(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Old Yorkshire"

OLD YORKSHIRE. 



WORKS OF WILLIAM SMITH, F.S.A.S. 

THREE WEEKS' TRIP TO FRANCE AND SWIT- 
ZERLAND. Post 8vo., 100 pp. Published Out of 
1864. (F. Pitman) Print. 

Do. do. Second Edition. Crown 8vo,Published 1865. 

(W. E. Smith & Son, London) Do. 

A YORKSHIREMAN'S TRIP TO ROME. Post 8vo. 

200 pp. Published 1866. (Longmans) Do. 

RAMBLES ABOUT MORLEY. Crown 8vo., Illus- 
trated. 200 pp. Published 1866. (J. R. Smith.) Do. 

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF MORLEY. 
Demy 8vo. Illustrated, 300 pp. Published 
1876. (Longmans.) Do. 

OLD YORKSHIRE. Vols. I., II., III., and IV., 
1881-3. Demy 8vo. Profusely Illustrated. 
320 pp. each. Published Yearly, in October, s. d. 
(Longmans.) .per vol. 7 6 

Do. do. Demy 410 ,, 15 o 

Sold to Subscribers at the following prices : 

Demy 8vo ,, 5 o 

Demy 410 ,, 10 6 

V Complete Sets of " OLD YORKSHIRE " to present 
date (Vols. I to 4) may be had for a short time, 
from the EDITOR, OSBORNE HOUSE, MORLEY. 
Sent carriage free on receipt of. 25 o 



WM. SMITH, OSBORNE HOUSE, MORLEY, NR. LEEDS. 




THOMAS BROOKE 



OLD YORKSHIRE 

Edited by 

WILLIAM SMITH, F.S.A.S., 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION 

BY FREDERICK ROSS, F.R.H.S., OF LONDON, 

AUTHOR OF "CELEBRITIES or THE YORKSHIRE WOLDS." 




" All these things here collected are not mine, 
But divers grapes make but one kind of wine, 
So I from many learned authors took 
The various matters written in this book. 

Some things are very good, pick out the best, 
Good wits compiled them, and I wrote the rest, 
If thou dost buy it, it will quit the cost, 
Read it, and all thy labour is not lost." 

TAYLOR (The Water Poet), 

**** 



3Lontion 

LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., PATERNOSTER ROW 

1883. 



[ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL.] 



' 




LEEDS : 
PRINTED BY CHARLES GOODALL, COOKRIDGE STREET. 



TO 

THOMAS BROOKE, ESQUIRE, F.S.A., 

CHAIRMAN OF COUNCIL OF THE 
YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL ASSOCIATION, 

AND PRESIDENT OF THE 
HUDDERSFIELD TECHNICAL SCHOOL AND MECHANICS' INSTITUTE, 

THIS VOLUME, 
WHOSE CONTENTS ARE DEVOTED TO THE ILLUSTRATION 

OF EVERY BRANCH OF 
HISTORICAL, ANTIQUARIAN, AND BIOGRAPHICAL 

ENQUIRY 

CONNECTED WITH THE COUNTY OF YORK, 
AND WHOSE AIM IS THE POPULARISING AXD EXTENDING 

OF THE 
STUDY OF ANTIQUITIES 

AND 

THE LOVE FOR TOPOGRAPHICAL AND KINDRED SUBJECTS 
AMONG THE PEOPLE OF YORKSHIRE, 

IS DEDICATED 
BY ITS PROJECTOR AND EDITOR. 

WILLIAM SMITH. 

MORLEY. September, 1883. 




Cottage at Klllingbeck. 



PR E FA C E 



FOR the fourth time I have the pleasing duty laid upon me of 
recording my thanks to my contributors and subscribers for their con- 
tinued confidence and support. Without their help this, as well as the 
previous volumes, would never have seen the light ; and whatever the 
erits or demerits of Old Yorkshire may be, to my contributors and 
subscribers is pre-eminently due the responsibility of launching them 
upon the troublous sea of literature. Yet, of one thing I am certain, 
that my own intentions as Editor, as well as those of my many friends 
as Contributors, have been to produce a work which should do much 
more than help to pass away an idle hour, or take its place amongst the 
numberless ephemeral volumes which are being constantly issued from 
the press. The desire has been, to place upon record some hitherto 
unknown facts concerning the History of this large and important 
county, and thus cause Old Yorkshire to become a work of such rare 
interest and value, as shall make it live after editor and contributors 
alike shall have gone to that " undiscover'd country from whose bourn 
no traveller returns." 

My readers will find that in the present volume several new 
subjects of archaeological and topographical interest have been intro- 
duced, and that, to the already large and influential list of contributors, 
have now been added the names of other writers competent to dilate 
upon Yorkshire subjects and associations. 



Vlll. PREFACE. 

To these, as to all my contributors, I tender my sincere and hearty 
thanks, and assure them that while I fully believe and know that the 
preparation of the various articles has, to them, been a real labour of 
love, that pleasure has, in an eminent degree, been shared by myself in 
the less important, but very grateful, task of finding 1 for their contribu- 
tions a fitting and worthy shrine. My anxieties in connection with the 
work of editing has been much lightened by the satisfaction I have felt 
in being supported by so many and such gifted literary friends, to whose 
zeal and continued assistance the work owes so much of its success and 
popularity. 

In conclusion, I would desire most heartily to acknowledge my 
obligations to the following gentlemen for their assistance in the 
illustration of this volume : John Stansfeld, Esq., of Leeds, for the 
drawings of the Greene and Hildyard Arms ; Joseph Joshua Green, 
Esq., of Bishop Stortford, for photos of tomb at Batley and view of 
Liversedge Hall; W. A. Hobson, W. Hanstock, F.R.I.B.A., and S. 
Sinkinson, Architects, for architectural sketches ; George Bell, Esq., of 
Leeds, for loan of scarce engravings ; Llewellynn Jewitt, Esq., F.S.A., 
of Derby; Abraham Holroyd, Esq., of Shipley; the late J. B. Baker, 
Esq., of Scarborough ; Canon Camidge, of Thirsk ; John Tomlinson, 
Esq., of Doncaster ; and J. II. Turner, Esq., of Idle, for loan of wood 
engravings ; and J. J. Stead, Esq., of Heckmondwike, for photos. A 
full list of contributors to this feature of the work, as also to the 
literary contents, will be found at the end of the volume. 

W. S. 
OSBORNE HOUSE, 

MORLEY, NEAR LEEDS, 

September 15th, 1883. 



INTRODUCTION 



A THOUSAND YEARS before William the Xorman set foot on the 
beach of Sussex, what is now Yorkshire, was the home of the Brigantes, 
a bold and warlike section of the Celtic British race. Their kingdom 
extended from sea to sea, and from the Humber to the Tweed, but they 
inhabited chiefly the uplands, where their graves, scattered in pro- 
fusion over the wolds have, in recent tunes, been explored, and their 
flint weapons and rude earthenware brought to light ; and there also 
are found excavations hi the hill sides which formed the dwellings of 
this primitive people ; whilst amid the woods and morasses of low- 
lying Holderness dwelt the Parisi or Frisii, immigrants from the 
opposite shore ; a pastoral race who appear to have been in subjection 
to the Brigantes. The capital of the Brigantian kingdom was Iseur, 
the Isurium of the Romans and the Aldborough of modern times, where 
a long line of British Princes lived in rude barbaric state, and where 
the infamous Cartismunda held her court, when she delivered up 
Caractacus to the Romans. About A.D. 70 the Brigantes were subdued 
by the Romans, under Agricola, who made Caer Ebranc their head- 
quarters, changing the name to Eboracum, and although Isurium 
flourished for some time as a walled Roman city, it gradually decayed, 
as Eboracum advanced in progress and dignity, and is now an incon- 
siderable village. 

Under the Romans the district was constituted a Province of the 
Empire, under the title of Maxima Caesariensis, with Eboracum as its 
capital, which speedily rose to such splendour, with its Temples, Palaces, 
Amphitheatre, Forts, AValls, Baths, and sumptuous Residences, that it 
was frequently styled "Altera Roma." It was intersected by the 

a 



X. . INTRODUCTION. 

AVatling Street and other roads of which remains are still to be seen, 
and was guarded on the north, as a protection from the wild tribes of 
North Britain, at first by an earthwork and ditch, afterwards by a wall 
and towers. Eboracum was the place of residence of several of the 
Emperors, two of whom Severus and Constantius died there, and 
Constantine, sometimes erroneously stated to have been born within its 
walls, was here first proclaimed Emperor, on the death of his father. 
Multitudes of relics, statues, tombstones, vases, and coins of this period 
have been disinterred, and there still remains, in situ, by the Museum 
grounds, perhaps the most interesting of all the multangular tower. 

When the Komans evacuated the island, the Britons found the 
Solway and Tyne wall but little protection from the incursions of the 
ferocious hordes of the north, who came trooping over it and spread 
desolation and death wherever they came. In an evil hour, to them- 
selves, the Britons called in the aid of some wandering Teuton sea- 
pirates, who soon drove the savages back to their northern mountains, 
but instead of returning as they came, when their work was 
accomplished, they turned their arms upon their allies, and eventually 
made a conquest of the whole of South Britain, excepting the 
mountainous districts of Wales and Cumbria, to which fastnesses the 
remnants of the British race were driven for refuge. 

The Anglian kingdom of Northumbria, or the land north of the 
Humber was founded by Ida, who landed at Flamborough in 547, 
which, after a long succession of struggles, came to comprehend the 
whole of the ancient Brigantian kingdom, with the exception of 
Cumbria on the East. Not long after, ^Ella, kinsman to Ida, sailed up 
the Humber, and landed a little above Hull, where his name is still 
perpetuated in the villages of Elloughton, Ellerby, Ellerker, Kirk Ella, 
and West Ella. He reft from Ida the southern portion of his conquest, 
and founded the kingdom of Deira, extending from the Ilumber to the 
Tees, the modern Yorkshire, whilst Ida ruled from the Tees to the 
Tweed, in what was called Bernicia. Afterwards these two portions 
were at times subject to separate kings, at others united under one 
Government, but in either case, whether separate or united, Yore-wick 
(Eboracum) was the capital, in the one case of Deira, in the other of 
Northumbria. It was during the reign of JSlIa, that the group of fair- 
haired youths, exposed for sale in Rome, attracted the compassion of the 
Monk, Gregory, who in a punning style said that as Angles, they might 
be deemed Angels, and having come from Deira they ought to be saved 



INTRODUCTION. XL 



de irii from the wrath of God and that as their king's name 
^Ella. they should be taught to sing Alleluiah ; moreover, he vowed to 
go to this land of Deira and attempt the conversion of the people from 
Paganism ; but being elected to the Papal chair soon after, he sent 
Augustine and Paulinns, instead, on that mission. 

Eadwine, son of ^lla, after an early life of exile and suffering, 
became, by the aid of Redwald, King of the East Angles, King of the 
whole of Xorthumbria, and extended its limits to the Forth, where he 
built a fortress, round which a population gathered and formed a town 
called Eadwinesburgh, now Edinburgh. He was the first Christian 
King of Xorthumbria, having been converted by the preaching of 
Paulinus and the persuasive entreaties of his wife, the Christian Princess 
Ethelburga. He caused the great temple of Woden, at Godmanding- 
ham, to be destroyed, and erected, in his capital a wooden church, the 
precursor of the present cathedral of York. The Pagan King of 
Mercia Penda however, vowed the extirpation of the nascent 
heretical faith, invaded Xorthumbria, in conjunction with the Welsh 
Prince. Cadwalla, and in the battle of Heathfield, Eadwine was defeated 
and slain, and Christianity for the tune was suppressed. 

Oswin of Deira, and Eanfrid of Bernicia, his successors, were also 
slain in battle, as was also St. Oswald, the Christian successor of 
Eauf rid, by Penda, probably at Osvvestry ; but the ferocious old Pagan 
was himself slain in a battle with Oswy, originally King of Bernicia, 
but afterwards, by means of the foul murder of Oswin, King of Deira, 
of Xorthumbria in its entirety. The battle was fought at Winwidfield, 
and was the last in England between the rival faiths. 

St. Oswald had re-introduced Christianity into the kingdom by 
means of missionaries from lona, where he had been educated in his 
exile. This form of Christianity was that of the Primitive British and 
Hibernian Churches, as taught by the early itinerant apostles, of whom, 
MIV> tradition, was St. Joseph of Arimathea, and differed in many 
respects from that promulgated by the Romish missionaries Augustine 
and Paulinus. About this time there arose a great and learned man, 
St. Wilfrid, of Ripon, who had been educated at Rome, and who. when 
he came back to Xorthumbria, sought to modify the doctrines and 
ceremonials of the church in accordance with those of Rome. A violent 
dispute arose as to the right time for the celebration of the festival of 
Easter and the shape of the tonsure, and in order to settle these and 



Xll. INTRODUCTION. 

otlier questions, . Oswy called the famous synod at Streoneshalh 
(Whitby) Abbey, then under the government of the Lady Hilda. 
Oswy himself presided over the assembly, and the leaders of the dis- 
cussion were Wilfrid on the Romanist side, and Colman, Bishop of 
Lindisfarne, on that of the British Church. After a long- debate the 
question was settled in favour of Rome, chiefly through the eloquence 
and logical arguments of Wilfrid. 

The later portion of the history of Saxon Northumbria is very 
perplexed and confused, arising out of the constant struggles of the 
Saxons, with the Danish Vikings and the loss of the Monkish records, 
in the destruction of the religious houses by the invaders. One of the 
most important events of this period, in reference to Yorkshire, occurred 
after the consolidation of the Heptarchy into the realm of England. 
On the accession of Athelstane, the Danes were dominant in Northumbria, 
whom he subjugated, and became thus the first King of the whole of 
England, but the Danish Royal family found refuge at the Court of 
Constantine, King of Scotland, who in behalf of Anlaf made an inroad 
into Northumbria with a view of placing him on the throne. Athelstane 
marched twice into Northumbria against the invaders, chastised Con- 
stantine, and harried Scotland. On his road northward he called at 
Beyerley to pray for the aid of St. John, and deposited his sword on 
the altar of the church there, promising great gifts if he should be 
successful in his enterprise, and was permitted to carry with him the 
banner of St. John, to be unfurled on the field of battle. On the 
eve of the conflict tradition says St. John appeared to him in a vision, 
promising him success, and he won the battle, redeeming his pledge 
with a charter of important privileges to the town of Beverley, and 
granting similar privileges to York. The question as to the locality of 
the great and decisive battle of Brunnaburh is a disputed point ; it has 
been placed in various parts of Yorkshire and Northumberland by 
different authorities, and perhaps will never be settled satisfactorily. 
There are plausible reasons given to show that it was fought at Little 
Weighton, near Beverley, but the balance of evidence seems to be in 
favour of the neighbourhood of the Castle of Bamborough, in 
Northumberland. From this time Northumbria was governed by Viceroy 
Earls, the most notable of whom were Tosti, brother of King Harold, 
Morkere, who played an important part at the time of the conquest, 
Siward, the conqueror of Macbeth, and his son Waltheof, who was 
beheaded by William the Conqueror for pretended complicity in a plot 
for his dotlironement. 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll. 

Whether Britons, Angles, or Danes, the men of Yorkshire have 
ever been a sturdy, brave, independent race ; determined defenders of 
their rights and liberties, and ever ready to take up arms against 
oppression or attempted subjection. So it was at the close of the 
Anglo-Saxo-Danish rule in England, and it was not until after a series 
of severe struggles and the ferocious, but perhaps political crime, of 
laying waste sixty miles of Northumbria, from York to Durham, and 
slaying the inhabitants indiscriminately, that the Xorman Duke could 
consider himself master of England. 

Yorkshire has ever played an important part in the history of 
England, both before and after the conquest. Immediately before that 
event, when Harold was King, Tosti his brother, the disgraced and 
exiled Viceroy Earl of Xorthumbria, invaded England, in conjunction 
with Harald Hardrada, and defeated Morkere, his successor in the 
Earldom, and Earl Edwin of Mercia, at Fulford, near York, but were 
in turn defeated and slain by Harold at Stamford Bridge. But for 
this William of Xormandy might never have ascended the throne of 
England, and the crown might have passed downwards in the 
descendants of Harold, and the Xorman. Plantagenet, Tudor, Stuart, 
and Hanovarian dynasties not been known in English History. As it 
chanced news was brought to Harold of the landing in Sussex, when 
he was banqueting- at York the day after his victory, and he had to 
proceed, by forced marches, southward, and fight the fresh and 
vigorous Norman army with fatigued troops ; with what result is well 
known. 

In the reign of Stephen, David of Scotland invaded England in 
behalf of the Empress, his niece, when he was met near Xorthallerton 
by Archbishop Thurstan and the northern Barons, over whose heads 
floated the banners of St. Peter of York, St. John of Beverley, and St. 
Wilfrid of Ripon, and was compelled to retreat with the loss of 11,000 
men. 

In the reign of Edward II., Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lan- 
caster, raised an insurrection in Yorkshire agaiast Gaveston, the King's 
favourite, captured him in Scarborough Castle, and beheaded him in 
1312 ; and again took up arms against the Despensers, but in the battle 
of Boroughbriclge (1321-2) was himself taken prisoner, and put to death 
at Pontefract. 

During the wars of the Roses, Richard Xevil, Earl of Warwick. 
Lord of Middleham, was the most conspicuous figure, and in Yorkshire 



XIV. INTRODUCTION. 

were f ought the battle of Wakefield (1460), in which Richard, Duke 
of York, was slain; and the decisive battle of Towton (1461) which 
transferred the crown from the Lancastrian dynasty to that of York. 

The great insurrection of the Pilgrimage of Grace broke out in 
Yorkshire in 1536, under the leadership of Aske, for the restoration of 
the old religion and the re-establishment of the dissolved monasteries. 
It assumed very formidable proportions, and but for the flooding of the 
river Don, which the insurgents were not able to pass, might have 
placed Henry VIII. in the position of Charles I. ; but was suppressed 
by never fulfilled promises ; broke out again the following year on a 
ludicrously insignificant scale, and a great many notable Yorkshiremen, 
including Abbots and Ecclesiastics met their deaths at the hands of the 
headsman and the hangman. In consequence of this the Council of the 
North was established at York, and formed a sort of northern star 
chamber, in order to check and keep in subjection the turbulent pro- 
pensities of the people, and continued in existence until it was 
abolished by the long Parliament. 

In the reign of Elizabeth (1569) occurred the " Rising of the 
North," under the Earls of Westmoreland and Northumberland, in 
favour of Mary Queen of Scots, and with the ultimate view of restoring 
the, Romanist faith, but it soon collapsed and ended with the ruin of its 
promoters. 

In the great civil war of the 17th century, Yorkshire and York- 
shiremen, such as Fairfax, Lambert, Langdale, Hotham, Bellasis, 
Boynton, Cholmley, Constable, and Slingsby, played a conspicuous 
part. The first overt act of rebellion was the closing of the gates of 
Hull against the King by Sir John Hotham, and in 1644 the first great 
battle of a decisive character, which destroyed the Royal power in the 
north, was fought at Marston Moor. Besides which, there were many 
notable sieges of York, Poutefract, PIull, Scarborough, Bradford, 
Leeds, etc. 

Yorkshire has been essentially a land of Historic Romance ; it is 
. still thickly strewn with Castles, hoary with age, in a more or less 
fragmentary condition, whose names call up feudal memories of the 
past of battles and sieges; of tournaments and joustings; of 
crusaders and knights, and of cavalcades of fair ladies on gaily- 
caparisoned palfreys, and hawk on finger, going forth from the portals ; 
of pennons, and the blazonry of arms ; of chivalric courtesy and beauty 



INTRODUCTION. XV. 

"buckling the armour of the knights ; of tapestry embroidering in the 
ladies' bowers ; of Christmas mumming, the boar's head, and the 
jester's quips and cranks ; and, moreover, of many a foul deed of 
murder and oppressive tyranny, to which the serfs of the domain 
were subjected at the hands of their lords ; and memories too are 
evoked of many an event that stands recorded in the annals of 
England. 

Some of the more conspicuous of these Castles were Bolton, 
Bowes, Couisborough, Danby, Gilling, Helmsley, Hornby, Knares- 
borough, Middleham, Mulgrave. Pickering, Pontefract, Richmond, 
Ravensworth, Sandal, Scarborough, Sheffield, Sheriff-Hutton, Skelton, 
Skipton, Slingsby, Tickhill, Wilton, Wressel, and York where dwelt 
in baronial state the illustrious historic families of Baliol, Belasyse, 
Bruce, Clifford, Eure, 1'Espec, Fitzeustace, Fitzhugh, Furnival, Gower, 
Hastings, Lacy, Lovetot, Marmion, Mauleverer, De Mauley, Mowbray, 
Xevil, Percy, Roos, Savile, Scrope, Talbot and Vesci. Besides whom 
have been a thousand other knightly and baronial families of the lesser 
or more modern halls and mansions scattered profusely over the county, 
such as the families of Aske, Boynton, Beaumont. Cavendish, 
Chaloner, Cholmley, Constable, Conyers, Buncombe, Dundas, Fairfax, 
Fawkes. Fitzwilliam, Hildyard, Hotham, Howard, Langdale. Lascelles, 
Metcalf, Meinell, Norton, Osborne, Phipps, De la Pole, Rawden, St. 
Quintin, Stapleton, Vavasour, Wentworth, Willoughby, AVorsley, 
"\Yombwell, Wortley, Wyvill, etc. 

Equally rich is Yorkshire in the remains of those glorious 
architectural creations of the medieval age the monastic abodes of 
men and women who, in contradistinction to the lordly owners of the 
Castles, with their pomp and pageantry, sought retirement and seclusion 
in which to devote their lives to the service of God. In their early 
careers they were the homes of piety and rapt devotion, and centres 
of light, civilisation, and holiness, but afterwards were cursed by the 
blight of wealth, and lapsed into idleness, indifference, luxury, and in 
many instances licentiousness. They did a good work in their day, 
and when that was accomplished passed away, leaving for the 
admiration of posterity the mutilated fragments of their unequalled 
architectural conceptions. There were in the county 28 abbeys, 26 
priories, 23 nunneries, 30 Friaries, 13 cells, 4 Commandaries of the 
Kaight Hospitallers, atid 4 Preceptories of the Kuight Templars. The 
Benedictines stood out iu bold relief on the uplands, whilst the Cister- 



XVI. INTRODUCTION. 

cians nestled iu sequestered vales ; but all add au indescribable charm to 
the natural beauties with which they are environed. Pilgrims from all 
lands, especially from America, still come to worship at the shrines of 
Fountains, and Bolton, and Kirkstall, and Rievaulx, and Jervaulx, 
and Whitby, and Guisborough, and Coverham, and Easby, and St. 
Mary's, York, not however, as of old, to grovel at the tomb of a saint 
or gaze with rapt eye on relics of some holy man or woman, but to 
admire what is still left of the noble architectural creations of an 
extinct race of church builders. 

Besides these, there were twenty collegiate churches in the 
county, and we have still in perfect condition the three gorgeous fanes 
of York, Beverley, and Ripon, the scarcely less noble churches of Selby, 
Bridliugton, Howden, Holy Trinity, Hull, St. Mary's, Beverley, 
Rotherham, Leeds, Sheffield and Doncaster, and a thousand other 
beautiful or quaint specimens of town and village churches. 

Not only does Yorkshire hold a conspicuous position among the 
counties of England as the birthplace of some of the proudest and 
most noble families, whose sons have gone forth to fight the battles of 
the country, and to hold leading positions in the State, but is equally 
distinguished in having given birth to men who rank in the aristocracy 
of intellectual talent and scholastic learning, more even in proportion to 
its size than any other county. More especially can it boast of its long 
and brilliant array of scholars and ecclesiastical dignitaries and writers. 
For example, Dr. Sharp, Archbishop of York, writing to Ralph Thoresby , 
in 1708, says: "We have now a list of 6 archbishops (5 of them 
Primates), and that within the compass of thirty years, viz., from 1662 
to 1692, all bora in Yorkshire, viz., Archbishop Bramhall, Primate of 
Ireland; Archbishop Margetson, his successor in the Archbishopric of 
Armagh ; 'Dr. Palliser, Archbishop of Cashel ; Archbishop Lamplugh, 
my immediate predecessor, the other two" (himself and Tillotson, 
Archbishop of Canterbury)- -" I need not name." He might also have 
added Dr. S. Pullen, Archbishop of Tuam, 1660-67, who was a native 
of Eipley. 

In order to give some idea of Yorkshire's " Roll of Honour " 
a very abbreviated list of her more celebrated sous is appended. 

In Biblical learning and critical scholarship occur the names of 
John Wycliff, " the Morning Star of the Reformation," and Myles 
Coverdale, two of our earliest translators of the Scriptures ; Bryan 
Walton, of the Polyglot ; Matthew Poole, the annotator ; Joseph 



INTRODUCTION. . XV11. 

Biugham. compiler of the invaluable "Origincs Ecclesiastics ;" Joseph 
Sutcliffe, the commentator ; Thomas Buruet, author of the " Sacred 
Theory of the Earth ; " Milner, the Church Historian ; also Alcuiu, 
Aelred, Alured, Ascham, Bentley, Godwin, Hey wood, Hickes, JV 
Jollie, Conyers Middleton. Xesse, Rd. Role, de Hampole, Pye Smith, 
Wales, etc. 

Prelates Bramhall, Beverley. St. John of, St. Chad, Coverdale, 

Earle, Fisher, St. Headda, Lamplugh, Lake, Loftus, Margetson, 

Melton, Morton, Porteus, Pulleine, Rokeby, Sanderson, Scott de 

Rotherham Scrope, Sharp, Skirlaugh, Thoresby, Tillotson. Tunstall, 

\Vilfrid, etc. 

Philosophers and Philologists Hartley, Biggins, Hutchinson, 
Priestley, Oxlee. 

Ancient Chroniclers and Modern Historians Hemingford, Har- 
dynge, Hoveden, Langtoft, Mannyng, Newbrigensis, Joseph Hunter, 
Ralph Thoresby, and a host of local historians. 

Antiquaries Brook, Burton, Dodsworth, Drake, Gale, Hopkinson, 

Pettit, Rushworth, Rymer, Thoresby. 

Statesmen, Patriots, and Judges Dauby, Gascoigne. Mar veil, 
Roekingham, Savile, Strafford, Wilberforce. 

Scientists Bramah, Priestley, Ramsden, Sedgwick, Sheepshanks, 
Smeaton, Spence, Strickland, Saunderson, Sharp, Teunant, Waterton. 

Navigators Cook, Fox, Frobisher, Oglethorpe, Scoresby,. 

Artists Armitage, Cope, Cromack, Etty. Frith, Flaxman, Goodall, 
Leighton. 

Poets and Novelists Baston, the Sisters Bronte, Csedmon, Con- 
greve, Crashaw, Elliot, Eusden, Fawkes, Fairfax, Garth, Mrs. Gatty. 
Gower, Lord Houghton, Mrs. Hofland, Leatham, Mason, Harriet Parr 
(Holme Lee), Sterne. 

Also the following, sons of Yorkshire parents, or of Yorkshire 
ancestry Faraday, Heber, Longfellow, Paley, Raffles, Stilling-fleet, 
Stothard. Swift, Sharon Turner, Washington, Whitgift, Wordsworth, 
and Lance and Pope, the sons of Yorkshire mothers. 

Yorkshire is the largest of the counties of England, and Fuller 
says : " The best, and that not by the help of the general Katachresis 
of good for great, but in the proper acceptation thereof." It is an 
epitome of England, with an aspect diversified by every feature of 



XV111. INTRODUCTION. 

natural beauty that characterises other counties separately. Within its 
boundaries we find a sea coast with promontories, bays, rocks, sublime 
in their grandeur, sea-scooped caverns, and shelving sands, whilst in- 
land are hills and valleys, moorland and morasses, rivers and 
waterfalls, ravines and glens, and widely-spread tracts of forest, 
corn fields, and pasture land. Stretching away from Flamborough and 
the towering cliffs of Speeton are the Chald Wolds, rich in pre-historic 
"relics, where many an obstinately-contested battle has been fought 
between the Saxons and the Danes, the presence of the latter people 
being indicated by " Danes' dyke," across the promontory of Flam- 
borough, a-nd "Danes' graves," near Driffield. Northward are the 
hills of Cleveland dominated by Roseberry Topping, with their wealth 
of mineral deposits, which have in a few years converted Middles- 
borough from a small village into a large and populous town. In the 
west are vast expanses of bleak moorlands, over which the winter winds 
career in unchecked f ury, and which in summer bloom with purple 
heather, the home of myriads of grouse. In the south and south-east 
are the lower levels, once the region of morass and lake, interspersed 
with rank vegetable growth, inhabited by beavers, otters, herons, and 
water-fowls, now presenting an expanse of smiling corn fields, and 
grazing ground for cattle. 

In the extreme west, bordering on Lancashire and Westmoreland, 
nature appears in her sternest guise, much as it was left tens of 
thousands of years ago after the last upheavals and convulsions of the 
geological era. Here everything is bleak, barren, rugged, and stern : 
hills which may almost be called mountains, such as Ingleborough, Pen- 
y-gent, and Mickle Fell, towering aloft in bold, romantic grandeur, 
and swelling out hill beyond hill, with beetling crags, rugged escarpe- 
ments, wild ravines and rivers rushing down over the precipitous 
sides, presenting altogether a scene of majestic sublimity. 

In contrast with these bleak, romantic uplands, Yorkshire abounds 
with lovely and fertile valleys, such as Wensleydale, Wharf edale, Aire- 
dale, Swaledale, Eyedale, Eskdale, Kirkdale, the Vale of Pickering, etc. 
which have been decorated by nature with all her most charming- 
attributes, in whose daisied meads fairies might love to dance and 
gambol by moonlight, and whose picturesque beauties have furnished 
many a landscape scene for the Avails of the Royal Academy. Wharf e- 
dale was Turner's favourite sketching ground, and many of his finer 



INTRODUCTION. . XLS. 

apes are the results of inspiration drawn from Yorkshire 
scenery. 

Through the centre of the county runs the rich and fertile vale of 
York. 4i The richest, most fruitable, and perhaps most extensive level in 
Europe." It is bounded on the west by the spurs of the Pennine range, 
towering- aloft into the clouds ; on the east by the Hambledon Hills ; 
and on the north by those of Cleveland. Here may be seen an expanse 
of cultivated fields, carpeted with verdure, patches of foliaged woodland, 
streamlets glistening- in the sunshine, well-to-do looking- farmhouses, 
cheerful and quaint cottages, many a mansion of the lords of the soil, a 
sprinkling of church towers and spires, and here and there the venerable 
remains of a castle or monastery. 

A writer in the - Westminster Review ; ' (April, 1859), observes : 
" So there is some ground for the opinion which Yorkshirernen hold of 

their noble county Every English feature is represented 

in Yorkshire, which yields every English gift. Quoth Speed : 
' She is much bound to the singular love and motherly cares of 
nature in placing her under so temperate a dune, that in every 
measure she is indifferently fruitful. If one part of her be stone, and 
a sandy barren ground, another is fertile and richly adorned with 
corn fields. If here you find it naked and destitute of woods, you 
shall see it there shadowed with forests full of trees, that have very 
thick bodies, sending forth many fruitful and hospitable branches. 
If one place of it be moorish, miry, and unpleasant, another makes 
a free tender of delight, and presents itself to the eye full of beauty 
and contentive variety. 1 Especially fortunate is Yorkshire above all 
other counties in the enthusiasm of her many native historians, from 
learned Dr. Drake and genial Professor Philips, to painful Mr. Gill, 
and ponderous Dr. Whitaker, not omitting queer, pleasant, crazy Mr. 
Gent. At their hands she has received more justice than usually falls 
to the lot of British shires." 

If Yorkshire, hi its natural features, presents an epitome of 
England, so also does it topographically. Within its bounds are 
cities and towns of every varied peculiarity, such as are elsewhere 
sparsely scattered abroad, many of them holding high rank among 
similar towns. There are the Archiepiscopal and Episcopal cities of 
York and Ripon ; the Romanist Episcopal towns of Leeds and 
Middlesbrough, and formerly of Beverley. There are the great 
centres of the woollen and linen manufactures in Leeds, Bradford, 



XX. INTRODUCTION. 

Halifax, Barnsley, Huddersfield, Wakefield, and Batley, and the 
metal working towns of Sheffield, Rotherham, and Middlesbrough, 
with their smelting furnaces, forges, and forests of lofty chimneys; 
also the coal-mining districts, with their begrimed aggregations 
of workmen's dwellings. There are the shipping ports of Hull, 
Whitby, Goole, Bridlington, and formerly the famous port of 
Ravenspurn, long since washed away by the encroachments of the 
sea; so called from the raven, the national emblem of the Danes, 
who were wont to land there, whence sprang the de la Poles, and 
where kings have often embarked and landed. 

There are the holiday resorts and invalid watering places of 
Scarborough, Whitby, Bridlington, Redcar, Filey, Saltburn, Hornsea, 
Withernsea, Harrogate, and Ilkley ; and what are of especial interest 
to Yorkshiremen, the racing towns and training grounds of Doncaster, 
York, Malton, Beverley, and Middleham. And besides these a multi- 
tude of towns known to fame for their feudal or monastic remains, 
venerable fragments of their former greatness. 

These remarks may be fittingly brought to a close by a quota- 
tion from Jones Barker's " Wensleydale " as an example of the 
productiveness of Yorkshire in eminent men, in which he is referring 
to a very small and restricted portion of the county. He says : 
"It is no mean boast for so secluded a valley to have produced a 
Queen of England, a Prince of "Wales, a Cardinal Archbishop, three 
other Archbishops, five Bishops, three Chancellors, and two Chief 
Justices of England, not to mention the distinguished Abbots, Earls, 
Barons, and Knights who were also natives. The list of former 
residents is further swelled by the reigning Earls of Britanny and 
Richmond ; Kings Edward IV. and Richard III. ; Mary, Queen of 
Scots; Harcla, Earl of Carlisle; Richard Nevile, Earl of Salisbury, 
and his sons the potent king maker, the Earl of Warwick, and the 
Marquis of Montague ; all men world-renowned in their day, besides 
others of less note, too numerous to name." 

" History hath no page 
More brightly lettered of heroic dust, 
Of manly worth, or woman's nobleness, 
Than thou may'st shew ; thou hast nor hill nor dale 
But lives in legend." 

London, F. Ross, F.R.H.S 



CONTENTS 



YORKSHIRE ABBEYS. Page 

FOUXTALXS ABBEY ... ... ... ... ... 1 

WHITEV ABBEY ... .. . . ... 13 

ST. MAKY'S ABBEY, YORK ... ... ... IS 

YORKSHIRE ANTIQUITIES. 

BATLEV ix THE PAST ... ... 21 

BRADFORD ix THE PAST ... ... ... 28 

DOMESTIC LIFE ix THE PA-T ... 35 

DOXCASTER CROSSES ... ... ... 36 

HULL ix THE PAST ... ... ... ... ... 39 

HATFIELD CHACE ... ... ..... 48 

LlVERSEDGE HALL ... ... ... ... ... 81 

SCARBROCGH IX THE PAST ... ... ... ... 86 

WALTOX CROSS ... ... ... ... ... .. 100 

A YORKSHIRE BARROW AND ITS CONTEXTS ... ... 101 

YORKSHIRE VOLUXTEERS rx 1S06... ... ... ... 105 

YORKSHIRE DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. 

BOLLIXG HALL ... ... ... .. ... 107 

EARLY CASTLES. MAXOR HOUSES, ETC. ... ... ... Ill 

Low HALL, YEADOX... ... ... ... ... 119 

OAKWELL HALL... .. ... ... ... ... 120 

YORKSHIRE ACTHORS. 

/ 

CHARLOTTE BROXTB ... .. ... ... ... 124 

A YORKSHIRE AXTIQUARY AXD HISTORIAN .. ... 131 

DR. JOHX FOTHERGILL, F.R.S. ... ... ... 133 

REV. JAMES HILDYAKD, B D. ... ... ... .. 142 

MR. ARTHUR JEWITT ... ... ... ... 147 

FRANCIS ROBERT RAINES, M.A., F.S.A. ... ... ... 151 

RALPH THORESBY, F.R.S. 156 



XX11. 



CONTENTS. 



YORKSHIRE BRASSES AND SLABS. 
ANCIENT SEPULCHRAL BRASS 
THE BOWER SLAB AT BRIDLINGTON 

YORKSHIRE ECCENTRIC CHARACTERS. 
BLIND JACK OF KNARESBOROUGH... 
JOHN JACKSON OF WOODCHURCH 
JAMES NAYLOR, THE MAD QUAKER 
MOTHER SHIPTON 

YORKSHIRE CHURCHES. 

BRADFORD PARISH CHURCH 
KIPPAX CHURCH ... 
LEDSHAM CHURCH 
WAKEFIELD PARISH CHURCH 

YORKSHIRE DALES. 

NlDDERDALE 

SWALEDALE AND ARKENDALE... 

YORKSHIRE DEEDS. 

AN ANCIENT DEED 

YORKSHIRE ANCIENT FAMILIES. 
THE GREENES OF LIVERSEDGE 

THE HlLDYARDS OF WlNESTEAD ... 

THE NEVILES OF LIVERSEDGE 
THE WILSON FAMILY 
THE GAMBLE FAMILY 

YORKSHIRE MANUSCRIPTS. 

THE COTTONIAN MSS. ... 

CLIFFORD PAPERS AT BOLTON HAL], .. 

A FAIRFAX MS. 

HOLDERNESS PARISH REGISTERS 

NEVILE MANUSCRIPTS 

YORKSHIRE IN THE "MONASTICON" .. 

YORKSHIRE MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS. 

CORPORATION INSIGNIA, SCARBOROUGH 

YORKSHIRE SUPERSTITIONS. 
WITCHES AND WIZARDS 

YORKSHIRE WORTHIES. 

SIR MARTIN FROBISIIER ... 
REV. WILLIAM SCORESBY, D.D. 



21 J 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



STEEL ENGRAVINGS. 

I. PORTRAIT OF THOMAS BROOKE, F.S.A. 

II. ARMS OF HlLDYARD OF WlNESTEAD 

III. BRADFORD, FROM THE NORTH 

IV. PORTRAIT OF CHARLOTTE BRONTE 

V. PORTRAIT OF REV. JAMES HILYARD, B.D. ... 
VI. INGOLDSBY RECTORY ... 

VII. ARMS OF GREENE OF LIVERSEDGE ... 

INK-PHOTOS. 

I. PORTRAIT OF CANON RAINES, F.S.A. 

II. LOWER HALL, LIVERSEDGE 

III. LOWFCLD HALL, LIVERSEDGE 

IV. LIVERSEDGE HALL 

V. TOMB OF JOHN GREEN 

LITHOGRAPHS. 
I. GRAMMAR SCHOOL, HULL 

II. WlLBERFORCE HOUSE, HULL 

III. SOUTH VIEW OF SCARBOROUGH, 1737 ... 

IV. RUINS OF SCARBO BOUGH CASTLE 

V. DRAWBRIDGE OF SCARBOROUGH CASTLE... 

VI. THE OLD WOODEN SPA, SCARBOROUGH 

VII. PORTRAIT OF DICKY DICKINSON 

VIII. PORTRAIT OF MR. ARTHUR JEWITT 

IX. PORTRAIT OF JAMES NAYLOR, THE QUAKER 

WHOLE PAGE ENGRAVINGS. 

I. PLAN OF FOUNTAINS ABBEY 

II. COTTAGE HOSPITAL, BATLEY 

III. ST. LVWRENCE CHURCH, HATFIELD 

IV. MANOR HOUSE, HATFIELD 

V. CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS, THORNE 

VI. CHURCH OF ST. CCTHBERT, FISHLAKE ... 



To face Title Page 

1 

33 
1-24 
142 
144 
220 



131 

2:23 
2-25 
22o 



44 

44 

87 

89 

91 

93 

99 

147 

183 



3 

26 
67 
69 
71 
73 



XXIV. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

VII. CHDECH OF ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL, BARNBY-DUN 

VIII. DUNSCROFT GRANGE ... 

IX. LlVERSEDGE HALL 

X. BOLLING HALL 

XL OAKWELL HALL, EXTERIOR 

XII. OAKWELL HALL, INTERIOR 

XIII. PORTRAIT OF DR. FOTHERGILL, F.R.S. . 

XIV. ACKWORTH SCHOOL 

XV. CARR END, SEMERWATER ... 

XVI. DRAWING ROOM, THORESBY'S HOUSE 

XVII. SKETCHES FROM THORESBY'S HOUSE 

XVIII. THE BOWER SLAB 

XIX. BRADFORD PARISH CHURCH 

XX. KIPPAX CHURCH 

XXI. LEDSHAM CHURCH 

WOOD ENGEAVINGS. 



Page 
75 
77 
82 
108 
120 
123 
134 
136 
138 
158 
161 
166 
192 
201 
203 



GOUTHWAITE HALL . . . Title page 
COTTAGE AT KILLINGBF.CK page vi. 

SEAL OF FOUNTAINS ABBEY ... 4 

FOUNTAINS ABBEY 5 

S.E. VIEW OF FOUNTAINS ABBEY 7 

REFECTORY, FOUNTAINS ABBEY 11 

PORTRAIT OF LADY HILDA ... 15 

RUINS OF WHITBY ABBEY ... 17 

ST. MARY'S ABBEY, YORK ... 18 

SEAL OF ST. MARY'S ABBEY ... 19 

HOSPITIUM 20 

ARMS OF NOSTELL PRIORY ... 24 

ARMS OF SAVILE 25 

OLD PLAN OF BRADPORD ... 29 

BRADFORD CORPORATE SEAL ... 31 

ARMS OF LACY 31 

OTHO DE TILLI'S CROSS ... 37 

MILL BRIDGE CROSS 38 

ARMS OF HULL 39 

SIR JOHN HOTHAM 40 

SIR WILLIAM DE LA POLE ... 41 

SEAL 42 

WILLIAM WILBERFORCE, M.P. 43 

MARKET PLACE, HULL 47 

THORNF. OLD HALL 78 

SCARBOROUGH CORPORATE SEAL 87 

BU'ITER CROSS, SCARBOROUGH... 88 

ARMS 'ON GATE TOWER 90 



ANCIENT GATEWAY, SCARBORO' 91 
NEWBROUGII BAR, SCARBORO', 

1645 95 

ANCIENT DEED CHEST 96 

ST. MARY'S CHURCH, SCARBORO' 97 

EAST SIDE, WALTON CROSS ... 100 

WEST SIDE, WALTON CROSS ... 101 

CINERARY URN 102 

FLINT IMPLEMENTS 103 

JET STUD 105 

BOLTON CASTLE 115 

MlDDLEHAM CASTLE ... ... 117 

HAWORTH ... ... ... 125 

HA WORTH PARSONAGE 127 

HAWORTH CHURCH 129 

THORESBY'S HOUSE, LEEDS ... 157 

THE MAULEVERER BRASS ... 165 

JOHN METCALF ... ... ... 173 

MOTHER SHIPTON 187 

BALME MONUMENT ... ... 197 

REREDOS, BRADFORD CHURCH ... 198 

PERCY BADGE 207 

SAVILE STALL END 208 

PARISH CHURCH, WAKEFIELD... 209 

GOUTBWAITE HALL 212 

MONUMENT IN WINESTI:.\I> 

CHURCH 239 

SIR MAKTIN FROBISIJER 276 




IIAEON HMILY IIANTOL 



x- ^ 

r / 





OLD YORKSHIRE. 



YORKSHIRE ABBEYS. 




FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 

HIS fine old ruin has an almost world-wide fame, both for 
the beautv of its situation, and the comparative perfection 
of its remains. The grounds in which the Abbey stands 
were laid out about the year 1720, by Mr John Aislabie, 
who had married the heiress of the family of Mallory, the 
former owners of Studley Royal. Such repute did his 
ornamental works acquire that, Studley, became known as 
the most embellished spot in the North of England." After 
his son's death, the "estate was inherited twice running by 
heiresses, and then passed to the late Earl de Grey, whose nephew, the 
present owner, became in the year 1871, Marquis of Ripon. 

The buildings of the Abbey extend completely across the bed of 
the valley on the right hand there is only room for a road between 
the transept of the church and the limestone crags. On the other hand, 
the conventual buildings hi more than one place are carried across the 
river, which flows beneath them through a vaulted channel, and their 
southern boundary rests upon the very feet of the opposite slopes. 
Yet, notwithstanding the size of the ruined pile, it requires no great 
effort of imagination to restore the glen to the aspect which it must 
have presented to the first founders of the monastery. The grassy 
meadow by the rippling stream, the thickly-wooded slopes, the ivy- 
grown crags of cream-coloured limestone can have changed but little 
during the past 750 years, and it is more than probable that some of 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 

the very trees remain beneath which the first monks of the Fountains 
Abbey found a temporary shelter from the vicissitudes of the 
climate. 

In giving an explanation of the architectural features of the Abbey, 
we shall make use of an essay, written by the late Mr. Fairless Barber, 
F.S.A., and read by him within the precincts of the ruin, to the 
members of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutes. Mr. Barber, 
after expressing his intention to deal with his subject in a very simple 
and elementary manner, proceeded as follows : " We propose to take 
this magnificent ruin, and compare it to a grand old book, at the pages 
of which we shall glance to-day, and glean what little we can of the 
purport and meaning of the contents. The plan which has been distri- 
buted among you will serve as a sort of condensed index to the volume 
for those who know all about it ; for others, it may serve as a table of 
contents ; for all it will have the inestimable advantage of such accuracy 
as is fully guaranteed by the names of those who are responsible for 
its production.* 

Without further preface, let us now turn to our book, and before 
glancing at any particular folio, let us, even while we see the tattered 
edges, forget that they are decayed and torn, and endeavour to realize 
what the volume would be like before time had crumpled any surface, 
or the more destructive hand of man worked havoc ruthlessly on the 
fair proportions ; when, the lessons that can yet, by the skilled inter- 
preter, be happily deciphered, were plain and clear to all observers, and 
when the entire fabric was an actual living reality, animated by the 
human occupancy of those who were devoted to a conventual life, with 
all its varied associations within these walls ; and bound up, as it were, 
in the full completeness with which it satisfied all the objects for which 
it was intended. Happily, here at Fountains, the remains are so con- 
siderable that the realization I propose to you is not very difficult to 
reach. Much of the vaulting and many of the gables are still almost 
perfect, and you may raise again the upper stories, the floors of which 
the vaults supported, and above them 'carry your eye along an 
imaginary roof-line over all the leading parts of the building, and see 
how from east, south, and west, as the sun went round, varying 
shadows would be cast from the ridges into the quadrangle below, the 
present naked appearance of which would be then relieved by the 
lean-to roof of the covered walk surrounding it. I hope, as you look 
about, you will all make an effort to realize what the effect would be if 
roofs of the pitch indicated by the remaining gables were again in their 
places. One-third, if not more, would be added to the general height, 
as at present seen in the side walls, and, it would be so added, in that 
cool bluish grey colour by which large sheets of lead spread in broad 
horizontal bands must have materially enhanced the warm and cheerful 
effect of the completed masonry below. It will be useful that I should 



*J. R. Walbran, F.S.A., and Ed. Sharp, M.A., F.R.I.B.A. 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



here tell you that what we have to see is not all the work of one 
period that 350 years, at least, must have elapsed from the laying- of 
the first to the raising- of the latest stones, which still remain in situ. 
Do not, however, suppose that the great house was in the course of that 
long period necessarily, or for any long time at once, incomplete. We 
shall readily see, on looking closely into the matter, that extensions and 
additions have only been made at definite times, and in clear and distinct 
manners ; and also, with a little patience, as we find that newer has, 
here and there, replaced older work, be able to gather some idea of 
what that older work was like, both in character and arrangement. 
We shall find that some 25 years, or a little more, from the commence- 
ment of the structure, there was here a completed edifice ; and it is of 
the very first importance that we should endeavour to arrive at as clear 
a notion as possible of what such edifice was like, for it is in it only 
that we can hope to read a clear answer to the main question, " What 
mean ye by these stones 1 " To help you to this, let me ask you for the 
present, to dismiss from your minds the extensive series of remains 
grouped upon the plan as the " Abbot's buildings," and those parts, 
under the head of the " Abbey" which are distinguished by the letters 

D, F, and G. You will see at a glance 
that we have something very important, 
nay, the main bulk of our building, left to 
us after these deductions, and, thus pre- 
pared, we may now approach, and let us 
do it with carefully observant eyes, what 
I may call the first, or more fitly, perhaps, 
the title page of our book. This we seek 
k and find in the largest and most important 
i J single apartment in the building before us ; 
/ that shewn to the north on our plan with 
I its main axis east and west, and happily 
marked with the letters A, B, C. Here, I 
think, we shall all be agreed, and read at a 
glance in unmistakable characters, " This 
is a church." Here is the nave with its 
aisles ; there, the clerestory ; here, the 
crossing and transept; but where is the 
choir? for, bear in mind, D, F, and G, are 
for the moment erased from our plan and 
banished from our sight. If you look at 
your plan you will see that in A. without 
the aisles, which are but supporting wings 
to the elevated and pronounced central nave, with H and the two C's, 
north and south of it we have the, stem and the two arms of a Latin 
cross. To the eastward of either C we have still remaining, and 
opening out of them, the separate recesses which are distinguished on 
the plan by the letter E. Now, to find where the original choir was. 




iseal of Fountains Abbey. 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. . 

we have only to look at our feet, where the thoughtful care of the Noble 
Marquis and his predecessor, and those they employed to cherish and 
care for this priceless possession, have preserved an outline of founda- 
tions which were bared when the debris of fallen walls and roof was but 
a few years ago first cleared away. This tells us at once that, by 
adding an upper limb to our imperfect cross, we get the true position of 
the original choir, the nvst east end of this noble church, and also that, 
on either side, the presence, north and south, of another compartment, 
identical in plan with those already noticed as marked with the letter E, 
precluded the existence of aisles, and increased these side compartments 
to three on either side, or six in all. Now, let us examine a little more 
in detail the architectural terms in which the builders of this church 
expressed themselves. It is ea<y to see that they produced their result 




.General View of Abbey. 

in the simplest possible way. writing their sentence, as it were, in two 
lines : Arcade pronounced fully and clearly, in plainly moulded pointed 
arches, springing from massive piers ; and Clerestory, written above, in 
a perfectly plain Avail, pierced at regular intervals by well-proportioned 
round headed window openings, so splayed, within nearly the whole 
thickness of the wall, as to admit a maximum of light. We find the 
pointed arch used where the wants of the structure demand the greatest 
strength, while the use of the round arch only occurs in smaller 
openings, as of windows and doorways, and. at some minor points, also 
as an arch of construction. Still, both arches are used in the same 
fabric at the same time, and this simultaneous use of them reveals the 
true index of that transitional period which intervened between the 
almost universal use of the round arch in the Romanesque style (of 



6 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

which our Norman was an important branch), and the purely pointed 
style by which it was subsequently replaced. During 1 that interesting- 
period of 45 years, or thereabouts, commencing approximately about 
A.D. 1145, the radical infirmity of a round arch, when of any extended 
span, having being demonstrated by experience, was completely 
remedied by the almost invincible strength discovered in the pointed 
form. At first used only for strength, the beauty of the shape became 
irresistibly attractive, and the round arch, though used for a while 
to a limited extent for some purposes, as we see it here, gradually sank 
into disfavour, and was wholly disused, while its more beautiful rival 
went victoriously on, till, by its aid, there was accomplished what has 
been designated by a great writer as the " only faultless manner of 
religious architecture the world has ever seen." In the crossing, and 
transept also, we see clear indications of this transitional period ; and, 
wherever we have them pure and unadulterated, we cannot fail to be 
struck with the complete and calm grandeur of their absolute simplicity 
and truthfulness. True, the page has been torn, and in some places 
patched before the final dismantling of the house. We detect, for 
instance, at once, looking westward, that so large a window opening as 
now appears there, has no affinity with the simple windows in the 
clerestory and transept. It is evidently the work of other hands, and 
to get at anything like it we have to jump from the first almost to the 
last point in the architectural history of the building. It was one of 
the latest touches of men less simple in their works and ways than 
their earliest predecessors. The construction of the vaulting in the 
aisle is peculiar, and, viewed in juxtaposition with the pointed arches of 
the nave arcade, refers us to the earliest part of the transitional period, 
and safely fixes our first date at about A.D. 1147. No example of 
similar vaulting is, I believe, to be met with elsewhere in England ; 
but we learn from Mr. Sharp that, curiously enough, it does exist at 
Fontenay, the Fountains Abbey of France. The absence of a blind 
story with its triforium, a feature capable of the richest, and generally 
where it occurs receiving the most elaborate treatment, most surely 
tells us how purposely simple the first builders were. Their arrange- 
ment of the west front may still be partially detected in the two 
external string courses, which indicate corresponding lines of simple 
window openings, like those in the transept and clerestory, and their 
treatment of the east end would be altogether of the same character. 
They built no tower, but simply carried up the walls at the crossing 1 , so 
as just to cover the ridge of the roofs. 

Now, let us see what there is left to tell us for whose use this 
church was intended. Obviously, our attention must, in this part of 
our enquiry, be directed first to the doorways by which the building 
was entered. Of these, we find six. A main west door, in the middle 
of the western gable, opposite the gateway to the Abbey precincts, 
marked Z on the plan, with an external portico in which might collect a 
few of the assembling worshippers. All other doors are on the south 



FOLNTAINS ABBEY. 7 

side of the church, and have evident reference to the series of buildings 
which are arranged on that side, and which we have yet to notice. 
These five remaining doorways occupy the following positions : One, 
in the extreme western bay. was an external door, and is now walled 
up ; the next, in the adjoining bay to the eastward, communicated with 
the ground story of the apartment marked U on the plan ; the next hi 
the adjoining bay to it, also eastward, opened by a broad flight of steps 
into the upper story of the same apartment ; a fifth opened into the 
north-east corner of the quadrangle, and the remaining door is seen in 
the south transept, and communicates by a flight of steps- with the 
upper story of the range of buildings flanking the east side of the 
quadrangle. The only other opening from the church is found in the 




South-West View of Fountains Abbey. 

south-east angle of the same transept, opening into a small apartment 
which, as this is the only approach to it, must have been appropriated 
to some use solely connected with the requirements of the church itself. 
At the east end of the church, was the high altar, and an altar would 
also be placed in each of the six transeptal chapels. That the arrange- 
ments and character of these altars were of the simplest, we gather 
from the severely plain appearance of the piscinas remaining. The 
chalices and the jocalia would, doubtless also be simple, and with the 
vestments, would be kept in the small room J, called a sacristy on the 
plan, the proximity of which points it out at once as the most suitable 
place for their reception and safe keeping. Before leaving the church, 
the grandeur and prominence of which must convince us that the one 



8 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

object the builders of this great house had in view was the honour and 
worship of God after the manner of the Christian faith, it will be well 
to notice one inference which we may, I think, safely draw from the 
arrangements we have been observing 1 , viz., that there were two sets 
of persons, at least, expected at this church those who were to come 
to the east end of it and worship there, and those to the west end, who 
had readiest access there and that both sets of persons could come at 
once, whether from the upper or the ground floors of their several 
buildings. 

It is now time that we should examine the extensive subsidiary 
buildings to the south of the church, and for this purpose let us place 
ourselves in the quadrangle, and glance in succession at the different 
apartments which are distributed round it. I have purposely hitherto 
spoken of this place as the quadrangle, a term which you could not 
mistake, and now is the time that I must correct the popular error into 
which so many have fallen. This, and no other part of the building, 
can be designated as the "cloisters," a term which might perhaps be 
confined to the covered walk that has once surrounded it, but may be 
applied to the whole, which -is the enclosed place, the close, the 
claustrum, the cloisters, of our building. Round this covered walk let 
us now pass, commencing at the door of the church, down the east, 
along the south, and on to the west side. The first place we come at 
is a small cell, of which we can at any rate say that it is plain enough, 
strong enough, and dark enough for a place of confinement or punish- 
ment ; or cool enough, if occasion arose, for a temporary dead-house. 
Here I must call your special attention to a break in the masonry. All 
we have hitherto examined is of the simple character of the earliest 
years of the transitional style, and the authorities go to fix the date 
of everything to this point at " about the year 1147." Here, however, 
there is a marked change ; the arches indeed remain some of them 
round, but they are now, though still plain, recessed and enriched with 
more elaborate mouldings, which mark a very considerable develop- 
ment. The masonry too, you can see, is of a different date ; we are, in 
fact, advanced from 25 to 30 years, in what we see beyond this break. 
Do not, however, think that the work was suspended at this point for 
the period I have named ; what we now see, is evidently a rebuilding, 
which has almost wholly effaced a previous structure of the same class 
and on the same site. The continuation of the lower string course at 
intervals between the arches that rise above it, supports the inference 
which I am inclined to "adopt, that there has been here, at the period 
indicated, a turning of two stories into one as it were ; a replacement 
of humbler by loftier apartments of the same class, and the raising of a 
suitable upper story on the more exalted substitute. Understand, 
however, most distinctly, that there must have been buildings here 
before those, having like order and of similar plan. This, if you have 
any difficulty in believing it now, will more fully appear as we proceed. 
But to pass on, after the cell, we find an imposing apartment 



FOrNTAINS ABBEY. 9 

marked K on the plan, with its axis east and west, parallel with that of 
the church ; it has been vaulted, and freely open without any doors, 
through those three fine arches, to the cloister walk ; it would be a 
ready place of assembly going to or from the church, or for any purpose 
on which those whose lives were led here might have to meet. The 
first two bays as you enter you will see, are rather different to the 
remainder, and serve as a sort of portico ; the eastern portion being 
available, if seats were placed round it, for any deliberative purpose. 
Next, we have a vaulted passage or exit from the cloisters eastward, 
through a similar richly moulded arch, and then we come to the older 
masonry again, and yet another door, by which, through an eastward 
passage M, we reach a vaulted apartment X, of six bays, the axis of 
which is north and south ; a somewhat gloomy room, with no fire-place. 
but otherwise fitted for the daily use of a considerable number of 
persons. You will find at the eastward openings of the two passages 
L and M, a bit of the older building incorporated in the present one, 
the two stories of it as shewn by the little window-openings now walled 
up, giving you such an original elevation as I have already inferred ; 
and while you notice how almost rudely simple that bit of work is, you 
will have in the idea I have above expressed to you, the true solution 
of what has, I fancy, proved a great puzzle to many people. Passing 
on, round the cloister walk, we next come to another door, also in older 
masonry, through which we find a broad flight of steps with an access 
right and left at the top to the upper floor thus reached. Observe, all 
the apartments we have yet seen have been vaulted, and all, therefore, 
intended to have rooms over them. What the windows and general 
elevation of these upper rooms were like, on the cloister side, it is 
impossible to say with certainty ; they are gone, but the upper walls 
remain over the apartment K, and shew round -headed recessed 
windows, with a roll moulding springing from angle shafts in the 
jambs. How this upper floor would be divided, or whether divided at 
all we need not consider. We have, in the staircase at P, the one 
access to it, and we may infer there was one long room covering I, J, 
the portico part of K, L, M, and X, with an apartment over the 
remainder of K, opening out of it. Starting from the idea that it is a 
common practice for persons to go upstairs to bed, we shall not be 
wrong in deciding that this long room ranging from the south wall 
of the transept over all the rooms we have yet examined was a 
dormitory, or sleeping room. It would serve well for such a purpose 
for those who, hi the day time, were engaged below. And here, do 
not forget the arrangement we saw in the church for direct access from 
this upper story to the south transept, so that whoever slept in this 
room could go at once from his bed to any service that might be pre- 
scribed ; and read one fact further in this arrangement there must 
have been services in that church by night as well as by day. 

But to look again at our book, we see next to the staircase on the 
west a vaulted apartment Q, the two large fire-places of which proclaim 



10 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

it a kitchen ; over this is the only perfect upper room which remains, 

this we have seen was reached by the same staircase as the long 

dormitory, and, intended no doubt for a like purpose, it would supply a 

separate chamber for anyone entitled to or requiring such a distinction. 

Passing westward still, we find that in the south wall of the cloister, 

under that simple piece of arcading, there has been a stone trough, 

semicircular in section, the inner segment of which is still in its place, 

with the apertures for the supply and discharge of water still traceable. 

Here, coming from east or west, the inmates of this house could wash 

at any time, and specifically and with greatest convenience, at whatever 

time they might be called upon to enter this central door and, 

through that lovely portal, reach the noble apartment S, the axis of 

which is from north to south : and they would rightly wash before 

entering, for there can be no mistake as to what this apartment was 

for. The matter is as clear as in the case of the kitchen. The hatch, 

in the north-west corner, with the marks all round it of the lurning 

table, could serve no better purpose than the introduction of food from 

a buttery beyond ; and the proximity of the kitchen, and the central 

position of the room itself, with its imposing appearance, mark it at 

once as most suitable for the refectory of as many inmates as this house 

might accommodate. On the west side, in a central position, you will 

see a recessed gallery, the steps to which are still perfect within it, and 

though the pulpit is gone for which the steps served, the beautiful 

bracket by which it was supported remains, and we even now know 

the exact spot from which lections would be read during meal times, 

out of books kept for the purpose in the cupboard below. Next, on the 

west, we have the apartment, the hatch from which, above referred to, 

has already proclaimed it as the buttery, whence from sufficient stores 

there kept, bread, butter, cheese, and like viands could be distributed. 

AVe have now traversed the east and south cloister walks, and on the 

west you will see that (here is but one opening left for us to examine, 

and that not being marked by any special grandeur or distinction, was 

intended, we may infer, for casual rather than regular access to or 

from the cloister. That one doorway separated all within the cloister 

from all the world beside, and whoever the inmates of this 

building were, we see from the surroundings and arrangements 

of it, that seclusion and devotion to the service and worship 

of God, must have been leading characteristics of their manner 

of life. Through this door we enter the only absolutely 

perfect part of this once complete fabric. It is 300 feet long and 50 

feet wide, vaulted throughout by intersecting semicircular arches, which 

give in the result that pointed form to the vault, which has led some to 

suppose that the pointed arch was thus first suggested. You cannot 

examine this room too closely. It is the finest remains of its kind now 

existing anywhere in Europe, and the uses to which it was put are not 

so obvious, and are doubtful enough even yet to merit the attention and 

receive the consideration of very learned men. We can, however, 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



11 



arrive with tolerable certainty at some general conclusions connected 
with its use. and that of the upper story which extended over the whole 
of it. The lower room, we see, has no connection with the cloister 
against which it presents, so far as co-extensive with it, a dead wall, 
without any window or other opening's from which any glimpse or sight 
of those in the enclosure could be obtained, or through which any com- 
munications could be given or received. There were, however, on the 
ground floor,numerous doors. four I think, all leading into the open ground 
in the west, in which direction the windows also looked. Such a room as 
this lower room would serve many purposes ; it was a place in which, 
in fact, a large number of persons could walk about, or pursue any 
active indoor employments, and, as we shall find, it is not at all a bad 
place for use a^ a refectory for goodly numbers who can there 




Refectory, Fountains Abbey. 

assemble. Those who dwelt there, moreover, were so frequently and 
regularly expected in the church, that the door at the north end, 
opening directly into the nave, was with propriety provided for them. 
I am not certain either, whether some might not think this room good 
for use, in part, as a warehouse for materials and work on which the 
inmates might be employed. Over head, again, we have the dormitory, 
approached by an external staircase, and guarded by a lodge, in which 
some porter or other supervisor could be placed. If we place one 
bed over each bay of vaulting, we have sleeping room for fifty persons 
or thereabouts, if more, more, all, as you will bear in mind, expected 
to leave their beds on occasion, and go by the door and steps at the 
north end into the nave of the church. You will observe, that to make 
the building its present length, an extension has been necessary, and 



12 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

that the characteristics of the southern end which there, clear of the 
cloister, is lighted both ways, are later somewhat than the part nearest 
the church ; and that the southern end is carried, as you will see, on 
arches quite across the river, where, at the extreme south, necessary 
offices are provided, and whence too, in the upper floor, an adjoining 
building 1 , marked W on the plan, could be reached. What this latter 
building was for, or what the destination of the other detached buildings 
to the west, marked X on the plan, it is not material for us to stop now 
to enquire. These, however, seem to be all that have ever existed 
within the enclosure made by a wall from the Abbey Bridge Y, to the 
one gateway Z. 

We have thus far read only in the ruined building itself, and let 
the fragments tell their own tale. The Archaeologists have given us 
two dates 1147 far the completion of the church, and 1170 for the 
rest of what we have examined. 

Before I close, I will say a word or two on those parts which I 
have hitherto studiously excluded, as much as possible, from your view. 
The parts marked D, F, and G, and the parts grouped as the Abbot's 
buildings. These, so far as F and G, and everything but the Abbot's 
chapel are concerned, date early in the thirteenth century, some sixty 
years after the church was built, and the abbot of that day, or whoever 
he was who designed these works, was, in every sense of the word, 
a great architect. It may be open to doubt whether he was a good 
Cistertiau in St. Bernard's view. We have, however, clearly marked, 
an extension calculated to meet very largely increased requirements, 
and indicating, what was the fact, a large increase in the number of 
monks. Coupled also with this is the elevation of the Abbot to a pitch 
of distinction from his fellows, contrasting strongly with all that was 
possible in the early house, when, as I take it, the only room he could 
have had assigned to him, was the one we find over the kitchen. After 
being used without alteration for many years, say 1 25, the Abbot came 
to require a new chapel of his own, the remains of which we still see 
in No. 4 on the plan. 

But a few words more, and I have done. If the strength and 
importance of movements are to be judged by their results, a single 
comparison suggestive of many others, may be usefully offered to you. 
Compare the church which a few self-denying men thought none too 
great or grand for the worship and service of their God, with almost 
any modern church or chapel, erected for teeming populations ! In 
many of these one can only conclude that the builders and promoters 
could not be anxious to shew what they thought to be good enough for 
themselves, and simply did as little as could possibly serve for the 
wants of others. Or compare the dining room of any modern inn with 
that refectory ! What, after three hundred years of ruin, would be tin; 
tale that church, chapel, or inn could tell us, compared with the story 
which unfolds before us as we examine Fountains Abbey church and its 
monastic buildings? 



WH1TBY ABBEY. 13 

WHITBY ABBEY. 

THIS famous Abbey was founded by Lady Hilda, whose death took 
place twelve hundred years ago. and an enquiry into the special circum- 
stances which induced her to build the Abbey opens up an interesting 
chapter in ancient local and general history. This will be seen when 
we consider what England was when Hilda's Abbey and College first 
arose, a lighthouse above the ocean waters in the seventh century 
when it first shone like a Pharos over the old kingdom of Deira. which 
was one of the chief provinces of the kingdom of darkness. 

England was. from North to South, along its whole eastern side, 
and far up in the Midland Counties, a thoroughly heathen country, and 
had been heathen for 200 years preceding, ever since the departure of 
the Koinans. What makes this fact so striking and terrible is that 
during the 400 years of the Roman Dominion, nearly the whole country 
had been evangelised. St. Xinian, after whom one of Whitby's churches 
is named, was a Scottish nobleman educated in Rome, who became one 
of the chief evangelists of the ancient races during the Roman times. 
The British tribes, and their neighbours, the Irish people, had thus early 
received the Gospel. When the Saxons came and saw. and conquered 
Britain, they restored heathenism over the whole area of their conquests. 
It was almost as if an army of Hindoos should now land in England, 
vanquish the inhabitants, drive the remnant towards the West, and 
establish Indian idolatry on the ruins of our Christianity. We are the 
descendants of those Saxon heathens, and we still call our week days 
after the names of their impure gods and goddesses, Sun-day, Moon-day, 
Tuisca's day, Woden's, Thor's clay, Frey^a's day a fearful memorial 
of the overthrow of the ancient British Christianity. 

The conquered Britons retired westward, fighting all the way. 
into Cornwall, into Devonshire, into Wales, into Cumberland, and 
noreland, and Lancashire : and they took their Christianity and 
civilisation with them, leaving behind a vast and awful night of 
barbarous Saxon paganism of paganism with its ignorance, ferocity, 
blood-thirstiness, drunkenness, and lust. Eastern and Midland Eng- 
land for 200 years, from the time of Hengist to the time of Hilda, was 
full of ferocious tribes, battling all along the west with the remnant of 
the British aborigines, and battling just as fiercely with each other. 
When St. Hilda was a young woman all central England, or Mercia. 
was held by a savage Pagan Sovereign named Penda, 80 years of age, 
a sort of Saxon Cetewayo, master of a powerful army, who for fifty 
years had made war upon his neighbours. And it was hi consequence 
of the destruction of this terrible old Fagan warrior by King Oswy at 
Winvridfield. near Leeds, in 655, that Hilda was enabled in 658 to found 
her abbey. Penda had previously slain King Oswald in the west, and 
hanged his mangled body aloft at Oswald' tree, now Oswestry. 

A monastery of the ancient ages is often thought of as necessarily 
an abode of idleness, and even of licentiousness. Such no doubt many 



14 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

of the religious houses at last became, and even this great Benedictine 
house at Whitby among the number in its latter days. Its present ruin 
is, according to Dr. Young, the visible punishment of the sins of its 
latest inmates. But in the earlier centuries a great monastery was 
often a stronghold of the good cause against the powers of darkness- - 
and this mighty foundation of Hilda's was among the noblest in Eng- 
land. Its purpose can hardly be understood, unless we remember that 
in the first half of the seventh century, there was in all Europe no 
more awful Aceldama and "abomination of desolation" than this 
northern part of England. The Saxon Heathen and Pictish High- 
landers, had repeatedly laid the land waste in their wars, and made its 
rivers flow with blood. The country was scarred with the black marks 
of conflagrations of farms and homesteads. Deira invaded Mercia, and 
old Mercian Penda invaded Deira again and again. Bernicia invaded 
Lancashire and North Wales, and North Wales invaded Bernicia and 
Deira, or Northumberland and Yorkshire. All the history of these parts 
that remains is the history of cruelty, wrong, and bloodshed. Xo 
power but one could save and civilise Saxon heathenism, and turn this 
hell of the angles into a paradise. That power was Christianity. The 
kings had begun to hear of what Christianity had done for other states 
and nations in Europe, and they were growing weary of their own war* 
and miseries. The monasteries which arose in that age, in the midst 
of the forests and open countries, were, then, strongholds of Christianity 
and civilization. A great monastery well placed aloft, like Cassino or 
Streonshall, and wisely and holily governed, was a Bethesda or Pool of 
Mercy with many porches. It was (1) a Temple for the icorship of the 
living and eternal God, amidst the grotesque and degrading horrors of 
paganism, where the light of truth shone on high over the pagan pande- 
monium. (2) It was a place of Education for both sexes. The 
Princess Hilda, grand-niece of King Edwin of Northumbria, founded 
here (after the modern American fashion) a college and school for both 
sexes, for both monks and nuns. Many of these were persons, like 
Hilda, well on in life and weary of the world ; some of these were 
young, some even almost boys and girls. Her first charge was the 
little Princess Elfreda, well-born on her mother's side ; for there had 
been a succession of Christian Queens. First, Bertha, a French 
Princess, married Ethelbert, the King of Kent, and brought Christianity 
with her. Their daughter was Ethelburga, who married King Edwin 
in the great well-built Roman city of York, the capital of his kingdom 
of Deira. Their daughter was Eanfleda, who married King Oswy, still 
a heathen ; and their child was Elfreda, who was educated as a Christian 
at \\liitby. In three cases Christianity came with the wife to a pagan 
husband. Who could say how great a blessing, or how great a curse, 
every young woman carries with her in her marriage, according as she 
is a loving wife and worshipper of God, or a heathenish worldling. 
Thus a monastery was a College and a School, and often had a learned 
Librar//. We still possess the catalogue of good books in manuscript, 



TVHTTBY ABBEY. 



15 



which this Abbey treasured up in the 12th century, beginning 1 w!th 
the Bible. Part of the work of the place always was to copy good books, 
the priceless legacies of elder times, as it is now a good work to give or 
to lend them. A monastery inspired by such persons as Hilda and her 
fellow- workers was next a gTeat mission centre, whence educated men 




Portrait of Lady Hilda_(froui a Scarce Print). 

went forth on foot~to evangelise the neighbouring villages and towns ; 
and many were the'cells and village churches which were set up by the 
godly monks from'TVhitby College. The noble St. Chad, or Ceadda, 
of Lindisfarn. was often here ; and so holy and laborious a worker and 
walker was he, that the people in after-times fancied that a healing 



16 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

virtue remained in the springs and pools where he baptised the heathen 
Saxons whom he converted ; so that the name of " St. Chad'swell," or 
Shadwell, is found over half of England, and has reached as far as Lon- 
don. For long Ceadda's central abode was at Lastringham, beyond 
Pickering ; and afterwards, in his last days when full of years and 
honours, he was made the Bishop of Litchfield, the first of a series of 
eighty, ending with Bishop Maclagan. 

3. A monastery was also a great school of medicine, and place of 
healing. There were stored up all manner of receipts, wise and unwise, 
for the medical use of plants and treatment of wounds. And thence 
went forth elder Sisters of Mercy, to nurse the poor people of Whitby 
1200 years ago. 

4. A great monastery was a fountain of civilisation in all the use- 
ful arts, such as agriculture and gardening. The best intelligence of 

the time was frequently brought to bear on the culture of a great abbey's 
possessions. It was also a school of the fine arts of music, singing, 
painting, and preeminently of architecture. It was likewise a school of 
poetry, for here Csedmon sang his inspired song of the Creation, and 
commended to the semi-barbarous Saxons divine ideas in strains that 
echoed far and wide over Saxon England, and gave prophetic hints of 
Miltons of the future yet to come. 

And (5) lastly, a great monastery was a visible monument of all 
the Past Divine History of the ivorld, as well as a written prophecy of 
a better kingdom to come in the last days. 

All this was in the design of the Princess Hilda, when she planted 
her great Abbey upon these heights ; and since she was, beyond all 
reasonable doubt, a devoted Christian, her object was in a great 
measure realised. For the great church and college of Whitby became 
to Yorkshire, and far beyond it, a fountain of salvation. Her religion 
was clothed in the idiom, the ceremonial, the conceptions of her own 
day ; and much of that external investure was no doubt the growth of 
ages of gradual departure from the apostolic model. But what a 
grand and noble woman was this, who kindled so great a light on that 
sublime eminence, the memory of whose noble works was powerful 
enough 400 years after her death, to create another race of men to 
rebuild the fallen in new splendour on the very site of her earlier 
enterprise. 

Now arose the early monasteries of Canterbury, of Glastonbury, of 
Streonshall to this last king Oswy assisting by the gift to Hilda of 
twelve manors, prompted thereto by the remorseful desires of a heart 
that repented itself of its previous blood-stained and violent career. 
Now henceforth the figure of the Princess Hilda rises on her sacred hill, 
towering aloft above the desolated villages of Saxon Deirar, a true 
messenger of peace to the troubled people. Her monastery continued 
for 200 years to be the central light amongst this darkness ; and the 
gleam that shone through the rounded windows of her humble early 
church was truly a light of life to the Saxons. Then, as you know, 



WHITE Y ABBEY. 



17 



followed in the 9th century the complete destruction of the first modest 
and mostly wooden fabric by the Danish pirates, and an utter desola- 
tion of Streonshall for 200 years, indeed until after the Norman con- 
quest. Then the Norman Percys, moved by the horrors of William the 
Conqueror's desolation of Yorkshire as Hilda had been moved 400 
years before by the similar horrors of the Saxon war desolations began 
the re-building of the Abbey and Monastery, of which, and its subse- 
quent additions, we can see the noble ruins to-day. 

Now again 400 years followed of growing magnificence, of cease- 
worship, of holy song, devout study, of strenuous labour by 




Ruins of WbJtby Abbey. 

twenty-five generations of the black-robed Benedictine monks among 
the surrounding towns and villages ; and alas, of increasing superstition, 
increasing depravation of manners, increasing sloth and forgetfulness 
of God, until the crisis was reached of the Tudor reigns ; when the 
voice of Eng-land, thundering indignantly like a northern tempest against 
the apostate Church, supported Henry VIII. in the dissolution and plunder 
of the Abbeys, then possessed of at least one-third of the cultivated land 
of the kingdom ; and ruin fell upon Streonshall, with its precincts full 
of the dust of saints and kings, hi the just judgment of God. 



London. 



EDWABD WHITE. 
B 



18 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



ST. MARY'S ABBEY, YORK. 

THIS beautiful ruin is to be found in the gardens of the Yorkshire 
Philosophical Society. The Abbey, a Benedictine monastery, was 
in point of wealth and influence the most important in the North 
of England. It was founded in 1078 by Stephen, a monk of Whitby, 
to whom, when driven both from Whitby and Lastingham, where 
he and others had taken refuge, Alan of Richmond, Earl of Brittany 
gave " a church near the city of York, dedicated to St. Olave, with 
four acres of land adjoining^o build offices thereon." This land was 




Ruins of St. Mary's Abbey. 

afterwards claimed by Thomas, Archbishop of York, who would 
not relinquish his claim until William the Conqueror promised him 
an equivalent. William II. increased the grants of his father, and 
laid the foundation stone of the building, when it was dedicated to 
the Virgin. He also granted great privileges and immunities to the 
house, which rapidly grew in wealth and importance. The Abbot 
had seats at Deighton, Overtoil, and Benningborough, and a London 
residence near St. Paul's Wharf. There were besides six smaller 
religious houses dependent on the Abbey. The first priory \vas 



ST. MARY S ABBEY, YORK. 



19 



destroyed in the great fire in the reign of Stephen, but in 1270 
Abbot Simon de Warwick laid the foundation stone of the new 
Choir, which was completed in twenty-four years. The present 
ruins are the remains of this building. At the Eeformation it shared 
the fate of the other religious houses, and was surrendered to the 
Crown in 1540 by William Dent, the last Abbot. The clear rental 
at that time was 1,650, and it was occupied by fifty monks, and 
perhaps 150 servants. The site of the Monastery was retained by 
the Crown, and as the city possessed the Cathedral and so many parish 
churches, the Abbey Church of St. Mary's was doomed to destruction. 
The most available portions were employed to construct the King's 
Manor House, which was erected on a part of the estate. When in 
1701. York Cattle needed repairs, the stone was carted away for that 

purpose, and in 
1 705 the Church of 
St. Olave, Mary- 
gate, was restored 
from the ruins. 
During the reign 
of George I. a 
grant of building 
materials for three 
years was made 
for the repairs of 
Beverley Minster, 
and subsequently 
a lime-kiln was 
even erected to 
burn the stones 
into lime. The 
destruction of the 
ruins by such 

Ancient Seal of St. Mary's Abbey. meang ^y ^ 

been complete, had it not been for the fact that in 1827 the Yorkshire 
Philosophical Society obtained a grant from the Crown of the ruins, 
and the laud which is now the site of their Gardens and Museum. 
The principal remains consist of the north wall of the nave of the 
church. It has eight windows, the lights and tracery of which vary 
alternately. Underneath the windows is a panelled arcade, with 
pointed arches. The west front, judging from the portion which 
remains, must have been very fine. At the eastern end of the nave are the 
remains of the four piers which supported the central tower. The 
of the pillars which formed the transept north and south also 
remain, together with foundations of apses both to the east of the 
nave and transept, which shows the eastern termination of the church 
commenced in the time of Archbishop Thomas. The whole length of 
the church was 371 feet, and the breadth 60 feet. It is a splendid 




20 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



specimen of late Early English and Decorated work. On the northern 
or Marygate side of the Gardens stands an old Norman arch, with a 
building- attached. This appears to have been the principal entrance 
to the Abbey, on each side of which there still remains the ancient 
stone seats or stalls. Two smaller arches are to be seen in the walls 
which were built round the domains of the Abbey in 1282, when the 
monks and citizens were not on the best of terms, and when, in 
consequence of sundry disputes, several of the inmates of the Abbey 
were slain, and much property destroyed. The walls were constructed 
as regular fortifications, with towers at certain distances, and extended 
from Bootham Bar to the corner of Marygate, and thence down to the 
river, terminating in the west tower a large portion of which still 




The Hospitium, 8. Mary's Abbey. 

exists. The Hospitium, or Great Hall of the Monastery, is also 
enclosed in the grounds of the Museum near the river. The ground 
floor was probably the Kefectory, the upper the Dormitory for the 
reception of such guests as could not be received in the main building 
of the Abbey. The lower part is of stone, the upper, which is a 
modern restoration, is of timber and plaster work. It is now stored 
with British, Roman, and Saxon remains, Egyptian antiquities, and 
Samian ware, whilst in the lower storey are stored a wonderful 
collection of full-length figures, bosses, and every description of carved 
work which once adorned the Abbey. The visitor to York should not 
omit paying a visit to these interesting Gardens and Museum. 




YORKSHIRE ANTIQUITIES- 




BATLEY IX THE PAST. 

HERE are few places in the wide world whose names are 
more universally known than Batley. Far away from the east 

to the west, even as far in each direction as man is clothed 

ivj& to protect himself from the cold, Batley is spoken of ; the 
T kingdoms of the Old World trade with it ; and upon the bright 
and sunny shores of " the land of the west" many men find their 
interests bound up in it. It is not especially the home of the 
great or the wise, although it has furnished to the human family 
children of whom it may be proud ; the beautiful or the good, 
although its story is in no way marred by physical or moral deformity ; 
its temples, though many in number and various in degree of merit, 
are neither the dwelling-place of the gods nor the Hades of a lower 
race; they are not dedicated to the Muses _ or to Apollo; they are 
dedicated to Rags ! Batley was once, and that not long ago, a 
remote secluded village last almost to the world. Now as a borough 
it i< a huge commercial maggot that has fattened on vestural 
corruption. 

But it is not of the Batley of to-day we speak ; nor is it our 
intention to discuss the question whether the Saxon Bateleia was the 
field of a chieftain named Bart, who might possibly have had descendants 
in the Batts of Oakwell Hall* ten centuries ago ; or it was one of the 

It has been urged that Batley and Pateley (the badger-field) in Xidderdale 
are synonymous words, the B and P being interchangeable, but in face of the 
traditional pronunciation of the two words the assertion appears to me beyond 
substantiation. Batley. as I have said above, is vulgarly pronounced Battal-e, the 
sound of the component al still being distinguishable, while Pateley is distinctly 
pronounced Pa-at-ley, without any marked sound of the component al. This fact 
decides me to refer Batley to one of the Saxon hals, and so to discover in the 
place one of the earliest Saxon foundations. There is a significance in the 
contiguity of Battal-e and Bur-st-all (the local pronunciation of "BirstalT'), of 
which I shall speak elsewhere. 



22 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Saxon kals, the Bate-bal, an outpost marking the first advance of the 
Saxon colony which dispossessed the Britons of their ancient settlement 
at Dewsbury, a derivation that the vulgar pronunciation of the place- 
name Battal-e, not Bat-ley certainly favours, and which would give 
us the terminal syllable Ea, Ey, " water," and so account for the 
Batley Carr, that is otherwise practically unaccounted for.* AVo 
would speak of Batley when it was the home of a gallant race, and 
tell the story of the lives of its best and bravest sons. AVhen William 
the Norman laid siege to York, Adam Copley, of Bateley, went forth 
to meet him, and died in the beleagured city. This Adam was the 
founder of a celebrated race which had its home at Batley for many 
generations. His grandson or great-grandson Ralph Copley, was the 
father of a man of whom England will ever be proud. That man was 
Robert Copley, surnamed Grosseteste, the celebrated Bishop of Lincoln. 
Ralph Copley, servant at the King's Court, married Mary, daughter and 
co-heiress of Sir Richard AValsingham, Knt., of Suffolk, and their son was 
born at Shotbrook or Stodbrook, in Suffolk. The boy entered the 
Church, was educated at Oxford and in France, returned to England, 
was made Archdeacon of Leicester, and afterwards consecrated Bishop 
of Lincoln on the llth June, 1235. He died at his palace of Bugden, 
9th Oct., 1253, and is buried in the upper part of the south transept of 
Lincoln Cathedral. Grosseteste has been styled one of the harbingers 
of the Reformation. His labours were a continued protest against 
Papal encroachments in promoting strangers to benefices in England. 
He was a very industrious author, and of universal genius. Before the 
civil war almost 300 of his treatises, on various subjects were in the 
King's library at Westminster, which Bishop Williams intended to 
print in three vols. folio, but was prevented by the troublous times. 
There is abundance of his MSS. in the Bodleian library on theology, 
astronomy, philosophy, and mathematics, and from these terribly 
abstruse and wearisome subjects the bishop was wont to turn for 
recreation into the sweet paths of poesy. He wrote a poem in French 
verse, which is in the Bodleian library. Its title is " De Prindj>i<> 
Creationis Mundi" There is a brief memoir of the bishop in the edition 
of his letters published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls. 
The editor says of him " there is scarcely a character in English 
history whose fame has been more constant both during and after his 
life, than Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, from 1235 to 1253." 
The nickname of the man has given us the secret of his greatness. 



* The Vicarage was instituted in 1252 : Cawod 5th Ides March, 1252, 
Institution of Peter de Dewebyre, chaplain, to the Vicarage of the Church of 
Batelay at the presentation of the Prior and Convent of St. Oswald, the rectors, 
which we thus tax : The Vicar for the time being to have the alterage and corn 
tithe of Scalecroft, Howley, and Finchesden with the tithe hay of the whole 
parish ; and to bear the archiepiscopal and archiediaconal burdens and serve the 
church. The said Prior and Convent to provide a fit manse for him. 



BATLEY IN THE PAST. 23 

The big-headed bishop, with his clear, practical and vigorous intellect, 
was worthy of the country which produced Wickliffe and the many 
other noble reformers whose toil and learning separated us from the 
errors of the past. Batley must be proud of Bishop Grosseteste, for 
he was the best and greatest of her sons. A contemporary (Mat. 
Paris) says of him " During his life he had openly rebuked the Pope 
and the King ; had corrected the prelates, and reformed the Monks ; 
in him the Priests lost a director, clerks an instructor, scholars a 
supporter, and the people a preacher ; he had shown himself a 
persecutor of the incontinent, a careful examiner of the different 
scriptures, and a bruiser and despiser of the Romans. He was 
hospitable and profuse ; civil, cheerful, and affable at the table for 
partaking of bodily nourishment; and at the spiritual table devout, 
mournful, and contrite. In the discharge of his pontifical duties he 
was attentive, indefatigable, and worthy of veneration." 

When Xostel Priory was founded Bateley Church, with the lands 
and tithes, was one of the first churches given to it. The gift was 
made by Hugh de la Val, during his tenure of the Lacy fee, and on 
the 26th July, 1215, King John conPrmed to the priory the gift of 
St. Oswald and St. Aidan, with its chapel of Bamburc, Tickhill, 
Knaresburgh, with its land and all appurtenances saving to Alexander 
de Dorset, clerk, his rights in the said church during his lifetime ; the 
churches of Rowelle, Hackworth, Fetherston, Huddersfield, Batelai, 
with its lands, tythes, and all other things belonging to it. 

The prior presented to the living after the above gift, down to the 
suppression of the priory. We .give the date of three presentations, 
which do not appear to have been noticed : 

1268. The prior presents to the vicarage. 

4th of May, 1295. He again presents. 

23rd Edwd. III., 1360. He again presents. 

In the coucher-book of Xostel Priory the villages of Chorlewell and 
Morley, with their territories, were included within the limits of the 
church of Batley. The boundary of "the parishes of Batelay and 
Leeds were therein described as a certain river descending between 
the wood of Farnley and the assart of Gildersome, as far as the hospital 
of Beeston. Item, a certain other river on the south descending, 
between the wood of Middleton and the assart of Morley, as far as the 
said hospital of Beeston, is the boundary between the said parishes.* 

* At the close of the fatal year. 1322, was erected an institution, the Hospital 
of Beeston, the existence of which is almost unknown. Dr. Whitaker became 
aware of the fact that there had been such a place, but he could learn nothing 
more about it. It appears from Archbishop Melton's register that on the 13 of the 
Kalends of January (20 Dec.,) 1322, one Joan de Terry, a nun of the house of 
St. Clement , near York, became an anchorite and settled at Beeston. In her we 
possibly find the originator of the hospital, the position of which has been rudely 
traced by the above extract. 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 




The mention of the word " assart," as applying to land cleared of 
wood in the bottom of a valley, is very significant. We may certainly 
suppose therefrom that a primeval forest stretched away from Leeds 
to the hill districts of the west. The large towns of the present day 
were then little isolated hamlets, wellnigh severed from each other by 
impenetrable thickets. The history of the 
civilisation and settlement of the West Riding 
of Yorkshire must be written from the coucher 
books of its monasteries, for they alone are 
competent to tell the tale. In the 48th Ed- 
ward III., 1374, we find litigation between the 
men of Bateley and their priestly ruler. In 
Michaelmas term of that year it was presented 
to the judges of assize that the Prior of St. 
Oswald of Nostel ought to repair as well the 
Arms of Nosteii Priory, bridge of Birstall and Birstall Kirk as the bridge 
of Bateley and Bateley Kirk, because he is the rector of the churches of 
Birstall and Bateley ; in which presentments the said prior says errors 
intervened, and desires the same to be examined. A jury was ordered 
to decide the matter upon examination, but their decision is not known. 
During the feudal period there were two families of importance in 
Batley. The one was the celebrated family of Coplay ; the other a 
family which took the surname of "De Bateley," from the place of 
residence. 

John Coplay, Esquire, and his wife were living in Batley in 1379 
as owners, they paid a tax of 6s. 8d. ; but they were not the leading 
inhabitants, as we find that Lady 'Alice Finchedene widow, and a 
knight's dame was resident there, and paid 20s., the tax of a knight 
Her history is obscure ; she might have been a Copley ; but as we 
find that William de Finchedene and his wife were also living hi 
Bateley at the same time, some further explanation is necessary. 
It must not, however, be forgotten that the name of Finchedene occurs 
above in the account of the institution of the vicarage. Two unmarried 
women, Magota and Isabella de Bateley, were also living at the same 
time. It is, moreover, just possible that the Coplays and De Bateleys 
were the same people, the confusion arising from the somewhat 
indiscriminate use of the surname and the residental designation. 
Early in the 14th century, Maud de Batheley was prioress of 
Arthington ; it is more than probable she was a Coplay. 

The family of Mirfield were also connected with Batley. 
4th Henry VI. In the account of the feodary of the honor of 
Pontefract, of the relief of Richard Copeley for the third part of the 
fee called Garbut-fee, we find a payment of 33s. 4d. 

7th Henry VIII. In the same account, of the relief of John 
Copeley for the third part of one knight's fee in Bateley this year, 
happening to the king by the death of John Copeley, his father, we 
find a payment of 33s. 4d. 



BATLEY IN THE PAST. 25 

6. Ed\v. 3. Adam de Batelay held for a certain chaplain 2 
bovates of laud and 30s. rent in Bateley as of the honour of Poncefraot. 
11. Edw. 3. Adam de Batelay held for a certain chaplain hi 
Haworth 1 messuage and 7 acres of land, and other land in Bateley 
juxta Wakefield. Xow-adays they would have said Batley near 
Leeds, but hi 1337 Leeds was a place of small importance, and no 
better known than Batley. Wakefield was then " Merrie Wakefield," 
and it boasted of its pinder, now it is dismal Wakefield, and it boasts of 
its gaol ! 

jJodsworth visited Batley Church on the 3rd of April. 1630 
In the east window of the North Quire, belonging to Howley. 
Two panes broken out, on the third a woman kneeling, on her 
breast, party per pale arg. and G. lozengy with vert 2 lions passant 
f/anlant arg. the arms of Mirfield and Fitzwilliam. Behind the woman 
a daughter kneeling ; underwritten . . . who caused this window 
to be made hi the year of our Lord m.ccccxcvij. 
In the north window of the same quire. 
Elland per pale arg, 2 bars and an orle of martlets G. 
Second broken out ; underwritten ... of Joan, his wife, 
who caused this window to be made 

These families were frequently connected by intermarriage. Sir 
William Mirfield, son and heir of John Mirfield, 
and a daughter of the Rother6elds, lords of 
Morley, married Anne, daughter of Sir Richard 
FitzwiUiam, of Aldwark, and had issue William. 
In 1499 John Mirfield, William Beeston, and 
Christopher Ward, paid 5 for livery of land in 
Morley, Beeston, and Drighlington, which had 
belonged to Albreda de Rotherfield. Sir William, 
the father, was steward of the Honor of Pon- 
tefract temp., Edward IV. Sir Robert Elland, 
who lived 1460, married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir William Mirfield, of Tonge. Adam Mirfield, 
of Tonge, who was living in 1450, married Isabel, daughter of Sir 
John Savile. In the south quire belonging to Copeley. Copeley 
paled with Beaumont Copley, arg. a cross Sab. paled with Xevile, arg. 
a cross G. Copley, arg, a cross Sab., paled with (Pigot), Sab. 3 pick 
arg. Copley paled with Thwaytes. 

In 1509-10, 1st Hen. Till., William Mirfield paid 40s. for relief of 
half a Knight's fee. less a fifth part in Mirfield, etc., happening to the 
King by the death of Sir William Mirfield, his father. 

Lionel Copley married Jane, daughter of Thomas Thwaytes ; his 
son and heir, John Copley, married Agnes, daughter of Geoffrey Pigot, 
who bore Sa b. 3 pick axes, arg. This John died in 1515. His son, Sir 
Alvera Copley, married for his first wife Jane, daughter of Richard 
Beaumont, of'Whitley Hall, Esq. 




26 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

In a south window. 

Copley with Arg. a lion rampant double quevyed G, being Mallures 
coat, collar Or. 

Copley paled with G, a cross and label of 3 points arg. underwritten, 
Pray for the good Estate of John Copelai, who caused this window to 
be made, A.D. 1516. 

In the same quire a fair alabaster tomb, upon it a man in armour 
and his wife in full proportion, belonging to Mirfield, sometime lord of 
Howley, in this parish. About the tomb are these escutcheons, held by 
certain pourtrayed men . 

First, Mirfield paled with Savile. It is not a .little interesting to 
watch the vicissitudes of families. The Mirfields have long been extinct 
as a knightly family ; but at the close of the thirteenth century they were 
of local reputation, when " Seyvil " no Christian name given was but 
the holder of a third of a knight's fee under the Earl of Lincoln. 

Second, Mirfield paled with Fitzwilliam, lozengy arg. and G. 

Third, one figure holds two escutcheons, one of which bears Sab. 
a lion ramp. Or with arg. The third shield is broken out. 

Fourth, a woman holdeth per pale. Elland and Mirfield. 

At the head of the tomb G. on a bend Arg. 3 Escallops azure. 

An engraving of this tomb is given in Whitaker's Loidis and 
Elmete. 

In the Middle Quire Window. 

Mirfield- Vert. 2 lions passant, gardant, arg. underwritten 1390. 

This would commemorate Sir William Mirfield, who held lauds in 
Smeaton, near Pontefract, Shad well, and Potternewton. He was living 
at Mirfield in 1379, and another member of the family, John de Mirfield 
was a merchant in Huddersfield in the same year. Sir William was 
buried in Batley Church. His son, John Mirfield, married into the 
Rotherfield family as above stated. 

There was a chantry founded in Batley Church by Adam de 
Oxenhop, of Oxenhop, in Bradford-dale, whose daughter Jane was 
married to Adam Copley. The arms of Oxenhop, Arg. 2 bars and 4 
martlets sable, 2 in chief, and 2 infess. 

8th Edw. 3. I, Adam de Oxeuhope, by the license of the Arch- 
bishop of York, and of the nobleman Brian de Thornhill, have given to 
God and the chapel of St. Mary the Virgin, which I have caused to be 
built in the church of Bateley, in honour of the annunciation of the same 
glorious Virgin, which William de Hesliugton chaplain holds, for ever 
to celebrate mass in the said chapel, 2 oxgangs of land and 30s. rent in 
Bateley. 

10th. Edw. 3. Adam de Oxenhop presents to the chantry of the 
church of Bateley, newly founded by the same Adam, dat. 3 Kal. 
Aug. 1336. 

In 1553 John Clewland, priest of St. Mary's chantry, Bateleye, 
received a pension of 2 17s. after the chantry had been 
suppressed. 



28 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

The Batley of the past, of which we have been writing, had little in 
common with the Batley of to-day. It was then more of an agricultural 
than a manufacturing village, and gave no signs of the great change 
which even a century has effected, in transforming the place from a quiet 
country village into a large manufacturing town, with a mayor and 
corporation, gigantic mills and manufactories, palatial residences, and 
last, but not least, provision for the necessitous poor and suffering 
amongst the large population of the district. The erection of a cottage 
hospital, which is the latest of many efforts to improve the condition of the 
artizan class in Batley is but one instance out of many of the public 
spirit and generous disposition of the employers of labour in this thriving 
town. The foundation stone of the hospital was laid on Easter Mon- 
day, 1881, by Thomas Brearley, Esq., J.P., who headed the subscription 
list with the noble sum of one thousand pounds. At Easter, 1882, a 
bazaar was held in connection with the movement, by which the sum of 
2,615 was raised. The total cost of the hospital has been ,4,900, 
and when it was opened on Easter Monday, 1883, by the Earl of 
Wilton, it was stated that not only was the building free from debt, 
but a balance of 1,000 remained towards an endowment fund. Mr. 
Walter Hanstock, A.R.I.B.A., of Batley, had generously prepared the 
necessary plans and superintended the erection free of charge. The 
hospital is a neat and handsome structure, and occupying, as it does, an 
elevated position, it forms a striking and conspicuous object from various 
parts of the town. 

Leeds. W. WHEATEK. 



BRADFORD IN THE PAST. 

THE name of Bradford, the "metropolis of the worsted manufacture," 
is, most probably, derived from "Broad" and " Ford" although some 
other suggestions have been thrown out as to the etymology of the 
word. Dr. Whitaker is of opinion that it comes from "Brae," a hill, 
and "Ford;" others derive the syllable "Brad" from " Br<ri<l," 
" Braith" or " Brath" denoting a hill. The inhabitants of these 
northern parts belonged at the time of the Roman conquest to the power- 
ful tribe of the Brigantes. They were more rude and uncultivated than 
the Britons of the south of the island, because the latter were in con- 
tinual intercourse with their more civilised neighbours across the 
Channel. Nothing is known of those times in history, and that there 
has been, on the site of Bradford, a town or village of the Brigantes, is 
mere conjecture. Nor are we any better off with regard to the, history 
of Bradford during the sway of the Romans in Briton. There are no 
Roman relics to be found in the neighbourhood, except some traces of a 
Roman road leading from Manchester to Ilkley, which proves that tlio 
invincible legions of the eternal city trod these parts of the northern 
wilderness. 






BRADFORD IN THE PAST. 



29 



When the Saxons had taken full possession of the country, they 
began to cultivate the land, and many towns and villages sprang up. 
Bradford, no doubt, was like other Saxon villages, a conglomerate of 
straggling huts, with some contrivance for the shelter of cattle. The 
greatest part of the live stock of the Saxons consisted of swine, and the 
corn produced was mostly oats. These people were as rude and savage 
as all the other German tribes. But they were possessed ol redeeming 
virtues for which they were envied eveu by their enemies, the Romans, 
as Ceesar and Tacitus amply set forth. Their chief virtues were 
chastity, and their honourable treatment of women. While among the 
most civilized nations of antiquity, the Greeks and the Romans, the wife 
was little better than a slave ; among the ancient tribes of the Germans 
the wife was the equal of her husband. 




Old Plan of Bradford. 



In 1066 the sanguinary battle of Hastings was decided in favour of 
AVilliam of Normandy, afterwards called the Conqueror, against Harold 
the Saxon. William seized all the land and distributed it among his 
knights and companions in arms. Thus the Xorman sprig was grafted 
upon the Saxon stem. Bradford fell to the lot of Ilbert de Lacy, who 
was one of the adventurers accompanying William in his invasion of 
England, and who fought valiantly for his leader on the bloody field of 
Hastings. The family of the Lacies were in possession of Bradford, 
with the exception of a short interval during the reign of Henry I ., up 
to 1193, when Robert de Lacy, the last of them died without issue. 
Under that family, Bradford belonged to the seignory, or honour of 



30 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Pontefract, and the Lacies were created Barons of Pontefract. In their 
time the chapel of Bradford was severed from the mother church at 
Dewsbury, and made a parish church. After the demise of Robert, the 
last of the Lacies, the immense possessions of that lordly family went 
to the descendants of Richard Fitz-Eustace, constable of Chester, and 
Lord of Halton. They assumed the name of Lacy, and the last lord in 
the direct male line was Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, who died 
1310, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

We find in the report of the Inquisition of Edward I., in 1277, that 
"Henry de Lascy" had many "liberties in the town of Bradeford." 
Amongst these, "a market and a free court from ancient times." The "free 
court," above mentioned was what was afterwards known as the Manor 
Court, which was swept away in 1867 by the " County Courts Act." 
This court was in the seventeenth century held in a building which 
still exists in Westgate, and which bears date 1658. Over the door- 
way are the letters " H. M. I. M.," which are initials of the Marsdens, 
who then owned the manor. The market had been fixed for Thursday, 
but was usually held on a Sunday, in the churchyard, for the con- 
venience of residents in distant parts of the parish, who could, by this 
arrangement, both attend Mass and transact their business on the same 
day. There was a Norman church existing on the site of of the present 
parish church in the time of the De Lacys. In 1311, the value of the 
De Lacy estates is said to have been 600 a year of our present money, 
and the population has been estimated at 650. At that time there 
existed in the town a " Fulling Mill," which shows that cloth was 
manufactured at Bradford even at so early a date. In the time of 
Edward III. Bradford seems, in consequence of conscriptions, and the 
incursions of the Scots, to have suffered most severely ; but the land, 
which had been laid waste, was again put into cultivation, and a num- 
ber of Flemish cloth- weavers settled in the town, and gave a gTeat 
impetus to its trade. 

In the Hundred Rolls of 1284, King Edward I., there is mention 
of a man named Evans, a weaver of Gomersal, being confined in the 
prison of Bradford. Yea, as early as 1287, Edward I., 15th year, we 
find the notice of Frizinghall, near Bradford, which place probably took 
its name from the coarse cloths called freize or frize being manufactured 
there in early times. After the Civil Wars the woollen manufactures 
in Bradford died away, and the manufacture of worsted goods began 
to flourish. For the sale of these last the Old Piece Hall was erected 
in 1773. In those days spinning was done by hand as by the spinning 
wheel, but in course of time this mode was found quite unequal to the 
demands of the manufacturer, and this led to the introduction of the 
spinning machine. 

It is worthy of mention that in John of Gaunt's time a ravenous 
boar, as tradition asserts, haunted Cliffe Wood, and became such a 
terror to the neighbourhood that the king offered a reward to anyone 
who should slay the animal. One day when the boar was drinking at 



BRADFORD IN THE PAST. 



31 




a well (still in existence, and known as the Boar's Well), a youth stole 
forth from the wood and shot the boar dead, after which he cut out its 
tongue, and hastened to the king to claim the reward. After he had 

gone another person found the carcase, 
and having cut off the head, also 
set off to claim the reward. The ini- 
poster arrived at court first, and the reward 
was just about to be conferred upon him 
when the rightful claimant appeared, bear- 
ing the boar's tongue ; and the head being- 
found to be wanting that organ, the 
cheat received well-merited punishment, 
and the real hero was handsomely 
recompensed. This legend forms the 
Bradford corporate seal. su bj e ct of the Bradford coat of arms. 

The Lacies were succeeded in their possessions by the Lancasters , 
Alice, daughter and heiress of Henry de Lacy, 
Earl of Lincoln, marrying Thomas Plantagenet, 
Earl of Lancaster. During his lifetime the 
Scots defeated Edward II. and his army at 
Bannockburn, and a most lamentable conse- 
quence of this defeat was, that the North of 
England was continually invaded by the Scots, 
and devastated to a frightful extent. Bradford 
suffered severely from these lawless expeditions. 
A-< a proof it might be mentioned that, at 
a new taxation of the ecclesiastical benel; 
in the year 1318, the value "of the vicarage 
tithes had been reduced nearly oue-third. The Earl of Lancaster, who 
lived in a state of- continual hostility against the king, was at last 
taken prisoner, beheaded at Pontefract in the year 1321, and all his 
estates were confiscated. Under Edward III. the attainder against 
Thomas. Earl of Lancaster, was reversed by Parliament, and he was 
succeeded by his brother, Henry Plantagenet. After the death of 
the latter, his title and estates went to his son Henry, Earl of Derby, 
afterwards Duke of Lancaster. In his time, in the year 1342, a survey 
of the manor of Bradford was taken, by which, besides other information 
concerning land and markets, it is shown that the value of the Fulling 
Mill had decreased, since the year 1311, from twenty shillings to eight 
shillings, and the value of a Corn Mill from 10 to 6 6s. 8d., a con- 
sequence, no doubt, of the troubled times of King Edward's 
IPs reign. Henry, Duke of Lancaster, died in the year 1361, and left 
two daughters, Maude and Blanche, as his heiresses. Blanche married 
the famous John of Gaunt, fourth son of Edward III., and after the 
death of Maude, without issue, the whole of the estates of Henry, the 
late Duke, became the property of John, who was created Duke of 
Lancaster. He died in the year 1399, and his estates ought to have 




Arms of Lacv. 



32 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

gone to his son Henry. Kichard II., by a violation of the rights of 
succession, seized all the land of his uncle John of Gaunt. He did not, 
however, enjoy his prey a long- time ; for in the same year 1399 Henry 
Bolingbroke returned from his exile, dethroned the weak-minded 
Richard, and seized the crown himself. Henceforth, the manor of 
Bradford, which was part of the Duchy of Lancaster, belonged to the 
crown, and seems, now and then, to have been leased out. During the 
reign of Henry's grandson, Henry VI., a civil war of many years' 
duration, began, known by the name of the wars of the two roses. 
This fratricidal war in which thousands of Englishmen were slain by 
their own countrymen, and in which, on both sides, the most frightful 
murders were committed with unabashed- audacity, and apparently with- 
out any remorse of conscience, no doubt, injured Bradford and its 
neighbourhood as much as any other part of the kingdom. At last, 
after almost forty years of devastation and slaughter, tranquility and 
peace again blessed the land under Henry VII., and the people of the 
country were allowed to follow their trades and occupations without 
the fear of a bloodthirsty soldiery. 

