and Egypt, B. C. 1500. By Dr. Francis 
Brown. Ibid. 

-Veil of the Bible. Review. By H. P. Smith. Ibid. 

Dod's Gene.iis. By Francis Brown. Ibid. 

Chefine'x Job anil Solomrm. By H. Osgood in 
Baptist Quar. Ueview. July, 1888. 

Delitzsch's Psalms. By R. S. MacArthur. Ibid. 

Wace's Apoenipha. By W. A. Stevens. Ibid. 

The Pre-Christian Jcieish Interprcialion of Isaiali 
52,.>t. By Ch. H. H. Wright in Expositor, June, 

ComilVs Ezechiel. By A. Jluellcr in Ztschr. d. 
dentsch. Morganl. Gesellsch. XLI, 4. 1887, 

Alitestamcntliche Studien in Amerika. 1. Ges- 
chictliches. By G. Moore in Zeltschr. f. d. 
alltest. Wissensch. VIII, 1, 1888. 

Die Erobentng Osi-Manaste's im Zettaiier Jot- 
iia's. By K. Budde. Ibid. 

Je«ai<i 21 :«-10. By F. Buhl. Ibid. 

Ucbcr das Ich der Psalmen. Hy R. Smend. Ibid. 

Old Jewish Legends on Biblical Topics. No. 2. 
Legendai-y Description of Hell. By A. Loewy, 
Proceedings of Soc. of Bib. .-irch.. May, 1888. 

The Name Oenubaih. By H. G . Tomkins. Ibid. 

The Tree of Life and the Calender Plant of 
Bahylonia and China. By Dr. T. De Lacou- 
perle in Babylonian and Oriental Record. 
June, 1888. ^ .., . ^ ., „ 

The Methods of the Higher Cnticwm and its Re- 
mits. By O. Zocckler, trans, by H. A. Stim- 
son in Independent, June 14, 21, ISSS. 

Literary Correspondence between Asia aiid 
Egypt in the Century before the Exodus. 
ByA.H. Sayce. Ibid., June 28. 

^8 (.J CI Tertiary Eden. By W. F. Warren. Ibid. 

Evolution as a Theory of Creation.. By Dr. C. 
S. Robinson in Homiletic Review, August, 

LaddS What is the BOilc 1 By E. Y. Hincks in 
Anrlover Keview, August, 1888. 

The idea of Priesthood. By W. Milhgan, D. D., 
in Expositor, July, 18.S-<. _^ , „ „ . „ 

The White Race of Ancient Palestitie. By A. H. 
Sayce. Ibid. „ .„ „ „ 

Ancient and Modern Projyhets. By W. H. Ben- 
nett. Ibid. . , , . ,, „ „ 

The iromuii in the Eptuih. Zech. 5 :o-ll. By b. 
H. Kellogg, D. D., in Episcopal Recorder, 

August !1. 1S88. r. TO- M 

The Grand Tour :).000 Tears Ago. By W. M. 
F. Petrie In Harper's Magazine, July, 1888. 



[Copyright by W. R. Harper, 1888.] 

Forty Studies on the Life of the Christ, based on the Gospel of Mark. 

Edited by William B. Harper, Tale University, Neiv Haven. 


Introdoctorjr Kemarks. 1. Tlie series of " Studies " of wtiich this is the first, will include forty, all 
treating of the Life of the Christ, based on the Bools of Mark. 

2. The plan herewith presented does not aim to present results, but to suggest an order of 

worlc which will secure results * 

3. It is not intended for professional scholars, but for students of whatever class who desire to 

Helps. 1. Any good commentary will be found serviceable. The following books are particu- 
larly recommended as helpful and inexpensive: 

1) Cambridae Bible for Schools, St. Mark, by G. F. Maclear, D. D., Macmillaa & Co. (N. Y.), 
75 cts. 2) Handbooks for Bible Cktsses, St. Mark, by T. M. Lindsay, D. D., Scribner & Wel- 
ford (N. T.), Sl-00. (Latest.) 3) Tlw Handy Commentary, St. Mark, by B. H. Plumptre, 
D. D., CasseU & Co. (N. Y.), $1.00. 

2. For the harmony of the Gospels Christ in the Gospels by J. P. Cadman, M. A., Scribners' (N.T.), 

$1.50, will be found most useful. It weaves together the four Gospels into a consecutive 
narrative, while by an ingenious system of numbering it distinguishes each writer's con- 
tribution. It is especially valuable in the literary study of these books. 

3. A "Life of Jesus Christ" while not indispensable will afford much assistance in the 

'• studies." The Life of Clnist, by Hev. J. Stalker, Scribner & Welford, 60 cts., is unsur- 
passed in real value by many larger works. The books of Farrar, Geikie and Eliicott are 
helpful. The Life of Oirist, by Dr. B. Weiss, Scribner & Welford (N. Y.), 3 vols., $9.00. is 
the latest and ablest work of German scholarship. It is a book for students. 
i. A good Bible Dictionary will aid wonderfully in this work. The American Tract Society's 
Dictionary of the Bible, $3.00, is recommended. Smith's Bible Dictionary is the standard 
work. It is published in its unabridged form by Houghton,.Mifain & Co. (Boston), 4 vols., 
$20. There are numerous abridgments. 

5. These "helps" must be rigidly held subordinate to the study and investigation of the text 

itself. The primary aim of these " studies " is to lead the student to (to his own work. 

6. It is understood that these " studies " are prepared on the basis of the Benised Version of the 

New Testament. The student will not permit himself to be without it even if he has no 
other help. It is better than any commentary. 

* It is proposed to furnish directions and suggestions as to the best methods of study as 
well as references to the best authorities on general and particular topics. The plan of the 
" studies," as well as the space allotted them, forbids the furnishing of any considerable amount 
of material. 


The Old Testament Stctdext. 

I. The Material Analyzed.* 

Read carefully Mark 1:1-8 and master the details of the following points : 
The Introduction (v. 1) ; 4. his popularity (v. 5) ; 


2. the O. T. Prophecy (vs. 2,3) ; 

3. John's coming (v. 4) ; 

5. his dress and food (v. 6) ; 

6. his testimony to the Christ (vs. 7,8). 

II. The Material Compared, t 

Compare the Introduction (v. 1) with Jit. 
1:1; with Lk. 1:1-4; with John 1:1-5. IJ ob- 

serring the phrases Sim of David (Mt.), Sim 

of Ood (Mk.), accurately, in order (Lit.), he' 

ginnijig, JTord (John), and 2) In a general 

way distingTiishing the purpose and styie 

of each writer. 

Passages referred to or parallel: 

1) Mai. 3:1; Isa. 40:.^ (with vs. 3.3). Note 

differences in quotation. How e.\plalned ? 

■2) Vt. U:l-1:>. Read and classify additions 
under (a) place, (b) persons, (c) words of 
John. 3) Lk. 3:1-20. Make a similar classi- 
fication of additional material under (a) 
time, (b) life of John, (c) words of John, (dj 
expectations of people, (e) O. T. quotations. 
i) John 1:6-8,15,19-28. What light on (a) 
John's commission; (b) hJs conception of 
his work. 

in. The Material Explained. 

Preliminary Kote. The purpose here is to give help where it may be needed but principally by 
hints and questions to suggest to the student points which may profitably be investigated. 

1. textual topics and questions.: 

1) T. 1. 

What event begins the Christ's min- 

meaning of each word ; 

Of Jems Chrixl 1. e. 

2) Vs. 2, 8 

Je«uj* Christ: 
the union, 
•'about him." 

Son of Ood: what light on the belief 
of the early Christians about Jesus 1 
. In Isaiah, etc.: but tlie quotations 
are from two writers. How explain? 
No other direct quotations by Mark 
fromO. T. Why? 
Original application of this proph- 
ecy ? Its fitness here ? 

3) T. 4. Wildemesi: where? Mt. 3:1; Lk. 3:3. 

" Kepentanc«: two elements in it? 

4) V. 6. Country of Judea...Jcru»alem: how 

distinguish ? 

5) V. 6. Locusts; cf. Lev. 11:21. WOd honey: 

1 Sam. 14:25; Ps. 81:10. 

6) T. 7. Stoop down aiid unloose: (1) for what 

purpose ? (3) A servant's duty. (3) 
Note the vivid detail of Mk. Cf. par- 

7) T. 8. Baptized: significance of the past 

tense ? 
" Holy Ghogt: cf. John 3:5; Acts 2:4. 


1) Gospel. (T. 1.) (1) Primary meaning of the word; (2) its use in the X. T. ; 
cf. Lk. 9:6; Acts 14:21 ; Rom. 1:15 (preach-the-gospel, i. e. gospelize), i. e. 
"the spoken message;"— Rom. 1:1,9; 1 Cor. 4:15; Phil. 4:3; i. e. "the 
act of preaching ;"— 2 Cor. 4:3; Gal. 2:2; 2 Tim. 2:8; i. e. "a body of 

* By the "material" is meant the passage in the Book of Mark which forms the basis of the 
present " study." In the five processes of analysis, comparison, explanation, organization and 
application, the " material" ought to be thoroughly mastered. 

t Here the passage in Mark is to be studied in the light of other parts of the Scriptures which 
contain matter that is parallel or is likely to throw light upon it. Let all points in which these 
other passages dilTer from the " material " in Mark or make additions to it or otherwise help in 
Its study, be carefully noted, 

tTho attention is here fixed upon the explanation of the ten— the words, phrases, clauses 
and versos of the " material." At the close of this part of the work the student should have a 
clear understanding of everything contained In the passage itself. 

t Subjects are presented in the study of the " material" in Mark which take a wider range 
and often require study which extends beyond the passage itself. Such "general topics" 
receive attention here. Those of the most importance are printed in larger type and should 
first receive attention. While all are helpful, only that part of the work should be undertaken 
which can be mastered. 

New Testament Supplement. 33 

truth," "formulated statements." (3) Examine other passages. Observe 
the approach to its use for the records of the Christ. (4) Its meaning here ? 

2) Life of John. (1) Make a brief outline of (a) circumstances of the birth and early life of John 
(cf. Lk. 1:5-2S; 57-SO), noting his priestly descent, expectations concerning him, his desert 
life: (b) events of the period of his popularity; (c) his after life (Mk. 6:17; Matt. 14:3-12). 
(2) Other Johns in the N. T.? 

8) The Preaching of John. (1) Read carefully all that Is recorded of his preaching and distinguish 
in it the practical (moral) element (Lk. 3:10-14), and the ideal (Messianic) element (vs. 7,8). 
Observe the relation of the two elements— how John urges moral reformation because 
of the coming Christ. Cf. Matt. 3:7-12. (2) What light is thrown upon (a) the moral state 
of the times, cf. Lk. 3:10-14; and (b) the popular erpectation as to the Christ, cf. Lk. 3:15; 
and (c) the character of the expected Christ, as personal, righteous, judicial, gracious, 
present, etc., cf. v. 7; Matt. 3:12; John 1:26. (3) Besults of his preaching in (a) a great 
national reformation (v. 5; cf. Mt. 11:7, addressed to Galileans); and (b) the quickening 
of right Messianic expectations; cf.Mt. 11:12; John 1:29-42. 

4) The Baptism of John. (1) Remembering that it was (a) administered once for all to each per- 

son, and (b) intended for all the people, decide as to its 07'igin, how far it was original with 
John (cf. Mk. 11:30), whether related to Levitical washings (cf. Ex. 29:4; Lev. 8:6), or the 
revival of a prophetic symbol (cf. Isa. 1:16; Ezek. 36:2.5; Zeoh. 13:1), or according to the 
custom of proselyte baptism. (2) In view of vs. 5,8 and parallels, John 1:26; 3:23, etc., 
determine the form of his baptism, whether by immersion or otherwise. (3) As to its 
si{;Tif,/lca?ice observe (v. 4) the expressions " of repentance " (cf. Mt. 3:11) and "unto remis- 
sum," and consider whether it was regarded as a means or a sign of complete reforma- 
tion, or as the symbolic beginning of a new moral life and introductory to the Messianic 
era; cf. John 1:25,26. 

5) The Character and Work of John. (1) What elements of strength and weak- 

ness in the personal character of John? Cf. vs. 4,6; Mt. 3:7; 14:3,4; Lk. 
3:19; John 3:27-30; Mt. 11:2,3, etc. (2) His character as a prophet as dis- 
closed (a) in his outward life (vs. 4,6; Lk. 1:15,80; cf. 2 Kgs. 1:8; Zech. 
13:4) ; (b) in the prediction, Lk. 1:76 ; (c) in the phrase (Lk. 3:2) the word of 
the Lord came ; cf. 1 Sam. 15:10; Jer. 1:2; Hos. 1:1; Joel 1:1, etc.; (d) in 
in his preaching, moral and Messianic; cf. Isa., Jer., etc.; (e) in his rela- 
tions with Herod ; cf . 2 Sam. 12. (3) Compare John with Samuel in per- 
sonal and official character and activity; with Elijah, cf. Mai. 4:5; Mt. 17: 
11-13. (4) Note Jesus' estimate of John. Lk. 7:24-28. (5) Wherein was 
he more than a prophet ? 

IT. The Material Organized. 

1. Consider now the material thus far collected, and select certain general heads 

under which it may be classified ; e. g. 1 ) persons, 2) places, 3) quotations, 
4) institutions, 5) habits and customs, 6) events, 7) important words, 8) 
teachings, 9) literary data.* 

2. Go through the " study " and note dovm under each head everything which 

belongs properly to it, indicating in each case the chapter and verse which 
furnished the item.t 

3. Condense the material into the briefest possible statement,! i. e. : 

1) Bead eaeh verse, and write out in briefest possible form its thought ; e. g. 

V. 1, the beginning of the gospel. v. 3, he shall cry, " Make ready the way 

v. 2, a messenger shall prepare the way of the Lord." 

for the Christ. v. 4, John comes baptizing and preaching 

* The student should be provided with one or more blank-books, divided according to the 
topics here indicated. 

+ The student may Umit himself in this work to the material in Mark, or he may include all 
the material which he may have gathered. 

* This kind of work is seldom done; and yet it is the crowning part. If left undone, nine- 
tenths of the prollt to be gained from the study is lost. 


34 Thk Old Testament Student. 

T. 5, people flock to bim and accept lils v. 7, be preaches of uae to come, his 

teachini;. superior. 

V. 6, John's dress and food. v. 8, who is to do a mightier work. 

2) Study the connection of these verses, and ugain write out the thought of those which may 
bo Joined together: e. g.: 

vs. 2,3, O. T. Prophecy Uiat a lierald ehall prMUiim the cimlng of the Chriat. 
vs. 4-8, John appears at a religimui leader, altmctji muUUudet, tive» a» a prophet, gpeaka of one 
tofoWnu him, his superior in jKninii and work. 

3) Now join together v. 1, vs. 2,3, and vs. 4-8, and thus obtain the real idea of the entire pas- 
sage; e. g.: 

JesQH Chrtst'K ministry bpifinN with thf minlKtry of ,lohn. who In liU person, wurk, anil wordit 
ftilHllN the propht'cy iif tho heruitl uf the Christ. 

4) Finally, test all this by reading once more vs. 1-8, and deciding whether the condensation 
thus arrived at is. In general, correct. 

V. The Material Applied.* 

1. Te£e Ascetic Life. Cf. vs. 4,6; Lk. 1:15-17,80. What elements of strength 

and of weakness in such a life ? 

2. Righteousness. 1) Under the inspiration of what belief did Jolin preach 

reformation to the people y Cf . Mt. 3:12. 2) The Gospel principle and 
ground of morality. Cf. Col. 3:1-4. 3) Need of an ideal basis for practical 

3. Humility. 1) Manifested by Jolm. 2) A source of insight in him, cf. John 

3:27-30. 3) An element of power in all character. 


[In taking up each now " study," let the preceding one be reviewed.] 

Besame. 1. Give a brief account of the movement inspired by John. 2. Its characteristics. 
3. John's work as complete and independent. 1. John's work as incomplete and a prepa* 
ration. .5. Conditions of its final success. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Examine carefullij Mark 1:9-13, and note the following points : 

1. The journey of .Jesus and liis i3;ip- 4. to the "Wilderness (v. 12) ; 

tism (v. 9) ; 5. his stay and three-fold experience 

2. the Vision (v. 10); there (v. 13). 

3. the Voice (V. 11); 

II. The Material Cinnpared. 

1. The Baptism, li Mt. :i:13-l<. observe (a) feeling and words of John iv. 14i; (b) reply of 

Jesus (V. 15); (c) other verbal differences ivs. IB,!"). 

2) Lk. :t:'-'l,'J'2. Note (a) the circunistanccs of the baptism; (b) Jesus after baptism (v. 21); 
Cc) the Spirit's appearance (v. 2:)). 

3) .lohn I :;i2-:{4. Note (a) the abiding of the Spirit; (b) the oracle to John (v. 33); (c) the tes- 
timony of John (vs. 32.:J4). 

2. The Temptation. I) Mt. 4:1-11. Remark lal the Spirit's purpose (v. 1»; (b) condition of Jesus 

(V. 2); (c) order of events (vs. 2,11); idi names given to Satan (vs. 1,3); (o) details of the 
temptation (vs. 3-lU). 
•2) Lk. 4:1-13. Note (a) spiritual state of Jcsuslv. II; (b) additional details (VS. .'i.B.liJ). 

•The purpose and meaning of the "material" is to be brought into relation with the per- 
sonal and social life of the present. What is the teaching of the passage for to-day'/ Thus the 
student should aim to apply not a word hero and there, or a verse here and there, but the great 
facts, the prominent ideas of the passage as a whole. Only the briefest hints of application can 
be suggested to be worked out in detail according to the lime and inclination of the student. 

New Testament Supplement. 35 

III. The Material Explained. 


1) T. 9. {a.) Galilee. Where? 4) V. 12. DHveth. How? Cf. Ezek. 8:3; Acts 

(h) Nazareth. Where? Its connection 8:39; etc. What reasons for inferring 

with the life of Jesus? that Jesus was in an ecstatic state? 

2) V. 10. (a) Straiylitway. A favorite word. Note 5) V. 13. (a) Forty days tempted. Cf. Ex. 34:38; 

the frequency of its use in this chap- 1 Kps. 19:8. How reconcile this state- 

ter. ■ ment with Mt. 4:3,3? 

{\>) Rent amnder. Vivid. (b) Satan. Cf. 1 Chron. 31:1; Job 1:6; 

(c) Atadnve. Observe punctuation (K. Zech. 3:1. Meaning of the name? 

v.). Cf. Lk. 3:33. Is this (1) in a dove- Compare other terms, "devil" and 

like manner, i. e. gently, or (3) in the "tempter " (Mt. 4:1,3). 

form of a dove? (e) Wild hearts. Note Mark's habit of 

3) V. 11. (a) ADOice. Did others hearit? Cf.Mt. vivid detail. Cf . v. 10. 

3:17; Mk. 8:7. id) Ministered. In what respects? Cf. 

ih) My Sim. Cf. Ps. 2:7. Am uiell Mt.3.5:44. At whatperioil? Cf.Mt.4:ll. 

pleased; lit. "was well pleased." What (e) Mark does not mention the result 

conclusion from the use of the past of the temptation. Any reason for 

tense? Cf. Lk. 3:40; Johnl:l, 3; 17:34. this? 


1) Jesus.* Eead Mt. 1:1-2:23 ; Lk. 1:26-38 ; 2:1-52, and classify results obtained 

under the following heads : (a) genealogy ; (b) birth ; (c) events of infancy ; 

(d) events of childhood; (e) growth, Lk. 2:40,52 (cf. Lk. 1:80); (f) self- 
knowledge, as Son of God, as the Christ, Lk. 2:49. 

2) John and Jesus, (a) Their relationship (Lk. 1:36), and previous intercourse, 

cf. Lk. 1:39-56 ; Mt. 3:14 ; John 1:29,31 ; (b) gather .John's estimate of Je.sus 
as regards (1) his humanity, John 1:30; (2) his character, Mt. 3:14; (3) his 
dignity and mission, John 1:34,29; 3:31,34; (c) what influence, if any, did 
John's ministry have upon Jesus, (1) personally or (2) in his work ? cf. v. 9 ; 
Mt. 3:14,15; .John 1:35-37. 

3) The Baptism of Jesas. (a) Bearing in mind the significance of John's baptism (cf. Study I.), 

note (1) John's objection, Mt. 3:14: (3) certain respects in which this baptism had not the 
same meaning for Jesus as for the others. Inquire (b) why Jesus came to be baptized, 
whether (1) as an example to the multitudes, (3) as an Israelite, one of a sinful people, or 
(3) to mark the laying aside of his private life and the entrance upon a public career. 
(c) In view of Mt. 3:15, decide whether the baptism was to Jesus a means to attain to a 
more righteous state, (d) Study the "Descent of the Spirit " that followed. Would the 
Spirit have come upon Jesus if he had not submitted to baptism? Cf. V. 10; Lk. 3:21. 

(e) Result of the whole event (vs. 9-11), (1) to John, cf. John 1:33,33; (3) to Jesus; decide 
whether it marked a change in his nature or personal character, a completer conscious- 
ness of his mission, or new endowments for entering upon his public ministry. Cf. Isa. 
11:2; Lk. 4:1; Mk. 1:13; John 1:33. 

4) The Temptation, (a) Is this event mythical or historical ? In favor of its 

historical character note (1) its simplicity and originality; (2) its fitness at 
this period in the life of Jesus at the beginning of the public ministry and 
when he was filled with the Spirit, (b) If historical, was it (1) an objective 
external event, or (2) is the narrative a symbolic picture of what went on in 
the mind of Jesus ? (c) Decide as to the interpretation of the details (Lk. 
4:3-12 and parallels) whether (1) literal events, or (2) symbolic, (d) Its signi- 
ficance in the life of Jesus, (1) as revealing his nature, e. g. possibility of 

* Many interesting and difficult questions arise in connection with this topic, but the student 
is requested to restrict himself to the outUne suggested here and to master the /ac(« given in the 
passages cited. 

36 The Old Testament Student. 

temptation, etc.; (2) as throwing light upon the purpose and method 
with which he entered on his public ministry ; (3) as suggesting the diflS- 
culties awaiting him (Lk. 4:13); (4) as establishing him in liis character; 
(5) Heb. 2:18. 

IV. The Material Organized. 

1. Clamsifv the material under the following- heads (cf. Study 1.; iv.): 

1) persons; :2)pliices: 3) events; 4) lltc-riiry duta; 6) Jesus as man; 6) Jesus as more than man. 

2. Condeiige tlic material into the briefest i>ossible statement (follow method suirgested In Study 

I.), e.g.: 
S 1. V. 9, Jesus coming is baptized by John. 

v. 10, After baptism, from the open heaven, the Spirit descends on him; 
V. 11, A voice from heaven speaks approvingly to him. 

Jems 18 baptized, receives the Spirit and htars an appruving voice from heaven. 
S 2. V. 12, At once the Spirit drives him to the wilderness. 

V. 13, Where among wild beasts he is tempted by Satan and ministered to by angels. 
Under the Spirit'H impulne he aeciig the wildenitM and there is tempted by Satan. 
§S 1, 2. Jeaun is baptized and receiTiw the Spirit at whose Impultte he HeeliN the wildemeiiN and 
there Is tempted. 

V. The Material Applied. 

1. Stjibols. The usefulness of Symbols in religion (e. g. Baptism) : 

1) to develop personal religious life; 

2) to presence the purity of religious teaching ; 

3) to illustrate and testify to religious truth. 

2. Temptation. 1) Distinguish it from trial ; 2) the blessing in it ; 3) the need 

of a more than human power to resist it; 4) the peculiar temptations of the 
spiritual life. 


Besume. 1. What four events preparatory to the ministry of Jesus? 2. Show how each was a 
preparation. 3. From the material already gathered form a general conception of Jesus 

as he enters on his ministry. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Note the following points in vs. 14-20 : 

1. The time; Jesus enters Galilee ; 5. their response (v. 18); 

his work (v. 14) ; 6. sees James and John ; their 

2. his words (v. 15) ; work (v. 19); 

3. sees Simon and Andrew (v. 16); 7. he calls them; their response 

4. his invitation (v. 17) ; (v. 20). 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. Entry into Galilee. 1) Mf, 4:12-1J. Note (a) places (v. 13); (b) O. T. prophecy (vs. 14-16); (o) 

preaching begun (v. 17). 

2) Lk. 3:23; 4:14-30. Note (a) age of Jesus; (b) at Nazareth (4:16-30); effect of his work, (vs. 

3) John 4:l-3,4&-54. Observe (a) region left, reasons for leaving (vs. 1-3); (b) attitude of 
Galileans (v. 4.i); (c) at Cana (vs. 4&-W). 

2. CaU i)f ftjWmici-8. 1) Mt. 4:18-22. Observe the almost verbal agreement. 

2) Lk. 5:1-11. Classify (a) points of agreement with Mk.; ib) pointsof difference; (c) added 
facts or detail?. Decide whether this is, (a) the same event more fully narrated; (b) a 

New Testament Supplement. 37 

totally different one; or (c) closely related, occurring: either Immediately before or after. 
Luke's sources for his narrative as compared with Mk. and Mt., whether the same or dif- 

III. The Material Explained. 


1) V. 14. (a.) John was delivered up. This marks Difference between "believe" and "be- 

(1) the close of his ministry; (3) the lieve-in"? 

beginning of Jesus' active and inde- 3) V. 16. (a) Sea of OaWee. (1) Where? Another 

pendent ministry. name? (3) Characteristic features? 

(b) Gospel of Ood; i. e. glad-tidings (b) FUhera. Learu something about 

from God. Cf. v. 15 as its substance. (1) kinds of flsh; (2) methods of catch- 

3) T. 15. (a) The time; i. e. "the appointed ing; (3) extent of trade; (4) social 

time," (1) predicted by prophecy ; (2) position of fishermen, 

realized with the close of John's 4) T. 17. Come after me. The regular invita- 

ministry. tion of a teacher to become a perma- 

(b) Is fulfilled. O. T. figure; cf. Gen. nent disciple. 

29:21. 5i y. iO. Hired servaiUs. What inference as to 

(c) Is-at-hand; almost, "is-here." the social rank of Zebedee? 

(d) Believe in; i. e. exercise-faith-in. 


1) PreTions Moyements of Jesus, (a) Read John 1:29-3:22; 4:4-43. (b) Make a 

list of the events, (c) From John 2:13 and 4:35* calculate the probable 
length of the period between the temptation and the Galilean beginning, 
(d) Give some general idea of the character and results of this period, 
usually called the Judaean ministry, (e) Reasons for the omission of these 
events in the other Gospels, whether (1) ignorance; (2) design, no Gospel 
intended to be exhaustive; (3) these events comparatively unimportant. 

2) OaliUe.f (a) Origin and meaning of the word ; (b) divisions of the country ; (c) characteristics 

of the land and people ; (d) previous history; state at that time. 

3) Tlie Galilean Message. V. 15. (a) In view of its brevity, may this verse be 

regarded as a summary or text of the discourse? (b) Let the student 
analyze it, e. g. two facts and a two-fold command, (c) In the light of the 
O. T., study the phrases, "the time" (Dan. 7:22; S:19 ; 11:35; Gal. 4:4) 
and " Kingdom of God " (Exod. 19:6 ; 1 Sam. 8:7 ; 12:12 ; 2 Sam. 7:12-16 ; 
Isa. 6:5; Dan. 2:44,45; 7:14,18). Make a rough definition of each phrase 
for further study, (d) Compare John's message (Mt. 3:2) with this (1) in 
form, (2) in its facts, (3) in its motives (cf. Mt. 3:10-12). (e) In what 
respects, if any, does this message refer to the coming of the Christ V 

4) The Calling of the Four. Ts. 16-20. (a) Picture the scene and details of the 

event, (b) In the light of John 1 :35-42 explain the sudden call and quick 
response, (c) To what kind of service does this call invite (cf. vs. 17, IS)? 
(d) Can Lk. 5:1-11 be explained as a special call to Simon in view of John 
1:41? (e) Compare the relations of Jesus and the four with (1) that of 
prophets and their followers (cf. 1 Kings 19:19-21; 2Kgs. 2:2); (2) that of 
the Rabbis and their disciples. 

IT. The Material Organized. 

1. Classify the material under the following heads : 

1) persons; 3) places; 3) important events; 4) habits and customs; 5) important words 
and phrases ; 6) literary data. 

• The Passover coincided in time with the spring harvest, usually occurring in April, 
t Cf. Smith's Bible Diet. Art. Galilee. 

38 The Old Testamknt Student. 

2. ConiUnse the materlcd into the briefest possible statement, e. g.: 

{ 1. V. 14, When John is im|>risoned, Jesus comeB into Galilee preaching. 
V. ir., " The time for God's Kingdom is come ; repent and believe It." 
A/Ur John's imprisonment Jesus preaches in Oalilee. 
i 2. V. 16, He sees Simon and Andrew ttshing in the sea of Galilee. 
V. n, He calls them to become his followers. 
V. 18, They follow. 

Sinum and Andrew become his foUtniters. 
S 3. V. 111. He sees James and John mending their nets. 
V. 20. He calls them: they leave all and follow. 
James and .Inhn Ijccomc his foUnwcrs. 
88 2, 3. Simon anu Andhew, James and John, become his followers. 
88 1-3. After .hihn's iniprlKonnient Jpsuk prearheH in (lalilpc and spcaros four folloTTem. 

V. The Material Applied. 

Religions Progress. Observe certain elements of the method with which Jesus 
began his work and consider their present value in the spread of the truth. 

1. Preaching good tidings from tied (v. 14)— compared, e. g., with the printing- 
press, aud other agencies. 

2. Demand for repentance and faith in the Gospel (v. 15) — the condition on 
wliicli true religious life is possible. 

3. A personal relation to .Jesus involving sacrifice of all other things (v. 18) — 
the most fruitful means in developing right character. 


FAVOR. MARK 1:21^5. 

Besume. 1. The work of Jesus before he comes into Galilee. 2. The events of the Galilean 
beginning, 1) the two according to Mark, 2) additions from other sources. 3. The theme 
of his preaching. 4. Grounds on which his ministry may be said really to begin at this 
public entrance into Galilee (V. 14; Mt. 4:17). 5. Relations of Jesus and the Four. 

I. The Material Analyzetl. 

Read carefully Mark 1:21-45 and note the contents, e. g.: 

1. Experience in the Synagogue (vs. throughout Galilee (vs. 35-39) ; 
21-27) ; 5. a leper healed (vs. 40-44); 

2. resulting fame (v. 28); 6. wider fame and desert ministry 

3. at Simon's house (vs. 29-34); (v. 45), 

4. retirement for prayer; ministry 

II. The Material Conipared. 

1. With vs. 21-39, cf. Lk. 4:31-44. .5. Observe the possible bearing of this mate- 

2. With vs. 29-34, cf. Mt. x:14-l J. rial on the relations of these three Gos- 

3. With vs. 40-45, cf. Mt. S:2.4: Lk. .".:12-lfi. pels;* e. g., which is the more prob- 

4. Make lists of 1) additional material ob- able conclusion, It Matthew draws his 

tained; 2) possible disagreements in account from Mark; 2t Mark takes I.uke 

facts or their arrangement; 3) material andadds tolt; 3)Luke condensesMark; 

peculiar to Mark. 

* The student is here introduced to the problem of the origin of the Gospels. The subject 
is intricate yet important and cannot be neglected. Each " study " will contain ni6re or less ma- 
terial helpful in its investigation. The important work is to master the facts prpsenled in the 
Gospels themselves. The larger commentaries may proHtabiy be consulted for a fuller discus- 
sion, but all theories should be regarded witli caution. 

New Testament Supplement. 39 

i) all draw directly from other and Gospel. In distinction from it, these 

original sources, three Gospels which cover substantially 

6. These and many other events of the Gali- the same ground are called the Synop' 

lean ministry do not appear in John's tic Gospels. 

III. The Material Explaiued. 


1) V. 21. (a) Capernaum; its location; its con- (c) Prayed; light here thrown upon 

dition then and now. the nature of Jesus. 

(b) As to this synagogue of. Lk. 7:3-5. 9) V. 38. (a) Elsewhere; (1) to avoid undue ex- 

2) V. i-2. Cf. Mt. 7:29. Account for the use of citement; (2) to accomplish his mis- 

similar language. sion. 

3) V. 23. With an unclean spirit; (a) lit. "in (b) Came I forth; whence? Cf. Lk. 

an unc. spirit," i. e. the element or 4:43. 

sphere in which he lived, cf. a similar 10) Y. M. Cometh; a, breach of law; of. Lev. 

— e.-vpression "in Christ" 2 Cor. 13:3; 13:45,46. 

Gal. 1:22, etc.; (b) explain the man's II) V. 41. Touched; (a) note the method of cure, 

presence in the synagogue. (b) Jesus rendered unclean. 

41 V. 24. (a) Significance of the use of the pro- 12) V. 43. (a) Strictly-charged; lit. "wroth-with." 

nouns we, us. It (b) Sent him out; i. e. of the city. Cf. 

(b) Holy One of God; a) Cf. Ps. 18:10; Lk. 5:13. 

'/',,( -»tW; John 6:69; i. e. a confession of 13) V. 44. (a) The priest; i. e. at the Temple. 

Jesus as the Christ; (3) how could Why? Cf. Lev. 14:3. He would be 

this be known by this man ? legally declared clean and thus re- 

5) T, 27. New teaching; i. e. in substance, man- stored to society. 

ner and attending works. (b) Offer; cf. Lev. 14:4-33. 

6) V. 32. (a) At even; close of the Sabbath. (o) Vnto them; either (!) the priests, 

Why bring them then ? or (3) the people. The cure was thus 

(h) possesiied-with-devils; i. e. "demon- recorded as complete. 

ized," under the power of " demons." (d) Jesus' relation to the Law; (1) as 

7) V. 34. (a) Dei'ils; i. e. (Am. Kev.) " demons ;" regards himself he is above it (v. 41); 

a different word is that in Mt. 4:1. (2) as regards the leper, he insists on 

(b) £r)ieu> him; cf. margin. Why re- obedience to it. 

fuse their witness? 14) T. 45. Desert-places; (a) because of his con- 

8) V. 35. (a) Morjiing; a regular division of sequent fame; (b) the prejudice and 

time; cf.Mk. 13:35. hostility aroused, 

(b) Desert place; i. e. uninhabited. 


1) Synagogue.* (a) Meaning of the word ; (b) origin of the synagogue, whether at the time of 

Ezra or before ; (c) officers; (d) worship ; (e) judicial functions; (f) the synagogue school ; 
(g) relations to the temple ; (h) relations to the Christian church. 

2) The Authority of Jesus. Vs. 22,27. (a) Try to get a clear idea of the impres- 

sion made by Jesus in his ministry. Was it (1) originality of matter, or (2) 
independence in ills manner, or (3) the fwce of his character ? (b) Note its 
manifestation in (1) his teaching, (2) his works, (c) Compare it (1) with the 
scribes, learn something of their methods, traditional, narrow, slavish ; (2) 
the e.xorcists, or those who professed to cast out evil spirits, by spells, etc. 
(d) Note that a similar authority was a characteristic of the prophets, cf . 
Isa. 1:10 ; 43:1 ; Jer. 1:4-9, etc. 

3) Leprosy, (a) Learn something about its general character, forms and symptoms; (b) the legis- 

lation in relation to it, cf. Lev. 13,14; (c) its symboUc character, cf. Num. 13:10,11; 
2 Chron. 26:19-31. 

4) The Miracles, (a) Give careful study to the miracle narrated in vs. 23-26. 

Note (1) the evidence of mental disease; (2) the moral state of the man; 
(3) his body afflicted (v. 26). Observe the explanation of this condition (1 ) in 

' Cf. Smith's Bible Dictionary; art. Synagogue. 

40 The Old Testament Student. 

the popular mind (v. 27); (2) the notion of the writer (v. 23); (3) what may 
be inferred as to the opinion of Jesus. In favor of the reality of the mira- 
cle, consider (1) the previous condition of the man; (2) the mamier of the 
cure ; (3) the astonishment of the people, (b) In a similar way study the 
miracle in vs. 40^2 in its special features with the evidences of its reality, 
(c) These miracles considered together (1) as wrought on both mind and 
body ; (2) their relation to the preaching of Jesus, whether equal in impor- 
tance, or subordinate as proofs or means to draw the multitudes; (3) the 
revelation they make of the mind and heart of Jesus. 

IT. The Material Organized. 

I. Clatnfy the material under the following heads: 1) places; 2) institutions: 3) important 
events; 4i miracles; ,5) habits and customs; B) literary data; 7> .Tesus and the O. T. 

a. The foUowinff results of a strict coiutcniwitum of the material are su?(resied. Let the student 
work through the processes and improve on what is here (riven: 

Jpsns rrmtes astunishnitnt and obtains nlde fame, bcraase of the anthorltj he lihons in tearhioK 
and in rastinir not a dcmnii at the Kjnaeopoe of CapernaQm. The same day he heaU SImon'K 
wife's mother and other sirk, and casts out demons at Simon's honse in the presenre of the ritl- 
asens. The nest day after early private prayer Jesus befrins a mission tour in the nynairoiruea of 
Galilee. He eleanses a leper nliose dUobedienre compels him to retire to the desert to meet the 
mnltitadeK who come to hiui. 

V. Tlie material Applied. 

Authority. 1. In matters of religious truth consider the dangers to character in 
an unquestioning submission to the authority of another. 2. The dangers 
which lie in an independence of authority. 3. The duty to decide to what 
authority to yield. 4. The reasonableness of yielding to the authority 
of Jesus as a teacher. 


Vol. VIII. OCTOBER, 1888. No. 2. 

There are two ways of finding evidence for the existence of the 
intelligent first cause, or the manifestation of deity. One is that of 
the child and the savage which finds the divine presence especially 
revealed in the unexpected, the startling and extraordinary ; in such 
phenomena as an eclipse or a sudden and terrible storm. The other 
is that of the instructed mind which finds greater evidence in phe- 
nomena exhibiting law and order, such as the harmonious movement 
of the heavenly bodies, the regular succession of day and night, sum- 
mer and winter, seed-time and harvest. Should not this latter mode 
of seeking divine revelation be more frequently applied in the study 
of the Old Testament.'' For, is it not true, that many too often think 
of God's revelation of himself under the old dispensation as chiefly 
found in connection with the wonders of the Exodus or those embod- 
ied in the stories of Elijah and Elisha, neglecting almost entirely the 
revelation in the prophetic word, in the unfolding of the idea of the 
Divine kingdom of grace and redemption .■' Shall not more atten- 
tion be given to the miracle of the divine word ? 

"Bene orasse est bene studuisse." These familiar words attrib- 
uted to Luther, are to be emphasized to those engaged in Biblical 
study. In these days of critical analysis and historical research we 
are apt to overlook the necessity of being drawn into close commun- 
ion and fellowship with the Author and Source of all truth. While 
piety itself is not wisdom, there is no truer word than the Scripture, 
"the beginning of wisdom is the fear of God ;" and there is no method 
more truly scientific than that which asks help from above. 

42 The Old Testament Student. 

Some of the expressions and forms of thought in which the Tal- 
mud coincides with the New Testament are particularly interesting. 
We commend to our readers the idea of tracing out as many of these 
as the articles upon the Talmud which we are publishing furnish 
material for doing. We call special attention to the Jewish concept- 
ion of "this age" and "the coming age," meaning the periods before 
Messiah's coming and after it respectively, as being the same forms of 
expression which we find in the New Testament for the Ante-Mes- 
sianic and the Messianic ages. Many of the symbols of the Book of 
Revelation such as the tree of life, water of life, two resurrections, 
the circumstances attending the millenium and the special manifesta- 
tion of Satanic power at its close, are seen to be ideas common in 
Jewish theology which are appropriated and adapted to the writer's 
use. Who can fail to see in the use and meanings of the words Par- 
adise, Hades and Gehenna in the New Testament the same con- 
ceptions which constantly appear in Jewish contemporary literature .■' 
But to us the most interesting coincidence is that between the Jewish 
doctrine of the Messiah and that which is reflected in the New Tes- 
tament. In Jewish thought the Messiah was to be a temporal prince 
who was to reign in royal splendor in Jerusalem. This waspre- 
'cisely the conception which the disciples brought with them from 
their early training. If this was to be Messiah's reign, how hard 
would it be for them to believe that he was to live a life of suffer- 
ing and to die on the cross. In the Talmud the same difificulty is 
found and is solved by the doctrine of two Messiahs. We know very 
well how great a difficulty the saying of Jesus that he must die, made 
in the disciples' minds and how disappointed they were when their 
Master was crucified. Then it was that they transferred their unful- 
filled hopes to the second coming of Jesus and trusted that, at that 
time, he would establish the kingdom which he had failed to found 
while here. The whole New Testament period exhibits to us the 
gradual correction of the too worldly conceptions of Messiah's king- 
dom which prevail in the Talmud and above which it was not strange 
that the disciples could only gradually rise, even under the guidance 
of the spiritual truth of Jesus and of Paul. 

Is there anything in a Divine example ? The Israelites were 
selected by God as the instrument through which to work out sal- 
vation for the world. He found them in the depths of idolatry, prac- 
tising polygamy, though having been slaves, holding others in slavery, 

Editokial. 43 

and, in short, so degraded and debased as sometimes to lead us to 
wonder at the divine wisdom manifested in choosing such a nation. 
Did he, for whom all things were possible, at once put away these 
evils ? Did he abolish polygamy and slavery, give the Israelites a 
moral code as rigid in all respects as that of the nineteenth century 
and judge them by it ? The Jews in the time of the Christ had come 
to worship the letter of the Scriptures. A thick crust of tradition 
had settled down upon the sacred record and all but concealed its con- 
tents from view. Most fantastic views were held as to the origin 
and character of many of the books. A crude and absurd method of 
exegesis prevailed. Did Jesus, first of all, announce that the com- 
monly accepted views were wholly false .' Did he introduce each 
discourse by an attack upon the literary and theological conceptions 
of his times .■' Did he proceed to establish entirely new methods of 
exegesis. Did he advocate a religion altogether at variance with 
that of the people whom he addressed ? Or did he not rather take 
out of Judaism what was true and build upon it .' Did he not rather 
show them that the new religion which he taught was but a higher 
form, a fulfillment of that which they already believed .'' Did he not 
accommodate himself, in some degree, to the circumstances which 
surrounded him .'' These are divine examples. Is there a better 
guide .'' Are there not many phases of the religious and intellectual 
work of to-day, to which this principle of accommodation is 
applicable } 

When Muhammad described heaven to his followers, he fre- 
quently referred to it as a place " beneath which rivers flow." In a 
land where rivers abound, this would signify little ; but to an Arab 
whose home was in the desert, whose most precious possession was 
water, it had an important signification. A land of rivers would in 
itself be heaven to an Arab. The description was therefore in accor- 
dance with the principle of contrast. That the Hebrew prophets 
noted and employed this principle is seen from scores of cases. An 
examination of Isaiah, chs. 2, 3, 4, will sufficiently illustrate the point, 
(i) Having first threatened devastation and want (3:25,26; 4:1) the 
prophet announces (4:2) a future dispensation characterized by liar- 
vest blessings; (2) in contrast with the present corruption, degrada- 
tion and filth (2:6-8), the characteristic of the people of this new 
dispensation will be Iioliness, the filth having been removed (4:3,4) ; 
(3) God has, at the time of speaking, rejected and abandoned his 

44 The Old Testament Student. 

people (2:5), but in this new period he will manifest his presence 
(4:5) by symbols similar to those employed at the coming forth from 
Egypt ; (4) it is true that God is about to deliver Israel up to des- 
truction, but in that Messianic age he will protect them (4:6) from all 
harm. The most natural interpretation of this passage, therefore, 
furnishes a description of the Messianic time, every feature of which 
is in direct contrast with what precedes. Nor is this true only of 
the particular Messianic passage referred to. A comparison with the 
historical setting in each case will show that it also holds true of every 
such passage in Isaiah 1-12. Is there not here a great principle 
which has not hitherto been sufficiently emphasized } If true of Isaiah 
1-12, may it not be found still elsewhere .' Such a principle is only in 
accord with the historical connection which, it would seem, must 
exist in the case of all prophecy. 

In the investigation of any subject the point of view is all impor- 
tant. Especially is this true of critical inquiries into the meaning, the 
form, the trustworthiness of Scripture. This point of view may be 
hostile. Then discrepancies in detail multiply and the whole is soon 
discredited. It may be an indifferent and negative stand-point. Then 
the results are likely to be indefinite, lifeless, inconclusive. The true 
way in which to attain to positive, helpful, constructive issues in bib- 
lical criticism is to enter upon all investigations from the believing 
point of view. Such a position of belief in the historical character 
and credibility of the Word of God as a luholc is free to proceed con- 
fidently and fruitfully to a candid, critical inquiry into details. Cau- 
tious but not fearful, clear-eyed without assertive omniscience, patient 
and hopeful, this critical spirit will accomplish great things in the 
study of the Bible. 


By Prof. George B. Stevens, D. D., 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 



The name of the Messiah is a part of what God created before the world. 
He is an essential part of the divine plan. His coming is the object of Israel's 
faith, hope and unceasing prayer. 

The conditions of Messiah's appearing are faith and good works. He will not 
come imtil the nation fulfills these. One authority declares that if all Israel 
should repent for a single day, redemption by the Messiah would follow. Another 
conditions his coming upon a better Sabbath-observance, declaring that if Israel 
would keep two Sabbaths as they ought to be observed, that Messiah would come ; 
and even that he would come if one were perfectly observed. 

It is said that the world-age will embrace six periods, corresponding to the 
six days of the week, and then follows the eternal Sabbath. One mode of division 
reckons the period before any law was given as covering the first two periods ; 
that from Abraham's teachhig of the Thorah in Harran to Messiah's coming 
embraces the third and fourth, and the fifth and sixth are to be included in the 
Messianic period. The beginning of the Messianic age was sometimes more 
exactly reckoned. It was to commence in the year 172 after the destruction of 
the Temple because that event occurred 3828 years after the creation. "When this 
prediction was unfulfilled other times were set and men were told that if, in a 
certain year, they could buy a field for one denarius, they should not do it, for in 
that year the Messiah would come, and why should they lose even so small a sum V 
Others maintained that the time of his coming was a secret which could not be 

There should be signs and portents of Messiah's coming in the Gentile world 
and Israel. These are the so-called "pains of the Messiah" and remind one of 
what is said in Matt. 24:4 sq. These are, oppositions and simderings of kingdoms, 
plagues, hunger, contagions and confusions of every sort. And, finally, just pre- 
ceding his coming, there were to be earthquakes and other dreadful natural phe- 
nomena. The nation of Israel would be deeply sunken in immorality and dis- 
obedience ; city would be divided against city; the son would revile his father, 
the daughter would rise up against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against 
her mother-in-law ; those of the same household were to become enemies ; truth 
and honor could not be found ; false Messiahs would appear and the law would be 
despised. At the close of this wretched period, the Messiah should come and 
fulfill the hope of Israel. 


There is an obvious antinomy between the two foregoing representations of 

* Continued from September number. 

46 The Old Testament Student. 

the antecedents of Messiah's coining, in that one represents his coming as depend- ' 
ent upon repentance and good works, and the other pictures the period imme- 
diately preceding as one of tlie deepest moral degradation. A solution of this 
contradiction is found in the doctrine concerning the mission and work of Elias. 

Elias comes before the Messiah according to Mai. 3:23 (cf. Matt. 17:10,11). 
His mission will be preparatory for Messiah's coming. According to some he will 
show each family to what stem, race and house it belongs; others say that he 
will unite those who are not of pure descent [filii spurii) to the congregation of 
Israel. But the main emphasis is laid upon the reformatory character of his 
work (cf. Mk. 9:12). He will settle all disputes and adjust all the various inter- 
pretations of the law. But his greatest work will be to lead the nation to repent- 
ance (cf. Luke 1:16,17). lie will rebuke the people for their sins, but will proclaim 
peace for the obedient in Zion. 

In this way the antinomy, above alluded to, is solved. Elias rescues the peo- 
ple from their degradation and prepares them for the Messiah's appearance. It 
is noticeable that other prophets are sometimes associated with Elias in his work. 
Three ancient prophets, it is said, will rise from the dead in order to support the 
Messiah in his work. They are Moses, Isaiah, Jeremiah, who is called in II. Mac- 
cabees 15:14 " the prophet,"' the " lover of his brethren,"' who prays for his people 
and for the holy city (cf. John 1:21,25 ; 7:40, where " the prophet" probably refers 
to Jeremiah, also Matt. 16:13 sq.). 


The Messiah exists before his entrance into the world. It was God's will 
from eternity to create the Messiah and to send him into the world. Ilis " name," 
the purpose and plan of his existence, is, therefore, eternal, but he exists eternally 
only in an ideal sense. Only the later Jewish theology emphasizes the real pre- 
existence of the Messiah before the creation. The transition from his ideal pre- 
existence to his earthly appearance is to be accomplished by his birth in David's 
line. He is to be a Son of David in the same sense as his other descendants. The 
Jewish theology does not rise above the idea of the purely human idea of the Mes- 
siah. He is, however, exalted in rank above all the ancient worthies. He shall 
sit at God's right hand (cf. Ps. 110:1). and Abraham, sitting on the left, shall say : 
" Lord, the son of my son (David) sits at thy right hand and I at thy left," but the 
Lord will comfort him by the answer, " The son of thy son does sit at my right 
hand and I sit at thy right hand."" The Messiah is exalted above the angels also, 
yet not in such a way as involves the ascription to him of a supernatural char- 


The Jewish theology represents the Messiah as appearing as an unknown 
person who in secrecy and silence has been preparing for his work. As Moses 
grew up in Pharaoh's house without the king's knowledge, so shall the Messiah 
dwell for a time in the chief city of the nation unobsen'ed. During this period 
he is to ripen and to grow equal to his work. His main preparation is in the 
study of the law as it is to be his chief Messianic work to teach the same. The 
law which he thus learns he will scrupulously keep. He will be as " full of com- 
mandments as a mill." He will also endure disciplinary sufferings, since they 
are needful to make him a just man. It is never maintained that the Messiah is 
to be sinless. He sins and repents and by penitence and obedience to the law at 

Webee on the Eschatologt of the Talmud. 47 

length becomes a perfectly just man. He will be full of benevolence. He will 
sit at the gates of Eome among the poor, the sick and the woimded and minister 
to them. 

The official name of the Messiah is Eedeemer (Goal). As Moses led Israel out 
of Egypt, so shall the Messiah lead the nation out of its miseries by bringing its 
scattered people together and establishing them in their own laud. The Messiah 
shall restore the holy state and city, establish Israel supreme over the nations and 
renew the spiritual life of the people by reinstating the law. Thus will the glory 
lost in Adam's fall be restored,— a glory which shall prefigure the eternal gloiy of 
the just. 

In this account of the Messiah's mission no mention is made of sufferings 
and death. The sufferings which are prophetically pictured in such passages as 
Isaiah 53 are referred to Messiah's sympathetic suffering and intercession in be- 
half of the people. The statement (Is. 53:6) that " Jehovah hath laid upon him 
the iniquity of us all'' is understood to mean that it was Jehovah's good pleasure 
to forgive aU our sins for his sake. The language of the chapter generally is 
either weakened or applied to some other object than the Messiah. The notion 
of substitutionary, penal suffering is not a part of the Messianic idea in Jewish 
theology. The sufferings which he endures are a part of the experience by which 
his moral perfection is wrought out. 

The great end of his work is the redemption of Israel from foreign domina- 
tion, the establishment of a dominion over the nations and a thorough reorgani- 
zation and moral renovation of the nation upon the basis of devotion to the law. 
All this he accomplishes, not by an atoning suffering and death, but by the power 
of his personal righteousness. This power he attains by self-discipline, obedience 
and sympathetic suffering and serving and for this work he prepares and sancti- 
fies himself before his emergence into public. 


The contradiction between the Jewish doctrine of the Messiah and the con- 
ception presented in such passages as Isa. 53, is sometimes resolved by the doctrine 
of a Messiah, called the Son of Joseph, or, by some, the Son of Ephraim, who shall 
precede the great Messiah, the Son of David, and atone by suffering and death 
for the sins of the people. He is a Messiah of lower dignity and in him are ful- 
filled the prophecies which declare that the Servant of Jehovah will suffer and 
die. He prepares the way for the great Messianic king to whom he is subordinate 
as Aaron was to Moses. He wiU assemble the ten tribes in Egypt and Assyria 
and conduct them into the Holy Land ; others represent Galilee as the place of 

These later conceptions were occasioned by the appeal of Christians to Isa. 
53. The suffering Messiah there described could not be successfully adjusted to 
the current Jewish conception and the polemics must invent some idea corre- 
sponding more closely to the prophetic description. The subordinate Messiah, 
Joseph's son, should die in the service of the people and his death should have an 
atoning significance. He comes not for his own sake but for the sake of the 
greater Messiah, David's son, who has an immortal life. Thus the redemptive 
work proper is transferred to tliis secondary Messiah. It remains to David's son 
to carry forward and complete the work of salvation. 

48 The Old Testament Student. 


" In relation to Moses, the Messiah is second ; in comparison with all other 
helpers he is the g^-eat Kedeemer." His redemption signifies primarily deliver- 
ance from servitude to other peoples of which the deliverance of the nation from 
Egypt by Moses stands as the historic type. The Messiah, after his first appear- 
ance, will withdraw for a time (45 days), into retirement, according to most, into 
the wilderness of Judea. This will be a period of sifting for the people who, 
during this time, will eat the food of the poor, humble itself and thus prepare for 
the coming redemption. 

As a condition precedent to the Messianic deliverance the power of Rome 
(commonly called the " Kingdom of Edom '") must be overthrown. The Roman 
and the Messianic kingdoms are incompatible, and the latter CEtanot be established 
until the former is destroyed.- At the time of Messiah's coming this power will 
have reached its worst stage of cruelty and oppression. It ■will hasten its own 
downfall by making Israel's yoke harder than ever; and the great Roman oppres- 
sor in whom all this wickedness shall then culminate shall the Messiah destroy 
" by the word of his mouth and the breath of his lips." 

When the Roman power shall have been overthrown, then will Messiah 
gather together the outcasts of Israel, uniting (according to most representa- 
tions) the ten tribes with Judah and Benjamin. This, however, is a disputed 
point, some maintaining that the ten tribes were driven out never to be restored 
to their place in this world, but that they will be gathered into the perfected Israel 
in the next life. The common representation is otherwise, however. Says one 
Rabbi : " The winds shall strive with each other. The north wind shall say : I 
wiU bring back the outcasts. The south wind shall say : I will fetch them." 

Even from the world of the dead shall the participants in the Messianic reign 
be brought. Those who are bound in Gehinnom shall see the light of the Messiah 
and shall rejoice to see him and say: "lie will lead us out of our darkness.'" 
Thus shall the circumcised, the true children of the covenant, be gathered from 
their dispersion, while those from the caverns of Sheol arise, reclothed in their 
former bodies, to participate in the glorious kingdom which Messiah shall estab- 
lish in the holy land. This resurrection of the circumcised shall take place in the 
holy laud. The bodies of those who were buried in other lands shall be rolled 
along beneath the earth or shall pass through subterranean passages so as to rise 
in the holy land. This process is painful ; therefore Israelites desire to be buried 
in their own country in order to spare themselves this experience. Moses was 
buried in a foreign land in order to assure other .Jews that they shall be raised 
up. His resurrection will be certain and will be the guaranty of theirs. 

At this resurrection the Almighty will soiuid a trumpet seven times, at each 
blast of which a part of the process of reuniting the decomposed or scattered 
body and the reuniting of the soul with it, takes place. A portion of the body re- 
mains undestroyed and becomes the nucleus for the revivified body. Each person 
rises in the clothes in which he was buried, hence the care concerning burial gar- 
ments. Each has the same appearance, even such defects as lameness and blind- 
ness (for identification), but these are healed immediately after resurrection. 
This resurrection applies to Israel only and is to a renewed and glorified earthly 
life, but not to an absolutely immortal one. The body does not however return 
again to dust and corruption. 

Old Testament Word-studies. 49 

" Thus is the congi-egation of Israel restored to its true condition. From the 
diaspora the living return, and from their graves the dead arise, in order to enjoy 
in the holy laud the promised glory of the Messianic age." 



By Kev. p. a. Nordell, D. D., 
New London, Conn. 

The complexity of man's constitution has been recognized from the earliest 
times. The most obvious line of division falls between the material and spiritual 
parts of his organization. Each of these comprises subdivisions more or less nu- 
merous and subtle according to the observer's intuition and skill in discriminating 
psychological phenomena. Among the Hebrews, as among all the nations of an- 
tiquity, this line of demarcation, however sharply drawn at first sight, exhibits a 
tendency to disappear the moment we undertake to separate rigidly between the 
material and spiritual. This tendency springs from the constant association of 
spiritual states and emotions with certain parts of the material organism, aud from 
the evolution of higher psychological significations from words used primarily in a 
physiological or material sense. Moreover, in words belonging to the vocabulary 
of common life we cannot hope to find the nice discriminations of a scientific ter- 

Ru(a)h spirit. 

The primary signification of ru(a)h is wind, the sensible movement of the 
air in all gradations of velocity, from the gentle zephyr at the " cool of the day," 
Gen. 3:8, to the terrific tempest that rends the mountains, 1 Kgs. 19:11. Hebrew 
seems to have had no word for air, the atmosphere at rest, since in this condition 
it was not perceptible. That wind was identical with the breath of men and ani- 
mals was soon apparent, and although the latter received the specific name 
n'shama(h), yet it continued very frequently to be called simply ru(a)h. 
The latter designates the breath of beasts, Eccl. 9:18, of mankind. Job 10:12, and 
of Jehovah, 2 Sam. 22:16. When a living being dies it ceases to breathe, i. e. it 
expires. It was natural that a superficial observer, perceiving this close connec- 
tion between breath and life, would leap to the conclusion that the invisible breath 
of life was somehow identical with wind, the invisible breath of nature. Ru(a)h 
became thus the general designation of the principle of life which man shares in 
common with all creatures who possess the ru(a)h hayyim, — in G-en. 7:22 
tautologically described as the " breath of the spirit of lives." But in man, as dis- 
tinguished from the brute, this principle of life was also recognized as intelligent 
spirit, the seat of sensation, passion, unrest, anxiety, courage, as well as of will, 
determination, knowledge, wisdom, and skill. From this view of man as intelli- 
gent ru(a)h the word passed easily into a designation of that omnipotent, intel- 
ligent energy, the ru(a)h Elohim, which creates and sustains the visible uni- 
verse. It was in a "sound of gentle stillness," as of a whispering wind, that 

50 The Old U'^sstament Student. 

Jehovah revealed himself to Elijah, 1 Kgs. 19:12 ; in a soft breathing, a r u ( S ) h , 
that the divine presence was manifested to Eliphaz, Job 4:15 ; but at the begin- 
ning of the Christian dispensation it appeared as a mighty rushing Trfcifia, Acts 
2:2, the intensity of its energy breaking forth, like an electric storm, in visible 
flames of fire. In all these meanings the primary conception is that of an invisi- 
ble force which is known only by its efl'ects. 

11 u ( a )h became in this way a designation of spirituality in its largest form. 
In the Divine Spirit, the " fountain of lives," m'qor hayyim, Ps. 36:10, is the 
original source of every human spirit, and therefore the psalmist (31:6) commits 
his r u( a ) h , his inmost life, to Jehovah in the full conviction that in so doing he 
will not lose it, but recover it in wondrous depth and power.. 

Nephesh soul. 

In biblical language ngphSsh is frequently employed in the same sense as 
ru(a)h. As a psychological term it rests on the same physical phenomenon of 
resjiiration, being derived from a verb meaning to breathe (nipJi.), to recover one's 
breath after protracted exertion, hence to be refreshed, Ex. 23:16. The nephesh 
as to its origin and powers is conceived of as standing on a lower plane than the 
ru(a)h, being always associated with its earthy investiture, and never, except in 
a few anthropopathic expressions, Jer. 51:14, Amos 6:8, rising into the realm of 
pure si)irit. " The souls of animals arise, like plants, from the earth, as a conse- 
quence of the divine word of power, Gen. 1:24. Thus the creating Spirit which 
entered at the beginning, 1:2, into matter, rules in them; their connection with 
the divine spring of life is through the medium of the common terrestrial creation. 
But the human soul does not spring from the earth ; it is created by a special act 
o/'/i'r)»ie j'»?)rwMin<7, see 2:7 in connection with 1:26." (Oehler.) The nSphSsh 
is tlic animal life, the '/".W. which springs into existence when the ru(a)h enters 
the material organism. " Man is not r u ( a ) h , but has it, — he /*■ soul." The soul 
is therefore the center of individuality, so that "my soul," "thy soul," "his soul," 
etc., become stereotyped expressions for man's inmost personal life, his very self, 
his ego. Ilu(a)h is never so used, since it is the universal principle of life 
which underlies and conditions the nephesh, and not, like the latter, the indi- 
vidualized form which the principle of life assumes. Hence in the enumeration 
of a family, tribe, or people, persons are often spoken of as souls. Gen. 14:21; Exod. 
1:7; Num. 31:35, — an expression that survives in popular usage to the present 
time. Indeed, it was even possible to .speak of corpses as "dead souls," Num. 6:6 ; 
9:10, i. e. as persons with whom the idea of individuality was still associated aft«r 
the ru(ii)h had been withdrawn. 

A marked characteristic of the Priest Code, though not exclusively confined 
to it, is the employment of ngphesh in the sense of a morally responsible per- 
son — " if a soul touch any unclean thing," " if a soul commit trespass," etc. This 
usage which docs not occur in the Book of the Covenant, Exod. 20-23, seems to 
be owing to the individual application, rather than the universal authoritj-. of the 
levitical legislation. The same sense seems to attach to the word in Ezck. 18:4,27, 
"the soul [i. e. the person] that sinneth, it [he] shall die, ' "he shall save his soul 
riiimself] alive." It is not probable that the word nephesh is here employed in 
the technical modern sense of soul. However true it is that cherished sin in- 
volves man's spiritual nature in eternal loss and ruin, this does not seem to be the 

Old Testament Word-studies. 51 

thought in the prophet's mind, except inferentially. He is speaking rather of the 
temporal consequences of sin to the person who commits it. 

The soul, like the spirit, is also swayed by strong desires and passions, but 
these not infrequently emphasize some form of seliiishness or greed, Pss. 10:3 ; 
41:3. The essence of sin lies in the self-determination of the individual nephesh 
toward earthly relations, in opposition to the divine will and authority, " their 
soul abhorred my statutes," Lev. 26:43. 

Tbe soul of man does not any more than that of the animal possess in itself 
the reason of an undj'ing life, Ps. 22:29(30). Tbe pledge of its immortality lies in 
its unbroken union with the Divine Spirit which is individualized in it; "Thou 
wilt not leave my nephesh in Sheol," Ps. 16:10. The natural immortality of 
the soul appears much more prominently in the New Testament than in the Old, 
where tbe whole subject of a future life is purposely involved in much obscurity. 
For tbe Mosaic dispensation aimed to train men to obedience by means of tem- 
poral rewards and penalties rather than by tbe prospect of post-mortem blessed- 

It does not follow because scriptural language distinguishes between r {i ( a ) h 
and nephesh that they are distinct and separable entities, and that man pos- 
sesses a tripartite nature, body, soul and spirit. These latter terms are rather to 
be understood as descriptive of man's higher nature contemplated as a unity, but 
as facing in tbe one case toward tbe spiritual world above, and in the other toward 
the material world beneath. 

N"shama(h) breath. 

The specific term for breath is n'shama(h). It occurs only twenty-four 
times, whereas nephesh occurs 729, and ru(a)h 376 times. Tbe breath blown 
ou the hands produces a sensation of coolness, and therefore the breath of 
Jehovah, far more powerful than that of man, is metaphorically described as a 
freezing wind, Job 37:10. A rapid breathing is a sign of violent passion, as of 
anger, hence in the breath of Eloah, Job 4:9, or in the blast of the breath of 
Jehovah's nostrils, 2 Sam. 22:16, the Hebrew poet discerns a punitive agency which 
overwhelms the wicked in swift and irresistible destruction. As the function of 
respiration was connected with the power of life in man, so this divine breath, 
conceived of anthropopathically, was associated with the self-existent and infinite 
life of Jehovah. The transmission of this "breath of lives, " Gen. 2:7, into the 
nostrils of man communicated to him a portion of the divine principle of life, so 
that in virtue of it he becomes a partaker of the divine being. On the other 
hand, should El fix his heart, i. e. his thought, upon himself, rather than on man, 
and gather back to himself his ru(a)h and his n'shama(h), then all -flesh 
would inevitably sink back into its original dust, Job 34:14. Tbe n'shama(h) 
of man is also as a lamp or candle which is lighted by Jehovah, Prov. 20:27, and 
human nature is like a vast cavern into whose darkest recesses this light shines. 
By its means its intricacies can be explored alike to their mysterious origin in the 
creative power of God, and to their terminus in the clear light of the eternal 
world. But when this relation between the divine spirit and the human is 
ignored, the light in man's nature is extinguished, and having no other source of 
light, he gropes in hopeless darkness. His life in all its relations becomes to him 
a series of insoluble enigmas and contradictions. 

62 Thk Old Testament Student. 

Basar flesh. 

Basar is the material, external part of man, the corporeal investiture of the 
immortal and invisible spirit. The LXX. renders it by aapi 138, "piac 79, and 
aijfia 16 times. In these several renderings Kplac is that from which the thought 
of organism is most distant, adp^ stands midway between the two, while oufia 
designates the perfect instrument of the soul in whii-li the idea of organism is pre- 
dominant. The basar as a living organism is dependent for its existence on its 
union with the spirit. In itself it is frail and corruptible, exhibiting a constant 
tendency to dissolve and return to the '*dhaniah out of which it was con- 
structed. From such dissolution it is withheld by the renewing and vivifying 
power of the ru(a)h. This perishable nature of the basar was seen to be a 
characteristic of all animate creatures, and hence the word soon passed into a 
broader signification which, ignoring the distinction between basar and nS- 
phesh, included every form of animal life as well as that of man. KOl -basar, 
all flesh, denotes all living creatures viewed from the side of their transitory, per- 
ishable existence. Gen. 6:13,19 ; 7:15 ; Num. 16:22 ; Fs. 136:25, etc. From this com- 
prehensive meaning it passes into one more restricted, including only the human 
race. Gen. 6:12; Deut. 5:26; Ps. 145:21 ; Isa. 40:6. Contrasted with the omnipo- 
tence and eternity of God who is absolute spirit, man is only basar, flesh, a 
weak mortal, constantly falling away, Gen. 6:3; Job 10:4; Ps. 78:39. It is the 
same thought as that emphasized when man is called 'ad ham and ''nosh, the 
earth-begotten, and the frail one. A still further limitation of the phrase k6l- 
basar occurs in Joel 2:28; 3:1, where the prophet sees the approaching dispensa- 
tion accompanied by an effusion of the Spirit upon all flesh. This does not mean 
the entire race of mankind, -una aap^, John 17:2, but the church of the Messianic 
age, still conceived of as comprehended within the national limits of Israel. In 
the old theocracy the Holy Spirit had been given to individuals here and there, 
enduing them with wisdom and prophetic insight. But in that new Israel the 
Spirit would come down like rain on all flesh, i. e. on all the people without dis- 
tinction of age, rank, or condition. The same limitation appears in Jer. 12:12 and 
Ezek. 20:48. 

The Old Testament nowhere teaches that the basar, the sensuous part of 
man's being, is also the seat of sin. It is indeed deeply tainted by sin and en- 
thralled by its power, Gen. 6:12. but the ethical idea of flesh as essentially sinful, 
and as antagonizing the higher life of the spirit by an illegitimate lusting after 
sensual and eartlily things, is foreign to the Old Testament, and belongs to the 
fully developed Pauline theology of the New. 

Lebh or Lebhabh heart. 

Lebhilbh, which frequently occurs in place of lebh, seems to be only a 
strengthened form of the latter word, and to be used with no discernible difference 
of meaning. In its physical sense it denotes the central bodily organ. 2 Sam. 18:14 ; 
2 Kgs. 0:24, through which the blood flows, and beneo the center of physical life, 
for the blood was looked on as the vehicle of life, Lev. 17:11. Gliding almost at 
once into metonymical significations, it becomes one of the most interesting words 
in the entire Hebrew vocabulary. From the Hebrew it passes with its wealth of 
meaning into the New Testament, whose writers give it, if possible, a yet richer 
expansion. In a semi-physical sense it designates the seat of bodily life, Ps. 

Old Testament Word-studies. 53 

22:26(27). While on the one hand the whole heart faints through sickness, Isa. 
1:5, on the other it is strengthened by food and drink, Gen. 18:5 ; Jud. 19:5. 

The profoundest importance attaches to this word when it is emplo3'ed in 
connection with the spiritual nature of man. The external relations of man's 
nature are described, as we have alread}' seen, by the words rii(a)h and ne- 
phesh, the former standing for its spiritual and eternal relations, and the latter 
for the earthly and temporal. There is still another point of view from which it 
may be studied, viz., in its internal structure and relations. In Hebrew thought 
the whole interior of this nature, with its innumerable feelings, afltections and emo- 
tions, its faculties of memory and imagination, its thinking and reasoning powers, 
its capacities of knowledge and wisdom, its resolutions, plans and purposes, its 
hopes and fears, its moral and spiritual determinations, in a word, the entire emo- 
tional, intellectual, and ethical activity of man is included in this comprehensive 
word lebh. It is conceived of as an unfathomed and, to man, unfathomable 
abyss, Ps. 64:6, a dark and mysterious realm filled with undefined thoughts and 
purposes, with blind desires and passions, driven restlessly to and fro, like disem- 
bodied shades, and making their presence known only as they rise into conscious- 
ness, or emerge into the actual doings and experiences of the outward world. 
Pious men are sometimes allowed to fall into temptation, that they may learn the 
unsuspected contents of their own hearts, 2 Chron. 32:31. By the introduction of 
sin the lebh becomes wholly corrupted, so that all the imagination of its thoughts 
is only evil continually. Gen. 6:5. Out of its dismal depths go forth deceptions, 
Neh. 6:8, hypocrisies, Job 36:13, and wicked works, Ps. 58:2(3). None but God is 
able to search the secrets of the heart, i. e. explore this inner realm of the spirit, 
1 Chron. 28:29; Ps. 44:21(22), and he alone is able to cleanse it from its evil and 
impure contents, Ps. 51:10(12). So thoroughly is the natural heart corrupted, that 
this purifying process amounts virtually to the creation of a new heart, Ezek. 
18:31. The outward appearance does not always correspond to the inner state of 
the heart, Prov. 13:14; hence God, who judges every man justly, determines his 
moral worth by a scrutiny of the heart, 1 Sam. 16:7 ; Jer. 20:12. The afi'ections 
and tendencies of the heart determine human destiny, for out of it are the issues 
of life, Prov. 4:23. (On the Biblical Doctrine of the Heart, see Oehler's O. T. 
Theology, § 71, and "The Hidden Heart," by Tayler Lewis, Princeton Rev., 
March, 1883.) 

K^layoth kidneys, reins. 

This word occurs only twenty-six times in the Old Testament, and throughout 
the Pentateuch is uniformly rendered kidneys. In its fourteen occurrences in the 
poetical and prophetical books it is, with one exception, Isa. 34:6, rendered reins, 
LXX. viippdc, Vulg. ren. Indeed, wherever the reference is to animals it is trans- 
lated kidneys, but reins when it refers to man. In the former case it is used in its 
strict physiological sense, in the latter by metonomy for a part or side of man's 
spiritual nature. Five times it is associated with lebh, being with it the sub- 
ject of divine inspection and examination. It is commonly taken as the seat of 
the tenderer emotions, such as kindness, pity, and benevolence ; but its exact 
psychological equivalent is very obscure. Rev. J. G. Lansing in the Old Testa- 
TAMENT Student, Feb., 1884, starting from a consideration of the physiological 
functions of the kidneys, argues with much force that the k'layoth stand spe- 
cifically for the conscience. In view of the fact that the 0. T. writers, with the 

54 The Ou) Testament Student. 

whole ancient world, referred the function of thought to the heart rather than to 
the brain, it seems hardly safe to ascribe to the ancients such accurate knowledge 
of physiological processes as this definition assumes. Moreover it is open to 
question whether 0. T. writers ever conceived of the conscience as a distinct 
moral power, or vaguely included it in the moral determinations of the heart. 


By J. 13. Reynolds, B. D., 

New Haven, Conn. 

The possibilities in the field of Old Testament theology have not been so 
much exhausted but that we may look with high expectations upon any new con- 
tributions to the subject. Willi this view we shall not be disappointed in the 
work before us. It brings not a little new material and contains many improve- 
ments in the mode of presenting the results of the author's studies. 

The method is declared to be exegetical and historical. The wTiter criticises 
with justice, we think, many of the previous works on Old Testament theology as 
mere presentations of religious ideas and customs without taking count of their 
successive development. He, therefore, aims " so far as possible to indicate the 
historic development of each particular subject," leaving to those works which 
narrate the history of Israel the burden of giving a general view of its religion. 

Therefore, in accordance with his central purpose, the work is divided into 
three periods. The first extends from Moses to the commencement of the eighth 
century and is distinguished by the preponderating influence exercised by tradi- 
tional ideas and usages, modified only in part by early prophetism. The second, 
reaching from the appearance of the earliest prophetic books to the end of the exile, 
is marked by the great influence of prophetism, arrived at the summit of its 
power. The third, from the exile to the first century before the Christian era, is 
characterized by the extraordinary influence of the written law and of sacer- 

In arranging the literature of these periods the extreme results of the higher 
criticism are accepted. That part of the Pentateuch commonly called the Jeho- 
vistic document is placed in the first period. Deuteronomy is supposed to have 
been written in the .seventh century, while the Elohistic document is claimed not 
to have been written till the fifth century. Isaiah is distributed in small portions 
from the end of the ninth century to the middle of the sixth. Ecclesiastes and 
Esther are thought to have been written towards the end of the third century, 
while Daniel is assigned to a date somewhere between 167 ami 164. The question 
of the date of the authorship of the several books is, however, not discussed, the 
author merely giving "the results which seem certain or probable." Though 
there is room for much difference of opinion as to the time to which many 
books are allotted, it is certainly to be regarded as a virtue that the author thus 
clearly defines at the outset the literary basis of his work. 

*TW'oloi?io de rAnclen Testament par Ch. I'iepcntrlng, pasteur de I'egliso rfformfe de 
Strasbourg:. Paris: Libraire FUchbacher, 33 rue de Seine. New York: B. Wcstermann <t Co. 


The main body of the work is constructive, only a very little space being 
given to the discussion of the critical questions at present under dispute. The 
principle is constantly insisted upon that the biblical writings are not in any 
proper sense theological. It is held that metaphysical distinctions were entirely 
unknown even by the later writers and that in attempting to draw up a scheme 
of biblical theology this fact must constantly be borne in mind. This claim is, 
of course, not a new one, but the writer adheres to it with much greater consist- 
ency than many who have stoutly asserted it. It is also claimed that the signifl- 
cance of certain religious ceremonies must be differently regarded at different 
periods. The law being not a sudden communication, but a gradual growth, it is 
held that the rites of temple service only reached their final condition and mean- 
ing after many changes and under varying influences. Many of these are thought 
to have been gained from older Semitic or Egyptian religions. Many of the ser- 
vices and feasts, it is asserted, were derived from the early celebrations at seed- 
time and harvest. It is only at a later date that they are understood to have 
assumed a theocratic significance. For example, we are told that " the feast of 
the passover and of unleavened bread, considered in the Old Testament as one and 
the same feast, is surely a combination of two different feasts, the one agricultn- 
ral and the other theocratic." It is probable that originally this feast had also an 
astronomical sense, that it was the feast of the spring time, found among most of 
the nations of antiquity. This last character of the feast of the passover has been 
already completely eifaced in Hebrew literature, though its agricultural character 
still appears in certain passages, especially Lev. 23:9-14. " Here the offeiing of 
the first fruits of the harvest is united with the passover, and this offering is 
placed in close relationship with the feast which should be celebrated seven weeks 
later, at the end of the harvest." 

The Sabbath is conceived to be essentially a day of repose, but it is held that 
this idea could not have been given to the day till the Israelites had ceased to be 
wandering shepherds and became an agricultural people. The humanitarian side 
of the Sabbath is thought to be emphasized in all the documents. •• Its principle 
purpose is to furnish rest to the slaves and the domestic animals. Even in Deu- 
teronomy we find the same point of view. The Sabbath is there associated with 
the remembrance of the deliverance from slavery in Egypt. But the evident 
thought of the Deuteronomist is this : Israel ought to remember that he was a 
slave in Egypt and was delivered by Jehovah and that therefore he ought also on 
that day to give rest to his slaves as well as to himself." 

The main literature of the second period is thought to be prophecy. Here are 
considered the names and character of God, also the prophetic idea of man and 
sin. It seems to us that in some cases the writer has failed carefully to follow out 
his own principle of the historic growth of religious ideas. The prophets whose 
writings extended through three centuries are treated almost as contemporaries. 
The author's treatment of the origin of sin will be found very unsatisfactory 
to many. As to the story of the Fall, he claims that the " principal purpose of the 
narrative consists in showing the origin not of sin, of moral evil, but of physical 
evil, of the evils of life, and in proving that God is not the cause of these evils, 
but that they are brought about by the sin of man." He also quotes with ap- 
proval the idea of Bruch, that the author of the account of the Fall is influenced 
by the double thought that physical evil is a result of sin and that sin is connected 
with civilization ; and that he has kept those two ideas in experience which tells 

66 The Old Testament Student. 

that the infant is happy so long as he continues in a state of ignorance and of in- 
nocence, whereas the development of spirit and of life give birth to instincts and 
inordinate desires, which occasion the majority of misfortunes. It is therefore 
concluded that the explanation of the origin of sin is not furnished us in Genesis. 
The only solution offered to the question is the following : " The Old Testament 
attributes generally to man freedom of choice between good and evil. Our 
author attributes this freedom also to the first pair. So he could not think of ex- 
plaining the origin of sin, the possibility of sin being given with the freedom of 
man." " The account of the Fall simply declares the point of entrance of sin 
into the heart of man. It is in tliis sense that the writer explains the origin of 
sin, but not so if is meant by tliat term the source or the first cause of sin. He 
does not push the question back to that cause. He confines himself to the exte- 
rior circumstances which become to the first pair the occasion of sin in calling them 
to make use of their liberty." " The Old Testament in general does not speak of 
a change which has occuned in tlie moral nature of man in consequence of the 
sin of Adam, since, outside of that narrative, there is never question in regard to 
the fall of Adam or of a fall of humanity, but that man is considered free to do 
good and avoid evU." 

In the third section the writer considers Judaism which seems to him to be 
strongly contrasted in its purpose with prophecy, which lays the greatest impor- 
tance on moral life, subordinating to it all external practices of religion, while the 
former dwells almost wholly upon ritual seiTices and external worship. It is 
thought to represent the formalistic tendency. The growth of this idea as con- 
ceived in the mind of the writer is carefully traced out, and what seems to him 
the elaboration of the former simple ceremonies described. 

In literary form this work is certainly to be most highly commended. The 
statements of the writer are clear and distinct and each subject is treated as 
briefly as possible, though without such condensation as to obscure the thought. 
In this respect it is certainly greatly in advance of other works on the subject. 
As to the results reached, it miglit seem that M. Piepentring was a skeptical 
rationalist. But this is certainly far from being the case. The divine as well as 
the human elements are positively asserted in the history of the kingdom of Israel, 
and in conclusion the belief is expressed that such recognition of the human ele- 
ment which exists in the Old Testament will but lead to a stronger conviction of 
the divine power which was w'orking in the life of the Hebrew nation. Certainly 
the spirit of the writer is quite different from that of many critical authorities. 
His evident aim is constructive, and to many the book will seem to present at 
least some helpful suggestions to the settlement of the questions which are receiv- 
ing so much attention at the present day. 


By Dean A. Walkek, B. A., 

New Haven, Conn. 

Of all the great empires that in turn held sway over the human race before 
the beginning of the Christian era, none exceeded in duration of power and splen- 
dor of achievement the great empire of Assyria. Egypt may show a longer line 
of dynasties reaching further back into the dawn of history ; but her soU was often 
invaded by foreign armies, and Hyksos, Ethiopian, Assyrian and Grecian con- 
querors interrupted the line of succession of her native rulers. Alexander's 
empire covered a wider territory, but as a unit continued only through the life-time 
of its founder. Babylonia, by whose hand Assyria fell, enjoyed her power but 
fifty years, and the empire of the Medes and Persians that followed filled out only 
two hundred years. 

In contrast to these short-lived or intermittent powers, the Assyrian empire 
had an uninterrupted autonomy of more than six hundred years, through which 
the succession of its kings may be directly traced ; while the unknown begumings 
of its history as an independent power may cover as much again. It was not, like 
Alexander's empire, the creature of a day or of one man, but like the republic of 
Rome, it rose from small beginnings with gradual increase of power and spread 
of territory till it overshadowed the earth and well fitted the description of the 
prophet Ezekiel (Ezek. 31:3-9), "Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon 
with fair branches and with a shadowing shroud, and of an high stature ; and his 
top was among the thick boughs. The waters made him great, the deep set him 
up on high with her rivers running round about his plants, and sent out her little 
rivers unto all the trees of the field. Therefore his height was exalted above all 
the trees of the field and his boughs were multiplied and his branches became 
long, because of the multitude of waters, when he shot forth. All the fowls of 
heaven made their nests in his boughs, and under his branches did all the beasts 
of the field bring forth their young, and under his branches dwelt all great nations. 
Thus was he fair in his greatness, in the length of his branches; for his foot was 
by great waters. The cedars in the garden of God, the fir trees were not like his 
bouglis, and the chestnut trees were not like his branches ; nor any tree in the 
garden of God was like unto him in his beauty. I have made him fair by the 
multitude of his branches ; so that all the trees of Eden, that were in the garden 
of God, envied him." 

The highest point of Assyrian power was reached near the close of the empire 
imder the dynasty of the Sargonides, a dynasty founded indeed by a usurper, but 
Assyrian in every feature, numbering, in direct line, five kings, the first four of 
whom were fine representatives of the ancient Assyrian character. The glory of 
this dynasty reached its height in the reign of the subject of this paper, Asurban- 
ipal, the son of Esarhaddon, grandson of Sennacherib, and great-grandson of 


68 The Old Testajient Student. 

Asurbanipal was king of a warlike nation and descended from a family of 

warriors, and inherited in full the wariike disposition of liis ancestors. Sargon, 
the founder of the dynasty, was a usurper, who had made good his claim to the 
throne merely by his ability to hold it and ou the principle that might makes right. 
Of his ancestry we know nothing. He himself in his inscriptions gives us no 
clew to his origin, though it was the custom of Assyrian kings to begin their 
records with a .statement of their descent and a tribute of praise to their ances- 
tors. Sargon was probably an officer of the army risen from the ranks by virtue 
of his military ability. The long absence of his king, Salmancser IV., at that 
time engaged with ill success in the sieges of Samaria and Tyre, and the consequent 
discontent of the people and laxity of government at the capital, invited a revolu- 
tion. Sargon seized the opportunity to make himself king and was accepted by the 
army and people. After an active reign of seventeen years, he was succeeded by his 
son, Sennacherib, who with equal energy enlarged and strengthened the dominion 
of Assyria, till he was assassinated by his two eldest sons, Adrammelech and 
Sharezer, as recorded in 2 Kgs. 19:37 and Isa. 37:38. Their ambition to rule in his 
stead was frustrated by a younger sou, Esarhaddon, who with a portion of the 
army was guarding the frontier of Armenia. Recognized by his troops as king, 
Esarhaddon drove the assassins into Armenia and took the throne, which he held 
for thirteen years. His reign was marked by the same vigorous policy as those 
of his predecessors, till, becoming afflicted with an incurable disease, he abdicated 
in favor of his eldest son, Asurbanipal. reserving for himself only the province of 
Babylonia. The crowning of Asurbanipal by his father is placed in the year 670 
B. C, but his accession to the sole command of the empire took place on the death 
of his father, two years later. Dating from 668 B. C, his reign covered a period 
of forty-two years, the longest reign in Assyrian history and one exceeded by few 
ill the history of other nations, either ancient or modern. 

Asurbanipal had had a thorough military training in the numerous campaigns 
of his father, and at the very outset of his reign, his education was put to the test. 
One of the signal events of his father's reign had been the conquest of Egypt, and 
its division into twenty districts. These were placed, some under Assyrian officers, 
and others under native Egyptian princes, who had sworn allegiance to the con- 
queror. But now Tirhakah, the Ethiopian, taking advantage of the illness of 
Esarhaddon, by whom he had been driven out of Egypt, returned at the end of 
two years and soon again made himself master of the entire valley of the Nile 
except a small corner of the delta. In this spot, well protected by its numerous 
canals, the Assyrian governors were able to hold their ground wliile a message 
was carried post-haste to Asurbanipal at Nineveh. The king's response was 
prompt and efficient. A strong Assyrian force was sent under command of the 
Tartan, which quickly drove Tirhakah out of Egypt and reorganized the country 
on the former plan. 

Before this was accomplished, however, the Egyptian governors who had had 
command of some of the cities, questioning whether, after all, their lot would be 
any better under an Assyrian than under an Ethiopian master, and fearing lest 
he might, as soon as he should be more firmly established, replace them by Assjt- 
ian governors, made ready in secret for an insuiTection, and invited Tirhakali to 
return and take the throne, promising to secure for him the possession of Lower 
Egypt. The plot, however, was discovered by the Assyrian officers, and two of 
the ringleaders, Necho and Saretikdari, were taken and sent to Nineveh in chains. 

The Assyrian King, AsTjkbanipal. 59 

There they sued for pardon and Asurbanipal, either from motives of policy or 
because his cruelty of disposition, afterward shown, was not yet developed, not 
only forgave them, but even appointed Necho head of the vassal kings, to rule 
Egypt in the name of Assyria. 

On the death of Tirhakah, which occurred soon after, the war was renewed 
by Tirhakah's step-son and successor, Urdamaui, a youth of great vigor, who in a 
short time had captured Memphis and driven Necho and the Assyrian forces into 
the delta. At this critical moment, the tardy arrival of troops from Nineveh 
enabled the Egyptian princes to take the offensive. This second Egyptian cam- 
paign was attended with equally successful results. Memphis and Thebes were 
retaken and Urdamani was driven out of Egypt. The city of Amen was pillaged 
and two of its obelisks, with a large amount of other booty, were sent as trophies 
to Nineveh. Governors were again placed over the districts of Egypt and among 
them, probably, was Psammetichus, the son of Necho, whose reign the Egyptians 
were accustomed to consider as beginning on the expulsion of Tirhakah. 

Somewhere in the first half of his reign, Asurbanipal conducted two other 
lesser expeditions, the dates of which cannot be exactly determined though they 
are represented in a cylinder inscription as occurring on his return from his 
Egyptian campaigns.* The first was against the city of Tyre, which had revolted 
and held out against a siege with some obstinacy. On the fall of Tyre, the smaller 
Phoenician cities that had joined in the revolt were quickly taken. Baal, king of 
Tyre, was pardoned and reinstated on his throne. Yakinlu, king of Aradus, on 
seeing that he must fall into the hands of the Assyrians, committed suicide. Ills 
eight sons were taken in the city. The eldest was pardoned and appointed to 
succeed his father, while the other seven were put to death. Asurbanipal next 
directed his march to Cilicia, where a small insurrection had broken out. This 
was easily quelled, and, in token of submission, the CiUcian king, whose family 
was already connected by marriage with the royal house of Assyria, was required 
to send his daughter to the royal harem at Nineveh. In this expedition Asurban- 
ipal crossed the Taurus range and penetrated to regions never before reached by 
Assyrian arms. 

About this time there occurred an event very flattering to the pride of the 
Assyrian monarch. Gyges, the wealthy and powerful monarch of Lydia, who is 
described in Asurbanipal's inscriptions as " of a country beyond the sea, whose 
name the kings, his fathers, had not even heard of," sent an embassy, bringing as 
a present two Cimmerian chieftains. The ambassadors were charged to say that 
Gyges having, on a former occasion when hard pressed by his enemies, been told 
in a dream of the might and glory of Asurbanipal and the great god Asur, and 
having sent to do them homage, had signally defeated his enemies. He now sent 
these two chieftains as a present in token of his gratitude for this divine assist- 
ance. Asurbanipal was not the man to lose such an opportunity as this. He 
accepted the present as tribute, kindly acknowledged Gyges as a vassal, imposed 
a further tribute and sent a small body of Assyrian troops to make good his defence 

* A discussion of the chronology of these events and of the relative value on this point of 
the various inscriptions recording: them would require more space than can here be given to it. 
The principal sources for the history are the inscription K 2675 and the cylinder inscriptions A 
and B and R" I. But the three latter sources seem to follow, at least for the events before the 
Elamitic war, a geographical rather than a chronological order. We have here followed the 
cylinder inscriptions. 

60 The Old Testament STin>ENT. 

against the hordes of the Cimmerians, with, perhaps, the further purpose of hold- 
ing Gyges to his allegiance. He had thus extended his authority to the furthest 
limits of Asia Minor, far beyond that of his father, Esarhaddon. 

A short and unimportant campaign followed for the punishment of the city 
of Karbat, a city on the frontier of Elam, whose troops had made an inroad into 
the territory of Uabylouia. The city was taken and its inhabitants were deported 
to Egypt, in accordance with a well settled policy of the Assyrian kings in their 
treatment of rebellious towns. 

The Assyrian arms were next tumed to the north, against the Minni, a brave 
and warlike people inhabiting the mountains in the region of Lake Van. The 
expedition was one of great difficulty owing to the nature of the ground to be 
traversed. The Minni had strongholds in the mountains difficult of access and 
easy to defend. Hut the Assyrians were not less skilled in the storming of walled 
fortresses than they were valorous in the open field. The king, .iVkhsheri, fled 
from his capital to one of his castles, but there he was assassinated by his attend- 
ants and his body was thrown to the Assyrians from the wall. His son, Vahalli, 
then surrendered and sent to Nineveh his eldest son as a hostage and his daughter 
as a concubine, and agreed to pay in addition to the regular rate of tribute thirty 

Asurbaiiipal had now directed* campaigns with marked success in the south- 
western, north-western and north-eastern comers of his empire, and in the two 
latter had added large territories to his dominion. But these campaigns had been 
of short duration and easily won. He now was to meet a danger that at one time 
threatened to lose for him all the ground he had gained, if not to deprive him of 
his empire itself. The war. or rather seiies of wars, which now followed cov- 
ered a period of twelve years. But again the energy of the Assyrian monarch, 
backed by well disciplined troops, was too much for the combined forces of his 
enemies, and the war resulted in their complete overthrow and the annexation of 
all Elam to the Assyrian domain. 

During the reign of Esarhaddon, the relations of Elam and Assyria had been 
peaceful and even friendly, and so continued when Aiurliuiiipal ascended the 
throne. The latter, during a time of famine in Elam, had even assisted Urtaki, 
the Elamite king, with supplies of com, and had offered asylum in Assyrian terri- 
tory to certain tribes who had lied to avoid the famine. JJut when the famine was 
passed, forgetting these favors, and instigated probably by A.ssyria's sworn enemy, 
the Chaldean, Marduksuniibui, Urtaki collected his troops and fell upon Babylonia, 
where, since the death of Esarhaddon, Sa'ul-mughina, a younger brother of Asur- 
banipal, had been ruling as viceroy. Sa'ul-mughina appealed to Asurbanipal for 
aid, and on the approach of the Assyrian troops, the Elamites withdrew. They 
were overtaken, however, and defeated, and Urtaki with difficulty escaped to Susa, 
where about a year later he and his chief captain in despair committed suicide. 

Asurbanipal had not intended any further efforts in this direction; but the 
death of Urtaki led to domestic complications in Elam that invited Assyrian 

•The cylinder inscriptions represent ASurlianipal as comiucting his campaigns in person; 
but K 267.'), the oldest and most leliuble source, does not bear this out. lu the campaign against 
the Minni, even Cylinder B says that he sent his troops, but later uses the first person singular. 
These later inscriptions seem to have been written expressly to e.xalt the prowess of the king 
and aoooiillngly ascribe to him what was in fact done by his generals. The only campaign in 
which it is quite certain that the king actually took part Is the last campaign against Elam. 

The Assyrian King, AsUrbanipal. 61 

interference. Urtaki himself had gained the throne by driving into exile the 
former occupant, his elder brother, Ummanaldas, whom he had subsequently 
caused to be put to death. Now, on the death of Urtaki, a third brother, Temin- 
Timmau, disregarding the claims both of the two sons of Ummanaldas and of tlie 
three sons of Urtaki, seized the throne and proceeded to put to death his brothers' 
sons. But his five nephews, being forewarned of his intentions, fled with sixty 
members of the royal family and attendants to the court of Asurbanipal, leaving, 
however, a considerable body of sympathizers in Elam. Asurbanipal was quite 
ready to take up their cause, while on the other side, Temin-umman strengthened 
himself by alliances with several foreign princes, including two of the descendants 
of the famous Merodach-baladan, whose territories lay along the Persian Gulf, 
and several important Arabian chieftains. The war resulted in the total defeat 
of the Elamites and their allies, and cost Temin-umman his head, while excessive 
punishments were inflicted on the chiefs who had assisted him. Elam was then 
divided into two provinces to be ruled by two of the sous of Urtaki. The eastern 
province was assigned to Tammarit ; and the western, with Susa as its capital, to 

The close of this foreign war was quickly followed by a dangerous civil out- 
break. Sa'ul-mughina, the viceroy of Babylonia, to whom a life of dependence 
was becoming irksome, resolved to throw off his brother's yoke and declare him- 
self king of Babylonia in his own right. By a free use of the rich treasures of 
Babylonian temples, he induced UmmanigaS, now ruler of western Elam, to forget 
his indebtedness to Asurbanipal and join him in his revolt. The cruel punish- 
ments inflicted by Asurbanipal on the hostile chiefs at the close of the previous 
war made it easy for Sa'ul-mughina to find sympathizers among other neighboring 
peoples, and he enlisted in his cause a powerful Arabian tribe and one of Mero- 
dach-baladan's grandsons, Nebobelsumi. With every prospect of success, he was 
prepared to advance into Assyria, when his plans were defeated by a disturbance 
in another quarter. The weakness of the forces retained by Ummanigas at Susa 
tempted Tammarit, ruler of eastern Elam, to make himself master of the western 
province also, and accordingly he surprised Susa and put Ummanigas to death. 
He was disposed, however, to continue the policy of Ummanigas, and went to as- 
sist Sa'ul-mughina in his revolt. In his absence, a mountain chieftain, Indabigas 
by name, came down upon Susa and occupied Tammarit's throne. The army of 
Elam in Babylonia refused to assist Tammarit to regain his throne and returned 
home in a body. Tammarit fled into concealment, and later made his way to 
Nineveh. Sa'ul-mughina, thus abandoned by his strongest allies, was obliged to 
assume the defensive. But his walled towns fell one by one, till finally Babylon 
itself was taken. Before opening the gates, however, the populace, maddened by 
the pangs of hunger, had seized Sa'ul-mughina and burned him alive. Many of 
the nobles who had taken part in the insurrection were put to death, while those 
for whom this was not the first offence were mutilated and their limbs cast to the 
beasts of prey. Nebobelsumi, however, escaped and found refuge with the mount- 
ain chieftain Indabigas at Susa. 

It was probably about this time that the subject provinces in the west were 
lost to the Assyrian empire. Psammetichus, the son of Necho, who after his 
father's death at Memphis had been appointed a governor In the Delta, seized the 
opportunity presented by the engagement of all the Assyrian forces in Babylonia 
and Elam to renounce his allegiance, and invited Gyges to do the same. The lat- 

62 The Old Testament Student. 

ter, whose friendly embassy and gifts had been received by Asurbanipal as an act 
of submission, and who had been required to send tribute, though his country had 
never been actually invaded by Assyrian arms, was quite ready to do so, and also 
sent aid to Psammetichus. These forces, believed to be the lonians and Carians 
mentioned by Herodotus, were of great assistance to Psammetichus, and Egypt 
under the dynasty then established, known as the twenty-sixth Saite dynasty, 
began a long and prosperous independence. It would perhaps have been better for 
Gyges to have kept his troops at home ; for shortly after this, his country was 
overrun by a horde of barbarians, supposed to be the Cimmerians, on whose de- 
feat he was congratulating himself when he sent his second embassy to Asur- 
banipal. Gyges himself lost his life and was succeeded by his son Ardys. 
Lenormant thinks this invasion of the Cimmerians was made by invitation of 
A.surhaiiipal. However that may be, Asurbanipal seems to have made no effort 
to retain possession of Egypt. To hold it thus far had already necessitated three 
campaigns, and he seems to have regarded further efforts as futile, owing to the 
distance of Egypt and the present occupation of all his forces in Babylonia. He 
refused to be distracted from the work in hand. If it was his intention to take 
up the Egyptian affair when the war in Elam should be finished, he probably 
found when that time came that Psammetichus was too firmly established to 
make the attempt practicable. 

On the death of Sa'ul-mughina and the punishment of the Arabian chieftains, 
a peace of several yeai's followed. Asurbanipal demanded of Indabigas the sur- 
render of Nebobelsuuii, but did not trouble himself to enforce the request by 
arms. Internal troubles in Elam, however, soon again invited Asurbanipal's in- 
terference. IndabigaS was slain by Ummanaldas, chief of his bowmen, who 
seized the throne but had to maintain it against numerous other claimants. As 
a pretext for war, Asurbanipal renewed his demand for the person of Nebobel- 
sumi, and when this pretext was made void by the suicide of the refugee, who 
found that be was to be given up, .Vsurbanipal did not wait for other excuse, but 
overran the country. Ummanaldas succeeded in maintaining himself in the 
mountains of eastern Elam, but western Elam was taken and placed under the 
authority of Tammarit, who as mentioned above, had been a refugee at the court 
, of Asurbanipal since the inroad of Indabigas. But be had not held this position 
long, before be was discovered to be plotting to make himself independent of 
Assyria. He was seized and sent in chains to Xineveh. A second attempt by 
Ummanaldas to possess himself of the whole territory was followed by the subju- 
gation of both divisions. The entire country was devastated and its cities were 
spoiled. The crowning act of this long series of wars was the complete subjuga- 
tion of all Elam and its organization as a province of the Assyrian empire, ruled 
by Assyrian officers. In a battle near Damascus, ASurbanipal severely chastised 
the Arabian chiefs who had assisted Sa'ul-mughina, after which the country 
seems to have enjoyed peace till his death. 

[To be concluded in November number.] 


The Muslim's Faith.* — The common conception of Muhammadauism errone- 
ous. In order to gain the reverent submission of two hundred millions Islam must 
have had some great truths to teach. These v?ere (1) belief in a Ood, "a real, 
living, personal God, the Creator, the Sustalner, and the Governor of the whole 
human race." Eatioualism is foreign to Islam; the incarnation is not a strange 
thing, and the trinity was declaimed against only as Muhammad understood it. 
(2) Belief in a divine revelation made " in many portions and in divers manners." 
Not only, however, was the Torah revealed to Moses, the Psalms to David, the 
Evangel to Jesus and the Koran to Muhammad, but Muhammad is the " ' seal of 
the prophets' to the abrogation of all other religious dispensations." (3) Belief 
in a future life, in which all men shall be rewarded or punished for the things 
done in the body. It is and always will be a question, how far the sensual char- 
acter of heaven was to be taken Literally, but the hell of the Koran is one of literal 
fire. (4) Belief in salvation by faith, defined by theologians as " the confession of 
the Ups, and the confidence of the heart." Yet every inducement was held out 
to lead men to tlie performance of good deeds. The moral code was definite and 
very strict. (5) Belief in a sacrifice, the great central feast of Islam being a day 
of sacrifice, a witness, though unconscious that " without the shedding of blood 
there is no remission." The missing link in the Muslim's creed is the crucifixion 
of Christ. (6) Belief in prayer ; five times a day he adores God and seeks forgive- 
ness and guidance ; these prayers formal perhaps, but not more so than those of 
millions of so-called Christians. And there is scarcely a sentence in the whole 
liturgy which a Christian might not utter. It is a matter for thankfulness that 
in a day when prayer is scoffed at, Islam teaches its reality to so many millions. 

(7) Belief in the absolute predestination of good and evil. " From the beginning 
God created one family for Paradise and another for hell. Hence the fatalism 
which enervates and demoralizes the social and national life of all Muslim people." 

(8) Belief in the second coming of Christ, not taught definitely in the Koran, but 
referred to frequently in the Traditions. (9) Belief in the need of divine grace; a 
prayer recited forty times a day begins, " Guide thou us m the straight path, the 
path of those to whom thou art gracious." In deahngs with Muhammadans, use 
should be made of the great truths which they already possess. Here is a basis 
upon which a superstructure may be erected. The method of attack is wrong 
and will prove futile. It is not the method employed either by Christ or by the 
Apostles. Muhammadauism has failed to regenerate men; so does Judaism. 
Both have failed simply because they were not Christianity. 

A clear, and direct presentation of facts little known and less appreciated. If it is a true 
one, and the author is an authority, the suggestions which he makes concerning one of the 
great problems of the age would seem to be of a most practical character. 

* Rev. Thomas Patrick Hughes, M. R. A. S., Lebanon Springs, New York. The Andover 
Review, July 1888. Pp. 23-35. 