Little is known of the share taken by Bradford in the Wars of the 
Roses, except that Robert Boiling, of Boiling Hall, fought for the Lan- 
castrians at Towton, and for this was attainted and lost his estates 
which were, however, subsequently restored to him, Boiling Hall 
a very ancient structure to the south of Bradford. The date of : 
erection is not clearly ascertainable, but it is estimated that the oldest por- 
tion of it (the western tower) has overlooked Bradford during at lea 
500 years. 

The trade of Bradford must have greatly increased towarc 
the end of the war between the houses of York and Lancaster, for wt 
find, that Edward IV. granted a charter for a market to be held 01 
Thursday, and for two fairs, one on the day of the Feast of Depositior 
of St. William of York, about the end of February, and the second on 
the Feast of St. Peter in Cathedra in June. During the reign of 
Henry VII., many complaints were made against the King's officials, 
bailiffs, and auditors, by the inhabitants of this town, on account of 
the oppression and extortion of those officials, both for the purpose 
of their own emolument, and to satisfy the King's avarice, which was 
increasing with old age. The complainants, however, do not seem to 
have succeeded in gaining any redress. 

Under Henry VIII., that mighty revolution in religious affairs, 
called the great Reformation, began to spread in England. The people 
of Bradford seem to have favoured from the beginning of the progress 
of the new state of things ; they seemed in fact to have been, ever 
since their trade increased, decidedly liberal both in religion and politics. 
That the town was flourishing in trade, is evident from the words of 
Leland and the later Clarendon. Leland says of it : " Braclforde, a 
praty quick market toune, dimidio aut eo amplius, minus Wakefd<l;i. 
It standith much by clothing and is distant vi. miles from Halifax, and 



BRADFORD IX THE PAST. 

iv. miles from Christeal Abbay." It was, at that time, a more 
considerable place than Leeds : " Ledis, two miles lower than Christael 
Abbay on Aire Bywer. is a praty market, having one paroche churche 
reasonably well buildid, and as large as Bradford, but not so quick." 
And Clarendon says, that Leeds, Bradford, and Halifax were three 
very populous and rich towns, which, depending- wholly upon clothing, 
too much maligned the gentry, were wholly at their (viz. the 
Parliament's) disposition." Clarendon speaks of the time of the Civil 
War ; but if we put the statements of the two historians together, 
we cannot but come to the conclusion that the woollen trade of 
Bradford had steadily increased since the reign of Henry VII., up to 
the times of the Civil War. It was the fate of Bradford to witness 
the horrors of war soon after the commencement of actual hostilities. 
The inhabitants of the town were mostly puritans in religion and 
in politics, and consequently, determined enemies of the King and his 
advisers. They, however, believed that Charles intended to bring them 
back, by force, under the hated yoke of the Pope of Rome. The 
author of -The Rider of the White Horse," who published in 16*3 a 
narrative of what is commonly called the " First Siege of Bradford." 
calls the King's forces the " Popish Army," and the " King's Catholick 
Army." The dread and hate of Popery contributed, no doubt, very 
much to make the people of this neighbourhood zealous partizans of 
the Parliament, Their hostile disposition however, was well known in 
Royalist quarters. With a view to counteracting the exertions of the 
Parliamentarians, soldiers of the King's army were quartered in 
different towns of the North, and among others at Bradford. But the 
outrageous conduct of those soldiers embittered the inhabitants still 
more against the Royalists, and when they had left to join the Royal 
army, Bradford was put in a state of defence, as well as the inhabitants, 
ignorant in military matters, could manage it. The Royal forces, 
quartered at Leeds, under the command of Sir William Saville 
(of Thornhill, near Wakefield), were ordered to make an attack upon 
Bradford. The inhabitants of the latter town, forewarned of the 
impending danger, sent messengers to the towns hi its immediate 
neighbourhood for assistance, and a number of men hastened, with 
such uncouth weapons as they could muster to Bradford, to help in 
resisting the onslaught of the Royalists. The latter did not make an attack 
upon the town, but were resolutely beaten back, and were glad to 
retreat to their old quarters at Leeds, with a comparatively considerable 
loss. The majority of the defenders of the town were clubmen, but 
the Royalists had both cavalry and artillery with them. But the men, 
mere recruits as mentioned above, proved both undisciplined and 
cowardly. The " Rider of the White Horse" speaks thus of the 
artillery : " Then: ordnance all this tune played upon us, one of 
them ranged an 81b bullet, yet see the Lord's mercy to us : that which 
was planted against the steeple, never hit it ; another intended for 
the scouring of Kirkgate, 'tho planted in as advantagious a place as 



34 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

they desired, 'tho the street was continually crowded with people, yea, 
though many of their bullets hit the houses, and some the street, 
yet was no body at all hurt therewith." This was the " First Seige of 
Bradford." A number of the King's troops, who were quartered 
in Bradford committed many cruelties, and after they were withdrawn, 
the men of Bradford began in a rude way to fortify their town. The 
Royalists heard of this, and 600 or 700 of them marched towards 
Bradford. They were defeated and driven back towards Leeds by 
300 Bradfordians. Sir William Savile then marched upon the town 
with a large force. The chief scene of action was in the neighbourhood 
of the Parish Church, around the steeple of which, to protect it from 
the shot of the Royalists, the townsmen hung sheets of wool. They 
also armed themselves with clubs, scythes, spits, and other rude 
weapons, and, eventually, after a fight lasting eight hours, again drove 
the Royalists back. Shortly after this, Sir Thomas Fairfax, who had 
a force of about 800 foot and sixty horse under him, was completely 
defeated at Bradford by the Royalist troops (under the command 
of the Earl of Newcastle), who took Lady Fairfax prisoner, 
but shortly afterwards restored her to her husband. The Earl of 
Newcastle, now having the town at his mercy, is said to have ordered 
his men to "kill all, man, woman, or child, in the town;'' but this 
is probably incorrect, as no such threat was ever carried out. There is 
a tradition that a supernatural vision appeared to the Earl, as he lay 
asleep at Boiling Hall, and importuned him with these words : " Pity 
poor Bradford ! Pity poor Bradford ! " until the Earl revoked his former 
order. The Parish Church, which is so prominently connected with 
these events, is the same as that now existing. The sacking of 
Bradford causing great misery among the inhabitants, closes the history 
of the town as to the actual engagements in the Civil War. But 
famine and pestilence, the grisly camp-followers of armies engaged in 
human slaughter, both reduced the number of the inhabitants of 
Bradford, and nearly altogether destroyed its prosperity. In 1639 
the number of births wasJ209, a hundred years after, in 1739 the 
number was 182 ! 

In the year 1663 a few persons from Bradford were implicated in 
the foolish " Farnley Plot," the promoters of which wanted to overthrow 
monarchial government, and to introduce a republic. For this insane 
folly, a number of men were executed at York. 

The inhabitants of Bradford and the neighbourhood were sincerely 
attached to the House of Brunswick, and proved this attachment by 
raising subscriptions and men in support of the claims of the reigning 
house, during the time of the rebellious in 1715 and 1745. 

During the second half of the last century the town began greatly 
to improve, and a new spirit of enterprise animated the inhabitants. 
Turnpike roads were constructed; the Piece-hall was erected in the 
year 1773, and in the following year the Bradford Canal was completed . 
During the war with the French, the inhabitants shewed their patriotic 



BRADFORD IN THE PAST. 35 

spirit by raising 1 bodies of volunteers. From the end of last century up 
to the present time, the size of the town, the number of the inhabitants, 
their staple trade in woollens and worsted, and consequently, their 
wealth and prosperity, have steadily increased. At the beginning of 
this century the steam engine was introduced, and, as a matter of 
course, promoted the interests of manufacture and trade to an extent 
never dreamed of in preceding years. 

Leeds. W. CUNNINGHAM. 



YORKSHIRE DOMESTIC LIFE IN THE PAST. 

ALTHOUGH agriculture gradually advanced from the period of the 
Norman Conquest, yet the paucity of the population, and the insecurity 
of the country, still confined cultivation to the land adjacent to the 
mansions of the nobility, in which the Xormaii Baron, as well as the 
Saxon Thane, li ved in solitary independence, surrounded by his vassals 
and owning no superior but his sovereign. Such a state of simplicity, 
and freedom from those ' trammels of the law,' by which the interests 
of more civilized society are guarded, may have charms for the admirer 
of uncultivated nature, but the enjoyments which it afforded belonged 
only to the owner of the soil. The condition of the lower classes was 
wretched. The huts contained neither beds, nor moveables of any kind, 
except the few common utensils requisite to the preparation of their 
food ; the peasant reposed on straw, spread upon the floor, with a log of 
wood for his pillow, or stretched himself hi the stable with his cattle ; 
and even the upper sort of husbandmen fared very little better. Of 
these, at a much later period, we are told by an accurate observer of 
the manners of his day, that, " if within seven yeares after their marriage 
they had purchased a flocke bed, and thereto a sacke of chaffe to rest 
their heads upon, they thought themselves as well lodged as the lorde of 
the towne, that peradvenrure laie seldome in a bed of downe or whole 
feathers." Their houses were constructed of wattles plastered over with 
clay, and without either glass windows, or chimnies ; the fire was 
either made upon the earthern floor, hi the centre of the room, or against 
a rere-dosse, or a hob of clay placed before the wall ; and the oxen were 
stalled under the same roof. Their furniture was correspondently mean ; 
and we learn from that strange medley of satire, morality, and manners, 
' The Vision of Piers Ploughman.' which is supposed to have been 
written by a Shropshire priest, about the middle of the fourteenth 
century, that the bread then in common use was composed of pease and 
beans. The accommodations of the higher orders were not much 
superior. Even the baronial hall was only lighted through wooden 
lattices, or, where unusual grandeur and delicacy were affected, through 
windows closed with horn or parchment ; the naked walls of the apart- 
ments were only occasionally hung with loose tapestry, to conceal the 
rudeness of the masonry ; the floors were strewed with rushes, instead 



36 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

of carpets ; the beds were partly, if not wholly, composed of straw, and 
the lord of an extensive domain indulged in fewer luxuries than a 
modern farmer. More than a century later, the most distinguished 
families ate off wooden trenchers, or pewter plates; forks were unknown, 
and even in 1572, the princely residence of Skipton Castle held only 
eight mattresses and bolsters in the lodging 1 of thirty-five household 
servants. Even the homely fare of which they were possessed was dealt 
out to their domestics with a parsimonious regard to economy, and no- 
thing is further from truth than the idea, so commonly entertained, of 
the abundance and profusion of ancient times. But, in fact, they were 
not rich, even according to the estimation of money at that period. An 
income of ten or twenty pounds a year was reckoned a competent estate 
for a gentleman ; and a knight passed for extremely wealthy with one 
hundred and fifty pounds per annum, yet this, according to the calcu- 
lation of Mr. Hallam (who supposes twenty-four to be a sufficient 
multiple when we would raise a sum mentioned by a writer under 
Edward I., ann. 1300 to the same value in our money), was only equal 
in command over commodities to 3,000. The cause of this compara- 
tive poverty can only be ascribed to the imperfect state of cultivation, 
for many of the estates in the hands of individuals were larger than at 
present, and the price of corn was comparatively higher ; but the same 
quantity was not gained from a similar space of ground. The stimulus 
of trade was still wanting, and without that there is no incentive to 
labour for a surplus beyond the wants of mere sustenance, Living in 
the midst of his retainers, the feudal chieftain was supplied either from 
the produce of the land surrounding his dwelling, or by the contribu- 
tions of his more remote tenants. His expenses consisted principally 
in the exercise of a rude hospitality, and the few foreign luxuries 
which the habits of life then rendered necessary to enjoyment, were 
obtained in exchange for the wool and hides of his flocks and 
herds. 

DONCASTER CROSSES. 

IN old accounts of Doncaster the names of no less than ten 
crosses have been met with. 1. Otho de Tillis. 2. The Mill 
Bridge. 3. Snorell Cross. 4. St. Sepulchre's. 5. St. James's. 
6. The White Cross. 7. The Churchyard. 8. The Butcher's. 
9. The Magdalene's. 10. The Market Cross. The three last were 
perhaps different names for one and the same. Of the first two only 
has any drawing or description survived. 

1. OTHO DE TILLI'S. This stood at the south entrance of the 
town, where four roads meet at the top of Hall Gate, whence it 
was sometimes called the Hall Cross. It was taken down in 1792 
for the purpose of lowering the road, when the materials were neglected 
and lost, An engraving, from an oil painting, had fortunately been 
made by Vertue for the Society of Antiquaries in 1753, reduced copies 



DOXCASTER CROSSES. 



37 



of which are to be found in Miller's History of the Town, and the 
Rev. J. E. Jackson's History of St. George's Church (destroyed by fire 




Otho de Tilli's Cross. 



in 1853) Appendix, p. kxxix. On an octangular base supporting five 
circular steps, rose a cylindrical column built up of small stones, 
clustered with four small half-cylindrical shafts. The height of the 



38 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



central column from the top step was 18 feet, its circumference 11 feet 
7 inches. It terminated in five slender metal rods, each surmounted 
by a cross pattee, the central one being rather higher than the rest, 




Mill Bridge Cros*. 

At about seven feet from the base ran this inscription, in rhyme, 
and in Langobardic letters. 

>J ICEST : EST : LA : CRUICE : OTE : DE : TILLI : 
A : KI : ALME : DEU : EN : FACE : MERCI : AMEN. 
This is the cross of Ote (or Otho) de Till/', 
To ivhose soul God shew mercy. 



DONCASTER. CROSSES. 39 

Otho de Tilli was Seneschal of Conisborough under the Earls 
Warren. The date of the cross is considered to have been about A.D. 
1180-1200. There is no vestige left of jt. The pillar, within iron rails, now 
on an eminence more to the south, w fe intended, though standing on a 
different site, to be a memorial of th? older one, for which purpose, so 
far as resemblance goes, it is simply 'isele--. 



The notices in connection with 



the original monument are few. 



In 1663 the traitors' heads were ordej-ed to be set up at the Hall Gross 
and Water Mills. In 1737 a new pedestal was built to the Hall Cross 
and the Water Mills. 1748, a Romjan urn was found near the Hall 
Cross. A 

Stukeley mentions a tradition "that a Roman Emperor was found 
near the place where afterwards rose the Cross of Ote de Tille." 

2. MILL BRIDGE CROSS. This was at the opposite, the north 
entrance of the town, It is engraved in the {; History of St. George's 
Church " (above referred to) Appendix, p. xci., from a drawing made 
just before its destruction in 1765. It stood on four square steps, and 
is thus described by the Rev. E. Cutts "A square shaft with rolls at 
the angles, developed at a little height into a canopy with four faces 
which had held four statues. A central shaft running through the 
canopy and moulded to match the richness of its crocketing, probably 
carried an ornamental cross as the termination of the design. Its 
date is considered to have been of about A.D. 1250." 

Leigh-Detamere, Chippenham. J. E. JACKSOX, F.S.A. 



HULL IX THE PAST. 

The town of Hull, or more correctly, Kingston-upon-Hull, owes 
the prosperity which has attended every period of its history, next to 
the admirable situation for maritime purposes which it occupies, to two 
circumstances. The first of these was King Edward's grant of a 
charter in 1299, which secured the town peculiar privileges ; and the 
second was the creation of the Dock Company in 1774, The charter 

of Edward I. rendered Hull an 
attractive and advantageous seat of 
mercantile enterprise. Until, however, 
the first dock was opened hi 177 s . 
resources of the town for shipping- 
purposes were extremely limited. 
The wharves which adjoin the old 
Haven the mouth of the River Hull 
supplied the only accommodation 
Arms of Hull. f or f ne loading and unloading of 

Is. On every side, except that adjoining the harbour, the town was 
walled in, and on that side military security was afforded by the 




40 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



garrison with its castle, blockhouses, and fortified wall. Till the first 
instalment of the town's wall was removed to make room for the first 
dock, no idea was ever entertained of extending- the town beyond its 
fortifications. The wealthiest families of the town then lived in. High 

Street, and the merchants had 
warehouses and offices behind 
their private residences, run- 
ning 1 down to the river side. 
Grand old mansions many of 
the High Street houses were. 
Although some have been 
removed to make way for 
more modern and convenient 
structures, still many of the 
old houses remain. The street 
is about half-a-mile in lengtn, 
following 1 the winding" course 
of the harbour which it ad- 
joins. It is in most parts so nar- 
row that two vehicles can 
barely pass each other. With 
only two or three exceptions 
the building-s come close upon 
the footpath, where the street 
is wide enough to afford one, 
and where no footpath exists 
the houses are close to the 
road. Examples of almost 
every style of domestic archi- 
tecture from the beginning 1 
of the fourteenth century to 
the close of the eighteenth 
may be found in this street. 
The houses are now almost 
all let off for offices, but many 
traces of their former splendour 
remain. The marble floors, noble staircases, wainscoted and frescoed 
walls, carved mantels, and elaborately stuccoed ceilings, testify to the 
wealth and taste of their former occupants. 

One of the quaintest structures now standing in High Street is 
the ancient timber and brick building formerly the King's Head Inn, 
and now occupied partly as offices and partly as tenements. It 
must at one time have been the principal hostelry in the town. 
Tradition asserts that some of the ancient monarchs of England stayed 
there when visiting Hull. It was considered a grand hotel when 
Taylor, the water -poet, visited the town in 1 622. He took up his 
abode there. The landlord then was one George Pease, and Taylor 




Portrait of Sir John Hotham. 



HULL IN THE PAST. 



41 



in the poem in which he describes his experiences in Hull'- A Very 
Merrie Wherrie Ferrey Voyage ; or, Yorke for My Monie," says- 
Thanks to my loving host and hostess Pease, 
There at mine inne, each night I tooke mine ease ; 
And there I get a cantle of Hull cheese. 

In a footnote the poet tells us that i; Huh 1 cheese is much like a loafe 
out of a brewer's basket ; it is composed of two simples, mault and -water 
in one compound, and is cousin germane to the mightiest ale in England." 
At that time Hull was celebrated for the manufacture of excellent ale. 
Ray quotes the proverb, "You have eaten some Hull cheese," as an 
equivalent to an accusation of drunkenness. It was then customary for 
the Corporation, from time to time during the sitting of Parliament, to 
send to its representatives a present of one or two barrels of the far- 
famed Hull ale. 

Another of the older High Street houses, taken down only a 
few months ago, was once the residence of the noble family of De la 
Pole. It was 5 a long, two-storied, quaint, old building. Its front was 
ornamented with curious carved wooden figures. The rooms were 

v x extremely low. The whole of 

the interior arrangements pre- 
sented a marked contrast to all 
our modern ideas of household 
comfort. Yet in their day the 
De la Poles were the richest 
and most influential people hi 
Hull. We first find them at 
Ravenser, once a rival port to 
Hull, situated a short distance 
west of Spurn Point, but 
washed away more than four 
hundred years ago by the over- 
flowing tides of the Humber. 
The widow of the first Sir 
AVilliam De la Pole had married 
John Rotenheryng, a merchant, 
first of Ravenser, and after- 
wards of Hull. When Ravenser 
was beginning to decline, early 
in the fourteenth century, 
Rotenheryng and his wife, 
with the children of her late 
husband, removed to Hull. 
They occupied the old High 
Street house, of which we have 
just spoken. Here Rotenheryng 
The approach to the haven side, 




Statue of Sir William De la Pole. 

carried on his business and prospered. 



which adjoined his house, is still known as Rotenheryng Staith." 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



When he died in 1328 a shrine was erected to his memory in the Nave 
of Holy Trinity Church, and adorned with a representation of his ship, 
La Godyere. The step-son of John Botenheryng was Sir William De 
la Pole, the first Mayor of Hull (1332-5), a merchant rich enough to 
lend to Edward III. in 1338 the immense sum in those days of 18,500. 
Hereupon the King styled him " our well-beloved merchant." He 
founded, in 1350, ''near Kingston-upon-Hull," a Priory for Monks of 
the Carthusian Order. Its site has long been absorbed in one of the 
most densely populated parts of the town. Sir William De la Pole died 
in 1366, and was buried in the Choir of Holy Trinity Church, where a 
shrine, containing the effigies of a knight and a lady, is still pointed out 
as the monument of him and his wife. His son, Sir Michael De la Pole, 
completed the Carthusian Priory, founded by his father, and himself 
established a Hospital or Maison Dieu, on an adjoining plot of land, 
which now affords a refuge for about seventy poor and aged people, 
and is known as the Charter House. The yearly income from the pro 
perty belonging to this hospital is about 2,500. Sir Michael also built 
the stately and extensive Manor House of Hull, with its fine and lofty 
tower. This palatial residence, with its grounds, covered over nine 
acres of land, and its frontage occupied nearly the whole of the west 
side of Lowgate. It was afterwards a royal residence for Henry VIII. 
During the Civil Wars of Charles I. it was a magazine of ammunition, 
and nearly 200 years ago it was taken down. The present Town Hall 
stands upon a portion of its site. Sir Michael 
de la Pole was made Lord Chancellor in 
1382. Three years later he was created 
Earl of Suffolk. But fickle is the favour of 
kings. The following year he was impeached, 
and in 1389 he died in Paris, an exile and an 
outlaw. The Earldom was restored to his 
son, but his grandson, another Sir William 
de la Pole, after receiving a series of royal 
favours, was committed to the Tower, im- 
peached, and finally murdered in a boat near 
Dover Sands, at the instigation of his political 
enemies. The brother of this Sir William, Michael de la Pole, was slain 
at the Battle of Agincourt. His son, John, married Elizabeth Planta- 
genet, the sister of Edward IV. Their eldest son, also named John, was 
declared heir to the crown of England should Prince Edward die 
without heir, but was himself slain in rebellion at Stoke in 1487. A 
second son, Edmund, was beheaded on Tower Hill in 1513. A younger 
son, Richard, the last heir male of this unfortunate family, was slain in 
the Battle of Pavia in 1525. 

The De la Poles held every high office of State, including Prime 
Minister, Commander-in-Chief, Lord High Admiral, and Lord Chancellor. 
Their deeds for good and evil are written in the records of the nation. 
Their banner of gold and blue waved side by side at Agincourt with the 
banner of King Henry V. 




Seal of Merchant Adventurers 
of Hull. 






HULL IN THE PAST. 



43 



The fine old mansion, now known as the " Wilberforce Buildings," 
is the centre around which gather some of the most treasured tradi- 
tions of the history of Hull. At the beginning of the seventeenth 

century it was the resi- 
dence of John Lister, a 
wealthy and benevolent 
merchant, who repre- 
sented Hull in every 
Parliament, with only 
one exception, from 
1600 to 1640. He was 
twice Mayor of Hull, 
and in the Town Hall 
there is an interesting 
portrait of him, dressed 
in his robes of office. 
By his will he left 
money and property for 
the erection and endow- 
ment of a hospital, on 
the south side of Trinity 
Church, for twelve poor 
men and women. This 
institution was removed 
in 1869 to Park Street. 
When Charles I. visited 
Hull hi 1639, Lister was Mayor, and, at his house hi High Street, 
entertained the King, who on that occasion conferred the order of 
knighthood upon his host. Tradition still points out the room hi which 
His Majesty slept. Three years later, when Charles came to Hull 
airain, the drawbridges were raised and the gates were closed against 
him. The ill fated Sir John Hotham was then Governor of the town. 
The King commenced an unsuccessful siege. This was the beginning 
of his protracted struggle with the Parliament, so fatal to many 
thousands of the people, and, at last, fatal to himself. 

Early in the eighteenth century the mansion of the Listers passed 
by purchase into the hands of William Wilberforce, grandfather of the 
great slave-trade abolitionist, a descendant of an ancient Yorkshire 
family, formerly settled at Wilberfosse, near York, and afterwards 
merchants of Beverley. In that house the great William Wilberforce 
wa* born hi 17o9, in the same room, tradition says, in which King 
Charles had slept. When only twenty-one years old William Wilber- 
force was elected to represent his native town hi Parliament. Four 
years later he was elected one of the representatives of the county of 
York. From this tune he devoted his energies incessantly to the one 
object of his life the abolition of the negro slave trade. How suc- 
cessful his efforts were the whole world knows. He died in London, 




William Wilberforce. M.P. 



44 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

27th July, 1833, and his remains were interred in Westminster Abbey. 
The inhabitants of his native town and of the neighbourhood testified 
their respect to his memory by erecting, in 1834, at a cost of 1,250, 
a noble column, ninety feet high, surmounted by a statue, twelve feet 
high. This monument stands upon ground that is historic. It occupies 
the site of the Beverley Gate, formerly the principal entrance to the 
town. When Royalty visited Hull, the dignitaries of its ancient 
Corporation, in their gorgeous civic robes, ranged themselves at this 
gate to welcome their monarch with fulsome harangue, and, sometimes, 
with even more tangible evidence of loyalty. It was before this gate 
that Charles I. appeared when Sir John Hotham, with fear and 
trembling, told him he durst not admit him. 

The birthplace of Wilberforce is a picturesque old mansion. It is 
one of the few houses in High Street standing back from the road. A 
few years ago its present owner planted the open space between the 
house and the street with the seeds of the Siberian Cow-Parsnip 
(Heracleum giganteum), which every returning spring rapidly attains a 
height of eight to twelve feet, and bears umbels of white blossoms a 
yard or more in diameter, which add greatly to the pleasing aspect of 
the old mansion. The interior well repays examination. The walls are 
covered with old oak wainscot, grown black with age. The floor of 
the hall is laid with slabs of black and white marble. The staircase 
noble. In one of the rooms is preserved a set of old whaling instru- 
ments. The whale fishery was, fifty years ago, one of the principa 
trades of Hull. 

In a passage leading from Silver Street to Bowlalley Lane we 
have a remnant of ancient Hull, which no visitor to the town should fail 
to see. This is the "White Hart" Inn. Externally it bears an aspec 
of antiquity. On entering our attention is drawn to the ponderous door 
and to the fine massive staircase. After ascending the stairs we ai 
ushered into a splendid old room " The Plotting Chamber." Its wall 
are wainscoted, and are now almost black with age. The mantelpie 
is elaborately carved. A little to the right of this is a secret door, not 
noticeable from the rest of the oak wainscot when closed. Behind tlu 
door a narrow passage leads into another room, whence access can 
gained to a second flight of steps, down which we may descend to the 
other end of the house and leave this old inn by a different door from 
that through which we entered. How many and what kind of plots 
have been formed in this chamber we have no means of knowing, but, 
no doubt, it has more than once afforded facilities for the transaction of 
strange business, whether licit or illicit. 

The most interesting object in Hull to the antiquary or the 
architect is the magnificent church of Holy Trinity, with one exception 
the largest parish church in England. It is cruciform in shape, with a 
fine lofty tower, rising to a height of 150 feet at the intersection. The 
chancel and transepts are in the Decorated style, whilst the nave and 
tower are Perpendicular. Its entire length from east to_ west is 27$ 



GRAMMAR SCHOOL, HULL 




HULL IX THE PAST. 45 

feet, and its width is 96 feet. The church probably occupies the site 
of the ancient chapel of My ton. which was destroyed by the monks of 
the neighbouring abbey of Means before the year 1204. One John 
Helward founded the Church of Holy Trinity In 1285. The transepts, 
which, with the chancel, are built of brick, are the oldest portions of the 
present structure. Tog-ether they constitute, it is said, the earliest 
specimen of post-Roman brickwork in England. The chancel is remark- 
able for its light proportions. The shafts upon which the clerestory 
walls rest are unusually slender, and rise to a great height. The east 
window is of seven lights, and the tracery in the upper portion is 
extremely beautiful. It was filled in 1834 with stained glass, repre- 
senting the Apostles, with the Saviour in the centre. Below are figures, 
from the designs of Sir Joshua Reynolds, representing the cardinal 
virtues. In the chancel there are many memorials of the departed. 
Some of these are extremely interesting on account of the light they 
throw upon family and local history. A number of other monuments 
have been removed from their original places and deposited in the 
crypt. A few years ago the centre of the chancel was raised, 
ostensibly that it might be more cathedral-like. The consequent loss 
to the architectural beauty of the structure has been great. The nave, 
which, with the tower, is built of stone, is as fine a specimen of the 
Perpendicular style as is the chancel of the Decorated. The noble west 
window is of nine lights, and was filled with stained glass by Hardman 
in 1862. The entire fabric has recently undergone thorough restora- 
tion, under the superintendence of the late Sir Gilbert Scott, at a cost 
of about .33,000. The south transept contains a fine organ, built by 
Foster and Andrews, of Hull, which cost nearly 2,000. The beautiful 
pulpit of Caen stone, the splendid lectern, and the ancient font of 
Purbeck marble, with its curious devices, should be noticed by every 
visitor. The nave will accommodate about 2,000 persons, and the 
chancel is stalled to seat about 200. The tower contains a peal of 
eight bells, the tenor weighing 21 cwt. From the summit fine views 
of the whole town and the neighbouring country, of the mighty Humber, 
from its formation by the union of the Trent and the Ouse to where, 
twenty miles away, it becomes lost in the sea, and of the adjacent 
parts of Lincolnshire, may be gamed on a clear day. 

Of almost equal antiquity is the church hi Lowgate, dedicated to 
>t. Mary. It was erected early in the fourteenth century. Formerly 
it was a large cruciform structure, with a tower at the intersection. 
In 1518 the nave fell to the ground. Twenty years later Henry VIII. 
caused the tower to be removed, because, it is said, it obstructed the 
view from his Manor House. The materials were used, there is every 
reason to believe, in the erection of the castle and blockhouses which 
were then being built on the east side of the haven. A portion only of 
the original chancel of St. Mary's Church was left standing-. This is 
now the western half of the church. About the year 1588 three bays 
were added at the east end. In 1697 a new tower was built. A few 



46 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

years ago the whole church was restored by the late Sir Gilbert Scott 
and the south aisle was added. St. Mary's is particularly rich 
stained glass windows, all of which, however, are modern. It contains 
a fine organ originally built by Snetzler in 1715, but recently restored 
by Messrs. Foster and Andrews. 

The ancient Guild of the Trinity House was first established in the 
year 1369. It was incorporated by charter by Henry VI. in 1442. 
It consists of twelve Elder Brethren and an unlimited number of 
Younger Brethren. Its income at the present time must be immense. 
It owns and maintains the lighthouses and lightships which guide the 
navigators of the Humber. The Trinity House is located at the corner 
of Trinity House Lane and Postern Gate. The present building was 
erected in 1753, and is in the Tuscan style of architecture. Besides 
offices for the transaction of business, it includes thirty rooms for the 
widows of Master Mariners and Younger Brethren, housekeeper's 
rooms, dining and council rooms, reading room, museum, and chapel. 
The Trinity House is rich in ancient plate, and contains many fine 
historical paintings and portraits. This Corporation possesses and sup- 
ports a Marine School, founded in 1785, where 140 boys are clothed 
and receive a very superior nautical education, free of charge. The 
schoolrooms are reached through a fine Doric gateway in Prince's Dock 
Street. 

In addition to the hospital accommodation afforded by the House 
itself, the Guild possesses three other hospitals. The first of these was 
erected in Postern Gate, in 1826, on a site adjoining the Trinity House. 
The second is situated in Ocean Place, Anlaby Road, and was erected 
in 1834. It is a commodious building, and consists of a centre and two 
wings. The entrance is beneath an imposing pediment, supported by 
columns. The third is a fine Elizabethan pile, on the Beverley Road, 
originally " The Kingston College," but purchased by the Corporation 
of the Trinity House in 1851, and converted into a hospital. These 
several hospitals are adapted to accommodate 340 Master Mariners and 
Seamen, as well as their wives and widows. 

In walking along the Market Place, the first object we notice is 
the gilded equestrian statue of William III., erected by the burgesses 
of Hull in 1734, who styled that monarch "our great deliverer." A 
few steps further, and we gain an excellent view of the east end and of 
the tower of the magnificent church of Holy Trinity. Turning down 
the street on its south side we come upon the old Grammar School, 
founded in 1486, by John Alcocke, Bishop successively of Rochester, 
Worcester, and Ely, and the son and grandson of Hull merchants. 
Here many of the great and good men of Hull have received their first 
education. Here the father of Andrew Marvell the " Reverend " 
Andrew Marvel was master, and an inscription in Greek over the 
master's seat is ascribed to him. The present building dates from the 
year 1583, and was erected chiefly by one AA 7 illiam Gee, a benevolent 
merchant and Mayor of Hull. It has been disused for about two years, 



HULL IN THE PAST. *f 

and, we understand, is doomed ere long- to be taken down. Returning 
to the Market Place we pass the east end of Trinity Church, and just 
casting a glance at the White Horse Yard the site of a grand hotel, 
'once the property of the De la Poles and passing the new and elegant 
General Post Office, we arrive at the corner of Scale Lane on our right, 
named from a family of Hull merchants settled here as early as the 
close of the thirteenth century. Still proceeding northwards we enter 




Market Place. 

Lowgate, and presently arrive at the corner of Bishop Lane on our 
right, and of Bowlalley Lane on our left. The former reminds us 
of the residence here 'of the suffragan Bishops of Hull, the last of 
whom was Robert Pursglove, who died in 1579, and was buried in 
the beautiful church of his native village, Tideswell, in Derbyshire. 
At the corner of Bowlalley Lane stands the Exchange, a fine building 
in the Italian style, which was opened in 1861. A little further on 
our right stands St. Mary's Church, and still further on our left the 
Town Hall. 

J. R. BOYLE. 



48 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

HATFIELD CHACE. 

THE Level of Hatfield Chace, is a large tract of country lying- to 
the East or North-East of Doncaster, and reaching as far as the Isle of 
Axholme in Lincolnshire. It was formerly one of the Royal Chaces, 
and according to one authority,* was the greatest chace of red deer 
that the Kings of England possessed, extending over about one hundred 
and eighty thousand acres. The Chace takes its name from Hatfield, a 
small town, but large parish, situate on the level about seven miles from 
Doncaster. 

The Manor of Hatfield was part of the great Warren fee, and 
continued in the Warren family for iany generations, but it afterwards 
became the property of the Crown, and remained so until, as we shall 
see later, it was disposed of by Charles I. 

The physical geography of Hatfield Chace is easily deduced from 
the use of the word " level " in its description, but it had many 
interesting physical features, beyond being part of a great plain or 
level. The Rivers Trent, Ouse, Don, Torne, Idle, and Aire, all carried 
their waters by way of the level of Hatfield Chace down to the estuary 
of the Humber. It will be readily understood from this that the level 
would be a very watery place, receiving the greater part of the rainfall 
of such a large tract of country as these various rivers represent. To 
ease the rivers from the pressure of the waters, dykes were constructed, 
which no doubt gave rise to the names generally found in old maps, 
"By-carrs Dyke/' "Mere Dyke," "HokDyke," and others The old 
river Idle, before it was altered by the drainage of the district, tended 
greatly to inundate the levels. The Don, however, was the river 
which did most towards keeping up the moist state of the levels. It 
rises in the hills about Peniston and flowing past Sheffield and 
Rotherham to Doncaster, and on from thence to the levels, it receives 
the tributary streams Rother, Dearne, and, near Cowick, the Went. 
At Stainforth the Don formerly divided into three arms or branches, the 
most important of which flowed past Fishlake, Hangman's Hill (a mile 
from Thorne), to Turn-bridge, between Snaith and Rawcliffe, where it 
joined the Aire. Another branch passed close by Thorne, and the third 
flowed south of that town, past Tudworth. The two lesser arms of the 
Don united about three miles beyond Tudworth, and then flowed past 
Crowle, Eastoft, Holdenby, and Fockerby to the Trent at Adlingfleet 

Of the whole Chace of Hatfield about 70,000 acres were constantly 
inundated, and large tracts of boggy ground were frequently to be 
met with. In the parish of Hatfield was a large morass, about fifteen 
miles in circumference, called Hatfield Waste. In the centre of this 
great morass there was about sixty acres of firm ground, and a farm 
house stood upon it. This was called Lindholme, and the story goes 
that formerly there dwelt there a William de Lindholme, who was 

'Stovin. 



HATF1ELD CHACK. 49 

known as the Hermit of Lindholme, of whom many remarkable stories 
were related. His wonderful exploits began in his boyhood. The 
tradition runs : On one occasion his parents haying gone to the feast 
at Wroot, left William at home to keep the sparrows from the corn. He 
soon tired of this task, and followed his parents to Wroot. When his 
father commenced to scold him for neglect of duty, he replied that he 
had shut up all the sparrows in a barn ; and so they were found, a large 
proportion of them being dead, and the survivors had turned white with 
fright. There has long been a proverb hi the locality " There are no 
sparrows at Lindholme." * Tradition also says that the Hermit of 
Lindholme made for himself a grave under the floor of his cell, and 
provided a large stone to cover it, which he propped up obliquely. 
When death approached the hermit laid himself down in the hole, and 
with a string pulled the great tombstone over his grave, thus becoming 
his own sexton. 

Hatfield and the district wa* the scene of many important events 
in English History before the Xorman Conquest. First the Angles, 
then the Danes made their way up the Humber hi boats, on those 
piratical excursions which attracted them to Britain, and this district 
lying so contiguous, suffered severely from the ravages of the sea 
pirates. 

It was after the greater part of England had passed to Saxon or 
Anglian rulers that the first important event occurred at Hatfield. The 
young King of Deira. Edwin, had been deprived of his kingdom by 
Ethelrick, King of Xorthiimbria, who died and left both kingdoms to 
M Edelfrid, who was determined to keep what his father had 
acquired. Edwin had to seek protection from the hatred of Edelfrid, 
with Redwald, King of the East Angles. Edelfrid tried by plots and 
bribes to procure through Redwald the death of Edwin, but without 
avail, and at last war was declared between the two Kings. Redwald 
did not wait for Edelfrid to attack him, but, getting his army together 
marched into Deira, and meeting the opposing army on the East side of 
the river Idle, probably at Retford, a great battle ensued, Edelfrid was 
slain, and all his forces routed. Edwin behaved with great courage, 
and accompanied by Redwald and the victorious army marched into the 
kingdom of Xorthumbria, and was proclaimed King of Deira and 
Northumbria. He became the greatest king of his tune, and, after 
embracing the Christian religion, he founded the See of York, and built 
there a church of timber, which was dedicated to St. Peter the Apostle. 

The reign of King Edwin was peaceful and prosperous, and his 
subjects held him in great respect. After he had reigned thus for 
seventeen years, Penda, King of the Mercians, jealous of his greatness 
and prosperity, opened war against him, and brought Cadwalla, King 
of the Welsh, to help him. After burning, killing, and destroying 

* Tomlinson's Hatfield Chace. Note on page 229. 



50 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

everything- in their path in King- Edwin's dominions, they came to 
Doncaster. King- Edwin was at this time at his Royal Seat at Hatfield, 
a residence which probably stood where the Manor House of Hatfield 
now stands, but of the size and character of this ancient Royal Mansion 
no certain information exists. Leland describes the Mansion which 
existed in his time as being- " meanely builded of tymber," but gives no 
other particulars, and this statement must be accepted with caution. 
Stone or brick houses were rare even in Leland's time, and the old 
Royal Palace was most probably "builded of tymber," but not 
" meanely." It may be that the original palace of Edwin was then 
standing, but in a ruinous condition, which may account for Leland's 
description of it, he would pass it by with a glance, and describe it as 
" meanely builded of tymber." Another authority, William of 
Winchester, mentions a chapel and a priest to minister therein, as being 
in the palace of Hatfield, and as we shall see later there are other 
evidences that this Royal residence was not a mean place. 

When Edwin heard of the approach of the hostile army, for the 
forces of Penda and Cadwalla were united, and formed one great army, 
he gathered together all the men he could muster from the country 
round about, to meet the enemy. The men came forward willingly to 
fight for so great a king, and a numerous force was raised. De La 
Pryme in his MS. says : "And all the country being in arms, they 
flock'd under the standard of so great and so good a king in great 
numbers, and pitched their camp upon ye great heath on ye west side 
of ye town, that then spread itself as far as ye river Don, which heath 
is called ye Linggs, by this town of Hatfield." Edwin seems to have 
taken great precautions for the safety of his army, raised with so much 
haste. He lined the woods from his camp almost to Doncaster, with 
his archers, thinking to hedge in the enemy. On the llth of October 
the spies brought word that the enemy had reached Doncaster, and, 
finding that most of the inhabitants had fled to the camp of Edwin, they 
had put to the sword " old and young, man, woman, and child, that 
they found therein." Upon hearing this Edwin harangued his soldiers, 
encouraging them by saying that it was probable the heat of the enemy 
had spent itself, that they were satisfied with the spoil they had taken 
from the towns they had sacked ; yet, he said, they were bound to fight 
to the last man, because there was no hope of escape, the waters 
keeping them in on the North, East, and South, and the enemy being 
before them on the West, therefore this was the time for them to show 
their manhood and valour, yet, as no man ought to trust in his own 
prowess, he intreated them to put their trust in the only true, great, and 
mighty God, whose religion they had so lately espoused, for to him 
belonged all victory, glory, and honour. As soon as Edwin had finished 
his speech there came a spy with the tidings than the vanguard of the 
enemy had advanced beyond Doncaster, but that the remainder lodged 
there for the night. Prom this Edwin concluded that the enemy meant 
to attack him, and sent messengers over the river Don to the North, to 



HATFIELD CHACE. 



51 



hasten some reinforcements ; these marched all night, and joined the 
king next morning. 

On the morning 1 of the 12th of October, the whole of the enemy's 
force advanced, and it was so numerous that it reached from one side of 
the heath, on which Edwin's army was encamped, to the other. The 
archers who had been planted to hem in the army of Penda and 
Cadwalla, and if possible to gall them in the flank, were forced to 
retreat before this great force. 

Edwin's army was commanded by himself, and his son Osfrid, " a 
valiant and courageous young man " ; and by several great lords and 
nobles expert in war, The enemy's army was commanded by the two 
kings, Penda and Cadwalla, and their great captains. 

The two armies were within sight of each other by noon, on the 
Linggs, which became the battle-field. The forces drew up in battle 
array, the trumpets sounded the charges, and the battle raged furiously. 
De La Pryme says, " As soon as all had drawn their forces up, ye 
trumpets gave ye charge, and together they went with ye greatest 
fury imaginable ; after that ye archers had spent their fury on both 
sides, they came to a close fight with their axes and seaxes, so thick 
that there was nothing but confusion and hurry from this world into 
the next."* Osfrid, the son of Edwin, received his death wound when 
the battle was at its hottest, as did many noble lords and courtiers. 
The battle raged with great force until almost sunset, " neither side 
being used to anything but victory." King Edwin's army was then 
overpowered, and he himself, surrounded on all sides by the enemy, 
laid about him like a raging lion, and was slain upon the spot. It was 
a bloody fight. But what followed was even more cruel. The enemy, 
as soon as they perceived themselves to be the conquerors, set upon the 
town of Hatfield, murdered every man, woman, and child that they 
found therein, pillaged the church, the king's palace, and every house 
in the town ; after this they set the place on fire, and it was burnt to 
the ground, the only thing which is recorded as having escaped, being 
the altar of the church, which, being of stone, resisted the fire. 

The record says that the slain amounted to over 10,000, and that 
the body of King Edwin was found next day covered with dirt and 
blood, and that the head was cut off and sent to some of his nobles at 
York, who buried it in St. Peter's Church which was then being built. 
The body of Edwin and of his son Osfrid, together with the other noble 
victims of the cruel battle, are said to have been buried in a great hole 
all together, and a mound of earth raised over them, called Sley-burr- 
hill, i.e, the hill where the slain were buried. Edwin's widowed queen, 
with her son and daughter, returned to her home in Kent, and from 
this time Hatfield ceased to be one of the Koyal residences. Bede 
dates this battle and the death of Edwin, A.D. 633. 

* Tomlinson's Hatfield Chace, page 33. 



52 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

As the Saxons had displaced the earlier inhabitants of Britain, so 
were they in their turn plundered, and in part conquered by a hardy 
race of Northmen, the Danes. In their quest for plunder the 
" Viking's " were more sanguinary and cruel than the earlier invaders 
of Britain had been. These pirates usually made the Humber the 
centre of their operations, and, as Hatfield was within easy distance 
thereof, the levels suffered sometimes severely from their ravages. In 
the year A.D. 867, a great fleet of Danish ships arrived in the Humber, 
which put the whole of the district in great fear. The Danes ruined 
and destroyed all before them, and marched to York, which city they 
captured, and laid hands upon the whole kingdom of Northunibria. 
The next year, 868, the Danes marched southward from their ships, 
which were moored in the Humber, and they burned, murdered, and 
plundered wherever they went. The people of Hatfield fled into the 
moors and fastnesses about the town to save themselves, taking- with 
them the best of their goods, and hiding the rest, The Danes seized 
all they could find, plundered the church, burnt and left the town in 
ashes. These incursions were repeated again and again up to the time 
of the Norman conquest. The last visit was in 1069, when Swain, 
King of Denmark, with a large navy came into the Humber, from 
whence detachments of his fleet were sent up the rivers Ouse, Don, and 
Trent, which destroyed and plundered on all sides, but although the 
people of Hatfield were in great trouble, for fear of the Danes, the 
town was left unmolested, those parts of the levels however, which 
* lay near to the rivers, suffered severely. 

After the Norman Conquest of England, William, in making 
awards to his nobles, granted the fee of Conisborough to AVilliam cle 
Warren, a Norman Earl, who was afterwards created Earl of Surrey, 
and who married Gundreda, daughter of William the Conqueror. 
This fee of Conisborough comprehended twenty manors, including those 
comprised within the level of Hatfield Chace. At this time meres 
abounded in the district of Hatfield, and the fisheries formed an im- 
portant part of the industry of the inhabitants. To the right and left 
of the town of Hatfield, in the direction of Tudworth, Thorne, and 
Fishlake, these fisheries were numerous. Within a radius of three 
miles there were about twenty fisheries, each computed to yield 
annually about a thousand eels. These eels were conveyed to the 
Priory of Lewes, in Sussex, founded by William de Warren. At a 
later date the Warrens granted to the Abbey of Roche, or as it was 
spelt Roupe then, a tenth part of the product of all his eel fisheries in the 
parishes of Hatfield, Thorne, and Fishlake, which had formerly been 
given to the Priory of Lewes. 

It is conjectured, and with great probability, that the de Warrens 
erected a mansion or residence of some kind at Hatfield, or that they 
rebuilt the original Royal Palace, as a place of residence for them- 
selves, when enjoying the ample sport provided for them on the 
Chace of Hatfield, and also for the numerous retainers, such as keepers 
of the game, &c 



HATFIELD CHACE. 53 

From the Norman Conquest to the time of Edward III., Hatfield 
either enjoyed peace and quiet, or, the records of its troubles have not 
been preserved. Mr. Tomlinson thinks that it was the quietness of 
desolation that had fallen upon Hatfield. 

When the Chace of Hatfield first became recognised as a place 
where good sport could be had, seems very doubtful. The Kings of 
Deira, and afterwards of Xorthumbria, would probably hunt in this 
district, when, as in the case of Edwin, they wera staying at the Royal 
Palace of Hatfield. But I do not think it probable that any defined 
tract of country was set apart at that tune as a Royal Chace, and 
known as such. After the Conquest, however, the Chace would prob- 
ably have its limits defined, and a regular staff of servants appointed 
to look after the game. During the reign of Edward I. (1272-1307) a 
complaint was made that the deer had strayed from Hatfield Chace to 
Brampton Park, and that the keepers there enticed them in, and kept 
them there, to the great injury of the king's sport.* The boundaries 
of the Chace were perambulated in the reigns of Henry VI 1 1., 
(1509-1547); Elizabeth. (1559-1603); and James I., (1603-1625); but 
the boundary marks had been set up long before the earliest of these 
date*. Mr. Tomlinson gives the details of the boundaries on pages 60, 
51, and 62, of his History of the Chace, but it is too lengthy to 
reproduce here. Altogether about 70,000 acres, of the total, 180,000, 
in the Manor of Hatfield, were set apart for the chace. Hunter, in his 
History of South Yorkshire, sums up the boundaries thus : The old 

-till existing, called God's-cross, which stands about half a mile 
from the village of Wroot, is a mere-stone of the Chace on the side 
towards the Isle of Axholnie. From thence the boundary passed nearly 
in a straight line to Bramwith on the Don, skirting the parishes of 
Cantley, Armthorpe, Sandal, and Barnby. A small piece of Bramwith 
north of the Don, appears to have been included ; but generally the 
course of the river between Bramwith and Stainforth was the northern 
boundary of the Chace. But at Staiuforth the boundary left the Don, 
and ascended to the west by a line which now forms the division of the 
Parishes of of Campsal and Fishlake, and of the Wapantakes of Osgod- 
and Strafford. The Went then became its boundary until its 
junction with the Don. From this point the perambulators were 
accustomed to proceed over a singularly unmarked and uninteresting 
tract, keeping the church of Burton-Statner, in Lincolnshire, in view, as 
far as the beginning of Eastoft-Moor-dyke. From thence by Blackwater 
to the old Don, which formed the boundary- as far as Darkness Crook ; 
and so by the Idle to the cross from whence they began." 

Although the exact bounds, encircling about 70,000 acres, were 
thus minutely circumscribed, the regarders of Hatfield Chace claimed a 
much wider range for the royal deer to ''run and to leap," and they 
were still to be accounted under the supervision of the royal keepers, 
when outside the specified boundaries. 

* Tomlinson's Hatrield Chace, p. 59. 



54 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

The Chace of Hatfield had its permanent staff of officers, the head 
of whom was Chief Justice in Eyre, north of the Trent ; there was 
also a " Master of the game," and a numerous staff of keepers. The 
chief officer of the Chace was called the King's Surveyor General. The 
names of these officers between the acquisition of the Manor by the 
Crown and the year 1509, are missing, but in that year Henry VIII. 
appointed Thomas, Lord D'arcy to the office. The same King appointed 
Frances Earl of Shrewsbury to the office, and George, Earl of Shrew- 
bury, enjoyed the office in Queen Elizabeth's reign. Then succeeded 
Gilbert, Edward, and George, all Earls of Shrewsbury, during the 
reigns of James I. and Charles , I., when the Manor passed to 
Vermuyden. 

Only scanty information exists respecting the other officers of 

the Chace. The King's bowbearer, the master keeper, the regarders, 

and no doubt a large number of under keepers, formed the staff. The 

bowbearer ranked next to the Surveyor-General, and received his name 

from one of the duties of his office, which was to attend on the King, 

when he came here to hunt, with the King's bow. When his majesty 

thought fit to have a shot at the game, the bowbearer gave him the bow, 

receiving it back again immediately the shot had been made. The 

bowbearer had his residence at Streetthorpe, in the parish of Sandal. 

The last bowbearer was Sir "Robert Swift, a right merry gentleman, 

who resided most of his time at Doncaster and Streetthorpe. He was 

High Sheriff under Queen Elizabeth, (who called him her bold cavalier), 

and again under James I., by whom he was knighted, and who granted 

him the Manor of Armthorpe, and made him his bowbearer in Hatfield 

Chace. He greatly improved the mansion of Streetthorpe, and planted 

there a number of yew-trees, for the purpose of supplying bows, but 

these have since been cut down. The title of " Cavalier" did not sit 

lightly upon him, for his life was a series of swash-buckler adventures. 

He had several fights with his brother-in-law, Kingston, a noted man of 

valour, and of course there was a lady in the case. He also appears 

to have fallen foul of the Corporation of Doncaster, for there appears 

on their records, under the date 6th June, 1615, the following : " Upon 

Mr. Mayor's information that yesterday Sir Robert Swift, knight, did 

assault him in his own Court with many disgraceful words, which 

tended not only to the injury and disgrace of the said Mayor but also 

to the whole Corporation ; therefore it is agreed upon that Mr. Mayor 

shall cause an information to be exhibited against him in the Star 

Chamber, .and also to complain of the said injuries to his Majesty 

(James I.), and his honourable Privy Council, if counsel shall advise 

thereunto." De La Pryme tells an amusing story of Swift, adding that 

the people of Hatfield had many traditional stories of this ingenious 

witty and merry gentleman. A man from Cantley called Slack w;is 

discovered stealing one of the King's deer, and apprehended, Swift 

finding that Slack had been a constant transgressor, set oft* with him to 

York where the Assizes were then being held, all the other prisoners 



HATFIELD CHACE. 55 

charged with the same offence having already been sent from Thome 
Castle to York. Night coming on they were compelled to take lodg- 
ings by the way. The house where they stayed produced such good 
ale, and Slack told Sir Robert so many merry tales, that between 
laughter and ale Sir Robert became dead drunk. Perceiving this, 
Slack, who must have been a wag, took a piece of paper and wrote on 
it : 

'To every creature God has given a gift, 
Sometimes ye Slack does over-runs ye Sioift." 

After putting the slip of paper into Sir Robert's pocket, (where he 
found it by chance next morning), Slack very coolly walked away, and 
was not heard of again for a long time. 

Deer abounded in Hatfield Chace. So numerous were they that 
the people complained bitterly of their incursions upon the haystacks, 
and growing crops. The evil was so great that watches were set night 
and day in the fields to keep the deer off the crops. These watches 
were provided with horns which they sounded when any deer were in 
sight, and then set dogs to drive them away. It was a common thing 
for the deer to destroy the whole of a farmer's crops, and many farmers 
refrained from sowing their lands on account of the deer. With such 
abundance of deer it could only be expected that there would be 
abundance of poaching, or, as De La Pryrne puts it : " you cannot con- 
ceive but that there would be some people that would venture to make 
bold to taste now and then of ye King's dainty's." The tricks and 
dodges of these bold persons, when they were minded to taste of the 
royal dainties, were numerous and amusing. When one of them 
happened to find a young kid to which he took a fancy for garnishing 
his dinner table, he cut its " cleas "* so close, that the animal could not 
for pain get away. At nighi the poacher would take the kid to some 
unfrequented place, where its dam attracted by its cries, would come 
and suckle it, until it was " as fatt as brawn." Then on a dark night 
the poacher who pared the kids claws, and his friends, would cut the 
animal's throat and carry it away. At that time venison was no great 
rarity in the poor man's kitchen. If the deer-stealer was caught it was 
bad for him. A castle at Thome, which is supposed to have been at 
one time a hunting seat, similar but smaller, to the De Warren's 
mansion at Hatfield, was afterwards used as a prison for deer-stealers. 
It may be that this change took place at the time the manor passed to 
the crown, or soon after. The building stood on a mound or hillock 
at the back of the church. This little castle was moated,, and stood 
high and dry during the highest floods caused by the inundations of the 
rivers. Here the offenders were incarcerated until freed according to 
law, and I have already mentioned that during the time that Sir Robert 
Swift was Bowbearer of the Chace, the offenders were removed from 

* Claws. HalliweU's Archaic and Provincial Dictionary has "Glees/* p. 254, 
Cleas is probably a mis-spelling in De La Prymea M.S. 



56 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Thorne Castle, or Peel as it was often called, to York, for to be tried 
at the Assizes. 

Besides deer, wild fowl were very plentiful in the Chace. This is 
only what would be looked for in a district so liberally supplied with 
rivers and lakes, which afforded them plenty of secluded breeding and 
feeding- ground. 

During 1 the last century flocks of wild-geese and ducks were very 
common. Swans too, abounded, and were very carefully preserved, as 
proved by various items contained in the manor-rolls of Hatfield. The 
old arms of the Don, and the extensive tracts of water gave them great 
encouragement. The swans belonging to the King were looked after 
by the royal swaniners, and six statutes were ordained by the Court of 
Swainmote, held at Hatfield, for the better protection of the royal 
swans, and to prevent thefts. 

The statutes provided for the proper marking of all swans belong- 
ing to private individuals, which marking had to be performed in the 
presence of the Master of the King's game of Swans, or his deputy, 
under a penalty of ten pounds to be forfeited to the King. The 
penalty for an infringment of any one of the six statutes was the same, 
ten pounds. The sixth of these statutes was a very right and a proper 
enactment : " 6. Item, it is ordained, that if any person or persons 
willingly put any swans from their nests whensoever they breed, or 
take up, destroy, or bear away the eggs of such swans, they shall 
forfeit to the King ten pounds." Swans were marked on the beak. 
The royal swans had five nicks, three marks, crossed by two length- 
wise. 

Hatfield, from the time of the Conquest to the Civil War, was 
frequently the scene of some gay hunting party. Until the commence- 
ment of the reign of Edward III., little mention is made of Hatfield 
after the Conquest. It is very likely the De Warrens visited the place 
at intervals for the purpose of hunting, residing at the mansion of 
Hatfield or the Castle of Thorne ; but nothing of historical importance 
occurred, beyond an occasional raid from the disaffected residents of 
the Isle of Axholme. 

That the mansion of Hatfield in the time of Edward III. was not 
a mean place as Leland describes it later, is proved almost beyond a 
doubt. Edward was carrying on the war with Scotland, and in the 
spring of 1335, he set out with his Consort, Queen Phillipa, to join his 
armies in the north, on their third campaign. During this campaign 
Phillipa, finding herself in an interesting condition, desired to return by 
easy marches to London. Accompanied by a large retinue she set out, 
and had got as far as Doncaster, when she fell sick. She now 
abandoned the journey to London, and was taken instead to the nearest 
royal palace at Hatfield. Here she remained for several months in a 
sick and weakly condition, and here, in the winter of 133G the young 
prince, William De Hatfield was born. The prince only lived a few 
weeks, and was buried with great solemnity in York Minster. The 



HATFIELD CHACE. 57 

Queen gave to the Abbot of Roche, five marks a year, to pray for the 
soul of her son. The accounts of the funeral expenses of this prince 
,are thus given in the Wardrobe Book of Edward III. " Paid for 
different masses about the body of lord William, son to the King-, 
deceased ; likewise for the purchase of three hundred and ninety- 
three pounds of wax, burnt round the prince's corpse at Hatfield, 
Pomfret, and York, when he was buried; and for three cloths of 
gold diapered, to be placed over the said corpse and tomb, also for a 
hood for the face, and for webs, linen, and hearses, March 3rd, 9th year 
of Edward III., -42 11s. Hd." " Paid for alms given by the King for 
the soul of his son William, divided between Hatfield and York, 
masses at Pomfret and York, and for widows watching round the said 
corpse, and burial service, 99 3s. 5d."* At the suspension of opera- 
tions in Scotland on account of the winter, Edward III. joined the 
Queen at Hatfield, and, after spending a few days in the Chace, they 
all departed for London, where they arrived about the end of November, 
the Queen having by this time almost recovered. 

In the year 1536 the tramp of armed men, and the rattle of 
swords again resounded throug-h the level of Hatfield Chace. A great 
rebellion had arisen in the north against the King, (Henry VIII.) for 
having pulled down the religious houses. The insurgents were about 
50,000 strong and had advanced from the north to Doncaster, where 
they were met by the King's army, commanded by the Duke of 
Norfolk, the Earl of Shrewsbury, the Earl of Huntingdon, the Earl 
of Rutland, and the Marquis of Exeter. These commanders sent a 
large force to Hatfield, Stainforth and other places, to keep the fords 
and passages of the Don, to prevent the enemy from crossing that 
river. The commanders of the King's army made overtures of peace 
to the rebels, and gave them promise of protection for their rebellious 
acts, if they would return home, lay down their arms, and become 
loyal to the King. But the rebels answered that they came out to 
fight, and fight they would ; and the next day was appointed for the 
battle. During the night, however, so much rain fell, that on the 
following day the river Don was swollen so high that the bridge at 
Doncaster was overflowed so that the armies could not get near each 
other to fight. After this an agreement was come to between the 
leaders of the rival armies, and certain stipulations were drawn up, 
after which the rebels returned to their homes, from a bloodless war, 
which has been called the Pilgrimage of Grace. 

Five years after the Pilgrimage of Grace, in 1541, great prepara- 
tions were made for the entertainment of Henry VIII., who always 
took a great interest in the Royal Chace of Hatfield. He was going 
to York to meet his nephew, the King of Scotland, and proposed to 
stay at Hatfield, and hunt on the way. Sir William Fitz-William, Earl 
of Southampton, Lord Privy Seal, and Treasurer of the King's boose- 

* Strickland's Queens of England, II. 309. 



58 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

hold sent to Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury, the King's Surveyor of the 
Chace, informing him of the King's intention to hunt, and requesting 
him to secure twenty bucks and convey them to Hatfield a day or two 
before the King's arrival, in order that they might be let loose for the 
King to chace. The Earl of Shrewsbury sent answer that the number 
of bucks required should be provided, and that he would make up the 
number from the deer in his own grounds at Sheffield ; and he desired 
that the King might be moved to see his " poor house at Winfield," 
as he came through Nottinghamshire, and that he would be pleased to 
hunt hi Driffield Forest. The preparations for the King's reception 
were made with great care, but whether he visited Hatfield or not is a 
doubtful point. The King entered the precincts of the Chace at 
Bawtry, travelling probably by a route now known as the " Great 
North Road," and at this place he was met by the Earl of Shrewsbury 
and a large retinue. The course which the royal party took from this 
point is involved in considerable doubt. Hunter, says : "It is usually 
said that he turned to the right, and went through Lincolnshire to Hull, 
and, having visited York, returned to Hull. But it appears to have 
been during this progress that he dined at the house a little north of 
Doncaster, as Leland pointedly notices,* and that he held the conversa- 
tion on Barnsdale with Bishop Tunstall, which has been often mentioned. 
Hall expressly says, that he was met on his progress by the Archbishop 
on Barnsdale, and was twelve days at York. Two hundred gentlemen 
and 4,000 yeomen and serving men met him on his entrance to the 
county. These gentlemen and yeomen not only made submission to the 
King, but also made him a present of 900. The chronicler Hall, says, 
the King came to his manor-place at Hatfield, where the Court stayed 
from the 17th to the 23rd of August, and hunted every day. De La 
Pryme, says that the King, although he had at first appointed to come 
this way to York, and to hunt in the Chace, yet he changed his mind 
and went through Lincolnshire to Hull, and from thence to York, and 
returned the same way again without coming near Hatfield. 

The next royal visit recorded is one of which no doubt exists, and 
concerning which fairly accurate particulars are given, Henry, Prince 
of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester, first son of King James I., 
started from London on the 9th of July, 1609, attended by a large 
company of noblemen and gentlemen. They intended to visit York, 
but being met on the way by a company of gentlemen, many of whom 
belonged to the Chace of Hatfield, the royal party was persuaded to 
turn aside on their journey and visit Hatfield Chace, Sir Robert Swift, 
the King's bowbearer, and the other gentlemen promising them a merry 
time in the Chace. Sir Robert Swift entertained the whole party at 
Streetthorpe, in the mansion he had built there, and the Prince of Wales 

* Leland's words are : " From Doucaster to Causeby Lesys, a mile and more 
where the Rebelles of Yorkshir a lately assembled . Thens a 2 miles farther 
saw on the lifte hond an old Manor Place oaullid ...... wher 

King dynid." 



HATFIELD CHACE. 59 

slept at Streetthorpe that night. The next morning the Prince was 
eager for the Chace, and mounted on horseback they set off, and soon 
raised a stag, which kept them in chace a great while, but finally 
escaped. Another stag was soon found, and after a fine run, was 
pulled down by the dogs close to the town of Hatfield, where the Prince 
was inet by Portington, Esq., and others and Sir Henry Lee invited 
him to his house, which invitation the Prince accepted, and they feasted 
and enjoyed themselves throughout the evening. During the evening 
the chief regarder of Thorne and Mr. Portington promised that on the 
morrow they would let the Prince see such sport as he had never seen 
before, and he agreed to accompany them. The next morning the 
whole company having come to Tudworth where Mr. Portington lived, 
they embarked in nearly a hundred boats which had been provided. 
During the night a large number of deer, De La Prynie says " some 
hundreds," had been driven into the woods adjoining Tudworth, and 
these were now forced to take to the water. The royal navy of hunt- 
ing boats then started in pursuit, and soon drove the deer into the 
lower part of the levels called Thorne Mere. The deer were up to 
their necks in the water, and their antlers looked like a miniature 
forest. The little fleet surrounded them on all sides, and some of the 
party going into the water, and feeling the deer selected the fattest, 
and either at once cut their throats or drew them to land with ropes, 
and then killed them. The Prince was well pleased with the day's 
sport, and returned, with the booty, to the house of Mr. Portington, 
where he dined, but being hi haste to get to York, he returned to 
Hattield that night, and slept there, and was escorted next morning to 
Doncaster, by all the gentlemen of the country round about, where 
they took leave of him. The Prince at this time was probably only 
about seventeen years of age, and three years later he died. He was 
the last royal personage who hunted in Hatfield Chace. Could a better 
conclusion for the Royal Chace have been found than that hunt in boats 
after about five hundred deer ? 

Among the royal party on this occasion was a Dutch merchant, 
Cornelius Vermuyden, who was struck with the watery state of the 
levels, and, as we shah 1 see, he resolved to undertake the drainage 
thereof. He had probably been made acquainted with previous efforts 
in that direction. Queen Elizabeth is said to have favoured a scheme 
for the drainage of the levels, suggested by one Laverock, but no 
practical measures were taken. James I. issued a commission to six 
local gentlemen including Sir Robert Swift and Godfrey Copley, Esq., 
inquring into the condition of Hatfield Chace, and whether 'it was 
practical to drain it. These gentlemen gave it as their opinion that the 
meers and moors could not be drained. But when Vermuyden had 
visited the Chace he formed an opinion exactly contrary, and laid the 
matter before James I., and afterwards before Charles I. The latter 
King resolved to allow Yermuyden to undertake the task, but was not 
prepared to lay out any money on the undertaking, for it was perhaps 



60 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



on account of his great want of money that he was willing 1 to have 
the land drained, in the hope that it would improve his financial position. 
The agreement between the King- and Vermuyden is printed in full in 
Mr. Tomlinson's History of the Chace. The arrangement was that 
Vermuyden should, at his own cost, drain and make dry the district 
specified ; the work to be commenced within three months after the King- 
had agreed with the Commoners, and be completed within as short a 
time as possible. By way of compensation, Vermuyden was to have 
one-third of the improved lands, another third was reserved to the King 1 , 
and the remainder g-iven to the Commoners. Vermuyden was 
empowered to make what watercourses he thought necessary, the 
land set out for that purpose not to exceed 3,000 acres. He was also 
empowered to take land from private owners, wherever required for 
his work, the valuation of such land to be assessed by four Com- 
missioners, two to be appointed by the Lord Treasurer, and two by 
Vermuyden. 

After the submerged lands were reclaimed, the obligation rested 
with Vermuyden to nominate persons forming a Corporation, who 
should make rules for the future management of the property, and 
superintend its administration. Within three years after the works 
were completed, six commissioners were to be appointed, three by the 
Lord Treasurer, and three by Vermuyden, who should take a general 
oversight of the works and assess the annual expenditure for the 
maintenance thereof. To provide against Vermuyden his heirs and 
assigns making default in the repair of the works, the former was to 
convey a portion of his land to the Commissioners, the income being 
applied to the future maintenance of banks, drains, roads, &c. All 
implements or material, required for the work were to be imported free 
of duty. This agreement is dated May 24th, 1626, and the only 
parties to it were the King and Vermuyden. The undertaking, however, 
not only required a vast amount of energy and ability, but also money, 
and Vermuyden, although wealthy could not find all the capital needed, 
so he entered into an arrangement with a number of his countrymen, by 
which they found the money amongst them, and divided the land 
granted to Vermuyden. Hence the Valkenburgs, Vervatti, Van Peenen, 
Bochard, Corsellis, and others, became with Vermuyden the jmrticipants, 
a name which played an important part in the affairs of the Chace in 
after years. AVorkmen with their implements, were brought over from 
Holland, and landed on the Trent banks. They arrived in a great com 
pany, and were called by a contemporary historian " a navy of TarshishJj 
The Dutchmen were of course well qualified for such a work as the 
draining of these levels, as they would be accustomed to low swampy 
grounds. 

I stated at the outset that the levels were chiefly inundated from 
the rivers Don, Idle, and Torn. The courses of these rivers were 
narrow, shallow, and winding, and after heavy rains, could not carry 
off the large quantities of water which flowed from the large area 



HATFIELD CHACE. 61 

drained by them, and consequently the levels became flooded, andlarge 
meres were distributed about it. The chief aim of Termuyden was to 
cut straighter and more capacious water courses, and then fill up the 
old river beds, or let them silt up ; in other words he was going- to 
enlarge and divert the courses of these rivers so as to make them 
capable of carrying off all the water brought down by them, instead of 
allowing it to overflow the country around. 

The main body of water came down the Don, which at a point near 
Stainforth threw out two serpentine arms, which fed several large 
lakes in their course. Vermuyden thought that by confining these two 
arms to one channel, which from Fishlake Ferry took a moderately 
straight course to its junction with the A ire, between Snaith and 
Rawcliffe, he would be able to redeem that extensive tract now called 
the levels. It was a difficult undertaking to sever from the main 
streams and dry up those extensive arms which flowed to the Trent, 
and to provide in one channel for the large body of water which flowed 
down after heavy rains. " In grappling with these difficulties 
Yermuydeu threw up, between Stainforth and Thorne fields, a strong 
bank at some distance from the river, and then proceeded to cut off 
from the Don its two Southerly arms, hoping thereby to confine the 
whole volume of water to the one channel, emptying into the Aire near 
Suaith. This earthwork, now called Ashfield-bank. remains to this day 
an effectual barrier against floods, on the Southern side of the river. 
But the risk of inundation to the portion of the levels within this 
barrier was still considerable." One of the severed arms of the Don 
after flowing by Hatfield Waste entered Thorne Mere, a sheet of water 
" almost a mile over," connected with a " lode " or narrow lake several 
miles in extent, called " Bryer- water," which formed a junction between 
the Arm of the Don, Thorne Mere, and the river Idle, the latter 
river having already received its tributary river the Torne near Wroot. 
Unless a better drainage system could be applied to this section of the 
levels, thousands of acres would still remain worthless for agriculture. 
To meet this difficulty straighter and more capacious drains or dykes 
were cut, one of which runs parallel to the old By-carrs-dyke, emptying 
into the Trent at Stockwith. The waters of the Torne were provided 
for by new drains and intersection*, with outlets into the Trent at 
Althorpe and Keadby. Provision for draining the lower lands within 
the Isle of Axholme was made by the Snow Stewer, which runs into the 
Trent at West Ferry. " Tcr secure his outlets from the incursions of 
tidal floods, Vermuyden erected sluices with strong embankments," one 
of which had the characteristic name of Idle-stop. Other drams and 
intersections were made north-east towards Crowle, which also emptied 
into the Trent at Keadby and Althorpe. 

But there were dangers which Yermuyden either did not foresee, 
or else did not care to trouble himself about, connected with this scheme of 
drainage, and they soon became apparent. The river Aire had too 
small a channel to carry all the waters of the Don, and the outfall at 



62 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Althorpe was a mistake ; the new drains should have been carried beyond 
that point. Then Vermuyden built a great bank on the Hatfield side of 
the Don, and so kept the waters off the levels ; but, dammed up on one 
side, the waters overflowed the other, and drowned all the low-lying 
lands of which Fishlake, Sykehouse, and Snaith were the centres, "and 
which had not previously been inundated to anything like the same 
extent. No wonder the people of these districts cried out about the 
injury done to them, and complained that Vermuyden was trying- to 
reclaim a vast quantity of land, by throwing the waters on to other 
land, rendering it little better than waste. Vermuyden and the 
participants would not admit the reasonableness of the complaint made 
by the people of Fishlake and Sykehouse, and much litigation, spread 
over many years, was the result. Vermuyden suggested that the 
proprietors of land on the Fishlake side should follow his example, and 
build a bank to keep the waters in, but they did not see why they should 
be injured and put to a great expense through his schemes and 
alterations. Getting no redress for their wrongs the people of Fishlake, 
&c., took to molesting the foreigners in their work. They burnt the 
carts, barrows, and working instruments by night, in great heaps, broke 
down the great bank in places, shooting at and wounding the workmen. 
One Robert Portington, of Barnby Dun, a gentleman of some means, 
and who was on the Commission of the Peace for the West Riding, 
was a leader in these riots, and in the course of the litigation which 
ensued it was sought to get him removed from the Commission of the 
Peace, but it was ordered " that he shall continue in commission so long 
as he behaveth himself well."* Sir Cornelius Vermuyden, who had 
received the honour of knighthood from the King, in recognition of his 
services in connection with the drainage, and the Attorney-General, 
entered an action against Robert Portington and others for their riotous 
conduct, and for damaging the works. The action was tried, and the 
defendants bound over to be of good behaviour, but it was also ordered 
that Sir Cornelius Vermuyden and the participants should secure the 
land from floods, without putting upon the inhabitants any charge 
beyond that to which they were subjected before the drainage 
operations commenced. The hardship of the case as regarded the 
people of Fishlake, &c., was apparently recognised by the authorities, 
before whom the matter was tried, for hardship there undoubtedly was. 
In the midst of all thfs strife, Charles I. who wanted ready cash, 
and who was alarmed at the dissension caused by the drainage, agree! 
to part with his share of the reclaimed land, together with the Manor 
of Hatfield, to Sir Cornelius Vermuyden. It was accordingly leased to 
him by the King, the lease being dated February 5th, 162!), the term 
being for the lives of Vermuyden, his three daughters, and the survivors 
of them, Vermuyden paid 10,000 down, and agreed to pay to the 
King an annual rent of 195 3s. o^d., and one red rose. The King 

* Stovin MS. 



HATFIELD CHACE. 63 

also granted to Vermuyden his third part or share of the reclaimed 
lands' within the Isle of Axholme, and also in Snaith, Rawcliffe, Crowle, 
&c., at an annual fee-farm rent of 462 17s. for one portion, and 281 
for the remainder. 

Sir Cornelius Vermuyden had set the ball of litigation rolling by 
complaining: against the rioters. They were not slow to follow his 
example when occasion arose, and finding that he did little or nothing 
to relieve them of the floods, the inhabitants of Fishlake, Sykehouse, 
Stainforth, Cowick, Snaith, Bain, Polington, and other places, appealed 
to the Board at Whitehall, and forwarded a petition certified by several 
of the Justices of the Peace for the West Riding, at the sessions held 
at Pontefract, April 7th, 1629, setting forth that the said places with 
the country thereabouts, had been much damaged by the inundations 
caused by the participants' new works, and that a compliance with the 
order of the Board, directing the participants to construct a new 
channel to Goole. and repair and raise the old banks, would secure the 
country from danger. In August of the following year, 1630, Viscount 
Wentworth and Lord Darcy who had been appointed referees, attended 
at Hatfield, and viewed the works, after which they made an award, 
dated August 26th. This award orders Sir Cornelius Vermuyden and 
the participants to make and maintain a bridge over the rivers at some 
con /enient place, between Sykehouse and Fishlake ; that all the tenants 
and inhabitants of Fishlake shall pay 200 to Sir Cornelius Vermuyden, 
who is ordered to repair then* banks, and keep them in repair in 
consideration of an annual sum, the amount of which is to be settled by 
certain indifferent commissioners, appointed by both sides. And if any of 
the heirs or assigns of those who contribute towards this 200 should 
thereafter receive any damage from any flood, the participants should 
make compensation upon proof of the damage by competent witnesses, 
before the Lord President and the Council established in the north, who 
were to assess the damages.. The terms of this award were so 
objectionable to Vermuyden that rather than submit to it, he conveyed 
all his property to trustees, and abandoned the neighbourhood. In 
1632, land was purchased for the new cut, now called the Dutch River, 
which runs from Turnbridge on the Don, to the Ouse at Goole. After 
the completion of this new cut the people of Fishlake, tire., had no cause 
of complaint, for only on one occasion, were their lands overflowed, and 
that from an exceptionally high tide, which made a breach in the 
embankment, the repairs to which cost the participants 1,700. 

The residents of the Isle of Axholme, in Lincolnshire, also gavs 
Vermuyden some trouble. They did not obstruct the draining operations, 
believing that the participants only intended taking such land as wae 
necessary for their works, and paying for the same according to a 
valuation, to the common-right owners. These common-right owners 
claimed that under a deed of Sir John Mowbray, executed in the reign 
of Edward III., all rights in the soil were secured to them, the said 
Sir John Mowbray having by that deed determined for himself and his 



64 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

heirs that they " Shall not approve any waste, naoor, woods, waters, 
nor make any manner of approvement of any part within the said Isle 
of Axholme/' The Crown claimed this land from the Mowbray's, who 
forfeited their estate through rebellion, but the inhabitants contended 
that this deed could not be set aside, and claimed the whole of the 
common, contending- that the King had no power to allot any of the 
lands. A commission was appointed to treat with the common-right 
owners of the Isle of Axholme. The people of Epworth were the most 
troublesome, they would agree to no compromise either in land or money. 
The Commissioners in the first award allotted that the commoners 
of Epworth should retain 6,000 of the 13,400 acres which originally 
comprised their common. This award did not satisfy the inhabitants, 
and, in 1636, they laid their complaint before Sir Joseph Banks, 
Attorney- General, who allotted them 1,000 acres in addition to the 
6,000 given to them by the Commissioners, the 1,000 acres to be taken 
from the participants' land on Haxey Common. He also allotted to them 
Epworth South Moor and Butterwick Moor ; and seeing that the poor 
people of Epworth, Haxey, Owston, and Belton, all within the manor of 
Epworth, were deprived of part of their living by the loss of the fishing 
and fowling, consequent upon the drainage, he ordered the participants 
to pay 400 for a stock of hemp to employ the poor people in the 
making of sackcloth and cordage. 

Sir Cornelius Vermuyden had brought over with him a great number 
of Dutchmen, and many French Protestants also settled here who flee 
from their native land, on account of the persecution of the Huguenots 
These settlers brought all their possessions, and many of them wei 
gentlemen of distinguished families, and great fortune, They met witl 
a most inhospitable reception, and had to build residences for themselve 
and their servants. They also built for themselves a church at 
Sandtoft, and a minister was appointed and paid by the participants 
the services were conducted in the Dutch language in the forenoon, anc 
in French in the afternoon. Sandtoft had been a small island before the 
drainage, but when the river Idle was diverted it became a part of the 
main land of the Isle of Axholme. It was the Metropolis of the foreign 
settlers, who built themselves houses in the immediate vicinity, probably 
in order that they might be near the church. At first these settlers 
were permitted to dwell in peace and enjoy their newly-acquired 
possessions without molestation. But when the difficulties with the 
Isle men arose they were subjected to continual annoyances. 

When the Civil War broke out in 1642, the inhabitants of the Isle 
of Axholme, who were still dissatisfied with the treatment they had 
received from the participants, took the side of the Parliament, and on 
the pretence of carrying on the war, devastated the property of the 
foreign settlers, and destroyed the works constructed hi connection 
with the drainage. They pulled up the flood-gates of Snow Sewer and 
the Sluice of Misterton, causing the levels to become flooded to a 
considerable height. For seven weeks they stood with muskets ready 



HATFIELD CHACE. 65 

to shoot anyone who attempted to repair the sluices, and they 
threatened to make the participants swim out of the district like ducks. 
The Isle men seized every opportunity to wreak their vengeance on 
these peaceful settlers. The King was at York, with a small body of 
guards ; this they declared was a levying of war against the Parliament, 
and rose in tumult, breaking down the fences on 4,000 acres of enclosed 
land, destroying the corn growing, and demolishing the houses built 
thereon. It is clear that the inhabitants sheltered under the cloak of 
Civil war, and relying upon safety on account of the troubled state of 
the country, were determined to indulge their spite against the settlers 
by rioting, and destroying their property. Different local historians 
have given accounts of the uncivilised condition of the Isle men at this 
time. Shut off, as they were, from the mam land by their girth of 
rivers, living on a natural island, they would be amenable to no laws 
and rules but their own, and the civilisation of the country on all sides 
of them would not reach into the island, because of the small amount of 
intercourse which took place, hence they would be vindictive, and have 
no fear of laws, when their immemorial rights were invaded. The 
Sheriff of the county raised about a hundred men and went to the 
assistance of the participants after the destruction of the fences and 
building-s, with the intention of restoring peace, and setting up the 
banks of the 4,000 acres laid waste. But one, Daniel Xoddel, who 
acted as Solicitor for the inhabitants, hearing of the Sheriff's intention, 
got together about 400 men and forced the Sheriff and his men to make 
a very hasty exit, after which Xoddel and his force destroyed all the 
repairs that had been executed. The participants being thus forcibly 
kept out of their property urged on to a hearing an action which had 
been commenced between them and seven of the inhabitants of the 
Manor of Epworth. Upon this pressing forward of their case in the 
Court of Exchequer, Xoddel secured two men to aid him in leading the 
riots, Lieutenant-Colonel John Lilburne, better known asFreeborn John, 
and a most turbulent spirit, and Major John Wildeman. During the 
hearing of the cause, these three raised another force of the inhabitants 
and laid waste the remaining 3,400 acres of the participants' property, 
impounding the tenants' cattle, and exacting large sums for their 
redemption. The participants were in great straits and knew not what 
to do. They complained to a Justice of the Peace, Michael Moncktou, 
but he not only refused to grant them any warrants, but also openly 
took the side of the rioters, and when they were indicted at the 
sessions and some of the justices thought fit to fine them four or five 
marks each, he moved that they be only fined sixpence each, and 
insisted so earnestly thereon that they were only fined twelve-pence 
each. 

In February, 1650, the Court of Exchequer made a decree for 
establishing the possessions of the participants in the Manor of Epworth 
which was published in the presence of the inhabitants, who, relying 
upon the influence of Lilburne, Wildemau, and Noddel, declared that 



HATF1ELD CHACE. Di 

they would not give any obedience thereto, or to any order of the 
Parliament. They were evidently very indignant at the decree of the 
Exchequer, and, although they had been ostensibly taking the side of 
the Parliament in the late Civil War, they now said that they could make 
as -good a parliament themselves, and that it was " d* Parliament of 
clouts" and that if it sent any forces they would raise men to resist 
them. Their courage grew with their words, they set off for Sand toft, 
and commenced by defacing the church ; for ten days the riot continued, 
and during that tune they demolished the town, and the houses in the 
neighbourhood, to the number of eighty-two habitations, beside barns, 
stables, and outhouses, and a windmill, and destroyed all the corn grow- 
ing on the 3,400 acres, the total damage done during this riot was 
estimated at the time at eighty thousand pounds. The Isle men had 
now become desperate, and determined to maintain their position at 
all hazards. Lilburne, Wildeman, and Xoddel entered into an agree- 
ment to defend them for all past riots, and to maintain them in pos- 
session of the disputed land, 7,400 acres, in consideration of 2,000 
acres of the land which had been wasted being given to Lilburne and 
Wildernan, and 200 acres to Xoddel, and agreements were drawn up 
and signed, and sealed accordingly. These three bravos grew bold as 
their scheme prospered, and went to Crowle, and did as they had done 
at Ep worth, promised to restore to the inhabitants then* commons hi 
consideration of a certain portion of the land being given to them. 
Noddel was apparently the spokesman of the movement, and did the 
bragging. He offered to lay 20 with any man that when Lilburne 
reached London the Parliament would be overthrown, and a new 
Parliament got together after their own hearts, and that Lilbume 
would then call that Parliament to account. At another time he said, 
" that now they had drawn their case they would print it, and nail it to 
the Parliament door ; then if the members would not do them justice, 
they would come up, and makintj an outcry, pull them out by the ears." 
Evidently they thought themselves very great people. These three 
men, having got possession of the land given to them by the inhabi- 
tants, settled themselves down ; Lilburne repairing the minister's house 
at Sandtoft, which had been almost pulled down by the rioters ; he put 
his servants to reside in it and keep possession, and used the church as 
a stable and barn. 

A Mr. Reading now appears upon the scene. He had been counsel 
for the Isle Commoners when the dispute between them and the partici- 
pants was first heard, but now he came as the representative of the 
Dowager Duchess of Buckingham (who had been married to the Earl 
of Antrim) to whom the fee farm rent of the manor had been 
granted by Charles I. in trust for her son. Mr. Reading was 
sent to collect the arrears of fee farm rent. This brought him into 
close contact with the participants, and he espoused their cause, they 
agreeing to pay him a salary of 200 per annum and all expenses, so 
long as he could keep the Isle Commoners subdued. He distrained upon 



HATFIELD CHACE. 69 

those Isle Commoners who had not paid their " scotts," or dramage 
rates, driving- the defaulter's stock to the pinfold at Hatfield, from 
whence frequent rescues were made, and many hard fights ensued hi 
consequence. The Court of Sewers, which was the board of manage- 
ment appointed under the agreement for the drainage between the 
crown and Vermuyden, complained to Cromwell that the inhabitants of 
the Isle of Axholme had wounded and maltreated the officers, who, by 
by order of the court had distrained upon them for a " scott " or rate. 
They were sad rogues these Isle men. " Xot being content with having 
in a forcible manner dispossessed the participants of 4,000 acres of 

land they have compelled the participants to maintain 

the banks for the preservation of those lands thus taken from them. 
And. notwithstanding their former misdemeanors, did sadly presage their 
future disobedience, yet, hoping what we all most earnestly desired, a 
change of spirit in them, we requested our worthy friend Nathaniel 
Reading, Esq.. being both a Commissioner and a participant, to under- 
take the getting of the assessment charged upon the said lands, and 
empowering him accordingly, requiring the Sheriff of the county to be 
\iit to him therein. But when the said Mr. Reading had distrained 
several of their goods, some of the inhabitants of the Isle, to the num- 
ber of one hundred, with swords, pistols, carbines, halberts, and other 
arms, did, at Hatfield, in the county of York, assault and set upon 
persons appointed to keep the said distress, dangerously woundingseveral 
of them, including the constable of the said town, who, in your 
Highness's name charged them to keep the peace." 

Mr. Reading had a difficult duty to perform, but he determined to tackle 
these formidable Isle men, and hired twenty men at " 2 a year each and 
their diets " to assist him, providing horses, arms, and ammunition. On 
special occasions he employed other men to supplement this small stand- 
ing army. After fighting thirty-one set battles with the people of 
Epworth Manor. Mi.sterton, and Gringley, wherein many men were 
killed, he subdued the Isle men, and for a time the Levels enjoyed a 
period of calm prosperity. The participants returned to their holdings, 
the church was repaired, a new minister was appointed, and save for 
the battles which still waged in the law courts all was peace. 

The drainage operations had not brought to the original promoters 
that wealth which they had expected, and they were much disappointed. 
Sir Cornelius Vermuyden had expended a large sum of money in 
draining the lands and purchasing the Manor from the crown, and 
when he was ordered by the Commissioners Lords "Went worth and 
Darcy to coasrruct the Dutch River, which cost 20,000, he fled rather 
than submit, leaving his fellow-participants, who, be it remembered, had hi 
the first instance being drawn into the affair by Yermuyden, to face 
the difficulties. They had to raise the money amongst them, as well as 
1,500 to meet the demands of workmen, whose wages Yermuyden had 
left unpaid. Had the participants been allowed to enjoy their pas- 
sessions hi peace, the land itself by its improved value would have 



HATF1ELD CHACE. 71 

enabled them to meet the claims, but, as we have seen, the inhabitants 
of the Manor of Epworth wanted to reap all the benefits of the drain- 
age, and objected to pay even their share of the assessment for the 
maintenance of the works. The value of the land had been raised 
from 6d. an acre per annum before the drainage to 10s. an acre per 
annum after the improvement. Crops of corn could be grown upon what 
was formerly only a great tract of marshy land. 

It was only intended in the first instance to drain Hatfield Chace, but 
this could not be done without cutting through the Manor of Epworth 
which was not included in the Chace. At first the participants gave out 
that they only desired to take a small portion of land in the Manor of 
Epworth for the purposes of their works in connection with the drainage of 
the Chace, but according to the Isle Commoners, once they had obtained 
a footing on the Epworth Commons, they took full possession with 
force and cruelty. Xow according to the covenant which the first Sir 
John Mowbray made with the freeholders of the Isle of Axholme, 
these commons could not be taken from them legally, and there- 
fore the participants had wrested, or tried to wrest, them away 
wrongfully. The participants replied to this that they had spent 
.200,000 in the improvement of the district, that a third of the im- 
proved lands had been granted to them by way of compensation, which 
included 7400 acres in the Manor of Epworth. upon which they had 
built a church and about 160 dwellings, and that they had suffered 
damage to the extent of 80,000 by the riotous conduct of the Isle 
Commoners, who had set all laws at defiance. 

Many attempts to settle the disputes were made between the years 
1650 and 1688. Litigation was continually going on, but apparently 
without producing any satisfactory result. In the year 1688 the matters 
in dispute were referred to Sir Willoughby Hickrnan, Sir John Boynton, 
and others, who made an award that 750 acres should be set apart for 
the commoners, and the remainder divided equally between the com- 
moners and the participants. To this award the Isle men would not 
submit. A few years later a decree of the Court of Exchequer gave to 
the commoners besides the 6.000 acres on Epworth south and Butter- 
wick Moors, 1,000 acres in addition, 664 acres to the Commoners of 
Misterton, and the remainder of the 13,400 acres "was to be divided 
equally between the commoners and the participants. According to 
this award the share of the participants was very small, considering that 
they had invested so large a sum of money hi the drainage, but for the 
sake of peace they were content with the 2,868 acres allotted to them. 
On the basis of this award the Sheriff of Lincolnshire proceeded to 
divide the lands, giving each party possession of their allotments. The 
participants enclosed their share, and let it to several tenants, who 
planted it with corn. "Whilst the corn was growing a great number 
of men, women, and children, with Mrs. Popplewell at their head, 
pulled down the fences and destroyed the corn. 

Mr. Reading, who had so vigorously upheld the side of the partici- 
pants, now came forward and asked for payment of his account, 



HATFIELD CHACE. 73 

amounting to about 3,000. The participants had no money wherewith 
to pay this sum, and they offered him a lease of their lands hi Epworth 
Manor for six years in full settlement of his claim. He was very re- 
luctant to accept this, foreseeing to what trouble it would 
probably put him, but there was no other way of getting the 
money, so he accepted. He made several miles of fences, and ploughed 
and sowed about a thousand acres of land. This exasperated the Isle 
men. Reading was their greatest enemy, and had been to some extent 
successful in the war he had waged against them, besides which he 
had most likely killed or injured some of their relatives and friends in 
those set battles which he fought with them. They held a consultation 
and then re-opened the war, or riot, for there was not much of the nature 
of a war about it. They assaulted Reading, his sons, and servants ; 
fired his house at midnight, thinking to burn him with his wife and 
family in their beds. The rioters had stopped up the keyhole of the 
door with sand and dirt to prevent Reading and his family from escaping, 
but his son, afterwards Colonel Reading, forced a way out through one 
of the windows, and so they escaped. Afterwards, a great number of 
the rioters, disguised and armed, with Mrs. Popplewell at their head, 
attacked and destroyed all Mr. Reading's outhouses and tenants' 
houses ; cut down fruit trees, plundered a new house that he had been 
forced to build to shelter himself and his family, carried off his goods, 
burnt his fences, turned cattle into his corn, and " gave him diversion 
at all points of military execution." He had indeed put his head into a 
hornet's nest. Mr. Reading was, however, endowed with a great 
amount of courage. He complained of these insults, and on the dis- 
covery of the rioters, some were sent to prison, and others were outlawed, 
but this they did not seem to mind much, for they selected principals, 
and subscribing a public purse, directed them to go up and defy 
the Parliament. 

Robert Popplewell was now solicitor to the Isle men, and they 
enclosed several hundreds of acres of land belonging to the crown, the 
rents being paid to Popplewell, and with this money they defied the 
Government. This Popplewell and his wife, who was the ringleader hi 
the riots, were making a very good thing out of the Isle men, and it 
was no wonder they kept up the agitation, for if it died away their 
occupation was gone. 

At the following Lincoln Assizes several of the rioters were 
indicted, and true bills were returned against them, especially against 
Mrs. Popplewell, who was the ringleader. This alarmed Popplewell, 
who applied to Colonel Whichcott and Colonel Pownall, requesting 
them to intercede with Mr. Reading. Mr. Reading consented to with- 
draw the charges, Popplewell paying him 600 compensation for the 
damage he had sustained. 

Mr. Reading lived to a great age, attaining something over 100 
years, and died at Belton in 1712, in the midst of his most inveterate 
enemies. His sons continued the tenancy of the land belonging to the 



HATFIELD CHACE. 75 

3articipants,at a low rent, and the Isle men still giving them much trouble. 
But in the first year of the reign of George I. the Riot Act was passed, 
and this measure had the effect of putting a stop to the lawlessness 
against which the participants and Mr. Reading had fought for so many 
years in vain. Peace was now restored, and in 1719 the right of the 
participants to the small portion of land allotted to them in the Manor 
}f Epworth was finally decreed, and matters gradually settled 
down. 

The Isle men had been in rebellion for nearly a century, and 
during that time had left nothing undone which they could compass, to 
annov the foreign settlers. Xo doubt there were faults on both sides. 
The participants were betrayed into spending money on land in the 
Manor of Epworth, of which no share could legally be given to them hi 
return for their improvements, and the Isle men naturally resented the 
attempt to take away what they looked upon as their lawful property. 
It was a vexed question, but it has long ago been settled, and the dis- 
trict is now very productive, but a little of the old spirit still survives, 
and the small farmers still cling most tenaciously to their holdings. It 
cannot be called now, however, as De la Pyrme tells us it was before 
the drainage, a mighty rude place. " Yesterday I went into the Isle of 
Axholme about some business. It was a mighty rude place before the 
drainage, the people being little better than heathens ; but since that 
ways has been accessible to them by land, their converse and familiarity 
with the country round about has mightily civilised them, and made them 
look like Christians." * 

The drainage works constructed by Sir Cornelius Vermuyden were 
the means of greatly improving the condition of the district comprised 
within the level of Hatfield Chace, but they were not effectual in pre- 
venting the occasional overflow of the rivers. Many efforts have been 
made since that time with more or less success ; the entire prevention 
of floods has not yet been achieved, but the limits assigned to my paper 
forbids any entry into the modern part of the question. 

I have already shown that in the Civil War the Isle men took the 
side of the Parliament. The people of Hatfield, however, took the side 
of the king, hence there was a great feud between the people of Hat- 
field and the people of the island. A troop of volunteers was raised by 
one Robin Portington, of Barnby Dun, and he got such a terrible name 
among the rebels by reason of the great feats he performed, that he 
was commonly called Robin the Devil. When Rainsburrow, colonel 
of the Parliamentary force, took up his quarters at Doncaster, he sent 
three companies to Hatfield and Woodhouse, to preserve them in sub- 
jection, and to overawe Robin Portington. When the three companies 
were settled in their quarters at Hatfield, a poor mad woman ran into 
the town crying out that Robin was coming out of the levels with a 
great army, and that he was resolved to kill everyone. The three 

* De la Pyrme's Diary, Feb. 12th, 1698. 



HATFIELD CHACE. 77 

companies of rebel soldiers \vere in a great fright at this, and fled to 
Doncaster as fast as their horses could carry them. When the alarm 
was given at the latter place, a larger force was sent to Hatfield, which 
force was firmly resolved to make a courageous onslaught on the enemy ; 
but, when the story of the woman came to be examined, it proved to 
be all a fiction, as Robin was in Holderness. Robin Portington played 
an important part, locally, in the Civil "War, and did many deeds of 
valour. De La Pryme says that after escaping thousands of dangers 
in war, he died from the bite of an ape with which he was playing, as 
he came over Whitgift Ferry about the year 1662. 

Charles I., on a journey from the south, turned aside at Rossington 
Bridge, came to Armthorpe, and drank at an ale-house by the gravel 
pit side, kept by a woman. From thence he went to Hatfield and 
Thome, and, guided by one Mr. Canby, who resided at Thorne, " was 
led over John a More Long to Whitgift Ferry, and from thence went 
to Beverley." It was probably on the return journey from Beverley 
that Charles I. crossed the ferry at Whitgift again, and came by Goole, 
then along the great banks of the river to Hatfield. He called and 
drank at an ale-house at the north end of the town, and then went on, 
intending to go through the Isle of Axholme to Gainsborough, but at 
Sandtoft a guard was kept by the Isle men who were opposed to the 
king, and had set a watch at the ferry of Sandtoft to keep off the 
Royalists of Hatfield. The guard fled on hearing of the approach of 
so large a company ; but the king, learning that the whole of the people 
in the Isle of Axholme were in arms against him. turned to the right, 
and came to a place called Bull Hassocks, and leaving Haxey, and all 
the Isle, on the left hand came to Stockwith, then to Gainsborough, 
Lincoln, and Nottingham. He set up his standard at Nottingham in 
August 1642. 

Cromwell marched through Hatfield and Thorne on his way to 
the north, and returned by the same route. Sir Thomas Fairfax, 
after his defeat at the battle of Adwalton Moor, also passed through 
the levels ; from Carlton, near Snaith, he came to Thorne, and then by 
way of Crowle. He wrote : " It proved a most troublesome and 
dangerous passage, having oft interruptions from the enemy; some- 
tunes in our front, and sometimes in our rear. I had been at least 
twenty hours on horseback after I was shot, without any rest or 
refreshment, and as many hours before. And as a further addition to 
my affliction, my daughter, being carried before her maid, endured all 
this retreat on horseback ; but nature not able to hold out any longer, 
fell into frequent swoonings, and in appearance was ready to expire." 
Hatfield was at this tune in the hands of the participants, and as its tradi- 
tional hospitality had sunk into disuse, it had paled before the local and 
national strifes. 

The Church of Hatfield is dedicated to St. Laurence. It is a 
cruciform structure, having a tower, which rises from the intersection 
of nave, transepts, and chancel. Some doubt exists as to the age of 



78 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



this church. That it occupies the site of a former church is very pro- 
bable, for before the Conquest, when Hatfield was a Royal village, 
there was a church here, built perhaps by the Christian King Edwin. 
The revenues of the parish of Hatfield belonged, before the suppression 
of the monasteries to Roche Abbey, and the monks of that abbey would 
very likely be the chief promoters of the new church at Hatfield. A 
shield on the stonework outside the tower has blazoned on it the arms 
of Archbishop Savage, who was appointed to the See of York by 




Thorne Old Hall. 



Henry VII. (1485-1509). Sir John Savage, his father, and Sir Edward, 
his brother, were closely identified with the district, and may have 
contributed towards the building. 

Although a separate manor, Thorne was formerly in the parish of 
Hatfield, It is comprised within the district known as the levels, and 
was also within the Royal chace. I have already mentioned the castle 
or peel at Thorne, which was once a hunting seat of the Warrens, but 



HATFIELD CHACE. 79 

was afterwards used as a prison for offenders under the game laws. 
Another noted building- there was known as the Old Hall. This was 
pulled down in 1860. ' It was a gabled, hip-roofed, roomy place, built 
partly of brick and partly of stone, with a low ornamental porch." 
Over this porch were the arms of Edward Stere, a resident of Thorne, 
with the initials E.S., and date, 1573. Tradition says that Termuydeu 
resided in this house for some time, when his great drainage scheme 
was being carried out. This old place saw many vicissitudes before it 
went finally to decay. First, it was the home of a squire, then it 
became the lodging-house of enterprising Dutchmen, afterwards it was 
used as a temporary domicile for the inmates of the old poor house, 
until the present Union Workhouse was built, then it was transformed 
into a beer house, with the sign of the " Blazing-Stump ; " then it was 
given up to the poor people who used it as a residence, until it went to 
decay, and was pulled down. 

Thorne being formerly hi the parish of Hatfield, the church of the 
latter place was the mother church of Thorne also, as, indeed, it was 
of the whole of the levels. But as the population increased chapels of 
ease were erected in the various districts, the people, however, acknow- 
ledging in some way the headship of the church at Hatfield. When a 
church was first erected at Thorne is an open question, but it remained 
subordinate to Hatfield until the year 1326, when it happened that 
a great number of people from Thome were bringing a corpse to Hat- 
field for burial. When crossing the mere in the boats, the boat 
containing the corpse was overset in a storm, and the corpse lost, and 
some of the friends and relatives of the deceased were drowned. This 
stirred up the people of Thorne, and they petitioned the authorities, 
praying that the town might be made a distinct parish from Hatfield, 
and the chapel, which was old and decayed, might be rebuilt. They 
urged in support of their desire, the accident to the funeral party, and 
also that they had to go by boat for almost two miles, to get to the 
church at Hatfield. The petition was granted, and a church, substanti- 
ally the one still standing, was erected. It is a plain structure, consisting 
of nave, aisles, and spacious chancel. The ulterior is almost destitute 
of ornament, the heavy tower arch, nave arches, and pillars, conveying 
an idea of strength rather than beauty ; but the general effect is marred 
by cumbrous and ugly side galleries. During the past two years 
(1881-2) an effort has been made to raise funds for the renovation of 
the church, and the effect of an experiment made on the porch of the 
church is very encouraging. In 1881 the porch underwent a stripping 
and scraping, the accumulated plaster of centuries was removed, and 
the just proportions of the structure were laid bare, revealing carved 
crosslets on the circular arch as fresh as though cut but twenty years 
ago. 

The parish of Fishlake was the first of the parishes on the levels to 
detach itself from the mother parish. The separation took place early 
in the 12th century, when a church was built here by the Warrens, who 



80 OtD YORKSHIRE. 

gave it to the Priory of Lewes, which has already been mentioned as 
founded by the Warrens. The present church is dedicated to St. 
Cuthbert, and an effigy of the saint stands in a canopied niche of the 
tower over the west window. The church has undergone, at various 
times, alterations, renewals, and restorations, so that it cannot be said 
that it was built at any one time. In 1855 the church was in part 
restored by the Dean and Chapter of Durham, in whose patronage the 
living now is, and at no distant date a further restoration will be neces- 
sary for its preservation. 

Barnby Dun, or, Barnby-on-the-Don has already been mentioned 
as the home of Robin Portington Robin the Devil the loyal royalist. 
The date of the erection of the church of Barnby Dun is not definitely 
known, but it is not older than the 15th century. It is a plain building, 
having a low tower, low side aisles, south porch and north doorway. 
On the tower is a small escutcheon with arms of the Archbishopric of 
York. The font is large, having a basin " capacious enough to 
thoroughly immerse a child." About 1859 it underwent a thorough 
restoration. The chancel was rebuilt from the foundation, and the 
entire roof was renewed and reformed, it being now high-pitched and 
slated instead of, as before, flat and leaded. 

Dunscroft Grange is situated between Stainforth and Hatfield. I 
have mentioned above the connection between Hatfield and Roche 
Abbey. This grange was probably built by the monks of that abbey, 
but opinions differ very much as to the exact object for which it was 
built. De La Pryme says "the parsonage that is now standing was 
built out of ye ruins of ye sayd cell by Mr. Simpson in 16 . . . " 
Hunter does not believe that there was a " little monastery," or even 
a cell at Dunscroft, but the fragments relating to the point left by De 
La Pryme point to another conclusion. But whether Dunscroft Grange 
was built by the monks of Roche Abbey for the management of their 
revenues arising from Hatfield, or whether it was connected with a 
" little monastery " or cell, there is no doubt that Dunscroft Grange did 
at one time belong to the Monks of Roche. 

The whole of the materiel for my article has been supplied by the 
very exhaustive history of the " Level of Hatfield Chace and parts 
adjacent," written and published by Mr. John Tomlinson, of Doncaster, 
who has also generously and gratuitously lent the electros from which 
the illustrations have been printed. If readers of " Old Yorkshire " 
wish to know more of the history, or of the present state of the district 
known as Hatfield Chace, it can be obtained from Mr. Tomlinson's 
book. I may add that Mr. Tomlinson is now collecting materials for a 
history of Doncaster, and he will welcome any help in the way of 
information which may be forthcoming from the readers and friends 
of " Old Yorkshire," which may be sent to him addressed Polton Toft, 
Thome Road, Doncaster. 

Free Library, Doncaster. JOHN BALLINGER 



LIYERSEDGE HALL. 81 

LIYERSEDGE HALL 

THE old Baronial Hall of the Xeviles, we are told by Dr. Whitaker, 
reeted in the fifteenth century, and consisted of a centre and two 
wings. On one side was a large deep embattled window, of which a 
representation has been preserved. The window was divided by 
mullions. the roof being supported by flying principals, and the panelled 
wall-plate surmounted by embattled carving. In the west wing was 
a chapel, where was recently to be seen a curious window formed 
ur uniting circular compartments, surrounded by a ring on the 
wall. The chapel is now made into cottages, and there is little 
remaining to suggest its ancient use except in one corner a perpen- 
dicular two-light traced window ; on the upper portion of the mullions 
of which is carved the Tudor rose. At the gable end there is also 
another ancient plain six-lighted mullioned window, but there is nothing 
specially noticeable about it. Passing round to the front of the hall, 
we find little there suggestive of the original erection except a raised 
carved cross, called in heraldry a cross moline, which is distinctive of 
an eighth son, and points to the probability that the ancient hall, of 
which it formed a part, was built by an eighth son of one of the 
Neviles, or of one of their predecessors, the De Liversedges. who 
had been settled at Liversedge long before the building of the present 
hall. In the third quarter of the thirteenth century Robert de Luiresseg 
had a quarter of a knight's fee in Liversedge of the Earl of Lincoln, of 
whom the family were feudatories. This cross, and the weather-beaten 
grotesque stone gargoyles on the roof, seem to be the only relics 
of the first building. As we stand in front of the house, the view 
takes hi a wide stretch of the bold outline and once sylvan landscape 
of the Spen Valley and the verdant slopes beyond, and we are impressed 
with the fact that the situation of the hall was well chosen to embrace 
all the glories of a wide panorama of wood and hill before it was 
marred by the unsightly structures apparently inseparable from manu- 
facturing industry. Seated on a little eminence at the head of what 
would once be a romantic ravine, and surrounded on all sides by a 
noble park, it would, when in its glory in the olden time, be the 
type of a chieftain's residence. 

In the Yorkshire Archceological and Topographical Society's Journal 
for 1871 there is a paper on Clay house, hi Greetland, hi which mention 
is made of John Hanson, an attorney, of AVoodhouse, in Rastrick, 
of whom Dodsworth, the great antiquary, in his ' ; Pedigrees," 
speaks as " a lover of antiquities," and thus goes on : " There is 
indeed a proof that he was so in a well-laboured History of the 
Manor of Liversedge,' written by himself, which is now amongst Mr. 
Gough's manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. He died in 
1621. and was buried at EUand." What a flood of light this manu- 
script would throw on the history of this district if it could only be 
disinterred from where it lies buried amidst the volumes of Mr. 



82 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Gough's papers. An attempt has been made to find it, but the search 
has as yet proved unsuccessful, though we hope it will not be allowed to 
remain in its present obscurity. From the records of the poll-tax of 
1379 it appears that there was a "John Nevile" and his wife then 
residing- in Liversedge. They are taxed at 20s., the amount paid 
by knights, although he was only then an esquire, while John De 
Liversedge, a tailor, not a kinsman, but clearly a substantial man, 
is taxed at 12d. It may help our readers further in their estimate 
of the then state of the township if we say that the tax for the 
whole township was only 29s. 6d. Dodsworth, in tracing the course of 
the Spen, states in his " Yorkshire Notes" that it passes through Long 
Liversedge and by the park, "the seat of the Neviles for a long time, 
which came into their possession by the marriage of a Nevile with 
the daughter and heiress of the De Liversedges." 

Sir Thomas Nevile lived at Liversedge Hall in considerable state 
in the reign of Edward IV. By intermarriage with the heiress of the 
Gascoignes, of Hunslet, he had added the estates of her family to 
his own, and was in the habit of spending a portion of the year at 
the old seat of that family. Liversedge Hall of this period is 
described as being " a very stately building, surrounded by a con- 
siderable park, and presenting all the indications of aristocratical 
consequence and influence." The Neviles, one of the proudest of our 
great historical families, claimed descent, not from any of the men 
who came over with William the Conqueror, but from the noble Thane 
Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland, who rose in rebellion against the 
Normans after the county had been subjugated, and was put to death by 
the Conqueror, who could not sit safely on his throne so long as this 
renowned chief excited the admiration and the hopes of his kinsmen 
in the north. What Scatcherd says of the eleven John Deightons, 
of Staincliffe Hall, namely, that " they have left nothing behind but 
the name," could scarcely be said of the Neviles. The name of this 
noble, if somewhat rash and headstrong race, is closely interwoven 
with many of the great events of English history. In Ralph, Lord 
Nevile, who won the battle of Redhills, or Nevile's Cross, hi 1346 ; in 
Nevile, Earl of Warwick, the great "king maker;" in John Nevile, 
Marquis Montacute ; in Sir John Nevile, the last of the lords of Liver- 
sedge ; and in many others of the family we might name, we have 
specimens of the soldierly qualities which seem to have been the native 
inheritance of the race. In Henry Nevile, who lived in the age of 
Charles I. and the Commonwealth, we have an example of an astute if 
somewhat Utopian politician, and in Alexander and Thomas Nevile, 
who flourished during the latter part of the seventeenth century, and 
Richard Nevile, Baron Braybrook, we have fair specimens of acute 
logicians and philosophers. The Neviles were connected by marriage 
with most of the noble families of Yorkshire, and branches of the family 
had seats in many of the surrounding towns, notably in Wakefield, 
where Sir John Nevile, of Chevet, third son of Sir John Nevile, of 



if 




84 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



Liversedge, built Chevet Hall, in 1529. A member of this family, 
Sir John Nevile, was twice high sheriff of the county in the reign of 
Henry VII. Another Sir John held the same important office under 
Henry VIII. Sir Robert Nevile was elevated to that dignity towards 
the close of the same reign, and a third Sir John in the third year of 
the reign of Elizabeth. A branch of the family had a seat at Beeston, 
and Gervase Nevile, its representative at the time of the Commonwealth, 
was Quarter-Master-General to the Duke of Newcastle, and an actor in 
the principal engagements of the civil war in Yorkshire. William 
Nevile, of Holbeck, high sheriff of the county in 1710, was succeeded 
by his brother Cavendish, who seems to have been the last of the male 
line of this branch. The name was afterwards taken by John Pate 
Lister, son of a female representative of the Neviles, and his family 
appear to have upheld the ancient fame of his house for bravery and 
adventure. Two of the sons of this Nevile, officers in the Guards, were 
killed in Holland ; a third was slam on board Lord Howe's ship in the 
great naval engagement of July 1st, 1794 ; a fourth, a lieutenant of the 
guards, ended his life at Badsw9rth, 1802 ; and another, a lieutenant 
in the Navy, was killed at Martinique in 1804, making the fifth of this 
family who died in the service of their country. There is a monument 
erected to their memory in Leeds Parish Church, where the bones of so 
many of their ancestors lie, while others are scattered in foreign lands. 
The last of the branch of the illustrious line of Nevile who resided 
at Liversedge Hall, Sir John, was, like the most of his race, a gallant 
soldier. When the great change in religious belief, known as the 
Reformation, swept over England, Sir John Nevile, like many other 
Yorkshire squires and noblemen, after some vacillation, finally remained 
firm to the Roman Catholic religion, and became a leader in the insur- 
rection known as the " Rising of the North," a rebellion of the Neviles 
and Percies, which had for its aim the release of Mary, Queen of Scots, 
from prison, and her elevation to the throne of England in the place of 
Elizabeth. The movement was initiated by Thomas, Earl of North- 
umberland, to whom adhered the Earl of Westmoreland. The first 
league was formed of, beside the earls, Christopher Nevile and Cuthbert 
Nevile, uncles of Westmoreland, Sir John Nevile of Liversedge, Richard 
Norton and his eight sons, John Vavasour of Hazlewood, who had 
hastened to greet Queen Mary at Carlisle, Plumpton of Plumpton, 
Andrew Oglethorpe, Christopher Danby of Beeston, near Leeds, Robert 
Tempest of Homeside, John Swinborne, and Markeufield of Markenfield. 
These were men of position, wealth, and power. The Queen's party 
soon discovered the aim of the rebels, and an attempt was made to 
seize Northumberland at Topcliffe, but he escaped. Seeing their plot 
was discovered the malcontents then proceeded to put it into execution. 
Marching to Durham they sacked the Cathedral ; thence they proceeded 
to Brancepeth, Darlington, Richmond, and Ripon. Passing through 
Boroughbridge, Wetherby, and Tadcaster, they were joined by numerous 
recruits on Clifford Moor, and found their army then amounted to 



LIVERSEDGE HALL. 85 

20,000 men. Turning aside from York, which they did not venture to 
molest, they attacked Barnard Castle and took it. On intelligence of 
the capture reaching York, Elizabeth's troops marched against them, 
and the rebels on hearing of their approach lost heart, and most of them 
fled. Some of the boldest remained at their post and were almost 
exterminated by the Queen's soldiers. The banner of the rebels was 
painted with the five wounds of Jesus, and was borne by stout old 
Norton, of Rylston, whose body guard was his eight stalwart sons. 
The incidents of this rising form the subject of Wordsworth's poem 
" The white Doe of Rylston " in which the tragic fate of this devoted 
family is told in stirring verse. On the defeat of the insurgents, the 
two rebel earls and Sir John Nevile fled to Scotland, but many of the 
leaders were captured and put to death on Knaves-mire. Some eight 
hundred of the artisans, labourers, and yeomen who were taken 
prisoners were executed in the various towns and villages from Wetherby 
to Newcastle, to strike terror into the hearts of the people. The Earls 
of Northumberland and Westmoreland were afterwards betrayed into 
the hands of the border wardens, and were beheaded at York. After 
Sir John Nevile had been declared a traitor, Lady Nevile was examined 
before a commission, consisting of Sir Thomas Gargrave and Sir Hugh 
Savile, when the poor woman appears to have made strong efforts to 
procure her husband's pardon or to save his life. Sir Thomas in his 
letter to Sir William Cecil pleads thus: " Sir John Nevile is in mine 
openyon of a good nature, and though fully confyrmed in popery and 
false doctrine which at the begynnyug he was misleyd by Dr. Robinson 
in Queen Mary's days, was a Protestant in King Edward's days. His 
wyi'fe hath ten children and is left in a very sore estate, and verily 
thynkyth if her husband might have his lyffe he wolde come hi and 
submyt hymselfe to imprisonment as sholde please the Queen's Magestie, 
as in my letter to the Right Honourable Privey Council more at large 
appeareth." This appeal was made in vain, as Sir John Nevile was 
known to have been connected with the rebellion from its commence- 
ment, and according to the confession made by the Earl of Northumber- 
land previous to his execution was not only privy to and took an active 
part in the planning of the conspiracy, but joined the earls at Brancepeth 
previous to the rising. After the failure of the rebellion he escaped to 
Scotland, where he was sheltered at Hume Castle for a time. He was 
still with Lord Hume on the 7th of April, 1570, but shortly afterwards 
escaped from thence to Flanders, where he was joined by his devoted 
wife, who, having failed in her intercessions on his behalf, came to share 
his sorrows with him in his adversity. In 1571 he was in Lorraine, 
and from thence " departed towards Rome." He became a pensioner 
of the King of Spain, who allowed him 60 a year for the support of 
himself, his wife, and children. His name is included in the list of 
' names of those who were indyted for the conspiracy of treason 1st 
September, llth Elizabeth, at Topcliff, in the county of Yorke," as John 
Nevile. of Liversedge, Knight ; also in an " act for the confirmation of 



86 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



the attaynders of Charles, Earl of Westmoreland, and Thomas, Earl of 
Northumberland, and Sir John Nevile, late of Liversedge, county of 
Yorke, Knight." His estates having thus become forfeited, Queen 
Elizabeth in July, 1573, gave them to Sir Edward Gary, one of the 
grooms of her Privy Council. By the deed of gift the estates were 
settled upon Sir Edward, his son Sir Philip, and his grandson, by the 
two latter an arrangement was made by which the whole of the Nevile 
estates at Liversedge and other places were broken up into farms and 
disposed of to the inhabitants. The chronicler who gives this infor- 
mation adds in much bitterness that " the Queen, with her usual 
generosity (?) and liberality (?) in 1574 granted to Mr. Robert Nevile, 
gentleman, the son of Sir John, out of his father's large possessions 
which had thus fallen to her, the miserable pittance of 20 a year, and 
that only during her pleasure, to be paid by the receivers at York out 
the Liversedge estate. Sir John Nevile, however, was allowed to 
remain an exile to the end of his days, and died an exile in order 
to gratify the revengeful spirit of a Queen whose soul was as much 
a stranger to the attribute of mercy as her heart was to the better 
and finer feelings of her sex."* 

Heckmondwike. FRANK PEEL. 



SCARBROUGH IN THE PAST. 

SCARBROUGH is situated in 54 17 V 30" north latitude, 0'22 west 
longitude. The most ancient name is Scarburg, and of Saxon origin. 
Scar is a rock, and Burg a fortified place. According to Camden, 
" Burgus in prsecepta rupe " a Burg upon a rock. According to Somner, 
it is " Urbs vel arx in acuta, vel accuminata rupa sita ut apud Brabantes ; 
Scharpeuburg," i.e. mous acutus ; a city or walled town, or fort, or 
castle, upon a point, or situated upon a pointed rock, as among the 
Brabantes; Scharpenberg, i.e. a sharp or pointed hill. Scar also 
signifies " Collis petrosus et asper," or, rocky and rugged hill. In 
various documents of public character the name of Scarbrough is 
differently written ; as Skardeburger, Scardeburge, Skarburg, Scarthe- 
burche, Scarburght, Scarburrowe, Scardeburgh, Scarburghum, Scar- 
borough, and Scarbrough. 

Scarbrough is a borough by prescription, i.e. in virtue of customs 
and privileges which, from immemorial usage, have obtained the force 
of law. It is also a royal borough. It has, however, no place in the 
Domesday book, and this can only be accounted for on the supposition 
that at that period Scarbrough had been destroyed by one of those 
ruthless and savage invasions which more than once depopulated the 

* Further interesting particulars of the Neville family will be found in the 
present volume under the heading of ''Yorkshire Ancient Families." 



SCARBROUGH IN THE PAST. 



87 




Scarbrough Corporate Seal. 



place, and laid waste the habitations of the people. That it existed 
prior to the Domesday book is clear, for we learn that Tosti, Count of 
Northumberland, in one of his expeditions landed at Scarbrough and 
plundered and burnt it, and Thorklen, a northern historian, in illustrating 

the invasion of this county by 
the Danes in the 9th and 10th 
centuries, refers to " Scar- 
deburge," as being one of 
the scenes of conflict. The 
same historian also narrates 
an event wlu'ch occurred under 
the stern Xorse King, Harold 
Hadrada, and the locality of 
the town of IScarbrough is 
thus defined. " Si-thence he 
lay at Scardeburg and fought 
there with the burgess men ; 
he ascended the hill which is 
there and caused a great 
pyre to be made there, and 
set it on fire ; when the fire 
spread, they took great forks 
and threw the brands into the 
town. The Xorsemen slew 
many people, and seized all they found." Doubtless this was a period 
when Scarbrouglrwas but a hamlet, mostly of wooden huts. 

The Romans, in addition to their military roads, formed camps in 
the most convenient situations. The lofty promontory at Scarbrough 
on which the ruins of the Castle stand, the elevated hill of Weaponess, 
and that of Seamer Moor, formed a strong barrier to any hostile 
invasions coming by sea. The remains of camps in these positions go 
to prove that the summit of Weaponess has at one time been strongly 
fortified by military works. On the heights above Falsgrave to the 
west may be seen the outlines of another camp. 

The'town of Scarbrough was anciently confined within very 
narrow limits ; some of the foundations of its wall are yet traceable, 
and their line of direction may be followed sufficiently to ascertain their 
boundaries. The old town has not extended westward beyond Eland's 
Cliff, and it appears to have been defended in the west, towards the land 
and on the south-east towards the sea by strong walls ; and on the 
north by a deep moat and mounds of earth ; whilst the Castle Cliff 
formed a defence to the east wholly inaccessible. The boundaries of the 
borough are the White Nab on the south, Peaseholme Beck on the north, 
and a ravine to the west, which includes a circle of nearly two miles. 

Scarbrough was incorporated A.D. 1100, by a charter from King 
Henry the First. There is no official account of this charter extant, but 
reference is made to it in the charter granted by King Henry II. This 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 




Ancient Butler Cross. 



King 1 granted a charter " to the burg-esses in Scardeburge, A.D., 1181, 

that they and their heirs should possess all 
the same liberties and tenures belonging to 
the borough, well and in peace, freely, quietly, 
and honourably, in the wood and in the plain, 
in pastures and in ways, in paths and in 
waters, and in all things as the said citizens 
of York, &c., &c. ; and to render unto the 
King yearly, fourpence for every house 
whose gable was turned to the way ; and for 
those whose sides were turned to the way 
sixpence." 

King John visited Scarbrough Castle 
1201, and again in February, 1216. In the 
R first year of his reign, March, 2oth, A.D., 
P' 1200, he confirmed the charter granted by 
King Henry II., to which Hugh Bardolph, 
who was governor of the castle, and William 
de Stuteville were subscribing witnesses. 

King Henry III. began to reign 1216. The earliest grant of this 
King was for murage and tolls, for the purpose of enclosing and 
fortifying the town of Scarbrough, and occurs in the ninth year of his 
reign, 1225. 

King Edward I. began to reign 1272, and resided for some time in 
Scarbrough Castle, Math a large and noble retinue. A splendid court 
was held there, 1275, and was attended by many of the nobility, 

King Edward II. began to reign 1307. On the 4th of March, A.D. 
1312, in the fifth year of his reign, this King, when at York, confirmed 
the previous charters In the same year he fled with his favourite 
Piers Gaveston, from his enraged nobles, and took refuge in Scarbrough 
Castle. 

Edward III. began to reign 1327. In the fourteenth year of this 
King's reign, at York, was imposed a tax of the ninth part of the value 
of all moveable goods throughout the realm ; the tax relating to 
Scarbrough, not only exhibits the amount but gives the names of the 
inhabitants on whom the tax was levied. 

King Richard II. began to reign 1377, and he, as well as Kings 
Henry IV. and V., confirmed the previous charters, the last-named, 
making considerable additions, among which was the grant of assize. 

King Henry VI. began to reign 1422, and he, as well as King 
Edward IV., confirmed the previous charters. 

King Richard III. began to reign 1483. In 1484, May 22nd, this 
King visited Scarbrough with Anne his queen, and resided some time in 
the castle, and the Queen's apartments were in the tower. This King 
is said to have taken up his temporary abode at Scarbrough, and that 
the house which he occupied is still situate at the sand side within the 
harbour This house has at one time been an isolated one, and there 




RUINS OF THE CASTLE. 



SCARBROUGH IN THE PAST. 89 

are remains of mullioned open windows, opening on every side ; whilst 
the projecting 1 off-set and the plinth indicate that the building in ages 
past stood so near to the sea that the waves of the ocean bathed its 
walls, This building is fast hasting to decay. 

King Charles II. began to reign 1649, and in the thirty-sixth year 
of his reign granted a new charter, and changed the form of govern- 
ment hi the borough, by incorporating and nominating forty-four 
persons, under the title of mayor, twelve aldermen, and thirty-one 
common councilmeii. 

Nothing of great importance to Scarbrough took place during 
successive reigns, but the town was approached by King George IV., 
on his voyage to the Scotch capital, when an address was presented by 
the inhabitants of the borough, to the King on board the Fleet. 

Queen Victoria, when princess, received an invitation in 1835, to 
visit Scarbrough, but the death of her uncle, King William IV., and 
her consequent accession to the throne prevented. 

Scarbrough Castle. The lofty promontory, on which the ruins 
of the Castle stand, is bounded on three sides by the German Ocean, 
and elevated about 300 feet above the level of the sea. "William, of 
Newburg, a Monkish historian, who wrote about 1190, says, "in the 
very entry, which puts one to some pains to get up, stands a stately 
tower, and beneath the entry the city begins, spreading its two sides 
south and north, and carrying its point westward, where it is fortified 
with a wall, but in the east is fenced by that rock whereon the castle 
stands, and easterly on both sides by the sea. William surnamed Le 
Gros, Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, observing the place to be fitly 
situated for building a castle thereon, increased the natural strength by 
a costly work, enclosing all the plain upon the rock with a wall, and 
building a tower on the entrance, but this being decayed by weight of age, 
King Henry II. commanded a great and brave castle to be built on the 
same spot." 

This King after coming to the throne in 1154. ordered Scarbrough 
Castle, along with all other castles of the preceding reign, to be 
destroyed ; hence it is evident that if the latter had only been built hi 
the previous reign, it could not at that tune have been more than about 
18 years old, and therefore not likely to " be decayed and fallen dou-n l>y 
weight of age" as the above historian relates. Possibly the true 
solution lies hi the fact that when Henry II. came into the north, to see 
his order carried out, on the refusal of the Earl of Albemarle to 
dismantle the fortress hi his possession, he found the castle of Scar- 
brough so great a national defence, that he not only countermanded his 
own order for its destruction, but directed its being increased in 
magnitude and strength. In a biographical notice of the Earl of 
Albemarle, it is stated that "he enlarged and fortified the castle of Scar- 
brough in or about 1154, the last year of the reign oj King Stephen." Clearly 
then there must have been a castle in the present position at an earlier 
date than 1136, and that the building of it must be referred to a more 



90 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



remote period of time, probably to the reign of King William the 
Conqueror, circa 1060. For in 1068 this King marched against the 
Earls Edwin and Morcar, who were in arms against him, and in order to 
secure the country as he passed along, he built strong castles and 
furnished them with garrisons. It was the want of such places that 
had facilitated his success, and the multiplication of them gave him the 
strongest assurance that he would be able permanently to overcome his 
English subjects. The Castles of Dover, Nottingham, and Durham, 
known to be built by this K ing, have the white tower, as also the one 
at Scarbrough, and the similitude of Dover and Scarbrough Castles is 
often the subject of remark by visitors. The royal castles were those 
of Dover and the other Cinque Ports ; Northampton, Corfe, Scarbrough, 
Bridgenorth, Oxford, Sherburn, the Tower of London, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, Bambrough, Rochester, Gloucester, Horsham, and Devizes. 
(Lingard citing Brady, &c., 417). 

It is somewhat confirmatory of an earlier period for the erection 
of Scarbrough Castle, that in the reign of King Henry I., a chapel was 
built in the castle yard, which was dedicated to King Edward the 
confessor. 

The approach to the Castle is by a gateway on the summit of a 
narrow isthmus on the eastern side, above the town. On the left tower 
of the outer gate, are to be seen the arms of England and France 
quartered. 

Within the gates, the north and south walls of the Castle form an 
angular projection, and at the western point 
of this projection without the walls, is an 
outwork on an eminence, which was a 
battery at the siege of the Castle, in A.D. 
1644, mounting seven guns and called 
Bushel's battery, the communication of which 
with the Castle is still observable, though 
now walled up. This outwork or corps de 
garde, is without the ditch, with which it 
communicated by a drawbridge, and under- 
neath a deep and perpendicular fosse forms 
the entrance to the Castle, and is what was 
anciently called the Barbican, which is always 
Arms on Gate Tower of Castle. the first member of an ancient castle. It is 
a watch tower for the purpose of descrying an enemy at a great dis- 
tance, frequently advanced beyond the ditch, to which it is joined by 
a drawbridge, and formed an entrance to the gateway. The drawbridge 
extended a little way within the gate and a small part of the wall and 
ballium. Leland in his narrative gives us to understand that there 
were two other drawbridges which defended the approach to the tower, 
and between each of the towers. He says, " In the first court is the 
arx and three towers in a row, and there joyneth a waul to them as an 
arme clowne from the firste courte to the poynte of ye see cliffe, con- 





DRAW BRIDGE OF THE CASTLE. 



SCARBROUGH IN THE PAST. 91 

teining in it vj towers, whereof the seconde is square and full of log- 
gins (lodgings), and called the " Q ueen's Tower or Loggins." Two of 
these drawbridges must have been done away with at an early date, as 
the third and last was only removed and replaced by a stone arch A.D. 
1818. Within the gates is an advanced battery of two twelve pounder 
carronades, flanking the fosse; this fosse or dyke continues southward 
along the foot of tbe westward acclivity of the Castle Hill, the whole 
length of the walls. Beyond the bridge on the right is a part of the 
wall of the Ballium, to which there is a slight acclivity. 

This wall of the Ballium, in castles was commonly high flanked 
with towers, and had a parapet embattled, crenolated or garreted ; for 
the mounting of it there were flights of steps at convenient distances. 
The entrance to the ballium was through a strong macchicolated and 
embattled gate between two towers secured by a portcullis. The area 
of this ballium where the tower is situate, contains more than half an 




Ancient Gateway and Entrance to the Town. 

acre of ground; it is separated from the internal part of the castle 
yard by a ditch and mound, surmounted with a wall. In this ballium 
were most of the habitable buildings belonging to the castle, and 
adjoining- it were the towers containing the " Queen's lodgings." 

Within this ballium the Queen of King Richard III. resided some 
time A.D. 1484. The tower of Scarbrough Castle cannot have been less 
than 120 feet in height the walls are twelve feet in thickness, and the 
rum about 97 feet high. The different stones have been vaulted, and 
divided by strong arches, each room being between 20 and 30 feet 
in height, and 10 yards square within the walk, with recesses. The 
remains of a very large fire place are visible in the tower apartment. 
This room during the last war was converted into a magazine. 

There are private passages visible in some of the intervals of the 
casing of the walls. The windows, divided by round mullions, are in 
semi-circular arched recesses, and are larger than usual in such build- 
ings. These recesses, are nearly seven feet deep, upwards of six feet 
broad, and ten feet in height. 



92 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

On the angle of the castle wall, and just above the South-steel 
battery, stood a noble tower called " Charles's Tower." It was in this 
tower that George Fox the founder of the Society of Friends, was 
imprisoned for refusing to take an oath a refusal, though serious to 
himself and to many hundreds of followers in its consequences, laid the 
foundation of that civil and religious liberty which has freed the statute 
book from great " pains and penalties," and has established a higher and 
more just appreciation of the simple principle of truth speaking. 

In the memorable compact between King John and his subjects in 
1215, and the conference with his barons on the 15th of June, at Runny- 
mede, when its plains were covered with a vast assemblage for the 
occasion, and when after a debate of several days, the King, on the 19th 
of June, established the constitutional right of his subjects by the two 
celebrated charters, Magna Charta, and Charta de Forresta, the govern- 
ment of Scarbrough Castle was then esteemed of so great importance 
that the governor was obliged to bind himself by an oath to conform to 
the directions of the select noblemen who were appointed guardians of 
their privileges ; and it was agreed that such only should be placed as 
governors in this fortress who were judged most faithful to the barons 
and the realm. 

In the 8th year of the reign of King Henry III. the Castle was 
the stronghold of prisoners. 

Edward I. resided some time at Scarbrough with a large and noble 
retinue, and in the 3rd year of his reign a splendid court was held here, 
attended by the nobility. 

In 1536 Scarbrough was beseiged. It was a time when insurrec- 
tions were numerous on account of the King's suppression of the 
religious houses, and the internal peace of the nation was disturbed. 
Forty thousand men assembled in Yorkshire, furnished with armour, 
artillery, and the implements of warfare. Priests in sacerdotal vest- 
ments, bearing crucifixes preceded them, and they styled their insurrec- 
tion the " Pilgrimage of Grace." A detachment of this fanatical army 
under the command of Sir Robert Aske, an avowed enemy of the 
Reformation, laid siege to Scarbrough Castle, expecting to reduce it. 
The garrison consisted mostly of the servants of the governor, Lord 
Evers, who by his skill and intrepidity compelled the assailants to 
abandon the enterprize. 

In 1538 a very full and minute survey of the state of the Castle 
was made by Sir Marmaduke Constable and Sir Ralph Ellerker. 
The report, which is most elaborate, was returned to the Crown 
and is worth reading. 

In the first year of the reign of Queen Mary, Thomas, son of Lord 
Strafford arriving, from France, surprised the Castle by stratagem, the 
which gave rise to the proverb known as " Scarbrough Warning." His 
triumph was however of short duration, as it was eventually retaken 
three days after by the Earl of Westmoreland. This taking of Ihe 
Castle was said to be ultimately the cause of war between England and 



SCARBROUGH IN THE PAST. 93 

France. In April, 1643, during- the time that Sir Hugh Chohnley was 
governor of the town and Castle, an attempt was made to fire the town 
and Castle which was defeated, and in the following year the long and 
memorable siege begun, which ended at last hi surrender. The batteries 
against the Castle were well chosen for situation, and very formidable, 
and were well served. The besieged general, Sir John Meldrum, after 
he had made a lodgement with his troops in St. Mary's Church, conveyed 
several pieces of artillery into it in the night, and opened a battery from 
the east window. The reduction of Scarbrough Castle was an object 
of such magnitude in the estimation of Parliament, that the siege after 
the death of Sir John Meldrum, who had been slam, was continued and 
the besieged were compelled to capitulate which they did on honourable 
terms. In May, 1648. the House of Commons voted 5,000 for the 
repairs of the works at Scarbrough, and in August following Scar- 
brough revolted and a fresh siege was begun which continued some time 
with varied success. So discouraging at one time was the progress, 
that Oliver Cromwell wrote a strong letter to the House of Commons 
on the necessity of a fuller and more active supply of money 
and material. On the 15th of December, this siege was also brought to a 
conclusion, and the Castle given up to Parliament, and General Lord 
Fairfax was requested to appoint a governor for it. The terms of 
capitulation are also very honourable. Thus was the last siege of 
Scarbrough Castle brought to a close. Where the slain were deposited 
has never yet been mentioned by the historian, but it is known that 
' charnel garth," in its subsequent change of owners, and the alteration 
made in it of late years, has revealed to us an enormous embankment 
of human bones, deposited there in heterogenous order, conclusive of 
promiscuous interment. After the last siege letters were sent to the House 
of Commons from the Committee at York, recommending that the Castle 
of Pontefract should be demolished, which was so ordered ; but whether 
Scarbrough was included in the order does not appear, though both 
the Castles were in a state of siege at the same tune ; yet the condition 
of the rums of Scarbrough would seem to indicate that the final demoli- 
tion of the north-west front has been effected by explosion, and not by 
bombardment or storm. We must now leave this venerable old Castle 
in the hand of time, and refer our readers to much matter of interest- 
ing detail, from whence we have gathered this outline, assuring them 
that the perusal will add much information as to the incidents of time 
and occasion in consequence therewith. 

We shall now briefly recapitulate the names of some of the ancient 
churches and religious houses connected with Scarbrough in the past. 

St. Nicholas Church. Was erected hi the reign of Henry II., A.D. 
1181. There are not many vestiges of this church now remaining. The 
situation of this church was on the cliff , near the north gate of the 
present cliff bridge, immediately below the fencing adjoining the planta- 
tion. The church consisted of a nave with south aisle and an 
embattled tower of three stages, ornamented with a short spire. 



94 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

St. Sepulchre Church. Is supposed to have been in the plot of 
ground to the north of Sepulchre Street, on which the Friends' Meeting 
House is erected. The church in its early days appears to have had 
some connection with the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, who had 
possessions in Scarbrough and in Stainton Dale. On the 20th March, 
1305, a commission was issued to dedicate this church and churchyard, 
and on the 27th July, 1308, another commission was issued to dedicate 
the altars of the said church. Judging from the appearance of the 
church on the plan or map, it must have been one of considerable 
dimensions, consisting of a nave and south aisle, with a tower at the 
side of five stories high, and ornamented with a short spire. 

Charnelle Chapel. Was situate to ,the north of St. Mary's Church, 
probably near a footpath through what is still known as " Charnelle 
Garth." August 13th, 1866, this garth was sold to Thomas Jarvis, Esq. 
When taking out the foundations for the " towers " very many human 
remains were found, also several stone coffins. There were also found 
several carved stones, fragments of an ecclesiastical building, and part of 
the outer wall of the Carmelite oratory was laid bare. 

Chapel of our Ladye. From a survey made March 25, 1538, by 
Sir Marmaduke Constable and Ralph Elleker, Esquires, it is stated that 
" within the same castle yard is a prety chapelle of our Layde and 
covered with leade, and besyd the same chapelle is a fayre well." 
This chapel stood near the site of the present well. 

St. Helen's. In 1864, when workmen were making excavations 
for the formation of new premises in Market Street, they came upon 
about thirty skeletons, all without coffins, and mostly lying on their 
faces or sideways. St. Helen's Church is supposed to have been near 
this spot, but as we have no historical record of any kind respecting this 
church, it must have been of a very ancient date, and consequently there 
would be no trace of ordinary coffins left undecomposed. 

St. John's. There is reason to believe that at one time there was 
a chapel or Church of St. John in Scarbrough, and that its site was near 
Newbrough Gate, and not far distant from St. Thomas' Church, near 
the hospital of that name. Gent, a very reliable historian, in his 
" History of Hull," mentions this matter in reference to Scarbrough. 

St. Clement's. This church long ago disappeared ; yet a record of 
its once existing has come to light. What it was like cannot be re- 
called; but that it existed four centuries ago is an historic fact. 
Confirmatory of this is the record, that on the 20th February, 1496, 
" Thomas Saye, of Scarbrough, gentlemen, who was buried in St. 
Mary's, Feby., 1496, besides his wife Alice, bequeathed to St. Clement's 
Church in Wallesgrave iij s iv d towards the repairs of the fabric." 

Franciscans. ' ' Thys year," says the chronicler, speaking of the 
7th year of King Henry III., A.D., 1223, came the " Freers minors 
into England." In 1245 the Franciscans erected a religious house in 
Scarbrough, which must have been a very spacious building. From 
a patent granted by King Henry III. in the 19th year of his reign 



SCARBROUGH IN THE PAST. 



95 



leave was given to the Franciscans to pull down houses, and to build 
their convent on a spot of ground between Cuke wild Hill and the 
water course called Mill Beck, given to the crown by William, son 
of Robert de Morpeth. The site of this church seems to have been 
the same as the present plot of ground in Sepulchre Street, called the 
" Friarage." On the 20th of March, 1306, a commission was issued 
to dedicate their church and churchyard. 

Cistercians. The establishment of this order of monks in Scar- 
brough dates from the year 1054, and was under the Abbey of 
Cisteaux, in Burgundy. In 1198 King Richard I. gave a grant to 
the Cistercians in Scarbrough, which is recited at length in the 
charter of King Edward I. At first they had in Scarbrough only 
a single cell, which was situate on the X.E. corner of the western 




Xewbrough Bar, 1615. 

burial ground of St. Mary's, and the steps leading to it may yet be 
traced in the south wall near Speight Lane. In the year 1235, 13th 
of King Edward I. the Church of St. Mary, and the jurisdiction of 
the ancient chapel within the castle yard, and that of all other 
chapels within the town, as well as without, were confirmed to the 
Cistercians, and all rights of the crown in the rectory were 
given up. 

Dominicans. This convent was founded in the reign of King 
Henry III. But few traces of this religious house in Scarbrough now 
remain, though its situation seems pretty clearly marked out by Queen 
Street, which was at one time called Black Friar's Gate, and by 
Friar's Entry, which branches from it, and has been widened, and 



96 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



still retains its name. The ground adjacent to Friar's Entry, out of 
Queen Street, appears to have been used for burial purposes at a 
period prior to the introduction of Christianity, as several fragmentary 
burial urns were found there in 1826. 

On the site of the palace of the Abbot of the Dominicans, there 
was found an elegant and ingeniously-constructed box, made of iron, 
and of which the plate annexed is a correct representation. It is 
one foot two inches long, seven-and-a-half inches broad, and seven 
inches deep, and is composed of hammered iron one-eighth of an 
inch in thickness, bound with thin bars of the same metal so as to 
divide it into compartments. The key-hole in front, which has been 




Ancient Deed Chest. 



richly gilt, is false, and only placed there for ornament. The out- 
ward foliated border has also been gilded. The several compartments 
have been pamted with various devices, chiefly landscapes. The 
handles and bases are painted with vermillion. The lid, represented 
open, is almost entirely occupied with the lock, which is of curious 
workmanship, having live strong bolts, which, when the lid is pressed 
down, lock instantaneously, and are opened by a key in the centre 
of the lid, the keyhole for which is hid by a sliding bar. The embel- 
lishment on the front of the lock is curiously chased and litted up 
with a white metal not unlike to silver. The inside of the chest is 
painted with vermillion, as is the support of the lid. 



SCARBROUGH IN THE PAST. 



97 



Carmelites. The establishment of the Carmelites in Scarbrough 
may be dated from the 13th year of the reign of King Edward II. 
who made them a grant of certain houses for building their 
convent and an oratory. Also a grant of license to the Cistercians 
to sell a piece of ground for the said oratory, and a grant of leave 
from the Abbot of the Cistercians, as rector of Scarbrough, to 
oratory. This was situated near the north cliff, not far 
boundaries of the Castle, in a field known as Charnell 



build an 
from the 
Garth 



" The cloisters and chapels, from whence to the skies 
The sounds of devotion were wont to arise, 
\Vhere the Carmelites once their loud orisons sung 
Are now but grey walla by green ivy oer'hung." 




St. Mark's Church. 

St. Mary's Church. This church is of very early date. In the 
reign of King Richard I. A.D. 1189, St. Mary's is stated to be a 
vicarage of the value of 20 mark?, in the gift of the king, and 
that he presented the same to Gilbert de Tunibus, clerk, who held 
it. .Afterwards the king gave the advowson to the abbot and con- 
vent of the Cistercians in France, and some monks were sent over, 
and had a cell at Scarbrough before the fourth year of the reign of 
King John A.D. 1204 Testa de Xeville, p. 375). From letters in the 
Public Record Office, it appears that in the reign of King Edward 
I., the Abbot and the Convent of Albion wrote to the king begging 
that, as the church of Scarbrough, which had been for the support 
of the general chapter, was too distant for personal superintendence, 
the Abbot of Rievale might be'permitted to look after it." (7th Report 
Public Records app. II, p. 249). 



98 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

The Spa of Scarbrough is now a matter of history extending over 
nearly three centuries, and has gradually become an object of admiration 
all over our own country, and even in other countries, as the influx of 
visitors from year to year bears testimony. The Spa itself lies south 
by east from St. Nicholas' Cliff Terrace, at a distance from the town of 
about 700 yards. It is pleasantly situated on the sea shore at the foot 
of the cliff a little to the south of the town, and its waters were first 
discovered in 1620 by a sensible and intelligent lady, Mrs. Farrar, who 
lived at Scarbrough, and who, whilst walking out along the beach, 
observed the stones over which the waters from the cliff passed to 
have a russet colour ; and on tasting it, to be slightly acid and different 
from the common springs. On testing it with an effusion of galls, she 
found that it took on a purple tinge, and hence she came to the con- 
clusion that it must have a medicinal value. Having herself given it a 
trial, she communicated the result to others and persuaded them to do 
likewise; and as the waters were found to be very efficacious in 
certain ailments to which the human frame is subject, they became the 
medicine of the inabitants of Scarbrough. 

The first attempt at collecting the waters took place in 1698, 
when a governor was appointed to receive subscriptions and preserve 
order. The amount of subscription to the Spa was at that time 7s. 6d. 
for the season to each individual, 2s. 6d. of which went to a number of 
poor widows who attended to present the water. In 1700 the first 
spa house was built by Dicky Dickenson, the first governor, who 
rented the wells from the corporation at a low rent, and built two nouses 
for the convenience of the company, one for the use of gentlemen and 
the other for ladies. The custom was to enter the name in his book 
and pay 5s., which made the subscriber free of the Spa. This governor 
was one of nature's freaks most deformed in person, but brilliant 
mentally, his wit being of a fine and keen order. He was known by 
many of the gentry of Great Britain, who delighted to converse with 
him, though he had an impediment in his speech. He was called by 
some a second -<Esop. 

In the year 1735 the staith of the Spa of Scarbrough was washed 
down in the winter by a strong tide, and in the following year was 
rebuilt and much enlarged. From its very first formation the Spa 
has ever been subject to vicissitudes. Thus in 1737, on the 28th of 
December, the staith of the Spa, composed of a large body of stone 
bound by timber, as a defence against the sea, and for the security 
of the house and wells, in a most extraordinary manner gave way. 
A great mass of the cliff, containing near an acre of pasture land, 
with the cattle grazing upon it, sunk perpendicularly several yards. 
As the ground sank, the earth and sand under the cliff rose on the 
north and south sides of the staith out of its natural position above 
100 yards in length; and was in some places six, and in others 
seven yards above its former level. The Spa wells ascended with 
the earth and sand; but as soon as the latter began to rise the 



SCARBROUGH IN THE PAST. 99 

water ceased running into the wells, and for a time seemed to be 
lost. The ground thus raised was 26 yards broad, and the staith, 
notwithstanding its immense weight, computed at 2,460 tons, rose 
entire 12 feet higher than its former position, and was forced for- 
ward to the sea about 100 yards. The spring of water by diligent 
search was recovered on the 1st of February, 1738, and the staith 
being repaired, the Spa continued to retain its wonted reputation. 
At the time of this occurrence the Spa was approached from the 
sands by a rude wooden ladder ; the cottage at the top was built 
of wood, and was occupied by the celebrated Dickenson. 

In 1739 the Spa was rebuilt, in a castellated form, at the expense 
of the corporation, and with the occasional exception of repairs 
rendered necessary by tidal injury or ordinary wear and tear, the 
Spa continued until 1808, when it was all but washed away, and 
the corporation voted 600 towards its repair. Again in 1825 it 
was greatly damaged by a very high tide and nearly washed away. 
A new era now sprung up, and the days of the old Spa and its 
patchwork was about to vanish for ever. A company was formed 
with a view to provide an easy and convenient junction between the 
Spa and the town. In 1836, the house and Spa were again destroyed 
by a violent storm, and were afterwards replaced by a substantial 
sea-wall and a Gothic building. 

Further alterations with improvements and enlargements having 
become necessary, the late Sir Joseph Paxton was consulted by the 
Cliff Bridge Company, as to enlarging the saloon, and the plans which 
he selected were adopted. Henceforth the career of the Spa, if a 
chequered one hitherto, was to become one of grandeur and stateliness, 
marked with architectural beauty and fitness, with all the accompani- 
ments, floral and aesthetic, which science, art, and money could command. 
The authority of the governors of old had departed in 1822, and all 
arrangements had lapsed into the proprietary shareholders. From the 
commencement there had been eight successive Monarchs of the Spa, 
and certainly some of the most original of nature's productions. The 
first, Dicky Dickenson was unique in every respect ; the third was remark- 
able for longevity, attaining the age of 103, and being at that period in 
possession of all his faculties ; whenever questioned as to his mode of 
living, and freedom from the usual infirmities of life, he jocularly 
replied, that he had always lived well, and spa-water was his sovereign 
remedy; number seven was perhaps the most strikingly remarkable, 
being minus hands and feet. 

After the destruction of the great hall by fire a few years ago 
it was rebuilt and largely increased in size and decorative character, 
and is now an object of increased interest. From " Scarbrough 
Ancient and Modern," by 

Scarbrough, JOSEPH B. BAKER. 



100 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



WALTON CROSS. 

THE number of crosses on the line of the great Roman road from 
Mancunium, via Cambodunum, to Eboracum is very remarkable, Frag- 
ments of several of these still remain, and the existence of others is 
only now known by some local appellation. Near Slack or Scammonden 
(a word which retains the original name S' Cambodian) are Haigh 
Cross and Maplin Cross, and in the north-west corner of Rastrick 
Churchyard is the base of a beautifully floriated cross. Still following 
the Roman road after it crosses the Calder at Brighouse Ford we mount 
the hill by Clifton to Cleckheaton, having to our right the venerable 
edifice, Hartshead Church, and a few hundred yards nearer to us, 
Walton Cross, which bears Roman indications in its name. The base 
only of this interesting remain is left, but this is so massive and so 
richly sculptured as to place it among the most important remains of 
the class now existing. The stone itself is of irregular shape. At the 

N.E. corner it is 54 



inches high, at the 
S.E.,58;attheS.W M 
57; andattheN.W., 
53. At the base it 
is on the E. side, 41 
inches wide ; on the 
N. side, 30; on the 
S., 28 ; and on the 
W., 41; whilst at 
the top of the stone 
it measures on those 
sides respectively 28, 
24,24, and 26 inches 
On the east side 
which is evidently 
the front, the stone 
bears a raised panel, 
around which several 
lines of interlacing 
work are carried. In 
the centre of the 
panel is the reprc 
Bast side, Walton Cross. sentation of a tree ir 

an early conventional form, with two birds on each side, their faces to 
the stem, which is the centre of the stone. On the north and sout" 
sides the whole face of the stone is covered with a closely interlace 
pattern ; on the north side a cross being the basis of the design, 
the west side also, an interlaced cross within a circle may be traced, 
supported below by two winged figures, the limbs and extremities o: 
which are continued in flowing lines and made to interlace in vario" 




WALTON CROSS. 



101 



complications. On this side a hole has at some time or other been 
drilled, probably with the idea of meeting- the hollow socket in which 
the stem of the cross has been placed. From the size and depth of this 
socket the stem and surmounting- cross must have been of grand pro- 
portions. The stone is of grit and unlike the stone found hi the immediate 
neighbourhood. The late Mr. Fairless Barber, F.S.A., employed work- 
men to remove an adjoining wall and dig out the soil to the depth of 

about a foot round the 
cross, which revealed 
a fact hitherto un- 
known, viz., that the 
cross stood on a large 
stone, fifty niches 
square, by eight inches 
thick forming a step 
all round the base. As 
the base was not 
placed ha the centre, it 
was carefully restored 
to its ancient position. 
It seems from the notes 
of a local antiquary 
that the stem was in 
existence about the 
time of George III.'s 
accession, but this 
would be a somewhat 
remarkable circum- 
The work on 




e*t side, Walton Cross. 

the cross has all the characteristics of pre-Xorman sculptures, and is 
certainly more ancient than the fine Xorman doorway and chancel arch 
at the church close by. 

Idle. J. HORSFALL TURNER. 



A YORKSHIRE BARROW AXD ITS CONTEXTS. 

ON the 22nd of June, 1864, a circular conical barrow, of large 
size, measuring about sixty feet in diameter, and rising to a height of 
five or six feet above the general level of the ground was carefully 
opened on Bishop Wilton Wold, about four miles from Pocklington, by 
Mr. J. R. Mortimer, to whom the antiquarian world is indebted for 
many important discoveries. The Barrow, known as the " Calais Wold 
Barrow," is situated in a grass field near a farm house known as " Calais 
Wold," from which this distinctive apellation has been gained. 

Mr. Mortimer, rightly judging that the primary interment would 
be central, commenced operations by digging a large hole, or pit, of 



102 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



about nine feet square, in the middle, and the mound was found to be 
composed of layers of clay and loam, brought from a distance, mixed 
up with layers of soil procured on the spot. About a foot below the 
surface, in the centre of the barrow, the diggers came upon a fine Celtic 
cinerary urn which had evidently been filled with calcined human bones 
and then inverted. This had, of course, been done while the remains of 
the body were still glowing, and it was remarked that the fragments of 
burned bones were of peculiar whiteness. The cremation of the body 
had doubtless taken place on the spot, as was usual, and the ashes then 
gathered together and deposited in the urn while still glowing. 




Cinerary Urn from the Calais Wold Barrow. 

The Cinerary Urn measured about eleven inches in height, nine 
inches in diameter at the mouth, and four inches at the bottom. It was 
of the ordinary form with thick overhanging lip, or rim, which as well 
as the neck was ornamented with a zigzag pattern formed by a number 



A YORKSHIRE BARROW AND ITS CONTENTS. 



103 



of indented dots produced with the point of a stick, or with a. knot of 
a thong ; the top edge of the rim being also ornamented with a row of 






Flint Implements from the Calais Wold Barrow. 



similar indentations. The material was the usual reddish clay, and, as 
is so commonly the case, was blackened inside through having been 



104 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

filled with the glowing remains of the cremated body and fragments of 
the embers. 

Near to this, but on a somewhat lower level, the fragments of 
another cinerary urn, containing calcined human bones, was discovered. 
It had stood upright, but had evidently been broken when disturbed for 
the deposit of the later interment just spoken of Fragments of the 
same urn were also found in other parts of the mound. 

Continuing the excavation, at a depth of some two feet or more 
below the urn just spoken of, three remarkably fine flint arrow heads 
and two flint javelin or spear heads, of unusual form and extreme 
beauty, were found.* Four of these are here engraved of their full size. 
They are of lozenge shape, and, especially the two larger ones, more 
elongated and much more acutely pomted than any other examples as 
yet exhumed. They are also remarkable for the delicacy and minute- 
ness of chipping ; but it is much to be regretted that three of these 
beautiful flints received injury from the pick of one of the workmen. 

Mr. Mortimer, in his note on this discovery, which he drew up for 
me, says, "all these specimens lay together in a dark substance, 
undoubtedly composed of organic matter ; and from the centre of this 
ran to the right and to the left, a dark streak of the same colour, each 
streak bending in some measure round the mound. As this dark trace 
or curve of decayed matter extended a little more than three feet in 
length, and was close to the arrow heads, the inference was obvious, 
that it marked the decayed remains of the long-bow of the ancient 
warrior or hunter, whose treasured ashes reposed in the second or 
broken urn." 

In this there can be no reasonable doubt Mr. Mortimer was 
in error. The probability being that these flints belonged to the 
primary interment, which would be by inhumation, and of which the 
traces of " dark substance, undoubtedly composed of organic matter," 
would be the decayed remains. The two urns being on two different 
levels, and the lower of the twain being some considerable distance 
above the level of the deposits, the interment by inhumation, with 
which the flints had been placed, and the supposed indication of a bow 
was observed, would be the older, if not quite the primary burial. 

On the natural surface of the ground were here and there indica- 
tions of a funeral pyre, and flint chips were found among the soil 
of which the mound was composed 

The flint implements of which engravings are here given, measured, 
the largest one 3 T 3 e inches in length by an inch in width at the widest 
part ; the next largest, 2 T 9 ff inches and a little less than an inch in breadth 
at the shoulder. It had been notched on the sides, below the shoulder, 
for firmer attachment by a thong to the shaft or handle. The largest 
" had been struck from a block of honey-coloured flint, and is nearly 
transparent ; the points are almost as sharp as a needle, and neither of 
them exceeds in substance the thickness of a shilling." 

* See preceding page. 



A YORKSHIRE BARROW AND ITS CONTEXTS. 



105 




Among the soil thrown out in the course of excavating, a jet >tud 

was found which is here engraved ' 
top, bottom, and side of its full 
size. It has two converging holes, 
as usual, for attachment. These 
objects were all carefully described 
and illustrated in my " Eeliquary," vol. VI., and the illustrations of the 
flints and studs transferred from it to Evans's " Ancient Stone Imple- 
ments " and my own " Grave Mounds and their Contents." The dis- 
covery was one of extreme interest and importance, and the only regret 
one feels is that the excavations were not extended to a larger area than 
nine feet in the centre of a barrow measuring sixty feet in diameter. 
The Hollies, Dujfield, Derby. LLEWELLYNN JF.WITT. 



YORKSHIRE VOLUNTEERS IX 1806. 

A strong wave of patriotism swept over Great Britain during the 
early years of the present century, when the fear of invasion by the 
legions of the First Xapoleon filled men's minds. An enormous army 
of more than 370,000 volunteered to defend their country against the 
foreign despot, regiments being formed in every county, and Yorkshire 
did her part nobly. 

The Yorkshire portion of the Army was as follows : 

WEST RIDING. 

COMMANDER. 

Captain William Cunliffe. 
Lieut-Col. Hall-Plumer. 
Lieut. -CoL Sir G. Annytage, Bart. 
Colonel H. M. M. Vavasour. 
Lieut. -Col. Samuel Sykes. 
Lieut. -Col. Jno. Hardy, Jun. 
Lieut. -Col. Wm. Wrightson. 
Major Thos. Rawson. 
Lieut. -CoL Thos. Horton. 
Lieut. -Col. Jas. Moore. 
Captain Thos. Slingsby. 
Lieut. -Col. Sir J. Ingelby, Bart. 
Lieut -Co), the Earl of Mexborongh. 
Lieut -Col. Richard Wood. 
Lieut -Col. Joshua Walker. 
Captain Wm. Roundell. 
Major M. A. Taylor. 
Lieut. Col. W. S. Stanhope. 
Capt. Hon. Wm. Gordon. 
Capt. Jno. Ellison. 
Lieut. -Col. W. R. L. Serjeantson. 
Colonel Walter Fawkes. 
Lieut -Col. Sir W. M. Milner, Bart. 
Lieut -Col. Robert Harvey. 
Lieut. -Col. F. F. Foljambe. 
Major J. L. Kaye. 



PLACB. 
Addingham 


STATE. 
Infantry... 


67 


Ainstie of York. . . 


Infantry... 


456 


Upper Agbrigg ... 
Barkston Ash ... 


Infantry... 
Infantry... 


1333 
400 


Birstal and Batley 


Infantry... 


347 


Bradford 





585 


Doncaster 


Infantry... 


500 


Ecclesfield 


Infantry... 


212 


Halifax 


Infantry... 


1070 


West Halifax ... 





426 


Knaresborongh ... 


Cavalry ... 


57 


Knaresborough ... 


Infantry... 


274 


Pontefract 


Infantry... 


800 


Loyal Ripon 


Infantry... 


339 


Rotherham 


Infantry... 


500 


Roundell 


Infantry... 


144 


Skyrac 


Infantry. . . 


220 


Staincross 


Infantry... 


580 


StockeldPark ... 


Cavalry ... 


48 


Thome 


Infantry.. 


120 


Royal Wakefield 


Infantry... 


570 


Wharf dale 


Infantry... 


680 


City of York ... 


Infantry... 


630 


Yorkshire Cavalry 
Yorkshire Cavalry 
Yorkshire Cavalry 


Xorth Reg. 
South Reg. 
West Reg. 


430 
653 
138 



106 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



WEST RIDING (Continued). 


PLACE. 


ST\TE. 


COMMANDER. 


Bawtry ... 
WathWood 


Infantry... 
Infantry... 


166 Major Viscount Galway. 
247 Lieut. -Col. Samuel Walker. 


Craven Legion ... 





1450 Colonel Lord Ribblesdale. 


Harewood 


Cavalry ... 


76 Capt. Hon. Henry Lascelles. 


Leeds 


Cavalry ... 


61 Capt. Jas. Eohdes (Rhodes?) 


Leeds 


Infantry... 


1371 Lieut.- Col. Thos. Lloyd. 


Leeds 


Pioneers... 


77 Captain Wade Browne. 


Sheffield 


Infantry .. 


609 Colonel Earl of Effingham. 


NORTH RIDING. 


Barton-le-Street 


Cavalry ... 


52 Captain H. C. Leatham. 


Bedale ... 


Infantry... 


12 3- Captain George Marton. 


Catterick, &c. ... 


Infantry... 


756 Lieut. -Col. Sir I. Lawson, Bart. 


Loyl. Dales 


Infantry... 


1590 Colonel Turner Straubenzee. 


Filing and Stainton Dales 





100 Captain John Cooke. 


E. and W. GiUing 


Infantry... 


125 Capt. Sir R, D. Hildyard, Bart. 


Kiplin and Langton . . . 


Cavalry ... 


47 Captain Rt. Crowe. 


Hemsley 


Infantry .. 


136 Lieut. Jno. Sootheran. 


Masham ... 


Infantry .. 


124 Capt. Wm. Danby. 


Mulgrave 


Infantry... 


112 Capt. Fras. Gibson. 


Pickering Lythe 


Infantry... 


477 Lt.-Col. Sir G. Caley, Bart 


Stockton Forest 


Riflemen . . 


69 Capt. Rev. Jno. Ware. 


Yann 


Infantry... 


230 Major Tho. Meynell. 


Yorks. Foresters 





67 Capt. C. H. Harland. 


Cleveland 


Infantry... 


852 Lt.-Col. theHon L. Dundas. 


Newburgh Rangers 





52 Capt. Hon. T. E. W. Bellasyse. 


Castle Howard ... 


Riflemen . . 


103 Capt. Viscount Morpeth. 


Helmsley 


Cavalry ... 


82 Capt. Chas. Duncombe. 


Scarborough 


Cavalry ... 


60 Capt. Rd. H. Lister. 


Scarborough 


Infantry... 


300 Lieut. -Col. Jas. Tindall. 


Teesdale 


Infantry... 


629 Lieut. -Col. J, B. Morritt- 


Whitby 


Infantry... 


142 Major Hy. Simpson. 


Whitby 


Artillery . . 


212 Major Thos. Brodrick. 


EAST RIDING. 


Bainton Beacon 


Infantry... 


208 Capt. Geo. Conyers. 


Beverley 


Infantry... 


220 Major Peter Coles. 


Burlington 





343 Lieut. -Col. Jno. Pitts. 


Cottingham Grange 





140 Capt. Geo Knowsley. 


Everingham 


Cavalry .. 


42 Capt. M. C. Maxwell 


Grimston 


Cavalry ... 


94 Capt. Thos. Grimston. 


Hedon ... 


Infantry... 


77 Capt. Robt. Stubbing. 


North Holderness 


Infantry... 


138 Capt. Rd. Bethell. 


Middle and South Hold- 






ness 


Infantry . . . 


211 Major H. W. Maister. 


Hull and County, &c. . . . 





931 Lieut.-Col. John Wray. 


Pocklington 


Infantry... 


397 Major Robert Denison. 


Welton, &c 


Infantry... 


70 Capt. Josh. Thompson. 


Harford and Derwent . . . 





789 Lieut. -Col. Ralph Creyke 


Ouzo and Derwent 


Infantry... 


400 Lieut.-Col. Rd. Thompson. 


Yorkshire Wolds 


Cavalry .. 


271 Lieut -Col. Sir M. M. Sykes, Bart. 



The aggregate force raised throughout the country was as 
follows: Cavalry, 31,771; infantry, 328,956; artillery, 10,133 
Total 370,860. 

Skipton. W. H. DAWSON 




YORKSHIRE DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. 




BOLLING HALL. 

RAD FORD is not so rich in historic relics and associations as 
some other towns in Yorkshire that might be named, and the 
stranger on the look out for antiquities would fail to meet 
with the quaint old gables, and the overhanging houses, with 
their mullioned and diamond-paned windows, that carry one 
back at a glance to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. But it 
possesses, nevertheless, one of the finest old baronial mansions 
that can be found in the West-Riding a relic "familiar with 
forgotten years, and with the history of the olden tune " written 
upon its very walls. 

Boiling Hall occupies a commanding position, and a glance from 
this eminence is sufficient to take in a fine view of its general surround- 
ings. In the valley below lies the dingy town, for Bradford still looks 
dingy from its outskirts, notwithstanding the recent improvements in 
the way of smoke consumption, and it requires a fair stretch of the 
imagination to picture it as it was in the far off time when but a mere 
village, composed of rudely thatched cottages, interspersed by the 
burgage-houses, with their crofts and foldsteads, which then served 
as the mansions of the " better sort." 

To form a fair conception of the age of Boiling Hall, we must 
glance across the page of history far beyond the days when John 
Bunyan was a prisoner in Bedford gaol, and even beyond the Wars of 
the Roses, before we approach that remote period (the 14th century) 
when William de Boiling, lord of the manor of Boiling, gave certain 
"common of pasture" pertaining to the same manor, to Kirkstall 
Abbey, and twelve acres of land hi Boiling, (in modern times called 
Bowling) to the Hospital of St. Peter, York, in " pure alms." Going 



108 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

further back still, we are told of a certain Sindi, who was the owner of 
Boiling 1 , for is it not recorded in the Doomsday Book, that " In 
Bollinc Sindi hath four carucates of land," and that " Illbert (de Lacy) 
has it and it is waste ; value in King Edward's (the Confessor) time, 
five shilling's 1 " 

The Boilings appear to have been a thriving and influential family 
in their day and generation. A Robert de Boiling, who died in the 
reign of Henry III. was probably the next owner of the estate after 
Sindi, and may have been a descendant of his, seeing that "the 
posterity of these Saxons frequently assumed local names from the 
places of their residence." A long run of good fortune seems to have 
followed the Boilings down to the adventurous reign of Edward IV., 
when the unfortunate struggles for supremacy between the houses of 
York and Lancaster threw the whole country into war. Lord Clifford, 
of Skipton Castle, espoused the cause of the Lancastrians, and carried 
things- with a high hand among the Yorkshire gentry who hardly dared 
do other than enrol themselves under his banner. The famous battle of 
Towton, was fought on Palm Sunday, March 29th, 1461 and resulted 
in the defeat of the Lancastrians, and the slaughter of 36,000 men. 
Among the defeated ones, perhaps none suffered more than did Robert 
de Boiling (the third of that name.) He was attainted for high treason 
against the King, and in an Act of Resumption of forfeited estates 
made in 1468 it was specially provided that the Act " should not be to 
the prejudice of Thomas Radclyff, Esquire, of the grant to him made by 
letters patent of the Manor of Soiling. 

Nothing is recorded to show what became of the attainted Robert 
during the time that he was kept out of his estate by Radclyff, and it 
must be left to conjecture as to how he and his wife, and ten children, 
obtained a " lyvelode " while in so sorry a plight. However, he 
petitioned the King in pitiful terms to restore him to his estate, assur- 
ing his " Highness that he was never, against him, in any feld or 
journey, except on Palm Sunday .... whereto he was dryven, 
not of his own proper wille, ne of malice toward youre Grace, but 
oonly by compulsion, and by the most drad proclamations of John then 
Lord Clyfford, under whose daunger and distresse the lyvelode of your 
suppliant lay." 

Whatever may have been the effect upon the King of this appeal, 
it is satisfactory to know that Robert de Boiling eventually recovered 
his forfeited estates, and that he made his will, at Boiling Hall, in which 
he directed that his body should be buried before the altar in Bradford 
Church. 

Of the Boilings who succeeded the unfortunate Robert there are 
none who call for special notice till we come to Tristram, at whose 
death, without male issue, the line of the Boilings of Boiling (reaching 
over nearly four hundred years) became extinct. Tristram had an only 
daughter, named Rosamond, who married Sir Richard Tempest, of 
Brace well, a man of some note in his day. Rosamond appears to have 



110 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

made him a worthy partner and to have fully sustained her position as 
the wife of a great man, for Tempest was High Sheriff of Yorkshire, 
and at the Field of Flodden had held a principal command under the 
Earl of Surrey. She bore him nine children, all of whom grew up 
and married with some of the best families of the county. The fifth 
son, Henry, married Ellinor, daughter of Christopher Mirfield, of Tong 
Hall, by which union Henry acquired the Tong estate, and become the 
founder of the Tempests of Tong. 

There was a long succession of Richard Tempests at Boiling Hall, 
the last of whom, however, seems to have been no credit to the family. 
He is described as " a weak imprudent man ; " but it was his misfortune 
to live in disturbed times. The Civil Wars of the time of Charles I. 
brought ruin and disaster to many a noble family. Tempest was a gay 
cavalier, and for espousing the cause of the King was entrusted with the 
command of a regiment of horse. But he was on the losing side, and 
on the overthrow of the royal cause was fain to escape the forfeiture 
of his estates by the payment of a sum little short of two thousand 
pounds a large amount at that day. 

Sir Richard was his own greatest enemy. He was a reckless 
gamester, and tradition kindly steps in to tell us how it came to pass 
that he was the last of the long line of Tempests of Boiling Hall. 
While engaged in a game of <l put," in which he had a run of bad luck, 
he foolishly staked the hall and estate, and as the cards were being 
dealt, exclaimed 

"Now ace, deuce, and tray, 

Or farewell Boiling Hall for ever and aye." 

And thus, says tradition, the old hall that had been the home of his 
ancestry for a century and a half, was hopelessly lost. The last chapter 
in the mad career of this reckless man, was his death (1657) in the 
confines of the King's Bench prison, while in custody as a prisoner for 
debt. 

The story of the Boiling Hall Ghost is a thrice told tale. The 
narrative runs that while the Earl of Newcastle was sleeping in one 
of the rooms of the Hall on the eve of the day that was to witness the 
destruction of Bradford, a lady in white came into the room, pulled the 
clothes off the Earl's bed several times, and cried out with a lamentable 
voice, " Pity poor Bradford." That then he sent out his orders that 
neither man, woman, or child should be killed in the town, and that 
upon hearing this good news, the apparition which had so disturbed the 
noble lord, quietly took its departure. Several versions have been 
given of this mysterious visitation, and not a few have tried to account 
for it, or to " explain it away." For ourselves we prefer to take the 
legend, for such it is, simply on its merits, and without venturing any 
apology for it whatever. It is enough to know that the earl gave final 
orders that the people should be spared, and that he speedily withdrew 
his troops from the town, to the no small joy and relief of many who 



BOLLING HALL. Ill 

were quaking with fear, believing that verily they were in the jaws of 
death. 

From the Tempests, Boiling Hall passed to the Saviles of Thorn- 
hill, about the middle of the seventeenth century. 

Afterwards Francis Lindley, son of William Lindley, a merchant 
of Hull, came into possession of the manor by purchase ; and a 
descendant of his, Francis Lindley Wood, disposed of the manor and 
estate in 1816, to Messrs. John Sturges, Thomas Mason, and 
J. G. Paley, for 20,000, having previously disposed of the 
minerals to the proprietors of the Bowling' Ironworks for a still larger 
sum. 

By the kind permission of Mr. James H. Tankard, J.P., the present 
tenant, the writer of this sketch, visited the hall a short time ago. 
In the ulterior a special feature of interest was the large central hall 
with its fine front window looking on to the lawn, its quaint wooden 
gallery, its collection of relics battle-axes, spears, cross-bows, and other 
implements of warfare ; its portraits of warriors clad in heavy armour, 
ladies dressed in Elizabethan costume, and feudal lords, gay cavaliers, 
and titled gentry of more modern times. We saw the ghostly bedroom 
but not the ghost. It is a small apartment with just one small window 
looking to the South. In it is hung the portrait of Rosamond, the 
connecting link between the Boilings and the Tempests. 

For fully five hundred years the storm beaten walls of Boiling 
Hall have withstood the ravages of tune. Built in a style that may be 
best described as half castle and half mansion, with heavy walls com- 
posed of rough unsquared stones, it has come down to our own day hi 
a condition such as few of the monuments of feudal tunes in Yorkshire 
can now boast. 

West Bowling, Bradford. WILLIAM SCRUTON. 



NOTES ON SOME EARLY CASTLES, MANOR HOUSES, AND 
HOMESTEADS OF YORKSHIRE. 

EXAMPLES of early Domestic Architecture hi the County of York 
are, as might naturally be expected, not only tolerably abundant, but of 
marked and interesting character ; occasionally presenting unique features 
and not unfrequently assuming a picturesqueness and beauty that adds 
to the charm of their age. Of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries some 
examples remain, but the main richness of the county is in those of the 
succeeding periods. Some of these have been noticed by the compilers 
(Dawson Turner, and J. H. Parker) of "Domestic Architecture in 
England," a work of deep research, and reliable as an authority upon 
the subject to which it is devoted and, as that valuable publication is 
certainly not accessible to every reader of " Old Yorkshire," I have 
thought it would be doing good service to the archaeology of that 



112 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

county if I threw together the following notes upon some of the 
Yorkshire buildings there described. 

But first I give, as a useful contribution to Yorkshire history and 
topography, a list of Royal Licenses to Crenellate (i.e. fortify) buildings 
in that county. These licenses, it may be well to premise, were usually 
given in some such form as the following, which I quote from one 
granted in 1482. " Edward, by the grace of God, King of England and 
France, and Lord of Ireland, to all to whom these presents shall come, 

greeting. Know ye that, we of our special favour 

have granted and given licence, and by these presents do grant and give 
licence, for us and our heirs, as far as in us lyeth, to the said . . . 

. that he at his will and pleasure build, make, and construct, 
with stone, lime, and sand, towers and walls in and about his manour 
of .... and that manour with such towers and walls to enclose, 
and those towers and walls to embattle, kernel, and machecollate ; 
and that manour so enclosed, and those walls and towers 
aforesaid, so embattled, kernelled, and machicollated, built, and 
constructed, to hold for himself and his heirs for ever, without per- 
turbation, impeachment, molestation, impediment, or hinderance from 
us or our heirs or others whomsoever " 

The following are the Royal Grants and Licenses to Crenellate 
Yorkshire buildings ; the licenses of others than Kings I do not include. 
In the border counties licenses were granted by the Lord's Marchers ; 
and in some instances in the Palatinates, by the Bishop or Earl, and 
others : 

BERESENDE. Manerium. License granted to Johannes de Sigeston, 10th Edward 

III. 
BEVERLEY. Quoddam mansum in villd de Beverlaco. License granted to Adam 

(Joppendale de Beverlaco, 40th Edward III. 

BOULTON. Mansum. License granted to Robertas de Percy, 21st Edward I. 
BOLTON. Manerium. License granted to Ricardus Lescrop [Le Scrope], Can- 

cellarius noster in Wencelowdale [Wensleydale] 3rd Richard II. 
BRAUNCEHOLM. Quasdam domos in quodam loco vocato le Hermigate in Braun- 

ceholm. License granted to Johannes de Sutton, de Holdernesse 26th 

Edward III. 
BRIDLINGTON. Prior (ttum ilium de Brydlyngton. License granted to "Prior et 

Conventus de Bridlyngton," llth Richard II. The Roll explains the 

Royal reason for granting this license ; " ob reverentiam Johannis 

de Thweng nuper Prior de Bridlyngton ; " and after ' ilium ' adds 

' muris et domibus,' " 
BURTON CONSTABLE. Fortalicium. License granted to Galfridus le Scrop, 12th 

Edward III, The Roll says "Quoddam fortalicium apud manerium 

suumde Burton Constable, &c. Novo construere et fortalicium illud 

muro de petra et calce finnare et kernellare," etc. 
CLIFTON-SUPER-YORAM. Mansum. License granted to Galfridus Le Scrop, llth 

Edward II. 
COTTINGHAM. Manerium. License granted to Thomas Wake, dilectus con- 

sanguineus et fidelis noster. 1st Edward III. 
DRAX, nearSnaith. Ecclesiam et Campanile sua. License granted to the Prior 

and Convent of Drax. 36 Edward III. 



YORKSHIRE HOMES AND CASTLES. li3 

ELSLAKE in Craven. Quamdam cameram suam in Elslaie. License granted to 

Godefridus de Alta Kipa. 12th Edward II. 
FLAMBOROUGH, near Bridlington. Quondam Cameram suam infra manerium 

suum de quod supra costeram maris situatur Flaynburghe. 

License granted to Marmaducus le Conestable. 25th Edward III. 
FLAMBOROUGH, near Bridlington. Mausum suum infra insulani de Flaynburgh. 

License granted to Marmaducus le Conestable. 26th Edward III. 
FLETHAM. Mansum. License granted to Henricus Le Scrop. 8th 

Edward II. 
GUISBOROCGH. Mansum. License granted to the Prior and Convent of Guia- 

borough (Guiseburghe). 18th Edward IIL 
HAREWOOD. Man-mum Manerii. License granted to Willielmus de Aldeburgh, 

miles. 40th Edward III. 
HARPHAM. Quoddam campanile quod ipsa in Cimiterio Capellce de Harpham 

facere proponit. License granted to Johanna quse fuit uxor Willielmi de 

Sancto Quintino. 4Sth Edward IIL 
HERSSEWELL in Spaldingmor. Mansum suum. License granted to Gerardus 

Salvayu. 21st Edward L 
HESELWODE. Mansum. License granted to Willelmus le Vavasour. 18th 

Edward I. 
KEXBY juxta Staynfordbrigg. Mansum. License granted to Thomas Ughtred. 

16th Edward IU. 
KILWARDEBY. Mansum. License granted to Brianus films Alani. 19th 

Edward I. 
LA HODE. Placeam suam quce vocatur. License granted to Johannes de Eyvill. 

48th Henry III. 
LEKYXGFELD. Alansum suum. Liceuse granted to Henricus de Percy. 2nd 

Edward II. 
MERKYKGFELD, or Markenfield. Mansum suum. License granted to John de 

Merkyngfeld. 3rd Edward IL 
MOSKTON super Moram, Mansum, License granted to Thomas Ughtred. 16th 

Edward III. 
SCCLCOATES, near Hull. Matvntm, License granted to Johannes de Grey de 

Retherfeld. 22nd Edward III. 
SELBY. Eccles. clausir. et mans, abbatice de Selby. License granted to the Abbot 

and Convent of Selby Abbey. 49th Edward III. 
SHEFFIELD. Caslrum lapideum, apud manerium suum. License granted to 

Thomas de Furnivall. 5-lth Henry III. 
SHERIFF HUTTOX (Shirefhoton). Quondam placeam. License granted to Johannes 

de Nevill de Raby, miles. 5th Richard II. The Roll says " in solo suo 

apud Shirefhoton in Com Ebor, quandam placeam prout sibi placuerit 

muro, etc." " et Castrum inde facere," etc. 
SLYKGESBY. Man-sum. License granted to Radulphus de Hastyngs. 18th 

Edward III. 
SPOFFORTH. Mansum suum. License granted to Henricus de Percy. 2nd 

Edward II. 

SUTTON. Mansum. License granted to Robertus de Percy. 21st Edward I. 
TA>*FIELD. Man-sum suum quod vocatur L'ermitage in bosco suo de Tanfeld. 

License granted to Johannes Mannyon. 8th Edward II. 

WALTOK. Maimim. License granted to Thomas de Burgh. 8th Edward III. 
WESTCAXFIELD. Manerium. License granted to Matilda, quae fuit uxor Johannes 

de Mannyon, militis. 22nd Edward III. 
WHETELE. Mansum suum. License granted to Johannes de Sandale. clericus. 

4th Edward II. 
WILTON in Cleveland. Mansum. License granted to Radulphus de Bulmere. 

4th Edward III. 
WILTON in Pykerynglith. Mansum. License granted to Johannes de Heslarton. 

9th Edward III. 

H 



114 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

YORK. Domos svas quas Jiabet Infra clausum Ebor, ecclesi. License granted to 
Johannes de Cadamo. 26th Edward I. 

YORK. Mansum suum Cimiterio ejusdem ecclesice contiguum muro de petrd et calce 
firmare et kernellare. License granted to Willielmus de Hamelton, 
decanus ecclesiae Beati Petri Ebor. 30th Edward I. 

YORK. Abbathiam beati Maria. License granted to Abbas et Conventus beatse 
Mariae Ebor. 12th Edward II. The Eoll adds, "quod ipsi abbathiam 
suam prsedictam extra civitatem nostram Ebor. eidem civitati contiguam 
muro de petra et calce in solo suo proprio pro suo libito h'rmare et 
kernellare. Ita tamen quod murus inter dictam abbathiam et murum 
civitatis prcedictse per ipsos abbatem et conventum constructus vel 
construendus sexdecim pedes in altitudine non excedat nee etiam 
kernelletur," etc. 

BOLTON CASTLE, near Middleham, which Leland records "was a 
makeing xviij yeres, and the Chargys of the Buyldinge came by yere 
to 1000 Marks," and of which he gives in his " Itinerary," a faith- 
ful and very interesting account, is said in the " Domestic Architecture," 
to be " altogether, perhaps, the most perfect house of its period 
remaining in England. . . . Besides the great hall in the north 
part there is a smaller hall or banqueting-room in the south front, 
the kitchen and offices of which remain almost perfect. Near the 
fire-place is a sink, or water-drain, of plain character but original, 
and the leaden pipe which conveyed water to this, and which was 
also original, was sold a few years since for seven shillings by order 
of the steward for the benefit of the estate. Many antiquaries would 
cheerfully have given three times the sum to have preserved it. 
The only entrance to this house or castle is at the east end, through 
a well-protected gateway, and it is said that each of the small doors 
leading from the court-yard into the buildings was protected by a 
portcullis, so that if an enemy did force an entrance into the court- 
yard he would not be much advanced, and would be exposed to a 
murderous cross-fire from all four sides. This unusual precaution 
may have been considered necessary from the circumstance of there 
being no moat, which probably the steepness of the hill rendered 
impracticable. The chapel is outside the walls, now the parish church ; 
it is close to the north side of the castle, and protected by it on one 
side, and by the steep rock at the back on the other. There was probably a 
small oratory within the walls, but there is no appearance of any 
other chapel; the room now so-called was evidently the great hall. 
Possibly, however, there was a chapel at one end of the hall, as at 
Maxstoke, but it cannot now be traced. The ground rooms through- 
out the castle were vaulted with plain barrel vaults, running transversely 
to the length of the building ; in some parts the two lower stories are 
vaulted, and this is also the case in the tower and some other parts ; 
the upper rooms had wooden floors and the roofs were nearly flat. 
Besides the four large square towers there is a small square tower, 
or turret, in the centre of the north front, and another in the centre 
of the south front; the latter is filled entirely with garderobes, one 
on each floor, which have passages leading to them from each of 



YORKSHIRE HOMES AND CASTLES. 



115 



the rooms ; these passages are formed in the thickness of the walls 
and are lighted with loopholes. The ground room of the north 
tower is the dungeon, with a barrel vault, the only entrance being 
by a trap door from a similar room over it, which has loop-holes 




only; above this is a guard-room with a fire-place and windows. 
The eastern half of the upper stories in both fronts is divided into 
small chambers, each of which is provided with a fire-place, 



116 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

and with a garderobe, or has a passage leading- to one. The western 
half hi both fronts is a hall, the larger and most important one 
being in the north front. This hall occupies the same height as 
the two upper stories in the eastern part, and was open to the roof, 
which was nearly flat : it has on each side three tall windows of a 
single light, divided by a transom, with foliated heads and hood- 
moulds, of late Decorated character ; at the west end of the hall are 
two small windows under the range of the others, evidently to give 
light to the passage or entry behind the screen at each end. The 
entrance is by a good-sized newel staircase at the inner angle of 
the tower, and the staircase also led to the offices, which were partly 
in the tower, and partly in the west front, in which, from a large 
chimney remaining, was probably the kitchen. The arrangement of 
the smaller hall, or banqueting-room, in the south front, is precisely 
the same, except that the two western windows are elongated by 
lowering the sills, instead of having separate windows to the screens, 
as in the larger hall ; on this side the kitchen and offices are more per- 
fect. Several of the smaller doorways have the shouldered arches of 
the Carnarvon form. Throughout this castle there are no seats on 
the sills of the windows." It was clearly not merely a military fortress 
but a baronial residence, and of about the same period as, but more 
perfect than, Raby Castle. It is one of the best remaining examples 
of a fourteenth century residence. 

At Bolton Castle, Mary, Queen of Scots, was confined for some 
time, and that circumstance added to the halo of interest by which it is 
surrounded. It is traditionally said that the unfortunate Queen " once 
attempted to make her escape in the direction of Leybouru, and an 
opening in the wood, not far from that place, through which she is 
said to have passed, is still called the ' Queen's Gap.' " She left her 
name on a pane of glass in the window of her apartment, where it was 
preserved for many years, but being at length taken to Bolton Hall, it 
was accidentally broken ; the pieces being preserved. During the time of 
the Civil Wars, Bolton was held for the King by a party of Richmondshire 
Cavaliers, who capitulated on honourable terms after being reduced to 
extreme necessity by starvation, and the castle was dismantled. 

MIDDLEHAM CASTLE, founded and built by Robert Fitz Eanulph, 
1169-90, afterwards passed into the hands of the Neviles, who enclosed 
the original fortress in new buildings they erected, and it became a 
favourite residence of that family. In it dwelt the Earl of Salisbury, 
and his son Richard, the great " King Maker " Earl of Warwick] 
There, too, lived the Duke of Gloucester, Warwick's son-in-law, after- 
wards Richard III., who possessed Middleham from his nineteenth 
year, and whose only son Edward, born in the castle in 1473, died there, 
to the intense grief of his parents and the wreck of a great hope, in 
1484. Of the Castle itself, which covers about an acre of ground, the 
work I have referred to says, it " is a curious and interesting 
ruin, consisting of a large Norman keep, enclosed within a 



YORKSHIRE HOMES AND CASTLES. 



117 



Decorated castle. It has evidently been destroyed or much 
damaged by gunpowder, and has not suffered from neglect only, like 
the neighbouring castle of Bolton. The keep has square corner turrets, 
with very little projection, and other turrets of bolder projection in 
the centre of the two sides, also a barbican and entrance gate-tower 
connected with the original work. The Decorated castle surrounds this 
keep so closely as to leave only a narrow bailey, or court-yard, little 
more than a passage, between the keep and the inner walls of the 
buildings which surround it. The Decorated part of the castle is in a 
still more ruinous state than the Norman keep. No arrangements can 
be made out except the entrance gate-house, which is more perfect. 
There is a groined vault over the passage, with clumsy ribs ; the arches 
are segmental ; the windows are either trefoil-headed or of the 
Carnarvon form, and some are square." It is worthy of note that, 
according to Stow, Falconbridge was beheaded at this castle, hi 1471. 




Mlddleham Castle. 

SPOFFORTH, to crenellate which a license was, as I have shown hi 
the foregoing list, granted hi 1308. was the ancient seat of the Percy 
family, being older than TVarkworth or Alnwick. It was forfeited to 
the crown when Henry de Percy, Earl of Northumberland, in 1407, was 
slain in battle at Bramhaui Moor, but afterwards restored to the family. 
After the battle of Towton, in 1462, in which the Earl of Northumber- 
land and his brother, Sir Eichard Percy were slain, Spofforth Castle 
was greatly injured by the violence of the victorious Yorkists. Again 
repaired in 1559, it was finally dismantled hi the Civil Wars. The plan 
of the Castle, according to Parker, "is the usual one of the period, a 
parallelogram, forty-five yards long from north to south, and seventeen 
broad; the hall in the centre. . . The ruins evidently belong to 
three periods. The lower room under the hall is of transition Norman 
work of the end of the twelfth century ; the windows are square 
externally but have trefoil heads internally. At each end is a plain 
round-headed Norman doorway, the one at the south end. and a window, 



118 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

now open into another building 1 , which has been added in the fourteenth 
century. This building contains the "kitchen, and a vaulted chamber or 
cellar between it and the hall. Over this cellar is the solar, in the 
south-west corner of which is a good garderobe. The hall was 
evidently rebuilt at the same time that the kitchen and other apartments 
were added, but was again destroyed and again rebuilt in the fifteenth 
century. The whole of the buildings now remaining have formed only 
one side of a quadrangle, the other three sides of which have been 
destroyed, but may still be traced by the fragments that remain." 

MARKENFIELD HALL is one of "the finest of existing examples of a 
fourteenth century mansion, and was formerly the residence of the 
family of the same name. In Leland's time the family were still 
resident there, aud he thus records the fact " Markenfelde dwellith at 
Markeufelde, and his manor place berithe his name." A license to 
crenellate was, as I have shown in the foregoing list, gran ted in 1310, so 
that the house may be looked upon as dating from quite the early part 
of the fourteenth century. The original Decorated house, according to 
Parker, '* is in the form of the letter L, with the hall in one part and the 
chapel in the, other, both on the first floor, with other rooms under them, 
one of which, under the chapel, appears to have been the kitchen. The 
windows of the hall are of two lights, with a quatrefoil in the head, 
and a transom. The entrance was by a doorway in one corner, from an 
external stone staircase, of which the foundations remain, and the 
weather moulding of the roof over it. This doorway was at one end of 
the screens, and there are some traces of another staircase at the back, 
and a hatch in the lower part of a window opening on to it. One 
window in a gable at this end of the hall is at a higher level than the rest, 
having been over the music gallery ; but the wall at this end has been 
partly rebuilt. The roof has been of open timber-work, of which the 
corbels remain ; the present roof is modern. At the opposite end is 
another doorway leading from the dais to the chapel. The chapel has 
a good east window of three lights, with geometrical tracery. The 
western front was divided into two stories by a floor, but this is believed 
to have been an alteration of the fifteenth century, aud has been 
removed in the later restorations. There is a piscina and locker on 
the south side of the altar, of the Perpendicular style, belonging to the 
atterations in the fifteenth century. There is also a doorway on the 
south side of the chapel opening into another room, apparently the 
priest's chamber, with a room over it, and a newel staircase leading to 
it, which also descends to the lower rooms. At the east end of this 
hall, behind the dais is the solar ; it has a Decorated fire-place and a 
window with a seat in the sill ; it appears originally to have been the 
same height as the hall and the chapel, but divided also into two stories 
in the fifteenth century. From this room is a doorway to the garderobe, 
which is of considerable size, of two stories, with a pit under it, and is 
lighted by loopholes only. The space under the solar is divided into 
two rooms by an original wall, and these two rooms have vaults, with 



YORKSHIRE HOMES AND CASTLES. 119 

plain ribs and corbels, part of the original work. The hall and chapel 
are both finished externally by a good battlement with oillets. The 
other buildings are of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and the 
later kitchen blocks up one of the original windows." In plan, Marken- 
field, it will be seen, is much the same as Aydon Castle, and it has had 
its principal rooms upstairs. "A large irregular court, formed partly 
by the house and partly by stables, and other out-buildings, surrounded 
by a moat, completes the plan. There is a good decorated arched 
window of three- lights, which belongs to the chapel looking to the 
moat. The merlons of the embattled parapet are crenellated with 
moulded copings. The turret stair is a good example pf the date, and 
still retains its original pyramidal roof or cap. The hah 1 is lighted by 
four Decorated windows, with pointed arches ; two towards the court 
yard, and two towards the moat." 

These notes are intended to be continued hi the next volume, when 
interesting particulars of some fifteenth and sixteenth century domestic 
edifices will be given. 

The Hollies, Dvffidd, Derby. LLEWELLYNN JEWITT, F.S.A. 



LOW HALL, YEADOX. 

THIS interesting specimen of the domestic architecture of 
Yorkshire is situate at Yeadon, a few miles from Leeds. It is a 
picturesque abode, standing in pleasant well-wooded grounds, and is, 
hi all respects, a charming specimen of a small dwelling-house of the 
sixteenth century. 

The house seems to have been originally inhabited by the 
Marshalls ; in 1652, a Jeremiah Marshall is spoken of as of Low Hall, 
or Brook Hall, but I do not find the precise date of the oldest part of 
the house. The.se Marshalls, intermarried with the Calverleys, a much 
more turbulent race, and probably the unquiet spirit that sometimes 
rustles through the old house is one of those unhappy Calverleys. 

On our visit to Low Hall, we went in through a perfect old hall, 
where the original fire-place and wooden roof have been restored by the 
present owner, Mr. J. Marshall Barwick, M.A. ; then we saw the living 
rooms, etc. 

Upstairs we were shown a bedroom panelled with black oak ; this 
is said to be the haunted chamber. Beside the fire-place there is a 
sliding panel, and when a concealed spring was touched, this panel slid 
back and showed a closet of some size ; but when the panel was closed 
again, we tried vainly to find out where the spring lay hidden. It is 
said that a headless lady, with white trailing robes comes out of the 
panelling on the left side of the room, aud disappears into the sliding 
panel ; but she also walks along the staircase gallery, and was seen 
there by a Barwick of the last generation. 



120 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Then we went down stairs, and were shown many ancient 
pssessions, portraits of some Marshalls and of the wild Calverleys, and 
some very interesting 1 relics of Mary Stuart. Among these are an 
altar cloth with four different kinds of lace, said to be the queen's own 
work, some embroidered altar coverings, her bronze crucifix, and a 
portion of her rosary; a linen apron beautifully worked with Tudor 
roses, etc., said also to be the queen's own work; a very curious piece 
of embroidery, representing the story of the Prodigal Son, and several 
other relics. The most interesting are a pair of riding-gloves of drab 
coloured leather, trimmed with fringe, left by the queen at Nappa Hall 
in Wensleydale, and brought to Low Hall by an intermarriage with 
the family then in possession of Nappa Hall. Mary is said to have 
given the other articles to Lord Scrope, when she was taken away from 
Bolton Castle, and from him they descended to the Scropes, of Masham, 
and the Denisdales, of Nappa. 

It seems strange to come upon this quaint house and these ancient 
relics, and also upon the ghostly legend so near to modern busy Leeds ; 
but indeed, " old Yorkshire " houses seem to abound in ghosts or noises, 
or visions, which are very difficult to explain away. The ivy-grown 
porch at Low Hall is supposed to have come from the nunnery, at 
Esholt ; the lake, too, was the ancient mill-pond of that house, and has 
been reclaimed by the present owner. 

London. KATHERINE MACQUOID. 



OAKWELL HALL. 

OAKWELL HALL is a building rich in historic lore, and is besides 
one of the best specimens of the halled-house of the sixteenth century, 
existing in this neighbourhood. The date upon it is 1583. Oak well 
Hall is but a short distance from Adwalton Moor, famous as the scene 
of a terrible struggle between the Royalists and Parliamentarians in 
1643, when, under the command of the Earl of Newcastle, the former 
gained a short-lived advantage. On that occasion the camp of the 
Parliamentarians was at Westgate Hill, and that of the Royalists at 
Drighlington. It is generally believed that Sir Thomas Fairfax retreated 
by Warren's Lane past Oakwell Hall on his way to Halifax, the old 
Lord Ferdinando and Major-General Gifford retiring to Bradford. 
During this retreat the hall was entered by the Royalists in search of 
Republicans, to the great terror of Mrs. Batt, who had just been con- 
fined, and of her nurse. Heury Batt, the builder of Oakwell Hall, 
appears to have been a most eccentric arid unprincipled character. By 
an inquisition taken in Elland in 1601, he was found to have appropriated 
to his own use moneys which had been left him by the previous Vicar 
of Birstal for erecting a school ; also to have pulled down and sold the 
great bell of Birstal Church, and to have demolished the vicarage house 



OAK WELL HALL. 123 

thereunto standing in the churchyard. However, in the reign of James 
I., the successor of Henry Batt, the spoilator, had a decree for com- 
pensation made against him, and to this day a fine, imposed for the 
sacrilegious act, is paid by the owner of Oakwell Hall.* 

They show a bloody footprint in a bed chamber of Oakwell Hall, 
and tell a story connected with it and with the lane by which the house 
is approached. Captain Batt was believed to be far away; his family 
was at Oakwell ; when in the dusk, one winter evening, he came 
stalking along the lane, and through the hall, and up the stairs, into 
his own room, where he vanished. He had been killed in a duel in 
London that very same afternoon. 

The Oakwell property, which is even yet of great extent, passed 
out of the hands of the Batts early last century, and afterwards came 
into the possession of another celebrity, Fairfax Fearnley, Esq., a 
sessions lawyer of great repute and indonn'table spirit. In the great 
hall hangs a pair of stag's horns, with a label recording the fact that on 
September 1st, 1763, a great hunting match took place at Oakwell, 
when this stag was slain, and fourteen gentlemen dined off the spoil in 
the hall. Among the number were Major-General Birch, and Sir 
Fletcher Norton, Attorney-General. Oakwell Hall is understood in the 
neighbourhood to be the place described in " Shirley" as " Fieldhead," 
Shirley's residence.t Its irregular architecture; the broad, paved 
approach leading to the porch; the panelled hall, with carved stag's 
head and real antlers looking down grotesquely from the walls ; the 
gallery on high, admitting to the best chambers ; the drawing-room of 
delicate pinky- white ; the enclosure in the rear, half court, half garden, 
are all described in that wonderfully realistic story by Charlotte Bronte, 
and still remain hit act. 

Bradford. W. CUDWORTH. 

* The owner of Oakwell Hall in 1643 was an officer on the Royalist side and 
was at the battle of Adwalton Moor. My conjecture is, that Fairfax's troops did, 
at some time before or after the battle, enter Uakwell House, not in search of Dr. 
Marsh, as Watson in his " History of Halifax " states, but for Captain John Batt, 
who was then its owner. Oakwell Hall, upon which fortunately we have a date, 
1583, is even yet. a curious and beautiful mansion. Scatcherd's Histvry of Morley, 
p. 281. 

t If Fieldhead had few other merits as a building, it might at least be termed 
picturesque, its irregular architecture, and the grey and mossy colouring com- 
municated by time, gave it a just claim to this epithet. The old latticed windows, 
the stone porch, the walls, the roof, the chimney-stacks, were rich in crayon 
touches and sepia lights and shades. The trees behind were fine, bold and 
spreading; the cedar on the lawn in front was grand, the fretted arch of the 
gateway, were, for an artist, as the very desire of his eye. Bronte's Shirley, 
p. 169. 



T. A. SOWRY, 

HOLBEC::. 




YORKSHIRE AUTHORS. 




CHAELOTTE BRONTE. 

HE story of Charlotte Bronte's life is one of the most 
|.. fascinating in our language. The author of " Jane Eyre " 
was a mere reed, physically a woman frail, yet strong; 
spiritual, yet still indomitable. She had a rare and unusual 
development, and her domestic life was one of the most 
singular ever known. She was born at Thornton, in the West 
Riding, the 21st day of April, 1816, and was the third of six 
children. Her father, Patrick Bronte, was for more than forty 
years incumbent of Haworth, and the solitude of the grey 
old parsonage at that place nursed her imaginative faculty, and in 
the absolute dearth of society she learned to think and to write. 
She lost her mother when she was five years old, and was left the 
care-taker of her younger sisters and brother, after the two eldest 
sisters had been sent to school. Mr. Bronte did not known how to 
undertake the care and education of so many children, but he was 
a student himself, and enforced his spartan ideas of study upon his 
willing pupils. Fortunately they were all the inheritors of his intel- 
lectual tastes, and to this circumstance they owed all the pleasure 
they enjoyed. After the death of her mother, the two sisters older 
than Charlotte were put to a school kept for clergymen's daughters, 
and later, Charlotte and Emily were sent to join them. These two 
sisters both died from the treatment they received at this school, 
and it would have ended the lives of the younger girls if they had 
not been recalled. As it was, their health was permanently injured, 
and Charlotte, to the latest day of her life, had cause 'to remember 
it, She never grew an inch in stature after leaving this school 







\y 



/x^ 

" 






CHARLOTTE BRONTE. 



125 



She was the smallest of women, and attributed all her phy^rcal woes 
to the treatment she had received there. 

She remained at home from this time, taking- the responsibility of 
caring 1 for the three young-er children, and dividing her time between 
her books and their comfort. Her absorbing- occupation when free to 
eng-ag-e in it was writing-, and her purely imaginative composition at 
this time was precocious and singular, while the amount produced was 
immense. Her life was largely influenced by that of her more masculine 
sister Emily, who, if she had lived, would have been the greatest, 
though perhaps not the more successful, author of the two. Brarnwell, 
the golden-haired idol of the home, and Anne, the youngest of that 




Haworth. 

family, were both full of promise, and the eldest sister looked upon 
herself as the least among them all. She was the plainest in personal 
appearance, yet so spiritual and refined in organisation was she, that 
the expression of her face was a study to her home companions, and a 
marvel to those who could not know that a great soul was enshrined in 
her little body. Charlotte was now sixteen years of age, but she was 
so small, that she called herself stunted, but she was well formed, and 
as a child exquisitely refined. In her attire she was neat and dainty, 
though her clothing, as befitted her father's idea of a minister's 
daughter, was plain and homely. 

Her head was beautifully shaped, and very large, while her great 
brown eyes beamed with animation. Her hands were peculiar in their 



126 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

formation, and her fingers had a fineness of sensation and a restless 
motion arising- from the extreme sensibility of her organism. They 
were never still, and unconsciously she would clinch them together with 
a force that left a bruised scar for days. Having a finely shaped head, 
she had a broad and handsome brow, and in her day it was not con- 
sidered fashionable to hide it. Charlotte Bronte as a girl of nineteen 
had much book knowledge of a desultory kind, but her definite acquire- 
ments were few. She was not very reliable in orthodox matters ; of 
religion in its sunny aspect and beautifying influences she knew little, 
and it was not surprising that she early exhibited antagonistic feelings 
towards the calvinistic views of her father, and hated with girlish viru 
the long-faced curates and travelling preachers who occasionally appeared 
at the parsonage table. 

Charlotte Bronte loved music, and its influence over her was power- 
ful. It was a passion with her, and her soul, responsive to melody, 
caught the refrain of every accent of softness or sweetness, and its 
influence reached the world in the heart-music she sang, which vibrates 
and reverberates wherever the Anglo-Saxon tongue is known ! 

There is something fascinating in the pictures given of Haworth 
parsonage at this early stage of her career. Haworth is a sombre 
place, and its people retain now the dialect which Charlotte depicted so 
successfully in " Shirley." The straggling village has but one street, 
and the old grey stone parsonage stands quite at the top of the hill, facing 
down it, and surrounded on all sides but one by the village graveyard. 
The view from the side where there are no graves is the bleakest one 
of all. It looks out upon moors which are as barren as a prairie in 
winter, and as colourless as a desert in summer. But the changeless 
monotony of these moors grated not at all harshly on the girls of a 
home that was even more cheerless, and they spent some of their 
happiest hours upon them. A walk in the dull and waning light of a 
winter's afternoon, enabled these lonely children to return to their 
writing at eveningtide with new zeal, and while the wind sang its 
requiem without, they wrote their weird and extraordinary composi- 
tions. 

It was the custom of the sisters when at home, to sew at night 
until nine o'clock, when their father usually retired, and they then 
spent the interval before retiring to rest in talking over past cares and 
troubles, in planning for the future, and consulting each other as to 
their aspirations. This night time in the kitchen in after years was 
spent in discussing the plots of their novels. Charlotte, and indeed the 
others, had written much that was tolerably successful even in their 
own opinion, and for advice and counsel Charlotte wrote to Southey. 
He replied graciously, and was evidently interested in the young girl, 
for he invited her to visit him at the " Lakes." But there was no 
money in that home to devote to visiting, and Charlotte and Emily had 
both concluded that their writings would not bring it to them. Charlotte 
proposed to Emily the idea of enlarging the parsonage and opening a 



CHARLOTTE BROXTE. 



127 



school there, and Emily, who had tried to be a governess with even less 
success than Charlotte, gladly assented to this plan that would enable 
them to live at home and together. The obstacle they had to contend 
against was their lack of accomplishments, and they resolved to conquer 
this drawback. To do it successfully they went to Brussels to study 
for six months. Charlotte was twenty-six years old then. At the 
expiration of the six months the two sisters were offered positions in 
the school, and Charlotte accepted the offer. Emily returning home. 
This step in her life was a mistake. It has left her fame and honour 
as a woman bright as sunshine, but it was here that Charlotte Bronte 




Haworth Parsonage. 

ceased to be a girl, and came, through a baptism of pain, to her true 
status as a woman. Her staying in Brussels was an unreasonable 
impulse, and for her selfish folly she suffered, as she herself has said, a 
withdrawal for more than two years of happiness and peace of mind. 
Her heart had been captured by an acquaintance in Brussels, and Paul 
Emanuel, the hero of " Yillette," was the portraiture of the man she 
loved. Every word of that boob is a veritable history, a literal trans- 
cription of actual facts. She was the one English girl in a house full 
of French-speaking people, and the man she loved was an inmate of 
that school. None ever knew from her what she suffered hi her unfor- 
tunate attachment for the relative of her employer a cruel despotic 



128 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

woman, who is described accurately in " Villette " but they realised a 
depth and strength of character not before observable. Charlotte 
Bronte learned herself through a great tempest of love that swept over 
her life, a tempest which she was enabled by her native purity, strong 
character, and excellent discipline, to master. She had walked quite up 
to temptation's mouth, and then walked away, a nobler woman for ever 
after. Had she not known the experience she did, we should not have 
such books as she wrote, for no woman without actual self know- 
ledge could ever have pictured such a character as Rochester or 
been able to write such a book as " Jane Eyre." When Charlotte 
reached home from Brussels, she showed Emily and Anne some of 
the poetry she had been writing of late, and was greatly surprised 
to learn that they too had tried their talents in that direction. They 
consulted together and ventured to publish their compositions. 
Charlotte wrote to a London publisher, and an agreement was made by 
which the book was issued at their expense. It was called " Poems of 
Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell," and, it is needless to add, it had no success. 

The year 1846 was one of peculiar domestic hardships and unusual 
mental activity to Charlotte Bronte. She had a troubled heart to cure 
and an increased necessity for work that would pay her. She accom- 
panied her father, at this time, to Manchester to have an operation 
performed upon his eyes, and while in a strange city and amid strangers 
she made another attempt at book-making. Previous to this time she 
had written the " Professor," a story which no publisher would accept. 
With the soiled manuscript of this first attempt now before her, with 
the memory of her home, and the thought of her dissipated brother 
whose dark shadow rested over it ; in the presence of her fault-finding 
father, and dwelling constantly upon her absent sisters, whom she loved 
so truly, she began "Jane Eyre." It was under such circumstances 
that her great talent burst forth, asserted its sway, and made her more 
contented and happy, for her imaginative faculty was, under all circum - 
stances, a source of comfort. Think of it ye who wait for opportunities 
instead of making them and appreciate as it deserves to be appreciated, 
the brave woman who could work even under such circumstances. 

Charlotte published her book under the masculine nom de plume, 
" Currer Bell," and told no one but her sisters of its existence. When it 
was published, and before it had raised the storm of applause that fol- 
lowed its public reception, she took a copy of it in one hand and an 
adverse review of it in the other to her father, and quietly told him of 
her task and the result. Then for the first time he realised what the 
postman's call meant when some time before he had stopped at the 
door with a letter for Currer Bell, and was met with the reply 
from himself that there was no such person in the village. 

Then came the abuse which the critics, who could not appreciate 
her book, heaped upon it. She was assaulted as the exponent of 
views not compatible with womanly purity, and her great soul was 
inexpressibly pained 



CHARLOTTE BRONTE. 



129 



The quiet home-life at the parsonage was continued after the 
publication of " Jane Eyre," and Charlotte and her sisters had their 
hands full in watching over their ruined brother, and cheer as best 
they could their disappointed and unhappy father. " Shirley," the 
second of her novels was commenced and brought out hi the midst of 
fearful domestic anguish. When Charlotte was thirty-five years old she 
began to write her last work, ; ' Villette." It was her beloved brain- 
child, far dearer to her than her powerful " Shirley," in which is so 
graphically pourtrayed the character of Emily as the heroine, or her 
more popular "Jane Eyre." Every sentence of "Villette" was 
written literally through her tears. The task was a cruel, if a 
passionately absorbing one. She was painting the darkest chapter of 




Haworth Church. 

her own life and suffering, the loneliness of death in a house where the 
great destroyer had been so persistent. 

One of the least known incidents in the life of Charlotte Bronte is 
that of her marriage. Among the few of her father's acquaintances 
whom she knew well was Mr. Xicholls, his curate, who had been living 
at Haworth some years when he asked her to become his wife. When 
she told her father of the honour that had been paid her, and asked his 
advice, to her astonishment he grew violently angry ; denounced his 
assistant as presumptuous, and was so unreasonable that Charlotte made 
haste to assure him of her willingness to decline the offer. In course 
of time, however, he relented, and proposed to re-call Mr. Nicholls, 

i 



130 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

who had left Haworth, and asked his daughter to write him. The 
result was, that very quietly one bright June morning in 1854 she 
became Charlotte Nicholls. She entered into her husband's interests 
and occupation as much as she could, but she was clearly unfitted for an 
active, matter-of-fact existence. When the new year came it found 
her fast on her last journey. She died very quietly one Saturday 
morning in March, 1855, in the eighth month after her marriage, and 
the ninth year of her authorship. " The solemn tolling of Haworth 
Church bell spoke forth the fact of her death to the villagers who had 
known her from a child, and whose hearts shivered within them as 
they thought of the two (father and husband) sitting desolate and 
alone in the old grey house." 

All that is left of the Brontes in Haworth are the graves in the 
now renovated church and their memory, kept green by the thousands 
who have flocked there to learn all the particulars of the life of the 
woman who had made her name a familiar one to the reading world. 

Of all the women of England of the present century, the two who 
may be ranked as Charlotte Bronte's worthiest successors, as writers, 
are Mrs. Browning and George Eliot. The life-histories of both these 
women are of equal interest with their authorship. No one thinks of 
Mrs. Browning without recalling her invalidism, and her happy wifehood 
and motherhood. None now think of George Eliot without a feeling of 
pride in her as the largest endowed woman of this age, and one of the 
most exalted in her domestic life and affectionate nature. 

Charlotte Bronte had more natural talent than either Mrs. Browning 
or George Eliot ; she had far less culture than either, and a more limitec 
acquaintance with the world. But she was the completest woman of 
her era, the worthy predecessor in authorship of these two great 
women. Neither of them has given to the world more than die" 
Charlotte Bronte. She gave her sister women the inheritance of 
her life womanly excellence, literary greatness, noble characteristics 
and a stainless history. 

Her fame and her glory belong to no land or country, while ht 
memory is cherished by the cultured of every clime. The remembranc 
of her life is an inspiration to all who, like her, have pressed their 
bleeding feet upon the hard rocks of life, and left their impress upor 
them. 

Nearly three decades of time have glided into the uureturning past 
since the mural which bears her name was placed in Haworth Churcl 
There now rests all that is earthly of that wondrous woman whos 
name touches a tender chord in the hearts of millions. All ove 
the world her name is venerated. Inasmuch as she used every ator 
of available power, her life was truly heroic, and when all the battk 
of intellect are recorded, inscribed high upon the scroll of fame wil 
appear the imperishable name of Charlotte Bronte. 

Philadelphia. LAURA C. HOLLOWAY. 



A YORKSHIRE ANTIQUARY AND HISTORIAN. 131 



A YORKSHIRE ANTIQUARY AXD HISTORIAN'. 

JOHN JAMES, F.S.A., was born at the village of West Wittou, on 
the 22nd of January, 1811, and received the first rudiments of his 
education in the village school of the place. So reluctant was he, that 
he had often to be forced to go to school by his mother, who became a 
widow when he was about three years old. That he loved to play 
truant can hardly be wondered at, when we remember that West 
Witton, Wensleydale, is situated on the south bank of the river Yore, 
and overlooks some of the most beautiful scenery in Yorkshire. Bolton 
1'astle, and the charming park and hall, where Lord Bolton resides, are 
n close proximity His mother, after the death of her first husband, 
John James, married one John Wilson, but she also out-lived him, and 
died in 1853, at the age of 88 years. Her father, a Mr. Glasby, died in 
1813, aged 95. Her second husband died at the age of 73 ; such is the 
length of life in AVensleydale. I will here mention a curious circum- 
stance relating to this John Glasby. When he was 80 years old, 
concluding that he could not live much longer, he had his coffin made, 
and kept it in his house beside him for the remainder of his life, fifteen 
years, when he died, and was buried in it 

Although young John was so averse to learning in his boyhood, he 
soon took to it eagerly, and with the help of a young comrade, one 
Ralph Toinlinson, a schoolmaster, he soon became proficient ; and about 
this time he began to work at a lime-kiln for tenpence a day, which was 
all spent in book*. Through the interest of a gentleman of West 
Witton, a Mr. Anderson, he became a clerk in the office of the late 
Ottiwell Tomlin, Solicitor, of Richmond, who is buried at West Wittou 
Church. On leaving Mr. Tomlin he went to London, but not being 
successful he removed to the law office of the late Mr. Tolson, of 
Bradford, where he remained until the death of Mr. Tolsou. His 
employer treated him with great consideration and kindness, and 
encouraged him in his literary efforts ; and it was during his connection 
with Mr. Tolson that he compiled the materials for the History of 
Bradford, and which he published in 1842. 

The literary advantages of Bradford were then very scanty, and 
for the most part out of the reach of an obscure lawyer's clerk ; but 
such as they were Mr. James made good use of them. He became 
correspondent of the York Herald newspaper, and sought out the society 
of men with literary proclivities, and by this means gathered as well as 
communicated knowledge. The Mechanics' Institute had been formed 
some years, he early joined it, and became a member of the committee. 
He was also one of a small debating club which had a short but 
vigorous life ; and from the commencement of the Bradford Observer, 
in 183-i, he was an occasional contributor to its columns. Indeed his 
first efforts at composition are to be found in its earlier issues. He had 
the chance of becoming a lawyer, but, though gifted with a wonderful 



132 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

faculty for research, his tastes led him into the pleasanter paths of 
literature, and I believe that he never regretted that he had given him- 
self up to the muses. I have seen some of his compositions in rhyme, 
which were creditable, but he early showed his good sense by confining 
himself to prose, which was indeed elegant. 

His next work was writing a memoir of John Nicholson, commonly 
called the " Airedale Poet," and this was prefixed to an edition of the 
poet's works. Into this task he would seem to have thrown his whole 
soul, for as a biography, it is all tliat can be desired. 