64 The Ou) Testament Student. 

The Higher Criticism in its Theological Bearings.* — The higher criticism is 
modern in its origin. While scholars of former days concerned themselves with 
the text of Scripture, questions are now being discussed as to the composition, 
the credibility, the integrity and literary form of the biblical writings. The issue 
of these modem investigations has left the New Testament practically whole and 
unharmed. But the is different with the Old Testament and especially with 
the Pentateuch. The critical scholars of the Old Testament to-day are practic- 
ally unanimous in maintaining the composite character of the Pentateuch. It is 
probably a compilation of at least four separate documents all subsequent to the 
time of Moses. This theory being accepted, what are the results to theology ? 
Are they inconsistent with the Christian faith 'i While some conceptions of the 
Old Testament will be altered or destroyed, its essential character as a book of 
infallible moral and religious teaching will remain. In support of this it is to be 
noted (!) that though not written by Moses, it is no forgery unworthy of credit, for 
the book as a whole does not claim to have been written by Moses. Nor, indeed, 
was there in those days any notion of literary ownership, and it was not regarded 
as dishonorable to put one's ovni words into the mouth of another. It was never 
done in order to deceive. (2) This theory does not impeach the veracity of Christ, 
for lie did not claim to be omniscient, and in many things he was willing to work 
in harmony with the views of his age. His authority does not decide the question ; 
for it in this case becomes simply the authority of that generation of the Jews 
that crucified Him. (3) This theory leaves the history just as credible as does 
the traditional view ; for both must allow the use of earlier documents by the 
author or authors. The Pentateuch, tliough written late in the life of the nation, 
is in entire liarmony with the earlier historical books, and indeed, on this hypoth- 
esis, is more fully brought into accord with them. Tradition among ancient peo- 
ples was a valuable method of transmitting the knowledge of events. Among the 
Hebrews, especially, it was largely free from myth and legend. (4) But this theory 
does alter the traditional conception of the course of religious life and thought in 
Israel. They did not receive their entire law, theology and ritual at the begin- 
ning. Not a gloriously complete divine revelation followed by a thousand years of 
apostasy, but a growing apprehension and appropriation of the Jehovah who 
dwelt among them, is the view which this theory constrains us to adopt. It was 
this profound consciousness of the divine presence with them that distinguished 
Israel as a people. God was in the life of Israel in a higher and more intensive 
form than in other nations. (5) Tlie law then does not point directly to Christ, but 
only as first it sprang out of the soil of national life. Yet all this national life was 
Messianic. The entire history of Israel is typical of Christ and therefore all parts 
of its literature and life find their fullness in Him. Thus the new view is not 
found necessarily fatal to the Christian faith. It is a theory about the Bible. 
Christianity neither stands nor falls with any theory of the Bible. 

The article will generally be regarded as takiiij,' ground which the evanifellcal rank and flie 
are not ready to accept. It is a phase of the question worthy of careful consideration. The tone 
and spirit are very liberal, yet entirely constructive. 

Tlic Characteristics of Hebrew Poetry.t— (1) Hebrew poetry has the qualities of 
all true poetry,— noble thought, expressed rhythmically, impressively, imagina- 

* By Rev. Wm. Rupp, D. D., Reformed Quarterly Review. July, 1888. Pp. 3M-3T7. 
+ By John n. Thomas in The Presbyterian Qiuirtcrly, July, 1888. Pp. 261-274. 

Sttstopses of Important Articles. 65 

tively. The poetic nature was characteristic of the Hebrew people throughout 
their history. (2) That so much of the divine revelation is written in poetry is 
explained by the fact that the human heart is most easily and deeply stirred by 
great thoughts rhythmically expressed. 

The characteristics of Hebrew poetry are (1) chiefly and universally, its relig- 
ious purpose; (2) the absence of any consciousness of art; (3) unity; (4) the total 
absence of any use of, or approach toward, fiction ; (5) directness, simplicity and 
sincerity ; (6) the use of the bolder figures of speech ; (7) joyousuess ; (8) the 
employment of imagery drawn from the natural scenery of Palestine, from domes- 
tic life, from Hebrew history ; (9) artistic form ; (10) sublimity. 

A presentation, in some respects hardly up to the times ; but comprehensive and helpful. 

The Unchangeable Word.*— Progress in knowledge involving the passing 
away of much that seemed to be established, is the characteristic of the present 
age. But the truths that were originally written in the Word of God are unal- 
terably the same. The Bible when it came from the hand of God was perfect. 
This is argued (1) from the fact that the same God inspired the whole of it. It is 
as complete and perfect as its divine author. It is substantiated (2) by the attri- 
butes of God. He is unchangeable and perfect, and the revelation he has given 
cannot be less than complete and established forever. This is proved also (3) by 
the great object for which the Scriptures were written — to proclaim to all ages the 
one everlasting gospel. This gospel based on universal human needs is unalter- 
able and cannot be amended or improved. Practical inferences follow : — (1) All 
the great doctrines of the Bible are fixed, whether or not man comprehends them. 
(2) The moral law as laid down in the Bible is forever the same and is forever 
binding on men. 

A staunch and hearty upholding of the most conservative views relating to the Bible. It is 
reassuring-, in these days of so many interrogations, to read such an article. 

A Revised Text of the Hebrew Bible. t— The Revised Version of the English 
Bible is veiy imsatisfactory because it adheres to the massoretic text and fails to 
give any adequate recognition of the critical scholarship of the last two hundred 
years. This massoretic text has no real claim to be considered an accurate tran- 
script of the original manuscripts. Critical scholars for three centuries and more 
have been comparing and emending this imperfect text on the established prin- 
ciples of textual criticism. Examples of these changes are foimd in Gen. 1:1, 
where for shamaim (heavens) is to be read maim (waters) ; also in Judges 3:8, 
where for aram the correct reading is edom ; in Deut. 33:2, where the translation 
of the corrected text is " and came from Meribah-Kadesh." Other changes desir- 
able are to remove passages which are out of place, to their rightful positions, to 
restore the ancient order of the O. T. Books, to give the prophetic writings their 
proper chronological order and assign them to their right authors, and to perform 
a similar service for the Psalms. A text thus amended and altered, the result 
of twenty-five years of close critical study, has been prepared by Prof. Graetz of 
Breslau, and now awaits pubUcation. The cost of publishing such a work will be 
great, and it is hoped that American men of wealth and scholarship will feel it an 
honor to aid in this enterprise. 

* By T. W. Hooper D. D. in The Presbyterian Quarterly, July, 1888. Pp. 308-316. 
+ By A. W. Thayer in Unitarian Review, July 1888. Pp. 58-69. 

66 The Old Testament Student. 

without a doubt the results of such work deserve publication; und yet it is to be feared 
that Professor Graetz, if one may Judge from his emendations already suggested, e. g. in his 
commentary on the Psalms, is too hasty in his conclusions to make the publication as desirable 
as it would otherwise be. 

yii'ws of the Babylonians concerning Life after Death.* — (1) Investigators of 
this subject have been Hindis (1854), Talbot (1871), W. St. Chad Boscawen, and 
Jeremias ( Die Bubylonisch-Axgyrischen VorsUllungen vom Lehen nach dem Tode (1887). 
(2) Sources of information : (a) the story of tlie Descent of Istar to Hades, (trans- 
lated by Mr. Adler iu tliis article); (b) the Nimrod-Epic, in which Nimrod, who 
has lost a friend, resolves to seek out his ancestor, who has been deified, in order 
to obtain the resurrection of his friend and immortality for himself ; but (c) the 
prayers handed down contain no indication of any longing after immortality. 
The rewards offered are " earthly prosperity, long life, and undying progeny." 
Punishments are also earthly, viz., sickness, disease, destruction of progeny, sud- 
den death. (3) Assyrians practiced burial, the denial of which was a great mis- 
fortune. AVTiere they buried is a question. Lower Chaldaja, the original home, 
is thought to have been the burial-place of the entire Mesopotamian Empire. 
The expedition of the Royal Russian Museum (1886) examined ruins of Surghul 
and El-hibba, and found both places to be cities of the dead. The corpses were 
partly buried, partly incinerated. (4) Some information is given concerning the 
funeral ceremonies. (5) General conclusion : The Assyro- Babylonians believe in 
a future life. Reward and punishment, however, were as a rule awarded in the 
flesh. Death was the great leveler, and all went to the same place, a dark, damp, 
uncomfortable abode. This was denied those who were not properly buried. 
For a few favorites of the gods, a happier fate was reserved. They were trans- 
lated to the isles of the blessed and seem to have continued enjoying the same 
sort of existence they had in the upper world. This, however, was exceptional. 
Resurrection was known, but was vested largely in the hands of Allat, the queen 
of the under-world, though the other gods were continually endeavoring to break 
her spell. 

The information contained in this article is valuable; the style and spirit are admirable. 
Perhaps too much space is given to the translations, but lliese are, after all, the most important. 

* By Cyrus Adler, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. The Andover Review, July, 
1888. Pp. 92-101. 



The question of an Old Testament text is, with scholars, both tantalizing and 
important ; tantalizing because of the apparent impossibility of securing within 
the present generation anything at all complete or satisfactory, important because 
so long as the text is confessedly so imperfect, critical results in many lines are 
unattainable. This is the great problem ; but one of the many sub-problems, of 
less inportance only because it is a sub-problem, is that which relates to the text 
of the Septuagint, which, as agreed by all, is the most valuable help in determining 
the Hebrew text. Before any work of much value can be done upon the latter, 
the text of the former must be settled. 

The great primary editions of the Septuagint have been 1 ) that of the Complu- 
tensian Polyglott (1514-1517), 2) that of the Aldine press, but a few months later, 

3) the Roman or Sixtine edition of 1587, and based on the Codex Vaticanus, and 

4) the Alexandrian, issued by the Oxford Press 1707-1720. Of secondary editions 
special value is assigned by our edition to the work of Holmes and Parsons {1798- 
1827) not for the value of its text, but for the textual notes, and to the various 
editions of Tischendorf (1850, 1856, 1860, 1869, 1875, 1880, 1887, the last two 
under Nestle). 

The present edition is a smaller or manual edition issued with as little delay 
as possible, a more complete edition being intended to follow. The former " con- 
fines itself to the variations of a few of the most important uncial codices already 
edited in letterpress or facsimile." In the latter, •' it is proposed to give the va- 
riations of all the Greek uncial MSS., of select Greek cursive MSS., of the more 
important versions and of the quotations made by Philo and the earlier and more 
important ecclesiastical writers." This edition, containing the materials for a 
critical use of the Septuagint, is, of course, far superior to anything which has 
hitherto been offered the student both in quality and price. Tischendorf's, 
edition, up to this time the authority, like the American edition of Gesenius' 
Lexicon, is one which the author, if he were now living, would refuse to recog- 
nize as his own. 


The fifteen chapters of the book take up the following subjects : 1) Abram's 
birth-place; 2) first call; 3) second call; 4) the promised land; 5) Egypt; 6) sep- 

* The Old Testament in Greek accoruino to the SEPTnAGiNT, edited by the Syndics 
of tlie University Press, by Henry Barclay Sweto, D. D., Honorary Fellow of Gonvllle and Caius 
College. Vol. 1 Genesis-IV Kings. Cambridge, at the University Press, 1887. 8vo. Pp. 1-827. 
New York : Macmillan & Co. Price, $2.25. 

+ Abraham: His Life and Times. By Kev. William J. Deane, M. A., Rector of Ashen, 
Essex. New York: 4nsoiiX). F.Bandolphcfc Co. 12nio. Pp.179. Price $1.00. 

68 The OtD Testament Student. 

aration; 7) Chedorlaomer; 8) the covenant; 9) Ilagar— circumcision ; 10) Sodom; 
11) Gerar ai)d Beerslieba; 12) temptation ; 13) Maclipelah ; 14) Isaac's marriage; 
16) closing years— death. The writer has formally adopted no theory of the docu- 
ments of Genesis, his chief authority. He understands the narrative of that 
book to liave been derived from different sources and to have been worked up 
by a compiler into a consistent and fairly complete biography, and this with the 
hints obtained from later Scripture gives us a finished picture of the patriarch. 
Partly because the biblical narrative itself is so full, and hence a biography 
of Abraham must consist largely of material already very familiar, partly 
because the outside sources, at this early period, are comparatively rare and 
unreliable and partly also because of the failure of the writer to build his work 
upon a scientific interpretation of the records given us in Genesis, this volume is 
not so valuable as some others of the series of which it is a part. 


This book is written by Canon Farrar, who is known as a prolific writer and 
profound biblical scholar. In it are all the characteristics which we would 
expect to find in a book written by its distinguished author. The influence 
which surrounded the childhood and youth of Solomon,— his accession to the 
throne,— the initial troubles of his reign,— his notable sacrifice and dream,— the 
splendor of his court,— the building of the temple— its plan and aspect,— the 
other buildings and cities which added to the glory of the kingdom, and the mar- 
velously extended commerce which laid under contribution the products and 
wealth of the surrounding nations, are pictured with an ailist's skill, and we are 
made to see " Solomon in all'his glory." 

The chapter on the decline of Solomon is the saddest and most instructive in the 
book. The depth of the decline is thus presented at the close of the chapter. " lie 
changed the true Israel into a feeble Simulacrum of Egypt,— a pale reflex of 
Phoenicia. He stands out to kings as a conspicuous warning against the way 
in wliich they should not walk. He found a people free, he left them enslaved ; 
he found them unburdened, he left them oppressed; he found them simple, he 
left them luxurious; he found them inclined to be faithful to one God, he left 
them indifferent to the abominations of heathendom which they saw practiced 
under the very shadow of his palace and his shrine; he found them occupying a 
unique position as providential witnesses to one saving truth, he left them a 
nation like other nations, only weaker in power and exhausted in resources." 

The remainder of the book is mainly devoted to a careful consideration of 
the wisdom of Solomon and books attributed to him. He says, " If Solomon's 
authorsliip of the Song of Songs must be regarded as being in the highest degree 
dubious, it must now be looked upon as a certain result of advancing knowledge 
that he was not the author of Ecclesiastes." "In the Book of Proverbs, more 
probably by far than in the other books attributed to Solomon, we may possess 
some of his contributions to the thought of the world." 

This book should be in the library of every thoughtful and devout student of 
the Bible. 

♦ Solomon: His Life and Times. By Rev. F. W. Farrar, D. D., F. R. S., Archdeacon and 
Canon of Westminster; and Cliaplain In ordinary to the Queen. New York: Ansun D. F. 
Rftndiilph <i Co., 38 West Twenty-third Street. 

Book Notices. 69 


The fifth and sixth volume of " The People's Bible," covering Joshua, 
Judges, are on our table. Tweuty-flve volumes are to complete what has been 
called "Parker's greatest work." The author treats the Bible as a book for the 
people, as a revelation from God to the human family in which all the members 
of the family have a common interest. In his view, on the very surface is found 
in history, prophecy and song, in gospels, epistles and apocalypse, that which 
meets the necessities of people of all classes. The alternative title, "Discourses 
upon Holy Scripture," better describes the contents of tlie book. The author is a 
London preacher with a representative congregation of the world's people before 
him. He and they together are going through their own Bible, seeking to grasp 
its grandest truths, to learn its gieatest lessons, and to breathe in its pure and 
lofty spirit. The preacher, Dr. Parker, may be a skillful exegete, but results not 
processes are what he gives the people. The digging and blasting have been done 
in his study, if done at all ; in his pulpit there is no sight of either pickax or ham- 
mer, or smell of powder. We see him only as one moving over a rich mineral 
region, lifting and exhibiting to the people who press around liiui, nuggets of pre- 
cious ore, and discoursing eloquently on their value aud use. Thus he goes 
through the Bible. Those who follow him will, with little effort on their part, 
find a certain profit and enjoyment, but not that profit and enjoyment which come 
from an examination of what lies beneath the surface. A great multitude of 
people, alas that it is so great, can enjoy and be profited by only such a treatment 
of the holy volume. 


This volume treats of one of the most critical periods in the history of the 
Jewish people, and the most remarkable propliet in that history until we come 
to " the days of him in whom all men recognized a second Elijah." The author 
gives us a graphic account of the state of Israel at the first appearance of Elijah. 
He shows us Israel wavering between the worship of the living God aud that of 
Baal, and Elijah, the type of the prophet in all ages, witnessing for tlie truth. 
We see taking place the miglity changes caused by Elijah's bold and fearless tes- 
timony to the existence of the true God. Critical points and points in contro- 
versy are merely touched upon, but where any reference is made to opposing 
views it is with a commendable spirit of fairness. Whenever, in the course of the 
history, ethical or theological questions arise the author has treated them fully and 
clearly. The care given to the interpretation of ditlicult passages, — for example, 
those connected with the ascension of Elijah, — is esiiecially noteworthy. He takes 
Elijah as the type of the Christian minister, and he seizes every opportunity, both 
in the life of Elijah and in the history of his times, to derive practical lessons 
which he presses home to the breasts of his readers. The style of both thought 
and expression is simple and perspicuous. The book is especially practical, and 
will commend itself to all classes of readers. 

* The People's Bible. Discourses upon Holy Scripture by Joseph Parker, Minister of the 
City Temple. Vols. V. and VI. New York: Fuiift * H'nDHnHs. Per vol., $1..50. 

t Elijah: His Life and Times. By Rev. W. Milligan, D. D., Professor of Divinity and Bib- 
lical Criticism, Aberdeen. New Torli : A. D. F. Randulph <t Co. ]3mo. Pp. 205. Price Sl.OO. 


The following- persons have been enrolled as 
members of the Correspondence School dur- 
ing Aug-ust and September: Mr. K. T. Camp- 
bell, Pawnee City, Neb.; Rev. C. E. Chandler, 
Columbus, O.; Mr. H. W. Dickerman, Chicago, 
111.; Rev. C. .T. Dobson, Claremont, Ontario, 
Can.; Rev. J. H. GIrdwood, Ceresco, Mich.; Mr. 
C. V. U. Hodge, Burlington, N. J.; Miss E. E. 
Howard, Charlottesville, Va.; Mr. J. A. Ing- 
ham, Haekcttstown, N. J.; Mr. T. J. Kirkpat- 
rick, Springfield, O.; E. S. Maxson, M. D., Syra- 
cuse, N. Y.; Rev. T. McAulis, Broach, India; 
Prof. R. W. McGranahan. Coultcrsviiic, Pa.; 
Rev. W. P. McKee, Minneapolis, Minn.; Rev. 
B. W. Mebane, Dublin, Va. ; Rev. J. R. Munro, 
Antigonish, N. S., Can.; Rev. D. F. Mus- 
tard, Walton, Kan.; Rev. R. F. Norton, E. Nor- 
wich, N. Y.; Prof. F. W. Phelps, Topcka, Kan.; 
Rev. J. .1. Redditt, Scarboro, Ontario, Can.; 
Rev. J. W. Smith, Xenia, O.; Rev. S. B. Tur- 
rentine. King's Mountain. N. C. : Rev. B. C. 
Warren, Deal's Island, Md.; Mr. E. M. Wherry, 
Le Roy, N. Y. 

It will be noticed that only about one-half of 
the persons in the above list are ministers. 
Of the other half nearly all are students who 
have not yet entered the theological seminary. 
This is an encouraging fact, as it is one of the 
indications of the growth of sentiment in 
favor of the acquisition of Hebrew as a prep- 
aration for the theological course. The still 
larger number who have begun the language 
in the Summer Schools this year furnish an- 
other indication of the same sort. 

The graduates for the two months are Rev. 
W. P. Archibald, Cavendish, Prince Edivard 
Island, Can.; Prof. Holmes Dysinger, Car- 
thage, III.; Prof. D. S. Gage, Macon, 111.; Prof. 
W. H. Long, Waco, Texas; Mr. J. K. McGllllv- 
ray, Winnipeg, Manitoba; Rev. D. D. Owen, 
Pulaski, N. Y.; Rev. D. H. Patterson, TuUy, 
N. Y.; Rev. J. Wood Saunders, Deer Park, 111. 

I'erfect papers have been received from Rev. 
E. H. Barnett, D. D., Atlanta, Ga., 2; Rev. J. P. 
Bowell, Maple Bay, \'ancouver Island, I; Rev. 
G. W. Davis, New Haven, Conn., 1; Mr. John 
A. Ingham, Haekcttstown, N. J., 1; Rev. J. W. 
Smith, Xenia. Ohio, 1; Rev. J. J. Van Zanten, 
Holland, Mich., 1, and Mr. E. J. Young, Wash- 
ington, D. C.,2. 

It is an encouraging fact that more exami- 
nation papers have been received and cor- 

rected in each month this year than in the cot^ 
responding month of the previous year. The 
amount of work done is the real test of the 
success of the School, rather than the number 
of additions to the list of members. 

The attention of the members of the School 
is called to the new Instruction Card, of which 
a copy has been sent to each student. Observe 
particularly the increase in the number of 
prizes otTered to those sending in the largest 
number of examination papers from Dec. 1, 
isas, to Nov. :iOth, 188». Those who are com- 
poting for the prizes offered this year shotild 
remember that less than two months remain 
in which to send in papers. A list of all who 
have forwarded forty or more examlnatloa 
papers during the year will be published In the 
January Student. 

To those students who have covered a con- 
siderable amount of Hebrew work it will be 
easy and very pleasant to take a cognate 
course in Arabic or Assyrian. These studies 
open a fresh field of research, involve new ele- 
ments of linguistic acquisition, bring the stu- 
dent into an unexplored epoch of history, and 
furnish fresh incentives to Hebrew work 
Itself. With the assistance of Mr. K. K. San- 
ders, M. A., a Scholar in Semitic languages in 
Yale University, the principal is able to offer 
courses in these languages, arranged upon the 
same plan and taught by the same methods as 
those of the Hebrew courses. 

Five members of the Correspondence School 
have died within the past year. They are Prof. 
N. H. Ensley, of Rodney, Miss., formerly a pro- 
fessor in Washington, D. C, who will be re- 
membered as one of the colored students by 
those who attended the Chicago Summer School 
of 18&1; Rev. F. K. Lcavell, of Baltimore, Md., 
one of the graduates of last year who took a 
very high rank in the School; Rev. Donald 
MacGregor, of Houston, Texas; Rev. L. R. 
McCormick, of LoweysviUe, S. C, and Rev. E. 
D. Simons, of New York City. 

It may be announced that what is a branch 
of the Correspondence School of Hebrew, has 
been established in Tokio. Japan. This is the 
outgrowth of an interest in Hebrew work which 
is rapidly spreading, and of an appreciation of 
the practical elliciency of the correspondence 
system. Details of this new organization will 
be given later. 



The Sermon Bible: Qenesis to 3 Samuel. N. T.: 
A. C. Armstrong and Son Sl.oO. 

Boitddha. By Jules Claretie. Paris $7.60. 

The Inspiration of the Old Testament inductively 
considered. The 7th Congrregational Union 
Lecture. By Alfred Cave. London: Con- 
gregational Union. 

Juedlwhe Oeschichte., I. Ton ihren Aufiingen bis 
zum Vntergatige d. Reiches Juda. By E. 
Kriihe. Berlin: Oemigke M.4.50. 

Derbiblische Simson der aegyptische Horus-Ra. 
By E. Wietzlse. Wittenberg: Wunschmann. 
.. M.1.40. 

La Bible. Trojduction nouvelle. II. Levitique, 
Nombres, Deuteronomie. Par E. Ledrain. 
Paris : Lemerre 7.50f . 

Die aenesis, mit Unterscheidung der Quellen- 
schriften. By E. Kautzsch and A. Socin. 

Beitraege zur semitischen Religions-geschichtc. 
Der Gott Israel's u. die Goetter der Heiden. 
By F. Baethgen. Berlin: Reuther M.IO. 

Die Zerstrcuung d. Volkes Israel. 3. Hft.: Der 
Thalmud. Berlin: Reuther M.l.SO. 

La Sainte Bible. Texte de la Vulgate, traduc- 
tion franyaise en regard, avec commentaires 
tht'ologiques,etc. Le Deuteronome. Le Nom- 
bres. Par Trochon et Bayle. Paris: Le- 

Introduetion a la critique generale de l' ancien 
tes tnmeut. DeTorigine du Pentateuque. II 
By L'Abbe Martin. Paris: Maisonneuye.SOf. 


Manly's Bible Doctrine of Inspiration. By C. L. 

Diven in New Englander, August, 1888. 
From the Red Sea to Mt. Siiiai. By E. L. Wil- 
son, in the Century, July, 1888. 
Tlie Way of the Philistities. By A. H. Sayce, in 

Independent, Aug. 2, 1888. 
Delitzsch's New Genesis Commentary. Review. 

Ibid, June U. 
Was the Exodus- Pharaoh droimied in the Bed 

Sea! By Prof. J. A. Paine, Ph. D., in the 

Examiner. Aug. 16, '23, 30. 1888. 
The Teaching of Bible History. By J. Sewall in 

Sunday School Times. July 7, 1888. 
Sayce on Babylonian Religion. Review. Ibid. 
Stapfer's Palestine in the Time of Christ. Re- 
view. Ibid, July 14. 
The Offerings of the O. T. By C. A. Briggs. 

Ibid, July 21. 
Westmintter Abbey Lectures on Job. Review. 

TheChokhma. By W. W.Davles. Ibid, Aug. 11. 
Kittel's Oeschichte der Eebraeer. Critique in 

Independent, July 19, 1888. 
Prof. Delilzsch and the Jews. By B. Pick. Ibid. 
An old Babylonian Letter. By T. G. Pinches. 

Ibid, Aug. 23. 
The Book of Job: with reference to Chap. 19: 

23-27. By Rev. W. B. Hutton in Expositor, 

Aug. 1888. 
Delitzsch's Oenesis. By Kautzsch in Theol. 

Ltztng, July 28, 1888. 
Merx's Chrestomathia Targumiea. By Baeth- 

gen. Ibid, Aug, 11. 
Heiligstedfs Praeparationen zum Propheten 

Jesaja. By Budde. Ibid. 
Dalman's Der leidende und der sterbende 

MessiasM.s.vr. By Siegfried. Ibid. 
T?it' Lake of Moeris and the Patriarch Joseph. 

Bv F. C. Whitehouse in Camb. Antiq. Soo. 

Comm. XXVIII., 1888. 
Tlic Name of "Moses." By A. H. Sayce in 

Academy, July 7, 1888. 

"Mosheh and Mastt." The Name "Moses." 

By G. W. CoUins and E. B. Birks. Ibid, 

July 14. 
Notes on certain passages in Dcutero-Isaiah. 

[40:19; 44:11; 46:14; .52:2:. By A. A. Bevan in 

The Jour, of Philol. XVII., 1888. 
EzechieVs Weissagung wider Tyrus. Cap. 26, 27, 

38. By C. H. Manchot in Jahrbb. f. prot. 

Theol. 3. 1888. 
Das Buch Daniel u. die assyriologische For- 

schung. 2. Das Mahl des Belsazar. By O. 

Andrea in Bew. d. Glaubens. July, 1888. 
Die nordamcricanisehen pentatcuchkritischen Es- 
says. By F. Delitzsch in Ztschr. f. kir. Wiss. 

u. Leb. 5. 1888. 
Questions actuelle d'exegese et d'apologie biblique. 

III. Les objections contre I'origine Mosaique 

du Pentateuque. By J. Brucker in Etudes 

rel. philos. et hist. July, 1888. 
Micha Studien. I. Tegcnicoordige stand van het 

Micha Traagstuck. By J. W. Pont in Theol. 

Stud., 4, 1888. 
The Pentateuchal Story of Creation. By Geo. 

D. Armstrong, D. D., in Presby. Quarterly, 

October, 1888. 
Ewald's Old and New Testament Theology. By 

J. L. Girardeau. Ibid. 
Ladd's What is the Bible. By S. M. Suiith. Ibid. 
Jeremias\ Die BabyUmish.assyrischen Vnrstel- 

lungen voni Lcbcn tiach dem Tode. By Budde 

in Theol. Ltrzt., Sept. 8, 1888. 
L'entree des Israelites en Canaan et I'Egypte. By 

R. Chatelanat in Rev. Chret., 8, 1888. 
The Ten Tribes. By C. R. Conder in the Pales- 
tine Exploration Fud, July, 1888. 
The Burial of Moses. By A. R. Thompson, D. 

D., in S. S. Times. Sept. 8, 1888. 
The Ten Commandments as a covenant of Love. 

By H. C. Trumbull, D. D., in S. S. Times, 

Sept. 1.';, 22, 1888. 
The Temples of Egypt. By Edw. L. Wilson in 

Scribner's Magazine, October, 1888. 
The Song of Solomon. By A. H. Moment, D. 

D., in The Treasury, October, 1888. 
The Text-Critical Value of the Septucw'nt. By 

Prot. G, H. Schodde in The Independent, 

Sept. 27, 1888. 
Michael Heilprin: Life nf a Hebrew Scholar. 

By J. W. Chadwlck in Unitarian Review, 

September, 1888. 
Drummond's Philo. Ibid. 
The Pool of the Serpents. By Prof. J. A. Paine 

in Independent, Sept. 13, 1888. 
Immanuel. Editorial. Ibid. 
Mrtses' Idea of God. By E. M. Epstein in Chris- 
tian Quarterly Review, October, 1888. 
The Origin. Mission and Destiny of, and the 

Christian's Relation to. Civil Oovemment,from 

the Old Testament. By David Lipscomb. Ibid. 
Cheyne's Booh of Psalms. ByA. W.Benn. Ibid., 

Sept. 8; also in Athenspum, Sept. 1. 
Junior-right among the Canaanites. By O. Neu- 

bauer. Academy, Sept. 1.5. 
Junior-right in Qeyiesis. By J. Jacobs in Archae- 
ological Review, July, 1888. 
Lenormant's HistoireAnciennc del' Orient. Athe- 

niEum, Sept. 15. 
The 3Ionoliths of Cyprus. By S. P. OUver, R. A. 

Idea of O. T. Priesthood fulfilled in the N. T. By 

Rev. Prof. W. Milligan, D. D., in The Expos- 
itor, September, 1S88. 
The Pentateuch: Egypticity and authenticity. By 

G. Lansing. D.D. Ibid. 
Die Essener. By R. Ohle in Jahrb. f . prot. Theol., 

July, 18S8. 
Dawson's Modem Science in Bible Lands. By 

W. Houghton in Academy, Sept. 1, 1888. 




[CofyditM l.y W. R. H>r]Kr, ISSJ.] 

Forty Studies on the Life of the Christ, based on the Gospel of Mark. 

Edited by William R. Harper, Tale University, New Haven. 


Besome of Studies l.-VW. 1. The ministry of John as a preparation for the Ctirist. 2. The early 
life of Jesus and the events which opened the way to his public ministry. 3. An outline 
of hie life and work from the baptism to the events now to be considered. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mark 2:1-22, and be able to make a definite statement upon each 
of the following points : 

1. return to Capernaum (v. 1) ; 5. associates of Jesus (v. 15) ; 

2. a paralytic healed (vs. 2-12) ; 6. Jesus criticised ; lie replies (vs. 

3. teaching by the sea (v. 13) ; 16,17) ; [22). 

4. a new disciple (v. 14); 7. discussion about fasting (vs. 18- 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. With vs. 1-23 of. Mt. 9:2-17; Lk. 5:i;-S». 

2. Note in Matthew, 1) the brevity of the narrative of the miracle; 2) the multitude's Idea about 

Jesus, V. 8, "men"; 3) the name Matthew, 9:9; 4i a characteristic addition, 9:1!!. 

3. Note In Luke, 1) the audience, 5:1J; 2) the condition of Jesus, 6:17; 3> details about Levi, 


4. Note in both, 1) more dcflnlto statements about the opposition to Jesus, Mt. 9:4; Lk. 5:30; 

2) the fear of the people, Mt. 9:8; Lk. 5:20. 

m. The Material Esiilained. 


1) V. 1. T/ie house; I.e. of Peter, cf. 1:29. (Num. 23:5,lfi; Deut. 30:14; Isa. 2:3; 

2) T. 2. (a) Observe Mark's characteristic de- etc.); and by the apostles (2 Tim. 4:2; 

tails which appear also in vs. 3,4. Do James 1:21; I Pet. 2:81. 

they suggest that here Is the narra- 3) V. 9. Mansick-nf-thc-palny; i. e. a paralytic. 

tlve of an eye-witness? 4) V. 4. Note the phrases uiicowied and /ir(*cii 

(b) The word; (Mk. 1G:20; Lk. 1:2; « up (lit. "scooped it out"), and ob- 

Acts »:4). Abbreviated term for the serve their appropriateness to an ori- 

gospel of the Kingdom of God; cf. ental dwelling. 

Mt. 13:19; note similar use in theO.T. 

New Testament Supplement. 73 

5) T. 5. Faith; (a) of whom? (b) in what? U) V. 16. (a) Publicans ; cf. Lk. 3:13; 19:8; Mt. 

6) T. 8. Perceiving, etc.; contrasted with the 5:46,47; 18:17; 31:33. From these and 

"reasoning" of the scribes, an im- other passages learn something of 

mediate and full spiritual insight; their business and social position 

What light on the intellect of Jesus? from the Jewish stand-point. 

7) T. 9. (a) -Ts; emphatic. What was the un- (b) SiHiiCT's; either (l)mei-ely foreign- 

derlying thought of the scribes ? ers, or (3) persons who did not strictly 

8) T. 10. (a) Son of Man; (cf. Dan. 7:13,14) (1) a observe the Jewish law, or (3) people 

title of the expected Christ, but not of vicious lives. 

in common use; (2) it emphasizes his (c) Disciples; (1) first used here in 

lowliness and universal human rela- Mark to describe Jesus' associates; 

tions; (3) it both reveals and conceals (2) meaning of the word; (3) whom 

that he is the Christ. did it here include ? 

(b) Power; note Jesus' consciousness 13) V. 16. P/iarisecs; meaning of the word? 

of authority, cf. 1:23,27. 13) T. 18. (a) John's disciples; (1) where was 

9) V. 13. (a) Sca-stde; what sea? John? (3) how account for their 

(b) Multitude; describes a social class, union with the Pharisees in view of 

"the common people" (cf. 12:37). Mt. 3:7? (3) motives in their ques- 

10) V. 14. (a) Levi; (1) meaning of the name? tion? 

(2) another name, Mt. 9:9; (3) how (b) Were fasting; i. e. at the time of 

explain the fact of two names ? cf . this feast. Reasons why Jesus and 

Mt. 16:17,18; Acts 13:9. (4) what prob- his disciples should fast; (1) either it 

ability of his previous acquaintance was a legal fast-day, or (3) as a mark 

with Jesus ? of their piety, 
(b) ■place-of-toll ; custom-house; why 
needed in this region ? 


1) The Miracle. Vs. 3-12. (a) From the material at hand seek to picture the 

whole scene as vividly as possible ; (b) note in relation to the person healed, 
his disease and apparent physical condition ; (c) study the word of forgive- 
ness (v. 5), and consider the possible inferences from it as to (1) the man's 
mental and moral state, (2) the insight of Jesus, (3) the prominence of the 
spiritual element in his work; (d) observe the internal evidence for the 
miracle, (1) the opposition of the scribes silenced, (2) the feelings of the 
people (v. 12), (3) other possible arguments. 

2) First Principles. Vs. 17,19-22. (a) Note carefully the characteristics of these 

answers of Jesus as (1) indirect, (2) pictorial (cf. Lk. 5:36, "parable"), (3) 
comprehensive; (b) study each one as exhibiting some phase of Jewish 
life, e. g. (1) medicine, (2) marriage {explain these words as connected with 
a marriage, sons-of-the-bride-chamber,^'' ^^ bridegroom," "cannot /ast," " shall- 
be-taken-away ") ; (3) clothing (explain ''undressed" '' fiU it up" ''worse 
rem"); (4) making and keeping of wine; (c) decide whether these phrases 
have each a special meaning in the teaching which Jesus here conveys, and 
if so, note especially "sick" [v. 17), "bridegroom" (v. 19, ef . John 3:29), 
" shall-be-taken-aioay " (v. 20), "old garment" (v. 21), "new wine," "fresh 
wine-skins " (v. 22). (d) Study the whole (1) as answers to the criticisms of 
vs. 16,18; (2) as revealing the principles of Jesus concerning the persons he 
seeks, and his methods of dealing with them ; (3) as disclosing the spirit of 
the new company ; (4) as opposed to the prevailing religious ideas of the time. 

IV. The Material Organized. 

1. Classify the material, as in previous "studies," under the following heads : (1) 
persons; (2) habits and customs; (3) institutions; (4) miracles; (5) impor- 
tant events; (6) characteristics of Jesus; (7) literary data. 

74 The Old Testament Student. 

2. Condense the material into the briefest possible statement under the leading 
thought of Beginnings of Opposition, e. g. : 

Questions arc raised in the course of the work of Jipsds about his right (1) to 
fortrive sius, (2) to associate with publicans and sinners and (:5) to refrain 
from fasting'. He answers the llrst by working a miracle of healing; the 
second, by the deelaratiun that his mission is tu call sinners ; the third, by 
showing that fasting is not suited to the spirit of his disciples and would only 
injure their religions life. 

V. The Material Applied. 

Fasting. 1. The spirit and purpose of fasting as a religious exercise. 2. Its rela- 
tion to the Clirlstian life; 1) regarded as foreign to tlie spirit of Jesus, 
2) allowable and desirable in certain circumstances, 3) the great condition 
■which regulates its use (vs. 1 9. :iO)— relation to Jesus Christ, 4) limitation 
of its practice, e. g. by health, duty, personal feelings, etc., 5) dangers both 
physical and spiritual in its exercise, 6) its relation to the religious needs 
of the present day. 

Besume. I. Recall the occasions on wbicb Jesus be^ran to encounter opposition. 2. Mention the 
persons from whom it came. 3. Note the teachings of Jesus which were likely to arouse It. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mk. 2:23-3:6, and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

1. Disciples pluck grain in the fields 4. Jesus in the synagogue (ch. 3:1); 
on the Sabbath (v. 23); 5. Pharisees watcli him (v. 2); 

2. Pliarisees question (v. 24); 6. a withered hand healed (vs. 3-5); 

3. Jesus replies (vs. 25-28) ; 7. plots against Jesus (v. 6). 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. With2:23-;^:6. cf. JIt. 12:1-14; I.k. 6:1-11. 

2. Obsers-e additional points: 1) explanatuiy. Mt. li:l,9,10,lS: Lk. 6:1,6-8,11; 2) characteristic. 

Ml. 12:5-7 ; 3) another arKumtnt, Mt. 12:11,12. 

3. Review the order of events in Mk. 2:1 3:«, and note how Matthew follows a different order. 

Cf. nt. 9:18-11:30. 

III. The Material Explained. 
1. textual topics and questions. 

1) V. 23. Ears of com; (a) either wheat or bar- 4) V. 26. (a) Abiatliar; (1) the historical diflB- 

Icy; (b) both ripened in April. The culty here; (2) various explanations 

time of the event may have been proposed? 

either just before or just after the ib) Shewbread; cf. Lev. 24:6-9. What 

Passover. reason for supposing this event to 

2) T. 24. Nat lawful; (a) the three-fold action have occurred on the Sabbath ? 

of the disciples, cf. Mt. 12:1; Lk. 6:1; (c) Gave lo Oicm; what added argu- 

(b) of. Deut. 23:i;5; Ex. 16:25,2ti; 20:9,10, ment here? 

and determine what was the offense 5)Ch.S:l. T/ic tiynagogue; i. e. of Capernaum, 

charged. cf. Mk. 1:21. 

3) T. 25. What David did; (a) examine the his- 6) V. 2. (a) Watclied; a new attitude toward 

tory referred to: (b) wherein lay the Jesus, 

force of this argument ? 

New Testament Supplement. 75 

(b) Accuse; of what crime before and feeling and action, (3) they are them- 

what tribunal (cf. Mt. 26;o9) ? selves responsible for it. 
7) T. 5. (a) l/ookeil round about; characteristic 8) ?. 6. (a) Herodians ; (1) meaning of the 

detail of Mark. name, (3) a party opposed in politics 

(b) The human feelings of Jesus, (1) and doctrine to the Pharisees, 
anger, (2) grief, (3) compassion. (b) Dentrny; cf. E.\. 31:15. 

(c) Hardening; (1) a process going on, 

(2) a growing incapacity for right , 


1) The Sabbath, (a) Read Ex. 20:8-11; 31:12-17; 35:3; Num. 15:32-36; Dent. 

5:15, and consider the law of the Sabbath and the ground given there for its 
observance ; (b) gather, from wliatever sources accessible, facts as to the 
existence of a Sabbath among other ancient peoples ; (c) learn something of 
the method in which this law was interpreted and applied to social life by 
tlie Jewish teachers in the time of Jesus ; (d) mark the relation of Jesus to 
this law, (1) superior to it, 2:28, (2) restoring its real purpose and giving 
its true interpretation, 2:27; 3:4 (cf. Lk. 14:2-6; 13:10-17), (3) making it, in 
certain respects, of none effect for himself and his disciples. 

2) The Miracle. Mk. 3:1-6 (and parallels), (a) Bring the scene in its details 

clearly and vividly before the mind ; (b) the special characteristics of this 
miracle, (1) on the Sabbath, (2) without touch or direct command; (c) evi- 
dence for its reality in (1) the incurable nature of the ailment, (2) the atti- 
tude of the Pharisees before and after the event; (d) its purpose as (1) a 
proof of power, (2) an illustration of his teaching about the Sabbath, (3) a 
manifestation of mercy. 

3) Hostility to Jesus, (a) Compare this attitude and action of the scribes and 

Pharisees with their former relations to Jesus, cf. John 2:18 ; 4:1 ; Mk. 2:6, 
7,16,18; (b) causes for their present hostility (1) in the actions of Jesus (cf. 
John 5:16), (2) in his teachings, (3) in his claims; (c) how far this opposi- 
tion may be regarded as prompted by honest religious motives ; (d) causes 
for the hostility of the Herodians ; (e) significance of their union with the 
Pharisees against Jesus. 

IV. The Material Organized. 

1. Oather the material and classify it under the following heads: 1) persons; 2) 

historical allusions ; 3) miracles ; 4) teachings ; 5) Jesus as man ; 6} habits 
and customs ; 7) institutions. 

2. Condense the material into the smallest possible compass, e. g. : 

1) § 1. ch. 2:23, On the way through the fields the disciples pluck grain. 

V. 24, Pharisees asis why they do this unlawful thing. 

V. 25, Jesus asks what David did when hungered. 

V. 26, He ale the shewbread and gave to his men. 

V. 27, The Sabbath was made for man. 

V. 28, So that the Son of Man is its lord. 

Jesus, defending Ms disciples accused of violating the Sabbath law by plucking grain, 
cites the similar action of David, claims the Sabbath for man and asserts his own 
lordship over it. 
i 2. ch. 3:1, Jesus is in a synagogue on the Sabbath with a man whose hand is withered. 

V. 2, They watch to accuse him if he heals it. 

V. 3, Jesus says to him. Stand forth. 

V. i, Heasksthem, Is it lawful to do good, to save life, or its opposite? They are silent. 

V. 5, Looking at them with anger and grief for their attitude, he bids the man stretch 
forth his hand and it is healed. 

76 The Old Tbstament Student. 

r. A. Pharjseee consult with Herodlans to destrojr him. 

Jemtg, In a minagogue on the Sahhath before thoK loaUhing to accuse htm of Sabbath- 
breaktng, claims the right to do good and then heats a withered hand. At once counsel 
is talten to destroy him. 

2) Let the student now seek to combine into a single condensed statement the 
essential ideas of ii 1 and 2. 

V. The Material Applied. 

Sabbath Observance. 1 . Ha\'ing a.scertained the relation of Jesus to the Sab- 
bath law, seek to determine I) how far those Christians are right wlio keep 
the Sabbath in obedience to the literal requirements of the law ; 2) how 
far they are right who regard the Jewish law of the Sabbath as having 
ceased to be binding on Christians. 2. The need of a Sabbath rest both for 
man and beast. 3. The Christian idea of a Sabbath and the spirit of its 
obseiTance. 4. Practical applications of these ideas to 1) different classes 
of people, e. g. working men, children, etc.; 2) different kinds of occupa- 
tions suitable for the Sabbath. 


Bwame. 1. Tho attitude of Jesus toward the Jewish Sabbath. 2. Practical illustrations of this 
attitude given by Jesus and his disciples. 3. Resulting feelings and action of the Phar- 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mk. 3:"-19a, and be able to make a definite statement upon each of 
the following points : 

1. Jesus withdraws to the sea; many 5. Jesus calls his disciples and or- 
follow (vs. 7,8); dains twelve; their work (vs. 

2. the attending boat (v. 9) ; [10); 13-15); 

3. effect of his acts of healing (v. 6. their names (vs. 16-19). 

4. witness of unclean spirits re- 
buked (vs. 11,12); 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. With Mk. 3:7-19 of. Mt. 12:15-21 ; I.k. 0:12-19. Under the points of the above analysis gather 

all additional material srlven in these parallel passages. 
t. With Mk. 3:16-19 cf. Mt. 10:2-4 ; Acts 1:13. 

in. The Material Explained. 


1) V. J. ira/idrew; (a) WhyV Mt. 12:15; (b) 4) V. 9. LcM they Uirong him; vaa tue pres- 

a permanent retirement from the sure of tho crowd unpleasant to 

cities us the main field for his work. Jesus ? 

2) T. 8. (a) Let these countries be located 5} V. II. Son of Ood; a clearer testimony 

on the map. than in l:-'4. 

(b) Tldngshedid; Mark emphasizes 6) V. IS. (a) Die mountain; where? 

the doings of Jesus. (b) He himsidf u-oidd; i. e. implying 

3) Ts. 9-12. Observe the many details given in deliberate choice on the part of 

Mark alone. Jesus, ct. John 6:70; 15:16. 

New Testament Supplement. 77 

7) T. 14. Send-forth ; the same root- word as (b) Thomas ; another name (John 

in "apostle." 11:16). 

8) V. 16. SumaTned; cf. John 1:13. (c) AlphcBXis: (1) of. 2:14; (2) if the 

9) V. 17. Boanerges; appropriateness of the same person, note the relation of 

name; cf. Lk. 9:54; Mk. 9:38; 10:37. James and Matthew. 
10) V. 18. (a) Bartholotnexv ; (1) meaning of the (d) Cananoean; (1) meaning; (3) an- 
name; (3) probability of his being other term in Lk. 6:15. 
the same person as Nathaniel, cf. 11) \. 19. Iscariot; (1) meaning; (3) national- 
John l:45-i9; 31:2. ity of Judas (Josh. 15:20,35). 


1) Jesus aud the Multitudes. Ts. 7-12. (a) Observe the wide extent of Jesus' 

fame ; (b) consider the probable motives of the crowds that sought him, 
e. g. (1) curiosity, (2) healing, (3) instruction, (4) other motives (John 6:26 ; 
Mk. 7:1,2); (c) distinguish between the multitudes and the disciples (Mt. 
12:46,49 ; Mk. 3:9 ; 4:10, etc.), (1) not all who sought him were accepted' (Mt. 
8:19; Lk. 9:61,62), (2) conditions of discipleship (Lk. 14:26,27,33) ; (d) in 
view of Lk. 6:17 ; John 6:66, were there many disciples ? 

2) The Twelve. Vs. 13-19. (a) Study the occasion of this organization as found 

in (1) the recent outbreak of hostility, (2) the growing fame of Jesus ; (b) 
the significance in the number appointed (Mt. 19:28; Lk. 22:30); (c) ob- 
serve the characteristics of the twelve, individually and as a body, e. g. (1) 
nationality, (2) education, (3) social position, (4) personal traits, (5) relations 
to one another; (d) reasons for the choice of such men, whether (1) neces- 
sity, (2) their former relations to Jesus, (3) they are preferred by reason of 
their characters ; (e) their relation to Jesus (vs. 14,15) ; (f) estimate some of 
the advantages of this new company, e. g. (1) the personal influence and 
teaching of Jesus concentrated on them, (2) a nucleus formed for the larger 
body of disciples, (3) opportunity for more extended preaching of the Gospel, 
(4) a body of witnesses to Jesus after his death. 

IV. The Material Organized. 

1. Classify the material vJideT the following heads: 1) places; 2) institutions ; 3) 

persons ; 4) important events ; 5) literary data ; 6) Jesus as more than man. 

2. Condense the material into the briefest possible statement. 

§ 1. V. 7, Jesus retires to the sea with a multitude from Galilee. 
V. 8, The fame of his deeds attracts many from other parts. 

The fame of Jc^is attracts multitudes to his retreat hy the sea. 
S 3. V. 9, A boat is to attend him lest they crowd upon him. 
V. 10, His healings cause many sick to crowd upon him. 
V. 11, Demoniacs worship and say. Thou art the Son of God. 
V. 13, He forbids them to make him known. 

A boat is to attend him, for the sick croivd upon him to be healed and the demoniacs 
acknowledge him against ?ii8 will. 

!l 1, 3, Jesus by the sea attracts multitudes, and to avoid the crowd of their 
SICK and the demoniacs whose testimony he forbids, he is attended bt a 


! 3 V. 13, From the mountain he calls certain ones to him. 

vs. 14, 15, He appoints twelve men to be with him and to be sent forth for preaching 
and healing. 
V. 16. Simon surnamed Peter. 

v. 17, James and John, sons of Zebedee, surnamed Boanerges. 

V. 18, Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphseus, 
Thaddeus, Simon Canansean. 

78 The Old Tkstament Student. 

V. ICa, Judas Iscarlnt, the betrayer. 

On (Tie mountain he appoints twelve m«n <u ecmpaniont and apottlet. 

tl 1-8, JpiiD< bT the sea In itteDded br a bout heran«e of the thrOD|;Ing rrondu that iieek beallnf; 
and appointN tnelre men ax coiupaiiiuiiN and aixisllen. 

V. The Material Applied. 

Fellowship with Jesus. 1. The means by whicli the twelve were trained. 
2. Elements of this fellowship of Jesus which made it helpful. 3. How we 
may share in this fellowship. 4. Its purpose — to fit men to help others. 
5. How to exert this helpful influence. 


Beauine. 1. Mention chflnges In the methoils of Jesus. 2. Reasons for these changres. 3. Give 
the names of the twelve. 4. State the purpose of Jesus in appointing: them. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mk. 3:19b-35 and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

1. Multitudes throng the house 4. he replies in parables (vs. 23-30); 
where Jesus is (v. 20) ; 5. his relatives come seeking him 

2. actions and words of his friends (vs. 31.32); 

(v. 21); 6. true relationship to Jesus ex- 

3. scribes slander him (v. 22) ; plained by him (vs. 33-35). 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. WithMk. ;!:2(>-35of. Mt. 12:22-50; Ik. 11:14 :ffi; 8:19-il. 

2. Observe the sections parallel wilh Mk., i. e. Mt. l-.':22-S2.4«-oO; Lk. 11:14-22; 8:18-21. Note 

matter, 1) relating to place and time: 2)aniithcr artfumcnt: Mt. 12:27; 3) other details; Mt. 
12:82,49; Lk. 8:19. 

3. Observe the context, omitted in Mark, i. e. Mt. 12:33-45; Lk. 11:23-36; compare these sec- 

tions of Matthew and Luke. 

4. Note that after Mk. 3:19, the "Sermon on the Mount," given in Lk. 0:20-49; Mt. .j-J is 


5. Conclusions: I) Mark gives details of the actions, but omits many of the sayings of Jesus, of. 

Mk. 3:8; 3) all three narratives similar, set independent of one another. 

III. The Material Explained. 


1) v. 20. (a) A house; i. e. In Capernaum. (b) Holy Spirit; (1) which Jesue 

(b) ^oaiii; cf. Mk. 1 :3:i: 2:2,13; 3:7. claimed to possess; (2) and they called 

2) V. 21. (a) FriemU; i. e. relatives, cf. v. 31. an unclean spirit, cf. v. 30. 

(b) id)/ ?i(j!d; a strong term implying (o) eternal rin; either (1) involving 
a forcible seizure. eternal continuance in sin, or(2)bring- 

(c) said; lit. " kept saying," soin v. 22. ing eternally abiding guilt, cf. Num. 

(d) beside himself; i. e. insane. 1.t:30,31. 

3) T. 22. Beelzeliuh; meaning? ") V. 30. Said; i. e. "kept saying," cf. other oc. 

4) V. 23. (a) Parables; i. e. Illustrations, analo- casions, Mt. 9:34; John 7:20; 8:48,62; 

gies. 10:20. 

(b) HoK'.etc; statethe argument here. 8) V. 31. Standinu without; why 7 of. Lk. 8:19. 

5) V. 27. What additional arguuiein is ifiven 1 9) V. 34. Looking round; characteristic of Mk. 

6) T. 29, (a) BUmpheme; i. e. " speak slander." 

New Testament Supplement. 79 

2. general topics. 

1) The Scribes.* (a) Gather up all the material previously given in relation to 

the scribes; (b) from all accessible sources learn something of (1) their 
origin, (2) their history, (3) their occupation; (c) Jesus' relation to the 
scribes (1) points of resemblance, (2) elements of opposition. 

2) The Relatives of Jesus, (a) Their number and names (cf. Lk. 2:48; Mt. 13:55, 

56) ; (b) what may be inferred as to the disappearance of Joseph from the 
narrative; (c) note the three views concerning his "brethren," (1) later 
sous of Joseph and Mary, cf. Lk 2:7, but also John 19:26,27, (2) sons of 
Joseph by a former wife, (3) cousins, sons of his mother's sister ; (d) their 
opinion of Jesus and his work, (1) they are acquainted with the promises con- 
cerning him, Lk. 2:19,51, (2) unbelief in his methods and ideas, John 7:3-6, 
(3) the motive of their action in Mk. 3:21 ; (e) their relation to Jesus and 
his work afterwards, cf . John 19:25 ; Acts 1:14 ; 1 Cor. 16:7 ; Gal. 1:19. 

IV. The Material Organized. 

1. Classify the material under the following heads: 1) persons; 2) teachings; 3) 

literary data ; 4) Jesus' manner of teaching. 

2. Condense the material into the briefest possible statement : 

§ 1. V. 19b, He enters a house. 

V. 20, Multitudes keep them too busy to eat. 

V. 21, Friends would restrain him saying, " He is mad." 

Bis intense activity makes friends think him mad amd they vjish to restrain Mm. 
i 2. V. 22, Scribes say, He has Beelzebub and so casts demons out. 

V. 23, He replies. "How can Satan cast out Satan?" 

V. 24, " A divided kingdom cannot stand." 

V. 25, "A divided house cannot stand." 

T. 26, "Satan, opposed to himselC, is destroyed." 

vs. 23-26, " Satan would not destroy his own power." 

V. 27, " But first bind the strong man before spoiling his goods." 

vs. 23-27, "Not Satan, but another than Satan would destroy his power." 

V. 28, "All sins and blasphemies of men shall be forgiven." 

V. 29, " Except blasphemy against the Holy Spirit." 

V. 30, Because they said, He has an unclean spirit. 

vs. 28-30, Because of what they said (he added), " Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is 

never forgiven." 
vs. 23-30. Another than Satan must be destroying his power; beware of blasphemy 

against the Holy Spirit, which is never forgiven. 
He replies to scribes who explain his power as from Satan. Satan would be 

destroyed by another than himself; beware of blasphemy against the Holy 

Spirit, which is never forgiven. 

S8 2, 3. His intense activity is ascribed by his friends to insanity, and the scribes 


S 4. V. 31, His relatives seek him. 

V. 32, He is told that they are without. 

V. 33, He asks. Who are they ? 

V. 34, He looks around saying. Behold them!— 

V. 35, They are those who do God's will. 

When told that his relatives are seeking him he declares that these abo^U him who do 
Ood's will are his kinsfolk. 

' See Smith's Bib. Dictionari', Art. Scribes. 

80 The Old Testajtent Student. 

CC l-t. He Is opposed 1) bj his reUtlrea nho think him mad and nonid restrain him: Si hj (ha 
srriheK nho mil his poner Katanlr. He flrht telU the KrrnH*s that another than ^nl&u 
nouhl destro]' Satuii, and tiarns thi>ni ot un onpardonaltle kIh atrainst the llol) Spirit. 
Second, he devlaren of his relathes that those who do (lOd'H irill are his kiusTolk. 

V. The Material Applied. 

The Family. 1. The family as an institution founded and blessed by God. 2. 
Love for family, a natural instinct in its members, and divinely com- 
manded. 3. The teaching of Jesus concerning the family : 1) the true basis 
of filial and fraternal love ; 2) what obligations are superior to those of the 
family and when the latter should be made subordinate ; cf. Lk. 2:49 ; 
Mt. 8:21,22; 10:37. 4. The spirit and life of a Christian family; cf . Eph. 
5:22-6:9, etc. 

<^5?5E 'I'OiiD •:-TES^r^njEp-:- sthdep.-^- 

Vol. VIII. NOVEMBER, 1888. No. 3. 

The real sensitiveness of many to the criticism of the Old Testa- 
ment arises from their loyalty to Christ. They fear lest in impugn- 
ing traditional views concerning the written Word, the crown which 
adorns their Master may in some way be tarnished. Such a feeling is 
right. It is well that in connection with Old Testament study our 
attention should be turned to the life of Christ. Let us, therefore, 
study with inquiring spirit the gospels, seeking to learn just who and 
what manner of person Christ was. We know that he was the Truth ; 
and he longs that His disciples may know the truth concerning Him. 
It may be that some of us will find that our idea of Him has come not 
from the narfative of the New Testament, but from the meshes of 
human speculation and theory that have been woven about Him, so 
that our Christ is somewhat different in many ways from the Son of 
Man who wandered as a Jewish rabbi through the land of Palestine. 

Side by side with the work of investigation and exploration 
going on in the land of the Euphrates, another work no less interest- 
ing and important is being vigorously pushed in the land of the Nile. 
Our readers are acquainted with the work of the "Egypt Exploration 
Fund of England and America," of which Rev. Wm. C. Winslow, Bos- 
ton (525 Beacon street), is vice-president and honorary treasurer for 
America. In another place there is given a list of the discoveries 
already made under the auspices of this " Fund," and of the books 
which it has published. Surely, two points will be conceded by all 
who are interested in this work of Bible illustration, for that is what 
it really is: (i) Such work should be done; and in view of the 
destruction which inevitably awaits all material not immediately 

82 The Old Testament Student. 

cared for, the sooner the work is done the better ; (2) such work, in 
order to be done, must be supported. Large sums are not asked for. 
The total expenditure of the last year, including publication, was 
only $7,500 ; and as Dr. Ward has said, " the annual volumes published 
are abundant remuneration to the subscribers of five dollars." 

The study of the Bible-studies on the " Life and Times of the 
Christ," has been undertaken (i) by a very large number of Christian 
Endeavor Societies ; (2) by College Y. M. C. Associations in many of 
the leading colleges ; (3) by general Y. M. C. Associations in many 
cities ; (4) by classes specially formed for their study in churches of 
various denominations ; (5) by many Sunday-schools ; (6) by hun- 
dreds, even thousands, of individual students. One serious difificulty, 
however, has arisen, a difficulty as unexpected as it is serious. In the 
Christian Endeavor work, and especially in the college work, there is 
a lack of teachers or leaders. There are scores of colleges from 
which the report has come : We can find no man able and willing to 
take the responsibility of guiding us. What is the trouble .'' The 
minister, in some cases, because he is overwhelmed by the demands 
of his parish work ; in others, because he really does not know /unci to 
teach, and though a preacher of the gospel, is incapable of teaching 
it, refuses to accept the leadership. The professor, in some cases, 
because his regular tasks tax him to the utmost ; in others, because he 
has no interest in the subject, or perhaps no knowledge of it, declines 
to serve. What shall be done .■' The crying need of the hour is men 
trained to do scientific Bible teaching. Why do not Christian students 
see this need, and prepare themselves for the work .'' 

" The Bible, whether we will it or not, is to affect us in a thousand ways. It 
is here and is bound to stay. Its inlhience cannot be ignored. Then why not act 
like men ? Wliy remain in ignorance, and affect to scorn this beneficent, and at 
the same time most powerful instalment in the formation of the character of 
individuals and nations? Are not the arguments favoring it overwhelmingly 
convincing? 'NATiy then let prejudice overcome our judgment and bigotry our 
prudence? In the name of justice let us give the Bible a place in our college cur- 
riculum ! Let it be taught of men who have been educated with this end in view. 
Men who have studied the Bible rather than theology. Men who cannot be held 
down by the narrow lines of sectarian creeds and dogmas. When this is done, 
the shame of graduating men and women who know more of the writings of 
Goethe and Shakspere than those of Job and St. John, who comprehend better 
the ethics of Spenser than those of the Bible, who understand better the philoso- 

Editorial. 83 

phy of Plato thaa that of Jesus Christ, will be done away. Then the Bible, appre- 
ciated by educated men and women, will hasten its good work— the civilization, 
elevation and regeneration of humanity." 

This is the plea* of a member of the last graduating class of the 
University of Minnesota. Is it not worthy of the consideration of col- 
lege instructors and trustees .'' This idea is growing. In very many 
colleges the Bible will be taught this year for the first time. In quite 
a number professors have been appointed who begin their work this 
month. Whatever may be said of state institutions it is difficult to 
understand how a denominational college, — and to this class most ot 
our colleges belong, — can satisfy its constituency that there is a 
reason for its separate existence where this Book has no place in 
its curriculum of study. 

"Studying biblical problems from a believing i>oint of view" — 
the thought deserves attention and invites analysis. It does not mean 
bringing to the Scripture antecedent beliefs as to its particular phe- 
nomena, whether they be characterized by the strictest orthodoxy or 
the loosest latitudinarianism. Preconceived views of controverted 
questions, of details in the sacred narrative, though rigidly conserva- 
tive, will not fail to make investigation into its true meaning largely 
barren. Not because they are conservative, not though they should 
be rudely rationalistic, but because they are pre-judgments, do they 
bar the way and handicap the endeavor of the earnest interpreter of 
the Word. Nor does the phrase mean the possession of a well defined 
doctrine of Sacred Scripture as a whole, which is to guide and rule 
investigation. A dominating preconception of what the Bible ought 
to be is as unfruitful in exegesis as similar views of details and por- 
tions of the truth. How then may "the believing point of view" be 
defined .'' What are its characteristics .' To begin with, it implies 
candor, open-mindedness, willingness to be persuaded and convinced 
by facts and by facts only. It is more than that. It is a positive atti- 
tude of friendliness toward the Scriptures as having a divine element, 
as related to God, not a negative indifference or a critical levity in 
handling them. Yet again, he who comes to the word of God "must 
believe that He is." The true student is conscious of an ever-present, 
all-pervading divine Spirit inclining him, with reverence, with a hum- 
ble yet fearless assurance of the best and highest results, to press on 
to the freest and most searching criticism of the Bible. Let the 

* Published In the ArUl (June 7). 

84 The Old Testament Student. 

thoughtful investigator proceed in this spirit to this highest of all 
pursuits. Let him remember the wise words of Richard Rothe : 

" Let the Bible go forth into Christendom as it is in itself, as a book like 
other books, without allowing any dogmatic theory to assign it to a reserved posi- 
tion in the ranks of books ; let it accomplish what it can of itself entirely through 
its own character and through that which each man can find in it for himself ; 
and it will accomplish great things."* 

In the last number of the Student we called attention to a few 
coincidences in terms between the Talmud and the New Testament. 
But there is something more striking than these in the relations of 
these two literatures; that is, the difference between them in dignity, 
reserve and spiritual elevation. There can be no more convincing 
proof of the superiority and inspiration of the New Testament than 
that which a comparison of it with the Talmud presents. While there 
is much in this Jewish literature which is elevated and beautiful, it is 
equally plain that much of it is contradictory and childish. In large 
part it is the product of an unrestrained imagination. Nothing is too 
mysterious for the Rabbins to explore ; no theme is too sacred for 
them to debate with the utmost coolness and confidence. The result 
is a literature full of extravagance, conceit and contradiction. 

In no point is the lofty elevation of the New Testament above the 
Talmud more evident than in its conception of the purpose of God for 
the world. It is raised above all Jewish particularism. Not to be 
Abraham's son by lineal descent, but to be his son by a life of faith 
and obedience entitles to participation in the kingdom of God. 
Christianity contemplates, not a Jewish kingdom of God, but a 
kingdom of God composed of all trustful souls from every tribe and 
nation under heaven. Even the Apocalypse, the most intensely Jew- 
ish book in the New Testament and presenting most analogies to the 
Talmudic language and thought, is elevated above all Jewish narrow- 
ness in its conception of the kingdom of God as a city with gates on 
every side into which the people of earth enter from every land. If it 
is plain that Jewish thought explains some expressions and concep- 
tions which have passed into the New Testament, it is equally plain 
that it can no more explain the New Testament literature in its essen- 
tial contents and spirit than the launching of a ship off the coasts of 
China can explain the tidal wave which rises forty feet on the shores 
of California. 

> SliU Hours, p. 220. 


By Pbof. George B. Steyens, D. D., 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 



The Messiah will bring all Israel to glory, dominion and spiritual perfection. 
This will be the work of the Messianic age, or of the days of the Messiah. AVith 
these days begins the " coming age " (clam habba), the eternal life of which the 
prophets speak. At the end of the Messianic period follows the general judgment, 
and time then passes into eternity. The "coming age" stands in contrast to 
"this age"(cf. Lk. 12:30; 18:30; 20:34,35; Titus 2:12). The "Messianic age" 
is the period which ensues upon Messiah's coming, and includes his reign and re- 
construction of the nation. It forms the introduction to the great olam habba 
which includes both time (from Messiah's coming) and eternity in itself. 

The duration of the Messianic period is variously stated. According to one 
view it was to be two thousand years, so as to make with the two thousand years 
before the law and the two thousand under the law, a sabbatic week of thousand- 
year periods, terminating in the great eternal Sabbath. Others say : forty years, 
in memory of the sojourn in the desert; others four hundred, upon the analogy of 
the period spent in Egypt. There are various other estimates. 

It is noticeable that these computations rest upon supposed analogies drawn 
from some period of Israel's history. Redemption from Egypt remains the great 
historic type of the coming Messianic deliverance. " In any case the Messianic 
age is tliought of as a definite period which brings to its conclusion Israel's his- 
tory in this world, and is designed to be a preparation for eternity — a preparatory 
week for the eternal Sabbath." 


Since .Jerusalem lay in ruins it has been the fixed hope of Israel that the 
nation should yet inhabit the restored city of God. Zion should be again a habi- 
tation and the righteous should dwell again in their former homes. The city 
should be rebuilt with new grandeur. The contrast is drawn between the Jerusa- 
lem of this world and that of the Messianic age (cf. Gal. 4:25). At the Messiah's 
advent, the city is to be rebuilt. It shall then become the seat of the Messianic 
reign and the metropolis of the world. It is to be reared in matchless splendor 
(cf. Rev. 21:10-21), adorned with sapphires, pearls and various precious stones. 
The " Sabbath-limits " of the city, twelve miles square, shall be full of precious 
stones. One rabbi says that, when in this world one man owes another, they go 
before a judge who sometimes makes peace between them, and sometimes not. 
Often the two come out from the hall of judgment without having become friends. 

• Continued from October number. 

86 The Old Testaseent Student. 

But in the Messianic age, when one owes another, he will say : We will go and 
present the matter before the king, Messiah, in Jerus;;'em. But when they have 
proceeded as far as the Sabbath-limits of the city, they find them full of pearls 
and precious stones. Then the debtor takes up two of them and says to the cred- 
itor: "Do I owe you as much as these V And the creditor answers : "Xo, not 
half so much. Let the debt be canceled ; you are set free from it."" That is what 
is written in Ps. 147:14, " He maketb peace in thy borders.'" So rich is Jerusalem. 

The height and size of Jerusalem shall be stupendous. It will stand far 
above all its surroundings, and its extent will be so vast that it can embrace all 
the vast multitudes of restored exiles. It will extend to Damascus on the north 
and to Jaffa on the sea. The pre-eminence of Jerusalem in the Holy Laud shall 
be matclied by the pre-eminence of the temple within the city itself. The city is 
to be rebuilt for the sake of the temple which gives to it its worth and signifi- 
cance. The rearing of the sanctuary by Solomon and its reconstruction after the 
exUe is followed by the building of the far grander " third temple "' by the Mes- 
siah. To this end it has been enjoined that, since the destruction of the second 
temple, the Jew must never faU to petition in his prayers for the rebuilding of the 

In the Messianic age the temple shall stand in its full and destined complete- 
ness. The vessels that had been taken away shall be restored and the departed 
glories of the place shall return. The last sanctuary shall be incomparably more 
glorious than the first. It shall fulfill its destiny as the gathering place of all 
nations. Its height shall be such that all the world can see it. " For the Holy 
One will pile three nioiuitains upon one another, Carmel, Tabor and Sinai, and 
upon the apex of this elevation will he build the sanctuarj'."' Light shall stream 
forth from the temple and illumine all the world. It shall be the great center of 
praise to God. To the hymns which shall sound forth from it, all the mountains 
and hills shall make answer in refrain. Thus shall the sanctuary of the latter 
days fulfill its glorious destiny. 


The temple service is to be restored in the Messianic age for the spiritual per- 
fecting of the people. Moses and Aaron will return to earth and the former will 
re-instate the service and appoint and clothe the priests for their ministry. The 
people will perform their service in accordance with the law and the traditions. 
The great difference between the service of the past and of the coming age is 
that, in the latter, Jerusalem is to be the place of assembling for all nations and 
the sanctuary is to serve for the worship, not only of Israel, but of all the nations 
of the world. Still it is only for an elect company from Israel and from the 
heathen nations that participation in this worship is reserved. 

In the new temple the law will be held in highest honor and will be explained 
to the people by Jehovah himself. The temple service will not, however, exclude 
the use of synagogues and schools. AVhen the law is taken up in that good time 
a new light shall shine into it ; it shall become a new law because it shall be better 
understood. In that time, also, shall the mysteries in the law become plain and 
the disputed questions shall be settled. " The law will be new because it will ap- 
pear in a new, God-given light and will be newly and fully understood."" The 
Messiah will also himself fulfill the law. (Of. Matt. 5:17 sq.) There will also be a 
Sanhedrin in the new Jerusalem, but it will be extended to embrace all the right- 
eous men who shall make the spiritual welfare of the community their care. 

Webee on the Eschatology of the Talmud. 87 

d. righteousness and the blessedness of the community. 

The Messiah is called " our righteousness " because he gives to the people 
righteousness before God through his own personal holiness, his intercession for 
the people and the leading of the people to the fulfillment of the law. Through 
the Messiah is peace made between God and his people. In the Messianic age 
men will neither merit a future recompense from observing the law nor acquire a 
burden of guilt by disobedience, because the fulfillment of the law will be imme- 
diately rewarded and siu immediately forgiven. The inhabitants of the new 
Jerusalem enjoy a condition of perpetual grace and peace in the possession of the 
rewards of righteousness and the joys of forgiveness. When this condition is 
established, then can the blessing of God flow unhindered in all its fullness over 
land and people. The " world-empire " and its bondage are no more and all is 
freedom and peace. 

The order of the physical world will be the same as now, only the fruitfulness 
of the earth will be greatly augmented. " Every man can eat cakes and be clothed 
in silk." Wheat will mature in two months ; vegetables in one. The length of 
life will be greatly extended. Statements are found that the people of God do 
not die in this age, and yet death is spoken of. This contradiction seems to be ex- 
plained on the supposition that the heathen, who shall be the servants of Israel, 
shall die after long life, but that the people of Jehovah shall not taste death any 
more. Thus is made good the loss which was experienced in Adam's fall. Im- 
mortality is restored. Man is again lord of creation and enjoys the condition 
which was forfeited by sin, attaining his completion and the goal of all his hopes. 


The Messiah, the Son of David, is destined to be the ruler of the world. To 
his eternal reign the prophecies refer. His kingdom shall supplant the Eoman 
empire and he shall reign over all peoples. The significance of this empire was 
that it was sent of God into the world as a punishment for Israel's sins. But for 
these sins this world-empire would never have arisen, but the kingdom of David 
and Solomon would have become a world-empire. " When now, finally, Israel's 
sin is forgiven, and peace restored, then the heathen world-empire lias fulfilled its 
destiny ; then can the kingdom of David and Solomon appear again, and now, in- 
deed, in its character as world-empire. For the world-kingdom of the Messiah is 
the renewal and fulfillment of that of David and Solomon. 

The Messianic kingdom shall be universal and unlimited. The whole earth 
shall be its realm. Yet Israel and the heathen nations shall not dwell together. 
No one shall dwell among the people of God who serves idols. So far as the 
nations remain idolatrous, they must dwell apart, but are under Israel's domin- 
ion ; for " the world is created for the Messiah." Heathen peoples as such con- 
tinue to exist. The relations of the Jews to these peoples is variously conceived. 
Some represent that all will become Jews and thus be incorporated into the people 
of God. Others speak of a missionary activity on the part of the Jews toward 
them. The Jews shall teach them the law in their theatres. Others emphasize 
the continuance of opposition. In general, however, the representation is, that an 
elect portion of the heathen shall be incorporated into Israel, but that the great 
mass shall identify themselves with that anti-Messianic power which is called 
Gog and Magog. They shall, however, be subject and tributary to Israel, her 
laborers and servants. All that Israel had lost at the hands of heathen nations 
shall be fully restored. 

88 Tna Old Testajcent Student. 


A last attack upon the domiDion of the Messiah is that which is designated 
as Gog and Magog. This conflict occurs at the end of the Messianic period, fills 
up the iniquity of the heathen and leads up to the judgment and the end of the 
world. It represents the transition from time to eternity, to the olam habba 
in the narrower sense of the word. The time of Gog and Magog comprises 
seven years. The meaning of the term is defined by the statement that " an evil 
spirit enters into the nations and they rebel against the king Mes.siah. He, how- 
ever, slays them, smiting the land with the rod of his mouth and killing the 
wicked one by the breath of his lips, and he leaves only Israel remaining." (Cf. 
Gen. 10:2; Exod. 38:2; 39:1,6; Ezek. 38:5; 39:2; also, Rev. 20:8; 2Thess.2:8.) 

Some representations place the days of Gog and Magog at the beginning of 
the Messianic age. Accordingly it is said that there are four great manifestations 
of God : in Egypt, at the giving of the law, in the days of Gog and Magog, and 
finally, in the days of the Messiah. The prevailing view, however, would reverse 
the order of the last two and make this catastrophe the final conflict against Mes- 
siah's reign, the signal for the judgment and destruction of the heathen, and the 
last act in the great drama of human history before time is merged into eternity. 


By Rev. George Dana Boardiian, D. D., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Character of Samson. — A singular character is Samson of Zorah. How per- 
plexing its combination of Nazarite austerity and grotesque hilarity, divine inspi- 
ration and animal cunning, dauntless bravery and ignoble sensuality, bodily 
strength and moral weakness. Samson is the muscular, intrepid, religious, rol- 
licking Hercules of sacred storj-. Witness his leonine exploit in the vineyards of 
Timnah ; his playful riddle at the mairiage feast; his boyish stratagem with the 
three hundred foxes ; his grotesque slaughter of the thousand Philistines with the 
jawbone of an ass ; his prankish striding away with the gates of Gaza ; his frol- 
icsome amours with Delilah ; his grim humor in the very act of suicide. Yet 
this man, so jovial iuid mettlesome and wayward, is mentioned in the Xew Ti sta- 
meut muster-roll of the Old Testament Sons of Faith, enshrined in the cataloirue 
which contains such saintly names as Abel, Enoch, Abraham, Moses, Samuel, 
David and the prophets. Whenever we are tempted to pronounce an altogether 
unfavorable judgment, it is well to remember that there is One who (I Sam. 16: 
7) sees not as man sees ; for man looks on the outward appearance, while Jehovah 
looks on the heart. David was right (2 Sam. 24:14): It is better to fall into the 
hand of God than into the hand of man ; for Jehovah's mercies are great. 

Outline of Samson's period.— In studying the story of Samson, let us attempt a 
swift outline of his period. 

Glance, first, at the moral aspect. It was a period of profound religious de- 
generacy. Although Joshua had nominally conquered the promised land, yet 
the conquest was far from being complete. The land was still infested with idol- 

The Stoet of Samson. S9 

atrous aborigines ; the Canaanite was still in the land. Living on terms of more 
or less familiarity with these idolaters, the Israelites could not fail to catch the 
infection of their pagan vicinage. Accordingly, soon after the death of Joshua, 
monotheism — the distinctive religion of the Abrahamic race — began to decline, 
and ere long Israel completely forsook Jehovah, and served the Baalim, the Ash- 
taroth, the gods of Syria, the gods of Zidon, the gods of Moab, the gods of Am- 
mon, and the gods of the Philistines. So profound was the apostasy that even 
Jonathan, a grandson of Moses, not content with usurping the functions of a 
priest, added to those functions the worship of teraphim, graven idols and molten 

A moral deterioration so wretched of course entailed a political deterioration 
as wretched. It was a period of national dissensions, tribe arraying itself against 
tribe ; a period of national servitude, Israel tamely submitting to the yokes of 
Ammonite and Canaanite and Midianite and Philistine ; a period of national ab- 
jectness, Israel timidly creeping along crooked by-paths because there were no 
open highways, ignobly content with a troglodyte existence in caves and moun- 
tain dens. In brief, it was a period of national anarchy, when, as we are re- 
peatedly reminded (Jud. 17:6; 18:1; 19:1; 21:25), there was no king in Israel; 
every man did that which was right in his ovra eyes. It was the triumph of the 
doctrine of individualism. 

Nevertheless Jehovah did not utterly forsake his chosen people. Ever and 
anon, in times of special emergency, when the national distress was at its ebb, he 
raised up extraordmary deliverers, styled " judges." Although exercising unlim- 
ited military powers, these judges were not so much national dictators as they 
were guerilla chiefs, occasionally rising by force of personal prowess to the chief- 
taincy of one or more of the twelve tribes. Living in a debased and almost bar- 
barous age, they shared in the deterioration of their times. Xevertheless, rude 
as these tools were, they were Jehovah's chosen instruments for delivering his 
people. The most conspiciious of these judges, excepting the great Samuel, was 
our hero Samson. 

Outline of Samson's Career.— The story is gi'aphically told in the Book of the 
Judges, chapters 13-16. 

Forty years Israel had been writhing under the tyranny of the Philistines. 
Meantime Jehovah has been preparing a mighty deliverer. In the town of Zorah, 
on the confines of Judah and Dan, dwelt a Danite whose name was Manoah. 
His wife, cherishing that blessed promise of a Messianic motherhood which was 
the inspiration of every Hebrew bridal, was sad, because, like another Sarah and 
another Hannah and another Elizabeth, she was still motherless. Suddenly 
Jehovah's angel appears to her, and, as in the case of Elizabeth of Jerusalem and 
Mary of Nazareth many a century afterward, makes a glad announcement : 
" Thou Shalt conceive, and bear a son ; no razor shall ever come upon his head ; 
neither wine nor strong drink nor unclean food shall ever touch his lips ; for he 
shall be a Nazarite, separated unto God from the day of his birth to the day of his 
death; and he shall begin to save Israel out of the hand of the Philistines." 
Having made this annunciation, Jehovah's angel withdraws, ascending toward 
heaven in the flame of the sacrificial altar. 

Months passed by, and the promised son was bom. His delighted parents 
called his name Samson. We know nothing of his infancy or childhood or youth. 

90 The Old Testament Student. 

All we are told of these is this (Jud. 13:24): "The child grew, and Jehovah 
blessed him."' Probably our imagination will not roam far astray if we picture 
him as growing up. lilie John the Baptist, in the seclusion of the Judean wilder- 
ness, true to the ascetic vow of the Xazarile, his locks unshorn. 

The moss his bed, the cave bis bumble cell. 

His food the fruits, his drinlc the crystal well.— 27ioma« PameU. 

And now, his austere training ended, the spirit of Jehovah began to move him iu 
Malianeh-dan (that is, the camp of IJau), between Zorah and Eshtaol. 

Yet, strange to say, the very first time this consecrated Xazarite appeared in 
society, he appeared in the guise of a reckless wooer. Going down one day to 
Tiinnah, a town in possession of the Philistines, he saw there a maiden who 
iiistatitly captivated him. Hastening back to Zorah, he begged his parents that 
they would secure her for his bride. Tlie old patriotism was not wholly dead; 
for the parents testily replied : " Is there never a woman among the daughters 
of thy brethren, or among all my people, that thou must go down and choose thy 
wife from the daughters of those uncircumcised Philistines V " But the young 
man was desperately in love, and insisted : " Get her for me ; for she pleases me 
well." And here the inspired biographer records another of those providential 
mysteries which so often perplex us : " His father and his mother knew not that 
it was of Jehovah ; for he (Jehovah) sought an occasion against the Philistines." 
Why God should choose to deliver his people by moving Samson to marry a PhU- 
istiue girl, and thereby embroil him in a difficulty with the Philistines, with the 
view of turning him into their enemy and conqueror, is so roundabout a method 
as to be indeed an enigma of providence. 

But the young man coutiuued steadfast. The country was, as we have seen, 
in the grasp of the Philistines, and the land was overrun by wild beasts. On the 
occasion of one of his visits, as he approached the vineyards of Timuali, a young 
lion suddenly roared against him. What though he was weaponless ? The spirit 
of Jehovah descended mightily upon him, and he rent asunder the lion as easily 
as though it had been a kid. If one of us had achieved a like exploit, we would 
not have kept it secret. But our hero made no mention of it, not even to his 
parents. Perhaps he was so accustomed to feats of this kind that he did not 
think it worth while to speak of it. Having visited his betrothed and returned 
home, he went down to Timnah again. On his way thither he, with a curiosity 
so natural tliat we can quite understand it, turned aside to see what had become 
of the beast he had so easily slain. There was a swarm of bees in the carcass of 
the lion, and honey. Being by no means a fastidious person, Samson gathered the 
honey, and having refreshed himself by eating some of it, he carried the rest to 
his parents, still omitting, however, to make any mention of his leonine exploit, or 
wliere he had obtained the honey. 

And now the wedding day has at last come. Our hero goes down once more to 
Timnah, and according to the custom of the land and times, which demanded that 
the bridegroom's family rather than the bride's should spread the banquet, Sam- 
son made a great feast, which was to last seven days. The Philistines were not 
disposed to be less open-hearted than the foreigner, and so they brought to Sam- 
sou thirty companions to be his groomsmen. But a feast of seven days, however 
epicurean the banqueters, cannot be wholly devoted to the dainties of the table. 
As now, so then, the festivities were varied with pastimes and charades and rid- 

The Story of Samson. 91 

dies. The quick-witted Samson, we can easily believe, was more than a match 
for the notoriously stolid Philistines in mental games of this sort. Accordingly, 
early in the feast he said to his thirty paranymphs : " I will now give you a riddle ; 
if any of you can find it out within the seven days of the feast I will give each 
of you a tunic and a mantle (it was before the days of banks and vaults, and per- 
sonal property largely consisted in costly apparel) ;— but if you cannot find out my 
riddle within the seven days, then each of you must give me a tunic and a mantle." 
A proposition so liberal met, of course, with a liberal response. " Put forth thy 
riddle," they exclaim, " that we may hear it." We can imagine the grotesque de- 
mureness with which Samson propounded bis riddle : 

" Out of the eater came forth meat, 

And out of the strong came forth sweetness." 

The Philistines grappled with the problem three days, but unsuccessfully. Mean- 
time the young bride herself feels deeply annoyed. What though she has just 
been led to the altar? She is a Philistine and her husband is an Israelite; and 
her national pride is stung on seeing her countrymen baffled by a foreigner, and 
that foreigner a Hebrew and a subject. But she dissembles her pique. Kesorting 
to one of those pathetic artifices characteristic of her sex, she weeps in the presence 
of her liege lord and murmurs : " Thou dost but hate me and lovest me not ; thou 
hast put forth a riddle unto the children of my people, and hast not told it me." 
Samson, with the honest bluntness so characteristic of him, replies : "Behold, I 
have not told it my father nor my mother, and shall I tell it thee? " But the 
artful woman understands the power of tears, and so she continues her weeping 
through the rest of the feast. Meantime the thirty groomsmen, despairing of 
their ability to solve the riddle, bethink themselves on the seventh day of the 
yoimg bride herself, and coming to her, exclaim : "Persuade thy husband to tell 
thee the riddle ;" and then with a savageness which allows a glimpse into the awful 
lawlessness of the times, they add: "lest we burn thee and thy father's house 
with fire ; have ye called us to impoverish us ? " The bride, feeling her own per- 
sonal pique uncomfortably reinforced by this dire threat of her neighbors, hastens 
again into the presence of her new husband, and coaxes and weeps more dexter- 
ously than ever. The good-natured, impetuous Samson can no longer resist such 
persistent feminine importunity, and in a moment of weakness tells her the secret. 
No sooner does she hear it than she hastens out and reports it to the sons of her 
people. And now, just as the sun is setting at the close of the seventh day, the 
thirty groomsmen triumphantly shout to the burly bridegroom : 

" What is sweeter than honey ? 
And what is stronger than a lion ?" 

The nimble-minded, facetious Samson, still indulging in the grim humor which 
never deserted him, sententiously retorts : 

"If ye had not plowed with my heifer, 
Te had not found out my riddle; " 

in other words, " If this young bride of mine had not turned up the sod where I 
had hid my treasure, ye never would have discovered it." But although our hero 
has lost his wager, he keeps true to his promise. Again the spirit of Jehovah 
comes down mightOy upon him. He is too obseiTant of the rites of hospitality, 
however, to avenge himself on his Philistine guests. And so he rushes down to 

92 The Old Testament Stiident. 

Ashkelon, another city of tbe Philistines, and having slain thirty of its heroes and 
seized their attire, he comes back to Timnah and gives the promised thirty tunics 
and thirty mantles to his thirty groomsmen. But. although he has chivalrously 
paid his forfeit, the memory of his wife's ignoble treachery angers him and he 
immediately returns to his father's house. Meanwhile (and it is another glimpse 
into the awful coarseness of the times), Samson's perfidious bride has been given 
to the chief gioomsman. 

Time passes ou, and the season of the wheat harvest is come. Samson, who 
is too thoroughly good-natured to nurse his anger long, again goes down to Timnah 
to visit his wife, bringing with him a kid in token of reconciliation. But her 
father, it may be fearing that his formidable son-in-law might inflict some per- 
sonal injury on his daughter, does not allow him to enter her chamber. Yet he 
presumes to offer that son-in-law a strange proposal : •• Is not her younger sister 
fairer than she y take her, I pray thee, instead of her." Samson is exasperated 
and exclaims: "This time shall I be quits with the Pliilistines, when I do them a 
mischief." Stealthily catching three hundred foxes, or rather jackals, he turns 
them tail against tail, ties a firebrand in the midst between every two tails, sets 
the brands on fire, and lets the jackals loose everywhere into the standing corn of 
the Philistines. The manoeuvre proves as effective as it is ludicrous. The poor 
jackals, maddened with fright and pain, and unable to escape, succeed in thor- 
oughly igniting not only the standing corn, but also the shocks, and even the 
oliveyards themselves. The sight of their ruined fields exasperates the Philis- 
tines, and they angrily demand : " Who has done this '* "' And the stern 
answer comes back : "Samson, the son-in-law of the Timnite, because his wife 
has been taken away from him and turned over to his companion." The stolid 
I'hilistines, regarding her and her father as the occasion of their disaster, rush to 
Timnah and brutally burn father and daughter alive. Samson, more furious than 
ever, shouts back to them : " If this is to be your line of action, I will take such 
vengeance on you as shall make me perfectly satisfied." Accordingly, he smites 
them hip and thigh with a tremendous slaugliter. Nevertheless, he is prudent 
and secures for himself a secluded lair in the territory of Judah, known as the 
Cave of the Eock of Etam. 

Time passes ou. The Philistines, still smarting under the disaster so ridicu- 
lously inflicted by Samson's 300 jackals, again invade the territory of Judah and 
encamp in Lehi, a place not far from Etam. The men of Judah are terror- 
stricken, and cravenly expostulate, " Why are ye come up against us ';* "' The 
Philistines answer, " To bind Samson are we come up, to do to him as he has done 
to us." Three thousand men of the tribe of Judah rush down to the Cave of 
Etam's Rock, and demand of the hiding Samson. " llast thou forgotten that the 
Philistines are our masters "i" what then is this that thou hast done \into us'/" 
And the stalwart champion athletically answers, "As they did unto me, so have 
I done unto them." Xothing more clearly or sadly indicates the profound degra- 
dation into which the Lion-tribe has fallen than their craven proposition to their 
famous countryman, " We are come down to bind thee, that we may deliver thee 
into the hand of the Philistines." Samson, grimly keeping his temper, extorts 
from them an oath : " Swear unto me. that ye will not fall upon me yourselves." 
They swear the oath : " We will bind thee fast, and surrender thee into their 
hand; but surely we will not kill thee." And now our mighty and jovial hero 
allows his cowardly countrymen to bind him with two new stout ropes and carry 

The Story of Samson. 93 

Lim up out of his hiding place. The moment the Philistines catch a glimpse of 
their doughty foe, at last a prisoner, they rend the air with a mighty shout. 
Again the spirit of Jehovah comes down mightily upon Samson, and the ropes 
become as flax that is burnt with fire, and the cords drop oil him as though they 
were melted. Disdaining the use of sword or spear, he finds a fi'esh jawbone of 
an ass just dead, and brandishing it as though it were a gleaming scimitar or 
ponderous battle-ax, he slays therewith a thousand Philistines. Our hero then 
vents his triumph in a punning couplet which it is impossible to reproduce in 
English, but which may be rendered thus : 

"With the jawbone of an ass, a (mjass two (m)asses. 
With the jawbone of an ass have I smitten an ox-load of men." 

Having indulged himself in this droll massacre and still droller pun, he flings away 
his fantastic weapon and calls the scene of his triumph Ramath-lehi, that is. The 
Hill of the Jawbone. No wonder that after his sportive slaughter of the chiliad our 
hero feels sore athirst. With the abrupt revulsion so characteristic of impetuous 
natures, Samson suddenly swings from pun into prayer : " O Jehovah, thou hast 
given this great deliverance by the hand of thy servant ; and now shall I die of 
thirst and fall into the hand of the uncircumcised ? " God graciously hears the 
prayer of his servant and miraculously opens a fountain in Lehi. Our hero slakes 
his thirst, and feeling refreshed, giatefully calls the spot Enhakkor, that is. The 
Spring of the Suppliant. 

And now we enter on darker scenes. What though our hero is a Nazarite, 
consecrated to Jehovah from his biilh to his death V He is a voluptuous man, an 
easy prey to his animal passions. Accordingly, he goes down to the Philistine 
city of Gaza and enters into criminal relations with a courtesan. The arrival of a 
warrior so redoubtable cannot be kept secret, and the news flies from mouth to 
mouth : " Samson is in town ! " The Gazaites surroimd his lodging and lie in 
wait quietly all night, saying, " When morning davras and he comes out, we will 
kill him." But our hero is too sharp for them. Rising at midnight, and either 
stealthily gliding by his liers-in-wait or else slaying them, he comes to the chief 
entrance of the city. Grasping the massive doors of the gateway, and the two 
side-posts, he tears them up, with the crossbar on them, places them on his 
brawny shoulders, and hilariously carries them up to the top of the mountain that 
is before Hebron. 

Time passes on, and Samson has made the friendship of a woman in the val- 
ley of Sorek, whose name is Delilah. The five lords of the Philistines, hearing of 
this fresh infatuation, determine to turn it to their own advantage. Obtaining 
an interview with Delilah, they propose to her that she should worm out of him 
the secret of his enormous strength, and also of the way to capture him, each of 
the Philistine lords promising her the very handsome reward of 1100 pieces of 
silver. The wily courtesan is not slow to fall in with a bargain so tempting. 
" Tell me, I pray thee," she exclaims, " wherein thy strength is so great and how 
thou canst be boimd." Samson replies : " If they should bind me with seven green 
withes that have never been used, my strength will leave me and I shall be like 
an ordinary man." The treacherous mistress finds some way to communicate 
Samson's answer to the Philistine lords, who immediately supply her Vi-ith the 
green withes, and then lie in wait in an adjoining chamber. Taking the withes, 
she binds her lover therewith, and banteringly shouts, " The Philistines be upon 

94 The Old Testament Student. 

thee, O Samson ! " And the strong man snaps the withes as a string of tow is 
broken wlien it touches the fire. So his strength is still a secret. But Delilah is 
not disheartened, and again tries to worm out the secret. Again he suggests : 
"Let them bind me fast with stout ropes which have never been used, and my 
strength will be gone." Obtaining the ropes, he demurely allows her to bind 
him, and then she banteringly shouts : "The Philistines be upon thee, O Sam- 
son!" And the strong man breaks the ropes from off his arms like a thread. 
But Delilah is persistent, and again begs for the secret. He now makes a sugges- 
tion which recklessly borders on tlie very verge of the secret : " Weave the seven 
locks of my head with the web in thy loom." Delilah weaves the seven long 
tresses of the Xazarite's hair as a woof into the warp of the loom standing in the 
chamber, fastens the loom with a peg. and banteringly shouts: "The Philistines 
he upon thee, O Samson!" TUe strong man, startled out of his nap, easily 
plucks up the peg fastening the loom, and disengages his tresses from the web. 
The piqued Delilah now murmurs: " IIow canst thou say. I love thee, when thy 
heart is not with me V thou hast mocked me these three times, and hast not told 
me wherein thy great strength lieth." The persistent Delilah keeps pressing him 
day after day to disclose to her his secret, till at last his soul is vexed mito death. 
In a moment of incredible weakness and folly, he tells her the whole secret: " No 
razor hath ever come upon my head ; for I have been a Nazarite unto God from 
my motlier's womb : if I be shaven, then my strength will go from me, and I shall 
become weak, and be like any other man." Delilah, with a woman's intuition, 
perceives that Samson has at last told the truth, and instantly sends for the Phil- 
istine lords, saying: "Come up this once, for he hath told me all his heart." 
The Philistine lords promptly arrive, bringing the promised reward in their hands. 
And now the treacherous harlot, apparently administering some drowsy potion, 
■ soothes the lusty hero to sleep upon her knees, shaves off the seven sacred tresses 
of his head, and once more, and this time triumphantly, shouts : " The Philistines 
be upon thee, O Samson ! " Startled out of his sleep, the strong man exclaims : 
" I will go out as at other times, and shake myself." But he wist not that Jeho- 
vah had departed from him. 

We come to the tragic close. The Philistines seize the nerveless Israelite, 
brutally bore out his eyes, convey him to their own Gaza, bind him with fetters of 
brass, and doom him to the bitter degradation of grinding, like a woman at the 
mill, in their Philistme prison-house. Meanwhile, however, the hair of our Naza- 
rite begins to grow again, and with this growth his strength begins to return. 
And now the lords of the Philistines, overjoyed by the capture of their puissant 
foe, propose to oiler on a vast scale a grateful oblation to their national deity, 
Dagon. Accordingly, they assemble in vast numbers in their temple, and praise 
their Dagon, exultantly shouting : " Our god hath delivered into our hand Samson 
our enemy, the destroyer of our country, even him who hath slain multitudes of 
Philistines." As their hearts grow merry, it may be with banqueting-wine. they 
brutally shout : " Call for Samson, that he may make us sport ! " The blind cap- 
tive is led forth from the prison-house into the temple, and compulses his insolent 
captors with his grotesque antics- and droll jests. But there is a tragic irony in 
his grim humor. Wearied by liis awkward gropings on a stage which to him is 
black as night, and stung to the quick by the coarse insults and ribald laughter 
of his heathen conquerors, the wretched prisoner says to the lad appointed to lead 
him by the hand : " Suffer me that I may feel the two pillars whereupon the 

The Story of Samson. 95 

temple resteth, that I may lean upon them." The mighty throng of spectators 
renew their jeers as he is led to the center of the building. The despairing but 
resolute soul pours itself out in the tragical prayer : " O Lord God, remember me, 
I pray thee, and strengthen me, I pray thee, only this once, that I may be at once 
avenged of the Philistines for my two eyes." Grasping the two middle columns 
upon which the temple rests, the one with his right hand and the other with his 
left, our blind and weary yet still mighty hero leans upon them. One more 
despairing but still resolute prayer goes up: " Let me die with the Philistines ! " 
And the grim hero bows himself with all his might, and the two pillars sway, and 
the temple, filled with the lords of the Philistines and their friends, and bearing 
3,000 men and women on its roof, topples with a crash ; and the dead which Sam- 
son slays at his death are more than the dead which Samson has slain in his life. 
And now all his kindred come down to Gaza, and rescue his corpse from the ruins, 
and reverently bury him in the ancestral burying place between Zorah and 

Such is the comic yet tragic story of Samson, who judged Israel twenty years. 
The story, as every one knows, had a peculiar fascination for John Milton; why, 
one can hardly tell, unless it was because Milton shared somewhat in Samson's 
uxorious disposition, and was also himself blind. How powerfully he allegorizes 
the tragedy of Samson in his work entitled, " The Reason of Church Government 
Urged Against Prelatry : " 

"I cannot better liken the state and person of a king than to that mighty 
Nazarite Samson ; who, being disciplined from his birth in the precepts and the 
practice of temperance and sobriety, without the strong drink of injurious and 
excessive desires, grows up to a noble strength and perfection, with those his 
sunny and illustrious locks, the laws, waving and curling about his godlike 
shoulders. And, while he keeps them about him undiminished and iinshorn, he 
may with the jawbone of an ass, that is, with the word of his meanest officer, 
suppress and put to confusion thousands of those that rise against his just power. 
But laying dovra his head among the strumpet flatteries of prelates, while he 
sleeps and thinks no harm, they wickedly shaving oil all those bright and weighty 
tresses of his laws and just prerogatives, which were his ornament and strength, 
deliver him over to indirect and violent councils, which, as those Philistines, put 
out the fair and far-sighted eyes of his natural discerning, and make him grind in 
the prison-house of their sinister ends, and practice upon him ; till he, knowing 
this prelatical razor to have bereft him of his wonted might, nourishes again his 
puissant hair, the golden beams of law and right ; and they sternly shook thunder 
with ruin upon the heads of those his evil counsellors, but not without great 
affliction to himself." 

But Milton's admiration for the character of Samson finds its chief expression 
in his "Samson Agonistes." The blind bard of the commonwealth has infused 
into this classic tragedy so much of his own grand personality as to transfigure 
the rough and sensuous Hebrew judge into quite a moral hero, who ends his life 
even sublimely : 

*' Samson hath quit himself 
Like Samson, and heroically hath finished 
A life heroic." 

Nevertheless, when we read the story of Samson, not as it is transfigured in 
the drama of an English poet, but as it is enshrined in the prose of the original 
chronicler, we cannot help feeling that the character of the Danite champion was 
on the whole gross and ignoble. True, the spirit of Jehovah was wont to come 
down mightUy upon him ; but this spirit-might was the lowest kind of force, — the 

96 Thk Old Testament Student. 

force of mere bodily strength. Milton finely expresses the idea when he makes 
his hero say : 

God, when lie gave mc strength, to ehow withal 

How slight the gift was, hung- it in my hair.— Sanuon AgonUtet. 

The very austerity of his Nazarite vow in the matter of food and drink makes 
his sensuousness in the matter of lubricity all the njore repugnant. He could 
rend a lion as ea.sily as though it were a kid, and even in his weakness could top- 
ple down Dagon's temple. But he could not rule himself. His tragic suicide 
was the dread and punitive entail of his own fatuous sensuality. Here, in fact, 
is the grand meaning of this grotesque yet sombre story. The tragedy of Samson 
is a tragedy of Nemesis. Thus Samson himself is both his own riddle and his 
o^vu solution : 

"Out of the eater came forth meat. 
And out of the strong came forth sweetness." 

By Dean A. Walker, B. A., 

New Haven, Conn. 


Of this period, from the close of the Elamitic war till the king's death, we 
have very little knowledge. The king's own records of his campaigns close with 
the defeat of the Arabs at Damascus and the reduction of Elam to the rank of a 
province, about 648 or 647 B. C, and it was till lately supposed that he died about 
that time. This supposition was based on a statement in the Canon of Ptolemy 
that a certain Cinneladanus, a name quite unlike Aiurbanipiil. reigned in Babylon 
from 647 to 626 B. C. But in his own annals, Asurbanipal stated that after put- 
ting his brother Sa'ul-mughina to death, he himself reigned at Babylon ; and 
Polyliistor affirms that Sa'ul-mughina was succeeded by his brother, who reigned 
in Babylon twenty-one years. No records of his successor are found to establish 
either conclusion, but it seems certain that Cinneladanus was one of several 
names by which he was known, either in Assyria or in Babylonia alone, and that a 
long period of peace followed the activities of the earlier part of his reign, in 
which little occurred that seemed to him worthy of record. 

Such an hypothesis accords best with the wonderful advance made during 
this reign in the arts of peace, the evidence of which is not to be sought only in 
the chronicles of the time, but may be actually seen in the wonderful products 
remaining to us from this reign. He now had leisure for those great works for 
which tlie wars of his earlier years had furnished abundant means. This period 
was to Assyria what the age of Pericles was to Greece and the age of Solomon 
was to the Jews, and presents a much more pleasing aspect of the monarch's 
character. We now see him, not as a powerful and boastful warrior overrunning 
the territories of his weaker neighbors and glorying in the complete destniction 
he accomplishes, but as a patron of art and literature and a builder of magnificent 

The Assyrian King, Asttkbanipai,. 97 

We will not go into a detailed description of Asuibanipal's building enter- 
prises, but merely enumerate them and state a few characteristics. His most im- 
portant work in this line is his own great palace at Koyunjik. Beside this he 
made some additions and repairs on the palace of his grandfather Sennacherib, 
also at Koyunjik. He built several temples, two of which were for the Goddess 
Istar at Nineveh and Arbela, and repaired many others. He is said by some 
Greek historians to have built the cities of Tarsus in Cilicia and Anchialus, but it 
is elsewhere claimed that Tarsus was built by Sennacherib. 

The great palace of Asurbanipal is one of the largest of Assyrian buildings, 
but is chiefly noteworthy for its peculiar plan, its wealth of ornamentation, and 
the beauty and delicacy of its sculptures. The common plan of Assyrian palaces 
is rectangular, but in Asurbanipal 's palace the main building is shaped like the 
capital letter T. It is to the sculptures and bas-reliefs in this building that we 
are mainly indebted for our knowledge of the private character of the king. 
Assyrian sculpture, as a rule, takes little notice of the common people except as 
they are brought into direct connection with the king, but in the palace of Asur- 
banipal we find much attention given to portraying scenes of every-day life, as 
well as of battles and the hunting sports of the monarch. We can only attribute 
this to an interest on the part of the king in his people and in the state of business 
and the arts in his kingdom. It is true that many of these scenes may be in- 
tended merely to show how the royal table was supplied with the delicacies in 
which the royal palate delighted, as in the fishing scenes and where servants are 
bringing in hares and partridges ; but previous rulers had been content to eat 
what was set before them, asking no questions. Asurbanipal must have portrayed 
on the walls of his dining room the methods by which these things were set be- 
fore him. 