Then followed the " History of the Worsted Manufacture in Eng- 
land," a work of immense research, and which is now hardly obtainable. 
It contains four plates, illustrating the worsted processes in manufacture, 
besides views engraved on steel of Bradford, Saltaire, Halifax, and 
Dean Clough, all paid for by the late Sir Titus Salt, Bart. ; the late 
Joseph Crossley, Esq., and others. At a meeting of the British 
Association in Leeds, he read a paper on the " Statistics of Trade in 
Yorkshire." This was the cause of his being personally introduced to 
the present Sir Edward Baines, then M.P. for Leeds. Soon after this 
the Messrs. Black, of Edinburgh, wrote to Mr. Baines, wishing him to 
point out some- one qualified to write an article for them on Yorkshire. 
Mr. Baines pointed out Mr. James as the most likely person. He then 
wrote it, and it appeared in the Encyclopedia Britannica, for which he 
received seven guineas. In 1862. he wrote some papers for the Bradford 
Observer from the Exhibition then being held in London, on the exhibits 
of Bradford and the neighbourhood. When his old friend the late Mr. 
Robert Story, formerly of Gargrave, died, he wrote a memoir of him, 
and it was appended to an edition of his poems printed for the benefit 
of his widow. He also gave a lecture in the Huddersfield Philosophical 
Hall, on the " Philosophy of Lord Bacon and the systems which 
preceded it ; " and this was also published in a pamphlet. In 1863, Thomas 
Wright, Esq., F.S.A., of London, read a paper before the Archaeological 
Association, then at Leeds, written by Mr. James, entitled " On the 
Little British Kingdom of Elmete," and which I inserted in Collectanea 
Bradfordiana. He then set to work on the continuation of his History 
of Bradford, and this was published in 1866. This work embodies the 
labours and research of Mr. James's later and riper years, and is a 
monument of his industry. 

He now went to reside with his old friend Mr. Edward Collinson, 
at Netheredge, Sheffield ; but he was a frequent visitor to Bradford, 
where he was highly esteemed. His reputation as an author was 
deservedly high, and I never met with a man who had a more thorough 
knowledge of the manifold beauties of our county, or who had accquired 
such a general information of its varied interests. His fame had spread 
far and wide, so that even on his death-bed, a letter was received from 
the Messrs. Chambers, of Edinburgh, asking him to write for them n 
paper on " Yorkshire," for their Encyclopaedia, then in course of publica- 
tion. The request came too late to receive attention. 



A YORKSHIRE ANTIQUARY AND HISTORIAN. 133 

Stern death which comes alike to all, came at length to him. He 
was struck with paralysis of the right side, and became speechless, and 
after lying thus for seven weeks, with a patience truly wonderful, he 
expired in his own villa residence, at Netheredge, Sheffield, on Thursday, 
July 4th, 1867. His body was removed on Monday, the 8th, to 
Leyburn, and his funeral took place at West Witton Church, the same 
afternoon. The town of Sheffield was represented by his god-son, John 
James Collinson, and Bradford by his friend and fellow-labourer, the 
writer of this notice. He left all his real estate to his cousin, Abram 
James, deceased, whose heir is John James, of West Witton. 

Mr. James lived and died a bachelor. This is the more to be 
regretted as he was so loveable a man. Young children, grown men, 
and maidens, and even garrulous old age, were alike delighted with 
his company and conversation. As an antiquary he was indefatigable. 
As a friend he was ever firm and true. Thoroughly conscientious him- 
self, he could not bear the want of it hi others, and his geniality won 
him troops of friends. But he is gone ! And " he shall return to his 
house no more, neither shall his place know him any more." His name, 
however, is bound up with the history of the town and trade of Brad- 
ford, and will endure as long. 

Ship'ey. ABRAHAM HOLROYD. 



DR. JOHN FOTHERGILL, F.R.S.* 

THE earliest time at which the name of Fothergill occurs in 
history is, so far as I have been able to trace, in connection with the 
siege of York by the Norman William. 

Old Drake, in his celebrated " Eboracum," gives an amusing 
account of an adventure in which the Conqueror and his knight 
Fothergill were concerned, which led to the capture of the ' Noble old 
Citty," and which briefly may be related as follows : 

4 ' The North Riding and the City of York having long withstood the efforts to 
conquer them, Dxike William determined himself to lay siege to the city, which he 
commenced on St. Thomas's Day. Retiring in the evening, after an unsuccessful 
day, to his camp at Skelton, he met'two friars, and on inquiring where they dwelt, 
they said at York, and were of a poore Priory of St. Peter's, and had been to 
obtain ' some relief to their fellows against Christmas.' One of them was laden 
with a wallett of victuals and a shoulder of mutton in his hand, and t\vo great 
cakes hung about his necke, one of backe and another of his breast. The other 
had a bottle of ale and a wallet tilled with beef and mutton. 

* For the loan of the excellent engravings which accompany this sketch, we 
are indebted to the kindness of the Centenary Committee of Ackworth School. 
Of the portrait of Dr. Fothergill, the art critic, John Huskin, says : " Quite 
splendid drawing and woodcutting. " The same authority says of the Yiew of 
Carr End : " This plate is quite uniquely beautiful, so far as my knowledge 
reaches, in expressing the general character of Old Yorkshire " 



134 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

" The Normans did confer with these poore friars, and promised them large 
gifts if so they would let them into their monastery, and also give them money. 
The Conqueror also promised that he would make their Priory all new, and give 
them great revenue, which he did after perform. Soe they did condescend to let 
them into the Citty at a postern gate ; and the King sent for his army, and he, 
with his general of the field, Fothergill, took the Citty that night. " 

The Conqueror acted well to Sir Robert Clifford and others, who 
had so nobly defended their ancient city, "and willed that they should 
ask what they would have, and they should have it." 

"They demanded of him if they might have every St. Thomas's day a Friar 
of St. Peter's Priory, painted like a Jew, to ride of a horse, with the taile in one 
hand and shoulder of Mutton in the other, with a cake before his breast and 
another at his backe, all throughout the citty, and the boyes of the citty to ride 
with him, and proclaim that the citty was taken that day through the treachery of 
the Friars ; which it is added was continued as a memorial to that day." 

This Knight Fothergill married " the faire Isabel Poulton," or 
Boulton, who had as dower many Manors, including, among others, 
those of " Sedber and Garsdale." 

That the Fothergill family known to us were descendants of the 
Norman Baron and the "faire Isabel" we do not pretend to say; but 
this can easily be traced that for three or four centuries, families of 
this name have resided in the wild and secluded valleys of Ravenstone- 
dale and Mallerstang, both valleys in Westmoreland, which adjoin upon 
" Sedber and Wensleydale." Sufficient for us, for the purpose of this 
sketch, is the fact, that a John Fothergill migrated thence to Counter- 
set in Wensleydale, and afterwards to Carr End soon after the year 
1600. 

The simple humble life of the "Statesman" or "Dalesman" of 
Yorkshire or Westmoreland, as it existed centuries ago, does not 
present many incidents for the historian to dwell upon, and thus it is 
that until the rise of Quakerism we know comparatively little of the 
ancestors of Dr. Fothergill's family, except that they had undoubtedly 
dwelt in these vales for many previous generations. 

But Quaker history which has preserved for us, like " flies in 
amber," lives or notices of so large a number of its earliest members 
tells us that at Carr End, on the banks of the small arid quiet lake of 
" Semer Water," there dwelt Alexander and Ann Fothergill, who were 
probably convinced by George Fox (about the year 1652), as "he 
passed up the Dales warning people to fear God, and preaching the 
everlasting Gospel to them."* Here, in 1676, John Fothergill the 
elder, the father of Dr. Fothergill was born. 

He appears to have inherited the little estate at Carr End after the 
death of his father, in 1695, who had suffered much the previous year 
from months of imprisonment in York for refusing to pay tithes, in com- 
pany with many of our ancestors. 

* George Fox's Journal, folio, p 72. 



136 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

When about thirty-four he married Margaret Hough, of Sutton, 
in Cheshire, a woman likeminded with himself, and settled down for 
some years in the old family house. 

John Fothergill, the future doctor, was born on the 8th of March, 
1712. In very early life he was placed under the care of his mother's 
family, the Houghs of Cheshire, and after leaving the elementary day 
school at Frodsham, in Cheshire, he was sent (at twelve) to the old- 
established Grammar School, of about 120 boys, at Sedbergh, on the 
borders of Yorkshire and Westmoreland, and not very far from his 
father's house. There he seems to have remained for four years, and 
obtained that thorough education which was of such good service in 
after life. Dr. Saunders was the head master at this time. 

Leaving Sedbergh School in 1728, at the age of sixteen he was 
apprenticed for seven years (as the Indenture, still in existence, proves) 
to Benjamin Bartlett, an eminent apothecary at Bradford. 

It was probably as some recognition of the fidelity of his services 
that he was liberated before the expiration of the term of his apprentice- 
ship, to pursue his medical studies in Edinburgh, which from the 
eminence of the men who at that period filled the Professors' chairs, had 
the highest repute ; suffice it to name Drs. Munro, Alston, and Ruther- 
ford, all of them pupils of the celebrated Boerhaave, of Leyden. 

His first visit to London was probably made during the summer 
recess of 1735, as we find an entry of, " Paid my freight from Leith by 
vessel to London 1 11s. 6d.," a voyage which appears to have taken 
as long a period as is now occupied by the steamers between Liverpool 
and New York ; the voyage to London taking nine days and to return 
to Edinburgh even a longer period. 

The 29th of October, 1736, saw Dr. Fothergill, at the age of 
twenty-four, in London, where, the more thoroughly to qualify himself 
for practice, he entered as a pupil at St. Thomas's Hospital. During 
this time, though chiefly thus occupied and in visiting the poor, he took a 
few fees, some at 10s. 6d., and others at 21s. 

Fairly established in practice, he took a house in White Hart 
Court, Gracechurch Street (in 1740), adjoining the once well-known 
Friends' Meeting-house there. As appears from the little book, so often 
quoted, he received fees in this year to the amount of 105 guineas, and 
expended 104, of which 44 was spent in travelling in Holland and 
Germany for twelve weeks. 

We have now brought the life of Dr. Fothergill to the period of 
his establishment as a physician in the City of London, what was then 
truly " The City of London" ; a London which, though then deemed 
" immense," had a population of scarcely three-quarters of a million. 

Here, during the succeeding forty years, he laboured unremittiugly, 
attaining to the highest rank in his profession, and numbering among 
his patients some of the most worthy and distinguished characters of 
the century. But in estimating his character it would be a great mis- 
take to regard him simply as a great physician ; it was in its highest 



138 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

and widest meaning 1 , as a friend to man, that he has a claim upon our 
regard and admiration. There is scarcely a point which affects the 
physical, moral, and religious interest of the race, which did not attract 
his attention, and receive benefit from his judicious "and untiring 
labours. 

After his father's death, the estate of Carr End, containing about 
200 acres (then worth about 30 a year) went to the eldest son, who 
also practised as a lawyer ; and as the Doctor had only 60 as his share 
of the family property it is evident that Dr. F. was solely indebted to 
his own exertions for his position. Even this " Patter money," as his 
sister Ann calls it, he made over to her, adding 40 more of his own. 
Of Carr End and its surroundings, a few words may not unfitly be 
inserted here. 

There is no need to say a word to Yorkshire readers in praise of 
Wensleydale, with its broad meadow slopes of luxuriant grass running 
up to the moorland heights above, or downward, amidst the most 
lovely fringes of trees broken by an occasional " scar " or cliff, to the 
peaceful river below. Semmerdale, situate at the head of the valley, 
is one of the numerous smaller valleys which run nearly at right angles 
with the larger vale of Wensley, and in which the little stream which 
flows from the heights above forms, before it enters the Ure, a little 
lake in the midst of bare, marshy meadows ; but the whole are 
surrounded by low mountainous hills, which give to it a sense of 
secluded beauty. Towards its southern end, about four miles from 
Askrigg, Carr End is situated on the rocky road which leads across the 
hills to Marsett or Kettle well, at a point where it suddenly drops down 
nearly to a level with the lake The house is so shut out from the road 
by tall trees, and the rock at the foot of which it is built, that, though 
within a few yards, the traveller is scarcely aware of its existence until 
almost passed. The house, which faces nearly east, is on the edge of the 
low meadows which surround the lake, and from the little garden, once 
kept trim and neat, with its little lawn and flower-beds, but now chiefly 
devoted to potatoes, there are views both right and left, especially the 
former, worthy of the pencil of Dr. Fothergill's collateral descendant, 
the late George William Fothergill, whose death cut short a career of 
great artistic promise. Of the house at Carr End but little can be said. 
There is a stone let into the gateway by which you enter the garden, 
on which is carved " J. F., 1677," but the house is of a later period, 
and has a neglected, desolate air. The present tenant is a small farmer, 
and a part of the house is let off to the village schoolmaster ; as we 
saw it in the quiet, fading light of the evening, the plaintive cry of 
a plover, as it came to us from the moorland, seemed a fitting wail over 
the departed life of Carr End as it surrounded the boyish days of Dr. 
Fothergill. The estate passed away from the Fothergill family so 
recently as 1841. 

Dr. Fothergill began during this period to publish in the G<'nlJt- 
mans Magazine a monthly report of the weather and temperature, 



140 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

chiefly in relation to disease, aud regularly continued it for several years 
(1751-6), when the press of his engagements, combined with other 
causes, compelled him to give up this most useful and very interesting 
work. 

He may be said to have been the pioneer in the road to those 
meteorological observations which we all now consider so important. 
There was at this time no registration of deaths or births, and burials, 
and Dr. Fothergill used all his influence to effect this most desirable 
object ; but it was not until some years after his death that this was 
carried out, and the Bills of Mortality were reduced to a system. 

It was during this period (1754) that he was elected a Fellow of 
the College of Physicians of Edinburgh 

John Wesley was one of his patients during this time ; but ill as 
he was, his earnest spirit did not allow him to carry out the Doctor's 
advice to rest and repair to the hot wells at Bristol for change. 
Probably, like his comrade AVhitfield, he thought " that perpetual 
jjreaching was a better remedy than a perpetual blister." 

In 1762 Dr. Fothergill purchased the gardens at Upton, so well 
known in after days as the hospitable residence and grounds of the late 
Samuel Gurney. It contained at that time a house, garden, and about 
thirty acres of land, afterwards increased to about sixty acres. 

Dr. Fothergill frequently offered rewards for the introduction into 
this country, or the colonies, of plants of medicinal value. For instance, 
he offered a premium of 100 to two captains of ships for living plants 
of the Winter's Bark (Cortex Winteranus), a native of extra tropical 
South America, and named after Captain Winter, who used it as a 
remedy for scurvy. 

Dr. Fothergill's love of botany brought him into correspondence 
with the celebrated Linnaeus, and he not only generously helped, but 
superintended the great and expensive botanical work of John Millar, 
published to illustrate the Linnsean system. He also largely assisted 
the authors of other scientific books, as for example, Dr. Kussell's 
" History of Aleppo " (afterwards writing a Memoir of Dr. Russell), 
and Dr. Cleghorn's " Diseases of Minorca ; " Edwards' beautiful work 
on the " Birds of Great Britain," and Drury's " Entomology," were 
largely assisted by him. 

Nor must the munificent assistance which Dr. Fothergill rendered 
to Anthony Purver, in the translation and publication of his version of 
the Old and New Testaments, be overlooked. Not only did he give 
pecuniary assistance, to the extent of 2,000, to the translator (a poor 
self-taught man), but, it is said, revised the whole of the sheets as they 
passed through the press, and subsequently did all in his power by 
recommendation or gift to promote the circulation of the folio. 

Notwithstanding the intense pressure of his varied engagements, 
we find that he was an Elder, and became a Member of the Yearly 
Meeting's Committee, appointed to visit the Meetings of Friends in Ilic 
various counties of England. He was thus engaged for many weeks, 



DR. JOHN FOTHERGILL, F.R.S. 141 

chiefly in Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Westmoreland, and it was whilst 
thus engaged that he paid his last visit to Carr End, in 1777. 

It may have been that these visits, and the ignorance he found in 
many quarters, gave additional force to his long-cherished desire to see 
a sound and Christian education more generally valued, and made 
accessible to all classes in the Society of Friends. Be this as it may, it 
was in this year that he succeeded hi giving a practical shape to his 
long-cherished wish ; and we now come to that point in our narrative 
which, extending over the three remaining years of Dr. Fothergill's 
life, gives the History of the establishment of Ackworth School, which 
was, as Luke Howard justly called it, ' The Era of a Reformation in 
our Religious Society."* 

Xor does it render him less entitled to have his name handed down 
to the latest posterity as the founder of Ackworth School, that he did 
not, as has often been stated, purchase it wholly and present it to the 
Society. And jointly with his name, and entitled to our gratitude 
and remembrance, we must not ornit to mention that of his warm and 
devoted friend David Barclay! (of London), and hi Yorkshire, those of 
his friends, John Hustler (of Bradford), and William Tuke (of York). 

In the summer of 1780 (the last of his life) Dr. Fothergill paid his 
second, and subsequently a third, visit to Ackworth School. 

One of the most important objects of Dr. Fothergill's life was now 
accomplished, and we can only devote a few words to the account of 
its close. Before doing so, however, the following graphic description 
of Dr. Fothergill, as he appeared probably at the time of his last visit 
to York, written by a great-nephew, cannot fail to be of interest : 

Extract Jrom Records of John Fothergill, of York (1793). 

' ' Dr. Fothergill was pious, generous, and benevolent, rather above the middle 
age ; very delicate and slender, of a sanguine temperament ; his forehead finely 
proportioned ; his eyes light-coloured, brilliant, acute, and deeply penetrating ; his 
nose rather aquiline ; his mouth betokened delicacy of feeling, his whole counten- 
ance expressed liability to irritation, great sensibility, clear understanding, and 
exalted virtue." 

Two months after his return from his last visit to Ackworth he 
was again seized with illness, which terminated his useful busy life in 
about a fortnight. 

His death took place on the 26th twelfth month, 1780, at the age 
of sixty-eight. 

Thus died the distinguished Yorkshireman, John Fothergill, who 
in life had so thoroughly exemplified his own saying, that the great 
business of man as a member of society is to be as useful to it as possible, in 
whatsoever department he may be stationed. 

Hitchin. JAMES HACK TUKE. 

* ' ' The Yorkshireman, " by Luke Howard. 

t David Barclay was the grandson of Robert Barclay, of Ury, the distinguished 
author of Barclay's "Apology." 



142 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

REV. JAMES HILDYARD, B.D. 

THE Rev. James Hildyard, Rector of Ingoldsby, in Lincolnshire, 
and author of the Ingoldsby Letters on the Revision of the Book of 
Common Prayer, was born at Winestead, in Holderness, Yorkshire, on 
the llth of April, 1809. He was the eighth of a family of ten sons, 
nine of whom were sent in due course to the University of Cambridge, 
where they all took their M.A. degree ; six of them becoming fellows of 
their respective colleges. The most conspicuous of these youths was 
Robert Charles, the third son in point of seniority, who for many 
years represented Whitehaven in Parliament, and who was well-known 
among his contemporaries as an ardent Tory of the old school. 

James, the subject of our present memoir, was a very delicate boy 
from his early infancy, and was in consequence put out to nurse ; to 
which circumstance he probably owes the preservation of his life. At 
the age of eleven he was placed under the charge of the celebrated 
Dr. Butler, Master of Shrewsbury, at which school the present Arch- 
bishop of York, and the Bishops of Manchester and St. Davids' were 
also educated, though all of them of junior standing to the Rector of 
Ingoldsby. 

He became head of the school, which then numbered upwards of 
three hundred scholars, at the age of seventeen, and remained head boy 
for three years, being detained a year longer than the usual period of 
leaving school owing to the delicacy of his constitution. His immediate 
contemporaries, at that time, were the late Dean of Wells (Johnson), 
and present Dean of Rochester (Scott), the Principal of Brazemiose 
College, Oxford (Cradock) and the late Master of St. John's College, 
Cambridge (Bateson). 

He showed a singular spirit of independence, even in those early 
days, as heading a Rebellion known to this day among the Salopians, 
though happening more than fifty years ago, as the " Beef Row; " 
arising from a not ill-founded resistance to the scanty, if not unwhole- 
some diet then supplied to the boys, but which, we believe, has been since 
considerably improved, probably owing to the spirited outbreak 
exhibited under our hero in April, 1829. 

In the October term of that year, he entered as a Pensioner at 
Christ's College, Cambridge, of which the then head was the late Dr. Kaye 
Bishop of Lincoln. It was mainly owing to the bishop's influence that 
our promising undergraduate was at once elected to a Tancred Divinity 
Studentship, worth, at that time, about 111 per annum, and 
tenable up to the degree of Master of Arts. This was a great relief 
to the purse of his father, who had made every sacrifice to send all 
his children to college, with the exception of one, the fourth son, who, 
of his own free choice, elected to pursue the mercantile profession. In 
the course of his undergraduate career, Mr. Hildyard was pre- 
eminently successful ; ranking in this respect on a par with the 
Wordsworths and Kennedys, whose names it is sufficient to mention 






REV. JAMES HILDYARD, B.C. 143 

in order to determine the scale of academical distinction to which 
Mr. Hildyard belongs. 

In January. 1833, he graduated as a senior Optime in Mathe- 
matics, Second in the First Class of the Classical Tripos, and 
Chancellor's Medallist, and was immediately thereupon elected 
Fellow of his College, where, in due course, he became Classical 
Lecturer and Tutor, till finally he accepted the retired living of 
Ingoldsby, in the gift of the College, upon which he married, and 
where he has resided without intermission for the last seven and 
thirty years. 

We must not, however, pass over too rapidly the record of Mr. 
Hildyard's residence (which lasted for fourteen years), as an energetic 
member of the governing body hi the University. Those of his 
contemporaries who survive will bear testimony to his indomitable 
zeal and activity in promoting a variety of college and academical 
reforms. 

He greatly improved the method of individual college tuition, waging 
war to the knife with the then much-abused practice of private tuition, 
upon which subject he wrote more than one pamphlet, exposing it as a 
system of cram, which we fear it still is to a great extent, rather than of 
sound and fundamental instruction. He also advocated both from the 
> pulpit of St. Mary's, and in the local newspaper, and again through the 
medium of pamphlets, what was at that time called " The Yoluntary 
Theological Examination" that is to say. an examination not com- 
pulsory, but voluntarily accepted, after then- B.A. degree, by candidates 
for Holy Orders. This scheme was much patronised hi those days by 
several of the bishops, and if it has since failed to produce the fruit it was 
intended and calculated to do, the failure is largely due to the examination 
having been made too hard and repulsive for the ordinary class of 
theological students, and so deterring them from willingly facing an 
ordeal where they incurred the danger of discredit by rejection, 
while no immediate or appreciable advantage was to he gamed by 
success. 

Mr. Hildyard about this tune was busily engaged in publishing 
a laborious and learned edition of some of the plays of Plautus, with 
Latin notes and glossary ; an edition, which, we believe, is acknow- 
ledged by all who have read the plays, to be invaluable to the 
student of that obscure author, while it placed the editor at the very 
top of the tree of Latin Scholarship amongst his contemporaries, whether 
at home or abroad. 

At this period, also, Mr. Hildyard occupied for two years the 
post of Cambridge Preacher at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, to 
which he was appointed by the late Bishop Blomfield. A selection 
from the sermons he then delivered was afterwards published by 
M-;->rs. Rivingtons, and (for a marvel in sermon publication) was 
rapidly sold, the Chapel having been crowded to overflowing during 
the months (in the season) for which he was the preacher. It was 



144 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

on this occasion he fought successfully the battle of the Black Gown 
versus the Surplice in the pulpit, with his Oxford colleague the Rev. 
Mr. Oakley, who shortly afterwards went over to Bonae and won it; 
the bishop, himself, after a private interview with both preachers, giving 
the decision on Mr. Hildyard's side. 

He was also Senior Proctor during 1 the last year of his residence in 
the University ; which being the year of Prince Albert's election to the 
Chancellorship, brought him a good deal to the front as a principal official 
at the ceremonies on that occasion. 

During four different Long Vacations at this period of his life, Mr. 
Hildyard made extensive tours on the Continent, a matter not so easily 
accomplished in those days, when scarcely a single mile of his travels 
could be performed by rail. He thus visited almost the whole of Germany, 
Holland, Austria, Switzerland, France, Italy, Sicily, extending his 
tour even to Greece, Smyrna, and Constantinople, in all of which places 
he spent more or less time, profitably as well as pleasurably, making 
notes of his travels, and thus (after the fashion of old Ulysses) acquiring 
wisdom by the simple process of observing the manners and customs, 
as well as the cities, of many men. The readers of Morley's Life of 
Cobden will notice how exactly Mr. Hildyard's career at this epoch corres- 
ponds to that of the great Corn Law Repealer. At Athens Mr. Hildyard 
was laid up with the Greek fever, and narrowly escaped with his life, 
having been bled profusely (as was the almost universal practice in those 
days) by King Otho's German physician, who promised to call again and 
take more blood from him the following morning. 

Our subject's energy of character here stood him in good service, 
and rescued him from this imminent catastrophe ; for feeling refreshed 
by the early breeze about three o'clock in the morning it being the 
month of June he insisted, in spite of considerable opposition from his 
attendants, on being taken town to the Piraeus, where the steamer was 
appointed to sail for Nauplia at six ; and being placed on the open deck, 
was so carried across the splendid JSgean to Argos, and within twenty- 
four hours was able to inspect the Tomb of Agamemnon and the AValls 
of Heraclea, two of the most remarkable sights in that little known and 
less visited part of the Peninsula. After this, returning to Athens, he 
sailed for Smyrna and Constantinople from which latter place he 
again took the steamer up the Danube for Vienna, to avoid the quaran- 
tine of three weeks to which he would have been subjected had he 
returned home as originally intended, by way of Odessa, Moscow, and 
St. Petersburg. 

In consequence of this alteration hi his plans, he had again the 
misfortune to be severely handled by the Danube ague, from which, 
however, he was once more delivered, and finding himself at last 
safely deposited in England, he made an inward resolution, from which 
he has not since departed, that no temptation whatever should seduce 
him to quit its peaceful and happy shores again, having come to the 
conclusion, after all his wanderings and wide experience, that it is, upon 




INGOLDSBY RECTORY. 
(South View] 




INGOLDSBY RECTORY, 
(Hortli View.] 



REV. JAMES HILDYARD, B.D. 145 

the whole, the most favoured country out of the many it has been his 
fortune to visit. 

Shortly after this Mr. Hildyard accepted the retired living 1 of 
Ingoldsby, in the southern and best part of the county of Lincoln, and 
upon this he vacated his Scholarship at Christ's College, and married the 
only daughter of George Kinderley, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, by whom he 
has had two daughters, now living, and one son, who died in early 
infancy. 

Words can hardly describe the wretched condition in which he 
found the parish, both morally and physically, upon his coming into 
possession of the living in June, 1816. His predecessor had died 
insolvent at the age of 84, occupying an old-tumble-down residence, 
scarcely distinguishable from a common barn, with not a fence, road, 
or even a shrub or flower of any description to meet the eye. The 
church was, if possible, hi even a more disgraceful state ; and the 
parish, as may well be supposed, utterly demoralised. Mr. Hildyard's 
normal energy of character, however, did not forsake him even here, 
and in the course of two or three years he produced what might well 
lie described as a complete " tranformation scene," where all was before 
absolute desolation, hi fact it may be truly said of this parish under its 
present Rector, as of Rome under Augustus, " Lateriiiam invenit ; 
marmorlam rdiquit" 

And here we cannot help making a remark upon the law of dilapi- 
dations, as at present administered in the Church. In place of the old 
ruined rectory, for which (owing to the insolvency of his predecessor) 
he received only ten shillings in the pound dilapidations, Mr. Hildyard 
has erected, at a cost of nearly 3,000, an admirable and most substantial 
residence, for which his successor will have nothing to pay ; and yet. 
upon application, Mr. Hildyard is assured by the authorities " in these 
matters, that his representatives will be liable for dilapidations, not only 
on this most commodious residence, built entirely by himself, but also on 
the remaining wreck of the old rectory, which, at the cost of about ,50, 
he has converted into a coach-house, laundry, etc., nothing of the kind 
existing on the premises when he came into possession, Mr. Hildyard 
is told that he has no redress. If reform is anywhere needed in the 
Church, it is imperatively demanded here. 

Surely the clergy are as much entitled, (or should be), to compen- 
sation for unexhausted improvements as tenant farmers. 

Mr. Hildyard has for nearly a quarter of a century promoted, by 
every means and appliance within his power, a new and thorough 
Revision of the Book of Common Prayer. His opinions on this subject 
are fully and lucidly set forth in two handsome 8vo. volumes, of 800 
pages, now circulating in their fourth edition.* 

* "The Ingoldsby Letters (1858-1878) in reply to the Bishops in Convocation, 
the House of Lords, and elsewhere, on the Revision of the Book of Common 
Prayer, by the Rev. James Hildyard, B. D. Cassell, Fetter & Galpin, 1879." 



146 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

As these letters are unique of their kind, and have undoubtedly 
contributed largely to call public attention to the matter of which they 
treat, it may be as well to say something about them. They have been 
compared by one of their reviewers to the " Lettres Provinciates " of 
Pascal, by another to Peter Plymley's Letters by the inimitable 
Sydney Smith ; others have compared our author to Cobbett, Bright, 
and Cobden, for the marvellous perseverance with which he has pursued 
his object in the teeth of enormous class interests and antiquated 
prejudices. The next generation will probably witness the entire 
adoption of Mr. Hildyard's views, as the present is already largely 
profiting by a partial recognition of them, as is pointed out in several 
instances in the notes to the fourth and latest edition of the letters. 
Should a fifth edition (as is not improbable) be called for, the work will 
become a complete Church History of the exciting period of the last 
twenty-five years, perhaps upon the whole the most remarkable of 
any since the Reformation under Edward VI., and Elizabeth. 

Mr. Hildyard's leisure moments from this chief occupation (which 
has involved, as may well be believed, an enormous amount of 
correspondence, and other manual labour), have been spent in writing 
some short moral reflections, after the manner of the great Boyle, 
which have appeared from time to time in the Parish Magazine and 
Fireside. As a preacher, his style is something after that of 
Spurgeon, extempore, rapid, earnest, and replete with anecdote and 
images from every-day life, diversified largely with Scripture refer- 
ences, of which he is a complete master. 

His health has unfortunately suffered slightly from a severe 
operation which he underwent some thirteen years ago, the effects of 
which have been to make him prefer a quiet sedentary life to the more 
active positions in his profession. But for this cause we are persuaded 
we should not at this moment be speaking of the Rev. James Hildyard 
as the Rector of an obscure country parish, though probably if he were 
to be even at this eleventh hour offered higher preferment, his answer 
would be in all sincerity " Nolo Episcopari," (especially in the present 
distracted state of the Church) : "Permit me to die, as I have lived the 
best part of my life, among my own people," 

" The world forgetting, by the world forgot." 

He will not, however, be so easily forgotten ; and it will in all 
likelihood be long said of the author of " The Ingoldsby Letters " 
when he is gone, " He being dead, yet speaketh."* 

From THE BIOGRAPH. 

* For other interesting particulars of the Hildyard family of Winestead, in 
Holderness, see article "The Hildyards of Winestead" under the heading of 
"Ancient Families " in the present volume, and for the "Arms of Hildyard" see 
page 1. A more extended notice of this ancient and honourable family is to be 
met with in Poulson's Hiatory of Holderness, ED. 



MR. ARTHUR JEWITT. 147 



MR. ARTHUR JEWITT. 

MR. ARTHUR JEWITT, born in Sheffield on the 7th of March, 1772, 
was the eldest of the two sons of Mr. Arthur Jewitt (eldest son of 
Arthur Jewitt, in early life in the army, where he saw much active 
service, and was severely wounded, abroad), of that town, by his 
wife Mary, daughter of Jonathan and Anne (nee Greenwood) 
Priestley of the parish of Dronfield, at which place they were 
married in 1771. The family were seated in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, and for many generations before that time, at Carr Hill, 
in the neighbourhood of Sheffield, which, with other property in 
its proximity, i.s traditionally said at one time to have belonged to them. 
Two hundred years ago the then head of the family, Arthur Jewitt 
for "Arthur" was the hereditary family name that, generation after 
generation, was always given to the eldest son removed from Bright- 
side-Byerlow, into the town of Sheffield, and either he or his son, 
Arthur, took up the freedom of the Cutlers' Company, and had a special 
mark of his initials, A. I., surmounted by a crescent, assigned to him ; a 
mark, later on, assigned to the then Arthur Jewitt, being a mill-rind 
between two fleurs-de-lis. 

Education in trade and in the usual branches of knowledge, in the 
case of the subject of this notice went hand-m-haud, for, as soon as 
he was of the proper age, Arthur Jewitt was (to secure the due " taking 
up of his freedom,") apprenticed as a cutler to his father, and continued 
his studies and school attendance (becoming an usher or assistant) 
before and after working hours. His father, it may be incidentally 
mentioned, was a man of considerable legal acumen and extended 
knowledge, and was the guiding spirit and manager of the satisfactory 
legal settlement of the disputes between the working cutlers of those 
days and the Cutlers' Company, and young Jewitt nightly sent up 
to his father who was managing the matters of evidence in London, 
reports of everything that was going on, and also helped materially to 
fan and keep alive public opinion by writing, anonymously, songs and 
poetical squibs, which were surreptitiously printed by Crome, and became 
even more popular than those of the " cutlers' poet," Joseph Mather, to 
whom, indeed, they were in most people's minds ascribed. 

On his 21st birthday, the 7th of March, 1793, the day of the 
ending of his apprenticeship, Arthur Jewitt gave up at once, and for 
ever, the manufacture to which he had been brought up, and on the 
very same day the day on which he "came of age" he married 
Martha, one of the daughters of Thomas Sheldon (of a collateral branch 
of the family to which Archbishop Sheldon belonged), of Crooke's 
Moor, near Sheffield, by his wife, Elizabeth Camm, of Dronfield. 

Having, by indomitable perseverance, made himself master of 
every branch of knowledge that had come within his grasp ; being an 
excellent mathematician, a thorough master of geometry, mensuration, 
and all the kindred studies ; and having acquired an excellent knowledge 



148 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

of languages, Mr. Jewitt at once, young as he was, commenced an 
academy, and very soon afterwards took the mastership of a school at 
Chesterfield, in which town his eldest son, the Rev. Arthur George 
Jewitt,* was born in 1794; his second son, Orlando Jewitt, f who 
became the most celebrated of our architectural engravers, being born 
in 1799. After several intermediate removals and changes, during part 
of which time he resided at Sheffield, Alton, Buxton, and other places, 
Mr. Arthur Jewitt became master of the Kimberworth School, and at 
that place his two youngest sons, Theodore and LLewellynn, were born, 
the one in 1814 and the other in 1816. Leaving Kimberworth in 1818, 
Mr. Jewitt entirely relinquished academical duties and, with his family, 
removed to Duffield, near Derby, and there, at " Castle Orchard," 
remained until 1838. 

In November, 1835, his much-loved, truly amiable, and most 
estimable wife of whom it "may truly be said as a wife, as a mother, 
as a friend, as a helper to the sick and sorrowful, and as an angel of 
mercy and joy and consolation to all, she was perfection personified 
died after a few hours illness, and was buried in Duffield churchyard. 
In 1838, when such of the family as had not already settled in London 
and elsewhere, removed to Oxford, Mr. Jewitt settled with them at 
Heading-ton, near that city, and there continued to amuse himself in 
literary and artistic matters until his death, which, by a curious 
coincidence, occurred on his 80th birthday, March 7th, 1852. The day 
of his death was, therefore, the same as that of his birth, and of his 
marriage, which had taken place 59 years before. He was buried at 
Headington, by Oxford. 

The " Gentleman's Magazine" in an obituary notice, which appeared 
in 1852, says " As a writer Mr. Jewitt was well known by his many 
topographical and other works, and by his contributions to the 
periodical literature of the day." Among his works were the fol- 
lowing : In 1817 he projected and started in July of that year " The 
Northern Star, or Yorkshire Magazine, being a Monthly and Per- 
manent Register of the Arts, Biography, Statistics, Topography, 
Literature, Agriculture, Commerce, Manufactures, &c., of Yorkshire 
and the adjoining counties;" "Sheffield : edited by A. Jewitt, Lee Croft." 
Of this admirably-conceived and well carried out magazine, the following 
was the characteristic address on the covers of the numbers, which were 
issued monthly at two shillings each: "The design of the Northern 
Star, or Yorkshire Magazine is to present in one regular and connected 

* The Eev. Arthur George Jewitt, of whom a memoir and portrait were pub- 
lished more than half a century ago, was the author, among other works, of 
" Wanderings of Memory," " Self Knowledge," " Lines on witnessing the ' Ctrand 
High Mass,'" "The Christian Watchman," and of several published '"Sermons." 
He died in 1828, and was buried at Gainsborough. 

t Of Thomas Orlando Sheldon Jewitt, known in the architectural and art- 
world as "(). Jewitt," or "O. J.," an interesting notice appeared soon after his 
death in 1869, in the "Art Journal." 



MR. ARTHUR JEWITT. 149 

view, a parochial topography of the County of York, with an engraving 
of every Parish Church, and of the most interesting public buildings ; 
a History of all the Yorkshire Trades and Manufactures, occasionally 
illustrated with engravings of Machinery. &c. ; detailed accounts of 
.Scenery. Antiquities, &c., in Yorkshire or the bordering counties- 
embellished with copper plates or lithographic views ; a regular Bio, 
graphy of every Title derived from any part of the county ; Memoirs 
of Eminent Persons deceased, who were natives of Yorkshire ; notices 
of living Public Characters who are either natives or who reside in it ; 
and a Register of all Yorkshire Books. So far the work is local ; a 
great portion of it, however, under the head of Original Correspondence 
is open to essays, disquisitions, <fcc., of every kind and on every 
subject, except religious controversy and political discussion. For 
Poetry, too, but original only, its pages are always open. Literature 
and Science, the Fine and the Useful Arts, Commerce and Agriculture, 
Foreign and Domestic Events, form part of its plan. Of the manner in 
which the whole is conducted, the public will be best able to judge by a 
careful examination of the work itself. To render it generally useful 
and particularly interesting the Natives of Yorkshire and the inhabitants 
of its borders, will be the unceasing study of the editor. To aid his 
endeavour, he trusts to the Literati of his county, and the support of 
every lover and admirer of Yorkshire. Without this his design must 
prove abortive, and the* Northern Star ' set in a baleful horizon of 
regret and disappointment." 

" The History of Lincoln," anSvo volume of 364 pages, published 
in 1810. 

" The History of Buxton," and the curiosities of the Peak, 
including a descriptive Itinerary of the Excursions usually made, and a 
set of Botanical Tables exhibiting the places of growth, etc., of the most 
remarkable plants found wild in the neighbourhood of Buxton. ' ; By A. 
Jewitt, author of the History of Lincoln," 1 vol. large 8vo., 252 
pages, 1811, illustrated with coloured aquatints drawn, engraved, and 
coloured by himself. These ' embellishments .... are sketches 
of such scenes as the surrounding country affords, in preference to 
views of edifices in Buxton. and he believes they will be found faithful 
delineations of the objects they are intended to represent. "With respect 
to any imperfections in the execution of them the author fearlessly appeals 
to the candour of the public for some allowances, when it is considered 
that he has had the book to write, the drawings to take, and the plates 
to engTave, at such leisure hours as he could spare from his daily 
occupation ; and, lastly, that he is a self-taught artist." The plates, 
which form quite a feature in this work of three quarters of a 
century ago, are of extreme interest. 

" The Sylph." In 1817 Mr. Jewitt projected a local high-class 
Magazine, the first number of which was issued on the 1st of January, 
1818, entitled "The Sylph; or, Lady's Magazine, for Yorkshire, 
Derbyshire, and the adjoining Counties." Its main features as announced 



150 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

in the fly-sheet, were that each number (of 48 pages) should be 
" embellished with an aquatinta view of some favourite Wateriug- 
Place, of the scenery near it, or of some other interesting object ; a 
coloured plate of the most Fashionable Costume of the month ; and a 
pattern for Ladies' Ornamental or Needle, Work," and its contents 
embracing " Original Correspondence on such subjects as are particularly 
useful or interesting to the Fair ; the Balnea, or History. Rules. Regu- 
lations and Amusements of Watering Places ; Analysis of, and extracts 
from, those publications which are particularly adapted to the perusal 
of Ladies, or owe their production to the Female pen ; Biographical 
Sketches of Eminent Ladies within the range of the Sylph ; the Green- 
house, or Botanical notices of rare and curious Plants, exotic or 
indigenous ;" original poetry, enigmas, charades, music, etc.; a record of 
fashion and amusement, and so on. " Like the aerial being whose name 
it assumes, the ' Sylph ' will," the author wrote, " be anxious to collect 
whatever may exalt the female character, improve the understanding, 
and exalt the mind. The Guardian of Morals and of Virtue it will 
ever be on the Wing to give notice of the first approach of Vice in 
whatever garb she may venture to appear. The Friend of Innocence, 
its counsels will be directed to the protection of Virgin Purity, and, 
uniting the useful with the agreeable, the Sylph will range the realms 
of Fancy and Amusement to cull the sweetest flowers of every soil." 
A magazine of such purity of intention was far "too good for that, as, 
assuredly but lamentably, it would be for the present, time, and it died as 
so many other well-intentioned works have done, in its earliest infancy. 
" The Lincoln and Lincolnshire Cabinet and Annual Intelligencer," 
of which four or five volumes appeared about 1827, and succeeding 
years, was an admirably-conceived and well-carried-out work, illustrated 
with very clever tinted and other engravings. " The Matlock Com- 
panion" and "Derbyshire Gems," were two other very popular 
productions of his pen, as were some other minor matters ; while his 
" Handbook of Perspective " and " Handbook of Geometry " are the 
two manuals on those subjects adopted by the Committee of Council 
on Education. 

Mr. Jewitt, who was on terms of intimacy with Ebenezer Rhodes, 
Montgomery, Olinthus Gregory, Samuel Bamford, Ebenezer Elliot, John 
Holland, Edward Wedlake Brayley, John Britton, and a host of other 
well-known men, contributed somewhat largely in the days when the 
coterie of mathematicians of the time were in the zenith of popularity, 
to that clever feature in the " British Diary" and in the " Lady's" and 
the " Gentleman's " Diaries, as well as to the other periodical literature 
of that day. Later on he contributed many valuable topographical and 
other papers to the " Penny Magazine," of the " Society for the Diffu- 
sion of Useful Knowledge," of which Lord Brougham was the head, 
and to Britton and Brayley's " Graphic and Historical Illustrator," and 
other publications. He also prepared works upon Logarithms anc 
others upon kindred subjects. 




CANON F.R.RAINES, M.A. F.S.A. 

Presented to " OLD WfiKSH/RE" by aF.TmfcrossEsy. Tunbrufye , 



MR. ARTHUR JEWITT. 151 

Mr. Arthur Jewitt's family, not including several who died young 1 , 
were the Rev. Arthur George Jewitt, who died in 1828, aged 34 ; 
Thomas Orlando Sheldon Jewitt, the eminent engraver, who died in 
1869, aged 70 ; George Augustus Frederick Jewitt, of Derby and 
Sheffield, who died in 1865 in his 64th year; Edwin Jewitt, a well- 
known engraver, of the Strand, London, and of Forest Hill, and 
Rickmansworth, who died in 1864 in his 60th year; Henry Jewitt, 
still living, and who formerly spent many years of artist life in the United 
States and Canada ; Theodore Jewitt, who died a few }-ears ago ; 
LLewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., the well-known writer, still living, and of 
whom a brief memoir appeared in the last volume of Old Yorkshire ;" 
and two daughters, both deceased. 



FRAXCIS ROBERT RAIXES, M.A., F.S.A. 

THE late Canon Raines was a member of a very old Yorkshire 
family, the descent of which is recorded from AVilliam Raines, of West 
Xewton, in the Parish of Aldborough, in Holderness,* who was living 
in the time of Henry VI., and whose will was dated 15th March, 1487. 
During the four hundred years which have elapsed since the death of 
William Raines, some of his descendants have always lived in or near 
West Xewton. The father of Canon Raines was Isaac Raines (the son 
of Robert Raines, of Flinton, in Holderness, and Elizabeth his wife, 
sole daughter and heiress of Isaac Webster, of Dowthorpe Hall, 
near Swine, in Holderness, and of York, Esq.), who was baptised 10th 
August, 1778, and married on 9th January, 1802, at Gretna Green, and 
afterwards at Humbleton, by his uncle, the Rev. Jonathan Dixon, the 
Vicar of that place, to Ann, the eldest daughter of the Rev. Joseph 
Robertson, M.A., Perpetual Curate of Eskdaleside-with-Ugglebarnby, 
and Vicar of Aislaby, near Whitby, in the County of York,f and Mary, 
his wife, the daughter of Captain Easterby, of Skinningroves, near 
Whitby, and aunt to the late Sir Cress well Cresswell, M.P., and Judge 
of the Court of Probate and Divorce. Isaac Raines. M.D., at the time 
of his marriage, was Surgeon to the East York Militia, but shortly 
afterwards resigned his commission. For upwards of forty years he 
practised as a surgeon and Physician at Burton Pidsea, in Holderness, 
where he held a high position, and was alike distinguished for the 
skill and ability he displayed in his profession, and for his highly 
cultivated and scientific mind. He died at Xewcastle-on-Tyne, whilst 
on a visit to his son (the Rev. C. A. Raines, M.A.), and was buried in 
St. Mary's Chapel, within the Church of Burton Pidsea, on 27th 

* See Foster's "Yorkshire Pedigrees," and Poulson's "History of Holder- 
ness." This pedigree has been duly registered at Herald's College. 

t Mr. Robertson contributed several articles to the "Critical Review," of 
which his cousin the Rev. Joseph Robertson, Vicar of Horncastle, was Editor. 



152 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

November, 1847, being- followed to the grave by a large concourse of 
old and valued friends.* 

He had issue seven sons and five daughters, The third son, 
Francis Kobert Raines, was born in the house of his maternal grand- 
father (the Rev. Joseph Robertson), at Whitby, on the 22nd February, 
1805. He received his early education at Burton Pidsea, where for 
some time he was a private pupil of the Rev. Joseph S Barnes,! then 
Curate of the Parish Church there. 

In 181 7, one of his elder brothers having been articled to William 
Coultate, surgeon, of Clitheroe, came home in consequence of ill-health, 
when his father wrote to Mr. Coultate, J to the effect that (to use his 
own words), " As my son's recovery may be long, and uncertain, I 
have a very fine stout lad of thirteen years of age, of whom I may 
say, with correct impartiality, that he is good-tempered, quick, attentive, 
and obliging, him will I send over to Clitheroe, and if you approve of 
his manner and ability, I shall be very happy to place him with you, 
in lieu of my other son." This " stout lad of thirteen," was the subject 
of this memoir, and his indenture of apprenticeship for seven years 
was duly executed on 30th March following (1818). During his 
apprenticeship he lived with Mr. Coultate, for whom and for whose 
family Dr. Raines had a very great esteem. Before the close of the 
year, Mr. Coultate removed to Burnley, in Lancashire, but in the interim 
Francis Raines went to the Clitheroe Grammar School, of which the 
head master was the Rev. Robert Heath, M.A. ; but the greatest part 
of his school days was spent at Burnley Grammar School, under the 
Rev. John Raws,|| where he remained until the end of 1823, or the 
beginning of 1824. About this time he began to conceive a distaste 
for the medical profession, and a desire to enter the Church, and in 
consequence, obtained a release from Mr. Coultate, and in 1826 was 
admitted to St. Bees' College; in 1828 he was ordained Deacon, and 
Priest in the year following.^ His first appointment was to the 
Assistant-Curacy of Saddleworth,** in 1828, where he did not remain 
very long, having accepted the offer of a Curacy at the Parish Church 
of Rochdale, from the Rev. W. R. Hay, M.A., the Vicar, who in 1832 

* Gent. Mag., Nov. 1847. 

t The son of the Head Master of St. Bees' Grammar School. 

J Letter dated Burton Pidsea, 12 September, 1817. 

One of the oldest Lancashire Schools, and its scholars retained several old 
customs, inter alia, " Barring-out," whereby they on a certain day in each year 
excluded the Master from his School ; a fine was also levied by the boys on all 
persons married at St. Peter's Church. 

|| Mr. Raws was also Curate of the Church ; he died in 1835, having been 
Head Master for 36 years. 

IT The degree of M. A. of Queen's College, Cambridge, was conferred by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 

** December, 1828, James Butterworth dedicated his "History of Saddle- 
worth " to Mr. Raines. 



FRANCIS ROBERT RAINES, M.A., F.S.A. l53 

preferred htm to the Incumbency of Milnrow,* which hy held until his 
death. On 21st November, 1836, Mr. Raines married Honora Elizabeth, 
the eldest daughter of Major John Beswicke. of Pike Rouse, Little- 
borough, J.P. and D.L. for the County of Lancaster. 

In 1841 he was Domestic Chaplin to the Earl of Dunmore ; on 
30th March. 1843, he was elected a Fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries ; 15th July, 1845. he was made a Justice of the Peace for the 
County of Lancaster ; and hi September, 1849, was appointed Honorary 
Canon of Manchester ; he also for many years held the office of Rural 
Dean. Mr. Raines was one of the originators of the Chetham Society, 
his name appearing as one of its first Council in 1844, and on the 
death (in 1858) of Canon Parkinson (the author of " The Old Church 
Clock ') he was elected Vice-President ; f and those only who have 
attended the annual meetings of this society, and are conversant with 
its working, can form an idea of how invaluable have been his services, 
not only by the editing of a long series of volumes, but also by at all 
times placing at the disposal of the Society his vast stores of anti- 
quarian and historic lore. 

Canon Raines was Incumbent (and Vicar) of Milnrow, for forty-six 
years; at the commencement of this period the inhabitants of that 
village were mostly hand-loom weavers, and were a rough set of people, 
whose chief amusement was found in cock-fighting, dog and foot racing-, 
and other kindred sports J The Chapel (as it was then called) was 
small and unsightly, the congregation consisting of about half a 
hundred people ; the Sunday Schools were in a room over a beer-shop, 
and Parsonage-house there was none. 

Now there are two handsome Churches in the parish, the congrega- 
tion of the Mother Church being about 800 ; the Schools are large and 
prosperous, and a comfortable Vicarage has been erected. To obtain 
all this, an expenditure of something like .30,000 was required 
surely the result is as great as the original material was unpromising ! 
But those who knew Canon Raines well understood how the work was 
done ; he was in earnest, and the people felt it, and he brought to bear 
upon his sacred calling so much zeal, industry, ability, and determination, 
which was combined with so gentle and winning a manner, that his 
parishoniers soon learned to see hi him then: warmest and truest friend, 
and were ever ready to follow and to help him. As an antiquary, 
genealogist, and local historian, Canon Raines held the highest rank ; 
indeed, it may be safely said, that in Lancashire he had no equal, to 
use the words of one who knew him well, " His memory was wonder- 
fully retentive, but he possessed the still higher power of wielding 
and arranging his facts in a lucid, harmonious, and agreeable form, 

* Milnrow became a Vicarage under the Rochdale Vicarage Act, 1866. 

t In 1865, he was elected a Feoffee of the Chetham Hospital and Library. 

+ One of the public-houses still bears a large signboard, exhibiting two men 
running a race, whose respective sobriquets were " Stump " and " Pye Lad," by 
which name the house is now known. 



154 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

keeping always within the strict lines of evidence, and never allowing 
himself to be seduced a prevailing fault with some antiquaries into 
erecting baseless fabrics on uncertain foundations." 

Up to the time of his fatal illness, he continued to perform his 
parish work with unabated zeal, neither was his pen idle. On the 
Sunday before he left home (alas never to return !), he preached twice, 
and the last volume which he edited (No. 103 of the Chetham Society), 
he only saw completed whilst on his death-bed. In the early part of 
the present year (1878) his health began to fail, and he was advised to 
take rest, and for that purpose he went to Scarborough on the 29th 
July ; the journey only increased his disorder, and for some days his 
life was despaired of ; he, however rallied until the 28th September, 
when he had to return to his bed, and then gradually sunk ; he died 
17th October, 1878, aged 73. Shortly before his death he expressed a 
wish that he could live to return to Milnrow, that he might die amongst 
his own people ; but finding that such was not the will of his Divine 
Master, he was prepared to submit, and sending for his Sexton, gave 
him instruction as to the mode of his interment, desiring no pomp or 
ceremony, and directing that his grave should be made near to the 
Church porch. 

His wishes were strictly carried out, and he was buried at Milnrow 
on Monday, the 21st October. Milnrow on that day was a parish in 
mourning and in tears, not a cottage but had its blinds down (and for 
some part of the day, even the public-houses were closed), and every- 
one, notwithstanding the blinding cold rain which descended in cease- 
less torrents, assembled on the road between the Vicarage and the 
Church, which was lined with Sunday scholars, to pay the last tribute 
of respect to their beloved Pastor. 

As the coffin (which was borne on the shoulders of Sunday School 
teachers, and was preceded by a large body of Clergy) passed through 
this dense crowd, men and women, old and young, seemed utterly unable 
to restrain their grief tears were in every eye, and loud sobs gave 
utterance to a grief deep and sincere. Canon Raines had three children. 
Susan Ann Robertson, died in infancy ; Honora Isabella, who married 
George Twycross of Horstead House, near Brighton, Esq. ; and 
Florence Addison Raines. 

The following is a complete list of the works written by Canon 
Raines : 

NOTITIA CESTRIENSIS ; or Historical Notices of the Diocese of Chester. By the 
Right Rev. Francis Gastrell, D.D., Lord Bishop of Chester. With Illustra- 
tive and Explanatory Notes. 3 vols., Manchester: 1845 50. (Chetham 
Society, Vols. VIII., XIX., XXI., XXII.) 

This work, the late Bishop of Manchester said, was worth a dozen 
County Histories. 
MEMORIALS OF ROCHDALE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. London : 1845. 

The profits of this work were to go to the Grammar School, which 
was then being rebuilt. It was published at one shilling, and is full of 



FRANCIS ROBERT RAINES, M.A., F.S.A. 155 

original matter. But so little did the Rochdale people care for such 
things, that, instead of a profit, a loss ensued, very few copies being 
at the time sold. Now, however, its value is known, and many a book- 
hunter would gladly give five shillings for a copy. 

THE JOURNAL OF NICHOLAS ASSHETON, of Downham, for part of the year 1617, 
and part of the year following. Interspersed with Notes from the Life of his 
contemporary John Bruen, &c. 1 Vol. Manchester : 1848 (Chetham Societv, 
Vol. XIV.) 

THE STANLEY PAPERS. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. is in three parts, so the work forms 5 Vols. 
of the Chetham Series). Manchester : 1853 1867. (Chetham Society, 
XXIX., XXXL, LXVL, LXVII, LXX.) 

These volumes contain a Life of James Earl of Derby which will 
for all time remain a pattern of a careful and elaborate biography the 
Derby Household Books, the Devotions and Miscellanies of James, 
the 7th Earl of Derby, and a mass of Xotes of the greatest interest 
and value. 
THE POEMS AND CORRESPONDENCE OF THE REV. THOMAS WILSON, D.D., of 

Clitheroe. With Memoir of his life. 1 Vol. Manchester : 1857. (Chetham 

Society, XLV,) 

This forms another delightful Lancashire Biography. 

A HISTORY OF THE LANCASHIRE CHANTRIES. 2 Vols. Manchester : 1862. 
(Chetham Society. LIX., LX.) 

These volumes are of the greatest value to the Student of Lanca- 
shire History. 

LANCASHIRE FUNERAL CERTIFICATES. Edited by Thomas William King, Esq., 
F.S.A., "York Herald." With additions by the Rev. F. R. Raines, &c. 
1 Vol. Manchester: 1869 (Chetham Society, LXX V.) 

THE VISITATIONS OF THE COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASHIRE. 3 VoK Man- 
chester : 18701873. (Chetham Society, LXXXL, LXXXII., LXXXIV., 
LXXXV., LXXXVIII.) 

The last volume contains an interesting biography of Sir William 

Dugdale. 

CHETHAM MISCELLANIES, Vols. V. and VI. 2 Vols. Manchester : 1875 78. 

[Part of the " Chetham Miscellanies," Vols. I., II., and III., as 
well as a great portion of the Xotes to the " Life of Adam 
Martindale," (Chetham Society, Vol. IV.), and the ' Byron 
Remains," (Chetham Society, Vols. XXXII., XXXIV., XL.. XLIV.) 
were written by Canon Raines.] 

A SERMON, Preached in the Cathedral of Manchester, 28th July, 1873. in 
Commemoration of Humphrey Chetham: Published by request. London : 
1873. 

" Notes and Queries " especially the earlier volumes contains many 
short articles from the pen of Canon Raines ; to these his initials 
only are attached. 

In addition to the published works here enumerated, he has left a 
lasting monument of his untiring energy in the pages of 4-i folio volumes 
of MSS.. which he bequeathed to the Chetham Library. These volumes 
consist of extracts and copies of wills, parish registers, Bishop's registers. 



156 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

pedigrees, deeds, inquis. post, mort., biographical notices, letters, etc. ; 
in short, of everything which passed through his hands having reference 
to the County of his adoption. 

In 1879 a monument was erected to his memory by public 
subscription. The inscription, which is from the pen of his old friend 
and associate, James Crossley, Esq., F.S.A., president of the Chetham 
and Record Societies, is as follows : 

Sacred to the Memory of 

FRANCIS EGBERT RAINES, M.A., F.S.A., 
(Rural Dean and Honorary Canon of Manchester), 

For 46 years Vicar of Milnrow ; 

Born at Whitby, February 22, 1805 ; 

Departed this Life at Scarborough, October 17, 1878 ; 

Interred in this grave on the 21st of the same month. 

As an Antiquary, his Published Works, 
And his extensive MSS. collections, bequeathed to 

Chetham's Library, Manchester, 

Will always claim for him a distinguished place ; 

But in this Parish be will chiefly be remembered 

For the assiduous discharge of his Ministerial and 

Parochical Duties. 

As an earnest and devoted Christian Pastor, 

A powerful and efficacious Preacher, 
Illustrating and enforcing by his own life and conversation 

The great truths he was commissioned to teach. 
And united in the firmest bonds of love and affection 

To the flock entrusted to his charge, 

And whose best interests, spiritual and temporal, 

It was his constant aim and endeavour to promote and 

Secure. 

On the one side of the monument are the words " I look for tl 
resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen." 
And on the other " I have considered the days of old and the years 
that are past." At the foot is inscribed " This monument was erected 
by his sorrowing parishioners and friends, June, 1879." 

The Heights, Rochdale. H. FISHWICK, F.S.A. 



RALPH THORESBY, F.R.S. 

AN eminent antiquarian and topographer, was born at the house of 
his father, John Thoresby, in Kirkgate, Leeds, August 16th, 1658. 
The family was ancient and respectable, and our antiquary was willing 
to accept the evidence of genealogists by profession, that it might be 
traced to Aykfith or Aykfrith, a noble baron, lord of Dent, Sedberg, 
and twelve other seigniories in the time of Canute, the Dane. From 
that period they are found in the situation of the lords of the manor of 
Thursby, Thorsby, Thoresby, or, as the name of the place is now pro- 
nounced, Thuresby, in Wensleydale. The direct male line continued 



RALPH THORESBY, F.R.S. 



157 



to Henry Thoresby, a lawyer of eminence, who died in 1615, leaving a 
single daughter and heiress, Eleanor, who, by marriage with Sir T. 




Hardresse, of Great Hardresse, iu Kent, brought the manor of Thoresby, 
with a large personal fortune, into that family. Henry had a younger 



158 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

brother, Ralph Thoresby, settled, in what capacity we are not told, at 
Woolham, near Barnard Castle. Ralph was the father of George 
Thoresby, of West Cottingwith, in the county of York, who by two 
successive marriages had issue John and Paul. These brothers of the 
half blood settled as clothiers at Leeds, Avhere both became aldermen 
of the borough. The elder had a son of his own name, our author's 
father, and the younger had a very numerous issue. The father, a 
merchant, was possessed of a good share of learning, and had a 
particular turn to the knowledge of antiquities, which disposition 
was inherited by his son. Ralph Thoresby, the subject of this 
memoir, received the first rudiments of learning in the school, formerly 
the chantry, near the bridge at Leeds. He was next removed to 
the Grammar School, and afterwards placed by his father's care with 
a worthy relative in London, in order to acquire the knowledge of his 
intended calling as a merchant. Here, however, a new and splendid 
scene of antiquities opened upon him, and he seems to have been more 
occupied in visiting churches and other remarkable places, copying 
monumental inscriptions, and drawing up tables of benefactions, than in 
poring over ledgers, drawing up invoices, or copying the unamusing 
articles of a merchant's desk. In the spring of 1678, being now in his 
twentieth year, he was sent by his father to Rotterdam, in order to learn 
the Dutch and French languages, and to perfect himself in mercantile 
accomplishments. The climate not agreeing with his constitution, he 
returned to England about the close of the same year with the remains 
of an ague, which nothing but air and exercise could dissipate. For 
this purpose he made several excursions on horseback, constantly 
uniting the purpose of recruiting his health with the desire of topo- 
graphical knowledge. By the death of his father, in 1679, the mer- 
cantile concerns of the house devolved upon the son at no very 
auspicious period. The woollen manufacture the old and staple trade 
of the town had for a season fallen into a state of decay. To repair 
this deficiency, Ralph Thoresby purchased the freedom of an incorporated 
company of merchant adventurers trading to Hamburg, and having 
placed his affairs, as he supposed, in a promising situation, he married 
at Ledsham, near Leeds, Feb. 25, 1684, Anna, third daughter and 
co-heiress of Richard Sykes, of Leeds, gentleman, whose descent he 
has carefully recorded. But though merchandise was his profession, 
yet learning and antiquities were his great delight ; and they took so 
firm a possession of his heart, that, contenting himself with a moderate 
patrimony, he made them the great employment of his life. His father 
had left him a valuable collection of coins and medals, purchased from 
the executors of Sir Thomas, Lord Fairfax (1611-1671), to Avhom and 
to whose family the Thoresbys had, from similarity of principles, 
religious and political, been long devoted. Like the old general of the 
Parliament, they were moderate Presbyterians, but without any violent 
animosity to the Church ; like him they were never undevoted to the 
person of King Charles I., and with him they made an unqualified 



160 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

submission to his son. After the accession of King 1 James, and when 
his conduct, however plausible towards the Dissenters, threatened the 
ruin of Protestantism in all its denominations, he became more frequent 
in his attendance upon the worship of the Established Church. For 
this he had two reasons first, the learned and excellent discourses of 
his parish minister, the Rev. John Milner, B.D. ; and, secondly, a 
generous resolution to support by his countenance and example that 
Church, to the existence of which it was supposed that the Dissenters 
would finally be indebted for their own. Mr. Thoresby was well 
respected by those of the clergy and gentry, in his town and neighbour- 
hood, who had any taste for learning or regard for piety ; and he was 
not more diligent to increase his learned treasure, than ready to com- 
municate it to others. It would be, in a manner, endless to enumerate 
the assistances which he gave in one way or another to the works of 
the learned. The new edition of Camden's Britannia, in 1695, intro- 
duced our author to Dr. Gibson, at whose request he wrote notes and 
additional observations on the West-Riding of Yorkshire ; . and for the 
use of this edition he transmitted above a hundred of his coins to Mr. 
Obadiah Walker, who had undertaken that province which related to 
the Roman, British, and Saxon moneys. And when the bishop was 
preparing that work for another and more complete impression, he sent 
a great number of queries to Mr. Thoresby ; which were . answered 
entirely to his lordship's satisfaction, and accompanied with other mis- 
cellaneous observations. Mr. Thomas Hearne requested Mr. Thoresby's 
correspondence, and often acknowledged the favour of it in print. Mr. 
Strype was obliged to him for communicating some original letters in 
his collection. His skill in heraldry and genealogy rendered him, 
moreover, a very serviceable correspondent to Mr. Arthur Collins in his 
Peerage of England, and made him an acceptable acquaintance to the 
principal persons of the College of Arms, at London. By these good 
offices, and by that easiness of access which he allowed to his own 
cabinet, he always found the like easy access to the cabinets of other 
virtuosoes, which gave him frequent opportunities of enlarging his 
collection far beyond what could have been expected from a private 
person not wealthy. His collection was in such esteem that not only 
many of the nobility and gentry of our own country, but likewise many 
foreigners, visited his museum, and honoured his Album with their 
names and mottoes. Among other virtuosoes, Mr. Thoresby com- 
menced an early friendship with the celebrated naturalist, Dr. Martin 
Lister. It was to him that he sent an account of some Roman 
antiquities he had discovered in Yorkshire, which, being communicated 
by Dr. Lister, and Dr. Gale, Dean of York, to the Royal Society, 
obtained him a fellowship of that learned body, into which he w r as 
unanimously chosen at their anniversary meeting in 1697; and the 
great number of his papers which appear in their Transactions, relating 
chiefly to Roman and Saxon monuments of antiquity in the north of 
England, with notes upon them, and the inscription of coins, &c., show 



162 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

how well he deserved that honour. At what time he formed the plan 
of his great work the Ducatus Leodiensis, does not appear ; but the 
first impulse appears to have been given by a sermon of the learned 
Mr. Milner, in which he took occasion to mention the great antiquity 
of the town, and the notice with which it had been honoured by the 
venerable Bede. "There is, however," says Dr. Whitaker, "a. MS. 
belonging to the Grammar School, and, by the kindness of the late 
respectable master, Mr. Whiteley, now before me, containing the first 
rough draft of the Ducatus, in Thoresby's handwriting; but it has 
nothing to fix the date." In the prosecution of this laborious work, he 
frequently announces his intention of compiling an historical or liw- 
(/raphical part, as an accompaniment to the topographical. For this 
undertaking, his own museum, as well as his recollection, afforded 
ample materials ; but age was now creeping upon him, and indolence, 
its usual attendant.* A regard, however, to the church of his own 
parish, and the many eminent divines who had presided over it, 
prompted him to compose and commit to the press his Vicaria 
Leodiensis; or, The History of the Chitrch of Leeds, &c. (8vo.), which 
was published in 1724. He was now sixty -six years of age a period 
beyond which little space is usually left for bodily or mental exertion. 
He had a constitutional, perhaps an hereditary, tendency to apoplexy. 
The consistency of his blood was thick, which exposed him to pains or 
numbness in the back part of his head, with other apoplectic symptoms. 
All these he received as intimations of his approaching departure 
\vhich was delayed beyond his expectation. In the month of October, 
1724, he was suddenly seized by a paralytic stroke, from which lie so 
far recovered as to speak intelligibly and walk without help. There is 
also a letter extant, written by him in this melancholy state, and com- 
plaining', though with great patience and submission, of his feelings ; 
thus he languished till the same month of the following year, when he 
received a second and final shock from the same disease, which put an 
end to his life, October 16th, 1725, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. 
He was interred with his ancestors in the choir of the Leeds garish 
church, arid lay for upwards of a century without any memorial from 
the piety of his friends, or the gratitude of his townsmen. A memorial 
stone within the altar-rail at the south-east side of the parish church 
now bears this inscription : " Sacred to the memory of Ralph Thoresby, 
F.R.S., a member of the ancient Corporation of Leeds. He was born 
16th August, 1658. He died 16th October, 1725, and was interred 
within these walls. His character for learning is best seen in the 
books he published, which show him to have been a great master of the 

* In this work he had proceeded so far as to bring his narration, in a fair 
copy, nearly to the end of the sixth century, illustrating and confirming his history 
by his coins, &c. This curious piece being found well prepared for the press, as 
far as it extends, and well worthy of the public acceptance, is inserted in the 
BioyrapMa Britannica, in order to excite some able hand to carry it on, and com- 
plete the noble design of the author. 



RALPH THORESBY, F.R.S. 



163 



history and antiquities of his own county ; to attain which it became 
necessary for him to be thoroughly skilled, as he was, in genealogy 
and heraldry. He appears from these books to have been also an 
industrious biographer. That, however, which set his reputation the 
highest as a scholar, was his uncommon knowledge of both coins and 
medals. Thoresby was intimate with some of the most excellent and 
estimable men of his day ; among them were Dr. Sharpe, Archbishop 
of York ; Dr. Nicholson, afterwards Bishop of Carlisle ; Dr. Gibson, 
afterwards Bishop of London; Dr. Gale, Dean of York; Dr. George 
Hickes, Bishop Rennet, Thomas Hearne, John Strype, John Ray, Dr. 
Richardson, of Bierley ; Sir Hans Sloane, John Evelyn, Dr. Mead, and 
Dr. Stukeley. He was a man beloved as well as esteemed and valued 
for the warmth of his affections, and the endowments of his mind. 

The works of this fine old antiquary comprise : The " Ducatus 
Leodiensis ; or the Topography of Leeds and Parts Adjacent." London, 
1715 ; folio. It is dedicated to the Marquis of Carmarthen, and con- 
tains a list of subscribers occupying six pages. " Yicaria Leodiensis ; 
or the History of the Church in Leeds, Yorkshire." London, 1724 ; 
8vo. Is dedicated to Archbishop Dawes. " Ralph Thoresby's Diary " 
(1G74-1724), now first published from the original manuscripts by the 
Rev. Joseph Hunter. " Letters of Eminent Men addressed to him," 
now first published from the originals. London, 1832; 8vo. Two 
volumes. 

R. V. TAYLOR, B.A. 





YORKSHIRE BRASSES AND SLABS. 




ANCIENT SEPULCHRAL BRASS. 

HIS interesting brass is in the church of Allerton Maulevere 
. and is the memorial of a knight and lady of the anciei 
family named Mains Seporarius, or Mauleverer, possessed of 
considerable estates in that parish, which received from their 
name its distinctive appellation. The Knight is represented 
in the armour of plate, with some portions of mail, usually worn 
in the times of Richard II. ; on his short surcoat, which fits closely 
to the body, and has the skirt escalloped, is seen the bearing of 
Mauleverer, of the class termed " canting" arms, armoiries parlante* 
namely, three greyhounds courant, in allusion to his name. One feature, 
of rather rare occurrence, in English sepulchral memorials, may deserve 
notice : this is the projecting visor, attached to his tall and acutely 
peaked basinet. The visor is seldom seen in the monumental portraitures 
of any period in this country, although not unfrequently found in those 
of Germany. In later times examples of the visored salade occasionally 
occur in sepulchral representations, but they are by no means common. 
The figure of the lady presents no striking peculiarity of costume : 
she wears a square reticulated head-dress, apparently resembling the 
fashion which is more clearly shewn by the effigy of Catharine, wife of 
Thomas Beauchamp, in the choir of St. Mary's church, Warwick, and 
that of Lady Le Despenser, on the north side of the altar, at Tewksbury. 
Her under-garment has a high collar closely buttoned up to the chin, a 
fashion of the fourteenth century prevalent both in male and female 
attire. Another peculiarity of this little brass may deserve notice : the 
figures are not cut out, to be inlaid upon the slab, as usual in such 
memorials in this country, but engraved upon a rectangular plate, the 



ANCIENT SEPULCHRAL BRASS. 



165 



field of which is plain. The sepulchral brasses in France and the 
Netherlands most commonly were found thus, consisting of one 
unbroken sheet of metal, but the field was richly diapered, or covered 

with some design, as shewn 
by several Flemish brasses 
existing in England, at 
Lynn, Newark. Aveley, and 
other places. Mr. Stapleton 
has favoured us with the 
following note regarding the 
persons commemorated by 
the brass at Allerton. " Sir 
John Mauleverer, of Aller- 
ton Mauleverer, a parish in 
the upper division of Claro 
Wapentake, 4^ miles from 
Knaresborough, was son of 
Sir Halnath Mauleverer, 
and one of the deponents in 
the famous controversy be- 
tween Scrope and Gros- 
venor, in the court of 
chivalry, A.D. 1385-90. It 
appears from his deposition 
that he was born in 1?42, 
and had twice served in 
the Scotch wars. Sir John 
died November 30th, 1400, 
according to Thoresby and 
Hargrove, or, according to 
Sir Harris Nicholas, on Nov. 
21st; he was buried in the 
church of Allerton, and on 
a flat slab of blue marble, 
inlaid with a plate of brass, 
are the effigies of Sir John 
Mauleverer and Eleanore, 
his wife, daughter of Sir 
Piers Middleton, of Stockeld 
in .the parish of Spofforth. 
in the same division of Claro. 
Their issue was a son, Sir 
Halnath Mauleverer, High 

Sheriff of Yorkshire, A.D. 

1420-21, who married Mili- 
Alexander Lutterel. The arms of Sir 







The Mauleverer Brass. 

cent, daughter and heir of Sir 



John Mauleverer were gules, three greyhounds courant in pale, collared 



166 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

or. Those of Middleton were, argent, fretty, a quarter sable, His 
ancestor, Richard Mauleverer, founded the priory of Allerton, as a cell 
to Marmoutier, in the reign of Henry II., circa A,D. 1100." The 
foundation charter has been preserved by Dom Martene, and a 
translation is given in Mr. Stapleton's memoir on the priory of the Holy 
Trinity, York, forming part of the volume of the Transactions of the 
Institute, at York, p. 27. 

Manchester. R. P. PULLAN. 



THE BOWER SLAB AT BRIDLINGTON. 

The sepulchral slab here engraved from the Priory Church, Brid- 
lington, records the deaths of William Bower, merchant, of that town, 
and founder of the School there, and Thomasine, his wife, and is of 
somewhat remarkable character. It bears on its outer margin, running 
round its four sides, the words 

"HERE LIETH WILLIAM BOWER OF BRIDLING- 
TON KEY MERCHANT DEPARTED THIS LIFE THE 23 
OF MARCH 1671 IN THE 74 YEARE OF HIS AGE 
AND THOMISIN THE WIFE OF THE SAID WILL 
DEPARTED THE 14 OF SEPTR 57, AGED 59." 

And across the slab, in nine lines beneath the armorial bearings the 
further inscription 

HE DID IN HIS : LIFE TIME ERECT : 
AT HIS OWNE CHARGE IN BRIO : 
LINGTON A SCHOOLE HOVSE & 
GAVE TO IT 20L PR AN FOR EVER 
FOR MAINTAINING AND EDVCA 

TING OF THE POORE CHILDREN 
OF BRIDLINGTON AND KEY IN 
THE ART OF CARDING KNITING 
AND SPINING OF WOOLL. 

The inscriptions are, throughout, incised, i.e., they are cut into 
the stone ; but the shields of arms on the upper part of the slab are left 
in relief, the surrounding portions of the slab being cut away. At 
the top are two shields with helmet, crest, and mantling, the first being 
charged with, on a chevron, between three eagles' heads, erased, three 
mullets (for Bower?) impaling, ermine, three long bows in pale; 
crest, an escallop shell (for Bowes). The dexter bearing of this shield 
was certainly borne by some members of the Bower family, notably 
by a William and Priscilla Bower, of Cloughton, near Scarborough, 
who " lived together in wedlock loveingly and comfortably 73 years," 
and their descendants and the descendants of the Bridlington 
benefactor. 




&i HEDIDINHISLIFETIMEEREaC 
S ATHISOWNECHARGE IN BRE> 
LMGTOMASCHOOLEHOVSE# 2 
g GAVETOIT 20* f/PPOR EVER g 
FOR MAINTAINING AND EDVCAoj 
TING OF THE POORE CHILDREN Q 
: OFBRIDLINGTOWANDKEVIN 5 



THEARTOFO\RDlNGKNlTiNG 
AND SPlNlNG OF WOLl^. 



The Bower Slab. 



168 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

The second shield bears the well-known arms of Bower, of 
Welham and other places, sable, a human leg couped at the thigh, 
pierced bendwise by a broken spear, the point downwards to the 
sinister, and gutee de sang, all proper / on a canton, argent, a castle, 
gules; crest, a human leg couped at the thigh, as in the arms. 

Beneath these is a third shield bearing with supporters, helmet, crest, 
mantling, and motto, the arms of the Guild of the Trinity House at 
Newcastle upon-Tyne, of which guild William Bower was, doubtless, 
a member. These arms are an anchor with entwined cable ; 
supporters, two mermaids ; crest, a lymphad. 

William Bower, whose benefactions are recorded on this slab to 
his memory, was the son of John Bower, of Bridlington (who was 
baptized on the 15th February, 1570, married 18th May, 1592, and 
buried on the 16th December, 1611) by his wife Jean Bonfeylcle. 
He (the William Bower of this monument) was baptized on the 14th 
of May, 1598, and died at the age of 74, on the 23rd of March, 
J 671-2. His endowment of the school which " at his owne charge " he 
had erected for " edvcating of the poore children of Bridlington and Key 
in the art of carding, kniting, and spining of wooll," is now, I 
believe, expended on the ordinary education of the poor children in 
Bridlington. His will, dated 30th July, 1671, was proved at York 6th 
May, 1672, by his son and executor, John Bower, and at his death he 
was possessed of lands at Bridlington, Ringborough, East Newton, 
Little Hebdeu, Thorpgarth, Aldborough, Burythorpe, and other places, 
as well as the lordship of Skelton. 

He left three sons and three daughters, the sons being John 
Bower, of Bridlington, merchant, who married his relative, Catherine, 
daughter of the William and Priscilla Bower named above, and widow 

of Rogers ; and William Bower and Edward Bower, who 

successively married as her first and second husbands, Prudence, 
daughter of Thomas Crosby, of Holme-on-Spalding Moor, Yorkshire, 
and left issue by both brothers. John Bower, who died in 1679, left 
issue, William Bower (of whom presently); John, who married Lydia, 
daughter of William Skinner, alderman of Hull, and died, leaving issue, 
in 1719; Robert; Samuel; Edward; and Nicholas; and four 
daughters. The eldest son, William Bower, just named, was born in 
1654, and married, as his first wife, in 1676, Sarah, daughter of Jasper 
Belt, Esq., of Pocklington, son of Sir Robert Belt, of Borsal, by whom 
he had issue four sons and three daughters. By his second wife, 
Catherine, daughter of Edward Trotter, Esq., of Skelton Castle, by 
Mary, daughter of Sir John Lowther, of Lowther, he had also issue 
five sons and one daughter. The eldest of these, William, left issue, one 
son, who died without issue, and three daughters ; and the second, 
Leonard Bower, married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Woolfe, of 
Bridlington Quay, and, dying in 1765, left one surviving son, John 
Bower, who espoused Philadelphia, daughter of George Cuthbertson, 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Their son, Robert Bower, of Scortou, who 



THE BOWER SLAB AT BRIDLINGTON. 169 

was born in 1767, succeeded to his father's estates, and also, by will 
of his great-unc;e, Robert Bower (son of William Bower by his second 
wife Catherine Trotter) to that of Welham. He married Elizabeth 
Amy, only surviving 1 child of Dr. John Clubbe, of Norwich, and died in 
1*3.">. The issue of this marriage was three sons and two daughters, 
viz. 1st, Robert Bower, Esq., L).L. , of Welham, who married Helen, 
daughter of John Hall, Esq., of Scorborough, near Beverley, and, by 
her, was father of Robert Hartley Bower, Esq., of Welham, who 
married Marcia, daughter of Sir John Lister Lister-Kaye, Bart. ; Major 
Henry John Bower, chief constable of the East Riding, who married 
Marcia, daughter of Thomas and Emma Bridge ; Captain George 
Cuthbertsou Bower; Leonard William Bower, R.N.; and two daughters. 
2nd, the Rev. John AVilliam Bower, M.A., Rector of Barmston, co. 
York, who married Eugenia, daughter of John Hall, Esq., of Scor- 
borough, near Beverley, and had one son and three daughters ; 3rd, 
the Rev. George Henry Bower, M.A., Rector of Rossiugton ; 4th, 
Elizabeth Amy Bower ; and 5th, Sarah Anne Bower. 

The arms of Bower, as described by Surtees, are gules, a human 
leg couped at the thigh, or, vulned and transfixed by a spear broken 
chevron- wise, the point downwards to the sinister, proper ; on a canton, 
azure, surmounted by the dexter half of the spear, the arch of a bridge 
embattled, of the third, thereon a castle triple towered of the second. 
Crest, a human leg couped at the thigh, proper, charged above the knee 
with a plate, and distilling therefrom drops of blood. 

The Hollies, Duffield, Derby. LLEWEI.LYNN JEWITT, F.S.A. 





YORKSHIRE ECCENTRIC CHARACTERS. 



BLIND JACK OF KNARESBOROUGH. 




OHN METCALFE,* commonly called " Blind Jack," died at 
Spofforth, about four miles from Knaresborough, April 2(>th, 
1810, in the ninety-third year of his age. His descendants 
at that time were four children, twenty grandchildren, and 
ninety great and great great grandchildren. He is, perhaps, 
one of the most remarkable instances on record, of the difficulties 
of blindness and want of education being overcome by perse- 
verance and industry. During his long life he was engaged in 
the most active and diverse employments. He was born at 
Knaresborough, August 15th, 1717; at the age of six years, he was 
completely deprived of sight by the smallpox ; six months after his 
recovery, he was able to go from his father's house to the end of the 
street, and return without a guide. When about nine years of age, he 
began to associate with other boys, rambling about with them to seek 
bird nests, and used to climb the trees for his share of the spoils. At 
the age of thirteen he was taught music, and soon became an able per- 
former ; he also learned to ride and swim, and was passionately fond of 



* The popular derivation of the name of Metcalfe is amusing. On a time when 
the country abounded with wild animals, two men being in the woods together, 
at evenfall, seeing a red fourfooted beast coming towards them, could not imagine 
in the dusk what it was. One said, "Have you heard of lions being in these 
woods ? " The other answered he had, but had never seen any such thing. So 
they conjectured that what they saw was one. The creature advanced a few paces 
towards them. One ran away, the other determined to meet it. The animal 
happened to be a red calfe, so he who met it got the name of Metcalfe, and ho 
who ran away, that of L'xjhtfoot. 



BLIND JACK OF KXARESBOROUGH. 171 

field sports. He began to practice, as a musician, at Harrogate, when 
twenty-five years of age, and not unfrequently was a guide during the 
darkness of night over the moors and wilds, then abundant in the 
neighbourhood of Knaresborough. He was also addicted to horse 
racing, on which occasions he often rode his own horses. He so 
tutored his horses, that whenever he called them by their respective 
names, they would answer by neighing, and he could readily find his 
own, among any number, without any difficulty or assistance. When 
he attained the age of manhood, his mind was possessed of a self- 
dependence, rarely enjoyed by those who have the perfect use of all 
their faculties, his body was well proportioned to his mind, for, when 
twenty-one years of age, he was six feet one and a half niches in 
height, strong, and robust hi proportion. Once, being desirous of 
obtaining some fish, he, unaided, drew a net in the deepest part of the 
river Wharfe, for three hours together ; at one time he held the lines in 
his mouth, being obliged to swim. 

The marriage of this extraordinary individual was a romance in 
real life, something like that which Sir Walter Scott has described in 
his ballad of Lochiuvar." Miss Benson, between whom, and our hero, 
a reciprocal affection had for some tune subsisted, was to be manned 
next day, to one Mr. Dickinson, a husband of her parent's choice. The 
damsel not relishing the match, determined to elope with Metcalfe, 
blind and poor as he was. They were accordingly married next day, 
much to the chagrin and disappointment of her parents and their 
intended son-in-law, and the surprise of all who knew and heard of it, 
for she was as handsome a woman as any in the country. When after- 
wards questioned, by a lady, concerning this extraordinary step, and 
why she had refused so many good offers for "Blind Jack," she 
answered. ' Because I could not be happy without him." And being 
more particularly questioned, she replied '' His actions are so singular, 
and his spirit so manly and enterprising, that I could not help liking 
him." 

He continued to play at Harrogate in the season ; and set up a 
four wheel chaise, and a one horse chair, for public accommodation, 
there having been nothing of the kind there before. He kept these 
vehicles two summers, when the innkeepers beginning to run chaises, 
he gave them up, as he also did racing and hunting ; but still, wanting 
employment, he bought horses and went to the coast for fish, which he 
took to Leeds and Manchester ; and so indefatigable was he. that he 
would frequently walk for two nights and a day. with little or no rest ; 
for, as a family was coming on, he was as eager for business as he had 
been for diversion, still keeping up his spirits, as Providence blessed 
him with good health. 

More extraordinary still, when the rebellion of 1745 broke out in 
Scotland, " Blind Jack " joined a regiment of volunteers, raised by 
Colonel Thomas Thornton, a patriotic gentleman, for the defence of the 
house of Hanover, shared with them all the dangers of the campaign. 



172 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

defeated at Falkirk, victorious at Culloden. Jack afterwards carried 
on a small contraband trade, between the ports on the east coast and 
the interior ; as well as in galloways from Scotland, in which he met 
with many adventures. In the year 1754, he set up a stage waggon 
between York and Knaresborough, being the first on that road, and 
conducted it constantly himself twice a- week in the summer season, 
and once in the winter, which occupation he continued until he began 
to contract for making roads, which suited him better. The first 
contract of the kind which he had, was three miles between Minskip 
and Ferransley, on the Boroughbridge and Knaresborough road * He 
afterwards made hundreds of miles of road in Yorkshire, Lancashire, 
Cheshire, and Derbyshire ; he also built bridges and houses. He was a 
dealer in timber and hay, which he used to measure, and then calculate 
the solid contents, by a peculiar method of his own. The hay he always 
measured with his arms, and, having learnt the height, he could soon 
tell the number of square yards in any stack. Whenever he went out, 
he always carried with him a stout staff, some inches taller than him- 
self, which was of great use to him, both in his travels and measure- 
ments. He is thus mentioned in a paper published in the " Memoirs of 
the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester," vol. 1. " His 
present occupation is that of a projector and surveyor of highways, 
in difficult and mountainous parts. With the assistance only of a 
long staff, I have several times met this man traversing the roads, 
ascending precipices, exploring valleys, and investigating their several 
extents, forms, and situations, so as to answer his designs in the best 
manner. The plans which he designs, and the estimates he makes, are 
done in a method peculiar to himself, and which he cannot well convey 
the meaning of to others. His abilities, in this respect, are nevertheless 
so great, that he finds constant employment. Most of the roads over 
the Peak in Derbyshire have been altered by his directions, particularly 
those in the vicinity of Buxton ; and he is, at this time, constructing a 
new one between Wilmslow and Congleton, with a view to open a com- 
munication with the great London road, without being obliged to pass 
over the mountains." 

In Vol. I. of Dr. Smiles's " Lives of the Engineers," there is a full 
account of the difficulties Blind Jack encountered while making the road 
from Huddersfield to Manchester. This was the road, along which the 
clothiers travelled to and from Saddleworth through Marsden to 
Iluddersfield, and on which William Horsfall, of Marsden, was shot by 
the Luddites. It is the old road past Black Moorfoot, Hollhead, 
down by Heyheads, through the village of Marsden, up Puleside, and 
over Standedge ; and Dr. Smiles graphically describes the difficulties 

* Dr Hunter, in his treatise on the Harrogate Waters, has a little bit of dull 
wit on Blind Jack's'road making "They employed a blind man to lay out the 
roads in the neighbourhood, upon the ingenious principle, probably, that v here 
such an individual could travel, another with two eyes might surely follow." 



BLIND JACK OF KXARESBOROUGH. 



173 



Blind Jack encountered in making a good road through the Standedge 
mountain bogs. Since the making of this road, two other highways, 
with easier gradients, have been made over the Standedge Hills. 

Blind Jack, while making the road in the Marsden region, resided 
at Heyheads. in Marsden, in the centre house of three of modest pro- 
portions, which remain to this day, the house Metcalf occupied now 




John Metcalf, aged 79. 

being tenanted by Enoch Taylor. Blind Jack at that period might be 
frequently met with at the " Two Dutchmen " and " Old Ram," Juno, 
still in existence under the same names, in the heart of the village, 
where his ready wit and the jocularity of his conversation made him a 
welcome guest. He was fertile in expedients for overcoming what in 
railway phraseology would be called " engineering difficulties," as the 
account in Smiles's biography testifies. 

Though " a thick drop serene " had queuched his sight, his active 
mind devised means for the proof of facts that some persons blessed 



174 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

with sight would have failed to discover. He was ail excellent judge 
of horseflesh, and he could readily distinguish a blind horse from one 
that could see. His method of doing so was as follows : He coaxed 
the animal until he appeared to have made acquaintance with it. Then 
placing one hand on the region of the heart, he passed the other hand 
smartly before its eyes without touching them. If it could see, the 
sudden heart-throb told Jack the fact ; but if it remained unmoved, he 
concluded, and correctly, that like himself, the horse was deprived of 
sight. 

During the making of the Standedge road, Jack had not the work- 
men's wages ready at the exact time, and the latter accordingly sum- 
moned him before the Huddersfield magistrates for payment.- The 
magistrates told him that " he ought to have provided against a rainy 
day." Jack promptly rejoined that " he had provided for one rainy 
day, but that, unfortunately for him, two or more rainy days had come 
together. 

After leaving Lancashire in 1792, he settled at Spofforth, and lived 
with his daughter, on a small farm there, till his death. 

Harrogate. WM GRAINGE. 



JOHN JACKSON, OF WOODCHURCH. 

THIS eccentric individual was born at Woodchurch, near Morley, 
and the following amusing account of him is given by Norrisson 
Scatcherd : " His name was John Jackson, better known as ' Old 
Trash,' which was his nickname. He lived at a house near on the site 
of the present inn, at Woodchurch, and taught a school at Lee-Fair. 
He was a good mechanic, a stone-cutter, land measurer, and I know 
not what besides ; but very slovenly in his person, and had a head 
through the hair of which, it was thought, a comb did not as often 
pass as once a year. Jackson wrote a poem upon Harrogate, com- 
mencing 

1 ' Harrogate, Harrogate, how great is thy fame ! 
In summer thou art proud, but in winter thou art tame," 

but his mechanical abilities were his chief excellency. He constructed 
a clock, and in order to make it useful to the clothiers, who attended 
Leeds Market from Earls and Hanging Heaton, Dewsbury, Chickenley, 
&c., he kept a lamp suspended near the face of it, and burning through 
the winter nights, and he would have no shutters or curtains to Ins 
window, so that the clothiers had only to stop and look through it to 
know the time. Now, in this our age of luxury and refinement, the 
accommodation thus presented by "Old Trash" may seem insignificant 
and foolish, but I can assure the reader that it was not. The clothiers 
of the early part of last century were obliged to be upon the bridge of 
Leeds, where the market was held, by about six o'clock in summer, 



JOHN JACKSOX, OF WOODCHURCH. 175 

and seven in winter ; and hither they were convened by a bell anciently 
pertaining- to a chantry chapel, which once was annexed to Leeds 
Bridge. They did not all ride, but most of them went on foot. They 
did not all carry watches, but very few of them had ever possessed 
such a valuable. They did not dine on fish, flesh and fowl, with wine, 
as some do now. Xo ! no ! the careful housewife wrapped up a bit of 
oatcake and cheese in the little chequed handkerchief, and charged her 
husband to mind and not get above a pint of ale at " the Rodney." 
"Would Jackson's clock then be of no use to them who had few such in 
their villages ? who seldom saw a watch ; but took much of their 
intelligence from the note of the cuckoo ? Jackson was buried, 
according to the Woodkirk Register, on the 19th of May. 1764."* 

In the Rt-Uquririi, July 1874, we find an account of a journey made 
by Jackson, in 1755, and the journal which he kept is of the most 
amusing character, and will, we feel sure, be acceptable to the readers 
of " Old Yorkshire." The article was contributed to the Reaqvary by 
the Rev. Gerard Smith, who says that little is known of the history of 
the journal. %t lt belonged to the Rev. William Mason, Rector of 
Aston, Yorkshire, the friend and biographer of the poet "William Gray, 
and himself a person of refined tastes, and a poet; and it came, 
together with other literary treasures, into the possession of 
Mr. Mason's intimate friend and executor, the Rev. Christopher 
Alderson, who at Mr. Mason's death in 1800, was presented to the 
Rectory of Aston by the Duke of Leeds. Mr. Alderson died hi 1814 ; 
his son, and successor in the living, the Rev. Wm. Alderson, becoming 
heir to his father's literary property, and to this Journal as a part of it. 
In 1821, he was presented to the Vicarage of Tissington, by his friend 
Sir H. Fitzherbert, Bart., and died in 1852 hi his 80th year : but his 
widow survives him, and to her kindness we are indebted for this 
publication of a remarkable M^." 

The author, John Jackson, an uneducated but enlightened and 
judicious observer of men and things, has recorded in its pages the 
events of a pilgrimage, in the autumn of 1755, from Woodkirk, hi the 
West Riding, to Glastonbury, in Somerset, full of the adventures and 
hardships of travelling on foot in those days,^and of information upon 
the social state of the country through which he passed. His visit to 
Gloucester is associated with ' Mr. Raikes the printer, my old friend," 
and afterwards the founder, in 1780, of English Sunday Schools. 

Glastonbury Thorn, the main object of John Jackson's journey, 
continues to bloom at Christmas time, and even earlier this variety of 
whitethorn being remarkable for producing blossoms both in the 
autumn and in the spring the latter bloom yielding the fruit, which 
may be seen upon the same branch with the autumn flowers. Similar 
instances of the concurrence of blossoms and fruit, upon the same tree, 
are not rare, especially in the pear and apple, and in roses. The 
original Thorn at Glastonbury is reported, by a Romish legend, to 

* Scatcherd's History o/ Morley, p. 2-20. 



176 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

have sprung- out of the staff of Joseph of Arimathea a mode of pro- 
ducing thorns not unknown to gardeners. 

AN EXACT JOURNAL, 

OB, AN ITENARY FROM THE KEDAR CABBIN, IN THE PARISH OF WOODKIRK, THREE 
MILES NORTH WEST FROM WAKEFIELD, IN THE WEST RIDING OF THE COUNTY 
OF YORK, TO GLASTON, IN SOMERSET, CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF ALL OR 
MOST OF YE ANTIQUITIES OF GLASTENBURY. AND PARTICULARLY OF THE 
HOLY TORN AND THE WEARY ALL HILL AND THE TORR. 

THE INTRODUCTION. 

Gentlemen and Good Neighbors. 

To satisfy my curiosity I have been at Glastenbury, and am I bless God's 
Providence returned safe. 

The noted Tree at Glaston I find is no fiction, and its Blossoming on 
Christmas- Day, I think is truly supernatural. Miracles I find have not ceased, 
and indeed I think our preservation and that of the whole Creation is the 
greatest miracle of all, considering our present situation, in the midst of sinking 
nations ; and the wars of elements in the bowels of the earth ; and thundring 
threatenings of a proud and ambitious tyrant, who now spits fire at us ; and is now 
making chains for us. 

Is not our blooming state of prosperity a Divine miracle ? 

The Island we live in is only a Little Garden upon the British Rock. 

! how wonderfull a miracle is our present existance. I pray God to make 
us truly thankful for all His mercies. 

The following is a true and faithful account of my tedious travels and exact 
observations, &c. 

That which gave me the first "occasion and animated my desire of seeing 
y e town and Thorn of Glastenbury was y e many controversies I had about it 
amongst y e new up start sects of our modern Schismaticks who if we may believe 
em are both ne%vborn and sinless. Both these and y e Old Puritans deny'd and 
scoffd at it. But their denials was of no weight with me, till I hearing some of 
our own Clergy tamper with it and would not allow it y e title of a supernatural 
miracle and witness of y e Gospels promulgation in England. Hereupon I formed 
a firm resolution of taking a Journey. And discovering my intention several 
encouraged and perswaded me to go and try y e truth of it and a gentleman gave 
me the following 

ADVERTISEMENT. 

Whereas. There is ano%as been an ancient story concerning the White Thorn 
at Glastenbury (to wit) that it Budded at morn, Blossomed at noon, and Faded at 
night yearly on Old Christmas Day. Now JOHN JACKSON y e bearer to be satis- 
fied of y e truth of it himself, and for the satisfaction of others, is willing and 
desirous to undergo y e fatiegue of a journey thither upon proper incouragement 
and some small contribution toward his expences, and to get y e best accounts 
y* he can amongst y e neighbours and inhabitants of y e place, and if he finds 
anything to answer his expectation if he lives till Christmas he intends to be 
an eye witness of it himself, and hopes however by making y 6 best observation 
he can of all y e passages, going and coming and committing them unto writing ; 
his pains will not be altogether needless nor himself accounted an idle spectator. 

As witness &c. 

Hereupon, i. e. upon y e strength of this Advertisement, I had some money 
given me both by neighbours acquaintance and others and afterwards by gentle- 
men and Clergy. 



JOHN JACKSON, OF WOODCHURCH. 177 

Wednesday y e First Day of November, All Saints Day and Wakefield Winter 
Fayr, the Gig Fayr and Statiffs* Day. A sore heavy wet rainy day, and a 
north west cold wind all the day. This being y e day appointed to set on my 
journey to Glastenbury, I took my leave of y e neighbours and friends adjacent, 
and ordered things Ith Cabin, called at Woodkirk, and came to Milbank and 
lay there. 

Thursday y e second day a close cold day frosty and misty, and a north 
east air. At morn, after breakfast. I went to John Tomsons. Eegun the Diary, 
and gave to John Junier my Old English masticon. Consulted y e map for the 
road, and came away to Purlwell Hall, and there I see a peartree in fair white 
blossom, fairly blown and in open flowers, and y* is a thing I never saw 
before on All Souls Day. I calld at Joshua Brooks of Purlwell, and went and 
lay at Joseph Blakeleys. 

Friday y e third day, as y 6 day before for weather, but somewhat better. 
At morn I left Joseph Blakeleys and calld at Henry Hirsts and William Cooks, 
went on to Havercroft, and Milbank and tarryd at MUbank till morn. 

Saturday y e fourth day as y 6 day before it. At mom I left Milbank and 
y e mill and leave of both, came to Dewsbury, called at Dr. Battys and Ben- 
jamin Blackburns and y e Sextons, and at y e Kev d M r Wheelers. Came over 
y e Boat and up to Thornhill. Calld at Crossland and supper'd there, and went 
to John Halsteds and lay there and a cold frosty night it was and a South East wind. 

Sunday y e 5 th day, cold gloomy and frosty till noon and then turned rainy, 
and at night stormy and tempestuous South wind and rain. "My leaving John 
Halsteads was about 10 at morn intending to go the Old Hall in Elmley Park. I 
calld at William Wolfendens John Bayldons and Abraham Greenwoods oth Carr, 
and dined there and went to Upper Denby and calld at widow Beamonts and 
went by Denby Grange to William Halsteads and being driven in by a fearful 
tempest of South wind and rain I tarry'd till y e morning for y tempest of 
wind and rain continued till cock crowing in the morning. 

Monday y e 6 th day. Still overcast, gloomy, cold, and wet and dismall miry 
way. At morn I left Cockwills and went foot way down to Flockton ; calld at 
y e Clarks and widow Seniers, and away by Crawshaw to Elmley, and calld at 
Dyches and Gills and down Tipping Lane to Hayhill. Just calld and no more 
and down I went to the Old Hall and tarryd till the morning tide. 

Tuesday y e 7 th day, as y e day before it for weather. All this day I was at 
the Old Hall. Clean'd y e brass watch and tarryd till morn. 

Wednesday y e 8 th day a pleasant day of sunshine cloudy and warm and a 
Western air. All this day 1 was at y e Old Hall ; drest the clock aiid lay again till 
morn. 

Thursday y e 9 th day, as y e day before. This day till after noon I was at the 
Old Hall, regulated y e diary and from y e Old Hall I went by Park Mill to Britten, 
and lay at M r - Adam Bayldons who is both Church Clark and School m r - of 
Biitton. 

Friday y 6 10 th day a day as y e day before it cold and irksome. This day I 
spun and made clock string for y 6 clock and lay there again this second night. 

Saturday y e 11 th S f - Martins Day, O. S. a day more fierce than y e day before 
it. In y e forenoon I finished the clock strings warping and weaving, &c, and 
tarryd and lay again this third night. 

Sunday y e 12 th day as before cold stormy rain and hail and raging West wind. 
After dinner I went to Barnsley, and wofull ill miry way it was ; after dark I 
went toward Worsbor and lost my way and wandered a great while on y e Com- 
mon bui at last I got to y e Warren house, and Joseph Newsom did go with me to 
y e Narrow lane end y 1 leads down to Worsbor Bridge. And on y e bridge I met a 
man y 1 said, " Here's a sore night. How will you ever get home ? " And in deed 
it 9 a clock and dark and hard it rained. However I got up the lane to Worsbor 
and called up M r Dixons and lay there. 

* Statutes. 



178 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Munclay y c 13 th clay. Last night sore rain all y c night till morn. Till noon 
I was at M r Dixons, and dined there and all this day being bad weather sore rain 
I tarried at Worsbor and saw burying of a yoimg woman there. 

Tuesday y e 14, as before or worse ; both rain and snow and no stirring 
out, for y e water was belly deep at Worsbor Brigg. So I tarryd this night 
again. And now i. e. yesterday we hear y l M r - Wardsman, Steward to y e Earl 
of Straff ord is run away on Saturday last, and has conveyed away money and 
bills, and y e gardener wants 29 pound, and others want likewise. This day in 
y e afternoon a peal was rung for a wedding, at which was 3 Betts and Nan 
Land, and a noted whore, and not any of Worsbor Lads would come at 'em, 
but only one of a small account. And this night Mistris Dixon was called 
away about 10 o'clock at night about y e death of M r - Wingfield, a young man 
newly marry'd, who had been their neighbour about 3 weeks. He had a good 
estate and something belonging to the University. 

Wednesday y e 1,5 th day a very pleasant fair frowning smiling sunshine 
dusky morning and a Western air. A thing uncommon y* 4 complexions should 
happen to meet in one morning, but so now it happens, but cold and frosty 
till noon and then turned slabby. At morn intending to set off for Sheffield 
I took leave of M r - Dixons and went over long lanes and 4 commons near Tankersly 
and down the White lane to Chapel town a place of nail makers, and there I met 
with a neighbour John Spence who lives betwixt Tingley and Black Yate and 
we went into an alehouse and drank each a pint and parted and went on our way 
He toward Tingley and I toward Sheffield, but first 1 must go through Ecclesfield 
where is a neat Church compleatly built and I got to see into it and then 
went on my way to Sheffield and I took up iny lodging at y e sign of Old 
Bacchus near y e Irish Cross, where I found both y e landlord Edward Steel and 
Elizabeth his wife a very civil people. And when I went to bed 1 saw a heap of 
tuphorn * on y e midst of y e chamber floor which as I supposed might be half a cart 
load. I rested very well and at morn when I got up in comes Finley Manson a 
neighbouring barber and by him I was shaved before I went away. 

Thursday y e 16 th day. A day as y e day before it. At morn I left Sheffield 
and over a wet level common, I went toward little Sheffield. And as I was 
ordered at Worsbor, I enquired for M r - Savage but was told y* that he liv'd at 
Cherry tree Hill, which I found to be about a mile further, so I went on and found 
him at home. I dined there and he gave me a tester, ) and came away with me 
and directed me toward Dranfield,! and I came toward Cold Aston but reached it 
not but took up my lodging at y c Queen Anns Head, about half a mile short of it. 
The landlords name is Samuel Beatson and his wife is Amy Beatson and both civil 
people and his trade a cordwainer. I liked them so well y* determined to call 
again at my returning home. 

Friday y e 17 th day. As the day before it for weather. At morn I left 
Sam 11 - Beatsons and up I went to Cold Aston and met many people going to 
ye Fayr y* is holden this day at Sheffield, and I hear y* 2 heifers and 2 pigs are 
drowned at Stolly Brigs near Chesterfield going from Chesterfield fayr which is 
holden y e 25 th of November after the new style. Also I was told y l at Cold Aston 
about a month agoe a woman hang'd her seff and another was drowned and both 
in about 2 days time. From Cold Aston I went down to Dranfield tarryd a while 
eat and drank and went up to Whittington, a straggling town where is a Church 
like a Chappel and I was told y l the Parsons name is M r - Pegg. And away I 
went over a level comon to Chesterfield a Corporation and market town on Satur- 
day, and stand like Emley. It has 2 crosses, Alliwell Cross and y c Market Cross, 
and a large old Church and in y e middle a steeple and a lofty leaden crooked spire 
y* seems to threaten to fall upon the spectators. Enquiring for lodging I was 

* " Tup horns," i.e. Rams' horns, used in the Sheffield Knife Trade. 

t " Tester." A sixpence. J Dronflcld, in Derbyshire. 

This was the celebrated Rev. Samuel Pegge, the antiquary ; who was a constant contri- 
butor to the Gentleman's Magazine, and wrote several Important works. 



JOHN JACKSON, OF WOODCHTRCH. 179 

directed to Sarah Statham in Alliwel Street, there I lay and found civil usage and 
y e landlady a notable -woman. 

From Chesterfield, Jackson pursued his journey by way of Clay 
. Highaui, Alfreton, and Bargate, where '! hear of another 

Hopton. besides y* that is in y 6 parish of Mirfield." On the 23rd day 

he reached Darby where, he says : 

I lay at Dorothy Carets on Xungreen and there I found a company of people 
of evil vain and wicked conversation y e men cursing damning and swearing and 
y e women talking baudery talk and one I thought spinning worsted I thought 
ye most ready handed spinner y 4 ever I saw in all my life and 2 threads at once all 
along. A weary evening I had and fear'd of mangey bed or scrubby company but 
shifted as well as I could and resolved to come theire no more. 

Thursday y e 23 rd day, as y* day before it, or better, at morn I left Burton 
and it was y e market day, so y 1 I never saw the market nor their fine bridge 
y 1 has 26 arches over y e River Trent and is said to be the rinest bridge in 
England. Away I went over long wet turnpike way. Over y e River Dow * and 
Trent and Witchnal Brigs and Fradley Heath and Huddlesford and Streety, to 
S L Michaels Church on Greenhill and into Litchfield, and Jay at Widow Hanleys 
in Tanmouth Street. 

Friday y e 24 th day. As the day before it. Calm and white frost and sun- 
shine. At morn at 10 a clock I went to y 6 Minister and attended Morning 
Prayers, and came away toward Sutton Cofield, through Shenston and 
Hill to Sutton Cofield, and went on M r - Dixons errand and found hard 
by the Church M- Foxhall where I was treated well, and she sent 
to direct me to lodge at John Shakeshafts, there I lay eat and drank, and was 
diverted by a cheerful young lady who told us severall merry diverting stories, 
and amongst y e rest of an English Gentleman y 1 had a Irish Teagne for his waiting 
man, and y e gentleman sent him to y e post office for a letter, and Teagne comes 
home and tells his M r - other people had letters twice y 6 bigness of his, and payd 
but y e same price. " Shall I (says he) see my master's money wasted so ? But I 
thought I would come even with them, and I stoele one from-'em, and here it is." 
"Thou Fool says y master y* will do me no good." " Well, says Teague but I 
have not sent a letter to my parents this long time. But this will serve I'll send 
'em this." To conclude I found cold lodging this strong white frosty night 

On the 24th day, Jackson reached Birmingham, and having 
inspected the " lions " of the place, went on his way on the 2*th day to 
' Broomsgrove," and from thence the same day to Droitwich. Passing 
MVorster" and ' Teuxbury," Jackson reached "Gloster" on the 1st 
of December, and staying there until the 5th day, he proceeded by way 
of Dursley, Berkly, &c., to Bristol, thence to \Vells, and on the loth 
reached -'Glastenbury." 

Glastenbury, in Latin Glasconia, was by our ancestors called y* first ground 
of God. The first ground of the Saints in England, &c., and that it was built by 
y e very Disciples of our Lord, when that small and ancient Church, now founded 
by Joseph of Arimathea was wasted away with age Devi, Bishop of St. David's 
built a new one in that place. And when time had worn out that too ; twelve 
men coming from the Xorth of Britain, repaired it ; but at length King Ina pulld 
this down and built that stately Church y 6 Abbey, dedicated to our Saviour 
Christ St. Peter and St Paul, in y year of our Lord 698. And the Abbey lands 
within ye walls were 60 acres within the walls in compass. And the Abbot of 
Glaston lived in little less state than y Royal Donors his revenue amounting to 

* Elver Dore. 



180 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

4000 pounds annually. And he could from the Tor see a vast of this rich land in 
his own possession and seven parks well stored with Deer belonging to y e Monas- 
try. It is walled round about and imbattled like a town a mile in compas. And 
the White Thorn is at Mr. Buxtons Garden at Esquire Strouds Great Farm house 
about a quarter of a mile from Weary-All-Hill in y e Middleway between Weary- 
All-Hill and a little village y fc is called Street about a mile South of Glaston. 

Here f olloweth some further remarks on the glory of Glaston the 
famous Chaingate Spaw of Glaston, the Holy Thorn, and the Holy Dis- 
ciple St. Joseph of Arimathea. 

Sunday y e 17th day of December y e New Innocents Day, at morn I got up and 
went to Chaingate and drank of y e water and went to St. Benedict's Church to 
Divine Service. There I attended the Morning Service, and Sacrament ; and the 
Clark came to me, and asked me, if J designed to tarry Sacram*- I told him it was 
my desire, and he left me and presently comes y e Minister and examines me 
who I was, whence I came and what Religion I was trained up in, and what 
I had profest and follow'd all my life. I told him I knew 'em all, and had 
been at 'em all, but I had never been any where as an act of Devotion, but 
to the Church in all my life. So I tarry'd Sacram* and receved as y e rest and 
after all was over the Minister came to me and gave me a 6 pence of silver 
and I said S r but this is not all I want of you. He looked earnestly at me a 
while ; but spake not. So I told him the place I came from is called Wood- 
kirk, 3 miles N. W. from Wakefield in y e West-riding of Yorkshire where great 
disputes had been about y e Holy thorn and some contended for it, and others 
against it, and I resolved to venture life and limb to find y e truth of it, and how 
some did perswade, and others did encourage me to come, and others had given me 
money. Both Gentry and Clergy. But some had been ready to say I would never 
come there but go and tarry a while some where from home and come back and say 
I had been there and now S r I desire you'l give me a line or 2 from under your 
hand to testifie y* I was here this day. And so he bid me follow him home which 
1 did, to his house which stands in the High Street, on y e left hand as we go up to 
Catton Street. He went into his study and I with him it was a handsom well 
furnish'd room, and haudsom library neatly set up. 

Monday y e 25th day the Old Christmas Day a day as y e day before it. 
Cold rain and West wind till 9 o'clock in y e forenoon. And then I was for 
going to Esquire Stroud's great Farmhouse to view y c Holy Thorn in blossom 
but Mrs. Bartlett my hostess said it was needless for y e same was to be seen 
at y e far end of y e street at Mr. Downey's, and I heard 'em say y* it begain 
to put out between 2 and 3 o'clock in the morning so I went to Mr. Downey's 
and Mrs. Downey went with me into y e orchard or garden I know not which and 
there it stands amongst y e large appletrees it is a large tall tree and y c body bole 
or trunk of y e tree is as thick as a man's body or thereabout. I got a small twig 
of it as it was partly in bud and hardly in blossom. I thanked y e gentlewoman 
and came away to my lodging house y e 7 stars, and about noon to Magdalen 
vulgarly Milin Street and to Chaingate call'd William Ralls's house and he civilly 
gave me some Chaingate blossom of that Thorn and sent a young man with me to 
shew me the Holy Thorn there. It stands in an orchard at y e backside of 
y e Chaingate water on a rising ground in y e North-west corner of y e Abbey 
grounds and like Mr. Downey's Thorn I got a twig of it in unopened blossom and 
we left it and we went into y e Abbey Yard and view'd several things, y e Abbot's 
old ruin'd House and desolate kitchin St. Joseph's Chappell &c. and 1 took up a 
stone in y e Chapell and 2 out of y e Abbey's Chancel and y e young man went 
w th me to y e Mayor's house in Chilquil, but found him absent gone where he was 
sent for to dine with a gentleman so we parted in y c High Street and I went, to 
y e 7 stars in Nilot Street and wrote down y e passages. And in y e afternoon I 
went into y e church yard of St. John the Baptist and writ down an Epitaph of a 
lad that was slain by falling down from y c Abbey where he was climbing to take 



JOHN JACKSON, OF WOODCHURCH. 181 

y e hawk's nest 6 years agoe. And here followeth y e Epitaph verbatim, i. e. word 
for word. I wrote it about 3 o'Clock. 

Here Lyeth the Body of ye only son of Thomas Ayres and Jane his wife who Departed this 
Life July ye 14 1739, aged 16 years. 

The Abbey walls on Glaston's earth Grieve not for me my parents dear 

I climb'd for Birds and got my Death I am not Dead but Sleepeth Here 

My Bones I broke my time was spent When Christ shall Call them follow me 

I left my friends in Discontent. Wich Him to Live Eternally. 

It is said that y* th lad's name was "William and a hopeful youth, and that 
his death was y e ruin of y e family for ever after, his father was alwas disconted, 
and after 2 years he Inlisted and his wife, y e lad's mother went after him, and got 
her death by falling from the horse y* she rode on. And after I had ended this 
writing I went and tinisht this Old Christmas Day at my lodging house viz. Mrs. 
Bartlet's in Xilot Street- I enquired whether y e thorn did ever bud or blossom on 
y 6 New Christmas Day, and they angrily answered me nay nor never will, and I 
understand though not like y e ^ewstile yet they say y l we must not go to rebell 
against y e Government, and no Divine Service was read yet most of y day y e bells 
rung as hard as they could at St. John's Church, and as to y e fading and decaying 
of the thorn tree blossom I never once bethougt me about it to go again to view it, 
but however I saw before my face several sprigs of it set amongst Polyanthos in 
flower pots ornamenting y e windows both at Mrs. Summers's and Mrs. Bartlet's 
but as y e flowers was not fully opened I saw not any sudden decay but was told 
y l if instead of rain a hard frost had come I should have seen y e white flowers 
shed under y e tree as when a cherry tree sheds its white blossom. And indeed 
y e tree is more like a cherry tree than a hawthorn tree, and no green leaves did I 
see but abundance of bunches of blossom knopt and unopen'd and y e prick I felt 
before I saw it or was aware on't, for as I was climbing up Mr. Buxton's tree a 
long thorn-prick an inch and an half long, not unlike to a sloe thorn prick me and 
wounded deep. It is called y e White Thorn and its bark is white and smooth. 

On Wednesday, the 27th of December, Jackson left Gloucester, 
reaching Bath on the 29th and Bristol on Xew Year's Day. 1756, then 
pursuing* his return journey by the same route as in going, reached 
Sheffield on the 29th day, at which point we resume the account of his 

adventures. 

Tuesday y e 30th day of January I came into Sheffield and lay at y e Sign of 
y e Bacchus and Finley Manson trimd me again and I drank with him and 
y e printer and others besides them. 

Wednesday y e 31st day I drest y e Clock and was rewarded for it and Mrs. 
Steel gave me a pair of plain stript worsted garters and bid me wear em for her 
sake, and so about noon or after I came away and travelld to Worsbor. Lay at 
Mr. Dixons. and so shut up y e gate of Old Janus. 

Thursday y e tirst day of February. The last night y e weather changed from 
calm to windy and y s was a rainy day. All this day I rested at Worsbor, at Mr. 
Dixons and lay there, and just a little before dark in y e evening came Esquire 
Goar to Mr. Dixons and took me to his house where I was amicably treated and 
had 18 pence given and returned to Mr. Dixons and lay there again, aud a fierce 
windy uight it was and this wind did much damage in severall places. It tore a 
Hay Stack all to pieces at Worsbor and unthatch'd a house and took y e Irish slate 
off Britton new Ch. and took down a new house on Heaton Moor. 

Friday y e 2nd day Candlemas day. Something calmer ; but cloudy and cold. 
In y 6 forenoon I left Worsbor, came to Barnsley and to Britton and lay at y Clarks 
Mr. Adam Bayldons. 

Saturday y e 3rd day ditto. At morn I went to Britton Hall and see the 
wind had torn off one side of y e rails and banisters of y e HalL Away I went to 
y e Parkmill and y e Old Hall and lay at Adam Wolfendens. 



182 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Sunday y e 4th day y e same all this day I was at Adam Wolfendens, and lay 
there again. 

Munday y e 5th day ditto at morn I left y e Old Hall came to Flockton by Emly 
calld at Widow Seniers and y e Clark Hampshires and Wat Kays, and went to 
Cock Wills and lay there. 

Tuesday y e 6th day, at morn I left Cock Wills and by Dumb Steeple I went 
to the Hutt, calld at John Woods and Robert Pools oth Falhouse and down to 
Mirfield I went, called at Mr. Ismays and lay at Jacob Hemingways. 

Wednesday y e 7th day as before about noon or after I went to Hopton and lay 
at Daniel Micklethwaits. 

Thursday y e 8th day ditto at morn I left Daniels and went to Kirkheaton to 
Mr. Medleys, and tarryd till morn at Chapels oth Kirk Brigg. 

Friday y e 9th day as before at morn I went to Tho. Castles and was sent for 
to go to Mr. Clarks y e Rector, and I went and was conducted into y e chamber, 
conversed a good while with y e parson and came away and had 6 pence sent after 
me, and I came away and called at y e Hole bottom and Stafford Hill, Came back 
to Hopton Hall and lay at Dan 11 Micklfits. 

Saturday y e 10th day ditto in y e forenoon leaving Hopton I went to Mirfield 
and lay again at Jacob Hemingws. 

Sunday y e llth day a fine gallant warm sunshine day like Summer. All 
ye day I was at Mirfield and lay at Jacob Hemingways. 

Munday y e 12th day ditto after noon I set homward by Casle Hall and Dewsbury. 
Calld at Mr. Wheelers and found em absent. I calld at Mr. Turners and B.Blackburns 
and by Cracking Edge and Common side 1 went to Millbank and lay there. 

Tuesday y e 13th day gloomy and rain. At morn I left Millbank, went to 
John Tomsons and to Mr. Taylors in vain. Calld at Mr. Scots came over Howley 
Park to Woodkirk and lay in my own Bed Cloths at B. Rhodes. 

Wednesday y e 14th day as y e day before it. Having visited y e neighbours I 
came home made a fire and lay in y e Cabbin. 

Thursday y e 15th day ditto I went again toward Soothill. Calld at Jo. Wards 
and at Jo n Fields and down to Millbank i went and I lay there. 

Friday y e 16th day ditto I went to Dewsbury with 2 letters to Mr. Wheelers. 
Came back by Purl well and call'd at Joshua Brooks and went horseway to Jo 
Blakeleys and find him sick and I lay there. 

Saturday y e 17th day ditto. All this day I was at Batley and Carlinghow and 
lay again at Joseph Blakeleys. 

Sunday y e 18th day ditto all this day I was at Joseph Blakeleys and again I 
lay there. 

Mnnday y e 19th day, till 11 in the forenoon I was at Joseph Blakelys and 
filld up the Diary. And here ends yf .story of my long and tedious and trouble- 
some Glastenbury Journey. 

P.S. N.B. That awhile after my arrival home a gentleman to whom I had 
lent y e Memoirs of my Journey after he had perused em when he return'd em gave 
me a piece of silver coyn and a copy of verses. He also added y e following 
observations and gave me as followeth here 

On Saturday y e 15th day of November, N.S. the Journalist John Jackson 
set out of his Journey in y e 71st year of bis age poorly provided for so long a 
Journey with a sore leg, and but little mony to drink and bath at the Chain- 
gate water and to see y e White Thorn bud and blossom at Glastenbury on Old 
Christmas Day and notwithstanding y e rigorous season and dead time of 
y e year the inclemency of y e weather and y e splashy roads rendered almost 
impassible by heavy rains and great floods. He surmounted all difficulties, and 
travell'd through 7 Counties, past through about 55 Hamlets and Villages, 23 
Market Tcwns and 6 Cities viewed y e Cathedrals and Churches &c. and returned 
to Mirfield y e 7th day of February 1756 N.S. and brought some twigs of y e Holly 
Thorn full of buds, and some also in blossom in two vials full of Chaingate water, 
also several! fragments of stone from y e venerable ruins of Glastenbury Abbey. 
He was on his Journey 13 weeks and 4 days. 



JOHN JACKSON, OF WOODCHTJRCH. 183 

But although by the mercy of God almost contrary to all peoples expecta- 
tion I returned safe home again yet notwithstanding I found I had got such a 
desperate Surtiet as had undoubtedly cost me my Life had I not through God's 
good and mercifull providence brought me under y 6 hand of that honest and 
ingenious person vulgarly called Doctor Man of Gomersal Hill top, hard by 
Birstall, near Leeds, in y West Riding of Yorkshire to whose skill and care next 
under God I owe my life and health for he has not only cured my desperate surfiet 
but also my Leg, which has been sore 12 years and I think in conscience I ought 
to make it to be known that others who may happen to suffer as I have done may 
as I have done go where they may be sure to find without faile a sure and speedy 
remedy and the Lord direct us all. 

Ecclesiasticus Chap, y* 38th to vers y e 16th is very applicable to the matter 
in hand. 

FINIS. 

Vive, vale. Si quid novisti rectius istis, 
Condidus imperti ; si uon his utere mecum. 

Horace Eplstol. Lib. I. vii. 

Farewell ; if more thou knowest impart me thine friendly ; if not accept thou 
this of mine. 



JAMES XAYLER, THE MAD QUAKER. 

James Xayler (or Xaylor) was born in 1616 at East Ardsley, near 
Wakefield, where he lived twenty-two years and upwards, until he 
married, according to the world" as he expressed himself. He dwelt 
afterwards in the parish of Wakefield, till some time in the Civil War, 
when he served his country under various officers on the side of the 
Parliament, and rose to be Quarter-Master under General Lambert. 
In this service he continued till disabled by illness in Scotland, when he 
returned home. . About this time he was member of an Independent 
Church at Horbury, of which Christopher Marshall was pastor. By 
this society being cast out, on charges of blasphemy and incontinence 
with a Mrs. Roper (a married woman) he turned Quaker. Travelling 
soon after to visit his quaking brethren in Cornwall, he was arrested by 
one Major Saunders, and committed as a vagrant ; but being released 
by an order from the Council of State, he bent his course through 
Chewstoke, in Somersetshire, to Bristol, and here those extraordinary 
scenes were contemplated which I have to relate. 

By way of preliminary, however, I ought to observe that notwith- 
standing the irregularities in Xayler's life, there were many things in 
the man which, with low and ignorant people, exceedingly favoured his 
pretensions to the Messiahship. He appeared, both as to form and to 
feature, the perfect likeness of Jesus Christ, according to the best 
descriptions.* His face was of the oval shape, his forehead broad, his 
hair auburn and loag, and parted on the brow, his beard flowing, his 

* The accompanying portrait is taken from a photograph in the possession of 
H. Ecroyd Smith, Esq., the latter being taken from the original painting in the 
possession of the late \Villiam Darton, publisher, London. 



184 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

eyes beaming 1 with a benignant lustre, his nose of the Grecian or Cir- 
cassian order, his figure erect and majestic, his aspect sedate, his speech 
sententious, deliberate, and grave, and his manner authoritative. In 
addition, also, to these advantages, his studies had been devoted to 
Scripture history, and by some means he had caught up the Gnostic 
heresy, and the doctrine of (Eons, so that like many of the "experi- 
mental" folk (the Gnostics of our day) he could bewilder and 
confound others without being detected or abashed himself. 

The usual posture of Nayler was sitting in a chair, while his 
company of men and women knelt before him. These, it appears, were 
very numerous and .constant for whole days together. At the 
commencement of the service a female stepped forth and sung 

" This is the joyful day 
Behold, the king of righteousness is come." 

Another taking him by the hand, exclaimed 

' ' Rise up, my love, my dove, and come away, 
Why sittest thou amongst the pots ? " 

Then, putting his hand upon her mouth, she sank upon the ground 
before him, the auditory vociferating 

" Holy, holy, holy, to the Almighty ! " 

The procession of this lunatic and imposter (for lunatic he 
evidently was) especially in passing through Chepstow, was extensive 
and singular. Mounted on the back of a horse or mule one Wood- 
cock preceded him, bareheaded, and on foot a female on each side of 
Nayler, held his bridle ; many spread garments in his way, while the 
ladies sung 

" Hosannah to the Son of David ! Blessed is he that cometh hi the name of 
the Lord ! Hosannah to the highest ! " 

But this was only a portion of the incense which was offered as 
homage to this messiah, for the letters of the fair sex addressed to him 
were of the warmest and most flattering description. They called him 
"Jesus," "The Prophet of the Most High," " The King of Israel and 
the Prince of Peace." It needs scarcely to be added, but the fact is, 
they paid him frequently a tribute equally acceptable to prophets, 
priests, and kings. 

I know not what sort of a prophet James Nayler was, but I am 
sure he could not be a worse one than Richard Brothers, Johanna South- 
cott, and all other such pretenders as have since arisen ; he wrought, 
however, according to the allegation of Dorcas Erbury, a capital miracle 
upon her, for he raised her from the dead in Exeter Gaol, after she had 
departed this life full two days; and that is more than all the 
Towsers, Mousers, and Carousers of Johanna, or the prophetess her- 
self ever did, as they would perhaps acknowledge. It is highly probable, 
however, that the miracles of James Nayler did not end here, since to a 
raessiah so highly gifted as he was, it would be much easier, and more 



JAMES NAYLER, THE MAD QL'AKER. 185 

natural, to produce a Shiloli with the concurrence of Dorcas Erbury, 
than to bring- back her departed spirit to the world it left. Be this as it 
may, the House of Commons, in 1656, was so sceptical, so irreligious, 
and so insensible to the merits of this Quaker-Christ, that on Wednes- 
day, the 17th of December, in that year, after a patient investigation of 
ten days, it was resolved " That James Nayler be set on the pillory 
with his head in the pillory, in the Palace-yard, Westminster, during 
the space of two hours, on Thursday following, and should be whipped 
by the hangman through the streets from Westminster to the Old Ex- 
change. London, and there likewise be set with his head in the pillory for 
the space of two hours, between the hours of eleven and one on Saturday 
after, in each place, wearing a paper containing an inscription of his 
crimes : and that at the Old Exchange his tongue be bored through with 
a hot iron, and that he be there stigmatized also with the letter ' B ' on 
the forehead; and he be afterwards sent to Bristol, and be conveyed into 
and through the said city on horseback, bare-ridged, with his face back- 
ward, and there also publicly whipped the next Market-day after he 
comes thither ; and that, from thence, he be committed to prison to 
Bridewell, London, and there restrained from the Society of all people, 
and there to labour hard till he be released by Parliament, and during 
that tune to be debarred the use of pen, ink, and paper, and have no 
relief but what he earned by his daily labour." * 

" This sentence was for the most part executed upon Nayler, when 
some of his followers were so infatuated as to lick his wounds, kiss his 
feet, and lean upon his bosom. He was, however, allowed pen, ink, and 
paper, and wrote several books during his confinement." 

"When lodged in Bride well, in order to carry on his impostures, 
he fastecl three days, but flesh and blood being able to hold out no 
longer, he fell to work to earn himself some food." 

During the time of Xayler's travels and imprisonment he had 
frequent recourse to the press. Some of his writings were doctrinal, 
and many of them controversial. 

This narrative is chiefly taken from the State trials, but a curious 
MS. now before me states that he retracted his errors, was discharged 
from prison the 8th of September, 1659, and was again received by the 
Quakers, who had disowned him during his extravagances. It further 
states that he set out from London the latter end of October, 1660, in 
order to return to his wife and children at Wakefield, but was 

* What dreadful sufferings, with what patience he endured, even to the boring 
through of his tongue with red-hot irons, without a murmur ; and with what 
strength of mind when the delusion he had fallen into, which they stigmatized aa 
blasphemy, had given way to clearer thoughts, he could renounce his error in a strain 
of the beautifullest humility, yet keep his first grounds and be a Quaker still ! so 
different from the practice of your common converts from enthusiasm, who, when 
they apostatize, apostatize all, and think they can never get far enough from the 
society of then- former errors, even to the renunciation of some saving truths, with 
which they had been mingled, not implicated. Charlc? Lamb. Note by Ed. 



186 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

taken ill on the road, some miles beyond Huntingdon, being robbed 
by the way and left bound, in which condition he was found in a 
field, by a countryman towards evening, and carried to a friend's 
house, at Holme near Kings Repton, but soon expired in November, 
1660."* 

The publications of James Nayler are as follows : 

1. "An Exhortation to the Rulers the Preachers and Lawyers, 

1653." 

2. "Milk for Babes and Meat for Strong Men A Feast of Fat 

things, Wine well -refined on the Leas,etc. being the breathings 
of the Spirit through his Servant James Nayler, written by 
him during the confinement of his outward man in prison, 
London. 1661 ." 

3. "Nayler's Salutation to the Seed of God, 1656." 

4. " An Answer to Blome's Fanatic History." 

Morley, near Leeds The lute N. SCATCHERD, F.S.A. 



MOTHER SHIPTON. 

YORKSHIRE has produced many notable men and women, but it 
may be doubted if any of them have ever attained the persistent and 
world- wide fame of Mother Shipton. For one hundred and forty years 
edition after edition has been issued from the press of her oracular 
sayings. He name has become familiar in our mouths as household 
words, and yet if we ask, in the critical spirit of the modern time, it 
must be admitted that History is silent respecting her, and that all we 
have to depend upon is the vague voice of Tradition. The date of her 
birth is stated by one account to have been 1486 or 1488, whilst another 
account says that she died in 1651, at the age of seventy ! No record 
of her existence appeared in print until a century and a half after the 
supposed date of her entrance into this world. The scanty references 
to her in the works of the historians of Yorkshire are all evidently based 
upon local traditons or on the pamphlets issued in the seventeenth 
century. Hargrove and Allen state that she was born in 1488, near 
the Dropping Well Knaresborough, and that her prophecies had 
been preserved in MS. in Lord P 's family. f These pamphlets do not 
give us any great clue as to the individuality of the prophetess. Much 
in them is purely imaginative, and only interesting as a specimen of 

* For other interesting particulars of Nayler's career, see Baring Gould's 
" Yorkshire Oddities." Ed. 

t Probably Lord Powis. In Sloane, MS. 647 4, fol. 89, there is a piece 
entitled, "A Prophecy found in ye manuscript in ye year 1620." A woman 
born in 1488 would, however, scarcely be capable of prophesying mundane events 
in 1620. The MS. contains no name, but the verses have been given as a prediction 
of Mother Shipton's, coupled with a statement that she died in 1651, when she 
was over seventy. There is a discrepancy of more than a century in the two 
dates given for her birth. (See Oddfellows' Magazine, July, 1881, p. 168.) 



MOTHER SHIPTON. 



187 



the grotesque in popular literature. As there is proverbially fire where 
there is smoke, we may, perhaps, assume that some sybil living- by the 
Dropping Well at Knaresborough, acquired a reputation for foreseeing 



THE FAMOUS MOTHER SEBPTON 




the future, and that her dark sayings were repeated from mouth to 
mouth until some lucky wight, perhaps a Londoner brought northwards 
by the royal progresses which preceded the civil war, bethought him of 



188 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

committing them to print. This was in 1641, and in 1645 they were 
reprinted by the famous William Lilly, who was a firm believer in 
astrology, and collected a number of ancient and modern prophecies. 

Her fame in the seventeenth century was very great. Pepys, in his 
diary under date 20th October, 1666, writes of Sir Jeremy Smith : "He 
says he was on board the ' Prince ' when the news came of the burning 
of London ; and all the Prince said was, that now Shipton's prophecy 
was out," 

But if History is silent Tradition has been very busy with her name. 
Many predictions are attributed to her. A number of these have 
recently been gathered by Mr. William Grainge, and printed in the 
Palatine Note-book for April, 1881. From this article we take the 
following : 

Scarcely any event hereabouts of more than ordinary importance can occur but 
we are gravely told that " Mother Shipton's prophecy has come to pass" therein 
or thereby. Should the spring be late, the summer be cold, or snow fall earlier 
than usual, we are at once told that Mother Shipton prophesied that " we should 
not know winter from summer, except by the leaves on the trees, before the world 
was at an end." When railways began to spread throughout the country, Mother 
Shipton had, in the popular belief, foreseen them, and had said 

" When carriages without horses run, 
Old England will be quite undone." 

This, like many other equivocal sayings, may be said to be realised in the new 
state of things which the extension of railways has been the means of introducing 
into the country ; so that old England may be said to be undone by the rapid 
growth of young England. 

, When the railway was being made between Harrogate and York, a lofty 
viaduct was needed to cross the river Nidd at Knaresborough, which was nearly 
completed, when through some deficiency in the construction the whole fabric fell 
into the water ! The popular voice at once declared that Mother Shipton had 
said that ' ' the big brig across the Nidd should tummle doon twice and stand for 
iwer when built the third time.'' The second fall and the third building are 
yet in the future. This prophecy was never heard by anyone until after the 
catastrophe occurred. 

Prophecies of this kind are not confined to the immediate locality where the 
prophetess was born ; they are spread over the country far and wide ; and they 
exist in North-East Lancashire. Our seer predicted that Pickhill, a parish town 
in the North .Hiding, would never thrive until a certain family became extinct, 
and Picts, or Money-hill, an old barrow or burial mound adjoining it, should be 
cut open. Both these events came to pass ; the family indicated became extinct 
in the year 1850; and Money-hill was cut open, and nearly all removed by the 
formation of the Leeds Northern Eailway in 1851. Will the place thrive better 
now? 

Another of "Shipton's wife's prophecies" had reference to the Castle Hill 
at Northallerton, a mound which she declared should be filled with blood. The 
place has become a cemetery for the burial of the dead, which in a limited sense 
is a fulfilment of the saying ; for we must bear in mind that the utterances of the 
most gifted seers if tied down to exact literality will often be found wanting. 

Another of tier predictions was fulfilled at the antique village of Ulleskelfe-on- 
the-Wharfe. The said villiage had from time immemorial possessed a large tithe- 
barn, and a public spring of water called " the Keld." Our prophetess declared 
that a public road should run through the barn, and the Keld be dried up. 
No one could believe that such things would happen ; tithe-barns would exist and 
water spring for ever. Yet the making of the York and North Midland Eailway 



-MOTHER SHIPTOX. 189 

effected both these seeming impossibilities ; the iron roadway was laid directly 
over the place where the barn had stood, and the Keld was removed to another 
place. 

An unfulfilled prophecy relates to Walkingham Hill, a ridge of high land some 
three miles northward of Knaresborough. The old dame is reported to have said 
that a time would come when all the hill would run with blood ; but with 
what kind of blood she said not. If the swarms of rabbits which infest it be 
meant, the prediction is fulfilled every day. 

She is also said to have foreseen the use of the Harrogate waters, the building 
of that town, and the railway bridges leading to it, and to have given her pre- 
science shape and expression in the following very rude lines which have evidently 
been made in the neighbourhood, for they bear no signs of Cockney manufacture : 

' ' SYhen lords and ladies stinking water soss, 
High brigs o' stean the Nidd sal cross, 
An' a toon be built on Harrogate Moss." 

The first and last predictions at one time were not likely to come to pass, if they 
were really uttered before the events ; they are, however, now literally fulfilled, 
for lords and ladies come from all parts of the kingdom to drink (synonymous with 
sons) the strong and stinking sulphur waters. Harrogate Moss has been reclaimed 
from the rude Forest of Knaresborough. of which it formed a part, and one of the 
most elegant towns in the county of York has been built upon it, entirely through 
the influence of those stinking waters which persons of high breeding are said to 
so**. Two rather lofty viaducts across the river >'idd conduct the railways from 
the north and east to the town, and these, we suppose, are the "high brigs o' 
stean " meant by the prophetess. The highest brig is, however, on the south, 
across the valley of the Cumple, which is not noticed. This prediction is probably 
not more than thirty years old. 

The latest application of the old sybil's name to a recent event took place last 
year, 1880, when the village of Fewston, which is built partly upon a moving 
landslip, gave a slight move, cracking the walls of about a dozen houses from the 
bottom to the top, and appearing as though it would slide down into one of the 
large reservoirs which the Leeds Corporation has constructed in the valley of the 
Washburn for the purpose of supplying that town with water. When the slip 
took place the credulous and alarmed people (or some of them) declared that 
Mother Shipton had prophesied that Fewston Village should slide into Washburn 
river before the world was at an end. 

Xor are these traditions-confined to Yorkshire. In East Norfolk 
she is made to say : ' The town of Yarmouth shall become a nettle- 
bush. That the bridge shall be pulled up ; and small vessels sail to 
Irstead and Barton Roads/' Also, " Blessed are they that live near 
Potter Heigham. and double-blessed them that live in it.* 

In Somerset one of Mother Shipton's prophecies was due to come 
true on Good Friday of 1879, when Ham Hill was to have been 
swallowed up by an earthquake, and Yeovil swept by a deluge. Large 
numbers went as near as they thought safe, to see it ; many of the 
inhabitants of the threatened district, more consistently with the state 
of their belief, fled from their homes and took refuge with friends at 
some distance. As the stroke of twelve approached, when the awful 
event was to " come off," there was a queer feeling, mixed of terror 
and unbelief, prevading the air. AVhen all was over, and the clock was 
silent, and the disappointed crowd had to disperse, there was a better 

'Harrison : Mother Shipton Investigated, p. 64. 



190 OLD YORKSHIRE.' 

chance for rational faith than there has been in those parts since 
Mother Shipton's own day. 

If asked, "Who was Mother Shipton ]" many in reply to such a 
question would say " A famous prophetess, who foretold the invention 
of the telegraph, the use of steam, and who declared that the end of 
the world should be in the year 1881." These prophecies were con- 
tained in some well-known lines, devoid of either rhythm or sense. Mr. 
Charles Hindley has since confessed that he fabricated this doggerel 
in order to sell an edition of Shipton which he printed in 1862. That 
Mr. Hindley was not the first to credit Mother Shipton with predictions 
of which she was quite innocent is evident from an anecdote told by an 
anonymous correspondent of Notes and Queries.* 

At one of the debates in the Cambridge Union, Praed followed a 
speaker who had indulged in a vein of gloomy vaticination, and Praed 
said that the speech brought to his mind a prophecy of Mother Shiptou, 
which his facile powers of versification enabled him to manufacture on 
the spot.t 

This is by no means a new trick. Throughout the middle ages 
prophecies were freely employed by the different contending parties in 
order to strengthen their bold upon the public, and allusions to 
accomplished events were freely interpolated, in order to give greater 
credit to prognostications of the future, in which the wish was father 
to the thought. 

The earliest edition of Mother Shipton's prophecy is that printed in 
1641. It opens in a very abrupt fashion with a statement that she 
had predicted that Wolsey should never be at York. Drake, the 
historian of York, says that the Cardinal never came nearer to the city 
than Cawood, and after a reference to the prophecy adds, " I should 
not have noticed this idle story, but that it is fresh in the mouths of our 
country people at this day ; but whether it was a real prediction, or 
raised after the event, I shall not take upon me to determine. It is 
more than probable, like all the rest of these kind of tales, the 
accident gave occasion to the story." After the Wolsey prophecy 
follow a number of others, some of local and some of general application. 
Although printed as prose many are in rhyme, and some are certainly 
of considerable antiquity, having passed current under various other 
names before they were credited to Mother Shipton. Mr. W. C. 
Hazlitt mentions another edition published in the same year, which 
professes to have been taken down in 1625, from the mouth of Jane 
Waller, who died in March, 1641, at the age of 94, and of whom it is 
said Mother Shipton had prophesied that she would live to hear ef war 
within the kingdom, but not to see it. The editions since printed have 
for the most part been uncritical jumbles of various portions of Head's 
book and the earlier tracts. They are now carefully reprinted, so that 

* 2nd s. xi. 97. t Notes and Queries, 2nd s. xi. 33. 



MOTHER SHIPTOX. 



191 



all who are interested may see what was the original form of the famous 
Yorkshire prophecy. 

A word may be said in conclusion as to the memorials and 
portraits of Mother Shipton At one time a sculptured stone, near 
Clifton, was regarded by the people as a monument to Mother Shipton. 
In reality it was a mutilated effigy of a knight in armour, which had 
probably been taken from a tomb in St. Mary's Abbey, and set up as a 
boundary stone. It is now in the Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical 
Society.* 

In Rackstow's Museum, Fleet Street, London, there was in 1792, 
" a figure of Mother Shipton, the prophetess, in which the lineaments 
of extreme old age are strongly and naturally marked. Also her real 
skull, brought from her burial place at Knaresborough, in Yorkshire. "t 

In 1874 Mrs. Banks came across an old painting of the prophetess 
in the back parlour of a shop in Xorth London. " The somewhat dingy 
walls were," she says, "to my great surprise, hung with fine old 
paintings in old frames, and seemed to me of great value. Amongst 
these my attention was arrested by one larger than the others an 
ancient portrait of character so remarkable that I could not refrain from 
asking whose it might be. The answer was, 'Dame Shipton,' our 
ancestress, commonly called Mother Shipton, and said by some to be a 
witch." 

An engraving of Mother Shipton, in a chariot drawn by a reindeer 
or stag, appeared in the Wonderful Magazine, Vol. II., London, 1793. 

In Kirby's Wonderful Museum (Vol. II., p. 145) there is a portrait 
of Mother Shipton, drawn by Sir Wm. Ouseley, from an oil painting in 
the possession of Mr. Ralph Ouseley, of York, which had been "'present 
with the family of the proprietor for more than a century." It 
represents a nielanchojy-looking woman, with a broad-brimmed hat, 
whose chin is being stroked by a monkey or familiar. 

Mr. Harrison is of opinion that the hooked nose, turned-tip chin, 
and peaked cap of Mother Shipton, as shown in the picture on the 
edition of the prophecies issued in 1663, became gradually transformed 
into the figure of Punch, with which we are all so familiar. This theory 
he supports with much ingenuity in his little book, " Mother Shipton 
Investigated," From a work, entitled " Mother Shipton," published by 
A. Heywood and Soa 

* Xotes and Queries, 4th 8., ii., 84. t Notes and Queries, 4th a., iv., 213. 




YORKSHIRE CHURCHES. 




BRADFORD PARISH CHURCH. 

HIS edifice is a good specimen of the style of ecclesiastical 
, architecture prevailing- in the reign of Henry VI., during 
which period it was built. " The length of the nave, 
(inclusive of the lobby or vestibule, thirty-seven feet), is one 
hundred and seven feet ; its height to the ceiling, thirty feet, 
and breadth, fifty-four feet. The chancel is forty-seven feet in 
length. The great length of the body of the church, built with 
fine freestone ; its large and numerously ramified windows, 
pinnacled battlements, varied ornaments,, and lofty and beautiful 
tower, (thirty yards high), give the whole structure an imposing and 
effective appearance. The roof is of its original pitch, and is covered 
with the grey slate of the country. The door- way on the north is of 
debased character, and the door of very modern and unpretending form. 
That on the south is more architecturally correct, and covered by a 
porch of good proportions and fair design. The proportions of the 
Church deserve high praise, unlike the designs of modern times. In 
short, in this respect, the Parish Church of Bradford may be taken as a 
good specimen of the general arrangement of the parts of a Church, 
in the day when architecture was made the study and rule. On the 
north side, the Leventhorpe Chapel or Aisle is lighted by a three-light 
window, cinq-foiled, the upper, or, subsidiary lights, tre-foiled. The 
north-east window of the Chancel consists of three lights, similarly 
foiled. On the south side, the Boiling Chapel is lighted by windows of 
truly debased character, the heads circular, and the mullious running 
up in perpendicular lines without any foliation. The south-east window 
of the Chancel consists of five lights, cinq-foiled, central-light disparting, 
the subsidiary ones tre-foiled. This is by far the best window in the 



194 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Church. The east window is of eight lights, and of most debased 
character. The Chancel is supported at the east by diagonal staged 
buttresses. The gable is surmounted by the remains of a cross, which 
has originally been in the form of a wheel On the north side is a small 
door- way, called the Priest's Door, which leads by two steps to the 
floor of the Chancel. The door-way on the south is modern, and sur- 
mounted by a coat of arms. The pitch of the roof is much more 
elevated than the Nave, and is covered with the same material as the 
Nave. The South, or Boiling Chapel, has been rebuilt at no very 
distant period, as the style of the masonry shows, and the absence of 
that architectural character which marks the other portions of the 
building. Over the east window of the Chancel has been an inscription 
which now bears the date 1666. 

The floor of the Chancel is elevated above that of the Nave by 
three steps, and rises by a regular ascent to the platform on which are 
fixed the Altar-rails. The floor has been lowered, as also that of the 
Nave, as the bases of the piers show ; but the one probably held the 
same relation to the other which it now bears. On the south side, the 
Boiling Chapel is separated from the Chancel by two arches of larger 
dimensions than those of the Nave. The same may be said of the 
Leventhorpe Chapel, on the north side. The space in front of the 
Altar is enclosed by strong balustre rails, and the walls surrounding it 
are cased with wooden panelling, of domestic rather than ecclesiastical 
form. The writer of this has carefully examined the wall of the Chancel 
now concealed by this panelling, but has not been able to discover the 
least traces of the ancient appendages of an Altar, viz., a piscina, or 
aumbrie, or sedile. The roof of the Chancel deserves especial notice, 
from the mode of its construction, and the beauty of the ornaments 
which are introduced into it. It is open, and of wood, and rests on 
embattled hammer beams, andspandrils ; the intersections of the beams, 
and the wall plates are well carved, but now so thickly coated with 
whitewash as almost to conceal their beauty. In some cases the bosses 
and terminations of the spandrils have been removed. 

The Screen which formerly separated the Chancel from the Nave, 
was doubtless elevated to its present lofty position, at the time when 
the gallery was erected. It is of excellent workmanship, but of that 
style w r hich renders it very unsightly in a Gothic edifice. Probably the 
original Rood Screen, which stood in this position, was entered by a 
stabcase, which yet remains, in the north wall of the Church, in a direct 
line with the Chancel Arch. 

The Nave and Ante Church are separated from the aisles by nine 
arches, of somewhat similar character, though smaller dimensions than 
those in the Chancel, and of unequal span. These arches rest on 
clustered columns, the capitals of which are of meagre pretensions, and 
those on the south different from those on the north side. The south 
aisle was taken down and re-built in the year 1832, at which time the 
south clerestory windows of the Nave, and the dormer lights of this 



BRADFORD PARISH CHURCH. 195 

aisle, which before had been dissimilar in form, were made to assume a 
more regular appearance. The north clerestory windows (as has been 
observed), with the exception of two, preserve their original form. The 
bases of many of the piers have been most shamefully cut away, in order 
to make additional accommodation for the pews ; and thus public safety 
is endangered to procure a little private convenience. 

The roof of the nave is an object deserving of attention, and is a 
very beautiful specimen of perpendicular work." 

When the above description was written, Dr. Scoresby was the 
Vicar of Bradford. Various obstacles arose preventing the carrying 
out of the plan for altering the Church; but they were eventually 
surmounted by the energy and perseverance of the succeeding vicar, 
Dr. Burnet, who was liberally assisted by the contributions of the 
inhabitants. 

We now come to the present condition of the interior of the church. 
Entering by the south porch door, we find that the nave and chancel of 
the church are spacious, the latter having a handsome appearance. The 
beauty of the nave is much impaired by the galleries, which run along 
the north and south walls, blocking up, as they do, much of the light 
from the windows lighting the aisles. The fronts of the galleries are 
plain and unsightly, and, now that Bradford is well supplied with church 
accommodation, it is to be hoped that these ugly erections will, before 
long, be made to disappear. The clerestory windows in the north wall 
consist of nine two-light windows with trefoil heads, with jambs, 
splayed inside. The windows are narrow, and they do not admit much 
light to the Church. The windows in the south clerestory wall are 
altogether of a different construction. They consist of nine three-light 
windows decorated with cinq-foil heads, and late plain mullions. These 
windows admit much more light to the Church than those on the 
opposite side. The south gallery is lighted by five dormer windows let 
into the sloping roof of the side aisle. They are of poor appearance, 
and their dingy character is out of harmony with the general appearance 
of the Church. The light for the north gallery is obtained from three 
dormer windows and two modern and common "skylights, "more fitted 
for a joiner's shop than for the roof of the Parish Church of a place like 
Bradford. In them there is not even an approach to ecclesiastical 
architecture. The nave is divided from the aisles by nine pointed 
arches on four-shaft piers, with capitals evidently belonging to two 
different periods. Those of the oldest period are more depressed and 
slanting than those on the south side, which are fair specimens of plain 
moulding. The windows lighting the side aisles are of two different 
periods, those on the north side belonging to the oldest portion of the 
Church. They are three-light windows, with early plain mullions, and 
are much shorter than those in the north aisle. In the south aisle there 
are five three-light windows, extending almost to the floor. They are 
of modern construction, with late plain mullions. The roof of the nave 
is of a substantial character, and very much different in appearance to 



196 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



the roof which was visible prior to the restoration of the Church. At 
that period there was a flat plaster roof which hid the old oaken timber, 
that now adds considerably to the pleasing- appearance of the interior. 
The roof is supported by nine king posts filled in with handsomely 
carved woodwork. The trusses rest upon figures of angels in various 
attitudes, bearing musical instruments or scrolls. A string of dental 
work runs round the whole of the base. The ceiling is thrown into 
panels, the spaces between the woodwork being coloured blue. The 
roofing of the side aisles is also divided into panels with cross beams, 
the spaces being filled in with plaster. On mounting the steps leading 
to the chancel, there is to the left a spacious chapel, partly occupied by 
the organ, and the remaining portion is used as the choir vestry. It is 
screened by some very handsome oak carving, partly in ornamental 
panel work, and partly filled in with frosted glass. 

On the north wall of the chancel there is one of the finest speci- 
mens of the sculptor's art to be found in this part of Yorkshire. It is 
the work of John Flaxman, and is to the memory of Mr. Balme, a 
Bradford gentleman. The design is an impersonation of venerable 
age instructing youth. " Whether the symmetry, ease, and beauty of 
the figures the natural disposition of the drapery or the happiness of 
the conception be considered, it must be regarded as a piece of almost 
unequalled excellence in English sculpture." On the top of the monu- 
ment is the motto, " Instruct the ignorant," and underneath the figures 
is the following inscription : 

M.S. 

Abraham! Balme, hujusce oppidi nuper incolde qui patrice 
et oppidanus suis quantam in se fuit prodesse sexagenbi public! 
cuj usque operis anctor assiduus aut curator prudens in negotiis 
obeundis nemoperitior aut exercitator hec in cunicitias numeribus 
vita longa et perubilia feliciter clausa. Feb die iv anno salutis- 
mdccxcvi, setatis 90. 

Jussa suo extra mtirox ecclesite corpore possito ajtam per 
Christum sperans immortalitatem Kequiescat. Hanc tabulam 
pietatis ergo poni curavit films nuerens E. Balme A.M., H.S., 
E.T., A.S. Soc." 

The reredos is a testimony of the liberality of Mr. M. W. 
Thompson. He presented this handsome monument to the Church 
about the year 1862. The reredos is plain, but well proportioned. It 
consists of one central group representing the Resurrection in relief, 
surmounted by a canopy, with decorated pinnacles. To the right and 
left are panels containing shields and other ornaments. The- 1\\<> 
shields on the right bear representations of Christ's garments upon 
which the soldiers cast lots; and the implements of the crucifixion 
hammer, pincers, and sponge, laid over a cross, beneath which is a 
skull. The shields to the left of the centre-piece contain representations 
of the crown of thorns, with nails and the scourge. Beneath each 



BRADFORD PARISH CHURCH. 



107 



shield, there is leaf and branch work representing: the oak. ivy. holly, 
and olive, and over them are placed fillets, but the latter have not any 
inscriptions upon them. At the left corner, in a niche, is a representa- 
tion of St. Peter with the keys ; and at the opposite corner, also in a 
niche, is a representation of St. Paul with the sword. Round the frieze 




are beautifully carved imitations of corn and the vine. On each side of 
the centre-piece there are three panels with decorated and pointed arches, 
having- floral terminals for the cusps. Along; the top of the reredos 
carvings of the knop and flower pattern are conspicuous. The panels 
to the right and left of the centre are left blank for the Commandments, 



198 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



the Lord's Prayer, and the Apostles' Creed. The whole of the work- 
manship is characteristic in design, and in keeping 1 with the subjects 
represented. 

At the back of the choir, on the south side of the chancel, is the 
Boiling Chapel. It is separated from the chancel by a handsome oak 
screen, carved in a similar manner to that of the other ornamentation 
of the Church. It is garnished at the top with the knop and flower 
pattern, like the reredos, with string work beneath it, representing 
various symbolical flowers. The panels are glazed with frosted glass. 
At the east end of the interior of the chapel there is a four-light window, 
with rounded heads, having plain shortened lights over it. There is 




Reredos In Parish Church, Bradford. 

a window of the same character on the south side, with plain mullions ; 
but it has only three lights. The doorway is screened, and it is known 
as the priests' gateway from the south side of the church. The chapel 
is commodious, and is used as the vicar's vestry. It will comfortably 
seat forty persons. There are several mural^monuments in this chapel. 
Whilst inserting the new east window and renovating the south wall 
of the chancel, an ancient piscina was found in the wall, where it, no 
doubt, had remained concealed since the days of the Reformation. 
It is of rude construction, and seems to have been defaced by our 
Puritan forefathers. 



BRADFORD PARISH CHURCH. 



199 



THE FOLLOWING IS A CLOSE CATALOGUE OF THE VICARS OF BRADFORD. 



TICARS. 



PATRONS. 



How 
Vacated. 



Richard de Halton, Pbr. Robert Rector, with the ascent of 

Alice de Lacy Resigned 

Pdchard de Irby Same 

Richard de Eure, Pbr. Same " Resigned 

Robert Moryn, Chaplain Robert, son of Reginald de Baldock, 

rector r Resigned 

Robert de Byngham, Pbr. j Same Same 

Wm. de Preston, Chaplain Same 

I Henry de Latrynton, Chaplain Same, Robert ' Same 

Geoffery de Langton, Pbr. j Same Same 

Adam de Lymbergh, Pbr. ! same Same 

Richd. de Wilsden, Pbr. Same 

William Frankelayn | Wm. de Mirneld By death 

William de Norton, Pbr. j Same Resigned 

William de Cotes, Pbr. Same 

Stephen de Eccleshill, Pbr. Same 

William Resigned 

William Rodes, Pbr. j .Wm. de Wynceby Resigned 

Thomas Banke, Pbr. Dean and" Canons of College of 

Leicester Same 

Dyonis Gellys, Pbr. Same .. Resigned 

Henry Gellys, Pbr. Same By death 

John Webbester, Pbr. ! Sa-ue Same 

Richard Strateburell i Same ... "... Same 

J Mr. Gilbert Beaconshaw, 

I Deer. B. or Beaconhill Same Same 

Wm. More (Bp. of Col- 
chester?) John, Bishop of Lincoln 

Wm, Weston, S.T.B. Assigns of the Col. of Leicester ... Resigned 

Thomas Okden, Clerk Other Assigns By death 

Laurence Taylor, Clerk Same 

Christopher Taylor, Clerk ; Queen Elizabeth ... ... . Same 

Caleb Kempe,Cl.S.T.B. Same Same 

Richard Lister, Cl. A.M. ! Archbishop of York Resigned 

John Oakel, A.M. Francis Morrie and Francis 

Philip By death 

John Kempe, Clerk Charles the First ... Same 

Edward Hudson, Clerk Same Same 

Francis Corker, Clerk Same 

{During the Civil Wars. Mr. Blazet ordained minister ) 
Jonas Waterhouse, M.A., > 
Then Francis Corker, until minister 

his death 

Abraham Brook^ank. Clerk, Mary Maynard and Jonas Water- 

A.M. boose By death 

Francis Pemberton Bnller and Wife Resigned 

Benjamin Baron Archbishop of York, by lapse Bv death 

Bradgate Ferrand Bnller . . Same 

Thomas Clapham ' Same 

Benjamin Eennet, A.M. Francis Bnller Same 

John Sykes, A.M. | Joseph and Jane Sykes , ... Same 

John Crosse, A.M. Hammond Crosse, Esq '. Same 

Henry Heap, B.D. ; Daniel Sykes and others ... Same 

William Scoresby, D.D. Trustees of Mr. Simeon Resigned 

John Burnet. L.L.D. Same 

Vincent Wm. Ryan, D.D., 

Bishop of the Mauritius Same Resigned 

Joseph Bardsley, MA. Same Present 

Vicar 



Bradford, 



W. H. HATTON. 



200 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

KIPPAX CHURCH. 

Kippax is the Chepesch* of Domesday Book. " The village stands on 
a bold and elevated site, and on the highest part of the ridge is one of 
those Saxon mounts which the people delighted to raise as well for 
prospect as defence." The Parish Church has very little which 
demands particular observation, except its antiquity. The building 
seems to have been barbarously used in the olden time. The oak roof 
is enclosed in a plaster ceiling, and a doorway and windows on the 
north side as well as a Norman arch under the tower, have been built 
up. The east window is handsome, so is the chancel arch, and the font 
is a curiosity. There are some mural monuments of the Bland family, 
and a little old stained glass in the east window. Prom the churchyard 
can be seen the spire of Wakefield Church, the park at Pontefract, and 
a wide expanse of country, the moorlands of Penistone, and the hills 
beyond. 

"The benefice is a vicarage, valued in the Liber Regis at 
5 7s. Id. ; the church is dedicated to St. Mary, and was in the 
patronage of the crown. According to the return in 1818 there was 
church accommodation for 180. This church was appropriated to the 
Priory of Pontefract by Robert de Lacy. The impropriators are 
charged with 6s. 8d. per annum to the Dean ani Chapter, and 6s. 8d. 
to the poor of the parish. f A vicarage was ordained in 1410, and it is 
remarkable as mentioning the tithe of coals. The vicar is charged with 
one third of the expense of new building and repairing the chancel. 
Torre gives a catalogue of the early vicars. At the dissolution the 
patronage came to the crown. Late impropriator, G. W. Medhurst, 
Esq. A chantry is named in the Valor Eccles. The church is valued 
in Pope Nicholas's Taxation at 16 13s. 4d. In the Parliamentary 
Survey, vol. xviii., p. 345 at 30 per annum. Syndals, 4s., Procurations, 
7s. 6d. The vicarage was augmented in 1737 with 200 to meet 
benefaction of 200 from Lady Elizabeth Hastings and the Rev. 
William Wood. There was an unreported decree in the Exchequer in 
Hilary Term, llthAVilliam III. as to tithes. There is a glebe house fit 
for residence. The Register Books commence in 1539, but there is u 
chasm from 1644 to 1653."} 

In this village a free school was founded in the 36th of 
Henry VIII. by George Goldsmith, clerk, who gave certain copyhold 
cottages and lands in Kippax, to certain trustees for the use and 
enjoyment of a schoolmaster. The property belonging to the school 
consists of a school and garden in the occupation of the master, also 
three closes of seven acres, worth about 22 per annum. 

* According to Dr. Whitaker, the modern orthography of this word, Kippax, 
is a mere corruption, and the vulgar pronunciation Kippas, comes much nearer to 
the original ; but the Chepesch of Domesday Book, compared with the situation 
of the place, leads to the real origin of the name. 

t Torre's MS., p. 235. J Taylor's Leeds Churches, p. 42 i. 



202 OLD YORKSHIRE. 



LEDSHAM CHURCH. 

THE Parish Church of Ledsham, consisting of an early Norman 
nave, and tower with spire of later date, transitional chancel and North 
aisle and Lady Chapel of perpendicular character is especially remark- 
able for the monument it contains, to Lady Elizabeth Hastings, one of 
the best women that ever lived. The monument is truly noble and 
magnificent. The figure of Lady Elizabeth is placed on a sarcophagus, in 
a reclining position ; she is represented as reading a book of devotion, 
and her countenance, which is a portrait, is both handsome and spirited. 
Statues of her two sisters, Lady Frances and Lady Anne Hastings, 
are placed on pedestals by her side, as personifications of piety and 
prudence. Lady Elizabeth died Jan. 2nd, 1739, aged fifty-eight 
years. * 

* The instructions of this lady to the clergymen, which are affixed to a column 
adjoining the north chapel, are as follows : After an appropriate introduction 
Lady Elizabeth intreats the resident clergymen to observe the following rules 
(the spelling of which is accommodated to the usage of the present time) : " 1st. 
That he content not himself with an orderly and regular discharge of his duty, as 
the same is marked out and prescribed to him by human laws ; but from a true 
fervency of spirit and Christian zeal for the salvation of his people and his own, 
add to the obligations required of him by man, the adequate and only sufficient 
measures of the Gospel, daily abounding in the works of his high calling, rule 
his own house well, and enforce his preaching in the minds of men by holiness of 
life, and the strength and the power of his own example. 2nd. That hs would 
daily, and earnestly, in private prayer, humble himself before the throne of God, 
for all especial blessings upon himself, upon his flock, and upon all mankind. 3rd. 
That he would be much in conversation with his people, and without partiality or 
preferring anyone to another, he would inform himself of their spiritual condition, 
the respective wants and occasions of their souls, and give them their portion of 
meat in due season, and by all the wisdom and prudence he is master of, turn the 
stream of their affections from the momentary and vain enjoyments of this world, 
to the everlasting riches and only solid pleasures of the next. 4th. That at every 
visit he receives or pays he would provide that some part of the discourse should be 
upon some vital subject of religion, as the absolute necessity of having it planted in 
the heart, and what are the hindrances whereby it is rendered unable to strike 
root and to fix itself there, and what the salutary and only effective means are, and 
wherein lies the heavenly wisdom, and what are those holy methods and ways for 
the removing and exterminating such hindrances, so that having the kingdom of 
God established within himself, and the souls of all his sons and daughters (as 
in his ministerial relation he must ever account his whole people to be), they may 
be able to stand in judgment, and may, through God's great mercy in the 
redemption of all men by His Blessed Son, find their eternal lot and portion among 
His Saints.'' With this advice some writers have made themselves merry, and 
Dr. Whitaker observes that "it savours of a species of lay episcopacy to which 
devout and honourable women are apt to addict themselves." There can be little 
doubt that Lady Elizabeth had seen in her day, at no great distance from Led- 
sham, deplorable instances of clerical laziness, delinquency, and indecorum ; and on 
this account, if there were no other, she was fully justified in recording her 
recommendations ; and well would it be if all clergymen at the present day would 
reduce them to practice ! We do not see why good advice should not be as 
excellent in coming from Lady Elizabeth Hastings, as from any dignified ecclesiastic 
or mitred prelate in the world. 



'7>:fn ^~7J^r -i- 1 ' --^ ;- 

' tf ?" ' ., =fcx . -.^3 V - ' tsda&.-v ' 




204 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

There is little doubt but that the church at Lcdsham was founded 
by the Lacies; it is a vicarage, valued in the Liber Regis at 7 4s. 2d., 
and it is dedicated to All Saints. 

The Church at Ledsham was, by Robert de Lacy, given to the 
Priory of Pontefract, * with one mediety of the town ; the other 
mediety the said Religious House held of the Chapter of York. The 
rector was appropriated to the Priory and Convent of Pontefract, and 
Archbishop Walter Grey made an ordination, the particulars of 
which appear in Torre's M.S., p. 391. There was formerly a chapel at 
Fairburn, and Torre says the Dean and Chapter have jurisdiction there. 
The church is valued in Pope Nicholas's Taxation at 10, and the 
vicarage at 6 13s. 4d. ; in the King's Book at 7 3s. 2d. ; and in the 
Parliamentary Survey, vol. xviii. p. 257, at 17 per annum. Synodals, 
5s., Procurations, 7s. 6d. To this vicarage appertain the townships 
of Ledsham, Fairburn, and part of Ledston. It enjoys an augmentation 
of 14 per annum from the Dean and Chapter of York, who have the 
impropriation of Fairburn township. The vicarage was augmented in 
1721 with 200, to meet benefaction from Lady Elizabeth Hastings of 
tithes of the value of 200 and upwards. There was an Act passed 
in the 53rd George III. to enclose Fairburn township. Torre gives a 
close catalogue of the vicars to 1668, which is partially continued by 
Thoresby and Whitaker, May 4th, 1662. Dame Mary Bolles, of Heath 
in the Hall, parish of Warmfield, Baronetness, directed her body to be 
buried in Ledsham Church, and a decent tomb to be placed over her, and 
bequeathed 10 to an able minister for preaching her funeral sermon, 
arid 700 to be bestowed in fine cloth and stuff for mourning, tc., and 
400 more to be expended about her funeral ; and the strange poor 
above sixteen years of age, 6d. a piece; and to the younger sort, 
3d., &c., See Torre's M.S., p. 393; Wake field Worthies, p. 67, &c. 
The Register Books commence in 1539; deficient from 1597 to 
1606. 

In 1871 the Church of All Saints at Ledsham, after having 
been restored, was re-opened by the Archbishop of York. The 
church has been entirely re-fitted internally with open benches, in 
the nave of varnished deal, and in the chancel and chapel 
of oak. The pulpit, desk, and lectern also are of oak. A new 
font has been placed near the south doorway, and the ancient 
one, which has been given back to the church, may be seen near the 
very old tower doorway, the carving of which has been restored. 
The few fragments of old stained glass have been collected and arranged 

* As the first recorded patrons of this church are the Prior and Convent of 
Pontefract, there can be little doubt that the founders were the chief lords, the 
Lacies, with whom, as their own endowment, this was a favoured house. In that 
patronage it continued to the dissolution, and has since followed the fortunes of 
the manor, having probably been early purchased by the "Withams from the crown, 
one of that family presenting to it in the year 1570. Ledsham is a discharged living 
valued at 44 ?s. 8d. 



LEDSHAM CHURCH. 205 

in the chancel windows. A memorial, by Preedy, has been placed in 
the Perpendicular window at the east end of the mortuary chapel ; one, 
by Lavers and Barraud, in the west window in the tower. Two 
subjects, by Wailes, which formerly occupied the modern windows in 
the chancel, have been revised and incorporated into a new one 
adjacent to the vestry door. One of the small Norman windows on 
the south side of the tower has been filled with stained glass by Gibbs. 
The chancel has been restored by the Rev. Chas. Wheler, of Ledstone 
Hall, patron of the living-, and, with the exception of the choir stalls, 
refitted at his sole expense. The mortuary chapel also, with the contri- 
bution of 50 from Mr. C. W. WTieler, has been restored by the same 
gentleman. The parochial portion of the church has been restored by 
public subscriptions. 

Swaledale R. V. TAYLOR, B.A. 



\VAKEFIELD PARISH CHURCH 

ledicated to All Saints, and was once, appropriately, the Parish 
Church of the whole parish of \Vakefield. It has, now. however, a 
very contracted district, but it must still be deemed the chief eccl> 
tical structure in the ancient parish. It consists of tower and spire at 
the west end, nave and aisles, chancel and aisles, and south porch. It 
had until lately a vestry, being an addition at the east end put up when 
Dr. Bacon was vicar (1789 or 1790), but pulled down in 1866 so as to 
clear the east window. The tower is 105 feet high, and the spire 135. 
the vane 7 feet more, making 247 feet. This is the highest in 
Yorkshire. 

In style the church is perpendicular, the crowns of the window 
arches somewhat depressed ; but the walls north, south, and east 
having been much debased by late rebuildings, did not. until within 
the last two or three years, exhibit anything, or very little, to 
indicate what the proper style was. The windows put in and walling 
done in the course of the latter time shew Mr. Gilbert Scotfs opinion 
of what these ought to be, and are vastly superior to those they have 
displaced. 

The eastern end of the south aisle of the church (formerly called 
our Lady's quire) is the Pilkington Chantry, and burial place of the 
family in former years. Several of their monuments are here, the most 
elaborate being the large erection to the memory of Sir Lyon 
Pilkington, who died 1714, placed here by his son Sir Lionel. * 

* This chantry was founded by Sir John Pilkington, Knight, on 20th Decem- 
ber, 1475, under authority of Letters Patent from Edward IV., granted (to the 
praise and honour of God and of the Blessed Virgin and of All Saints) 1st 
June, in the 15th year of his reign, to Sir John and his heirs for the health of 
the said Prince and of his brother Richard Duke of Gloucester, and of the said 



206 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Wakefield Church has been rebuilt in part, or entirely, several 
times. Dr. Sisson and others say the original Norman edifice remained 
until the beginning- of the reign of Edward III. ; but nothing is known 
of it. On the 10th of August, 1329, Archbishop Melton consecrated a 
new erection, which, with the exception of the tower and spire, was 
demolished 140 years later, and thereupon the present structure was built. 
Leland, in or after 1538 as already quoted, noticed that the church was 
then a new work. In 1724 the south side was rebuilt ; and toward the 
latter part of the 18th century the north side and east end also. The 
tower was re-cased in 1858-9. The spire, after being partly rebuilt and 
lowered a little in 1715, and re-topped in 1823, was in 1860-1, entirely 
rebuilt with crockets, of which the immediately preceding spire was 
devoid, and raised to its present height. 

The tower has a fine peal of ten bells cast by Mr. Thomas Mears 
in 1816, and hung in 1817, replacing a peal of eight. 

In 1868-9 the chancel stalls were repaired and restored, and are 
now very good. The screen behind the stalls and beyond, on each side 
of the main chancel, was also restored at the same time. The new 
reredos, wrought in Farleigh Down stone, was given by the Rev. 
Henry Dawson, and put up in 1868. The encaustic tiles on the chancel 
floor within the altar rails were also laid in 1868. The Rev. Canon 
Camidge, the vicar, gave the brass lectern in 1866. 

Mr. Fowler, in his pamphlet " On the mural paintings, etc., of All 
Saints, Wakefield," says that on clearing off the colour wash from 
the walls of the chancel, traces of black letter inscriptions were dis- 
covered beneath the stucco. These, he says, were probably of the 
beginning of the seventeenth century ; and on the removal of the 

Sir John and Joan his wife, and for their souls when dead, and for the souls of 
Richard Duke of York, father of the above brothers, and the father and mother 
of the said Sir John, and for the souls of Gilbert Parr, Thomas Hall, and John 
Leycester, and for the souls of all for whom he was bound to pray, and of all 
faithful deceased the founder having the consent of the Archbishop of York and 
the licence of the Dean and Chapter of the free chapel of St. Stephen in West- 
minster, rectors of the church, and the consent of every one interested. He 
appoints James Smethurst his first chaplain ; directs that the abbot and convent of 
Kirkstall shall nominate successors if he or his heirs fail to do so for three months; 
prescribes also the special services to be performed ; commands the chaplain to 
be obedient to the vicar, and to be present at Vespers and on Sundays and 
Festival Days ; ordains that the anniversary day for the souls of him and his 
wife and heirs shall be kept on the feast day of St. Cedde [Chad], on which day 
thirteen pence is to be distributed to thirteen poor people present at Mass out 
of a yearly rent of nine marks bought for 300 marks of the Prior and Convent 
of St. John at Pontefract ; prohibits the chaplain from holding any other office 
or from being absent more than a month per year, and from frequenting taverns 
or playing at dice, cards, or other dishonest games. The grant of the rent 
by St. John's Priory empowers distraint on the Manor of Ledstone or Whit- 
wode, or any other of the priory manors, in case of non-payment for live 
W eeks. From an abstract made by Mr. Hunter ( Author of South Yorkshire), 
and sent to Mr. T. N. Ince, 10th April, 1857, and, by (he latter, subsequently 
printed. 



WAKEFIELD PARISH CHURCH. 207 

whole of the incrustations it was found that all the surface had once 
been painted. Xo attempt was made to discover or preserve anything, 
and it was quite accidentally that, on lifting a sheet of plaster on the 
south-west spandril of the choir arch, there was found the figure of an 
angel in an attitude of adoration, censing ; part doubtless of a large 
picture originally filling up the whole of the space above the arch. This 
still remains, though in a somewhat mutilated condition. Mr. Fowler 
also describes the representations, and carefully ascertains the character 
of it and of the pigments with which it was executed. He says the 
probable date of it is 1470 when the body of the church, including 
the choir, was rebuilt. In the angle of the wall dividing the south aisle 
from the chancel still exists, though now built up, the ancient staircase 
that originally led to the rood loft. 

The ulterior of the church is very elegant, and the screen 
dividing the chancel from the nave, the stalls and tabernacle work of 
the chancel, the pulpit, the organ, the three galleries and the general 
arrangement and disposition of the whole all combine to increase the 
general effect, and to render this church unrivalled in this part of the 
county. 

The monuments in the church are numerous, and are inscribed 
to the memories of a great number of eminent men. Divines. 
physicians, patriots, all here lie side by side, and no church in this 
district has received the mortal remains of so many who have 
excited respect and admiration while living, or sorrow and regret when 
dead." 

Under the stall seat in the chancel is a carefully carved 
representation of the ancient and well- 
known Percy badge crescent and 
manacles. I do not know what the 
Percy Family had to do with Wakefield 
at the date of this carving (which is 
very likely of the same date as the 
chief parts of the chancel, namely about 
1470). On the front of chancel stalls a 
plain crescent occurs four tunes as part of 
the ornament. There are also some recent 
imitations, but they are very poorly 
executed. On bosses of the ceiling of Perc - v Badge - 

nave and chancel aisles are carvings of the same age, probably, 
as the Percy badge. The most important are those hi the north 
chancel, where are the three fleurs-de-lis of Wakefield, on a shield ; an 
fH : a falcon within a fetterlock, a badge of the house of York, here 
perhaps, especially the badge of Edward IV. ; a rose within a fetter- 
lock ; cross keys, and other objects. The position of the cross keys and 
badge of York, near the middle of the north chancel, points "to the 
place where stood the altar of St. Peter, at which, under grant from 
Edward IV., given at Pontefract, 25th September. 1480, Roger 




208 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



Nowell's chantry was authorised to be established. * In the south 
chancel are the initials R.S. with a barrel ; in the nave are the falcon 

and fetterlock again, j the Savile 
owl, a lion rampant, a mermaid, 
an angel holding a shield, the 
monogram H)c, with other things; 
whilst in the nave and aisles are 
many other objects, the most 
numerous being grotesque faces 
and figures, and conventional 
leaves and flowers. A stall end 
in the chancel bears two carved 
owls and a well-wrought coat of 
arms of Savile (differenced with 
a mullet) impaling some other 
arms on a bend a martlet be- 
tween two cinquefoils and a 
crescent ; a border engrailed 
charged with ten plates. I can- 
not trace whose arms these are. f 
The font, dated O.K. 1661, bears, 
beside this date, the initials of the 
then churchwardens. The black 
chancel screen is of the time of 
Charles I., as also is the organ 
case, the latter being a gift from 
Thomas Went worth Earl of Stratford. Over the south porch are some 
old seat ends carved with names John, Robert, Margaret Hudswell, 

* The words of the grant are " ad altare beati Petri apostoli in arcu boriali 
ecclesise parochialis omnium sanctorum de Wakefield." 

t The badge of the house of York was a silver falcon in a golden fetterlock. 
One boss in the north aisle of the church has a falcon with expanded wings and no 
fetterlock. Does this mean that the house was then wearing the English crown? 
Sisson quotes Bonney's Foiheringhay "When the family had ascended the throne 
the falcon was represented as free and the lock open. " 

They may be the arms of Margaret, the wife to Thomas Savile, of Lupset, 
who died in 1505. He was third son to Sir John Savile, who was knight of the 
shire, 29 Hen. VI., high sheriff of Yorkshire, 33 Hen. VI., chief steward of the manor 
of Wakefield, an occasional resident at Sandal Castle, where he died 1482, and who 
was buried at Thornhill. Sir John's wife was Alice, a daughter of a Gascoigne, of 
Gawthorp. Thomas Savile is said to have married Margaret, daughter to Thomas 
Balforth, or Basford, a description of whose arms 1 have not found ; and Sisson 
and Hunter say that by his will he left direction for his burial in St. Katherine's 
quire within the parish church of Wakefield. [See Hunter's privately-printed 
book on Lupset, Heath, &c., pp. 17, 18, Burke's Extinct, &c., Baronetcies, title 
" Savile of Thornhill." Sisson's Historic Sketch, pp. 25, 65.] I suppose by St. 
Katherine's quire the chancel is meant, though I have not seen the name elsewhere 
than in Sisson and Hunter. Sisson (p. 18) mentions that in the great east window 
was the following inscription : " Orate pro bono statu Johannis Savile Mil. Sene- 




Savile Stall Bad. 



WAKEFIELD PARISH CHURCH. 



209 



Burton, Aleson his wyf, his son. All are in one style of text, but 
the Christian names are" separated from the surnames so as to make it 
difficult to tell which have belonged to any one person. 

The parish Registers begin in April 1613. The Churchwardens' 
Accounts in Io85, the earlier books of both being lost. 

As already stated, Wakefield Church was given by the second 
William de Warren between 1091 and 1097 to the monastery at 
Lewes. In Edward II.'s time (1325) the monks of Lewes granted it 




Wakefield Parish Church. 

to Hugh de Spencer the younger. After the Spencers fell it came to 
the crown. Edward III. granted it to the Dean and College of Saint 
Stephen at Westminster, with whom it remained until the dissolution of 
religious houses, when it again fell to the crown. It continued in the 
gift of the crown until 1860, when Queen Victoria transferred the 
patronage to the Bishop of Ripon and his successors. 



Wal-efield. 



The late W. S. BANKS. 



schalli Domini de "VYakefield et Alicia? Uxoris suae et omnium filiorum suorum, 
A.D. 1470." This evidently refers to the above Sir John who was then alive, and 
the date is deemed to be that of the present chancel. The Saviles of Lupset would 
seem to have been, at a subsequent date at least, liable to repair the chancel, 
probably as lay impropriators, for on the 22nd July, 1658, the then Sir John 
Savile, of Lupset, knight, was indicted at York for not repairing it See Depo- 
sitions from York Castle, Surtees Society, 1861, No. LXXXI. 

O 







YORKSHIRE DALES- 




NIDDERDALE. 

HOSE who think with George Eliot that Leisure is dead 
gone with the stage coaches and the spinning jenny, aud 
with the old chapmen who brought bargains to the door on 
sunny afternoons, will hardly believe, perhaps, that we 
possess here in Yorkshire, a picturesque bit of England of the 
Crusades, where the shrill whistle of the steam-engine has never 
yet been heard, where a newspaper is never seen except upon 
the breakfast table of the vicar, and where the peasantry still 
talk at their own firesides in a dialect which is older than the 
towers of Beverley or the choir of York. There is no more romantic 
spot in England than Nidderdale. Yet how many people, even in 
Yorkshire, know anything of Nidderdale, and out of Yorkshire, of 
course, Nidderdale is a mere terra incognita. The most careless must 
find something to interest him in a dale which has retained to this day 
the primitive usages of our early ancestors, where the people speak a 
language which contains a large admixture of Old Norsk, Gaelic, "\Vdsli, 
Danish, and Gothic words ; a dale which was startled to its depths, 
just about the time when the steam-engine was startling the greater 
world, by the appearance within it of the first vehicle on wheels which 
had ever traversed its solitudes. There is good reason to suppose that 
the Nidderdale of to-day is the most perfect survival we have of 
England as it was when William rose and Harold fell. The dale covers 
an area of something like eighty square miles, lying in the basin of the 
Nidd above Hampsthwaite. The northern and more elevated portion of 
the dale is pregnant with interest for the antiquary, the philologist] 
and the lover of stretches of wild moorland. The southerly portion, 
save for the magnificent Brimham Rocks, is comparatively tame* 



NIDDERDALE. 211 

The visitor to the valley of the Nidd, between Otley and Pateley 
Bridge, is, to all intents and purposes, in another world. The millstone 
grit rises up on each side of the valley in lines of fine escarpment, 
terrace above terrace, in a manner peculiar to the valleys of the Pennine 
Chain. Europe has nothing else like it. There is nothing- so curious 
either in Norway or Switzerland. The margins of the terraces are 
frequently marked by lines of wood, but the terraces and slopes them- 
selves are grazing land. Nidderclale is almost entirely given up to 
grazing, and is, in fact, one great sheep farm. It has its own breed of 
sheep, which is formed by the crossing of Scotch ewes and Leicester 
tups or mugs. Until half a century ago the dale had also its own breed 
of cattle the prototypes of the famous Dun Cow of the inn signs. This 
breed is now practically extinct in England, but is common enough in 
the Norwegian dales. Its place has been taken by the famous Yorkshire 
shorthorns, of which Nidderdale was the nursery. The wild and half- 
cultivated land in this primitive dale such of it as is not still a mere 
stretch of brown and purple moorland was once under the plough ; 
but Nidderdale has shared the fate of the Scotch glens, and sheep and 
cattle graze where corn once grew. The formation of sheep " gaits " 
and cattle runs has depopulated the dale very rapidly of late years. 
Numbers of small farms have been thrown into one, and the farm hands 
thus thrown out of employment have found their way into Leeds and 
Bradford to complicate the struggle for subsistence which is already 
sufficiently difficult in those dense populations. The increase of grazing 
has been the ruin of the agriculture of Nidderdale. The farmsteads of 
what were once arable farms are deserted and ruinous, the fences are 
gapped and broken, and sheep have completely usurped what was once 
a fairly- well populated dale. So silent and deserted are now some parts 
of Nidderdale that if one of its olden inhabitants could revisit the scene 
of his earthly pilgrimage he would inevitably believe that the tide of 
war had rolled over the dale and left this desolation in its wake. 

" In passing up the valley from Pateley Bridge, by one of the 
pleasantest of roads, in the summer season, New Bridge is to be seen on 
the right, a narrow single arch, crossing the river into the adjoining 
township of Fountain's Earth. It is of considerable antiquity, only 
intended for foot passengers, or pack horses, and, in conjunction with a 
few old oaks, on the southern side, has a pretty pictorial appearance and 
is withal a pleasing memento of a past age. 

Gouthwaite Hall is situate in an indentation of the valley close to 
the foot of the hills, at the opening of a woody glen called Burn Gill, 
Overshadowed by lofty groves of ash and sycamore, this antique 
mansion is a highly interesting feature in the landscape. It was 
probably built on an old monastic site by Sir John Yorke, early in the 
seventeenth century, and was the occasional residence of that family for 
one hundred and fifty years. The general plan is an oblong- square, 
with projecting portions, north and south ; the principal front is to the 
southward, and consists of two parts, one presenting the side wall, and 



212 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



the other the gable to the observer. The entrance, low and plain, is 
very singularly placed near the south-east corner. The whole building 
is of stone, and the covering of thick slates, grey with age and covered 
with lichens. The easterly part of the interior possesses, at the present 
time, most of the original features. The kitchen yet preserves the old 
chimney, four yards wide, up which the blazing fire of logs has roared 
merrily in days of yore. The staircase has undergone but slight 
modifications, being upwards of six feet wide, with the steps of solid 
oak two inches in thickness. In some one of the many rooms of this 
house, Eugene Aram taught a school, having under his care some youths 
who were afterwards distinguished in the world."* 




Gouthwaite Hnll. 

There still exist among the sparse and scattered dwellers in 
Nidderdale many old world manners and customs, and a large share of 
old time forms of speech. The dale sheep are still sheared upon the 
ancient "sheep-cratch," a frame, shaped like a broad ladder, and 
erected horizontally, one end being supported upon two legs, and the 
other curving down until the ends rest upon the ground. In the upper 
part of the country the cheese is still pressed by the primitive arrange- 
ment of a heavy stone, worked by a wooden lever ; and it is not so long 
ago that the Nidderdale farmers gave up making their own rush candles. 
To enter a Nidderdale interior, until very lately, was, at night time, 
very much like entering the witches' cavern in Macbeth when the magic 
cauldron was boiling. There was no light save that given by Ilic prut 

*Grainge's Nidderdale. 



NIDDERDALE. 213 

flame, and in the gloom " ayont the ingle " sat the " goodrnan." Mr. 
Lucas, the author of " Studies in Xidderdale," in one of these old farm- 
houses saw " two venerable dames, bent nearly double with age, and 
resting with both hands upon high sticks with crooked handles. On 
their heads they wore high caps, having an enormous frill over the top 
of the head and rising behind in a very tall rounded peak," for all the 
world like the traditional witches of the picture story-books. The Celt, 
the Eoman, and the Dane have each left footprints in Xidderdale ; and 
that there was formerly a considerable Gaelic population does not admit 
of doubt. The bold and rugged scenery of the dale is the fit surround- 
ing of a people so primitive in their speech, so conservative in their 
habits, and so retentive of ancient customs. There is something 
inexpressibly grand hi the stupendous size and the unequalled beauty of 
a scar, such as are to be found in plenty in Xidderdale. There is an 
attraction about a scar which an ordinary mass of rock lacks. In this 
secluded dale almost everything is full of peculiar interest. Over these 
few square miles of country we can trace the growth of the domestic 
history of England. Here are or very recently were the peat fires 
and the cozy ingle-nooks of our Saxon forbears ; here sheep are still 
counted in the ancient Cymric dialect of the Pennine Chain ; here are 
kept up Yule-tide customs which were old when Alfred reigned ; and 
here we have a genuine bit, and mayhap the last survival, of genuine 
old English habits and customs. Xidderdale is, indeed, unique, and it 
says much for Yorkshire that, so close to teeming populations, she 
should have kept sacred this most enchanting of British dales. 



S WALED ALE AXD ARKEXDALE. 

SOME of the Yorkshire dales have been long known for their 
beauty and for their historic associations. Turner did much to 
popularise Wensleydale, and the poems of Wordsworth largely con- 
tributed to the opening out of other dales ; but some of the Yorkshire 
valleys are still unknown regions, even to the great bulk of the tourists. 
One of these districts that is comparatively little visited is that of 
Swaledale and Arkendale, or Arkengarthdale. Partly because it is on 
none of the great roads, partly because of the absence of railways, and 
to some extent because it contains no town of great population or 
importance, the district is one that is not much visited. But though it 
has not the pastoral beauty of Wensleydale, there are attractions and 
associations in the more northern dale that should not be overlooked 
and that make it and its adjoining valley worth a visit. 

Richmond is the terminus of the railway. It is an ancient town, 
whose impregnable rocky castle looks down upon the little river Swale, 
and shelters the rugged stony little town that struggles along the brow 
of a hill, and down its sloping sides towards the woods of Easby. That 



214 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

old castle i.s so seated on the precipitous bank of the Swale that it 
literally fulfils the words of the laureate, and " clasps the crag with 
crooked hands." Seven hundred years have passed since the erection 
of the noble keep, but its dimensions are still vast, and its masonry 
fresh, and on its rock, with the river rippling below, and the ivy about 
its ruins, it is the first object and the chief that strikes the eye. From 
its ancient hall there is a view so grand that when George, Prince of 
Wales and " first gentleman in Europe," visited it, he declared it com- 
manded the noblest prospect he had ever beheld. To the south there 
rise the hills that shut in the valley, to the north the town is at the 
foot, whilst east and west the course of the river is through changing 
woods, and past temples, abbeys, and ruins, that make it a prospect 
without a dull inch. Richmond is a town of Ruins. The grazer from 
the castle walls sees the little cell of St. Martin's near the Parish 
Church, the ruins of Easby Abbey, standing " most stately and delicate 
aslant the sparkling " Swale ; and the solitary tower of the Grey Friars 
rising from four of the " most graceful arches in the north." It is a 
town that has had its history, and that connects a sedate present with a 
troublous past. It was the chosen seat of lordly families, the Scropes, 
the Marmions, and the king-making Nevilles. Its earls and their 
vassals fought at Flodden Field and Bannockburn ; near it some of the 
great religious houses fixed seats ; the Roman roads passed closed to it; 
and Cataractonium brings up the memory of the conquering people. 
Three centuries ago Leland described Richmond Castle as " in mere 
ruine," but it still keeps stately guard over the pleasant little town, 
and preserves the continuity of the memories of the past. 

Upwards, the course of the Swale is through a land where 
industry, except that of agriculture, is on a miniature scale. Some 
bold bluffs shut on the scene from the sight in Richmond, but Ihe course 
by the river side road is one that is pretty and pastoral. The road 
winds with the river at a low level, and the sound of the stream is in 
the ears most of the way. The roads are not tree-shaded, but high 
hedges grow, dotted here and there with trees. The land is chiefly 
pasture, and only occasionally is there the farmstead or the cluster of 
cottages that form here the village. Upwards, on either side, the land 
rises, f eld after field in glowing green, until the open more crowns it, 
or to the north-west Arkengarth, as in the days of Scott, " lies Sark 
afar." Reeth, a small town some twelve miles west of Richmond, may 
be said to be the centre of the dale. It is isolated, remote from rail- 
ways, and without distinctive industry, except the lead mining that in 
the adjacent hills has been pursued for many generations. So secluded 
and so pursuing the even tenour of its way, Reeth is a spot where life 
idles. Spring visits it tardily, but flushes all the valley with tender 
green, and throws a glamour over the hills that shut it in. The little 
Arkle here joins with the Swale, and the high hills and limestone scars, 
the green valley, with its fringe of trees near the river, and the grey 
farmhouses, form a picture of peaceful rural life that the absence of tin- 



SWALEDALE AND ARKENDALE. 215 

sinoke of a locomotive adds to. Here the dale branches. To the north 
Arkengarthdale runs right up into the moorland, whilst westward the 
path by' the Swale leads ruggedly up by the great limestone hill at 
Keasdon, and the pretty waterfall there to the junction on the bleak 
uplands, and the watershed of the Swale and the Ure, the Lund and 
the Eden. Beyond Reeth, either way, the scenery loses its sylvan 
character, and borrows a little of the gloom from the hills it winds near. 
From the little hamlet of Arkle to Tanhill, the road runs close to the 
Arkle beck, and the ripple of the water is the only relief to the dreari- 
ness and the isolation of the road, which passes under the shadow of 
Taylor Rigg, Stainmore's " shapeless well " being to the north. Moor- 
land leads away towards the fair valley of the Eden. The other path, 
along Swaledale, passes Healaugh, associated with John o' Gaunt, the 
pretty mining village of Gunnersdale, where a glen sends down its lead- 
tinted stream, and Muker. where roads to other dales strike off, and 
which is the capital of Upper Swaledale. Beyond there is Keld, and 
the road rises till it lands itself on the debatable land where the borders 
of two northern counties meet. 

It is a wild region, but it has its charms. Its industry is that of 
lead mining, pursued in a primitive style. In and near some of the 
village streets you may see the old-fashioned " buddle," and in one at 
least the washing of the lead is done by females. The arrangements 
of the industry and the modes of payment are of an antique type ; the 
weights are ancient ones, and the types of character of the workers and 
of the whole of the Dale population are hi an olden groove " frosty, 
but kindly," thrifty, as they needs must be, hospitable, taciturn, and 
somewhat grave. The few miles that take us from the crowded 
populations of the coal mining districts of Durham seem to have also 
taken us back a century or two ; and the passing of time here is not 
that of the fever-throb of towns, but that of the regiilar quiet of 
Shakspeare's shepherd. It is a life that has its round broken only by 
the variations in the seasons, and the fluctuations in the slight return 
to the lead mining industries ; but it is, on the whole, a contented life 
in a quiet, peaceful, and pastoral district. 

From the'" BUILDER." 





YORKSHIRE DEEDS. 



AN ANCIENT YORKSHIRE DEED. 

PPLETON-UPON-WISK, (Uisk, Celtic, meaning water; 
hence Isk, Isis, Esk, Usk, names of rivers in England, 
Scotland, and Wales, which retain their names from the 
original derivation) is the extreme parish on the map, and is 
seven miles distant from Yarm and ten miles from Stokesley. 
This Manor at the Conquest contained 6 car., with land for 
3 pi., valued at 20s. 

Wiske " rysing betweene twoo parkes above Swanby in one 
place, and south-east of Mount Grace Abbay in another ; and 
after the confluence which is about Siddlebridge, goeth on betweene 
the Rughtons to Appleton, the Smetons, Byrtley, Hutton Coniers, 
Danby Wye, Yasford. Warlaby, and taketh in there a ryll from Bruuton ; 
by Alluerton it proceedeth to Ottering, to Neuby, Kyrby Wiske, 
Newsom, and Blackenbury, there meeteth, as I sayde with the Swale." 
(Hollinshed, vol. 1., 1st edition, A.D., 1577). 

After the Conquest it belonged to Robert de Bras, who gave 
" Appleton, and the manor appertaining with Hornby, and all the land 
which lies between that Manor and the high road (reguwi viavi) leading 
from York to Durham, belonging to his manor of Middleton," to the 
famoiis Abbey of St. Mary's, at York, founded by Stephen, Abbot of 
Whitby, about A.D. 1080. 

This noble and magnificent monastery was anciently one of the 
glories of the City of York. The origin of the Abbey appears in 
Dugdale's Monasticon and Leland's Collections, with still more ample 
descriptions in Drake's Eboracum. The religious of this house were 
black monks of the order of St. Benedict, and the Abbot was mitred. 
The whole or part of the following towns and villages in Cleveland, 



AN ANCIENT YORKSHIRE DEED. 217 

previous to the dissolution, belonged to this Abbey, viz., Appleton, 
Estou, Easby, H-utton-juxta-Rudby, Liverton, Potto, Stokesley, Stainton, 
Skoterskelf, Worsall, Whorlton, Yarm ; and some of these still pay a 
fee-farm rent belonging 1 to the Abbey. Some judgment may be 
formed of the immense property possessed from this Abbey by the fact 
that at the dissolution its yearly revenues were computed at 2,085 J s. 
5|d., which at this day would amount to as many hundreds of thousands 
of pounds. 

At the dissolution of the Monastery, Appleton on-\Visk, with all 
the other Revenues of this wealthy Abbey, reverted to the Grown ; 
when it was granted by Henry VIII. to his favourite, Charles Brandon, 
afterwards Duke of Suffolk. Male issue failing in this family, the 
Manor was granted by King Edward VI. hi 1551, to Charles Vincent, 
and afterwards it belonged successively to Theodore Godwyn, of 
Little Storeham ; John Grange, of Swafham Bulbeck, Co. Cambridge ; 
Joseph Hall, Esq., and Robert Wharton, Esq., Durham ; Rev. George 
Walker, Stockton ; and thence by marriage to the Ferrands. Towards 
the close of last century, the Manor and part of the estate were sold to 
Ann relict* of George Allan, Esq.. of Blackwell Grange. Benjamin 
Dunn, Esq., is the present (1846) Lord of the Manor, which is mostly 
leasehold, subject to small quit rents, and held by the Bischoff. \Vailes, 
Garbutt, and other families. I 

Annexed is copy of the Lease of the Lordship and Manor of 
Appleton, from Theodore Godwyn to John Grainge, dated March 5th, 
1594. 

(Tfyi.S frill CUtlirC made the fifth day of March in y e six and thirtieth yeare 
of y Reigne of our Soveraigne Lady Elizabeth by the grace of God of England 
France and Ireland Queen 'defender of y e Faith &c. BetWBenc THEODER 
GOODWI>E of little Storeham in y e County of Suffolk gent, of y e one 
pte and JOHN GRAINGE of Swaffham Bnlbeck in y County of Cambridge 
on y e other pte Witnessetb that s d Theoder Goodwyn As well for and in 
consideracon of y e sume of Eleven hundred twenty and eight pounds of good 
and Lawfull money of England to him in hand paid att or before y e sealeing 
and delivery hereof By the s d John Grainge well and truely contented and 
paid whereof and wherewith he acknowledgeth himselfe fully satisfyed and 
paid And thereof and of every pt and pcell thereof doth clearely acquit 
exonerate and discharge y e s d John Grange his heires ex re and adm 18 and 
every of them for ever by these presents HAVE demised granted betaken and 
to fanne letten and by these presents DOTH demise grant betake and to 
farme lett unto the s a John Grainge ALL that the Lordsbipp and Manner of 
Appleton otherwise called Appleton sup. wiske otherwise called Appleton 
vpon wiske with all and singuler the rights members and appurts. thereof in 
the County or Archdeaconry of Richmond and within y e County of Yorke 
to the late Monestry of St. Mary's neigh to the walls of y e Citty of Yorke 
now dissolved some tyme belongeing and appertaineing and pcell of ye 
possessions thereof some tyme being AND ALL and singuler Messuages 
Lands, Tenements, Milnes, Tofts, Cottages, Meadowes, Feedings, Pastures, 

* Qy. mistake for 2nd daughter and sole heiress. 
+ Ord's Cleveland, pp. 478-9. 



218 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Comons, Wastes, Heaths, Furzes, Moores, Marshes, Rents, Reversions, Fines, 
Court Leets, View of Francke pledge, Cattell, Waifes, Strayes, Chattells of 
" Fellons and Fugitives Freewarrens, and all other rights proffitts comodities 
emoluments and hereditaments whatsoever with theire and every of theire 
appurt 8 - situate lyeing and being growing comeing hapening or renewing in 
Appleton sup. wiske alias Appleton vpon Wiske and elsewhere wheresoever in 
the s d County of Yorke to y e s d Lordshipp and Manner by any means 
belonging or appertaineing or as member part or parcell of y c s d Lordshipp 
and Mannor heretofore had knowne accepted or reputed witli their appurt 9 - 
whatsoever W CH s tl Lordshipp and Mannor of Appleton alias Appleton sup. 
wiske alias Appleton vpon wiske or other y e premises to y e same belonginge 
to one RICHARD VINCYNT Esq by y e Letters Pattents of Edward the sixth 
late King of England beareing date y e first day of February in the fifth year 
of his Reigne for the terme of thirty years begining from y e tyme of y e death 
of Charles -Brandon Knight and the Lady Elizabeth his Wife amongst other 
things were granted AND FURTHER y 6 s d Theodore Godwyne for y e 
consideracon afores d Hath demised granted betaken and to farme letten and 
by these presents Doth demise grant tetake and to farme lett vnto the s d John 
Graiage All that Tenement and fower oxganges and a halfe of Land Meadow 
and pasture with y e appurts 8 - situate lyeinge and being in Appleton vpon 
wiske in the County of Yorke now or late in the tenure or occupacon of 
Christofer Webster or of his ass 8 to the late Priory of Mount grace in the 
s d County of Yorke now dissolved some tymes belongeing or appertaining and 
percell of y e possessions thereof some tyine being And also all and singular 
messuages, mills, houses, edifices, barns, stables, douehouses, yards, orchards, 
gardens, gleeb lands, Lands tenements meadows feedings pastures Comons, 
wastes, heathes, furzes, moors, marshes, waters, fishings, fishinge places, 
wayes, pathes, workes of tenants, Rents, Revercions, Services, Rents and 
Services reserved vpon any whatsoever demise or grant of y e premises or any 
pcell thereof made, farme fee-farmes, Annuityes pencons tyethes Knights fees 
wards marrages escheets, relieffes, herryotts fines amerciments Courte letts, 
viewes of francke pledge and other perquisites and profitts of Courts and 
Lettes and all that to Courte Leets viewe of francke pledge belonge Catties 
waifes strayes, Chatties of fellons and fugitives, fellons of themselves and put 
in execution condemned and outlawed bond men bond women, villaines with 
their sequells estovers and comones of estovers rights Jurisdicons Francheses, 
privilidges, wrecks of y e Sea, protiitts, comodities, emoluments and 
heredittam ts whatsoever as well spiritual! as temporall of what kind nature 
or quality or by whatsoever names they are knowne or called scituate lyeing 
and beinge comeinge groweing or renewinge within y e townes feildes, places 
parishes or hamletts aboue-menconed or any of them or elswhere wheresoever 
to y e afores d manner or Lordshipp messuages lands tenements and hereditta- 
ments before by these presents demised and granted or to any of them by any 
means belonging or appertaineing or as member p* or pcell of y c s d Lordshipp 
messuages heredittaments or other y e premises or any of them now or at any 
tyme heretofore being had knowne vsed or reputed with all and singular theire 
and every of their appurt 8 - whatsoever And also all and singular woods 
vnderwoods and trees whatsoever growing or being in or vpon y e premises or 
any pcell thereof And y e lands ground and soile of y e same woods vnder- 
woods and trees and y e rents revercons issues and yearly pfitts whatsoever 
reserued vpon any demise lease or grant heretofore made or granted of all and 
singuler y e premises by these presents menconed or intended to be demised 
and granted and of every or any parcell thereof EXCEPT and always 
reserved out of this present lease and demise all that Capitall Messuage or 
Mansion house in Appleton aforesaid with all and singuler y e houses edifices 
buildings orchards and yards and all y arrable ground meadow es pastures 
feedings woods vnderwoods and wood grounds named and expressed in certainr 
Indentures of bargaine and saile thereof made between y c s d THEODOltK 



AN ANCIENT YORKSHIRE DEED. 219 

GODWYN and JOHN GRAINGE of y e one pte and one THOMAS 
BOWES of Appleton aforesaid Gent, of y other pte beareing date y e seaven- 
teenth day of January in y e s d six and thirtieth yeare of y s d 
sovereigne Lady Elizabeth ye Queenes Ma tie that now is and 
severally and pticulerly named BDTTELLED and boundered in certain 
Schedules indented and to y e s d Indentures annexed TO HAVE AND TO 
HOLD y* aforesaid Lordshipp and Manner and all the afores d messuages 
houses edifices yards orchards gardens lands tenements meadowes pastures 
Comons hereditaments and all and singular other y e premises before by these 
presents menconed or intended to be demised and granted and euery pcell 
thereof with y 6 appurt 3 (except before excepted) vnto him y e s d JOHN 
GRAINGE his ex"- adm re - and ass 3 - from y e feast of St. Miehall y Areh- 
angell last past before y date thereof, vnto y 6 full end and terme of TWO 
THOUSAND YEARS from thence next ensuinge fully to be compleat and 
ended without impeachment of any manner of wast YECLDING AND 
PAYEING therefore yearely duringe y e s d terme vnto y e s d Theodore 
Godwyn his heires or ass s - y e yearely sume rent of TWENTY POUNDS 
AND 'ELEVEN SHILLINGS of good and lawfull money of England at two 
vsuall feasts or termes in y e yeare that is to say y e feast of y e Annuncion of 
y e blessed Virgine Mary and St. Michall y Archangell by even and equall 
porcons att or within y manner house of St. HOMERS scituate and being in 
Burewell in y s d County of Cambridge wherein one Robert Vasie now 
dwelleth AND if it shall happen y e s d yearely Rent of Twenty Pounds and 
Eleven Shillings to be behind or vnpaid in part or in all ouer on after any of 
y e feasts aforesaid in w h y e same ought to be paid being lawfully demanded 
at y place of payment afores d - that then and from thenceforth it shall and 
may be lawfull to and for y e s d Theodore Godwyn his heires and ass 5 - into 
y 6 s d Lordshipp and Manner and other y e premisese and into euery or any 
pcell thereof to enter and distraine and all and every y e distresse and distresses 
there soe taken to lead driue carry away and impound and impounds to 
detayne and keep vntil y e s d Rent soe being behind with y e arreareage 
thereof (if any be) be vnto y e s d Theodor Godwyn his heires or ass s - fully 
satisfied contented and paid And if it shall happen y e s d yearely rent of 
Twenty pounds and eleven shillings or any part thereof to be behind or vnpaid 
in part or in all by y space of six weekes ouer or after any of y e Feasts 
afores d in w 011 y e same ought to be paid being lawfully demanded at y place 
of payment afores d that then and at every such tyme and as often as y e s d 
Rens shall soe happen to be behinde or vnpaid as afores d he y s d John 
Grainge his ex"- adm"- and ass s - and every of them shall loose pay and forfeit 
vnto him v s tl Theodor Godwyn his heires or ass s - ye sume of THREE 
POUNDS of lawfull money of England (nomine pene) AND that then and 
at all tymes and so often as any such default shall happen from thenceforth 
it shall and may be lawfull to and for y 6 s d Theodor Godwyn his heires and 
and ass 5 - into y 6 s d Lordshipp or Manner lands messuages tenements heredita- 
ments and other y premises and into euery perceU thereof to enter and 
distraine as well for y 6 s d Rent soe being behinde and y arreareage thereof 
(if any be) as alsoe for y* s d three pounds forfeited nomine pene and y 6 
arrearage thereof (if any be) And y e same distresse or distresses there soe 
had and taken lawfully to lead drive carry away and impound and impound to 
detayne and keep vntUl y e s d rent soe being behinde y* payne and paynes and 
forfeiture afores d - with y e arrearages of them and of every of them (if any be) 
be vnto the sd Theodor Godwyn his heires or ass s - fully satisfied contented 
and paid AND v s d Theodor Godwyn doth covenant promise and grant 
for himself his heires ex"- and ass 5 - and euery of them by these presents 
to and with y e s d John Grainge his ex"- adm"- and ass 5 - and every of 
them in manner and forme following : That is to say that he y e s d Theodor 
Godwyne att y e tyme of y e ensealeing and delivery of these presents is y* 
very true lawfull and perfect owner of y e afores d - Lordshipp and Manner 



220 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

messuages lands tenaments hereditaments and of all and singular other 
y e premises before by these presents demised and granted and of every 
parcell thereof with y e appurtenances Except before excepted And hath full 
power good right and lawfull authority to demise and grant y e s d Lordshipp 
and Manner messuages lands tenements hereditaments and all and singular 
other the premises by these presents mencioned or intended to be demised and 
granted and euery pcell thereof with y e appurt 8 - except before excepted vnto 
him y e s d John Grainge his ex rs - and ass 8 - for and duringe y e s (l terme of Two 
Thousand yeares in manner and form afores d notwithstanding any act or acts 
done comitted by y e s d Theodor Godwyn And that he the s d John Grange 
his ex rs - adm rs - and ass 8 - and every of them shall or may att all tymes heare- 
after and from tyme to tyme dureing ye s d terme of Two thousand yeares for 
y e yearely Rent aboue reserved peaceably and quietly have hold use occupie 
possesse and enjoy y e afores d Lordshipp or Manner messuages lands tenements 
hereditaments and all and singuler other y e premises before by these presents 
menconed or intended to be demised and granted and every p* and pcell 
thereof with their appurt 8 - except before excepted without any lett trouble 
iterruption evicon ejectment or disturbance of him y e s d Theodor Godwyn 
his heires or ass 8 - or of any other ps on or ps ons whatsoever claymeing any 
estate or interest in by from or vinder him y e s d Theodor Godwyn his heires 
or ass 8 - or by his or theire or any of their meanes assent consent tytle interest 
or procurement clearely discharged or otherwise sufficiently saued and kept 
harmlesse of and from all and all manner of former bargaines sailes guifts 
grants leases statutes recognizances fines uses amerciaments condempnations 
executions rents arrearages of rents and of and from 

all other charges troubles and iucumbrances whatsoever had made comitted 
or done by him y e s d Theodor Godwyn his heires or ass 8 - or by any other 
pson or psons whatsoever claimeing any estate or interest in by from or vnder 
him y e s d Theodor Godwyn his heires or ass 8 - or by his theire or any of their 
means assent consent tytle interest or procurement AND FURTHER 
y e s d Theodor Godwyn doth cov*- prmise and grant for him his heires ex rs - and 
ass 8 - and every of them to and with y e s d John Grainge his ex rs - adm rs - and 
ass 8 - and every of them by these presents that it shall and may be lawfull to 
and for y e s d John Grainge his ex rs - adm rs - and ass 8 - and euery of them 
AND that he the s d Theodor Godwyn his heires and ass 8 - and every of them 
shall and will pmitt and suffer y e s d Jo. Grainge his ex rs - adm rs - and ass s - and 
euery of them at all tymes and from tyme to tyme dureing y e continuence of 
this present Lease to sell cutt downe carry away and to his and their owne vse 
to convert and employ all and euery y e timber woods vnderwood and trees 
growing or being or y* att any tyme heareafter shall grow or be in or vpon 
y e premises or in or vpon any p* or pcell thereof Except before excepted 
In Witness whereof y e pties aboues d to the present Indenture inter- 
changably ex e - 

THEODORE GOODWYN. 
Sealed and delivered in y e presence 

Tho. : Whitbid Tho. : Goodwine and Rowland Oswald. 

Appkton WisL JOHN PARK. 



PER ARDUA A D A L T A . l! 






YORKSHIRE ANCIENT FAMILIES. 




THE GREENE FAMILY OF LIVERSEDGE. 

HE family of le Grene, del Grene, de la Grene, Greyne, 
. Grene, Greene, etc. appear to have been early settled in 
Yorkshire. The name is to be found in Doomsday book, and 
an early mention of a member of the family bearing similar 
arms to those held by descendants of the Yorkshire family 
to-day, was of Greene a knight, who served with King- 
Edward I., in his wars in Scotland and elsewhere, hi the 13th and 
14th centuries : his arms were argent, on a chevron, an escallop of 
the Jirst between three fleurs de Us sable; those of the present 
family of which we propose to treat are: argent, on a chevron gules, 
between three fleurs de Us sable, as many escallops of the field; 
crest, a stag passant argent, and the motto adopted by Dr. Green, 
of London, " Per ardua ad alta " (Through difficulties to the 
summit). We cannot of course pretend to say whether the family 
derives its descent from this knight, but it is not improbable. 
Various pedigrees of the name of Greene are given in the several 
Yorkshire Heraldic Visitations, but it is not our purpose to dive into the 
mysteries of these branches ; suffice it to say that the more important 
were firstly the ancient and very considerable family of Grene, of 
Newby, dating from the 14th century or earlier ; which allied itself to 
some of the best blood in Yorkshire ; this family, however, owing to 
the marriage in the 16th century, of Henry Grene, of Newby, Esq., to 
Mary daug-hter of Richard Norton (of Norton Conyers. Governor of 
Norham Castle) the Patriarch of the 1569 rebellion, the whole family 
then living entered into this ill-fated enterprize ; and the two sons, John 
and Henry Grene were incarcerated hi Durham gaol, and little more is 
known of their history. Perhaps the next family of importance was 



222 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

that of Horseford or Horsforth of which pedigrees are found in the 
1584-5 and 1665-6 Visitations. From this family, according to Dugdale, 
that of Leversedge or Liversedge descends. In Glover's Visitation of 
1584-5 is given a copy of a seal of Robert Grene son of Hugh, who 
gave land to the Monks of Kirkstall ; another authority speaks of Hugh 
himself being a benefactor to the Abbey circa 1380. The seal represents 
a knight in armour, with sword and shield, on horseback. We may 
here state that a certain John Grene, very probably one of the Hors- 
forth family, was Prior of Christ Church, York, anciently Sainct 
Trinityes in Coningarthe, in 1431, and doubtless those are his arms 
mentioned in Glover's Visitation, and again by Thomas Allen in his 
History of Yorkshire, as at Christ Church in 1831. The arms of the 
Horsforth family, according to Glover were not proved, but he states 
that the ancestors of the family had always been accounted gentlemen. 
For some reason the Horsforth family had adopted in 1665-6 the 
following arms : Argent, a cross engrailed gules, instead of, argent, 
chevron beticeen three fleurs de Us, charged u'ith a crescent of the field foi 
difference. 

We have neither time nor space to particularize all the varioi 
generations of the Horsforth branch ; we may just state that Thome 
Greene, of Newsholme, married Joan, daughter and heir of Rober 
Horsforth, of Horsforth, 3 Henry VI., and that his son and heii 
Thomas, settled at Horsford, marrying a daughter of James Beaumont 
of Huddersfield ; and a great great great grandson of the said Thomj 
was Gabriel, who married Alice daughter of Thomas Lister, Gentleman 
and purchased, in conjunction with five others, the manor of Horsforth, 
of Edward Lord Clinton, the Earl of Lincoln, and Leonard Ireby, Esq., 
to the former of whom the domain lands of Horsforth temp. Edward 
VI., late belonging to the Monastery of Kirkstall, were, it is believec 
transferred by Thomas son of Archbishop Cranmer. 

From which of the Horsforth family the Liversedge branch descenc 
is uncertain, so we commence with " John Green, of Ossett, a branch of 
y e family of Horsforth in com Eborum," whose name stands a1 UK 
head of the Liversedge pedigree in the 1665-6 Visitation by Dugdale 

Unfortunately owing to the Dewsbury Registers being imperfect 
the entries of the Greynes of Ossett, etc., commencing in 1538 wit? 
Elles Greyne, do not satisfactorily identify the said John Green. We 
may presume he was born circa 1535, and that his son John of Little 
Liversedge, who was " aged "in 1631, was born about 1560 ; a sister of 
the latter, whom he names in his Will, was Anne who married at 
Birstall Parish Church, William Childe in 1590. John Greene himself 
married at Birstall in 1592 Agnes Drake (Dugdale says Anne) of 
Clifton, County York, and had issue seven sons all living at the time of 
his death, of whom all married but George, and had issue. The eldes 
son of John and Agnes Greene, was William, of Liversedge, born 
1593, who married in 1618 Anne daughter of Edward RajTier, of 
Clackheaton, Yorks. He had with other children Lieutenant Join 



THE GREENE FAMILY OF LIVER-SEDGE. 