Asurbanipal was interested in the works of nature. In his sculptures are 
found beautiful garden and river scenes, in which the backgrounds are filled out 
with all things appropriate, as birds in the air, fish in the waters and fruit on vines 
and trees, many of which are carved with great delicacy. Whether it can be said 
of him as of King Solomon that he " spake of trees from the cedar tree that is in 
Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall ; he spake also of 
beasts and of fowl and of creeping things and of fishes," it is at least evident 
that he was interested in them and had their species to some extent distinguished 
in his sculptures. The study of these sculptures is therefore no small aid in the 
interpretation of the tablets left us from this period, in which lists are drawn up 
of the principal objects of the animal and vegetable kingdoms as known to the 
Assyrians. These lists are very complete and show some attempt at scientific 
classification. Whether this implies any scientific study on the part of the king 
himself may be questioned ; but it is reasonable to infer from it that the study of 
science was favored at his court ; for in an absolute and despotic monarchy like 
that of Assyria, all Ufe, social, commercial, literary and scientific, centers about 
the king. What he favors prospers, and what he neglects languishes. 

The same question arises, and is probably to be answered in the same way, 
as to Asurbanipal's literary character. The Assyrians were not a literary people. 
They were a race of warriors, and their inscriptions up to this period were con- 
fined to records of the monarch's wars or of his displays of wealth in the con- 
struction or repair of palaces, or of his piety in temple building. But in this 

98 The Old Testament Student. 

reign, there vms a remarkable birth of interest in literature, and as is usual in 
such a renaissance, a revival or marked advance in the arts and sciences. Even 
the dry records of campaigns begin to show a literary style. Our most important 
evidence of this is the great library of Asurbanibal, brought to light by Mr. 
Layard and afterward further explored by Mr. George Smith. In one of the halls 
of Sennacherib's palace at Koyunjik, the floor was found covered to the depth of 
a foot or more with the clay tablets of tliis library, many of them in very muti- 
lated condition and seemiug to have fallen from their shelves or other resting 
places when the palace was destroyed. The inscriptions on these tablets were 
estimated by Mr. Layard to exceed in amount all that the monuments of Egj'pt 
have to offer, and cover almost every department of human thought, commerce, 
art, architecture, zoology, botany, geography, astronomy and chronology, law, 
ethics and religion, as well as purely literary productions. Under tlie head of 
commerce, we have contract tablets of many kinds, records of loans and sales, 
from which it may yet be possible to construct a political economy of ancient 
Mesopotamia. Among these are the complete records of the banking firm of 
Egibi, presenting the minutest details of business. Under natural science, we have 
the lists of animals and plants and of the heavenly bodies; in geography, lists of 
nations and places ; there are grammars and vocabularies and bi-lingual lexicons, 
designed to i)reserve the language and make available the records of an older civ- 
ilization ; in the department of ethics, religion and general literature, we find 
psalms and hymns, lists and genealogies of the gods with their descriptive epi- 
thets, calendars of sacred days with directions for their proper observances, and 
epic poems and legends of the gods and early history of the world. Most interest- 
ing among these is the series of twelve tablets containing the legend of Isdubar, 
including the creation and deluge tablets which so closely resemble the biblical 
accounts, and the descent of Istar into Hades, reminding us of the Greek legend 
of Orpheus and Eurydice. 

Most of these religious and literary tablets are copies of older works, as is 
proved by the frequent lacunae in them at places where the originals were muti- 
lated or obscure. These originals doubtless came from Babylonia, and may first 
have attracted Asurbanipal's interest on his invasion of that province to punish 
his rebellious brother. He must there have been struck with many novel ideas, 
and as prominent among them, with the contrast between Babylonia and Assyria 
in the affairs of religion. Babylonia was the ancient seat of their common relig- 
ion, and the worship of the gods and the study of religion were there carried on to 
a degree unknown in Assyria. In the latter country, the temple was a mere attach- 
ment to the palace ; but in Babylonia, it stood alone, and in several instances by 
its strength and weight has withstood the wear of time to this day, while the 
palaces are crumbled to dust. In Assyria we find no traces of ancient gi-aves; 
while in Babylonia, vast cities of the dead, with well ordered streets and careful 
system of drainage and other provisions for the comfort of the dead, prove that 
to them the future life was as real as the present and the unseen world engaged 
a large share of their thought. Asurbanipal's long reign in Babylon gave him 
ample time to acquaint himself with these interesting peculiarities of that coun- 
try. Something of these thoughts he must have brought to Assyria, and had his 
dynasty been granted a longer period of power, the studies thus inaugurated 
might materially have changed the character of his people. But for this, the 
work was begun too late. Soon after Asurbanipal's death, Nineveh was destroyed 

The Assyrian King, A§tjrbantpal. 99 

by the Medes, and the magnificent library he had collected was buried in the 
ruins of the palace, there to be preserved two thousand years for our edification. 

For Asurpanipal's religious character we go to his own records. In these he 
evei^where styles himself the servant and favorite of the gods, and acknowledges 
their hand in all his successes. He regards himself as divinely appointed to make 
known their power to the nations round about. He is very ready to undertake 
these missionary enterprises, and once undertaken, he makes very thorough work 
of it. The enemies of Assyria are the enemies of Asur and have insulted his 
power. These insults he, ASurbanipal, is to punish, and it is his work to restore 
the gods to their former dignity. Thus in his conquest of Elam, he recovers and 
restores to her proper temple in Babylonia, to her great satisfaction, the god- 
dess whom Kudurnanhundi, the father(V) of Chedorlaomer of Biblical fame, had 
carried away 1635 years before. Wliere enterprises of this kind, however, are so 
directly in the line of his private and political interests, it is difficult to say just 
how much we are to credit to personal piety. Asurbanipal seems to have done 
little in temple building, only four such works being ascribed to him, whereas 
his father, Esarhaddon, built as many as thirty-six in his short reign of twelve 
years. But he was active in repairing many that had become ruined, and fur- 
nished both new and old most lavishly with statues of the gods and furniture of 
gold, silver, and rare kinds of wood. 

The character of Asurbanipal furnishes but another proof in history that de- 
votion to religion and the fine arts may go hand in hand with great cruelty of dis- 
position. None of the kings of Assyria can be called merciful ; but Sennacherib 
and Esarhaddon had been comparatively mild in their treatment of their prisoners. 
Asurbanipal in this respect took a backward step and imitated the deeds of the 
most cruel kings before him. In his earlier years he seems to have been more 
lenient. Necho and his fellow conspirators in Egypt were forgiven and restored 
to positions of power. Baal, perhaps for political reasons, was retained on the 
throne of Tyre. But in his later years, those that fell into his hands were put to 
death, and often with severest tortures. Mutilation was a common form of pun- 
ishment. On the second defeat of the Elamites, their leaders experienced most 
cruel treatment. The grandsons of Merodach-baladan were mutilated, two of 
the allied princes had their tongues torn out, two of Teminummau's officers were 
flayed alive. 

These and other cruel forms of torture we find not only recorded in exultant 
language in the inscriptions but portrayed also on the walls of the palaces. 
There we see pinioned captives led about by rings passed through the tongue or 
lips, and condemned men are buffeted in the face before being executed, or are 
led about the city with the heads of their friends hung about their necks. 

Much of this cruelty, however, is to be pardoned to the customs of a rude age, 
and numerous parallels to it may be found in all the nations of that day. Asur- 
banipal 's cruelty was not the result of any meanness of character, like that of the 
coward who seeks by display of power over his inferiors to console himself for his 
enforced subservience to his superiors. It was, rather, due to the excess of ani- 
mal spirits in the man and to his pride of station, which made insignificant the 
life and comfort of the common lot of men. It was often exercised for dramatic 
effect, to inspire his enemies with the sense of his power. It was akin to the old 
Roman's delight in gladiatorial sports, whose familiarity with suffering and blood 
in constant warfare hardened the heart to feelings of pity at other times. 

100 The Old Tbstajient Student. 

It was with this same excess of animal spirits that Asurbanipal enjoyed the 
sports of the chase. In these he found for his splendid physical powers 
and daring courage. lie shrank from no personal danger. Unfortunately we 
have no biogiaphy of him by contemporary and unprejudiced writers; but if we 
may credit his own statements, he was a mar\'el of strength and courage, of un- 
erring aim with bow and spear, ready single handed and on foot to encounter the 
king of beasts and despatch him with a thrust of tlie short^sword. The calm dig- 
nity and ease with which his royal highness grasps the wounded and infuriated 
lion by the forelock or beard and drives the dagger between his ribs entitles him 
to a place in the tales of the Arabian Xiglits. In the bas-reliefs the king stands 
perfectly erect and at his ease, while the lion, whose dead-weight would be four 
times the king's avoirdupois, leans against him at an angle of forty-Gve degrees, 
without in the least disturbing his equilibrium. The sculptures representing such 
astonishing prowess have not always the courage to face our incredulity single 
handed. One of them, at least, is backed by an attendant in the shape of an in- 
scription to the following effect: "I, Asurbanipal, king of the nations, king of 
Assyria, in my great courage fighting on foot with a lion, terrible for his size, 
seized him by the ear, and in the name of Asur and Istar, goddess of war, with 
the spear that was in my hand, I terminated his life." 

However much allowance we may think it necessary to make for the ego in 
such a passage as this, we cannot doubt that Asurbanipal was a man of great 
physical courage in war and the chase, and possessed many noble qualities of mind 
befitting his high station. In almost every respect, as we now know him through 
the inscriptions so recently brought to light, he stands at the farthest remove 
from that character with whom he has so long been identified, the effeminate Sar- 
danapalus of the Greek historians. The latter was renowned for his wealth, but 
was a weak and ineflicient ruler, devoted to the pleasures of the harem and seldom 
setting foot outside his palace. Asurbanipal, too, possessed great wealth, but he 
did not allow himself to become enfeebled by luxury ; and although his practice of 
taking as wives and concubines the daughters of subject princes gave him a large 
harem, he did not lose his fondness for manly sports and recreations either bodily 
or mental. 

In a despotic eastern monarchy, where the character of the people is more 
directly dependent on the character of the ruler than under a freer form of gov- 
ernment, the king may be judged somewhat by the state of the nation. On this 
test, Asurbanipal must be given a high place among the rulers of that age. In 
his reign, the kingdom attained its greatest territorial extent, Assyrian art reached 
its highest development, and science and literature, probably for the first time in 
that nation, were seriously cultivated. It is this last form of activity that more 
than anything else places ASurbauipal above his predecessors, and entitles him to 
lasting fame and gratitude. The gathering of his great library, involving as it 
did the copying and translation of so much that was then old, as well as the pro- 
duction of much new material, has opened to us the doorway to a civilization far 
more .ancient even than his own time. It may be that, as the contents of this 
library become better known, some Ebers in the field of Assyriology will find ma- 
terial from which to picture for us the home life of Terah and Nahor in ancient 
Ur of the Chaldees before the first great Pilgrim Father '• gat him out of his 
country and from his kindred and from his father's house to go unto the land that 
the Lord would show him." 

Old Testament Word-stttddes. 101 

History is being added to at both ends. It is lengthening out toward the 
future, but it is also reaching back into the past. The monuments of Assyria, 
Babylonia and Egypt, the Moabite Stone and the Hittite inscriptions invite us to 
retrace the long journey that the human race has made since it left its primitive 
home in Eden and to explore those regions of history so long forgotten. Those 
that have burned the midnight oil in the toilsome endeavor to master the cunei- 
form signs are sometimes tempted to feel that all the information they can get 
out of them is fairly earned and they have only themselves to thank for it ; but we 
should not forget our indebtedness to Asurbanipal and other scholars of antiquity, 
who have gathered such vast amount of material for our study, who have filled 
with such rich treasures the fields in which we are now so eagerly plying the 


By Rev. P. A. Nordell, D. D., 

New London, Conn. 

In the following group of words the general conception of moral good is made 
sufliciently comprehensive to include terms which a more rigid classification 
would place in other categories. It is to be understood simply as a convenient 
phrase under which a number of words, very prominent in Old Testament usage, 
may be gathered together for brief consideration. to be holy. 
The primary meaning of qadhash has been much disputed. Many writers 
have connected it with hadhash to he new, to come to light, as the new moon, 
and have inferred that originally it meant to be light from the very first, hence pure, 
untarnished, splendid. This derivation seems to find support in the fact that the 
conception of tlie divine holiness is so often associated with that of the divine 
glory; "[The tabernacle] shall be sanctified by my glory," Exod. 29:43. " Holy, 
holy, holy is the Lord of Hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory," Isa. 6:3. 
" Light is the earthly reflection of God's holy nature ; the Holy One of Israel is tlie 
Light of Israel (Isa. 10:17). The light with its purity and splendor is the most suit- 
able earthly element to represent the brilliant and spotless purity of the Holy 
One in whom there is no interchange of light and darkness." (Keil on Exod., p. 
29.) This derivation, however plausible, has been almost wholly abandoned 
by recent writers, who refer qadhash to a root qd to cut, sever, hence to 
separate. This seems to be the sense in which the word is employed in 
in respect to Jeremiah's divine appointment to his prophetic work, " Before 
thou camest forth from the womb, I separated thee ; I have appointed thee a 
prophet to the nations," Jer. 1:5. Separation involved a two-fold idea; that of 
separation /Vom the common mass,/7'om imperfection, impurity, and sin, and of 
separation or dedication to some specific work, person, or deity. It may be a little 
difiicult to realize the original simplicity of this idea of holiness, expressing, as 
Wellhausen says, " rather what a thing is not, than what it is ;" but from this 
meager foundation has been developed a series of the most pregnant significa- 
tions tn the whole range of Old Testament revelation. 

102 The Old Testament Stttdent. 

Qodhesh holiness. 
The most frequent of these derivatives is the substantive qodhSsh, which 
occurs over 400 times, and is especially characteristic of the Pentateuchal legislation, 
of the Psalms, and of the writings of Ezekiel. Here, as in the verb, the funda- 
mental thought is that of separation, leading on the one hand to the concept of 
moral purity, or holiness, the state of being opposed to, or set apart from, the 
unclean, the profane, the wicked, and the abominable ; and on the other hand, to 
the idea of consecration, or dedication, the state of being set apart for sacred uses. 
The term has therefore a very wide range of application. It attached to the ground 
about the burning bush, Exod. 3:5 ; to an unredeemed field, Lev. 27:21 ; to the land 
of Palestine, Zech. 2:12(16); to Zion, Ps. 2:6 ; Joel 3:17 ; to Jerusalem, Isa. 52:1 ; to 
the Sabbath, Exod. 16:23 ; Neh. 9:14 ; to the sanctuary with its furniture and uten- 
sils, possini,- to the official garments worn by the priests, Exod. 28:2; to the food 
eaten by them. Lev. 22:7; to the offerings and sacrifices, Exod. 28:38 ; Lev. 7:1 ; to 
the priests, Ezra 8:28; and to the whole people of Israel, Exod. 22:31(30) ; Isa. 62: 
12. In all these applications of the word the quality of holiness is seen to rest, 
not on any natural or inherent property in the persons or things, but on their rela- 
tion to Jehovah, the covenant God of Israel. They are holy because they are 
specially dedicated to his service, or because of their proximity to the place where 
he reveals himself. A place or thing becomes more sacred in proportion to its 
nearness to Jehovah, so that it may even come to be designated qodhesh haq- 
qodhashim, holy of holies, because this quality is reflected from it in the highest 
degree. The term cannot be pared down to mean " spiritual," or " priestly," in 
opposition to divine, as Wellhausen holds (Proleg., p. 422), nor does " holy " mean 
"almost the same as ' exclusive,' " (ib. 499). For while the nearness of persons 
or things to God, or their consecration to his sers'ice, does indeed remove them 
out of tlieir ordinary worldly relations and sinful concomitants, nevertheless 
through these same consecrated persons and things God enters into the sphere of 
human life and earthly relations and makes the fullest revelation of himself that 
the condition of the world admits. We are thus brought to the fact that the Old 
Testament on almost every page exhibits the holiness of God as his supreme and 
central attribute, " Who is like thee, O Lord, among the gods, glorious in holi- 
ness?" Exod. 15:11. The beauty of his holiness demands from his creatures the 
loftiest praise, 2 Chron. 20:21. At the same time its manifestation to the sinner 
never fails to awaken a consciousness of guilt, of terror, and of desire to 
escape from his presence so long as the guilt has not been removed by atone- 
ment. Holiness is reflected from the throne upon which God sits, Ps. 47:8(9), and 
from the heaven in which he dwells, Ps. 20:6(7). This attribute of the Divine 
Being appears most conspicuously in the adjective 


Qadhosh holy. 
Unlike qudhesh, this word never applied to things, but only to persons, 
and pre-eminently to God in whom holiness inheres supremely and infinitely. It 
is the term which Jehovah employs when he would concentrate into a single word 
a description of his own inmost nature, and by means of which he would enforce 
upon his people Israel a separation from moral evil, and from contact with the 
social and religious corruptions of the surrounding nations. " Ye shall be holy 
unto me ; for I the Lord am holy, and have separated you from the peoples, that 
ye should be mine," Lev. 20:26, is accentuated again and again. The attribute 

Old Testamekt Word-studies. 103 

expressed by tlus term becomes a frequent, and in Isaiah a stereotyped, designa- 
tion of Jehovah as the Holy One, or more fully, the Holy One of Israel. It even 
assumes the form of a proper name without the article. " I have not denied the 
words of Q a d h 6 s h ," Job 10:6. " Thus saith the high and lofty inhabiting eter- 
nity, and his name is Qadhosh," Isa. 57:15. 

Another term, q a d h e s h , fern, q'dheshah, furnishes an interesting illus- 
tration of the process by which derivatives from the same root may develop into 
the most opposite meanings. As qodhesh and qadhosh have risen into a 
designation of the highest possible conception of moral purity, so qadhesh and 
q'dheshah have fallen into a designation of the deepest abyss of moral infamy. 
Originally they denoted the youths and maidens who, from a religious motive, 
made sacrifice of their innocence ih honor of the goddess Astarte, many of whom 
became permanently attached to her debasing cultus. They were dedicated to her 
worship in the same manner as the hUroduli at Corinth were consecrated to the 
service of Aphrodite Paudemos. It was only a step from this meaning to that of 
public libertines and harlots which the words soon came to denote. 

Hesedh love, grace. 

The only place where this word seems to be used in the sense of physical 
beauty or loveliness is Isa. 40:6, "All flesh is grass, and the hesedh thereof as 
the flower of the field." In every other place it refers to a friendly, loving dispo- 
sition, pre-eminently to God's condescending love toward man. The display of 
this undeserved love in the bestowment of material and spiritual blessings is more 
precisely described in the word rah'mim, mercies. Hesedh denotes a pure 
and unselfish love, entirely unlike that set forth in ' il h e b h and its derivatives, 
which hke amo, amor, emphasizes rather its sensual aspect, a meaning which sur- 
vives in our word amorous. It is not, therefore, a designation of love in general, 
but of the love exhibited by a superior to an inferior, a compassionate pity that 
seeks to relieve the poor and distressed. Hesedh, in the sense of unselfish love, 
free grace, is then attributed in its highest and fullest degree to God, and its 
exhibition on the part of man toward God or toward his fellow-man is but the 
reflection of the divine attribute. In Israel this grace was especially revealed in 
the covenant which united Jehovah and his people. " Jehovah and Israel formed as 
it were one community, and hesedh is the bond by which the whole community 
is knit together. It is not necessary to distinguish Jehovah's hesedh to Israel, 
which we would term his grace, Israel's duty of hesedh to Jehovah, which we 
would call piety, and the relation of hesedh between man and man which 
embraces the duty of love and mutual consideration. To the Hebrew mind these 
three are essentially one, and all comprised in the same covenant. Loyalty and 
kindness between man and man are not duties inferred from Israel's relation to 
Jehovah ; they are parts of that relation ; love to Jehovah and love to one's 
brethren in Jehovah's house are identical." (Kobertson Smith, Prophets of 
Israel, p. 162.) 

Tsedheq, ts'dhaqah righteousness. 

T s e d h e q denotes righteousness considered as an abstract virtue ; ts'dha- 
qah is righteousness in the sphere of personal activity. No words in the Old 
Testament are more important than these, and none have called forth such a large 

104 The Old Testajtent Student. 

and constantly growing literature. Their adequate discussion -would require a 
separate treatise, and we can notice therefore only a few of the more salient 
points of interest connected with them. The primary meaning presented by the 
root t s d h q seems to be fastness or fixedness, and hence internal compactness 
and solidity. When this conception of fixedness is transferred to the domain of 
morals, we have fixedness and solidity of character, steadfastness in the exercise 
of goodness; its opposite is rash 5' to he lax. loose, teicked. From this primary 
meaning all higher moral significations are deduced. (Ryssel, Synonyma des 
Wahren und Outen, 1872, p. 24.) Kautsch (Die Derivative des Stummes pHV 
im A. T. Sprachgebrauch, 1881) disputes this derivation and endeavors to prove 
that the original meaning is "conformity to a norm." Righteousness of charac- 
ter is therefore conformity to an external rule of action, and in the case of man 
this rule is the standard established by God. God's righteousness cannot of 
course consist in agreement with a norm outside of himself, but with his own free 
and holy nature. When, therefore, God in his judicial activity is spoken of as 
righteous it means simply that he is unswervingly true to the rule of conduct that 
he has set up for man, and that roots itself in a holiness that cannot be deflected 
toward evil or wrong. But this " conformity to a norm "" of necessity carries us 
back to the root idea of fixedness, that which stands fast and solid amidst all 
tendencies to moral unsteadiness and flaccidity. 

The holiness of God was chiefly revealed in the sphere of the theocracy, but 
his t s ' d h a q a h extended to the entire government of the world. In virtue of his 
covenant relation to Israel this word took on a narrower meaning within the theoc- 
racy than outside, denoting not so much a personal righteousness in reference to 
the divine standard, as a righteousness determined by conformity to the provis- 
ions of God's covenant with liis people. Israel's righteousness consisted in a 
strict performance of the conditions which the covenant involved. That the Old 
Testament did, however, attach a much profounder meaning to the term than 
mere rectitude of conduct is plainly seen in passages like Gen. 15:6, and Jer. 23:6, 
where righteousness is not predicated as the result of conduct, but is imputed as 
a divine gift in consequence of faith. In this sense it corresponds to the Xew 
Testament SiKawavvrj, 

Yashar upright. 

The primary force of the verb y ii s h a r is to make straight ; " I will make the 
crooked places straight," Isa. 45:2. Applied to conduct, it denotes that which is 
straightforward to the observer's eyes, hence right or pleasing. Yosher is the 
abstract noun and signifies straightness, Prov. 2:13, hence uprightness. The 
most frequently occurring derivative is the adjective yashar, which describes 
a man who moves in straight lines for the accomplishment of his purposes, i. e. 
an honest, fair, upright man. While it commonly refers to conduct, this upright- 
ness in external relations springs from uprightness in heart, Ps. 7:11. The pre- 
cepts of the Lord are y'sharim , "both when viewed as norma normata, seeing 
they proceed from the upright, absolutely good will of God, and as norma nornums, 
seeing they lead along a straight way in the right track " (Del. on Ps. 19:9). The 
quality of uprightness is not absolute, but determined by the moral stand-point of 
him who pronounces upon it. " The way of the fool is yashar in his own eyes," 
Prov. 12:15, and evil advice was yashfir in the eyes of Absalom because it 
pleased his evil mind, 2 Sam. 17:4. 

The Biblical Doctrine of Inspiration. 105 

' « meth truth. 

The root idea, according to Ryssel, is both transitive, to support, and intran- 
sitive, to be supported ; hence to be firm, secure, and in respect to any one's dis- 
position and tendency, to be true, faithful, '"meth is that which endures, pos- 
sesses continuance, therefore that, which bears the test of experience, viz. relia- 
bility, faithfuluess, truth. As descriptive of one of the divine attributes it is 
often associated with hesedh, the compassionate love of God, " Blessed be the 
Lord, who hath not forsaken his grace and his truth toward my master," Gen. 
24:27. In such connection it refers to the fidelity with wlaich Jehovah fulfills his 
promises to those who walk in his ways. Of. Pss. 25:10 ; 53:3(4). 


Tobh good. 

This word passes also from the designation of physical excellency, which is 
its common meaning, to the designation of moral good. God is not only good 
but the supreme goodness, Ps. 34:8(9); Jer. 33:11, and many other places; and 
this seems to be the Old Testament equivalent of the iSTew Testament declaration 
that God is love, for love wills only good to those whom it embraces. 


By Prof. Charles Rufus Brown, 

Newton Centre, Mass. 

The purpose of this volume, as gathered from several statements in it, is to 
offer to those of all Christian denominations who believe that the Bible is inspired, 
though they may differ in theories of inspiration, a view of inspiration dravra 
from a candid examination of the facts of Sacred Scripture. The very title sug- 
gests this. The same ring is heard again and again throughout the book. '' It is 
easy," says Dr. Manly, "to present theories. But the question is one of fact 
and not of theory. The Bible statements and the Bible phenomena are the deci- 
sive phenomena in the case." " I have been desirous to examine all sides of the 
question, and to seek for truth whether old or new ; resolved neither to cling 
slavishly to confessional or traditional statements, nor to search for original 

and startling ideas But there may be, after all, honest independence of 

inquiry, a careful sifting of opinions, a fair recasting of views in the mould of 
one's own thinking, and a subordination of the whole simply to the controlling 
authority of God's Word " (Preface). Speaking on p. 1 10 of the direct evidence to 
be expected, he says, " The testimony is also found in the phenomena apparent 
on the very face of Scripture ; and accordingly the true doctrine of inspiiation is 
to be gathered by legitimate induction from these, as well as from express asser- 
tions. This is the only truly scientific, as well as the scriptural, method of 
arriving at the genuine doctrine of inspiration. All the evidence should be 

*The Biblical Doctrine of Inspiration Explained and Vindicated. By Rev. Basil 
Manly, D. D., LL. D., Professor in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Ky. 
with complete indexes. ^ewYov^: A. C. Armstrong ami Son. J1.35. 

106 Tile Old Testament Student. 

admitted, all the classes of phenomena should be examined." Referring to those 
who make their own preconceived notions the gauge by which inspired and unin- 
spired Scripture are to be measured, he quotes from Mr. McCouaughy (in S. S. 
Times, 1880, p. 551) as follows : " There are those to-day who know just what God 
ought to do, and their judgment, rather than what he pleases, is their criterion. 

They measure their God with a yardstick They regulate him according to 

right reason,— that is, their own. They prescribe the exact limits within which he 

may work ; and then they fall down and worship the God of their own hands" 

(p. 256). 

These sentiments, so just and searching, are exactly what we should expect 
from the distinguished author. They imply tliat he began his inquiry with the 
determination to set himself free both from the Rationalism of Consers'atism and 
that of Radicalism, and to receive with meekness that view of the Bible which the 
phenomena of the Bible itself, when carefully examined, might present. The 
uniform gentlemanliness aud generosity toward opponents, so difficult to main- 
tain in a controversial work, unless one be " to the manor bom," and so appareut 
in this book, are worthy of cultivation by writers on such themes. lie does not 
once say, " You can not be true to the Bible unless you accept my doctrine of the 
Bible." Far from it. Wliat he does say is more like this : " I honor you as 
Christian brethren true to your convictions, and so I make an honest effort to 
convince you that you are wrong by presenting considerations which may not 
have occurred to you." Such an attitude is worthy of all praise and makes this 
book an "epoch-making" one. We who are younger than Dr. Manly may well 
learu from him this lesson, that no amount of painstaking scholarship will com- 
pensate us for an absence of courtesy and brotherly love in the discussion of lofty 

In part first, the idea of inspiration is carefully distinguished from other 
more or less closely related ideas which sometimes have been confounded with it ; 
as, for example, that of correct transcription of the inspired word, and the mis- 
conception that inspired men should be perfect in character, or have perfect 
knowledge of any subject. Very little exception can be taken to this part of the 
work. The inspiration of the Bible is here twice defined ; once, as " that divine 
influence that secures the accurate transference of tiuth into human language 
by a speaker or writer, so as to be communicated to other men "" (p. 37); and 
again, the Bible, while truly the product of men, is declared to be "truly the word 
of God, having both infallible truth and divine authority in all it affirms or 
enjoins " (p. 90). It will be observed that these statements are laid down at the 
beginning; but, if the reader should feel, after an examination of the evidence 
farther on, that they express a fair iuductiou from the facts, no complaint need 
be made that they precede rather than follow the inductive examination. 

I'art second is devoted to the direct proofs of inspiration. Here there are 
some very strong arguments for the fact of inspiration, admirable, unanswerable 
arguments ; but the very men whom Dr. Maidy seeks to convince are already 
convinced of the fact of inspiration and of the value of just these arguments, and 
are only in doubt in regard to the unerring accuracy of the Scriptures in eveiy 
particular. It seems to the writer that our author rather assumes that the inspi- 
ration involved in what he says is identical with infallibility than proves that they 
aie the same. To pass beyond the presumptive argument, which is purely apriori 

The Biblical Doctrine of Inspiratiok. 107 

and must stand or fall as subsequent facts may determine, the treatment of a single 
passage may make this clear. Take the familiar one in 2 Tim. 3:16 : " All Script- 
ure is given by inspiration of God," etc., or "every Scripture, inspired of God, is 
also profitable ; " etc. The conclusion is evident ; all the sacred writings are 
inspired, and Dr. Manly insists that it is so. But the question naturally arises. 
Have we conservatives had a misconception of what was necessarily involved in 
inspiration, or not? Those who differ with Dr. Manly think we have. In his 
treatment of the passage, he tacitly assumes, without attempt at proof, that we 
have not. To satisfy an opponent he would have to prove from the passage not 
only that all of Scripture is inspired, but also that it is absolutely free from error. 
His reasoning seems to be this : 

Men divinely inspired can affirm only infallible truth. 

The Scripture writers were divinely inspired. 

Therefore the Scripture writers could aflirm only truth without mixture of 

There are men who claim that the major premise is rationalistic. It is at 
least not proved in this part of Dr. Manly's book. 

Part third considers many classes of objections which have been made to the 
doctrine here stated. The limits which Dr. Manly set to himself did not permit 
him to give a full answer to these objections ; and therefore, though he does not 
seek to shun a discussion of them, his treatment is so brief as to be somewhat 
imsatisfactory. It is to be hoped that some time he will make his work more 
complete by an exhaustive examination of the difficulties in the way of a hearty 
acceptance of the doctrine he has here presented to us. 


Two Dlscnssioiis of Job 10:23-'27.— I.* Tlie interpretation of this passage is 
closely related to the idea of the Book of Job as a whole. Three current beliefs 
of the age appear in the book. 1) Everything is traced directly to God. 2) God 
is just in character and dealings with men. Hence suffering is a penalty and con- 
sequence of sin. Both .Job and his three friends accept this. 3) God's relations 
to men come out in this present life. The problem of the book is to reconcile 
these three views with the facts of the case, Job's seeming uprightness and his 
actual suffering. Job, first, questions the justice of God, but he cannot root that 
belief out. Then he must modify his idea of God's relations to man as confined 
to this life. He is convinced that there is no recovery for him in this life. Then 
there flashes into view the new thought and faith ; he shall have dealings with 
God and be justified in the future life. The \news that he hopes to see God. i. e. 
enjoy his favor in this life either as a mere mass of flesh or when disease shall 
have reduced him to a skeleton are untenable, because both conditions would not 
be a sign of God's favor. The view that he hopes for restoration in this life is 
opposed because of the fact that the whole tenor of the book, especially of Job's 
speeches, is characterized by hopelessness in this respect. It is taken for granted 
that his disease is incurable. The view that he expects a resurrection body is 
alien not only to the book but to the spirit and knowledge of the times. There 
remains the view that he will see God after death in a spiritual existence. In 
regard to this, (1) it was for him the only conceivable solution; (2) he had had 
previoiis glimpses of this truth ; (3) the epilogue wliich restores Job becomes a 
natural and artistic conclusion in the light of the whole book ; (4) the emphasis 
is laid not upon the manner or the form, but upon the fact of seeing God ; (5) thus 
Job makes a valuable contribution to the problem of suffering. 

II. t This passage may be viewed as " the triumphal arch of Job's victory." 
Casting aside as untenable the view of a resurrection body we have two main 
interpretations. 1) Job hoped for restoration in this life. In favor of this: (1) 
the language requires it ; (2) arguments in favor of the " re.sunection body " view 
apply also to this ; (3) the utter silence of Job and his friends and Jehovah else- 
where concerning a future life; (4) the whole discussion is limited to the sphere 
of this world; (5) a mark of great faith in Job; (6) the thing that was absolutely 
needful for his vindication ; {") the epilogue. 2) Job expected to see God hereafter 
in a disembodied state. In favor of this, (1) a sign of great faith ; (2) the language 
requires it; (3) vs. 23,24 demand it; (4) Job expected no restoration in this life. 
Reply to these latter arguments : (1) no greater faith demanded in the one case 
than in the other ; (2) the language does not necessarily require it ; (3) in vs. 23.24 
Job simply wanted future ages to know that he liad been restored ; (4) Job's lan- 
guage is as inconsistent as his feelings are fluctuating. How different his endur- 
ance of suffering if he had known that there was release in Sheol. Conclusion : 
Job expected restoration in this life. 

• By Rev. W. B. Hutton, M. A., In The ETpositor, Aug., 1888, pp. 127-151. 

+ By Prof. W. W. Davis, Ph. D., In The Hnmiletlc Review, Oct., 1888, pp. 358-362. 

Synopses of Important Articles. 109 

The Peutatenchal Story of Creation.* — Discrepancies are often found in a com- 
parison of ttie record of creation in Genesis with certain conclusions of geological 
science. These discrepancies arise from various misconceptions of both the Bible 
and the facts of science. It is to be noted, 1) Genesis is sacred history, geology is 
human science, hence each omits facts not essential to its representations ; 2) the 
former account is brief and stated in general terms ; 3) Moses' interpretations or 
knowledge of what he wrote by inspiration is not our standard ; 4) the language 
of Scripture is that of common life. With these facts in mind the pentateuchal 
history of creation is examined. 1) The introduction, Gen. 1:1. Here is taught 
the existence of one God, his creation of matter, his existence apart from his crea- 
tion. Science is in harmony with this. 2) The history down to the creation of 
man, Gen. 1:2-25. The word ''day" is shown by several reasons to be Intended 
to mark an indefinite period of time, characterized by a special work. The works 
of the several days are described. The religious uses of the story are, (1) no quar- 
ter given to idolatry, (2) the revelation of the Divine Being as a loving and wise 
Pather. A particular examination of the account shows not only no contradic- 
tions to science, but even harmony with it. 3) The creation of man, male and 
female. Gen. 1:26-31 ; 2:1-7,18-25. (1) This is no myth, but plain history; (2) it 
all has a profound religious significance ; (3) it agrees with the best science in 
putting man last and highest in creation and in the assertion of the unity of the 
race. 4) Conclusions : (1) interpreting the documents with regard to the object 
of their vniting, just the facts are found in Genesis, as would be expected ; (2) 
because geology does not confirm some of these and does reveal others is no 
ground for claiming discrepancies ; (3) where Geology is parallel with Genesis the 
accounts harmonize ; (4) the character of the statements of Genesis mark it as a 
divine revelation. 

The subject is too large for adequate treatment in the space g-iven. Hence many generaliza- 
tions are made without sufficient proof. The positions of the writer are, however, those com. 
monly accepted. The main feature of this argument is its insistence upon the special object 
which ruled the writer of the sacred record and determined both his selection of facts, their 
arrangement and the form of their presentation. 

Idea of 0. T. Priesthood Fulfilled in the N. T.t— The Priesthood held a central 
and dominating position in the O. T. economy. What is its fulfillment in the N. 
T.V Its sphere is not in ordinances and institutions, but in Christ and his church 
as a body realizing the Christian Dispensation. This is established by the testi- 
mony of Paul (Eom. 10:4; Gal. 2:19; 3:24; 1 Cor. 5:7,8) and of John's Gospel (ch. 
6). This fulfillment is : 1) in Christ himself (cf. Epistle to the Hebrews) as High 
Priest, (1) by his personal qualifications, (2) by his work, (3) because by and in 
him we draw near to God ; 2) in his Church as a whole, as follows from the prin- 
ciple that he instituted an organized body to represent him, (1) in her qualifica- 
tions and character (a) as called of God, (b) sympathy with the sufi:ering, (c) holi- 
ness. 2) Whether her work is priestly wOl be hereafter considered. 

The article is one of a series by the author which is appearing in this periodical. It is a care- 
ful, weighty treatment of an Important theme without much that is new or striking. Perhaps 
too great stress is laid upon the importance of the idea of the priesthood in the N. T. 

* By Geo. D. Armstrong, D. D., LL. D., in The Presbyterian Quarterly, Oct., 1888, pp. 345-368. 
+ By Kev. Prof. W. Milligan, D. D., in The Expositor, Sept., 1888, pp. 161-180. 



Thirty years ago the author of this book entered upon the Sunday-school 
field as the field of liis chosen life work. These lectures are the ripe fruit of his 
experience and investigations during that period. Tliey treat of the membership 
and management of the Sunday-school, of its teachers and their training, of the 
relation of the pastor to the scliool, of the auxiliaries of the Sunday-school, and 
of the importance and difficulties, and the principles and methods of preaching to 
children. We desire to call special attention to the lectures on the origin and 
vaiying progress of the Sunday-scliool. The facts presented in these will be a 
real surprise to many readers. Dr. Trumbull finds the Sunday-school to be no 
modem institution ; but, as " an agency of the church where the Word of God is 
taught interlocutorily or catechetically to children and other learners," it is of 
Jewish origin and as old as the Synagogue. Jesus himself in his childhood was 
a Sunday-school scholar and later on a Sunday-school teacher. lie gave the com- 
mand to start Sunday-schools everywhere. This is in the great commission (Matt. 
28:19,20). "The direction therein is to organize Bible-schools everywhere as the 
very basis, the initial form, of the Christian Church. Grouping scholars— the 
child and the child-Uke— in classes, under skilled teachers, for the study of the 
Word of God by means of an interlocutoiy co-work between teacher and scholars ; 
that is the starting point of Christ's Church, as he founded it. Whatever else is 
added, these features must not be lacking" (p. 37). This ancient origin of the 
Sunday-school and such an interpretation of Scripture, Dr. Trumbull does not 
present as a surmise, speculation or theory, resting on general principles or com- 
mending itself by its own sweet reasonableness, but he firmly establishes his view 
by presenting the facts upon which it is based. It is a delightful characteristic 
of Dr. Trumbull's work as a writer, that he buttresses his positions by constant 
reference to authorities and quotations from them, showing most careful induc- 
tive research and study. One notices especially in this work the use made of 
Jewish writings. 

Anotlier striking fact brought out in these lectures is that catechisms were 
not designed by their framers to be unintelligibly committed by children to mem- 
ory as a means of storing away religious truth. " It would seem in short that the 
very method of 'learning' the Westminster Catechism, which has been more com- 
mon than any other in the last two centuries, and which even has many advocates 
and admirers to-day, is a method which the Westminster Divines themselves 
stigmatized as ' parrot ' learning, and as contrary to the light of nature and nat- 
ural reason" (p. S3). 

We wish this work might be in the hands of every Sunday-school teacher and 
pastor in our land. It is attractive in form and furnished with copious indexes. 

* The Sunday-scuooi, ; its Origin. Mission, Methods and Au.\iliarie3. The Lyman Bcecher 
Lectures before Yale Divinity School for 18S8, by fl. Clay Trumbull, Editor of the Sunday 
School Tirne^, Author of Kadesh Barnea, the Blood Covenant, Teaching and Teachers, etc. 
Philadelphia: Jnhn D. IToltie*. Publisher, 1888. 



Livnig Religions: nr The O-reat BeltQiimsnf the 
Orieyit, from Sacred Books and Modern Cus- 
ti>ms. By J. N. Fradenburgh, Ph. D., D. D. 
New York: Phillips and Hunt $1.50 

Die Uagiographen, ihrc Verfasser, Entsteh^ings- 
zeitu. bihnlt. 1 Hft. Das 1. Buch der Spriiche 
u. Psaimen. By J. Wohlstein. Wien: Lippe, 
1888 M.1.60 

Tlie Origin and Development of Christian Dogma. 
An essay in the Science of History. By C. 
A. H. Tuthill. London : Paul 38. 6d. 

Dela Circoncision: Etude Critique. By Klein. 
Paris: lib. Durlacher, 1888. 

11 Nabucodonosor di Giuditta: disquisizione 
bibllco-assira. By G. Brunengo. Koma. 

Le Commentaire de Samuel Ibn Hofni sur le Pen- 
tateuque. By 6. Bacher. Paris: lib. Dur- 
lacher, 1888. 

Biblical Antiquities. A hand-book for use in 
Seminaries, Sabbath-schools, families, and 
by all students of the Bible. By Edwin C. Bis- 
sell, D. D. Philadelphia: The American 
Sunday School Union $1.00 

Introduction to Biblical Hebrew, presenting 
graduated instruction in the language of the 
O. T. By James Kennedy, B. D., acting libra- 
rian in the New College. London: Williams 
and Norgate 13s. 

Bistoire de I'Art dans VAntiguiti. IV. Jude^ 
Sardaigne, Syrie, Cappadoce. Par Perrot 
et Chipiez. Paris: Hatchette and Co. 


The Rise and Decline of Idolatry. By G. T. 

Flanders, D. D., in The XJniversalist Quar- 
terly, Oct., 1SS8. 
The Civilization and Religions of Ancient Mexico, 

Central America and Pei-u. By Caroline A. 

Sawyer. Ibid. 
Was Adam created by Process of Evolut ion ? By 

Chas. S. Robinson, D. D., in The Homiletic 

Review, Oct., 1888. 
Exegesis of Job 19:25-27. By W. W. Davis, Ph. 

D. Ibid. 
Moses: Bis life and work. By Alexandre Weill, 

in The Jewish World, Sept. 28, Oct. 6, 1888. 
The Study of the Bible as a Liberal Education. 

The Christian Standard, Oct. 6, 1888. 
I8 the Book of Jonah historical ? By Rev. W. W. 

Davies. Ph. D., in the Methodist Review, 

Nov., 1888. 
The Study of Bebrew by Preachers. By Prof. 

Jas. Strong, LL. D. Ibid. 
"Elijah the TIshbite" a Gentile. By Joseph 

Longking. Ibid. 
Alexander's Biblical Theology. Critique in 

Methodist Review, Nov., 1888. 
Our Lord and the Rest Day. By Joseph Hor- 
ner, D. D. Ibid. 

L'Origine des quatre premiers Chapitres du 

Deuterimome. I. By A. Hoonacker inLeMu- 

s^on, VII, 4. '88. 
Drummond's Philo .Judaeus. Reviewed by Sohiir- 

er in Theol. Ltztng, Oct. 6, '88. 
Niece's Joseph t Opei-a. Review. Ibid. 
Zur Erklacrung des Bexaemerons. By Guttler 

in Theol. Quartalschr. 3, 1888. 
Das Uixvangelium. By A. Hilgenfeld, in 

Ztschr. f. wiss. Theol., 33, 1, 1889. 
The Bible's Doctrine of the Bible. By Rev. Prof 

E. H. Johnson, D. t)., in The Examiner, Oct 

11, 18, 1888. 

Stopfer's Palestine. Review in The Independ' 

ent, Oct. 11, '88. 
Ancient Science: the Bexameron. Ibid. Oct, 

18, '88. 
Walled Cities in the Ancient East. By Rev. 

Geo. Rawhnson, M. A., in Sunday School 

Times, Oct. 13, 1888. 
The Punishment of Aclian's Trespass, By Rev. 

S. T. Lowrie, D. D. Ibid, Oct. 20, '88. 
Memorial Stones in the East. By Prof. J. A 

Paine, in Sunday School Times, Oct. 6, 1888. 
Pressense's Ancient World and Christianity. 

Review. Ibid. 
The Oldest Book in the World. By Howard OS' 

good, D. D., in Biuliotheca Sacra, Oct., 1888. 
Manhj's Bible Doctrine of Inspiration. Review, 


Recent Discoveries in Egyptology. Correspond- 
ence in the Unitarian Review, Oct., 1888. 
Benan's People of Israel. Critique. Ibid. 
Cave 071 Inspiration. Review. The Congrega- 

tionalist, Oct. i, 1888. 
Cheyne's Psalms. Review. Ibid. 
Maitineau's Study of Religion. The Church 

Quarterly Review, Oct., 1888. 
Tlie Apocrypha. Ibid. 
Ttie Scriptural Doctrine concerning Marriage 

and Divorce. Westminster Review, Oct., '88. 
Tlic Dogmas of Judaism. By S. Schechter in 

Jewish Quarterly Review, Oct., '88. 
Tlic Design and Contents of Ecclesiastes. By Dr. 

M. Friedlaeuder. Ibid. 
Where are the Ten Tribes ? By Dr. Neubauer, 

M. A. Ibid. 
Ortflin of the Book of Zechariah. By Rev"! Can- 
on Cheyne. Ibid. 
Myth and Tolemism. By Gerald Massey in The 

National Review, Oct., '88. 
Tlxe Names of the Lists of Thotmes III. which 

may be assigned to Judea. By M. Maspero in 

Jour, of the Trans. Vict. Inst. No. 86. 
Tlie Melchizedek or Heavenly Priesthood of Our 

Lord. By Rev. Prof. W. Milligan, D. D., in 

The Expositor, Oct., 1888. 
The Pentateuch— Egypticity and Authenticity, II. 

By Rev. G. Lansing, D. D. Ibid. 



BeSDine of Studies T.-VIII. 1. Sum up the events of this period and give a general characteriza- 
tion of It. 2. Compare it with the previous period considered in Studies III.-IV. 3. An 
advance is made in the woi-l£ of Jesus— what it is and how important it is to the Kin^om 
of God. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mk. 4:1-34 and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

1. Teaching by the sea (vs. 1,2) ; 4. on hearing (vs. 21-25) ; 

2. parable of the four kinds of soil 5. the fruit-bearing earth (vs. 26-29); 
(vs. 3-9) ; 6. the mustard seed (vs. 30-32) ; 

3. its meaning explained (vs. 10-20) ; 7. Jesus' method of teaching (vs. 


II. The Material Compared. 

1. Read thoughtfully Mt. 13:1-52 and I.k. 8:t-lS; i:t:IH,l». 

2. Taking the parallel passages in Mt. and Lk. gather the additional matter; e. g. inMt. 13:1,10, 

14-17, 19,31, 3«; Lk. S:4-r.,ll-l«,18; l:{:19. 

3. Classify this gathered material according as it bears on the following points: 1) statements 

throwing light on the passage in Mk.; 2) statements revealing special characteristics of 
either Gospel, (a) O. T. quotations in Jit., (b) explanatory additions in Lk. (cf. S:12-m,18) 
showing the desire of a careful writer for clearnesss and accuracy; cf. Lk. 1:3,4; 3) evi- 
dence to show that the three accounts while having a common basis are yet Independent 
of each other. 

III. The Material Explained. 


1) V. 1. (a) Began tn teach; a Hebrew idiom 5) V. 9. WIm hath cars, etc.; a Jewish teach- 

equivalent to "taught." Cf. Acts 1:1. er's call for special attention. Cf. Mt. 

(b) Sat; the teacher sat, the scholars 11:14,15; Lk. 14:34,35. 

stood. Cf. Mt. l:i:2. 8) V. 10. (a) AUme; i. e. apart from the multi- 

2) V. 4. By Uie xoayKiiU ; paths running tudes. 

through the fields. CT. 2:23. (b) They.... about him; of the larger 

3) T. 6. Rncky ; i. e. the rock lying close to body of disciples. Cf. Study VII., iii, 

the surface. 2,(1). 

4) V. 0. No root; cf. Lk. 8:0, "no moisture;" (o) ParaMc«; i.e. all that were spoken; 

how are these two conditions con- of. vs. 2,33. May not this interpre- 

nected? tatlon (vs. 10-25) have been given 

New Testament Supplement. 


17) T. 

18) V. 

19) T. 

after the other parables, i. e. after 
V. 34? 

7) T. 11. (a) .l/j/stery; seek to find the N. T. 

meaning of the word from such pas- 
sages as Rom. 16:35; lCor.2:7-10; Epb. 
1:9,10, etc.; (1) not something mys- 
terious; (2) knowledge which is kept 
secret from the many and disclosed 
only to selected ones; (3) the inmost 
truths of the Gospel which human 
wisdom cannot discover, but which 
has been revealed from above to all 
sincere and earnest souls. 

(b) Them that arc vAthoul ; (1) a phrase 
by which the Jews meant Gentiles; 
(3) applied by Jesus to his own coun- 
trymen. Why 7 

8) V. 12. That seeing they may see, etc.; (a) a 

Hebrew idiom I'cf. Isa. 6:9) meaning 
either '* keep on seeing " or " see 
clearly;" (b) of. Mt. 13:13; state the 
difference in the form of expression, 

(c) how interpret the thought (1) as a 
purpose of Jesus, or (3) as a result 
due to human perversity? 

9) V. 13. The parables ; i. e. of the Kingdom. 
May not this parable also contain 
the key by which to interpret all the 
parables ? 

10) V. 16. Are sown ; i. e. the hearer is both 

seed and soil — soil, as receiving the 
seed,— seed, as developing into a 
plant from the soil, 

11) V. 20. Accept ; how different from receive, 

V. 16? 


1) Parables, (a) Meaning of the word ; (b) use of parables in the O. T. (of. 2 Sam. 

12:1-4; Isa. 5:1-6; 28:23-29) and by the Jewish teachers (rabbis); (c) the 
occasion which prompted Jesus to use them as found (1) in the growing 
opposition to him or (2) in his growing popularity; (d) his pui-pose in 
employing them, whether (1) to attract, (2) to stimulate mental and spiritual 
life, or (3) to distinguish true and false disciples; (e) decide whether it was 
a purpose or a result of his using them that they concealed the truth ; (f) 
principles of interpreting them as illustrated in vs. 13-20 ; (1) every parable 
has one main thought and the rest is drapery, or (2) every detail has a spir- 
itual meaning; (g) apply the principles to vs. 26-29,30-32. 

2) The Kingdom of God. (a) Becall what has been gathered on this point in con- 

nection with Mk. 1:15; (b) seek to show from these parables (1) how the 
Kingdom depends for success on the nature and disposition of the hearers 
of its message, (2) how its development depends on the personal moral 
effort of its hearers, (3) how, beginning small, it has the power of vast self- 
extension, (4) other teachings concerning it in these parables. 

IT. The Material Organized. 

1. Gather the material and classify it under the following heads : 1) habits and customs; 3) JesuB" 
manner of teaching; 3) important words; 4) literary data; 5) important teachings. 

12) v. 21. (a) Similar words; Mt. 5:15,16; Lk. 

11:33; (b) the question expects what 
answer ; (c) state the argument, (1) his 
apparent purpose. (3) his real pur- 

13) V. 22. (a)rftcreis,- emphatic, "therecan be." 

(b) Ndihing hid; I. e. of this teaching. 

(c) The hiding is in order to reveal 
the truth. (1) to any who will accept 
it, (3) to the earnest whom the con- 
cealing would stimulate. 

14) T. 24. (a) IVhat ; i. e. " when I speak." 

(b) Wilh what measure, etc.; (Da pro- 
verbial expression, cf. Mt. 7:3; (3) to 
what it refers, whether their hearing 
of Jesus or their proclaiming to 
others what they hear. 

15) v. 25. (a) a proverbial phrase; (b) its appli- 

cation here whether to their ability 
to understand the word or their 
readiness to communicate it. 

16) v. 27. (a) Sleep and rise ; i. e. the common 

round of life. 

(b) He; emphatic; its application (1) 
to the recipients of the truth, or (3) to 
Jesus and the preachers of the King- 

28. Of herself ; man cannot make her. 

80. How shall we liken ; a common form- 
ula of Jewish teachers. 

33. Spake;!, e. "would he speak," a 
new method of teaching adopted. 

114 The Old Testament Student. 

2. Observe tbe following condensations of the material. 1) Work them out in detail and 
2) gather them up lute a brief statement: 

8 1. vs. 1.2,33,;14. Jesus from a boat tkaches multitudes oslv is parables, suited to 


9 2. VS. 3-20. "The sower bows on four kinds of soil, only one of which ib 


S3. VS. 21-25. "Like the lamp mv is i.vtended to give light. Heab 
wisely; YOUR growth and usefulness depend ON IT." 

t4. VS. 26-32. "The Kingdom of Heaven is like seed which the earth, apabt 
fko.m man's agency. causes to crow gb.vdually until the harvest. 
It is like the mustahd-seed, small as a seed, l.vroe as a tree, with 
great and shadowing branches." 

V. The Material Applied. 

Responsibility ix view of the Gospel, l. In hearing the message of Jesus 
(Mk. 4:3-8); observe 1) the conditions (soil) favorable to the acceptance of 
the message, 2) the conditions unfavorable to its acceptance, 3) what causes 
these conditions, 4) where the consequent responsibility lies for the final 
result. 2. In working out the message into cJmracter (Mk. 4:26-29), note. 
1) what .Jesus does for his followers; 2) what he does not do; 3) what is 
expected of them. 3. In giving the message to others (Mk. 4:21-25), consider 
1) whether this is a primary purpose in bestowing privileges on the children 
of the Kingdom, 2) whether this is a fundamental condition of personal 
Christian life, 3) note the results as indicated in v. 25. 


Besome. 1. Tbe circumstances leading Jesus to teach in parables. 2. Characteristics of these 
parables. 3. Their message concerning the Kingdom, i. Their efTect upon his hearers. 
5. Principles of thSir interpretation. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead Mk. 4:35-5:43, and be able to make a definite statement concerning each of 
the following points : 

1. Journey to the other side of the 4. Jairus' daughter raised (5:21-24, 
sea (4:35,36) ; 35-43) ; 

2. the storm stilled (4:37-41); 6. the suffering woman healed (5: 

3. the Gerasene demoniac restored 25-34). 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. Compare with Mk. 4:35-5:4.3 Ml. S::;:t-34i »:l,IS-26; I,k. 8:i2.5G. 

2. Observe the following points: 11 What is peculiar to .Mark as compared with Matthew and 

Luke? 2) further littht thrown by Matthew and Luke upon the details of the events, cf. 
Ml. 8:29,34; 9:20, 23, 20; Lk. 8:20.27, 29.3.'>,40,42; 3) seeming variations, e. g. Ml. 8:28; 9: 
1,1S; I,k. 8:31,42. Give exphinatlons of them. 4) Character of the account in Mark as 
compared with the others. Is it (a) a mere synopsis ? or (b) an Independent narrative, (0) 
marked by vivid, dramatic, original qualities ? 

New Testament Supplement. 


m. The Material Explained. 


1) T. 35. On that day; (a) a precise note of 
time; (b) the events of that day 
in view of Mt. 13:1; (c) another 
such day, Mk. 1:31-34. 

3) V. 30. Even as he was; i. e. still in the 

boat, cf. 4:1. 

3) Vs. Si-S9. (a) Note the vivid details, cf. 5:4, 

5; picture the scene; (b) what 
may be said as to this being the 
narrative 1) of an eye-witness, 
2) of a sailor ? 

4) T. 38. ia) Master; lit. "teacher." Note 

their idea of Jesus. Cf. v. 41, 
"Who is this?" 

(h) Carest thou not ; (a) a com- 
plaint: (b) ma.v this remark have 
come from Peter ? Cf. Mk. 8:33; 
John 13:6-8. 14) T. 19. 

5) V. 39. Be still; lit. "be still and remain 


6) V. 40. (a.) Fearful; i. e. "cowardly," a 

strong word. Cf. v. 41, "feared," 15) V. 28. 
i. e. were astonished and rever- 
ent, cf. 5:15. 

(b) Not yet faith; (1) either in God 
oriu Jesus; (2) not yet, in spite IS) V. 30. 
of experience, cf . Mk. 1 :.33-34, etc. 
7)5:1. Oerasenes ; describe their loca- 

tion and characteristics ; cf . " De- 
capohs," V. 30. 

8) V. 2. Tombs; cf. Gen. 33:19; Lk. 23:53; 1") T. 34. 

Num. 19:16. 

9) V. J. (a) The spirit of these words; (b) 

how account (1) for the use of 18) T. 37. 
the phrase "Most High God"? 
cf. Gen. 14:18; Num.34:16; {2)for 19) V. 38. 
the knowledge shown of Jesus ? 

10) Vs. 7-12. Study the use of the pronouns 

referring to the demoniac to un- -") V. 41. 
derstand their bearing on his 

11) V. !». ieeioji; (a) the original use of the -1) V. 43. 

word; (b) its application here. 

12) V. 12. Why should they want to go into 

the swine ? 

13) V. 13.* (a) How could they go? (1) in the 

person of the man? or (2) disem- 
bodied ? 

(b) Why permit them to go? (1) to 
relieve the man ? (2) an exercise 
of Jesus' authority ? cf. Mk. 1:27, 
etc. ; (3) swine were unclean ? 

(c) How were the swine destroy- 
ed ? (1) because frightened by the 
raging of the demoniac? (3) by 
the disturbing presence of de- 
mons? (.3) by the malice of the 
demons ? (4) by the will of Jesus ? 

(d) Why permit the swine to be 
destroyed? (1) to punish sinful 
Jews? Lev. 11:7,8, (3) an exercise 
of the sovereignty of Jesus ? cf. 
Mt. 31:18-23, (3) the action of de- 
mons entirely apart from the 
will of Jesus? 

Tell, etc. ; (a) contrary to his cus- 
tom, cf. Mk. 1:44; 5:43; Mt. 9:30; 
12:16; (b) the reason as found in 
the altered circumstances. 
// Ito^ich; was this (a) supersti- 
tion ? or (b) the common beUef 
that contact was necessary ? Cf . 
V. 23; Acts 5:15; 19:12; Mt. 14:36. 

(a) The power; cf. Lk. 5:17; 6:19. 

(b) Who touched; was this (a) a 
sincere desire for information ? 
or (b) to cause the woman to 
disclose herself? Cf. John 1:47,48. 
Thy faith; (a) degree and quaUty 
of her faith ? (b) Jesus' opinion 
of it? 

Note the three disciples, cf. Mk. 
3:16,17; Mt. 17:1; 26:37. 
Tumult; on Jewish mourningr, 
cf. Eccl. 13:5; Jer.9:17; Ezek.34: 
17; 3 Chron. 35:2.5. 
Talitha cuml; (a) "awake, little 
one;" (b) light on the language 
Jesus spoke, cf. Mk. 3:17. 
The reason for this prohibition 
as compared with v. 19; (a) the 
growing excitement among the 
people; (b) his desire to moderate 


1) Demoniacal Possession, (a) Study carefully the statements made in Mk. 1:23- 
26; 3:11; 5:1-15, and consider the following points: (1) the existence of 
bodily and mental disease, (2) the popular belief, (3) the view that Jesus 
took, (4) the expulsion accompanied by a struggle, (5) inclination to Jesus 
yet, also accompanied by opposition to him, (6) acknowledgment of Jesus as 

* The various views are suggested, and the student may decide between them after a study 
of the facts. 

116 The Old Testament Student. 

the Christ, (7) the sufferer restored, (b) Note the bearing of these facts on the 
view that tliese manifestations were merely bodily and mental troubles attrib- 
uted to demons by the people and by Jesus, who accommodated himself to 
the sufferers' views and to the popular belief, (c) What arguments in favor 
of the view that the evil spirits were actually present ? (d) On that view what 
may be said as to the following pomtsV (1) the occasion of demoniacal pos- 
ses.sion is tlie victim's sinfulness, (2) this sin results in the supremacy of the 
demon over the man's will, (3) this moral debasement results in bodily and 
mental disease, (4) Jesus had authority over the demons, (.5) they recog- 
nized him and acknowledged his authority, (6) an extraordinary outbreak 
of evil powers at this period, (7) theur especial activity in Israel owing to 
the religious training of the nation, (8) as to demoniacal possession at the 
present time. 

IV. The Material Organized. 

1. Gather tlie material and classify it under the following heads: 1) persons, 2) 

habits and customs, 3) places, 4) miracles, 5) Jesus as man, 6) Jesus as more 
than man, 7) literary data. 

2. Condense the material, according to methods already employed, under the gen- 

eral topic of Manifestations of Authority. 

V. The Material Applied. 

Knowledge and Faitu. 1. Knowledge of Jesus no guarantee of strong faith 
in him (Mk. 4:38-40). 2. Evidence of the power of Jesus does not always 
lead to faith in him (Mk. 5:16,17). 3. Ignorance of Jesus in his true char- 
acter does not prevent strong faith in him (Mk. 5:25-34). 4. Reasons for 
the failure of faith as found in, 1) the power of circumstances and experi- 
ence (4:37 ; 5:39,40), 2) the strength of selfishness (5:13,14). 5. Rewards of 
faith in Jesus ; 1) fuller knowledge of him, 2) the manifestation of his favor. 


BcBume. 1. Give an account of the mighty acts of Jesus In the previous study and present tbem 
as manifestintr his power. 2. The failure of Jesus on the other side of the sea and the 
reasons for it. 3. The facts of demoniacal possession and the explanation of them. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead Mk. 6:1-44, and be able to make a definite statement on each of the follow- 
ing points : 

1. The failure at Nazareth (vs. l-6a); 6. Ilerod and John the Baptist (vs. 

2. a preaching tour (v. 6b) ; 17-29) ; 

3. the twelve sent out equipped and 7. the apostles return and go into 
charged (vs. 7-11) ; retirementwith Jesus (vs. 30-32); 

4. their work (vs. 12,13); 8. multitudes seek them and are 

5. estimates of Jesus by Herod and fed (vs. 33-44). 
others (vs. 14-16) ; 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. with Mk. 8:l-<)a cf. Mt. LtLiS-oS. Note the ditTerent connection, Mt. 13:58. 

2. With Mk. 6:6b-13 cf. Sit. i):S5-38; 10:1,5-15; Lk. 9:1-6; observe variations (Mt. 10:10; Lk. 9:S 

with Mk. 6:8,8) and account for them. 

New Testament .Supplement. 


3. With Mk. 6:U-29cf. 3It. 14:1-12; Lk. 9:7-9. Note, 1) Herod's motive, Mt. 14:5; 2) his desire, 

I.k. 9:9; 3) the action of John's disciples, Mt. 14:12. 

4. With Mk. 6:30-44, cf. Mt. 14:13-21; Lk. 9:10-17; John 0:1-13. 1) Observe another motive for 

retirement, Mt. 14:13; 3) other persons, Mt. 14:21 ; 3) the place, Lk. 9:10; 4) note specially 
the passage in John; (a) its details, (b) the note of time, John 0:4. 

III. The Material Explained. 


1) V. 1. 

3) V. 

His own country; i. e. his native 

Wisdom; i. e. such as those edu- 
cated in the schools of Rabbis had, 
cf. John 17:1.1. What inference as 
to his early training? 
3) V. 8. (a) The Cm-penter; (1) a hint about 
the early Ufe of Jesus: (3) every 
boy was taught a trade, of. Acts 

(b) Son of Mary; Joseph is not men- 
tioned; Why? 

(a) Cf. Lk. 4:24; (b) read the whole 
passage (4:16-30) and note the gen- 
eral and special points of resem- 
blance and difference; (c) seek a 
decision as to whether these are 
accounts of the same event or not. 

(a) Beoan to send; (1) cf. Mk. 4:1; 
(2) purpose of this mission whether 
merely to train them for the future 
or thoroughly to evangelize Gali- 
lee; (3) need of the latter in view of 
the growing hostility and excite- 

(b) Qave authority ; how? 

6) T. 8. (a) Take nothing; either (1) because 

of the unassuming nature of their 
work, or (3) because they were to 
expect these things to be supplied 
by others, cf. Mt. 10:10b. (3) other 
possible reasons. 

(b) Money; lit. "copper coin," the 
least amount. 

7) T. 10. (a) House; (1) a domestic ministry; 

(3) other methods employed by 
Jesus, Mk. 1:31; 3:13, etc.; (3) fitness 

4) V. 

B) V. 7. 

of this method for the twelve; (4) 
eastern customs that afford the 
ground for the action. 

8) V. 11. Shake off the dust; (a) have nothing 

more to do with such inhospitable 
persons; (b) a testimony mi(o them 
of the fact; (c) symbolic of their 

9) V. 13. ^iioin(edwi7?^ oil; (a) common med- 

ical treatment, Isa. 1:6; (b) differed 
from the method of Jesus; (c) per- 
haps with prayer, Jas. 5:14; (d) eflS- 
cacious for healing in their hands. 

10) T. 14. (a) Evidence of the wide fame of 

Jesus and the interest he aroused 
among all; (b) varying ideas about 
him; (c) note that they do not think 
him the Christ. 

11) V. 30. (a) Probable length of the tour; (b) 

probability that Jesus visited Jeru- 
salem during their tour, cf. John 5 
and the event following in ch. 6; 
(c) to what place they would be 
likely to return. 
13) V. 32. A desert place; (a) on the eastern 
shore, of. John 6:1; (b) cf. note on 
Mk. 1 :35, "study" IV. 

13) T. 35. (a) Evidence of intense interest 

amongthe people, cf.v.38; (b)what 
occasion for so great a multitude? 
cf. John 6:4,5. 

14) V. 37. Two hundred pennyivorth; a pro- 

verbial saying used to signify a 
large sum, not a close calculation. 

15) Vs. 39,40. Note the characteristic details in 



1) Herod. V. 14. (a) Learn something of liis family, their origr'n, their history, 

prominent names among them, especially Herod the Great (cf . Mt. 2:2) ; 
(b) in regard to this Herod, study, (1) his position, (2) his relation to 
Romans, (3) to Jews, (4) his religious opinions, (5) his personal and social 
life ; (c) note his view of John, of Jesus ; (d) further relations with Jesus, 
cf. Lk. 13:31 ; 23:7-11. 

2) The Miracle. Vs. 41-44. (a) Taking all four accounts, form a complete state- 

ment of the course of events in their order; (b) what may be said as to the 
explanations which have been proposed to account for the miracle, (1) food 

118 The Old TESTAioarr Student. 

concealed by the disciples was now brought forth by Jesus, (2) food con- 
cealed among the multitude was generously given up through the persuasion 
or example of Jesus, (3) a mythical story after Old Testament models, cf. 
Exod. 16:8 sq.; 2 Kgs. 4:42-44 ; (c) facts to be considered, (1) the agreement 
of four-fold account, (2) the simplicity and sobriety of the narrative, (3) the 
resulting feelings of the people, John 6:14,15 ; (d) sum up conclusions, (1) as 
to the reality of the miracle, (2) the way it was done, (3) the purpose and 
teaching of it. 
3) Characteristics of Jcsas. (a) Note certain characteristics of Jesus seen in vs. 
5,6.31,34; Mt. 14:13; (b) others appearing in vs. 2,7,7-11,41,42; (c) compare 
both series of characteristics with those in Mk. 1:12,13,22,27,34,35; 2:8.17; 
3:4,5,13-19 ; 4:38-40 ; 5:30,34,41,43 ; (d) from all these sources form a more or 
less general yet clear idea of Jesus, (1 ) as man, (2) as more than man. 

lY. The Material Organized. 

1. CUjislfv the material under the following heads: 1) places; 2) persons; 3) habits and customs; 

4) methods; 5) miracles; 6) characteristics of Jesus; 7) literary data ; 8) chronological data. 

2. Cotideme the material into the briefest possible statement: 

i 1. V. 1. Thence he and his disciples go to his native town. 

v. 2. Many are astonished at his teaching and say, " Whence comes his wisdom and 

V. 3. "Is not he our townsman and do not his relatives live among us?" They 

reject him. 
V. 4. Jesus says, " A prophet is honored everywhere except at home." 

V. 5. He can do few miracles, 

v. 6a. He marvels at their unbelief. 

Jesus visits his native town, astonishes them bv bis words and deeds, 


S 2. VS. 6b-13. Let the student work this out himself. 

8 3. vs. 14-29. The fame of Jesus leads some to call him Elijah or some prophet; 
BUT Hkiiod savs he IS John rises from the dead. For Herod h.vd 


8 4. vs. 30-44. The apostles return and with Jesus retire to a place where many 
follow them. Jesus teaches the multitudes, and as night co-mes on, 


The student may work through the processes in the above condensations and 
gather up the whole Into as brief a statement as possible. 

V. The Material Applied. 

Defective Ciiahacter. Vs. 14-29. From a study of the character of Herod as 
here exhibited show, 1) how there may be excellent qualities in those 
accounted debased ; 2) how Herod's relations to John reveal his habit of 
trifling with moral truth and duty ; 3) how the effect of such trifling upon 
the character is seen, (a) in relation to unexpected temptations (vs. 22-26), 
(b) in the development of superstitious feelings (vs. 14,16), (c) in insensi- 
bility to right feeling and action (cf. Mk. 6:20 with Lk. 23:11). 

New Testament Suppleiveent. 



Resnnie. 1. Give a statement concerning the mission of the twelve, occasion for it, preparation 
for it, results of it, its purpose and signiflcance. 2. The character of Herod and his 
place in the Gospel story. 3. The withdrawal of Jesus and his disciples and the events 
attending it. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mark 6:45-7:23 and be able to make a deiioite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

1. Jesus sends away his disciples 
and the multitude (v. 45); 

2. on the mountain and the sea (vs. 

3. healing ministry in Gennesaret 
(vs. 53-56); 

4. scribes and Pharisees come and 
question concerning ceremonial 
traditions (7:1-5); 

5. Jesus' denunciation (vs. 6-13); 

6. the things within and without 
man (vs. 14-23); 

II. The Material Compared. 

With Mk. 6:45-56 cf. Mt. 14:-22-3G; .John 6:14-21. 

Note 1) additions Mt. 14:28-31; John 6:18,19,21; 2) identity in language, Mk. 6:50b; Mt. 14:27; 

John 6:20; 3) variations, Mk. 6:52; Bit, 14:33; Mk. 6:45; John 6:17. 
With Mk. 7:1-23 of. Mt. 15:1-20. Observe 1) the close similarity; 2) the addition concerning 

the Pharisees Mt. 15:12-14, and t. 15, "Peter." 

III. The Material Explained. 



1) T. 45. (a) Constrained ; a strong word 

"forced." What was the need 

of such constraint? 

(b) Bcthsaida; cf. Lk. 9:10. 

2) v. 46. Tn pray; cf. Mk. 1 :35. 

3) V. 47. Even was aime; cf. Mt. 14:15. 


4) v. 48. (a) Fourth iratch; Jewish divis- 

ions of time? cf. Mk. 13:3.5. 
(b) Would have passed; "pur- 
posed to pass;" (1) that they 
might see him, (2) to test their 

5) v. 52. (a) Understood not; what ought 

they to have understood and ap- 
plied to this event ? 
(b) Hardened; cf. Mk. 3:5; here 
in a passive sense, "dulled." 

6) v. 56. Border; cf. Num. 15:;s7-40: was 

this superstition ? cf. Mk. 5:28. 

7) Vs. 2-4. (a) Note the bearing of this ex- 

planatory matter on the ques- 
tion of the persons for whom 
this Gospel was written. Cf. 
also 7:11. 

(b) Vnwashen; two kinds of 
washings, (1) for cleanliness, (2) 
for religious purposes. 

V. 5. Tradition; (1) words of instruc- 

tion or command handed down 
by word of mouth from one 
generation to another; (3) its 
special meaning here? 
8) V. 10. Moses; (a) cf. Mt. 15:4 and ex- 

plain; (b) does Jesus mean (1) 
the writings called under the 
name Moses? cf. Lk. 16:29,31, or 
(2) that Moses himself said these 
words ? 

10) Vs. 11, 12. Note the reasoning here ; (1) a 

son should care for his parents, 
(2) but what he should give to 
them is devoted to God, (3) there- 
fore they can have nothing. 
What then is Jesus' conception 
of God here? 

11) V. 19. Malting meats clean ; cf. Deut. 14: 

3-20. Relation of Jesus to this 
law, whether (1) annulling it, or 
(2) unfolding its real meaning 
and principle. 
121 Vs. 21-23. (alDistinguish.inthislist.sinsof 
thought and sins of act; (b)mark 
the source of sin; fc) the nature 
of sin; (d) how did the reasoning 
(vs. 6-23) meet the accusations 
(V. 5) of the Pharisees ? 


1) The Geography of the Sea of Galilee, (a) Learn something of the position, size 
and surroundings of the Sea of Galilee ; (b) what other names given it, Num. 

120 TiiE Old Testament Student. 

34:11; Jolin 6:1; (c) locate if possible and describe these places on its 
shores. (1) the plain of Geiinesaret. (2) ("apcrnaiim. (.H) liethsaida. probabil- 
ity of two Bethsaidas (cf. Lk. 9:10; ilk. (5:4.5), (4) Tiberias, John 6:23, (5) 
country of the Gerasenes, Mk. 5:1 ; (d) trace the probable course of Jesus, 
Mk. 6:32; Lk. 9:10; of the multitudes. Mk. 6:33; (e) indicate some geo- 
graphical advantages to Jesus in selecting this region for the scene of his 
cliief work. 
2) The Crisis, (a) Keview rapidly the events just preceding those of this study, 
Mk. chs. 4.5,6; (b) Xote tlie effect of these things upon the people, cf. John 
6:14,15 ; (c) observe the necessity that he decide for or against their ideas and 
desires; (d) what was involved in this decision, in view of (1) the attitude 
of Herod, cf. Mk. 3:6; Lk. 9:7-9.(2) the hostility of the Pharisees; (e) what 
may be inferred from Mk. 6:45.46; John 6:15 as to his decision; (f) read 
thoughtfully John 6:22-71 as a commentary upon this event and its results. 

IV. The Material Organized. 

1. Clamfv Ihc matrrinl under the followintr heads: 1) places; 2i O. T. quotations; 3) habits and 

cu8tomR; 4) iinportatit words; .ti important teachings; (fi) miracles. 

2. Ol)8erve the following condensations: 

1) 8 1. vs. 45,46. .Tesus dismisses all and prays alone. 

vs. 47.48. He walks on the sea pa."*! the boat of the storm-beaten disciples. 

vs. 49,ri0. They fear ; he says, " It is T." 

vs. .11, .W. The storm ceases; they, too dull to comprehend his deeds, wonder. 

2) Let the student gather these verses Into a compact statement. 

3) i 2. vs. 5;i,54. On landing he is recognized. 

vs. 6S,56. Wherever he goes they bring the sick who touch him and are healed. 

After he landu many sefk )i<» aid far healing. 

i) Lefthe student unite 8§ 1 and 2. 

.5) 8 3. vs. 1-5. Pharisees complaiu that his disciples do not observe the customary traditions 
of the Jews. 

vs. 6-13. Jesus says, " Isaiah called your formal worship vain, and your custom about 
Corhan proves that you make void God's law." 

vs. 14,1.5. He says to the multitude, "Not what goes into man but what comes out of 
him defiles." 

vs. 17-23. He e.xplains to the disciples that it is not the food that goes into the mouth 
but the sins that come from the heart that defile man. 

Jexuy trllK IVtiiriiufn icftii ciimplaiti iiliinit tlie dixcipleg' neglect of Jewish tradition 
Ihnl they miihe lind'K hiw void by tlieir tradition. He artcrtt to all Oiat not mate- 
7-ial Viinga from u-ithnut but evil thingitfrom wiUiin man defile him. 
6) Note the summing up of the whole. 

.lOKUK lifter dlKiniNsliig all and praying alniic, nnlks on the sea to the dUclples* 
storni-lossoil boat. On landing he hiils many, lie rrjerls the traditions of the 
PharineeH anil di-claroH that only man's eril heart defiles him. 

V. The Material Applied. 

The I'hahiskes. From the character and relations of the Pharisees to Jesus 
show how they may illusliiile, 1) the existence of evil-doing, possibly prac- 
tised unconsciously, along with i)rofessiiins of hish morality; 2) the failure 
of any endeavor to save men by outward rules of conduct; 3) the danger in 
too much regard to self-cullure and the need of self-forgetfulness in the 
growth of the religious life; 4) the power of conscientious but mistaken 
men to hinder a good cause; 6) tlie necessity of inward, vital piety and a 
spirit characterized by candor and liberality in the judgment of others. 


Vol. VIII. DECEMBER, 1888. No. 4, 

What a blessing to any preacher are those hearers who are 
well-informed concerning biblical facts and truths ! They are not 
only his most appreciative listeners. They are not only his most 
capable critics. They are not only those who derive the greatest 
benefit from his preaching if he is a faithful student and expounder of 
the Scriptures. They are much more. They constitute a bulwark 
for him in the large, free treatment of biblical truth. Their ideas of 
the Bible are drawn from a study of it, not brought to it and forced 
upon it. Hence, on the one hand, they are open to new light, ready 
for larger views, tolerant on behalf of any one who is seeking to 
unfold the Word. But on the other hand, they guard the pulpit from 
falling into a type of teaching which is extra-biblical. Here is per- 
haps the great danger of the modern preaclier. So diverse are the 
interests and so wide is the range of subjects which fall under his view 
that he is tempted to depart from " the ministry of the Word." Happy 
the pastor who is buttressed and shielded from either danger by the 
strong, stimulating assistance of a body of Bible students among his 

Why should not every pastor aim to build up such a body of 
hearers } Why is not that effort just as important and as helpful to 
the kingdom of God as any other department of his labors .' Why 
should he not put forth special energy in this direction .•" Much can 
be done from the pulpit by expository preaching. Vastly more can 
he accomplish as teacher of a Bible class in giving his personal atten- 
tion to the training of his people in right methods of study. Why 
should he not rather give up some other lines of work for his flock, 

122 The Old Testament Student. 

in order to secure for them this supreme achievement — that they- 

may know how to search, to appropriate, to be mighty in, the 
Scriptures ? 

In three articles published in successive numbers, the question of 
the New Testament interpretation of the Old Testament will be pre- 
sented. Of the many questions which demand the attention of the 
biblical student, this one is, perhaps, most vital. One's interpretation 
of a multitude of passages, one's views upon a great number of subor- 
dinate topics will largely be determined by the view which he holds 
in reference to the relation of the two Testaments. Nor is it an easy 
matter to come to a decision upon this question. It cannot be denied 
that difficulties lie in the way of accepting any one of the three 
principal theories. Nothing will be gained, however, by shirking 
responsibility. The theories deserve consideration. The difficulties 
must be faced. What Professor Toy, of Harvard, does in this number 
for one of these theories. Professor Stevens, of Yale University, will 
do in the January Student, for a second, and President Alvah Hovey, 
of Newton Theological Institution, will do in the February STUDENT 
for the third. To most of us the view presented by Dr. Toy will 
seem to take away from the New Testament all authority, and even 
all claim to be regarded as a book of ordinary accuracy ; it will seem 
impossible to entertain such a theory of the New Testament and at 
the same time acknowledge, in any sense, its divine origin. Still this 
is not the proper line of argument. We cannot say : This view must 
be false because it is inconsistent with a given theory. We must 
examine one by one the facts which he claims to exist, and decide 
whether he is right or wrong in his claim. This method of procedure, 
and this method alone, will satisfy a thoughtful man. It is, of course, 
supposable that a large number of the STUDENT'S constituency have 
investigated this question, and made decision upon it. It is true, on 
the other hand, that many are just now considering it afresh, if not for 
the first time. To both classes its discussion by men of such ability, 
representing, as they do, three different schools of opinion cannot but 
be helpful. 

In speaking of the doubt which exists in reference to the author- 
ship of the Book of Job, Prof. Davidson* remarks : "There are some 
minds that cannot put up with uncertainty, and are under the necessity 

•The Book of Job; Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges : p. 6». 

Editorial. 123 

of deluding themselves into quietude by fixing on some known name. 
There are others to whom it is a comfort to think that in this omnis- 
cient age a few things still remain mysterious. Uncertainty is to 
them more suggestive than exact knowledge. No literature has so 
many great anonymous works as that of Israel. The religious life of 
this people was at certain periods very intense, and at these periods 
the spiritual energy of the nation expressed itself almost impersonally, 
through men who forgot themselves and were speedily forgotten in 
name by others." Is not this fact, in itself, strong evidence that 
Israel's literature is something different from ordinary literature. It 
is broader than the work of any one man could possibly be. It is 
human, to be sure ; but how much more than human ! 

The history of the world is the history of redemption. The 
proto-evangelium, as one has said, is its magna charta. The authors 
of the Old Testament recognize this, and thus are peerless among the 
writers of antiquity. We find no such insight elsewhere, and rightly 
call it of divine inspiration. These inspired men saw also that the 
specific human organ of redemption for the world was Israel, — as a 
people, and finally as represented in the Messiah. This thought is 
the spinal cord of the Old Testament, binding the various writings 
together in organic unity, and needs to be kept in view in any ade- 
quate treatment of Old Testament History. The prominence given 
to it still renders many of the older works, such as Jonathan Edwards' 
History of Redemption, valuable ; and they should still find a place on 
our book-shelves, and not be entirely pushed aside by the more scien- 
tific and exact treatises of to-day, many of which fail to emphasize 
sufficiently this underlying thought of the Old Testament. 



By Crawford H. Toy, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

The metliod of determining the exegetical value of the New Testament 
would seem to be simple enough. Here is an ancient book from which citations 
are made in another ancient book. Are the citations correctly made and used ? 
To answer this question in any given case, all that is necessary is to fix the text 
and meaning of the two passages, by scientific principles of interpretation, and 
compare them. 

Tliere are, to be sure, one or two complications, which, however, need not seri- 
ously embarrass the solution of the question. In the first place we are not abso- 
lutely certain that we have the complete original text of either Old Testament or 
New Testament. Our present Hebrew text, as is well known, depends upon MSS. 
of which scarcely one is older than the tenth century of our era. Tliis Massoretic 
text may sometimes be controlled by the Greek, Aramaic and Latiu versions, 
thougli there are many cases in which these offer little or no help, and our depend- 
ence has to be on the traditional Hebrew form. We know that this Hebrew text 
has been jealously guarded probably from about the beginning of our era ; but 
what may have been its fortunes before this time, when for hundreds of years 
there was no authentic collection of the ancient Hebrew literature, when books 
were copied by unknown men under unknown circumstances, when we have good 
reason to believe that scribes took large liberties with their manuscripts, add- 
ing to or taking from the material, and combining two or more books in one 
manuscript, when the unintentional errors of one scribe might often be perpet- 
uated by his successors, when there was no critical public to watch over the desti- 
nies of books,— what, under these conditions, may have been the fortunes of the 
Hebrew text, who can tell ? 

The history of the New Testament text is in general similar to that just 
described. The large number of errors in the received text has recently been 
brought to light by the Canterbury revision. The texts now generally accepted, 
those of Tischendorf and Westcott and Hort, rest almost entirely on two or three 
manuscripts of tlie fourth and fifth centuries, controlled in a measure by the 
Syriac and Latin versions. Yet in not a few cases the different testimonies are 
80 discordant tliat an absolute decision is impossible, and the history of the New 
Testament writings between the date of their composition and the appearance of 
the earliest version is involved in the same obscurity which shrouds the early 
history of the Hebrew text. We are to a certain extent at the mercy of the 
scribes wliose methods of copying we do not know. 

Yet for the body of Old Testament and New Testament writings we may be 
reasonably sure that we have in substance the thought of the original authors. 
There may be uncertainty about particular words, sentences, or paragraphs ; but 

The New Testasient as Interpretbr of the Old. 125 

the probability is not great that a succession of scribes extending through several 
centuries could have quite transformed the body of their texts. For purposes of 
historical investigation, the best modern editions of Old Testament and New Tes- 
tament texts may be accepted as substantially correct; for the former Hahn, 
and Baer and Delitzsch, and for the latter Tischendorf, and Westcott and Hort. 
These do not claim absolute verbal accuracy, but they may fairly be regarded as 
containing no very important errors in text or words. And so far as the broader 
criticism Is concerned, the investigation of the integrity or composition of the 
various books, this must of courise follow its own principles in general depend- 
ence on the best attainable text. 

Another complication is found in the fact that the New Testament writers 
quote not from the Hebrew but from some version, more generally the Septua- 
gint. In such cases, it becomes necessary to compare the version with the He- 
brew and determine, if possible, the original form of the text. If the translation 
of the version be perfectly correct, then our question is the same as if the quota- 
tion were made immediately from the correct Hebrew. If the translation be not 
correct, then the quotation is not, strictly speaking, from the Old Testament but 
from another book ; the question would then be first, whether the New Testament 
writer has correctly understood the version from which he cites, and then, whether 
the version gives the substantial sense of the original or whether it departs there- 
from in an important degree. If the New Testament author has only, for 
example, the Septuagint before him, we cannot hold him responsible, as an 
interpreter, for the errors of his version ; we must recognize and commend his 
exegetical qualities if his employment of his text is accurate. But if this text 
be not that of the Hebrew Old Testament, he is in so far an expounder not of the 
Old Testament, but of the version. In the case of each quotation, therefore, it 
will be necessary to decide whether it is the Hebrew or the Greek or some other 
version that is cited. 

Still another introductory question arises in connection with certain of the 
quotations : What is the meaning of the expression that occurs so frequently in 
the Gospels in connection with various incidents in the life of Jesus : — " That it 
might be fulfilled " ? Similar phrases occur in the epistles of Paul and in the 
epistle to the Hebrews. Are we to understand that the New Testament writer 
intends to declare in such cases that there is the fulfillment of a prediction ? And 
if so, does he mean that this remote fulfillment was had in view by the Old Testa- 
ment writer 'i or only that, without the prescience of the latter, God had brought 
it about that certain declarations should be illustrated and fulfilled in the life of 
Jesus or in the history of the early Christian church 'i So far as the mere word- 
ing of the expression goes, either of these views of its meaning might be main- 
tained. In each case we have to decide as best we may the import of the 
expression in question, from the tone of the New Testament writer and the gen- 
eral direction of his narrative. 

Putting such passages aside, we may examine the citations in which the main 
point is the correctness of the use of the Old Testament made by New Testament 

Let us take for example the passage Matthew 8:17 quoted from Isa. 53:4. 
The Hebrew reads : " Our sicknesses he bore and our pains he carried them," which 
is rendered with sufiicient exactness in the Gospel : " Himself took our weak- 

126 Thk Old Testament Student. 

nesses and bore our diseases." The prophet means to represent the servant of 
Yahweli. of whom he is speaking, as suffering vicariously for the nation, enduring 
sorrows produced by the national sin, and through this suffering eventually con- 
quering peace and purity for his people. The picture is clear enough ; a righteous 
person involved in suffering through no fault of his own, but by virtue of his 
close relations to a sinful community, suffering of mind and of body inflicted on 
him by his enemies. In the Gospel the sense given to these words is certaiidy 
diflerent from this. " They brought to Jesus," says the evangelist, " many pos- 
sessed with demons, and he cast out the spirits with a word and healed all that 
were sick, that it might be fulfilled that was spokeu by Isaiah the prophet, saying," 
etc. Here Jesus is represented as taking into his own body and bearing the 
diseases which he expelled from the bodies of others, a conception strange in 
itself and foreign to the thought of the prophet. The meaning of the evangelist 
has been supposed to be that Jesus by his suffering procured pardon and peace 
for men, but in the passage in Matthew there is no word of spiritual experi- 
ence or faith on the part of those who were treated ; it was simply a bodily cure 
effected in them, and Jesus is said thereby, in accordance with the prediction of 
the prophet Isaiali, to liave borne men's diseases; the natural imderstanding of 
this seems to be that he assumed the diseases which he healed. It may be added 
that the natural signification of the phrase, "that it might be fulfilled," is that 
these healing acts of Jesus were definitely predicted by the prophet in the passage 

In Matthew 21 :5 there is a curious misapprehension of the Hebrew expression 
quoted from Zech. 9:9. The evangelist relates that two disciples were directed to 
go to a village and to bring an ass and a colt which they should find there ; this 
they are said to have done ; they " brought the ass and the colt and put ou tliem 
their garments, and he sat thereon." The evangelist adds that all this was done 
that the word of the prophet might be fulfilled : " Behold thy king comes to thee 
meek and riding on an ass and a colt the foal of an ass." The words ■• ass " and 
"colt" are imderstood in the New Testament use of the expression to mean two 
diflerent animals, the ass being represented as the mother of the colt, whereas in 
the Old Testament passage, the two words mean one animal, being simply used in 
a sort of poetic parallelism, " an ass, that is, a colt of the ass species," both words 
being masculine in the Hebrew. 

A quotation which deals in an extraordinary manner with the Hebrew text 
is that in Matthew 27:9.10 from Zech. 11:13 (the ascription to Jeremiah in Mat- 
thew is doubtless a mere clerical error). The stress of the citation is made to 
turn in the Gospel on a word which in all probability does not properly belong in 
the Hebrew at all and gives it a sense (luile foreign to the meaning of the prophet. 
The passage in Zechariah reads : " And Yahweh said to me. Throw it to the potter 
— a goodly price at which I am priced by them I And I took the thirty pieces of 
silver and threw them into the house of Yahweh to the potter." The evangelist 
declares this to be a prediction of the purchase of the potter's field with the thirty 
pieces of silver wliicli Judas returned to the priests. The word "potter" in the 
Hebrew is suspicious; one does not know what a potter should be doing in the 
temple and why the prophet should throw the money to him. The change of one 
Hebrew consonant gives us "treasury" instead of "potter" ("IVIN for "1W)> 
which is a natural sense in the connection ; and it is curious that in the Gospel 

The New Testabient as Interpreter of the Old. 127 

(v. 6), the priests say that it is not lawful to put this money into the treasury, 
which was in general the obvious place for money. " Potter " is not found in the 
Septuagint text, which misread the Hebrew in another way ; the reading in the 
Gospel comes from some corrupt text of the time. But this is not the only 
departure from the Hebrew in Matthew. There it is the first person, " I took 
and threw;" here it is the third person plural, "They took and gave;" in the 
Greek the form of the verb admits of either rendering and it was perhaps from a 
Greek version that the evangelist took that form which best agreed with the 
transaction to which he referred. Further, the Hebrew text says only that the 
money was thrown to the potter ; in the Gospel it is represented as saying that 
" they " gave it for the potter's field, another variation for which it is hard to 
account, for in the prophet nothing is said of a field or a purchase. These com- 
bined changes give a sense which we may fairly say does not belong to the pro- 
phetic passage. In Zechariah the prophet in the symbolic procedure which he 
is describing receives from the people the price of his religious care over them, a 
price ridiculously small, which he takes and not without contempt throws into 
the treasury of the temple. The emphasis is not on the place into which he puts 
the money — this was of course the ti-easury — but on the smallness of the price at 
which the people of Israel estimated the instruction of Yahweh's prophet and in 
the fact that they were so willing to give np his services. What he means to say 
is simply that Israel cared little for the instruction and guidance of their God 
since they so readily dissolved the connection between themselves and His 
appointed minister. There is a general parallelism between the two transactions 
in question, in so far as the betrayal of .Jesus to the priests might have been 
regarded by the evangelist as a betrayal by the people of God's minister and there- 
fore an abandonment of God himself. The parallelism is not faithful in the 
details, for it is the traitor Judas whose price is estimated by the priests at thirty 
pieces of silver ; or, if it be .Judas himself who puts the price of his God at thirty 
pieces, he cannot fairly be taken as the representative of the people. And further, 
as is pointed out above, the stress in the two passages is by no means the same ; 
in the prophet it is on the smallness of the price ; in the Gospel it is on the pur- 
chase of the potter's field. 

John 19:37 is another example of an interpretation based on a wrong transla- 
tion. The original passage. Zech. 12:10, reads : " They shall look to me in respect 
to [or in behalf of] him whom they have pierced [that is, slain]." The prophet, 
speaking in the name of Yahweh, is describing the situation in Judah in his own 
day and predicting a happier future. We gather from his words that the feeling 
between the city of Jerusalem and the surrounding rural districts was an 
unfriendly one, and he predicts a coming reconciliation between the two parties. 
"And the chieftains of Judah shall say in their heart, the inhabitants of Jerusa- 
lem are my strength in Yahweh of hosts their God. In tliat day I will make the 
chieftains of Judah like a pan of fire in the midst of wood, and like a torch of fire 
among sheaves, and they shall devour on the right hand and on the left all the 
people round about, and Jerusalem [that is, the population of Jerusalem] shall yet 
dwell in its own place, in Jerusalem. And Yahweh will save the tents of Judah 
first, that the glory of the house of David and the glory of the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem may not be magnified above Judah." After declaring that Yahweh 
will endue the house of David with mighty strength and will seek to destroy all 

128 The Old Testament Student. 

the nations that come up against Jerusalem, the prophecy continues : " And I 
will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem the 
spirit of grace and of supplication [that is, they shall have a kindly and prayerful 
disposition], and they shall look to me in behalf of him whom they pierced [slew], 
and shall mourn for him. In that day the mourning shall be great in Jerusalem." 
Here is a strife between the two parties which came to blows. Some of the inhab- 
itants of the country districts, a region evidently looked down upon by the haughty 
inhabitants of the capital, had been slain, and Yahweh, says the prophet, will so 
change the disposition of the proud Jerusaleniites tl\at their souls shall become 
kindly, they shall mourn over their brother slain and shall turn their eyes to God 
in respect to him, asking pardon for their sin in slaying him. The Hebrew text 
represents the people as looking to God, and the person who is pierced [that is, 
slain] is distinguished from God. The evangelist renders : " They shall look on 
him whom they pierced." The substitution of '• him " for " me " is supported by 
a few manuscripts and Jewish commentators, but the mass of manuscripts and 
all the versions sustain the present Hebrew text, that is, the person who is 
pierced is not, as the evangelist represents it, the same as he on whom they look. 
Further, the rendering, " whom they pierced," is inadmissible ; the 'eth separates 
the relative from the preceding pronoun. 

Another mistranslation in the New Testament which is found also in the 
Septuagint and Latin vulgate is the rendering ■' shall be blest " instead of " shall 
bless themselves" in Acts 3:25; Gal. 3:8; from Gen. 12:3; 22:18; 26:4 : "All the 
families of the earth shall bless themselves in thee." The signilication of the 
expression, " to bless one person in another," is given in Gen. 48:20. where Jacob 
calls for the sons of Joseph and blesses them, saying: " In thee shall Israel bless, 
saying, God make thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh ;" that is, the prosperity of 
the sons of Joseph was to be so great that other nations should take them as types 
and standards of happiness, and should be able to think of no greater blessing for 
men than that they should be like these. An equally clear explanation occurs in 
Ps. 72:17 : " His name shall endure forever ; His name shall remain as long as the 
sun, and all nations shall bless themselves in him, shall call him happy." Here 
it is plain that the Psalmist is speaking of the happy fortunes of the king, and the 
expression "call him happy" is parallel and equivalent to "shall bless themselves 
in him." The same form of the Hebrew verb (hithpael) is found in Gen. 
22:18 and 26:4, and a similar form (niphal) in Gen. 12:3 and 18:18. Israel, 
like Ephraim and Manasseh and the king in Ps. 72, is to be so wonder- 
fully blest by God that the other nations shall think no lot superior, and 
when they would invoke prosperity on friends shall choose Yahweh's people as 
the norm and standard of happiness. The promise on the face of it refers simply 
to the national prosperity, and says nothing of a moral or religious inlUience of 
Israel on the other nations. It is true tliat such an influence did afterwards 
exist, but it is not referred to in these Old Testament passages, nor is there any 
hint in text or context that the thought of such influence was in the mind of the 
writer. The New Testament passages in Acts and Galatians see here a prediction 
of Jesiis of Nazareth as the Messiah of Israel and the Saviour of the world, a 
meaning which, if the above exposition be correct, is not found in the passages 

The same remark maybe paade on Paul's argument in Gal. 3:16, based on the 
word " seed " as being singular and not plural. The promise, says he, was to 

The New Testasient as Interpreter of the Old. 129 

Abraham and his seed, not the plural " seeds," as if many were intended, but the 
promise refers to one person, " thy seed,"' which he says is Christ. It Is well 
known that the Hebrew word used in Genesis is a collective noun identical in 
meaning with our " posterity," and cannot in itself, by virtue of its form, point 
to an individual. If such a reference to an individual is intended, it must be 
made clear by the context. But in the Old Testament passages cited, there is no 
sucli explanatory mention of an individual ; on the contrary, the context shows 
that it is the nation Israel that is meant, nor is there in all the Old Testament a 
passage suggesting any other signification for the expression in question. No one 
versed in Old Testament Hebrew would ever think of making such an argument 
based on the singular form of the word zcra. How, then, did the Apostle Paul 
come to employ such a method of reasoning? The explanation is that in the 
later Hebrew and Jewish Aramaic of Paul's time, the singular number of the 
word was employed for an individual, and a plural made from it to express " pos- 
terity ;" and Paul, familiar with this current usage and unfamiliar with Old Testa- 
ment Hebrew, ti-ansf ers it to the Old Testament passage. In the same way in the 
Midrash rahba, on Ruth 4:14, the term " seed " is interpreted of the Messiah. Paul 
conceived that the form of the word necessarily involved the reference to an 
individual ; he says that inasmuch as it is singular and not plural, it cannot mean 
the nation, but must mean the Messiah. 

In Paul's argument in the fourth chapter of Romans there is lack of precision 
in the statement in v. 3 sqq., that Abraham's faith, the basis of his justification, was 
something wholly different from works. Tlie idea in Gen. 15:6 is that God reck- 
oned Abraham's trust in him as a righteous thing, as a righteous act, and it is 
therefore to be considered a righteous work. AVe cannot but share in the apostle's 
indignation against the religious formalism of his time, which undertook to sub- 
stitute a set of ritual proceedings for inward righteousness, and in so far as an 
act of faith is a spiritual work, we must grant the propriety of the argument 
which sets it far above and in a different category from merely formal and out- 
ward acts of obedience. But in so far as the apostle may wish to take Abraham's 
act out of the category of human activities, that he may annihilate all human 
righteousness in order to substitute for it the righteousness of Christ as the 
ground of salvation, we must doubt whether he finds basis for this view in the 
Old Testament. In general. Paul's sharp antithesis of faith and works is not an 
Old Testament idea. The passage in llab. 2:3,4, which is translated in Romans 
1:17 ; Gal. 3:11 : " The just shall live by faith," is more properly rendered, " The 
just shall live by his constancy." It is fidelity to God's commands, according to 
the Old Testament view, which is the condition and surety of man's deliverance 
and blessing. The rule of salvation in the law, says the apostle, is "He who is 
obedient shall live," and he shows the impossibility of salvation under the law 
by pointing out the impossibility of complete obedience. The argument would 
be sound if the Old Testament insisted on absolute perfection of obedience ; but 
it uses the word " perfect " of man, as in Job's case, for example, in a restricted 
sense. What was demanded was a controlling spirit of obedience, and occasional 
errors were forgiven if the man repented, or in certain cases sacrifices were 
appointed. Or, in the later times we find in certain Psalms, as in the 18th and 
44th, confident assertions of personal perfectness : " I have kept the ways of Yah- 
weh ; I was perfect with him ; therefore he has recompensed me according to my 

130 TnE Old Testament Student. 

rigliteousness." " We have not forgotten thee nor dealt falsely in thy covenant." 
The Olil Testament knows no other condition of the enjoyment of the divine 
favor than faithful obedience. The man's record is based on his voluntary activ- 
ity, which, when sincere, is of course always accompanied by trust in God. But 
the apostle, instead of conceiving of the Old Testament ideal as obedience per- 
meated with and inspired by trust, makes a sharp contrast between the trust and 
the obedience, a procedure which he tliinks necessary in order to break down the 
current Jewish tlieory of salvation by an obedience which constantly ran the risk 
of becoming mere formalism. What llie narration of Abraham's life in Genesis 
means to declare is that Abraham was justified by his obedience, that is, by his 
works, tliougli this obedience was as a matter of course grounded on confidence in 
the truth of the divine promise; and in Gen. 15:6 his trust in the divine promise, 
his voluntary act, was reckoned as an act of righteousness ; so that, in so far as his 
faitli was ground of salvation, his rigliteousness was equally the ground of salva- 

One of the hardest passages in Paul's writings to comprehend is his definition 
of the righteousness which is of faith, in Rom. 10:6-8, taken in free translation 
with explanatory insertions from the Septuagint of Deut. 30:12-14. The diffi- 
culty lies in the fact that the passage in Deuteronomy refers without any doubt 
to obedience to the law : '■ Tliis commandment which I command thee this day," 
says Moses, " is not too liard nor far off, nor in heaven nor beneath the sea, but 
nigh unto thee, in thy mouth and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it." Yet the 
apostle cites this passage as the utterance of the righteousness which is of faith, 
"because,'' says he, " if thou shall confess with thy mouth Jesus as Lord, and 
shall believe in thy heart that God raised him from the dead, thou shall be saved." 
And that he intends to refer it to llie Messiah is evident from his explana- 
tory additions: " Say not in thy heart, Who shall ascend into heaven (that is to 
bring Christ down)'? or, Wlio shall descend into the abyss (that is to bring Christ 
up from the dead)':"' We do not know how to explain his use of the passage 
except by supposing that he took it as a completely isolated expression, without 
reference to the context, and attached to it his own meaning, interpreting the 
" word " in a sense entirely different from that which the connection demands. 

A similar example of the apostle's habit of using Old Testament passages 
without regard to the Hebrew or to the context, occurs in Rom. 14:10-12, where 
he seeks to guard his brethren against hasty judgments of one another, by 
reminding them of the final divine judgment: '-But thou, why dost thou 
judge thy brother? or thou again, why dost thou set at naught thy broiher':* 
for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of (iod." The fact of a 
final judgment be wishes to establish or impress by a Scripture quotation, and he 
cites Isa. 45:23, which he renders : " As I live, saith the Lord, to me every knee 
shall bow, and every tongue sliall confess to God." But the propliet is simply 
aunniincing the acceptance of the worship of Yahweh by all the nations. It is 
Yahweh himself who speaks : " Look unto me and be ye saved, all the ends of the 
earth, for 1 am God and there is not another; by myself I have sworn, the word 
has gone forth from my mouth in righteousness and shall not return, that to me 
every knee shall bow; every tongue shall swear; truly in Y'ahweh, shall one say 
to me. is righteousness." " Men," says the prophet, " shall swear by him ;" that 
is shall accept him as the holiest, as the true God. There is no word of a judg- 

The New Testament as Interpreter of the Old. 131 

ment, least of all, of a judgment after death. The apostle changes "swear by " 
or " swear to" into " confess to," a meaning the Hebrew will not bear. A similar 
meaning, however, belongs to an Aramaic word (Pael of Dip) used in the Tar- 
gum of Jonathan as the rendering of the Hebrew expression for "swear," and as. 
the apostle's vernacular was an Aramaic dialect, he may have got his translation 
"confess" from some current Aramaic version. That he quotes the Old Testa- 
ment passage as proof of a final judgment is evident from his concluding words: 
" so then each one of us shall give account of himself to God." 

Much stranger is the use which Paul makes of Isa. 28:11,12, in his discussion 
of the Charismata in 1 Cor. 14:20 seq., where he malses a comparison between 
prophesying and speaking with tongues in respect to their utility. He wishes to 
show that prophesying is a higher and more edifying gift, meant to promote the 
well-being of believers, while the glossolaly was a sign for unbelievers and there- 
fore less to be desired by the Corinthian Christians. His proof of this last fact is 
derived from the passage in Isaiah, which he renders, following neither Hebrew 
nor Septuagint : " By people of strange tongues and by the lips of strangers will I 
speak to this people, and not even thus will they hear me, says the Lord." The 
prophetic "strange tongue" is simply a foreign language; that is, a foreign 
nation with which the careless, disobedient population of Jerusalem is threatened, 
as a punishment for their godlessness. All of them, says Isaiah, including 
priest and prophet, have erred through strong drink, and come to God's mes- 
senger babbling out their drunken objections to his message. Let them 
babble, but " with stammerings of lip and with another tongue will he speak 
to his people, because he said to them. This is the rest, give you rest to the 
weary, and this is the repose — but they will not hear." The people of Israel 
would not listen to the prophet's message of peace, the only true repose of trust 
in Yah web, and now God would teach them a stem lesson with the whip of a 
foreign people speaking with stammering of lips more serious than the babbling 
of the Jerusalem debauchees. Contrast this with the Corinthian glossolaly, a 
spiritual gift exercised by believers in the interest of religion, though, as the 
apostle points out, not always wisely and well. 

Another instructive citation is that in Eph. 4:8 from Ps. 68:19(18). The pas- 
sage in the Psalm describes the God of Israel as a conquering king leading his cap- 
tives taken in war and ascending the throne where he receives gifts from subject 
nations. " Thou didst receive gifts among men " (Hebrew and Greek). In the epis- 
tle this is interpreted of Christ as a victorious monarch who ascended into heaven 
after having descended into Hades ; but instead of receiving gifts from men, 
he is there said to have given gifts to men. The same change from " received " 
to " gave " is found in the Peshitto-Syriac and the Targum, and we may there- 
fore suppose that the text of the epistle came from some similar Aramaic reading. 
The Hebrew reading is evidently the correct one, and the alteration of the text 
came perhaps from the feeling in later times that it was not appropriate to the 
Divine Majesty to receive gifts. 

The influence of the Septuagint is seen in Eph. 4:26, a citation from Ps. 4:5(4). 
The Hebrew reads : " Stand in awe and sin not," a warning to certain men to 
cherish such awe of the holy and powerful God of Israel as should deter them 
from falling into sins that would excite his anger. The Septuagint, followed by 
the. epistle, translates: "Be angry and sin not," whence in the epistle the rule 

132 The Old Testament Student. 

of moderation of anger, an admirable moral precept, but not contained in the 

The epistle to the Hebrews contains a large number of citations from the Old 
Testament, the majority of which it may fairly be said do not follow the rules of 
what we regard as correct exegesis. One of these citations appears to be from a 
Septuagint passage which is not found in the Hebrew at all. namely, 1:6: " And 
let all the angels of God worship him." This might conceivably come from the 
Greek of Psalm 96:7 (Ileb. 97:7): " Worship him, all ye his angels," in which 
"angels" is an incorrect rendering of the Hebrew elohim; the I'salm is really a 
summons to heathen deities to worship Yahweh : " Shame on all the worshipers 
of giaven images, they that make boast in idols ; worship him all ye gods." But 
the citation in Hebrews follows word for word the Greek of Deut. 32:43. The 
cited words are an expansion from Old Testament material such as that of Ps. 
97:7. The Song of Moses in which they occur ends with a description of the 
divine vengeance on the enemies of Israel, and the honor which is therefore to be 
ascribed to him. This is interpreted in the epistle in a Messianic sense, and the 
hymn is represented as bringing the first begotten [the Messiah] into the world, 
that is, as introducing him to Israel and inducting him into his office as the sav- 
iour of his people. 

The way in which an erroneous Greek punctuation may lead to a complete 
misunderstanding of the meaning of the Hebrew is well illustrated in the citation 
from Isa. 8:17,18 in Hebrews 2:13. The burden of the prophet's preaching had 
been the necessity of trust in Yahweh against the power of the hostile kings of 
Syria and Israel. He was commanded to give to his children symbolical names 
which should be signs of God's dealing with the nation, Shearyashub, " a remnant 
shall return." and Mahershalalhashbaz, "haste-spoil-hurry-prey,"' so that they 
and he might be omens and guides to the depressed and unbelieving people. And 
so he says : " I will hope in him. Behold, I and the children whom Yahweh has 
given me are signs and omens in Israel." The Greek rendered this with general 
correctness except that it wrongly divided the second sentence : " Behold, I and the 
children whom God has given me ; and they shall be signs and wonders in the 
house of Israel." The author of the epistle takes the first half out of connection : 
" Behold, I and the children whom God has given me." and interprets it to mean 
the oneness of Jesus with his disciples, and hence the necessity of an incarnation. 
A simple giammatical Messianic interpretation would have understood it as 
declaring that the Messiah and his people were signs of God's presence in the 
church and of the divine method of dealing with men ; the conjunction of the 
Messiah and men who believed on him could prove only a oneness of aim between 
them, not an identity of nature. 

One object of the epistle to the Hebrews is to comfort the suffering Christians 
of the time with the hope of coming happiness, and it seeks to find Scripture 
demonstration of the Messianic S.abbath rest, the bodily and spiritual peace which 
the followers of Christ should enjoy w hen he should come at the end of the present 
age to establish his everlasting kingdom. This argument {Heb. 3:7-4:1 1) is drawn 
from Ps. 9:67-11 : "O that ye would hear his voice to-day! Harden not your 
heart as at Meribali * * * Forty years I loathed that generation and said, They are 
a people that err in their hearts and they know not my ways. So that I sware in 
my wrath, they shall not enter into my rest." Here is no promise, but the state- 

The New Testament as Interpreter of the Old. 133 

ment of a fact iu the far past ; the people had beeu disobedient in the wilderness 
and God declared that as a punishment they should not enter Canaan. The epis- 
tle holds that the last words of the Psalm passage contain a promise which had 
not yet beeu fulfilled, since it was given after God had instituted the weekly Sab- 
bath (Gen. 2:2) and also after Joshua had led the people into the rest of Canaan, 
and hence that there remained a rest for the people of God, which could only be 
the Messianic Sabbatism. 

A similar mode of argumentation is adopted in Heb. 8:8-12, where the author 
discusses the "new covenant" of Jer. 31:31-34. The epistle understands this 
to mean the abolition of the Levitical system of daily sacrifice in favor of the 
Christian scheme of the sacrifice of himself which Christ made once for all. But 
the prophet's antithesis of new and old is something different. He thinks not of 
abolishing the national system of sacrifices, but only of the introduction of 
a spirit of obedience. His contrast is between the present ignorant rebellious 
life of the nation, and a reconstruction in which the people would give an intelli- 
gent and glad assent to the commands of their God. A fulfillment of this pre- 
diction in Christianity might be sought in its pure and lofty spirit of obedience, 
in the new heart which, as Jeremiah and Ezekiel say, God would give to men, a 
heart to apprehend the righteousness and goodness of his services ; of the sacrifi- 
cial system there is not a word in either of these prophets, in this connection. 

In Heb. 10:5-7 an argument in the same direction is made from the word 
"body " which occurs in the Septuagint rendering of Ps. 40:7-9 (6-8): " Sacrifice 
and offering thou hast not desired, but a body thou hast prepared me ; * * * then I 
said, Lo, I come * * * to do thy will, O my God, is my delight." The interpre- 
tation of this in the epistle is as follows: The Messiah speaks: "The old Levit- 
ical sacrifice thou dost not desire, and therefore thou hast prepared my body as a 
sacrifice, and I come to do thy will by the offering of myself, once for all." The 
contrast thus ascribed in the epistle to the Psalmist between two sorts of sacrifice 
is not that of the Psalmist himself, who, on the contrary, puts obedience over 
against sacrifice : "Thou dost not desire the ordinary sacrifice, which is a mere 
outward thing; what will please thee is to do thy will, and in this I delight." 
The rendering " body " is impossible. 

An example of an undesirable though not very important mistranslation 
occurs in Heb. 11:21 : "Jacob worshiped [leaning on] the top of his staff." The 
Hebrew has: "Jacob bowed himself on the head of the bed." The Hebrew 
words for bed and staff have the same consonants. The Catholic-English trans- 
lation of 1582 renders, as is well known, "Jacob worshiped the top of his rod," 
and explains the rod as a figure of the scepter and kingdom of Christ. 

It appears from these examples that in certain cases the New Testament use 
of Old Testament passages is not correct. Sometimes the text is inaccurate, 
sometimes the exegesis. The number of these cases is considerable, and the 
conclusion is that a New Testament interpretation cannot be accepted without 
examination, but must always be tested by hermeneutical principles. 

By Professor George II. Schodde, Pii. D. 

Capital Unirersity, Columbus, Ohio. 


For the problems of lower or textual criticism the versions of the Old Testa- 
ment have a greater relative value than those of the Xew. While in the critical 
apparatus of the Xew Testament the ancient versions occupy only a secondary 
and subordinate rank over against the manuscripts as the primary authorities, 
the condition of affairs in the Old Testament department is almost the exact 
opposite of this. The reason of this is, that the versions antedate by many 
centuries the oldest existing Hebrew manuscripts. Of the latter there are 
indeed a very great number in existence, but none that were written before the 
tenth or eleventh century. The oldest Hebrew manuscript known is probably 
the Codex Babylonicus Petropolitanus, written in the year 916. with the Baby- 
lonian system of punctuation. The text of the prophets from this codex was pub- 
lished in 1876 by Professor Hermann L. Strack. Wellhauseu, who is a fair judge 
in these matters, says in his fourth edition of Bleek's Introduction to the Old 
Testament, 'i 275, that the manuscripts of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
belong to the very oldest. To this must yet be added, that, according to the view 
of Lagarde, the most prominent scholar in Old Testament text-critical work, and 
maintained with a considerable show of argument as early as 1863 in his Remarks 
on the Greek Translation of the Proverbs, pp. 1 and 2, " our Hebrew manuscripts 
of the Old Testament all go back to a single copy, the very corrections of 
mistakes in writing have been copied by them, and whose errors, which accident- 
ally found their way into it, have been reproduced." Accordingly we would 
practically have but the equivalent of one single Hebrew manuscript, which 
served as an archetype for all the rest. The date assigned to this archetype is the 
reign of the Emperor Adrian, 117 to 138 A. D. (Lagarde, Symmicla, 50 sqq.). 
This view was expressed previously in 1853 by .Justus Olshausen, and is adopted 
with great confidence by Cornill in his revision of the text of Ez.ekiel (1886, p. 6 
sqq.). If this hypothesis should prove to be correct, then iutenial reasons would 
come to the aid of external reasons in diminishing materially the value of the 
traditional Massoretic text for the purposes of lower criticism. However, this 
hypothesis has not been able to win for itself anything like a consensus of schol- 
ars. Wellhausen, indeed, (? 294), calls it a " plausible " theory, but ridicules the 
date assigned by Lagarde, while more conservative scholar's reject the whole as a 
castle built in the air, and ascribe the wonderful agreement of the Hebrew manu- 
scripts to the scrupulous care of the Jewish scholars. 

• The writer would state that this and some other articles on the versions of the Old Testa- 
ment, which may he expected to follow, are not intended to bring forward any new data or dis- 
coveries, but, for the benefit of students and readers In general, to give merely a bird's-eye view 
of the status of investigation with regard to these versions. 

The Septuagint. 135 

The versions, however, all represent an earlier date of the Old Testament 
text. The Septuagint, restored to its original readings, would antedate by twelve 
hundred years at least the earliest Hebrew manuscript extant and bring us almost 
as near to some of the Old Testament autographs as the Sinaiticus and the Vati- 
canus do to the original copies of the Xew Testament books. The further fact, 
that ill a number of books the Septuagint text varies from the Massoretic to so 
marked a degree that the conclusion is almost unavoidable that the translators 
had before them a recension of the Hebrew text differing from the present Masso- 
retic, opens the way to critical possibilities that are of peculiar interest and 

For a further reason the study of the Septuagint is now timely. For the 
first time in the history of Old Testament research scholars are trying systematic- 
ally and with trustworthy scientiflc methods to work out the problems of textual 
criticism. While in the New Testament field this was the first of the great 
problems that reached a practical settlement, and in the texts of Tischendorf, 
Tregelles, and Westcott and Hort we have the application of an agreement of 
methods satisfactory to about all the specialists, and thereby also practically one 
resultant text of the New Testament, in the Old Testament department this 
problem is only now beginning to be thoroughly discussed, and the burning ques- 
tion is yet in regard to the methods and principles that must control this investi- 
gation. The great work done iu the Old Testament line in the past decade and 
century has been in the line of higher criticism. But in the further prosecution 
of this work, scholars are constantly hampered by the fact that the problems of 
lower criticism have not yet been settled. New Testament scholarship in this 
regard followed the more logical order of research, but its task was easier. 

Now there is a general consensus among all scholars, both the more critical 
and the conservative, that in the text-critical work of the Old Testament the 
Septuagint has a most important work to do. The differences arise when the 
degree and manner in which this version should be allowed to influence or modify 
the current Massoretic text are under discussion. 


Concerning the origin of the Septuagint as a whole we have absolutely no 
external historical testimony whatever. All we possess is testimony of a debata- 
ble character concerning the translation made of the Pentateuch. There exists a 
letter, beyond all doubt spurious, which claims to have been WTitten by Aristeas 
(or Aristseas, as Josephus calls him), a man high in authority at the court of 
Ptolemy II. Philadelphus (2S3-247 B. C), addressed to his brother Philocrates. 
This letter states that Demetrius Phalereus, the chief librarian at Alexandria, 
proposes to King Ptolemy to enrich his library by having a translation of the Jew- 
ish law-book made for it. The king agrees to this, and sends an embassy con- 
sisting of his chief of guards, Andrew, and Aristeas, the author of the letter, to 
Jerusalem with rich presents to the high priest Eleazar, asking him to send old 
and worthy and wise men, six out of each tribe, to Alexandria, where they were 
to translate the law-book for the royal library. Eleazar sends the seventy-two 
men, who take with them a precious manuscript of tlie Pentateuch written in 
golden letters. After having been royally entertained by the king, Demetrius 
conducts them to the island of Pharus, where they could work undisturbed. 
When they had come to an agreement on a section, Demetrius wrote down the 

186 Thb Old Testament Student. 

version. The whole work was completed in seventy-two days. A copy of the 
translation was given to the Jewish community at Alexandria, who officially and 
solemnly adopted it. The letter of Aiisteas is very long and goes minutely into 
details in describing the visit to Jerusalem and the colloquy held with King 
Ptolemy. It was first printed in 11501, and the best edition is found in Merx, 
Arehiv., 1868. 

What is the value of this i\jisteas letter ? Its character is such that, without 
a dissenting voice, scholars are agreed that it is apocryphal and valueless as direct 
historical testimony. The majority agree that it contains a kernel of historical 
truth, but what the extent of this truth is, does not seem so clear. Wellhausen, 
in Bleek ('i 279) and in his article on the Septuagint, in Vol. XXI. of the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, regards it as settled by the letter that the Septuagint transla- 
tion of the Pentateuch was done at Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy II. 
All the rest of the letter he regards as literary decoration and ornamentation. 
Schurer. in his Jtwish People in the time of Jesus Christ, Second Part, J 33, an 
authority, at least equal if not better than Wellhausen, regards this as merely a 
possibility, but by no means certain. For the details of the discussion we refer 
to the authors mentioned. So much, however, is certain, that the Aristeas 
account at an early day found acceptance among the Jews. Philo, ( Be vita Moyses, 
II., 'i 5-7) knows of it in detail, and Josephus (^Antiq., XII., 2) reproduces it 
almost in full as an historical fact. 

A second direct testimony is from Aristobulus, of Alexandria, the oldest 
Jewish pliilosoplier, who wrote a work on the Interpretation of the Sacred Laws, 
which he dedicated to King Ptolemy Pliilometer (lSO-145 B. C), of which an 
extract has been preserved by the church historian Eusebius {Prmparalio Hvan- 
gelica, XHI., 12, 1-2). Here Aristobuhis maintains that Plato already was 
acquainted with the law-book of the Jews, and tliat tlie cliief contents of tlie book 
had been translated into Greek even before the days of Demetrius Phalereus. 
From tliis it would seem that the author knew of a tradition about the Greek ver- 
sion of the Pentateuch differing to a degree from that given by Aristeas. But 
whether this vague statement confirms the accounts of Aristeas or makes it his- 
torically still more unreliable, it would be difficult to say. The individual view 
in the matter depends upon the amount of probability to be given to tlie Aristeas 

Concerning the translation of tlie other books in the Septuagint we have abso- 
lutely no liistorical record whatever. Tlie name of a '•Version of the Seventy," 
an abbreviation for seventy-two, was gradually transferred from the Pentateuch 
to the whole work. 

But if we have no direct testimony as to the temiimis a quo we are more for- 
tunate in having some of reasonable reliance for the terminus ud quern of the ver- 
sion. In the prologue to Ecclesiasticlis, the translator, who in 132 B. C. went to 
Egypt, remarks that in his day there existed Greek versions, not only of the 
law, but also of the prophets and the other books {o v6fto^ Kai ai -potpijTciat nal rd im-a 
Tuv ^ipXiuv). There can be little or no doubt that he here refers to the Septuagint 
version, which, at that date, must have been completed. This is corroborated 
by the further fact that the most ancient relics of Jewish literature, preserved in 
extracts by Alexander Polyhistor, and recorded by Eusebius in his Prcep. Evang., 
IX., all show acquaintance with the Septuagint (cf . for details, Schiirer, 1. c, i 33). 

The Septuagint. 137 

It is then almost entirely internal evidence to which we must appeal for informa- 
tion concerning the origin of this historic version. It will appear later on that 
diversities in the manner of translation in the various parts are so great, that the 
idea of one man or one set of men having made this version is entirely excluded. 
Beyond a doubt a beginning was made with the law, which, as also is seen from 
internal reasons, originated in Alexandria, and was known to Demetrius, who 
wrote under Ptolemy IV. (222-205 B. C). Whether the translation of the law 
is to be attributed to the Jewish influence or to the literary ambition of the Ptole- 
mies, is a much discussed question, for which only a possibly, scarcely a probably, 
correct answer can be given. That the other books were translated under Jewish 
auspices is highly probable, as they could not possess literary importance suffi- 
ciently to tempt a Greek translator. The work of translating the whole Hebrew 
codex into Greek may have occupied a generation or two, or even a whole century. 
External and internal evidences will scarcely admit of going further than has been 
done in the above remarks. 


The first thing that strikes the student when comparing the Septuagint text 
with the Hebrew is the differences of agreement and disagreement existing 
between the Greek and the original texts in the different books. Some agree 
almost word for word; as is the case especially with the Pentateuch and in a 
smaller measure with several of the hagiographa, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, 
and Chronicles. Others, again, vary exceedingly, the worst in this regard being, 
in the view of most scholars, the Book of Isaiah. Unfortunately special investi- 
gations of all the books have not yet been made, so as to allow a judgment on the 
whole. Lagarde has examined the Book of Proverbs ; Bickell, that of Job ; Hollen- 
berg, that of Joshua; Wellhausen, the text of Samuel ; and within the past few 
years exhaustive investigations of the text of Ezekiel and of Micah have been 
made, though from different stand-points and diverging results on the merits of 
the Septuagint, the former by Cornill, the latter by Kyssel. The differences 
between the Greek and Hebrew are often many and of much greater importance 
than the great bulk of various readings in the New Testament manuscripts. In 
a large number of instances the Greek contains matter not foimd in the Hebrew, 
as, e. g., in the Books of Ezra and Daniel, and to a lesser degree in such Books as 
Job and Proverbs. In other cases matter found in the Hebrew is omitted or 
abridged in the Greek. In many cases the Greek is an incorrect translation of 
the present Hebrew text, the cause of the false rendition being still traceable to a 
misunderstanding of the Hebrew. This is particularly the case in the more diffi- 
cult poetical and prophetic books. The writer recently compared word for word 
the Greek text of the Proverbs with the original. Not only were there many 
omissions found, but on the average only about one sentence in three was what 
could be regarded as a good translation, although in many instances the source of 
the poor rendering could yet be discovered. No better and more thankworthy 
work could be found for a student seeking to understand the character of the 
vexed problem of the relation between the Septuagint and the Massoretic text 
than working through the prolegomena and critical apparatus to Cornill's Ezekiel. 
This does not mean that it is necessary to adopt Cornill's conclusions. There are 
yet worlds to conquer in the Septuagint investigations. 

188 The Old Testament Student. 

The language of tlie Septuagint is most remarkable. It is almost incorrect to 
say that it is Greek. Plato and Aristotle would have been able to understand but 
little of the non-historical portions. The Greek is entirely under the spell of the 
Hebrew. The Septuagint has a language of its own. Naturally the difficulties 
are not in the grammatical line ; they are almost entirely in the lexical. A Greek 
word which in one of its uses corresponds to a Hebrew word in one of its uses, is 
at once made the equivalent of the latter in all its figurative applications ; and 
even more than this, also in its employment for clauses, phrases, and peculiar 
idioms. Because, e. g., the Greek lUt^um in its basal sense is the equivalent of the 
Hebrew n a than, it is at once compelled to do service in every sense and everj' 
connection in which the latter can be employed. And when it comes to the use 
of Old Testament words of peculiar theological or ethical importance, such as 
(!(jfa, c'lpifvti, and others, they are used in senses of which the classical Greek lexicon 
knows absolutely nothing. It is for this reason that even so good a Greek dic- 
tionary as " Liddell and Scott " is useless for Septuagint work. A Septuagint 
lexicon is a great desideratum, which, however, can scarcely be filled until the 
Septuagint text itself has been better settled. As yet a good Hebrew dictionary 
and an accurate knowledge of Greek are indispensable requisites for close Septua- 
gint work. 

But the very awkwardness in the language, which robs it of nearly all its 
value as a piece of literature, is of the greatest advantage for the very work for 
which Christian scholarship desires to use the Septuagint, namely, to determine 
the character of the Hebrew text of which the Septuagint is a translation. As 
matters now stand it is as a rule no difficult matter to re-translate the Greek and 
thus reconstruct the Hebrew original. Its very fiiults make it a valuable aid for 
text-critical work. Were the translation less slavish and less barbarized with 
Hebraisms, this could not be the case. 

histoky of tiee translation. 

The so-called translation of the Seventy rapidly won its way into official 
recognition among the Hellenistic Jews. The oldest writers of whom we have any 
knowledge that they used the LXX. are Demetrius and Eupolemus. After them 
we find I'hilo using the translation, at least of the Pentateuch, as equally author- 
itative with the original. The same is done, though not to the same degree, by 
Josephus. The majority of the New Testament writers make use of the Septua- 
gint translation, especially Mark and Paul. Indeed the whole lexical material 
of the New Testament is based upon the nsus loqiiendi of the LXX. In this 
regard the method pursued by Cremer in his iV^eio Testament Lexicon is more cor- 
rect than that of Trench in his Synonyv\s, who develops the New Testament 
words out of the classical Greek in a rather one-sided manner. The use and 
honor of the LXX. in the Christian Church, as well as the perception that it was 
not in every particular a true version, led to the preparation of the three well- 
known later Greek versions, namely, the intensely literal one of Aquila, that of 
Theodotion, in which he tries to compromise between the Hebrew text and the 
current LXX. version, and that of Symtuacluis, the Ebionite, wiiich adheres to the 
Hebrew original but translates into readable Greek. Fragments of these versions 
are preserved in the Hexapla. In the ordinary Septuagint editions Theodotion's 
translation of Daniel has been substituted for the old version. No one of the 
existing MSS. contains the old koiv^ or original text of the LXX., although schol- 

The Sbptuagint. 139 

ars are substantially agreed that we have a near approach to it in B, or the Vati- 
canus. CorniU's investigations have made this more probable than it was before. 
But we liave the testimony of patristic literature that at a relatively early date 
the discrepancies between the old LXX. and the Veritas Htbraica, as Jerome and 
others call it, led to a revision of the text. Of these revisions there were three. 
The first and most important was made by Origen (185-254 A. D.) in his Hexapla. 
He made the common text the basis of his investigations, and corrected the text 
chiefly after the Greeli translations made later from the Hebrew, especially Theo- 
dotion's. He designated the plus and minus of the edition by critical marks. The 
value of this edition is reduced to a minimum by the fact that Origen seems not 
to have been consistent in his metliods, as is seen chiefly from tlie Syriac Hexapla. 
The Origen text was published by Eusebius and Pamphilus of Caesarea, and 
became the oflicial text of Palestine. The revision of Hesychius was accepted by 
the church of Egypt and that of Lucianus by the churches of Constantinople and 
Antioch. The patristic citations on these points are found in full in Wellhausen's 
Bleek (U 282,283). 

In this way the old LXX. text in its original character was lost and sup- 
planted by revisions made avowedly to conform the Greek to the accepted 
Hebrew text of the day. The great woik then to be done by Septuagint scholars 
is to discover again, if possible, the original koivi/ text and thus learn what the real 
Septuagint was. It is a work of extraordinary difficulty to investigate the manu- 
scripts of the version and, if possible, classify them in such a manner as to lead to 
the solution of this problem. A beginning, and a good one, has been made by 
Lagarde, who has begun the publication of what he considers the Lucianus 
recensions, and further work in this line has been done by Cornill's classification. 


A partial answer to this has already been given In the above, and a full 
answer, in so far as this can be given at all at this stage of inquiry, will flow 
naturally from what has been stated. While the exegetical value, especially for 
individual passages, cannot be estimated at too high a rate, the chief advantage 
to the Bible student must and always will lie in the text-critical help afforded by 
the LXX. Until the original text of the LXX. has been re-discovered in so far as 
this can ever be done, and thus the critical status of the version as such been 
determined, the use of the Greek for the Hebrew text or interpretation must be 
decided in each individual instance on the merits of the case in question. No 
general rule for the use of the LXX. in this regard can yet be given. Such a 
rule would infallibly lead to a misuse, as it has where rash attempts at generaliza- 
tion have been made. The writer has treated of this phase of the general problem 
in detail in the New York Independent, September 27, 1888, and begs to be per- 
mitted to refer to that article. 


The editions of the Septuagint are many. The best known and most used is 
the so-called Sixtina, of 1587. This is the traditional text. Fortunately it is also 
a comparatively good one, being based in general upon the best MS. of the LXX. 
extant, namely, the Vaticanus. Tischendorf has also published an edition, which 
was, however, only a slight improvement on the Sixtina. This was still the case 
when in Nestle's edition of Tischendorf some variant readings of the other uncials 

140 The Old Testament Student. 

were appended. The magnificent fac-simile reproduction of the Vaticanus, 
published in Rome 1868-1881, prepared the way for a really good edition of the 
text. This Professor Swete has begun to publish, issuing the first volume at 
Cambridge, containing Genesis to IV. Kings.* Here the genuine Vaticanus te.xt, 
which deviates considerably from the Sixtina, is reproduced, together with such 
readings from the other leading MSS. as to give the reader the best critical mate- 
rial on hand for the study of the Septuagint version. No other edition should 
now be used for Septuagint work. 


By Peof. Georgk B. Stevens, Pn. D., 

Yale University, New Haven, Ckinn. 

a. THE resurrection and the .tudgment of the world. 

Through the opposition of the nations of the world to the Messiah, the Mes- 
sianic Kingdom is brought to an end. and the judgment and separation of the 
godless nations from the earth which is renewed as the dwelling-place for the 
people of God, begin. The resurrection is not general, but is for Israel alone. 
Maimonides says : " The resurrection of the dead is a fundamental article of 
Moses, our teacher, — peace to him ! — but it comes only to the rigliteous.'" Resur- 
rection is the prerogative of those who participate in the Kingdom of God ; the 
godless are already dead in life. It is accomplished only in the Holy Land. 
Those who have not studied the law cannot rise again. Such is the general repre- 
sentation in tlie talmudic literature. Some, however, maintain a resurrection for 
the heathen, but say that they do not remain in life, but sink back into death 
again. Generally the resurrection is contemplated distinctively as a reward of 
righteousness, i. e. observance of the law. 

The heathen and the disobedient (who have despised their circumcision and 
renounced the Covenant) in Israel go direct at death to Gehinnom and receive 
their just punishment (cf. Luke 16:23). " Gehinnom, which is for Israel a Purga- 
tory, is for the heathen the place of punishment ; it is not in its original purpose 
designed for Israel." Those who in Israel despise the sign of the Covenant, e. g. 
the Samaritans, are reckoned as heathen and are destined for Gehinnom. There 
are unpardonable sins which consign even Israelites forever to Gehinnom. 

Those who faU into Gehinnom suffer pain and torment and at length com- 
plete annihilation. Their pain is caused by the darkness, fire and brimstone of 
the place. If one applies himself incessantly to prayer, his fire may be somewliat 
cooled. The tears of the righteous falling into the place, cool its fires. The reason 
why brimstone is so nauseating is that it is designed for the punisliment of Hell. 
The smell of it is a premonition of its use. Are these sufferings everlasting or do 
they terminate in absolute annihilation ? Both views are found ; the latter is the 

• Cf. a notice of this work in The Old Testament Student, October, 1888. 
+ Concluded from the November number. 

Weber on the Eschatology of tbce Talmud. 141 

more common one. It is probable that they may be reconciled on the supposition 
that, for the worst of men, pimishment was everlasting, but for less degrees of 
guilt, a cessation of being might make an end of suffering. 

The idea of judgment has two forms, — as applied to the individual at his death 
and as a general and final assize at the end of the Messianic age. This age is a 
time of possible salvation for the heathen, and their final condemnation cannot 
occur untn they shall have made their great resistance to the Messiah at the end 
of the Messianic period. At that time the measure of their iniquity will be full 
and they shall be assembled before God for final judgment. This will be the 
last act in the drama of human history in time ; thereafter eternity ensues. The 
Kabbins graphically picture this scene. God opens the book of the law and calls 
upon those who have obeyed it to come and receive their reward. Hereupon all 
nations rush forward in confusion. The Almighty rebukes them for their dis- 
order and commands them to come one by one. The Eomans come first and are 
asked : " With what have you been occupied ? " They answer : " Lord of the 
worlds, we have built streets and baths and heaped up silver and gold, all that 
Israel might busy itself with the law." They are told in answer that they have 
done all this but for their own glory, ease and power, and are challenged to show 
that they have kept the law." They cannot, and they depart with heavy hearts. 
Thus the various nations are passed in review. After this an effort is made by 
the nations to excuse themselves, which may be summarized thus : " We had no 
law." Answer: "What means, 'God came from Sinai, from Mount Paran and 
from Teman,' etc. (Deut. 33:2 ; Hab. 3:3), if not that He offered the law to all 
nations? But only Israel received it." "But if thou hadst threatened us, as 
thou didst Israel, we would have obeyed." Answer : " You did not even keep the 
seven commandments of Noah which I gave you at the first." " But Israel has not 
kept thy law." Answer: "I call heaven and earth to witness that they have, 
and prove it by the very testimony of heathen : Abraham's faithfulness by Nimrod ; 
Jacob's honesty by Laban ; Joseph's purity by Potiphar's wife, etc." "Lord of 
the worlds, give us now a law and we will obey." Answer : " Do you not know 
that he who prepares his food on the preparation day has something to eat on the 
Sabbath ; but he who omits it must go hungry V But I will grant it. In my law 
is an easy commandment, that to keep the feast of booths. Go and celebrate 
this." Then they all go and build booths upon their roofs. Then God sends 
forth a heat, hot and burning as in August, that all, stamping on the ground leave 
the booths. Thus their disobedience is finally confirmed. 

The judgment occurs in the valley of Jehoshaphat. " Thus will the heathen 
world be assigned by God's judgment to destruction by the fire of Gehenna ; and 
after the earth is in the exclusive possession of Israel and is freed from the god- 
less heathen world, can it be renewed and become the sphere of the eternal life." 


The heavens and the earth will at length pass away. The creation will not 
be destroyed, but renewed. The new creation comes out of the old. This pro- 
duction of the higher from the lower is illustrated by the derivation of Abraham 
from Terah, Hezekiah from Ahaz, etc. The world is to go through a process of 
purification. But the old world is the mother of the new, which is built out of 
the material of the old and has its form for its type. The creation of the new 
heaven and the new earth is determined upon from the beginning, is ideally exist- 

142 The Old Testament Stitdent. 

ent; it is now materially accomplished only so far as the old creation contains the 
form and basis upon which the new world is to be reared. The new creation is 
thoroughly light and pure ; the future world is all day (cf . Kev. 22:5). The prin- 
ciple of darkness, the power of sin and destruction reigns no more. Correspond- 
ing to this light is the moral purity of the new world, for it is no more the 
dwelling of sinful men. There is also physical purity in so far as the new earth 
is delivered from all delilement. The new earth, moreover, will be complete and 
harmonious. Its perfection consists in the complete fulfillment of its purpose. 
Ten marks of the new creation are enumerated, among which are, — light, the 
water of life (cf. Rev. 22:1), health, and the yielding of fruits every month (cf. 
Rev. 22:2). The new creation is harmonious in all its parts. In the animal 
world there is no conflict, and between men and animals there is peace. Wild 
beasts will be cured of their blood-thirstiness ; the lamb will have no need to fear 
mankind and " all animals will be satisfied with a vegetable diet." 

Upon the new earth dwells a new humanity. The renewal of man, that is, 
the restoration of his normal condition, is designated as a '-healing,'" so far as it 
relates to the material side of man. The blind will see, the deaf hear, the lame 
walk, etc. (cf. Is. 35:5 sq.). The moral renewal of the world takes place through 
the eradication of the purpose or principle of evil (jezer hara) from the human 
heart and the giving of a new heart. It is this jezer hara which creates idol- 
worship. In the future world God will root this out and give man a new heart. 
The Holy One said to Israel : " In this world you rend yourselves away from my 
commandments through the jezer hara; but in the future world I will pluck this 
out of you by the root ; for it is written : " And I will put my spirit into your 
heart (Ezek. 36:27)." 

A A 


Three good gifts have been given to Israel which the nations covet, — the law, 
the land of Israel, and the future world. The coming age belongs exclusively 
to Israel. Every Israelite, as such, looks forward to it with e.xpectation, unless 
he has forfeited his right to it by apostasy. Infants participate in the future life, 
even those of wicked parents, provided they are circumcised. That all Israel is 
to assemble in the Holy Land in this period is evident from the fact that those who 
fell in the desert are to participate in the coming glory. But the heathen are 
excluded. Of Israel and heathenism, Jacob and Esau stand as the respective 
types. A commentary on Gen. 25:31 narrates in detail a conversation between 
Jacob and Esau before their birth, in which Jacob explains to his brother the 
different principles and employments of this world (age) and the future world. 
Esau chooses {apparently at Jacob's instigation) this present world, and Jacob 
takes for his part the blessings of the Olaui habba. 

Respecting the modes of life in the future world there are two opinions,— the 
more spiritual view, according to which there is to be no sensuous life of eating 
and drinking, begetting and trading; no anger or hate, but the righteous will sit 
with crowns on their heads enjoying God's presence; and a more materialistic 
view, according to which relations continue very much the same as in this life, 
except that sin is eliminated. In this view much emphasis is laid upon the feast- 
ing which awaits the righteous and a noticeable peculiarity is that the flesh of the 
Leviathan and Behemoth is indicated as the special delicacy which shall distin- 
guish the festal occasion. These two varying conceptions of the coming age may 

Old Testament Wokd-studees. 143 

be explained upon the supposition that tlie ideas of this world and the next— the 
earthly and the heavenly — are not clearly separated ; hence the emphasis of those 
elements which belong to the one or to the other. 

Notwithstanding these variations, it is agreed that existence in the coming 
age will be blessed and glorious because it will be a life in full communion Vith 
God. The Sabbath, as the symbol of peace and rest, is designated as a foretaste 
of this future world. To happy rest is joined external glory. The righteous wear 
the crowns which they once received from angels at Sinai and which were taken 
away when they fell into sin. This blessedness and glory is the same in its nature 
for all, but differs in degree : " Each righteous man has his own Eden in the Gar- 
den of Eden." There are two opinions concerning the class with which God is 
best pleased. According to one, it is those who have studied most the law and 
commandments ; according to the other, it is the scribes who have in faithfulness 
taught the young. 

All this happiness culminates in the completed communion of life between 
God and the righteous. The upper Jerusalem will come down upon the new 
earth ; for there is a Jerusalem in the coming age different from that of this age. 
It is built of sapphire and its central point is still a sanctuary. Aaron is the 
priest, and receives the thauk-ofierings (all other offerings having ceased). The 
righteous behold God and praise him, and He in his own person teaches them the 
law. The relation between God and His people is the closest possible. " It is 
more intimate than tliat between God and the angels ; for the elders of Israel con- 
stitute the council in the coming age, therefore are nearest to Him." 

The Talmud's most beautiful picture of the future is found in this story : 
Joshua Ben Levi is sick and in a trance. When he comes to himself, his father 
asks him : What hast thou seen ? He answers : I have seen a changed world ; 
those who here were above are there beneath ; those who here were beneath are 
there above. Then answered his father : Thou hast seen a pui-e world (that is, 
one in which reality and appearance correspond). 


By Eev. p. A. NoEDELL., D. D., 
New London, Conn. 

All moral evil, while springing indeed from an underlying unity, exhibits 
itself in many different aspects. Hebrew is peculiarly rich in words denoting 
these various forms of opposition to moral good. The Old Testament does not 
conceive of moral evil as an essential element in human nature, but as the result 
of man's free volition in yielding to the solicitations of an evil principle of unex- 
plained origin which already existed in the world, Gen. 3; Deut. 30:15. Sin, 
according to the Old Testament, is not merely transgression of natural law entail- 
ing physical suffering, as the heathen held, but opposition to divine holiness 
springing from a selfish disregard of Jehovah's will as supreme law. 

'aven vanity. 
'aven is most frequently translated avofiia in the LXX., and iniquitas in the 

144 The Old Testament Student. 

Vulgate. From the latter it has passed into the A. V. where iniquity is the pre- 
vailing rendering. These renderings indicate that the point of view from which 
moral evil is regarded in this word is that of transgression of law, — that which is 
opposed to equity in the relations of man to man. or of man to God. This inter- 
pretiition is, however, incorrect. The primary thought is found in an unused 
verb meaning to breathe heavily, to puff, pant, as the result of strenuous exer- 
tion. The same verb naturally gives us the substantive 'on, strength, the puttmg 
forth of power accompanied by deep breathings or pantings. The derivative 
'av6n, assuming a moral significance, presents the idea of nothingness, empti- 
ness, vanity— that which, having no real existence, has also no real worth. The 
works of idolaters, i. e. their idols, are vanity, 'avSn, and nought, Isa. 41:29; 
66:3. The oracles of the teraphim are 'aven, empty words, Zech. 10:2. Unjust 
and oppressive judicial decisions are also 'avSn, Isa. 10:1. The frequent asso- 
ciation of the word with idols and idolatry indicated that the oft-recurrijig phrase 
•' workers of iniquity " is merely a synonym for idolaters. To " regard iniquity " 
in the heart, Ps. 66:18, is, not to cultivate a tendency to wrong doing in general, 
but to cherish a secret inclination toward idolatry, which is treason against Jeho- 
vah. He will not answer the prayer that springs from such a heart. A stubborn 
disregard of Jehovah's command is 'aven, and is as bad as idolatry, 1 Sam. 15: 
23. From this conception of abstract evil as a vain and empty thing, the word 
passes into a designation of the concrete accompaniments or consequences of evil ; 
the wicked " bring forth iniquity," Job 15:35, but God returns it upon them, Ps. 
94:23 ; cf. Job 4:8. It is only a short transition from this thought of the penal 
consequences of evil to that of pain, sorrow, afHiction, the emptiness and desola- 
tion of life, caused by the removal of the objects in which the heart had found 
its joy, Ps. 90:10; Job 5:6. 

'asham guilt. 

The verb 'asham or 'ashcm, to incur an obligation or debt, either pecun- 
iary or moral, gives the substantive 'asham, a debt, trespass, hence guilt, and 
also the necessity of making restitution for damage that has been done, not will- 
fully, but through ignorance or neglect, Gen. 26:10; Lev. 5:7. Fools make sport 
of guilt and of the necessity of atoning for it, Prov. 14:9, but God smites those 
who persist in such conduct. Ps. 68:21(22). This word assumes a technical sense 
in the le\itical law, designating the guilt-offering which, like the sin-offering, was 
expiatory in its nature. The use of this word in Isa. 53:10, where the innocent 
servant is said to make his soul an 'asham for sin, has occasioned considerable 
controversy. Wellhausen, in the interest of the Graflan hypothesis, asserts that 
it has not the technical sense of guilt-offering, but only the primary meaning of 
guilt. This meaning, however, is entirely contrary to the spirit of the whole 
chapter which conspicuously represents the sufferings of the servant as a ransom, 
Urpov, paid to Jehovah for tlie sinners whose guilt the servant expiates by his vol- 
imtary suffermgs and death. 

B'liyyaal worihlessness. 

This word, commonly transferred into the English form Belial, occurs twenty- 
seven times in the Old Testament. It seems to be one of the rare instances in 
which Hebrew tolerates a compound word, being composed of b ' 1 i , nothing, and 
yS'Sl, worth. It designates a person or thing whose leading characteristic is 

Old Testament Wobd-studibs. 145 

worthlessness. With ben it forms an idiomatic phrase, a sou of Belial, which 
the B. v., either in the text or margin, generally renders " base fellow." It char- 
acterizes conduct that is mean and despicable, Ps. 41:9 ; 101:3 ; thoughts that are 
base and degrading, Deut. 15:9. In 2 Sam. 22:5 ; Ps. 18:5, the writer's thought in 
connecting Belial with " floods " is quite obscure. The A. V. renders it " floods 
of ungodly men," and the K. V. " floods of ungodliness." The context suggests 
the idea of mortal terror, and therefore the rendering of De Witt, "the floods of 
destruction " would seem more appropriate. In the form BeVap this word occurs 
in the New Testament, 2 Cor. 6:15, where, having lost its abstract meaning, it 
becomes a name of Satan, the prince of the realm of darkness. 

Hawah destructive wickedness. 
The root-meaning is a gaping mouth, hence a yawning abyss. Usually this 
word stands for destruction, Ps. 57:11(12); Prov. 19:13. From this meaning it 
glides into that of wickedness, Pss. 5:9(10), 55:11(12), this being conceived of as 
destructive and corrupting. Though the word occurs only sixteen times in He- 
brew, the LXX. gives it no less than ten different renderings. For a full discus- 
sion of the word, see Delitzsch on Ps. 5:10 ; also Ilupfeld. 

Hatta'th sin. 
This is the prevailing Hebrew term for sin, and is properly rendered in the 
LXX. aiiapria, and in the Vulg. peccatum. Prom Jud. 20:16 we learn that prima- 
rily it denoted the missmg of a target or mark. Prom an ethical point of view it 
represented a failure to attain the divine standard for human conduct. This 
might occur through ignorance. Num. 15:28, or through the immaturity of youth, 
Ps. 25:7. But usually it exhibited a deliberate deviation from the holy will of 
God. Indeed, hatta'th seldom or never refers to mere errors, but to gross sins 
that are apparent to all beholders, as were those of the Sodomites, Gen. 18:20, cf . 
1 Sam. 2:17 ; 15:23. In the Mosaic law it became the standing designation of the 
sin-offering. During the monarchy, when Israel apostatized from Jehovah, 
hatta'th came to denote the national sin of idolatry, 1 Kgs. 15:26; Jer. 17:1. 
In Deut. 9:21 the golden calf is termed Israel's sin. 

'avel, 'av'lah unfairness. 
Occurs only twenty times, and in the majority of instances is rendered aimia 
in the LXX. The verb "aval, to turn around, to be perverse, occurs only twice, 
Ps. 71:4 and Isa. 26:10, both times in Piel, and meaning to act in a rascally man- 
ner. The substantive itself designates that form of moral evil which exhibits 
itself in unfair transactions, whether in the perversion of justice. Lev. 19:15,35, 
or in business dealings, Ezek. 28:18. 'av'lah, the feminine form, presents the 
same general meaning, and differs from the masculine, if at all, in being a little 
more emphatic. It suggests a perversity of conduct that amounts to actual vil- 
lainy, Ps. 89:22(23) ; Mic. 3:10 ; Hab. 2:12. 

'avon iniquity. 

The A. v., except in a very few instances, renders this word by iniquity. In 

the LXX. and Vulg. it is rendered by aSmia, injustitia, 73 times, a/iap-la, peccatum, 

63 times, and avouia, iniquitas, 61 times. These renderings give us a partial clue 

to the radical meaning of the word, which seems to have been a turning or bend- 

146 Thk Old Testamknt Student. 

ing away from righteousness and law. This is confirmed by the verb 'a rah , to 
turn, twist, pervert, from which 'a von seems to be derived, meaning crooked- 
ness, perversity, and in an ethical sense, depravity. It conceives of i,ji as a 
departure from the normal path of obedience to God's holy will. But this aapait- 
ure involves at once penal consequences, and the thought of these is also included 
in the word. Cain, having heard the divine sentence pronounced upon him, 
exclaims, "My 'avon," i. e. sin and punishment, "is greater than I can bear," 
Gen. 4:13. The frequent plirase "he sliall beai' his iniquity,'" spoken in refer- 
ence to the transgressor of law. points to the same fact, as does also the declara- 
tion in Isa. 53:6 that Jehovah made the iniquity of us all to fall on his innocent 
servant. Cf. 1 Sam. 28:10; Ezek. 14:10. In some instances the additional idea 
of guilt is presented. "The 'avon of the Amorites is not yet full," Gen. 15:16, 
and the 'avon of the fathers is visited upon the children to the third and fourth 
generations, Exod. 20:5. From tlie ideas of guilt and penalty there is but a step 
to that of the pliysical overthrow and ruin which follow as the inevitable conse- 
quences of sin and depravity, Gen. 19:15; Prov. 5:22. 

'amal toil, misery. 

From the common meaning of wearisome labor or toil this word passes here 
and there into a designation of evil, more especially physical, conceived of as a 
grievous bondage. Dent. 26:7; Ps. 107:12, that has no end, Eccl. 4:8, for man is 
born to it, Job 5:7, the pride of his short life being only 'amal and sorrow, 
'aven, Ps. 90:10. The frequency with which 'amal and 'av6n are conjoined 
is surprising. Job 4:8; 5:6; 15:35; Ps. 7:4; 10:7; 55:10(11); Isa. 10:1 ; 59:4; Ilab. 
1:3; no less surprising is the confusion in the renderings of these words in the 
common English version. 

Pesha' transgression, felony. 

The verb pasha' means to break off, dirumpere; in respect to a sovereign, 
to sever allegiance by rebellion, as when Israel rebelled against the house of 
David, 1 Kgs. 12:11, or Edom against Jiidah, 2 Kgs. 8:20. Chiefly it designated 
Israel's rebelling against Jehovah's sovereignty, Isa. 1:2; 1 Kgs. 8:50, or, in other 
words, Israel's breaking of the covenant in their apostasy from Jehovah's service 
to tliat of idols. Tlie substantive pes ha' preserves the meaning of the verb, 
denoting originally a breach of covenant, or revolt from political supremacy, Prov. 
28:2. When this revolt was directed against God it usually assumed the form of 
transgression of his law, bold, wanton disregard of the moral boundaries which 
he had assigned to his people, Micah 1:5. Pesha' is sometimes joined with 
hatta'th for the sake of emphasis, but when the two are contrasted, Ps. 25:7, 
the former is the stronger, denoting a willful and outrageous opposition to God, 
springing from a perversion of the will, while the latter denotes rather sins of 
infirmity springing from ignorance or from a consciousness clouded by passion. 

Ra' wicked, evil. 

Ra' is used both as an adjective and as a substantive, and occurs far more 
frequently than any other word in the present group. It is the opposite of tob h , 
good, with which it is very often contrasted, e. g., "Speak not to Jacob either 
good or bad," Gen. 31:24. The renderings of this word are exceedingly various, 

Old Testajient Wokd-studibs. 147 

and this arises from the remarkable diversity of its applications. It describes any- 
thing and everything that is bad, ill-favored, grievous, mischievous, ■wicked, in 
short, every form of evil, whether physical or moral. It springs from a root the 
general meaning of which is to be restless, to be in motion, to break down, to 
destroy. From an ethical stand-point it looks upon evil as a hurtful and destruc- 
tive force, ceaselessly opposed to everything that is good whether in human rela- 
tions or divine. 

Rasha' mcked. 

Like the preceding, this word also is in very frequent use. In a physical 
sense it denoted that which is loose, slack, unstable, and hence metaphorically, 
that which is lax, dissolute in an ethical sense. As a substantive it occurs almost 
wholly in the plural form, r'sha'im, ungodly or wicked men. These are 
regarded as morally lax, loose, controlled by no principles of truth or righteous- 
ness. Having cut themselves loose from God, they have lost aU stability of 
character, and have become "like chaff which the wind driveth away," Ps. 1:4, 
or like a troubled sea, tliat cannot rest, Isa. 57:20. From every point of view the 
r'sha'im are diametrically opposed to the tsaddiqim, the righteous, the 
solid, firm, stable in character and disposition. 


Prof. E. P. Barrows, whose death at a ripe age was recently announced, left 
in manuscript a Hebrew Grammar, the fruit of years of Hebrew study, a Com- 
mentary on the Book of Proverbs, and an Autobiography. 

Again an appreciation of the importance of Old Testament work has been 
shown ; this time by the trustees of Madison University. Professor S. Burnham, 
well-known to readers of The Student, will henceforth be assisted in his work 
by Rev. Nathaniel Smith. 

Dr. Richard J. H. Gottheil, of Columbia College, announces the following 
Semitic Courses for the year: (1) Elementary Course (Harper's "Introductory 
Method" and "Elements of Hebrew"); (2) Advanced Hebrew (1 Samuel 1-20); 
(3) Rabbinical Hebrew (five courses) ; (4) Syriac (two courses) ; (5) Arabic (two 
courses) ; (6) Assyrian ; (7) Semitic Palajography. 

The latest advices from the Philadelphia Babylonian Exploring Expedition, 
are to the effect that the damage occasioned by the shipwreck upon the Isle of 
Samos is extremely slight, the loss of time being the only important matter. 
While Professor Peters has been in Constantinople, vigorously pushing the 
important work of securing privileges from the Turkish government, with large 
hopes of success, the rest of the party lias reached Aintab ; and ere this the whole 
company is en route for the scene of permanent activity. 

Messrs. T. & T. Clark, of Edinburgh, announce for early publication a valu- 
able work, entitled " The Text of Jeremiah ; or, a Critical Investigation of the 
Greek and Hebrew, with the Variations of the Septuagint retranslated into the 
Original and explained," by Prof. J. C. Workman, M. A., of Victoria University, 
Coburg, Ontario. Besides discussing the relation between the texts, this book 
reveals important matter for the correction and the reconstruction of the present 
Massoretic text. Prof. Workman has been residing for the past four years in 
Leipzig, and during the greater portion of that time has been specially engaged at 
this investigation. 

An interesting extension of the correspondence system appears in the recently 
published announcement by missionaries in Tokio, Japan, of courses in Greek and 
Hebrew, for the aid not only of missionaries but also of native preachers. Three 
courses in Greek are proposed: (1) elementary, comprising grammar, analysis, 
exercises ; (2) intermediate, consisting of grammatical and critical notes on por- 
tions of the Greek Testament; (3) advanced, consisting of extracts with notes 
from various Christian Greek writers. The Hebrew will be taken up through the 
Correspondence School of the American Institute of Hebrew. This will be sup- 
plemented by a Summer School of Hebrew in 1SS9. It is a well-known fact that 
of all men, missionaries excel in their zeal for Bible study. This is but one 
example of this interest. 



The historical movement of the present day has, in the study of Christ and 
the Gospels, produced a new branch of learning. It seeks to create from all 
available sources of literature and archaeology a trustworthy and living picture of 
the times in which Jesus lived and the scenes among which he walked. This 
study is as yet in its infancy. Two works in this department, both by German 
scholars, have been hitherto available for English readers, and those only in part. 
Hausrath and Schiirer have each WTitten a history of the New Testament times 
and it is but just now that so much as half of the latter work could be had in Eng- 
lish. And even now the high price of these volumes, as well as the scholastic and 
learned character of the contents, has put them beyond the reach of the mass of 
Bible students. This is to be regretted, since the labors of these scholars are of 
the greatest value in Scripture study. Passages in the Gospels and episodes ia 
the life of Jesus are often vividly illuminated and take on an entirely new mean- 
ing in the light of the habits, customs, and history of the people of the times. 

But now in this book of Edmond Stapf er, an opportunity is given to secure 
at a moderate price much of the best and latest results of investigation into the 
Palestine of Christ's day, — a book written in a style marked by French vivacity 
and attractiveness. It is a book for the people, and it is to be hoped that many 
people wUl purchase it. There are deficiencies in it — inaccuracies of statement, 
as well as lax theological views. But for all that it is the best popular presenta- 
tion of the subject and wUl well repay careful and constant reading. It will serve, 
also, as an excellent introduction to the larger and more exhaustive works already 
mentioned, and the student once fairly embarked upon this fascinating subject 
will hardly be satisfied until he has studied the fuller treatise of Schiirer. 

A glance at the table of contents will give one an idea of the scope of the 
work. The material is classified in two books : I. Social Life, embracing the 
geography of the Gospels, a brief history of the times, the Sanhedrim, population, 
the home life, dwellings and clothing, public life, country life, literature and 
science ; II. the ReUgious Life, covering an account of the Pharisees and Saddu- 
cees, their doctrines and practices, the synagogue, the Sabbath, the Bible, fasts 
etc., prayer, the temple, the feasts, the Essenes, Jesus, his life and teaching. A 
wonderful amount of light is thrown upon the New Testament. References more 
or less helpful are made to more than four hundred passages in the Gospels, so 
that the book becomes a kind of commentary upon the whole Gospel narrative. 

There can be no doubt that a careful study of such a book would result in a 
clearer understanding of the New Testament. It would give the death-blow to 
many of those allegorizing, "spiritual"' interpretations of the words of Jesus 
which are the chiefest hindrance to real Bible knowledge. It would also be likely 
to produce in the mind a truer knowledge of Jesus as a man among the people of 

* Palestine in the Time of Christ. By Edmond Stapfer, D. D., Professor in the Protest- 
ant Theological Faculty of Paris. Translated by Annie Harwood Holmden. New York: A. C. 
Armstrong & Son. Pp. xii, 528. 

150 The Old Testament Student. 

his time and thus of our time. We need the human Jesus as well as the divine 
Christ. The Gospels give us both, and we must not lose sight of the man in the God. 

But the danger here is that this study will too highly exalt the human ele- 
ment in Jesus and minimize the divine. Dr. .Stapfer has either unintentionally 
made that impression, or else has purposely sought to create it, in the last chapter 
of his volume. Perhaps it was unavoidable in the brief space at his command. 
He indeed promises us a fuller treatment of Christ's life and teaching. The 
reader of this book must note this aspect of it and make the necessary allowance and 
correction. Evidently the author belongs to the liberal school of theologians and 
treats the Gospel narratives with a freedom which will not commend itself to many. 

All of Dr. Stapfer"s statements of fact are not to be relied upon, especially in 
his references to the present condition of Palestine. It seems as though his infor- 
mation on these points has been obtained from untrustworthy sources. There 
is also some rhetorical exaggeration indulged in throughout the book, which, 
while lending interest to its perusal, is liable to leave a false impression upon the 
reader. Apart from these defects the work is one heartily to be commended. It 
has an index fairly complete and a table of references to biblical passages quoted, 
as well as an excellent bibliography. The type is large and clear ; the outward 
appearance attractive, and the amount of information given within, marvelous. 


A book, dealing with the field which is covered in this volume, must subject 
itself to searching tests. Students liave a right to expect many things from one 
who attempts a history of what is confessedly the most difficult period of biblical 
history. The ideal historian of these times ought to be possessed of at least six 
characteristics; 1) a passion for facts and a strict adherence to them, 2) skill in 
exegesis and interpretation, 3) wide acquaintance with the new learning— archseo- 
logical and critical, 4) a faculty of historical grouping, which can produce an 
intelligible, reasonable, finished picture. 5) ability to see the universal bearings of 
the particular, local, temporary, 6) a devout spirit. A formidable list of qualities, 
surely, — yet without any one of them a writer on these subjects is inadequately 
furnished. Dr. Humphrey's book is characterized by, 1) traditional exegesis, 2) 
want of acquaintance with the new learning, or at least an ignoring of it, 3) a theo- 
logical setting in which the facts appear, 4) the quality of dogmatic generalization 
and inference, 5) a strict Calvinistic orthodoxy, 6) failure to unify the impressions 
of the history, 7) a devout, earnest spirit. It is difficult to see how the volume is 
anything more than an abbreviated summary of Kurtz's Old Covenant. The 
editors, with the commendable partiality of filial regard, say that the book " will 
bring a surprising number of fresh suggestions of kindling and enriching thought 
to all careful students of the Bible and advanced readers of Sacred History ; " and 
"that it will clear away the mists from the vision of many serious and candid 
doubters." While the many defects which belong to the very idea and structure 
of this work will forbid our acquiescence in this judgment, still it may be said that 
it reveals the workings of the keen, spiritual, vigorous mind of a scholar, moving 
along the old lines aud hampered by preconceptions of what his subject contains. 

• Sacked History from the Creation to the Giving of the Law. By Edward P. Hum- 
phrey, D. D.. LL. D., some time Professor in the Danville Theological Seminary. New York: 
A. C. Armglrvng d- Son, 1888. Pp. .\111, 540. 


Thirty-seven persons became members of 
the Correspondence School during October. 
They are as follows: Rev. J. W. D. Anderson, 
Elk City, Kans.; Rev. S. W. Anderson, Nash- 
ville, Tenn.; Mr. W. F. Bacher, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; Rev. R. D. Bambrick, Sydney Mines, Cape 
Breton, N. S.; Rev. W. F. Campbell, Patten, 
Maine.; Mr. S. S. Conger. Summit. N. J.; Rev. 
P. K. Dayfoot, Strathroy, Ont.; Mr. J. Q. 
Dealey, Providence, R. I.; Miss C. P. Dwight, 
Elmira, N. Y.; Mr. G. W. Ehler, Detroit, Mich.; 
Mr. W. D. Fuller, Colorado Springs, Col.; Rev. 
H. S. Gekeler, Upper Sandusky, O. ; Rev. M. 
W. Gilbert, Nashville, Tenn.; Rev. A. P. Green- 
leaf, Battle Creek, Mich.; Rev. N. J. Gullck, 
East Albany, N. Y.; Rev. J. J. Hall, Berlin, Vt.; 
Prof. G. W. Hayes, Petersburg, Va.; Rev. L. 
Heinmiller, Geneva, N. Y.; Mr. W. M Junkin, 
Christiansburgh, Va.; Rev. Wm. Karback, 
New Orleans, La.; Rev. E. H. Koyl. Beams- 
ville, Ont.; Rev. E. R. Leyburn, Port Gibson, 
Miss.; Rev. G. F. Mainwaring, Paradise, N. S. 
Rev. John McCalman, New Bedford, Mass.; 
Rev. A. D. McHenry, Columbiana, O.; Rev. G. 
B. Merritt, Fall River, Mass.; Rev. J. R. Moses, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Rev. E. A. Potts, Lynch- 
burg, Va.; Rev. P. O. Powell, Middle Grove, 
Mo.; Miss Cassie Quinlan, Stella, Neb.; Rev. 
W. E. Renshaw, Richmond, Utah; Rev. G. S. 
Rollins. Wilmington, N. C; Mr. W. O. Sayles, 
New York City; Rev. L. A. Thirlkeld, Balti 
more, Md.; Mr. J. M. C. Thompson, Princeton, 
N. J. ; Mr. G. E. Young, Xenia, Ohio. 

Many of those who have recently taken up 
the Correspondence Work have been induced 
to do so through the kind olfices of the friends 
of the School. In September and October, a 
letter was sent to the members of the School 
and some others, requesting them to furnish 
the names of those of their acquaintance who 
would be likely to be interested in this work. 
Many responded, and the result has been a 
larger addition to our numbers than has oc- 
curred in the same length of time for several 
years. For this assistance the hearty thanks of 
the principal and instructors are due, not only 
to those who find in the published lists of new 
students the names of persons whose names 
they sent in, but also to those who as yet see 
no result from their efforts to aid us. It may 
not be out of place also to remind others that 
it is not yet too late to send us lists of names. 

Perfect examination papers were received 
during October from Rev. E. H. Barnett, D. 
D., Atlanta, Ga., three; Dr. E. S. Maxson, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., two; and Rev. G. A. Carstensen, 
Erie, Pa.; Mr. John A. Ingham, Hackettstown, 

N. J., and Rev. R. M. Kirby, Potsdam, N. Y., 
each one. 

Courses were completed by Rev. E. H. Bar- 
nett, Atlanta, Ga.; Rev. H. C. Ross, IngersoU, 
Ont., and Rev. David Rohb, Leith, Scotland; 
and all continue at once with the next course. 
Mr. Robb says, "I think the lessons most ad- 
mirable, only regret that I did not have them 
twenty years ago." 

The following students who discontinued 
Correspondence study during the summer, re- 
sumed sending papers in the course of the 
month covered by this report: Rev. L. C. H. 
Adams, Monroe, N. Y. ; Rev. W. P. Aylsworth, 
Fairfield, Neb.; Rev. F. W. Bartlett, Williams- 
town, Mass.; Rev. J. A. Bowler, Lancaster, 
N. H.; Prof. G. W. Caviness, So. Lancaster, 
Mass.; Miss E. S. Colton, Farmington, Conn.; 
Rev. P. D. Cowan, Wellesley, Mass.; Rev. J. R. 
de W. Cowie, Waterford, N. B. ; Rev. S. O. 
Curtice, Port Chester, N. Y.; Rev. C. A. Evald, 
Chicago, 111.; Rev. J. C. Flanders, Manchester 
Centre, Vt.; Rev. A. J. Fristoe, Baltimore, Md.; 
Rev. L. M. Gates, Georgetown, N. Y.; Rev. F. 
B. Greul, Philadelphia, Pa.: Mrs. John How- 
land, Guadalajara, Mexico; Eld. O. A. Johnson, 
Helena, Mont.; Mrs. W. C. Mickey, Princeton, 
N. J.; Mr. T. E. Moffat, New Wilmington, Pa.; 
Rev. J. W. Preshy, Mystic, Conn.; Rev. J. H. 
Ralston, Worcester, Mass.; Rev. A. R. Rich, 
Grove City, Pa. ; Rev. H. H. Sangree, Curry- 
town, N. Y.; Rev. W. H. Schwiering, Mt. Pleas- 
ant, Iowa; Rev. W. A. Schruff, Chillicothe, O.; 
Rev. A. L. Urban, Philadelphia, Pa.; Rev. T. 
M. Westrup, Monterey, Mexico. 

The November Student was issued so early 
that it was impossible to publish in it the Octo- 
ber reports. Hence the Correspondence School 
page was omitted. It is intended, however, 
that this department shall appear regularly 

If the number of examination papers re- 
ceived in the present month is any criterion, 
the amount of work done in the Correspond- 
ence School during the coming winter will be 
greater than ever before. 

The next number of the Student will con- 
tain a list of all members of the School who 
have sent in forty or more examination papers 
during the year ending Nov. 30th. At the 
head of this list will, of course, stand the names 
of those who have sent the largest number 
and who are hence entitled to the prizes of- 
fered this year. Many have already signified 
their intention to make a determined effort to 
secure one of those offered for the year begin- 
ning Dec. 1st. 



The PeerUm Prophet; or. The Life and Times of 
John the Baplisl. By Archibald MeCullagh, 
D. D. New York: Randolph Jl.OO 

Jeremiah : /il« life and times. By Rev. T. K. 
Chey ne. D. D. London S.a.6 

The Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old Testa- 
ment. By E. Schrader. Vol.11 S.10.6 

The Pulpit Commentary: It. Samuel. By Rev. 
R. P. Smith. D. D. London S.15 

The Bilile of our Lord and His Apostles. The 
Septuapnt considered in relation to the Gos- 
pel. By J. G. Carlcton. London S.2.8 

The Exjvisitors' BiliU: II. Samuel. By W. G. 
Blaikie, D. D. New York: A. C. Armstronfr 
& Son ? 1 . .tO 

Clirist in the Bible: I. Oenesit and Exodus. By 
Rev. A. B. Simpson. NewYork: Word, Work 
& World Pub. Co t3 00 

Die Oft'nifarung. hetrachtet vom Standpunhte der 
Weilnnschauung u. d. Gottesbegriffs der Kali- 
bala. By F. Kolb. Leipzig: Fock M.6. 

Biblicnl KKChatoligtj. By Alvah Hovey, I). D. 
Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication 
Society, 1888. 

De Ihistiiire de la Vulgate en France, lecon d'ou- 
verture faite a la Faculte de thiolooie protes- 
tante de Paris, le 4 novembre 1888. By S. 
Bergcr. Paris: libr. Fischbacher. 1888. 

Handhuch der thetilogischen Wissenschaften, etc., 
hrsg. V. O. Zockler. 3 Aufl. 1 Bd. 1 Ahtlg-. 
GrundUgung u. der Schriftlheologie. 1 Hiilfte. 
Nordlingen, Beck, 1889 M.7. 

Das Zf.italter des Propheten Joel. Inaug. Diss. 
Bv G. Kessner. Leipzig: Druck v. Grimme 
&'TrOmel, 1888. 

Introduction to the Boohs of the Old and Neic 
Testament. By O. S. Stearns, D. D. Boston: 
Silver, Burdett &Co $1.00. 

Studien zur Oeschichtc d. alien Aegupten. 111. 
Ti/roau.Sidon. J. Krall. Wien, 18K8...M.l.:iO. 

Die Psalmen. Uehersctzt u. ausgelcgt. By H. 
Hupfeid. Fiir die 3. Aufl. bearb. v. W. No- 
wack. 2. Bd. Gotha: F. A. Perthes, 1888.. .. 

Das Buch Ezechiel u. die, Vi kleinen Propheten, 
ausgelegt. By C. v. Orelli. LKu^zgetasster 
Kommentar zu den heil. Schriften A. u. 
N. T's, A. T., 5 Abth.] Nordlingen, Beck, 
1888 M.6..-)0 

Ezechiel, Capitel 20 erlautert. By M. Friedmann. 
(In hebr. Sprache.) Wien: (Lippe), 1888. 

Kennst du das Land 7 Bikler aus dem gelobten 
Lande zur Erklarg. der heil. Schrift. By L. 
Sehneller. Jerusalem; Buchbandlg. d. syr. 
Wttisenhauees. 18S8 M 5. 

La btlilia, la natura c la sciema. Vol. U. By 
Alf. Travaglini. (Pcntateuco; Genesi), fasc. 
1 e 2. Vasto : tip. edit. Istonia di C. Mascian- 
gelo, 1888. 

The Sabbatical Rest of God and Man : A Study 
of Hel). 4:8.3. By Rev. John Hughes. M. A. 
London: Nisbol S.7.6 

The Ilnllouyina of Criticism: Nine Sermons on 
Elijah, etc. By Rev. T. K. Cheyne, D. D. 
London: Hodder & Stoughton S.5. 

Inspirntinn and the Bible: An Enquiry. By 
HolM'rt F. Horton. London. 

Bildische Real- u. Verbal Ilandhotihiirdanz. 
Neue, sitrgfaeltig rev. Ausg. Bv G. Biichner. 1 
Lfg. Basel: Riehm, 1888 M.0.50. 


Die Anhitnge des RiclUerbuches. By K. Budde 
in Ztschr. f. d. alttest. WIsscnscb. VIIL 2. 


Sauls Knnigswahlu. Verwerfung. By K. Budde. 

Exegelische u. Kritische Bemerkungen. 1 Sam. 
20::W :58: 21:4-6: 1 Sam. 2y;t). By J. Ley. Ibid. 

Die lieden des Buches Jeremia gegen die HHden 
25,46-51. By F. Schwalley. Ibid. 

Xoch cinmal n. 45:7. By J. C. Matthes. Ibid. 

Uebcr d(« (Ur Samaritan ischen Litter- 
atur fUr die semitische Sprachwissenscliaft, 
Eregese u. Dogmeugtgchichle, mil besundcrer 
RUclssicht auf die Schriften SlarkahK. By M. 
Heidenheim. [Handscfir. Nr. .'>22 der kouigL 
Hibliothek zu Berlin] in Verhandlunt-'en der 
31). Vers, deutschcr Philol. u. Schulmanner 
In Ziirich, 1888. 

The Interpretation of the Book of Job. By Prof. 
J. F. Genung in Andover Review, Nov., '88. 

The "i" of the Psalter. In the Independent, 
Nov. 8, '88. 

Keil's Archcenlogy (Kev.). Ibid. 

Humvhrcy'g Sacred Histo)-y{Hev.). Ibid., Nov. 1. 

[Ixl Kailiitii bei A/fnWi:(l Jerusalem (xler Oazaf 
EinearchaologischbililischeStudie. By Wan- 
del in Schulblt. f. d. Prov. Branden'nerg, '88. 

Das Verwandschaftswurt D>' . By M. Krenkel in 

Ztschr. f. d. alttest. Wissensch. VIII. 2 ("88), 

pp. 280-284. 
Die Wortstellung im hehraelschen Nominalsalze. 

By C. Albrecht. Ibid. 
Beilrafge zur hehraeisehen Wort. u. Namener- 

klaerung. 2. i^l/j sodaUs. By J. Grill. Ibid. 

Die Tafelinschrift Hab. 2. By C. Bredenkamp in 

in Theoi. Stud u. Krit., '89. 
The Palace of Artajcerxes-Mnemon and the Book 

of Eflher. By Prof. .MorrisJastrow, Jr.,Ph.D., 

in Sunday School Times. Nov. 17. '88. 
Teachings of the Qabbnln i Kev. I. Ibid. 
Oricii(n( Modes of Covenanting. By Dr. Cunning- 
ham Geikie. Ibid., Nov. 10. 
Diida Book of Genesis. By C. L. Diven in the 

New Englander, Oct., '88. 
Jeuish Gineiibtgi-s. By J. B. Scouller, D. D., In 

Evangelical Repository, Oct., *88. 
The Two Isaiahs; the real and the imaginary. By 

Principal Geo. C. M. Douglas, D. D., in the 

Presbyterian Review, Oct.. '88. 
ncriiud.— 1. Forbes' "Studies on the Book of 

P.snlms" (Briggs); 2. Bredenknnip's "Isaiah" 

(F.Brown); Driver's "Isaiah" (Briggsi; Stap- 

fer's "Palestine" (C. W. Hodge). Ibid. 
The Studii of the Hrhrew Language in College. 

By Prof. C. E. Crandall, A.M., in the Sabbath 

Recorder. Nov. 8, '8.8. 
Studict in Practical Exegesis, Psalm XXXII. By 

Prof. T. K. Cheyne, D. D., in the Expositor, 

Nov., '88. 
Kitlr.U's Oeschiclitc der Behraeer. By Horst in 

Thcol. Ltztg., Nov. 3. '88. 
Wrcschncr's Samaritanische Traditionen. By 

Sic^rfricd. Ibid. 
SdMCi:' s licUgionof the AncientBabuloniansi'Kev.) 

By .lohn PhelpsTaylor in And. Kev., Nov.. '88. 
The Rfj^urrcctiftn in the Pentateuch. By Howard 

Ossgood, D. D., in the Baptist Quarterly Rev., 

Oct.. '88. 
La critiiiue et la foi [Cetle etude est la preface 

d'un ouvragc sur Lcs Sources du Pentatcuque']. 

By A. Wcstphal in Revue chrelienne, 1888, 10. 



BeBDme of Studies IX.-XII. 1. The new methods of teaching and working employed by Jeeua In 
this period. 3. The growth both of favor and of opposition toward him. 3. Tbe events 
that brought about a crisis in his worls. 4. The nature of this crisis, its importance and 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Read carefully Mark 7:24-8:9 and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

1. A secret journey (v. 24) ; 

2. a woman's persistent prayer (vs. 

3. its result (vs. 29,30) ; 

4. the return (v. 31); 

5. a wondrous miracle (vs. 32-37) ; 

6. a multitude fed (8:1-9). 

n. The material Compared. 

1. With Marls 7:24-8:9 cf. Matt. 1.5:21-39a. 

2. Note additional details; (a) events preceding Mk. 

meuts, Mt. 15:30,31. 

35 in Mt. 15:22-24; (b) general state- 

Hi. The Material Explained. 


I) v. 

24, (a) Thence; an immediate depart- 
ure; why ? 

(b) liitii the borders; (1) of. v. 31; 
Mt. 15:21 as to whether he ae|,ually 
entered these foreign lands; (2) 
how many times did Jesus pass 
beyond the borders of Palestine? 

(c) Tyre and Sidon; (1) location; 

(2) relation to Israel, cf. 2 Sam. 5: 
11; Joel 3:4-8; Ezek. 26:2; 27:17; 

(3) to Jesus, Mk. 3:8; Mt. 11:21,22. 

(d) iVo man hnow; what then was 
the reason for his coming hither; 
(1) ministry ? (2) rest ? (3) to escape 

2) v. 26. (a) E.\plain the words describing 
the woman's nationality. 

(b) Besought; (a) the language she 
spoke? (b) the language Jesus 
used in reply ? 
3) V. 27. (a) Note the figurative form of 
Jesus' reply. 

(b) Oiildren; refers to whom ? Cf. 
Mt. 8:12. 

(c) Dogs; how regarded by Jews? 
Cf. 2 Kgs. 8:13: 1 Sam. 24:14; Job 
30:1: Mt. 7:6; Deut. 23:18. 

(d) What may be said as to the 
reply of Jesus; (1) its harshness 
of form; whether expressing his 
real feelings, or (2) an innerspirit 
of kindness hidden in order to 
test the woman, or (3) his sense 
of the limitation of his mission 

164 The Old Testament Studekt. 

and her consequent exclusion 8> Cb. 8:1. Again a grtal muUUude; conelder 

from its benefits. whether (a) Jesus bad recovered 

i) V. 28. Lord; cf. Mt. 15:22. Her knowl- his popularity, cf. John 6:06 or (b) 

edge of Jesus and how she ob- these were persons formerly un- 

taincd it ? acquainted with him. 

5) T. 81. (a) Trace the course of Jesus; (b) 9) V. 2. (a) Note the motive of the mira- 

why take this circuit? cle; (b) was it also intended as a 

6) T«. 8£-8;. (a) Related in Mk. only; (b) note slg-n? 

all the peculiar features of this lUj Vs. 2-9. la) Cf. Mk. 6:34-H; (b) note re- 
healing work, vs. 33,34; (c) con- semblances and differences; (c) 
sider their meaning, whether (1) decide in view of all the facts (cf. 
means of cure; (2> as symbols Mk. S:l»,20j whether these are two 
and (3) to awaken the man's faith. accounts of the same event. 

7) V. 84. Ephphatha; cf. Mk. 3:17: 5:41. 


JesnB and the Gentiles, (a) Study the words of Jesus in Mk. 7:27 and Mt. 15: 
26 in their bearing upon his attitude toward others than Jews ; (b) cf. sim- 
ilar teacliings Mt. 10:5,6 ; (c) inquire into the wisdom of this attitude in 
view of (1) Jewish aversion to Gentiles; (2) the fulfillment of O. T. Proph- 
ecy; (3) the preparation of the disciples; (4) the foundation of the King- 
dom ; (d) cf. Mt. 8:5-12 as revealing another attitude and compare it with 
John 10:16; Acts 1:8, etc., to see the final purpose of Jesus in relation to 
Gentiles ; (e) note Eph. 2:11-22 for Paul's idea of the relation of this whole 
question to the death of Jesus; (f) sum up conclusions under (1) his tem- 
poral mission ; (2) his ultimate purpose. 

IT. The Material Organized. 

1. Gather the material and classify it under the following heads : 1) persons; 2) 

places; 3) miracles; 4) important teachings; 5) Jesus as man; 6) literary 
data; 7) important events. 

2. Ck>ndense the material into the briefest possible statement under the general 


V. The Material Applied. 

The Discipline of Defeat. 1. Note two examples of defeat — Jesus rejected 
by many and in retirement ; the woman repulsed by him. 2. Observe the 
attitude of each in these circumstances— Jesus faithful to his work yet 
compassionate; the woman, earnest, trustful, persistent. 3. From these 
examples draw some conclusions as to the temptations that assaU one 
enduring the discipline of defeat. 4. The spirit in which one should 
endure it. 5. The relation of this discipline to the development of character. 

TEACHING. MAKE 8:10-9:1. 

Besnme. 1. Jesus' retreat to the border-land— occasion for It and course of it. 2. The character 
of Jesus as eihibited on these journeys. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mark 8:10-9:1 and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

New Testament Supplement. 


1. Across the sea (v. 10); 

2. Jesus' encounter with Pharisees 
and departure (vs. 11-13); 

3. his admonition concerning them 
(vs. 14^-20); 

4. miracle at Bethsaida (vs. 22-26) ; 

5. on the way to northern Galilee 
(V. 27); 

6. the welcome confession (vs. 28- 

7. the unwelcome teaching (vs. 31- 

8. the true disciple described (vs. 
34-9:1) ; 

n. The Material Compared. 

With Mk. 8:10-21 cf. Mt. 15:39b-16:12. Note 1) another name, ]5:39b; 2) other inquirers, 16:1; 

3) a comparison, 16:3.3; 4) explanations, 16:11,13. 
With Mk. S:37-9:lof. Jit. 16:13-28; Lk. 9:18-27. Note 1) attitude of Jesus, Lk. 9:18; 3) another 

view of Jesus, Jit. 16:14; 3) Peter's confession, Mt. 16:16; Lk. 9:20; 4) reply of Jesus, Jit. 

16:17-19; 5) rebuke of Peter, Mt. 16:22; 6) words of Jesus, Mt. 16:23.27; Lk. 9:23,25,26. 
What reason can be given for the omission in Mark of the promise to Peter recorded In Mt. 


ni. The Material Explained. 


1) V. 11. (a) Quxstion with htm; (1) i. e. 

"enter into controversy;" (3) 
what seems to be their attitude ? 

(b) Sign from heaven; (1) con- 
trasted with signs on earth; (3) 
on the ground that he claimed 
to be the Cbrist; (3) cf. Joel 3:30, 
31 for their reason; (4) cf. John 
2:18; 6:30: Mt. 13:38 for similar 
occasions; (5) why did Jesus fail 
to gratify them; because they 
were insincere, or incapable of 
understanding him ? 

(c) Tempting; (1) were they con- 
sciously tempting him ? or (3) 
was it a temptation to him all 
unknown to them ? fS) in what 
respect was it a temptation to 
him? cf. Mt. 4:3-9. 

2) T. 12. No sign; cf. Mt. 12:39,40; John 3: 

19; 3:2 and explain. 

3) V. 15. Leaven, etc.; (a) i. e. the spirit 

and influence of these parties; 
(b) state in a general way what 
this was. 

4) V. 16. Reatoned; 1. e. "were convers- 

ing:" (a) apart from what Jesus 
was saying, or (b) as suggested 
by his words. 

5) V. 17. Compare the insight of Jesus 

with that of the twelve. 

B) Vs. 22-26. Note (a) this is related in Mark 
only; (b) it has special features: 
(1) done apart; (2) use of means; 
(3) gradual cure; (4) the man 
sent home; (c) seek to explain 
the meaning of these special 
features; (d) cf. Mk. 7:.32-36. 

7) v. 27. (a) Trace the course taken by 
Jesus; (b) describe the region 

and characterize its inhabitants; 
(c) reason for this journey ? 

8) V. 28. The reason why Jesusasked this 

question, whether (a) from curi- 
osity, or (b) to test the disciples, 
or (c) what other motives ? 

9) V. 30. Of him; (a) that he was the 

Christ; (b) reason for the charge 
whether (1) because of their 
crude ideas of him, or (2) for fear 
of his enemies, or (3) to avoid 
the popular enthusiasm, or (4) 
other reasons ? 

10) V. 32. Openly; i. e. definitely; cf. Mk. 

3:20; John 3:14; Mt. 13:40 for less 
plain words. 

11) V. 33. (a) Seeing his disciples ; (l)inMk. 

only; (3) significance of it here? 
(b) Satan; (1) of. Mk. 1:13; (2) 
was this appropriate to Peter, 
because of the spirit of his 
words or in what they suggested 
to Jesus? 
13) Vs. 35-38. Note the four sentences intro- 
duced by "for" as reasons for 
V. 34b. 

13) V. 34. (a) Deny himself; does this mean 

(1) to refuse to grant his own 
desires, or (3) to renounce him- 
self ? 

(b) His cross; (1) the custom al- 
luded to; (3) the principle illus- 
trated; (3) was any hint intended 
of the way in which Jesus would 

14) V. 35. Life; (a) note the two senses In 

which the word is used; (b) ap- 
ply them to vs. 3.5-37. 
1.5) T. 89. (a) Adulterous ; in what sense ? 
Cf. Hos.3:l. 

166 Tub Old Testament Student. 

(b) When he enmelh; observe (1) 16) 9:1. The KInodnm nf God cnme; de- 

the person to whom Jesus re- clde as tola) the event Indicated, 

fers; (2| what event he indicates; whether (1) the transtlKuratlon; 

(3) bonr the statement illustrates (2) pentccost; Acts 2:2-4; (3) the 

hl8 insight. destruction of Jerusalem; (b) 

the persons referred to. 


Estimates of Jesns. Mk. 8:28,29. (a) Note these views about Jesus held by 
the people, and in tlie ease of each sliow why it was applicable to him ; (b) 
observe that tliey do not regard him as the Christ, and decide between two 
explanations for this fact; (1) there had not been sufficiently clear evidence 
given them ; (2) they had once so regarded him but now cease to do so; (c) 
in favor of the first explanation, (1) the ambiguous title "Son of man ;" (2) 
the prohibitions, cf. Mk. 3:11,12, etc.; (3) his lowly life and peculiar 
methods; (4) other reasons, cf. Mt. 11:2.3; Mk. 6:14-16; (d) in favor of the 
second explanation ; (1) his miracles ; (2) his words; (3) his personality and 
■witness to himself, Mt. 11:4-6,14; (4) testimony of John Mk. 1:7; John 1: 
36; (5) of demons, Mk. 1:24; 3:11; 5:6,7; (6) of the people, Mt. 12:23; 
14:33; 9:27; 15:22; (7) his attitude (after the events of Mk. 6:34-44; John 
6:15) as explaining their change of view (cf. also John 6:52-70) ; (e) signifi- 
cance of the confession of Peter in either case ; (f ) which estimate of him 
satisfied Jesus himself V 

rV. The Material Organized. 

1. Classify the material under the following heads: 1) places; 2) important teachings; 3) impor- 
tant events; 4) miracles; 51 Jesus us nuirc than man; 6) lilerary data. 

Z. Condcime Mk. 8:10-20 into the brii fest possitile statement. 

3. Observe the following statement of the essential ideas of Mk. 8:27-9:1, and verify it by work- 
ing through the processes: 

Jesus flnds Ihnt the IhpIvo, if not otliprs. aiknowliilire him to he the Christ. He tells them 
thnt he is to sufTiT death at the hniiils of llie Jenish rulers, and that his true followers must hare 
a similar experieiiee to i;ain true Die. If niiy refuse to honor hlra as he is now, be will reject 
them when he comes in glory, as some present shall see him before they die. 

V. The Material Applied. 
The Demand for Evidence. Mk.S:ll. 1. The rightfulness and obligation of 
demanding evidence for the claims of Jesus. 2. The constant craving for 
more evidence — a characteristic of that age and of the present day. 3. 
The stronger demonstration of the truth which has, in the end, always 
resulted from the search for more evidence. 4. This constant craving, a 
symptom of spiritual disease: (;i) unbelief ; (b) unconscious hypocrisy. 5. 
The cure for this disease: (a) candid study of evidence presented; (b) 
willingness to act so far as the evidence is satisfactory. 


Besume. 1. Trace the course of Jesus through the events of the previous "study." 2. The im- 
portance of the confession made by Peter, both as a result and a preparation. 3. The 
new teaching of Jesus concerning himself and bis disciples. 4. State some reasons for 
Clirlstian self-denial. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mk. 9:2-29 and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points: 

New Testament Supplement. 


1. Jesus and three disciples upon a 
mountain (v. 2) ; 

2. is transfigured (v. 3) ; 

3. attendant scenes and experiences 
(vs. 4-8); [9-13); 

4. the following conversation {vs. 

5. the other disciples and the de- 
moniac boy {vs. 14-19) : 

6. Jesus and the father (vs. 20-24) ; 

7. the boy restored (25-27) ; 

8. the secret of power (vs. 28-29). 

II. The Material Compared. 

With Mk. 9:3-8 cf. Mt. 17:1-8; Lk. 9:28-3G. 1) Note additions concerning (a) attitude and 
appearance of Jesus; (b) his conversation (Lk. 9:311; (c) feelings and actions of disciples; 
2) observe and explain the variation in time, Lk. 9:28. 

With Mk. 9:9-13, cf. Mt. 17:9-1S. Note a characteristic addition, Mt. 17:1S (cf. Mt. 16:12). 

With Mk. 9:14-29 cf. Mt. 17:14-20; Lk. 9:37-43a. 1) Make a list of all the varying expressions 
used to describe the condition of the boy; 2) notice further additions, (a) the time Lk. 9: 
87; (b) the feeling of the multitude, Lk. 9:48; (c) a reason for failure, Jit. 17:20. 

in. The Material Explained. 


1) V. 

5) v. 

(a) Mountain; (1) the two chief sites 
assigned; (2) the argumentsforeach. 

(b) Transfigured; lit. "transformed;" 
a change (1) in his face, cf. Lk. 9:29; 
(2) in his garments. 

2) T. 8. Fuller; (a) cf. Mai. 3:2; (b) learn 

something more about this occupa- 

3) v. 6. Rahhi; (a) what language? (b) mean- 

ing of the word? 

4) V. 6. For, etc.; (a) is this an excuse for 

Peter's remark ? (b) if so, why should 
it require excuse ? 

A cloud; (a) cf. Mt. 17:5 for its char- 
acter; (b) cf. Exod. 14:19; 19:16; 1 
Kgs. 8:10,11 for its significance. 

6) V. 10. The ground of their questioning, 

whether (a) the resurrection as a 
general fact ; (b) the resurrection of 
Jesus in particular, or, (c) its close 
relation to his death. 

7) v. 11. Elijah must come; (a) cf. Mai. 4:5; fb) 

trace the relation of these words to 
what has gone before. 

8) T. 12. (a) Eestoreth; cf. Mai. 4:6. 

(b) Bow is it written 1 (1) a return to 
the subject of vs. 9,10; (2) implying 
that such prophecy was to be ful- 
filled as well as that concerning Eli- 

jah; and (3) that the Son of man 
comes in order to suffer. 
9) v. 13. (a) Is then the prophecy in Mai. 4:5,6 
entirely fulfilled, or (b) may Elijah 
himself still be expected ? 
(b) Written of him; i. e. (1) of Elijah, 
cf. 1 Kgs. 19:2; 2 Eg-s. 1 :9; (2) of the 
Christ, 1. e. the prophecy of his per- 
secutions betokens a like experience 
for his forerunner; (3) of the coming 
and not the persecution of Elijah. 

10) v. 15. Amazed; whether (a) at the glory of 

of his face, or (b) that he came so 

11) v. 17. Dumb spirit; (a) note the symptoms 

of what disease? (b) how could this 
be regarded as due to the presence 
of a demon ? 

12) V. 23. // thou canst; (1) Jesus quotes the 

man's words; ('2) how has the man 
misplaced the dilEculty ? 

13) V. 28. Did the disciples expect to have this 

ability? Cf. Mk. 6:7. 

14) T. 29. This kind; of demon; (a) recognized 

as peculiarly obstinate and mali- 
cious; (b) a special preparation re- 
quired for overcoming him; (c) was 
this necessary for Jesus also ? 


Tlie Problems of the Transflguration. (a) The character of the event whether 
mythical (cf . Exod. 34:29,30) or historical ; (b) if historical was it an objec- 
tive external event or a vision granted to the three disciples ; (c) if the 
former, explain the following objections : (1) Moses could not be present in 
the body ; (2) the humanity of Jesus would be unreal ; (3) the disciples 
would not recognize Moses and Elijah ; (4) no other dealings with departed 
spirits in Jesus' life ; (d) objections to the vision-theory : (1) the language 
nowhere suggests it ; (2) Lk. 9:32 ; (3) the event would fail to mean any- 

168 The Old Testasient Student. 

thing to Jesus ; (e) the relations of the event (1) to what precedes (Mk. 8:39 ; 
9:1); (2) to what follows (2 Pet. 1:16-18) ; (f ) the significance to Jesus and to 
the disciples, (1) of the transformation of Jesus; (2) of the coming and 
conversation of Moses and Elijah; (3) of the voice; (g) the light thrown 
(l)upon the character aud nature of Jesus (2 Pet. 1:16-18); (2) upon his 
relations to the Old Testament life ; (3) upon the future life and relations 
of believers. 

lY. The Material Organized. 

1. Gather the material and classify It under the following heads: 1) important events: 2) impor- 

tant teachings: 3) Jesus aud the O.T.; 4) miracles; 5) historical allusions: 6) literary data; 
7) chronologicul data. 

2. Note the ftilkivHiiu (unaenealUin of Mk. 9:9-l;t, and in a similar way work out vs. 2-8; 14-29, 

gatheriiiK the whole under the general topic of Contrastii in the Ilfo of Jesus. 

Obedient (o his command, the ciixciphs tell no one about that event, though they quegtion about 
hig remi)Tcctiim. Ihey auk ahout Elijah's coming and are told that Elijah has come, atid 
a» tlie Christ must suffer, so he lias suffered. 

T. The Material Applied. 

Intercession. Mk. 9:22-25. l. Consider the relation of the father's faith and 
prayer to the boy's restoration. 2. Xote similar examples in the Script- 
ures: Mk. 7:29; 5:36; 2:5; Gen. 18:23-32; 17:18-20; Exod. 32:11-14,30- 
34 ; Job 42:10. 3. From these and similar examples make a statement of 
the biblical principle of what may be called intercessory prayer or vicarious 
faith. 4. Note its limitations. Gal. 6:5. 5. Observe the highest illustra- 
tion of the principle, lleb. 7:25; 1 Cor. 15:3; 1 John 2:1 ; 1 Pet. 2:24. 6. 
Apply this principle to personal and social life; 1) the duty of interces- 
sion : 2) its reflex influence. 


BesDme. 1. Describe vividly the transfiguration of Jesus and its related events. 2. State some- 
thing of its appropriateness at this period and its significance for Jesus and for the dis- 
ciples. 3. What illustration of "vicarious faith" in the previous "study" and what 
may be said of the biblical teaching concerning it ? 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mark 9:30-50 and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

1. A secret journey (v. 30); 5. a disciple's intolerance (v. 38) ; 

2. the strange teaching again (vs. 6. Jesus' estimate of service (vs. 39- 
31,32); 41); 

3. Jesus' inquiry and its reception 7. a great offence and its issue (vs. 
(vs. 33,34); [35-37); 42-19); 

4. he sets forth true greatness (vs. 8. saving salt (v. 50). 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. With Mk. 9:30-50 of. Mt. 17:22 -ilH; 18:1-0; Lk. 9:4»li iO. 1. Note the characteristic descrip- 
tions of mental states and aclivltics in l,k. 9:4:tb,45,47.49: cf. I.k. 8:15; fi:ll: 1(1:14; 2S! 
12; 2) collect and arraiitre in an orderly narrative the events given in Mk. 9:33-35 and par- 
allels: 3) observe what is narrated in Mk. only, e. g. vs. 30,33-35,39,41,4iS-50. 

New Testament Stipplement. 


ni. The Material Explained. 

1. textual topics anb questions. 

1) V. 30. Paused tfirough; i.e. -'made jour- 

neys through" without stopping 
as formerly. 

2) T. 31. (a) For, etc.; the reason for the 

secret journeys— he has new and 
important teaching for the disci- 
ples only. 

(b) Taught; lit. "kept teaching;" 
so, "would say;" showing that 
this was his chief work. 

3) V. 37. In my name; (a) lit. "upon my 

name," i. e. upon the ground of 
all that the name means; (b) 
what name is meant (cf. v. 41) ? 

4) V. 38. Casting out lieviU; (a) cf. Mt. 12: 

27: (b) what was the attitude of 
such an one toward Jesus ? 

5) Vs. 43-47. (a) cf. Mt. 5:29; (b) is this to be 

literally obeyed? (c) draw out its 
figurative meaning as related to 
8:34-36; (d) show its relation to 
vs. 38-42. 

6) V. 48. Life; (a) note the corresponding 

phrase in v. 47; (b) to what this 
refers, (1) the future state only; 
(2) the character revealed and 
the principles taught by Jesus; 
cf. John 3:5; 17:3. 

7) V. 48. (a) Cf. Isa. 06:24; (b) its meaning 

there; (c) its teaching here. 

8) V. 50. (a) The uses of salt* in oriental 

countries and its symbolic mean- 
ing in the Scriptures; cf. Job 6: 
6; Lk. 14:35; Lev. 2:13; Num.18: 
19; 2 Kgs. 2:30,21; Mt. 5:13; (b) 
the difficulties here (1) as to what 
evenjone refers, whether "all 
men" or "sinners;" (2) the 
meaning of salted, whether "pre- 
served" or "purified;" (3) the 
reference of fire whether to the 
"testing" or the "penal" deal- 
ings of God 


Hell.t V. 43. (a) Note the marginal reading in the E. V. and study the use of 
" Gehenna " in the light of 2 Chron. 28:3 ; 33:6 ; 2 Kgs. 23:10 as related to 
the place of final punishment ; (b) the terms " life " and " kingdom of God," 
standing opposed to "hell" (vs. 43,47) as throwing light by contrast npou 
its meaning; (c) observe other words used parallel with it, as e. g. Job 11: 
8; Ps. 86:13; Lk. 16:23; Mt. 11:23, and distinguish them from " Gehenna;" 

(d) compare other passages, as e. g. Mt. 2-5:41 ; 13:50 ; 16:23,24 ; Rev. 21:8 ; 

(e) investigate the influence of Jewish conceptions of " hell " upon New 
Testament language; (f) show the bearing of all this material upon the 
place and manner of final retribution. ' 

rv. The Material Organized. 

1. Gather the material and classify it under the following heads: 1) persons; 2) important 

teachings; 3) O. T. quotations; 4) habits and customs. 

2. Note the following condensation of the material : 

g 1. v. 30. They pass through Galilee. Jesus would not have it known. 
V. 31. For he teaches them that he will he slain and will rise again. 
V. 32. They do not understand and fear to ask him. 

In secret journeys the disciples are taught abuuthis cuming death and resurrection, but 
tliey comprehend not and fear to ask. 

; 2. V. 33. In Capernaum he asks them " What are you discussing ?" 
V. 34. They are silent, for they were discussing who was greatest. 
V. 35. He teaches them that to be first is to be last. 
V. 36. He takes a little child in his arms before them all, saying: 
T. 37. " Receiving one such child in my name, you receive me and him that sent me." 

* Cf. Bible Dictionary, art. " Salt." 

t Cf. Smith's Bible Dictionary, articles on Hell, Gehenna, etc., and for the Jewish view, 
The Old Testame.nt Student, Sept., 1888, an article by Prof. George B. Stevens, D. D., The 
Esehatulogy of the Talmud. 

160 The Old Testament Student. 

He Uaehu the disetplet, unwOltng to IM him of their dlxexutlon at to who vxu areatett, 
thai to beflnt i» to be loef, "for." said he, tahing a child in hit armt, " to receive in my 
name fuch as this child is to receive me and him that sent me." 

It 2, 3. He keeps teacbino the discipi-es about his comino death ako kesurreo 
TiON. They discdss who is okkatest, and he savs that to be lowly 


! 3. V. :!8. John says, We forbade a man casting out demons In thy name, for he followed 
not us. 
V. 39. Jesus says. Forbid him not, for while so doing he will not soon speak evil of us. 
V. 40. " He that is not our enemy is our friend." 
V. 41. " Whoever shall give you a cup of water for my sake is rewarded." 

John tells of having forbidden one u-ho by himself teas casting out demons in Jems' 
name. Jesus saus. Forbid him not, for while so doing he is our friend, and the least help 
given for my take is rewarded. 

V. 42. " Whoever leads a weak believer in me to fall, would better be drowned." 
vs. 43,45. "If your hand or foot leads you to fall, cut It off rather than lose life thereby." 
V. 47. " If your eye leads you to fall, cast It out rather than lose the kingdom of God 

thereby and find hell; 
V. 48. " Where sin and anguish are unending. 
V. 49. "For everyone shall be salted with lire. 
V. 60. "Have good salt and be at peace." 

Do not lead believers in Jesut to fall, and, at any cost, keep yourself from falling ; for U 
means to lose life and gain unending anguish. Be ye therefore pure and peaceable. 

vs. 38-50. John IS TOLD not to forbid one who by himself is casting out demons ih 
Jesus' name. For he is a friend, and his work is to be rewarded. Do 
not lead others to fall <iR let yourself fall away from Jesus on any 

account, for it means to lose life and incur UNENOINO 61N AND ANOmSB. 

Be pure and peaceable. 

66 1, 2, 3. The dUriples are taught, 1 ) that JeKUH mnst ho killod and irill ri^e atsnin ; 2) that trne 
greatiiesK is to hare a child-like spirit ; 8) that to be (loin? anytliinir fur Jesus U blestted ; 
4) that to lit faith in JesDS be lost is to lose life and And hell ; a) that purity and peace are 
to be sought. 

V. The Material Applied. 

Christian Tolerance. Mk. 9:38-42. 1. Observe tlie incident related and 
note 1) a man having faitli (possibly weak and imperfect) in Jesus; 2) 
engaged in a separate and unauthorized work similar to his. 2. Consider 
the reasons given for tolerance; 1) the spirit in which his work was 
done; 2) the character of the work itself {vs. 39,41) ; 3) the relation of the 
worker to ,Jesus (v. 40) ; 4) injury resulting to him if forbidden (v. 42) ; 5) 
reflex influence of forbidding him (v. 42; cf. Mt. 18:7). 3. Compare Mt. 
12:30, and seek to frame a statement which will include both cases. 4. 
Apply the principles obtained to present religious life in their bearing 
upon 1) relations of sects and churches; 2) dealing with doubting and 
wavering disciples, etc. 

^W^^ 'I'OLD -I-TES^l^^IlQEp-:- STUDEp.-^ 

Vol. VIII. JANUARY, 18S9. No. 5. 

Points of view are often determining factors in historical inter- 
pretation. This fact should always be remembered in connection 
with the study of the Old Testament. What then are the points of 
view to be taken ? Are we to criticise and investigate the narratives 
concerning Israel simply from the point of view of their likeness to 
the traditions of other peoples ? This resemblance, indeed, cannot be 
ignored ; for to do that would be both superficial and unscientific. 
Does it not seem necessary that biblical history be analyzed and dis- 
sected in the same critical way in which all other history is treated .'' 
But there is also another point of view which must not be overlooked. 
That is the one derived from the culmination of Israel's history in 
Jesus Christ and his church ; and, above all, from the historic fact of 
the resurrection of the Christ. The Old Testament records of divine 
manifestations cannot be properly and scientifically investigated 
except from the point of view of the resurrection of the Christ. 

It is interesting to look back upon the thoughts and labors of 
those who have contributed to the elevation of biblical studies in 
the church and to the present high standard of attainment which 
is maintained with few exceptions in our country. Among such 
scholars and teachers was Prof Bela B. Edwards, whose too brief 
career, cut off in its prime, gave promise of large service to the cause 
of Old Testament study. In his inaugural address as professor of' 
Hebrew at Andover in 1838, he elaborated some reasons for the study 
of Hebrew, which may well be considered to-day. They are as follows : 

1) An argument for the study of Hebrew may be derived from the fact that 
great emiueuce in the pursuit, on the part of a few individuals, cannot be expected 
in the absence of a general cultivation of tlie language. 

2) We will be better prepared to take all proper advantage of the immense 
stores of erudition on the general subject which have been collected in Germany. 


162 The Old Testament Stitdbnt. 

3) It strengthens the faith of the student in the genuineness and divine 
authority of tlie Scriptures. 

4) It influences the imagination and the taste. 

5) It has an important bearing upon the missionary enterprise in the training 
of translators. 

6) It tlirows light on the systems of Christian theology. 

7) It counteracts the present increasing tendency in some portions of the 
church to undervalue the Old Testament and to degrade it from any couuection 
with the New. 