Greene, of the moiety of the manor of Liversedge, the first of the 
family who resided at Liversedge Hall ; he was born in 1618 and 
married circa 1640, Mary daughter of John Farrer of Ewgod, County 
York, (of a family often named by Oliver Heywoodj. In 1666 he was 
attached to a regiment of foot under Captain Batt, of Oakwell Hall, 
(of a family notorious for avarice), the commander being Viscount 
Halifax, the brilliant ' trimmer " upon whose great qualities Macaulay 
dilates with unusual eloquence. The son and heir of Lieutenant John 
Greene was John junr., of Liversedge Hall, born in 1641, who married 
Mary daughter of John Crooke, of Monke Breton; he died in 1671, and 
there is at the present time under Birstall Church tower, a fine brass to 
his memory, on a beautifully ornamented slab, standing upright against 
the wall ; this slab was removed from the north east corner of the 
church in 1870, during restoration, where was formerly the Xorrh 
Chapel or Liversedge Hall choir, the family mortuary or burial place of 
the Greenes, of Liversedge, anciently of the Xevilles, and which up to 
1865 was simply enclosed and separated from the rest of the church 
by an open iron screen. The {ascription is so quaint that we give it : 

Under this Tombe, lies JOHX GREEX, junior, late 
Of Liversedg-Hall, subdud to MortalLs fate ; 

Thirtie-three Yeares, three months, besid's nine dayes, 
Trode hee the Perrills of this Worldly Maize ; 
Then hee Arivd the Haven of his Rest, 
To Glorifie his God, for ever Blest ; 
And in sixteen hundred Seaventy fourth yeare, 
August the Thirtith hee was Buried here. 
Reader, as hee, soe thou ere long shall bee, 
All flesh grim Death, is subject unto thee ; 
Thus Rich and Poor, Mighty as well as mean, 
Time calls, and they returne to dust againe ; 
And see Corruption till the Trump shall call, 
Arise yee dead, and come to Judgement all. 
Hate Sin, love workes of faith, and vertne Here, 
That thou with him a Glorious Crowne mayst wear. 
This for a Memorandum of his Name, whose vertues still surviving tell his fame. 

i G 

Hodie Afifii Cra* Tibi. 

1674. 

In connection with the widow of " John Green, Junr., late of 
Liversedge Hall, subdud to Mortalls fate " we find that at Leeds Sessions, 
in 1681, Kobert Mellor, of Liversedge, was accused at the Leeds 
Sessions of an attempt to rob Mrs. Mary Greene, widow, of Liversedge 
Hall, of 400. He confessed the plot ; the noted John Xevison the 
highwayman, and his brother Stephen Nevison had refused to assist 
him. The said Mary Green died 1694. John Green, Junr.'s eldest 
uncle was William, born in 1619, who married Mary Sugden, circa 1641. 
He it was doubtless who either built or at all events added to that fine 
old family mansion now called the Lower Hall at Hightown, Liversedge. 



224 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

This Hall, which is entered by an ancient gateway, and is surrounded 
by a thick wall topped with heavy stone copings, is a large Gothic 
looking building, with three gables in front and a large projecting 
porch with stone seats within it. Inside the porch is a massive door, 
which contains some very beautiful workmanship, and is well worthy of 
careful examination. The windows are mullioned and contain a variety 
of leaded and diamond-shaped glass. Over the porch is a sun dial, 
dated 1660, surmounted by ornamental stonework, with the initials 
" W. M. G., 1660," and there is a quaint leaden spout with the same 
date. Entering the ground-floor room we find a spacious house-place, 
the floor being covered with diamond-shaped stones. The rooms 
branching from this are divided by panelled oak wainscotting in excel- 
lent preservation. What would be the best room has some fine panelling- 
round it, and some especially ornamental and elaborate over the mantel- 
piece. The door leading out of it is of Gothic shape and projects like 
a small porch. The top of the room will at once arrest the attention of 
the visitor. It is thrown into four panels of plasterwork, and the sides 
of the beams are also ornamented. Each panel has a diamond-shaped 
centre, and is surrounded by vine leaves and fruit executed by a master 
hand. The bedrooms are divided by panels, and one of them has a 
finely-executed ceiling, in which appears a variety of figures, such as 
martlets, lions, and the royal arms, the whole intersected with excellent 
representations of vine leaves and fruit. What would answer the 
modern drawing room is quite a gem in its way. The plasterwork, 
although its delicate outlines are somewhat obscured by whitewash, is 
still very beautiful, but what will attract most attention is the oak 
panelling at the sides of the rooms, which is divided into two rows con- 
taining altogether forty pointed panels, on each of the upper row of 
which there is a painting representing human figures, large mansions, 
landscapes, etc. Whether the scenes, etc., depicted are real or imaginary 
it is impossible to say, but they possess great interest owing to their 
unique character. The lower panels are only grained. Two centuries 
ago this room would doubtless present a magnificent appearance, and 
even yet there is a great deal about it that is very striking' and im- 
pressive, showing that it was built by a gentleman possessed of taste 
and also of sufficient means to enable him to gratify it. 

The son and heir of William Greene, was " William of Hightowne, 
Gent.," born in 1647, he married firstly Dorothy, daughter of John 
Spencer, Esq., of Cannon Hall, (who died in 1729, ancestor of the present 
Spencer Stanhope family of Cannon Hall), and secondly his cousin Anne, 
daughter of John Greene, of Liversedge Hall. Oliver Hey wood says of 
him amongst other things that he was " a very rich man, 400 a year 
(2,000 now-a-days) much mony, and that he was well and dead in about 
an hour's time." He died in 1697, aged 51, and was buried at Birstall, 
w T here there is a memorial slab under the tower to his memory. A br< >t IKT 
of the last-named William, was Richard of Lowfolcl Hall, Robcrtown, 1 :< .in 
in 1651, he died in 1700; and Oliver Hey wood relates that at his funeral 




LOWFOLD HALL, LIVERSEDGE. 




LIVERSEDGE HALL, -BACK VIEW. 



THE GREENE FAMILY OF LIYERSEDGE. 225 

" On Lord's day, March 31st, 1700, one Clayton fell down and dyed as 
he was going home." There is a memorial tablet under Birstall clmrch 
tower, with coat of arms of the Greene family, to the memory of him- 
self, his wife. Agnes, who died in 1732, and their three sons. An uncle 
of Kichard Greene, of Robertown, was also Richard, born in 1629, who 
had to wife Mary, daughter of William Banks, of Morley. His residence 
was at Lowfold Hall, Robertown, probably either built or altered by 
himself. This is a large house, pleasantly situated, and still in good 
state of preservation. It is gabled hi front and two sides, topped with 
stone terminals and projecting gargoyles, carved as usual with 
grotesque faces. The pillars at the entrance gates were formerly 
surmounted by large stone balls, but these have been thrown down, 
one standing now, near the door, and the other helping to decorate a 
rockery. Over the front door, but nearly obliterated are the initials R. 
M. <;.. the date below being now undecipherable. The windows are 
mullioned ones, surmounted by heavy dished stone cornices, but as the 
number of lights is considerable the rooms are cheerful and pleasant. 
The out-buildings are extensive, and the gardens round the house still 
of considerable size. It is now divided into cottages, like a good many 
other old halls, but the tenants have the good sense to appreciate the 
antiquity of the hall and have not disfigured it, as is too often done by 
occupants of old buildings who have no regard for the fitness of things. 
The rooms in the lower portion of the house possess great interest, the 
oak panelling in what has evidently been the principal room^being still 
in good preservation. Over the fire-place are carved two spindles 
suggestive of the time when the thrifty house-wives delighted hi the 
cheerful hum of the spinning wheel and the active young women of the 
household were really spinsters. The ceiling of the front bedroom, 
which was reached by means of a fine substantial oak staircase, with 
carved bannisters, contains specimens of plaster work which are well 
worth the study of modern workmen hi that art. It is 'divided into 
four diamond-shaped compartments, enriched with shells, foliage, and 
other devices. In the division and angles are vine leaves and grapes, 
lilies, roses, wheat ears, and various kinds of fruit, interspersed with 
figures of birds and animals, suggestive of hawking and the chase. The 
upper rooms are also panelled in oak and the doors and their fastenings 
are of a very antique type. 

Before proceeding with our narrative we must allude to a few 
particulars of the Green family, of Liversedge, generally. It is 
impossible and hopeless to attempt to follow up the numerous ramifica- 
tions of this prolific family, who not only had residences at the 
places we have named, but during the seventeenth and the first 
half of the eighteenth centuries appear to have lived at Haigh 
House, opposite the Lower Hall; at New House, and New Hall, 
Hightown ; at Old Yewtree House ; and at Upper House, Hightown ; 
besides Riding^ in Gomersall, Mooreside, Castle House, etc., etc. 
The Greens have been described as %i a wealthy commercial tribe.'' 

p 



226 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



" a family of note and influence, and were the first to introduce 
Hie woollen manufacture into the district." The mother of tht 
famous Dr. Radcliffe, founder of the Radcliffe Library, Oxford, anc 
Physician to William III. and Queen Anne, was a Miss Green, o 
Liversedge ; and the doctor in his will settled 200 per annum on hit 
niece Green. In the " Gentleman's Magazine," for 1788, we find the 
marriage of Miss Frances Green, only daughter of Richard Green, Esq. 
of Leventhorp, County York, (whose mother was niece to Dr. Radcliffe 
with Charles Chadwick, Esq., of Staffordshire; and a notice of tin 
family about the same date states, that Mary Green, eldest daughter o 
William Green,, of Liversedge Hall, but then of Middlewood Hall, nea 
Barnsley, Esq., was married to Joseph Greenwood, of New Laiths 
After her husband's death she married Mr. Dawson, of Manchester 
and died 25th January, 1782. We now proceed to speak of the secom 
son of John Green and Agnes Drake, his wife, viz. : John, who wa 
baptized at Birstall Church, 20th Juue, 1596 ; he married firstly in 1628 
his cousin Winnifred, daughter of Michael Drake, of Blacob, in Liver 
sedge, who dying in 1629, left issue a daughter Dorothy, who marrie< 
at the Parish Church of All Saint's, Almondbury, in 1648, Abrahaa 
Beaumont, of Almondbury ; the registers of which parish record th 
following: September, 1705, "Abraham Beaumont, of Townend, 
man (in his generation) useful and joyous ; to the great loss and grie 
of the neighbourhood, departed this life the 10th day, and was burie 
on the 17th." John Greene married secondly at Hartshead, Bridge 
Stocks, in 1630, and had issue Bridget, who joining the early Quaker 
married at Richard Hansons, at Brighouse, in 1662, Abraham Wad.- 
worth, son to Henry Wadsworth, of Peacock House, Warley, and ha> 
issue three children. We find that Abraham Wadsworth was wit 
many others committed in 1660, to York Castle, for refusing the oat 
of Allegiance , and himself, his wife, and son, Benjamin, are named a 
Dissenters from Church at the Wakefield Sessions, in 1683. A sou o 
John Green and Bridget Stocks his wife, was John, born circa 1633 
who married apparently when only about nineteen, Elizabeth, daughte 
and heiress of Thomas Leigh, of Batley, (of the family of the latte 
unfortunately little is known), by whom he had issue John, buried i 
1653, with his grandfather, at Batley,* and ten other children, bor 
after their parents had joined the " Friends." 'With reference to Job 
Green the younger, and his parents John aud Bridget Green, we giv 
extracts from a paper by Mr. Frank Peel, of Heckmondwike. H 
says, speaking of an antiquarian tour in Liversedge 

" Leaving ' Lowfold Hall,' we made our way in the direction c 
Upper House and the Quakers' burial ground (or " Sepulchre," as it i 
generally called), stopping at Peg Farm as we passed. This grey 
looking old homestead was built, according to an inscription on <mr ( 
the doorways, in 1678. The date is placed on a small shield, and ovt 



* Vide Photo of Tomb on opposite page. 




TOMBSTONE IN THE CHURCHYARD OF BATLEY, Co. YORK. 
Leigh of Batley. and his grandson John Greene son of John *'Elizabeth Leighhis wife of Uversedge . 



"QiD W#KSH/ff 'fy Joseph J Gr,*nc of o'ft 



. Jfontfi(rAfT. Essex 



THE GREENE FAMILY OF LIVERSEDGE. 227 

it is the letter B. If the information given to us by one of the tenants 
is correct some portion of the building is older than this, as she states 
that the year 1615 was inscribed on some ornamental plaster work, 
which was demolished during- some alterations made a few years ago. 
The buildings are very plain, the only attempts at embellishment being 
a number of stone terminals, which are put upon both the house and 
the barns. The lower windows are mullioned, and separated from the 
others by a stone cornice, running the whole length of the front. To 
our right as we approach the ' Sepulchre ' is a substantial square build- 
ing of modern construction, called Upper House, which occupies the 
site, and is built partly of the materials of a hous3 called Xew Hall, 
which was once a residence of a notable member of the Greone family. 
Here resided in 1652 John Greene, the second son of John and Agues 
Greene, who brought upon himself and his family many troubles and 
losses by joining the Quaker fraternity. George Fox had visited 
Yorkshire the year before, when amongst those who joined his standard 
was the famous James Xaylor, of Ardsley. The persecution of the 
Quakers was about this time very hot. Fox writes thus in his 
journal : ; In the beginning of 1652 great rage got up against us in 
priests and people, and many of the magistrates of the West-Riding 
pressed hard against Friends.' So strong indeed was the ' rage ' 
of the persecutors that not fewer than a thousand Friends were in 
prison at one time. Fox himself had a year or two before spent nearly 
twelve months in prison, the time of his incarceration having been 
lengthened because he would not accept a commission as captain of one 
of the regiments raised by Parliament. After relating how, in his 
preaching campaign of 1652, Thomas Aldam, his companion, was taken 
prisoner to York, while he (Fox) was left to pursue his mission (which 
accorded with a remarkable dream he had just before the event), he 
records a visit he paid to the parts round Wakefield, and goes on to 
say ' After this I came to a town called Hightown, where dwelt a 
woman who had been convinced a little before. We went to her 
house and had a meeting, and the townspeople gathered together We 
declared the truth to them, and had some service for the Lord among 
them. They passed away peaceably, but there was a widow woman in 
the town whose name was Greene, who, being filled with envy, went 
to one that was called a gentleman in the town (who was reported to 
have killed two men and one woman), and informed him against us. 
though he was no officer. The next morning we drew up some queries 
to be sent to the priest. When we had done, and were just going 
away, some of the friendly people of the town came running up to the 
house where we were, and told us this murdering man had sharpened a 
pike to stab us, and was corning up with his sword by his side. We 
were just passing away and so missed him, but we were no sooner gone 
than he came to the house w T here we had been, and the people generally 
concluded that if we had not been gone he would have murdered some 
<>f us. That night we lay in a wood and were very wet. for it rained 



228 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

exceedingly. In the morning I was moved to return to Hightown, and 
they gave me a full relation of this wicked man.' Who ' the widow 
named Greene ' was does not appear ; it is not unlikely, however, that 
it was John Greene's mother, Agnes. Knowing how cruelly the 
Quakers were persecuted, she would naturally be alarmed when she 
found her son being drawn into their communion, and in her anxiety for 
his welfare would be anxious to drive the obnoxious sectaries out of the 
town. Who the ' murdering man ' was, who is said to ' have killed 
two men and one woman,' and who came with sharpened pike and 
sword to ' stab ' the Quaker and his friends, must, we suppose, remain 
a mystery, but we get in this simple narrative a vivid picture of the 
summary way in which men who dared to hold opinions different from 
those of the common herd were dealt with a couple of centuries ago. 

John Greene had, at the time he joined the Quakers, a son, also 
called John, who having been born in 1633 would, when this momentous 
event took place, be a young man of nineteen. John Greene the 
younger also cast in his lot with the Quakers, and being a consistent 
member of the fraternity was much persecuted for his tenets, being 
repeatedly imprisoned, and finally all his estates and possessions, real 
and personal, taken from him. In a scarce work, entitled ' An abstract 
of the sufferings of the people called Quakers for the testimony of a 
good conscience,' we read that at a session held at Wakefield in 1661, 
amongst a large number of others from the towns around, ' John 
Greene, the younger, William Newby, and Rowland Glaister,' all of 
Liversedge, were hauled up before the magistrates for having ' con- 
temptuously refused to take the oath of allegiance,' and were all 
committed to gaol, ' without bail or mainprize,' until the next general 
sessions, when they were further to be proceeded against." 

Again in 1662 we find from other sources that " He John Greene, 
being one of the sixty prisoners that was sett at libertie at the Assizes, 
but about nine dayes before, was again taken with a warrant from his 
own house by two bailiffes the 8th day of ye 6 mo. ] 662, and the same 
day was brought to a sessions holden at Wakefield, and there had ye 
oathe of obedience (so called) tendred unto him,' and because he could 
not sware he was commanded to be taken away, and after was brought 
again other two times the same day, and soe was brought to a 
praemunire, and sentenced to have all his goods seized and his lands 
during life, which was done by the bailiffs the day following, and 
suffered to ye value of nigh one hundred pounds, his goods by some 
relations being agreed for, and he was sent from Wakefield unto York 
Castle the llth day of ye same month. Again in 1665, he with others 
was taken at a meeting 24th of 12th mo., at the house of Thomas 
Taylor by two so-called Justices, and was sent to prison for a month," 
and lastly " John Greene, of Liversedge, yeoman in the Parish of 
Burstall, and his wife, were presented in the Bishop's court at ye time 
called Easter in ye year 1674 by Thomas Taylor and four others, for 
not going to the Steeple house to heare Divine service, and receiving 



THE GREENE FAMILY OF LIVERSEDGE. 229 

the Sacrament so called ; and not appearing at the visitation at Halifax, 
was decreed, excommunicate, and a writt sued forth by which he was 
arrested and committed to York Castle, ye 26th day of the 8th month, 
1675. He was released of his imprisonment by death the llth of the 
5th mo., 1676." And so died this stout-hearted yeoman, "for ye 
truth," at the age of about 43, and was buried at York. 

" If we study the Journal of George Fox and other contemporary 
records, which tell us of the frightful state of the prisons in those days, 
and of the barbarous and inhuman manner in which prisoners were 
treated, we shall not wonder that John Greene the younger, after 
repeated imprisonments, died in his dungeon, in the very prune of life. 
Even George Fox, who seemed to have possessed a frame of iron, 
suffered .seriously in health from being immured in these foul lazar 
houses, while hundreds who had been delicately nurtured were, like 
John Greene, hurried to premature graves. A lineal descendant of 
John Greene the Quaker Confessor, lately visited this locality in search 
of information respecting his ancestors. He could trace his descent 
far beyond the stout yeoman, but we are quite sure he found none in 
the long line stretching back to the conquest, more worthy of honour 
than the heroic martyr who, strong in the possession of a pure con- 
science, sacrificed, to keep it pure, all that most men think makes life 
desirable ; exchanged the society of his wife and his twelve children, 
and his pleasant home here on the hill top, among the green fields and 
the trees waving in the sunshine, for a weary and monotonous life in a 
dark and noisome dungeon, herding with felons and outcasts and exposed 
to the brutalities of a half savage gaoler. The age of the Common- 
wealth was rich in men of a grand heroic type, and ' John Greene the 
younger/ was no unworthy companion of the noble two thousand who, 
at that ' Black Bartholomew,' the year after his committal, rather than 
belie their consciences, left their homes with their wives and their little 
ones, and went forth ' not knowing whither they went.' John Greene 
the elder also doubtless suffered persecution for his religious opinions, 
but we find no special record of the fact. We know that he died 
peacefully at last in his own home, only seven years before his son, 
namely, at the close of 1669, and that his body was buried on his own 
estate, in the little triangular piece of ground planted with trees, now 
known as the ' Sepulchre.' His wife, Bridget, who died four years 
before, was buried there in 1665. Under a small slab is also interred 
Solomon, the son of John Greene the younger, and near it, under an altar 
tomb, the body of Mary Greene, a daughter-in-law of the latter. This 
tombstone has on it the following quaint inscription : 

Here was layd the Body of MARY, WIFE TO THOMAS GREENE, of Liversedge 

(Aged eighteen yeares, 4 months, and 16 days), who departed this life the 

3d day of the 4th month, viz., June, 

3fl 1684 < 

this was her finall testimonie : All the world nothing is to me, she vice did shnn 

and vertue did pursue, unto all such shal a reward be given which is their due, 

that of those joys they may be possest where the wicked cease from troubling 

and the weary be at rest. 



230 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

This Sepulchre was, in 1796, conveyed to four trustees (of whom 
Robert Crossland, of Oldfield Nook, was one), by Bartlett Gurney, of 
Norwich, a descendant of the Greenes, on lease for 9,000 years, ' to 
such uses as the people called Quakers, who shall from time to time 
attend at the nearest meeting house to the said premises, shall appoint.' 
The meeting- house which was given by the Greene family in 1700 is 
now made into cottages. Near it is the burying ground, nicely planted 
with trees. The last interment in the ground was the body of Robert 
Crossland, of Oldfield Nook, who died in 1784, aged 88 years. 
Before the meeting house was erected, the lane was known as 
Townend Lane, but it is now called Quaker Lane, the original name 
being altogether forgotten." 

The aforesaid Mary, the first of three wives of Thomas Greene, 
whose maiden name was Newton, left a daughter, Elizabeth, who 
married in 1713, Benjamin Bartlett, of Bradford, the celebrated apothe- 
cary to whom the famous Dr. John Fothergill was apprenticed ; and had 
issue Elizabeth and Benjamin. Elizabeth married in 1749, Henry (son 
of John Gurney, of Norwich), great grandfather to the present John 
Henry Gurney, Esq., of Northrepps Hall, Norwich. Benjamin Bartlett, 
Junr., married at Chesterfield, in 1744, Martha, daughter of Cornelius 
Heathcote, M.D., of Calthorpe and Elizabeth Middlebrook, his wife, and 
great grand-daughter of Sir Francis Rodes, third Bart., of Barlborough, 
and Martha Thornton, his wife ; the latter of whom joined the early 
Friends; and her son Sir John Rodes, who died unmarried, in 1743, 
was also a conscientious and esteemed follower of George Fox. 
Benjamin Bartlett, Junr., was a F.R.S., and a celebrated numismatologist 
etc. ; he had a son, Benjamin Newtcn, born 1745, who died unmarried.* 

Amongst other children of John Greene the younger, was a son 
Joseph, of New Hall, Hightown, Yeoman, born in 1659 ; who dying in 
1719, left by Martha Smith his wife, (probably a daughter of a much 
persecuted friend, Joshua Smith, of Sowerby,) a son Joseph, born in 1690, 
(the year George Fox died,) who removed to London about 1710. He 
resided at Spitalfields, and married in 1721, Elizabeth Tubb, of y c Citty 
of Bath, niece to Richard Marchant, Sen., of the same place. This 
Joseph Green, who was a weaver by trade, was a most useful and 
respected member of the Society of Friends ; and the intimate friend of 
Thomas Story, (the confidant and adviser of William Penn,) whose 
Folio Journal is so well known, and of which it is related that Lord 
Brougham when at the Lancaster Assizes was so engrossed with a copy 
that came into his hands, that he sat up all one night reading it. There 
are numerous mentions of Joseph Green in Story's Journal, and the 
very last entry concludes as follows, under date 1 7 1740. 

" That night I remained there, and on the 1st of 7th mo., accompanied by 
several friends from Hartford, and others also from London, who met us half way, 
I went thither in the evening to my usual lodging, where I was as well received as 

* For an interesting account of the Bartletts, of Bradford, see Bradford Observer 

Pec. 23rd, 1882. 



THE GREEXE FAMILY OF LIVERSEDGE. 231 

ever, though at that time it was t:iily a house of mourning, for my kind and good 
Landlord, Joseph Green, a man of sincerity and truth, and his eldest son (Marchaut), 
a hopeful youth of about 19 years of age, had been lately buried, dying within a 
few hours one of another, and left one of the most mournful widows and mothers I 
have ever observed ; for they loved each other most tenderly, after having been 
married about 20 years ; and having three other younger children, the whole care 
of them fell upon her, with the weight of all their affairs and business in the world, 
which was very considerable ; and the concern which fell upon me in Cumberland, 
(when I heard of this stroke of providence) for the widow and children, if per- 
ad venture I might be helpful or serviceable to them in any kind, had hastened me 
thither much sooner than otherwise I intended." 

Thomas Story continued in London some part of the ensuing 
winter, sympathizing with and assisting this afflicted family ; where he 
was seized with paralysis, and recovering- somewhat took a journey to 
Carlisle, where he died in 1743. Of him the " London Daily Advertiser," 
of January 28th. 1743, in an interesting article extolling his virtues, 
says, amongst other things, that ' he was truly a great and good man, 
whose principles led him to the performance of every moral and 
Christian duty," and concludes " in short, if temperance, patience, for- 
giving injuries, humility, faith, and charity are characteristics of a 
good man and a minister of Christ he was one." We may state here 
that in the family of a great great-grandson of the last-named Joseph 
Green, there is a curious old desk with secret drawers, on four legs, 
which has always gone by the name of Thomas Story's desk. Joseph 
Green left issue a son Joseph, born in 1724, who was a weaver and 
merchant, of Spital Square, London, and an upright member of the 
Society of Friends. He married at the Friends' Meeting House, Long- 
ford, in 1745, Mary, daughter of Jonathan Gurnell, Esq., (an eminent, 
well known, and respected merchant of London,) and Grizell Wilmer, 
his wife, of the ancient family of Wilmer, of Withebroke, County 
Warwick ; the said Mary was sister to Grizell, wife of Samuel Hoare, 
(ancestor of the Lombard Street Bankers.) and to Hannah, wife of 
Jeremiah Harman, (grandfather to his namesake, governor of the Bank 
of England, the fine art collector, and patron of Haydon, the artist): 
and aunt to Mary, wife of George Dance, R.A., one of the first 40 Royal 
Academicians, Architect to the City of London, and Builder of Xewgate, 
etc. Joseph Green died at the early age of thirty-eight, in 1762, leaving 
issue besides three daughters, (one of whom Grizell, married Richard 
Harford, Esq., F.L.S., afterwards Lyne, of Stockwell,) a son Joseph, 
born in 1747, who married in 1769, Mary, daughter of Abraham 
Andrews, of Barking, and Rebecca Yandewall his wife. He resided on 
his estate at Stone Deane, Giles Chalfont, Bucks, and died at the same 
early age as his father, in 1786, and was buried in the classic Burial 
Ground, at Jordans, where Penn and Ellwood, etc., are interred, near 
the vault of the Yandewalls. He left two sons and three daughters, of 
whom the eldest son was Joseph Markes Green, of Saffron Walden, 
Essex, born hi 1771, who married in 1795, Mercy, daughter of Thomas 
Day, of Saffron Walden, and Susanna Crafton his wife, probably a 
descendant of John Dave, the Elizabethan Printer, (who published John 



232 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Fox's Acts and Monuments, etc.,) who himself died at Saffron Walden. 
Joseph Markes Green dying in 1840, left with five daughters, two sons, 
the eldest of whom is Thomas Day Green, of Saffron Walden, Essex, 
born 1810, who married at Haverhill, 1840, Harriet, daughter of Robert 
Adcock, of Linton, and has issue three sons and three daughters, of 
whom the eldest is Thomas Henry, M.D., of London, Physician to 
Charing Cross Hospital, born 1842, and married in 1879, Charlotte 
Maria, daughter of Samuel Lindol Fox, and Rachel Maria his wife, of 
the well-known Falmouth family of the name, and has Charlotte Muriel, 
born 1880. 

The second son of Joseph Markes Green, is Joshua, of Stansted 
Montfitchet, Essex, born in 1813, who married in 1843, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Robson, of Liverpool, and Elizabeth Stephenson 
his wife ; and has with four daughters, three sons, the eldest of whom 
is Richard Crafton Green, of Saffron Walden, born in 1848, who married 
in 1879, Edith Emily, daughter of Thomas Smith and Ellen Hicks, of 
Stansted Moutfitchet, and has a son Gurnell Graf ton, born 1881. 



THE HILDYARDS OF WINESTEAD IN HOLDERNESS. 

THIS family is of Saxon extraction Hildegardis, trom which it 
sprung, being in the Saxon language, a person of noble and generous 
disposition. See Le Neve's descent of Hildyard, of Arnold, a branch 
of this family. It is also by others stated that Robert Hilliard came 
into England with William the Conqueror, who gave him the Manor 
of Normanby in County Lincoln. 

The Manor of Winestead came into this family in the reign 
of Henry V., (the beginning of the fifteenth century) by the 
marriage of Sir Robert Hildyard, Knight, with Isabel, daughter and 
co-heir of Sir Robert Hilton, Knight, whose family for ten generations 
had been Lords of this Manor. Sir Robert Hildyard also by this 
marriage became possessed of Fulstow and Marsh Chapel, in Hie 
County of Lincoln, the ancient inheritance of the Lascelles. High 
Sheriff of Lincoln, 3rd Henry VI. His grandson, Sir Robert Hildyard, 
of Winestead, commonly called Robin of Riddlesdale, a great warrior and 
staunch Lancastrian, was knighted at the coronation of Richard III., 
he married the daughter of Sir John Hastings, of Fenwick, Knight, 
and was the father of Sir Peter Hildyard, who married Joan, second 
daughter of Sir Martin de la See of Barmston ; and was great grand- 
father of Sir Christopher Hildyard. 

Formerly there was an ancient manor-house, surrounded by a 
moat, on the estate at Winestead, of which nothing much is known. 
It was taken down in 1597, by Sir Christopher Hildyard, Knight, after 
his only son William was drowned in the moat, and a new hall erected, 
with the centre crowned by two lofty towers, and flanking wings with 



THE HILDYARDS OF WINESTEAD IN HOLDERNESS. 

smaller towers, on a new .site a mile distant. This also was taken 
down by Sir Robert, the second baronet, in 1710, and a new hall built 
on the site of the old manor-house. About the year 1677, the old Park 
Farm, the Hop Garth, the old Park, and about 130 acres of other land 
were sold to the Maisters family, who erected Winestead House, but 
were repurchased, along with the manor of Patrington and estates at 
Ottringham, by Colonel Thoroton Hildyard, from Colonel Arthur 
Maisters, in 1829, for 120,000. 

The Hildyards are a very ancient Lincolnshire and Holderness 
family, descended from Hildegardis, a Saxon Thegn. Originally their 
crest was a reindeer, but hi 1461, after the battle of Cocksbridge 
(Towton), was changed to a cock, in testimony of the valour displayed 
on that occasion by the Lancastrian, Sir Robert Hilyard, Knight. They 
were Lords of Xormanby and Kettlewell, County Lincoln, until the 
thirteenth century, when they became associated with Holderness, by 
the marriage of Sir Peter, with Alice, daughter of Sir John De Melsa, 
governor of York, whose estates lay at Meaux, near Beverley, on the 
Holderness side of the river Hull. Sir Peter had two sons, Robert of 
Riston and Sir Peter of Arnold, both in Holderness, from whom have 
sprung many ramifications of the Hildyards. 

Sir Peter, Knight, second son, of Arnold in Holderness, vix 1296, 
married Alice, daughter of Sir John Meaux, of Bewick in Holderness, 
with whom he obtained an estate at Arnold. 

Robert, son, of Arnold and Preston, and Lord of Normanby and 
Kettlewell, married Alice, daughter of Sir John Daubeny, Knight. 

Peter, son and heir, made a grant of Arnold to his brother John 
and his heirs. 

John, brother, of Arnold and Xormanby, married clandestinely, 
Catherine, daughter of Thomas Hildyard, of Riston, near Beverley, 
and relict of Sir Peter Xuttles, Knight. 

Peter, son, vix. fifty first, Edward III., had a law suit with the 
Abbot of Meaux, relative to a ditch which caused a flooding of his 
pasture land. 

Sir Robert, Knight, son. Lord of "Winestead, and of Fulstow, and 
Marsh Chapel, County Lincoln, was High Sheriff of Lincolnshire, third 
Henry VI. , will dated 1 428 ; married first, Matilda, daughter of Lovell ; 
secondly, Isabella, daughter and heiress of Sir Robert Hilton, Knight, 
Lord of Swine and Winestead, through whom he obtained the Manor 
of Winestead and other estates in Holderness. 

Sir Robert, Knight, son, of Winestead and Lord of Fenwick and 
Shelbrook, near Doncaster, j.u., married first, Catherine, daughter 
and co-heiress of Thomas de la Haye, of Spaldington ; secondly, Agnes, 
daughter of Alexander Creyke, and relict of Sir John Middleton, Knight, 
of Beverley, he was slain at Towton, 1461, fighting under the banner 
of the Red Rose. 

Sir Robert, Knight, son ; who lived in the reigns of five sovereigns, 
dying sixth Henry VII ; fought by the side of his father at Towton, 



HOLBEC 

234 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

but notwithstanding his Lancastrian proclivities he was knighted at the 
coronation of Richard III., and was one of the Knights who conducted 
and escorted Henry VII. in his progress to York. He is said by some 
genealogists to have been the famous Robin of Redesdale, who led a 
forlorn hope from York in the cause of Henry VI., after his deposition 
by Edward IV. ; but this appears to be an error, as from what is known 
of that hero of the wars of the Roses, whose history is somewhat 
confused, and whose identity it is difficult to fix, it would appear that 
the Robert Hildyard who assumed that appellation was a member of 
some other branch of the family. In 1489, he married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John Hastings, Knight, of Fenwick, and had issue 
thirteen sons, one of whom, Sir Anthony, was a Knight of Rhodes, and 
was living in 1535 ; and six daughters. 

Sir Peter, Knight, son; Lord of the Manors of Lisset and 
Gembling on the Wolds, j.u., married Joan, daughter and co-heiress 
of Sir Martin de la See, Knight, of Barmston, and had issue three sons 
of whom the third, Richard, was Rector of Winestead and Barmston, and 
seven daughters, of whom the youngest, Ellinor, was a nun at Gotham. 

Sir Christopher, Knight, son; a minor in 1508, was slain at 
Terouaine, in Artois. He married first, Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Humphrey Coningsby ; secondly, Joan, daughter of Ralph Constable, 
of Halsham, in Holderness, ancestor of the Viscounts Dunbar. By the 
former he had issue Martin, his heir, two other sons, and a daughter ; 
by the latter, Leonard, ancestor of the Skeffling branch ; John, of the 
Durham branch ; Sylvester, of the Gembling branch ; three other sons 
and five daughters. 

Martin, son; died 1543; married Emma, grand-daughter of Sir 
John Rudston, Lord Mayor of London, and had issue Christopher, his 
heir ; Richard, ancestor of the Routh branch ; John, of the Ottringham 
branch; and William of Beverley, Recorder of York, 1581-1608, and 
M.P. York City, 1586. 

Sir Christopher, Knight, son; died 1602, marble monument in 
Winestead Church. High Sheriff County York, 12th and 37th Elizabeth, 
and M.P. Iledon, 5th, 13th, and 14th Elizabeth. lie married Frances, 
daughter of Sir John Constable, Knight, of Burton Constable, and had 
issue, William, drowned v.p. in the moat of the old Hall ; four daughters 
who died young, and Elizabeth, who married William, son and heir, 
apparent of Lord Willoughby, of Parham. On the death of his son he 
filled up the moat, pulled down the Hall, and built another a mile, 
distant. Dying without surviving male issue he conveyed by indenture, 
which he confirmed by will, to his nephew, Christopher, son of Richard 
Hildyard, of Routh, Winestead, and several other manors in Holderness 
and Lincolnshire. ......... 

.Sir Christopher, Knight, of Winestead, son of Robert llildyard, of 
Routh, near Beverley, and Weaverthorpe on the AVolds, which latter he 
obtained by marriage with Jane, daughter and heiress of Marmadukc 
Thweng. He died 1634, was High Sheriff of Yorkshire, 10th James I. ; 



THE H1LDYARDS OF WINESTEAD IN HOLUERNESS. 235 

M.P. Hedon, 31st, 35th, 39th, and 43rd Elizabeth, 21st James I., and 
1st, 2nd, and 4th Charles I.; also for Beverley, 17th James L, and 
Aldborough 18th James I. ; and was a member of the Council of the 
Xorth. In 1598, he married Elizabeth, daug-hter of Henry Welby, 
Lord of the Manor of Goxhill, County Lincoln, an eccentric character, 
who in consequence of an attempt on his life, by a kinsman, shut himself 
up in a house in Grub Street, London, where he admitted no visitors, 
and never left it for a period of forty-four years, until carried hence, at 
the age of eighty-four, to be buried in the church of St. Giles, Cripple- 
gate, Sir Christopher frequently made the manor house, Goxhill, his 
residence. By her he had issue Christopher, who died v.p ; Henry, who 
succeeded ; Robert, of Beverley, cr. Bart. : Christopher, of York, a 
Barrister-at-Law, and Antiquary, q.v. inj. ; and six daughters. 

Henry, second son, of East Horsley, County Surrey, which he 
purchased of Carew, son of Sir Walter Raleigh, and where he formed 
the friendship of John Evelyn, born 1609, died 1674 ; was chamberlain 
of the Exchequer, and M.P. Hedon, 1660. He adhered to the Royalist 
cause in the Civil War, and suffered severely for his loyalty, being fined 
4,660 for delinquency. A paper in the Record Office, says " he was 
in arms against the Parliament. He rendered upon the publishing of 
the Declaration of both kingdoms, the estate in ffee, in possession, per 
an. 2,374 2s. lid.,- out of which issues four quit rents, per an. 
14 Os. 2d. ; for one life, per an. 3 ; a mortgage of 500 debt charged 
upon his lands, which being allowed towards the ffine; at a tenth 
4,660, March y e llth, 1647." Christopher, of Routh, his brother, 
was also "in arms against the Parliament, who rendered before Dec., 
1645. estate in ffee per an. 67 8s., out of which issued per an. 2 4s. 3d., 
ffine 130." During the war he shut up Winestead, and lived at 
his house in Hull, formerly the mansion of the De la Poles. He married 
the Lady Anne, daughter of Fras. Leke, 1st Earl of Scarsdale, by 
whom he had issue five sons, of whom Edward, the 3rd, was a judge 
in Bardadoes, and nine daughters. 

Henry, son; of Winestead, afterwards of Kelstern, County Lincoln, 
which he purchased. Born 1637, died abroad 1705. He served under 
the Duke of Monmouth, at Maestricht, became a Roman Catholic, and 
adhered to James II. at the Revolution, raised and commanded a troop 
of horse for his service, and fled with him to France. In 1677, he 
obtained an Act of Parliament authorising him to sell Winestead, which 
was purchased by his uncle, Robert Hildyard, of Beverley. He was 
twice married, and had issue six sons, of whom Christopher, his heir, 
succeeded to Kelstern, who had issue by Jane, daughter of George 
Pitt, ancestor of the Barons Rivers, one son, who died young, and five 
daughters, besides eight children by Anne Whalley, "his pretended 

wife.' ; . . , , 

BARONETS, 

1. Sir Robert, of Beverley, third son of Sir Christopher. Kt., of 
Winestead. and grandson of Richard H. of Routh, born 1612, died 



236 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

1685; created Baronet 1660. He was a Gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber to Charles I., and afterwards to Charles II. In the Civil 
War he embraced the cause of the King, and held a colonelcy of Foot 
in his army. He was a soldier of distinguished bravery and military 
skill, and held the command of Sir Marmaduke Langdale's brigade of 
horse when the latter was Major-General of the cavalry in England 
and Wales ; fought with distinction at the battle of Marston Moor, and 
was with the King at Oxford, and when the garrison surrendered to 
the Parliamentarians. On one occasion, when encamped under the 
Earl of Newcastle opposite the Scottish army, a man of gigantic 
stature, the champion of the enemy, stepped forth from the ranks, and 
challenged any gentlemen of the King's army to meet him in single 
combat. .Hildyard accepted the challenge, and slew his antagonist, for 
which he was made a Knight Banneret. At the Restoration he was 
created Baronet, in recognition of the loyal services of himself and 
family. He married, 1st, Jane, daughter and heiress of Christopher 
Constable, of Hatfield, in Holderness, by whom he had no issue ; 2nd, 
Anne, daughter and co-heiress of Alderman Thomas Thackray, a Hull 
merchant, and had issue two sons and a daughter ; and 3rd, Anne, 
daughter and co-heiress of Alderman Herries, of Hull, by whom he 
had no issue. In the Lords' Journal occurs the following entry : 
" The House of Commons having received information from the 
Committee of Parliament in Yorkshire that the orders of the Parliament 
are contemned and disobeyed, and that Mr. Robert Hildyard is a 
principal agent in it, ordered that the Gentleman Usher of this House, 
or his deputy, shall attach the body of Robert Hildyard, Esq." 

There is a series of papers in the Record Office relating to sixteen 
cottages in Mytongate, Hull, the property of " Robert Hildyard, Esq., 
heretofore called Sir Robert Hildyard." He pleads in his " humble 
petition to the Hon ble the Commis 1 ' 8 for compounding with delin- 
quents," that "y r pet r hath compounded with the Honb le Commis rs and 
paid his ffine and obteyned letters for suspending the sequestration of 
his estates. That part of his estate sequest d by the Committee sitting 
at Hull is still detayned from y r pet 1 ' in respect his pardon is not sued 
out, and 16 houses in Hull sequestered in the poss s ion of y r pet r are now 
in the poss s ion of the Maior and others, and humbly prayes hee may 
have an order from yo r hon 8 to possesse him of his estate compounded 
for," resulting in an order from Goldsmith's Hall, dated 23rd Novem- 
ber, 1648, " That of the said Sir R. H. doe make it appeare that he was 
in possession of y e same at the tyrne of his sequest n that these letters 
doe issue forth to the Com* 66 of Hull, to restore him to the possession 
and put him into the condition that he was at that tyme." 

(Signed) Jo. LEACH. 

2. Sir Robert, grandson, son of Sir Christopher, Kt., who died 
v.p,, 1685, by Esther, daughter and co-heiress of William Dobson, 
twice Mayor of Hull. He was born 1671, died ca>I, 1729, represented 



THE HILDYARDS OF WIXESTEAD IN HOLDERXESS. 237 

Hedon in Parliament 1701, and was the builder of the present 
Winestead Hall. 

3. Sir Robert, nephew, posthumous son of Rev. William H., 
Rector of Rowley, third son of Sir Christopher H., Kt., born 1716, 
died 1781. He resided at Bishop Burton, near Beverley, was M.P. 
for Bedwin, county Wilts, 1754; married 1738, Marie Catherine, 
daughter of Henry Darcy, of Sedburg-h, and had one surviving son and 
three daughters. 

4. Sir Robert Darcy, son ; High Sheriff of Yorkshire, 1783 ; 
married Mary,daughter of Sir Edw. Bering, fifth baronet, and had issue an 
only son who died in infancy, in consequence of which the baronetcy 
became extinct at his death. 

Catherine, daughter of Sir Robert, third Baronet, married James 
White, and had issue Anne. 

Thomas Blackborne Thornton-Hildyard married Anne White, 
1815, and became Lord of W T inestead j.u., at the same time assuming 
the name of Hildyard, in addition, in compliance with the will of his 
wife's uncle, Sir Robert. He died in 1830, his wife surviving until 1853. 
They had issue four sons and three daughters. 

Thomas Blackborne Thornton-Hildyard, eldest son; of Wine- 
stead and Flintham Hall, County Notts., born 1821; married 1^42. 
Anne Margaret, daughter of Colonel Rochfort, of County Carlo w, and 
has issue, Thomas, his heir, born 1843; Robert Charles, R.E., born 
1844 ; Henry John, born 1846, author of some military works ; 
and two daughters. 

Christopher Hildyard, Antiquary, York, born 1615, died 1694. 
fourth son of Sir Christopher H., of Winestead, by Elizabeth Welby, 
and brother of Sir Robert X., first Baronet. He was brought up to the 
Law at the Middle Temple, called to the Bar, and became Recorder of 
Hedon and Steward of the dissolved Abbey of St. Mary, York ; 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. Frances Edgar, Rector of Wine- 
stead, and relict of John Booth, by whom he had issue four sons and 
two daughters. He was a zealous antiquary, directing his attention 
chiefly to the municipal history of York, made a fine collection of coins, 
and was the favoured friend of Ralph Thoresby. In 1664 he published, 
anonymously (reprinted in London, 1715), "A List or Catalogue of 
all the Mayors and Bailiffs Lord Mayors and Sheriffs of the most 
Ancient, Honourable, Noble, and Loyall City of York, from the time 
of King Edward the First until the present year, 1664 .... 
Together with many and sundry remarkable passages which happened 
in their several years. By one who is a lover of Antiquity, and a well- 
wisher to the prosperity of the City, together with his hearty desire 
of the Restoration of its former Glory, Splendour and Magnificence." 

Frances Hildyard, son of Major John H., of the Ottringham branch 
of the family, born 1659, died 1731 ; a notable publisher and bookseller 



238 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

in York, at the sign of the Golden Bible, whom Dunton, in his "Life, 
and Errors," refers to as " The topping man in that city, and not only 
a just, but an ingenious man." A great many works were issued from his 
press at York, amongst others " The Antiquities of York City and the 
Civil Government thereof, with a List of all the Mayors and Bailiffs 

to this present year, 1719, collected from the papers of 

Christopher Hildyard, Esq., with Notes and Observations, and with 
addition of Ancient Deccriptions and Coates of Arms from Gravestones 
and Church Windows. By James Torr, Gent., &c., &c." With two 
dedications; one to Sir William Robinson, of Newby, Bart., M.P., 
York; the other to Alderman Robert Fairfax, York, 1719. This publi- 
cation involved him in a paper war with Nicholas Torr, son of the 
Antiquary, who had been dead several years. He asserted that his 
father never was, in any way, connected with the compilation, and 
that placing his name on the title page was injurious to his reputation, 
and an imposition on the world. Hildyard replied that he had placed 
the papers in the hands of Mr. Torr, who " Methodised and writ with 
his own hand the whole from pages 1 to the commencement to the 
last of Mayors, &c., and that he interspersed it throughout with notes 
and observations." Torr then challenged Hildyard to produce the 
manuscript or any portion of it in his father's handwriting-, which the 
latter admitted he could not do, and so the matter dropped. 

He married Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Wheatley, of Wakefield, 
and had issue with other children, John, born 1700, died 1757, who 
carried on the business at the Golden Bible, and served the office of 
Sheriff of York, 1742-3 ; whose son, Rev. Henry, was of the Manor 
House, Stokesley, and had issue five sons and six daughters. 

The church at Winestead is an ancient rectory, belonging to the 
family of Hiltons. Knights, for many generations, and from them 
descended to the family of Hildyards. The fabric, dedicated to St. 
Germain, is without a tower, and consists of a nave and chancel, with a 
chantry on the south side of the nave attached to which is the cemetery 
of the H ildyard family. 

Under the arch to the chantry is an altar tomb, covered with a 
black marble slab, to the memory of the third Sir Christopher Hildyard, 
Knt., buried Nov,, 23, 1634. 

Adjoining is another altar tomb having a recumbent effigy of a 
Knight, his hands clasped in prayer, lying on a mat rolled up under 
his head, which is bare ; he has a ruff round his neck, and is attired in 
a complete suit of plate armour, with a sword at his side, and a cock at his 
feet ; it is in perfect preservation. On the sides of the table at the east 
end is inscribed " Posvi finem curis spes et fortuna valete." On the 
north side " Ecce quam bonum et quam jucundum habitare fratrcs in 
unum." Also " Sic patse volunt *' over a small figure on one of the 
panels at the west end, " Annus mativitatis, 1530, Martii 15." On the 
south side "Obiit Juli, 23." This monument is embellished with the 
following shields at the west end or head of the monument, a shield 



THE HTLD YARDS OF WINESTEAD IN HOLUERXESS. 



239 



with twelve quarterings. 1. Azure, 3 mullets, or Jfi/J//ard * 2. Two 
bars, Hilton ; 3. In a chevron 3 fleur de lis between 3 buckles 4. 
Argent, 2 bars azure. Hilton ; 5. Argent, 3 chaplets, gules, Lascelles ; 
6. Argent, a boar passant sabled, bristled, or, Sivyne ; 7. Or, a morion, 
gules, Kilham ; 8. On a bend, cotised, sable, 3 escallopes, gules, De la 
Hay ; 9. Gules, within a bordure, engrailed, 3 covered cups ; 10. Azure, 
2 bars, nebulee, argent, De la See; 11. Argent, a cross moline. 
engrailed, sable, Cottes ; 12. Gules, a cross moline, or, Monceaux. On 
the north side of the monument are two shields 1. Two bars, Hilton 
impaling argent, 3 chaplets, gules, Lasce'les ; 2. Azure, 3 mullets, or, 




Monument to Sir Christopher Hildyard, Knight, Winestcad Church. 



Hildyard. On the south side are two other shields 1. A bend cotised, 
3 scallop shells, impaling on a border engrailed, 3 covered cups ; 2. 
Two bars nebulee, impalng a cross moline engrailed, and a cross 
moline. At the east end or foot of the monument, two shields I. 
Three mullets, Hildyard, impaliug barry of six, Constable ; 2. Fretty, 
WW.ouglibit. of Parham, impaling 3 mullets. Hildyard. 

The birth place of the celebrated patriot. Andrew Marvel having 
been mistakenly assigned to Hull, the entry in the parish register of 
YVinestead, of which his father was rector, proves that this village must 
claim the honour ; the signature of Andrew Marvel is preserved in the 
register. 

London. F. Ross, F.R.H.S. 

* For Arms of Hildyard, with quarterings, see page 1. 



240 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

NEVILLE, OF LIVERSEDGE. 

SIR EDWARD, or Edmund Neville, Knt, second son of Sir John 
Neville, of Hornby Castle, in Lancashire, married Issote, daughter and 
heir of Robert Flamborough (arms, gules 2 pallets vaire), son and heir 
of Robert Flamborough, son and heir of Robert Flamborough and Alice 
his wife, daughter and sole heir of Sir Robert Liversedge, of Liversedge, 
in this county, Knt., and had issue by the said Issote, William. In 
1280 the Nevilles were not yet in possession of Liversedge, for Robert 
de Liversedge was alive and the tenant. 

Edmund Neville, 12th Edward II., obtained a grant of free warren 
in Liversedge. [Sir Edmund Neville was certified at Clipston, 5th 
March, 1316, as Lord of the Township of Liversedge. In 1318 he was 
appointed Knight of the Shire for Lancaster, and in that capacity 
attended Parliament for several years. As one of the adherents of 
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, he obtained a pardon by consent of Parlia- 
ment for all felonies and trespasses committed up to the 7th of August, 
1318. He was one of the Commissioners of Array (county of Lancaster), 
a Justice of Assize, and one of the Commissioners empowered to select 
and array the knights, etc., of the county of Lancaster, required to 
perform military service in Gascony, in 1324. The musters were 
prorogued; but on the 20th February, 1325, he received marching 
orders for his detachment, which were again countermanded, and he 
was ordered to continue his inspection of the levies of the county of 
Lancaster, so that they might continue fit for service. He continued 
Knight of the Shire for Lancaster, down to 1327 at least.] 

William Neville, son and heir of Sir Edmund, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John Harrington, Knt., and had issue John. (This 
William died 42nd Edward III., 1368. Compotus Honor, Pontefract. 
In the 24th, 25th, 26th Edward III., William de Neville held the manor 
of Liversedge by knight's service and 12s. 8d. per annum, from three 
weeks to three weeks, Ilarl. MS. 797. In the same year John Neville 
paid to the Honor of Pomfrete 25s. for a fourth part of a knight's fee 
in Liversedge, being his right of inheritance after the death of his 
father, William Neville. Compotvs Honor, Pontefract.) 

John Neville, son and heir of William, married Alice, daughter and 
heir of Henry Sherwood (who bore arg. a chevron gules between three 
tortoises), and had issue Thomas ; Joan, married Thomas Passelew, Esq., 
of Riddlesden ; Margaret, married Thomas Soothill, of Soothill Hall, 
Esq. This John was a Knight, High Sheriff of Yorkshire 3rd and 10th 
Henry VII., he was living at Liversedge in 1379. [?] Sir Thomas 
Neville, Knight, son and heir of Sir John, married Alice, daughter and 
co-heir of Richard Gascoigne, of Huuslet, and had issue, Robert ; Joan, 
married Richard Bosherville, afterwards knight, at Gunthwaite. By 
this Alice he got the Mauor and Park of Hunslet and Catte Beeston. 
In 3rd Henry VI., 1424, he held a fourth part of a knight's fee in 
Liversedge. [This Thomas is said to have been buried in St. Peter's 



NEVILLE OF LIVERSEUGE. 241 

Church, at Leeds, in 1499. " Hie jacet Thomas Neville, armiyer ac jilius 
et hir redes Johannis Xcri!<:, mi'itis qui obiit. xx die Junii, Anno Dom. 
mccccxcu:" demolished by the Parliament soldiers in 1643, see Test. 
Ebor, vol. 3, p. 244, for the will of Alice Neville, widow of Sir Thomas. 
She was the daughter of Richard Gascoigne (above), of Hunslet, a 
younger brother of Chief Justice Gaseoigne, and co-heir of her brother, 
Thomas Gascoigne, S.T.P., Chancellor of the University of Oxford. 
Sir Thomas, by a brief nuncupative will made June, 1421, proved 27th 
May, 1438, desired to be buried in the church at Birstall, and left 
everything to Alice, his wife, who survived him for forty years. She 
wished to be buried in the Kirk of Leeds, before some private altar. On 
the 8th March, 1453-4, Archbishop Booth allowed Dame Alice Neville, 
of Hunslet, to have an oratory for a year. She had a similar license to 
last for two years, on 15th June, 1456.] 

Sir Robert Neville, Kt., son and heir of Sir Thomas, married 
Eleanor, daughter of Sir William (or Richard) Molyneux, of Sefton, in 
Lancashire, Kt., and had issue, John ; Edward ; Alice, married Mr. 
Soothill [? see above] ; Ellen, married Mr. Lacy, of Cromwell Bottom ; 
Beatrice, married Mr. Bannister ; Jane, married Mr. Burdet, of Denby. ; 
Elizabeth, maried Richard Beaumont, of Whitley, Esq. ; Maud, married 
Mr. Passelew, of Riddlesden, [? see above] ; Joyce, married Mr. Rish- 
worth, of Coley ; Margery, married Ralph Beeston, of Besston. K-q. 
Sir Robert died in 1-342. ' [On the 27th Oct., 1454, Archbishop Booth 
allowed Robert Neville and Ellen, his wife, to have an oratory for a 
year at Liversedge and Hunslet, 13th Jan.. 1493-4. License to the 
Vicar of Burstall to marry Thomas Stapleton, Esq., and Elizabeth 
Neville, in the chapel within the Manor House of Liversedge, Banns 
once.] 

Sir John Neville, Kt., son and heir of Robert, married Maud, 
daughter and heir of Sir Robert Rither of Rither, Kt., (who bore arg. 
three crescents or), and had issue, Thomas ; Robert ; Sir John, married 
Elizabeth, eldest daug-hter and co-heir of William Bosseville, of Chevet ; 
George, died s.p. ; Elizabeth, married William Blythe, of Quarmby, Esq., 
[she was youngest daughter] ; Maud, married Anthony Eltoft, Esq. ; 
, married Thomas Burton, of Kingslow. This Sir John was High 
Sheriff of Yorkshire, 10th, loth, 19th Henry VIII. [See statement 
above. John Neville, of Liversedge, armiger, is one of the executors 
of Sir William Ryther, Kt., made 20th June, 1475, proved 14th Oct., 
1476. Robert Ryther, who was High Sheriff in 1487, was the son of 
the above William ; he died in 1491 ; his will made 30th June, was 
proved on the 2()th Sept., 1491. His brother, Ralph Ryther, succeeded 
to the estates. I^cst. Ebor., 3, p. 217. Perhaps it was John Neville, 
the great grandfather, who was the executor. Sir John Neville, who 
married Maud Ryther, died in 1502, leaving several children. On the 
17th April, 1472, an oratory was granted to John Neville and Matilda, 
his wife. Test. Ebor,, 3. p.* 244 ] 

Q 



242 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Thomas Neville, son and heir of Sir John, married Mary, daughter 
of Sir Robert Sheffield, of Butter\\ ick, County Lincoln, (who bore an/, 
a chevron between 3 garbs gu'es], and had issue, Robert. 

Sir Robert Neville, Kt,, son and heir of Thomas, married Ellen, 
daughter of Sir John Townley, of Townley, County Lancashire, and had 
issue, John ; Henry Margery, married Ralph Beeston, of Beeston [see 
above ; Ralph Beeston came into possession of the Beeston property in 
1496. He fought at Flodden] ; Katherine, married Richard Beaumont, 
of Whitley, [see above ; the marriage contract between Katherine 
Neville and Robert Beaumont, is dated 16th Feb., 19 Henry VIII. 
Harl. MS., 797] ; Elizabeth, married Francis Woodrove ; Eleanor, 
married Mr. Charles Ratcliffe, of Mulgrave ; Rosamond and Beatrice 
died without issue ; Anne, married Aylmer Burdett. This Sir Robert 
was High Sheriff of Yorkshire 32 Henry VIII., 1540 ; he died 34 Henry 
VIII. [When John Neville, his son and heir, paid 25s. for relief of his 
lands]. 

Sir John Neville, Kt., son and heir of Sir Robert, married two 
wives 1st Dorothy, daughter of Sir Charles Danby, Kt., and had issue, 
Robert ; Elizabeth, married Hugh Asquith ; Jane, married Roger 
Cholmley ; Hellen, married Henry Shepherd ; - , another daughter. 
His second wife was Beatrice, daughter of Henry Broom, of Wakefield, 
gent., (who bore ermine a chief parted per pale, indented or and gules'). 
This Sir John was High Sheriff of Yorkshire, 2nd Elizabeth, 1560, and 
convicted of high treason 11 Elizabeth, 1569, and his estates confiscated 
at Hunslet and Catte Beeston, which Queen Elizabeth gave to Sir 
Edward Gary. He also lost to the Crown the manor of Liversedge, 
lands in High Popplewell, Scholes, Birstal, the mills of Leeds, lands in 
Roth well, Olton, Thurnfield, Whitley, Kellington, Egburgh, Thuruham, 
Sherwood Hall, several of which were given to Sir Edward Gary, who 
with his son John Gary, servant to King Charles I., have disposed of 
and sold them to several tenants and other purchasers. 

Leeds. W. WHEATER. 

THE WILSON FAMILY. 

THE head of the Leeds branch of the Wilson Family in the 
generation next before Bishop Wilson, of Sodor and Man, was, 
as may be gathered from their pedigree in Thoresby's History of 
Leeds, John Wilson, of Leeds, cloth merchant, about coeval with 
Nathanael, the Bishop's father, for he was born in 1631. Of him it is 
recorded that some time, probably in August, 1658, as he was passing 
through the streets of Leeds, he met the vicar and said to him, " When 
shall we have Divine service again in Leeds Old Church ] " The Vicar 
replied, " Whenever Mr. Wilson will protect me in the discharge of 
my duty." "Then," he rejoined, "by the Grace of God if shall be 
next Sunday."* Accordingly on that day the bells rang as formerly for 

* Keble's Life of Bp Wilson. 



THE WILSON FAMILY. 243 

morning 1 prayers, and a large congregation was drawn together. In 
the centre aisle was Mr. Wilson, with a great number of his men drawn 
up as if to protect the Vicar. News of the occurrence soon reached 
London, and an order came down for the imprisonment of Mr. Wilson, 
but before his trial came on Oliver Cromwell died. About sixteen years 
after this occurrence John Wilson's youngest son was christened and 
the name given him, was " Major" in memory of this affair, because 
ever since it took place, Mr. Wilson had been called " Colonel." 
The name has continued in his progeny for at least two generations, 
and something too of the same spirit by which it was won, if, as we 
understand, one of the most distinguished warriors of our time, the late 
Sir Robert T. Wilson,was a descendant of this Mr. MajorWilson, of Leeds. 
Major Wilson, the son of the " Colonel " was born at Leeds, in 
1674. He was reputed to be the richest merchant of Leeds, in his time, 
and was greatly respected by high and low. In 1697 he married there 
Miss Elizabeth Yates, and " he lived," writes Sir Robert Wilson, " till 
he was 110 years of age," thus furnishing another instance of Yorkshire 
longevity. He had fourteen children, two of whom were named 
Major " ; the first born in 1703, the second in 1719. Probably the 
former had died before the birth of the latter. Benjamin, born 1721, 
died 1788, was the fourteenth and youngest child. He was well-known 
as a portrait painter of merit and as a scientific man in his day, and he 
was honoured with the patronage and friendship of Geo. III. and the 
then Royal Family. An account of him may be found in the life of Sir 
Robert Wilson, edited by the Rev. Herbert Randolph. Benjamin also 
had two sons whom he called ' Major," the first bearing in addition the 
name of Gilfrid, the second that of William; the former born 1773, 
died in infancy ; the latter born 1774, married and had issue, but his 
only son died unmarried. Sir Robert Wilson, born 1777, died 1849, 
was his fourth child and third son. His youngest daughter was Jane, 
who married the Rev. Herbert Randolph, of Letcombe Basset, Berks. 



THE GAMBLE FAMILY. 

THE last of one of the most ancient families in this county has 
recently passed away at Helmsley. On Monday, March 12th, 1883, 
were interred the remains of Sarah Gamble (pronounced Gamel) at the 
age of 89, the last of the name, although some half century ago, there 
were several members of the family living. The Gambles claim to 
have lived in the immediate neighbourhood of Helmsley for upwards 
of three hundred years, and the old woman was probably the repre- 
sentative of the oldest family in Yorkshire. The ancient inscription in 
the porch of Kirkdale Church, discovered by the removal of old plaster 
at its restoration, states that " Orm Gamel son, built St. Gregory Minster 
after it had fallen down and gone to decay in Tostis dai/s the Earl and 
Harold the King." Kirkdale is four and a half miles from Helmsley. 




YORKSHIRE MANUSCRIPTS. 




THE COTTONIAN MSS. 

HE high estimation in which the Cottonian Library has ever 
. been held, by all persons competent to appreciate its value, 
is amply evinced, not only by the multitude of testimonies 
of learned men, who have had opportunities to notice its 
intrinsic value, and real importance; but more so by the 
great solicitude that has at all times been shewn by the Legisla- 
ture for its safe custody and preservation, as well whilst it 
continued in the possession of the illustrious family from whom it 
had its origin, as since it became the property of the Public." * 
It was founded by Sir Robert Cotton, Bart., who was born 22nd Jan., 
1570, and died in 1631. After having been added to by his son, Sir 
Thomas, and his grandson, Sir John Cotton, the latter (who died in 
1702) gave it to the public. After some vicissitudes, and one narrow 
escape from destruction by fire, the library was deposited in the newly- 
formed British Museum, in accordance with an Act of Parliament 
passed in 1753. There were originally 958 volumes in the collection. 
This number was reduced by the fire to 861, 105 of which were damaged 
bundles. Many of these were afterwards restored, and the collection 
re-paged and newly catalogued. The articles in the catalogue of 1808 
number about 26,000; and, even then, the catalogue is not perfect. 
The following list comprises, I believe, most of the Yorkshire articles, 
but, I am afraid, not all. 

When in Sir Robert Cotton's possession, the books were kept in 
presses, over each of which was a bust of one of the twelve Ca'snrs, 
together with those of Cleopatra and Faustina. The different parts of 

* "MSS. ill the Cottonian Library," 1802, p. ix. 



THE COTTONIAN M>-. 245 

the collection were called after the busts which surmounted them, and that 
arrangement has since been kept up. 

JULIUS, A. VII. Chronica Manniae (vel potias hunc codicem) Bibliotheca} dedit 

Eogerus Dodsworth Eboracensis, antiquitatum apprime studiosus, 1620. 
JULIUS, A. XI. 1. Ailredi Eievallensis historia, cui perperam praefigitur titulus, 

" Gesta regis Henrici II. Benedict! Abbatis." 1. Hunc codicem, olim S. 

Marias de Bellalanda, Henricus Savellius Bibliotb. Cott., A 1609, dono 

dedit. 
JULIUS, B. XI. A repertory of the noble families in England, whose pedigrees are 

to be found in the books of the Herald's Office in London. 
JULIUS, B. XII. Of Henry VII's. progress to the northern parts of England (I486), 

and of his reception at York. 6b. A list of 13 bannerets and 52 knights, 

made by Hen. VII., after the battle of Newark. 27. Creation of Henry D. of 

York 10 H. VII., with the whole solemnity of it. 91 . Charta libertatum 

Honoris de Eichemond, 24 Hen. VIL 1446. 133. Kelaxatio manerii de 

Middleham, com. Ebor. cum aliis, facta Eadulpho comiti de West. 9 H. V. 143. 

Feoda militum D. Eadulphi de Nevil, de manerio suo de Shirefhocon in com. 

Ebor. 163. Actus Parliamenti pro villa de Scardburgh, &c 12 Edw. "IV. 

211 b. Final, concord, de maneriis de Midleharn et Shirefhoton, facta per 

Jacobum Eatcliff militem, et Cath. ux. ejus. 20 Edw. IV. 244 b. Final, concord. 

inter Joh. Pylkington et al. quer., et Eadulph. Nevil et Isabel, ux. ej. deforc. 

de maner. predict. 246 b. Notes concerning the family of Fitz- William, 247. 

Fragment. Chart. E. Edw. IV. de maner. de Skipton, Ebor. 248. Concess. 

Skiptoniae in Crav. Eic. Duci Glouc. 15 Edw. IV. 253. Valor reddit. com. 

Eichmond. A 1309. 257 b. Inq. p.m. de terr. Baronis Eoos. 26 Ed. III. 258 b. 

Inq. p.m. de terr. Joh. ducis Britanniae et com. Eichmond. 15 Edw. III. 259. 

Inquisitio de terr. Joh. Nevill mil. de Eaby. 12 Eic. II., 265. The descent 

of the family of Savile (Johnstone), 1679, 306 and 307 Forest of Galtres, 

306 b. Notes on Lacy, Fitz- William, Tateshall, &c., 308 b. Commiss. E. 

Hen. VI., ad audiendum et determinandum de diversis proditionibus, &c., in 

com. Ebor. &c. 316. 
JULIUS, C. II. Excerpta qutedam hist, de regibus Saxonicis et Anglis, ex Ailredo 

Eievall., &c. 32. Extracts from the registers of Fountains, relating to its 

foundation, &c. , 125. 
JULIUS, C. III. A collection of letters to Sir Eobt. Cotton. Among other writers 

are H. Savile, 12; Walter Hawkesworth, 24; Tho. Chaloner, 44. 
JULIUS, C. V. A collection of letters to Win. Camden, and answers to many of 

them. {Published in 1691). Thomas Savile 2 b., &c. ; Ja. Savile, 14; Toby 

Matthew, 24 b. Henry Savile, 102 b,, 104 ; &c. 
JULIUS, D. I. Stemma famil. domini de Eoss, 1. Chart. &c.,Abb. Eievall. 1*. 

Eeg. chart. Eievall. 15. 
JULIUS, D. IV. Placita inter Will. Wickewane Archiep. Ebor. , et prior, et cap. 

Dunelm., de potestate et jure visitationis. 125. 
JCLIUS, F. VI. The purpose of a council held at Eichmond for directing of Eobert 

Bowes, the English ambassador in Scotland. Sept. 18, 1580. 22. Henry 

Savile, to Mr. Camden ? Concerning antiquities near Otley in Yorks. 299. 
JULIUS, F., jun. X. Short descriptions of the rivers Eye, Dove, Seaven, and Costor in 

Eyedale, Yorkshire ; as well as of the vale itself, and Eyton and New Malton 

castles : for Mr. Camden's use. 162. 
JULIUS, F. XI. Pedigrees of Hugh de Lacy, &c., 41. 
ACGUSTUS, I. Vol. I. A Plan of Hull, S3. A new plan made by Eogers, of the 

King's Manor of Hull, 84. A plan of some works for the defence of Hull, 85. 

A chart of the town and harbour of Hull, with the country adjacent, 16. 
AUGUSTUS, I. Vol. II. A plan of Scarborough town and castle, 1. 
TIBERIUS, A. VII. Fragment, de Thoma archiep. Ebor. temp. Guil I., et successor 

ejus. 167- 
TIBERIUS, B. IV. Chron. Walt, de Gisburn, 90. 



246 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

TIBERIUS, B. V. ... Nomina episcop. Ebor. eccles. 1. Wilfrith ... 6. Wimuncl. . 
TIBERIDS, C. XII. Keg chart, mon. S. Mariae de Fontibus in com. Ebor. (Charters 

under letters A. B. C. A second vol. D. to I., is said to be in the library at 

Eipley Castle). 
TIBERIUS, C. XIII. Hist. Jorualensis (potius Jorvallensis ; Jorvalle vel Jervaux, 

esl enim nomen loci in agro Richmond., ubi mon. ordin. Cisterc. csenob. 

habuere) ab adventu S. Augustini in Angliam A 588, ad mortem reg. Ric. L, 

per Johannem de Brompton, abbatem Jorvall. 
TIBERIUS, E. VIII. De fundat. csenobii S. Marise Ebor., excerpt, ex Jocelino, 

244. 

CALIGULA, A. VIII. Nomina Archiep. Ebor. et Cant. 25. Vita S. Wilfridi, 55. 
CALIGULA, B. I. A large number of letters to Cardinal Wolsey, &c. 
CALIG., B. I, A similar vol. to the foregoing one. 
CALIG. , B. I. Ditto, also, the Council of the North to the Ld. Privy Seal ; inclosing 

a report of thfir proceedings at York Assizes, and two proclamations. York, 

Aug. 22, 1537, 280. Letter of Brian Higden to Wolsey, 303, &c. 
CALIG., B. VI. Letters of Card. Wolsey, &c. 

CALIG., B. VII. Ditto. The council of York, to the Ld. P. Seal, 245, &c. 
CALIG., B. VIII. Ditto. 
CALIG., B. IX. Copies of seven letters, from Mary Q. of Scots, to 2 Eliz., dated 

Bolton and Ripon, 252.* 

CALIG., B. IX. Letters from York, concerning the rebels, 1569, 392, 393. 
CALIG., C. I. The E. of Murray to Lord Herries, 168. A memorial for the order 

of proceeding at the meeting at York, Sept. 1568, 169. Other papers relating 

to the same, 174, 174*, 177, 178 b, &c. 
CALIG., C. III. Letters from William Wharton, etc., from Ripon, etc., on seditions 

in the North. 439 to 449. 

CALTG., D. VI., VII., VIII., IX. Wolsey Correspondence. 
CALIG., E , II., III., IV., Ditto. 
CLAUDIUS, A. VIII. Excerpta ex lib. chart, prior. B. Mar. Mag. de Bretton sive 

Luuda, ord. S. Benedict!, Ebor. diceceseos, 137b. Instrumentum subsidii cleri 

Ebor. dicec., R. H. VIII. concessi, 142. 
CLAUDIUS, B. III. Reg. chart., &c., eccles. S. Petri. Ebor.; a temp. R. Hen. I., ad 

temp. Edw. III. 1. Nomina praebend. ejusd. cathedr. eccles, &c. , 164. Nota 

instrumentorum quse tangunt libert. et privileg. totius eccles. Anglic. ; 

praecipue enim quse ad decanum et capit. Ebor. pertinent, 206. 
CLAUD., C. II. Nomina hab. 40 lib. terr. in com. Ebor. 28 Edw. 1. (1299). 83. 
CLAUD., D. XL Register of Malton Priory. 
NERO, B. VI., VII. Wolsey Letters. 

NERO, D. II. Walter, mon. Gisburn., de gestis R. Ed. III., 272. 
NERO, D. III. Reg. chart, et muniment, hospitalis, S.Leonardi Ebor. 1. 
NERO, E. I. Vita S. Oswaldi, Ebor. archiep. 1. 

GALBA, B. III., IV, V., VI., VII., VIII., IX. Wolsey Correspondence. 
GALBA, C. IX. Thomas Vavasour to the Earl of Leicester, 1556. 153. 
GALBA, E. IV. Taxatio omnium bonor. eccles. in tot. provinc. Cantuar. et Ebor. 

secund. verum valor. 13 b. 
GALBA, E. X. Reg. capit. eccles. B Petri Ebor. de actis et gestis jurisdict. archiep. 

concernentibus. a 6 Jan. 1397, 88. Ordines celebrati in eccles. paroch. S. 

Michaelis in Berefrido Ebor. 116b. Reg. cap. eccl. cathed. Ebor. 1366, 118. 

Ordines celeb, in eccl. convent, frat. minor. Ebor. 1396, 127, &c. 
VITELLIUS, A. II. Constitutiones sive statuta quredam concilii prov. Ebor. 

94. Rescripta Stephani regis, Walteri Giffard, Ebor. Archiep. and Robert 

prior, and convent. S. Oswald.; de patronatu quarundam Eccles. 99. 

Ordinatio D. Walter Gray, Archiep. Ebor., de eccles. de Tykhill, South- 

Kirkeby, et Rothewell, 99 b. Chart. Reginald! fil. Pet. de eccles. de 

Wyverthorp, et de approp. mediet. eccl. de Mekesburg Archdiac. Ebor &c. 

100 b. Copia creationis officialium, cum. custod. jurisdict. firmae in ecclea. 

Ebor. 102 D. Series et successio Archiep. Ebor. a D. Walt. Gray, ad WilL de 



THE COTTON1AN MSS. 247 

la Zouche. 103. Privileg. Papae Celestini eccl. Ebor., 104. Taxatio dignitatum, 
prebend., et vicar., in eccl. Ebor. 105. Chart. Gulielmi Bastardi, conq. 
Angl.,in qua terr. liberam canonicis eccL Ebor. ad hospitale faciendum tribuit. 
106. Inq. inter R. Hen. III. et decanum and capit. Hospit. Sci. Leonardi. 
106. Constit. Gulielmi Arch. Ebor. de arboribus et herbis in cfemeteriis, et 
alia de peculio ejusd. capituli, 107. Confirm, composit. super visitatione 
decani et cap. Ebor. fact*. 1328, 108. Constit., sive salubria statuta quaedam 
concilii prov. Ebor. 110. Statuta et consuetudines in metrop. eccl. cath. Ebor. 
113. Statuta edita per Roger., dec. eccl. cath. Ebor., et cap. 1221, 116. 
Statuta per Sewall dec., et cap. Ebor. A 1252; et per Walt. Gray, Arch. 
Ebor. confirmata. 117- Variae chart* bull., et acta juridica, de present., 
obligation., convention., ordinat. , et ejusmodi aliis, ad dec. et cap. eccles. 
Ebor., spectantibus ; ubi plura de eccles. de Pickering : qutere hujns libelli 
partem aliam infra sub No. 39. (131 b.) 118. Compositio inter hospit. S. 
Petri, et cap., super decimis S. Laur. de Wabngate, 128. Ordinat. de 
componeuda lite inter Stephan. prior, et convent, de Pontefracto, et dec. et 
cap. Eccl. S. Petri Ebor., de eccles. de Ledesham et capella de Farburne. 128. 
De archdiac. Cleveland ; et de collatione illius. 129. Instit. Joannis Thoresby, 
Archiep. Ebor. 1357, super terrarum coiiservatione (GaUice) 180 b. In 
ultimis hujus codicis schedis habentur, tractatulus de officio sub-thesaurii in 
eccles. Ebor ; item constitutiones nonnullse ; statutum de capis post mortem 
solvendis, aliaque : sed hsec omnia ordine adeo praepostere compinguntur, ut 
singulos articulos accurate describere vix liceat. 131 b. 

YITELLIUS, A. XII. Succinctus dialogus ecclesiastic* institutionis a Dom. 
Egberto, Archiep. Ebor. Civitatis compositus Dublini, printed by Ware, 1664, 
1 b. Yersus Hugonis Sotavaginae, cantoris et archidiaconi. EccL S. Petri 
Ebor. 130. 

YITELLIUS, B. II. Christoph. Bainbridge, Archbp. of York, Card, of England, to 
Hen. VIII. Rome, Jan. 31, 1513, 33. Wolsey Correspond ence. 

YITELL., B. III. IV., Y., VI., VII., VIII., IX., XI., XII., XVIII., XIX., XX., 
XXI., Wolsey Correspondence. 

YITELL., C. VI. Nomiiia feoffatorum monasterii de Melsa vel Meaux ; locorum, 
terrarum. tenement, et reddit. eidem monast. pertinent ; cum tenoribus abbrev. 
chart., feoffament., confirmationum, relaxat., quietaclam., et escambiorum 
ejusd. : sequitur tabula capitulorum, 3ed parum luculenta. 

YITELL. , E. X. Institute et statuta collegii Jesu de Rotheram, disec. Ebor. fundati 
per Thomam Archiep. Ebor. 218. Figures feretrorum Gregorii prior, de 
Bridlinton, et Georgii Ripley. 227- 

VESPASIANVS, A. IV. Chartularium mon. et eccl. S. Joh. de parco Helagh in com. 
Ebor., jussu Pet Lieudayl, qui erat vicesimus secundus prior, circa An. 
1498, eollectum : pnemittitur brevis historia priorum usque ad istum Petrum. 

VESPAS., A. V. Excerpta ex libro Alfredi Beverlacensis, de gestis regum Brit., 
Angl. , et Norm. 17. 

YESPAS., C. I.. II., III.. IV., Wolsey Correspondence. 

VESPAS., C. IX. An official Copy Book. Inter alia, a letter from, and another to, 
Mr. Hawksworth, 296, 304. 

VESPAS., C XII. An original counterpart of the treaty of amity between Hen. VII. 
and Philip K. of Castile, with a silken string for the seal, dated Richmond, 
Co. Surrey, May 18, 1506. 

VESPAS., C. XIII. Two Wolsey Letters, 331, 333. 

VESPAS., C. XVI. A mandate from the Abp. of York to the Bp. of Carlisle, 
from Scrobie, Nov. 15, 1310, 93. Abstracts of divers instruments taken 
from the Registers of York ; proving the King's prerogative over Scotland, 
and the Abp. of York's jurisdiction over the Bpk. of Whithorn, &c . in 
Scotland, &c., 94. Edw. IIT. ; his release of all homage from the K. of 
Scotland (Rymer. IV. 337) York. Mar. 1, 1328, 122. 

VESPAS., D. I. Benedict. XII. P., direct, ad abbatem de Thornton, et priorem de 
Kirkham. 



248 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

VESPAS., D. VI. Vita S. Wilfridi, per Steph. Heddium. 78. 

VESPAS., D, XVII. Genealog. fundat. mon. de Stanlaw, et de Whalley secundum 
chronicon, 2. Collection concerning abbies, &c. , by Thos. Talbot. 

VESPAS., E. IV. Thomse 1 Ebor. Archiep. adLanfranc, epistola, 205 b. 

VESPAS., E. VII. The descent of Richard D. of York from Brutus, 66. Articuli 
venerabilis D. Rich. Scrope, Archiep. Ebor. 1399, 94. Causa quare decollatus 
est Archiep. Rich. Scrope, 100 b. Martyrium prsedicti Rich. Scrope, 1405, 101. 
Prophetia de moribus R. Edward, de Wyndeseure, secundum Bridlyngton, 
114 b. Epitaph. Robert, prior, de Bridliiigton, 134 b. 

VESPAS., E. XIX. Registr. chart, abbat. B. Oswald de Nostell juxta castellum 
Pontisfracti, in com. Ebor.; ex dono baronis Hatton. 

VESPAS., F. I. Wolsey Correspondence. 

VESPAS., F. III. An order of Rich. D. of York, to his receiver in Yorkshire, to pay to 
John Langley or bearer, 6 1. 14s. 4d. 9. Hen. VIII., his warrant confirming John 
Welly in the office of bowbearer in the forest of Gawtres, 34. Wolsey letters. 

VESPAS., F. IV. A list of the chief justices in Eyre, north and south of Trent, from 
2 Hen. III. to 37 Hen. VIII. 64. 

VESPAS., F. IX. An account of the companies of horse and foot to be taken out of 
the trained bands, and conducted to York or some other rendezvous to attend 
the King's person and standard. Feb. 18, 1638, 224. 

VESPAS., F. XIII. Robert Waterton, to Hen. V. Reports the steps he means to 
take for inducing the gentry of his county (York) to repair to the King. 
Metheleye, April 12, 31. A grant of the Wardenship of the hospital of S. 
Leonard in York, to Geo. Nevill, the King's cousin, upon the surrender of 
Wm. Scroop ; signed by many of the council (Lat.) Jan. 14, 1457, 36. Lett. 
Card. Wolsey to Tho. Cromwell, 76. Christopher (Ld.) Conyers, to Lord 
Skelton, May 24, 123. Lett, of Anne Conyers (widow to the above), to her 
eldest son's guardian, 123. Nic. Heath (Abp. of York and chancellor) to 
.... concerning his resignation of the seals, &c. Southwark, Sept. 26, 
1559, 229. Wolsey, 205, &c. Richard, Ld. Latimer, and Wm. Ld. Conyers, 
to Hen. VIII. ; a report as commissioners for the N. and W. ridings of Yorks. 
Snape, Apr. 28, 110. Thos. Scrope, to Tho. Cromwell? desiring him to write 
to Ld. Conyers not to molest his game. Bolton-castle, May 15, 118 b. Henre 
Scroop (of Bolton) about an exchange of manors with the King. Langley, 
Apr. 16, 113. 

TITUS, A. XIX. Symeon Dunelm., de successione pontif. Ebor. 3. Versus 
rhythmici, de origine et statu eccles. Ebor. 6. Notulse breves, quo tempore 
Hugo de Grimston, et Joh. Birdestall erant abbates de Kirkstall, 47 b. Vita 
S. Thurstani Archiep. Ebor., per Hug. de Pontefracto mon., et Galfrid. de 
Nottingham, 53. Miscellanea de monast. de Kirkstall et de familia Laceyorum. 
59. Epistola Edmundi D. Ebor. &c. 96 b. Thomas Stubbs de successionibus 
pontif. Ebor. a Paulino ad mortem Joh. Thursby, A 1373, 117 b. Nomina 
Archiepi. Cantuar. et Ebor. 150. 

TITUS, B. II. An order of Edw. VI. to the Abp. of York (1547) concerning the 
King's general visitation, 89. Tobias Matthew, dean of Durham, to Mr. Fr. 
Mylles, 1587, 286. Ditto to Sir Fr. Walsingham, 315, Ditto to Fr. My lies, 
1588, 362. Saville, 378. 

TITUS, B. III. A val. of the livings of England, with the tenths, 142. Precedency 
of the Abps. and Bps. 145. Privileged towns in England, 145 b. Number of 
churches in every shire, 146. The nobility of England, according to their 
degrees, 147. 

TITUS, B. V. The Earls of Northumb. and Westm. and the Sheriff of Yorkshire to 
the D. of Gloucester, guardian of the kingdom, and the Privy Council ; about 
the array of forces in Yorkshire. York. Jan. 18, 132. 

TITUS, B. VIII. Contains various miscellaneous lists, arms, and descents, useful 

to genealogists. 

TITUT, C. V. Collections from records concerning the baronage, 1. Writs of sum- 
mons to Parliament, &c.; from the Close Rolls, 44 b. 



THE COTTOXIAX MSS. 249 

TITUS, C. X. Rent roll of the manor of Monkton (Qu. which ?) 

TITUS, D. XII. Versus prophetici rhythmici cujusdam mon. de Bridlington, 81. 
A tetrastich, prophesying the destruction of Reves (Rievaulx) Abbey, in 
Yorkshire, with a note, 93 b. 

TITCS, E. I. to F. II. Copies of the rolls of Parliament. 

TITUS, F. 3. Devices for a committee to be established in the north parts, temp. 
Hen. VIII. 93. Instructions of Card. Wolsey to T. Magnus : concerning pay- 
ments to be made in behalf of D. Richmond, 102. Such articles of the 
instructions in the north, as concern the administration of justice, 107. 
Other papers relating to the Council in the Xorth, dated 1564 and 1569, III. 
156, &c. A petition of the Mayor and Corp. of York to King James I., 
concerning the privilege of having a sword borne before the Mayor, June 20, 
1608, 133. 

TITUS, F XIII. Treaty between Edw. IV. and James III. of Scotland. York, 1464, 
78, 132, 133 b. 

DOMITIANUS, V. Epistola Radulphi Archiep. Cantuar. Calixto II. Papse missa ; 
querens de injuria sibi, et ecclesia? Cantuar. illata, in consecratione 
archiepiscopi, et causis ecclesiaa Eboracensis, 2. Professio Thomse I., Ebor. 
Archiep. quam fecit Lanfranco Cantuar. Archiep. 14. De Girardo, qui 
successit Thorn* Ebor., ac ejus professione; et de controversia ista inter 
archiepiscopos Cant, et Ebor. agitata, usque ad restitutionem Thurstani per 
Calixtum II., 14 b. 

DOMITIASUS, VIII. Xomina antiquorum archiep. Cantuar., et Ebor., item 
Dunelm. episcoporum, 8 b. 

DOMITIANUS, XII. Chronica de Kirkstall, a Bruto ad An. 10 Hen. V. 55. 

CLEOPATRA, B. II. Versus rhythmici de Galfrido, Archiep. Ebor., filio nat R. 
Hen. II. ; item, epitaph, pueri cujusdam, 39. 

CLEOP., B. III. Ailredi Rievallensis hist. Anglic, ad R. Hen. II. 2. 

CLEOP., C. III. Excerptum e chronico de Bridlington, per Thomam Pickering, 318. 

CLEOP., C. IV. De fundat. eccles. Ebor., et primis archiepiscopis, 4. Archiepis- 
coporum Ebor. historiola, a S. Paulino ad Willielmum Both, Archiep. LXII., 
rhythmice, 5 b. De Paulino : de defensione sedis et eccles. per Wilfridum ; 
de suffraganeis et provincia ecclesiae Ebor., etc., etc. 15. Bulla Calixti III. P. 
quod obediant metropolitano suo, Ebor. archiep. 20 b. Litera Calixti III. P., 
ad regem Scotise ; quod ipse et episcopi pareant Ebor. Archiep. metropoL suo. 
20 b. Litera Alexandri III., P., ad Rogerum, Eboracensum Archiep. in qua 
inferitur recognitio regis Scotite super subjectione episcoporum Scotorum 
Eborac. ecclesise, 21. Prophetia, S. Joh. de Bridlington ; versibus hexametris, 
97. Epistola apologetica Johannis (Thoresby) Eboracensis, 140 b. 

CLEOP., D. II. Annotationes chartarum mon. de Giseburn, 110. 

CLEOP., D. III. Chartae pertinentes ad mon. de Selby ; et in his, breve R. Richardi 
II. ad abbatem de Selby, ut exequias celebret R. Edw. III. et de coronatione 
Ric. II. 185 b. De ornamentis eccles., quae pertinent ad rectores, et quae ad 
parochianos, in prov. Cant, et Ebor. 191. Breve R. Rich. II. ad abbatem de 
Selby, ut personaliter Parliamento intersit ; cum literis procurationis istius 
abbatis, aliaque ad eundeni abbatem pertinentia, 195 b. 

CLEOP.. E. I. "The state of the Church of Great Britain : collected 

out of public records." Vol. 1. Possessionum antiqnorum Anglise episco- 
porum ; viz., Eadulphi Eboracensis, &c., 16. Narratio de Thoma Ebor. 
Archiep. qui noluit professionem facere Lanfranco Cant, et ejus successoribus. 
45b. Epistolas Pascalis et Alex. P.P. ; item petitio clericorum Ebor. et professio 
Thomse Ebor. Archiep. 52. 

CLEOP., E. IV. A vol. of Papers and Letters relating to Monasteries, and their 
dissolution in the time of Hen. VIII. Richard Lay ton desires to be appointed 
visitor in York diocese, 45. Edmund. Abbot of York, to Card. Wolsey, 47. 
Robert Sylvester, prior of Gisburn, and Tristram Tesbe to T. Cromwell 
about electing a prior to Whitby, Oct. 8, 1538, 48. \Ym. Prior of Bridlingtou, 
to T. Cromwell; shewing that Gilbert de Gaunt is the founder of his 



250 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

monastery, and not the King, 53. Tho. Legh, to T. Cromwell : signifying 
that he and Dr. Layton had visited the Abp. of York, 1535, 104. "Crimes" 
charged ou the monks of " Furnes " and " Salley," III. b. Crimes and private 
resignation of the Abbot of Fountains, 114. Eichard Layton to T. Cromwell, 
reporting the abominable crimes committed in monasteries. York, Jan. 13, 
115 b. T. Legh to Cromwell, reporting that the abbot of Rievaux will not 
own the jurisdiction of the visitors ; and that he leads a scandalous life, 136 
b. Furnes, 142 b. Edward Lee, Abp. of York, to T. Cromwell? 239. 
Darcy, Bellasis, Jervaux, 240. Assignment of an annuity of 100 marks to 
Wm. Thyroke, abbot of Fountains, upon his resign. 241 b. Report of 
Commissioners upon Hampole, S. Oswald, Pontefract, Fountains, S. 
Mary's, York, Nonapleton, and Selby abbies. Also upon Wyrkesope, 
Monckbreton, S. Andrew's, York, By land, Ryvaille, Kyrkeham, and 
Ellerton, Tykhill, Doncaster, Pontefract, &c. Dec. 15, 1537, 242. Valua- 
tion of certain monasteries surrendered in the counties of York and 
Nottingham in Nov. and Dec., 1538, 300. Edward Lee, Abp. of York, 
and the Commissioners at York to Cromwell, 308. Objections to the valua- 
tion in Yorkshire, 309. Nomina omnium monast., prior., et aliarum dom. 
relig. infra Reg. Angl., et infra Walliam ; cum eorum valore. 312. Abstract 
of valuation of all lands belonging to the religious houses in England, 383, &c. 

CLEOP., E. VI. Hen. VIII. to the clergy of York, asserting his supremacy, 216. 
Edward Lee, Abp. of York, concerning his conduct regarding the king's title 
of supreme head. 234.* Edward Lee, to Sec. Cromwell, on a similar subject, 
239. 

FAUSTINA, B. I. Epistola Alex. P. ad Roger. Ebor. Archiep,, et Hug. Dunelm. 
Episc. 5. 

FAUSTINA, B. IV. Vita S. Joh. Archiep. Ebor., a Focardo, ecclesiae. Trinitatis 
Cantuar. monacho, edita, 156. Epistolas duse Albini seu Alcuini, canon, 
eccles. Ebor. 189. Ejusdem epistola ad S. Eanbaldum, Archiep. Ebor. 190 b. 
Idem ad congregationem seu capitulum eccles. Ebor. 192. 

FAUSTINA, B. VII. Nomina episcoporum Ebor., etc. 4 b. Registrum honoris 
Richmond. : ubi speciatim continentur. (a) Genealogia comit. Richmond post 
conquest. Ang. ; cum pictura Gulielmi I. regis, dantis terras et villas quse 
nuper fuerunt com. Edwini in Eboracshire, nepoti suo Alano, Britan. comit. 
72. (b) Terrae et villse, cum carucat. terrce, etc., infra Richmundshire, quae 
quondam fuerunt Edwini comit. Ex libro Domesday, 73. 

FAUSTINA, C. VIII. Ptoos, 12, 29. 

FAUSTINA, E. II. Miscellaneous pedigrees, with alphabetical index. 1. Alpha- 
betical list of arms granted since A 10 Eliz. 223. 

FAUSTINA, E. IV . Genealogies of several families. 

APPENDIX, XL. Paper fragments. Many of them letters of Card. Wolsey, &c. 

Calverley, near Leeds. SAML. MARGERISON. 



THE CLIFFORD PAPERS AT BOLTON HALL. 

At Bolton Hall, the seat of the Duke of Devonshire, are preserved 
many letters relating 1 to late members of the Clifford family, as well as 
deeds and household books. In these books are many entries which afford 
interesting glimpses into the social life of the old Lords of Skipton. 

The first entries are from the household book for 1620 : 
February 19. Paid this day to Mr. Tirrie, the Goldsmith, the some of 261b. 19s. Gd. 
for 1 dozen silver spoones, 1 salte. 1 Colledg pott, 3 hanger saltes, 1 Tankard ; 
and there was delivered to him in old plate towards the payment thereof 4 
Footmen's badges, 1 old Colledge pott, 1 greate quilte bowle, broken, withe 
cover, and a lesser quilte bowl, which came to 251b. 4s. 8d. 



THE CLIFFORD PAPERS AT BOLTON HALL. 251 

For two paire of tongs and 2 fyer shovels for my Lo. Clifford's chamber, and for 

my little Miss her chamber. 
For a warming pan, 7d. 
To my Lord's hyndes that are hyred to follow the husbandrie occasions, for one 

whole yeares wages ending at Martinmas, every one of them having 

olb. 13s. 4d. 
To the Cobler of Blyth for bringing newes that my La. Frances was D. D. of a 

daughter upon Sunday 22 October, 2s. 6cl. 

To a messenger that brought his L'pp's writt for summons to the Parliament, 5s. 
To James Foster his boy, who brought some sweete meats from Mr. Todd to my 

Lo.,'2d. 
To a man that brought a Doe from Sir Henrie Constable, Viscount Dunbarr, to 

the keeper, 10s. 
Upon one that brought some ginger breade and a pott of jellie to my Lord from 

Mr. Harbert. 2s. 6d. 
To the King's trumpetters that came and sounded at my Lo.'s Lodgings at his 

coming to London, in Gold 1 peece. 
The same day to the Prince his Trumpetters, who came lykewise and sounded, 

Twentie shillings. 

To 5 musitians who came and plaid all diner tyme, 10s. 
To Nathaniel the Cooke, who came to his L'p with a dish of cockles, 7^- 6d. 
To the Porter at my La, Craven's, Is. ; to the Poore in the street by the way, 

2s. 6d. 
To the waits at Westminster who plaid at my Lo.'s chamber window at supper 

tyme, 5s 
To a man which brought a Theorbo w'h my Lo. borrowed for Mr. Earsdon to play 

upon, 2s. 6d. 
To the poore Prisoners at Ludgate, and to the poore all along the way as his Lo'p 

went to the Tower, &c., 15s. 

To one of the King's bottle men who brought 2 bottles of wyne to his L'p, 5s. 
To Mr. Gill, the Barber, who did trimme my Lord before his L'p went to Court, 

5s. 
To Mary, Mrs. Danby's maid, who brought some Puddings to his. L'p from her 

Mrs., besides 12d. which his L'p gave the boy, 2s. 6d. 

A little later Lord Clifford again travelled to London. Such a 
journey was in those days a matter of no small importance. On this 
occasion it occupied twelve days, and the cost was 88 3s. 9d. hi the 
money of that day. In February. 1622, Charles Clifford, son of Sir 
Henry (afterwards Earl) died. The following- entries relate to the 
occurrence : 

Feb. 28. Paid this day for the charges of Mr. Jonas, Mr. Tailor, the Parson, Mr. 
Edward Dempsay, Cornelius Atkinson, Peter Pulman, Edward Paley, Two 
footmen, and 7 horses going to Skipton with the bodie of my little sweete 
maister, Mr. Charles Clifford, ichen he went to be buried, the some of four 
Pounds, and what we gave upon the way to the poore in coming and going. 

To Mr. Doctor Downe, of Yorke, the some of 3/. for his paines in coming to Londs- 
brough and staying twoe daies to give his advice and some phisicke to my 
little maister Mr. Charles Clifford 

For a Barrell of Twyaske bought for my little Maister, 6d. ; for wormseed, 4d ; 
for making his coffin, 2s. ; for pitch and nailes to it lOd. ; for an ell of tine 
Hollan for a wynding sheete for my little Maister, 5s. 6d. 

The name of this Charles Clifford appears on a mural tablet hi the 
Skipton Parish Church. To continue miscellaneous entries : 

To Marmaduke Trusley, for taking Pigeons for his L'pp's Hawkes, the some of 
20s. 



252 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

For bringing a Virginall, w'h a winde instrument in it, and mending two Theorboes 

and one Lute, for my Lord, 30s. 

For a swanne skinne finely drest for his L'p's arme when it was hurt, Sd. 
To his L'p's owne hands in the great parlour before dinner 20s., and it was to play 

at gleek w'h my Lo. Clifford, Mr. Hughes, and Mr. Ohristofer. 
To my Lo. at his going to court, to a maske, 20s. 

This was when my Lord was in London. 
For a quartern of a pound of good Tobacco for his L'p, his L'p having heretofore 

bespoken some tobacco of him, 5s. 
To his L'p's owne hands in golde 3 peeces, for his L'p to bett upon my Lo. Clifford's 

horse at the Eace at Lincoln. 

In 1634 Elizabeth, daughter of Henry 5th Earl of Cumberland, 
was married to Lord Dungarvan. The event is thus recorded in the 
household book of that year : 

" M.D.D. The Third day of July in this p'sent yeare, 1634, my noble Ms., Ms. 
Eliz. Clifforde, was marryed unto Eichard lo. Visscount Dungarvan, sonne and 
heyre to the Earle of Corke, in the Churche or Chappie w'hin Skipton 
Castle, by Mr. Francis Clever, Ba. of Divinity, chaplayne in house w'h the Earle 
of Cumb. and the lo. Clifforde, unto whom God send a thousand millions of joys." 

The Skipton parish register records the marriage. There are 
other entries in the household book for 1634 relating to the marriage : 
George Masseton, of Yorke, who was 3 dayes heere w'h his man in tuning the 

organ and mending other instruments, 1 Os. Od. 

Bought at London 5 dozen of violin strings for Will. Hudson, 14s. Od. 
Certayne French musicians and a singer w'ch were at my la. Dungarvan's mariadge, 

6 Os. Od. 
Tlie same day to the musick of Stamford at my la. Dungarven's mariage 9 weekes, 

15 Os. Od. 
To my ould Lord to give to the musick of Stamford at their parting 10s. Od. 

Other interesting entries the same year, 1634, are : 
1634. 14 Oct. This day paid to my ould Lord in his L'p's owne hand, 5s. Od. 
The same day to my Lord, being at Cards w'h S'r Arthur Ingram, 1 Os. Od. 
Delivered to my little Mrs. to play at Cards, 5s. Od. 
To Duke Shillito, owing him for trimming my Lord, 1 2s. Od. 
For a Spanish lether capp for myne old Lord, Is. lOd. 
To 2 Taylers w'ch helped Eoger Ball to make upp the new bed for my Lo. of 

Northumberland's chamber, 5s. 6d. 
A suit of fyne Lysbia cloth for a suite and cloake lyned w'h plush w'h ye appur- 

tent's for my Lo. of Cumberland, as by the p'ticulars appears, the sum of 

241bs. 16s. 5d. 
2 prs of kidds lether gloves for his L'pp and one pare of stagg's lether washt, 

8s. lOd. 
For my Lo. Clifforde, bought at Lon. ; a suit of fyne Bogovia cloth laced w'h a 

gold and silver lace, vizt., suite, cloake, stockings, and all things belonging 

to the making up of the same, 18 9s. 2d. 
A payre of fyne silke stockings for his L'p. 1 15s. Od. 
A Diamond cutt looking glass for his L'p, 10s. Od. 
of the best poudder for hayre, 10s. Od. 
A guilt pick tooth case and 13 dozen of pickteeth, Is. 6d. 
A little curry comb for my little Mris., 3s. Od. 
21bs. of Spanish Tobacco at 10s. the pound. 
A cane w'h an ivory head for his Lord, 3s. Od. 
4 bookes bought for his Lor'pp, 4s. lOd. 
To the Bone Setter who came to my little Mris., in reward for his service done to 

her, 1 Os. Od. 
Musicians, itinerants, w'ch played to my Lady, 2s. Od. 



THE CLIFFORD PAPERS AT BOLTOX HALL. 253 

In lti'35 Lord Clifford journeyed to Ireland, by way of Scotland, 
and the journey cost .312 4s. 7d. The party started from Skipton 
May 23rd, and returned (by way of Wales) Sept. 20th. A few of the 
payments may be quoted 1 : 
To 2 pipers at Carlile, 3s. 

For a merlin that went to my ould Lord, 1 Os. Od. 
To the ringers at Carlile, 5s. 
To the poor at Dumfrees, 4s. 6d. 
To a piper there, 2s. 6d. 
To my lord at cards, 10s. 
To the gardener that had his house burnt. 5s. 
To the poor at Maynooth, 2s. 6d. 
For washing all the servants, 1 9s. 4d. 
To the prisoners at ClonmelL 6s. 
For carrying a hawk, 6d. 

Some idea as to a nobleman's dress two centuries and a half a ago 
may be obtained from the following- extracts from the household book 
f or' 1631: 
A suite for my Lorde of fyne Spanish cloth, laced wTi 3 goulcl and silver Laces, 

w'h sdke stockings, garters, Roses, and all things belonging thereunto, 

40 8s. 7d. 

For one other whole sute of cloth playne. 10 9s. 2d. 
For a scarlett coat laced w'h one parchment gould lace, 10 9s. Sd. 
For a bever and gould band, 3 16s. Od. 
For a gold and silver girdle and belt, 2 5s. Od. 
For 11 payre of white kidd gloves, and 2 paire of staggs leather, one plain, tother 

trim'd with gold lace and plush, 1 9s. 2d. 
A Mulmouth capp, tufted with plush and gold lace, 18s. Od. 
A sattin cap laced thick with gold and silver lace, 16s. Od. 

The following- is a specimen of one day's consumption of food in 1 625 : 
Salt rish, as Linge. iii cuple Mancheat Bread, xvid. 
Brawne, i shield, iiii coll. Household bread 

Caypons, 12 Beefe 

Chickins, v. Mutton 

Turkeys, viii Piggs 

Pulletts. x. Neat's tongues 

Goose, 11 Udder 

Baycon, i Flicke Fried Souse 

Bed deare pyes, viii. White Tausey 

Mallard pye, i. Plovers 

, Pastries, iii. 2 dozen Lights 

Eggs, xxiii. 

Pei-sons ordinarie My Lord, my Lo. Clifford, my La. Clifford, Mrs. Eliz. 
Clifford, Mrs. Frances Clifford, with the whole household. 

Extraordinarie Sir John Houltham, Sir John Wood, Sir Will. Constahle, 
Mr. John Legart, Mr. Butler, Mr. Midclleton, Mr. Knucklo, Franc. Taylor, 
Mr. Able Cornelius Plaisterers, a Messenger from my Lo. Sheifield, Hinds, iii 

It appears that the average weekly expenditure in food and coals 
was in the time of Charles I. something like 20. 

Other documents among the MS. at Bolton relate to military affairs. 
There are letters from eminent personages to the Earls of Cumberland, 
and drafts of letters from the Earls to various state officials of the time 
of Elizabeth. 

BoHo Abbey. C. BELLAIRS. M.A. 



254 OLD YORKSHIRE, 



A FAIRFAX MANUSCRIPT. 

THE following- order for the government of the house at Denton, 
written by Thomas, Lord Fairfax, of Denton, is transcribed from the 
manuscript in the possession of George William Fairfax, Esq., of 
Towlston. 

ORDER FOR THE HOUSE AT DENTON. 

REMEMBRANCE FOR SERVANTS. That all the Servants be ready upon the 
Tarras at such tymes as the Strangers do come to attend their allighting. 

PRAYERS. That one of the Chapell Bells be runge before the Prayers one 
quarter of an hower. at which Summons the Butler must prepare for Coveringe, 
but not cover. 

PORTER. When the Prayers shall beginne, (or a very little before) the Gates 
on all Sides must be shutt and locked, and the Porter must come in to Prayers, 
with the Keys, and after Service done, the Gates must be opened until the Usher 
warn to the Dresser. 

BUTLER. The Butler with the Yeoman of the Chamber, or some other 
yeoman, must go to cover ; the Prayer done, Formes and Cussins where the Ladies 
and the rest did Sitt must be removed. 

SERVANTS' AFTER SUPPER. After Supper (I mean of the Servants) they must 
presently repair into the dining Chamber, and there remove Stoles ; see what other 
things be necessary, and attende further directions until Livery's be served, which 
they must be ready for upon the waruinge, and in the meantime, lett the Butler, 
with one to help him. make them ready, and lett not these Servants depart until 
the best Sort of Strangers have taken their Lodgings, and the Porter must lock the 
Doors and keep the Keys. 

MORNING. Let the Servants attend by Seven of the clock in the Morninge in 
the Hall ; the Clark of the Kitchen must appoint the Cooks what must be for 
Breakfast for the Ladies in the Chambers, and likewise for the Gentlemen in the 
Hall or Parlour, which must be served by Eight of the clock and not after. 
Dinner must be ready by Eleven of the Clock. Prayers tenne, and their order 
observed as beforesaid. 

THE HALL. The Great Chamber being served, the Steward and Chaplain must 
sitt down in the Hall, and call unto them -the Gentlemen, if there be unplaced 
above, and then the Servants of the Strangers Masters, as they be in degree. 

FOR THE USHERS. The Usher's words of Directions: First, when they go 
to cover, he must go before them thro' the Hall, crying, by your leaves, Gentlemen 
stand by the Coveringe done : He must say, Gentlemen and Yeomen for Place ; 
then he must warn to the Dresser, Gentlemen and Yeoman to dresser, and he must 
attend the Meat going thro' the Hall, crying by your leaves, my Masters ; likewise 
he must warn the Second Course, and attend it as aforesaid. If breade or bear be 
wantinge on the Hall Table, he must call aloud at the Barre Breade or Bear for 
the Hall. If any unworthy Fellow do sitt himself down before his betters he must 
take him up and place him lower. 

FOR THE CHAMBER. Set the best fashioned and apparalled Servants above 
the Salt, the rest below. If one Servant have occasion to speak to another about 
Service of the Table, let him wisper, for noyse is uncivil. If any Servant have 
occasion to goe forth of the Chamber for anything, let him make haste, and see that 
noe more than twoe be absent. And for the prevention of Errands, lett all Sauses 
be ready at the Door, for even one Message of Mustard will take a Man's Attend- 
ance from the Table, but least anything happen unexpected, let the Boy stand 
within the Chamber dore for Errands, and see that your Water and Voider be 
ready soe soon as Meate be served, and set on the Table without ; have a good eye 
to the bord for empty dishes, and placing of others, and let not the Bord be 
unfurnished. 



A FAIRFAX MANUSCRIPT. 



255 



THE Ccp-BoRD. Let noe man fill Beare or Wine, but the Cupber-Keep. who 
must make choise of his glasses or cups for the Company, and not serve them hand- 
over-head : he must allso know which be for Bear, and which be for Wine, for it 
were a foul things to mix them together. Once again let me admonish Silence, for 
it is the greatest part of Civility. Let him who doth order the Table be the last 
in, to see that nothing be left behind that shou'd be taken away. If there be any- 
thing which I cannot remember, I refer to your good care, otherwise I shou'd seem 
to write a book hereof. T. FAIRFAX. 

Heckmondwike. JOHN JAMES STEAD. 



HOLDERNESS PARISH REGISTERS. 