Exception is not infrequently taken to works on the Bible that 
lay emphasis upon the part of man in its production. The charge 
against such a representation seems to be that it designedly minim- 
izes the divine element in the Scriptures. Is this objection valid .' 
Will it not be granted that there is almost insuperable difificulty in 
drawing the exact line between the divine and the human elements 
in the Bible, just as is the case in analyzing the person of Christ.' 
It would at least seem to be fair to assume that, as far as the Bible 
can be reasonably explained as the product of man's genius, this 
explanation must be allowed. Regarding all such elements as the 
product of the human mind, the determination of the divine element 
is simplified. It is found in the residuum which cannot be attributed 
to man. We confidently affirm that there is such a residuum which 
stamps the Scripture as an authoritative rule of faith and practice. 
No doubt the part of man in producing the Bible may be and is some- 
times over-estimated. On the other hand, one may err in magnifying 
the divine element. It is a question whether certain schools of theo- 
locfical thought have not done this. If the former extreme is danger- 
ous, may not this latter error tend to hinder a clear understanding of 
Scripture and to prevent it from having its true and rightful position 
of influence in the world ? 

The study of ancient religions is not only a fascinating work. 
It is full of instruction by way of resemblance and contrast with the 
religion of Judaism. While in Israel men confidently expected 
deliverance, in the other nations they were driven by failure and de- 
spair to desire ardently the same blessing and to seek for it. What 
God revealed in a unique and positive manner to his ancient chosen 
people, was, it might almost be said, forced out of less favored races 
by the anguish of their hopelessness. Those truths which were writ- 
ten in li"ht for the one, were by the others dimly discerned in dark- 
ness through their experiences of want. In the midst of such diversity, 

Editoeial. 163 

how remarkably similar are the ultimate issues in all these early civil- 
izations. Redemption is the key-note, the far-off harmony, to which 
all respond. Preparation, in the one case through progress, but 
through relapse and decline in the other — still preparation, all the 
while, for the consummation of this redemption, is the underlying 
principle which rules the course of events. Thus all this ancient life, 
whether in Israel or in Assyria and Egypt, becomes instinct with 
divine forces and full of divine significance. . 

Books upon biblical topics occupy no insignificant place in the 
mass of literature which presents itself for examination before Chris- 
tian ministers and students. That this is so is an encouraging fact. 
But it is practically very important to inquire also as to the charac- 
teristics and methods which such books reveal. Are we improving 
upon our forefathers.' They produced a massive, stalwart biblical lit- 
erature, which demanded study and meditation. A vigorous effort 
was indispensable for the mastery of the works they furnished for their 
day. We live, on the contrary, in the era of clearness, simplicity and 
brevity. Commentaries are compact and concise. Sermons are pithy. 
The primer is the favorite form of publication. 

In relation to the Bible a gratifying progress has also been made 
in methods. Not only do exegetical works find a ready sale ; they 
are themselves more scientific and systematic. Attention is also being 
paid to the separate books of Scripture ; their contents are expounded 
and their teachings formulated. Bible characters are studied in the 
light of their times. A flood of radiance is poured upon the histories, 
prophecies and epistles from the habits and customs of the ages in 
which they were first produced. But in close relation to this move- 
ment is another tendency. Homiletical helps are very popular. So- 
called aids to preachers in their preparation for the pulpit and to 
teachers for their study of the Bible are appearing on all sides. The 
great danger in thus multiplying material which would lighten the 
difficulties and remove the hindrances in the way of the Bible-teacher 
is that it will tend to destroy individual effort. 

This is a deplorable result. Our students must be masters of their 
helps, or these will crush them. The Scriptures invite and demand 
individual study. No amount of expository literature however valu- 
able can supply the place of it. The choice between books relating 
to the Scriptures must be determined by this rule — Do they stimulate 
or do they take the place of personal study ? Have no book which 
will not help to do better and more effective work on the Bible. 

By Pkof. George B. Stevens, Ph.D., D. D., 
• Tale University, New Haven, Conn. 

It is justly felt by all reverent students of the Bible that great importance 
attaches to those references to the books of the Old Testament which are made 
by our Lord and his apostles. That they ascribed divine inspiration and author- 
ity to those books there can be no doubt. Did they make statements equally ex- 
plicit and intentional regarding their authorship ? By most persons it will be felt that 
a greater degree of importance attaches to what Christ may have said or implied on 
this point than to that which may be found in the writings of the apostles and other 
New Testament writers. For whatever the degree of their inspiration, or even 
infallibility, regarding religious truth, it is rarely claimed that they were omnis- 
cient respecting historical and literary questions. On the problem of the author- 
ship of a book — which, indeed, was not a problem in their time — they might receive 
the traditional opinion and express themselves accordingly without forfeiting 
their claim to be competent and authorized interpreters of Christian truth, even 
if , subsequent investigation should prove the assumed opinion to be en-oneous. 
Most persons would admit this possibility as being involved in the limitations of 
their knowledge regarding subjects lying outside the range of essential spiritual 

But while the Christian world has never claimed onmiscience for the apostles, 
it has made this claim for Christ, at least in regard to the matters where he men- 
tioned no limitations upon his knowledge (cf. Mk. 13:32),— matters upon which 
he has made some declaration. It becomes a question of great interest, therefore, 
to the Christian, whether Jesus has stated anything in regard to the authorship of 
Old Testament bonks ; and if he has not stated anything explicitly, whether any 
opinion is implied in his language. If he has explicitly stated that Moses wrote 
the whole Pentateuch, then the conclusions reached by many critics regarding the 
composite character of those books are in conflict with Christ's authority, and the 
alternative is : (a) Are these conclusions in error ? or (b) Was Jesus fallible in his 
knowledge in regard to this (and perhaps similar) subjects ? There are scholars 
who espouse each of these views. Is there any other view more tenable than 
either of them ? 

Much will depend upon how explicitly Clirist has spoken upon these points. 
Has he made any statement with Oit intention of maintaining that a particular 
person (as Moses or David) wrote a particular book or psalm i" or has he simply 
spoken of such compositions by the names which were universally associated with 
them in his time, it being no part of his purpose to allirm anything regarding 
their authorship? Do liis allusions hinge upon the question of authorship, and 
are they intended to bear upon it ? or are they intended to serve purposes which 
are not really affected by that question V 

Tke Bearing of New Testament Statements, Etc. 165 

Kecourse must be had to the passages. A complete induction of all the New 
Testament passages which would be in point, is impossible in a brief article. But 
for the reason stated, the words of Christ are most important. I consider two 
questions : (a) What is the bearing of Christ's words upon the question of the 
Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch ? (b) Does Christ mean to authenticate the 
Davidic authorship of Ps. 110 in Mk. 12:35-37 (parallel passages, Mt.22:41 sq.; 
Lk. 20:41 sq.)? 

The ten most important and decisive passages in the Gospels bearing upon 
the first question (the only ones, counting parallel passages as one, having any 
direct bearing) may be classified thus : 

(a) Passages in which a command is referred to Moses : (1) Mt. 8:4 (par. pass. 
Mk. 1:44 ; Lk. 5:14) " And Jesus saith unto him, See thou tell no man ; but go 
thy way, show thyself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a 
testimony unto them." The reference is to Lev. 14:4 sq., and the command there 
imposed is said to issue from Moses. (2) Mt. 19:7,8 (Mk. 10:3-5) "They say unto 
him, Why then did Moses command to give a bill of divorcement, and to put her 
away ? He saith unto them, Moses for your hardness of heart suffered you to put 
away your wives," etc. The reference is to Deut. 24:1. It is the Pharisees who 
refer to the command as Moses'; but the same idea is implied in Christ's answer : 
" Moses suffered," etc.* 

(b) One passage in which an Old Testament commandment is characterized 
as something which "Moses said": (3) Mk. 7:10, " For Moses said. Honor thy 
father and thy mother," etc. (Exod. 30:12). In the parallel passage, Mt. 15:4, the 
expression, "for Moses said," is replaced by "for God commanded, saying." 
According to Mark, Jesus speaks of one of the ten commandments as something 
which Moses said ; but taken in connection with Matthew, if the two expres- 
sions used are considered as substantially equivalent, the result would be that 
this passage refers the commandment to God as its source, and to Moses as the 
accredited human agent through whom it was proclaimed, rather than to him 
as the wTiter of the book in which it is found, or even of the passage itself con- 
sidered as a part of a book. 

(c) Passages in which Moses is said to have written something : (4) Mk. 12: 
19 (par. pass. Mt. 22:24; Lk. 20:28), "And they (the Sadducees) asked him, say- 
ing. Master, Moses wrote unto us. If a man's brother die, and leave a wife behind 
him, and have no child, that his brother should take his wife and raise up seed 
unto his brother " (Deut. 22:5). It is the Sadducees who speak of Moses as writ- 
ing this commandment. " Moses wrote unto us.'''' Are they thinking of literary 
authorship or simply of the authority with which the command referred to came 
to them, namely, that of Moses ? Does the silence, or perhaps the acquiescence 
of Christ in what they say, commit him to the position that Moses was the literary 
author of Deuteronomy, or, at least, of so much of it as the Sadducees quote? 

(d) Passages which speak of the " book of Moses." (5) Mk. 12:26 (par. pass. 
Mt. 22:31 ; Lk. 20:37) : " But as touching the dead, that they are raised ; have ye 

* Mk. 10:5 (par. to Mt. 19:8) reads: " But Jesus said to them. On account of the hardness of 
your heart, he (Moses) wrote you this commandment." The parallel expression to "he wrote " 
is "he permitted," showing that the Mosaic conces.Mon to the rude conditions of the time is what 
is referred to. We follow here the narrative of Matthew as being, probably, the more original 
(so Meyer in loco.). But if Mark is followed to the neglect of Matthew, no thought of literary 
authorship can be associated with the words. If Mark were here followed, this instance would 
fall under (c). 

166 The Old Testament Student. 

not read in the book of Moses, in the place concerning the Bush, how God spake 
unto liini, saying," etc. (Exod. 3:6). In the parallel passage we find instead of 
the expression, "book of Moses," (Mt.) "Have ye not read tliat which was 
spoken to you by God, saying," and (Luke) "Even Moses showed, in the place 
coiiceiTiing the Bush, where lie called the Lord the God of Abraham," etc. The 
result is that, according to Mark, Jesus refers to Exod. 3:6 as being in the " book 
of Moses" — a current name for the Pentateuch. The passage is spoken by God 
(Mt.) and Moses is represented as " sliowing " (Luke), that is, establishing a cer- 
tain conclusion by means of it. Does the use of the passage in any way turn 
upon the authorship of the book called the "book of Moses"? Certainly not. 
Does then the allusion to the book as Moses" commit Christ to the opinion of its 
Mosaic authorship V It cannot be maintained that it was any part of his set pur- 
pose to refer to the subject. If the passage authenticates the Mosaic authorship, 
it can only do so by a tacit assumption of it, at most. The question was not con- 
sciously before the mind of Christ or before the minds of his time. Unless some 
passage or set of passages can be produced which is equivalent to Chrisfs saying 
that Moses ■«TOte the Pentateuch, it is competent to maintain that the language 
in which he spoke of such subjects was the language of his time, and was con- 
formed to the universal opinions of his time which he had no occasion to consider, 
much less to discuss or to pronounce upon. May not Christ have referred to the 
Pentateuch by a current title, " the book " or " books of Moses," without pronoun- 
cing any literary judgment or being in any way implicated in a literary problem 
arising centuries later, as well as one might now refer to the Homeric poems 
without thereby in any way committing himself or making himself responsible 
for any literary opinion in regard to the unity of the Iliad and Odyssey, or as to 
their composition throughout, in their present form, by a man named Homer? 

We have (e) references to the " law of Moses." (6) Lk. 2:22 : " And when the 
days of their puriflcEition according to the law of Moses were fulfilled," etc. (Lev. 
12:2). (7) Lk. 24:44 : " All things must be fulfilled which are written in the law 
of Moses, and the prophets," etc. (8) John 1:17,45: "The law was given by 
Moses," etc. " Philip findeth Nathanael andsaith unto him, We have found him 
of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets did write," etc. (9) John 7:19,22,23 : 
"Did not Moses give you the law?" etc. " Moses hath given you circumcision," 
etc. " That the law of Moses may not be broken," etc. (10) John 8:5 : " Now in 
the law Moses commanded us," etc. (Lev. 20:10). 

In this set of passages we have undoubted references to the Pentateuch as the 
"law of Moses." Not only is a certain ritual requirement (Lev. 12:2) spoken of 
as a part of the " law of Moses," but the prophetic element, which is evidently 
thought of as pervading in the Pentateuch, is said to find its fulfillment in Christ. 
It is not to be doubted that Christ thinks and speaks of the whole Pentateuch 
under the term " the law of Moses." The passages of John are in harmony with 
this supposition : "The law came by Moses" (1:17); " Moses gave you the law" 

Are these allusions to the Pentateuch as the "book" or the "law of 
Moses" fairly equivalent to the statement that Moses was its literary author in 
its present form V JIany will declare that they are and that this settles the ques- 
tion. Others will take the same view, and since they believe that critical research 
does noc confirm the statement, will impute error or ignorance to Christ. It is to 

The Bearing of New Testament Statements, Etc. 167 

be noted that these opinions coincide in one premise, but, differing in the other 
they reach opposite conclusions. The arguments may be thus represented (usmg 
he terms "orthodox view" and " rationahstic view" to designate them for 
it of better names) :-Orthodox view : Christ said tijat Moses ^-o te he Penta- 
teuch; whatever Christ said must be true; therefore Moses did wrte the Peta 
teuch Rationalistic view: Clmst said that Moses ^'^'^f' the Pentateuch^ it is 
found that Moses did not write it; therefore Christ did not know, and was m 

^"°U is to be noticed also that critics of both the types named deal with the pas- 
sages in the same way. They mamtain or assume that the words of Christ refer 
to literary authorship, or at least apply to it, when that question arises Th 
the assumption of both schools. Is it a fair and warrantable assumption ? If it 
S then the mind which hesitates to hold that Christ is committed to «-h a <iue " 
tion of historical investigation and critical research ,s at liberty to sift the pas- 
sages and demand that, on the assumption that it is fan- to app y Christ's words 
to literary authorship at all, he be made responsible for absolutely notMng wMch 
he himself did not say. With this view let us classify again our ten passages on a 

""^^TZo cases (Mt. 19:7,8; John 8:5) it is the Pharisees who speak, referring 
two commands to Moses, to one of which Jesus alludes as a perm^ss^on of Moses. 
It will hardly be contended that these statements apply to literary authorship, 
and whatever their reference, there is no explicit assertion of Christ. 

In one case (Mk. 12:19) it is the Sadducees who speak, refenrmg to Moses as 
writing a certam Old Testament passage (Deut. 25:5). Even if this statement of 
the Sadducees were authoritative, it is not equivalent to the affirmation that 
Moses wrote the whole present Book of Deuteronomy, much less the whole Pen- 

^""^^'in'one case Luke (2:22) speaks of a passage (Lev. 12:2) as a part of the '_' law 
of Moses;" in one (John 1:17) John the Baptist states that the law ^<^sS^ven 
ly Moses and in one (John 1:45) Philip speaks of Moses in the law writmg o 
' Christ, ihe last is the only one in which anything is said about Moses wntv>g 
anything, and this is said with distinct reference to his v^vitmg prophettcally m the 
law about Christ. Do PhiUp's words fairly apply to the authorship of our present 
Old Testament law books ? The reader must judge. But six of our ten passages 
have been passed in review and yet we have no affirmation from Christ himsdj 

In /our cases the Gospels introduce Christ as speaking m reference to the 
matter. In two of these (Mt. 8:4; Mk. 7:10) he refers two commands (Lev. 14:3 
sq • Exod. 20:12) du-ectly to Moses. Moses gave these commands. They emanate 
fi^m that lawgiver. Is more than this contained in them? Are they Jairly 
equivalent to the statement that Moses wrote the books in their present form m 
which those commands are found ? In one case (Mk. 12:26) Jesus speaks of a pas- 
sage (Exod. 3:6) as being found in the "book of Moses," and in another (Lk. 
24T44 says that all the prophecies written in the "law of Moses concermng 
Himself must be f QlQlled. That the Pentateuch was universally called by these 
names is certain. Does Christ in using these universal designations mean to 
affirm anything touchmg authorship? Can his words be fairly thus applied? 
They eo^plMtt, affirm nothing more than that Moses is the (human) soiu'ce of 
these specific' commands referred to. If they necessarily im^ly wrUing,ihey do 
not imply it to the extent of the whole Pentateuch in its present form. The per- 

168 The Old Testament Student. 

son who holds that it has been ascertained by study that only the f uDdamental 
legislation of the Pentateuch emanates from Moses and that our completed 
" books of Moses " are not the direct product of his hand, may safely challenge 
his opponents to bring any word of Christ which conflicts with his opinion. 
Christ refers specific commands to Moses ; he speaks of the Pentateuch under the 
popular designations ; but there in not a pasimge (unless an exception be made in 
favor of Mk. 10:5; see note on page 165) in which Oirist explicitly states that Moses 
wrote a single verse of the Pentateuch. 

To many there will seem to be something harsh and perhaps forced in this 
method of handling the passages, confining them to what they ea;p?i«(7j/sa)/ and not 
letting them make their own natural impression. The method is no favorite with 
us. But if one school of interpreters insists upon applying these passages to liter- 
ary authorship and making them a make-weight in the discussion of the literary 
problems connected with the Pentateuch, it is fair for another school, as against 
these, to insist that the passages shall be used for what they say only. To say 
that Christ's language naturally implies a certain opinion is too easy a mode of 
disputation. That position may always be challenged. Does it necessarily imply 
any particular opinion on Christ's part or any committing of himself to it? 
Those who use the supposed implications of his allusions in this peremplorj' way 
and as an authority precluding discussion may properly be reminded how much 
of their ground is of the nature of supposition and inference, and how little of it 
(if any) is found in the explicit words of our Lord. 

The two views which we have characterized (with no fondness for either 
term) as rationalistic aTid orthodox, assume, more or less distinctly, that it is fair 
to apply the words of Christ to the question of Pentateuchal analysis and author- 
ship. The latter view lays much emphasis upon this ; the former generally 
assumes at least so much as that Christ shared the belief of his time on the sub- 
ject. Does not our review of the passages rather lead to the conclusion, on the 
one hand, that he did not intend to affirm and has not actually affirmed any opin- 
ion on the question, and on the other, that the state of his mind on the subject 
is at most a matter of speculation and not of testimony V The practical resiUt in 
the orthodox view is that it decides a literary problem by the alleged authority of 
Christ, or in other words, that, for all investigators of the subject, it insists upon 
pivoting the authority and trustworthiness of Jesus as a teacher upon the decision 
of a critical and historical problem. This imperils faith in Christ far more than 
the rationalistic view, because it is possible to hold (as many do) that literary (and 
kindred) s.ubjects lay outside the sphere of Christ's knowledge in his incarnation 
(as did the day of his coming), but that the former limitation no more disproves 
his authority as a divinely sent teacher than the hitter. 

"We prefer to hold that we are neither compelled to affirm the rationalistic 
assumption on the one hand, nor to accept the orthodox dilemma on the other. 
Christ did not design to teach and did not teach anything upon the authorship of 
Old Testament books. His mission was immeasurably grauder than such a sup- 
position implies. His concern was with the truths of eternal life in God"s king- 
dom and not with literary questions. This is the more certainly true since those 
questions have been developed from modern investigation and did not exist at all 
in his time. 

Our next inquiry concerns the bearing of Mk. 12:35-37 (par. pass. Mt. 22:41- 
46 ; Luke 20:41-44) upon the Davidic authorship of the 110th Psalm there quoted. 

The Beaktng of New Testament Statements, Etc. 169 

The passage reads: "And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the 
temple. How say the scribes that Christ is the son of David ? For David himself 
said by the Holy Ghost, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till 
I make thine enemies thy footstool. David therefore himself calleth him Lord, 
and whence is he then his son ?" (Ps. 110:1). 

Here Jesus seems plainly to base an argument upon the view that David 
wrote the 110th Psalm. Modem criticism finds from a study of the Psalm itself 
great difficulties in the supposition that David wrote it. These it does not belong 
to us to discuss. The only question is, whether if we conclude that David did not 
write that Psalm we should be denying or depreciating the authority of Jesus. 

It is evident, in the first place, that the three verses in which we have the 
narrative, give us but a fragment of the argument of which the statements 
recorded form a part. The expression, "Jesus answered " (35), implies an argu- 
ment with the Jews in which they had tried to "catch him in talk" (Mk. 12:13). 
The earlier portion of the chapter narrates three such attempts. May not Jesus 
here have retorted with a question which none of them could answer ? All the 
Jews assumed that David wrote the 110th Psalm, and that in verse 1 he spoke of 
the Messiah. Now how could the Messiah be David's son (as they said) and his 
Lord at the same time (as the Psalm calls him)? If he wished thus to put them 
in a dilemma, this question would certainly do so. But many shrink from sup- 
posing that Jesus used a method of argument so nearly like that which the scribes 
and Pharisees employed against him. 

Let us then suppose that Jesus spoke after the universal manner of his time 
of the Psalm as written by David. The important question is : Does the point of 
what he here says depend upon the direct Davidic authorship of the Psalm ? If it does, 
then we must either suppose, as many do (though granting the great difficulty of 
the supposition) that David wrote the Psalm, since Jesus vii'tually said so, or that 
Jesus here based his argument upon an incorrect opmion. But if the argument 
does not depend upon the Davidic authorship, then we are at liberty to say that 
Jesus simply referred to the Psalm, as it was universally the custom to do, as 
David's, but that the essential point which he wishes to make, and therefore the 
nerve of his argument, does not depend upon whether David actually wrote it or 
not. What is that point ? It is this. How can the scribes maintain that the 
Messiah is merely a descendant of David, when, in the 110th Psalm, he is spoken 
of by the regal title of Lord, and is accorded by Jehovah a seat at his own right 
hand ? The purpose of Jesus is to set over against the low Jewish conception of 
the Messiah as a great human monarch in David's line, his own idea of his true, 
divine mission and character. If the 110th Psalm is Messianic, he establishes his 
point, whether it is Davidic in authorship or not. The true Messiah is no mere 
son of David — a second Solomon — who shall reign in earthly splendor ; his is a 
mightier sceptre, a grander position, a more enduring throne. The edict of Jeho- 
vah has placed him on that throne. The whole argument turns on two concep- 
tions of the Messiah, that of the scribes and that of Jesus, which alone rises to 
the full dignity of such Messianic passages as Ps. 110:1. 

Jesus spoke of the passage as what David said. Whether he consciously 
turned his mind to the question of authorship we need not speculate. It was no 
part of his work to discuss such questions. In reference to all such universal 
beliefs, where no essential moral principles were involved, he spoke the language 

1"0 The Old Testament Student. 

of his time as truly as he spoke the dialects of the lands where he labored and 
taught. How immeasurably inferior to what it is would his teaching have been 
if he had mingled in liis instruction concerning the kingdom of God some lessons 
on the aulhorship and composition of some of the Jewish sacred books ! How 
incongruous with his character would such a course have been ! 

The Fsaltn in question is variously interpreted. Some suppose it to refer 
directly to the Messiah ; others, indirectly, the primary reference being to the 
king of Israel as a type of the Messiah. Christian scholars are well agreed that 
it is Messianic, and this position is all that need concern us here. David may 
have written it ; but if he did not, the force of Christ's thought is not broken. In 
this case the reference to David belongs to the drapery of his argument. It is an 
example, of which there are multitudes, of his using the thought-forms of his 
time. In those forms he has embodied the essential, imperishable truths of his 
kingdom. That which he has here embodied is the truth of his superhuman 
character and divine, spiritual kingship. This truth gleamed from the pages of 
the Old Testament, and the Jews miglit have seen it, had not their eyes been 
blind to the import and bearuig of their own prophetic types and symbols. It 
was a glimpse into the deeper import of prophecy which Jesus would give the 
captious scribes, when, teaching in the temple, he propounded the question: 
How the Messiah could be merely a descendant of David, when, in ancient proph- 
ecy, he is called David's Lord, and is assigned a seat at Jehovah's right hand.* 

By Rev. A. S. Carkiek, 

HcCormick Theol. Seminary, Chicago, lU. 

It is not intended to describe the culture of Babylonia and Assyria in all 
its peculiarities, still less to follow its development step by step. The time for 
that has not come, and the investigation of our very imperfect sources has not 
progressed far enough. But the subject is too important to be passed in complete 
silence. The people of the Euphrates and Tigris won for themselves, by conquest, 
a pre-eminent position in the world's history. But they were, besides, the custo- 

* Since tbe discussion of this passage has been necessarily limited in scope, I will add a few 
sentences from two eminent scholars, illustrating and confirming the view taken: 

"Christ quoted the Psalm In order to unfold the higher idea of the Messiah as tbe Son of 
God, and to oppose, )ioJ the idea that lie was to be Son of David, but a oue-sided adherence 

to this, at the expense of the other and higher one He used Ps. 110 to convince them that 

the two elements were blended together in the Messianic idea In this regard it is a matter 

of no moment whether David uttered the Psalm or not."— Neander, Life tif Chritt, pp. 40:i,3 
(Bohn ed.). 

"Looked at closely, the appeal (to this Psalm) is merely tbe form in which .lesus brought 
home to the scribes the incomparablencss of tbe true Messiah, well attested in the Old Testa- 
ment." "The fulfillment of this Psalm in Its highest siguiflcance was claimed by Jesus as 
something raising him above David. And certainly, as those expressions wei'O Inspired by the 
Spirit of (Sod, they first found their fulflllment in David's perfect Son."— Orclli, Uld TentiDnent 
Priiphrcy, 154, l.")7. 

t This article is tbe first of a series presenting a condensation of tbe last chapter of Titlt'a 
Babyloniach-Ateyrtfche QeschichU, Qotba, 1888. 

TiELE ON Babylonian- Assyrian Culture. 171 

dians of a civilization which gave the staudaid to Western Asia, nay, influenced 
Greece itself ; and to this culture, no less than to their martial prowess, they owe 
their commanding position. 

The origin of Babylonian culture loses itself, like that of Egypt and China, 
in the mists of antiquity. The oldest monuments show a high degree of artistic 
ability, and the oldest cuneiform inscriptions are far removed from what must 
have been the original picture-writing. Such progi-ess points to a long anteced- 
ent development. Whence then is the origin of this culture to be sought V That 
theory finds most favor which refers it to a non-Semitic people who brought it 
with them from the shores of the Persian Gulf and disseminated it among the 
Semitic inhabitants of Babylonia. 

But here we confront another question. Did such a non-Semitic people 
exist ? Hak^vy and others answer in the negative, and others ascribe to the 
Semitic people themselves the sources of their own culture. But we have decided 
reason to believe that a non-Semitic language, which we may term old Chaldean, 
was spoken and ^^Titteu in Babylonia down to the latest period of the empire. 

But it is quite another question whether this old Chaldean people created 
this culture which the Semitic Babylonians took and developed. It is not impos- 
sible that we must go back of them for its origin. It is not the place here, how- 
ever, to discuss what is, at the most, a mere conjecture, though I caimot entirely 
discard tlie idea that culture and cuneiform writing came to the old Chaldeans 
and through them to the Semites from a people who spoke a widely different 

It is also merely conjecture that this culture had its origin on the shores of 
the Persian Gulf, but it is conjecture with a high degree of probability. In 
legends transmitted by Berossos we are told of the divine Fishman, Cannes, who 
every morning rose from the Erythreau Sea to teach the barbarous Chaldeans 
sciences and arts and orderly social life, and at evening plunged again beneath the 
waves. It can hardly be doubted that in this divinity we are to recognise Ea, the 
god of the light and fire-germs in the waters, who figures so frequently on Baby- 
lonian and Assyrian monuments. The oldest seat of Ea's worship is Eridu, close 
by the sea. His son Maruduk and his associate Nabil, received special honor on 
the islands and coasts of the Persian Gulf. The tradition that seems to lie im- 
bedded in this legend is, that it was the worshipers of Ea, seamen and coast 
dwellers who introduced their culture into Chaldea. 

In agreement with this are the antiquity and sacredness of the laws of Ea, 
and the incantations of Eridu, and the fact that the oldest traditions, like the 
Gizdhubar-Epos, are localized near the sea-coast. There also were the centers of 
mighty states, there are found the oldest monuments of Chaldean culture. The 
reign of the first Semitic king of Babel, Sargon I., if we follow the reckoning of 
Nabiina'id, must be put earlier than the oldest known kings of Ur. But his 
inscriptions show that even he used a mode of writing not native to his speech. 
The leading divinities to which Babel and Borsippa were dedicated, are the same 
which, in the south, belonged to the circle of Ea. Perhaps the ruling class at 
Babel, which brought there the higher civilization, had its origin also in the 

Wherever its origin is to be sought, there can be no doubt of the high 
antiquity of the Babylonian and the derived Assyrian culture, and though it can- 
not be proved that it was the mother of all culture, this is not impossible. 

172 The Old Testajient Student. 

The Babylonians did not leave the culture they inherited just where they found 
it. They assimilated and enlarged it. Tliey puriDed it and gave it a higher aim. 
The Semites never excelled their predecessors in artistic perception, perhaps not 
as seamen or merchants. But they infused a seriousness and depth into tlie relig- 
ious life, strengthened the monarchical idea, enriched the literature, and founded 
a state on such principles that it long resisted the mightiest shocks, and ruled for 
centuries the most extensive territories. Though they were borrowers, they were 
not therefore lacking in originality. Greece and Persia, nations that borrowed 
freely on all sides, disprove such a theory. The cultui-e in which the Babylon- 
ians were instructed, blossomed out under the iulluenee of their own ideas and 
became their own inalienable possession. 


Very little is known of the Babylonian and Assyrian form of government. 
"We attempt to present only what we know with certainty. The government was 
undoubtedly monai-chical; but from the Assyrian method of naming the years 
after high officials, including the king, it has been conjectured that the govern- 
ment was originally an aristocracy. This, though not impossible, cannot be 
proved. From the earliest times we find the monarch bearing a distinctive title. 
The oldest ruler of Assur called himself liJaku. or I5aku, with the addition " of 
the God Assur." This indicated a religious dignity. The king was vicegerent of 
the supreme god. Some South Babylonian princes, whose monuments are found 
at Telloh, and some princes of Eridu, bear this title, but in such connection as to 
indicate that they are not vicegerents of a god, but vassals of a great king, the 
name of a place being added. 

We can with certainty say that the oldest form of government in Assyria was 
theocratic. To these peoples, as to other Semites, the highest divinity was the 
only true king ; the earthly ruler, only his representative. He may have origi- 
nally belonged to the order of priests. These call him to rule. The sovereignty 
rests with the god, that is, with the priesthood. The kings are the heirs and suc- 
cessors of the oldest IJaku whom we know; and while they were never high 
priests in the literal sense, they were recognized as such in Assyria, and in Babel 
actually stood at the head of the priesthood. They have the right to sacrifice 
while the priest stands behind them, so that they can call themselves saugu of 
the high divinity of Bel, which can hardly be other than a priestly title. Still 
higher is the other favorite title, saknu of Bel, that is, vicegerent of the divinity. 

But while they called themselves not alone Issaku, but Sarru or Malku. it was 
only king by the grace of the god. They are deeply conscious of dependence. 
The divinity elected and called them. They were begotten by the highest god, 
borne by the mother goddess. Despotic as they may be in their rule over men, 
they are the humble, obedient children of their god. Then- palaces, like temples, 
were carefully oriented, and in clothing and ornaments, they alone imitated the 

Whether, as in Egypt, they received worship as gods, is another question. 
They are called, however, "sun of the land," "sun of the whole people." It is 
not meant that the suu-god was incarnate in them, but this is the figiu-ative 
language appropriate to describe the king. 

On the other hand, it is certain that the oldest royal names did not have a 
vertical wedge only before them, like ordinary proper names, but also the star, 


the determinative for God. Hence they were reckoned as sons of god, and 
received a reverential regard similar to the Brahmans and kings of India, who are 
frequently called Beva. 

We find in Assyria no trace of that king-worship so frequent in Egypt. The 
only thing which looks like homage to royalty, is the remarkable fact of an altar 
standing before a relief of Asurnasirpal at the entrance of a temple found by 
Layard at Kalah. The picture of the king was, however, according to Assyrian 
ideas, the symbol of the kingdom, and one could pray to this, without paying 
divine reverence to the king. 

The unified states of Babylonia and Assyria, whether Ur, or Babel, Assur, or 
Nineveh was the capital, certainly arose from the blending of several smaller 
kingdoms and could in a certain sense be called feudal. The king allowed the 
subject princes to occupy their thrones as vassals, paying tribute or furnishing 
auxiliaries in ease of war. Hence the titles, " king of kings " (sar sarrani), " ruler 
of kings" (nasik sarrani), "lord of lords " (Bel beli). These tiibutary provinces 
were part of the empire, though distinguished in the inscriptions from the states 
which "were reckoned to the land of Assur." So Israel, after the capture of 
Samaria by Sargon, was united to Assyria, and .Judah, after the abortive insur- 
rection of Zedekiah, was incorporated into the Babylonian kingdom. 

While the Babylonian and Assyrian kings were without doubt absolute 
rulers, they recognized the laws as bindmg upon themselves, and took counsel 
with the magnates of the empire, witli the learned men, and the priests, reserving 
always the right of final decision. Nahuna'id restores the temple of Samas at Sip- 
par, after taking counsel with the wise men of his kingdom. And when Esar- 
haddou wished to associate his son with him on the throne, he called together 
a parliament of the dignitaries of the realm. 

The Assyrian kings had a large court, to which belonged the so-called rubi 
and suparsaki. By the first title are denoted princes of the blood; by the second, 
the highest officials. The Turtanu or Tartan stands at the head of these. He 
was the chief field marshal. In a catalogue of Assyrian officials a distinction is 
made between Tartan of the " right hand " (imnu), and Tartan of the " left hand " 
(sumelu), that is, of the south and of the north. After the Tartan followed four 
high officials whose duties are not clear ; the Nasir-ekalli or governor of the pal- 
ace, the Eab-bi-lub, perhaps master of the eunuchs, the Tukulu, and the Salat or 
royal governor. We must class here the Rabsake, whose rank was that of lieut- 

The governors of the provinces rank next to these dignitaries, though it can- 
not be determined what led to the order of precedence. The Sargonids changed 
this order completely. 

Frequently we read that the king had the "image of his kingdom " erected 
in a territory. This was the symbol of his over-lordship. But the more distant 
a province was from the capital, the more was left to the discretion of tlie Salat. 

It is doubtful if the office of Limu was more than honorary ; it may have had 
a religious character. It was certainly old, for Tiglath-pileser I. dates from the 
Limu-year of Ina-ilija-alUk ; and Raniman-nirar I. a century earlier has a Limu- 

In Babylonia, time was reckoned by the years of the king's reign, but the 
official system seems not to have differed materially from that of Assyria. Five 

174 The Old Testament Student. 

high dignitaries were at the head. But while in Assyria a warrior had the prece- 
dence, in Babylonia it was a spiritual lord. After these five came, as in Assyria, 
the great governors of the realm. 

That the higher otBces in Babylonia were hereditary cannot be proved and is 
improbable. Many inscriptions indicate otherwise. The condition was exactly 
the same as in Egypt. 

Tlie army was the especial care of the Assyrian kings. For centuries their 
arms dominated Western Asia. From the sculptures on their palaces we learn 
how carefully their armies were organized. Tliere were three, perhaps four mil- 
itary divisions, the charioteers to whom the king and higher officers belonged, 
the cavalrj', the foot-soldiers, and a corps which may be compared to our engineer 
corps. The chariot is drawn Ijy two, sometimes three horses. The cliarioteer 
has always a driver, often two armed attendants, who flght with bows and arrows 
or with lance, also with sword and dagger. The royal chariot, like that of Egj'pt, 
is known by its peculiar plumes. The cavalry consisted of bowmen and spear- 
men, the footmen consisted of bowmen, lancers, and slingers. While the light 
infantry are armed simply with quiver, bow and sword, and clothed with a light 
loin covering, the heavy armed infantry wore a coat of chain armor, greaves and 
a helmet with, or without, crest. Sometimes a round shield was carried; some- 
times a woven shield, the height of a man, was borne before the warrior. The 
art of siege was earned to a high degree of perfection, as is witnessed by the 
reliefs. Battering rams were used, as well as implements for hurling great stones. 
Mining was resorted to, and a fortified camp often established outside the belea- 
guered city. On the walls of Sennacherib's palace is a portrayal of the siege of 
Labis in Judah ; the assault, the defence, the surrender, and its delivery to the king, 
who sits for that purpose, in full array upon his throne — all are accurately depicted. 
Within the fortified camp a religious ceremonial is seen in progress. Two priests 
with ball-shaped cups are sacrificing on an altar, before which stands a table with 
sacrificial gifts, and the objects of their reverence are apparently two standards, 
which always accompany the king in war. We may judge that the standards are 
the pledge of the divine presence in the army though the symbolism is unknown 
to us. 

Tireless wanlors, all-powerful rulers, then were the kings of Assur, while 
those of Babylonia were no less absolute monarchs. But if we may conjecture 
what cannot be proved, they were limited in their despotism by the mighty 
priesthoods of Babel, Xipur, Eridu. An unlimited autocracy does not exclude 
the presence of general laws, and to the question whether the great kings them- 
selves were bound by such laws, we must decidedly answer in the aflBrmative. 

Sargon II. speaks of the laws of Assur, violated by his predecessors, restored 
by himself. A remarkable nabylonian-text describes tlie fearful misfortunes that 
visit land and people when the king does not respect the laws. It is true tliat no 
earllily power can call him to account, but he has to fear the vengeance of Ea, 
the arbiter of destiny. If he judges after the book of Ea, the gods will exalt him. 
If injustice is done to Sippar, Nipur or Babel, the vengeance of the gods of these 
places visits him. The wliole prophetic discourse is thus summed up. " Be he 
over-shepherd, be he temple-director, or a royal official who superintends temples 
in Sippur, Nipur or Babel. . . .the great gods will be angry, they will forget tlieir 
dwellings, they will not enter into their sanctuaries.'' It is clear then that the 


Babylonian and Assyrian monarchy was no blind despotism, but that the duty 
was recognized by prince and people to rule according to justice and law. 

The customs of the people can only be presented in their leading features. But 
we find in the palaces of Assyrian princes, and in the remnants of the old Chaldean 
culture, evidences of great luxury. The walls are richly adorned, the men and 
women wear various ornaments of precious metals ; weapons, wagons, furniture, 
all articles of daily life, unite artistic simplicity with richness and splendor. Of 
comse a wide difference existed between court life and the life of the common 
people. But whatever may be conjectured concerning the earliest life of the 
people, it is certain that at Ur and Eridu, houses have been excavated, built of 
bricks, with several chambers, with traces of wall painting, which without doubt 
were private dwellings. Business transactions were not limited to those high in 
rank. There is evidence that in the great cities, like Babel, there was a well-to-do 
middle class, and luxury may not have been peculiar to the nobility. 

As in other states of antiquity, so in Assyria and Babylonia, slavery and the 
slave-trade existed. The price of a slave varied from about $12.50 to $475.00. 
A high price was paid for one who understood handicraft. In Babel the slaves 
wore small olives of burnt clay about their necks, which bore their own names, 
that of their master and the date of purchase. The temples had their slaves, 
who sometimes gave oracular utterances. 

The Babylonians are usually represented as soft and voluptuous ; the Assyr- 
ians as harsh and cruel. This statement is too sweeping. We know the treat- 
ment of Zedekiah by Nebuchadnezzar, and luxury was by no means unknown to 
the later Assyrians. There is, however, some truth in the conti-ast. The Assyr- 
ians weie more warlike and aggressive than the Babylonians, who, on the other 
hand, in the arts of peace, in the sciences, in the elements of higher civilization, 
were pre-eminent. Assyrians formed the nucleus of the Assyrian army. The 
Babylonian army consisted of Kassites, and they paid the mercenaries of Elam 
with their temple treasures. 

The Babylonian artistic sense was finer; the Assyrian, more realistic. The 
voluptuous Istar was extensively worshiped in Nineveh as well as in Babylonia. 
From whatever sources Herodotus derived his account of the sacrifice of chastity 
upon the altar of the great goddess at Babel, it is clear that Istar of Uruk (Erech), 
together with her companions, presents no ideal of purity. But the poets of Baby- 
lonia are sharp in condemning her. The repulsive features of Istar's worship 
must have been survivals of an early cultus, which was non-Semitic. Religious 
conservatism sometimes perpetuates customs which have long lost their signifi- 
cance. The difierence in moral standards seems to be rather between the old 
Chaldeans and Semites in the north and south, than between Assyrians and 
Babylonians. In the south the old Chaldaic element was prominent. 

The kings of Assyria and Babylonia had extensive harems. Perhaps queenly 
honors were granted to but one of the wives. In a well-known relief, the king is 
seen taking a festal meal, in his vine arbor, in a splendid palace garden, with 
his queen, surrounded by eunuchs; but this does not prove that he had not true 
wives and many slaves besides. 

The architectural precautions against the violation of the female apartments 
indicate that, at least, in the higher circles, polygamy was the rule. Choice wines 

176 The Old Testament Student. 

were greatly prized by the Assyrians. This love for wines probably gave the 
Prophet N'alium opportunity to reproach the Xinevites with druukeuiiess. 

They were the most cruel nation of antiquity. Without a trace of shame 
they picture their butcheries on the walls of their palaces. Maiming was the 
lightest cruelty. The sweetest revenge was to flay an enemy alive, and nail his 
skin to the city wall. Impalement was also a favorite torture, and when the king 
is merry in the garden with his spouse, the heads of his conquered enemies are 
hung up before his eyes. While the impartial historian can only express abhor- 
rence at these barbarities, it must be remembered that all Semites were cruel and 
revengeful, and their successors, the Persians, and even western nations, consid- 
ered no punishment too severe to suppress insurrection against the national god. 

[To be continued.] 


By Rev. P. A. Nokdell, D. D., 

New London, Conn. 

The human spirit stands in close and dependent relation to the divine, which 
is not only the source of life but also the source of law. In the present group of 
words we consider those which express in one form or another the idea of divine 
will, justice, wisdom, and love entering into the sphere of human relations as 
fundamental principles of conduct, controlling, directing, guiding a sinful and 
estranged humanity from the pains and penalties of sin unto a restoration of the 
union and fellowship with God wherein man realizes his true happiness and 
exalted destiny. 


Din cause, judgment. 
The verb di n in the majority of its occun-euces refers to divine judicial inter- 
positions ; such, e. g., as when Jehovah vindicated the innocence of his maligned 
servants, Gen. 3();6; Ps. 7:8(9), pronounces sentence upon his people who have his 
law but fail to keep it, Ps. 50:4, or chastises heathen nations that have oppressed 
Israel, Gen. 15:14; Ps. 110:6. The substantive, however, which in the Aramaic 
of Daniel is used exclusively to denote a sentence proceeding from the divine tribu- 
nal, is used in biblical Hebrew only once in this sense, Ps. 76:8. In every other 
instance it denotes a judicial utterance enianaliug from human authority, Job 19: 
29; Esth. 1:13, and hence, by metonomy, the civil suits or disputed legal ques- 
tions concerning which the parties interested sought to obtain favorable decisions, 
Ps. 140:12; Prov. 29:7. In its primary sense of ruling, this word points back to 
the time when judicial as well as governing functions were vested in the ruler or 
chief, as is still common in the East. 

Dath edict, late. 
This word is characteristic of the latest biblical literature. From this it passes 
into the rabbinical writings wliere it is used in the general sense of law or religion. 
From the fact that no satisfactory Hebrew or Aramaic etymology has been discov- 
ered for it, and that the word suddenly became prominent during Israel's contact 
with Persia in the exilic and post-exilic periods, it has been inferred that the word 

Old Testament Wokd-studibs. 177 

is of Persian origin, and may be traced to the passive participle of the verb d a , 
denoting that which has been given, placed, fixed, hence a decree or law estab- 
lished by royal authority. This is the prevailing signification of the word in the 
Book of Esther. In Ezra and Daniel it includes also divine decrees ; Ezra was a 
scribe of the law of the God of heaven, 7:12,21, and against Daniel no occasion 
could be found save concerning the law of his God, 6:5(6). One very remarkable 
exception to this very late use of the word occurs in the difficult passage, 
Deut. 33:2. Its presence in this early and pure Hebrew is not susceptible of 
explanation either on the traditional or the critical view of the origin of the 
book. Its presence here is possibly the result of a post-exilic corruption of the 
text, and this becomes the more probable in view of the LXX. reading, " upon his 
right hand his angels," instead of "at his right hand a fiery law unto them," 
'esh dath la mo. Nor is it readily conceivable how such a corruption could 
have crept in through the error of a copyist. 

Hoq, huqqah statute, ordinance. 

The radicals h q form the basis of several verbs, such as haqah, haqaq, 
which mean primarily to pierce, cut into, engrave, etc. The latter is used in Isa. 
22:16 to designate the act of hewing out a sepulcher in the rock, and in Isa. 30:8 
the inscribing of a divine message on a tablet where it might remain " forever 
and forever " as an imperishable testimony. In Isa. 49:16 Jehovah declares that 
he has engraved the restored Israel on the palms of his hands, that it might be 
continually before him. So Job (19:23,24) exclaims, 

" Oh that my words were now written ! 
Oh that they were inscribed in a book ! 
That with an iron pen and lead 
They were graven in the rock for ever !" 

From these and similar usages it appears that a h o q designated the words which 
were thus engraved in metal or stone, and hence a fixed appointment, an immu- 
table edict or decree proceeding from an established authority. Hoq might 
accordingly designate anything determined by measure, as "bread of my appoint- 
ment," i. e. a portion which God assigns, Prov. 30:8; Job 23:12, a task given to 
slaves, Exod. 5:14; the predetermined bounds of human life. Job 15:5; the fixed 
limits of the sea. Job 26:10 ; Prov. 8:29. A consuetudinary law is called a hoq in 
Israel, Jud. 11:39. The word is chiefly used, however, to designate either a single 
regulation, or the whole body of theocratic laws imparted to Israel as a revelation 
of Jehovah's will touching morals, politics, jurisprudence, or religion. Inasmuch 
as the validity of these ordinances rested on a recognized authority uninfluenced 
by the fluctuations of public opinion or by royal caprice, they would naturally be 
designated by a term which, like h (5q , would point to their permanence and sta- 
bility. Hence the frequent expression " it shall be a statute forever," or " a 
perpetual statute." 

H ii q q a h is from the same stem as hoq, and has the same general mean- 
ing. In two instances, 1 Kgs. 3:3; Mic. 6:16, it refers to royal decrees, but in all 
other instances it refers to statutes or ordinances conceived of as established by 
divine authority. In a few places. Lev. 18:3,30 ; 20:23 ; 2 Kgs. 17:8, it designates 
heathen customs and practices, but detestable as these were to the minds of 

178 The Old Tkstament Student. 

pious Israelites, in the estimat* of the heathen themselves they were supposed 
to rest on the sanction of their deities. The laws of nature called "the ordi- 
nances of heaven," Job 38:33; Jer. 33:2.5, or '-of the moon," Jer. 31:35, were 
regarded as direct expressions of the creative will of Jehovah. In all the remain- 
ing ninety-three occurrences of this word it refers diiectly to those early expres- 
sions of divine will which had been communicated to individuals for their personal 
guidance, as in the case of Abraham, Gen. 26:5, or to those more formal legislative 
specifications delivered to an acknowledged representative of the nation, as in 
the case of Moses and the Mosaic code. This was composed of h a q q o t h . stat- 
utes, tliat could not be changed or repealed except by the Lawgiver himself, nor 
were the people permitted to make distinctions between the several precepts. 

Mitsvah commandment. 
Both English versions are quite consistent in rendering this word by " com- 
mandment." The A. v. in only half a dozen, and the R. V. in a still less num- 
ber of instances, depart from this rendering, Neh. 10:32(33); Jer. 32:11 ; 35:18; 
Dan. 9:5. In the first of these places the word designates certain •' ordinances " 
which the returned Jews made for themselves relative to the support of the tem- 
ple service, and here the usual rendering would clearly be out of place ; in the 
second, its meaning is uncertain, denoting either the law of contracts, or the 
specifications contained in a contract ; in the third, the variation seems to be 
requiied by the laws of euphony, aud in the fourth to be entirely arbitrary. The 
corresponding word in the LXX. is (vtoA?) , and in the Vulgate praeceptum. 
Mitsvah is from tsavah, the root-meaning of which is ''to be fast;" (Piel) to 
make fast, or secure ; hence, to order, command. In a few instances mitsvah 
is applied to special royal orders, but everywhere else it designated those direct 
expressions of Jehovah's will which constituted Israel's law. He had a right to 
command, and their duty was summed up in prompt and willing obedience. 

Mishmereth charge. 
The divine law was also Israel's peculiar treasure, that which distinguished 
and lifted the nation above all other nations in point of religious privilege and 
enlightenment. So long as the people loyally observed its precepts this law was 
regarded as a pledge of greater economic prosperity and of more secure defence 
against enemies than the fabulous wealth and vast armies of neighboring empires. 
It was tlie priceless national jewel to be kept and guarded with scrupulous care, 
not as a thing that Israel had discovered or devised, but as that which Jehovah, 
their covenant God, had most solemnly entrusted to their guardianship. From 
this point of view the law was called mishmereth. Lev. 8:35; 18:30; Num. 
9:19,23 ; Deut. 11:1 ; Mai. 3:14, etc.; it was a charge, i. e. a trust accompanied by 
specific directions respecting the manner in which it was to be kept ami used. 
More frequently, however, the word referred to the discharge of official duties 
connected with the care of the sanctuary iind with its ritual. " The Levites shall 
keep the mishmereth of the tabernacle," Num. 1:63; to each of the three 
leading Levitical families was given the luTshmereth, charge, of some desig- 
nated part of this whole work, Num.3:25,31,36. At the dedication of the first 
temple the priests were arranged in ranks according to their several mish- 
m 'roth, -2 Chron. 7:16. 

Old Testament Word-studies. 179 

Mishpat judgment. 

Like din, mishpat also denotes a judicial sentence. It is derived from 
shaphat, to erect, set upright, and this primary meaning transferred to the 
administration of justice gives the signification of judging. Mishpat differs 
from din in that it implies a reference to an objective standard of right and 
equity. The latter is simply a decision handed down by a judge who has it in his 
power to pervert justice should self-interest or pleasure dictate such a course. A 
din, accordingly, may, or may not, be just and equitable. This being the ease, 
we find it used only in a single instance, Ps. 76:8(9), of a divine judicial utterance. 
Mishpat, on the contrary, in virtue of its ethical force, always implies a sen- 
tence framed with reference to an absolute standard, and hence a just and equit- 
able decision. Because of this moral aspect of mishpat we find, moreover, 
that it is quite frequently associated with ts'dhakah, righteousness, the latter 
being the eternal principle and divine attribute which expresses itself as mish- 
pat in relation to all forms of conduct. This makes it clear why this word 
rather than d i n was chosen by biblical writers to designate the judicial utterances 
of Jehovah, since these are universally characterized by conformity to perfect 
j ustice. These divine m i s h p a t i m , as declarations of the highest law, intimate 
also a close connection between obedience and reward, or disobedience and pen- 
alty. Jehovah is both the Judge and the Vindicator of his law, " Shall not the 
Judge of all the earth do mishpat?" Gen. 18:25 ; i. e. Shall he not pronounce 
and execute a sentence respecting which there can be no possible suspicion of 
injustice? Nor does God pervert mishpat, Deut. 16:19; Job. 8:3, as earthly 
judges do who turn it into " wormwood " and " gall," Amos 5:7 ; 6:12. 

Throughout Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy mishpat is most fre- 
quently synonymous with huqqim, statutes, and stands for the entire legisla- 
tion contained in these books. This signification is also characteristic of the 
later historical books, of the post-exUic 119th Psalm, and especially of Ezekiel 
among the prophets. In the earlier prophetic and poetic literature, on the con- 
trary, it usually denotes God's acts of punitive or reformatory judgment. In 
Judges, Samuel and 2 Kings it is generally used as a designation of religious 
customs or royal habits. 


'edhuth testimony. 
This is a significant and characteristic designation of the divine law. It is 
not merely a code determining the rights of persons and things, but a revelation 
which bears impressive witness to the holy character of God, to his unalterable 
opposition to sin, and to his displeasure against those who disregard his law. 
The law was an affirmation of universal and unchangeable principles of religion 
and morality, and as such became a standing testimony against eveiy apostacy 
from Jehovah's service, as weU as against every violation of personal rights. 
Throughout the middle books of the Pentateuch 'edhuth is the technical desig- 
nation of the Decalogue, which was laid up in the ark under the mercy-seat — " the 
symbol of God's righteous severity against sin being hidden beneath the symbol 
of his grace and mercy." The Decalogue was the basis of Jehovah's covenant 
with Israel, and as such occupied the central place m the sanctuary. Other 
things were named from their proximity to it, as, e. g., the two tables of 
the testimony, Exod. 31:18; the ark of the testimony, Exod. 30:6; the vail of 

180 The Old Testament Stxtdent. 

the testimony, Lev. 24:3 ; the tabernacle of the testimony, Exod. 38:21 ; the 
congregation before the testimony, Num. 17:4(19), etc. In the plural form, 
' e d h • V o t h , this word is used in the later historical books and in the Psalms as a 
collective designation of the whole body of laws that claimed Jehovah as their 
author. It was, therefore, interchangeable with " commandments " and " stat- 
utes." The title of Ps. 60 presents this word in a connection which, as in the 
case of most of these titles, is of exceedingly obscure interpretation. " Upon a 
Lily of the Testimony ■' suggests that the Psalm was set to a melody associated 
with these words. 

y A A 

Piqqudhim precepts. 

A poetic term found exclusively in the Psalms. It occurs twenty-one times 
in Ps. 119, and only three times in all the rest. The LXX. in seventeen instances 
renders it eivo/^, and the Vulgate praeceptum ; hence the prevailing rendering 
" precept " in the A. V. The R. V. consistently translates it so in every instance. 
From the point of view presented in this word, the law is regarded as a system of 
ethics which, having a divine author, must be infallibly " upright,"' Ps. 19:8(9), in 
its exposition of human duty, and eternally •• faithful," Ps. 111:7, assuring a reali- 
zation of the highest good to those in every age and in aU circumstances who 
make its requirements the norma nortnans of life and duty. 

Torah law. 

The influence of a theory in determining the signification of a word is strik- 
ingly shown in the case of torah. The scholarship of only a few years ago, 
resting on the traditional construction of Israelitish history, asserted quite posi-, 
tively that this word wherever it occurred in the Old Testament, referred to the 
Mosaic or Pentateuchal code. Now, on the contrary, the critics assure us that in 
the prophetical writings and in the Psalms, formerly supposed to be replete with 
references to the Sinaitic legislation, there is but one " absolutely certain refer- 
ence to the Pentateuch," viz., Mai. 4:4 (Cheyne, Isa., vol. 1:6). In all other 
instances we must read "instruction" or ''prophetic revelation." Of course if 
the Pentateuchal law. as we know it, did not come into existence until after the 
exile, the prophets who wrote before that time could not have referred to it, 
and any apparent references must be interpreted accordingly. The signification 
of this word in any given place will then be determined entirely by the interpret- 
er's critical bias. 

The word itself is derived from the Hiph. of yarah, to show, teach, and 
means primarily instruction, doctrine. This meaning was gradually extended 
into that of authoritative declaration, and this again passed into the sense of law. 
Torah , even when it came to have this last meaning, was not employed in such 
a rigidly "juristic sense" as our word law. "But in the theocratic sphere it 
always applied to a revelation of the divine will in the form of a norm and per- 
manent rule." (Orelli, O. T. Prophecy, p. 129.) 


By Pkofessor Wm. G. Ballajsttine, D. D., 

Oberlln Theol. Seminary, Oberlin, Ohio. 

It is popularly assumed that the Prophet Jeremiah was naturally of an 
extremely melancholy temperament. He is thought of as a man who carried 
gloom with him, who had a readiness for seeing the dark side of things, and who 
easily melted into tears. We hear much now-a-days of the " gospel of sunshine." 
The world is to be conquered by hope and courage. To many, Jeremiah stands 
as a conspicuous example of "how not to do it." He is contrasted with Moses 
and Samuel and Paul as timidity is contrasted with courage and as failure is con- 
trasted with success. 

But whatever of the gloom of the Book of Jeremiah we set down to the dis- 
position of the prophet we subtract from the impression of that historical crisis 
which Providence appointed him to feel and to interpret. The idea is often 
flippantly thrown out in a humorous way that a man's theology is as much to be 
attributed to his liver as to his brain. Thus the most solemn expositions of the 
guilt and doom of sin are robbed of their power to alarm, being quietly referred 
to want of exercise or want of sleep on the part of the preacher. 

The history of the Hebrew nation is a real tragedy. The Davidic kingdom 
failed. In its decline and fall every element of humiliation and bitterness was 
combined, and a lesson was given to all time. But the world can learn history 
only through literature. It was necessary that some giand, sensitive, patriotic, 
heroic soul should live through all these terrible national experiences, feel them 
as his own, take in their full moral significance, and express all the shame and 
woe of them in immortal words. 

Measuring merit, as Americans do, by success, it is hard for us justly to 
appreciate the greatness of a man who was appointed interpreter of utter national 
collapse. Jeremiah did not succeed in anything but in doing his duty. At the 
end of twenty-three years, he could look tack on a dead uniformity of failure. 
If Jeremiah is the saddest character in Hebrew history, we must remember that 
he had the saddest position of all. Moses was horrified at the sight of the golden 
calf. But he had power to destroy the idol, and his intercession for the people 
averted the threatened judgment. Jeremiah found idols everywhere; children 
were sacrificed to them ; the nation clung to them even in exile. And he was 
forbidden to intercede, since the situation was beyond t)ie help even of a Moses 
(15:1). Joshua lay on his face after the repulse at Ai, in deepest discouragement. 
But he soon saw the nation purged and victorious. Jeremiah's fellow-citizens 
were all Achans, and defeat followed defeat. Elijah, bold as he was, fled away 
disconsolate, as Jeremiah wished he could do, and sat down xmder the juniper 
tree. But he was sent to Iloreb to learn that seven thousand still remained 
faithful to Jehovah. Jeremiah is left unable to find one that seeketh truth. 
Samuel was grieved at the failure of the theocracy and at the disobedience of 

182 The Old Testament Student. 

Saul. Yet his intercession for the people was still powerful, and he had the 
privilege of auointiug David, the new hope of the nation. Jeremiah watches the 
briet inglorious career of each of the successive weaklings of the house of Josiah 
with no duty but to foretell ruin and to weep. For even a Samuel could have 
done nothing more now. Paul had great sorrow and continual pain in his heart 
for his brethren's sake; but it was his relief to go far away and do a mighty con- 
structive work among the Gentiles. Jeremiah, equally scorned and rejected, had 
still to stay and watch the throes of national death. 

Thus neither Moses nor Joshua nor Samuel nor Elijah nor Paul was ever sub- 
jected to such atrial as Jeremiah. As a sufferer he. stands next to our Lord 
liimself. Why should we attribute his distress to unusual predisposition to mel- 
ancholy V If he shrank from the stem task assigned to him. Moses and Isaiah 
had done the same. If he yielded to discouragement, Joshua had done the same. 
If he longed for a lodge in the wilderness, the bold Elijah had sought the same. 
If he cursed the day of his birth, Job, the great example of patience, had done the 
same. If he wept over Jerusalem, so did our Lord. That Jeremiah preserved 
the sweetness of his affections and the loyalty of his piety and the boldness of his 
otBcial testimony to the end, argues rather a naturally strong, ardent, high-spir- 
ited, heroic nature. 

Jeremiah was a lonely man, not from choice but by divine command. The 
consolation of wife and children was denied him. His brethren and his father's 
house dealt treacherously with him. The men of Auathoth, his native village, 
conspired against his life. He suffered arrest on a false charge of desertion, 
imprisonment, the stocks, confinement in a miry dungeon. He lived at strife 
with the king, the princes, the prophets, the priests, and all the people. 

As a patriot, Jeremiah had the unwelcome duty of discouraging patriotic 
hopes and resistance to foreign oppression. He shared in the overwhelming aud 
never forgotten national sorrow over the fall of Josiah at Megiddo. Then fol- 
lowed the captivity of Jehoahaz ; the luxury, oppression, defiant impiety and 
death of Jehoiakim, who was buried with the burial of an ass ; the weakness, 
wickedness, captivity, and childlessness of Jehoiachia ; the pusillanimity, captiv- 
ity, bereavement, and blindness of Zedekiah. When the royal house had thus 
exhausted all the possibilities of ignominy, and Gedaliah's vigor kindled a ray of 
hope, this was suddenly quenched by his atrocious murder, and all the wounds of 
the bleeding nation were opened afresh. Nothing could now restrain the infatu- 
ation of the people from a voluntary exile in Egypt. It was Jeremiah's duty to 
foretell continually invasion, famine, pestilence, drought, overthrow, captivity, 
the destruction of the city and temple. No other prophet ever had such a task — 
to go always do^Tiward but never upward, to pass from gloom into thicker bliick- 
ness, to see each national shiime merged in a deeper, to see defeat added to defeat, 
but never a victory, to .see c.ilamity fall on calamity, yet the people never wiser 
or more penitent. He was never allowed to attempt to arouse the national spirit. 

. As a prophet, to Jeremiah was not assigned the privilege of reforming, deliv- 
ering, inspiring, leading, but only llie burden of predicting, aud then witnessing, 
the doom of obstinacy. He found the whole nation in a state of perpetual back- 
sliding. Idolatry was universal. The blood of the innocent poor flowed una- 
venged. The prophets prophesied falsely, the priests profited by it, and the 
people loved to have it so. Sodom and Gomorrah alone could furnish a parallel. 

A Visit to Zinjtrli. 183 

Thus personally and as a lover of his country and as a lover of God, Jeremiah 
felt every grief that can wring the heart and never had any earthly alleviation. 
To ask why he was not cheerful and sunny and hopeful under such circumstances, 
is frivolous. His life was a long Gethsemane. He went down with his nation 
into its grave. To attribute the sadness of the Book of Jeremiah to the author's 
natural liability to the " blues," is to miss the point of the longest and sub- 
limest lesson of the hideousness and dreadful consequences of sin given to 
the world before Calvary. In its effect upon so strong and healthful and great a 
man as Jeremiah we are to measure the appalling horror of the national ruin. 

Jesus of Nazareth was a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. We are 
never told that he smiled ; but we are told three times that he wept. Tliose who 
think slightingly of Jeremiah will find it hard to appreciate the character of our 
Lord. In view of our great national sins and our national levity, in view of the 
shallow views and superficial work of many professed Christians, it seems that 
the church of America needs a new study of the thoughts and feelings of Jere- 
miah. Even in our country there may be situations where a man of God may 
have a good reason for tears, a full excuse for failure, and a divine impulse to 
terrible denunciation. 

By Robert Fkancis Hakper, Ph. D., 

Bagdad, Turkey in Asia. 

On the 19th of October, 1888, accompanied by Mi-. Perez II. Field and two 
servants, I left Aintab for Zinjirli. After a journey of seven hours— almost due 
west— over a rugged and mountainous road, we stopped at Sara-Kaya, i. e. the 
yellow cliff, for the night. The inhabitants of this small mountain-village seemed 
to be afraid of our Frank dress and repeating rifles, as we were refused cover on 
all sides. However, after an hour's parley, we finally persuaded one of the old 
men to take us into his house. After a night of ceaseless fighting with the ver- 
min peculiar to these regions, we continued our journey westward. The road, if 
such a dignified name can be given to the paths and river beds through which we 
passed, lay over the mountains, until, after seven hours riding, we reached the 
so-called Autioch plain. We crossed this plain in two hours; and, at 3 P. M., we 
were upon the mound of Zinjirli. The guard, left by the Germans, very kindly 
gave us permission to make our headquarters in one of the wooden tents, erected 
by the Germans for a warehouse. As we were fatigued, we made only a cursory 
examination of the mound before retiring. 

On the next morning, we entered into a closer examination of the trenches, 
hoping to find some objects which the Germans had not taken away. We were 
only partially successful. In one of the largest ditches, I found a large statue 
of a Hittite Uon. The figure of the lion proper rests on a base Im. 76cms. high, 
Im. 45cms. broad, and 76cms. thick. Only the head, shoulders and two fore-paws 
of the lion were carved out of this rock. The height of the lion is the same as 
the breadth of the stone, viz. Im. 45cms. The highest part of its head projects 

184 The Old Testament STirDENT. 

above the base Im. lOcms., and the paws SOcms. The statue called to mind at 
once the large lions in the British Museum. The carving, however, is verj- much 
ruder— exceedingly rude. The stone and figure are perfectly preserved. There 
is no inscription on them. The statue is now lying in a circular hole in one of 
the largest trenches, tipped up at an angle of 45°. 

We found another interesting room on the other side of the mound near the 
three wooden tents. The first thing to attract my attention here was a large 
statue, about the size of the .Shalmaneser Monolith in the British Museum, leaning 
up against one of the sides of the trench. After a closer examination, I found 
that it was of plaster paris, colored — evidently an unsuccessful attempt made by 
the Germans to take a cast of some large object. In the same chamber, I found 
some very fine tiles. They were of burnt clay, reddish color, and about 29cms. 
square. They could be modern. They were placed evenly in the form of a floor 
and they had evidently served for this purpose. Further on, resting on a base 
Im. 4cms. square, is a finely cut circular object with flat top and bottom. This 
object was probably the base of a statue. Its height is 60cms. circumference at 
top and bottom 2m. 30cms., and at centre 2m. 90cms. It is cracked lengthwise 
through the centre. Around both top and bottom are carved rope-mouldings. 
We found two other interesting chambers, which I shall not attempt to describe. 

Zinjirli lies at the base of the Amanus mountains, called by the Turks Giaour 
— east of the ridge — facing the Antioch plain. It is in one of the narrowest 
parts of the plain, midway between Antioch and Marash. The mound is com- 
paratively small and low — about a half-mile in circuit, — its elevation above the 
sun-ounding plain being 30-40 feet. The Germans, who excavated in the spring 
of 1888, have literally perforated the greater part of the mound with deep, broad 
trenches. The ground in the mound is very hard and gritty, and filled with large 
round stones. At present, these stones are being drawn away on two-wheeled 
carts by the natives to be used for building purposes. 

An hour and one quarter to the east is another large mound. It is about 
75ft. in elevation and larger than Zinjirli. From the inhabitants in the Kurdish 
summer-village at Zinjirli, I learned that the Germans intended to return in 
March, 1889, to prosecute their work at Zinjirli and to open tliis other mound. I learned that two hours to the nortli-east, lying in a boggy marsh, there are 
two large Ilittite monuments. At present they are under water. They could, how- 
ever, be gotten out very easily, and the natives would be glad to point out exactly 
where they are. 

Visitors to Zinjirli can find accommodations either on the mound itself or at 
Keller, a village 40 minutes to the south-west. On our return to Aintab, we 
remained over night at Beilan Kijj, taking from that point a much smoother and 
better road to Aintab. The distance from Aintab to Zinjirli is generally placed 
at 18 hours. We went in IB and returned in 13. An interesting article on 
" Sculptures near Zinjirli " is to be found in the Jime, 1887, number of the Amer- 
ican Journal of Archcmloyy. 

AXNTAB, TUKIvJSY, Oct. 30th, 1888. 


The Interpretation of the Book of Job.*— The commonly accepted interpreta- 
tion which makes " the mystery of God's providential government of men " the 
subject of the book is to be rejected, because 1) it lays too much emphasis upon 
what is external and mechanical ; 2) it makes what is subordinate play the lead- 
ing part. 

The Book of Job is " the Epic of the Inner Life," " an epic in which is 
recorded the spiritual history of the man of Uz, his struggles and adventures, 
unknown to sense, but real to faith." Of Satan's agency in his calamities. Job 
has no knowledge ; but of the calamities themselves, he has a very lively sense. 
They mark him as a man " smitten of God." Here, then, is Job's difficulty. He 
is righteous ; and yet God is treating him as though he were guilty. How can 
that be ? Doubt begets doubt. Can it be that the powers that work unseen are 
after all arrayed on the side of evil and against godliness? Even his friends 
do not understand his case. They withhold sympathy but not reproaches. He 
is led, however, to break with the conventional view of God and to stake "life 
and destiny on the belief that the powers that work unseen, in spite of inexorable 
appearances, are for righteousness." 

Two questions remain. The first has reference to bridging the chasm 
between his soul and God. The second centers about the enigma of death. The 
idea of a Daysman between Mm and God furnishes the solution to the first. 
Only the supposition that man shall live again enables him to solve the second. 

But what of this present world, with its perplexing facts and problems ? The 
three friends portray the awful fate of the wicked. Job retorts by calling their 
attention to the prosperity and security of the wicked. The friends have no 
answer. It remains then for him to fit himself into the sum of things, to find by 
creative faith " the road through this life, where so often wickedness gets the pay 
and righteousness the oppression." He begins with the wicked. Their life is 
not foimded on the truth of things. It will not, therefore, endure. The twenty- 
eighth chapter reveals " the true wisdom of life,"— the reality. 

After Job's retrospect (chs. 29-31), of his former life of prosperity and honor, 
the discourses of Elihu are introduced. Elihu, like the three friends, is a conven- 
tional believer. "It is the author's intention, in the persons of Elihu and Job, 
to bring these two classes, who have been the antagonists throughout the poem, 
to the test of God's immediate presence." The way they meet that ordeal will 
show who has the real determination of heart towards God. Then comes Job's 
vindication. At last, that Presence is here for whose coming he had so fervently 
longed. But the revelation ? Only this : that we are, in aU things, " to see that 
there is wisdom and power sufficient for everything, to make every creature ful- 
fill its part in one infinite purpose and wiU." And this is his vindication : " to go 
on with enlightened eyes and chastened spirit." Job's restoration to health and 
prosperity seems, to some, an artistic blemish. It would have been, had that 

* By Professor John F. Genunjr, in The Andover BevUw, Nov., 18SS. pp. 437-408. 

1S6 Thb Old TESTAiiEur Student. 

been the end which Job sought. But that for which he longed had been real- 
ized in the vision of God. His restoration was merely an incidental addition. In 
other words, " Seek ye first the kingdom of God and his righteousness ; and all 
these things shall be added unto you."' A. M. W. 

The threat merit of tula Interpretation is that It takes the book as it lies before us and 
seeks to harmonize all the facts. Tbe article Is a masterly one and deserves study. 

The Resurrection in the Peutateiich.*— Can we derive from the Pentateuch 
the same idea of resurrection that we at present liold ? Light is thrown on tlie 
meaning of the Pentateuch from two sources : 1) From discoveries in Babylonia. 
The description of the Chaldean Sheol resembles that of the Bible. The gods 
could restore the dead to life. After death those accepted by the gods would 
become like them. 2) From Egypt. As far back as 3000 B. C, the Egyptians 
looked forward to a future Ufe, where the righteous as a reward for their good 
deeds were to die no more, and where the impure were to go to a lake of fire. 
Thus we get a knowledge of the religious belief of Babylonia, whence Abraham 
came, and of Egypt, under whose suzerainty over Canaan Abraham lived for 
100 years. The Pentateuch contains the doctrine of resurrection, as is shown 1) 
by the appeal made to the Pentateuch in proof of resurrection by our Saviour 
and Paul; 2) by a study of Genesis, in relation to (1) the creation of man. Man 
is a union of a body, and a living spirit from God. Personality is not destroyed 
at death, but the spirit in the other world is to represent tlie man. Thus Abra- 
ham is to " go to his fathers in peace." (2) Adam, who first lived in communion 
with God. As a punishment for his sin, the sentence not merely of physical 
death, but of spiritual death, was passed on him, which means he was cut off from 
communion with God. (3) Cain and Abel. Abel, who was accepted of God, is 
slain by Cain, yet Cain's life is guarded by God. If, then, death ended all, was 
not Abel the loser and Cain the gainer 'i Adam, then, had this dilemma to face : 
Either death ends all, and hence there is no God of life who is faithful to his 
word ; or God lives and Abel will be rewarded in another sphere, and Cain pun- 
ished. Enoch, as a reward for his faith, was taken to God. Is it not reasonable 
to believe that faithful Abel looked for the same spiritual blessings ? Would not 
Adam reasonably have this hope for Abel from all that he knew of God y All 
these things seem to point to a hope of resurrection. Enoch, Abraham, and Moses 
had this same belief . This is further illustrated from Ezek. 37:1-14 and Rev. 

11:3-13. II. C. 

An ingenious article on the right side— an argument, however, which takes no account of 
the critical view of the Pentateuch, and th« possibility that the writer or writers wrote from the 
stand-point ol tlielr own times. 

Elijah the Tislibite a tientUe.t— Six reasons are suggested to show that Elijah 
was a Gentile. 1. The Hebrew word toshab is used to signify "foreigner," 
" stranger," or " sojourner," and the two latter terms were never applied to Jews 
by their countrymen. 2. Elijah was fed by tlie unclean ravens; even if the raven 
had been clean, yet it would have here been unclean to a Jew, since its talons were 

* By Howard Osgood, D. D., in The Baptist Quarterly Review, October, 1888. 
+By Dr. Joseph Longklng, in The ilcthodUt Review, November, 1888. 

Synopses of Impobtant Articles. 187 

polluted by contact with carrion. 3. The widow of Zarephath is to be regarded 
as a heathen. Elijah was sent to her, because 1) Elijah and his hostess were non- 
Israelites ; 2) this foreign place afforded security. 4. The brook Cherith is east of 
the Jordan, and Elijah goes home when he goes to dwell by that brook. 5. Luke 
4:25-27 establishes the fact of the Gentile origin of both the widow and Naamau, 
and strongly suggests Elijah to be of the same race. 6. In the transfiguration 
scene Elijah stands as a representative of the Gentiles. 

Bejoinder hy the Editor. — The language used implies not that he was a for- 
eigner in Israel, but a foreigner in Gilead. Toshab, though usually employed to 
indicate a stranger dwelling in the midst of Israel, yet in Ps. 39:12 and 1 Chron. 
29:15 is used of a pilgrim. 2. Because Elijah was fed by unclean ravens it does 
not follow that all they touch is unclean. Lev. 11:15,24,25,31,32 shows that the 
law applied to carcasses. 3. As to the location of Cherith, 1) natives tell us it is 
west of the Jordan ; 2) if east, it proves no more than that Gilead is east of the 
Jordan. 4. In Luke 4:25-27 the Saviour places the emphasis more upon the 
woman than upon the prophet, and does not imply that Elijah was a Gentile. 5. 
At the transfiguration the living represented the living, and the departed repre- 
sented the departed. 6. Again it is, 1) not likely that the Almighty would send a 
Gentile to the Hebrews; 2) no record of the non-Hebraic descent of Elijah is 
found; 3) in the character of EUj ah we discover nothing incompatible with his 
Hebraic nationality. F. 

The Rise and Decline of Idolatry.* — " Fetichism is the infancy of religion," is a 
theory that was started in a time of intellectual ferment and is crude, untenable. 
Idolatry, of which fetichism is the lowest type, " is not a primary but a secondary 
formation." " The human race, when itcameto have a religion, setout with apure 
monotheism," from which idolatry is a retrogression. The three stages in the 
development of idolatry are, 1 ) a beginning in nature- worship ; man must worship, 
but apart from the light of divine revelation he worships that in nature which 
reflects himself ; 2) a logical tendency from the simplicity of nature-worship to a 
diversity of personalized forms. This is historically true in Egypt, Greece and 
Rome, and suggests that as idolatry began in simplicity there was behind it an 
absolute simplicity, the one God, and a monotheistic faith, the common property 
of mankind. This view of idolatry is illustrated in the history of Israel in their 
rushing into idolatry under the impulse of their passions whence only God could 
save them. And here it is noted that not only passion but intellect left to itself 
begets idolatry. Witness the history of Buddhism, which, beginning in intellec- 
tual atheism, has ended in a multiplicity of gods. 3) The third stage is disinte- 
gration. The history of Hindoo religions is a history of perpetual division into 
sects, " a tangled jungle " of superstitions. Thus it is maintained that the scrip- 
tural doctrine of a fall from piimitive spii-itual monotheism is justified by the 
historical facts of the development of idolatry. 

A vigorous discussion worthy of attention. The presentation of the subject is confused by 
a poor arrangement of the material and a tendency to diverge from the main point. 

» By G. T. Flanders, D. D., in The Universalist Quarterly, Oct., 1888, pp. 465-478. 

188 The Old Testament Student. 

The Two Isaiabs, the real and the Imaginary.*— This hypothesis of two 
Isaialis is the creation of German rationalists, whose plausible reasoning has per- 
suaded English students, particularly Drs. Cheyne and Driver, to adopt similar 
views. Dr. Driver's " Isaiah " is the latest and most popular presentation of 
them. But there seems to be no sufficient reasons given for disbelieving the uni- 
versal and unbroken tradition of a single Isaiah. Let the methods of the new 
school be considered and tested. 1) They make much use of Assyriological 
material, which often conflicts with the biblical statements. This is more likely 
to show the inaccuracy of the AssjTian than that of the prophecy. Indeed, caution 
must be exercised in comparing the brief, condensed, general statements of Isaiah 
with the Assyrian records. The former are texts, summaries, and are lacking in 
the definite chronological character needful for adequate comparison. 2) A sim- 
ilar caution must be used in giving the work of the prophet a character largely 
political. The latter part of Isaiah is not so much concerned about Cjtus and 
the exiles in Babylon as about the great consummation of the church in the far 
future. This view links together all of Isaiah's prophecies, the early and the 
late. 3) These critics affirm that Isaiah could not take his position as the later 
prophecies represent him, in a distant future of exile, and prophesy a still more 
distant future to come. He must have lived in the exUe to have thus spoken of 
the return. But the earlier prophecies speak of an exile, and the exile in effect 
had been slowly going on from Solomon's time. Hence Isaiah could take the 
wide-spread expectation of it for granted and go on to more distant events. That 
he should liave given names of coming persons is marvelous, yet not more so than 
the element of time that appears. Prophecy is usually timeless. 4) They insist 
that the historical element in the book must settle the date of Isaiah's work. 
But the prophet rises above the historical situation. God. not history, is the 
source of the prophecy. Besides these main positions of the critics, whicli are 
largely untenable, there are other facts against them : 1) the frequent breaks in 
the book before ch. 40 ; 2) the indecisive argument from language ; 3) the differ- 
ent views held about chs. 40-66 ; 4) the uniform tradition of the Jewish church. 
The methods and principles employed by the critics are to a great extent, (1) intel- 
lectually unsound; (2) morally irreverent and confusing in their tendencies; (3) 
scientiQcally unproductive and incredible. 

This article presents an exceedingly sliong argniment for the older views of biblical science 
by using tlielr best positions in a vigorous criticism of the newer school. Few would accept 
the old views if they were presented in a complete exposition, while the very boldness and pro- 
gressivcness of the later criticism lay it open to assault. It is well to be reminded that one may 
go too fast in throwing aside what has been accepted In the past. This presentation is worth 
studying for its material, and demands study because of its want of order and clearness. One 
may note that Dr. Briggs declares in this very number of the Rcvietv cp. 663; that " no critic of 
eminence at the present day believes that Isaiah wrote chs. 40-06." 

» By Principal George C. M. Douglass, D. D., in the Prcshylerian Bevtew, Oct., 1888, pp. 603-687. 



Eschatology has beeu so generally relegated to the teachings of the New Tes- 
tament, that a student of the Old Testament, at first sight, may deem the title of 
Dr. Hovey's book somewhat misleading. But the grave questions involved in the 
doctrine touch very vitally all revelation. Such topics as "Natural Death," 
"Resurrection of the Dead," "Condition of Human Souls between Death and 
Resurrection," " The Last Judgment," " The Final State of Believers," and " The 
Final State of UnbeUevers" are topics which stir thought when reading Genesis 
as well as when reading the Apocalypse. 

In a very compact form the author has given the results of years of study, 
stimulated by the questionings of his classes. Believing that our knowledge of 
final things for definiteness is entirely dependent upon the teachings of the Bible, 
he has followed the method of Christ with " a certain lawyer : " " What is writ- 
ten in the Law? How readest thou?" (Lk. 10:26). Quietly, with mental 
reserve, and with a thorough, scholarly method, he inten-ogates nearly all the texts 
generally quoted for and against the subjects in hand, and gives us his own con- 
clusions, leaving his reader to decide for himself. The tone of candor and catho- 
licity is exceedingly charming. We have not noticed a sentence which smacks of 
the odium theologicum — a rare power and a rarer fact. 

There may be difi:erences of opinion as to the interpretation of some texts ; 
perhaps some of those selected from the Old Testament are rather inferential 
than conclusive ; but there can be no question as to the reverence with which all 
of them are considered. We commend the book, as timely and suggestive. It is 
a book to be studied as well as read, or rather to be studied when read. 


In this work the history of the religious element in man is narrated from its 
earliest known sources. The well-known learning of the author, his candor and 
liberality, his hopeful and earnest spirit, are at their best in this volume. The 
literary style, as also the an-angement of the material, is worthy of praise. Begin- 
ning with pre-historic man, the religious development of the east is traced in 
Chaldea, Egypt and Phoenicia; then follow the religious ideas of the oriental 
Aryans, the religions of India in the Vedas and Buddhism. The scene changes 
to the west, where Hellenic paganism is succeeded by the Graeco-Roman syncret- 
ism, whose decay leaves the path open for the coming of Christ in this the full- 
ness of time. The writer's view is that these endeavors of man after God 

* Biblical Eschatology. By Alvah Hovey, D. D., LL. D. Philadelphia: American Bap- 
tist Publication Society. Price, 90 cts. 

tTHE Ancient World and Christianity. By E. Be Pressense, D. D. New York: A. C. 
Armstrong and Son. 

190 The Old Testament Student. 

were divinely ordered as a preparation for Christianity. " All history is sacred." 
The Spirit of God was at work in the heathen world as well as in the Jewish 
nation, to kindle a desire for tlie Redeemer and to foster and stimulate that desire 
until lie shall be revealed. Nowhere are so many facts brought together concern- 
ing tlie ancient religions, or so broad and accurate a view taken of them in so small 
a compass, as in this volume. It would greatly stimulate all who are students of 
the Bible, whether ministers or laymen. 


The present volume of Dr. SchafE's admirable Church History possesses spe- 
cial importance for students of the Bible. The Reformation is the apocalypse and 
apotheosis of the Scriptures. It began with an opened Bible. Luther's greatest 
achievement was the German translation of the Scriptures. It is well known 
that from this period as the beginning, and from the great Reformer as the source, 
two great movements took their rise, the power of which is by no means broken 
to-day. On the one hand the Bible became an infallible book, and its very words 
the sole arbiter and authority in all doubtful questions. On the other hand, in 
Luther's free treatment of certain parts of the Scriptures may be traced the 
beginnings of modern rationalism. Two tendencies so opposite sprang from the 
same soil. In the pages of this volume will be found a clear and full statement 
of the facts concerning Luther's work upon the Bible and a critical estimate of 
his version. The dispassionate, industrious and devout spirit that characterizes 
all of Dr. SchafE's contributions to church history is manifest in this notable book. 


The literature which has grown out of Palestine exploration is very copious. 
Dr. Geikie recognizes the fact in the preface to the work before us. But his aim 
is in a popular way to employ the latest results of investigation in this field, and 
also by personal observation gather " illustrations of the several wTitings "' from 
natural objects and local usages. "Nothing is more instructive" (so reads the 
preface) " or can be more charming, when reading scripture, than the illumination 
of its texts from such sources, throwing light upon its constantly recurring Orien- 
tal imagery and local allusions, and revealing the exact meaning of words and 
phrases which otherwise would not be adequately understood." From this it will 
be inferred that Dr. Geikie's itiueraiy is a sort of topographical commentary on 
the Bible. A perusal of the books confirms the impression conveyed by the pref- 
ace. The increased vividness which tlie work gives to the scenes and events of 
God's Word will make it a valuable addition to the Bible-studenfs library. Nev- 
ertheless, it is open to criticism. Excessive difl'useness here and there distracts 
the attention ; and there are exegeses that might better be left to the distinctively 
critical and exegetical commentaries. 

• History or thb Christian Church. VI. The German Reformation. 1617-1530. By 
Philip Schatr, D. D. New York: Charles Scribner's Som. M.OO. 

+ The Hoi.y Land and the Bible. A book ot Scripture Illustrntions g-athered in Pales- 
tine. By Cunningham Geikie, D. D., 'Vicar of St. Martin's at Palace, Norwich. With a map of 
Palestine. 2 vols. New York : James Pott il Co. 1888. Pp. vl, 560, 544. 


The prizes for the largest number of papers 
received within the year ending: Nov. 30tb, 
above the grade of 8, have been awarded as 

First prize, $20.00 in books. Mr. J. K. MacGil- 
Uvray, now in Princeton Theological Sem- 
inary, but of Winnipeg, Manitoba, up to the 
beginning of the seminary year. 

Second prize, Sl.5.00 in books, Rev. J. F. Mor- 
gan, Coeyman's Junction, N. Y. 

Third prize, $10.00, Miss Maria Whitney, of 
New York City, 

Fourth prize, §5.00, Rev. D. H. Patterson, 
TuUy, N. Y. 

The next twenty students, in the order of 
the number of papers sent are 1, Rev. J. van 
Houte, S. Holland, 111.: 2, Rev. E. H. Barnett, 
D. D., Atlanta, Ga.: 3, A. A. Quinlan, College 
Mound. Mo. ; 4, Rev. E. T. Miller, Halifax, N. S.; 
5, Rev. Canon A. A. Von Iffland, Bergerville, 
Quebec; 6, Rev. C. G. Hudson, Anderson, Ind.; 
7, Rev. Ira D. Darling, Sheffield, Pa,; 8, Rev. 
R. M. Kirby, Potsdam, N. Y.; 9, Rev. J. W. 
Saunders, Deer Park, 111.; 10 to 13 (same no.) 
Rev. J. F. Clarkson, Osborn, Mo.; Rev. D. F. 
Davies, Paddy's Run, O.; Prof. Holmes Dy- 
singer, Carthage, 111.; Rev. C. H. Haggar' 
Townsville, Queensland, Australia; 14, Rev. 
B. W. Mebane, Dublin, Va. ; 15, Miss Cassie 
Quinlan, Stella, Neb.; 16, Rev. J. H. Messenger, 
Mechanicsville, N. Y.; 17, Rev. S. E. Jones, 
Wheeling, W. Va.; 18, Mr. D. S. Gage, Macon, 
111. : 19, Rev. J. G. Tanner, Houston, Texas; 20, 
Miss Frances Blackburn, 0.xtord, England. 

The February number of the Student will 
contain the annual report of the Principal, in 
which all members of both the Correspondence 
and Summer Schools will be interested. This 
will take the place of the Correspondence 
School page for that issue. The reports this 
month are therefore extended over the first 
half of Dec. as well as the month of Nov. 

The enrollments numberforty-six, viz.; Rev. 
John Allender, Champaign, 111.; Prof. W. B. 
Anderson, LaBeUe, Mo. ; Rev. I. L. Case, Ripley, 
Tenn.; Rev. R. J. Church, Stratford, N. Y.; 
Miss L. R. Corwin, Cleveland, O.; Rev. W. J. 
Cuthbertson, Deer River, N. Y. : Rev. E. A. 
Davidson, Boston, Mass.; Mr. J. H. Dorsey, 
Tampa, Fla.; Miss Elsie S. Dow, Wasioja, Minn.; 
Rev. A. P. Ekman, New York City; Rev. G. 
W. Folwell, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Rev. A. W. Ger- 
rie, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba ; Rev. J. H. 
Gill, Southold, N. Y.; Mrs. S. R. Gray, Cam- 
bridge, N. Y.; Rev. 1. M. Haldeman, New York 
City; Rev. E. C. B. Hallam, Dundas, Ont.; Rev. 
0. M. Hawkins, Boonville, Mo.; Mr. James 
Heard, Summit, N. J.; Mr. T. H. Hunt, Char- 
lottetown, P. E. I.; Rev. Geo. Jackson, Cole- 
raine, Ireland; Mr. P. F. Jernegan, Provi- 
dence, R. I.; Prof. Abby Leach, Poughkeepsie, 

N. Y.; Rev. Geo. Lloyd, Frankfort, Mich.; 
Rev. W. F. Miirkwick, Meriden. Conn.: Rev. 
J. T. Marvin, Hamilton, Minn.; Rev. M. Mo- 
Fadyen, Saticoy, Cal.; Mrs. W. B. McGill, Mar- 
lette, Mich.; J. M. P. Metcalf, St. Louis, Mo.: 
Rev. Alfred Osborne, Markham, Can.; Rev. J. 
T. Plunket, D. D., Detroit, Mich.; Rev. David 
Prill, Grafton, Nova Scotia ; Rev. Walter Reid, 
Weston, Ont.; Rev. A. B. Scoville, Dover Plains- 
N. Y.; Rev. R. H. Shirley, Owego, N. Y.; Rev. 

C. J. Shrimpton, Ridgeway, N. J.: Miss M. E. 
Silverthorne, Northfield, Mass.: Prof. L. A. 
Starr, Bellevue, Pa.; Rev. G. E. Stevens, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y.; Rev. Herbert Symonds, Toronto, 
Ont.; Rev. F. T. Tapscott, Port Arthur, Out.; 
Rev. F. W. Towle, Monticello, Me.; Rev. C. C. 
Townsend, Lowville, N. Y.; Rev. S. Warner, 
St. Louis, Mo.; Rev. R. R. Watkins, Franklin- 
ville, N. Y.; Rev N. O. Westergreen, Evans- 
ton, III.; Rev. W. W. W. Wilson, Easton, Md. 

The graduates since the last report are Rev. 
J. F. Clarkson, Osborn, Mo.; Rev. I. D. Darhng, 
Sheffield, Pa.; Rev. D. F. Davies, Paddy's Run, 
O.; Rev. C. T. Dunning, Petersburg, Pa.; Rev. 
J. C. Flanders, Manchester Centre, Vt.; Rev. 
G. Heam, Coeymans, N. Y.; Rev. C. G. Hud- 
son, Anderson, Ind.; Rev. R. M. Kirby, Pots- 
dam, N. Y.; Rev. E. S. Lewis, Chattanooga, 
Tenn.; Mr. J. K. MacGillivray, Princeton, N. 
J.; Rev. J. H. Messenger, Mechanicsville, N. Y.; 
Rev. W. A. Schruff, Chillicothe, O.; Miss M. 
Whitney, New York City. Of these two com- 
pleted the Elementary Course, nine, the Inter- 
mediate and two the Progressive. 

Perfect papers have been received from the 
following: Three from Mr. W. M. Junkin, 
Christiansburgh, Va.; and Mr. S. D. Lathrop, 
Richmond, Mich., two from Rev. H. S. Gekeler, 
Upper Sandusky, O.; Mr. J. A. Ingham, Hack- 
ettstown, N. J.; one from Rev. E. H. Barnett, 

D. D., Atlanta, Ga.; Mr. S. S. Conger, Summit, 
N. J.; Rev. E. A. Davidson, Boston, Mass.; 
Miss C. P. Dwight, Elmira, N. Y.; Mrs. John 
Rowland, Guadalajara, Mex.; Rev. J. W. 
Smith, Xenia, O. ; Mrs. H. M. Sydenstricker, 
Hamilton, Mo. 

Remember that the number of prizes for 
next year has been increased from four to 
nine and the total value from $50.00 to $100.00. 

This number of the Student will be sent to 
all members of the Correspondence School 
whether subscribers or not. It is hoped that 
those who ai-e not subscribers will become so. 
Every live member of the school should be in- 
terested in knowing how his own work com- 
pares with that of others, who are taking up 
the study with him, who are finishing the var- 
ious courses, who win the prizes offered. If 
not ready to subscribe just yet, send 15 cents 
for the next number containing the annual 
reports and the plans for the coming year. 



La Me^e^ itwlcs archtottHjiqxun 9ur see mouu^ 
rntnt*. By Ch. Kobault de Fleury. Con- 
tlnufespar son Ills. Vol. IV., V., VI. Paris: 
Impr. Motteroz; Ubr. des Imurlmerles r6- 
unles, Ism. 

lets nmr de Oriehtche vertaling van het Oude Tes- 
tament. Overgrxirukt uU het proornmma van 
het Erasmiaanmh m/mnasium voor 1K88-89. By 
I. Hooykaas. Kotteraam: A. Eeltjes, IHSg. 

Die Henlichheit iter liibcl ycjcnuher den Angrlf- 
fen ihrcr Krilikcr. Ein Zeimnin aw der Ge- 
meinde f. die Gemcinde. Ity O. Hasenkamp. 
Mlt e. Vorworte v. C. K. Victor. Gotha: F. 
A. Perthes. 18>S8 M.4. 

Drie weocn, I'en dncl [Renan. Hist, du peuple 
d'lerai'l; Kittel, Gesch. der Tlehriler; Baethiie]. 
Beitrilge zur semitixchen lielioionsyeschichten, 
I. By A. Kuenen In Theol. Tijdschr., 18.*», 5. 

The People 8 Bible. XV. 1 Chron. 10 to 2 Chnin. 
ai. By .Joseph Parker, D. D. New York: 
Funk & Wngnalls $1.50. 

The of all Lnnds: Seven Chapters in the 
Tnpiigrapitu of Palestine in relation to its His- 
tory. By Wiiliam Miller, LL. D. London: 
Blackle & Son S.3.6. 

The Eiltites ; or. The Story of a Forgotten Em- 
pire. By A. H. Sayce, LL. D. London: Re- 
ligious Tract Society S.J.B. 

Liber Chroniciirum, Textu,m Masoreticum. Ed. 
S. Baer M1.30. 

Schorr's Talmudische Exegesen. Untereucht v- 
M. Kohn M.6- 

Evolution of Ancient Hinduism. By A. M. 
Floyer. London: Chapman & Hall S.2.6. 

Klnleitung in das Alte Testament. 3Aufl. By 
H. L. Strack. Noerdlingen: Beck M.3.20. 

Alttestamentliclie Theologie. By H. Schultz. i 
volllg umgearb. aufl. I. Goettingen....M.15. 

Entstehung d. Vollies Israel u. SeAner natinyialen 
Organisation. By C .H. Cornlll. Hamburg. 

Plain Commentary on tlie Minor Prophets. Com- 
piled from various sources by the author of 
■'Christ our Law." London: Masters ..S.T.B. 

Some Chapters on Judaism and Vie Science of 
RcUginn. By Rabbi Louis Grossman, D. D. 
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons ?1 50. 

A Personal Narrative of the Euphrates ETpcdi- 
tion. By William Francis Alnsworth. 2 vol. 
London: Kegan Paul. 

Early Adventures in Persia, Susiana and Baby- 
lonia. By Henry Layard. 3 vol. London: 
Murray S.34. 

The History; of Jerumlem : the City of Herod and 
Satadin. By Walter Besant and E. H. Pal- 
mer. New and revised edition. London: 
Bentley S.7.6. 


Junior Right among the Canaanites. Letters In 

the Academy, Oct. 27 ; Nov. 3,10, '88. 
Baethgcn's Beitraege zur Semitischen Reliaion- 

geschicMe. Review, ibid, Nov. 10, '88. 
Staile's Gesehichte des Vulkes Israel. Return's 

Histoiredu Peuple Israel. Kitten's Gesehichte 

der Hebrmer. Reviews by Kamphausen In 

Theo. Studien u. Kritiken, 1, 89. 
Poetical Fragments in the Pentateuch. By Rev. 

W. C. Daland iu the Sabbath Recorder, Dec. 

6, '88. 

From Sinai to Shechem. By Edward L. Wilson 

in the Century, Dec, '88. 
Oriental Numbers and Battles. By William 

Wright, D. D., in Sunday School Times, Nov. 

21, '88. 

The Three Walls of .lerusalem: the Wall of Jere- 
miah as relating to Calvary. By Prof. .1. A. 
Paine. Ph. D. in The CbrisUan at Work, 
Nov. 29, '88. 

Cheyne's Psalms. Critique iu the Unitarian 

Review, Dec, '88. 
Clastic and Semitic EUiics. By A. P. Peabody, 

D. D., in the Andover Review, Dec, '88. 

KautzschundSocin's Die Genesis. Review. By 
G.F.Moore. Ibid. 

Bissell's Biblical Antifiuities. Review. By J. P. 
Taylor. Ibid. 

The Idea of God in Amos. By Prof. H. G. 

Mitchell, Ph. D., in Journal Soc Bibl. Litr. 

and E.tpg., Dec, '87. 
Psalm ex. By Prof. T. H. Rich, D. D. Ibid. 
Vr Kasdlm. By Prof. Francis Brown, D. D. 


Joshua 22:9-34 and the Israelitish Cultus. By 

Prof. E. C. Bissell, D. D. Ibid. 
Who were the Philistines! By Isaac H. Hall. 

Ph. D., in The Sunday School Times, Dec 1' 

Lexois' The Holy Places of Jerusalem. Review 

In AthenEcum, Dee. 1, '88. 
Les hypoge/s royaux de Thebes. I. By Mas- 

pero. In Revue de L'HIstoire des Religions, 

3, '88. n. Ibid, 4, '88. 
Les Traveaux de M. Jeremias, et dcM. Haupt sur 

la Religion et la Latigue des Ancicns Assyr- 

tens. By HaWvy. Ibid, 3, '88. 
Studies in Practical En^esis. II. Psalm IV. 

By Prof. T. K. Cheyne, D. D., in the Exposi- 
tor, Dec, '88. 
Advice about Commentaries. L The Pentateuch 

and Joshua. By Rev. C. H. H. Wright, D. D. 



MARK 1:14-9:50. 

Introdoctory. 1. This seems to be a conTenient point from which to review the ground covered 
in Studies III.-XVI. 3. While the material is that which has already been taken up it 
mil be studied from another point of view with the endeavor to grasp a conception of 
these chapters as a whole. S. It is believed therefore that the student will recognize 
the great importance of mastering the material and will give the necessary time and 
study to accomplish this result. 4. For reading in conaection with this subject, chapters 
IV. and V. in StalUer's Life of Christ are recommended. .5. It is desirable also that the 
student refer to the original materials collected in his note-book or elsewhere as a prep- 
aration for this review exercise. 

I. Course of the Galilean Ministry. 

1. Bead Mk. 1:14-9:50, and make a list of the events narrated. 

2. Compare JIt. 4:12-18:35; Lk. 4:14-9:50; reading rapidly but thoughtfully. 

3. Note specially Mt. chs. 5,6,7; 8:19-22; 9:27-34; 11:2-30; 12:38-45; 17:34-27; 18:21-35; lk. 4:16-30; 

5:1-11: 7:1-17,30-50; John 4:46-54; 6:22-36,59-71;— as events not recorded in Mark, and 
make a list of them. 

4. Select from these lists three or more events which are representative of the 

various stages in the course of this ministry ; e. g. Mk. 2:1-12 ; 3:22 ; 6:33- 
44 ; 8:27-30. Having selected these representative events group the others 
about them. 

5. Find suitable terms to describe the stages of the ministry, as already noted ; e. g. 

" the period of popular favor ;" " the growth of opposition ;" "the crisis of 
the ministry ;" "the season of obscurity;" and be able to give a definite 
statement about each period. 

II. Characteristics of the GalUeau Ministry. 

1. Read Mk. 1:14,17,39,45; 3:7,14; 4:2; 5:19; 6:6,7-13, and obseiTe some of the 

methods employed by Jesus in this ministry. 

2. From lists already prepared or by a study of the material in Mark recall the 

fifteen principal miracles : 

1) divide them into classes according as they are wrought in nature or upon 

2) note the liuman elements in them ; 

3) note the elements of a more than human power in them ; 

4) determine as far as possible (a) their purpose, (b) their effects. 

194 The Old Testament Student. 

III. The Teachings of the (ialileau SliuistrT. 

1. From lists already prepared or by a study of the material in Mark give the 

titles of ten discourses of Jesus delivered during this ministiy. 

2. Read the following passages and determine from them the teaching of Jesus 

upon each of the following topics : 

1) God; Mk. 1:14,15; 8:S8: 9:47; 6:41 (cf. Mt. 10:29-31; 11:25; Lk. 6:36). 

2) The Kinodom o/Ood; Mk. 1:15; 4:11,26-32; 9:1; membership in It, Mk. 1:15; 8:38: 9:37,43- 
47 (cf. Mt. 13:4H3: Lk. 7:2S|. 

3) Binuclfandhisrdatumtomen: Mk.l:38; 2:10; 2:17; 3:35; 8:31,34 (cf. Mt. 13:41; 11:27). 

4) Man, hi* moral coiulitionatid needs; Mk. 1:15; 2:9,17; 7;3&-23. 
6) The O. T. economy; Mk. 1:44 ; 2:l»-22,23-28; 7:9,10. 

6) Sin and salvation; Mk. 3:23,28,29; 4:25; 7:15; 8:35-38; 9:23,42; 2:5 (of. Mt. 13:39; 12:28-30). 

IT. The Results of the 6alileau Ministry. 

1. Recall as definitely as possible 1) the sources of the popularity of Jesus (a) in 

what he did, (b) in what he said, (c) in what was expected of him ; and 
2) the grounds of hostility to him (a) in his words, (b) in his deeds, (c) in 
his failure to meet the expectations of the people. 

2. Note the outcome of this ministry as related to 1) the religious leaders; 2) the 

mass of the people ; 3) the disciples of Jesus. 

V. Bearings of the Galilean Ministry upon Present Religious Life. 

1. Methods of extending the Kingdom of God in the world and in the individual 


2. Righteousness as connected with the formal and outward elements of religion. 

3. The relations of conservatism and progress. 


I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mk. 10:1-31 and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

1. A new ministry (v. 1) ; 5. the kingdom and the rich (vs. 23- 

2. a discussion of the law of divorce 27) ; 

(vs. 2-12) ; 6. concerning self-sacrificing disci- 

3. Jesus and the children (vs. 13-16); pies (vs. 28-31). 

4. Jesus and the rich inquirer (vs. 
17-22) ; 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. with Mk. 10:1-13 cf. Mt. I9:l-12: (a) observe imporiant iiualifying statements iJIt. 19:3,9); (b) 

the objection raised (Mt. I!):7); ic) the discussion concerninj? celibacy (Mt. 10:10-12). 

2. With Mk. 10:13-31 ct. Mt. l!l:i;J-30; Lk. lS:l.-)-:IO. 

(a) additional words and phrases. Mt. 10:13, IS. 20.21,28: Lk. 18:15,18,23; 

(b) variations in statement, Mt. 19:!;, 29; Lk. 18:29; 

(c) make a complete narrative of the incident of Mk. 10:17-23;* 

(d) the promise of Mt. 19:28 and its fitness In accordance with what view of the purpose 
of the Gospel? 

• CTirfait in the Ooapels, by J. P. Cadman, M. A. (Scribners") will be found useful here. 

New Testament Supplement. 



m. The Material Explained. 


1) V. 1. (a) Beyond Jordan; (1) the name 

of this region ? (2) his previous 

visits there? Ct. John 10:40: 3:26. 

(b) Again; this indicates (1) a re- 
turn to his early methods: (3) a 

renewal of popularity. 
3) V. 2. Tempti7ig; consider whether (a) 

to sin, or (b) to indiscreet words 

in view of (1) the popular view 

about divorce; (2) the division of 

the Pharisees on this point: (3) 

the ruler of this region (Mk. 6:14- 


3) Vs. 5-9. Follow the course of argument : 

(a) Moses' law modified by expe- 
diency; (b) the basis of the law 
(V. 6); (c) the conclusion that 
follows (vs. 7,8); (d) the rule laid 
down (V. 9.) 

4) Ts, 13,16. Note Jlk.'s vivid details peculiar 

to him. Cf. vs. 21-23. 

5) Vs. 17,18. Consider (a) what his estimate of 

Jesus was; (b) the spirit of his 
question; (c) the spirit of Jesus' 
question either (1) humility or (2) 
sharp challenge; (d) whether Je- 
sus here claims equality with 

6) V. 21. One thiTig; but notice three 

things commanded. 

7) T. 22. Sorrowful; (a) cf. Lk. 16:14; (b) in 

view of vs. 17, 20, 21, decide as to 
the man's character; (c) note the 
conjecture that identifies him 
with Lazarus.* 


1) The Perean Ministi-y. (a) Kead rapidly Lk. 9:51-18:14; John 7:2-10:42, and. 

make up from each a list of events ; (b) observe how these events occur 
during the period alluded to in Mk. 10:1, usually called the ministry in 
Perea; (c) from the references to the feasts in John 7:2; 10:22; 11:55, 
decide in general about the length of this ministry ; (d) note the literary 
problem — why these events are omitted in Matthew and Mark (cf . " study " 
III. iii. 2. 1)). 

2) Marriage and Divorce, (a) Study the Hebrew idea of the relation of the sexes; (1) the divine 

ordinance at creation (Gen. 2:18,23,'24); (2) the Mosaic conception of marriage: (Deut. 7:3; 
24:1): (3) the position of woman among the Hebrews (Gen. 18:6; 1 Sam. 1:5,8,28; Ruth 1:8- 
13; 2:8,9; Ps. 45; Prov. 13:4; 31:10-31); (b) compare this as far as possible with the ideas 
and practices of other ancient peoples; (c) the Christian principles of marriage; (1) the 
teaching of Jesus in this passage; (3) the ideas of Paul (1 Cor. 7; Eph. 5:28-33; 1 Tim. 2: 
11-14; 5:3); (3)other views (1 Pet. 3:1-7; Ja8.1:37; 2Johnl; Rev.21:9). 

IT. The Material Organized. 

1. Gather the material and classify it under the following heads: 1) places; 2) 
habits and customs ; 3) O. T. quotations ; 4) important teachings ; 5) Jesus 
and the O. T. ; 6) important events ; 7) historical allusions. 

* Cf. Plumptre, Handy Commentary on 31ark. 

8) T. 23. (a) Hardly ; i.e. " with great diffi- 


(b) Enter into, etc.; does this re- 
fer to (1) enjoying a future state, 
or (2) acquiring a present charac- 

9) V. 26. Then who, etc.; (a) what was the 

common view? (b) How was it 
based on O. T. teaching? Cf. 
Deut. 28:1,U, etc. 

10) Vs. 28-31. Observe (a) the spirit of Peter's 

reply: (b) the true motive for the 
sacrifice; (c) the qualifying addi- 
tion (V. .30). 

11) V. 20. Houses and brethren, etc.; (a) Can 

this be taken literally; (b) if not, 
what is its figurative meaning, 
whether (1) equivalent posses- 
sions in the ChristiaQCommunity 
(1 Cor. 4:15; Acts 4:34 ; Rom. ]6: 
13) : or (2) spiritual compensations 
to the individual (1 Cor. 3:23; 3 
Cor. 6:10? 

12) V. 30. (a) World to come; whether (1) 

the epoch of the Christ ; or (2) the 
future life ? 

(b) Eternal life; (1) in view of 
John 3:36; 5:24, etc., is this en- 
joyed before or after death? Cf. 
V. 23; Mt. 19:17; (3) its bearing 
upon the meaning of " world to 


The Old Testament Student. 

2. Condense the material Mk. 10:1-31, according to the methods already indicated, 
into tlie briefest possible statement under the general topic of Some Laws 
of the Kingdom. 

Y. The Material Applied. 

1. Self-sackifice. Mk. 10:21-27. (a) Note the advice of Jesus to the inquirer 

concerning his property, (b) The doctrine of Jesus concerning wealth- 
consider thouglitfully tlie following points : (1) poverty is indispensable to 
the ideal Christian life ; (2) true Christianity consists in neither poverty nor 
in riches, but in entire spiritual self-sacrifice in behalf of Jesus Christ; (3) 
the dilticulties in the way of tliis self-sacriflce ; (4) the greater hindrances in 
the case of the rich ; (5) the teaching of Mk. 10:27 ; (6) the grand opportu- 
nities of consecrated wealth to-day. 

2. Tue Rewards of Self-sackifice. Mk. 10:28-31. Consider in regard to 

these rewards : (a) their character, whether literal or figurative ; (b) the 
two-fold sphere in which they are given ; (c) whether the promise of them 
has beeu realized and may be expected to-day ; (d) the danger in the prom- 
ise of reward and how it may be avoided ; (e) results of self-sacriOee from 
a wrong motive (v. 31 ; cf. Mt. 20:1-16); (f) how these promises may be 
made useful in the Christian life. 


Be6uiiic. 1. The scene and characteristics of the ministry in Perea. 2. The Kingdom of God In 
its relations 1) to children; 2) to the rich; 3) to the self-sacriflcing. 3. Jesus' view of 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mark 10:32-52, and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

On the way to Jerusalem {v. 32) ; 

the unwelcome message again (vs. 


the disciples' request (vs. 35-37) ; 

4. the reply of Jesus (vs. 38-40) ; 

6. the blind man healed (vs. 46-52). 

5. the law of pre-eminence (vs. 41- 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. With >Uirk 10:32-52, cf. Mt. 20:i;-:14; Lk. 18:31-43. 

2. Observe the additional material furnished in Mt. 20:23,34; Lk. 1$:31,34,43. 

3. Compare with the corresponding passage in Mark, note and explain the differences in 

li Mt. 20:20; 2) Mt. 20:30; 3) Lk. 1S:S5. 

4. Determine the bearing of these differences!) upon the relations of the Gospels to each other; 

2) upon the trustworthiness of the Gospel narratives. 

III. The Material Explained. 


1) T. 32. la) In the way; (1) read John 11:1- 
57: (2) make a list of the events; 
(3) note that these occur in the 
time intervening between Mk. 
10:31 and 10:32. 

(b) /esus was going before; (1) was 
this customary? cf. Mk. 1:1"; 8: 
33; (2) why then mentioned here? 

(o) Amaud afraid; the reason 

for these fceliogs In view (1) of 

New Testament Supplejient. 197 

the goal of his journey and (3) of 7) Ts. 37-89. What may be said as to (a) the 

thereceptionhewouldmeetthere; occasion of this request (of. Mt. 

cf. John 11:53; (3) what ground 19:38); (b) the unworthy element 

for conjecturing any change in in it; (c) the possibly commenda- 

his bearing or appearance ? ble features of it. 

2) T. 3S. Gentiles ; the general use and the 8) V. 40. (a) Is riot mine; does Jesus declare 

special application of this word ? himself limited; if so, in what 

3) V. 35. (a.) Near; i. e. for a private con- respects and in relation to whom? 

versation. Why ? (b) Hath been prepared ; (1) by 

(b) TTouid,- i. e. "wish." The mo- whom? (3) when? cf. Mt. 35:34; 

tives of such a request ? (3) for whom ? cf . Mk. 10:43,44. 

4) V. 87. Right hand— left hand; its sig- 9) V. 45. (a) Came; note Jesus' idea of his 

niflcance as revealed in Ps. 110:1; mission; cf. Mk. 3:17. 

45:9; Acts 7:55. (b) His life; i. e. "himself." 

5) T. 38. (a)I>TOiftffiecMp;cf. Ps.l6:5;23:6; (c) Ransom; i. e. the price of re- 

75:8; Isa. 51:17; Mt. 26:39. lease. Note Jesus' idea of the 

(b) Be baptized, etc.; cf. Lk. 13:50 meaning of his death, 
and explain the figure. (d) For; lit. " instead of." 

(c) Note that (a) and (b) are paral- 10) T. 46. Jericho; learn something of its 
lei expressions for the same or geography and history, 
similar ideas;— a Hebrew form of 11) V. 47. Son of David; what significance 
speech. Cf . Ps. 37 :!, etc. ; and note in this title ? cf . Mt. 1 ;1. 

here vs. 43,43,44; Mk. 4:33,30, etc. 13) V. 51. Rabboni; (a) characteristic of 

6) V. 39. Consider (a) just what this predie- Mark, cf. 3:17, etc.; (b) its mean- 

tion of Jesus meant, and (b) how ing? 

it may be regarded as fulfilled. 13) V. 52. Thy /aitft; (a) how shown in words 

Cf. Acts 13:3; fiev. 1:9. and deeds? (b) faith in what? 


1) The Miracle. Mt. 10:46-62. (a) Form as clear and as vivid a picture as possible of the scene; 

(b) observe the method employed in healing, in relation to (1) the man's body, (3) his 
mind; (c) gather evidence tor the reality of the miracle in (1) the character of the narra- 
tive, (2) the condition of the blind man, (3) the position and feelings of the multitude; 
(d) Jesus' motive for performing the miracle, as found (1) in himself, (2) in the man. 

2) Lessons on the Cross. Mk. 10:33,34. (a) Compare the former statements in 

8:31; 9:31; (b) in view of 9:31 ("taught" = kept teaching) how explain 
the want of understanding among the disciples ? (c) taking this passage 
(Mk. 10:33,34) divide it into three parts ; (d) consider to what extent this 
expectation of Jesus arose (1) from mere human foresight ; (2) from insight 
more than human ; (e) note the teaching of the cross (1 ) in relation to Jesus 
himself, 10:45b, (2) as an example to the disciple in self-development, cf. 
Mk. 8:34,35, and in service to others, cf. Mk. 10:44,45. 

lY. The Material Organized. 

1. OalUer the material and classify it under the following heads : 1) persons ; 2) places; 3) teach- 
ings; 4) miracles; 5) important events; 6) literary data; 7) habits and customs; 8) Jesus 
as man. 

3. Condense the material into the briefest possible statement, taking it verse by verse, and com- 
pare the result with the following: 

JesDS leads toward Jerusalem the disciples ani.ized and afraid to go thither. He tells the twelve 
that he in there to saffer from Jews and Gentiles, to be slain and to rise again. James and John 
ask privately for the highest honors in his kingdom and to obtain them are willing to snffer as 
ho suffers. He replies. Yon shall indeed suffer as I do, but I cannot arbitrarily bestow these 
honors upon you. To the others, angry at James and Jolin, he shows tliat pre-eminence in his 
kingdom comes not through power to rule but through willingness to serve, of which the Son of 
Man is the example. Xear Jericho, attended by a multitude, he hears a blind man's appeal and 
calls him. The multitude, at first rebuking, then encourage the blind man to come to Jesus, who 
approves his faith and restores him to sight; whereupon he follows Jesos. 

198 The Old Testa jient Student. 

V. The Material Applied. 

TnK IIallowixg of AjIbition. 1. Mark 10:42-45 ; the ambitious spirit mani- 
fested among the disciples. 2. How far ambition— i. e. the desire for dis- 
tinction—is common to all men. 3. From Mk. 10:42-44, determine 
1) whether Jesus permits the ambitious spirit in his kingdom ; 2) that man- 
ifestation of it which he disapproves ; 3) that which is according to his will. 
4. Ambition as manifested in .Jesus and in his followers; e. g. Paul, cf. 
Phil. 3:13,14. .5. The need of such a .spirit and the power it becomes, when 
rightly directed, in the Kingdom of God. 


Besome. 1. Incidents of the journey to Jerusalem. 2. The spirit and purposes of Jesus on this 
journey as compared with those of the disciples. 3. The character of Bartlmeus and 
Jesus' method of dealing with him. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Read carefully Mark 11:1-25, and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

1. The approach (v. 1); 6. the day in Jerusalem (vs. 15-18); 

2. preparations (vs. 2-6) ; 7. the withdrawal at evening (v. 19); 

3. the entry (vs. 7-lla); 8. the fig-tree's fate and its lessons 

4. the withdrawal at evening (lib) ; (vs. 20-25). 

5. Jesus and the fig-tree (vs. 12-14) ; 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. With Mk. 11:1-25 compare Mt. 21:1-22; Lk. 19:29-48; .luhn 12:12-19. 

2. Classify the material obtained under the following heads: 

1) Additional details, Mt. 21:2; Lk. 19:3:J..'!7.17.18; John 12:12; 

2) the characteristic miotations, Mt. 21:4,5. Ki; 

3) added events and statements, Mt. 21:10,11,14-1(1; Lk, 19::t9, 40.41-44; John I2:12,1».1Q-19; 

4) variations: (a) order and relation of events in .Mt, 21:12-22; Lk, 19:45, as compared n-ith 
Mark; (b) the various versions of the people's son^, Mk. 11:9,10; Mt. 21:9; Lk. 19:88; 
John 12:1:;. 

3. Conclusions from these facts as to 1) the principle of the arrangement of material in Matthew; 

2) the independence of Mark's gospel; 3) the characteristics of John's narrative; 4) the 
value of a four-told account. 

III. The Material Explained. 


1) T. 1, Bethany; cf. John 12:1-11 for details; 3) T. 3. (a) The Lord; whether meaning (1) 

note also the time (V. 1) ; Jesus prob- Jehovah ; or, (2) the Christ ; or, (3) the 

ably spent the Sabbath there. master or teacher ? 

2) V. 2. (a) Te shall find, etc.; was this (1) (b) Send back hither; 1. e. Jesus will 

more than human knowledge ? or (2) return the colt. 

had he seen the colt as he passed 4i V. 4. Open street ; Mark's vivid detail 

through the village ? or (3) had he again. 

made a previous arrangement? .5) V. 6. Let them go; whether (a) euper- 

(b) Noman sat; cf. Num. 19:1,2; naturally Influenced; or (b) kindly 

Deut. 21:3; 1 Sam. 6:7; (1) sacred; disposed; or(c) as disciples of Jesus. 

(2) sacriflcial. 6) T. 8. SpreadUi«(r(;aj7ncii(«; cf.2Kgs.9:13. 

New Testament Supplement. 199 

7) V. 9. (a) Hosanna; meaning? success in performing it ? (d) Recall 

(b) He that cometh ; (1) the usual anothersimilaraetion(cf. Jolm3:14); 

greeting to the pilgrims; cf. Ps. 118; (e) are these two accounts of one 

(2) what special reference on this oc- event ? 

casion ? U> V. 17. Written; cf. Isa. 56:7; Jer. 7:11. Ob- 

8) V. 10. 7)1 the highest; i. e. in heaven; wheth- serve Jesus' application of the 0. T. 

er (a) heard there ; or (b) descending writings. 

from thence. 15) V. 19. Out nf the city; why ? 

9) V. 11. iouftetJ round about ; peculiar to 16) V. 21. Peter; peculiar to Mark. How sig- 

Mark. Cf. 3:5. nlfleant of the source of this ma- 

10) V. 12. Hunoered; Why? terial? cf. 8:32. 

11) T. 13. (a) Leaves ; i. e. which promised 17) V. 22. Answering; the question implied in 

fruit. Peter's remark; i. e. "How did so 

(b) If haply, etc.; bearing of this on wonderful a result come to pass?" 

the knowledge of Jesus? 18) V. 23. Cometh to pass ; i.e. "is accustomed 

12) V. 14. Consider what prompted this saying, to be done." 

whether (a) disappointment; (b)vex- 19) V. 21. Have received; lit. "received;" i. e. 

atiou; (c) desire to retaliate; (d) at the time of asking. 

purpose to teach the disciples con- 20) V. 25. (a) Stoidpraj/ing; different positions 

corning (1) their own nation (cf. Lk. in prayer; cf. Mt. 6:5; Dan. 6:10; 

13:6-9); or (3) the power of faith (vs. 1 Kgs. 18:42. 

2-2-35). (b) Tour Father; cf. 8:38; a name 

13) V. 15. (a) Note the occasion for these given to God here first in Mark, but 

abuses of the temple; (b) state the a favorite term with Jesus. Cf. Mt. 

principle they violated; (c) how ex- 6:9,14. 

plain (1) this action of Jesus? (3) his 


The Entry into Jerusalem, (a) Eecall as distinctly and vividly as possible the 
course and circumstances of this event, noting particularly (1) the road 
taken ; (2) the two companies of people ; (b) determine the relation of Jesus 
to this demonstration, whether (1) accidental and unexpected; or (2) a con- 
cession to imperfect but enthusiastic disciples ; or (3) a deliberate purpose 
thus to enter the city ; (c) consider the meaning of the various elements in 
this scene, e. g. (1) the colt of an ass, Zech. 9:9 ; Gen. 22:3 ; Judg. 5:10 ; 10:3,4 ; 
peace and royalty, not humility ; (2) the people's cries ; how far a proclama- 
tion of the Christ ; (d) note that Jesus allows the multitude thus to proclaim 
him as the Christ, and seek to explain it (1) in contrast with his previous 
course of action ; (2) on the ground that he expected to be accepted by the 
nation as its king (cf. 10:33) ; (3) in view of a purpose to give the nation the 
opportunity either to accept or reject him ; (e) observe the attitude and 
feelings (1) of the multitude ; to what extent convinced of his claims (cf . 
Mt. 21:11); (2) of the Pharisees, Lk. 19:39; (3) of the city, Mt. 21:10,11; 
(4) of the disciples, John 12:16; (f) sum up the issues of the movement 
(1) in its immediate results, failure (cf. 11:11) ; (2) its ultimate meaning to 
the Jews (cf . Lk. 19:41-44) ; (3) what if the nation had accepted him ? 

IT. The Material Organized. 

1. GatJier (he material and classify it under the following heads : 1) places; 2) important events; 

3) important teachings; 4) habits and customs; 5)0. T. quotations; 6) miracles; 7) Jesus 
as man ; 8) literary data. 

2. Condense the material Mk. 11:1-11 into the briefest possible statement; e. g. : 

V. 1. Approaching Jerusalem he sends two disciples away, saying: 
V. 2. From the next village bring a colt which you find tied there; 
V. 3. If any question, say, The Lord needs him ; he will return him soon. 

200 Thb Old Testament Student. 

vs. 1-3. Approaching Jenualem he tends turn dUHplu to the nert viUage to bring a colt 
for the Lord'» tue. 

V. 4. Tbey find the colt tied before a bouse and loose him; 
vs. 5,6. Bystanders question, but lot them go when they give Jesus' message. 
T. 7. Tbey bring the colt, cast on him their cloaks and Jesus sits on him. 

vs. 4-7. They fi Jid the colt and are allowed to bring him to Jems; they east their garments 
upon him and Jems fits thereon. 

V. 8. Many spread garments and branches upon the way. 
V. 9. Those before and after him cry Hosanna! blessed is the Christ, 
v. 10. Blessed is the coming Kingdom, the Kingdom of David; let heaven proclaim it. 

VS. 8-10. The multitudes give him royal horum, crying Hosanna (o the Christ and his 

V. 11. He enters the temple, looks about, and retires to Bethany at even. 

vs. 1-11. Approaching Jekusalem Jescs sends for a colt, and sitting upon 

SANNA TO THE Christ and his kingdom, enters the temple, and 


3. Let the student in a similar way condense Mk. 11:13-21. 

4. Study the following paraphrase of Mk. 11 :\ii-'2o and improve upon it wherever necessary: 

V. 23. And Jesus, answering Peter's exclamation of wonder that his mere word should 
have had so marvelous a result, replies: It is the power of faith in God that works such 
wonders. Have faith in him, trust him to accomplish such works through you. V. 23. 
Yea, I tell you, have such faith in him, that, should you command anything to be done — 
even that this Mount of Olives be cast into the sea— you have no doubt that this is 
sure to come to pass. Then it shall be accomplished. V. 24. Apply this to your 
prayers. Have such faith in God, that, should you pray for anything, you believe it to be 
at once granted you ; you regard it as even now in your possession. Then you shall 
receive what you ask. V. 25. But as you |)ray, are you conscious of cherishing evil 
against your fellow-man ? If so, do not fail to lay aside aU such feelings, for only as you 
are right with man can you be right with God. Only thus can your faith avail with Him 
and your prayer be answered. 

y. The Material Applied. 

1. Traders in the Temple. Mk. 11:15-18. 1) Recall (a) the sanctity of the 
temple and (b) the pui'pose of the traders, to profit from the religious neces- 
sities and zeal of the worshipers ; 2) seek to determine why Jesus drove them 
out ; 3) thoughtfully inquire the relation of these things to the religious 
life of the present in their bearing upon (a) entertainments in houses of 
worship; (b) mercenary religionists (1 Tim. 6:5). 

2) Principles of Prayer. Mk. 11:24,25. 1) Note two principles of prayer (a) 
faith in God (v. 24) ; (b) love for man (v. 25) ; 2) consider wliat each of these 
implies, e. g. faith forbids foolish and idle petitions and insures wis- 
dom and calmness in prayer;— love makes against selfish and denun- 
ciatory prayer; 3) note from this stand-point the secret of much unan- 
swered prayer. 


Vol. VIII. FEBRUARY, 1889. No. 6, 

When new views are advanced concerning the Bible or its teach- 
ings they are met in two different ways. There are many who 
instantly seek to show how destructive they are, and warn all against 
accepting them on the peril of their Christian faith. There are others 
who, while not inclined to receive new views, ask whether they may 
not be reconciled with the faith of the church and be harmless as 
affecting the essentials of Christianity. Both of these classes of men 
are needful; does not one admire more the latter.? The former class 
has too often driven men from the church by their denunciation of 
that which afterwards was received as true, and which candid minds 
had felt they must hold ; while the latter has often kept within the 
bounds of the church those who otherwise would have gone off into 
unbelief There is needed the same caution in dealing with questions 
of biblical criticism that one has given respecting evolution, who says, 
" Wise dealing with this question will consider not only how to keep 
Christians from becoming evolutionists, but also — a matter often over- 
looked, apparently, by those who write without weighing the full 
effect of their words — how to keep evolutionists from giving up 

The Old Testament is not Hebrew literature. This statement 
may appear startling; but it is true. The Old Testament is not 
Hebrew literature in the sense that the Iliad and the Greek Drama 
are Greek literature ; or the Book of the Dead, Egyptian ; or the 
Zend Avesta, Persian. If one desires simple Hebrew literature, the 
product of the Jewish mind, he will find it in the Talmud, Targums, 
and other Rabbinical writings. The writers of the Old Testament 
were more than mere Hebrews. Moses, David and Isaiah did not 
simply reflect national thought and feeling. They were inspired, were 
men to whom divine thought and feeling were revealed. When we 

202 The Old Testament Student. 

speak of the study of the Old Testament as literature, we mean, then, 
the study of the national dress and outward adornment of a body of 
divine truth. Such study is profitable and interesting, and very 
important. But is it not insignificant when compared with the study 
of the doctrine which this outward national dress contains.' Renan 
has made a special study of the Hebrew Scriptures from the point of 
view that they are a national literature, and with what result ? The 
divine truth has made so little impression upon him that he can write 
a play "the story of which, of a nun's debauchery the day before the 
guillotine, is as corrupt as can be well conceived, and its leading 
thought is that passions must run their course even if death stands at 
the door." Such debasing thought and philosophy may thus co-exist 
with the highest appreciation of the liible as a literature. Turn now 
from Renan to those who have studied these sacred writings to find 
therein the voice of God speaking of sin, justice and mercy ; and how 
great the contrast. Here belong such men as Luther, Calvin, Lati- 
mer, Kno.x, Wesley, together with the great rank and file of earnest 
Christian workers and believers. " The Old Testament is not the 
history of men's thoughts about God, or desires after God, or affec- 
tions towards him. It professes to be a history of God's unveiling of 
himself to men. If it is not that, it is nothing; it is false from begin- 
ning to end. To make it the history of the speculation of a certain 
tribe about God, we must deny the very root of any speculations 
which that tribe ever had. For this root is the belief that they could 
not think of him, unless he had first thought of them ; that they could 
not speak of him, unless he were speaking of them." 

In the modern revival of biblical study there is danger that the 
Scripture by some may be studied only after the manner of Renan, or 
too exclusively as a national literature. 

The following letter will explain itself and serve as an answer to 
a number who have corresponded with the editor concerning the mat- 
ter. It will be noted that Professor Stevens himself discovered the 
omission, but only when it was too late to make mention of it in the 
January STUDENT : 

To the Editor of the Old Testament Student: 

In the collation of passages in my retcnt article upon "' The Bearing of New 
Testament Statements upon the Authorship of Old Testament Books," I inadvert- 
ently omitted a passage of importance: John .1:40,47, "For if ye believed Moses, 
ye would believe me ; for he wrote of mr. But if ye believe not his writings, 
how sliall ye believe my words?" I discovered this omission the day on which 
The Student went into the mails, but, of course, too late for change or comment. 

Editorial. 203 

I do not, however, regard the passage as inconsistent with the view presented in 
my article. No specific portion of the Pentateuch is here cited or alluded to. 
Doubtless the reference is to the types and shadows which pointed to Christ 
(cf. John 3:14), and to the general Messianic import of the Law and perhaps to 
some passage like Deut. 18:15 sq. {cf. Acts 7:37). The point which is here essen- 
tial to our discussion is this : If the basis of the Pentateuchal legislation and 
prophecy is Mosaic, would it not be just as true that Moses wrote of Christ, as if 
he had written the Pentateuch in its present form ? Or, in other words, does 
Christ in this language mean to refer to literary authorship as understood by us ? 
or do his words make necessary any position beyond this, that Moses was an 
inspired law-giver and prophet, and that in the Pentateuch the Jews were con- 
fronted with his authority and testimon3' concerning the Messiah ? 

In the judgment of many this passage will form an exception to my state- 
ment : " There is not a passage (unless an exception be made in favor of Mark 
10:5; see note on page 165) in which Christ explicitly states that Moses wrote a 
single verse of the Pentateuch " (page 168). Of course, by all the presuppositions 
of the discussion, I mean here the Pentateuch in its present form. I have not 
denied, but affirmed, that Christ in a few cases used language which is fairly 
equivalent to saying that there were contents of our Pentateuch which Moses 
wrote. But I said : Granted that his language implies writing on Moses' part, it 
does not necessitate the view that Moses wrote "the whole Pentateuch in its 
present form " (p. 167), but is satisfied upon the supposition that "only the funda- 
mental legislation of the Pentateuch emanates from Moses, — that our complete 
'books of Moses' are not the direct product of his hand" (p. 168). If John 5: 
46,47 would not be just as true and pertinent provided the supposition here made 
were the correct one, we should be pleased to see the proof. 

But if any deem the passage a valid exception to my statement, as meant and 
explained, I am more than willing that they should have the benefit of its support 
for the view commonly called "conservative." It will be remembered that this 
part of my article confessed itself to be an argumentimi ad hominem which, at 
most, had for its purpose to reduce to strict statement the matter supposed to bear 
upon the subject. After the most generous concessions to the traditional view 
are made the question returns : whether it is fair to apply Christ's language to 
literary authorship and whether the views of such critics as Delitzsch, who holds 
the documentary and post-Mosaic theory of the Pentateuch as respects its present 
form, while holding that it is Mosaic in its basis, do not as truly meet every 
requirement of our Lord's language as the view that Moses wrote the whole Pen- 
tateuch as it now stands. This is, as we insisted, the really decisive question 
and upon the tenableness of the former view will depend the faith of many, since 
substantially this view of the " books of Moses " is rapidly approaching, with all 
specialists, the force of demonstration. 

George B. Stevens. 

As in former years, the Reports of the Principal of Schools and 
of the Treasurer of the American Institute of Hebrew are published 
in The Student. It should be a matter of interest to all to know 
the work which has been done, and by whose aid this work has been 
accomplished. For lack of space, the reports are somewhat more 

204 The Old Testament Student. 

condensed than usual. As is shown, the work has steadily grown 
from the beginning, the past year being in many respects the most 
prosperous of the whole number. Now that four of the five years for 
which the Institute was organized have passed, the question naturally 
arises. What shall be done at the end of the fifth year.' Shall the 
Institute discontinue its work .'' or shall it reorganize on a better and 
broader foundation.'' or shall it arrange to continue practically as it 
has done during the past.' The answer to the first question has been 
a universal No. In view of what has been done, and of the constantly 
widening field, the sentiment is emphatically against any giving up 
of the work. Some suggestions have been made looking toward an 
enlargement of the work. Why should not the whole Bible be 
included ? There is a greater demand for systematic courses of .study 
(whether by correspondence, or in Summer Schools) in New Testa- 
ment Greek, and in the English Bible, than for such courses in Hebrew. 
Why, then, should there not be an "American Institute of Sacred 
Scripture," with courses in all three departments.' Much might be, 
indeed has been, said in favor of this ; the chief difficulty would 
seem to be lack of energy and time for organization, and lack of money 
for carrying it on. The prevailing opinion among those most closely 
identified with the work is, that perhaps the best thing will be to go 
right on with a purpose and organization similar to that which now 
exists. If only money could be secured, a broad and comprehensive 
work in Bible-study could be inaugurated, the influence of which 
would within five years be powerfully felt in every city and town of 
the country. The time is ripe for an onward movement. Where are 
those who able to support such an undertaking .' 

The first paper in the Pentateuchal discussion (by Professors 
Harper and Green, in Hebraicd) has, after considerable delay, put in 
an appearance. It is a presentation of the analysis of the first twelve 
chapters of Genesis, with the facts and considerations urged in its 
favor. It shows that, according to the analy.sts, there are two distinct 
stories not only (a) of the creation, but also (b) of the descendants of 
Adam to Noah, (c) of the deluge, (d) of the peopling of the earth. 
It shows that in each of these series of stories there is to be found a 
peculiar vocabulary, and a peculiar style ; and that the writers, 
though describing the same events, use different material and have 
different theological conceptions. The article shows not only the dry 
facts and figures of the analysts, but also their spirit, their attitude 
towards the material as a whole, or in other words, the way in which 

Editorial. 205 

they interpret all this material. The greatest part of the matter of 
the article (sixty pages) can be understood by those who have no 
knowledge of Hebrew. The consideration of tliis material by Pro- 
fessor Green will be published in the following number of Hcbraica. 
It is understood that the author of the paper (just published) in his 
presentation is seeking only to represent, as best he can, the views of 
those who accept the analysis, and that the statements given are 
made without any reference to the conclusions to which he himself 
may have come, which, as a matter of fact, are, in many respects, 
widely different. 

With this number the third article in the series, considering the 
authority of the New Testament in reference to Old Testament liter- 
ary and exegetical questions, is given to the readers of The STUDENT. 
All will admit that the discussions have been able, independent, and 
helpful. Whatever view one may hold, it is helpful to know and 
appreciate other views. We have no sympathy with that spirit 
which dogmatically asserts: My view alone is correct; all others are 
false and pernicious in their influence, and do not deserve consider- 
ation. The fact is, one may hold his view all the more firmly after 
having come to know something of the views of others. The most 
striking feature of these discussions has been the simplicity and can- 
dor which have characterized them. The position taken in President 
Hovey's paper will generally be regarded as the most satisfactory. 
And yet the number of careful students in the ministry of to-day, 
who have been, as they themselves would put it, compelled to accept 
one of the other positions, is surprisingly large. After all, as in the 
majority of discussions, the matter rests largely upon the particular 
way in which the question is put. Suppose each of these theories is 
stated as follows : 

1. Jesus and the Apostles knew of the Old Testament only what 
other men of their times knew ; their authority therefore, in their 
statements regarding it, is of no more value than that of any other 
writer of the times. 

2. Jesus and the Apostles knew the real facts concerning the lit- 
erary character and the authorship of all these books ; but they saw 
their inability to accomplish anything in disseminating the truth in 
respect to these matters. They therefore prudently decided to appear 
to accept what they knew to be false ; and built all their teachings 
upon this false basis. 

3. Jesus and the Apostles knew the truth concerning these writ- 
ings ; they expressly declare the Pentateuch, for example, to have 

206 Tub Old Testament Student. , 

been written by Moses, the One-hundred-tenth Psalm to have been 
written by David. These portions, therefore, must be considered to 
have been so written. The mere raising of the question is a denial of 
the foundation-principle of Christianity ; for if it were to be shown 
that Moses did not write the Pentateuch, or David the One-hundred- 
tcnth Psalm, the veracity of Jesus is impugned, and modern crit- 
icism is substituted for his divine assertions. 

Each of these theories, in the form stated above, appears in its 
worst light ; and yet those who hold the first, generally state the 
second and third in some such way ; those who hold the second state 
thus the first and third; and those who hold the third do not hesitate 
to put the first and second in a form even more offensive, if such a 
thing is possible. Now, (i) no one of these statements fairly repre- 
sents the school which is supposed to hold it. There may be a few 
radicals in each class who would take such extreme positions ; but 
the number in any case is small. (2) A fair and full statement of 
each, for which there is not space here, including all the points which 
must be covered, would bring these three theories much closer 
together. (3) No statement, satisfactorily covering the facts, can be 
made which does not include, in some sense, all three theories ; for 
how can it be denied that there is a truth in all three .'' (4) It is true 
(a) that Jesus and the Apostles were men of their times, employing 
in their interpretation the methods of their times, proceeding in their 
work from the knowledge possessed by their times ; and it is also 
true (b) that they were in many respects far in advance of their fel- 
lows, knowing what they did not know, yet never introducing this 
supernatural knowledge except in reference to questions and upon 
occasions of the highest importance ; in other words, accommodating 
themselves to the ignorance and even prejudices of those about them, 
and following in this the example set by God himself in his dealings 
with the always sinning Israel ; but, true as both of these things are, it 
is still more true (c) that Jesus spoke with authority, and that, too, 
divine, whenever he spoke at all ; and that his utterances, when 
rightly interpreted and understood, must be regarded as final. Much 
more might be said. History is but repeating itself. Three 
ideas, all necessary to a true conception of the matter in hand, have 
been separated : one school emphasizes and exaggerates one ; another 
school, the second ; another, the third. They do not seem to see that 
one of these ideas, standing by itself, is, at the very best, but half a 
truth, and that a true hermeneutics demands for exegesis not one, or 
two, but all three ; and that a careful exegesis discloses and proves 
the existence of all three. 


By President Alvah Hovet, D. D., LL. D., 

Newton Centre, Mass. 

It will be readily granted that every important question ought to be answered 
in the light of all the evidence which bears upon it. An effort should therefore be 
made to comprehend the whole case, in order that every feature of it may have 
its proper influence on the judgment. But difierences of opinion sometimes exist 
as to the credibility of certain events which are supposed to bear upon the ques- 
tion, or as to the relation which they have to it. All inquirers do not approach 
the same question with identical beliefs or assumptions in respect to allied sub- 
jects, and so it comes to pass that they reach different conclusions. This is 
inevitable. As their premises differ, their conclusions must differ. 

One who has carefully weighed the evidence in respect to the life, the death, 
and the resurrection of Jesus Christ, and has been thoroughly convinced that he 
was a wholly exceptional member of the human family, divine as well as human, 
indeed, the Holy One of God, will necessarily be influenced by this conviction in 
all his further study of the New Testament. Having accepted the stupendous 
fact of the resurrection, he will welcome to his confidence the equally stupendous 
fact of the incarnation. Believing in the incarnation, he will naturally assent 
without delay to the Lord's claim of sinlessuess. And with sinlessness he will 
be ready to associate superlative clearness of spiritual vision. Then, too, he will 
trust the promise of Christ which assured his disciples of another Advocate, the 
Spirit of truth, who would show them things to come and guide them into all the 
truth. Moreover, the fact of heaven-given foresight in the disciples will surely 
tend to render credible a similar foresight in the ancient prophets. And a belief 
in prophecy as a means of preparation for Christ, will prepare him to discover in 
the Old Testament typical hints and foreshadowings of the Messiah's reign. And 
if so, he will not be surprised to find that the teaching of Jesus and of his Apos- 
tles implies that there was a divine purpose, working obscurely, but with far- 
reaching and wise Intent, in the history, the worship, and the sacred literature of 
the chosen people. Bread was thus cast upon the waters, to be found again after 
many days. And, as a result of all this, he will see that the books of the Old 
Testament cannot be classed with books of merely human origin, or interpreted 
without regard to their fulfillment in Christ and the meaning which he drew from 
much of their language. 

The present writer believes that the claim of Jesus Christ to be "the Son of 
God" and ''the light of the world" is supported by evidence (wholly distinct 
from the fulfillment of prophecy) that cannot be shaken, and therefore, on the 
principle that all pertinent evidence must be weighed, he cannot study the Lord's 

208 The Old Testament Student. 

use of the Old Testament without assigning to it special importance. For all 
that Christ taught was taught with authority. And in this respect his interpre- 
tation of the Old Testament stands on a level with his teaching as to the nature 
of God or the moral condition of man. If it was inferior to the latter, he at least 
does not seem to have heen aware of the inferiority. Even when he disclaims for 
himself, and for all other beings save the Father, a knowledge of the date of his 
second coming, he does it with a positiveness which shows that what he knew 
was perfectly distinct in his owii consciousness from what he did not know. But 
no trace of conscious ignorance appears in his use or interpretation of the Old 

Take then, for an illustration of his method of interpreting the Old Testa- 
ment, his reply to the Sadducees, as recorded in Mark 12:26,27, — "But as touch- 
ing the dead, that they are raised, have ye not read in the book of Moses, at the 
Bush, how God spake unto him, saying, I am the Ood of Abraham, and the God of 
Isaac, and the Ood of Jacob? lie is not the God of the dead, but of the living." 
Evidently Christ saw in the language of God to Moses a cogent reason for believ- 
ing that the patriarchs were alive when it was uttered. To him it was incredible 
that God should identify himself to Moses by his relation to servants who had 
been suffered long since to pass out of existence. The honor which he put upon 
his friends by associating their names with his own, and by calling himself their 
God, the One in whom they trusted, was utterly inconsistent with the opinion 
that they had perished at death, or that they would remain forever disembodied 
and therefore incomplete. It is to the credit of the Sadducees that they seem to 
have perceived the force of this profoimd interpretation. Yet it would not have 
been likely to occur to any modem exegete, especially if he were satisfied with the 
mere letter of the record, without trying to discover the spiritual implications of 
it. Besides, it will be obsei-ved that the truth which Christ drew from the lan- 
guage was strictly an inference, nothing more. But though an inference it was 
positive, authoritative, and worthy of him who spake as never man spake. 

With the same penetrating insight Jesus treated the Mosaic law in his Ser- 
mon on the Mount. Wliile asserting the sacredness of that law, he proceeded to 
give a far deeper meaning to several of its precepts than the letter of them sug- 
gested to other teachers. No one can read unmoved his exposition of the truth 
suggested by the ancient law in respect to murder, adultery, divorce, swearing, 
retaliation, or love to enemies. Of a piece with this was his interpretation of the 
fourth command, and his reduction of the whole moral code of the Pentateuch to 
the duplicate requirement of love to God and love to men. Indeed, while it may 
be said that he sometimes found, beneath the surface of the Old Testament lan- 
guage, prophetic or spiritual truths which cannot be discovered by the finest lit- 
erary acumen, there is no solid reason to believe that he ever perverted the divine 
intent of that language. It may be surprising to historical critics that he could 

• Christ's divine nature is believed to have Ijeen always omniscient, and his human nature 
to have been assisted by the Holy Spirit, trivcn him without measure, so that, at every point of 
his ministry, his teaching which truly represented the knowledge of his divine nature, as far as 
it was shared by his human nature, was absolutely perfect. He taught as the God-man : but by 
the aid of the incarnate Word and of the Holy Spirit the human side of his nature was never 
Ignorant ot what his mission called him to teach. It did not call him to teach the time of his 
second advent; but it did call hlni to speak of David as the author of the llOth Psalm, and of 
Moses as the writer of the law, i. e. the Pentateuch, or the substance of it (see below). 

The New Testament as Interpreter of the Old. 209 

say to his disciples, "All things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law 
of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms concerning me " (Luke 24:44) ; 
for they deem it possible to explain all that is written in the Pentateuch without 
supposing any reference to Christ ; but they surely cannot deny that the promise 
to Abraham and to his seed may have included spiritual as well as material good ; 
they cannot deny that the animal sacrifices of the Mosaic economy may have been 
typical of the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world ; nor can they 
deny that the prediction of Moses as to a prophet like himself may have referred, 
in its highest sense, to One in whom the whole line of prophets would culminate. 
Is it incredible that rites of worship in one period should be adapted to prepare 
men for better things in another period ? No believer in a personal God and a 
special revelation of his will can safely affirm this. To destroy the force of 
Christ's interpretation of the Old Testament, one of two things must be done : it 
must be clearly shown that he was an imperfect teacher in other respects, or that 
the passages which he has explained cannot mean or imply what he affirms. And 
neither of these things has been done. 

A further question now presents itself : Does the teaching of Jesus Christ 
have any relation to the higher criticism of the Old Testament ? To the author- 
ship of the Pentateuch or of the Psalms ? Do any of his recorded sayings prove 
that he believed Moses to have written the first five books of the Old Testament, 
or David to have written any of the Psalms '? There is evidence that he held 
David to be the author of the 110th Psalm. For towards the close of his ministry 
he asked the Pharisees a question, namely, " What think ye of the Christ V Whose 
son is he ? They say unto him. The son of David. And he saith unto them. How 
then doth David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying, The Lord said unto my Lord, 
Sit thou on my right hand, till I put thine enemies under thy feet V If David then 
calleth him Lord, how is he his son ? " (Matt. 22:41-4-5.) " This Psalm," says Dr. 
Toy, " was regarded as Messianic by Jewish expositors up to the tenth century ; 
and this is the view of the New Testament, where also (in the Gospels and Acts) 
it is ascribed to David : here ' David ' cannot, as is sometimes the case, be under- 
stood as a vague name for the Book of Psalms, but must mean the individual man 
so called. " Yet the Davidic authorship of the Psalm is rejected by many, because, 
or chiefly because, " the direct recognition of a Jerusalem king as priest (v. 4) 
seems to suit only one period of Jewish history, the Maccabean, when a Levitical 
dynasty sat on the throne." This appears to be the only important reason for think- 
ing that David could not have WTitten the Psalm. And it is wholly insufficient. For 
it assumes that if there be any prediction of a Messiah to come in the Old Testa- 
ment it must be typical, and the type must have furnished all the features of the 
picture. The inspired poet may have been familiar with the story of Melchisedek, 
a Jerusalem priest-king, he may have deemed a priest-king superior in dignity to 
either a priest or a king, but though assisted by the Spirit of God he could not 
have conceived these offices to be united in the person of the Messiah, unless he 
saw before his face an actual priest reigning as king in Zion: — such limits does 
modern criticism put to the genius of inspired poets ! But if any one imagines 
the record of David's life to be so complete that the occasion of every Psalm which 
he wrote can be pointed out, we beg leave to reject the imagination as extravagant 
and delusive. Think of applying such a rule to the hymns of Isaac Watts or of 
Charles Wesley, with nothing but a brief story of their lives, and the contents of 

210 The Old Testament Student. 

their hymns, to show how these two were related to each other I Think of limit- 
ing a Shakspeare or Milton to characters which he had seen illustrated before his 
eyes in actual life '. The doctrine of evolutiou may demand the adoption of such 
a rule, but originality of thought and the Spirit of God protest against it. Desir- 
able as it may be to know the background and occasion of every paragraph in the 
sacred record, we must be content in many cases to lack that knowledge. For to 
obtain it from the slender materials at our command would require a more crea- 
tive imagination than David needed to write the 110th Psalm. 

But Jesus is not said by the evangelists to have spoken so definitely about the 
authorship of any book of the Old Testament. In Luke 16:29 Abraham is repre- 
sented by Christ as saying to the rich man in Hades: "They"' (thy brothers) 
"have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them,'" — probably meaning, "they 
have the words or books of Moses and the prophets."" And such an expression 
might have been used, if the books treated of Moses and the prophets, as the 
books of Esther and of Job treat of those persons. If we supply " words "' instead 
of " books," as is suggested by the verb " hear," Abraham refers to the teaching 
of Moses and the prophets. This is the better view. 

Again, Jesus is represented in Luke 24:44 as saying to his disciples : " These 
are my words which I spake unto you while I was yet with you, how that all 
things must needs be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses and the 
prophets, and the psalms, concerning me." But here the Lord does not aflirm in 
so many words that the law was written by Moses. Aaron or some one else may 
have written down the law which was given by God through Moses. 

According to John 5:45,46 Jesus said to the Jews : " Think not that I will 
accuse you to the Father: there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, on whom 
ye have set your hope. For if ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me, for 
he wrote of me. But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words "i"" 
This language shows that Jesus believed Moses to be the writer of some part of 
the Old Testament which had in it references to himself. But he does not fur- 
ther define that part. It may have been the whole Pentateuch, except a few edi- 
torial notes, or it may have been only parts of the same ; but from what is known 
of Jewish belief at that time we are constrained to think that it was in reality a 
large part of the Pentateuch, including the legal statutes and their repetition in 
Deuteronomy. Of course, then, the fair import and full value of Christ's testi- 
mony should be taken into account by those who attempt to ascertain the age of 
the I'entateuch or of any considerable fraction of it. And any method of inquiry 
■which rules out of consideration his words must be defective. 

But shall the Apostles be heard also ? Is their view of the Old Testament 
entitled to any particular respect V It will not be forgotten that Jesus promised the 
Eleven the Spirit of truth, to guide them, after his own departure, into all the 
truth, or that from the first Pentecost onward they preached " the good news '' 
with astonishing confidence and success. Xor will it be doubted that the same 
Spirit was given for the same purpose to Paul, when he was added to the group of 
earlier Apostles and commissioned to do a service of the same kind as theirs. So 
then we ask. Did the Apostles' use of the Old Testament resemble their Lord"s? 
And their interpretation of it reveal a similar insight V These questions cannot 
be fully answered without a patient examination of all the passages in which they 
make use of the Old Testament; but some light may be obtained from a few 
passages in which they have been said to misinterpret the ancient Scriptures. 

The New Testament as Interpreter of the Old. 211 

The language of Paul in Gal. 3:16 is one of these. Here the Apostle, misled, 
as is supposed, by the use of words in the Aramaic of his own day, gives a wrong 
explanation of a certain Old Testament expression : " Now to Abraham were the 
promises spoken, and to his seed. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but 
as of one. And to thy seed, which is Christ." Now if the Apostle saw, in the 
exclusive use of the singular form of the word " seed" in the promises, evidence 
that they pointed to some kind of unity which had its centre and source in Christ, 
he certainly perceived, as did his Lord when replying to the Sadducees, something 
more in a particular form of expression than simple scholarship would have been 
likely to discover, but which it cannot fairly deny when pointed out. For while 
it is true that the word " seeds " is not applied in the Old Testament to the pos- 
terity of any man, but the singular is used as a collective noun, yet the plural is 
said by Dr. Toy to have been used of human progeny in the Aramaic and later 
Hebrew, and we may therefore infer that there is nothing in the nature of the 
case to prevent such a use. Moreover we find the plural of the same word in the 
Old Testament applied to different kinds of grain (1 Sam. 8:15). And a man 
might now enter a country store, and say to the proprietor : " What grains have 
you on hand?" with the answer: "Wheat, rye, oats, corn, bailey," etc. Or he 
might ask: " What teas have you V" and be answered: "Black, green, English- 
breakfast," etc. Or again: " What coffees have you V" and be informed : "Mocha, 
Java," etc. Yet a diligent critic might certainly search through a hundred vol- 
umes and find the words grain, tea, and coffee a thousand times in the singular, and 
probably not once in the plural. In fact the word " seeds " (D'i^"!?) occurs but 
once in the Old Testament, and means in that place different kinds of grain. 
Suppose that single instance were wanting, how easy would it be to say that the 
word had no plural among the Jews when it was apphed to grains. But how 
insecure the foundation for such a statement ! Yet no more insecure than is the 
argument from the non-appearance of the plural with reference to human poster- 
ity, against its use by the people in that way, or against the reasoning of Paul 
which assumes that it might properly be thus used, if the thought to be expressed 
required the plural form. 

Dr. Hackett's explanation of the passage is therefore entirely satisfactory. 
" It is, therefore, as if Paul had said : " Search the Scriptures from Genesis to 
Malachi : the promises all run in one strain ; they make no mention of a plurality 
of seeds, such as a natural and spiritual seed, at the same time ; they speak of a 
single seed only, the believing race (see Kom. 4:12), whether Jews or Gentiles ; 
and as this restriction of the language to one seed limits and exhausts the prom- 
ises as to any share in the blessings of Abraham's justification, there are no prom- 
ises of this nature for other seeds, such as Abraham's natural descendants, merely 
as such, or Jews by adoption, in virtue of their submission to Jewish rites." 

Very deep and beautiful is the thought which Paul here expresses. All 
believers are virtually one person and that person is Christ (see verse 28 below). 
He is the life of their life. Their faith comes through him and unites them with 
him. When the nations are blessed, it will be because they bless themselves in 
him. And when the Saviour said, " I am the vine ; ye are the branches," he 
enunciated the same truth. 

To the present writer all the passages in Paul's Epistles to the Komans and 
Galatians, which refer to Gen. 15:6 and Hab. 2:3,4, in support of the doctrine of 

212 TuE Old Testament Student. 

justification by faitli, seem to be very helpful in bringing to light the religious 
purport of Old Testament language, and in showing the essential sameness of the 
way of life since the world began, or, more exactly, since sin entered into the 
world. For it is perfectly evident that I'aul looked upon faith, not as a human 
work for which a niiiii could claim reward, but as a renunciation of self-righteous- 
ness and a trustful reliance upon tlie mercy of God. Yet no writer of the Xew 
Testament asserts more strongly than lie that true faith works by love and moves 
to right conduct. Nay, he evidently expects it to bear more abundant fruits of 
righteousness than could possibly flow from a heart that relies upon its own 
works for acceptance with God. Paul is as truly the apostle of love as of faith ; 
but neither of these graces feeds upon itself ; both find their object and life 
in God. 

But there are citations from the Old Testament by Paul which are less 
strictly doctrinal than those which have been noticed above. A specimen of these 
has been selected for criticism by a writer in this series of articles. It is 1 Cor. 
14:21, and PauPs use of the Old Testament is pronounced " much stranger "' in 
this case than his use of it in Rom. 14:1(1-20, wliich is considered verj' incorrect. 
The quotation reads thus: " In the law it is written. By men of strange tongues 
and by the lips of strangers, will I speak unto this people" (Isa. 28:11,12). Of 
this quotation Prof. Gould justly says: ''Of course, the prophecy contains only 
an analogy to the case to which the Apostle applies it. In both, the strange 
speech is brought into contrast with plain and instructive utterance, and in both 
the reason for it is substantially tlie same, viz., the unbelief of those to wliom it 
is addressed. .. .The mere proof of (Jod's being and truth, was subserved alike 
by the Old Testament incursions of barbarians, taking the place of God's prophets 
with their instructive speech, and by the gift of the New Testament tongues, 
contrasted with the same prophetic speech." The value of Paul's use of the pas- 
sage from Isaiah to the interpreter is this, that it calls his attention to the prin- 
ciple of God's procedure as being the same under both economies, a principle of 
the greatest importance in studying the Scriptures. 

A few general remarks will serve to present the writer's view more definitely. 
(1) The New Testament is not tlie primary source of knowledge concerning the 
meaning of the Old. The text of the Old Testament itself is that source, an<l it 
should be studied with tlie same fidelity as that of the New. Indeed, as to the 
proximate aim of any passage, nothing can take the place of the language of the 
passage itself, illuminated by the context and by whatever can be ascertained 
respecting the persons addressed and their circumstances at the time. First the 
text, and then commentaries ; not commentaries first, and then the text. 

(2) The New Testament affords but little assistance to one engaged in the 
textual criticism of the Old Testament. For the writers, whether Apostles or 
their associates, evidently quoted, for the most part, from memory. The pur- 
poses for which they used the ancient Scriptures did not generally require them to 
go back of the current versions. Indeed, those purposes justified them in adopt- 
ing words and clauses, apt expressions, and sentences brought together from dif- 
ferent parts of the record, without special regard to the original connection. But 
so meagre are the sources of textual criticism for the Old Testament that, when- 
ever the New Testament writers appear to give a fresh version of the original, 
their version is entitled to deep consideration. 

The New Testajient as Interpreter of the Ol"D. 213 

(3) The New Testament affords but little aid to the so-caUed higher criticism 
of the Old. It shows in a general way the limits and divisions of the Old Testa- 
ment canon. It proves that Jesus and his Apostles considered the law, the 
prophecy, and the history, as these now appear in the Old Testament, to be sacred 
and trustworthy. But the modern questions of the higher criticism were not 
before them, and naturally, therefore, were not answered by them. Yet what 
they say incidentally may be of great service to one who is seeking to ascertain 
the date and authorship of certain parts of the Old Testament. For example, 
they offer an insuperable objection to any view of the origin of the Pentateuch 
which invalidates its credibility as a record of what God communicated to the 
people through Moses ; and they require us to believe that an important part of 
the law was written by Moses (see above). 

(4) The New Testament is exceedingly helpful to one in discovering the 
religious principles which underlie many passages of the Old Testament. This 
has been illustrated by our study of Christ's reply to the question of the Sadducees 
concerning the resurrection. It may also be illustrated by the Lord's use and 
explanation of the Sabbath day. For, in the light of what he taught by word and 
act, one may be morally certain, for instance, that the man who was stoned for 
gathering sticks on the Sabbath (Num. 15:32-36) must have done this in a spirit 
of defiance to the law of God, and without the excuse of real need. Again, an 
interpreter of the 16th chapter of Leviticus might be in doubt as to the range of 
offenses for which atonement was made by the sm-offering. Was that offering a 
condition of the forgiveness of all unexpiated sins, or only of civil and ritual 
offences which disturbed one's standing in the visible theocracy ? With this 
doubt in mind the interpreter must welcome the light afforded by Heb. 9:13,14, 
and other passages in the same Epistle. In fact, a considerable part of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews will be found of essential service in a candid study of the Mosaic 

(5) The New Testament is of great assistance in tracing the line of Messianic 
prediction in the Old. It may not go very far in enabling one to decide upon the 
character of a prediction, whether it is direct or typical, but it deserves the highest 
consideration when the fact of Messianic reference is in question. Whatever 
authority belongs to the teaching of Christ and his Apostles may be alleged, for 
example, in support of a Messianic interpretation of the 110th Psalm, and conse- 
quently in support of the existence of prophecy in the times before Christ. 

Without further specification it seems to the writer of this article clear that 
the New Testament is an important source of instruction to interpreters of the 
earlier Scriptures, and that the considerations already presented furnish satisfac- 
tory evidence of this. Yet far more might be said, if the proper limits of a paper 
for The Old Testament Student permitted. 


Bt Eev. a. S. Carrier, 

McCormick Theol. Semioary, Chicago, lU. 


Apart from the language, the most striking proof of the unity of the Baby- 
lonians and Assyrians is their religion. Both pray in general to the same great 
gods, they have the same religious traditions, the same cultus, and apparently the 
same temple architecture. Even the gods, whom it is reasonable to suppose the 
Semitic Babylonians borrowed from the old Chaldeans, were honored by the 
Assyrians and had their temples, centuries old, in Assur and Nineveh. The only 
Assyrian god not worshiped by the JSahylonians was the national god Asur, 
whose service ceased entirely with the fall of Nineveh. But all the gods of the 
Babylonians were holy to the Assyrians. Whenever they came to Babel, either as 
peacemakers or as conquerors, they were zealou.s to bring their sacrifices and gifts 
to the gods of the land. To seize the hands of the great Bel of Babel or of Deri, 
was a high ceremonial act which they did not willingly forego. It was for them 
a higher consecration, as was the sight of Ka at Heliopolis to the Egyptian kings. 
Some gods of lower rank were not so early known in the northern laud ; but sooner 
or later they also found their way thither, and the doctrines of the Assyrian Pan- 
theon were brought by the Assyrian jiriests more and more into conformity with 
the doctrines of the Babylonian priestly .schools, whose sacred texts the Assyrian 
kings had copied for their libraries. With all the local differences, there was no 
idea of distinct religion. When therefore we give the main outlines of the Baby- 
lonian religion, we have at the same time presented the belief and cultus of the 

Glancing then at the divine world of Babylon, we find at the head of this 
Bantheon, a triad of chief gods, corresponding to that mentioned by Damascius, 
Anu, Bel {the highest Bel), and the god whose name is commonly written Ea. 


Anu (Anna or Ana) was formerly god of Unik (Orchoe, Erech). lie had also 
a temple at Ur and one in the city of Assur. His sanctuaries were found in sev- 
eral places and were named E-Ana, "house of Anna.'" But though he retained 
an exalted place in the hierarchy of the gods, he gradually lost his place in the 

According to some he was god of the unseen heavens above the firmament ; 
according to others, of the fixed stars. In the mythic uranography both repre- 
sentations amount to the same thing. His symbol resembles a Maltese cross, 
representing as it appears the four points of the compass and hence the entire 
heavens. Ilis bow, which is frequently mentioned, wjis probably tlie Milky Way. 
Bel and Ea stand beside him in the system, but he is without doubt the highest. 

TiELE ON Babylonian-Assyrian Culture. 215 

At the deluge all the gods rushed terrified to his heaven, where they sat cowering 
before the lattice, and even Istar fled to him for help when repulsed by the hero 
of the Epos. 



The most ancient center of the worship of Bel, the lord of the lands, was Nip- 
pur. In the mythology he is god of punishment and vengeance, and is exceed- 
ingly enraged that some beings are rescued at the deluge. He is only appeased 
by seeing that pestilence, famine and wild beasts are left, with which to punish 
sinners. He was called the sword-god and war-god, and as creator of the lumi- 
naries had also a celestial character. He needed Ea's assistance to protect his 
son Sin from Ann, who wished to eclipse him, while into this struggle entered 
SamaS, the sun-god, and Istar, the embodiment of the stars, on Anu's side. The 
latter was hence the mightiest, while Ea and Bel stood on a footing of equality. D 


EA. . 

Ea was god of the cosmic ocean. He dwelt in the abyss. He was the father 
of profound wisdom, the instructor and counselor of gods and men, the healer of 
sickness, the foe of evil spirits. When the deluge was decided upon in the coun- 
cil of the gods, he commanded his true worshiper to build a ship to escape the 
general ruin. He blamed Bel for thinking to blot out good and bad alike. Only 
puuishmeut, he said, not destruction, was deserved. Sennacherib, who did not 
forget him at the opening of the canals, which he dug to supply Nineveh with 
drinking water, cast a little golden ship and a golden fish into the ocean as an 
offering to Ea, when his fleet stood ready to sail to Nagite. " Bull of the Ocean," 
he called him. Dagon, the fish-god, is no doubt identical with him. We may 
believe also that he corresponds to the Oauues of Berossos, the originator of all 
culture. A hymn in an Old-Chaldaic text describes him as in a boat with his wife 
and his son Marduk. This boat delights the heart " at break of day." It is the 
sun-boat sailing over the celestial ocean like the ship of the Egyptian Ra. He 
thus originally belonged to a group of light-gods, whose myth arose among a 
people of fishers and seafarers. Further, he was evidently also the god of crea- 
tion. In a famous hymn the fire-god Gibil is endowed with attributes similar to 
Ea's. He was, hence, essentially the same, and the latter, therefore, found his 
most brilliant manifestation in the sun, which traverses the celestial seas. 

We find, then, in historic times a system of three mighty gods : Ann, who is 
throned in the highest heavens; Bel, the stern god of death, the punisher and 
avenger, and Ea, the benignant god, granting life and all life's blessings. 

Each of these gods has his spouse beside him. Antuni, the wife of Anu, is 
the mother-goddess. She is sometimes identified with Istar, and her realm is the 
starry heaven. Belit is the wife of Bel and goddess of the underworld. She is 
sometimes called Allat, and is as terrible as her lord. Davkina, the Danke of 
Damascius, is the wife of Ea, mistress of the earth, but like her husband bearing 
some relation to the waters. 

The distinctions between the goddesses are not sharply defined. The attrib- 
utes of the great gods are likewise interchangeable, and there are several inter- 
esting inscriptions which plainly indicate that Anu, Bel and Ea were but different 
names for the supreme divinity. We are also justified in the conjecture that the 

216 Thb Old Testament Student. 

mythological system of Babel was the result of the merging of various local sys- 

A A 

terns, ill which Anu, Bel and Ea were respectively the highest gods. Ea was 
undoubtedly originally non-Semitic; Bel. on the other hand, Semitic. While 
Ann's nationality is in doubt, his name may be a translation of Ihe and he him- 
self a union of the chief god of the primitive inhabitants with the chief god of 
the Semites. 

The triad of the highest gods is followed by a second, the members of which 
are generally considered sons of the first. Sin, the son of Bel ; Samas, of Ea ; and 
Rainnian, of Anu. 


Sin, the moon-god, the Old-Chaldaic Agu, was a deity highly reverenced, after 
whom Sargon I. named his son. In Ur, though not a god of the highest rank, he 
received through various dynasties supreme honors, probably because he was 
the local god of the capital. In Ilarran also, he had an old temple. The mythol- 
ogy assigns him merely a subordinate or even a passive role, but his worshipers 
exalt him as lord and judge of heaven and earth from whose decision there is no 

V V 


The sun-god, §amas, bore this name among the Semites, but was worshiped 
among the old Chaldeans under the name Bab-bara. The poets extol him as 
" the light-bearer of the wide heavenly spaces, to whom the gods look up, and in 
whom remote people delight themselves."' He spreads out the infinity of heaven 
like a covering over the earth ; he drives away evil spirits ; he is protector of the 
laws, avenger of justice, and, like the Persian Mithra, he abhors every lie. As 
the unseen Light-god^ throned in the highest heavens, he was called Malik, the 
king. Sippar, the double city, was sacred to him under this name, and also to his Malkat, who appears as Venus, the moniing star. lie cannot always be 
distinguished from Adar, god of the sun-glow. lie is called the serv'ant and 
confidant of Anu and Bel, the mediator between men and the highest gods. 
From his visible manifestation in the daily motions of the sun, the idea of service 
would naturally be suggested to his worshipers. 



Tlie wind-and-weather-god next follows, whom the old Chaldeans call Mir- 
mir, the Semites Ramman. Without doubt he was Rimmon or Dadu of the 
Arameans. lie is god of all the fierce elemental forces, and the evil spirits fight 
on his side. Among the Assyrians the terrible side of his nature stood in the 
foreground ; they entreated him to his destructive power against their ene- 
mies. But to the Babylonians he was more often the god of blessing. 

Little can be said of the spouses of these gods. Anunit, however, the wife 
of Samas, is one of the numerous forms of the celebrated Istar. 



This deity is at the same time the best known and the least known of the 
goddesses of the Babylonian Pantheon. She was called 'AStoret among the 
Phoenicians; her worship extended over Western Asia, and in Eg)'pt she had a 

TiELE ON Babyloiqan-Assykian Culture. 217 

relative in Hathor. Slie is Imown under two forms. As a stem and warlike 
goddess, she had her chief seats at Arbela, Agane and Larsa. As the volup- 
tuous and fruitful mother, she had temples at Uruk and Nineveh. But we 
know that these forms were not always sharply distinguished. As the mother 
she laments at the deluge for " her people " who have been annihilated. In her 
journey to Hades she appears as the mother in the most comprehensive sense, 
for when she is imprisoned there, all production ceases ; but a warlike character 
appears wheu she threatens to break down the doors of the lower world 
and free the dead, unless they release her. The plural form of her name 
denotes all the goddesses in general. Here our uncertainty begins. This last 
fact would lead us to think that the name referred to no one particular goddess, 
still more since Istar is called indifferently daughter of Anu, Asur or Sin. We 
can probably safely distinguish at least two Igtars, one the mother, imwedded, the 
queen, first-born of all the gods, who exercised a certain dominion over the others, 
a mythological conception only possible among a people where the matriarchate 
prevailed; the other, a goddess better suited to the Semitic system, of lower rank, 
and worshiped by the side of her husband. 


These gods presided over war and the chase. Their attributes and characters 
are much the same. Both are represented as lion and bull colossi with human 
heads. Kergal's outward manifestation was the planet Mars. Adar was wor- 


shiped also in Elam. Being eldest son of Ea, he was prince of the gods. He 
belonged to the circle of light-gods, and partook of many of his father's charac- 
teristics. He presided over the arts and protected mankind from evil spirits. 
But he had another side ; as the god of the glowing sun he was death-dealing. 
The destroying angel, Dibbara, was one of his forms. 


"When Babel had become the great capital of a mighty empire and even after 
its decadence, Maruduk and the closely related Xabu of Borsippa were exalted 
to the highest rank; yet in Assyria it was not till long after Tiglath-pileser I. 
that Maruduk was accepted as one of the highest gods. He received the title 
Bel beli, and in a hymn to him we read, " Thy will is the highest command for 
heaven and earth." But it was the glory of his city Babel which so exalted him. 
He was a son of Ea, a great warrior and hunter. The lightning was his weapon, 
and with his dogs, the four winds, he fought the powers of darkness. Hence 
he was a beneficent god, terrible only to the evil. Old hymns represent him as 
the mediator between men and his father, Ea. He had a famous oracle at Babel. 
Zarpanitu, at Babel, was called his spouse, though elsewhere, the wife of Nabu. 
She had many of the attributes of Hera-Eileithyia, and presided at births. 


This god, at first, perhaps, identical with Maruduk, was afterwards counted 
as his son. Nabu was the one who granted to kings the scepter of dominion 
for the government of all lands. He was the god of revelation and inspiration, 
(ilu tasmetu), the tutelar divinity of scribes, priests and learned men. He was 
probably a fire-god, and his symbol Mercury, the morning star. 

218 The Oli> Testament Student. 



At the head of the Assyrian Pantheon stood Asur, god of war and the chase, 
father of the gods. Ilis name is often written An-sur, perhaps meaning "the 
good." We can no longer see in liim the characteristics of a nature god. though 
a well known divinity may be concealed under his name. With the fall of the 
Assyrian Empire he vanished from the cultus. 

We have now treated in outline the most prominent gods of Babylonia and 
Assyria, but our present knowledge does not justify us in separating between 
what was peculiar to the Semitic races and what was borrowed from the old 
Chaldeans, or in more wide-reaching conclusions than we have here and there 
indicated. We know the Semites of Babel and Assur were polytheists, and where 
there is polytheism there is mythology. But the sagas and tales of their myth- 
ology serve as mediums for ethical thoughts or primitive histories. The battle of 
Maruduk against the she-dragon Tiamat is similar in many ways to the story of 
Indra in the Kig-Veda, to that of Perseus, of Thor, of St. Michiiel and St. George. 
It also stands related to the battle of the evil spirits with the moon-god Sin, in 
which an eclipse is represented. The myth of the destroying angel Dibbara, the 
god of pestilence, is doubtless the story of a fearful plague which visited southern 
Babylonia, Elam and the western country. Istar's descent into Hades is doubt- 
less a nature myth, describing in an animated way the search for the sources of 
living water. When she is set free and returns to the upper world she calls her 
dead lover Dumuzi (Tammuz) back to life by bathuig him with the water of 
immortality. This myth is anthropomorphic rather than cosmogonic, and while 
often obscure, it was intended to strengthen the belief in immortality. The 
deluge story we possess in various forms, all plainly polytheistic and proceeding 
from a nature myth. There is a certain naive humor in the representation of the 
gods, an air of genial familiarity among them. Istar complains that she has borne 
men, but no fish brood ; Ea justifies himself against Bel for rescuing his favorite ; 
Bel is rebuked for his vengeful passion, and Istar refuses him any share in the 
sacrifices. Bol silently recognizes his ■m-ong and makes amends by exalting 
among the gods the man whose rescue had so enraged him. It is plain that the 
story-teller has used the myths to picture the destruction of a sinful humanity, 
and to show that evil-doers will still be punished with hunger, pestilence and 
wild beasts. In Berossos' stoi7 Kronos, i. e. Bel, rescues Xisuthros, but the chief 
purpose here is to recount the rescue of the sacred books. A nature myth prob- 
ably lies at the foundation of the so-called Epos, of which the deluge story is but 
an episode. The hero of this, who has with reason been compared to Nimrod, the 
gi-eat hunter, with a similarity also to Samson, and to Herakles. was certainly a 
god and not a king. His battle against the Elamite king, Ilumbaba, against 
Istar, queen of Uruk, and other tales, are not legendary histories, but localized 
myths. Many features of the story show that the time of the myths lay far 
behind the poet. 

The Babylonian priests did not reject the myths ; they used them for doctrinal 
purposes. Though we cannot speak authoritatively of a Babylonian system of 
dogmatics, there are undoubted traces of a theology. AVe can prove from a num- 
ber of passages that the Babylonian- Assyrian religion was ruled by tlieocratic ideas 
and a belief in the unlimited might of God, only modified by a trust in his justice, 

TiELE ON Babylonian-Assyrian Culture. 219 

pity and grace. A moral order of the world was an accepted doctrine. The titles 
of the gods, the ideas of the lower world, the sacred hymns and the care for the 
dead prove also a belief in a personal immortality. 

The universal terms for divinity, God, are the general Semitic words ilu and 
bel, — the first probably expressing majesty ; the second, lordship. Malik, king, 
is also used, and for the goddesses belit, bilat or Malikat. Ilu is the only univer- 
sal appellation ; and for the goddesses Istar, istarati. The gods stand high above 
man and nature, with hardly atrace of immanence. This is a genuine Semitic view, 
and just as characteristic is it that the stern, destructive gods receive equal honor 
with the beneficent. Eadically different from the tolerant Egyptian custom was 
the fact that foreign gods were seldom or never admitted to the Pantheon. Gods 
of other nations might indeed be received to their temples, but they stood there 
like hostages in the court of a king, and when the conquered people showed signs 
of complete submission, their gods were readily returned. Asur and his associates 
remained ever the only true divinities, exalted high above the nature gods around 

A pure monotheism was, however, never reached. Though the Babylonians 
and Assyrians often assigned to one god an exalted rank, though they sometimes 
called one father of the gods of heaven and earth, though they sometimes named 
the highest gods of Babel and Assur ilu or bel and came gradually to accept the 
view that the gods of the first triad and Asur were essentially the same, yet they 
never rose to the conception of a transcendent spirit, Ilu standing alone and above 
the highest gods. They were very near monotheism ; but they failed to take the 
last important step, and so, like the Egyptians, remained to the end monarchical 



By Rev. P. A. Nordell, J). D., 

New London, Conn. 

I Rather for consideration under this title a .series of terms which, while they 
are in most instances common to the nations of antiquity, or may be said to have 
equivalents in every well-developed religious eultus, yet among the HeVjrews were 
invested with strikingly technical significations. These significations arose from 
Israel's unique relation to Jehovah, their ever-present although invisible Protector, 
Leader, Lawgiver, and Ruler. This relation necessitated explicit and continuous 
revelations of his will, through men who were accredited as his messengers and 
representatives. His worship also demanded a service more or less formal, and 
this was administered by men especially set apart for these duties. They were 
the recognized mediators between the peoi)le and Jehovah. In so far as thej' 
were loyal to their commission they beciinie vehicles and expounders of those 
divine truths which fundamentally distinguished the religion of Israel from the 
mass of surrounding heathenism, which gave life to the theocracy, stability and 
permanency to the community, the growing consciousness of a great and fruitful 
mission to the world, and therefore the capacity of extraordinary recoveries from 
apparently fatal shocks, and of tlic exhibition of fresh and expansive power in the 
development of those divinely a))pointed institutions in which the moral and spir- 
itual life of the community attained its highest realization. 

Ro'eh seer. 
The active participle of ra'ah is used some twelve times as a substan- 
tive denoting one who .sees, i. e. a seer. The first occurrence of the word in this 
sense is quite significant : " Formerly in Israel, when a man went to inquire of God, 
thus he said. Come and let us go to the seer : for he that is to-day called a prophet 
was formerly called a seer,'' 1 Sam. 9:0. The passage is interesting in that it 
shows the transition from one popular designation to another, as well as a sub- 
stantial identity in their meaning. Both terms are freely applied to Samuel, who 
in the language of the people was also, like Moses, called "a man of God." He 
appears as the first example of a new class of men whom the exigencies of the 
times called into conspicuous activity. He was not merely a seer of visions, but a 
reformer, a forerunner of that long succession of prophets who, amidst the decay 
of existing institutions, took their stand firmly on the old Mosaic principles and 
sought to embody them in the changed life and strange conditions of the age. In 
this respect Samuel himself was a transition between the old line of seers who 
had reflected only rarely and meagerly the dazzling glory of the Mosaic age, and 
the new order of prophets through whom this spirit of propliecy moved as an irre- 
sistible renovating force. The use of this designation di<l not, however, cease 
with Samuel. In 2 Sam. 15:27, Zadok is termed a ro'eh. Why this title is given 

Old Testament Word-studies. 221 

tim, he belonging to the priestly rather than to the prophetic order, is not appar- 
ent, unless we may assume that he had been at some previous time the recipient 
of divine revelations. The only other ro'eh mentioned by name is Hanani, who 
came to Asa with a distasteful message from Jehovah, 2 Chron, 7;10. Isaiah 
employs the term only once, and then to designate Jehovah's fearless and truth- 
ful messengers who, like Hanani, brought reproachful communications and warn- 
ings of impending calamities. " For it is a rebellious people which say to the 

seers, ro'im, See not: and to the beholders, hozim. Behold not for us right 

things ; cause the Holy One of Israel to cease from before us,'' 30:9-11. In a 

single instance, Isa. 28:7, the word ro'eh is employed in the sense of ro'i, 
that which is seen, looked at, hence prophetic vision. Depicting the terrible 
extent to which the vice of drunkenness prevailed in Jerusalem, Isaiah declares 
that even the priests and prophets, who were forbidden the use of strong drink 
during the discharge of their official duties, were habitually under its influence, so 
that they "err in vision," blasphemously mistaking the incoherent ravings of 
intoxication for the illumination of the Spirit of God. 

Hozeh seer, gazer. 

Another term used a little more frequently than ro'eh and in a sense 
scarcely distinguishable from it is hozeh. It is translated seer in the majority 
of its occurrences both in the A. V. and in the R. V. In Isa. 47:13, it designates 
gazers at the stars, and is associated with astrologers and monthly prognostica- 
tors ; but when applied to possessors of the true prophetic spirit it seems to be 
entirely interchangeable with ro'eh. In 2 Chron. 16:7,10, as we have seen, refer- 
ence is made to "Hanani the ro'eh," and in 19:2, to "Hanani the h(5zeh." 
A similar identity in meaning appears in the passage quoted above from Isa. 30: 
9-11. The many attempts to establish a distinction in the use of these words 
must be abandoned as almost futile. The most that can be said is that " the 
verbs ra'ah and hazah must be distinguished to this extent, that the former 
denotes simplj' the relation of the eye to the object which it sees, the lat- 
ter the dwelling of the glance on the form of an object, therefore on an image. 
Accordingly they are related to each other as our 'seeing' and 'beholding'" 
(Orelli, 0. T. Proph., p. 5, n.). 

David appears to have attached to himself a number of "seers," hozim. 
The earliest and perhaps most influential of these was Gad, who joined David 
while he was defending himself against Saul. Through the seer David consults 
Jehovah, and is encouraged to undertake an expedition against the invading Phil- 
istines, and is given positive assurance of victory over them, 1 Sam. 22:5 and 23: 
1-5. Heman and Jeduthun are also mentioned as David's seers, 1 Chron. 25:5 ; 
2 Chron. 35:15. With them is associated Asaph, also a seer, 2 Chron. 29:30. The 
fact that they received the official title of " king's seers" indicates that they were 
more or less closely connected with the court at Jerusalem. Moreover, they come 
before us as directors in the musical services of the temple, prophesying "with 
harps, with psalteries, and with cymbals," 1 Chron. 25:1, and "in giving thanks 
and praising Jehovah," 25:3. Several of this class seem to have been the official 
historiographers of the kingdom, 1 Chron. 29:29 ; 2 Chron. 9:29 ; 12:15. 

While the writing prophets never apply to themselves the term hozeh (it 
is applied once to Amos by Amaziah, the priest of Bethel), they use the deriva- 
tive haz 6 n , vision, as a descriptive title for their collected prophecies, Isa. 1:1 ; 

222 The Old Testament Student. 

Obad. 1; Nahum 1:1, thereby implying the supernatural origin of the communi- 
cations contained in them. They were not mere intuitions, or shrewd guesses 
excogitated from the seer's personal observation of the political, social, and relig- 
ious conditions of his time. Subjective these revelations may have been in the 
sense that there was no external reality impressing the sensuous organs, neverthe- 
less the spiritual realities unfolded before the prophet's inward perception by a 
power other than himself were entirely objective to his own consciousness. 

Nabhi' prophet. 

Exepetes and lexicographers have diflfcred considerably as to the primary 
meaning of this word and of the verb nabha' from which it is derived. Hup- 
feld, for instance, holds that nabha has essentially the same meaning as 
na'ani to lintn, buzz, murmur, a signitioation which is applicable to any dull, 
half smothered tone, and hence especially to any secret, confidential communica- 
tion, such as inspiration, i. e. a divine suggestion conceived of as whispered in the 
ear of the prophet or poet, who is the familiar friend of God (Die Psalmen, .36:2). 
The best modern scholarship rejects this analogy, and understands nabha' to con- 
vey the idea of something breaking forth, rising up, presenting itself primarily to the 
eye, as a fountain that bubbles up, and then to the ear, as a word or declaration 
that forces itself into utterance. Nabhi' does not denote the spoken word, or 
one who is made to speak, as its passive form suggests, but is to be taken in an 
active sense as the speaker or proclaimer. He is one who overflows, boils over, 
with visions or revelations of the divine word, and these he is powerless to sup- 
press. This is strikingly described by Amos (3:8), " The lion has roared, who 
can but fear V Adonai Jehovah has spoken, who can but prophesy, yinnabhe'?" 
It is moreover illustrated in the experience of Jonah, who fled in vain from the 
necessity that was laid upon him. The conception lying at the root of nabhi' 
seems, then, to be that of a spokesman who does not speak his own words, 
but represents another whose words he proclaims. This is clear from Ex. 7:1, "I 
have made thee a god to Pharaoh, and Aaron thy brother shall be thy nabhi'," — 
a relation that had already been explained in Ex. 4:6, " And he shall be thy spokes- 
man to the people : and it shall come to pass that he shall be to thee a mouth, 
and thou shalt be to him as God." The nabhi' is, accordingly, the human 
organ, the mouth, that articulates the thought of the spirit. The characteristic, 
popularly supposed to be the preeminent distinction of the prophet, viz., that he 
foresees and announces future events, is seen to be merely incidental to his voca- 
tion, lie is not so much one who /on-tells, as one who /or-tells, i. e. speaks for 
another person. Conscious of speaking for God, he is never found leaning on 
human authority, but always on the immediate "word of the Lord," which stands 
before his mind as the symbol of absolute and eternal truth. Because of the 
prophet's direct and intimate relation to God he becomes the embodiment and 
vehicle of a living revelation which exhibits in constantly clearer characters Jeho- 
vah's will and purpose. 

Sohen priest. 

The prophet stands alone unconnected, the startling product of a crisis. His 
activities lie in the free realm of the spirit. He has no earthly paternity, 1 Sam. 
10:12, but appears in response to the creative call of God, 1 Sam. 3:4, sq., Jer. 
1:5-10. The kohen p)ue«<, on the contrary, is the hereditary representative of 

Old Testament Wobd-stddies. 223 

a revelation of faith that has crystallized into institutions. He is the symbol of 
established religious ordinances, of forms and ritual. He is not the medium of 
revelation, but its conservator and interpreter. Jehovah's will, announced by 
prophets and embodied in law, is especially committed to the kohen, who is 
charged with the duty of teaching it to the people. Lev. 10:11 ; Deut. 24:8. This 
distinction in function of prophet and priest is repeatedly recognized — "The law 
shall not perish from the priest, nor counsel from the wise, nor the word from 
the prophet," Jer. 18:18 ; " They shall seek a vision from the prophet : but the 
law shall not perish from the priest," Ezek. 7:26. As the priest represents 
established order, so he is himself the representative of a class, a family, 
to whom pertain the rights of the holy office in virtue of an original divine 
appointment and subsequent unbroken descent, Ex. 40:12,13; Lev. 8 ; Num. 17; 
Ezra 2:62. These functions of the priesthood are plainly suggested in the desig- 
nation kohen, the kal part. Of an unused stem k a h a n , the primary meaning 
of which is to stand upright. A kohen is a man who stands before Jehovah as 
his servant or minister ; "the koh''nim, Jehovah's ministers, mourn," Joel 1:9 ; 
2:17. We find, accordingly, that to them were committed the care of the sanct- 
uary, the offering of sacrifice, and the whole work of ordinary mediatorship 
between Jehovah and the people. 

The office of priest was sometimes combined with that of prophet, as in the 
case of Samuel, 1 Sam. 3:1,19-21, and of Zadok, 2 Sam. 15:27. Usually they were 
distinct, and not infrequently in sharp contradiction, the one being the conser- 
vator of a degenerate tradition, Jer. 1:18 ; Hos. 5:1, and confirmed in their corrupt 
practices by the divinations of false and greedy prophets with whom they were in 
alliance, Micah 3:11 ; the other, the true conservative, was a preacher of the 
higher principles of eternal truth, which in its new applications seemed to be 
revolutionary and iconoclastic. 

_ A 

Levi Levite. 

Closely connected with the priestly order is that of the Levites, Pviyyim, 
so called from their tribal descent. They were separated from the rest of Israel, 
sanctified, for their special services ; they were given over to Jehovah in place of 
the first-born of every tribe who were spared when Jehovah destroyed the first- 
born of Egypt, Num. 3:45. In the Levitical legislation, as well as in the later 
historical books, the term "Levite" is a title synonymous with "priest." It 
occurs with great frequency in the phrase " the priests the Levites," which is 
equivalent to "the Levitical priests.'' This indicates that all the priests were 
Levites ; but it does not follow that all the Levites were priests. The higher and 
preeminently sacerdotal functions pertaining to the sanctuary devolved only on 
the Kohathites, one of the three great families which composed the tribe of Levi. 
This family owed its official superiority to the fact that it included Aaron and his 
descendants. The tribe of Levi, as a whole, occupied the place of a mediator 
between .Jehovah and the people, being directed to pitch their tents " round about 
the tabernacle of the testimony that there be no wrath upon the congregation," 
Num. 1:52. The greatly controverted question as to the significance of the terms 
" priest " and " Levite " in different periods of Israelitish history, together with the 
relation of these officials to each other, is too large a subject for our present con- 
sideration, even if this were the place for its presentation. 

224 Thb Old Testament Stxtdent. 

Melek kiny. 
Recent investigations seem to show tliat the early Assyrian and Babylonian 
governments were essentially theocratic, the king being merely the representative 
of the invisible Deity, who was worshiped as the true sovereign of the nation 
(0. T. Student, Jan., 1889, p. 172). However this may have been in the remoter 
East, it certainly held true of the monarchy in Israel. Though in the time of 
Samuel the exUn-nal form of government underwent a change, the essential idea 
remained. Jehovah was still d)' facto the supreme sovereign, his human represent- 
ative being simply (hi gratia rex. Like the high-priest, he was consecrated for 
his office by holy oil, and was therefore called " the Lord's anointed," 1 Sam. 
24:10(11). In the executive and judicial affairs of the kingdom he was a mediator 
between the people and Jehovah. Jehovah had accordingly three classes of rep- 
resentatives, viz., pro])hcts, priests, and kings, these being respectively ministers 
of his word, his worship, and his authority. David is the single instance in which 
these three functions were combined in one person, and thus he became a type of 
his greater Son, King Messiah, who as a prophet is the Word of God incarnate, as 
a high-priest besprinkles with his own blood the mercy-seat in the heavens, and as 
a king rules forever from the right hand of the throne of Majesty on high. 


To the Mcmhers of the American Institute of Hehrev] : 

The Principal of Schools herewith .submits his fourth annual report. The 
report will take up, first, the Correspondence School ; secondly, the Summer 
Schools ; thirdly, certain general matters relating to the work as a whole. 


The Correspondence School has just closed its eighth year. During four of 
these years it has been under the direction of the American Institute of Hebrew. 
1. Membership op the School. 

1. The membership of the Klementary Course 356 

2. " " " Intermediate " 162 

3. " " " ProcrcHsive " 86 

4. " " " Advanced " 30 

5. " " " Cognate Courses 18 

Total Membership 652 

2. Various Statistics concerning the work of the School. 

1. New members enrolled during 1888 246 ; d. 1887, 201 

2. Students stopping work during 1888 126 ; '' 139 

3. Net gain during ISSS 120; '_ 62 

4. Students graduated from one or more courses during 1888. 79; ^^ <9 

5. Various denominations represented 35 ; " 32 

6. States and countries, a) in United States and Canada 48 ; 51 

b) in other lands 12; " 12 

7. Average age of men at work 33 ; '^^ 33 

8. Number of women in the Scliool 20 ; ^^ 20 

9. Number of men not in ministry 117 ; " 101 

d. 1887, 1940 









The Institute of Hebrew— Pkincipal's Keport. 225 

10. Number of examination-papers corrected in Elem. Course. 2112 ; 

11. " " " Interm. " 1488; 

12. " " " Prog. " 797; 

13. " " " Adv. " 47; 

14. " " " Cog. Courses. 60; 

15. Total number of examination-papers corrected 4504 ; 

16. Letters written witb examination-papers 725 ; 

17. " " to men not at work 883; 

18. " " to inquirers 1131 ; 

3. Remarks upon the Statistics. 

1. During 1886, the number of examination-papers corrected was 4313 ; during 
1887, a year of only eleven months, 3950 ; during 1888, 4504. The increase would 
have been still greater but for the falling off due to the fact that this was a Presi- 
dential year. 

2. During the first six years of the School, there were completed 219 courses ; 
during the seventh year, 79 ; during the eighth year, exactly the same number. 
Of the total number of courses completed in eight years, 377, nearly one-half have 
been completed within two years. 

3. The number of those who have stopped work during the year is 13 less than 
the preceding year ; the number of new students is 45 more ; the net gain is 120, 
as over against 62. 

4. The reasons for discontinuance may be classified as follows : (a) Entrance 
upon seminary studies; (b) failure of health ; (c) death ; (d) overpressure of regu- 
lar duties ; (e) permanent appointment to some denominational work ; (f) discour- 
agement ; (g) insufficient education. 

4. Japanese Branch. 

A Japanese branch of the Correspondence School is being organized, with 
headquarters at Tokio. While intended primarily for the missionaries, it is pro- 
posed also to use it in the training of native workers. Should this experiment 
prove successful, much may be hoped for in other missionary fields. It is a sig- 
nificant fact that in many quarters the question is being considered of using the 
correspondence idea in missionary training. 

5. Prizes. 

In order to stimulate the members of the School, to do a larger amount of 
work, four prizes were offered, viz., one of twenty dollars (in books) ; a second, of 
fifteen ; a third, of ten ; and a fourth, of five. These prizes were awarded to those 
members who sent in the largest number of examination-papers during the year, 
with a grade of not less than 8 on a scale of 10. This year they were awarded as 
follows : the first to Mr. J. K. McGillivray, Princeton Theological Seminary, 
Princeton, N. J. ; the second to the Rev. J. P. Morgan, Coeyman's Junction, N. Y. ; 
the third to Miss Maria Whitney, New York City ; the foxirth to the Rev. D. H. 
Patterson, Tully, N. Y. The number of contestants was quite large. The plan 
seems to have succeeded. Next year the number of prizes will be increased to 
nine, amounting in all to 1100.00. 

6. Cognate Courses. 

Because of the difficulty of printing lessons in an acceptable form, the expense 
of type being so great as to forbid its use, and for other reasons the work in this 
department has not developed as it might have been expected to do. It gives me 
pleasure to state that now all difficulties seem to have been overcome, and that 

226 The Old TEsxAiusNT Student. 

we are prepared to carry on the work here as effectively as in Hebrew. It is not 
expected, of course, that the classes will ever be large. 

7. Assistants i.v the Cokrespoxdesce School. 

In the work of the past year the Principal has been aided by Mr. C. Eugene 
Crandall, to whom has been entrusted much of the detail relating to the internal 
work ; Mr. A. M. Wilson, who, during a portion of the year, assisted in correcting 
e.xaniination-papers, and Mr. F. K. Sanders, who, besides the work of correcting 
Hebrew papers, has also aided -in the work of the Cognate Courses. The Principal 
desires to make jmblic acknowledgment of the valuable service rendered the Insti- 
tute by all these gentlemen. When it is considered that the papers to be corrected 
come from all parts of the world and from all classes of people ; that each paper 
must be examined, corrected, graded, and returned with suggestions ; that many 
papers require for examination an entire hour ; that the work is of the most 
minute, critical, and even delicate character, the labors of these gentlemen will 
be more thoroughly appreciated. 

8. The Work in General. 

There can be no doubt that instruction by correspondence is henceforth to be 
recognized as one of the great fields of educational work. The results seem, indeed, 
incredible to those who are not acquainted with the real facts in the case. Interest 
is on the increase. Greater things by far may be expected in the near future. The 
work of the past year has been in most respects quite gratifying. It is only in the 
financial part that the showing is not so good. The expense has been as follows : 


For salaries SI, 420.01 

For printing and stationery. 4&3.21 
For advertising and postage. 328.09 
General expense 38.20 

In explanation of the increase in expense over last year it may be said (1) that 
this year was one of 12 instead of 11 months ; (2) that it has been impossible to 
secure competent assistants for the salaries heretofore paid ; (3) that more exten- 
sive, aggressive work has been carried on ; (4) that as a result of this work the net 
gain has been 120 instead of 62 ; (5) that the tuition-fees for the year have been 
$1,438.98 over against $1,257.28. 


1. The Summer Schools of the American Institute of Hebrew were held as 
follows : New England School. May 22-June 12 (Newton Theol. Institution. New- 
ton Centre, Mass.) ; Philadelphia School, June 13-July 3 (Protest. Epis. Divinity 
School, Philadelphia, Pa.); Southern School, July 19-Aug. 15 (Atlanta, Ga.) ; 
Chicago School, Aug. 16-Sept. 5 (Garrett Bildical Institute, Evanston, 111.). 

2. Two Schools also were held at Chautauqua, July 5-July 25, July 26-Aug. 
15. These had no connection with the American Institute of Hebrew ; they were, 
however, under the same principalsliii), and. by special vote of the Executive 
Committee, were announced in connection with the Schools of the Institute. In 
making an estimate of the work performed, these Schools must be considered. 

3. The Instructors in the Schools were as follows : 

Chas. Hufus Brown, Ph.D., Nowt. Centre, Mass. Jas. A. Craig, Ph. D., Cincinnati, O. 

Nowton Theolofrical Institution. Lane Theological Seminary. 

Geo. S. Burroughs, Ph. I)., Amherst, .Mass. A. S. Carrier, B. D., Chicago. 111. 

Amherst College. McCormlck Theological Seminary. 











The Institute of Hebrew — Principal's Report. 227 

C. E. Crandall, M. A., New Haven, Conn. J. F. McCui-dy, Ph. D., Toronto, Canada. 

American Institute of Hebrew. Toronto University. 

Edward L. Curtis, Pli. D., Chicago. III. W. W. Moore, D. D., Hampden Sidney, Va. 

McCormicli Theological Seminary. ' Presbyterian Theological Seminary. 

William R. Harper, Ph. D., New Haven, Conn. James M. Rawlings, M. A., Univ. of Va., Va. 

Yale University. University of Virginia. 

Hermann V. Hilprecht, Ph. D., Phila., Pa. Frank K. Sanders, M. A., New Haven, Conn. 

University of Pennsylvania. American Institute of Hebrew. 

Chas. Horswell, B. D., Evanston, ni. George H. Schodde, Ph. D., Columbus, O. 

Garrett Biblical Institute. Capital University. 

John G. Lansing, D. D., New Brunswick, N. J. Barnard C. Taylor, M. A., Chester, Pa. 

Theol. Sem. of the Dutch Reformed Church. Crozer Theological Seminary. 

Wallace W. Lovejoy, M. A., Philadelphia, Pa. M. S. Terry, D. D., Evanston, 111. 

Reformed Episcopal Divinity School. Garrett Biblical Institute. 

D. A. McClenahan, M. A., Allegheny, Pa. Revere F. Weidner, D. D., Rock Island, 111. 
United Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Augustana Theological Seminary. 

4. The membersliip of the Schools held in the North, includins the two Schools 
held at Chautauqua, was slightly in excess of that of last year. Many men 
attended two or more Schools. 

5. For the details of the work in each school the Principal would refer to the 
special reports accompanying this general report. It may be noted here, however, 
that the School at Newton Centre was much smaller than in former j'ears, because 
of the early date at which it was held, a time which permitted no college men to 
attend. The change of the location of the Southern School from the University 
of Virginia to Atlanta proved, for this year at all events, a disaster. The details 
of this also will be furnished in the special report of that School. 

1. The Principal's Work. 
The Principal was present during the entire session of all the Schools (includ- 
ing those held at Chautauqua) except the Southern. His work during the year 
was in amount and character about the same as that of previous years. His work 
for the Institute (including the Hebrew instruction which he gave at Chautauqua) 
amounted to about five hundred hours of teaching, and about the same number in 

2. Printed Matter used during the Year. 

Correspondence School : No. Pages. 

Letters — Aggressive work 5,700 5,700 

Delinquent work 300 300 

Circulars for aggressive work 20,500 40,500 

Postal Cards — Aggressive work 500 1,000 

Delinquent work, etc 1,160 2,320 

Application Forms 1,000 3,000 

Instruction Cards 1,000 2,000 

Slimmer Schools : 

Letters 1,085 1,085 

Special Circular to College Men 1,000 2,000 

Enrollment Blanks 500 500 

General S. S. Circular 30,000 240,000 

General : 

Calendars 5,000 80,000 

Principal's Report 500 4,000 

Envelopes 35,500 35;500 

Letter-heads 6,500 6,500 

Total 110.245 424,405 

228 The Old Testament Student. 

3. The Endowment Fund. 
Only *3,356 has been received over against $5,413 of 1887 and $4,881 of 1886. 
A falling short of $2,057 from 1887, of $1,525 from 1886. This deficiency is due 
(1) to the fact that by the arrangement of the Southern Committee, the salaries of 
the instructors were paid directly by the Piedmont Chautauciua, and the large sum 
(over $900) contributed last year for the University of Virginia School did not come 
into the treasury of the Institute ; (2) that in some cases those who contributed 
for five years paid up the entire subscription during the third year ; (3) that some 
of the largest donors have died ; (4) that some of the contributors have seemingly- 
forgotten their obligations to the Institute, and this in spite of the frequent 
reminders sent them ; (5) that, although considerable effort has been made to 
enlist new friends, the technical character of the work has made it difficult to 
secure a large amount of aid. 

3. The Expenses for the Year. 

1. The expenses of the Correspondence School have been $2,289.01 ($537.58 
more than in 1887, $283.09 more than in 1886). The receipts from fees have been 
$1,438.98 ($182.70 more than 1877). The fees with the appropriation, $600, and the 
balance to its credit from last year, viz., $103.85, falls short of paying the expenses 
by $146.18. This deficit is more than balanced by a new contribution of $200 
designated particularly for the Correspondence School. 

2. The Summer School expenses of 1888 are in every case less than those of 
1887, the difference being 

In the case of the New Enghind School $480.64 

" Philadelphia " 142.37 

" Chicago " 269.41 

Total $882.42 

3. The expenses of Summer Schools have in each case been less than the 
amount appropriated by the Committee, viz., the fees and an appropriation of 
$600, the amount 

In the case of the New Eiicland School $192.07 

" Phihuklphia '• 19.37 

" Chicago " 311.09 

4. The Principal was authorized to announce free tuition (with an incidental 
fee, however, of $5) in case he should bo able to secure $600 in new subscriptions 
for all the Schools. This sum was obtained from the following sources : 

Benjamin Douglass, Esq., Chicaco $250.00 

John 1). Rockefeller, Esq.. New York City 200.00 

The Professors and Students at Evanston, 111 150.00 

5. The total expenses of the year have been S6.301.47, against $7,682.01 of 1887, 
$7,277.43 of 1886, a difference of $1,:^80.54. This is due (1) to the money saved on 
the three Northern Summer Schools, viz., $882.42 ; (2) to the fact that the salaries 
of the Southern School did not pass through the treasury of the Institute. 

The Principal would herewith publicly acknowledge the many courtesies, the 

active co-operation and the valuable help received from a very large number of 

geiitlonien. The work, in his opinion, has come to assume a permanent character, 

and will, in some form, be continued. 

Respectfully submitted, 

December 26, 1888. WU.LIAM R. HARPER. 



Barney. Eugene J., Dayton, O $ 75.00 

Bartlett, Rev. F. W., Williamstown, 

Mass 3.00 

Bissell, Prof. Edwin C, Hartford, Conn. 5.0O 

Bolton, Rev. H.W., ChieaK-o, III 10.00 

Bradish, Rev. J. Q., New York, N. Y.. . . 5.00 

Briggs, Rev, H. F., Evaaston. Ill 3.00 

Brown, Alex., Philadelphia, Pa 50.00 

Brown, Prof. Chas. R., Newton Centre, 

Mass 25.00 

Burnham, Prof. S., Hamilton, N. Y 20.00 

Calki ns. Rev. H. R., Evanston, 111 3.00 

Carwarciine, Rev. H. W.. Evanston, 111.. 3.00 

Cartwright, Rev. 1. C, Evanston, 111. . .. 3.00 

Charlton, Rev. Adara, Lynedoch, Ont. . 3.00 

Clarke, Rev. Wm., Evanston, 111 1.00 

Clissold, H. R., Morgan Park, 111 10.00 

Coffin, Lemuel, Philadelphia, Pa 50.00 

Colby, Hon. Chas. L., Milwaukee, Wis.. 30.00 

Colby, Rev. Henry P., Dayton, 5.00 

Converse, Edmund W.. Boston, Mass... 30.00 

Converse, John H., Philadelphia, Pa.... .50.00 

Converse, J. W.. Boston. Mass 25.00 

Craig. Rev. A. E., Evanston, 111 3.00 

Crandall, C. E., New Haven, Conn 30.00 

Crandall. Ezra. Milton, Wis 35.00 

Crosby. Rev. Howard. New York, N. Y. 20.00 

Crowell, Geo. E., Brattleboro, Vt 25.00 

Crozer, G. K., Chester. Pa 25.00 

Crozer, J. Lewis, Philadelphia, Pa 20 00 

Crozer. Samuel A., Chester, Pa 35.00 

Cunningham, Rev. G. E., Evanston, 111. 1.00 

Currier, Prof. A. N., Iowa Citv, la 3.50 

Curtis, Prof. E. L., Chicago, 111 25.00 

Curtis, S.M., Newark, Del 5.00 

Dales, Rev. J. B., Philadelphia, Pa 50.00 

Dana, Rev. S. W., Philadelphia, Pa 35.00 

Davis, Rev. Geo. W., New Haven, Conn. 10.00 

Davis, Rev. J. P., Evanston, III 2.00 

Deering. Wm.. Evanston, III 20.00 

Denio, Prof. F. B., Bangor, Me 25.00 

Denison, John N., Boston, Mass 100.00 

Dexter, Rev. Henry M., Boston, Mass.. 10.00 

Dodge, Rev. D. Stuart. New York, N. Y. .50.00 

Douglass, Benjamin, Chicago, 111 450.00 

Fisk, Rev. W., Evanston, 111 3.00 

Fox, Rev. J. W., Buda, III 2.00 

Frazier, W. W., Philadelphia, Pa 50.00 

Goodman & Dickerson, Chicago, 111 50.00 

Goodspeed, Rev. Geo. S., New Haven, 

Conn 10.00 

Griffith, Rev. A. M., Evanston, 111 3.00 

Grover, W. O., Boston, Mass 100.00 

Hangan. Rev. P., Evanston, 111 3.00 

Harper, Prof. W. R., New Haven, Conn. 200.00 
Harrington, Rev. C. K., Yokahama, 

Japan 20.00 

Harrison, Mrs. Geo. L., Philadelphia, Pa. 50 00 

Henderson, A. M., Chicago, III .. .. 25,00 

Henderson, Rev. J. A., Omaha. Neb .5.00 

Herhen, Hev. S. J.. Evanston, 111 3.00 

Holbrook, Z. S., Evanston, 111 10.00 

Jaycox, Mrs. E. L., Evanston, 111 5.00 

Jessup, Morris K., New York, N. Y lOO.OO 

Johnson, Prof. Herrick, Chicago, 111.. .. 30.00 

Jones, Rev. S. F., Evanston, III 10.00 

Kevan, Hev. J. H., Evanston, 111 3.00 

King, Dr. Chas. R., Philadelphia, Pa. . . . 25.00 

Kirby, Rev. R. M., Pottsdara, N. Y 6.00 

Landis, Prof. J. P., Dayton, O 20.00 

Larish, Rev. G. I., Evanston, III 3.00 

Lewis, Rev. E. G., Evanston, 111 5.00 

McClenahan, Prof. D. A., Allegheny, Pa. 60.00 

McDowell, Rev. J. Q. A.. New Castle, Pa. 5.00 
MeKee, Rev. Will. P., Minneapolis, 

Minn 5.00 

McKibbon, Prof. Geo. F., Granville, O.. 6.00 

McKirahan, Wm., Hookstown, Pa 35.00 

McYickar. Rev. W. N., Philadelphia, Pa. 50.00 

McWilliams, Daniel W., Brooklyn, N. Y. 250.00 

Miller, A. H., Philadelphia. Pa 20.00 

Miller, Miss M. S., Philadelphia, Pa 10.00 

Monroe, Elbert B., Southport, Conn. . . . 200.00 

Noyes, Rev. J. C Evanston, 111 10.00 

Parker. Prof. L. P., Iowa City, la 2.50 

Potts, Jos. D., Philadelphia, Pa .50.00 

Powers, Mrs. Thos. H., Philadelphia, Pa. 50.00 

Bainey, Wm., Cambridge. 10.00 

Rapp, Hev. J. J., Evanston, 111 3.00 

Reiehelt, Jno. A., Chicago. Ill 25.00 

Rhoades, Rev. W. C. P., Brooklyn, N. Y. 6.00 

Richards, C. W., Oswego, N. Y 10.00 

Robert. H. M., Oswego, N. Y 30.00 

Robertson, Rev. P., Cincinnati. 10.00 

Robie, Edward. Greenland, N. H 6.00 

Rockefeller, Jno. D., New York, N. Y.. . 300.00 

Roy, Rev. J., Cobourg, Ont 1.00 

Salsman, Rev. F. J., Newton Centre, 

Mass 1 00 

Scott, Rev. W. T., Evanston, 111 8.00 

Smith, Rev. E., Evanston, 111 3.00 

Snow, Rev. Fred. A., Newton Centre, 

Mass 1.00 

Strangland, Rev. E. J., Evanston. Ill 3.00 

Stearns, Prof. O. S., Newton Centre, 

Mass 10.00 

Summey, Prof. Geo., Chester, S. C 25.00 

Thomas, Rev. Jno. H., Lawrenceburg, 

Ind 3.00 

Thorne, C. C, Pitman, Fla 2.00 

Thresher, E. M., Davton. O 25.00 

Tingle, Rev. G. W., Evanston, 111 1.00 

Wheeler, Andrew. Philadelphia, Pa . 25 00 
Whitaker, Rt. Rev. O. W., Philadelphia, 

Pa 15.00 

White, Jno. G., Philadelphia, Pa 10.00 

Whittlesey, Rev. N. H., Evanston, 111... 10.00 

Wright, Rev. K. A., Evanston, 111 1.00 

Total Endowment ?3,356.00 


The Old Testament Student. 