The following- is an alphabetical list of Parish Registers in the 
Seigniory of Holderness : 



Atwick, 1538. 
Aldborongh, 1653. 
Barmston, 1571. 
Beeford, 1564. 
Brandesburton, 1558. 
Bilton, 1734. 
Burton Pidsey, 170S. 
Catwick, 1583. 
Drypool, 1 " 
Easington, 1654. 
Frodingham (North), 
Goxhill, 1561. 
Garton, 1662. 
Hornsea, 1654. 
Hedon, 1552. 
Hilston, 1662. 
Humbleton, 1577. 

Steeton. 



Habham. 1563. 
Hollym, 1564. 
Holmpton, 1739, 
Keyingham, 1618. 
Kilnsea, 1711. 
Leven, 1698- 
Mappleton. 1683. 
Mai-fleet, 1713. 
Xunkeeling, 1606- 
Ottringham, 1566. 
Owthorne, 1574. 
Patringtou, 1570. 
Paull, 1658. 
Preston, 1559. 
Rise, 1559. 
Riston, 1653. 
Routh, 1639. 



Roos, 1571. 

Skipsea. 1720. 

Skirlaugh, 1719. 

Skeckling (with Burst- 
wick), 1747. 

Skeffling, 1585. 

Sigglesthorne, 1562. 

Sproatley, 1661. 

Sutton, 1581. 

Swine, 1708. 

Tunstall, 1568. 

Ulrome, 1767- 

Wawne, or Waghen, 
1653. 

Welwick, 1650. 

Winestead. 1578. 

Withernwick, 1653. 

L. HOLMES. 



NEVILE MANUSCRIPTS. 

AMONGST the papers left by Sir John Nevile, Kt.,* were MSS. 
accounts of the festivities, &c., at the marriages of two of his daughters, 
and as they are interesting in giving an insight to the customs of the 
time and the cost of household necessaries and luxuries, nearly four 
centuries ago, we find them a place in Old Yorkshire. The first of these 
papers is endorsed as follows : 

" The Marriage of my Son-in-law, Roger Rockley, and my 
Daughter, Elizabeth Nevile, the 14th day of January, in the 17th 
year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King Henry the VIII, 1526. 

8. d. 

First, for the expense of their apparel for 22 yards of Russet Sattin, at 

Ss. per yard 8 16 

Item, two Mantilles of Skins for his Gown ... ... ... ... ...280 

Item, two yards and a half of Black Velvet for his Gown 1 10 



For further particulars respecting this worthy, see p. 241 of the present volume. 



256 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

s. d. 
Item, nine yards of Black Sattin for his Jacket and Doublet, at 8s. the 

yard 3 12 

Item, for seven yards of Black Sattin for her Ktrtell, at 8s. the yard ... 216 

Item, a Roll of Buckram 028 

Item, a Bonnet of Black Velvet 15 

Item, a Frontlet to the same Konnet ... 12 

Item, for her Smock ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ...050 

Item, for a pair of perfumed Gloves ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 4 

Item, for a pair of other Gloves .. ... ... ... ... ... 004 

Item, for 22 yards of Tawney Camblet, at 2s. 4d. the yard ... .. 211 4 

Item, three yards of Black Sattin for lining her Gown, at 8s. per yard ... 1 4 

Item, two yards of Black Velvet for her Gown ... .. ... ... 1 10 

Item, a Roll of Buckram for her Gown ... ... ... ... ... 2 8 

Item, for seven yards of Yellow Sattin bridge, at 2s. 4d. per yard ... 16 4 

Item, for a pair of Hose ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 4 

Item, for a pair of Shoes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 4 

Item, for Dinner and the expense of the said Marriage of Roger Rockley 

and the said Elizabeth Nevile. 

Imprimis, eight quarters of Barley, Malt, at 10s. 9d. per quarter ... 4 

Item, three quarters and a half of Wheat, at 14s. 4d. per quarter ... 2 16 8 
Item, two hogshead of Wine, at 40s. per hogshead... ... ... ...400 

Item, one hogshead of Red Wine, at 40s. per hogshead ... ... ... 2 

Sum 39 8 
FOR THE FIRST COURSE AT DINNER. 

First, Brawn with Mustard served alone with Malmsey. 

Item, Frumetty to Pottage. 

Item, a Roe roasted for Staudart. 

Item, Peacocks, two of a Dish. 

Item, Swans, two of a Dish. 

Item, a Pike on a Dish. 

Item, Conies roasted form of a Dish. 

Item, Venison roasted. 

Item, Capon Grease, three of a Dish. 

Item, Mallards, four of a Dish. 

Item, Teals, seven of a Dish. 

Item, Pies baken with Rabbits in them. 

Item, Baken Orange. 

Item, a Flampett. 

Item, Stoke Fritters. 

Item, Dullcetts, ten of a Dish. 

SECOND COURSE. 
First, Marterns to Pottage. 
Item, for a Standart, Cranes, two of a Dish. 
Item, Young Lamb, whole roasted. 
Item, Great fresh Sanimon Gollis. 
Item, Heron Sewes, three of a Dish. 
Item, By tters, three of a Dish . 
Item, Pheasants, four of a Dish. 
Item, a great Sturgeon Goil. 
Item, Partridges, eight of a Dish. 
Item, Plovers, eight of a Dish. 
Item, Curlews, three of a Dish. 
Item, a whole Roe baken. 
Item, Venison baken red and fallow. 
Item, Apples and Cheese, strewed with Sugar and Sage. 



XEVILE MANUSCRIPTS. 257 

FOR NIGHT. 

FIRST, a Play and Straight, after the Play a Mask, and when the Mask was 
done, then the Bankett which was 1 10 dishes, and all of Meat, and then all the 
Gentlemen and Ladies danced, and this continued from Sunday to the Saturday 
after. 

THE expense in the week for Flesh and Fish for the same Marriage : 

s. d. 
Imprimis, two Oxen ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Item, two Brawnes ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ...120 

Item, two Rols 10s. and for servants going 015 

Item, in Swans ... .. ... .. ... ... ... ... 15 

Item, in Cranes, nine ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... 1 10 

Item, in Peacocks, twelve .. .. ... ... ... ... .. 16 

Item, in great Pike for Flesh Dinner, six ... ... ... ... ... 1 10 

Item, in Conies, twenty -one dozen ... ... ... ... ... ..550 

Item, in Venison, Red Deer Hinds, three ... ... ... .. ... 10 

Item, Fallow Deer Does, twelve ... ... ... ... .. ... 000 

Item, Capon of Grease, seventy-two .. ... ... ... ... ... 3 12 

Item, Mallards and Teal, thirty dozen .. ... ... ... ... 311 8 

Item, Lamb, three ... ... ... ... ... ... .. .040 

Item, Heron Sewes, two dozen ... .. ... ... ... ... 1 4 

Item, Shorelards, two dozen ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 4 

Item, in Bitterns, twelve ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 16 

Item, in Pheasants, eighteen ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 140 

Item, is Curlews, eighteen .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 140 

Item, in Partridges, forty ... .. ... .. ... . ... 068 

Item, in Plovers, three dozen ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Item, in Stints, five dozen ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 9 Q 

Item, in Sturgeon on Goil ... ... ... .. ... .. ... 050 

Item, one Seal 13 4 

Item, one Porpoise 13 4 

Sum Total 46 5 8 

WAITERS AT THE SAID MARRIAGE. 

Storrers, Carver. 
Mr. Henry Neville, Sewer. 
Mr. Thomas L)rax, Cupbearer. 
Mr. George Patlew, for the Sewer Boards. 

END. 

John Marys, John Mitchels, Marshals. 
Robert Smallpage for the Cupboard. 
William Page for the Cellar. 
William Barker for the Ewer. 

Robert Syke, the Younger, and John Hipperom for the Buttery. 
Richard Thornton to wait in the Parlour. 
Robert Syke, elder, my brother Stapylton's servant. 
William Longley, ) 

Robert Siel > My son Rockley's servants to serve in the Hall. 

William Cooke ) 

The marriage of my son-in-law, Gervis Clifton, and my daughter. 
Mary Nevill, the 17th day of January, in the 21st year of the reign of 
our Sovereign Lord King Henry VIII, 1530. 

FIRST, for the apparel of the said Gervis Clifton and Mary Nevill. 

s. d. 
Twenty-one yards of Russett Damask, every yard 8s. ... ... ... 7 14 8 

Item, six yards White Damask, every yard Ss 280 

K 



258 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

s. d. 

Item, twelve yards of Tawney Camlet, every yard 2s. 8d. ... . 294 

Item, six yards of Tawney Velvet, every yard, 14s. ... 440 

Item, two Rolls of Blackburn 060 

Item, three Black Velvet Bonnets for Women every bonnet 17s. . 2110 

Item a Frontlet of Blue Velvet 076 

Item, an ounce of Damask Gold ... ... ... ..040 

Item, four Saynes for Frontlets ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 8 

Item, a Neyge of Pearl .. ... ... ... ... ... .140 

Item, three pair of Gloves ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Item, three yards of Kersey, two black, one white ... 7 

Item, lining for the same ... ... ... ... ... ... ..020 

Item, three Boxes to carry Bonnets in ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Item, three Pastes ... ... .. ... ... ... .. ..-009 

Item, a Furr of White Sufants 200 

Item, twelve White Heares ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 12 

Item, twelve black Conies ... ... .. ... ... ... 10 

Item, a pair of Muslin Sleeves of White Sattin ... ... ... ... 080 

Item, thirty White Lamb Skins 040 

Item, six yards White Cotton ... ... ... ... .. ... 630 

Item, two yards and a half Black Sattin ... ... ... 14 9 

Item, two Girdles ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 4 

Item, two ells of white Eibbon for Tippets ... .. 1 1 

Item, an ell of Blue Sattin 068 

Item, a Wedding Eing of Gold 12 4 

Item, a Miller Bonnet dressed of Azletts ... ... ... , ... 0110 

Item, a yard of Bright White Sattin 12 

Item, a yard of White Sattin of Bridge .., ... ... 9 1 4 

THE expense of the Dinner at the Marriage of the said Gervis Clifton and 
Mary Nevill. 

s. d. 

Imprimis, three hogshead of Wine ... ... ... ... 5 5 

Item, two Oxen ... ... ... - ... ... ... ...300 

Item, two Brawns 100 

Item, twelve Swans, every swan 6s. ... ... ... ... ... 3 12 

Item, nine Cranes, every crane 3s. 4d. ... ... ... 110 

Item, Sixteen Heron Sews, every one 12d, ... ... ... ... 16 

Item, ten Bytters, each 14d. ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 14 

Item, sixty couple of conies, every couple 5d. ... ... 1 5 

Item, as much Wild Fowl, and the charge of the same as cost ... ... 3 6 8 

Item, sixteen Capons of Grease ... ... ... ... ... ... 16 

Item, thirty other Capons -... 15 

Item, ten Pigs, every pig ... ... ... ... 042 

Item, six Calves 16 

Item, oneotherCalf 030 

Item, seven Lambs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Item, six Weathers, every weather 2s. 4d. ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Item, six quarters of Barley Malt, 14s. ... .. ... 5 10 

Item, three quarters of Wheat, 18s. ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 14 

Item, four dozen of Chickens ... . ... ... ... ... ... 060 

Besides Butter, Eggs, Verquise and Vinegar 

In SPICES as followeth : 

Imprimis, two loaves of Sugar at 7d. per Ib. ... ... ... ... 9 

Item, six pound of Pepper, every pound 22d Oil 

Item, one pound Ginger .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 024 

Item, twelve pound Currants, every pound 3 4d. ... ... ... ..036 

Item, twelve pound Proy ens, every pound 2d. ... ... ... ... 020 

Item, two pound Marmalet 020 



NEVILE MANUSCRIPTS. 259 

s. d. 

Item, two Goils of Sturgeon 12 4 

Item, a Barrel for the same ... . ... 006 

Item, twelve pound of Dates, every Ib. 4d. ... ... ... ... ... 040 

Item, twelve pound of Raisins ... ... .. ... ... ... 2 

Item, one pound of Cloves and Mace ... .. ... ... ...080 

Item, one quarter of Saffron ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 040 

Item, one pound of Torriself ... ... ... ... ... ... ...040 

Item, one pound of Ising Glass ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Item, one pound of Biskets ... ... ... ... ... ... ...010 

Item, one pound of Carra way Seeds ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Item, two pound of Comfits ... ... ... ... ... .. ...020 

Item, two pound of Forts of Portugal ... ... ... ... ...020 

Item, four pounds of Liquorice and Anniseed ... ... .. ... 010 

Item, three pounds of Green Ginger ... ... ... ... ... ... 040 

Item, three pounds of Buckets ... ... ... ... ... ..040 

Item, three pounds of Orange Buds ... ... ... ... ... ... 040 

Item, four pound of Granges in Syrup 5 11 

Sum Total 161 8 8 



Heckmondwike. JOHN JAMES STEAD 



YORKSHIRE IN THE "MONASTICON." 

THE following is a brief abstract of the contents of Dug-dale's 
" Monasticon " relating to Yorkshire. The Yorkshire passages in this 
valuable work are most numerous and comprehensive, and the greater 
part of them were contributed by Roger Dodsworth, the Yorkshire 
Antiquary. 

VoL I. Lastingham Monastery, p. 432 ; Whitby Abbey, p. 405 ; with the seals at 
the end of the volume. 

VoL II. Beveriey Minster, p. 127; Ripon Minster, p. 131, &c. 

Vol. ILL Selby Abbey, pp. 485-511 ; St. Mary's Abbey, York, pp. 529-570 ; St. 
Martin's, Richmond, p. 601 ; Middlesbrough Priory, p, 631, &c. 

Vol. IV. Handale, or Grendale Priory, p. 74 ; Nun Keeling Priory, p. 185 ; 
Nun Moncbton, p. 192 ; Marrick Nunnery, p. 244 ; Little Maries, p. 273 ; Nun 
Burnharn, p. 278 ; Arden Nunnery, p. 284 ; Rosedale, p. 316 ; Clementhorpe, 
p. 323 ; Wilberfoss, p. 354 : Thickbed, p. 384 ; Arthington Priory, p. 518 ; 
Gotherland, p.544 ; Molesby, p. 566; Holy Trinity, York, p. 680; and Hedlev, 
p. 686, &c. 

Vol. V. Pontefract Priory, p. 118 ; Monk Bretton, or Lund Priory, p. 131 ; 
Rievaulx Abbey, p. 274 ; Fountains, p. 286 ; Byland, p. 343 ; Meaux, p. 388 ; 
Esholt Nunnery, p. 469 : Hampole Priory, p. 486 ; Swine Abbey, 493 ; 
Roche, p. 501 ; Basedale, p. 507 ; Sawley, p. 510 ; Kirkstall, p. 527 : Jervaulx, 
p. 567 ; Nun Appleton Nunnery, p. 652 ; Codenham, p. 655 ; Keldholm 
Priory, p. 644 ; Wyckham Nunnery, p. 669; Kirkleea, p. 738; and Ellerton, 
p. 745, &c. 

Vol. VI Kingston-upon-Hull, p. 19 ; Mountgrace Priory, p. 22 ; Woodkirk, p 
99 , Tockworth, p. 162 ; Drax, p. 194 ; Marton. p. 197 ; Bolton, p. 201 ; Kirk- 
ham, p. 207 ; Guisburn, p. 265 ; Bridlington, p. 284 ; Watre. p. 297 ; 
Newburgh, p. 317 : Hode, p. 322 ; Helagh Park, p. 437: Haltem-price, p. 
519 ; and North Ferriby, p. 589, fcc. 

Vol. VII., or VI., 2 S. Leonard's Hospital, York, p. 607 ; Flixton Hospital, p. 
613 ; Ripon, St. Mary Magdelene, pp. 620, 752; Vann, p. 636 ; Scarborough 



260 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Hospital, p. 639; Killingwold Grove, p. 650; Hedon, p. 654 ; Welle, p. 702; 
Pomfret, p. 703; York, St. Nicolas, p. 709; Pontefract, Nnolles, p. 713; 
Richmond, St. Nicholas, p. 720 ; Newton, p. 730 ; York, Fossgate, p. 737 ; 
Nawton, p. 747 ; Bagby, p. 780 ; Beverley, Broughton, Catterick, p. 780 ; 
Doncaster, Fountains, Hull, Lowcrosse, Middleham, Mitton, Norton, Otley, 
Pickering, Pontefract. Bipon, p. 781 ; Sherburn, Sprotborough, Sutton, 
Tickhill, Whitby, York, p. 782 ; Beverley Precept, p. 801 ; Mount St. John, 
p. 803 ; Newland, Ribston, p. 803 ; Temple Hurst and Temple Newsam ; p. 
81 7 ; Coverham Abbey, p. 920 ; Easby, p. 921 ; Ellerton, p. 943 ; Watton, p. 
954 ; York, St. Andrew ; p. 962 ; and Old Malton, p. 970, &c. 
Vol. VIII., or VI., 3. York Cathedral, p. 1,172; Beverley Minster, p. 1,307; 
Ripon Cathedral, p. 1,367 ; Heminborough, p. 1,375 ; Bolton, p. 1,396 ; 
Middleham, p. 1,440; Rotherham, p. 1,441; Acaster, p. 1,473; Howden, p. 
1,473; Kirkby Overblow, Layzingby, Lowthorpe, Osmotherly, Pontefract, 
Sutton Tickhill, p. 1,474 ; York Coll., p. 1,475 ; Beverley, 1,495; Doncaster, 
Hull, Pontefract, Scarborough, Yarm, York, p. 1,496 ; Beverley, Doncaster, 
Pontefract, Richmond, p. 1,544 ; Scarboro', York, p. 1,545 ; Knaresborough, 
pp. 1,546, 65; North Allerton, p. 1,581 ; Bolton, Doncaster, Hull, Pontefract, 
Richmond, Scarborough, Sutton, York, Kildale, p. 1,587; York, Northallerton, 
p. 1,603; Hull, Tickhill, York, p. 1,526; Calcaria, Cottingham, Crayke, 
Durscroft, Elmete, Emsley, Gilling, Richmond, Swaney, and Monk Britton, 
p, 1,657, &c. 

Su-akdak. R. V. TAYLOR, B.A. 





YORKSHIRE MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS. 



A NOTE OX THE CORPORATION INSIGNIA, ETC., OF THE 
BOROUGH OF SCARBOROUGH. 




HE Insignia and Plate belonging- to the Corporation of the 
" Queen of Watering- Places" Scarborough is not perhaps 
so extensive as that of many other Yorkshire boroughs, but 
it will bear favourable comparison, in point of interest and 
beauty of design, with most others. It consists of one 
large and two small Maces; a Mayor's Chain and Badge of 
Office ; a Wand of Office ; and Corporation and Mayoral Seals. 
The Plate, a massive Silver Loving Cup ; three Drinking Cups ; 
and two covered Tankards. 
The large Mace, of silver gilt, is of very massive character. The 
head, or bowl, is crested with a circlet of crosses-pattee and fleurs-de- 
lis alternated with pearls, and from it rise the open arches of the crown 
which is terminated with orb and cross of unusually large size ; under 
these open arches are the Royal Arms. Around the bowl, which is 
divided into four compartments by demi-figures terminated with foliage, 
are the usual national emblems, the Rose, surmounted by a crown 
between the initials C. and R. ; a Thistle similarly crowned and 
initialed; a Fleur-de-lis treated in exactly the same manner ; and a Harp 
similarly initialed and crowned. The shaft, elegantly chased through- 
out with a spiral pattern of roses and thistles with foliage combined, 
is divided into three lengths by massive decorated knops, and the base 
is similarly ornamented. This Mace was given to the town by Sir 
Thomas Posthumus Hobv in 



262 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



The two smaller Maces are of silver and are of older date. Their 
heads are not crested, and the shafts are divided, the one into three, 
the other into four lengths ; they " are worn in the official gown of the 
Sergeant at Mace." The staff of office is headed with a crown mounted 
by orb and cross. 

The Mayor's Chain and Badge, of admirable and very effective 
design, of gold and enamel, are of remarkable elegance, and very 
effective. The chain consists of a series of Double or Tudor Roses 
alternating with other links of elaborate open-work scroll design, attached 
together throughout with couplets of oval links, each charged with a 
quatrefoil. The centre front link, of larger and more elaborate char- 
acter, has its centre filled in with flamboyant tracery indicating to some 
extent the flow of line on the ammonite which is so abundantly found 
in the district ; from it depends the badge. This badge bears, in relief, 
a perfect reproduction of the fine old Seal of the Borough surrounded 
by massive scroll-work and terminated at the top, as an attachment, by 
a fleur-de-lis. The seal, as there represented, bears within the inner circle 
on waves of the sea, on the dexter side, a lymphad (in which are, at 
prow and stern, two human heads) passing a castle or watch tower of 
three heights on the sinister side ; in chief an estoile of eight poiuts. 
The legend is ^ SIGILLVM COMVNE BVRGENSIV DE 
SCARDEBVRG. The shoulder links also bear somewhat similar 
appropriate representations. This remarkably fine chain and badge 
were made by the renowned firm of Hunt & Roskell, of London. 

The two-handled Loving Cup, of silver, is a choice and admirable 
example of repouse work, the design on one side being a spirited 
representation of a Roman chariot race, the execution of which is bold 
and masterly in the extreme. On the other side, in an oval medallion, 
are engraved the arms of the donor and the following inscription : 
" Robert Champley, Esq re " Presented this Loving Cup to the Mayor, 
Aldermen, and Burgesses of Scarborough for ever, on the termination 
of the second year of his Mayoralty, November 9th, 1868. Amicitiae 
Virtutis que Fcedus." The tliree bowl-shaped Drinking Cups, and two 
Tankards also bear engraved inscriptions. 

Sir Thomas Posthumus Hoby, by whom the great Mace was pre- 
sented to the town, was a god-son of Queen Elizabeth ; was one of the 
Bailiffs of Scarborough in 1610; and was returned as member of 
Parliament for that borough in 1597, 1603, and 1614. He married, as 
her third husband, Margaret, daughter of Arthur Dakins (by his wife 
Thomasin, daughter of Thomas Guy, Esq.), and widow respectively of 
Walter Devereux, Esq., brother of the Earl of Essex, and Thomas 
Sidney, Esq., eon of Sir Henry Sidney. Sir Thomas Posthumus JI<>l>y 
died in 1640, aged seventy, his wife having pre-deceased him in 1633. 
The following interesting monumental inscription, as given by Hinder- 
well, occurs in Hackness Church : 

"Here lieth interred, in the assured hope of the Resurrect ion, 
Arthur Dakins, Esq., who, after he had attained the age of 76 years, 



THE CORPORATION INSIGNIA OF SCARBOROUGH. 263 

* 

died the 13th day of July, 1593. He left behinde him, by Thomazin his 
wife, y e daug-ht : of Thomas Guy, Esquire, and Alice his wife, sister 
unto Sir Wiinund Carewe of Anthony in the Countie of Cornwall, 
Knight, one only daughter and heyre named Margret, whom he twice 
bestowed in marriage in his life time; first unto Walter Devereux, 
Esquire, second brother unto y 6 right honourable Robert now Erie of 
Essex, but he died in his first youth w th out issue by a hurte he received 
in service before Eoane hi y 6 yeare 1591, and then he married her 
unto Thomas Sidney, Esquire, the third sonne of the Honourable Sir 
Henry Sidney, Knight, and Companion of the Most Xoble Order of the 
Garter; but he, after he had two yeares overlived his wive's said 
father, died also w th out issu, y e 26 day of July 1595, whos body was 
by his distressed widdow honourably buried at Kingston uppon Hull. 
And in the 13th moneth of her single and most solitarye life, the said 
Margaret disposed of herself hi marriage unto Sir Thomas Posthumus 
Hoby, Knight, y 6 second sonne of Sir Thomas Hoby, Knight, who 
died in Paris in the yeare 1566, where he then remayned resident 
Ambassador from our most dread Soveraigne the Q : Ma tie that 
nowe is. In dutifull memorye of the aforesayd Arthure Dakins, 
Sir Thomas Posthumus Hoby & Dame Margaret his wife erected 
this monument, whoe alsoe repavred the chawncell the 9 day of 
Augt. 1597." 

Xear to this, is a Monument inscribed to Lady Margaret 
Hoby. 

" The Lady Margaret Hoby, late wife of Sir Thomas Posthumus 
Hoby, Knight, and sole daughter and heire of Arthure Dakins, Esq. : 
by Thomazin, his wife ; after she had lived seven and thirty yeares and 
one moneth with her said husband in mutuall entire affection to both 
their extraordinary comfortes : and had finished the woork that God 
had sent her into this world to performe ; and after she had attained 
unto the beginning of the sixty-third yeare of her age, on the fourth 
day of the seventh moneth of that yeare, it was the will of Almighty 
God to call her fourth of this vale of miserie : And her body was buryed 
hi this Chancell, on the sixth day of the said moneth (beinge September, 
An - 1633.) soe neer unto the bodies of her sayde Father and of her 
sayde Mother, which was interred by her sayde Father's bodie, on the 
thirteenth day of November, An - 1613, as that all three will become 
one heape of duste." 

The inscription proceeds to give a long account of her godly life 
and unblamable conduct; and at the bottom the following lines are 
added by her husband, Sir Thomas Posthumus Hoby. 

" Nan ero vobiscum, donee Deus ipse vocabit: 
" Tune clneres vestros consociabo meia"* 

* ' I shall not be with you until God himself shall call me ; then will I mingle 
my ashes with yours. 7 THOMAS POSTHUMCS HOBY. 



264 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

Opposite to the above, on the north side of the chancel, is a marble 
Monument with the following inscription : 

" Deponuntur heicjuxtd 

Dignissimi cineres 
Domini Thomce Posthumi Hoby 

Viri lectissimique pii 
Hujus manerii quondam domini, 
Qui obiit 30o. die Decembr'vi An- 

1640, 
jEtai, SUCK septuagesimo. 

In cujus memoriam 
Dominus Johannes Sydenham 

(Cui nunc manerium 

Clarissimi prcedicti donum ) 

Monumentum hoc posuit 

Anno Dom. 1682." * 

* Near this place are deposited the remains of the most worthy Sir Thomas 
Posthumus Hoby, a very excellent and pious man, formerly Lord of this Manor. 
He died 30th of December 1640, in the seventieth year of his age. Sir John Syden- 
ham, the present possessor of the Manor (it being a gift to him from the 
aforesaid most illustrious personage) erected this monument, as a tribute to his 
memory, in the year of our Lord 1682." 

The Hollies, Dnffield, Derby. LLEWELLYNN JEWITT, F.S.A. 





YORKSHIRE SUPERSTITIONS. 




WITCHES AND WIZARDS. 

F there be one circumstance in the social life of the present 
g-eneration calculated to stifle a sigh for the return of the 
good old times so often regretfully spoken of by those whom 
the bustle of to-day arouses into abnormal activity, it is the 
fact that witches are extinct. The era of witches was an era 
extending from dread to confusion. When our little island was 
so favourably known as "merrie England," doubtless it wa* 

r eminently deserving of its name in most respects ; but even 
then, in the midst of all its mirth and jollity, a black gloom was 
spread over the land, oppressive to the souls of the people. That black 
gloom was of witch influence, horrible, portentous, monstrous, fiendish. 
The witches were abroad, restless, and uncontrolled in their action and 
malignity ; demons, to encounter whom was sometimes death, always 
loss and misery. What, then, was the worth of gaiety and ease when 
the time-wrinkled face, the sunken cheek, and lustreless eye of old age 
formed a gorgon's head, which froze the blood and harrowed the mind ? 
It was only as the transient stimulant, imbibed to drown a gnawing 
care which knew no rest and felt no pity ; its worth was nothing, or 
even worse than nothing. 

In Yorkshire witchcraft has had a full tide of success. The people 
seemed born to receive it. Nature gave the county high rugged hills, 
wild trackless moors, bogs, moist and gloom ; and so fitted it to become 
one of the last earthly resting-places of glamour. The minds of York- 
shiremen are naturally somewhat prone to melancholy and given to 
wonder. The weird and mysterious have ever found in them a ready 
place. That fact, I believe, was mainly due to the mountains, and next 
to the monks. Their religion has never been wholly freed from it. In 



266 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

the sixteenth century Archbishop Grindal lamented that the gentlemen 
of the county were not " well affected towards godly religion, whilst 
among the common people many superstitious practices remain." The 
prelate earnestly endeavoured to root out those practices, but only met 
with very limited success. The young and the old, the rich and the 
poor, all clung to the yoke that oppressed them. In 1610 a charm was 
employed at Skipton Castle to preserve the Earl of Cumberland's cattle 
from murrain; in 1(312 twelve persons were executed at Lancaster for 
witchcraft ; and ten years later another batch of six were executed at 
York for the same crime. At a still later period the fatal weakness, so 
far from abating, seemed to have increased. The monster Matthew 
Hopkins and his assistants received a Government appointment as 
witch-finders. They were to ply their abominable trade throughout 
England. They undertook to clear any locality of all its witches for 
the sum of twenty shillings per victim ; and it is needless to state that 
where wrinkled old beldames were not scarce they drove a very 
thriving trade. Butler has chronicled the doings of the leader of this 
illustrious brotherhood : 

Has not the present Parliament 
A leiger to the devil sent, 
Fully empowered to treat about 
Finding revolted witches out ? 
And has he not, within one year, 
Hanged thirteen of 'em in one shire ? 

Matthew's advent was a terrible visitation, but it certainly had one 
good effect; it soon reduced witchcraft to a mean and sneaking 
avocation.* The agents of the Government had shown that it was 
essentially a vulgar thing, born of ignorance and gross credulity, and 
this humilation crippled it. It was compelled to desert the castle and 
the baronial hall, but it found good shelter beneath the thatched roof of 
the rustic or beside the loom of the weaver, and there it tarried. Its 
spells were now to be broken not by the agency of gold alone, as in the 
palmy days ; silver was discovered to have an effect it could not resist, 
and its malignancy became of less awful importance, for when the 
circle of its influence was narrowed its power was fatally curtailed. 
The magistrate was now its acknowledged superior. He could punish 
its practices with impunity, except from itself. And from its persecutor 
he soon had to become indirectly Its protector, for he had often to save 
the unfortunate crones whom popular madness in the rabid onslaughts 
of its ignorance and fear would have sacrificed. 

The credulity and folly of those who believe in the power of 
witches are not yet at an end. Horse-shoes are still nailed to stable 
doors to prevent a raid upon the cattle, and " witch elms " are often 
planted in the garden of the farm-house to drive witches off the 
premises. The vulgar yet possess nostrums prescribed by " wise 
men " and " wise women," in which they place greater confidence than 
in the prescriptions of the most celebrated physicians. One of the most 



WITCHES AND "WIZARDS. 



267 



disgusting of these nostrums is that for the cure of whooping-cough. 
Despite its loathsomeness it is not discarded even at the present clay ; 
forty years ago it had complete supremacy. In 1803 a most respect- 
able surgeon of Leeds, when on a visit to two children who were ill of 
the coug-h, saw lying on a table what he thought to be a brace of 
sparrows, plucked and prepared for cooking. Curious to know the 
reason for providing such fare, for the circumstances of the parents 
would allow more generous provision, he asked the mother what she 
intended to do with the birds. ' Birds ! " she replied in astonishment ; 
"they are not birds, but mice!" "And what do you intend to do 
with the mice?'' asked the amazed doctor, when he was gravely 
informed by the mother that she intended to cook them for her sick 
children, because Mother Shipton's Prophecies recommended this dainty 
dish as an infallible cure for the tiresome disease his medicines could 
not conquer. 

At the beginning of the century Yorkshire was full of " wise men " 
and " wise women," though it had only one witch of the old malignant 
species. Of the " wise/' one of the most celebrated, both for personal 
shrewdness and professional prosperity, was a man who called himself 
'Rough Robin of Rumbles Moor." In the savage solitude of this bleak 
moor the prophet hermit long resided, alternately the joy and consola- 
tion or despair of love-sick maideas morbidly anxious for the future. 
High, however, .as was his reputation in the art of depicting future 
husbands. Robin was even more famed for comprehending the hidden 
mysteries of the past. Of him the people believed that to ask was to 
be told; they consequently placed implicit faith in his dicta. In 1790 
a common carrier, plying between Aldstone and Penrith, had had some 
goods stolen from his waggon, and in order to discover the thief, he 
made a pilgrimage to Rombalds Moor to consult the sage, whose fame 
had reached Cumberland. Robin received the carrier's offering, heard 
his tale, and dismissed him with the consolatory assurance that if the thief 
did not restore the stolen property before a given day, it should be the 
worse for him ! The poor simple dupe departed, overjoyed that Robin 
had promised so much, never doubting that the goods would be restored. 
Having arrived at home, he freely circulated the result of his interview 
among his neighbours ; and it happened the report had a wonderfully 
beneficial effect upon them. Thursday, 25th February, was the day 
fixed as the ultimate end of forbearance. As it approached, the simple 
people, seeing that no knowledge of the whereabouts of the goods had 
as yet been obtained, began to look forward as to a great catastrophe. 
Would the world be destroyed ? Would an earthquake swallow up the 
offender ? Or would some thunderbolt dart down upon him and reduce 
him to a cinder I They could not tell, but it was better to be prepared 
for any eventuality. And it is a fact that on the night before the 
terrible day they loaded the thatched roofs of their cottages with 
harrows and such implements as would best secure the thatch against 
a fierce and sudden storm of wind. It was well they did so, for 



268 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



singularly enough a violent hurricane broke out in the night, doing 
very considerable damage. It was felt in most parts of the king- 
dom. The eventful morning brought alarm and destruction on every 
side. Punishment had clearly been meted out, but who was the guilty 
party ? In the indiscriminate wreck none could say, for all had suffered 
alike. The stolen goods were not restored, yet that did not influence 
Robin's reputation. There can be no doubt that, happening as the 
storm did in the very nick of time, the recovery of the property was 
regarded as a mere trifle as compared with the fulfilment of the threat. 
Nobody could dispute the vigorous execution of Robin's sentence, which 
they now began to see, did not extend to the actual recovery of the 
property, but only promised a conditional punishment, which the thief 
must have received in common with his neighbours. 

Robin continued to ply his trade during the rest of his life ; but 
after this great coup the solitude of Rombalds Moor was found to 
exercise too severe an obstacle to the extension of his practice. His 
fame was now established on every side, and it only remained for him to 
render himself more accessible in order to reap a golden harvest. So 
he betook himself into the large towns, where rapid success followed 
him. In the summer of 1806 he established himself in Leeds, to the 
horror of the editor of the Leeds Mercury, who was at the pains to give 
him an editorial notice to quit, almost before he had fairly settled. It 
is certainly most amusing to think how seriously the Mercury took the 
matter of his advent. On the 7th August it informed the sage that 
" if he did not beat a quick march out of the town he would be before 
Monday night be tipped with a magic wand called a constable's staff, 
and lodged in an enchanted castle, where he may confer with his 
familiars without danger of interruption - except from the turnkey." 
Such a hint Robin did not fail to take ; he left Leeds abruptly no doubt 
weaving spells to entrammel the monster who had driven him forth. 

As a rule, the soothsayers were not malignant. Their vices were 
mean, but the effects, if troublesome, seldom dangerous. Amongst the 
most celebrated of these worthies was the Knottingley " wise man," 
whose reputation was for a long time universal. His wisdom was once 
very curiously and shrewdly tested, and found to be utterly wanting. 
An opulent farmer a man not devoid of humour, but certainly not 
credulous had had a cow stolen. He was recommended to apply to 
the " wise man." Feigning to accept the assurances of his gossips, he 
consented to apply to the wizard for advice. An opportunity for a 
good joke at least presented itself. He arose early, and rode into 
Knottingley on the grey dawn of an autumn morning. The village 
streets were deserted; the wizard's temple was closed, and showed no 
signs of occupation. A large and ponderous log of wood, intended for 
fuel, was lying beside the door, and near it was a bucket of water. 
These two articles offered the means of perpetrating the j<>l' Ili 
inquirer had longed for. He reared the log on end, resting against the 
door, and placed the bucket of water on the top of it. lie then 



WITCHES AND WIZARDS. 269 

knocked at the wizard's door, who, starting- from the bewilderment of 
sound sleep abruptly broken, demanded " Who's there ? " " Be quick," 
replied the farmer, " and open the door ; I want to see thee." The 
wizard, half dressed, opened the door, when down fell the log- and the 
water upon him, both dousing and bruising him. " Oh dear, oh dear ! 
who's done that ? " moaned the poor wizard, as he scrambled upon his 
legs. " Na, na ! " roared the farmer, bursting with laughter at the 
wizard's plight and ignorance ; "if thoo can't tell me who did that, 
thoo can't tell me who stole my coo ; so good morning." And he 
hurried away, leaving the poor wretch to meditate upon his 
disappointment. 

Among the prophets two deserve especial mention. Sheffield had 
one of these worthies, who, when the power of difjnation descended 
upon him, abandoned not only the servile habits but also the heathenish 
names derived from his ancestors, and was henceforth known to fame 
and the credulous as " the Sheffield tailor." He became the centre of 
interest in his part of the county by informing the people that the end 
of the world was fixed for 1805. But although he was In- 
Far more skilful with the spheres, 
Than he was with the sieve and shears, 

he was only at the best the disciple and imitator of a bolder and more 
aspiring rogue, George Hey, of Kirkstall, who considered his dignity 
most fittingly described by the loud-sounding name of " the Kirkstall 
Prognosticates " 

In 1801 it had been revealed to the " Prognosticator " that the end 
of the world was to arrive in 1806, and George, who to the wisdom of 
a prophet added the humanity of a true Christian, seeing the iniquity 
of the thoughtless mass of his fellow-men, determined to raise his voice 
in an endeavour to recall them from their folly and wickedness. To 
accomplish his end the more completely he resorted to the newspapers, 
and the following advertisement appears in many of the journals for 
October, 1802: 

To THE WORLD AT LARGE. 

Eepent that ye may be saved ! and live and dwell on the earth for ever in 
peace with God ; for I foretell the length of every man's and woman's life that 
liveth upon the earth, unless they live for ever and never die ; for on WHITSITN- 
MOXDAY, in the year 1806, it will rain down fire and brimstone until all shall be 
consumed that know not God ; but all that live in His fear and strive to do His will 
shall live on the earth for ever. Think not much of me for telling this, for as Xoah. 
was the end of the Old World, and beginning of this, so I declare the ending of this 
world, and the beginning of that which shall follow, and of that there shall be no 
end. GEORGE HEY. 

Kirkstall Forge, near Leeds, Yorkshire, May 2nd, 1801. 

The ' Sheffield Tailor " could not brook this interference on the 
part of the Kirkstall man. He soon answered George's advertisement 
with the announcement that the end of the world would arrive in 1805. 
The matter was taken up as one of serious import. Although the 
doctors differed as to the exact time, they agreed as to the res-ult, and 



270 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

their difference was a mere trifle. Whether the end of 1805 or the 
middle of 1806 was the exact time it mattered but little; the one thing 
that appeared quite clear to all who hearkened unto the prophets was 
that it behoved prudent believers to begin to set their houses in order. 
To complete the effect of these warnings, in October, 1803, the cele- 
brated Johanna Southcote paid a visit to Leeds, where, as indeed 
throughout all Yorkshire, her followers were numerous. Thanks to 
the agency of the " Tailor" and the " Prognosticator," and a host of 
lesser lights, Johanna's disciples believed as sincerely in her 
marvellous prophecies as ever did good Catholic in the miracles 
wrought at the shrine of- our Lady of Loretto. The object of her 
visit to Leeds was to encourage the faithful, and to distribute to them 
the "Celestial SegJs," which would protect them from all danger 
during the approaching period of transition. The seals were to be had, 
she told them without money, and without price ; the only thing- 
wanting to give them full efficacy was faith ! Another property of 
these wonder-working seals was that they would produce patriarchal 
longevity, and whoever should receive them worthily would in the 
opinion at least of the prophetess live a thousand years. But, alas, it 
is the fate of all modern prophecy to be be stamped with the character 
of falsehood. The " Tailor " was first proved to be a false prophet by 
the mere lapse of time ; that, however, did not shake the faith of 
believers ; it strengthened that of the partisans of the " Prognosticator," 
who triumphed with grim mockery over their rivals. The disciples of 
the " Prognosticator " awaited the approach of their awful day with 
deep anxiety indeed, yet with exultation and full confidence in the 
superior merits of their leader. At length the day came. As a fact its 
advent was horrible. The sun at his rising looked threatening ; the 
weather was unpleasantly sultry. These were omens which could not 
be disregarded ; even the thoughtless and the scoffer were awed. The 
faithful were apprehensive, but steadfast. The streets soon became 
crowded with a restless throng ; the air became strongly impregnated 
with dust, perhaps brimstone ! the lurid sun as it sank behind the 
western hills wore a fiery aspect that drew forth tribulation and woe 
from the breasts of those who were unprepared to meet the now 
apparently inevitable doom. Frenzy seized alike upon devotee and 
scoffer ; the tension was intolerable. At last, amid groans and misery, 
the sun set; the night "Such night in England ne'er had been, and 
ne'er again would be" approached, and passed as usual. Thus 
ended this eventful day, adding another to the numerous instances of 
prophetic delusion for which the beginning of the present century was so 
peculiarly distinguished. Leeds and its neighbourhood were restored 
to tranquility by the dawning of the morrow; yet singularly enough, the 
fame of George Hey was not destroyed either as a prophet in the Higher 
sense of the word, or as a mere fortune-teller, to which he descended. 
As a professor of divination of high rank and eminent success, 
Hannah Green, ' the Ling Bob AVitch," claims a place in the annals of 



WITCHES AND WIZARDS. 271 

her kind and the memory of the grateful. Her predecessor, and for 
some time her rival, was George Mason, the noted astrologer of 
Calverley Carr, near Bradford. George fell far short of " Ling Bob " 
both in audacity and success. He certainly amassed a fortune of 
several hundred pounds ; but when he died, in April, 1807, Hannah was 
in the zenith of a popularity he could never achieve. There is one 
remarkable incident in the biography of Hannah which seems only to be 
explained by professional jealousy ; and, although it is impossible to say 
Mason was the cause of it, yet such is the probability. Among the 
deaths in the Leeds Mercury for May 17th, 1806, it is stated that 
Hannah Green, alias " The Ling Bob Witch," departed this life on 
Thursday night last, " in her hovel at Yeadon, where thousands of 
inquisitive maidens have for years resorted to enjoy by anticipation 
their future destiny." This announcement, so eminently calculated to 
injure Hannah's connection, was indignantly answered by the sibyl. 
Next week the editor received the following note, dated Yeadon Moor, 
May 21st. and signed " Hanner Green" 

" This is to inform Mr. Barnes that if he does not contradict my 
death in next Saturday's paper he must stand to the consequences of 
the law." " Banner's "' correspondence was not elegant, but it was 
forcible and free from all oracular ambiguity. It spoke the mind of a 
determined person, who, having received some injury, was bent upon 
full reparation. This the editor saw, and to escape the dilemma with 
as much dignity as possible, his next issue, after denying the death, 
contains the following exculpatory paragraph : " Whether we were 
imposed upon last week by the person who brought us the article announ- 
cing the death at Ling-bob, or whether any attempt is now made to 
mislead us. we have not skill enough in the occult sciences to divine ; but 
the above letter certainly does not appear to be the production of a 
witch." The editor's error hi judgment respecting the origin of the epistle, 
Hannah was magnanimous enough to treat with contempt ; she was 
satisfied with the explanation. After forty years' practice she at length 
died in her " hovel " on the 12th May, 1810, and was succeeded by her 
daughter, Hannah Spence, who inherited her worthy mother's business 
and a fortune of 1.000 the profits which had accrued therefrom. 

In his early life the writer was well acquainted with an old book- 
seller in Leeds, a man untutored as to school learning, but of vast 
reading, of considerable mental power and originality of thought, who 
had been by turns weaver, astrologer, Militiaman. Chartist, philosopher, 
and poet. His collection of books for sale was large and miscellaneous. 
His private library was small, but select and choice. It consisted of 
works on the " Black Art," as he himself described it; and although 
divination had ceased to be one of his openly acknowledged professions, 
and although he freely admitted that the whole thing was nonsense, 
yet such was the influence of his early impressions that he could not 
" casting the planets " of any of his better-known friends or 
customers at any serious moment in their career. 

Leeds. WM. WHEATER. 







YORKSHIRE WORTHIES. 




SIR MARTIN FROBISHER. 

| OME members of the Frobisher family moved from Chirk, in 
j North Wales, to Yorkshire, about the middle of the fourteenth 
if century ; the orthography of their patronymic being Furbisher, 
Furbiser, or Ffourbyssher. In both localities they allied 
themselves with old county families. The art of marrying 
well was one of their accomplishments. In Yorkshire the 
family centred around Altofts, in the parish of Norman ton. 
One John Frobisher, of that place, was farmer of the king's 
demesne, and married to the daughter of Sir W. Scargell. 
His grandson, Francis, was Mayor and Recorder of Doncaster. The 
brother of Francis was named Bernard who married the daughter of a 
knight named York. To them were born John, Davy, Jane, Martin, 
and Margaret. The last-named was baptised in Normanton on 
February 10, 1541. Bernard Frobisher was buried at the same place 
on September 1, 1542. 

From these considerations there can be little doubt that Martin 
was born between 1530-40, a.t Altofts. The mother, to relieve herself 
of a share of the burden of bringing up five children, sent Martin to 
her brother, Sir John York, then residing in London. An additional 
reason for this transfer of the boy was that there were no suitable 
schools in his native place. 

Sir John observed that his nephew was a youth ' of great spirit 
and bold courage and natural hardness of body,' which, in our phrase- 
ology, would run brave, high-mettled, and with a good constitution. 
Whether his maternal uncle disliked the charge which he had 
undertaken, or found the 'great spirit' more than he could guide, m 



SIR MARTIN FROBISHER. 273 

that young- Martin would rove like any adventurous boy, matters little 
now, for to sea he went soon after his arrival in London.* 

There happened to be a small fleet of merchant ships on the point 
of sailing for the Coast of Guinea, The admiral was John Lock, and 
this was in the year 1554. Martin was placed on board one of these 
ships, and sailed away upon what was then deemed a very long: voyage 
and to but half -discovered places. The fleet returned in the following 
year, having been very prosperous. This was the first effort of the 
English to establish a permanent trade in African gold and ivory. The 
youth's first voyage confirmed him in the choice of a calling. To the 
end of his days he continued a sailor. 

"When Frobisher first emerged out of the seclusion of home and 
Yorkshire, a lad ' of great spirit and bold courage and natural hardness 
of body,' he came not, as a young Hannibal or Drake, with a paternal 
vengeance to be wreaked on the enemy of his nation and religion. He 
was just such an ardent, adventure-loving boy as one may find in a 
mess of middies on board any of our own Queen's ships. 

With superabundant faith in the heroic, and happily endowed with 
the strength and courage necessary for bringing forth the works of 
that faith, he was flung of by his maternal uncle and fell on his feet in 
that paradise of boys, the forecastle of a rover, and perhaps a 
slaver. 

He possessed only the education which a mother gives to her 
youngest boy ; he could read, and almost write a large round hand. 
But he was overflowing with latent greatness. He took with him a 
fortune which can be estimated in no symbols arithmetical or algebraic 
the inheritance of noble qualities descended from an ancestry of 
gentlemen bound to honour and duty more than lif e. 

In such a school, where right must always ally itself with might, 
where authority is only to be preserved with a hard word, and some- 
times a harder blow, the noble qualities developed. It was the case of 
an oak planted on a seaward cliff, whose branches are toughened by 

* A writer in " Notes and Queries " says that "The biographical accounts of 
Sir Martin Frobisher state that his parents were in very humble circumstances, 
and the date of his birth as unknown. Dr. Miller, however, in his History and 
Antiquities of Doncaster, p. 117, says, that "Francis Frobisher was Mayor of 
Doncaster in the year 1535, and from his supposed age, compared with that of 
Sir Martin's, was most probably the father of this naval hero. Unfortunately the 
parish register does not commence the baptisms till the year 1558, and Sir Martin 
must have been born long before that period. However, I have found the 
baptisms of several of his relations, viz., 1561, May '30, Christian, daughter of 
William Frobisher. 1564, Mar. 2, Darcye, son of "William Frobisher. 1566, Mar. 
18, Matthew, son of the same. 1567, Jan. 18, Elizabeth, daughter of the same.' 
Dr. Miller then adds in a note the following extract from Maneser's Account 
of Yorkshire Families ' The father of Sir Martin Frobisher resided sometime 
at Finningley, his mother was daughter to Mr. Eogers, of Everton, his grand- 
father William married Margaret, daughter of Win. Boynton, of Barmston, Esq. 
His great-grandfather Francis was Recorder of Doncaster, and married Christian, 
daughter of Sir Brian Hastings, Knt., and purchased lands at Doncaster.' " 

S 



274 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

the boisterous gales, and are at the same time stunted and 
deformed. 

The rough life of the privateering captain, with its ready 
expediences in the face of unexpected perils, its many temptations to 
plunge into piracy, its sufferings from hunger and thirst, its quelling of 
mutinies with a keen, broad partizan all this is lost for us. Yet one 
needs no predominance of imagination to picture Frobisher's ten years 
of roving. He was a youthful commander. A voyage out of the sight 
of land was almost a novelty ; the rocks, shoals, and currents of the 
ocean were marked on no chart ; the degrees of longitude were put 
down of the same width from pole to pole ; no law was acknowledged 
on the high seas ; pirates infested even the mouth of the Thames ; and 
yet hi a Liliputian bark the English mariner was prepared to roam 
over unknown seas. 

Either his meeting with Michael Lock or Humphrey Gilbert touched 
a secret spring in the young captain's soul which opened a chamber 
hitherto dark and uninhabited. Lock had long been drawn ' to the study 
of cosmography,' and had convinced himself of the" existence of a North- 
West Passage to Cathay. Humphrey Gilbert had arrived at the same 
conclusion, and published a pamphlet to prove it, in which he mingles 
Homer and mathematics, deducting a second Magellan's Straits from 
the primum mobile, and quoting Esther and Ahasuerus to show that 
there was a good market for calicoes in the far East. 

The interest awakened by the speculations of these theorists doubt- 
less saved Frobisher from sinking into lawlessness. He was on. the 
point of becoming a confirmed buccaneer. Henceforth he had a 
noble object which lifted him above the low level into which he had 
drifted, and privateering became a means to an end, as the primary 
school to the youthful village master who spends his evenings reading 
for a professioa After his return from each voyage he hastened to 
Lock's house to listen to the conjectures of the retired master 
mariner, pore over his charts of imaginary coasts and channels, and 
gather from Doctor Dee all that the great astrologer and cosmographer 
was pleased to communicate. To pursue for fifteen years the noble 
purpose of sailing a ship ' by the West to the East ' was in itself some- 
thing, though the quest had never been made. His unmeasured 
courage and perseverance were exhibited in the voyage and dangers 
of the ' Gabriel.' His readiness of resource came out on every occasion 
of dismaying peril. His great physical strength completed his endow- 
ment for the work before him. His skill in seamanship was tried in 
making three successful entrances into Frobisher's Straits, whirl i to 
this day are a region avoided by every mariner. He was the first man 
whoever went in search of the North- West Passage ; and he was the 
first Englishman who ever attempted ' to establish a colony on the 
American continent, although the spirit of discovery within him was 1 >y 
the force of circumstances subordinated to the venturers' greed for gold. 
He took the first Protestant missionary to the New World, and by him 



SIR MARTIN FROBISHER. 275 

the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was for the first time administered 
according to Protestant rites on that continent. 

Fuller says of his character ' He was very valiant, but withal 
harsh and violent (faults which may be dispensed with hi one of his 
profession).' This has been repeated by almost every subsequent 
writer who has made any sketch of the Admiral's life. Campbell's 
paraphrase of this charge is ' A true patriot, yet hi his carriage blunt, 
and a very strict observer of discipline, even to a degree of severity, 
which hindered his being beloved.' If Campbell supposed any of 
Queen Elizabeth's great captains was ' perfumed like a milliner, holding 
a pouncet box 'twixt his finger and his thumb.' he is not wrong hi 
applying to Frobisher the word blunt. It is a quality not more rare 
hi a sailor than courtliness in a groom of the chamber. But Campbell 
is not justified in making Fuller's words mean that Frobisher was a 
martinet and unbeloved. The only circumstance that could be wrung to 
support such an assertion is a phrase in a letter of Raleigh's to 
Sir Robert Cecil when the command of the expedition of 1592 was 
transferred from himself to Frobisher. ' I have promised Her 
Majesty,' writes Raleigh, ' that if I can persuade the Companies to 
follow Sir Martin Frobisher I will without fail return.' The hypothesis 
means no more than that the expedition being composed of and 
equipped by the personal friends of Raleigh, they would naturally 
be unwilling to trust their lives and fortunes to any other commander, 
though he should be the most skilful in the world. There are many 
reasons for holding the contrary opinion of the knight's character. 
One of Master Sellman's accusations was that Frobisher was so lax 
in his discipline and lenient to the petty officers and mariners that no 
order could be kept on board. Again, no voyager of his tune had 
so few mutinies. The ' Michael ' and ' Thomas ' of Ipswich alone 
deserted him. But the officers of both those vessels thought their 
Admiral drowned before they turned cravens. The experience of 
Drake with the ready execution block, and of gentle John Davis was 
to have their subalterns mutiny in their very presence. Frobisher's 
oft repeated efforts to regain his five men captured by the Esquimaux, 
and the sacrifices he was prepared to make to accomplish that pur- 
pose, exibit the humane side of his character. In his letter after the 
capture of Fort Crozon he says, when referring to Norris's request for 
some of his men The mariners are very unwilling to go except I go 
with them myself, yet if I find it come to an extremity we will try what 
we are able.' 

Fuller's meaning is, doubtless, that Frobisher was possessed of a 
violent temper. But the passionate men are not usually the unbe- 
loved. The severe martinet is more often the dapper, cultured, 
cool, low-speaking officer, than the rude, herculean, boisterous sailor. 
Frobisher had never learned how to put a bridle on his indignation. 
Any suspicion of sham or wrong put him instantly ablaze, the conse- 
quence being that he raised against himself a host of needless enemies. 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



He was a man heartily loved and heartily hated. And as for the 
coarse epithets which he employed in his moments of anger, his Queen 
was painted with the same brush ; while for the Admiral there is the 
excuse that with all men the ugly phrases, half -for gotten, which still 




Sir Martin Frobishcr. 



linger in the memory as the fruit of association with base companions, 
find free utterance from the choleric tongue. He was ' full of strange 
oaths , . jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel.' 



SIR MARTIN FROBISHER. 277 

Although Frobisher was not tainted with the love of money he 
allowed himself to be led by circumstances to the commission of that 
which his sense of honour must have condemned, in order to procure 
the means for the prosecution of his great purpose. The story of 
Palissy pursuing his heroic quest of the glaze, deaf to a hungering 
family crying to him for bread, had only been told ten years before. 
Martin Frobisher's search for the Xorth-West Passage, with the widow 
Riggatt and her numerous brood hungering at Hampstead, was a 
repetition of it. Of such conduct it is hard to form a just opinion, mas- 
much as the judgment and the sympathies do not coincide. 

He was not a man devoid of domestic virtues. He had a strong 
love of his kindred and a kindly affection for his faithful servants, as we 
learn from the provisions of his will. 

But the "signal service in eighty-eight" is the chapter in his history 
which will always gain for him the readiest admiration. His share in 
the defeat of the Armada has been almost entirely attributed to Drake. 
Xo where else have his achievements been so completely overshadowed. 
The Spaniards knew of only one English admiral, whose name was 
Drake, and so every desperate charge made upon the Armada was 
attributed to him. But no English authority has any achievement of 
his to record from the taking of Don Pedro's ship to the battle of 
Gravelines ; while the Queen was so pleased with Frobisher during- 
that crisis to the realm, that she employed no other admiral during 
his lifetime after the year 1589. 

He had the prudence of Hawkins with the resolution and quickness 
of Drake, while his dauntless courage was ah 1 his own. It was valour spiced 
with what can only be called devilry, acquired in his privateering days. 
His seamanship nas perhaps never been surpassed. 

Elizabeth's Admirals were all great men. They had great faults as 
well as great virtues. It was fertile soil that produced gigantic weeds 
as well as heavy ears of corn. They trod the rough, thorny path of 
heroes. They knew not where their bodies would lie ; their roving, 
perilous life made that uncertain. It was in God's keeping. But for 
their souls they were certain. Their faith in their religion and in an 
overruling Providence who helped them in storms and among icebergs, 
who wrought for them continual miracles of deliverance, who confounded 
the knavish designs of their foes, and always protected their Queen, 
giving her the victory over all her enemies would raise a laugh of 
scorn in the barracks or forecastle of our day. They had an adoring 
loyalty, an unwavering faith in the unseen, both good and evil, very 
rare now. Satan is not terrible to men who have refined him out of 
their creed ; but those old worthies believed in the Devil, and yet feared 
him no more than the Spaniard. The man who did his duty to God and 
his country needed not to fear anything, seen or unseen. That much 
they knew and lived ; and in that faith they died, leaving the rest to 
God and then 1 Saviour. 

London. FRANK JONES, B.A 



278 OLD YORKSHIRE. 

REV. WILLIAM SCORESBY, D.D., F.R.S. 

THE Rev. Wm. Scoresby was born at the village of Cropton, near 
Pickering, in the North Riding of Yorkshire. He was the only son of 
Captain Scoresby, of Whitby, and was born in the year 1790. His 
father was originally bred to farming pursuits, but forsook that calling 
for the much more adventurous and enterprising one of the sea ; this 
he commenced in 1780, at Whitby. In 1792, Captain Scoresby removed 
to Whitby. 

The subject of this memoir studied at Edinburgh, and eventually 
adopted the profession of his father, and for several years commanded 
vessels engaged in the whaleing business. Here his enquiring mind 
gathered a rich harvest of experience, which, at the age of thirty, he 
embodied in an excellent work entitled "An Account of the Arctic 
Regions, with a History and Description of the Northern Whale 
Fishery," in two vols. octavo, with 24 engravings. He afterwards 
published an account of a " Voyage to the Northern Whale Fishery." in 
one vol. This work included researches and discoveries on the eastern 
coast of Greenland, made in the summer of 1822, and was translated 
by Professor Kries, and published in Hamburg in 1825. Here is its 
German title " William Scoresby 's des Jungern Sogebuch einer Reise 
auf den Wallfischfang, etc." We afterwards find him contributing 
papers to the Philosophical Journals, and his researches extended to 
several original and important enquiries. Among these we may stop to 
mention "The Temperature of the Sea at great depths. The Nature 
of the Polar Currents and Ices. The Temperature of the Atmosphere 
in Summer." 

He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 
Nearly the whole of Dr. Scoresby's voyages to Greenland and the Arctic 
Regions, were made from Whitby, though a few of his later ones were 
from the port of Liverpool. It has been remarked by those who have 
written about him, that his crew were always distinguished for their 
discipline and respectability, and the lasting effect produced upon the 
characters of some of those who sailed with him, was a gratifying 
proof of the soundness of his judgment, temper, and heart. His 
success in whaleing was very remarkable; but he never, under any 
circumstances, allowed a whale to be pursued on a Sunday. And he 
succeeded in convincing his men that, upon the whole, they did not 
lose by keeping that day of rest. 

During his later voyages he adopted the temperance principle on 
board his ship, and found that coffee was a better preservative from 
the bitter cold of the Arctic Regions than spirits. 

In 1824, considering that he had a call to the ministry, he left 
these pursuits and became a candidate for clerical duty, studying at 
Cambridge, and with such success, that in 1825 he was ordained to the 
ministry by the Archbishop of York. The Mariners' Church in Liver- 
pool, had just been established, and he accepted the chaplainship of 



REV. WILLIAM SCORESBY, D.D., F.R.S. 279 

that place. Those who have attended the services which he conducted 
there, speak strongly of the solemnity and reverence which pervaded 
the whole assembly, and describe as most touching and impressive the 
mastery which he exerted over the wild and reckless spirits which com- 
posed the congregation. 

Having left the curacy of Bessingby, in Yorkshire, for the Floating 
Chapel, at Liverpool, he was obliged on account of his precarious state 
of health to vacate Liverpool. He left that place, to the universal 
regret of those who knew him, and to whom he had become endeared. 
He then removed to Exeter, where he had charge of a congregation, 
and where he worked for several years, which were sadly chequered by 
the death of his two sons, at intervals. From Exeter, upon receiving 
his degree in divinity from his University, after a ten years' pro- 
bationary course, he was transferred to the position of vicar of 
Bradford. 

He resided at Daisy Hill, Manningham, and whilst there, appeared 
to be always busy with his philosophical researches, riding into the 
town when his clerical duties called him, on a small pony. He was the 
founder of the first " Church Literary Institute," and during its 
existence he delivered some excellent lectures to its members and 
friends, on philosophical or learned subjects. 

The benevolent institutions, and the poor of Bradford found in him 
a strong and kind supporter ; for it is known that he distributed the 
whole of the income accruing to him as Vicar, in works of charity 
never having during his residence here, spent one farthing of it on his 
own maintenance. 

On leaving Bradford, in June, 1847, the chairman of the farewell 
meeting, spoke of the labours of the Doctor as follows : 

" Four schools have been built by the efforts of that gentleman, at 
a cost of about 4,000, and, with one exception, entirely on his own 
responsibility as to the funds. When Dr. Scoresby came to Bradford, 
there was not a single child under daily education in connection with 
the Parish church, now about 1500 were daily receiving instruction, 
exclusive of some 1200 Sunday scholars. Besides the erection of these 
schools the Dr. had also undertaken the entire pecuniary responsibility 
of carrying on all the day, and some of the Sunday schools, relying 
only on the children's pence, the annual collections, and two or three 
contributions by the National Society." 

When Dr. Scoresby resigned the vicarage of Bradford, he became 
a resident at Torquay ; and though unbeneficed, he fulfilled the calling 
of lecturer, at Upton, near that place. Here, humble and resigned to 
the will of his Maker, he died of disease of the heart, on the 21st of 
March, 1859. 

We here give an enumeration of some of the books which he pub- 
lished (91 in all) in his life-time, in addition to the two works before 
mentioned. "Memorials of the Sea, in 1 vol., 12 mo." "The 
Sufferings and Persecutions of the Irish Protestants," in 1 vol. "Dis- 



280 



OLD YORKSHIRE. 



courses to Seamen," 15 Sermons preached in the Mariner's Church, 
Liverpool. " The Philosophy of the Gospel," A Sermon. " The Prin- 
ciples and Duty of Christian Loyalty," A Sermon. " Plea for the Unity 
of the Church." " The Seaman's Prayer-Book." " My Father : The 
Life of William Scoresby, Esq., of Whitby. "Memorial of an 
Affectionate and Dutiful Son." " American Factories." " Considera- 
tions on the Franklin Expedition." "Magnetical Investigations." 
That which was the last act of his useful life was his voyage undertaken 
in the Royal Charter, for the purpose of discovering the changes which 
take place in the compasses of iron built vessels. He had long thought 
that a ship at Melbourne would have her position when in England 
reversed. The Doctor gave all his instruments to the Whitby Museum, 
also ,250 for the purpose of buying glass cases to cover them. 

He went out to Melbourne, and whilst there he received the 
honorary degree of master of arts from the university there. That his 
single-hearted courage in the pursuit of science remained to the very 
last may be gathered from a single instance. During a violent cyclone 
he ascended the mizen rigging, in order to judge of the height 
of the waves, which were then running as he calculated, 30 feet 
high. His life was probably shortened by the labour of preparing 
the results of his investigations. Few men have been more thoroughly 
loved and respected. His life was consistently and successfully 
devoted to the good of his kind in directions requiring most 
various, and in some cases uncommon talents. As sailor, clergyman, 
and philosopher, he did his part well. As sailor, he added to our geo- 
graphical knowledge; as clergyman, he combined what may perhaps 
be considered extreme evangelical views, with the most abounding 
charity and liberality to those who differed from him ; as philosopher, 
his researches have contributed materially to the safety of those 
thousands who daily leave our ports, and the emigrant, merchant, ship- 
owner, and underwriter all owe no slight debt of gratitude and respect 
to the memory of Dr. Scoresby. 

Shipley. ABRAHAM HOLROYD. 




GENERAL INDEX. 



A. 

Abbeys (see also "Religious Houses"), 

1, 20 

Ackworth School, 137 
Aldborough Registers, 255 
Ancient Butter Cross at Scarbrough, 

88 

Deed, 217 

Chest, 96 

Families, 221, 243 

Gateway at Scarbrough, 91 

-Seal of St. Mary's Abbey, 



York, 19 

Sepulchral Brass, 164 

Anecdote, An Amusing, 55 
Antiquary and Historian, A York- 
shire, 130 
ANTIQUITIES AT 

Allerton Mauleverer, 164, 166 
Batley, 21, 28 
Bishop Walton, 101 
Bradford, 26, 35, 198 
Doncaster, 36, 39 
Hatfield, 48 
Hull, 44 
Markinfield, 118 
Scarbrough, 87 
Walton, 100 
Yeatlon, 120 
York, 20 

Apparition at Boiling Hall, 34, 110 
Aram's (Eugene) School in Nidderdale. 

212 
Architecture, Domestic, 106, 123 

Ecclesiastical, 1, 10, 19, 

20, 192. 209 
Ardsley, Naylor, the Mad Quaker of, 

183, 227 
Arkendale, 213, 215 



ARMS OF 

Bower, 166, 168 ! Mirfield, 26 
Copley, 25, 26 Neville, 240 

Elland, 25 Nostell, 24 

Green, 221 Oxenhope, 26 

Hildyard, 239 Percy, 207 

Hull, 39 Either, 241 

Lacy, 31 Savile, 25, 26, 

Mauleverer, 165 205 

Middleton, 166 Scarbrough. 90 

AUTHORS, YORKSHIRE 
Bronte, Charlotte, 124, 130 
Csedmon, The Saxon Poet, 16 
Fothergill, Dr. John (F.R.S.), 133 
Hildyard, Rev. Jas. (B.D.), 142, 146 
James, John (F.S.A.), 131 
Jewitt, Arthur, 147, 151 
Raines, Canon, 151, 156 
Thoresby, Ralph, 156, 163 
Axholme, The Isle of, 63 

B. 
BAKER, JOSEPH B. (the late), on 

Scarbrough in the Past, 86, 99 
BALLINGER, JOH>~, on 

Hatfield Chace, 48, 80 
BASKS, W. S. (the late), on 

Wakefield Parish Church, 209 
BARBER, FAIRLESS (F.S.A.), the 
late, on 

Fountains Abbey, 2, 12 
Barmston Registers, 255 
Baron, Benjamin, 199 
Barrow at Bishop Wilton, 101 
Basedale Priory, 259 
Batley Cottage Hospital, 28 
Batley in the Past, 21, 28 
BATTLES, WARS, &c. 

Adwalton, 77 

Agincourt, 42 



282 



GENERAL INDEX. 



BATTLES, WARS, &c. 

Bramham Moor, 17 

Civil Wars, 32, 33, 110 

Flodden, 110 

Hatfield Chace, 51 

Neville's Cross, 82 

Towton, 117 
Bawtry Volunteers, 106 
Beeford Registers, 255 
BELL AIRS C. (M.A.), on 

The Clifford Papers at Bolton 

Hall, 253 

Beverley Minster, 259 
Bilton Registers, 255 
Biograph," "The, quoted, 146 
Bishop Walton, Barrow, At, 101 
Blind Jack of Knaresbrough, 170, 174 
Boar, The Wild, of Cliffe Wood, 30 
Boiling Hall, 107, 111, 352 

Apparition at, 350, 354 

Bolton Castle, 4 

Hall, The Clifford Papers, 

at 253, 254 

BOYLE, REV. J. R., on 

"Hull in the Past," 39, 47 
Bower Slab at Bridlington, 16 
Bradford in the Past, 28, 35 

Parish Church, 192, 199 

Brandesburton Registers, 255 
Brasses and Slabs, Yorkshire, 164, 169 
Bridlington Priory, 1 1 1 

The Bower Slab at, 166 

Bronte, Charlotte, 124, 130 
Burton Pidsea Registers, 255 
Byngham, Robt. de, 199 

C. 

Csedmon, the Saxon Poet of Whitby, 16 
Calais Wold Barrow, The, 101 
Canonries, see Religious Homes 
CASTLES AT 

Bolton, 114, 250 

Middleham, 116 

Scarbrongh, 87, 89 

Skipton, 36, 266 

Spofforth, 117 

Thome, 55 

Catalogue of Vicars of Bradford, 199 
Catwick Registers, 255 
CELEBRITIES. YORKSHIRE 

Blind Jack of Knaresbrough, 171| 
174 

Bronte, Charlotte, 124, 130 

De la Poles, The, 42 

Fothergill, Dr. John (F.R.S.), 133 

' ' Freeborn J ohn, " 65 

Grosseteste, Bishop, 22, 23 

Hannah Green, the " Ling-Bob 
Witch," 271 



CELEBRITIES, YORKSHIRE 

Hermit of Linholme, The, 49 

Hotham, Sir John, 40 

James, John (F.S.A.), 131, 133 

" Kirkstall Prognosticator," The, 
269 

Mother Shipton, 186, 190 

Nayler, " The Mad Quaker," 186 

Robin, the Devil, 80 

" Rough Robin of Rumbold's 
Moor," 267 

Sheffield Tailor, The, 267 

Thoresby, Ralph, 157, 163 

Wilberforce, William, 43 

Wise Man of Knottingley, The, 

268 

Cells, see Religious Houses. 
CHAPELS AT 

Boiling, 192 

Bradford, 192 

Myton, 45 

Sturtoo, 94 
Characters, Yorkshire Eccentric, 170, 

191 

Charles I. at Rossington Bridge, 71 
CHURCHES AT 

Barnby Dun, 80 

Batley, 23 

Bradford, 34, 192, 199 

Fishlake, 79 

Hatlield, 66 

Haworth, 129 

Hull, 42, 45 

Kippax, 200 

Ledsham, 202 

Milnrow, 153 

Scarbrough, 94 

Thorne, 70 

Wakefield, 205, 209 
Cinerary Urn from Calais Wold, 102 
Civil War, Bradford in the, 33 
Cliffe Wood, The Wild Boar of, 30 
Clifford Papers at Bolton Hall, 250,253 
Corporations, Yorkshire Municipal, 

31, 261, 264 

Cottingham Grange, 106 
Cottonian MSS., The, 244, 250 
CROSSES AT 

Doncaster, 36, 39 

Hatfield Chace, 53 

Scarbrough, 68 

Walton, 101 
CUDWORTH, W., on 

Oakwell Hall, 122, 124 
CUNNINGHAM, W., on 

Bradford in the Past, 28, 35 
Curious Ancient Deed Chest, 96 
Customs, Yule-tide, 213 



GENERAL INDEX. 



283 



D. 

DALES, YORKSHIRE 

Arkenclale, 213, 215 

Nidderdale, 210, 213 

Simmerdale, 138 

Swaledale, 212, 214 

Wensleydale, 131 
DAWsoy, W. H., on 

Yorkshire Volunteers in 1806, 

105, 106 

Deed. An Ancient Yorkshire, 216, 220 
Deed Chest, Ancient, 96 
De la Pole Family, The, 42 
Dickenson," "Dicky, 98 
Dinners, Old Yorkshire, 253, 257 
Domestic Architecture, 106, 123 

Life in the Past, 35, 36, 256 

Doncaster Crosses, 36, 39 
Drainage Scheme, A Great, 79 
Drake's " Eboracum " quoted, 133 
Drax Abbey, 112 

Dropping Well at Knaresbrough, 186 
Drypool Parish Register, 355 
Dunscroft Grange, 76 

E. 

Easby Priory, 260 

Early Yorkshire Homesteads. Some, 

111, 117 

Easington Registers, 255 
East Anglian Kings, The, and Hatfield 
Chace, 49 

ECCENTRIC CHARACTERS, YORK- 
SHIRE 
Blind Jack of Knaresbrough, 170, 

174 
"Dicky Dickenson, "of Scarbrough 

Spa, 98 

Hermit of lindholme, The, 49 
Mother Shipton, 186, 191 
Nayler, James, the Mad Quaker, 

183, 186 . 
"Old Trash," 174,183 
Ecclesfield Volunteers, 105 
EUerton Priory, 259 
ElslakeHall, 113 
Etymology, Yorkshire, see Place 

Xames, ike. 

Epitaphs, see Memorial Inscriptions 
Esholt Nunnery, 250 
Eure, Richard de, 199 
Everingham Volunteers, 106 



F. 



FAMILY OF 
Boiling, 108 
Bower, 16S 



Bronte, 124, 130 
Clifford, 252 



FAMILY OF 

Copley. 22, 25 Marsden, 30 

De la Pole, 42 Mauleverer, 164 

Fothergill, 134 Mirfield, 110 

Frobisher, 272 Neville, 81, 210, 
Gamble, 243 241 

Gee, 46 Percy, 207 

Green, 220 Pilkington, 205 
Hildyard, 142, 146, Savile, 111, 208 

232, 240 Tempest, 110 

Jewitt, 147 Thoresby, 156 

Lacy, De, 30 Warren, 78 

Mallory, 1 Wilson, 242 

Fairfax Manuscript, A, 254 
Farnley Plot, The, 35 
Ferrand Bradgate, 199 
Fifteenth Century Social Life, 252 
FISHWICK, H. (F.S.A.) on 

Canon Raines, 156 
Flaxman, Monument by, 197 
Flint Implements from Calais Wold 
Barrow, 103 
FOLK Lora 

Apparition at Boiling Hall, 34, 110 

The Glastonbury Thorn, 175 

The Wild Boar of Cliffe Wood, 30 
FOXTS 

Barnby Dun, 80 

Kippax, 201 

Wakefield, 208 

Forest, a famous Yorkshire, 48, SO 
Fothergill, Dr. John (F.R.S.), 133 
Fountains Abbey, 1, 12 
Fox, George, the Quaker, 227 
" Freeborn John," 105 
Frobisher, Sir Martin, 272 
Frodingham Registers, 255 

G. 

Gamble Family, The. 243 

Game Laws in Olden Days, 55 

Garton Registers, 255 

Gateway, Ancient, at Scarbrough, 91 

Ghost, the Boiling Hall, 34, 110 

Gilling Volunteers, 106 

Glastonbury Thorn, 175 

" God's Cross," near Wroot, 53 

Gonthwaite Hall, 211 

GRATN-GE, WILLIAM, on 

Blind Jack of Knaresbrough, 170, 

174 

Green Family at Liversedge, 221, 232 
Grimston Volunteers, The, 106 
Grosseteste, Bishop, 23 
Guild of the Trinity House of Hull, 

46 
Guisburn Priory, 259 



284 



GENERAL INDEX. 



H. 

HALLS AT 
Beverley, 112 
Boiling, 34, 106 
Bolton, 112 
Burton Constable, 112 
Cottingham, 112 
Dunscroft Grange. 80 
Flamborough, 113 
Gouthwaite, 21 1 
Hatfield, 68 
Hesslewood, 113 
Liverseclge, 81, 223 
Lowfold, 225 
Oakwell, 21, 120 
Sculcoates, 113 
Thorne, 78 
Walton, 113 
Yeadon, 119 
Hannah Green, the " Ling Bob 

Witch," 270 

Halsham Parish Registers, 255 
Hatfield Chace, 48, 80 
HATTON, W. H. (F.R.H.S.) on 
Bradford Parish Church, 192, 

199 

Haworth and Charlotte Bronte, 124 
Heraldry, see Arms, Seals, &c. 
Hermit of Lindholme, 49 
Hilda, Lady, foundress of Whitby 

Abbey, 13, 15, 17 
Hildyard, James, B.D., 142, 146 
Hildyards of Winestead, The, 232, 239 
HILLS 

Castle Hill, Scarbrough, 91 
Stanedge, 173 

Holderness Parish Registers, 255 
HOLLOWAY, LAURA C., on 
Charlotte Bronte, 124, 130 
HOLMES, L., on 

Holderness Parish Registers, 255 
HOLROYD, ABRAHAM, on 
John James, F.S.A., 131 
Rev. Wm. Sooresby, D.D., F.R.S. 

278, 280 
Homesteads, Some Early Yorkshire, 

111, 117 
Hopkins, Matthew, the Witchfinder, 

266 

Hornsea Registers, 255 
Hospitium, The, at Mary's Abbey, 

York, 20 

Hudson, Rev. Edward, 99 
Hull in the Past, 39, 47 

I. 

Implements, Flint, from Calais Wold 
Barrow, 103 



Indenture, An Ancient, 217, 220 
Ingoldsby, Lieut.-Col. Sir J., Bart., 

105 

Inn, An Ancient Yorkshire, 44 
Inscriptions, see Memorial 
Insignia, Corporation of Scarbrough, 

261, 264 

Irby, Richard de, 199 
Isle of Axholme, The, 63 

J. 

Jackson, John, of Woodchurch, 174, 
183 
JACKSON, REV. J. E. (F.S.A.), on 

Doncaster Crosses, 36, 39 
James, John (F.S.A.), the Yorkshire 

Antiquary and Historian, 131, 133 
' ' Jane Eyre " and its Author, 128 
Jervaulx Abbey, 259 
Jewitt, Arthur, Topographical Writer, 

147, 151 

JEWITT, LLEWELLYNN (F.S.A.), on 
A Yorkshire Barrow and its 

Contents, 101, 105 
Scarborough Corporation Insignia, 

260, 264 

Some Early Castles, Manor 
Houses, and Homesteads of 
Yorkshire, 111, 117 
The Bower Slab at Bridlington, 

165, 169 
JONES, FRANK (B.A.), on 

Sir Martin Frobisher, 272, 277 
Journal of " Old Trash," 176 

K. 

Keadby, 61 

Kedar Cabin, The, 176 

Keldholme Priory, 259 

Kennett, Benjamin, 199 

Kexby Manor House, 113 

Kilnsea Registers, 255 

King William Statue at Hull, 46 

Kingston-upon-Hull in the Past, 39 

47 

Kippax Church, 200 
Kirkgate, Leeds, Thoresby's House in, 

157, 161 

Kirkstall Abbey, 33 
" Kirkstall Prognosticate^ " The, 2fi9 
Knaresbrough and Mother Shipton,186 

, Blind Jack of, 170 

Knottingley, The Wise Man of, 268 

L. 

Lcdsham Church, 202, 205 
LEGENDS 
Apparition at Boiling Hall, 34 



GENERAL INDEX. 



285 



LEGENDS 

Glastonbury Thorn, 175 
The Wild Boar of Cliffe Wood; 30 
Leven Registers, 255 
Leventhorpe Chapel, Bradford, 192 
Life in the Past, Domestic, 35 
Lindholm, The Hermit of, 49 
" Ling Bob Witch," The, 270 
Liversedge Hall, 81 
The Green Family of, 221, 

232 

Lore, see Folklore 
Low Hall, Yeadon. 119 
Luddites, The, |1 72 

M. 

Maces, Corporate, 261 
MACQUOID, KATHERJNK, on 

Low Hall, Yeadon, 119 
MANORS OF 

Appleton, 216, 217 

Boiling, 108 

Bradford, 32 

Epworth, 65 

Hatfield, 48, 68 

Liversedge, 81 

Manuscripts, Yorkshire, 244, 260 
Martieet Parish Registers, 255 
MARGERISON, SAMCEL, on 

The Cottonian MSS., 244, 250 
Markenfield Hall, 118 
Marriage Feast, An Old, 257 
Mauleverer Brass, The, 164 
MEMORIAL INSCRIPTIONS TO 

Balme, E., 197 

Bower, Wm., 166 

Greene, John, 223 

Hildyard, Sir Christopher, 239 

Hoby, SirThos., 264 

Otho de Tilli, 38 

Thoresby, The Historian, 162 
Metcalf, John, the Blind Road Sur- 
veyor, 170, 174 

Mill Bridge Cross at Doncaster, 38, 39 
Monasteries, see Religious Houses 
"Monasticon," Yorkshire, in "The, 
259, 260 
MONUMENTS AT 

Allerton Mauleverer, 164 

Bradford, 197 

Bridlington, 166 

Hull, 46 

Leeds, 162 

Ledsham, 20*2 

Scarborough, 264 

Skipton, 251 

Wakefield, 207 

Winestead, 239 



MOORS 

Butterwick, 71 
Rumbolds, 267 
Seamer, 87 
More, Bishop, 199 
Mortimer, Mr. J. R., and the Calais 

Wold Barrow, 104 
Mother Shipton, 188, 269 " 
Municipal Corporations, 261, 264 

N. 

Naylor, James, the Mad Quaker, 183, 
186 

Nevile Family, The, 82, 240, 242 

MSS., 255, 259 

Newbrough Bar, Scarbrough, 95 

Nicholson, John, the Airedale Poet. 
132 

Nidderdale, 210, 213 

Xostel Priory, 23 

Note on Scarborough Corporation 
Insignia, 260, 264 

Notes on some Early Castles, Manor 
Houses, and Homesteads of York- 
shire, 111, 119 

Nunkeeling Parish Registers, 255 

Nunneries, see Religious Houses 

0. 

Oakwell Hall, 21, 120 

Okden, Thomas, 199 

Old Plan of Bradford, 29 

" Old Trash," 174, 183 

Old Yew-Tree House, 225 

Oswald, King, 13 

Otho de Tilli's Cross at Doncaster, 36, 

37 

Ottringham Registers, 255 
Oxenhope, Adam de, 26 

P. 

Palace at Hatfield, 52 
PARISH REGISTERS 

Aldborough, 255 

Atwick, 255 

Holderness, 255 

Hornsea, 255 

Kippax, 200 

Leven, 255 

Skipton, 252 

Sproatiey, 255 

Wakefield, 209 

Wawne, 255 

Woodkirk, 175 
PARK, JOHN, on 

An Ancient Yorkshire Deed, 216, 
220 



286 



GENERAL INDEX. 



"Patter-Money," 138 
Paull Registers, 255 
PEEL, FRANK, on 

Liversedge Hall, 81, 86 
Pemberton, Francis, 199 
Percy Badge, The, 207 
Pilgrimage of Grace, The, 57 
Pilkington Family, The, 205 
PLACE-NAMES 

Batley, 21 

Bradford, 28 

"Dyke, "48 

Pateley, 21 

Scarbrough, 86 
Plan of Bradford, Ancient, 29 

Fountains Abbey, 3 

Poet, An Old Yorkshire, 16 
Preston Registers, 255 
Priories, see Religious Houses 
Prophecies of Mother Shipton, 188 
PULLAK, R.P., on 

An Ancient Sepulchral Brass, 164, 

166 
Pursglove, Bishop, 47 

Q. 

Quaker, James Naylor, the Mad, 183, 
186 

R. 

Raines, Canon, 151, 156 
Registers, see Parish Registers 
RELIGIOUS HOUSES 



Beverley Minster, 

259 
BridlingtonPriory, 

112 
Coverham Abbey, 

260 

Drax Abbey, 112 
Fountains Abbey, 

1, 12, 260 
Guisburn Priory, 

259 

Lastingham Mon- 
astery, 259 
Monk Bretton 

Priory, 260 
Mount Grace 

Priory, 217 

Rise Parish Registers, 255 
RIVERS 
Aire, 33 
Calder, 100 
Don, 50 
Eden, 215 
Humber, 52 
. Idle, 61 



Nostel Priory, 23 
Nu nkeeling 

Priory, 259 
Ripon Cathedral, 

260 

Roche Abbey, 80 
St. Mary's Abbey, 

York, 18, 20 
Scarbrough, 97 
Selby Abbey, 113, 

259 
Whitby Abbey, 

13, 17, 250 
Wykham Priory, 

259 
York, 114 



RIVERS 

Lund, 215 

Vidd, 210 

Swale, 215 

Trent, 60 

Ure, 138 

Yore, 131 

" Robin the Devil," 86 
Rood Screen at Bradford, 194 
Roos Registers, 255 
Ross, FREDERICK (F.R.H.S.), on 

The Hildyards of Winestead, 232, 

239 

Rottenherring Staith, Hull, 41 
Rough Robin of Rumbles Moor, 267 
Routh Registers, 285 
Royal Palace at Hatfield, 52 
Rules for Servants in the Olden Time. 

254 
Ryan, Bishop, 199 

S. 

St. Mary's Abbey, York, 18, 20 

Salt, Sir Titus, 132 

Savile Stall in Wakefield Church, 208 

Scarbrough in the Past, 86, 99 

SCATCHERD, N. (F.S.A.), the late, on 
James Nayler, the Mad Quaker, 
183, 186 

SCRUTON, WM., on 

Boiling Hall, 107, 111 

Seal of Bradford Corporation, 31 

Fountains Abbey, 4 

St. Mary's Abbey, York, 19 

Scarborough Corporation, 87 

The Merchant Adventurers of 

Hull, 42 

Sepulchral Brasses, 265, 271 

Servants' Rules in the Olden Time, 
254 

Sheffield Tailor," " The, 269 

Shipton, Mother, 188, 269 

Sieges, see Battles 

Skipsea Parish Registers, 255 

Skipton Castle, 266 

Social Life in Yorkshire in the 
Fifteenth Century, 253 

Southcott, Joanna, 270 

Spa, Scarbrough, 98 

Spofforth Castle, 117 

STEAD, JOHN JAMES, on 
A Fairfax MS., 254 
The Neville MSS., 255, 259 

Strateburell, Richard de, 199 

Superstitions, Yorkshire, 265, 271 

Swaledale, 213, 215 

Swift, Sir Robt. Bowbearer of Hat- 
field Chace, 55 



GENERAL INDEX. 



287 



Swine Parish Registers, 255 
Sykes, Rev. Wm. (A.M.), 199 

T. 

Tanfield Hermitage, 113 

Taylor, the Water Poet in Hull, 41 

TAYLOR, REV. R. V. (B.A.), on 
Ledsham Church, 203, 205 
Ralph Thoresby, 156, 163 
Yorkshire in "The Monasticon," 
259, 260 

Tempests of Tong, The, 110 

Thoresby, Ralph, 156, 163 

Thome Old Hall, 78 

Torn! in son's "Hatfield Chace," quoted, 
80 

Traditions of Boiling Hall, 110 

TCKE, JOHN HACK, on 

Dr. John Fothergill, F.R.S., 133, 
141 

Tumulus, see Barroio 

Tunstal Parish Registers, 255 

TI-RXER, J. HORSFALL, on 
Walton Cross, 100, 101 

U. 

Ulrome Parish Registers, 255 
Urn, Cinerary, from a Yorkshire 
Barrow, 102 

V. 

Vermuyden, Sir Cornelius, and Hat- 
field Chace, 59, 64 

Vicars of Bradford, Catalogue of, 199 
Vikings, The, in Yorkshire, 52 
"Villette," Charlotte Bronte's last 

work, 129 
Volunteers, Yorkshire in 1806, 105 

W. 

Wakefield Parish Church, 205, 209 
Walton Cross, 101 
Wars, see Battles 
Wawne Parish Registers, 255 
WHEATER, WM., on 
Batley in the Past, 21, 28 
The Neviles of Liversedge, 240, 

242 

Witches and Wizards, 265, 271 
Whitby Abbey, 13, 17 
WHITE, EDWARD, on 
Whitby Abbey, 13, 17 
White Hart Inn, The Old, at Hull, 44 



Wilberforce, William, 43 
Wilsden, Richard de, 199 
Wilson Family, of Leeds, 242, 243 
Winestead, The Hildyards of, 239 

Parish Registers, 255 

Witchcraft, Witches and Wizards, 

255, 271 

Wise Man of Knottingley, The, 263 
Withernwick Registers, 255 
WORTHIES, YORKSHIRE 

Blind Jack of Knaresbrough, 70 

Bronte', Charlotte, 124 

De la Poles, The, 41 

Fothergill, Dr. John(F.R.S-), 133 

Frobisher, Sir Martin, 272 

Grosseteste, Bishop, 22 

Hotham, Sir John, 40 

James, John (F.S.A.), 131 

Scoresby, Rev. Wm. (D. D. , F. R. S. ) 
278 

Wilberforce, Wm., 43 
Wyckham Nunnery, 259 

Y. 

Yeadon, Low Hall, 119, 120 
York, St. Mary's Abbey at, 18, 20 
Yorkshire Abbeys, 1,20 

Ancient Families, 221, 243 

Antiquary and Historian, A, 

131, 133 

Antiquities, 20, 106 

Architecture, 106, 128 

Authors, 124 

Brasses and Slabs. 164, !69 

Churches, 191, 209 

Corporations, 261, 264 
Dales, 210, 215 

Deeds, 216, 220 

Domestic Architecture, 106, 



123 

191 



264 



Eccentric Characters, 170, 



Families, 221, 243 
Forest, A Famous, 48, SO 
Manuscripts, 244, 260 
Municipal Corporations,261, 



270 



Sepulchral Brasses, 164, 169 

Superstitions, 265, 271 

Volunteers in 1806, 105 
Witches and Wizards, 265, 



Worthies, 272, 280 



Yule-tide Customs, 213 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



A. 


Barnes, 152 


Brandon, 217 


Cecil, 85 


A Vvlrt OKO 


Baron, 199 


Brayley, 150 


Cetewayo, 13 


Able, zoo 


Barrand, 205 


Brearley, 28 


Chadwick, 226 


Aidan, 23 

A I , .1 , 1 T 1 


Bartlett, 136, 181 


Bright, 146 


Chambers, 132 


Aislabie, 1 

A 1 .. \ 1 1 O 


Barwick, 119 


Britton, 150 


Champley, 262 


Alan, llo 
Alcock, 46 

A 1 , 1 . . w. OO 1 ? 


Bateley, 24, 25 
Bateson, 142 


Brodrick, 106 
Bronte, 123, 124, 


Charles I., 42, 43 
44, 48, 54, 59, 


Aluam, 2z] 
Aldeburghe, 113 


Batt, 120 
Batty, 177 


130 

Brooksbank, 199 


62, 77, 82, 110, 
158 


Aleson, 209 


Bayldon, 177 


Broom, 242 


Charles II., 88 


Allan, 217 

A 11^ 1 Qf 


Beaconshaw, 199 


Brothers, 184 


Chetham, 153 


Allen, loo 
Alston, 136 
Anderson, 131 
Andrews, 46 


Beatson, 178 
Beauchamp, 164 
Beaumont, 25 
Beeston, 25, 241 


Brougham, 150 
Browne, 106 
Browning, 130 
Bruen, 155 


Childe, 222 
Cholmley, 193 
Clapham, 199 
Clarendon, 32, 33 


Anne, 2, 88 


Bell, 128 


Brus, 216 


Clayton, 225 


Anson, 45 


Bellairs, 253 


Buller, 199 


Cleghom, 140 


Antrim, 67 


Bellasyse, 106 


Buhner, 113 


Clement, 23, 94 


Aram, 212 
Armytage, 105 

\ ... , 1 1 ooo 


Belt, 168 
Benson, 171 


Bunyan, 107 
Burgh, 113 


Clewland, 26 
Clifford, 108, 134, 


Arnold., 26o 


Bertha, 14 


Burnett, 195, 199 


250 


Aske, 92 


Beswicke, 153 


Burton, 209 


Clinton, 222 


Asquith, 242 
Assheton, 155 
Atkinson, 251 


Bethell, 106 
Birch, 123 
Bischoff, 217 


Butler, 142 
Butterworth, 152 
Buxton, 146 


Clough, 132 
Clubbe, 169 
Cobbett, 146 


Aykfritb, 156 


Blackburn, 177 


Byngham, 199 


Cobden, 146 


Ayres, 181 


Blacke, 132 


Byron, 155 


Coles, 106 




Blakeley, 177 




Collins, 160 


B. 


Bland, 87 


C. 


Collinson, 132 


Bacon, 205 


Blazet, 199 


Cadamo, 114 


Constable, 92,113 


Baines, 132 


Blomfield, 143 


Cadwalla, 151 


251 


Baker, 99 


Bochard, 60 


Csedmon, 16 


Conyers, 106 


Baldock, 199 


Boerhaave, 136 


Csesar, 29 


Cook, 177 


Ballinger, 80 


Bolles, 204 


Caley, 106 


Cooke, 106 


Balme, 196 


Boiling, 32, 107, 


Calverley, 119 


Copley, 22, 24, 


Bamford, 150 


108, 194 


Camden, 86, 160 


25, 26, 59 


Banke, 199 


Bolton, 131 


Camm, 147 


Coppindale, 112 


Banks, 64, 191, 


Bonfeylde, 160 


Cammidge, 206 


Corker, 199 


209 


Bouncy, 208 


Canby, 77 


Corse) lis, 60 


Barber, 2,12, 101 


Booth, 237 


Carew, 235 


Cotes, 199 


Barclay, 141 


Bower, 166, 169 


Cary, 86, 242 


Cotton, 244 


Bardsley, 199 


Bowes, 166 


Cassell, 145 


Coultate, 152 


Bardolph, 88 


Boyle, 47, 146 


Cavendish, 84 


Craddock, 142 


Barker, 257 


Boynton, 71, 273 


Ceada. 15 


Crofton, 231 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



289 



Cresswell, 151 


E. 


Fitzwilliam, 25, 


Grosseteste, 22 


Creyke, 106, 233 


T O J 1 A 


26, 57 


Grosvenor, 165 


Cromwell, 248 
Crooke, 223 
Crossby, 168 


.Lanneda, 14 
Easterby, 151 
Eccleshill, 199 

T^j_ir *Ji F-.-) 


Flamborough, 240 
Flaxman, 196 
Foljambe, 105 


Gundreda. 52 
Gurnell, 231 
Gurney, 140, 230 


Crosse, 199 


.Laeiiria. 1 1 Fnr+pr 4^ Jfi 
1? i ~ OQT cer ' *> * 


Guy, 262 


Crossley,132, 156 
Crowe, 106 


.hagar, 26 1 
Edward I., 30, 36, 

on KO OQ n i 


Foster, 151 
Fothergill, 133 




Cud worth, 123 


ow, Oo, oo, 4, 

WOOl 


Fowler, 206 


H. 


Cunliffe, 105 
Cunningham, 135 
Cuthbert, 72, 80 
Cuthbertson, 168 
Cutts, 39 


, 221 
Edward II., 31, 
88, 97, 1 12, 209 
Edward III., 23, 
24, 25, 26, 30, 
31, 42, 53, 56, 


Fox, 92, 134, 227 
Foxhall, 179 
Frankelain, 199 
Freyga, 13 
Frobisher, 271 
Fuller, 275 


Hall, 169, 206, 
217 
Hallam, 36 
Halliwell, 55 
HaU-Plumer, 105 




57, 63, 88, 108, 


Furnivall, 113 


Halsted, 177 


D. 


112, 206 




Halton, 199 




Edward IV., 32, 


G. 


Hamilton, 114 


Dakins, 262 


42, 108, 207 




Hanson, 81, 226 


Danby, 84, 106 


Edwin, 14, 49, 50, 


Galpin, 145 


Hanstock, 27, 28 


Dance, 231 


51, 78, 90 


Gal way, 106 


Hardman, 45 


D'Arcy, 54, 63 


Effingham, 106 


Gamble, 243 


Hardrada, 87 


Barton, 183 


Eliot, 130, 210 


Gamel, 243 


Hardresse, 157 


Daubeny, 233 


Elfreda, 14 


Garbutt, 217 


Hardy, 105 


Dawes, 163 


Elizabeth, Q., 53, 


Garet, 1179 


Hargrove, 165, 


Dawson, 106, 206 


54, 85 


Gargrave, 85 


186 


Day, 231 


Elland, 25, 26 


Gascoigne,82, 240 


Harland, 106 


Deighton, 82 


Ellerker, 92 


Gastrell, 154 


Harm an, 220 


De la Pole, 41, 42 


Elliott, 150 


Gaunt, John of, 


Harold, 29, 210 


De la Pryme, 51, 


Ellison, 105 


30, 32, 215 


Harrington, 240 


54, 55, 58, 75, 


Ellwood, 231 


Gaveston, 88 


Harrison, 191 


76,80 


Eltoft, 241 


Gee, 46 


Harvey, 105 


Dempsey, 251 


Emanuel, 127 


Gellys, 199 


Hastings, 133, 


Denisclale, 120 


Erbury, 184 


Gibson, 106, 160, 


200 


Denison, 106 


Ethelburga, 41 


163 


Hatfield, 56 


Dent, 19 


Ethelwald, 49 


Gifford, 246 


Hatton, 199 


Dering. 237 


Eure, 199 


Gilbert, 154 


Hay, 152 


Despencer, 164 


Eustace, 30 


Gilford, 243 


Hazlitt, 190 


Devereux, 262 


Evelyn, 163, 235 


Gisburn, 245 


Head, 190 


Dewbyre, 22 


Eyre, 124 


Glaister, 228 


Heap, 190 


Dickenson, 98, 


Eyvili, 113 


Glasby, 131 


Hearne, 160 


99, 171 




Glover, 222 


Heath, 152 


Dixon, 151, 177 


F. 


Godwin, 217 


Heathcote, 230 


Dobson, 236 




Goldsmith, 200 


Helward, 45 


Dodsworth, 25, 


Fairfax, 34, 77, 


Goodwin, 217 


Hemingway, 182 


81, 82, 259 


93, 120, 123, 


Gordon, 105 


flengist, 13 


Dorset, 23 


158, 238, 254 


Gough, 81, 82 


Henry I., 29, 87, 


Downe, 251 


Falconbridge, 117 


Gould, 186 


90 


Downey, 180 


Farrar, 98, 223 


Grainge, 174.188, 


Henry II., 87, 88. 


Drake, 133, 190, 


Fawkes, 105 


211, 217, 218 


89, 93 


216 


Fearnley, 133 


Grange, 217, 218 


Henry II., 87, 


Drax, 257 


Ferdinanclo, 120 


Gray, 246 


88, 89, 93 


Dugdale, 155, 216 


Ferrand, 199. 217 


Green, 271 


Henry I, I., 88, 


Dunbar, 251 


Field, 182 


Greene, 224, 232 


92, 94 


Duncombe, 106 


Fieldhead, 123 


Greenwood, 177 


Henry V., 42 


Dundas, 106 


Finchdene, 24 


Gregory, 150 


Henry VI., 24, 


Dungarvan, 252 


Fishwick, 156 


Grey, 1, 204 


32, 88, 192 


Dunmore, 153 


Fitz Eustace, 30 


Grimston, 106 


Henry VII., 82, 


Dunn, 217 FitzRanulph, 116 I Grindal, 266 


33, 78 


T 



290 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Henry Till., 24, 


James I., 53, 54, Lindi, 108 


Mirfield, 25, 26, 


32, 42, 45, 53, 


59 


Lindley, 111 


110 


54,57,200,217, 


Jewitt, 105, 119, 


Lister, 43, 84, 106, 


Moncar, 90 


257 


147, 151, 169, 


160, 199, 222 


Monceaux, 239 


Herries, 236 


264 


Little, 222 


Monckton, 65 


Heslerton, 113 


John, K., 23, 88, 


Liversedge, 81 


Montacute, 82 


Heslington, 26 


92, 97 


Lloyd, 60 ' 


Montgomery, 150 


Hey, 2(59 


Johnson, 142 


Lock, 273 


Moore, 105 


Heywood, 191 


Jones, 277 


Longley, 257 


More, 199 


Hickes, 163 


Julius, 245 


Lowther, 168 


Morley, 144 


Hickman, 71 


Junier, 177 


Lucas, 213 


Morpeth, 106 


Hicks, 177 


Juno, 173 


Lutterell, 165 


Morrie, 199 


Hilda, 13, 14, 16, 




Lymbergh, 199 


Morrit, 106 


17 


K. 


Lyne, 231 


Mortimer, 101 , 


Hildyard, 106, 






104 


142, 146, 232, 


Kaye, 105, 142, 


M. 


Moryn, 199 


239 
Hilton, 232 
Hindley, 190 
Hirst, 177 


169 
Kempe, 199 
Kennedy, 142 
Kennett, 163, 


Macaulay, 223 
Maclagan, 16 
Macquoid, 120 


Mowbray, 63, 71 
Munro, 136 

"NT 


Hoare, 231 


199 


Maister, 106 


- > 


Hobson, 202 


Kilham, 239 


Maisters, 233 


Nayler, 183 


Hoby, 262 
Holinshed, 218 


Kinderley, 145 
King, 155 


Man, 183 
Marchant, 230 


Naylor, 183,' 186 
Neville, 81, 82, 


Holland, 150 


Kirby, 191 


Margerison, 250 


85, 86, 97, 116, 


Holloway, 130 
Holmes, 255 
Holroyd, 133,280 
Hopkins, 266 


Knowsley, 106 
Knucklo, 253 
Kries, 278 


Markenfield, 84, 
118, 119 
Marmion, 214 
Marmyun, 113 


214, 240, 242, 
245, 257 
Nevison, 223 
Newburgh, 89 


Horford, 222 


L. 


Marsh, 123 


Newby, 228 


Horsfall, 172 




Marshall, 119 


Newcastle, 34 


Horton, 105 


Lacy, 29, 30, 31, 


Marten, 166 


Newsom, 177 


Hotham, 40, 43 


108, 119, 200, 


Martindale, 155 


Nicholas, 70, 98, 


Hough, 136 


204, 241, 245 


Marton, 106 


165, 200 


Howard, 141 


Lamb, 185 


Mary, Q., 85 


Nicholes, 129 


Howe, 84 


Lambert, 183 


Marvell, 46, 239 


Nicholson, 132, 


Hudson, 199 


Langton, 199 


Mason, 111, 271 


163 


Hudswell, 208 
Hume. 85 


Lascelles, 239 
La See, 232, 233 


Mather, 147 
Mauleverer, 164, 


Nodell, 65 
Norton, 84, 85, 


Hunt, 262 


Latrynton, 199 


166 


123, 199 


Hunter, 58, 163, 
172, 206 


Laurence, 66, 77 
Lavers, 205 


Maxwell, 106 
Maynard, 199 


Nowell, 208 
Nuttles, 233 


Hustler, 141 


Lawson, 106 
Lay ton, 215 


Meade, 163 
Mears, 206 


o 




Leach, 236 


Medhtirst, 200 


\Jt 


. 


Lee, 59, 250 


Meldrum, 93 


Oakel, 199 


Ina, 179 


Leetham, 106 


Mellor, 223 


Oakley, 144 


Ince, 206 


Legart, 253 


Melsa, 233 


Oglethorpe, 84 


Ingleby, 105 


Le Gros, 89 


Melton, 23, 206 


Okden, 199 


Ingram, 252 


Leke, 235 


Merkenfield, 113 


Olave, 18, 19 


Irby, 199 


Leland, 32, 50, 


Metcalf, 170 


"Old Trash," 174 


Ireby, 222 


56, 58, 114, 


Mex borough, 105 


Ora, 217 


Issote, 240 


214, 216 


Meynell, 106 


Osfrid, 51 




Le Scrope, 112 


Middlebrook, 230 


Oswald, 13, 22, 


J. 


Leycester, 206 


Middleton, 165, 


23, 24, 220 




Lilburne, 65 


233 


Oswy, 13, 14 


Jackson, 37, 39, 


Lilly, 186 


Miller, 140, 273 


Otho, 144 


174, 183 


Lindholme, 48, 


Mills, 248 


Ouseley, 191 


James, 131, 133 


49 


Milne, 105, 160 


Oxenhop, 26 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



291 



P. 

Paler, 10 
Paley, 111, 251 
Park, 220 
Parker. Ill, 117 


Raines, 151, 156 
Ramsburrow, 75 
Raleigh, 235 
Rails, 180 
Randolph, 243 


Scatcherd.82,123 
175, 186 
Scoresby, 195, 
199, 278 
Scott, 45, 46,142, 


j Sugden, 223 
Summers, 181 
Surtees, 169 
Sutton, 112 
Swain 52 


Parkinson, 153 
Parr, 206 


Hay, 41, 163 
Raws, 152 


171, 205, 214 
Scrope, 120, 165, 


Swift, 54, 55, 58, 
59 


Pascal, 146 
Passelew, 240 
Patlew, 257 
Paxton, 99 


Rawson, 105 
Rayner, 222 
Reading, 67 
Retherfeld, 113 


214, 248 
Scruton, 1J1 
Serjeantson,105 
Shakeshaft, 179 


Swinborne, 84 
Sykes, 105, 106, 
158, 199 


Pease, 40 


Reynolds, 45 


Sharp, 2, 6 




Peel, 86 


Rhodes, 106, 150 


Sharpe, 163 




Pegge, 178 


Ribblesdale, 106 


Sheldon, 147 


T. 


Pemberton, 199 


Richard I., 97 


Sherwood, 240 




Penda, 1.% 14, 51 


Richard II., 32 


Shillito, 252 


Tacitus, 29 


Penn, 230 
Pepys. 188 


88, 112, 162 
Richard, III., 88, 


Shipton, 186, 191 
267 


Talbot, 248 
Tankard, 111 


Percy, 17, 112, 
113, 117, 207 


91, 116 

Richardson, 163 


Shrewsbury, 58 
Sidney, 262 


Tayler, 40 
Taylor, 105, 163. 


Petter, 145 


Richmond, 18 


Sigeston, 112 1 73, 199, 200J 


Phillipa, 56 


Ripa, 113 


Simeon, 199 205, 228, 260 


Pigot, 25 
Pilkington, 205 


Ripley, 247 
Riston, 233 


Simpson, 106,180 Tempest, 84, 108, 
Sisson, 206 HO, 111 


Pitts, 106 
Plantaganet, 31, 
42 


Rivington, 143 
Robertson, 151 
Robinson, 85, 238 


Shrewsbury, 58 
Skinner, 168 
Slack, 54, 55 


Terry, 23 
Thackray, 236 
Thompson, 106 


Plautus, 143 
Ploughman, 35 


Robsou, 232 
Rochfort, 237 


Slingsby, 105 
Sloane, 163 


106 
Thor, 13 


Plumpton. 84 
Plymley, 146 


Rockley, 255 
Rodes, 199 


Smethurst, 206 Thoresby, 156, 
Smiles, 172 163, 204, 237 


Pool, 182 


Rogers, 245 


Smith, 175, 183 Thorklen. 87 


Popplewell, 71 


Roper, 183 


188, 230 


Thornhill, 26 


Portington.59, 6 ' Kosk ell, 262 


Somner, 86 


Thornton, 171 


75,80 
Poulson, 146 
Poulton, 134 


JKoss, 239 
Rotenheryng, 41, 
42 


Sotheran, 106 
Southcott, 184, 
270 


Thwaytes. 2,5 
Thweng, 1 12 
Tilli, 36, 37. 38. 


Powis, 186 


Rotherfield, 25. 