Tear Ending Deceubeh 1, 1888. 

Correspondence School: 

Tuition refunded $ 19.50 

Salaries 1,420.01 

Printlnir and Stationery.. 4K).-.'l 

Advertising IBH.OO 

Postage 15!i.O!) 

General Expense a8.20 


New England Scm.mer School: 

Salaries t 378.27 

Prlntinir and Stationery.. Ig.Kf 

Advertising 61.88 

Postaire 77.31 

General Expense 51.64 


Philadelphia Summer School: 

Salaries t 5.58.75 

Printing and Stationery.. 20.08 

Advertising 51.89 

Postage 77.00 

General Expense 45.91 


Chicago Summer School: 

Salaries $ 628.25 

Printing and Stationery.. 17.09 

'Advertising 51.88 

Postage B8.36 

General Expense 8.U3 


Southern Summer School: 

Salaries $ 52.16 

Printing and Stationery. , 17.59 

Advertising 51.88 

General Expense 8.84 


Cognate Class,— Printing and Station- 
ery $ 1.00 

Endowment Fund Expense 13:). 62 

Principal's Salary 1,200.00 

Executive Committee Expense 15.25 

Institute Expenses, rent, interest, etc. 207.86 

Loans 1,775.00 

Office Furniture 5.00 

Summer School Circular, paid by ad- 
vertising, etc 223.75 

Balance on hand, Dee. 1, 1888 227.72 



Dalance on hand from 1887 $118.21 

From Endowment Fund $3,356.00 

Advertising and Postage 
Summer School Circular.. 223.75 
Tu itlon-fees in Cor. School 

1887 80.30 

Tuition-fees In Cor. School 

1888 1,368.68 

Incidental-fees at New 
England Summer School. 132.60 

Koom-rent at same 37.50 

IncidentMl fees at I'hila- 
delpliia Summer School.. 173.00 
Incldintalfccs at Chicago 

Summer School 415.00 

Loans 2,389.94 

Tuition-fees In Cognate 

Class 22.17 





Endowment Fund arrears (estimated) 

Tuition-fees arrears (estimatedl 

Printed matter 

$ 227.72 




.... $1,389.04 

Excess of Liabilities over Assets 

f »10..-)2 



The Committee appointed to audit the Treasurer ".s Report have examined the 
accounts and found them correct, ■v\'ith vouchers corresponding. 

Charles A. Briggs, 
Wallace AV. Lovejoy. 



With the purpose of these vohimes one cannot but be in hearty sympathy. 
They aim to give a continuous exposition of the two Boolis of Samuel. It is to 
be expected that the worli to be found in them will be based on the widest knowl- 
edge and animated by a devout spirit. From the author's reputation as a scholar 
one has a right to look for this. Dr. Blaikie's contributions to biblical history 
have been singularly able and helpful. What of the workmanship here displayed ? 
Much may be said in praise. There are serious faults, however, which greatly 
mar its otherwise commendable character. The author indulges too freely in 
imaginative flights on which he founds homiletic conclusions which are altogether 
too unsubstantial. To conjecture for example (cf. p. 127, vol. I.), that the asses of 
Kish which had strayed were specially needed, so that the operations of the farm 
had to be suspended in consequence ; and then to urge upon all the blessedness 
of equauimity under similar circumstances — do not call this exposition ; it might 
better be named Miiposition. These volumes are, unfortunately, too full of this 
kind of thing. Exception might be taken, also, to the expositor's unfavorable 
conception of Elkanah as not justified by the facts ; to his dark and unsympa- 
thetic delineation of Saul and the correspondingly too highly favorable portrayal 
of David. Yet no one can fail to be more or less profited by the perusal of these 
expositions or to be convinced that expository preaching if done on right methods 
is in the highest degree attractive and edifying. 


This book contains " a succinct outline of each of the books of the Old Tes- 
tament, giving attention to authorship, date, contents, chief critical difficulties, 
and such literature as may aid in the solution of the difficulties." The author 
has succeeded in condensing his information into 148 pages (7 J in. x 5 in.) and 
in presenting us with the established facts in a very handy form. Where there is 
room for difference of opinion, he has refrained carefully from dogmatizing, and 
contents himself with giving the various theories. The book will render its best 
service when supplemented by oral instruction, but is nevertheless an excellent 
guide to students who wish independently to make their way through the litera- 
ture of the topics suggested. The main facts concerning the twelve minor 
Prophets are given in two convenient tables at the end. The book supplies a 
need which has long been felt and in the attractive dress which the publisher has 
given it, will doubtless be very cordially welcomed by all interested in the study 
of the Old Testament. 

* I. The First Book of Samuel. By Rev. Prof. W. G. Blaikie, D. D., LL. D. The Exposi- 
tor's Bible. "Se.w York: A. C. Armstrong A Son. II. The Second Book of Samdel. By the 

+ Introduction to the Books of the Old Testament. With Analyses and illustrative 
literature. By O. S. Stearns, D. D., Professor of Biblical Interpretation in Newton Theo. Inst. 
Boston; Silver, Burdetf and Co. SI.OO. 



Buddliism In iu ConneclUm xciOi Brahmtniiim 
and Hittduism and in iU Contrast with ChrU- 
tkiniti/. Uy Sir Mouier Williams. Loiidou: 

BiCKH/lyphic Bible: Ueinu a Careful Selectiim nf 
the munt tntnrxtino and Itnpiirthnt Ptijigaiiejs in 
the Uld and New TrMament; lieijuUirly Ar- 
ranged frtnn Oene»i» to Revelation. Etnbel- 
listatd and Illustrated with Hundreds of En- 
^ravinps on Wood. New York: Scribner & 

Manual oj mblical Archtenligy. By Karl Fred- 
erick Keil. With alterations and ..Additions 
furnished by the Author of the Enirllsh 
Translation. Vol. II. Translated from the 
German, and Edited by the Ker. Alexander 
Cusin. .M. A. Ibid. 

Das Buch der IteligUiuen. Nach ehristliche und 
jiidische Quellen. By A. Franz, Stuttgart, 

The Story of Daniel: hit Life and Time*. Second 
edition. Edinburgh; Gemmell, !«)» 5s. 

The Bible View of the Jewish Church. By How- 
ard Crosby, D. D. New York: Funk & Wair- 



The Beginntnyn of Heliginn. By Thomas Scott 
Bacon. London: Kivin^rtons $4.40. 

Crudeyt's Complete Concordance to the Old and 
New Tejitnmenta and the Apochrypha. Edited 
bj' Wm. Younginau. New York: 


Noeldeke on the Primitive Religion nf leraet. 

Biblical Kesearch in The Independent, Dec. 

20. IKSK. 
Hitzig'i DieZwolf Klcinen Propheten. Critique 

hv E. Kenan iu .Journal des Savants, Nov., 

Aini<worth'ft Personal Narrative of the Euphrates 

Expedition. Keviow In Athenaeum, Dec. 23, 

Ishim an a Political Syntem. By A. T. Sibbold 

in National Kevicw, Jan., ]»8». 
Pff/iV." TrtHis II. Critiiiue in Independent, Jan. 

:j. 1.H811; also in S. S. Times. Jan. 3, 1SS9. 
Biblical Renearch. The Independent, Jan. 10, 

Behind the Synagogue. By A. B. Ehrllch. Ibid., 

Jan. 17, 1889. 
Die lo Frstreise-Psalmen (Ps. liO-lMl. 11. By 

G. Sturmtels in Der Bcw. d. Glaub., Dec, 

Mngeji' Idea of Ood, deduced mainly from the 

nnmei< which he aftpUc^ to him. IV. By Eph. 

M. Epsioin, in Christian Quarterly Heview, 

Jan., 1889. 
The Growth of Religion. By Rev. E. L. Shaffer 

in Unlversalist Quarterly. Jtm., 1889. 
The Levirate Marriage. By Prof. W. W. Davis. 

Ph. D., in The Christian Advocate, Deo. 13, 

Mohammed and Ma Koran. By Prof. H. M. 

Harmuii, 1). D., in Methodist Review, Jan., 


Iiaethgen';< Bcitriige zur semitischen Religlnns- 
Ut:r:chichte. Critique In the Sunday School 
Times, Dec. 29, 1888. 

Oencnis and Geobigy. By Prof. A. Crawford in 
VirB^lnia Seminary Magazine, Jan., 1889. 

Humphrev'f Sacred Iliftory. By Dr. J. F. Lati- 
mer in Presliyterinn Quarterly, Jan., 1*89. 

Cheync'f Psalms. By Dr. W. «". .Moore. Ibid. 

.4 Plea for the Bible. By W. Willner in the Jew- 
isli .Metssenger. Jan. 2.'), 1889. 

Lepers and Leprosy in the Bast, By Susan E. 
Wallace in the Sunday School Times, Jan. 3, 

Poetry of the Bible. By Prof. Dr. Philip Scbaff. 
Ibid., Jan. 19. 

L'iii7)/ of the Pentateuch. Book Review. Ibid. 

Sludien liber das alte .lerusalem. By Brandt In 
Deutsch-Evantr., Bliitl. 10-12, 1888. 

The Site of Ebenezer. WiUi a note by C. R. 
Conder. Bv Th. Chaplin In Pal. E.xpl. Fund., 
Oct., 1888. 

Tlie Conduit iiCAir the Pool nf Bethesda. By W. 
Simpson. Ibid. 

The Study of the Septuaglnt. By H. A. Redpath 
in the Clergyman's Magazine, Dec, 1888. 

The Bible a (;<«/«•( <i/ hJvents. A PnsUiumous 
Essay. By Kev. Chas. T. Collins in the An- 
dover Review, Jan., 1889. 

Assyrian and Heltrew ChmnnUigy- By Rev. 
James Orr, D. D., In The Presbyterian Re- 
view, Jan., 1889. 

Reviews nf Recent Literature.—" Blaikic's2 Sam- 
uel," by .1. D. Davis; "Ca.«8ell's Esther," by 
C. A. Aiken: "Curry's Job"; "Bradley's 
Lectures on .lob'*; " Wace's Apocrypha," by 
C. A. Briggs ; " Henan's Israel"; Stade's 
Geschichte": " KIttell's Goschlchte," by F. 
Brown; "Green's Hebrew Grammar," by 
S. I. Curtiss: " Harper's Hebrew Syntax," by 
Briggs, in the Presbyterian Review, Jan., 

Critical Note. Divine Human Names. By Thos. 
Laurie. D. D.. in BIbliotheca Sacra, Jan., 1889. 

The Bible and the Homily in Old English. By 
Prof. T. W. Hunt, Ph. D., in The Homlletic 
Iteview. Feb.. 1889. 

Studies in the Psalter. U. The Sixteenth Pgalm. 
Bv T. W. Chambers, D. D. Ibid. 

The Last Nine Chapters of Ezchicl. By F. W. 
Farrar, D. D., in the E.xpositer, Jan., 1889. 

The .•icriptural Idea of I'ricsthnod embodied in 
Su/:eejisive Types. By Rev. F. Rendall, A. M. 

DeliUsch's Nnter Cnmmentar llher die Getieais. 
Review by Kautzsch in Theo. Stud. u. Krit., 
2. 18.89. 

La Prophitie Juive. By Eugene Bersier in Re- 
vue Chretienne, Jan. 1. 1889. 

Lcji Livres sacres de I'Orient. Bv Mm. Bartb. 
Saint Hiiaire in Journal des Savants. Dec, 

The ApiKrypha. In the Edinburgh Review, 
Jan.. 18.S9. 

The Nim^s of God. In Church Quarterly Re- 
view, Jan., 1889. 

Renan's Hlttory of Israel. Ibid. 

Where are the Ten Tril>es7 II. By Dr. Neu- 
Iniuer in Jewish Quarterly Review. Jan.. 1889. 

The l{ and Development of the Massorah. By 
Kev. J. D. Harris, M. A. Ibid. 

.Mmlic Pasmges in the Psalms. By C. G. Monte- 
tlnip. Ibid. 

The Book nf Hnsea In the Light nf Assj/rian Re- 
search. By Prof. A. H. Sayce. Ibid. 



[Copyright by W. R. Harper, 1888.] 

Forty Studies on the Life of tlie Christ, based ou the Gospel of Mark. 

Edited by William R. Harper, Yale University, New Haven. 


Besnme. 1. The reason for Jesus' entry into Jerusalem. 3. The explanation of the circum- 
stances attending it. 3. The lesson of the barren flg-tree. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Read carefully Mark 11 :27-12:17, and be able to make a definite statement concern- 
ing each of the following points, e. g. : 

1. Jesus in the temple (v. 27) ; 4. the quotation (vs. 10,11) ; 

2. a discussion concerning his au- 5. the result (v. 12) ; 

thority (vs. 28-33) ; 6. discussion concerning tribute (vs. 

3. parable of the wicked husband- 13-17). 
men (12:1-9); 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. With Ml5. 11:37-12:17 cf. Mt. 21:23-22:22; Lk. 20:1-26. 

3. Note the light thrown on Mark in Mt. 21:23,46; 22:15,22; Lk. 20:1,6,20,26. 

3. Observe the additional material, Mt. 21:28-32,43,44; 22:1-14; Lk. 20:18. 

4. Compare carefully the three accounts of the parable, Mk. 13:1-9; Mt. 21:33-41; Lk. 20:9-16, 

observing likenesses and differences in statement, and note the bearing of the results 
upon the relation of these narratives to each other. 

, III. The Material Explained. 


L) V. 27. (a) Walking; and teaching; an ized teacher; (3) of the Christ; 

ancient custom. Cf . John 10:23. (b) as to its source. Note its pur- 

ib) Chief priests, etc.; i. e. repre- pose, either (a) to inquire into 

sentatives of the ecclesiastical his claims ; (b) to find ground for 

authority. accusation; (c) to awe him into 

2) T. 28. A double question; (a) as to the silence, or (d) to discredit him 

kind of authority, whether, e. g., before all. 
(1) of a prophet ; (3) of an author- 


The Old Testa jubnt Stthjent. 

3) V. ao. Tlic bapUtm of John ; i. e. his 

work as summed up In this sym- 

4) V8. 30-33. Consider the design of Jesus (a) 

to catch them : rb) to disclose 
their sin In relation to John; (o) 
to compel them to confess John's 
work as from God, and therefore 
(d) the divine source of his own 
authority to which John testlfled. 

5) Ch. 12:1, Learnsomethlngof oriental vine 

culture as represented here. 

6) V. i. Receive tliefruitg; 1. e. as rent for 

the land. 

7) T. 10. (a) Explain the figure; (b) note 

the original appUcatlou of the 
passage ; ic) Jesus' use of It. 

8) V. 13. They neiid; for the persons sent 

cf. Mt. ;£;:I0. 

9) V. 14. (a) Care»t luA; 1. e. "art no parti- 


(b) Beoardegt not the person ; a 
Hebrew Idiom; cf. Deut. 1:17; 
Prov. 34:'J3. 
10) V. 17. (a) Render; lit. "pay back" what 
is due. 

(b) Marvelled greatly ; for what 


1) The Parsble. (a) Recall In a vivid picture the story (Mk. 12:1-9) and observe its relation to 

Isa. .">:1,2; (b) make a brief statement of what may be regarded as Its essential teaching 
and compare this with Isa. .5:3-7; (c) study the details and determine how far they have a 
special application, c. g. (1) the vineyard, its parts and products; (2) the husbandmen, 
whether the people as a whole or their rc'li)rioiis leaders; (3) the lord, the servants and the 
son; (4) the "others" (v. 9), whether the Gentiles or the followers of Jesus as a whole; 
(d) compare the parables in Mk. 4:1-34 in their purpose and form (cf. "Study" IX. ill. 

2) The Political Situation, (a) Note the existence of Caesar's rule in .Jerusalem 

(Mk. 12:14-17) ; (b) learn something of the way this rule was regarded (1) by 
the people in general, (2) by the Pharisees, (3) by the llerodians; (c) con- 
sider how Jesus was situated in relation to this rule, (1) what was expected 
of him as the Christ in national affairs, (2) the probable attitude of the 
Romans in view of this e.xpectation ; (d) from this point of view consider 
the critical importance of this question and its answer (vs. 15,17) ; (e) study 
the answer of Jesus (v. 17) and decide whether (1) it was an evasion, (2) it 
was a virtual surrender to Csesar, (.■?) it offered a new solution of the prob- 
lem ; (f) if the latter, endeavor to state the principle which Jesus here laid 
down and observe the position of the Apostolic Church in relation to it 
(Rom. 13:1-7; 1 Pet. 2:13-17; Acts 4:19). 

IV. The Material Organized. 

1. Gather the material and classify it under the following heads: 1) persons; 2) habits and cus- 

toms; 3) Important teachings; 4) O. T. quotations; ii) literary data. 

2. Conderuie the material, according to methods already employed, under the general topic of 

jDdgments of the King, regarding 1) himself, 2) his people, 3) other rulers. 

V. The Material Applied. 

Religion and Politics. 1. Having determined the teaching of Jesus upon the 
relations of politics and religion (Mk. 12:17) as to 1) their separation, and 
2) the duty of the Christian to the State. 2. Apply these teachings to the 
following positions: 1) a Cliristiaii should have nothing to do with politics; 
2) religious matters are a direct concern of the State ; 3) the Church should 
interfere directly with questions of politics. 3. Show what bearing, if any, 
these teachings have upon the following subjects : Religion in the common 
schooU; Preaching the Chspel where civil law forbids; Political prohibition of 
the liquor traffic; Sabbath legislation. 

New Testament Supplement. 



BeBDme, 1. Jesus' reception in the Temple. 3. The purpose and results of the discussions into 
which he is drawn. 3. His teaching concerning' civil government. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Read carefully Mk. 12:18-44 and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points, e. g. : 

4. the feeling of the people (v. 37) ; 

5. Jesus' denunciation of the scribes 
(vs. 38-40) ; 

6. the widow's offering and its lesson 
(vs. 41-44) ; 

1. Discussion with the Sadducees 

2. a scribe's inquiry and its answer 
(vs. 28-34) ; 

3. Jesus' appeal to David (vs. 35, 

n. The Material Compared. 

With Mk. 12:18-44, cf. Mt. 22:15-23:!; Lk. 20:21-21:4. 

Note special features in each account, e.g. Mk. 13:38,31-34,37,41 ; Mt. 22:33.40,41-43; Lk. 20:3i»- 
Study resemblances and differences in the three accounts; e. g. comparing Mk. 12:24,35 and 
Mt. 22:2!t,30 with Lk. 20:84-36 ; and Mk. 13:38-40; Lk. 20:45-47 with Mt. 23:1-7. 

III. The Material Explained. 


1) T. 18. 

6) T. 28. 

3) T. 19. 

3) V. 24. 

4) T. 25. 

ti) V. 20. 


(a) Re»urrcction ; i. e. of the 
body, Involving the immortality 
of the soul. 

(b) Asked; (1) motive of this 
question, whether serious dis- 
cussion or to discredit Jesus by 
this absurd case? (3) What it 
implied as to Jesus' views of res- 
urrection, ef. John 5:38,39. 
Moses wrote; (a) cf. Deut. 35: 
5,6; (b) the custom was called 
" brother-in-law (levirate) mar- 
riage"; (c) reason for it? 
Err; (a) note the mildness of 
Jesus; (b) what the error was (1) 
as to the manner of resurrec- 
tion, (3) in the consequent denial 
of any resurrection; (c) observe 
the twofold cause of the twofold 

(a) Argument from Gods' powei'; 

(b) meeting the error as to man- 
ner of resurrection; (c) lighten 
(1) angels, (3) relations of the 
heavenly state. 

(a) Argument from the Script- 
ures; (b) meeting the denial of 
resurrection ; (c) estimate the 
meaning and force of the argu- 
ment, whether (1) merely verbal 
and fallacious, or (3) an appeal 

7) V. 31. 

8) V. 32. 

9) V. 35. 

10) V. 38. 

nature of God and his cove- 
nant relations to the patriarchs, 
which involved their continued 
existence; (d) its bearing upon 
those not in the covenant. 
Asked; the motive for this ques- 
tion in view of Mt. 33:35, whether' 
(a) to test his ability, or (b) to 
tempt him (1) to take sides for 
or against tradition, or (3) to 
convict him of blaspheming in 
his claim to be God's Son, in view 
of his answer (v. 29); cf. John 
5:18; 10;33,3(i. 

The second; why add this? 
Well said ; the spirit of this reply ? 

(a) Aimvered; either (1) the reply 
in Mt. 33:43 or (3) the secret argu- 
ment in Mk. 13:38. 

(b) Bow say ; i. e. "in what 
sense ;" (1) does Jesus deny the 
fact? Cf. Mk. 10:47; Mt. 31:9; 
or (3) does he correct the com- 
mon view that a human and 
temporal Christ only was to be 
expected; and thus (3) answer 
the secret argument of v. 38 ? 
(a)7n the Holy Spirit; cf. Mk. 1:23 
("Study"IV. iii. 1. 3)). 
(b) David said; note three views* 
as to these words, (1) Jesus em- 

to the underlying facts of the 

phasized David's authorsUp of 

* The article in The 0. T. Student, Jan., 1889, by Prof. G. B. Stevens, on The Bearing of N. T. 
Statements upon the Authorship of O. T. Books, may be profitably consulted. Cf. the present (Feb. ) 
number also. 

236 The Old Testament Stitdent. 

the Psalm and was correct; (2) (b) Heard Mm gladiy; (1) because 

he was mistaken in declaring of his sllencingr his questioners ? 

that David wrote it; (3) he testi- or (2) because they favored this 

fled that it spoke of the Christ view of the Christ? 

but accepted the view of his l:;i Vs. :|8, 39. (a) Explain the customs here al- 
time as to its author without luded to; Cb) note the classes of 

testifying to its correctness. sins denounced ; (c) why were 

11) T. SJ. (a) Lord; (1) a higher than a hu- the scribes specially assailed ? 

man and temporal Christ; (2)how I.Ji V. 41. Motley; not for the poor butof- 

does this bear upon Jesus' idea ferings to the Lord, 

of himself? (3) Cf. Romans H) V. 44. All that she had; how did Jesus 

1:3,4. know this? Cf. John 4:18. 


1) JesQR as a Reasoner.. (a) Recall the part taken by Jesus in the discussions of 

Mk. 11:27-12:37; (b) seek examples of the following characteristics in his 
answers: (1) candor; (2) simplicity ; (3) boldness; (4) keenness; (5) gentle- 
ness; (6) severity; (c) inquire as to the evidence of (1) his use of verbal 
quibbling answers intended to puzzle ; (2) arguments based on literal and 
formal grounds; (3) arguments on broad spiritual principles; (4) a marvel- 
ous insight into the O. T. Scriptures and into the human mind ; (d) in a 
general way sum up the purpose and the results of these discussions as 
relates to(]) the hostile questioners; (2) Jesus and his disciples; (3) the 

2) The Sadducees.* (a) Learn something of their origin; (b) the class of people that composed 

them ; (c) their political and religious views ; (d) the good element in their religious 
position; (e) their relation to (1) Pharisees; (2) Romans; Ci) Jesus. 

IV. The Material Organized. 

1. Oather the material and classify It under the following heads: 1) persons; 2) habits and cus- 

toms; 3) important teachings j 4) Jesus and the O.T.; 5) Jesus as man and more than man; 
6) places; 7) historical allusions. 

2. Condctwe the material into the briefest possible statement and compare the results with the 


Sadiliirfes ini|ulrin!r of Jesus about n rase nliioh discredits the resurrection are told that God's 
noni implies a resurrection and (ioti's power Hill free the future iiPe from earthly conilitions. 
An in(]ulrinif scrilie is told that supreme love of (;od and unseitlsh lo\e of man are the great com. 
nianduients. The scribe, heartllj a-ssentini:. Is declared to be near the Kingdom <if (iod. Jesus 
asks. How can the ('hrist be Darhi's son and the psalm call him David's I.oril 1 He bids them 
beware of tlie srribeH whose Ambition, avarice and hypocrisy shall be conilemned. Hehoidintr a 
poor widow casting 11 gift into the treasury among others, he said, llecause sliu oast in all she 
had, she gave the most of ail. 

T. The Mat«rial Applied. 

1. Controversy. 1) Controversy upon religious subjects regarded as a means of 

demonstrating the truth ; 2) the right spirit to be maintained; 3) the temp- 
tations incident to it; 4) the failure of controversy especially with unbe- 
lievers ; 5) its weakness as lying in an appeal to the miud rather than 
to the heart; 6) what is more convincing than argument? 

2. Benevolence. Vs. 41-44. Determine from this incident 1 ) the right spirit in 

giving to God of one's property ; 2) the false and true measure of gifts- 
amount <as compared with means; 3) what might be expected to result 
were the true measure accepted by Christians. 

■ Cf. Smith's Bible Dictionary, Art. Sadducees. 

New Testament Supplement. 



Resame. 1. The spirit and purpose of the questioners of Jesus. 3. The answers of Jesus as 
revealing his views, 1) of the future life; 3) of the essence of religion; 3) of the Christ. 
3. His opinion of the scribes and the reason for it. 4. The issue of all these contro- 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Read carefully Mark 13:1-37, and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points, e. g. : 

1. Conversation on leaving the tem- 
ple (vs. 1,2); 

2. the disciples' inquiry (vs. 3,4); 

3. the prospect of social disturb- 
ances and their lesson (vs. 6-8) ; 

4. the prospect of personal trials 
and their lesson (vs. 9-13) ; 


the decisive sign and its lesson 
(vs. 14-23) ; 

6. the events to follow (vs. 24-27) ; 

7. the certainty and the uncertainty 
involved (vs. 28-32) ; 

8. the final warning (vs. 33-37). 

II. The Material Compared. 

In connection with Mk. 13:1-37 read with care Mt. 24:1-51; Lk. '21 :.5-38. 

Compare the three accounts more or less fully according to the time which can be given to 

this work, observing particularly, 1) new facts or statements. Jit. 24:3, 15, "20, 26-28, 30,37- 

41; Lk. 21:20,24-26,28; 3) the ditTerent forms of the parable, Mk. 13:34-36; Mt. 24:43-51; 

Lk. 21:34-36. 
From this comparison draw some conclusions as to the origin and relations of these three 

reports of this speech. 

in. The Material Explained. 


I) T. 3. 
3) v. 4. 

3) T. G. 

4) Vs 

• 'r 

5) V. 


6) v. 


7) v. 


8) v. 


Mount of Oliveg; its location in 
reference to Jerusalem ? 

(a) These things ; i. e. (I) the event 

of V. 2; (3) the events of Mt. 24: 9) V. 13. 
3b, regarded either as involved 
in (1), or as distinct from it. 

(b) Note the two questions here 
concerning (I) the time of the 
event and (3) the sign of its 
nearness. 10) V. 14. 

(a) Shall come ; i. e. " as you ex- 
pect me to come." Cf. Mk. 8:38; 
Mt. 16:28. 

(b) In my name ; i. e. *' as the 
Christ." Note Jesus' idea of 

Are these events to be regarded 

as literally to come to pass ? 

End; i.e. when "these things" 11) V. 15. 

shall come to pass ; so v. 13. 

Beginning of travail; i. e. only 

the beginning of disturbances 13) V. 19. 

leading up to the "end." 

Cf. Acts 5:27,40; 3 Cor. 11:24; 

Acts 24:1; 25:23-27. 

(a) First; 1. e. "before the end." 13) V. 24. 

(b) This prophecy either (1) may 
be regarded as having its ful- 

fillment in that generation (cf. 
Col. 1:6,33; Kom. 1:8); or (3) is 
still to be fulfilled. 

(a) Hated; why was this to be 
expected ? 

(b) Saved; from what? (1) the 
material destruction (vs. 6-13)? 
or (3) spiritual disaster and final 
loss ? Cf . V. 30. 

(a) Abomination of desolation; i. 
e. the abominable thing (or per- 
son) producing desolation. For 
the event referred to cf. Lk. 31: 
20; Mt. 34:15. 

(b) Him that 7-eadcth; (1) either 
this record, referred to by the 
writer, or (3) Daniel 9:37; 11:31, 
referred to by Jesus. 

Not go down; i. e. through the 
house, but by the outer stair- 

(a) Those days; i. e. following the 
event of v. 14. 

(b) After; how long ? Cf. Lk. 31: 
34b: Mt. 24:29. 

Those days; how related to (1) v. 
14 and (3) v. 19? 


The Old Tbstament Sttident. 

l!i) V. S2. Neither Hie Son; whether (a) be- 

cause he would not ? or (hi be- 
cause he could not ? 

20i T. SS. Pray: whether (a) lor his com- 

ing ? or (b) lo be prepared for It ? 

21) Ta. :!4-SC. (a> Note the essential thought: 
(b> consider the significance of 
the details: (1) the lord; (2) the 
servants and the porter; (3i the 
house; (4) the night seasons (v. 
35); (6) "sleeping." 

14) Ts. 24,2.1. (a) Are these evenU literal ?or(b) 

Is the language symbolical 7 Cf . 

Joel 2:1,2,10; Isu. 13:8-10. 
ir>) V. 26. Sim of Man; of. Dan. 7:13; Mt. 


16) V. 27. Angclg; either (a) "messengers" 

(cf. Mai. 3:1), apostlesand preach- 
ers, or (b) angelic beings. 

17) T. 29. Theee things ; either the event of 

(1) vs. l>-23 or (2) vs. 14-23 only. 
So V. 30. 

18) V. 30. This generation; whether (1) the 

present generation, cf. Mk. 9:1, 
or (2) the Jewish people ? 


The Interprelatlon of (lie Discourse, (a) Note the elements of diflBculty in under- 
standing its meaning, (1) words indefinite in respect to the time or event 
referred to, e. g. these things (vs. 4,8,29,30), end (vs. 7.13), first (v. 10), those 
days (vs. 19,24), all things (v. 23), the time (v. 33); (2) phrases ambiguous in 
meaning, e. g. all nations (v. 10), angels (v. 27), this generation (v. 30); (b) 
consider the two principal explanations of the discourse ; (1) two events, 
widely separate in time, are predicted— the destniction of Jenisalem, with 
its sign (v. 14)— the coming of the Christ with two successive signs (vs. 6-8, 
9-13) ; (2) one event is predicted— the coming of the Christ, which is iden- 
tical with the destruction of Jerusalem, with three successive signs (vs. 5-8, 
9-13,14); (c) according to the first view how interpret (1) v. 10; (2) after, 
v. 24 (cf. Mt. 24:29); (3) v. 30; (4) v. 32; (d) according to the second view 
how interpret (1) v. 10; (2) angels, v. 27 ; (3) v. 32 as over against v. 30? 
(e) taking all things into consideration what view is most acceptable V 

IV. The Material Organized. 

1. Gather the material and classify it under the following heads: 1) places, 2) important events, 

3) historical allusions, 4) important teachings, 5) Jesus as man and more than man, 0) lit- 
erary data. 

2. Condenne the material, Mk. 13:1-37, into the briefest possible statement, e. g. : 

VS. 1-4. 


Jesus declares that the temple, massive as it Is, shall be totally destroyed. 

is asked concerning the time and the sign of these events, 
vs. .S-S. He replies, False Christs, social conHicts, physical disturbances, will come as the 

beginning of trouble, 
vs. 9-13. You will suffer persecutions and hatred from all for my sake and you must 

preach everywhere first: he that endureth will reach the end. 
vs. 14-23. But when the impious desolator comes, then flee at once, for only in God's 

mercy will any escape from the unparalleled trial. False Christs will appear; 

but 1 have warned you. 
vs. 24-27. After this in the midst of diatiirtiances in the heavens the Son of Man shall 

gloriously appear and gather his elect, 
vs. 38-37. As the budding tree tells of summer nigh, these things tell of his coming, yea, 

even in this generation my sure word predicts their fulflllmcut. The time only 

the Father knows. Watch and pray as the porter watches for his absent mas- 
ter, uncertain of his coming. 

vs. 1-3". IVlini .IcsuK liiiil Hiilil llijit till* leniplp irnuld he totally dostroyed and his disciplcM 
iiii|iiiri'il thr tliiir mid lite siuii iil' thos*' tliliitrs. ho repllod: When .1 sciinoii of mm-IiiI 
and physical distiirlianro Is past and Ihoiitcli pt-rsociitcd for niy sake )itu hate pri-arlicd 
everyHliiTi', ulicn. tliially. the inipioiis dt'sidutiir is come, flee from the anfnl trial that 
shall fVdIiin. Alter it, nith portents in the heatcns, the Son of Man slinll appear. 
TlieKc tilings arc coinlni; in this generation. The Father alone knons the tlnte. IVatch 
and pra). 

New Testament Supplement. 239 

Y. The Material Applied. 

Watchfulness, l. A needful element in the Christian life in view of the com- 
ing of the Christ, which is 1) uncertain, 2) sudden. 2. The true spirit of 
watchfulness, 1) not anxiety, or 2) constant thought, but 3) readiness as 
manifested in (a) fidelity to present duty, (b) striving after perfection of 


Resume. 1. The circumstances of Jesus' departure from the temple. 2. An outline of the dis- 
course on the Mount of Olives. 3. The interpretation of that discourse. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mark 14:1-11, and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points, e. g. : 

1. The time (v. la) ; 4. the protest (vs. 4,5) ; 

2. the counsel of his foes (vs. lb,2) ; 5. the reply of Jesus (vs. 6-9) ; 

3. the scene at Simon's house (v. 3) ; 6. the traitor (vs. 10,11). 

II. The Material Compared. 

I. With Mk. li:l-ll. cf. Mt. 2G:1-16; Lk. 22:1-6; and note points in Mt. 26:1-3,15; Lk. 32:2-6. 

3. Compare 1) Lk. 7 :36-50, and from (a) internal resemblances, (b) differences, (c) relative posi- 
tion in the Gospel narratives, seeii to determine whether these are two accounts of the 
same event; 2) Jolm 12:1-8, and study in a similar way. 

3. If John 12:1-8 be regarded as narrating the same event as that of Mk. 14:1-11, 1) determine 
which gospel presents the true chronological order and 3) note the light it throws upon 
Mark; (a) the woman; (b) the guests; (c) the objector ; (d) other points. 

m. The Material Explained. 


I) V. 1. (a) 4/f«r tw)0 (toys; i.e. counting from (e) Brake; (1) peculiar to Mark; (2) 

the events of Mk. 13. Cf. Mt. 26:1. reason for breaking ? 

(b) iVot duriji© the femt; how and why 4) V. 5. (a) May this be regarded as a large 

was this plan changed ? sum ? 

3) V. 2. For; note (a) the reason for the " sub- (b) What may be Inferred as to the 

tilty" and the delay; (b) the feeling social position of the "woman"? 

of the people toward Jesus. (c) Mwi-mured; lit. " wroth-with." Cf. 

3) T. 3. (a) In Bethany; either (I) Immediately Mk. 1:43. The spirit of this criticism; 

after Mk. 13:3; or (2) at the time of cf. John 12:6. 

Mk. 11:1. Cf. John 12:1. 5) T. J. Note the twofold argument drawn 

(b) The leper; could he have been so from (a) the person; (b) his circum- 
at that time? Cf. Lev. 13:45,46. stances. 

(c) Spikenard; (1) for meaning cf. 6) V. 9. PTTioieioorM; what light upon the in- 
margln R. V. ; (3) note the use of oint- sight of Jesus ? Cf . Mk. 13 :10. 
ments among ancient peoples. 7) V. 10. He that was one, etc. ; emphatic ; cf. 

(d) Poured, etc.; the significance of Lk. 32:3. 
such an act, (a) in general, (b) her pur- 
pose, (c) Jesus' interpretation. 


Judas Iscariot. (a) Gather the facts in relation to Judas as given in the following 
passages: Mk. 3:19; John 13:29; 6:70,71; 12:5,6; Mk. 14:10,11; John 13: 

240 The Old Testament Student. 

26,27; 18:2; Lk. 22:47,48; Mt. 27:3-5; Acts 1:16,17; (b) in view of Mk. 3: 
19 consider why Jesus chose him, whether (1) ignorantly, or (2) hopefully, or 
(3) designedly (John 13:18); (c) why he followed Jesus, whether (1) with 
selfish aims solely, (2) with pure devotion, (3) with mixed motives; (d) 
inquire into the cause of his deterioration as connected with (1) his being 
the only Judean disciple, (2) his work— encouraging selfishness, (3) Jesus' 
insight into his mind (John 6:70,71); (e) cause for his act of betrayal as 
found in (1) covetouaness (John 12:6), (2) disappointment (Mk. 9:34-37), 
(3) spite and revenge (Lk. 22:47,48); (f) the explanation of his repentance 
(Mt. 27:3-5) ; (g) general summary of Judas' character, (1) its good points, 
(2) its fatal defects; (h) is Judas' character exceptional, (1) in its essential 
elements ? or (2) in its special circumstances ? 

IT. The Material Organized. 

1. Qathcr the maUrial and classify it under the following heads: 1) persons, 2) places, 3) habits 
and customs, 4) important events, 5) literary data, 6) Jesus as more than man. 

3. Condense the material verse by verse according to methods already indicated under the general 
topic of Beginning uf the Knd. 

T. The Material Applied. 

A Christian Phinciple of Life. Mk. 14:3-9. Observe how the following points 
are illustrated in this passage and consider their application to all right 
living : 1) the Christian principle of life— supreme devotion to Jesus Christ ; 
2) this determines one"s couree wlien duties seem to conflict (v. 5) ; 3) this 
develops unselfishness to its highest degree (v. 3); 4) this is fruitful not 
only in its local and immediate sphere (v. 8), but in permanent and wide- 
reaching benefits (v. 9). 

^T5E 'I'OhD 'I'mmjni'Eiim' STnDEp.-<> 

Vol. VIII. MARCH, 1889. No. 7. 

MOCH is being printed which professes to furnish a kej to the 
Bible or key-words to its separate books. The figure is a forcible one, 
suggesting both the riches that are contained in these Scriptures and 
the possibility of difficulty in appropriating them. But can one pos- 
sessor pass his key on to another .^ No; every one must fashion his 
own. What may be suggested as two keys of which all may avail 
theniselves .' These — devout study and simple obedience. 

The exalted character of the Bible is in no way more clearly 
shown than in a comparison with the finest products of other litera- 
tures. There have been many theories of the mode and process of 
creation, but none have ever approached the simple and sublime 
affirmations of the first chapter of Genesis. Many great thinkers have 
essayed to solve, in elaborate systems of philosophy or in epic and 
dramatic representations, the problem of human life with its inequali- 
ties and disappointments, but every one of them must yield to the pro- 
found wisdom of the Book of Job. And when the figure of the Man 
of Nazareth rises before us, who does not recall the glad confession of 
Augustine : "In Cicero and Plato and other such writers I find many 
things acutely said and many things that awaken fervor and desire, 
but in none of them do I find these words, 'Come unto me and I will 
give you rest.' " Gladly then should all such comparisons with other 
literatures be welcomed by lovers of the Bible, and those who pur- 
sue them be encouraged to continue. As the lesser hills of human 
thought standing by themselves seem lofty, so when brought under 
the shadow of the high mountains of God, while they will lose none of 

242 The Old Testament Student. 

their own grandeur, they will serve to make more impressive the 
majesty of those loftier peaks of divine revelation whose summits are 
lost in the heavens. 

The benefactors of any age are not those that criticise, but those 
that construct. A certain amount of destruction is inevitable in sys- 
tems of thought as in material things. Both wear out and must make 
way for better things. This enters into the divine method of working. 
"He taketh away the first that he may establish the second." It is a 
favorite saying to-day and a true one, that "every age must have its 
own theology." Our spiritual needs must be met ; our peculiar diffi- 
culties and temptations adequately provided for. The past may bring 
up its materials. It is our task to fashion them into new forms. The 
danger here is that what is negative and destructive will be empha- 
sized and pushed, to the comparative neglect of that which is estab- 
lished and positive. In the passion for discarding what is old, that 
which is permanently valuable is thrown away. The student of the 
Bible should remember this. Let him never forget to aim at positive 
results. If he must tear away and cast down much of the theological 
architecture of the fathers, let him see to it that he builds up some- 
thing which shall be a shelter and a citadel for his generation. In 
other words, in the study of the Bible, the chief aim, the ultimate 
purpose must be constructive. 

Patience is a virtue which has its place in Bible-study. Is it 
not often the case that students are in too much of a hurrj- to solve 
hard questions and unravel intricate difficulties connected with these 
Scriptures.' Do they not often discard and deny because some con- 
tradiction or knotty point does not yield at almost the first investiga- 
tion .'' Have we not seen young men who were already convinced that 
certain biblical problems were insoluble.-' It is well to bear in mind 
the element of patient reflection. Consider the growth of the Bible 
through the measured progress of centuries — how slowly it gathered 
itself together and became what it now is. What has been begotten 
in patience, in patience should be pondered and studied. 

To denounce the "higher criticism" of the Bible is regarded by 
some as a mark of orthodoxy, and soundness in the faith. More 
often, however, it is a mark of ignorance or bigotry. What is this 

Editorial. 243 

higher criticism so much dreaded and feared ? The higher criticism 
of the Bible is that science which investigates the Sacred Scriptures 
in reference to their historical and literary character. The lower 
criticism is concerned with the study of the text, the mechanical 
part of these ancient writings ; the higher, with the human life that 
was the vehicle of divine revelation. "An ancient book is, so to speak, 
a fragment of ancient life ; and to understand it aright we must treat 
it as a living thing, as a bit of the life of the author and his time, 
which we shall not fully understand without putting ourselves back 
into the age in which it was written." To do this is the work of 
higher criticism. It brings into relief, as far as possible, the living 
man who was the penman of God, but who wrote as no machine, nor 
even as a stenographer, taking mere dictation down, but with all his 
faculties alive and asserting their own individual force and power. 
The higher criticism discerns the personal peculiarities of the sacred 
writers, notes their special language and style, the material or class of 
facts, events, and thought, in which they present God's message 
to men. Without the results of the higher criticism, the Bible would 
be a dead mechanical book, containing the revelation of God in a col- 
orless form. But with the results it becomes a book instinct with 
life. We see behind it and through it living men, we hear their 
peculiar form of utterance, we listen to the special doctrines in which 
they delighted, we observe how they were moulded and influenced by 
the times in which they dwelt. They were men, not angels, who 
spake moved by the Holy Ghost, and it is the province of the higher 
criticism to bring out this human side of the Bible. This has been 
the especial field of biblical study during the present century, and 
if in any way the Bible is more clearly understood in historic setting 
and literary form than formerly, the debt is due to the higher critics. 
They are a noble band of scholars, taken as a whole, and their work 
should not be derided or made the subject of sarcastic sneer on account 
of the wild vagaries of a few of their number. 


By Prof. Ira M. Price, Ph. D., 

Chicago Baptist Union Theological Seminary, Morgan Park, 111. 

The prophetic order of the Old Testament is generally regarded as founded 
upon the authority of the utterances in Deut. 18:15,18. The order itself, however, 
did not exist until the time of Samuel. Between Closes and Samuel Israel passed 
through the middle ages of its history. Few characters appear who give shape to 
and mould poUtical and reUgioua life. No great character comes forth until 
Samuel is called. He is the last and the climax of the Judges, the end of the old 
order of things and the beginning of the new, the water-shed, the borderland 
between the theocracy and the monarchy. He, the reformer, the reorganizer of 
Israel, politically and religiously, the priest, prophet and judge, anoints the first 
two kings of Israel. Political and religious Israel is revolutioned in his day. By 
later Old Testament writers he is compared with Moses (Jer. 15:1, of. Ps. 99:6). 
During his life we find the existence of collections or schools of sons of the 
prophets. These are attributed to Samuel as their founder. They form the 
beginnings of the prophetic order, whose continuous existence can be tiaced down 
through Old Testament times, and whose influence is felt in all subsequent Old 
Testament history and literature. 

In the treatment of this subject the Old Testament will be used as the 
authority. Tradition and legend will not be considered. The endeavor shall be 
to examine and classifj' the information given concerning the sons of the prophets 
1) as collected in bands or schools; 2) in particular localities; 3) under different 
teachers; 4) with specified instruction; 5) with an occupation; 6) as to their 
means of subsistence. 

1. Bands or Schools. The earliest mention of these bauds is found in 
1 Sam. 10:2-5. AVhen Samuel has anointed Saul king of Israel he sends him 
away with certain directions. Saul is to meet three men going up to Bethel to 
worship. " After that," says Samuel, " thou shalt come to the hill (marg. Gibeah) 
of God, where is the gaiTison of the I'hilistines : and it shall come to pass, when 
thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a band of prophets coming 
down from the high place;" Samuel without doubt knew all about tliis band of 
prophets, and theii- order of worship at particular times. In 1 Sam. 19:20 we find : 
" And Saul sent messengers to take David : and when they saw the company of 
the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as head over them ; the spirit of 
God came upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied." 

Here a company is mentioned, while in tlie preceding passage they are called 
a band, without any information as to their probable numbers. When Jezebel 
was detei-miued on the destruction of the Lord's prophets we find (1 Kings 18:4) : 
" Obadiah took an hundred prophets and hid them by fifty in a cave, and fed them 
with bread and water." At this point (Samaria) we have fiurlher evidence of a 
band or collection of prophets in 1 Kings 22:6 : " Then the king of Israel gathered 

The Schools of the Sons of the Prophets. 246 

the prophets together about four hundred men." Again when the farmer from 
Baal Shalishah brought his contribution to Elisha, the old prophet commands him 
to set it before the people (sons of prophets), the man replied (2 Kings 4:43) : 
" What, should I set this before an hundred men ? " When Elisha returned from 
the east of Jordan, after the ascension of Elijah, the sons of the prophets at Jer- 
icho, fearing lest Elijah might have been cast upon some mountain or in some 
valley, and desiring to search for Mm, said (2 Kings 2:16): " Behold now, there be 
with thy servants fifty strong men." These passages all show that the sons of 
the prophets were not only collected in bands or companies, but that these com- 
panies consisted of considerable numbers. 

2. Their Headquarters. 1) Ramah. This was the birth-place and 
home of Samuel. After he made his yearly circuit as judge, " his return was to 
Ramah, for there was his house ; and there he judged Israel : and he built there 
an altar unto Jehovah " (1 Sam. 7:17). When Saul was in pursuit of David (1 Sam. 

19:18-24) " David fled, and escaped, and came to Samuel to Ramah and Saul 

sent messengers to take David, they saw the company of prophets prophesy- 
ing, and Samuel standing as head over them." In the narrative we find that 
three successive sets of messengers from Saul prophesy as soon as they come into 
contact with the sons of the prophets and also that Saul himself finally comes into 
the same state. At this place was without doubt the original school of the 
prophets as founded by Samuel. 

2) Bethel. We have no definite information that a school existed in this 
place in Samuel's day. But the inference from the information given is that it was 
a centre of worship (1 Sam. 10:3) and ere long became a headquarters for the sons 
of the prophets. In the reign of Jeroboam an old prophet made his home at^this 
place (1 Kings 13:11). While Elijah and Elisha were on then- way to the place of 
translation of the former, " The sons of the prophets that were at Bethel came 
forth to Elisha, and said unto him, knowest thou that Jehovah will take away thy 
master from thy head, to-day V And he said. Yea, I know it ; hold ye your peace," 
(2 Kings 2:3). After his return from the east of the Jordan, and after the heal- 
ing of the bitter waters near Jericho, Elisha " went up from thence to Bethel " 
(2 Kings 2:23), undoubtedly with the express purpose of reporting to the sons of 
the prophets his sad experience in the loss of his master, Elijah. 

3) Oilgal. Samuel's command to Saul (1 Sam. 10:8): "thou shalt go down 
before me to Gilgal," and the consequent prophesyings of Saul among the sons of 
the prophets in the neighborhood of Gibeah, are a reasonable evidence that at or 
near this point a school of the prophets was to be found in Samuel's day. At any 
rate, in Samuel's yearly circuit as judge (1 Sam. 7:16), Gilgal received his regular 
visits. Not again until Elijah's day do we have definite information on this 
point. " And it came to pass, when Jehovah would take up Elijah by a whirl- 
wind into heaven, that Elijah went with Elisha from Gilgal " (2 Kings 2:1). The 
two prophets were probably giving instruction in the school at this place. On 
their way they stop at two other schools to leave a parting word (2 Kings 2:2,4,5). 
A number of years after this time there was a famine in the land " and Elisha 
came again to Gilgal " (2 Kings 4:38). At this time he heals the pottage, poisoned 
by the use of wild gourds. At this point we learn that there were at this time 
about one hundred of these sons of the prophets (2 Kings 4:43). 

4) Jericho. The third stopping place of Elijah and Elisha on their last journey 
together was at Jericho. Here Elijah gives his last exhortation to the sons of the 

246 The Old Testament Student. 

prophets. After this was done (2 Kings 2:4-7) " they two went on. And fifty 
men of the sons of the prophets went, and stood over against them afar off." 
After the departure of Elijah, Elisha returns to Jericho (vs. 15-18) and tarries 
three days with the sons of the prophets, whence he goes on up to Bethel. The 
prosperity of this school may be inferred from 2 Kings 6:1.2, in which it is evi- 
dent that they had grown in numbers beyond the capacity of their building. 

5) Carmel. The evidence for this place as a headquarters of the sons of the 
prophets is inferential rather than positive. In IfKings 2, we find that Elisha on 
his return from the .Jordan and Jericho, " went up from thence unto Bethel" 
(v. 23), and "from thence to Mount Carmel"' (v. 25). When the .Shunammite 
woman was sorrowing over the death of her son (2 Kings 4:8-25) " she went and 
came unto the man of God (Elisha) to Mount Carmel" (v. 25). This must have 
been one of his regular engagements, because it was " neither new-moon nor sab- 
bath " (V. 23), at which times he undoubtedly held special services at the relig- 
ious centres other than the schools. Mount Carmel may have been chosen as a 
centre for the sons of the prophets in commemoration of the test between Elijah 
and the false prophets, and the consequent slaughter of the latter (1 Kings 18). 

6) Samaria. And Elisha " went up from thence unto Bethel " (2 Kings 2:23), 
and •' from thence unto Mount Carmel, and from thence he returned to Samaria" 
(v. 25). At Jericho and Bethel and probably at Mount Carmel, Elisha had 
already visited the schools of the prophets. Samaria was, at least a part of his 
life, his home (2 Kings 6:32). Samuel liad his greatest school at his residence 
and home, Ramah. It is hardly credible that so forcible a character as Elisha 
should settle down in Samaria, and not collect about himself a body of sons of the 
prophets. In fact — we find (1 Kings 18:4) during the persecutions of Jezebel: 
" Obadiah took an hundred prophets and hid them by fifty in a cave, and fed them 
with bread and water." Again at this same place, when Jehoshaphat and Ahab 
were about to war with Ramoth-Gilead (1 Kings 22:1-6), " the king of Israel gath- 
ered the prophets together, about four hundred men " (v. 6). These passages 
reveal the fact that at Samaria there were large numbers of prophets. It is per- 
fectly reasonable to suppose that these men were members of a school of the 
prophets which was under the direct control of Elisha whose residence was at 
this place. 

The result of the examination of the above passages finds schools of the 
prophets at 1) Ramah, 2) Bethel, 3) Gilgal, 4) Jericho, and probably 6) Caimel and 
6) Samaria. 

That they dwelt apart and in their own buUdings is certified by two or three 
passages. In 1 Sam. 19:18,19, we find that when David fled to Ramah "he and 
Samuel went and dwelt in Naioth " (i. e. dwellings, buildings, probably college 
buildings) ; " And it was told Saul, saying. Behold, David is at Naioth (the col- 
lege buildings) in Ramah." "And he went thither to Naioth (the college 

buildings) in Ramah ; and the spirit of God came upon him also, and he went on 
and prophesied, until he came to Naioth (the college buildings) in Ramah " (v. 23). 
In 2 Kings 6:1-2, "the sons of the prophets said unto Elisha, the place where 
we dwell before thee, is too strait for us. Let us go, we pray thee, unto Jordan, 
and take thence every man a beam, and let us make a place there, where we may 
dwell." This school was probiil>ly at Jericho, as they went down into the Jordan 
valley for their timber (v. 4). In 2 Kings 4:38-41 we find an additional evidence 
of their common dwelling. They all ate from the same pottage. And in vs. 

The Schools of the Sons of the Prophets. 247 

42,43 the gifts of the farmer are set before all. So that we can conclude that 
while a few may have married and had homes of their own (2 Kings 4:1) the sons 
of the prophets as a class occupied buildings together, and ate together as mem- 
bers of one household. 

3. Their Teachers. The sous of the prophets had as their teachers, at 
least, three of the great men of their day. 1) Samuel. When the messengers of 
Saul went to Eamah to capture David (1 Sam. 19:20), "they saw the company of 
the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as head (superintendent) over 
them." He was the presiding officer of this school, whether of any other we 
know not. " He went from year to year in circuit to Bethel, and Gilgal, and 
Mizpeh, and he judged Israel in all those places" (1 Sam. 7:16). In Bethel and 
Gilgal there were in later times schools ; but we have no evidence that Samuel 
founded them or that he did more in these places than to judge the people. 

2) Elijah. Only in the last days of Elijah's life have we any evidence of his 
relations to these schools. The word of Jehovah seems to have found him at 
Gilgal, the seat of one of the schools, (2 Kings 2:1). On his way to the east of the 
Jordan he stops at the school at Bethel (vs. 2,3), and at Jericho (vs. 4-6). Jehovah 
had sent him to these places (vs. 2,6), evidently to deliver his last message of . 
instruction to these sons of the prophets. 

3) Elisha. Elisha was the God-appointed and anointed successor of Elijah 
(1 Kings 19:16,19); and he was recognized as such by the sons of the prophets, 
(2 Kings 2:15). Almost his entire life after the departure of Elijah was spent 
among the various schools of the prophets. If this had been his master's work, 
Elijah must have been the main supporter and guide of these schools in his day. 
Elisha's authoritative connection with them seems to have begun when his 
master had departed. He visits the schools at Jericho, Bethel, Carmel and Sama- 
ria (2 Kings 2). A little later we find him at Gilgal (2 Kings 4:38). Then he is 
found by the Shunammite at Carmel (2 Kings 4:25) ; and again at Jericho (2 
Kings 6:1-7). He seems to have cared as well for their families, where any 
were in need (as in 2 Kings 4:1-7), as for themselves. While carrying almost 
the entire burden of the kingdom of Israel on his shoulders, he was vigilant and 
faithful in his care of these schools. 

The teachers of the sons of the prophets were so far as the Bible reveals, 
1) Samuel, 2) Elijah and 3) Elisha. The chief man was known in these schools 
under different titles. Samuel is called Father (1 Sam. 10:10) ; Elijah is desig- 
nated Master (2 Kings 2:3,5,16), Father (v. 12) ; Elisha is called Master (2 Kings 
6:5), Man of God (2 Kings 4:40). These all indicate superiority and power. 
Compare also on this point, 2 Kings 2:15 ; 4:38. 

4. Things Taught. The information on this point must be also largely « 
inferential. We can suppose that the law was taught, and that the ceremonies 
connected with worship were fully explained. 

1) Prophesying. It is difficult to understand the full force of this word. 
When Saul met the prophets coming down from the hill of God, they were proph- 
esying (1 Sam. 10:5). Again when Saul met the band of prophets in Gilgal, " the 
spirit of God came mightily upon him, and he prophesied among them" (v. 10). 
When the three sets of Saul's messengers to capture David came to Kamah they 
all prophesied ; Saul himself yielded to the same spirit (1 Sam. 19:18-24). This 
was probably a physically active and exhausting method of worsliip. We find 
that Saul was so worn out by it that he lay down exhausted one day and night 

248 Tile Old Testament Student. 

(v. 24). In the other cases above referred to, the simplest explanation is that 
the prophesying was a recital of verses or psalms iii praise to God. 

2) Music. That these prophesyings were accompanied with music is shown 
in 1 Sam. 10:5; the band of prophets came down from the high place "with a 
psaltery (suggesting the use of psalms), and a timbrel, and a pipe, and a harp 
before them." Some years after this time (1 Chron 25:1-7) we find that •' David 
and the captains of the host separated for the sen'ice certain of the sons of Asaph, 
and of Ileman, and of Jeduthun, who should prophesy with harps, with psalteries 
and with cymbals." " And the number of them, with their brethren that were 
instructed in singing unto Jehovah, even all that were skillful was two hundred 
fourscore and eight'" (v. 7). It is quite evident that, if in David's day the temple 
music was so elaborate, there must have been considerable musical instruction 
somewhere within the reach of these sons of the prophets. The almost necessary 
accompaniment of prophesying as well ;is of worship was music. Even Elisba 
attests this statement (2 Kings 3:15). 

Without doubt these sons of the prophets composed sacred poetry and music 
and used them widely in their praises and worship. Perhaps also they were 
instructed in the religious and political matters of the times in which they lived. 
They learned of the wisdom of their master (2 Kings 4:38). 

5. Their Occupation. 1) Stud;/ and Worship. Their first duty was prob- 
ably to malie the most of their instruction. They were to be exercising in worship 
and praise ; in bringing under their influence all whom they met (1 Sam. 10:10-13 ; 
19:18-24). 2) Bun errands. In 2 Kgs. 9:1-12 we find: " Elisha the prophet called 
one of the sons of the prophets, and said unto him. Gird up thy loins, and take 
this vial of oil in thine hand, and go to Ramoth-Gilead '" {v. 1). Elisha gives 
him his orders, and his words for Jehu, wliom he is to anoint king over Israel. 
" The young man, even the young man the prophet " (v. 4), performed witli pre- 
cision and promptness his master's command. 3) Regular duties of a prophet. When. 
Ahab had allowed Ben-hadad to escape (1 Kgs. 20:29-34), " a certain man of the 
sons of the prophets" (v. 35) met him, and by an illustration (vs. 34 and 40) 
inveigled Ahab into pronouncing judgment upon himself. Ahab regarded him as 
one of the prophets, and " went to his house heavy and displeased." This work 
of one of the sons of the prophets corresponded in every respect to the work of 
any regular prophet. It can scarcely be imagined that all of the sons of the 
prophets received revelations; it is probable that they did not. On the other 
hand, there were those outside of these schools who received messages of God and 
delivered them (Amos 7:14). 

6. Their Means of Subsistence. If these young men were constantly 
engaged in religious services and duties, they had little time to look after the 
necessities of life. The information on this point leads to the conclusion that 
they were dependent on the charity of Israel. Some of the most definite informa- 
tion on this point is found in 2 Kgs. 4. Passing over the poverty of one of the 
wives of the sons of the prophets (vs. 1-7), and tlie house provided by the Shu- 
nammite woman for Elisha in his journeys (vs. S-11), we find the sous of the 
prophets gathering their food in the fields— evidently uncultivated (v. 39). Soon 
" there came a man from Baal-Shalishah, aud brought the man of God bread of 
the first fruits, twenty loaves of barley, and fresh ears of corn in the husk. And 
he (Elisha) said, Give unto the people that they may eat. And his servant said : 
What, should I set this before an hundred men ? '' (vs. 42 and 43). The severity 

The Babylonian IJtak-Epic. 249 

of the dearth about Gilgal may have induced this husbandman to aid Elisha and 
these sons of the prophets, but the aid is received as a matter of course, and 
justifies the supposition that this was not out of the usual order of events. A 
still clearer case is found where Gehazi (2 Kgs. 5:21-24) follows the chariot of 
Naaman, saying, " My master hath sent me, saying, Behold, even now there be come 
to me from the hUl country of Ephraim two young men of the sons of the 
prophets ; give them, I pray thee, a talent of silver, and two changes of raiment " 
(v. 22). The bare fact that such a request should he made, shows that it was in 
accordance with the custom of the times to aid and help support these sons of the 
prophets. They were evidently largely dependent upon the charity of Israel and 
the people of God. 

In conclusion, we have found in this brief discussion that the sons of the 
prophets 1) were collected together in bands or schools ; 2) in six different locali- 
ties, viz., (a) Ramah, (b) Bethel, (c) Gilgal, (d) Jericho, (e) Carmel, (f) Samaria; 
3) under the tuition of (a) Samuel, (b) Elijah and (e) Elisha ; 4) with instruction 
in (a) prophesying-worship, (b) sacred music, (c) practical matters of their day ; 
5) with their time wholly occupied in (a) study and worship, (b) doing errands for 
their masters and God, (c) performing the regular duties of a prophet; 6) largely 
dependent for their support upon the charity of the people. 

All of these facts and inferences throw a new halo about the prophet of the 
Old Testament. 


By James A. Craig, Ph. D., 

Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, O. 

Among the Assyrian kings, Assurbanipal is conspicuous both as a ruthless 
warrior and as a man of letters and scientific aspirations. It is to him and to his 
famous library, which was destroyed in the downfall of Nineveh, through the 
Chaldeans, that we are indebted for the preservation of this poem as well as for a 
large part of the literature that has come down to us. He was the great patron 
of science and art. He not only employed scribes to record his own fortunes and 
achievements in war, but also, either out of a purely literary instinct or from a 
consciousness of the solidarity of the human family, felt impelled to preserve for 
his own and future times the Intellectual products of the past. For this purpose 
he gathered about his court competent scholars to translate the heritage of liter- 
ary works bequeathed to the Babylonian and Assyrian Semites, from a people whose 
ancestry, language and traditions were distinct from his own, viz., the early Ak- 
kadian inhabitants of Babylonia. Touching the lineage of this people archae- 
ology has not much information. Their language was highly agglutinative. 
Several of its syllabic characters bear a suggestive similarity, both in form and 
meaning, to the early Chinese characters, the difference being between horizontal 
and perpendicular lines. In the compounding of ideographs there is a further 
similarity. Then- physiological features and habits of life, so far as we know 
them, would also favor comparison. The Akkadians are called in the texts sal- 

250 The Old Testament Student. 

mat kakkadi, i. e., blackheaded. Their afliiiities in speech, etc., so far as we know 
them, from the monuments are, at least, Ural-altaic, and it may be that further 
discoveries and investigations such as have been begun by Prof. T. LaCouperie, 
of London, may reveal unsuspected kinships. 

In religion they were polytheists, and this polytheism probably resulted from 
a primitive Shamanism, such as exists at present among the Ostiaks and other 
tribes of Siberia. 

Theirs was an individualized pantheism ; the lower world and the heavens 
were full of spirits good and bad. Demoniacal possession was a prominent article 
of their belief. These embodied themselves in man, in reptiles, in the winds, etc., 
and all were subject to their attack. Over these demons the priests had the power 
of exorcism by means of certain magical incantation-ceremonies. Gradually 
these spirits became deified, and those of the sky, earth and under-world attained 
to prominence — the others ranked as dii minores. Later, as with the Assyrians 
so with the Chaldeans, the gods were conceived of anthropomorphically, and with 
the exception of Nineb and Nergal represented in human form. 

In our epic we Lave mention of several gods. Sauias is the sun-god, who, 
owing to the peculiarity of the warm southern climate, and the astronomical or 
astrological tendencies of the people, held a rank inferior to Sin, the moon-god, 
who was, according to their mythology, his father. Ea, who creates the messen- 
ger, UdJuSu-namir, was the god of life and knowledge, the determiner of destiny, 
king of the abyss and rivers, plays a large role in the account of the deluge, 
informs the Babylonian Xoah, Hassisadra-Xisuthros, of the conclusion of the 
gods and commands him to build a ship,— he also becomes the father of Bel, the 
tutelary divinity of Babylon. Allatu, who bore the name of Irkalla also, was the 
goddess of the lower world and the spouse of Nergal, who in one of the hymns 
is styled "the majestic croucher" (the great lion) among the gods. Namtar, 
originally conceived of as a destroying plague, is personified ; he was regarded 
as the sou of Allatu, and as her faithful servant to whom was entrusted the con- 
duct of those condemned to punishment to the great prison-house. On the earth 
his mission was to inflict with disease, and thus acquire new subjects for his mis- 
tress in the lower world. His deadly mission was performed in the night, for so 
long as the sun-god had sway in the heavens this power of darkness was more or 
less circumscribed. In Istar and Tammuz we find the archetypes of western 

Tammuz was the sun-god of Eridu, the young and beautiful spouse of I§tar, 
who was bereft of him through the antagonistic and slaying might of winter. 
He is the Adonis of Greek mythology, which represented him as the son of the 
priest of the Paphian Aphrodite, Cinyras, by his own daughter, Myrrha. His wor- 
ship passed over to the Greeks through the Phoenicians, who commemorated liis 
death at Byblos on the north of Beyrut, on the highway between Babylonia and the 
west. Here, as the blood-colored waters rolled down from the Lebanon range 
through the Nahr Ibrahim seaward, the inliabitunts of Byblos (Gebal) gathered to 
celebrate the funeral festival of the god. Streets and temples were filled with 
wailing women who tore their hair, disfigured their faces and cut their breasts in 
token of their grief. With the eunuch priests of Astoreth their cry ascended to 
heaven. This festival was a part of Ezekiel's vision recorded in chap. VIII. 
Istar, the Astoreth of the Plioenicians, the Aphrodite of the Cyprians, the Arte- 
mis of Ephesus, was of Akkadian origin, as shown both by the name and by the 

The Babylonian Istar-Epic. 251 

confusion among the Semites in regard to her. She stands on an equality with 
the other deities of the pantheon, females among the Akkadians being accorded the 
preference. In later times she was worshiped both at Nineveh and at Arbela,but 
in the previously established centre, Assur, no temple was erected to her honor. 
Among the earlier Assyrian kings she was rarely invoked and always as a subor- 
dinate ; but in the time of Esarhaddon she was elevated to a position of supreme 
power. She is the mighty one who has founded his throne for numberless days 
and endless years, and to him, her faithful son, she promised power to overcome 
and vanquish all his enemies. Assurbauipal (Sardanapalus), his son and successor, 
who worshiped her in Arbela, and whose creation, together with that of Assur, 
he acknowledged himself to be, invoked her aid as the " queen of war." When 
Teumman, the Elamitic king, who was said by the Assyrian scribe to be " like a 
devil," devised evil against his kingdom and hers, her aid was invoked and 
granted. "Fear not!" was the returning word, "for I have compassion upon 
thee for the lifting up of thy hands, for thine eyes which are full of tears." She 
manifests herself to the seer, in a night-vision, in human form and angry mien, 
armed with bow and broadsword for war. She speaks as a mother to the fearful 
king, and promises victory : " his face should not pale, his feet should not stumble, 
nor his strength wax feeble." It was particulaily among the Assyrians, who 
were themselves a warlike people, that she was honored for her warlike tendencies ; 
the same feature was emphasized in the Ephesian goddess. The Babylonians, on 
the other hand, dwelt upon her finer instincts, as did also the Phcenicians with the 
Cyprian goddess. It is this gentler side of her nature, the love side, which in 
course of time became degraded and debauched, that is seen in our epic. She 
mourns the loss of her youthful Tammuz, and descends into the lowest depths to 
search for the waters of life by which she may restore him from the power of 
death. Originally she must have been the deified spirit of the earth, who was 
wedded to the sun-god. He was killed by the might of winter and she was left to 
mourn in widowhood. The Phoenician and Grecian cults of Ashtoreth and Aphro- 
dite (Venus) are, therefore, to be found in their germs in Akkadian mythology. 
Istar did not remain simply the great life-producer, but in time became the goddess 
of love and reproduction. Fecundity and procreative power and sensual instinct 
were her gifts, hence her withdrawal, in tlie poem, from the upper world is 
attended by the completest disruption of social life, not through a perversion of 
natural instinct, but by its complete cessation. 

This poem has, following Geo. Smith, been regarded by almost all Assyriolo- 
gists, as an Episode of the Nimrod-Epos, and this view has hindered the proper 
understanding of the closing lines, as in other instances wrong translations have 
led to fanciful theories. Fox Talbot, who translated it in part twenty-five years 
ago, and who ten years later gave a translation of it to be found in Vol. I. of the 
" Eecords of the Past," was led by a groundless translation of Keverse, 17-18, to 
offer the conjecture that it was a kind of miracle-play actually performed in one 
of the temples, adding : " Juggling tricks which have been known in the East from 
immemorial (vide Pharaoh's magicians) were probably introduced for the amuse- 
ment of the audience." As a mark of the advance in the study of Assyriology 
it may be interesting to quote the translation. It is: "The chiefest deceitful 
trick! Bring forth fishes of the waters out of an empty vessel." The lines 
were, indeed, diflicult. The present understanding of the text is due not 
to any single Assyriologist, but to Assyriologists. Although the names of Tal- 

252 The Old Testament Student. 

bot, Schrader, Smith are most intimately connected with it, yet they left much 
to be desired, as was to be expected. In 1887, my fellow-student and friend, 
Dr. Jeremias, gave a new translation and commentary much in advance of 
anything else on the subject. In his introduction he denies that there is any- 
thing in the poem which would lead one to suppose that the descent of Ijtar 
was in any way connected with a desire to avenge herself of the insult offered 
her by Nimrod and Eabani. Rather is it a rhapsody indirectly related to the 
stories of the love-adventures of Istar, inasmuch as the mythological relation 
of iStar to Tammuz forms the back-ground of the narrative. Moreover, in 
the >fimrod-Epic, iJtar appears as the daughter of the god Anu, while here 
she is the daughter of Sin. The closing lines throw light on the whole. 
They do not belong to the epic proper ; nevertheless, they form the core of the 
whole, since they furnish the reason for the narration of the "Descent of Istar." 
A man is mourning the death of his sister, and betakes himself to a magician to 
ascertain how he can redeem her from the prison-house of Hades. To prove to 
him that the gates of Hades were not impassable, he tells him the story of IStar, 
and advises him to secure, by offerings and prayer, the help of Ijtar, the con- 
queror of Hades, and Tammuz. After this he is to perform certain funeral-rites 
over the sarcophagus of the dead, and assisted by the companions of Istar (the 
uhati), begin the wail. In the fifth line from the last the departed spirit hears 
the brother's lament and beseeches him to perform these ceremonies on the days 
of Tammuz (cf. Ezek. 8:14) and there effect her deliverance from the lower- 

It is interesting also to note the correspondences between this Hades of the 
Akkadians and that of tlie Old Testament. Doors and bars ai-e covered with 
"dust," and the imprisoned spirits feed upon clay. It is a place of darkness, a 
prison whence there is no escape, a place where there is no hope or help, a verit- 
able beth '61am (ekal kottu) hid in the lower depths. So the hope of Job " goes 
down to the bars of Sheol, when once there is rest in the dust,'' and Ilezekiah 
said: "In the noontide of my days. I shall go into the gates of Sheol. In Ps. 
88:4 sq., the suppliant mourns : " I am counted with them that go down into the 

pit; I am as a man that hath no help cast off among the dead." " Thou hast 

laid me in the lowest pit, in darlc places, in the depths." To these lon-est depths of 
Sheol, Isaiah and Ezekiel assign the king of Babylon and the Assyrian host. In 
Job 10:21,22 Job prays for a little comfort before he goes hence whence he " should 
not return," even "to the land of darkness and shadow of death;'' aland of thick 
darkness, as darkness itself ; a land of the shadow of death without any order, and 
where the light is as darkness. The concreteness with which everything is 
described contrasts, on the other hand, with the Hades of the Old Testament. 

The porter at the gates and the w%aters will at once recall the Grecian myth- 
ology with its Charon, Acheron, Cocytus and Periphlegethon. 

I may say in offering the following translation that, in reproducing in modern 
language the epics or Ij-rics of the past, it is not only justitiable but even neces- 
sary, if we wish them to appeal to us as they did to those for whom they were 
composed, to present them in some of the forms of our own poetical products. 
This is the finest epic of ancient Chaldea. Its poetry is seen even in the particu- 
ulars of the construction. The chief peculiarity of Semitic poetry (the parallel, 
membrorum) runs throughout. Brevity is used to make the scenic and the ti'agic 
more vivid and impressive. The imagination of the reader is forced into activity 

The Babylonian IsTar-Epic. 253 

— transitions are rapid even to abruptness. Asyndeton prevails everywhere. 
Moreover, tliere seems to have been an intentional effort at metrical composition 
as in the lines 20-24 which I shall give here in the Assyrian : 

usela mitilti akile baltuti 
eli baltuti imaidu mituti 
kepu pasu epusnia ikabbi 
izzakara ana rabiti Istar 

Again, in the conduct of Istar through the seven gates by the porter, there is 
a consistent repetition of the words of the first line in the second, and the third 
rhymes with both, where there is no necessity of repetition if the effect which it 
produces were not desired. The true character of the poem can be preserved by 
throwing it into metrical form and a literal rendering can be given by using 
liberty in changing the metre or introducing broken lines. It is with the desire 
of preserving more fully the poetic virtues of an epic, which at times reminds one 
of a Homer or Aeschylus, that I ofler the followmg, with the view rather of 
intimating how it might be done than of doing it — poeta nascitur, non fit. 


On the land without regress, the land that thou knowest, 

Istar, Sin's daughter, did fix her attention. 

The daughter of Sin did fix her attention. 

On the dwelling of darkness, the abode of Irkalla, 

On the dwelling whose inhabitant conies no more out, 

On the road whose advancing knows no returning. 

On the house whose inhabitant 's remov'd from the light, 

Where they 're nourished with dust and clay is their food, 

Where they see not the light, but in darkness are dwelling. 

And are clad like the birds with a covering of wings ; 

On door and on bars lies the dust thickly gathered. 

Arrived at the door of the land without regress. 

To the porter in keeping, this order she giveth : 

Thou watcher of waters, throw open thy portal ! 

Throw open thy portal, within will I enter ! 

If the door be not opened that I may pass through it. 

The door will I shatter, its bolts break in pieces, 

Its sills will I burst, its leaves tear asunder, 

The dead will I raise up, will food and life give them. 

Even unto the living the dead will I raise up. 

The porter then opened his mouth and made answer, 
To the great goddess Istar, made answer the porter : 
" Withhold ! my lady, do not break it away, 
I go to Allatu, thy name to announce." 

254 The Old Testament Student. 

The porter announced to the queen, to Allatu : 
" Thy sister, IStar, is come over these waters 

When Allatu these tidings received she made answer : 
" What brinsieth hor heart to me, praj- ? What trouble ? 

These waters I have 

Like the rush and the roar of the flood am I weeping, 
Am weeping o'er men who their wives have abandoned. 
O'er maidens who mourn the embrace of their lovers, 
Am weeping o'er infants destroyed e'er their day. 
Go ! porter, throw open thy door — open to her ! 
And treat.her according to olden-time law." 

The porter departed, threw open his door ; 
" enter, my lady, exult underworld ! 
Palace of the land, that knows no returning, 
let it rejoice in thy presence." 

The first door he caused her to enter, disrobed her, 

Removed the great crown from her head. 
" Why tak'st thou the great crown from my head, porter ?" 
" enter, my lady, for so bids Allatu." 

The next door he caused her to enter, disrobed her, 

And the rings were removed from her ears. 
" Why tak'st thou the rings from my ears, porter?" 
" enter, my lady, for so bids Allatu." 

The third door he caused hor to enter, disrobed her, 

The necklace removed from her neck. 
" Why tak'st thou from my neck the necklace, porter ?" 
'' enter, my lady, for so bids Allatu." 

The fourth door he caused her to enter, disrobed her, 

Her jewels removed from her breast. 
" Why tak'st thou from my breast the jewels, porter?" 
" O enter, my lady, for so bids Allatu." 

The fifth door he caused her to enter, disrobed her, 

The gemmed-girdle removed from her waist. 
" Why tak'st thou from my waist my gemmed-girdle, porter?" 
" enter, my lady, for so bids Allatu.'' 

The sixth door he caused her to enter, disrobed her, 

Took the rings from her hands and her feet. 
" Why from hands and from feet take the rings, pray, porter ?" 
" enter, my lady, for so bids Allatu." 

The seventh door he caused her to enter, disrobed her, 

From her body her cincture removed. 
" Why take from my body my cincture, porter ?" 
" enter, my lady, for so bids Allatu." 

The Babtlonian IsTAR-Epic. 255 

To the land without regress when Istar descended, 

Allatu beheld her and raged in her presence ; 

Imprudently, boldly, did Istar attack her. 

Then opened Allatu her mouth and commanded, 

To Namtar, her servant, the order was given : 

Go, Namtar, and open my {case of enchantments)! 

Go bring (them hither). 

With disease of the eye and the hip and the foot. 

With disease of the heart and the scalp, go smite IStar ! 

AiBict her whole person !" 

After Istar, the goddess, had (been thus afflicted) 
The bull no more covered the cow, nor ass gendered ; 
No more in the street lay the man with the maide^n ; 
The man went asleep when he would. 
When she would, slept the maiden. 

The god's-servant, Pap-su-kal, tore his face in the presence 

Of Samas — while clothed in the garb of deep mourning — 

Samas went, sorely wept before Sin, his father, 

His tears ran down before the king, Ea, 

Saying : " Istar's gone down to the land, and returns not. 

Since Istar's descent to the land without regress 

The bull no more covers the cow, nor ass genders ; 

No more in the street lies the man with the maiden. 

The man falls asleep when ho will, 

When she will, sleeps the maiden." 

Then Ea created a male in his wisdom, 

The god's-servant, Uddusu-namir, created. 
" Go ! Uddusu-namir, to the land without regress. 

The seven doors of the land without regress open ! 

Let Allatu behold thee, and rejoice in thy presence ! 

When her heart is at ease, and her spirit is joyful ; 

Then do thou adjure her in the name of the great gods : 
' Thy head raise, to the fountain direct thy attention, 

lady, confine not the fountain, I pray thee ; 

1 desire to drink of the waters within it. '" 

This hearing, Allatu her sides smote, her nails bit. 
" Of me thou hast asked an impossible favor. 
Hence ! Uddusu-namir, in the dungeon I'll shut thee ; 
Thy food shall be the mud of the city. 
From the drains of the city shalt thou drink the water. 
The shadow of the wall shall be thy dwelling. 
Thy dwelling-place shall be its foundation. 
Confinement and dungeon, thy strength let them shatter." 

' In the original there are five lines here. 

266 The Old Testament Student. 

Allatu then opened her mouth and commanded, 
To Namtar, her servant, the order was given : 
"Go ! Namtar, break down the palafe eternal ! 
Go! shatter the pilhirs, foundatiiin-stones scatter. 
Go! lead forth the spirits, on noldeu thrones set them, 
With the water of life sprinkle litar, the goddess. 
Lead her forth from my presence — " 

Then went Namtar and broke down the palace eternal. 
And shattered the pillars, the foundation-stones scattered ; 
He led forth the s|)irits, iin froldeii thrones sat them. 
With the watcr-of-life sprinkled I.itar the goddess. 
Led her forth from her presence. 

Through the^r.s'< door he led her, gave to her her cincture. 
Throufjh the second door he led her, and gave her rings to her. 
Through the third door he led her, gave back her gemmed-girdle. 
Through the fourth door he led her, gave back her breast-jewels. 
Through the fifth door he led her, gave to her her necklace. 
Through the sixth door he led her, gave to her her ear-rings. 
Through the seventh door he led her, and the great crown gave to her. 

Here ends the descent of Istar. The priest continues : — 

" If her freedom she grant thee not, turn to her, facing. 
And for Tammuz, the bridegroom of the years of her j'outh. 
Pour out water e'en purest, with sweet balm [anoint him] 
And clothe him with garments, a flute [give unto him] 
The companions of Istar, let wail with loud [wailingj, 
And the goddess, Belili, the precious case breaking, . . 
With diamonds!?) (the place) shall be filled (to o'erflowing)." 
The complaint of her brother she then understanding. 
The great goddess Belili the precious case breaking . . 
(The whole place) with diamonds(?) was filled to o'erflowing. 

"0 let me not perish, nay, do not, my brother! 
On the feast-days of Tammuz play the crystal flute for me, 
At that time, play uie the flute. 

Let the mourners then play for me, both men and maidens. 
Let them jday upon instruments, let them breathe incense." 



By Eev. p. a. Nobdell, D. D., 

New London, Conn. 

Every attempt to heal the alienation produced by a wrong or injury involves 
not only an expression of penitence, but an instinctive sense of the propriety of 
some gift or presentation which, offered by the offender to the offended party, 
becomes a visible pledge of the restoration of friendly relations. The offering is 
of the nature of an atonement between alienated parties, healing the breach. 
This conscious need of reparation becomes especially acute when a transgressor 
is constrained to approach an offended deity. The feeling that his life is forfeited 
prompts the effort to expiate his guilt by the substitution of some other life, ani- 
mal or human, as a sacrifice in place of himself. This seems to be the idea lying 
at the root of sacrifice as it is encountered in all religions. Whatever its primary 
origin, it certainly was sanctioned in the Mosaic legislation, and its sanction was 
accompanied by specific ritualistic directions. 

In considering a group of words so closely related to the results of the recent 
Old Testament criticism it may not be improper to note, in passing, certain facts 
lying on the surface of the concordance. The interpretation of these facts must 
of course be determined by each reader for himself. 

Minhah present, offering. 

Minhah, though denoting primarily a simple gift or present, seems almost 
at once to pass into a specific designation for a gift offered to a deity. This is a 
quite natural development of its meaning, since, even where it refers to a present 
from man to man, there is always an implied desire to propitiate the person to 
whom the gift is offered, as in the case of Jacob's minhah to Esau, Gen. 32:13, 
14, and in the minhah brought down to Joseph by his brethren. Gen. 42:11. 
Certain "sons of Belial" who despised Saul, the newly anointed king of Israel, 
brought him no minhah, 1 Sam. 10:27. The minhah sent by a subjugated 
people to their conqueror is at times a special gift intended to gain his favor, 
Judg. 3:15. At other times it takes the form of regular tribute, as that brought 
by the Moabites and Syrians to David, 2 Sam. 8:2,6, and by the adjacent kingdoms 
to Solomon, 1 Kgs. 4:21. More frequently, however, it denotes an offering pre- 
sented to Jehovah for the purpose of winning his favor. The earliest occurrence 
of the word in this sense is in Gen. 4:3,4,5, where it designates both the bloody 
offering brought by Abel, and the unbloody offering presented by Cain. Later on 
a distinction was made between them, and minhah became the specific term for 
offerings that did not involve the shedding of blood ; Eli's sons made themselves 
"fat with the chiefest of all the miuhoth of Israel," Judg. 2:29; "Bring no 
more vain oblations (minhSth)," Isa. 1:13. Malachi designates by it all offerings, 
bloody and bloodless, brought by corrupt Israel to Jehovah's altar, 1:10,11,13 ; 2: 

268 Tne Old Testament Student. 

12,13. The leading use of the term is in connection with the ritual of the taber- 
nacle and the temple. Its one hundred occurrences in Exodus, Leviticus, Num- 
bers, present a sharply defined technical sense— the " meal offerinf?," composed of 
fine flour, oil and frankincense, Lev. 2:1. In a few instances the earlier prophets 
seem to give it a similar meaning, Joel 1:9,13 ; 2:4 ; Amos 5:22. 

Next to its occurrences in the Priest Code of Exodus-Numbers, we find its 
most frequent employment in the so-called " holiness law "' of Ezekiel, 42:13-46:20, 
the latter using it in precisely the same technical sense as the former. The 
writers of the period between the exodus and the exile use it indeed of an offering 
to Jehovah, but in connections that do not necessarily imply a reference to a ritual- 
istic " meal offering," except perhaps Joel and Amos, and it is barely possible 
that in these instances it may refer to unbloody offerings in general rather than 
to the specific " meal offering." In the exilic books of Kings and the post-exilic 
writings of Nehemiah and the Chronicler the references are explicitly to the 
"meal offering." We find, on the contrary, that in the so-called "prophetical" 
documents minhiih has in general the sense of a simple propitiatory gift from 
one man to another, or of an unbloody offering to Jehovah, as throughout Genesis, 
Judges, Samuel, Isaiah and the earlier Psalms. Over against its one hundred 
occurrences in the Priest Code, the great prophetic 4aw-book of Deuteronomy does 
not so much as mention it. 

Qorban offering. 

From qarabh, to bring near, to present, hence that which is brought near, 
a gift. It never signifies a gift from one person to another, but always a gift 
from man to God. As such it may denote an offering of meal. Lev. 2:1 ; of first 
fruits, 2:3 ; of animals for sacrifice, 1:2 ; 3:6 ; or any gifts, such as gold and silver 
utensils for the tabernacle, wagons, etc.. Num. ch. 7. It would denote, therefore, 
anything devoted to Jehovah. The thing so dedicated could not be recalled, or 
put to common uses. Note in Mk. 7:11 the extension of tlie application of this 
word by a spirit of gross selfishness. 

Aside from its seventy-eight occurrences in the Priest Code it is found only in 
Ezek. 20:28; 40:43. Qorban is used in the Priest Code in the same sense that 
minhah is used in the prophetical portions of the Old Testament, viz., to express 
the general idea of a gift or sacrifice to Jehovah. 

Zebhah sacrifice. 

Zebhah, almost invariably rendered "sacrifice" in the A. V. and ftwia in 
the LXX., is found in the entire range of Hebrew literature from the earliest to 
the latest, in the " prophetical " as well as in the " priestly " portions, and with 
the same fundamental meaning of bloody in distinction from bloodless offerings. 
This meaning comes from the verb zabhah, to kill, slaughter, 1 Sam. 28:24; 
Deut. 12:15; 1 Kgs. 19:21; Ezek. 34:3. Very soon it passed from this simpler 
sense of killing an animal for food to that of killing for the purpose of offering a 
sacrifice to the deity. This is the prevailing sense of the verb, and from it we 
also have the derivation mizbe(a)h, altar, that on which the zebhah is con- 
sumed. In Leviticus and Numbers zrbhah is always conjoined with sh Ma- 
in im in the phrase " sacrifice of peace offerings" or "thank offerings." Com- 
pared with the simple z C b h a ]} it seems to have been offered under more solemn 
and imposing circumstances. Elsewhere it is most frequently associated with the 

Old Testajient Word-studies. 259 

burnt offering, Ezra 18:12 ; Deut. 12:6,11 ; Josh. 22:26,28, etc. From the earliest 
times it seems to have been a sacrificial feast or communion meal of which a por- 
tion was offered to Jehovah and the rest eaten by the invited guests, as when 
Jacob parted from Laban, Gen. 31:54, or by the assembled worshipers, as when 
the people at the high-place of Zuph refrained from eating until Samuel the man 
of God had arrived to bless the zebhah, 1 Sam. 9:11-14. Cf. 20:60; Lev. 7: 
15,16. That similar sacrificial feasts were customary among the aboriginal 
Canaanites is clear from the fact that the Israelites were strictly enjoined from 
participating in them, Exod. 34:15. In general it may be said that the zebhah, 
like the ni nihiili , was an expression of gratitude for Jehovah's favors, and a plea 
for their future continuance. 

'olah burnt offering. 

Like zebhah, this word is of frequent and almost imiversal occurrence in 
the books of the Old Testament. It is derived from the common verb " ;i 1 a h , to 
go up, ascend, and contemplates the sacrifice as ascending from the altar to Jeho- 
vah in flame and smoke. The thought is the same as in Judg. 20:40, " The Ben- 
jaminites looked behind them and the whole city ^Bent up to heaven " in smoke. 
Hosea (10:8) seems to play on the word in saying, " the thorn and the thistle shall 
go up, ya'''leh, on the altars" of Israel instead of the ascending 'olah. The 
A. V. translates it "burnt offering" in all but two places,— 1 Kgs. 10:5, where the 
margin of the E. V. gives " his burnt offering which he offered," instead " his 
ascent by which he went up," and Ezek. 40:26, " there were seven steps to go up 
to it." The general LXX. renderings, oTuiKav-ij/xa, or 6/ioKavTumc, seem to have been 
justified by the fact that the animal offered as an 'olah was entirely consumed 
on the altar, whereas in the zebhah only the blood and fat were burned, whOe 
the flesh was resen'ed to be eaten by the priests or worshipers. 'Olah, as 
already noted, is frequently joined with zebhah. When the former is singular 
and the latter plural, "burnt offering and sacrifices," Ezra 18:12; Josh. 22:26; 2 
Chron. 7:1, the "olah may perhaps be regarded as one or more animals selected 
from the whole number of z ' b h a h i m and especially dedicated to Jehovah as a 
biu'nt offering on his altar. Very slight difference of meaning is discernable at 
different periods, except that the pre-levitical usage seems to emphasize the idea 
of expiation, and the Mosaic that of self-dedication. In the law, however, the 
idea of expiation is transferred from the 'olah to the h a 1 1 a ' t h . 

Hatta'th sin offering. 

This word is rendered "sin offering" 115 times out of 284, and "sin" in 
almost every other instance. We have already noted (O. T. Student, Dec, 1888, 
p. 145), that this is the common Hebrew term for sin, and that it means literally 
a missing of the mark, hence a failure to attain the divine standard for human 
conduct. This is the general conception underlying the word, but in the Levitical 
legislation this meaning has been transferred from the sin itself to the sacrifice 
presented in expiation of the sin. The hatta'th, or sin offering, is therefore, 
like the 'olah, a subordinate variety of the zebhah with a more specific sig- 
nification. That it is of later origin is generally admitted. 

We would naturally expect to find this word characteristic of the Priest Code. 
We discover, accordingly, that it is used in the sense of " sin " only twenty-nine 

260 The Old Testament Student. 

times, but uinety-five times in the sense of " sin oflfering." In all the subsequent 
literature antedating the exile there are no references to the sui offering, unless 
they are found in 2 Kgs. 12:16(17) and IIos. 4:S. The former passage reads, " The 
guilt-money, kesgph 'ashani, and the sin-money, kSseph hatta'th, was 
not brought into the house of Jehovah ; it pertained to the priests." The R. V. 
renders it, " The money for the guilt offering and the money for the sin offering," 
etc. ; but this rendering is only conjectural and introduces a thought not found in 
the text. The reference in Ilosea is still more doubtful, " They feed on the sins 
of my people," a figurative expression which has sometimes been interpreted to 
mean that the priests eat the sin offering, a thing that could not be rebuked since 
the Mosaic law distinctly commanded it. Lev. 10:17. Xor is hatta'th in Gen. 
4:7 to be translated as some have suggested, " If thou doest not well, a sin offering 
lieth at the door," but "sin croucheth," like a wild beast "at the door." The 
LXX., familiar with a ritualistic worship, renders it, " If thou hast brought it [the 
offering] rightly, and hast not rightly divided it, hast thou not sinned ?" The 
first mention of the sin offering after the Levitical legislation occurs in Ezek. 40: 
39-46:20, wheie it is referred to fourteen times, and appears in connection with 
the bunit offering, the meal offering, and the guilt offering. In the post-exilic 
literature it is distinctly mentioned, Ezra 8:35; Neh. 10:33(34); 2 Chron. 29:21,23, 
24. Deuteronomy contains no hint of a sin offering. 

'asham guilt offering. 

The general statements made about hatta'th hold good also of 'asham. 
Its primary reference to guilt is carried over to the guilt offering. The precise 
difference between the hatta'th and the "iisham is obscure and has never been 
satisfactorily cleared up. They have much in common, but seem to have differed 
chiefly in that the former was intended to bring about an atonement for guilt, 
while the latter seems to have been regarded in general as a kind of satisfaction 
over and above the full restitution made for an injury to another, or for a viola- 
tion of the law of holiness. The specific instances in which the 'asham was 
prescribed were as follows : for ceremonial defilement, Lev. 5:1-6,15-17, including 
that of the Nazarite, Num. 6:11 ; for trespass against another's property. Lev. 2-6 ; 
Num. 6:6 ; or person, Lev. 19:20,21 ; for purification in case of recovery from 
leprosy, Lev. 14:12-25. 

Like the hatta'th, the 'iisham is nowhere referred to as a part of the 
Israelitish cultus except in Exodus-Xumbers and Ezekiel. A kind of guilt offer- 
ing is spoken of in 1 Sam. 6:3 seq., but this was offered by the Philistines at the 
suggestion of their priests and diviners, and consisted of five golden tumors and 
five golden mice, by which they hoped to allay the wrath of Jehovah, whose ark 
they had captured on the battle-field. This of course had nothing to do with the 
guilt offering of Jehovah's ritual. 

Eipper to make atonement. 

The thought of atonement was expressed among the Hebrews by the word 
kTppurim, occurring only in Exod. 29:36 ; 30:10,16; Lev. 23:27,28 ; 25:9 ; Num. 
5:8; 29:11, and always in the plural. It is from the verb kaphSr which occurs 
with only three exceptions in the intensive foims of Piel and Pual. Its primary 
meaning is to bend, to wind around, hence (o cover. In this sense and in the Kal 
form it is found only once, Gen. 4:14, "Thou shalt cover, kapharta, it within 

Old Testament Word-studies. 261 

and without with pitch, bakkopher." The earliest occurrence of the word in 
its metaphorical sense is in Gen. 32:20(21), where Jacob, on the point of meeting 
Esau, says, " I will appease him {lit. cover his face) with the present that goeth 
before me." To Jacob's awakened conscience it appeared that repentance and 
amendment were insufficient to expiate past guilt, and to bring about a genuine 
reconciliation. There must be an offering on the part of the offender to the 
offended. Esau's face must be covered so that he should not see any more the 
wrong committed against himself. Jacob's present serves then the double pur- 
pose of covering the face of the offended brother, and of covering or hiding the 
offence from his sight. Essentially the same use of the word occurs in Prov. 16: 
14, " The wrath of a king is as messengers of death ; but a wise man will pacify 
it, kapp'rennah," i. e., cover the wrath expressed in the king's face by some 
appropriate act of expiation or offering that will screen the offender from the 
wrath and lead to reconciliation. The pecuUar use of the word in Isa. 28:18, 
" Your covenant with death shall be annulled, k u p p a r ," seems to point to a pro- 
cess of destroying the covenant by covering the writing with repeated strokes of 
the pen or pencil. In all its remaining occurrences the verb is closely connected 
with the thought of sin and penalty, either individual or national. There could be 
no approach to a holy God until the sinner had been covered by an atonement. 
It is not the face of God that is covered, according to the analogy of Gen. 32:20 
(21), for kipper never takes God as its object, but always the sinner or his sin, 
except in the few instances where it is used absolutely, Deut. 21:8 ; 32:43. Con- 
versely, in all ti'ansactions between God and man kipper never takes man as its 
sMb;ect,for the covering of sin is in every instance the gracious act of God himself, 
or the official act of his priestly representative. In the former case the act of 
covering is an exhibition of pure mercy, of direct forgiveness, Deut. 21:8; Ezek. 
16:63 ; 2 Chron. 30:18 ; in the latter an act of atonement, or forgiveness in connec- 
tion with sacrifices, and this is the meaning throughout the Levitical law. 

Of the 103 occurrences of the verb seventy-eight are in the Pentateuch, and 
seventy-five of these in Exodus-Numbers, these latter having in every instance 
the sense of priestly atonement. In the pre-exilic literature of Samuel, Psalms, 
Proverbs, Isaiah, and Jeremiah, it occurs twelve times, and with one exception, 
invariably in the sense of forgiving or purging away sin as a free divine act. The 
exception, 2 Sam. 21:3, " And David said unto the Gibeonites, What shall I do 
for you ? and wherewith shall 1 make atonement, that ye may bless the inheritance 
of the Lord?" is significant, there being no reference to priestly expiation, but to 
a restitution to be made to the Gibeonites for the evil done them by Saul and his 
bloody house. Ezekiel uses the word four times, 16:63; 43:26; 45:15,17, and, 
except the first instance, in a strictly ritualistic sense. This is its first occurrence 
in this sense after the legislation of Exodus-Numbers. Subsequent to Ezekiel it 
occurs five times, Neh. 10:33(34); Dan. 9:24; 1 Chron. 6:49(34); 2 Chron. 29:34; 
30:18, and in every instance except the last it denotes atonement in the ritualistic 

From the same verb we have the word kapporeth, mercy seat, found sev- 
enteen times, and outside of Exodus-Numbers only in 1 Chron. 28:11. 

A number of other interesting words might be noticed in connection with this 
group, but the space already occupied precludes their consideration. 


By Professor George H. Schodde, Ph. D., 

Capital University, Columbus, Ohio. 


Targum is the technical term for the Aramaic versions or paraphrases of 
the Old Testament. The etymology of the word is not settled. Formerly it was 
derived from ragami.e. "to throw " (stones), and figuratively, " to transfer"' or 
"translate," corresponding to jacere and trajkere. Pinches, however, discovered 
an Assyrian verbal root ragnmu, to which he assigned the meaning " to speak," 
and from which the noun riymu, " word " is derived, Fr. Delitzsch {Heb. and 
Assyr. p. 50) accepts this as the true etymology of Targum, and translates tar- 
gumanu as "the speaker," one who speaks for others by interpreting their words. 
Schrader (KAT.- 5\') gives to the root royamu the meaning of " crying aloud." 
"e.Kulting." In the Old Testament the participle only is used, and that but a 
single time, namely in Ezra 4:7, and rendered " set forth " in the K. V. but 
" interpreted " in the A. V. As a quadriliteral verb targem is often foimd in 
post-biblical Hebrew, in Talmud and Targums in the sense of " translating," or 
"interpreting." The word has found its way Into nearly aU modem languages, 
e. g. in the English " dragoman." 

In origin and history these versions differ materially from the Septuagint. 
They are in no sense or manner the outgrowth of a literary movement or ambi- 
tion. They arose from the necessities and needs of the worship in the synagogues, 
and their production was from the beginning encouraged and fostered by the relig- 
ious authorities. Just at how early a date the masses of uneducated Jews forgot 
the Hebrew and adopted the Aramaic, thus making the use of Aramaic trans- 
lations and interpretations a necessary part of public worship, cannot be accurately 
determined. The data for deciding this question are as meagre as are those for 
its companion problem as to what language, Aramaic or Greek, oui' Lord was 
accustomed to use. Neh. 8:8 does not furnish a tei-mimts a quo. The word there 
rendered "clearly," by the A. V., and "distinctly," or (in the margin) " with an 
interpretation," by the R. V. is, in the Talmud, explained by "Targum," (cf. 
Deutsch, Art. " Targums " in Literary Bemains, p. 321). From this source Chris- 
tian scholars formerly drew their date for the beginning of Targumic interpre- 
tation in the synagogue. It is known from good historical evidence that written 
Targums, and especially those yet in existence, can not antedate by more than a 
few years the christian era. The earliest written Targum or translation men- 
tioned is one on Job from the middle of the tirst Christian century. As Job is 
one of the llagiographa and was not like the Law and the Prophets, used officially 
in the synagogue but generally only for private devotion, it is quite probable that 
■written Targumin of the latter were in existence at an equally early date at least. 
The Talmud in its oldest portions describes the manner in which the Aramaic 
interpretations were given. A verse or paragraph was read in the original by the 

The Targums. 263 

render of the synagogue, which was followed by an interpretation in Aramaic, 
not read, but given from memory, by the targumist. This was in harmony with 
the general principles of early Palestinian Judaism, according to which only the 
original word of revelation was to be used in public worship, the interpretation in 
the language understood by the people to be distinguished as human by the fact 
that it was only orally given. Just why, when and how this oral tradition became 
written tradition is not known. The probabilities are that the written form 
was intended to fix and harmonize this tradition. 


The best and most important of the Targums is that of Onkelos. Concerning 
the personality of the author we have only such data as are given in later Jewish 
literature. These, which have been best discussed probably by Zunz, in his 
GottesdienstUche Vortrage der Juden, agree in this, that he lived about the time of 
the destruction of the second temple. The Talmuds, at one place make him a 
pupil and friend of the older Gamaliel ; at another, they place him in the first 
half of the second century. They agree in regarding him as not a native Jew but 
a proselyte. These statements, together with the character of his Targum, have 
been the occasion of a great deal of speculation with regard to his person and his 
connection with Aquilas, the translator of the extremely literal Greek version of 
this Old Testament prepared for the purpose of supplanting the old and more free 
Septuagint. The identity of the two has again and again been asserted, but this 
view is generally rejected by competent scholars, (cf . the article Targums in the 
IX. edition of the Encyclopaedia BrUannica). 

But the character and kind of the two versions are much alike. The Targum 
of Onkelos is really a translation, and that, too, a good one. While some of the 
later Targums are really interpretations, with incidental translations, Onkelos is 
a translation with only incidental interpretation. As a rule it is very literal, even 
paraphrases being employed only at times. In poetical passages, such as Gen. 
49, Num. 24, Dent. 32,33, haggadistic amplifications and embellishments are 
introduced. Further departures from the original consist chiefly in circumlocu- 
tions employed for the purpose of doing away with the anthropomorphisms and 
anthropopathics in the conception of the Deity, in accordance with the whole 
train and method of Jewish thought at that time, also in the Greek Alexandrian 
circles. Noldeke, who is the best authority on the Aramaic languages, says of 
Onkelos, "the translation in the oflicial or Babylonian Targum is throughout 
painfully literal, and even if this literal character does not make the frightful 
impression of Aquila's Greek, this results from the fact that the language of the 
Targum, on account of its close relation to the Hebrew, could adapt itself more 
easily to this idiom, and partly because we are so little acquainted with the real 
usages of the Aramaic language. iEsthetic and grammatical reasons never stand 
in the way of this literalness, but just as soon as such a rendition would cause 
oilence or could lead to a misunderstanding from the point of religion, it is at 
once dropped and then the author does not shun wide circumlocutions." He says 
of the language that it is " a somewhat younger development of the Palestinian 
Aramaic already known to us in several of the books of the Old Testament" (cf. 
his Die Alttestamentliche Literatur). 

The date of Onkelos' Targum is a disputed point. At an early age the ver- 
sion was regarded as a high authority by Jewish writers, having even its own 

264 The Old Testamekt Student. 

Massora. The Talmud quotes it as such (cf. Frankel, Zu dem Targum dea Pro- 
pheten). The older view had accordingly been that it must be assigned to the 
first Christian century, a position still defended by so good an authority as Weber, 
DieLehren des Talmuds, Einleitung. Frankel, chiefly for linguistic reasons, assigns 
it to the third century, and Luzatto even to post-Talmudic times. A somewhat 
striuige view is that of Bleek-AVellhaus,('n. § 287. In accordance with the idea 
that the earlier Jewish paraphrasing was the freest in character, which under the 
influence of the legal school lore was gradually curtailed and hemmed in to conform 
more and more to the words of the original, the literal character of the Onkelos 
version is regarded as an argument rather for its late than for its early composition. 
The present Onkelos is regarded as the outcome of a long development, the result 
of learned work and research. The writer says, " the Jerusalem Targum is indeed 
in its present literary form younger than the Babylonian [i. e. Onkelos], but it 
stands in a closer connection with the old oral Interpretation, while the latter 
grew out of the transforming reformation brought about by the learned men. The 
former is thus the wild outgrowths from the old roots ; the latter is the shoot sub- 
jected to the direction of the hands of the gardener." 

The text of the Targum has been frequently printed, e. g. in the Kabbinical 
Bibles of Bomberg and Buxtorf and in the London Polyglott. A critical edition 
of the text was issued in the first volume of A. Berliner's " Targum Onkelos." 
1884. This is the best text and should be used in the study of the version. The 
literature and also the giammatical and lexical aids for the study of Onkelos and 
the other Targums are given with comparative fullness in the article on the sub- 
ject in the Encyclopedia Britannica. To the list there given must be added as 
extremely valuable, particularly for the vowel system and the philological side in 
general, the Clirestomathia Targumica of Merx, 1888. Brown's Aramaic Method 
will serve as an introductory book. The neglect which the text had suffered 
from the hands of scholars had prevented the issuing of a comparatively reliable 
text until recently, and with this had made it impossible to utilize thoroughly and 
satisfactorily the grammatical data furnished by Onkelos and the other Targums. 
It was only within the last few years that a satisfactory grammar of Biblical ^Vra- 
maic could be prepared. The Massoretic edition of the Books of Daniel and Ezra 
by Baer and Delitzsch, enabled Kautzsch to do this much-needed work. Hence 
for lexical, grammatical and text-critical purposes these Targums have been 
rendering but meagre services so far. That they can reuder more and better 
service is plain from the writings of Lagarde, and this is illustrated by the excel- 
lent use made of the Targum by Comill in his tentative reconstruction of the 
Hebrew text of Ezekiel (pp. 110-136), and, with not quite as good success, by 
Ryssel is his treatise on the text of Micah. 


Jonathan, the son of Uzziel, is mentioned in the Talmud as the author of a 
Targiim on the projj/ieto jmorcs et posteriores, i. e. the historical and the prophetic 
books of the Old Testament. He is said to have been a pupil of Ilillel. hence 
older than Onkelos and the Christian era. These data are discussed in \Veber 
(p. 14). This Targum is not homogeneous in character as is that of Onkelos. 
Quite a difference can be obsei^ved in his treatment of the earlier prophetic books 
(Joshua, Samuel, Kings) and the later prophets (Isaiah and others). In the former 
he is more strictly a translator, pai-ai>hrasing only in poetic sections, such as the 

The Targums. 265 

Song of Deborah ; in the prophets proper he is remarkably free with explanations, 
additions, etc., so that he often falls into the manner of later haggadistic and 
midrashic writers. For this reason it was supposed that the Targnm was the 
work of two different writers ; but since Gesenius this opinion has generally been 
abandoned. The language is, on the whole, the same as that of Onkelos. Con- 
cerning his age there is the same dispute as in regard to the date of Onkelos. A 
large number of scholars are willing to accept the traditional view of the syna- 
gogue and church as based upon the statements of Jewish literatures. Others, 
among them Jewish scholars like Frankel and Geiger, arguing from such internal 
evidence as language, etc., merely, claim it for the third or the fourth century, 
and maintain, as they do for Onkelos, that it is the result of the editorial work of 
the learned Jewish schools at Babylon, which are known not to have been estab- 
lished until the third century. This, however, is not understood as excluding the 
use of older documents in such editorial composition. Indeed, this is maintained 
as a fact. e. g. by Schiirer, in his Lehrbuch (p. 479), who draws attention to the 
fact that Chaldee versions are mentioned in the Mishna and claims that some 
New Testament passages, e. g. Eph. 4:8, show the influence of the Targumic 
method of interpretation in that era. Observe some interesting details in Bleek- 
Wellhmisen {? 287). A critical edition of the consonant text, based upon the excel- 
lent Codex Eeuchlinianus, was published by Lagarde in 1872. 


Altogether different in character and in every particular much inferior in 
value to the new classical Targums already mentioned is a second Targum cover- 
ing the whole of the Pentateuch, which is sometimes claimed to have been pre- 
pared by Jonathan ben Uzziel (Pseudo-Jonathan) but is now generally designated 
by the better term of Jerusalem Targum. All critics acknowledge it is a Pales- 
tinian product, its language, too, being that of the Jerusalem Talmud. It is 
further agreed, that it cannot possibly be younger than the close of the seventh 
century. In Num. 24:19 it mentions the sinful city of Constantinople and in v. 
24 the land of Lombardy ; in Gen. 21:21 it mentions the two wives of Mohammed 
Chadidja and Fatima. Compare especially the solid article of Volck, in Herzog. 
Real Encycl., 2d. Ed. Vol. XV. The version can scarcely be called a translation ; 
the text is for the writer only a pretext for introducing all possible midrashic 
notions. In Deutsch's article already mentioned (to be found also in Smith's 
Dictionary of the Bible) the English reader can find specimen verses in translation 
not only from this, but also from the older Targums. Pseudo-Jonathan is full of 
myths and fables, ideas and representations common to late Jewish literature. 
The language is full of foreign words and barbarisms. But that it contains also 
portions of older Targums Is evident from the contents (cf . especially Noldeke, 1. c.) 


There is also preserved a Targum, improperly called the Jerusalem Targum, 
which contains, after the manner of Pseudo- Jonathan, translations and interpre- 
tations of a number of verses from the Pentateuch. It is now generally desig- 
nated as Jerusalem Targum II. Concerning the relations of the two Jerusalem 
Targums to each other, which is acknowledged on all hands to be very close, there 
has been considerable discussion and about the same amount of disagreement. 
These fragments are Palestinian in character and language and are, perhaps, the 

266 The Old TESTAME>fT Student. 

remnants of a larger Targum. Tliis, again, is disputed by some. Volck regards 
it as a '■ haggadistic supplement to Onkelos," it being clear that Onkelos is used by 
the author (cf. Schiirer and Volck, 1. c). 


All of these are of a late date and their authors are unknown. The Targum 
on Ps. 108 speaks of Constanliuople. We have a Targum on the Psalms, Job and 
Proverbs. That on Proverbs is comparatively literal. That on Psalms shows 
dependence on the Pesliitto and is slightly haggadistic ; that on Job is verj- much 
so. The Targums on the five Megilloth (Ruth, Esther, Lamentations, Eccle- 
siastes and Song of Songs) constitute a class of their own, and were composed 
after the Talmud. Of the Book of Esther there are several Targums. All these 
on the Megilloth are e.xpositions more than translations. A Targum on the two 
Books of Chronicles was published in 1715 by Beck. It is a comparatively late 
production. The most complete bibliography of the whole Targum literature is in 
the article of the Encyclopedia Britannica by Dr. S. M. Schiller-Szinessey. 

By Rev. A. S. Cakeier, 

McCkirmick Theol. Seminary, Cbicago, 111. 


Since religion occupied such a prominent position in the life of the Assyiians 
and Babylonians, ruling every thought and act, it is no wonder that Assyrian 
kings were so solicitous for the public worship of the gods, and that they, no less 
than the devotees themselves, supported the mighty and learned priesthoods. 
Inscriptions of Assyrian kings almost always close with accounts of the construc- 
tion or restoration of some temple. Babylonian treat almost exclusively of 
such matters, and one of the proudest titles is Finisher or Restorer (Zaniuu) of 
the two chief temples of Babel and Borsippa. Each place possessed at least one 
temple for its tutelar divinity. Nebuchadnezzar II. names, among the temples 
which he restored in Babel and Borsippa, ten in the former city and six in the 
latter, beside tire chief sanctuaries. Sargou II., when he built his new city, 
Dilr-8arukiu, a place of small extent, erected sanctuaries for Ea, Sin, Ningal, 
Ramniaii, Samas and Adar. No town was secure which did not well provide for 
its gods ; 110 king could count on divine protection who did not devote a share of 
his spoils to the temples ; and while many were content simply to restore damage, 
to beautify or enlarge, those more strict took the greatest pains to uncover the 
lowest foundation stone and repair every breach. 

Among the oldest and most famous temples were those of the Sun in Sippar, 
Nergal at Kuta, Bt?l at Nippur, but especially Sin at I'r. In Assyria the temples 
of litar at Nineveh and at Aibail deserve special notice. At the latter there 
seems to have been a prophetic school. Great uncertainty prevails as to the inner 
construction of these temples. We can only speak with certainty regarding the 

TiBLE ON Babylonian-Assyrian Culture. 267 


chief temples at Babel and Borsippa. The first, called E-sagila, dedicated pri- 
marily to Maruduk, was a sort of Acropolis, which comprised several sanctuaries, 
and perhaps formed part of the royal palace. Within was the shrine of Maruduk, 
containing his golden chair, and the sacred boat, which was carried in processions ; 
a shrine for his father Ea, for his spouse Zarpanitu, and for his son Nabu, the 
latter being called, like the entire temple at Borsippa, E-zida. Either in Nabu's 
shrine or Ea's was the Holy of Holies, Parakku, the sacred seat of the gods who 
determine destiny, where in the first feast of the year the great god of heaven and 


earth {Ea or Nabu) came down amid the reverently standing gods to decide the 
destiny of prince and kingdom. In the midst of the temple space rose the ter- 
race-tower, Zikurat, called the " house of the foundation stone of heaven and 
earth," or at Borsippa the "house of the seven luminaries or spheres of heaven 

and earth." E-sagila was connected, by Nabopolassar, by a new street with the 
great thoroughfare Ai-bur-sabu, which crossed the city from one end to the other 
and opened into the street of Nana, the latter probably leading to Borsippa, where 
was a temple originally dedicated to Maruduk, later to his son Nabil. This tem- 
ple was in constant communication with the one at Babel, and during the gieat 
feast, Zakmuku, Nabu was conducted in his ship to visit his father at E-sagila. 
In E-zida, at Borsippa, were various shrines of Nabii, one of which was called 
" the great house of life." Here dwelt his spouse Nana, and above all rose the 
Zikurat, originally forty-two cubits high and raised still higher by Nebuchadnez- 
zar. These were the most celebrated temples in the whole land, and Assyrian 


kings considered it an added honor to call themselves completers of E-sagila, even 
after subduing an obstinate rebellion in Babylonia. Moreover they did not neglect 
other Babylonian temples, bestowing no less attention on them than on the sanc- 
tuaries of their own land. 

The temples were built and adorned in a style of utmost magnificence. The 
statues of the gods were often overlaid with silver and gold. But we seldom read 
of new images ; age was here synonymous with holiness. These statues, for the 
most part, had the human form ; but often, as with the Egyptians, we find mixed 
human and animal figures. Bulls and lions with human heads, and eagle heads 
with human bodies, were common. The highest deities, however, are human in 
form, and frequently are accompanied by their sacred animals. A symbol of the 
highest divinity, perhaps borrowed from Egypt, was the winged sun-disk. In 
this was often placed a figure human above, feathered below, holding a ring or 
shooting an arrow. Two pairs of wings, and from one to four pairs of horns, as 
symbols of power, are common in the reliefs. The water-vessel and the pine-cone 
whicli they carry are symbols of life and fertility. 

No greater misfortune could happen to a city than to lose its images after 
they had been consecrated and become the incarnation of deity. The bloodiest 
war would be undertaken to recover tliem. 

Erection, restoration and endowment of temples were acts which secured for 
one life and health and the favor of the gods. The phrases in remecUum, pro salute 
animce, so common in mediaeval religious foundations, And numerous parallels in 
the oldest Babylonian inscriptions. We often see such dedications as " for my 
life," " for my life and my fathers " and " the life of my son." 

268 The Old Testa sient Student. 

The kings, wlio bore as well the title iuaku. had the right to exercise the 
priestly function, and like their Egj'ptian brothers certainly belonged to the learned 
class. Comparison of cuneiform texts with Greek writers, like Diodorus Siculus, 
■warrants us in distinguishing temple priests, atoning priests, and prophets, though 
the Assyrian names of these three classes cannot yet with certainty be determined. 

We can, however, be certain that the iSJaku, the highest priestly title, was a 
temple priest. So were probably the §angu and the Kalii, the latter a Babylonian 
title, signifying "the exalted." Of special interest is the terms Maggi, Magi, 
whose superior, the Rabmag, accompanied Nebuchadnezzar to Jerusalem. 
Although this title signifies simply "Splendid," we know from many sources 
that the word had in Babylonia the meaning which we attach to the word Magi. 

Beside these functionaries were the " Scribes " whom .Sargon II. commissioned 
along with his plenipotentiaries to teach the fear of God and of the king to the 
mixed population of his liew city. "Recorders" {dupsarri), and perhaps also 
prophets (Nabu), are mentioned. IIow their functions were apportioned and what 
was their hierarchal rank we cannot decide. We can only be certain of the duties 
of the Recorders and the true priests. 

The chief duty of the priests was to sacrifice and to pray. Sacrifices con- 
sisted of free-will offerings of clean beasts and fruits, of libations of oil and wine, 
of burnt offerings, which doubtless included incense. Human sacrifice and the 
sacrifice of chastity were probably not out of vogue, though not mentioned in 
cuneiform literature. 

We are yet in the dark as to the high feasts and processions and also as to that 
great Mystery, "the grasping the hands of Bel " of Babel or Deri, in which kiugs 
alone participated, and which they considered of the highest importance. We 
are better instructed in the performance of^ the ritual acts for private persons. 
The belief in spirits, powerful wielders of magic, to whose craft and tricks man- 
kind is daily exposed, is plainly evident, the belief was just as profound that 
through certain incantations and by the help of the higher gods, these evil spirits 
might be rendered harmless. 

But all magic was not looked upon as lawful . Sorcery practiced to gain power 
for evil or to overthrow enemies, was forbidden. But magic practiced to gain 
the favor of the gods for healing, long life or eternal blessedness, was encouraged. 
The multitude of incantatory formulas which are preserved show how highly 
esteemed the art was. 

The fame of the Babylonian priests, under the name of Chaldeans, spread 
far to the westward. The formulas consist of a prayer often quite beautiful, a 
litany, and they were employed against the demons of disease, fever, death, 
insanity and delirium. Eclipses of the moon and the dedication of the royal 
sceptre called them into play. Ceremonies probably extending over seven days, 
were required to free one from the effects of a curse (anat). All the gods were 
summoned, but chiefly the spirits of heaven and earth, the savior, Maruduk, and 
the beneficent Ea, as the incantations of their city Eridu were the most famous. 

The form of worship compared with that of Egypt or India was extremely 
simple, designated merely as a lifting or folding of the hands, but religion gave 
dignity and consecration to the whole life. Holy pictures adorned palace walls, 
and holy symbols were carried into battle ; important contracts and royal charters 
were headed with such symbols. ' In common with many ancient nations, the 

TiELE ON Babylonian-Assyrian Culture. 269 

Assyrians compounded their proper names with those of deities. But it is note- 
worthy that so many names are in the form of a wish or prayer. Each day was 
sacred to some god, and daily sacrifices were offered by the king. The seventh, 
fourteenth, twenty-first and twenty-eighth of each month, and the nineteenth as 
well, were rest days, Jabattu, on which one was in danger from the evil eye, and 
from morn till night neither king nor priest might eat his usual food, go about his 
usual business or wear his festal robes. Every tenth day seems to have been a 
day of jubilation, on which no psalm of penitence might be sung. The great 
days were certainly the feasts of the chief gods, the holiest of these being the 
Zakmuku feast at Babel, occurring about the time of the Jewish Passover. 

That religion ruled the whole life is plain also from the firm belief in a divine 
providence which planned for the requital of good and evil, wliich called kings 
even from the mother's womb to rule the nations, and which in the midst of 
insurrections and foreign wars gave victory to the royal arms and moved to sub- 
mission the hearts of neighboring princes. 

Like all ancient nations, the Babylonians believed it possible to know the 
future, and the decisions of the gods. But they had reached the point where 
they no longer looked for direct manifestations of deity. Theophanies belonged 
to the mythical histories. The highest gods communicated with man through 
their sons alone, and they only by oracles and dreams, but especially by the aspect 
of the heavens. Famous oracles existed in the leading cities. Dreams, though 
occasionally coming to any pious believer, were the special prerogative of seers, 
the Magi being the authorized interpreters and communicating to the suppliant 
the purport of the divine utterance. Thus the gods spoke through the mouth of 
their servants to Sennacherib when he asked concerning the result of a campaign, 
— " Go, march forth ; we will march by thy side ; we will help thee in the expedi- 
tion." Thus Istar encouraged Asurbanipal when he planned an expedition against 
Ahsere of Man, — "I am the destroyer of Ahsere of Man." We are told also of 
written words beheld in a dream upon the altar of Sin ; of a vision of Istar in full 
panoply and celestial splendor promising to appear to her votary, the king. The 
belief in such manifestations was only a limitation of the old faith, not a modern 
rationalism ; the people of antiquity considered them just as real as direct the- 

Astrology was diligently studied, and while not the source of mythology, the 
chief gods were yet associated with stars and constellations, and the various pecul- 
iar changes of the heavenly bodies were regarded as warnings sent by the gods 
which men must heed. Sometimes the portent was interpreted by a species of 
analogy, if the star of the king of the gods was bright, the earthly king was 
to be fortunate and powerful. Eclipses were objects of the most diligent study. 
All this may seem artificial and superstitious, yet it was based upon a firm belief 
in an immutable order of the world and an uninterrupted series of divine mani- 

The warm piety of the Semite, the deep religious sense, was not absent from 
the Babylonians and Assyrians. In purity and exaltation of conception they 
were but little removed from the Israelitish prophets. In their prayers and 
hymns they embodied thoughts which charm and attract. This is shown in the 
inscriptions of Babylonian kings, notably those of Nebuchadnezzar II., as well as 
in their penitential psalms and lamentations. It is true sin is not always sharply 
distinguished from its penalty, but it is deeply felt and represented to be a wan- 

270 The Old TESTAjrENT Student. 

dering from the right way, impurity, hostility to God, who is entreated to take it 
away and graciously avert his righteous anger. In spite of their polytheism, the 
tone and spirit of many passages remind us strongly of the Hebrew Psalms, the 
god who is addressed being exalted to the very highest heaven. Invariably, how- 
ever, the intercession of some other god is implored, a mediator was deemed 
necessary. There is one psalm in which no particular deity is named. The poet, 
as usual, makes the penitent speak of his god or his goddess, but this probably 
means nothing more than guardian angel ; further, confession of a " known or 
unknown sin" is made to a "known or unknown god." Though this is not 
monotheism, it approaches it closely. The god or goddess invoked as the peti- 
tioner's own, is none other than his better Self. If he sins, his god or goddess 
forsakes him, and his flrst intercession is for the god"s return, his first effort for 
his propitiation. 

All this proves that religion in Babylonia reached early a comparatively high 
development. However much of the external and formal, of the superstitious 
and magical may have clung to the worship, there was no lack of deep religious 
feeling and moral earnestness, which ejipressed itself most powerfully in the peni- 
tential psalms. 


Quite a number of changes have taken place within the last few weeks in the 
Old Testament professorships of the German universities. At Rostock, in the 
place of tlie late Dr. Bachmann. we now lind Dr. E. Kiinig, late docent at Leipzig, 
and with this change the last of the anti-analytical men has been succeeded by 
one who believes in pentateuchal analysis. Professor Konig is one of the leading 
opponents of the Wellhausen reconstruction scheme and is a prolific writer. The 
University of Halle has lost both its Old Testament men, Schlottmann and Riehm. 
In the place of the former, who was also President of the German Bible Revision 
Committee, Professor Kautzsch, of Tiibingen, lias been called. Professor Riehm's 
place is not to be filled for the present. Professor Kautzsch has secured his envia- 
ble reputation for accurate scholarship rather through the quality than the quan- 
tity of his literary work. There are few among the men in his department who 
have written less tlian he ; but his revision of Gesenius' grammar, his Aramaic 
grammar, and other work is of superior excellence. Professor Cornill, who only 
two years ago was called as extra ordinari\is to Kiinigsberg. has been made an 
ordinarius. Bertheau, of the philosophical faculty in Gottingen, who died several 
months ago, has been succeeded by Smend, of Basel. It was the intention of the 
authorities to call Wellhausen, of Marburg, but he was entirely unacceptable to 
the Hanoverian churchmen. In this way Smend leaves the theological faculty 
and enters the philosophical, just as Wellhausen did a few years ago. 

The announcement comes from Canada that ilr. Hirschfelder, the lecturer in 
Hebrew and other oriental languages in the University College, Toronto, retires 
from active duty. Rev. Dr. McCurdy, already a lecturer in this department in 
the same college, is to be advanced to the position of professor of oriental lan- 
guages in Toronto University. 



This work has abready been noticed in these columns. Attention Is called to 
it again by reason of the fact that Messrs. Macmillan and Company now offer it 
for sale in this country. The original work has already become standard and this 
translation, authorized by Wellhausen, is reliable and will doubtless be read by 
many who are seeking for light upon the problems of Old Testament criticism. 
It is a book for scholars and thinkers, for such as are well established in the 
faith. Its learning and acuteness are undoubted ; its spirit will not be regarded 
as commendable. 


A much needed help for students of the Septuagint is afforded in this volume. 
It is a large octavo of 284 pages, 9J x 6i inches, clearly printed and at a moderate 
price. It is unfortxmate that Tischendorf 's edition was the best available text of 
the Septuagint at the time this work was prepared. Swete's edition, when com- 
pleted, vdll doubtless supersede all others. This fact will detract somewhat 
from the value of this concordance ; yet it will always be more or less sei'viceable. 
Students of the Old Testament in general are coming to realize more clearly the 
importance of the comparison and indeed of the separate study of the Septuagiut 
version along with the Hebrew original. Let us hope that this concordance will 
assist in bringing about a consummation so desirable. 


This is a very convenient edition of the two Testaments in the original, 
details concerning which are given below. It is stated that this volume is the 
fruit of a suggestion made by one of the professors of Hartford Theological Sem- 
inary and the direct outcome of the interest inspired by him in independent bib- 
lical research. The idea is commendable and its realization in this neat and 
handy book is all that could be desired. The type is clear, the paper thin but 
opaque, the book not too bulky, its general make-up excellent. For class-room 
use, for frequent reference, for permanent companionship and study, those who 
procure it will highly prize this tasteful edition. 

* Pkoleoomena to the History or Israel : with a reprint of the article " Israel'' 
FROM THE Encyclopedia Britannica. By Julius Wellhausen. Translated under the author's 
supervision by J. S. Black and A. Menziea : with preface by Prof. W. K. Smith, Edinburgh : 
A. JcC. Black. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

+ A Handy Concordance of the Septuagint, giving various readings from Codices Vat., 
Alex., Sin., and Ephr.; with an appendix. London: S. Bagster it Sons. New York: John 
Wiley <i- Sons. 

t The Holy Biblb cosiplete in the Hebrew and Greek. The Hebrew Bible of Letterls 
and the Greek New Testament of Westcott and Hort. In one volume 6x4 Inches. Price, boards 
12.50; morocco, ?3.50. Orders may be sent to Elwood G. Tewksbury, Hartford Theol. Semi- 
nary, Hartford, Conn. 



Aryans, Semites and Jews, Jehnvah and Christ. 
A Record nf Spiritual Advance frnm the Jluuse- 
hold nr Permnal Qiid <■/ the Semite Almim and 
from Jehovah, the Tutelary or National (jod of 
the Israelites, to the Universal Father revealed 
hy Joms the CMrist, By Lorenzo Burge. Bos- 
ton : Lee i: Shepherd $1.50 

Modem Science in Bihle Lands. By Sir J. W. 
Daweoo, LL. U. New York: Harper & Bros. 

Manuel d' Archwologie t>rientale. Chaldee, As- 
tyrie. Perse, Syrie, Judee, Phenlcie, Carthage. 
By B. Balielon. Paris. IS&S S.-Wfr. 

The Poet's Bihle: Old Testament SectUm. By W. 
G. Horder. London: Isbistcr s.7.6. 

Die Qeschichtlichen HatTiiti/rapheniChroniha, Es- 
ra, Nehemiah, Ruth. Esther} u. das ISuch Dan- 
iel, ausuetevt. By S. Oettll u. J. Meinhold. 
Kurtzgef ass. Coram., etc. Nordlingcn: Heck. 

Recherches BUiliques. By J. Halevy. Fasc. 8. 
Versailles: Ccrf. et flls.. 1888. 

From Adam to Ahraham: or. Lessons on Gene- 
sis L-XIV. London: Nlsbet s.l. 

The Booh of Isaiah. Vol. L fta. 1-39. By G. A. 
Smith, fixposltor's Bible. London: rfisbet. 


Natural Reliqiim: Itiauyural Lecture at Olasgow. 
By Ma.\ Mailer. London: Lonjrmans ... 8.1.6. 

Tlte Story of Genesis. By Frances Younsihns- 
band. New York: Lonjnnans $0.75. 

Holiness as urideretood Ijy the writers of the Bible. 
By J. A. Beet. N. Y.: Phillips* Hunt.. $0.35. 

Scriptures, Hehreio and Christian. Arranged 
and Edited as an Introduction to the Study 
of the Bible. By Edward T. Bartlett. D. D., 
and John P. Peters, Ph.D. Vol. II. Hebrew 
Literature. G. P. Putnam's Sons $1.50. 

The Sermon Bible: 1 Kings to Psalm "6. New 
York: A. C. Armstrong* Son $1.50. 

Der ariechische Einflu;es auf Prediger it. Weisheil 
Sali>mos. By P. Menzel. Halle: Kflmmerer 
&Co M.1.20. 

On the Booh of Daniel, Brief Comments. Lon- 
don s.2.6. 

Der Prophet Jeremia v. Atuitot. By K. Marti. 

Oenealogical ChronoU>ati; or. The World before 
Christ: heiny the Origin, Genealogy, and Chron- 
ology of the Earliest Races of Mankind. By 
Albert Wells. Edited by his daughter. Lon- 
don: Allen 8.2.5. 

Veteris TeMamenti de Chcruhim Doetrina. In- 
aug.-Diss. By Fr.Triebs. liorliii; Sitti'iifi-ld. 

Das Bunilesliurh u. die reliuionsueschiehtliche 
Entiricl.rliinii Israels. Teil I. Inhalt u. Plan 
des liuiukst.iioh. By J. W. Rothstein. 

Dt« Sii-hziii n'oche.n Daniels. Ein kritlsch-e.\eg. 
StuiUe. InauK-Oiss. Leipzig: Hinrlchs.M.1.50 

Die Priester-ge^ctze hci Flavins Josephus. Eine 
Parallele zu Bibel und Tradition. By P. 
Grilnbauni. Inaug.-Diss. 

Daniel's Prophecies. Now being fulfilled, with a 
Harmon)/ in the words of the R. V. By E. P. 
Cachemaille. London: Hodder s.2.6. 

Die Metaphysic und Ethik des Judenthums von 
den ersten Aufiingen der monotheistischen 
Idcen, bei den Abrajtamiden his zum Sehlusse 
d'js Talmud: in vier heften bearbeltet und 
wlssenschaftlich dargestellt. 1 Heft. Die 
Metaphysik des Pentateuch. By David Lang- 
felder. Wien., pp. 35 $0.4,5. 

Historia sacra antinui Testamenti. By H. Zsch- 
okkc. Ed. iii. Emendatn et instruota V. de- 
Uncatlonlbus et tabula geographica. Wien. 


On the Legends Concerning the Touth of Mose». 
By A. Wiedemann, in Proc. of the Soc. of 
Bib. Arch., XL 2, 1883. 

Etudes sur le Deuteronome. 71. Les sources et la 

date der Deuteronome (Suite). By L. Horst. In 

Kev. d'l'hist. des Religions, Nov., Dec, 1888. 
L'Orgueil de Salomon. By J. Levi, in Rev. des 

Etudes Julves, Juil-Sept., 1888. 
Anti-Parsic Sentences <n Deularo-Isaiah. By 

Dr. Alexander Kohut, in Jewish Exponent, 

Feb. 1. 1889. 
Tlie Vertiacular Language of Our Lord. By Dr. 

Franz Deliusch in Sunday School Times, Feb. 

2, 18.^(1. 
Classification of Bible Poetry. By Philip Schaff, 

D. fi. Ibid, Feb. 9. 
Modem Critics on Men of the Bible. Reviews of 

Driver's Isaiah and Chcyne's Jeremiah. Ibid. 
Biide Beacitns. I. Samson. By R. G. Ferguson, 

D. D., in Evangelical Repository, Feb., 1889. 
The Foundation of Rome by Noah. By Fedcrico 

Garlanda, Ph. b., in The Independent, Feb. 

7. 18.19. 
The Mexican Messiah. By Dominick Daly, in 

American Antiquarian, Jan.. 1889. 
The Mosaic Doctrines of Death and After-Death. 

By Prof. U. V. Foster, D. D., in Cumberland 

Presbyterian Review, Jan., 1889. 
La Verite de I'Histoire hibliijue. 1. Le Nouveau 

Roman de M. Renan sur I'histoire sainte. U. 

Eteudue de Vijtspiration dc I'histoire hihlioue. 

By J. Brucker, In Etudes rellgienses, pbilos. 

hist, et litt.. Doc., 1888. 
Del Segno degli Elirci. U. By G. Rezasco. In 

Glonale Ligustlco. Sett.-Ott., 1888. 
Narrative of o Seirntifie Krpedition i;i the Traiu- 

Jordanic'Regiou in tlie Spring of IS^. By Post, 

in Pal. E.\pl. Fund., Oct.. I8><8. 
Delitzsch's Neuer Commentar liber die Genesis. 

By E. Kautzsch, in Theol. Stud. u. Krit., 2, 

Fahre d'Envicu's Le Livre du Prophiie Daniel. 

Review by A. Lolsy in Bulletin Crlt., 23, 1888; 

by J. Knabenbauer, in Stimmen aus Maria- 

Laach, 10, 1888. 
The Higher Criticism and its Results. By Prof. 

C. A. Briggs, D.D., in The Congregationalist, 

Feb. 21. 1889. 
Will the Revised Version be Accepted t By Rev. 

J. A. Faulkner, in Sunday School Times, Feb. 

■2:3, 1889. 
The Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs of the Jews. 

By Prof. B. Pick, Ph. D., in Homiletio Re- 
view, March, 1889. 
Studies in the Psalter. No. UI. The Nineteenth 

Psalm. By Dr. T. W. Chambers. Ibid. 
Scripture Poetry. liv A. J. Maas, S. J., in Am. 

Cath. Quar. Rev.. Jan., 1889. 
Philo and his Littest Interpreter. By F. C. Por- 
ter, In New Englandcr, Feb., 1889. 
In Self-Dcfenee: (Critical Observations on my 

Hebrew New Testament. Bj- Prof. Franz De- 

lltzsch. in E.xpositor, Feb.. 1889. 
The Hallel. By Rev. Bd. G. King, D. D. Ibid. 
A Comparison of Brahmanism and Buddhism 

with Christianity. By John Alfred Faulkner, 

in Reformed Quarterly Review. Jan., 1889. 
Swete's Septuagint. Review by E. Hatch, in 

Classical Review, Feb.. 1889. 
Rcnan's Histoire du Peuple Israel. Review In 

Athemvum, Feb. 2, 1889. 
SmitlVs Isaiah. Review by Cheyne, in Academy, 

Feb. 9, 1889. 
Inspiration and Infallibility. By S. L. Bowman, 

S. T. D., In Methodist Review, March-April, 

Cuirent Discussion. The Ethics of the Old Testa- 
ment. Ibid. 
Der Dehalog u. das sinaitische Bundesbuch im in- 

ncrcn zusammenhang dargestellt. By O. Nau- 

mann. in Ztschr. f. Kirch. Wiss. u. Leb., 

XI.-XII., 1888. 
Grundlehren der alttcstamentUchen Pnypheten. 

By Fr. Diisterdieck. Ibid. 



[Copyright by W. R. Harper, 18^8.] 

Forty Studies on the Life of the Christ, based on the Gospel of Marlt. 

Edited by William K. Harper, Tale University, New Haven. 


Besume. 1. The course of events which led to the betrayal of Jesus. 3. The scene at Bethany 
and the questions connected with it. 3. The character of Judas. 

I. The Material Aaalyzed. 

Read carefully Mk. 14:12-26, and be able to give a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

1. The disciples' iuquiry (v. 12) ; 4. words at the passover-meal (vs. 

2. the instructions of Jesus (vs. 13- 17-21); 

15) ; 5. the new institution (vs. 22-25) ; 

3. the instructions carried out (v. 6. the departure (v. 26). 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. With Mk. U:ia-26 cf. Mt. 26:17-30; Lk. 22:7-30; John 13:1,2,21-26; 1 Cor. 11:23-25. The 

attention of the student is called to the following points: 

1) Note the variations in the account (a) of the announcement of the traitor, Mt. 26:25; Lk. 

22:21-23; John 13:21-26; (b) of the Lord's Supper. 

2) Note and explain the similarity of the accounts of the Supper in 1 Corinthians and Luke as 

compared with Matthew and Mark. 

3) Note and explain the omission in John of the Supper. 

4) Note the additional material furnished in John, chs. 13,14; Lk. 22:24-38. 



Thjb Old Tbstament Student. 

III. The Material Explained. 


1) V. 12. (a) First day; i. e. the 14th NIean 

(Ex. 12:18), which had come to be 

included in the feast. 

(b) Unleavened bread; cf . Lev.23:6,6. 

2) Vs. 13,14. Do these directions imply (a) pre- 

vious arrangement or (b) super- 
natural knowledge, on the part of 
Jesus? Cf.Mk.ll:2,3. (c)Whyare 
they necessary? Cf. John 11:40-53. 

3) T. 14. (a) Good man; consider the proba- 

bility of his being a follower of 


(b) My guett-chamlier; I. e. (a) " the 

one I am accustomed to use," or 

(b) " the one I have engaged." 

4) V. 18. Be that eateth; how did this in- 

crease the offence ? Cf . Ps. 41 -.9. 

5) V. 20. Dippeth with me in the dish; e.v- 

plain the custom. 

6) V. 21. (a) fTritten; i. e. in the O. T., cf. 

Isa. 53, etc. 

(b) fTiw, etc.; (1) note the compas- 
sionate element in these words. 
(2) Did Jesus desire to restrain the 
betrayer? (3) Probability that Ju- 
das retired soon after; cf. John 
13:27-30; Lk. 22:21. 

7) V. 22. Brake; i.e. (a) either that all might 

have a part, or (b) with a symbolic 

8) V. 24. (a) Hy Mood of the covenant; (1) cf. 

Ex. 34:8-8; (2) for the "covenant," 
cf. Jer. :il :31-34; (3) the special ap- 
plication here. 

(b) Many; I. e. " all." Cf. John 3: 
16; 1 Tim. 2:6. 
!)) T. 26. (a) Until that day. etc.; (1) Is this 
literal or (2) symbolic? If so, of 
what? (3) What is the "day" re- 
ferred to? Cf. Mk. 9:1; Acts2:a- 
4; Rev. 21:5. 


1) The Passover, (a) Recall the events connected with the origin of the passover (Ex. 12:1-36); 
(b) the laws relating to its observance (Ex. 12:14-20; Lev. 23:4-8; Num. 28:16-25); (c) 
endeavor to form a more or less complete idea of the method of observing it in the time 
of Jesus; (d) the signiflcance of it as a religious observance, (I) a memorial, (2) a sacrifice; 
(e) the spirit of its observance, (1) as being a family feast, (2) as having a joyous character. 

3) The New Institnlioii. -Mk. 14:22-24. (a) Consider the time when Jesus observed the passover. 
(1) the view of the synoptic gospels (Mk. 14:12,17; Alt. 26:17,30; Lk. 22:7,14); (2) the view of 
John (John 13:1,2!); 18:28; 19:14): (3) the harmony of the two views; (b) seek to determine 
at what point in the passover feast this institution was introduced, whether (1) in the 
course of it or (3) at its close (cf. Mk. 14:22: Mt. 26:2fi); (c) note its close relations to the 
passover (1) in time and place, (2) in what it omits, (3) in what it retains of the passover 
ceremonies; (d) observe its parabolic character in harmony with Jesus' methods of 

3) Tlie Significance of the New Institntion. By a careful study of tlie material 
seek to ascertain tlie significance of this institution from the following 
points of view : (a) as revealing some characteristics of Jesus ; (b) as teach- 
ing the meaning of his death ; (c) as an enduring memorial of himself; (d) 
as a permanent testimony to his doctrine ; (e) as a speciiil channel of divine 
grace ; (f ) as a means of Christian fellowship. 

IV. The Material Organized. 

Outlier the material and classify it under the following lieads : 1 ) habits and 
customs; 2) institutions ; 3) important teachings; 4) chronological data; 
5) Jesus and the O. T. ; 6) Jesus as man and more than man ; 7) literary 

Condense the material into the briefest possible statement, e. g.: 

V. 12. On the day when the passover was sacrificed the disciples ask where they shall pre- 
pare it. 
V. 13. He replies. Let two go into the city and then follow a certain man. 

New Testament Supplement. 275 

V. 14. And say to the owner of the house into which he goes, Where shall the Master eat 

the passover ? 
V. 15. He will show you the place; there make ready. 
V. 16. They go, find the place and make ready. 

vs. 12-16. When the right day comes the disciples inquire where to prepare the 


V. 17. At even he comes with the twelve. 

V. 18. During the meal Jesus said. One eating here shall betray me. 
V. 19. Bach one In grief replies, Is it I ? 
V. 20. He said. It is one that dips with me into the dish. 

V. 31. I must go, as the Scripture says, but woe to him that betrays me; he would better 
not have been born. 

vs. 17-21. At even, eating with the twelve, he says. One of you shall betray me. 
Asked to name him, he says. It is one of you: but though I must die, as 
predicted, it were good for my betrayer never to have lived. 

V. 32. During the meal he took bread, blessed it, broke and gave it to them, saying, Take 

this my body. 
V. 33. He takes a cup, and after giving thanks, gives it to them and all drink. 
V. 24. He said. This is my covenant-blood, shed for many. 
V. 25. I shall drink no more wine till the Kingdom of God comes. 

vs. 22-25. During the meal he blesses and divides bread among them, saying. Take 
this my body. Likewise a cup, and all drink, while he says. This is my 
covenant-blood shed for many. I DRINK wine again only when the King- 
dom OF God comes. 

vs. 13-25. When the passover has been prepared as he directs Jesus conies with the twelve, and during 
the meal declares (while they question) that he shall be betrayed by one of them who wonld 
better never have lived. He blesses and divides bread among them, saying. Take this my 
body; and wine, saying, 31y covenant-blood, shed for many. 1 shall drink again only In 
the Kingdom of God. 

y. The Material Applied. 

Evil Character. Mk. 14:18-21. 1) Consider the possibility of being over- 
come of evil even in the presence of the highest goodness ; 2) note the 
peculiarly aggravated character of that manifestation of evil (Mt. 26:25), 
3) observe how it may be used to accomplish the divine purpose; 4) yet in 
a way perfectly consistent with human responsibility. 


Resume. 1. Scenes of the Last Supper. 3. Relations of the Passover and the Last Supper. 
3. Purpose of Jesus in establishing this new institution. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Read carefully Mk. 14:27-42, and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 
1 . Conversation concerning the dis- 2. the experience in Gethsemane 

ciples' fidelity (vs. 27-31) ; (vs. 32-42). 


The Old Testabient Student. 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. With Mk. U:27-«2cf. Mt. *«:31-»U; Lk. 2->::!l-:i4..J«-4(l; John l»:36-38: 18:1. 

2. Note 1) varied forms of statement, Mt. 2«::ill; Lk. 22:42; 2) new materials, Mt. 26:42,44; John 

1H:1; 3) the special material in l.k. 22:43. 44; i) the place of the event of Lk. 22:83,34; 
John 13:37, .18, as compared with Mlt. I-l:29-.ll. 

3. The words of John l(i,16,i; spolieD at this time. 

m. The Material Explained. 


4) V. 


5) V. 


6) T. 


7) V. 




(b) The funir; i. e. the season of his 
sufferings and death (cf. v. 41); so 
"this cup." 
9) V. 36. (a) Abba; peculiar to Mark; lighten 
the language Jesus spoke. 
ib) Father; Jesus' idea of his relation 
to God ? 

10) T. 41. (a) Cometh; i. e. having previously 

gone away; cf. Mt. 28:44. Why re- 
peat this prayer three times? 
(b) Sleep <m; is this ironical? 

11) Y. 42. Arise; cf. v. 41. How explain the 

change of command ? 

1) V. 27. (a) Offended; note the margin (R.V.). 

(b) Written; (1) where; (2) itsoriglnal 
application: (3) its use here? 

2) T. 28. Of) before you; as the shepherd; cf. 

John 10:4. 

3) T. 30. Note the nature of this statement 

and its witness to Jesus' knowledge. 
Spake; lit. " kept saying." 
Place; cf. Margin (K. V.). 
Greatly amazed; cf. 9:15. Does this 
imply an entrance into a new ex- 

Watch; for what purpose? 
(a) Prayed, etc.; lit. "kept praying"; 
(I) a real petition; (2) light on the 
nature of Jesus. 


The Agony, (a) Bring clearly to mind the experiences of Jesus at this time ; (b) 
consider his character and nature as previous " studies " have revealed him ; 
(c) inquire as to the meaning of these strange experiences (Mk. 14:33-41), 
recognizing the element of mystery involved ; e. g. ( 1 ) shrinking from foreseen 
physical suffering and death, or shame and humiliation ; (2) undefined fear 
in view of the dark outlook ; (3) sorrow at being compelled to give up his 
work; (4) grief on account of betrayal ; (5) sad consciousness of failure ; (6) 
shrinking from the crowning part of his work, which was to bear the sin 
and punishment of the people ; cf . Heb. 5:7-9 ; (d) note the view of Jesus 
which this scene discloses, (1) his humanity, (2) his relation to God. 

IT. The Material Organized. 


Oather the tnaterial and classify it under the following heads: 1) places; 2) habits and customs; 
3) important events; 4) O. T. quotations; a) Jesus as man ; 6) Jesus as more than man. 
2. Condense the material according to methods already employed under the general topic of 
Sorrowful Anticipations and Preparationtt. 

y. The Material Applied. 

1. The Prater. V. 36. 1) Jesus feels the necessity of prayer; 2) the Person to 
whom the prayer is addi-essed ; 3) tlie argument on which it is based ; 4) the 
reality and sincerity of the request; 5) the spirit with which the request is 
made; 6) the outcome in his case ; 7) should the same spirit be manifested 
and the same result be looked for in all prayer? 1 John 5:14; 8) does 
prayer involve nothing more than this? cf. Mt. 7:7-11, etc. 

New Testament Supplement. 277 

Death. 1) The natural shrinking from the prospect of death ; 2) what makes 
death ten-ible? 3) the Christian view of death ; 4) the consequent attitude 
of the Christian toward it; 5) bearing of all this upon modern funeral cus- 


MAKK 14:43-72. 

BesDme. 1. The journey to Gethsemane and the scene there. 2. An explanation of the feelings 
and words of Jesus. 3. The disciples as their characters are manifested in these scenes. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Bead carefully Mk. 14:43-72, and be able to make a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

1. The arrest of Jesus (vs. 43-49) ; 4. Jesus before the council (vs. 53- 

2. flight of disciples (v. 50) ; 65) ; 

3. a young man's experience (vs. 51, 5. Peter's denial (vs. 66-72). 

II. The Material Compared. 

1. With Mk. 14:43-73 cf. Mt. 26:47-75; Lk. 2-2:47-6o; John 18:2-27. 

2. While the comparative study of these passages in detail would be very helpful, there is space 

here to refer only to the principal points: 1) new material in Mt. ■2C:a0,62-al,63,6$, and 
Lk. 22:48,51,61; 2) the section peculiar to Mk., vs. .51,52. 

3. Bead carefully John 18:2-27, and note the following-: 1) the main tacts identical with those in 

the synoptic gospels; 2) the great divergence in language and details. 

ni. The Material Explained. 


1) T. 48. Oreat multitude; (a) of what classes T) T. 53. (a) Observe that a meeting of the 

of persons did this consist? et. Lk. Sanhedrin is indicated; (b) an irreg- 

23:,53; John 18:3.12. ular meeting at night, 

(b) Why are such measures taken ? 8| T. 55. On the need of witnesses, cf. Deut. 
cf. V. 48. 17:6; 19:15. 

2) V. 44. Token; what would seem to have 9) V. 58. Cf. John 2:19. 

been the expectation of Judas ? 10) T. 61. (a) Answered nothing; why ? 

3) V. 45. Kissed; ct. margin (R. V.). (b) Artthau the Christ; cf. Mt. 26:C3; 

4) V. 47. A certain one; cf. John 18:10. Would he put Jesus on oath. 

we not expect that the name would 11) T. 62. Did Jesus feel compelled to answer ? 
be given in this narrative ? 12)7.64. Blasphemy; wherein did Jesus lay 

5) V. 49. The Scriptures; what particular himself open to this charge? 

writings here referred to ? cf. Mt. 13) V. 66. Recall the style of oriental dwellings 
26 :56. and follow the movements of Peter. 

6) V. 51. Linen Hoth; i. e. a sleeping robe. 14) T. 68. Consider the motive for this denial. 


1) Jesiis, the Christ. Vs. 61,62. (a) Observe the unequivocal statement which 
Jesus makes here; (b) analyze it to discover what he claims to be : (1) the 
Christ; (2) the Son of God; (3) a son of man; (4) clothed with divine 
majesty and power; (c) note how the words were understood by Iris judges, 
vs. 63,64 (cf. John 10:33); (d) the significance of this claim in view of the 
circumstances, his seeming failure and expectation of death. 

278 The Old Testament Student. 

2) The Author of Ihin Uoprl. Ta. .MioS. la) NoU- the conjecture that this "youn^maii" is Mark, 
the author of this flospel. (b) Estimate the force of the followlnfr points urftcd In its 
favor: (1) the reason for calling attention to this incident was the personal interest of 
the writer: (2) the details narrated show a personal recollection; {'i) the mother of Mark 
bad a house in Jcrusaiein (Acts 12:lu'); (4) the young man's actions here accord with the 
character of Mark as elsewhere disclosed; cf. Acts 15:37.38; 13:13; (5) the probability of 
such a personal reference by the author of this Gospel; cf. personal references In other 
Gospels, John 13:23; Mt. V.'J; Lk. 'ii :13. (cl Learn so far as possible the grounds for regard- 
ing Mark as the author of this Gospel. 

lY. The Material Organized. 

1. Oather the material and classify it under tlie following heads: 1) persons; 2) 

habits and customs ; 3) places ; 4) important events ; 5) important teach- 
ings; 6) Jesus as man and more than man. 

2. Condtrae Mk. 14 :43-72 according to methods already indicated ; e.g.: 
1) vs. 43-50. 

r. 43. At once Judas comes with an armed band. 

V. 44. He had said, Take the one whom I kiss. 

V. 45. Now he comes and kisses Jesus, saylDg Rabbi. 

V. 46. They take him. 

V. 47. A friend wounds one of the band. 

V. 48. Jesus says, Vou act as though I were a bandit. 

y. 49. I taught you dally and you took me not; but let the Scripture be fulfilled. 

V. 50. All his friends flee. 

V. 51. A young man following lightly clad is seized. 

T. S3. He escapes naked. 

At once Judas comes witli an armed hand, who take Je»u», Judas Tiaving hissed Mm a» 
a sign to tlicm. After the resistance of a friend and h it own protest against so unnects- 
sary violence, Uioug)t predicted, his friends Jle-e, and one ligMtu cUul following is 
seized, hut escapes naked. 

2) In a similar way condense vs. 53-65,66-72. 

Y. The Material Applied. 

Judas and Petek. 1. Compare the sin of Judas with the sin of Peter, 1) in the 
motive and occasion of each, 2) in the light of their character and profes- 
sions, 3) in the effect of each sin upon the heart of Jesus. 2. Do these sins 
differ to any great extent in their essential elements ; cf . Mt. 16:23 ; John 
6:70. 3. Did Jesus deal in any different manner with each of these men V 
cf. Mt. 26:50 ; Lk. 22:48,61. 4. The reason for the different fate which fell 
to each of them as found (a) in the inscrutable wisdom of God, (b) in the 
fundamental elements of character which each man possessed. 


Keaame. I. The occurrences of the night. 2. The behaviour of the disciples. 3. The attitude of 
Jesus in these experiences. 4. The author of this Gospel. 

I. The Material Analyzed. 

Read carefully Mk. 15:1-15, and be able to nuike a definite statement concerning 
each of the following points : 

New Testament Supplement. 279 

1. The morning consultation (v. la) ; 5. Barabbas (v. 7) ; 

2. Jesus delivered to Pilate (v. lb); 6. the multitude's desires (vs. 8-14) ; 

3. Jesus before Pilate (vs. 2-5) ; 7. Pilate's decision (v. 15). 

4. the governor's custom (v. 6) ; 

11. The Material Compared. 

With Mk. 15:1-15 of. Mt. •2;:1,2,11-2B; Lk. 2i:66-2.3:2o; John 18:2«-19:1. 

Note new material concerning 1) the charges against Jesus, Lk. 23:2,3; John 1$:30; 2) Jesus 
before Herod, Lk. 23:7-12; 3) Pilate's opinion of Jesus, Jit. 27:24; Lk. 23:4,13-16,20.23; 
John lS:38b; 4) Pilate's conversations with the Jews, .John 18:29-32; with Jesus, John 18: 
33-37; 5) other points, Mt. 27:19; John lS:28,40h. 
S. Observe 1) how this section in Mark is lacking in his customary minute and picturesque 
details as compared with the other narratives; 2) difficulties in taking Lk. 33:68-71 as par- 
allel with Mk. 15:1. 

in. The Material Explained. 

1. textual topics and questions. 

1) V. 1. (a) Straightway: note one of Mark's 6) V. 12. (a) TVhat then/ etc.; what reason for 
characteristic words. asking this question ? 

(b) Bound; significant of his con- (b) Whom ye call; did Pilate expect 

demnation. them to favor Jesus ? 

ie) Pilate; learn something of his offl- 7) T. 14. What evil hath he done! (a) Consider 
cial position and relation to Jews, cf. the attitude of Pilate toward Jesus 

Lk. 13:1,3. during these scenes, (b) Inquire the 

■3) T. 2. Asked; (a) in a private interview, reason for this. 

John 18:33; (b) what suggested the 8) V. 15. Scaurged; (a) usually preliminary to' 
question? crucifiiion; (b) perhaps with a hope 

3) V. 3. .4^ccused; Ht. "kept accusing." of satisfying the multitude, cf. John 

4) v. 5. No more answered; suggest some rea- 19:5. 

son for this. 

5) V. 9. What was the motive for Pilate's 

question ? 


1) The Council, (a) Learn something of the composition, organization and powers of this coun- 

cil, called the "Sanhedrin"; (b) observe that Jesus is twice brought before them (subse- 
quent to John 18:13), cf. Mk. 14:55: 15:1; (c) in view of the actions of these gatherings 
decide whether they were formal and legal or irregular and informal meetings of the 

2) The Popular Verdict. V. 13. (a) Consider the persons composing the "mul- 

titude" of v. 11, whether representative of the popular feeling or not; (b) 
probability that they were seized by a sudden impulse or deceived by false 
representations ; (c) their declaration, Mt. 27:25 ; (d) the impression made in 
the Gospel narratives throughout as to the popularity of Jesus ; (e) endeavor 
to decide whether (1) the people as a whole rejected Jesus here or (2) a faction 
of political leaders stirred up the rabble against him. 

IT. The Material Organized. 

1. Gather the material and classify it under the following heads: 1) persons; 2) 

habits and customs; 3) institutions; 4) historical allusions; 5) important 

2. Note thefollcnoing condensation of Mk. 15:1-15, and work out the details, improv- 

ing or correcting it wherever desirable : 

280 The Old Testament Student. 

V. 1. At morn the assembled council condemns and delivers Jesus bound to Pilate. 

V. 2. Pilate aske, Art thou Klag of the Jews? He says, Yes. 

V. 3. The chief priests make many charges. 

V. 4. Pilate asks, Will you not reply to these many charges ? 

V. 5. Jesus replies not; while Pilate marvels. 

vs. 1-5. At morn the muncil convenes, ci>ndemus and taken Jesus to Pilate. Jcmu, in reply to 
Pilatc'iiflriit qucttion, says that he is King of the Jews, but to (he priests' charges replies 
rwt, whereupon Pilate questions and marvels. 

V. 6. At the feast Pilate Is used to free a prisoner at their request. 

V. 7. Barabbas is a prisoner with other rebels and murderers. 

V. 8. The multitude make the usual reiiuest. 

V. ». Pilate asks, Do you wish the release of the King of the Jews? 
V. 10. He sees that from envy the priests have arrested Jesus. 
V. 11. The priests induce them to ask for Uarabbas. 
v. 12. Pilate asks, What about him you call King of the Jews ? 
v. 13. They cry out, Crucify him. 

v. 14. Pilate asks, What evil has he done ? They roar out. Crucify him. 
v. 15. Pilate, to satiety them, frees Uarabbas, scourges, and orders Jesus crucified. 

vs. 6-15. Tlie multitude, ashing far the customani release uf a prisoner, induced by Uie priests, 
refuse Pilate's offer (o release Jesus and choone Barablias, an imprismied rebeL They 
keep tetling Pilate to crucify Jesuji. To satisfy them, lie frees Barabbas and condemns 

vs. 1-15. The cotinril t'ondenin iind tnke JoHUH to I'llate. nho exaiiilncH lilni uhilc tlief arruKc him. 
To their many clluru-cs .lesUN In silent, at which IMlatc ijuostldns and niarrcls. The ruK- 
touiary release of oue prisoner Is re(|aested by the miiUltttde. who. In reply lo Pilate's 
inciairy, and inilut^ed by the priests, rlioose Itarabbas, a rebel, and say of Jesus, Crucify 
him. Pilate then IVees Barabbas and condemns Jesns. 

V. Tbe Mat<'riul Applied. 

Pilate. Find illustrations in Pilate and make general applications tt> the follow- 
ing points: 1. The present influence of past sins. 2. The weakness of a 
distracted will. 3. Responsibility evaded in form is not avoided in fact. 
4. Compare, in Jesus, the power of conscious and tranquil innocence. 


Vol. VIII. APRIL, 1889. No. 8. 

The Hebrews received their supreme revelation of God in the 
desert of Sinai. Did the locality of this revelation influence its form .' 
So some have thought. The conception which the sons of Israel 
entertained of Jehovah was certainly intensified by the physical 
aspects of that sombre and bleak region. According to the principle 
of contrast, the influence of which has been observed in the prophetic 
writings, we find emphasized by Moses those benevolent and tender 
attributes of the Lord which the circumstances of the people seemed 
to require. Over against the great and terrible wilderness stands the 
majestic figure of " the Lord your God " that " bare thee, as a man doth 
bear his own son" (Deut. 1:31). While we may not allow that the 
idea of God entertained by Israel was in any sense developed by this 
desert life, it is an interesting study to note how the idea itself was 
portrayed, energized, and made particularly impressive in the midst 
of the sterile wastes and gloomy heights of Horeb. 

It is gratifying to observe signs which indicate that an interest 
in Bible-study is continually spreading among all classes of Christians. 
Some suggestions in a recent editorial note in the STUDENT bearing 
upon the pastor's relation to his people as a teacher of the Bible have 
called forth some responses which show that not a k\v among the 
ministry are awake to their responsibilities and opportunities in this 
matter. Several pastors have set apart one Sunday monthly upon 
which they seek to lead their people into united and consecutive 
study of some book of the Scripture. The latest example of this 
endeavor is a pamphlet of twenty pages entitled " Popular Studies and 
Sermons in explanation of eleven chapters of Romans ;* being a new 

♦ By Rev. Sidney Strong, Mt. Vernon, Ohio. 

282 Thk Old Testament Student. 

method of combining expository preaching with individual Bible study 
on the part of the Members of the Congregation." Such an ideal is 
eminently proper and seasonable. To make any Scripture epistle or 
psalm or prophecy rise from a dead and useless quiescence in the 
pages of Holy Writ to a lively and fruitful activity in the life of living 
men is to do an incalculably helpful service. These writings are the 
words not of man but of God. The pastor who stirs up his people to 
study for themselves these divine oracles brings human souls into vital 
relations to eternal and superhuman realities. Who can measure the 
result .'' What work has in it more of real spiritual benefit.' What 
work is more in harmony with the purpose and design of the Chris- 
tian ministry.' Is any line of service more needed at the present day 
as a stimulus of right religious ideas or as a corrective of inadequate 
views and hurtful errors, than the study of the Bible in the church at 
large on a true method under the guidance of a wise pastor.' 

The suggestion was made in a recent editorial that perhaps the 
time had come for a reorganization of the American Institute of 
Hebrew on a broader basis. The suggestion seems to have met with 
favor in many quarters, if one may judge from the number and char- 
acter of the letters which it has called forth. And, after all, why not 
have an American Itistitiite of Sacred Literature? 

i) An Institute which should aim to furnish instruction, not only 
in Hebrew and the cognate languages, but also in the Greek of the 
Septuagi,fit and of the New Testament; instruction, moreover, not 
only in linguistic and philological lines, but also in Biblical Literature, 
Biblical History, — in other words, the English Bible. 

2) An Institute which should organize certain rigid courses of 
study in these subjects, raise the standard of Bible-study, which is 
to-day confessedly so low, and impart a stimulus all along the line of 
biblical work. 

3) An Institute which should give instruction (a) by Summer 
Schools established particularly for this purpose ; (b) by classes organ- 
ized in connection with other institutions ; (c) by private classes 
organized under specially appointed teachers in various parts of the 
country ; (d) by correspondence, a method coming more and more 
into use as a most practicable means of teaching. 

4) An Institute which should hold examinations not only for 
those who have studied in the School of the Institute itself, but also 
for those who have studied privately, or in Sunday-school, or in nor- 

Editobial. 283 

mal classes, or in colleges or divinity schools ; these examinations to 
be held (a) in connection with the Summer Schools of the Institute ; 
(b) at various institutions of learning ; (c) by special appointment. 

5) An Institute, the work of which would in no case interfere 
with the work of existing institutions ; which would rather supple- 
ment and strengthen that which is at present being done in so many 

6) An Institute which would, in a word, encourage men to sys- 
tematic and thorough work; show how this kind of work can be done, 
and, what is of great importance, give some sort of recognition for the 
work when done. 

There is not space, here, for even a meagre outline of such 
a work. Two questions, however, naturally present themselves : 
(i) Is it possible for any organization to provide courses of instruc- 
tion in the English Bible which would be satisfactory to all .' If 
managed judiciously and conservatively, — and to succeed at all, 
this must be the character of the management, — there is no reason 
why all might not be satisfied. (2) Is not this very work being done 
by the Sunday-school, the theological seminary, and other agencies 
already in existence .-" No. Much is being done, but not enough ; 
good ^or^ is doubtless being done, but there is a demand for some- 
thing better. The work proposed would exert a decided influence 
upon all that is being done. It would be not so much a new work, 
as an organizing of old work. Biblical work is to-day at loose ends. 
It needs stirring up, systematizing, elevating. 

The plan of an "American Institute of Sacred Literature" has 
been under consideration for a long time. Some of the most eminent 
of America's Bible students have given the plan their approbation. 
It may not be that the time for action has arrived ; it is nevertheless 
true that the question is one which deserves careful consideration. 
Such an organization is feasible ; it may be said that such an organiza- 
tion is a necessity ; if so, it will, sooner or later, come. 


By Rev. E. E. Atkinson, 
Chlcopee, Mass. 

Among tbe forces tliat found their consummation in the epoch of Jesus and 
his apostles, a prominent place must be given to the work of the Hebrew prophets. 
Amid internal corruption and lieathen allurements, in the face of sensualism and 
idolatry, the Hebrew prophets were the preachers of a pure morality and the conser- 
vators of a living faith in the one holy God. The \vritings of the prophets, Impor- 
tant as they are, liave been little understood, owing to lack of appreciation of the 
time and circumstances of their composition. Tlieir mysteriousness has been 
regarded as a necessary characteristic, and to deprive them of this, in the eyes of 
many, has brought the historico-critical method into great disfavor. But accord- 
ing to any rational view of inspiration the utterances of the prophets can never be 
adequately understood imtil they have received their proper place in the history of 
the people. 

First in order of time among the writings of the Hebrew prophets is the Book 
of Amos. Amos has been called rightly " the father of wTitten prophecy." The 
book occupies a unique position in the Scriptures of the ancient Hebrews. If it 
were only for its lofty poeti-y, its grand style, its manly vigor of expression, it 
■would be well worthy of special study. But it is our present task to examhie the 
Book of Amos with a view to its religious ideas, to mark its contribution to the 
development of the faith of Israel. As before said, in order to understand the 
religious ideas of any biblical writing, we need to give such writing its proper 
setting in the history of the people. Let us picture to ourselves tlie historical 
situation and social condition of the nation at the time when Amos stood forth as 
a prophet. It was in the reign of Jeroboam II., toward the middle of the eighth 
century B. C, that Amos left his flocks in the fields of Tekoa in the land of Judah, 
and went to Bethel and uttered his propliecy against the house of Israel. The 
reign of Jeroboam II. was one of outward prosperity and brilliancy. His fatlier, 
Joash, had left liiui a kingdom greatly strengthened since the days of depres.«ion 
under Jehoahaz. But it remained for Jeroboam still further to extend the limits 
of the kingdom of Israel. We have few details of his personal character or of the 
nature of his wars; but the extensive results of his conquests and the splendor of 
his reign mark him as the greatest of the kings of the northern kingdom. It 
seemed as if the royal magnificence of David and Solomon had returned. His 
sway extended from Hamatli on the Orontes to the wady of the Arabah, south of 
the Dead Sea. The districts east of the Jordan, Ammon and Moab, were recon- 
quered and made tributary to Israel. Little is said of the relation of Judah to 
Israel at this time. Probably it was not included in the kingdom of Jeroboam. 
While the reign of Jeroboam II. was marked by outward success and splendor, 
the internal condition of the kingdom was that of corruption and decay. The 
country was ruined by prosperity. Rich from the spoils of war and the profits of 

The Eeligious Ideas of the Book of Amos. 285 

coromerce, the people gave way to luxury and all its vices. The wealthy indulged 
in the wildest extravagance. They built mansions of ivory, lavishly fitted out 
with luxurious furnishings. Attached to their palatial residences were costly 
vineyards. Along with their abandonment to luxury and the excesses of wealth 
there was a lowering of public and private morality. Social life among high and 
low had become corrupt. Drunkenness and sensuality spread on every side. 
Public festivals and private feasts were the scenes of most revolting excesses. 
There was withal a general passion for money, no matter how it was obtained. 
False measures and weights were used in the corn market. Corrupt judges were 
easily bribed. Unjust exactions of wheat were required of the husbandmen. In 
general the more wealthy classes oppressed the poor with excessive extortions. 
There was everywhere lying, stealing, murder, until, as Hosea says, " blood touched 
blood." Even the sacred shrines of Yahweh were not free from the corruption of 
the times. The reUgion itself yielded to the prevailing taint. The old simplicity 
of the religion of Israel had given place to an elaborate and distorted ritual. The 
calf-worship at Bethel and Dan had gradually merged into gross idolatry. Also 
at Samaria and Gilgal calf-images were worshiped. Much of their cultus was 
derived from Canaanitish customs, and although it was presumably Yahweh wor- 
ship, yet it presented au easy way for the admittance of all the grosser forms of 
heathenism. Drunkenness and debauchery invaded the hallowed precincts of the 
sanctuary. Priest and prophet reeled through the influence of strong drink in the 
very ministration of their sacred offices. Connected with their religious rites were 
practices of the most degrading nature. They transgressed at Bethel and multi- 
plied transgression at Gilgal (Amos 4:4). High and low, soldier and citizen, 
attendant at court and priest at the altar were given over to coiTuption and vice. 
Love of virtue and knowledge of God seemed to be banished from the land. 

It was in such a state of affairs that Amos uttered his prophecy. It was 
indeed a remarkable scene when the herdsman of Tekoa confronted the priests of 
Bethel and the grandees of Israel with his sweeping charges and bitter denuncia- 
tions. No wonder that his words seemed so distasteful to them (7:16). We do 
not get the full significance of the work of Amos at this particular point of Israel's 
history, if we regard him merely as denouncing vice and encouraging a purer form 
of religion. We must take in the situation and give the prophet his proper posi- 
tion as representing a stage in the growth of Hebrew culture. He was something 
more than a pure and simple moral teacher or purifier of religious worship. He 
was a prophet and yet more than a prophet. He represented a phase of the pro- 
phetic office which was greatly in advance of what it had been in former times. 
He seemed to scorn the intimation of Amaziah that he was a prophet (7:14). Evi- 
dently the schools of the prophets had fallen in disrepute. He felt that he had a 
higher mission than that of the technical seer. His task was different even from 
that of Elijah or Elisha. He did not utter his prophecy against an idolatrous 
dynasty as such. He did not wish to set up a good king in the place of a bad one. 
He held a wider view of national affairs. We see in him the prophet as a states- 
man, as a student of political events. But he represented no party within the 
state, nor was he spokesman of any alliance with foreign powers. He was a 
politico-religious philosopher. He looked at the nation both in its internal condi- 
tion and in its relation to foreign powers from the religious point of view. 
Although the prophet stood forth as the mouthpiece of God, yet it was a political 
sagacity, a broader outlook over the nations, a deeper insight into the times, that 

286 The Old Testament Student. 

put new meaning and influence into the prophetic office. The prophet was a 
statesman and yet more than a statesman. His view of causes and effects in 
national affairs was based on moral and religious grounds. Amos saw a necessary 
connection between the corruption of the nation, the encroachment of foreign 
powers, and the immediate control of God. Furthermore, we must look to the 
outward history for some particular occasion that drew Amos from his flocks to 
utter his prophecy against the house of Israel. "With his comprehensive view of 
the nations the prophet beheld one foreign power which was assuming vast pro- 
portions and which threatened the speedy destruction of Israel. It was the power 
of Assyria that was looming above the horizon as a prospective foe. For a hun- 
dred years it had shown its force as a world power upon the surrounding nations, 
and now Amos saw that it would soon move upon Israel itself. In AssjTia he 
saw the means which God would take to punish Israel for their sins. This is the 
burden of his prophecy, the overthrow of Israel as the result of their sins. " For, 
behold, I will raise up against you a nation, O house of Israel, saith Yahweh, the 
God of hosts ; and they shall aOlict you from the entering in of Hamath unto the 
brook of the Arabah '" (6:14). It is this one great fact— the impending doom of 
Israel— that is prominent before the mind of Amos and is the occasion of his com- 
ing forward to utter his prophecy. 

When we come to examine more particularly the religious ideas of Amos, we 
must be careful not to superimpose upon the thought of the prophet any precon- 
ceived notions of our own. Amos has no formulated creed to present, and is silent 
npon many articles of faith that we naturally look for in any well regulated system 
of theology. Much less does he attempt to teach any creed or system of religious 
truth. The prophets are in a true sense religious teachers, but they are not dog- 
matic teachers of doctrines. They are not designedly didactic. Their aitn is to 
influence life rather than to join together a skeleton of theology. And so in treat- 
ing of the religious ideas of Amos, it is not necessary to articulate his complete 
system of theological belief even if we could discover all its parts. AVe wish 
simply to mark some of the evidences that we may find in the Book of Amos of 
an advance in Hebrew faith over that of former times. Although prophetic 
thought, focussed as it usually is in one burning passion, does not readily admit 
of any strict analysis, yet in a general way we may divide the religious ideas of 
Amos into three classes, the ideas in regard to God, in regard to man, and in 
regard to the relation between God and man. 

In the flrst place, what is Amos' idea of God V ATliat does he have to say as 
to the existence of a Divine Being ? We may say at the outset that he does not 
discuss the existence of God. It is .assumed as a matter of course. But we are 
interested to know what content he puts into his conception of the being of God. 
By a mere casual reading we cannot fail to see that Amos' idea of God is more 
spiritual than the old notion of a Being who could be seen by human eyes, who ate 
and drank as a man and who wrestled in bodily form. There is a great advance 
upon this ancient anthropological idea. Nordoes Amos conceive of God as confined 
to any particular place. The old presentations placed God in Sinai. Moses had to 
go up into the mountain in order to meet him. The ancient theophanies repre- 
sented him as coming from the south. Later he took up his dwelling in the 
temple. With Amos Yahweh is no local divinity, but is a practically omnipres- 
ent God. Another very significant advance upon the old ideas of God is seen in 
the fact that Amos does not even consider Yahweh as the God of Israel alone. 

The Religious Ideas of the Book of Ajuos. 287 

Formerly ic was thought that as for other nations, they had their own gods, while 
Tahweh was exclusively the God of Israel. Moab had its Chemosh, Phenicia its 
Baal, and the idea of Yahweh's control of other nations was foreign to Hebrew 
thought. Change of country meant a change of gods. On this point we have a 
noteworthy passage in 1 Sam. 26:19, where David says: "They have driven me 
out this day that I should not cleave unto the inheritance of Yahweh, saying. 
Go serve other gods." In the first two chapters of our prophecy Amos puts into 
the mouth of Yahweh the denunciation of the sins of other nations as well as of 
those of Israel, in a way that would have seemed strange to a former period. Not 
only did Yahweh bring the Israelites out of Egypt, but he also brought the Philis- 
tines from Caphtor and the Syrians from Kii- (9:7). This idea of Yahweh's control 
of other nations beside Israel, is a great advance in the religious thought of the 
people. Amos frequently uses the title " God of hosts," in speaking of Yahweh. 
It is true that the right meaning of the expression is not known decisively, but 
whatever may be the exact significance of the term, it is evident that Amos had 
in mind a largeness of conception that was new to the thought of Israel. Further, 
Amos conceives of God as a moral being. He is holy, just and good. According 
to the old national faith, the most prominent characteristic of God was that of 
power. He protected his people by his might. He especially came to their aid 
against their enemies in time of war. If Israel conquered Moab, it was because 
Yahweh was stronger than Chemosh. It must have sounded strange in the 
ears of the priests of Bethel when Amos, as the spokesman of Yahweh, said, 
" You only have I known of all the families of the earth; therefore will I visit 
upon you all your iniquities " (3:2). He foretold the overthrow of their kingdom 
because of Yahweh's knowledge of them. It was difierent probably from any- 
thing that they had ever heard before. They had relied on Yahweh's protection. 
Surely his knowledge of them was sufficient to secure their safety. But Amos 
stood forth in the name of God and announced that they had abused their privi- 
leges. They had misunderstood the nature of God. Yahweh had known them, 
but they had not known Yahweh. Amos would have them understand that 
Yahweh was not merely God of favoritism, but the God of justices. Israel must 
take its stand with other nations and conform to one standard of right. It 
would be too much to say that Israel had never considered God as a moral being 
before, but never had the thought been so strongly presented as by Amos. 

The consideration of God's righteousness naturally leads us to the idea of 
man as a moral being or the general sdbject of sin. What, then, is the idea of 
Amos in regard to man's sin and transgression? Amos has much to say about 
the sin and transgression of the people, but he gives no explanation of the nature 
of sin. He does not attempt to account for its origin in history or to trace its 
development in the human heart. It was sufficient for his purpose to declare that 
the transgressions of Israel were an offense to God. It is also to be noticed that 
the prophet had in mind the solidarity of his people. He did not single out indi- 
viduals as guilty of punishment. It was the nation as a whole which had com- 
mitted sin. Amos was deeply sensible of the moral corruption of the times and 
was bitter in his rebuke of the recreant house of Israel. Yet he is not content to 
denounce sin in the abstract. He levels his blows against concrete actions. He 
specifies the particular sins which Israel is committing and which are displeasing 
to Yahweh. The picture of the low moral condition presented above, in our 
brief survey of the history of the times, is drawn for the most part from Amos' 

288 The Old Testament Student. 

own writings. He mentions the individual sins that he may bring them severally 
under the force of his uncompromising condemnation. It is especially worthy of 
notice that the prophet seems to pass over the fact of idolatry and impure wor- 
ship, in order to attack the sins of life and conduct. He is apparently not dis- 
turbed about calf-worship and the introduction of a heathen cultus, but he sum- 
mons the wrath of God against drunkenness and sensuality, against robbery and 
.oppression of the poor. The calamity which he predicts is to come upon Israel, 
not because of their idolatry, but because they have committed sin. Even when 
he speaks of the transgressions at Bethel and CJilgal, where heathen forms had 
been introduced, he does not refer to their idolatry, but denounces the sinful prac- 
tices which were associated with the worship at these places. 

The prophet's idea of religion was that it should open out into right conduct. 
Yahweh, the holy and just God, requires of his people a well-ordered life. Amos 
seems almost to lose sight of the worth of proper forms of worship in his insisting 
upon moral rectitude. The ceremonies and sacrifices of the morally impure are 
an offense to God. Amos expresses the fierce indignation of Yahweh in the fol- 
lowing characteristic passage: "I hate, I despise your feasts, and I will take 
no delight in your solemn assemblies. Yea, though you offer me your burnt offer- 
ings and your meal offerings, I will not accept them ; neither will I regard the 
peace offerings of your fat beasts. Take thou away from me the noise of thy 
songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols" (5:21-24). This seems an 
unaccountable sentiment for a representative of a people whose religious life we 
are accustomed to associate with sacrifices and feasts, with priestly functions and 
temple service. But we begin to realize the prophet's attitude of mind as he goes 
on to say : " But let judgment roll down as waters and righteousness as a mighty 
stream " (5:24). 

The contribution of Amos to the idea of sin is not an addition by way of a 
clearer definition of terms or refinement of theological distinction. The prophet 
rather stands forth as the representative of an aroused moral sense. He gives 
expression to a natural human feeling against sin. He places the sins of Israel on 
a level with the sins of other nations. He condemns his people because they have 
broken universal moral laws. He calls tlie Philistines and Egyptians to bear wit- 
ness against the transgressions of Israel. There is a marked advance in ctliical 
feeling over the times of the judges, when lying, treacliery and murder were 
resorted to in order to carry out the highest interests of the people. So in the 
reigns of David and Solomon, the life and conduct of God's anointed servants fall 
far below the rigorous demands of the herdsman prophet of Tekoa. This call 
of Amos for a pure morality is also a protest against the degrading practices 
connected with the hamoth or "high places," and the asherim or " groves," which 
had been early introduced and had become firmly fixed as a recognized element in 
the religious life of the people. Amos marks the growing spirit of reform which 
afterward manifested itself in the measures adopted by Ilezekiah and Josiah to 
purify the worship of the nation. 

In our discussion of the ideas of Amos in regard to God and in regard to 
man. we have unavoidably anticipated, to some extent, the consideration of the 
prophet's idea concerning the relation between God and man. Amos is so fully 
occupied with the large aspect of Israel's national disgrace and threatened punisli- 
ment, that the individual is swallowed up in the promiscuous downfall of the 
nation. So we need not expect to find any definite statement in regard to regen- 

The Religious Ideas of the Book of Amos. 289 

eration, conversion or the mystical union of the soul with God. Amos, however, 
does speak of a union of man with God; and although, at times, he seems to 
make a personal appeal to the individual, still he refers to the nation as a whole. 
This union is to be brought about on the part of the nation by seeking God, by 
returning to him. To seek God is to seek the good, to do that which is right. 
Tlie conversion of the nation is to manifest itself in outward acts of righteousness. 
The impending overthrow of the nation which is ever present before the mind of 
the prophet is the means by which on the part of God Israel is to be brought into 
proper relations with Him. In the fourth chapter Amos enumerates a number of 
disciplinary measures that God has taken to bring tlie nation into a proper attitude 
to himself. The burden of the passage several times repeated is as follows: 
" Yet ye have not returned unto me, saith Yahweh." In this way we may 
understand the meaning of that familiar expression " Prepare to meet thy God." 
When it is taken out of its connection and used, as it often is, as a text for a per- 
sonal appeal for a self-examination in view of the final judgment, the immediate 
application is apt to be lost sight of. Amos opens the chapter with a declaration 
of the sweeping punishment that God is to bring upon the nation. This is the one 
final measure that he is to adopt, since less summary judgments have been una- 
vailing. And then the prophet goes on to review some of the unsuccessful ways 
in which God has undertaken to turn the obdurate heart of the nation, with the 
repeated burden referred to above. And then in verse 12, speaking for Yahweh, 
Amos says : " Therefore," — because my minor chastisements have not availed, 
" thus will I do unto thee, O Israel "—as threatened in verses 2 and 3, referring 
to the captivity ; "and because I will do this unto thee, prepare to meet thy God, 
O Israel"— that is, be ready to recognize in tliis threatened overthrow of the 
nation the punitive judgment of God. 

In regard to the advance in the thought of Amos over that of former times 
concerning the union between God and man, we may refer in a general way to 
what has been said already concerning Amos' ideas of the nature of God and of 
man and the evidences of growth in these directions. In a more special sense the 
idea of a union between God and man suggests the question of the covenant 
between Yahweh and Israel. And here again we see that Amos has a much more 
advanced notion of the covenant relation of Israel than that of former times. The 
elective character of the covenant, together with the inheritance of the promises, 
receives strange treatment at the hands of tliis prophet of Yahweh. The down- 
fall of the nation, as an act of God, would seem to an ordinary Hebrew as a breach 
of the covenant, but according to Amos it is an act of Yahweh to bring the nation 
into truer covenant relations with their God. When Amos, speaking to the nation 
in behalf of Yahweh, declares, " You only have I known of all the nations of the 
earth," apparently we have a strong expression of the favoritism of God in the 
arbitrary choice of Israel, and we are hardly prepared for the turn in thought as 
the prophet adds, " therefore, I will visit upon you all your iniquities." Further, 
Amos does not lay much stress on the institutional character of the covenant. 
Ceremonial rites have very little value in his eyes unless there is a moral life 
behind them. God demands not burnt offerings or meal offerings, but the " sacri- 
fices of righteousness." 

In our consideration of the advance in Hebrew thought and growth of religious 
ideas we must bear in mind that this advance was in truth a growth and not a 
progress marked by the external addition of absolutely new and foreign elements. 

290 The Old Testaslent Student. 

As Christianity grew out of Judaism, so the larger thought of the prophets grew 
out of the ideas that, in the germ, were the possession of the people from the verj' 
beginning of their histon*. As in regard to the covenant, so in regard to the whole 
range of ideas concerning God and man. We have it all in the old germinant 
thought, " Ye shall be holy, for I am holy "' (Lev. 11:44). It may be said that a 
growth has taken place along the line of a change in the idea of holiness. Thus 
we have seen that Amos represents a stage in the progress of the religions thought 
of Israel. Yet we are still under the Old Covenant. Although Amos denounces 
his nation and exposes their wickedness, he is nevertheless a Jew. Or, rather, 
strictly speaking, we cannot, except by anticipation, call Amos even a "Jew." 
The nation has further growth before it in the matter of thought and life, and 
Judaism proper did not take its rise until after the exile. However, Amos is 
consciously one of God's chosen people. In this character he confidently asserts 
himself before the close of his prophecy. He believes that God has something 
good in store for the nation. So that the severe, harsh tone of the book is lighted 
up with a hopeful view of the future. Although Yahweh is the Lord and Judge 
of all the nations of the earth, yet he has special dealings with his own chosen 
people, and so Amos closes his prophecy with a bright vision of the future ideal 
state. It is to be founded on moral principles. The nation will be truly united 
to Yahweh. The people will reflect the moral and spiritual qualities of their God. 
Yet the position of Amos is one of more than national import. Although as 
the herdsman of Tekoa he denounces the priests of Bethel and the grandees of 
Samaria, yet he speaks for all time. Although he warns his country against the 
specific incursion of a foreign power, yet there is a spirit of universality and abso- 
luteness in his utterances. Above all the proper prerogatives of a Hebrew prophet, 
above all national considerations and local applications, above all lessons to be 
learned from the immediate issue of events, Amos stands forth as the embodiment 
of a robust faith in the complete sway of ethical principles and the final triumph 
of good over evil. To sum up, religion according to Amos consists not so much in 
belief or worship as in conduct, in a well regulated moral life. This life of rigor- 
ous moral virtue is demanded by the majesty and justice of God. For the pur- 
pose of bringing Israel to the enjoyment of such a life, God is to visit upon the 
nation its overthrow and captivity. Amos lays down, for the first time, the prin- 
ciples of a pure ethical monotheism. 


By Rev. A. S. Cakuiek, 

MoCormick Theol. Seminary, Chicago, 111. 


A striking proof that the Babylonians attained a high degree of civilization at 
a very early period is the fact that the invention of writing lay in the remote past. 
The oldest inscriptions, dating back forty centuries before our era, are written in a 
character which, in imitation of the terminology of Egyptologists, has been called 
hieratic. This was derived from an older hieroglyphic writing, and while in 

TiELE ON Babylonian-Assyrian Culture. 291 

Egypt both styles were in use, in Babylonia the original Hieroglyph is rarely 
traceable. The lines and angles of the original picture were still further conven- 
tionalized through the use of a three-cornered stylus on the soft surface of clay 
tablets. Hence arose the so-called cuneiform writing, the successor to the hieratic, 
which remained in use up to the time of the Seleucidce. From the ninth century 
B. C. there are indications of the knowledge and use of the Aramaic character, 
which was far better suited to the peculiarities of a Semitic speech. 

At first, as is shown by the inscriptions found at Telloh the writing was not 
in continuous lines from left to right, but from right to left in horizontal columns, 
which were divided into an unequal number of smaller perpendicular columns, 
each of which contained the signs of a word or word-group, arranged perpendicu- 
larly. This is the original and natural direction ; for according to it the signs for 
" man " and " statue " stand upright, while that for " fish " is recumbent. The 
later conventional style reverses this. Here we see the relationship to the Chi- 
nese, which is still written in perpendicular columns, and to the Egyptian, which 
was written sometimes in one way, sometimes in the other. The Babylonians 
early abandoned the perpendicular style, while in Assyria no trace of it whatever 
remains. The change may have been due to Semitic ideas and Semitic supremacy. 
The archaistic cuneiform style must have arisen in Babylonia before the founda- 
tion of the Assyrian Empire. The Assyrian inscriptions of Kammannlrar I. differ 
little from the old Babylonian of Hammurabi. But each from a common starting 
point developed in a way peculiar to itself. 

"We can but touch on the origin of the Babylonian hieroglyphic writing which 
developed into the cuneiform. It seems certain to the writer that it was not 
invented by a Semitic people ; for the phonetic values of the signs do not corre- 
spond to known Semitic names of the objects represented, neither do they suit 
well the oral expression of a Semitic speech. But it is not an ascertained fact 
that the Sumerians and Akkadians were the originators of the system, though 
this is the general view. The suspicion is forced upon one that this style of 
writing was borrowed by the old Chaldeans themselves from a sea-coast people of 
higher civilization. But it can be asserted with certainty that neither Chinese 
nor Egyptians transmitted it to the Babylonians, or borrowed it from them. In 
all probability these three peoples derived their system of written characters from 
a common source and then developed it independently. The direction of the 
writing, the rule that the front of the figures was turned toward the reader, with 
other peculiarities, show that the Egyptian and old Babylonian systems at least 
found their root in the same groimd idea, and this, of course, was by no means 
the only possible one ; nor was there any compulsion upon the human mind to pro- 
ceed in one line of development rather than in another. But though the system 
of written characters of the Babylonians and Assyrians may have been an inher- 
itance, it became in a true sense their own creation, for they elaborated it by their 
own genius and fitted it to their own ideas. 

The cuneiform writing had a real literary utility ; stories, legends and poems 
were engraved, in characters exceedingly minute, on clay tablets, which were 
often numbered, like the pages of a book, the title of the whole being frequently, 
as in Hebrew, the opening word, the first word of the next tablet being also indi- 
cated upon each. Though we possess but a fragment of all the literature of 
Babylonia, nevertheless we are able even now to take a bird's-eye view of the 
whole and to convince ourselves of its varied character. 

292 Tile Old Testament Student. 

Mythic and half-mythic stories, historical passages, hymns to the gods and 
other devotional songs take the first place in the literature which has bewi pre- 
served. There are also prophecies, oracles, collections of proverbs and fables of 
various animals. The cosmogonies, or better, theogonies, date from a very early 
period. Pure myths are the tales of Maruduk or Uammaii in the contest with the 
dragon Tiamat, the story of the descent of Ijtar to Ilades, and the anthropo- 
morphic account of the rebellion of the storm-bird Zu. Histories in mythic dress 
are the tales of the birth and childhood of Sargon, of the terrible deeds of Dibbara, 
the god of pestilence. Of priceless value is the so-called Ximrod-Epos, the name 
of whose hero is commonly read Izdubar or Gistubar. The sixth and eleventh 
tablets of the origimil twelve are the only ones which have been preserved with 
any degree of completeness ; of the tenth we possess a considerable fragment ; but 
the rest are hopelessly mutilated. There can be no doubt, however, that the tab- 
lets contained a continuous history of a warrior who is customarily identified 
witli Ximrod, and at the same time held to be a sun-hero, a sort of Hercules, 
whose labors corresponded to the twelve months. Though much of this must 
remain for the present conjectural, we cannot ignore the points of similarity with 
the Greek hero. The one is the object of the hatred of Hera, the other, of that of 
Istar, though on different grounds ; the one conquers monsters and tyrants, the 
other overthrows the Elamitic despot Humbaba and the bull sent against him by 
Anu and Istar; both, though with different purposes, undertake a journey to the 
west. Yet with all this, the differences are too great to identify the heroes. The 
ancient Uruk was the scene of the events of the Epos. The hero was a mythical, 
not au historic personage, though he appears as a prince's son, frees the laud from 
foreign tyranny, and reigns in Uruk. Extremely remarkable is the quarrel with 
Istar, who is represented as queen of Uruk. Tlie visit to the Babylonian Xoah, 
whom Berossos calls Xisutliros, gives the poet opportunity to insert the story of 
the flood, which is acknowledged to have many points of similarity with the bib- 
lical account and to be composed of two or more differing legends. The note- 
worthy fact in all this is that out of the myths and traditions of a pre-historic age 
the Biibylonians constructed an epic whose origin cannot be later than the period of 
the highest development of the kingdom of Ur. But we have no reason to believe 
that they were wTitten in any other language than the vernacular of the Semitic 
inhabitants, though old Chaldaic models may have been before the minds of the 

The Assyrian Lyrics likewise desen'e mention. They are quite numerous, 
consisting of incantatory formulas; the penitential psalms already mentioned; 
and the hymns to the gods, of which we possess many, and which, while used in 
religious ceremonies, were perhaps not expressly composed for them, but were the 
voice of the holy enthusiasm of the poets. The terms poet and seer being in 
antiquity synonymous, a magical power was ascribed to a beautiful hymn. These 
hymns are dedicated to the great gods of the pantheon. One praises Anu's 
weapon, the lightning; others are addressed to no particular god, while others are 
prayers for the welfare of land and king. Here belongs the so-called Royal Psalm, 
which hardly deserves this title, being a simple prayer for the blessing and happi- 
ness of the king. As to form there are traces of parallelism of verse members, 
while in some there appears an alliterative rhyme. In five hymns at least certain 
successive lines begin, if not with the same syllable, at least with the same souud. 

TiELE ON Babylonian-Assyrian Cultttke. 293 

The question, when did the Babylonian literature originate and what is the 
relative age of its productions, cannot yet be answered. Independent Assyrian 
literature is easily reviewed, but the Babylonian empire and literature was cent- 
uries old. The limits on the one side are the reigns of the Sargonids, Sen- 
nacherib and Asurbanipal (700 B. C), and on the other Sargon I., before whose 
time (3800 B. C) no Semitic Babylonian literature can be thought of. Formerly it 
was held that all the Babylonian texts were composed in the Akkadian or Sumer- 
ian, and were translated by the Semite. The date of the original composition was 
assumed to be the seventeenth century before our era, after which time it has been 
said the old Chaldaic became a dead language. Neither assumption is correct. 
It is an open question whether the old Chaldaic were not a living language down 
to the time of Samas-sumukin. Even if this were not so, it was certainly always 
a sacred and learned language like the Latin of the Middle Ages. Consequently 
texts written in this language might still belong to the Semitic period. It is 
nearly certain that the Semitic text of the penitential psalms is the original and 
older and the other a translation. It is inconceivable that a gifted people like the 
Babylonians should have done nothing for centuries but transcribe and translate 
the remains of a foreign speech. Their historical inscriptions prove them masters 
of their language and show them able to take a lofty flight in the utterance of 
religious thought. They stood for a long period at the head of civilization and 
taught their conquerors, the Assyrians. It must not be denied, however, that the 
South was the theatre of most of the Sagas and legends. Not Ur or Nippur, not 
Babel or Agane, were the scene of the Deluge-story and of the exploits of Gistubar, 
but Surippak, which in historical times was unimportant, and Uruk, which 
once the capital of a mighty kingdom, yielded later to the overlordship of Ur. 
The representation of Istar as a princess who chose from time to time a new 
spouse points to a time when the matriarchate prevailed. But the days of Surip- 
pak and Uruk lay in the gray and misty past ; the acting heroes are but mythic 
forms, and poems regarding them could no more have arisen in that early period 
than the Homeric songs in the time of the Trojan war. The conjecture seems 
justified that the story of Gistubar's victory over Humbaba belonged to a time 
when the Elamites under Kudurnanhundi carried away the sacred statue of 
Nana from Uruk, and when later Kudurmabuk founded a dynasty in Larsa and 
Ur, and that the intention was to stir the national consciousness by the remem- 
brance of a glorious past. 

It is diflicult to pronounce judgment on the literary value of the stories and 
poems left by the Babylonians. On the one hand they have been exalted to a 
place beside the literary monuments of classic antiquity ; on the other hand they 
have been characterized as a " depressing waste of Ninevitish gentleman-farmer 
poetry." Neither judgment is just. If the tablets of the Chaldean Genesis are 
parts of a greater work, they contain a theogony and cosmogony of essential value 
for our knowledge of the development of religious ideas and for the history of 
comparative religion. But they cannot be mentioned in the same breath with 
Hesiod, neither can the epic tales bear a literary comparison with the heroic poems 
of Greece and Rome, nor with the Hebrew stories of the deeds of their forefather 
which are so elevated and so full of genuine touches of nature. It is the Lyric 
alone which approaches the like productions of other ancient peoples. 

294 The Old Testamknt Stddbnt. 

Two things must be remembered; first, the mutilated condition of our rec- 
ords, and secondly, our imperfect understanding of even these fragmentary artistic 

To speak of those which are fairly complete and in the main understood, the 
incantations, astrological and omen tablets have very slight literary value. A 
lofty strain characterizes some of the hymns, and the penitential psalms often 
exhibit a deep religious feeling. But the Baljyloiiians had a notable talent for 
story-telling. The description of the contest between Istar and Gistubar is ani- 
mated. The goddess flatters him, and seeks to bind him to her as her spouse. 
He rebuffs her, pointing to the multitudes she has ruined by her fornications. 
She flees, insulted, to her father Ann. and they send against the hero a monster, 
which he slays. The story of her journey to the lower world is striking and 
graphic, the description of the place itself picturesque and '■ the house of dark- 
ness, the seat of the fearful Irkalla, the house which, if one enters, he never 
leaves, for the path leads back no more — the place where dust is their food and 
mire their meat, where they see no light but abide in darkness, where like birds 
they are wrapped in feathers, and dust covers bars and doors." The conversation 
with the porter, who strips the goddess of garments and ornaments, has an epic 
breadth .and dignity. In the Deluge-legends, there are good descriptions, though 
the author has failed to picture the horror of the catastrophe, but a certain dry 
humor pervades the account of the council of the gods. Bel is in disgrace for his 
unreasoning act of indiscriminate destruction ; he finally is calmed, and behaves 
himself politely, even leading forth the rescued family. The picture is graphic 
where the gods rush to Anu's heaven before the rising waters and cower down 
before the lattice like dogs in their kennels, and again where they breathe in the 
sweet savor of the sacrifice, and gather like flies around the altar. These are 
not sublime pictures, but the naive wit shows the genuine story-teller. 

We risk nothing in such a judgment as this : In contents and form the Baby- 
lonian literature is far behind the classic, the Indian, the Arabic, the Persian, and 
the old Hebrew. It surpasses, in several respects, the Egyptian, and stands far 
above the Old-Eranic Avesta. In no sense, however, can it be called monoto- 
nous, judging from the variety of our scanty remains alone. 

The Assyrians seem to have done little else than copy the productions of the 
Babylonians, yet we are not warranted in denying them all originality. There 
are traces of Assyrian poesy, and we must not forget the numerous historical 
texts which, while generally monotonous and dry, have religious introductions in 
a more ornate style and of greater dignity of speech. From the time of Sargon II., 
progress in the art of historical composition is noticeable. The description of the 
battle of Halule and of the naval expedition to the Elamitic coast, in the military 
records of Sennacherib, deserve special mention. Under ASurbanipal we reach 
the point of highest literary development, and the accounts of the appearance of 
Istar to that monarch, of the conquest of Babel and of the march to Arabia, are 
vivid .and animated. 

The Assyrians stood in much the same literary relation to the Babylonians as 
the Bomans to the Greeks. Warlike and practical, they sought to found a mighty 
state. History was to them of more importance than the creations of fancy. 
Even the literary spirit that av<'oke later, may have had its origin rather in an 
interest for the old religious and national traditions than in a fondness for poesy. 

TiELE ON Babylonian-Assyrian Culture. 295 

The Assyrians seem to have been more inclined to what might then be called 
science, though here, too, they learned from the Babylonians. The reputation of 
the latter in antiquity as patrons of science is well known. Kallisthenes sent 
Aristotle, from Babel, a list of observations reaching, by the most moderate esti- 
mate, to 2234 B. C. The number of eclipses mentioned on tablets carry us back 
much farther. The Zikurat, in Assyria at least, were used as observatories. It 
has been conjectured that the Babylonians possessed a sort of telescope, but this is 
improbable. They named the signs of the Zodiac, and knew five of the planets, 
they observed tlie comets, the motions of Venus, the position of the Pole star and 
perhaps also sun-spots. Their explanation of many phenomena was often of 
course quite artless. Their system of time division was complete, the solar hour 
and the clepsydra being their inventions. Their lunar year of twelve months was 
rectified by intercalary months, most commonly by the second Adaru (arhu mahru 
sa adaru, or arah addaru arku); there was beside a second Nisannu and Ululu. 
They had made considerable progress in mathematics, using a sexagesimal and 
sometimes a centesimal system. Yet we cannot dignify these studies by the name 
of true science. Their main purpose was to learn the future and the will of the 
gods. Mathematics was the handmaid of magic. Astromony was subordinate, 
astrology supreme. Every celestial phenomenon was connected with simultaneous 
events on earth, which were to be expected again with the same aspect of the 
heavens. It must be observed, however, that among the sea-coast people, the needs 
of navigation may have necessitated an exact observation of the heavenly bodies. 
But it is difficult to determine what share the old Chaldeans may have had in tlie 
origin of primitive science. It is certain that all the teclinical expressions of 
mathematics are in a non-Semitic language ; yet, admitting that the Semites bor- 
rowed, they unquestionably worked over and augmented their acquisition. 

Their medical science was little better than a system of magic, charms and 
spells, it was inferior to the art as practiced in Egypt and Vedic India. 

It is not without some exaggeration that one speaks of writings on natural 
history, geography and grammar. We possess lists of words, synonyms and 
names of the most varied objects, composed for the most part in different lan- 
guages or dialects, having the apparent purpose of aiding in the understanding of 
old texts or in the learning of various languages. It has been thought that we 
possess examples of regular grammatical analyses. 

Many of these texts may have been composed for the use and assistance of 
the admmistrators of the widely extended empire. There are two classes of texts, 
however, which have a decidedly scientific character. The first consist of lists of 
natiu-al objects, like plants and animals, aiTanged according to species in such a 
way as to evince no mean powers of observation. Higher still stand the gram- 
matical tables which in their classification of declensions and conjugations, in 
their arrangement of words according to roots, shows an insight into the spirit of 
language which no other ancient nation, not even the Egyptians, possessed, and 
proves them the forenmners in a field into which Greeks, Indians, and Arabians 
much later entered. 

All these literary and scientific treasures were early written upon clay tablets, 
and in Babylonia laid away in temples under the auspices of priestly schools, 
kings and private persons as well deeming it a pious duty to endow and enrich 
these collections. lu Assyria, kings alone founded and maintained libraries. 
There are reasons for believing that each Babylonian library had a literary char- 

296 The Old Testament Student. 

acter peculiar to itself. The copies in the immense collections of the Assyrian 
kings are gathered from various libraries. The so-called Epos, and perhaps I;tar's 
Descent to Hades, from Uruk ; the creation legend from Kuta ; the mathematical 
tables from Larsa ; the astronomical tables from Agane. We possess nothing, 
however, from the libraries of the other important Babylonian cities. The Assyr- 
ian libraries were later and of a more miscellaneous character. The oldest was at 
Assur. This has been almost entirely destroyed. From ASurnajirpal to Sargon II., 
the one at Kalah was the object of the royal care. Sennacherib transferred this to 
Nineveh, where it was in later times greatly enriched by Asurbunipal, under 
whom Assyrian literature seemed about to come forth from its long-time obscu- 
rity, and to unfold into an independent life; but the fall of the empire was at 
hand, and this fruitful promise was unfulfilled. 


By Rev. P. A. Xokdell, D. D., 

New London, Conn. 

The idolatries practiced by the nations that surrounded Israel proved, as we 
know, an irresistible temptation to the abandonment of the pure and spiritual 
worship of Jehovah. His service was continually invaded and superseded by sen- 
suous and debasing idolatries. The popular tendency to sensuousness exhibited 
itself in the use of images even for Jehovah himself. Sucli representations were 
distinctly forbidden in the ilosaic law, were utterly repugnant to the spirit of 
Jehovah's worship, and were most earnestly denounced by the prophets as 
equally detestable with the idols set up in honor of strange divinities. In the fol- 
lowing group of words it will be convenient to consider not merely the terms by 
which idolatrous images were characterized, but to some extent also the gods 
whom they represented, and for whom Israel forsook its own religion. 

'aven vanity, iniquity. 

Isaiah (66:3) says, " He that burneth frankincense is as he that blesseth an 
'aven." Hosea (4:7 ; 5:8; 10:5) having in mind the golden calf that Jeroboam 
set up at Beth-el, "house of God," 1 Kgs. 12:29, regards the place as no longer 
worthy of this exalted name, and transforms it into Beth-aven, '• house of the idol." 
These are the only instances wherein this word, commonly denoting vanity, iniq- 
uity (see Old Testament Student, Dec. 1S88, p. H4), designates the idol itself. 
The transition from the thought of abstract evil considered as vanity, emptiness, 
to idols— evil in its most concrete manifestations— was easy and natural, since 
those who trusted in them were deceived and disappointed. 

'eymah horror. 

This word is commonly used in the sense of fear, dread, horror. Gen. 15:12, 
Ex. 15:16, Ps. 55:4(5). But Jeremiah employs it in a single instance, 50:38, of 
idols. Prophesying the destruction of the pride and gl