Spence, 178, 271 39 


Pownall, 73 


26 


Spencer, 209 


Tinclall, 106 


Praed, 180 


Roundell, 105 


Spurgeon, 146 


Tirrie, 280 


Preedy, 205 jKuskm, 133 
Printer, 231 Russel, 140 
Pryme, 51, 54 Rutherford, 136 


Stanhope, 84 
Statham, 179 
Stead, 255 


Tolson, 131 
Tomlinson. 49, 51 
53, 80, 131 


55, 58, 75, 76,' {*> 199 


Steel, 178 


Tomson. 177 


80 Ryther, 241 


Stephen. K. , 1 9 Torr, 238 


Pullen, 166 


Stere, 79 Torre, 200, 204 


Pulman, 251 


Stocks, 226 Tosti, 87 


Pnrsglove, 117 


S. 


Story, 230 


Tristram, 108 


Purver. 140 


Sandale, 113 

Salvnim 119 


Stovin, 48 
Strateburel, 199 


Trotter, 168 
Trusley, 251 


- *~J *Jj A -1 U 

Q- Saunders, 136, 
Quintino, 113 183 

SAT-Q rro 7Q 1 *7Q 


Straubenzee, 106 
Strickland, 57 
Strype, 163 


Tubb, 230 
Tudor, 81 
Tuisca, 13 


R. 

Rackstow, 191 
Raclcliffe,10S, 226 


~ "S^? ' ^ -* i o 

Savile, 25,26, 33- 
34, 85,111,208,' 
209. 245 
Save. 74. 


Stubbs, 248 
Stubbing, 106 
Stukeley, 163 
Sturges, 111 


Tuke, 141 
Tunibus, 97 
TunstaU, 58 
Turner, 101. Ill 


Raises, 175 ScargeU, 271 


Stuteville, 88 


213 

Twy cross, 154 



292 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



u. 

Ughtred, 113 
Uxoris, 209 


Wailes, 205, 217 
Wake, 112 
Walbran, 2 
Walker, 105, 160, 


Whalley, 235 
Wkarton, 217 ^i h ams, 22 
Wheater, 28, 242 ^i mer, 231 
2y i Wilson, 131, loo, 


v. 


160, 217 


Wheatley, 238 w ? 42 ' 243 


Val, 23 
Valkenburghs, 60 
Vandewall, 231 
Van Peenen, 60 
Vavasour, 84, 105, 
113, 246 
Vermuyden, 59, 


Walsingham, 22 
Waltheof, 82 
Ward, 25 
Wardsman, 178 
Ware, 106 
Warren, 48, 52, 
55, 56, 78, 79, 
209 


Wheeler, 177 Winter, 140 
Wheler,205 SPfe M 
Whichcott, 73 , d *wU 17 L 
Whitaker, 23, 28, 5r Ols , e y> A? ' , 
81,162,202 loo'oAA 

"\TTl.;4.rt 1 T lO^. ^V/U 

VA nite, l/ , ,j -,, 
Whiteley 16* Woolfe, IbS 

Whitfield, 140 W rC ! S ^ th ' 85> 


60, 61, 62, 63, 
64, 69, 79 
Vervaries, 60 
Vertue, 36 


Warwick, 19, 82 
Waterhouse, 199 
Waterton, 248 
Watson, 123 


Whitham, 247 * 42 ' ? 
Wickliffe, 23 y i|. 10 foo 

Wilberforce, 43, 
44 Wnghtson, 105 


Vespatian, 247 


Webster, 150, 


Wildeman, 65 


Victoria, Q., 89 


199 


William L, 17, 


Vincent, 217 
Vitellius, 247 


Welby, 235 
Wentworth, 63, 


18, 22, 29, 52, 
82, 90, 133, 


Y. 




208 


210 


Young, 14 


. 


Wesley, 140 


William II., 18 


Yorke, 211 


Wadsworth, 226 


Weston, 199 


William I II., 200 




INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 




Antrim, 67 


Barkston Ash, 105 


Bewick, 233 





Appleton, 219 


Barmston, 169, 


Bierley, 163 


Acaster, 260 


Appleton - upon - 


234, 255, 273 


Bilton, 255 


Ackworth, 133, 


Wiske, 217,220 


Barnard Castle, 85 


Birstall, 24, 105, 


173, 141 * 


Arden, 259 


158 


120, 183, 222, 


Addingham, 105 
Adlingfleet, 48 


Arimathea, 176 
Arkendale, 213 


Barnby, 53 
Barnby Dun, 62, 


240 
Bishop Burton, 


Adwalton, 77,118 


Arkle, 214 


75 


237 


Agbrigg, 105 


Armthorpe, 52, 


Barnsdale, 58 


BishopWilton,101 


Agincourt, 42 


53, 77 


Barnsley,177, 226 


Blacob, 226 


Aire, 33, 48, 61 


Arnold, 233 


Barton-le-Street, 


Blackmoor Foot, 


Airedale, 132 


Arthington, 259 


106 


172 


Aislaby, 151 


Ashfield Bank, 61 


Batley, 21, 28, 105 


Blackwater, 53 


Albemarle, 89 


Askrigg, 138 


Batley Carr, 22 


Eland's Cliff, 87 


Aldborough, 151, 


Athens, 144 


Bawtry, 58, 106 


Blyth, 25 


168, 255 


Atwick, 255 


Beeford, 255 


Boar's Well, 31 


Aldstone, 267 


Aveley, 165 


Beeston, 23, 84, 


Boiling, 32, 34, 


Aldwarke, 25 


Axholme, 248, 


240 


107, HI, 198 


Allepo, 140 


280 


Bedale, 106 


Bolton, 112, 114, 


Alfreton, 179 


Aydon, 119 


Bedwin, 237 


248, 250, 253 


Allerton Maulev- 




Belton, 64, 73 


Bootham, 20 


erer, 164, 160 


B. 


Benningborough, 


Boroughbridge,84 


Alliwell, 178 


Badsworth, 84 


18 


172 


Almondbury, 126 


Bainton, 106 


Berestade, 112 


Borsal, 168 


Alnwick, 117 


Balm, 63 


Bessingby, 279 


Boulton, 12 


Althorpe, 61 


Bamborough, 90 


Beverley, 19, 43, 


Bradford, 28, 35, 


Altofts, 272 


Bannockburn, 31 


77,106,112,211, 


105, 107, 120, 


Alton, 148 


214 


233, 235, 247, 


131, 141, 192, 


Anthony, 260 


Barking, 231 


259 


199, 279 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



293 



Bradford Dale, 26 


Chesterfield, 175 Dover. 42, 90 Fishlake, 48, 52, 


Bramham, 117 


Chevet, 82 Downham, 155 


61, 79 


Brampton, 53 


Chewstoke, 183 Dawthorpe, 151 Flamborough,113 


Brancpsth 84 


Chickenley, 174 Drax, 112 Flanders, 85 


Brandesburton, Chippenham, 39 Driffield, 58 


Flintham, 237 


255 ChurweU, 23 Drighlington, 25, 


Flinton, 151 


Braunceholm,112 Claro, 165 120 


Flitham, 113 


Bridgnorth, 90 Clavhouse, 81 Dronfield, 145 


Flodden,110.214, 


Bridlington, 112, Cleckheaton, 100, Drypool, 255 242 


166,169,249 222 Duffield, 105,118, Fockerby, 48 


Brighouse, 12,100 Clementhorpe, 148, 260 Fontenoy, 6 


Brightside, 147 259 Dumfries, 252 Forest Hill, 151 


Brimham, 219 Cleveland, 106 Dunscroft, 80 i Fotheringay, 208 


Bristol, 185 : Cliffe, 30 Durham, 80, 90 Fountains, *1, 12 


Britton, 177 \ Clifford Moor, 84 




Fountain's Earth, 


Bromsgrove, 179 ; Clifton, 100, 112 




211 


Buckingham, 67 Clitheroe, 152 




Fradley, 179 


Bugden. 22 Cloughton, 166 Earl's Heaton, 


Frodingham, 255 


Bui Hassocks, 77 Cocksbridge, 233 174 


Frodsham. 136 


Burlington, 10& Coley, 241 Easby, 213 


Fulstow, 232 


Burnley, 152 Congleton, 172 Easington, 255 


Furness, 250 


Burton Constable Conisborough, 39, East Horsley, 235 




112, 234 52 


East Isewton, 168 




Burton Pidsea, Corfe, 90 


Eastoft, 48 


G. 


151, 255 Cotham, 234 


Eastoft Moor 




Burton Stather, Cottingham, 106, 


Dyke, 53 


Gainsborough, 77, 


53 112 


Eboracum, 100 


148 


Burythorpe, 168 
Butterwick, 64, 


Cottingwith, 158 
Cowick, 48 


Ecclesfield, 105, 
178 


Galtres, 245 
Gargrave, 132 


242 Crooke'sMoor,147 


Eden, 215 


Garsdale, 134 


Buxton, 149 : Crossland, 177 


Edinburgh, 132 


Garton, 255 


Bycarr's Dyke, 48 Crowle. 48, 63, 67 
Byerlow, 147 Cukewild, 95 
Byland, 250 Culloden, 172 


Egburgh, 242 
Elland. 26. 81 
Ellerton. 250 


Gascony, 240 
Gawthorpe, 208 
Gambling on-the- 




Cumberland, 252 


Elmete, 132, 160 oms ' z ** 






Elslake, 113 ; G-ildersome, 23 


. 




Hy. 46 ' Gilling, 106, 260 


Caen, 45 


. 


Emiev, 178 260 Gisburn, 245 


Calais Wold, 101 
Calder, 100 


Danby, 217 
Darkness Crook, 


> -**"*^J' > * * ^-'j * W _j _ _ _ _ 

Epworth, 64, 65, ; tlastonbury, 16, 
69, 75 


Calverley, 250 
Cambi-idge, 142, 
152 


53 

Darlington, 84 
Dearne, 48 


Eskdaleside, 151 
Everingham, 106 
Ewgod, 223 


Gloucester, 90 
God's Cross, 53 
Gomersal, 30, 183 


Campsall, 53 


Deighton, 18 


Exeter, 184, 279 


Goole, 63 


Canterbury, 16 


Devia, 13, 16, 49 




Gotherland, 259 


Cantley, 53 


Delaine re, 39 




Gouthwaite, 211 


Carlisle, 163, 283 


Denby, 177 


. 


Goxhill, 235, 255 


Carlton, 77 


Dent, 156 


Fairburn, 204 


Great Hardresse, 


Carr End, 138 


Denton, 254 


Falkirk, 172 


157 


Castle Cliffe, 87 


Derby, 31, 105, 


Falsgrave, 87 


Greenhills, 179 


Castle Howard, 


118, 151, 260 


Farleigh, 206 Greetland, 81 


106 


Devizes, 90 


Farnley, 23, 34 ! Grendale, 289 


Catte Beeston, 


Dewsbury, 22, 30, 


Fenwick, 232 


Gretna Green, 151 


240 


174, 177 


Ferrensley, 172 


Grimston, 106,248 


Cattericks, 106 


Don, 48, 53 


Fetherstone, 23 


Griugley, 69 


Catwick, 255 


Doncaster, 36, 39, 


Fewston. 189 


Guinea, 273 


Charnelgarth, 97, 


48, 49, 54, 56, 


Fieldhead, 123 


Guisborough, 113 


Chepstow, 184 


58, 75, 80, 105. 


Filing, 106 


Gunnersdale, 215 


Chester, 30 


270, 273 


Finchesdine, 22 Gunthwaite, 240 



294 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



H. 


Horbury, 183 


King's Repton, 


Little Hebden 


Hackworth, 23 
Halifax, 32, 33, 

1 f>Q 1 Ofl 1 Q<> 


Hornby, 240 
Horncastle, 151 
Hornsea, 255 


186 

Kingston- upon- 
Hull, 39, 47 


168 

Liversedge, 81, 
86, 223, 240 


luo, 1-Uj !>- 

Halsham, 234, 
o^ 


Horsforbh, 221 
Horsham, 90 


Kiplin, 106 
Kippax, 200 


Liverton, 217 
London, 16, 17, 


600 

Halton, 30 
Ham Hill, 189 
Hampsthwaite, 

OTA 


Hotham, 46 
Howley, 22, 24, 
26 
Huddersfield, 23, 


KirkbyOverblow, 
260 
Kirkdale 243 
Kirkeby, 246 


18, 43, 56, 90, 
118, 163, 239, 
251 
Low Hall, 119 


Z1U 

Handale, 259 
Hanging Heaton, 


26, 132, 172 
Hull, 39, 47, 58, 
106, 111, 235, 


Kirkgate, 33 
Kirklees, 259 
Kirkstall,33,107, 


Lupset, 208 
Lynn, 165 


Hangman's Hill, 

/IO 


236, 245 
Humber, 45, 48 


206, 221, 249, 
269 


M. 


4o 

Hare wood, 106, 
113 


Humbleton, 15, 
255 
Hume, 85 


Knaresbrough, 23 
105, 165, 170, 
174, 186, 191 


Maestrich, 235 
Mallerstang, 1 34 


Harford, 106 
Harpham, 113 
Harrogate, 171, 
174, 188 


Hunslet, 82, 240 
Huntiugton, 186 
Button, 29 


Knavesmire, 85 
Knottingley, 268 
KyrbyVViske,216 


Malton, 246 
Manchester. 28, 
142, 166, 171 
Manningham, 279 


Hartshead, 100 






Mapleton, 255 


Hastings, 29 


. 


. 


Marfleet, 255 


Hatfield, 48, 80, 


Idle, 48, 60, 64, 


LaHode, 113 


Markenfield, 118 


236 


101 


Langton, 106 


Marrick, 259 


Haworth, 24, 124, 


Idle Hop, 61 


Lastingham, 18 


Marsden, 172 


130 


Ilkley, 28 


259 


Marston, 236 


Haxey, 64 


Ingoldsby, 142, 


Lastringham, 16 


Martinique, 84 


Hazlewood, 85 


145 


Ledsham, 202, 


Masham, 106, 


Heckmondwike, 


Ipswich, 275 


205 


120, 948 


86, 255, 259 


Irstead, 189 


Leeds, 23, 24, 28, 


Matlock, 150 


Hedley, 259 


Tsis, 217 


33, 35, 84, 106, 


Maxstoke, 114 


Hedon, 106, 235, 


Isk, 217 


118, 132, 156, 


Meaux, 45 


255 


Isle of Axholme, 


158, 162, 171, 


Melsa, 233 


Helaugh, 259 


48, 80 


174, 2()0, 223, 


Mercia, 13, 49 


Helmsey, 106,243 




- 240, 242, 271 


Mere Dyke, 48 


Heinsley, 106 


J. 


Leicester, 22, 199 


Merkynfield, 113 


Hersswell, 113 
Hesselwood, 113 
Heyheads, 172 


Jervaulx, 250 
Jordans, 231 


Leigh Dellamere, 
39 
Lekyngfeld, 113 


Methley, 248 
Middleham, 117 
Middlesbrough, 


Hilston, 255 




Letcombe, 243 


259 


Hitchin, 141 


. 


Leven, 255 


Middleton, 23. 


Hok Dyke, 48 


Keadby, 61 


Leventhorpe, 192 


166, 216 


Holbeck, 84 


Keasdon, 215 


Lewes, 52, 80, 


Mill Beck, 95 


Holdenby, 48 


Keld, 188, 215 


209 


Milnrow, 153 


Holderness, 77, 


Kellington, 242 


Leyden, 136 


Minorca, 140 


89, 106, 142, 


Kelstern, 235 


Lincoln, 22, 26, 


Minskip, 172 


145, 151, 233, 


Kent, 14, 41, 157 


73, 77, 142, 


Mirfield, 25, 26 


255 


Kettlewell, 138, 


145, 149, 150, 


Misterton, 69 


Hollshead, 172 


233 


198 


Money Hill, 188 


Hollym, 255 


Kexby, 113 


Lindholme, 48, 


Monk Bretton, 


Holme, 186 


Keyingham, 255 


49 


2-23 


Holme-on-Spald 


Kildale, 260 


Lindisfarne, 15 


Monkton, 113 


ing-Moor, 168 


Killingwold, 260 


Linton, 232 


Morley, 23, 25,. 


Holmpton, 255 


Kilnsea, 255 


Lissett, 234 


123, 174, 186, 


Homeside, 84 


Kilwardby, 113 


Litchfield, 16 


225 


Hopgarth, 233 


Kimberworth, 148 


Littleborough. 


Mount Grace, 


Hopton, 182 


Kingslow, 241 


153 


216 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



295 



Mulgrave, 106, 


Oxford, 22, 81, 


Ripon, 84, 105, 


Shotbrook, 22 


242 


90, 142, 148, 


207, 259, 260 


Shrewsbury, 142 


Myton, 45 


240 


Rise, 255 


Sigglesthorne, 255 






Riston, 233, 255 


Siddlebridge, 216 




P. 


Rochdale, 154, 


Skeckling, 255 





Parham, 224 


156 


Skeffiing, 255 


Nappa, 118 


Pateley, 21 


Roche, 57, 78 


Skelton, 168 


Netheredge, 132 
Neville's Cross, 


Pateley Bridge, 
211 


Rochester, 46, 90, 
142 


Skinningrove, 151 
Skipsea, 255 


Patrington, 233 


Rombald's Moor, 


Skipton, 36, 106, 


Newark, 165, 245 255 


267 


245, 251, 266 


Newbrough, 94 : Panel, 255 


Ross, 250, 255 


Skirlaugh, 255 


Newburgh, 106 Pa via, 42 


Rossington, 77, 


Skyrack, 105 


Newby, 238 Penistone, 48,200 
Newcastle, 34, 90. Philadelphia, 130 
110, 151, 168 Pickering. 106 
Newsholme, 222 Pickhill, 188 


169 
Rotherham, 48, 
105, 247 
Rothwell, 242, 


Slacke, 100 
Sleyburn Hill, 51 
Slyngesby, 113 
Smeaton, 26, 207 


Nidd, 188 Pilkington, 205 246 


Snaith, 48, 61, 


Nidderdale, 21, Plunmton. 84 


Roundell, 105 


112 


211, 213 
Norham, 221 


Pocktington, 101. 
106 


Routh, 234, 255 
Rowella, 23 


Soothill, 240 
Spaldington, 233 


Normanby. 232 


Poker Hicham, 


Rowley, 237 


Spen, 81 


Normandy, 29 


189 


Rylstone, 85 


Spofforth, 113, 


Normanton, 272 


Pontefract, 24, 




117, 165 170 


Northumbria, 14, 


25, 26, 30, 63, 


S. 


Sproatley, 255 


19, 82, 2S2 
Norwich, 169 
Nostel, 23, 24, 
248 
Nottingham, 77, 
90 
Nun Burnham, 


105, 200, 204, 
207, 240 
Potternewton, 26 
Preston, 255 
Puleside, 172 
Purbeck, 45 
Purlwell, 177 


Saddleworth, 152 
Saffron Walden, 
231 
Salley, 250 
Saltaire, 132 
Sandal, 53, 54, 


Spurn, 41 
Staincliffe, 82 
Staincross, 105 
Stainforth, 48,53, 
80 
Stainton, 94, 106, 
207 


^259 
Nun Keeling, 255, 




Sandtoft, 64, 67, 


Stamford, 252 
Stanedge, 17- 


Nun Moncktou, 
259 


Q- 

Quarmby, 241 


oJT-i. , : Stansted, 232 
Scalecroft, 22 Stockeld 105 
Scammonden,100 ^5 




Sc H br 1 u | h ' 86, Stockton, 106 


0. T?_ 


yy, iuo, z4o, 


Stockwith, 17 


Oakwell, 21, 120, 
123, 223 
Odessa, 144 


Raby, 116 
Rastrick, 61 
Ravenser, 41 


259, 261 
Scarsdale, 285 
Scorborough, 169 
Scorton, 168 


Stodbrook, 22 
Stoke, 42 
Stokesley, 217, 


Oldfield Nook, Ravenstonedale, 
230 134 


Sculcoates, 113 ! Stone Dene, 231 


Osgodcross, 53 Rawcliffe, 48, 63 
Osmotherley, 260 Revesdale, 234 
Ossett, 222 Redhill, 82 
Oswestry, 13 Reeth, 245 
3tley, 211, 260 Ribblesdale, 232 


; ea 1 mer ' f' Streethorpe, 54 
eju a! i o* Streonshal, 16,17 
&e f- b | r ^ 136 ' Studley, 1,12 
S fto 04 Swaffham, 217 
^f'lio o-o Swaledale, 163, 
oelby, 113, 2o9 60 


Ottering. 216 
Ottringham, 233, 
237. 255 
Ouse, 45, 48, 63, 


Richmond, 84, 
213, 246 
Rickmansworth, 
151 


Semerwater, 139 Suffolk, 22 
onadwell, 16, 26 o.,4_< 110 n~- 
ou c ij ir>/>iio Button, llo, "oo 
onerneld, 106,113, Swinp 1~1 9." 


106 


Riddlesden, 210 


133, 145, 151, Sykeh'ouse, 62 

1/0 


Overton, 18 


Rievale, 97 


Sherburn, 90 


Owston, 64 


Rievaulx, 249 


Sheriff Button, 


Owthorne, 255 Ringborongh, 168 
Oxenhope, 26 Ripley, 246 


113 Tadcaster, 84 
Shipley, 133, 280 Tanfield, 113 



296 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



Teesdale, 106 


Upper Agbrigg, | West Ferry, 61 


Woodkirk, 175 


Tewkesbury, 164 


105 


Westminster, 22, 


Woolham, 158 


Thickbed, 259 


Upper Swaledale, 


43, 184, 206, 


Worcester, 46 


Thome, 48, 52,55, 


215 


209, 251 


Worsbro', 177 


77, 105 


Ure, 215 


West Newton, 


Wroot, 49 


Thornhill, 26, 33, 


Ury, 141 


151 


Wy verthorpe, 246 


111, 177 




West Witton, 




Thornton, 124, 


VV. 


131 




237 
Thorpgarth, 168 
Thuresby, 156 


Wakefield, 24,32, 
33,82, 105,177, 
183, 184, 200, 


Wetherby, 84 
Wharf edale, 105 
Wheteley, 13 


Y. 

Yarm, 106, 217, 


Thurnsfield, 242 
Thurnham, 242 


204, 205, 209, 
238, 242 


Whitby, 13, 17, 
18, 106, 151, 


259 
Yarmouth, 189 


Tideswell, 47 
Tingley, 178 
Tong, 25 


Walkingham, 189 
Walton, 100, 101 
113 


156, 216, 249, 
259, 278, 280 
Whitehall, 143 


Yasford, 217 
Yeadon, 119,120. 
217 


Topcliffe, 84 
Torne, 48 
Towlston, 254 
Townley, 242 
Towton, 117, 233 


Warkworth, 117 
Warlaby, 217 
Warmfield, 204 
Warwick, 19, 164 
Wath 106 


Whitehaven, 142 
Whitgift, 77 
Whitley, 25, 242 
Whitwode, 2p6 
Wilberfoss, 43 


Yeovil, 189 
Yoram, 112 
Yore, 131 
York, 14, 18, 20, 
22, 23, 43, 51, 


Trent, 45, 48 


\Vawne, 255 


Wilmslow, 172 


54, 57, 78, 80, 


Tudworth, 48, 52 
Tunstall, 285 
Turnbridge,48,63 


Weaponess, 87 
Weaverthorpe, 
234 


Wilton, 28, 113 
Winestead, 142, 
146, 232, 239 


93, 105, 114, 
131, 141, 151, 
160, 163, 166, 


U. 

Ugglebarnby, 151 
Uisk, 217 


Welham, 168 
Weeton, 106 
Welwick, 255 
Wensleydale, 134, 
213 


285 
Winfield, 58 
Winwidfield, 13 
Withernwick,255 
Woodchurch, 1 74, 


188, 190, 198, 
204, 207, 209, 
211, 217, 234, 
237, 238, 246, 
251, 259, 260, 


Ulleskelfe, 188 
drome, 255 


West C'anfield, 
113 


183 
Woodhouse, 75 


278 




INDEX TO CONTRIBUTORS. 



PAGES. 

BAKER, JOSEPH B., the late, Falsgrave, Scarborough ... .. ... 99 

BALLIXGER, JOHN, Chief Librarian, Public Library, Doncaster ... ... 80 

BANKS, WILLIAM STOTT, the late, Wakefield .. ... ... ...209 

BARBER, FAIRLESS, F.S.A., the late, Brighouse ... ... ... ... 12 

BOYLE, REV. J. R., Hull ... ... ... 47 

BELLAIRS, REV. C., M.A., Bolton Abbey ... ... .. ...253 

CUD WORTH, WILLIAM, Journalist, Bradford ... ... ... ... 123 

QrvvrvoTTAM, WILLIAM, Leeds... ... ... . ... 35 

DAWSON, W. HARBUTT, Journalist, Skipton ... ... ... 106 

FISHWICK, LiECT.-CoL. HESRY, F.S.A., Rochdale ... ... ... 156 

GRAINGE, WILLIAM. Author, Harrogate... ... ... ... .. 174 

HOLLOW AY, LAURA C., Philadelphia, D.S. A. ... .. ... ... 130 

HOLMES, L., Steeton ... ... ... ... ... 255 

HOLROYD, ABRAHAM, Author, Shipley ... ... ... ... 133,280 

JACKSON, CANON J. E., F.S.A., Leigh-Delamere, Chippenham .. ... 39 

JEWITT. LLEWELLYNN, F.S.A., Duffield, Derby ... ... 105, 119, 169, 264 

JONES, FRANK, B.A., London ... ... ... ... ... 277 

MACQTTOID, KATHERLVE. Authoress, London - .. ... ... ..120 

MARGERISON, SAMCEL, Author, Calverley ... ... ... ... 2.50 

PARK, JOHS, Appleton Wiske ... ... ... ... ... ... 220 

PEEL, FRANK, Author, Heckmondwike ... ... ... ... ... 86 

PULL AX, R.P.. Manchester ... ... .. ... ... ... 106 

Ross. FRED., F.R.H.S., Author, London. xx., 239 

SCATCHERD, NoRRissox, F.S.A., the late, Morley... ... ... ... 186 



298 



INDEX TO CONTRIBUTORS. 



PAGES 

SCRUTON, WILLIAM, West Bowling, Bradford ... ... ... ...Ill 

STEAD, JOHN JAMES, Heckmondwike ... ... ... ... 255,259 

TAYLOR, REV. R. VICKERMAN, B.A., Melbecks, Richmond .. 163, 260 

TCTKE, JAMES HACK, Hitchen ... ... ... ... ... ... 141 

TURNER, J. HORSFALL, Author, Idle ... ... ... ... ... 101 

WHEATER, WILLIAM, Author, Headingley, Leeds... ... ... 28, 242,271 

WHITE, REV. EDWARD, London ... ... ... ... ... 17 



INDEX TO CONTRIBUTORS OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

BAKER, JOSEPH B., Scarborough (Loan of Blocks, <Sec.) 87, 88, 90, 91, 95, 96, 97 
BANKS, W. S. (the Trustees of the late) Do. ... ... 207, 208 

BELL, GEORGE, Byron Street, Leeds (Loan of Engraved Portraits) 15, 173, 187 
OAMIDGE, CANON, M.A., Ttursk (Loan of Block) ... ... ... ...209 

CENTENARY COMMITTEE, Ackworth School (Loan of Blocks) 134, 136, 138 

GREEN, JOSEPH JOSHUA, Stansted Montfitchet (Photos, <kc.) ... 225, 226 

HANSTOCK, WALTER, F.R.I.B.A., Architect, Batley (Loan of Block) ... 26 

HOBSON, WALTER A., Architect, Leeds (Architectural Sketches), vi., 121, 122, 157, 

159, 161, 201, 203 

HOLROYD, ABRAHAM, Shipley (Loan of Steel and Wood Engravings) 29, 33 

JACKSON, CANON J. E., F.S.A., Leigh -Delamere (Loan of Wood Blocks) 37, 38 
JEWTTT, LLEWELLYNN, F.S.A, Derby ... ... Do. 102,103,105,167 

SINKINSON, S., Architect, Heckmondwike (Sketch) ... ... ... 83 

SMITH, H. ECKROYD, Author, Saffron Walden (Loan of Photo) ... ... 182 

STEAD, JOHN JAMES, Heckmondwike (Loan of Negatives) ... ... ... 225 

STANSFELD, JOHN, Leeds (Sketches of Arms) ... ... ... 1,221 

TOMLINSON, JOHN, Author, Doncaster (Blocks) ... 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78 

TVVYCROSS, G. F., Tunbridge, Kent (Photo) ... 151 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



LARGE PAPER COPIES. 

ARMTAGE, CAPTAIN* GODFREY, J.P., Ackworth, Pontefract. 

Ackroyd, William, Jan., Final Royd, Birkenshaw, near Leeds. (2 copies) 

Ackroyd, George, J.P., 5, North Park Villas, Manningham, Bradford. 

BAIXES. SIR EDWARD, KT., J.P., D.L., St. Ann's, Barley, Leeds. 

Bairstow, Alderman James, J.P., Heath Lodge, Halifax. 

Beer, John T., F.S.A.S., F.R.S.L., Threapland House, Fulneck, Leeds. 

Brooke, Thomas. F.S.A., J.P., -Armitage Bridge, Huddersfield. 

Brigg, Alderman Benjamin's., (Mayor), Burlington House, Keighley. 

Barrowclough, Alfred, Wellfield House, Churwell and Morley. 

Blakeley, Alfred, Woollen Manufacturer, Ossett, near Wakefield. 

Brayshaw, Thomas, Solicitor, Settle, Craven. 

Baines, William, Manufacturer, Britannia House, Morley, near Leeds. 

COLLYER, ROBERT, D.D., 139, East Thirty-ninth Street, New York. 
Calvert, Rev. Joseph Mason, The Old Hall, Grassington, Craven. 
Clapham, John, Botanical Chemist, Wade Lane, Leeds. 

DEVONSHIRE, Most Xoble the DUKE of,. K.G., D.C.L., Holker Hall, Lancashire. 

Dartmouth, Right Hon. the Earl of, M.A., Patshull, Albrighton. 

Denison, W. Beckett, J.P., D.L., Banker, Nun-Appleton, York. 

Dyson, W. Colbeck, F.S.A.S., Wilton Park, Batley. 

Dodgson, Joseph, Bookseller, New Briggate, Leeds. (2 copies) 

EFFIXGHAM, RIGHT Hox. THE EARL OF, D.L., J.P., 57, Eaton Place, London, S.W. 

GLADSTONE, RIGHT Hoy. W. E., M.P., D.C.L., 10, Downing Street, London. 
Gray, Henry, Topographical Bookseller, 25, Cathedral Yard, Manchester. 
Gray, James, Bookseller, 4, Scott Street, Bradford. 
Green, Joseph Joshua, Stansted Montfitchet, Bishop Stortford, Essex. 
Green, Joshua, Stansted Montfitchet, Bishop Stortford, Essex. 

HALIFAX, RIGHT Hoy. VLSC-OUNT, G.C.B., J.P., Hickleton, Doncaater. 
Houghton, Right Hon. Lord, D.C.L., F.S.A., Fryston, Ferrybridge. 
Haughton, Richard, St. Leonard's Place, York. 
Hall, John, The Grange, Hale, Cheshire. 

Hunt, William, Eastern Morning News, Whitefriargate, Hull. 
Hardcastle, Joseph, Dyer, Victoria Terrace, Morley, near Leeds. 
Hainsworth, Lewis, 118, Bowling Old Lane, Bradford. 
Haigh, Charles, 1, Elm Court, Temple, London, E.C. 



300 SUBSCRIBERS. 

JACKSON, EDWARD, Gentleman, Scawthorpe, Doncaster. 
Jackson, Richard, Bookseller, 18, Commercial Street, Leeds. 
Jewitt, Llewellynn, F.S.A., The Hollies, Duffield, Derby. 

KINGSLEY, S. M. Kingsley, Liss, Hants. 

LIBRARY, THE SUBSCRIPTION, St. Leonard's Place, York. 

Library, The Corporation of London, Guildhall, King Street, London. 

Littleboy, John E., Hunton Bridge, Watford, Herts. 

Littleboy, Richard, Newport Pagnell. 

Lupton, R. N., Hosier, 37, Yorkshire Street, Rochdale, Lancashire. 

Lister, James, Hydropathic Establishment, Rock House, Ilkley. 

MACKIE, ROBERT BOWNAS, M.P., J.P., St. John's, Wakefield. 

Marsden, John, J.P., Cotton Spiniier, Beechwood, Huddersfield. 

Mathers, John S., J.P., F.S.A., F.S.S., Hanover House, Leeds. 

Miles, James, Bookseller, Albion Street, Leeds. (3 copies) 

Milne-Redhead, R., J.P., F.L.S., Holden Clough, Bolton-by-Bowland, Clitheroe. 

Mitchell, H. B. , Airedale House, Bramley, near Leeds. 

Mounsey, Mrs. John Wilfred, The Limes, Sunderland. 

Morley, Robert, Long Preston, via Leeds. 

NIXON, EDWARD, Savile House, Methley, near Leeds. 

ORMEROD, HANSON, JUN., Boothroyd, Brighouse. 

POLLINGTON, HON. VISCOUNT, M.A., J.P., D.L., John St., Berkeley Square, London. 

QUARITCH, BERNARD, Bookseller, 15, Piccadilly, London, W. 

RAMSDEN, SIR JOHN, BART., M.P., J.P., M. A., Byram Hall, Ferrybridge. 
Roundell, C. S., M.P., J.P., D.L., Osborne, Fernhurst, Haslemere, Kent. 
Rose, Josiah, 59, Bond Street, Leigh, Lancashire. 
Rhodes, John, J.P., Potternewton House, Leeds. 
Roberts, Arthur, New Leeds, Leeds. 

SWITHINBANK, GEO. E,, LL.D., F.S.A., Ormleigh, Anerley Park, Surrey. 

Swindells, G. H., Oak Villa, Heaton Moor, Stockport. 

Smeeth, Thomas S., Metal Broker, Swan Arcade, Bradford, and Morley. 

Stansfeld, John, Iron Merchant, Alfred Street, Leeds. (2 copies) 

Smith, Swire, Worsted Spinner, Low Field House, Keighley. 

Sandell, F. D., Surrey Lodge, Frizinghall, Bradford. 

Suddick, George, 1, Cookridge Street, Leeds. 

TAYLOR, REV. R. V., B.A., Melbecks Vicarage, Richmond, Yorkshire. 
Tacey, William G., L.R.C.P., F.R.M.S., 6, Manningham Lane, Bradford 
Taylor, J. T., Oaklands, Holmfirth. 
Tomlinson, John, Polton Toft, Thome Road, Doncaster. 

WEBSTER, COUNCILLOR GEORGE, The Woodlands, Gildersome, near Leeds. 

Wurtzburg, J. H., The Towers, Armley, near Leeds. 

Waterhouse, David, 21, Coleridge Place, Bradford. 

Waterhouse, Sam. E., Bookseller, Sun Buildings, Bradford. (3 copies) 

Wilson, B., Stonehall Road, Eccleshill, near Bradford. 

Whitaker, William, Turret Villas. Francis Street, New Leeds, Leeds. 

SMALL PAPER COPIES. 

ARUNDEL, ROBERT, J.P., Solicitor, Tanshelf Lodge, Pontefract. 
Asquith, Joshua, J.P., Springfield House, Morley, near Leeds. 
Ackroyd, William, J.P., Wheatleys, Birkenshaw, near Leeds. 
Adamson, Samuel A., F.G.S., 48, Caledonian Street, Leeds. 



SUBSCRIBERS. 301 

Ackroyd, George, J.P., 5, Xorth Park Villas, Manningham, Bradford. 

Aldam, William, J. P. . Frickley Hall, near Doncaster. 

Alsing, G., C R, 15, Airville Terrace, Frizinghall, Bradford. 

Anderton, William, J.P., Worsted Spinner, Elm Bank, Cleckheaton. 

Anderton, Rev. William Edward, M.A., The Manse, Morley, near Leeds. 

Appleton. John Reed, F.S.A., Lon. and Scot., Western Hill, Durham. 

Abram, W. A., F.R.H.S., Author, Adelaide Terrace, Blackburn, Lancashire. 

Andrews, F., B.A., Superintendent, Ackworth School, Pontefract. 

Armitage, George J., F.S.A., Clifton Woodhead, Brighouse. 

Andrews, William, F.R.H.S., Secretary, Literary Club, Hull 

Aspinall, Rev. George, M.A., Vicarage, East Hard wick, Pontefract 

Anderton, C. P., Worsted Spinner, Whitcliffe, Cleckheaton. 

Armitage, George, Chairman of Local Board, East-thorpe, Mirfield. 

Armitage, Richard, Gentleman, 17, Albemarle Crescent, Scarborough. 

Ackrill, Robert, Newspaper Proprietor, Herald Office, Harrogate. 

Atkinson, John, Blue Slater, Whitehall Road, Leeds. 

Askham, Joel, 14, May Day Green, Barnsley. 

Andrew, John, 28, Sunny Bank Terrace, Leeds. 

Adey, Rev. W. T. . Alfred Villa, Londesborough Road, Scarborough. 

Atkinson, Josias, Scale House, Settle. 

Armstrong, Robert Leslie, Iron Merchant, 101, Thornton Road, Bradford. 

Atkinson, Samuel, Moor Allerton Lodge, near Leeds. 

Armstrong, J. Leslie, Byland House, Harrogate. 

Abbott, John, Cliff Field House, near Selby. 

Asquith, James Dixon, Machine Maker, Commercial Street, Morley. 

Ainley, Richard, Cloth Finisher, Victoria Road, Morley. 

Armitage, Henry, Painter, Albion Street, Morley. 

Armitage, Jacob, Engineman, Princes Street, Morley. 

BR ASSET, LADY, Normanhurst Court, Battle, Sussex. 

Balme, R B. W., J.P., D.L., Cote Wall, Mirfield, and Loughrigg, Ambleside. 

Bailey, John Eglington, F.S.A,, Egerton Villa, Stretford, Manchester. 

Barwick, J. Marshall, M.A., Low Hall, Yeadon, near Leeds. 

Beer, John T., F.S.A.S., F.R.S.L., Threapland House, Fulneck. near Leeds. 

Batty, John, F.R.H.S., East Ardsley, near Wakefield. 

Binns, Isaac, F. R. H. S. , Borough Accountant, Town Hall, Batley. 

Brigg, John Fligg, J.P., Mayor, Greenhead Hall, Huddersfield. (2 copies) 

Bruce, Samuel, J.P., LL.B., Warenne House, Wakefield. (2 copies) 

Brigg, John, and Co., 41, Swaine Street, Bradford. 

Briggs, Arthur, J.P., Cragg Royd, Rawden, near Leeds. (2 copies) 

Broadbent, John, 47, Well Street, Bradford. 

Brown, Rev. James. B. A., 29, Springfield Place, Bradford. 

Brown, Rev. James, M.A., U. P. Manse, Lochgelly, Fifeshire, N.B. 

Bolland, Rev. Arthur, MA., 12, St. Mary's Terrace, Scarborough. 

Buck, C. W., M.R.C.S., Giggleswick, Craven. 

Binns, Joseph Edward, 69, Raglan Road, Woodhouse, Leeds. 

Briggs, Joseph, 3, Bedford Place, Park Lane, Leeds. 

Brewin, Rev. George, Wortley, near Sheffield. 

Backhouse, Alfred, Sharebroker, 22, Bond Street, Leeds. 

Buckley, James, Printer, 3, Hanover Square, Leeds. 

Brown, George, Banker, Old Bank, Park Row, Leeds. 

Binks, John, Corn Factor, Wakefield. 

Beecroft, John, East Grove, Keighley. 

Berry, Walton Graham, Broomfield, Fixby, Huddersfield. 

Beaumont. John, Instructor, Textile Department, Yorkshire College, Leeds. 

Bywater, James, Engineer and Machinist, Birstal, near Leeds. 

Boothman, David, Gentleman, Headingley, near Leeds. 

Bell, George, Music Seller, 15, Byron Street, Leeds. (3 copies) 



302 SUBSCRIBERS. 

Batty, Arthur, Rothwell, near Leeds. 

Barraclough, William, Union Foundry, Barnsley. 

Brown, Christopher Musgrave, 31, Virginia Road, Leeds. 

Bnrras, George H., Cashier, Horsforth, near Leeds. 

Broad bent, James, Bookseller, Covered Market, Leeds. 

Bottomley, John Carr, Stoneleigh, Brighouse. 

Bromley, John H., Cragg Hill, Horsforth, near Leeds. 

Brown, William, Manstield House, St. Andrew's Boad, Glasgow. 

Brierley, William, Bookseller, 2, Bond Street, Leeds. (2 copies) 

Brigg, William, Woodville, Far Headingley, Leeds. 

Booth, Binns, 21, Oak Road, New Wortley, Leeds. 

Bromley, Charles, Belle Vue House, Goole. 

Beaumont, James, Solicitor, 8, East Parade, Leeds. 

Birdsall, Thomas, Woodbine House, Meanwood Road, Leeds. 

Booth, Edwin, 24, Wortley Lane, Leeds. 

Barber, Henry J., Solicitor, Brighouse, near Halifax. 

Bulmer, Charles, Clerk of the Peace, Blenheim Lodge, Leeds. 

Baker, Joseph Brogden, the late, Barnsbury Villa, Palsgrave, Scarborough. 

Brayshaw, Thomas, Solicitor, Settle. (2 copies) 

Blackburn, John, Gentleman, The Valley, Scarborough. 

Bleasdell, Rev. John, Enville Place, Ashton-under-Lyne. 

Baxter, William, 6, Park Square, and Lyddon Terrace, Leeds. (3 copies) 

Briggs, William, 7, St. Stephen's Street, Bristol. 

Bent, Peter, Yorkshire Penny Bank, 2, East Parade, Leeds. 

Bradley, John, Manufacturer, 22, Woodbine Place, Leeds. 

Bottomley, Thomas, Cross Hills, via Leeds. 

Bousfield, C. E., St. Mary's Mount, Clarendon Road, Leeds. 

Bowling, John, Solicitor, 15, Clarendon Road, and Bond Street, Leeds. 

Braithwaite, C. H., Photographer, Briggate, Leeds, and Ilkley. 

Blamires, Henry, Cardmaker, Cleckheaton. (2 copies) 

Brown, A. and Son, Booksellers, 26, Savile Street, Hull. (4 copies) 

Broughton, C. J. E., Wortley, near Sheffield. 

Burton, Alfred, 37, Cross Street, Manchester. 

Birch, Herbert, The Vicarage, Blackburn, Lancashire. 

Brierley, Rev. J., Mossley Hall, Congleton, Cheshire. 

Beetham, John A., West Harlsey, Northallerton. 

Bishop, W. L., National Telephone Company, Park Row, Leeds. 

Bailey, S. 0., Engraver, Market Street, Bradford. 

Brittain, W. H., Alma Works, Barker Pool, Sheffield. 

Brown, T., Mount Cross, Bramley, near Leeds. 

Brown, James, Commission Agent, Church Street, Morley. 

Brown, James, Contractor, Church Street, Morley. 

Brown, Charles Stuart, Bookseller, Chapel Hill, Morley. 

Brown, Edwin, Joiner and Cabinet Maker, Dawson's Hill, Morley. 

Brook, David, Manufacturer, Marlborough House, Morley. 

Brook, John, Manufacturer, Gladstone Terrace, Morley. 

Barren, Tom, Manufacturer, High Street, Morley and Drighlington. 

Baines, William, Manufacturer, Britannia House, Morley. 

Baines, Edwin, Manufacturer, Britannia Mill, Morley. 

Butter worth, John, Manager, Albert Mills, Morley. 

Bradley, David, Manufacturer, Grove House, Owlers, Morley. 

Bradley, Isaac, Manufacturer, High Street, Morley. 

Brooksbank, George, Rate Collector, Town Hall, Morley. 

Broadbent, Henry, Card Nailor, Ackroyd Street, Morley. (2 copies) 

CABMAN, J HEATON, M. A., Recorder of Pontefract, Ackworth, Pontefract. 

Chapman, J. B., J.P., Percy House, Durham. 

Clarke, J. Chaundy, M.R.C.S., Bank House, Morley, near Leeds. 



SUBSCRIBERS. 



303 



Carter, Richard, C.E., F.G.S., Spring Bank, Harrogate. 

Carr.vright, J. J., M.A., F.S.A., Public Record Office, Chancery Lane, London. 

Collier, Rev. C., M.A., F.S.A., Andover, Hants. 

Crossley, James, F.S.A., Stocks House, Cheetham High Road, Manchester. 

Collyer, Rev. Robert, D.D. , 137, East Thirty-ninth Street, New York. 

Cliff, John, F.G.S., Linnburn, Ilkley. 

Cash, William, F.G.S., 306, Elmfield Terrace, Halifax. 

Cook, John, F.R.H.S., Solicitor, Hull. 

Cadman, Lieut. -CoL W. E., F.R.B.S., 78, Fellows Road, South Hampstead, London. 

Cunningham, Dr., Leeds. 

Cobley, Fred, Journalist, Mount Pisgah, Otley. 

Chapman, George, 4, Hall Terrace, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

Cross, Henry M., 17, Blake Street, York. 

Crowther, Joseph, Cotton Spinner, Luddenden Foot, near Halifax. 

Cockburn, George J., Chairman, Board of Guardians, Leeds. 

Crosland, B., and Sons, Oakes Mill, Lindley, near Hudderstield. (3 copies) 

C'lapham, John Arthur, The Knowl, Mirfield, near Leeds. 

Chad wick, S. J., Solicitor, Church Street, Dewsbury. 

Childe, Rowland, Calder Grove, Wakefield. 

Carleton, Will, Author of "Farm Ballads," 16, Fort Greene Place, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Crosfield, G. Theodore, Hurstleigh, South Park Hill Road, Croydon. 

Cudworth, Mrs. James lanson, Woodcote. Reigate, Surrey. 

Craven, Benjamin, Manager, Brantcliffe Lane, Morley. 

Crowther, William, Boot and Shoe Maker, Queen Street. Morley. 

Chadwick, Alfred, Chemist and Druggist, Gladstone Terrace, Morley. 

Clay, Mrs., Doncaster. 

Clegg, John, Builder and Contractor, Wesley Street, Morley. 

Clegg, Thomas, Builder and Contractor, Wesley Street, Morley. 

Clapham, John, Botanical Chemist, Wade Lane, Leeds. 

Clapham, J. W., Oakdale Terrace, Meanwood Road, Leeds. 

Cooke, John, Waverley House, 9, Coupland Street, Beeston Hill, Leeds. 

Cole, William, 268, Manchester Road, Bradford. 

Carter, J. H. , 7, Rhodes Street, Halifax. 

Cooke, Frank, Fine Art Gallery, Earl Street, Keighley. 

Constable, William, Newbegin House, Malton. 

Cheetham, William, Woodbottom Cottage, Horsforth, near Leeds. 

Colbeck, Simeon, Boyle Hall, West Ardsley, near Wakefield. 

Clark, W. H., Insurance Agent, Temple Mount, Beeston Hill, Leeds. 

Clay, J. W., Rastrick House, Brighouse, near Halifax. 

Cordingley, John R., 10, Melbourne Place, Bradford. 

Childe, W. H., Loxley Cottage, Bradford Road, Batley. 

Compston, Rev. J., Baptist Minister, Fivehead, Taunton, Somerset. 

Clough. Lee, 3, Blenheim Road. Bradford. 

Croft, Joseph, Ashville, Shipley, near Bradford. 

Curtis, John, East Ardsley, near Waketield. 

Clark, Richard Ecroyd, Rutland House, Doncaster. 

Copoejthwaite, W. C., Beech Grove, Malton. 

Carter, Mrs. J. S., 38, Great Horton Road, Bradford. 

Child, James, Manager. New Brighton, Morley, near Leeds. 

Chew. Walter, Assistant Overseer, Town Hall, Morley. 

Crowther, G. H., D.M.D., M.D.T., 1, Bond Street, St. John's, Wakefield. 

Curzon, Frank, Lecturer, Victoria Chambers, Leeds. 

DE.VSE, E. ELDOX, F.R.I.B. A., Architect, 5, Bloomsbury Square, London. 

Dunlop, Walter, J.P., The Grange, Bingley. 

Davis, J. W., F.S.A., F.G.S., F.L.S., Chevinedge, Halifax. 

Dawson, Thomas, F.R.H.S., Caledonian Mount, Leeds. 

Duncan, Rer. George, Baptist Minister. 23, West Hill, Hnddersfield. 



304 SUBSCRIBERS. 

Dodgson, Joseph, Bookseller, 1, New Briggate, Leeds. (6 copies) 

Dawson, W. H., Journalist, Craven Pioneer, Skipton, Craven. 

Douglas, John, Lairthwaite, Keswiek, Cumberland. 

Day, George, Hanging Heaton, near Dewsbury. 

Dance, William Anthony, 44, Ladbroke Place, Hunslet, Leeds. 

Dodgshun, Joseph, Flinders Lane East, Melbourne, Australia. 

Dodgshun, James, Flinders Lane East, Melbourne, Australia. 

Dickenson, J. N., South Market, Meadow Lane, Leeds. 

Dodson, William, 81, Sefton Street, Southport, Lancashire. 

Davies, Rev. Robert, Baptist Minister, Wesley Street, Morley. 

Davis, Frederick, Palace Chambers, St. Stephen's, Westminster, London. 

Dodgshun, James, Hamburg Villa, St. John's Road, Leeds. 

Dix, Harry J., Grand Trunk Railway, Montreal, Canada. 

Dennis, E. M., Bookseller, 82, Newborough Street, Scarbro'. (2 copies) 

Dransfield, H. B., Solicitor, 14, Ramsden Street, Huddersfield. 

Dodgson, Jonathan, Dyer, Bank Bottom, Elland, near Halifax. 

Dodgson, Rev. J. D., Corrigal, Victoria, Australia. 

Dillon, J. C., Woollen Merchant, 91, Fore Street, London, E.C. 

Dawson, William, Eldwick Grange, Bingley. 

Dixon, Elizabeth, 17, Parish Ghyll Road, Ilkley. (2 copies) 

Dawson, Samuel, Bookseller, Market Place, Dewsbury. (2 copies) 

Downing, William Olton, Acocks Green, near Birmingham. 

Dyson, George, Draper, Bethel Street, Brighouse. (2 copies) 

Dyson, Harry, Rock House, Batley. 

Dransfield, Lewis, Timber Merchant, Memel House, Albion Street, Morley. 

Dodgshun, William, Merchant, Highfield House, Morley. 

Dodgshun, John Edward, Merchant, Wesley Terrace, Morley. 

Dodgshun, William Henry, Parliament Street, New Brighton, Morley. 

Dixoii, Charles, Manufacturer, Bruntcliffe Lodge, Morley. 

Dixon, Thomas Henry, Manufacturer, Victoria Road, Morley. 

Dixon, Hedley, Manufacturer, Commercial Street, Morley. 

Drew, Sahara, Bright Street, New Brighton, Morley. 

Dixon, F. Ellis, Organist, Daisy Hill, Morley. 

Dover, J. A., New Brighton, Morley. 

EARWAKER, J.P., F.S.A., Pensarn, Abergele, North Wales. 

Eshelby, Henry D., James Road, Oxton, Birkenhead, Cheshire. 

Eddison, Thomas, Whitehall Road, Holbeck, near Leeds. 

Embleton, Thomas, W., C.E., The Cedars, Methley* (2 copies) 

Eddy, J. Ray, F.G.S., The Grange, Carleton, Skipton, Craven. 

Eastwood, J. A., 49, Princess Street, Manchester. 

Elliott, Stephen, Newmarket House, Stanley, near Wakefield. 

Easby, Mrs. James, Appleton Wiske, North allerton. 

Ellis, John, Cabinet Maker, Cleckheaton , via Normanton. 

Earnshaw, Aaron, West Ardsley, near Wakefield. 

FISHWICK, LIEUT. -CoL. HENRY, F.S.A., The Heights, Rochdale. 

Falding, Professor F. J., M.A., D.D., Independent College, Rotherham. 

Fowler, Rev. William, Liversedge, via Normanton. 

Freeman, Rev. Alfred, 75, Montgomery Terrace Road, Sheffield. 

Foster, William B., Bank Street, Morley. 

Fox, John, Mill Furnisher, Queen Street, Morley. 

Fairbank, F. Royston, M.D., 46, Hall Gate, Doncaster. 

Fallow, T. M., M.A., Chapel- Allerton, near Leeds. 

Firth, Thomas F., J.P., "The Flush," Heckmondwike. 

Ford, J. Rawlinson, F.R.H.S., Solicitor, 25, Albion Street, Leeds. 

Fernandez, J. L., Lupset Lodge, near Wakefield. 

Foster, T., Manufacturer, Welln'eld House, Farsley, near Leeds. 



SUBSCRIBERS. 305 

Fawcett, John M., Architect, Raven's Mount, Harrogate, and Leeds. 

Fox, William, Cardigan Vilia, Cardigan Road, Headingley, near Leeds. 

Frobisher, W. M., 189, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds. 

Fryer, Isabella, Catterick, North Yorkshire. 

Fox, Alderman T. B., President, Chamber of Commerce, Dewsbury. (2 copies) 

Foster, Mrs. E. T., Settle. 

Foote, Harry D'Oyley, M.D.. Croft House, Rotherham. 

Foster, J. T., Little Driffield, East Yorkshire. 

Fawcett, W. H., 47, Beamsley Road, Frizinghall, near Shipley. 

Fox, Edward W., Huddersfield Banking Company, Dewsbnry. 

Farrar, Thomas H., 45, Savile Park, Halifax 

GAKNETT, WILLIAM, Esq., J.P.. Lucan House, Ripon. 

Gladstone, Herbert John, M.A., M.P., 10. Downing Street London. 

Garrett, Rev. William T., M.A., J.P., Crakehall, Bedale. 

Greenbury, Rev. Thomas, F.S.A.S., 16, L'pperhead Row, Leeds, and Ilkley. 

Gane, Lawrence, Barrister-at-Law, Abbeydale, Moorland Road, Leeds. 

Gregson, William. Baldersley, Thirsk, Yorkshire. 

Gill, William Hodgson, Pontefract Road, Stourton, Leeds. 

Glosscp, William, Accountant, 33, Kirkgate, Bradford. 

Gaunt, Leonard, Woollen Manufacturer, Cape Mills, Farsley, near Leeds. 

Gardiner, Henry T., Times Office, Goole. 

Galloway, P. C., 120, Bowling Old Lane, Bradford. 

Grimshaw, David, Jun., 18, Albion Street, Leeds. 

Gaunt, Joseph, West View, Wortley, near Leeds. 

Goodall, C., Printer, 62, Boar Lane, and 1, Cookridge Street, Leeds. (25 copies) 

Greaves, Elizabeth, ] 35, Hyde Park Road, Leeds. 

Gaunt, Reuben, Springwood, Farsley, near Leeds. 

Goodall, Rev. Edward, Gladstone Terrace, Morley. near Leeds. 

Gibson, Charles, 42, Methley Street, Kennington Cross, London. 

Guest, W. H., 78, Cross Street, Manchester. 

Gray, Henry, Antiquarian Bookseller, 25, Cathedral Yard, Manchester. 

Gilbert-Day, Rev. John, Swindon Rectory, Cheltenham. 

Gurney, John Henry, sen., Northrepps Hall, Croiner, Norfolk. 

Green, Dr., 74, Wimpole Street, London, W. 

Green, Thomas Day, London Road, Saffron Walden, Essex. 

Green, Joseph J., Stansted Montfitchet, Bishop Stortford. (10 copies) 

Green, R. Grafton, Gold Street, Saffron Walden, Essex. 

Green, Miss Margaret, Stanste4 Montfitchet, Bishop Stortford. 

Green, Miss Henrietta, Stansted Montfichet, Bishop Stortford. 

Green, Miss E. R., Stansted Montfichet, Bishop Stortford. 

Green, Mr. Harford, Stansted Montfichet, Bishop Stortford, 

Gill, Mrs. John, St. Botolph's Road, West Worthing. 

Greenwood, John, Gentleman, Maitland House, Commercial Street, Morley. 

Gaunt, Sarah, Princes Street. Morley, near Leeds. 

Glover, George, Insurance Agent, Church Street, Morley. 

Glover, J. Senior, Church Street, Morley. 

Gledhill, Henry, Co-operative Stores, Albion Street, Leeds. 

HOLMES. PROFESSOR OLIVER WENDELL, 296, Beacon Street, Boston, fJ.S.A. 

Hardwick, Junius, F.R.C.S., M.D., Chilton London, Rotherham. 

Hirst, Henry Edward. M.A.. B.C.L., 1, Essex Court, Temple, London. 

Hartley, Joseph Lieut -Col., J.P., D.L., LL.D. Cantab, Hartley, Dartford, Kent. 

Hildyard, Rev J., B.D., The Rectorv, Ingoldsby, Grantham, Lincolnshire. (2 cops.) 

Hanstock, Walter, F.R.I.B.A., Architect, Field Hill, Batley. 

Hume. Rev. A., D.C.L., LL.D , The Vicarage, 6, Rupert Lane, Liverpool. 

Hirst, John, J.P., Ladcastle, Dobcross, Saddleworth. 

Hollings, Robert, M.D., Grove House, Wakefield. 

Hick, W.H., F.R.H.S., Longfield Cottage, Dark Lane, Batley. 

TJ 



306 SUBSCRIBERS. 

Hobkirk, Charles, F.L.S., 2, Clifton Villas, New North Road, Huddarsfield. 

Hodgson, Robert William, M.D., The Lodge, Northallerton. 

Hall, Jonathan, Gentleman, Barnard Castle. 

Hainsworth, Lewis, 118, Bowling Old Lane, Bradford. 

Hepworth, William, Dyer, Geldard Road, Gildersome, near Leeds. 

Hepworth, John William, Dyer, ChurweU, near Leeds. 

Hinchliff, Daniel, Laburnum House, Wortley, near Leeds. 

Hardy, Joseph N., Music Master, Kirkgate, Wakefield. 

Hutchinson, John, Manager, Gas Works, Barnsley. 

Hainsworth, Henry, Woodville, Farsley, near Leeds. 

Hainsworth, James, Holly Mount College, Tottington, near Bury. 

Hepper, John, Auctioneer, Clareville, Headingley, and East Parade, Leeds. 

Hopkins, Richard Borrough, Solicitor, 62, Albion Street, Leeds. 

Howitt, John W., 11, Crown Point Road, Leeds. 

Holroyd, Abraham, 8, Alexandra Terrace, Shipley. 

Howitt, J., Whiston Grove, Rotherham. 

Harliug, Thomas, 6, Parry Lane, Bowling, near Bradford. 

Hargreaves, John, Yorkshire Bank, Settle, Craven. 

Hartley, John, Craven Terrace, Settle, Craven. 

Hall, Dixon, Ironmonger, Commercial Street, and Park Villa, Batley. 

Hall, Joseph, Manufacturer, 2, Tanfield Terrace, Springfield Place, Leeds. 

Haigh, George, Syke House, West Ardsley, near Wakefield. 

Holmes, John, The Holmsted, Roundhay, near Leeds. 

Hewitt, John, 92, Harris Street, Leeds Road, Bradford. 

Haigh, Richard F., Lake Lock, Stanley, near Wakefield. 

Horner, George, Bookseller, Settle, Craven. (2 copies) 

Hammond, George T., 20, Kendall Place, Leeds. 

Hardcastle, John, Jun., Accountant, Victoria Square, Leeds. 

Higgin, George, 5, Broadway Chambers, Westminster, London. 

Hall, John, Photographer, 24, Westgate, Wakefield. 

Holmes, Richard, Bookseller and Printer, Market Place, Pontefract. 

Hanson, Thomas, Rag Merchant, Earlsheaton, near Dewsbury. 

Hope, Robert Charles, Albion Crescent Villa, Scarborough. 

Hanson, Mrs. Sophia, 9, Springcliffe, Bradford. 

Harper, T., Steam Ship Owner, Dunholme, High Elswick, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Hole, James, 1, Great College Street, Westminster, London. 

Hanby. Richard, Librarian, Cheetham Library, Hunt's Bank, Manchester. 

Holt, Robert, Prestwich, Cheshire. 

Hinde, C. H., Mount Street, Albert Square, Manchester. 

Hunt, Charles, Compositor, 51, Caledonian Street, Leeds. 

Huffington, Rev. W., Primitive Methodist Minister, Knaresborough. 

Haughton, Richard, Subscription Library, St. Leonard's Place, York. 

Hopkins, Miss, 21, North Marine Road, Scarborough. 

Hobson, W. A., Architect, 5, Bagby Square, Leeds. 

Hodgson, Miss, Lyme Grove, Altrincham, Cheshire. 

Hemsley, John, Commission Agent, Broomfield House, Morley. 

Hill, John, Manager, Mount Pleasant, Albert Road, Morley. 

Hepworth, Benjamin Peel, Manufacturer, Providence Mill, Morley. 

Hepworth, Pliny, Dyer, Church Street, Morley. 

Hirst, Samuel, Chairman of School Board, Peel Buildings, Morlay. 

Hartley, Oliver H. , Manufacturer, Britannia Mills, Morley. 

Hardy, Isaac, Power Loom Tuner, New Brighton, Morley. 

Hinchcliffe, George, Manufacturer, Gladstone Terrace, Morley. 

Holton, William, Manufacturer, Hughenden, Morley. 

Horsfall, James Theaker, Manufacturer, New Brighton, Morley. 

Hemingway, James, Secretary to Gas Company, Commercial Street, Morley. 

Hurd, Jane, Burler, High Street, Morley. 

Hirst, Benjamin, Rag Merchant, High Street, Morley. 



SUBSCRIBERS. 307 

Harford, Frederick, South Norwood Hill, Surrey. 

Hildy.-ird, Rev. F., Swannington Rectory, Norwich. 

Hildyard, Rev. A. G., 57, Guildford Street, Russell Square, London. 

Habergham, Crowther, Painter, Parliament Street, Morley. 

Hinchcliff, John, Wool Merchant, Sydney, New South Wales. 

INOHAM, MRS., Spring Well, Churwell, near Leeds. 
Ingham, William, Flock Merchant, Churwell, near Leeds. 
Dlingworth, Thomas, Elmleigh, Ilkley. 
Iveson, W. B., Solicitor, Holmfirth. 

JACKSON, REV. FRAN-CIS W., M.A., Bolton Percy, York. 

Jebb, Rev. Henry Gladwyn, J.P., Firbeck Hall, Rotherham. 

Jubb, Samuel, J.P., Author of "History of Shoddy Trade," Batley. 

Jackson, W. F. Marsh, Smethwick, Staffordshire. 

Jarratt, Rev. Canon John, North Cave, Brough, Yorkshire. 

Jepson, E. G., 87, Basinghall Street, Leeds. (3 copies) 

Jessop, C., Church Street, Brighouse. 

Jackson, Richard, Bookseller, 18, Commercial Street, Leeds. (3 copies) 

Jackson, William, Gentleman, Ihornfield House, Morley. (2 copies) 

Jackson, Edward, Jun., Manufacturer, Peel Villa, Morley. 

James, Philip, Postmaster, Brough, East Yorkshire. 

Johnson. George, Builder and Contractor, Victoria Terrace, Morley. 

Jowett, George, Builder and Contractor, High Street, Morley. 

KING, KELBrp.yE, M.D., J.P., 6, Albion Street, HulL 

Kitson, James, Jun., J.P., Headingley, near Leeds. 

Kemp, Rev. John, M.A., The Vicarage, Birstal, near Leeds. 

King, James, Manager, Silver Royd Hill, Wortley, near Leeds. 

Keith, Hugh, Shipowner, Poldar House, Pollokshields, Glasgow. 

Kinsman, Andrew Guyse, 20. Moor Street, Fitzroy, Melbourne, Australia. 

Kemp, William, The Green, Ossett, near Wakefield. 

Kerr and Jubb, India Rubber Merchants, Northgate, Halifax. (3 copies) 

Kirk, John, Gentleman, The Wathon, Brecon, South Wales. 

Kellett, Simon, Commission Agent. Liversedge, via Normanton. 

Keyworth, Cecil F. , Lion Foundry, Wellington, New Zealand. 

Kingsley, S. M. Kingsley, Laurel Bank, East Liss, Hants. 

Kirkby, Joseph, Treasurer, Co-operative Society, Albion Street, Morley. 

King, Miss, Milliner, Queen Street, Morley. 

King, Miss Elizabeth, Milliner, Queen Street, Morley. 

King. John, Cloth Miller, Brunswick Street, Morley. 

Kenyon, John, Grocer, Ackroyd Street, Morley. 

LOWTHER, SIR CHARLES, BART.. J.P., Swillington House, Leeds. (2 copies) 

Lister, John. M.A., Shibden Hall, near Halifax. 

Leader, John Daniel, F.S.A., Broomhall Park, Sheffield. 

Lee, William Hartley, J.P., Northgate, Wakefield. 

Liversedge, William, J.P., Millgate House, Selby. 

Library, British Museum, Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London. 

Library, The Bodleian. Oxford University, Oxford. 

Library, The University, Cambridge. 

Library, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. 

Library, Faculty of Advocates, Edinburgh. 

Library, The Fullerton, Thrybergh, Rotherham. 

Library, The Fullerton, Denaby, Rotherham. 

Library, Mechanics' Institution and Literary Society, Leeds. 

Library, Cheetham, Hunt's Bank, Manchester (R. Hanby, Librarian). (2 copies) 

Library, Leeds, Commercial Street (J. Y. MacAlister, Librarian). 

Library, Atkinson Free, Southport (Thomas Newman, Librarian). 

Library, Public, and Museum, Salford (J. Plant, Librarian). 

Library, Public, Doncaster (J. Ballinger, Librarian). 



308 SUBSCRIBERS. 

Library, Public, Leeds (James Yates, F.R.H.S., Librarian). (6 copies) 

Library, Public, Manchester (C. W. Sutton, Librarian). 

Library, Public, Nottingham (J. P. Briscoe, F.R.H.S., Librarian). (2 copies) 

Library, Public, .Kochdale (J. Hanson, Librarian). 

Library, Public, Sheffield (Thomas Hurst, Librarian). (5 copies) 

Library, Public, Liverpool (P. Cowell, Librarian). 

Library, Subscription, Huddersfield (F. Greenwood, Edgerton Lodge, President). 

Library, Co-operative Store, Rochdale Road, Bacup, Lancashire. 

Library, The Subscription, St. Leonard's Place, York. 

Library, The Mitchell, Glasgow (P. T. Barrett, Librarian). 

Library, Mechanics' Institution, Adwalton, near Leeds. 

Library, Yorkshire Union Village (F. Curzon). -(2 copies) 

Lever, Ellis, Culcheth Hall, Bowdon > Cheshire. 

Lee, Robert, Insurance Secretary, 35, Gelderd Road, New Wortley, near Leeds. 

Lawson, F. H. , King Street, Leeds. 

Lee, William, 29, Hanover Square, Bradford. 

Liebreich and Beardsell, Wool Merchants, Huddersfield. (3 copies) 

Lough, Robert, Woodbank, Bumgreave Road, Sheffield. 

Lassey, Thomas, Mule Spinner, Church Street, Morley. 

Lee, Charles, Tailor and Draper, 85, Tonbridge Street, Leeds. 

Lister, Joseph, Power Loom Tuner, Albert Mills, Morley. 

Lawton, Edwin W., Rag Merchant, Wesley Street, Leeds. 

Layton, C. Miller, Shortlands, Castle Hill Avenue, Folkestone, Kent. 

Law, Alfred, Cardmaker, Cleckheaton, via Normanton. 

Law, James, Cardmaker, Cleckheaton, via Normanton. 

Lockwood, Thomas, 4, Colville Terrace, Beeston Hill, Leeds. 

Laycock, William, Currier, Keighley. 

Lees, R., Chief Clerk, Accountant's Office, Town Hall, Leeds. 

Leather, Frederick J., The Friary, Tickhill, Rotherham. 

Lee, Wesley, Clerk to School Board, Great George Street, Leeds. 

Legg, Henry P. , Merchant Tailor, 87, Briggate, Leeds. 

Longfield, W. F., Silver Mill, Otley, Yorkshire. 

Langdale, T. L. , 6, Westfield Terrace, Scarborough. 

Lowenthal Brothers , Wool Merchants, Huddersfield. 

Lassey, James, Milk Dealer, Birks, Morley, near Leeds. 

MACKIE, ROBERT BOWNAS, M.P., J.P., St. John's, Wakefield. 

McLandsborough, J., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Lindum Terrace, Manningham, Bradford. 

Mayhall, John, F.R.H.S., Scotland Lane, Horsforth, near Leeds. 

Moxon, Richard, J.P., Gentleman, Ropergate, Pontefract. 

Morrison, Walter, J.P,, Malham Tarn, Bell Busk, via Leeds. 

Morris, Professor John, D.D., Memorial College, Brecon, South Wales. 

Morehouse, H. J., M.D., F.S.A., Stoney Bank, Holmfirth. 

Marriott, Charles Henry, J.P., Manor Lawn, Dewsbury. 

Middlebrook, J. P., Woollen Manufacturer, Holly Bank, Batley. 

Morrell, W. Wilberforce, Author of "History of Selby," York, 

Middlebrook, John, Editor, Pudsey News, Pudsey, near Leeds. 

McCarthy, D. W , Gentleman, 8, Brunswick Place, Leeds 

McCarthy, D. W., Oil Merchant, Horsforth, near Leeds. 

Morton, Henry J. , Gentleman, 2, Westbourne Villas, Scarborough. 

Mellor, James W. . Lydgate View, New Mill, Huddersfield. 

Mason, Anthony, Arkingarth Dale, Reeth, Richmond. 

Mason, C. L., 4, Woodhouse Square, Leeds. 

Mitchell, H. B., Airedale House, Bramley, near Leeds. 

Maw, William, Secretary, Infirmary, Bradford. 

Margerison, Samuel, Author, Calverley, near Leeds. 

Mason, J. C., 25, Ash Street, Southport, Lancashire. 

Moore, J. H., 55, Norfolk Street, Sheffield. 



SUBSCRIBERS. 



209 



Moody, Councillor Christopher, Wheatfields House, Farnley, near Leeds 

Marshall, Robert Dixon, Manufacturer, 11, Carlton Mount, Leeds. 

Morley, J. C., 11, Leather Lane, Dale Street, Liverpool. 

Mitchell, F., 55, Hyde Park Eoad, Leeds. 

Mortimer, Charles, 791, Franklin Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 

Mainprize, Rev. W., Bourne Road, Alford, Lincolnshire. 

Mackie, Col. Edward Alexander, J.P., Manor House, Heath, Wakefield. 

Mellor, Richard, Gentleman, Westfield Lodge, Huddersfield. 

Myers, William, Manager, Butterworth's Buildings, Commercial Street, Morley. 

Morgan, Lewis, IS, Blackman Lane, Leeds. 

Mais, Mrs., Thorner, near Leeds. 

Mounsey, Ethel Mary, The lames, Sunderland. 

Macmillan and Bowes, Booksellers, 1, Trinity Street, Cambridge. (2 copies) 

Mellin, Ventry de M., Crumpsall Old Hall, Manchester. 

Miles, James, Bookseller, 62, Albion Street, Leeds (4 copies) 

Mann, Alfred, Ben Rhydding, via Leeds. 

Mortimer, E. , Printer, Crown and Regent Streets, Halifax. (2 copies) 

Mortimer, Robert, Fimber, East Yorkshire. 

NICHOLLS, J. F., F.S.A., City Librarian, Bristol. 

Norcliffe, Rev. C. B., M.A., Langton Hall, Malton. 

Naylor, James C., Dentist, Ilkley. and Leeds. 

Nelson, W. Magson, Wood Lee, Cliff Road, Headingley, near Leeds. 

Newsome, James Spencer, Printer, Caxton Buildings, Batley. 

Nussey, Samuel L. , Drysalter, Potternewton Hall, near Leeds. 

Niven, Mrs., Brooklyn, Mirfield, via Nomianton. 

Nassau. Alfred, East Ardsley, near Wakefield. 

Neave, Edward, Leiston, Suffolk. 

GATES, C. G.. B.A., Meanwoodside, Leeds. (2 copies) 

Oxley, Henry, J.P., Banker, Weetwood, and Commercial Street, Leeds. 

Ormerod, Thomas, Woodfield. Brighouse, near Halifax. 

Oddy, John G., Moorville, Birkenshaw, near Leeds. 

Oxley, Henry, 17, Bond Street, Wakerield. 

Oxley, William, 65, Bury New Road, Higher Broughton, Manchester. 

Oxlee, Rev. J., Cowesby Rectory, near Ihirsk. 

PILKINGTOX, SIR L. SwixsERToy, BART., J.P., D L., Chevet Park, Wakefield. 

Pickering, John, F.S.A., F.S.S., Stoney Royd, Ilkley, and Leeds. 

Phillips, Rev. Canon Gilbert H., Brodsworth, Doncaster. 

Park, John, Appleton Wiske, Northallerton, East Riding. 

Phillips, J. H., 24, Albemarle Crescent, Scarborough. 

Peate, Jonathan, Woollen Merchant, King Street, Leeds, and Guiseley. 

Parker, G. W., Insurance Superintendent, 1, East Parade, Leeds. 

Peel, Frank, Draper, Market Place, Heckmondwike. 

Procter, Richard, Solicitor, Oak Mount, Burnley, Lancashire. 

Pollard, Mrs. Robert, 54, Linaker Street, Southport, Lancashire. 

Phillips, C. T., Rag Merchant, Ossett, near Wakefield. 

Parker, John, Chief Clerk, Rate Office, Town Hall, Leeds. 

Peacock, Frederick G.. 17, Halln'ekl Road, Bradford. 

Pettier, Richard, 40, Crimbles Street, Leeds. 

Price, Mrs., The Runniss, Knighton, Radnorshire, Wales. 

Preston, Miss, Settle, Craven. 

Pulleine, Mrs., Clifton Castle, BedaJe, Yorkshire. 

Pullan, John. 18, Melville Place, Halifax. 

Patterson, R. Lloyd, J.P., Croft House, Holy wood, Co. Down. 

Parkinson, Frank, High Street, Market Weighton. 

Paine, W. Dunkley, C'ockshot Hill, Reigate, Surrey. 

Pettier, John Thomas, Reporter, New Brighton, Morley. 



310 SUBSCRIBERS. 

Powell, S., Solicitor, 6, Albert Street, Harrogate. 

Peel, John, Grocer, Bank Street, Morley, near Leeds. 

Pape, Henry, 27, Clifton Lane, Rotherham. 

Poulter, Daniel Parry, Russell House, Dover. 

Parkinson, Rev. Thomas, F.R.H.S.,' North Otteringfcon Vicarage, Northallerton. 

Petty, Wesley, Printer, 14, Trinity Street, Leeds. 

QUARITCH, BERNARD, Bookseller, 15, Piccadilly, London, W- 
Quarmby, W. Dawson, High Bailiff, County Court, Dewsbury. 

ROLLIT, A. K., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.G.S., Cogan House, Hull. 

Rookledge, J., F.R.M.S., Banker, Easingwold, Yorkshire. (2 copies) 

Raven, Rev. T. Milville, M.A., F.R.S.E., Vicarage, Crakehall, Bedale. 

Ross, Frederick, F.R.H.S., 4, Tinsley Terrace, Stamford Hill, London. (2 copies) 

Routh, Rev. C., M.A., The Vicarage, Giggleswick, Settle. 

Rowlands, Rev. Professor, B.A., Memorial College, Brecon, South Wales. 

Rigge, Samuel Taylor, F.S.A., Balmoral Place, Halifax. 

Rhodes, Joseph, Goldsmith, Kirkgate, Bradford. 

Rawlinson, George, 29, Friday Street, Cheapside, London. 

Redmayne, John, Sharebroker, 30, Albion Street, Leeds. 

Robinson, Miss L. , Richmond House, Sydenham. 

Reed, Edward Handy, Land Agent, Northallerton. 

Reid, James, Malvern Terrace, Beeston Hill, Leeds. 

Reid, John C., Chapeltown, and 14, Park Row, Leeds. 

Ramsden, Benjamin, Jun., Cemetery Place, Woodhouse, Leeds. 

Read, John William, 3, Woodhouse Cliff, Leeds. 

Roberts, Thomas, Bolton Percy, York. 

Russell, D., Ironmonger, Sholebroke Avenue, Chapeltowu, Leeds. 

Robinson, J. B., The Inner Hey, Marsden, Yorkshire. 

Rayner, Simeon, Draper, Chapeltown, Pudsey. 

Radcliffe, Joseph, Rock Villa, Burmantof ts, Leeds. 

Ripley, John, 2, Smithfield Road, Neasham Lane, Darlington. (2 copies) 

Rhodes, Josiah, Manufacturer and Machine Maker, Queen Street, Morley. (2 copies) 

Rylands, J. Paul, F.S.A., Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple, London. 

Robinson, James, Manufacturer, Brunswick House, Morley. 

Raines, J. , Burton Pidsea, near Hull. 

Rayner, John Hodgson, Manufacturer, Branksome House, Morley. 

Randolph, B., M.A., St. Vincent Villa, Ryde, Isle of Wight. 

Riley, Matthew, Innkeeper, Brunswick Street, Morley. 

Robson, Mrs. John S., Linden Lodge, Saffron Walden, Essex. 

Rhodes, Joshua, Commercial Street, Morley, near Leeds. 

Robson, Walter. Saffron Walden, Essex. 

Rodley, David, Tin Plate Worker, Queen Street, Morley. 

Robson, Joseph John, Royal Exchange, Middlesbrough-on-Tees. 

Rodley, William, Tin Plate Worker, Queen Street, Morley. 

Rhodes, Joseph, Machine Maker, The Lodge, Rooms Lane, Morley. 

Rhodes, W. Venables, Northgate, Heckmondwike. 

Ratcliffe, J., Upper Hall, Liversedge. via Norman ton. (2 copies) 

Robinson, John, Jun., 2, Fitzarthur Street, Tong Road, Armley. 

Ramskill, Josiah, Lofthouse Hall, near Wakefield. 

Rawson, Cleopas, Wesley Cottage, Tadcaster. 

Robinson, W. W., Oxford. 

Roberts, George, Lofthouse, near Wakefield. 

Robinson, Geo. Henry, Bookseller, 16, Market Street, Leeds. (4 copies) 

Ramsden, Lieut.-Col., Coldstream Guards, Saxby Hall, Barton-onHumber. 

Rayner, R. Lee, Solicitor, Mirfield. 

SIKES, SIR CHARLKS WILLIAM, KT., J.P., Birkby Lodge, Huddersfield. 

Surtees, Rev. Scott, M.A., Manor House, Diusdale-on-Tees, Darlington. (2 copies) 



SUBSCRIBERS. 311 

Sharp, Rev. John, M.A., The Vicarage, Horbury, near Wakefield. 

Sykes, John, M.D., J.P., F.S.A., Hall Gate, Doncaster. 

Steele, Sydney T., M.R.C.S., Manor House, Morley, near Leeds. 

Scatcherd, Miss Hannah, East Keswick, near Wetherby. 

Smith, Rev. J. Hamblin, 2, Church Street, Grantham, Lincolnshire. 

Scott, Joseph, Solicitor, 27, Albion Street, Leeds. 

Stubley, John, Grange Villa, Batley. 

Sheard, Michael, Land Agent and Surveyor, Batley. 

Stead, Joseph, Ashfield Villa, Heckmondwike, via Xormanton. 

Stead, John James, Albert Cottage, Heckmondwike. via Xormanton. 

Stead, T. Ballan, Literary Department Express Office, Leeds. 

Stead, Thomas, Fairfield Villa, East Parade, Harrogate. 

Stead, Samuel. Gentleman, 2, West Grove Terrace, Falsgrave, Scarborough. 

Simpson, Thomas, J.P., Solicitor, 20, Albion Street, Leeds, and We_etwood. 

Stephenson, C. H., Crichton Club, Adelphi Terrace, London. 

Sowry, Thomas A., Pawnbroker, 22 Bridge Road, Holbeck, Leeds. 

Sykes, Percival, 25, Broad Street, Ludlow, Salop. 

Scarborough, George, Worsted Spinner, Holly Bank, Halifax. 

Scarborough, T. S., Worsted Spinner, Halifax. 

Swithinbank, J. Swaine, Denmark House, Henley-on-Thames. 

Sowden, John, Artist, 1, Blenheim Road, Manningham, near Bradford. 

Sharp, William, Cardmaker, Scholes, Cleckheaton, via Normanton. 

Scott, W. J., 80, Northgate, Bradford. 

Sellers, Charles, Manager, Gas Works, 5, Park Place, York. 

Swales, Kidson, Painter and Decorator, Wellington Street, Leeds. 

Smith, John, Superintendent, Taj Mahal, Agra, East Indies. 

Simpson, John, 147, Woodhouse Street, Leeds. 

Storey, John, Artist, 76, Lovaine Place, Xewcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Sugden, Richard, Brook House, Brighouse, near Halifax. 

Smith, Alfred, Commission Agent, Camp Road Leeds. 

Scruton, William, Clough Street, West Bowling, near Bradford. 

Sanderson, John, Hazlewood Villa, All Saints' Road, Falsgrave, Scarborough. 

Scholefield, M. S. (the late), Solicitor, Moor Lane House, Gomersal, near Leeds. 

Stanhope, N., Galloway Place, Calverley, near Leeds. 

Strangeways, William N., 59, Westmoreland Road, Xewcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Spofforth, James Wade, Knottingley, near Leeds. 

Smith, Joseph, Timber Merchant, Oakville, Addingham Road, Ilkley. 

iScarr, Alderman Archibald W., Springfield Place, Leeds. 

Spofforth, Markham, 3, Porchester Terrace, London, W. 

Stockdale, Albert, Traveller, Huddersfield. 

Schofield, Henry, Albion Mills, Westgate Common, Wakefield (2 copies) 

Scarth, Charles, Manufacturer, Gladstone Terrace and Victoria Mill. Morley. 

Stephenson, Alfred, Cloth Finisher, Crank Mill, Station Hoad, Morley. 

Southey, Mrs. George, Parliament Street, Xew Brighton, Morley. 

Smith, Henry Eckroyd, Author, Park Road, Saffron Walden Essex. 

StockdaJe, Samuel, Manufacturer, Queen Street, Morley. 

Smith, S. J., 10, Highbury Place, London, N. 

Stockwell, Edward, Manufacturer, Croft House, Morley. (2 copies) 

Shaw, James, Jun., Bookseller, Covered Market, Leeds. 

Stockwell, Joseph, Manufacturer, Victoria Road, Morley. (2 copies) 

Sharp, Joe, 267, Barkerend Road, Bradford. 

Stead, Samuel, Printer and Newspaper Proprietor, Queen Street, Morley. 

Slade, Robert, Corn Merchant. 14, .Springfield Mount, Leeds. 

Sykes, Matthew, Music Seller, Queen Street, Morley. 

Schofield, C. , The Grange, Hemsworth, Pontefract. 

Schofield, Samuel, Gentleman, Church Street, Morley. 

Schofield, Joseph, Gentleman, Windsor House, Queen Street, Morley. 

Schofield, Samyel, Newsagent, 36, Albert Grove, Leeds. 



312 SUBSCRIBERS. 

Stepbenson, Thomas, Cloth Finisher, Gladstone Terrace, Morley. (3 copies) 

Sawden, H. K., Scarsdale Brewery Company, Chesterfield. 

Sykes, Alfred, Rag Merchant, Church Street, Morley. 

Salt, Samuel, Gateside, Whicham, Cumberland, via Carnforth, 

Stead, Jonathan, Overlooker, Gilroyd Mills, Morley. 

Smithson, W. K., Printer, NorthaUerton. 

Scholes, David William, Manufacturer, Gladstone Terrace, Morley. 

Scarth, Joseph, Bookkeeper, New Brighton, Morley. 

Smith, John Henry, Manufacturer, Britannia Mills, Morley. 

Scholes, Edward Fletcher, Manufacturer, Quarry Mills, Morley. 

Sharp, James, Jun. , Grove Cottage, Albert Road, Morley. (2 copies) 

Sharp, William, Manufacturer, Morley. 

Smith, C. Taylor, Broadwood Park, Lanchester, Durham. 

TAYLOR, THOMAS, J.P., Manufacturer, Oakwell House, Birstal, near Leeds. 

Tomlinsou, W. H. B., J.P., Calder House, Wakefield. 

Taylor, Rev. R. V., B. A., Melbecks Vicarage, Richmond, Yorkshire. 

Tinkler, Rev. John, MA., Arkengarth Dale Vicarage, Richmond. 

Tomlinson, G. W., F.S.A., The Elms, New North Road, Huddersfield. 

Tweddell, George Markham, F.S.A.S., Author, Rose Cottage, ytokesley. 

Thorp, Disney Launder, M.D., Lyppicott Lodge, Cheltenham. 

Tillotson, Ellen H., 12, Whiston Grove, Rotherham. 

Terry, A. C., 14, Ash Grove, Bradford. 

Thompson, Rev. F. D., 17, Tanfield Street, Leeds. 

Turner, J. Horsfall, Author, College House, Idle, near Leeds. 

Theaker, Samuel, Victoria House, Outwood, near Wakefield. 

Trowsdale, Thomas B., Author, 38, Greenmount Street, Beeston Hill, Leeds. 

Tetley, Samuel, Parsonage Road, West Bowling, Bradford. 

Teal, J., Bookseller, 18, Southgate, Halifax. (7 copies) 

Tweedale, John, Architect, A.R.I.B.A., 39, Park Square, Leeds. 

Taylor, Theodore C., Manufacturer, Westfield House, Batley. 

Turner, Thomas, Solicitor, The Grove, Gipton, near Leeds. 

Thurston, Strange C., Cashier, Vernon Road, Leeds. 

Tebb, William, Station Master, Cross Gates, Leeds. 

Turner, Thomas, 14, Old Market Place, Halifax. 

Turner, William, Painter, Fountain Street, Morley. 

Tetlow, John, Cardmaker, Tofts Mill, Cleckheaton, via Normanton. 

Taylor, R. W., Holly House, Balne Lane, Wakefield. 

Terry, F. C. Birkbeck, The College, Dumfries Place, Cardiff, S. Wales. 

Tomlinson, Miss, Doncaster. 

Twycross, Gecige Francis, Dry Hill Park, Tunbridge, Kent. 

Thackray, Francis, Whitesmith, Queen Street, Morley. 

WRIGHT, JOHN FIELD, J.P., Hampsthwaite Hollings, Ripley, Yorkshire. 

Woodd, Basil T., J.P., D.L. , Conyngham Hall, Knaresborough. 

Walker, Thomas, M.A., J.P., D.L., The Woodlands, Doncaster. 

Wild, Joseph H., C.E., Emma Place, Plymouth, Devon. 

Wilson, Edward, J.P., 6, Whitefriar^ate, Hull. 

Wilson, Edmund, F.S.A., 8, Osborne Terrace, Leeds. 

Wolstenholme, Rev. J. R., M.A., South Parade, Wakefield. 

Worsnop, Thomas, LL.B., Town Clerk, Adelaide, South Australia. 

Walford, Cornelius, F.S.A., F.S.S., 86, Belsize Park Gardens, London. 

Wilkinson, JohnH., F.R.G.S., 12, Albion Street, Leeds. 

Wright, W. H. K., F.R.H.S., Public Librarian, Guildhall, Plymouth. 

Woodd, C. H. L., J.P., Oughtershaw Hall, Langstrothdale, Skipton. 

Walshaw, Thomas, Soothill Lane, Batley. 

Wilkinson, Joseph, The Hollies, Victoria Road, Barnsley. 

Webster, James, Silver Royd Hill, Wortley, and Aire Street, Leeds. 



SUBSCRIBERS. 313 

Wilcock, Thomas M , St. John Street, Chester. 

Walker, Walter, West Cliff, Dewsbury. 

Wake, C. Staniland, 2, Westbourne Avenue, The Park, Hull. 

Wilson, Charles Macro, Waldershaigh, Bolsterstone, Sheffield. 

Webster, Charles J., The Woodlands, Gildersome, near Leeds. 

Webster, Joseph, The Grove, Hkley, and Old Hall, Gildersome. 

Whit .head, Edwin, Church Field, Roth well, near Leeds. 

Wheater, William, Land Surveyor, 23, Albion Street, Leeds. 

Wilson, William, Springwell Mills, Dewsbury. 

Ward, William, 32, Hyde Terrace, Leeds. 

Wiugate, George, 12, St. James Square, Leeds. 

Wilson, J. J., Clerk to School Board, Park Road, Batley. 

Waterhouse, David, 21, Coleridge Place, Hillhouse Villas, Bradford. 

Wilkinson, William, 28, Hamilton Terrace, Leeds. 

Walker, Reginald T., 27, Banover Square, Leeds. 

Woodhouse, A. H.. Woodlands, Horsforth, near Leeds. 

Waterhouse, Samuel, E., Bookseller, Sun Buildings, Bradford. (7 copies) 

Whitehead, George, Boston Castle Grove, Rotherham. 

Whitehead, John. Newstead House, Spencer Lane, Xew Leeds, Leeds. 

Walker, Councillor Isaac, Clarendon Villa, Rotherham. 

Webster, Samuel, Street Lane, Gildersome, near Leeds. 

Ward, George, Buckingham Terrace, Headingley, near Leeds. 

Wardman, Henry, Bridge Road, Holbeck, near Leeds. 

Wildridge, T. T., Artist, Sandringham Street, Anlaby Road, Hull. 

\V\*t. George, Swinefleet, Goole, Yorkshire. 

Woods, Samuel, The Cottage, Mickleham, Dorking. 

Worner, John, King Street, Heckmondwike. 

Walker, Edmund, The Grange, <>tley, near Leeds. 

Ward. W Sykes, Denison Hall, Leeds. 

YOUSG, G. B., Tailor and Draper, Wade Lane, Leeds. 
Young, J. W., Tailor and Draper, Wade Lane, Leeds. 
Yates, W. W., Journalist, Reporter Office, Dewsbury. 




WORKS PUBLISHED BY WILLIAM SMITH, F.S.A.S. 



In Fottr Handsome Volumes, Demy Svo, 1400 pp., frofitsely Illustrated with. 

Hundreds of Steel and Wood Engravings, Photographs, Plain and Coloured 

Lithographs, including Portraits, Views of Ptiblic Buildings, Arms, Brasses, 

Monuments, &c , &c. 



VOLS. I., II., III., AND IV. OF 

O JL D YORKSHIRE 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS ON VOL. III. 

Bradford Times, September Tpth, 1882. 

" This work is a rich garner of archaic fact concerning the county, and In tlrne to come will 
be of priceless value to the historian of the country hereabout, "it Is remarkably well and 
extensively Illustrated, furnished with elaborate indices, and contributed to by almost every 
litterateur and antiquary of any note in the county." 

Rotherham and Masbro" Advertise?, March %rd, 1883. 

" Each succeeding issue has surpassed its predecessor in general excellence of production 
and beauty of illustration, while the literary portion of the work is everything that could be 
desired. With Mr. Smith the production of Old Yorkshire is undoubtedly a labour of love, and 
we sincerely trust he may belong spared to carry on the good work. No Yorkshireman who 
thinks anything of the past history of the county should be without a copy of Old Yorkshire 
in his library." 

Bibliographer, December; 1882. 

" Mr. Smith continues to issue his very Interesting collection of matters relating to 
Yorkshire. . . . Many subjects are treated of in this pleasant volume, and our readers will 
do well to send for the volume to see what they are." 

Yorkshire Post, September i-$th, 1882. 

" Tills is the third volume of a work which possesses an attractive interest for every 
Yorkshireman and everyone interested in this county of many acres. The articles have been 
put together in a very painstaking way, admirably indexed and nicely Illustrated, and furnish 
matter readable to the general reader, and of especial Interest to historians, antiquaries, &c. 
The volume is well calculated to maintain the interest excited by its predecessors." 

Pudsey and Stanningley News, September i6th, 1883. 

"Volume III. of that most interesting work, Old Yorkshire, has just appeared and fully 
maintains the high character attained by the previous volumes. . . Contains an appropriate 
and ably written introduction. Is richly embellished with photographic steel, coloured and 
plain lithographic, and wood illustrations, and altogether reflects the highest credit upon Its 
editor, printer, and binder." 

The Reliquary, October, 1882. 

" This volume, if possible, exceeds in amount of Interest, variety of matter, and historical, 
antiquarian, and topographical value any of its predecessors. Mr. Smith's love for his native 
county is unbounded, and, like a true son of her soil, he devotes every scrap of time at his 
disposal to her service, and to the illustration of every possible phase of her history. The 
contributors to the present volume embrace the names of many men of high standing In the 
literary and antiquarian world. We commend the work cordially to our readers, whether 
Yorkshiremen or not." 



Antiquary, January, 1883. 

" The volume contains a really vast amount of useful Information not easily obtained, and 
certainly not likely to have found a place outside so painstaking a book as Mr. Smith has got 
together. The volume, with its well executed, handsome binding, and generally pleasing aspect , 
is one that almost all antiquaries will gladly put upon their shelves as a specimen ' note book ' 
of which there are only too few." 

Home Review, October T.$tft, 1882. 

" The present volume of Old Yarkshire contains a mass of eminently readable matter on 
antiquarian subjects from the pens of writers of authority. . . . Old Yorksh.i><i ought to be 
found on tbe shelves of every Yorkshire antiquary and every public library, not only in the 
largest English county, but throughout the country." 

Xotes and Queries, January i^th, 1883. 

" This is the third volume of a most useful series. The greater part of the volume shows 
serious work, and a knowledge of the lines on which local history ought to be constructed. We 
would draw special attention to the list of the papers relating to Yorkshire In the Arc/ueologia," 

Palatine Note Book, October, 1882. 

"The present volume of this popular work contains papers on the early manufactures of the 
county, parish history, and other antiquarian communications." 

Goole Times, September i6tA, 1883. 

" It is a most interesting volume, richly Illustrated, and printed in an admirable manner. 
We commend the volume to our readers. The reader will find much to interest and amuse." 

Scarborough Gazette, September zStA, 1882. 

" We welcome with pleasure this new volume of Old Yorkshire. . . . Its pages are 

pleasant and entertaining The general reader will find much that is curious, 

instructive, and amusing; and reference is admirably facilitated by the copious indices at the 
end. It is illustrated with plates and woodcuts, and it is well printed and elegantly bound." 

Library Association Notes, September i^th, 1882. 

" The volume contains an Inteiesting historical account of the Leeds (Old) Library, and of 
an old Doncaster Library founded in 1714. The volume also contains an excellent photographic 
likeness of Mr. James Crossley, F.S.A , president of the Chetham Society." 



LONGMAN, GRKEN & CO. 




WORKS BY LLEWELLYNN JEWITT, F.8.A. 



Preparing for Publication, in Two Volumes, Crown 4/0, with a limited number of 

Large Paper Copies in Royal 4/0, Illustrated -with several Hundred Plates 

and Wood Engravings, 

THE 

CORPORATION PLATE AND INSIGNIA OF OFFICE, &c, 

OF THE 

Cities antf (Corporate &ofnn0 of England antj 



''PHIS work, which has been in active preparation for several years, will be of unique character, 
and possessed of paramount historical and antiquarian interest. It will embrace every 
Corporate Town in England and Wales, and give detailed notices, with illustrations, of the 
Maces, Swords of State, Seals, Chains and Badges, Anns and Armour, Plate, and all other 
treasures belonging to each. The whole will be prepared from original sources, the result of 
direct and actual personal enquiry and correspondence, and will thus, in every particular, be 
rendered strictly authentic. The Engravings are executed in a high style of Art, from drawings 
or photographs taken specially from the objects themselves, and embrace a variety of Art- 
treasures and antiquarian relics unexampled for their beauty and value, and unapproached in 
their extreme interest. 

It is intended that these volumes shall form a National work, and no pains are being spared 
to make it eminently worthy of the great subject to which its pages will be devoted. 



Communications are invited, and should be addressed to the Author, 

The Hollies, Duffield, Derby. 

PUBLISHING QUARTERLY, PRICE HALF-A-CROWN. 

Copiously Illustrated with Plates and Wood Engravings. 



THE RELIQUARY, 

QUARTERLY 
JOURNAL AND REVIEW. 

EDITED BY 

LLEWELLYNN JEWITT, F.S.A. 



TWENTY-THREE ANNUAL VOLUMES are now completed, and contain an immense mass of 
important and valuable papers on antiquarian, topographical, genealogical, historical, scientific, 
biographical heraldic, artistic, manufacturing, and other subjects by the most eminent and bost 
known writers. They arc illustrated with several hundred plates and wood engravings in tlic 
highest style of art. 

COMMUNICATIONS on any matters of interest, antiquarian, historical, biographical, genen- 
iniririi toDotrraDhical.or scientific; and BOOKS, PRINTS, and MAGAZINKS, &c., for Review ; are 
requested to be addressed to the Editor, MR. LLEWELLYNN JEWITT, F.S.A., THE HOLLIES, 
DUFFIELD, SEAR DERBY. 

LONDON : BEMROSE & SONS, 23, OLD BAILEY, AND DERBY. 



Nearly Ready, Price to Subscribers, js. ; to non-subscribers, js., 
Vol. II. of The 

Registers of Caberley parisfy Cfjurcfy. 

With a continuation of the History of the Church, 

BY 

SAMUEL MARGERISON. 

ITie Vol. will be Illustrated and Indexed, and will contain about 250 Crown Svo Pages. 

A large number of Notes on the Ancestry of the Poet Longfellow. 

A LIST OF ADDITIONAL SUBSCRIBERS. 

Lately Published, Crown Svo, 212 pp., Price 43., 

THE FIRST VOLUME OF THE REGISTERS OF CALYERLEY PARISH CHURCH, 

15741650, 

a Skctd) of tf)e pjfstorjj of tfje Cfcurdj up to 1650. 

Three Engravings and a Complete Index. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

The Genealogist, January, 1881. 

.... "The Registers of Calverley commence in 1574, and the present volume gives 
their contents to 1649. They appear to have been carefully transcribed and printed, and are 
rendered easy of reference by a good index. More than this it is unnecessary to say of them, 
but our obligation to their editor does not end here, he has not only given us a copy of the 
Registers, bnt has supplemented them by a mass of useful and well digested information relating 
to the parish. His notes on Calverley Church, its ancient Memorial Cross Slabs, the Living, and 
Testamentary Burials from Torre's MSS., form an instructive chapter for those whose tastes 

are general instead of genealogical The "Register of Seats," a-d additional notes, 

especially those from the Bradford Registers, are a most useful conclusion to the volume. We 
cordially recommend Mr. Margerison's book to our readers, and hope that it will meet with 
sufficient encouragement to enable him to complete his valuable undertaking." 

Notes and Queries, November iTfh, 1880. 

" Mr. Samuel Margerison has set a praiseworthy example in showing what a good piece of 
work may be done by a little private enterprise. He has printed entire the first volume of the 
Calverley Registers, extending from 1574 to 1649, in a neat and compact volume, which also 
includes an interesting history of the church and its incumbents, and is illustrated by several 
engravings ; and he has been able to place it in the hands of his subscribers at an absurdly 
small price. That it is no trifling matter may be gathered from the fact that the register 

entries alone are over 4,500 in number The book is nicely printed and bound, and has 

an excellent index. We have nothing but words of praise for Mr. Margerison." 

The Antiquary, December, 1880 

" Mr. S. Margerison has done good service to the historian of Yorkshire, at the least, by 
taking np and executing as a private individual, the task which the Harleian Society has 
undertaken in London, by publishing the registers of the extensive parish of Calverley", near 
Leeds. He has thus brought to light and put on record many curious facts relating to York- 
shire families." 

Pudsey and Stanningley News, igtA November, 1880. 

"We observe that the first volume of the " Parish Registers of Calverley" has just been 
published, with a description of the Church and a r-ketch of its history prior to 1650. The 
volume is illustrated by views of the Church and a number of ancient tombstones discovered 
during the late restoration of the ancient edifice It possesses more than ordinary 
interest. On every page are the names of the forefathers of many of the families in the parish 
at the present day The volume is enriched with numerous notes scattered through 
its pages, which add to its value. Altogether the publication reflects great credit upon 
Mr. Margerison. It is neatly printed and appropriately bound, and is published at a very cheap 
price. 

ADDRESS : SAML. MARGERISON, CALVERLEY, NEAR LEEDS. 



WORKS BY J. HORSFALL TURNER. 



Past and Preseni: A History of Haworth, Stanbury, and Oxen- 
hope. 20 Illustrations. 3s. 

"Mr. J. Horsfall Turner has here given us a delightful little history of aplace which 
will always have an interest for the student of English literature. We have not space 
to deal with it as lengthily as it deserves, but we can say that all should read It who 
care to know anything of the little village made memorable by the Bronte's fame. It 
may be obtained of the author, Idel, Leeds, and is ridiculously cheap." Graphic, 
January 31st, 1880. 

Nonconformist Register of Births, Marriages, and Deaths, 1644-1750, by the 
Revs. O. Heywood and T. Dickenson, from the MS. in the Congregational Memorial Hall, 
London, comprehending numerous notices of Puritans and Anti-Puritans in Yorkshire, 
Lancashire, Cheshire, London, &c., with Lists of Popish Recusants, Quakers, &c. Five 
Illustrations, 380 pages. 6s. 

The Rev. 0. HeyilOOOd, B.A., 16301702: His Autobiography, Diaries, 
Anecdote and Event Books, illustrating the General and Family History of Yorkshire and 
Lancashire. Three volumes, 380 pages each, illustrated, bound in cloth. 6. each. 

A partial idea of their genealogical and historical interest may be formed from the 
"Lives " of Heywood, by Dr. Fawcett. Rev. R. Slate, and Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A. 

Independency at BHghoUSe : Pastors and People, 4 Illustrations. 3s. 

Nonconformity in Idel, and History of Airedale College, 10 illustra- 

tions (autotype portraits of the Rev. J. Dawson, Founder of Low Moor Ironworks ; Rev. W. 
Vint, S.T.P.), &c. 3s. 



HalifaxienSl's: A Biographical and Genealogical History for 
Halifax Parish. Two volumes, 380 pages, with Portraits, 6s. each. 

Vol. I., now ready, is a reprint of half of Mr. Watson's "Halifax," that is, 
such chapters as the Halifax Worthies, Vicars, Benefactors, &c. This volume will thus 
serve a double purpose, as it is a literatim reprint. 

Vol. II. will be an original compilation, noting the Families and Worthies for six 
hundred years. 

Life of Captain John Hodgson, 1640-83. illustrated, is. 3d. 

This is a reprint of the 1806 publication, said to have been edited by Sir Walter 
Scott. The Captain narrates his exploits in the Wars, at Bradford, Leeds, Lancashire, 
Isle of Man, Scotland, &c , and the troubles that followed on his settlement at Coley 
Hall, near Halifax, his imprisonment in York Castle, &c. 

Wright's Antiquities Of Halifax. A Literatim Reprint, Is. 6d. 

Nearly ready for the Press : 

Ilkley, Ancient and Modern: By Rev. R. Collyer, D.D., New York, and J. 
Horsfall Turner ; with Chapters on the Pre-historlc and Natural History, by John Holmes, 
Esq.; J. W. Davis, Esq., F.&.8., F.S.A., &c.; Messrs. Clarke & Roebuck, and Dr. Arnold Lees. 

The Bridges Of W. R. Yorkshire : Their Histories and Mysteries. By the 
late F. Barber, Esq., F.S.A., and J. Horsfall Turner. 



Orders to Mr. TURNER, College House, Idel, near Bradford. 



PUBLICATIONS BY THE ACKWORTH SCHOOL CENTENARY COMMITTEE. 
LIST OF ACKWORTH SCHOLARS, 1779 to 1879. 

Demy Svo., 250 pages, Price 3s. 

PROCEEDINGS AT CENTENARY CELEBRATION, 1879. 
Demy Svo., 250 pages, Price 3s. 6d nett, 

HISTORY OF ACKWORTH SCHOOL 

Demy Svo., 355 pages, Price 5s. nett. 

The two last named are Illustrated with views of Carr End, Ackworth School, 

Ackworth Church and Cross, Pontefract Castle,- Bracken Hill, Hemsworth Dam, 

Nostell Lake and Priory, \Yent Vale, etc., etc. 

SAMUEL HARRIS & CO., 5, BISHOPSGATE WITHOUT, LONDON. 

fust Published, in One Handsome Volume, Demy 8v0., 320 pp., 
Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence. 

Profusely Illustrated with Views of the Parish Churches and other Antiquities, 
THE HISTORY 

OF 

TRG PARING? OF SBGRBURD ADD (JAUJOOD, 

WITH NOTICES OF 

WISTOW, SAXTON, TOWTON, &c. 
BY 

WILLIAM WHEATER, 

Author of " The Record of the $isf (King's Owto Light Infantry) Regiment," " The 
Royal Regiment of Fusiliers," " Temple Newsam," <&v. 

LONDON: LONGMAN & CO., AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 



WORKS OF WILLIAM SMITH, F.S.A.S. 

THREE WEEKS' TRIP TO FRANCE AND SWIT- 
ZERLAND. Post 8vo., 100 pp. Published Out of 
1864. (F. Pitman) Print. 

Do. do. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, Published 1865. 

(W. H. Smith & Son, London) Do. 

A YORKSHIREMAN'S TRIP TO ROME. Post Svo. 

200 pp. Published 1866. (Longmans) Do. 

RAMBLES ABOUT MORLEY. Crown 8vo., Illus- 
trated, aoopp. Published 1866. (J. R. Smith.) Do. 

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF MORLEY. 
Demy Svo. Illustrated, 300 pp. Published 
1876. (Longmans.) Do. 

OLD YORKSHIRE. Vols. I., II., III., and IV., 
1881-3. Demy Svo. Profusely Illustrated. 
320 pp. each. Published Yearly, in October, s. d. 
(Longmans.) .pervol. 7 6 

Do. do. Demy 410 ,, 15 O 

Sold to Subscribers at the following prices : 

Demy Svo ,, 50 

Demy 4to ,, 10 6 

V Complete Sets of OLD YORKSHIRE " to present 
date (Vols. I to 4) may be had for a short time, 
from the EDITOR, OSBORNE HOUSE, MORLEY. 
Sent carriage free on receipt of. 25 o 



WM. SMITH, OSBORNE HOUSE, MORLEY, NR. LEEDS. 







PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



H&SS 

A 

6321 

v.4